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Regional stream sediment reconnaissance and trace element content of rock, soil and plant material in.. Doyle, Patrick J. 1972-04-15

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c I REGIONAL STREAM SEDIMENT RECONNAISSANCE AND TRACE ELEMENT CONTENT OF ROCK, SOIL AND PLANT MATERIAL IN EASTERN YUKON TERRITORY t>7 PATRICK J. DOYLE B.Sc, University of Ottawa, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE * in the Department of Geology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard The University of British Columbia May, 1972 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of QfQjJljD The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date fiW 3,QtiqU ii ABSTRACT Multi-element stream sediment reconnaissance in the Hess River region of the Eastern Yukon has outlined an ex tensive area characterized by anomalously high molybdenum values. An accessible region in the Hess Mountains, within the high molybdenum zone, was selected for detailed study of trace element levels in stream sediment, rock, soil and vegetation. In view of the frequently observed relationship between high forage molybdenum concentrations and the in cidence of copper deficiency in cattle, molybdenum concen trations in plant species likely to be consumed by caribou and moose were of particular interest. High sediment molybdenum values are characteristic of catchments underlain by dark shales and less commonly dark limestone. These rocks and associated soils are rich in molybdenum. Concentrations in vegetation growing on anomalous shaly soils are characteristically low, while most plants growing on soils derived predominantly from lime stone are molybdenum-rich. The Mo-Cu status of vegetation on limey soils is typically within the range associated with molybdenum induced hypocuprosis in cattle. Low molybdenum uptake by plants on soils derived from shales likely reflects the unavailability of the molybdate anion,resulting from its adsorption onto clay minerals iii and sesquioxides under acidic conditions prevalent in these soils. In neutral to mildly basic environments, typical of dark limestone soils, molybdenum adsorption is greatly decreased, and therefore molybdenum is relatively avail able to plants. In the detailed study area soil pH values are typically similar to pH levels in associated stream water. Therefore by combining stream sediment molybdenum concen trations with stream pH data, catchments likely to contain molybdenum-rich vegetation can be predicted. Unfortunately stream pH values were not obtained in the regional survey. In view of the apparent rarity of dark limestone throughout the Eastern Yukon, however, molybdenum-rich vegetation is not likely to be particularily widespread. Wildlife in this area, therefore, is probably not signifi cantly affected by molybdenum induced copper deficiency. XV TABLE 01 CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION 1 NUTRITIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OP CEUSTAL 2 TRACE ELEMENT ABUNDANCES APPLICATION OP STREAM SEDIMENT SUR- 3 VEYS TO THE DETECTION OP TRACE ELEMENT IMBALANCES IN AGRI CULTURE THESIS OBJECTIVES 5 SECTION A REGIONAL STUDY II DESCRIPTION OF REGIONAL STUDY AREA 7 LOCATION AND ACCESS 8 GEOLOGY 8 GLACIATION 11 TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE 1CLIMATE 3 SOIL 4 VEGETATION 1WILDLIFE 5 III REGIONAL GEOCHEMICAL RECONNAISSANCE 16 SAMPLE COLLECTION AND PREPARATION 17 SAMPLE ANALYSIS 1PRESENTATION OF DATA 22 TRACE ELEMENT PATTERNS IN STREAM SEDIMENTS 24 DISTRIBUTION OF Mo, V, Ni, Cr and Cu 24 DISTRIBUTION OF Pb, Sr, Mn and Co 36 DISCUSSION OF DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS 37 RELATIONSHIP TO BEDROCK COMPOSITION 37 RELATIONSHIP TO GLACIATION 38 POSSIBLE RELATIONSHIP TO ANIMAL 3NUTRITION SECTION B DETAILED STUDY IV DESCRIPTION OF DETAILED STUDY AREA 41 LOCATION AND ACCESS 42 GEOLOGY 4SOIL 5 VEGETATION 9 V CHAPTER PAGE V SAMPLE COLLECTION PREPARATION AND ANALYSIS 51 SAMPLE'COLLECTION AND PREPARATION 52 STREAM SEDIMENT 5ROCK 5SOIL 5 VEGETATION 54-FAECES -SAMPLE ANALYSIS -SEMI-QUANTITATIVE SPECTROGRAPHIC 56 ANALYSIS ATOMIC-ABSORPTION ANALYSIS 56 COLORIMETRIC ANALYSIS 62 MEASUREMENT OF pH 3 VI TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN ROCK MATERIAL 64-PRESENTATION OF DATA 65 TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN BEDROCK 65 COMPARISON OF CONCENTRATION IN BLACK 68 SHALE FROM UNIT THREE WITH ESTIM ATES OF NORMAL CONCENTRATIONS IN SIMILAR ROCK TYPES POSSIBLE MECHANISMS CONTROLLING TRACE 70 ELEMENT LEVELS WITHIN CERTAIN UNIT THREE LITHOLOGIES VII TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL MATERIAL 74-PRESENTATION OF DATA 75 TRACE ELEMENT CONTENT OF C HORIZONS 76 DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENTS INSELECTED SOIL PROFILES FACTORS' AFFECTING THE METAL CONTENT 82 OF SOILS POSSIBLE SIGNIFICANCE OF VARIATIONS 85 IN COMPOSITION OF UPLAND AND VALLEY SOILS VIII TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN PLANT MATERIAL 87 PRESENTATION OF DATA 88 METAL CONTENT OF PLANTSFACTORS AFFECTING THE METAL LEVELS IN 95 PLANTS POSSIBLE INFLUENCE OF METAL LEVELS IN 98 PLANTS ON THE HEALTH OF WILDLIFE, PARTICULARLY CARIBOU AND MOOSE IX TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN STREAM SEDIMENT 105 PRESENTATION OF DATA " 104-METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN STREAM SEDIMENT 104-COMPARISON OF METAL CONTENT'OP STREAM SEDIMENT WITH THAT OF ASSOCIATED ROCK AND SOIL FACTORS AFFECTING TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS IN STREAM SEDIMENT COMPARISON OF METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN STREAM SEDIMENT WITH THOSE OF ASSOCIATED VEGETATION SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A RESULTS OF EMISSION SPECTRO GRAPHS ANALYSIS OF ROCK MATERIAL APPENDIX B RESULTS OF ATOMIC-ABSORPTION ANALYSIS OF SOIL MATERIAL APPENDIX C RESULTS OF ATOMIC-ABSORPTION ANALYSIS OF PLANT MATERIAL APPENDIX D RESULTS OF EMISSION SPECTRO GRAPHS ANALYSIS OF STREAM SEDIMENTS vii LIST OP TABLES TABLE PAGE I Spectre-graphic equipment and operating 19 conditions II Wavelengths and approximate detection 20 limits for spectral lines used to estimate trace element abundances in stream sediments III Analytical precision for spectro- 21 graphic analysis of stream sediments, at the 95$ confidence level, calculated from 50 separate analyses of U.B.C. Standard Rock. IV Range and geometric mean trace element 23 content (p.p.m.) of the minus~80 mesh fraction of stream sediments associated with each of the major bedrock units within regional study area. V Lithological characteristics of major 4-4-bedrock units within the detailed study area. VI Plant species and parts sampled for 55 trace element analysis VII Changes in spectrographic procedure 57 (Tables I and II) introduced for analysis of rock material. VIII Analytical precision for spectro- 58 graphic analysis of rock material, at the 95$ confidence level, calculated from 25 replicate analyses of U.B.C. Standard Rock. IX Operating conditions for Techtron 60 AA-4- Spectrophotometer X A. Analytical precision (#) for Cu, Mn 61 and Zn in soil and plant material, at the 95$ confidence level, calcul ated from the results of atomic-absorption analysis of both standard and paired samples Vlll TABLE PAGE B. Arithmetic mean Cu, Mn-and Zn concen- 61 trations (p.p.m.) in U.B.C. standard samples. XI Analytical precision for molybdenum 62 in plant and soil material, at the 95$ confidence level, calculated from the results of colorimetric analysis of paired samples XII Range and geometric mean trace element 66 levels (p.p.m.) for major bedrock units within detailed study area XIII Range and geometric mean trace element 67 levels (p.p.m.) for various rock types within Unit 3. XIV Comparison of trace element levels 69 (p.p.m.) within dark grey to black shales of Unit 3 with estimates of average metal concentrations in shales of all kinds and median levels within North American black shales XV Range and arithmetic mean concen- 77 trations (p.p.m.) of Mo, Cu, Zn and Mn in the minus-2 mm. fraction of soil C horizons in upland regions within the detailed study area. XVT Range and arithmetic mean concen- 78 trations (p.p.m.) of Mo, Cu, Zn, and Mn in the minus-2 m.m. fraction of soil C horizons in the major river valleys XVII Distribution of HNO^/HCIO^ extract- 79 able metal concentrations in selected soil profiles XVIII Morphological characteristics of soil 80 profiles considered in Table XVII :<XIX Range and arithmetic mean trace 81 element levels in samples of volcanic ash XX Comparison of mean trace element levels (p.p.m.) in soil C horizons in upland areas with those in associated bedrock 83 Range and arithmetic mean molyb denum content of vegetation (p.p.m. dry weight) associated with various soil types Range and arithmetic mean manganese content on vegetation (p.p.m. dry weight) associated with various soil types. Range and arithmetic mean copper content of vegetation (p.p.m. dry weight) associated with various soil types. Range and arithmetic mean zinc content of vegetation (p.p.m. dry weight) associated with various soil types. Range and arithmetic mean concen tration (p.p.m.) of Mo, Cu, Zn and Mn in caribou and moose faeces Range and geometric mean trace element content (p.p.m.) of stream sediment associated with major bedrock types within.,the detailed study area and along the Canol Road Range and geometric mean trace element content (p.p.m.) of stream sediment associated with, (A) Unit 3, subdivided on the basis of stream pH, and (B) Yukon Group, subdivided topographically. Molybdenum, copper and manganese concentrations (p.p.m.) in stream sediment and associated soil. Geometric mean trace element concen trations (p.p.m.) in rock and associated stream sediment Mean pH values of soils and stream waters associated with various bedrock units. X TABLE PAGE XXXI Range and arithmetic mean trace 114 element content (p.p.m.) of iron oxide precipitates from acidic stream channels. XXXII Mean molybdenum, copper and manganese 116 concentrations in stream sediment and vegetation, and associated stream pH values. xi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 Distribution of the principal o, geological units within the regional study area 2 Physiographic subdivisions of the 12 regional study area 3 Regional distribution of Mo in 25 minus-80 mesh fraction of stream sediment from 10,000 meter squares 4- Regional distribution of V in minus-80 26 mesh fraction of stream sediment from 10,000 meter squares 5 Regional distribution of Ni in minus- 27 80 mesh fraction of stream sediment from 10,000 meter squares 6 Regional distribution of Or in minus-80 28 mesh fraction of stream sediment from 10,000 meter squares 7 Regional distribution of Cu in minus-80 29 mesh fraction of stream sediment from 10,000 meter squares 8 Regional distribution of Pb in minus-80 30 mesh fraction of stream sediment from 10,000 meter squares 9 Regional distribution of Sr in minus-80 31 mesh fraction of stream sediment from 10,000 meter squares 10 Regional distribution of Mn in minus-80 32 mesh fraction of stream sediment from 10,000 meter squares 11 Regional distribution of Co in minus- 33 80 mesh fraction of stream sediment from 10,000 meter squares 12 Distribution of principal geological 4-3 units within detailed study area xii FIGURE PAGE 13 Regosol in grassland environment 4.6 northeast of MacMillan Pass 14 Brunisol on a dwarf birch and 4.7 caribou moss covered knowl in the main valley of the South MacMillan River 15 Gleysol developed on dwarf birch flats 48 northeast of MacMillan Pass 16 Stream sediment and rock sample in pocket locations within the detailed study area 17 Soil and vegetation sample site in pocket locations within the detailed study area 18 Soil and vegetation site and stream in pocket sediment sample locations along the Canol Road between Ross River and MacMillan Pass xiii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author is greatly indebted to Dr. W. K. Fletcher who suggested and actively supervised this project. The extensive assistance of Dr. V. C. Brink, particularly in collection and classification of plant samples, is also greatly appreciated. Miss Ann Baxter, Mr. Dhillon, Mr. D. Marshall and Mr. M. Waskett-Myers analyzed many of the samples. Mr. Waskett-Myers also advised and assisted the author in drafting certain of the figures. Dr. R. V. Best identified several fossil specimens. The technical staff of the De partment of Geology, especially Mr. Ed Montgomery, assisted the author on several occasions. Support received from the mining industry is also gratefully acknowledged. Data supplied by Spartan Explor ations Ltd. Vancouver, originally called attention to the study area. Atlas Explorations Ltd., Vancouver, supplied several hundred stream sediment samples. Field quarters were provided by Hudson Bay Exploration and Development Co. Ltd. Financial support was provided by a Canada Council Killam Award (Grant No. 69-0057), the National Research Council (Grants Nos. A7714- and A5120) and the University of British Columbia (Grant No. 21-9687). CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION -2-NUTRITIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF CRUSTAL TRACE ELEMENT ABUNDANCES According to V. M. Goldschmidt "Modern geochemistry studies the amounts and the distribution of the chemical elements in minerals, ores, rocks, soils, waters and in the atmosphere" (Goldschmidt, 1954). Many elements are essential to both plant and animal life. Of the minor or trace elements for example, adequate supplies of iron, copper, cobalt, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium, chlorine and iodine are considered essential to mammals (Schutte, 1964). Other trace elements such as lead, mercury and arsenic are well known for their potentially toxic effects. If ingested in sufficient amounts however, even the essential elements can be toxic. For example, a high dietary intake of molybdenum, in the presence of inorganic sulfate, may induce a state of copper deficiency in ruminants (Underwood, 1962). Knowledge of the regional distribution of the elements, therefore, is of considerable importance in nutritional studies and epidemiology. Trace elements in most soils and vegetation are ultim ately derived from the underlying bedrock. Acidic igneous, and coarse sedimentary rocks tend to contain relatively low concentrations of the trace elements associated with nutrition. For example, the coastal plain sands of the Eastern United States support crops which are commonly de ficient in such elements as copper, iron, manganese and cobalt (Cannon, 1969). Metal toxicities, on the other hand, are commonly associated with shales. In Co. Limerick, Ireland, for example, toxic levels of selenium and molybdenum are present in soils and herbage overlying the Clare Shales, which contain up to 30 p.p.m. selenium and 150 p.p.m. molybdenum (Webb and Atkinson, 1965). Similarily, wheat crops grown in the north-central plains of the United States contain toxic amounts of selenium, derived from selenium-rich volcanic ash layers within the underlying shales (Cannon, 1969). APPLICATION OF STREAM SEDIMENT SURVEYS TO THE DETECTION OF TRACE ELEMENT IMBALANCES IN AGRICULTURE A stream sediment approximates a composite sample of weathered rock and soil material upstream from the sampling point (Webb, 1968). Soluble products of weathering may be incorporated into the sediment by either absorption or pre cipitation. The trace element content of a stream sediment sample therefore, may reflect to some extent, that of the soils, rocks and even vegetation in the catchment as a whole. Stream sediment sampling has been used successfully -4-in mineral exploration programs (Webb et al, 1968). In Canada stream sediments are being utilized in pollution studies (Eortescue et al, 1971). In the British Isles they have been used extensively to detect agricultural disorders arising from trace element imbalances (Thornton and Webb, 1969). In Co. Wicklow, Ireland, the cobalt content of stream sediments has been related to the occurrence and severity of cobalt deficiency in sheep and cattle on soils derived from granite (Webb, 1964-). On the Vale of Clwyd, Wales, low manganese levels in sediments (<500 p.p.m.) have been assoc iated with low levels in herbage and unthriftiness in live stock (Thornton and Webb, 1969). Drainage reconnaissance over part of Co. Limerick, Ireland, has outlined large areas characterized by high molybdenum values (up to 200 p.p.m.) related to an outcrop of marine black shale (Webb and Atkinson, 1965). Detailed studies have shown the anomalies to be associated with molyb-deniferous soils and rocks. Though symptoms of molydenum toxicity have been reported in cattle in the molybdenum-anomalous region, the sediment pattern defined large areas where previously unsuspected sub-clinical molybdenum induced copper deficiency is significantly inhibiting agricultural productivity. -5-THESIS OBJECTIVES During the course of a mineral exploration program undertaken by Spartan Explorations Ltd., Vancouver, in the Hess Mountains, Yukon Territory, an area of over 100 square miles, characterized by stream sediments with anomalously high molybdenum contents (up to 50 p.p.m.), was recognized. Black shales, which were thought to be the source of the molybdenum, are common over a total area of more than 8,000 square miles in the Eastern Yukon. In view of the possible existence of extensive regions characterized by enhanced molybdenum levels in rock, soil and forage materials, this study was undertaken (1) to investigate, using sediment samples collected during a mineral exploration program, the regional extent of anomalous molybdenum levels in an area of over 6,000 square miles in the Eastern Yukon. (2) to determine, on a local scale, trace element contents of bedrock, soil and vegetation in molybdenum-anomalous and non-anomalous regions. SECTION A REGIONAL STUDY CHAPTER TWO DESCRIPTION OP REGIONAL STUDY AREA -8-LOCATION AND ACCESS The regional survey area in the Eastern Yukon extends from approximately 130° to 135° west longitude and 62° to 64-° north latitude (Figure 1). It is accessible by air from the town of Ross River. The Canal Road, which traverses the southeastern half of the area (Figure 1), is open between Ross River and the MacMillan Pass during the summer months. GEOLOGY The distribution of the five major geological units within the regional study area is indicated in Figure 1. The geology has been described by Bostock (Map 890A, 1947), Roddick and Green (Maps 12 - 1961, 13 - 1961), Campbell (G.S.C. Memoir 352, 1967), Campbell and Wheeler (Map 1221A -1967) and Blusson and Tempieman-Kluit (G.S.C. Paper 70-=-lA, 1970). Proterozoic to Mississippian metasedimentary and sedimentary strata underlie most of the area. These rocks are intruded by small, probably Cretaceous, granitic stocks and are locally overlain by Tertiary lavas. The Proterozoic rocks of the Yukon Group range in composition from quartz-mica, graphite, and chlorite schists in the northwest, to quartzite and dark shales in the central and southern regions. They are overlain by a rather uniform ALASKA / I - , 1 Gronodiorite, Quartz Monzonite DEVONI) E3 DEVONIAN to MISS1SS1PPIAN Chert, Chert-pebbie conglomerate, Argillite Figure I. Distribution of the principal geological units within the regional study area. -10-succession of Paleozoic cherts and shales. These dark, interbedded shales and cherts cover much of the eastern portion of the area. Their estimated aggregate thickness is 10,000 feet, with the basal portion dominated by shale and the upper portion by chert. Chert-pebble conglomerate, limestone, quartzite and phyllite are present in minor amounts. Graptolites, found in certain shaly members, suggest an Ordovician to Silurian age for part of this unit (Roddick & Green, 1961a). The rocks of the Earn Group, exposed in the southwestern corner of the area, are Devonian to Mississippian in age. They consist mainly of chert, chert-pebble conglomerate and argillite. Massive dark lava flows, exceeding 5,000 feet in aggregate thickness, locally overlie the Paleozoic strata. The upper flows are dacitic, while the lower ones are domin-antly andesitic and basaltic. Several small granodiorite and quartz monzonite stocks intrude both the Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks. Hornfels, and locally mineralized skarns, are developed near their contacts. A potassium-argon date on biotites from the Itsi Range indicates a Middle Creta ceous age for the granitic rocks (Roddick and Green, 1961a). Several lead-zinc-copper vein and skarn deposits have been reported in the area, and tungsten and molybdenum min eralization is associated with the granitic intrusives (Findlay, 1969). At present the most promising deposits are the Tom Property (Hudson Bay Exploration and Development -11 Company Ltd.), comprising stratabound galena and sphalerite in Paleozoic shales, and the MacTung Property (American Metal Climax Incorporated), with pyrrhotite-scheelite mineralization in a skarn zone surrounding a small stock. Both properties are located in the northeast, near MacMillan Pass. GLACIATION Evidence of the most recent Pleistocene glaciation, the McConnell advance, is abundant within the study area (Hughes et al, 1968). During the McConnell glaciation ice accumulated in the Hess Mountains up to an elevation of 5,000 feet (Bostock, 1948), and flowed westward onto the Yukon Plateau. Ice movement was controlled to a great extent by the main drainage channels, which as a result were consider ably deepened, especially on the Stewart Plateau. In the MacMillan River valley the total thickness of glacial drift generally ranges from 400 to 500 feet. Normally it consists of a basal boulder clay unit, overlain by an irregular sequence of silts, sands and gravels (McConnell, 1905). TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE The regional study area is divided into two major physiographic regions (Figure 2), the Hess Mountains in the northeast, and the Eastern Yukon Plateau in the southwest (Bostock, 1948). The Hess Mountains comprise a group of 134° 133° 132° 131° STEWART H £ PLATEAU MOUNTAINS LAN R I V MACMILLAN + SM 'MAC LEGEND MS - Mount Sheldon KP - Keele Peak SM - Selenous Mountain MP - MacMillan Pass MILES IR - Itsi Range ° <j 16 PLATEAU I30c 1 KP 'MP 4-IR o el f ^ PELLY PLATEAU 135° [34° 133° Figure 2. Physiographic subdivisions of the regional study area. —1— 132° 131° 130° -13-irregular, somewhat subdued ranges, underlain predominantly by Paleozoic sediments. The highest peaks, in excess of 7,000 feet, are generally cored by granitic intrusives. The Eastern Yukon Plateau is subdivided from northwest to southeast, into the Stewart, MacMillan and Pelly Plateaus. Within the study area both the Stewart and MacMillan Plateaus consist of tablelands, 4,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation, dissected by a well developed network of struc turally controlled valleys. Small mountain ranges, rarely exceeding 7,000 feet in elevation, commonly crown these table lands. The Pelly Plateau, on the other hand, is only mildly dissected, with a few small mountains separated by broad relatively shallow valleys. The Hess and MacMillan Rivers drain most of the region. Both head in the Hess Mountains and flow westward across the plateau. CLIMATE Cut off from the prevailing westerly winds by the peaks of the Saint Elias Range, the climate is predominantly continental, characterized by relatively little rainfall and extreme temperature ranges (Kendrew and Kerr, 1955). The mean daily temperatures range from approximately -20°P during the winter months, to about 60°F in the summer. The high summer mean is in part due to the nearly continuous sunlight experienced at that time. There is no pronounced rainy -14-season, though most of the precipitation falls in late summer and early fall. The total annual precipitation increases from west to east, from about twelve inches on the plateau to over twenty inches in the mountains. SOIL Topography is one of the primary factors controlling the distribution of soil types. Regosols, and to a lesser extent Brunisols, are common on the well drained upland regions, whereas flat poorly drained valley bottoms are characterized by Gleysols and Organic soils. Because of the cold climate, relatively rugged topography and recent glaci ation the depth of the solum of mineral soils seldom exceeds two feet. Permafrost is distributed discontinuously through out the area. A one to two inch layer of volcanic ash underlies the organic surface horizon in most areas. Capps (1915) has suggested that the ash was derived from a major volcanic eruption in the Saint Elias Range approximately 1,500 years ago. VEGETATION The distribution of plant species is chiefly topo graphically controlled. Dense forests occupy the bottoms of the major river valleys. The predominant species is white spruce (Picea glauca), though several other species including black spruce (Picea mariana), aspen (Populus tremuloides), -15-and alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) are present (McConnell, 1903). The lower parts of the valley slopes, up to the treeline at about 4,500 feet, are covered with spruce and locally willow (Salix) and alder (Alnus). Dwarf birch and caribou moss range between the treeline and scree slopes at the highest altitudes in mountainous regions. WILDLIFE A wide variety of mammalian species are known to in habit the region. Of the larger mammals the grizzly bear (Ursus horribilis), caribou (Rangifer arcticus) and mountain sheep (Ovis dalli) roam chiefly above timerline, while the black bear (Ursus americanus) and moose (Alces americana) occupy the forested valley bottoms. Mountain sheep and caribou consume mainly grasses, sedges and willows (Rand, 1945b). In the winter, however, caribou subsist almost en tirely on caribou moss. Moose consume willows and assorted aquatic plants, while grasses, berries and roots are the major food sources for the bear population. CHAPTER THREE REGIONAL GEOCHEMICAL RECONNAISSANCE -17 SAMPLE COLLECTION AND PREPARATION Atlas Explorations Limited, Vancouver, contributed nearly 600 minus-80 mesh stream sediment samples. They were collected during the summers of 1968 and 1969, originally for mineral exploration purposes, over an area of approximately 7,000 square miles in the Eastern Yukon. Sample density ranges from about one sample per 5 square miles to approximately one sample per 50 square miles. Catchment areas upstream from sample sites are normally from two to five square miles. SAMPLE ANALYSIS Stream sediments were analyzed by a semi-quanti tative DC-arc spectrographic procedure (Fletcher, pers. comm.) for fifteen elements: Sr, Ba, Cr, Co, Ni, Ag, Ti, Cu, V, Mo, Bi, Ga, Sn, Pb and Mn. Pre-Analytical Treatment A small amount of minus-80 mesh stream sediment mat erial was ignited at 550°C for three hours. One hundred milligrams of ignited sample were then mixed with an equal weight of graphite, containing indium as an internal standard, and homogenized by shaking in a Spex "Mixer/Mill" for three minutes. The mixture was then packed into the cavity of a graphite anode and sealed with one drop of sugar solution -18-(20 gm. sucrose dissolved in 75 ml. of ethanol and 25 ml. of distilled water). Analytical Method The equipment and operating conditions for stream sediment analysis are given in Table I. Metal concentrations were estimated by visual comparison of the sample spectra with those of synthetic standards as described by Nichol and Henderson-Hamilton (1965). The spectral lines used and approximate detection limits are indicated in Table II. Table I Spectre-graphic equipment and operating conditions. Spectrograph Source Arc/Spark Stand Microdensitometer Anode Cathode 3-Step Neutral Filter Neutral Filter Emulsion Wavelength Range Mask Slit Width Arc Current Plate Processing Arc Gap Exposure Time Hilger-Watts automatic quartz spectograph Electro-Matic Products (ARL), Model P6KS, Type 2R41 Spex Industries #9010 ARL Spectroline Scanner #2200 Graphite, National L3709SPK Graphite, National L3803AGKS Spex Industries #1090, 5$ 20$ and 100$ transmitance Spex Industries #9022, 20$ transmitance Spectrum Analysis #1 2775-4800 A° 17 mm. 15 M. 12a developer Kodak D-19 3 min. at 23°C stopbath Kodak 30 sec. fixer Kodak 5 min. 4 m.m. 20 sec. -20-Table II Wave lengths and approximate detection limits for spectral lines used to estimate element abundances in stream sediments. Element Wavelength (A) Detection Limit (p.p.m.) Sr 4607.33 50 Ba 4554.04 1 Cr 4254.35 1 Co 3453.51 5 Ni 3414.77 5 Ag 3382.89 1 Ti 3372.80 20 Cu 3273.96 10 In 3256.09 1 V 3185.40 20 Mo 3170.35 2 Bi 3067.72 10 Ga 2943.64 1 Sn 2839.99 5 Pb 2833.07 2 Mn 2801.06 1 -21-Table III Analytical precision for spectrographs.c analysis of stream sediment at the 95$ confidence level, calculated from 50 separate analyses of U.B.C. Standard Rock. Element Mean Concentration (p.p.m.)) Precision (at 95$ confidence level) Sr 1285 85 Ba 1520 85 Cr 8 90 Co 9 80 Ni 8 85 Ag n.d.* -Ti 14-10 60 Cu 15 50 In 25 45 V 55 60 Mo n.d.* -Bi n.d.* -Ga 15 30 Sn n.d.* -Pb 4 95 Mn 275 85 *n.d. = not detected -22-Analytical Control Analytical precision was estimated by replicate analysis of a standard rock sample included in each analyt ical batch (Fletcher, pers. comm.). Precision, at the 95$ confidence level, is indicated, for each element, in Table III. Samples with less than 10 p.p.m., or greater than 50 p.p.m. of the internal standard indium, were re-analized. PRESENTATION OF DATA Range and geometric mean trace element values for stream sediments derived from each of the principal geological units are indicated in Table IV. Figures 3 to 11 show the regional distributions of Mo, V, Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sr, Mn and Co. Ag, Bi and Sn, which were detected in only a few samples, Ba and Ti, which were commonly present in concentrations above that of the highest standard, and Ga, which is very uniformly distributed over all rock types, are not considered. Distribution maps were compiled by computing the geometric mean trace element levels within the 10,000 meter squares of the National Topographic Series map sheets (Fletcher, pers. comm.). These mean values were then grouped according to specific class intervals, the limits of which correspond to the midpoints between the spectrograph!c standards. This method of data presentation has the advantage -23-Table IV Range and geometric mean trace element content (p.p.m.) of minus-80 mesh fraction of stream sediments associated with each of the major bedrock units within the regional study area. BEDROCK ELEMENT YUKON GROUP .EARN GROUP UNIT 3 GRANITIC ROCK VOLCANIC ROCK Proterozoic Paleozoic Paleozoic Cretaceous Tertiary schist, quart-zite, phyllite shale chert, quartzite dark shale, chert granodiorite dacite, andesite basalt Mo* 2 2-3 3 2-6 11 3-35 2 2-4 2 2-5 V 110 75-170 200 120-360 480 250-930 80 40-170 170 85-350 Ki 65 50-85 70 50-100 140 60-320 35 15-90 45 30-75 Cr 140 100-190 120 90-150 180 120-270 60 25-130 95 65-150 Cu 50 30-80 \ 60 35-95 90 50-160 25 15-45 45 25-90 Pb 18 11-28 18 • 8-20 15 8-29 17 13-21 20 14-29 Sr 270 150-470 330 210-520 200 • 100-420 310 210-470 720 500-1030 Mn 770 390-1550 970 630-I500 430 . 170-1090 ' 370 220-620 860 530-1390 Co 35 25-55 30 20-45 35 15-65 20 10-35 30 20-50 Number of Samples 123 28 295 18 17 t Range = geometric mean ± log standard deviation * Values less than 2 p.p.m. taken as 1 p.p.m. -24. of emphasizing the regional patterns by smoothing over local irregularities. However, because of the uneven distribution of sample sites, the number of sediment samples used to calculate each map value ranges from one up to about ten. Consequently, in this case, isolated anomalous values could give a false indication of local background levels. TRACE ELEMENT PATTERNS IN STREAM SEDIMENTS Regional distribution patterns of the various elements may be subdivided into two relatively distinct groups. In the first, which includes molybdenum, vanadium, nickel, copper and chromium, the highest concentrations occur in the northeast, chiefly underlain by the dark shales and cherts of Unit 3. In the second, comprising lead, strontium, man ganese and cobalt, high values are most common in the south west. Distribution of Mo, V, Ni, Cr and Cu As indicated in Table IV, sediments associated with Unit 3 typically contain enhanced molybdenum values (11 p.p.m.). Concentrations in sediments derived from other units are generally low and often below the 2 p.p.m. detection limit. High concentrations, up to 100 p.p.m., are most common in the central portion of Unit 3 (Figure 3). Molybdenum levels over the small lens*, of Unit 3 rock in the south-central 134° 133° 132° 131° Figure3. Regional distribution of Mo in minus-80 mesh fraction of stream sediment 10,000 meter squares. 134° 133° 132° 131° 135°134° 133° 132° '31° Figure 4. Regional, distribution of V in minus-80 mesh fraction of stream sediment from 10,000 meter squares. 134° 133° 132° 131° Figure 5. Regional distribution of Ni in minus-80 mesh fraction of stream sediment from 10,000 meter squares. 1 135 IT . « Figure 6. Regional distribution of Cr In minus-80 mesh fraction of stream sed.ment from 10,000 meter squares. i ro oo i 6 3<H he 3° Mean Cu Content (p.p.m.) >I60 70-150 32-69 < 32 WILES 0 8 I I 1 ro 13 5° —r 134 Figure 7. Regional distribution of Cu in minus-80 mesh fraction of stream sed 10,000 meter squares. iment from 10,000 meter squares. 10,000 meter squares. -10,000 meter squares Figure II. Regional distribution of Co in minus-80 mesh fraction of stream sediment from ^ 10,000 meter squares. ! -34-portion of the study area are somewhat lower than those associated with the main body of this unit to the northeast. Sediments from each geological unit are characterized by relatively distinct vanadium levels (Table IV). Con sequently, the positions of all major geological contacts are clearly evident in the vanadium distribution pattern (Figure 4). The northern contact of the Earn Group with the Yukon Group for example, which is indistinguishable in the distribution patterns for the other elements, is defined by an abrupt change in concentration from approximately 250 p.p.m. over the Earn Group to about 100 p.p.m. over the Yukon Group. The highest vanadium concentrations, up to 1,500 p.p.m., are associated with Unit 3, and the lowest with the granitic rocks. The distribution of nickel (Figure 5) resembles that of vanadium, though the locations of the major geological contacts are only vaguely reflected. Nickel concentrations over the small lensc of Unit 3 southwest of Selenous Mountain (Figure 2) are relatively erratic, with adjacent values dif fering by as much as 140 p.p.m. As indicated in Figure 6, the chromium pattern is subdued in comparison with those of the previously mentioned elements. This uniformity is reflected in the similar mean chromium levels (120 to 180 p.p.m.) associated with the three most abundant rock types (Table IV). The highest mean copper contrations (90 p.p.m.) are associated with Unit 3, while the lowest (25 p.p.m.), occur -35-in sediments derived from granitic rocks. A few strikingly high copper values, up to 500 p.p.m., occur over Unit 3 (Figure 7)"*. Large scale regional variations in the trace element content of stream sediments over both Unit 3 and the Yukon Group are apparent for many of these elements. For example, relatively high molybdenum (>8 p.p.m.), vanadium (>320 p.p.m.), nickel (>150 p.p.m.) and chromium (>150 p.p.m.) values in the central portion of the main body of Unit 3 contrast with moderate to low values over the narrow northwestern arm of this unit. Similarily, over the Yukon Group, relatively en hanced vanadium (>150 p.p.m.), chromium (>150 p.p.m.) and to a lesser extent nickel (>70 p.p.m.) values are more abun dant in the southeast than in the northwest. Certain isolated anomalous values over both Unit 3 and the Yukon Group may reflect the presence of small in clusions of foreign bedrock. The position of a granitic stock, for example, about twenty miles northwest of the Itsi Range (Figure 2), is clearly indicated by anomalously low trace element levels (Figures 3 to 7). Isolated high molyb denum (>14 p.p.m.) and vanadium (>320 p.p.m.) values (Figures 3 and 4-), situated about twenty miles northwest of Selenous Mountain (Figure 2) over the Yukon Group, strongly suggest the presence of a small unmapped outlier of Unit 3. -36-Distribution of Pb, Sr, Mn and Co Concentrations of these elements in stream sediments derived from Unit 3 are not particularly enhanced. With the exception of cobalt, their distribution patterns typically display little geological control. Range and mean lead values associated with all five major geological units are remarkably similar (Table IV). Consequently the distribution pattern for lead is very uniform (Figure 8). Five anomalously high values (up to 180 p.p.m.) are indicated in Figure 8, four of which occur over Yukon Group rocks. High lead values in sediments draining Tertiary volcanic rocks, about twenty-five miles south of Selenous Mountain, are not apparent in Figure 8 due to dilution of the anomalous samples with surrounding ones, in the same U.T.M. square, with low lead contents. Strontium levels in stream sediments are particularly erratic over Unit 3 (Figure 9). Both abnormally high (>750 p.p.m.) and low (<150 p.p.m.) values are confined, with few exceptions, to regions underlain by Unit 3. As indicated in Table IV, the mean strontium concentration in sediment derived from Tertiary volcanics (720 p.p.m.) is substantially higher than mean levels associated with other rock types. Relatively wide manganese concentration ranges are associated with each of the major geological units (Table IV). As a result, the distribution pattern for manganese (Figure 10), like that of strontium, is erratic. High manganese -37-values are typically associated with the Yukon Group, Earn Group and Tertiary volcanic rocks. The relatively uniform distribution of cobalt values (Figure 11) is reflected in the narrow range of mean cobalt concentrations (20 to 35 p.p.m.) in sediments derived from the various bedrock units. Nevertheless, the positions of the boundaries of both the Earn Group and the Tertiary volcanics are clearly reflected in the cobalt distribution pattern. DISCUSSION OF DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS Relationship to Bedrock Composition Data are available only on the regional distribution of molybdenum within the granitic rocks. Garrett (1971a) has reported that the mean molybdenum concentration in all major stocks is characteristically less than 2 p.p.m. and never exceeds 6 p.p.m. Low molybdenum levels in stream sediments derived from these rocks (Table IV) are in excellent agree ment with Garrett's figures. Gleeson (1967) has noted enhanced molybdenum values (occasionally>10 p.p.m.) in stream sediments associated with graphite and pyrite-rich phyllites in the Keno Hill region, Yukon Territory. These findings are consistent with the high mean molybdenum level (11 p.p.m.) in sediments derived from the Unit 3 rocks, which include significant amounts of organic-rich, occasionally pyrite bearing, shales. -38-Depending upon the influence of secondary environ ment, trace element levels in stream sediment should reflect, to some extent, concentrations in associated bed rock (Webb et al., 1968). Thus, Table IV suggests that the dark cherts and shales of Unit 3 are likely enriched, relative to the other geological units, in molybdenum and vanadium, and to a lesser extent nickel, copper and chromium. Similarly, the Tertiary volcanics likely contain large amounts of strontium, while the levels of both cobalt and lead are probably very similar in all of the major bedrock types. Relationship to Glaciation As previously noted, during the Pleistocene, glacial ice accumulated in the Hess Mountains (Figure 2) and flowed westward across the Yukon Plateau. Interpretation of stream sediment patterns in terms of bedrock geology could there fore be complicated by the presence of exotic drift over geological units in the west. The generally sharp change in sediment molybdenum, vanadium and nickel values (Figures 3, 4- and 5) across the contact between Unit 3 and the main body of the Yukon Group however, suggests that the influence of glaciation on regional sediment patterns has been rela tively slight. -39-Possible Relationship to Animal Nutrition In Ireland and the United Kingdom molybdenum levels of over 10 p.p.m. in stream sediment have delineated regions wherein abnormally high molybdenum concentrations in soils and herbage give rise to molybdenum induced hypocuprosis and molybdenosis (Thornton and Webb, 1969). Comparably high values are common over large areas underlain by Unit 3, espec ially in the east. A detailed study was therefore undertaken to relate the regional geochemical patterns to molydenum levels in bedrock, soils and vegetation. Particular attention was given to sampling those plant species likely to be consumed by moose and caribou. SECTION B DETAILED STUDY CHAPTER IV DESCRIPTION OP DETAILED STUDY AREA LOCATION AND ACCESS Detailed geochemical investigations were undertaken in an area of approximately 100 square miles, near the crestline of the Hess Mountains, in the vicinity of MacMillan Pass (Figure 1). Access is provided by both the Canol Road, which is open between the village of Ross River and MacMillan Pass during summer months, and a small air strip which is situated in the valley of the South MacMillan River, a few miles southwest of the pass. GEOLOGY Unit 3 rocks are most abundant of the three major geo logical units within the detailed study area (Figure 12). Much of the northern regions, however, are underlain by the Yukon Group. A few granitic stocks, typically less than three miles in diameter, intrude both Unit 3 and the Yukon Group. Lithological characteristics of rock material sampled are summarized in Table V. Of particular interest is the wide variety of rock types comprising Unit 3, including light to dark colored shale, siltstone, chert-pebble conglomerate and limestone. No cherts, reported by Roddick and Green (1961a) to be common within this unit were noted, though the light grey shales are typically very siliceous. Styliolina, observed in certain limestone samples (Best, pers. comm.), suggest a Middle i:Silurian to Upper Devonian age for at least a portion of Unit. 3. Tight folding, complex faulting and QUATERNARY Unconsolidated glacial and alluvial LEGEND deposits CRETACEOUS Granodiorite ORDOVICIAN to MISSISSIPPIAN Shale,siltstone,chert- pebble conglomerate, limestone PROTEROZOIC Phyllite, schist / Geological contact ^6000" Contours Stream ••••»••••-^ Lake Road " MILES 0 |234 Figure 12. Distribution of principal geological units within the detailed study area. Table V Lithologlcal characteristics of major bedrock units within the detailed study area. AGE GEOLOGICAL UNIT DESCRIPTION KESOZOIC (Cretaceous?) GRANITIC ROCK Biotite Granodiorite: disseminated sulfides relatively rare. Dark grey to black Shale: organic carbon abundant; small (50$)* spherical silica grains (<. 5m. m. in diameter) resembling diatoms (Best, pers. comm.) common in siliceous varieties; locally euhedral pyrite crystals occupy cores of silica spheres. i s ! in Medium to light grey Shales organic carbon less common (lOJi)* than in black shale; certain varieties are very rich in silica) no true cherts,with conchlodAl fracture, were noted. | i PALEOZOIC (Middle Silur ian to Upper Devonian in part) UNIT 3 SIXICEI Dark Siltstonei chiefly interbedded silty, shaley and (30$) * sandy laminations; individual laminations range from less than one to a few millimeters in thickness; silty laminations are most common and sandy ones Inar.t ccinoi.! organic carbon is abundant in shaley ay.d silty layers. Conglomeratei associated with siltstonesi angular chert (5%) * pebbles (up to 10 m.m. in length) are common; black shale and quartzite pebbles are relatively rare; gradded bedding may be present. CALCAREOUS Dark grey to black Limestone; fine grained; organic (Si)* carbon common; locally fossiliferous ; contains Stvliolina (Best. Ders. comm.) which ranges from Kiddle Silurian to Upper Devonian (Moore, 1962). PROTEROZOIC YUKON GROUP Chlorite Schist; mainly chlorite with some quartz. Quartz Phillitei mainly quartz with minor muscovite and chlorite. * relative abbundance of Unit 3 rock material sampled for analysis -4-5-the absence of distinctive marker horizons combine to make determination of relative stratigraphic positions of various Unit 3 lithologies difficult. SOIL Each of nearly 100 soil profiles examined was classified to the subgroup level according to the classification system of the Canadian Department of Agriculture (1970). Members of the Regosolic (Figure 13), Brunisolic (Figure 14-), Gleysolic (Figure 15) and Organic Orders are recognized. Regosols are the most abundant Order, comprising nearly seventy percent of the soils examined. They are distributed throughout a wide variety of environments ranging from the floors of the MacMillan and Ross River valleys, to the mountain ous uplands above timerline. Brunisols, Gleysols and Organic soils are generally confined to main valley bottoms. Both Gleysols and Organic soils, characteristic of poorly drained environments, are commonly saturated with water within one foot or less of the soil surface. Brunisols develop on porous, well drained parent materials. Their virtual absence in upland regions may be due to rapid erosion in these areas. A discontinuous ash layer, generally less than two inches thick, separates the L-H from the underlying mineral horizon in many soils (Figures 13 and 14-). Permafrost was encountered at a variable depth in about ten percent of the soils examined. -46-Figure 13. Regosol in grassland environment northeast of MacMillan Pass (Site 33). • Note lack of profile development. (Scale in inches) _47-Figure 14. Brunisol on a dwarf birch and caribou moss covered knoll in the main valley of the South MacMillan River (Site 19). Note leached Ae horizon overlying yellowish-brown Bm horizon. -48-Figure 15. Gleysol developed on dwarf birch flats north east of MacMillan Pass (Site 29). Note mottled Cg horizon overlying permafrost zone, Cz (scale in inches). -49-It is common beneath dwarf birch flats northeast of MacMillan Pass and in the densely forested regions of the MacMillan and Ross River valleys. The absence of permafrost in upland regions may be due to relatively sparse vegetation and rapid drainage in these areas. VEGETATION Distribution of plant types in the detailed study area is controlled primarily by topography and drainage. Grasses and willow characterize much of the flat wet floor of the South MacMillan River valley. Comparatively well drained knolls, scattered near the margins of the valley floor, are covered chiefly by dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) and caribou moss (Cladonia alpestris). Near the head of the valley, in the vicinity of MacMillan Pass, these knolls merge into ex tensive dwarf birch-caribou moss flats. With the exception of certain lichens such as Umbilicaria, summits of most mountains are essentially devoid of vegetation. At lower elevations lichens and dwarf birch become abundant. At about 4,000 ft. alpine fir (Abies  lasiocarpa) replaces dwarf birch as the dominant woody species. Mixed stands of alpine fir and white spruce (Picea glauca) blanket the lower portions of valley walls in the southwestern corner of the detailed study area. Shrubs such as white heather (Cassiope tetragona) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) are common on knolls in valley floors and at lower elevations along valley walls. Porbs,: -50-including fireweed (Epilobium latifolium) and lupin (Lupinus  arcticus), and various grasses are characteristic of alpine meadows, which occur near the heads of many tributary streams draining into the main valley of the South MacMillan River. Certain meadows and adjacent uplands, underlain by dark Unit 3 limestone, characteristically support a strik ingly wide variety of plant types. Caribou moss and dwarf '.. birch however are conspicuously absent in these calcareous environments. CHAPTER V SAMPLE COLLECTION, PREPARATION AND ANALYSIS -52-SAMPLE COLLECTION AND PREPARATION Between June 15th and July 31st, 1971, approximately 1,100 samples were collected within the detailed study area and along the Canol Road. Of these approximately 120 were stream sediments, 350 soil, 350 vegetation, 250 rock and 30 animal faeces. STREAM SEDIMENT Stream sediment sample sites are indicated in Figures 16 and 18. Fine, active, organic free sediment was collected where possible. At each sample site brief descriptions were made of the stream and its load, and stream water pH was measured with BDH Liquid Universal Indicator. Samples were collected in kraft paper bags and oven dried in the field. A porcelain mortar was used to disaggregate samples in the laboratory. After thorough mixing, a 10 to 15 g. sub-sample was passed through a minus-80 mesh nylon, sieve, and fines were retained for spectrographic analysis. ROCK Rock sample locations are shown in Figure 16. Most samples were collected as continuous chips taken perpendicular to bedding of selected rock sections. Each sample consisted of a mixture of small, lithologically similar chips, collected over an interval of ten stratigraphic feet. A few random chip samples were also obtained, chiefly from small stream exposures. A representative specimen of each major lithology sampled was taken for thin section examination. Initially rock chips were passed through a jaw crusher and then between ceramic plates. After thorough mixing a 10 g. sub-sample was ground in a Spex "Shatterbox" to minus-100 mesh. Between runs the jaw crusher and ceramic plates were cleaned with compressed air and brushes, and the dish of the Shatterbox was rinsed in tap water and dried with acetone. Samples were ground in numeric order to ensure that, if contamination occurred, its source could be readily ident ified. SOIL Figures 17 and 18 show locations of the nearly 100 soil profiles examined. At each soil site a small pit was dug and each soil horizon identified and its morphology noted. Vegetation, drainage and parent material, as well as other important variables in the soil environment were also des cribed. Samples of each soil horizon were collected in kraft bags and oven dried in the field. Coarse rock chips from C horizons were collected separately. Mineral and organic horizons selected for trace element analysis were disaggregated in the laboratory with a porcelain mortar. Because in agriculture, trace element content of soil is typically expressed in terms of the minus-2 m.m. fraction, disaggregated samples were passed through a 2 m.m. nylon: sieve. Fines were then mixed and a 10 g. sub-sample ground to minus-100 mesh in a "Shatterbox1! Organic horizon material, -54-intended for pH measurement, was initially ground in a rotary blender. VEGETATION Plant material was collected in a roughly 10 x 10 m. perquadrat in the vicinity of each soil pit. Species common over a wide range of soil parent materials and altitudes were sampled preferentially. Sampling procedures for various plant types collected are indicated in Table VI. Samples, in large paper bags, were air dried as soon as possible in the field and again at 70°0 in the laboratory, before being ground in a Wiley mill. FAECES Where available,samples were taken of both caribou and moose faeces. A few grams of dried sample were ground in a small blender prior to digestion. SAMPLE ANALYSIS Stream sediment and rock samples were analyzed by a semiquantitative DC-arc spectrographic procedure for Sr, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, V, Mo, Pb and Mn. Atomic-absorption spectro photometry was used to measure Cu, Mn and Zn levels in soil, vegetation and faeces, and Zn in selected sediment and rock samples (Fletcher, pers. comm.). Mo was determined color-metrically in soil, vegetation and faecal material. Glass electrodes were used to measure soil pH. -55-Table VI Plant species and parts sampled for trace element analysis. Plant Type Plant Species Sampling Procedure Trees Abies lasiocarpa (Fir) Picea glauca (white spruce) First and second year leaves and twigs taken to in clude flowers and fruits, where present Shrubs Betula glandulosa (dwarf birch) Salix alexensis (willow) Salix phylicifolia (willow) Cassiope tetragona (white heather) Empetrum nigrum (crowberry) Potentilla flabeliformis (shrubby cinguefoil) Terminal 2 inches taken to include flowers and fruits Forbs Senecio triangularis Lupinus arcticus (lupine) Epilobium latifolium (fire-weed) Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed) Valarian sitchensis Veratrum viride (false hellibore) Polygonum alaskanum Cut 1 inch above soil to include flowering parts: old growth ex cluded Grasses Pestuca altaica (rough fescue) Carex aquatalis (sedge) Calamagrostis canadensis Carex microshaeta Cut 1 inch above soil surface to include clums; old growth excluded Lichens Cladonia alpestris (caribou moss) Stereocaulon Alectoria Sampled above pigment line Umbilicaria Stripped from rock surfaces -56-SEMI-QUANTITATIVE SPECTROGRAPHS ANALYSIS Procedures used for stream sediment material are identical to those described for the regional study (pages 17 to 22). For rock material however, changes were made in operating conditions (Table VIIA) and in wavelengths used to estimate copper and manganese abundances (Table VILB). Precision for rock analyses, at the 95$ confidence level, is indicated in Table VIII. ATOMIC-ABSORPTION ANALYSIS Pre-Analytical Treatment Soil and Vegetation: Either a 0.5 g. sample of minus-100 mesh soil material or 1 g. of dried and milled plant material was weighed into a 100 ml. beaker. After adding 10 ml. of 4:1 nitric-perchloric acid, the sample was refluxed for one hour at low heat. The solution was then evaporated to dryness and the residue taken up with 10 ml. 6 M. hydrochloric acid. After standing, a 5 ml. aliquot of clear solution was set aside for colorimetric determination of molyb denum. The remaining 5 ml. were diluted to 20 ml. with distilled water and this solution reserved for determination of copper, zinc and manganese. Rock and Stream Sediment: A 0.5 g. sample of minus-100 mesh rock, or minus-80 mesh stream sediment material was digested in 10 ml. of 4:1 nitric-per--57 Table VII Changes in spectrographic procedure Tables I and II) introduced for analysis of rock material. Operating Conditions Changed from to Arc Gap 4 m.m. 6 m.m. Exposure Time 20 sec. 30 sec. Plate Development 3 min. 5 min. Spectral Lines Wavelength Detection Limit (A' ) (p.p.m.) Changed Changed Prom to Prom to Cu 3273.96 3247.55 10 2 Mn 2801.06 2794.82 1 1 58-Table VIII Analytical precision for spectrographic analysis of rock material, at the 95$ confidence level, calculated from 25 replicate analyses of U.B.C. Standard Rock. Element Mean Concentration (p.p.m.) Precision % (at 95$ confidence level) Sr 685 30 Cr 5 50 Co 4 30 Ni 7 95 Cu 25 60 In 25 40 V 35 75 Mo n.d.* -Pb 8 65 Mn 14-5 65 * n.d. = not detected. -59-chloric acid and evaporated to dryness. The residue was taken up in 20 ml. of 1,5 M hydrochloric acid for the determination of zinc. Faeces: A 1 g. sample of ground faecal material was ignited in a porcelain crucible for twelve hours at 550° C. The ash was treated with 1 ml. of 6 M hydro chloric acid and evaporated to near dryness. The residue was taken up in 10 ml. 6 M hydrochloric acid and treated as described for soil and plant materials. Analytical Method: Calibration standards were prepared in 1.5 M hydro chloric acid. Samples and standards were aspirated into the air-acetylene flame of a Techtron AA-4- spectrophotometer. Operating conditions for hollow-cathode lamps are shown in Table IX. Analytical Precision: Each analytical batch contained at least one standard and one pair of duplicate samples. Precision at the 95$ con fidence level, calculated from analytical results for both standard and paired samples (Pox, pers. comm.) is indicated in Table X. The technique of precision calculation using paired samples is described by Garrett (1969). Generally precision values obtained by different methods compare favourably. Low precision for copper in the standard moss sample is attributable to the fact that copper concentrations in this material are very near to the anal--60-Table IX Operating conditions for the Techtron A A-4 Spectrophotometer Element* Current (ua) Air Pressure (psi) Slit Width w. Wavelength a) Cu 3 21 50 3247.5 Mn 10 20 100 2795 Zn 6 20 100 2138.6 * Standard settings for all elements: flame height 2.3 fuel guage 2.5 -61-Table X. A. Analytical precision ($) for Cu, Mn and Zn in soil and plant material, at the 95$ confidence level, calculated from results of atomic-absorption analysis of both standard and paired samples Element Vegetation Soil Paired Analyses Replicate Analyses Paired Analyses d Replicate Analyses U.B.C. Standard Moss U.B.C Standar Grass U.B.C. Standard Rock Cu Mn Zn No. of samples 25 12 10 18 pairs 45 10 14 18 20 10 12 17 15 9 8 15 pai 20 9 25 rs 6 B. Arithmetic mean Cu, Mn, and Zn concentrations* (p.p.m.) in U.B.C. standard samples. Element U.B.C. Standard Moss Grass Rock Cu 4 13 25 Mn 75 165 210 Zn 14 35 20 * HNO^/HClOy, extractable metal content -62-ytical detection limit. COLORIMETRIC ANALYSIS Molybdenum was determined colorimetrically by the method of Stanton and Hardwick (1967). Sample digestion procedures are described in the section on atomic-absorption analysis (page 56). Briefly the method involves extraction of a green molybdenum-dithiol complex into a layer of petroleum spirits, and visual comparison of the color of this layer with that of standards. Because of high iron concentrations in certain soil samples the standard procedure was modified slightly. An additional 1 ml. of iron solution was used to prepare standards, and an extra 2 ml. of reducing solution was added to both standards and samples before addition of zinc dithiol. Analytical precision calculated from paired sample analysis is indicated in Table XI. Table XI Analytical precision for molybdenum in plant and soil material, at the 95$ confidence level, cal culated from the results of colorimetric analysis of paired samples Material Number Precision of $ Pairs (at 95$ confidence level) Plant 7 30 Soil 15 25 -63 MEASUREMENT OF pH Soil pH determinations were made on dried samples in the laboratory. Organic samples were initially ground in a blender and a 10 g. sub-sample mixed with 50 ml. of dis tilled water (Lavkulich, pers. comm.). For mineral horizons a 1:1 mixture by weight of minus-2 m.m. soil material and distilled water was used. Soil-water mixtures were allowed to equilibrate for at least one hour with regular stirring (Jackson, 1958) before pH measurement with a glass electrode meter. Electrodes were calibrated periodically, between sample measurements, in buffer solutions of pH 4-;>0 and 9.0. CHAPTER VI TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN ROCK MATERIAL -65-PRESENTATION OF DATA Range and geometric mean trace element levels for rock samples from Unit 3, the Yukon Group and granodiorite are listed in Table XII. Concentrations within the various lithologies of Unit 3 are indicated in Table XIII. Overall levels for Unit 3 were calculated assuming that the number of samples of each rock type reflects its relative abund ance within the unit. Appendix A lists analytical results . . for individual rock samples. It should be noted that, because of the limited number and distribution of rock sample sites, and generally low precision for rock analyses (Table VIII), values in Tables XII and XIII must be considered only approximations to the mean metal content of the various rock types. Furthermore, in situ leaching of many of the exposures sampled may,to some extent, have altered primary rock composition. TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN BEDROCK As Table XII indicates, Unit 3 is strikingly enriched in both molybdenum (10 p.p.m.) and vanadium (4-35 p.p.m.), and relatively poor in manganese (15 p.p.m.) and to a lesser degree strontium (70 p.p.m.). Relatively wide concentration ranges for most elements reflect the chemical heterogeneity of this unit. Molybdenum concentrations in both Yukon Group phyllites and schists and granitic rocks are low (1 p.p.m.). High -66-Table XII Range and geometric mean trace element levels (p.p.m.) for major bedrock units within detailed study area. ELEMENT BEDROCK UNIT 3 YUKON GROUP GRANODIORITE Mo* 10 1 1 3-29 <l-3 — V 435 80 80 180-1075 50-130 15-470 Ni 30 45 6 10-85 30-60 1-8 Cr 75 55 18 40-140 30-105 12-25 Cu 30 30 7 10-90 15-60 2-20 Pb 15 16 19 7-25 II-25 17-21 Sr 70 - 145 300 20-225 100-210 -Mn 15 485 175 5-65 275-855 130-240 Co 4 • 14 7 2-8 9-25 5-8 Zn** 18 5 3-90 — Number of Samples 213 13 5 t Range = geometric mean ± log standard deviation * Values <2p.p.m. taken as 1 p.p.m. ** Number of zinc analysis: Unit 3 = 46, Granodoirite = 1. -67-Table XIII Ranee'and geometric mean trace element levels (p.p.m.) for various rock types within Unit 3. ELKHSNT ROCK TYPE. SILICIOUS CALCAREOUS dark grey medium to dark chert-pebble siliceous dark to light siltstone conglomerate rock limestone black shale grey shale combined Mo* 17 12 4 2 9 "5 8-35 6-20 2-5 <2-4. 3-25 13-165 V 340 260 55 W0 1095 315-1320 155-730 160-U30 30-95 170-995 560-2135 Ni 25 10 60 15 30 190 13-^5 4-30 35-95 5-55 10-65 90-1*15 Cr 60 "5 115 25 70 215 35-105 25-75 90-140 18-W 35-125 130-350 Cu 18 55 70 "5 30 "5 6-50 30-105 35-140 30-70 10-90 25-80 Pb 16 6 13 10 13 7 10-30 2-16 10-18 6-15 7-25 5-11 Sr 55 55 90 20 60 680 2C-180 \ 25-I zr. "5-175 - 20-170 310-1480 Kn 8 75 30 15 140 4-15 2^5 25-150 10-95 4-55 55-175 • Co <5 <5 9 <5 4 <5 - <5-5 5-20 <5-10 2-8 <5-7 Zn»* 8 5 100 55 35 185 2-30 3-9 50-195 1-200 170-200 Kumber of Samples 112 20 59 9 205 13 t Range = geometeric mean ± log standard deviation * Values <2p.p.m. taken as 1 p. p.m. ** Number of zinc analysesi black shale = 26, grey shale => 5, siltstone = 12, conglomerate = 1, limestone = 2. manganese concentrations (485 p.p.m.) characterize Yukon Group while granodiorite is distinguished by low copper, nickel and chromium values. A wide range of molybdenum and vanadium values occur within the individual rock types of Unit 3 (Table XIII). Molybdenum levels are low in siltstones and conglomerate Gs5 p.p.m.), relatively high in shales (up to 35 p.p.m.) and strikingly high in dark limestone (up to 165 p.p.m.). The distribution of vanadium resembles that of molybdenum, with mean concentrations ranging from an average of 55 p.p.m. in conglomerate up to 1095 p.p.m. in limestone. High concentrations for most elements are found in dark limestone, while low values are typical in chert-pebble conglomerate. For example the mean strontium content of limestone is 680 p.p.m. while that of conglomerate is only 20 p.p.m. Concentrations in dark and light colored shales are remarkably similar. Both rock types are strikingly low in cobalt (<5 p.p.m.), manganese (<15 p.p.m.) and zinc (<30 p.p.m.). COMPARISON OF CONCENTRATIONS IN BLACK SHALES FROM UNIT 3 WITH ESTIMATES OF NORMAL CONCENTRATIONS IN SIMILAR ROCK TYPES Table XIV lists mean metal values in black shales from Unit 3, estimates of average concentrations for all types of shales, and median levels in North American black shales. It should be noted that different parameters are Table XIV Comparison of trace element levels (p.p.m.) within dark grey to black shales of Unit 3 with estimates of average metal concentrations in shales of all kinds and median levels within North American black shales. Element Dark Grey to Black Shales of Unit 3 (geometric mean) Shales* (average) Black Shale** (median) Mo 17 2.6 10 V 645 130 150 Ni 25 70 50 Cr 60 90 100 Cu 20 45 70 Pb 15 20 20 Sr 55 300 200 Mn 10 850 150 Co <5 19 10 Zn 8 95 300 * Tourekian and Wedepohl (1961) ** Vine and Tourtelot (1970) -70-used to measure the central tendency of the analytical data in each column. The relatively high molybdenum concentration in Unit 3 black shales (17 p.p.m.) is consistent with that of North American black shales (10 p.p.m.) and much greater than the average molybdenum value for all types of shale (<3 p.p.m.). Vanadium is far more abundant in the black shales of Unit 3 (64-5 p.p.m.) than in either typical North American black shale or in shales generally. Most other elements, especially manganese, strontium and zinc are low in Unit 3 black shales. The manganese concentration in typical shales, for example, is 850 p.p.m. while the mean value in the black shales of Unit 3 is only 10 p.p.m. POSSIBLE MECHANISMS CONTROLLING TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS WITHIN CERTAIN UNIT 3 LITHOLOGIES Enhanced molybdenum values in black shales are generally attributed to sorption of molybdenum from sea water by sediments collecting in anaerobic, stagnant basins. This contention is supported by the presence of high molybdenum concentrations in sediments from modern land-locked marine basins where anaerobic conditions prevail. Manheim (1961) has reported up to 80 p.p.m. molybdenum in organic rich, oxygen deficient sediment collecting in the Baltic Sea. Gross (1967) has noted molybdenum concen trations as high as 67 p.p.m. in reducing sediments in the -71-central portion of Saanich Inlet, a small fjord near the southeastern end of Vancouver Island. He concluded that sea water was the source of the molybdenum and observed that relatively little of the total molybdenum content of the seawater in the fjord need be removed to account for levels in the sediments. LeRiche (1959) investigating samples of black shale from the United Kingdom, and Vine and Tourtelbt (1970) studying North American black shales, both found that molyb denum is strongly associated with organic matter. In Saanich Inlet sediments however, molybdenum showed no correlation with organic carbon, but was related to the reducing capacity of the sediments (Gross, 1967). Korolev (1958) has shown experimentally that relatively large amounts of molybdenum may be coprecipitated with iron sulfide gels, such as hydrotroilite (FeS.n^O), which eventually age to pyrite. He suggests that high molybdenum concentrations in organic shales are due to the presence of molybdenum-rich sulfides in the original sediments. Sulfides are actively forming in modern, anaerobic, molybdenum-rich basins (Gross, 1967^ Dunhan 1961). Manheim (1961) has noted that molybdenum has a strong tendency to follow iron sulfide in Baltic Sea sediments. No quantitative organic carbon or sulfide determin ations were carried out during this investigation. The molyb denum-rich black shales of Unit 3 however, are obviously also rich in organic material and locally contain abundant pyrite. The dark limestone, which contains even more molyb denum than the shales, also contains considerable amounts of organic matter. Vine and Tourtelot (1970) have noted that very high median molybdenum values (up to 300 p.p.m.) in certain North American black shales are difficult to explain, simply by extraction of molybdenum from sea water. They suggest that externally derived, metal-rich connate solutions may have penetrated and enriched certain black shales, either during or after diagenises. Such post-depositional enrich ment however, is unlikely to have affected the rocks of Unit 3 since: (i) the maximum molybdenum concentration found within Unit 3, 100 p.p.m., is not very differ ent from the 80 p.p.m. in modern Baltic Sea sediment (Manheim, 1961). (ii) excessively large quantities of connate fluids would be required to enrich the thousands of cubic miles of Unit 3 rock. With the exception of molybdenum and vanadium, trace element concentrations in Unit 3 black shales are relatively low. This could be a primary feature or a result of in situ leaching of outcrops sampled. It is interesting to note that elements in which these rocks are poorest are most soluble in acidic environments such as those of streams draining the shales (Hawkes and Webb, 1962). -73-In addition to molybdenum, vanadium, nickel, copper, chromium and zinc are associated with the organic fraction of many black shales (Vine and Tourtelot, 1970). High levels of most of these elements in the dark limestone could therefore be a consequence of metal sorption by the organic component of these rocks. Strontium and manganese, according to Vine and Tourtelot (1970) are characteristic of the carbonate fraction of most North American black shales. High concentrations of both of these elements are present in the dark limestone member of Unit 3. This association likely reflects the comparative ease with which both strontium and manganese can replace calcium in the calcite lattice. CHAPTER VII TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL MATERIAL -75-PRESENTATION OP DATA Because trace element concentrations in soils are primarily a function of the composition of geological parent materials (Vinogradov 1959, Swaine and Mitchell I960, Mitchell 1964-) , soils, in this study are grouped according to their occurrence over chemically distinctive bedrock types. Furthermore, because parent materials in upland areas are likely of residual character, while those in main valleys may have been transported relatively far from their source, valley and upland soils over the same bedrock are grouped separately. The boundary between these two environ ments was arbitrarily set at 4000 ft. above sea level. Initially samples of only one horizon from each soil profile were analyzed. The C horizon was chosen since it is the only mineral horizon present in all profiles. Con centrations of molybdenum, copper, zinc and manganese in the minus-2 m.m. fraction1- of this horizon, grouped according to topographic position and associated bedrock, are summar ized in Tables XV and XVI. Some of the more interesting soil profiles were analyzed in their entirety. Trace element concentrations and mor phological characteristics for each horizon in six of these profiles are given in Tables XVII and XVIII respectively. Metal levels in the thin volcanic ash layer which underlies the L-H horizon in many soils are summarized in Table XIX. Appendix B lists separately trace element levels -76-for all soil horizons analyzed. TRACE ELEMENT CONTENT OF C HORIZONS Variations in C horizon compositions in upland soils associated with different bedrock types are evident in Table XV. Calcareous > Unit 3 soils are considerably enriched in molybdenum (30 p.p.m.), copper (65 p.p.m.) and zinc (585 p.p.m.). Granitic soils, in contrast, contain strik ingly low concentrations of these elements. Somewhat en hanced molybdenum values (11 p.p.m.) occur in siliceous Unit 3 soils, while upland soils over the Yukon Group are characterized by low molybdenum levels (<1 p.p.m.) and high concentrations of manganese (690 p.p.m.). Metal concentrations in C horizons of valley soils (Table XVI) are generally not very different from those over similar bedrock in upland regions. The mean molybdenum level in Unit 3 valley soils (7 p.p.m.) is, however, some what less than that of corresponding upland soils (11 p.p.m.). Relatively low manganese concentrations in valley soils over the Yukon Group are also noteworthy. DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN SELECTED SOIL PROFILES Enhanced levels of manganese and zinc are typical of many L-H horizons (Table XVII). In profile no. 72, for example, the L-H horizon contains 844-5 p.p.m. manganese and 500 p.p.m. zinc, while corresponding values in the underlying C horizon are only 135 p.p.m. and 130 p.p.m. respectively. -77-Table XV Range and arithmetic mean concentrations* (p.p.m.) of Mo, Cu, Zn and Mn in the minus-2 mm fraction of soil C horizons in upland regions within the detailed study area. Bedrock Element Unit 3 Yukon Granitic Calcareous Siliceous Group Rocks Mo 30 11 0.7 1.5 10-48 1-26 0.2-1.6 0.8-2.4 Cu 65 35 30 5 40-120 15-90 15-45 2-10 Zn 585 150 115 45 355-1400 25-570 50-170 25-65 Mn 210 360 690 255 30-305 15-2700 240-1220 180-315 PH 6.7 4.3 4.5 4.7 No. of Samples 7 23 12 3 * HNO-z/HClO^, extractable metal content -78-Table XII Range and arithmetic mean concentrations* (p.p.m.) of Mo, Zn, Cu and Mn in the minus-2 mm fraction of soil C horizons in major river valleys. Element Bedrock Unit 3 Yukon Group Mo 7 2.6 1-2 4 0.8-5.2 Cu 40 30 10-85 20-40 Zn 180 130 10-475 70-250 Mn 155 300 5-480 135-415 pH 4.7 5.2 No. of Samples 26 8 * HNO^/HCIO/, extractable metal content _79-Table XVTI Distribution of HNO^/HCIO^ extractable metal concentrations in selected soil profiles. Bedrock Unit Site Number Horizon Mo Cu Zn (ppm) Mn pH Unit 3 Calcareous 45 L-H C 20 45 45 40 305 355 270 235 6.6 7.2 48 L-H 14 55 730 415 4.2 IC1 17 95 570 210 5.3 102 14 45 210 280 5.5 Ash 1 10 25 30 5.9 Bm 14 80 495 165 5.9 IIC 10 60 465 165 5.5 Unit 3 Acidic 50 L-H °i 9 15 55 55 290 290 120 175 4.4 3.8 c2 15 75 570 460 4.4 Yukon Group 30 Ash Bm 0.8 2.8 15 25 40 115 125 450 4.9 4.5 IC 2.0 30 190 830 4.6 IIC 3.6 30 250 435 4.8 72 L-H 0.4 30 500 8445 4.8 Ash 0.4 20 15 225 5.0 C 2.8 35 130 135 4.5 Granitic Rock 35 L-H Bm 7 0.2 25 5 80 40 220 295 4.1 4.6 C 0.8 2 25 315 4.6 Table XVIII Morphological characteristics of soil profiles considered in Table XVII. BEDROCK SOIL SITE HORIZON DEPTH (inches) M0RPH0L0GY 46 L-H C . 2-0 0-chiefly lichens very dark grey (10YR 3/l)J sandy loam; 50$ coarse fragments; single grain; loose; slightly sticky; non-plastic. Unit 3 calc areous 48 L-H ic, IC2 Ash Bra IIC 5- 0 0-4 4-6 6- 8 8-11 11-chiefly liohens very dark greyish brown (10YR 3/2); silty clay; no coarse fragments; fine granulari friable: sticky; plastic, very dark greyish brown (lOTR 3/2); shaly silty clay loam; 15$ coarse fragments; fine granular; loose; slightly sticky; slightly plastic. light yellowish brown (10YR 4/6); silty clay loam; no coarse fragments; single grain; firm; sticky; slightly plastic, dark brown (10YR 4/3); loam; 30$ coarse fragments; single grain ; loose: slightly sticky; non-plastic, very dark greyish brown (10YR 3/2) ; sandy loam-; 20$ coarse fragments; fine granular; very friable; slightly sticky; slightly plastic. Unit -3 silic eous 50 L-H IC IIC 1-0 0-5 5-chiefly lichens very dark greyish brown (10YR 3/2); clay loam; 15$ coarse fragmen+,3; fine granular; loose; sticky;•slightly plastic, as for IC with 20$ coarse fragments. Yukon Group 30 Ash Bm IC IIC 0-3 3-6 6-12 12-yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)) silt loam; no coarse fragments; single grain: friable; s]:i;_'htly sticky; slightly plastic. 'dark' "brown" (10YR 3/3); silt loam; no coarse fragments; fine granular; friable; stickyjslightly plastic. yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)S as for Bm. light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4)5 slaty sand; 60$ coarse fragments; single grain; loose; slightly sticky; non-plastic -72 L-H Ash C 3-0 0-3 3-chiefly lichens light grey (10YR 7/2); silty clay loam; no coarse fragments; single grain; loose; sticky; plastic. brown (7-5YR 4/4)5 cobbly sand; 45$ coarse fragments; single grain; loose; slightly sticky; non-plastic. Granitic Rock 35 L-H Bm C 2-0 0-6 6-chiefly lichens light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4); sand;<5$ coarse fragments; single grain; loose; slightly sticky; non-plastic, brownish yellow (10YR 6/6); sand; <5$ coarse fragments; single grain; loose; slightly plastic; slightly sticky. -Si-Table XIX Range /and arithmetic mean trace element levels* in samples of volcanic ash Element Concentration (p.p.m.) Mo 1.1 0.2-6.4 Cu 11 5-18 Zn 18 5-40 Mn 65 15-225 PH 4.9 No. of Samples 9 * HNO^/HCIO,, extractable metal content. -82-Molybdenum and copper levels in most L-H horizons are not remarkably high. Concentrations in B horizons (profile nos. 30 and 35) are generally about equal to,or less than,those in under lying C horizons. Adjacent C horizons with different lith©)logical characteristics may vary greatly in composition. In profile no. 50, for example, horizons C-^ and C2 are distinguished only by the presence of slightly fewer coarse rock fragments in the former horizon. Horizon C^ contains 175 p.p.m. manganese, while C2 contains 460 p.p.m. The valcanic ash layer, which separates L-H and mineral horizons in many profiles contains uniformly low concen trations of all elements (Table XIX). FACTORS AFFECTING THE METAL CONTENT OF SOILS Concentrations of both molybdenum and copper in soil C horizons are very similar to those in associated bedrock. As shown in Table XX, granitic soils and rock both contain about 1 p.p.m. molybdenum and siliceous Unit 3 rock and soil material contain 9 and 11 p.p.m. molybdenum respectively. Copper concentrations are equal (30 p.p.m.) in Yukon Group soil and rock. Webb et al (1965, 1968) have noted the close assoc iation between molybdenum concentrations in soils and bed rock in both Ireland and the United Kingdom. Vinogradov (1959) has remarked on the importance of parent materials Table XX Comparison of mean trace element levels (p.p.m.) in soil C horizons* in upland areas with those in the associated bedrock**. ELEMENT UNIT 3 CALCARIOUS UNIT 3 SILICEOUS YUKON GROUP GRANITIC ROCK ROCK SOIL ROCK SOIL ROCK SOIL ROCK SOIL Mo 45 30 9 11 1 0.7 1 0.5 Cu 45 65 30 35 30 30 7 5 Zn 185 5.85 35 150 115 5 45 Mn 140 210 15 360 485 690 175 255 PH 6.7 4.3 4.5 4.7 t Rock means geometric; soil means arithmetic. * HNO3/HCIO4extractable metal content ** Total metal content -84-in determining the copper content of Russian soils. Relative zinc and manganese levels in soils are consistent with relative concentrations in associated bed rock. Absolute soil levels however are invariably above those in rock. Enrichment factors for zinc range from 3 to 8, and for manganese may be over 20. High soil values could be due either to residual enrichment or external additions of metals. Residual en richment could result from either high manganese and zinc concentrations in soil minerals which are particularly resistant to weathering, or from fixing of these elements in the soil after their release to the soil solution. Both processes however require extensive chemical weathering, unlikely in the pedologically young soils of the MacMillan Pass area. Extremely high manganese levels in certain soils (>2500 p.p.m.) derived from rock material low in this element suggest that some manganese is of external origin. Bleeker et al (1969) found manganese levels in certain New Guinea soils to be substantially higher than concentrations in underlying parent materials. Enrichment is greatest in soils subject to frequent alternating periods of oxidation and reduction. They suggest that manganese is mobilized deep in the parent-material under reducing con ditions, and transported up profile with a rising water table, where at a later stage it is immobilized by oxidation. A similar process could be active in the MacMillan Pass area. It is noteworthy however that Gleysols, which 85-should be most affected by alternating oxidizing and re ducing conditions, are not excessively enriched in manganese. Enhanced concentrations of manganese and zinc in certain L-H horizons are likely a result of biocycling. This process involves removal by plant roots, of inorganic material from lower soil horizons, and its accumulation in surface organic layers (Barshad, 1964-). As indicated by lack of high metal concentrations in B horizons, other soil forming processes, such as illuviation, have not noticeably altered the primary trace element distribution in most soil profiles. POSSIBLE SIGNIFICANCE OF VARIATIONS IN COMPOSITION OF UPLAND AND VALLEY SOILS The molybdenum content of Yukon Group valley soils (2.6 p.p.m.) is somewhat higher than that in upland regions (0.7 p.p.m.). Since several valley sample sites are located downstream from exposures of molybdenum-rich Unit 5 rocks, debris derived from Unit 3 is likely present in valley fill over parts of, the Yukon Group. Molybdenum concentrations in valley soils over Unit 3 (7 p.p.m.) are slightly lower than those in upland areas (11 p.p.m.). Examination of the geographical distribution of valley soils poorest in molybdenum (<4- p.p.m.) reveals that most such soils occur outside of the detailed study area, on the eastern edge of the Yukon Plateau. These molybdenum-poor soils may have been derived from Unit 3 lithologies low in this element, such as siltstone or conglomerate. Alternatively, parent materials for thes soils could contain significant amounts of rock debris from other molybdenum-poor geological units. CHAPTER VIII TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN PLANT MATERIAL -88-PRESENTATION OP DATA Concentrations of molybdenum, copper, zinc and manganese in a few selected plant species, and overall levels in each of the five major vegetation classes (trees, shrubs, forbs, grasses and lichens) are summarized in Tables XXI to XXIV. Since upland and valley soils assoc iated with the same bedrock are compositionally very similar (Tables XV and XVI), plants were not subdivided on the basis of their relative topographic positions. Metal con centrations and sample site numbers for all plants analyzed are listed in Appendix C. METAL CONTENT OP PLANTS Low molybdenum concentrations, typically less than 0.2 p.p.m., occur in nearly all species associated with Yukon Group soils (Table XXI). Plants on siliceous Unit 3 and granitic soils may contain somewhat higher molybdenum levels. Over the Yukon Group, for example, forbs contains an average of 0.2 p.p.m. molybdenum, while those associated with siliceous Unit 3 and granitic soils contain 1.2 p.p.m. and 0.7 p.p.m. respectively. Of particular interest however is the remarkably high molybdenum content of nearly all species sampled over calcareous Unit 3 soils. Pireweed (Epilobium latifolium), for example, contains up to 44 p.p.m. molybdenum and rough fescue (Pestuca altaica) up to 50 p.p.m. Warren and Table XXI Range and arithmetic mean molybdenum content*of vegetation (ppm dry weight) associated with various soil types. CLASS SPECIES SOIL TYPE • UNIT 3 CALCAREOUS UK IT 3 SILICEOUS YUKON GROUP GRANITIC ft K £-" Abies lasiocarpa (fir) 0.2 0.1-1.4 (ID 0.1 (5) 0.4 (1) Trees** 0.2 0,1-1.4 (16) 0.1 (8) 0.2 0.1-0,4 (3) Betula glandulosa (dwarf birch) C.l 0.1-0.4 (43) 0.1 (10) 0.1 (2) SHRUES Salix alaxensis (willow) 4 1.2-12 (6) 0.2 0.1-1.2 (22) 0.1 (10) 0.4 (1) Shrubs * * 5 0.5-12 (9) 0.2 0.1-1.2 (89) 0.1 0.1-0.5 (43) 0.2 0.1-0.4 (5) Senecio triangularis 9 1.6-18 W 0.4 0.1-1.2 (5) 0.1 (2) 0.4 (1) FORBS Epilobium latifolium (fireweed) 22 12-44-(4) . 4.5 . (1) 0.5 0.1-0.8 (3) . Forbs** 12 1.6-44 (11) 1.2 0.1-4.5 (13) 0.2 0.1-0.8 (12) 0.7 0.1-1.2 (4) Festuca altaica (rough fescue) 4o 12-50 (3) 0.9 0.1-3.6 (8) 0.2 0.1-0.6 (5) 1.2 (1) Calmagrostis canadensis 2.4 , 0.9 0.3 0.4 GRASS: . (1) 0.1-3.6 (9) (1) (1) GRASS: Grasses** 16 0.3-50 (8) 0.9 0.1-3.6 (22) 0.4 0.1-1.2 (12) 0.8 0.4-1.2 (2) HENS Cladonia alpestris (caribou moss) 0.1 0.1-2.4 (35) 0.1 (14) 0.1 (1) M Lichens** 0.2 0.1-2.4 (42) 0.1 (20) 0.5 0.1-0.8 (2) t values less than 0.2 p.p.m . taken as ( ).l p.p.m. * number of samples ** for various species included in this vegetation class see Table VI. Table XXII Range and arithmetic mean manganese content of vegetation (ppm dry weight) associated with various soil types. CLASS SPECIES SOIL TYPE UNIT 3 CALCAREOUS OK IT 3 SILICEOUS YUKON . GROUP . GRANITIC TREES Abies lasiocarpa (fir) (*)• 510 250-745 (11) 1210 270-1670 (5) 320 (1) TREES Trees** 565 65-1145 (16) 900 135-I670 (8) 310 95-515 (3) Bet.ula glnndulosa (dwarf birch) 680 70-1755 (43) 790 270-1360 (10) 395 305-485 (2) SHRUBS SaTix ala>:ensis (willow) 60 40-85 (6) 280 30-690 (22) 430 55-865 (10) 310 (1) Shrubs** 50 20-100 (9) 395 30-1755 (89) 495. .55-1360 (43) 465 225-975 (5) •Senecio triarifrularis 30 15-40 (4) 105 20-175 (5) 225 180-27C (2) 140 (1) FORBS Epilobium latifolium (fireweed) 50 20-90 (4) 195 (^ 120 35-215 (3) Forbs ** 40 10-90 . (11) 125 20-300 (13) 310 35-1395 (12) • 125 65-I85 (4) Festuca altaica (rough fescue) 55 30-70 • (3) 230 115-435 (8) 400 170-78C (5) 270 (1) a Calmaprostis canadensis 285 180 . 210 230 GRASS: (1) 70-375 (9) (1) (1) Grasses** 100 40-285 (8) 200 50-435 (22) 290 50-780 (12) 250 230-270 (2) cn Cladonia alpestris (caribou moss) 55 20-155 (35) 60 20-110 (14) 30 .' (1) o H i Lichens** 50 5-155 (42) 50 20-110 (20) 20 10-30 (2) * ** number of samples for various species included in this vegetation class see Table VI. Table XXIII Range and arithmetic mean copper content of vegetation (ppm dry weight) associated with various soil types. CLASS SPECIES SOIL T IPS UKTT 3 IALCA7;EGUS ' UK IT 3 SILICEOUS YUKON GROUP G-:AI\j.TIC TREES Abies lasiocarna (fir) (*) 5 3-10 (11) 4 3-6 (5) r, CO TREES Trees** 5 ?-10 (16) 3-6 (80 4-3-5 Botula glanHulor.a (dwarf birch) ? 3-lo (43) 6 3-9 (10) 6 5-7 (2) • SHRUBS Salix alnxensis (willow) 6 1-9 (6) ' 6 2-10 (22) 6 3-8 (10) 6 /• \ i A / Shrubs ** 6 3-9 (9) 7 .2-15 (89) 6 4-15 (43) 6 5-7 (5) Senecio triangularis 8 5-10 (4) 14 9-17 (5) 12 6-17 (2) 9 (1) FORBS Epilobiurr. latifolium (firewoed) 6 5-6 (4) 7 (1) 4-7 (3) '•. Forbs- ** 8 5-20 (11) 10 6-17 (13) 8 4-17 (12) 7 3-11 (4) Festuca altaica (rough fescue) 5 4-6 (3) 6 . 3-7 , (8) 5 4-6 (5) 6 CO w Calmaprostis canadensis 12 9 8 8 GRASS (1) ' 6-12 (9) (1) (1) Grasses ** 7 5-14 (6) 7 3-12 (22) 7 4-12 (12) 7 6-8 l2> LICHENS Cladonia alpestris (caribou moss) 3 1-4 (35) 2 1-3 (14) 2 CO LICHENS i Lichens** • 3 1-10 (42) 4 1-14 (20) 3 2-5 (2) * number of samples ** for various species included in this vegetation class see Table VI. Table XXIV Range and arithmetic mean zinc content of vegetation (ppm dry weight) associated with various soil types. CLASS SPECIES SOIL T J. 1 L J 'J;;TT 3 :AI.CARSGUS OKJ": 3 SILICEOUS GROUP CSAMTIC TREES Abies lasiocarpa (fir) (*) 45 35-^5 (U) 45 35-60 (5) 30 1- \ \ x 1 TREES Trees** 50 35-70 (16) 55 35-130 (8) 75 35-140 (3) Set.ulfi glandulosa (dwarf birch) 150 6P-310 (43) 160 80-195 (10) I65 120-215 (2) SHRUBS Salix alaxensis (wilDov;) ?2C 170 100-280 (22) 150 55-250 (10) 190 ) Shrubc** 175 125-330 (9) 80 I5-3IO (89) 95 •10-2c.O (<0) 135 30-215 (5) Seneci.o trianja.ilaris 55 30-75 (4) 80 55-U5 (5) 165 120-205 (2) 25 \A ) FCRBS Spilobium latifolium (f ir&weod.) 30 20-40 w 75 <!> UO . 20-70 (3) Forbs ** ^5 25-75 (11) ?0 55-H5 (13) 45 20-205 (12) 25 20-30 (4) Festuca altaics (rough fescue) ' 65 '+C-30 (3) 50 30-105 ' (3) 30 2C-4C (5) 3N /' \ \^ 1 f3 Calrr.agrostis canadensis 195 55 25 35 CRASS . (1) " 30-35 (9) /: \ \- J (1) Grassos ** 05 35-195 (£) 55 25-105 20-50 (12) 30 (2) in w ta M Cladnnia alpestris (caribou moss) i Lichens** 15 5-30 (35) 15 5-30 (42) 14 8-25 15 8-30 (20) 15 (1) 20 I5-25 (2) * nu;r.bor of campion *• for various :;pocios includod in this vegotation class ceo Tablo VI. _93-Delevault (1965) have reported high molybdenum levels in fireweed growing over molybdenite mineralization in British Columbia. Where molybdenum is available forbs and grasses usually contain more of this, element than do woody species. Forbs growing on calcareous Unit 3 soils, for example, typically contain 12 p.p.m. molybdenum, while shrubs, such as willow (Salix alaxensis) associated with the same soil generally contain less than 5 p.p.m. Manganese levels in plants growing on calicareous Unit 3 soils are typically low, while plants growing on Yukon Group soils are characteristically rich in manganese (Table XXII). Shrubs, including such species as willow (Salix alaxensis) and dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa), con tain an average of 495 p.p.m. manganese associated with the Yukon Group and only 50 p.p.m. in more basic Unit 3 environ ments. Calgmagrostis canadensis is exceptional in its relatively high manganese content (285 p.p.m.) associated with calcareous Unit 3 rocks. All woody plants contain large amounts of manganese. Dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) ?in particular., may contain up to 1755 p.p.m. of this element. Kubota et al (1970) found similarily high manganese levels (1120 p.p.m.) in leaves from this species in Alaska. Variations in copper concentrations in plants assoc iated with different soil types are slight. Overall mean levels in grasses, for example, are 7 p.p.m. associated with all four soil types (Table XXIIl). -94-Copper concentrations also vary little between species. Mean values typically range from about 4- p.p.m. in trees up to 8 p.p.m. in forbs. Only Senecio triangularis and Calamagrostis canadensis characteristically contain copper levels of 8 p.p.m. or greater. In contrast, Kubota et al. (1970) found an average of only 3.5 p.p.m. copper in Calamagrostis canadensis from Alaska. Relationships between zinc levels in plant species and soil type are often contradictory. As indicated in Table XXIV, for example, mean zinc concentrations are highest in trees growing on granitic soils (75 p.p.m.) while grasses are poorest in zinc (30 p.p.m.) when associated with the same soils. Zinc levels in certain shrubs are particularly high. Willow (Salix alexensis) may contain up to 330 p.p.m. zinc in contrast to usual values of less than 100 p.p.m. in most other species. Lichens generally, and Cladonia in particular, con tain low concentrations of all elements. Copper concen trations do not exceed 5 p.p.m., while average zinc levels are only about 15 p.p.m. Scotter and Miltimore (pers. comm.) in the Northwest Territories, and Havre (1969) in Norway, have both reported similarly low metal values in various Cladonia species, including Cladonia alpestris. -95-FACTORS AFFECTING METAL LEVELS IN PLANTS Metal concentrations in plants are influenced by both the total metal content of the soil and the form in which metals are held. Trace elements within the crystal lattice of primary and secondary soil minerals are relatively unavailable compared to ions present in the soil solution or adsorbed on either clay minerals or organic matter. The proportion of soil solution and adsorbed ions available to the plant is determined, to a large extent, by Eh and pH conditions in the soil. Low molybdenum levels (typically<0.2 p.p.m.) in plants of most species growing on Yukon Group soils are consistent with low total molybdenum concentrations (<3 p.p.m.) in these soils. Relatively high molybdenum con centrations (8 p.p.m.) in siliceous Unit 3 soils, however, contrast with low values in associated woody plants and lichens. Forbs such as fireweed (Epilobium latifolium), and grasses such as rough fescue (Festuca altaica), growing on these siliceous soils may contain somewhat enhanced molybdenum levels (up to 4.5 and 3.6 p.p.m. respectively). The average molybdenum concentration in calcareous Unit 3 soils (30 p.p.m.) is about four times greater than that of siliceous varieties. However, mean molybdenum levels for plants growing in basic soils may be, as in the case of rough fescue(Festuca altaica), over forty times greater than levels associated with acidic soils (Table XXI). -96-Barshad (1951) has reported that soil clay minerals adsorb increasing amounts of molybdenum, as MO^, with de creasing pH. Similarly, Reisenaur et al (1962) have shown that the amount of molybdenum adsorbed by hydrous oxides of iron and aluminum, both common in soils, decreases with increasing pH. Generally low concentrations of molybdenum in plants growing on molybdenum-rich siliceous Unit 3 soils therefore reflect the dominant influence of low pH (mean value 4.5) over total metal content in restricting molybdenum availabil ity. In the calcareous soils (pH 6.7) both molybdenum and pH values are high, and hence both factors favour plant uptake. Molybdenum-rich vegetation has also been reported growing on organic-rich acidic soils (Walsh et al, 1953, Kubota et al, 1961). In the MacMillan Pass area, however, no enhanced plant molybdenum levels were noted associated with soils of this type. In contrast to molybdenum, availability of manganese to plants increases with decreasing pH (Hodgson, 1970). Plants growing in acidic soils, such as those derived from the Yukon Group, high in total manganese (520 p.p.m.), contain high manganese concentrations (Table XXII). Soils with similar manganese contents but different pH levels, for example calcareous and siliceous Unit 3 soils, support plants with very different manganese levels. Willow (Salix  alaxensis) contains approximately 280 p.p.m. manganese on -97-acidic siliceous soils and only 60 p.p.m. on more basic calcareous soils. Soil type generally exerts little influence on copper concentrations in plants investigated. For example, grasses contain an average of 7 p.p.m. copper on both granitic soils, which contain 5 p.p.m. copper, and siliceous Unit 3 soils, with 35 p.p.m. copper. Furthermore mean copper values for various plant species character istically range between only 4- and 8 p.p.m. It therefore appears that certain homeostatic mechanisms, common to most plant species studied, effectively regulate copper in take. Copper availability, like that of manganese, re portedly decreases with increasing pH (Hodgson, 1970). This is consistent with the lack of high plant copper values associated with basic copper-rich (65 p.p.m.) Unit 3 soil. In view of the importance of plant response factors in limiting copper uptake however, the absence of enhanced plant copper concentrations is not necessarily only a pH effect. Zinc levels in plants are often not consistent with soil pH and total zinc content. Both Yukon Group and siliceous Unit 3 soils, for example, contain similar amounts of zinc and have similar pH values (Tables XV and XVI). The mean zinc concentration in Senecio triangalaris growing on the former soils, of 165 p.p.m., is however, approximately twice that associated with the latter soils. Variations of this type could be due to soil factors such as organic matter -98-content and the chemical form in which zinc is present, which were not investigated in this study. Relatively high zinc levels in shrubs and grasses associated with calcareous Unit 3 soils are not in agree ment with the reported low availability of zinc in basic soils (Hodgson, 1970). These high concentrations may reflect the abilities of plants concerned to absorb zinc more than the ability of soils to supply it. POSSIBLE INFLUENCE OF METAL LEVELS IN PLANTS ON THE HEALTH OF WILDLIFE, PARTICULARLY CARIBOU AND MOOSE The ability of an animal to tolerate molybdenum is affected by a number of factors, including its copper status and intake and the inorganic sulfate content of its diet (Underwood, 1962). Although the nature of metabolitic interactions of these elements are poorly understood, it appears that the principal toxic effect of prolonged high dietary molybdenum uptake is to induce a state of copper deficiency (hypocuprosis). A minimum amount of inorganic sulfate must however be present if this toxic action is to be effective. Cattle experiencing molybdenum induced hypo cuprosis suffer severe loss of condition and scouring. Tolerance to high dietary intakes of molybdenum varies considerably with different animal species (Underwood, 1962). Of domestic farm animals, for example, cattle are much less tolerant of molybdenum than are horses and pigs. Tolerance limits of caribou and moose have not been studied. -99-Nevertheless, since as ruminants, these animals share certain basic metabolitic processes with cattle, their tolerance levels could be similarly low. Precise tolerance levels for cattle are not well es tablished. Kubota et al (1961) have suggested that on im perfectly to poorly drained mineral soils in the western United States, molybdenum concentrations of over 15 p.p.m. in forage plants are potentially toxic to cattle, while on organic soils 2 to 5 p.p.m. in forage may be toxic. In Ireland, on the other hand, the provisional threshold level for toxic herbage is given as 5 p.p.m. in dry matter (Walsh et al., 1952). In view of the metabolitic interaction of copper and molybdenum, the Cu/Mo ratio of forage is perhaps a more meaningful parameter of toxicity. Miltimore and Mason (1971) have observed that, in British Columbia, feeds with Cu/Mo ratios of less than 2.0 are associated with symptoms of copper deficiency in cattle. Average Cu/Mo ratios for plants growing in all but basic Unit 3 soils are well above 2.0. With very few ex ceptions however, plants associated with basic soils have ratios below this limit. Overall ratios for forbs and shrubs, for example, are 0.68 and 1.25 respectively. The lowest Cu/Mo ratio for an individual species is 0.13 for rough fescue. These basic soils, derived primarily from dark limestone, are relatively rare within the detailed study area. While little is known about the feeding habits of -100-either caribou or moose, most plant species sampled are at least potential forage for these animals. Caribou moss (Cladonia alpestris) in particular is likely to be one of the main food sources for caribou during winter months. It is interesting to note that, while molybdenum levels in this lichen are low (<0.2 p.p.m.), concentrations of both copper (3 p.p.m.)- and zinc (15 p.p.m.) are well beloxtf the minimum dietary levels of 10 and 50 p.p.m. respectively, recommended for domestic cattle (Agricultural Research Council, 1965). An indication of the metal intake of these animals may be given by the metal content of their faeces (Table XXV). Of 30 samples analyzed, only two contained more than 2 p.p.m. molybdenum. Removal of molybdenum by digestive processes or leaching of faeces by rainwater, however, may be responsible for some of the low values. In summary, if (i) molybdenum-rich calcareous rock is relatively uncommon within Unit 3 as a whole, as is suggested from studies in the MacMillan Pass area and published geological reports, (ii) molybdenum tolerance levels of caribou and moose are similar to those of cattle, (iii) grazing habits of caribou and moose are in dependent of soil type, it is unlikely that these animals suffer from molyb denum induced copper deficiency. -101-Table XXV Range and arithmetic mean concentration* (p.p.m.) of Mo, Cu, Zn and Mn in caribou and moose faeces. Element Faeces Caribou Moose Mo 1.6 0.1-9.7 1.2 0.1-14.0 Cu 14 11-22 10 7-16 Zn 260 175-415 365 175-515 Mn 700 300-1405 465 130-1010 No. of Samples 12 18 * HNOy'HClO^ extractable metal content expressed in terms of sample dry weight. -102-However, if caribou moss is the principal food source for caribou in winter, the possibility of deficiency symptoms resulting from low levels of copper and zinc in this species is very real. Similar conditions may affect reindeer in Norway (Havre, 1969) and the Northwest Territories (Scotter and Miltimore, pers. comm.). CHAPTER XI TRACE ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN STREAM SEDIMENT -104-PRESEN TATION OF DATA Tables. XXVI and, XXVII summarize metal concentrations in sediments associated with different bedrock types. Samples collected over Unit 3 were subdivided on the basis of their association with either basic, or neutral to acidic stream water. Basic streams invariably drain areas under lain, in part, by dark limestone. Sediments from valley bottoms over the Yukon Group are considered separately since streams in these environments commonly drain areas underlain partially by Tertiary vol-canics and/or Unit 3. Trace element concentrations and U.T.M. co-ordinates of all stream sediment samples collected within the detailed study area and along the Canol Road are listed in Appendix D. METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN STREAM SEDIMENT As shown in Table XXVI Unit 3 sediments from the MacMillan Pass region contain large concentrations of molyb denum (26 p.p.m.), vanadium (720 p.p.m.) and copper (200 p.p.m.). Molybdenum and vanadium levels in particular are considerably higher than values for Unit 3 sediments from the regional study area (11 and 480 p.p.m. respectively). Sediments associated with basic stream waters (Table XXVII A) are enriched in nickel (420 p.p.m.), molybdenum (40 p.p.m.), vanadium (905 p.p.m.) and strontium (275 p.p.m.), relative to those of acid streams. Table XXVI Range and geometric mean trace element content (p.p.m.) of stream sediment associated with major bedrock types within the detailed study area and along the Canol Road. ELEMENT BEDROCK UNIT 3 YUKON GROUP GRANITIC ROCK Mo* 26 3 1 10-65 1-6 -V 720 115 30 385-1345 55-230 20-40 Ni 100 80 11 30-345 45-145 3-20 Cr 200 165 22 130-320 130-215 15-30 Cu 110 60 8 60-210 35-110 5-12 Pb 25 20 17 15-45 15-35 15-20 Sr 145 230 175 65-320 145-375 50-300 Mn 340 770 200 95-1230 425-1400 -Co 30 45 6 10-70 30-80 3-10 Zn** 135 35-530 Number of 69 30 2 Samples t Range = mean + log standard deviation * Values less than 2 ppm taken as 1 ppm ** Number of zinc analyses = 36 -106-Table XXVII Range and geometric mean trace element content (p.p.m.) of stream sediment associated with, (A) Unit j subdivided on the basis of stream pH, (B) Yukon Group subdivided topographically. ELEMENT SEDIMENTS SAMPLED OVER UNIT 3 Stream pH>7 Stream PH$7 Mo* 40 15-105 24 10-55 V 905 720-114-5 680 345-1345 Ni 420 265-660 75 25-220 Cr 345 240-505 180 125-260 Cu 130 85-200 105 55-210 Pb 20 10-40 25 15-45 Sr 275 ^ 130-600 125 60-225 Mn 490 170-1400 310 80-1175 Co 50 35-75 25 10-65 Zn** 375 210-680 45 15-115 Number of Samples *3 56 B. ELEMENT SEDIMENTS SAMPLED OVER YUKON GROUP Uplands Valleys Mo* 1 <1-1.5 3.5 1.5-8.5 V. 65 55-80 145 70-290 Ni 70 60-85 90 45-175 Cr I90 170-210 160 120-210 Cu 75 60-110 55 30-105 Pb 30 20-40 20 10-30 Sr 250 190-320 225 130-390 • Mn- 1020 640-1625 685 370-1260 Co 75 65-85 40 25-65 Number of Samples 9 21 t Range = mean ± log standard deviation * Values less than 2p.p.m. taken as lp.p.ra. ** Number of zinc analyses: stream pH>7 = 19 stream pH$7 =17 -107-Yukon Group sediments are generally low in molyb denum (3 p.p.m.) and rich in manganese (770 p.p.m.). A few high molybdenum and vanadium values (greater than 10 and 480 p.p.m. respectively) occur in valley sediments over the Yukon Group. Overall concentrations in sediments associated with the Yukon Group from both regional and detailed study areas are remarkably similar. Both sediment samples derived from a biotite grano-diorite stock southwest of MacMillan Pass are strikingly low in all elements (Table XXVI). Metal levels in granitic sediments from the regional study are typically higher,by factors of from two to three, than concentrations in these granodioritic sediments. Furthermore, low molybdenum levels (<2 p.p.m.) in the sediments near MacMillan Pass contrast with enhanced concentrations (up to 16 p.p.m.) reported in sediments associated with granitic intrusions in the Keno Hill region (Gleeson, 1966). COMPARISON OF METAL CONTENT OF STREAM SEDIMENT WITH THAT OF ASSOCIATED ROCK AND SOIL Trace element concentrations in rock, soil and stream sediment material are summarized in Tables XXVIII and XXIX. Low concentrations of molybdenum in granitic and Yukon Group sediment and relatively and high values in calcareous Unit 3 sediment are clearly reflected in associated rock and soil. Calcareous sediment, for example, contains Table XXVIII Molybdenum, copper and manganese concentrations (p.p.m.) in stream sediment and associated soil material. ELEMENT BEDROCK STREAM SOU** SEDIMENT* Unit 3 40 30 Calcareous 15-105 10-50 Unit 3 24 8 Mo Siliceous 10-55 1-26 Yukon 1 0.7 Group <1-1.5 0.2-1.6 Granitic 1 1.5 Rock - 0.2-2.4 Unit 3 130 65 Calcareous 85-200 45-120 Unit 3 105 40 Cu Siliceous 55-210 10-90 Yukon1" 75 30 Group 60-110 15-45 Granitic 8 5 Rock 5-12 2-10 Unit 3 490 210 Calcareous 170-1400 30-305 Unit 3 310 250 Mn Siliceous 80-1175 5-2695 YukonT 1020 690 Group 640-1625 240-1220 Granitic 200 255 Rock - 180-315 * Total analysis by emission spectroscopy; geometric mean values quoted, ** HN03/HC104 extractable metal content determined by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry; arithmetic means, t Sediment values refer to upland areas only. Table XXIX Geometric mean trace element concentrations (p.p.m.)* in rock and associated stream sediment. ELEMENT CALCAREOUS UNIT 3 SILICEOUS UNIT 3 1UK0N GROUP GRANITIC ROCK ROCK ....... SEDIMENT ' ROCK SEDIMENT ROCK SEDIMENT ROCK SEDIMENT Mo 45 40 9 24 1 1 1 1 V 1095 905 410 680 80 65 80 30 Ni 190 420 30 75 45 70 6 11 Cr 215 345 70 180 55 190 18 22 Cu 45 130 30 105 30 75 7 8 Pb 7 20 13 25 16 30 19 17 Sr 680 275 60 125 145 250 300 175 Mn 140 490 15 310 485 1020 175 200 Co <5 50 4 25 14 75 7 6 Zn** 185 375 35 45 — — 5 — Number of Samples 13 13 205 56 12 9 5 2 * total analysis by emission spectroscopy (except for zinc) ••HNOj/HClO^ extractable Zn measured by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry i M O vO \ -110-an average of 40 p.p.m. molybdenum, while concentrations in associated rock and soil are 45 and 30 p.p.m. respectively. Mean molybdenum concentration in siliceous Unit 3 sediment (24 p.p.m.) however, is approximately three times greater than rock and soil values. Similar relationships exist for vanadium concentrations in rock and stream sediment material. Sediments derived from both Unit 3 and the Yukon Group contain two to three times more copper than associated rock and soil. Manganese levels are also relatively high in sediments, though the enrichment factor is more variable than that of copper. The mean manganese concentration in siliceous Unit 3 sediment, for example, is 310 p.p.m. while those of associated bedrock and soil are 15 and 250 p.p.m. respectively. Concentrations of all other elements in Unit 3 and Yukon Group stream sediment are similarly enhanced relative to rock values, with the single exception of stron tium in calcareous Unit 3 environments (Table XXIX). Metal levels in sediments derived from granodioite, in contrast to levels of most elements in sediments from other bedrock types, are typically very similar to concen trations in rock and soil material. Por example, granitic stream sediment contains 8 p.p.m. copper, while levels of ,5 and 7 p.p.m. characterize associated soil/, and rock respectively. Vanadium and strontium concentrations in granitic sediment are exceptional in that levels are less than those of the source rock. -111-FACTORS AFFECTING TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS IN STREAM SEDIMENT Since stream sediments approximate a composite sample of rock and soil material upstream from the sample site, their composition is controlled, to a considerable extent, by compositions of these materials. Processes active in the stream channels however, such as leaching or adsorption, may alter sediment composition to some extent. A comparison of Tables XXVIII and XXIX indicates compositions of rock and soil material in the MacMillan Pass area, are generally not very different. Relatively large differences are common however, between the composition of these two materials and the associated sediment. The extent to which sediment composition is modified in stream channels is determined by a number of factors including Eh and pH values in the channel and the associated soil, the amount and nature of dissolved material in stream water, the grain size and mineral composition of the sediment, and the nature of the element being considered. Metals may be dissolved in soil or stream water as either cations or complex anions. Of the elements con sidered in Table XXIX only two, molybdenum and vanadium, are mobilized as anions (Hawkes and Webb, 1962). Eh and pH changes affect these two groups of ions in opposite fashions. Soil and stream pH values are summarized in Table XXX. Stream pH values are typically one or more units above soil levels. Though no Eh measurements were made -112-stream channels are likely to be more oxidizing than soil environments. Considering the elements mobilized as cations, concentrations are typically much higher in sediments than in the associated rock (Table XXIX). The magnitude of this enrichment is variable, ranging from less than 2 to greater than 20. Only granitic sediments are not enriched in this fashion. Table XXX Mean pH values of soils and stream waters associated with various bedrock units. Bedrock PH Soils Stream waters Calcareous CFnit X ^ Acidic 6.7 4.5 7.8 5.3 Yukon Group 4.8 6.7 Granitic Rocks 4.7 6.7 Iron oxide precipitates are common on sediment in many of the more acidic streams draining Unit 3 lithologies, particularly pyrite bearing dark shale. According to Stumm and Morgan (1970) oxidation of pyrite releases both -113-ferrous and hydrogen ions. Ferrous ions may subsequently be oxidized to the ferric state and precipitated as ferric hydroxide in stream channels. Precipitation of ferric hydroxide releases more hydrogen ions thus accounting for very low stream pH values associated with iron precipitates. Iron and manganese precipitates may scavenge con siderable amounts of such trace elements as'nickel, cobalt, copper and zinc from stream water (Theobald et al., 1962, Hornsnail et al. 1969). Chemical analysis of precipitates in the MacMillan Pass area however (Table XXXI) reveal low values for most elements with the exception of molybdenum and zinc. An alternative and more likely mechanism for enrich ment of sediment relative to rock and soil material is cation adsorption. This involves adsorption of positively charged ions by the clay-size fraction of stream sediment, such as clay minerals and organic matter. Since the effect iveness of cation adsorption increases with increasing pH (Hawkes and Webb, 1962), cations mobilized in the relatively acidic soils of the MacMillan Pass area should tend to be adsorbed in the more basic stream channels (Table XXX). Lack of enrichment in granitic sediment is somewhat surprising in view of relatively large pH differences be tween soils and stream channels (4.7 vs. 6.7). Sediment in these channels however is composed chiefly of sand-size grains of quartz and mica, whereas, as previously noted, adsorption occurs principally on the clay-size component Table XXXI Range and arithmetic mean trace element content* (p.p.m.) of iron oxide precipi tates from acidic stream channels Element Concentration (p.p.m.) 20 <0.2-70.0 5 3-12 45 15-115 11 3- 45 14 6-35 6 4- 8 75 30-200 Mo Ni Cu Pb Mn Co Zn * 6M HC1 extractable metal concentration determined by atomic-absorption spectrophoternetry. -115-of the sediment. _2 Anions of molybdenum and vanadium (MoO^ and VO^ ) i i& contrast to cations, should be most mobile in the relatively basic oxidizing stream channels. Since molybdenum and vanadium concentrations in sediment are typically similar to associated rock and soil levels, these elements however are not likely being leached from sediments to any great extent. Siliceous Unit 3 sediments are exceptional in that they contain more molybdenum and vanadium than the assoc iated rock. As previously noted however, hydrous iron oxide precipitates which are common as crusts on these sediments may contain large amounts (up to 70 p.p.m.) of molybdenum. Jones (1957) has shown that hydrous iron oxides are superior to clay minerals in their ability to sorb molybdenum. Vanadium concentrations in these precipitates are unknown, but it seems probable' that, like molybdenum, they are relatively high. COMPARISON OF METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN STREAM SEDIMENT WITH THOSE OF ASSOCIATED VEGETATION Low molybdenum concentrations in stream sediment derived from both Yukon Group and granitic rock are clearly reflected in low mean molybdenum concentrations in vegetation growing over these rocks (Table XXXII). However high con centrations typical of Unit 3 sediments are not always associated with enriched vegetation. The mean molybdenum concentration in siliceous Unit 3 sediment, for example, -116-Table XXXII Mean molybdenum, copper and manganese concentrations in stream sediment and vegetation, and associated mean stream pH values. ELEMENT BEDROCK CONCENTRATION (ppra) STREAM Stream Sediment* Vegetation** PH Unit 3 Calcareous 40 10 -7.8 Mo Unit 3 Siliceous 24 0.4 Yukon* Group 1 0.2 6,7 Granitic Rock 1 0.4 6.8 Unit 3 Calcareous 130 7 7?. 8. Cu Unit 3 Siliceous 105 6 5- 3: Yukon* Group 75 6 6>. 7/' Granitic Rock 8 5 6.8 Unit 3 Calcareous 490 60 7.8 Mn Unit 3 Siliceous 310 330 5.3 Yukon* Group 1020 380 6-7 Granitic Rock 200 260 6.8 * Total analysis by emission spectroscopy; geometric means. ** HN03/HC104 extractable metal content determined by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry; arithmetic means; concentration expressed in terms of dry -weight. t Sediment values refer to upland areas only. -117-is 24 p.p.m. while that of associated vegetation is only 0.4 p.p.m. L As previously noted, low molybdenum values in vege tation growing over siliceous Unit 3 rock are primarily an effect of low pH values in soils derived from these rocks. As Table XXXII indicates these low soil pH values are reflected in low pH levels in associated stream water. Similarly high stream pH values associated with calcareous Unit 3 sediment (7.8) are consistent with high values in the calcareous soils,which typically support molybdenum enriched vegetation. Thus by considering both stream sedi ment concentrations and stream pH values, prediction of areas likely to contain enhanced molybdenum levels in vegetation should be possible. Soil pH is also an important factor in determining the availability of manganese to plants. Consequently, as in the case of molybdenum, both sediment concentrations and stream pH values must be known if estimates are to be made of plant molybdenum levels. For example, in view of the relatively high concentrations of manganese in the sediment of streams draining Unit 3 limestone (Table XXXII), low vege tation values would not be expected unless these environments were known to be relatively basic, as indicated by stream pH levels. In contrast to molybdenum and manganese, plant copper concentrations are apparently unrelated to either pH levels or metal concentrations in sediment. This situ--118-ation is not surprising, since as Table XXIII indicates, copper concentrations in vegetation are to a large extent independent of soil type, including soil copper content and pH. CHAPTER X SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS POR FURTHER RESEARCH -120-SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS A regional stream sediment reconnaissance survey was undertaken in the Eastern Yukon, using sediment samples originally collected by Atlas Explorations Ltd. Vancouver, for mineral exploration purposes. A total area of over 6,000 square miles was covered, chiefly within the drainage basins of the Hess and MacMillan Rivers. Enhanced molybdenum values (>8 p.p.m.) are present in sediments over an area of more than 1,300 square miles. Most of these enriched sediments are derived from a thick succession of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, consisting pre dominantly of dark shales and chert (Unit 3). Molybdenum levels associated with the other manor bedrock units, namely the Yukon Group, Earn Group, Tertiary volcanics and granitic rocks, are typically low (<4 p.p.m.). Stream sediments derived from Unit 3 are also notice ably enriched in vanadium (480 p.p.m.), and to a lesser extent nickel (140 p.p.m.), copper (90 p.p.m.) and chromium (180 p.p.m.). Those associated with Tertiary volcanics are relatively rich in strontium (?20 p.p.m.), while granitic sediments contain low concentrations of most elements. A detailed follow-up study of trace element con centrations in rock, soil, stream sediment and plant material was undertaken in the vicinity of MacMillan Pass, near the eastern limit of the reconnaissance study area. This region is underlain by Unit 3, Yukon Group metasediments and granitic -121-rocks. Unit 3 is composed of a wide variety of lithologies including black and light grey shales, dark siltstones, chert-pebble conglomerate and dark limestone. The dark grey to black shales, which in the MacMillan Pass area are the most abundant rock type within Unit 3, contain relatively large amounts of molybdenum (17 p.p.m.), as do the less common light colored shales (12 p.p.m.). Siltstones and chert-pebble conglomerates typically contain less than 4- p.p.m. molybdenum. Concentrations are highest (up to 100 p.p.m.) in the relatively uncommon dark limestone member of Unit 3. Vanadium, nickel, chromium and zinc values are also high in the limestone. In addition to molybdenum, black shales are enriched in vanadium (645 p.p.m.), but are relatively poor in most other elements, especially strontium (55 p.p.m.), manganese (8 p.p.m.) and zinc (8 p.p.m.). Enhanced molybdenum and vanadium values are likely a consequence of sorption of: these elements,by organic-rich sediments, from sea water in a large anaerobic basin. Low values for other elements could be a primary feature of the sediments, or could be a result of in situ leaching of shale exposures sampled. The C horizons of all soils associated with Unit 3 contain high molybdenum concentrations. Soils derived from dark limestones contain an average of 30 p.p.m. molybdenum, while those associated with other rock types of Unit 3 typically contain about 10 p.p.m. Molybdenum levels in both Yukon Group and granitic soils are low (<:3 p.p.m.). -122-Copper levels in soil C horizons are usually very close to values in the underlying rock. Both manganese and zinc however are enriched in soil relative to rock material. Soils derived from siliceous Unit 3 rocks, for example, contain an average of 360 p.p.m. manganese and 150 p.p.m. zinc while rocks themselves contain only 15 and 35 p.p.m. of these elements respectively. Molybdenum availability to plants is chiefly con trolled by soil pH. Plants are capable of absorbing molyb denum only in neutral to basic soils such as those associated with Unit 3 limestone. These molybdenum-rich calcareous soils typically support vegetation with enhanced molybdenum levels. Average concentrations in forbs and grasses, for example, are 12 and 16 p.p.m. respectively. In acidic con ditions however, characteristic of molybdenum-rich Unit 3 soils, concentrations in plants are generally less than 0*2 p.p.m. Molybdenum-poor Yukon Group and granitic soils also support vegetation low in this element. Manganese concentrations in plants are also dependent on soil pH. Restricted manganese availability in basic en vironments is reflected, for example, in low manganese levels in plants growing on calcareous Unit 3 soils. Copper levels, on the other hand, are remarkably uniform, and apparently independent of soil conditions. Variations of zinc concen trations in certain species • often contradict estimates of zinc availability based on the total metal content and pH of associated soils. -123 Molybdenum levels in stream sediments are generally consistent with rock and soil values. Similarily, low sediment values typically reflect low concentrations in associated vegetation. However, either molybdenum-rich or molybdenum-poor vegetation may be associated with sedi ment containing enhanced amounts of molybdenum. In anomalous areas, characterized by molybdenum-poor vegetation, stream pH values are generally acidic. Neutral to basic stream water, on the other hand, is typically associated with molybdenum-rich vegetation. Because of the absence pf stream pH values from the regional study area, the distribution of molybdenum-rich vegetation cannot be predicted. However, in the vicinity of MacMillan Pass, high plant values are associated with dark molybdenum-rich limestone only. Since these limestones are apparently not common within the reconnaissance study area, it may be tentatively concluded that molybdenum-enriched vegetation is not likely to be sufficiently wide spread to endanger the health of wildlife in this portion of the Eastern Yukon. 124_ SUGGESTIONS POR FURTHER RESEARCH In view of the significance of trace elements to plant and animal nutrition, maps showing the regional distribution of trace metals are urgently required on a world-wide scale. Geochemical data should then be combined with epidemiological information in an attempt to assess possible causal relationships between trace element abund ances and disease patterns. Where adequate surface drainage exists, stream sediment surveys can be used to compile such maps. Basic research, however, is required into possible modifications of stream sediment reconnaissance techniques oriented toward environmental, rather than mineral exploration programs. For example, while it is standard practice in mineral exploration to measure the metal content of the minus-80 mesh fraction of sediment, other size fractions may be more meaningful in terms of regional rock and soil chemistry. Furthermore, application of various cold and hot extraction techniques to stream sediment material may prove more useful than the total metal content in assessing trace element availability to plants. Since well developed river drainage systems are not always present in areas of geochemical interest, research is required into use of rock and/or soil material in regional surveys. 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CNTR XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX>>XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX RF S NO. 023792 UNIVERSITY OF 8 C COMPUTING CENTRE mS(ANl92) 01:37: 18 THU MAY 04/72 $SIGNON AWKF PRIO=L COPIES=2 **LAST SIGNQN WAS: 13:18:52 WED MAY 03/72 USER "AWKF" SIGNED ON AT 01:37:22 ON THU MAY $LIST ^SOURCE* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 04/72 48 49 50 51 52 APPENDIX A PART I RESULTS OF EMISSION SPECTRCGRAPHIC ANALYSIS IMETHOD 2 ) OF ROCK MATERIAL MACMILLAN PtSS AREA PPF ID NO FEO% WLSS SR E A CR CO NI AG TI CU IN WL£ = WEIGHT LOSS ON IGNITION MO BI GA SN PB MN 23 16 2.0 5.0 401000 1 50 2.5 10 2.05000 40 20 100 4 10 10 10 24 94 5.0 5.0 3004000 180 8.0 100 0.59999 30 20 500 2 40 10 20 25 124 5.0 2.5 9G8000 40 2.5 40 2.O40C0 50 15 500 30 8 10 30 26 125 1.0 2.5 405000 4G 2.5 30 0.55000 40 15 400 15 4 1C 20 27 126 2.0 2.5 406G00 60 2.5 40 0.58000 50 20 900 40 10 15 10 28 127 1 .0 5.C 204000 30 2.5 20 0.55CGC 50 15 900 90 7 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88 182 2.0 5.0 1C08000 100 2.5 20 89 183 2.0 2.5 1C08000 50 2.5 20 90 184 2.0 5.0 1008000 80 2.5 20 91 185 2.0 2.5 1008000 ICG 2.5 20 92 186 2.0 2.5 1CG6000 80 2.5 20 93 187 2.0 5.0 1008000 80 2.5 40 94 188 2.0 5.0 1009GOO 90 2.5 30 95 189 2.0 5.C 1C09000 90 2.5 50 96 190 5.0 5.0 1C09000 100 2.5 50 97 191 2.0 2.5 15C8000 90 2.5 20 98 192 2.0 5.0 1509000 80 2.5 20 99 193 4.0 5.0 1509998 60 2.5 30 100 194 2.0 5.0 8009998 90 2.5 20 101 195 2.0 5.0 9C09998 90 2.5 30 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 0.55000 50 105000 20 6 20 6 1.03000 20 151500 30 6 20 . 8 0.52000 15 102000 15 5 20 8 2.0 5000 15 102000 20 8 30 5 0.55000 10 151000 20 10 30 10 1.07000 10 151000 10 10 30 15 1.06000 10 152000 10 15 20 10 1.O6G00 10 151000 10 15 20 10 0.55000 5 201000 10 15 20 8 0.55000 10 20 600 10 10 20 10 1.05000 5 20 800 10 10 3 0 8 2.04000 20 15 500 10 10 30 8 2.04000 30 15 300 10 7 40 7 2.02000 40 10 800 10 7 15 5 0.52000 10 10 500 5 2 10 2 0.53000 15 20 10 1 20 30 100 0.57000 20 20 500 20 20 40 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40 144 218 5.0 2.5 1003000 15010.0 100 0.59998 70 30 500 5 20 20 30 145 219 5.0 5.0 1C02000 100 8.C 100 0.59998 90 30 300 3 20 20 100 146 220 5.0 5.0 1C02000 100 2.5 30 0.59998 50 30 400 3 20 15 20 147 221 5.0 5.0 1003000 100 5.0 60 1.09998 60 20 300 5 20 15 50 148 222 4.0 2.5 1G03000 100 5.0 50 0.59998 70 20 300 4 20 15 50 149 223 5.0 2.5 1504000 100 7.0 50 2.09998 70 30 300 5 20 20 80 150 224 5.0 5.0 1C04000 100 5.C 50 1.09998 50 20 200 5 30 20 50 151 225 7.0 5.0 1004000 100 5.0 40 1.09998 50 20 400 5 20 20 100 152 226 5.C 5.0 1004000 100 5.0 50 0.59998 40 20 300 2 20 15 50 153 227 5.0 5.0 1504000 100 5.C 60 0.59998 50 20 200 2 30 20 50 154 228 5.0 5.0 1C04000 ICO 5.0 60 0.5S998 50 20 300 3 30 15 40 155 229 7.0 5.0 1004000 10015.0 60 0.59998 90 20 400 5 20 15 100 156 2 30 5.0 5.0 1004000 10015.0 100 0.59998 70 20 400 4 20 15 100 157 2 31 5.0 5.0 1004000 10015.0 90 0.59998 90 20 400 3 20 15 100 158 232 5.0 5.0 1504000 150 7.0 50 0.59999 40 40 400 5 30 15 50 159 233 6.0 5.0 1CG40C0 10020.0 100 0.59999 3 00 30 300 5 20 15 100 160 234 8.0 5.G 904000 10020.0 60 0.59999 80 20 400 5 20 15 100 161 235 8.0 5.0 1505000 1CC2 0. 0 50 0.59999 90 20 400 5 30 12 100 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 236 6.0 5.0 1004000 10015.0 50 0.59998 50 20 400 4 20 15 100 184 237 9.0 5.0 1004000 10020.0 60 1.09999 50 20 400 4 20 12 100 185 238 6.0 5.0 1C05G00 10020.0 60 0.59998 ICG 20 400 5 20 10 100 186 2 39 5.0 5.0 904000 10015.0 50 0.59998 50 20 400 5 20 15 100 187 240 8.0 5. 0 1505000 1C020.0 60 0.59998 50 20 400 5 20 15 100 188 241 5.0 5.0 1004000 1C020.0 60 0.59998 50 20 300 4 20 10 100 189 2 42 5.0 5.C 1004000 10020.G 80 0.59998 60 20 400 4 20 10 100 190 243 5.0 5.0 1503000 10010.0 9G 0.59999 70 20 300 4 30 15 100 191 24410.0 5.C 1504000 1G020.0 150 2.09999 3 00 30 200 5 30 20 200 192 245 8.0 5.0 1504000 10030.0 150 0.59999 3C0 40 200 5 20 20 400 193 246 8.0 5.0 1504000 15010.0 90 0.59999 200 30 200 5 30 15 200 194 24720.0 5.0 1504000 15020.C 1G0 2.09999 3 CO 30 200 5 30 15 200 195 248 8.0 5.0 1503000 1GC20.0 100 0.59999 300 20 200 5 20 10 200 196 249 8.010.0 2004000 15G20.0 100 0.59999 200 20 200 5 30 15 100 197 250 7.010.0 15C5000 1502C.0 100 0.5 9999 200 20 200 4 20 15 100 198 251 8.0 5.0 1004000 15020.G 100 0.59999 200 20 200 5 20 15 100 199 252 5.0 5.0 1004000 15C1C.0 100 0.59999 ICO 20 200 4 30 10 100 200 2 53 5.0 5.0 1004000 15010.0 100 0.59999 200 30 200 4 30 15 100 201 254 5.0 5.0 504G00 150 5.C 50 0.59999 40 30 400 5 30 10 40 2 02 25 5 6.0 5.0 505000 15010.0 100 0.59999 50 30 500 4 30 15 90 203 256 6.0 2.5 505000 15015.0 50 0.59999 50 30 400 5 20 20 20 204 2 57 5.0 5.C 1G04000 2G0 5.0 200 0.55CCC 30 302000 50 8 5 50 205 258 2.0 5.G1C002000 200 4.0 100 0.51000 40 401000 50 5 5 100 206 259 2.0 2.510004000 2 CO 4.0 300 0.55CGO 6C 402000 ICQ 5 5 100 207 260 2.0 5.C10004000 200 3.0 300 0.54000 40 402000 ICO 5 5 100 208 261 2.0 5.C10C02000 200 3.0 300 0.52000 40 301000 100 5 5 100 209 269 5.0 2.5 300 500 20 8.0 8 O.550GO 2G 3C 400 1 20 2C 200 210 270 5.0 2.5 300 500 20 6.0 5 0.58000 30 30 300 1 20 20 200 211 271 5.0 5.0 300 500 30 9.0 5 O.58G00 3 40 200 1 20 20 200 212 272 2.0 2.5 3G015OO 15 5.0 7 O.550C0 3 20 10 1 20 15 ICO 213 273 3.0 2.5 202000 50 5.0 50 0.55000 50 15 100 2 6 10 50 214 274 5.0 2.5 1005000 10020.C 100 1.09998 9C 20 500 5 30 20 50 215 286 8.0 5.G 7C01000 15020.0 50 0.59998 30 30 100 2 10 IC 200 216 364 5.0 5.0 209999 40 2.5 100 0.55000 50 15 600 50 7 30 5 217 365 2.0 2.5 2070CO 30 2.5 30 0.54000 20 15 800 15 5 10 10 218 374 5.0 2.5 3002000 815.0 20 0.59998 3 30 20 20 20 20 200 219 384 2 .010.0 209999 30 2.5 30 0.54000 30 10 400 5 7 IC 7 220 396 1.0 5. G 209999 80 2.5 5 0.57000 5 20 400 3 15 20 15 221 424 5.0 5.0 5G5C00 80 2.5 20 0.59998 10 20 400 3 20 10 10 224 22 5 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 423 5.0 5.0 1C05000 1 GO 2.5 20 244 469 1.0 5.025002000 150 2.5 300 245 538 1.0 5.0 204000 60 2.5 10 246 551 6.0 2.5 201000 90 7.0 40 247 585 3.0 2.5 300 8 00 10 6.0 7 248 710 9.0 5.0 150 500 7010.C 50 249 711 5.0 2.5 100 500 50 9.0 30 250 712 8.0 2.5 ICO 800 5020.0 50 251 71310.0 5.0 90 800 504C.C 70 252 714 5.0 2.5 100 800 50 9.0 40 253 715 5.0 5.0 150 700 5015.0 60 2 54 716 5.0 2.5 100 800 5020.0 50 255 717 7.0 5.0 150 500 6020.0 60 256 718 7.0 5.0 150 400 1G02C.0 40 257 171910.0 2.5 2G0 400 9010.0 40 258 271910.0 2.5 200 500 10010.C 30 2 59 72010.0 5.0 200 400 1C01C.0 50 260 795 5.0 2.5 9C01000 100 8.0 30 261 896 1.0 5.C 20 200 15 2.5 2 262 897 3.0 5.0 3001500 100 2.5 15 263 898 2.0 5.0 3002000 100 2.5 2G 264 899 2 .0 5.0 3002000 150 2*5 30 2 65 900 6.0 5.0 3001500 100 2.5 40 266 901 2.0 2.5 3C01000 90 2.5 30 267 902 2.0 2.5 4GC1000 ICO 2.5 30 268 903 2.0 2.5 3001000 150 2.5 40 269 904 1 .0 5.0 4001500 150 2.5 15 270 905 1.0 5.0 3002000 150 2.5 15 271 906 1 .0 2.5 3C01500 100 2.5 30 272 907 2.0 5.0 100 800 40 2.5 20 273 908 1.0 2.5 2001000 70 2.5 10 274 909 1 .0 2.5 3001000 80 2.5 10 275 910 1.0 2.5 200 600 50 2.5 10 276 911 1.0 2.5 1001500 60 2.5 10 277 912 1.0 2.5 1001500 60 2.5 15 278 913 2 .0 5.C 202000 50 2.5 30 279 914 2 .0 2.5 201000 30 2.5 2G 280 915 2.0 2.5 202000 50 2.5 20 281 916 2.0 2.5 201500 50 2.5 20 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 0.59998 2C 20 200 2 20 10 20 0.52000 50 202000 70 4 3 50 0.55000 3 152000 10 10 7 15 0.59998 30 30 100 2 20 IC 200 0.54000 3 30 15 1 20 20 200 0.55999 20 30 100 2 30 40 500 0.59999 20 30 100 1 20 15 5C0 0.59999 50 30 100 1 30 101000 0.59998 3G 40 100 1 20 201000 0.59999 50 20 100 1 20 20 500 0.55998 50 30 50 1 20 20 200 0.59998 4C 20 50 1 20 10 200 0.59999 40 30 100 1 20 10 700 0.59999 40 30 100 1 20 IC 600 0.59999 20 30 100 1 30 20 500 0.59999 40 30 100 1 20 15 500 0.59998 3 0 40 100 1 30 15 800 0.55000 10 40 200 1 10 10 500 0.52000 50 8 20 3 2 10 3 0.59998 50 20 600 5 20 2C 5 0.59999 30 20 800 5 15 40 5 0.55998 20 20 300 5 20 20 10 0.59999 20 20 500 7 20 15 100 0.55000 15 20 400 5 20 15 40 0.55000 30 20 200 5 20 50 15 0.55C00 20 20 500 5 20 20 10 1.07000 10 20 500 5 20 40 5 1.05000 3 20 500 10 20 50 2 0.54000 3 20 500 15 20 40 3 0.52000 30 20 200 40 10 30 2 0.53000 20 20 200 15 15 40 2 0.54GG0 10 10 200 15 20 50 5 0.54000 5 10 200 10 10 3 0 3 0.52000 5 10 300 20 10 4G 2 0.58000 8 15 500 20 15 30 2 0.56COO 40 20 500 90 8 20 5 O.56GG0 60 15 500 70 10 15 5 0.52000 20 20 800 20 8 10 5 0.54000 20 201000 10 10 10 5 293 294 295 296 29 7 298 299 300 301 302 303 917 2.0 2.5 204000 40 2.5 3C 2.04000 70 201000 2 0 10 10 5 304 918 1.0 5.0 205000 70 2.5 30 1.08000 20 201500 50 10 8 5 305 919 0.5 5.0 204000 60 2.5 30 0.55000 20 152000 50 10 7 5 306 920 0.5 2.5 205000 60 2.5 30 2.08000 20 204000 40 10 1C 5 307 921 2.0 2.5 206000 40 2.5 40 0.52000 100 15 500 20 7 8 5 308 922 4.0 5.C 208000 50 2.5 90 0.55000 15C 151000 20 6 8 8 309 923 5 .0 5.0 209999 50 2.5 150 1.06000 2 00 151000 40 10 10 7 310 924 5.0 5.0 209998 50 2.5 100 1.05000 90 15 800 20 10 10 8 311 925 5.0 2.5 209998 40 2.5 100 1.09998 80 152000 60 8 1C 10 312 927 4.0 5.0 207000 40 2.5 60 1 .05000 50 101000 20 8 10 5 313 928 5.0 5.C 208000 50 2.5 60 0.55000 5C 151000 20 8 10 5 314 9 29 3.0 2.5 205000 50 2.5 30 0.56000 40 15 500 10 10 10 5 315 9 30 1.0 2.5 204000 40 2.5 10 0.54000 40 15 600 10 10 10 3 316 931 2.0 2.5 201500 40 2.5 20 2.05000 3G 15 500 15 8 10 4 317 9 32 2.0 5.0 609999 40 2.5 50 0.54000 50 20 900 10 8 10 5 318 933 3.0 2.5 509999 30 2.5 80 0.55GG0 60 15 500 15 5 10 5 319 947 2 .0 2.5 1501500 80 2.5 30 4.05000 40 15 150 10 10 10 4 320 948 3.0 2.5 1003000 50 2.5 20 4.05000 80 15 300 7 15 15 5 321 949 2.0 2.5 702000 50 2.5 40 5.0 5 000 90 20 300 10 10 20 5 322 950 2.0 2.5 503000 40 2.5 15 5.09999 50 15 500 15 10 10 5 323 951 5.0 2.5 502000 50 2.5 15 2.09998 100 15 400 15 15 20 5 324 952 7.0 2.5 203000 40 2.5 20 2.09999 ICO 20 500 15 10 15 2 325 9 53 5.0 5.0 206000 40 5.0 20 4.09998 ICO 15 300 10 10 20 10 32 6 954 7.0 2.5 202000 40 2.5 20 3.09998 90 15 400 15 10 20 5 327 955 5.0 2.5 202000 40 2.5 20 O.5700O 90 20 200 15 10 8 5 328 956 0.5 2.5 20 800 20 2.5 5 0.51CC0 30 10 300 10 5 2 5 329 957 0.5 2.5 20 500 20 2.5 8 0.510GO 30 10 400 10 5 2 3 330 958 1.0 2.5 20 400 20 2.5 8 5.01000 30 10 400 5 5 2 3 331 960 1 .0 2.5 100 800 40 2.5 7 3.05000 60 20 400 15 8 2 3 332 961 3.0 2.5 1001000 70 2.5 9 4.03000 80 20 400 10 10 2 4 333 962 0.5 2.5 ICO 200 30 2.5 15 6.OfCCO 40 15 70 7 3 2 2 334 963 1 .0 2.5 ICO 150 30 2.5 5 5.05000 60 10 50 8 2 5 2 335 964 1 .0 2.5 100 400 40 2.5 2 5.0*000 50 15 120 8 6 8 3 336 965 3.0 2.5 1009998 50 2.5 20 2.05000 40 30 400 15 7 10 5 337 966 1.0 5.0 ICO 600 20 2.5 5 1.02000 35 15 300 15 3 5 2 338 967 0.5 2.5 100 500 50 2.5 2 1.02000 10 15 600 7 4 2 4 339 96810.0 5.0 1002000 50 2.5 2 0.55000 ICO 15 500 30 7 2 3 340 96920.0 5.0 1C07000 80 2.5 2 0.550GG ICO 203000 60 7 7 2 341 97015.0 5.0 1501000 1803C.0 50 0.59999 50 30 80 3 15 15 400 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 3 58 359 360 361 3 62 363 97110.0 5.0 201000 100 5 .0 30 0.57000 30 20 90 3 15 15 20 364 97210.0 5.0 20 800 10010 .0 50 0.58000 40 20 80 4 15 10 40 365 97310.0 5.0 201000 100 10 .0 80 0.58000 40 15 100 3 15 10 50 366 97410.0 5.0 201000 15020 .0 100 0.57000 40 15 100 3 20 15 100 367 989 5.0 5.0 1003000 ICO 3 .0 10 0.57000 40 20 300 3 30 10 100 368 990 5.0 5.0 1C03000 100 5 .0 15 0.57000 30 20 300 3 30 10 100 369 991 1.0 5.0 1002000 80 2 .5 15 0.54000 10 15 700 10 15 5 8 3 70 1001 8.0 5.0 501500 1G01C .0 30 0.57000 20 20 100 1 20 10 100 371 100810.0 5.0 1001500 150 8 .0 30 O.57G0O 3C 20 150 1 30 10 150 3 72 1024 1.0 5.0 20 400 40 2 .5 20 0.53000 10 10 800 20 5 5 10 373 10 51 1.0 5.0 50 600 1 50 2 .5 10 0.53000 3 15 500 10 10 20 5 374 1052 2.0 5.0 401000 200 2 .5 10 2.06000 3 15 700 15 15 15 5 375 10 53 2.010.0 5G1000 300 2 .5 15 2.09998 3 151000 15 20 20 5 376 1068 2.010.0 4001500 300 5 .0 500 2.0 900 ICO 201000 100 10 IC 80 377 1078 1.010.01000 500 300 2 .5 100 0.5 800 50 301000 50 5 8 100 378 1079 2.010.0 7003000 800 2 .5 400 0.55000 ICC 202000 50 10 10 50 379 1082 6.0 5.0 5C03000 200 8 .0 300 0.56000 50 201000 100 20 10 100 380 1092 5.010.0 7C05000 200 7 .0 100 1.04000 50 20 500 20 15 10 150 381 1093 5.010.0 5C09999 300 4 .0 90 2.05998 50 15 500 3 30 10 20 382 1097 7.010.0 3003000 150 5 .0 150 0.59998 40 201000 60 20 15 100 383 384 38 5 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 39 5 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 * BLANK = NOT DETECTED ** 9998 = 10,000 9999 = >10,CC0 ID NO PART II HN03/HCL04 EXTRACTABLE ZN CONTENT OF SELECTED SAMPLES DETERMINED BY ATCM IC-ABSCRPTICN SPECTROPHOTOMETRY ZN(PPM ) 124 0 C 43.119 128 0 0 14.277 132 0 G 17.161 136 0 0 6.489 140 0 C 1.875 I vO sC sO vO sO sO sO vO vO sO vO ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro i—» c I—1 M l-l 1—' t—' y— ro IS) ro (—* t—* o O O o a- U1 OJ U) ro ro ro o sO CO CO -J -J O o o Ui O- l\) CO NJ 00 J> o o ro co o -o -J UJ vO UJ vO Ul c-1 UJ -ps O f> ro 00 00 o o ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ro o* o OJ ui cr ro in os \C -J.ua i— OjsOOsOinrouiroiJnh-'i-' NOJl(XliDcD>U)OcOO>-<l'«JM-slHOuiU)CO •t* ro -t» UJ sO \0 ro ro ro co »vOWK-^WOU^^acOW*»CNl^HgNlOUli-uiW>Ul^Hro>OiOv)i^01HO^iN) ^W^W^^Ul^OO^I»<COWm\lWC^UlO>lC000O-JOOWOWW£>a)WU«DNO -0+7 T~ m IA ~z o a > 2 o CO CO 00 O Tl o Ul n Tl FILE C0C0C0CO-»J««l«J-»l-sj->j-«J vO vO -J o co -fc- o o o o o o o o o • • • • vD 0 H* 0 <D 02 Ul CNTR xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx RFS NO. 023793 UNIVERSITY OF B C COMPUTING CENTRE MTSUN192) 01:39:28 THU MAY 04/72 $SIGNON AWKF **LAST SIGNON USER "AWKF" $LIST *SCURCE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 PRIO=L C0PIES=2 WAS: 01:38:38 THU MAY 04/72 SIGNED ON AT 01:39:31 ON THU MAY 04/72 48 49 50 51 52 APPENDIX B RESULTS OF ATOMIC-ABSORPTION ANALYSIS OF SOIL MATERIAL MACMILLAN PASS AREA HN03/HCL04 EXTRACTABLE METAL CONTENT PPK ID NO CU C=CLASSIF ICATION 1 REGOSOL 2 BRUNISOL 3 ORGANIC 4 GLEYSOL S = SOIL SITE NUMBER FE MN ZN MO PH 26 7 0 0 14.128 0.547 20.754 29.432 1.2 4.0 1 2 27 9 0 G 53.687 2. 108 87.167 117.128 4.0 4.6 1 2 28 12 0 0 5.415 0.261 21.858 11.311 0.4 4.1 2 3 29 13 0 c 32.487 0.730 21.858 131.891 12.0 3.8 2 3 30 14 0 C 33.570 2.711 77. 814 99.767 12.0 3.7 2 3 31 15 0 0 48.035 2.468 147.353 186.204 10.4 4.5 2 3 32 23 C 0 50.861 2. 889 213.766 198.217 8 .8 4.5 2 4 33 31 0 C 67.815 0.984 6.226 12.013 2.4 4.2 1 5 34 36 0 c 21.192 1.000 45.659 78.085 7.2 4.2 1 6 35 42 0 c 77.7C4 4. 217 233.482 285.312 3.2 4.5 1 7 36 51 0 0 39.559 1.952 35.282 87.696 9.6 4.8 8 3 7 55 0 0 56.512 3.014 31.131 285.312 18.4 4. 5 4 9 38 65 0 c 28.256 2. 108 53.960 117.128 5.2 4.9 4 11 39 70 0 0 45.210 3.670 210.653 336.368 6.0 5.5 12 40 75 0 c 26.843 1.952 195.087 160.676 3.2 5.0 1 13 41 80 0 c 7.064 0.937 36.319 69.076 1.2 4.3 1 14 42 85 0 0 31.082 3. 280 378.760 267.292 2.8 4.5 1 15 43 91 0 0 42.384 4. 061 97.544 426.467 8.8 5.4 4 16 44 96 0 0 6.497 0.483 28.852 10.633 0.2 3.9 2 17 45 97 0 0 17.327 1.077 32.35C 28.731 1.6 4.1 2 17 46 98 0 0 15.161 2.092 56.831 58.593 2.4 4.1 2 17 47 99 0 0 14.128 2. 218 65.375 72.079 2.8 4.7 2 17 (X) I 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 107 0 0 16.954 1.8 74 89.242 96.706 2.4 4.3 2 18 64 no 0 0 19.779 1.843 157.730 180.197 2.4 4.6 4 19 65 114 G 0 18.366 1.015 44.621 57.062 1.6 4.4 1 20 66 266 0 0 55.228 2.364 245.683 726.193 33.0 5.8 1 22 67 278 0 0 38.43 3 1.410 152.032 213.942 2.8 4.8 1 23 68 283 0 0 68.512 2.850 95.374 177.415 2.8 4.4 1 24 69 297 0 0 55.144 2.625 254.961 152.629 2.0 5.4 4 27 70 301 0 0 25.065 2. 220 228.521 70.966 1.2 4.6 1 28 71 307 0 0 25.065 3. 451 2 64.404 1Z9.580 2.8 5.5 4 29 72 312 0 0 15.161 1.003 126.776 37.780 0.8 4.9 2 30 73 313 0 0 27.073 3. 355 450.273 116.055 2.8 4.5 2 30 74 314 0 0 28.156 4. 122 830.601 187.769 2.0 4.6 2 30 75 315 0 0 31.749 3.000 434.379 250.469 3.6 4.8 2 30 76 324 0 0 33.420 3.781 290.845 195.679 2.6 5. 5 4 31 77 328 0 0 41.775 3. 376 307.842 140.889 5.2 4.8 1 32 78 334 0 0 25.065 2. 250 481.594 86.099 7.2 4.4 1 3 3 79 3 66 0 0 23.233 2.316 221.762 79.557 7.0 4.1 2 35 80 368 0 0 1.671 1. 380 316.341 22.699 0.8 4.6 2 35 81 3 671 0 0 5.415 1. 770 292.896 37.328 0.2 4.6 2 35 82 3672 0 0 4.332 1.349 298.142 29.1.83 0.4 4.4 2 35 83 375 0 0 18.342 0. 528 90.004 102.221 3.4 3.9 1 36 84 376 0 0 15.039 0.675 15.109 23.918 15.2 4.2 1 36 85 401 0 0 15.039 1.8 30 14.165 44.354 22.0 4.1 1 38 86 406 0 0 5.415 0.272 20.109 7.466 0.2 4.0 1 39 87 407 0 0 10.829 1. 275 11.366 32.577 16.8 4.2 1 39 88 408 0 0 16.710 2. 130 15.1C9 39.136 22.0 4.0 1 39 89 419 0 0 18.342 0.528 84.436 71.295 1.4 3.2 1 41 90 420 0 0 24.907 0.817 14.863 36.423 6.0 3.5 1 41 91 421 0 0 31.749 1.275 15.109 35.222 12.8 3.8 1 41 92 430 0 0 91.906 3.631 56.658 114.798 7.2 4.0 1 42 93 44 C 0 0 78.538 4. 321 1180.376 477.456 10.0 5.0 43 94 441 0 0 5 8.4 86 4.276 1868.602 433.102 14.8 6.2 4 43 95 45 5 0 0 86.751 4.217 410.278 393.651 6.8 5.5 45 96 461 0 0 42.797 1. 16 5 270.011 304.537 19.0 6.6 1 46 97 470 0 0 31.792 0.718 231.040 344.670 13.0 5.5 1 47 98 476 0 0 55.025 0. 36 7 416.615 729.473 14.0 4.2 2 48 99 477 0 0 94.213 2. 265 210.710 567.833 16.8 5.3 2 48 100 478 0 0 44.399 1. 349 278.907 210.392 13.6 5.5 2 48 101 479 0 0 10.829 0.32 3 28.852 24.206 1.2 5.9 2 48 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 480 0 0 80.135 2.736 163.497 495.440 14.0 5.9 2 48 124 500 0 0 57.368 3.342 464.530 276.190 8.0 4.1 2 49 125 505 0 0 56.248 1.909 119.696 290.373 9.0 4.4 1 50 126 506 0 0 72.759 3.027 462.27C 571.429 14.8 4.4 1 50 127 507 0 0 55.228 2. 587 173.989 291.834 15.2 3.8 1 50 128 526 0 0 30.7 83 2.1 17 73.466 126.984 14.0 4.0 1 52 129 527 0 0 34.980 2.677 77.987 148.571 26.0 3.8 1 52 130 533 0 0 40.352 8.125 140.109 92.305 24.0 3.8 1 53 131 534 0 0 25.186 3.657 23.735 49.206 22.0 4.3 1 53 132 535 0 0 13.296 1.052 13.115 23.754 6.4 4.7 1 53 133 548 0 0 12.593 1.295 57.642 33.016 2.4 5.0 1 54 134 561 0 0 46.174 2.808 2695.631 242.857 2.4 5.0 1 55 135 570 0 0 30.783 3.902 161.625 93.651 2.8 3.9 56 136 577 0 0 14.692 2.493 411.974 36.190 4.2 4.0 1 57 13 7 5 78 0 0 15.391 2.957 134.499 47.937 3.6 3.8 1 57 138 587 0 0 8.395 3.700 272.954 65.714 2.4 4.4 1 58 139 601 0 0 39.178 1.837 91.550 132.698 7.2 4.3 59 140 620 0 0 43.376 4.217 552.689 123.810 1.3 4.4 1 61 141 628 0 0 50-134 1. 368 499.195 156.990 1.0 4.3 1 62 142 629 0 0 16.244 0.805 63.825 25.564 0.4 4.6 1 62 143 630 0 0 34.673 4. 299 1034.343 106.104 1.6 4.3 1 62 144 653 0 0 31.783 3.894 1221.1G0 98.131 0.2 4.1 1 63 145 661 0 0 12.228 0.488 379.5G0 58.311 0.2 4.3 1 64 146 662 0 0 23.115 4.060 475.511 104.264 0.2 4.8 1 64 147 672 0 c 24.560 4.115 258.586 113.771 0.8 4.0 1 165 148 680 0 0 36.117 3.968 3 73.5 13 114.998 1.6 4.2 4 265 149 6 84 0 0 64.807 6.487 2143.385 153.449 1.0 4.6 1 66 150 685 0 0 37.562 4. 721 890.684 111.624 0.2 4.3 1 66 151 695 0 0 30.339 3.674 876.319 93.838 0.4 3.9 1 67 152 724 0 0 43.341 6.429 948.148 171.730 0.2 5.1 1 68 153 730 0 c 13.002 2.094 238.474 51.212 0.8 4.5 1 69 154 741 0 0 41.8 96 4.886 876.319 143.517 0.4 5.7 1 70 155 752 0 0 23.115 3.766 511.425 117.451 0.4 5.0 1 71 156 768 0 0 28.124 0.501 8443.633 498.119 0.4 4.8 1 7 2 157 769 0 0 18.409 0. 459 222.951 16.741 0.4 5.0 1 72 158 770 0 0 33.228 2. 517 135.039 129.717 2.8 4.5 1 72 159 785 0 0 7.580 0.212 43.716 5.656 0.2 6.9 1 74 160 786 0 0 11.558 2.094 415.174 77.892 0.8 7.1 1 74 161 798 0 0 18.781 1.8 27 317.486 76.972 1.6 4.6 1 75 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 806 0 0 24.455 0.731 1660.892 181.778 0.4 5.2 1 76 184 807 0 0 6.497 0. 301 23.607 8.370 0.2 4.8 1 76 185 842 0 0 52.009 0. 107 21692.480 10303.777 760.0 4.9 1 77 186 8 52 0 0 21.670 1.72 7 2758.250 1272.639 8.0 7.0 1 78 187 869 0 C 52.009 3.233 861.953 254.528 2.0 6.4 1 80 188 880 0 0 25.600 3.780 12.661 102.365 0.4 4.4 1 81 189 £83 0 0 21.333 3.672 115.213 86.526 6.8 4.4 1 81 190 893 0 0 44.089 2. 412 554.541 2522.456 24.0 7.2 1 85 191 994 0 0 22.756 5. 381 153.195 92 .979 6.8 4.5 1 87 192 1011 0 0 21.333 5. 201 30.386 268.378 8.0 4.5 4 88 193 1018 0 0 24.178 4.031 63.304 78.900 10.0 3.9 1 89 194 1031 0 0 14.222 1. 944 16.4 59 41.357 11.2 3.9 1 90 195 1041 0 0 18.342 2.207 95.571 56.894 6.0 4.2 1 91 196 1042 0 0 15.644 3. 258 44.313 34.317 16.0 4.3 1 91 197 1058 0 0 59.733 2.700 87.359 140.495 8.8 4.0 1 292 198 10 64 0 0 103.936 1. 314 294.135 1C69.42 0 18.0 5.6 1 93 199 1085 0 0 48.356 1.818 29.120 454.629 14.0 6.0 1 94 200 1101 0 0 19.564 0.582 50.IC5 361.195 2.4 7.4 3 95 201 1117 0 0 41.244 3.995 179.783 109.991 1.2 4.3 1 96 202 1124 0 0 50.134 0.528 2495.977 568.941 18.0 5.4 1 97 203 1125 0 0 72.533 4.085 3 87,419 475.160 24.0 5.4 1 97 204 1171 0 0 36.978 1.998 81.029 193.584 8.0 4.8 1 98 205 1172 0 0 45.511 2. 196 138.002 178.918 7.2 4.5 1 98 206 1173 0 0 41.244 2.610 172.186 258.112 6.8 4.8 1 98 207 1174 0 0 42.394 2. 138 73.031 195.951 6.4 4.8 1 98 208 1175 0 0 45.318 2.343 155.191 173.827 4.8 4.7 1 98 209 1176 0 0 52.627 2.412 149.974 176.988 5.2 4.5 1 98 210 1177 0 0 51.165 2.206 139.542 183.309 5.6 4.7 1 98 211 1178 0 0 51 .165 2. 343 147.366 180.148 4.0 5.0 1 98 212 1179 0 0 51.165 2.309 163.016 167.506 3.2 4.6 1 98 213 1180 0 0 49.703 2.412 155.191 180.148 4.0 4.8 1 98 END OF FILE SSIGNOFF CNTR XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX RFS NO. 023794 UNIVERSITY OF B C COMPUTING CENTRE MTS(AN192) 01:38:34 THU MAY 04/72 $SIGNON AWKF PR IO=L C0PIES = 2 **LAST SIGNON WAS: 01:38:02 THU MAY 04/72 USER "AWKF" SIGNED ON AT 01:38:38 ON THU MAY 04/72 $LIST *SCURCE* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 APPENDIX C 10 RESULTS OF ATOMIC-ABSORPTION ANALYSIS OF PLANT MATERIAL 11 MACMILLAN PASS AREA 12 13 HN03/HCL04 EXTRACTABLE METAL CONTENT 14 EXPRESSED AS P.P.M. DRY WEIGHT 15 16 17 ID NO CU FE MN ZN MO SPP SITE 18 19 SITE = SOIL SITE NUMBER 20 SPP= SPECIES ABBREVIATION TREES 21 ABL = ABIES LASIOCARPA 22 PIG = PICEA GLAUCA 23 POT = POPULUS TREMULOIDES 24 SHRUBS 25 BEG = BETULA GLANDULOSA 26 SAA = SALIX ALAXENSIS 27 P = SALIX PHYLICIFOLIA 28 CAT = CASSICPE TETRAGONA 29 EMN = EMPETRUM NIGRUM 30 POF = POTENTILLA FABELL IFORMlS 31 DYI = DRYAS INTEGRIFOLIA 32 FORBES 33 LUA = LUPINUS ARCTICUS 34 EPL = EPILOBIUM LATIFOLIUM 35 A = EPILOBIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM 36 VAS = VALAR I AN STICHENSIS 37 VEV = VERATRUM VIRIDE 38 SET = SENECIO TRIANGULARIS 39 PCA = POLYGONUM ALASKANUM 40 GRASSES 41 CAA = CAREX AQUATALIS 42 FEA = FESTUCA ALTAICA 43 C = CALAMAGROSTIS CANADENSIS 44 CAM = CAREX MICROCHAETA 45 DEC = DECHAfPSIA CAESPITOSA 46 LICHENS 47 CLA = CLADOMA ALPESTRIS 48 49 50 51 52 I 53 54 55 56 5 7 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 7 2 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 8 7 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 CEN = CETRARIA NIVALIS ALX = ALECTORI A UMX = UMBILICARIA STX = STEREOCAULON 3 0 0 10.805 81.344 104.559 67.057 4 C 0 10.805 88.824 218.674 243.435 7 0 0 10.084 60.774 190.567 307.654 10 0 0 10.8 05 73.864 387.879 110.516 11 0 0 3.602 169.233 16. 864 11.500 17 0 0 10.805 69.189 241.160 140.386 18 0 0 3.602 202.893 21.924 12.993 24 0 0 10.805 80.409 421.6 07 134.412 25 G 0 3.602 155.208 27.545 12.694 32 0 C 7.923 89.759 213.052 97.075 33 0 0 3.6 02 143.053 17.426 22.253 37 0 0 3.602 1C3.784 82.635 11.201 38 0 0 10.084 100.044 1101.801 141.879 43 0 0 4.322 131.833 54.528 17.025 44 0 C 7.923 65.449 803.865 141.879 52 0 0 3.6 02 107.524 82.635 14 .039 53 0 0 6.983 88.928 653.920 162.902 56 0 0 11.173 •55. 551 115.893 64.459 57 0 0 6.285 87.982 240.202 279.462 58 0 0 6.983 88.928 157.329 228.906 62 0 0 3.492 105.011 102.944 17.273 63 0 0 6.983 103.119 1754.578 167.115 66 0 0 9.776 74.738 219.484 237.332 67 0 0 6.983 65.277 159.919 164.3 07 72 0 G 6.983 69.061 77.C46 136.220 76 0 0 2.793 87.982 156.034 17.835 77 0 0 7.681 62.439 1638.038 174.137 78 0 0 8.380 48.248 407. 891 53.224 81 0 0 3.492 72.846 49.206 12.499 82 0 0 6.893 56.868 610.8C0 259.313 83 0 0 5.586 69.061 427.314 63 .054 86 0 0 6.983 82.306 213.010 209.245 87 0 0 7.681 74.738 1599.191 265.418 0.6 CAA SAA BEG BEG CLA BEG CLA BEG CLA BEG CLA CLA BEG CLA BEG CLA BEG CAC SAA BEG CLA BEG BEG SAA SAA CLA BEG ABL CLA BEG ABL SAA BEG 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 •P-i 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 88 0 0 9.776 47.302 420.840 57.437 ABL 15 124 92 0 G 5.586 1 16.364 264.229 167.115 SAA 16 125 93 0 0 6.983 80.414 524.431 265.418 BEG 16 126 108 0 0 3.446 97.888 55.186 15.532 CLA 18 127 109 0 c 6.893 131.449 830.473 162.071 BEG 18 128 111 0 0 4.825 97.888 280.218 168.824 SAA 19 129 112 c 0 6.893 81.1C7 1189.452 226.899 BEG 19 130 116 0 0 6.893 90.430 1393.G52 202.589 BEG 20 131 117 0 G 5.514 103.481 407.200 110.748 0.4 SAA 20 132 121 0 0 8.644 86.954 494.686 235.968 SAA 21 133 122 0 0 7.923 69.189 1349.144 171.749 BEG 21 134 123 0 c 5.042 28.985 1068.073 44.05 7 PIG 21 135 2 67 0 0 13.7 86 2004.371 67.509 108.047 4.5 CAA 22 136 268 C 0 9.650 1165.332 35.362 45.785 3.5 VAS 22 137 279 0 0 4.136 90.430 €8. 045 14.181 CLA 23 138 280 0 0 6.893 58.733 1553.789 175.577 BEG 23 139 284 0 c 6.8 93 77.378 107.694 114.800 0.3 SAA 24 140 285 0 0 6.8 93 71 .784 546.505 129.657 BEG 24 141 289 0 C 6.204 84.836 921.558 164.772 BEG 25 142 290 0 0 2.757 66. 191 80.368 11.480 CLA 25 143 294 0 0 6.2G4 116.533 600.084 110.748 SAA 26 144 295 0 0 6.893 92.294 1264.463 189.083 BEG 26 145 298 0 0 6.8 93 9 2. 29 4 632.231 151.266 SAA 27 146 299 0 0 6.893 105.346 1098.368 229.600 BEG 27 147 302 0 0 3.446 81.10 7 73.403 11.210 CLA 28 148 303 0 c 6.8 93 88.565 269.502 73.607 BEG 28 149 308 0 0 9.112 68.073 915.033 178.119 BEG 29 150 309 0 c 7.290 70.305 643.137 130.518 SAA 29 151 310 0 0 2.430 90.392 58.562 14.587 CLA 29 152 311 0 0 10.327 236.583 204.967 50.518 1.0 CAA 29 153 316 0 0 4.252 68.073 294.379 31.171 0.6 FEA 30 154 317 0 G 7.290 65.841 773.856 153.551 BEG 30 155 318 0 0 7.290 179.669 34.510 72.476 0.6 EPL 130 156 322 0 c 6.075 63.609 56.993 36.084 0.5 PDF 230 157 325 0 0 6.682 65.841 449.673 176.583 SAA 31 158 326 0 0 6.682 79.233 141.699 41.766 1.2 CAA 31 159 329 0 0 3.645 47.986 637.908 12.438 EMN 32 160 3 30 0 0 0.6G7 85.929 33.987 11.516 CLA 32 161 331 0 0 5.467 50.218 496.732 153.551 BEG 32 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 335 0 0 7.290 61. 378 784.314 168.906 BEG 33 184 336 0 0 0.607 85.929 43.399 15.048 CLA 33 185 1337 0 0 3.645 43.522 250.458 33.628 0.4 FEA 33 186 233 7 0 0 7.897 70.305 136.471 65.873 1.4 CAA 33 187 338 0 0 8.505 1450.742 690.196 191.93 9 SAA 33 188 340 0 0 4.900 66.657 435.C2C 30.369 0.6 FEA 3 189 3 42 0 0 7.290 248.858 286.536 43.762 2.8 CAA 33 190 347 0 0 12.150 113.465 102.901 69.333 CAC 10 191 348 0 0 6.682 49.700 100.179 63.852 1.4 CAC 12 192 349 0 0 11.542 42.198 21.234 49.185 SET 12 193 350 0 0 9.72 0 53.451 50.634 53.481 0.6 EPA 12 194 351 0 0 3.645 27. 194 1143.344 47.852 P IG 13 195 352 0 c 3.037 25.319 936.453 36.889 PIG 14 196 3 53 0 0 6.075 70.330 301.081 207.407 SAA 14 197 354 0 G 4.860 34.696 256.436 72.741 PIG 15 198 355 0 0 7.290 137.846 103.990 100.741 EPA 15 199 356 0 0 9.720 152.850 451.893 53.481 2.8 CAA 16 200 3 57 0 0 7.962 76.317 248.245 39.652 0.4 CAC 16 201 3 60 0 0 9.112 75.956 150.812 59.556 2.6 POA 34 202 361 0 0 5.467 162.227 173.679 17.630 0.8 CAT 34 203 3 62 c 0 6.075 68.454 157.346 12.741 1.2 EMN 34 2 04 363 0 0 7.349 74.385 261.485 58.483 2.0 FEA 34 205 3 70 0 0 4.860 797.070 8.711 23.556 0.8 UMX 35 206 371 0 0 1.822 209. 114 31.034 14.074 CLA 35 207 3 72 0 0 6.682 59.077 306.525 214.815 BEG 35 208 373 0 0 5.467 77.831 256.436 28.000 CAT 35 209 379 0 0 3.645 468.865 7.078 20.593 1.0 UMX 36 210 380 0 0 2.574 148.027 40.233 14.243 CLA 36 211 381 c 0 7.722 57.082 275.669 194.343 BEG 36 212 3 82 0 0 6.435 70.627 256.795 26.489 CAT 36 213 3 83 0 0 7.722 64.822 299.511 67.221 0.7 POA 36 214 389 0 0 2.5 74 117.067 110.765 13.710 CLA 37 215 390 0 0 6.435 59.017 794.723 15.042 0.6 EMN 37 216 391 0 0 3.861 41.602 521.537 36.339 1.4 ABL 37 217 392 0 0 5.792 51.277 71.028 36.073 0.6 CAC 37 218 393 0 0 6.435 62.887 208.118 130.449 0.6 SAP 37 219 394 0 0 9.010 63.855 620.877 215.641 BEG 37 220 39 5 0 0 5.792 49.342 86.923 62.695 2.6 POA 37 221 402 0 0 2.574 109.327 44.206 11.181 CLA 38 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 403 0 0 5.792 47.407 720.217 158.403 BEG 38 244 404 0 0 6.435 51.277 417.229 18.502 0.8 EMN 38 245 405 0 0 3.861 66.757 745.052 42.463 ABL 38 246 409 0 0 5.148 57.082 461.933 127.787 BEG 39 247 1410 0 0 2.574 97.717 44.206 14.509 CLA 39 248 2410 0 0 10.297 1596.373 30.299 24.093 0.8 UMX 39 249 415 0 0 7.079 52.245 69.042 295.507 BEG 40 250 416 c 0 5.148 73.530 224.013 266.223 SAP 40 251 417 0 0 5.102 99.06 5 28.104 225.216 0.3 SAA 40 252 425 0 0 2.551 118.682 72.048 8.705 CLA 41 253 426 0 0 8.291 59.831 268.264 172.712 BEG 41 254 427 0 0 7.015 1275.096 7.665 20.311 0.3 UMX 41 255 428 0 0 5.740 89.257 194.683 19.482 CAT 41 256 434 0 0 3.827 124.567 277.461 103.627 SAA 42 257 435 0 0 3.827 79.448 602.954 16.995 EMN 42 2 58 436 0 0 5.740 67.678 510.978 168.566 BEG 42 2 59 437 0 0 3.827 104.950 367.904 22.798 CAT 42 260 438 0 0 1.913 165.763 50.587 8.428 CLA 42 261 443 0 0 3.189 25.502 613.174 56.788 ABL 43 262 444 0 0 3.189 25.502 65.916 72.262 PIG 43 263 445 0 0 6.378 48.061 80.224 165.803 SAA 43 264 446 0 0 3.827 61.793 36.279 24.594 0.6 CAT 43 265 4 50 0 0 2.551 53.946 210.012 172.712 0.3 BEG 44 266 451 C 0 1.913 83.372 174.244 96.718 SAA 44 267 452 0 0 2.551 57.870 163.002 25.838 CAA 44 268 458 0 0 3.189 104.550 203.88C 165.803 0.5 SAA 45 269 459 0 0 1 .913 81.410 73.070 15.889 CLA 45 270 4 60 0 0 4.464 44.138 510.978 149.223 BEG 45 271 464 0 0 6.175 97.270 72.759 27.527 14.0 EPL 46 272 465 0 0 4.322 42.179 27.342 42.743 52.0 FEA 46 273 466 0 0 9.262 63.699 38.465 331.988 12.0 SAA 46 274 467 0 0 5.557 49.065 55.148 24.207 14.0 LUA 46 275 468 0 0 6.175 62.838 19.928 25.314 12.0 CAT 46 276 4 74 0 0 6.1 75 55.091 12.513 26.697 17.0 EPL 47 277 475 0 0 4.322 50.787 19.928 29.464 1.8 DYI 47 278 486 0 0 9.262 62.838 57.466 307.089 1.0 SAA 48 279 487 0 0 19.141 63.699 38.465 75.112 2.8 VEV 48 280 488 0 0 6.7 92 42.179 28.269 43.020 9.0 EPA 48 281 489 0 0 10.497 56.812 25.952 75.666 5.0 SET 48 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 490 0 0 6.792 59.395 19.928 36.104 1.6 VAS 48 304 491 0 0 5.557 52.508 71.832 73. 729 12.0 FEA 48 305 492 0 0 6.792 54.230 43.099 89.914 2.4 CAA 48 306 494 0 0 12.349 49.065 285.938 196.426 2.4 CAC 48 307 5 03 0 0 2.470 93.827 64.417 21.164 CLA 49 308 5 04 0 0 5.5 57 76.611 260.912 131.412 SAA 49 309 509 0 0 3.705 37.014 625.634 64.876 ABL 50 310 510 0 0 1.235 71.446 88.516 23.654 CLA 50 311 511 0 0 6.792 54.220 194.178 74.006 4.5 EPL 50 312 521 0 0 5.929 41.167 39.399 42.728 0.3 CAA 51 313 522 0 0 6.522 81.376 55.815 181,050 0.5 SAA 51 314 529 0 0 7.114 54.570 600.366 13.470 0.8 EMN 52 315 530 0 0 5.336 64.144 483.107 18.974 0.6 CAT 52 316 531 0 0 6.522 46.911 544.082 112.975 BEG 52 317 1532 0 0 1 .186 96.694 34.709 9.704 LUA 46 318 2532 0 c 8.893 60.314 89.586 32.299 2.4 CLA 52 319 542 0 0 6.522 75.632 183.393 48.232 0.3 FEA 53 320 543 0 0 2.371 175.198 23.921 20.422 CLA 53 321 544 c 0 11.857 50.740 375.229 47.942 0.7 CAC 53 322 54 5 0 0 15.415 73.717 95.214 54.894 0.5 SET 53 323 546 0 0 5.929 113.927 61.444 20.13 3 CAT 5 3 324 552 0 0 2.371 123.500 52.063 16.657 CLA 54 325 5 53 0 0 5.929 1072.251 8. 912 17.815 ALX 54 326 554 0 0 15.415 299.656 205.907 27.375 0.3 CAT 54 327 555 0 0 6.522 89.035 254.687 56.343 FEA 54 328 564 0 0 7.114 56.485 187.146 105.733 FEA 55 329 565 0 0 14.822 69.888 154.313 115.872 SET 55 330 5 72 0 0 1. 186 108. 182 22.045 13.180 CLA 56 331 5 74 0 0 5.032 60.952 178.801 32.275 FEA 56 332 581 0 0 5.920 62.828 223.168 33.4^99 CAT 57 333 582 0 0 3.848 27.194 532.409 33.499 ABL 57 334 583 0 0 5.032 42.198 479.168 16.367 EMN 57 33 5 584 0 0 2.664 96.586 81.192 20.650 CLA 57 336 585 0 0 8.5 85 62.828 137.095 22.792 0 .4 SET 58 337 590 0 0 5.920 60.952 268.423 31.969 1.2 FEA 58 338 591 0 0 6.809 92.835 976.083 120.841 SAP 58 339 592 0 0 10.657 62.828 105.151 28.910 1.2 LUA 58 340 593 0 c 4.736 32.821 319.445 28.910 0.4 ABL 58 341 594 0 0 7.993 70.330 228.492 32.581 0.4 CAC 58 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 3 53 354 355 356 3 57 358 3 59 360 361 3 62 363 604 0 0 7.105 68.454 621.144 229.445 BEG 59 364 605 0 0 2.3 6 8 83.458 31.501 8. 719 CLA 59 365 606 c 0 2.664 81.582 101.601 14.532 CEN 59 36 6 607 0 0 3.256 218 .49 1 32.388 19.732 STX 59 367 608 0 G 2.960 79.707 31.501 6.577 ALX 59 368 612 G 0 7.697 70.330 2 13.407 73.576 CAM 160 369 613 0 0 3.848 74.081 255.113 46.042 ERA 160 370 614 0 0 9.177 87.209 240.915 62.868 0.8 CAC 160 371 615 0 0 4.736 135.971 319.445 160.612 SAP 160 372 616 0 0 6.203 59.831 231 .868 179.426 BEG 160 373 618 0 0 5.075 138.299 294.9C0 114.833 SAA 260 374 622 0 0 14.661 2550.193 231.868 27.416 CAT 61 375 623 0 G 8.458 63.755 495.251 132.057 BEG 61 376 624 0 0 8.458 8 3.372 652.832 186.603 SAA 61 377 625 0 c 2.819 392.337 64.833 25.694 CLA 61 378 626 0 0 5.639 75.525 459.233 29.426 FEA 61 379 627 0 0 14.097 1667.4 33 22.061 22.823 ALX 61 380 633 0 0 5.639 59.831 432.219 13.062 EMN 62 381 634 0 0 8.458 83.372 115.709 28.565 VAS 62 382 635 0 0 5.639 50.023 1305.663 57.847 ABL 62 383 636 0 0 4.642 42.825 0.0 37.053 FEA 62 384 637 0 0 16.916 87 .295 180.542 117.703 SET 62 385 638 0 0 5.075 46. 100 281.393 20.813 CAT 62 386 639 0 0 11.841 61.793 105.804 79.665 VEV 62 387 640 0 0 1.692 150.069 42.772 21.675 CLA 62 388 641 0 0 6.767 67.678 432.219 106.220 SAA 62 389 642 0 0 12.969 1618 .391 27.014 30.2 87 ALX 62 390 656 0 0 6.203 95.142 5 85.297 60.431 LUA 63 391 657 0 0 5.639 128.490 6 75.343 79.378 SAP 6 3 392 658 0 0 5.998 48.209 974.378 149.523 BEG 63 393 659 0 0 2.399 132.821 58.463 10.070 CLA 63 394 660 0 0 4.199 32.467 1283.327 36.771 ABL 63 39 5 665 0 0 1.799 73.789 77.475 7.781 CLA 64 396 666 0 0 3.599 30.500 1663.573 36.465 ABL 64 397 667 0 0 5.998 54.112 1359.376 175.461 BEG 64 398 668 0 0 5.998 38.371 903. 082 14.800 EMN 64 399 675 0 0 2.359 103.305 57.037 13.579 CLA 165 400 6 76 0 0 2.959 105.273 27.092 22.734 STX 165 401 677 0 0 2.399 34.435 46.105 9.002 ALX 165 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 678 0 0 4.642 0.0 0.0 21.371 CAT 165 424 679 •0 0 7.198 52.145 408.763 170.884 BEG 165 42 5 681 0 0 11.996 229.239 437.281 50.502 0.8 CAA 265 426 682 0 0 6.598 256.787 166.8 33 34.940 0.4 DEA 265 427 683 0 0 8.3 97 63.951 208.660 22.734 0.3 CAC 265 428 688 0 0 5.998 63.951 627.404 190.718 SAA 66 429 689 0 0 4.799 122.982 380.245 21.208 CAT 66 430 690 0 0 2.399 292.206 74.623 17.851 CLA 66 431 691 0 0 6.124 72.453 780.199 39.652 FEA 66 432 692 0 0 8.3 97 71.822 380.245 45.620 LUA 66 433 698 0 0 5.802 59 .955 937.289 141.448 BEG 67 434 699 0 0 4.642 103.732 1528.502 36.746 ABL 67 435 700 0 0 5.222 61.859 276. 38C 15.836 CAT 67 436 701 0 0 1.741 92.312 92.768 8.149 CLA 67 437 702 0 0 5.222 39.019 696.958 12.454 EMN 67 438 703 0 0 6.383 151.316 215.817 21.832 EPL 67 439 7 04 c 0 6.3 83 157.026 480.661 35.977 LUA 67 440 726 0 0 5.802 111.346 1393.917 25.522 LUA 68 441 727 0 0 5.802 56.149 865.190 146.060 SAA 68 442 72 8 0 0 6.383 265.517 471.047 12.146 EMN 68 443 732 0 0 4.062 58.052 576.793 17.988 CAT 69 444 733 0 0 4.642 324.521 35.088 13.684 CLA 69 445 734 0 0 2.321 46.632 75.464 11.685 ALX 69 446 735 0 0 4.642 51. 390 672.926 12.761 EMN 69 447 736 0 0 5.802 58.0 52 605.633 196.797 BEG 69 448 737 0 0 5.222 1808 .179 20.668 19.833 ALX 69 449 744 0 0 6.383 69.472 384.529 115.311 0.3 SAP 70 450 745 0 0 6.3 83 1 11.346 221.585 45.971 CAM 70 451 746 0 0 5.512 56.996 286.073 38.591 FEA 70 452 747 0 0 8.7 04 200.803 50.95C 37.668 DEC 70 453 748 0 0 3 .913 221.893 268.007 21.655 CAT 70 454 755 0 0 5.590 47.479 321.608 248.276 SAA 71 455 756 0 0 5.031 57.169 66.037 34.621 CAT 71 456 757 0 0 2.236 86.238 33.018 16.414 CLA 71 457 758 0 0 3.354 31.976 268.007 45.379 ABL 71 458 759 0 0 6.148 39.727 237.990 27.724 EMN 71 459 7 73 0 0 3.913 72.672 135.933 129.655 POT 72 460 774 0 0 5.031 39.727 814.740 19.172 0.3 EMN 72 4 61 775 0 0 4.472 55.231 110.204 28 .000 0.8 EPL 72 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 776 0 0 3.3 54 53.293 132.503 165.517 SAA 72 484 7 77 0 0 2.795 66.858 643.216 168.276 8EP 72 485 778 0 0 4.472 59.107 66.894 23.034 LUA 72 486 779 0 0 5.031 62.983 1166.365 213.793 BEG 7 2 4 87 780 0 0 4.900 45.404 170.698 22.147 FEA 72 488 782 0 0 5.590 148.251 272.295 2 04.138 SAP 73 489 783 0 0 5.590 119.182 224.268 44.000 0.6 CAA 73 490 789 ' 0 0 6.148 76.548 80. 188 18.759 0.4 POF 74 491 790 0 0 1.677 109.493 21.012 10.069 CLA 74 492 791 0 0 3.3 54 51.355 196.824 5 0.897 PIG 74 493 792 0 0 5.031 72.672 55.317 53.655 SAA 74 494 7 93 0 0 3.302 166.017 27.121 9.838 0.4 SHC 74 495 794 0 0 6.053 92.341 115.747 14.273 EMN 74 496 800 0 0 4.953 83.500 136.088 80.785 SAA 75 497 801 0 0 3.302 46.170 799.092 40.878 PIG 75 498 803 0 0 2.201 64.835 107.030 12.887 CLA 75 499 802 0 0 4.953 77.606 34.385 17.598 0.5 LUA 75 500 811 4.953 93.470 138.568 POT 76 501 812 4.953 64.412 21.478 LUA 76 502 813 3.302 513.356 56.951 PIG 76 503 814 6.0 53 308.982 187.067 0.4 SAA 76 504 815 0 0 4.953 57.959 484.298 117.783 BEG 76 505 816 2.752 184.518 30.624 1.2 EPA 76 506 984 0 0 8.564 127.906 48.128 34.527 CAA 86 507 997 0 0 2.284 158.942 3 8.4 05 10.186 CLA 87 508 998 0 0 4.567 50.786 213.414 22.885 CAT 87 509 999 0 0 9.135 46.084 340.296 178.586 BEG 87 510 1014 0 0 7.349 45.404 243.517 32.491 CAC 88 511 1015 0 0 10.602 89.202 72.426 56.564 VEV 88 512 1016 0 0 17.297 69.857 175.621 102.843 SET 88 513 1021 0 0 5.022 119.295 208.757 18 .591 CAT 89 514 1022 0 0 2.2 32 142.939 39.290 11.998 CLA 89 515 1023 0 0 6.696 78.455 539.645 145.035 BEG 89 516 1034 0 0 3.906 33.317 247.574 36.786 ABL 90 517 1C35 0 0 5.022 50.512 212.544 20.173 CAT 90 518 1036 0 0 6.696 52.662 305.325 57.882 BEG 90 519 1037 0 0 1.116 89.202 21.775 9.361 CLA 90 520 1045 0 0 4.464 72.007 254.201 17.272 CAT 91 521 1046 0 0 2.790 127.893 20.828 10.680 CLA 91 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 53 7 538 539 540 541 542 543 1047 0 0 6.6 96 44. 544 10 61 0 0 6.696 47. 545 1062 0 0 2 .790 155. 546 1063 0 0 3.906 25. 547 1069 0 0 8.370 114. 548 1070 0 c 6. 138 58. 549 1071 c 0 6.124 41. 550 10 72 G 0 10.602 61. 551 1073 0 0 6.214 37 . 552 1088 0 0 2.824 67. 553 1089 0 0 3.389 85. 554 1090 0 0 4.519 175. 555 1091 0 0 4.519 49. 556 1104 0 0 5.084 324. 557 11 05 0 0 1 .130 49. 558 1106 0 0 3.389 46. 559 1107 0 0 7.908 40. 560 1121 0 0 5.084 572. 561 1122 0 0 4.519 30. 562 1123 0 0 1.695 81. 563 1129 0 0 6.214 44. 564 1130 0 0 7.343 56. 565 1131 0 0 6.214 184. 566 1132 0 C 3.389 40. 567 1133 0 0 6.778 46. 568 1134 0 0 8.473 56. 569 1135 0 0 6.778 41. 570 571 572 * BLANK = <0 .2 P.P.M. END OF FILE 064 243.787 98 .888 BEG 91 288 591.716 121 .302 BEG 292 836 24.142 6.724 CLA 292 793 497.041 32.567 ABL 292 996 48.757 243.923 8.0 SAA 93 03 5 54.9 11 200.412 5.0 SAP 93 540 66.672 79.967 50.0 FEA 93 259 33.6 09 73.572 18.0 SET 93 816 89.745 37.793 44.0 EPL 93 610 101.778 136.003 1.2 SAP 94 945 74.704 125.541 2.0 SAA 94 327 37.101 30.208 1.6 SET 94 275 196.036 32.562 1.0 CAA 94 297 20.556 21.054 12.0 EPL 95 27 5 83.228 130.772 1.2 SAA 95 983 101.778 23 .931 0.4 CAA 95 107 I4.54G 41.978 12.0 SET 95 963 200.047 91.541 SAP 96 940 551.508 38.316 ABL 96 361 83.729 14.777 CLA 96 691 269.738 228.852 1.4 SAP 97 150 104.787 228.852 1.2 SAA 97 494 752.G57 222.313 0.4 BEG 97 107 115.817 43.547 3.6 FEA 97 983 150.913 56.624 3.0 EPA 97 150 75.707 78.202 1.2 SET 97 253 99.773 85.002 3.6 CAC 97 $SIGNOFF CNTR XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX RFS NO. 023795 UNIVERSITY OF B C COMPUTING CENTRE MTS(AN 192) 01:37: 58 THU MAY 04/72 fSIGNON AWKF PRIO=L **LAST SIGNON WAS: USER "AfcKF" SIGNED $LIST *SOURCE* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 C0PIES=2 01:37:22 THU MAY 04/72 ON AT 01:38:02 ON THU MAY 04/72 48 49 50 51 52 RESULTS APPENDIX D PART I OF EMISSION SPECTROGRAPHS ANALYSIS MACNILLAN PASS PPH (METHOD 1) OF STREAM AREA SEDIMENTS ID NO LOC SR EA CR CO NI AG TI CU IN T.M. CO-ORDINATES MO BI GA SN PB MN LOC = U. 23 6 801000 150 80 250 8GC0 500 25 500 30 15 15 500 24 700019 4477013 80 150 15 40 90 20 500 20 15 10 40 25 700026 4477011 100 150 40 60 200 20 500 25 15 20 300 26 700027 4477010 70 1 50 4CC 700 3C0 60 500 30 15 2C5C00 27 700028 4467010 100 200 60 200 3 400 30 700 20 20 204000 28 700034 4447007 100 200 30 500 200 25 800 40 18 20 300 29 700039 4417006 80 180 100 3 50 500 40 700 30 20 2C1C00 30 700045 43 97 005 60 120 10 80 202000 60 15 100 30 31 700046 4387004 60 180 5 20 5C 202000 60 15 30 20 32 7000 59 43 87002 100 100 18 30 80 30 400 20 20 2 0 200 33 7CC068 4386997 4C0 40 10 20 18 30 60 2 20 20 400 34 700073 4396995 80 ICO 15 60 70 20 300 10 15 20 300 3 5 700079 4396993 100 180 30 80 70 30 500 10 20 20 400 36 700084 4346991 80 200 60 200 80 30 500 10 20 2C1C00 37 700089 4316989 80 100 50 80 70 30 500 15 20 15 500 38 700094 4276985 120 100 30 70 60 25 500 10 20 15 500 39 700095 4276986 100 100 40 100 60 3 5 200 5 20 151CC0 40 700102 4246979 1G0 180 20 200 100 30 500 20 20 5 151000 41 700103 4236978 80 100 40 50 6 0 40 200 15 18 252000 42 700113 4166974 ICO 80 20 80 60 30 200 20 18 15 700 43 700118 4076971 100 150 30 100 100 20 500 20 15 10 700 44 700146 4427004 60 80 30 50 20 800 20 20 25 40 100 45 700151 4417005 80 180 15 30 252000 4 0 20 50 50 46 700153 4407005 80 180 20 50 301500 50 20 50 50 47 700262 44370G8 150 200 30 500 150 301500 40 15 20 400 I 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 700263 4437009 200 300 50 600 ICO 302000 60 20 20 200 70 700264 4447009 2C0 400 50 500 80 401000 30 15 10 10 400 71 700275 4406998 30 12 30 40 20 20 200 72 30 4 5C05000 150 30 60 8000 20 30 100 20 20 500 73 319 2009998 200 100 500 9998 2 CO 30 500 15 25 2C1C00 74 320 3005000 180 70 100 eoco 70 40 100 5 30 405000 75 321 1505000 150 60 .100 9998 50 30 400 10 25 20 500 76 323 1005000 150 60 200 8000 70 25 400 10 20 15 5C0 77 332 1009998 200 70 400 9000 100 30 800 20 20 30 500 78 700341 4477011 200 200 60 300 150 30 600 20 25 30 500 79 700 343 4457008 70 300 30 50 100 151500 50 15 15 100 80 700483 4427010 ICO 2C0 30 200 90 30 800 2 0 20 20 200 81 700495 4427009 200 200 5C 400 20C 301000 30 15 20 500 82 700496 4427 008 700 500 30 300 200 301000 30 20 20 200 83 700512 4417008 2C0 4C0 40 300 ICO 40 800 20 20 2C 200 84 700514 4417009 100 2G0 30 200 150 30 600 20 20 20 200 85 700523 44070C81000 400 60 600 2 00 501000 200 15 205000 86 700539 4427003 80 180 10 60 80 251000 60 15 3C 80 8 7 7G0556 4417G02 100 180 15 50 50 30 200 10 20 30 500 88 700562 4427002 200 1001CCC1000 ICO 100 80 10 15 5 15 89 700563 4427001 80 1 80 50 70 70 20 400 15 15 15 100 90 700576 4417001 5CG 6G 40 150 60 30 60 5 25 5 20 500 91 700578 4407002 60 180 3C 80 100 25 400 20 20 30 500 92 700581 4407CCC 300 15 10 20 25 20 15 15 200 93 700594 4407001 100 ICO 40 60 70 25 500 20 20 20 400 94 700595 4397000 60 200 15 50 150 201000 50 20 30 200 95 700643 4447023 3C0 180 7C 90 ICO 40 60 30 503000 96 700645 4447022 200 200 60 70 100 2 5 80 2 30 30 500 97 700647 4427022 3C0 200 70 50 60 25 80 30 20 800 98 700649 4437023 300 180 80 60 60 25 70 30 301000 99 700651 4427023 4C0 200 80 60 100 30 60 25 301000 100 7CC708 4417024 200 200 80 70 60 20 80 2 25 301C00 101 700762 4407023 200 200 ICO 90 100 30 60 30 401C00 102 700764 4397024 200 200 70 70 60 2 5 60 2 5 201000 103 700766 4407025 20 0 150 60 70 60 3 0 50 30 3C1G00 104 819 1005000 180 30 90 9998 80 25 100 5 15 1001C00 105 820 2004000 180 50 90 9998 90 25 100 2 15 10 600 106 821 2001800 80 20 40 5000 30 25 150 2 15 15 5C0 107 822 2C02000 ICO 20 50 7000 30 25 100 15 15 500 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 823 2002000 120 20 50 5998 2G 25 100 2 15 15 200 130 824 1G02000 100 20 40 8000 20 2 5 90 15 10 5C0 131 825 5C09998 2C0 30 80 9998 70 40 300 5 20 20 500 132 826 2009998 150 20 60 ecco 60 30 100 5 20 20 500 133 827 3006000 100 20 50 8000 30 30 70 2 20 15 600 134 828 5009999 200 50 150 9998 120 40 100 5 25 251000 135 8 29 5009998 200 40 80 9998 80 30 100 5 25 20 500 136 830 3009998 200 40 70 8000 30 30 80 2 20 101000 137 700831 3786933 4C0 2 CO 40 70 30 30 80 2 25 151G00 138 700832 3836945 200 2 CO 60 80 80 30 100 2 20 151000 139 700833 3846946 200 2 CO 50 100 ICC 30 200 5 20 151G00 140 700834 3906951 400 200 40 80 90 30 200 5 20 15 1C00 141 7C0835 3956955 600 2C0 30 80 80 30 300 5 20 5 401000 142 700836 3966956 600 200 40 80 70 40 500 2 25 20 700 143 7008 37 3976958 400 200 40 100 60 30 500 5 25 151000 144 700838 3986966 4C0 4CG 50 300 3CC 301500 30 25 152000 145 7008 39 4006967 50 0 5C0 60 400 200 401000 20 30 202000 146 859 4001500 300 20 100 8000 80 301000 15 25 15 500 147 700934 4447004 100 200 20 70 3G0 25 500 15 25 30 200 148 700937 4457004 100 200 50 100 200 20 500 15 20 30 500 149 7009 39 4447005 80 200 50 80 200 25 500 15 20 40 700 150 700940 4447006 80 200 50 100 300 25 500 15 20 3G 700 151 700975 4437004 5G0 180 15 20 20 500 25 15 30 15 152 700977 443700 3 ICO 200 15 10 3 ICC 202000 90 15 400 30 153 700985 44 970C6 500 150 20 60 100 30 400 30 25 40 200 154 7CC987 4497007 6C0 3C0 15 70 4 2 CO 25 700 60 20 40 200 155 701002 4487007 300 200 15 50 100 301000 50 25 20 200 156 701006 44 87006 200 400 40 50 200 301500 100 20 50 400 157 701025 4477006 50 200 20 10 80 252000 60 15 15 100 158 701027 44770C7 80 200 30 80 301000 80 25 40 40 159 7010 38 4477008 1G0 200 15 40 ICO 251000 20 20 20 200 160 70 1048 4467008 ICO 200 20 40 100 251000 40 20 20 2G0 161 70 1074 4367011 5C0 300 30 4CG 80 251000 400 15 8 150 162 701076 4377011 200 400 6C 500 ICC 251500 80 15 15 500 163 701080 4377010 400 400 70 500 3 00 301000 20 20 5 10G 500 164 701095 4377009 500 300 ICO 600 150 40 700 20 20 5 502000 165 701098 4377008 100 200 80 400 200 40 700 40 30 5 401500 166 701109 4397008 100 700 8C1000 100 40 700 20 25 5 301500 167 701111 4387008 500 4C0 70 500 100 301000 50 20 5 20 500 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 1151 2009999 300 190 701181 4417004 100 150 191 1183 4G05959 300 192 193 194 * BLANK = >2,000 P.P.M. 195 9998 = 10,GCO P.P.M. 196 9999 = >10,000 P.P.M. 197 ** BLANK = NOT DETECTED 198 199 200 201 202 HNC3/HCL04 EXTRA 203 DETERMINED BY 204 205 ID NO ZN(PPM) 206 207 19 0 0 77.233 208 28 0 0 222.043 209 34 0 0 260.660 210 46 0 0 30.314 211 146 C 0 45.374 212 151 0 0 24.174 213 153 C 0 27.611 214 262 0 0 289.622 215 2 63 0 0 299.276 216 2 64 0 0 662.269 217 341 0 0 276.106 218 343 0 0 47.305 219 483 0 0 235.559 220 49 5 0 0 220.113 221 496 0 0 191.150 222 512 0 0 218.182 223 514 0 0 764.602 224 523 0 0 608.206 225 539 0 0 47.305 226 595 0 0 29.735 227 934 0 0 71.440 228 229 230 231 232 20 100 5 15 20 70 6CC0 80 3 60 9998 100 301000 15 302000 100 252000 60 25 20 15 15 500 100 50 30 800 PART II I I—i <n •z. o Tl Tl m z o ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro ro a Ul Ul Ul Ul Ul Ul Ul Ul Ul Ul u) UJ UJ OJ OJ OJ Tl \0 03 -j o Ul UJ ro i— o <o 00 0^ Ul •t* UJ ro i—> o oo -J Ul 4> 0J m l—1 1— 1—' I—> i—• i— t-1 t-1 o O o o o o o vO f- -J ro ro o o -J OJ UJ M Ul J> 00 -j Ul o ro Ul -J ooooooooooo ooooooooooo Ul ro ro t—< 00 UJ ro oo Ul vD o oo t> ro o Ul > -J O ro ro o • • • • • • * • • • • -o -J -0 UJ o o UJ O Ul CO ro J> UJ o ro Ul UJ -si 'Ul 1-* 00 Ul ro ro o -09 T-Figure 16. Stream sediment and rock sample locations within the detailed study area Figure 17. Soil and vegetation sample site locations within the detailed study area. 132° 63* 823V^24 >/*76 / ( / Ross River c 132° Soil and vegetation sample sites Stream sediment sample locations. Stream Lake MILES 131° Figure 18. Soil and vegetation site and stream sediment sample locations along the Canol Road between Ross River and MacMillan Pass. 

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