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Geology of Wreck Bay, Vancouver Island Bremner, James Michael 1970

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THE GEOLOGY OF WRECK BAY, VANCOUVEK  ISLAND  by JAMES MICHAEL  BREMNER  B.Sc. ( H o n s . ) , University of Witwatersrand, J o h a n n e s b u r g , 1961.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  in the Department of Geo l o g y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g required standard  THE UNIVERSITY  to the  OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  June,  1970  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  thesis at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  it  freely  that permission  purposes  may  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  for  financial  is  /<T-~  Ju^t  gain  Columbia  /tfjO  by  for  shall  the  that  not  requirements  Columbia,  I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  Department  Date  British  for extensive  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  of  available  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment of  of  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSfRACT Wreck Bay I s l a n d at 49°00'N,  i s l o c a t e d on  the west coast o f Vancouver  I25°38'W. It i s roughly c r e s c e n t shaped  with a small cuspate  f o r e l a n d named Sand Point  and measures l\ m i l e s  (2.17  in the  middle,  k i l o m e t e r s ) between the e n c l o s i n g  headlands o f Q u i s i t i s and Wya  Points.  Rocks exposed along the coast are i n d u r a t e d , unmetamorphosed, impure sandstones and mudstones o f to e a r l y  Cretaceous  age.  northeast o f Wreck Bay,  They were d e r i v e d from the h i n t e r l a n d and were r a p i d l y d e p o s i t e d  trough which extended p a r a l l e l  to the present-day  The c o n t a c t between these sediments and thought to which now  late Jurassic  into a coastline.  the source  rocks i s  l i e beneath a t h i c k cover o f P l e i s t o c e n e m a t e r i a l o v e r l i e s the Estevan  edge o f the p a l e o t r o u g h , l i e 5 - 6 miles present-day  (4.35  the southwestern  trough on  The  the  sides of this  Recent sediments has  a narrow, a r c u a t e , present-day to Wreck Bay.  appears to  k i l o m e t e r s ) seaward from  I n f i l l i n g o f both  trough with P l e i s t o c e n e and  s h e l f adjacent  Plain;  from s e i s m i c evidence,  - 5.22  coastline.  Coastal  paleo-  resulted in  the c o n t i n e n t a l  P l e i s t o c e n e sediments,  c o n s i s t i n g o f c o h e s i v e grey c l a y and g l a c i o f l u v i a I  outwash,  were a l s o d e r i v e d from the mountainous h i n t e r l a n d to the n o r t h e a s t , and  Recent sediments d e r i v e d therefrom  d i s p e r s e d across the bay  and  inner s h e l f . Boulders  f r e e d from the r e t r o g r a d i n g sea c l i f f settled  behind  i s covered  and gravel  the beach have  to the base o f wave e r o s i o n i n the bay,  coarse "mat"  are  and  this  by a t h i n veneer o f very well s o r t e d  f i n e sand which becomes p r o g r e s s i v e l y f i n e r  f u r t h e r away  from  shore.  A nearshore  silt  and some o f t h e s a n d  the o f f s h o r e  from  0.75  surface current southeastwards  - 4.00  feet  ( 0 . 2 3 - 1.27 m e t e r s ) , a n d i t i s c a l c u -  m e t e r s ) . T h e f o r e s h o r e i n summer  d u r i n g w i n t e r s t o r m s , wave h e i g h t s e x c e e d  light-coloured Profile  controlling  sand,  factors:  and s l o p e s g e n t l y  the breaker  and t h e p o s i t i o n  changes with  of littoral tide  and v e r y  be  variable most  level,  strong;  small  near  near  Quisitis  away  from  incident  Sand  beach  to coarse gravel  Point  surface consists  elsewhere,  summer  remains.  Profile  by  breaker heights only, insignificant.  small less  and  found t o incident insensitive  variable.  steep  than i n of the  i s carried  and s o u t h e a s t  Sand  i t i s weak  the brisker  as sand  from  the Iight-coIoured  changes  incident  i ti s  were  o f d a r k - c o l o u r e d medium  t o t h e two h e a d l a n d s ,  of  becoming  Points  the surface material  the middle o f the bay; northwest  adjacent  i t i s towards  a n d Wya  where  a n g l e was  than  three  a n d c o n s i s t e n t ; t h e y were v i r t u a l l y  summer, a n d n e a r  the beach  at less  t h e m i d d l e o f t h e beach  them;  the foreshore i s generally  i s reduced  fine,  from  Transverse p r o f i l e s range  feet  t a b l e on t h e beach.  but generally  to tidal  where t h e b r e a k e r In w i n t e r ,  drift  in direction.  sensitive  a n g l e was  seaward  of  19  height, the breaker  o f the water  weak, and c o n s i s t e n t l y and  consists  changes on t h e f o r e s h o r e r e s u l t  direction  Point  and  t h e summer, b r e a k e r h e i g h t s i n t h e b a y v a r y  (5.75  The  Point  During  that  angle,  t o Wya  clay,  trough.  lated  2.6°.  transports  out to here, sand;  fine  sand  i n winter are determined  t h e o t h e r two c o n t r o l l i n g  factors  Runnels, wherever is  littoral  apparently  The  or  incipient  drift  related  c l i f f b a s e along  i s not  to  the  beach cusps, too  s t r o n g , and  thickness of  the  northwest log-spiral  half  approximates  a  angular  relationship  between p r e v a i l i n g  complex in  the  wave p a t t e r n  the middle  of  The Lost  deposit  a great  minerals  very  at  20  fine  level.  curve  i n the  swash  due  wave f r o n t s not,  lee of  form  their  in plan  however, does  is created  spacing wedge. very to  the  and  the  because  islands  a  located  bay. of  gold contained t o be  fathoms i n the  (36,6  sand, which reappears  with  i n the  $10,650.  backshore An  magnetite the  fact  i n samples  is  and  that  c o n t a i n s most o f  near  offshore  meters) depth  amount o f  there, together  onshore,  bathymetric  half,  is calculated  increase  heavy m i n e r a l s mode o f  the  value  Shoe C r e e k  placer by  southeast  the  to  o f Wreck Bay  closely  coastline;  tend  collected  other a  the  indicated  small heavy  from  this  Frontispiece  - Photomosaic  I  o f Wreck  i n c h = 2250  feet.  Bay.  Approximate  scale  i TABLE OF CONTENTS I.  GENERAL INTKODUCTI ON A. HISTORICAL BACKGKOUND B. ACCESS C. TOPOGRAPHY D. CLIMATE E. VEGETATION  I I 2 3 3 4  II.  SEA CONDITlONS A. WAVES B. CURRENTS C. T l D E S  7 8 9  III.  PHYSIOGRAPHY OF WRECK BAY AND OFFSHORE TROUGH A. WRECK BAY 1. TOPOGRAPHY (a) Methods (b) Discussion 2. BATHYMETRY (a) Methods (b) Discussion B. OFFSHORE TROUGH  13 13 13 13 \k 16 16 16 19  IV.  COASTAL ROCKS A. INTRODUCTION B. LOCAL DISTRIBUTION, LITHOLOGY AND STRUCTURE C. EXOTIC MATERIAL D. INTRUSIVES E. RELATIVE AGE 1. LOWER L I M I T 2. UPPER L I M I T F. REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION AND RELATION TO PRESENT-DAY OFFSHORE TROUGH  23 23  V.  RECENT SEDIMENTS A. INTRODUCTION B. POINT-COUNT ANALYSIS 1. LABORATORY PROCEDURE 2. RESULTS 3. DISCUSSION (a) M i n e r a l o g i c A s s o c i a t i o n s (b) P r o v e n a n c e C. X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS 1. LABORATORY PROCEDURE 2. X-RAY ANALYSIS 3. RESULTS 4. DISCUSSION D. GENERAL STRATIGRAPHY OF THE " P A R E N T " C L I F F MATERIAL  23 26 29 29 29 29 31 4l 4l 4-2 42 42 43 43 4-6 50 50 51 53 55 57  VI.  SEDIMENT S I Z E ANALYSES A. INTRODUCTION B. METHODS 1. SAMPLE COLLECTI ON 2. LABORATORY PROCEDURE 3o S T A T I S T I C A L PARAMETERS AND COMPUTER PROGRAM C. REGIONAL SEDIMENTARY PATTERN 1. DERIVATION OF TYPE FREQUENCY CURVES 2. MODAL ANALYSIS 3. TWO-DIMENSIONAL PARAMETER PLOTS (a) Moment M e a s u r e s v s G r a p h i c a l Methods (b) E n v i r o n m e n t D i s c r i m i n a t i o n by Two-dimensional Plot (i) Mean v s S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n (ii) Mean v s Skewness ( i i i ) Standard D e v i a t i o n ys Skewness (iv) Skewness vs K u r t o s i s 4. CONCLUSIONS D. BEACH SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENT 1. SUMMER 2. WINTER 3. CONCLUSIONS  80 81 81 86 86 88 90  VII.  TRANSVERSE PROFILES A. INTRODUCTION B. F l E L D TECHNIQUES C. STUDY AREAS 1. SUMMER CHANGES 2. WINTER CHANGES 3. STOKM CHANGES D. DISCUSSION E. PROFILE CHANGES THROUGH ONE TIDAL CYCLE I . GROSS CHANGES 2. NET CHANGES  92 92 92 93 9k 96 III I 15 120 121 126  VIII.  SAND MOVEMENT BASED ON WAVE PARAMETERS A. INTRODUCTION B. WAVE PARAMETERS C. LITTORAL ZONE D. CALCULATIONS 1. SHALLOW WATER WAVE LENGTH 2. TOTAL FORWARD MOVING WAVE ENERGY 3. ALONGSHORE ENERGY COMPONENT k. LITTORAL DRIFT E. RESULTS F. DISCUSSION  130 130 130 132 132 132 133 133 \3k 135 135  65 65 66 66 66 66 67 67 69 76 76 77 78 79  • f•  IX.  X.  XI.  SAND MOVEMENT BASED ON TRACEK DISPERSION A. IMTRODUCTION B. TECHNIQUES 1. TRACER PREPARATION 2. GRID DIMENSIONS AND SAMPLE RECOVERY 3. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS k. SURVEY AND PHOTOGRAPHS 5. COUNTING PROCEDURE C. TREND SURFACE ANALYSIS AND COMPUTER PROGRAMMING D. RESULTS 1. PROFILE B ENVIRONMENT 2. PROFILE C ENVIRONMENT 3. PROFILE D ENVIRONMENT (a) Sand T r a c e r s (b) Gravel Tracers (c) P e b b l e O r i e n t a t i o n and Movement E. DISCUSSION 1. BEACH CUSP FORMATION 2. LITTORAL DRIFT  138 138 138 138 141 \k\ \k2 \k2  PLANIMETRIC SHAPE A. INTRODUCTION B. PLAN DATA AQUISITION C. DEFINITION OF A LOGARITHMIC SPIRAL D. TEST PROCEDURE E. COMPUTER TECHNIQUE F. DESCRIPTION OF BEACH SECTIONS STUDIED I, NORTHWEST HALF OF WRECK BAY ?.. SOUTHEAST HALF OF WRECK BAY * G. hESULTS 1. NORTHWEST HALF OF WRECK BAY 2. SOUTHEAST HALF OF WRECK BAY H. INFERENCES FROM GLACIOFLUVIAL OUTWASH EXPOSED C L I F F SECTIONS I. THE EFFECT OF WAVES AND CURRENTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HEADLAND-GAY REACHES J . GENERAL KELATIONSHIPS-BETWEEN BAY GEOMETRY AND LOG-SPIRAL PARAMETERS  172 172 173 174 175 176 177 177 178 178 178 179  BEACH STRUCTURES A. INTRODUCTION B. MAJOR STRUCTURES 1. BERMS 2. BARS 3. SPITBAR 4. SYMMETRICAL CUSPATE FORELANDS C. MINOR STRUCTURES 1. BEACH CUSPS 2. BEACH RIPPLES  191 191 191 191 191 192 192 193 193 194  143 146 146 151 156 156 157 162 166 166 169  18 I 183 184  iv  (a) Backwash H i p p i e s (b) Current Ripples 3. KHOMB01D P A T T E R N S 4. K I L L MARKS 5. SWASH MARKS 6. S/„;0 DOMES 7. ORGAN ISM MAKKINGS MINOR WAVE T Y P E S A S S O C I A T E D WITH B E A C H STRUCTURES 1. R E F L E C T E D WAVES AND WATER SPOUTS 2. H Y D R A U L I C JUMP WAVES 3. SAND WAVES  \9k 195 196 198 199 200 200  ECONOMIC BEOLOGY A. REGIONAL A S P E C T S B. SUMMARY OF GOLD PRODUCTION AND S A M P L I N G AT WRECK BAY C. P R E S E N T I N V E S T I G A T I O N AND R E S U L T S D. E S T I M A T E D V A L U E OF GOLD NEAR LOST SHOE CREEK E. D I S C U S S I O N AND ECONOMIC S I G N I F I C A N C E F . SOURCE OF GOLD AND P O S S I B L E O F F S H O R E PLACER DEPOSITS  210 210  D,  XI I.  1  XIII.  MARINE L I F E A. INTRODUCTION B. I N T R A T I D A L ZONE 1. SANDY B E A C H E S 2, ROCKY SHORES C. N E R I T I C ZONE 1. BENTHOS 2. NEKTON D. LAND MAMMALS, S E A B I R D S  AND SEAWEED  205 205 205 206  211 212 213 214 216 222 222 222 222 223 225 225 225 226  XIV.  REFERENCES  231  XV.  APPENDIX  237  XVI.  GLOSSARY  242  V  L I S T OF TABLES Table  I  - H i s t o r i c a l wind-speed  averages  4  (%)  Table t l  - Historical  Table  - Wave p a r a m e t e r e s t i m a t e s a n d o t h e r d a t a s i x sets o f a e r i a l photographs  Table  III IV  storm averages  8 10  - G e n e r a l i z e d s t r a t i g r a p h i c column o f rocks t h e v i c i n i t y o f Wreck B a y  Table V  - Samples c o n s i d e r e d i n p o i n t - c o u n t d i f f r a c t i o n analyses  T a b l e VI  - P e t r o g r a p h y o f v e r y f i n e sand from r e l a t e d environments  Table VII  - Coarse c l a y mineralogy the c l i f f and o f f s h o r e  Table VIII  - Average s t a t i s t i c a l parameters from t e n r e l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t s  Table  - Maximum a c c r e t i o n a n d e r o s i o n v a l u e s p r o f i Ie d u r i ng t h e summer  IX  from  and X - r a y fourteen  30 48 49  and o t h e r p r o p e r t i e s o f trough environments 60  Table X  - Summary o f wave p a r a m e t e r s . u s e d drift calculations  T a b l e XI  - Littoral  drift  in  o f type  in  sediment 74  a t each littoral  118 131  a t each p r o f i l e d u r i n g t h e  summer  135  T a b l e XII  - Textural  Table XIII  - P r o p e r t i e s and p e r c e n t a g e r e c o v e r y o f g r a v e l tracers 140 - H y d r o d y n a m i c p a r a m e t e r s and a t m o s p h e r i c c o n d i " t i o n s on e x p e r i m e n t a l days 142  T a b l e XIV  parameters  o f sand t r a c e r s  140  T a b l e XV  - T i d a l i n f o r m a t i o n and photograph e x p e r i m e n t a l days  t i m e s on  T a b l e XVI  - Trend s u r f a c e s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a and s a m p l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a t P r o f i l e s B, C, a n d D.  146  T a b l e XVII  - Parameters o f best f i t t i n g l o q - s p i r a l and o t h e r p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n  187  142  curves  vi Table Table Table  XVIII XIX XX  - Summary o f s e m i - q u a n t i t a t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n g o l d r e c o v e r a b i I i t y by S t e v e n s o n (1936) - G o l d and m a g n e t i t e Wreck Bay - L i s t o f animal at Wreck Bay  from  marine  five  environments  of 211 at 219  life  collected  or  observed 227  vi i LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  FIGURES  AND  MAPS  F i gu r e  1  -  Location  Figure  2  -  Typical  F i gu r e 3  -  Echo-sounding  traverses  k  -  Echo-sounding  lines  F i gu r e 5  -  Rock  e  -  Weight p e r c e n t a g e s o f c l a y , s i l t and gravel) in c l i f f and o f f s h o r e trough  F i gu r e  F i gu r e  F i gu r e 7  F i gu r e  8  -  -  Fi gu r e 9  -  F i gu r e  -  F i gu r e  F i gu r e  F i gu r e  10  1 1  12  13  -  -  -  map  5  wave  sample  pattern  and  some  Bay  Wreck  across  the  recent  Bivariate plot of (moment measures)  mean  Bivariate measu r e s )  mean  plot  11 Bay  20  offshore  sediment  of  sediment  21  trough  sample  sites  (sand + material  36 61  coarse two o f f 62  from  ten 75  vs.  standard  deviation 82  vs.  skewness  (moment 83  Bivariate plot of (moment measures)  standard  Bivariate measu r e s )  plot  skewness  Longshore Wreck Bay  sediment  plots  of  deviation  vs.  skewness 84  vs.  kurtosis  (moment 85  parameters  from  the  beach  at 91  -  Histogram  F i gu r e  14b  -  Morphological four discrete  -  in  Frequency curves of type related environments  I'+a  15  Wreck  X-ray diffractoqrams of Mg-g1ycerated c l a y (0.2 - 2.0/~)from t h r e e c l i f f and shore trough samples  Figure  F i gu r e  in  of  small  samples  characteristics times  Foreshore of time  modification  plots  at  of  from  P r o f i l e  P r o f i l e A  A  97  at 97  P r o f i l e A  as  a  function 98  F i gu r e  16a  -  Histogram  F i gu r e  16b  -  Morphological four discrete  of  small  samples  characteristics times  of  from  P r o f i l e  P r o f i l e B  B  99  at  99  • f • VIII  Fi gure  17  -  Fi g u r e  18a  -  Histogram  Fi g u r e  lob  -  Morphological four discrete  Fi g u r e  19  -  Foreshore modification function of time plots  plots  F" g u r e  -  Morphological four discrete  -  F" g u r e  22b  -  Morphological four discrete  F  -  Morphological four discrete  Histogram  F  gure  26b  -  Morphological four discrete  F  gu r e 28  -  function  Foreshore o f t i me  Profi 1 e  o f P r o f i Ie  D  D  103  at 103  samples  as a  from  function  P r o f i Ie  o f P r o f i Ie  E  E  105  at IG5  Profile E  samples  characteristics times  plots  -  -  at  as a  function  at  from  Profi 1 e  o f P r o f i Ie  F  F  107  at 107  Profi  Ie F  as a  function 108  26a  27  as a  from  Profile D  at  small  modification  gure  gu r e  of  Foreshore of time  F  F  samples  characteristics times  plots  F' gu r e 24D  -  101  ;o6  Histogram  25  C  C  101  Profile C  at  small  modification  -  gure  of  Foreshore of time  gu r e 2 4 a  F  Profi 1 e  o f P r o f i Ie  characteristics times  plots  Histogram  -  from  104  -  23  at  small  modification  22a  gure  of  Foreshore of time  F" g u r e  F  as a  102  Histogram  21  samples  characteristics times  modification  -  F" g u r e  Profile B  100  small  Foreshore of time  F i gu r e 2 0 a 20b  of  at  of  small  samples  characteristics times  modification  at  from  Profi 1 e  o f P r o f i Ie  G  G  109  at 109  Profi  Ie G  as a  function MO  P r o f i l e c h a n g e s as a r e s u l t ( 1 7 - 19 A u g u s t , 1968)  of  summer s t o r m 1 14  F  gu r e  23  -  Changes  at  P r o f i l e  B  through  one t i d a l  eye 1 e  1 23  F  gure  30  -  Changes  at  Profile  C  through  one t i da 1  eye 1 e  124  F  g u r e 31  -  Changes  at  Profile  D through  one t i da 1 eye 1 e  125  IX  F i g u r e 32 F i g u r e 33  - Net c h a n g e s a t P r o f i l e s B, tidal cycle - Geographical  C, and D a f t e r  one 127  s e t t i n g at P r o f i l e B f o r t r a c e r  experiment  148  F i g u r e ?>h  - Tracer dispersion  F i g u r e 35  - Geographical  results  at P r o f i l e B  149  s e t t i n g at P r o f i l e C for t r a c e r  experiment  153  F i g u r e 36  - Tracer dispersion  F i g u r e 37  - Geographical  results  at P r o f i l e C  154  s e t t i n g at P r o f i l e D f o r t r a c e r  experiment  159  F i g u r e 3'3  - Tracer d i s p e r s i o n  FF ii au 3 gu rree 40  f aebt rr ii cc ds hi aagprea mo fo Wreck f p e b bBay l e s hand o r t f ia xtet se d ( sl)o g -a t - P el at nr oi m sP pr oi fra1 c u r v e s i Ie D  F i gu r e 41a  -  F i g u r e 41b  -  C;  results  at P r o f i l e D  Regression C reek  i ne p l o t o f C 1 i f f b a s e a t  Regression C reek  i ne p l o t o f S p i t c r e s t a t  160 188 164  L o s t Shoe 189 L o s t Shoe 189  F i gu r e 41c  -  Regression  i ne p l o t o f N o r t h w e s t C o r n e r  189  F i g u r e 42a  -  Regression  i ne p l o t o f S o u t h e a s t  Pocket Beach  190  F i gu r e 42b  -  Regression  i ne p l o t o f S o u t h e a s t  Corner  (1)  190  F i gu r e 42c  -  Regression  i ne p l o t o f S o u t h e a s t  Corner  (2)  190  Map  I  - Topography IsI and  and b a t h y m e t r y o f Wreck B a y ,  Map  2  ~ C o n t i n e n t a l S h e l f B a t h y m e t r y o f f Wreck Vancouver IsI and  Vancouver  •Pocket Tube  Bay,  Pocket  X  PLATES Plate  I  - Effect of  Plate  2  - Storm  strong  onshore  waves e n t e r i n g  wind  on  Wreck Bay  on  cliff the  vegetation 18th  6  August,  1968  12  Plate  3  - E c h o g r a m s o f some t r a v e r s e s  Plate  4a  Plate  4b  - T i g h t l y f o l d e d s a n d s t o n e and mudstone - F l o r e n c t a Island - M y l o n i t i z e d sandstone - Florencia' Island  Plate  4c  Plate  5a  i n Wreck Bay  22  - P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h o f medium g r a i n e d F l o r e n c i a I s I and  impure  - Chert  sandstone  nodules  and  bands  i n impure  sandstone -  Wya 38  Plate  5b  - Pillow structures  Plate  6a  Plate  6b  - Laminated chert Point - Photomicrograph Q u i s l t i s Point  Plate Plate Plate  7a 7b 8a 8b  P l a t e 9a Plate  9b  - Marble Point  block  in altered basalt  showing  small-scale  - Wya  Point  folding -  38 Wya 39  of chert  showing  "concretions"  39  with  bulbous  protuberances  -  Wya 40  - Photomicrograph o f marble showing c a l c i t e g r a i n s - Wya P o i n t  alignment  - C o n t a c t between c l a y m a t e r i a l f l u v i a l outwash  overlying glacio-  - Close-up view of contact P l a t e 8a - Poorly defined outwash  cross  and  and  of 40 63  a r e a m a r k e d by  inset  on 63  bedding  in gIaciof Iuvia I 64  - G I a c i o f l u v i a I outwash sand,  37  Point  Plate  37 37  overlain partially  by  beach?  till  Plate  10  - Procedure used  Plate  I l a - Mouth o f Lost  64 f o r measuring Shoe Creek  on  transverse the 30th  profiles  June  1968  128 129  xi Plate  Mb  -  Mouth o f L o s t  Shoe  showing  extent  of  sand  on  31st J u l y  the  1968,  accretion  12a  -  Profile  B  Plate  12b  -  Profile  B,  1630  hours  150  Plate  12c  -  Profile  B,  1800  hours  150  Plate  13a  -  Profile  C  shortly  Plate  13b  -  Profile  C,  1600  hours  155  Plate  13c  -  Profile  C,  1730  hours  155  Plate  14a  -  Profile  D shortly  Plate  14b  -  Profile  D,  1630  hours  161  Plate  14c  -  Profile  D,  1000  hours  161  Plate  15  -  Swash-backwash P r o f i Ie D  Plate  16  17a  -  -  after  peak  129  Plate  Plate  shortly  Creek  after  peak  after  peak  zone over  high  high  high  gravel  tide,  hours  1430  tide,  hours  1500  hours  Profile  showing  C during  waves  neap  tide 202  17b  -  As  Plate  17a  during  succeeding  spring  Plate  17c  -  As  Plate  17a  during  succeeding  neap  Plate  13a  -  Rills  eroding  Plate  18b  -  Sandy  beach  backwash  cusps,  with  tide  tide  period  period  ripples  ripples  203  backwash  ripples  in  the 203  Plate  18c  -  Current  Plate  19a  -  Plate  19b  -  Rhomboid p a t t e r n d e v e l o p e d on backwash r i p p l e s Rhomboid p a t t e r n d e v e l o p e d on unrippled foreshore  Plate  19c  -  Pseudo-rhomboid smaI I p e b b I e s Small spilling P r o f i Ie D  202 202  embayments  -  161  20!  Plate  20a  155  at  period  Plate  15'0  165  cusp at  cobble  1500  foreshore  View n o r t h w e s t from Sand P o i n t , b r e a k i n g on t h e n e a r s h o r e b a r Relict  tide,  on  the  pattern  lower  foreshore the  seaward  gently  developed  at  in  Profile side  of 204  sloping, the  lee  A 203  204 of 204  wave  approaching  gravel  step  near 208  xi i  Plate  Plate  Plate  Plate  20b  20c  21a  21b  -  -  -  -  A few s e c o n d s and r e f l e c t e d  after wave  Plate  20a  -  resultant  swash 208  A f e w s e c o n d s a f t e r P l a t e 20b - c o l l i s i o n o f r e f l e c t e d wave w i t h t h e n e x t i n c o m i n g spilling wave, r e s u l t i n g in a water spout H y d r a u l i c jump wave, f r o m b a c k w a s h n e x t i n c o m i n g s p i l l i n g wave Sand  waves  water  developed  on  the  the 209  foreshore  by  a  fresh  creek  209  Plate  22  -  Photomicrograph  of  Plate  23a  -  "Black  the  sand"  v i ew a s  on  Plate hole  large  gold  foreshore  "colours" during  winter.  Same  on  22 I  23b  -  Prospect  Plate  24a  -  A  Plate  24b  -  Raven  Plate  25a  -  Plate  25b  -  K e l p d e p o s i t e d on t h e f o r e s h o r e by littoral currents Cobbles a t t a c h e d to kelp h o l d f a s t s  Worm  220  18b  Plate  Red  over-riding  208  the  backshore  and  its  beach  diggings  for  Red  near  Profile  markings  D  221 229  Worms  229 opposing 230 230  xi i i  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many this  work.  people  have  Primarily,  I  thesis  Murray  for  serving  making  two  informative  LeBlond  of  the  help  and  advise  Bay,  and  Dr.  U.B.C., indebted  as  in  L.E.  Dr.  the  Lavkulich  Drs.  W.H.Mathews, chapters  and  Economic  discussion,  of  projects.  Carter, sounding  and  across  and  Department  in  X-ray  Dr.  shape of  in  experiments, and W.H.White Profiles,  Science, I  surface  thanks  for  Wreck  analyses.  trend  and  P.  much  of  Soil  diffraction  guidance  are  Size  am  anal-  due  critically  Sediment  efforts  of  Drs.  support  is  gratefully  p r o v i d e d many  directly  and  go  to  read-  Analyses,  of  to  the o f f s h o r e  M.J.L.T. of  for  samples,  the  Pullen,  Wreck  success  who  Bay,  and  ideas  and  ran  L.  three  trough.  was  p r o v i d e d by  Oceanography,  J.W.Murray,  stimulating  responsible  sampling  the o f f s h o r e  Institute  I  area. gave  of J.W.  for  U.B.C,  the  and  Kucera  study  of  assistance  Geology  Finally,  the  Dr,  planimetric  thanks  sounding  Financial  cheerful  were  Special  echo  to  and  the  for  results  Drs,R.E.Kucera  Oceanography,  students  who c o l l e c t e d a l l lines  trips  the  respectively.  U.B.C  through  thank  advisors,  Transverse  Geology  the  tracer  W.C.Barnes on  Fellow  supervised  efforts  foreshore  the  of  A.J.Sinclair  of  ing  field  to  determining  d i r e c t e d my to  wish  Institute  ysis  some  c o n t r i b u t e d toward  R.E.Kucera  U.B.C, and  the  Department  through  the  G.L.Pickard.  kind  This  acknowledged. am d e e p l y  encouragement  t h a n k f u I t o my w i f e  throughout  the  research  Helen,  period.  of  for  I. I.  INTRODUCTION  A. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The occurred H.M.  name Wreck Bay  i n 1861.  G u n b o a t F o r e w a r d was  manageable s h o r t l y Callao with  f r o m an  Incident  In January o f t h a t y e a r , a B r i t i s h  a Peruvian brigantine,  for  derives  despatched  which vessel  from E s q u i m a l t to a s s i s t  t h e F l o r e n c i a , w h i c h had become un-  after  lumber.  leaving The  N o o t k a , and w h i l e h e a d i n g t r o u b l e h e r s e l f , and was  J u a n de F u c a S t r a i t ,  Foreward  took F l o r e n c i a  for Victoria forced  bound  i n tow a t  experienced b o i l e r  to cut her charge a d r i f t .  F l o r e n c i a went a g r o u n d on a s m a l l  island  now  known as  Florencia  I s l a n d , where she became a t o t a l  wreck  Since  r e p o r t s have r e f e r r e d  bay  1930,  a number o f maps and  leeward o f the i s l a n d  original  name, Wreck B a y , Long  after  was  1965).  in this  to the  thesis  the  has b e e n u s e d . first  known as W i c k a n i n n i s h Beach i n d i a n s , who  over a  r e i g n e d supreme o v e r t h i s p a r t o f t h e c o a s t  1965). Most maps s t i l l  W i c k a n i n n i sh  mark t h e n e a r s h o r e r e g i o n  hundred (Nicholas  Bay,  The  r o c k y p r o m o n t o r i e s on e i t h e r  Qui s i t i s P o i n t and Wya i n d i a n v i l l a g e s once local  as F l o r e n c i a Bay;  the c h i e f o f the Clayoquot  y e a r s ago son,  Beach  (Nicholson,  The  s i d e o f Wreck  Bay,  P o i n t , w e r e a p p a r e n t l y named a f t e r o l d located there (personal  communication  with  indians). The  fur-trading  first  w h i t e men  posts at Clayoquat  to s e t t l e  this coast established  ( a c r o s s t h e bay  f r o m T o f i n o ) and  2.  at  Ucluelet  about  in  twenty  Tofino  area,  combed  for  was  known  Wreck  Bay.  extensive measures built  and  its  two  as  by  in the  against Long  and  the  Beach,  a  municipalities 700  of  War,  the  road the  is  along  the the  thoroughly  attack.  the  "black area  fishing,  have  River  sands"  of  defense was  between  industry  and  Elk  airfield  constructed  principal  Gold  underwent  States An  War  the  prospectors.  United  was  World  in  fairly  veins in  First  farming  been  and  Japanese  and  the  migrant  World  part  Today,  and  by  quartz  Second as  had  River),  possible  500  area  of  before  attempted  deposits  Kennedy  Ucluelet.  village  the  number  development  approximately  of  these  populations  of  respectively.  ACCESS Regular  Victoria,  and  way  these  a  IS20  a  Shortly  immigrants  mineral  During  near  Tofino  l870's.  British  discovered  (nOw  B.  the  links  rough  west years  slated tion,  this to  of  road  be  this  cities winds  from  leads  junction  docking  has  paved  Tofino,  Alternatively government  over  the  by  and Wreck  (Map  2). area  facilities  Nanaimo.  Alberni,  Insular  (Figure been  between Vancouver  and  Port  to  the  exist Bay  with  Island  section  completely  road  services  Horseshoe  Vancouver  20 m i l e s  of  two  gravel  Wickaninnish north  between  gravel  coast  ferry  For  from  may  be at  a  It  a  turnoff  r e a c h e d by both  the  number  ends  at  Tofino  3  of and  a  is  juncThe  miles  boat, and  high-  here,  to  from U c l u e l e t .  Bay  exist  from  construction,  mid-1970. 6 miles  and  Mountains  I).  under  A paved  and  as  3.  Ucluelet. flights C.  Air  service  a week  from  the  Insular  Estevan  Plain  lying  area  Lake  basement  is  project  Air,  and  ridges  formity.  Some  of  old  stream  D.  CLIMATE The  which  occurs  of  with  three  during  winter,  often  highest  living In  the  memory  summer  blankets  above  return  the the  greater  high  south  wide,  and  consists  are  coastal  feet of  side  isolated  hills  area  level.  break  on  locally, the  a  the  Canada  1963, -  few unicourse  GEOLOGY).  p r e c i p i t a t i o n , most For  to  is  general  reflect  ECONOMIC  rain.  2  The  but  of  elevation.  sea  e x p e r i e n c e d one o f  days  of  the  probably  than  the  sediment  across  - more  part  as  and  200  relief,  as  known  1964).  number  annual  winter  boundary  unconsolidated  chapter  rainfall  Tofino  a  depressions  a  has  below  western strip  Bay  depressions  area  and  in  shallow these  the  4 miles  the  topographic  (see  the  falls  through  channels  recorded that  low  lowland  here,  feet  the  (Holland,  sands  from  700  and  between Wreck  and  up  reaching  gentle  fog  CP  along  coast  southeast  by  narrow  approximately  gravels  characterized  a  Ocean  extends  The  and  elevations  Pacific  west  Kennedy  Northwest  the  Island's  unconsolidated  of  by  Vancouver.  Mountains,  Coastal  Vancouver  of  provided  TOPOGRAPHY. Between  of  is  of  Ucluelet  265.23  inches,  the  heaviest  snow-  feet.  long  and  warm.  Early  plain,  and  winds  are  morning  generally  4.  light  from  frequency ally is  to  the and  the  given  northwest. intensity  south.  in  Table  I  (Watts  0  September - March TABLE  E..  -  of  and  10  I  -  autumn and  10  -  winter,  wind  historical  storm  shifts  gradu-  wind-speed  averages  1963).  j 20 - 30 j 30 - 40  20  12.3 26.4  41.5 40.3  HISTORICAL  to  the  Faulkner,  42.0 20. 7  WIND-SPEED  |  >40 0.8 4.2  2.9 3.4  j  AVERAGES  (%)  VEGETATION Sections  straight  trees  north  Paradise  at  less  than  bend  strongly  wind  being  gible  10  of  feet  exemplified  drifted  the  fir,  c l i f f  cedar,  is  parts  of  high,  and  here,  the  (Plate  the  I).  the  virtually  absent, the  Beach,  Bay,  are  of  the  is  thus  of  sand  from  the  is  and to  the  negli-  wind heights  Beach.  the a  c l i f f  causing  Long  over  Further  due  low c l i f f  part  large  scrubby  elsewhere  vegetation  carry alder.  difference  result  and  Bay  dense  trees  Wreck  southeastern  covering  and  growth;  Another  Wreck  Long  This  at  trees  inland.  landward  hemlock  and  in  along  behind  Beach  d e f l e c t e d upwards  straight  cliff  of  inland  distortion  drives  the  late  increases,  A summary  SEASON\M.p.H. Apri 1 October  From  Here  backshore 2 to- 3  is  has  acre  area. Logging gressed close  to  swampy,  to  within  the and  inland 1  mile  from Wreck from  road  has  not  trees  are  small  the  been and  Bay  cliff.  logged  has  in  The  because  scrubby.  places  northern the  prosector  ground  is  Plate  I.  E f f e c t o f strong onshore winds d u r i n g the w i n t e r , o n v e g e t a t i o n l o c a t e d a b o v e a low p r o f i l e c l i f f . Paradise Beach, 2 miles s o u t h e a s t from T o f i n o .  7, Underbrush salal  and  thick  is  commonly  huckleberries,  SEA  Vancouver  wind-blown dominant. on  the  and  impenetrably  COND!TlONS  Island  storm  period  at  from  waves  During  beach  groundswell  the  -  Bay  4.00  on  SAND MOVEMENT  pattern  of  wave  the  bay,  Figure  2 and  breakers aerial  at  on the  A  the  various  heights  seconds  respectively  dri I I that  rig swell  ranged  and  heights  from 9  -  II  winter  occasionally wave  the  and  The  seconds  incident were  data  during to  and  I6i  islands  is  shown  with  feet  from  other  given the  in  of  estimated  is  (see  The  angle  together  coast  increased  in  Table  summer, and  and  12  2).  during  ranged  the  heights  respectively  bottom,  locations  months  measured  breaker  headlands  atmospheric  (Plate  parameters  shoaling  coast  become  PARAMETERS).  the  information,  periods  135-F  the  during  ON WAVE  profile  measurements  SEDCO  but  10 s e c o n d s  around  attacked  breaker  west  significant  and  BASED  This  the  1968,  Frontispiece.  storm  Wave  feet  approaches  south  were:  r e f r a c t i o n on  hydrodynamic  single  of  diffraction  photographs.  estimated III.  and  west, the  summer  Wreck  =0.75  the  from  chapter  in  form  WAVES A persistent  of  occasionally  saImonberries,  growths.  II, A.  which  blueberries,  made  aboard  Shell  the  winter  of  from  6 - 1 0  (Watts  and  feet,  Canada's  1967 and  Faulkner,  -  68,  swell 1968).  o i l indicate periods The  8.  worst  storm  e x p e r i e n c e d by  1967-  Winds  reached  southeast, highest  storm  corded time  and  in  reached  Historical Vancouver  76 m p h ,  maximum waves  January 58  drill  with  wave  1968.  averages are  gusts  after  shown  in  to  92  mph  in  the  winter  swell  and  wave  days  along  the  Table  II  of  December  from  the  35  feet.  r e c o r d e d were  several  storms  occurred  during  Combined  of  rig  heights  encountered  feet,  Island  the  were  re-  height  40-50mph  west  coast  (Watts  and  The  at  this  winds.  of Faulkner,  1963).  Maximum  Maximum w a v e Wave p e r i o d (sees) height (ft)  S u s t a i n e d 1 hour wind speed (mph)  storm  A n n u a l summer storm (May-August)  40  30  15  Annual  70  45  •5  100  70  15  storm  100-year  storm TABLE  B.  I I  -  Historical  Averages  of  |  Storms  CURRENTS An  near-bottom with  a  only  one  ted  40  of  feet  the  of  Island  0.2  on  velocities Meter.  measurement  (Map  had  Surface  made  water  knots,  tide  was  Current  successful  Florencia  after  current  Savonius  in  city  attempt  and  in  I).  the  current  8th  July  and  directions  Due  to  was deep  to  215  1963 in  mechanical  obtained.  , was  to  measure  Wreck  Bay,  problems,  This  immediately  A seaward moving o  azimuth  turned  the  was  loca-  northwest  current  monitored  with  I  of  velo-  hour  ebb.  measurements  w e r e made  on  the  same  day  using  float  beneath  the  along  line  two  a  were  Point, the  along None  of of  later.  surface  a  the  the  shelf  current  conformable C.  bay  These  current  in  by  a  the  later  nearshore  during  storms,  direction, the  slow  were  Ouisitis sighted  in  approximately  three  southeast  moving  maximum  currents  2.5  report knots.  presumably  nearshore  mile  zone.  (1968) of  but  a  was  which  one  and  one  just  of  bottles  Island  fisherman  indicate  Island,  five  but  sink  dropped  approximately  Another  local  to  were  Florencia  Florencia  Faulkner  weighted  bottles  recovered,  trends  and  with  and  hours  were  been  Five  Point  between  these the  had  drop-points.  line  Watts on  Wya  five  their  which  interface.  between  of  middle  hours  sea-air  recovered  southeast dropped  bottles,  it  surface  They is  do  not  specify  southeastwards,  current.  TIDES The  mixed neap and  west  coast  of  semi-diurnal  tides  with  tides, Current  which  all  Tofino, Bay.  and  12.9  Tables,  tide located  Vancouver a mean  feet  during  1968).  The  elevations  in  approximately  Island range  spring  nearest  this  tides  affected  3.7  feet  were  based,  northwest  from  by  during  (Canadian  reference port  thesis  20 m i l e s  of  is  Tide  on is Wreck  10. AlRPH0T0  DATA  Date  17 J u n e 1967  Approx, Sea 1 e  17,000  Azimuth o f deep w a t e r wave f r o n t s Est i mated tide height Azimuth of F lorenci a ^ . f o a m 1i n e '  8.200  20,000  185°  170°  190  Mid  Mid  High  75  Est i mated wi nd st rength  o  360°  Mod.  A N G L E OF TO B E A C H  Light  20°  Very st rong  1"=980'  5,500  200  o  10,700  175  o  Mid  Low  135°  320  Light  C a Im  g reater than 11,000 , o 160  ,, o 180  Low o  350  o  Mod.  ***  -5  -7  -  -5  -1 1  -7 -2  -4  -3  -6  -  -2  3  C  3  -2  -3  -  -1  3  D  -6  -8  0  -  -5  5  E  5  -7  -13  -  2  F  -1  0  -1  -2  -3  2  - 1  5  7  5  7  6  6  i_  T a b Ie  ***  o  Aver^ age  B  G  **  J29 S e p t . 29 Sept.fc19 S e p t . 930 |1950 1930 i (A-3032) (A-5874)  (degrees)  A  *  15 O c t . 1954  1"=2640' 1 "=1320' 1"=2640'  E1evat ion (ft a.s.1.)  1 NCI DENT BREAKERS  1 May 1966  III.  -  2  Wave P a r a m e t e r Data, from s i x  E s t i m a t e s , and Sets of A e r i a l  1 1  1 -4 3  other Photographs.  Average o f i n c i d e n t angle o f breakers e x c l u d i n g storm values o n 15 O c t . 1954. I n d i c a t e s w i n d d i r e c t i o n a s m e a s u r e d f r o m t h e m e r i d i a n o n an i m a g i n a r y h o r i z o n t a l c i r c l e w i t h F l o r e n c i a I s l a n d as c e n t e r . - S i g n i n d i c a t e s a s o u t h e a s t d i r e c t i o n , no s i g n i n d i c a t e s a northwest d i r e c t i o n .  Typical Drawn  wave  from a e r i a l  pattern  in  photographs  Wreck shown  Bay. on  Frontispiece.  Plate  2.  S t o r m w a v e s e n t e r i n g W r e c k B a y o n 18th Aug. 1968. T h e p h o t o g r a p h was t a k e n f r o m t h e b e a c h a t P r o f i l e C . F i v e rows o f b r e a k e r s c a n b e seen t r a v e r s i n g the s u r f zone.  13. M l .  A.  PHYSIOGRAPHY  WRECK  Nine plane  Quisitis  days  Point  and  was  study  engineers  stadia  cobble  and  rod  for  chapter  where high a  the tide  rock  the  at  of  above  on  surface 9.1  feet  on  on  datum  the  beach  purpose  large-scale  local  scale  of  I  on  at  of  the  alidade was =  and  tempo-  200  including  provided  stability  this  map  inch  BEACH  were  between  resident  structures  chapter  1968  of  A telescopic  a  A  August  of  The  cliffbase  feet  oerms,  STRUCTURES), the  Wreck  nacessary  Bay  (see  SHAPE). bench  tide was  calm.  above  at  occurred  Hydrocraphic  On  datum Point  Wya  18th  marks  heights  Quisitis  Similarly  Canadian  (see  the  I).  and  beach  shoreline  based  sea  sea-level  feet  etc  length  thesis.  used,  convenient  outcrop  sea-level. at  20th  accurate  assistant.  PLANIMETRIC  were  an  major  cusps,  5th  (Map  this  was  of  examining on  Point  of  an  stations  No vations  as  the  three mile  obtain  rod  mapping  relict  the  area  employed  permitted  between  Wya  to  principal  data  and  TROUGH  Methods  tabling  undertaking  13  OFFSHORE  TOPOGRAPHY (a)  rarily  AND  BAY I.  spent  OF WRECK BAY  at  a  when  5th  rock a  area,  times,  August, at  marked  a.m. is  the  specific  the  was  10.10  Service  at  in  occurred  Point,  August,  exist  a  11.40  with  outcrop  Chart  datum the  eleareas  lower a.m.,  was  high  on  in  paint  lower  based  so  and  at  this  marked  tide  8.C  adopted  plane  of  by  I  lowest  normal  tides  Vertical the  northwest  reference Sand  control  half  of  elevation,  Point.  The  Point  reference  error  of  from  the  0.38 two  adjusting the  (Canadian  to  station  feet  for  and  maintained from  large  stationary  to  was  the  the  by  beach  half  then  same  station  Tables,  first  Quisitis  surveyed  surveying Point  was  on  from A  elevation  which  I9oo).  tree-stump  tree-stump.  tree-stump  approaches,  instrument  Current  the  Wya  vertical  was  obtained  eliminated  elevations  on  either  maintained  by  shooting  by  side  of  tree-stump.  a  rock  During that  pinnacle  map  their  rays  were  headlands were  onto  general  sured  at  the  Map  outlines the  the  I  in on  from  by  the Bay,  of  locations,  stations,  the a  faults and  and  scale  and of  Saltzman and  so  Seal  supplemented  Map by  by  eleva-  The Wya  two Point,  aerial  Map  shown o n  fixed  their  angles.  Point  Island  ray  station.  adjusted  c I i f f edge, w e r e  Quisitis  Florencia  were  a  point.  inclination  using  Major  instrument  single  the  expanding  survey  each  stations  a  instrument  same w a y .  field  from  instrument  Wreck  the  of  Rock  oi points  from  that  in  Seal  was  coincided  enclosing  to  plotted  all  determined  drawn  graphs  on  number  trianguI ation tions  control  compilation,  A  The  was  the  different  two  a  southeast  Horizontal at  the  Tide  k.  photo-  Projector. Rock I  were  were  mea-  air-photo  interpretation. (b) The  Di s c u s s i o n  backshore  is  exceptionally  wide  adjacent  to  the  15.  two  headlands,  (Map  I).  behind  These the  shore  is  steep  and  bay  height  (see  SION),  and  to  water  and  area  800  in  strong  of  discrete  above  part  caves of  eroded  their  this  the of  function  D.  Profile  A  I  leaving  area  (see  blow  Quisitis  are  on  SIZE beach  cusps  spitbar, of  fresh F  it  series  as on  outlet a  crest. closely  a  BEACH of  Lost  maximum It  fitted  than  PLANIMETRIC  did SHAPE).  common  along  wave  action  has  along  fault  and  resulted  quite  Strong  easy.  DISPER-  springs  reaches its  chapter  coasts  fairly  the  much m o r e  holes  Point.  rocky  along  tide  Profiles  chapter  northwestwards,  estab-  of  number  These  and  is  the  between  deflects  level  along large  E.  berm,  Map  curvature  recognition  Creek,  gravel  fore-  and  ON TRACER  SEDIMENT  cliffbase  which  sea  and  the  a  Relict  C and  (see  feet  log-spiral in  Shoe  summer  spitbar,  Sea  erentially  the  The  cliffbase  chapters  PROFILES).  mounds  feet  configuration  are  Point,  G  sections  The  This  on  from  SHAPE).  Sand  F and  clfff  at  (see  Lost  Profiles  stable  BASED  sandy  23  more  SAND MOVEMENT  southeast  1250  and  flat  which  Profiles  of  the  B  PLANIMETRIC  flanks.  of  emerge  for  theoretical  making  mouth  erosion  of  on  A.and  and  currents,  height  feet  Creek  its  between  STRUCTURES).  southern  at  on  wide  TRANSVERSE  the  and  the  chapter  chapter  springs  height  (see  wave  G,  Shoe  represent  littoral  from  the  regions  narrow  by  exist  Profiles  exceptionally  lished  ANALYSES  between  planes,  the  prefthus  16.  2.  BATHYMETRY (a)  The 1968,  the  bay  map,  and  in  bay.  A  used of  on  28.5  were (PL  16  At  each  measure  and  the  or  if  were  they  negative  strong  in  made  stations  reflections D?  four  graph  echogram  ms.  (GL  bathy-  bedrock  out  sextant  -  the  bay  was  followed  see  Figure  was  between  was  traverses  into  grid  areas  frequency  Initial  lines)  the  for  paper  the and  used  three  periods then  measurements.  reflections relief,  indicated  above  July  3.  to  prominent  shore.  positive was  and  operating  lines  angles  6th  echo-sounder  an  a  and  accurate  rectangular  elevation  on  an  II  1.3  shown,  multiple  and  (Plate  rock-water  were as  3).  spent  in  appropriate Pronounced  2nd  interpreted  boulder Kelp  beds  beds  as  if  bed-  zero  produced  interface.  scussion  (1967)  pulse-length  delineate  the  the  3rd  relief  King  on  had of  5th  boulder  Mark  areas  tangential  tidal  on  showed  a  the  obtain  profile  uncovered  on  It  length  beach  plotted  (b)  short  the  time  occasionally  rock  F-850  launch.  pulse  features  adjustments and  a  to  on  exposed  subsequently,  Curves field,  was  Model  simultaneous  topographic  the  which  delineate  from  detail  of  echo-sounded  moter  and  extended  obtain  to  foot  lines),  of  Furuno  Kc/s,  to  was  purpose  metric the  Methods  found  that  echo-sounder  distinct  a  relatively  such  sedimentary  as  this,  types  on  high  frequency,  enabled the  him  Scotian  to Shelf.  17. In  the  present  study,  single  sediment  out  be  to  type  fine  boulder  exceed sand as  I  lag  in  areas  been  from  bay,  and  intensity from  s h o w n o n Map  weight.  since  It  the  is  a  Rather,  selectively  deposits.  derived  the  concentration,  ton  has  in  reflection  indicated  sampling  this  a  turned  sand.  Boulder of  echo  they  believed  cannot  number  winnowed  glaciofluvial  I  of  represent  them  represent  out,  that  a  "mat"  outwash,  appear  areas  leaving of  zones  the  to  where boulders  boulders,  underlies  the  entire  northwest  corner  bay. The the  bay  is  beneath (see  a  the  result sand  chapter  current  in  blanket  the  large  on  region clay  elongate  the  mouth  trough  and  supports  does B3,  the  larger of  wave  a  of  the  factors:  grey  prohibits  PROFILES),  allows (see  only  a  cohesive  boulders and  thin  Frontispiece,  no  boulder  shoal  boulder action,  area  bed.  boulder  Lost  represents  small  since  in  a  clay  from  sinking  persistent  cover and  of  of  rip-  sand  chapter  to  on  SHAPE).  toward  probably  two  area  effectively  grey  The  It  of  TRANSVERSE  this  PLANIMETRIC  boulder  Shoe  kelp an  extending  Creek,  (Plate  3  from  occupies -  lines  closer  exists  MothersiI I bars  a GL2  inter-longshore-bar  area  longshore  bed  Seal  Rock  distinct and  PL©)  trough,  to  shore  containing  between  them,  and  (1969)  found  that  in  Lake  Superior  as  seaward as  a  sample of  the  result  consisted  of  18.  fine  sand,  whereas  the  coarse  material.  Due  likely  developed  in  remained the by  bar  summer The  flat, a  and  a  (see  set  chapter  water. beach  large  of  on  Presumably  it  troughs of  large  waves  the  Profile  area  beds  position  on  kelp.  above,  Smaller  this  and  becomes  bar  area  covered with  storm  summer.  F  is  to  is  the  due  this  to  area  lies  in  shallower  source  of  sand  the a  formed  occupies  symmetry  it  the  contrast,  E and  it  affect  and  and  PROFILES).  exposure  waves  as  In  Profiles  its  most  waves,  definitely  bay  during  sand  they  Although  represents  building  features,  TRANSVERSE  regarding  described  excess  D was  between  of  contained  winter  in  chapter  factors.  these  TRANSVERSE P R O F I L E S ) ,  accretion  winter  (see  thick  bed  to  of  boulder  equivalent  different  depth  small  front  waves  boulder  the  response  in  supports  roughly  elongate  to  u n a f f e c t e d by  longshore small  intervening  summer,  result  of  and  for  in  beach  de-  gradation. Small probably is  trains  littoral on  result  transported  wave  Seal  Rock  in  drift  SEDIMENT  METERS).  boulder  In  from from the  The  these lee of  build large  all the  on  flanks  of  Sand  circumstances.  In  summer,  areas Seal  which  ANALYSES  winter,  to  similar  pattern  SIZE  areas  the  onto Rock,  exists  and  the  point  thus in  SAND MOVEMENT sand  is  shoal  area  present  bedrock  and  area BASED  transported  boulder  sand  converging  supplementing  this  this  by  Point  (see  the  chapters  ON WAVE out  PARA-  beyond  there..  area  near  Pocket  Beach  19.  has by  positive currents  relief, and  islands,  3  -  line  a  result  a  stillstand  B.  OFFSHORE  areas,  are  GL-1 I I ) . of  all The  is  glacial in  in  facies  indicated  level  trough,  aboard  diagnostic  of  La  of  thin  the  Perouse  2215).  by  veneer  at  head 50  for  due  at  a  at  to  depth  this  is  or  else  the  of  not  winnowing  40  wave  Holocene  surface feet  known.  as  (Plate  It  may  erosion  be  during  times.  fathoms  delineate  Naval  the 4),  trough,  sand  intensity  of  to  (Line  relict  and  depth  different  Auxiliary multiple indicated its  to (see is  and  a  sill  OS - 1 4 ) .  The  latter  is  thought  particle  deposition  at  the  to  present  be  185  LAYMORE.  in  muds  and  on  COASTAL  (sample  locus (see  of  with  a  ROCKS). at  depth location  maximum  chapter  top  and  located  shallowest  area  on  2145  covered  to  the  gravel  stations  the  time  Model  silty  fathoms  the  run  proved  chapter  OS-16), broad  Sonar  bedrock  60  were  reflection  time  at  Wreck  sedimentary  Vessel  edges,  be  from  lines  EDO W e s t e r n  between  gravels  over  An  along  proved  location  occurs  1st  3,  trough  offshore  Three echo-sounding  (Figure  (sample  SEDIMENTS).  is  exposed  bathymetry  sampling.  of  Bank  Strong  4.  Canadian  Maximum its  not  during  shelf  again  Intensity  bottom  where  truncated  Figure  the  be  sand  TROUGH  shown  used  of  decapitation,  sea  across  was  lack  reason  Continental Bay  its  waves.  Bedrock small  and  on  clay  RECENT  FIGURE  ECHO SOUNDING — WRECK  3  BAY — 5 6  Profile line extensions G r i d lines I G D  JULY  1968  <PU  NJ O  ECHO SOUNDING FIRST  MULTIPLE  FIGURE 4  O F F S H O R E TROUGH - 3 0 MAX 1968 INTENSITY  st —  — — —  r o n g  m o d e r a t e w * a k  VERTICAL  SCALE  APPROX.  :  O P  HORIZONTAL  absent  SCALE  LINE 1  " •  echo  V 181S  LINE  1830  1845  191S  1920  2  50 •n , >  2055  LINE  204S  2015  2030  1945  3 echo lirst  25 multiple  50 >  I o 2  211S  2145  2242  22  Plate  3.  Echograms o f For l o c a t i o n  some t r a v e r s e s In W r e c k o f t h e s e t r a v e r s e s , see  Bay. Figure  3.  23. IV.  A.  been  sedimentary  Vancouver  northern Kyuquot land  Sound,  Brown,  the and  the  thick  is at  LITH0L0GY  AND  The  rocks  are  sandstones, mudstone  Fl-ll,  west  coast  belt.  feet  Quatsino  dark  and  southern of  At  thick  Sound  contain  (Plate  4a).  Sandstones  QP-3  composition,  and  from v i s u a l  (Plate  felspathic are of  4c)..  -  15%  They  quartz,  epidote,  (Figure  5)  the  at  (Suther-  fragments,  in  to  Folk's  (1968)  sub-rounded,  chert,  and  K-felspar,  hornblende,  very  lenses from  are  and  Quisitis  material  more to  poorly of  quite contain than  lithic  classification. consist  in  samples  all  estimates,  therefore correspond  arenites angular  rock  of  exotic  numerous  and  5  part  g r e y i s h - brown,  QP-2  feldspar,  proportions  the  argillaceous  the  3,000  as  have  STRUCTURE  absence  15  muscovite,  feet  unit  the  impure  particles  the  to  Bay  assemblage  peripheral  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  in  and  island,  sorted  along  discontinuous  Wreck  (1969),  from a r g i l l i t e s  the  similar  matrix  a poorly  and  FI-8,  -20%  are  Carson  Island  brownish-black FI-3,  and  at  1966).  sediments.  bedded,  shoreline  intermittently a  DISTRIBUTION,  are  They  3,600  Florencia Point  as  the  Muller  ranging  outcrop  Island  end o f  LOCAL  Unit".  rocks  and  along  named b y  Greywacke  sandstones,  B.  exposed  tentatively  "Tofino  of  ROCKS  INTRODUCTION Rocks  of  COASTAL  of  15% arkoses The  varying  pIagiocIase,biotite,  cIinopyroxene,  chlorite  and  2k.  opaque  minerals.  The  gin  (straight  and  no m i c r o l i t e s )  extinction),  are  mainly  sericite,  increase these  in  present  and  QP-3  fine-grained, matrix  and  consists in  of  thin  deep  erosion  carrying fractures  that  Florencia  of  containing  competent  be  normally was  in  altered, fresh.  An  noticed  in  QP-2  medium-grained.  is  The  sericite.  graded,  which  these  was  are  evident.  and  FI -8  showed  filled  with  material  samples  are  irregular turn,  are  massive  a  and  shear-stringers cut  by  wide  tension  calcite. folding  (Plate  ka)„  anticline, sandstone,  the  tightness  stone  in  the  core,  slump  structure,  with  was  rarely  seen  Here,  near  sample  limbs  suggests of  the  indicate  developed  semi-consoIidated  state.  possible,  fold  the  highly  few m i c r o - s t r u c t u r e s weakly  ori-  embayments,  fine-grained,  and  The o t h e r  and  However,  but  are  plutonic  extinction)  northeast  them e x h i b i t  scale  Island  a  are  is  very  Fl-ll  channel,  iron-oxide,  an o v e r t u r n e d of  to  the  chlorite  below.  All  Large  and  (undulose  - 20%  are  of  (rounded  Felspars  10  Fl-8  section  inch  structureless.  well.  clay,  appeared  to  volcanic  towards  Fl-3  FI -3  identical  predominantly  but  only  and  Sample i  as  grain-size  samples:  is  and metamorphic  varieties to  quartz  is  a  showing  that when  it the  to  type  on  the  east.  folding. of  mud-  represents  were  the  Fl-ll,  thickness  of  state  likely  sediments  No m e a s u r e m e n t s recumbent  location  crushed  more  on  constant  concentric  fold,and  except  still  plunge  in  were  a a  25. Faulting than the  folding, faults  northwest  i n the  (Map  I), Locally,  by  sandstones,  but  which  had  presented  relatively  thin  calcite  together  and  along  tite  nodules  been  formed  QP-1  the  above.  comes  and  coast,  that  ticles  exhibit of  felspars  are  o f Wya  up  to 50%  Beach  I i s an and  black argil lite  Minute  pyrite  thus  fault  zone  is also  altered.  the  pyrrhohas  and  rock volume  thin  (Plate  a m o u n t s , as  to  Quartz  extinction, shear  the par-  and  planes;  typified  much  c h e r t bands  con-  5a). C a l c i t e  fracture  fillings,  was and  quartz.  southeast by  and  intensely  to the  S a m p l e WP-13  Into  low-grade  iron-oxide.  parallel  chert nodules  sequence  trending parallel  with  :  deposited  epidote  indicating  S a m p l e WP-3  also  bands,  cubes  and  were  sheared  have a p p a r e n t l y been  patches,  a  intensely  i n the c a l c i t e ,  in significant  replacing The  Pocket  QP-1  l o n g e s t axes  of  been  kb)„  crenulated borders, undulose  in that  have  the  the g e n e r a l  impregnated  a l l highly  present  locally  been  their  Point,  stituted also  has  (Plate  towards  m o d i f i e d from  area.  from  sandstones  of  strongly  l i e embedded  sheared,  dip steeply  Most  5)  fractures.  in this  sediments.  WP^-13 ( F i g u r e  iron-oxide  in isolated  and  significant  and  sandstone  metamorphism  alignment  I , WP-3  been  these  competent  intense shearing  Samples  of  deformation of  trend north-eastwards,  mylonitized  picture  seems t o h a v e b e e n much m o r e  c o r n e r o f Wreck Bay  a pillowed  lava  flow (Plate  is isolated 5b). More  from  commonly  26. it  is  brecciated,  it  seen  in  contact  relationship be  is  considered  pillows Lake.  seen  In  fibrous small  and  with  a in  (Sample  WP-I).  mass  criss-crossed  in  turn  the  the  rock  with  cut  on  is  but  is  the  a  great  by  quartz,  north  number  of  its  age  pillows  can  side  by  Kennedy  a  with  the  to  to  are  few  zeolites  felty  chlorite  later  of  altered  filled but  was  identical  preserved  and  and  of  were  completely  still  Nowhere  therefore  shape  they  present,  by  chert.  and  and  chlorite,  No m a g n e t i t e  are  size  basalts  (uralite),  lined  grey  criterion,  Karmutsen  thin-section,  blocky  sandstones,  If  diagnostic  amygdules  These  the  unknown.  amphibole  is  contains  ground-  veins.  carbonate  vein-  lets. Seal It  is  very  Rock  fine  consists  grained  and  a  pale  section,  a  original  identity  (Sample  SR-I).  are  acicular  crystals  with  tiny  great  many  to  an  be  Bonanza C.  cryptocrystaI  of  irregular  altered  and  in  mass  colour,  rock and  completely  Scattered  through  in  masks this  possible  calcite.  correlates  It with  is  thin its mass  preferred orientation, contain  type.  and  a  thought  the  MATERIAL Wya  by  felty  fractures  tuff,  green  unique  Group.  EXOTIC  middle  Iine  singular,  and  exotic  material  Point  northern blocks  is  of  unknown,  sandstones, parts  of  chert  and  but  the  and  to  Quisitis marble. large  a  lesser  Point,  are  The o r i g i n  dimensions  of  extent  the  characterized of  this  some  of  these  27.  blocks short  suggest  that  distance.  tained  from  consisting  Samples  chert. of  of  tinction.  These  tests,  vein lets  them  (Plate  iron-oxide  occupy  most  is  dark  Both cut  of  and  from  a  in  large  present.  with the  small  tinction in  the  but  a  In  are  in  and  replaced of  6a). are  is  much  the  freshly  (Plate  section  it  is  not  quartz  which  contains  numerous  to  fractures  are  is  identical  to  spicules. but  Sample  both  WP-25  are  came  small-scale QP-4  except  somewhat  to  and  with  from  a  veinlets wider,  undulose nodule  exterior  except  that  adjacent  that  to  ex-  contained  is  a medium-grey  WP-31,  "con-  also  The w e a t h e r e d possesses  It  iron-oxide  crystals  them.  to  Beach.  sponge  the  by  no  perpendicular  WP-12  through  elongate  sample and  ex-  cut  appeared  showing  chert,  "con-  pass  cut  present,  veins.  chert  be  ob-  radiolarian  to  Pocket  are  abundant,  surface  to  of  identical  5a).  mottled  stringers  appear  were  undulose  appear  boundary  Sample  WP-12  scattered  showing  outcrop  interlocking  middle.  broken  do  calcite  more  relatively  recrystaI Iized  veinlets  oriented  large  be  clear  laminated  It  and  with  recrystaI Iized  by  Q u a r t z - f i I Ied  and  quartz,  a chert  a  greenish-grey,  elsewhere,  iron-oxide  sandstone  thin  of  over  WP,-25  quartz  may  perhaps  crystals  edges,  pale  Iine  southern  block  (Plate  and  colour,  and  "concretions" are  a  WP-31,  iron-oxide  from  the  locally  folding  of  A number  which  quartz  is  concretions  came  grey  cretions"  QP-4,  QP-4  vein lets,  WP-3I  transported  microcrystalline  6b).  Sample  were  cryptocrystaI  cretions"  as  they  white,  colour. carbonate  28. vein lets  are  more  Large occur  at  larly  sandstone  are  both  zones  sample 7b),  (Plate  have  IameI I a WP-30,  Furthermore,  other this it  small  grains, and  to  was  other  in  7b),  local the  WP-9  is  an  is  coarse  intrusive  sandstones  of  the  coarse  highly  altered  of  to  They  fine-grained  intersecting Iization  of  being  equant  several  of  rock.  to  large  bent.  In (Plate  grains.  iron-oxide  were  this  end o f grained  by  are  interlocking abundant  derivative  of  unknown  material.  sample  vein-  sharp  Tofino  In  between  thin-section,  chlorite  low-grade parent  Greywacke  was  contact,  metamorphic  silicious  has  Several  exposed  large  therefore a  and  location  a  promontory.  is  the  grey,  indiscernible.  material  the  felspar,  into  The  pale  northeast  It  exotic  into  shaped.  of  often  grained,  epidote.  incorporated  irregu-  p r e f e r r e d alignment  by  the  boundaries  occurrences and  recrystaI  a mosaic cut  oval  and  an  not.  WP-7  of  is  is  extending  consist  latter  of  WP-30  is  Irregular  consists  other  metamorphosed that  crystals.  (Plate  sample  blotches  and  WP-9  location,  consists  colour,  exhibit  from  the  WP-30  crystals  appearance  whereas  whereas  limestone  WP-9  protuberances  the  whereas  separated  in  recrystaI Iized  and WP-30.  bulbous  resulted  Sample the  of  WP-9  7a),  calcite  whereas  lets,  with  greyish-white  interlocking  twinned  blocks  locations  body  the  shear  exotic  sample  shaped  abundant.  Unit  quartz lathes,  regionally material, similar  29.  D.  INTRUSIVES . O n l y o n e i n t r u s i v e body was f o u n d  section dyke  t h a t was e x a m i n e d . T h i s was a n 8 f o o t w i d e  (Map I ) r e p r e s e n t e d  labradorite few  zoned e u h e d r a l  (fluidal  felspar phenocrysts,  and m a g n e t i t e  Kennedy Eastwood  diabase  t e x t u r e ) , and a  Augite,  partially  a r e t h e n e x t most common c o n s t i t u e n t s  o x i d a t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r has imparted  to the weathered s u r f a c e .  thecoastal  by s a m p l e WP-26. I t c o n s i s t s o f  l a t h s showing alignment  chloritized, and  along  I t probably  I n t r u s i o n s o f Cretaceous  a reddish-brown  9  colour  i s part of the basic  o r T e r t i a r y a g e , d e s c r i b e d by  (19^8).  E. RELATIVE AGE Sutherland early  Cretaceous  Aptian),  Brown ( 1 9 6 6 ) h a s a s s i g n e d a l a t e  age t o t h e T o f i n o Greywacke U n i t  i . e . 120-160 m i l l i o n  indirectly  supported  years  3.P.  Jurassic-  (Callovia-  This contention i s  by a number o f f a c t o r s :  1. LOWER L I M I T I t s u n m e t a m o r p h o s e d c o n d i t i o n and h i g h f e l s p a r tent,  together with the fact  t h a t i t c o n t a i n s a number o f l o w -  grade r e g i o n a l metamorphic m i n e r a l s and of  chlorite,  suggest  l i k e epidote,  t h a t i t was d e p o s i t e d  t h e Kennedy B a t h o l i t h ,  con-  after  w h i c h h a s been d a t e d  amphibole emplacement  a t 167 m i l l i o n  y e a r s B.P. 2. UPPER  LIMIT  M u l l e r and Carson  (1969) r e p o r t t h a t a  quartz-monzonite  30.  stock  intrudes  from T o f i n o ) , the  diabase  likely  of  the  unit  which  dyke  on  has  found  Cretaceous  been  or  in  the  Table  coast,  and  the  Tertiary  as  (across  early  unit  the  inlet  Tertiary,  o n Wya  Also,  Point,  is  most  age.  stratigraphic  directly  inland  column  of  from Wreck  rocks Bay,  exposed is  given  IV.  PERI0D  UNI T  Quaternary  Cretaceous Tert i ary  Island  dated  cutting  A generalized along  Stubbs  WRECK BAY  or  KENNEDY  LITH0L0GY FORMATION  INTRUSIONS  Basa11  and  outwash  gabbro  Late Jurassic to early C retaceous  TOFINO UNI T  Middle  B A T H O L I T H I C INTRUSIONS (Kennedy Batho1i th)  Mainly granodiorite and q u a r t z m o n z o n i t e  BONANZA  Pyroclastic  Jurassic  Late Triassic to lower Ju r a s s i c  GREYWACKE  G1aciofluvial and t i l l  QUA SIN0 T  Late  GROUP  GROUP  Argillaceous sands t o n e s and mudstones  andesite  Massive to t h i n l y bedded l i m e s t o n e , a r g i 1 l i t e and t u f f a ceous argi1 l i t e  Triassic KARMUTSEN GROUP  T a b Ie  IV  -  Brecciated, amygdaloida1 a n d p i 1 l o w e d b a s a l t s and a n d e s i t e  Generalized stratigraphic column o f Rocks in the V i c i n i t y o f Wreck  Bay.  31, F.  REGIONAL T  R  G  U  G  DISTRIBUTION  The Unit  is  depositional  indicated  seaward (1969)  in  the  by  that  the  west.  Apart  from  tuff  north  of  Kennedy  fluvial have  Pocket  explain  the out  in  area,  that  the  following  are  distinctly  this  periods  normally  trough  states  is  in  of  and  this  the  Kennedy The  naturally  separated  Batholithic of  of  Eastwood to  trend. here,  -  of  the  Batholith,  and  however, faults  basis  of  coastal  rocks  sandstones been  marble.  are  mixed  Although  sedimentary intrusions,  evidence  were  deposited  were  in  this  fact  northeastern  edge  of  overlies  acid  intrusive  the  to  necessity  the  have  acid  sandstones  The on  consecutive  (1969)  gravels  other  the  and  glacio-  (1968)  all  flow  Intrusions  Carson  these  Point,  chert  advent  the  and  composing  Wya  south-  unconsolidated  character  these  the  case  are  questioned  blocks that  sediments  northwest  along  Carson  lava  unrelated  in  and  directly  the  underlies  Sediments  precede  therefrom. then,  its  fault  exotic  (1965)  emplacement  of  being  and  geology.  is  as  Greywacke  the  and M u l l e r  fault  geosynclinal  Aubouin  derived  OFFSHORE •  towards  and  belt  (1968)  fault  deposits,  that  broad  Tofino  Muller  Rock,  coastal  bedrock  argument.  pre-flysch  suggests  in  inferred  flysch-type  a  a major  because  this  by  and  steeply  Seal  Bonanza  the  (1966)  Bay,  dip  composing these  of  Brown  Wreck  Eastwood  that  for  with  Lake,  break  points  of  Quatsino,  outwash.  proposed  the  TO P R E S E N T - D A Y  paleoslope  sediments  Beach,  Karmutsen,  around  RELATION  Sutherland  vicinity  note  from  AND  H  after largely  geosynclinal in  the  32.  region  now c o v e r e d  by  Concerning two  Continuous  Marine  Group  communication).  l\  normal east  to  dipping  present-day feet  of  miles  (Map' 2 ) . gently  undisturbed  edge  the  record  is  not  where  it  passes  bank  clearly  in  continues  gently  in  La  latter  trough,  Perouse  and  into  Barkley  Line  #67-26  Sound  shows  The u n c o n f o r m i t y  between  (Tofino  Greywacke  and  is  a  fairly  It  continues  smooth under  trough,  with  closely  spaced  indurated  no  plane the  sign  of  multiple  sediment  southern  these  rim o f until  reflections.  At  basement  in  of  the  line  the 100  crosses 1930,  side  the  of  faulting this  is fault  of  dipping  the  offshore  consolidated recent  gently  sediments  sediment, southwards.  present-day becomes  time is  sedi-  direction.  base  it  south-  station  sediment  the  a  crumpled  Trough,  dips  approx-  approximately  northeast  also  it  bathymetry,  the  U.B.C.  oriented  base  south  crumpled  faulting,  the  to  time  the o v e r l y i n g  which  forming  the  the  at  trough.  of  Sound  a  direction  Unit?)  on  on  in  Where  the  personal  67-26  the  sediments,  located  shows  along  north  Barkley  too,  southerly  just  based  #  underlying  however,  into  point  simply  by  1970,  parallel  sediment.  Bank  clear;  and  a  Point,  and #67-27  these  obtained  from  f r o m Wya  The  of  (Murray  southeastwards  evidence,  a  records  extend  recent  the  outwash.  extension  examined  lines  offshore  of  Profile  coastline,  direction  ment ,  seaward  were  Both  nautical the  the  Seismic  Geology  imately  g I a c i o f Iuvia I  masked  station  again  offshore by  1830,  visible,  and  33. dips  moderately  present into  the  which  steeply  southern Tofino  jndjstinctly  ing  this  wacke  time  are  across  01igocene-Miocene as  existing  in  it present-day  degrees source  of  the  La f e r o u s e  Period,  fine  deposits  by  action  into  present-day furnished of  Perouse  (Map  in  the  form o f  the  head o ,  may  The of  trough  deposited. a  second  sediments  the  else  re-  compos-  Tofino  Grey-  consist  Sutherland  trough  of  Brown  (1966)  f i l l ,  and of  was  Bank. sand  that  almost  swept  be  southern  rim of  in  a  its of  part, slope  this  landward,  Indirect  result  of  the  rose  winnowed  the  20  -  The  glacial  during  out  of  25  material.  certarnfy  eea. l e v e l  A-s  trough.  least  repose  would  and  the  of  the  the  glacial  to  eventually  spill  evidence  supporting  this  by:  Irregularity Bank  is,  angle  Ho4c*cene  is  were  1800,  or  by  at  on  theory  arch,  trough  deposits  the  extension  that  sediments  wave  and  record.  therefore,  detrital  these  sediments  implied  region  area.  offshore  represents  This  pa I e o g e o s y n c I i n a I  1830  anticlinal  appears  unconsolidated  north.  the  the  an  deposits,  this  of  Unit  by  either  an  the  stations  suggested  trough  Unit  boundary  Greywacke  Between is  toward  the 2)  25  fathom  indicates  eskers,  whereas  bathymetric abundance  line of  kame-kettle  on  La  glacial  material  topography  at  o  125  50  Echogram  of  -  the  Map Line  2) 3  present-day  suggests (Figure  4)  trough  (lat.  relatively has  less  a moderate  48  50  ,  glacial first  long,  debris. multiple  34. reflection  i n t e n s i t y between t i m e s t a t i o n s  2145  and  confirming  the e x i s t e n c e o f a c o n s i d e r a b l e  thickness  u n c o n s o l i d a t e d m a t e r i a l on La P e r o u s e B a n k . The of  first  m u l t i p l e r e f l e c t i o n on L i n e s  head o f t h e p r e s e n t - d a y thin unconsolidated Samples  OS-19  glacial  gravels  found  Although ern  2 and 3 a t  strong,  consisting  bedrock.  identical  no s e i s m i c  i n c o m p o s i t i o n and  records  offshore  15 - 20 d e g r e e  relict  e n t i r e l y of cobbles  i n the g l a c i o f l u v i a l outwash  t o assume t h a t t h i s repose o f  almost  the  indicating a  s e d i m e n t a r y c o v e r above  rim o f the present-day  angle of  is  of  intensity  and OS-20 f r o m La P e r o u s e Bank a r e  p e b b l e s , and a p p e a r to those  trough  I,  2215,  exist  trough,  and  shape  a t Wreck  Bay,  across  the  it  reasonable  slope also  is  north-  represents  recent d e t r i t u s . Considering  the  t h e amount  of  f i n e g r a i n e d m a t e r i a ! w h i c h h-as b e e n removed f r o m Wreck  Bay  and Long B e a c h , and a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e p r e s e n t  moving  nearshore  c u r r e n t has  infilling  of  Unit  p e r s i s t e d s i n c e t h e end o f  the northern  depositional basin In  summary  narrow g e o s y n c l i n a l present-day shore,  is  the northeast, the source o f  Greywacke  readily explained. basin of  i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Wreck B a y ,  trough  coast Iine,The  and b a s e d on  the Holocene,  f l a n k of the o l d Tofino  then, the d e p o s i t i o n a l  T o f i n o Greywacke U n i t  southeast  which extended p a r a l l e l n o r t h e r n edge  is  increasing grainsize of  and a b u n d a n c e o f these sediments  was to  a  the  exposed along sandstones  exotic blocks  was p r o b a b l y  the  the  a l o n g Wya  the  towards Point,  mountainous  35. hinterland  northeast  geosynclinal may of  lie  La  approximately  as  juncontfiortni ty«  Bank. the  from  at  appear  the  of  as  Bay  and  glacial  due Long  trough  material  on  a  at  to  of  to  this  passed  gently  trough  Perouse  top  the  debris,  and  contrasting  Bank,  and  on  this  dipping  offshore  from  shape  Pleistocene  La  Perouse  the middle  gIaciof Iuvia I  south  of  of  by  sea  infilling  outwash the  from  present-  abundances the  the  distance  across  of  occupies  infilling  the  right  present-day  The g e o m e t r i c  reflects  Point.  of  #67-26, a  1830,  southward  on  edge  profile  station  debris  of  southern  f r o m Wya  glacial  erosion  Beach.  La  of  The  seismic  time  the  glacial  result  by  have  the  offshore  over  Lake.  miles  base  abundance  north  Bank  nautical  5i  transgression  offshore  head.  Perouse  The p r e s e n t - d a y  the  Wreck  suggested  e v i d e n c e d by  paleotrough  level  day  and  as  glaciers  paleotrough,  trough,  Kennedy  trough,  along  continental  of  bank- a t  of its  36  in  Tofino  5 4 3  SAMPLE  QP WP SR FI LSC  POINT  POINT  SEAL  ROCK  FLORENCIA  ISLAND  LOST SHOE  CREEK  •  sand  X  rock  Ucluelet  LOCATIONS  QUISITIS WYA  2  or  gravel  FIGURE  S C A L E 1 1.25 Inches t» 1 Mile approjcimtttiy  2 Miltr  5  Plate  4a.  T i g h t l y f o l d e d impure sandstone and incompetent brownish-black mudstone. Sample l o c a t i o n Fl-ll.  Plate  4b.  Mylonitized sandstone. Sample l o c a t i o n Fl-8.  Plate  4c.  Photomicrograph of medium-grained impure sandstone. Angular to sub-rounded q u a r t z , chert, plagioclase, altered felspar, m u s c o v i t e and b i o t i t e can be i d e n t i f i e d . Sample l o c a t i o n Fl-ll.  Plate  5a.  C h e r t n o d u l e s and bands i n impure sandstone. S a m p l e l o c a t i o n WP-12 and W P - 1 3 .  Plate  5b.  Pillow structures i n an a l t e r e d lava f l o w , between the s o u t h e a s t c o r n e r o f Wreck Bay, and t h e Pocket B e a c h . Sample l o c a t i o n WP-I.  38.  Plate  Plate  6a,  6b.  Laminated chert folding,, Sample l o c a t i o n  showing  small-scale  WP-25.  Photomicrograph o f c h e r t showing " c o n c r e t i o n s " of undulose quartz, i r o n - o x i d e , and q u a r t z veinlets. Sample l o c a t i o n QP-4.  39.  Plate  7a.  Large block of marble with bulbous protuberances p r o j e c t i n g into the impure sandstone. S a m p l e l o c a t i o n WP-9.  Plate  7b.  Photomicrograph o f marble showing a l i g n m e n t o f small c a l c i t e g r a i n s , and large twinned lamella in v i c i n i t y of shear zone. Sample l o c a t i o n WP-30.  41.  V.  A.  RECENT  SEDIMENTS  INTRODUCTION. G I a c i o f I u v i a I outwash,  coastal best  piain  along  exposed  Wreck  Bay  at  Wreck  Formation.  sediments  derived  techniques. contained  heavy  Silts  (2.0  diffraction  one  62.5/*)  in  order  as  was  to  gain  specific  regions, their  were on  rock  study  simply  the  Do Image this  studied  fraction  (1919)  deposit  using  (62.5  -  isolated  for  point-count were  as  the  recent  different  1 25.O/0 ,  a  (<2.0yu)  large  and  and  two  and  clays  in  an  for  Table  which  percentage  of  analysis.  separated  for  the  was  sea  source sampling  investigations  V.  For  point-count  of  and  X-ray  of  the  their  fourteen  and o f f s h o r e recent  analysis, environments  association material  overlap  and  from  trough,  sediment  to  dispersion.  mainly  shell-hash;  quantitative  material.  character  to  no  Gravels  protwo  125/^ c o n s i s t e d  this  their  from  c o n d u c t e d on  cliff  than  made o n for  two  regarding  coarser  noted  the  selected  impression  analysis  was  For  selected  fragments  primary  APPENDIX.  and  of  the  Island,  magnetite  was  affinity  Sand  alogic  the  of  Vancouver  named b y  sand  arbitrarily  X-ray  felspar,  fine  shown  venance.  examine  was  of  most  analysis.  degree, sample  coast  t h e r e f r o m , were  all  Samples a  Bay,  minerals, -  west  The m i n e r a l o g y  The v e r y  almost  other  to  the  composing  of  quartz,  (>2.0  supplement  miner-  mm)  evidence  sediments.  procedures  and  their  too,  locations,  see  42.  B.  POINT-COUNT 1.  ANALYSIS  LABORATORY  Very selected (column size  fine  samples I,  fractions  Table  VI).  mineral  sand  to  "fable  expressed was  using  were  their  Magnetite  The b a l a n c e  fractions  fractions  determine  VI).  and  PROCEDURE  weight  was  as  then  weight  then  screened  from  percentages  (S.G.  =  14  percentages  screened  separated  bromoform  from  these  (column  into  heavy  2.9)  for  and  2, light  point-count  ana l y s i s . Twenty for  the  counts  light  and  both  counts  2.  less  fied,  probably  column Cliff  were p r e p a r e d , one  Approximately  and  heavy  were c a l c u l a t e d  300  mineral as  each  grain  thin-sections,  percentages  of  VI).  RESULTS  contained  than  and  consisted sample,  Table 5%  VI,  the  non-magnetic  rutile,  and  the  hematite.  hornblende  properties,  light  (Table  Concerning  zoisite,  minerals.  proportions  sample  was  thin-sections  heavy  w e r e made o n  and m i n e r a l total  eight  and  were of  chlorite  readily equal  whereas  Garnet,  all  have  rest,  zircon,  other  though  of  samples  The  column  unidenti-  epidote/cIino-  diagnostic  identified.  proportions  opaque  optical  augite/diopside  both  minerals  contained  for  roughly  the 75%  diops i de. No types bulk  of of  attempt  was  quartz,however, the  column.  made  to  glassy  differentiate plutonic  MlcrocrystalIine  and  the  material  various made  chalcedonic  up  the  quartz  43.  varieties  were  generally  highly  so  grouped  in  altered  the to  chert  sericite  both  K-felspar  and  plagioclase  column.  Muscovite  and  biotite  mineral  thin-sections;  together,  giving  headed  "U"  ered of  by  in  the  these  the  counting,  3.  Mlneralogic  least  two  the  cycles First  materials,  grey  from  VI,  Table  thus  occurs and  8b),  nation  of  the is  in  the  the  minerals,  altered  kaolinite, under  light were  one  and  heavy  thus  added  column.  The  column  minerals  not  consid-  fragments;  a  large  proportion  felspars.  of  an  its  Associations  glaciofluvial  material in  latter  this  clay  and  have  exposed  other  It  a  contact  of  the  a  higher  is  been  in  sedimentary  therefore affected  evidence  high  alteration  and  these  product  sand,  outwash.  by  at  silt  and  The  latter,  mica  and  somewhat  less  quartz,  the  outwash  Brown  clay,  two of  cliff  of  that  competency.  between  "parent"  proportion  magnetite,  fine  two  g I a c i o f Iuvia I  textural  very  all  study.  sediments  a comparison  had  for  outwash  deposition.  particularly  medium at  the  contains  supporting  porting  and  considered  that  minerals,  clay  provided  environments apparent  in  were  DlSCUSSION  Grey cliff,  probably  possibly  from both  shown  rock  Felspars  determined  occurred  unknown and  were  (a)  the  figures  and  were  grain-counts  includes  grains  column.  materials  tbe  grey  clay  heavy  transwhich (Plates  clay.  fractions  8a  Contamiby  the  overlying VI  and  g I ac i o f l u v i a I  VII,  nature.  although  The b o u l d e r ,  approximately inclusions the  are  contact  from Its  9  outwash  its  in  contained  with  brown  is  in  clay  during  very  fine  sand  fraction  from  the  outwash  except  while  the  clay,  grey  components  an  A  large  therefore  initial  stages  which  rolled  was  in  belies  mudball, number  Tables its  true  measured  of  these  outwash  close  probably  of  noticeably  mica,  being  content  gIaciof Iuvia I  and  is  apparent  unarmoured  diameter.  the  mineral  readily  low m a g n e t i t e  which  inches  is  originated  outwash  deposition.  deficient most  to  in  likely  all derived  along  glacial  stream  Shoe  Creek  d i f f e r e d very  Only  zircon  channels. The from  the  trations  sample  c l i f f were  from Lost  outwash increased  sample. as  a  result  of  and  recent  mica  little  concen-  fluvial  pro-  cesses. Of material (NWR-2a), small is  the  three  affected and  by  the  the  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  large  proportion  magnetic more  diopside, during  thus  winter  waves  two  It  also  is  chapter  during  regime  made  the on  up a  the  one  (NWR-2b, very  of  such  as  high  energy  regime  deposited NWR-2c).  fine  and  proportion  garnet,  for  nonthe  and  environment  ECONOMIC G E O L O G Y ,  a  of  zircon  by  NWR-2a  sand,  magnetite  high  represents  winter  material  little  contains  minerals  reflecting  studied,  represent  summer  which  heavy  (see  samples  exceedingly  of  opaques.  resistant  large  other  waves.during  beach  prevalent  gold  con-  centration  lected fs  in  this  The  very  between  generally  differences. and  OS-16,  felspar zircon shows  These  group the  shows  cliff.  group  where  the  sample  and  other high  minerals beach on  heavy  as  ECONOMIC  well, at  high  thus  samples  shows with  a  a  is  to  latter  from  near  and  is  fathom  the  the  by  mineral  the  of  The  swash flow;  magnetite  other  hand  other  level  to  general  laminar  presence of  bathymetric  high  for  OS-4.  enriched with the  in  compared the  and  In  shore.  ratio  as  low p r o p o r t i o n on  OS-k  miles.  from  1.0  NWR-2b  OS-k  B-19,  decrease  the  predominantly a  significant  relatively  away  foreshore  suggesting  20  few  NWR-2c,  departures  Sample  content  this  a  has  a  heavy  relict  (see  chapter  GEOLOGY). Long  environment  Wreck  movement  magnetite  a  col-  trough,  8 nautical  further  0.5  samples  offshore  samples,  about  upper  minerals.  group  five  diopside)/hornblende  with  the  about  beach  significant  from  the for  starting  therefore contains  placer  energy  the  from  occur  water  The  in  increase  composition  limit,  and  (augite+  taken  the  of  NWR-2b,  of  impoverishment  The most  was  include  material,  for  and  apart  distance  content;  the an  former  very  a  concentration  Furthermore,  foreshore  samples  c l i f f  progressive  composition  consistent,  cover  mica  sand  upper  quite  to  and  fine  the  and  comparison  region).  Bay,  i.e.  Beach  sample  similar from  concentration of  the  to  was  that  collected  r e p r e s e n t e d by  backshore.  non-magnetic  from  Although  opaque  it  minerals  a  high  sample  NWR-2a  contains and  a  46. (augite the  + c!:oPside),  light  felspar  mineral  than  perhaps  cliff  material,  amount (low  of  c1 i f f  Wreck  reflect or  c l i f f  high  blende it  This  this  (Krumbein  An extreme  be  weight,  a  and  due  the  opaque  In outwash  to  and  grey  of  been  the  and  These in  the  from  In  more  differ"parent"  relatively  eroded  of  of  most  latter  and  small  Long  represent Their  contain  their  Beach  An  it  is < l ,  sediment  of  mineralogic  exception +  to  and  for is  Wya  in  a  concentration the  and their  diopside)/horn-  movement  diopside  deposition  low m a g n e t i t e  (augite  resistant  three  Point southat  Wya  minerals  1938). point  regarding  magnetite,  minerals the  samples  Point  increased  interesting  (b)  magnetite.  quartz  variation  conditions.  with  that  Pettijohn,  the  Point  Quisitis  suggests  result  less  concentrations.  occurs  variability  non-magnetic  has  similar,  opaque  being  and  in  environment.  result  that  Wya  quite  for  direction  Point,  may  are  ratios;  a  wave-energy  uniformity  is>3.  east  and  non-magnetic  general  contains  marine  are  sparse  Ie).  high  compositions  it  compositional  material  profi  extremely  relatively  Bay  else  Quisitis by  is  fraction,  the  ences  it  in  and  the  VI,  apparent  different  presentation, % by  Table  the  is  the  uniformity samples.  former  being  of  This %  by  counts,  Provenance general, clay  are  sediments well  composing  reflected  by  the rocks  glaciofluvial exposed  kl.  inland  from Wreck  magnetite until  Bay.  occurrences  recently  instrumental  by  in  probably  from  have  andesites  Batholithic amounts clude  the  formed of  of  the  plagioclase  and  epidote  in  other  highly to  on  the  the to and  and  most  pebbles  and  shape,  mostly with  with  the  roughly  altered  sericite,  and  equivalent  minerals The  to  in-  felspars  allophane,  clinozoisite  1968).  discoidal  jasper,  These  Group  chlorite.  beach  can  usually  composition,  with  epidote  area.  common  were  iron-oxides  Quatsino  contains  mined  and  the  contact  secondary  altered  porphyritic  correlated  the  in  generally  but  in  dioritic  are  in  and  other  diopside  particle  c o r re IateabIe  canics,  and  and  to  and  spheroidal  deposits  according  invariably  Fine  these  of  latter  generally  found  are  Group.  biotite  doubt  zones  lie  felspar,  (/Eastwood,  p e t r o I o g i c a I Iy  chalcedony  The  was  Garnet,  Group  seven  which  magnetite  skarn  described  one o f  No  argil lite  somewhat  Gravel  be  and  orthoclase  of  many  Intrusions.  and  consist  the  Bonanza  quartz  of  Mines. the  has  (1968)  area,  outwash.  where  hornblende,  consist  the  providing  in  zones  in  Brynnor  now c o n t a i n e d came  Eastwood  Kennedy  consist  of  shape.  basic  and  the  quartz  and  indurated  sediment,  the  Group  Tofino  and  in  shape,  pebbles commonly  Karmutsen  irregular  greyish-brown Quatsino  Cobbles  volcanics,  from  usually vein  Coarse  shape,  derived  are  classified  ellipsoidal  in  amygdaloidal likely  and  Batholith.  ellipsoidal  granules  and  size  be  to  some  vol-  which  Greywacke  can Unit.  48.  Poi n t - c o u n t Ana1ys!s  X - r a y Di f f r a c t i o n Ana l y s i s  Envi ronment  LSC-6 C- 1  C- 1  C-2 C-3 C-2 C-3 C-4  1 •  C-5  LOST  SHOE  GREY  CLAY  CREEK  GLACIOFLUVIAL OUTWASH  C-6  C-6 C-7  C-2  C-2  BROWN C L A Y  BOULDER  BOULDER  BOULDER  } }  NWR-2a NWR-2D NWR-2c  OS-II O S - 12 O S - 13 O S - 14 OS-16 OS-17  OS-16  OS-18  .  CLIFF (Map 1)  .  BEACH (Map 1 )  .  OFFSHORE (Map 2 )  FORESHORE (Map  1 )  SAND  OS-4  ^  MUD  J  j  LB-4  LONG  QP-4  QUISITIS  WP- l b  WYA  BEACH  POINT  (Map  POINT  2) (Figure  (Figure  5)  r  Table  V.  5)  BERM  BAY  B - 19  (Figure  Samples c o n s i d e r e d i n p o i n t - c o u n t and X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n analyses. Sample l o c a t i o n s a r e i n d i c a t e d by r e f e r e n c e t o maps a n d figures.  5)  49. Samp 1e Number  Envi ronment  %  bv  (62.5 -  weiaht  125/0  MAGNETITE  in  s i z e f r a c t i o n (62.5 - 125/0 in sample size fraction LOST  6.5  1,7  30.3 16.6  -  10.4  7?V  34.4  35,3  2.7  2.7  7,2  2.5  21,1 29,0  .3  14.4  3. 1 46.8  31.9  ..7  4.4  4.2  8,6  2.0  28,9 20,2  2,9  13.8  5.0  41,9  29.4  1.3  .9  3.1  3,7  8.4  2.4  29.7 19.2  1.3  19.3  3. 1 42.9  27.0  7.2  .2  .2  1.6  .2  .2  2.7  12.3 14.0  -  11.7  5.4  31.1  56.6  19,0  2.4  2.4  3.0  4.2  2.2  ,8  34.0 15.2  .4  6.8  1.8  24.2  41,8  .94  9.0  .3  1.9  2.8  3.6  4,7  1.6  23.9 24.8  .9  8.8  1.7  36.2  39.8  8.75  2.85  8.3  1.8  1.4  3.2  3,4  5,2  2,8  26. 1 26,2  1.2  7. 1  ,8  35.3  38.7  12.02  2.22  7.8  .8  I.I  3.0  5.7  4.6  2. 1 25. 1 27.9  2. 1  7.4  2.8  40.2  35,0  OS-4  21.22  10.49  10.2  3.0  .2  4.7  6.7  6,3  2,0  33. 1 23,8  1.0  6.9  1.2  32.9  33.5  OS- 16  15,10  1,6!  7.2  .6  ,6  3.5  5.4  5,4  3,5  26.2 29,4  2,3  5.6  2.7  40.0  34, 1  LB-4  3.98  3.82  14.8  .5  4.1  6.9  5,5  4,9  37,8 15,9  .5  10.4  1.4  28.2  33.8  QP-4  1  .67  1 1.2  -  .7  3. 1  3.5  4,8  4,4  27,7 16,5  c9  7.9  1.8  26. 1 46.1  WP-lb  7.35  .91  15.3  . 1  . 1  4.2  6,2  2.0  2,8  30,7 17,6  .5  9. 1  1.5  28.7  5.17  8.4  .9  CLAY  C-l  10.70  .84  5.0  .9  OUTWASH  C-6  3.75  5.47  7.7  1.3  BKOWN  C-2  13.40  .89  9.9  16.85  -  NWR-2a  .02  15.0  NWR-2b  4.22  NWR-2c  BOULDEK  B EACH  B- 19  BAY  OFFSHORE  BEACH  QUISITIS  POINT  POINT  U  5.9  .04  CLAY  HBLD„  5.6  LSC-6  CLI FF<  WYA  Heavy M i n e r a l s GARNET Z l RCON E P I D O T E A U G I T E + + C L I N O Z O Dl O P S  CHEEK  SHOE  GKEY  LONG  NON-MAG. OPAQUES  % bv c o u n t s Total Total! L i q h t Mi n e r a s " MUSCOV. CHLOhlTE QUARTZ CHERT K - F E L S + + PLAGIO, B l OTITE  ,22  1  1,3 . 1  I.I  1  Tab 1 e VI.  P e t r o g r a p h y o f v e r y f i n e Sand from Fourteen Related Environments. U e q u a l s unknown M i n e r a l s , Rock F r a g m e n t s , and M i n e r a l S p e c i e s not Cons i d e r e c L  40.7  50.  C.  X-RAY  DIFFRACTION I .  LABORATORY  Chemical trough  samples  soluble (pH = H2®2  "  sodium  pre-treatment  were  Oxidizable  the  fractions  from  each  was  little  Carbonates  by  and  digesting  in  was  removed  isolated  for  later  citrate,  and  other NaOAc  with  30%  analysis, slowly  by  adding  -  (<0.2yu a n d  20.0yuand  except fine  the  20.0  cliff  material,  0.2  2.0^),  62.5/0  -  outwash  so  -  total  and  were  isolated  samples.  clay  and  two  The  latter  total  silt  i so I a t e d . The  was  clay  K-saturated,  oriented 550°C,  slides  and  solution, mounted  the and  in  each  sample  removed  by  of  both  X-rayed  holders  and of  determined a  weight  fraction  known  again.  X-rayed silt  follows: weight  percent. was  the  with  clay, as  split  Mg-saturated.  glycerated  were  then  materials,  proportion  its  were  other  these  screening  size  the  latter  was  determining this  fractions  and  powder The  in  offshore  matter  sodium  f ractions  (2.0  sample,  contained  and  D  Two c l a y silt  18 c l i f f  removed  was  with  on  following;  organic  iron  samples  dithionate  the  initially  Extractable  buffering  PROCEDURE  involved  salts  5.0).  ANALYSIS  of  a  two,  After  former 1:10 Silts  was  one  half  X-raying heated  to  gIycerine:water were  simply  once. and  very  Very  fine  original  Magnetite  ascertained  in  as  weight  fine  sand  sand sample  in  was and  percentage  described  in  the  51.  point-count <62.5yu.was and  these  these  analysis  (Table  separated were  made  suspensions  evaporated  to  tages  then  were  into up  solutions Elmer  obtained  Model  303  iron-oxides amorphous  by  was  centrations  Total mined and  on  the  (Table  a  Leco  average  found  again.  in  which  Induction values  fractions,  50.0  (Figure from  coatings  per  iron  percen-  lechate on  a  includes  expressed  or  as  weight  free and  The  (Table  sample  The  crystalline  carbonate,  Each  Perkin  grains,  extraction.  million  of  6).  the  on  ml  crucibles,  Spectrophotometer.  Furnace.  are  silt  pre-treatment,  chemical  parts  material  The w e i g h t  interlayer  the  and  proportion  chemical  in  the  weighed  determined  little  carbon,  X-RAY  Cu  VII). was  was  con-  deter-  run  twice,  percentages  degrees/minute The were  ANALYSIS  radiation  1 degree/minute  tive  into  non-crystalline  Very  clay  of  VII). 2.  2  was  gms  suspensions.  out  Absorption  included  were  litre  simple  during  include  I  weighed  iron  Atomic  oxides.  iron-oxide  and  20.0  various  pipetted  dryness,  Extractable  the  into  were  found  VII).  for  the  for  identified  clays,  the  principal  was  used and  from from  3 - 3 0 3 - 6 0  degrees degrees  20 29  at at  silts. clay  using  minerals  the  and  following  a mixed-layer  deriva-  criteria:  o lllite  -  insensitivity  Montmori I l o n o i d  of  its  I OA p e a k  (montmori I I o n i t e +  to  a I I  t reatments.  vermiculite)  -  expansion  52.  of  its  lapse  \k%  peak  to  Vermiculite  on  -  of  collapse  (Lavkulich, -  -  18$ o n  a  12.2  -  room-temperature  partial  Chlorite  17  glyceration,  and  col-  the  K-  This  is  heating.  presence  saturated, •to  to  1970,  from  of  peak  on  diffractogram.  loss  personal  insensitivity  12.6$  of  interlayer  due  water  communication).  its  IkA  peak  to  all  treatments.  o Kaolinite  -  collapse  of  its  Montmori I l o n o i d / c h l o r i t e on  7A  mixed  glyceration,  and  peak  on  layer  heating.  -  expansion  collapse  to  I 1.0  to -  15.5  -  I 1.2A  on  heat i ng. Kaolinite by  X-ray  peak  at  analysis,  is as  7$ c o i n c i d e n t  vestigation,  not the  easily latter  with  kaolinite  the  distinguished possesses  kaolinite  presence  was  a  from  chlorite  second-order  7A p e a k .  established  For  basal  this  based  on  in-  the  o degree  of  7A p e a k  heated  to  550°C.  negligible presence. in who  the  Slight  kaolinite, Confirmatory  when  the  K-saturated  collapse  was  taken  whereas  at  it  in  the  a  number  of  was  obtained  accomplished by  was  for  the  by  different  comparing  by  road of  the  treatments.  No  was  indicating indicated of  from  a  its  kaolinite  Bhoojedhur  collected  evaluation  slide  existence  obtained  samples  as  collapse  the  Tofino-AIberni-UcIueIet  Semi-quantitative tions  complete  evidence  g I a c i o f Iuvia I outwash  found  quarry  collapse,  (1969),  gravel  junction. clay  four  mineral  propor-  diffractograms  definite  percentages  53. were c a l c u l a t e d m a i n l y b e c a u s e o f  the d i v e r s i t y of  o b t a i n e d from d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s  ( P i e r c e and S i e g a l ,  A p r i o r i t y s y s t e m d e v i s e d by L a v k u l i c h stead  (Table  VII).  Silts  for t h e i r mineralogic 3.  contains  silty  This  this material overlies  C o m p o s i t i o n a I Iy, grey c l a y rich  (Figure  the s i l t  the outwash  (Table VII). 7),  amphibole, with  Its  lesser  i n samples  C-2  n a n t l y c h l o r i t e i n samples  the grey c l a y is  in these  f r a c t i o n is  amount o f  in the grey C-l  and C - 3 ,  however,  conta-  than  the  i I l i t e and k a o l i n i t e ; mainly of mica  clay  and  epidote,  is  also  predomi-  b u t s a m p l e C-2 the s i l t  f a i r l y rich  con-  fraction the grey  clay  in mixed-layer  and c o n t a i n no v e r m i c u l i t e a t a l l ; o f f s h o r e show e x a c t l y t h e o p p o s i t e  and  typically chlorite-  c o n t a i n s m i c a and a l i t t l e m a g n e t i t e . As a g r o u p , are both  more  areas,  a l s o more c o n s i s t e n t  r e l a t i v e l y more montmori I l o n o i d ;  material,  is  and C - 3 ,  quantities of magnetite,  and g I a c i o f I u v i a I o u t w a s h  equal  by g I a c i o f I u v i a I o u t w a s h ^  shown) c o n s i s t s  d i o p s i d e and c h l o r i t e . C l a y  tains  s m a l l , roughly  indicates  is probably a result of  clay  with a f a i r  f r a c t i o n (not  in Figure 6  G r e y c l a y on t h e o t h e r hand  in t e x t u r e , being i n sample. C - I .  material  m i n a t i o n o f t h e f o r m e r two s a m p l e s since  in-  RESULTS  o f c l a y and s i l t .  clay-rich  ( 1 9 6 8 ) was e m p l o y e d  content.  t h a t g l a c i o f l u v i a l outwash  variable  1969).  were s i m p l y examined q u a l i t a t i v e l y  Examination of c l i f f  amounts  results  relationship.  samples  54.  Brown adjacent  to  it  clay  (Figure  no m o n t m o r i I l o n o i d clay  sample  The  the  very  tain  than  more  clay  fine  sand,  abundant  mica.  as  clay  it  to  silt  6).  silt  proportions  decrease  out  into  the trough.  This  t o 60  cI ay m i n e r a l o g y being  ficant,  6).  at  silt  sample  samples  show  garnet,  landward  ones  7).  Other  t h e same  epidote have  closely  found  twice  textural  from  the trough  exhibit  in the  possesses for con-  as  much  trend  Both  0S-I4  " s i l l "  axis  area  deepens  O S - 1 6 (Map 2 ) . T h e  t h e same  trend,  0S-I4  and samples  west  more montmori I l o n o i d - r i c h clay trend  in  clay  sample  from a broad  components (Table  and c a l c i t e ,  diopside  more  evident.  location  has  grey  fractions  about  a distinct  here,  of  indicated  A s was  contain  came  fraction  texture,  is  clay  material.  progressively  progressively  (Figure  but s t i l l  contain  mica.  in  locations  sample  from  these  becoming  chlorite-poor  more  of  As  7K  c h l o r i t e - r i c h and m o n t m o r i I l o n o i d - p o o r ,  from here  all  geographic  fathoms  all  clay  component  parent  sandy  However,  and  gradually  its  the grey  corresponds  (Figure  samples  and west  its  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  to  50 f a t h o m s ,  (Figure  composition  relation  at  than  the major  although  offshore  their  it  does  clay  silt  Furthermore,  to  than  (Figure  more  VII),  its  boulder,  The silt  (Table  analysis,  the outwash,  relatively  6)„  C-2 adjacent  point-count to  contains  are  VII).  less The  and signi-  silts  and i n a d d i t i o n ,  and t h e seaward  ones  have  the  55; Clays  reported  coarse  fractions.  crease  in  except  for  total  the  different  the  Magnetite  rich  offshore  iron  and  general  way,  offshore  in  c l i f f  rock  position  of  quartz they  occur  flower  in has  size  sample  trough,  OS-14  suggestion the  locus  time.  Clay  transported and  and  that of  generally  less  in  more  of  more  the  felspar  are  always clays.  contributed  the  is  intermediate,  of  in-  for  outwash  and  Extractable  differentiation,  and  fine  analysed  characterized  magnetite,,  contains  some  chlorite,  g I a c i o f 1uvia I is  the  showed  was  sand  clay  are  over  which  fine  grey  poor  VII,  but  the  in  a  former,  and  latter. constitute  present This  in  the  bulk  coarse  indicates  significantly  of  clays,  that to  the  com-  fractions.  Pi S C U S S i ON  Considering offshore  very well;  is  contains  these  k.  very  material  material,  invariably  glacial  the  show  Table  montmori I l o n o i d  magnetite,  Finally,  and  in  carbon  material  silt-sized  of  environment  total  in  g i a c i o f Iuvia I outwash,  environments  relatively  and  (<0„2,u)  clays  proportion  the  clay.  Fine  above,  and  also  the  cliff  the  broad  maximum  and  the  silt  fine  it  the  settles  of  " s i l l "  area  sediment  by  clay  mineraiogic  g I a c i o f Iuvia I  material  southeastwards  presumably,  distribution  from  from  silt  similarity outwash, the  the  nearshore  suspension  at  leads  in  the  to  the  present  is  surface  the  represents  the  c l i f f  in  between  trough  deposition  eroded the  in  and  initially  current,  vicinity  of  56. the s i l l . al  A n e a r - b o t t o m c u r r e n t has been f o u n d by G r o s s e t  ( 1 9 6 9 ) , t o move s l o w l y w e s t w a r d s  i t s head, which would silt  account  in this direction.  towards  f o r t h e d e c r e a s e i n c l a y and  It also explains  montmoriIlonoid/ c h l o r i t e  ratio  the increase o f the  i n a westerly direction,  montmori I l o n o i d p a r t i c l e s a r e s m a l l e r remain  along the trough  i n size  i n suspension longer ( L a v k u l i c h ,  since  t o c h l o r i t e and  1968, p e r s o n a l commu<-  ni c a t i o n ) . Other f a c t o r s s u p p o r t i n g t h e p r o p o s i t i o n  that the  s i I I a r e a r e p r e s e n t s t h e l o c u s o f maximum p r e s e n t - d a y  sedimen-  tation are: Of a l I t h e o f f s h o r e s a m p l e s , OS-14 i s u n i q u e c o n t a i n s some m i x e d - l a y e r c l a y of the c l i f f  material  i n that i t  - a characteristic  component  (Table V I I ) .  S a m p l e s OS-14 a n d OS-13 h a v e t h e most t o t a l  carbon o f o f f -  shore trough samples, suggesting i n t r o d u c t i o n o f carbonate from sample in  OS-9 (Map 2 ) , w h i c h c o n t a i n e d 5 0 % s h e l l - h a s h  i t s composition. A l t h o u g h k a o l i n i t e has been found  sediments due  i n ancient  marine  ( G r i m , 1958), i t i s c h e m i c a l l y u n s t a b l e i n seawater  to the a l k a l i n i t y  (pH = 7.5 - 8.4) a n d h i g h c a t i o n  tration  ( G r i m , 1968. D i a g e n e t i c a l t e r a t i o n o f t h i s  mineral  may a c c o u n t  concen-  clay  f o r i t s apparent decrease i n the o f f s h o r e  s a m p l e s , and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e o f v e r m i c u l i t e and montmori I l o n o i d s  ( T a b l e V I I ) . Other c o n t r i b u t i n g  sources o f  57. montmori I l o n o i d in  the c l i f f ,  southeast  to  the o f f s h o r e  and p o s s i b l y  a  result  clay, of  the b a s a l t i c  c o r n e r o f Wreck B a y , Brown c l a y of  in  numerous  hair-line  montmoriIlonoid  sionally  permeating  clay  through  would p r o d u c e t h e s e c r a c k s , iron-oxide content of apparently  centric of  large  locally sections  tallized  cracks  binding  cracks  as  i n brown c l a y  contained  shown by  the u n i t  into  cemented  (15.6  low,  together  lying  in  to  free  to  for  (Plate  con-  A number have  Iy  below  is  very poorly  crys-  peaks,  however,  responsible  originally  i r o n - o x i d e has  8b).  the c o n t a c t ,  certainly  it  free  Alteration  shown by d a r k  broad d i f f r a c t o g r a m  when  the h i g h  8a).  the b o u l d e r  almost  occa-  gravels  stratigraphicaI  (Plate  as  collapse  water,  ppm).  iron-oxide  clay  the  grey  and  outwash  account  the g I a c i o f 1uvia I outwash.  became  Subsequently,  resulted  in  for  incorpoalteration  its  weakly  state.. D.  GENERAL STRATIGRAPHY OF THE "PARENT" MATERIAL  Grey c l a y as  the o v e r l y i n g and a l s o  in the  expansion  Meteoric  sub-parallel  u n a l t e r e d grey  of magnetite  fied  synerisis  component.  free  extending  resulted of  abundant  f l o w between  b e l i e v e d to o r i g i n a t e  t h e brown c l a y  c o h e s i v e p r o p e r t y was  rated  is  clay  Beach.  p r o c e d e d i n t e r m i t t e n t l y as  rings of  Clay  its  and P o c k e t  the c l i f f  are the grey  lava  w h i c h would be formed by a l t e r n a t e  its  has  environment  in the c l i f f  gIacioIacustrine  has  in o r i g i n  CLIFF  been t e n t a t i v e l y  (Map  I),  due to  the  classi-  58. presence because total  of of  ice-rafted the  carbon  dicates  Griggs  dated  at  and  pebbly  clay  21,000  years  dating.  and  is  on  Barkley B.E.B.  the  foraminifera  pebbly  of  the  contained  1968).  The  grey  clay  apparently  wide  areas,  during years that  depressions  *  See  final B.P.  the  base,  off  1970,  to  therefore which  where  g I a c i o f Iuvia I outwash retreat  of  Cross-bedding  material  GLOSSARY  was  the in  Vashon the  of  with  have  Canada  the  from the  it  weak  by  (Plate the  of c'^  been and  in  found  that Sound  "diamicton"  estuarine top  (Anderson,  distribution was or  probably  ice-sheet,  from  either  from B a r k l e y  that  was  -  communication).  near  were  cliff  transported  17,000  Island  limited  suggests  Washington  determined  ranging  a  clay  "diamicton"  however,  species  environ-  pebbly  material  sample  currents  in-  clay  is  Survey  has  sulphides,  Fuca o f  age  species;  marine  a  personal  single  low  the  Vancouver  foraminifera  at  The  a  were m a r i n e  contained the  its  a  off  grey  similar  shelf  in  de  the  Geological  species  isolated  until  Carter,  described  Juan of  of  of  also  Its  an o x y g e n a t e d  shelf  and  exposure.  r e p o r t e d on  of  Correlation  (Barr,  1970),  clay  Strait  its  absence  the  has  composition,  of  in  have on  occurrences  Cameron  (Carter,  B.P.,  continental  Sound  extent  (1969)  impossible  Patchy  its  apparent  (1968)  the  B.P.  in  productivity  years  from  areal and  Kulm  Anderson  units  found  content,  37,000  coast,  these  limited  low o r g a n i c  ment.  pebbles  deposited  in  absent. deposited  12,500 9a)  over  -  14,000  indicates  mountainous  hinter-  59.  land raI  northeast variation  Long  Beach  it  Wreck  Bay  north  end o f  and  it  cobbles  Wreck  Bay,  at  different  is  exposed of  Kennedy  Lake  with  of  this  by  exposure  a  in  a  it  was  quarry  just  sandy  of  Griggs extent  of  late  a  and  shelf  glaciers  Holocene  sion  across  distribution relict the  explained oceanic  the of  sediments  present by  foot  Kulm  off  continental  on  study, the  currents  times,  banks the  along  character  composition  of  existent  the  at  has  along the of the  part  (Plate  being  at  Retreat  accompanied  sediments  in  origin,  Island.  shelf,  complex,  indicated  as  by  the  outer  shelf.  recent cliff  inner  as  at at  the  deposexhibited  Here, by  a  and  cross-  wedge-  this  in  9b). the  maximum  the  edge  of  in  the  transgresthe  shelf, As  material,  of  these  sediments  time.  of  boulders  sealevel  resulted  present  and  T h e mode o f  till  have  glaciers  Vancouver  recent  of  sand,  Ucluelet.  marine  layer  (I9&9)  of  overlain  probable  Pleistocene  continental in  3  is  nort  fine  textu-  end  sub-angular  quite  shaped  c o v e r e d by  of  by  north  50% g r a v e l ,  probably  outwash  is  consists  the as  matrix.  gIaciof Iuvia I  turn  quarry  little  bedded  deposit  road  supported  Near  approximately  relatively  material  a contention  locations.  in  consists  ition an  of  present and  shown is and  in  well by  the  60. Envi ronment  Sampie Number  r  < GREY  CLAY  <  CLI FF <J GLACIOFLUVIAL OUTWASH J  BROWN CLAY  ( 0 . 2 - 2.0>L) I L L I T E IMONTMOKI L L - VERMIC- CHLORITE ONOID ULITE  .84  5.2  .6  JU /\  C--  18, 10  ,66  4.0  .2  •JL> /V  C-3  9,30  .75  4. -4  .6  *  C-2  5,60  , 16 ,  10.4  .5  •k  C-3  2.40  1 „ 03  6.1  .1  C-4  1.90  2,34  3.6  -  C-5  2.65  3 = 58 .  4.2  -  C-6  3.75  5.47  2.7  .1  C-7  3.00  3. I'8  3.8  1.6  ** ** **  C-2  13.40  .89  15.6  .1  **  16.85  -  9.4  .2  **  1.2  ,4  BOULDER  ,  OS- 1 i  66.00  .26  OS- I 2  51,40  . 19  13  46 .CO  .46  ;  O S - 14  24.40  •55  :  OS-  OFFSHORE < MUD  C o a r s e C 1ay  10,70  C-i  1  r  we Jqht TOTAL IfrZ.b - I 2 5 AF MAGNETlTE in tXTRACTs i z e f r a c t i o ri (62.5 - 125/0 ABLE IRON CARBON % i n sample s i z e f r a c t i o r, ( p . p . m . ) %_ b y  OS- 16  15. 10  ;  .  •kick  **  it  ickick  Pr  k-k  Pr  Pr  kkk  Pr  Pr  ***  Pr  Pr  kick  Pr  Pr  •kick  Pr  Pr  kicks  Pr  ickk  Pr  Pr  ***  Pr  Pr  **  *  **  *  -ki;  **  k-k  4.8  •1.9  **  Pr  1.61  2.7  .7  **  k-k  .7  **  •k-k  .9  **  63,80  .27  O S - 18  54.90  .36  2.7  J a M e J / N ^  •k  •ki-  **  * **• •kit  ** * ** ** ** **  k*  1.3  2.5  Pr  k-kk  3.9 |  Pr  Pr  ***  2.7  O S - 17  LEGEND ( L a v k u l i t c h , 1968): Pr = 0 - 10% ( p r e s e n t ) = ! I - 20% ( t r a c e ) =21 - 40% ( m i n o r ) = 4 1 - 60% (major) k-k-k-k = 61 - 1 0 0 % ( d o m i n e n t )  Pr  KAOLINI TE MONTMORILLONOID/ CHLORIDE  •k-k  k-k  •k  k  k  Pr  Pr Pr  •kick  Pr  Pr  kir-k  Pr  *  •kick  * *  Pr  Pr  Pr  C o a r s e C l a y M i n e r a l o g y and o t h e r P r o p e r t i e s o f t h e C l i f f and Offshore Trough Environments.  Pr  |  61  SIZE &  DISTRIBUTION OFFSHORE  OF  CLIFF  SAMPLES  fj CLAY brown clay  QSILT GRAVEL + SAND mudball  :  5 0  o  / c  C2 -..  C3C1"  C4 C2'-.. C5  C6-  C7  OS10'  OS11"  OS12" of f s h o r g ..-- O S 13 OS 14 "OS 18  •6S17 F I G U R E  OS15L  ...-OS16  62 FIGURE  7  |C2 OUTWASH]  X - r a y d i f f r a c t o g rams o f M g - g I y c e r a t e d c o a r s e c l a y (0.2 -2.0/0. M = montmorillonoid, C = c h l o r i t e , I = i I l i t e , . K - C = kaoIi n i te, c h l o r i t e , and Q-l = q u a r t z , i l l i t e .  63.  Plate  8a.  C o n t a c t between grey c l a y and o v e r l y i n g glaciof l u v i a l o u t w a s h . Brown c l a y o c c u r s b e t w e e n t h e s e h o r i z o n s , and a l s o a l o n g c r a c k s e x t e n d i n g into the grey c l a y . Note g r a v e l f i l l e d scour channel in t h e c l a y , and t r u n c a t e d c r o s s - b e d d i n g in the g I a c i o f I u v i a I outwash.  Plate  8b.  C l o s e - u p view o f the c o n t a c t a r e a marked i n s e t on P l a t e 8a. C o n c e n t r i c a l t e r a t i o n can be seen i n t h e brown c l a y .  by rings  64.  Plate  9a.  Poorly defined cross-bedding outwash. C l i f f v i e w b e h i n d P r o f i l e D.  in  g I a c i o f Iuvia I  PI a t e  9b.  G I a c i o f I u v i a I o u t w a s h , p a r t i a l l y o v e r l a i n by a wedge o f b e a c h ? s a n d , and c o v - r e d by 3 f e e t of t i l l . Exposure in r o a d - q u a r r y j u s t n o r t h o f U c l u e l e t .  65. VI.  A.  SEDIMENT.SIZE  INTRODUCTION GiaciofIuvia  been all  other  silt  sedimentary  COUNT  their  on  X-RAY  undertaken dispersal  plished  exclusive  by  and  distributiom  on  thesis.  differences This  was  second  the  in  the  in  samples  pared  using  Small  samples  using  (also  their were  known  used  cliff  material  (see of  to  has for  heading  the  an  oceanic  present  the  clay  and  understanding  currents  the  investigation  pattern  the  this of  cliff„  (see  in  by  compared  the  sets the  was  principal  was  of  to  ten  plots. conducted  determine  samples  parameters histograms.  on  (see  study)  relat-  frequency  study  sediments  off-  accom-  of  was  sediment  the  of  parameter  regional  using  of  means  investigation  surficial  statistical  This  was  recent  properties  area  work  two  of  environment  textural  in  of  texture  accomplished  Large  of  two-dimensional  of  area  led  the  the  examination  environment,  The p u r p o s e  the  in  ANALYSIS).  the  part  beach  in  clay/silt  environments and  provided  regional  clay  clay  trough,  the  the the  grey  curves,  The  the  of  of  characterizing  sedimentary  entirely  part  determine  trough,  terms  DIFFRACTION  first  to  offshore in  grey  have  A detailed  the  distribution  The  shore  in  to  and  environments  ANALYSIS).  components  heading  ed  1 outwash  shown m i n e r a l o g i c a ; i y ,  POINT  of  ANALYSES  area  of  seasonal the  beach.  APPENDIX):  were  com-  66.  B.  METHODS I . A  study. from  In  the  SAMPLE total  profile  top  to  of  dry,  the  tion  was  largest to  100  large  these,  as  (2  then  to  on  the  considered  samples beach  (See  the  avoid  samples  the  were  formation  of  was  mm)  separate  to  l\  initially  through inch  the  as  mesh.  passed gravel.  many The  as  eleven  sand  and  10 m i n u t e s  on  a  shaker.  sieve  0.0625  al  in  analysis  of  than  0  this  sieves  cliff  1% o f  A  ranging  sample  the  total  material  fraction Weighings  MettIer  clean  crusts  on  from  a  Tyler frac-  screens,  the  then  was  reduced  sieved  interval  1.6.8  for of  quar-  mm ( - 0 . 7 5  0)  0).  one  of  Ro-Tap  with  mm ( 4 . 0  excess  4.0  Tyler  used,  Only  on  gravel  fraction  splitter,  to  out  saline  This  a multi-riffle  was  collected  through  on  phi  this  APPENDIX).  laid  gms  ter  were  in  PROCEDURE  sample  a  small  were  boxes.  sieved  having  samples  91  stations  collection  sample  sieve  to  rod  so  Each No.10  123  LABORATORY  After paper  of  addition  2.  COLLECTlON  was to  was  silt  sample  not  treated the  had  and  weight.  undertaken,  as  nearest  6.0 0.01  clay  0  size  materi-  Consequently, and  the  (Friedman, gm w e r e  done  smaller  1967). on  a  BaIance. 3.  STATISTICAL  A program  PARAMETERS  written  by  A.J.  AND  COMPUTER  Sinclair  and  PROGRAM J . Wilson  was  67. used  on  both  graphically  (Pierce and  Good  and  are:  an  IBr'  and  computer, (Folk,  calculate  1968)  differ  from  Mean  X n =  f(x|)  -  total  =  x;  =  weight  Standard  total  the  sediment  the  method  £ ,  formulae  defined  of  Friedman  (1961,  of  of  same  number s  S  k  Ku r t o s i s  of  =  size  class  size  class  size  percentiles  ^  =  u  sures out.  (Folk,  1968)  Frequencey  plots  produced  a  C.  were  REGIONAL  The  also  between  Calcomp  I.  for  distribution  dimensional by  parameters,  f  (  x  ?  )  (  x  plotter  DERIVATION ten  OF T Y P E  environments  2  -  for  (2)  *)  .....(3)  k  -  X)  ns  k  Sorting  in  the  the each  to  Coefficient  graphic  computer sample,  statistical  connected  SEDIMENTARY  j  X) J•?•....  f(x.)(x. i i  determining  various  -  4  Trask's  included  units  0  ns  y-  -  curves  in  f(xj)(xj  2"n £  =  K  neccessary  1967),  classes  1 = 1  and  Pierce  sample  single of  Deviation  these  by  ..(I)  k  to  moments  f(x;)xr  weight  Skewness  addition  of  the  k  In  parameters,  k  = midpoint  k =  by  those  I  where  and  1966). Some o f  Good,  (1966)  to  meaprint-  and  two-  parameters  were  the  computer.  PATTERN FREQUENCY considered  CURVES in  this  study  are  63. are  listed  in Table  vironments excess  were  (coarse  open  ended.  also  rejected from  fractions  ment  about  crom  o f Sand  Hill  in Table  VIII  mean,  i s apparent  that  Beach  means,  variable  i n mean  Frequency tained  from  individual  samples  the b e s t - f i t t i n g  vironment. moment  Emphasis  measures  fraction  curves  environment  were  (LB-2),  and  of  o f each  of  for  sample  environ-  of  MHT, MWL),  a r e well  size  averages  at t h e bottom  (berm,  the  (Map 2 ) .  and percentage  illustrated  plots  VIII)  with  within sample  that  Table  bay, off-  represented  environments  o f mean  in Figure  of individual statistical  by t h e a r e much  parameters  environment. used  selection  and s t a n d a r d  8 were o b -  samples.  the statistical  was t h e n  i n sample  percentages.  thus  size.  the average  (Table  sieve  were  (LB-3)  gravel-containing  t h e Calcomp  by comparing  environment  environments  whereas  c o n t a i n e d an  curves  dune  the variances  beach  these e n -  of the dispersion  It  and Long  they  are the arithmetic  As an i n d i c a t i o n  t h e average  Beach  Creek  parameters  from  in the f i r s t  a coastal  a n d a r e shown  average  of  t h e Long  determined,  shore  done  weight  were  VIII.  more  from  statistical  listed  since  and t h e frequency  a s o n e came  t h e mouth  VIII)  sample  gravel),  environment.  means  (Table  Two s a m p l e s  The  each  rejected  A number o f s a m p l e s  o f 5% o f t h e t o t a l  fraction  other  VIII.  T h i s was o f an  parameters  The frequency  to represent was b a s e d  deviation,  of curve  the en-  on t h e  and t h e s i z e -  69. 2.  MODAL  Curray tracing  the mixed  ly  thesis  modal  acteristics  ten  recent was  non-normal  differs  that  Curray's  sample  be  of  deductions  by  modal  truly  on  from the  the  reflect zons  that  these the  their  related  the  Essentialin  poly-  own  char-  curves  of  modes,  representing  curv3s  curves  (Figure  environments,  sedimentary  in  study  frequency  type  ten  Mexico.  The p r e s e n t  for  for  masses  components  retain  frequency  of  of  type  compared  regional  frequency  cliff  principal of  type  at  type the  principal  occurs  sediment  normal to  technique  pattern  a  can  8)  number be  made  comparisons.  Examination  from  the  in  Assuming  representative  The  the  (I960)  this  Gulf  parameters).  individual  to  of  the  tended  were  environments.  of  individual  environments  unknown  modes,  nts  sediments,  of  developed  distribution  sedirr  instead  outwash  first  (statistical  from  known  (I960)  geographic  highly his  ANALYSIS  1.0  one  mode  being  0  the  from Wreck  the  paleo-transport  are  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  -  coarse  frequency  progressively  location  (coarse  very  sample  becomes  sample  representing  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  individual  sampling  within  is  curve  C-2  medium  (Map  sand).  consecutively Bay  Formation,  direction the  same  five  poorly  sand  (0  curves  finer  This  and  to  defined -1.0  shows  at  is  C-7  (See  APPENDIX).  five  modes,  that  it  thought  to  stratigraphic  not  0).  southeastwards  I),and  higher  gIaciofIuvia I  an  hori-  indication  Not  however,  all the  of  samples size  70. range  of  sediment The  three  poorly  sand  range  with  the  all  of  tive  fineness  them  creek  material, the  sand  Creek, coarser stable The  beach  (Plate all  of  the  then  creek  (Figure  is the  beach to  medium  the  one  to  the  The  with  appeared  in  be  competency  transporting  this  but  only  The  rela-  present-day that  sparsity  the  to  a  than  reflected  medium  from  0).  indicates  the  free  which  of  fact  fine  type that  of  the  suspended  experienced all  by  correlatable  mode,  -3.0  competency  and  in  samples  principal  together  of  characterized  during  material  finer  envi ronment. (berm)  has  2.0  0)  one  close  sand  of  a principal  identical to  2.0  indicates The  material  that  concentrated  that  0.  The  that  as  a  in  of  Lost  absence  of  is  medium  Shoe of  modes is  and  storm  waves  from  deposit.  un-  proposed:  gravel  gravel  lag  the  material  model  winter  coarse  mode  this  layers  violent  except  to  following  alternating  suggesting  becomes  bed  is  thirteen  mode,  maximum  capable  consistent.  them b e i n g  outwash.  summer  that  of  (-2.0  less  8),  environment.  sedimentary  which  the  consists  23b),  mode  gIaciofIuvia I  a minor  than in  in  all  same  principal  (1.0  and  the  medium o f  is  principal  The  the  thaw  range  modes.  of  indicates  The  and  0),  possessed  during  2 0 out  the  gravel  curve  spring  than  2.0  samples  environment  the  the  water  Creek  had  observed  frequency  the  modes,  cliff  transport  transported sand  to  coarser  all  Shoe  defined  half  fluvial  Lost  (1.0  environment  from  the The  sand remove beach, backwash  71.  from  less  violent  fine  sand  ard  so  a berm o f  gravel.  As  another  berm  worked sonal most the  material medium  wave  foreshore*  downward  to  modes  very  between  1.0  and  and  cliff  finer  and  more  sorted  sands  ering  the  curve  of  it  must  ments. of  (see  and  of  transfer  out  similar, 2.0  the  and  They  do  the  near  upper  is  alternating  this  further  concept  of  a  Johnson  (1919).  tend  from  sea-  2 0  material  alfrom  These  (and  other  a very  contention in  is  areas  WRECK BAY these  thin  mode  cliff prism  indirectly affected  by  BATHYMETRY).  environments  in  beach  thus  support-  and  type  the by  induced  modern  very  well  consid-  frequency  frequency of  slightly  nearshore  supported wave  the  minor  become  area  the  top  the  unimodal,  sample on  to  to  size-graded  in  cliff  e n v i ronment  shore,  this  of  along  material  mentioned  of  heading  summer,  offshore  insignificance  beds  the  correspond  0 already  leptokurtic  of  to  wide  This  during  a mode of  and  coarse  by  extremely  as  backshore, the  heavy  section  removing  above  sand,  an  exist  deviations  fine  of  the  further  of  beach  rapid  from  extend over  the  boulder  even  coarse  environments.  "classical" pattern  this  suggestion  (MHT)  all  sediment  The  capable  foreshore.  are  the  the  Is  established  time  the  indicates  (berm)  ing  this  through  From b e a c h sediments  than  becomes  effect,  the  waves  decreases  conditions.  certainly cliff  finer  built,  in  storm  sand  size  is  So  wave  spring  curves),  coarser the  sedi-  "outcrop"  currents  The  small  range  of  (Table  VIII)  indicates  standard that  72.  extremely  uniform  hydrodynamic shore  regions.  environment  4.0  0),  The  type  8),  and  this  (Map  2).  Sample  ing  This  size  a  high  relict  mately  20  curve  0S-4  derived  from  3.0  4.0  and  contained but  a  between  sample but  0,  high  two  very other  coarse  Long  locally  mode Beach  of  this  is  unique  Point  that  range and  from  fine  (-•'0  ECONOMIC  to  no  (3.0  (see  level  0S-8 head-  an  the  excep-  presence -  approxi-  GEOLOGY).  typified  by  a  environment. a  (Figure  to  contain  to  minerals.  OS-I  0S-2  off-  small  sample  curve,  between  Sample  opaque  heading  The  mode  LB-5.  frequency  LB-4  minerals,  POINT-COUNT  compositional  relationship  exists. a principal  0),  which  has  to  3,0  because  mode no  probably  destruction  (2.0  mode  is  (see  therefore  wave  sand  principal  has  to  non-magnetic  magnetite  environments  sample  these the  heavy  suggesting  reflects  of  the  bathymetric  on  also  sand  samples  the o f f s h o r e  suggesting  environments,  derived minor  sand  to  fine of  found  in  concerning  from  in  content,  proportion  Quisitis  most  environment  LB-5,  little  very  prevail  m i n e r a l o g i c a 1 Iy  was  chapter  this  of  exists  and  at  Beach  point  obtained  examined  mineral  identical  thus  the  mode  was  (see  Long  relatively  ANALYSIS),  was  placer  fathoms  mode  contains  ANALYSIS),  beach  almost  small  minor  conditions  interesting  curve  heavy  The  a  energy  fraction  same  POINT-COUNT  An  is  frequency  tionally of  kinetic  of  of  0)  in  the  correspondence represents  the  to  proximity  to to  material  headland.  corresponds  close  coarse  A  very  the of  the  73.  type  sample  location  Only  sampler  with  the  QP-1  (QP-7) t o  and  Wreck  Bay  Wya  Point  QP-2  beach  this  possess  (berm)  environment principal  and  beach  (Figure  modes  (MHT,  8).  correlatable  MWL)  environ-  ments.  medium  sand  (1.0  to  (berm)  environment.  headland,  only  Wreck  Bay  sediments.  small  pocket  derived land. moving (see  beaches  from  This  a  nearshore  ANALYSIS). probably  on  2.0 Of  0) the  did  These at  current SEA  reflects  which  the  head o f  local  narrow  depression  very  along and  destruction  on  on  sand the  a  part  heading  of  top  (0  of  beach from by  which  gorges,  that  this  coarse  the  typified  a n d WP-3,  indications  CONDITIONS,  to  mode  collected  modes  w e r e WP-2  exists  mode o f  samples  possess  rock  a principal  corresponds  eleven  not  earlier  A minor  waves.  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  sand-filled  supports  chapter  energy  three  is  the  came  and of  this  from  WP-6,  the  head-  southeast of  the  coast  POINT-COUNT to  headland  -1.0 by  0) high-  74. Normal L O S T SHOE CREEK (LSC)  MEAN X  .40  CLI F F GLAC1OFLUV1AL OUTWASH (C) -1,10  BEACH BERM  to  Parallei  coast  1 BEACH MHT  BEACH MWL  BAY  (3)  CFF:-;;3RE (CS)  LONG (LB)  1.36  2.45  2.60  2,71  2.84  2.72  .71  .69  .56  .44  .34  .25  s  1.30  1.96  SKEWNESS  S. k  -.21  0.7  -.54  -2.21  -2.46  -2.38  -L37  "loll  KURTOSIS  K  .94  -.06  2.89  21.69  20.83  23.98  2 2 , 19  .47  -1.12  1.39  2.51  2.69  2.75  1.24  1.95  .65  .50  .30  -.13  -.02  -.09  -.19  1.08  .90  1. 1 1  MEAN  M  u  z  S T D . D E V , CT Sk  , 06  POINT  WYA (WP)  POINT  1.18  1.21  .67  ,26  -.69  ! 0 , 24  1. 1 i  2.96  2,85  2.73  .01  1.20  .29  ,27  .22  1.16  .62  - . 19  - . 19  .01  14  .06  ,18  1.26  1,55  1.63  1.51  1.03  GRAPHIC SKEWNESS  • i  coast  BEACH 0 U I S I 7 I S (CP)  STD.DEV. MOMENTS  to  1 KURTOSIS  K_ G  TKASK SORTING COEFF.(mm)  So  MODE  Mo  (0)  MEDIAN  (0)  2. 18  2.70  1.34  1. 13  ! . 12  1.13  1. 10  1. 1 1  .05  -2,42  1.52  2.78  2.80  2.97  3.00  .64  -1.82  1 .42  2.67  2.70  2.78  2,85  1. 17  "  h  17  1.99  1.39  2,92  - . 14  1.23  2,75  .25  1.25  23.98  8.31 91.69  1  7  g rave 1  18,08  51.31  Sand  81.81  4 8 . 13  Si  Number o f co11ected  It  5- C 1 a y  samples  13  Samp 1es n o t 1ncluded i n averages  Vari ance o f  means  . 1 1  LSC-3  (x^)  .81  .56  .81 9 9 . 19  -  3 s 33 96.67  -  6  14  C-4 C-7  NWR-2 SER-5  .42  .21  .61  99.35  99.36  99-82  99,98  ,  76,00  03  -07  ,02  ,  ..02  25  13  5  8  B- 1 B-3 B-8 B- 18 B-23  OS-7 OS-9 O S - 10 O S - 15 O S - 19 OS-20  LB-2 LB-3  QP-3  0  .42  14  c  14  SER-7  .33  -  .65  .01  „ 1 1  .01  i ab I e V I M  0  1 1  .48  » A v e r a g e S t a t i s t ilea! P a r a m e t e r s o f Type S e d i m e n t f r o m Ten R e l a t e d E n v i r o n m e n t s .  75 FIGURE  8  FREQUENCY CURVES O F TYPE SEDIMENTS F R O M T E N RELATED ENVIRONMENTS COLUMN 1  NE/SW  normal  to  c o a s t  COLUMN  NW/SE  parallel  to  c o a s t  2  300-1  200-  z UJ  150-  O  U  100  75 5025-  0vertical  -  COLUMN  1  2  -  1  scale  0  COLUMN  1  2  2  76. 3.  distinguish means lity  of of  1967;  TWO-DIMENSIONAL (a)  Moment  For  many  between  bivariate computers,  preference determing lengthy  for the  graphical  sider  a  Folk  (1966)  moment  few has  specific  but  method  Referring tion  values  Skewness It  is  beach  to  Table  by  both  their  for  beach In  equivalent  (MHT,  the  disadvantages  that  is  it  "the  VIII,  standard  procedures  are  quite  illustrated  negative  though, 19^7;  because by by  of  the  swash  the  for  procedure Lost  differ  Shoe  widely.  1968)  material and  moment and  devia-  similar.  Folk,  fine  offshore  graphic  skewness  con-  elegant  and  bay,  dis-  curve.  mean  skewed  the  most  for  parameters".  1961,  contrast,  but  some o f  (Friedman,  MWL),  frequency  tedium,  a  require  cumulative  distributions is  procedures  the  values  negatively  from  less  expressed  measures  entire  by  Chappell,  have  Moment  kurtosis  sands  are  1969)  the  to  availabi-  on  obtaining  agreed  vironments. most  for  especially  characteristic  values  admits  1967;  graphical  involve  points  generally  winnowed This  obtained  and  methods  highlighted  measures,  mathematical  consider  attempted  increased  (Koldijk,  over  Methods  environments  recent  parameters.  but  have  Greenwood,  measures  grain-size  tribution;  the  workers  1967;  moment  Graphical  sedimentary  p l o t s . . With many  vs„  PLOTS  geologists  different  calculations,  only  Measures  years  1961,  Friedman,  PARAMETER  that is  backwash.  skewness  Long  Beach  indicates Creek  and  enal-  77.  Long  Beach  appears  environments.  to  be  environment  For  e v e n more  is  kurtosis,  erroneous,  indicated  as  being  the  since more  graphic  the  method  Lost  Shoe  leptokurtic  Creek  than  Long  Beach. On t h e sional  plots  determined  strength  were  by  method o f  sediment  range  of  the  Geologists compared  in  by  some  from  this  rial  used  generally  falls  within  fine  sand  or  sand,  etc.  great  variability  by  different  is  without  part  of  drawn lar  workers,  doubt  some  irregularly  vs.  meters, inset  at  standard and  the  represents  to  of  sands, a very  This  for  plots  of  amount as  many  include  or  exclude  For  deviation.  tight beach  cluster (MHT,  and  narrow  of  the  Figure  is  points  MWL),  usually  the  lines  mate-  a plot  for  shown  in  bay,offshore  the are  particuplot  these  the and  There  on  from a  of  e.g.  lines  used  e.g.  obtained  bias  divi-ling  a commonly  of  large.  parameters.  example, 9  very  accounts  samples  in-  size-  size-range  intentional  though,  will.  etc.,  same  the  have  dividing  the  study  environments  partially  of  this  is  analysis  environmental  a certain  workers  environment  mean  of  in  furthermore,  depositional  deposited  Two-dimensional  environments  type  blown  medium  and  these  different  river  two-dimen-  parameters  by  considered  water,  wind  the  dunes,  all  statistical  Discrimination  of  concerned with  material  from  environments  deposited  sediment  arguments,  moments.  Environment Plots  All volve  these  constructed  the (b)  of  is  para-  blown-up Long  Beach  78, environments. Friedman  area  corresponds  (1961), c o a s t a l  and W e i s e r  dune o r  (1968),.barrier  dune  to  a  river  dune  environment  environments  environment  of  Friedman  (1967). T h i s m e a n s  simply  be  a  vs.  mean  water-laid  differentiated universally standard  sediment  sizes  Four been  that  of  constructed  parameters, vironments  and  deviation  plot,  possible  at  the  common  to to  most  portray assess  selected  for  of  the  great  two-dimensional  range  plots  of  individual  their  merit  in  defining  Wreck  by  locations.  range  at  cannot  environments  the  study  Moiola  of  deposits  because  of  and  that  from o t h e r  different  of  Hails  (1969), a n d t o o n l y o n e b e a c h e n v i r o n m e n t ,  Hoyt  of  This  Bay  sample  the  (Figures  have  ten  9,  en-  10,  II,  12). (i)  Mean v s .  This The  tight  bay,  cluster  offshore  leptokurtic up  inset  although  of  and  sediments  (Figure vague,  9) is  within  ner  of  the  diagram.  nal  environments  The  former  of  samples  values  (see  a  8),  that  between  Lost are  high  yet  superior beach  Shoe  spread  over of  all  examination  small  Creek  to  (MHT,  area two  and the  at  entire  means  -  others.  MWL),  unimodal of  the  blown-  outwash  the o p p o s i t e  areas, beach  the  discrimination,  GIaciof Iuvia I  these  variance  are  environment  possible.  relatively In  is  environments  (Figure  reveals  9)  deviation  representing  Beach  still  fall  (Figure  points  Long  points  meter  plot  standard  the  (berm) range  Table  cor-  transitiooccur. of  VIM),  para-  79. whereas  the  sorted,  medium  beach  latter  (berm)  firming  meter  Point  bracket. are  on  is  grain  fully  in  the  close  of  Wya  southeast hand,  isolate but  those  the  this  found  doubtedly  due  comparison  between  to  to  line  moderately  association  well  with  Point,  thus  moving  nearshore  showed  a wide  (Friedman, be  the  skewness  1961; most  these  indirectly  con-  current.  range  of  para-  (lack  of  skewed zero  and  fine  (lack  of  skewness  along  fall  wider  Mean  used vs.  Skewness  has  Hails,  1967;  on  inland  coarse  (presence  mean  0 would  The  less  at  for  A  success-  from  the  right this  sediment  range  by  workers.  other  increase  sorting.  sediments  reason  weak  viz.an  in  2.0  a  used  is  angles  is  un-  here  by  Skewness  the  found  Koldijk,  tails  geologists  Greenwood,  indicator. a  are  and  The  1969)  sign  of  frequency  distribu-  negatively  skewed  sands  river  coarse  most  1968,  wind-borne and  by  of  sediments  of  that  decrease  more o r  been  tail);  and  parameters  environmental  hence beach  tail);  a  workers.  sediment  wholly  two  discrimination  size,  leptokurtic  would  sensitive  depends  curve,  drawn  other  (i i )  grain  reflects  t h e much  the  environment  the  unimodal line  by  that  t h e mean  generally  dividing  others,  to  a  apparent  exists  size  straight  tion  In  those  the other  d e t e r m i n e d by  correlation  to  fall  values.  largely  to  all  existence of  It  in  sand  points  the  Quisitis  almost  are  sediments fine  positively have  tails).  close Moiola  and  Weiser  dunes  (1968)  possess  due  to  fine  the  balance  coastal  have,however,  negative  materia! by  dune,  skewness  removal  saltation. does  in  found  coastal  approximately  in  suspension,  Sample  fact  that  LB-2,  possess  50% o f  and  the  the  time  migration  only  negative  wind-borne  one  of  from  skewness  a  (Figure  10). Skewness is  much  points  greater fall  and  not  ing  between  line  than  over  a  drawn  these at  lation  is  wider  is  area  evident  well  accompanied  (below) Figure  which  and  extends  a  river  would  from  the  leptokurtic In  on  this  in  this by  plot  a more  others.  viz.an  along  separated (above),  Further  standard  vs.  A  deviation  the  mean,  straight the  unimodal  parameter  corre-  in  grain  skewness.  Skewness  an  environmental II  the a  is  almost  middle  beach  and  in  not is  of  the  environment the  leptokurtic  is  these  discriminat-  increase  distinction  though,  hence is  in  positive  Figure  unimodal  environments plot,  A weak  obtained  scaleof  the  It  separate  deviation  line  9.  effective  others.  environment  separate  Figure  sediments  and  environments.  approximately This  deviations,  most  (1961) the  leptokurtic  likewise  Standard  catagory.  from II,  (below) modal  line,  sorted  is  the  with  Friedman  straight,  than  0 would from  (iii)  dividing  unimodal  standard  again  2.0  sediments  usually  the  water-deposited  mean  also  of  their  skewness,wh?ch  leptokurtic  size  range  case  of  sediments  between  the  uni-  possible. more  effective  81.  than  skewness  in  environments. apparently  in  Correlation  very  a  number  kurtosis, the  they  which  subtract  correlation increased creased  Skewness  This  plot  two  water-deposited  parameters  vs.,  is  Kurtosis  the are  12)  is  the  environments. indicated  as  least It  having  is  physically  impossible.  supplied  by  Pierce  Good  from  the  the  and  determined  two  skewness  is  is  generally  A  be  noticed  negative This  (1966),  value.  parameters  effective  will  fact  in  good  though,  accompanied  due  which  fairly  evident  is  by  viz,  in-  CONCLUSIONS method  was but  contained  only did  by  different and  mean  standard  one  modal  recent  effective the  the  most  were  range  in  such  close  may  have  been  in of  least  values  sediment  in  of  found  employed  judgment  Bivariate discrimi-  parameters  mean  vs,  distinguishing Moment  effcient  agreement,  and  environment  environments.  the  although  sediments.  The p l o t  effective  deviation  analysis,  characterization  environment.  kurtosis  are  method  nearshore  water-deposited  skewness  procedures  of  partially  was  in  environment  illustrate  any  deviation  and  employed  allowed  distribution  nation,  latter  the  kurtosis.  analysis  the  in  negative  approximate,  dard  samples  1.5  The  the  the  (Figure  between  between  h.  on  between  (i v)  of  formula  between  weak,  discriminating  that  to  discriminating  by  between  measures  parameters.  moment  values  with  stan-  equal  and  derived merit.  of Since  graphic by  the  82 i_  1  well vary sorted well sorted  moderately  poorly  sorted very well  sorted  sorted  well  sorted  very •poorly I fsorted  •  •  O  •  • x  •1 CM CM'  r: c - ro  +  K>LB3.  A  A  *- I t  03  i —  0-5  S T D . DEV. 0-4  A A  O  CM  6 12 2 < LU  2  ro o-o " c re  o>  O  o •-  T  cp. T  MEAN  vs. S T A N D A R D  DEVIATION  (MOMENTS) NORMAL ID CM I  eV i  CM  0-25  TO  COASTLINE  PARALLEL  TO  COASTLINE  o Lost Shoe Creek  O Long Beach  •  Cliff  A Quisitis  «  Berrr)")  *  +  M.KT.S Beach  a Wya  *  M.W.L.J  •  Bay  a  Offshore  —r— 0-5  — i 075  —I—  10  Point  ,Berm  FIGURE  Point  STD. DEV. 1-25  — i —  15  -T  175  9  —i—  20  *  1  1  1  83  i  i  X  c  ^  3  rB2  c  ns  w  E g  A  I xi  (9 E  •  *  *  AJ  I xi c  ffl  o u  A-  rn u  FIGURE TO  MEAN vs. SKEWNESS  c ffl  c  >  •4  (MOMENTS) > Ol  NORMAL  TO COASTLINE  PARALLEL TO COASTLINE  o Lost Shoe Creek • Cliff  O Long Beach A Quisitis Point  * Berml  * Berm a Wya Point  +  M.H.TA  Beach  x MW.L.J • Bay Q Offshore  -30  I—  -2-5  —i  -20  1—  -1-5 SKEWNESS  - 1 —  -10  — I —  -05  00  84  STANDARD DEVIATION  VS. S K E W N E S S  (MOMENTS) o  NORMAL  l_  o o a >  TO  COASTLINE  o Lost Shoe Creek • Cliff  O Long Beach A Quisitis Point  *  * Berm A Wya Point  Berm | ,  + M.H.T.l Beach *  M. W.L.J  •  Bay  o  PARALLEL TO COASTl INF  Q Offshore •a  FIGURE  11  o I/)  L  o o a  o I >•  m c o E  Tf  A  A  . "o >>« x *>r!  —+  t-  •o o E  •  A  OLB2  X  Jo  X  a  J  1  A  ••A 4.  *  "+  -30  o A-  10  •o —w 1  *  m o  -2-5  i  —I "  2  ' °  SKEWNESS" ' 1  +  -0LB3  * • •• o  -10 5  • +  1—  -05  00  -•  \  «  85  1  VS.  SKEWNESS  I  KURTOSIS  (MOMENTS) NORMAL  a  TO  COASTLINE  PARALLEL  TO  COASTLINE  o Lost Shoe Creek  0  •  Cliff  A Quisitis  *  Berm*j  *  Berm  +  M. K T . V B e a c h  A  Wya  Long  Beach Point  Point  * M.W.L.J •  •  Bay  Q  Offshore  FIGURE  *  12  X  X X  OLB3 O  o  o  »  OLB2*  *  .  A  o  A  %0  -2-5  — i — -20  — i  -1-5  i  —  • -10 SKEWNESS  — i —  -0-5  0-0  0 5  86. D.  BEACH  NWR-5 eign a  (a to  SEDIMENTARY  5  It  should  b,  c)  the  local  ENVIRONMENT be  were  stated  probably  environment,  building I.  to  samples  the  following  Spitbar finer  and  of  SER-I(b  +  mouth  (NWR-Mb +  c).  This  the  vicinity  chapter the  on  that  the  beach  by  large  samples  material  this  sample  statistical (Map  (see  -  for-  location  by  collection.  I,  parameters Figure  SER-4(b +c)  the  Lost  of  of  of  13),  leads  SHAPE).  This  drift on  slightly  immediately NWR-I(b +  drift  spitbar  promote  are  Creek,  littoral  the  would  chapter  samples  Shoe  suggests  which  nature  c)  than of  PLANIMETRIC  transient  to  at  that  observations:  the  to  dumping  foreshore  of  opposite  to  the  sorted  in  onset  contaminated  prior  better  southeast  of  the  samples  northwest -  from  the  CHANGES  Consideration large  due  contractor  SUMMER  at  -  its  a  towards  deduction  (see  reflects  along  SAND MOVEMENT  the  direction  "growth"  directions  c)  this  BASED  ON  part WAVE  PARAMETERS). Sample  SER-6(b +  better  sorted  SER-7(b + erosion BASED Sample  on  c).  located  than  adjacent  This  indicates  either  ON WAVE  c),  side  of  it  on  Sand  samples  Point,  SER-5(b +  deposition (see  is  at  chapter  finer c)  Sand on  and  and Point  SAND  MOVEMENT  PARAMETERS).  SER-4(b +  c),  collected  near  Profile  C,  is  and  more  87.  negatively shore the  skewed  samples.  and  This  swash-backwash Histogram  Figures  14a,  16a,  Ieptokurtic  means is  most  plots  18a,  that  of  20a,  than  winnowing  efficient the  small  22a,  any  24a,  in  of  of  fine  this  profile 26a)  the  other  fore-  material  by  area. samples  indicate  (Map  the  I,  follow-  i ng: A  little  even  though  it  p e r s i s t e d on t h e was  The  distribution  the  profile  tions At  gravel  at  landward  at  the  the  seaward  all  the  coarsest  SAND MOVEMENT  G,  shell-hash  so  too  did  the  reason  for  this  chapter (see  Profiles was  B,  spread  two  was  *See  GLOSSARY  ends. of  a  few  locations  equilibrium.  (1/16  of  the  -  1/8  mm)  across  hydrodynamic  because  of  and  variable  was  condi-  across  littoral  due  to  of of  abundant  was the  waves  high  and  At  the very  (see  con-  chapter  Profiles  A  sand.  (see  these  foreshort.  very  This  th- se 3  areas At  fine  resulted  areas  and  The  PARAMETERS). and  and  lines,  material  affecting  present,  in  was  the  transporting  fine  shelly  at  waves  profile  ON WAVE  currents  sand  foreshores  PARAMETERS). middle  existed  fine  berm,  the  BASED  gravel  very  winter  small  SAND MOVEMENT no  and  down  the  few p e b b l e s  concentration  LIFE),  F,  a  This  the  ON WAVE near  erratically  weak,  and  materia!  highest  C and  from  of  sand  profiles,  edge  existed  on  state  fine  granules  BASED  o n MARINE  chapter  a  indicative  seaward  the  on  very  is  E,  eroding but  in  at  location.  D and  end o f  centrated  of  lines  each  Profiles  then  foreshore  (see  sand  88.  chapter  on  SAND MOVEMENT 2.  WINTER  Large was  established  BASED  PARAMETERS).  CHANGES  samples  during  ON WAVE  collected  the  from  preceeding  the  backshore  winter),  (which  indicate  the  fo I lowi ng: Sample only  NWR-6a,  one  shore  with  region  during  a  southeast  the  winter,  (see  chapter  and  on  along  the  SER-4a,  show  clear  pattern  northwest  NWR-1 a  -  energy  waves  Sample  SER-6a,  slightly  NWR-4a.  This  with  less  with mouth  indicates  the  adjacent  side  material  deposited  strongly  eroded  accounts  for  of on  during  the  past  Seal  SER-4a  is  it. Sand the  It  Point  Rock also  (see more  is  SER-la  the  -  samples  Creek,  interplay  samples at  seems  during  extension heading  from  coarser  of  high  on  negatively  and SER-5a  and  this  location  apparent  that  the  winter/spring  bathymetric  material  river.  erosion  thus  this  Shoe  Lost  a complex  intense  indicates in  of  than  more  of  the  fore-  current  to  Point,  sorted  This  respect  Sand  well  the  spitbar,  l o c a t e d on  either  Sample  the  of  the  than  bay  crest  was  SHAPE).  from  indicating  the  addition  outflow  SER-7a, on  of  littoral  B,  to  summer.  PLAN I M E T R I C  located  immediately  the  no  A and  identical  moving  Samples  no  Profiles  properties  deposited  of  during  cliff  between  textural  sediment  persistence  the  located  summer,  storm  of BAY  Sand  is  period. Point  This  into  BATHYMETRY).  skewed  and  leptokurtic  89. t h a n any o f :  the o t h e r backshore  samples,  even d u r i n g w i n t e r , t h e w i n n o w i n g i s most  e f f i c i e n t at t h i s Small  winter  (Map  I,  14a,  process  16a,  18a, 2 2 a ,  A t P r o f i l e s D and E,  e n t i r e l y of gravel  at  l a n d w a r d e n d , and t h e  near  and medium s a n d a t  landward end. T h i s  h e i g h t o f waves  24a,  the middle of  26a)  show  latter  posline,  was p r e s e n t ,  the w i n t e r i s  less  exists  the  and t h e h i g h e s t  f i n e sand o c c u r r e d at t h e T h i s means  slightly  during  higher  t h a t waves  concentration  l a n d w a r d end o f t h e p r o f i l e  a f f e c t i n g t h e two a r e a s  than t h o s e measured d u r i n g  were o n l y  t h e summer  (see  c h a p t e r o n SAND MOVEMENT CASED ON WAVE PARAMETERS). A t C and F t h e c o a r s e s t  m a t e r i a ! o c c u r r e d at the  o f t h e p r o f i l e l i n e s , and t h e v e r y creased  i n a seaward d i r e c t i o n ,  d e g r a d a t i o n by of  the three  thus  the  ( s e e c h a p t e r on TRANSVERSE P R O F I L E S ) . At P r o f i l e s A and  of very  B,  the  consisted  indicates that  a f f e c t i n g P r o f i l e E during  G, no s h e l l - h a s h  lines.  succeeding  the p r o f i l e  than at P r o f i l e D - a s i t u a t i o n which a l s o summer  the  the former  sessed r e l a t i v e l y less its  swash-backwash  c o l l e c t e d during  f o l l o w i n g changes:  its  of  location.  p r o f i l e samples Figures  i n d i c a t i n g that  l a r g e waves.  f i n e sand  This  simply  Profiles  landward  fractions reflects  P r o f i l e C was by f a r t h e  end  in-  beach  coarsest  l i n e s and c o m p a r a b l e t o P r o f i l e D i n t e x t u r e ,  i n d i c a t i n g t h e s e v e r i t y o f wave a t t a c k a t t h i s  ( s e e c h a p t e r on TRANSVERSE P R O F I L E S ) .  location  90.  the  CONCLUSIONS  In  summer,  entire  jacent the  3.  to  foreshore Sand  northwest  fine., except  Point, and  light  and  for  the  southeast  coloured two  two  sand  small  distal  corners,  characterizes  gravelly ends  which  of  areas  the  contained  ad-  beach, some  she I I-hash.  ed out  to  In  winter,  the  coarse  gravel,  almost  to  the middle  becomes two  distal  grained, the  largely ends  of  the  composed remain  all  bay. of  portion of  At  the  of  medium-grained  sandy  the  sand  Profiles  essentially  light-coloured,  summer.  central  being  B and  from  that  is  reduc-  transported  F,  black  unaltered  conditions  beach  the  beach  sand,and the  prevail  the  fineduring  L. O N G S H O R E  S E D I M E N T  (MOMENTS)  lUOST SH DE CREEKl  < SAMPLE LINE N*S  • 6 3-0  i  P A R A M E T E R S ISANDPOINTI  NWR SER 5  4  i  i  |  3 2 1, ,1 2 i  i  fr  i  M  i  3 l  4  6  1  l  o  —  p  5  -  -  8  7  1  -  i  i  „  MEAN  0 ,  15  \  .  0  c o a rser 20  '^^-^  *  SIDEY i.-nproved sort ing symmct r l c a l  •as  ^^^^^y^^^X.  <  "  * ^ ° ^ °  v  SKEW • n e g a tive  -3-0  ^  \  Y  -4.0  /\  mo re lepto^turtle  i  / •400  '  KURT  v  /  \  \  y \  / •200  / /  \  *  APPROXIMATE F I G U R E  13  \  y  HORIZONTAL  \  SCALE:  l" = 1875'  o———o  BERM  o—  FORESHORE (b).(c)  o  \ \  . y \  \  (a)  ^  > s  92. VI I.  A.  PROFILES  INTRODUCTION A  the  large  transverse  storm  effects  Patrick  and  Tuttle,  1961;  laboratory relative  Rector,  number  changes  of  present  nature  and  magnitude  during  the  summer  various a  and  set  of  allowed  pected  to  FIELD  range  and  seasonal  or  1953;  Ziegler  Harrison,  wave  (Watts  study  conducted  occur  on  and  Wiegel,  and  1964),  to  and  examine  steepness  the  in  Dearduff,  de-  1954;  the  was  determine  changes made  controlling  mid-August  on  profile  attempt  violent  to  provided  to  at  Wreck  isolate  profile  obtained  during  seasonal  changes  winter  that  the  on  conditions. the  Bay,  development,  information  hydrodynamic  the  fore-  A of  might  1968/  be  ex-  beach.  TECHNIQUES transverse  Rod #1  each  of  in  An  factors  assessment  across  of  tidal  was  foreshore  measurements  tablished  *See  1956;  profiles  of  under  Seven  limit  tidal  Inman,  1964;  6h  from  been u n d e r t a k e n  have  regime.  storm  stability  single 1969  wave  summer  shore  Johnson,  b e e n made  1954). The  and  1940;  Richter,  investigations  have  resulting  LaFond,  1954;  and  equilibrium  investigations  beaches  and  Kimberley, Pilkey  of  of  (Shepard  importance  termining  B.  TRANSVERSE  swash  GLOSSARY  the  profiles,  foreshore  profile activity  was  at  placed  during  numbered  locations just  a period  shown  seaward of  A to  of  spring  G,  were  o n Map the  esI.  upper  tides  in  93. June  1968.  The o t h e r  depending  on  the  accomplished rection  was  lengths, 2.00 and  using made  were  emplaced  protruded in  into  the  with  stem  of  I  when m o s t  of  a  living  after  tied  into  the  true  elevations  measured  an  accuracy  using of  the  a  summer, 0.01  graduated  foreshore  of  feet  apart,  This  and  no  was  cor-  the (see  of  staff  elevations  a  cliffbase,  served in  reference  tabling were  obtain  later their  TOPOGRAPHY  in  sand  level  foot  with  respect  (Plate  10).  as  waves.  values  heading  was  stations  and  to  exactly  spike  large  beach,  changes  the  plane  These  foot  spikes  tips  by  4  that  rod  by  rod  so  inch  the  destroyed  level  of  6  a  locating  of  into  At  These  emplacement.  sea  150  tape,  cut  surface.  determined  survey  above  During  set  their  regional  WRECK B A Y ) .  tips,  were  cloth  tree.  elevations  profile  to  foreshore.  foreshore  profile,  for  the  steel,  sand  each  of  25  distance.  the  them were  relative  each  to  of  on  from  Esser  inch  the  reference points  immediately  single  above  line  and  horizontal  They  The  rod  Keuffel  for  spaced  character  were o f  permanent  spikes  a  and  rods  closely  winter,  width  were  The  feet  driven  rods  In  were measured  OF  were to  winter, with  a  the a  dumpy  I e v e I. C.  STUDY  AREAS Morphological  are  shown  the  time  19,  21,  in  Figures  development 23,  25  and  characteristics  14b, of  27.  16b,  each  is  18b,  20b,  of  the  22b,  illustrated  in  seven 24b  profiles  and  Figures  26b,  and  15,  17,  94, I.  SUMMER  Profiles were  affected  angles  to  by  same  the  lower  the  less  violent,  material areas  used  lines.  into  a  until  one  it  Profile was  vicinity, of  these  both  of  during  waves  bar, storm to  E was  low  neap  two  Profiles which  -  to  low  tidal  A and  G, on  the  upper  and  mid-foreshore  the  the  winter a  ridges.  the  In just  range  to  may  accretion tide  located both  beach  waves shore. be  the  the  but  wide  seapresence  this  sensitivity as  (Figures  angles  bar  in  upper  to  August,  the  broke  distal  pro-  summer  18th  described  on  both the  the  The  the  transformed  longshore  subjected at  the  observed,  periods at  rapidly  on A  of  were  exten-  of  spring,  throughout  form.  less  seaward  was  some-  waves  portion  late  beach  that  b e r m was  large  platform  closer  were  the  the  because  fact  spring  of  characterized  D,  directly  slight  were  wide  Profile  original  the  moderately  E were  attacked  by  Point,  Profile  prevailed  never  Sand  at  the  which  its  in  platforms  profiles  impinged  areas  provided  reformed  showing  The beach,  D,  then  Both  at  to  place  the  Profile  profiles them  latter  flat  suggested and  broke  viz„erosion  at  wide,  back  X)„  because  building  a violent  reverting  also  in  At  that  took  than  the  longshore  of  which  of  possessed  file  waves  adjacent  ridge-building  pronounced  Erosion  located  changes,  and  and  E,  (Table  The changes  less  of  beach  profile  what  sive.  D and  large  foreshore,  region.  ward  by  CHANGES  moderate,  foreshore 21  ends very  and of  23). the  small  (Table  X).  95.  Similar of  the  lower  shore. G  due  more,  changes  foreshore,  Changes to  at  clay  foreshore  here,  basement.  At  on  the  18th  moderately slight  was  (Table  August.  low  the  rupted its  These  X)„  Gross  Profile the  other  upper  spring  B  tide  B,  C and  impinged  on  changes  across  the  displayed areas  cusp  the  was  the  upper  foreshore  (Figure  accretion (Figure  sand  above  to  affected  described both  very  similar  foreshore.  that  presence  of  a  at a  relict Profile  well  ac-  area tidal  range,  At  during  Profile  and  angles  Profile  tides,  At  tide  moderately  in  17).  storm  being  small  to  spring  commenced  in  as  insensitive.  during  the  spring  The  sensitivity  a  showing  at  35),  such by  beach all  Furtherlower  by  resulted  24b).  of  Profile  the  affected  virtually  (Figure  along  well,  at  area.  all  development  periods  as  were  eroded  this  built  be  fore-  than  low  extreme  were  upper  during  entire  by  end  may  F were  inhibited  landward  not  foreshore  was  foreshore  was  range  foreshore and  was  viz.erosion  the  cover  tidal  profile  persisted  thin  to  27).  on  exposed  profiles  and  well,  pronounced  berm  foreshore  15  building on  summer  (Figures  berm-buiIding -  a  as  affecting  very  upper  whereas the  a  the  which  less  waves  on  cretion  B,  G,  sensitive  waves  around  A were  intermittently  upper  Profiles  areas  berm-buiIding  accretion  periods  large  and  indicating  the  these  smaller  Profile  that  in  Profile  relatively  grey  height,  occurred  and  low  C,  neap  berm  cobble F,  defined  cusp  uninterberm  at  96, General of  Lost  sand  at  Shoe  Creek  each  low  2.  ever, each  in  tide  profile  to  profile. in  winter  berm  (see  the  chapter  available profile  at  in  dip  of  the  more  This  except  period  can  erosion  (Plates  be  seen  at  c u t s through  I la  and  the the  mouth beach  lib).  as  early  a  result  February  uniformly  of  wave  1969.  seaward  action  was  The b a c k s h o r e  from  the  howr  cliffbase  at  location.  over  sloped  stream  undercutting  Removal  that  accretion  CHANGES  evidence  appeared  accretion  where  WINTER  Cliff nowhere  foreshore  material  foreshore,  gently  general  had on  of  existed BEACH  this  therefore  was  than  the  creating the  F,  location  for  showed  slight  There  foreshore  resulted  a beach  all  along no  the  thus  no  accretion,  increase.in  summer beach  preceeding  during was  the  in  face  corresponding  where  backshore  STRUCTURES).  a  backshore  evident  Profile  on  the  thereby  seaward  trend  vicinity  from  beach  summer material and  the  slope.  Figure  Figure  14a.  14b.  Histogram  plots  of  small  samples  from  Profile  A,  -  These samples r e p r e s e n t s u r f i c i a l sedimentary c o n d i t i o n s during the winter regimes.  -  Each h i s t o g r a m d e p i c t s a rod s c r e e n e d at I 0 i n t e r v a l s .  -  Rod n u m b e r s between the  -  The f o r e s h o r e s l o p e at each rod s t a t i o n is shown by f i g u r e s a d j a c e n t t o t h e b o t t o m righthand c o r n e r o f the h i s t o g r a m s , in degrees.  -  The number o f g r a v e l p a r t i c l e s i n t h e s a m p l e s i s i n d i c a t e d o n t h e ? 4 mm h i s t o g r a m b l o c k ; M = many.  -  Figures 16a, 18a, lar presentations G respectively.  Morphological four discrete -  are two  indicated histogram  foreshore summer a n d  station  by c i r c l e d columns.  20a, 22a, 24a, o f P r o f i l e s B,  characteristics times.  of  sample  numerals  26a a r e s i m i C D, E , F , f  Profile  A  at  C i r c l e d numerals along the a b s c i s s a denote rod l o c a t i o n s . Both axes o f the diagram are g r a d u a t e d i n f e e t , and v e r t i c a l e x a g g e r a t i o n i s 20  -  T h e f i r s t c u r v e , f o r 12 J u n e 1 9 6 8 , r e p r e s e n t s t h e p r o f i l e on t h e day o f r o d e m p l a c e m e n t . The o t h e r t h r e e c u r v e s have a l l been p l o t t e d at e q u i v a l e n t times w i t h r e s p e c t to t i d a l range a t low s p r i n g t i d e . T h e 22 A u g u s t c u r v e , h o w e v e r , d e p i c t s the beach p r o f i l e s h o r t l y a f t e r a summer s t o r m , a n d t h e 3 F e b r u a r y 1969 c u r v e i s t h e w i n t e r b e a c h p r o f i l e , when s t o r m freq u e n c y was highest.  -  T h e w a t e r t a b l e (WT) l i n e o f e m e r g e n c e i s ind i c a t e d f o r t h e two summer c u r v e s - 26 J u l y 1968 a n d 22 A u g u s t 1968. M e a n h i g h t i d e ( M H T ) . mean w a t e r l e v e l (MWL) a n d m e a n l o w t i d e (MLT) v a l u e s a r e shown a s h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s across the diagram.  -  Figures 16b, 18b, 2 0 b , lar representations of G respectively.  2 2 b , 2 4 b , 26b a r e P r o f i l e s B , C , D,  simiE, F,  X.  © •T 1  1  1  1  ©  ©  lOfr-O  T  j  1  1  <Z)  ©  2QOO 1  1  1  ©  T 1  11  © T I FEET FROM CLIFF  300.CJ 1  1  1  1  1  l  F  WINTER  no  75  PROFILE  @  SO 23  •• Late ••• Early "• Mid » Late  spring summer summer winter  12 June 1968 26July 1968 22 Aug. 1969 3 Feb. 1969  h=J2.0* 75 SO 23 17*  tdis*  v\ V WT M HT  \ 1.1*  10-0  -  v k 73 SO 25  -MWL  4  —  1I  JOT* 1^  I,  mm  s.o —  PROFILE SUMMER  - MLT  — 26 July 1968  W I N T E R —  FIGURE  14b  ®  FIGURE  3  Feb.  14a  1969  Figure  15.  Foreshore of time,  modification  at  Profile  A as  a  function  -  C i r c l e d numerais a l o n g the upper l e f t - h a n d edge o f the diagram denote rod numbers. Ordinate graduations are s c a l e d in feet o f a c c r e t i o n or e r o s i o n a t any r o d s t a t i o n .  -  F o r e s h o r e e l e v a t i o n at each rod s t a t i o n was p l a c e d at z e r o on t h e day o f r o d e m p l a c e m e n t ; all s u c c e e d i n g f o r e s h o r e measurements were b a s e d on t h i s.  -  In o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e c u r v e d i s t o r t i o n resulting f r o m s h o r t - t e r m wave e f f e c t s , f o r e s h o r e e l e v a t i o n s p l o t t e d on t h e d i a g r a m s a r e a v e r a g e s of t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e f i e l d measurements: the s p e c i f i c o n e , and t h e p r e c e e d i n g and s u c c e e d i n g o n e s . T h e s e v a l u e s h a v e b e e n j o i n e d by solid l i n e s t o f o r m t h e c u r v e . H o w e v e r , when e i t h e r the p r e c e e d i n g o r s u c c e e d i n g f i e l d measurements were s p a c e d by f o u r o r more days from t h e s p e c i f i c o n e , t h e v a l u e o f t h e l a t t e r was p l o t t e d d i r e c t l y o n t o t h e d i a g r a m , and a d o t t e d l i n e drawn b e t w e e n i t and t h e d i s t a n t field value.  -  S i n g l e m e a s u r e m e n t s made d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r a r e shown e n c l o s e d i n c i r c l e s a t t h e right-hand s i d e o f the diagram.  -  The t i d a l range c u r v e d e p i c t e d at the bottom o f t h e d i a g r a m , was p l o t t e d f r o m p o i n t s obtained b y s u b t r a c t i n g e a c h d a y ' s l o w e r low t i d e v a l u e from i t s h i g h e r high t i d e v a l u e .  -  Figures 1 7 , 1 9 , 2 1 , 2 3 , 2 5 , 27 a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f P r o f i l e s B , C , D, respect i veIy.  similar E, F, G  J ON E 15 11  20  25  J U L Y  30  11 11 j i i 11  5  10  15  20  '• i i i | r r n p T f F j r i i i j r r n  |  25  30  j-r-rrt-j  11 »i  5  10  AUGUST 15 20  196S 25  F E B . 1969 30  T r r TTTI I I [ i I l » | 1 T f I | i i 1 I | t t i t |  © . • o  LU LU LL  130  / \  120 |  /  11010-C-l 9080706050-  V  \  I  A. N  \7 TIDAL  V  RANGE  O  ©  ,T, X  © "jM>  © •  , T, aopo  ©  ©  ,T ,  ,  I,  © nnrffl  ,T , , ,  ©  ©  , , , T, *9°9 , T FEET  FROM  CLIFF  S UM M e R  W I N T E R  73  ©  •/. 30 23  73 V. SO 23  46*  PROFILE (i) •-—-• Late spring 12 June 1968 • • Early summer 26July 1968 •• «  ~* Mid summer • Late winter  46*  73  75  •/. 30  •/. 50  23  25 34*  19*  22 Aug. 1968 2 Feb. 1969 75  75  •/. 50  •/. 50 25  25 32*  73  1-tf  ©  •/. SO 25  75' •/. SO 25<  2cr  13*  75  7  V. SO  •/. SO  25  2 If  1-4* 73  75  •/. 50  •/. SO  23  25  0-5* 75  10*  ©  V. 30 25  75  1.  30 23  J=l2f/  1=1-0.4* 4  2  ' ''2  %  'fe 't  73 50 25 1.4*  PROFILE SUMMER  75  — 26 July 1968  W I N T E R —  2 Feb. 1969  •/. 30  FIGURE  16b  23 4  J  ' llj \  V  s  1-2* mm  FIGURE  16a  FIGURE  17  P R O F I L E  Cg)  WINTER  S U M M E R 75  75  SO  V. 50  23  25 (2d)  'U  75  75  SO  V. 50  25  25  JJ,  45'  75  75  •/. SO  •/. 50 25  25 31*  36* 75  75  SO 25 0-7*  4  2 I I, I, I, I,  75  35*  \ i '<* l»  •/. 50 25  LOT 75  PROFILE  25 10*  SUMMER 75  ©  V. 50 25  - 2 6 July 1968  W I N T E R —  2 F«t> 1969  the  4 2  '  WW FIGURE  18a  W I N T E R  S U M M E R 75  73  •/. 50  50  23  25 J7.CT  J3S*  75  75  •/. SO  V. SO  25  Lll  25 4.1*  31*  75  73  V. 30  •/. 50  25  25 1 3T  3-1*  mm.  73  ©  V. 30 23 12*  •/. 50 25  20-  PROFILE SUMMER  73  — 26 July 1963  W I N T E R —  •/. 30  ©  2 FeD. 1969  23 26*  75 •/. 30 23  FIGURE  20b  FIGURE  20a  O  SUMMER  W I N T E R  75  0  7. 30  •/. SO  25 J6-2*  4 i f  73  73  •/. 50 25  73 7.  7.  m d  SO' 2!  3Bf  1  r  32*  73  30  7. SO 25  25 J2-S* 73  ©  •/. 30 25  Bud  20*  73  7. SO 25'  17*  \\ \\  73 •/. 30 23  JlV 75 7.  30  PROFILE  23  75  ©  7. 30 25 4  FIGURE  22b  SUMMER -26 Jul/ 1968 WINTER— 2 Feb. 1969  307* 2 I b I, I, \ '<*  \\\  FIGURE  22a  FIGURE  23  P R O F I L E  (E)  (D  (2) . — ,  i°°  0  ®  ,—JL.—,  ®  ©  S U M M E R  m-9 , r-L  W I N T E R  73  ©  •/. 30 25  2S.O  75 V. SO 25  OLh  29" 75  75  •/. SO  V. 30  25  25' 03"  20.0  2.8*  34*  75  73  •/. =0  •/. 30 25  25 2 3"  25*  75 •/.  4)  50  25  V. SO 25  JJ  &9* IS.O  75  75  V, 50  V. SO  25  25  bdi.af  08"  10.0  20*  —  —  73  73  30  •/. 50  25  23 1-Cf 4 3  75  ©  •/. SO 25 10*  so —  PROFILE © SUMMER  75  '4 \'t  — 26 July 1968  W I N T E R —  •;. so  1 Fetx 1969  23  73 •/. 30 23  FIGURE 4  24a  2 I l> 1/ 1/ I,  O  FIGURE  P R O F I L E  25  JUNE 15  20  25  •I " I ' • " I 1  1  ©  JULY 1  30  1  5  10  15  I' " I " ' 1  AUGUST 20  I  1  25  30  5 1  10  15  20  1968 25  LU LU Lu  ©  •v 13 0 120  A / \  -  110 -,  A  1009 0-  ao70 60-  V  \  /  n A i  v  30  FEB.^969 . - ' 1  I ' ' " I' ' • I ' ' " I' ' '' )' • " | 1  1 - ^  \ / \  /  VF  R A N n  Q  M.O  ©  ®  ©  T | 1 T , »Qp.g J  © ,  ©  ,T,  »y-B4  © p"T^  FEET  FROM  CLIFF S U M M E R  WINTER  75  —  ©  •/. 30  PROFILE Latt  spring  (S) 14 June 1968  25  75 V. SO 25  16*  06*  •—•—•  Early summer  26July 1968  75  75  *" '  Mid summer Late winter  22 Aug. 1968 1 Feb. 1969  V. 30  •/. SO  • •  25  25 26'  SCO  4*  — 73  75  V. 30  •/. SO  25  25 1-9*  10*  73 V. SO  (^)  •/. 50  25  18*  tdi-3*  75  73  V, SO  •/. 30  25  23  1.3*  18*  73  73  V. 30  V. 50 25  25  13* 75  -MWL  1-3*  ©  V. 50  25  75 •/.' SO 23  12*  5.0 —  4  ,  I  U H  =»9*  4  ''4  2  mm.  '<6  PROFILE  ' MLT  SUMMER  — 26 July 1966  W I N T E R —  FIGURE o»—  \  26b  FIGURE  1 Feb. 1969  26a  FIGURE  27  P R O F I L E  (g)  III. 3.  STORM  CHANGES  A severe of  the  phy  18th  Department  examined its  to  the  1968,  Weather  at  the  University  trace  the  track  developed Aleutian  17th  system,  between  By  the  due  and  Washington  its  the  breaking  Creek.  Depth  tide  height  at  height  from  the  had  which the  of  developed  from  of the  the  Bay,  the  19th  August moved  the  were to  note  low-pressure  Alaska  across  on  the  a major  weath-  the  west  coast  this  time  were  but  wind  and  hours  Geogra-  slowly  into  at  southeast,  Wreck  had  coast  the  Columbia,  passed  Gulf  early  by  small  the  of  the that  feet this  top  of  about  time  speed  storm  of  approximately  had  southeastwards  of  19^9; a  i mile is  August,  was  50 mph  waned to  waves  just  seaward  from  the  in  from  in-  the  when  Based  7  water  depth  is  1963),  figure  of  I62  for  advancing  of on  breakers the  beach  Lost  feet.  about  Shepard,  rows  of  elon-  and  in  8  the  feet,  quoted  to  ob-  15  was  feet  were  of  mouth  approximately  observation break  Up  cliff  l8th area  shoal  waves  region.  the  shoal  the  gives  the  of  the  and  (Munk,  22 in  it  a  along  zone,  premise  heights  Sea,  the  center,  Winds  over  Shoe  of  storm  extended over  morning  boulder  depth  the  British  which  center  gate  wave  of  in  compiled  of  west By  maps  entered  time  beach  coast. On  the  and  the  l4th August,  Baring  20 mph  southeast.  served  this front  15 a n d  tensity,  the  Island,  200 mi l e s the  in  of  On t h e  Islands,  August.  Vancouver  on  attacked  characteristics.  area  er  August  storm  the  k/3 a  water breaker  could at  the  any  be  seen  one  112.  time  (Plate  creased  2),  from  10 t o  were o b s e r v e d the  summer,  were  ral  to  and  opposite  piles  of  and  currents  at  had  coincided  would  low  have  the  met  of  the  far  summer  26b),  probably  storm.  The  is  much  files  D,  E,  and  longer  C). in  to  ly  exposed  in  the  ted  by  fact to  The  southeast. net  profiles  all  the in  part  the  on  the  the  in-  intensities  current (Table  during  directions X).  Vast  where o p p o s i n g  occurred was  litto-  during  a  about  6  only beach  of  the  the and  for  16b,  small  feet;  destruction  part  northwest  the  erosion  B  of  storm  20b,  (see  G,  22b,  range  the  during  part  (Pro-  (Profiles  are  also  relative  the  how-  beach  is  whereas  tabulation  the  probably  beach  waves  A,  much  to  is  direct-  originating  from u n i f o r m i t y and  to  (antinodes)  differences  part  in  similar  tidal  of  zones  beach  these  departure  shown  18b,  erosion  antinodal of  are  surprisingly  southeast  Profiles  net  beach  14b,  southeast  Another  suffered  have  encountered  period,  from wind-blown  at  F,  range  tide  accretion  reason  accretion  that  beach  (Figures  landward  attack  current  storm  the  result  than  that  The  storm  in  southeast  part.  the  G)  The most the  northwest due  F and  the  to  severe.  a  of  found  directions  incurred are  as  greater  on  when  changes  scale  than  C and  spring  the  The changes  ever,  B,  a  more  of  overall  24b, the  28.  B,  25a).  was  Littoral  summer  tides,  with  Effects Figure  mean  (Plate  period  greater  deposited  neap  been  seconds.  Profiles  were  period it  12  breaker  b e much  to  kelp  the  is  the  exhibiother  below  113,  Figure sand ral  28).  was  Likely  transported  current  than  Profile  G,  perhaps  resulted  up  the  as  a  relatively  during  in  beach  result,  face  reduced  to  the  feet  high  (see  STRUCTURES).  with  waves  gravel.  At  to  the  stop  zone, heading  and  in  wave  the of  The  between  next  Profile  a  reversed erosion,  lee of  Wya  B,  more  littoand  at  Point  sand. and  breaker  of  returning and  water  washed  backwash  had  the  sandy  foreshore  Profiles  E and  F,  was  energy  was  at  bottom  the  backwash  incoming  a hydraulic  MINOR WAVES  at  volumes  capacity,  times,  by  lengths  larger  swash.  and  that  backwash  movement  much  each  D,  are  environment  increased  storm,  this  removed by  small  C and  coarse  backwash  high  the  extreme e r o s i v e  Profiles  sufficiently  be  for  onshore  of  the  between  of  into  could  Because heights  reasons  jump  wave would  the  form  ASSOC I A T E D WITH  up  BEACH  to  2  Figure  28.  P r o f i l e c h a n g e s as 17-19 A u g u s t I968„  a  result  of  the  summer  storm  -  Circled profile profile  l e t t e r s adjacent to the o r d i n a t e are the numbers, and c i r c l e d n u m e r a l s a l o n g the l i n e s a r e rod numbers,  -  The p r o f i l e s a r e p l o t t e d t h e 17th A u g u s t , t h e day and t h e c u r v e d l i n e s a r e t h e 19th A u g u s t .  -  Hatchuring acc ret i on,  -  Nodal p o i n t s a r e marked with s h o r t v e r t i c a l l i n e s , and a n t i n o d a l z o n e s by n u m b e r s , the l a t t e r being the volume o f m a t e r i a l accreted o r e r o d e d i n c u b i c f e e t . T h e s e volumes were d e t e r m i n e d by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e a n t i n o d a l areas by a p r o f i l e w i d t h o f I foot.  -  Net v o l u m e c h a n g e s and p r o f i l e t a b u l a t e d at the bottom o f the  -  R o d s D 6 , D7 a n d E7 w e r e w a s h e d o u t s t o r m , and dashed c u r v e s f o r t h e s e are hypothet i caI.  indicates  as s t r a i g h t lines for preceeding the storm, changes i n c u r r e d by  erosion;  dots  indicate  lengths are diagram. during the profiles  STORMWAVE 17 -  19  EFFECTS  August,  1968  -32  ® -40  ML  TZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZCcrz=~  •8  CD  -10 © W  Distance cliffbase  I O O  from (Tt)  Net accretion or e r o s i o n (cub. ft)  CD  +  3  • 3  7  200  ®  ©  300  ©  400  ©'  f e e t  ©  500  380  535  515  370  350  510  370  -4  + 56  -28  -134  -118  -67  + 30  FIGURE  28  I 15.  D.  the -  Changes  in  transverse  appear  to  be  summer  the  line  DISCUSS!ON  breaker of  emergence  violent water  becomes  Profiles greater the  than  and to are  the  water  A,  G,  equal  accrete  at  the  breaker  angle  of  tidal  range  virtually  is  by  the  are  SAND MOVEMENT  across  fact  but  BASED  is  most  dant,  littoral  at  small  and  ON WAVE  sensitive currents  of  the  tidal  and  range:  of  as  a  entire  result  and  apparent B,  whereas highly  are  tidal weak  portions  and  their  B,  C  and  (Table  X),  Profiles  the  breaker  Profiles  variable To  range and  C and  contradiction  at  PARAMETERS). to  3°  is  foreshore.Sensitivity  B,  Profile  than  and  At  breakers  Profiles  less  determines  profiles,  At  Profile  the  breaker  moderate.  This  that  the  apparently  approach  is  the  winter,  others,  consistent,  very  during  and  influence.  to  X),  factors  Under  of  the  at  beach.  expense  incidence  extreme  foreshore and  is  insensitive.  small  angles  is  angular  during  height,  and  vicinity  (Table  range  the  prevalent  3°  tidal  occurs  on  Bay  distinct  breaker  sensitivity  the  to  the  incidence  the  Wreck  three  controlling  in  their  at  insignificant,  breaker  sand  of  table  conditions  to  explained  the  or  accretion  angle  the  of  of  foreshore  sensitivity F,  angle  E and  incidence,  dominant  controls  D,  function  becomes  the  availability  indirectly  of  of  factor  The the  cf  hydrodynamic  table  height  angle  a  profiles  (see  where  uniform;  is  incident  C and  F,  chapter  summarise sand it  F  then, is is  on the  abun-  116.  insensitive moderately  where  sensitive The  ment  of  sand  occurs  are  sand  eroded  wards  to  heights  the are  ported  The Iike  to  a  nodal  changes,  i.e.  here.  Profiles  ly  At  seaward  landward erosion  the  of  of  them  occurred  feet  (Table  of  zone  D and  (Figures seaward  of  20b  and  the  nodal  Profile  B,  sand  transported  landward  or  seaward  less the  landward zone  gently  result See  of  (Figure  not  (Figure GLOSSARY  this  At  the  static; 25).  C,  the  zone,  18b). and  of  direction,  Profile  seawards,  therefore  *  At  In  Profile of  continual, summary  a  F,  breaker result,  sand  the  is  seabreaker  trans-  or  erosion  were  built  was  \kb  and  this  tidal  zone  in  much  seaward  slope  accretion  26b).  was  of  dipped  emergence  foreshore  G,  range  accretion  beach  table  uniform  then,  of  A and  berm-buiIding  across on  least  immediate-  immediately  the  water  is  immediately  and  (Figures  depending  profile  Profiles  zones,  rapidly  F,  emergence  foreshore  At  them  it  of  progressed  magnitude  than  line  the  as  C,  line  to  22b).  At  17).  B,  table  erosion  landward  (Figure  and  move-  transported  and  ridges  immediately  a  X),  onshore  E,  and  and  accretion  progressed  was  X),  respect  and  of  D and  G and  water  beach  zones,  variable,  foreshore.  with  E,  A,  (Table  the  and  whether  foreshore  upper  magnitude  these  P r o f i Ies  feet  the  weak  scarce.  At  Profiles  3  vicinity  3  is  are  determines  upper  At  than  landwards  behaves  the  ridges. less  not:  than  from  sand  height  or  greater  currents  where  breaker  heights is  littoral  was  changes  was the dictated  117.  by  summer  wave  permanence  of  conditions the  water  correlating  successful slopes,  at  0.8°  to  mid-water  level  20a,  24a,  22a,  where  ridge  range  to  prohibited foreshore coarser  2.6°, on  to  1.4°.  similar slopes  Table during  is  the  26a).  grained  witnessed  Bay,  building  0.8°  of  foreshore  Wreck  line  slope A  July  in  the  14a,  and  of  size,  very  of  this  and  moderately  sand  14a,  Profile  time,  period, and  20a,  at  the  16a, D  18a, slope,  reduces  measurements  maximum  other  the  level"  foreshore  fine  the  steep  18a,  was  of  (Figures  at  less  presence  "reference  range  profile  16a,  listing  summer,  1968  for  generally  a  sand  exclusion  Incomplete  the  (1951)  for  progress  by  emergence.  wide  indicated  However,  (Figures is  with  fairly  26th  was  of  Bascom's  comparisons  were  IX  controlled  table  Implementation for  are  in  however,  this winter the  considerably  22a,  24a,  profile  pertinent  26a).  changes  beach  data.  Profi  I 18.  *  Ie M a x . a c c r e l: i o n Date Rod F e e t No  erosion Berm e l e v a t i o n W a t e r t a b l e e 1 e v a t i on Rod F e e t (feet) (feet) No W i n t e r Summer Summer  Max. Date  A  22  Aug?  2  0,39  29  Aug?  B  22  Aug?  6  l„44  29  Aug? 6  C  I  D  II  Au g  E  I I  Aug.  F G  1,38 3  7 Aug, 4  2  July  erosion  B,  1. 20  13.0  1 1,0  8.5  -  9,0  2.47  30 J u 1 y  2  2,73 2 0 , 5  -  1 1.0  4  2,02  1 1 Aug,  6  1. 16  -  10,0  I7  Aug, 6  2,00  5  1  0.52  28  Aug?  2  2.41  22  5  0.99  T a b 1e  IX.  It  apparent  the  is  Aug, Aug.  $  C and  of  northwest  E,  were  F and D),  of  accretion  part  of  the  G)  that  swell  form  primarily  due  to to  15.5  emplacement  15.5  12.0  17.0  13,5  in  June,  until  August,1968.  accretion  beach  part  for  the  relative two  the  its  A,  to  the  is of  southeast  counterpart  diffraction  D.  B  portion the  on  the  part that the  the  beach,  the  magni-  southeast indicate  bay  northwest,  Florencia  rela-  (Profiles  photographs of  G)  for  Conversely,  of  northwest  aerial  around  C).  suggest  higher  F and  part  greatest  in  were  E,  and  southeast  observations summer  values  (Profiles  (Profiles  Examination  entering  different  the  during  beach.  that  less  These  tude  19,0  Maximum A c c r e t i o n a n d E r o s i o n V a l u e s a t e a c h P r o f i l e d u r i n g t h e Summer. W i n t e r B e r m , Summer B e r m a n d W a t e r T a b l e E l e v a t i o n s a r e a l s o shown.  part  values  (Profiles A,  8.5  4  o  southeast to  12.5  1. 15 2 5 , 5  R e l a t i v e t o t h e day o f p r o f i l e t h e end o f A u g u s t 1968. $ A f t e r t h e summer s t o r m o n ! 8 t h  tive  12,5  3  *  the  1.08  has this  Island,  In  a being the  I 19.  southeast crest, the  and  of  Waves  breakers  to  the  have  process  on  lost  of  has the  the  slightly  Sand  large  is  in  exposed  of  and  the to  refraction  erosion  during  most  the  beach  their  are  magnitude  located  experienced both  the  4 - 5  in  of  total all  Figure  2).  energy  in  probability  accretion  there  rela-  part.  profile  presents  portion  diffracted,  by  the  generates  in  therefore,  D,  affected  and  beach;  of  greater  Point,  form,  the  sharp  part  northwest  to  rounded  on  a  southeast  tive  cent  breakers  have  and  being  Profile  a  of  to  Frontispiece  for  the  rows  appears  (see  responsible to  swell  beach  a  the  bay  2 - 3  swell  affecting  appear  of  generates  northwest,  rows  the  portion  the  summer active  middle  waves  across  greatest  (Table  of  which the  have  of  adja-  been  only  bay.  This  accretion  indicating  hydrodynamic  beach  shoaling  amount  IX),  the  environment  that  it  on  the  and re-  beach. Profiles Point tion  a n d Wya on  Profiles maximum (rods tion  the  upper  located  respectively, due  E,  on  either  side  accretion  on  the  D and  and  the  Profiles  lower  It files  Point  G,  foreshore  #4), on  A and  located  is in  and  in  to  C and  of  to  semi-protected  Quisitis  berm b u i l d i n g Sand  Point,  due  to  (rods  note  (rods that  areas  of  #6  ridge  and  accre#2).  experienced building  F e x p e r i e n c e d maximum  mid-foreshore  interesting  lee o f  e x p e r i e n c e d maximum  mid-foreshore B,  the  accre-  4).  the  equilibrium  the  beach,  pro-  Profiles  A,  I 20,  B  and  G were  The o t h e r sion  it  east  part  from  2 5  relation by  that  4„0  most  tank  studies  waves in  1,3  but  are  the  agent  berm  is  higher  in  summer  berms  berm  elevations, area.  being  Between  gravel  berms  (Bagnold,  1940),  the  height  of  times  height  of  approximate this it  is  berm.  believed  responsible destroy  SIZE  ANALYSIS),  must  occur  any  violent  Bay  PROFILE  high  B,  C and  the  to  berms  (see  D were  berm  on  model  above which  feet  for  winter  along  are  in  excess  formed the made  backshore,  at  thought on  sea  storm  the  there  chapter  backwas  observations  heights  THKOUGH  19  the  which  waves  exist  waves  winter  a  no  mainly  the  Based  violent  storm  wave  during  of  building  happen  spring  CHANGES  on  that  berm  therefore  Wreck  Profiles  for that  these  and  Based  feet,  water  amplitude  dictated  on  IX).  deep  have  existed  25.5  south-  established  C and  (Table  an  at  are  eleva-  Profile  Bay  the  ero-  the  elevations  Wreck  within  producing  E.  summer  being  less  at  each  storm.  and  and  former  Winter  summer  accretion  one  1969,  actually  Relatively  in  formed  not  it.  the  IX).  table  that  tabie  extensive  giving  which  and  by  maximum  (Table  the  4 distinct  highest  February  waves  I),  their  water  above  water  heights  (Map  thus  beach,  feet  the  the  it,  the  seen  affected  storm  be  to  is  the  will  also  level  to  to  of  shore,the  attained  respect  breaker  spitbar  prior  severely  With  -  r  most  profiles  values  tions,  all  the to  TIDAL  measured  at  be  SEDIMENT of  19  storms. ONE  time.  CYCLE half-hourly  feet  121.  intervals  in  conjunction with  tracer  conducted  at  these  (see  BASED  ON TRACER  locations  GROSS  over by  amount  the  this  zone, zone.  Figures  with  rising  in  similar  stage  erosion As  of  accretion occurs  (1964)  accretion  swash wash  of  foreshore  Strahler  a is  becomes  these  zones  original  sediment,  is  reverse by  backwash,  surface,  profile  back  the  to  and  than  load  portion  The  into  is the of  1948). *See  greater  it.  sinks  however, a  is  below  water ment  30)  GLOSSARY  the  and  SAND  MOVEMENT  the  sand  Below  water  sediment  all  wash  noticed However,  behind  the  in  back-  the  flood  together  and  zone  tide,  with  transported During zone to  ebb  step  the  some  seaward  tide, is  influence  restores  at  Profiles  water is  the  the  is  table that  water  water  returns  load  with  that  the  eroded the  foreshore  shape.  this  above  a point  process  breaker  accretion  for  swashes  close  swash,  last  indicate  experiments.  backwash.  the  the  -  landward  the  31,  first  since  completely  above  deposited.  of  scoured out  i.e.  reason  dry  swash  by  equilibrium.'  swash  the  dominant  by-the  swash,  its  Initial 29  step  sequence o c c u r s ,  retreating  beach  zone  then  30,  level  set  advance  deposited  breaker  as  tide  the  initially  the  29,  short-lived,  material  to  on  CHANGES  Examination small  chapter  experiments  DISPERSION).  I.  a  dispersion  B  line  and of  some o f table,  table  seaward  transported  (Figures  emergence, the  and  line as  C  of  swash  its  emergence  backwash,  with  it  sedi-  and  (Grant,  122.  Advance the  tida!  but  at  in  cycle  Profile  the  possible,  cate  that  landward  lag  C  clearly  (Figure of  the  water  the  backwash This the  A higher of  ing  increased  its  fine  waves  of  which  of  15  table  and  elutriation  phenomenon  -  Figures 25  line  of  during the  water  table  material  of  a  30  this  tide zone,  I  through 29), apparent  (Figure were  the  31),  not  area.  and  31  indi-  immediately  suffers  than  periods  ebb  D  located  tide  result  table  from  29,  emergence,  ebb  during  erosion.  feet,  only  tide  affected  step  (Figure  is  high  probably  water  B  at  erosion  tide  this  Profile  measurements  zone  is  at  zone  Profile  high  water  breaker  At  examination  narrow  the  table.  Careful  between  for  30),  of  a  of  evident  because  tide.  1948).  retreat  half-hourly  of  intensive flood  is  vicinity  continuous  and  it -  does  3 hour  (Emery would  more  and  during time Foster,  enhance  thereby  account-  Figure  29.  Changes a t  P r o f i l e B through  one t i d a l  cycle.  -  C i r c l e d n u m e r a l s on t h e d i a g r a m d e n o t e p r i m a ry rod numbers; s m a l l l e t t e r s between them d e n o t e s e c o n d a r y rod numbers. The l a t t e r were e m p l a c e d a t low t i d e on t h e 9 t h August 1968, t h e day t r a c e r d i s p e r s i o n e x p e r i m e n t s were c o n d u c t e d on t h e f o r e s h o r e , and were s p a c e d 5 feet apart.  -  The p r o f i l e was m e a s u r e d a t h a l f - h o u r l y i n t e r v a l s , and f o r e s h o r e e l e v a t i o n c h a n g e s were e x p r e s s e d r e l a t i v e to t h e p r o f i l e at t i m e o f s e c o n d a r y rod e m p l a c e m e n t .  -  F i g u r e s 30 and 31 a r e s i m i l a r p r e s e n t a t i o n s P r o f i l e s C and D r e s p e c t i v e l y .  of  PROF I L E (D HW  MID-TIDE  1  2  3  4  5  6 7 TIME IN  8 9 10 11 HALF HOUR UNITS  FIGURE  P r o f i Ie  changes  through  , 1 2 3  MID-TIDE  12  13  14  15  16  29  one t i d a l  cycle  HW  i—i—i—r~r  a  C  j—i—i—r  "i—i—r i—i—i—i—r o  -o  -o — - o  a  5  o—  "XX.  s  g h -— o  r~  r— \  \ \ \  '  x  .  ^  \ V \  \  ~~\ \  V  I  /  /  / r  /  \v g  ©  e  h  o  -<  I  o  C  o  f  —  g  c  <r- "  h  o  *• — " ° *  I  e  o  —o  f  —•  3  o  —  —»  \  ~« f  I  o  5  6  I7 TIME  1  8  1  III  changes  1  9 10 11 12 IN HALF HOUR UNITS  FIGURE  Profile  c  through  I13  14  15  16  17  30  one  tidal  cycle  )  2k  P R O H L E {Q)  i—i—i—i—i i I i—r  r  i i  b  o-  o  C  o  o- -  <J o  J— - o - — - o  o  b  or"  h  b  o  » —  h  o  t  o  0  *  C  c  -o b  °.  -°  ,  »' ' d  e  ^ *>  o  t>-  t »- g <--  I  O  -O  ,  f  o-  h  «  ---o  0  r  g e--i—9''--c-6 ;'__ _.--g=- = =8----<>" l  !r  =  0  aY-'--IT;'.>  d d  o  o-~ ~  Z  0  o  i  0  g  o —  --o  » b  o  C  — 0  g  o— —o( 1  2  3  . M i l 4  5  6  7  8 9 10 11 12 13 TIME IN HALF HOUR UNITS  FIGURE  Profi Ie,changes  14  15  1«  17  18  31  through one  tidal  cycle  19  20  126.  2.  NET  CHANGES  Extreme (100  X),  that  erosion  not  and  close does  apparent  ably  because  accretion the  in  at  impression  Profile  Profile  D  either  in  of  of  are  the  apparent  and  the  high  the  spatial  tive  to  This  phenomenon must  erosion  Profiles  above  and  1948)  as  table  elevation  landward B  and  D.  seen  of  it  B and  on  at  (Emery  C,  ebb and  tidal  and  C.  Profile range  This  was  C,  prob-  resulted  thereby  result  upper  and tide  the of  same  by  in  giving  is  of  1948)  be  as  seen  table that rela-  occurs.  foreshore (Grant,  a higher  seen  diagrams  water  emergence  erosion  on  reversed  pattern  because  on  foreshore.  the  will  building  peaks  these  differential  enhances  Foster,  lower  marks  line  also  it  two  erosion  between  these  water  of  and  C,  ridge  The  displayed  Profile  yet  C and  evident.  erosion  result  the  Profile during  of  and  a  below  the  between  D,  B and of  diagrams  illustrates  foreshore,  B  the  event  With  be  the  clearly  -  relationship  in  Profiles  dramatic  mark.  on  likely  ridge  rods,  Profiles  changes  confinement  tide  at  these  accretion.  at  most  profile  of  measurements  places  however,  The most is  occur  over-all  the  the  long-term  building  ridge  exaggeration  of  day-to-day  D are,  side  fact  different  Berm at  spacing  the  the  vertical  water  immediately at  Profiles  Figure  32,  Net c h a n g e s at t i da I e y e Ie,  Profiles  B,  C and  D after  one  -  C i r c l e d numerals along the bottom o f each p r o f i l e diagram denote p r i m a r y rod numbers; small l e t t e r s between them d e n o t e s e c o n d a r y rods.  -  Both axes o f and v e r t i c a l  -  The p r o f i l e s a r e p l o t t e d as s t r a i g h t lines for t h e f o r e s h o r e e l e v a t i o n s a t low t i d e p r e c e e d i n g t h e t r a c e r d i s p e r s i o n e x p e r i m e n t s . The c u r v e d l i n e s r e p r e s e n t net p r o f i l e changes incurred a f t e r one t i d a l c y c l e . They were d e r i v e d from F i g u r e s 2 9 , 3 0 a n d 31 b y s u b t r a c t i n g t h e s a n d e l e v a t i o n s at each rod s t a t i o n on the righthand s i d e o f t h e d i a g r a m s , from t h o s e on t h e left-hand side.  -  P o s i t i o n o f the l i n e o f emergence t a b l e , and t h e h i g h t i d e mark a r e of the diagrams.  -  P o s i t i o n o f the sand t r a c e r i n d i c a t e d f o r each p r o f i l e , gravel t r a c e r d i s p e r s i o n is P r o f i Ie D.  the diagrams exaggeration  are graduated is 100 X,  in  feet,  o f the water shown o n t o p  sampling g r i d s are and t h e a r e a o f shown f o r  32  FIGURE  Net •  Hinh t i d e  t>2  Water  profile  changes  after  one  tidal  cycle  table  • Ol  PROFILE  (B) -  PROFILE  O -  -Ol -02 0 a  b  c  d ©  a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i ©  a  b  c d  e f g  h  i  ©  Water table  •02 ~\>  o  High tide  o~ -  .Ol  LU  6\E  F  -  P R O F IL E  LxJ  G R I D  v--  ^-01  -02  b  c  ©  a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i  ©  a  b  c  d  e  f  g  /•...,  •02  h  i  ©  a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h i  j ©  Water table  High tide  \  •Ol  UPPER GRID  o  V  r  LOWER  /  GRID"  PROFILE  PEBBLE / COBBLE CONCENTRATION  -01 -02 a  ©  1  a  b  I I  c  d  e  ©  1  a  b  1  SO  c  d  e  1  f  g  I  h  i  I  ©  a  I  b  c  I IOO  d  e  1  f  © I  I  F E E T  a 1  b  I  ISO  c  d  J  e  f  I  g  _L  200  250  -  128.  Plate  10,  Procedure used f o r measuring sand e l e v a t i o n c h a n g e s d u r i n g t h e summer. Graduated s t a f f , with f l a t base, is p l a c e d a d j a c e n t to the p r o f i l e r o d , and t h e e l e v a t i o n o f i t s t i p above the sand s u r f a c e is measured.  129.  PI a t e  P  l  a  t  e  I 1 a.  1  lb.  Mouth o f 30th June  L o s t Shoe 1968.  Creek  on  Mouth o f L o s t Shoe C r e e k on 31st J u l y 1968. N o t e t h e t h i c k l a y e r o f sand ( I . I f e e t ) above b o u l d e r s in the stream bed.  130. VIII. A.  SAND MOVEMENT B A S E D  PARAMETERS  INTRODUCTION The  (Figure based  gain  2),  on  value.  wave  and  wave  an  to  a  evaluation  of  sand  movement  can  only  be  by  along  beach  zone  technique and  thus  in  a  B.  WAVE  and  FILES),  can  set  along  one  the  shore  semi-quantitative was  in  simply  to  along  the  beach,  during  currents  are  usually  too  the  a  and  beach  a  of  by  a  wave  parameter  account  hydrodynamic  cobbles  the  rn  zone  and  then  the  boulders  move  by  nearshore  lying  80%  between  of  the  1956).  Caldwell  involves  turbulence  t h i s , a p p r o x i m a t e Iy  narrow  closely  but  particles  (Johnson,  devised  into  but  saltation  result  within  all the  been  takes  a complex  themselves,  has  complex  the  As  occurs  (1956)  followed  in  for  this  measurement  spatial  environment  determining study.  The  close  to  shore,  variability  of  waves  such  as  at  Wreck  Bay.  PARAMETERS Visual  time  material  waves  1964).  drift  is  investigation  drift  littoral  foreshore  A method littoral  the  semi-suspension;  the  drift  of  littoral  generated  of  (Bascom,  breaker  of  breaking  state  littoral  purpose  Bay  regime.  transport  rolling zone  Wreck  the  summer  created into  in  impression  Wave weak  pattern  parameters,  However,  typical  of  ON WAVE  profiles and  breakers  estimates were  included affecting  of  wave  measured  the the  height,  parameters  (see  chapter  approach  different  were on  each  TRANSVERSE  angle,  locations.  made  A  and  period  number  of  PRO  131.  breaker poles,  height, which  1968.  The  profile of  were  the  measured  incident were  photographs field by  -erealso  emplaced on  average  locations  aeria!  with  measurements  estimates  counting  angle  also and  the  the  made  lower of  breakers  figures  {Table  ill).  number  to  at  in  the  mid-July different  examining  six  sets  corresponded very  Breaker  pass  graduated  foreshore  d e t e r m i n e d by  these  using  periods  a profile  rod  well  were in  one  mi nu t e , A summary shown of  in  the  Table  highest  significant ted  with  Profi  *  a  X,  the  of  The  1/3  breaker  of  parameters  used  in  the  calculations  are  significant  breaker  height  is  the  average  all  heights  measured,  and  the  average  of  breaker  period  significant  is  the  periods  associa-  breakers.  Ie S i g n i f i c a n t breaker Significant breaker Breaker incident angle (degrees)* height (feet) period (seconds)  A  .75  10  -7  B  2.50  10  -2  C  2,75  10  D  4.00  10  -4  E  3.50  10  3  F  2.50  10  -1  G  1 .00  10  6  sign indicates a southeast northwest d i r e c t i o n . T a b Ie  X.  direction,  1  no  sign  Summary o f Wave P a r a m e t e r s u s e d Littoral Drift Calculations.  indicates  in  I32v  C.  LITTORAL  ZONE  The depends on states they  this  break  the  orbits  upper  from  limits of  parameters  one  toral  the  just  most o f  waves b r e a k ,  Emery  (I960)  littoral  t h e wave  height;  to complete  full  water  zone c o n s i d e r e d at depths  were  ( T a b l e X I ) . The of  set at  zone  each twice  widths  the b r e a k e r zones  the  field  measurements on  the mid-tide l e v e l .  the c a l c u l a t i o n s  on  a time  considered satisfactory  e s t i m a t e s on at  occurs,  to  the  swash a c t i v i t y .  T h i s was  drift  drift  friction.  seaward  w e r e made a t a b o u t  quantitative  D.  that  d e c i d e d t o base hour.  littoral  are unable  breaker height  Finally,  fore  particles  s u f f i c i e n t l y wide,  extended  the  at which  to bottom  ensure  was  most o f  i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y k/3  depth  due  significant  thus  depth  when w a t e r  To profile  i n which  the water  that  circular  zone  the d i r e c t i o n  the d i f f e r e n t  and  wave  I t was  interval  to provide intensity  thereof  semiof  lit-  locations,  CALCULATIONS I.  SHALLOW WATER WAVE LENGTH  The  c  2  =  classical | L  t  a  n  h  2M  where  2id L  c  wave v e l o c i t y  9  gravitational  L = wave d =  water  length depth  e q u a t i o n o f hydrodynamics  states:  .(I)  acceleration  133.  For  shallow  and  tanh  water  ~ -  conditions,  tends  to  ™ -  waves  in  d becomes  (Inman,  in  small  compared  Shepard,  1963).  depth  given  to  L,  There-  fore  The  velocity  where (2),  T  is  the  water  of  the  wave  period, length  2.  can  any  substituting  found  in  is this  terms  of  into  the  by  C =  /j  equation  period  and  TOTAL  FORWARD MOVING  approximately  given 2  £ H  is  also  travels  =  HIT  the  in  per  by  following  H tanh  a  tions,  by  mu 11 i p I y i r.g  val  time:  since  reduces  height  the  of  E =  train  of  a  relation  single  wave  (Caldwell,  is  1956):  £  2  ^iid t e n d s  (4) in  feet,  A major wave  can  4lTH (tanh  tanh  length  -j--  units.  with  wave  unit  ENERGY  2iid  energy  of  the  2  f.p.s.  WAVE  energy  breaker  forward  ..(3)  .  total  but  by  be  Ts/gd  The  are  and  of  depth: L =  where  water  by  be  and  portion  the of  other  this  form.  The  total  found  for  shallow  Vj  where  this  total  forward  the  quantities  water  energy  moving condi-  selected  -~)t to  ^ ™  inter-  (5) in  shallow  water,  the  equat op ;  to: 2 E = 3. The  257.7  (6)  ALONGSHORE angle  ENERGY  between  COMPONENT  breaking  waves  and  the  beach  134.  determines nent  of  mined  the  t h e total  from  the e =  that  is,  where  direction forward  257.7(  the  by  made  by  Caldwell  alongshore 0  the  in  (1956)  in the  alongshore  wave  energy  of  beach  final  studies  with  the  is  per  amount  results  obtained  sidered  as  in  in  led  to  in  in  an  littoral  cubic  drift  the  with  out  above,  diameter  of  millions  in  this  values.  of  foot-pounds  was  study: (10)  equation  (9)  developed  d e t e r m i n e d on 0.4  median  study  210)  '  that  about  average  present  yards  (tentatively  used  pointed  mentioned  finer  minimum  of  (1952)  hour  factor  equation  be  median  much  Board  California,  2l0J257.7(-~^)sinecose| should  material sand  foot  proportionality  two  Erosion  ..(9)  e =  the  foot-pounds  8  movement  the  1956):  energy:  sand  It  deter-  breakers  alongshore  Q =  is  (8)  Beach  between  wave  ke *  energy  0 =  gives  This  compo-  DKIFT  relationship  k =  energy.  (Caldwell,  incidence of  LITTORAL  per  alongshore  )sinQcos0  of  Q =  by  L £  angle  empirical  which  p  0  Studies  where  I t  alongshore  and  the  (7)  total  Florida,  wave  of  E si nOcosQ 2  e = =  strength  moving  relationship  =  4.  and  and  mm. of  should  beach  At  Wreck  0.15  mm;  therefore  Bay the be  con-  135,  E.  RESULTS The  Pro- Water f i Ie d e p t h (feet)  results  are  indicated  in  tabular  form:  forward Total Li t t o r a l Sha11ow T o t a l alongm o v i n g wave drl ft shore energy Water energy (cub.yds./ (foot-pounds/ wave hour)* 1 engt (foot-pounds/ hour/foot of hour/foot of beach)* (feet) beach)  A  1.5  49  161,400  -19,530  -9.0  B  5.0  89  3,273,000  -114,100  -37.0  C  5.5  93  4, 155,000  72,490  25.7  D  8.0  1 12  10,600,000  -737,900  -164,6  E  7.0  105  7,595,000  396,900  100.2  F  5.0  89  3,273,000  -57,120  -21.3  G  2.0  56  34,430  14.2  *  a  sign indicates a southeast northwest d i r e c t i o n . T a b Ie  F.  331 , 3 0 0  XI .  direction,  L i t t o r a l D r i f t at D u r i n g t h e Summer  no  sign  Profiles Regime.  indicates  A to  G  DISCUSSION Adjacent  Profiles wave  A and  G was  i n c i d e n c e at  themselves  to  were  the  two  always  both  headlands,  unidirectional,.  locations  small,  thus  littoral  were  resulting  The  large, in  but  very  drift  angles the  little  at of  waves sand  movement. Adjacent ed  by  were  uniform always  to  Sand  littoral  complicated  Point,  currents by  small  Profiles  for  most  wave  D and  of  trains  the  E were time,  resulting  affect-  but  these  from  136.  diffraction on  PLANIMETRIC  longshore MENT  ral  bar  BASED  waves  from  is  G,  wave  the  volumes and  in  SHAPE), at  E  directions the  heights  in the  drift,  cident  both  the  accretion B was  at  this  the  on  SAND  prevailing  at  resulting  Sand  storm  How-  during  the  Profile  in  transported  MOVE-  litto-  III).  waves  than  the  wind-blown  (Table  of  on  A  and  considerable  through Point,  Profiles resulting  location.  generally the  chapter  refraction  bay  at  (see  chap'.er  angle  foreshore  quantities  minor  whole  sand  only  subjected  small  to  incident  of  sand  a  uniform  angle  being  of  litto-  waves  transported  profile.  this  C  and  being  used  in  locations, one  during  ebb  these  locations accretion  F were  largely the  observed  again  nual  on  (see  larger,  The  by  locations  but  were  transported  much  Island  Furthermore,  incident two  D,  reverse  the  direction,  angles  currents  are  movement.  Profiles sand  levels  around  these  deposited  current  through  Profile  tide  average at  Profile  resulted  at  Florencia  occasionally  south  significant  ral  and  the  sand  is  and  certain  smaller  of  Rock  DI S P E K S 1 ON),.  although  summer  Seal  ON T R A C E K  current  ever,  D  around  to  be  fairly  directions  way  during  during and  lack  were  flood  There  was  summer, of  due  to  the  calculations.  the  tide.  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  a  very  In  negligible  small  the  wave  field,  strong  at  times,  highly  variable.  littoral but  at  Sand  tide  was  thus  an  excess  of  material  fact  supported  by  their  profile  often  in-  sensitivity  brought  to  tidal  back at  contirange  137. (see  chapter  on  TRANSVERSE  A persistent and  B,  due  directions similarly Profiles  probably in  this  between  PROFILES).  rip-current  to  opposed  area  (see  Profiles  littoral  chapter  F and  G  B  and  D,  and  E and  F,  frequently  cut  across  beach  ridges  were  observed  to  migrate  These  rip-currents  rents  converged,  of  deep-water  toral  current  siderably.  a  slight  was  directions  probably and  the  two  Profiles  longshore  they  opposing  in  the  sufficient  intensities  SHAPE),  in  of  to  channels  the  and beach.  littoral  angle  of  alter  these  and  Between  existed,  length  A  current  observation).  rip-current  where  change  between  PLANIMETRIC  (from  down  where  and  on  narrow  and  developed  and  waves  up  existed  cur-  approach the  areas  litcon-  138.  IX,  This manner  of  distinct  on  was  tensity not  were  one of  T K A C E K  A  sand  as  well  persions  were  DISPERSION  1962) as  using  gravel  chapter  and  Profile  depth on  gravel  D,  sand  with  Three  one  B,  C and  The  duration  of  each  for  (see  the the  D  chapter  on  and  areas SAND  (see  experi-  direction three  en-  having  Profiles  to  at  the  with  foreshore  at  was at  Profile  aid  of  by  D.  in-  are  MOVEMENT  and  C,  tracer  surface  analysis mean  measurements  were  tracer  intervals, the  the to  tidal  and  dis-  their  gravel  during  (Wright,  B  Sand  experiments,  half-hour  disturbance  Profiles  determining  the  these  employed  trend  orientation  supplement  measured  TRANSVERSE  tracers  tracers  Pebble  conjuction  were of  each  the  -  technique  tracers  analysed  displacements.  themselves  purpose,  drift  regime  examine  foreshore.  therefore,  littoral  integrated  vector  In  the  to  PARAMETERS),  1968),  at  this  and  summer  (Boon,  made  across  for  cycle,  the  space  Yasso,  conducted  PROFILES).  indicated of  was  characteristics  tidal  ON WAVE  1962;  selected  TRANSVEhSE  typical  BASED  movement  foreshore  chapter ment  investigation  sediment  vironments  B.  ON  3AS ED  I N T K O D U C T I Q N  A.  the  MOVEMENT  SAND  also  information. profiles determine cycle  (see  PROFILES).  TECHNIQUES I.  TKACER  At  each  of  PREPARATION the  three  areas  studied,  sand  to  be  used  139. as  tracer material  and t h e o t h e r (Figures  derived  below the  measuring  feet  to  insure  sufficient prevailed  at  in  resin  which  used,  red, blue  the t r a c e r s .  table  This  supply  during  vigorous It  with It  so  the  long  each  tin  d e p t h was as  found  erosion  experiments  brand  name " K r y l o n "  c o n t a i n e d an a c r y l i c  resistant  and g r e e n ,  to a b r a s i o n ,  were b r i l l i a n t  and  in both  was ester  the  colours  daylight  a plastic  shaking, was  wards p a s s e d  then  the  was  bag  containing  the dry  sand e v e n t u a l l y  spread  through  a c c o m p l i s h e d by  thinly  a 0.25  over  mm s c r e e n  spraying sand.  the  Through  became s a t u r a t e d paper  to  (except  desired  with  dry,,and D red)  to  afterremove  cIumps, B e f o r e m a r k i n g , a p p r o x i m a t e 1y 50 gms o f retained in Tab!e  and  I ight.  Sand m a r k i n g into  paint  rendered i t  u11raviolet  paint.  the water  a cylindrical  and d e p t h .  locations  above  t h e day p r e c e e d i n g  c o l l e c t e d using  tracer  one  32).  f o r marking  paint  low t i d e on  continual  the source  locations,  emergence o f  diameter  A fluorescent used  At  t h e sand was  0.35  from two  line of  3 3 , 35 and 3 7 ) .  experiment,  (Figure  was  for XII:  size  analysis,  the  results  of  sand  which a r e  was shown  I ko.  Mean ( 0 )  Tracer  P r o f i Ie  Verbal sorting scale ( F r i e d m a n , 1962)  S t a n d a rd Devi a ti on (0)  B  Red B iue  2,63 2,64  0,28 0,30  Very Very  we 1 1 s o r t e d we 11 s o r t e d  C  Red/BIue G reen  2„G7 2,65  0,29 0,30  Very Very  wei 1 we 11  D  Red G reen  0,78 2. 22  1,47 0.79  Poorly sorted Moderately well  Table  At were  returned  low t i d e to t h e i r  Three for  XI I „ T e x t u r a l  gravel  u s e as t r a c e r s  different  colours,  foreshore  where  Blue sized (see  pebbles  material, panel  The tracers  source  sizes  hand-picked  were  D. T h e y  placed  sizes  positioned  properties  were  gravel  on a narrow  to p r o f i l e  the tracers  spray  t h e beach  painted  areas  exposed of  pebble  with  ont h e  at the time. equivalent  section  in Figure 3 7 ) .  and percentage  in Table  Tracers  along  strip  o f a coarse line  sorted  locations.  in circular  matched  in the middle  a r e shown  days,  respective  and then  adjacent  o f Sand  on t h e experimental  at P r o f i l e  their  were  Parameters  sorted sorted  recovery  of  gravel  XIII.  C o l o u r Mean Genera 1 i n t e rmedi a t e s h a p e axis (i)(mm) Whi t e  76  El 1 i p s o i da 1  Red  32  B Iue  16  Number o f p a r t i c l e s Emp1aced Recovered  %  Recovery  16  4  25  Di s c o i d a 1  100  64  64  1 rregu1ar  300  238  79  T a b Ie X I I I .  P r o p e r t i e s and Percentage of Gravel Tracers,  Recovery  141.  2.  GRID  DIMENSIONS  Rectangular tracers, hourly tion. the  the dimensions  observations At P r o f i l e  texture  sampling  grids  of  D,  of  was d e s i g n e d  was  feet,  diameter  locations 3.  a  lent  from  ments  at  were  at  were  total  each  tracer  foreshore  using  by  recovery,  This  a plastic  on  loca-  erosion  as  in-  depth  coring  two w i d e l y  positioned  spaced  profile  by  tube  taping  rods.  the experiment  in equilibrium  at  with  P r o f i Ie  B was  t h e summer  conducted  regime,  storm  affected  the foreshore  prior  Profiles  C a n d D.  Profile  relatively  D was  to  late  (see chapter  in  based  dictated  measurements.  simply  but P r o f i l e Spring  Hydrodynamic vailed  were  feet.  disturbed, that  which  sand  ENVIRONMENTAL C O N D I T I O N S  foreshore summer  To i n s u r e  profile  recovering  conditions  to exceed  0.I I  tracers  Whereas on  of  of  for  locations  ^ n d was a c c o m p l i s h e d  Gravel their  grid  the foreshore.  depth  inside  locations  however,  RECOVERY  employed  hydrodynamic  by t h e h a l f - h o u r l y  with  were  and  dicated 0.4  AND S A M P L E  C was  reduced  o n TRANSVERSE  days  conditions  a r e shown  in Table  vio-  the experi-  to a c o n d i t i o n  and a t m o s p h e r i c  on the e x p e r i m e n t a l  to  a  little similar  PROFILES). that XIV.  pre-  142.  P r o f i Ie  B reaker Height(ft) Period(sees)  B  i - 2  10  Weak  C  i - 3  iO  Strong  D  2 - 5  9  Strong  Tab Ie X I V  plane-tabled  soon  SE  (sees)  13  Light NW  MW  1 1  Light S  SE/NW  10  None  Hydrodynamic Parameters and Atmospheric C o n d i t i o n s on E x p e r i m e n t a l Days.  c  4. SURVEY AND As  Wi n d  Swash Period Di r e c t i o n  PHOTOGRAPHS  as t h e t r a c e r s  on a s c a l e  were emplaced,  o f I inch  = 200 f e e t  each  area  was  ( F i g u r e s 3 3 , 35  and 3 7 ) . Photographs vals  to portray  (Plates they Table  the hydrodynamic  12a, b , c;  were  o f the areas  taken,  13a,b, c;  were  taken  at it-hour  conditions with  tide  1 4 a , b , c ) . The t i m e s  and p e r t i n e n t t i d a l  at  inter-  level which  information are given i n  XV.  P r o f i I e Day  Tidal H i g h Ti de Photog raph time ( h r s ) R a n g e T i me He i q h t a b c (hrs) \ f t j (ft) 1430 1500 1630 6.9 1800 10.9  B  Aug.9  C  Aug.23  5.7  1340  10.0  1430  1600  1730  D  Aug.25  7.8  1440  10.8  1500  1630  1800  Table  5.  XV. T i d a l I n f o r m a t i o n a n d P h o t o g r a p h T i m e s on E x p e r i m e n t a l Days,  COUNTING  Each  PROCEDURES  s a m p l e was s p l i t  four  times  with  a  microspIitter,  143. and  the  balance  spread  under  ultraviolet  which  combined  existed white C.  as  light  TREND  little local  the  was  usually  The  1962;  to  to  the  data  1962).  By  problem,  surface  into x n  two  x  n  =  trend  e  p  =  residual  not  be  accounted  application  on  was  +  a  + o  defined a V 0  +  of  the  real  for  trend  first  sur-  inves-  trends.  a procedure  l  by  a  a U + j>  i s the t r e n d component point = geographic coordinates on a g r i d  general  a,UV  2  3  =  which  dissects  +  polynomial:  a V +  (2)  2  c  b t- h  H  of  the  n  observation  of  the  n  observation  coefficients. n  since  component  a.U I  x  movement,  component  x  and  sediment  of  data  be  aQ,aj,a2i..=  recently  (I)  can  (U,V)  under  PKOGKAHMING  (1968)  is  doubt  components:  component  n  inspection  until  assessments  analysis  When  M-15,  decide.  could  Boon  examination  a Mineralight  radiation.  were  the  for  + e n  raw  =  was  COMPUTER  raw  objective  =  x  the  Yasso,  make  data  of  p  n  to  foreshore  trend  X  sufficient AND  paper  particle,  explaining  in  n  Both  a  studies  X  where  shortwave  integrated  X = n where  and of  used  Space  analysis  raw  lamp  ANALYSIS  Trend the  white  The  identity  variability  tigator  long  over  SURFACE  value  (Wright, face  light.  both  to  thinly  may  be  considered  to  be  values  along  a  \kk.  perpendicular  line  with  coordinates  (U,V)  on  the  2-dimensionaI  grid. Polynomials data  For  0  etc.),  each  the  squares  of  of  these  order  trend  coefficients  procedures  any  may  surfaces  aQ,a|,a  such  be  fitted  (iinear,  are  to  the  raw  quadratic,  determined  by  least  that  2 £(X„ n The  coefficients  equation,  and  the  grid.  As  the  deviation  proaches  of  trends local  are  becomes,  the  regional  on  particle  A program IBM  70k0/kk  for  linear  the also  for  sixth each  corresponding included  the  raw  is  was  closer  the  each  sample  the  trend  applications  the a~e  of  assays,  systematic  just  on  smaller  surface  ap-  trend  the  purpose  variation  deviations.  reverse, sought  in In  that  by  surface  is,  is  to  order this  to  type  real  eliminating  the  sample. by  used  order  tracer  for  polynomial  increased,  anomalous  written  six  is  the  data.  of  the  into  found  geochemical  each  computer to  the  dispersion of  are  order  and  trends  intention  variability  substituted  geological  regional  in  obtained  then  polynomial  most  e.g.  ..,.(3)  minimum  components  concentration  study  =  n  hand-contoured  eliminate allow  )  trend the  In analysis  x  A.J, to  Sinclair  calculate  polynomials. colour  residual  standard  -  six  point  deviation,  for  the  Twelve trend  plots. total  use  on  an  coefficients plots  surface Computer  were maps,  thus and  output  variation,  varia-  \ks. tion  explained,  and  coefficient  of  determination  for  each  sur-  face. Trend 38 for  were  selected  the  for  following  Experiments trend The  surface  interpretation  at  Profiles  patterns  shown  dispersion  pebble  orientations, environment  All  trend  cubic  surfaces  non-random  at  shown  coefficients  for  Profiles as  of  B and  these  Figures  34,  computer  84  36  and  plots  together  explain  for  for  formation. with  analysis  the  of  complex  Profiles  linear, D are  B,  hydro-  C and  of  quadratic  all  significance  determination all  D,  cusp  surfaces,  are  data  and  shown  in  D,  resolution.  Profile  C are  beach  similar  there.  high  for  to  petrofabric  presented,  and  remarkably  significantly (Howarth,  quartic  sufficiently  and  surfaces  high  to  be  1967). shown con-  non-random.  Statistical to  and  5% l e v e l o f  the  show  Profile  determination  The  sidered  for  present  surfaces  of  C  successfully  definition  Coefficients  in  from  related  patterns,  dynamic  show g o o d  B and  apparently  gravel  the  shown  reasons:  patterns,  trend  diagrams  other Table  information XVI„  pertaining  146.  Fi g u r e Prof i l e Number  Tracer Grid co iou r s i z e (feet)  Trend Coeff.of Number of su r f a c e d e t e r m i samp 1es deg r e e nation  Standard devi at ion  B  34 34  -  2a la  Red B Iue  40 x 40 x  90 90  50 50  4 4  0.647 0.492  1.43 2.83  C  36 36 36  -  3a 2a la  B iue 80 x Red P0 x G r e e n 80 x  90 90 90  50 50 50  4 4 4  0.373 0.830 0.522  1.85 2.92 2.49  D  38 38 38 38 38 38  -  3a 2a la 3c 2c Ic  Red Red Green Red Red Green  30 10 30 30 10 30  28  3 3 3 1 2 1  0.308 0.650 0.755 0. 195 0.605 p.514  4.55 15.47 2.27 4.91 16.45 3. 19  60 25 60 60 25 60  x x x x x x  15 28 28 15 28  i  T a b Ie  D.  XVI.  PROFILE  The similar,  as  -  l a , 2a).  This  raw d a t a  2b).  that  apart,  line  patterns  fact  of  (Figure  that  by  tide.  The red t r a c e r  high  higher  than  For this  have  and r e d t r a c e r surface  been missed  considered  sources  were  grid  are  diagrams had the  (Figures located  coincided  (Figures hand-  34  75  lb,  feet  with  the  33).  t h e backwash  tide.  blue  the trend  the sample  the blue  twice  of  been  t h e two t r a c e r  From h a l f - h o u r l y appears  in  would  diagrams  and t h e edge  profile  ENVIRONMENT  indicated  contoured Note  B  dispersal  very  it  a n d D.  RESULTS I .  34  Trend Surface S t a t i s t i c a l D a t a , and Sampling I n f o r m a t i o n a t P r o f i l e s B,C,  profile  tracer  i.e.  reason,  t h e red ones  in  source  during  however,  was  blue  measurements  was p r o b a b l y  flood  tide  as  eroded only tracer  the trend  (Figure  well once  isopleth  surface  29),  affected as ebb viz,  values  diagrams  at are  (Figures  147. 34  - l a , 2a). Dispersal  The  main f e a t u r e s o f  patterns are  similar  these  diagrams  regardless of  are:  tracer  source  location. Two  elongate  high-concentration  o r i e n t e d normal feet apart The  loci  to the c o a s t l i n e , o c c u r  i n both  l i n e , and  o f e m e r g e n c e ( F i g u r e s 33  simply  and  ( F i g u r e s 34  to i l l u s t r a t e  trend surfaces  are  30  l o c a t e d at  c o i n c i d e n t p o i n t s w i t h i n the high  diagrams  axes  diagrams.  to the p r o f i l e  Residual  long  approximately  o f maximum t r a c e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n  approximately cent  zones, with  adja-  c l o s e to the water t a b l e  line  34).  - I c , 2c)  the extent  zone  have been  included  o f d e v i a t i o n o f the  from the hand-contoured  raw  data.  quartic  FIGURE  PROFILE  34  ©  Plate  12a,  Profile B shortly Photograph time -  a f t e r peak h i g h 1500 h o u r s .  tide.  Plate  12b,  Profile  B,  Photograph  time  1630  hours.  Plate  12c.  P r o f i Ie  B,  Photograph  time  1800  hours.  150  151.  2.  PROFILE  The show  that  a  similar  furthermore, persal Here  ability 3b).  a  in  Note  and  the  from  that  patterns  too,  the  ENVIRONMENT  trend  found  bear at  trend  the  of  would  tracer  the  profile  appears  that  during  flood  eroded  twice,  the  and  the  wash.  For  these  face  high  red  values  (Figures  diagrams  36  -  on  a  to  the  larger  data  (Figures  36  -lb,  was  located  located  50  20  feet  feet  dis-  scale.  raw  were  3a)  and  local  vari2b,  apart,  downdrift  35). measurements  source tracer  almost only  green and  emerged,  resemblance  although  2a,  by  tracer  (bottom)  la,  obscured  profile  (top)  again  -  been  red/blue  reasons,  red  Dispersal  green The  blue  diagrams  these  the  B,  36  have  grid  (Figure  has  remarkable  sources  sample  line  tide.  wash,  between  a  hand-countoured  that  (Figures  pattern  Profile  From h a l f - h o u r l y it  surfaces  dispersal  they  basic  edge  the  three  C  was  slightly  isopleth  low  blue  la,  2a,  eroded  source  totally  flood ebb  values  values  in  30),  continuously  however,  by by  3a).  (Figure  was  tide  tide  back-  back-  are  intermediate  the  trend  The main  sur-  features  of  are:  patterns  are  similar  regardless  of  tracer  source  locat ion Two  elongate  oriented feet these  high  normal  apart same  for  concentration  to the  zones  the  coastline,  green  are  zones,  tracer.  occupied  by  with  occur  long  axes  approximately  For  red  and  blue  low  concentrations.  60  tracers,  152. The  l o c u s o f maximum g r e e n t r a c e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n  the h i g h blue  zone n e a r e s t  tracer loci  to the p r o f i l e  occur  area  d i r e c t i o n . Blue  directly  i n the upper  drift to  direction.  r e d and tongue  left-hand corner o f  i n a d i r e c t i o n opposed t o the  t r a c e r was s i m p l y  from t h e source  within  The r e d t r a c e r stems f r o m a  t h e g r i d , and was t r a n s p o r t e d drift  l i n e . Maximum  within a high-concentration  in the middle o f the g r i d . high concentration  lies  transported  i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n a s t h e  B o t h r e d and b l u e  tracer  maxima l i e c l o s e  t h e w a t e r t a b l e l i n e o f e m e r g e n c e ( F i g u r e s 35 and 3 6 ) .  PROFILE O # 0  ©  FIGURE  1C  Primary rods Secondary rods Tracer source Grid samples  o o o o _o_ MHT  -120-  -115-  -o—  . P..  •  a  a  a  a  a  O  •  D  RED/ BLUE  Q~  W  O O o o o o •  High tide  5  o o o o o o o o o o o  j  (  -11 0 -  « r " ta?  c  -10-5-  GREEN  -10  9-5  o-  35  PROFILE  ©  quartic trend surface  hand-contoured Feet  O  10  '  20  raw data  Plate  13a.  P r o f i l e C s h o r t l y a f t e r peak P h o t o g r a p h t i m e 1430 h o u r s .  high  tide.  Plate  13b.  Profile  C.  Photograph  time  1600  hours.  Plate  13c.  Profile  C.  Photograph  time  1730  hours.  156. 3.  PROFILE D ENVIKONMENT (a)  Sand  Tracers  These t r e n d s u r f a c e 2a,  3a and  Profiles exist  Ic,  B and C,  lb,  although  Due t o  region,  viz.  the  pattern  150 f e e t  uncertainty  about  erosion  of  the observed  did occur  during  only once v i z . was  during  flood  all  the small  amount o f tide. lar  to  It  3a and  direction  f r e q u e n c y and  source,  but  it  is  tide.  An i n s i g n i f i c a n t  a total  grid  of  foreshore  c a r r i e d down t h e  tracer,  as  the  large  shown by  on t h e t r e n d s u r f a c e 2c, 3c).  The s m a l l  grid  diagrams  widely  a  were  l i n e due  (Table  31), of  that  some  eroded  amount o f the  to  XIV).  (Figure  being  green  gravel noted  from  considerable  foreshore with in q u a n t i t i e s  roughly  grid,  the m i d -  grids  clear  across  Conversely,  local  s o u r c e was  ten p a r t i c l e s  samples,  does  intensity  high  dispersed over  Ic,  the p r o f i l e  The red t r a c e r  r e d t r a c e r was  pleth values 2a,  tracer  in  two s a m p l i n g  of  (Figures  were s p a c e d  tide.  tide,  the green  drift  the  pattern  gravel  p r o f i l e measurements  t r a n s p o r t e d up t h e  was  Also,  la,  from t h o s e  diagrams  flood  at  tracer  of  to a s s e s s  the green  raw d a t a  sources  37).  38 -  a g a i n o b s c u r e d by  p o s i t i o n e d over  From h a l f - h o u r l y impossible  dispersal  the p r e v a l e n c e o f  (Figure  both being  is  is  two t r a c e r  neccessary,  it  a distinct  the hand-countoured  2b, 3 b ) .  foreshore apart  in  (Figures  are completely d i f f e r e n t  between them. T h i s  variability 38 -  2 c , 3c)  diagrams  equivalent  (Figures  due t o c l o s e  38 -  ebb simiisola,  proximity  157.of  the  has  red  very  tracer  high  red  The main  2c).  Similarity large  tracer  of  and  green  occurs  Profiles  and  The  loci  of  lie  below  the  (Figure lines and on  Ic,  the  true  grid  The  water  zones o f  -  as  well  each  of  recovery  of  of  and  in  the  small 38  patterns  - 2a,  on  are: the  location.  sub-parallel  and  area;  diagrams  small  to  grids  red  line  corner  the  (c/f  of  the of  maximum  tracer  the  red top  slight  skewness  large  and  and  red  on  3a  corner  these  grids  of  isothat  are  tracer materia I  the  the  tracer  la,  2 c ) . Note  side  below  -  concentration  of  small  that  grid  isopleth  38  right-hand  - 2a and  38  large the  (Figure  emergence  of  the  gravel  large  prozone.  grid,  marks  concentrations,  Tracers  dispersion 37. The  distinctive  of  (right-hand  and  concentrations  skewness  indicating  Gravel  Figure  tracer  parallelism  37) above  mTnltnum g r e e n  In  and  above  other,  Figure  table  shown  oriented  (Figures  Particle is  surface  source  slight  southeastwards  (b)  tions  in  resulting  to  line  its  (Figures  dispersal  right-hand  lies  opposite  file  green  locus  directions  carried  trend  large  coastline  3 c ) . The  lines  values  of  C).  skewness  was  both  bottom  diagrams,  pleth  on  because  tracer  zone,  maximum  small  red of  37), resulting  from  the  these  regardless  coastline,  also  isopleth  of  concentration  8  and  features  grid,  A high  source,  of  the  three  statistically  spread  of  the  two  gravel  frac-  high  percentage  pebble  classes,  158.  suggests  that  recovery, its  their  contrary  dispersion  cer  data,  but  particles  practical.  to  to  over  a  Instead,  values  were  Figure  37. Mean v e c t o r with  source  have  area,  it  was  a  was  the  x  and  number  All  of  one  of  and  the  shown  the  small  (^-—n  on  particle pebbles  moved  as  37*  was  ^-LQ) n  vectors  Figure  The  n  is  were  then  main  follows:  moved  northwest  moved  directions,  to  down  texture  lengths, ?s  blue  the  the  blue  red pebbles  migrated  vector  i.e.  are  pebble  coarse  movement  size  of  in  size  colour,and  T h e mean  im-  from  the  pro-  right-hand  grid).  coarsening  mean  particle  red  the  tra-  These  insets  i.e.  plan  particles  vector  cobbles a  beach  as  origin  is  c'f  assign  grid.  gravel  recovered.  dispersion  foreshore,  indicates  of  the  to  each  c  to  considered  rectangular are  and  applied  for  coordinates,  coarse  mean  white  Based  of  (a  the  Based on up  to  gravel  line  side  the  particles  back  but  file  are  of  transposed features  y  XIII),  reservation.  employed  3  where  Cobble  low c o n c e n t r a t i o n  and  as  (Table  been  displacement  tracer  poor  could  on  hand-contoured,  meaningful.  with  large  concentrations  are  considered  point-counter  particle then  was  relatively  fairly a  be  analysis  the  tracer  calculated  should  surface due  patterns  expectation,  pattern  Trend this  dispersion  the  is  inversely pebbles  23.5 f e e t , a n d  remained on foreshore.  towards it  white  pebbles  the  evident  moved  ?4,5  cobbles  that to  feet,  moved  contour,  This  lower  proportional  migrated  trend  foreshore. the  rate  the coarse  !2,0  red  feet.  PROFILE  ©  RED  ,  RED  IT 1216% 12 8  //////  4^  cubic  trend  surface  hand-contoured  8  t  /—N  raw  8> \  data  RED  ^8gV  _£2_ 2b  cubic trend surface  cubic  trend  ^60,80  hand-contoured raw data  hand-contoured  surface  raw  data  Feet 0  linear  trend  10  20  hand-contoured linear residual in u n i t s of standard deviation  surface  2c  quadratic trend surface  GREEN  GREEN  linear  trend  surface  hand-contoured linear residual in u n i t s of standard deviation  Plate  14a.  P r o f i l e D s h o r t l y a f t e r peak P h o t o g r a p h t i m e 1500 h o u r s .  high  tide.  Plate  14b.  Profile  D.  Photograph  time  1630  hours.  Plate  14c.  Profile  D,  Photograph  time  1800  hours.  162.  (c)  made  along  when  the  foot  long  the  of  a one  foot  tide  which  location lower  results  wide  strip  which  axes.  This was  short  was  shown  axes  of  are  Some p e b b l e s directly  then  in  and  the  and  area  using to  of  line a  3  align  the  rod  with at  recorded.  Schmidt  the  39,  were  profile  visually plunge  measured equal  to  accomplished  oriented  Figure  landward  pebbles  main  projection  feature  of  tilted  landward are  at  lie  an  -  so  upper  tilted  angle  top  of  portion  this  stationary,  zone and  of  so  to  were  light-coloured  sand  swash-backwash  zone,  turbulent To  the  close  on  the  their  beach  face  i.e.  their  profile  pebble  the  the  plunge  short  axes  plunge  tilting  swash covered  swash.  pebbles  axes  line  swash-backwash  to  short  trend. that  the  usually by  that  primary  From o b s e r v a t i o n , the  flat  vertical.  are  Some p e b b l e s  rolled  was  measurements  are:  The m a j o r i t y  the  Movement  adjacent  The b e a r i n g  hemisphere,  is  and  pebble o r i e n t a t i o n  68  receeded„  rod,  short  pebble  the  had  steel  A of  Orientation  A total  pebble  each  Pebble  were  At  -  secondary  only  zone.  limit, by  a  the  rolled  occurred  At  the  pebbles  veneer  bottom  part  the  in  extreme  remained  thin  down  trend.  of of  the  fcrcshore  by  backwash. check  the  approximately  50  manner of  in  which  them were  discoidal  painted  pebbles  blue,  and  were  placed  163. on t h e beach It  was  ways  face near the middle o f  apparent  that  l i k e a wheel  abrasion clean,  of  -  paint  whereas  by  far  the m a j o r i t y o f  an o b s e r v a t i o n  flat  sides  them r o l l e d  edge-  s u p p o r t e d by d i f f e r e n t i a l  from t h e p e b b l e s .  the  t h e swash-backwash z o n e .  The edges were  showed o n l y  scoured  a few c h i p s  in  the  pai n t . Tilting  of  pebbles  swash-backwash zone was postulated of  by  backwash,  discs  as  it  Emery which  not  (I960). simply  westerly  due t o wave Rather,  it  zone a r e  (Figure  of  illustrated  39)  impact, was  due t o  pebble behaviour in P l a t e  that  has the  in  force the  the  swash-  15. petrofabric  backwash moved  d i r e c t i o n , and by a s s o c i a t i o n ,  been  pebbles.  t r e n d e x h i b i t e d by t h e  indicates  as  the  landward edges o f  became d e f l e c t e d a r o u n d t h e  The s e c o n d a r y diagram  the upper p o r t i o n o f  l i f t e d the  These t h r e e a r e a s backwash  in  so  did  the  in a n o r t h swash.  164  P E T R O F A B R I C DIAGRAM O F P E B B L E SHORT A X E S (s), AT P R O E I L E ©  165.  foreshore  region  at  P r o f i Ie  D.  166. E.  DISCUSSION I.  BEACH CUSP FORMAT I ON  Gravel of  runnels  It  is  beaches  where  littoral  b e l i e v e d that  beach c u s p s , erosion  by  by  for  form  in  reducing  the  C both  exhibit  elongate  their  formation.  face of  development.  of  1  At  along  a wave  moving  the upper  length  of  zones o f At  negating  Profile gate  B,  D,  (Figure  of  B and  inhibited  the  time o f  35).  existed  trend  (Figure  that its  the  a  sur-  feet  strong  proper cusps experiment, zones  apart,  relationship. 33),  of  distorted  The e l o n g a t e  were s p a c e d 60 a genetic  indica-  indication  cobble  t r a c e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n z o n e s measured 30 f e e t  See GLOSSARY  impact.  Profiles  At  and t h e e l o n apart.  The mechanism o f b e a c h c u s p m a i n t a i n a n c e *  cusp  beaches,  the o n l y  relict  agent  sandy  suggesting  of  f o r e s h o r e at  cusps  wave  Here, a s h o r t ,  current  a series  90 f e e t  into  from t h e t h i r d o r d e r  up t h e g r i d ,  C,  foreshore  tracer concentration  38 - 3 a ) .  any p o s s i b i l i t y  no r e l i c t  texture of  Profile is  through  t  to  t o be t h e  forms  However,  t r a c e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n , however,  thus  runnel  of  1964)  the p r e c u r s o r s  thought  lengths  presence  (Otvos,  differential  is  these  longshore  Profile  to  evident.  (Figure  t r a c e r extends  northwesterly  with  less  development  red t r a c e r  tongue o f  existed  is  a r e weak are  The swash  the u n i f o r m i t y  formation  runnel  response  runnel  runnel  possible  features  transforming  Due t o  tive of  currents  these  t h e backwash.  responsible forms,  and  a r e commonly marked by t h e  is  fairly  167.  well  documented  regular  in  spacing  planations  of  remain  this  Cloud liquid  becomes splits to  exists  subequal  a wave  suitable  the wave ing  length  ted  in with  travelling be  of  exists both  in  Cloud  jets,  gently  seaward  of  the surf  beach  zone.  d e t e r m i n e d by t h e d i s t a n c e  2ilr,  beach  if  shoot  suggest  cusps  cusps  that  forward  would  of  they  height.  note to  in this  When  that  the  the  spac-  case,  cusps  (associa-  edge  t h e edge  headlands  for-  and r i p -  and small  The length  as  were  a  r e f o r m e d waves  waves),  the  develop.  that  compared  that  then  conditions  o n t h e wave  small  A  are proportional  postulated  however,  between  and i t  suggested  interaction of breaking  liquid  would  have  are generally  t o an  cylinder  (1966)  between  They  a  and t h a t  (1969)  ex-  to a  height.  lengths  a r e dependent  rip-currents.  the bores  whose  wave  t h e wave  exceeds  segmentation,  cusps  response  that  t h e segments  a n d Inman  dips  of  between  form  array  and that  foreshore  length  diameter.  relationship  currents,  its  and  theoretical  a breaking  equals  states  divisions  for regular Bowen  mative  diameter  origin  consideration:  has a n a l o g i s e d  collapsed,  spaced  but t h e i r Two r e c e n t  deserve  which  when  the c y l i n d e r ' s  regular  problem  whose  unstable into  moment a  rule  enigmatic.  (1966)  cylinder,  physical  the l i t e r a t u r e ,  waves  waves  enclosing  would the  bay. Practical to *  tne f i e l d  applicability  situation  S e e GLOSSARY  is  of  difficult,  either since  of  these  t h e wave  theories character-  168.  I sties wash  which  as  the  much m o r e  they  describe  agent  responsible  practical  answer  Consideration tioned upper  on  a  sloping  limit),  naturally that  may  more  intense  water  its  take  there  withdrawl  there.  than  transverse  depressions  impact,  and  directed cusp  backwash  problem. of  any  water  minor  due  to  transformation erosion,  would  swash  (the  of  a  backwash)  thickness number  of  create  will  be of  of these  with  shortening  rounded  its  depressions  valleys,  Runnel  then  reaches  volume  the  a  posi-  increased  on  backbe  will  the  into  to  depressions  inter-runnel  follow.  seems  transverse  these  The  momentarily a  slope  Depending  into  genesis  instant  the  in  apparent.  distinct  by  wave  embayments  the  by  problematic  forms.  foreshore the  conclusion  appears  backwash.  material)  up  mines  the  loci,  beach  cusps  table  line  by  the  amalgamation  naturally  valley  In  of  wedges,  cusp  (the  Erosion  water  readily  for  down  of  1948).  not  wedge  elsewhere,  (Grant,  would  a  foreshore  succeeding  spacings,  to  of  advantage  exist  are  maximum  to The  the  be  of  tracer  differential  and  is  the  in  to  in  by  the  erosion.  the  region at  this  erosion  of  tracer  backwash  deter-  The  that  of  fact the  vicinity. dry  the  (and  Profiles  a  on  character  sediment  returning  exemplified  concentrations  susceptibility  carries  transverse  form best  emergence,  concentration  controlled  simply  face,  maximum  apparently  sediment  largely  swash  beach of  then,  and  water  B and Perhaps wet  C the  169. foreshore  (Grant,  1948)  accentuates  runnel  development  In  this  area. 2.  LITTORAL  Space  DKIFT  Integrated  design,  a r e not  suitable  cities.  Equally  good  simply  by o b s e r v i n g  (Table XIV).  is  that  stronger,  D environment cussed  drift  velocities  reaI Iy  tracer  so  attempts  can be the  the  velo-  derived  foreshore  littoral  drift  P r o f i l e C,  it  all  that  was  weak,  was  rela-  d i r e c t i o n . The  apparent,  and w i l l  Profile  be  have been made t o measure  from t h i s  meaningfuI.  type o f  Ingle  area.  Wright  (1962)  dis-  on t h e plotted  section.  Boon  centration  rates  from h i s  longshore  section  through  his  and p l o t t e d t r a c e r p a r t i c l e also  assumed  drew a  instead of that  direction  longshore  high  the study study counts  section,  raw d a t a v a l u e s .  a zone o f  which  between  tracer depletion  (1966)  p a r t i c l e movement.  the area  during  source,  in a downdrift  none o f  times  t h e t r e n d components  l a t t e r procedures  at  measured  beach  different  drew a  from t h e t r a c e r  investigation,  (1966)  concentration contours to c a l c u l a t e  tracer  readily  drift  investigations,  d i r e c t i o n ; at  cycle,  the  tracer  P r o f i l e B,  tidal  area  across  in a northwesterly  not  littoral  their  shortly. Several  are  at  by v i r t u e o f  information  swash d i r e c t i o n s  and  was  studies,  determining  qualitative  in a s o u t h e a s t e r l y  tively  for  From t h e p r e s e n t  c a n be s a i d and  tracer  tracer  Both con-  r e p r e s e n t e d t h e "mode"  The p r e s e n t  study  has  shown  but  that  of  170.  these to  "modes"  the  are  littoral At the  Profile  of  east  direction.  that  direction. very  gravel  a  to  a  TRANSVERSE  would  undergo  simply  would Sand of  of  be  the  platform.  in  drift  platform was  to  also  broke  6  Profile  Between the  Normal  over  locally  on  southeasterly  relationship prior  to  tide  high  tide  Sand  Point  I).  From  on  the  a  was  over  the  of  region and  bathymetric  resulted  in  level,  platform,  foreshore  the  drift  mid-tide  the  would  a  this  the  on  mid-tide  southeasterly  and  drift  by  platform  bathymetric  the  level  chapter  approaching  edge  the  northwest  (see  (Map  and  seaward  divergence  concentrated  low  a  storm  presumably,  D,  tracers  although  divergence  divergence  at  on  a  south-  D,  from  transformation  creating  a  Profile  summer  waves  in  measurements  in  with  and land-  bathymetry. of  feet  - 8  tide,  shoaling  wave  front the  gravel  moved  direction  separated  of  high  by  seaward  orientation  in  Point.  Just  pebble  bar  drift  angular  and  longshore  wave  Point.  relationship  migrated  itself,  nearshore  This  Sand  area  the  a  northwesterly  effects  gravel  swash-backwash  thereby  depression.  waves  both  of  prior  Point,  towards  region,  depression  just  Sand  foreshore  change  wide  until  no  located  PROFILES),  bathymetric  bear  tracers  result  The  and  sand  the  the  This  likely  reduced  In  D,  northwestwards,  indicated  runnels  drift.  ward  migrated  actually  and  the  depression adjacent  prevail  between  the  breaking  tide,  water  depth  because  waves  over  to  the  and  the  plat-  171.  form on  was  the  again  probably  incoming ensue.  just  too  great  waves,  and  normal  to  have  any  shoaling  southeasterly  drift  effect would  172. X.  A.  SHAPE  INTRODUCTION To  towards  is  topographic reason  date,  analyzing  literature  for  sectional changes  in  the  more  documented with which  sea  on  occur is  and  becomes  whereas into  the  the  profiles.  The  fact  that  result  from  several  cyclic  11 d a I ) ;  they  seasonal,  is  followed.  dictated  progressively  making  directed  the  (e.g.  hand,  beaches,  transverse  therefore easily  the other  thus  to  variations  been  investigations  along  due  condition  measurement  embayed c o a s t l i n e  sediment shape  of  approach  parallel, and  when  of  it  bays",  latter  term  is  and  will  two  embayment  swell  cross-  are  Planimetric  by  an  irrevers-  slower  as  stability  of  its  in  approaches of  Yasso  depends the  time  develop"  wherever  coastline  obliquely,  arc as  geometric  named  the  is  d e f i n e d by  -  plan  at  The  on  when  pla-  the it  is  (McLean,  Wreck  Bay,  dimensions  latter  (1964) " h e a d l a n d - b a y  p r e f e r r e d , and  uncon-  headlands.  principally  a circular  different  (I960) has  develop  resistant  towards  stabilize  shape  Silvester  shaped  separates the  beaches  characteristic formed.  of  has  difficult.  solidated  1967),  shapes  which  An  angular  planimetric  disparity  rapid,  process  nimetric  effort  topographic  approached,  ment  little  changes  configuration ible  relatively  well  this  relatively  is  PLANIMETRIC  a  is  "half-heart beaches".  Yasso  as  The follows:  173.  "... the headland-bay beach c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y has a s e a w a r d - c o n c a v e p l a n s h a p e , i n w h i c h t h e r a d i u s o f p l a n c u r v a t u r e becomes g r e a t e r w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a c e from the h e a d l a n d , " The  coastline  in  vicinity  mately  1 3 0 ° , and  aerial  photographs,  veloped wave from  in  deep-water  response  refracJon Florencia  west  of  The  southeast  and  is  land  naturally the  middle  against ber  of  of  of  B.  DATA  PLAN  the  by  It  40).  of  similar  Wreck  the  shape  of  a  less  direction  was  each  decided and  half,  the  which to  spiral  in  well  relative Both  test  the  order  to  developed, to  both  north-  beach.  the  headare  seaward  to  de-  imme-  halves  extends  furthermore, in  I)  headland-bay  though  Point,  has  reflection  (Map  shoreline  from  headlands,  wave  Bay  counterclockwise,  curvature,  on  (Fig.  between  Sand  bay.  data  August  was  to  determine  1968.  theoretical for  shape  the  is,  and  Rock  opposite  that  latter  in  *  the  within  out  used  and  bottom,  the  approxi-  from  halves test  examine  a the  numin-  parameters.  ACQUISITlON  Plan  was  the  appears  log-spiral  fluence  from  bay,  the  sections  of  conformity  separated  The bay  around  Seal  Point),  measured  diffraction  wave  at  as  to  and  in  oriented  III),  Island  half  is  180° ( T a b l e  shoaling  the  Bay  fronts,  its  oriented  (Wya  swell  along  suggests  half  Wreck  average  Examination diately  of  was  obtained  Since  where  one  cliff  log-spiral  demarcation  of  from  of  the  beach  the o b j e c t i v e s  survey of  carried  this  study  recession  had  exceeded or  lagged  curvature,  the  base  cliff  the  coastline.  The method e m p l o y e d f o r h o r i z o n t a l h e a d i n g TOPOGRAPHY OF WRECK BAY  of  A total  control,  see  the of  73  rod  174.  stations west  were  half,  surveyed  and The  with  a  scale  that  the  gential was  24 rod  of  the  fixed  was  grid,  which  were  An by  the  cliffbase,  were  200  plotted  feet. with  corner the  half  accurately  of on  a  the  the  north-  bay.  cartesian  grid  was o r i e n t e d  geographic of  for  the  The g r i d  southeast  assigned  49  north  bay,  and  corner  of  the  lay  y)  coordinates  scaled  to  5  from  and  tan-  abscissa  Pocket  (x,  feet,  and  so  Beach. the  estimated  to  foot.  OF A L O G A R I T H M I C equiangular  or  SPlKAL  logarithmic  spiral  is  expressed  equation:  P  ^  =  where  e  9coto6  length  . .  (I)  of  base  0 =  angle  between  06 =  spiral  angle,  is the  Equation  a a  spiral (I)  of  the  e =  and  For  then  one  DEFINITION  to  the  southeast  coincided  tangential  nearest  =  northwest  station  C.  inch  ordinate to  the  stations  !  Each  the  for  along  radius  natural  tangent constant  I n/>=  be  logarithm  radius  vector  and  measured  between  drawn  the  for  nomenclature  can  vector  to  defined  the  radius  curve  any  given  used  here,  rewritten  a  at  that  azimuth vector point.  It  Figure  40.  log-spiral. see  inset  in  as:  9 c o t 06  (2)  which  allows  plotting  of  line.  Visual  inspection  /O v s of  9 on  plan  semi-log  data  paper  deviation  as  from  a  straight  this  175. regression D.  line  is  now p o s s i b l e  as  shown  in Figures  4la,  in this  study  are e s s e n t i a l l y  b,  c,  TEST PROCEDURE The methods  same as  used  t h o s e d e v i s e d by Y a s s o  selecting  an a r b i t r a r y  ve g e n e r a t e d  (1364).  log-spiral  therefrom against  c e n t e r , and t e s t i n g  the plan  The p l a n  data c a r t e s i a n coordinates  to p o l a r  coordinates  using  The p r o c e d u r e  the  d a t a as are  following  the  involves the c u r -  follows:  initially  converted  transformation  equat i o n s : r,  ~ X)  Ju  =  }  +  2  y. 9;  = arc  (y,  - Y)  (3)  2  - Y  -—z~j  tan  (4)  i where  (xj,yj) (X,Y)  = cartesian coordinates of  the p l a n  = cartesion coordinates  the  of  data  arbitrary  log-spi r a I c e n t e r . By  t h e method o f  line of  to  (0.,  least  log  the s t r a i g h t lnyO=  r.)  for  line  aO +  is  constants  0  n  r  i  all of  i  the  the best is  fitting  d e t e r m i n e d . The  straight equation  form  b  (5)  and so by m i n i m i z i n g N  5  squares,  the  function  •_ _ _ _ _ _ l _ _ (  a  e +  b  2  .(6)  N  a and b a r e a = NI(e..ln  found: r.)  - £Q..£ln  HIQ. - (10. ) 2  2  r.  (  ?  )  176. 2  ,  £9.  .In  -£0..l(0..ln  r.  N£0. i (These  are c  shown o n  41a,  b,  and  42a,  The  mean  the  corresponding  squared  calculated N  for r. i  -  -  (10.) i  the b,  semi-log  between  theoretical  e  0.  a0  plots  depicted  in  Figures  c. )  error  each  r. )  2  2  by +  ;  actual radius  means  radius  vectors  v e c t o r s p-  ,  rj,  are  and  then  of:  b  (9) ,N  By  employing  search  found  whose  The  angle  of  spiral means  COMPUTER  arc  tan  for  technique  evaluating  square  fitting  curve  a is  minimum. determined  (10)  written plan  by  data  log-spirai  to  the  as  P. on  LeBlond an  center around  -  in  the  order  was ;made u p o f  25  centers.,  square  against  least  mean  the  IBM  and  J.Wi I son  360/67  was  computer..  The  follows:  program,  with  is  is  a  A single  search  error  log-spiral  ('/ )  was  dependently one  best  employed  supplied  large  this  squared  a  TECHNIQUE  A program used  mean  procedure,  of: =  d  and  square  eventually  by  E.  a  was which  of each  curvature of  squared  error  50  was  of  the  arbitrarily was  chosen  created  sq.ft. which  The  a  fairly  search  was  tested  in-  cliffbase.  Around  the  created  a  second  search  177.  square a  with  center  search the  the  was  dimensions.  finally  square  was  procedure  eventually  same  located  then  reduced  whose  reduced  repeated. to  When  less  This  to  the  than  process  error 1/5  of  search I  continued  was  a minimum.  its  original  square  sq.ft.  the  until The  size,  dimensions  program  was  and  were ter-  mi n a t e d . Computer the  best  fitting  between  the  tion  these  of  regression plot  the  b,  by  c  a  Calcomp  than  best  fitting  regression  F.  -  Point  to  cliffbase spiral  of  and  IBM  at Sand  LSC  -  behind is  of  the  shown  and  to  a  also  tabulaa  and  b  c  and  to 42a,  computer. of  plot  this  33  program,  to  their  similar  locate  error  written  b,  required  to  a  the  4la,  effciency  locate  6  respective  study  spiral  performed centers,  STUDIED  OF WRECK  BAY  section  7 Plan  data  Shoe  Creek.  as  and  was  the  was  squared  for  computers.  The c l i f f  Lost  to  coordinates  vectors,  Figures  with  hours  HALF  mean  values,  time  SECTiONS  Point.  N0  in  (1964),  OF B E A C H  root radius  attached  7090  NORTHWEST  curve  shown  centers,  260  cartesian  sub-routine  computer  Yasso  required  for  A  lines  log-spiral  DESCRIPTION  CIi f f b a s e  vectors  indication  hour  1620  I.  theoretical  Plotter  lines.  spitbars, IBM  an  3/4  center,  constants.  regression  less  using  and  radius  line  included  log-spiral  actual  As  on  printout  dashed  extends  points  are  The b e s t  line  in  from  Quisitis  located fitting  Figure  40,  at  the  logand  the  173..  center  is  marked by a  Spitcrest Quisitis  at  LSC  Point  l o c a t e d at exchanged fitting  triangle.  - This  cliff  t o Sand P o i n t .  the c l i f f b a s e for  7 points  log-spiral  section also  The 7 p l a n d a t a  behind Lost  along  center  from  points  Shoe C r e e k have been  spitbar  is  extends  crest.  The  best  marked by a c i r c l e  in  Figure  40. -  NW C o r n e r Lost  -  Extends  Shoe C r e e k .  The b e s t  marked by a c i r c l e 2. -  fitting 40, "  corner of  and t h e c e n t e r  east  (I)  -  corner of  log-spiral "  SE C o r n e r  t h e mouth  log-spiral  -  these  sections  those  from Y a s s o  s e c t i o n extends  P o c k e t Beach t o curve is  is  center  of is  is  a r e shown (1964)  Sand P o i n t .  SE C o r n e r  the best  The b e s t  line  in  Figure  triangle,  marked by a c i r c l e  Same as of  dashed  s e c t i o n extends to  from t h e  Sand P o i n t .  shown as  marked by a  Wreck Bay  center (2)  cliff  The c l i f f  Parameters  G.  to  in F i g u r e 40.  - This  log-spiral  SE C o r n e r  fitting  Point  SOUTHEAST HALF OF WRECK BAY  SE P o c k e t Beach southeast  from Q u i s i t i s  from t h e  The b e s t in Figure  south-  fitting 40.  (I).  fitting  in Table XVII,  log-spiral and where  have been i n c l u d e d f o r  curves  available,  comparison.  RESULTS I.  NORTHWEST HALF OF WRECK BAY  Examination of  the p l o t s  of  Figures  to  41a, 4 l b ,  and  179. 41c  clearly  illustrate  and t h e o r e t i c a l  log-spirals.  40  (Cliffbase  of  the t h r e e t e s t s  yet  the  the e x c e l l e n t  at  LSC)  has  made  log-spiral  fit  the  to 69.09 more,  still  very  7 cliffbase  feet  indicating angle  data  improved  decreased  c e n t e r moved towards  Figure  r o o t mean s q u a r e d half of  error  the bay,  and  good. points  r o o t mean s q u a r e d e r r o r  the s p i r a l  spiral  the g r e a t e s t  is  between p l a n  The d a s h e d c u r v e shown i n  in the northwest  By e x c h a n g i n g points,  fit  for  7  spitcrest  d e c r e a s e d from 92.02  log-spiral in s i z e  curvature.  (Table XVII),  t h e h e a d l a n d and b e a c h  feet  Furtherand  the  (northwest  di r e c t i o n ) . For  the t h i r d t e s t  squared e r r o r decreased angle  was  still  due t o  than  its  shorter  the o t h e r  local  distortions 2.  length.  into  SOUTHEAST  It  curves  the m i r r o r  image o f  the  inset  beaches  of  coasts of  mean  feet,  of  this  fewer d a t a  spiral  towards  cliff  and t h e r e f o r e i n c o r p o r a t e s  the  the  section  points fewer  calculations.  HALF OF WRECK BAY a l t e r e d here to  generate  in a counterclockwise d i r e c t i o n , that  Figure  studied  fit  involves  The c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m was log-spiral  root  c e n t e r moved c l o s e r  The i m p r o v e d  two t e s t s ,  the  f u r t h e r t o 31.02  r e d u c e d , and t h e s p i r a l  t h e h e a d l a n d and b e a c h . is  (NW C o r n e r ) ,  the s p i r a l 40.  by Y a s s o  It  is  nomenclature diagram interesting  to  the U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  the 6 beaches  shown  note that  (1964) on b o t h t h e e a s t  is,  the 4  and west  m e n t i o n e d by  in  180.  Silvester  (I960)  northwest  half  areas  all  on  are  the  along  of  Wreck  affected  same  Bay in  that  and  squared be  the  (Figure land  base. and  poor  (SE  A  that  This  a  on  that  In  of  different  closer  to  Africa,  and  spirals.  approach  were  the  the  These  coastlines  decrease  of  not at  for  a  this  headland.  The  final  cliff  and  this the  of  half  section  the  the  the  spiral  is  the  spiral  tested  seen  Sand  (SE  Point  forein  cliff-  is  small, appears  northwest  bay,  half  parameters  since  not  to  outwash  seen  headland,  approach  of  shewn mean  the  curve  42c  Wreck  cuspate be  of  procedure,  to  of  is  of  for  location  and  can  portion of  and  glaciofluvial  incipient  made  cliffbase  cliffbase  southeast  to  valid  large  the  seaward  each  further,  the  root  by-an  close  half  very  STRUCTURES),  is  this  42b  curve  exposed  angle  42a,  The dashed  from  comparison  the  closely  between  a  observations  is  Figures  evident  spiral  environment  more  is  convex  reality,  beaches  that  of  has  marked  center  Wreck  would  is  the  of  angle  South  clockwise  exists.  Beach)  BEACH  earlier  hydrodynamic  plots  consists  area  spiral  Bay.  the  departure  contradict  curvature  of  which  departure  slightly  fact its  of  its  face  chapter  believed  waves  all  correspondence  to  is  by  coast  are  curvature  and  cliff  2 as The  Bay,  Pocket  large  40).  (see  Figure  40  error,  gross.  where  only  log-spiral  Figure  east  side.  Examination shows  the  the  the same.  It  log-spiral the  center  Corner)  spiral would  move  131.  unexpectedly for  very  yielded  poorly  two  fitting  They  were  with  centers  located  first  curve  obtained,  large  viz.  196,02  feet,  spiral  center  is  the  found  log-spiral data  curve  points  (near  Wya  by  somewhat  located  to  the  the  headland  and  ly,  probably  turning  along the  the  center towards  develop  headland  INFERENCES  is  sists  apparent of  covered  adjacent  that  is  the  root  Were  and  Point) the  curvature which, beach  as as  to  the  approximately  and  OUTWASH 40,  half  of  outwash,  large  trees.  the The  away  from  opens  slow-  before  section  unique would  c  age  to  further.  and  SECTIONS 42a,  face  being of  on  move  CLIFF  c l i f f  rest  co-  spiral  still  b,  the  large,  located  EXPOSED 41a,  improved  influence  this  improved  This by  very  once  stronger  earlier,  fit  error  points  a  and  section  thus  least  of  very  mainly  a mile  closely,  noted  is  the  small,  became  data  cliffbase  Figures  glaciofluvial  at  (I)  c l i f f  curve  times  headland.  squared  than  bear  more  the  the  angle  center  section,  Sand  underbrush  of  log-spiral  the  very  controlled  l o c a t e d more  about  For  that  solution.  different  error  is to  mean  spiral  This  at  unique  points.  angle  and  indicating  no  squared  (2),  reference  exposed with  mean  FKOM 6 L A C I O F L U V I A L  With it  and  separate  "elbow"  is  be  computer  the  the  thus  may  along  (near  log-spiral  there  spiral  rapidly  c l i f f  position.  would  the  beach.  the  root  virtually  center  "arm"  curves  approach  H.  with  the  centers,  the  widely  feet,  and  inciding  at  For  143.96  spiral  curves  supplying  opens  Point),  spiral  b,  con-  densely  these  c,  182.  trees, close of  some to  200  these  outwash  which  years  c l i f f are  timbered  grow  old,  generally  that  bring  are  two  the  Cliff  of  erosion  the  of  estimated  log-spiral of  presently  W r e c k .Bay  at  quasi-permanence  exposing  landward  is  are  the  sections  generally  halves  cliffbase,  indicating  seaward  cliff  the  at  thus  sections.  sections  suggesting would  of  the  gIaciof Iuvia I curves,  and  curves,  thus  active  closer  in  to  areas  that  log-spiral  curvature. Another fluvial face  outwash  the  strong that  open  is  time.  nowhere  was  In  1969  numerous  small  face  outwash  by  and  thereby  Wreck  Bay  seems  has  that  the  prevailing  *  See  its  been  and  chapter  on  cohesion the  stable  be  is  that  sections  directly  glaciowhich  exposed  to  winter  months,  suggesting  cliff  erosion  at  for  is  wave  heard  of  the  the  the  fact  action  rattling  increase the  the  that  evident  PROFILES),  Saturation  in  whereas  down  the  g I a c i o f Iuvia I  pore-water  sedimentary  pres-  particles,  landslides. therefore  for shape  hydrodynamic  cliff  TRANSVERSE  between  apparent  40,  contention  would  small  in  through  could  rain  planimetric  GLOSSARY  this  few m i n u t e s .  promoting It  of  Figure  the  responsible  landslides  decrease  are  during  undercutting  wind-driven  in  exposed  areas  wind  support  (see  every  notice  These  agent  cliff  February  to  generally  ocean.  the  present  sure  is  moisture-Iaden  this  cliff  point  a  that  relatively is  close  environment.  to  the  cliffbase  long  time  equilibrium  Limited  at  erosion  with of  183.  the  c l i f f  seems  to  laden  wind,  and  cliff  would  bring  Wreck  Bay  I.  occur  this  closer  the to  result  confined  to  planimetric  log-spiral  relative  and  r e f l e c t e d waves  bay  beaches  section  of  waves  The  is a  have  section  effects  and  refraction  wave  of  LeMehaute presence state a  of  that  a  existence  two  features: The  Sand  of  areas  on and  an  the  "elbow",  front  The  sand  is  initially  THE  refracted,  tends  to  align  refracted hand,  in  is  of  diffracted  itself  the  "arm"  parallel  shoaling  around  have  to  the  bay.  the  headland,  indicated  leeward  exists  at  of  Lost  Shoe  Point  (Map  is  Quisitis  a  a  a  Bay  high  Creek  wave  to  and region  light  penumbra is  the  headland,  similar  in  Wreck  from  of  from  resulting  into  the  bottom.  (1961)  carried  headland-  subjected  diffraction  phenomenon  put  the  DEVELOPMENT  that  always  towards  of  halves  however,  current  Quisitis  out  of  current"  object, a  IN  shoaling  This  two  apparent  Brebner  current  suspension  is  the  the  of  other  wave  of  moisture-  retreat  geometry  beach  the  where  by  the  simply  both  such  in  towards in  on  region".  spitbar  wards  a  around  The  been  is  "diffraction  "...  low w a v e  diffraction  It  saturation  curvature.  sculpturing  headland-bay  which  "elbow"  in  of  shape  importance  unknown.  combined  to  a  THE E F F E C T OF WAVES AND CURRENTS OF H E A D L A N D - B A Y BEACHES The  to  is  as  zone.  indicated  points  by  northwest-  I). the Point  nearshore (see  suspension  by  zone  in  Frontispiece). turbulence  184.  created area  by  (Map  Opposed  to  vv~v.es i m p i n g i n g  this  nearshore  current  is,  Quisitis  on a  always  SAND MOVEMENT circular  BASED  the  Sylvester shoreline  erosion,  shaped  bay  to  around  the  whole  valid,  bathymetric  between spiral but  paper as  tion Wreck J.  reveals  the  bay  boulder  when  shore  of  may  the  bed  in  this  one  would  features  the  first  that  the  rate  have  are  of  planimetric  equilibrium  tank  this  to  study  a  on  half-heart  simultaneously  possess at  Sylvester's decreases  be  at  logWreck  Bay,  (I960)  significantly  um. T h i s  arrived  to  concentric  apparent  equiIibri  status  that  for  assumption  be  have  erosion  suggests  Point.  to  in  that  chapter  responsible  not  diagram  (see  This  broke  For  foreshore  direction,  Creek  a model  wave  bay.  and  each  be  a  "equi Iibrium" o f  single  of  the  Shoe  conducted  would  These  opposite  Quisitis  contours  approaches  confirms  a  current,  PARAMETERS).  assumed  length  curvature.  to  the Lost  leeward o f  and  headlands,  examination  ON WAVE  (I960)  exist  in  towards  close  area  diffraction  moves  Point  current  sculpturing  the  I ).  littoral from  against  observa-  earlier  for  Bay.  GENERAL R E L A T I O N S H I P S BETWEEN L O G - S P I R A L PARAMETERS For  that  the  more  closely  changes:  the  northwest  planimetric as  the  half  BAY  of  GEOMETRY  Wreck  Bay  AND  it  shape  approached  log-spiral  spiral  parameters  underwent  was  found  curvature the  following  185.  -  The  root  mean  The  spiral  angle  The  spiral  center  Cliff Wreck  Bay  spiral  squared  error  decreased. moved  sections  deviated  parameters  markedly were  upcoast  for  coast day, the  direction  headland. they  still  southeast  a  a  both  of  the  portion  became  the  downcoast  headland  In metry at  and  from  The  logical  of  distance  factors,  of  a  the  constituted beach  in  isolated  from  the  they  the  single  the  a the  coast  of  suddenly  until  Wya  upto-  morphology  were  prograde  Holocene  re-  Point  headland-bay  beach  following seem  and  remarks  appropriate.  their  validity  on They  bay  geo-  were  requires  derived testing  tank:  the  position  spiral  between  deep-water  an  reasoning,  end o f  the  Bay.  the  parameters  equilibrium  value  Wreck  conclusion,  spiral  i n a mode I  of  the  became  on  of and  Rock  If  would  half  Seal  effect  beach.  curvature,  headland-bay  bay.  southeast  whole  At  and  southeast  presumably  are  profound  the  the  the  headland  log-spiral  Island  moved,  occupying  in  the  subsequently,  Although  portion  from  clockwise  and  have  towards  unpredictable.  Florencia  southeast  in  examined  ' T r a n s g r e s s ijon, headland  decreased,  wave  angle,  headlands, fronts  calculation  embayed  of  coastline  of  and an  should  the  spiral  depends and the  the  on  two  and  factors:  the The  angle  between  prevailing  coastline.  Knowing  these  equilibrium be  center,  planimetric  possible.  shape  Furthermore,  if  two for  186.  spiral  parameters  change  approaches  planimetric  on  coastal  mutation  If  two  the  headlands  downcoast  ment  since  section  is  If  one  only  will  limit  drift  parallel  to  headland  until  its  coast  section,  coast  as  the  island.  the  as  the  then  coastline  valid  predictions  possible. by  the  past  unconsolidated depth  it  will  of  downcoast  curvature  headland  in  when the  embayment  "captures"  becomes  sediment,  coastal  cease  r e f r a c t e d waves  exists,  log-spiral and  be  separated  littoral  gress  an  equilibrium,  should  are  one  sequentially  isolated  embaythe  "arm  bay. will  the  pro-  up-  from  the  187. Locat ion  No„of Approx. Cartesion plan iength coordinates data of of log-spirai poi ntsjsection jcenter ( f e e t ) (mi I e s ) I X I Y NORTHWEST H A L F  App r o x . * Sp!raI di s t a n c e ang I e of center (degrees) to headland(ft) WRECK  0  Root mean squared error (feet)  BAY  CIi f f b a s e a t LSC  49  I  3/k  7 I 2 0 7636.0  320  5 3 . 18  92.02  Spi t c r e s t a t LSC  49  I  3/k  624.0  7744,0  290  51.02  69.09  NW  24  3/k  526.7  7919.8  280  48.77  31.02  Corner  0  i  SOUTHEAST SE P o c k e t beach SE (I)  2k  I  1/2  20  I  \/k  20  I  \/k  HALF  OF WRECK  BAY  287.5  10  44.02  193.78  I 1203.0 1358-2  10  24.53  196.02  5500  81.96  143.  10  61.49  9963.7  Corner  SE C o r n e r (2)  5294.4  -820.8  Yasso  (1964)  Spi raI Beach, New j e r s e y  22  Ha I f m o o n Bay, Ca I i f o r n i  57  250  41.26  183.7  D rakes Beach, Cal i f o r n i a  20  3000  85.64  16. I  L i mantou r Spi t , Ca I i f o r n i a  24  14000  82.20  234.4  *  1/2  .82  T h i s m e a s u r e m e n t was o b t a i n e d b y s c a l i n g t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n l o g - s p i r a l c e n t e r s and t h e n e a r e s t h e a d l a n d . Small rock i s l a n d s a d j a c e n t to the headlands p r o p e r are o f relatively m i n o r i m p o r t a n c e , and were t h e r e f o r e not c o n s i d e r e d . Table  XVI I  Parameters of Best F i t t i n g C u r v e s and O t h e r P e r t i n e n t  Log-Spiral Information.  Figure  40.  P l a n i m e t r i c shape o f l o g - s p i raI curves.  Wreck  Bay  and  fitted  -  The l o g - s p i r a l c u r v e s shown a s d a s h e d l i n e s , a r e f o r C l i f f b a s e at L o s t Shoe C r e e k and Southeast P o c k e t B e a c h , a n d t h e i r c e n t e r s a r e shown by small t r i a n g l e s . Other s p i r a l c e n t e r s are incic a t e d by s m a l l circles.  -  T h e s p i t b a r c r e s t i s shown a s a d o t t e d l i n e , a n d c l i f f sections exposing g I a c i o f I u v i a I outwash, as d o t t e d strips.  -  Spiral nomenclature the inset.  used  in  the  text  is  shown  in  FIGURE  40  Figures  41a,  b,  c.  Regression line plots of three curves t e s t e d in the northwest Wreck Bay. -  Radius v e c t o r / is logarithmic scale, a r i thmet i c s e a Ie. 0  log-spiral half of  p l o t t e d on a and a r c 9 on  an  -  C o n s t a n t s a and b a r e i n d i c a t e d gression l i n e e q u a t i o n s o f each  in the rediagram.  -  C l i f f sections exposing gIaciof Iuvia I o u t w a s h a r e i n d i c a t e d by d o t t e d s t r i p s .  189  N.W HALF OF WRECK BAY —  6000-  I  I.  i  I  C L I F F - D f l S e RT L . S . C  sooc -  40003000 25002000 1500 -  1000 F I G U R E  100 &RC 8 6000  2.  SPIT-CREST  41a  120 (DEGREES)  RT L . S . C  5000 4000 3000 2S00 2000 1S00  1000 F I G U R E  40  60  80  100  ARC  , 3000  l  120  9  140  160  (DEGREES)  N.W. CORNER  2500 2000 g ISOO  I— o  U-l > 1000  o ac  F I G U R E  40  BO  80  ARC  6  (DEGREES)  41c  41b  180  Figures  42a,  b,  c.  Regression line plots of three logs p i r a l c u r v e s t e s t e d in the southeast ha If o f W r e c k B a y . -  Information indicated F i gu r e s 4 I a , b , c .  is  the  same  as  190  S B HALF OF WRECK BAY — 60DfJ  1  4.  1  S.E.  r  POCKET  BEACH  5000 4000 3000  2500 200O  1500 1000  5001  F I G U R E  MO  6000  ARC  &  5000  S.E.  4 2 a  9 (DEGREES)  C O R N E R (D  4000 ~ 3 0 O 0  1— U J  \u—.»  2 5 0 0  .a. 2000 £> 1500 UJ  >  v> r>  10001  1—•  Q  cc  ot. soo F I G U R E  200  220  240 I  6.  S  260 230 ARC B (DEGREES) I I  7300  E.  CORNER (2)  300  4 2 b  320  F I G U R E  7000  Log r--0.001070 9 - 3.801  6300, 200  J.  240 260 ARC 0 (DEGREES)  4 2 c  191 XI. A.  BEACH STRUCTURES  INTRODUCTION A number o f  a t Wreck B a y . i n t o major permanent and a r e o f  that  structures.  they  importance  with coastal ally  They c a n be n a t u r a l l y  and m i n o r in  d i f f e r e n t beach  being  survive  The m a j o r  for  The m i n o r  destroyed a f t e r  exist  structures  a period of  a few h o u r s ;  to  size,  are  a year or  problems  structures  in the g e o l o g i c a l  on t h e b e a c h  grouped a c c o r d i n g  i n many e n g i n e e r i n g  stability.  become p r e s e r v e d  forms  semilonger,  concerned  are cursory,  however when t h e y  column,they provide  usudo  valuable  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e pa I e o - e n v i r o n m e n t . Some o f cussed  in d e t a i l  the s t r u c t u r e s  in other c h a p t e r s .  here  for completeness,  will  be made when  B.  MAJOR  and  They a r e s i m p l y  dis-  mentioned  r e f e r e n c e to the p e r t i n e n t  chapters  appropriate.  STRUCTUKES 1.  BERMS  In  places  F; whereas shore,  l i s t e d b e l o w have been  no berm e x i s t s  e l s e w h e r e , up t o  e.g.  between P r o f i I e  at  all,  e.g.  behind  Profile  f o u r berms c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e C and t h e s p i t b a r  TRANSVERSE PROFILES, and Map  (see  back-  chapter  on  I).  2. BARS A well between P r o f i l e s ing  the  summer o f  d e f i n e d b a r e x t e n d e d from t h e C and D s o u t h e a s t w a r d s 1968  (Plate  16). I t s  foreshore  towards crest  was  Sand P o i n t exposed at  durlow  192. t i d e , and was trough. tion,  A  s e p a r a t e d from t h e f o r e s h o r e  less well  defined  from the f o r e s h o r e  bar extended  broke  in this  deduced  b a r was  deep  i n the opposite  b e t w e e n P r o f i I e s E and  w a r d s t o w a r d s Sand P o i n t . T h i s p r e s e n c e was  by a 2 f o o t  direc-  F northwest-  n e v e r e x p o s e d , and i t s  l a r g e l y from t h e o b s e r v a t i o n  that  waves  r e g i o n , and t h e n r e f o r m e d c l o s e r t o s h o r e ( s e e  c h a p t e r o n TRANSVERSE P R O F I L E S , and Map I ) . 3.  SPITBAR  A b o d y o f s a n d and g r a v e l Lost fit  Shoe C r e e k  f o r about  1250  has d i v e r t e d t h e mouth o f  feet northwestwards.  I t does not  the d e f i n i t i o n o f a s p i t p r e c i s e l y , since the l a t t e r  terminate  i n deep w a t e r . The  used t o d e s c r i b e  term " s p i t b a r " has t h e r e f o r e  ECONOMIC GEOLOGY; a l s o Map I ) .  SYMMETRICAL CUSPATE FORELANDS  Sand P o i n t ,  located  i n the middle o f the beach,  g o o d e x a m p l e o f a s y m m e t r i c a l c u s p a t e f o r e l a n d , and h a s in  r e s p o n s e t o wave d i f f r a c t i o n a r o u n d S e a l  entering  t h e bay b e t w e e n Q u i s i t i s  is s p l i t  by S e a l  Point  and  Rock.  formed  Swell  Florencia  Island  t o Sand P o i n t  (Frontispiece  2 ) . T h e s e d i f f r a c t e d waves g e n e r a t e l i t t o r a l  over a r e l a t i v e l y  is a  R o c k , and a p a t t e r n o f i n t e r s e c t i n g d i f f r a c t e d  waves e x t e n d s f r o m i t s l e e b a c k and F i g u r e  been  i t ( s e e c h a p t e r s o n SEDIMENT S I Z E ANALYSES,  PLANIMETRIC SHAPE, and 4.  should  short  v i c i n i t y o f Sand P o i n t  beach  s e c t i o n , which converge  currents  i n the  ( s e e c h a p t e r s on SEDIMENT S I Z E ANALYSES,  and SAND MOVEMENT BASED ON  TRACER DISPERSION; a l s o Map  l)„  193. An £  mile  lar is  incipient  southeast  of  Sand  but  less  intense  split  by  Florencia  Seal and  Rock the  extends  and  the  This  back  an  southeast  of  Profile  ral  at  this  drift  direction, involved  thus  in  C.  Map  BEACH  to  incipient  and  be  in  short  cusp  PARAMETERS,  the  of  backshore  behind  Profile  but  lost  series  of  tide  a  simi-  the  bay  in  between  between Wya  diffracted about  500  Figure a  Point waves  feet  2).  Litto-  northwesterly  beach  (see  and  section  chapters  is  on  PLANI M E T R l C  down  of  the  taken  the  'were  till  found  cusp  for&shore.  C,  along  the  two the  to  f o r m , by Spring  cobble  and  shape  of  at  relict  survived  classical  through  tides  1968  forms  photographs  C were  period  neap  These  their  seven  Profile  destruction them  part  located  a very  summer  summer,  tions,  found  the  spitbar.  neap  the  diffracting  intersecting beach  to  SHAPE;  CUSPS  the  behind  other  that  ON WAVE  of  A  the  origin  approaching  Frontispiece  was  indicating  During  edge  (see  Swell part  the  its  approximately  STRUCTURES I.  on  on  profile  BASED  owes  one  of  exists  I).  MINOR  ted  and  pattern  E  It  pattern.  Island,  nourishing  SAND MOVEMENT a I so  wave  area  foreland  Point.  island,  island. to  cuspate  be  with  relict  time  next.  Contrary  responsible  dislodging  exis-  seaward the  (Figure  cobble  intervals,  on  the  throughout  day  tides  cusps  cusp from  to  for  cobbles  the other  35).  one  expectathe  partial  and  rolling  hand,  packed  194. the  cobbles  cusp in  into  became  Plates  b  Cusps  rents  of  fine  weakest,  E to  ence  correlated very  ed  during  tive  neap  and  the  ter  on  wave  below  the  creep  and  long,  usually  about  0.1  and  feet, 19a).  asymmetrical, landward  slowly  and  In  absent to  the  movement.  These  and  of  the  the  horn  series  periodically where  Profile  of  the  are  shown  along  the  C,  and  Their  range,  being  best  spring  tides,  the  different  cusp  areas  DISPERSION;  cur-  from  18b).  between  the  littoral  Plate  during  ON TRACER  Pro-  existdevelop-  A  posi-  amplitudes, (see  also  chap-  Map  I).  Ripples commonly  table,  excess and  they  of  They  50  but  seaward  formed forms never  bedforms  slowly  ripples  cross-section the  o c c u r r e d on  were  feet;  wavelengths  ripple  seaward,  to  exist  Individual  with  sides.  doing,  RIPPLES  vater  in  B  tidal  affecting  features  rills.  so  locations  with  and  Backwash  These  wash,  well  appeared  BEACH  at  (Frontispiece  heights  (a).  18a  F  in  developed  Profile  SAND MOVEMENT B A S E D 2„  but  summer  tides,  correlation  sand  from  file  but  c.  the  Profile  pile,  Three photographs  and  during  were  neat  rounded.  17a,  foreshore  a  in  of  they  the  had  being  to  actually  be  sand  and  low a m p l i t i d e s  to  2  feet  be  direction  of  (Plates  slightly than  zone o f  motionless  the  by  uniform  flatter  turbulent  remain  opposite  very  appeared  sides  foreshores  destroyed  approximately  they  would  would  were  sandy  the  the  or  move  of  classified  back-  backwash as  dunes  195. by  Simons e t a l  regime". tes  (1965), and b e l o n g t o  They a p p e a r e d  17a, b , and  o f sandy cusps  their "lower  t o form b e s t d u r i n g s p r i n g  c ) , and w e r e commonly s e e n (Plate  flow  tides  (Pla-  i n t h e embayments  I8b)„  (b) C u r r e n t R i p p l e s These o c c u r r e d i n s e v e r a l where u n i d i r e c t i o n a l  p l a c e s on  c u r r e n t s e x i s t e d , e.g.  c h a n n e l s b e h i n d beach r i d g e s where r i p p l e s movement p a r a l l e l  to the shore  b e t w e e n P r o f i l e s C and where r i p p l e s throughout the  littoral  Individual irregular  (occasionally present E and  current existed  and  f e e t , and  feet;  the  S i m o n s e t a l ( 1 9 6 5 ) , and  short low  s h o r t wave l e n g t h s a p p r o x i were  the c u r r e n t  l e e w a r d s i d e b e i n g s h o r t and to the "lower  f l o w regime"  w o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d  t h e backwash  a  A).  as t r u e  They f o r m e d as a r e s u l t o f a w e a k e r c u r r e n t v e l o c i t y produced  where  t h e y had  I8c)„ In c r o s s - s e c t i o n t h e y  These bedforms a l s o b e l o n g  which  (present  i n s h a p e , and  s t r o n g l y a s y m m e t r i c a l , w i t h the s i d e from which came b e i n g c o n v e x ,  channels,  the sea  (at P r o f i l e  r i p p l e s were c u r v e d  (Plate  i n areas  F ) ; In r i p - c u r r e n t  i n l e n g t h , a v e r a g i n g 0,5  feet  water  a f f e c t e d by v e r y s m a l l waves and  a m p l i t u d e s o f a b o u t 0.1 0.4  indicated  i n d i c a t e d w a t e r movement t o w a r d s  l o w e r f o r e s h o r e was  mately  and  in shallow  t h e summer b e t w e e n P r o f i l e s A and B ) ; and  weak, u n i f o r m  and  D,  the foreshore  ripples.  steep.  of ripples. than that  196. RHOMBOID  3.  PATTEKNS  Considerable garding Henry  these  (1963)  features. refer  to  Bascom  (1964) c a l l s  states  that  beaches, (1963) on they  Bascom  them as  angles  their  probably  0,5°  "depth" their  considers  this  son  the o t h e r  rhomb  served The  p a t t e r n " is  at  Bay:  common  of  backwash  water  measured light  type  2 ° and  1 0 ° . Hoyt  and  Island,  between  to  as  to  sand  (Plate  about  45°,  shoreward  coloured  sand  grains  and  and  1/4  therefore  19a).  Beach  and  inch  -  The in  the  pattern  slightly  it  and  compari-  term  appropriate.  the  rapidly creep  1/16  rhomboid  although it  rhombs,  be more  of  (1963)  the  marks".  that  foreshore,at  Henry  insignificant  and  Henry  Georgia,  lower  and  of  of  "ripple  dimension  types  and  Hoyt  being  ripples  1.4°,  due  2 ° . Both  o c c u r r e d on  foreshores,  table  parts  dimensions  believed  (I960)  saturated  Sapelo  and  whereas  lower  dimensions,  Wreck  lower  Emery  re-  Hoyt  ripple marks",  the  depth  distinct  from 0 . 8 ° to and  as  Three  most  side  and  11terature  (I960) and  diamonds".  at  description  writer  "rhomboid  the  found  (1964) d e s c r i b e  hence  to  on  the  Emery  "rhomboid  between  hand,  between  to  example,  in  e q u a l mirnber* i n t h e u p p e r a n d  rn  refer  exists  them " b a c k w a s h  the o t h e r  angles  For  form o n l y  slope  formed  slope and  they  at  confusion  flat  slopes  formed on  both  disintegrated rills.  pointing  The  ones  shell-hash,  were  seaward varied upper  below  rhomb  ob-  the  apices  consisting and  seaward  of  197.  pointing to  ones  form  from  the  southeast  F and  G,  was  a  It  as  a n d mode  slope  and of  surface.  springs  does  face not  of  this  as  an  form.  viz.  The that  mutated  third it  beaches  19c).  It  unrippled  1.0°.  sheets fresh  of  Two  appeared receded  apices  were  sand  exactly  The  seaward forms  were  beach  washing the  washes the  to  ones  relatively  sand,and over  down  the  the  pattern  those  consisted  of  cliffbase  approximately  pointing  were  proportion  the  from  it  opposite  ones  described  surface  high  sheet  measured  pointing  and  where  glassy  between  different  type  water  emerges  but  bay  requirements  fresh  water  vicinity,  30°  and  described  of  dark  colour-  of  fine  shell-  unstable,  and  time. similar  no  to  seaward  other  a common small  rhomboid  pointing  crag-and-taiI  was  containing  the  in  was  glacial  to  the  quite  components  with  possessed  resembled (Plate  type  pattern  shell-hash  minerals, 19b).  of  a  shoreward  (Plate  slowly  It  backwash  formation;  Rhomb  above  heavy  to  undisturbed  compositions  hash  of  its  Ample  their  ed  film  formation smooth  for  thin  in  a  0.8°  essential  succession  beach  minerals.  portion  rhomboid of  d e v e l o p e d on  mineral  beach  thin  the  apparently  a  last  in  beach  heavy  the  heavy  only  dimensions  with  as  coloured  ripples.  Profiles  above.  dark  suddenly  Developed  in  of  apices,  structures  feature  isolated  patterns  on  in  and  and  actually  miniature  unrippled  pebbles,  except  was  sandy particu-  198. larly  noticeable  in  areas  hash.  The  of  the  apices  measured  approximately  coloured  heavy  described pebbles, longest as  the  last  shore. and  which axes  As  flood  tide, by  k.RILL  the  they  series  of  single water  types  tiny up  large table  composed  of  would  They  second  a  until as  the  forms  water  to  fore-  to  be  settled  water  into  dissipated.  until  they  form  the  continue  remained  table,  small  shell-hash  finally  last  pattern  their  down  stop,  it  by  with  retreated to  dark  appeared  momentarily  edges,  pattern  the  shell-  the  were  next  rapidly  creep.  developed  and  some  were  beach,  channel, line  of  time  the  "growth"  irregular the  on  sandy  after  recognized,  Where  commence  themselves  landwards,  were marked  beach.  rolled  the  forms  foreshore.  would  backwash  below  sand  table,  Two g e n e r a l  of  these  pointed  were o r i e n t e d  the  table  fine  MARKS  These water  but  points  to  pebble  its  were  abundant  resembling  case,  sand  around  water  destroyed  of  a  pseudo-rhomboid the  the  as  coloured  Above  thus  every  film  which  7 0 ° , and  apical  parallel thin  transported this  All  in  soon  light  forms,  minerals  above.  containing  until  a  was  number  areas,  had on  below  receded.  the  smooth  the  These  terminated  emergence.  tide  depending  below  channels.  which  the  foreshore well  foreshore  and  condition unrippled,  water  table  as  channels  would  extend  of  them u n i t e d  growth  The d e n d r i t i c  close form  to  which  into the  a  a  199. developed  resembled  the  channel  river  foreshore similar of  delta. the  once  an  by  The  Ground  directed  towards  the  The growth  beach  face  as  head;  the  suspended  state 5.  for  and a  troyed  few by  Here,  the  seaward  the  would  be  ripple  land  type  from  a  trough  the  the  18a).  crossed  towards  system  sea. •  the  resulted  a side  crest,  would  be  would  develop.  described  above,  source  the  in  channeled  to  doubling  across  of  the  escaping  point  a  these  from  the  because  of  sand  of  a  rill  gets  slowly  features  is  beach  apparently  of  their  seems  slumped down  is  the  to  into  rather  slightly extend the  channel  lower  up  the  channel in  a  semi-  slurry.  SWASH MARKS  consisted  sand  had  "capture"  moves  like  These and  inter-ripple  growth  fine  then  (Plate  the  river  the  where  o c c u r r e d where  commence on  than  system,  towards  rill  channels  elevation.  sand  delta  ripples  pattern  of  water  very  river  levees.  manner  complex.  a  the  water  small  of  mark  would  rill  and  a  rill  shorter  entire  length,  delta  in  f o r m was  Occasionally,  rill  upper  but  dendritic  this  of  events  trapped  a  resembled  of  part  into  backwash  d r a i n e d , and  it  up  possessed  water  Although  opens type  ripples,  surplus  lower  The o t h e r  sequence  the  the  formed  of  debris. hours, sand  regularly  arcuate Above  the  whereas  creep  0  lines  of  water  below  on  sandy  foreshore  shell-hash, table  it,  they  their were  light  areas, coloured  outlines rapidly  lasted des-  200. SAND  6.  These water  table,  water  from  tergranular layers,  tion, the  point  the  lee o f  becomes the  second a  ring  air  7.  ORGANISM  the  the  sandy  swash  sinks  overiying  dark  usually  foreshore,  limit.  into  compressed  swash of  of  These  to  swash  forcing  The  leaving  close  first  air  thus  laccolith.  o c c u r r e d on  and  the  DOMES  in  They  dry  beach  the  more  wet  material  results  coloured  heavy  in  above  the  develop sand, porous up  and  minerals  in-  sand  Iike  their  when  a  decapitaaround  escape,  were  Cuis'tis  MARKINGS not  and  too Wya  common Points  at (see  Wreck  Bay,  chapter  except  o n MARINE  in LIFE).  201  Plate  16.  V i e w l o o k i n g n o r t h w e s t from Sand P o i n t a t low t i d e , waves c a n b e s e e n b r e a k i n g on the longshore bar in f r o n t o f P r o f i Ie D.  Plate  !7a. V i e w o f a at P r o f i l e 1968),, T h e e v i d e n t on foreshore  r e l i c t c o b b l e cusp on C during a period of p h o t o g r a p h was t a k e n tcp o f the c u s p , and \r. f r o n t o f t h e c u s p .  Plate  17b,  As  P l a t e 17a d u r i n g July 1968).  the  succeeding  high  tide  period  Plate  17c  As  Plate  the  succeeding  neap  tide  period  (26th  17a d u r i n g  (30th J u l y  1968),  the upper foreshore neap t i d e s (22 J u l y from rod C3; Ci is C2 o n t h e s a n d y  202  Plate  I8a„  R i l l s a c t i v e l y e r o d i n g backwash r i p p l e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f P r o f i l e C. N o t e r i l l " c a p t u r e " by some o f them a c r o s s two a d j a c e n t r i p p l e s .  Plate  I8b„  Sandy b e a c h c u s p s w i t h b a c k w a s h r i p p l e s i n t h e embayments. V i e w f r o m t h e c l i f f edge b e t w e e n P r o f i Ie B and t h e mouth o f L o s t Shoe C r e e k . (Compare t h i s p h o t o g r a p h w i t h P l a t e 2 3 a , w h i c h t h e same v i e w t a k e n i n w i n t e r .  Plate  18c  is  C u r r e n t r i p p l e s on t h e l o w e r f o r e s h o r e a t P r o f i l e A, i n d i c a t i n g c u r r e n t movement t o w a r d s t h e l a n d ( r i g h t - h a n d s i d e o f p h o t o g r a p h ) . Rod A7 i s seen i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d , and Q u i s i t i s P o i n t i n t h e backg round.  Plate  19a.  Rhomboid p a t t e r n d e v e l o p e d on t h e seaward side o f backwash r i p p l e s . Landward p o i n t i n g apices c o n s i s t o f l i g h t c o l o u r e d m i n e r a l s and s h e l l hash,, T h e p h o t o g r a p h was t a k e n n e a r P r o f i Ie F .  Plate  19b.  Rhomboid p a t t e r n d e v e l o p e d on a g e n t l y sloping, u n r i p p l e d f o r e s h o r e b e t w e e n P r o f i l e s F and G. Landward p o i n t i n g a p i c e s are o f dark c o l o u r e d heavy m i n e r a l s .  Plate  19c  Pseudo-rhomboid p a t t e r n developed in the lee o f small p e b M e s , Landward p o i n t i n g a p i c e s a r e o f d a r k c o l o u r e d heavy m i n e r a l s . The p h o t o g r a p h was t a k e n b e t w e e n P r o f i l e s F a n d G„  205.  D,  MINOR WAVE  existed from 2  from small  In  the  the  the  waves  rapidly  into  the  wave  then  with  the  longshore an  angle  rapidly to  being  swept 2.  Usually  resulting  along  maintain  back  incoming  bar.  the  the  bar  the  known  as  ondular  1970,  personal  gravel  start  the  gravel  two  bar,  by  cross  the  20a).  chan-  Part  of  permeated  energy  was  reflect-  communi-  This  helped  event  step.  the  The  and  reflected  crest  which This  of  each  the other  traversed  event fine  incoming  to  collided  approached  20c).  each  arid  earlier  bar,  preventing  with  wide  , personal  spout",  (Plate  feet  tide,  which  over  waves  Seaward  flood  channel,  wave  "water  JUMP  1970  the  100  step  of  remaining  the  summer;  (Plate  swash  of  across  a  step  20b).  channel  bores  as  gravel  described  (Plate  crest  waves  bar  the  LeBlond,  these  steep  approximately  spilling  in  HYDRAULIC  These  early  and  longshore  into  in  wash o v - r t h e  configuration  next  foreshore  With  r e f l e c t e d wave  travelled  a  the  (P.  SPOUTS  D,  dissipated  bore  STRUCTURES  Profile  I).  gravel,  WATER  longshore  would  was  an o n d u l a r  maintain  the  against  the  of  the  Map  waves  energy  or  at  (see  AND  channel  isolated  impinge  cation),  of  shallow  spilling  WAVES  vicinity  base  beach  and  as  a  deep,  nel,  ed  REFLECTED  at  the  A S S O C I A T E D WITH BEACH  1.  there,  feet  TYPES  helped  sand  from  spilling  wave.  WAVES  were  named  by  physical  communication).  by  They  Grant  (1948),  but  are  oceanographers  (P.  LeBlond,  commonly  occurred  also  along  206.  sandy  beach  formation and ty  sections  where  depended on  the  incident exceeded  waves. that  of  over  the  backwash  the  other  hand,  next  incoming  charged of  with  the  as  bores  wave.  would  water  on  top  of  wave  hydraulic and  then  was  to  short  and  sand, In  it  the  wave  collapse.  zone,  The  and  exceeded  turbulent  remain  21a).  in  were  rise  this  scoured  by  temporarily  event the  to  on  waves  it  or  directions, when  inci-  high,  a  about  2  the  feet,  foreshore  backwash,  remove  water  stationary  very up  the  heavily  clear  opposite  both  On  of  backwash  On o c c a s i o n s ,  momentarily of  that  essentially  rapidly  spill  foreshore.  jump  effect  thus  the  veloci-  and  hydraulic  (Plate  material  break  case  and  would  up  backwash  waves  the  backwa?'n v e l o c i t i e s  jump  would  Their  the  over-ride  moved  other  of  would  this  form,  high.  translatory  velocity  wave,  were  vrlocities  distance  backwash  masses  the  transport  shoaling  the  suspended  two  dent  a  waves  incident  backwash,  translatory  the  one  relative  the  "he  for  if  incident  ondular  If  incident  from  past  the  the  beach  envi ronment. 3.  SANU WAVES  The F  and  G was  springs on  the  summer (Map  I).  southeast  unicue,  emerged backshore  in  from into  corner that  the  a  of  the  number o f  cliffbase.  small  berm  and  left  it  as  On  the  30th  July  creeks, a  beach  series  1968,  32  between  perennial  These  springs  which  cut  of of  fresh  sandy  creeks  water  coalesced  through  discrete these  ProfUes  the mounds  were  found  207.  cutting  through  natural  flume  waves  lower  down o n sand  about  !„5  feet  grate  due  to  6  rate  between  flow  and  2,2  the  from  2,5  current.  Simons  "anti-dunes"  of  Gilbert  waves  foreshore  up  was one  the  achieved sand  wave,  disintegration assumed  the  themselves mentioned  by  of  shape had  erosion  few  seconds,  process to  higher  had  as  sand  Inman  per  (in:  would al  second,  (1914).  the  and  flow  of  sand  front  of  the  waves,  fresh the  disinte-  up  the  they  horns to  water summer  in  Shepard, to  2  flow  of  the to  the  per  one.  rate  migrate to  particles next  1963),  the  forms  feet  of  high  when  rate  flume.  very  correspond  Migration  approximately  relevance  would  therefore belong  (1965),  at  a periodicity  that  a bull's  of  of  regularly  states  was  the  a  fairly  (1964)  sand  little  earlier,  considerable  of  behaved  formation  flow)  et  the  the  the  (sheet  sheet  to  doing,  high  They  of  so  disturbance  feet  regime"  of  after  rate  Bascom  and  for  spaced  According  changed  waves),  against  and  were  and  flow  in  foreshore.  waves  per minute.  flow  (sand is  some  and  responsible  the  apart,  berm,  formation-disintegration  about the  summer  channels  The  This  the  the sand  minute,  from Just  "upper  the  lee  prior  to  characteristically  (Plate beach creeks  21b).  The  structures, were  berm and  waves but  as  responsible  upper  for  foreshore.  Plate  20a.  A s m a l l s p i l l i n g wave a p p r o a c h e s t h e g r a v e l n e a r P r o f i l e D„ T h e p h o t o g r a p h was t a k e n a t start of flood tide.  step the  Plate  20b.  A few s e c o n d s a f t e r P l a t e 2 0 a . A s h o r t swash t r a v e r s e d up t h e g r a v e l f o r e s h o r e , and a r e f l e c t e d wave t r a v e l l e d b a c k a c r o s s t h e t r o u g h t o w a r d s the longshore bar.  Plate  20c.  A few s e c o n d s a f t e r P l a t e 2 0 b . T h e r e f l e c t e d wave ( l e f t - h a n d side of photograph) c o l l i d e d with the n e x t i n c o m i n g s p i l l i n g wave ( r i g h t - h a n d s i d e o f photograph), A water spout formed which t r a v e l l e d a l o n g t h e c r e s t o f t h e l o n g s h o r e be , Note waves b r e a k i n g in t h e d i s t a n c e on Sand P o i n t .  PI a t e  21a.  H y d r a u l i c jump waves o r o n d u l a r b o r e s , d e v e l o p e d by t u r b u l e n t b a c k w a s h o v e r - r i d i n g t h e incoming s p i l l i n g w a v e . T h e p h o t o g r a p h was t a k e n a t S a n d Poi nt»  PI a t e  21b.  Sand waves w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c " b u l l ' s h o r n " shape T h e p h o t o g r a p h was t a k e n b e t w e e n P r o f i l e F a n d G , j u s t seaward from where a f r e s h - w a t e r c r e e k c u t t h r o u g h t h e summer b e r m .  209  210  XII.  A.  REGIONAL  gold  in  at  successful Bay,  and  quartz of  in  Canada  were  some  winter  (Plate  the  (Holland  which in  April  iron  and  late  "black  east  long  the  Kennedy  into  until of  copper  a  gold  on  number o f  Dolmage o f the  of  a most  area  the  and  beach  is  at  Wreck  gold-bearing  groups  this  have few  concentrate  and  populated,  Since  a  Survey  1920,  thinly  today  of were  Geological  type."  even  beach  the small  promotion and  production  1919 a n d  island  Bay  Prospectors  the  in  primitive  placers,  time,  1950's  sands"  Nasmith,  tons  for  V.  a  placer  Columbia.  placer  River,  part  and  a r o u n d Wreck  time,  shown  individuals  during  the  23a).  1962  4,400,000  fine  region  lode  from working  development  flows  the  British  companies  beach  the  and  commenced  of  income  In  in  described  "This  the  in  when  worked.  small  derive  towards  level  Indians  in  time  Kennedy  that:  number o f  interest  a  briefly  by  interest  locating  along  mentioned  a  high  veins  chiefly  at  1898,  was  GEOLOGY  ASPECTS  Economic began  EC0N0MIC  of  Batholith  and  in  a magnetite  Barkley  Sound.  end o f  1966,  (Eastwood,  showings and  magnetite  1958),  the  ore  attention  in  occur have  the  briefly  content 1961,  at  Since  on  Bay  Mines Draw  production  the mine  been  where g r a n o d i o r i t e intruded Quatsino  Creek, began  produced  Several  have  directed  Wreck  Brynnor  ore-body  1968). area  was  other  small  known or  diorite  Limestones.  of  211.  SUMMARY  B .  OF The  sands  Is  It  apparent  Is  GOLD  total  unknown,  AND SAMPLING  ON  AT  BAY  WRECK  amount  o f gold  extracted  from  the black  but from  records  that  kept  In  that  From covered  PKODUCTI  rich  pay s t r e a k s  1896 u n t i l  were  were  located  1 9 0 1 , $20,589 w o r t h  ($ 1 5 . 2 0 / o z „ ) , a n d i n  1 9 1 9 , when  of  Dolmage  the  past,  and mined. gold  was r e -  visited  the  area,  two s a m p l e s  c o l l e c t e d at  the c l i f f b a s e  produced  menal  assays:  concentrates  from 3 pans  $416.70/cu.yd.,  (ii) In  unpanned  average  1920, t h e U c l u e l e t  du r i n g 600 of a  (i)  that  summer,  Placer  $9,400  -  Mining  worth  $ I 15.20/cu,yd. Company  of gold  o f gravel  ($l5.75/oz).  From  $1,997  was t a k e n  ($21„60/oz).  In  from  a number o f summarised  Sample  Beach  investigation  different  in Table  black  sands  Grave'  from behind  Gravel  in Lost  face  Shoe  was f o r m e d , a n d  was  recovered  1931 t o  1935, a  1936, S t e v e n s o n  from total  conducted  on the r e c o v e r a b i I i t y  environments,  N u mb e r of samp 1es  from c l i f f  ($20.67/oz).  the results  of  of  gold  which  XVIII.  locations  Gravel  *  sand  yards  semiquantitative  are  black  -  pheno-  cliff Creek  0z' s/cu.yd. Range  Average  Average 1 va l u e / ^ cu.yd.  5  0,048- 3.488  1.086  $38.01  7  T r - 0.096  0.030  $1.05  4  T r - 0.009  0.002  $0.08  I  0.024  0.024  $0.84  ($35.00/oz) T a b Ie  XVI I I.  Summary o f s e m i - q u a n t i t a t i v e Investigation o f Gold RecoverabiIity by S t e v e n s o n (1936).  212.  All vicinity present this  of  Lost  and sampling  Shoe  Creek„  investigation  particular  C. PRESENT  (see  was  beach  designed  conducted  to  of  emphasise  general  a number o f  field  additional  of material  Approximately  the  estimated.  and  Its  t h e n p r o c e s s e d on a Super  Table  isolated*  of  magnetite  was  was I  The r e s u l t s  this  in  used  the  in  roughly  concentrate  and t h e number o f of  panned  extracted  p r o p o r t i o n by w e i g h t  Panner,  were  lb.  first  t h e heavy m i n e r a l  the  work a r e  was  "colours" listed  in  XIX, It  Of  lbs.  of  later evaluation  was panned down t o a b o u t  The b a l a n c e o f  c o u n t e d and  10  laboratory,  with a hand-magnet,  the  examination  samples  laboratory.  In  this,  sampling  for  and t h i s  the  RESULTS  to c o n c e n t r a t e g o l d and m a g n e t i t e  each c a s e ,  in  section,  c o n j u n c t i o n with  APPENDIX),  was  On t h e s t r e n g t h  INVESTIGATION AND In  area  mining  1968,  should  be m e n t i o n e d h e r e t h a t  five prospect-holes  were dug  at  during  various  t h e b e a c h by an unnamed e x p l o r a t i o n company. shovel  was  used,  and  the holes  and 6 f e e t  deep.  An a t t e m p t  in depth with  hand-auger  consequently,  one o f  four  1,3  lengths.  feet  northwest  foot  of  and c a s i n g  the prospect This  Profile  D,  places  6 feet  to  sample  met w i t h  little  holes  particular  was  channel  h o l e was  and 90 f e e t  summer on  A mechanical  measured about  by t h e w r i t e r  the  across, the  success; sampled  located  from t h e  beach  850  cliffbase,  in  213,  just P.  behind  the  ESTIMATED  VALUE  The down  into  a  three  Shoe  Lost  Shoe  of  Creek  a mean  Shoe  9  and  for  by  72,  a  23b).  SHOE  shown  =  in  Hite 10  about  I  disc  gold oz.  in  with  CREEX  was  size.  arbitrarily  Table  XIX,  Colours  to  were  a micrometer  discs  fir  2  1,700,000  colours  average  oz.  I  from  beach  NWR-5a  broken simplify  examined  eye-piece  to  Bateman,  1965)  the  was of  Snake  made,  so  source.  lOOp.).  area  River, this  Therefore  the  =  0.1  discs  with  x  by  (Map  No  is  medium =  the  6  x  diameter  number total  vI z . I I I. I/JL. that  averaged  specification  assumed  have  I).  colours.  summed  sq.mm.,  IO  Lost  estimated  U.S.A.  (17  30Qu,  the  has  of  72 g o l d  colours,  value  These  (approximately),  troy.  of  northwest  feet  values  dividing of  an  of  large  diameter  having  for  =  in  and  total  these  feet  2,625  near  We w i I I  southeast  of  be:  backshore  values.  feet  a  the  (1,375  section  contained  mean  that  gold  (1,250  midpoints  (quoted  regardless  1 1 . 2 8 ^ (from  highest  category,  the  thickness  constant  the  confirm  50»a, m u l t i p l y i n g  each  troy  XIX  SER-5a  total  category  we o b t a i n  17 x  to  together  small  particles  Table  samples  Creek)  the  of  on  as  particle  contains  samples  Assuming 150/x,  LOST  colours  microscope  in  consider  Creek),  These  gold  (Plate  22).  therefore of  of  catagories,  Results Lost  OF GOJLD NEAR  petrographic  (Plate  berm c r e s t  diameter  determination under  winter  a  to  be  diameter  ll.28)/lll.l I I I .  of =  would  214. Now e a c h o f t h e 9 s a m p l e s 10  about  lbs. of material.  72/1,700,000 o z ' s o f g o l d material I  from  value  (using  of this  This  backshore  in this feet  (Stevenson,  1936), g i v e s  follows: of  =  represents  d e p t h o f 20  length  100  is  ( o r more)  875,  tenor  with  gold  contained  depth,  tons  of  contained  in  the tenor  feet,  33,  1965).  Bateman,  of surface  The average and using  material  width  o f the grey  and depth  7.  of  the reported  f o r t h e zone  Assuming  we o b t a i n  5.271c/cu.yd.  or  l.6c/cu.yd.,  dimensions  breadth  in this  Value  o f gold  to the surface  t h e z o n e = 202,100 c u . y d s .  face  that  0.0009412 o z ' s .  J<j/ton  region  of  is given by:  2,625 f e e t o f b a c k s h o r e .  from  say  a t $35.00/oz = 3.289c/ton  figure  consisted  f r o m 9/200  recovered  T h e amount  200 — =  *  the equivalent:  derived  were  material  72 1,700,000 The  We c a n t h e r e f o r e  the backshore.  ton o f backshore  originally  clay  in yards  Therefore  extension  the approximate  as  volume  of the survalue  of  zone:  = 0.05271  202,100  x  = $10,650.00. E.  DISCUSSION The  minimal prospect  value hole  AND ECONOMIC figure  SIGNIFICANCE  derived  a t above  f o r the following (Table  gold  colours  with  rest  o f t h e beach  XIX)  depth  -  as w e l l .  should  reasons:  indicate  be regarded  Results  an i n c r e a s i n g  a situation  probably  Furthermore,  it  is  as a  from t h e number o f  valid  for the  fi ke1y t h a t  a  215.  number o f during  very  fine  field-panning,  heavy  mineral by  Lost  Creek,  Shoe  "colours  the  can  or  did  lack  of  since  not  on  the  lost  Super from  Stevenson almost  were  separate  results  be o b t a i n e d  through  cleanly  Panner,  either  (1936) and anywhere  from  This  the  the  the  he  fact  is  cliff-face  others  in  aeration  report  gravels"  or  that of  cliff-face. Due  expense  of  neccessary.  to  The  accessibility water,  of  tenor is  to  the  of  concentration  zone c o u l d  season.  Confirmation  dimensions. the  of  of  Bateman  the  be mined of  in  that  this  view  favour  of  the  of  placer  reports  (1965)  of  that  cemented  with  Sierra  a  tenor  Nevada  economically  mined.  a cheap  method  method,  the  entire  during  one  summer  however,  program  beach  material  low-grade  should,  this  deemed  abundance  employing  a profit  sampling  winter,  also  the  considering  hydraulicked  hy  not  consisting  hydraulic at  was  in  Tertiary  were  study,  surface  similar  some  this  immediate  Placers,  likely, as  the  however,  economically  detailed  A point  passing  light  of  samples  for  the  required.  such  culated  a  at  IOc/cu.yd.,  t h e r e f o r e appears  through  in  Similarly,  averaging  bulk  and  Mountain  It  with  area,  were  2 i - 3<i/cu.yd,  Placers  derived  is  Klamath  gravels,  large  nature  sub-marginal,  elsewhere the  Miocene  sought  exploratory  re-evaluation  deposits part  the  fire-assaying  (5.27 I C / c u . y d . )  of  particles  concentrates  borne out  the  gold  type would  first  conducted of be  mining,  in is  naturally  cal-  be three that  216.  restored  to  the  The and  in  depth  satisfaction  high by  of  tinual  "jigging"  tained  in  already be  surficial  early  result  of  values  prospectors  concentration over  the  been  capable  action  present taken,  of  hand  column  with  gold  of  of  Table  surf.  suggest  only  a  magnetite XIX,  from Beach  Furthermore,  Holland  and  berm c r e s t on  a  tent  and  detailed in  mining  the  cliffbase  such  as  this,  proposition  as  a  (Table  found VI).  to  be  could  most  of  report  along  the  the  100  obhas  appear  to  work. in  the is  right-  indicated  prospect  hole.  that  beach  feet).  the  by-product of  between  Depending  the magnetite  status  a  con-  gold  the backshore,  of  the  the  was  values  would  shown  and  (1958)  to  surficial  correlation  (berm)  elevate  due  season's  profitable  mineral  of  c o n c e n t r a t e d on a  with  small the  possible  the  quantity  to  recently  examined  the  property.  OF GOLD  AND  POSSIBLE  Several  gold-bearing  SOURCE  years  deposit  examination  reported  F.  the  (approximately  zone,a  other  Finally, occur  of  (1919),  con-  to  the  gold  mining  whole.  The o n l y cance  (1936),  that  magnetite  quantitative  calculated  Stevenson  single  Nasmith  c o n c e n t r a t e d "with  Dolmage  Low  a positive  samples  most  by  estimates  in  is  and  therefore  supporting  obtained  hundreds  the  study  and  Concerning  conservationists.  gold  by  a  backshore, of  platinum  local  0FFSH0KE quartz  economic  mining  PLACER  veins  was  signifizircon  has  been  company  who  DEPOSITS  were mined  along  the  Kennedy  ces  are unique  and  as  beach  placers  at  continuence original  the turn  this  part  a t Wreck  of of  of  Bay*  Lost  Shoe  The l i k e l i h o o d  Lost  of  (Map  this  channel  from  the hinterland  since  gold  is  the fine  gravels. search  Pay-streaks  would  the  at  very  tained samples  fine  Bay  of  much  of  SIZE this  - Map  fathoms  sand  -  ANALYSES, size OS-k  I),  Map 2 ) ,  magnetite  possessed  as  a higher  non-magnetic  along  fraction  in  (20 fathom revealed  was  garnet  up-  of  gold  improbabl  the g I a c i o f Iuvia I  (i)  found  (ii)  but  their  placer  A minor  -  to  mode  (see chapter  (middle  of other epidote,  (Table heavy  of  con  on  Wreck (60  five  times  VI).  It  mineeals,  pyroxene  in  examina-  Map 2 ) , a n d 0 S - I 6  0S-4 c o n t a i n e d  was  characterize  Petrologic  B-19  two s a m p l e s  proportion  most  an o f f s h o r e  line  samples line  to coastal  the  mm t o 0 . 1 0 5 m m ) , w h i c h  VI).  that  the other  opaques,  of  t h e 20 f a t h o m Table  the  costly*  studies:  minerals,  that  represents  however,  and  for the existence  t h e heavy  northwest  in the gravels,  (0.0625  the  the c o u r s e  throughout  difficult  fraction  prior  being  is,  exist  two i n d e p e n d e n t  collected  SEDIMENT tion  from  most  may w e l l  be e x t r e m e l y  Evidence derived  dispersed  1000 f e e t  1920),  to the  noticed  possibly  Creek,  transportation  rise  l ) „ He s u g g e s t e d  inland  Shoe  occurren-  (Dolmage,  gave  (1936)  elevation  Creek  These  coast  certainly  Stevenson  depression  bed o f  the century,  t h e west  in c l i f f t o p  this  stream  of  by h i m . a l m o s t  depression  t h e mouth  lift.  to  postulated  shallow of  River  as  also namely  and h o r n b l e n d e ,  2I'8. but  somewhat  less  Gold stands of  of  Nome,  Alaska,  zones  shelf  by  and  to  They  kO, Bay  Oregon  23  (see  beach  sand  have  magnetic  23,  and  10  offshore fathom  placer  regions  been  the  been  are  In  of  the  ilmenite, The  stillthe  latter the  chromite  probably of  off  coast area,  continental  deposits  corresponds is  the  fact  ANALYSIS).  during  known  l o c a t e d on  adjustments same.  POINT-COUNT  produced  Oregon.  fathoms.  placer  on  times,  response  magnetite,  isostatic  not  placers  southern  post-Pleistocene have  heading  Holocene in  black  contain  at  Wreck  the  of  in  and  positive  occur  cated  bearing  sealevel  three  1968).  zircon  (Chambers,  and  that  gold,  the  indi-  in  depth  fortuitous,  since  closely  the  crust  in  the  two  219. Samp 1e Number  Envi ronment  BEACH  (berm)  (Map  r  )  Gold Large 400-200  "colours M e d i um  1  1  2  1  2  3  6  6 6  j  1 5  i  12 7  3 1  3  c  CLIFF  FACE G L A C I O F L U V I A L  4 5 1  3  3 8  9 4 1 1  CREEK  -  •kick •kick ickic ic ic •k  -  •k-k ic* „  .(...'.  •kick  5)  -  -  ickic  -  LSC-9 L S C - 12  -  •k •k  (Map 2 )  LB - !  -  !_3-3 LB - 4 LB-5 PROSPECT  ickk  •k-kic  LSC-3 LSC-6  LONG B E A C H  ickic  *  C-5  (F i g „  ieick  -  C-7 SHOE  icicic  ic  C-6 LOST  * * •kicic  (Map 1 )  C-3 Point)—  3  18 13 4 3 8  •k  C-2  (Sand  4 4  1  1  OUTWASH  Magneti t e  2 0 0 - IOQM- < i o o >  NWR-6a  IWk-5a (northwest NWR-4a o f r i v e r ) * ! NWK-3a NWR-2a NV.'R- 1 a ( L o s t Shoe C r e e k ) y 'S ZR~! a S .R-2a ( s o u t h e a s t ! SER-3a SEK~4a of river) SER-5a ( S a n d P o i n t ) - - tSEK-6a SEK-7a S£R-8a  V  Sma 1 1T o t a l  -  -  -  •k •k •k *  HOLE P-l P-2  P-3 P-4 x Magnetite * **  = =  content  l i t t l e (^10%) f a i r (10 - 30%) a b u n d a n t ( 30%)  estimated  2 1  1  1  visually  from panned  2 3  ic •kit  concentrate  T a b l e XIX. Goid and Magnetie from F i v e E n v i r o n m e n t s at Wreck Bay,  220.  Plate  22.  Photomicrograph o f the largest gold " c o l o u r s " o b t a i n e d from Beach (berm) and P r o s p e c t H o l e samples.  221.  Plate  23a.  View o f t h e f o r e s h o r e from t h e c l i f f edge between P r o f i l e B and t h e mouth o f L o s t Shoe C r e e k . The p h o t o g r a p h was t a k e n d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1968/69. Compare t h e d a r k c o l o u r e d m a t e r i a l on t h e f o r e s h o r e ( b l a c k sand) w i t h l i g h t m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h e summer ( P l a t e 18b).  Plate  23b.  P r o s p e c t h o l e l o c a t e d n e a r P r o f i l e D, and j u s t landward o f t h e w i n t e r berm c r e s t . The m e a s u r i n g s t a f f i s g r a d u a t e d i n t e n t h s o f a f o o t . The s a m p l i n g c h a n n e l i s v i s i b l e to t h e r i g h t o f t h e m e a s u r i n g s t a f f . Note a l t e r n a t i n g g r a v e l and sand h o r i z o n s i n t h e waI I o f t h e ho I e „  222.  XIII.  A.  observed, The  rocky  shores,  means  a  from  for  the  The  former  Wreck distal  area  a more  by  shell-hash  and  the  summer  their  above  vicinity  the  of  most  environment  bay of  and  sandy  collected,  the  summer  beaches  a  were o b t a i n e d The  list  fauna,  of  and  intertebrates;  marine  common  life  during  offshore.  local  more  the  ends, most  the  beach  the  few  during is  but  by  no  does  re-  species.  little  from  have  beach  I),  campers, food  cliff,  who  to  4.0  section and  The  and  vigorously  value.  However,  at  site  of  there hunt  is  this  col-  corner  characterized size.  area  Profile Clams  would  A  indian  of  well. and  are  appear  pile  Clams  as  them d u r i n g  a vast an o l d  shells  grain  between  corners,  southeast  and  mm i n from  except  southeast  Little-neck  existence  the  barren,  waves,  damage.  reported  Butter  Their  from  and  environment,  0.5  been  virtually  northwest  hydrodynamic  small  is  protected  show  common.  by  just  Bay  (Map  threatened for  far  the  ranging  Point  particularly  and  marine  BEACHES  usually  molluscs In  Quis'tis  is  active  other  of  animal  ZONE  At  is  by  the  of  consisting  synopsis  SANDY  there  Bay  zone  in  I.  two  list  neritic  outline  INTRATIDAL  lected  the  sampling  an  a  provided  complete  present  is  intratidal  specimens sediment  XX  from Wreck  1968.  B.  LIFE  INTRODUCTION Table  or  HARINE  to the  shells village,  be  223.  indicates Also and  their  present PurpIe  here,  dant the  the in  tide-pools and  measure  up  its  over  are  most  graveily.  in  this  Cockles,  occur  just  of  They  boulders of  eagerly  seek  scouring  known.  their  in  the  environment.  Red  Turbans  beach,  except  are  particularly  the  northwest  inflicting  destructive  painful  abun-  corner  bites  of  which  migrate  sand  foreshore  holes  by  24b).  surface.  (Plates  chopping How  is  the  up  each  tidal  deeper  into  the  dry,  24a). the  worms  with  They  beach  survive  cycle,  sand  to  is  un-  escape  effect.  Edible  shells,  and  Man's  at  found  in  only  one  located  a  which  ROCKY  is  Fingers  fragments  up  were  Quisitis  Crabs,  Dead  washed  various  of  places  area  (sponge),  Mottled along  along  few m i l e s  the  south  Stars,  the  beach.  coast, of  at  Tofino.  SHOKES  The Wreck regions:  backwash  from  2.  food,  the  the  tiny  the  Clam  Beach,  of  (Plate  they  occasionally  Paradise  for  where  beaks  Razor  dollars  beneath  and  full  them  of  Presumably  carapaces  long,  surface  intense  Rock.  common,  capable  5 cms  with  Sand  is  worms  surface  are  occur  around  are  to  render  Ravens  its  less  durability  profusely. Red  they  Fleas  foreshore  beach,  bleed  but  and  01ives, Sand  where  persistence  Bay  Point,  environment Wya  Point,  consists  of  Florencia  four  distinct  Island,  and  Seal  224 Quisitis limpets,  Blue  completely  found  Mussels  obscuring  beach.Tests but  of  in  nearby  Black  Top  Crabs),  Slender  Whelks,  and  Barnacles,  few  the of the  and  from  shell  actually  seen  possesses  (Map  enclosing  waves.  longer  Purple-hinged  Rock  and  Dwarf  Carpenter Seal It  does,  numbering  about  southeast  corner  high-tide  than  common 8  Granular  Hermit  Channeled  Dog  Mussels  and  Abalone  beach,  Acorn  Bay, has  but  been  only  a  were  in  mark  small on  by  debris  Hornmouths,  is  practically  eight, the  support  barren a  side  of  Blue  Mussel  Scallops, Purple  who o c c a s i o n a l l y bay,  and  out  except  family  to  of  range  on  winter  are  Weathervane  only  beaches  this  created  this  inches), Leafy  Three  fauna  Olives,  Turbans,  however,  of  rocks,  Slipper  invertebrate  the bay.  doubtless,  Scallops,  Rock  the  recovered.  supports  the  Particularly  (some  on  two  adjacent  from Wreck  Northern pocket  actually  above and  the  into  Blue  downcoast  b e c o m e common.  facing  I),  housing  abundant  distance  Island  exist  the  Hooked  Lirulate Margarites,  Florencia side  on  of  Purples.  short too  abundance latter  alive  include:  (invariably  were  island  limpets.  not  fragments  shell-hash  Shells  a  rocks  protected  storm  boulders  pools,  an  the  isolated  Shells  Point  Barnacles;  few  Bittium,  Barnacles  reported  a  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  Acorn  tidal  Wrinkled  Wya  is  and  animals  Snails,  Goose  Point  for  Hair down  Florencia  a  few  Seals, to  the  Island.  225.  Worth Lion, They  which were  animal  mentioning  populate  never  would  one  seen  wash  at  Ochre  Starfish,  Leather Anemones the  numerous  C.  On  Green  Sea  intertidal  pools  in  and  baby  Cucumbers  tained  an  Clams.  rock,  to  of  Mussel  /  2.  of  common  Beach.  Purple  and  and  Urchins  have  some  which  Stars.  Green  crevices  of  dead  Sunflower  Urchins, rock  a  Long  are  Tofino.  all  along  carved exceed  I  (Map  bay  2)  Stars. all  particularly shells.  the  the o f f s h o r e  Brittle  Clams,  and  in  Barnacle  trough  Between  contained  sample  Included  Purple  yielded  in  Urchin  OS-9 the  Little  contained these  some  shell  which  latter  spines,  two  conwere  Slender  fragments.  NEKTON  On t h e were o b s e r v e d  from  OS-9  50%  Scallops,  Blttium Blue  Muds  bivalves,  excess  collected  Ubiquitous  OS-I  mostly  Weathervane  While  the  samples  and  samples  debris,  into  of  Sea  BENTHOS  Several  areas,  less  Sea  part  shores  and  holes  south  but.periodically  rocky  Island,  Northern  ZONE 1.  Sea  islands  northern  the  of  depth,  NERIT1C  Olives  small  somewhat  Florencia  round  in  the  a colony  Bay,  the  along  is  the  Wreck  Purple  inhabit  coast.  inch  and  Chitons,  of  up o n t o  Ubiquitous  here  28th  July  sounding  echo-sounding  the  in  1968, the  bay  in  bay  a  number just  early  of  north  July,  Humpback of  Seal  scores  of  Whale Rock. fish  226^  (probably south D.  salmon)  side  LAND  of  Black  as  grow  well.  line of  at  the  were  Pipers, latter  and  the  seen  most  rock  ground  from in had  1968,  their  huge  on for  and  the  water  at  the  WEED  along  Lost  Raccoon seen  Shoe  Creek,  were o f t e n  running  particularly  areas a  cobbles  the  on  lying  the  along  the  where  seen the  there  shore-  southeast  of  close vast  part  Ravens,  Baird  Glaucous-winged Florencia  of  the  Gulls.  Island,  island  serves  as  gulls.  seaweed which to  thrive grows  shore  (Plate  attached  littoral 25a). to  of  Wreck  thick  I). the  of  Bay,  beds  During weed  currents  Some  their  in  in  (Map  quantities  opposing  beach  Eagle,  and  side  of  Kelp,  tore  firmly  Bald  common o n  seaward  hundreds  and  the  Catchers  being  storm  on  included  varieties  anchors,  piles  large  25b).  SEA  common  especially  impressive  boulder  August  AND  Oyster  are  Several  over  are  edge,  Black  two  bare  nesting  the  BIRD  frequently  waters  from  beach.  The  a  leaping  Island.  profusion,  Birds Sand  SEA Bear  in  Mink the  seen  Florencia  MAMMALS,  berries  were  loose  deposited  them  holdfasts  still (Plate  it  227. Table  XX.  L i s t o f Animal o r Observed at  Marine L i f e Wreck Bay.  MOLLUSCA GASTROPODA Acmaea i n s t a b i 1 i s (Gould) A. m i t r a F s c h s c h o l t z A. p e l t a Eschscholtz persona Eschscholtz A. t e s t u d i n a I i s scutum E s c h s c h o l t z Diodora aspera Eschscholtz Crepidula  adunca  Sowerby  H a l i o t i s kamtschatkana Jonas Tegula funibral?s (A. Adams) T . pu I I i go G m e I i n CalIiostoma liqatum Gould Margarites lirulatus (Carpenter) MV h e Ii c ? n u s Phipps A s t r a e a g i b b e r o s a Di I I w y n Homalopoma carpenterl(PiIsbury) Sear Iesi a Nassarius  di ra Reeve fossatus GouId  Thai s I a m e 1 l o s a GmeIi n 01 i v e l l a b i p l i c a t a S o w e r b y 0. b a e t i c a C a r p e n t e r C e r a t o s t o m a f o i i a t a GmeIi n Bittium attenuatum Carpenter PELECYPODA M y 1 1 l u s edu1 i s L i n n a e u s Saxldomus g i g a n t e u s (Deshayes) Protothaca staminea (Conrad) Si 1? q u a p a t u I a ( D i x o n ) Clinocardium nuttalI? (Conrad) Pecten c a u r i n u s GouId Hinnites  multiruqosUs  (Gale)  AMPHIN.EURA K a t h a r i n a t u n i c a t a Wood ARTHftOPODA CKUSTACEA Balanus cariosus (Pel las) Lepas a n a t j f e r a L i n n a e u s C a n c e r magi s t e r D a n a i?agurus granosimanus (Stimson) Orchestoidea  Californfana  Collected  Unstable Limpet Whitecap Limpet S h i e l d Limpet Mask Limpet P l a t e Limpet Rough K e y h o I e Limpet H o o k e d S.I i p p e r Snai I Northern Abalone BIack Top-shelI Dusky T u r b a n BIue Top-she I I L i ru I a t e M a r g a r i t e Smooth Margarite Red T u r b a n C a r p e n t e r Dwarf Tu r b a n Di r e W h e l k C h a n n e l e d Dog Whelk Wrinkled Purple Pu r p I e 0 1 i v e L i t t l e 01ive L e a f y Hornmouth S l e n d e r Bi t t i u m BIue MusseI B u t t e r Clam L i t t I e - n e c k CI am Razor Clam C o c k Ie Weathervane Sea I lop Pu r p I e - h i n g e d Rock Sea I lop Leather  Chiton  Acorn Barnacle Goose B a r n a c l e E d i b l e Crab Granular Hermit C rab Sand F l e a  228. ECHINODERMATA ASTEKOIDEA Pisaster  ochraceus  (Brandt)  Pycnopodia he!{anthoides (Brandt) Evasterias troschelii (Stimson) Ophiopholis aculeata ECHINOIDEA S t r o n q v l o c e n t r o t u s drobach? ensi s (Mu!ler) D.en'draster e x c e n t r i c u s . EschschoItz HOLOTHUROI DEA Leptosvnapta albicans COELENTERATA ANTHOZOA Anthopleura  xanthoqrammica  PORIFERA D E M C S P O N G I A E HADROMERINA Polymastia pachymastJa  ANNELIDA POLYCHAETA Thoracophel?a  Pu rp I e o r O c h r e S t a r f i sh Sunflower Star Mottled Star U b i qu i t o u s Bri t t le Star Green Sea Urchin Sand Sea  Do I I a r Cucumber  Green  Anemone  Dead M a n ' s Fi ngers  Red  mucronata  Worm  MAMMAL I A P h o c a v i t u I i na L i n n a e u s Eumetopias j u b a t a (Schreber) Meqaptera  novaeangliae  (Borowski)  H a l r Sea I N o r t h e r n Sea Lion Humpback W h a l e  229.  Plate  24a.  A R e d Worm i s s h o w n o n t h e n o t e b o o k , a n d t h e mesh o f t i n y h o l e s i n t h e beach s u r f a c e is the r e s u l t o f their b u r r o w i n g . The long t r a c k s on t h e sand surface are snail markings.  Plate  24b.  Raven  diggings  for  Red  Worms.  230.  Plate  25a.  P i l e s o f d e l p d e p o s i t e d on t h e f o r e s h o r e where o p p o s i n g l i t t o r a ' currents converged. T h e p h o t o g r a p h was t a k o n o n t h e 19th A u g u s t I 9 D 8 , j u s t a f t e r t h e Summer S t o r m . Note the i n f l u e n c e o f the k e l p p i l e s on foreshore erosion.  Plate  25b.  J K e l p t e r n from b ^ M ' . r ' !n t h e bay by l a r g e s t o r m waves. The c o b b l e s a t t a - - ' .d t o t h e k e l p h o l d f a s t s were s i m i l a r to those in the g I a c i o f I u v i a I outwash. -  ;r  231. REFERENCES Anderson,  F . E . , 1 9 6 8 , Seaward t e r m i n u s o f the vashon c o n t i n e n t a l c l a c i e r i n t h e S t r a i t o f J u a n de F u c a . Marine G e o l . , v.6, pp.419-433.  Aubouln,  J . , 1965. 288 p .  Bagnold,  R.A.,1940. B e a c h f o r m a t i o n by e x p e r i m e n t s i n a wave t a n k . Paper 5237, p , 2 7 - 5 2 „  Bascom,  G e o s y n c I i nes..  Elsevier  Pub I . C o . ,  New  York,  w a v e s ; some m o d e l J.Inst.Civ.Enors.,v.I,  W.N., 1951. The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n sand s i z e and beach-face slope. Trans.Amer.Geophys.Union, vol.32, p. 866-874,, ,1964.  Bateman,  Waves  and  beaches.  A.M.,1965. Economic Sons I n c . , 916 p,  Doubleday  mineral  deposits.  and  Co.,N.Y.267p.  John  Wiley  &  B h o o j e d h u r , S . , 1 9 6 9 . G e n e s i s o f a p o d z o l s e q u e n c e on t h e w e s t coast of Vancouver Island. Unpublished M.Sc.thesis, Dept. o f S o i l S c i e n c e , U . B . C , Vancouver. Boon,  Bowen,  J . D. , I'I I , 1 9 6 8 . 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APPENDIX  SEDIMENT A total laboratory  of  study.  investigations,  135  They  and  SAMPLE  sediment  were  will  COLLECTION samples  partially  be  referred  were  used to  in  collected three  under  the  for  different  appropriate  headi ngs: -  collected seasonal  RECENT  -  SEDIMENT  SIZE  -  ECONOMIC  GEOLOGY  In  addition  to  from  profile  foreshore A brief  are of  given.  mean  and  Wentworth (1962)  size  the  For two  from  northwest  passing  the  broad  classes  through  these  in  of  (Folk,  the  catagories,  Bay.  see  SEDIMENT  sample to  analysis  is  included, and  included  extending the  to  former  being  Friedman's  is  large  the  for  BEACH  been  parallel  other  range  latter  list  have  locations  character  a verbal  the  in  examine  and  the  the  were  ANALYSES.  procedures  following  and  samples  SIZE  appreciate  environments one  small  specifically  1968),  are  91  environments,  The  southeast,  Wreck  -  deviation  samples  diffraction  samples,  order  designation.  to  X-ray  different  convenience,  into  -  analysis  ANALYSES  description  small  Point-count  variability  standard  sorting  samples, ment.  from  -  rod-stations  Furthermore,  material  for  SEDIMENTS  normal  environ-  separated to  the  coast  to  the  coast  238.  PARALLEL  TO  COAST  LONG  BEACH  1000  gms  and  LB-3  very  mately  gms  gms  rock to  -  each,  Collected  moderately (WP)  -  Figure  Top  one  Collected  crevasses.  moderately  from  coastal  dune,  Fine  well  Hill  well 5,  8  Creek.  samples, of  approxi-  beach  small  to  Fine  sorted,  inch  from  I I  inch  to  a  surface  pocket  granules;  beaches  very  sorted.  5,  from  scraped winter  sand  well  surface defined  Top o n e  Medium  beach  Sand  Figure  approximately  poorly  moderately  (QP)  each.  together.  TO  to  crevasses.  1000  a  of  in  POt NT  behind  of  mouth  together.  WYA  inch  the  POINT  to  samples,  came  well  1000  rock  one  5  which  scraped  poorly  NORMAL  Top  2,  LB-2  from  QUISITIS  Map  Collected  except  sand:  -  each.  together. berm,  (LB)  samples,  of  beach  small very  approximately  surface  pocket  coarse  scraped  beaches  sand;  in  very  we Ii  sorted,  COAST LOST  SHOE C R E E K  approximately mid-channel  1000  poorly  Medium sorted.  -  gms  sediment.  Tofino-UcIueIet miles).  (LSC)  each. Samples  highway sand  to  Figure  5,  13  samples,  Collected 800  bridge, granules;  feet  and  from apart  river  active between  mouth  moderately  to  (2 very  239.  CLIFF  (C) GLAC!OFLUVIAL  OUTWASH  approximately  1000  samples  from  immediately Cliff  section  miles).  Very  very  poorly  GREY  CLAY  500  gms  Map  each.  I,  clay  near  Profile  outwash  top  MUDBALL  -  grey  B  to  to  channel except  top  of  cliff.  Profile  granules;  C-2  G  (2j  poorly  to  channel  of  C-2  silty,  Cliff  behind few  sample, sample  samples  below  section  spit-bar  (I  pebbles.  approximately between  at  just  immediately  cliff.  region  clay  approximately  C-2.  500  gms.  gIaciof Iuvia I  Friable,  silty,  ri ngs, One  Collected outwash.  One  channel  i r o n - o x i de  foot  near  samples,  foot  A to  -  and  clay  except  Cohesive,  foot  5  samples,  cliff-face,  sand  3  One  brown  One  up  6  sorted.  -  BROWN C L A Y  I,  each.  Profile  coarse  backshore,  mile),.  Map  brown  from  above  from  gms  halfway above  -  sample,  adjacent  approximately  to  Spheroidal,  C-3  in  sandy,  1500  gms.  gIaciof Iuvia I brown.  BEACH Large  samples  approximately surface  (NWR, 1000  scraped  SEK) gms  Map  each.  together.  6  I,  42  Top  one  sample  samples, inch  lines  of  beach  northwest,  2kC. and  8  sampIeslines  mouth,  each  line  B ERM  (a)  berm  crestc  well  to  mark.  3  on  Fine  Lost  Creek  samples: backshore sand  to  behind  winter  granules;  very  sorted, -  to  LEVEL  Collected coarse  (c)  "reference  mid-tide  level.  moderately samples  below  sand;  -  high  very  Collected  point",  tide  well  Fine  sand;  very  to  numbers)  approximately  100  gms  pebbles;  Bascom's  well  the  to  sorted. rod  and  at  approximately  (profile  foreshore  Shoe  sorted.  (1951)  to  of  coarse  (b)  Ti DE  MEAN WATER  samples,  Very  moderately  poorly  Small  containing  •- C o l l e c t e d  MEAN HIGH swash  southeast  -  each,  Map  I,  91  54  from  summer  Fine  sand  37  from  winter  foreshore.  very  well  sorted  to  extremely  poorly  so r t e d . BAY  (B)  -  gms  each.  LaFond, coarse  25  Sampled  sand;  -  each.  to  Van well  Map  Pettersson  sub-sampled  samples,  from  and  very  (CS)  cu.ft.  using  I,  Eckman  OFFSHORE one  Map  2,  approximately  motor Veen  launch grabs.  using Fine  to  extremely  20  samples,  500 Dietz-  to  poorly  sorted,  approximately  Sampled  from  C.N.A.V,LAYM0RE  and  Veen  grabs.  Van  approximately  1000  gms  13  Samples  each;  2kl. fine  sand  to  sorted.  7  500  each;  gms  cobbles;  samples  very  well  sub-sampled  sandy  green-grey  to  to  poorly  approximately  silt.  242.  GLOSSARY  The the  meanings  BEACH  BEACH  RIDGE  following in which  -  RUNNELS  list  they  -  in  sediment  the  foreshore,  the  shore  of  line.  They  poorly  matrix.  A DIAMICTITE  A wave  continual  trapped  rapid  results moving  in  occurring  fine  lithified defined  to by  material.  sediment  particles  on  in a  conmuddy  diamicton.  terms  (Flint  the nearshore  t h e wave  relatively  long  A planimetric  profile  of  its  form  deep  due t o and  water end.  rotating  of  on a b e a c h ,  maintains  periods coastal  geometric  periods  zone  the foreshore,  movement  fluctuations,  constant  in  about  its  landward end.  A transverse  long  a  reflection off  relatively  2.  is  line.  I960).  form  slower  clastic  larger  a r e n o n - g e n e t i c a I Iy  a l . ,  minor  and  the shore  separated  relatively  sorted  of  I.  sand  of  to  on the  right-angles  are usually  consisting to  at  of  thesis:  sediment  and o r i e n t e d  sisting  This  coarse  terms  occurring  bodies  Elevated  in  this  -  et  EQUILIBRIUM -  of  used  and o r i e n t e d p a r a l l e l  Non-sorted  -  been  are defined  foreshore,  Both  EDGE WAVE  terms  have  An e l e v a t e d b o d y  "valleys" DIAMICTON  of  of  form  despite  for  time.  shape  dimenstions  time.  its  which  which for  maintains  relatively  243.  Both the of LITTORAL  CURRENT  i  action  DRIFT  -  -  of  waves  -  or  and  and  steady  currents,  generated at  in  the  an  angle  to  movement  along  the  longshore  A current  breaker  a general  and  state  the  rate  the  zone  shore  by  line.  foreshore  due  currents.  generated  surf  surf  in  the  shoaling,  zones  by  wave  divergence  The  line  of  intersection  and  di f f r a c t i o n . WATER  TABLE  LINE  OF  EMERGENCE  -  between  the  zone  saturation.  of  in  movements  breaking  Sediment  CURRENT  represent  A current  littoral LONGSHORE  2  sediment  waves LITTORAL  and  foreshore  and  upper  surface  of  a  to  


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