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Surficial sediments of Barkley Sound and adjacent continental shelf, Vancouver Island, British Columbia Carter, Lionel 1970

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SJRFICIAL  SEDIMENTS  CONTINENTAL  OF  BARKLEY  SHELF,  BRITISH  SOUND AND A D J A C E N T  VANCOUVER  ISLAND,  COLUMBIA  by  LIONEL  CARTER Q  •B.Sc.  University  M.Sc.  (Hons).  A  THESIS THE  of  Auckland,.  University  SUBMITTED  IN  REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR in  the of.  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s required standard  THE  OF  of  New  Zealand,  Auckland,  PARTIAL. FOR  THE  New  1965 Zealand,  FULFILMENT DEGREE  OF  PHILOSOPHY  Department 'Geology  as  UNIVERSITY  conforming  OF  November  BRITISH 1970  to  the  COLUMBIA  OF  1967  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  degree shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  this  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  that  it  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  partial  financial  is  for  gain  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  of  Columbia,  British  Columbia  for  extensive by  the  understood  permission.  Department  of  available  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  shall  requirements  reference  Head  be  of  my  I  agree  and  copying of  that  not  the  this  or  allowed  without  that  study. thesis  Department  copying  for  or  publication my  i  ABSTRACT The  bathymetry  continental  shelf  g l a c i a l  erosion.  to  the  form  basins  on  flat-topped sloping  mineralogy, five  shelf  sediment i n  Barkley  mantle  and  Authigenic occur  associated exposures composed banks  of  and  parts  near  widen  affected and  merge  are  with  by  coalesce  g l a c i a l l y  Basins  Tertiary  there  are  the  shelf  i n  of  and  eroded  flanked /the  by  gently  r e l i c t d e t r i t a l  marked  colour, led  break,  deeper  well-rounded  where  they  derived  Organic  (5)  present  and  continental  sediments  recognition  continental  gravels', and  to  at  i n  mixed-mineral  invertebrate  Barkley  fauna,  probably  outer of  size,  sediments,  sands  mudstone.  calcareous  mainly  of  for  and  and  sands  residual  Mineralogically,  However,  Sound  composed  the  (k)  beaches  consisting  adjacent been  with  which  Modern  (2). R e l i c t  sands  with of  of  CaCO^  (1)  l i t t o r a l  muds-,  pellets  has  shelf.  sediments  ..carbon,  types*  are  #  banks  larger  s u r f i c i a l  organic-rich  (3)  the  the  (inlets)  continuous  continental  organic  basins,  Island,  fjords i s  and  shelf. of  accumulating  Sound  Vancouver  which  inner  outer  Barkley  Several  banks,  Studies  of  off  Sound,  the  of  remains,  water,  gravels  shelf* glauconite are  closely  from  submarine  sediments, occur  on  small  Sound, and  modern  sands  plagioclase  differences  and  between  are  similar,  rock heavy  ,  fragments* mineral  i i  suites,  which  Continental sediments volcanic  led  Shelf  are  to  Provinces.  mainly  rocks.  establishment  djorites  of  the  Barkley  The  ultimate  sources  and  intermediate  to  Sound of  and  the  basic  iii CONTENT  Page  CI'AFTER  1  INTRODUCTION Geology  CHAPTER  2  '  12  Inlets  12 Sound  Continental Subsurface  3  Shelf  2 if  Structure  31  35  Grain  35  Grain  Size Colour  Shape  Surface  k  17  LITHOLOGY  Sediment  CHAPTER  5  BATHYMETRY  Barkley  CHAPTER  1  and  59 Romndness  Textures  66  PETROLOGY  71  Modern  and  Relict  Gravels  72  Modern  and  Relict  Sands  76  S i l t s Heavy  88 Minerals  91  Provenance Authigenic Organic  CHAPTER  5  63  CLAY  98 Sands  Sediments  MINERALOGY  and  Minerals  109 115  118  iv  Page  CHAPTER  6  ORGANIC  CARBON  AND CaCO^  CHAPTER  7  MACROFAUNA  138  CHAPTER  8  SYNOPSIS  14-5  131  Summary  1^-5  Depositional Origin  of  Geologic  Pleistocene  REFERENCES  Clayey  History  Correlation  APPENDIX  Environments  with  1/+9 S i l t s  152 153  other  areas  155  159  189  LIST  OF  FIGURE  Frontispiece  FIGURES  TITLE  Barkley  Sound  PAGE  from  the  Northwest  1  Locality  Map  ..  2  Bathymetry  map  pocket  3  Sample  map  pocket  4  Geological  2  Localities  Sketch  Map  of  Barkley  6  Sound  5  Bathymetry  6  Sand  of  Beach,  Barkley  Effingham  Northwest  Side  14  of  18  Sound  ?  Focket  8  Longitudinal  9  Cross-Profiles  Beach  Turret  Island  Profiles,  10  Profiles  11  Cross-Profile  12  Interpretation Profile  Inlet  Barkley  Barkley  Continental  of  of  the  18  Sound  Sound  22  Shelf  25  Continental  Continuous  21  Shelf  Seismic  26  33  vi FIGURE  TITLE  13  Distribution  14  Textural  15  Distribution  16-19  the  Submarine  of  4-1  Photographs  of  Distribution  of  Graphic  21  Distribution  of  Standard  22  Mean  vs  Standard  23  Mean  vs  Skewness  24-  Distribution  26-29  4-2  4-3-4-4-  Sediments  Shelf  20  25  34-  Gravel-Sand-Mud  Continental  Profile  Exposures  Classification  Underwater on  of  PAGE  Mean  Grain  Size  Deviation  Deviation  4-5  4-6  4-7  4-7  of  Size  Parameters  of  Sediment  along  4-8  H.E.  Distribution  Electron  Micrographs  30  Modern  Sandy  31  Relict  Gravel  32  Grain  Size  vs  of  Colours  Sand  Grains  Gravel  60  69-70 73  73  Mineralogy  for  Sands  77  v i t  FIGURE  TITLE  33  Mineralogical  34-  Sand  35-37 38  39  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  of  Sands  Mineralogy  Distribution  G l a u c o n i t e  n  of  79  82  Photomicrographs  H  PAGE  of  Heavy  - r i c h  87  Sands  Minerals  97  Sand  4-0  "Glauconite-Pellets  4-1  X-Ray  n  Diffractograms  110  (thin  section)  110  of  "Glauconite  112  of  Mudstone  Pellets"  42  X-Ray  Diffractograms  Associated  with  4-3  Modern,  Organic  4-4-  Organic  Sediment  Opposite  4-5  X-Ray from  4-6  X-Ray from  "Glauconite  Gravelly  Ucluelet  from  i n  Barkley  Diffractograms Muds  on  the  Sand  Bank  112  117  Top  117  Inlet  Diffractograms Muds  Pellets"  of  Clay  Minerals  120  Minerals  121  Sound  of  Clay  Continental  Shelf  FIGURE  47  TITLE  X-Ray from  Diffractograms Pleistocene  PAGE  of  Clay  Clayey  Minerals  S i l t s  48  Distribution  of  Organic  Carbon  49  Distribution  of  Organic  Carbon  CaCO^  50  along  Relationship and  Clay  P r o f i l e  Between  130  133  and  13^  H.E.  Organic  Carbon  132  Content  51  Distribution  52  X-Ray  of  Calcium  Carbonate  137  Radiograph  of  Core  from  Barkley  143  Radiograph  of  Core  from  Pipestem  143  Sound  53  X-Ray Inlet  54  Depositional  Environments  151  ix  LIST  OF  TABLE  TITLE  1  Dimensions  2  Channel  3  Depths  of  on  Continental  L\.  the  Colour  of  Inlets  Banks  Changes  Analysis  6  Point-Count  19  and  Probable  Terraces  28  Shelf  i n  of  Sediments  Roundness  Analyses  Volcanic-Derived  Values  Components  after  61  of i n  the  9  Weight  Heavy  Fraction  10  Petrographic  11  Mean  Values  Gravels  6/+  some  7k  Terrigenous  8 l  Coarse  90  Sands  Analyses  Sand  of  Main  Point-Count  % of  i n  Cobbles  8  Fine  13  Treatments  5  Mean  PAGE  Dimensions  Various  7  TABLES  of  Minerals and  Total  Descriptions  of  Heavy  i n  of  Mineral  S i l t s  the  Very  92  Sediment  Heavy  Minerals 9^-95  Analyses  96  X  TABLE  12  13  TITLE  Point-Count  Analyses  Metarnorphic  Rocks  Sand  and  Heavy  Sedimentary  14  Concentrations  15  Relationship  of  from  of  of  Igneous Barkley  Mineral  Source  PAGE  Clay  101  Sound  Compositions  Rocks,  Grain  and  Barkley  of  102  Sound  Minerals  Size  and  12/+  Clay  126  Mineralogy  16  17  Size  and  Carbon  Analyses  Barkley  Sound  Average  Petrographic  Depositional  from  14-2  of  150  Environments  Appraisal  19  Withdrawal  Times  for  20  Overlap  Sieve  Sizes  21  Weight  of  Cores  Features  18  22  of  of  Sampling  Changes  of  Equipment  Pipette  Shell  i  Phi  159  Analysis  Interval  Material  Consecutive  Sievings  of  Sample  Point-Count  Analyses  of  Sands  with  162  Apart  164-  165  S4-0  174--176  xi  TABLE  TITLE  23  Heavy  Minerals  Zk  Size,  Organic  25  List  of  Continental  177-179 Carbon  Genera  PAGE  from  Shelf  and  CaCO^  Barkley  Analyses  Sound  and  180-184 185-188  xii  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The  writer  J.W.  Murray,  R.L.  E.P.  Meagher  for  the  manuscript;  Survey  of  captains for Ed  their  Dr  Montgomery  of  and and  Field  his  W.R. and  B.E.B,  for  crew  time  assistance.  Chase, reading  Canada and  expresses  the  help  during  Pharo Mrs  for  and  perseverence  Westerman, mo.de  R.D.  assistance  proof-reading  by  possible.  C.  indebted  Lutcrnauer,  the  end  the  W.Ii.  Best  and  c r i t i c i s i n g  and  supported  his  during final  fulfilment  C.S.S.  cruises;  by  this  the  students,  and  manuscript.  of  and  and  cruises,  whose  Vector  technical  fellow  Macdonald,  my w i f e  the  considerable  to  Mathews,  Geological  sampling  generously  their  was  the  was  also  C H .  Laynore  work  i s  for  the  provided  writer  Pullen  of  who  The  M.J.  R.V.  staff  Canada.  Drs  determinations;  C.N.A.V.  of  to  constructively  nicrofaunal  Survey  J . L .  Danner,  Cameron  Geological  particularly  thanks  Typing  encouragement dissertation  1  I 1968  In in  Barkley  west  with  of  three  i s  which  coastline  indented  mountains  the  bottom  continental  B r i t i s h  rectangular  Trevor,  Imperial  from  one  (fig.2,  broken Only  Maggie,  shelf  the  ( f i g . l ) .  Eagle, by  of  water  and  islands  pocket).  The  by  inlets,  four and  on  body  another  nap  sediments  Columbia  roughly  bays.  Toquart,  topography of  the  (fig.6).  near  Estevan  developed  along  Access  to  southeast 45  adjacent  narrow rivers  Sarita  sea  to  level  r e l i e f  Coastal  the side  areas  Barkley  Island  the  mile  to  Vancouver  This  low-lying  accessible  Groups  on  flow  which  of  and  into i s  the  the  km.).  1000m.  the  Island,  separated  numerous  from  by  adjacent  characteristically  r i s i n g  or  the  large,  Deer  by  (23  The  commenced  channels;  Effingham,  longest  the  a  are  and is  and  was  Vancouver  main  Broken  area;  study  Sound  Loudoun,  i s  a  Sound  coast The  the  introduction  Plain  northwestern area of  by  Alberni  long, can  i s  be  Ranges  heights i s  Sound  i n  l o c a l l y  road Inlet  from to  to  the  the  by  logging  narrow, i s  best  Sound.  town  either of  A l b e r n i - U c l u e l e t highway. reached  1964)  which  Alberni, the  with  exceeding  1964)  (Holland, of  rugged,  (Holland,  contrast  edge  i s  and  along  Bamfield, Less  mining  roads.  3  OBJECTIVES  1.1  The  objectives  describe  the  of  various  this  study  sedimentary  bathymetry,  sediment  provenance,  and ( i i i ) ascertain  the  1.2  FIELD  weeks  AND LABORATORY  from  the  C.S.S.  Shipboard  work  Vector  ( i i )  (194-2)  corer,  the  ( i i )  d^lineate  and  i n terms  dete. v i n e  geological  of  sediment  history  of  grab  gravity  Loran-C  could  - 20 - 100 accuracy  be  a  metres  few times were  bathymetry.  (Shepard,  when  the the  calculated  2,  were  snapper  were  combination  of  using located  within  accuracy  sight of  of  increased,  radar  an  unit(tab.18)#In  made  degree  shore of  a  u t i l i s i n g  Positioning  but the  1968)  Kullenberg.  positions  v/as o u t  June  and strobe  runs  from  three  12 - 16, 1969).  (194-8)  an approximate  distance  by a  May  -  of  sampling with  Dietz  camera  1963),  ship  period  photography  radar.  with  1968;  modified  The s h i p s '  and Decca  as  -  a  ( M a y 27  bottom  recording  performed  decreased  positions  (i)  and Grier  and Edo r e c o r d e r s .  land  May if,  with  depth  over  Laymore  and ( i i i ) underwater  controlled  with  out  L a Fond  coring  addition,  the  29 -  and a  Germeshausen  Simrad  WORK  involved  Edgerton,  and  and fauna;  C.N.A.V.  (April  operations  grab;  for  (i)  environments  was c a r r i e d  vessels  (1911)  Petersen  of  toj  sediments.  Open-water  and  type,  are  and  range,  dead-reckoning  Sampling Barkley  of  Sound  equipped  was  with  Birge-Ekman readings  a  winch  of  on  sieve  both  rock  analysis clay  gallows  and  rock  samples;  and  organic  electron  of  cores.  Samples  are  designated  S164.  Sample  pocket). based  on  Maps, charts  heavy  use  of  a  sextant  also  used  analjrsis  for  x-ray  of  sand  procedures  by  pipette  examination  mineral  content;  Detailed  Appendix  was  by  petrographic  microscopy  i n  e.g.  boat  boat  permitted  grain-size  and  C.aCO^  power  H  i n  samples.  detailed  of  which  The  involved  sediment  14'6  a  P o s i t i o n i n g was  presented  (map  from  headlands.  work  minerals;  number,  are  and  (<^10m.)  sediments  techniques;  radiography are  out  sampler.  beach  Laboratory and  carried  bottom  taken  collection  shallow-water  of  studies;  d i f f r a c t i o n grains;  for  and  these  of x-ray  methods  2. by  n  S "  followed  l o c a l i t i e s  geographical published  by  are  names, the  by  the  l o c a l i t y  presented and  grid  on  fig.3  references  Canadian Hydrographic  Service.  1.3  PREVIOUS  WORK  Published few.  The  noted  sediment  df  Canadian  hydrographic  Cockbain  accounts  (Anon.  type  of  the  marine  Hydrographic at  charts 1962,  scattered of 1963)  the  geology  Service  (Anon.  l o c a l i t i e s  region  collected  between 23  i n  the  area  1965a,b;  during  are 1966)  compilation  1924 - I 9 6 0 .  samples  as  part  of  a  5  regional size  survey  analyses  presented  i n  information three  of  and a  the  oceanographic  recorded  general  and  T i f f i n  continuous  seismic  reconnaissance and  and  survey of  Barr  of  of  the  and  west  Vancouver  made  Sound  Island  included  a.s  i n  a  and  Later,  (1970)  limited  Inlets,  i n l e t s  found.  Barkley  results  (1963)  Alberni  coast  and  Grain-  provided  Pickard  Murray  off  Island.  made  which  sediments  and  p r o f i l e s  study  were  1963)  Effingham,  features  (1969)  Vancouver  d i s t r i b u t i o n .  Pipestem,  regional  of  counts  (Cockbain,  sediment  i n l e t s ;  coast  foraminiferal  report  on  west  Murray  several part  of  a  continental  shelf  slope. An  Canada  unpublished source Ltd.  including  1967,  involved to  the  1.  4  m a t e r i a l was p r o v i d e d  began  d r i l l i n g  holes  off  on  Barkley  bottom-sampling,  for  access  the  to  these  continental  Sound. and  by  Their  the  author  Shell  shelf  i n  programme Is  grateful  i s  diverse  samples.-  GEOLOGY geology  consisting  The  3  regional  company  The  rocks  which  of  of  ranging  Muller  Stratigraphic  the  v i c i n i t y  sedimentary, i n  following  (1968),  i n  age  from  summary and  Carson  nomenclature  of  Barkley  motamorphic,  plutonic,  ?Pennsylvanian i s  from  (1969) i s  that  to  Clapp  and of  my  Sound  Muller  volcanic  Pleistocene  (1912),  own  and  (fig.i+)»  Ea.stwood  observations. and  Carson  (1969).  12^30  12^00'  Sicker These, through Lake.  Rocks  together  as  rocks  sr:all  are  with  (?Pennsylvanian  oldest  and  s i l t y  of  Formation  (?Lower  This  formation  i s  map  area,  l o c a l l y pillow  are  common.  tuffs  and  out  Kennedy  greywackes  sodic  and  opaque  near  crop  of  and  found  to The  and  chlorite, Quatsino  main  plagioclase,  the  matter. top  of  Formation  Lake,varies  coarse-grained,  fe?/  and from  massive  basalts  enclosed and  i n  that  range  from being-  (andesine  hornblende, a  cut  of  r e l i c t  basalts  plagioclase  minor  northeast  display  amygdaloidal  a l l  and  Textures  1968).  i s  Jurassic).  north  places  chlorite,  -  colourless matrix  by  of  veins  of  epidote.  (Upper  thickly  the  i n  with  and  and  to  Lower  T r i a s s i c ) .  green,  with  minerals,  material  to  Upper  constituent  Formation  Quatsino  limestone  porphyritic  feldspar,  Kennedy  and  -  of  (Eastwood,  opaque  Massive  -  consists  associated  indeterminate  (Triassic  exposed  brecciated  labradorite) augite  and  structures  aphanitic  to  region,  southwest  quartz, are  Permian)  sequence.  Karmutsen  of  the  actinolite  limestones  Group  the  masses  sericite,  Vancouver  the  Lower  i n  metamorphosed  axiounts  epidote,  -  exposed  isolated  mainly  varying  A r g i l l i t e s the  the  d r i f t  containing  Group  T r i a s s i c ) .  bedded form  isolated  Pipestem white  having  limestones  to  and  outcrops  Uchucklesit  grey,  suffered  and  and  i s  extensive  minor  shale  bordering Inlets.  generally  of parts  The medium  recrystallisati-on  8  especially Bonanza  near  Subgroup  Rocks of  the  (i)  northeast  Effingham  Inlet,  Bonanza  b i o t i t e . formed  a  group  markedly complex  of  into  the  however,  includes which  potash and  much  this  are  (andesine)  feldspar,  sphene.  exposed  at  and  Contacts  of  and  the  much  comprise;  dominantly south  are  andesitic oe m p o s e d as  end  applied rocks  and  of  of  to  on  the  the  map  with  west  which,  and  have  with  the  Island  Carson  coast have  the  area.  that  divided  West  d i f f e r the  Coast  Eastwood Kennedy  (1969)  (1968),  Lake  Intrusions. rocks  hornblende  accessory  microlites)  augite  and  They  medium-grained a.nd  or  Complex Muller  of  the  of  epidote  by  one  diorite  of  dykes,  rocks.  Intrusions.  of  mainly  amounts  garnet, some  lavas,  phenocrysts  Crystalline  been  belongs  d i o r i t e s  plagioclase  of  categories,  underlies  The  underlie  consisting  lesser  calcite,  Island  Diorite,  batholith  and  Coast  has  4  map  (either  crystalline  from  area,  as  alteration West  to  the  division  hornblende,  name  Jurassic)  Subgroup  Andesites  Chlorite,  This  Lower  Bonanza  division  plagioclase  during  -  and  t u f f s .  minor  of  shales  volcanic  intermediate with  the  sector  black  and  to  Triassic  sedimentary  calcareous,  s i l l s ,  (Upper  assigned  Bonanza  (ii)  intrusions.  with  epidote,  surrounding  composed minor  magnetite, rocks  are  mainly  quartz  of  and  b i o t i t e , sharp.  Dark,  9  hornblende-rich  hornfels  volcanic  and  rocks,  Limestone. blocks  of  edges,  are  Dark  skarns  volcanic also  unit  rocks,  quartz  monzonite  Clapp  granodiorite,  The composed  of  some  on  the  skarns  diorites the  intrude  Quatsino  are  common,  metamorphosed  at  type  the  and  large  their  the  side  i s  feldspar, and  near  and  some  less  Saanich of  the  and  biotite  and  sphene. and  portion  of of  Sound. granodiorite  minor  quartz,  main  which  together  alteration  epidote.  contacts,  commonly,  chlorite,  The  smaller  granodiorite  medium-grained  sericite,  formed  and  Jurassic)  granodiorite  (oligoclase),  apatite,  are  b a t h o l i t i c  d i o r i t e ,  and  southeast  chlorite,  (Middle-Late  several  includes  rock  potash  are  partly  quartz  plagioclase  magnetite,  minerals  i n  inclusions  batholith,  dominant  hornblende, with  and  Lake  (1912)  occur  Intrusions.  comprises  of  Kennedy  may  where  present.  bodies  the  formed  hornfelsic  Island This  is  Hornfels  are  and  generally  sharp. Tofino  Area  Greywacke Lower  This  i s  sedimentary coast  a  sequence  and  between  volcanic  Tofino  unmet amor p h o s e d  and  (?Upper  Jurassic  -  Cretaceous) gently  rocks  folded  exposed  Ucluelet.  sandstones  occasionally cherts, >  and  of  Unit  what  highly  along  Rocks  interbedded  enclosing  to  the  are  v/ith  contorted  Pacific  mainly  a r g i l l i t e s  appear  to  be  and large  10  e r r a t i c out  blocks  at  Wya  sorted and  igneous  rock  southeast  and  Spoke  dipping  of  plagioclase, mica,  chert,  of  in  the  of  The  a  -  the  sequence  coast,  and  generally  accessory  sericite, coarse,  and  gabbro.  Rocks  diorite  of  with  contain  chlorite,  side  of  Miocene)  west  fragments,  quartz  southeast  feldspar  conglomerate,  Volcanic  of  moderately  chlorite,  granodiorite,  and  intrusions  i s  and  arc  basalt,  are  crop  epidote.  sandstones  rock  lavas  of  fOligocene  magnetite,  Intrusions  the  and  fringe  conglomerates  on  area  quartz,  marl,  minor  epidote,  small  occur  same  and  and  fragments  Several  minor  sandstones  quartz  Tertiary  monzonite  marine  Sound.  The  amounts  hornblende,  Barkley  limonite.  equal  Formations  shale  hornblende,  containing  plus  Pillow  Sandstones  1970).  fragments  and  interbeds  limestone.  approximately  calcitc,  Gently  and  (Bremner,  with  Carmanah  thin  chert  Point,  rocks  b i o t i t e ,  of  and  Kennedy  dacitic  tuffs  quartz  Lake.  Also  and  ignimbrites. Quaternary Two the  area:  clayey the  distinct  s i l t  The  a  dark  which  northwest  continental  *  (i)  deposits  i s  shore  shelf  notation  to  of  ?Pleistocene  greenish exposed  platform  (p.152);  Deposits  grey  parts  of  Sound,  of  are  found  l o c a l l y  ( 5 g V D * ,  around the  age  Wreck  and  on  i n  pebbly,  Bay, parts  on of  the  and  describe  rock  colour  i s  that  of  Anon.(1963b)  11  (ii)  brown  clayey the  s i l t s ,  map  large  sands  coarse  and  area.  scale  conglomerates  cover  much  Sediments  of  range  cross-bedding,  cobble  lensing.  and  to  conglomerates.  which  the  overlie  the  northwestern  from  well  poorly  sorted  sorted  Bedding  i s  portion sands  pebbly  of  with  sands,  irregular  to  v/ith  .  STRUCTURE Faulting (Sutherland northwest, Eastwood  is  more  Brown,  generally  1966).  approximately  (i960)  Blindbridge  has  Fault)  Lake,  whereas  folds  mapped  south i n  the  The  of  trends the  area  than  majority  of  p a r a l l e l  recognised that  common  lake  trend  a  to  the  folding faults  coast.  conspicuous  northwest, i t  bends  northeast  However,  fault  north to  trend  the  of  (the Kennedy  south.  (Eastwood,  The  1968).  12  2  bathymetry  The i t s e l f , i s  bathymetry and  based  the  mainly  Hydrographic to  miles  25  from the  9  i t  i s  on  data  (40km.)  which  Barkley  Sound  continental from  which  f i e l d  runs  served  i n l e t s ,  shelf  sheets  provided  offshore.  depth-sounding  (fig.3, as  a  (fig.2, of  the  detailed  Additional map  check  the  Sound  map  pocket)  Canadian  information  data  were  obtained  pocket)  made  during  on  the  f i e l d  sheets.  INLETS Seven  lead  the  adjacent  Service,  shipwork,  2 . 1 .  of  into  i n l e t s Barkley  possible  to  with  lengths  Sound  and  group  them  exceeding  from into  their two  2  miles.(3.2  dimensions types.,  km)  (table  1)  13  TABLE  1  Dimensions  Length  Name  of  Mean width (km.)  (km)  Inlets  Max.  Mean m i d inlet depth (in, )  Outer s i l l  depth (m.)  depth (m.)  1 A  1  T  3  -  Ucluelet  6.8  0.8  8  25  Bamfield  3.6  0.3  11  42  Uchucklesit  5.8  1.0  35  86  -  Useless  4.  0.5  31  44  15  Pipestem  8.1  0.6  45  70  34  Effingham  14.5  1.2  95  205  56  Alberni  59.5  1.1  145  365  88  Type  A i n l e t s ,  r e s t r i c t e d t y p i c a l l y heads,  and  s i l l .  In i n  water's from Tidal  a  one  mean  exemplified  sides  contrast, areas edge  to  inlet  flats  are  of  of  less  mouth, are  Plain.  B  inlets  high  r e l i e f over  r e s t r i c t e d  t i d a l 20m.  being  and  flats Depth  no  are They at  their  gradually  indication  shallow,  are  of  a  steepening  channel.  type  another,  than  there  flat  central  l o c a l l y to  Coastal  developed  well  depth  a  Inlet,  with  inlet form  Ucluelet  Estevan  the  to  by  low-lying  towards  The  s l i g h t l y  the  shallow  increases  occur  to  o  where  1000m.  but to  e.g.  i s the  Effingham mountains The  greater deltas  moan than built  Inlet rise depth type out  (fig.5),  from  the  varies A by  (table streams  1).  15  entering  the  p r o f i l e s  reveal  the  deepest  have  flat  has  a  origin l a c k  few  (b)  they  low  r e l i e f  widen  slope  inlets  only  from  and  6  into  of  -  -  60  both  1000m.,  100  and  Alberni  elongate  U-shaped, w i t h  features to  Effinghan  types:  whereas no  200m.;  generally  (mean  u  than  c.20°).  the  the  s i l l  southwest  i s  present,  narrow.  inlets  recognisable  (type  A)  diagnostic  i s  not  certain  features.  are: towards  restricted  of  inlet  area,  low-lying  not  extensive  their  sediment  i n  heads  suggesting  ice  rather  the  Estevan -Coastal  Plain  hence  (whether  an  area  of  the  i n l e t s  were  high  r e l i e f  which  the  formed was  i n  later  known); flats  bathymetry probably  i s  to  sides,  or  t i d a l  inlet  which  shallow  erosion;  are  i s  the  readily  stream  drift  of  joints  inlets  present  are  of  the  roughly  abruptly  height  Both  shallower  Inlets  Pertinent  eroded,  rises  flats  of  they  the  are  Longitudinal  considerably  divide  Inlet  The  (c)  which  Uchucklesit side  i n l e t s .  i n l e t .  that  Origin  a  the  of  are  sides  reaches  than  that  and  t i d a l  (a)  heads  Cross-pro f i l e s  northeast  as  of  s i l l s  bottoms  side  and  s i l l s  part  several  basins.  and  sides  .the  and i s  being  major  featureless  the  result  derived  constituent  of  from of  bottoms heavy  suggest  sedimentation,  easily-eroded the  the  coastal  g l a c i a l  plain.  16  The eroded  foregoing  by  ice,  sedimentation. the  result Type  during of  a  of B  the  but  The  with  are  sediments  power  of  ice ice  of  fjords  by  modern  inlets  A  are  features  modified  by  of  i n l e t s  these  heavy may  be  o r i g i n and  of  played zones the  moraines,  merely  upfjord  at  cover a  sediments.  a of  part  i n  i s  although  fjord  from  their  structural  bedrock  The  Uchucklesit  i t  s i l l s  mouth  195^).  Inlets formation,  weakness  i s  just which  less  are  as  possible  result  than  that  Flat-bottomed  blanketing  of  i s those  Pipestem) i s  formed,  presence  conjectural:  (Effingham,  (Thornbury, result  and  s i l l s  gravel  probably  1935)  glaciation.  Pipe-stem  follow  erosion  (Peacock,  Pleistocene  structure  probably  been  channel  fjords  along  submerged  has  type  scour.  major  sand  these  thicker  central  others  uncertain.  possibly  The  running  whether  covered  shape  i n l e t s  (fig.4)suggests  that  whose  t i d a l  last  fault  suggest  when of sections  i r r e g u l a r i t i e s  17  BARKLEY  2.2  Shoreline  Bathymetry  Long side  of  sandy  feature  by  rivers  formed  by  coalescence  and  meandering  slopes  average  Islands  of  the  Deer  extensive have  been  largest of  b u i l t areas  delta  smaller  a  deltas  the  Broken  Group  km.  0.4-0.8  are  wide,  more  steeply  Group  have  .narrower  l i e  to  on  delta  commonly  which  slope  40m.  In  shelves  or  an  composite built  Tidal  usually  into  with  i s  of  i n  out  Effingham Rivers.  channels  cover  formed  deltas  and  20m.  an  northwest  Other  7°.  of  exposed  through  streams.  about  shelves,  about  and  i s  have  cut  The  nearby  Sarita,  gently  to  which  the  beaches  Deltas  d r i f t .  Maggie,  shallow  Shorter  of  River  along  there  cover  To q u a r t the  where  (fig.7).  bays  waters  abundant  Sound  occur  (fig.6).  d r i f t  sheltered  '  beaches  Barkley  g l a c i a l  quiet  SOUND  by  extend flats  from with  tops.  Frontal  surrounded gently  by  down  contrast, lack  the  islands  shelves  entirely.  Channels. The  Sound  includes  channels  -  from  another  one  ("Northwest for  the  "Northwest by  channel"  group  of  1 1  ,  the is  small  three  bathymetrically  Imperial Broken a  Eagle,  and  Deer  collective  channels,  and  d i s t i n c t  Trevor  Groups  term  Loudoun,  used  -  separated  respectively. by  David,  this and  author"  Newcombe,  Figure  6.  Sand,  northwest  shore  station are  i n  beach of  on  Barkley  Vancouver  274. the  background.  Figure  7.  Pocket  in  Broken  the  the  beach  Group  exposed  Sound  Island  on  near  Ranges  Turret  Island  (48°54.4'N, 125°20.0'W).  18  19  between  the-  Broken  Group  Dimensions of  Sound). small  channels  TABLE  2  and  the  (Peacock,  (km.  channel''  main  C o a s t er ,  side  channels  Sechart)  of  the several  and  are  i n table  2.  DIMENSIONS  Length  Northwest  northwest  three  CHANNEL  Name  i ;  the  Mean m i d channel depth (m.)  Width (km;)  )  Maximum depth (m. )  1  11.2  2.4  48  77  David  6.2  1.5  38  44  Newcombe  8.0  1.5  49 •  33  Coaster  6.4  1.1  46  61  Peacock  4.8  1.3  49  50  Sechart  4.5  1.1  62  86  19.3  6.4  88  117  22.5  2.2  135  235  Loudoun  Imperial  Eagle  Trevor  The broken  "Northwest  by  several  particularly banks  rise  hurnmocky the i s  to  islands  from  about"  tops  with  a  a  the  blanket  of  is  a  shallow  banks,  opposite  40m.  r e l i e f  r e l i e f  i s  and  developed  up  channel due  well  channel"  at of  a  as  subdued,  sediment  the  stretch latter  Ucluelet  low much and  angle, as  Inlet. and  10m.  out  water  being The  have  Farther  echograms  l e v e l l i n g  of  suggest,  up this  i r r e g u l a r i t i e s  20  in  the  the  channel  broken  by  towards the by  floor  the  several pass  and  Broken or  gently  banks.  Group  i s  (fig.9)  Cross-profiles  slopes  islands  islands,  which  (fig.8).  bedrock  The  where  channels,  between  the  the  at  floor  becomes either  into  Coaster,  the  that  plain  and  i s  subdued  rises  approximately  Peacock,  islands  coastal  p r o f i l e  the  intersected  smaller  from  show  to  meet  right-angles and  Imperial  Sechart,  Eagle  Channel. Imperial of  a  few  bottom  banks  which  Effingham  a  (fig.8) about two  Alberni small  channel steep  sides  a  The  to  floor  an  towards almost  sides  Pacific  flat  which  deepen  205m. i s  near  exception featureless  and  near  bottom  can  have  a  broad  tend  to  Eagle  be  again  be  U-shape  s l i g h t l y  and  the  loss  opposite  steep  Sound's  the  235m.  featureless l i e  from  Trevor  A longitudinal  to  cross-profile,  become  the  Imperial  shoal  islands  with  essentially  channels.  gradually  U-shaped  which  the  of  has  and  (fig.9).  separates of  channel,  Cross-profiles  Group  depths  prominent  has  The  gentle  floor  then  with  Inlet.  but  the  and  basins  Deer  deepest  shows  30M.  and  Group  i t  s l i g h t l y  (fig.8).  the  the  widest  deposition.  Deer  Channel,  the  islands,  bottom  near  The  i s  deepens  to  flat  steeper  and  Inlet  attributed with  Eagle  entrance  northeast  before  where  Sarita  River.  towards  a  flat the  to  forming  joining  except  with  p r o f i l e  several  bottom  Pacific  The and (fig.9).  FIG. 8 metres 5CH  0  LONGITUDINAL PROFILES  BARKLEY SOUND - LINES D.E.R FIG. 3,  s.w.  N.E. LOUDOUN  12526.5 48 5f.5  CHANNEL  125 20:2 49°00:6  50 100150-  Skilometres  o  12518.5 4848.5  IMPERIAL EAGLE  Old t o p o g r a p h y partly buried by modern s e d i m e n t s  125,15.5 48 464  TREVOR  CHANNEL  x TRACE OF MULTIPLE PROFILES  TRACED  FROM  ECHOGRAMS  125°07'5 _ 48°58.2 E  CHANNEL fV-v  Ponded modern /v A sediments-  125 024 48 55:2  "16.9 C R O S S - P R O F I L E S BARKLEY SOUND BASED  ON  HYDROGRAPHIC PROFILES  N.W.  100-)  - 1 0 0 _  DATA  LOCATED  " NORTHWEST DAVID  ON  N.W.  SL.  CANADIAN  SERVICE  A B C  1 0 0 _  metres FIG-  2  BROKEN GROUP  CHANNEL" CHANNEL  S.L.- 1 0 0 J  metres  " NORTHWEST  1 0 0 .  N.W.  NEWCOMBE CHANNEL  CHANNEL"  BROKEN GROUP  LOUDOUN CHANNEL  IMPERIAL EAGLE CHANNEL  S.L.- 1 0 0 .  metres  o  1 0 0 0  2 0 0 0  i_  VERTICAL 4  TIMES  SCALE  — I APPROXIMATELY  HORIZONTAL  SCALE  metres  TREVOR CHANNEL  23  Origin  of  The erosion i n l e t s the  Barkley present  by  glaciers  Glacial  features  but The  of  the  the  ice  occupation gave  rise  B r i t i s h  a  of to  i t s  the  glaciation  "U  n  mainly area i s  a  broad  s i l l  .are  has  straight  course,  a  " U the  n  p r o f i l e Sound  ice-sheet  drowned coast.  i s  areas  no  i n  by  waters  topography  so  and near  so  to  to  the  seen  i n  ungraded Bainfleld.  conspicuous,  evidence  this  Withdrawal  via  s l i g h t l y  believed  which  1963).  ice-eroded  and  not  due  best  cross-profile  ch<annels  (Fyles,  Columbian  of  into  i s  other  entering  the  Sound  flowed  displaying  poor  Cordilleran  northeast  with  i n  Eagle  only  Barkley  Evidence  p r o f i l e  Imperial  of  which  Channel  longitudinal  head,  form  (fjords).  Trevor  e.g.  Sound.  of  have  region  widened a  s i l l .  been  part  flowed  from  of  ice  and  of  the  Pacific  characteristic  subsequent  of  Ocean the  24  2.3  SHELF  CONTINENTAL The  width  continental  58  of  km. ,  The  the  shelf)has  outer in  shelf  topography  Inlet on  inner  has  where  the  Eagle  i s  Two  with  by  a  break  approximating  the  shelf  (  below  half  of  Sound  trough  occupying  an  Sound  closure  the  out  the  basin  walls  terraces  which  basin  the  to  U-shaped  deposition  area  of  Basins  The  bo  traced  across  i s  more  evident  These  appears  moraines,  are  3).  believed  to or to  what  be  basin,  be  and  of  at  least  been  are  one  a  the  i s  236 show  series  eroded  of  one  the to  subhave  a  possibly  by  features  as  slumping. g l a c i a l l y  m.,  roughly  basin  modified,  km.  elongate  of  from  on  examination  12  10,11)  (figs  are  have by  present  Cross-profiles  show  trough.  They  to  those  Trevor  recorded  appear a  from  extensions  P r o f i l e s  change  and  are  depth  the  Ucluelet  shallow  .  as  Imperial  basins, a  200m.  abrupt  separated  km  are  maximum  can  to  near  ridge,  150  and  by  (table  by  average  whereas  no  except  a  about  80-120m.  from  an  Loudoun and  by  trend  i s  are  banks  separated  basins  shelf  broken  which of  the  be  reflections.  floor  to  to  other  which  shelf  has  referred  There  inlet  shelf  channels.  varies  and  Sound  and  100m.deep.  from  basins,  banks  r e l i e f .  opposite  a  the  prominent  subdued  separated  and  flat  shelf  northeast/southwest  Barkley  bottom  the  continue  large  offshore  Barkley  between  Channels  Channel  a  banks  shelf  off  with  contour. inner  shelf  FIG. 10  PROFILES PROFILES  CONTINENTAL  TRACED FROM  ECHOGRAMS  WHEREAS T. - P R O B A B L E  TERRACES.  SHELF -  THE  (LINE  REMAINDER  K  LINES WAS  WERE  G.H.UK,  OBTAINED MADE  FIG.3.  USING A  WITH  AN  BENDIX EDO  T ' - BREAKS IN T H E SLOPE OF THE S H E L F — P O S S I B L E  DEPTH  RECORDER) TERRACES  TRACE O F  MULTIPLE  RECORDER  FIG. 11  CROSS- PROFILE OF THE  CONTINENTAL SHELF - LINE L ON FIG.3.  0  SOmetres  SOUTHEAST BASIN  NORTHWEST BASIN  nRnwNrn  "  •100  v J I VALLEY \T3  5 kilometres  0 •  » TRACE OF MULTIPLE.  PROFILE TRACED  FROM  > PROBABLE  ECHOGRAM.  VERTICAL TERRACE  LEVEL.  8  TIMES  SCALE APPROXIMATELY HORIZONTAL SCALE  SE.  27  indicated channels lack  of  (1)  and  fjords  southwest  in  formation  100m.  basins outer  p r o f i l e s , of  banks  deep,  i s  p r o f i l e ,  ; i  and  (5)  basin  sediments,  (4)  i n  the  (2)  their  absence  alignment  of  with  this  area  -  has  been  modified  shape and  Sound  clear,  their  movements  The  and  from  shelf  banks  conspicuous  from  However,  continental the  ice  are  separated  (fig.10).  indicating  U  action  Barkley  by  erosion  to  the  resulting  Shelf  broad  are  t :  the  terraces.  Outer  they  their  s u r f i c i a l  of  Several  trough,  of  with  g l a c i a l  1964).  (Holland,  deposition  where  (3)  direction  by  and  continuity  where  l o n g i t u d i n a l  dominant  Banks  their  sinuosity,  graded the  by  the  one  on  the  shore  by  a  another  by  the  are  connected  without  any  abrupt  sections  of  afore-described seaward  change  shelf  shelf,  discontinuous  they  are  inner  i n  isolated  to  the  slope by  g l a c i a l  erosion. Banks the  shelf  Bank  tend i s  sides  facing banks  be  facing have  there  the  the  sea  during  they  shore  slopes  as  apparently  55~59n.?66~70ra., 73^., of  flat-topped  approached  basins vary,  to  the  -  slope slope high being  which  are  Pleistocene  but  as  the  outer  0°08 -0°20' f  about as  1°,  Depths distinct  probably (table  3).  due  of  southwest.  whereas  11°.  three  half  to  of  those the  levels  -  s t i l l s t a n d s  28  The broken  a  gently  of  are  subtle  and d i f f i c u l t  more  apparent from  one  of  at  sub-parallel  to  the  approximately  3  least  abrupt  a n d 130m.  Southeast basin (in.)  to  plain  changes  detect  multiples  to  another  coast  i n  AND PROBABLE  These  on echograms,  terraces? at  p r o f i l e  clip.  They  and appear  line,  a  (fig.10).  to  that  depths  TERRACES  but are  indicate trend  of 3).  ON T H E  SHELF  Drowned v a l l e y (m.)  Banks (m.)  -  -  with  respectively.(table  CONTINENTAL  Northwest b a s i n (m. )  sloping  two subdued  present  O F BANKS  but  echo  echogram  110m.  DEPTHS  small  i n the  presence  TABLE  i s  scries  traceable the  shelf  by a  changes are  outer  Ou t e r  Shelf  (KI. )  -  18 55-59 66-70  90  TI  T 2 104-110  •-  T 3 124-127  127  T 4 140-146  137-153  T1  -  5  refer  -  106-113 130  -  165  T5  -  73  -  128-137  -  to  terrace  l e v e l s in  figures  ... 10  and  11.  29  stands  It  i s  of  Pleistocene  (1965).  tempting  However,  speculative present  unknown;  these  Drowned  movement  on  (0,8-1.6km.  meltwater seismic  the  wide)  been  the  the  ages  of  depths and  nay  (3)  i t  some  may  be  by  lower  Curray  highly  terraces  be i s  with  recorded  the  valley  show  be  are  at  structurally not  be  certain  the  with  small  this  confirmed  and/or  that  result  a l l  of  presence  of  the  What  i s  27  present  trend.  Juan  off  slope  de  Fuca  to  Canyon.  (pers.  because to  one  charts  the  comm.)  by  valleys  be  Cape  form  Bathymetric  cut  Continuous  appears  to  V-shaped  valleys  ice.  to  features and  additional  km.  coalesce  to  Wissman  as  bathymetry  sediment.  v a l l e y  C.  i n  the  Sound  narrow  courses  regarded of  Barkley  are  sinuous  retreat  troughs  into by  the  from  These  s l i g h t l y  detected  system  lead  shelf.  during  southeasterly  area  extend  tentatively  show  f i l l e d  eventually been  not  several a  as  would  channels  with  are  p r o f i l e s  drowned  with  such  levels  slumping.  inner  streams  cculd  where  above  correlation  terraces;  small  cross-profiles,  have  l e v e l  their  or  the  Valleys.  basins  which  (1)  (2)  are  Several the  a  controlled,  features  tectonic  relate  sea  such  because:  i s o s t a t i c a l l y  to  who  a  Beale, main from  southeast Its  they  valley outside  and  presence has  been  has  30  studying Fuca and  Canyon. the  the  The  presence  Wissman, of  continuous  suggest  valley.  seismic  sinuous of  p r o f i l e s  course,  cross-bedded  stream  erosion  made  the sands  was  north  V-shaped as  of  de  p r o f i l e  revealed  important  Juan  i n  by formation  31  2.4  SUBSURFACE  1967-69,  During (fig.3)  were  Barkley  Sound  made  structure  Island,  at  made  five  on  The of  continental raid  shelf  different  a  carried  brief  opposite  regions.on  the  These  regions  approximate  basin  topography,folded  see,  Layer  Layer  B?  of  folded  (Upper  of  and  and  Barr  programme  Sandra  Murray  outer  of  of  and  Miocene  by  a  faulted -  and  and  to  study  Vancouver M.  the  Barr,  and  p r o f i l e s  shelf  w i l l  which fault  i t  i s  of  a  and  by  and  i s  with  on•  platy and  may  tops  sands  and  f l a t - l y i n g  tentatively  age. separated  1970),  v/hich  indurated  exposed  bank  similar  Murray,  and  underlain  comm.),  On t h e  A?)  bank  grey  Quaternary  (Layer less  i t s  l o c a l l y  pars,  covered  two  (fig.12).  former  hard,  (1969).  been  (Barr  mudstones  Pliocene)  are  probable  has  1970)  with  rocks,  into  p r o f i l e s  The  Cameron,  overlain  divided  Murray,  shelf.  T i f f i n  muds  been  seismic  rocks  (B.  basins  shelf,  shelf  outer  age  unconformably  sandy  4  inner  These  i s  i n  has  sedimentary  of  and/or  of  to  out  by  runs  adjacent  v/est  of  (Barr the  the  B?  gravelly  inner  and  Miocene  whereas  the  shore  ( f i g . 13).  gravels,  The  the  sequence  floor  mudstones be  a  p r o f i l i n g  margin  Sound  basis  to  the  of  interpretation  the  perpendicular  a  part  continental  being  only  are  shelf  (1969),  T i f f i n  profiles  the  seismic  here.  The  by  continuous  the  Murray  present  consequently be  by  (1970).  Murray the  STRUCTURE  i s  are  than  from  composed  younger  Layer  B  32  sedimentary Where  these  topography Layer  A?  gently  rocks.  i s  rocks crop  rugged  with  a  narked  folded, dark the  with  near  floor  (fig.12).  These  Sound  (3277,321)  and  Sound  (J.  variable part on  of  the  folded the A  and  of  result  of  of  levels  -  were  lower.  Pleistocene  sediments  p a r a l l e l  the  at  that  truncated  by  the  was i t  eroded i s  at  during  present  whose  being  Overlying  approximately clayey  occur  far  north  50m  of  (S213)  s i l t s by  i n  the  shelf  Barkley  as  which  (p.  i n  of  Queen  Charlotte  slope  rocks  going  on  northeastern the  by  southeast i n d i c a t i n g  stand  of  were  today  as  P a c i f i c .  deposition  of  were  down  the  layed shelf  and/or  sea  when  was  bedding  either  Pleistocene  faulting  seen  Pleistocene  Ucluelet  suggesting  by  be  These  the  opposite  are  can  be  i n  a  area  margin  slope  reduced  had  may  followed  the  has  this  ).  probably  However,  lower  rocks  which  was i n  shelf  northeastern  place,  continental some  as  spreading  This  time.  10a,  to  truncated  also  Island  continental  aggrading  up  continental  processes  took  the  i s  are  sedimentary  sea-floor  floor  comm.,).  the  Vancouver  erosion  to  pers.  basin  faulted  of  shelf  (5.9&/1)  slope  apparently  The  Tertiary  shores  r e l i e f  sediments  that  history.  period  sea  show  the  unconformity  continental  Luternauer,  a  a  on  greenish-grey  which  P r o f i l e s  out  the  i s  shelf  l e v e l ,  slumping.  or  FIG.12  INTERPRETATION OF CONTINUOUS  VERTICAL SCALE APPROXIMATELY  12x  HORIZONTAL  SEISMIC  PROFILE - CSP 3 on FIG.3.  SCALE AFTER  BARR & MURRAY (1970)  31* 12 6 / 0 0'  FIG. 13  DISTRIBUTION  49\O0T  OF  SUBMARINE  125/30'  EXPOSURES  48 3  125  126  /,  00  00  a  PLEISTOCENE 125°/30'  48X30'  CLAYEY SILTS  v "  0  SEDIMENTS CONTAINING FRAGMENTS OF MUDSTONE U3MEN' 125^00'  35  3  lithology  In grain  this  size,  chapter colour,  l i t h o l o g i c grain  properties  shape,  and  of  surface  the.sediments texture--  are  described.  3.1.  GRAIN  Two  hundred 2.1)  (appendix sediments;  and  ( i i i )  i n  (ii)  distribution  and  -  calculated plotted  3.la  were  TEXTURAL  When diagram,  the  and  Measures  kurtosis  interpret various  of  taken  to  table  24  306/67  frequency mean  Folk  3)  ~  which and  of  were  i n  addition  binary  sorting,  Ward  areal  possible,  Results  (appendix  and  the  parameters;  i f  shelf.  size,  size  sediments'  grain-size  computer  grain  from  the  curves,  for  c l a s s i f y  ascertain,  continental  i n  analysed  scatter  skewness,  (1957).  CLASSIFICATION  plotted the  to  I.B.M.  cumulative  diagrams. and  on  an  and  were  texturally  parameters  compounded with  samples  t o ; ( i )  respect  these  palooenvironments analyses,  order  determine  with  use  twenty  SIZE  on  a  sediments  gravel  *• s a n d - m u d  displayed  a  wide  (silt range-  + of  clay) textural  -  36  (fig.14).  types are  In  predominantly  general,  muds  sediments  which  extend  (fig.15).  continental  shelf  shorelines,  on  Sound.  d i s t r i b u t i o n  on  irregular  indicated  The  tends  to  (figs  16-19)  just  at  be  one  regional sandy  inlet  which  change  gravels,  s i l l s ,  as  show  sample  Sands  a  and  station.  with and  are  f i n a l l y  by  the  the  the  sands  Sound  basins  the  of  near  shelf  photographs size  0. g r a d u a l  shelf  the  Barkley  sediment  is,however, inner  the  outer  underwater i n  on  around  mouth  and  variation  on  Barkley  common  banks  There  gravels  into  across  shelf  wide  i n  passing  shelf  into  break  (fig.15).  MEAN  3.1b.  The  areal  (i)  Inlet  the  basins  the  s i l t s  or  the  usually  fine  clays with  mainly  spaced  from  Along  gradual at  are  deltas'  noticed ( i i i )  d i s t r i b u t i o n  basins  Closely  decrease at  SIZE  of  the  mean  has  several  distinct  (fig.20).  trends  (ii)  GRAIN  covered  samples gravels  edge,  the  length  increase  i n  of  size  entrance  with  from  i s  Sound.  e.g.  whereas  of  deltas  r i v e r an  mouth  abrupt  barring  S256-263,  e.g. to  fine  change  A similar  trend  to.  sands fine  was  S314-317.  the  Sound  (fig.24)  from  clays  at  and  s i l l s  sand.  tops the  there  the  sands,  clays,  near  where  occupying  beach  Sound's  contain  then  .an  the  abrupt  there  head  to  change  i s  a  fine to  s i l t s  very  37  fine  sand  across (iv) of  and  the  with  shelfjmean  basins  where  exception  appreciable top  there  whereas  change  from  widely  the  abrupt  with to  the  sand  spaced  banks  nearest  shore  cover  most  the  3.1c  STANDARD  following  3  km.  of  wide  band  has  size  basin  Where  from  mud  which basin  basin  to  parts  predominate,  between  sloping walls  and  walls  gravels  there  contains  i s  are  on  a  bank-  the  gradual  gra.vol. .an  irregular  can  d i s t r i b u t i o n  intervals be  i r r e g u l a r l y  outer  clays  deeper  are  used  detected,with grading  into  a  but regional  gravels sands  on  which  shelf.  DEVIATION  inclusive was  Changes  change  to  towards  northwesterly  contouring  decreasing  1957)  a  and  topography.  gently  mean  s i l t s  sand.  an  of  Ward,  of with  trend  The  occupjr  decreases  fine  most  vary  mud  On b a n k s  when  of  i s  banks,  (v)  which  size  very  amounts  sediments  steep  s i l t  entrance.  On t h e  the  coarse  graphic  used  l i m i t s :  as  an  standard  deviation  indication  of  (Folk  sorting,  and  with  the  38  Standard  0.35  <  Deviation  Sorting  phi  very  0.50  0.35  well  moderately  0.71  - 1.0  moderately  2.0  poorly  - 4.0  very  > 4.0  The  majority  are  very  sorted  4.0  more  along  exposed  such the  as  near  especially  standard  i n sheltered  and moderately  shelf  sorting  on the bank  i n basins  of  sorted  i n l e t s deviation  with  shoreline  areas well  such to  as  well  current  poorly  to  tops well  which, l i k e  values  are  and outer  very shelf,  sorted.  Values  the Sound,  contain  are very  sediments.  mean  relationship  poorly  and the  improves  and i n areas  sorted  Bamfield.  continental  sorted  sorted  a  sorted  sorted  poorly  Sound  have  Sorting  beaches  uniform  sands  and l o c a l l y  beaches,  extremely  When  i n Barkley  are poorly  from  poorly  Fine  sorted  and leeward  irregular, ranging  sediments  p h i (fig.21).  which  movement On  of  well  sorted  extremely  poorly  estuaries  sorted  - 0.71  2.0  deposits  sorted  0.50  1.0  exceeding  well  Term  i s  plotted  between  are  against  these  generally  standard  two parameters  better  sorted  deviation, i s  than  apparent coarser  a (fig.22).  sands and  39  gravels,  which  are  clays)  are  values  exceeding  grain  similar  nixing  of  i n  usually  are  phi  sorted.  and  Muds  sedinents  scattered  over  clays  has  s i l t ,  sand  a  class sand  owe  and/or  and  clay  i s  modes.  whereas  series  and  (1964)-who  (fig.22)  1  of  corresponding  which  3.Id.  small  relationship  Hubert  Group  unimodal,  modes  medium  and  gravel  of  t y p i c a l l y  fine  sorted,  size/sorting  modes.  the  presence  four  4  (1964)  Andel  mode  poorly  poorly  a  '(mainly with  wide  s i l t y  sorting  range  of  sizes. A  Van  very  usually  i s  noted  sands  widely  spaced  the  classes.  pebble Group  their  poor  sorting  fine  clay  (>  10  to  phi)  to  due  fine  sands  are  gravel,  the  by  i t  a  to a  to  i s  strong the  are  bimodal.  modes,  IV  noted  have  sorted  II  coarse  to  been  attributed  poorly Group  has  Group  e.g.  S124  fine  sand,  dominantly  presence  of  has  s i l t y very  modes.  SKEWNESS  Inclusive l i m i t s  -  taken  graphic from  skewness  Folk  (1965).  was  used  with  the  III  following  Skewness  and  +1.00 - +0.30  strongly  +0.30 - +0.10  fine  skewed  +0.10  -  -0.10  near  symmetrical  -0.10  -  -0.30  coarse  -0.30  -  -1.00  strongly  Along  the  fine  whereas Muds  the  gravels sands  and  shelf  are  the  the  shelf  i n  skewness banks,  the  coarse  Sound  side  to  beaches  and  shelf  areal  gradual  decrease  i n  from  accompanied  strongly  generally  fine  coarse  coarse  the  strongly are  trend  sediment by  a  very  to  fine  skewed  skewed  Sound,  coarse  basins  apparent  i s  of  are  skewed  skewed  strongly  no  edge  to  northwest  sheltered  display  to  the  on  occupying  skewed  exposed  fine  sands  skewed, fine  mainly  skewed. fine  (fig.24). size  from  On banks  irregular  skewed  sands  change  material  near  the  on  shelf  break. As  indicated  relationship, gravels fine  are  sand  or  symmetrical  above,  there  exemplified  usually  fine  either  Muds  are  t y p i c a l l y  >10  phi  fraction.  fine  a  figure  skewed  occasionally, with  i n  i s  mud.  due  size/skewness Coarse  23. to  Fine  small sands  slight  negative  skewed  due  to  an  or  sand  amounts tend,  to  positive  excess  of  and of be  near  values. fines  i . e .  GRAVEL  *2  Figures  16-19.  photographs the  wide  Sand  on  ripples  current  of  station  30,  grain  sizes  from  range  sediments  Sequence  of  the i n  continental figure  direction  northwest.  underwater  i s  Diameter  19  i n shelf.  suggest  probably of  displaying  to  compass  the the  =  7.5  cm.  43  Fig.  17  Fig.  19  45 -  .  FI6.20 DISTRIBUTION  126/^00*  OF GRAPHIC  49\0CY  MEAN  GRAIN  '  SIZE  125/30'  12 6  FI6.21 DISTRIBUTION  125/30'  \9\00'  / W  OF STANDARD  DEVIATION  |30N  1251  P26  00  00  10 k i l o m e t r e s  WELL SORTED  MODERATELY WELL SORTED  MODERATELY SORTED  POORLY SORTED  VERY POORLY SORTED  EXTREMELY  48*\30'  125^00'  POORLY SORTED  k7  6-1  FIG.22 MEAN v STANDARD  DEVIATION shorel'm© sediments +. Barkley Sound  5-  m  /  +  /  continental shelf basins . continental shdf banks and outer shelf  x  N  +  .  »  +  /  /+  Z  o  IV  //  3x  §  UJ  oQ  2-  +  '  1  I  W4^V  x s  x  +  X  I  x  +  *  N v +  x  + x  N  <  • z  $  +  —-  en 3  \ 1-  v  in  1  -5  v.  1 o  1  1  1  1 0  GRAPHIC MEAN GRAIN SIZE  2-0  T  r  T"  5  10  FIG.23 MEAN v SKEWNESS  -shoreline sediments +. Barkley Sound x  ^  15-  I  ioX  c  in  in ID z  + 0-5-  +  +  + + ++ •  UJ >£  in  *  0-  *  *  *  x  +• +  .  +  * x *  Y  +  *  ¥ -+  -05-  -10-  continental shelf basins  . continental shelf banks and outer shelf  T  1  1  1  0 GRAPHIC MEAN  1  1  1—  GRAIN SIZE SS  10  9<7  k9  3.1e  KURTOSIS  Graphic Muds  are  generally  the  grain  are  fine  with  sands,  better  Following the  Sound  and  sediments  on  pre-nodern present  authigenic  part  of  the  interrelated tides on  and  several  general  -  be  terms.  central  values)  tend  be  central  to  of  being  (2)  (I960)  Emery  a s : ( l ) supplied  r e l i c t  -  most  to of  out  equilibrium  are  now  (3)  residual  -  skeletal  remains  shelf  s i t u .  and  but  these  such  a i s  as  because factors  of  The  small  were  derived  last  -  Barkley the  deposited with  from  of  Curray  modern  and  i n  as  platykurtic  and  which  formed  of  portion.  shelf,  -  portion  sorting  continental  factors  of  (fig.2k).  DISTRIBUTION  present  distribution  waves,  the  c l a s s i f i e d  basins;  organic  outer  Sediment  at  and  sedinents  terminology  environment; (k)  (tails  than  can  trends  equivalent  SEDIMENT  shelf  times  exposures; (5)  OF  the  the  have  sorted  detritus  the  apparent  gravelly  sediments  terrigenous  no  nesokurtic  but  DISCUSSION  (1965)  has  distribution  t a i l s  3.If  kurtosis  i n  their  submarine  organisms,  three  and  cover  area  i n  Barkley.Sound.  controlled  by  a  source,  bathymetry,  information they  w i l l  series  be  i s  often  discussed  of  currents, incomplete only  i n  50  Modern  Sediments  Beach near  poorly  northwest by  i n  the  are  varying  Most  coarse  Where  and  currents  that  there the  of  s i l t to  and  due  a  from  movement  of  but  Barkley  flow  head  near  are i s  are  of  peak  wave  erosion  prevailing  predominantly  (S340,  beds,  near  347).  whereas  finer  mouths.  shoreline,  subordinate northwest  sandy  coast  p a r a l l e l  transported  by  the  Sound  pebble  to  distributed  towards  sand  342,  r i v e r  the  the  eroded  to  longshore  entrance,  at  1952). Sound  general  clay  most  when  river  these  sands  (Dee,  slight  s i l t  material  probably  a  and  exposed  along  l i t t o r a l  i s  i s  deposited  i s  form,  Sound's  part  are  d r i f t  Spring  d r i f t  the  readily  Locally  The  along  achieve  which  Winter  on  concentrated as  i s  the  gravel  be  such  drift  1963).  deposited  sand  may  within  towards fine  i s  i n d i c a t i n g  during  i n  to  d r i f t  rivers  (Pickard,  stretch  which  Muds in  gravel  These  and  of  tend  Here,  northwest.  coarse  coast,  Sound.  quantities  which  (fig.6).  least  the  sands  g l a c i a l  p a r t i c u l a r l y  beaches  beaches  water  streams  gravel-rich  cobble  the  the  Winter  to  with  gravel  of  ephemeral  important  winds  shallow  consolidated,  side  s n a i l  runoff i s  and  -  display  decrease the  increase  suspended  i n  result  (fig.24). i n  an  This  mean of  by  grain  but  i s  trend  size  increasing  trend  depth,  material  interesting  quantities  probably  nay'also  estuarine  i n  result  c i r c u l a t i o n .  -  51  T a l l y (1949), demonstrated estuarine surface  layer  Pacific  flow  near  recorded i s  the  as  the for  subsurface  inlet  basins  are  the  was  a  much  seaward,  and  generally i n  subsurface  of  shallow  Effingham flov;  into  by  i s  the flow  may  situation  (1969).  Meade  swept  into  enough  Inlet the  a  suspended  A similar  matter  by  from  subsurface  estuaries  suspended  e.g.  waters  entrapment  coastal  are  l o w - s a l i n i t y accompanied  this  Sound.  an  to  impede  there  inlet  the  appears  as  the  there  i s  also  material .and  outflow  an  suspended i s  shelf,  i n  probably as  i s  component  surface  deposited  suggested  by  to  estuarine  waters  w i l l  i n  basins  the  be on  mineralogical  (p.125).  The  mud  i s  stretching  transected  quantities  Cape  Beale  the  fine  sand  which  Island  there  had  stagnant.  seawards  studies  varying  i n l e t s  subsurface  the  Atlantic  no  continental  basins  of  inflow,  or  carried  head  i t s  believes  movement  (1963)  Pickard  and  motion  saline  s i l l s  l i t t l e  that  net  and  Sound  author  that  be  circulation,  i n  more  for  their  Because  a  The  doubtful  i n l e t s  to  of  Ocean.  sediment  It  with  responsible  was  Barkley  circulation  landward  be  that  (1952),  Doe  coast  by  of  from  a  of  been  southeast,  Sound  sediment  sand  sediment  probably  the  Barkley  band  gravel,  dominant has  from  and  i n  this  swept as  mud  to  deduced  shelf  composed  of  ( f i g . 15).  band up  the  i s  along by  well the  bottom  Near sorted Vancouver d r i f t e r  52  studies into  of  Gross  Trevor  result  from  et  as  an  effect  eddy  bottom  current  may  be  to  Barkley  t i d a l  Sound  decreases current  has  lost  medium  to  r e l i c t  deposits,  deposits  when are  consequently  Relict  and  power  e.g.  and they  present to  to  the  by  impedance  of  Group,  i t  of  be  occupied  sand.  Near  occur,  and  remnants Barkley  covered  extremely  across sand  bottom Ucluelet  are  of  probably  moraines  Sound.  These  w i t h mud,  poorly  or  fine  i n d i c a t i n g the  gravels  projects  could  Passing  quantity  move  being  sand  this  Deer  action. the  may  and  about  of  wave  Ucluelet  sands  eroded and  i n i t i a l  the  continental  gravels  association  presumably  when  sea  of  these  bathymetry, r i v e r  levels  the  consequently  shelf  plus  With  were  other  and  are  sorted.  sediments  appear  to  be  blanketed  lower with  an  a  out  the  i n  sea  last  and  major The  r i v e r -  8), suggest  role l e v e l and  r e l i c t  1968).  (chapter  reworked of  with  glaciated  important  rises were  during (Emery,  evidence  played later  i s  deposited  sediments  transport  dispersal.  Transgression) and  i t s  very  of  glaciation  ice  brought  The  Sediments  Much sands  and/or  glaciers  at  Banfield  muds: i n c r e a s e ,  coarse  deposited  as  islands  towards  whereas  far  by  (fig.19).  (1970)  Channel  the  due  a l .  i n  the  (Holocene  "drowned"  equilibrium  with  the  53  present  environment,  present  day  reworking return  e.g.  submerged  oceanographic  processes  the  to  finer  conditions  the  i n  part  l i t t l e  detailed  the  inner  current by  the  a  a  from  below)  are  about  fine  shelf areas,  a  p a r t i a l  are  waves.  on  these  undoubtedly  affected  to  be  sands  surface  Faulkner,  -  capable i n  current which  velocity  of  of  bed  figure -  the  passes  are load  by  large  fine  Davidson  over  most  i s  one  the  knot  1969).  there  semithe  flowing  sand  as  also  a  inferred northwest  (Nayudu  shelf (Watts  suitable  (fine  suspended  and  along  This  40m.  then,conditions sand)  i s  Sediment  scale  current of  out  currents,  current  There  19.  addition,  indicated  moving  water  are  (Swift,  to  exceeding  approximately  1968). T h e r e  transportation  of  In  processes.  bottom  appears  which  However,  al.(1970)  et  depths sometimes  1964)  subject  calm  winnowed  Transgression  northwest-trending  rippled  Sound.  sediment  information  Gross  provide  sediments  Barkley  at  maximum  the  bringing  basins  fine  shelf  trending Enbysk,  shallower  i s  of  Holocene  outer  currents. of  shelf  received  the  and  and,in  d i s t r i b u t i o n  depth,  derived  during  tides  presence  (outlined  sediments  accumulation  banks  permanent  their  probably  banks The  of  for  basins  from  However,  equilibrium.  Because  probably  r e l i c t  beaches.  and  achieving and for load  to  northwest. Tidal  currents  also  probably  play  a  part  i n  the  movement  54  of  sediment  there  (Johnson  and  i s  no  published data  currents  i n  the  situation  reworking  being  sediments  at  surges  hurricane  and  of  those  the  i n  Severe  P a c i f i c  as  by  shelf  storms  indicated  to  also  Gulf  take  the  Wind  data  of  1-hr.  Annual  Max,  100  year  Storm.  From  the.  wave  period  less  To the  Storm  waves  than  ground  these  every  the  Watts  and  Maximum  Speed  place,  where  stirred  years  2  take  5  by years,  (Curray,  Northeast Faulkner  Maximum  Current.  (1968%  Wave  Height Period  knots  & .  1+0  2.5  30ft  15sec.  70  2.5  45ft  15sec.  100  3.0  70ft  15sec.  Storm.  Max.  because  are  i n  fli.p.h.  Summer  of  Mexico  once  every  place  also  of  depth)  once  Sustained  Annual.  jnay  approximately  waters,  by  the  (120m,  break  waves  Storm  Max,  v e l o c i t i e s  stormwaves  analogous  shallower  I960).  concerning  unfortunately  area.  Periodical the  1969), out  Bolder son,  on  half the  start,  a  wavelength  of 351m...  to " f e e l bottom  the  wavelength*  shelf  in. depths  calculate  following  .  the  equation  the  water-  depth,  CBascpnv,. 1964)'».  waves,  will  velocity was  when  w a s- c a l c u l a t e d ,  used  less  i !  than  of (from  ar is  175K..  waves  near  Curray,  the  I960).  bottom,.  55  sin  T  2 1T  h  h  L  The  jU  =  horizontal  T  =  wave  period  H  =  wave  height  h  =  water  L  =  wave  bottom  water  different  wave  Depth  (m.)  water  a  sand by  velocity  depth length  v e l o c i t i e s  heights  are  for as  different  depths  Velocity  cm./sec.  100  72  110  150  150  28  42  60  175  20  30  42  30  45  70  velocity  of  (Sundborg,  Pacific  storm  35cm./sec.  1956), waves  coarser  sand  especially  current  v e l o c i t i e s  are  i t are i n  i s  i s  and  follows:  Bottom  Max. Wave Height (m.)  As  particle  required  l i k e l y  capable depths  highest.  to  move  bottom  currents  of  moving  less  than  However,  fine  fine 150m.  the  quartz created  or  even  where  effect  of  these  56  waves  i s  merely  oscillatory  to  s t i r  motion  of  horizontal  transport  would  to  word  have of  e.g.  Curray  that  they A  also ice  of  debris  i n  more of  the  sand to i t  winnowing leaving  during  grain  i n  part the  l i k e l y  by  and  coarse  the  r i s i n g  possible sands  i s  towards  due  to  the  trend e.g.  reworked sea  a  increasing  This  i s when  of by  l e v e l ,  seaward  and  i n  blanket  quantities  be  and  workers  history,  carried would  Watts  storm.  break.  Pleistocene  A  value  a  size i s  by  other  sediment  i n  near  later  given  representative  presumably  and  for  currents.  whereas  r e l i c t  the  other  heights  waves  which  and  the  s t i r r i n g  or  values,  of  transport  gravels  on  the  of banks  deposits.  Residual  Sediments  These to  a  sediment  lag  15,20)  which  resulting  wave  decrease  shelf  streams  as  of  related the  a  place  t i d a l  -  series  trend  meltwater  fine  taice  authigenic  occupied  morainal  a  (figs  probably  with  because  particles,  take  maximum  irregular  break  amounts  are  measure  but  to  sediment wave  needed  (I960),  regional  gradual shelf  i s  (i960)  Faulkner  the  coincide  caution  up  sediments  structural  Exposures  are  extensively  highs  occur i n  composed  bored  by  the of  at  scattered  Tertiary mudstone  pholads.  l o c a l i t i e s  basement which  i s  Consequently,  (figs  related  12,13).  usually the  rocks  are  57  structurally  Authigenic  weak  and  are  readily  disintegrated.  Sediments  These  are  predominantly  fine,sand-sized  "glauconite  u pellets  ,  usually  associated  with  residual  sediments  (fig.34). Organic  Sediments  Poorly calcareous Barkley  remains  Soundmen  entrance (fig.  sorted  to  sand of  the  Trevor  and  fine  gravel  invertebrates, banks  near  Channel,  and  composed  are  Ucluelet on  some  of  found  mainly  Inlet,  near  pocket  i n the  beaches  34).  3.1g  PALEOENVIRQNMENTAL  SIGNIFICANCE  OF  GRAIN-SIZE  PARAMETERS  An sands  had  binary sands  attempt  find  taken  prior of  to  which the  modern  Sound  were  plots  from  (1968),  out  made  to  environmentally  scatter  Koldijk  was  and  the  sensitive  Moiola  and  environments  and  included  these  i n  plots  to  (i960).  existed  sands  any  of  on  the  by of  The  aim  shelf  check.  modern  (1967),  v i c i n i t y a  shelf constructing  was  during  Furthermore,  the as  the  plots  Friedman  Transgression.  river i n  then  e.g.  Weisor  i f  parameters  comparing  literature  Holocene  beach  determine  of  to and  analyses Barkley  58  The grouping widely  binary  diagrams  of  shelf  the  scattered.  f a i l e d  sands,  to  show  any  which  were  generally  Parameters  sometimes  environmentally  incorrect  groupings, e.g.  f o r modern  sensitive a  beach  but  sand  significant very  samples often  plotted  were  f e l l  into  as  river  a  sand, There (i)  host  their  are  several  workers  samples  e.g.  from  single  populations.  v i r t u a l l y  impossible  the  problem, worker  shelf  have  a  corer  to  sample  additional present, has  been  o r i g i n a l  box  or  beds  mixed  a  would  be  of  s e n s i t i v i t y ,  Koldijk  thereby  avoiding mixing  such  grab  sampler  beds,  as  i n allowing as  being,reworked,  most  of  r e s u l t i n g  of  most  To overcome  well  take  sampling  and hence  sedimentary  noted,  (1967),  selective  invaluable  from.the  As p r e v i o u s l y  textures.  lack  populations.  individual  is  this  (1967),  However,  with  information  ( i i )  f o r  Friedman  different  from  reasons  i s sands  this the  providing structures  the  shelf  i n a  loss  sediment of  59  SEDIMENT  3.2.  The using  colours  the  figure  'Rock  -  Gravels  band  of  Color  are  gravel  h a l f  of  and the  coastline.  stained  d e t r i t a l  fragments, during  shelf  lower  1965).  It  l i k e l y  Island  are  i s  of  sea  Coarse  p i t s  determined and  1963b)  plotted  on  sands  the of  colour  Local  (5y3/2).  the  shelf  the  presence  that  break of  some ; ,  and  a  beach as  of  gravels,  the  deposit  from  variations sands  glauconite  are  (James  but  1  during  black  the  a  stain; abundance  (3)  water.  sands  ( 5 y 2 / l )  e.g.  Stanley,  Vancouver  i r o n  fine  have  shelf  turbulent  black  greenish  exposure  and  sediments;  occur,  pellets ';  off  formed  suggesting  olive  rock  Californian  by:(1)  stained  the  conclusions  sediments  a  i r o n -  subaerial  Scotia  multicoloured,  ranges  of  indicated  the  abundant  plutonic  Similar on  across  i s  the  contain  Nova.  stained  l e v e l ,  are  p a r a l l e l i n g  l e v e l .  feature  stretches  consequence  shelf off  on  which  sediments  d i s t r i b u t i o n  percussion  o v e r a l l  the  remnants  stand  l i n e a r  grey  were  An i n t e r e s t i n g  quartz,  sea  stained and  (ii)  (Anon,  sediments  the  of  I960)  of  sediments  roughly  feldspar,  stands  for  sand  These  (Emery,  (2)  Chart'  coarse  presumably  drawn  lower  wet  multicoloured.  present  been  fresh,  25»  (1)  outer  of  COLOUR  have to  an  olive  near (5g2/l)  tongue  of  due  sand  to near  60 49\0CV  FIG. 25  DISTRIBUTION  OF  SEDIMENT  125/30'  COLOURS  48 3C?  126 00  POLYCHROME DARK  GREENISH  5Y 5/2 GREY 5G4/1  LIGHT OLIVE  5G l/\ GREENISH 125°/30'  48N30'  GREY  BLACK  5Y 3 / 2 -  5Y 2/l  •^BOUNDARY  OLIVE  GREY  OLIVE  OF IRON OXIDE—STAINED '  125X00'  BLACK SEDIMENTS  61  Bamfield  tends  abundant  shell  ( i i i )  to  Muds  (5y3/2)  with  were  applied  to  colours,  of  organic  removal  of  both  4  i n the  (5y5/2),  grey  for  sodium  with  Five  treated  I N SEDIMENTS  as  - i r o n  CaCO^  +  with  were  (table  VARIOUS  - i r o n  the  dithionito;  specimens  4).  TREATMENTS  CaC0  7  organics  10yr2/2  5y5/2  5y3/2  5g6/l  140  5y3/2  5y5/2  5y3/2  5s5A  9  5y3/2  5y5/2  5y4/2  5g5/l  192  5y3/2  5y5/2  10y4/2  3g6/l  pronounced  change.  of  above  AFTER  of  peroxide;  and removal  details).  -organics  origin  hydrogen  134  marked  tests  iron  5g5/l  material,  Several  of  5y3.5/2  organic  olive  the  5y3/2  most  of  to  determine  5y3/2  The  result  (5y2/l)  category.  u t i l i s i n g  subsamplc  CHANGES  black  Colour  87  the  to  and organics;  1969,  No. Original  olive  l a t t e r  removal  material  and each  COLOUR  from  sediments  iron  Pantin,  subsampled  Sample  80%  and involved  (see  olive  range  the  removal  TABLE  light  fragments.  grey  acid  be  colour  whereas When  both  change  accompanied  extraction were  of  removed,  iron the  removal produced  sediments  of a  less  took  on  62  uniform with  greenish  acid  concluded organic minor  f a i l e d the  to  colour  matter, role.  grey  with  colour  bring of  about  the  iron  (5g5/l  muds  oxides  any i s and  ~  5g6/l).  colour  Treatment  change.  primarily  due  hydroxides  It  i s  to  playing  a  63  GRAIN  3.3. Approximations were  made  visual  on  both  where  (i) close and tend  to  l a t t e r  i t  have  clasts  index  about  later Like  and  roundness  grains  using  the  end  (1943)  a  from  the  glacial  rocks  the  d r i f t .  Relict both  deposited  S 1 2 5 , 309J  The  former  whereas  sphericity  gravels  modern  types:  e.g.  0.61,  higher  modern  and  d r i f t .  averaging  of  with two  environment,  values  whereas  except  distinguish igneous  sheltered  samples  of  subject  to  sphericity,  two  g l a c i a l  d r i f t  gravels  derived  r e l i c t  presumably  boundaries  types  30,3D.  from  because  i n  to  trend  and  also  the  of  the  have  r e l i c t  an  sands  0.65.  between  (figs  Rittenhouse  used  derived  pebbles,  Interfacial  be  0.81,  about  Several  were  i n  0.81  original  faceted  of  distinct  sphericity  average  average  no  can  gravels  of  thin-sectioned  derived  source  (ii)  and  charts  has  gravels  to  (sphericity)  (1937).  Sphericity gravels  AND ROUNDNESS  shape  whole  comparison  Pettijohn  of  SHAPE  are  of  are  Relict  indicative rounded  water  modern  nearby  (S6; of  contain  174) ice  suggesting  erosion. the  pebbles  transportation.  roundness  commonly  from  gravel  can  gravel rounded igneous  gravels  are  be  used  .  Those  to  well  rocks  also  to  differentiate  derived rounded,  are  rounded  from whereas  subangular to  well  rounded  64  and  have No  no  apparent  differences  major  gravel  basic  volcanics  have  structure,  e.g.  subangular  -  TABLE  and  i n  5).  related  to  a r g i l l i t e  subrounded  No.  OF  of  areal  were  the  numerous  small  -  constituents  319)  b r i t t l e  IN  the  intermediate  composition  the  ROUNDNESS•  among  minor  (S1755  fragments  of  and  some  grains'  of  d i s t r i b u t i o n *  detected  diorite  However,  because  presence  ANALYSIS  5  their  namely  (table  the  i n  roundness  components,  roundness  material  trends  and  are  mainly  nature  of  the  fractures.  GRAVELS  Subangular  Subrounded  %  %  52  20  17  46  17  Diorite  300  7  20  53  20  Intermediate-  168  2  30  54  14  Ik  29  14  43  Samples  Granodiorite  Basic  Volcanics  Rounded  %  Well Rounded%  Sandstone  7  A r g i l l i t e  16  44  kk  6  6  Chert  12  25  k2  25  8  103  10  30  50  10  Indeterminate  Sands size are  and  have  different  composition  composed  mainly  of of  degrees  the  of  roundness  fragments*-  l i t h i c  fragments  Coarse which  depending  on  to  sands  are  medium usually  65  subrounded  to  rounded.  monomineralic Even  i n  fine  related are  to  and  tend  sands  subangular  subrounded  of  grains  normally  of  a  thereby  produce  rounding  variations,  whereas  e.g.  fresh  s e r i c i t i s e d  or^occasionally,  by  they  impact  are  sand to  probably fraction  the  nature  heavy-shelled while  tendency  with  bivalves,  bryozoan  to  break  scalloped  the  fragments  along  edges.  impact  o r i g i n a l  sites  Faecal  as  shocks.  degrees  of  material, Ostrea,  are of  -  Sericitised  varying  such  their  fractures  absorb  displayed of  showed  grains.  softer,  are  Examination  conchoidal other  be  feldspars  rounded.  of  series  can  feldspars  a  rounded,  because  degrees  of  subrounded.  to  related of  to  due  be  carbonate  pieces  subangular  microscope  produced  e.g.  predominantly  electron  presumably  roundness  ore  an  to  The  sends  with  angularity  because  be  different  commonly  grains,  to  compositional  u s u a l l y  fresh  Fine  are  subangular zoecia  pellets  are  and mainly  rounded. Sands beaches  glacial  (S271, 3 4 9 ) ,  continental values  from  shelf  d r i f t  Barkley  (S342, 3 4 7 ) , Sound  (S80, 1 1 9 ) a n d  (S176, 1 8 9 , 2 0 7 ) d i s p l a y e d  characteristic  of  any  one  of  (S343, 3 5 3 ) ,  rivers  these  no  the  roundness  environments.  66  SURFACE  3.4.  Surface  textures  ascertain,  i f  acted  and  are  r e l i c t  origin.  microscope electron  possible, acting  sands  microscope The  developed  i n  most  gravels the  with  (appendix common  Crescent-shaped  and  are  from  the  algae. the  l i v i n g  coated  found  on  remains  with  r e l i c t  Glacially  may  be  i n  arenaceous  organism,  often  found  included  only  of  binocular scanning  out also  on  tubes,  others  These  respect  They  to  have  (Pettijohn,  1957)  water.  bryozoa,  10%  gastropods,  occasionally,  sometimes  were  best  approximately  and  and  i s  common^specially  rock.  encrusting  oxide.  with  surface  noticed  which  well-cleaved  turbulent  fresh,  while  iron  of  worm  were  those  Stereoscan"  where  are  grains'  were  a  to  that  especially  p i t t i n g  volcanic  indicative  and  and  Some  the  structures  samples,  calcareous  on  factors  with  eroded  scars  fine-grained  blows  i s  diorites  p r e f e r e n t i a l l y  presumably  Organic of  of  studied  2.7).  texture  feldspars.  were  energy  "Cambridge  medium-grained  fragments  sand  examined  a  are  resulted  various  were  hornblendes  on  and  on*the.sediments,  Gravels  and  Gravels.  of  TEXTURES  broken,  latter  even  contained  abraded,  forms  pink  are  and  mainly  gravels. striated  five  attributed  pebbles  samples t o : ( l )  and  (S5,6,.  cobbles  are  9,125,204).  obliteration  of  rare,being This  striations  r a r i t y due  to.  67  aqueous  reworking  striated that  i s  grains common  Sand.  i n to  Grains  under  the  thereby  Donahue  (1968).  G l a c i a l l y Large  i s  ( f i g .  energy  (ii)  for  similar  sized  ( i i i )  .Arcuate  (iv)  P a r a l l e l  (v)  the  grains  •  of  these  sets  of  conchoidal  e.g.  formed  involved  features  lack  cleavage  ,  study  such  as  Interpretation Krinsley  the  i n  and  fractures,  be  a  sizes  a  be  supply  pebbly by  percussion  available  completely  conceivably  caused  of  following.  grain  with  and  produced of  beach.  shearing fractures  b y movement  v a l i d  of  sharp  (figs  ridges worn,  fractures  which (figs e.g.  may b e  appear  as  a  edges  series  of  27-28). a  boundary  rounded,  between  i n f e r r i n g  26-7).  (fig.29).  (fig.28).  blocks  are  they  sandy  probably  representing  spaced  a  1957).  for  may n o t  environment  feature  used  conchoidal  could  a  of  were  include  This  features  breakage  widely  of  -  (Pettijohn,  of  by v a r i a t i o n  striations  Some  S  size  work  paucity  deposit  striae.  on t h e  steps,  a  (2)  misinterpretation  particles,  steps  because  textures  aqueous  Imbricated  r e l a t i v e l y  based  g l a c i a l deposits  glacia.l  26 ) .  Semi-parallel  against  of  about  i n  different  r i s k  and  and garnet  microscope  brought  as  high  quartz  induced  c r i t e r i o n a  g l a c i a l  i n  crushing  sediments;  o r i g i n a l  variation  presumably for  of  cleavage  textures  (i)  many  the  surface  the  the  electron  reduce  mistaking  of  two  water  68  erosion  after  g l a c i a l  Textures not  well  more  even  numerous  characteristic  developed.  conchoidal  than  s l i g h t l y by  crescentic  include  solution  deep  pits  are  fractures  curved  fractures  of  of  environments  are  were  circular and  subdued,  glacial Also  Donahue)  which  (fig.28)  more  grooves.  and  textures  l i t t o r a l  include;occasional  which  Krinsley  Diagenetic and  They  fractures size  mentioned  erosion.  are  solution rare,  and  o r i g i n ; present  widely  probably noted  V-shaped  raised  p i t s ; of  a  and (not  spaced  percussion  especially p i t s ,  are  are  marks.  on  shallow  garnets, irregular  V--shaped  platforms.  Figure  26.  Electron  conchoidal  fractures  steps(S)  on  quartz  Magnification  Figure and  27.  x  micrograph and  semi-parallel  (S162).  850.  Semi-parallel  imbricated  breakage  l a t t e r  appearing  spaced  ridges  magnification  as  (R). x  of  6.30.  a  fracture  blocks,  series  Quartz  of  the widely  (S162),  Figure  Striations,  28.  imbricated irregular  (S152).  Figure on  breakage solution  blocks  Arcuate  wide-spaced  magnification  1340.  on  and garnet  1710.  x  steps  ridges. x  (R)  pits?(P)  Magnification  29.  probable .  (A)  Garnet  superimposed  (S182),  70  71  4  petrology A  in  detailed  order  to  different modern of  petrological  determine,  (i)  mineralogical  and  r e l i c t  authigenic  thin  impregnated  with  1000  equivalent of  a  epoxy  Point-coimt  points  thin  matrix  et  for to  a  rock  with  extinction  1967).  sodium  ( i i i )  resin  of  the  differences provenance  were  before were  counting samples.  count  section  (epoxy  a l . ,  (ii)  made  d i s t r i b u t i o n  examined  Unconsolidated  analyses  involved  sediments of  the  between  and  (iv)  origin  of  In  grains  on  the  700,  a l l  for  reality,300  grains;  standard  were  thin-soctioning  approximately  contained  sediments  performed  300  using  (appendix  thin  sediments grains  as  only  remainder  and  was about  1+0%  being  resin).  Compositions using  areal  sections  procedures.  and  types,  was  minerals.  microscopic  sections  the  sediments,  Eighty-seven  2.2).  study  of  plagioclase  angles  measured  Potassium  c o b a l t i n i t r i t e  feldspars  were  perpendicular  feldspar  was  detected  (Bailey  and  Stevens,  determined to by  f ,  a  u  (Deer  staining  I960).  72  4.1.  MODERN The  composition  directly  r e f l e c t s  (fig.30), Jdiorite  e.g.  accumulating Gravels  i s on  which  shelf  ( f i g . 3 D .  the  also the  also  rock  the  from  occur  i n  main  following rock  the  nearby  source  i n  the  Broken  Group  of  d r i f t  of  the  contain  gravels 26  mainly  on  r e l i c t from  several  the  a  rock  continental  shelf,  (59o showed  types.  Abundance  %  7  Diorite  50  Intermediate  -  basic  Volcanics  26  Breccia  1  Sandstone  1  A r g i l l i t e  2  Chert  1  Indeterminate  Granodiorites  occasionally  i s  gravels  gravels  the  Type  plagioclase,  Sound  of  Granodiorite  80%  the  beaches.  r e l i c t  taken  within  constituent  glacial  Examination  GRAVELS  gravels  type  islands'  fragments)  Rock  modern  composition  main  derived  types  individual  the  the  which  of  AND R E L I C T  12  are  minor  accessory  medium-grained quartz, biotite.  K  rocks  feldspar, Diorites  with  approximately  hornblende, are  the  most  and common  Figure  composed angular  Modern  30.  mainly  of  fragments  31.  Relict  continental  shelf.  Figure  grains of  rock  are  rounded  types.  encrusted  with  sandy  gravel  subangular of  (S309) -  granodiorite.  gravel In and  Several  (S156)  contrast have  a  to  wider  pebbles  bryozoans.  from  are  the  S309, range  73  74  constituent  and have a v a r i e d l i t h o l o g y : f i n e - g r a i n e d ,  composed m a i n l y o f h o r n b l e n d e ; excess of p l a g i o c l a s e varieties  medium-grained w i t h a  over hornblende;  highly  feldspathic  w h i c h are u s u a l l y found as v e i n s i n the  mentioned t y p e s ; and f r a c t u r e d )  schistose  diorites;  slight  and a l t e r e d  afore(chloritised  rocks.  B e c a u s e t h e i r m i n e r a l o g y i s n o t o b v i o u s i n hand s p e c i m e n , 5 cobbles of intermediate-basic sectioned  and a n a l y s e d  TABLE 6  v o l c a n i c r o c k s were  thin  ( t a b l e 6).  POINT-COUNT ANALYSES OF SOME VOLCANIC-DERIVED COBBLES ( p e r c e n t number)  R o c k Type Sample N o . Amphibole Plagioclase Opaques Groundmass  andesite 200  -  12.1 2.0 85.9  andesite 275a  204  -  1.0 22.4  24.4  -  basalt 154  -  2.3  •-  76.6  75.6  96.7  275b  -  4.8  76.6  --  (2)  (5)  Chlorite  _  (5)  (10)  (25)  -  (70)  (40)  (75)  (70)  (20)  (r)  (2)  (1.0)  (1)  (r)  (30)  (50)  Opaques Indeterminate Others  -  Indeterminate  --  Rock  Fragments  = l e s s t h a n 1%;  -  -  -  r  -  ( ) = visually  estimated  •constituent.  -  tuff  Hornblende  Plagioclase  r  andosite  (30)  -  13.1  r  1.6  -  2.7  groundmass  75  The  most  andosite  common  composed  occasionally, intersertal  and  i n  matrix  with  some  enclosed minor  rocks,  i n  a  randomly  of  and  A minor  lessor  and of  i n  tuff  (S275b)  composed  and  plagioclase  (partly  altered  a l l  set  pink-brown  i n  m i c r o l i t i c  a  matrix  of  plagioclase,  brown  of to  of  (S154)  plagioclase, chlorite,  are  aphanitic  clinopyroxene, plagioclase  clinopyroxene gravels  i s  volcanic either  opaques,  e,nd  an  opaques,  rock  with  and  fragments  of  fragments,  zeolites  indeterminate  lesser  i n  m i c r o l i t i c  m i c r o l i t i c  the  (andosine)  set  rare  opaques,  constituent  a l l  Basalts  groundmass  porphyritic  plagiocla.se  amounts  labradorite  accessory  io  oriented  hornblende.  felty  chlorite  epidote.  of  typo  (,8204)  hornblende  material,  phenocrysts  rock  o fphenocrystic  minor  indeterminate  volcanic  or  calcite)  material,  calcite,  and  accessory  epidote. Sedimentary (ii)  dark  sandstone, grains  of  components  indurated (iv) agate  sandstone,  a r g i l l i t e and  include  and  jasper.  ( i i i ) (v)  fragments  of  (i)  breccia,  calcareous-cemented  chert,  which  also  includes  76  MODERN  4.2 In and  literature  (i960),  Andrews  been or  the  to  emphasise  dismiss  the  the  authors  determination heavy  minerals  obtained  from  Another from  one  are  To  as  light trend  emphasise were  sands  grains  make  mainly up  less  monomineralic  fraction epidote  trend where  and  Therefore  to  mineralogy,  because  each  grains which  obtain the  total  e.g.  five  In  15%.  increase  minerals  a  with  into are  three  Very  fraction  very  picture must  be  fraction of  grain  sand point  coarse  to  monomineralic  sands  total  be  minerals.  and  the of  fine  plagioclase,  fragments  one  light  expense  the  can  (1970),  on  fractions,  the  of  minerals  function  fragments;  representative sand  i s  medium  value  grains.  based  (fig.32).  at  the  study  point,  size  that  for  Macdonald  especially  l i t h i c  l i t h i c a  to  continues  dominant  opaques;  workers  fraction  contain than  l i t h i e  has  b r i e f l y ,  information  especially  overlooked  into  mention  although  i s  Angino  tendency  unimportant  mineralogy  rocks,  e.g.  impression  interpretations  s p l i t on  the  considerable  fraction,  each  coarse  a  sand  commonly  performed  grains,  some  this  counts  of  among  source  giving as  the  either  However,  denied,  However,  as  and  fraction  minerals,  misleading  well  samples  not  particular  often  size  i s  sediments,  (1969),  a l .  fraction,  provenance.  (1970).  Bremner  et  minerals  this  SANDS  terrigenous  Kholief  light  of  on  heavy  regard  AND R E L I C T  l i t h i c sand hornblende,  less of  percentage  than sand  used.  6%.  77  FIG. 32  Grain size  vs Mineralogy 100  for sands 107,189,202  n  -1J0f  m  wsm  In determinate +Sed. Plutonic r o c k fragments r o c k fragments 100-  Volcanic r o c k fragments  202  Plagioclase I"-—  Vzzzz^  VZ2.  Heavy minerals  3  77777  c  o u a  50-  a  £  2  UJ  0  -1 J0T  Grain size vs Mineralogy for heavy minerals 74,314. 100  Amphibole  Epidote  Opaques  n  Chlorite  Zircon  Others  73  Grain  size  heavy  mineral  range  i s  whereas and  i n  the  4  hornblende  dominate  by  the  hornblende Two  Count  counts  i n  4.2b.  Mineralogical  (1963), i s  that  arkose,  the  u n l i t h i f i e d terms  are so  that  " l i t h i c  sand  1 1  ,  the  l a t t e r  epidote, of  size  fine  and  very  being  (2)  again time  grain  for  sizes.  the size  (1)  the  fine  zircon,  this  finer  mineralogy, and  chlorite,  chlorite but  S314, with  rock, to  lessor  of  i n s t a b i l i t y  sand  range.  sand  by  fraction 3)  and  from  samples  50  summarised  i n  are  table  7.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . used  drawback  i n of  applies  To the  "arkose" and  apparently  source  whereas  detritus.  "sand",  the  fraction  (appendix  A  replaced  opaques,  and  terminology  arenite,  fractions,  grain  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  (fig.33).  phi  3.5  and  responsible  the  -  of  Analyses. of  22  3.0  apparently  i n  l i s t e d  The  table  composition  the  S74  concentration  in.the  fragments  Point  i n  between  Point  phi  3.5  are  grains  -  over  hornblende  Hornblende,  increases  individual  finer  prominent  -  In  epidote, and  size. 3.0  relationship  4.2a  by  are  control  (fig.32).  phi  factors  l i t h i c  exhibits  suites  dominated  unaffected  of  also  this  this  study  t h i s to  is this  adjectival becomes  "quartzarenite"  of  McBride  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  sediments,  concerned problem,  equivalent  "arkosic -  that  other  l i t h i f i e d  study  overcome  and  i s  sand",  "quartzose  e.g.  with " l i t h i f i e d " plus  the  word  " l i t h a r e n i t e " sand".  -  80  With sands), l i t h i c in  exception  the  types  remainder  sands,  figure by  the  There  grain  size.  i n  break,  r i c h  i s  sands, of  sands  to  be  to  grouped this  the  river  major  with  feldspathic  used  and- n o t on  the  several and  because  fine  of must  than  more  medium  l i t h i c  l i t h i c  of  sands small  on  with  modern  and  paucity  of  than  a  major  of  shelf l i t h i c  coarse  ( f i g .  37).  compared,  7  care  grain*size are  sands size  modern  samples  due  arc  modes, sands  continental  and  i n  shelf.  used,  some  of  tentative. are  richer  the  heavy beach  detected  as  of  preponderance  plagioclase, In  the  differences  between  as  fraction  very  are  table  the  mineralogical  similar  their  sands  sands.  were  In  number  regarded  grains  modes  sands  feldspathic  presented  plots  have  l o c a l i t i e s  i s  near  medium t o  gravels,  or  sand  and  l i t h i c  3  these  consequently  size.  opaques,  a  basins,  mineralogical  basis  r e l i c t  have  sand  be  fine  chlorite,  fine  differences  the  which  to  samples  to  r e l i c t  to  sediments  so  of  very  and  arkosic  of  Similarly  only  grains  s l i g h t l y  and  that  are  l i t h i c  control  shelf  taken  comparisons  l i t h i c  i n  different  Sound  amphibole,  fine  feldspar  -  source  Very  The  from  revealed  However,  strong  associated  together  Barkley  i s  sands  distributions mainly  either  arkosic  (2  d i s t r i b u t i o n  (fig.35).  grains  When  are  Sound,  i n  usually  l i t h i c  has  the  samples  5  areal  3M-.  sediments  arkosic  of  i n and  medium minerals  or on  Sound the  epidote, poorer  sand but sands  shelf).  class, contain (no The  most  TABLE 7  MEAN VALUES ( p e r c e n t number) OF THE MAIN TERRIGENOUS COMPONEM CS IN SANDS FROM RIVERS AND BEACHES AROUND BARKLEY SOUND, THE SOUND ITSELF, AND TEffi CONTINENTAL SHELF.  Environment  Sound  Beach  C.Shelf  2  13  14  Epidote  5.0  3.5  Amphibole  2.2  Sound  Beach  4  3  6  2.1  2.3  3.8  3A  r  1.3  1.1  5.7  2.0  r  r  1.5  r  r  r  r  2.7  r  1.4  -  1.3  r  r  r  2.2  r  r  r  1.1  r  1.1  r  r  . 20.6  58.6  46.1  17.0  Quartz  2.5  4.7  4.8  1.8  r  r  Opaques  1.3  1.6  1.1  -  r  -  Volcanic  5.8  2.8  9.5  12.9  Plutonic  16.7  5.8  14.0  33.0  2.6  2.8  4.2  16.7  10.9  15.2  Lithic  C.Shelf  2  44.8  Plagioclase  Sound  1  Chlorite Feldspar  Beach  2  Ho. o f samples  K  River  15.2  12.4  13.5  1.2  1.3  1.5  r  r  r  25.6  fragments  Sedimentary Indeterminate  4 - 2 p h i mode  16.1 32.6  17 A  10.9  24.1  39.2  42.0  47.4  9.2  6.7  9.1  8.5  22.2  19o0  12.7  9.7  2-1  p h i mode  appendix 3« ( r = r a r e o r l e s s t h a n  1$)  5.8  r  20.0  12.0 1 -  -1  p h i mode  Sands g r o uped a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s i z e modes . V a l u e s d e r i v e d from p o i n t - count t a b l e 22,  26.7 29.8  analyses  82 12 6 / 0 0 '  FIG. 34  FELDSPATHIC  SAND  LITHIC  49\00'  125/30'  MINERALOGY  DETRITAL  "GLAUCONITE PELLETS" (in concentrations > 2 0 % )  SANDS 125°/30'  48*\30'  125/^0'  CARBONATE  83  significant i s  that  modern  volcanic less'  difference-  to  m a r ] v.ed  sands  i n  have  the a  plutonic  grains  i n  sand  finer  coarse  -  a  plutonic  l i t h i c  fragments  c.  4.2  Descriptive  Feldspars.  Over  labradorite  being  difference shelf, a  i n  larger  70%  that  the  of  and  fine  Mean  An  Standard  Content. Deviation.  i s  to  coarse  sand  very sand  0.347 0.483 0.678  0.261 0.507 0.898  the  plagioclase  There  l a t t e r  (  but  Coarse  to  are  i s  i n  a  feldspars  slight  Barkley  s l i g h t l y  more  are  andesinc,  compositional  Sound  and  calcic  on  the  and  have  range.  Barkley.  Sound  Samples  Determinations  -occurs,  Beach .Sound . Shelf.  feldspars  compositional  of  of  Sound.Shelf.  Beach. Number  ratio  Mineralogy  rare.  between  that  range,  sizes.  Beach. fragments  coarse  lower  feature  fine  l i t h i c  very  considerably  Very  volcanic  to  ),  Continental  5(13)  11 (34)  12 (49)  35.23  34.62  36.63  2,79  1,90  3.29  Shelf,  84  Twins or  arc  Carlsbad  laws  relationship untwinned  common  or  of  plagioclase plagioclase  it  to:  trend  was  breakage  and  (b)  cleavage  along  ratio,  with  and  grain  Fine  Sand  t he the  of  the  albite  two.  A  twinned/  d e c r e as i n g  i n  s iz e .  Medium  Coarse-Very Coarse  Sand  Sand  36  13  11  0 . 1 9  0.30  1.01  0 . 1 4  0.19  2.07  by  Pittman  (1969)  untwinned plagioclase  breakage planes  follow of  twins  Fine-  noticed of  size  Very  Deviation.  (a)  grains,  grain  Mean  similar  found  c o m b i n a t ic n  Samples.  twinned  A  those  decreasing  • untwinned Standard  a  between  plagioclase with  and  rarely  exists  concentration  Number  not  twinned  p a r a l l e l  to  into  the  who  attributed  into  smaller  untwinned  twins'  plagioclase  composition  plane. Zonation with  cores  An35.  i s  more  rare,  and  calcic  i s  than  Approximately 3 0 %of  varying  degrees,  s e r i c i t e , Alteration reflected  while  the  epidote  causes i n  the  most  an  rims, the  common  i s  less  apparent  grains'  either  o s c i l l a t o r y  e.g.  S106;  feldspars  common  decrease  roundness.  and i n  core  are  alteration  or  normal,  An60,  altered  rim  to  product  being  zeolites  rare.  hardness  which  i s  85  Quartz.  This  grains:  inclusions  discrete  crystals  Extinction Lithie  i s  Grains  are  altered,  also  the  i n  middle  exposed  to  of  the  rock  with  rocks  porphyritic medium  or  fragments  were  )  and  are  those  at  are  i s  studied  Chert  best  i n  i n  some  of  from  main  and  stretch  were  across  also  their  sand  history.  readily  the  provenance d e t a i l ,  and  i n  whereas  i d e n t i f i e d the a l l  coarse  studies, the  grains  Fine-grained  sizes,  a r g i l l i t e ,  i n  sand  grain.  recognised  preserved  value  the  most  and  be  types  a l l  are  the  flats,  that  these  stage  i s  common.  of  i n  commonly  subaerially  t i d a l  sands  some  size  may  i n  on  and  also  fraction.  Limonite  suggesting  rocks  sands.  their  i d e n t i f i e d .  rounded,  as  detected  constituents,  of  sand  i d e n t i f y i n g rock  be  either  and  the  pronounced  processes  plutonic  sandstone  Because  types  and  can  are  vacuoles.  i n  gravels  and  present  sedimentary,  fragments.  (p.59  texture  coarser  sedimentary whereas  i n  rock  to  such  fragments  R e l i a b i l i t y  volcanic  shelf  subangular  (fig.35).  most  r e l i c t  subaerial  Chloritised  i s  sediments  belt of  and  fresh,  minute  represented  volcanic  as  when  of  volcanic,  subrounded  product  and  l i n e s  straight  a l l  occurs  common  sinuous  are  especially  modern  not  Plutonic,  rocks  exposed  varies  or  mainly  alteration  t y p i c a l l y  are  usually  Grains.  metamorphic  the  mineral  i n  main sizes, sand  sizes.  l i t h i e  following  rock  '  86  (a)  Granodicrite  with  andesine  b i o t i t e of  at  least  Diorite  (.3106):  An36),  opaques,  chloritised  of  Andesite f a i n t l y  minor  mineral.s, from  medium  commonly,  hornblende  ( f i g .  the  presence were  hypidiomorphic  oomposed  of and  Altered  often  -  andesine accessory  grains  epidotised  include  feldspars,  and  36).  porphyritic  andesine  feldspar,  K  fragments  and hornblende,  (S153,lo9):  texture  quartz,  without  those  grained,  and loss  plagioclase,  granular  (b).  texture,  quartz  -  ninor  However,  and K feldspar.  zoned  m i c r o l i t i c  the  gro.nula.r  biotite  s e r i c i t i s e d ,  (c)  of  distinguish  allotriomorphic (mean  sericitised),  hornblende.  three  to  hypi d iamorphic  (commonly  and rare  d i f f i c u l t (b)  (S309):  i n . a n  texture  intersertal  irresolvable  with  phenocrysts  matrix  material,  of  opaques  and  chlorite. (d)  .Hornblende  mentioned  rock  Andesite except  (,5189,202):  they  contain  very rare  similar  to  phenocrysts  the  l a s t -  of  hornblende. (e)  Indeterminate  diagnostic that  phenocrysts  compositional  variety  volcanics:  microliters  a n d minor,  micr elites  i n a  dense  with  and are  (1)  felty,  chlorite; brown  m i c r o l i t i c  are  fragments  generally  determinations  of .textures:  i n t e r s e r t a l ,  these  are  with (2)  a  so  with  fine-grained  d i f f i c u l t .  They  subparallel  plagioclase,  matrix  have  a  plagioclase  few randomly  indeterminate  no  oriented  ( f i g . 37) J  chlorite,'  ores  (3)  and  Figure  Medium  35.  showing  abundance  including,  quartz  and  to  fresh  grain  36. size;  of  x  fine  Differences  i n  fine  are  grains  coarser  grains  diorite  (d)  chert  and  l i t h i c  crossed  Figure with (1)  i n  (ho) plagioclase.  mineralogy mainly composed  (c).  Also  between  S195;  grains  nicols.  are  rounding  grains.  with  feldspar of  note monomineralic  magnification  x  85;  nicols.  Feldspathic  37.  three  types  of  amygdaloidal  andesite, basic  hornblende  85', c r o s s e d  and  (S195)  s e r i c i t i s e d  whereas  differences  sand  monomineralic  (qz),  partly  Magnification  Figure  to  and  plagioclase  Magnification  an x  sand  rock  (S153) fragment;  porphyritic  (2)  fine-grained.intermediate-  rock  i n  volcanic  -basalt?,  (3)  volcanic  l i t h i c  composed  of  indeterminate  2 8 ; crossed  m i c r o l i t i c matrix.  nicols.  87  88 occasionally with  ghost-like  mosaic (f)  clinopyroxene  of  low  layers  of  plagioclase  tirefringont  Amphibolite  (SiO):  (4)  and  rocrystallised  microlitcs  i n  a  fine  fragments granular  material.  oriented,  quartzo-feldspathic  prismatic  material  hornblende  and  with  porphyr.cblastic  opaques.  (g)  (S171):  Sandstones  untwinned  feldspar  sparry  calcite.  (3174):  poorly  and  altered  a l l  sot  i n  material (h) to  a  are  also  (S319.):  rocrystallised No  r a d i o l a r i a  untwinned  a l l  mainly  composed  cemented  feldspar,  accessory Veins  with  minor  epidote  of  of  fine  quartz and  b i o t i t e ;  quartzo-feldspathic  present, very to  a.  fine-grained granular  transected'by very  rocks  mosaic  of  which quartz  quartso-feldspathic  similar but  i n  appearance  to  the  i s  composed  only  of  appear  and veins.  quartz.  detected.  k.3.  GILTS Point  samples from  and  matrix.  a r g i l l i t e s , are  sorted,  quartz,  fragments,  reerystaliised  Chert  with  (S319):  f e l d s p a r , commonly (i)  minor  irresolvable  A r g i l l i t e be  and  sorted  l i t h i c  moderately  the  of  100  counts  of  coarse  s i l t ;  continental  mineralogical  grains three  shelf  differences  per  from  (table could  be  slide, Barkley  8).  No  detected  were Sound  made  on  and  six  three  significant between  the  two  89  environments. biogenic fine  and  grain  untwinned  However, authigenic  size,  s i l t s  feldspar  constituents  there  are  and  rare  were  variations  components. tend  to  heavy or  even  have  Because an  minerals absent.  i n of  abundance whereas  the their of  l i t h i c  90  TABLE 8 .  POINT-COUNT ANALYSES OF COARSE S I L T S  (percent  80  131  33  162  182  192  Garnet  r  1  r  r  1  r  Zircon  r  -  -  r  1  -  Epidote  2  9  2  1  2  2  Clinopyroxene  r  -  -  r  1  1  Orthopyroxene  r  -  r  r  1  r  Amphibole  8  5  4  6  8  2  Biotite  r  -  r  r  r  _  Chlorite  2  2  4  1  3  -  Feldspar  44  50  39  56  38  27  Quartz  3  3  5  5  2  2  Opaques  5  1  2  -  7  r  10  11  7  3  8  -  -  -  2  -  9  51  Calcareous  4  r  20  2  r  r  Siliceous  6  r  r  4  r  21  13  13  Sample  Lithic  Number  Grains  Pellets Organic  Grains  Indeterminate  13 r  16 = less  10 than  1$.  number).  91  HEAVY  4.4. Heavy  minerals  fraction  of  Magnetic  minerals  using  i n  the  in  general,  richer  very  mounted  and  fine  sand  of  continental minerals  river  sands  have  concentrations apparent greatly  than  of  than real,  influenced  high  concentrations  have  s l i g h t l y  less  are  than  sediments  i n  sands.  the a  of than  mean  few heavy  shelf  sands.  of  minerals but  9),  considerably Sound.  i s  the  i s  the  the  as  higher more  former  574,314,  whereas  Eeach  expressed  having  reversal  e.g.  minerals,  examined  However,  sends  values  samples,  (table  fraction  This  2,3).  and  and  the  values.  Sound  appendix  non-magnetic  variable  heavy  sand  microscopes.  are  shelf  by  and  fine  magnet,  sediments  the  very  balsam  light  magnetic  sediment,  as  hand  shelf  when  total  a  the  (method,  canada  intermediate  reversed  percentage  i n  fraction  heavy  i s  with  r e f l e c t i n g  percentages  from  bromoform  removed  i n  position a  portions  separated  using  were  transmitting Weight  and  samples  49  non-magnetic  were  MINERALS  are  which  have  remainder  92  TABLE  WEIGHT  9  %  HEAVY  OF  SAND  MINERALS  FRACTION  Weight  AND T O T A L  % i n  Non-Magnetic  FINE  SEDIMENT  very  Weight  % . i n  total  sediment(g.).  sand(g.).  fine  River/Beach  I N T H E VERY  Ilagnetic  Non-Magnetic  Magnetic  M  16. 44  4.61  2.36  0.82  S  15.35  8.53  3.95  1.90  M  11.35  2.68  2.21  0.49  S  11.15  4.60  4.15  2.08  M  36.16  8.71  1.03  0.20  S  14.61  2.79  2.04  0.22  N (9) Barkley Sound  N (19) Continental Shelf N ¥  =  Number  (20) of  samples  Descriptions in  the  the of  non-magnetic  percentages 100  3).  grains  From  mineral  Sound  Province the  cf  per  these  heavy  (ii)  of  M =  the  I •lean  various  fraction individual  sample,  analyses  provinces including  Continento.l  are and  were  are  Standard Deviation  mineral  species  summarised  species,  their  mean  i n  Province  i d e n t i f i e d  table  on  l i n e  table  values  established, heavy  i n  based  presented  modern  Shelf  S =  (i)  mineral  23  (table the  10,  counts (appendix 11)  Barkley  suites  and  and  two  93  Both but  are  r i c h  d i f f e r  markedly  (fig*38).  The  appreciable pyrite,  and  s l i g h t l y contain  quantities  beach  are  not  and  regarded,  of  i n  more  less  (53  ~  end  35%)  epidote  (13  concentrations  of  minor  Sound  i s  characterised  of  Province  chlorite  Continental  sands  those  s l i g h t l y  mica,  the  amounts  from  and  i n  Barkley  whereas  significant River  i n .hornblende  garnet, have the  and  Shelf  to  a  Province  and  mineral  suites  Sound  i n  they  limonite,  garnet,  epidote  (ta.ble  11),  important  enough  to  erect  extent,  clinopyroxene.  that  (the  pyroxene, but  by  contains  heavy  that  17%),  constituents  lesser  orthopyroxene,  -  these another  d i f f e r former)  chlorite, differences province.  PETROGRAPHIC DESCRIPTIONS OF HEAVY MINERALS.  TABLE 1 0 .  Shape  Colour  Alteration  Other Features  Magnetic Minerals Ilmenite/ Magnetite  Black  Subang.-subrounded equant g r a i n s .  Occasionally altered to l i m o n i t e or r a r e l y leucoxene.  X - r a y a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d main component was m a g n e t i t e w i t h trace of i l m e n i t e .  Non-Magnetic M i n e r a l s Opaques Limonite  Common a l t e r a t i o n p r o d u c t o f m a g n e t i t e , p y r i t e , and some m a f i c minerals.  Red-brown  No d i s t i n c t  Brassy yellow  Framboidal aggregates.  Commonly o x i d i s e d limonite.  Colourless to white.  Rounded, grains.  Rare g r a i n s  pitted.  Zircon  Colourless, rarely light pink.  Prisms w i t h angular pyramid terminations common; s a w - t o o t h outgrowths r a r e ; few grains rounded.  Rare g r a i n s  pitted.  Garnet  F a i n t t o s t r o n g p i n k . S u b a n g u l a r equant grains w i t h con-choidal fracture; w e l l rounded g r a i n s are r a r e .  Pyrite Non - Opaques. Apatite  shape.  equant  to  Occasionally p a r t l y limonitised; pitted g r a i n s common.  M a i n l y an a u t h i g e n i c m i n e r a l i n foraminiferal tests.  I n c l u s i o n s common and a r e two main t y p e s ; a c i c u l a r and globular.  Opaque i n c l u s i o n s n o t e d i n a few grains.  TABLE  10  PETROGRAPHIC DESCRIPTIONS OF HEAVY MINERALS,  (cont.)  Shape  Colour  Alteration  Other  Features  F i n e g r a n u l a r aggreg- Aggregates o f t e n c l o u d y G r a n u l a r a g g r e g a t e s sometimes due c l a y - s i z e d mater- have l a t h - l i k e o u t l i n e s u g g e s t i n g a t e s common; few i a l between g r a n u l e s . e p i d o t e formed by replacement o f subang. anhedral g r a i n s noted; p r i s a n o t h e r m i n e r a l , e.g. f e l d s p a r . -matic c r y s t a l s r a r e .  Epidote  Colourless, pale y e l l o w , green.  Orthopyroxene (hypersthene)  Opaque i n c l u s i o n s p r e s e n t i n few P r i s m a t i c g r a i n s w i t h S e v e r a l g r a i n s show Pleochroic i n pink i n c i p i e n t c h l o r i t i s grains. and green. C o l o u r l e s s subang.- subrounded a t i o n and/or l i m o n terminations. grains rare. i t i s a t i o n around edges and a l o n g f r a c t u r e s .  Clinopyroxene  Pale  Amphibole (hornblende)  Pleochroic i n pale g r e e n , dark green, olive, & occasionally brown; b l u e - g r e e n pleochroism very rare  Broad p r i s m a t i c g r a i n s S e v e r a l g r a i n s show incipient chloritiswith subangular t o rounded t e r m i n a t i o n s ; - a t i o n and/or l i m o n few g r a i n s f i b r o u s itisation. w i t h ragged ends.  Mica  P l e o c h r o i c i n medium - d a r k brown.  Subrounded f l a k e s .  Chlorite  B r i g h t green o r non- B r i g h t green m i n e r a l O x i d i s e d t o l i m o n i t e . d e s c r i p t green-brown. forms a n h e d r a l f l a k e s , o t h e r o c c u r s as rounded g r a i n s .  Lithic  Grains  green  Most g r a i n s subrounded.  Subang.  - rounded.  Some g r a i n s a l t e r e d t o O c c a s i o n a l opaque i n c l u s i o n s . c h l o r i t e , o t h e r s have corroded o u t l i n e .  O x i d a t i o n o f opaque inclusions.  Opaque i n c l u s i o n s p r e s e n t i n few grains.  I n c l u s i o n s common i n a few  flakes.  Green-brown g r a i n s a r e c h l o r i t i s e d rock fragments and a l s o p o o r l y crystallised "glauconite" pellets Green f l a k e s o f t e n have opaque inclusions.  C h l o r i t i s a t i o n and V o l c a n i c r o c k fragments common l i m o n i t i s a t i o n common. c o n s t i t u e n t .  96  TABLE 11.  MEAN V A L U E S OF HEAVY MINERAL ANALYSES',  APPENDIX  3.  ( p e r c e n t number)'. BARKLEY SOUND PROVINCE Rivers No.  of  Beaches  2  Samples  CONTINENTAL S H E L F PROVINCE  Sound 20  7  20  H  S  M  S  M  S  8.0  4.8  3.9  2.4  2.0  1.2  1.1  --  r  -  2.5  2.4  r  7.0  8.6  2.5  5.8  2.7  9.8  5.9  M Opaque Limonite Pyrite Unidentified  -  Non-opaque Apatite  r  -  -  -  -  r  -  Zircon  r  r  -  r  -  r  -  Garnet  2.5  1.3  1.5  1.2  1.3  7.8  3.6  10,5  12.6  4.0  17.2  13.0  3A  Epidote  k.3  Orthopyroxene  r  1.7  3.6  1.0  1.6  8.6  1.9  Clinopyroxene  r  1.6  1.2  1.2  1.3  2.6  1.7  33.6  7.1  34.9  11.4  33.3  7.4  Amphibole  34.0  r  -  12.5  14.0  Grains  8.5  Indeterminate  15.0  Chlorite Lithic  M = mean,  -  r  11.6  9.5  5.7  4,2  2.5  74  3.5  7.2  2.9  5.8  3.5  13.5  2.3  15.1  5.2  12.5  7.4  S = standard  Other heavy  minerals  tourmaline,  but  -  r  Mica  deviationr  include  these are  sphene*  very  rare!.  r =  less  apatite,  than  1$.  green s p i n e l ,  ?nd  J.  FIG. 38  DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY MINERALS ALONG  45i  SAMPLE  NUMBERS  LINE FROM  STATION 1A7 TO 121.  98  4.5.  PROVENANCE  The  composition  of a  source,  but also  climate  and topography.  and  erosional  (i)  Climate  a  high  from  ranges  are  with  sea  of  mean  winter  is  12°  14  years  It  playing  of  sediment  courses  appear  minor  immaturity on  1931  selective a  there  are  no  r i v e r  sands  i s  of  sands),  short  i s  side i s  to  annually.  700  by the  of  These  narrow, the  flat  range  a n d summer  4°C,  averaging  averaged  Ranges  m.  temperate:  Near  maximum  Island  of  over  high,  Sound has  the  2;5'"u head  of  6.7m. (264 )  for  u  8.1m. (320")  1956). that  the  removal  role  the  0°C  a  Barkley  height  The climate  reached  as  i s  of  i s  (Sarita  significant  (S343, 353)  above  conditions  unstable  reflected  sediments.  mineralogy  are  function  weathering  the Vancouver  seaward  precipitation  and Turner,  erosion;  a  (particularly  around  an average  on t h e i r  Plain.  Inlet  would  to  3.8m. (150")  and i n  (Chapman  l e v e l  of  Precipitation  over  Uchucklesit  only  two c o n t r o l  Land  temperatures  16°C.  to  not  size  The l a s t  mountains  bordered  Coastal  (100")  grain  and Topography.  Estevan  -  sediment  i s  processes.  r e l i e f  r i s i n g  sediment  River  erosion to  River  the  i s  differences and sands  minerals  i n the  believed  would by  near  and i t s  longest  river  weathering  compositional  be minimal  between  favour  -  as  effects river  23km.)  and  the mineralogy mouths  of  (S112,274).  99  Effects area  of  are  vegetation at  present  Climatic probably were  associated  cold  temperatures  l o c a l l y  that  from  with  generation  those  hence  processes. as  affected of  of  sediments  r e l i c t  sediments  today  a. P l e i s t o c e n e  and  important  the  i n  this  unknown.  factors  different  weathering  on  i n  glaciation  -a d o m i n a n c e  However, inferred  that  of  these  sediments  necessitating  crosional  weathering  from  were  was  at  iron-stained  over  least r e l i c t  gravels. (ii)  Grain  mineralogy  size  has  ( p . ~jL )  considerable  and  size  d i s t r i b u t i o n were  size  control  epidote, not  of  of  and  the  some  minerals  consequently compared  ma.jor  minor  used  influence  heavy  heavy  to  only  (table  on  sand  sands  with  There  7).  minerals,  a  similar  i s  minor  hornblende  constituents,  e.g.  d i s t i n g u i s h between  and  zircon,  modern  and  but r e l i c t  sediments. ( i i i )  Sampling  and  experimental  responsible  for  sediments.  However,  between  modern  r e l a t i v e l y  seme  and  large  minor  differences  significant  r e l i c t  number  errors  i n  samples,  are  probably  composition  differences  sediments,  of  are  such  as.exist  consistent  suggesting  between  over  these  a  errors  are  small. In  conclusion,  topography that  i n  sediment  this  i t  would  area,  composition  and i s  appear  that  experimental mainly  effects errors  controlled  by  of  climate  are  small;  source.  and  100  SOURCE  O F MODERN  Sediments there  by  coastal  are  from  other  workers  are  composed  gravels  a l l h&ve  d r i f t ,  but  origin  by ),  be  and  Island from  higher  wider to  the  and  the -  Tertiary  volcanic  Tertiary  volcanic  (vi)  and  rocks  are  and  accurate  can  gravels be  Most  chapter such  gravels  of  rocks ( i i i )  (i)  from  Some  g l a c i a l primary values which  Westcoast  of  the  of  the  from  (iv)  Kennedy the  D i o r i t e ,  Bonanza  granodiorite  of  which  1.  types,  Intrusions?, south  gravels  source  as  sphericity rock  because  readily  i n  a r g i l l i t e s  sandstones  of  12,13)  (tables  their  sources,  Formation,  sandstones and  and  the  examination  to  sediments from  from  rocks.  constituent  following  and  derived  section.  outlined  transported  reasonably  that  close  roundness  basic  a  source  thin  (i)  Consequently  source of  and  from  of  (ii)  author  fragments  units  range  Karmutsen  Unit,  by  distinguished  Intrusions  indurated  Greywacke  rock  are  Petrographic  deposited  derived  be  intermediate  t u f f s (v)  and  been  been  their  rock  and  permitting  1),  specimen  major  can  traced  Subgroup the  have  made  Sound  erosion.  indicators  of  hand  streams,  sediment  useful  i n  Sound  includes  (ii)  (chapter  SOUND  Barkley  origin.  was  between  BARKLEY  shoreline i n  area  most  the  can  local  The  i d e n t i f i e d  and  by  -  around  rivers  the  correlation  (p.63  and  exposures  rocks  in  i n  short  sediments  they  SEDIMENT  pink Lake,  Tofino  Tertiary  Area Sooke  101 TABLE 12  POINT-COUNT ANALYSES OF IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS FROM BARKLEY SOUND, ( p e r c e n t number)  Sample Number  307  241  265 310  r  Epidote  r  348  234  r  r  252  264  2.7  r  Pyroxene  14.0 43.5 2 1.4  Hornblende  2.0 36.0  Biotite  2.5  2.0  r  3.4  6.3 ' 9.2  Chlorite  r  3.1  r  r  3.4  5.3  2.0  4.0 2.0  2.0  r  K Feldspar  18.0  Plagioclase  46.4 71.9 45.7 6 8.6 65.8  Quartz  25.5  Others Opaques  r  346  r  39.2 25.0. 35.6  4.7  2.0 1.9 14.1  1.1  r  r  r  r  r  1.5  r  r  r  2.0  r  70.0 61.5 100  Matrix  r  Clinopyroxene  (10)  Feldspar  (10) (70) (50)  Chlorite  (20) (10)  Opaques  (5) (90) (5) (30)  Indeterminate Indeterminate  30?  6.6  I s l a n d I nt r u s i o n s  3.4 1.0  r  346  Diorite  H o r n f e l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Westcoast  2 5 2 , 2 6 4 Andesites  6.6  (granodiorite)  241,265,310,3^8. Westcoast 234  4.9  Diorite  o f Bonanza Subgroup?  Karmutsen F o r m a t i o n  (basalt)  r = l e s s t h a n 1$ ; (  ) = v i s u a l l y estimated matrix  constituent.  SAND AND HEAVY MINERAL COMPOSITIONS OF SEDIMENTARY SOURCE R O C K S ,  T A B L E 13. Sample  No.  Sands.  Epidote Pyroxene Amphibole Mica Chlorite K  Feldspar  344  Limonite  2  r  r  Pyrite  7  -  - -  Unidentified  6  6  Apatite  1  -  -  -  22.0  Zircon  r  2  r  1  Garnet  'r  2  3  3  13  13  3^7  2.3  2.7  1.3  r  -  -  1.0  2.9  1.0  r  r  -  -  4.7  6.2  r  1.3  r  1.0  -  r  r  r  3.3  4.1  r  r  5.1  6.7  -  r  -  1.6 r  341  number).  342  344  277  (percent  213  342  213  BARKLEY SOUND.  Sample No. Heavy M i n e r a l s .  3^7  Opaque  10  6  14  Non-Opaque  62.6  62.8  Quartz  5.0  2.7  r  1.6  1.0  1.0  Others  r  -  1.6  -  -  -  Epidote  8  17  2.2  1.0  -  1.9  1.0  -  Orthopyroxene  2  2  r  1  Clinopyroxene  2  2  1  -  46  45  Plagioclase  Opaques Lithic  31.7 29.2  40.8  Grains  10.8  5.7  11.0  Amphibole  40a  28.0  22.2  Mica  r  r  -  1  ^.3  3.0  15.7  Chlorite  6  3  7  12  8.0  3.6  5.7  19.2  Lithic  Grains  7  4  8  14  1.7  -  -  -  -  Indeterminate  12  16  13  7.3  12.8  5.2  7.3  6.1  Volcanic  2.0  r  Plutonic  1.3  2.7  -  -  6.6  ^.3  3.3 6.2  Sedimentary Indeterminate Organic  Grains  Indeterminate  213»277  Pleistocene  clayey  26.7  11.8  silt;  341 T o f i n o  a r e a greywacke u n i t ;  Others  342  -  347  r  ?Pleistocene  d r i f t sands.  40  r  23  16  • =  <1% 9  -  103  and  Carmanah  The i s  more  rocks  Formations.  origins readily  may  i n  the  sands  importance  sand  least  g l a c i a l l i t t l e their  d r i f t . i n  source  derived  from  epidote, some  gross  with  ice-eroded cycle  compositions,  surface  sands  are  similar a l l  to  three  rock  varied  i n  derived  are  l i g h t  which  would  d i f f e r  this  be  from detritus  i n  hornblende,  However, and  cycle  d r i f t - d e r i v e d .sands  textures,  from  cycle  fragments.  i n  the  343)  r i c h  of  of  properties  second  investigated  i s  much  f i r s t  accessory  ( i i i )  multicycle  factor  (S274,  l i t h o l o g i c a l  amongst  (not  been  ultimate  minerals, are  Feldspars. intermediate  The  origins as  heavy  sediments.  study)  would  could  probably  absent  on  the  sand  grains,  of  rocks,  feldspars e.g.  have  including  Westcoast  originated D i o r i t e ,  be,  from as  ,  have  f i r s t  follows.  majority  plutonic  of  sand  source  and  and  where  and  plutonic  more  .textures;,  having  (S314);  occur  f i r s t  Sound,  (aj  different  mentioned  cycle  because:  detritus. The  heavy  and  and  are  last  cycie  second  diorites  difference  surface  obvious  g r a v e l ; ( i i )  Barkley  textural  differences  Another  to  These  (drift)  which  less  similar  This  second  andesine,  minerals,  than  of  1967).  (Blatt,  at  i s  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between  particular i s  sands  dispersed  produce  d i f f i c u l t i e s detritus  of  104  evidenced,  by  s i n i la r i t i e s  i n  and  of  alteration.  Some  types  andesitic rocks  rocks,  average  sand-sized coarser  grained are  abundance  of  main  by  that  this  this  area  sediments L i t h i c  to  are  Diorites, to  12)  (table  granodiorite.  are  i n  the  dioritos  and  other  as  indicated  those  of  by  the  volcanic  and a  as  Blatt has  of  which  and  few The  Christie  diagnostic most  (Island contain  obvious  Intrusions) more  than  for  the  lev;  concentrations  grains  are  one  of  The  mainly  d i f f i c u l t  i d e n t i f i a b l e microlitos  source.  are  such  grano'diorites  These  and  grains  contribute for  over  provenance.  account  of  and  these  62%  sediment  mineral  both  indicators  common,  as  and  enough i n  the  7).  Fragments.  lesser  to  of  twinning  from  small  enough  average  fragments  authors  sources  (ta.blo  of  come  probably  large an  has  Furthermore,  rock  respect  quartz  i s  (andesine),  7).  shown  Westcoast  to  source  with  the  amount  compared  proparties i n  andesine  feldspar  20%  plutonic  Studies have  the  diorites.  the  (table  Quartz.  (1963)  only  debris,  plutonics  origin  but  composition  majority Volcanic  porphyritic  to  i d e n t i f y  diagnostic dense  brown  Tertiary  volcanics;  others  resemble  basalts  the  of  are rock  to  minerals:  with  a  Karmutson  felty  of  fragments  are  lack  to  of  readily of  t u f f s  c h l o r i t i s e d  Formation.  also volcanic  composed  similar  valuable d i o r i t e  Some  their  those  are  most  composed  andesites.  due  matrix  the  i n  texture  the  105  The  sedimentary  sandstone)  a l l  Greywacke  Unit.  Heavy  Minerals.  hornblende e.g.  have  Rare,  ragged,  formed Group  i n or  product  fibrous  Bonanza  Epidote  metamorphic  this  rock  units,  contexts  of  19%  chlorite.  probably  intermediate  i n  the  such  Tofino  i n  green  rocks,  (table  may  those  Area  by  plutonic  hornfelses  as  rarely,  dominated  (actinolite?)  sources,  diorites  be  have  the  heavy  12). been  Sicker  i n  -  volcanic  basic  Pyrite  Province,  occuring  i s as  S121  foraminiferal  near  rocks  characteristic  tests.  product  occurs  veins  and  as a  and  and of  +  most  units the  of  ilmenite)  some  the  Barkley  framboidal Limonite  i s  basic Sound  aggregates mainly  of  contains  being  the  the  the  contact  sources of  of  near  and  trace  sources,  of  i n  Formation,  l i k e l y  authigenic,  as  variety  and  (magnetite  origin,  a  Group  Karmutsen  igneous  alteration  Group.  Sicker  minerals  an  Formation),  alteration  e.g.  as  hornfelses,  derived, from  the  and  and  Sicker  common  a  occuring  (Kermutsen  the  also  i s  d i o r i t e s .  i n  associated  rocks  basalts  Diorite  Magnetic  usually  i n  intrusions,  Westcoast  are  intermediate  amphiboles  especially  the  are  i n  can  mineral  and  multiple  mineral  Chlorite  from  igneous  feldspars  of  suites  from  and  Subgroup.  has  vesicle-fillings  as  mainly  a r g i l l i t e ,  originated  mineral  D i o r i t e ,  altered  (chert,  probably  Heavy  derived  Westcoast  clasts,  an  106  alteration magnetite  product and  framboidal  found  i n  are  the  hornfelses  iron-bearing  pyrite,  pyrite  Micas  of  e.g.  were  rare  noted  granodiorites,  (table  detected  (S57).  probably  sericite  diorites  Rare  These  grains  a  common  p a r t i c u l a r l y  pseudomorphs  after  S121.  b i o t i t e  12).  -  limonito  i n  predominantly  minerals,  flakes are  which and of  i s  most  commonly  associated  white  mica  and  ragged,  small  alteration  product  were  of  also  and  are  the  feldspars. Rare apatite,  heavy  are  although  minerals,  probably  some  may  zircon,  acid  have  -  been  sphene,  green  spinel,  intermediate  plutonic  derived  older  from  i n  and  origin  sedimentary  sources.  SOURCE  OF RELICT  There sediments  are with  constituents to  have  had  variations the  minor  (i)  few  similar i n  i n  higher  range  CONTINENTAL  consequently  sources. and  However, also  and  percentage  i n  of  (p.  r e l i c t  and  of  major  the  the  two  there  heavy  r e l i c t  s l i g h t l y  sands  SHELF  variations  p a r t i c u l a r l y  feldspars  modern  between  compositions  and  7)  constituents,  plagioclase a  to  quantity,  Plagioclase  -  differences  respect  (table  compositional  have  SEDIMENTS  higher  &j),  d c t r i t a l  are  are among  believed  some some  of  minerals.  sands mean  meanly  modern  have  a  greater  An content  because  labradorite.  the This  than former  107  mineral  was  volcanic i s  probably  source  strongly  (Pettijchn, (ii)  being  zoned  -  1957)  and  There  fragments  derived  i s  a  (p.83)  more  a  basic  l i k e l y  as  igneous  some  of  of  i n  andesites  particular,  higher  ratio  although  of  are  to  s t i l l  a  labradorite  volcanic  volcanic  plutonic  rocks;  the  characteristic  abundant. ( i i i )  from  feldspars  1963).  (Pittman, plutonic  the  rock  more  .  Concentration  i n f e r r i n g  of  granodiorites  K feldspar  i s  contributed  s l i g h t l y  more  to  greater  r e l i c t  than  modern  sands. (iv)  There  i s  the  heavy  minerals;  of and  pyrite  and  clinopyroxene  fig.  and  a  marked  difference  r e l i c t  considerably than  i n  suites  richer  modern  are  i n  heavy  the  quantities  poorer  garnet,  minerals  i n  of  some  chlorite  orthopyroxene, (table  11,  skarns  such  38).  Garnets those  are  believed  formed  between  Intrusions.  X-ray  revealed  presence  the  correspond formed  i n  to  may  Source  of  as  Westcoast  the  Another  have  the  analysis of  the  source  and  of  two  other  also  form  and  may  be  i n  Rocks the  two  from  Limestone  and  Island  samples  (S10,  143)  varieties  which  grossular  -  metamorphosed  orthopyroxenos Basic  originated  Quatsino  spessartine  skarns  (spessartine  to  is  probably  of  Muller  Sooke  Gabbro  roughly  minerals  that  c a l c i t i c  pegamatitic  are  rocks  rocks). gabbroic  and on  as  rocks  Carson  southwest  such  (1969). Vancouver  108  Island-(W. volcanics volcanic  Mitchell,  found  wore -  derived,  andesitic  rock  Formation  and  (1)  Relict  the  larger  source  pyroxenes  and  i n  Subgroup  hyperstbene-boaring  being  rocks  of  (Muller  r e l i c t  and  are  probably detected  the  and  Karmutsen  1969).  Carson,  modern  in.  sands  may  be  factors.  sediments  Cordilleran  No  Clinopyroxenes  between  tv/o  comm.).  similar  Bonanza  to  .  fragments,  Differences attributed  pers.  ice  area  were  sheet than  probably  and  the  i n i t i a l l y  consequently  l o c a l i s e d  had  source  deposited a  of  by  much the  modern  sands. (2)  Sediments  storm  waves  and  transported southeast may  i s  sediments the  close  this  the  from  more  because As  l a t t e r were  major  from  i s  the  to  this  the  continental  may  of  believed  some to  shelf..  be  -  mainly  mineral r e l i c t a  as  13).  heavy the  The and  result  processes  on  the  d r i f t  there  (p.'°j?), three  accessory  shelf.  expression  gravels,  sands,  of  the  glacial  (p.72),  only  by  i s  These  and  constituents  tenuous  from  suite  d r i f t  worked  sand  landward  previously and  being  that  currents.  be  r e l i c t  (table  l i k e l y  area  compare  sand-sized i s  constantly  i s  heavy  mentioned  examined  and  i t  bottom  latter  between  are  the  varied  comparison  concentrations  and  outside  interesting  the  shelf  currents  resemblance  samples  the  inferred  former.  between  in  as  explain It  of  i n  on  and  a also  although  d r i f t  however, light  sediment  i s  sand vary  minerals  mixing  on  109  4. 4.  AUTHIGENIC a.  "Glauconite The  most  "glauconito resembling  p e l l e t s "  glauconite,  as  in  varying  the  shelf  cover r i c h  an  area  (S192)  With  also and  with  not  a l l  contained  extensively at  of  bored depths  4/2) by  125,  of  km  are  present  abundant  than  20%  near  pellets  Pellet  l o c a l i t i e s  of  greenish  113  species,  (fig.34).  with  grey  that  (fig.  i n  the  shelf  closely mudstone, pellets,  pelleted (5  gy  t y p i c a l l y 39).  Most  157m.,  and  are  Tertiary  containing  mudstone  between  most  more  associated  organisms  not  Pellets  pellets  outcrops are  but  (S125).  samples  fragments (lOy  170  pellets  mineral  are  isolated  sample  Grab  and  Sound  outcrops  also  olive  22)  are  green  the  containing  at  submarine  (S165, l 8 0 ) .  located  occur  Barkley  e.g.  greyish  sands  of  (1958).  Burst  (table  for  properties  composition i n  constituents  term  physical  approximately  exception  associated although  the  where  of  general  i n  proportions break  authigenic a  defined  sediments  basins  -  glauconite having  AND MINERALS  Pellets"  common  necessarily  SANDS  the  sands, to  6/1) was  specimens  deepest  were  being  I83n. The  pellets  from  0.1  to  (lOy  4/2)  0 . % m .  but  may  are  soft, The  vary  friable  dominant to  dusky  grains  colour yellow  i s (5y  ranging greyish 6/4)  or  i n  size  olive to  greyish  Figure  "Glauconite  39.  containing Tertiary  Figure  heavily  1 1  bored  l+O.  sand  fragments  "Glauconite-pellets" fine-grained  groundmass,  occasional  and  r i c h  (Slol)  of  mudstone.  displaying  (f)  -  dessication?  Magnification  x  80;  (S125)  indeterminate grains  cracks crossed  of  feldspar  (c). nicols.  n o  111 olive  green  (5gy  slightly  botryoidal  casts  foraniinifers  are  of  abundant,  about  by In  green to  and  and  allow  section  optical  occasional  s i l t  ore  have  l o c a l l y  majority  forms;disccidal  dessication thin  The  3/2).  not  been  e l l i p s o i d a l  pellets  common.  and  Small  attributed  to  radiating  shrinkage  and  Mackintosh,  1968).  pellets  are  composed  of  a  which  too  material  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n sand-sized  i s  (fig.40). grains  cracks  brought  speckled fine-grained  Also  of  or  internal  (Murray  brown  and  have  noted  feldspar  were  and  minor  quartz. In  order  to  ( S 1 2 5 , 149, 181 techniques  and  lesser  the  for  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  a  composition,  prepared  appendix  i l l i t e  group  clay  be  clays  glauconite  of  to  of  a  mixture  (fig.41),  i s  by  x-ray  resultant of  smectite,  i . e .  (1958).  Burst  minerals,  samples,  analysed  The  2.5-  pellets  and  four  outlined  they  Procedure i n  5.  (240  pellets  km.  mixed-layer  detected  kaolin,  (destruction conclusive  as  were  northwest  (1968)  Mackintosh of  their  were  the  mixed-mineral  Similar Sound  i n  showed  are  chapter  192)  and  outlined  diffractograms chlorite  determine  of  who  recorded of  although 7.15A  poorly  Barkley  showed  glauconite  0  the -  Queen,Charlotte  Sound)  grains  by  were  Murray composed  montmorillonoid.  their  peak  from  criteritn  with  c r y s t a l l i s e d  heating  for to  chlorites  They  doing 500  o  have  C)  and mainly also  so i s  not  similar  FIG. 41 X-RAY DIFFRACTOGRAMS OF "GLAUCONITE PELLETS" (181)  Degrees  FIG.42 X-RAY DIFFRACTOGRAMS OF MUDSTONE °< ASSOCIATED WITH "GLAUCONITE PELLETS" (181) 3  Degrees 2  113 properties  (Johns  et  1954).  a l . ,  Origin The  association  of  Tertiary  of  the  the  mudstone  mudstone  pellets  source.  organisms  some  of  S185,  by  that  i s  one  of  i t  has  a  the  with  as  composition  bored  the  these  transition  mud  from  similar was  the  borings  Other  of  of  may  fragments to  analysis to  that  the  have  suggests  produced  appear as  to  have  evidenced  pellet  of  probable-  mudstone  pellets  mudstone  exposures  X-ray  mudstone  nature  faeces.  alteration  submarine  importance.  i n f e r r i n g  produced  pellets  direct  where  pellets  extensively  that  formed  shows  (fig.42),  The  the  of  co.n  i n  be  seen. In Sound  contrast,  the  p e l l e t - r i c h  sample  i s  devoid  of  mudstone  fragments,  abundant  supply  of  d e t r i t a l  clays  source.  The  produces  some  pellets  may  particularly  r i c h  pellets  have  no  faeces, i n  been  Degens,  governing  However,  and  Glauconitisation  which  there  are  foraminiforal  i s  Barkley an  probably  this  whereas  from  the  l o c a l i t y  some  of  tests  the  which  probably smaller are  ..  i n t h e sample-.  determined  1965)  but  f a u n a at  glauconitisation  phyBiochemical measurements  l o c a l i t i e s . have  as  formed  common  Conditions as  invertebrate  (S125)  can  general by be  made  conditions  several related  requires:  were  workers to  the  of  are at  speculative the  sample  glauconitisation  (summarised present  i n  study.  114  (i)  a  source  abundant (ii) •give  i n  of  the  normal  modern being  slow  s a l i n i t y  r e l i c t  rates  (iv)  high  a  are  on or  organic  the  near-reducing  indicate the  Sound  p r o f i l e s ,  being  4.  they i s  modern  from  b.  and  overlie  are  not  muds,  covered  by  or  the  was  also  with  or  no  sediments  i n  Barkley  at  Recent  and  they  may  be  modern  sediment.  of  pyrite  be  the  sands  eroded,  is  Fe  The  and  K.  because  (147). .. It  seems  evidence  age  Recent,  than  as.deduced  s i l t s . no  shelf  high}  Pleistocene,,  clayey  there  may  i s  on  one. l o c a l i t y  f o r m i n g 'today'. they  -  available  being  Pleistocene  uncertain;'  of  pellets  having  r e l i c t  deposits  occurs  i n  to  at  in  formed present  Pyrite Over  (table  outer  are  content  environment  shelf  pellets  the  organic  the  then  however,  p e l l e t - r i c h  post-dates  sands  the  for  formation  pelleted  of  l i t t l e  higher  Sound  from'seismic  most  i s  sediments  i n  time  there  1964);  (Anon.  the  sands;  that  are  determinations  of  other  at  -  shelf,  content are  of  these  higher;  values  Tine  -  100m. d e p t h  at  authigenic:  carbon  a  clays  scattered  rates  the  total  (v)  few  3.3%  averaging  sedimentation  Sound,  -  sedimentation  either  lattice  area;  s a l i n i t i e s  ( i i i )  three-layer  90%  2 3 ) , where  i t  the i -  found  as  small  Barkley  framboidal  Sound aggregates  115 commonly  within  the  prevalence  i n  this  content  of  organic  provide  suitable  chambers area  (S121)  sample  the  head  Effingham  as  indicated  by  the  most  carbonate  fragments  covering pocket  common  bank  tops  beaches  (fig.34).  Carbonate  portion  (>  10%)  but  on  the  not The  of  carbonate  t y p i c a l l y  contains  fragments  of  foramlnifers sediment  (table  odour  (fig.43).  differences varied  echinoids  are  cf  that  fauna, and  (N8)  grey  7/2)  i s  high  would  this  barred  mineral. basin  near  conditions  the  sediment,  composed i n  of  Barkley  clastic Sound,  Inlet,  and  forming  Broken  and  Deer  constitute  a  sediments  pocket  and  (5y  i  i n  small  Groups  significant. the  Sound,  1  22).  bivalves,  grey  bryozoa,  also  gastropods,  yellowish  more  the  barnacle  l i g h t  a  of  over  very  of  common  of  bryozoa  a  the  'Its  SEDIMENTS  fraction 50%  i n  to  of  reducing  terrigenous  a  Further  i s  which  Ucluelet  fragments  shelf  of  most  islands  some  decay  sediment  •uhich a r e  around  due  where  organic  opposite  bo  located  1L,S  tests.  to  format!on  ORGANIC The  have  for  i s  Inlet  4.  the  thought  conditions  richest  prevail  foraminiferal  material,the  The  of  i s  of  and  the  bank  plates  and  together  lesser  The which  i s  deposits  foraminifers,  with  echinoids,  overall i n  bank-top  contain  (S271)  beaches  colour  of  contrast  the  to  carbonates. are  higher although  more  worn,  proportions barnacle  of plates  116 are of  s t i l l  the  barnacles  carbonate from  the  (Hoskin  of  deposits  and  of  bank  the  organisms portion of  the  heavily  of  feature  be  fresh,  arc  enough  i s  to  the  less  beach  calcareous i s  carbonate  fragments  are  iron-stained  to  d i s t i n g u i s h of  i n  gravels,  some  form  high  latitude  the  them,  tropics  modern.  cases  suggesting  the  The  remains  very  features  (S52) the  presence  indicates However,  worn,  because  sediment  environment.  certain.  sediments  and  abundance  many  modern  skeletons  these  bored,  This  of  carbonates  probably  whose  close  deposits  and  may  beaches  very  a  (fig.M+).  1969).  organisms  or  be  algae-rich  Nelson,  the i n  to  and  and  pocket  l i v i n g  constituent  appears  coral--  The m)?t  major  a  The  nature  of  l i v i n g  minor  the  remainder  discoloured,  are  associated  sediments  are  are  often with  r e l i c t  (fig. ¥ + ) . Siliceous several  remains  samples,  spicules,  diatoms  mainly and  of  various  from less  organisms  Barkley commonly,  Sound,  were .and  detected include  r a d i o l a r i a .  i n spong  Figure  43.  (S247)  composed  barnacles, together  Figure the With  Modern,  mainly  pelecypods with  44.  bank  organic,  top  dark  Glycymeris, occasionally,  of  groins  fragmented  and  gastropods of  sediment  opposite  exception  of  grains  Organic  (S40)  valves worn,  iron-stained.  sand  diorite.  Ucluelet  fresh are  gravelly  from  Inlet. of  bored  and,  117  118  5  clay  X-ray samples their  i n  analyses  were  order  determine  origin,  to  and  Preparation of  organic  mineralogy performed the  on  clay  nature  minerals  of  these  from  38  minerals,  d i s t r i b u t i o n . of  matter  samples  and  iron,  for  analysis  involved  (2)  separation  the<2  of  removal  (1)  micron  ++ fraction,  portions  (3) ' a n a l y s i s  of  dif fractometer (4)  treatment  and  (5)  followed  heat by  which  oriented with  of  Ni  Mg  clay  -  saturated  aggregates,  f i l t e r e d  saturated  (300°,  treatment further  were  analysis  Cu K  rA  clays  500°C) (details,  with  using  a  and  K  ,  P h i l l i p s  radiation,  with of  Mg  K  +  ethylene  glycol,  saturated  appendix  clays,  2.4).  IDENTIFICATION  5.1  Clay basal no  of  +  etc.)  14A°  groups  reflections.  attempt  Group  mineral  was  Due  made  names  are  Clays  assigned  include to  17A°  those  those and  to  were  to  the  i d e n t i f i e d  according  complexity  of  distinguish used  to  the  by  Grim  individual  (001)  greater  upon  their  diffractograms,  mineral  species.  (1968).  smectite  with  the  to  group  reflections glycolation  (montnorillonite that (figs  expand  45,46).  from In  119  most  samples,  quantities of  the  smectite  of  chlorite,  glycolated  completely  1958a).  I l l i t e  by  at  of  some  by  of  the  The i t s  presence  s i m i l a r i t y  order  basal  to  or  17A°  but  greater  as  smectite.  expanded well  a  peak as  may  be  14.1  attributed  to  clays  samples  smectite,  expanding  due  to  500°C  and  with  with i s  by  was K  questionable  with  K  the  heating. greater Using  clays the  trace  were by and  heating.  contract  1968).  that  0  saturation,  +  have  a  not  their  enhanced  Both  w i t h  does  (Weaver,  3.34A  peak  0  peak  (001)  smectite  group.  have  to  that  small  because similar  Both  respond of  i n  regarded  nature  amounts  to  expansion  differences  broad  first  saturation  degree  are  f  of  of  the  vermiculite,  chlorite. at  14A  collapse  However,  Peaks  saturated  10.1A  with  broad  i d e n t i f i e d  minerals  which  the  -- 5 . 0 0 ,  The  smectite  criterion,  by  heating  minerals  (Grin,  intergrown  fact  were  4.98  smectites  as  mainly  upon  U  vermiculite  the  expansion  as  same  be  the  minerals  reflections  glycolation, to  10A  smectite  1953b), a n d  (Weaver,  and  10.1,  of  to  suggested  glycolation.  contraction collapse  to  group  reflections  unaffected  as  sample,  collapse  basal  appears  to  but 17A°  - 14.5, of  the was  7.1,  4.7,  and  3.55A  the  chlorite  group.  14A°  chlorite  peak  revealed  (fig.45).  upon  Peaks  was  In  were  0  most  masked  glycolation  were  also  Mg by  with  unaffected  + +  the smectite by  K  +  120  FIG. 45  X-ray  diffractograms  muds  in  Barkley  of  clay  Sound  minerals  from  (112).  °< CNI  —i  25  T  20  1  15 Degrees 29  1  10  r 5  121  122  saturation slight a  and heating  contraction  reduction  of  lower  order  main  were  used,  (1)  (003)  also or  has  very  (2)  kaolinites  -  bath  indicated very The  poorly  x-ray the  7.1A"'  r e f l e c t i o n ,  d i f f i c u l t  second  at  t h i s  13.5  a  -  ,  and a  to  loss  and lower  i d e n t i f y  were  either  as  order  Two i d e n t i f y i n g  2.33A  value,  i n warm  o r d i n a r i l y  '  it  c r i t e r i a  absent  0  was a b s e n t  but  i t  i s  or  (chlorite  usually  were  hydrochloric  affected  mixed  with  acid,  absent  whereas  1961).  (Brindley,  6N H C l , w a r m e d  and then  analysed.  The  was d e s t r o y e d ;  k a o l i n i t e  peaks  over  a  diffractograms were  either  absent. of of  kaolinites the  (Johns  et  group,  at but  chlorites a l . ,  quantitative  diffractograms clay  to  was  1958a).  c r y s t a l l i s e d  Accurate  C there  peak  kaolinites  to  one hour,  i n s t a b i l i t y  temperature  of  not  chlorite  characteristic as  close  samples  or  500  order  group.  peals:  decompose  for  small  at  .amounts.  Weaver,  are  Consequently  but  were  with  chlorite  k a o l i n i t e  Chlorites  water  the  peak  weak  the  minerals  coincide  small  a  f i r s t of  and i n d i c a t e d  i n  The  group  of  present  C,  peaks.  peaks  reflections  300  the  i n intensity  Kaolinito their  of  to  i s  reflections  U  has  been  i t  i s  not  a  also  used  v a l i d  decompose  at  as  a  c r i t e r i o n this  1954). evaluation  d i f f i c u l t are  500 C  not  of  because  only  a  clay  minerals  shape  function  and of  from  intensity  125  concentration structure, and  the  at  atonic  1969). least  In  six  this (table  (1954)  -  a  less  one of  different  the  the  rigorous  Trace  (2)  Minor  MINERALOGY Clays  i n  (dominantly  Barkley  Relative  Effingham  mouth.  Sound  clay  of  to  results.  the  Johns  clay  et  a l .  However,  terms  of  percentages,  1970).  Macdonald,  (3)  Major  35  -  (4)  Dominant  65  -  are  a  and  abundances are  65% 100%  mixture with  of  smectite  small  amounts  occasionally  of  the  groups  of  k a o l i n i t e are  variable,  observed.  of  four  samples  Inlet  have  a  of  there  different  methods. i n  and  shown  calculating  (after  interlayered  chlorite,  trends  concentration  have  according  used  35%  (Pierce  giving  used  size,  AND D I S T R I B U T I O N  (fig.45).  A l i n e  -  and  concentrations  widely  was  clays  of  commonly  crystal  shape  authors  concentrations  10  i l l i t e ,  (i)  these  <10%  smectite  several  sone  estimated  system  chlorite),  but  of  relative  more  expressing  particle  methods  method  were  14)  (1)  5.2  structure  each  of  orientation,  substitution,  study  groups  particle  Furthermore,  concentrations,  instead  also  mixed-layer  Siegol, are  but  (S117  progressive  smectite  from  the  -  8,  120  -  decrease barred  1)  i n  basins  along the to  the  i n l e t  T A B L E 14 NOTATION  4=Dominant  65-100$  3=  Major  35-65$  2=Minor  10-35$ 0-10$  l=Trace  CONCENTRATIONS OF CLAY M I N E R A L S . SAMPLE NUMBER  57  6i 64  KAOLINITE BARKLEY  SMECTITE SOUND 3  4  1  2  3 1-2  79 82  85 87 8 9°8  923 94 98 107 112 117 118  120 121 130 134 320  1  3 3 3 3-4  1 1  3  2-3  192 213 276 312 345 351  1 2 1 2 2  1  3 3 1 1-2  1  2-3 3 3 2  1  2  1 CONTINENTAL  2-3 1  SHELF  2 3  1  3 3  18  183  2 1-2  2  1  2-3 3 3 4  1  3 2  158  167  1 2 2  1-2  1  182  2  2  1  140  9 13 15  ILLITE  PLEISTOCENE  GLACIAL 1  CLAYEY  SILTS 1  DRIFT 1  2 3 1-2 2 1-2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2  2 2 2 1-2 2-3 2 2 2 1 1 4  CHLORITE  2-3 2=3 3 3 2-3 3 2 2 2-3 3 3 3 2 2-3 3 3 3 4  4  4  4  3  4  3 2 3 2-3 3 3 2 2 3 3  4 4 4  2  4  125  (ii)  Near  dominant Sarita  or  abundant  are  On  and  and  shelf from  some  or  near  112  i l l i t o ;  the  open  i l l i t o  the  whereas  northeast  waters  more  minor  can  mouth  samples  shoreline,  which  some  circulation head  where clays  of  be  of  the  130,  134,  contain  estuarine may  transported  be  along  smectite  Distribution  from  of  are  Sound  clay  by  to  between i s  are  near  the  derived.  the  mouth  the  southeast,  the  northwest  on  probably  weakest.  be  clays  shelf  area  con  minor No  fine  of  groups  f a i r l y  entrap  most  is  is  (fig.46).  so  circulation from  of  chlorite  chlorite,  which  clays  helps  Sound,  shelf  and  detected  shelf  the  and/or  mineralogy  of k a o l i n i t e  probably  derived the  smectite  major  the  proportions  trace.  Barkley  of  -  Sound,  clay  Barkley  derived  or  traces  i n  the  shelf  composition those  of  regular  with  14)  i n  probably  Sound  to  occasional  and  estuarine  are  i n  i l l i t e ,  (table  the  sample  continental  differences  near  r i c h  become  the  uniform i l l i t e  i s  close  groups  area  e.g.  Towards  major  the  major,  chlorite,  chlorite.  ( i i i ) clay  smectite,  River,  located  320  shore,  In  the However,  sediment  of  clays the  addition,  being trending  attributed  to  currents. several  causes. (i) the i s  Source  i s  mineralogy the  dominant  believed of  to  nearshore  group  occur  have  considerable  clays. near  Samples  exposures  i n of  control which  over chlorite  chloritised  126  rocks,  e.g.  contact (ii)  S130,  between  the  Differences  micron  < 2  compared  the  i n  <0.5  The  finer  the  concentration  TABLE  Wostcoast  fractions  to  size  3 2 0 , occur  134,  was  Sample  Size  i n  79  118  2 . 0  3  0.5  3  at  the  same  expense  affected  CLAY  samples. of  i l l i t e ;  (table  1 5 ) .  MINERALOGY  Chlorite  2  -  3 3  2 . 0  2 - 3  2  3  1  3 '  sheltered  waters  waters  3  of  near  clays  relationship  fine,  smectite  barred the  1968 for  could  explain  clays  settle  basins,  i n l e t  containing  Different  Grim,  3  1  Inlet;  coarser  3  2  Effingham  (see  were  2 - 3  size/mineralogy  ( i i i )  The  0.5  0.5  exposed  size.  I l l i t e  2 . 0  94  of  from  S I Z E AND  Smectite  Subgroup.  (379,94,118)  l i t t l e  GRAIN  Bonanza  groin  smectite was  chloritised  (Microns)  Number  The  to  samples  chlorite  OF  due  the and  fractions  enriched  RELATIONSHIP  15  three  micron  of  Diorite  mineralogy of  near  settling summary)  whereas  mouth  would  the out  trend i n  shallower, favour  more  deposition  i l l i t e . velocities. have  shown  Various that  the  i n  workers settling  12?  velocity  of  i l l i t e  smectite  i s  only  account the  for  Sarita  function (iv)  The  oceanic  r i c h  clay  this  Such  a  s a l i n i t y ; process  near  (S112)  abundance  nay  the  could  mouth  also  of  a  be  size. constant  from  shore  proportions i s  probably  of  clay  due  to  groups  mixing  i n  by  ORIGIN have  general  much  of  the  d r i f t i n  Eagle s i l t s , minor  v i c i n i t y (W.  i l l i t e ,  1970).  Alberni,  are  associated  the  with  Bremner,  Fatty  d r i f t ,  Basin  at  contain or  and  has  are  been  mainly  (table  the  were  of  abundant absent  sediments, smectite  made  Imperial clayey  14  and  and  northeast and  (Clarke  on  1970),  chlorite  (table  and  Smectites  14).  (Bremner, head  cover  i l l i t e  Pleistocene  chlorite  i n  sediments  Sound  comm.).  rare  clays  observations  the  Pleistocene  i l l i t e  these  d r i f t  i n t e r s t r a t i f i e d  minor  work  abundant  of  pers.  smectite  Other  mainly  with  of  Most  Similar  northwest  Weise,  underlying  the  more  absent.  just  t e r r e s t r i a l  because  from  being  of  Sound.  d r i f t  Clays  or  studies  Barkley  l a t t e r  rare  Channel  few  g l a c i a l  material the  of  area.  the  either  been  area  with  chlorite,  and  increased  processes.  concerned  are  -  with  influenced.  although  f a i r l y  There the  i l l i t e  grain  away  increased  s l i g h t l y  River,  of  sediments  5.3  the  i s  of  chlorite et  a l . ,  1962).  128  No in  the  data area,  Weathering probably common  available  and  of  accessory  volcanic  i s -  (the  i n  these  1958b).  plutonic  rocks  from  product  mafic  However,  paucity  i s  either  altered  i n  formed  the  the main  continental groups  capable  of  evidence  as  yet,  are  an  clays  probably  chlorite on  and  land.  kaolinite  i n  for  the  saturation;  1  10A°  area), to  and  whereas  10A -  0  acid  (sericito  i s  probably  sediments or  the  k a o l i n i t e .  suggests  i s  Barkley  d e t r i t a l i l l i t e ) With  group  authigenic  CLAYEY  Pleistocene  the  a  chlorite  and  quantities,  marine  of  for  PLEISTOCENE The  the  produced,  alteration  K  intermediate  common)  i s  source  this  i l l i t o  i n  would  which  between  feldspars),  k a o l i n i t e  rocks  directly  from  are  small  (smectite, being  i n  contain  the  to  types  environment.  shelf  possible  5.4  i n  marine  To.summarise,  of  minerals of  clays  to  rock  made.  volcanic  A  collapse  to  be  chlorite  collapse  the  can  reaction  derived  l i k e l y  (chloritised  i t  their  from  volcanic  also  rocks.  of  derived  basic and  micas  Clays  are  alteration  -  smectites  reaction  formed  the  by  clays  inferences  snectite  derived  (Weaver,  main  only  supported  main  smectites  hence  on  intermediate  produce  smectites  14A°  i s  as  Sound the  occur,  exception  minerals,  and  three or of  there  are some i s  origin.  SILTS  sediments  near  the  continental  on  shelf  no  129  break (S213) northwest  and  coast  similar of  fraction  dominated  i l l i t e .  Smectite  amounts also  of  sediments  Barkley by i s  amphibole  the  Sound,  along  e.g.  chlorite  either  absent  (8.46A) 0  and  parts  (S276),  group or  of  the  have  together  rare  feldspar  a  clay  with  (fig*47). (3,21A°)  minor Trace were  detected. The  origin Chapter  origin  of u.  the  of  total  the  clays  sediment,  i s  intimately  which  w i l l  be  linked  with  discussed  i n  the  MO  131  organic 6  and Organic  were  carbon  determined  appendix (i)  2.6).  total  (ii)  treated  with  between  (i)  expressed  Tho  ORGANIC The  2N  (organic  (ii)  i s  the  occur  near  of  from  (fig.48). i n l e t s  entrance,  at  for  shelf  basins  (1  -  and  subsample  difference  carbonate  which  i s  and  head  range have some  shows  Sound  a  to  trend the  concentrations of  the  from  1  carbon sands  Sound, -  of  2%.  (>  whereas  at  Most  contents  <1%,  near  shelf  the  5%)  except edge  2%).  Several orgemic (1)  Highest  values  sediments  carbon  Barkley  the  shelf  i n  a  The  the  of  carbon)  from  carbonates.  organic  continental muds  determined  i n  (method,  measurement  carbonate  carbon  samples •  104  CARBON  shelf  Sound's  was  +  of  analyser  involved  remove  concentration  or  carbon  carbon  which  contents  3  CaCO^.  continental i n  "LECO"  H C l to  CaC0  carbonate  procedure  d i s t r i b u t i o n  decreasing  the  a  carbon,  and  as  and  with  carbon  organic  6.1.  carbon  factors  appear  to  affect  the  d i s t r i b u t i o n  of  carbon.  Grain  Size.  A close  relationship  exists  between  organic  132  carbon  and  grain  material. by  an  i s  i n  very  compounds  49,50),  (figs  An i n c r e a s e  increase  carbon  size  i n  the  organic  amount  carbon  fine-grained  and  clay  minerals  Consequently  high  concentrations  quietswater  e.g. fines  basins,  and  are  entrapped  by  of  the  estuarine  (i)  organic  head  clay-sized accompanied much  smectites  of  of  of  1968).  (Grim,  carbon  Barkley  the  organic  are  accumulation  found  of  clayo,  Sound  where  c i r c u l a t i o n .  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIC AND CLAY CONTENT.  FIG 50  i s  adsorption  favouring  near  clay  suggesting  especially  environments  i n l e t  of  (ii)  by  in  p a r t i c u l a r l y  CARBON  10 . BARKLEY SOUND  9-  • CONTINENTAL  SHELF  + PLEISTOCENE  8-  CLAYEY  SILTS.  7-  *" 6H  z o g H a U Z  4  < 3O  ac  ° ^  -|  20  Gravels and carbon,  were  fine-grained  CLAYf.  sands  presumably  deposition  40  have  because  too  organic  low  60  80  concentrations  conditions  turbulent material.  100  to  at  permit  the  of time  organic of  accumulation  of  133 126>0CV  FIG. 48  DISTRIBUTION  125 7 3 0 '  49\00'  OF ORGANIC  48\30'  125/30'  CARBON (excluding carbonate)  "'  125^00'  STATION  AND SAMPLE  NUMBERS  FIG.49  Distribution of carbon and mean size along profile H.E. ( fjq-3) /-^v^__  CONTINENTAL^^-SHELF STATION CO  O  1  L-200  o in  in  CM  in  OUTER  CO  in  AND SAMPLE CD  in  in  co in  NUMBERS CD ID  o CD  CD  "~l  ""l  GO  ^  •••BARKLEY  ^  m  oo  in oo  cn  oo co  O  SHELF  •'CONTINENTAL—SHELF-  -BARKLEY  -p-  SOUND-  Distribution of carbonate along ro CM profile H.E. (fig.3 ) cD O CD  in  SOUND-  in  135  Redox  (2)  conditions  oxygenated whereas e.g.  waters  reducing  the  contain  barred ll^S  ~  basins  smelling  l-i-.G - 9 . 3 % .  (3)  Logging some  duo  to  log  booms.  favour  of  bark,  (42.7 were  they  45.1%).  -  i s  unlikely  or  there  was  a  The (figs  limited  richer  i n  but  preserve and  organic  material,  Uchucklesit  organic  contents  organic  Barkley chips  oxidation,  ranging  carbon  Sound,  and  Inlets  contents  are p a r t l y  twigs  derived  from  markedly  carbon  paucity  quantities  suggests of  contain of  modern  muds  (0.20 - 0.89%)  contents  preservation  source  from  of  either organic  i n  of  calcium  even  conditions material,  which  pyrite,  carbon.  general, (moan  carbonate  Barkley  4.20%)  than  Sound those  i s  irregular  sediments on  that  clay  appreciable  organic  i n  CARBONATE  carbonate  1.77%).  through  Well  S i l t s  sediments  d i s t r i b u t i o n  49j5D  of  considerable-  for  the  CALCIUM  6.2.  (moan  as  to  high  wood  d i f f e r  This  unfavourable  head  Clayey  organic  contain  carbon  environment.  '  sediments low  with  The  quantities  have  tend  muds  the  These  of  Effingham  at  Pleistocene  though  of  Operations.  '  depositional  loss  sediments  6.1a  they  the  conditions  from  of  i n  the  are shelf  136  The r e l a t i v e localised  abundance  i n the  Sound i s  a r e a s of h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n  shell-covered  banks o p p o s i t e  sands near B a m f i e l d .  (>20%)  Ucluelet  The r e m a i n d e r  i n part  Inlet  such and  o f the  duo as  shell-rich  sediments,  d o m i n a n t l y muds, u s u a l l y c o n t a i n 2 - 6 % CaCO^ d e r i v e d the  remains  Tellina.  of burrowing polecypods  F o r a m i n i f e r s are  Most o f t h e  such as Y o l d i a  a minor  sediments  CaCO^ c o n t a i n  detritus.  c o v e r i n g the  comminuted,calcareous usually  contain  foraminifers 6.2  Pleistocene Three  samples  of  Clayey  Silt's.  clayey  silt  Ucluelet  (S276 - 3.25%) t o  shelf  from i n c r e a s i n g  of  dilution  exceeding 1 % finely  Muds i n s h e l f  basins  d e r i v e d from  polecypods.  head o f  continental  shelf  and  1-Lf/o c a r b o n a t e  CaCO., f r o m t h e Inlet  result  foraminifers  s h e l l hash.  between  and some  of  and  continental  P a t c h e s of sediment  concentrations  from  contributor.  c o n t a i n l e s s t h a n 1 % CaCO^, p r e s u m a b l y t h e by t e r r i g e n o u s  to  Barkley  show an i n c r e a s e  Sound (S321 - 1 . 4 2 % ) t o the  edge o f the  ( S 2 1 3 - 5.85%); T h i s  amounts  of  in  trend  foraminiferal  results  tests.  near  126>00'  FIG. 51  DISTRIBUTION  • • •  OF  CALCIUM  49X0 0"  CARBONATE  125/30'  138  7 The  macrofauna various  bathymetric,  petrographic,  characterised This i n  sedimentary  by  association  that  the  detritus  responsible  has  considerable  i s  on  7.1.  Along are  detritus include  SOUND  these  Mytilus  Crassostrea  data  with  an  are  shells,  25,  (table  (1963)  sediments..  on  important  the  sediments  source  and  of  i s  often  structures.  appendix  and  from  also  the  sedimentary  Keen  i+)  Quayle  i s  based  (I960).  MACROFAUNA  of  shorelines,  Balanus  areas.  and  -  the  the  the  Molluscs  callfornianus,  gigas,  i d e n t i f i e d  influence  and  of  genera  rocky  species  i n  of  (1967),  exposed  various  matter  modification  G r i f f i t h  BARKLEY  associated  l o c a l l y  faecal  Identification mainly  chemical  fauna  as  for  and  the  fauna  such  environments  U.  main  are  commonest source  also  edulis,  of  common  l o c a l l y  gastropods,  Acmaea,  support  genera  organisms carbonate and abundant  Tegula  and  Astrea. Exposed present In  sandy  appear  sheltered  consisting  of  to  sandy  beaches have  been  areas,  burrowing  derived  however,  pelecypods  few  from the  and  other  fauna  i s  those  environments. abundant,  (Sc h i z o t h a e r u s,  Saxidomus,  139  and  occasionally  Venerupis)  and  the  predaceous  gastropod,  Polinices. Muddy as  t i d a l  Mya and The  with and  flats  Clinocardium,  banks  remains Balanus  near  of  the  are  most  and  Sands suitable Because have  habitat of  been  Balanus,  7.2  from  ranging  from  burrowing  by  small are to  are  pelecypods,  associated  and  l o c a l l y  Lovenia.  ophiuroids,  CONTINENTAL Differences  i n  SHELF  this  a  and  area,  O l i v e l l a .  many  fragments  The  muddy  fauna  T e l l i n a genera  i s  shells of  with  partly  forms  are  polychaote  sediments  dominated  and such  (Tere brat a l i a  Soft-bodied and  provide  contains  common  areas  holothurians  (Trichotronis,  echinoderms.  Brachiopods i n  covered  spines  include  Yoldia,  less  Glycymeris  Psephidia,  i n  and  m.  205  which  Channel  bivalve  Sound  e.g.  with  conspicuous  substrates.  -  ore  common.  action  Barkley  such  Inlet  gastropods  elsewhere  LO  of  Trevor  small  pelecypods  Echinoid  also  current  of  by  gravelly  and  the  remainder  depths  are  for  pronounced  at  Bittiuia  Ucluelet  conspicuous. ?)  by  shrimps.  invertebrates  entrance  derived  of  M y t i l u s , S e r p u l o r b i s and  The  which  the  burrowing  mouth  Turbonilla^  at  characterised  and  numerous  (.Strongylocentrotus Nassarius  arcs  Comnsomyax, as  and  rocky well  Dentalium, Laqucus)  or represented  worms.  MACROFAUNA  sediment  types  between  Barkley  Sound  and  the  continental  the  shelf  i s  encrusting rather  than  genera.  C h i amy s by  within  Barkley  Sound  represented  by  ( t e l l i n i d s ? ) . function  and  and  other  the  sediments,  M i t r e l l a  d i f f e r former  from have  The  of  depth,  less  than  as 120  Yoldia  of  favour  bryozoa,  forms  are  Sanely  areas  pelecypods,  Astarte.  similar a  sparse  sediments infauna  pelecypods  and  Compsomyax  these  genera  are  m.  depth,  whereas  i n  and  the  abundant,  thin-shelled  of  and  Much  which  Spirorbis  fragmented, absence  fauna.  pectinids.  l o c a l l y  basins  that  the  Free--swimming  O l i v e l l a ,  shelf i n  gravelly  i n  Serpulorbis,  burrowing by  reflected  with  Nemocardium,  Muds  bottoms  are  e.g.  characterised  T e l l i n a ,  in  covered  forms,  represented are  shelf  usually  may  found  basins  be  on  range  from  120 - 236m. 7.3  RELICT No  belonging existed now  MACROFAUNA.  skeletal to  a  when  appear  environment. encrusting  r e l i c t  sea  to  remains  be  fauna,  i . e .  a  were  out  equilibrium  One  shelf.  consequence  of  of  possible  bryozoa  lower  r e l i c t  associated The  subaerial  minerals  p o s i t i v e l y  levels  continental  bearing  were  (James  stain  i s  exposure and  Pleistocene and  whose  with  form  with  i d e n t i f i e d  the  i s  and  Stanley,  fauna,  that would  present  iron-stained,  gravels  believed  as  remains  on to  the be  oxidation  1965).  a of  a  i r o n -  141 This to  (i)  apparent  destruction  accompanied  remains  7.4.  FAUNA The a  of  changes  organic  have  la.ck  by  AS A  SOURCE of  Prokopovich remove  with  organic  make  up  to  (1969)  has  and  samples  Barkley  or  too  not  Some d i r e c t l y on  the'  continental  by  which  burrows.  Sediment  where  exposures (Emery,  from  i t  as  are  browsing  these  faeces  i n  the  organisms combine which  i t  may  faecal  material  was  some  i t  for  as  too  deriving  ' the  sediment  by  mudstone  small  matter,  with  rocky  their  i n t e r t i d a l  actively which  -and  coat  erode the  I960).  Skeletal  remains  are  l o c a l l y  most  fine-grained  Tertiary  bored  rock  i n  films  of  faecal  L i t t o r i n a  a l g a l  was  faunal  handling.  exposures  down  the  to  i n  generated  on  processes  water,  extensively  as  l i k e l y  detected  sediment  such  i s  wore  responsible  also  of  pellets  because  breaking  i s  that  laboratory  shelf  gastropods  while  d i l u t i o n  which  on  Submarine  and  reworking  depending  but  either  produce  weakening  shown  faecal  are  rock.  (ii)  sedimentary  deposit  resist  organisms from  pholads,  zones  to  and  matter  Sound,  detected,  fragile  sediment  attributed  detritus.  sediment,  Sand-sized  probably  be  SEDIMENT  on  a  to  can  f i l t e r - f e e d i n g molluscs  population. from  OF  suspended  o f  shells  l e v e l ,  effect  binder,  35%  sea  due  terrigenous  abundance  constantly  r e l i c t  shells  i n  considerable  area.  of  important  sedimentary  rocks  142  constituents,  7.5.  and  arc-  discussed  MODIFICATION Cores  forms; (ii)  of  (i)  X-ray the  beds,  which  radiographs  massive  burrowing  sediments  form  organisms  of to  reveal  occur  i n  Sound.  the  due  52).  worms.  In  contrast,  inlets  because  of  anaerobic  conditions  The and  mix  effect sediment  analyses  of  difference below  of  (table  T a b l e , 16  The  area  have  a i n  ophiuroids  i n l e t  i s  different from  s u r f i c i a l  to  2.8)  reworking  supports  sparse  and  appendix  extensive  an  and  infauna, basins,  by  abundant polychaete  probably  and  (fig.53)-  undisturbed  reworking  cores  between  to  bedding  i n l e t s ,  (method,  holothurians,  from  three  the  cores  pelecypods,  i s  distinct  within  of  bedding  two  mainly  infauna  consequently  STRUCTURES  found  be  (fig.  4.  chapter  SEDIMENTARY  laminations,  massive  show  muddy  OF  i n  destroy  layers.  Barkley  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  Size  Sound  sediments  and  and  carbon  indicate 1  those  l i t t l e metre  16).  SIZE  AND  CARBON A N A L Y S E S  OF  CORES FROM  BARKLEY  SOUND Sample  53  79  89  number  Sand%  Silt%  Clay%  top  17.2  48.3  34.5  1.65  1  25.8  47.8  26.4  1.19  top  2.6  54.1  43.3  2.18  1  6.6  54.6  33.8  1.91  top  0.9  50.5  48.6  2.33  1  3.1  52.6  44.3  2.14  m.  m.  m.  Total  Carbon%  Figure from due  52.  Barkley to  (b)  radiograph  Sound.  organic  burrows 15  X-ray  Sediments  reworking  and  as  mottling.  core are  (S70) massive  evidenced Length  of  by core  cm.  Figure The  53.  infauna  Core  area  consequently  bedding  i s  dark  are  patches Length  i n  (S332)  this  gas.  of  of  voids core  16  from i s  Pipestem sparse,  preserved. produced cm.  by  Inlet.  and Irregular escaping  Ui4  Bedded  sediments  interlayered Sands  i n  with  are  i n l e t s ,  1mm.  probably  demonstrated  extensive  forms  i n  common  pelecypods bedding.  thick  Barkley  Saxidomus, However,  no  e.g.  3322,  laminae  of  consist  by  organisms.  reworking  by  Polinicos  Furthermore,  Schizothaerus cores  of  these  and  s i l t y  carbonaceous  reworked  Sound.  of  the  M y a may  sands  material.  Howard and  were  clay  (1968)  o l i v i d s  -  burrowing also  destroy  obtained.  145  8  synopsis SUMMARY  8ili  The  bathymetry  continental erosion. Barkley basins  on  the  by  continuous  and  drowned  originates i t  inner  r e l i e f ,  banks,  only  joins  Juan  crests  are  seismic  a  series  sometimes  Most  of  the  r e l a t i v e l y  de  of  exposed  organic  the  eroded  which  axe  dipping of  plain  terraces?  valley  deepens  to  system  the  southeast,  Canyon.'  show  shelf  Tertiary  sea  sediments and  form  are  of  river  piercement on  g l a c i a l  basins  series  Fuca  faulted  s u r f i c i a l  authigenic,  a  and  to  The  gently  by  p r o f i l e s  folded.and  form  a  by  g l a c i a l l y  conspicuous  eventually  by  coalesce  largest  -  adjacent  affected  two  the  shelf  One  and  shelf.  basins  which  sediments  to  sedimentary  structures  whose  floor. are  residual  either  modern  sediments  or  are  uncommon.  Modern display  Sound's  into  shelf  rocks,  which  and  the  underlain  r e l i c t ;  extends  broken  valleys. near  widen  outer  Sound  markedly  continental  the  Continuous be  fjords  which  with  Barkley  been  flat-topped  subdued  where  has  Several Sound,  flanked  with  shelf  of  head  sediments  i n  a  increase  gradual  where  fines  Barkley  appear  i n to  Sound clay be  are  mainly  content  entrapped  muds,  towards by  the  estuarine  \L6  circulation. circulation shelf  However, i s  weak  basins.  restricted  near  and  Modern  to  fines  sands  i n t e r t i d a l  Relict  sedinents  on  decreasing  concentration  by  predominate.  ice  i s  by  topography,  s i m i l a r i t y  presence  faceted  of  microtextures  on  subsequent  rise  fine  and  sands  carried t i d a l  on  and  That  evidenced  of  today  Heavy  striated  l e v e l ,  waves.  of are  the  Barkley  both  markedly  r i c h i n  Sound i n  minor  r e l i c t  the  nainly  and  -  was  ice-eroded  the  were  which  minor  r e l i c t  basis  Shelf  as  and  are  currents,  are  similar,  grains quartz,  sands.contain  fragments.  for  epidote,  and  reworked  sands  rock  land,  ice-induced  l i t h i c  with  such  on  withdrawal  and  where  transported  and  modern  are  latter  edge  semi-permanent  volcanic  constituents  the  processes  and  and  shelf  deposits  ice  Continental  hornblende  outer  gravels,  However,  provide and  into  an  d r i f t  derived),  minerals.  studies  with  of.plagioclase  plagioclase  swept  shelf  sediments  storm  p l u t o n i c -  and  the  With  and  mafic  mineral  g l a c i a l  scale  and  Sound,  are  detritus  large  (volcanic-,  the  gravels,  towards  by  primarily  calcic  rounded  grains.  sea  consisting  more  banks  r e l i c t  to  Mineralogically,  and  gravels  mud r e d i s t r i b u t e d  currents,  opaques  and  to  probably  association  and  sand  are  the  by  sands  entrance  zones.  characterised i n  sands  the  establishment Province,  but  garnet,  which  differ pyrite,  pyroxene,  and  Sands  chlorite. and  intermediate from  -  basic  granodiorites,  metamorphics. been the  gravels  Some  derived same  as  from  sand  i s  g l a c i a l  minerals  are  a  constant  least  diorites,  contributions cherts,  and  cycle,  source  i n  nearshore  concentration  i s  affected  However, smectite  offshore and  of  was  smectite,  k a o l i n i t e .  dominant  with  second  whose  mixture  be  s a l i n i t y .  lesser  from  having  probably  above.  three  and  at  derived  a r g i l l i t e s ,  d r i f t  and,occasionally,  mineral  with  sandstones,  chlorite may  l o c a l l y  volcanics,  mentioned  Clay  were  Any  one  sediments by  source,  proportions  chlorite  i l l i t e , of  the  f i r s t  where  clay  groin  size,  are  dominant,  f a i r l y  and  i l l i t e  minor. The  d i s t r i b u t i o n  controlled contain 2  -  5%,  by  less the  content.  sediment than  sands and  where  (1  there  foraminifers  found  on  carbon,  the  -  are  mainly  and  gravels  muds  commonly  increasing  with  increasing  i n  occur  depend the i n  appreciable  respectively.  shell-covered  Sands  i s  whereas  remains 10%)  carbon  size.  concentrations  skeletal  concentrations  organic  grain  concentration  CaCO,  calcareous  1%  of  banks  on  abundance  sediments; Sound  muds  quantities  Highest  have clay  of  moderate and of  values  opposite  usually  outer  shelf  molluscs (>10%)  Ucluelet  are  Inlet.  148  The  macrofauna  indicator. by  robust  whereas  encrusting  forms  (Balanus,  sheltered  sandy  areas  i n  infauna  r i c h  holothurians,  common.  to  consequently have  commonly  inlet  i l l i t e ) ,  basins i s  p e l l e t s "  most  are  associated  the  source  with  of  the  submarine  within  Barkley  Sound,  plates  with  lesser  banks,may diatoms)  be are  and  are  The  molluscs t y p i c a l l y Yoldia),  worms,  which  bedding*  infauna  On t h e  i s  by This  sparse  shelf,  fauna,  i s and  gravelly  whereas  sands  ( O l i v e l l a ) .  mainly  of  mixed-mineral  smectite, the  chlorite  shelf  break  and  where  exposures  of  Tertiary  r e s t r i c t e d  to  banks  Beach  sometimes  r e l i c t . rare.  major  pelecypod,  fragments.  bored,  are  Tegula)  they  mudstone  -  pellets.  sediments  worn,  the  nektonic  found,near  Organic  echinoderm  1  dominated  Sound  destroy  molluscs  (mixture  commonly  Mytilus,  polychaete  and  are  (Compsomyax,  where  components  zones  Barkley  preserved.  burrowing  Authigenic  i n  completely  encrusting  support  and  environmental  burrowing  polecypods  habits  bedding  an  "glauconite  of  Muds  ophiuroids  burrowing  contrast  areas  sensitive  i n t e r t i d a l  have  in  highly  rocky  are  their  a  Exposed,  (Polinices) a  i s  constituents  gastropod, deposits  Siliceous  remains  are  modern,  remains (sponge  beaches  barnacle  bryozoan,  are  iron-stained  and  and but  on  the  the  spicules,  more  149  Residual are  associated  mudstone,  8.2.  sediments, with  which  i s  submarine usually  DEPOSITIONAL Data  table  Unfortunately,  generalised  nearshore. usually  grade  sheltered gravels and  outer  shelf,  Tertiary boring  one  chapters  depositional  pelecypods,  some  environmental  inadequate are  sampling,  arbitrary  another exist,  have  as  except e.g.  led  environments  to  the  (fig.54,  descriptions p a r t i c u l a r l y  most  where  basins  three  types  of  environments abrupt  and  nearshore  abundant  encrusting  organic  sediment  deposited  to  -sand  fine  the  between  environment,  sands  banks  on  the  (3) river  Deltas mouth,  between  moderate  with  a  have  r i c h a  sands  environment.  fauna  including  t y p i c a l l y  grained,  areas.  near  muds  i n l e t s  are  sediments:  medium  the  of  clown b y  coasts:  Nearshore  water and  of  broken  on  shelf.  There Rocky  into  boundaries  continental  (2)  to  Boundaries  topographic  source  due  exposures  preceding  of  (1)  several  i n  recognition  are  mainly  ENVIRONMENTS  presented  1?).  found  commonly  rock  beach to  well  main  of  the  exposures.  and  moluscan  variety i n  i s  shallow  sorted,  infauna i n sediments:  d i s t r i b u t a r i e s ,  distributaries.  The  inlet  environment,  and  Barkley  Sound,  has  which a  encompasses  characteristic  northeastern basin  and  s i l l  TABLE  AVERAGE FETROGRAPHIC FEATURES OF DEP03ITI0HAL ENVIRONMENTS  17.  Nearshore  Environment  < 45  Depth range ( m . ) Mean G r a i n S i z e Standard  (0) (0)  Deviation  Calcium  carbonate  ($)  Organic  carbon (y>)  Inlet  20-235  Basin  110-236  Shelf  Outer S h e l f  40-200  81-200  -0.70  1.56  0.92  6.69  1.38  3.28  2.93  1.72  1.99  < 1.0  4.2  2.1  1.1  1.3  < 1.0  3.4  1.1  < 1.0  < 1.0  92.0  83.8  88.4  97A  67.2  < 1.0  2.3  11.1  1.4  32.3  < 1.0 '  1.2  < 1.0  Sand Components T e r r i g e n o u s ($) A u t h i g e n i c (#) Organic  (calcareous)  7.9  13.8  151 126 / 00 ,  '" • '  /  >  FI6. 54  DEPOSITIONAL  ENVIRONMENTS  49\0Cr  125/30'  152  bathymetry, sediments  with  mantling  Most  by the  i n  shelf  texturally  of  the  i s  and  part  of  poorer  the  former and  both  shelf  of  environment;,  which  grade  the  i n  to  sandy  on  muds  can  be  organic quantity  into  the  outer  8.3  ORIGIN  OF PLEISTOCENE  A  to  close  authigenic  the  resemblance  some  B r i t i s h  glacier these  clue  have  low  the  s i l t  and  the of  the  distinguished  carbon, and  clays  e.g.  i n  and  by  variety  which  are  fresh  sands  described  with  s i l t s  at  and by  small  very Hatch  and  are  organic also  quantities  of  closely  Rastall  are  fed  1956).  grey  (<1%)  mainly sand,  even consist  grains  resembling  (1965),  by  Both  greenish  carbon they  their  accumulating  which  (Toombs,  sediments  i s  present  i n l e t s  Inlet  angular,  and  SILTS  and  high;  gravels  deposits.  sediments  of  i n  environment  residual  mainland  i s  included  r e l i c t  shelf  CLAYEY  Bute  content  by  are  these  Pleistocene  clay,  shelf  of  concentrations  clay  and  and  origin  Columbian  meltwaters,  modern  though  to  outer  distinguished  by  of  and  environment  similar  CaCO^  characterised  and  basins  genera.  sands,  in  basin  However,  which  Banks the  are  concentrations  infauna  i n  s i l l s .  environment.  lov/er  muds  sediments  continental inlet  organic-rich  of  g l a c i a l  153  (1956)  Toombs quantities  of  clay  fraction  was  fraction  from  chlorite  which  be  due  near  of  Pleistocene may  rocks i s  were  probably (Dr  B.  GEOLOGIC The of  Eocene  Pliocene  indications greenish  grey,  The were  of  other  clayey  glaciers, i n  100  a  pers.  erosion  as  Island).  chlorite  i n  s i l t s  may  found  Barkley  probably  marine  metres  of  clays.  and  (213)  size  Vancouver of  micron  <2  composed  g l a c i a l  abundance  edge  from  than  on  Pleistocene  shelf  same  mainly  of  the  i n  Sound  the  environment indicated  form at  by  the  comm.).  to  basement  of  the  continental  shelf  is  deposited  i n  sandstones,  times.  During  the  Pleistocene  g l a c i a l  erosion  and  deposition,  which clayey  overlying,  probably  the  The  i s  product  that  minor  mudstones  of  flour.  exposed  Cameron,  immediate  subjected  concluded  alteration the  appreciable  HISTORY  composed -  a  deposited  less  detect  sediments  that  derived  milk',  and  well  concluded  continental  to  rock  be  possible  i s  microfauna  was  are  It  'glacial  8./f.  also  diagenetic  321)  depths  minerals  to  the  (277,  i t  unable  predominantly  (chloritised However,  was  and  arc  afforded  s i l t  g l a c i a l  shelf  earliest  deposits  of  .  s u r f i c i a l  deposited  by  the  during  r e l i c t the  last  sands  and  glaciation  gravels (Emery,  154  1968), the  i . e .  Late  Vashon  Stade  1965).  covered  of  the  Fraser  began  with  B.P.)  most  which  of  l o c a l l y  Glaciaticn advance  reaching  southwest  corresponds  a  of  B r i t i s h  (Armstrong the  et  a l . ,  Cordilleran  15,000y.  climax  to  Columbia  B.P.  -and  ice  when  parts  Washington.  series  On  Vancouver  of  valley  mountain  Pipestem)  ice  two  basins.  deep  out  onto  of  Patches  The  by  of  -  B.P.) the  metres The minor  below  as of  shelf  did  indicated  Sound  not by  40km.  were  gravels  possibly  of  Cordilleran  accompanied  by  a  when  level  sea  which  level  (Curray,  was  its.  fluctuations,  readvances  the  ice  sheet  Mathews  et  a l .  rise  and  1970),  had  i n  culminated approximately  1965).  and  of  ice  fluctuating  Transgression,  B.P.  present  (see  more  the  retreat  transgression  readjustments  and advance  glacier-derived  beyond  from  ice.  Holocene  3000 - 7000y.  probably  below  (Alberni,  Barkley  Ice  body  rapid  was  i n  a  travelled  i n l e t s  continental  gravel  floating  by  into  dropped  glaciers  the  shelf,  main  i n i t i a l l y  13,000y  onto  the  the  occupied  separated  surface  Several  coalesced  out  40km.  l e v e l  and  extended  transported  from  the  nov/  ice  between  once  courses  (fig.15).  sea  sheet  along  distribution  (ca.  ice  1963).  excavated than  glaciers  the  (Fyles,  Effingham, where  Island  crests  southwest  10  of  stade  (25,000y.  sheet ice  This  Wisconsin,  r e s u l t i n g  isostatic considerable  155  effect  on  Vashon  ice  as  retreated,  ice  and  the  sediments.  was  rivers, (i)  probably  and  then  p a r t i a l grain  ( i i i )  by  The  by  particularly of  the  and  climate  productivity  strear;  i n :  gravels;  ice-induced  of  as  sediment,  with  textures  of  leaving  lag  lines,  on  and  gravels  and  deposits.  slowed  beaches  winnowing  and  down  or  terrace  stopped,  levels  end  when  as  of  sea  warmer,  of  modern  on  the.  Holocene  l e v e l the  reflected  sedimentation  as the  was  more  latter  by  the  was  Transgression stable  favouring  most  (3,000 1965)  (Curray, higher  organic-rich  organic  sediments  i n  Sound.  CORRELATION  WITH  OTHER  AREAS.  0 1.  However,  glacial  resulted  by  and  changes  commencement  B.P.)  8.5  sorted.  f i r s t  level  deposited  shelf.  7,000y.  Barkley  sands  r e l i c t  after  the  sea  grains,  transport  l e v e l  continental  l i k e l y  r i s i n g  redistribution  sea  evidenced  of  poorly  reworking  surfaces;  coarse times  by  o r i g i n a l l y  and  obliteration  seaward  At  .angular  sediment  rounding  (ii)  Detritus  Fatty  Basin,  Dominant  Barkley  sediments  Sound are  (48  mud,  0 58'N,  very  125  similar  01'W). to  those  i n  156  Barkley  Sound  organic-rich, and  have  an  proper.  Muds  contain  abundant  are  clays  olive  rich  pelecypod  i n  grey  to  chlorite  infauna  (W.  olive and  black,  smectite  Weise,  pers.  comm.).  Wreck  21  Bay,  west  coast  Vancouver  ( 4 9 ° 0 0 N , ' 123  38' W).  !  The extends one of  up  small  110  basin to  composition sands  and  lesser was  light the  very  both  fine  have  a  minerals. are  and  r i c h  the  muds  and  and  the  basins  smectite  It  i s  sands  (the  and  high  percentage heavy and  depth and r e l i c t  l a t t e r  together  with  (vermiculite  d i f f i c u l t  and  .  clay  because  fraction,  hornblende  only  maximum  kaolinite  ss.nd  clinopyroxene.  form;  areas,.with  carbon,  Sound). of  a  Sound  d i s t r i b u t i o n  two i n  rare  However, i n  subdued  reaching  organic  mineralogy  analyses  garnet  and  Barkley  Barkley  Sediment  between  1%  off  more  bay,  chlorite  i n  a  1970).  banks,  by  i n  the  vermiculite,  unidentified  correlate;  off  approximately  only  point-count  lesser  on  topography but  comparable  dominated  the  examined  of  i s  i d e n t i f i e d  compare  Bay,  (Brenner,  i l l i t e ,  not  bank  exists  gravels  containing minerals  Wreck  basin  metres  and  Island  also  to  Breraner his  ( 2 7 . 0 - 56.6%)  mineral epidote,  assemblages with  157  Queen  3.  Charlotte  Sound  coast, The Barkley  central  bathymetry  Sound,  continental  i s  B r i t i s h  very  similar  of  glaciated  consisting  by  flat-topped  banks  (Luternauer  J.  Luternauer,  pers.  comm.).  in  the  Queen  Charlotte  to  the  shelf  break  compared  to  the  rounded banks, the  r e l i c t  quartz than  50%  minerals  from  those  found  Mackintosh  4.  mainly  due  transported  has  been  sands  metre  300  two  tests  i n  (J.  that  Sound,  are  samples  between  "Glauconite were  and  covering  they  Luternauer,  exists  Sound.  Compositionally,  e.g. some  areas.  Barkley  troughs.  almost contour,  sands  iron-stained)  d i f f e r  detritus,  resemblance the  the  extensive  extend  with  occupy  separated  more  troughs the  off  1969;  similar,  richer  contain  pers.  clay  and  p e l l e t s "  recorded  by  in more  comm.). heavy similar  Murray  to  and  (1963).  Washington This  Murray,  glaciated  (locally  shelf  depressions  d i s t r i b u t i o n i s  muds  off  inner  Barkley  foraminiferal close  the  opposite  organic  However,  Columbia. to  Erosion  west  break  Charlotte  and  and  approximates  metre  gravels  whereas  Queen  which  200  Sediment  area;  shelf,  shelf to  an  north  Mineralogically,  -  Oregon exhibits  extensive from sands  the  continental l i t t l e cover  evidence of  Columbia  contain  shelf  modern River  s l i g h t l y  of  glaciation,  sands (Gross  more  and et  quartz,  muds al.,1967).  158  K  feldspar  are  and  otherwise  contents less  i n  of  similar  the  the  i n  predominate, contrast  muds  to  rock  to  fragments  sands  are  Washington  Relict increasing  volcanic  i n  Barkley  similar,  but  but  CaCO^  carbon  is  samples, occur  i n  patches  abundance  south  of  the  are  Sound,  organic  sediments  and  1970),  (White,  l o c a l l y  carbonate-poor  r i c h  shelf  near  the  Columbia  i n  River.  Sands  (>15%)  carbonate  sands  shelf,  opposite  i n  Barkley  Sound. To  5. and  summarise,  northwestern  covered  mainly  continental  United  with  r e l i c t  pronounced, g l a c i a t e d Oregon of  shelf  modern  (i)  lack  i n l e t s , River  by  i s  ( i i i )  entrapment  de  and  sediments carbonate. both  rocks  uniform,  with  types  and  along  of  have  with  a  abundant  can  and  that  the  l o c a l l y the  sediments. be  Columbia former  has  The  attributed of  sediment  from  -  paucity  to;  sediment the  i s  a  Washington  entrapment  However, of  more  respect  coast. chlorite  regular to  there  sediment  plagioclase, the  i n  B r i t i s h  within  Columbia  Canyon.  sediments  fragments  source  Fuca  (ii)  of  whereas  modern  north  and  similarity, rock  the  rivers,  r e l i c t  carbon  to  with  major  Modern than  sediments  of  Juan  d i f f e r  topography,  mantled  detritus  States  shelves  d i s t r i b u t i o n  grain is  a  size,  mineralogic  containing  reflecting  organic  abundant  the  igneous  calc-alkaline  Clay  minerals  are  also  and  smectite  and  lessor  f a i r l y i l l i t e .  TABLE  18  EQUIPMENT.  APPENDIX 1 .  NO. OF  CAPACITY. (MAX.)  Petersen Grab  (1911)  CASTS  5 3 , ' + 6 0 cm  3  253  A P P R A I S A L OF SAMPLING E Q U I P M E N T .  FAILURE  COMMENTS.  RATE$ 2C#  F a i l u r e due t o its  500 a n  LaFond-Dietz  (1948)  Snapper  26  3  side  malfunction of  e s p e c i a l l y 'when s a m p l i n g s t e e p  -ing  open jaws.  that  it  Heavy to  gave good  of  sediment  Birge-Ekman i n Hopkins  Dredge  (1964)  3375cm 3  30  k5$  sands  s p r i n g - l o a d e d jaws.  Used f r o m s m a l l b o a t , for  diam.  barrels  2 & 4m;  19  25^  All  tended  but weight  cobbles  on  jamm-  advantage  to  be l o s t  due t o  A s i m i l a r sampler with  rate  difficult  f i n e - g r a i n e d sediment  gravel very  7 . 5 c m .  and  tipping  in  (C.  Pharo,  pers.  poor  heavier  comm.).  Easy  l o a d and h a n d l e on d e c k .  suited  K u l l e n b e r g (19^2) Corer - modified to gravity coring Two  grab  penetration.  s p r i n g s had a lower f a i l u r e to  slopes;  h a n d l e on d e c k ,  R a r e l y f a i l e d i n mud, but closure  r e l e a s e mechanism;  to -  load  i n rough water.  recovery  rate  for  Best  sands  poor.  c o r i n g was d o n e b y g r a v i t y w h i c h i n v o l v e d p o s i t i o n i n g  corer  4m.  and  above  sediment  and t h e n l e t t i n g  it  free-fall.  the  Cores  up  long. to  3M.  were  obtained i n f i n e  u n s u c c e s s f u l due t o ;  (i) (ii)  and  (iii)  sediment.  very poor  of  of  sands  was  penetration,  blocking of failure  Coring  core b a r r e l with core  catchers  to  cobbles, retain  sand.  160  APPENDII 2.  1  (a)  SIZE  ANALYSES  Pipette The  Analysis  method  used  (p.166,  Pettijohn present  2  i s  1930)  basically with  some  that  of  Krurabein  modification  by  and  the  author.  Method (i)  The  wet  sediment  container  by  s t i r r i n g  subsample  of  approximately  corer  constructed  served  water at  as  Subsample  i n  230  a  dispersing from  to  a  was  20g.  glass  taken tube  15  shaken for  rod,  with  and  with  two  lains.  agent, 90  o f - d i s t i l l e d (iv) 1000  thoroughly  pouring blender  g.  and  of  hexaraetaphosphate  a  thick  plastic  flask  After  transferred  into  a  a  homogenised  a  a  i n  and  a  small  rubber  i t s  homemade  stopper  which  100  hours,  This  mis  and  of  d i s t i l l e d  then  operation  centrifuged  removed  most  of  salt.  ( i i i )  made  ml  r.p.m.. for  sea  with  was  piston.  (ii)  1000  the  a  of  sample  i ;  off  liquid,  together  mixed  Calgon  and  the  w  for (a  sodium  with  10  the  600  mins.  mixture  carbonate)  mis The  of  sediment of  was  a  dispersent  was  sodium  dissolved  i n  20  l i t r e s  water.  The ml  slurry  was. p o u r e d  settling  washed  with  tube.  through +62.5  The  dispersent  -  a  62.5  micron  washings  micron  sieve  fraction  passing  into  was the  161  settling placed  tube  i n  a  (v) 1000  ml.  water The  sediment,  of  20  were  at  the  same  remaining out  1  i n  19.  (vii)  The  reweighed,  a  and  e.g.  Folk  1. shaking 2.  a  the  better  for  i n  a  sediment  Mixing of  with  draxvn  the  beakers  total a l l few  two  sediment  a  clays  heated  at  a  the  with  on  an  oven  set  cooled,  calculated. solution  adding  the  the  to  dispersent  simply  taken  timetable  were  fractions  depth  was  out  i n  before  immediately  transferred  containing  i s  more  settling  sediment  grain  and  carried  Beakers  than  20°C  clay  solid and  s i l t ,  reasons.  blender i n  size  and  a  sieved.  off  followed  were  into  aliquot  4.50  was  readings  tube  and  dispersed to  was  method  settling  (1965),  Mixing  separation sieving  to  a  come  aliquot  the  i s  with  minute  weights  total  to  and  one  aliquots  of  mark  washed  for  8 hours.  in  dispersent  f i l l e d  procedure  ml.  ml.  temperature,  minimum of  Mixing  blender  ml.  carefully  later,  next  50  Discussion. a  T0  1000  the  allowed  stirred  The  20  was  tubes,  and  This  to  20°C.  at  room  sees  56  weighed  for  at  the  depth.  up  residue  was  min.  table  120°C  at  1  tubes.  previously  set  settling  0,00)  (time  made  prepared  Tube  cms;  bath  dried  Five  analysis.  was  sieve  beaker,  (vi)  after,  which  sizes  with and  adhering  to  efficient  tube  by  than  just  hand.  dispersent  affords  hence  e f f i c i e n t  sand  more  grains.  better wet  se  162 TABLE  WITHDRAWAL T I M E S  1 9  SETTLING  TUBS  TIMS  FOR P I P E T T E  OF WITHDRAWAL  ANALYSIS,  . . ^ . f  A r  „;.  f  GRAIN  SI^ES  W i J. M )A i AW ii.u NUMBER 1  Restir  1  Begin  for  Hrs  Sees  ~i  rain.  1  Mins  analysis  56  10  5  44  10  6  5  1 7 21  00  22  00  2  Begin  for  1  min.  analysis  Units  00  1  Restir  Phi  00  0  1 2  cms  2  23  56  10  2  29  44  10  6  1  31  00  10  7  5  3 3  Restir for 1 min. Begin analysis  44  3  3 2 1 1  '  00  43  56  10  51  44 00  10  6  10  7  5  53  Restir for 1 min. Begin analysis  00  43  05  06  00 00  4  1  07  56  10  4  1  13  10  6  3  1  15  44 00  10  7  10  5  Restir for 1 min. Begin analysis  1  27  00  1  28  00  5  1  29  5  1  35  56 LL  1  37  5 5  ?  1  1  2  2  2  10  6  00  10  7  00  10  7  03  00  10  8  25  00  10  8  00  10  8  59  2  47  3  09  00  10  8  5 1  3  31  00  10  8  00  5  9  2  4  28  00  5  9  3  4  50  00  5  9  4  06  9  5  12  00  5  5  34  00  5  9  16  24  00  46  5  10  00  5  10  08  00  5  10  30  00  5  10  52  00  5  10  5 1 2  3  17  4  1?  5  17  16  1 6 3  Reorodu?eability. weight  were  deviations four (b)  Four  subsamples  from  So6  taken of  and  approximately  approximately  analysed. 6%  -  of  from  Results  the  mean  the  same  indicated  value  of  the  analyses. Sieve  -Analyses  Method. (i) by  Sands  gentle  sands air  were  muddy  dried,  Jones  and  One  ar.  and  chosen  micron  4-  when  account,  e.g.  from  nominal  the  micron  sieves  micron  sieves,  Anon.  of  a  and  disaggregated  pestle. a  62.5  gravel  If  the  micron  nest  for  of  to  which  up  sieve,  p.45,  1930).  500 g .  of  U.S.  u  coarser  minutes. 4.00  than  mm.  sands.  Intervals. with  1;  Half phi  those sieves  point  out  that  sieve  wire  sand) to  i s  phi  i n  the  taken  -  i s 62.5  into  deviation  and  overlaps,  there 500  the  are  diameter 10%  intervals-  intervals  the  leads  using  15  for  of  fine  divided  to  "Endecott  material  especially  tolerances  (1967)  of  and  "Ro-Tap"  for  because  were  Petti;john,  sand  Tyler  Sieve  sizes,  (coarse  fine  new  intervals  values  15%,  a  used  sands,  sieve  and  50g..of  i n  were  phi  for  range,  over  (Krumbein and  using  Choice  of  washed  sand  shaken  intervals  overlap  of  sieved  Discussion:were  were  s p l i t t e r  Sieves  (granule)  a i r - d r i e d  rubber-tipped  Approximately  were  phi  a  were  disaggregated.  sample  Standard  they  Samples  ( i i i ) gravel  gravels  p o u n d i n g "with  (ii)  a  and  i n  595  -  <  125  for  (table  20).  125  164 TABLE 20  OVERLAP OE SIEVE S I Z E S £ PEL INTERVAL APART  SIEVE S I Z E (microns)  RANGE OF SIEVE SIZES WHEN TOLERANCES T A K E N INTO ACCOUNT (MICRONS) 194 ~  177  16.').  overlap  138" 134  overlap  120 112  J  overlap  90  -  160 -  149  125  105  S i e v i n g of  Shell  Debris.  Fragmented  sieved along with terrigenous r e g a r d e d by t h e sediment,  author  remains  before  sediment  sieving,  S40  of m a t e r i a l the  same  at  was  former of  is  the  sedimentological  material.  However, whole  b e l i e v e d t o have l i v e d on o r the  time of  s a m p l i n g , were  removed  sieving.  In order to  to  to the  terrigenous  of i n v e r t e b r a t e s  beneath the  g r a i n s because the  as b e i n g an i n t e g r a l p a r t  being subject  processes that affect  shell material  study breakdown of s h e l l  (shelly  fragments  s a n d ) was s i e v e d 4 t i m e s  gained or l o s t  previous sieving,  and t h e  p e r 10 u n i t m e a s u r e d w i t h  (table  21).  during amount respect  165 TABLE 21  WEIGHT  SIEVINGS C F  COIToEGUTI VE  PHI  WEIGHT ( g )  INTERVAL  SAMPLE S40  WEIGHT LOSS OR GAIN ( g . )  SIEVING  1st  O F SHELL MATERIAL WITH  CEAN 3ES  SIEVING  2nd  5.03  -0.08  -z  12.14  -0.50  -1  10.11  0  SIEVING  3rd  4th  SIEVING  -0.02  -0.01  -0.32  -0.24  +0.33  -0.05  -0.06  36.23  +0.13  +0.13  +0.09  1  41.97  +0.04  -0.18  +0.20  2  3,42  -0.08  +0,23  -0.02  3  0.19  +0.024  +0.03  +0.01  4  0.Q4  +0.018  +0.016  +0.016  6  0.04  +0.025  0.000  -3  The coarser  most  than  stable.  that  0  i n  were  could  material,  breakdown  finer  each  successive  +0  fraction  0  approaching affect  e.g.  oyster  grains  present,  softer  calcareous  which  and by  grains.  grains  i n  appeared  to  be  amount  of  the  decreased, stable  are,  (a)  bryozoa  (b)  the  virtue To  approximately  of  test 30%  +0.07  occurred  sieving  more  fragile  shells,  containing  a  breakdown  some  robust  S39,  while  0,  With  break-down grains  significant  .  presumably shape.  the  more  quantity their the  of  terrigenous  of  the  factors the  readily  shell  than  terrigenous  hardness  latter  more  because  Other  strength  break  material  would  grind  postulation, grains,  was  166 3  sieved the  times.  average It  takes  i s  only  on  gain  during  the  or  higher  2%  concluded  place  effect  The  that  loss  than some  sieving,  1  per  the  0  calcareous  breakdown  but  i t  interval  i s  so  of  was  low  (S40).  sand  s h e l l as  on  material  to  have  l i t t l e  results.  Reproduceability. (i)  ,8280  was  4  sieved  times  to  +  which r a n g e d  error  fractions,  but  (ii) S293  Errors  four  ways  significant difference between mean 2.  on  the of  and  change of  two  one  was  0.4%  average  s p l i t t i n g  to  -  7%  was  -  2%.  were  for  handling  each  came  the  gravel  class  could  create  a  i n  different  determined  sieving  subsample.  of  as  much  as  -  on  an  average  -  THIN-SECTIONING  the  +  -•  pebble  s p l i t s  deviation  2  from  determine  20%.  by  The  s p l i t t i n g most  where  weight For  size  the  difference  sands  the  4.6%.  OF UNCONSOLIDATED  SEDIMENTS.  Method. (i)  Sand  was  approximately mixed The  with  resin  used  colourless grains hours  i n i n  lOg.  epoxy  manufactured  by  resin  was  warm  i n  an  fractions, i n  a  "Estcrex  Hallcraft  mounting place  a  dried  room  one  at of  plastic 103  Ltd.  medium  during  oven  which tray  Casting It  that  120°C  and  this  was  s p l i t  left  a  harden. hardener,  hard,  enough  by  to  and  Hardening  followed  into  thoroughly  Resin"  strong  thin-sectioning.  was  and  produced  was  and  4  clear,  to  hold  took  hours  i n  24 an  16?  oven  100°C.  at (ii)  one  half  The was  slide  with  •way.  The  for 2.  block  of  impregnated  ground  on  a  "Lakeside remaining  potassium 3  HEAVY  sand  was  diamond wheel)  70"  and  cut  to  half  was  also  sawn  mounted  thickness  on  i n  and  ground,  i n  two, a  glass  the  then  and  normal stained  feldspar.  MINERAL  SEPARATION.  Method. (i) micron One  Heavy fraction  gram  tube  of  three  and  -  the  of  this  a  were  sample  fraction  1000  l i q u i d  fraction.  The  the  using  heavy  poured  tips  then  (D  and  off  -  together  thawed  and  125  centrifuge  spun  were  ~  2.89).  =  15ml.  a  62.5  the  minutes.  minerals  bromoform were  i n  bromoform 10  for  from  bromoform  placed  with  r.p.m.  containing  separated  was  q u a r t e r - f i l l e d  approximately tubes  minerals  at  T i p s  of  the  frozen  i n  ice,  with  heavy  the  light  minerals  recovered.(ii) was  If  gently ( i i i )  the  i n  Grains  were,washed  expressed  The  magnetic and  (iv) slides  fraction  heated  and  weighed  heavy  as  a  weight  transmitting  Canada and  was  with  with -oxides  of  removed  with  i n  heavy  balsam  acetone,  percent  expressed  Non-magnetic  with  coated  i t  IN HC1.  fraction also  was  a  of  minerals  and  r e f l e c t i n g  terms  the  dried,  total hand  total were  inspected  microscopes.  sediment. magnet, sediment.  mounted  using  weighed,  both  on  glass  168 L  2.  PREPARATION The  (1963)  method  with  OF  CLAY  used  some  was  MINERALS  FOR X - R A Y  based  on  that  modifications  by  the  of  ANALYSIS  K i t t r i c k  present  and  Eope  author.  Method. (i) 100  mis  The  slurry  poured sieve  of  d i s t i l l e d was  off, into  a  ml.  v/as  1  r i c h  -2  bath  of  i n  organic  after  400  ml.  i n  KpO^ ml.  5ml.  material organics  was  portions,  Saturated  iron  minutes  The  were  flask  through  240  shaken 2  for  containing  head  was  with  hours.  salts  62.5  a  centrifuge'  a  removal  micron  an  I . E . C .  which  held  eight  v o l .  K^O^  which  a  v/as  mis  substantial  to  froth  the  out  fizzing the of  by  ceased,  sediment  the  beaker  adding  beaker  i n  a  i n cold  water  reaction.  (10 - 1 5 m l . )  solution slurry  which  v/as  shaking Wrist  transferred  of  If  overcome  placing  "Burrel  was  30  with  oxidised.  was  involved  which  100  the  the  Washing using  been  tended  NaCl  to  treated u n t i l  This  down  Sediment  with  i t  and.by  ( i i i )  minutes  then  had  added.  slowed  (iv) for  was  which  15  l i q u i d  with  aliquots  water were added  for  ml.  washed  beaker. f i t t e d  sediment  250  a  the  sediment  model  centrifuged.  5  the  Sediment  added  i . e .  i n  wet  tubes.  (ii) was  water  of  contrifuged,  and  International 100  30g.  Approximately  citrate  Action  to  achieved  shaken,  with  by  a  250  mis.  washed  d i s t i l l e d  and  water  Shaker". ml.  shaking  buffer;  20  and  flask  ready  sediment  heating  to  for  75-80°C.;  169 adding  of  4ff.  between  sodium  -  75  80°C.  centrifuged. dihydrate, water, to  to  minutes.  15  buffer: 175S-  NallCO^,  21g.  and  p H 7.3  than  maintaining  Sediment  was  l88g.  of  NaCl,  dissolved  with  c i t r i c  sodium  acid  heat  cooled  at  and  citrate i n  or  d i s t i l l e d  NaOH a n d  made  l i t r e s . (v)  Sediment  centrifuged.  minutes  of  clay  from  leaving  the  tend  (Grim,  to  placed  s i l t .  to  was  1968).  separated  the  study  tubes  upper  samples  and  settle i n  limit  their  <0.5  of  grain  size  was  for  and  f i l l e d  shaken  for  separation  at  out  r.p.m.  1500  the  s i l t  suspension  was  concentrated  buffer  tube  It  spun  had  effect  the  ready  were  to  citrate  cms.  fraction)  commonly  the  10  of  sufficient  of  off,  centrifuge  micron  most  Three  to  height  micron  (<2  be  a  mis  50  poured  Centrifuge  which clays  with  was  i n  1956).The 2  (Jackson, clays  washed  l i q u i d  water  and  sees,  55  was  The  d i s t i l l e d  15  for  for  Citrate  adjusted  2.5  with  dithionite,  chosen below  because  this  micron on  value  fraction  mineralogy.  2+ (vi)  Mg  carefully  Saturation.  decanted  centrifuge  tube  off  and  together  The a  ml.  20  with  clay  suspension  aliquot  enough  was  placed  magnesium  i n  a  acetate  to  2 + raake  the  heated  solution  i n  a  boiling  centrifuged, water was  u n t i l  placed  ready  for  and the  on x  IN w i t h  a  ray  water  then  respect bath  washed  clays  were  glass  slide  analysis.  for  at  fully and  to 15  least  Mg"  .  The  mins, 3  at  was  cooled,  times  suspended. dried  suspension  room  with A  d i s t i l l e d  small  aliquot  temperature  170  (vii) potassium  K " 1  acetate  ( v i i i ) clays  were  ethylene the  i n  a  Mg  for  same only  Slides  36  as  for  two  tray  i n  except  2 +  Mg  were  above  S l i d e s .were  a  that  needed.  '-saturated  suspended  container. hours  Mg  washings  containing  mesh  plastic  Slides  some l e f t  warm  room  and  IC  saturated  i n  then  coated  for  one  v/ith hour  -  +  500°C  at  (to  clays  collapse  x-rayed. Diffractometer  goniometer)  2+  and  wire  furnace  and  the  analysis.  A P h i l l i p s  PW 1 0 5 0 / 2 5  used,  a  a  Heating.  kaolinites)  The  i n  x-ray  heated  (x)  on  container  for  (ix)  was  Glycolation.  g l y c o l  removed  v/as  placed  sealed  were  saturation  with  PW 1 0 1 0 / 8 0  (model  N i - f i l t e r e d  Cu  source,  generator,  v/as  used.  + -  and  saturated  K-  2A  20(3  to  30)  20(3  to  15).  2... 5  PREPARATION  at  U  "iin.  clays  and  were  scanned  from  glycolated  samples  from  OF " G L A U C O N I T E  PELLETS"  FOR X - R A Y  ANALYSIS  Method. (i) Franz 0.5 a  P e l l e t - r i c h  isodynamic  amps,  good  slope  separator 25°,  separation  rock  fragments,  then  passed  sands  t i l t  v/as  and  through  dried  v/ith  the  following  The  pellets  were  from  quartz,  feldspar,  15°.  obtained  shell at  were  material.  0.1  amps  to  and  The remove  passed  through  a  settings:  magnetic  magnetic most  fraction  magnetite  and  was  and  ilmenite.. (ii) small  The  concentrate  quantities  of  -  approximately  hornblende,  l i t h i c  o0%  pellets  fragments,  and  with feldspar  -  171 was  gently  crushed  through  a  62.5  organic  material.  ( i i i )  sediment  was  (a)  2+  rubber-tipped and  was  was  and  x-rayed,  K  not  twice  +  pestle,  treated  with  passed  PL^O^  to  remove  removed. washed  (appendix  f o l l o w e d by  Diffractometer  and  centrifuged,  2+ -  Hg.  2.1+).  glyeolation  settings  were  and  saturated  and  boating  the  same  as  for  minerals.  CHEMICAL  2.6  Iron  Mg  2.4).  clay  a  sieve,  slurry  with  (appendix the  micron  The  saturated  with  Total  ANALYSES.  Carbon.  Method. (i) 130°C,  125  A lOg.  crushed  micron  accurately analysed  subsample with  0.25s.  weighed  out  a  furnace.  explained  i n  a  Carbon  Operation  the-Leco  Equipment The  of  into  "Leco  induction  (ii)  mortar  sieve.  using  Laboratory  a  was  dried  pestle,  the  -125  u  Leco'  s  the  and  for  Manual  put  was  crucible 572  i s  out  at  through  fraction  model  machine  days  2  passed  porcelain 1  of  oven  micron  Analyser '  Corporation, was  an  and  Operating  procedure  i n  -  and with  100  fully by  the  Michigan.  repeated  u n t i l  results  of  two  + analyses (b)  were  Calcium  within  -  of  0.10%  each  other.  Carbonate.  Method. .(i) carbon was  Part  of  the  analysis,  was  removed.  The  -125  micron  treated  sample  was  with  fraction IN  dried,  used  HCl u n t i l and  for a l l  analysed  by  total carbonate the  same  a  172  method  as  for  total  concentration from the  total  of  carboncate  CaCCy-  The  give i . e .  GRAINS  obtained which  of  C -  i s  i f  concentration  Total  C x 8.33 =  OF  value carbon,  the  percentage  Carbonate  PREPARATION  2.7  w i l l  molecule,  C.  The  carbonate-free  carbon  carbonate  carbon.  the subtracted  of  carbon  carbonate-free  carbonate  i s  i n  C  =  calculated  as  CaCCyS.  FOR SCANNING E L E C T R O N  MICROSCOPY.  Method. (i) ION  HNO^ to  material  of  surface  separated  of  ( i i i ) holders  to  were  quick  holder  was  carried  Coating  out  i n  was  a  of  to  which  boiled  clays  i n  and  organic  the  grains  "Micros  lack  used  for  cleavage.  and  then  d i f f i c u l t  to  served  .concentrate  out  on  by  paint  with  was  put  quartz  and  (Acheson  U  Surface  " D A G i|-l6  IS  specimen  of  and  the  while  grains. with  Vacuum  a  -  through  microscope  " D A G 1+16  Ontario).  coated  mag  hand.  electron  silver  a  isolate  .,  to  Sand  Garnet  with  feldspar.  Brant ford,.  on  they  more  mounted  thinly  were  bromoform,  picked  drying  specimen  down  any  grains  because  was  L t d . ,  pressed  quartz  with  Quartz  Canada  (iv)  and  first  Colloids  gently  and  was  grains.  former  a  fraction  stain,  s i m i l a r i t y  Grains  with  iron  separator  the  micron  textures  out  i t s  magnetic  feldspar;  125  garnet  separator.  because the  adhering Both  netic  -  remove  (ii) study was  500  The  metal  conductor  Evaporator"  model  (Al) VE  10.  was  wet,  173  Because within  A l  coating  36  Specimens Electron  were  of  2.8  RADIOGRAPHY  X-RAY  B r i t i s h  Radiographs unit,  Services,  the  examined  Microscope  University  x-ray  rapidly,  specimens  of  i n  with the  a  be  used  Cambridge  Botany  Department,  Columbia.  OF  s p l i t  property  CORES cores of  were  Coast  made  with  Eldridge  an  industrial  Professional  Film  -  Kodak,  type  M (  high  contrast,  grained Film/x-ray Source  specifications  this  study,  i,e;  need  different  muds;  unit  power  Exposure above  to  Vancouver.  Specifications.  The  had  hours.  (v) Steroscan  oxidised  time gave  3  -  ma, 1.5  good  different  specifications.  distance  -  1  fine-  f i l m ). metre  80kv. minutes.  results  for  lithologies  sediments  would  i n  probably  APPENDIX 3 MINERALOGICAL, SIZE, AND CHEMICAL ANALYSES  TABLE 22.  Sample Number Mean Grain Size 0 $ Sand (weight) Epidote Pyroxene Amphibole Mica Chlorite K Feldspar Plagioclase Quartz Others Opaques L i t h i c Grains Volcanic Plutonic Sedimentary Indeterminate Organic Grains Calcareous Siliceous Pellets Indeterminate  POINT-.COUNT  ANALYSES OF SANDS - BARKLEY SOU!©. ^percent number).  61  74  80  85  97  103  106  107  4.09 43.1 2.0  2.98 99.5 2.2  7.83 7.2  8.63 4.6 2.7  1.04  8.48  5.02  1.50 71.6 1.7  r  2.3 —  r r  r  3.7 r r r  29.6 4.7  31.4 3.6  1.7  5.6  r  2.7  1.0  r  -  10.0 1.7 r  61.0 5.7  23.2  1.0  r  1  -  1.0 5.9  r r  11.0  r = lesss than  1.0  -  r  -  4.3  2.9  1.4  5.9  2.0  -  r  r  r  _  _  r r r  55.0 4.0  ~ r  26.7  r  42.7  8.00 20.8 5.3  —  r r  15.2  -  6.2 2.7  2.27 31.42 78.8 3.5 6.0  6.51  r  r r  2.6 3.1  _  -  121  r  r r  1.3 6.5 5.1 8,0  12.2  10.3  27.4  119  112  3.3 r  -  1.3  1.9  54.4 2.7  39.5 1.9  =  r  -  r  r  21.5 1.4 r r  3.0 3.3  19.7 53.1 1.3 17.0  6.0 5.3 6.9  7.8  2.0  9.0  5.0  4.0  1.0  r r r  r r  8.7  -  1.0  r  2.0 8.0  3.6 34.3 —  r r  3.6  25.0  41.7 r  1.0  -  -  125  131  135  -0.33 6.19 11.7 36.7 1.5 7.3  7.16 6.7  -  -  2.3  4.0  2.5  1.7  5.0  56.1 2.3  25.7  43.4 1.3  5.5 1.8  2.0  r  r  r  1.1 3.4 7.3 2.9 10.5  -  -  3.6  1$.  Others = garnet, z i r c o n , sphene and other heavy minerals. Opaques = l i m o n i t e , ilmenite, magnetite, p y r i t e . Indeterminate L i t h i c Grains = l i t h i c fragments with i n d i s t i n c t textures. Organic Grains = calcareous and s i l i c e o u s s k e l e t a l remains. P e l l e t s = " g l a u c o n i t i s e d " f a e c a l p e l l e t s and mudstone fragments.  r  r  r  r r  -  r  1.7  3.0  r  5.0  4.3  50.3  48.8  r r  -  -  1.3  -  13.9  20.5  1.7 2.7  1.0  17.7  1.3 6.0 4.3 10.0  12.5  10,3  5.3  1.7  2.3  21.2  r  22.5  8.0 29.0  -  6.3  -  11.7  -  -  50.6  -  -  r  _  6.7  2.7  -  321  r  1.0  r r r  15.7  r r  -  -  11.3 1.3  -  23.0  41.0 16.3  5.0  r  -  r  1.0  24.9  r  -  TABLE 22. (cont.)  Sample Number. Mean Grain Size 0 $ Sand (weight) Epidote Pyroxene Amphibole Mica Chlorite K Feldspar Plagioclase Quartz Others Opaques L i t h i c Grains Volcanic Plutonic Sedimentary Indeterminate Organic Grains Calcareous Siliceous Pellets Indeterminate  P0INT-COUNT ANALYSES OF SANDS - BARKLEY SOUND, (percent number).  343  1.11 99.3  1.5 _  r r 2.2 r 13.1 3.0  -  9.1 32.2 11.3 24.5  -  353  -0.34  64.? 2.8  271 1.09  -  r 1.0 19.9  r  r  15.6 31.6 6.5  18.4  -  -  1.5  2.8  2.59  88.3  100.0  3.7  4.9 _  —  r  274  r  -  3.2  -  —  r 38.2 2.0  --  16.0 27.5  -  8.1  309  -  44.7  -  —  —  r.  r  -  —  44.1  1.0 18.2  33.1  3.2  1.3  2.5  • r  r  3.0  6.3  17.2  60.5  -  19.8  -  r  3o7  2.0  -  *.  314  -1.45 0.02 —  1.7  r  r = l e s s than 1  276  -  2.2  319  349  -1.44  2.46 100.0  53.1  39.7  1.3  -  r  1.7  r r 1.0 38.0  -  r _  3.6  -  r  r  r  r  1.3  -  55.3  10.0  23.3  32.9  5.7  1.7  29.6  8.3  3.8  9.4  14.1  2.7  2.5  -  r  '17.7  r  -  r  1.7  -  3.5  r r •r r 2.0 35.1  31 ^.7  48.6  1.3  1.0  4.9  1.0  1.3  r 48.2  1.2 r  3.2  1.8  1.3  1.3  33  4.09  46.9  r  r -  4.6  r  r  37  53  57  3.96  3.72  2.93  6,46  72.7  69.4  99.7  23.3  35  2.2 r 4.1  -  r r  4.3  5.4  2.0  r  -  1.0 r  1.0  r  2.2  4.6  5A  4.9  9.5  r 11.8  14.9  -  -  -  2.7  3.6  -  1.0  2.3  77.2  1.0  -  -  16.3  8.2 1.7  -  30.4  12.1  7.2  r  r  r  -  -  1.2  1.8  r r 1.0  44.5  1.3 r  2.7 2.3 1.7  r  48.7  4.8 r r  5.9  1.2  6.2  7.7  2,0 r  1.3  -  13.7  4.0  8.0 11.8  22.7  82.3  8.6  3.3  1.2  r 2.0 11.6  r 3.0 5.4  r 1.7 2.3  -  6.4  9.2  TABLE 22. (cont.) Sample Number I^ean Grain Size % Sand (weight) Epidote Pyroxene Amphibole Kica Chlorite K Feldspar Plagioclase Quartz Others Opaques L i t h i c Grains Volcanic Plutonic Sedimentary Indeterminate Organic Grains Calcareous Siliceous Pellets Indeterminate  POINT-COUNT ANALYSES OF SANDS - CONTINENTAL SHELF 8  10  24  143  147  149  152  153  162  171  174  181  (percent number). 182  188  189  192  195  202  208  210  -1.7 0.8 2.7 2.2 1.4 1.6 2.1 -1.8 4.0 0.0 -1.8 3.0 1.9 -1.8 -0.1 4.8 -0.4 -3.1 2.4 2.3 43.4 27.7 97.9 100 82.7 95.4 95.2 38.8 68.4 69.4 28.0 83.1 59.4 46.3 69.4 44.1 56.6 10.4 99.8 96.2 1.0 2.0 2.3 2.0 r r r 2.2 1.3 r r 1.6 r 3.4 3.0 2.5 1.7 1.0 1.6 1.0 — — r 1.4 1.0 . r r r r r r r r r r r r r 1.0 2.0 r 4.2 r r 2.6 r r r r r r 1.0 1.3 2.4 1.7 2.3 1.3 .— — _ _ — — — — r r r r r r r r — — — 1.0 r r r r r r r r r r r 1.0 1.3 1.0 1.3 — r r 1.0 r r r r r r r r r r r r 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 51.5 17.9 42.5 35.6 30.2 27.7 35.3 11.3 49.5 24.3 17.2 37.7 31.7 11.4 12.8 32.6 31.9 6,5 43.4 46.0 r 5.3 1.7 3.6 4.0 3.0 3.3 6.6 1.6 3.9 4.6 2.3 2.4 4.8 1.0 1.6 3.3 2.6 4.3 3.0 — r — — — r r r r r r r r r r r r 1.0 r 1.0 — r r — r r r r r r 1.2 r 1.7 r 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.3 1.3  -  -  -  -  4.9 11.7 4.7 6.7 6.0 10.5 26.0 8.8 16.0 9.0 4.3 6.7 5.7 7.9 2.2 10.8 17.9 15.6 15.7 12.5 r -2.0 4.2  9.6 r  -  3.3  r  -  r 7.6  -  -  r  -  2.3 8.8 33.5 11.9 15.9 14.1 3.0 9.4 24.3 1.7 28.2 28.0 3.0 5.3 9.5 1.9 2.7 6.1 4*2 15.1 15.0 11.9 18.7 24.1  -  31.3 52.0 7.9 1.6 1.0  r = l e s s than 1$.  r  -  5.6 5.7  r  -  1.0  1.8  r  5.7 5.8  1.0  -  -  1.0  -  2.7 9.4 21.4 29.5 7.4 17.3 38.7 5.3 5.0 4.9 7.0 26.7 29.3 10.9 25.7 32.8 13.2 10.6 1.6 6.5 3.9 4.6 r 2.0 1.5 2.4 1.7 8.0 14.9 25.5 15.6 9.8 10.0 14.2 14.5 12.2  r r r 31.3 14.6 7.2 4.6 6.8 —  r  -  1.2 —  r 6.0  r —  —  r 27.5 2.5 4.0  r  1.0  _  —  —  _ 2.3  2.1  _  r  r 7.2  7.1 7.6  HEAVY MINERALS - BARKLEY SOUND. (percent number).  TABLE 23.  37 - 53  57  61  74  80  85  97  103  106  112  119  121  125  131  135  321  3  5  3  •-  3  4  2  -  1  2  4  3  1  1  1  8  -  3  1  -  -  r  5  -  3  2  4  3  3  1  10  5  3  1  r  6  1  4  7  9  10  8  2  4  3  5  4  8  3  6  11  7  7  6  r  -  r  -  -  -  -  r  r  Zircon  -  2  -  -  1  2  4  .4  r  -  r  Oi  r  -  -  r  r  -  -  -  Garnet  1  5  5  1  1  2  2  3.  -  -  r  r  r  r  r  r  r  4  -  r  19  19  25  22  18  22  21  24  16  15  9  14  17  20  14  15  6  15  16  19  Orthopyroxene  1  5  r  2  5  3  1  r  . -  r  1  -  -  r  -  -  -  r  r  Clinopyroxene  r  r  2  2  2  r  3  1  2  -  -  r  3  -  r  -  -  3  4  -  42  34  31  34  32  36  34  31  61  42-  46  55  39  26  29  24  28  17  17  33  Mica  2  r  r.  1  r  2  1  -  1  r  1  -  r  1  -  2  -  -  r  r  Chlorite  5  6  8  9  7  6  4  4  4  9  19  1  8  10  13  18  15  6  18  18  9  10  10  6  3  4  4  1  8  9  4  8  7  7  5  9  12  11  10  9  11  10  15  10  14  11  8  16  10  14  13  19  29  18  24  32  17  13  31  33  35  Limonite  i  2  3  Pyrite  2  2  Unidentified  5  Apatite  Sample Number. Opaque  Non-Opaque  Epidote  Amphibole  L i t h i c Grains Indeterminate  15  r*  Others *  103, sphene ;  121, s p i n e l .  r = l e s s than 1$.  178  TABLE 23.  HEAVY MINERALS - BARKLEY SOUND RIVERS AND BEACHES. (percent number)  Sample Number  271  274 276  Opaque Limonite  4  1  Pyrite  -  2  Unidentified  10  6  3  8  309  319  3  13  •=  1  8  13  314  343  349  353  4  5  4  11  -  =>  6  •5  9  9  ~  r  Non-opaque Apatite  <=  Zircon  1  -  r  r  -  r  r  r  r  Garnet  2  2  r  r  =  r  r  4  5  Epidote  13  18  12  8  7  14  10  16  11  Orthopyroxene  r  r  r  1  1  r  -  8  r  Clinopyroxene  2  2  3  -  r  r  r  3  r  Amphibole  40  37  39  23  26  40  44  30  25  Mica  =  -  1  r  r  1  r  2  Chlorite  7  8  12  35  18  8  7  10  18  L i t h i c Grains  7  7  11  10  3  10  11  2  6  Indeterminate  14  16  11  9  16  16  16  13  14  ~  Others  r*  * 309, 3 1 4 , sphene.  271  ~  ~  314,  r = less than 14, 1°  349 • • • «Beach;  343, 353,  ..River.  HEAVY MINERALS - CONTINENTAL SHELF . (percent number).  TABLE 23. (cent.)  -  Sample Number.  143  147  149  152  153  162  171  174  181  182  188  189  192  195  202  208  210  r  4  2  2  r  2  -  1  1  2  1  2  -  2  r  -  1  1  r  -  -  -  -  -  -•  -  -  1  -  -  -  -  r  -  -  -  -  8  5  8  9  10  14  9  3  5  7  23  6  4  5  12  13  8  10  24  -  3  Opaque Limonite Pyrite Unidentified Non-Opaque  2  18  21  13  •>  Apatite  r  -  r  -  r  -  -  -  -  -  -  r  -  -  -  -  r  r  r  -  Zircon  r  1  r  1  2  r  1  r  2  r  1  r  r  1  3  -  r  r  r  r  Garnet  8  7  5  6  4  9  16  10  7  13  10  6  5  5  14  5  7  2  10  7  11  10  13  13  13  13  10  17  8  19  9  10  14  12  13  21  16  11  16  7  10  13  9  13  7  5  7  11  7  7  9  2  8  7  6  10  10  6  Epidote  11  0 r t h opyroxe ne  8  Clinopyroxene  3  1  3  6  2  1  -  3  1  1  2  6  5  4  2  r  1  4  2  4  45  33  ^5  31  33  26  25  25  39  23  31  39  30  36  19  34  41  44  27  38  r  r  r  r  -  r  1  -  r  r  r  1  -  1  r  r  r  r  r  11  6  3  3  5  3  8  4  3  3  7  3  6  4  1  -  2  4  5  3  1  9  2  2  8  3  3  1  9  6  7  6  11  11  3  11  8  8  2  5  10  13  13  12  12  10  8  17  12  8  14  17  12  16  13  13  14  11  14  10  r*  r*  Amphibole Mica Chlorite L i t h i c Grains Indeterminate Others *  .  • -  '  r*  1 7 4 , 1 8 8 , 1 9 5 , sphene;  182,  195,  tourmaline;  10,  181,  spinel.  r = l e s s than  r  1*.  *  TABLE 24  180 S I Z E , ORGANIC CARBON AND CaCO^  ANALYSES.  BARKLEi SOUND Sample Gravel No.  3 0 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 7 3 9  40 48  5 0 53 5 5 5 6 57 5 8 60 6i 64  7 4 7 6 7 7 7 8 7 9  80 81 82  83  84  85 8 6 87 8 8 8 9 90 91  9 2 9 3 94 9 5 9 6 97 9 8 9 9 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 2  Sand  p  Silt  $  Clay  $  Mean  0  StiDev. Skew, Kurtosis  9 0 . 1 0 9 . 9 0 3 . 2 3 48.54 3 9 . 3 91 2 . 0 7 4 . 7 0 8 . 4 9 3 3 . 6 93 8 . 0 3 19.79 4 . 4 7 7 . 1 5 46.87 2 6 . 3 6 19.61 4 . 0 9 64.24 3 5 . 7 4 0 . 0 2 1 . 7 0 0 . 0 57 2 . 7 41 6 . 6 21 0 . 5 9 3 . 9 6 1 . 7 56 9 . 3 7 15.65 13.22 3 . 7 2 7 8 . 4 52 1 . 5 3 0 . 0 2 3 . 1 5 28.87 71.11 0 . 0 2 -0.48 82.45 1 7 . 1 9 0 . 3 5 2 * 0 2 7 9 . 8 3 19.79 0 . 3 7 3 . 4 4 9 9 . 7 4 0 . 2 6 2 . 9 3 9 9 . 4 3 0 . 5 7 2 . 9 8 9 8 . 8 3 1 . 1 7 3 . 0 6 2 3 . 2 65 0 . 0 32 6 . 7 1 6.46 1 7 . 2 2 48,29 3 4 . 4 9 6 . 9 5 15.6 4 3 . 6 40.8 1 3 . 1 24 3 . 0 52 1 . 3 12 2 . 5 2 4 . 0 9 2 3 . 8 74 3 . 6 23 2 . 5 1 6.82 9 9 . 4 9 0 . 5 1 2 . 9 8 3 3 . 6 0 40.41 25.91 6 . 0 2 2 0 . 6 65 2 . 1 92 7 . 1 5 6 . 6 0 9 . 5 2 5 8 . 1 23 2 . 3 6 7 . 2 0 2 . 6 6 5 4 . 0 74 3 . 2 7 8.17 7 . 2 05 3 . 0 33 9 . 7 7 7 . 8 3 2 5 . 0 53 9 . 7 9 14.50 2 0 . 6 7 2 . 8 3 3.18 5 0 . 9 94 5 . 8 3 7 . 7 4 4 . 2 5 48.71 47.04 8.04 5.15 46.76 48.09  4 . 6 04 3 . 1 65 2 . 2 5 4 . 0 1 3 7 . 9 9 57.99 4.42 4 5 . 9 54 9 . 6 3 1 . 8 6 42.38 55o76 0 . 9 25 0 . 4 5 48.63 I.34 5 8 . 0 6 40.60 4 . 0 7 64.6l 3 1 . 3 2 2.28 4 5 . 6 05 2 . 1 2 4 . 6 35 0 . 7 74 4 . 6 0 1 . 2 1 3 5 . 3 26 3 . 4 7 0 . 5 33 1 . 5 86 7 . 8 9 3 . 8 55 2 . 9 24 3 . 2 3 48.98 2 7 . 4 3 9 . 9 4 1 3 . 6 5 0 . 5 5 44.41 5 5 . 0 5 2.46 4 3 . 2 05 4 . 3 4 4 . 0 5 40.45 5 5 . 5 0 8 . 3 73 2 . 9 52 1 . 6 33 7 . 0 5 4.91 5 0 . 7 8' + 4 . 3 1  8.28  8 . 6 3 8 . 7 6 8 . 3 0 8 . 9 5 8 . 0 2 8 . 0 5 6 . 9 7 8 . 6 2 7 . 9 4 8.40  9 . 7 4 8.14 1.04  8 . 9 2 8 . 9 0 8 . 9 6 5 . 6 9 8 . 1 2  0  0 . 7 5 0.14 2 . 1 7 O.67 3.64 4.40  0,48  1 . 3 2 1 . 9 4 0 . 7 5  0 . 3 7 1.04 2 . 3 0 0 . 7 9 0.42 2 . 3 3 0.64 2 . 3 9 3 . 2 9 0 . 5 5 1 . 5 2 2.18 0.81 0 . 7 4 1 . 2 30 . 2 7 I..06 0 . 9 7 0 . 4 3 0 . 7 8 2 . 5 2 0 . 7 9 0.82 0.42 0 . 0 5 1 . 0 6 0 . 4 7 O.07 1.08 0.42 0 . 0 5 0 . 9 3 3 . 2 6 0 . 5 4 1 . 0 6 3 . 3 9 0 . 4 5 1 . 0 2  4.84  0.24  3 . 5 0 O.36 0 . 5 1 0 . 0 2 3.28 0 . 5 2 3 . 2 3 0 . 5 4 3 . 3 0 0 . 4 7 3 . 2 2 0 . 3 7  C  $ 0.84  CaCOo  %  5  0 . 9 5  1 . 3 6 13.18 1 . 1 3 4 . 9 3 2 . 0 72 5 . 7  0 . 1  6.41  1 . 2 1  3.82  1 . 2 0 2 . 3 1 1 1 . 2 0 0 . 9 7 1.18  1 . 0 1 1 . 4 9 4.84 1 . 0 5 1 . 4 3 2 * 6 6 1 . 0 3 1.08 1.64 4 . ' 5 0 3.31 O.36 1 . 0 7 4.80 0 . 5 9 0 . 6 9 2.91 5 . 6 5 2 . 7 4 0 . 1 9 1 . 0 6 3 . 3 0 9 . 3 0 2 . 9 8 O.23 1 . 1 1 3.17 0.24 1.14 3 . 8 0 3 . 5 8 3 . 0 9 0.24 1 . 3 3 3 . 0 1 0 . 1 8 1.51 3 . 0 3 0 . 2 1 1 . 2 7 2 . 9 5 0 * 3 1 1 . 3 0 2.71 2 . 1 6 2.71 0 . 2 0 1.18 3 . 0 3 0 . 3 8 1 . 1 1 I.83 3 . 2 5 2 . 9 3 0 . 4 3 I.06 3 . 2 9 0 . 2 2 1.08 3 . 2 3 0 . 2 9 1.04 0 . 6 8 5 . 6 5 2 . 3 60 . 2 2 1 . 5 4 3 . 1 6 1.08 3 . 0 6 0 . 2 5 1 . 0 5 3 . 0 6 0 . 3 3 1 . 1 1 1 . 9 8 9 . 1 1 4 . 7 0 0.71 1 . 0 9 2 . 8 8 0 . 3 4 1 . 2 7 2 . 5 8 2 . 3 3 3 . 0 3 0 . 2 9 1 . 3 2 3.08 0 . 2 6 1 . 3 0 3.91 2 . 9 2 5.04 0 . 1 3 0 . 8 3 3 . 3 3 0 . 2 7 1.08 5 . 0 6 0 . 0 0  TABLE 24 Sample Gravel No.  Sand  Silt  Clay  6.15 1.12 7.78 42.71 71.56 1.04 1.09 0.98 42.40 31.42 O.65 0.71 0.88 37.74 2.24 10.09 78.77 3.13 20.78 3.63 9.52 17.22 11.74 0.71 26.22 0.99 64.92 36.71 2.56 6.24 6.73 6.17 11.81 O.76 1.06 84.09 6.84 48.72 95.79 99.59 98.41 85.33 97.22 44.30 20.29 88.32 81.35 97.64 99.97  42.16 49.44 44,95 20.56 4.64 40.03 27.50 31.91 29.68 31.07 31.30 38.29 37.57 10.46 38.91 9.53 7.38 31.49 25.17 41.33 39.54 20.49 6.71 31.38 14.43 29.47 10.12 33.98 49.76 46.31 58.40 32.15 32.0? 33.89 35.27 7.46 44.68 0.04 0.05 O.25 1.52 14.67 2.48 0.09 0.22 0.15 4.45 1.99 0.03  8.48 51.69 49.44 8.76 47.27 8.19 5.02 30.43 1.50 12.33 9.34 58.93 71.41 9.98 67.ll 9.31 26.43 5.29 37.50 6.51 68.05 9.53 61.OI ' 9.43 61.56 9.51 26.83 3.03 58.85 9.15 12.14 0.50 2.27 9.17 9.38 65.38 8.00 54.05 55.04 8.85 50.94 8.47 29.76 3.57 11.04 -0.33 67.91 9.85 21.56 2.49 69.54 9.73 2.42 12.51 6.19 29.31 47.68 8.11 47.45 8.02 7.16 34.87 61.68 9.38 56.12 8.72 9.27 65.35 63.68 9.39 8.45 3.05 48.48 8.27 -1.11 2.48 2.80 2.90 3.38 2,01 -0.79 -2.32 1.Q9 1.47 •2.52 2.59  P  103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 " 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 130 131 133 134 135 136 137 139 140 244 245 257 258 259 260 262 263 267 270 271 272 273 274  6.30 11.47  1.49  24.97 68.25 4.68  32.54 70.51 37.80 12.45  51.24 4.17 0.16 0.06 0.30 55.61 79.49 11.52 14.19 0.37  181  (cont.) $  %  Hean  0  St .Dev. Skew. Kurtosis  0  3.49 3.20 3.48 4.79 3.30 3.07 3.09 2.82 3.98 3.62 3.26 3.10 3.05 4.76 3.11 4.39 2.66 3.11 4.27 3.19 3.49 5.68 4.21 3.15 5.39 2.89 3.87 3.43 2.91 2.87 2.43 3.51 3.86 2.94 3.28 I.69 2.86 1.84 0.90 0.52 0.56 0.89 1.28 2.09 1.37 1.30 1.36 1.11 0.58  0.18 O.36 0*20 0.27 0.51 ' 0.35 0.28 0.19 0.34 0.27 0.29 0.30 0.32 O.63 0.26 0.95 0.33 0.22 -0.05 0.23 0.18 0.05 0.89 0.27 0.32 0.35 0.43 0.50 0.23 0.14 0.08 0.18 0.04 0.21 0.23 0.45 0.14 -0.02 -0.49 0.00 0.04 -0.160.00 1.19 0,36 -0.53 O.36 -0.39 -0.21  5  CaCOo %  1.22 5.70 1.25 1.07 5.48 0.00 1.13 0.88 2.14/ 4.75 2.69 0.97 4.15 3.25 0.95 1.62 1.06 . 2.13 5.25 0.93 1.02 . 1.00 2.25 5.75 0.98 0.54 2.56 9.13 I.23 2.82 10.20 1.40 2.78 6.91 2.32 2.34 2.73 1.23 4.91 4.33 4.56 1.84 0.97 1.28 1.21 2.88 5.66 0.57 1.44 3.22 1.58 0.95 0.62 , 0.99 1.38 2.78 6;5o 3.86 4.16 0.95 7.72 0.00 1.19 1.42 8.20 3.82 9. 28 0.00 1.15 6.14 0.00 1.17 1.35 1.47 3.71 3.51 0.98 2.07 3.85 3.35 1.13 0.79 2.31 . 1.28 1.16 1.79 0.83 0.25 O.65 1.76 0.2.9 1.02 1.03 0.1 1.0 :  182 TABLE 24 Sample Gravel d No. P  2 7 7 2 8 0 281 282  2 8 3  289  2 9 3 2 9 7 2 9 9 3 0 0 3 0 1 3 0 9 3 1 4 3 1 5 3 1 6 3 1 7 3 1 9 3 2 1 3 2 5 3 4 0 342  3 4 3 3 4 7 3 4 9 3 5 2 3 5 3  (cont.) Sand  t  Silt  Clay  a' P  7 . 4 5 42.7 9 . 8 54 0 . 1 3 2 1 . 9 47 8 . 0 5 0 . 0 2 28.80 7 1 . 2 0 71.25 28.54 0 . 2 1 17.57 82.31  Mean  0  St.Dev. Skew, Kurtosis  0  0 . 5 9 1 . 5 4 -0.46 0 . 3 5 1 . 5 5 -0.48 -O.38 1 . 1 6 -0.19 1 . 7 5 1 . 6 6 0.46  5 9 . 5 1 40.49 -1.43 0 . 1 39 9 . 8 6 0 . 0 1 2.14 38.81 6 1 . 1 7 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 9 5 2 . 7 5 46.88 0 . 3 7 • = 0 . 3 9 31.99 6 7 . 9 8 0 . 0 3 O.96 5 5 . 1 34 4 . 6 8 0.18 1 . 4 5 46.35 5 3 . 0 9 0 . 5 5 0 . 0 2 38.04 5 9 . 1 0 2 . 8 5 0.41 1 9 . 0 67 8 . 9 5 2 . 0 0 0 . 8 5 7 . 5 8 88.40 4 . 0 2 3 . 3 9 6 0 . 3 03 9 . 7 0 1 . 4 4 1 6 . 0 0 40.10 4 3 . 9 0 9 4 . 9 6 4 . 9 9 0 . 0 5 -3.04 9 4 . 8 8 5 . 1 2 2 . 4 3 1 5 . 6 98 3 . 9 6 0 . 3 5 0 . 6 0 0 . 4 99 9 . 2 6 0 . 2 5 1 . 1 1 3 0 . 1 3 65.66 4 . 2 0 0 . 5 0 9 9 . 9 6 0 . 0 5 2.46 1 6 . 1 78 3 . 8 3 0 . 4 3 35.08 6 4 . 6 9 0 . 2 2 0 . 3 4  1 . 0 3 0 . 9 1 0 . 9 4 O.76  0 . 0 1 0 . 7 8 0 . 5 6 -0.19 1 . 2 2 2 . 1 60 . 0 7 0 . 3 4 2 . 0 0 0.82 0 . 3 4 1 . 7 50 . 5 6 0 . 3 7 1 . 5 3 0.51 0 . 3 3 1 . 9 8 1 . 0 0 0 . 3 9 1.91 1 . 0 9 0 . 2 5 2.04 0 . 3 0 O.63 1.14 0 . 5 9 3 . 5 0 1 . 4 5 0 . 3 1 0 . 6 5 1.42  1 . 3 00 . 0 1 0 . 7 0 0 . 8 8 0.14 1.04 I.65 0 . 0 1 1 . 0 0 O.69 -0.04 1 . 0 6 2 . 3 1 0 . 2 6 0 , 6 8 0.40 0 . 1 2 0 . 9 0 O.63 0 . 1 2 1 . 1 0 2 , 0 10 . 2 0 0 . 9 6  C  fo  CaCOo  $  3  0 . 2 0 3 . 2 5  7 . 7 0 5 . 4 5  0 . 2 5  1.42  133 TABLE  24  (cont.)  Sample Gravel No. fo  1  Sand  CONTINENTAL  Silt  fo  Clay  fo  i  40.97 31.24 1 6 . 6 2 11.17  5  92.48  6 7 8 9  1 0  143 144  145  146  147 148 149 1 5 0 151  1 5 2 153  7 . 5 2  161 1 6 2 1 6 3 164 1 6 5  166  1 6 7  168  1 6 9  1 7 0 171  1 7 2 24  %  0 . 9 2 4 . 6 i 0 . 4 9 0 . 7 5 1 . 2 3  0 . 8 0 -1.10 -1.38 6 . 2 9 5.91  1 . 3 8  0.45 0 . 7 2 0.20 0.90 1.17 1.03 0 . 2 8  O . 3 7 4 . 6 3 0.55 3 . 0 3 0.74 2 . 5 3 0 . 7 0 3 . 2 7 0.42 2 . 9 6 0 . 5 9  0 . 7 5 1 . 7 9  2 . 8 9 1.0  2 . 8 0  1 . 2 7 1.91 0 . 9 0 0 . 8 9  0 . 8 3 5 . 6 0  1 . 1 6 1.46 1.41 0 . 9 7  2.40 3*90  1,46 0 , 6 5 1.84 1;33 i»40 4 , 3 2  100.00 2 . 1 6 0.55 -0.04 0 . 9 1 27.84 5 9 . 3 6 5.55 7.25 O.36 2.92 0.17 1.30 1.25  3.42  55.42  1 0 . 3 7  1 9 . 0 57 9 . 3 9 1.57 1.14 96.19 2 . 6 7 14.94 8 2 . 6 9 2 . 3 7 9 8 . 2 9 1.71 2.86 9 5 . 3 9 1.75  42.00  4.66 1 . 8 3  0 . 5 8  0.39 2.59 -0.82  2 . 2 1 0.62 -0.21  2 . 2 1  0 . 6 2 1 . 2 5  I.69  1.55  1 . 3 5 1.40 -0.54 0 . 7 2 0 . 2 9 2.64 0.42 -0.12 1.28 0.23 1 . 5 6 1.13' -0.32 1.08 42.62 6 . 0 6 9 . 3 2 0 . 9 5 2 . 6 9 O.27 O.61 1.45  2.94 77.78  7.67 11.62  2.49 9 5 . 2 0 2 , 3 2  9 2 . 9 5 7.05 9 8 . 9 9 1 . 0 1  1 6 0  CaCCU  i  2 . 5 8  1 5 6 1 5 7 159  C  5.92 2 . 6 7 0.60 1.49 0.80  3 4 . 2 1  1 5 4  1 5 8  0  4 . 3 8 i.38 O . 5 6  17.58 6 3 . 3 7 19.05  6 1 . 2 3 38.77 7 0 . 5 7 29.42  155  St.Dev; Skew* Kurtosis  9 8 . 5 4 1.46 -3.57 1.01 • 3 7 . 9 34 5 . 3 81 0 . 8 4 5.85 O.50 3.54 5 6 . 0 74 3 . 3 5 0.58 -1.74 2 . 6 0 O.78 62.28 3 6 . 9 4 7.56 2.46  18  2 0  0  2 7 . 6 65 6 . 4 7 9.54 6 . 3 3 0.93 3.16 0.12 1 . 0 3 O.96 8 0 . 2 71 9 . 6 5 O.07 -2.66 1 . 6 5 0 . 6 3 0.80 0 . 0 7  48.86 2 7 . 7 01 2 . 4 71 0 . 9 8 11 66.01 2 0 . 3 1 6 . 1 3 7;55 1 2 66.51 2 7 ; 0 5 2.89 3.56 13 24.14 5 0 . 9 2 24.94 15. 24.34 5 6 . 3 8 19.28 ,  Mean  2 5 . 3 05 8 . 6 2 16.08 5 . 4 9 2.48 0.68 1.87 0.80  2  3 4  SHELF  3 . 3 9 2 . 9 2 0 . 6 4 4 , 3 4 1 , 7 8  2.10 O.63 -0.17  1.41  1.0 1.0 3 . 7 5 5.84  -I.76 1 . 3 9 1 . 0 5 0.42 0.1 0 . 0 1 2 , 1 2 1 . 6 5 0.52 0,55 8 . 6 35 5 . 1 63 6 . 2 1 7,30 2 , 6 9 0.20 1.17 1 . 6 1  2 . 9 1  6.20 48.06 4 5 . 7 4 8 . 1 6 3 . 2 0 0 . 2 7 l.l6 2 . 0 1  1.42  -3.97 1.16 0.72 -4.83 0.52 0.18  0.91 0 . 5 0  1 9 . 5 84 3 . 4 93 6 . 9 3 6 . 7 9 3.37 0 . 2 1 1 . 1 0 1 , 7 0  11.26 48.26 2 6 . 3 6 14.12 3.77 4.03. 0 . 2 9 1 . 5 4 0.48  60.4l 2 7 . 9 6 II.63 4.30 6 8 . 3 7 21.99 9.64 3.97 2 5 . 5 26 1 . 3 61 3 . 1 3 5.22 8.93 6 9 . 2 7 21.80 6 . 3 2  6 . 9 6 19.14 4 5 . 7 0 28.20  2.50 2.14 2.17 2 . 7 2  1.0  0 . 5 8  8 . 1 0  0.64 1 . 5 4 0,74 O . 6 7 0.75 1.90 O.54 0.17 0.60 1.84 I.06 3 . 1 6 O . 5 6 I.36 1.12 1.66  5 . 7 3 4.55 0 . 0 2 I . 3 8 1 . 2 0  5 . 6 37 0 . 4 52 3 . 9 1 6 . 5 2 2.86 0.57 1.19 1.25  4.14  0 . 2 5  3.94 64.92 31.14 7 . 1 9 3 . 0 6 0 . 5 0 1 . 0 5 1 . 4 31 . 1 6  1.76 4 9 . 6 24 8 . 6 2 8.74 3.25 0.37 1.00 1.84  6 1 . 8 5 19.03 19.11 4 . 8 3 3*20 0 . 8 3 1.11 0 , 6 9  1.6l 5 0 * 4 74 7 . 9 2 8.45 3.02 0.34 1.12 2.10 2 9 . 7 4 69.40 0.86 0.00 1.91 0.53 0 . 5 0 0.14 5 6 . 6 3 33.76 97.87  4 , 6 0 5.01 -1.14 3.19 0.70 -0.85 1 . 1 2  2.13  2 . 6 5  0.48 -0.14  1.41  3 . 1 6  .1.00  1 . 5 9 1.0  4,00  184 TABLE 24  Sample G r a v e l No.  i  •  173 174  81.68  175 176 177  71.82  178  179 180 181 182 183 185 187 188  189 190 191 192  72.01  93.01 35.38 23.70 4.80 13.16 0.6l  22.48  38.48  66.16  195  93.78 95.59  198  204  205 206 207  94.69 89.61  43.76 93.47 52.36  65.67 0.02  208  209 210 211 213  28.18  6.98  41.80  76.30 94.44  85.37 83.13 59.38 43.01 21.90  6.17  95.80 5.31  10.39 45.56 1.53 47.44 22.12  99.94 99.78 98.45  O.03  95.47 4.80  ,  silt,  Skew.  1.49  0.80 2.24  0.76 1.47  1.69 3*00  8.86  7.40 8.93 9.22 4.75  9.20 9.30 7.20  0.14  0.69 0.02 0.02  1.86  1.16 -0.90 2.37 =1.79  3.56  2.01 2.74 0.70 0.80 0.66  3.66  -3.80  2.67  -3-82  0.20  0.62 2.62  -1.31 -1.19  12.21  0.03 1.55  3.63  4.50  50.10  0.53  2.38 2.62 2.25 2.94  45.10 expressed  as  0.46 0,41  1.00  weight  ( F o l k and Ward,  = Graphic kurtosis  = Calcium  carbonate,  as  as  *  1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0  3.33  1.14 1.42 0.46  2.24  0.1  1.0  1.16 1.15 0.88 0.75 0.16  2.51  4.20 0.75  1.42 2.08 1.0  1.42  0.6l 0.60 0.18  1.15  0.42  0,69 0.97 0.92 1.36 1.28  1.25  C l  1.0  0.1  1.0  0.39  1.0  0.89  5.85  1957)  1957) 1957) of total  weight percent  3  1.0 1.0  percent  weight percent  expressed  0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.67 0.13 0.23 0.31 0,99  CaCOo  1957)  (Folic and Ward,  expressed  C i  1.10  0.24  0=46  ( F o l k and Ward,  0.42 0.48  ~2.11 0.30 0.76 0.11 -0.12 -0.19 -.0.51  2.82  2.04  0.22  0.85 5.54 1.05 0.78 1.70 1.06 0.55 0.74 1.20 3.31 0.90 0.89 0.94  1.81  1.81  -3.54  2.19  0.57 0.15  1.44  -0.79  •1.59 0.98 0.54 O.96 0.89 0.55  -0.08  1.40  -3.13  5.63  clay  2.70  -4.il  0.01  1.87 0.93 1.19 1.79 3.24 4.01  2.22 4.82  -0.35  4.20  0.09 -0.70 -0.52 -0.55 0.65 0.07 0.06 0.73 0.01 0.15 0.10 0.58 0.59 0.68 O.63 0.83 =0.22 0.79 0.30  4.47  1.32 1.32 2.27 3.82  -0.14  23.31 12.63 9.01  0.19 0.64 0.45  1.51 1.13  3.34 0.4i 2.34  -4.501 8.28  0.83  2.73  -3o32 1.79.  Kurtosis  -  = S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ( F o l k and W a r d ,  C = Organic carbon, CaCO  10,87  Skextf.  0  -1.94  0.01 11.95  = G r a p h i c skewness  Kurtosis  0  -1.81  Mean = mean g r a i n s i z e St,Dev.  St.Dev.  Mean  -3.15  1.22 4.4i  96.18  sand  0.01  7.43 23.43 56.30 16.32 78.10 12.89 56". 57 0.35  0.18  Gravel,  Clay  27.99  84.13 44.10  43.08  200 202 203  18.32  9.17  93.81 0.i6  Silt  t.  99.86 46.29 69.41  193  196 197  $  53.02 30.57  14.74  194  (cont.)  Sand  sediment  of t o t a l  sediment  185  APPENDIX 4 TABLE  25 ,  LIST OF GENERA FROM BARKLEY SOUND AND  .  CONTINENTAL SHELF  GENERA  SAMPLE LOCALITIES  PORIFERA  124  COELENTERATA  125, 157, 203,206.  BRYOZOA  3, 10, 125,  174,  203, 204.  BRACHIOPODA Terebratalia  33, 50, 125.  Laqueus  125,  157,  160, 172.  MOLLUSCA AMPHINEURA  203, 204.  GASTROPODA Haliotis  40.  Diodora  234.  f i s s u r e l l i d indet.  202.  Acmaea  39, 50, 156, 203, 232,234.  Margarites  50, 146.  Calliostoma  74  Tegula  39,  Astraea  234, 275, 301.  Homalopoma  40,  Littorina  271,  Serpulorbis  6, 10, 32,  Spirorbis  197.  Bittium  30, 58,  234, 301. 50. 301. 74, 157, 171, 176,  64,  76, 232.  232.  TABLE 25  186  (cont.)  Epitonium  50.  Trichotropis  40,  Calyptraea  157,  Crepidula  39, 234,  Natica  58,  Polinices  3, 257,  Trophon  76.  Thais  234.  Mitrella  30,124, 187, 198, 204, 208.  Amphissa  3, 8, 171,  196.  Nassarius  6, 37, 40,  74.  Olivella  30, 207,  Retusa  187.  Sulcoretusa  198.  Turbonilla  39,  56.  Cylichna  58,  86.  50,  53.  204.  301.  165. 301.  40, 74, 153,  263.  174,  187, 198, 204,  gastropods indet. SCAPHOPODA  153,  141,  176,  177,  204.  Dentalium PELECYPODA  58,  79, 124,  187.  Acila Nuculana  2, 3,  Yoldia  3, 8, 171,  Glyoyraeris  16,  Mytilus  39, 40,  Chlamys  74,  195. 195,  58, 79, 89,  234,  33, 40,  262,  263..  320.  325. 271, 283,  50,  322.  156, 176,  195.  205,  187 TABLE 25  (cont.)  pectihids indet.  3, 6, 33, 50, 55, 154, 234. .  196, 204, 208,  171,  Crassostrea  270.  Anomia  117.  Pododesmus  234.  Astarte  125,  Thyasira  133.  Lucinoraa  119. •  l u c i n i d s indet.  64, 84,  Clino cardium  33, 232, 270.  Nemocardium  3, 8, 143,  Protothaca  234, 258, 301, 316, 317.  Venerupis  272, 301.  Saxidomus  270, 315.  Humilaria  40.  Compsomyax  16, 30, 37, 130.  Psephidia  55, 74.  Spisula  317.  Tresus  301, 317.  Tellina  3,.8,  153,  154, 174,  176,  195,:  176.  85, 93.  171, 195, 204,  40,  66,  82,  209,  83, 103,  104, 124,  23, 24, 33, 58, 60, 111, 124, 127,146,  148, 187, 195,  205,  Ma coma  33, 86, 272.  Semele  234.  Mya  37, 270.  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