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The ores of Copper Mountain, British Columbia Wright, Harold M. 1933

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TIE CBB5 OF COPPER SIOIKfTAIH  A Thesis submitted f o r the Degree o f SASfiG OF  ARTS  ' .  i n the Department of GSOLO.Gy.  I HE • US I ViiliS ITI W-BMTlQB A p r i l , I9BS  COLOMBIA  I.  IEKIGBUGTIQK AND ACKHOV/JuBDGSiKJiTS. ........................... I  I I . TOPOGRAPHY.. „............................... ..................... 3 o 5  I I I . GEOLOGY. Geological n i s t o r y . , . , . . . , . . . . . » . . « . » . « . . . » . » < » . » t o 5 B  5  Local Geology* ...................................... •» 6 (a ) Older Roclcs.»......................... 6 (b) Stocks-phases.......................... 8 (c} Other Int r u s i v e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 {d) I 3 s t r u s i v e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 I ? . ORE DEPOSITS...........  .  .14  (a ) Structure......................................... 14 ( b ) F r a c t u r i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 (o} R e l a t i o n t o Copper Mountain  Stock................20  (dj Composition: Ore. 22 Gangue......................... ..•.....» 24 Alteration...  ..................24  (e) Mineralogy ami Para genesis.......................25 ilypogene i'jinei'ai i za tion,»............ 30 Supergene E n r i a b s e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S3 {fj Origin........... 7.  SUMMARY, COECJLUSIOSfS.  .................43  <;..... .............. 46 Bibliography........................48  ILLUSTRATION P l a t e I . Index Map of B r i t i s h Columbia  Page ................. I  „.  P l a t e I I . Geological and Topographical Map of Copper ilountain Area... . . . . . . . . . . i n f o l d e r at ba P l a t e I I I . Cross -flection aJ o-",.y l i n e .'•''> of Geological i2ap........ ..... 9 P l a t e IV. Photograph of 3imilkameen Hiver V a l l e y . P l a t e ¥.  4  Photograph of G1OT.V-.HO1G and "Mine Dyke"  .12  Plate VI. F i g . I . Photograph of Glory-Hole and v e r t i c a l l y d i p p i n g "Dylce".... 13 P i g , 2. Photograph of Glory-Hole and G l a c i a l Debris..........,.,«. 13 P l a t e V I I . Plan and Cross Sections of Copper f o u n t a i n Orebodios...... 16 P l a t e V I I I . Photograph showing Practtires i n the Ore..•.»•».««..••.... ...18 P l a t e IXo Camera Lucida Drawing showing'relation betv/eon Bornite and P e ^ p a t t t i o M a t e r i a l i n i'ractures..... . . . . 2 i P l a t e A« P i g . I . Camera Lucida Drawing, Hematite l a t e r than i l a g n e t i t e . . . . . .29 P i g . 2. Camera Lucida Drawing, Blades of. Hematite i n Gangue.......29 Plate XI. _ P i g . I . Camera Lucida Drawing, C a l c i t e l a t e r than Bomite.........31 P I g 2. Camera Lucida Prav;ing„ C a l c i t e l a t e r than r.!a<?net-ite.......31 B  -Plate X I I , P i g . I . Camera Lucida Drawing, C a l c i t e l a t e r than c h a l c o p y r i t e . . . .32 P i g . 2. Camera Lucida Drawing, C a l c i t e l a t e r than Hematite,.......32 Plate XIII. . . .. P i g . I . Photomicrograph, Chalcopyrite l a t e r than isornif e..........34 P i g . 2. Photograph, p o l i s h e d surface of Ore, Blades of Chalcopyrite... P l a t e XIV. ' • i i g . I . Camera Lucida Drawing, Chalcopyrite l a t e r than Bornite....35 P i g . 2. Camera Lucida Drawing, Chalcopyrite l a t e r than B o r n i t e . . ..35 P l a t e XV. , P i g . I . Photomicrograph, Graphic Intorgrowth of B o r n i t e & Chalcocite.. a o o o e o o a a oO i P i g . 2. Photomicrograph, Graphic i n t e r growth of B o r n i t e & C l i a l c o c i t o . . s o o o e o e o s D « <)? a  Plate r / I . i^ago P i g . I . Camera Lucida Drawing, Chalcoeite Vein i n Bornite.....«... 39 P i g . 2. Camera Lucida Drawing, C h a l c o c i t e rimnnng Boniite.........39 P l a t e XVII. P i g . I«'Camera Lucida Drawing, C o v e l l i t e r e p l a c i n g B o r n i t e and Chalcopyri t e.............. o F i g . 2„ Camera Lucida Drawing, C o v e l l i t e r e p l a c i n g Chalcopyrite...41 P l a t e XVIII» P i g . I Camera Lucida Drawing, C o v e l l i t e r e p l a c i n g Chalcopyrite 0  P i go 2. Camera Lucida Drawing, C o v e l l i t e and Chalcocite r e p l a c i n g Chalcopyrite and B o r n i t e . « a . « . « « 4 2 P l a t e XIX. F i g . I . Photomicrograph, C o v e l l i t e r e p l a c i n g B o r n i t e and Chalcopyrite...........44 P i go 2,, Photomicrograph, rjupergeno Chalcocite c u t t i n g across Chalcopyrite.„......... 44 P l a t e XX. / P i g . I . Camera Lucida-Drawing, Supergene Chalcopyrite r e p l a c i n g Bomite............... .45 P i g . 2. Camera Lucida Drawing, Supergene Chalcopyrite and C o v e l l i t e In B o r n i t e . . ...»-....«...«*«««, *:«45  BRITISH OOLmiBIA  • I.  IKT3GJ)UCTIOH AlW ACPTJQWHBDGEHMTS. The Copper Mountain Mine whose ores are discussed I n t h i s report  i a a property belonging to the Granby" Consolidated Mining, Smelting and Power Company. I t i s one of the p r i n c i p a l copper deposits i n B r i t i s h Colombia, ranking t h i r d with a production In 1522 o f 22 5Gi- ,7S8 pounds o f 5  1  copper along with small amounts of gold and s i l v e r . Phe denos.it I s s i t u a t e d ir, the Sitoilkaraeen D i s t r i c t o f B r i t i s h Columbia, (Plate I J, twenty m i l e s north o f the Canada, United atates boundary and twelve m i l e s south o f P r i n c e t o n w i t h which i t i s connected by a good auto road and a bra is oh of the K e t t l e V a l l e y R a i l r o a d both o f which pass through A i l e n b y where the mine ores are concentrated. P r i n c e t o n i s 150 miles east o f Vancouver* i'or a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the p h y s i c a l features, the geology and economic aspects of the area the reader Is r e f e r r e d to a p u b l i c a t i o n of the Geological Survey of Canada by Dr. V. Dolmage which i s i n the course o f p u b l i c a t i o n . The w r i t e r Is very g r a t e f u l to I r . Bolmage under whose supervision t h i s woiv. was done, f o r help and advice at a l l timea.  Acknowledgement i s  here matio o f the use given the w r i t e r by I r . Dolus ge of h i s manuscripts and maps on the area.  I t i s f r e e l y admitted thai a considerable amount  of the information profered here has teen obtained frora.Ir. DoImage e i t h e r through personal contact or h i s manuscripts.  Por a l l t h i s tho w r i t e r  expresses h i s thanks.- Appreciation i s a l s o voiced to Mr. Alexander jraith  PLATE I. Index map of southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia showing l o c a t i o n of Copper Mountain,  v  and Vx. C l i f f o r d 3. l o r d f o r f r e .uor.t h e l p f u l suggestions.  II.  T u? 0 3:1-'-? i FY. The d i s t r i c t th s i t u a t e d i n the oimil^aseen R i v e r basin which  i s bounded on the south by the Cascade llountain System, on the n o r t h by the i n t e r i o r plateaus of B r i t i s h Columbia and on the east by the Okanagan Valley. The .'•iailkamcen basin I s part of the extonsive,  comparatively  f l a t plateau system which ranges through c e n t r a l B r i t i s r ; Columbia. E l e v a t i o n s range from 3000 to SOCO f e e t .  There i s a gradual r i s e to the south where  the plateau merges with the high and ragged Sascade System. The dirailkameen r i v e r i s the c h i e f drainage feature of the area. It r i s e s In the Hosomeen mountains, a part of the Cascade system, and north to Princeton where i t unites w i t h the Tnlameen r i v e r . then southeast  flows  The trend i s  to a point just below the ^9th. p a r a l l e l where the Tulameen  flows i n t o «=. Ghanagan r i v e r . The topography i s f a i r l y mature and i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a plateau region. northward slope.  It i s  succession of f i a t topped ridges w i t h a gentle  The vaxleys are V shaped except where modified by .glaciers*  The l a r g e r t r i b u t a r i e s of the hirailicwaeen are separated by rounded spurs, Copper f o u n t a i n being-e:cempletive  of the spur l y i n g between tho oimillcameen  on t.-.e west and V.'olf creel:, i t ' s l a r g e s t t r i b u t a r y on ti..o east. The topography of the area under immediate d i s c u s s i o n i s shown on the accompanying g e o l o g i c a l and topographical mar) (Plate I I , i n i'oMerj, A section along the l i n e A3 ( P l a t e I I I ) shows the nature of tuo f l a t topped rounded spurs and tho V shaped v a l l e y s . (Plate' £V).  PLATE IV. Photograph of Similkameen .River • v a l l e y showing a t y p i c a l V shaped valley.  The Similkameen R i v e r i s  entrenching i t s e l f i n the bottom. Part of the mine workings can be seen i n the distance on the l e f t . View l o o k i n g south.  • i l l . GEOLOGY. GEOLOGICAL. HI3xu.il' The Copper fountain d i s t r i c t i s part of a much l a r g e r area which i s q u i t e s i m i l a r g e o l o g i c a l l y . This d i s t r i c t i s bounded on the west by the Coast Bange b a t h o l i t a and on the east b~ Dawson's i n s w a p s e r i e s c o n s i s t i n g of Precaribriariechists.  The Shuswap s e r i e s i s o v e r l a i n by  the  Cache Creek s e r i e s c o n s i s t i n g of limestone and other sediments w i t h i n t e r c a l a t e d volcai-.ics.  The h i e o l a s e r i e s of probable T r i a s s i c age i s  found above the Cache Cree:-: and c o n s i s t s of v o i c a a i c s and a r g i i l i t o s . . The Wolf Creek formation of probable T r i a s s i c age are the oldest rocks encountered In the map  area.  These rocks occupy alarge part of the  area napped, are e n t i r e l y volcanic and are steeply folded along a nortmvest. sotttheast a s i s . Extending i n t o the J u r a s o i c are more v o l c a n i c s and sediments*, These are above the Cache Creek s e r i e s . Above these again are a thlc?; series of f i n e - g r a i n e d sediments with a few t u f f s , x*anging i n age from Upper t-nrassic to Lower Cretaceous. B a t h o l i t l r i c i n t r u s i o n s on an. Immense s c a l e took place In the period, extending from the l a t e J u r a s s i c to the Tertiary,, These i n t r u s i o n s c o n s i s t i n g l a r g e l y of various phases of d i o r i t e were responsible f o r the f o l d i n g and e l e v a t i o n " o f the o l d e r formations and the subsequent recession of ..part.and the r e t e n t i o n of the r e s t of tr.e marine waters. i n continental sediments o-' Lower Cretaceous age being  This r e s u l t e d  deposited.  In Upper Cretaceous time i n t r u s i o n of b a t l o l i t h s was again  the  order of events with contemporaneous f o l d i n g and In some cases overturning of the older roo>*:s. This orogenic movement was' followed, by erosion, extrusion of lavas and d e p o s i t i o n of some continental Tertiary sediments..  The•Iliocene period was c h a r a c t e r i s e d by f u r t h e r orogeny, i n t r u s i o n s of ba~h.pl i t l i s and extrusions t a k i n g place on a.-large scale«> These various periods of i n t r u s i v e and e x t r u s i v e a c t i v i t y a r e shown to a c e r t a i n i n the map area,.. The o l d e r Volf Creek v o l c a n i c s a r e intruded by several a u g i t e - d i o r i t e stocks, the l a r g e s t and most important economically b e i n g the Copper Mountain stock, part o f which i s exposed i n the west c e n t r a l part of the sheet* smaller area i n the-northeasts  The Voigt stoctt. occupies a somewhat  This l a t t e r stoc : i s probably connected  'with the Smelter La :e stoc it a small part of which i s exposed ir. the canyon of the Similtomocn r i v e r i n the extreme n o r t h . P e f p a t i t e and other d-ise-s ranging i n age from Mesozoic to T e r t i a r y cut ihe u o l f Creiak f o r a s t i o n ar.<d the stocks in various  places*  i n the  extreme northeast c o m e r i s asmaller area of g r a n i t e known as the Verde Greek granite.. Post Oligocoae lavas o v e r l y the older r o c s i n the northern part of the area*.  The thic.t mantle of g l a c i a l m a t e r i a l s shows that i n  Pleistocene time g l a c i e r s r/ere a c t i v e over the region. LOCAL SBOLOSY (a) Older Hocks.  The  oldest roc. .s oncomitored  i n the map area c o n s i s t o f a s e r i e s  of volcanic.- flo .vs, t u f f s and b r e c c i a s and are c a l l e d the Wolf Creek formation* :  These stocks underly a l a r g e part of the area, o-.vjopt f o r two stocks and some younger v o l c a n i c s i n the extreme noi*th  0  The beds of t h i s formation s t r i k e  i n a northwesterly d i r e c t i o n and d i p a t steep a n g l e s  The  s e r i e s v a r i e s over the area*  0  i n the south they c o n s i s t of  f i n e - g r a i n e d , w e l l bedded and banded dark brown tuff3o  Amygdaloidal basalts  are exposed i n the v i c i n i t y sout& of the Copper ^fountain stock i n the Similkameen canyon.  The .Volf Creek formation i n the northern part of the  7  TAB! E E11A  PERIOD  OF POll-.IATIOES PGSEiATicasr  LITBOLOOICAL OHAHACTBSISTIOS  CE-TOZOIC  Alluvium UHC0KF03KITY  |  PLEI3T0CEKE  Glacial Drift USCGHFQHMITY  POST 0LIG0C2KE  J Plows, B r e c c i a s , and necks of E n s t a t i t e , Andesite and basalt ©  "Tertiary Volcanica" "iline Dykes"  P e l s i t e porphyry, quarts porphyry, and Granophyro.  ;  POST . . • .. OLIGOGEliEV ''Verde Creek Granite"  -Granite  Pegmatite Dykes  Jlonzonite and Syenite Pegmatite.  Voigt Stock  ' Augite, D i o r i t e , Syeuod i o r i t e (orthoclase d i o r i t o j o 1  Smelter Lake Stock  Augite, D i o r i t e , Syenc— d i o r i t e (orthoclase diorite)© Orthoclase- A l b l t e pegmatite  Copper fountain d <. ~ ~ i.  1—  Syenodiorite (orthoclase— d i o r i t e ) jJonsonito. Syenogabbro  UHCCHFORMm. MSSO;;OIC OA ••  iVoAEOLuIC  T  Lost Horse Intusives I M 3DSIVE COBTACT ;7olf Creek Pormation  (orthoclaseg?.bbro }«  S t o c s and S i l l s of Augite, D i o r i t e & D i o r i t e Porphyrite* | Andesite. B a s a l t , . Trachyte, B r e c c i a s , Plows and Tuffs,,  8  map area i s made up l a r g e l y of b a s a l t i c flows.  A phase of t h i s formation  composeo. of medium to coarse dark green breccias i s very important i n that i t contains the orebodies of the d i s t r i c t .  This phase c o n s i s t s of angular  and rounded green to black p o r p h y r i t i c fragments i n a f i n e grained matrix. Augite and andesine-iabradorite are the dominant minerals w i t h minor amounts of hornblende, b i o t i t e and magnetite. Shearing i s intense i n t h i s formation and pegmstitic m a t e r i a l has been impregnated widely. Dr. Do linage d o u b t f u l l y c o r r e l a t e s these roc :s w i t h hawson's l l i c o l a Series of T r i a s s i c a g e (b) STOOItSo Ptoses, Intruded i n t o the steeply f o l d e d wolf Greek formation ore two and perhaps three d i s t i n c t stoe.cs of medium coarse grained-material and d i o r i t i c i n composition.  The Yoigt and Sneltor l a k e stocks are probably one and the  same, being connected beneath the T e r t i a r y lava flows*  The Copper Mountain  stock ;.-hich occupies a large area i n the c e n t r a l po rt i on of the d i s t r i c t mapped i s of prime importance on account of the r e l a t i o n i t bears to the ore deposits. The 'Copper. fountain stock, i s 6 miles l o n g by '6 miles .,ide and s t r i k e s northwest,  i n composition, i t c o n s i s t s of orthociase, m i c r o c l i n e , p l a g i o c l a s e ,  augite, b i o t i t e , hornblende and a p a t i t e ? a l l i n v a r y i n g amounts. A feature.of t h i s stock i s i t s d i v i s i o n i n t o three well defined zones c o n s i s t i n g o f a c e n t r a l core, an intermediate zone and an outer r,one«> These zones are w e l l shown i n the canyon of the SimilkaniGen r i v e r which cuts across the centre of the stock.  The three zones(Plate I I I ) markedly  d i f f e r both i n texture and composition.  Gneissic structures are -common i n  c e r t a i n parts of the stock ana f a u l t s with s n a i l displacement a r e f r e .nent'ly  Cross section along l i n e AB as shown on on accompanying g e o l o g i c a l map, P l a t e I I ( i n folderj„ This s e c t i o n shows type of topography w i t h ¥ shaped v a l l e y s , the perpendicular nature of the stock and the r e l a t i o n o f the orebodies and dykes to the stock.. [See next page).  COPPER  PfOUNTA/N _  4000  4S0O  .  4-000  .  3000  3SOO  3000  Z5~00  asoo  2O00  2000  COPPER MOUNTAIN A R E A SECTION  ALONG  Sco/e^ , hcr/^.on i~o/ one/ ver/'/co/  AS  ~~ / /nch fo /OOO  feef  feel-  Above Sea  Leva  found.  The outer zone Is fine-grained and ranges from syenogaboro at the  margin to syenodiorite on the inner-edge where i t grades i n t o the intermedi a t e zone.  This 2one i s f a i r l y coarse i n texture and v a r i e s from aye-no— .  d i o r i t e to moir: s u i t e .  The contact between t h i s 2one and the core i s very  sharp and tne texture changes to that of pegmatite*  Acessory minerals  such as a u g i t e and b i o t i t o disappear or are present only i n small q u a n t i t i e and the dominant minerals are those of the feldspar group along with apatite as the acessory.  Small amounts of c h a l c o p y r i t e and b o r n i t e are  scattered i n t h i s aone.  '  •  The stocks i n the northern part of the area are quite s i m i l a r i n mineral composition to the Copper Mountain stock,but d i f f e r i n that they are uniform i n character. On account of t h e i r homogeniety they are •• probably somewhat l a t e r i n age than the Copper fountain stock.  The Volgt  stock extends over a f a i r l y wide area i n the northwest part of the area :  w h i l e the Smelter Lake stock occupies only a very small part i n the canyon of the Similkameen but extends f o r some distance to the north. These two stocks are probably joined beneath the T e r t i a r y lavas which appear to separate them.  They consist of dark grey medium-grained angite d i o r i t e  or s y e n o d i o r i t e . (cj  I&TiSJSlVJJSi. In the northern part of the area i n the v i c i n i t y of Lost Horse  gulch are i r r e g u l a r .and poorly exposed i n t r u s i o n s c o n s i s t i n g of l i g h t colored a u g i t e - d i o r i t e and p i n k i s h grey monzonite or s y e n i t e .  They are  l a r g e l y i n the form of dykes and contain minor amounts of p y r i t e and chalcopyrite.  This m i n e r a l i s a t i o n probably o r i g i n a t e d from the stock  magma as did these I n t r u s i v e s .  They are termed the Lost Horse Intnt3i ves  and are s l i g h t l y older than the stock.  II  l a the areas adjacent to the stock are found s y e n i t i c pegmatite dykes made up of orthoclase,, a l b i t e , b i o t i t e and auglte along w i t h disseminated b o r n i t e and chalcopyrite.• This pegmatitic m a t e r i a l has been i n j e c t e d i n t o the sheared and f r a c t u r e d voicanics of the formation i n the form of dykes.  o i f Creek  Insomuch as the pegmatites cut the stocks  they are o l d e r , but l i k e the host Horse I n t r u s i v e s they are s i m i l a r i n mineral composition and r e l a t i o n to the stock and thus no doubt of the same o r i g i n . A l a r g e number of white and. creamy white granophyre and f e l s i . t e porphyry dykes known as the "Mine Dykes" ( P l a t e V) are p l e n t i f u l i n the area, e s p e c i a l l y i n the region adjacent to the Copper Mountain and Voigt stocks.  They hinder e f f i c i e n t mining to a considerable extent i n the  Copper Mountain Mine* These dykes extend f o r considerable distances, vary width up to 150 feet and d i v i d e i n t o branches and come together again. . These dykes trend n o r t h and south and dip v e r t i c a l l y as shown In P l a t e I I I and P l a t e VI*  The texture and composition  the several stocks so are e v i d e n t l y older.  are q u i t e uniform.  They cut  The dykes themselves are cut  by f i n e grained amygdaloidal andesite dykes which a l s o cut the stocks* These l a t t e r dykes-are at right angles to the "iline Dykes". A large.body of reddish granite i s intruded into the rocics of the d i s t r i c t , a small part of which extends i n t o the extreme northeast of the map area.  corner  The g r a n i t e i s high i n quartz content which d i s t i n g u i s h e s  i t r e a d i l y from the rest of tne roc .s of the region,  i t i s termed the  Verde Creek g r a n i t e and i s older than the Voigt stock as i t cuts i t .  un.  l i t h o l o g i c a l grounds Dr. • Dclmage c o r r e l a t e s i t with Cams e l l ' s Otter Oree/. granite of Post Oligocene  age.  PLATE V. Photograph of glory-hole at the Copper Mountain Mine with large l i g h t colored "Hine Dyke" w e l l shown i n the centre of the p i c t u r e . In the lower part of the photograph f r a c t u r e and f o l i a t i o n planes are shown.  12  PLATE V.  i  PLATE VI. i IG. I • Photograph of glory-hole at the Copper Mountain Mine «, The v e r t i c a l d i p of the "Mine Dykes" i s brought out i n t h i s photograph.  PLATE V I . FIG. 2. Photograph of glory-ho1e at Copper Mountain. I.ote raant2e of g l a c i a l debris.  ;  Dense f i n e - g r a i n e d amygdaloidhl flows and a l s o t u f f s and breccias  occur i n the northern part o f the a r e a .  These o v e r l y the '.Volf Greas.  formation • unconformable and outside the area overly •Oligocene sediments -  conformably.  I W • ORE PEP08ITS.  . . .  (a j STRUCTURE. The f o l i a t i o n and f r a c t u r i n g which occurred as a r e s u l t of stresses a f t e r i n t r u s i o n of the Copper f o u n t a i n stock created, channels f o r the passage of the ore bearing s o l u t i o n s .  These f o l i a t i o n planes and the  f r a c t u r e s c o n t r o l the tenor of the ore to a marked e .:tont. As the stock -  slowly cooled pegmatitic m a t e r i a l was exuded from the p r a c t i c a l l y congealed magma r e s u l t i n g In the formation of pegmatite dykes which penetrated the " o l f Creek formation.  This was followed by the hydrothermal stage and the  subsequent deposition of the ore along the f r a c t u r e and f o l i a t i o n planes. S t i l l l a t e r the "Mine Dykes" -sere intruded and these a r e d i r e c t l y responsible f o r the present s t r u c t u r e of the o r e deposits. The  'i&iuQ  •  Dykes'' , l a t e r In age than the pegmatite dyses and ore  bearing s o l u t i o n s , probably originated, at depth w h i l e the parent ma jna o f r  the stock was s t i l l l i p o i d .  P o s s i b l y they followed up f r a c t u r e planes  p a r a l l e l to the stoc.:. to the e a r l i e r pegmatite dykes and the orebodios. These f r a c t u r e planes might be caused by tension f o l l o w i n g the c o o l i n g and s o l i d i f i c a t i o n of the magna near the stock. The f o l i a t i o n and f r a c t u r i n g extend over a sone s e v e r a l hjmdred feet wide and p a r a l l e l to the length of the stock along the northeast contact.  *  The dy.:es have cut Into the m i n e r a l i s e d breccias of the .Volf Creole formation. together again.  They are p e c u l i a r i n the way they d i v i d e and come On account of t h i s they might be termed "lode dykes" due  to t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y to a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c lode v e i n which shows tho same tendencies*.  On the surface these dykes d i v i d e the m i n e r a l i z e d breccias  Into a s e r i e s of orebodies which l i e between the perpendicular w a l l s of the dykes. dykes*  The m i n e r a l i s a t i o n i s cut o f f at the i n t e r - s e c t i o n of tho  The edge of the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n and the w a l l s of the dykes are  coincident i n most cases i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of the Stock contacts These f a c t s are w e l l shorn i n the plan on P l a t e 'ill  where the orebodies on  the surface are o u t l i n e d . The .orebodies on the number 2 l e v e l are a l s o i n d i c a t e d . These •in most cases l i e d i r e c t l y beneath the surface showings but are much smaller i n s i z e .  This gives same of the orebodies a perpendicular form  t a p e r i n g at depth. In the cross sections on P l a t e ¥11 the r e l a t i o n of the orebodies to the "Hine Dykes" i s depict ecu  The dykes have d i v i d e d the m i n e r a l i z e d  breccias up Into a number of smaller orebodies.  On the f o u r t h and  fifth'  l e v e l s i n the mine another orebody i s encountered l y i n g against the stoc.-i contact.  This orebody has not been.affected by the "Mine Tykes"; i t ' s  extent being c o n t r o l l e d by the f r a c t u r e s . Two of tiie main orebodies are shown to be continuous from the surface to the f i f t h l e v e l at l e a s t i n the s e c t i o n s . They are bounded by the "Mine Dykes".  These two orebodies were i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y one complete  mineralised sone u n t i l the i n t r u s i o n of the dykes which r e s u l t e d in.tho .division, i n t o two separate bodies-. The f o l i a t i o n planes l i e p a r a l l e l to the stock while the f r a c t u r e s  ID  PLATS V I I . Plan and cross- sections of Copper Mountain orebodies showing t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the "Mine Pykes" and the contact of the Copper Liountain stock. (See next page)»  No-2 (.aw) £/. 3945  Sfrucfural  Sections  Re/ahon 0-3 LBYSI £). J 7 7 - 9 -  ND.4-LBVOI EI. 3 5 8 4 -  A/ong ljne$ AS  one/ CO  Sho w/rt g  lo.2 Lwo( El.  o-f Ore To  Copper- frfounTa/n SiocK 1  I Mine DyXes ^Pegmatite  Oy/fes  I J  J Cu. Aft  SfocfT  I "  | Wo/fCr^KForm.  -  No.5 Level El. 3384-  | ; > > V J " : " v . | Ore m Cross  GEOLOGY  AND S T R U C T U R E OF  ORE  DEPOSITS AT  COPPER  MOUNTAIN Scale  I inch = 300 feet  MINE  Deposits  Osic/ Af/tfe 3e/r/oc&  DtjKes  Ore  \C<^.\A/o.2Uve/Q>  Section  are i n a d i r e c t i o n at r i g h t angles to these,  i t i s b e l i e v e d that the  f o l i a t i o n planes formed the l i n e s of weakness by which the "Mine Dykes" made t h e i r way i n t o the m i n e r a l i s e d b r e c c i a s In t h i s v i c i n i t y ,  The  sections on P l a t e VII c l e a r l y show the r e l a t i o n between the stock contact and the dykes* Adjacent to tho ore deposits but not a f f e c t i n g thorn to any extent are s e v e r a l small f a u l t zones s t r i k i n g north and south. I t i s evident then that the shape, breadth, and p i t c h of the orebodies owe t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r u c t u r e to a large degree to the "".line Dyk.es" which have penetrated the mineralized b r e c c i a s of the -Volf -Cre.ek formation i n t h i s l o c a l i t y .  (V-) I'MCTUHES. As a r e s u l t of some form of s t r e s s the b r e c c i a s of the Wolf Orees formation have been i n t e n s e l y f r a c t u r e d , This f r a c t u r i n g i s sot oaiformbut v a r i e s i n i n t e n s i t y i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the formation*  Those  f r a c t u r e s are v e r t i c a l and normal to the contact of the stock, thus they s t r i k e at r i g h t angles to the f o l i a t i o n * Tho f r a c t u r e s are s t r a i g h t and approximately p a r a l l e l to one another (Plato V I I I ) .  In width they vary, but most of the.-?- are u n i t e  small and do not exceed an eighth of an Inch.  In some of tho m a t e r i a l  studied the f r a c t u r e s were more than an inoh apart and q u i t e r e g u l a r while i n other specimens the f r a c t u r e s wore extremely c l o s e together and s h o r t . The f r a c t u r e s are exceedingly Important i n that they provided the channels f o r the ore bearing--• s o l u t i o n s .  They allowed the s o l u t i o n s to  penetrate to many p a r t s of the b r e c c i a s . The l a r g e r f r a c t u r e s and f o l i a t i o n planes afforded the main channels. w h i l e the smaller and more I n d i s t i n c t  )  PLATE V I I I . Massive block of Copper Mountain ore showing p a r a l l e l f r a c t u r e s .  ones permitted the mineral bearing f l u i d s to spread throughout the rock* The copper minerals of the main m i n e r a l i s a t i o n period were deposited i n these f r a c t u r e s , hence the grade of the ore depends on the s i z e of the f r a c t u r e s and the frequency w i t h which they occur,, The f r a c t u r e s are. not confined to the ivolf Creek formation alone but are found a l s o i n the Copper Mountain Stock, p r i n c i p a l l y i n tho v i c i n i t y of the ore deposits. i  They are a l s o found i n the  f  intermediate  zone of the stock and near the pegnatite-intermediat o sons contact*  These  are mineralised, to a c e r t a i n extent a l s o , A p e c u l i a r i t y of the f r a c t u r e system i s the f a c t that I t i s almost e n t i r e l y absent i n some p l a c e s , while Immediately adjacent  , the opposite  Is t r u e . In the cross sections on P l a t e VII the unraineralized portions of t  the ToIf Creek formation between the dykes and adjacent to the stock contact are found to be free from f r a c t u r e s . The f r a c t u r e s are e a r l i e r than the p e r i o d of ore deposition and •somewhat l a t e r than the stock i n t r u s i o n * - Tho stresses that caused them were probnhly a c t i v e over a period of 'time.  The period of s t r e s s that  • produced the wider and more constslant f r a c t u r e s feeing somewhat strongar than that p o r t i o n of the period which produced the smaller ones-.  K  The fact  •that the f r a c t u r e system i s i n aones i s a l s o i n d i c a t i v e of a longer period -of-stress..  •-,  A l a r g e number of the f r a c t u r e s are f i l l e d with pegmatitic m a t e r i a l . This i s particular!!;- true of the l a r g e r ones and the m a t e r i a l Is e s s e n t i a l l y f e l s p a r ( o r t h o c l a s e ) and mica w i t h minor amounts of epidote, augite and apatite.  Quartz Is e n t i r e l y absent.  fractures i s syenitic*  Thus tho p e g a a t i t l e material i n tho .  .  Concentrated along the centre of the pegmatite v e i n l e t s which f i l l  the f r a c t u r e s a r e important copper minerals c o n s i s t i n g of. bomito,, chalcop y r i t e , c h a l c o c i t c , and c o v e l l i t e .  These minerals which a r e formed more or  l e s s i n a l i n e down tho centre of the v e i n are of s l i g h t l y l a t e r age (Plate IX) than the pegmatite m a t e r i a l as they extend beyond the pegmatite veins and f a r t h e r i n t o the f r a c t u r e s . The smaller f r a c t u r e s have not been intruded by the pcgmatltie f l u i d s but they a r e m i n e r a l i s e d w i t h b o r n i t e and e h a l e a p y r i t e . hater c a i c i t e v e i n l e t s a l s o penetrated these f r a c t u r e s , o h i e f l y down the centre, and In many places extended beyond the pegmatite*,  {c) HihJ.TlJS TO COFPiki wmtfATB  STOCit.  The ore bodies of tho Copper nountain kine occur adjacent(Plates I I I ar.d V I I j to the contact of the Copper .fountain stock i n breccias of the Wolf Creek formation.  They a r e s i t u a t e d on the northeast s i d e o f the.  stock and aro i n the form of several d i s t i n c t orebodiea which are . p a r a l l e l , both to each other and to. the stock contact. Pallowing ti.e Intusion of the Copper kkcjisala »:ocv. and previous i  to i t ' s hydrothermai  stage, f o l i a t i o n and fracturing' look jl-ioo  „<  r e s u l t of s t r e s s e s . I t i s c l e a r l y evident that these minor structures wore formed a f t e r the I n t r u s i o n , and as the. ore i s l a r g e l y confined, to them, they-.are thus previous -to the hydro th'eraal stags of the stock which was responsible f o r the ore d e p o s i t i o n . That the orebodies a r e g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the stock i s i n d i c a t e d by the close proximity between these bodies and the stock,  Tho presence  of psgmatitic m a t e r i a l i n the f r a c t u r e s i n the breccias which i s of the same composition as the pegmatite core of the stock, i n d i c a t e s a common origin.  Tho absence of quartz i n both of these i s s i g n i f i c a n t .  L further  PLATE I X * Camera l u c i d a drawing, of Copper k'ountain ore showing hypogene b o r n i t e .  The deposition of the  bornite has been c o n t r o l l e d by the pegmatitle material i n the f r a c t u r e s ,  i--'sgnif ication. X 54.  ? U T K IX  i n d i c a t i o n ox the genetic r e l a t i o n s h i p i s the presence of b o m i t o and c h a l c o p y r i t e i n the f r a c t u r e s i n the stock, the pegmatitic core, and asore minerals i n the b r e c c i a s .  (d) COMPOSITION  .  OilE. The ore at tho Copper Houutain Mno c o n s i s t s of mineral!sod breccias of the Wolf Creek formation.  These b r e c c i a s are a n d e s i t i c and  b a s a l t i c i n composition with quartz e n t i r e l y absent.  The deposit I s of the  contact metamorphic type and grades s l i g h t l y moro than 2;.C« Ws has been stated t h i s git;de depends on the number and the size of the f r a c t u r e s . The b r e c c i a s adjacent to the. a t o o : contact have been impregnated w i t h large'-quantities of b i o t i t e and augite.  under the microscope the rock  i s seen to consist of f e l d s p a r s and augite i n t o which have boon introduced l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of b i o t i t e andprobably some l a t e r augite.  This- zone of  b i o t i t e and augite i s not uniform, some p a r t s being almost free from the impregnation while In other p a r t s the b i o t i t e and a u g i t e are so Intense that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t the o r i g i n a l characters of the rook. I t occurs previous t o the f r a c t u r i n g at the b i o t i t e and augite are absent from the f r a c t u r e s * Idssemincted  , i n the biotitlr.e'd rock i s found b o r n i t e and ohalco-  p y r i t e along w i t h magnetite.  The magnetite may be an o r i g i n a l constituent  of the rook but I t i s more proh&blo that I t was introduced i n t o tho roek along w i t h the b o r n i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , b i o t i t e and augite.  The b o r n i t e and  c h a l c o p y r i t o are Important but without the l a t e r period of m e t a l l i s a t i o n they would not be i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s to-make the breccias an ore. Following the period of f r a c t u r i n g and f o l i a t i o n , Into the main  rock mass to a - certain extent, and e s p e c i a l l y i n t o the fractures was intruded pegniatitic m a t e r i a l and copper .bearing solutions* The pegnatitic m a t e r i a l was the f i r s t to enter the f r a c t u r e s . I t consisted of a l b i t e , oligoclase, m i c r o c l i n e , mica, epldote, a n g i t e and apatite.  -3orne of" these minerals along with the a l t e r a t i o n products have  penetrated t-.e rook on each side of the fractures, e s p e c i a l l y the l a r g e r ones.  The r e s u l t i s a l i g h t colored zone.  These zones a r e white to green-  i s h i n c o l o r adjacent to the f r a c t u r e s , w h i l e a J- of an inch away the c o l o r has gradually faded and the zone appears to merge with the rest o f the rock.  The minerals i n t h i s zone are very f i n e and d i f f i c u l t to determine.  It appears as i f they have l i t e r a l l y plugged the rock as copper minerals, •magnetite and hematite are almost e n t i r e l y absent. " l i g h t l y l a t e r than the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the pegmatitic m a t e r i a l and a f t e r i t had cooled s l i g h t l y ard contracted to a c e r t a i n extent, copper r i c h tenuous s o l u t i o n s followed along tho f r a c t u r e s and down the centre of the v e i n l e t s that f i l l the f r a c t u r e s and deposited Important minerals,,  The  The mineralisation c o n s i s t s of. b o r n i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , chalcocite, hematite and c o v e l l i t e ,  These minerals are concentrated along the centre of the  pegmatites I n a f a i r l y continuous line*. • Sisal 1 amounts of these minerals are disseminated throughout the pegmatite also. The 3 ones bordering the pegmatites have prevented the passage of the ore s o l u t i o n s into the surrounding rock i n t h e i r immediate v i c i n i t y . In these areas i t was noted that there was a heavy concentration of minerals i n the v e i n l e t s , while immediately adjacent, mineralisation was almost e n t i r e l y absent. In the smaller f r a c t u r e s pegniatitic m a t e r i a l i s absent to a l a r g e extent, often only a few scattered c r y s t a l s being found*  However the  •.  . •  'M  -  tenuous s o l u t i o n s penetrated these f r a c t u r e s and b o m i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , and some c h a l c o c i t e was deposited..  Jupergene c h a l c o c i t e . c o v e l l i t e , and  c h a l c o p y r i t e a r e absent from the smaller f r a c t u r e s . In some areas magnetite and hematite are concentrated, Is the case, copper minerals are n e a r l y always absent.  .'.here t h i s  The ore i s almost  e n t i r e l y f r e e from p y r i t e , i t being noted i n only a few instances. About h a l f of the ore supply i s obtained b. g l o r y - h o l i n g (Plate V I ) , the remainder by underground s t o n i n g and developement. GAB Glib.  •  •  The gangue m a t e r i a l i n the Copper llountain ore c o n s i s t s of the minerals of tho altered, breccias of'the 'Volf Creek formation. are a n d e s i t i o to b a s a l t i c .  These breccias  The minerals composing the gangue are*, various  f e l d s p a r s , a u g i t e , b i o t i t o , epidote, .apatite, magnetite, hematite, s e r i c l t e and other a l t e r a t i o n products, c a l c i t e , and p o s s i b l y some chlorite,* The "Sine l y k e s " where they penetrate and cut the orebodies a r e waste and have to be rained i n most cases as they are not strong enough to stand a i o n e  0  The b r e c c i a s have been i n t e n s e l y a l t e r e d by hydrothermal s o l u t i o n s eminating from the stock magna, Replacement has widened the f r a c t u r e s i n many places and the minerals have been attacked by these' s o l u t i o n s .  The  a l t e r a t i o n c o n s i s t s of b i o t i t e , a u g i t e , s e r i c i t e , c a l c i t e , and some epidote and zoisite*?* B i o t i t e and a u g i t e a r e widely spread throughout the b r e c c i a s . The ferro-magnesian minerals have been a l t e r e d to- s e r i c i t e , and the orthoclase feldspars to s e r i c i t e and c a l c i t e .  Tho a l t e r a t i o n of the p l a g i o c l a s e  25  feldspars by the breakdown ofthe s o l i d s o l u t i o n of a l b i t e and a n o r t h i t o into a dense aggregate composed of a l b i t e or orthoclase and x o i s i t e or epidote, along ivith v a r i a b l e amounts of c a l c i t e , s e r i c i t e , and calcium-aluminum s i l i c a t e s other than those of the epidote group I s termed s a u s s e r i t i s a t i o n by Williams .-to  I t a pears that t h i s i s the type of a l t e r a t i o n that has  W i l l i a m s , G.H.  U . S . Geological Purvey, B u l l a 62. page 67.  taken place i n the Wolf Creek breccias to a c e r t a i n extent. Orthoclase being the most r e s i s t a n t o f the feldspars to a l t e r a t i o n , It Is as a r e s u l t the most e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e and the one f r e e s t from a l t e r a t i o n . - A p a t i t e c r y s t a l s have not been attached and stand out c l e a r l y . The a p a t i t e i s confined to the a l t e r e d zone. A l t e r a t i o n and bleaching by s e r i c i t e Is most common i n the v i c i n i t y of the f r a c t u r e s . This i s probably responsible f o r the whitening o f the aones adjacent to the fractures.' This a l t e r a t i o n i s d i s t i n c t l y l a t e r than the augite and b i o t i t e .  (e) MIBEIiALOGY AED PAHAGEUISIS. The paragenisis of the ore at the Copper Mountain iline determined from the study of sections i s as f o l l o w s : /.LI Gil hT ITE luAillY  CHALCOPYIUTE  EYPGGh&S  BE2ATIEB PYA1TS LATS  SUP SRGifKE  BOM  ITE  CHALCOPYRITE CIIALCOCITJi CALCITE COVELLITE CHALCOCITB  CHALCGPYllITE  SUPH3.GEEB  HYPOGBESE  EABLY MCEISTITE  —  LATE  -  HEMATIT3  —  -  FYitlTS AUC-IiJi w BIOTITE r  B03H12E  —  —  CHALCOPYRITE GEALCGCITK PEGMATITE IM FRACTURES  CALCITii  —  -  COVELLITE  The sequence of events i s i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g summary* I.  Wolf Greek formation intruded by the Copper f o u n t a i n Stock..  2  Uissemination i n the breccias of the Wolf Creek formation of magnetite,  S  b o r n i t o , and c h a l c o p y r i t e and. the a l t e r a t i o n of the breccias by the i n j e c t i o n of l a r g e amounts o f b i o t i t e and a u g i t e . 5.  P e r i o d o f f r a c t u r e and f o l i a t i o n ,  4.  Pegmatitic m a t e r i a l i n j e c t e d i n t o some o f the f r a c t u r e s and f u r t h e r  a l t e r a t i o n and plugging of some o f the channelways. 5.  Late hypogcne m i n d ' s l i z a t i o n .  6.  Calcite veinlets.  7„  Supergene mineralization..  fclagnetite: In the Copper .Mountain ore magnetite occurs as an acessory mineral  27  r e s u l t i n g from msgraatic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and i s pyrogenetic i n origin,. magnetite I s f a i r l y v;ell scattered throughout the ore with l o c a l  The  concentra-  tions • > Bornite: Tho "bornite at the Copper liountain liine i s one of the most important sulphide minerals,,  I t i s e n t i r e l y hypogeno In o r i g i n and i s associated  w i t h c h a l c o p y r i t e and c h a l c o c i t e *  In the e a r l y hypogsne stage b o r n i t e I s  found disseminated through the b r e c c i a s along with c h a l c o p y r i t e .  This  m i n e r a l i s a t i o n i s not intense enough to form ore. The breccias at t h i s stage being i n r e a l i t y a p r o t o r e .  In the l a t e hypogene stage b o r n i t e i s  found a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h a l c o p y r i t e and c h a l c o c i t e , Chalcopyrite:  '  Along w i t h b o r n i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e forms.the most important ization.  I t i s found with b o r n i t e disseminated  mineral-  i n the b r e c c i a s , w i t h  bornite i n the f r a c t u r e s , and as a svporgene mineral along the c a l c i t e veins and p r o j e c t i n g as blades and segregated  l a t h s In b o r n i t e  0  The  . r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c h a l c o p y r i t e and. b o r n i t e a r e discussed l a t e r . Hematite: Hematite occurs f r e q u e n t l y associated w i t h magnetite but d e f i n e t l y later. i'igo  I t replaces the magnetite both marginally and i n t e r n a l l y (Plate.A,  Ij  0  determine.  I t ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to other m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s more d i f f i c u l t to In one specimen i n p a r t i c u l a r that was studied i t i s .-.uite  apparent that hematite i s previous to the l a t e r b o r n i t e and chalcopyrite,. The c r i t e r i a i n d i c a t i n g t h i s being, the presence i n p i t s of the hematite-of blebs of b o r n i t e , and i n some places tho bornite'..being replaced by c h o i c e — pyrite  a  './here bornite borders hematite; under high magnification i t Is noticed, that a very t h i n rim of c h a l c o p y r i t e separates i t from the hematiteThis i s i n d i c a t i v e no doubt of l a t e r c h a l c o p y r i t e and  bornite.  The hematite i s confined l a r g e l y to the a l t e r e d zone. c a r r y i n g the hematite used the f r a c t u r e s as channelways, but  The s o l u t i o n  evidently  found d i f f i c u l t y i n penetrating to any distance from these f r a c t u r e s due tho concentration  to  of pegmatitic m a t e r i a l and a l t e r a t i o n products i n and  adjacent to the f r a c t u r e s , and the consequent plugging of any channels that might have e x i s t e d . hematite was  found o c c u r r i n g as d i s t i n c t blades in the gangue  m a t e r i a l (Plate X, i'"ig 2} 0  0  I t was  e v i d e n t l y a f f e c t e d by l a t e r calcite<>  Pyrite: P y r i t e i s conspicuously  absent from the ore, i t being noted i n  only a few instances and then i n only small p a r t i c l e s and. under high magnifications.  Where noted i t appears to be hypogene.  I t i s found as  r e s i d u a l remnants i n hematite and e a r l y b o r n i t e . -Ghalcocite; Chalcocite i s abundant as a hypogene mineral and b o r n i t e i n .the f r a c t u r e s .  i s found w i t h  Superegene bdue c h a l c o c i t e occurs i n smaller  q u a n t i t i e s as v e i n l e t s t r a v e r s i n g c h a l c o p y r i t e and  bornite i n f r:= •. nred  zones, and to a c e r t a i n extent with the disseminated b o r n i t e . The supergene c h a l c o c i t e was bornite.  formed as a product of the replacement of c h a l c o p y r i t e and  The hypogene c h a l c o c i t e bornite r e l a t i o n s are discussed at  greater d e t a i l subsequently. Calcite: One of the l a s t stages a f f e c t i n g the ore deposit was  the I n t r o -  •  PLATE X. FIG. ' I . Camera, l u c i d a drawing showing hematite(H) r e p l a c i n g magnetitefMj •Magnification X 275=  ,  PLATE .X. FIG. 2. • Camera l u c i d a drawing showing blades of hema111 e(H) i n gangue(G). Cha1copyrite(Cp) on edge of f i e l d . M a g n i f i c a t i o n X. 275.  29  duction of c a l c i t e .  The c a l c i t e i n the form of v e i n s , i n t r i c a t e l y cuts  a l l the minerals except those of supergene o r i g i n .  C a l c i t e veins cut acres  • and. a r e l a t e r than, b o r n i t e ( P l a t e XI. F i g . I . ), magnetite(Plate XI. P i g . 2 j c h a l c o p y r i t e ( P l a t e X I I . P i g . I . ] , hematite(?late X I I . P i g . 2.), and hypogene c h a l c o c i t e .  I n some cases cleavage craclcs i n b o r a i t e have been  f i l l e d with this material.  The supergene m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s d i r e c t l y  relates] to these c a l c i t e veins which a r e r e t i c u l a t e in. form. hypogene Ilinera l i za t i on: In the w r i t e r ' s opinion, the hypogene m i n e r a l I z a t i o n a t the Copper f o u n t a i n laine c o n s i s t s of two periods; the one an e a r l y stage and the other a l a t e stage.  I n the l a t e hypogene stage the e a r l y protore was  enriched by the a d d i t i o n o f more m a t e r i a l and t h i s r e s u l t e d i n the format!01 of an- ore deposit..  •  .  The e a r l y hypogene stage o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n occurred previous to the f r a c t u r i n g and f o l i a t i o n .  Associated w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of l a r g e  amounts of b i o t i t e and augite were minor amounts of sulphides c o n s i s t i n g of bornite c h i e f l y and some c h a l c o p y r i t e . These sulphides were c a r r i e d i n s o l u t i o n from the slowly c o o l i n g stock magma and disseminated the b r e c c i a s of the Wolf Creek formation.  throughout  The composition of these s o l u t i o n  was such that b o r n i t e and chalcopyrite.were deposited.  Iron and sulphur  were present i n such proportions that both minerals were p r e c i p i t a t e d w i t h the c h a l c o p y r i t e phase l a s t i n g a l i t t l e longer than the b o r n i t e * These disseminated sulphides a r e confined c h i e f l y to the a l t e r e d aone of the brecciaSo  The l a t e hypogene phase of m i n e r a l i s a t i o n i s responsible f o r the' or© at Copper Mountain.  Into the f r a c t u r e s and f o l i a t i o n s of the breccias  copper r i c h s o l u t i o n s penetrated and deposited b o r n i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e m\u  PLATE XI. * I G . I . Camera l u c i d a drawing showing c a l c i t e c r y s t a l i n hypogene b o r n i t e . This i n d i c a t e s that c a l c i t e i s l a t e r than b o r n i t e . Elagnification  X 150.  PLATE XI PIG. 2. . Camera l u c i d a drawing showing c a l c i t e vein exit t i n g across and l a t e r than magnetite and the gangue. Calcite(C )e Magnetite(MJ. M a g n i f i c a t i o n X 275.'  31  PLATE X I I . PIG. I . Camera l u c i d a drawing showing vein of c a l c i t e ( C ) l a t e r than chalcopyrite(CpJ. M a g n i f i c a t i o n X 85.  PLATE X I I . PIG. 2. Camera l u c i d a drawing showing veins of c a l c i t e l a t e r than chalcopyrite} Cp ) and hematite(H). Note the p a r a l l e l i s m of the w a l l s of the c a l c i t e veins. M a g n i f i c a t i o n X 85.  33  c h a l c o c i t e In f a i r l y large amounts.  The s\J.lphides i n these f r a c t u r e zones  occur c h i e f l y i n massive form with s l i g h t amounts disseminated i n the pegmatitic m a t e r i a l which encloses the- veinlets,,  The.ahsonco of p y r i t e Is  held responsible f o r the a s s o c i a t i o n of b o r n i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , and c h a l c o c i t e . The f i r s t mineral to be p r e c i p i t a t e d out of the penetrating s o l u t i o n s was bornite followed c l o s e l y by chalcopyrite and c h a l c o c i t e .  The  c h a l c o p y r i t e and c h a l c o c i t e are d e f i n e t l y l a t e r than the b o r n i t e . Clnalcoeito and b o r n i t e ,  and b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e are found associated together  but not c h a l c o p y r i t e anc c h a l c o e i t o .  The tenuous s o l u t i o n s that  deposited  the b o r n i t e and then the c h a l c o p y r i t e were depleted In i r o n with only copper and sulphur remaining. b o r n i t e c h a l c o c i t e was  As a r e s u l t of t h i s and the breakdown of  the l a s t mineral to be p r e c i p i t a t e d .  That the c h a l c o p y r i t e was l a t e r than the b o r n i t e i s d e f i n e t l y established.  I t rims the b o r n i t e and l i n e s of c h a l c o p y r i t e f o l l o w cleavage  planes In b o r n i t e ( ? l a t e X I I I . F i g . I.}.  The massive replacement of bornite  by c h a l c o p y r i t e i s shown i n a photograph of a p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n of ore(Plate X I I I . F i g . 2.j where blades of c h a l c o p y r i t e as much as an inch i n length are seen to have the same pattern as the microscopic  blades of c h a l c o p y r i t e  i n b o r n i t e ( ? l a t e X I I I . P i g . I . j . This pattern i s somewhat t r i a n g u l a r i n form.  Further evidence of replacement of b o r n i t e by c h a l c o p y r i t e Is shown  i n P l a t e XIV. F i g s . I&2, where the b o r n i t e Is " b i t t e n " into by the chalcop y r i t e and the c h a l c o p y r i t e forms convex curved o u t l i n e s against the bornite. The f i n a l a c t i o n of the copper r i c h solutions was these s o l u t i o n s on b o r n i t e .  the attac&.by-  This r e s u l t e d i n the p a r t i a l breaking down  of bornite and replacement b- c h a l c o c i t e .  The fact that the chalcopyrite  i s not i n a s s o c i a t i o n with c h a l c o c i t e would seem to i n d i c a t e that i t i s a case of s e l e c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n , w i t h the bornite being the subject of  PLATS X I I I . FIG. I. Micro-photograph showing l i n e s of c h a l c o p v r i t e ( l i g h t grey) f o l l o w i n g cleavage planes i n bornite(dark a l s o chalcopyrite rimming  grey),  and eating  into h o r n i t e . A l l i n d i c a t i v e of l a t e r chaleopyrite. The gangue i s black. U a g n i f i c a t i o n X 550.  PLATE X I I I . PIG. 2. Photograph of polished surface of ore showing large blades of chalcopyrite i n a t r i a n g u l a r pattern.  This i s  I n d i c a t i v e of massive replacement of b o r n i t e by c h a l c o p y r i t e . Magnificatio'n X 2.  34  PLATE XIV. FIG. I . ' Camera l u c i d a drawing showing bornite(B) being " b i t t e n " Into and replaced b;:- chalcopyrite(Cp). Bote curved convex outlines of chalcop y r i t e against  bornite.  magnification X 550.  PLATE XIV. FIG. 2.  :  \  Camera l u c i d a drawing showing c h a l c o p y r i t e l a t e r than bornite. The chalcopyrite forms convex.outl i n e s against the bornite and a long tongue of chalcopyrite extends i n t o the bornite. Hematit'e(H). Gangue(G). Magnification X 275.  3b  replacement.  Sf the c h a l c o c i t e were previous to the c h a l c o p y r i t e , i t  would be e-rpected that i t would at l e a s t be "rimmed"by i t i n i t ' s rim a s s o c i a t i o n with b o r n i t e . The c h a l c o c i t e i s believed to be hypogene i n o r i g i n . I t i s c l e a r white i n c o l o r , which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of hypogene c h a l c o c i t e unless admixed with c o v e l l i t e when I t then taxes on b l u i s h tinge i n p l a c e s . The supergene c h a l c o c i t e i n t h i s ore i s blue and t h i s d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from the hypogene c h a l c o c i t e but other c r i t e r i a are used.  The c h a l c o c i t e i s found  In graphic intergrowths with b o r n i t e . In blades or l a t h s c u t t i n g across b o r n i t e , and rimming b o r n i t e .  I t I s believed that as a r e s u l t of these  replacement r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the nature of the c h a l c o c i t e and i t ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h b o r n i t e , and the presence o f c h a l c o p y r i t e , that i t i s hypogene i n o r i g i n and s l i g h t l y l a t e r i n age than the bornite© The deposition o f a l l three of these minerals i s probably a case • of successive  overlap.  Tho graphic i n t e r grov/th between the b o r n i t e and c h a l c o c i t e ( ? I a t e XV. F i g . I&2.} i s i n t e r p r e t e d as replacement.. and c h a l c o c i t e were sttidied I n the intergrowths,  In most cases where b o r n i t e f i n e v e i n l e t s of c h a l c o c i t e  were noted c u t t i n g i n t o tho lamed* ~\tsly adjacent b o r n i t e .  The fact that  the i n t e r growth phenomena I s not complete but i s found only In c e r t a i n parts of the v e i n l e t s i s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n of replacement and not contemporaneous deposition.  The lobate intorgrowth' between these two minerals  v a r i e s from extremely f i n e under the highest powers obtainable coarse.  There appeal's to be a gradual t r a n s i t i o n from graphic  to quite intergrowth  to replacement by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c rim p a t t e r n . The c h a l c o c i t e extends In wide masses i n t o the bornite and then branches out on the sides into the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c lobate replacement.  V e i n l e t s of" c h a l c o c i t e t r a v e r s i n g b o r n i t e  • PLATE XV. PIG.' I, and PIG. 2„ ' Photomicrographs of graphic  intergrowth  of b o r n i t e and c h a l c o c i t e which i s i n t e r p r e t e d as replacement of bornite by c h a l c o c i t e .  ;  ' Bornite(dark grey). Chalcocite(white)„ Gangue(black). M a g n i f i c a t i o n X 275.  37  30-  (Plate XVI. F i g . I,) seems- to be undoubted proof of replacement, and the f a c t that these veins extend from a rim of c h a l c o c i t e ( P l a t e XVI. F i g . 2.) would add f u r t h e r evidence. •  i  The c o n t i n u i t y of the white c h a l c o c i t e along the f r a c t u r e s from the areas of Intergrowth, to areas of rim replacement and t r a v e r s i n g v e i n l e t s d e f i n e t l y e s t a b l i s h e s the fact that i t i s a i l one generation of chalcocite.  A f i n a l i n d i c a t i o n of replacement i s evidenced by the extremely  minute m i c r o - v e i n l e t s of c h a l c o c i t e which i n places traverse the lobes of bornite. The l a s t phase of the hypogene m i n e r a l i s a t i o n i s represented by c a l c i t e v e i n l e t s which are fnund widespread throughout the ore.  They are  . r e t i c u l a t e i n form and are found c u t t i n g across a l l the ore minerals except those of supergene o r i g i n .  These v e i n l e t s are important i n that the  supergene s o l u t i o n s used them as passageways by which they were enabled to penetrate tile orebodies. The supergene minerals are d i r e c t l y associated with the c a l c i t e v e i n l e t s and the f r a c t u r e s .  The fact 'that the c a l c i t e  v e i n l e t s cut the b'ornite.and o h a l c c c i t o may he c i t e d as f u r t h e r evidence f o r the hypogene origin, of • these sulphides. -  .  The w a l l s of the c a l c i t e veins i n many places are d i s t i n c t l y parallel.  This suggests that there was p o s s i b l y a c e r t a i n amount of  f i s s u r i n g l a t e r than the mineralization'but p r i o r to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of calcite.  .  »-  Supergene Enrichment; In the Copper Mountain Mine supergene enrichment i s not of very great importance.  I t has proceeded from the r e t i c u l a t i n g v e i n l e t s of  c a l c i t e and the f r a c t u r e s . The simple sulphides of copper, namely c o v e l l i t e and c h a l c o c i t e , have replaced the copper i r o n sulphides b o r n i t e and  PLATE XVI. FIG. I. Camera l u c i d a drawing snowing a vein of hypogene chalcocite(Cc) c u t t i n g across b o m i t e ( B ) .  The  c h a l c o c i t e also rims the b o r n i t e . Gangue(G].  M a g n i f i c a t i o n X £75®  PLATE XVI. PIG. 2. Camera l u c i d a drawing showing c h a l c o c i t e r e p l a c i n g bornite by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c rim pattern. Also blades of c h a l c o c i t e i n b o r n i t e and massive replacement of bornite by-chalcocite. Hematite(H). M a g n i f i c a t i o n X. 275.  chalcopyrite. The a c t i o n of surface waters containing sulphuric acid, on hypogene b o r n i t e w i l l account f o r the formation of c o v e l l i t e , c h a l c o c i t e , ferrous sulphate and hydrogen sulphide.  The f u r t h e r r e a c t i o n between these  products accounts f o r the supergene c h a l c o p y r i t e present.  The a c t i o n of  c u p r i c sulphate, which I s a l s o present i n these waters, on primary c h a l c o p y r i t e r e s u l t s i n the formation of c o v e l l i t e .  The f u r t h e r r e a c t i o n  between cupric sulphate and c o v e l l i t e I n the presence of sulphuric a c i d w i l l r e s u l t i n c h a l c o c i t e . C o v e l l i t e and c h a l c o c i t e are p r e c i p i t a t e d a f t e r f e r r i c sulphate i s absent or almost s o . f t Lindgren, W.  Mineral P'eposits, 1928. Page 543.  Supergene c o v e - l i t e which appears to be s l i g h t l y o l d e r than the c h a l c o c i t e i s confined c h i e f l y t o the f r a c t u r e s .  I t replaces bornito and  c h a l c o p y r i t e marginally (Plate XVII. P i g . I&2.}.» I t i s a l s o found r e p l a c i n g disseminated b o r n i t e i n scattered areas throughout the ore. I t i s only shorn to-advantage under high m a g n i f i c a t i o n . This i s e s p e c i a l l y true where c o v e l l i t e replaces b o r n i t e that i s disseminated. In several places i t Is found as blades c u t t i n g across narrow segments of b o r n i t e ( P l a t o IX. F i g , 2}. The-marginal  or rim replacement I s the best defined and i s w e l l brought out  i n P l a t e XVIII, P i g . I . C o v e l l i t e i s a l s o found admixed w i t h hypogene chalcocite.  I t appears as dark blue feathery aggregates suggesting the  breaking down and replacement of c h a l c o c i t e by c o v e l l i t e . I s places tho replacement of hypogene sulphides by c h a l c o c i t e Is d i s t i n c t l y - a supergene process.  This c h a l c o c i t e I s b l u i s h i n c o l o r , i s  not massive, and occurs r e p l a c i n g the three hypogene sulphides. XVIII  g  In Plate-  P i g . 2 i t i s sho.vn as a l a t h shaped v e i n l e t c u t t i n g across chalco-  p y r i t e and b o r n i t e and a l s o as a segregated l a t h i n the b o r n i t e .  it is  PLATE XVII. PIG. I. Camera l u c i d a drawing showing supergene c o v e l l i t e ( C o ) r e p l a c i n g b orni t e(B J and cha i c opyrit e{Cp)» Cangue(G).  Magnifioation  X 275,  PLATE XVII. i I G . 2. Camera l u c i d a drawing showing supergene c o v e l l I t e ( C o ) r e p l a c i n g chalcopyrite(Cp).  The c o v e l l i t e  rims the c h a l c o p y r i t e and i t ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h c a l c i t e ( C ) Is shown.  Gangue(G).  Magnification X 550.  41  P L A T E  X V I I I .  P I G .  L  Camera l u c i d a drawing showing covellite(blue) replacing bornite (brown) and c h a l c o p y r i t e ( y e l l o w ) . Gangue(greyJ. • M a g n i f i c a t i o n X £75.  P L A T E  X V I I I .  P I G . '  2„  Camera l u c i d a drawing snowing c o v e l l i t e (bluej r e p l a c i n g b o r n i t e . A l a t h of chalcocite(azure) cuts across b o r n i t e and chalcopyrite(Cpj and there i s a'segregated l a t h of supergene c h a l c o c i t e i n b o r n i t e . M a g n i f i c a t i o n X 27b.  42  43  confined c h i e f l y to the f r a c t u r e s ,  The  supergene blue c h a l c o c i t e i n  c e r t a i n places as very f i n e blades ( P l a t e XI/.. P i g . 2.) and feathery aggregates i n the hypogene c h a l c o c i t e and  bornite.  Under magnification of 550 diameters, i s o l a t e d blades of supergene c h a l c o c p y r i t e are noticed extending from r e t i c u l a t i n g c a l c i t e v e i n l e t s i n t o adjacent hypogene b o r n i t e ( P l a t e XX. P i g . I&2.). Those blades of c h a l c o p y r i t e a l s o occur adjacent to the c a l c i t e v e i n l e t s but  disassociated.  The age r e l a t i o n s between these supergene minerals could not ,del"inetiy be e s t a b l i s h e d .  The r e l a t i o n s that were observed however suggests  that the c o v e i l i t e i s s l i g h t l y older than the c h a l c o c i t e and  chalcopyrite.  The supergene c h a l c o p y r i t e i s found only i n the l a r g e s t f r a c t u r e s , probably i n d i c a t i n g that i t i s the youngest of the three.  [f I O r i g i n :  - .  I t i s believed that the ore deposits of the Cooper f o u n t a i n liine are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the hydrothexraal  stage of the i n t r u s i o n of the  Copper Mountain stock. The hypogene ores at t h i s mine were deposited by hot magtiatic s o l u t i o n s emanating from the c o o l i n g stock magma. These hot  solutions  penetrated .the b r e c c i a s , f i r s t disseminating b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e , .and then a f t e r f r a c t u r i n g f u r t h e r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g of b o r n i t e chalcop y r i t e and c h a l c o c i t e .  .  The close proximity of the ore deposits to the stocj: as i s shown i n P l a t e VII - scams to be conclusive evidence of the d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p of these ores to tho I n t r u s i o n . The absence of quarts from the ores and the stock i t s e l f , and  the  presence of b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e i n both adds f u r t h e r to the proof..  PLATE SIX. PIG- I. Photomicrograph showing covellite(Go) replacing bomite(B) and. chalcopyri t e(Cp). i'lagnification X 275.  PLATE MIX. FIG. 2. Photomicrograph showing a fine, l a t h - l i k e v e i n l e t of supergene c h a l c o c i t e c u t t i n g across and replacing chalcopyrite. Magnification. X 275.  PLATE X X . P I G . I , • . Camera l u c i d a drawing showing blades of supergene  chalcopyrite(Cpj  r e p l a c i n g b o r n i t e ( B j . The r e l a t i o n between chalcopyrite. and c a l c i t e ( C ) i s shown.  Magnification  A .550*  Camera l u c i d a drawing showing blades of supergene chalcopyrite'Cp) i n borniteiB)„ C o v e l l i t e i s . shown r e p l a c i n g and. c u t t i n g across bornite. Coveilite(Co).  Calcite(C).  i & g n i f i o a t i o n X 275.  .' . '•  45  46  S i m i l a r i t y i n mineral composition lends f u r t h e r evidence to the genetic r e l a t i o n s h i p between the orebodies and the i n t r u s i v e .  Pegmatitic  m a t e r i a l makes up the core of the stock and i s found i n many of the f r a c t u r e s besides the l a r g e veins or dykes In the v i c i n i t y of 'the deposit-., The l a r g e dykes that cut the ore deposits contain quarts i n p l a c e s . This d i f f e r e n t i a t e s these dykes from the older rocks i n mode of o r i g i n . The cross sections i n p l a t e VII shows the orebodies the contact of the -stock.  paralleling  One orebody Is i n d i r e c t contact w i t h the stock  and apparently widens i n depth.  As p r e v i o u s l y stated, these  are c o n t r o l l e d by the extent of f r a c t u r i n g .  orebodies  I t would seem therefore , that  the s o l u t i o n s that deposited the copper-rich minerals eminated from deep . down and followed up the channels a f f o r d e d by the f o l i a t i o n planes and the f r a c t u r e sones. The fact that the w a l l s of the stock are v e r t i c a l and i t i s ovoid to c i r c u l a r i n plan, conforms w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n of a true stock. This suggests the p r o b a b i l i t y then that the stock was formed as a protuberence from a greater magmatic mass below« i t seems probable therefore, that, the ore bearing s o l u t i o n s proceeded from the magma chamber that was responsible f o r the stock. solutions penetrated upward along tho f o l i a t i o n s and f r a c t u r e s and  These  deposited  •the minerals i n the order p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d . The whole process i s one of replacement as a r e s u l t of contact mctamorphism w i t h the f r a c t u r e d nature of the b r e c c i a s f a c i l i t a t i n g metasomatism.  V.  SOmfAHY & CQIICLuBIOKS: SlBhlOOPtAPBT. I.  The Copper Mountain Mine i s one of the three p r i n c i p a l  deposits of copper i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Ho  A resume i s given of the topography and geology,.  "3.  The deposit  i s of the epigenetic,.contact  motamorphic type,  or i n other words pyrometasoaa11c«. 4.  The source of the ores i s b e l i e v e d to be the magma chamber  from which the Copper Mountain stock originated.. 5.  A l t e r a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g of b i o t i t i z a t i o n and  sericitization  extends i r r e g u l a r l y both In i n t e n s i t y and l o c a t i o n from the stock contact outwards.  Along w i t h the b i o t i t i z a t i o n the f i r s t period of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  took place, when the breccias of the 'Coif Creek formation were m i n e r a l i s e d to a c e r t a i n extent,, 6.  .  '  The gangue m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t s of the oxides magnetite, and  hematite, the s i l i c a t e s epidote, and z o i s i t e , along with a p a t i t e , orthoclas a l b i t e , b i o t i t e , and 7o  calcite.,  F r a c t u r i n g and f o l i a t i o n as a r e s u l t of stresses a f f e c t e d the  '.Volf Creek formation to an important extent adjacent to the 8. The  stock.  Hypogene m i n e r a l i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s of an e a r l y and a l a t e stages  e a r l y stage previous to tho i'ractiiring and the l a t e stage subsequent to  Ite. • 9.  The l a t e stage of hypogene m i n e r a l i s a t i o n which Is the'  important one, consisted of the deposition i n the fractures by ascending thermal solutions of b o r n i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , and .chalcocite i n the order named. 10.  C a l c i t e v e i n l e t s , r e t i c u l a t e i n form, mark the end of the  hypogene period and are important. 11.  Supergene solutions have enriched  the deposit to a c e r t a i n  extent by the deposition of c o v e l l i t e , c h a l c o c i t e , and  chalcopyrite.  48  Bibliography: Catherinet, Jules.,- Copper Hour.-tain, B r i t i s h Columbia, lingineering and Mining <3oumal, V o l . 79, 1905. pp. 125-26. 3>olmage, V.- Copper Mountain ores. Canadian Mining and M e t a l l u r g i c a l B u l l e t i n , June 192to Dept. of Mines, B r i t i s h Columbia. Various annual r e p o r t s . Kemp, J.i\>- O r i g i n of Copper Maintain Ores. I.A.r.iI«B. V o l . 31. page 162 Lindgren,  Mineral l e p o s i t s . 1928. Page 943-49.  0.3. Geological Survey: emmons, C/.H.- The J&irichment of Sulphide Ores. B u l l e t i n 529o Williams, G.H.- B u l l e t i n 62. Page 67.  \Z030  L E G E N D  >  POST  ECOCENEL  Te.r7?'ary  Volcanics  < Verde C/~eeK  Vo, 1t g  G  ranif-e.  Si-ocK  U O N O i Copper  LU  J  I  StocK  TR  \ASS\C  Wo/fCr&eK  ?  Form.  Contours  49f5 Lahe  _ l J  •Spring  Boundary  Geo/o^/cj/ Geo/ogica/  Boundary  AppTOximaTet  Road  Trail  Railroad  Transmission  U  M,n&  Dump  X  Prospccr  A  M,n&  8f. ,  Line  Tunnei  Bui/dings  Height  in Fec±f-  12.0 JO Geology  cy  Topography  \'.^o/mst\s  trcm  sunsys  COPPER  , 7S£.J, by  D. A..W<?tdt , A°22  Datum  H f-tean Sea Level  MOUNTAIN  S I M I L K A M E E N B R I T I S H  AREA  D I S T R I C T APPROXIMATE MEAN DECIMATION . 192 3  C O L U M B I A  S c a l e , 1:12,000 or I Inch to 100 0 Feet Feet 'SCO  O  Contour  IOOO  interval  '3 a c c J . T t p e n / r / i e « «  S.OOO  SO r~e&t  3000  Harold  H  Ur;fli  

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