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Geochemical dispersion in bedrock and glacial overburden around a copper property in south central British… Hoffman, Stanley J. 1972

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c\  GEOCHEMICAL DISPERSION IN BEDROCK AND GLACIAL OVERBURDEN AROUND A COPPER PROPERTY IN SOUTH CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA by STANLEY J . HOFFMAN B.Sc,  McGill University, 1 9 6 9  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n t h e Department of Geology  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1972  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, the L i b r a r y  s h a l l make i t  freely available  for  I agree  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department It  of this thesis for financial written  i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t copying o r  Department  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Columbia  or  publication  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  that  r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  for  ii  ABSTRACT  The R a y f i e l d R i v e r copper property,  14 m i l e s east  of 70 M i l e House i n south c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia, i s u n d e r l a i n by a zoned s y e n i t e i n t r u s i o n of l a t e T r i a s s i c or e a r l y J u r a s s i c age.  The b a t h o l i t h was  introduced  into  Mesozoic v o l c a n i c s of the N i c o l a Group and has since been p a r t i a l l y b u r i e d by T e r t i a r y B a s a l t flows.  The  syenite  grades from s e v e r a l h y b r i d phases at the country rock contact, through hornblende s y e n i t e , to l e u c o c r a t i c syenite and f i n a l l y , to s e v e r a l c e n t r a l l y disposed m a t i t i c bodies.  Chalcopyrite  peg-  and b o r n i t e , the major s u l -  phides p r e s e n t , occur as i n c l u s i o n s w i t h i n hornblende, along f e l d s p a r v e i n l e t s and along f r a c t u r e s i n a conc e n t r i c zone surrounding the l e u c r o c r a t i c s y e n i t e . On the p r o p e r t y , the R a y f i o l d R i v e r d i s s e c t s to 400 f e e t , a g e n t l y r o l l i n g p l a t e a u .  G l a c i a l deposits  are r a r e along the v a l l e y but commonly approach 50 f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s on the p l a t e a u .  S o i l , l a k e sediment and  water samples c o l l e c t e d from these young and unweathered s u r f i c i a l deposits are a l k a l i n e .  relatively Talus s o i l s  along the v a l l e y , however, are s l i g h t l y more a c i d i c , due to o x i d a t i o n of primary sulphide  minerals.  The value of geochemical p a t t e r n s i n l o c a t i n g bedrock m i n e r a l i z a t i o n may  be gauged by the success  a t t a i n e d where sources of copper i n bedrock are known. Three copper r i c h areas have been found.  The most  iii s t r i k i n g bedrock anomaly, n e a r the c e n t e r o f the p r o p e r t y , i s o u t l i n e d by c o p p e r - r i c h s y e n i t e f l o a t , stream ment, l a k e water and sediment and t a l u s s o i l s . second, a l o n g the n o r t h e r n h a l f o f the r i v e r was  found by stream sediment  sediThe  valley,  and t a l u s s u r v e y s .  The  t h i r d bedrock anomaly, on the s o u t h e a s t e r n f r a c t i o n o f the p r o p e r t y , i s surrounded by f l o a t b l o c k s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n copper.  Copper enrichment w i t h i n g l a c i a l  over-  burden i s u s u a l l y d e t e c t a b l e o v e r t w i c e the a r e a underl a i n by bedrock m i n e r a l i z a t i o n .  Most secondary  anomalies  o v e r l y b a t h o l i t h i c r o c k s , except i n the south where rounded  s y e n i t e f l o a t b l o c k s , m i n e r a l o g i c a l l y and  t u r a l l y s i m i l a r t o the most s t r i k i n g bedrock  struc-  anomaly,  were t r a n s p o r t e d by a g l a c i a l Bonaparte R i v e r t o where t h e y now  overly Nicola Volcanics. On a r e g i o n a l survey, b o u l d e r t r a c i n g and  lake  sediment o r l a k e water sampling are most l i k e l y t o i n d i c a t e the p r e s e n c e o f a m i n e r a l i z e d i n t r u s i v e .  De-  t a i l e d sampling r e v e a l s anomalous stream sediments o f the R a y f i c l d R i v e r and c o p p e r - r i c h t a l u s along the v a l l e y s i d e s o f the n o r t h e r n h a l f ' Detailed s o i l lining  o f the p r o p e r t y .  sampling i s n o t s u i t a b l e f o r o u t -  copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , as a l k a l i n e s o i l  overburden r e s t r i c t movement o f copper i o n s .  and  thick  Erratic  h i g h copper v a l u e s are u s u a l l y r e l a t e d to m i n e r a l i z e d f l o a t o r bedrock.  Analysis of  second y e a r growth of  Douglas f i r o r lodgepole pine a p p a r e n t l y does not d e t e c t m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n bedrock.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  ii-iii  TABLE OE CONTENTS  iv-vii  LIST OP TABLES  viii-ix  LIST OE FIGURES  x-xiii  LIST OE PLATES  xiii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xiv  CHAPTER 1  1-38  I.  STATEMENT OE THE PROBLEM  1  II.  HISTORY OP GEOCHEMICAL SAMPLING OF GLACIAL OVERBURDEN  I I I . LOCATION MD IV.  ACCESS  GEOLOGY 1. Regional Geology 2. D e t a i l e d Geology A. I n t r o d u c t i o n B. I n t r u s i v e Rocks a. Hornblende s y e n i t e b. L e u c o c r a t i c syenite c. Fine grained s y e n i t e d. Hybrid phases e. Pegmatites f. A p l i t e and monzonite dikes g. Diabase C.  Faults  2-6 7 8-26 8 11-26 11 12-26 12-18 18-20 20 21-22 22-23 23 23-24 24-  V.  CLIMATE  27  VI.  TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE  27-31  V I I . SOILS  31-36  V I I L VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE IX. PREVIOUS EXPLORATION HISTORY OF THE RAYFIELD RIVER COPPER PROPERTY  36 37-38  V  Page  CHAPTER 2  39-59  I.  SAMPLE COLLECTION  39-50  1 Introduction 2. B e d r o c k 3. Stream, S p r i n g and Lake Water 4. Stream and Lake Sediments 5o Hornblende S y e n i t e F l o a t 6. S o i l s 7. V e g e t a t i o n ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES 1. E m i s s i o n S p e c t r o s c o p y 2„ Atomic A b s o r p t i o n  39-43 43-45 43-45 45-46 46 47-50 50 51-58 . 51 51-58  0  II.  CHAPTER 3  59-181  I.  INTRODUCTION  59  II.  PRIMARY DISPERSION  59-91  A. B.  M e t a l Content o f Bedrock Discussion (a) Factors . f f e c t i n g M e t a l Content of B e d r o c k i„ Introduction i i . Primary zoning i i i . G e n e s i s o f s u l p h i d e emplacement (b) Application to Exploration  I I I . SECONDARY DISPERSION 1„ Stream, S p r i n g and Lake Water A. T r a c e and M a j o r Element D i s tribution i . Introd\;ction i i . Stream w a t e r i i i . Spring water i v . Lake w a t e r v. Comparison o f t r a c e and m a j o r element c o n t e n t o f stream and l a k e w a t e r B. D i s c u s s i o n (a) F a c t o r s / f f e c t i n g Trace Element Distribution i . Theoretical considerations i i . Influence of organic matter, pH and e v a p o r a t i o n on t r a c e element c o n t e n t s (b) Application to Exploration  59-78 79-91 79-86 79 79-80 81-86 86-91 92-181 92-109 92-95 92 92-93 94 94-95 95 109-115 109-114 109-110 110-114 114-115  vi Pr.ge > 2. Stream Sediments A. T r a c e Element D i s t r i b u t i o n B„ D i s c u s s i o n (a) F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Trace E l e ment D i s t r i b u t i o n (b) A p p l i c a t i o n t o E x p l o r a t i o n 3,  118-131 131-133  Lake Sediments  133-14-2  Ao B  133-134 135-1^2  e  4  115-133 115-118 118-133  T r a c e Element D i s t r i b u t i o n Discussion (a) F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Trace E l e ment D i s t r i b u t i o n (b) A p p l i c a t i o n t o E x p l o r a t i o n  » Hornblende Bo  Syenite Float  T r a c e Element D i s t r i b u t i o n Discussion (a) F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g T r a c e E l e ment D i s t r i b u t i o n (b) A p p l i c a t i o n t o E x p l o r a t i o n  135-141 141-142 143-152 143-145 145-152 145-146 146-152  5o S o i l s Ao T r a c e Element D i s t r i b u t i o n B„ D i s c u s s i o n (a) F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g T r a c e E l e ment D i s t r i b u t i o n io Introduction iio Mechanisms o f f o r m a t i o n o f copper a n o m a l i e s i i i . Influence of size f r a c t i o n , o r g a n i c m a t t e r , pH, calcium carbonate, coarse f r a g m e n t s , h o r i z o n and t o p o g r a p h y on t r a c e e l e ment c o n t e n t s iv. Choice o f h o r i z o n f o r sampling purposes (b) A p p l i c a t i o n t o E x p l o r a t i o n  152-176 152-159 160  6. Vegetation  176-181  A. Bo  Copper and Z i n c D i s t r i b u t i o n i n S e l e c t e d Trees Discussion (a) A p p l i c a t i o n t o E x p l o r a t i o n  160 160 160-165  165-170 170-172 172-176  176-179 180-181 180-181  vii  Page CHAPTER 4  182-202  L  INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SURVEYS  182-194  1. Introduction 2„ G e n e t i c F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Copper Anomaly F o r m a t i o n 3o A p p l i c a t i o n t o E x p l o r a t i o n on t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r Copper P r o p e r t y  182  CONCLUSIONS  195-200  1. Summary 2 . G e o c h e m i c a l S a m p l i n g o f Overb u r d e n as an a i d t o E x p l o r a t i o n  195-198  II.  182-188 189-194  198-200  I I I . SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER WORK  200-202  BIBLIOGRAPHY  203-209  viii LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  I  Thin section examination of hornblende syenite  17  II  Thin section examination of leuooc r a t i c syenite  19  Presumed f a u l t s along the R a y f i e l d River  26  IV  Approximate d e s c r i p t i o n of a modal s o i l p r o f i l e developed on g l a c i a l t i l l  32  V  Horizon sequences f o r s o i l s c l a s s i f i e d at the subgroup l e v e l of the s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system f o r Canada  33  Correlation between Canadian and American s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes  34  VII  Types of geochemical summer 1970  40,41  VIII  Comparison of metal values i n samples treated with and without HC1 i n the field  44  IX  Spectrographic equipment and standard operating conditions  52  X  Operational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and prec i s i o n at the 95$ confidence l e v e l of emission spectromenter analysis  53  XI  Operational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of atomic absorption analysis  55  XII  P r e c i s i o n of atomic absorption analy s i s at the 95$ confidence l e v e l estimated by r e p l i c a t e analysis of the UBC standard rock  56  P r e c i s i o n of atomic absorption analy s i s at the 95$ confidence l e v e l estimated by analysis of paired samples  57,58  Physiographic regions of the R a y f i e l d River copper property  60  III  VI  XIII  XIV  samples c o l l e c t e d ,  ix Page  Table Trace metal content (ppm) of ext r u s i v e and i n t r u s i v e bedrock, hydrof l u o r i c / p e r c h l o r i c acid attack  67  Summary of p o p u l a t i o n s detected on l o g p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s of hornblende s y e n i t e bedrock data  68  XVII  Regional d i s t r i b u t i o n of major and minor elements i n stream and l a k e water  96  XVIII  Comparison of t r a c e and major element contents (ppm) and pH i n stream and l a k e water  97  Copper and z i n c content (ppb) i n R a y f i e l d R i v e r water from C r a t e r Lake to the Bonaparte R i v e r j u n c t i o n  98  XX  Copper and z i n c content (ppb) and pH of s p r i n g water  99  XXI  Major element content (ppm) and pH o f R a y f i e l d and Bonaparte r i v e r water  100  XXII  Trace metal content (ppm) of stream sediments, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n , n i t r i c / p e r c h l o r i c acid attack  119  Comparison of t r a c e metal content (ppm) of stream and l a k e sediment, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n , n i t r i c / p e r c h l o r i c acid attack  120  Trace metal and major element content of water and sediment c o l l e c t e d at time lapse sampling s t a t i o n s , summer 1970  121  Copper and z i n c content (ppm) of i r o n and manganese r i c h sediments  122  XV  XVI  XIX  XXIII  XXIV  XXV XXVI  Summary of p o p u l a t i o n s detected on l o g p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s of hornblende syen i t e f l o a t data 14-7  XXVII  Trace element content (ppm) and pH o f d i f f e r e n t s o i l h o r i z o n s , -80 mesh f r a c t i o n , n i t r i c / p e r c h l o r i c acid attack  159  Copper and z i n c content (ppm) o f second year growth of Douglas f i r and lodgepolc p i n e , based on oven d r i e d weight, n i t r i c / p e r c h l o r i c a c i d a t t a c k  178  XXVIII  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1  2 3 4 5  Pago L o c a t i o n and a c c e s s t o t h e DanseyR a y f i e l d R i v e r copper p r o p e r t y , 70 M i l e House, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  3  R e g i o n a l g e o l o g y ( m o d i f i e d from C a m p b e l l and T i p p e r , 1966)  10  L o c a l geology of the R i v e r copper p r o p e r t y  12  Danscy-Rayficld  P e r t h i t i c intcrgrowths the s y e n i t e b a t h o l i t h  i n orthoclase of 16  L o c a t i o n o f f a u l t s and l i n e a r s : distribution of the highest d e n s i t y of a p l i t c and m o n z o n i t e d i k e s and f e l d s p a r v c i n l e t s  25  6  S o i l parent material d i s t r i b u t i o n  29  7  A p p r o x i m a t e d r a i n a g e catchment a r e a s , l o c a t i o n o f s p r i n g s and l o c a t i o n o f t i m e lapse sampling s i t e s  30  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f copper (ppm) i n t h e ' B' h o r i z o n , -80 mesh . f r a c t i o n , c o m p i l e d by Amax E x p l o r a t i o n , Inc„, 1969  49  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f copper (ppm) w i t h i n t h e syenite intrusive  69  9B  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f copper (ppm) i n h o r n blende syenite  70  10A  D i s t r i b u t i o n of zinc syenite intrusive  (ppm) w i t h i n t h e 71  D i s t r i b u t i o n of zinc syenite  (ppm) i n h o r n b l e n d e  D i s t r i b u t i o n of i r o n syenite intrusive  (°/o) w i t h i n t h e  8  9A  10B 11A 11B 12A 12B  72 73  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f i r o n (#) i n h o r n b l e n d e syenite  74  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o t a s s i u m (#) v / i t h i n the s y e n i t e i n t r u s i v e  75  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o t a s s i u m (%) i n h o r n blonde syenite 1  76  xi Figure 13A  13B  p  age  Log p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s of copper and potassium data from hornblende s y e n i t e bedrock  77  Log p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s of i r o n , manganese and z i n c data from hornblende s y e n i t e bedrock  78  14A  D i s t r i b u t i o n of copper (ppb) i n stream water  101  14B  D i s t r i b u t i o n of z i n c (ppb) i n stream water  102  14C  pH of stream water  103  15A  D i s t r i b u t i o n of copper (ppb) i n l a k e water  104  D i s t r i b u t i o n of z i n c (ppb) i n lake water  105  16A  D i s t r i b u t i o n of calcium (ppm) i n l a k e water  106  16B  D i s t r i b u t i o n of sodium (ppm) i n lake water  107  16C  D i s t r i b u t i o n of potassium (ppm) i n l a k e water  108  17A  D i s t r i b u t i o n of copper (ppm) i n stream sediments, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  123  D i s t r i b u t i o n of z i n c (ppm) i n stream sediments, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  124  D i s t r i b u t i o n of i r o n ($) i n stream sediments, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  125  D i s t r i b u t i o n of manganese (ppm) i n stream sediments, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  126  18  Log p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s of copper and z i n c data from stream sediments  127  19A  D i s t r i b u t i o n of copper (ppm) i n lake sediments, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  135  19B  D i s t r i b u t i o n of z i n c (ppm)- i n l a k e sediments, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  136  15B  17B 17C 17D  XI1  Figure 19C 19D 20 21A  21B  22 23A 23B 23C 23D 23E  Page D i s t r i b u t i o n o f i r o n (°/o) i n l a k e s e d i m e n t s , -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  137  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f manganese (ppm) i n l a k e s e d i m e n t s , -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  138  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f copper (ppm) w i t h i n hornblende syenite f l o a t  148  Log p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s o f copper and potassium data of hornblende s y e n i t e float  149  L o g p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s o f i r o n , manganese and z i n c d a t a o f h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e float  150  V a r i a t i o n o f copper i n s o i l s a c r o s s t h e landscape surface  156  T r a c e element d i s t r i b u t i o n and pH i n p r o f i l e 1 0 0 , -80 rnesh f r a c t i o n  157  T r a c e element d i s t r i b u t i o n and pH i n p r o f i l e 108, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  157  T r a c e element d i s t r i b u t i o n and pH i n p r o f i l e 1 1 1 , -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  157  T r a c e element d i s t r i b u t i o n and pH i n p r o f i l e 1 1 7 , -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  <  157  T r a c e element d i s t r i b u t i o n and pH i n p r o f i l e 114, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  157  T r a c e element d i s t r i b u t i o n and pH i n p r o f i l e 1 1 1 , -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  158  T r a c e element d i s t r i b u t i o n and pH i n p r o f i l e 1 1 2 , -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  158  T r a c e element d i s t r i b u t i o n and pH i n p r o f i l e 5, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  158  231  T r a c e element d i s t r i b u t i o n and pH i n p r o f i l e 8 , -80 mesh f r a c t i o n  158  24  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f copper (ppm) i n Douglas f i r and l o d g e p o l e p i n e  179  23F 23G 23H  xiii  Figure 25  26 27  28  29  30 31  32 33  Page S c h e m a t i c diagram showing t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between copper r i c h b e d r o c k and the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f g l a c i a l o v e r burden  183  Summary of copper a n o m a l i e s i n b e d r o c k and g l a c i a l o v e r b u r d e n  189  R a y f i e l d River-Bonaparte River regional r e c o n n a i s s a n c e , stream w a t e r and s e d i ment sample l o c a t i o n s  i n pocket  R a y f i e l d River-Bonaparte River regional r e c o n n a i s s a n c e , o u t c r o p and h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e f l o a t sample l o c a t i o n s  i n pocket  The D a n s c y - R a y f i c l d R i v e r copper p r o p e r t y , w a t e r and sediment sample locations  i n pocket  The D a n s e y - R a y f i e l d R i v e r copper p r o p e r t y , o u t c r o p sample l o c a t i o n s  i n pocket  The D a n s e y - R a y f i e l d R i v e r copper p r o p e r t y , hornblende syenite f l o a t sample l o c a t i o n s  i n pocket  The D a n s e y - R a y f i e l d R i v e r copper p r o p e r t y , s o i l sample l o c a t i o n s  i n pocket  The D a n s e y - R a y f i e l d R i v e r copper p r o p e r t y , v e g e t a t i o n sample l o c a tions  i n pocket  LIST OF PLATES Plate 1  Copper d e p o s i t e d as m a l a c h i t e from ground w a t e r i n l e u c o c r a t i c syenite at t h e Z bend  113  xiv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I am g r a t e f u l t o Miss Anne B a x t e r , and Mr. M i c h a e l  Mr. J i m Leung  Waskett-Meyers f o r h e l p i n g i n sample  p r e p a r a t i o n and a n a l y s i s , t o Mr. Amar D h i l l o n f o r conducting  some o f t h e atomic a b s o r p t i o n a n a l y s i s , and t o Mr.  David Marshall f o r a n a l y s i n g rock c h i p samples on t h e emission  spectrometer. I am t h a n k f u l t o t h e N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l  for  t h e i r C e n t e n n i a l S c h o l a r s h i p which covered  and  one h a l f y e a r s  t h e two  r e q u i r e d f o r the preparation o f t h i s  t h e s i s and t o Amax E x p l o r a t i o n , I n c . f o r a l l o w i n g me t o c o l l e c t samples from t h e i r o p t i o n e d p r o p e r t y ancing is  ( i n p a r t ) the f i e l d  expenses i n c u r r e d .  and f i n Thanks  a l s o extended t o Mr. C. W. Dansey, who i s t h e h o l d e r  of t h e .mineral  c l a i m s , and t o the employees o f Amax  E x p l o r a t i o n , Inc.  (D. K. Mustard, J . F. A l l e n , T. G. F.  Godfrey, C. J . Hodgson, R. F. H o r s n a i l , H. P i r e s and o t h e r s ) whose h e l p ,  advice  and i d e a s were extended i n so  many ways. I am i n d e b t e d  t o Mr. James Chatupa f o r h i s a b l e  a s s i s t a n c e i n the c o l l e c t i o n o f the samples, t o Dr. L. M« L a v k u l i c h f o r c r i t i c a l l y soil  examining c h a p t e r s on  sampling and t o Dr. W. K. F l e t c h e r f o r h i s i n t e r e s t ,  "help and g u i d a n c e d u r i n g t h e f i e l d work and throughout the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s  thesis.  _1_  CHAPTER  I  1  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The  R a y f i e l d R i v e r copper p r o p e r t y  m i l e s e a s t o f 70 M i l e House on the Cariboo south  c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia.  c o n t a i n i n g up t o 0.4$  Bedrock i s l a r g e l y concealed  sands and g r a v e l s , l a c u s t r i n e s i l t y tills.  Syenite  outcrops  plateau of  The p r o p e r t y i s u n d e r l a i n  by a m i n e r a l i z e d s y e n i t e i n t r u s i v e copper.  i s l o c a t e d 14  by g l a c i o f l u v i a l  c l a y s and g l a c i a l  a r e l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o the deep  v a l l e y s o f t h e R a y f i e l d and Bonaparte R i v e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s almost a complete absence o f h i g h v a l u e s i n samples c o l l e c t e d from t h e p l a t e a u , ment and s o i l valley  stream  sedi-  samples taken a l o n g the R a y f i e l d R i v e r  ( F i g . 1) c o n t a i n anomalous copper v a l u e s .  Traces o f  s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n can be observed i n most exposures of s y e n i t e . probably  The t o p o g r a p h i c  c o n t r o l o f the anomalous zone  r e f l e c t s e i t h e r mechanical concentration o r  seepage d e p o s i t i o n o f copper. luvium crops  I n the f i r s t p r o c e s s , c o l -  e n r i c h e d i n copper and d e r i v e d from s y e n i t e  out-  along the R a y f i e l d R i v e r v a l l e y accumulates as t a l u s  under the i n f l u e n c e o f g r a v i t y . leached  I n the second, copper,  from m i n e r a l i z e d bedrock u n d e r l y i n g t h e p l a t e a u  s u r f a c e , i s t r a n s p o r t e d by ground water and d e p o s i t e d under s u i t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s along the v a l l e y s i d e s .  I t i s the aim o f t h i s t h e s i s t o : 1.  E x p l a i n the occurrence  and means o f f o r m a t i o n o f  the observed anomaly. 2.  C h a r a c t e r i z e the d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s e s  and e n v i r o n -  ments e x i s t i n g on the p l a t e a u which would  affect  the geochemical d i s p e r s i o n o f copper and d e t e r mine, by sampling g l a c i a l i z a t i o n can be d e t e c t e d  II  overburden, i f m i n e r a l -  through i t .  HISTORY OF GEOCHEMICAL SAMPLING OF GLACIAL OVERBURDEN Many p a p e r s have been w r i t t e n on the use o f d i f -  ferent aspects  o f geochemical sampling o f g l a c i a l  over-  burden i n the s e a r c h f o r copper s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . Drainage and s o i l  sampling programs are r o u t i n e l y under-  t a k e n w h i l e bedrock, f l o a t , l a k e and v e g e t a t i o n are c a r r i e d out t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t .  surveys  Geochemical samp-  l i n g i s used a t a p r e l i m i n a r y stage i n many e x p l o r a t i o n programs i n Canada and o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e world g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s mask s u r f a c e e x p r e s s i o n prospects  where  of mineral  and ore d e p o s i t s .  Many i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have been r e p o r t e d from Scandanavia.  Kauranne ( 1 9 6 7 ) ,  f o r example, working i n  F i n l a n d , found t h a t b o u l d e r s  containing sulphide  minerals  were d i s t r i b u t e d i n a t r a i n which c o u l d be t r a c e d back to a p r o b a b l e  source  i n bedrock a l o n g t h e d i r e c t i o n o f  T H E  FIGURE 1  D A N S E Y - R A Y F I E L D  R I V E R  C O P P E R  P R O P E R T Y  LOCATION AND ACCESS TO THE DANSEY-RAYFIELD RIVER COPPER 7 0 MILE HOUSE, BRITISH  N  TOPOGRAPHIC  As Cental  Wervol  Ct«»s.  <TA  100  ' » *  R*«r»  S«ronv» LcfcM Local  Grid  !O00  Control  ftET  Point*  PROPERTY  COLUMBIA  LEGEND MAJOR ROADS, GRAVEL SECONDARY ROADS, GRAVEL EXPLORATION COMPANY CAMPSITE  g l a c i a l transport.  Measurement of fragment  orientation  and degree of roundness were suggested as guides to d i s tance and d i r e c t i o n of ore boulder movement. in  Complexity  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , however, may be introduced when two  d i r e c t i o n s of g l a c i a t i o n and two boulder t i l l s the area of i n t e r e s t .  mantle  Kauranne also observed that podzol  s o i l s which develop on g l a c i a l t i l l  are r e l a t i v e l y de-  p l e t e d i n copper i n the 'A' and 'B horizons and enriched !  i n t h i s metal i n the 'C horizon. Fredriksson and Lindgren  (1967),  i n Sweden, noted  that geochemical sampling of g l a c i a l overburden was successful i n l o c a t i n g underlying m i n e r a l i z a t i o n when the g l a c i a l cover was t h i n and l o c a l l y derived. (1967)  of  and Bolviken  (1967)  Salmi  both confirmed the a p p l i c a t i o n  boulder t r a c i n g as a successful geochemical technique. In  Western Ireland, Larssen and Nichol (1971)  i d e n t i f i e d d i f f e r e n t types of bedrock, covered from surface examination f o r the most part, by g l a c i a l overburden, by analyzing the mineralogy of the s i l t f r a c t i o n of the t i l l .  Webb  (1958)  sized  describes the form-  ation of saline anomalies on the I s l e of Man, near vein type lead-zinc m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . In  Canada, proven geochemical techniques and  newer concepts i n geochemical exploration are frequently used.  Regional scale drainage surveys o u t l i n e areas  where f u r t h e r work i s necessary.  Boyle et a l  (1966),  -5-  for example, found several zones anomalous f o r lead, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony and s i l v e r during analysis of New Brunswick stream sediments. t r a c i n g was s u c c e s s f u l l y used p r i o r to 1850  Boulder i n mine d i s -  covery and several examples have been reported by Dreimanis (1956, 1958 and I960) i n eastern Canada. sampling has also been s u c c e s s f u l l y applied since  Soil 1950  by governmental agencies, exploration companies and u n i v e r s i t y workers (Forgeron, 1971).  Garrett (1971),  for example, describes the successful a p p l i c a t i o n of overburden sampling and chemical analysis of the -80 mesh f r a c t i o n at the Louvem deposit i n Quebec.  Smith  (1971) attempted to f i n d skarn type m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n a mixed a c i d i c and basic environment i n the Yukon T e r r i tory by analysis of copper data from s o i l samples.  Trans-  port of copper by ground water may r e s u l t i n the formation of  saline anomalies, where zones of enrichment are down-  slope from mineralized bedrock. are  Such seepage anomalies  present at Vangorda, Yukon t e r r i t o r y ( Chisholm,  1957). Several newer techniques may eventually prove as important to ore discovery as drainage, s o i l and boulder t r a c i n g surveys.  These include stream and lake water,  lake sediment, other p h y s i c a l aspects of g l a c i a l overburden and vegetation sample c o l l e c t i o n .  Boyle et a l  (1966) found that stream water flowing over orebodies i n  -6-  New Brunswick had a high heavy metal content.  Boyle e t  a l (1971) f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d on the d i s p e r s i o n o f copper and z i n c expected from an ore deposit o f the Canadian shield.  Dyck (1971) and N i g r i n i (1971) report t h a t lake  water samples may i n d i c a t e r e g i o n s anomalous i n Uranium and other elements.  S i m i l a r l y , A l l e n (1971) l o c a t e d  s e v e r a l zones o f copper s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n b a s a l t s o f the Coppermine d i s t r i c t , Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , a f t e r i n t e r e s t was s t i m u l a t e d by r e s u l t s of a l a k e sediment survey.  Eorgeron (1971) suggested t h a t  sampling o f eskers o r c o l l e c t i o n of s o i l gas may eventua l l y be added as a sampling t o o l t o the f i e l d of s o i l geochemistry.  S h i l t s (1971) emphasized the importance  of s i z e f r a c t i o n s t u d i e s on the t r a c e element content observed i n t r a n s p o r t e d g l a c i a l t i l l s .  Sampling o f  v e g e t a t i o n has l o n g been advocated by Warren and Delav a u l t (1966A), but many environmental f a c t o r s may comp l i c a t e subsequent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s beyond u s e f u l n e s s t o e x p l o r a t i o n (Barakso e t a l , 1971). In B r i t i s h Columbia, White and A l l e n (1954) i n v e s t i g a t e d the g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f s o i l sampling i n m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n programs.  H o r s n a i l and E l l i o t t  (1971) d e s c r i b e the m i g r a t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n of copper and molybdenum i n s o i l s and bogs o f three geochemical environments.  I n t h e i r study, metal d i s t r i b -  u t i o n s were s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the topographic and  -7c l i m a t i c conditions. Hornbrook (1970) observed that analysis of second year needles and stems from alpine f i r and lodgepole pine outlined an anomalous area over the Huckleberry deposit of Kennco (Western) Exploration, Inc., which had been i n dicated i n a previous s o i l survey. research (Hornbrook, 1969)  This r e s u l t  confirmed  over the Lucky Ship deposit of  Amax Exploration, Inc., i n the same part of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Usik (1969) attempted  to f i n d b o t a n i c a l i n d i c -  ators of copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n at Lornex and the Huckleberry deposit and f o r molybdenum at the Lucky Ship dep o s i t , but was unsuccessful.  III.  LOCATION AND  ACCESS  The Dansey-Rayfield River copper property l i e s  on  both banks of the R a y f i e l d River, south of the road between 70 Mile House and Bridge Lake i n south central B r i t i s h Columbia.  Main access to the property i s from  70 Mile House v i a fourteen miles of a l l weather road. Fig. 1  shows the l o c a t i o n of roads on the prop-  erty that are suitable f o r four wheel drive v e h i c l e s . Numerous service roads to percussion d r i l l  s i t e s and  trenches were constructed during the f a l l of 1969 1970,  p r i n c i p a l l y i n the northwest  property.  No map  and  quarter of the  i s available showing t h e i r l o c a t i o n  and t h e i r present condition i s unknown.  -8-  IV.  GEOLOGY 1.  Regional  Geology  P i g . 2 i s m o d i f i e d from the one geology  map  compiled  Lake 1966).  The  i n c h to f o u r m i l e  by Campbell and T i p p e r  g e o l o g i c a l map  has been  (Bonaparte  significantly  a l t e r e d from t h e i r -work as a r e s u l t of d e t a i l e d mapping. The  oldest unit  (Upper T r i a s s i c ) i s the N i c o l a  Group comprised of a u g i t e a n d e s i t e f l o w s , b r e c c i a s , and  t u f f exposed at the  southern  l i m i t o f the R a y f i e l d  R i v e r copper p r o p e r t y . U n i t 13 i s a f i n e t o medium g r a i n e d , p i n k t o brown and grey s y e n i t e and monzonite of Upper T r i a s s i c Lower J u r a s s i c age. copper p r o p e r t y .  or  I t u n d e r l i e s the R a y f i e l d R i v e r  L o c a l l y , t h i s u n i t may  be  a coarsely  p o r p h y r i t i c s y e n i t e o r monzonite w i t h o r t h o c l a s e phenocrysts.  Northern  and  hornblende d i o r i t e s ,  c o n t a c t zones grade to  hornblende monzonites and  b l e n d i t e s o f u n i t 14. age  southern  S i n c e t h e r e i s no  d i f f e r e n c e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g u n i t s 13  l a t t e r i s probably  are p r o b a b l y the p r o p e r t y .  evidence  and 14,  a c o n t a c t phase of the  D e t a i l e d mapping has  horn-  shown t h a t two  f o r an  the  batholith. intrusives  i n c o n t a c t at t h e extreme western edge o f The  second i n t r u s i v e c o n s i s t s o f b i o t i t e  g r a n i t e , quartz d i o r i t e and hornblende g r a n o d i o r i t e o f Middle  J u r a s s i c (?)  age.  Plateau lavas, olivine basalts, basalt  andesites,  r e l a t e d a s h and b r e c c i a beds, b a s a l t i c a r e n i t e and m i n o r n e c k s and p l u g s o f Miocene and/or P l i o c e n e most o f t h e a r e a .  age u n d e r l i e  L a v a s a r e undeformed and t h e i r  are p r o b a b l y o r i g i n a l o r o n l y s l i g h t l y d i s t u r b e d .  dips They  have been d i s s e c t e d and e r o d e d by g l a c i a l a c t i o n ( o r were not o r i g i n a l l y c o n t i n u o u s ) t o expose t h e s y e n i t i c and g r a n i t i c i n t r u s i v e s i n the area of interest,, S u r f i c i a l deposits of t h i s part of B r i t i s h umbia were e x t e n s i v e l y m o d i f i e d  by P l e i s t o c e n e  I n t e r b e d d e d g l a c i o f l u v i a l sands and g r a v e l s , clays or g l a c i a l t i l l s ,  Col-  glaciation„  lacustrine  g e n e r a l l y l o c a l l y d e r i v e d and up  t o 100 f e e t t h i c k , m a n t l e t h e b e d r o c k and a l l o w f o r o n l y a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f t h e g e o l o g y t o be a v a i l a b l e b y i n spection of outcrop exposures. g l a c i a l deposits  P l u v i a l modification of  c o u l d be e x t e n s i v e  i n some a r e a s .  The  B o n a p a r t e R i v e r , f o r example, may have been an a n c i e n t m e l t w a t e r c h a n n e l , as l a r g e rounded s y e n i t e b o u l d e r s have been o b s e r v e d 2 1/2 m i l e s the n e a r e s t  and more downstream from  known s i m i l a r bedrock, e x p o s u r e .  In general,  however, g l a c i a l t r a n s p o r t i s r e s t r i c t e d t o much s h o r t e r distances.  LU  RAYFIELD  FIGURE 2  RIVER - BONAPARTE RIVER RECONNAISSANCE  REGIONAL GEOLOGY (KODIFIED FROM CAKPEELL AND TIPPER, I966)  N  A  TOPOGRAPHIC  L5223 ROADS  REGIONAL  Corrfoijr" 9nYervdl tO'd' Creeks and Rivers Swamps Lakes Local Property Lots Loose Loose  11  or Stabilized Surfaco, Dry 4  1  LEGEND  MILES  Surfaces, Weather i  All  Weatiier  GEO LOGIC LEGEND AND RECENT T i l l , 29 [>B PLEISTOCENE GRAVEL, CLAY, ALLUVIUM 26 n TERTIARY BASALT 17 0 EIOTTTS GRANITE, QUARTZ DIG? HORNBLENDE DIORITE, KONZONTTI 14 I B AND HORNELENDITE AND GREY SYENITE AND 13 • FINK MONZONITE, LCCA1LY PORPHYRY 12 ELI NICOLA G OUP ^LCAN^ ctober 8 , §  o  -11-  2.  D e t a i l e d Geology A.  Introduction  The g e o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which f o l l o w s has been maintained from the 1968 and 1969 d e t a i l e d maps o f Amax E x p l o r a t i o n , I n c . , described i n assessment  reports  1723 and 2135 of the B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f Mines.  The s y e n i t e i n t r u s i o n has been d i v i d e d i n t o  hornblende and l e u c o c r a t i c v a r i e t i e s having more o r l e s s than about 6$ hornblende r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Minor i n t r u s i v e  u n i t s i n c l u d e f i n e grained s y e n i t e , pegmatite, h y b r i d phases and a p l i t e and monzonite d i k e s .  The b a t h o l i t h i s  c o n c e n t r i c a l l y zoned, having a c e n t r a l core of leucoc r a t i c s y e n i t e which i s f i r s t surrounded by a s h e l l of hornblende s y e n i t e and then by a s h e l l composed of d i f f e r e n t types of h y b r i d r o c k s .  Eig. 3 i s a detailed  g e o l o g i c a l map of the copper p r o p e r t y . B.  I n t r u s i v e Rocks a.  Hornblende  syenite  Exposures of hornblende s y e n i t e form outcrop crags halfway up the sides o f the R a y f i e l d R i v e r V a l l e y . In hand specimen, hornblende syenite i s t y p i c a l l y composed of 90$ medium grey (sometimes p i n k ) , medium t o c o a r s e l y grained, subhedral, i n t e r l o c k i n g f e l d s p a r c r y s t a l s and 10$ b l a c k , medium grained, anhedral, i n t e r -  THE  DANSEY-RAYFIELD  RIVER  COPPER  PROPERTY  ICCAI GEOLOGY CF THE DAl^AY-PuiYFIELD PIVER COPPER PROPERTY  FIGURE 3  N As  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND —•»»•—  Contour  Intervol  Creeks,  and  <-'''--^'y I  .) —|—  Lakes Local  Swamps Grid  5000  100 feet  Rivers  Control  FEET  Points  GEOLOGIC LEGEND E 3 TERTIARY BASALT [ZD LEUCOCRATIC SYENITE | 1 HORNBLENDE SYENITE g g g PINE GRAINED SYENITE B i PEGMATITE (E3 HYBRID PHASES m NICOLA VOLCANO tober Qg  6, 1970  -13-  s t i t i a l h o r n b l e n d e and a c c e s s o r y p y r o x e n e , b i o t i t e magnetite.  and  A m o d e r a t e l y w e l l d e v e l o p e d f o l i a t i o n i s de-  f i n e d by t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e l o n g axes o f t h e s e mine r a l s and has an average d i r e c t i o n and d i p o f 130°/60°S. P h y s i c a l w e a t h e r i n g o f o u t c r o p e x p o s u r e s has c a u s e d d i s t i n c t f r a c t u r e s t o d e v e l o p between a d j a c e n t feldspar crystals.  G r a i n s e v e n t u a l l y b r e a k a p a r t and  form a c o a r s e sand, termed grus„  Sediments from the  R a y f i e l d R i v e r c o n s i s t o f t h i s t y p e o f sand, r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g d e r i v e d from g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s o r b a s a l t i c  bedrock.  S i m i l a r l y , t a l u s d e p o s i t s a l o n g t h e v a l l e y a r e a l s o composed o f g r u s  d e r i v e d from c r a g o u t c r o p s .  Feldspar  c r y s t a l s have a l s o been a l t e r e d somewhat t o c l a y  min-  e r a l s and a r e sometimes s t a i n e d by m a l a c h i t e . H o r n b l e n d e and o t h e r m a f i c m i n e r a l s weather p r e d o m i n a t e l y by c h e m i c a l a c t i o n , f o r m i n g s e c o n d a r y hydrous i r o n o x i d e s and s o l u b l e s p e c i e s w h i c h a r e removed by r a i n and ground w a t e r .  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c i r o n oxide c o l -  o u r e d s t a i n s a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y f o u n d on l i c h e n f r e e o u t c r o p s u r f a c e s o r w i t h i n h o r n b l e n d e , p y r o x e n e and g r a i n o u t l i n e s on f r e s h l y b r o k e n s u r f a c e s .  biotite  Hydrous  manganese o x i d e s , sometimes i n t h e form o f d e n d r i t e s , are o b s e r v e d i n s i m i l a r e n v i r o n m e n t s , b u t l e s s  frequently.  T h i n s e c t i o n a n a l y s i s ( T a b l e I ) shows t h a t h o r n b l e n d e i s t h e major m a f i c component, w i t h l e s s e r amounts o f p y r o x e n e , b i o t i t e and opaque  -14-  minerals  0  Hornblende sometimes i s seen  p y r o x e n e o r may  surrounding  i t s e l f be c o a t e d by b i o t i t e ,  a p o s s i b l e g e n e t i c sequence where p y r o x e n e — » b i o t i t e d u r i n g c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f the  implying ^hornblende  batholith  Opaque m i n e r a l s are c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e m i n e r a l s and are s c a t t e r e d u n i f o r m l y t h r o u g h o u t spar lathwork.  0  mafic  the  feld-  The p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d f o l i a t i o n i s  n o t complimented by a s i m i l a r o r i e n t a t i o n o f f e l d s p a r axe  So  O r t h o c l a s e and p l a g i o c l a s e were o b s e r v e d thin sections.  O r t h o c l a s e i s p r e s e n t as v e r y  ina l l fine,  medium and c o a r s e a n h e d r a l c r y s t a l s , w i t h e x s o l v e d p l a g i o c l a s e ( F i g . 4A and B ) , and as p h e n o c r y s t s .  Plag-  i o c l a s e , when n o t i n t e r g r o w n w i t h o r t h o c l a s e , i s found as i n t e r s t i t i a l  c r y s t a l s t h a t are f i n e l y t o medium  g r a i n e d and a n h e d r a l .  With t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e v e r y  f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e orthoclase, post i n t r u s i c has t r a n s f o r m e d  alteration  the f e l d s p a r s t o c l a y m i n e r a l s .  i o n a l l y , muscovite  Occas-  i s seen r e p l a c i n g o r t h o c l a s e , c a l c i t e  r e p l a c i n g f e l d s p a r and c h l o r i t e and i r o n oxides a f t e r mafic minerals. and c l a y m i n e r a l s may  also f i l l  are common i n h o r n b l e n d e  secondary Calcite,  micro  hydrous muscovite  f r a c t u r e s which  syenite.  F e l d s p a r v e i n l e t s are numerous w i t h i n n o r t h e r n c r a g and e a s t e r n p l a t e a u o u t c r o p s . i a b l e , r a n g i n g from absent  Their density i s var-  t o o v e r 2 5 p e r square f o o t .  -15EXSOLVED  TWINNED  PLAGIOCLASE  PLAGIOCLASE  ALIGNED  ALONG  PLANES  OF  SOMETIMES  CLEAVAGE  ORTHOCLASE. WITH  EXSOLUTION  FINE  LAMELLAE  OF  PLAGIOCLASE  Coarse  Perthite  ORTHOCLASE TWINNED PLAGIOCLASE  A  FINE  EXSOLUTION  LAMELLAE  OF  PLAGIOCLASE  WITHIN  ORTHOCLASE  CRYSTAL  EXSOLVED PLAGIOCLAS  0 L  015  S C A L E - mm  B  Fine  Perthite  FIGURE 4 PERTHITIC INTERGROWTHS ORTHOCLASE OF THE SYENITE BATHOLITH  IN  -16-  The  h i g h e s t d e n s i t i e s are c e n t e r e d a l o n g a l i n e  5400E, 5200N and 5700E, 4600N. ( F i g . 5 ) .  joining  V e i n l e t s are  composed o f f i n e t o medium g r a i n e d , g r e y f e l d s p a r and range i n t h i c k n e s s from 1/16  t o 1/4- i n c h .  o r t h r e e s e t s o f d i r e c t i o n s may posure,  be o b s e r v e d  Although i n any  two ex-  most are p a r a l l e l t o the f o l i a t i o n b u t have a  more v a r i a b l e . , s o u t h f a c i n g , d i p . T h i n s e c t i o n a n a l y s i s shows t h a t t h e f e l d s p a r v e i n l e t s are composed o f zones of u n a l t e r e d , i n t e r l o c k i n g g r a n u l a r o r t h o c l a s e which cuts across or runs along g r a i n boundaries  of o l d e r ,  Opaque m i n e r a l s and these  a l t e r e d f e l d s p a r s or mafics. s u l p h i d e s are c o n c e n t r a t e d  along  zones. Copper s u l p h i d e s are found i n t h r e e h a b i t s w i t h i n  the hornblende s y e n i t e . The  f i r s t h a b i t i s as i n c l u s i o n s w i t h h o r n b l e n d e  and p y r o x e n e g r a i n s , b e s t o b s e r v e d 3),  a t 5 2 0 0 E , 4900N ( F i g .  c o n s i s t i n g o f b o r n i t e w i t h m i n o r amounts o f c h a l c o -  pyrite  and g r a d i n g up t o 0.15$  of occurrence,  copper.  I n the second mode  f e l d s p a r v e i n l e t s c o n t a i n up t o  c o p p e r , as s u l p h i d e s i n o u t c r o p s  along the  0.4$  northern  h a l f o f the r i v e r v a l l e y and on the e a s t e r n p l a t e a u . Here, c a l c o p y r i t e and b o r n i t e a r e f o u n d i n a 3 t o 1 r a t i o . I n the t h i r d h a b i t , b o r n i t e and  c h a l c o p y r i t e , i n the  same r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n , are smeared o v e r j o i n t n o r t h o f the Z bend i n c r a g o u t c r o p s .  surfaces  Examples are  best  -17-  Table I Thin s e c t i o n examination of hornblende sections)  s y e n i t e (14  MINERAL  %  SECTIONS IN WHICH MINERAL WAS OBSERVED  GRAIN DIAMETER  Hornblende  4.  14  F-M  Pyroxene  1.5  10  F-M  Biotite  2.  10  F-M  Muscovite  1.5  11  F-M  85o  14  VF-C  Plagioclase  5»  14  F-C  Calcite  1.  5  VF-F  Opaques  1.  14  VF-F  Chlorite  TR  2  F  Garnet  TR  2  F  Sphene  TR  1  F  Iron oxides  TR  1  Orthoclase  :  VF  LEGEND VF  - V e r y f i n e l y g r a i n e d - l e s s t h a n 0.2mm d i a m e t e r  F  - F i n e l y g r a i n e d - 0.2 t o 1 mm  M  - medium g r a i n e d - 1 t o 5 mm  .C  diameter  diameter  - C o a r s e l y g r a i n e d - g r e a t e r t h a n 5 mm  diameter  -18-  observed where bedrock has been broken by t r e n c h i n g . Although b o r n i t e seems impressive i n hand specimens, i t does not appear to c o n t r i b u t e more than 0.2% the t o t a l metal content o f any sample.  copper t o  P y r i t e has  not  been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the i n t r u s i o n . b.  Leucocrat.ic syenite  Leucocratic  syenite i s exposed i n two  areas.  The major body forms the core o f the s y e n i t e stock  and  i s exposed from 5200E, 5000N t o 54-OOE, 4-000N along  the  R a y f i e l d R i v e r v a l l e y ( P i g . 3 ) . Although not exposed t o the west, i t i s apparently e l l i p t i c a l l y shaped, w i t h i t s l o n g a x i s p a r a l l e l to the r i v e r .  A smaller l e n s -  shaped body crops out south o f C r a t e r Lake. The u n i t grades from hornblende s y e n i t e t o seve r a l i r r e g u l a r bodies of c o a r s e l y grained, pegmatite.  orthoclase  Outcrops are more rubbly and surface s t a i n e d  by i r o n and manganese oxides than those of hornblende syenite. On broken s u r f a c e s , specimens appear medium p i n k ( r a r e l y medium grey) i n c o l o u r . syenite consists of subhedral, while the remaining minerals.  96$ of l e u c o c r a t i c  c o a r s e l y grained f e l d s p a r  4$ i s subhedral  to anhedral. mafic  Several t e x t u r a l v a r i e t i e s o f l e u c o c r a t i c  syenite have been i d e n t i f i e d , i n c l u d i n g secondary i n t r o duction o f o r t h o c l a s e ( f e l d s p a r f l o o d i n g ) and porphyr i t i c phases.  Mineralogy  i s summarized i n Table I I .  -19Table I I Thin section examination of leucocratic (15 sections)  syenite  MINERAL  %  SECTIONS IN WHICH MINERAL V/AS OBSERVED  Hornblende  2.  10  P-M  6  P-M  Pyroxene  .5  GRAIN DIAMETER  Biotite  1.  7  F-M  Muscovite  3.  6  F-M  85.  15  VF-C  6.  14  VF-C  3  VF-F  13  VF-F  3  VF-F  Orthoclase Plagioclase  .5  Calcite Opaques  1.  Chlorite  .2  Garnet  TR  3  VF-F  Sphene  TR  2  VF-F  Iron Oxides  TR  7  VF  Apatite  TR  1  VF  LEGEND VF  -  Very f i n e l y grained - l e s s than 0.2mm diameter  F  -  F i n e l y grained - 0.2 to 1 mm diameter  M  -  Medium grained - 1 to 5 mm diameter  C  -  Coarsely grained - greater than 5 mm diameter  -20-  Copper sulphides grade to 0.1$ near the northern contact with hornblende syenite.  Bornite and chalco-  p y r i t e , i n a 3 to 1 r a t i o occur as small i n c l u s i o n s withi n mafics and along f r a c t u r e s . c.  Fine grained syenite  Fine grained syenite occurs within the northwest part of the leucocratic syenite.  This v a r i e t y of syen-  i t e i s r e s i s t a n t to weathering and outcrops  are only  s l i g h t l y fractured or broken. Hand specimens reveal great v a r i a b i l i t y over short distances across an outcrop  exposure.  I t i s not  uncommon f o r the hornblende content to vary between 3 and 8 $ over twenty f e e t .  Where hornblende i s present,  i t s b l a d e - l i k e c r y s t a l s form a c l o s e l y spaced f o l i a t i o n along which the rock w i l l break only with  difficulty.  Because of the l o c a l extent of outcrops of f i n e grained syenite, the u n i t was not subdivided f u r t h e r . In t h i n section ( 1 section) medium grained, rounded c r y s t a l s of orthoclase, p l a g i o c l a s e , and quartz ( 1 0 $ ) , and i r r e g u l a r l y shaped c r y s t a l s of hornblende and pyroxene are surrounded by a matrix of sugary orthoclase. A l t e r a t i o n of primary minerals i s s i m i l a r to that described f o r hornblende syenite.  d.  H y b r i d phases  Rocks o f w i d e l y v a r y i n g m i n e r a l o g y , termed  hybrids,  c r o p out s o u t h of C r a t e r Lake and n o r t h o f t h e B o n a p a r t e River.  They form t h e most n o r t h e r l y and s o u t h e r l y i n -  t r u s i v e e x p o s u r e s mapped. I n the n o r t h , the h y b r i d i s a b i o t i t e r i c h  syen-  i t e f o u n d a l o n g t h e s i d e s and bottom of t h e R a y f i e l d River valley. are  Specimens  contain l i t t l e  o r no h o r n b l e n d e ,  h i g h l y f r i a b l e , b r e a k i n g along the b i o t i t e induced  f o l i a t i o n and weather t o a r e d d i s h i r o n o x i d e s t a i n e d grus.  Biotite  c o n t e n t v a r i e s between 1 0 $ and 2 0 $ i n  hand specimens, and f e l d s p a r m i n e r a l s , on f i e l d  oxamm—  a t i o n resemble t h o s e of. h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e i n t e x t u r e . E x p o s u r e s o f h o r n b l e n d i t e , b i o t i t e monzonite  and  h o r n b l e n d e m o n z o n i t e a r e f o u n d o v e r a much w i d e r a r e a i n t h e s o u t h b u t i n d i v i d u a l o u t c r o p s a r e too w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d f o r g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o be deduced the  d i f f e r e n t phases.  The term ' h o r n b l e n d i t e '  among  was  adopted because o f the 3 5 $ t o 5 0 $ amphibole c o n t e n t i n hand specimens  ( f e l d s p a r i s t h e o t h e r major  constituent).  Hornblende monzonite c o n t a i n s about 1 5 $ h o r n b l e n d e w h i l e biotite  s u b s t i t u t e s f o r hornblende i n b i o t i t e  monzonite.  Hand specimens a r e medium t o d a r k g r e y i n c o l o u r , medium g r a i n e d , and d i s t i n c t l y m a g n e t i c . a l l y only s l i g h t l y  Outcrops are gener-  weathered.  I n t h i n s e c t i o n ( 1 s e c t i o n ) , h o r n b l e n d e monzon-  -22i t e appears s i m i l a r to the syenite v a r i e t y , except f o r an increased plagioclase and mafic mineral content. mafics are aligned, forming an e a s i l y observed ation i n both t h i n section and hand  The  foli-  specimen.  Sulphides are generally absent, although traces of malachite, an oxidation product, may be observed within some hornblende grains. e.  Pegmatites  Coarse grained orthoclase pegmatites form i s o l a t e d i r r e g u l a r bodies within luecocratic  syenite and  have been mapped with thicknesses or diameters i n excess of 20 f e e t .  Exposures are l i m i t e d and the exact d i s -  t r i b u t i o n of bodies i s uncertain.  Weathered surface  and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n products of pegmatites are s i m i l a r to those described f o r leucocratic  syenite.  In t h i n section, the predominant  feldspar i s  orthoclase with l e s s e r amounts of p l a g i o c l a s e . are s i m i l a r to those described f o r hornblende  Textures syenite,  with two types of p e r t h i t e ( F i g . 4A and B), sugary and p o r p h y r i t i c orthoclase and extensive clay a l t e r a t i o n . B i o t i t e , muscovite, hornblende, pyroxene  and opaque  minerals have been i d e n t i f i e d i n small amounts (about IP/o or l e s s ) . Pegmatite dikes, 1/4 to 1/2 inch t h i c k are found intruded into hornblende syenite at widely and unevenly spaced i n t e r v a l s .  The dikes have p a r a l l e l  walls and are composed of medium to coarse grained  -23-  orthoclase  crystals.  Sulphide m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s r a r e l y observed i n i r r e g u l a r pegmatites.  The most i m p r e s s i v e example, a t  54-59E, 2980N, c o n t a i n e d o n l y 0.06$ copper.  No m i n e r a l -  i z a t i o n has been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n p e g m a t i t e f.  A p l i t e and monzonite d i k e s  A p l i t e d i k e s ( F i g . 3) l e s s t h a n one weathering.  dikes.  are commonly sharp w a l l e d ,  f o o t i n diameter,  and v e r y r e s i s t a n t t o  I n hand specimens, t h e y are f i n e g r a i n e d ,  medium t o dark p i n k o r r e d i n c o l o u r and have a g r a n u l a r texture.  M a f i c s i n c l u d e hornblende  c e n t r a t i o n s t o t a l l i n g l e s s t h a n 5$.  and b i o t i t e i n conQuartz i s p r e s e n t i n  amounts r a n g i n g from 0$ t o 15$ and f e l d s p a r , m a i n l y o r t h o c l a s e , completes Two  the  total.  t h i n s e c t i o n s were examined.  V a r i a b i l i t y .of  q u a r t z c o n t e n t d i s t i n g u i s h e s a p l i t e s from  monzonites.  The p i n k c o l o u r i s caused by s m a l l amounts (2-5$) o f accessory garnet.  Hornblende, pyroxene, b i o t i t e  opaques are e v e n l y d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t g r a i n boundaries g. One  the s e c t i o n s at  of i n t e r l o c k i n g f e l d s p a r c r y s t a l s . Diabase  d i a b a s e p i p e was  the R a y f i e l d R i v e r , 3/4 (5350E, 4285N).  and  The  knob, i n c o n t a c t w i t h  found on the e a s t bank o f  o f a m i l e s o u t h o f the Z bend  exposure forms a mushroom shaped leucocratic  r o u g h l y c i r c u l a r over 150°  of a r c .  s y e n i t e , and i s The  s y e n i t e of the  •  -24-  contact zone has r e c r y s t a l l i z e d to a medium grained, l i g h t grey coloured rock containing l e s s than 1 $ In hand specimens,  hornblende.  diabase appears spotted i n dark grey  and black colours, i s medium grained and  magnetic.  Pyroxene and p l a g i o c l a s e , both subhedral and present i n approximately equal amounts, form an i n t e r l o c k i n g c r y s t a l lathwork. Two  diabase dikes were found, both intruding  leucocratic  syenite near the Z bend.  very f i n e l y grained, magnetic, c h l o r i t e and clay minerals.  Hand samples are  and heavily altered to  Thin section study ( 1 section)  shows that an equal proportion of pyroxene and p l a g i o clase, t o t a l l i n g 80$, form an i n t e r l o c k i n g network which i s surrounded by a matrix of glass. C.  Faults  The R a y f i e l d River,- on topographic maps and a e r i a l photographs,  can be divided into nine l i n e a r seg-  ments which are probably f a u l t c o n t r o l l e d (Table I I I , Fig. 5).  Linear t r i b u t a r y v a l l e y s at 090° are common  on the northern h a l f of the property and may f a u l t controlled.  also be  No r e l a t i v e movement has been ob-  served along most of these proposed f a u l t s , however, there i s some evidence of movement along f a u l t number 8 at the t r i a n g u l a r shaped block of the Z bend.  THE  DANSEY-RAYFIELD  RIVER  COPPER  PROPERTY  FIGURE 5 LOCATION OF FAULTS AND L I N E A R S ; D I S T R I B U T I O N OF T H E HIGHEST DENSITY OF A P L I T E AND MONZONITE D I K E S AND FELDSPAR V E I N L E T S  N  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND —•»—  Contour Creeks,  ^ I  1 —I-  Irrtervol  Swamps  and  100 feet  Rivers  Grid  —  LEGEND  F A U L T S , LINEARS A P L I T E DIKES MONZONITE D I K E S  Lokes Local  GEOLOGIC  Control  Points  FELDSPAR V E I N L E T S GEOLOGIC CONTACT  Table I I I Presumed f a u l t s a l o n g t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r ( F i g . 5) DIRECTION  055  DISTANCE ALONG RAYFIELD RIVER-MILES Through the s o u t h e r n o f C r a t e r Lake  shore  ID NUMBER 1  000  0--1  2  14-5  1- -1 1/2  3  000  1 1/2--1 3/4  4  14-0  1 3/4--2 1/4  5  155  2 1/4- -3  6  140  3--3 1/4  7  170  3--5 1/2  8  160 050  5 1/2--6 ( g l a c i a l l y conta r o l l e d )  6- •7  9  -27V.  CLIMATE The  R a y f i e l d R i v e r copper p r o p e r t y  l i e s i n the  s e m i a r i d i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and has 10  20  to  inches  of p r e c i p i t a t i o n p e r y e a r .  M e l t i n g of w i n t e r snow  i n the  s p r i n g p r o v i d e s most o f t h e y e a r s r u n o f f w a t e r .  D u r i n g the summer, many s m a l l s t r e a m s become d r y and  the  volume of w a t e r i n major r i v e r s i s g r e a t l y r e d u c e d . Temperature v a r i a t i o n s are extreme, w i t h  highs  i n e x c e s s of lOO^F d u r i n g t h e summer ( a v e r a g e 70^E) f a l l i n g t o -40°F d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r VI.  TOPOGRAPHY AND The  the p r o p e r t y  but  ( a v e r a g e 0°F) .  DRAINAGE  R a y f i e l d R i v e r runs north-south, o v e r a 100  entering  foot w a t e r f a l l descending T e r t -  i a r y b a s a l t f l o w s i n t o C r a t e r Lake ( F i g . 1).  Below  C r a t e r L a k e , t h e r i v e r f l o w s a l o n g an i n c i s e d v a l l e y t o 500  f e e t b e l o w the p l a t e a u  surface.  have s l o p e s o f 20 t o 40 d e g r e e s . 20  The  200  V a l l e y sides Rayfield River i s  f e e t wide where i t i s f r e e f l o w i n g , i n c r e a s i n g t o  s e v e r a l hundred f e e t where i t has been dammed by R i v e r d e p t h i s v a r i a b l e (1  inch to several f e e t ) ,  beavers. and  depends on season and l o c a t i o n . Crag outcrops  h a l f w a y up  weather t o crumbled r o c k and R i v e r sediment i s m a i n l y d e r i v e d from t a l u s .  the v a l l e y s i d e s  grus,  forming  t a l u s slopes.  a coarse,  angular  f e l d s p a r sand  A f l o o d p l a i n , 25  t o 500  f e e t wide,  -23-  a l o n g the r i v e r i s composed o f sands and g r a v e l s compos i t i o n a l l y s i m i l a r t o the stream s e d i m e n t .  Coarse f r a g -  ments i n c l u d e rounded and a n g u l a r s y e n i t e and b a s a l t , pH o f w a t e r i n the R a y f i e l d and B o n a p a r t e R i v e r s i s u s u a l l y 7.8  (Table  XXI).  A r o l l i n g p l a t e a u , w i t h i s o l a t e d remnants o f T e r t i a r y b a s a l t mesas r i s i n g above the p l a t e a u s u r f a c e , s l o p e s g e n t l y towards the r i v e r o v e r the r e m a i n d e r o f the p r o p e r t y ,  Wear the r i v e r , the p l a t e a u i s m a n t l e d  by g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s ( F i g . 6) c o n s i s t i n g o f  glaciofluvial  g r a v e l s , outwash sands, l a c u s t r i n e s i l t y c l a y s , lodgment t i l l s .  Examination  of t r e n c h e s , roadcuts  p r o f i l e p i t s have shown t h a t sharp and changes s e p a r a t e  and  unpredictable  the d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s ,  making i t i m p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t from s u r f a c e what m a t e r i a l s w i l l be f o u n d a t d e p t h . l e s s t h a n Ifo  and  examination  Outcrops  cover  o f the p l a t e a u .  The p l a t e a u i s d r a i n e d by i n t e r m i t t e n t s e a s o n a l t r i b u t a r i e s o f the R a y f i e l d R i v e r ( F i g . 7 ) . sediment c o n s i s t s o f f i n e q u a r t z o s e decayed o r g a n i c m a t t e r . 7.0  t o 9°4,  Stream  sand o r p a r t i a l l y  Stream w a t e r pH v a r i e s from  With minor e x c e p t i o n s t r i b u t a r y  valleys,  i n c i s e d 5 t o 1 5 f e e t , have s i d e s w h i c h s l o p e g e n t l y a t 5 degrees.  To t h e n o r t h w e s t ,  b e a v e r dams have c r e a t e d  numerous ponds and bogs. L a k e s are the d i s t i n c t i v e p h y s i o g r a p h i c  feature  r  .i. 0^  C\J  A A A A A  A A A ' A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A * A A A , A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A\A A A A A A A A A'A-A A"A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A AA»A;A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A-A-A A A A A A^A A A A A A A A AVA ,  A A A A A A j A A A A A A A A A A  A A A A  A A A A  A A A A  A A A A  A A A A  A , , A , A .  KA A/A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A I  A A A A A / V A A A A A A A A A A-'A>A A A A A A A A , A A A A A. A A A A A A'/ A A A - A A A A A A A A A A A A A X ^ A \ A A A A A AW A A A A A A A A , A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A-AJK/S A A A A A A A A A AJ± A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A/A A , A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A (VA A A A A , A A A A^A A A A A A A ; A A.A A A A A A A A A A) A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A, A A A A A A A A A A A A A Ay\ A A A \ A A A A A A A A A A A^A A A A A Ay\ A A A A M *• A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A AV\ A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A ' A A A A A A>\ A A A A A A A A A ' A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A X A, A A A A A A A A A A A A A AVtv'A A A A A A A A A> A A " A A AlA A A A ^ A A (  y\v v^iXA A A A A A •A/V'  A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A AfAAAA AAAAAA/) A A\A A A ~ A A A A A,A A A A A A A A AAA A A\A A A A A A A\A A A A A A A»A A A A A AA A A A A A 'A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A'A A A A A A A A A A A A" A A A A A A A A A A, A A A A A A M A AfA A A A A A . A A A A A A A ' A A ' A A A A A A (A'A A t  -A A A.AAi A A A A A A A J A A A A A A A A A  A A A A ' A A A A A A A A.A A A A A A\^y\ A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A / V X  >I—  cr  LU Q_  O  LT  a.  o  l-l  CO r—i  K  EH CO  tr  H  LJ  a.  a  >  *  UJ  0*  o_ o o  P  CO  >< fX  ft  LU  o  0QQII1  Q Z LU O UJ  o X Q< cr o o  o. O  8 2 t  Iff I  O U m  _J  -30-  THE DANSEY - RAYFIELD RIVER COPPER PROPERTY FIGURE 7  APPROXIMATE DRAINAGE CATCHMENT AREAS, LOCATION CF SPRINGS  LOCATION- OF TIME LAPSE SAMPLING SITES TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND  N  As - ~ —  Coxa/  w«rvol  *  •  •  Cref*i.  aM  c  C  O  '  I  l«t  Sxorrp* '  — . —  tOO  Rivers  Lakes LocoP  Grid  5OC0  Control  TOT  Points  AND  T I M LAPSE SAMPLING SITE SPRINGS APPROXIMATE CATCHMENTS OF CREEKS AND RIVERS EACH SHADED DIFFERENTLY  31  o f the p l a t e a u e a s t o f the R a y f i e l d River„  They have  been formed by g l a c i a l a c t i o n and are e l o n g a t e d a l o n g s o u t h e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n o f i c e movement.  Most do  not  have stream o u t l e t s and must l o s e t h e i r w a t e r s by underground drainage  or e v a p o r a t i o n .  the  either  Nearshore lake  sedi-  ment c o m p o s i t i o n v a r i e s from f i n e g r a v e l t o o r g a n i c muds. pH v a l u e s o f 7»1  t o 9.7  have been measured i n l a k e w a t e r .  T r i b u t a r y streams f l o w i n g over the p l a t e a u become i n t e r m i t t e n t o r are n o t v i s i b l e d u r i n g t h e s t e e p to  the R a y f i e l d R i v e r .  Water moves u n d e r g r o u n d  descent through  f r a c t u r e s i n t h e s y e n i t e and emerges n e a r the t o e o f the s l o p e as s p r i n g s o r seepages. ages 7.6 VII.  (Table  pH o f s p r i n g w a t e r a v e r -  XIX).  SOILS F i v e s o i l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s are r e c o g n i z e d  t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i s shown i n F i g 6. e n t s a modal p r o f i l e d e v e l o p e d  and  Table IV r e p r e s -  on g l a c i a l t i l l  while  T a b l e V g i v e s h o r i z o n sequences f o r s o i l s r e c o g n i z e d the p r o p e r t y and c l a s s i f i e d under the s t a n d a r d s o i l i f i c a t i o n system f o r Canada.  agri-  approximation.  Because o f h i g h base s t a t u s , absence o f an h o r i z o n and e v i d e n c e developed  class-  T a b l e VI c o r r e l a t e s t h i s  n o m e n c l a t u r e w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s department o f c u l t u r e 7th  on  f o r A e j ' and 1  ' B t j ' horizons,  'Ah' soils  on g l a c i a l m a t e r i a l s are c l a s s i f i e d as Degraded  -32-  Table  IV  Approximate  d e s c r i p t i o n o f a modal s o i l p r o f i l e  on g l a c i a l  till.  DEPTH INCHES  HORIZON  0-1  5-14  14-25  25 +  Bm  developed  DESCRIPTION  L-H  Composed o f f r e s h and p a r t l y decayed l e a v e s , t w i g s and g r a s s e s overlying mineral horizons. Lower c o n t a c t wavy b u t s h a r p , pH 4.5-6.2  Ae o r Aej  Sandy loam, medium brown c o l o u r s ( r a r e l y w h i t e ) , 0 $ t o 5 $ rounded pebbles of b a s a l t i c or g r a n i t i c material, granular texture. May be a b s e n t from p r o f i l e , pH 5.8-6.2  o r B t o r B f R a r e l y ' B f o r 'Bt' h o r i z o n s , l o a m s , 5 $ t o 1 5 $ rounded p e b b l e s of b a s a l t i c o r g r a n i t i c m a t e r i a l , or semirounded t o a n g u l a r h o r n blende • s y e n i t e , g r a n u l a r , coarse blocky, rarely platy structure. Lower c o n t a c t g r a d a t i o n a l and o s c i l l a t o r y , pH 5.0-8.6  Ck o r C Ca  Loam, w h i t e s t a i n i n g on p e b b l e s , p e b b l e s c o n s t i t u t e 10$ t o 50$ of t h e h o r i z o n , rounded b a s a l t i c p e b b l e s , o r s e m i a n g u l a r t o angu l a r hornblende s y e n i t e (grus weathering), g r a n u l a r , coarse b l o c k y and r a r e l y p l a t y s t r u c ture. Lower c o n t a c t g r a d a t i o n a l and o s c i l l a t o r y .  Parent material  Glacial t i l l s , glaciofluvial sands and g r a v e l s , l a c u s t r i n e s i l t y c l a y s , 0 $ t o 9 5 $ rounded b a s a l t i c o r g r a n i t i c p e b b l e s and c o b b l e s , o r semirounded t o a n g u l a r h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e • ( p a r t l y weathered to g r u s ) , g r a n u l a r , b l o c k y o r p l a t y structure. C o n t a c t s between d i f ferent parent materials u s u a l l y s h a r p , pH 5-3-9.2.  -33Table V H o r i z o n sequences f o r s o i l s c l a s s i f i e d a t t h e subgroup l e v e l o f t h e S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System f o r Canada HORIZON SEQUENCE  SUBGROUP CLASSIFICATION Orthic Eutric Brunisol Degraded E u t r i c B r u n i s o l O r t h i c Grey L u v i s o l  L-H, Ah, Bm, C , Ck L-H.Ac o r Aej,.Bm o r B t j , Ck L-H, Ah.or Ahe, Ae, AB, B t ,  Dark Grey L u v i s o l  '"'Ca' — L-H, Ah o r Ahe, Ae, B t , C ,  C a  C n  Ck, C L-H, (Ah o r Ahe, A e l o r Bm), o r . ( B f , Bm, Ae2 o r C ) . AB, B t , Ck, C or L-H, ( A e l o r Bm) o r B f , Bm,  B r u n i s o l i c Grey L u v i s o l  Ae2. o r C, AB, B t , Ck, _C  O r t h i c Humo-Ferric P o d z o l M i n i Humo-Ferric P o d z o l Sombric H u m o - F e r r i c P o d z o l O r t h i c Ferro-Humic P o d z o l Sombric F e r r o - H u m i c P o d z o l  L-H, Ae, B f h o r B f , . C L-H, Aej, B f h o r B f , C L-H, Ah, B f h . o r B f , C. L-H, Ae, B h f , B f h , B f , . C  Orthic Regosol  L-H, Ah, A e J , B h f , B f h , B f , C L-H, Ah, Ck, C  Cumulic Regosol  C, 'hb, C, Ck, o r Ah, C, Ahb, C o r Ck.  L i t h i c O r t h i c Regosol Gleyed Cumulic Regosol  L-H, Ah, Ck, R C, Ahb, Ck, Cg o r Ah, C, Ahb, Cg LEGEND  * u n d e r l i n e d h o r i z o n s i n d i c a t e t h e s e must be p r e s e n t f o r the s o i l t o be c l a s s i f i e d i n t h e f a s h i o n t h a t i t was.  -34Table VI  C o r r e l a t i o n between C a n a d i a n and A m e r i c a n s o i l ification  class-  schemes.  CANADIAN CLASSIFICATION  AMERICAN EQUIVALENT  Orthic Eutric  Typic Eutrocrept  Brunisol  Degraded E u t r i c  Brunisol  Alfic  Eutrocrept  O r t h i c Grey L u v i s o l  Eutroboralf or Glossoboralf  Dark Grey L u v i s o l  Eutroboralf or Glossoboralf  B r u n i s o l i c Grey L u v i s o l  Entic Eutroboralf  O r t h i c Humo-Ferric P o d z o l  Haplorthod or Ferrod  M i n i Humo-Ferric P o d z o l  Haplorthod or Haplic Ferrod  Sombric H u m o - F e r r i c P o d z o l  Umbric H a p l o r t h o d  O r t h i c Ferro-Humic P o d z o l  Humic H a p l o r t h o d  Sombric F e r r o - H u m i c P o d z o l  Umbric Humic H a p l o r t h o d  O r t h i c Regosol  U s t o r t h e n t s o r Ustipsamments  Cumulic Regosol  U s t i f l u v e n t s o r Ustipsamments  L i t h i c Orthic Regosol  Lithic-Ustorthents  Gleyed Cumulic Regosol  Haplaquents, Hydraquents o r Psammaquents  35-  Eutric Brunisols.  S o i l development depends on t h e degree  o f s u r f a c e s l o p e and t h e t e x t u r e o f the p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . Where c l a y content i s h i g h , l u v i s o l s are common w h i l e h i g h sand content o r steep s l o p e f a v o u r s p o d z o l  formation.  P o d z o l s and l u v i s o l s were found t o cover up t o 5$ each o f the p l a t e a u l a n d s c a p e . S o i l s formed on weathered b a s a l t i c r o c k on t h e mesas a r e dark brown t o r e d i n c o l o u r , 2 t o 8 i n c h e s and have an 'Ah* h o r i z o n .  Without e x c e p t i o n , t h e s e  thick soils  have been c l a s s i f i e d as L i t h i c O r t h i c R e g o s o l s . T a l u s forms the t h i r d major p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . T a l u s i s composed o f f i n e t o c o a r s e , a n g u l a r , o f hornblende  or leucocratic  o s i t y and p e r m e a b i l i t y . 95$  stitial  s y e n i t e , and has h i g h p o r -  Coarse  o f each s o i l h o r i z o n .  fragments  fragments compose 60$ t o  S o i l s have developed  on i n t e r -  f i n e s t o depths i n excess o f f i v e f e e t and have  been mapped as r e g o s o l s o r p o d z o l s , depending on t h e degree o f s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f the t a l u s . Recent a l l u v i a l  d e p o s i t s , r a r e l y wider than  f e e t , f l o o r the R a y f i e l d R i v e r v a l l e y .  150  Parent m a t e r i a l  c o n s i s t s o f f e l d s p a r sands (grus) and g r a v e l s i n beds 2 to 6 inches t h i c k .  S o i l s are r e g o s o l i c i n c h a r a c t e r  and may have b u r i e d h o r i z o n s . 'Ah'  h o r i z o n , w i t h cumulic  An o r g a n i c r i c h sandy loam,  c h a r a c t e r i s common.  The  water t a b l e i s encountered  a t a depth between 15 and 24  inches.  Below t h i s depth,  secondary  evidence  f o r g l e y i n g , are common.  i r o n oxide m o t t l e s ,  -36Organic s o i l s have developed swamps created by beaver dams.  along the margins of  They consist of p a r t l y  decaying grasses, mosses, sedges, reeds and l i t t e r from willows, low brush and t r e e s .  No attempt was made to  c l a s s i f y organic s o i l s any f u r t h e r .  VIII.  VEGETATION AND  WILDLIFE  The region i s forested by lodgepole pine contorta l a t i f o l i a ) . ing  (Firms  Trees are submature, r a r e l y reach-  one foot i n diameter and therefore not s u i t a b l e f o r  logging operations,  Stands of the i n t e r i o r v a r i e t y of  Douglas f i r (Pseudoisuga menziesu) cover a major part of the T e r t i a r y b a s a l t . ing  L o c a l l y , Douglas f i r i s found grow-  on g l a c i a l deposits overlying i n t r u s i v e rocks.  Iso-  l a t e d stands of poplar (Populus trichocarpa) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) have also been observed.  Spruce  trees are generally absent except along the a l l u v i a l banks of the Rayfield River.  Since trees are well spaced  and ground cover only grass, t r a v e r s i n g i s f a i r l y  easy.  In swamps, vegetation consists of reeds, sedges, mosses, grasses and willows. W i l d l i f e includes moose, deer, bear and many species of b i r d s .  The area i s considered open rangeland  and c a t t l e roam f r e e l y .  -3 7-  IX.  PREVIOUS EXPLORATION HISTORY OF THE RAYFIELD RIVER COPPER PROPERTY Kennco (Western) E x p l o r a t i o n s , I n c . was t h e f i r s t  mining  e x p l o r a t i o n company t o l o o k a t t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r The p r o p e r t y v/as h e l d t w i c e , i n 1959 and 1963,  claims.  d u r i n g w h i c h t h e g e o l o g y was mapped and s o i l samples taken. I n 1966, Cominco Ltd„ a c q u i r e d 61 c l a i m s on t h e eastern plateau.  T h e i r assessment r e p o r t  b o r n i t e o c c u r r i n g as f r a c t u r e f i l l i n g s seminations  i n syenite.  described  and m i n o r d i s -  G e o l o g i c a l mapping, magneto-  meter and g e o c h e m i c a l s u r v e y s  were r u n .  I n 1967, Mr. C. W„ Dansey s t a k e d t h e n o r t h e r n h a l f o f t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r p r o p e r t y and b u l l d o z e d s e v e r a l trenches.  The p r o p e r t y was t h e n o p t i o n e d  t o Amax E x p l o r -  a t i o n , I n c . A f t e r p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s and a d d i t i o n a l s t a k i n g t h e g e o l o g y o f t h e p r o p e r t y was mapped, p o l a r i z a t i o n and magnetometer s u r v e y s o f 1230 s o i l ,  induced  r u n and a t o t a l  stream sediment and w a t e r , and o u t c r o p  c h i p samples c o l l e c t e d f o r g e o c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s by t h e author.  6295 f e e t o f t r e n c h e s  were b u l l d o z e d  through  o v e r b u r d e n and 1420 f e e t t h r o u g h b e d r o c k . S o i l samples a t 4- t o 6 i n c h e s d e p t h were c o l l e c t e d a t 4-00 f o o t i n t e r v a l s a l o n g n o r t h - s o u t h l i n e s 1400 f e e t a p a r t .  claim  Over t h e p l a t e a u , t h e s u r v e y  d e t e c t e d o n l y i s o l a t e d h i g h copper v a l u e s .  Consistent  -38copper a n o m a l i e s were d i s c o v e r e d o n l y o v e r t h e s t e e p v a l l e y s i d e s o f t h e r i v e r where v a l u e s o f 100 t o o v e r 4000 ppm  (rounded f i g u r e s ) and a v e r a g i n g 750 ppm  were f o u n d .  copper  T h i s f i g u r e may be compared w i t h an average  v a l u e o f 4-0 ppm on t h e p l a t e a u .  S i m i l a r l y , stream  sedi-  ments c o l l e c t e d from t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r were d i s t i n c t l y anomalous ( 1 0 0 t o 2 0 0 ppm v e r s u s a r e g i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d o f 25 ppm c o p p e r ) .  I n c o n t r a s t , t r i b u t a r i e s were n o t en-  r i c h e d i n t h i s m e t a l e x c e p t where t h e y e n t e r e d t h e Rayf i e l d R i v e r v a l l e y ( P i g . 17A)„ the present study.  These r e s u l t s  stimulated  -39-  CHAPTER 2  I.  SAMPLE COLLECTION 1.  Introduction  B e d r o c k , stream and l a k e w a t e r and s e d i m e n t , h o r n blende syenite f l o a t ,  s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n samples were  c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g J u l y and A u g u s t , 1 9 7 0 .  T a b l e V I I sum-  m a r i z e s t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s and numbers o f samples lected.  F i g s . 2 7 - 3 3 show  col-  the l o c a t i o n of stream water  and sediment ( r e g i o n a l ) , o u t c r o p and f l o a t  (regional),  w a t e r and sediment ( d e t a i l e d a r e a ) , o u t c r o p ( d e t a i l e d area), f l o a t  (detailed area), s o i l  and v e g e t a t i o n  samples,  respectively. 2.  Bedrock  A p p r o x i m a t e l y one pound o f one c u b i c i n c h  chips  were b r o k e n from c o n v e n i e n t b e d r o c k s u r f a c e s and c o l l e c t e d i n K r a f t paper envelopes.  Care was t a k e n t o sample  i n t r u s i v e r o c k s as randomly as p o s s i b l e , b u t an u n a v o i d a b l e b i a s i n g i s caused by t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s u l p h i d e mineralization.  C o r n e r s o f i n t e r s e c t i n g j o i n t s were  a v o i d e d and f e l d s p a r v e i n l e t s were i n c l u d e d i n rough p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r observed d e n s i t y .  Rock t y p e s ,  loc-  a t i o n , g r a i n s i z e and c o l o r were n o t e d . The R a y f i e l d R i v e r c o p p e r p r o p e r t y was  divided  -40-  Table V I I Types o f g e o c h e m i c a l samples c o l l e c t e d , summer 1970, SAMPLE TYPE  DESCRIPTION  OUTCROP  Hornblende syenite  SAMPLE DENSITY /SQ. MILE  ELEMENTS  2_7  Cu,Zn,Pe, Mn ,K  30  2  .8  Cu,Zn,Fe, Mn,K  Pegmatite  7  2  .2  Cu,Zn,Pe, Mn,K  Pine grained syenite  1  0  .1  Cu, Zn, Fe , Mn, K  11  1  .3  Cu,Zn,Fe, Mn,K  1  0  .1  Cu,Zn,Fe, Mn,K  31  0  ,8  Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn,K  5  0  .1  Cu,Zn, Fe, Mn,K  Total-outcrops  198  15  5=0  Cu,- Zn, Fe, Mn, K  Eornblende Syenite  217  17  5«5  Cu,Zn,Fe, Mn,K  3.3  Cu,Zn,Fe, Mn  Eybrid types  rock  Diabase Tertiary basalt Nicola volcanics  132  SEDIMENTS WATER  111  DUPLICATES ANALYSED  10  Leucocratic syenite  PLOAT  NUMBER  Mo f i e l d treatment  25  2  .7  77  3  2 0 o  Cu,Zn,Fe, Mn,HC03,pH Ca,Na,Mg, K,S0/L,C1  41-  Table V I I - continued  SAMPLE TYPE  DESCRIPTION  Field treated  SOILS  DUPLICATES ANALYSED  SAMPLE DENSITY  ELEMENTS  /SQo  MILE Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn  78  29  2.0  104  16  2.6  Analysed-27 p i t s - 8 t r e n c h e s 179  15  4.5  461  15  Douglas f i r  29  2  .7  Cu,Zn  Lodgepole pine  22  2  .6  Cu,Zn  2  0  .1  Cu,Zn  Collected-90 profiles VEGETATION  NUMBER  Spruce  11.5  Ca,Na,Mg, K  Cu,CxCu, Zn,Fe,Mn, pH Cu,CxCu, Zn,Fe,Mn, pH  -42-  a l o n g c l a i m l i n e s i n t o 170 boxes, each c o v e r i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1/4 square m i l e (1/8 square m i l e n e a r t h e r i v e r ) . A maximum o f t h r e e samples p e r r o c k t y p e was c o l l e c t e d from each box. of  Hand specimens  were a l s o t a k e n from many  the s t a t i o n s f o r petrographic examination.  and 30 show  P i g . 28  t h e l o c a t i o n and sample number o f r o c k c h i p s  c o l l e c t e d from o u t c r o p s . Sample p r e p a r a t i o n i n c l u d e d jaw, c e r a m i c and s h a t t e r box c r u s h i n g and g r i n d i n g u n t i l 98$ o f t h e r o c k was  r e d u c e d t o l e s s t h a n 100 mesh.  Care was t a k e n d u r i n g  each o f t h e c r u s h i n g s t a g e s t o a v o i d c o n t a m i n a t i o n from previous  samples. 0.5 grams o f powdered sample was p l a c e d i n a  teflon  dish containing several m i l l i l i t e r s  water ( t o prevent d u s t i n g ) . fluoric was  5 ml o f c o n c e n t r a t e d h y d r o -  a c i d and 0.5 ml o f c o n c e n t r a t e d p e r c h l o r i c  acid  added and t h e s o l u t i o n was e v a p o r a t e d t o d r y n e s s  o v e r a p e r i o d o f 3 h o u r s on a h o t p l a t e . was  of d i s t i l l e d  The r e s i d u e  e x t r a c t e d i n 3 ml o f c o n c e n t r a t e d h y d r o c h l o r i c  and s e v e r a l m i l l i t e r s o f d i s t i l l e d  acid  water, t r a n s f e r r e d t o  a 2 5 ml v o l u m e t r i c f l a s k and d i l u t e d w i t h d i s i i l l e d water.  Subsequent a n a l y s i s was done by atomic a b s o r p t i o n . P o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , 40 samples and 4 dup-  l i c a t e s v/ere a n a l y s e d by e m i s s i o n s p e c t r o s c o p y . of  c r u s h e d sample and 100 mg of s p e c i a l l y t r e a t e d  i t e were mixed,  100 mg graph-  a p l a s t i c b a l l was i n s e r t e d i n t h e sample  -43-  vial  and t h e sample was shaken f o r 3 m i n u t e s .  Subsequent  f i r i n g and a n a l y s i s o f s p e c t r a p l a t e s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 2, page 5 1 . 3.  Stream, S p r i n g and Lake  Water  Water samples were u s u a l l y c o l l e c t e d complementary w i t h sediments. w a t e r samples Three  L o c a t i o n and sample number o f  appears on F i g . 2 7 and 2 9 . samples were t a k e n a t each s t a t i o n , two i n  500 m l , a c i d washed ( w i t h 5 0 $ h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d ) , n a l gene b o t t l e s and one i n a 1 2 5 m l , w a t e r washed, n a l g e n e bottle.  F i e l d a n a l y s e s f o r pH ( O r i o n model 404 pH m e t e r ) ,  b i c a r b o n a t e ( A p p l i e d g e o c h e m i c a l r e s e a r c h group communication  technical  2 6 ) , s u l p h a t e (AGRGTC 2 7 ) , and c h l o r i d e  (AGRGTC 2 9 ) were done as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r ( u s u a l l y l e s s t h a n one week).  collection  Most 1 2 5 ml samples  were  s h i p p e d t o t h e g e o c h e m i c a l l a b o r a t o r y o f Amax E x p l o r a t i o n , I n c . whore a n a l y s i s b y a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n f o r c o p p e r , molybdenum and z i n c , w i t h s p e c i f i c i o n e l e c t r o d e s for  pH and f l u o r i d e and b y t u r b i d i m e t r y f o r s u l p h a t e was  performed.  The r e m a i n i n g 5 0 0 ml sample was a c i d i f i e d  w i t h 1 ml o f 6M h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d , s h i p p e d t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y of. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and a n a l y s e d o v e r a p e r i o d e x t e n d i n g t o f i v e months from c o l l e c t i o n by a t o m i c absorption. ysed.  Some u n a c i d i f i e d 5 0 0 ml samples were a l s o  anal-  R e s u l t s o f t h e c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y a r e g i v e n on  Table V I I I .  Most a n a l y s e s agree t o w i t h i n ± 5 0 $ r e g a r d l e s s  -44Table  VIII  Comparison o f m e t a l v a l u e s i n samples t r e a t e d w i t h and w i t h o u t HC1 i n t h e f i e l d .  ELEMENT  NUMBER OF SAMPLE RESULTS APPROXIMATELY EQUAL  NUMBER 1 , 5 - 2 . 0 TIMES DIFFERENCE HIGHER  LOWER  NUMBER GREATER THAN 2 TIMES DIFFERE NCE HIGHER LOWER  TOTAL NUMBER OF SAMPLES  K  53  7  1  3  1  65  Mg  45  1  7  4  8  65  Ca  52  3  1  5  3  64  Na  53  4  0  6  2  65  -45of t h e i r h i s t o r y o f f i e l d treatment.  O t h e r a n a l y s e s , how-  e v e r , d i f f e r b y f a c t o r s o f 2 and more. Sample t r e a t m e n t (1971)o  has been d e s c r i b e d by F l e t c h e r  2 5 0 ml o f sample c o n t a i n i n g 3 ml o f c o n c e n t r a t e d  h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d was p l a c e d i n a 400 ml p y r e x s e t on a h o t p l a t e and e v a p o r a t e d l i q u i d remained.  u n t i l o n l y 1 5 ml o f  The s o l u t i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d t o a 2 5 ml  v o l u m e t r i c f l a s k and f i l l e d t o t h e mark w i t h water,  beaker,  distilled  ( A l t e r n a t i v e l y , when o n l y 1 2 5 ml o f sample was  c o l l e c t e d , 1 0 0 ml ( o r what was a v a i l a b l e ) was t r e a t e d and made up t o 1 0 ml i n a v o l u m e t r i c f l a s k . )  When a p r e c i p i -  t a t e formed on e v a p o r a t i o n , t h e sample was t r a n s f e r r e d ( a f t e r o n l y 1 5 ml o f l i q u i d remained) t o a t e f l o n d i s h and t r e a t e d as d e s c r i b e d f o r b e d r o c k samples  ( C h a p t e r 2,  page 42. 4.  Stream and Lake Sediments  Stream s e d i m e n t s were t a k e n a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 2 0 0 f o o t i n t e r v a l s a l o n g t h e R a y f i e l d and B o n a p a r t e R i v e r s and t h e i r t r i b u t a r i e s .  One sample was c o l l e c t e d p e r  s t a t i o n as c l o s e t o t h e c e n t e r o f t h e stream as p o s s i b l e . Because t h e two major r i v e r s have v e r y c o a r s e  sediment,  samples were a l s o chosen as f i n e i n t e x t u r e as p o s s i b l e . A t t e m p t s were made t o a v o i d o r g a n i c muds i n t r i b u t a r y streams.  A time l a p s e s t u d y was i n i t i a t e d a t s i x l o c a -  tions (Fig. 7).  F i e l d n o t e s i n c l u d e d sample l o c a t i o n ,  c o l o r , t e x t u r e , odor, v e g e t a t i o n , n a t u r e o f t h e r i v e r b e d  -46-  and o t h e r n o t e w o r t h y f e a t u r e s . Lake s e d i m e n t s were c o l l e c t e d n e a r s h o r e a t , o r s l i g h t l y below, water l e v e l  ( 1 sample p e r l a k e ) .  Stream  and l a k e sample sediment numbers and l o c a t i o n s are shown on F i g . 27 and 2 9 . Samples were p l a c e d i n w a t e r p r o o f K r a f t p a p e r e n v e l o p e s and a i r d r i e d a t ambient t e m p e r a t u r e s .  When  n e c e s s a r y , samples were p u l v e r i z e d i n a m o r t a r . 0.5 grams o f t h e -80 mesh s i e v e d sediment p l a c e d i n an a c i d washed 50 ml p y r c x b e a k e r  was  containing  s e v e r a l m i l l i l i t e r s of d i s t i l l e d water ( t o prevent dusting, 4:1  or f r o t h i n g i n carbonate r i c h samples). :: c o n c e n t r a t e d n i t r i c  a c i d was to  5 ml o f  acid: concentrated p e r c h l o r i c  added and c o n t e n t s o f t h e b e a k e r e v a p o r a t e d  d r y n e s s on a h o t p l a t e ( 4 h o u r s ) .  The r e s i d u e was  t r a c t e d i n 3 ml o f c o n c e n t r a t e d h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d  ex-  and  s e v e r a l m i l l i l i t e r s of d i s t i l l e d water, t r a n s f e r r e d to a g r a d u a t e d t e s t t u b e and d i l u t e d w i t h d i s t i l l e d to  25 ml.  (Fletcher, 5.  water  A n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d by a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n 1971). Hornblende S y e n i t e  Float  Sample p r e p a r a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e f l o a t was i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r bedr o c k samples, on pages 39 - 4 3 ,  Sample number and  a t i o n o f f l o a t samples i s shown on F i g , 28 and 3 1 .  loc-  -47-  6  Soils  0  Fig  8 i s a c o m p i l a t i o n by Amax E x p l o r a t i o n , I n c . ,  0  o f copper a n a l y s e s 4 to 6 inches.  from s o i l s c o l l e c t e d at a d e p t h o f  I n the present  s t u d y , t h r e e l i n e s of s o i l  were sampled a t i n t e r v a l s o f 20 t o 2000 f e e t , depending on t o p o g r a p h y and intrusive.  l o c a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the  F i g . 32  numbers o f t h i s  shows s o i l  One  sample l o c a t i o n s  and  survey.  S o i l p i t s , one a mattock.  syenite  t o f o u r f e e t deep, were dug  s i d e o f the p i t was  straightened  samples were t h e n c o l l e c t e d from each h o r i z o n .  with and  A l l sam-  p l e s were s t o r e d i n w a t e r p r o o f K r a f t p a p e r e n v e l o p e s  and  a i r d r i e d a t ambient t e m p e r a t u r e s .  pro-  Analytical field  c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d t h o s e of L a v k u l i c h ( 1 9 6 9 ) .  F i e l d notes  included: 1.  Sample l o c a t i o n ( l o c a l g r i d  2.  S o i l consistence  - The  co-ordinates).  force necessary t o impress  a k n i f e i n t o t h e v i r g i n s o i l h o r i z o n was  cor-  r e l a t e d w i t h hand a n a l y s i s . 3.  P e r c e n t a g e of a s o i l  sample c o a r s e r t h a n 2 mm  d i a m e t e r , shape, degree of a n g u l a r i t y , and type comprising a t t e n t i o n was  t h i s coarse  fraction.  in  rock  Particular  g i v e n t o the degree o f a n g u l a r i t y ;  weathered c h a r a c t e r ; e x t e n t o f i r o n and manganese oxide  or malachite  s t a i n i n g ; evidence f o r miner-  a l i z a t i o n and the p e r c e n t a g e of c o a r s e  fragments  pits  -de-  composed o f h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e . 4.  Depth of p l a n t r o o t s and n a t u r e  of o v e r l y i n g  vegetation. 5.  D i r e c t i o n and  s l o p e o f the ground s u r f a c e , i n  degrees. 6.  T o p o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s i n t h e immediate v i c i n i t y of the  profile.  S o i l samples were t r e a t e d i n a manner a n a l o g o u s t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r s t r e a m s e d i m e n t s (page 44 A c o l d e x t r a c t i o n technique eleven  0.5  grams o f s i e v e d sample was  75 ml a c i d washed t e s t t u b e . a c i d was  added,  mechanically  the t e s t t u b e s t o p p e r e d  f o r 10 h o u r s .  then decanted  analysed  placed i n a  10 ml of 0.5m  One  day was  p a r t i c u l a t e m a t t e r t o s e t t l e and  hydrochloric  and  shaken  allowed  and  potassium. For determination  d r i e d s o i l was of d i s t i l l e d  analysed  o f pH,  liquid  Samples were  by a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n f o r copper and  e v e r y f i f t h sample was  f o r the  the s u p e r n a t e n t  i n t o another t e s t tube.  and  calcium,  f o r i r o n , manganese  10 gm  of -10  mesh i r  p l a c e d i n a 50 ml g l a s s b e a k e r and  w a t e r was  t o e q u i l i b r a t e f o r two pH o f the s o i l was fritted  applied to  s e l e c t e d p r o f i l e s on the w e s t e r n h a l f o f t h e bend  traverse.  was  was  ).  added.  The  s u s p e n s i o n was  a  10  ml  allowed  hours, shaking i n t e r m i t t e n t l y .  determined w i t h a g l a s s e l e c t r o d e  sleeve reference  electrode attached  to the  and  Orion  model 407 pH meter, the s o l u t i o n a g i t a t e d by a m a g n e t i c  THE DANSEY - RAYFIELD RIVER COPPER PROPERTY FIGURE 8 DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER (PPK) IN THE "E" HORIZON, -80 MESH FRACTION COMPILATION BY AMAX EXPLORATION, INC., I969 N GEOLOGIC AND GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND _ REGIONAL BOUNDARY — Contour Interval (00 leet • Creeks, and Rivers GEOLOGIC CONTACT <^^> Swamps I  I  -*.>~  Lakes  Local  Grid  Control  5000 FEET  Points  I  •i  100 - 500  ppm  MORE THAN 500 ppm  be-  s t i r r i n g bar.  O r g a n i c s o i l s r e q u i r e d up t o 30 ml o f  w a t e r f o r a pH d e t e r m i n a t i o n . 7.  Vegetation  Samples o f t h e c u r r e n t y e a r growth o f fir, the  l o d g e p o l c p i n e o r s p r u c e t r e e s were c o l l e c t e d i n immediate  vicinity  o f t h e s o i l p i t s i n a manner des-  c r i b e d by Warren and D e l a v a u l t (1949). the  Douglas  P i g . 34  shows  l o c a t i o n and sample number o f v e g e t a t i o n samples. Samples were oven d r i e d f o r s e v e r a l days a t  C.  100°  2 grams o f s e p a r a t e d n e e d l e s and stems were i g n i t e d  i n a c i d washed, p o r c e l a i n c r u c i b l e s a t 550°C f o r 12 hours.  The  ash was t h e n e x t r a c t e d i n 1 ml o f 6M h y d r o -  c h l o r i c a c i d and e v a p o r a t e d t o n e a r d r y n e s s .  The  due was t a k e n up i n 5 ml o f 6M h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d ,  resitrans-  f e r r e d t o g r a d u a t e d c y l i n d e r s , and d i l u t e d t o 20 ml w i t h distilled  water.  Copper and z i n c c o n t e n t s were d e t e r -  mined by a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n .  -51-  II.  ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES 1o  Emission  Spectroscopy  A powdered r o c k sample i s mixed 1:1 i t e c o n t a i n i n g 1 0 ppm mixture  i s loaded  Indium as i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d .  i n t o a g r a p h i t e cup  w i t h sugar s o l u t i o n , and f o r 20  The  electrode, sealed  e x c i t e d by a 12 ampere DC  arc  seconds. S p e c t r a are r e c o r d e d  and  w i t h graph-  element c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  on s p e c t r o g r a p h i c  plates  e s t i m a t e d v i s u a l l y by  compar-  i s o n w i t h m a s t e r p l a t e s o f known c o n c e n t r a t i o n  prepared  under i d e n t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s .  Indium  l i n e provides  The  d e n s i t y o f an  a check on b u r n q u a l i t y ,  15 elements  are  d e t e r m i n e d o v e r a c o n c e n t r a t i o n range o f 1 t o 1 0 , 0 0 0 ppm  (Table  X),  2„  Atomic  Absorption  The  t h e o r y and  o p e r a t i o n of atomic a b s o r p t i o n  an a n a l y t i c a l t o o l i s a d e q u a t e l y (Abbey, 1 9 6 7 ) , meter was  A T e c t r o n AA4  described  elsewhere  atomic a b s o r p t i o n  u s e d f o r a l l measurements.  An  spectro-  instrumental  p r o c e d u r e has been d e s c r i b e d by . F l e t c h e r ( 1 9 7 1 ) .  Oper-  a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s are summarized i n T a b l e X I , D i g e s t s o f b e d r o c k and Cu,  Zn, Fe, Mn,  and K;  Cu,  Zn, Fe and Mn;  f l o a t were a n a l y s e d  s o i l s and  w a t e r f o r Cu,  as  for  stream s e d i m e n t s f o r Zn, Fe, Mn,  K, Na,  Ca  -52-  Table IX Spectrographic  equipment and s t a n d a r d  Spectrograph Source Arc/Spark stand Microdensitomctor Anode Cathode 3-step n e u t r a l f i l t e r Neutral  filter  Emulsion Wavelength range Mask S l i t width Arc c u r r e n t A r c gap Exposure time Plate processing Plate processing Plate Processing P l a t e development  operating  conditions  H i l g e r - W a t t s Automatic Quartz Spectrograph E l c c t r o - m a t i c products (ARL), Model P6KS, Type 2R41 Spex I n d u s t r i e s #9010 ARL S p e c t ^ o l i n e Scanner #2200 G r a p h i t e , N a t i o n a l L3709SPK G r a p h i t e , N a t i o n a l L3803AGKS Spex I n d u s t r i e s #1090; 5$, 20$, and 100$ t r a n s m i t t a n c e Spex I n d u s t r i e s /^9022; 20$ t r a n s mittance Spectrum a n a l y s i s #1 2775 t o 4800 angstroms  17 mm 15 m i c r o n s 12 amperes 4 mm 20  seconds  D e v e l o p e r Kodak D-19 a t 23°C S t o p b a t h Kodak 30 seconds F i x e r Kodak 5 m i n u t e s 3 minutes  -53-  Table X  O p e r a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r e c i s i o n  a t t h e 95$  confidence l e v e l of emission spectrometer a n a l y s i s (Doyle,  1971) (50 a n a l y s e s o f UBC s t a n d a r d  rock)  ELEMENT  SPECTRAL LINE ANGSTROMS  Sr  4607.33  1280.  85  Ba  4554.04  1320.  90  Cr  4254.35  8.0  90  Co  3453.51  8.5  80  Ni  3414.77  7.9  85  Ti  3372.80  Cu  3273-96  16.1  50  In  3256.09  25.5  45  V  3185.40  53.5  60  Ga  2943.64  16.  35  Pb  2833-07  Mn  2801.06  AVE READ PPM  1400.  4.1  273.  PRECISION ± %  60  95 85  -54--  and Mg; and v e g e t a t i o n f o r Cu and Zn a f t e r t h e y h a d been p r e p a r e d b y methods o u t l i n e d by t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s . A UBC s t a n d a r d r o c k and a b l a n k were i n c l u d e d w i t h each b a t c h o f 32 samples.  A n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s were  t r e a t e d b y a method o u t l i n e d i n S t a n t o n ( 1 9 6 6 ) .  Pre-  c i s i o n a t t h e 95$ c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l , except f o r z i n c , was under - 25$ f o r b o t h t h e n i t r i c / p e r c h l o r i c and h y d r o f l u o r i c / p e r c h l o r i c acid attacks. t e n t s determined  Average e l e m e n t a l  con-  by t h e f i r s t a t t a c k , however, was 95$  o f t h a t found b y t h e second a t t a c k f o r copper,  57$ f o r  z i n c , 62$ f o r i r o n and 66$ f o r manganese ( T a b l e X I I ) . Computations were done on t h e UBC IBM 360/67 computer from a program w r i t t e n b y F l e t c h e r (1971)» A d u p l i c a t e sample was i n c l u d e d f o r each 15 samples t r e a t e d .  P r e c i s i o n a t t h e 95$ c o n f i d e n c e  level  on p a i r e d sample a n a l y s e s were computed on t h e IBM 360/67 a c c o r d i n g t o a p r o c e d u r e  o u t l i n e d by G a r r e t t  (1969) and programed b y Fox (1971).  Duplicate s o i l s  t r e a t e d by n i t r i c / p e r c h l o r i c a c i d a t t a c k had p r e c i s i o n v a l u e s f o r copper,  z i n c , i r o n and manganese ( T a b l e X I I I )  s i m i l a r t o those d e t e r m i n e d  f o r t h e UBC s t a n d a r d  Somewhat b e t t e r p r e c i s i o n was o b s e r v e d  rock.  f o r p a i r e d bed-  r o c k d a t a f o r t h e s e elements ( e x c e p t f o r manganese) when compared w i t h V a l u e s o b t a i n e d u s i n g t h e UBC s t a n d ard rock.  Only i n w a t e r sample d u p l i c a t e s , , do t r a c e e l e -  ment c o n t e n t s show p o o r p r e c i s i o n , a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y l o w c o n c e n t r a t i o n s measured ( T a b l e X I I I ) .  -55-  Tablc XI  Operational  characteristics  ELEMENT  WAVELENGTH ANGSTROMS  o f atomic a b s o r p t i o n SLIT WIDTH • A LT  analysis. CURRENT MA  Cu  3247.5  50  1.7  3  Zn  2138.6  100  3.3  6  Ee  3719.9  25  0.8  5  Mn  2794.8  100  3.3  10  Mg  2852.1  50  1.7  4  Na  5890.0  100  3.3  5  Ca  4226.7  25  0.8  10  K  5889.9  200  6.6  10  Elame h e i g h t 2.3 F u e l gauge 2.5 A i r pressure  20.0-21.0 p s i  -56-  Table X I I P r e c i s i o n o f atomic a b s o r p t i o n a n a l y s i s a t t h e 9 5 $ conf i d e n c e l e v e l e s t i m a t e d b y r e p l i c a t e a n a l y s i s o f UBC standard rock HN0 /HC10 ATTACK 3  ELEMENT  /+  AVE READ PPM  NUMBER OF SAMPLES  PRECISION i $  Cu -  22  6  9  Zn  15  •  6  32  1.3$  6  10  6  5  Fe Mn  210  HF/HCIO^ ATTACK Cu  23  10  18  Zn  25  10  35  10  7  10  12  10  22  Fe Mn K  2.1$ 310 1.3$  -57-  Table  XIII  P r e c i s i o n o f a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n a n a l y s i s a t t h e 95$ conf i d e n c e l e v e l e s t i m a t e d by a n a l y s i s o f p a i r e d samples SOIL HNO^/HCIO^ ATTACK ELEMENT  Cu Zn Fe Mn  AVE READ PPM 200 67 2„1$ 560  NUMBER OF SAMPLES  17  14  17  12  17  20  17  7  ROCK HF/HC10 ATTACK Cu  121  Zn  65  Fe Mn K  •  1.8$ 780 4.2$  PRECISION + o r -%  4  32  14  32  10  32  13  32  37  32  12  -58-  Table X I I I  (continued)  P r e c i s i o n o f atomic a b s o r p t i o n a n a l y s i s a t t h e 95$ conf i d e n c e l e v e l e s t i m a t e d by a n a l y s i s o f p a i r e d samples  WATER SAMPLES ELEMENT  AVE READ PPM  NUMBER OP SAMPLES  PRECISION + o r -%  Cu  0.01  15  120  Zn  OoOl  15  260  3o8  15  11  K Ca  40  15  14  Mg  25  15  53  Na  35  15  19  -59-  CHAPTER 5  I.  INTRODUCTION The  R a y f i e l d R i v e r copper p r o p e r t y  broken i n t o s i x physiographic XIV). parts.  regions  has been  ( F i g . 8 and T a b l e  E a c h s e c t i o n o f C h a p t e r 3 i s d i v i d e d i n t o two The f i r s t i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n  of data, while the  second i s an e v a l u a t i o n o f r e s u l t s and t h e i r i m p l i c ation to exploration strategy.  Primary dispersion,  r e p r e s e n t e d by b e d r o c k d a t a w i l l bo c o n s i d e r e d  first,  f o l l o w e d by surveys o f the secondary d i s p e r s i o n stream and l a k e w a t e r and s e d i m e n t , f l o a t , vegetation,  i n that order.  s o i l and  S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n has been  d e v o t e d w i t h i n each s e c t i o n t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f copper.  II.  PRIMARY DISPERSION A.  Metal Content of Bedrock  D a t a from a n a l y s i s o f o u t c r o p samples have been t r e a t e d as i f t h e y b e l o n g t o a l o g n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . The  mean, range (mean ± 1 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n )  and t h r e s -  h o l d v a l u e o f c o p p e r , z i n c , i r o n , manganese and p o t a s sium a n a l y s e s (> mean + 2 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s ) c a l c u l a t e d ( T a b l e XV)„  have been  Sample a n a l y s e s have been grouped  -60-  T a b l e 21V  P h y s i o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s of t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r copper property. DESIGNATION  DESCRIPTION  1  N o r t h e r n h a l f o f the w e s t e r n platoe.u  B e a v e r dams, boggy  2  S o u t h e r n h a l f o f the western p l a t e a u  Relatively flat, l i t t l e face drainage o r lakes  3  N o r t h e r n h a l f o f the eastern plateau  T e r t i a r y b a s a l t and b a s a l t derived g l a c i a l deposits  4-  S o u t h e r n h a l f o f the eastern plateau  Many l a k e s , i n d e p r e s s i o n s , overlying syenitic glacial overburden  5  Rayfield River  Dissects syenite intrusive,  6  Bonaparte R i v e r  D i s s e c t s g r a n i t i c and syeni t i c intrusives, Nicola v o l c a n i c s and t h i c k g l a c i a l overburden  REGION NUMBER  •  sur-  and p l a c e d i n t o t w e n t y c e l l s ,  c o n s t r u c t e d by t a k i n g h a l f  standard d e v i a t i o n i n t e r v a l s of the lognormal ution.  distrib-  The p e r c e n t a g e o f samples whose r e s u l t s l i e w i t h -  i n each c e l l and t h e c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t a g e has been determined.  When t h e c u m u l a t i v e  p e r c e n t a g e on a p r o b a b -  ility  s c a l e i s p l o t t e d against the lower  limit  o f t h e c e l l on a. l o g a r i t h m i c s c a l e , t h e r e s u l t i n g  figure i s a log probability plot.  concentration  I f choice o f the l o g -  normal f u n c t i o n i s c o r r e c t , then r e s u l t s should  appear  as a s t r a i g h t l i n e f o r a s i n g l e p o p u l a t i o n o r as a s e t o f l i n e segments f o r two o r more p o p u l a t i o n s .  Segment  s l o p e , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f i n f l e c t i o n p o i n t s and ease o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n s i s c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e mean and  s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f each c o n t r i b u t i n g p o p u l a t i o n  ( L e p e l t i c r , 1969), i n t h i s transform  P r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s o f bedrock show t h a t t h e l o g n o r m a l  results  f u n c t i o n prob-  a b l y c o r r e c t l y d e s c r i b e s t h e t r a c e element and p o t a s s i u m distribution  ( F i g , 1 3 A and B ) .  S e v e r a l p o p u l a t i o n s have  been t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d and. w i l l be d i s c u s s e d t o wards t h e end o f t h i s s e c t i o n . R e l a t i v e l y few samples were c o l l e c t e d from  Ter-  t i a r y basa.lt and t h e N i c o l a group o f v o l c a n i c s , as bedrock exposures o f these u n i t s are o n l y v i s i b l e over a small part of the property.  E a c h , however, has a d i s -  t i n c t i v e t r a c e element c o m p o s i t i o n  (Table X V )  u  The  N i c o l a v o l c a n i c s , h o s t r o c k s f o r t h e i n t r u s i o n , have s i m i l a r c o p p e r , manganese and z i n c c o n t e n t s t o t h e  h y b r i d phases,  but t h e l a t t e r i s n o t a b l y l e s s r i c h i n  i r o n and p o t a s s i u m .  D i f f e r e n c e s become m a g n i f i e d when  a n a l y s e s from t h e s e M e s o z o i c v o l c a n i c s are compared w i t h d a t a from t h e s y e n i t e i n t r u s i o n as a whole o r w i t h o t h e r r e c o g n i z a b l e phases w i t h i n the b a t h o l i t h . I n p a r t i c u l a r , i n t r u s i v e r o c k s have h i g h e r copper potassium  and  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and l o w e r i r o n , manganese and  z i n c c o n t e n t s t h a n samples from t h e N i c o l a group. p a r i s o n between d a t a from T e r t i a r y b a s a l t ,  Com-  extruded  a f t e r the i n t r u s i o n , and i n t r u s i v e show t h a t t h e above d i f f e r e n c e s are f u r t h e r e n l a r g e d . n o t e d f o r i t s low copper and z i n c c o n t e n t .  Tertiary basalt i s  and p o t a s s i u m  and h i g h i r o n  Manganese v a l u e s remain  essentially  the same as i n N i c o l a v o l c a n i c b e d r o c k . The  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f copper i n t h e b a t h o l i t h i s  shown i n F i g , 9A,  L e u c o c r a t i c s y e n i t e a n a l y s e s are  b e l o w t h e average f o r the i n t r u s i o n (mean v a l u e s o f 62 ppm  v e r s u s 14-0 ppm  respectively).  t h i s u n i t , w i t h i n the hornblende  Surrounding  syenite, i s a  t o m o d e r a t e l y p o s i t i v e zone up t o 1/2  mile i n width,  a t , or i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o the proposed second  slightly  contact,  copper anomaly o v e r l i e s an a r e a a l o n g the  A  valley  o f t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r s o u t h o f C r a t e r Lake, 'while a t h i r d i s i s o l a t e d i n r e g i o n 4-, Z i n c , i r o n , manganese and p o t a s s i u m p r o v i d e s i m i l a r evidence f o r zoning.  analyses  Zinc concentrations  a r c r e l a t i v e l y low i n samples o f l e u c o c r a t i c  syenite  (range 22 - 42 ppm)  and w i t h i n h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e i n  r e g i o n s J and 4- ( F i g . 10A).  Conversely, s e v e r a l areas  h i g h i n z i n c were d i s c o v e r e d a l o n g t h e n o r t h e r n h a l f of the r i v e r v a l l e y . and  leucocratic  Copper t o z i n c r a t i o i n h o r n b l e n d e syenite i s ,  i n general, g r e a t e r than  unity. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of i r o n ( F i g . 11A)  and mangan-  ese i s s i m i l a r t o , but l e s s d e f i n e d t h a n t h a t o f c o p p e r . Leucocratic  s y e n i t e , r e l a t i v e l y low i n t h e s e e l e m e n t s ,  appears as a w e l l d e f i n e d c e n t e r t o t h e b a t h o l i t h w h i l e h y b r i d phases h i g h i n i r o n and manganese, form a c o n t a c t zone w i t h t h e c o u n t r y r o c k s . c o i n c i d e w i t h those of copper.  These zones do n o t u s u a l l y The i r o n maxima i n h o r n -  b l e n d e s y e n i t e i s more d i s t a n t from the c o r e t h a n i s t h a t o f copper. i r o n enhancement  South o f C r a t e r Lake however, copper are found i n t h e same b e d r o c k  exposures.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o t a s s i u m i n F i g . 12A not r e f l e c t the presence of l e u c o c r a t i c  and  does  syenite.  In-  s t e a d , samples from the n o r t h e r n two t h i r d s o f t h e p r o p e r t y g e n e r a l l y have p o t a s s i u m c o n c e n t r a t i o n s w h i c h arcs l i g h t l y above t h e average o f 4$ w h i l e o v e r the r e mainder, bedrock i s s l i g h t l y d e f i c i e n t i n t h i s  clement.  The most d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s a r c summarized: 1.  Leucocratic  s y e n i t e forms a c e n t r a l c o r e t o a  zoned b a t h o l i t h and i s r e l a t i v e l y d e f i c i e n t i n c o p p e r , z i n c , i r o n and manganese.  -64-  2,  Both hornblondo are i n t e r n a l l y  3.  s y e n i t e and  leucocratic  syenite  zoned,  N o r t h e r n exposures o f h o r n b l e n d e  s y e n i t e have  h i g h e r copper, z i n c , i r o n and p o t a s s i u m  concen-  t r a t i o n s than those of the south, 4,  Leucocratic  s y e n i t e i s not d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r  i n potassium content than hornblende  syenite  found to the n o r t h , 5.  H y b r i d r o c k s are r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n i r o n  and  manganese and l o w i n p o t a s s i u m . When o n l y h o r n b l e n d e  s y e n i t e rock analyses are  c o n s i d e r e d , t h e r e i s a f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n towards c e n t e r o f each o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d copper, i r o n and manganese a n o m a l i e s seen i n F i g , 9A ( F i g , 9B - 11B),  the zinc,  HA  S o u t h e r n exposures a l o n g t h e R a y f i e l d  R i v e r have s l i g h t l y h i g h e r i r o n and l o w e r manganese conc e n t r a t i o n s than outcrops along the n o r t h e r n h a l f of the river, 12B),  Two The  zones become p r o m i n e n t  f o r potassium ( F i g ,  f i r s t r u n s from m i l e 1 t o m i l e 2 1/2  along  t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r and c o n t i n u e s onto t h e p l a t e a u . Neglecting pegmatites,  the h i g h e s t potassium v a l u e s of  t h e i n t r u s i o n are found h e r e .  The  second, i n r e g i o n 4,  c o n s i s t s o f measurements below t h e mean v a l u e . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e r e s u l t s , f u r t h e r g r o u p i n g of the data i s p o s s i b l e .  F i e l d appearance,  degree of  f r a c t u r i n g and w e a t h e r i n g , e v i d e n c e f o r s u r f a c e c o n t a m i n a t i o n  ( m a l a c h i t e , i r o n and manganese o x i d e s , c a l c i u m  carbon-  a t e ) and n a t u r e o f e r o s i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s u g g e s t hornblende  s y e n i t e o u t c r o p s on t h e p l a t e a u and  that  along  the r i v e r v a l l e y s h o u l d bo c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y (see C h a p t e r 2, pages 27  31).  O u t c r o p r e s u l t s a l o n g the  r i v e r wore f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d , on t h e b a s i s o f c o p p e r j z i n c and p o t a s s i u m the  leucocratic  d i s t r i b u t i o n s , n o r t h and s o u t h o f  syenite.  Those t h r o e elements r o a c h  t h e i r h i g h e s t v a l u e s along the n o r t h e r n r i v e r ( t h r e s h o l d v a l u e s o f 14-00 ppm, ively).  120 ppm  and 7.5$  respect-  Lower t h r e s h o l d s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f samples  from b e d r o c k on t h e p l a t e a u ( 4-00 ppm, 5.4-$  valley  120 ppm,  and  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and a l o n g t h e s o u t h e r n r i v e r  valley  5.2$  XV).  ( 250 ppm,  110 ppm  and  respectively)(Table  Log p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s ( F i g , 13A and B)  indicate  t h a t t h e t r a c e element d a t a c o n s i s t s o f s e v e r a l p o p u l ations.  Not  a l l of the g r o u p i n g s  d e s c r i b e d above are  apparent, p r o b a b l y a r e s u l t of i n s u f f i c i e n t exposures t h e p l a t e a u and a l o n g the s o u t h e r n h a l f o f the River valley.  Rayfield  T a b l e XVI l i s t t h e mean, range and t h r e s -  h o l d v a l u e from each p o p u l a t i o n f o r copper, manganese and p o t a s s i u m Two  on  determined  zinc,  iron,  from F i g . 13A and  B.  i n f l e c t i o n p o i n t s are v i s i b l e on t h e l o g  p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t o f copper a n a l y s e s ( F i g . 13A).  One i n -  f l e c t i o n r e p r e s e n t s samples t a k e n a l o n g t h e n o r t h e r n h a l f o f the R a y f i e l d R i v e r v a l l e y , a c c o u n t i n g f o r 43$  of  a l l t h e samples and h a v i n g a mean v a l u e o f 360 ppm. The  o t h e r i s formed by t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e samples c o l -  l e c t e d on t h e p l a t e a u and s i d e s o f t h e s o u t h e r n h a l f o f the v a l l e y .  Note t h a t mean, range and t h r e s h o l d  values  o f T a b l e XVI c o r r e s p o n d c l o s e l y t o t h o s e i n T a b l e XV, however, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between t h e l a s t two a r e a s desc r i b e d above i s n o t p o s s i b l e  at present.  Log p r o b a b -  i l i t y p l o t s o f z i n c , i r o n and manganese ( P i g . 13B) and r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e XVI a l s o  show  two p o p u l a t i o n s .  A c o r r e s p o n d i n g p l o t f o r p o t a s s i u m ( F i g . 13A) i s u n i q u e because i t a p p a r e n t l y i s composed o f o n l y one p o p u l ation. A more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f l e u c o c r a t i c  syenite  d a t a o u t l i n e s a zone o f l o w c o p p e r v a l u e s r u n n i n g a l o n g the  axis of the u n i t .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , as t h i s  distrib-  u t i o n was b a s e d on a s m a l l number o f samples, z o n i n g p a t t e r n s may be a c c i d e n t a l . the  The g r a d a t i o n a l  nature of  c o n t a c t between h o r n b l e n d e and l e u c o c r a t i c  syen-  i t e e x t e n d s o v e r s e v e r a l hundred f e e t and i s v i s i b l e on F i g s . 9A - 12A.  Table XV Trace metal content (ppm) o f e x t r u s i v e and i n t r u s i v e bedrock, h y d r o f l u o r i c / p e r c h l o r i c a c i d attack  TERTIARY BASALT Cu  Threshold Mean Kange  Zn  Threshold Mean Range Threshold Mean Range  Ka  70  820 75  625  ALL OUTCROPS  1150 170  34 24-49  23-250  46-260  65-440  155  150  145  115 100-135  85 65-115  120 70  9.7 7.6  6.8-8.6  1500 Threshold 1200 Mean Range 1100-1350 Threshold Mean Range Number o f samples  NICOLA HYBRID VOLCANICS PHASES  1.7 0.9 0.7-1.2  31  6.7 5.0 4.4-5.8  110  75  55-100 6.5  3.4 2.5-4.7  55-95 3.5  1.8 1.3-2.5  HORNBLENDE SYEKJTE PLATEAU K. RIVER OUTCROPS OUTCROPS 420  1400  205  110 55-210  80-520  120  120  S. RIVER OUTCROPS 240 75  42-135 108 57 42-80  65 50-90  60-95  2.9 1.7 1.3-2.2  3.5  3.7  1.9 1.3-2.5  1.8 1.4-2.5  75  HORNBLENDE INTRUSIVE SYENITE LEUCOCRATIC FLOAT SYENITE PEGMATITE RCCKS 370 62  26-150 60  31  180 55 28-95  70 28  22-42  19-43  1.3 0.7 0.5-1.0  1.9 0.8 0.5-1.2  675  800  110 41-300 145 55  35-90  560 85 31-215 100  60  45-80  4.4 3.3 1.7 1.8 0.9-2.6 1.3-2.4  950-1500  1300 2100 1600 1550 750 1000 800 800 675-1400 550-1200 570-1000 580-1100  780 520-1200  310 210-460  3200 200 50-800  1350 700 320-1150 5IO-98O  4.4 1.7 1.0-2.7  6.1 7.0 3.2 4.0 2.3-4.4 3.0-5.3  5.2 4.0 3.5-4.5  5.8 4.3 3.7-5.0  8.7 6.0 5.0-7.2  6.2 6.8 3.7 4.0 3.1-5.2 2.9-4.8  1850  1200  5  11  104  5.^  - 4.0 3.4-4.7  36  7.5  4.0 3.5-5-5 54  1800  14  31  7  2200 610  154  213 .  -68-  T a b l c XVI Summary o f p o p u l a t i o n s d e t e c t e d on l o g p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s o f hornblende s y e n i t e bedrock  data  POPULATION A ELEMENT  °/o TOTAL MEAN POPULATION  Cu  43  Zn  40  72  Fe%  50  1„8  Mn  50  840  100  360  4.1  POPULATION B RANGE  180-  690  ANOMALOUS  % TOTAL POPULATION  MEAN  RANGE  140  47-  1340  57  83  60120  200  60  62  1.62.6-  4.1  50  1.7  l.l 2.0  50  690  440940  7501090 3.6-  4.7  1700 5.4  3790  ANOMALOUS  2 50 110 2.3  1050  T H E  9A  D A N S E Y - R A Y F I E L D  R I V E R  C O P P E R  P R O P E R T Y  DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER (PPM) WITHIN THE SYENITE INTRUSIVE TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND GEOLOGIC CONTACT  — » —  Contou  Interval  Creeks,  and  100  feet  Rivers  Swarrps H  -f  Lakes Local  Grid  sooo  Control  rtrr  Polnt«  GEOCHEhlCAL Li^GElMD • • •  9  LESS THAN 41 ppm 41 - 110ppm 110 - 300ppm 300 - 800 ppm MORE THAN 800 ppm  THE FIGURE 9B N  DANSEY - RAYFIELD DISTRIBUTION  TOPO GRAPHIC LEGEND - GEOLOGIC CONTACT Contour Inter vol 1 0 0 fetf —•  Creeks,  I  and  Rivers  Swomps  <^Z^> 1  Lake* Local  Grid  Conlrol  sooo Ftrr  Points  RIVER COPPER PROPERTY  OF COPPER (PPM) IN HORNBLENDE SYENITE GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND •  LESS THAN 170 ppm  • 170 - 440 ppm 0 440 - 1150 ppm MORE THAN 1150 ppm  THE  DANSEY - RAYFIELD RIVER COPPER  DISTRIBUTION TOPOGRAPHIC GEOLOGIC ~w»— <=  ^^>  L  i  -f  OF ZINC LEGEND  CONTACT  Contour Interval 1 0 0 feet Creeks, arxl Rivers Swamps Lakes Locol  Grid  5000  Control  FEET  Point*  (PPM)  WITHIN  PROPERTY THE SYENITE  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND A  LESS  THAN  22  ppm  • 22 - 35 ppm • 35 - 55 ppm • 55 - 9 0 PPm 0 9 0 - 145 PP" MORE THAN 1^5 ppm 1  INTRUSIVE  THE DANSEY-RAYFIELD RIVER COPPER PROPERTY FIGURE 10B DISTRIBUTION OF ZINC (PPM) IN HORNBLENDE SYENITE N AS  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND GEOLOGIC CONTACT - M O O —  Corrtour  Intervol  —  Creeks,  and  <  =  ^ ^  I  ...  -f  100  feet  Rivers  Swomps -J  Lot.es Local  Grid  Control  5000 FEET  Pointt  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND • • ^  LESS THAN 70 ppm 7 0 - 9 5 ppm 95 - 120 ppm I "MORE THAN 120ppm  THE  FIGURE 11A N  DANSEY - RAYFIELD  RIVER  COPPER  PROPERTY  DISTRTEDflOK OF IRON (%) WITHIN THE SYENITE INTRUSIVE  TOMOGRAPHIC LEGEND — REOIOGTC CONTACT » —  Contour  Interval  — —  Creeks,  and  100  feet  Rivers  Sworrps Lokes j —  Local  Grid  5000 I  Control  Points  FEET I  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND A LESS THAN 0.5# • • • •  0.5 - o.<# 0.9 - 1.7# 1.7 - 2.6$ 2,6 -  MORE THAN kAt S J  HOFFMAN  O^lulier  6. W O  THE  DANSEY-RAYFIELD  FIGURE 11B  N  - « ~ — ~< ^ ^ r I  ContM  Intervol  Creeks,  and  100  leet  Rivers  PROPERTY  Lakes Local  Grid  5000  Control  FEET  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND •  • •  Swarrps I  — j —  COPPER  DISTRIBUTION CF IRON {€) IN HORNBLENDE SYENITE  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND GEOLOGIC CONTACT  As  RIVER  Points  •  LESS THAN 1 . 3 $ 1.3 - 1 . 8 $ 1.8 2.5$ 2.5 - 3 . 5 $ MORE THAN 3 . 5 $ C .1  wnFFMAN  THE  DANSEY - RAYFIELD  RIVER  COPPER  PROPERTY  'FIGURE 12A DISTRIBUTION OF POTASSIUM (%) WITHIN' THE SYENITE'INTRUSIVE A  N  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND GEOLOGIC CONTACT  s  C=D — | —  Contour  Intervol  Creeks,  end  100  leet  Rivers  B •  Grid  5000  Control  FEU  LESS THAN 3,2 $  ^  Ukes Locol  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND  Points  O  4  O  >  5  1  2  1 ol  Zi _ -  5  6  >  2  $ 81  MORE THAN 6.8 $  THE  FIGURE 12B N  As  DANSEY - RAYFIELD  RIVER  COPPER  PROPERTY  DISTRIBUTION OF POTASSIUM (0) IN HORNBLENDE SYENITE  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND -GEOLOGIC CONTACT —  Contour  Intervol  —  Creeks,  awl  ;2> Z l  Swomps Lokes Local  Grid  5000  100  Feet  •  Rivers  Control  FEET  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND . LESS THAN 4.0$  Points  **.0 - " 5 . 3 $ 5-3 - 7.0*  -77-  loopoo 50pOO  lOpOO  5000  1000  500  100  0.01 0.1 FIGURE 13A  80  95  99  99.9 99.99  LOG PROBABILITY PLOTS OF COPPER AMD POTASSIUM DATA FROM HORNBLENDE SYENITE BEDROCK LEGEND A,B CONTRIBUTING POPULATIONS t EXPERIMENTAL DATA POINTS o CALCULATED DATA POINTS  -78loopoo  50pOO  lOpOO  5000  1000  500  100  -T  10.  t  0.01 0.1  FIGURE 13B  . .1...  80  95  99  99.9 99.99  LOG PROBABILITY PLOTS OF IRON, MANGANESE AND ZINC DATA FROM HORNBLENDE SYENITE BEDROCK LEGEND A,B CONTRIBUTING POPULATIONS EXPERIMENTAL DATA POINTS o CALCULATED DATA POINTS +  -79-  B„  Discussion ( )  A f f e c t i n g M e t a l Content  a  of  Bedrock. i  Introduction  0  The most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f the b e d r o c k  data i s  t h e t o p o g r a p h i c c o n t r o l o f the copper anomaly.  The  h i g h e s t copper v a l u e s are found i n c r a g o u t c r o p c h i p s on b o t h s i d e s o f the n o r t h e r n h a l f o f t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r valley.  Enhancements a r c f i r s t e n c o u n t e r e d  in  hornblende  s y e n i t e samples s o u t h o f C r a t e r Lake and c o n t i n u e t o t h e l c u c r o c r a t i c s y e n i t e c o n t a c t a t the Z bend.  Most  c e n t r a t i o n s g r e a t e r t h a n the t h r e s h o l d o f 1200 are o b s e r v e d  con-  ppm  copper  j u s t n o r t h of t h i s c o n t a c t , ii.  Primary  P i g s , 9A - 12A  zoning  show t h a t the b a t h o l i t h may  a p r i m a r y zoning r e l a t e d to the percentage minerals present.  The  have  of m a f i c  core of the b a t h o l i t h i s composed  m a i n l y o f o r t h o c l a s e and i t s a l t e r a t i o n p r o d u c t s .  Horn-  b l e n d e , p y r o x e n e and b i o t i t e , when p r e s e n t , a c c o u n t l e s s t h a n '+% o f t h e . t o t a l ( T a b l e 2 ) ,  Hornblende  for  syen-  i t e , however, i s more m a f i c r i c h , c o n t a i n i n g an average o f 3% o f t h e s e m i n e r a l s , as d e t e r m i n e d a n a l y s i s (Table 1 ) ,  by t h i n  section  H y b r i d r o c k s are h i g h e s t i n m a f i c  m i n e r a l s , f r e q u e n t l y e x c e e d i n g 15$ i n f i e l d (see C h a p t e r 2, p a g e s 21 - 2 2 ) ,  estimates  -30-  Th c c o r e o f the b a t h o l i t h i s r e l a t i v e l y d e p i c t e d i n i r o n and manganese.  These elements i n c r e a s e i n con-  t e n t d i s c o n t i n u o u s l y u n t i l a maximum i s r e a c h e d w i t h i n the h y b r i d phases.  I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t copper  and  o t h e r t r a c e elements more e a s i l y s u b s t i t u t e f o r f e r r o u s i r o n i n t h e l a t t i c e s o f h o r n b l e n d e o r pyroxene aluminium i n f e l d s p a r s ( M i t c h e l l , ' 1964),  than f o r  This feature  has been o b s e r v e d i n the more a c i d i c r o c k s o f t h e S k a c r g a a r d i n t r u s i o n where copper i s f o u n d i n h i g h e r q u a n t i t i e s i n pyroxene  than i n c o e x i s t i n g p l a g i o c l a s o  (page 180, Wager and Brown, 1 9 6 7 ) ,  A rough  correl-  a t i o n between t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f m a f i c m i n e r a l s and copper c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n t r u s t i v e r o c k samples t h e r e f o r e be e x p e c t e d .  may  Such v a r i a t i o n i s seen i n  p l o t s o f copper d a t a , however, a f a c t o r r e l a t e d t o t h e emplacement o f s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n c o m p l i c a t e s any such s i m p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  P o t a s s i u m r e f l e c t s , i n an  a n t i p a t h e t i c manner, t h e i r o n and manganese z o n a t i o n . S i n c e h o r n b l e n d e , pyroxene  and b i o t i t e c o n t a i n p r o p o r -  t i o n a t e l y l e s s p o t a s s i u m t h a n does o r t h o c l a s e , a d e c r e a s e i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e of t h e f o r m e r i n t h i s b a t h o l i t h r e s u l t s i n an i n c r e a s e o f t h e l a t t e r .  The l o w e s t p o t a s -  sium c o n t e n t s are found i n h y b r i d r o c k samples. u n c e r t a i n whether  zinc.data follows a similar  b u t i o n , as p r o b a b l e enhancements t h o u g h t t o bo  It is  distrirelated  t o m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o b s c u r e t h e n a t u r e o f any p r i m a r y zoning.  81-  iii. At p r e s e n t ,  Genesis of sulphide  two  emplacement  p o s s i b l e mechanisms f o r the  p l a c e m e n t of copper s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n a r c warded.  for-  I n the f i r s t model, h y d r o t h c r m a l s o l u t i o n s d e r -  i v e d as a d i f f e r e n t i a t e of the l a s t s t a g e s o f  crystal-  l i z a t i o n of a s y e n i t e magma have m i g r a t e d from the a l o n g f r a c t u r e s , t o an a l r e a d y intrusion.  near i t s c o n t a c t 1  s o l i d i f i e d p a r t of  core, the  I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t d e p o s i t i o n of c o p p e r ,  z i n c and p o t a s s i u m o c c u r r e d  in  em-  with  w i t h i n hornblende  leucocratic  a zoned d i s t r i b u t i o n .  The  syenite  sj cnite r e s u l t i n g r  p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n the  d e p o s i t i o n o f copper by the second model r e m a i n s e s s e n t i a l l y the same, however, the o r i g i n o f the m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s i s not known i n t h i s c a s e , at depth and  A source e x i s t s  t r a n s p o r t of d i s s o l v e d m e t a l s i n aqueous  s o l u t i o n o c c u r s a l o n g t h a t p a r t of the R a y f i e l d R i v e r f a u l t system c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h copper v a l u e s 9A),  (Fig.  V a r i a t i o n s on each of t h e s e models i s p o s s i b l e .  Several  f a c t o r s w h i c h may  moval of copper w i l l be  a f f e c t t h e d e p o s i t i o n or r e considered  i n an attempt t o  v e r i f y o r d i s p e l c i t h e r o r b o t h o f those t h e o r i e s . The  radiometric  age  of the i n t r u s i o n and  s i b l e subsequent a c t i v i t y has Campbell and T i p p e r  pos-  not been d e t e r m i n e d .  (1966) b e l i e v e t h a t the b a t h o l i t h  was  i n t r u d e d d u r i n g the  late  T r i a s s i c or e a r l y J u r a s s i c  and  e v i d e n c e o u t l i n e d i n c h a p t e r 5,  page 83 , shows t h a t  i t was exposed t o e r o s i o n b e f o r e T e r t i a r y b a s a l t s wore extruded. and  The ago o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , deduced from  field  t h i n s e c t i o n e x a m i n a t i o n ( c h a p t e r 2\ pages 12 - I S )  i s p o s t s o l i d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e magma,  Channelways i n t o  the h o s t r o c k were p r o v i d e d by f r a c t u r e s w h i c h formed on c o o l i n g o r f a u l t i n g o f t h e b a t h o l i t h . solutions pervasively  altered primary s i l i c a t e s of  p a r t s o f t h e h o r n b l e n d e and l e u c o c r a t i c to c l a y minerals.  Mineralizing  Additions  syenite  phases  o f c o p p e r , z i n c and p o t a s -  sium were accompanied by t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s u l p h i d e s , orthoclase the  and f e l d s p a r v e i n l e t s i n a zone s u r r o u n d i n g  leucocratic  syenite.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f changes i n grade o f copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n l a t e r a l l y and w i t h depth i s i m p o r t a n t when p o s s i b l e  expressions o f primary geochemical anomali  i n b e d r o c k a f f e c t e d b y h y d r o t h o r m a l s o l u t i o n s a r c considered. not  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f copper s u l p h i d e  constant over small  distances,  minerals i s  a consequence o f  the d i f f e r e n t h a b i t s i n w h i c h c h a l c o p y r i t c and b o r n i t e are f o u n d ( c h a p t e r 2, page 16 )» a l o u s zone d e s c r i b e d  previously  Suppose t h a t each anom( c h a p t e r 3, page 62 ) i s  divided i n t o c e l l s , thereby e l i m i n a t i n g l o c a l of v e i n s plateau  and f r a c t u r e s .  effects  When copper v a l u e s on t h e  a r e t h e n compared w i t h t h o s e o f t h e s e c t i o n  d i s e c t c d b y t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r , 4-00 f o c t l o w e r i n e l e v a t i o n , up t o t e n t i m e s l o w e r copper c o n t e n t s a r e f o u n d .  Those l o w e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s may  r e f l e c t an i n c r e a s i n g  grade o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n w i t h d e p t h ,  o r be the r e s u l t  of  more e x t e n s i v e l e a c h i n g from the p l a t e a u s u r f a c e . An e s t i m a t e of the r e l a t i v e age  of t h e  surface  o f the b a t h o l i t h on the p l a t e a u and v a l l e y s i d e s i s important minimal  i n a s s e s s i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l e a c h i n g .  amount o f r e m o v a l ,  A  t r a n s p o r t and d e p o s i t i o n o f  o v e r b u r d e n by g l a c i a l a c t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d by the  dis-  t r i b u t i o n o f c o a r s e f l o a t and ground magnetometer studies.  F o r example, T e r t i a r y b a s a l t f l o a t b l o c k s arc-  r a r e l y f o u n d o v e r l y i n g the s y e n i t e i n t r u s i o n e x c e p t t h e m a r g i n s o f the mesas.  Additionally,  at  enhancements  o f copper i n a n g u l a r h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e f l o a t  blocks  o c c u r s o v e r s i m i l a r l y anomalous zones i n b e d r o c k ( F i g . 20).  Magnetic h i g h s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of T e r t i a r y b a s a l t s  o f the a r e a , were n o t d e t e c t e d d u r i n g magnetometer s u r v e y s o f the p r o p e r t y .  I f s m a l l remnants o f f l o w s  or  h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f b a s a l t f l o a t e x i s t e d on t o p s y e n i t e and c o v e r e d by g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s on t h e  of  property,  t h e y s h o u l d have been found ( p e r s o n a l communication, McEnight, 1969).  When t h e s e  f a c t o r s are c o n s i d e r e d , i t  i s u n l i k e l y t h a t T e r t i a r y b a s a l t capped a  significantly  g r e a t e r a r e a b e f o r e the P l e i s t o c e n e t h a n a t p r e s e n t p a r t s o f t h e i n t r u s i o n have been exposed t o f o r up t o 60 m i l l i o n  and  weathering  years.  F i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s and a n a l y t i c a l d a t a  suggest  -84-  t h a t the p l a t e a u surface r e a c t s d i f f e r e n t l y to weatheri n g t h a n does the v a l l e y sides„  Crag outcrops  e r a l l y more e x t e n s i v e l y f r a c t u r e d , h i g h l y t y p i c a l l y s t a i n e d by m a l a c h i t e , ese  oxides  or calcium  are  friable,  h y d r o u s i r o n and  c a r b o n a t e and  gen-  mangan-  e a s i l y eroded.  Al-  though the i n t e n s i t y of w e a t h e r i n g i s g r e a t e r on  the  v a l l e y s i d e s , enhanced f o r c e s of e r o s i o n must be  con-  sidered before are r e a c h e d .  any  conclusions  t o the e x t e n t  of l e a c h i n g  I f w e a t h e r i n g on the v a l l e y s i d e s e x t e n d s  t o the same d e p t h on the p l a t e a u i n i t i a l l y ,  i t s thick-  n e s s must be l e s s because of t h e s l o p e of t h e surface. steep  ground  A d d i t i o n a l l y , as e r o s i o n i s v e r y a c t i v e  s l o p e s , r e m o v i n g weathered m a t e r i a l and  on  exposing  f r e s h s u r f a c e s , i t must, i n e f f e c t , cause unweathered r o c k t o appear n e a r e r occurs  the s u r f a c e .  Because  erosion  on a much r e d u c e d s c a l e o v e r the p l a t e a u ,  weather-  i n g and l e a c h i n g p r o c e s s e s are c o n s e q u e n t l y enhanced. Therefore,  even i f i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d  that  l a t e r a l and v e r t i c a l d e p o s i t i o n o f copper  uniform represents  the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , p l a t e a u b e d r o c k s h o u l d be leached  o f t h i s c l e m e n t compared w i t h c r a g The  outcrops.  c o n s t i t u t i o n of s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l s  b a t h o l i t h may  relatively  i n the  i n f l u e n c e the g e o c h e m i c a l d i s p e r s i o n  patterns observed,  P y r i t e , f o r example, o x i d i z e s t o  form s u l p h u r i c a c i d w h i c h t h e n a i d s i n the l e a c h i n g  of  copper m i n e r a l s .  rate  However, as p y r i t e i s a b s e n t , t h e  o f c h e m i c a l w e a t h e r i n g o f c h a l c o p y r i t e and b o r n i t e s h o u l d be l o w ( W h i t t e n , 19S7) »  Presumably, a cumulative  effect  o v e r 60 m i l l i o n y e a r s c o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus f a r , t h e d i s c u s s i o n h a s c e n t e r e d on p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h a r c c o n s i s t e n t w i t h b o t h mechanisms o f genesis.  The z o n a t i o n o f copper i s more e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d  by t h e f i r s t mechanism,,  Copper r e a c h e s i t s maximum  v a l u e w i t h i n a zone s u r r o u n d i n g t h e l e u c o c r a t i c  syen-  i t e d i s t i n c t from t h e i r o n maximum, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h i s u n i t i s important to the genesis, d e f i n e d as t h e copper t h e copper  A concentration r a t i o ,  content o f hornblende  content of  leucocratic  syenite to  syenite along  river  v a l l e y o u t c r o p s on t h e n o r t h e r n two t h i r d s o f t h e p r o p e r t y ( b o t h a r e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e same w e a t h e r i n g environment)  was c a l c u l a t e d t o be 3-3 from T a b l e XV,  T h i s genesis i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d by Braboc (1971) f o r t h e G u i c h o n Creok b a t h o l i t h .  However, t h e  anomaly i s n o t formed by a u n i f o r m s e t o f v a l u e s , b u t r a t h e r h a s a d i s t i n c t maximum j u s t n o r t h o f t h e Z bend. I t i s t h i s f e a t u r e which suggested  t h a t another g e n e t i c  h i s t o r y may b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t t h e emplacement o f mineralization.  The second mechanism more e a s i l y e x p l a i n s  the o c c u r r e n c e o f zones o f copper cident w i t h a potassium  enrichment  coin-  anomaly l y i n g a l o n g t h e s i d e s  o f the r i v e r vanes'- on t h e n o r t h e r n h a l f o f t h e p r o p erty. A d d i t i o n a l t h e o r i e s and v a r i a t i o n s on each o f  -86-  tho two p r e s e n t e d schemes i s p o s s i b l e .  For  example,  migration of mineralizing solutions p r e f e r e n t i a l l y i n one d i r e c t i o n would y i e l d t h e o b s e r v e d  distribution.  No r e s t r i c t i o n has boon found f o r t h e case where s o l u t i o n s have moved n o r t h w a r d from the ite.  leucocratic  syen-  A n o t h e r ' p o s s i b i l i t y , t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f copper by  mechanism one, f o l l o w e d b y a second metal n o r t h o f the  leucocratic  introduction'of  syenite along f a u l t s  t a p p i n g a deeper s o u r c e would a l s o g i v e t h e o b s e r v e d tribution.  dis-  No doubt o t h e r schemes can be e n v i s i g e d  w h i c n wovtid y i e l d t h e r e s u l t i n g g e o c h e m i c a l p a t t e r n s . A t p r e s e n t , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e two mechanisms on t h e ground w i t h o u t d r i l l  evidence.  Each  t h e o r y , however, h a s a p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e - t o the p a r t o f the p r o p e r t y c o v e r e d by t h e n e x t s t a g e o f e x ploration. (k)  Application to Exploration  Rock g e o c h e m i s t r y i n 1962 was s t i l l  in its in-  f a n c y as a g e o c h e m i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n t e c h n i q u e (Hawkes and Webb, 1962).  Features o f importance recognized a t  the t i m e i n c l u d e d a l t e r a t i o n a u r e o l e s , e p i g e n e t i c h a l o s and l e a k a g e d i s p e r s i o n s around ore d e p o s i t s . Use o f p r i m a r y h a l o s o f copper, z i n c , molybdenum and o t h e r elements i n e x p l o r a t i o n around v e i n tj/po ored e p o s i t s has been d e s c r i b e d b y N a i r i s (1971) i n Sweden and by O v c h i n n i k o v and G r i g o r y a n (1971) i n t h e USSR.  ~8  r  Sakrison  (1971) b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e s  logenic provinces,  d e l i n e a t i o n o f meta-  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between b a r r e n and  m i n e r a l i z e d e n v i r o n m e n t s and t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f d r i l l t a r g e t s on the b a s i s o f r o c k g e o c h e m i s t r y i n the Canadian shield, K a y s o r and P a r r y  (1971) s u g g e s t r e g i o n a l geo-  c h e m i c a l s a m p l i n g of b a t h o l i t h i c r o c k s  and subsequent  a n a l y s i s as a method f o r l o c a t i n g a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t w i t h i n a q u a r t z monzonite s t o c k i n A r i z o n a , basic hypothesis  T h e i r two  are that m e t a l l i c ore occurrences are  g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i n t r u s i v e magrnatic system and that a geochemical r e l a t i o n s h i p should  e x i s t between t h e  o c c u r r e n c e and i t s " r e l a t e d " i g n e o u s s t o c k .  These o p i n -  i o n s a r e t h e b a s i s o f b o t h mechanisms o f p o s s i b l e p h i d e emplacement a t t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r copper Sulphide  sul-  property.  m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s l o c a l i z e d w i t h i n hornblende  syenite near the contact Deposition  with leucocratic  syenite.  o f copper i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h a t o f i r o n i n  primary minerals  and i s , f o r t h e most p a r t ,  represent-  a t i v e o f a d i s t i n c t e p i s o d e i n the h i s t o r y o f t h e b a t h olith.  As "was t h e case i n t h e s t u d y by K a y s c r and  P a r r y , no o r o b o d i c s  have y e t boon u n c o v e r e d by a p p l i c -  a t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e s of t h i s Warren and D c l a v a u l t l i n e s they considered  theory.  (I960) e s t a b l i s h e d g u i d e  significant i n differentiating a  m i n e r a l i z e d from a b a r r e n i n t r u s i v e i n B r i t i s h  Columbia,  They found t h a t b a t h o l i t h s c o n t a i n i n g l o s s t h a n 10 ppm  -88  copper (aqua r e g i a a t t a c k ) were t y p i c a l l y v o i d o f s u l phide minerals. and 75 ppm.  Z i n c i n t h e s e r o c k s v a r i e d between 25  M i n e r a l i z e d i n t r u s i v o s , however, had  v a l u e s g r e a t e r t h a n 10 ppm o f 75 ppm.  copper  and z i n c c o n t e n t s i n e x c e s s  I m p o r t a n t m i n e r a l i z a t i o n may bo p r e s e n t  when t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r c met  and a copper t o z i n c  g r e a t e r t h a n u n i t y e x i s t s i n t h e r o c k sample.  There i s  no doubt t h e s y e n i t e i n t r u s t i o n on t h i s p r o p e r t y f i l l s both c o n d i t i o n s . matites, leucocratic  ratio  ful-  Copper t o z i n c r a t i o s i n pegs y e n i t e , h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e and  h y b r i d phases averages 2.1,  2.0,  2.4  and 1.5  respect-  ively. B r a b c c and White (1971) d e s c r i b e the z o n a t i o n o f copper and z i n c i n  r o c k s o f t h e G u i c h o n Creek b a t h -  o l i t h , an i n t r u s i o n o f g r e a t economic s i g n i f i c a n c e t o B r i t i s h Columbia.  The b a t h o l i t h shows a p r i m a r y z o n i n g ,  w i t h r o c k s o f the B e t h s a i d a phase f o r m i n g a c e n t r a l corer e l a t i v e l y low i n copper and z i n c .  Surrounding t h i s  phase i s t h e Bethlehem, r i c h e r i n t h e s e two m e t a l s .  Ore  d e p o s i t s , such as V a l l e y Copper, L o r n o x and Highmont o c c u r n e a r t h e c o n t a c t zone.  S u r r o u n d i n g the Bethlehem  i s the H i g h l a n d V a l l e y and H y b r i d phases whose samples c o n t a i n t h e h i g h e s t copper and z i n c c o n c e n t r a t i o n s .  Ore  b o d i e s o f Bethlehem Mines o c c u r a t the c o n t a c t o f the Bethlehem end Fly l a n d V a l l e y p h a s e s .  Comparison o f the  G u i c h o n Creek b a t h o l i t h and t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r c o p p e r p r o p e r t y r e v e a l s s i m i l a r i t i e s i n copper and z i n c z o n -  a t i o n and phase changes, copper i n B e t h s a i d a 3.5?  approximately the p r e s e n t  study  A concentration r a t i o  of  t o copper i n Bethlehem r o c k s i s a s i m i l a r f i g u r e t o the one  ( c h a p t e r 3?  page 85  found i n  )»  E a c h u n i t o f the R a y f i e l d R i v e r b a t h o l i t h cont a i n s a d i s t i n c t i v e t r a c e element c o n t e n t . core o f  The  centre,!  leucocratic syenite i s r e l a t i v e l y depleted i n  copper (mean 60 ppm)  compared w i t h h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e  (mean 170  difference i n concentration  ppm).  The  comes g r e a t e r when o n l y c r a g o u t c r o p s  of h o r n b l e n d e  s y e n i t e n o r t h of the Z bend a l o n g the r i v e r are (mean 200  ppm),  compared  p e r h a p s a b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r because o n l y  r o c k s i n the same type of w e a t h e r i n g sidered.  bo-  Although  e n v i r o n m e n t a r c con-  h y b r i d r o c k s , w i t h a meo.n of 110  ppm  copper are a p p a r e n t l y d e f i c i e n t when compared w i t h f i g u r e s g i v e n above f o r h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e , t h e y approximately  the same copper c o n t e n t  the  contain  as do o u t c r o p s  h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e found on the p l a t e a u (moan 110  of  ppm)„  A c t u a l z o n i n g , showing an i n c r e a s e i n t h i s m e t a l t o w a r d s the l i m i t s o f the i n t r u s i o n , i s more c l e a r l y o b s e r v e d i n F i g , 9A and i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e l a t i o n s f o u n d by  Braboc  and White (1971) f o r the Guichon Creek b a t h o l i t h .  Occur-  rence of coppor s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n economic q u a n t i t i e s i s most p r o b a b l e n e a r the c o n t a c t w i t h  w i t h i n hornblcnd o syenite  leucocratic syenite.  Jerome ( I 9 6 6 ) h a s  b r i e f l y warned of the p r o b l e m  i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between p r i m a r y  and  secondary d i s -  p c r s i o n o f coppor i n t h e p o r p h y r y Arizona.  The  copper d e p o s i t s o f  most f a v o r a b l e t a r g e t s f o r e x p l o r a t i o n  appear t o bo ones w h i c h have r e l a t i v e l y h i g h copper contents i n potassium  enriched phases.  The  northern  tv/o t h i r d s o f the R a y f i e l d R i v e r copper p r o p e r t y  thus  q u a l i f i e s as a f a v o r a b l e t a r g e t . Rock g e o c h e m i s t r y  o u t l i n e s those p a r t s of the  b a t h o l i t h e n r i c h e d i n copper as has been i n f e r r e d v i s u a l e s t i m a t i o n o f the p e r c e n t outcrop exposures. found,  one  another  by  sulphides present i n  Three coppor a n o m a l i e s have boon  along the r i v e r v a l l e y south of C r a t e r Lake,  j u s t n o r t h o f the Z bond a l o n g the r i v e r and  t h i r d on the p l a t e a u i n r e g i o n 4. the l a r g e s t and has  The  bend anomaly i s  s e v e r a l a n a l y s e s whose v a l u e i s  g r e a t e r t h a n t h e t h r e s h o l d o f 1150  ppm  w i s e , c o n c e n t r a t i o n s range between 165 The  the  copper.  Other-  and 1150  ppm  ppm.  n o r t h e r n m o s t anomaly o c c u r s i n b e d r o c k a l o n g  the v a l l e y s i d e s and i t s p o s s i b l e e x t e n s i o n s e a s t  and  west a r c c o v e r e d by l a v a f l o w s o f t e r t i a r y b a s a l t . h i g h e s t v a l u e e n c o u n t e r e d i s o n l y 825 ppm most a n a l y s e s range between 165  ppm  copper w h i l e  and 440 ppm.  bend anomaly i s o f a s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r , but does somewhat onto t h e p l a t e a u . approach 3200 ppm greater.  The  G r e a t e s t copper  The extend  contents  and the range o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i s  A g a i n , t h i s anomaly o c c u r s i n c r a g  outcrops  and i s l e s s a p p a r e n t f u r t h e r away from the r i v e r .  The  91-  t h i r d zone i s f o u n d o n l y on tho p l a t e a u and hence i s i n a d i f f e r e n t g e o c h e m i c a l environment two.  Maximum c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f copper i s s l i g h t l y i n  e x c e s s o f 600 ppm t u t e t h o anomaly. ing  t h a n tho p r e v i o u s  and o n l y two sample a n a l y s e s c o n s t i As o u t c r o p s i n the v i c i n i t y are l a c k -  and t h o w e a t h e r i n g , l e a c h i n g and o r o s i o n a l e n v i r o n -  ment i s d i f f e r e n t h e r e t h a n f o r t h o f i r s t two  anomalies,  f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t o r y work i s s u g g e s t e d f o r t h i s  zone.  L a t e r a l e x t e n s i o n s u n d e r o v e r b u r d e n o f any o f t h e s e a n o m a l i e s o r e s t i m a t i o n s o f t h e i r v o r t i c a l e x t e n t and c h a r a c t e r can o n l y be a s c e r t a i n e d w i t h d r i l l  survey  evidence. Without d r i l l  o r o t h e r e v i d e n c e , i t must be  assumed t h a t zones o f copper enhancements i n b e d r o c k  will  u l t i m a t e l y prove the source of t h i s metal i n o t h e r s u r veys.  Thus, a n o m a l i e s i n s u r v e y s o f s e c o n d a r y  disper-  s i o n ( s u c h as stream and l a k e w a t e r and s e d i m e n t ,  float,  s o i l s and v e g e t a t i o n ) must e v e n t u a l l y bo r e l a t e d b a c k to  zones o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n b e d r o c k as t h e y a r o p r e s -  e n t l y understood.  I f t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e , then a source  i n b e d r o c k h i d d e n from s u r f a c e i n s p e c t i o n must p r o v i d e t h e copper and w i l l p r o b a b l y o n l y be d e t e c t e d by programs.  drill  Ill,  SECONDARY DISPERSION 1o  Stream, S p r i n g and Lake Wator A,  T r a c e and M a j o r Element D i s t r i b u t i o n (i)  Introduction  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f streams o r l a k e s on t h e p l a t e a u i s not uniform.  Streams and l a k e s a r c  i n an i n t e g r a t e d system i n r e g i o n s 1 and 2 , 3 and 4-, however, i f present, water.  combined  In  leices are more numerous and  are s m a l l and i n t e r m i t t e n t l y f i l l e d  regions  creeks, with  The mean, range and t h r e s h o l d o f t r a c e and major  c o n s t i t u e n t s o f stream and l a k e w a t e r i s r e p o r t e d i n Table X V I I I ,  F i g , 14 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o p p e r ,  zinc, calcium,  sodium o r p o t a s s i u m d a t a f o r l a k e w a t e r .  T a b l e X V I I summarizes  t r a c e and major element  i n streams and l a k e s w i t h i n each p h y s i o g r a p h i c previously  contents region  described, (ii)  Stream w a t e r  Anomalous stream w a t e r samples, c o n t a i n i n g up t o 39 ppb  copper and 90 ppb z i n c (compared w i t h r e g i o n a l  mean v a l u e s  o f 4- ppb and 7 ppb r e s p e c t i v e l y ) were  l e c t e d from t r i b u t a r i e s o f the R a y f i e l d R i v e r ,  col-  These  samples were t a k e n n e a r t h o s y e n i t e - T e r t i a r y b a s a l t con t a c t ( F i g , 3) where streams a r c s l i g h t l y l e s s a l k a l i n e ,  -93--  by up t o Oo?  p H - u n i t s from t h e r e g i o n a l average o f  and f l o w t h r o u g h swampy a r e a s on t h e p l a t e a u ,  7°S,  A decrease  i n c o p p e r , z i n c , ( F i g , 14) i r o n and manganese c o n t e n t s i s a p p a r e n t downstream from t h e c o n t a c t and towards t h e Rayfield River,  R a y f i e l d and B o n a p a r t e R i v e r w a t e r  u s u a l l y c o n t a i n s l e s s t h a n 4 ppb  copper o r z i n c ( T a b l e  XIX) , A n a l y s i s f o r c a l c i u m , magnesium, sodium, p o t a s sium and b i c a r b o n a t e ( T a b l e X V I I I ) shows t h a t w a t e r from t r i b u t a r y streams i s more c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e s e cons t i t u e n t s t h a n a r c e i t h e r o f t h e two r i v e r s . R a y f i e l d and B o n a p a r t e R i v e r s have a l k a l i ,  Both the  alkaline  e a r t h and b i c a r b o n a t e c o n t e n t s u n i q u e w i t h i n the r e g i o n s t u d i e d and, i n e f f e c t , f i n g e r p r i n t each r i v e r ( T a b l e XXI) , Six w a t e r was  l o c a t i o n s ( F i g , 7)  were chosen whore stream  c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e summer, d u r i n g w h i c h  t i m e no p r e c i p i t a t i o n f e l l .  These t i m e l a p s e  studies,  r e p o r t e d i n Table XXIV, r e v e a l e d i n c r e a s e s o f up t o 30$ in alkali, station 2, tration  a l k a l i n e e a r t h and b i c a r b o n a t e c o n t e n t a t T r a c e element, c h l o r i d e and s u l p h a t e concen-  and pH, however, remained e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s t a n t  w i t h i n a n a l y t i c a l p r e c i s i o n (Table X I I I ) at t h i s  station.  C o n s i s t e n t i n c r e a s e s w i t h t i m e were o b s e r v e d a t t h e o t h e r s t a t i o n s , b u t i n c r e m e n t s were w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s a l l o w e d by t h e a n a l y t i c a l p r e c i s i o n .  iii. Springs  Spring  water  a r c n o t numerous on t h e p r o p e r t y .  They  are common, however, a l o n g tho R a y f i e l d R i v e r around t h e northern  h a l f o f t h e Z bend and one h a l f m i l e n o r t h  the B o n a p a r t e R i v e r j u n c t i o n .  of  Copper and z i n c concen-  t r a t i o n s o f s p r i n g s a t t h e Z bond range from 8 t o o v e r 800 ppb and from 4 t o 150 ppb r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I n response  t o the a d d i t i o n o f s p r i n g w a t e r , copper c o n t e n t R a y f i e l d R i v e r i n c r e a s e s f o r 1/2 m i l e a l o n g t h e h a l f o f t h o Z bend from 1 t o 17 ppb 42 ppb  of the northern  and z i n c from 4 t o  ( T a b l e s XIX and X X ) . Copper v a l u e s  i n w a t e r , t o 17 ppb, are a l s o  s e r v e d i n t h e second r e g i o n o f emerging s p r i n g s ,  one  h a l f m i l e n o r t h o f tho B o n a p a r t e R i v e r on t h e west o f the R a y f i e l d R i v e r . trend  Zinc contents  , i n c r e a s i n g t o 43 ppb  (Table  side  show a p a r a l l e l  XX).  however, i s seen on tho c o n c e n t r a t i o n  ob-  No  effect,  of e i t h e r of these  two m e t a l s i n w a t e r o f tho R a y f i e l d R i v e r . iv.  Lake  water  Tho d i s t r i b u t i o n o f copper and z i n c i n l a k e w a t e r o u t l i n e s an a r e a o f i n t e r e s t w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n a l s u r v e y u n d e r l a i n by r o c k s o f the s y e n i t e  intrusion.  Copper and z i n c a n o m a l i e s ( F i g . 15) o v e r l y m i n e r a l i z e d zones i n b e d r o c k n e a r t h e Z bend. ppb  copper and 170 ppb  Hero, v a l u e s  ( t o 43  z i n c ) u s u a l l y exceed t h e average  o f 6 ppb  copper and 27 ppb  r e g i o n a l survey  z i n c as d e t e r m i n e d from  data (Table X V I I I ) , although  sporadic  v a l u e s above b a c k g r o u n d are sometimes o b s e r v e d e l s e w h e r e . O t h e r f e a t u r e s n o t e d i n c l u d e zones of d e f i c i e n c y i n z i n c and i r o n c o n t e n t s  relative  i n region  Sodium, c a l c i u m , p o t a s s i u m and b i c a r b o n a t e  4.  on tho  hand, are r e l a t i v e l y e n r i c h e d i n r e g i o n s 3 and 4 compared w i t h r e g i o n s 1 and 2 ( F i g . 16)„  other as  Manganese con-  t e n t s i n l a k e w a t e r appear t o v a r y i n a random f a s h i o n o v e r the  property. v.  Comparison o f t r a c e and major clement c o n t e n t of stream and l a k e water  Copper, i r o n and manganese aro p r e s e n t i n t i a l l y the same c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n l a k e and The  essen-  stream w a t e r .  e x c e p t i o n a l clement i s z i n c , w h i c h i s found i n f o u r  t i m e s h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n l a k e w a t e r samples. t r e n d i s s i m i l a r f o r the major c o n s t i t u e n t s , whore  Tho en-  hanced v a l u e s aro o b s e r v e d i n l a k e w a t e r samples comp a r e d w i t h stream w a t e r samples c o l l e c t e d from the same region.  F o r example, p o t a s s i u m , sodium and  bicarbonate  each show a t h r e e t o f o u r f o l d c o n c e n t r a t i o n w h i l e c a l c i u m and respectively.  c h l o r i d e show a two  Magnesiums and  cantly different  sulphate  fold  (Table X I I I ) .  enrichment  are n o t  ( T a b i c X V I I I ) a f t e r the  p r e c i s i o n i s considered  increase  signifi-  analytical  Tho pH o f l a k e  w a t e r i s more a l k a l i n e t h e n t h a t of stream w a t e r .  Table XVII  R e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a j o r and m i n o r e l e m e n t s i n stream and l a k e w a t e r WATER TYPE  Cu  Zn  Pc  Mn  K  Mg  Ca  Na  1  Stream  M+  H+  M+  M+  M+  M+-M-  H+  M+  1  Lake  M+  E  E  E  M+  E  M-  2  Stream  M+  M+  M-i-  H+  M-i-  M+  MH-  2  Lake  s+  ND  E  'E  3  Stream  M+  H+  M+  3  Lake  M+  M+  4-  Stream  S+  4-  Lake  5  Rayfield R  6  REGION  M + , M-  M-i—M-  E  M+  E  E  M+  H+  M-  M+  M+  E  E  M+  M+-M-  M+  M+  ND  E  M+  M+  M+  M+  H-i-  s+  M--  H-  E  H+  E  ND  ND  H-  M-  M+  M--  M+  M-  B o n a p a r t e R ND  ND  H-  M-  H~  M-  ur  H-  H+  LEGEND S+  slightly positive  (M)~(M+S)  M+  moderately p o s i t i v e (M+S)-(M+2S)  (M+2S)  S- s l i g h t l y n e g a t i v e (M)-(M-S) M- mod, n e g a t i v e , (M-S)-(M-2S)  H+  highly positive  ND  not detected  Erratic  M  moan  S  II- h i g h l y n e g a t i v e  (M-2S)  results  standard  deviation  -97-  Table X V I I I Comparison of t r a c e and major element contents (ppm) and pH i n stream and lake water STREAM WATER KSTAL CONTENT PPM  0.056  Cu  Threshold Mean Range  0.001-0.015  Zn  Threshold Kean Range  0.069 0.007 0.002-0.022  Fe  Threshold Mean Range  7.9 0.5 0.12-2.0 1.2 0.04 0.007-0.21 5.8 2.0 1.2-3.4  Mn  Threshold Mean Range  0.004  NUMBER OF SAMPLES  69 69 69 69  K  Threshold Kean Range  Ca  Threshold Mean Range  23  11-48  73  Mg  Threshold Kean Range  80 24 13-44  73  Threshold Mean Range  104  Na  8.1-44.  Threshold Kean Range  1.6 0.43 0.22-0.84  CI  Threshold Kean Range HCO-,  Threshold Kean Range  PH  Threshold Mean Range*  73  100  19  11  3.7 2.1-6.5  73 73 73  LAKE WATER METAL CONTENT PPM  0.051 0.006  O.C02-0.018  0.250 0.027 0.009*0.080 6.8 0.6  0.18-2.0 1.1  0.03  0.004-0.17 46 6.6 2.4-17.  230 50 23-110 100 19 8.2-43. 1150 71  17-290 11  0.9 0.23-3.1 12 3.6 1.9-6.7  NUMBER OF ' SAMPLES 28  28  28  28  31 31 31 31 31 28  440  220 115-330 -8.7 7.8 7.1-9.**  71  V-  9.5 8.1  7.1-9.7  Range* i s the a c t u a l range of measurements made i n t h e f i e l d , f o r pH o n l y  29  -•98Tablo XIX Copper and z i n c c o n t e n t (ppb) i n R a y f i e l d R i v e r w a t e r from C r a t e r Lake t o t h e B o n a p a r t e R i v e r  Junction  1  SAMPLE NUMBER  CU-PPB !  ZN-PPB  Pfi  8.09  i—  1  1504  1  1517  1  4 4  1583  2  6  8.08  1588  LL  8  8.23  1595  4  4  ND  1599  3  4  ND  1607  17  42  8,02  1211  4  5  7.78  1403  c.  3  7.50  1400  4  0  7.64  1398  'j  3  7.98  1392  3  4  7.60  1390  1  1386  1  3  7.88  1373  c.  2  8.22  1360  2  3  7.95  2  3  8.01  -7  1364  j <  ND  Not d e t e r m i n e d  7.98  7.70  T a b l e XX Copper and z i n c c o n t e n t (ppb) and pH o f s p r i n g  SAMPLE NUMBER  CU-PPB  ZN-PPB  water  pH  1380  12  2  7.92  1382  3  3  7.6?  1383  17  43  7.70  1386  1  3  7 088  1603  9  4  ND  1611  8  4  7.38  1674  810  148  7-77  1722  38  33  7o60  ND  Not d e t e r m i n e d  100-  T a b l o XXI  Manor clement c o n t e n t (ppm) and pH o f R a y f i e l d and Bonaparte R i v e r  water  J RIVER Mean Rayfield 19  Mg-PPM  Ca-PPM  2,2  23  24  Range* 1,6-2,5  Na-PPM 18  21-30  15-21  13  5.0  3.7  12-14  4,5-5.7  3.3-4,2  20-38  S04 Cl-PPM PPM  0.25  4.2  pH  7.9 7,4-8,1  samples Mean  Bona.parte 10  K-PPM  ' 0,91  Range* 0,80-1,0  0.05  2,5  samples  Range* i s t h e a c t u a l range o f measurements o b s e r v e d .  7.7 7.3-8,1  THE  DANSEY-RAYFIELD  'FIGURE 14A N  AS  -  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND GEOLOGIC CONTACT  -  Contour  Intervol  Creeks,  and  •  100  leet  Rivers  Lakes Grid  Control  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND • 6  Swomps  Locol  COPPER PROPERTY  DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER (PPB) IN STREAM WATER  >  RIVER  Points  Q  LESS THAN 4 PPb ^ - 15 ppb 16 - 56 ppb IMCRE THAN 5^ PPb  THE DANSEY - RAYFIELD RIVER COPPER PROPERTY FIGURE 14B DISTRIBUTION OF ZINC (PPB) IN STREAM WATER N  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND GEOLOGIC CONTACT ~ w » —  Contour  Interval  —•  Creeks,  and  <^—^2  Swamps I  1  L_  leet  Lakes  Local  — J —  100  Rivers  Grid  5000  Control TOT  Points  1  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND • LESS THAN 7-ppb " 7 - 2 2 ppb 23 - 69 ppb MORE THAN 69 ppb  THE  DANSEY-RAYFIELD FIGURE U C  RIVER  COPPER  PROPERTY  pH CF STREAM WATER  N  As  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND CreeRS, i  ;  oM  •  •  Rrvers  Lckw LOCO!  Grid  5CC0  Control  TVt  Po*rr»  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND. LESS THAN 7 A  O  7.4-7.3  7.9-8.3 GREATER THAN 8 . 3  -104-  RAYFIELD  RIVER - B O N A P A R T E  RIVER  REGIONAL  RECONNAISSANCE  'FIGURE 15A  N  DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER (PPB) IN LAKE WATER  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND GEOLOGIC CONTACT  A  L5223 ROADS  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND • LESS THAN 6 ppb • 6 - 17 ppb  Contour Intervol 100 Feet Creeks and Rivers Swamps Lakes Local Property Lots Loose Loose  or Stabilized Surfaco, Dry  4  Surfaces, Weather  $  18 - 51ppb  IMORE THAN 51 ppb All  Weatlier  MILES SJ  HOFFMAN  October 6, 1970  RAYFIELD  RIVER - B O N A P A R T E  RIVER  REGIONAL  RECONNAISSANCE  FIGURE 15B  N  DISTRIBUTION OF ZINC (PPB) IN LAKE WATER  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND  A  ci§ouf9r^erv-ai J  Creeks Swamps Lakes L5223 ROADS  Locol  Loose Loose  and  Properly  9cfi^ feeF^  Rivers  Lots  or Stabilized Surfaces, Surface, Dry Weather 4  All  Weather  • •  LESS THAN 9 ppb 9 - 2 7 ppb  •  28 - 80 ppb 80 - 250 ppb  MILES S J  HOFFMAN  October 8, 1970  -106-  RAYFIELD  FIGURE 16A  N  RIVER - BONAPARTE RIVER RECONNAISSANCE  DISTRIBUTION OF CALCIUM (PPM) IN LAKE WATER  TOPOGRAPHIC  A  Creeks  L5223 ROADS  cT  Rivers  @ Lots  or Stabilized Surface, Dry 4  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND • LESS THAN 50 ppm • 50 - 110 ppm  LEGEND  ,sra  and  Swamps Lokes Local Property Loose Loose  REGIONAL  110 - 230ppm MORE THAN 230 ppm  Surfoees, Weather  All  Weatiier  MILES SJ  HOFFMAN  October 8, 1970  -107  RAYFIELD FIGURE 16B  RIVER - BONAPARTE RIVER RECONNAISSANCE  REGIONAL  DISTRIBUTION OF SODIUM (PPM) IN LAKE WATER  N TOPOGRAPHIC Zy ZD L5223  Creeks Swamps Lakes Local  and  LEGEND  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND •  Rivers  Property  • A  Lots  ROADS Loose Loose  or Stabilized Surfaco, Dry 4  Surfaces, Weather  All  Weather  LESS THAN 7 0  p p m  70 - 2 9 0 290 - l l 5 0 p p m p p m  MORE THAN 1150ppm  MILES SJ  HOFFMAN  October 8, 1970  -108-  RAYFIELD  FIGURE 16C  RIVER - BONAPARTE RIVER RECONNAISSANCE DISTRIBUTION OF POTASSIUM (PPM)  N  L5223  Contour Interval 100 Feet Creeks and Rivers Swamps Lakes Local Property Lots Loose Loose  or Stabilized Surfaco, Dry  4  Surfaces, Weather  IN LAKE WATER  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND • LESS THAN 7 ppm 7 - 1 8 ppm 18 - 47 ppm  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND GEOLOGIC CONTACT  ROADS  REGIONAL  MORE THAN 47 ppm All  Weatiier  MILES SJ  HOFFMAN  October 8, I97C  -109-  B„  Discussion (a)  F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g T r a c e Element Distribution 4  i„  Theoretical  considerations  The t o t a l c o n t e n t o f copper d i s s o l v e d i n aqueous s o l u t i o n may be e x p r e s s e d by t h e sum o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s from each o f i t s s o l u b l e s p e c i e s .  I nthe present  treat-  ment, o n l y C u , CuOH , CuCUj, CuCCO^)^'", and CuCCO^XQE^T + +  +  have been c o n s i d e r e d .  Other p o s s i b l e  inorganic  complexes w i t h s u l p h a t e o r c h l o r i d e and a b r o a d range o f o r g a n o m o t a l l i c complexes have been i g n o r e d , as no i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e i r nature o r concentration i s a v a i l a b l e . E q u i l i b r i u m c o n s t a n t s have been t a k e n from S i l l e n and Martell  (1957).  Cu  (CU  t Q t  =  + +  )  +  (CUOI-I )H-(CUC0 ) + ( C U ( C 0 3 ) 2 " 2 ) + C U ( C 0 3 ) +  3  (0H) "  2  2  "f" oooo C~^*) = ( C u * ) + ( C u ) 1Q~ -5 ,.(Cu ) 1 0 +  + +  ++  7  6 o 7 7  (C0  2 3  ) +  (H ) +  (0u ) 1 0 ° ( 0 0 - ) + +  1 0  0 1  2  3  = (Cu ) + +  2  + (Cu ) + +  10" (C0. " ) 13  2  3  l+iolZl^ + io (co:)-f io 6o77  2  101,01  (C0~ ) 2  (H ) +  io~(co) 13  2  3  (H ) +  2  = ( C u ) ( f a c t o r ) ; whore ( ) d e n o t e s t h e a c t i v i t y o f + +  a p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s and ( f a c t o r ) i s a t e r m w h i c h i s dependent on t h e pH and c a r b o n a t e i o n a c t i v i t y .  2  +  •1 l o -  i n a l k a l i n e s o l u t i o n s , s p e c i e s t o w a r d s t h e end o f e q u a t i o n 1 become i m p o r t a n t , whereas i n a c i d i c  sol-  u t i o n s , copper e s s e n t i a l l y e x i s t s as t h e c u p r i c i o n ( S i l m a n , 1958),  Copper i s l e a s t s o l u b l e i n n e u t r a l o r  s l i g h t l y a l k a l i n e c o n d i t i o n s ( K r a u s k o p f , 1967)»  Solids,  such as m a l a c h i t e , a z u r i t e , b r o c h a n t i t e and o t h e r s a r e n o t d i r e c t l y c o n s i d e r e d i n e q u a t i o n 1,  They do, however,  c o n s t r a i n t h e maximum a l l o w a b l e c u p r i c i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n , F o r example, when m a l a c h i t e i s -present i n e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h water, a s o l u b i l i t y product r e l a t i o n s h i p K = ^ 2— — (Cu^^gCCO^ ) (OH ) 2 e x i s t s . Thus, i f t h e c a r b o n a t e c o n t e n t and pH remain  c o n s t a n t , an i n c r e a s e i n t h e  cupric i o n concentration w i l l r e s u l t i n the p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f m a l a c h i t e i f e q u i l i b r i u m i s t o bo m a i n t a i n e d . I t i s t h i s type o f phenomena w h i c h l i m i t s t h e t o t a l  dis-  s o l v e d copper c o n t e n t i n t h e environment o f t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r copper p r o p e r t y i n p a r t i c u l a r and t h i s p a r t o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n g e n e r a l , ii.  No  I n f l u e n c e o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r , pH and e v a p o r a t i o n on t r a c e element contents  stream w a t e r sample c o n t a i n e d a g r e a t e r  copper c o n c e n t r a t i o n t h a n t h e c a l c u l a t e d t h r e s h o l d o f 56 ppb.  H i g h e s t coppor (39 ppb)  and z i n c (90 ppb)  values  were i n samples c o l l e c t e d n e a r t h e s y e n i t e - T e r t i a r y basalt contact.  Here, streams a r c swampy and w a t e r h a s  a pH as l o w as 7 » 1 .  S i n c e t r i b u t a r y stream w a t e r becomes  more a l k a l i n e i n f l o w i n g towards t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r (Fig.  3AC), t h e o b s e r v e d d e c r e a s e i n c o p p e r v a l u e s ( F i g .  14-A) may be e x p l a i n e d by t h e d e c r e a s e d s o l u b i l i t y u n d e r increasing alkaline conditions.  One pH u n i t  difference  seen between t r i b u t a r y and R a y f i e l d R i v e r w a t e r may, as d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n "A", r e s u l t i n up t o a t e n f o l d d e c r e a s e i n t h e maximum a l l o w a b l e t o t a l copper c o n t e n t . The n a t u r e o f t h e d i s s o l v e d o r g a n i c m a t t e r o r i t s c o n t e n t i s n o t known, b u t p r e s u m a b l y , w i l l d e c r e a s e as swampy c o n d i t i o n s a r e r e p l a c e d by sandy stream beds.  Complex-  a t i o n and hence c o n t r i b u t i o n s from organo-coppor  com-  plexes t o the t o t a l d i s s o l v e d content, i n general, v a r i e s s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y w i t h pH on t h i s p r o p e r t y . Hydromorphic d i s p e r s i o n o f z i n c i s l e s s enced by pH t h e n copper ( M e h r t o n s , 1 9 6 6 ) ,  influ-  The e f f e c t o f  d i s s o l v e d o r g a n i c m a t t e r , however, may be o f g r e a t e r importance.  Z i n c a n a l y s e s do n o t seem t o form a d i s -  p e r s i o n t r a i n away from known m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r shows t h e same d i s t r i b u t i o n ( F i g . 14B) as t h a t o f copper ( F i g .  14-A).  H i g h z i n c v a l u e s , t h e n , appear more  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e swampy n a t u r e o f t h e c r e e k s t h a n by primary  sulphides. S p r i n g w a t e r c o n t a i n s h i g h e r copper and z i n c  c o n t e n t s r e l a t i v e t o stream and l a k e w a t e r ( T a b l e s X V I I I and X X ) .  S p r i n g s are not found i n s u f f i c i e n t  numbers t o bo o f more t h a n p a s s i n g i n t e r e s t .  They do,  however, i n f e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s t r e a m  -412-  sediment and s o i l a n o m a l i e s .  Spring water i s s l i g h t l y -  l e s s a l k a l i n e by 0.5 pH u n i t s t h a n R a y f i e l d R i v e r w a t e r . When s p r i n g w a t e r merges w i t h t h a t o f t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r , i t s pH i s i n c r e a s e d and p r e c i p i t a t i o n may o c c u r to s a t i s i f y equation  1.  Extent  o f copper p r e c i p i t a t i o n  i s dependent on t h o r e l a t i v e volume o f w a t e r from t h e s p r i n g and t h o r i v e r .  Springs  a r e common on t h e e a s t bank  o f t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r a t t h e Z bend.  They a r e r e s t r i c t e d  t o n a r r o w c h a n n e l s and i n f l u e n c e t h e t r a c e m e t a l of only a s m a l l area.  content  Seeps, on t h e o t h e r hand, emerge  o v e r a much w i d e r a r e a on t h o o t h e r bank o f t h e Z bend. Evaporation  o f water, concomitant w i t h d e p o s i t i o n o f  t h e i r dissolved load r e s u l t s i n the formation anomalies.  Such i s t h e case i n l e u c o c r a t i c  o f copper syenite  where h i g h l y f r a c t u r e d and f r i a b l e r o c k i s f a v o r a b l e f o r w a t e r p e r c o l a t i o n from l a k e s on t h e p l a t e a u . 1 c l e a r l y shows t h e p r o c e s s o f anomaly f o r m a t i o n malachite  Plato where  i s p r e c i p i t a t e d from ground w a t e r .  Sodium, p o t a s s i u m , c a l c i u m and magnesium cont e n t s are h i g h e r i n t r i b u t a r y creeks than i n t h e R a y f i e l d or Bonaparte R i v e r .  Lake w a t e r samples c o n t a i n  higher concentrations.  still  T h i s t r e n d s u g g e s t s t h a t evap-  o r a t i o n i s more i m p o r t a n t  as a mechanism f o r l o s i n g  water than i s r u n o f f , c o n s i s t e n t with the semiarid c l i m a t e and o c c a s i o n a l s a l t p r e c i p i t a t e s v i s i b l e the s h o r e s o f some l a k e s .  around  Lake w a t e r i s s l i g h t l y more  a l k a l i n e t h a n stream w a t e r (pH o f 8.1 v e r s u s 7..8)  and i s  Copper d e p o s i t e d as m a l a c h i t e from ground w a t e r i n l e u c o c r a t i c s y e n i t e a t the Z bend.  -11'!  a media where complex f o r m a t i o n i s more l i k e l y . two  f a c t o r s a p p a r e n t l y c a n c e l each o t h e r f o r  These  copper,  i r o n and manganese, as t h e i r c o n t e n t s i n streams o r l a k e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y the same ( T a b l e XVIII)„ however, i s p r o b a b l y more i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e matter  Zinc,  organic  c o n t e n t and hence i s p r e s e n t i n h i g h e r concen-  t r a t i o n s i n l a k e water.  S u b j e c t t o the p r e c e d i n g  s t r a i n t s , t h e copper and z i n c d i s t r i b u t i o n  con-  apparently  r e f l e c t s m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n b e d r o c k and f l o a t .  This r e -  l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be c l e a r e r a f t e r the d i s c u s s o n on l a k e sediments i s c o n s i d e r e d . (b)  Application to Exploration  Water s a m p l i n g h a s n o t been w i d e l y u s e d as a geochemical  exploration tool.  B o y l o c t a l (1966)  t h a t most known o r e b o d i e s i n Nov; B r u n s w i c k by c r e e k s h a v i n g a h i g h heavy m e t a l al  found  were d r a i n e d  content.  Boyle c t  (1971) f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d on t h e e x p e c t e d . d i s p e r s i o n  t r a i n o f z i n c away from a Cu-Zn d e p o s i t i n the C a n a d i a n shield.  Warren e t a l (1966) o b s e r v e d  t h a t water  col-  l e c t e d from a s p e c i f i c s i t e a l o n g a c r e e k may c o n t a i n anomalous copper c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r o n l y a s h o r t p e r i o d o f time d u r i n g t h o y e a r .  Byck (1971) and K i g r i n i  (1971)  r e p o r t t h e u s o o f l a k e w a t e r samples i n r e g i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n f o r Uranium and o t h e r  elements.  V a r i a t i o n o f copper c o n t e n t i n a l k a l i n e e n v i r o n ments may n o t be s u f f i c i e n t l y g r o a t t o a l l o w f o r d e t e c t i o n  -115-  o f anomalioSo  The  search f o r t h i s metal i s r e s t r i c t e d  by such e q u i l i b r i u m f a c t o r s as p r e c i p i t a t i o n ,  adsorp-  t i o n onto sediment, c o m p l e x a t i o n w i t h o r g a n i c m a t t e r and u t i l i z a t i o n by o r g a n i s m s .  Each can a c t i n d e p e n d -  e n t l y and i n a n o n u n i f o r m manner o v e r the p r o p e r t y .  Thus,  i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n i f the copper c o n t e n t o f stream w a t e r i s at t h e maximum a l l o w a b l e by  equilibrium  c o n d i t i o n s o r i f copper enhancements are r e l a t e d t o sulphide mineralization.  A l t h o u g h tho same r e l a t i o n s  are t r u e f o r l a k e w a t e r , a r e g i o n a l anomaly seems t o o v e r l y r o c k s of the s y e n i t e i n t r u s i v e .  Reason  f o r the  s u c c e s s o f the l a t t e r s u r v e y , however, i s n o t known. C h e m i c a l e q u i l i b r i u m and t h e r i s k o f c o n t a m i n a t i o n d u r i n g sample p r c t r c a t m e n t s o f t e n l i m i t s t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s typo of survey,  2,  Stream A,  Sediments  T r a c e element  distribution  T r a c e element d a t a f o r stream s e d i m e n t s were t r e a t e d e m p i r i c a l l y as a p o p u l a t i o n f o l l o w i n g a l o g n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n (Table X X I I I ) ,  Log p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s o f t h e  r e s u l t s ( E i g , 18) s u g g e s t s e v e r a l p o p u l a t i o n s , a p p a r e n t l y i n d i c a t i v e of tho R a y f i e l d R i v e r , other r e g i o n a l i n c l u d i n g t h e B o n a p a r t e R i v e r and seepages Tho 1969 was  streams  (Table XXII),  copper anomaly d e f i n e d by t h e Amax s u r v e y o f  c o n f i r m e d d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t work.  Rayfield  R i v e r s e d i m e n t s t a k e n on t h e p r o p e r t y have  consistently  h i g h e r c o p p e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s compared w i t h t h o s e t a k e n from i t s t r i b u t a r i e s and o t h e r c r e e k s on t h e r e g i o n a l survey.  Enhancements a r e t y p i c a l from C r a t e r Lake t o  v / i t h i n 1/2  m i l e of the j u n c t i o n w i t h the Bonaparte  River, forming a dispersion t r a i n 6 miles long, mum  v a l u e o f 200 ppm  copper was  f o u n d j u s t n o r t h o f the  Z bend and t h e mean v a l u e o f 100 ppm  i s nearly  four  t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n a r e g i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d o f 26 (Table X X I I ) ,  Only sediments a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  where t h e average v a l u e i s 250 ppm, Tho  anomaly  A maxi-  ppm seepages,  have h i g h e r  contents,  decays o v e r s e v e r a l hundred f e e t p r i o r t o  the j u n c t i o n o f t h e R a y f i e l d and B o n a p a r t e R i v e r s ,  No  e v i d e n c e f o r anomalous s e d i m e n t s can be d e t e c t e d a t t h e j u n c t i o n o f tho two r i v e r s o r a l o n g t h e B o n a p a r t e  River,  Copper t o z i n c r a t i o s c a l c u l a t e d from mean v a l u e s i n T a b l e X X I I exceed u n i t y o n l y i n most R a y f i e l d R i v e r and seepage  samples.  The g r e a t e s t average z i n c , i r o n  manganese c o n t e n t s are a l s o f o u n d i n R a y f i e l d  and  River  sediments„ Z i n c d a t a , on F i g 1 7 B , t h a t of copper.  appears more complex t h a n  The g r e a t e s t z i n c c o n t e n t s wore meas-  u r e d i n sediment samples from t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r whore it  f l o w s o v e r t h e n o r t h e r n h a l f o f tho p r o p e r t y ( r a n g e  75 - 110 ppm)  of  w h i l e v a l u e s l o w e r t h a n t h e mean o f 65.ppm  a r e common o v e r t h o s o u t h e r n h a l f o f t h o r i v e r . comparison, the z i n c content of Bonaparte R i v e r  In scdi-  v a r i e s w i t h i n t h o n a r r o w l i m i t s o f 34 - 47 ppm and  merit has  an average c o n c e n t r a t i o n (40 ppm) s i m i l a r t o t h a t  found f o r c r e e k s on t h e p l a t e a u , a l t h o u g h  the lattc3?  shows g r e a t e r v a r i a b i l i t y (moan 40 ppm, range 25 - 65 ppm) „  Two p o p u l a t i o n s  a r e a p p a r e n t i n F i g , 18, t h e  p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t of zinc analyses.  One p o p u l a t i o n en-  compasses 33$ o f t h e samples and has a mean v a l u e o f 73 ppm,  A t h r e s h o l d o f 74 ppm f o r t h e second p o p u l a t i o n -  i s o n l y exceeded i n samples t a k e n from t h e R a y f i e l d River, R a y f i e l d and B o n a p a r t e R i v e r s e d i m e n t s have above average i r o n c o n t e n t s  (Fig, 170).  The g r e a t e s t  v a l u e i n e i t h e r r i v e r , 3°8/4 was f o u n d i n a sediment c o l l e c t e d s o u t h o f C r a t e r Lake a l o n g tho.t p a r t o f t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r f l a n k e d by T e r t i a r y b a s a l t  outcrops.  O t h e r measurements g r e a t e r t h a n t h o mean were a l m o s t exclusively restricted to s i l t s  c o l l e c t e d from  crocks  overlying or i n close proximity to T e r t i a r y basalt or N i c o l a v o l c a n i c bedrock.  I n c o n t r a s t , lower values  were  o b s e r v e d e l s e w h e r e on t h o p l a t e a u and i n seepages. Three i r o n r i c h s e d i m e n t s found i n r e g i o n s 2 and 3 ( T a b l e XXV) were n o t e n r i c h e d i n copper o r z i n c . The  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f manganese ( F i g . 17D) i s s i m -  i l a r t o t h a t o f copper, an average c o n t e n t  R a y f i e l d R i v e r sediments have  o f 1350 ppm w h i c h i s n e a r l y double t h  r e g i o n a l mean o f 700 ppm w h i l e t h o s e o f t h e B o n a p a r t e R i v e r a r e r e l a t i v e l y l o w and c o n s t a n t  (mean 300 ppm,  118-  range 200 - 4-00 ppm) °  Values  lower than the r e g i o n a l  moan a r c found i n r e g i o n s 3 and 4 and h i g h e r i n r e g i o n s 1 and 2  0  The copper a n o m a l i e s d i s c o v e r e d on t h e p l a t e a u  c o e x i s t w i t h s i m i l a r zones o f manganese Silt  enrichment.  s e d i m e n t s f o r a time l a p s e s t u d y were  col-  l e c t e d from t h e same s i t e s as r e p o r t e d u n d e r t h e d a t a s e c t i o n f o r stream w a t e r ( c h a p t e r 3 , page 9 3 ) . Stream sediment a n a l y s e s show a s i m i l a r t r e n d i n v a l u e s w i t h t i m e o n l y a t s t a t i o n 1, l o c a t e d n e a r many emerging s p r i n g s a t t h e Z bend. 50$ i n t r a c e m e t a l served.  Otherwise,  Here, enhancements o f 4-0$ t o  c o n t e n t s d u r i n g t h e summer were obv a l u e s a t other s t a t i o n s remained  e s s e n t i a l l y constant w i t h i n a n a l y t i c a l p r e c i s i o n (Table XIII). B„  Discussion (a)  F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t r a c e clement d i s tribution  Stream sediment s a m p l i n g  has d e t e c t e d an anom-  a l o u s a r e a a t l e a s t f o u r t i m e s e n r i c h e d i n coppor v e r s u s a r e g i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d o f 26 ppm„  Copper enhancements  are f i r s t e n c o u n t e r e d when t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r b e g i n s t o d i s s e c t rocks of tho syenite i n t r u s i o n .  The R a y f i e l d  R i v e r anomaly e x t e n d s 6 m i l e s commencing a t C r a t e r Lake and p e r s i s t i n g u n t i l 1/2 m i l e n o r t h o f t h e B o n a p a r t e R i v e r j u n c t i o n , decaying  r a p i d l y o v e r s e v e r a l hundred  Table XXII  T r a c e m e t a l c o n t e n t (ppm) o f stream s e d i m e n t s , -80 mesh fraction, nitric/perchloric acid PLATEAU  Cu  Threshold Moan Range  Zn  Fe$  Mn  Threshold Mean Range Threshold Mean Range Threshold Mean Range  Number o f samples  180 28 11-71 105 40 25-65 8,8 1.6 0.7-3.7 1.7;' 860 190-3800 50  attack  PLATEAU RAYFIELD BONAPARTIj SEEPAGE AND RIVER RIVER j BONAPARTE RIVER 144 26 11-60 96 40 26-62  400 101 50-205 150 65 43-99  31 17 13-23 55 40 34-47  7.7 1.6  5.6 2.4  0.7-3.5  1.6-3.7  2.5 1.8 1.6-2.1  9500 1350.  500. 300.  1„2# 700  170-2850 300-3600 62  22  2700 250 76-825 • 128 40 22-72 7.2 1.1 0.45-2.9  3300 620 215.-390. 270-1400 12  10  Tabic XXIII  Comparison o f t r a c e m e t a l c o n t e n t (ppm) o f stream and l a k e sediment,  -80 mesh f r a c t i o n ,  nitric/perchloric  acid attack  STREAM SEDIMENTS VALUEPPM Cu  Threshold Moan Range  Zn  Threshold Mean Range  Pe$  Threshold Mean Range  Mn  Threshold Mean Range  490 48  NUMBER OP SAMPLES  91  120 91  5=9  7 300 700 230-2300  23 12-47 96 38  30  30  24-60  28-75  1.6 0.8-3.1  NUMBER OP SAMPLES  • 95  15-155  46  LAKE SEDIMENTS VALUE  91  4.6 1.4 0.76-2.5  30  1025 91  300 160-560  30  Table XXIV Trace metal and major element content o f water and sediment c o l l e c t e d from time lapse sampling s t a t i o n s , summer 1 9 7 0 WATER STATION 1  2  DATE  ft 5 6  Kg  Ca  Na  HCO3  SO4  175 195  2 . 5  0 . 2 5  ft  5  2 . 5  0.25  3  3  5 . 0  0 . 2 5  Cl  Cu  Zn  2 . 2  2 2  26  1 0 / 7  2 . 2  2 2  2 f t  20 18  5 / 7  2 . f t  2 1  3 0  2 0  2.8  28  3  2 2  2 f t  200 220  2  1 5 / 7  1  3  3 . 2  28  2 . 5  3 2  3 1  2 5 0  2 . 5  2  3 . f t  2/7  19/0 3  K  5 / 7  0.07  1 2  ft.7  1 5 / 7  0 . 9 f t  1 3  ft. 7 3  19/8  0 . 9 I  1 f t  ft.O 3 5 . 7  6 . 0  1 3 / 7  O.96  19/0  0.99  1 5 1 f t  SEDIMENT PPM  WATER PPB  pra  O.25  Fe  ft3  5 5  2 . 5  . 1  1  5 5  2 . 5  1  2  . 9  6 0  2 . 5  1  2  ft.o  6 5  2 . 5  1  3  5 . 0  6 0  2 . 5  1  2  6 5  1  3  6 5  3  5  1 3 / 7  0 . 9 f t  1 f t  ft.6  3 . 3  5 5  0 . 9 I  1 f t  ^ . 9  3.8  6 5  7 / 7  1 . 6  3 f t  2 3  17  200  2 . 5  2  3  1 3 0  19/8  1 . 8  3 7  2 9  2 f t  2 2 5  2 . 5  3  9  9 5  2 . 5  ft.O  1 5  1 3 0 0  18  2 1  1 . 0  2 0  2 5  1 . 3  9 5  7 . 9  2 3  2 7  1 . 3  19 16 17  ftz fto  7  7 . 7  10  7 . 3  6  7.8  600 600 1 9 0 0  1 . 8  2ft0 260  1 . 7  2 7 0  1 . 7  8.1  1 f t  3 5  1.8  2 7 0  3 3  7 . 7  1 f t  3 3  1 . 7  260  7  7 . f t  12  ftl 1 . 8  280  6  8.0  1 f t  ft3  1 . 9  3 5 0  57 5*  2 . 2  1 2 5 0  3.3  1200  60 100  7.8 7 . 8  Station 2 j  R a y f i e l d R i v e r above the j u n c t i o n w i t h the Bonaparte R i v e r  Station 3 i  Bonaparte R i v e r above the j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r  S t a t i o n fti Bonaparte R i v e r 2|- m i l e s downstream from the j u n c t i o n S t a t i o n 5 1 Bonaparte R i v e r 2\ miles upstream from the j u n c t i o n  3 6  Kn  10  bf the R a y f i e l d R i v e r a t the Z bend  Lake  9 0 0  3 . 2  7 . 7  Crossing  R a y f i e l d R i v e r above f a l l s t o Crater  2 . f t  9 0  7 . 6  Station 1 1  S t a t i o n 61  6 0  7.8  6  8.0  3 2 0  19/8  125 185  6  9 0  2 0  . 5  Fei  Cu  1 0 0  3 3 0  220  Zn  PH  Mn  2 5  22  T a b i c XXV  Copper and z i n c c o n t e n t (ppm) o f i r o n and manganese r i c h sediments  SAMPLE NUMBER  fSFe  #Mn  1282  9  2.7  7  21  1295  18  o„9  10  40  2053  17  4,2  6  27  PPM Cu  PPM Zn  - 1 2 3  THE FIGURE 17A  DANSEY - RAYFIELD  RIVER  COPPER  PROPERTY  DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER (PPM) IN STREAM SEDIMENTS -80 MESH FRACTION  N  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND GEOLOGICAL CONTACT Contour  Intervol  Creeks,  and  100  feel  Rivers  Swamps I  I  Lakes Local  Grid  Control  Points  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND  T  • •  9  LESS THAN l5ppm  15 - 48 ppm 48 - 155 ppm 155 - 490 ppm  MORE THAN 490 ppm  THE  DANSEY-RAYFIELD  RIVER  COPPER  PROPERTY  FIGURE 17B  DISTRIBUTION OF ZINC (PPM) IN STREAM SEDIMENTS . -SO MESH FRACTION • TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND GEOLOGIC CONTACT LESS THAN 28  N  1 1  •  Contour  Intervol  Creeks,  and  W»  100  feet  Rivers  Grid  5000  Control  ftrr  _  ^  Lokfs  Locol  r  Polrtti  28-46 ppm  p p r a  46 - 75 75 - 120 ppm p p m  MORE THAN 120  p  p  m  THE  DANSEY - RAYFIELD  RIVER  COPPER  PROPERTY  FIGURE 17C N 4N  +  DISTRIBUTION OF IRON (#) IN STREAM SEDIMENTS -80 MESH FRACTION TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND GEOLOGIC CONTACT LESS THAN 0.8 % 0.8 - 1.6 Contour  Intervol  Creeks,  ml  100  lee)  i  Rivers  Swamps  Lakes  Local  Grit)  5000  Control  FttT  Points  i  1.6 - 3 . 1 3.1 - 5.9 $  MORE THAN 5 . 9 £  -126  THE  FIGURE 17D N  As — < ^^> =  DANSEY-RAYFIELD  RIVER  COPPER PROPERTY  DISTRIBUTION OF MANGANESE (PPM) IN STREAM SEDIMENTS -80 MESH FRACTION TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND GEOLOGIC CONTACT LESS THAN 230 ppm _ 230 - 725 ppm Contour  Intervol  Creeks,  and  100  feet  Rivers  Swomps  Lakes Locol  Grid  5000  Control  FEET  Points  • W  725 - 2300 2300 - 7300 ppm p p m  MORE THAN 7300 ppm  -12710,000  5,000  N  1000  \  5 0 0)  \  \  v \  \  \  >  \  \  \  100.  a,  \  ZN  V \ V  \  \  \ N  \  10  \ \  \  \  . \  cu "  0.01  o.  FIGURE 18  I  20  80  95  >  \  99  LOG PROBABILITY PLOTS OF COPPER AND ZINC DATA FROM STREAM SEDIMENTS LEGEND A,B CONTRIBUTING POPULATIONS +,• EXPERIMENTAL DATA POINTS o CALCULATED. DATA POINTS  99.9 99.99  1 oo  — X.CXJ —  f e e t t o background v a l u e s ,  A maximum v a l u e o f 200 ppm  o v e r l i e s t h o most s t r i k i n g copper anomaly i n b e d r o c k as d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r 3 , page 90, I n c o n t r a s t , a r e a s o f copper e n r i c h m e n t s a r e r a r e on t h e p l a t e a u .  O n l y two s i g n i f i c a n t  anomalies  have been d e t e c t e d , each b a s e d on t h r e e sample i n r e g i o n s 2 and 3 , 1,  analyses,  Several explanations are forwarded:  Coppor s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l s wore n e v e r  deposited  w i t h i n s y e n i t e which u n d e r l i e s the p l a t e a u , t h a t i s g e n e s i s number 2 ( c h a p t e r 3, page 8 1 ) . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , p l a t e a u creeks d i s s e c t barren b e d r o c k and do n o t i n t e r s e c t many m i n e r a l i z e d zones w h i c h may u n d e r l i e t h e p l a t e a u . hypothesis (page  This  i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h g e n e s i s number 1  81 ) , where t h o grade o f copper e n r i c h m e n t  i n t h e c o n c e n t r i c zone i s n o t u n i f o r m , 2,  A geochemical response t o u n d e r l y i n g  sulphide  m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s n o t p o s s i b l e because t h e g l a c i a l overburden i s too t h i c k ,  Tho e r o s i v e  a b i l i t y of t r i b u t a r y creeks i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o p e n e t r a t e t h o s u r f i c i a l d e p o s i t s and a t t a c k bedrock, 3°  Copper m i g r a t i o n i n ground w a t e r s o l u t i o n s i s a r r e s t e d by p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n t h e a l k a l i n e h o r i z o n of tho s o i l .  Therefore,  copper  'C  cannot  e n t e r t h e d r a i n a g e system from p e r c o l a t i n g subsurface water.  -129 ••  4,  Stream sediment samples b e l o n g t o d i f f e r e n t populations.  The c h a r a c t e r o f s i l t s  c o l l e c t e d from  tho R a y f i e l d R i v e r d i f f e r s from t h o s e o f i t s t r i b u t a r i e s i n the composition  of the parent  m a t e r i a l , g r a i n s i z e , organic matter and pl-l  0  E a c h o f t h e above e x p l a n a t i o n s d i f f e r e n t extents surface.  may c o n t r i b u t e t o  a t any g i v e n p o s i t i o n on t h o t o p o g r a p h i c  The p r i m a r y d i s p e r s i o n o f copper has been d i s -  cussed i n a preceding and  content  s e c t i o n ( c h a p t e r 3, pages 59 - 91)  i t was seen t h a t no d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s  on t h e con-  s i s t e n c y and grade o f t h e copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n c o u l d be made.  No doubt o v e r b u r d e n t h i c k n e s s e s i n e x c e s s o f 25  f e e t , w h i c h a r e common, and t h e a l k a l i n e c o n d i t i o n s o f the p a r e n t m a t e r i a l m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t a g e o c h e m i c a l exp r e s s i o n o f p o s s i b l e m i n e r a l i z e d zones i n b e d r o c k h i d d e n beneath g l a c i a l deposits of t h e p l a t e a u . a n o m a l i e s have been d i s c o v e r e d of bedrock i n t h e i r  And y e t , tv/o  i n s p i t e o f t h e absence  vicinity,  F a c t o r 4 above i s i m p o r t a n t  i n e x p l a i n i n g the  o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r stream sediment c o p p o r anomaly.  Along the northern  h a l f of i t s course, the  R a y f i e l d River i s a c t i v e l y abrading forming  m i n e r a l i z e d bedrock,  a sediment r i c h i n o r t h o c l a s e .  Hornblende,  p y r o x e n e and b i o t i t e , o t h e r c o n s t i t u e n t m i n e r a l s o f h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e , a r c c h e m i c a l l y weathered t o hydrous i r o n oxides  and s o l u b l e c o n s t i t u e n t s , and a r e t h e r e f o r e  f o u n d i n r e d u c e d q u a n t i t i e s i n the sediment,,  Over t h e  p l a t e a u , sediment i s d e r i v e d from g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s i s r i c h i n q u a r t z and o r g a n i c m a t t e r .  Higher  and  copper  and o t h e r t r a c e element c o n t e n t s are more t y p i c a l the f o r m e r sediment type t h a n o f the l a t t e r .  of  Thus,  sediment t e x t u r e , d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o p r o v e n a n c e can c o r r e l a t e d approximately  w i t h copper c o n t e n t  on  be  this  property. Copper may organic matter  be c o n c e n t r a t e d  i n accumulations  of  o r a d s o r b e d onto the s u r f a c e of h y d r o u s  secondary i r o n oxides or p r e c i p i t a t e s (Boyle et a l , 1966), E i t h e r o f t h e s e two  f a c t o r s can be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s p u r -  i o u s l y high values,  A h i g h copper v a l u e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  s i l t s e n r i c h e d i n o r g a n i c m a t t e r may  be d i s c o u n t e d i n  some c a s e s i f a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h i g h z i n c c o n t e n t i s a l s o f o u n d ( H o r s n a i l et a l , 196?) > I n the p r e s e n t the g r e a t e s t z i n c c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s o n l y 110 ppm. though samples l i s t e d i n T a b l e  XXV  study, Al-  are enhanced i n c i t h e r  i r o n o r manganese, copper does not appear t o have been enriched.  Consequently,  organic accumulations  n e i t h e r i n c l u s i o n of copper i n  o r a d s o r p t i o n onto s e c o n d a r y  hydrous i r o n o r manganese o x i d e s i s t h o u g h t 'to bo nificant.  sig-  (b)  Application to exploration  Stream sediment i v e l y as a f i r s t  s u r v e y s have been u s e d  stage i n m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n .  extensGovern-  m e n t a l a g e n c i e s and e x p l o r a t i o n companies u t i l i z e r e g i o n a l g e o c h e m i c a l programs as a s t e p i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a r e a s o f abnormal c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r metal o r metals,  B o y l e e t a l (1966) f o r example, found  s e v e r a l l e a d , z i n c , copper, a r s e n i c , antimony and s i l v e r zones b y a n a l y s i s o f stream sediments  i n New B r u n s w i c k ,  Other examples a r e g i v e n by Hawkcs and Webb ( 1 9 6 2 ) , t h e present, s t u d y , t h o R a y f i e l d R i v e r copper  In  anomaly  i s o f a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e s i z e so t h a t even a sample d e n s i t y between 1/2 and 1 p e r m i l e would be adequate f o r its  detection. D e t a i l e d s u r v e y s a r e common once a t a r g e t zone  has been e s t a b l i s h e d .  Sample s p a c i n g s v a r y ,  depending  on t e r r a i n and company p h i l o s o p h y , b u t i s g e n e r a l l y about + s i t e s p e r m i l e ( 5 s i t e s p e r m i l e i n t h e p r e s e n t ;  work).  Examples o f t h i s t y p e o f d r a i n a g e s u r v e y i n  B r i t i s h Columbia  are a v a i l a b l e i n annual r e p o r t s o f tho  B u r e a u o f M i n e s , V i c t o r i a where work has been c l a i m e d i n l i e u o f assessment f e e s on m i n e r a l c l a i m s . Copper v a l u e s o f t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r anomaly v a r y between 75 ppm and 200 ppm a l o n g i t s 6 m i l e l e n g t h , Tho g r e a t e s t a c c u m u l a t i o n s o f t h i s m e t a l i n s e d i m e n t s o v e r l i e t h e most s t r i k i n g copper anomaly d e t e c t e d i n bedrock.  Measurements decay r a p i d l y t o 13 ppm n e a r t h e  -13 2~  j u n c t i o n o f t h e B o n a p a r t e R i v e r o v e r a d i s t a n c e o f 3000 feet. Two p r e v i o u s l y unknown zones o f e n r i c h m e n t were d i s c o v e r e d i n r e g i o n s 2 and 3 ( F i g . 1 ? A ) , t h e maximum copper c o n t e n t  2 0 0 ppm i s  o f t h o anomaly i n r e g i o n 2,  comparable w i t h v a l u e s o b t a i n e d  from t h o R a y f i e l d R i v e r ,  w h i l e 300 ppm i s t h e h i g h e s t measurement o f t h e zone i n r e g i o n 3.  Unfortunately, only a small f r a c t i o n of the  p l a t e a u s u r f a c e i s d i s s e c t e d by c r e e k s  and, t h e r e f o r e ,  information i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r a great proportion of the  property. P e c u l i a r i t i e s v i t a l to successful discovery of  t h i s p r o p e r t y i n c l u d e ease o f a c c e s s and r e f e r e n c e  data  on t h e a r e a a v a i l a b l e i n g o v e r n m e n t a l p u b l i c a t i o n s .  As  r o a d s do n o t t r a v e r s e zones o f copper e n r i c h m e n t o f t h o b a t h o l i t h ( P i g , 1 and 1 7 A ) , s e d i m e n t s c o l l e c t e d from creeks  f l o w i n g n e a r r o a d s a r e n o t u s u a l l y anomalous i n  t h i s metal.  V a l u e s h i g h e r t h a n 1 0 0 ppm, on a reconno.is-  sance s c a l e , w i l l o n l y be f o u n d i f a s p e c i a l e f f o r t i s made t o descend 300 t o 400 f e e t t o t h e bottom o f t h o R a y f i e l d R i v e r valley...  E a s i l y reached p a r t s of the  R a y f i e l d R i v e r above C r a t e r Lake and a t t h e BonaparteR i v e r j u n c t i o n a r o n o t anomalous i n c o p p e r .  Thus,  s a m p l i n g a t t h e most a c c e s s i b l e s i t e s would l i k e l y the copper r i c h zone. and T i p p e r  miss  The g e o l o g i c a l map o f Campbell  (1966) does n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e s y e n i t e  o l i t h from t h e Thuy b a t h o l i t h .  bath-  Sediments c o l l e c t e d from  tho  many r o a d c r o s s i n g s r e g i o n a l l y ( u n p u b l i s h e d f i e l d  r e p o r t s , Amax E x p l o r a t i o n I n c . , 1968-1969) have  copper  v a l u e s l e s s t h a n o r s i m i l a r t o t h o s e d e s c r i b e d h e r e as background  (moan 26 ppm, range 11 - 60 ppm).  Such r e -  s u l t s do n o t f a v o r a more d e t a i l e d s t u d y r e q u i r e d f o r property discovery.  3.  Lake A.  Sediments T r a c e Element  Distribution  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o p p e r , i r o n , manganese and z i n c i n nearshore l a k e sediments o u t l i n e s bedrock o f the  syenite intrusion.  Zones o f copper enhancement  c o i n c i d e w i t h s i m i l a r anomalies d i s c o v e r e d i n outcrop (Fig.  9A) and f l o a t ( F i g . 20) samples.  zone o f copper enrichment the  The most s t r i k i n g  ( F i g , 19A) i s c e n t r e d around  Z bend where up t o 150 ppm has boon measured.  Lake  sediments o v e r t h o r e m a i n d e r o f t h e b a t h o l i t h have copper c o n t e n t s g r e a t e r t h a n 23 ppm, t h e mean v a l u e o f the  r e g i o n a l survey.  L a k e s sampled  the  r e g i o n a l program had copper c o n t e n t s between 10 and  20 ppm i n t h e i r s e d i m e n t s .  elsewhere d u r i n g  R e s u l t s a l s o show t h a t l a k e  s i l t s c o n t a i n a l o w e r range (12 - 4-7 ppm v e r s u s 15 -  150  ppm) and t h r e s h o l d (95 ppm v e r s u s 500 ppm) o f t h i s m e t a l t h a n samples from c r e o k s c o l l e c t e d i n t h e same a r e a . No c o r r e l a t i o n was o b s e r v e d between f i e l d e s t i m a t e s o f t h e o r g a n i c m a t t e r c o n t e n t o f samples and t h e i r  -134-  c o p p c r content„  O r g a n i c r i c h s e d i m e n t s do, however,  show a g r e a t e r v a r i a b i l i t y i n copper v a l u e s t h a n i s obs e r v e d w i t h sandy s e d i m e n t s .  Organic r i c h s i l t s  range i n v a l u e s between 4 and 150  ppm,  show a  w h i l e sandy s e d i -  ments have c o n t e n t s v a r y i n g between 13 and 55  ppm.  The h i g h e s t z i n c c o n t e n t ( P i g . 19B) o f  silts  o v e r l y i n g s y e n i t e bedrock i s o n l y s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than t h e r e g i o n a l mean o f 38 ppm o a s t o f t h e Z bond. of  and i s f o u n d i n a s m a l l zone  Lake sediments from t h o  the b a t h o l i t h have s l i g h t l y l o w e r v a l u e s .  remainder This trend  i s r e v e r s e d where u n d e r l y i n g b e d r o c k i s T e r t i a r y b a s a l t . E x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e X X I I I shows t h a t l a k e s e d i m e n t s r e l a t i v e l y p o o r e r i n z i n c t h a n stream sediments of  38 ppm  120  ppm).  to  v e r s u s 46 ppm  arc  (means  and t h r e s h o l d s o f 96 ppm  versus  Coppor t o z i n c r a t i o s are a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l  u n i t y i n sediments t a k e n above i n t r u s i v e r o c k s and  l e s s t h a n one e l s e w h e r e i n tho a r e a . I r o n and manganese v a l u e s v a r y i n a s i m i l a r manner ( P i g . 19C  and D).  Greatest enrichments of these  e l e m e n t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y o v e r l y t h e r e g i o n o f maximum i r o n c o n t e n t i n the i n t r u s i v e ( P i g . 11A) bedrock.  The  and o v e r T e r t i a r y b a s a l t  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i r o n and manganese o v e r  t h e i n t r u s i v e forms two e n r i c h e d zones l y i n g n o r t h and s o u t h o f t h e copper and z i n c a n o m a l i e s .  Again, lake  sediments are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e p l e t e d i n i r o n and manganese compared w i t h t h o s e o f streams  (Table X X I I I ) .  RAYFIELD FIGURE 1 9 A  RIVER - BONAPARTE RIVER RECONNAISSANCE  REGIONAL  DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER (PPM) IN LAKE SEDIMENTS ' -80 MESH FRACTION  N  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND GEOLOGIC CONTACT  L5223 ROADS  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND  Contour Interval 100 Feet Creeks and Rivers Swamps Lakes Local Property Lots Loose Loose  or Stabilized Surfaca, Dry 4  Surfaces, Weather  •  LESS THAN 23  9  2 3 - 4 7 ppm W  All  Weatiier  -  ppm  95 ppm  MORE THAN 95 ppm  MILES SJ  HOFFMAN  Ocloter 8, 9 7 0  RAYFIELD FIGURE 19B  RIVER - BONAPARTE RIVER RECONNAISSANCE DISTRIBUTION OF ZINC (PPM)  REGIONAL  IN LAKE SEDIMENTS  -80 MESH FRACTION  N /|\  LEGEND  TOPOGRAPHIC  GECCHEMICAI LEGEND  GEOLOGIC CONTACT  -3000—  c1 ^ D L5223  I  Contour  Interval  Creeks  and  100  0  Feet  «  Rivers  Swamps Lakes Local  Property  Lots  ROADS Loose Loose  or Stabilized Surfaco, Dry 4  Surfaces, Weather  All  Wealiier  T T?OO  -  ^  •  38  ©  S  ~  mtTAjT  JHAN  60  *>Q  3° ppm  ppm  60 - 95 PP"  1  MORE THAN 95 ppm  MILES SJ  HOFFMAN  October 8, I97C  =132-  RAYFIELD  RIVER - B O N A P A R T E  RIVER  REGIONAL  RECONNAISSANCE  DISTRIBUTION OF IRON (i) IN LAKE SEDIMENTS -80 MESH FRACTION  FIGURE 19C  N /\  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND GEOLOGIC CONTACT - 3 0 0 0 -  £  =  I  ^ 0  L5223 ROADS  1  Contour  Interval  Creeks  and  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND , „ „ ., . • LESS THAN 1.4^ T 1 W  100 Feet Rivers  0  Swamps Lakes  Local  Loose Loose  _ Q  Property  Lots  or Stabilized Surfaces, Surfaco, Dry Weather 4  All  Weatiier  @  j. 4  mtIA  —  * 2.5  2,5^ *  -  \. 4.6%  MORE THAN 4.6$  MILES SJ  HOFFMAN  October 8, 1970  -13_8-  « °  «20  RAYFIELD  «50  MO  RIVER - B O N A P A R T E  RIVER  REGIONAL  RECONNAISSANCE  •FIGURE 19D  N  DISTRIBUTION OF MANGANESE (PPM) IN LAKE SEDIMENTS -80 MESH FRACTION  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND GEOLOGIC CONTACT  A  L5223 ROADS  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND • LESS THAN 300  Contour Intervol 100 Feet Creeks and Rivers Swamps Lakes Local Property Lots Loose Loose  or Stabilized Surfaces, Surfoco, Dry Weather 4  p  p  > 300 - 575 ppm | 575 - 1000 pp All  Weatiier  m  m  MORE THAN 1000 ppm  MILES SJ  HOFFMAN  October 6, 1970  B.  Discussion (a)  Factors a f f e c t i n g trace distribution  element  An anomalous r e g i o n o v e r l y i n g t h o s y e n i t e i n t r u s i o n and c e n t e r e d around t h e Z bend was d i s c o v e r e d on a n a l y s i s o f n c a r s h o r o l a k e sediment samples f o r coppor (Fig.  1 9 A ) . A mean v a l u e o f 23 ppm and range o f 12 - 4-7  ppm i s l e s s t h a n t h a t f o u n d i n n e a r b y stream s e d i m e n t s (moan 4-8 ppm, range 15 - 150 ppm) ( T a b l e X X I I I ) . represents  This  a s i t u a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t o b s e r v e d by Dyck  (1971) i n t h e B e a v e r l o d g c d i s t r i c t  o f Saskatchewan.  T a b l e X X I I shows t h e r e l a t i v e d e p l e t i o n o f l a k e  sediments  i n t h i s element compared t o s i l t s from c r e e k s d r a i n i n g the p l a t e a u  (mean 28 ppm, range 11 - 70 ppm).  Similarly,  comparison o f the t r a c e metal content i n d i f f e r e n t horizons  soil  ( T a b l e X X V I I ) a n d l a k e s e d i m e n t s shows t h a t  o n l y t h e 'L-H' w i t h a mean o f 27 ppm (range 10 - 75 PP*n and t h o 'Ae' w i t h a mean o f 33 ppm (range 10 - 110 ppm) have comparable  copper  values.  A d d i t i o n o r removal o f c o p p e r from l a k e  sediments  may be a c c o m p l i s h e d by m e c h a n i c a l o r c h e m i c a l t r a n s p o r t . C o n t r i b u t i o n s from stream sediment i s u n i m p o r t a n t because r e l a t i v e l y few streams e x i s t , and t h o s e w h i c h do a r e s m a l l and p e r i o d i c a l l y d r y .  F o r most l a k e s , any mechan-  i c a l a d d i t i o n o f m a t e r i a l must be a c c o m p l i s h e d b y t h e a c t i o n of r u n o f f water.  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s u r f a c e  r u n o f f as an agent o f e r o s i o n i s l o w duo t o i n f r e q u e n t  s t o r m s , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a s c m i a r i d c l i m a t e , and t h e coarse t e x t u r e of d e p o s i t s ground.  l y i n g on the s u r f a c e  As d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l i e f  of tho  on t h e p l a t e a u  s m a l l , c h a n n e l l i n g of water i s not expected.  aro  Moltwatcr,  a p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e o f s h e c t w a s h , seeps i n t o t h e rather than running  o f f i n the s p r i n g .  soil  Thus, m e c h a n i c a l  a d d i t i o n s w i t h r u n o f f water i s u n l i k e l y t o c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f m a t e r i a l t o l a k e s e d i m e n t s .  This  may n o t , however, have been t h e case i n t h e p a s t . Copper c o n t r i b u t i o n s from ground w a t e r s h o u l d low.  Water p a s s i n g  t h r o u g h t h e 'C  h o r i z o n of the  i s i n e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h an a l k a l i n e pH ( c h a p t e r 27  - 31  ).  basicity.  2,  be  soil pages  pH o f l a k e w a t e r i s o f comparable o r g r e a t e r  Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , copper i s s p a r i n g l y  s o l u b l e i n t h e form of complex i o n s . t h i s m e t a l may  A l t h o u g h some of  be i n s o l u t i o n (Bloom, 1966), i t i s  t h o u g h t t h a t h y d r o m o r p h i c t r a n s p o r t o f copper here i s not  conducive to formation  formation  o f zones o f e n r i c h m e n t .  In-  i s n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p o s s i b l e case where  more a c i d i c s p r i n g s  c o n t r i b u t e metals to the l a k e .  The i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m e c h a n i c a l o r ground w a t e r a d d i t i o n s o f copper t o l a k e s e d i m e n t s i s seen i n t h o l e v e l s o f t h i s m e t a l w h i c h have been measured. t h e anomaly  Although  c l o s e l y o u t l i n e s t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g zones  o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n b e d r o c k , no enhancement above stream sediment o r s o i l v a l u e s  has been o b s e r v e d .  It  i s thought t h a t a n o m a l i e s f o u n d i n l a k e sediment on tho  property  r e f l e c t p r i m a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f coppor i n bed-  r o c k f l o u r formed b y g l a c i e r s d u r i n g t h e Since t h a t time, ored great  e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s have not  changes i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n  l a k e , save f o r s i m p l e The  Pleistocene. fav-  o f copper w i t h i n  the  redistribution.  zinc d i s t r i b u t i o n i s s i m i l a r to that of  copper ( P i g . 19B) e x c e p t t h a t i t s c o n t r a s t r a t i o i s lower.  I r o n and manganese d a t a ( P i g . 19C and D) each  have two enhancement zones l o c a t e d n o r t h and s o u t h o f the r e g i o n o f h i g h e s t  copper and z i n c v a l u e s .  This  t e r n was u n e x p e c t e d and may r e l a t e t o a p r i m a r y  pat-  zoning  caused b y m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . (b)  Application to exploration  Lake sediment s a m p l i n g as a g e o c h e m i c a l a t i o n technique i s s t i l l  i n i t s i n f a n c y and few  have been w r i t t e n on the s u b j e c t .  explorpapers  Several mineral ex-  p l o r a t i o n companies such as R i o T i n t o , B r i n o x  and B a r r i n -  g e r R e s e a r c h have u s e d l a k e sediment s u r v e y s t o l o c a t e regions  o f i n t e r e s t ( A l l a n , 1971).  Work done i n t h e  Coppermine d i s t r i c t o f the N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s b y A l l a n (1971) and the G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada u s i n g t h i s t e c h n i q u e o u t l i n e d s e v e r a l zones o f copper m i n e r a l ization i n basalts. Published rare.  a c c o u n t s o f more d e t a i l e d s u r v e y s a r c  Schmidt (1956) s y s t e m a t i c a l l y sampled s e v e r a l  l a k e s i n New B r u n s w i c k and f o u n d c o n s i s t e n t Zn, and Pb-Zn-Cu a n o m a l i e s .  Pb-Zn,  The p r e s e n t s t u d y , however, i s  -14-2-  c s s e n t i a l l y r e c o n n a i s s a n c e i n nature„ E n r i c h m e n t s o f copper and z i n c i n l a k e s e d i m e n t s o v e r l y rocks of the syenite b a t h o l i t h .  H i g h e s t copper  v a l u e s a r c f o u n d o v e r m i n e r a l i z e d zones i n b e d r o c k . a b s o l u t e c o n t e n t o f t h i s m e t a l , however,  The  i s l o w and i t  i s b e l i e v e d t h a t copper m i g r a t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d b y t h e a l k a l i n i t y o f t h o l a k e and s u r r o u n d i n g s o i l s .  Thus,  anomaly f o r m a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a p r i m a r y f e a t u r e , r e l a t e d to g l a c i a l  dispersion.  Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s p r o p e r t y i s a c o m p a r i s o n between 132 - 133)  t h e ease o f stream ( c h a p t e r 3,  and l a k e sediment c o l l e c t i o n .  pages  Lakes o c c u r .  on t h e p l a t e a u n e a r o r w i t h i n easy w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f e x i s t i n g logging roads.  A n o m a l i e s were d e t e c t e d on t h e  b a s i s o f one sample p e r t e n s q u a r e m i l e s , a l t h o u g h a c l o s e r s a m p l i n g i n t e r v a l was u s e d on t h o p r o p e r t y  itself.  Range o f copper v a l u e s w i t h i n each l e v e l c o n t o u r e d on Fig. are yet,  19A i s o n l y 20 t o 4-0 ppm.  Such s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s  more s u s c e p t i b l e t o s a m p l i n g and a n a l y t i c a l  errors,  t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f copper i n l a k e s e d i m e n t s i s  r e m a r k a b l y r e g u l a r and appears t o o u t l i n e  interesting  r e g i o n s on t h e r e c o n n a i s s a n c e s u r v e y worthy o f f o l l o w u p study.  4-.  Hornblende- S y e n i t e F l o a t A.  T r a c e clement  distribution  Samples o f h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e f l o a t were c h i p p e d from c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s l y i n g on t h e ground o r t a k e n from h o r i z o n s i n s o i l p i t s and t r e n c h e s w i t h i n g l a c i a l o v e r burden.  S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f d a t a was s i m i l a r t o  t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r b e d r o c k ( c h a p t e r 3 , pages 59 - 61 ) . Moan, range and t h r e s h o l d copper v a l u e s o f 85 ppm, 31 220 ppm and 560 ppm, r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n f l o a t a r o l o w e r t h a n s i m i l a r measurements d e t e r m i n e d f o r h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e o u t c r o p samples ppm and t h r e s h o l d 1150  (mean 165 ppm, range 63 - 44-0 ppm)(Table X V ) .  Log p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s o f f l o a t d a t a ( F i g . 21A and B) c o n t a i n two p o p u l a t i o n s .  The p e r c e n t a g e each c o n -  t r i b u t e s t o t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n and t h e i r moan, range and t h r e s h o l d s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e XXVI.  Comparison o f  T a b l e XXVI and T a b l e XVI shows t h a t c o p p e r , z i n c ,  iron  and manganese d a t a c o n t a i n s i m i l a r and p o s s i b l y c o r r e s ponding p o p u l a t i o n s .  I t i s not p o s s i b l e at present,  however, t o s u g g e s t t h a t any component p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e f l o a t d a t a has been d e r i v e d from one p o p u l a t i o n comp r i s i n g t h e bedrock data. Copper a n o m a l i e s i n f l o a t may o v e r l i e m i n e r a l i z e d zones i n b e d r o c k .  The l a t e r a l e x t e n t o f t h i s t y p e  o f anomaly i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e i n o u t c r o p , showing t h e d i s p e r s i n g e f f e c t o f g l a c i a l  - I n -  a c t i o n ( P i g , 20 and 9A) . approximately elongated  The zone o f copper  enrichment,  4 m i l e s i n l e n g t h , 1/2 t o 1 m i l e i n w i d t h ,  along the probable  d i r e c t i o n o f i c e movement  (160°) and l y i n g m a i n l y on t h e e a s t e r n p l a t e a u i s o f this  type. Examination  o f F i g , 20 r e v e a l s a s e c o n d ,  slight-  l y s m a l l e r , anomaly o v e r l y i n g N i c o l a v o l c a n i c s and h y b r i d phases o f the i n t r u s i o n .  Here, h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e  f l o a t i s w e l l rounded, i n d i c a t i v e o f e x t e n s i v e transport.  fluvial  I t s numerous f e l d s p a r v e i n l e t s and t r a c e s  of sulphide m i n e r a l i z a t i o n are t y p i c a l of outcrops f o u n d a t l e a s t 4 m i l e s t o t h e n o r t h and n o r t h e a s t . Two zones o f copper enhancement d e f i n e d i n t h e stream sediment s u r v e y , i n r e g i o n s 2 and 5 ( c h a p t e r 3, page 132) , have f l o a t b l o c k s r e l a t i v e l y d e f i c i e n t i n copper compared w i t h h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e f r a g m e n t s on other p a r t s of the plateau.  A n o t h e r zone o f i r o n and  manganese e n r i c h m e n t i n f l o a t i s f o u n d i n r e g i o n 2, a l o n g tho R a y f i e l d R i v e r v a l l e y s i d e , w i t h i n a r e g i o n of ground w a t e r seepage.  Here, f l o a t i s salmon p i n k o r  r e d i n c o l o r and i n t e n s e l y f r a c t u r e d .  Sample c o l o r i s  caused by f i n e l y d i v i d e d h y d r o u s i r o n o x i d e s .  Manganese  d e n d r i t e s a r e common on f r a c t u r e s u r f a c e s . Hornblende s y e n i t e f l o a t c o l l e c t e d i n the v i c i n i t y o f l e u c r o c r a t i c s y e n i t e b e d r o c k i s r e l a t i v e l y def i c i e n t i n i r o n , manganese and z i n c .  Correspondingly,  h y b r i d p h a s e s o f t h e b a t h o l i t h a r e o v e r l a i n by i r o n  rich  -145ancf p o t a s s i u m leucocratic  poor f l o a t .  E v i d e n t l y , i n c l u s i o n o f some  c h i p s i n the f o r m e r o r h y b r i d c h i p s i n the  l a t t e r case i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s e B,  results,  Discussion (a)  .Factors A f f e c t i n g Distribution  Hornblende  syenite  Trace Fete.!  f l o a t c o n t a i n s h a l f as much  copper as s i m i l a r b e d r o c k samples (means o f 85 v e r s u s 165 ppm), i c a l weathering environment.  ppm  p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t i n g the e f f e c t o f chemon c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s i n t h e  surficial  I n c o n t r a s t , the mean c o n t e n t and  o f v a l u e s o f i r o n , manganese, p o t a s s i u m  range  and z i n c  in  f l o a t and b e d r o c k d a t a are the same w i t h i n a n a l y t i c a l precision  ( T a b l e s XV and XII)„  When the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f any o f t h e s e elements i s examined, no t r e n d s are d i s c e r n a b l e which may ploration outline  f o r copper d e p o s i t s .  two  anomalies  w h i c h may  a i d i n ex-  Copper d a t a , however, h e l p i n t h e d e t e c t i o n of  p r e v i o u s l y unknown zones o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o r e x t e n s i o n s o f e x i s t i n g ones i n the s y e n i t e i n t r u s i o n . A l o g p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t o f copper d a t a (Pi g„  21A)  r e v e a l s two p o p u l a t i o n s and i r t h i s r e s p e c t i s s i m i l a r to o u t c r o p d a t a .  The mean, range and t h r e s h o l d o f pop-  u l a t i o n l a b e l l e d B o f T a b l e XVI and T a b l e XXVI are v e r y similar.  These p o p u l a t i o n s show l i m i t e d range i n m e t a l  c o n t e n t , p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s from a m i n e r a l i z e d p a r t of the b a t h o l i t h  (background).  nonThe  -146o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n seems r e l a t e d t o m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , w i t h t h r e s h o l d s o f 1300 ppm i n f l o a t and 900 ppm i n o u t c r o p data.  T h e i r mean and r a n g e , however, a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y A dif-  d i f f e r e n t , f o r w h i c h no e x p l a n a t i o n i s o f f e r e d . f e r e n c e i n b e d r o c k and f l o a t s a m p l i n g a d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n each o f t h e s e contributes t o the o v e r a l l  density results i n populations  results.  Two m a j o r copper a n o m a l i e s have been o u t l i n e d , one  o v e r l y i n g o r g l a c i a l l y "down i c e " from known e x p o s u r e s  o f m i n e r a l i z e d h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e and t h e o t h e r o v e r l y i n g b a r r e n N i c o l a v o l c a n i c s o r h y b r i d r o c k s a l o n g t h e Bonaparte River.  The f i r s t anomaly i s t h e l a r g e r o f t h e two  i n a r e a and i s composed o f a n g u l a r b l o c k s b e l i e v e d c l o s e to a source  o f copper s u l p h i d e s i n bedrock.  The second  was formed i n r e s p o n s e t o f l u v i a l t r a n s p o r t o f b o u l d e r s f o r d i s t a n c e s i n t h e o r d e r o f 4 m i l e s from t h e n o r t h and n o r t h e a s t  ( T i p p e r , 1971)  This hypothesis  from b e d r o c k and t i l l  i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e rounded  sources.  nature  o f t h e f l o a t b l o c k s and t h e i r v e i n e d and m i n e r a l i z e d character. (b)  Application to Exploration  F l o a t o r b o u l d e r t r a c i n g , as a g e o c h e m i c a l has  e x i s t e d p r i o r t o 1850  tool,  and has been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  the d i s c o v e r y o f many mines ( L e e , 1971).  Boulder  trains  and b o u l d e r t r a c i n g have been d e s c r i b e d by Kauranne (1967). Salmi  (1967), and B o l v i k e n (1967) i n S c a n d i n a v i a and by  147TABLE XXVI  Summary o f p o p u l a t i o n s d e t e c t e d , on l o g p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s o f hornblende s y e n i t e f l o a t data POPULATION A ELEMENT  °/o TOTAL POPULAT  MEAN  Cu  60  89  Zn  60  62  RANGE  POPULATION B ANOM- % TOTAL MEAN ALOUS POPULAT.  27-  920  40  79  53-  86  40  2,8  290  60  1.9  1.62.3  Mn  75  760  6401000  ¥L°/o  60  4.1  3.84.4  1240 4.9  ANOMALOUS  49-  200  58  4180  110  40  1.6  1.02.4  25  540  360780  40  3.2  2.34.3  73 Fe%  RANGE  125  .3.6  1120 5.0  THE  FIGURE 20  DANSEY-RAYFIELD RIVER  COPPER PROPERTY  DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER (PPM) WITHIN HORNBLENDE SYENITE FLOAT  N  T0PCG2APKIC LEGEND GE0IO3TC COJTTACT - « " » —  Contour  Intervol  —  Creeks,  and  100  leet  Rivers  Sworrps f~  I  Lakes Local  Grid  Control  5000 FEET  Points  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND . • £  LESS THAN 85 p 85 - 215 ppm 215 - 56O ppm  ^  MORE THAN 56O ppm  p m  149loopoo  50POO  lopoo  5000  1000-  500.  100  50.  10 0.01  _.L_ 0.1  FIGURE 2 1 A  LOG PROBABILITY PLOTS OF COPPER. AND POTASSIUM DATA FROM HORNBLENDE SYENITE FLOAT LEGEND A,B CONTRIBUTING POPULATIONS EXPERIMENTAL DATA POINTS +  -150 K» 0,000.  50P00.  I0p00-  5000.  1000.  ft  100.  50.  10  99.9 99.99  0.01 C.I F I G U R E 21B  LOG  P R O B A B I L I T Y PLOTS OF IRON, MANGANESE AND FROM HORNBLENDE S Y E N I T E FLOAT A,B + o  LEGEND CONTRIBUTING POPULATIONS EXPERIMENTAL DATA POINTS CALCULATED DATA POINTS  ZINC  DATA  • 151D r e i m a n i s ( 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 , and I 9 6 0 ) i n Canada. B o u l d e r s o f h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e f l o a t a r e found o v e r a more e x t e n s i v e  area than rocks  of the i n t r u s i o n i t s e l f ,  thus p r o v i d i n g a b e t t e r t a r g e t f o r mineral  exploration.  B o t h o f t h e a n o m a l i e s d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y c o v e r approxi m a t e l y 4- square m i l e s , one o v e r l y i n g m i n e r a l i z a t i o n and  t h e o t h e r f a r removed from a s o u r c e o f copper r i c h  bedrock,  A sample d e n s i t y o f one p e r square m i l e i s  p r o b a b l y s u f f i c i e n t f o r d e t e c t i o n o f t h e s e zones,  although  d e t a i l e d work would be r e q u i r e d f o r b e t t e r d e f i n i t i o n o f the l i m i t s o f any p a r t i c u l a r anomaly.  Values  ranging  from t h e mean o f 8 5 ppm c o p p e r t o i n e x c e s s o f t h e t h r e s h o l d o f 550 ppm a r e u n d o u b t e d l y o f s u f f i c i e n t magnitude t o l e n d inducement f o r f u r t h e r work needed t o l o c a t e t h e source o f t h i s metal.  Anomalous samples a r e m a i n l y  found, w i t h i n t h e a l r e a d y mentioned zones and r a r e l y o c c u r i n a sporadic  f a s h i o n e l s e w h e r e on t h e p r o p e r t y ,  P r o b l e m s o f a c c e s s and d e t e c t i o n o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n are o f s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h i s p r o p e r t y .  Ploat  of the f l u v i a l l y transported  anomaly o c c u r s b e s i d e an  e x c e l l e n t main g r a v e l r o a d .  Its mineralized  c h a r a c t e r , when i n s p e c t e d ,  i s sufficiently interesting  t o w a r r a n t an immediate s e a r c h  f o r i t s source.  t r a c i n g would i n e v i t a b l y l e a d t o d i s c o v e r y erty.  and v e i n e d  Boulder  of the prop-  The anomaly o v e r l y i n g m i n e r a l i z a t i o n would be de-  t e c t e d d u r i n g t h e second s t a g e o f e x p l o r a t i o n , when det a i l e d work a l o n g l o g g i n g and s e t t l e m e n t  r o a d s on t h e  / -152-  e a s t e r n p l a t e a u i s done.  Here, anomalous f l o a t b l o c k s  found o v e r a g r e a t e r a r e a  than the primary  sulphide  zone.  C o m p o s i t i o n of c o a r s e  f r a g m e n t s and t h e i r a n g u l a r i t y  (chapter 2,  - 50  84 was  pages 46  , and  c h a p t e r 5, pages 83  ) have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t r a n s p o r t o f f l o a t by not e x t e n s i v e .  indicate underlying  o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n p r e s e n t l y unknown because t h e y covered  by  5.  -  glaciers  D e t a i l e d i n s p e c t i o n by d r i l l i n g  t h i s anomaly, t h e r e f o r e , may  are  of  sources are  overburden. Soils A.  The  Trace Element D i s t r i b u t i o n  geographical  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f copper w i t h i n each  s o i l h o r i z o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o u n d i n the top o f ' B' h o r i z o n by Amax E x p l o r a t i o n , I n c . , ( P i g . 8 ) .  the The  mean, range and t h r e s h o l d v a l u e o f the t r a c e m e t a l cont e n t and pH i s l i s t e d i n T a b l e X X V I I . from 7 ppm  t o i n e x c e s s o f 3800 ppm,  g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n , s l o p e and  Copper v a l u e s depending on  are s i m i l a r i n many r e s p e c t s t o t h o s e  from t h e  plateau  valley  S e v e r a l s e l e c t e d p r o f i l e s have been chosen t o  i l l u s t r a t e t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P r o f i l e 100 and 108  ( F i g . 23B)  w h i l e p r o f i l e s 111 (Fig.  topo-  closeness to bedrock.  T r a c e element v a r i a t i o n s i n p r o f i l e s on the  sides.  vary  23D)  ( F i g . 23A)  are l o c a t e d on the p l a t e a u  surface,  ( F i g . 23C),  and  114  ( F i g . 23E)  are s i t u a t e d on the v a l l e y s i d e s ( F i g .  117 32),  S e v e r a l p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s remain e s s e n t i a l l y  -153constant, regardless of the slope of the topographic surface.  The o r g a n i c l i t t e r ,  'L-H' h o r i z o n , commonly  has t h e l o w e s t average pH (5°4), l o w e s t mean copper (27 ppm) and i r o n (0.8$) c o n t e n t  and t h e h i g h e s t  average z i n c (95 ppm), manganese (950 ppm) and o r g a n i c matter (not determined a n a l y t i c a l l y ) c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n any p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n .  Values  ments a r e m a r k e d l y d e c r e a s e d horizons.  When p r e s e n t  f o r t h e l a s t two e l e -  i n underlying mineral  'Ah' h o r i z o n s have a c h a r a c t e r  i n t e r m e d i a t e between o r g a n i c a c c u m u l a t i o n s soil  (Table  with-  and m i n e r a l  XXVII).  Copper c o n c e n t r a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e m i n e r a l s o i l i n c r e a s e s g e o m e t r i c a l l y t o t h e bottom o f t h e s e c t i o n (Fig. the  23A, B and D ) .  Accumulations  o f copper w i t h i n  'B* h o r i z o n , as i n p r o f i l e number 114 ( F i g . 23E) do  n o t appear t o be t y p i c a l .  I r o n content  o f the mineral  s o i l a l s o i n c r e a s e s l o g a r i t h m i c a l l y t o a maximum a t t h e bottom o f t h e s o i l p i t , w i t h i n t h e 'C h o r i z o n , f o r most o f t h e p r o f i l e s s t u d i e d ( F i g . 23A, B and D ) . e n r i c h m e n t o f i r o n w i t h i n t h e 'Bf',  Again,  'Bt' o r 'Bm' h o r i -  zons as i n p r o f i l e number 114 i s n o t g e n e r a l l y e n c o u n t ered.  Z i n c v a l u e s remain e s s e n t i a l l y constant  depth, having  with  c o n t e n t s between 49 ppm and 55 ppm on t h e  average ( T a b l e X X V I I ) .  Manganese, however, has a more  e r r a t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n , having  a minimum v a l u e n e a r t h e  c o n t a c t between t h e 'A' and »B' h o r i z o n s and t h e n i n c r e a s i n g w i t h d e p t h i f t h e pH o f t h e sample i s a l k a l i n e  -154( E i g s . 23A - D)o  pH i n c r e a s e s w i t h depth a t a v a r i a b l e  r a t e u n t i l a maximum o f up t o 9 . 2 ( u s u a l l y t h e pH i s 8 . 2 ) i s o b t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e 'C ' h o r i z o n ( F i g . 23B, C oa n  and E) .  Calcium  i s concentrated  at the top of the  h o r i z o n as c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e powder w h i c h c o a t s f r a g m e n t s and p e r m i a t e s t h e f i n e f r a c t i o n . h o r i z o n t y p i c a l l y c o n t a i n s 2$ t o 4$ c a l c i u m . s o i l or parent  1  C  coarse  The ' C„ oa  1  Otherwise,  m a t e r i a l h o r i z o n s t h a t a r e a c i d i c commonly  have l e s s t h a n 0 , 1 $ c a l c i u m w h i l e t h o s e w h i c h a r e b a s i c have between 0 . 5 $ and 1 , 0 $ . V a r i a t i o n s of t r a c e metal content p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s ( t h e 'C  i n underlying  horizon) i s independent o f  t r e n d s d e s c r i b e d f o r t h e o v e r l y i n g solum ('A' and 'B' horizons). units,  The 'C  each h a v i n g  c l a y and c o a r s e  h o r i z o n i s composed o f s t r a t i g r a p h i c a d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n o f sand,  fragments.  i s commonly a l k a l i n e  pH o f t h e p a r e n t  (mean pH o f 7.7)  l i t h o l o g i c u n i t sampled.  Horizons  silt,  material  and depends on t h e  containing large  q u a n t i t i e s o f h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e f l o a t u s u a l l y have r e l a t i v e l y h i g h copper c o n c e n t r a t i o n s .  Conversely,  units  composed o f g l a c i o f l u v i a l sands t y p i c a l l y have l o w copper and o t h e r t r a c e m e t a l c o n t e n t s .  Comparison o f a n a l y s e s  o f b e d r o c k i n c o n t a c t w i t h o v e r b u r d e n , when a v a i l a b l e , r e v e a l s t h a t copper i s n o t n o t i c e a b l y t r a n s l o c a t e d upwards t o t h e g l a c i a l  deposits.  An o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p l a t e a u and t h e steep  slopes o f the R a y f i e l d R i v e r v a l l e y i s the nature  -155and  thickness  o f t h e o v e r b u r d e n and t h e p r o x i m i t y  p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n t o known zones o f s u l p h i d e i z a t i o n i n bedrock.  mineral-  The v a l l e y s i d e s a r e t h i n l y m a n t l e d  by t a l u s d e b r i s from c r a g o u t c r o p s c o n t a i n i n g p y r i t e and b o r n i t e , readily available.  of a  chalco-  A s o u r c e f o r copper i s t h e r e f o r e Overburden on t h e p l a t e a u ,  however,  comes from an unknown s o u r c e t h a t was n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mineralized,  and may exceed f i f t y f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s .  I t s h o u l d n o t be u n e x p e c t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t c o p p e r v a l u e s on t h e p l a t e a u  while  a t t h e base o f t h e solum  range up t o 50 ppm c o p p e r , t h e y may exceed 3800 ppm a t the base o f t h e t a l u s s l o p e varies sympathetically, samples and r e a c h i n g  (Fig. 22).  The z i n c c o n t e n t  a v e r a g i n g 60 ppm i n p l a t e a u  300 ppm i n t a l u s s l o p e  the c o p p e r c o n t e n t exceeds 1000 ppm.  soils  Copper t o z i n c  r a t i o s are u s u a l l y l e s s than u n i t y i n p l a t e a u greater  s o i l s and  t h a n one i n samples from t h e v a l l e y s i d e s .  Cold e x t r a c t a b l e the p l a t e a u 231),  when  copper from m i n e r a l  horizons  a c c o u n t e d f o r 40$ t o 60$ o f t h e t o t a l ( F i g ,  A t t h e c r e s t o f t h e v a l l e y above t h e t a l u s  the p e r c e n t a g e o f c o l d e x t r a c t a b l e increased  to  extractable  on  copper t o t o t a l  70$ t o 97$ ( P i g . 2 3 H ) ,  copper c o n t e n t  slopes,  Highest  copper  cold  w i t h i n most p r o f i l e s a r e  observed i n the C^ ' h o r i z o n . 1  Talus slopes  have'the  Oct  greatest  absolute  concentration  of cold  extractable  m e t a l , b u t t h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o o n l y 40$ t o 80$ r e m o v a l o f t h e t o t a l as d e t e r m i n e d by c o n c e n t r a t e d h y d r o f l u o r i c perchloric acid attack  ( F i g . 23F).  LANDSCAPE 3600 TERTIARY H L£U 3400 e ^ T - ^ g s 32003000"  LU _1 LU  SURFACE GLACIAL  DEPOSITS-  ?  VARIATION  OF COPPER IN DIFFERENT  SOIL  i r r ~ i . - ^ ^  7  HORIZONS  10,0005000e  Q. O.  1000 500  (X LU Q. 0. O O  FIGURE 22  VARIATION OF COPPER IN SOILS ACROSS THE LANDSCAPE SURFACE  TOP OF ' C '  HORIZON  'Bf'  HORIZON  Cu  'Bm'  HORIZON  Cu Cu  'Ah' HORIZON 'L-H'  HORIZON  Cu  Cu  * — ^ f r T O P OF 'C' HORIZON • 'Bf'  HORIZON  CxCu  •  •fern' HORIZON  CxCu  *  *• 'Ah' HORIZON  CxCu  CxCu  5000 FEET SCALE  '  -157-  A  TEXTURE  PROFLE 1 0 0  REMARKS SURFACE  SLOPE  TEXTURE  PROFILE  108  REMARKS  SURFACE  5"W  2'S  SLOPE  ROUNDED LEUCROCRATIC SYENITE FLOAT BLOCKS  c  PROFLE  III SURFACE  SLOPE  D  45* E  PROFLE  IIT SURFACE  SLOPE  35*W  MALACHITE STAINED MALACHITE HORNBLENDE  STANEO  SYENITE  LOAM  BLOCKS  HORNBLENDE  :0f  SYENITE  AND  BLOCKS  pp.q  TALUS  AND  £••0:  FINES  TALUS  SAND FINES  m C u - p p m 10 Zn-ppm I F«-% I Mn ppmlOO  SLOPE  5  1000 100  7 9 PH  10 0000  PERCENT COARSE FRAGMENTS WITHIN SOIL PROFILE ABBREVIATIONS  PROFILE 114 SURFACE  100 10 I 1000  90*W  1  t:  "  J  0 - 3 %  L-H  5-20%  E 3  20 - 4 0 % 40-70%  LOAM  70SHADED  ROUNDED BASALTIC FLOAT BLOCKS  WATER C u - p p m lO Zn-ppm I Fe-% I Mn-ppmICO  100 10 I 1000  FIGURE 23  1000 100 10 10000  5 7 pH  SATURATED  INDICATE  SYENITE  P E R ABOVE  OTHERWISE  to  DS  100%  FRAGMENTS  HORNBLENDE AS  ON  SCALE N O T E D  GEOCHEMICAL  FRACTION UNLESS IN  LEGEND  LITTER  BEDROCK  F  FLOAT  Cu  Cu  DOUGLAS  FIR N E E D L E S  DOUGLAS  FIR S T E M S  Cu  Cu  PN  LODGEPOLE  PINE  NEEDLES Cu  PS  LODGEPOLE  PINE  STEMS  Cu  REMARKS TOPOGRAPHIC  Cu - ppm  VALLEY  Zn - ppm .  PLATEAU  FE  LEAF  T  SIDE  LEGEND  PROFILES  PROFILES  - %  MN - ppm  TRACE ELEMENT DSTRIBUTION AND pH IN SOIL PROFILES, -80 MESH FRACTION  111,114,117 100,  108  -158-  F  TEXTURE  TEXTURE  REMARKS  PROFILE in  SURFACE  SLOPE  PROFILE  REMARKS  M2  SURFACE  SLOPE  45'E  45'E  TO  MALACHITE  SANDY  STAINED  LOAM  •10  HORNBLENDE SYENITE BLOCKS  •20  AND TALUS  SANDY  FINES  LOAM  •30 HIGH  CONTENT OF  ORGANIC  MATTER  WATER  -40  SATURATED  •50  H  PROFILE 5  I SURFACE  I!  THINLY  SLOPE  I5'E  BEDDED  L-H.  -o  *"C o \ •.  o  SANDY CLAY  •5*  C  2C . |  •=1 3 C :  Cu-ppm 10 Co-ppmlOO .  -100  1000  OjOOO  7 pH  /  \  /  100 000  1000  opoo  .5  -  7 9 0 6 0 8 10 pH C«Cu/Cu  TOPOGRAPHIC LEGEND  ppm  VALLEY  C*Cu - ppm  9 0 6 0 8 10  SIDE  PLATEAU  PROFILES  PROFILES  C o - ppm  CXGJA^I PROFILE  FIGURE 23  i  : ;  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND Cu  5  .STRONG VERY •I C O A H S I . I'LATY  i !  ! !  OOO  i  :i  •!  SYMBOLS  SLOPE  V  <=Co \  -80  OO  1  —*=*  jcn!-40  :\  i  I SURFACE  BI  -20  -60  PROFILE 8 I; ! I i I  |  A N D ABBREVIATIONS  ON  PRECEEOlNG  PAGE  TRACE ELEMENT DISTRIBUTION AND pH IN SOIL. PROFILES, "80 MESH FRACTION  III, 112  5, 8  3°S  -159-  Table XXVII T r a c e e l e m e n t c o n t e n t (ppm) a n d pH o f d i f f e r e n t s o i l h o r i z o n s , - 8 0 mesh f r a c t i o n , nitric/perchloric acid attack  L-H HORIZON  Cu  Threshold Mean Range  Zn  Threshold Mean Range Threshold Mean Range  Mn  PH  210  27  10-75 245  95 60-150 2.1 0.8  0.5-1.3 3000 950  Ah HORIZON  Ae HORIZON  Bm HORIZON  Bf HORIZON  BC HORIZON  C HORIZON  290  1500  650  910  28-230  32-300  340 33 10-105  20-120  380 70  175 5532-100  115 50 33-75  2.8 1.8  2.5 1.2 0.8-1.7  4800 640  730 49 13-190 31-165 1.4-2.2  Threshold Mean Range  5^0-1700  230-1700  1150 500 330-770  Number of samples  26  *9  10  ^Threshold Mean Range* -Threshold  '6.5 4.5-6.2 4.4  7.2  6.5 6.0  Number o f samples  28  6.1  4.8-7.8 5.0 19  5.7-6.2  5.5  10  48  3.7  140  44-460 145  55 32-85  1.9  3-5 2.5 2.1-3.0  1000  1500  1.4-2.7 380  240-620  32 8.1 6.3 5.1-8.6 4.6 35  440 240-800  9 7.8 6.8 5.7-7.3 5.8 8  Range* i s t h e a c t u a l r a n g e o f measurements; made i n t h e f i e l d , f o r pH o n l y  80  100  160 55 30-95 4.1 2.4 1.8-3.1  1.7-2.8  1950 580 320-1050  1450 580 360-920  11  93  7.5 6.6 6.1-7.3 5.8  10  140  50 31-85 3.5 2.2  9.5 7.7  5.3-9.2 5.9  73  -160B„  Discussion (a)  F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Trace Element tribution i.  Dis-  Introduction  Copper has been c o n c e n t r a t e d i n s o i l s w h i c h have d e v e l o p e d on t h e s i d e s o f t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r v a l l e y . Few  samples e n r i c h e d i n t h i s m e t a l have been f o u n d e l s e -  where on t h e p r o p e r t y .  The o c c u r r e n c e o f s o i l s  enhanced  i n copper on t a l u s s l o p e s p r o v i d e a n o t h e r example  of  anomaly f o r m a t i o n caused by d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f c o p p e r r i c h bedrock, ii.  Mechanisms o f f o r m a t i o n o f copper anomalies  A t y p i c a l s e t o f copper v a l u e s w i t h i n t h e  1  B  1  h o r i z o n a c r o s s t h o l a n d s c a p e m i g h t be r e p o r t e d as 50 on t h e p l a t e a u , 400 ppm 2000 ppm  at the c r e s t of the v a l l e y  i n t a l u s m a t e r i a l s , 100 ppm  p o s i t s o f t h e r i v e r and 200 ppm 22),  i n alluvial  ppm  sides,  de-  i n r i v e r sediment ( F i g ,  T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t copper i s p r e f e r -  e n t i a l l y enriched i n t a l u s m a t e r i a l which, i n t u r n , suggests a reconnaissance e x p l o r a t i o n t o o l which i s r a r e l y used — may  t a l u s f i n e sampling,  A copper  anomaly  form w i t h i n t a l u s i n one o f two manners, m e c h a n i c a l  concentration of sulphide minerals or p r e c i p i t a t i o n of d i s s o l v e d m e t a l from m i g r a t i n g ground w a t e r s o l u t i o n s . The chances o f t a l u s anomaly  f o r m a t i o n by mech-  a n i c a l a c c u m u l a t i o n o f s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l g r a i n s i s exc e l l e n t i n a l k a l i n e e n v i r o n m e n t s , where l e a c h i n g i s  -161s l o w , and s u l p h i d e s form v e i n s and o c c u r a l o n g f r a c t u r e s . W e a t h e r i n g most e a s i l y a t t a c k s t h e s e zones o f weakness i n the o u t c r o p .  Copper m i n e r a l s become d i s l o d g e d  f a l l n e a r the base o f t h e e x p o s u r e .  Eventually,  b r e a k o f f the o u t c r o p , and l a r g e r b l o c k s and  and chips  finer  m a t e r i a l ( m a i n l y f e l d s p a r but a l s o s u l p h i d e s ) accumulate w i t h p r e v i o u s l y weathered p r o d u c t s t o form a t a l u s  cone.  I t can be p r e d i c t e d t h a t , because o f t h e n a t u r e of t h e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , the c o a r s e b l o c k s are r e l a t i v e l y p l e t e d i n copper v e r s u s the f i n e m a t e r i a l .  de-  Thus, as  o n l y t h e f i n e s a r e sampled, an enhancement i n v a l u e s o f t h i s m e t a l i s t o be e x p e c t e d . Ground w a t e r may  transport significant  o f copper when t h e pH i s l e s s t h a n 5.5 b a s i c (Krauskopf, 1967).  quantities  or moderately  D e p o s i t i o n can be caused by  an i n c r e a s e i n t h e a l k a l i n i t y o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , a h i g h r a t e o f w a t e r e v a p o r a t i o n o r an abundance o f an a b s o r b i n g medium such as s e c o n d a r y hydrous i r o n manganese o x i d e s .  and  S o l u t i o n and p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f copper  i s c e r t a i n l y o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the t a l u s , b u t a  knowledge  o f the d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d by t h e ground w a t e r i s o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e t o the f u t u r e o f subsequent a t i o n programs. s h o r t l y be  explor-  An e s t i m a t i o n o f t h i s d i s t a n c e  will  discussed.  E i t h e r o f t h e s e p r o c e s s may t o form a t a l u s anomaly,  act alone or  combined  and t h e p r o b l e m r e m a i n s t o  d i s t i n g u i s h among t h e v a r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  Several  methods o f a t t a c k a r e p o s s i b l e , such as s i z e  fraction  -162a n a l y s i s , m i c r o s c o p i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s u l p h i d e mine r a l s i n the -80 mesh f r a c t i o n o r c o l d e x t r a c t i o n t e c h niques.  O n l y the l a s t method was  C o l d e x t r a c t a b l c copper may  studied i n d e t a i l . be d e r i v e d from many  s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g s e c o n d a r y m i n e r a l s such as metal to  malachite,  adsorbed to c l a y m i n e r a l s u r f a c e s (weakly  s i l i c a t e s ) , metal  bonded  a d s o r b e d t o p r e c i p i t a t e s w h i c h have  a h i g h s u r f a c e a r e a such as s e c o n d a r y hydrous i r o n manganese o x i d e s , s i l i c a t e bound m e t a l and metal.  The  l a s t two  and  sulphide  s o u r c e s have r e l a t i v e l y  strong  bonds compared w i t h the f i r s t t h r e e and must r e m a i n i n the sample i f t h e weak a t t a c k i s t o be s u c c e s s f u l . The  low p e r c e n t a g e o f c o l d e x t r a c t a b l c copper on  t h e p l a t e a u ( F i g , 231)  i s p r o b a b l y an i n d i c a t i o n o f  s i l i c a t e bonded m e t a l , m a i n l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l a y minerals. till,  S u l p h i d e s , i f i n i t i a l l y present i n the  glacial  have weathered and been a d s o r b e d t o c l a y m i n e r a l  s u r f a c e s w h i c h i s t h e n removed by the weak a t t a c k . At the c r e s t o f the v a l l e y , m i n e r a l i z e d b e d r o c k and f l o a t s t a i n e d by m a l a c h i t e  are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t  h i g h c o l d e x t r a c t a b l e m e t a l v a l u e s w i l l be (Fig. to  23H),  The  determined  high percentage of c o l d e x t r a c t a b l e  t o t a l copper c o n t e n t u n d o u b t e d l y r e f l e c t s  weathering  of primary  v a l u e between the two the r e m a i n i n g  chemical  s u l p h i d e s and the d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t a c k s i s t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n from  s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l s o r the s t r o n g l y bonded  s i l i c a t e metal.  The  'G h o r i z o n i s s l i g h t l y dif-oa f e r e n t , as t h e r a t i o o f the two t y p e s o f copper i s 1  n  -163i s approximately u n i t y .  The pH a p p r o a c h i n g  horizon'increases r a p i d l y , concomitantly  t h e ' C^ '  decreasing  the m o b i l i t y o f copper d i s s o l v e d i n s o l u t i o n . to  be e x p e c t e d ,  therefore, that the ' ' Oa  It is  would have  the h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f w e a k l y bonded c o p p e r o f any h o r i z o n w i t h i n t h e s o i l  profile.  Samples c o l l e c t e d from t a l u s s l o p e s c o n t a i n t h e g r e a t e s t c o l d e x t r a c t a b l e and t o t a l copper c o n t e n t o f any t h u s f a r d e s c r i b e d .  These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t  t h i s m e t a l has u n d o u b t e d l y water,  been t r a n s p o r t e d i n ground  although i t i s not p o s s i b l e to a s c e r t a i n the  distances involved.  I t i s p o s s i b l e , f o r example, t h a t  t h e c o l d e x t r a c t a b l e copper c o n t e n t m e r e l y i c a l weathering,  r e f l e c t s chem-  i n s i t u , of primary minerals.  What i s  more i m p o r t a n t , however, i s t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p e r c e n t age o f copper w h i c h has remained i n t h e p u l p a f t e r comp l e t i o n o f t h e weak a t t a c k .  This content i s i n d i c a t i v e  of the p r o p o r t i o n o f primary sulphides i n i t i a l l y present i n t h e sample. U n d o u b t e d l y , d e p o s i t i o n from seepage i s i m p o r t a n t at t h e t o e o f t h e t a l u s s l o p e where w a t e r i n t e r a c t s with s l i g h t l y acidic s o i l s .  Copper, z i n c and o r g a n i c  m a t t e r a r e e n r i c h e d t o v a l u e s h i g h e r than any o t h e r i n t h e 'B' h o r i z o n on t h e p r o p e r t y ( F i g . 23G).  found  Solu-  b i l i t y o f copper and z i n c i s f a v o r e d by o x i d a t i o n o f primary  s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l s which s l i g h t l y a c i d i f i e s the  ground w a t e r ,  e n a b l i n g h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f copper  and o t h e r c o n s t i t u e n t s t o r e m a i n i n s o l u t i o n .  Subsequent  -164d e p o s i t i o n o c c u r s when w a t e r i s l o s t t h r o u g h e v a p o r a t i o n o r i n s o l u b l e o r g a n i c complexes  a r e formed.  t h o u g h t t h e case f o r the h i g h t r a c e element p r o f i l e 112 arc  Such i s content of  ( F i g . 23G) , a l t h o u g h c o l d e x t r a c t i o n d a t a  not a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n .  With the e x c e p t i o n  o f t h i s p r o f i l e , m e c h a n i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n appears more i m p o r t a n t t o anomaly f o r m a t i o n t h a n d e p o s i t i o n from ground w a t e r on t h i s p r o p e r t y . Most samples i n F i g . 8 were t a k e n  t h a t are h i g h i n copper  from t a l u s s l o p e s .  T a l u s samples were n o t  t r e a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y as a s e p a r a t e p o p u l a t i o n by Amax, and hence zones where e n r i c h m e n t s a r e g r e a t e s t can o n l y qualitatively contour.  be a p p r o x i m a t e d by t a k i n g , say t h e 500  ppm  Once a c c o m p l i s h e d , the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t a l u s  f i n e s a m p l i n g i n p o i n t i n g t o m i n e r a l i z e d zones i n b e d r o c k becomes a p p a r e n t . Few t a l u s samples  c o n t a i n l e s s copper t h a n 50  a t y p i c a l l y h i g h v a l u e f o r s o i l s on the p l a t e a u . v a l u e s i n e x c e s s o f 1000 ppm  are r e s t r i c t e d  ppm,  Copper  to t a l u s  s o i l s c o l l e c t e d between C r a t e r Lake and tho Z bend, a l o n g b o t h banks o f t h e r i v e r .  As o u t c r o p e x p o s u r e s a r e n o t  c o n t i n u o u s , m e t a l v a l u e s are d i s t r i b u t e d i n an fashion.  erratic  S a m p l i n g o f t a l u s on a d j a c e n t s i d e s o f t h e  r i v e r i s n e c e s s a r y because  copper a n o m a l i e s do n o t  u s u a l l y encompass b o t h b a n k s .  The d i s p e r s i o n t r a i n o f  copper i n t a l u s f i n e s i s more c o n f i n e d t h a n i n c o e x i s t i n g stream s e d i m e n t s and hence p r o v i d e s a b e t t e r method f o r  -165l o c a l i z i n g a t t e n t i o n t o zones o f  copper e n r i c h m e n t  i n bedrock. iii.  Influence of size f r a c t i o n , organic m a t t e r , pH, c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e , c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s , h o r i z o n and t o p ography on t r a c e clement c o n t e n t s  Several f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f copper i n d i f f e r e n t s o i l h o r i z o n s .  These i n c l u d e t h e  s i z e f r a c t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n , organic matter and c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e fragments,  content, nature  c o n t e n t , pH  of the coarse  d e p t h o f t h e h o r i z o n from t h e ground s u r f a c e  and t o p o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n o f t h o p r o f i l e on t h e l a n d scape s u r f a c e .  F o r those  f a c t o r s n o t s t u d i e d i n do-  t a i l here, q u a l i t a t i v e f i e l d notes  and l i t e r a t u r e  r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be i n c l u d e d so t h a t t h e d i s c u s s i o n i s complete. When s o i l s a r e u s e d as a g e o c h e m i c a l sample, i t i s i n t u i t i v e l y assumed t h a t many p o p u l a t i o n s a r e b e i n g considered.  Organic  r i c h samples c o n t a i n i n g g r e a t e r  t h a n 50?o o r g a n i c m a t t e r  are t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y i n tho  Canadian and o t h e r s o i l  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes as o f  1971  and so t h o 'L-H' i s c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y h e r e .  S i m i l a r l y , an attempt has been made t o s u b d i v i d e s o i l s on t h o b a s i s o f g e n e t i c p r o c e s s e s  mineral  which a c t t o  form t h e d i f f e r e n t h o r i z o n s .  F a i l u r e to recognize  h o r i z o n a t i o n may s u b s e q u e n t l y  prove m i s l e a d i n g t o  f u t u r e work (Warren e t a l , 1966A).  F o r most p u r p o s e s ,  s u b d i v i s i o n ends h e r e w i t h o u t d e l e t e r i o u s s i d e P r o b l e m s , however, may a r i s e when sandy s o i l s  effects. with  -166littlc  c l a y a r c compared w i t h c l a y e y s o i l s w i t h  sand.  Obvious d i f f e r e n c e s i n m i n e r a l o g y  little  and a d s o r p t i v e  c a p a b i l i t i e s w i l l a f f e c t t h e t r a c e element c o n t e n t o f a sample.  Hence, s i z e f r a c t i o n a n a l y s e s a r o d e s i r a b l e  when such cases a r i s e , example, found  B a r a k s o e t a l (1971), f o r  a d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n of elemental  w i t h mesh s i z e a n a l y s e d .  I n tho present study, s e v e r a l  s e c t i o n s c o n t a i n sand beds o r l e n s e s w h i c h , surrounded  by g l a c i a l t i l l s  wore t h e m s e l v e s  content  although  o r b e d r o c k h i g h i n copper,  r e l a t i v e l y poor i n t h i s metal.  Care  i n g e n e t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d when o n l y types o f m a t e r i a l are a v a i l a b l e f o r study.  these  Their tcx-  t u r a l p e c u l i a r i t y must bo r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e subsequent f o r m u l a t i o n o f any t h e o r y on m e t a l m i g r a t i o n o r deposition. Tho  o r g a n i c m a t t e r c o n t e n t o f any h o r i z o n may bo  i m p o r t a n t f o r some elements (Warren e t a l , 1966A). A l though t h o p e r c e n t a g e determined  o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r has n o t boon  a n a l y t i c a l l y , an a p p r o x i m a t i o n  t o i t s con-  c e n t r a t i o n has been made on t h e b a s i s o f c o l o u r , pH and h o r i z o n d e s i g n a t i o n .  Contrary to the r e s u l t s o f  Warren e t a l (1966A) and S c o t t ( 1 9 6 5 ) , t h e 'L-H' h o r i z o n on t h i s p r o p e r t y u s u a l l y has t h e l o w e s t copper v a l u e w i t h i n t h e p r o f i l e , i n agreement w i t h B a r a k s o e t a l (1971).  Z i n c a n a l y s e s , however, a r o i n a c c o r d a n c e  w i t h t r e n d s found by a l l t h e s e w o r k e r s .  High  percent-  ages o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r were found t o c o e x i s t w i t h s i m i l a r l y h i g h manganese c o n t e n t s , whereas t h e r e l a t i o n -  s h i p i s a n t i p a t h e t i c f o r the case o f i r o n i n t h i s study.  S o i l s c l a s s i f i e d as o r g a n i c o r bogs were n o t  investigated. pH was  shown to be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t r a c e e l e -  ment c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n a s t u d y by B a r a k s o e t a l ( 1 9 7 1 ) . The p r e s e n c e o f c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e w i t h i n tho  ' C~ ' h o r i z o n may oa  as a p r e c i p i t a t e  have a d r a m a t i c i n f l u e n c e  on the copper c o n t e n t , as seen i n c h a p t e r 3, pages 154  - 163.  When the a l k a l i n i t y o f the e n v i r o n m e n t i n -  c r e a s e s , copper g e n e r a l l y p r e c i p i t a t e s a c c o r d i n g t o e q u a t i o n 1 (page 1 0 9 ) .  The maximum c o n t e n t  m e t a l i n tho p r o f i l e s h o u l d l i o w i t h i n t h e  of  this  'C~ ' h o r Oa  i z o n because tho r a t e o f change o f pH i s g r e a t e s t  hero,  a l l o w i n g f o r more c o p p e r d e p o s i t i o n t h a n e l s e w h e r e i n the s e c t i o n .  This d i s t r i b u t i o n agrees w i t h  by H o r s n a i l and E l l i o t t The  observations  ( 1 9 7 1 ) on tho same p r o p e r t y .  f o l l o w i n g g e n e t i c sequence f o r t h i s t y p e o f anomaly  formation i s  suggested.  Copper d i s s o l v e s from m i n e r a l i z e d f l o a t during chemical weathering  blocks  n e a r the ground s u r f a c e  e n t e r s t h e f i n e f r a c t i o n o f the s o i l . p r e s e n t i n tho f i n e f r a c t i o n as p r i m a r y has l o n g s i n c e d i s s o l v e d and i s now adsorbed t o s i l i c a t e l a t t i c e s .  Copper i n i t i a l l y sulphides  thought present  This c o n t r i b u t i o n to  the s o i l r e s u l t s i n a h i g h b a c k g r o u n d c o n t e n t found the b a t h o l i t h .  Prolonged  d e r i v e d from b o t h s o u r c e s n e a r the  'C  n  ' horizon.  and  over  l e a c h i n g t r a n s p o r t s metal downward and d e p o s i t i o n o c c u r s The  r a t i o of c o l d e x t r a c t a b l e  • 168t o t o t a l copper s h o u l d i n c r e a s e down tho p r o f i l e , i f t h i s genesis the case  i s v a l i d , which indeed  ( F i g 23H).  Horizons  appears t o bo  found b e l o w t h e 'G ' n  oa u s u a l l y range i n pH between 8.1 and 8.5, a c o n d i t i o n unfavorable  f o r m i g r a t i o n o f copper on t h e same s c a l e  as t h a t found f o r h o r i z o n s above t h e C ~ Thus, i t oa i s u n l i k e l y t h a t copper from u n d e r l y i n g m i n e r a l i z e d b e d r o c k c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o v a l u e s seen i n t h e 'C~ '. The amount o f copper o b s e r v e d i n t h i s oa 1  h o r i z o n may be a measure o f t h e l c a c h a b l e and t o t a l metal content present  i n overlying soil  Nature of t h e coarse  horizons.  fragments i s i m p o r t a n t  they c o n t a i n t r a c e s of sulphide m i n e r a l s . over the b a t h o l i t h aro predominontly  when  Float blocks  hornblende s y e n i t e .  R e s u l t s o f t h e s u r v e y by Amax E x p l o r a t i o n , I n c . , ( F i g . 8) showed t h a t i s o l a t e d anomalous copper v a l u e s on t h o p l a t e a u were caused by sample c o l l e c t i o n i n c l o s e imity to mineralized boulders.  prox-  S i m i l a r e f f e c t s are  a l s o v i s i b l e w i t h i n t r e n c h p r o f i l e s , whore a h i g h  per-  centage o f h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e f l o a t i s accompanied b y measurement o f h i g h c o p p e r v a l u e s . i z o n s which c o n t a i n l i t t l e  hor-  o r no h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e  b l o c k s a r e o n l y r a r e l y anomalous. necessary  Conversely,  I t i s therefore  t o i d e n t i f y t h i s type o f source  f o r copper  and d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t from any c o n t r i b u t i o n s from u n d e r l y i n g m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n bedrock. Depth o f t h o sampled h o r i z o n a f f e c t s such s u b j e c t s as i n t r o d u c t i o n and d e c o m p o s i t i o n  o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r and  • 169o l u v i a t i o n and t r a n s l o c a t i o n o f c l a y m i n e r a l s ,  scsqui-  o x i d o s , o r g a n i c m a t t e r , t r a c e elements and c a l c i u m carbonate.  A c c e s s o r y p r o p e r t i e s which v a r y w i t h depth  i n c l u d e pH and l e v e l o f t h o w a t e r t a b l e .  Most o f  these f a c t o r s are d i s c u s s e d elsewhere (Boar, 1964). A f e a t u r e o f i m p o r t a n c e hero i s t h e e f f e c t o f i n t e r a c t i o n s o f topography w i t h t h e water t a b l e . o f anomaly f o r m a t i o n i n seepage described  The case  a r e a s has been p r e v i o u s l y  ( c h a p t e r 3, pages 161 - 165) and d e p o s i t i o n o f  copper, z i n c and o r g a n i c m a t t e r from ground w a t e r h a s a l s o been o u t l i n e d i n c h a p t e r 3, pages 163 - 1 6 5 ) . D e p o s i t i o n i n seepages and from ground w a t e r a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f copper e n r i c h m e n t s a t t h e toe o f the t a l u s Topography  slope. can e f f e c t a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f energy  within genetic processes involved i n s o i l formation. The f o l l o w i n g examples  illustrate this  relationship.  M e c h a n i c a l e r o s i o n , by r u n o f f , o f s u r f a c e h o r i z o n s l i m i t s t h e v e r t i c a l development  of the s o i l .  W e a t h e r i n g and  g r a v i t y combine t o move t a l u s d e b r i s w i t h c o n c o m i t a n t f o r m a t i o n o f copper a n o m a l i e s .  Chemical r e a c t i o n s  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e r a t e o f movement o f ground w a t e r and i t s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h m a t e r i a l through which i t passes are a l s o enhanced b y s t e e p s l o p e s .  Seepage a n o m a l i e s  d e v e l o p i n r e s p o n s e t o r a p i d changes o f s u r f a c e  slope.  S o i l g e n e s i s i s l i k e w i s e a f f e c t e d by g r o u n d w a t e r p e r colation.  Well drained conditions  favor the formation  o f p o d z o l s w h i c h , i n t u r n , have t h o a b i l i t y t o scavenge  - -170and c o n c e n t r a t e t r a c e m e t a l s from ground w a t e r .  Horsnail  (1971) suggest t h a t p o d z o l s are a l s o f a v o r e d  and E l l i o t t  by s t e e p s l o p e s .  Coarse t e x t u r e s , however, a l s o promote  rapid drainage.  I n the p r e s e n t example, a  combination  o f s o i l t e x t u r e and s l o p e i n c r e a s e s t h o chances of podzol formation along the v a l l e y s i d e s . iv.  Choice o f h o r i z o n f o r s a m p l i n g purposes  E a c h s o i l h o r i z o n was  t r e a t e d as a s e p a r a t e popu-  l a t i o n and tho moan, range and t h r e s h o l d v a l u e s wore c a l c u l a t e d (Table XXVII).  A comparison of  these  measurements i n d i f f e r e n t h o r i z o n s shows t h a t t h e h o r i z o n has t h e l o w e s t c o p p e r v a l u e s (27 ppm,  and 210  ppm  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) w h i l e the  of i r o n enrichment, ppm,  and 1500  s o i l , the  ppm  10  ppm,  i v e l y ) w h i l e the  'C  - 105  ppm,  Fig.  44 -  460  V/ithin the m i n e r a l  and 340 ppm  respect-  h o r i z o n , i n the absence o f a  i s commonly h i g h e s t i n t h i s m e t a l ppm  75  'Bf', a zone  has the h i g h e s t (140 ppm,  respectively).  -  'Ac' h o r i z o n , a zone o f l e a c h i n g , i s l o w e s t  i n copper (33  and 910  10  ppm,  'L-H'  (100  ppm,  32  'Bf,  - 300  ppm  rcspoctivoly). 22 was  drawn showing t h o i n f l u e n c e o f  topo-  g r a p h i c s l o p e on t h o copper d i s t r i b u t . on i n d i f f e r e n t s o i l horizons. 'L-H'  The  i s not g r o a t .  range i n m e t a l v a l u e s w i t h i n t h e When c o u p l e d w i t h p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d  d u r i n g a n a l y s i s o f o r g a n i c samples, t h e r e a poor demarcation  t e n d s t o bo  o f the l a t e r a l e x t e n t o f the anomaly.  171Thus, on F i g . 22, tho c o p p e r anomaly i n t h e 'L-H' h o r i z o n i s s m a l l compared w i t h t h a t o f o t h e r h o r i z o n s and only o v e r l i e s areas of anomaly i n tho 'Ah',  known o u t c r o p e x p o s u r e s .  Tho  a m i n e r a l h o r i z o n c o n t a i n i n g a few  p e r c e n t o r g a n i c m a t t e r , i s s l i g h t l y l a r g e r and i s formed by v a l u e s two t o t h r e e t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e found i n the 'L-H'.  The  'Ae' h o r i z o n i s not f o u n d o v e r a s u f f i c -  i e n t l y wide a r e a t o be c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . The  'B' h o r i z o n p r o v i d e s the most r e l i a b l e  samples.  I t i s found at a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x i n c h e s i n d e p t h  and  i s , t h e r e f o r e , e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o s a m p l i n g methods. The  'Bf  h o r i z o n , as a l r e a d y n o t e d , has t h e g r e a t e s t  range i n coppor v a l u e s and i s p r o b a b l y the u n i t most s u i t e d f o r d e t e c t i o n of areas e n r i c h e d i n copper. f o r t u n a t e l y , the ' B f  Un-  i s a l s o not w i d e l y f o u n d , and  cannot be used as a r e g i o n a l s a m p l i n g t o o l .  The  so  'Bt'  h o r i z o n , formed by t r a n s l o c a t i o n o f c l a y m i n e r a l s , i s l e s s common and t h e r e f o r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d .  Thus, o n l y  t h e 'Bm'  horizon also  and  'C  h o r i z o n s remain  i s not found e x t e n s i v e l y ) .  ( t h e 'BC  E x a m i n a t i o n of P i g . 22 shows  t h a t b o t h are e q u a l l y s u i t a b l e i n d e f i n i n g t h e anomaly.  The  zone o u t l i n e d i s l a r g e r t h a n t h a t  copper found  i n t h o 'A' h o r i z o n and c l o s e l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o a r e a s s u r r o u n d i n g known e x p o s u r e s o f m i n e r a l i z e d V a l u e s w i t h i n the *C  h o r i z o n are two t o t h r e e t i m e s  g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e 'Bm' section.  bedrock.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , tho 'C  within a particular i s o n l y found s i x t o  t w e l v e i n c h e s deeper t h a n t h e 'Bm  1  and hence i s l e s s  amenable t o r a p i d sample c o l l e c t i o n .  Thus, i t i s sug-  g e s t e d t h a t t h e 'Bm', a h o r i z o n o n l y m o d e r a t e l y  changed  from u n d e r l y i n g p a r e n t m a t e r i a l , be sampled a t an app r o x i m a t e l y c o n s t a n t depth o f s i x t o e i g h t i n c h e s f o r e x p l o r a t i o n p u r p o s e s where s o i l s a m p l i n g i s r e q u i r e d . O t h e r h o r i z o n s may have b e n e f i c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , b u t require excessive e f f o r t f o r routine surveys.  Data from  the t o p o f t h e 'B' h o r i z o n a r e p l o t t e d i n F i g . 8, comp i l e d by Amax E x p l o r a t i o n , I n c . b.  Application to Exploration  S o i l s a m p l i n g h a s been used s u c c e s s f u l l y  since  1950 t o l o c a t e zones o f s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n .  Since  t h e n , numerous s t u d i e s by g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s , m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n companies  and u n i v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h e r s have  boon u n d e r t a k e n w i t h v a r i a b l e degrees o f s u c c e s s ( F o r g o r o n , 1971)=  R e s u l t s o f some o f t h o s e s u r v e y s  have been d e s c r i b e d by Hawkes and Webb (1962) and a r c i n d e x e d by Hawkes (1970).  Other papers p e r i o d i c a l l y  appear i n g e o l o g i c a l j o u r n a l s o r a r c on f i l e  at pro-  v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l b u r e a u o f mines o f f i c e s . C l i m a t e and r e c e n t g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s have i n t e r a c t e d t o form an a l k a l i n e g e o c h e m i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t  which  i s t y p i c a l o f many thousands o f square m i l e s i n c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia.  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f ground  water  a c t i o n on anomaly f o r m a t i o n i s s e v e r e l y c u r t a i l e d , a l though some copper may be t r a n s p o r t e d i n s o l u t i o n  • 173(Bloom, 1 9 6 6 ) .  Chances o f g e o c h e m i c a l e x p r e s s i o n o f  b e d r o c k m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , c o n s e q u e n t l y , d e c r e a s e s as t h e t h i c k n e s s of overburden i n c r e a s e s . Tho g e o c h e m i c a l anomaly i n s o i l s o v e r l y i n g t h e p r o p e r t y , d e t e r m i n e d by Amax ( F i g . 8 ) , i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 miles long, along the R a y f i e l d River.  G r e a t e s t coppor  v a l u e s , n o a r t h e base o f t h e v a l l e y s i d e w i t h i n  talus  m a t e r i a l , o c c u r n o r t h o f t h e Z bend a l o n g t h e r i v e r . A n a l y s e s from t h e p r e s e n t s u r v e y have y i e l d e d a contrastr a t i o f o r copper o f 3.3 f o r t h i s anomaly.  Bedrock  o u t c r o p s as c r a g s n e a r t h e c r e s t o f t h e v a l l e y  that  contains  v i s i b l e b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t o , p r o v i d i n g a s o u r c e o f copper w h i c h , under t h o i n f l u e n c e o f w e a t h e r i n g and g r a v i t y , moves downslope formation.  and c o n t r i b u t e s t o anomaly  Seepage and s p r i n g s a r e a l s o common and may  bo a s i g n a l showing t h a t a d d i t i o n o f t r a c e e l e m e n t s from solution i s probable.  Thus, a s o u r c e o f c o p p e r and  mechanisms f o r i t s t r a n s p o r t a r e r e a d i l y  available  to form t h o o b s e r v e d t a l u s a n o m a l i e s . T a l u s samples have boon s u g g e s t e d i n s e c t i o n as a t y p e o f g e o c h e m i c a l sample w h i c h may p r o v e  "ii"  invalu-  able to m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n r e g i o n s having steep topography.  Two mechanisms were o u t l i n e d f o r copper  anomaly f o r m a t i o n i n t a l u s cones where m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s disseminated along veins or f i n e f r a c t u r e s . m e c h a n i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o r d e p o s i t i o n from  Either  ground  water o f copper may r e s u l t i n s i m i l a r l y a p p e a r i n g d i s persion trains.  I f t h e two can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d , t h e n  t a r g e t zones may  be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r f u r t h e r work.  r e l a t i v e percentage of c o l d e x t r a c t a b l e t o t o t a l  The metal  i s t h o u g h t t o be a measure o f tho copper c o n t e n t w h i c h has boon d e p o s i t e d from ground w a t e r s o l u t i o n s .  A  r e l a t i v e l y h i g h weak e x t r a c t a b l c m e t a l c o n t e n t may i n d i c a t e o c c u r r e n c e o f a t r a n s p o r t e d anomaly.  As  des-  c r i b e d on page 164, m e c h a n i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l s by w e a t h e r i n g o f c r a g o u t c r o p s , p o s s i b l y accomp a n i e d by l o c a l s o l u t i o n and p r e c i p i t a t i o n , i s t h o u g h t to  r e p r e s e n t t a l u s anomaly f o r m a t i o n on t h i s p r o p e r t y . S o i l a n o m a l i e s i n t a l u s a r e more c l o s e l y  related  to m i n e r a l i z e d b e d r o c k t h a n a r c stream s e d i m e n t s o f the  vicinity.  i t s own  E a c h t a l u s cone forms i n d e p e n d e n t l y , has  t r a c e clement c o n t e n t , and t h e r e b y p o i n t s t o  more l o c a l i z e d a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t . A more d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m f o r s o i l  geochemistry  l i e s w i t h the d e t e c t i o n o f p o s s i b l e s u l p h i d e s u n d e r l y i n g the  plateau.  A combination of s o i l p r o f i l e , f l o a t  and  goomorphic s t u d i o s a r c s u g g e s t e d f o r t h e case where the environment i s a l k a l i n e .  Thickness of g l a c i a l  over-  burden i s v a r i a b l e , b u t has been f o u n d t o exceed f e e t i n one d r i l l h o l e .  Geochemical  60  sampling of the  o v e r b u r d e n r e v e a l s o n l y i s o l a t e d anomalous copper v a l u e s found d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o m i n e r a l i z e d b l o c k s o f h o r n blende s y e n i t e f l o a t .  H i g h e s t copper c o n t e n t s i n most  of t h e p r o f i l e s s t u d i e d o c c u r s w i t h i n t h e 'C„ ' h o r i z o n oa where enhancement f a c t o r s o f two o r t h r e e t i m e s aro common compared w i t h t h e 'Bm'  and even h i g h e r when  com-  • 175-  p a r o d w i t h most o t h e r h o r i z o n s .  The h i g h r e l a t i v e p e r -  centage o f c o l d e x t r a c t a b l e copper i n the C „ 1  has  1  1/3.  developed i n response to p r e c i p i t a t i o n  of t h i s metal  from ground w a t e r l e a c h i n g t h o solum once i n c r e a s e s o f one o r more pH u n i t s o v e r a few i n c h e s o f depth a r e encountered.  Tho f o l l o w i n g e x p l o r a t i o n program i s  suggested f o r t h i s typo of geochemical environment, a f t e r s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e has been c o l l e c t e d  which  v e r i f i e s i t s existence. When i s o l a t e d  h i g h copper v a l u e s a r e f o u n d d u r i n g  a p r o p e r t y s o i l s u r v e y , and f e a t u r e s such as  seepage,  bog o r o t h e r g e o c h e m i c a l t r a p s have been e l i m i n a t e d as a cause f o r t h e s e e n r i c h m e n t s , t h e n t h e y must bo r e l a t e d to bedrock or f l o a t sources.  As b e d r o c k i s  g e n e r a l l y c o v e r e d , d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h o e x t e n t and c h a r a c t e r o f m i n e r a l i z e d f l o a t s h o u l d be t h e n e x t s t a g e , r a t h e r than systematic or g r i d s o i l  sampling.  Perhaps  a few o u t c r o p s may be l o c a t e d w h i c h w i l l a i d i n t h e mapping. special  F i n a l l y , tho d i s t r i b u t i o n  and d e n s i t y of t h i s  typo of f l o a t b l o c k w i l l o u t l i n e the area o f  interest. Next, g r i d t r e n c h i n g or s o i l sampling t o the ' 0 ' h o r i z o n i n v o l v i n g depths o f up t o f i v e f e e t Oa are r e q u i r e d , as t h e copper c o n t e n t o f the * ' appears oa n  to bo a measure o f the c o p p e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the o v e r lying horizons.  Such g e o c h e m i c a l s a m p l i n g i s l o s s  prone t o b i a s e d i n t u i t i o n t h a n i s a v i s u a l  estimation  of p e r c e n t s u l p h i d e s i n c o a r s e and weathered  blocks.  -176Anomalies are then t r a c e d back t o zones o f o r i g i n of the m e t a l .  probable  Such a procedure has not been v e r i -  f i e d on t h i s p r o p e r t y , but i t i s thought t h a t a program would r e v e a l u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on the e a s t e r n where f l o a t , c o n t a i n i n g b o r n i t e and  plateau  chalcopyrite, i s  abundant.  Where the g l a c i a l h i s t o r y i s complex, chances  o f success  f o r s i m i l a r programs are  diminished.  D e t a i l e d g r i d s o i l sampling on the p l a t e a u does not  appear t o o f f e r the h e l p i n e x p l o r a t i o n u s u a l l y  pected.  Geochemical e x p r e s s i o n o f hidden m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  i s b l u n t o d by the a l k a l i n e nature s o i l mantle.  and t h i c k n e s s o f  Randomly d i s p e r s e d m i n e r a l i z e d  blocks a f f e c t s o i l uniform  ex-  manner.  float  samples i n an e r r a t i c and  Small  non-  d i f f e r e n c e s i n topographic  and the dry c l i m a t e are d e t r i m e n t a l to f o r m a t i o n s a l i n e anomalies. detailed s o i l  When a l l these  the  f a c t o r s are  relief of  combined,  sampling, when performed, does not  reveal  l a r g o o r c o n s i s t e n t zones o f copper enrichment which might be f o l l o w e d up by a d d i t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n programs.  6.  Vegetation A.  Second  Copper and Trees  Zinc D i s t r i b u t i o n i n Selected  y e a r growth stems and n e e d l e s  f i r and l o d g e p o l e p i n o were chosen, as these o n l y s p e c i e s o f t r e e s found w i d e l y  over tho  of Douglas are  tho  property.  Mean, range and t h r e s h o l d v a l u e s arc g i v e n i n Table I t can be  seen t h a t n e e d l e s  XXVIII.  o f both types o f t r e e s are  --177onhanccd approximately 75$ i n coppor compared with complementary stems.  Tho converse r e l a t i o n s h i p i s evident  f o r zinc, where up to 100$ differences i n metal values havo boen observed i n the two typos of samples. Whon tho data on stems and noodles aro p l o t t e d across tho landscape along the bond traverse(Pig. 24), tho r e s u l t s aro e r r a t i c and do not reproduce s o i l geochemical anomalies ( P i g . 22).  Areas known to bo  underlain by mineralized bedrock aro represented i n t h i s survey by, at most, a meager 50$ enhancement of copper over background.  Unfortunately, too few needle  and stem samples were analysed f o r computation of the a n a l y t i c a l p r e c i s i o n to bo made, but i t i s thought that, on v i s u a l comparison of duplicate samples,  dif-  ferences of t h i s magnitude arc not n e c e s s a r i l y s i g nificant.  Douglas f i r noodles, however, suggest the  presence of an anomalous zone f o r copper undor tho v a l l e y sides.  I f the sampling density had boon uniform  along the traverse l i n e , i t i s believed that no such observation would have been made.  No other s i g n i f i c -  ant trend f o r either coppor or zinc was found.  -178-  Tablo XXVIII Copper and zinc content (ppm) of second year growth of Douglas f i r and lodgepolo pine, based on oven dried weight, n i t r i c / p e r c h l o r i c acid attack DOUGLAS FIR STEMS NEEDLES Cu  Threshold  6.7  12.8  14.0  9.2  Mean  3.9  6.7  7.9  4.8  2.5-5.3  3.6-9.7 4.8-11  Range  Zn  LODGEPOLE PINE STEMS NEEDLES  2.6-7.0  Threshold  88  58  58  34  Mean  60  38  40  21  46-74  28-48  32-49  15-28  22  20  29  29  Range Number of samples  179-  0 N FIGURE Z4A  DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER (PPK) IH DOUGLAS FIR NEEDLE* SECOND YEAR GROWTH, OVEN DRIED WEIGHT GEOCHEMICAL LLGtND  LESS THAN 7-9 PPm  11 - 14  7.9  MORE THAN 14 ppm  FIGURE 24E  - 11  ppm  ppm  DISTRIBUTION OF COPriSR {f?K) Lw DOUGLAS FIR STEMS SECOND YtAK GROWTH, OVfci. DRIED WEIGHT GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND  7.0 - 9.2 ppm MORE THAN 9.2 PP™  LESS THAN 4.8 ppm  •  4.8 - 7.0  0  rIGUPE 24C  PP"  DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER (PPK) IN LODGEPOLS PIKE NEEDLES SECOND YEAR GROWTH, OVEN DRIED WEIGHT GEOCHE'ICAL LEGETO  9.7 - 13 PPm  LESS THAN 6.7 ppm  6.7 - 9.7  FIGURE 24D  MORE THAN 13 PPm  ppm  DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER (PPM) IN LODGEPOLE PINE STEMS SECOND YEAR GROWTH, CVEf.' riRIED WEIGHT GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND  •  LESS THAN 3.9 Ppm  £  5-3 - 6.7 ppm  •  3.9 - 5.3 PPm  ^  MORE THAN 6.7 p p m  fICU":i TA  CIS TP I5UTICF C-K CCiYEP (FPK) TK  DOUGLAS FIR AND LODGEPOLE PINK TOPOGRAPHIC LEGENT CONTOUR INTERVAL 100 FEET CREEKS AND RIVERS  N  +  SWAKPS UKES LOCAL GRID CONTROL POINTS I  5000  FEET  i  Bo  Dj.scusni.on (a)  A p p l i c a t i o n to Exploration  Hav/kcs and Webb (1962) and Wolfe (1971) d e s c r i b e the t h e o r y of b i o g e o c h e m i c a l  exploration, including  m i g r a t i o n of elements from the s o i l t o the p l a n t organs.  Warren, D c l a v a u l t and C r o s s (1966/) g i v e  a c o m p a r i s o n o f the  copper c o n t e n t  and Douglas f i r t i p s , n e e d l e s and i n ppm  different  i n lodgcpolc  pine  stems, showing t h a t ,  of ash w e i g h t , v a l u e s i n d i f f e r e n t p l a n t organs  are by no means the same.  The  r e g i o n of the  Copper M o u n t a i n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , has  survey,  a similar  climate  as the R a y f i e l d R i v e r , but c o m p a r i s o n o f v a l u e s i s not p o s s i b l e , as oven d r i e d weight was work by t h o s e prospects  authors  used here.  (1966B) on numerous  Further  mineral  and mine s i t e s have e n f o r c e d the i d e a t h a t ,  a f t e r c a r e f u l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of t y p e s o f c o l l e c t e d , a n o m a l i e s may  bo r e p r e s e n t i n g  p l a n t organs underlying  m i n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t might have been m i s s e d by s o i l veys.  Warren and D c l a v a u l t (1967) n o t e , i n a  a r t i c l e , that biogeochemical w i d e l y accepted  sur-  review  e x p l o r a t i o n i s not  a  t o o l f o r p r o s p e c t i n g i n Canada, even  though the p r a c t i c e would y i e l d f a v o r a b l e r e s u l t s i n r e g i o n s o v e r l a i n by p e d o g o n i c a l l y young g l a c i a l  deposits.  Concentration  two  o f molybdenum o r a r s e n i c a r c j u s t  examples where v e g e t a t i o n s a m p l i n g d e t e c t i o n of covered  programs may  mineralization.  aid i n  B a r a k s o et a l  • 181(1971) a l s o found p l a n t s areas,  but f a c t o r s  perhaps,  too  good i n d i c a t o r s  affecting  of m i n e r a l i z e d  t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n were,  complex f o r r o u t i n e geochemical  On t h i s p r o p e r t y , prospecting i s  not too  it  appears t h a t  successful.  surveys.  biogeochemical  Perhaps  Douglas  f i r n e e d l e s can be used to d e t e c t u n d e r l y i n g m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , but a s s o c i a t e d s o i l anomaly c o n t r a s t  surveys p r o v i d e  and more r e l i a b l e  samples.  greater Graat  en-  richment o f copper was not apparent even when copper sulphides  i n bedrock wore known to l i e  the base of the t r e e r o o t s . a l k a l i n e environment i n the p r o f i l e , plant,  slightly  below  I t i s probable that  restricts  copper m i g r a t i o n upwards  r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s metal to r e a c h  from u n d e r l y i n g m i n e r a l i z a t i o n .  do not extend much f u r t h e r than 3 feet thus f a i l i n g to penetrate  from the  compared with s o i l  also  surface,  through the g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s  these r e s u l t s with s o i l data shows that lower c o n t r a s t  As t r e e sample c o l l e c t i o n  the  Tree r o o t s  r e q u i r e d to d e t e c t bedrock m i n e r a l i z a t i o n .  t h i s property y i e l d s  the  Comparison of  t r e e sampling on  ratios  f o r copper.  requires additional  sampling, the l a t t e r  effort  technique  appears  s u p e r i o r i n o u t l i n i n g the s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n the  syenite.  ChA PTER  I  INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SURVEYS 1.  Introduction  D i f f e r e n t g e o c h e m i c a l s u r v e y s have p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h , when combined, g i v e a p i c t u r e of t h e p h y s i c a l and c h e m i c a l p r o c e s s e s o p e r a t i n g on the property.  The s u c c e s s o f s u r v e y s o f s e c o n d a r y d i s p e r s i o n  i n l o c a t i n g m i n e r a l i z a t i o n must be gauged by t h e degree o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t h e y show w i t h known zones o f copper sulphide m i n e r a l s i n bedrock.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e most  i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e , t h e l o c a t i o n o f copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , i s not e n t i r e l y understood. ing discussion i s ,  sulphide The  follow-  t h e r e f o r e , l i m i t e d i n i t s scope t o an  e v a l u a t i o n o f copper a n o m a l i e s i n stream and l a k e w a t e r and s e d i m e n t , f l o a t and s o i l s and how t h e y are r e l a t e d t o and d e r i v e d from b e d r o c k s o u r c e s .  P i g . 25 i s a  s c h e m a t i c diagram w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i f f e r e n t r e lationships. 2.  G e n e t i c F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Copper Anomaly Formation  Enhancements o f copper and o t h e r d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s f o u n d i n each s u r v e y o f c h a p t e r 3 a r e geneti c a l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d and u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v e d from b e d r o c k sources.  In the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , d i s p e r s i o n of  copper from s u l p h i d e zones i n h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e b e d r o c k  183HORNBLENDE SYENITE BEDROCK y  i CHEMICAL WEATHERING  MECHANICAL WEATHERING  HORNBLENDE SYENITE FLOAT  1  ROUNDED  ! i  l  ANGULAR  ROCK FLOUR  !  "B^TREAM SEDIMENT ANOMALY  TALUS ANOMALY  SPRINGS "AND SEEPAGES  _ J  ,  TRANSPORTED FLOAT ANOMALY;  LOCAL FLOAT ANOMALY  SEEPAGE; ANOMALY"  LEACHING RANDOM SOIL ANOMALIES  SOILS WITH A HIGH BACKGROUND OF COPPER FLOOR OF LAKESLAKE "SEDIMENT ' NOMALY V,  LAKE WATER ANOMALY  FIGURE 25 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COPPER RICH BEDROCK A.ND THE DIFFERENT TYPES OP GLACIAL OVERBURDEN  • 134w i l l bo t r a c e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f g l a c i a l overburden o One event i n t h o a n c i e n t h i s t o r y o f t h e p r o p e r t y deserves s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n —  Ploistocono g l a c i a t i o n .  G l a c i e r s a t t a c k e d b e d r o c k exposed a t t h a t t i m e and formed t i l l  whoso p a r t i c l e s range i n s i z e from l a r g o  blocks to f i n e rock f l o u r . was n o t o v e r g r o a t did occur.  Transport of coarse m a t e r i a l  d i s t a n c e s , a l t h o u g h some movement  F l u v i a l transport of blocks  during  this  p e r i o d f o r m i n g one o f t h e a n o m a l i e s on F i g . 20, f o r example, i s a case i n p o i n t .  The e f f e c t o f g l a c i a t i o n ,  however, was t o d i s r u p t p o s s i b l e g e o c h e m i c a l which may have e x i s t e d i n p r o - P l e i s t o c e n e disperse, mechanically,  blocks  patterns  time and t o  and o t h e r m a t e r i a l  con-  t a i n i n g b o r n i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t c from t h e i r b e d r o c k source.  Thus, w i t h t h o d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e i c e and  the r e i n i t i a t i o n o f a "normal" c y c l e o f w e a t h e r i n g and e r o s i o n , geochemical patterns  t h a t d e v e l o p e d were r e -  l a t e d t o t h e t r a c e clement c o n t e n t i n b o t h b e d r o c k and g l a c i a l l y derived s u r f i c i a l Since property  deposits.  the P l e i s t o c e n e , the R a y f i e l d R i v e r  has been s u b j e c t e d  coppor  to a scmiarid climate, a  f a c t o r w h i c h combined w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e l y u n w e a t h c r e d nature o f the s u r f i c i a l deposits ment o f an a l k a l i n e e n v i r o n m e n t .  loads to the developT h i s a l k a l i n e con-  d i t i o n has been r e f e r r e d t o many t i m e s p r e v i o u s l y , and  should a f f e c t g e o c h e m i c a l d i s p e r s i o n o f t r a c e e l e m e n t s . As might be e x p e c t e d , t h e a l k a l i n e environment i s one i n w h i c h s o i l s and r e l a b e d sediments have pH v a l u e s g r e a t e r t h a n 7.0  and u s u a l l y around 8.1.  When t e s t i n g t h e s o i l  f o r pH, t h e 'A' and top o f t h e 'B' h o r i z o n are u s u a l l y a c i d i c or n e u t r a l . 'B  1  I t i s n o t u n t i l when t h e base o f t h e  h o r i z o n o r the p a r e n t m a t e r i a l i s sampled t h a t alka-  l i n e c o n d i t i o n s are encountered.  The  solum i s u s u a l l y  t h i n compared w i t h t h e d e p t h o f t h e o v e r b u r d e n and  there-  f o r e t h e s e a c i d i c c o n d i t i o n s are s e c o n d a r y i n i m p o r t a n c e i n c o n t r o l l i n g the geochemical d i s p e r s i o n p a t t e r n s .  The  a l k a l i n e environment i s t h e r e s u l t o f i n c o m p l e t e l e a c h i n g of  c a l c i u m from s u r f i c i a l  d e p o s i t s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c where  r a i n f a l l i s l o w o r the s o i l i s r i c h i n c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , the m o b i l i t y o f copper d i s s o l v e d i n s o l u t i o n i s g r e a t l y r e d u c e d ( e q u a t i o n 1, c h a p t e r 3, page 109)>  a l t h o u g h some m e t a l i s s t i l l  ground and s u r f a c e w a t e r (Bloom, 1966).  t r a n s p o r t e d by Thus, i t i s t o  be e x p e c t e d t h a t , s i n c e t h e P l e i s t o c e n e , f o r m a t i o n o f geoc h e m i c a l a n o m a l i e s d e r i v e d from b e d r o c k m i n e r a l i z a t i o n has o c c u r r e d o n l y where g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s are t h i n , o r where t o p o g r a p h i c e f f e c t s cause an a r e a t o become subs t a n t i a l l y e n r i c h e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r m e t a l . •The e x i s t ence o f a g l a c i a l s o u r c e f o r copper can i n i t i a l l y  only  c o m p l i c a t e any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d a t a from t h e s u r v e y s of  c h a p t e r 3. The g e o c h e m i c a l environment on t h e p r o p e r t y can  be f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h e p l a t e a u r e g i o n and the  -186v a l l e y sides.  Each w i l l be considered separately.  Enhancements along the v a l l e y are thought d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to bornite and chalcopyrite bearing outcrops occurring as crags two t h i r d s of the way up the v a l l e y sides.  Mechanical concentration and associated  r e d i s t r i b u t i o n by ground water of contained copper have combined to form t a l u s anomalies i n response to metal r i c h zones i n bedrock ( F i g . 8 ) .  Springs and seepages,  when present, emerge near the base of the talus deposits. They are found at several l o c a t i o n s and .appear s l i g h t l y l e s s basic than stream water due to t h e i r permeation through zones of o x i d i z i n g sulphide minerals.  Spring  and seepage water contain r e l a t i v e l y high copper contents that p r e c i p i t a t e R a y f i e l d River.  on contact with the more basic Deposition of copper from seepages near  the toe of t a l u s slopes also helps i n anomaly formation i n the v i c i n i t y of the Z bend.  G l a c i a l deposits l y i n g  above outcrop exposures are more t y p i c a l of the plateau and are considered l a t e r .  I n s u f f i c i e n t c o l l e c t i o n of  samples of r i v e r alluvium has made i t impossible to predict i f  t h i s type of sample would r e f l e c t bedrock  r i c h i n copper.  I t i s thought, however, that alluvium  can be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to stream sediments which do closely reflect mineralization.  The R a y f i e l d River  copper anomaly i s 6 miles long of which 2 1/2 miles l i e s downstream from the most i n t e r e s t i n g outcrop exposures. This r e s u l t i s the f i r s t example of an extensive d i s -  • 187p e r s i o n t r a i n ( F i g . 17A).  A s s o c i a t e d water contains  l e s s t h a n 4- ppb copper, an e x t r e m e l y lov; c o n t e n t comp a r e d w i t h sediment w i t h w h i c h i t i s i n dynamic ibrium. for  E v i d e n t l y , a pH o f 7.9  t o 8.1  equil-  i s not f a v o r a b l e  copper c o n c e n t r a t i o n s h i g h e r t h a n t h i s v a l u e ( P i g .  14A). On t h e p l a t e a u , g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s appear more important than bedrock i n c o n t r o l l i n g the f o r m a t i o n of  geochemical anomalies.  Copper e n r i c h e d f l o a t  blocks  o v e r l i e o r are "downice" from m i n e r a l i z e d zones i n bedrock. of  A s i m i l a r r e s u l t i s e x p e c t e d f o r sample a n a l y s e s  rock f l o u r .  Surveys of secondary d i s p e r s i o n r e v e a l  anomalous c o n d i t i o n s d i r e c t l y c o r r e l a t a b l e w i t h h i g h copper v a l u e s i n h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e f l o a t . l a k e sediments and s o i l  Thus, b o t h  samples o u t l i n e a r e g i o n o f  copper enhancement w h i c h i s r o u g h l y t h e same as t h a t found i n f l o a t d a t a , e x c l u d i n g t h e f l u v i a l l y anomaly a l o n g t h e B o n a p a r t e  transported  River.  Lake sediment d a t a r e v e a l the p r e s e n c e o f t h e s y e n i t e b a t h o l i t h and i n d i c a t e anomalous c o n d i t i o n s around the Z bend ( P i g . 19A).  Lake w a t e r , i n dynamic  e u q i l i b r i u m w i t h the sediment, e s s e n t i a l l y p o r t r a y s the same r e s u l t s ( P i g . 15A). S o i l development ing  i s r e s t r i c t e d t o downward l e a c h -  o f copper a t a slow r a t e , f o l l o w e d by p r e c i p i t a t i o n  i n the ' '  h o r i z o n where t h e pH t y p i c a l l y becomes more  b a s i c by one o r more u n i t s ( P i g . 2j5). L i t t l e , i f any,  • 188upward c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h i s m e t a l come from u n d e r l y i n g b e d r o c k o r t i l l because t h e pH i s t o o h i g h .  A rough  c o r r e l a t i o n appears t o e x i s t between t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f h o r n b l e n d e s y e n i t e f l o a t i n any p r o f i l e and i t s c o p p e r content.  Random h i g h copper v a l u e s i n t h e s u r v e y by  Amax E x p l o r a t i o n , I n c . ( F i g . 8) on t h e p l a t e a u have been a t t r i b u t e d t o m i n e r a l i z e d f l o a t b l o c k s from t h e sample pit.  S o i l samples, a t p r e s e n t ,  underlying mineralization. 'B  1  cannot be u s e d t o d e t e c t  Results  of  sampling  of the  h o r i z o n i s dependent on t h e p r e s e n c e o f f l o a t b l o c k s ,  pH and s o i l t e x t u r e and. i s u n l i k e l y t o y i e l d anomalies.  consistent  I t has been s u g g e s t e d ( c h a p t e r 3, pages  175 " 1 7 6 ) t h a t s a m p l i n g  o f t h e 'C ' h o r i z o n would p r o oa n  v i d e t h e b e s t measure o f t h e copper c o n t e n t  o f t h e solum,  w h i c h , when p l o t t e d , might be u s e d i n a f a s h i o n to boulder  similar  tracing.  Stream sediment d a t a has r e v e a l e d two a n o m a l i e s on t h e p l a t e a u w h i c h cannot, a t p r e s e n t , be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o bedrock o r f l o a t sources wise, p l a t e a u creek mineralization.  s e d i m e n t s do n o t r e v e a l  Water f l o w i n g i n t h e s e  t h e i r h i g h e s t copper content Tertiary basalt contact. t o l o w e r pH v a l u e s complexation  ( F i g . 17A).  \mderlying  creeks  over the s y e n i t e  This i s probably  Other-  have —  a response  ( F i g . 14-C) and c o n d i t i o n s f a v o r i n g  w i t h organic l i g a n d s r a t h e r than  c a u s e d by t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f copper s u l p h i d e  being minerals.  THE DANSEY-RAYFIELD RIVER COPPER PROPERTY FIGURE 26 AS  SUMMARY OF COPPER ANOMALIES IN BEDROCK AND GLACIAL OVERBURDEN TOPOGRAPHIC LEGE NO -  Con**/  intervol  —  Creefcs,  and  5 -J  100  leet  Rrvert  SwOrrpS Lakn Local  Grd  Control  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND CZ3 •V::»  Porte  ^T-> m+  110 85 23 6 100 48  ppm i n ppm i n ppm i n ppb i n ppm i n ppm i n  BEDROCK FLOAT LAKE SEDIMENT LAKE WATER SOILS STREAM SEDIMENTS  155 PPm i n STREAM SEDIMENTS  • 190-  3.  A p p l i c a t i o n t o E x p l o r a t i o n on t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r Copper P r o p e r t y  Fig. anomalies The  26 i s a c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e g e o c h e m i c a l  found i n the surveys d e s c r i b e d i n chapter 3 .  e x t e n t , c o n t r a s t and a c c e s s i b i l i t y a r e a l l f a c t o r s  w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e c t i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h i s property. A c c e s s i b i l i t y i s perhaps no r o a d s o r many r o a d s e x i s t . B r i t i s h Columbia,  l e a s t i m p o r t a n t where  However, i n s o u t h e r n  access i s v i t a l  to the d i s c o v e r y o f  coppor m i n e r a l i z a t i o n by g e o c h e m i c a l t e c h n i q u e s .  It is  f i r s t u s e f u l t o c o n s i d e r r e f e r e n c e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e a r e a i n t h e form o f t h o g e o l o g i c a l map by Campbell and T i p p e r (1966).  Bedrock u n d e r l y i n g t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r  coppor p r o p e r t y has been mapped as b e l o n g i n g t o t h e Thuy b a t h o l i t h , n o t e d f o r an e x t r e m e l y l o w copper ( p e r s o n a l communication, of  Waterman, 1 9 7 1 ) .  content  Other rocks  t h e a r e a i n c l u d e T e r t i a r y b a s a l t , c o n s i d e r e d by Amax  and o t h e r companies t o have a l o w chance o f c o n t a i n i n g economic s u l p h i d e s and N i c o l a v o l c a n i c s , r e g i o n a l l y h i g h i n copper, b u t w i t h o u t any m a j o r p r o d u c e r so f a r .  Pre-  l i m i n a r y work i n t h e a r e a might be r e l e g a t e d t o stream sampling along roads, c o l l e c t i o n o f tho o c c a s i o n a l s o i l sample and p e r h a p s more d e t a i l e d work n e a r o r o v e r t h e Nicola Volcanics.  R e s u l t s o f t h i s type o f survey are  n e g a t i v e and t h e a r e a would be dropped  erroneously.  Next, i t i s necessary t o e v a l u a t e which  sampling  191programs would be most s u c c e s s f u l i n f i n d i n g c o p p e r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n on t h i s p r o p e r t y .  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  r o a d s on F i g . 1 i s such t h a t a t r a i n e d o b s e r v e r  would  n o t i c e m i n e r a l i z e d b l o c k s o f hornblende s y e n i t e  south  of t h o B o n a p a r t e R i v e r .  B o u l d e r t r a c i n g would  inevit-  a b l y l e a d t o t h e o t h e r f l o a t anomaly o v e r l y i n g m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n bedrock. are a p p r o x i m a t e l y  B o t h t h e s e zones o f copper e n r i c h m e n t f o u r square m i l e s i n a r e a and t h e r e -  f o r e o n l y r e q u i r e a s a m p l i n g d e s n i t y o f perhaps 2 p e r square m i l e f o r d e t e c t i o n .  Maximum c o n t r a s t r a t i o o f  c o p p e r (maximum m e t a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n / t h r e s h o l d f l o a t samples i s c l o s e t o 3 . 0 . analyses  on F i g . 26 a r o e n c l o s e d  value) i n  Anomalous zones i n f l o a t w i t h i n a contour  having  a l o w e r l i m i t o f 85 ppm copper. Lake sediment o r l a k e w a t e r s a m p l i n g nov; t e c h n i q u e s  provide  whose chances o f s u c c e s s a r e a l s o  assured.  P e r h a p s more e f f o r t i n sample c o l l e c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d t h a n f o r f l o a t , b u t t r a v e r s i n g on t h e p l a t e a u i s n o t a d i f f i c u l t task.  When h e l i c o p t e r s u p p o r t i s a v a i l a b l e ,  r e g i o n a l s a m p l i n g i s made ovon e a s i e r .  Sediment  data  o f f e r s a more c o n s i s t e n t r e g i o n a l p a t t e r n f o r coppor t h a n a s s o c i a t e d w a t e r sample d a t a and so may be p r e f e r r e d , although  t h e l a t t e r g i v e s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same r e s u l t s .  Regional  c o n t r a s t f o r copper i n s e d i m e n t s may be as h i g h  as 1.6, b u t i n g e n e r a l , r a t i o s much l e s s t h a n u n i t y a r o observed.  Range i n v a l u e s i s a l s o l o w , and t h e r e f o r e ,  any p a r t i c u l a r sample might be g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by  -192-  m i n o r a l i z o d f l o a t b l o c k s l y i n g a t t h e bottom o f t h e l a k e Copper i n a s s o c i a t e d w a t e r samples appears t o bo i n some form o f e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h t h e s e d i m e n t , a l t h o u g h pH, o r g a n i c c o m p l e x a t i o n and b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y ,  varying  randomly o v e r t h e p r o p e r t y , may l o c a l l y enhance o r r e duce t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h i s m e t a l .  The l a k e  anomalio  are o f s u f f i c i e n t s i z e t h a t l a k ^ . s a m p l i n g may be s u i t a b l y u n d e r t a k e n w i t h a d e n s i t y o f 1 sample p e r 2 square m i l e s f o r c i t h e r sediment o r w a t e r s a m p l i n g programs. Contoured l e v e l i n F i g . 26 i s 23 ppm f o r s e d i m e n t s and 6 ppb f o r w a t e r . Other surveys are p r o b a b l y d e s t i n e d to f a i l  on a  r e c o n n a i s s a n c e s c a l e i f s a m p l i n g i s done a l o n g r o a d s . As scon i n F i g . 1, a f t e r r o a d s b u i l t t o s e r v i c e t h e copper p r o p e r t y a r e i g n o r e d , t h e most c o n v e n i e n t s a m p l i n g s t a t i o n s a r e n o t s i t u a t e d n e a r anomalous r e g i o n seen i n F i g . 26.  I f , however, t h e z e a l o u s w o r k e r  tra-  v e r s e s a l o n g t h e v a l l e y f l o o r , a j o b r e q u i r i n g 2 days f o r 7 m i l e s , t h e n he i s rewarded by t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h o R a y f i e l d R i v e r copper anomaly i n s t r e a m s e d i m e n t s and t a l u s d e p o s i t s .  C o n t r a s t r a t i o o f t h o sediment  anomaly i s l o s s t h a n 0 . 3 and averages c o n s i s t e n t l y b e tween 0.2 and 0.3 a l o n g i t s 6 m i l e l e n g t h .  Copper  con-  t e n t s , however, a r e t y p i c a l l y g r e a t e r t h a n 100 ppm, a value approximately 4 times tho r e g i o n a l  background.  A s a m p l i n g d e n s i t y o f 1 p e r 1 1/2 o r 2 m i l o s i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r anomaly d e t e c t i o n .  Tho worm r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f  d a t a i n F i g . 26 has l o w e r l i m i t s o f 4-8 ppm and 155 ppm  •  for  the n a r r o w and  t h i c k width, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  t a i l e d d r a i n a g e s u r v e y s would d e t e c t two,  193-  More de-  as y e t -unex-  p l a i n e d , copper e n r i c h m e n t zones on the p l a t e a u i n r e g i o n s 2 and 3.  Contrast here i s s i m i l a r to  found f o r R a y f i e l d R i v e r s e d i m e n t s , but  that  as the zones o f  enhancement e x i s t a l o n g o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f the  creek,  a r e d u c e d s a m p l i n g d e n s i t y o f 5 p e r m i l e would be q u i r e d t o ensure d i s c o v e r y .  A s s o c i a t e d w a t e r samples  do n o t appear t o a i d i n m i n e r a l On  exploration.  a d e t a i l e d l e v e l , the c o m p l e x i t y  d e p o s i t s and  frequent  o f the  o c c u r r e n c e of m i n e r a l i z e d  has l i m i t e d t h e u s e f u l n e s s  re-  of g r i d s o i l  blocks  sampling.  Con-  t r a s t o f c o p p e r v a l u e s r e a c h e s a maximum f o r the i n t a l u s samples, where r a t i o s i n e x c e s s o f 4-.0 observed.  o f a p a r t i c u l a r sample i s i n f l u e n c e d by hornblende s y e n i t e b l o c k s .  have boon  The  i n e x c e s s of 100 ppm  content  mineralized  area enclosed  t o u r i n g i n P i g . 26 i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s o i l s  for  property  On t h e p l a t e a u , however, r a t i o s l o s s t h a n  u n i t y aro tho example e x c e p t whore the c o p p e r  horizon.  glacial  by  con-  containing  of t h i s m e t a l i n t h e top o f the  A sampling d e n s i t y s i m i l a r to that  'B*  described  stream s e d i m e n t s of the r i v e r seems adequate f o r  d e t e c t i o n o f the copper e n r i c h e d t a l u s .  Talus  p o i n t t o m i n e r a l i z e d zones i n b e d r o c k , but from samples on the p l a t e a u , a t p r e s e n t , It  anomalies  data  cannot bo  used.  appears t h a t a n a l y s i s of p r i m a r y d i s p e r s i o n  d a t a w i l l s a t i s f a c t o r i a l y l e a d t o more d e t a i l  exploration  -194of m i n e r a l i z e d zones i n b e d r o c k , w h i l e a n o m a l i e s formed by s e c o n d a r y d i s p e r s i o n do n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y e n l a r g e on t h e e x t e n t o f  t h e p r e s e n t c o n c e p t s of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n .  Copper t o z i n c r a t i o s f o r a l l phases o f t h e s y e n i t e i n t r u s i o n exceed u n i t y .  Coppor v a l u e s f o r t h e i n t r u s i o n as  a whole average 110 ppm, copper demanded by Warren  w e l l i n e x c e s s o f the 10 pprn and D c l a v a u l t ( i 9 6 0 ) as a  probably prerequisite f o r a mineralized  batholith.  Maximum c o n t r a s t r a t i o f o r c o p p e r i n b e d r o c k d a t a i s 2.8.  Tho  zone o f copper enhancement i s o f s u f f i c i e n t  s i z e t h a t a d e n s i t y o f 1 o r 2 samples p e r square m i l e would be adequate f o r d i s c o v e r y o f two o f the a n o m a l i e s . D i l i g e n c e must be e x o r c i s e d , however,  as e x p o s u r e s on  the  p l a t e a u are r a r e , and t h e r e r e m a i n s a t e n d e n c y t o  map  o n l y t h o s e o u t c r o p s a l o n g the v a l l e y s i d e s .  mapping t e c h n i q u e w i l l n o t f u l l y i z a t i o n , but w i l l  o u t l i n e the m i n e r a l -  allow f o r i n i t i a l  of  copper e n r i c h m e n t i n b e d r o c k .  at  a l a t e r stage w i l l  d i s c o v e r y o f zones  More d e t a i l e d  d e f i n e the f u l l  anomalous r e g i o n found p r e v i o u s l y . t h a n 110 ppm  This  studies  e x t e n t o f any  Contents greater  c o p p e r have been i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h o shaded  r e g i o n o f F i g . 26.  195II  CONCLUSIONS 1.  Summary  The R a y f i e l d R i v e r copper p r o p e r t y l i e s  within  a s e m i a r i d c e n t r a l p l a t e a u o f B r i t i s h Columbia and h a s o v e r b u r d e n w h i c h was m o d i f i e d d u r i n g t h e P l e i s t o c e n e glaciation,,  Thickness of g l a c i a l deposits i s v a r i a b l e  and b e d r o c k e x p o s u r e s a r e r a r e .  The g e o c h e m i c a l en-  vironment o f tho g l a c i a l m a t e r i a l i s a l k a l i n e , having a pH g e n e r a l l y g r e a t e r t h a n 7.0, e n s u r i n g , a t b e s t , v e r y slow d i s s o l u t i o n and m i g r a t i o n o f copper i n ground Hydromorphic  water.  d i s p e r s i o n s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , bo s l o w and  t h e f o r m a t i o n o f copper a n o m a l i e s by t h i s mechanism weak. Most e n r i c h m e n t s o f copper i n s o i l s , l a k e s , streams and f l o a t aro p r o b a b l y the r e s u l t o f mechanical a c c u m u l a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e coppor p r o p e r t y may bo d e t e c t e d by any one o f s e v e r a l g e o c h e m i c a l s a m p l i n g programs, i t was found a c c i d o n t l y b y l o c a l r e s i d e n t s who n o t i c e d m a l a c h i t e stained rock along tho r i v e r v a l l e y .  The p r o p e r t y was  d i s c o v e r e d i n I 9 6 0 , b u t o n l y w i t h t h e Amax e x p l o r a t i o n program o f 1969 was t h e f u l l delimited.  e x t e n t o f t h e coppor anomaly  F a i l u r e o f g e o c h e m i s t r y t o i n i t i a l l y be i m -  p o r t a n t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t h e anomalous zones t o e x p l o r a t i o n and t h o a p p a r e n t l y u n f a v o r a b l e ' g e o l o g i c a l environment  o f t h e Thuy b a t h o l i t h .  The degree o f s u c c e s s o f any g e o c h e m i c a l s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e i n l o c a t i n g copper s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n  -196bedrock c o v e r e d by g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s may bo a s c e r t a i n e d by t e s t s i n r e g i o n s o f known s o u r c e s o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . Three zonos o f copper enrichment i n hornblende s y e n i t e have been o u t l i n e d and r e p r e s e n t t h e s e s o u r c e s .  Disper-  s i o n by g l a c i a t i o n , weathering and e r o s i o n has l e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s e v e r a l coppor anomalies i n d i f f e r e n t typos of g l a c i a l  overburden.  Copper enhancements w i t h i n hornblende  syenite  f l o a t b l o c k s and l a k e sediments can be d i r e c t l y  traced  back a l o n g the g l a c i a l d i r e c t i o n t o bedrock which was p u l v e r i z e d and broken i n t o m a t e r i a l g r a d i n g from r o c k f l o u r t o l a r g e r b l o c k s h i g h i n coppor d u r i n g t h e P l e i s tocene.  Similarly,  zones o f copper enrichment i n t a l u s  s o i l s have formed by m e c h a n i c a l a c c u m u l a t i o n o f s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l g r a i n s , under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f g r a v i t y , weathering o f c r a g o u t c r o p s a l o n g the v a l l e y  during  sides.  Anomalies w i t h i n f l o a t , l a k e and t a l u s samples can, t h e r e f o r e , be d i r e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h known zones o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n bedrock. R e s u l t s o f stream sediment s u r v e y s cannot nece s s a r i l y be r e l a t e d back t o coppor r i c h bedrock.  It i s  t r u e t h a t t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r coppor anomaly has d e v e l o p e d i n response t o t h e e r o s i v e a c t i o n o f th<? r i v e r on minerali z e d hornblende s y e n i t e n o r t h o f the 2 bond, w i t h subsequent d i s p e r s i o n f o r 2 1/2 m i l e s p a s t the hornblende syenite - leucocratic  s y e p i t o c o n t a c t , however, two  u n e x p l a i n e d anomalies on tho p l a t e a u remain t o be t e s t e d . At p r e s e n t , no source o f coppor f o r t h e s e zones o f on-  -197r i c h m c n t i s known. S o i l s u r v e y s , i n g e n e r a l , do n o t appear t o a i d i n e x p l o r a t i o n because m i n e r a l i z e d b l o c k s o f s y e n i t e c o n t r i b u t e coppor u n e v e n l y horizons.  As a n a l y s i s o f s o i l  hornblende  to d i f f e r e n t  soil  s a m p l i n g programs i s  c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e e f f e c t s o f g l a c i a t i o n , t h e y can o n l y g i v e , a t b e s t , a rough a p p r o x i m a t i o n  of interesting  a r e a s , s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n d i c a t e d by f l o a t d a t a . l e c t i o n o f stream w a t e r and c u r r e n t y e a r growth  Colnoodles  and stems o f Douglas f i r and l o d g o p o l o p i n e samples and subsequent a n a l y s i s l i k e w i s e does n o t y i e l d i n f o r m a t i o n useful to mineral exploration. On a more d e t a i l e d l e v e l , .a p l o t o f b e d r o c k a n a l y s e s show t h a t t h e b a t h o l i t h i s zoned.  Iron,  manganese, copper and z i n c a r c r e l a t i v e l y d e p l e t e d i n samples o f  leucocratic  syenite.  Z o n i n g o f t h e f i r s t two  elements i s r e l a t e d t o t h o p r i m a r y m a f i c m i n e r a l  content.  Copper f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r t r e n d , b u t docs n o t r e a c h i t s maximum v a l u e i n t h e same exposures as i r o n ,  indicating  a g e n e t i c h i s t o r y d i s t i n c t from mere c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f m i n e r a l s from t h o s y o n i t i c magma. B o t h z i n c and p o t a s s i u m  co>itonts are h i g h e r i n  o u t c r o p s o f t h e n o r t h e r n h a l f o f cho p r o p e r t y .  Potassium,  i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s h i g h e s t i n va?ue a l o n g a b o l t  follow-  ing  t h e r i v e r v a l l e y , c o n t i n u i n g onto t h e p l a t e a u .  f u r t h e r work p r o v e s  If  t h i s tror- v a l i d , tho f a u l t emplace1  ment o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n theo"/ o f g e n e s i s o f s u l p h i d e s  • 198-  i m p l i e s t h e r e i s a b e t t e r t h a n even chance tho h i g h e s t grade o f copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n w i l l bo f o u n d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y ( p o s s i b l y d i s s e c t e d ) t o t h i s zone 1966).  (Jerome,  I f , on the o t h e r hand, t h e p o t a s s i u m  anomaly  i s a c c i d e n t a l , a much l a r g e r a r e a remains t o bo a c c o r d i n g t o t h o zoned b a t h o l i t h c o n c e p t .  tested  Clarification  may be p o s s i b l e on the b a s i s o f d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i n sections c o l l e c t e d along traverse l i n e s the potassium 2.  crossing  anomaly,  G e o c h e m i c a l s a m p l i n g o f Overburden as an A i d to E x p l o r a t i o n  R e g i o n a l s c a l e s a m p l i n g o f f l o a t and l a k e s appears most l i k e l y t o l e a d t o d i s c o v e r y o f copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , however, ings,  each s u r v e y has i t s s h o r t c o m -  F l o a t c o l l e c t i o n r e q u i r e s an a s t u t e o b s e r v e r who  w i l l r e a l i z e t h e p o t e n t i a l o f a h o s t r o c k s u c h as h o r n b l o n d e s y e n i t e , as i t i s i m p r a c t i c a l t o c o l l e c t a l l t y p o s o f f l o a t from the a r e a because o f t h e number o f samples t h a t would be i n v o l v e d and the t e d i o u s j o b r e q u i r e d f o r sample p r e p a r a t i o n p r i o r t o a n a l y s i s .  Lake  sediment a n o m a l i e s have a l o w c o n t r a s t r a t i o and copper v a l u e s range w i t h i n narrow l i m i t s .  Careful choice of  s a m p l i n g d e n s i t y i s v i t a l t o the s u c c e s s o f t h i s  program.  Lake w a t e r s a m p l i n g , l i k e w i s e , r e q u i r e s the same cons i d e r a t i o n s and has the a d d i t i o n a l p r o b l e m o f e r r a t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n s caused by v a r y i n g pH, organisms and o r g a n i c complexes, s t a b i l i t y o f m e t a l c o n t e n t s i n samples  -199w i t h time and p o s s i b l e c o n t a m i n a t i o n i f sample p r o t r e a t m e n t s are n e c e s s a r y .  Bedrock  s a m p l i n g on a  r e g i o n a l s c a l e would a l s o be rewarded,  but a g a i n t h i s  technique i s r a r e l y a p p l i e d at the reconnaissance because o f d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o  level  exposures  and l e n g t h y sample p r c t r e a t m e n t s . Chances o f s u c c e s s o f o t h e r t y p e s of s u r v e y s depend on the p e r s e v e r a n c e o f the sample c o l l e c t o r . There i s no doubt tho R a y f i e l d R i v e r sediment  anomaly  s h o u l d be d e t e c t e d d u r i n g tho r e g i o n a l program, b u t n o t i f samples are c o l l e c t e d a t r o a d c r o s s i n g s o r o t h e r p o i n t s of convenience.  Tho two p l a t e a u a n o m a l i e s r e -  q u i r e more d e t a i l e d work f o r t h e i r d i s c o v e r y . i f t a l u s samples aro t a k e n , t h e most r e l i a b l e of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n would bo f o u n d .  Similarly indicator  Tho n a t u r e o f t h o  mechanism o f f o r m a t i o n o f t a l u s a n o m a l i e s may  initiate  s e r i o u s c o n t r o v e r s y as t o what the n e x t s t a g e o f e x p l o r a t i o n s h o u l d be. tho s o i l s ,  C o n s i d e r i n g tho a l k a l i n e n a t u r e o f  s e m i a r i d c l i m a t e and absence o f p y r i t e i n out  c r o p s , m e c h a n i c a l a c c u m u l a t i o n o f copper m i n e r a l s from v i s i b l e exposures  seems more o b v i o u s t h a n p r e c i p i t a t i o n  from ground w a t e r l e a c h i n g m i n e r a l i z a t i o n h i d d e n  beneath  the p l a t e a u . D e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of overburden,  w i t h the p o s s i b l  e x c e p t i o n o f stream and t a l u s s a m p l i n g , does n o t r e v e a l additional information. i n bedrock  An o u t l i n e o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  can b e s t be a c c o m p l i s h e d by a n a l y s i s o f o u t -  crop c h i p samples.  T e s t i n g f o r e x t e n s i o n s t o known  200anomalous zones w i l l p r o b a b l y be u n d e r t a k e n by tho u s e of  drill  surveys.  S i m i l a r l y , i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e v a r i -  a t i o n o f grade o f copper w i t h depth w i l l be f o r t h c o m i n g when d r i l l h o l e s aro c u t i n t o t h o b a t h o l i t h .  Ill  SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER WORE A l t h o u g h t h e d i r e c t i o n o f movement o f coppor  between b e d r o c k and d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e o v e r b u r d e n is fairly  w e l l known, l i t t l e  information i s available  on t h e mechanisms o f t h e s e t r a n s f e r s . bo d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s .  The q u e s t i o n can  How i s copper h e l d i n  d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f samples and how does i t m i g r a t e ? Weak e x t r a c t i o n and s i z e f r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s o f stream sediment samples, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e from t h e R a y f i e l d R i v e r w i l l h e l p d e t e r m i n e i f coppor i s bonded w i t h i n s i l i c a t e l a t t i c e s , a d s o r b e d onto c l a y m i n e r a l s or p r e s e n t as f i n e d i s c r o t e s u l p h i d e g r a i n s .  This i n -  f o r m a t i o n may bo t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a g e o c h e m i c a l h i s t o r y of  t h e anomaly. S i m i l a r e x p e r i m e n t s can be a p p l i e d t o s o i l  samples where a knowledge  of the processes i n v o l v e d  i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f copper a n o m a l i e s would a i d i n f u t u r e exploration.  I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e s u g g e s t i o n has been  forwarded t h a t g r i d sampling o f the  1  '  horizon  would  oa  o u t l i n e an anomalous r e g i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t found f o r f l o a t d a t a on t h e b a t h o l i t h , b u t s u p e r i o r because  biasing  i n v o l v e d i n c o l l e c t i o n o f f l o a t c h i p s would bo e l i m i n a t e d .  201T h i s program appears u s e f u l as copper seems t o accumul a t e i n t h o 'G ' from above. The r e s u l t i n g a n a l y s i s oa n  i s a measure o f coppor i n t h e solum w h i c h s h o u l d be l o s s a f f e c t e d by l i t h o l o g i c v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s o i l arc  individual soil  samples.  than  The h y p o t h e s i s r e m a i n s t o  be t e s t e d i n t h e f i e l d . Oxidation of sulphide minerals, w i t h i n bedrock, by b a c t e r i a and o t h e r o r g a n i s m s may produce  gaseous  s u l p h u r compounds u n i q u e t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h s l o w l y escape t h r o u g h t h i c k o v e r b u r d e n i n t o t h o atmosphere. I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e s e t y p e s o f compounds a r c d i f f e r ent  i n c h a r a c t e r and c o n c e n t r a t i o n from t h o s o f o r m i n g  i n o v e r l y i n g bogs and o t h e r t y p e s o f s u r f i c i a l I t i s also p o s s i b l e that mineralized f l o a t  deposits.  blocks,  l y i n g w i t h i n t h e zone o f a e r a t i o n o f t h o s o i l ,  would  produce a s c r i e s o f compounds w h i c h a r c d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from t h o s e d e r i v e d from b e d r o c k .  Analysis of  s o i l gas may e v e n t u a l l y be added t o t h e scope o f r o u t i n e s a m p l i n g when g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s a r c t o o t h i c k f o r s u c c e s s f u l c o n v e n t i o n a l geochemical surveys, i f problems i n v o l v e d i n d e t e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f l o w c o n t e n t s o f s u l p h u r s p e c i e s can be overcome. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f copper and o t h e r e l e m e n t s w i t h i n each l a k e i s unknown.  The c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f  a n o m a l i e s i n F i g . 1?A w i t h m i n e r a l i z e d b e d r o c k may bo fortuitous.  More n o a r s h o r e l a k e sediment samples from  the  same l a k e and a g e o c h e m i c a l s u r v e y o v e r a w i d e r  a r e a i s r e q u i r e d t o p r o v e the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h i s type o f s u r v e y t o e x p l o r a t i o n .  P e r h a p s i t would  also  bo o f i n t e r e s t t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between sediment samples from t h o c e n t e r o f tho l a k e and tho nearshore.  -203BIBLIOGRAPHY  Abbey S., 1967, A n a l y s i s o f r o c k s and m i n e r a l s by a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o s c o p y , p a r t 1, d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f magnesium, l i t h i u m , z i n c and i r o n , P a p e r 67-37, 35 pages. A l l a n R,, J . , 1971, Lake sediment: a medium f o r r e g i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h o Canadian s h i e l d , t h e Canadian M i n i n g and M e t a l l u r g i c a l B u l l e t i n 64-, (715) , pages 43-59. A p p l i e d g e o c h e m i c a l r e s e a r c h group t e c h n i c a l communication 26 ( c a r b o n a t e and b i c a r b o n a t e ) , August 1962, I m p e r i a l C o l l e g e , London. A p p l i e d g e o c h e m i c a l r e s e a r c h group t e c h n i c a l communication 29 ( c h l o r i d e ) , August 1962, I m p e r i a l C o l l e g e , London. A p p l i e d g e o c h e m i c a l r e s e a r c h group t e c h n i c a l communication 27 ( s u l p h a t e ) , August 1962, I m p e r i a l C o l l e g e , London. B a r a k s o J . J . , Rowlcs C. A. and L a v k u l i c h L. M., 1 9 7 1 , Some r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n e l e m e n t a l c o n t e n t o f bedr o c k , s o i l s and p l a n t s i n m i n e r a l i z e d a r e a s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Western M i n e r , pages 37-44. Bloom H., 1966, Geochemical e x p l o r a t i o n as a p p l i e d t o copper - molybdenum d e p o s i t s i n "Geology o f t h o P o r p h y r y Copper D e p o s i t s , S o u t h w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a " , e d . T i t l c y S„ R. and H i c k s C. L., pages  111-119.  B o l v i k e n B., 1967, Recent g e o c h e m i c a l p r o s p e c t i n g i n Norway, G e o c h e m i c a l P r o s p e c t i n g i n P e n n o s c a n d i a , e d i t e d by A s l a k K v a l h o i m , c h a p t e r 16, pages 225-253.  B o l v i k e n B. , N i l s s o n , C. '.. and W e n n o r v i r t a H. , 1971, Summary o f r e s e a r c h and development i n geochemical e x p l o r a t i o n i n Scandinavian countries, C.I.M.M. S p e c i a l Volume 11, page 11-14. B o y l e R. W., Tuppor W. M., Lynch J . , F r c i d r i c h G., Z i a u d d i n M„, S h a f i q u l l a h M., C a r t e r M„, and Bygrave K., 1966, G e o c h e m i s t r y o f Pb, Zn, Cu, As, Sb, Mo, Sn, W, Ag, N i , Co, C r , B a , and Mn i n t h o w a t e r s and stream sediments o f t h e B a t h u r s t - J a c q u o t R i v e r D i s t r i c t , New B r u n s w i c k , G e o l S u r v e y Canada p a p e r 65-42, 49 p a g e s .  Boyle R. W., Hornbrook E.H.W., A l l a n R. J . and Smith A.Y., 1971, Hydrogcochcmical methods - a p p l i c a t i o n i n tho Canadian s h i e l d , The Canadian Mining and M e t a l l u r g i c a l B u l l e t i n 64, (715)» pages 60-71« Braboc D., 1971, A geochemical study of the Guichon Creek b a t h o l i t h , B.C., Phd t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 149 pages. Brabcc D. and White W. H., 1971, D i s t r i b u t i o n of copper • and z i n c i n rocks of the Guichon Creek b a t h o l i t h , B r i t i s h Columbia, i n Geochemical E x p l o r a t i o n , C.I.M.M. S p e c i a l Volume 11, pages 291-297. Campbell R. B. and Tipper H. W., 1966, Map 3-1966 Bonaparte R i v e r B r i t i s h Columbia 92P. Chisholm, E. 0 . , 1957, Geophysical e x p l o r a t i o n of a l e a d - z i n c deposit i n Yukon T e r r i t o r y , i n S i x t h Commonwealth Mining and M e t a l l u r g y Congress, page 2 6 9 - 2 7 7 . Driemanis A., 1956, Stoop Rock ore boulder t r a i n , P r o c . Geol. Assoc. Canada, V8, #1, pages 27-70. Drcimanis A,., 1958, Tracing ore boulders as a p r o s p e c t i n g method i n Canada CIM B u l l e t i n 51, pages 73-80. Dreimanis A.., I960, Geochemical p r o s p e c t i n g f o r coppor, l o a d and z i n c i n g l a c i a t e d areas, eastern Canada, i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l G e o l o g i c a l Congress XXI Session, p a r t 2, pages 7-19. 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E., 1967, Geochemical P r o s p e c t i n g has now come of age, N o r t h e r n M i n e r , pages 4 9 - 5 7 . Webb, J . S„, 1958, Notes on g e o c h e m i c a l p r o s p e c t i n g f o r l e a d - z i n c d e p o s i t s i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s , I n s t . M i n i n g M e t a l l u r g y , London, P a p e r 19, T e c h n i c a l a i d s t o e x p l o r a t i o n o f Symposium on t h e F u t u r e o f Non-Ferrous M i n i n g i n G r e a t B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d page 23-40. White W. H. and A l l e n T. M., 195^, Copper s o i l a n o m a l i e s i n the boundary d i s t r i c t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M i n i n g E n g i n e e r i n g , page 4 9 - 5 2 . W h i t t e n G„, 1967, G u i d e s t o o r o , E x p l o r a t i o n and M i n i n g G e o l o g y , pages 193-204. Wolfe W. J . , 1971, B i o g e o c h c m i c a l p r o s p e c t i n g i n g l a c i a t e d t e r r a i n of the Canadian P r o c a m b r i a n s h i e l d , C.I.M. B u l l e t i n 64, (715) pages 72-80.  RAYFIELD  F i m j m  RIVER - BONAPARTE RIVER REGIONAL RECONNAISSANCE  OUTCROP AS$3  28  TOPOGRAPHIC —3000-  L5223  LEGEND  irzrrjzDy.  s r ^ m i z  FLOAI  •il Miii • * «JWIP*' * * ». llllilti * --  Contour Interval 1 0 0 Feet Creeks and Rivers Swamps Lakes Local Property Lots  ' < . . . < >. i „  i L . v  J  ^  , "  •*  ..1  ->•-.'•••••  L/;  •  » •  ROADS Loose Loose  or Stabilized Surface, Dry 4  Surfaces, Weather  All  Weather  MILES SJ  HOFFMAN  October 8, 1970  5690  .At  620  .OrLZ---  olSpf  •  630  RAYFIELD  27  650  RIVER - BONAPARTE RIVER REGIONAL RECONNAISSANCI  STREAM tfftTER AMD  TOPOGRAPHIC —3000-  640  M^FLE  LEGEND  Contour Intervol 100 Feet Creeks and Rivers Swamps Lakes Local Property Lots  GEOCHEMICAL S a r o p t e Location  till  s  tltt  Water Silt  2443  Silt  Both  LOCATIONS  LEGEND and Number  Present  at  Same  Stc  Only  ROADS  Loose Loose  or Stabilized Surfaces, Surface, Dry Weather  All Weather  MILES  SJ  HOFFMAN  October 8, 1970  THE DANSEY - RAYFIELD FIGURE 33  /N  TOPOGRAPHIC -3000-  VEGETATION  LEGEND  Contdur Interval 100 feet Creeks, and Rivers Swamps Lakes Local  Grid  5000  RIVER COPPER  Control  Points  SAMPLE  PROPERTY  LOCATIONS  GEOCHEMICAL LEGEND Samp!3  «  ma  •  mi  * •»  Location  and  Number and Lodippctt Pins Rtsptetively Scrnple Location end Nufflbtf $&09 LoeflHon ond Number Sompto Loeoffen owd Number -  Spruce Spruco Lodgepob Pint Atynt Br  FEET  S J  HOFFMAN  October 6, I  FIGURE 32 TOPOGRAPHIC —  3000— :- -  c.: n z  Contour  LEGEND  Interval  Grid  5000  .  ,  GEOCHEMICAL * 1213 - 28  Control  FEET '  SAMPLE' LOCATIONS  feet  100  Creeks, and Rivers Swamps Lakes Local  SOIL  Points  LEGEND PROFILE NUMBER  Sample Location arid Number Indicates Soil Samples Fill a Continuous Numbering Sequence  :  Indicates Soil Samples do not Fill a Continuous Numbering Sequence  i  S J  ; j  5 8  SAMPLE NUMBER 3104-3120 3159-3167  100  1004-1007  112  1081-1084 1088-1090  114  1098-1102  117  1117-1119  HOFFMAN  October  6, 1970  200  THE FIGURE 31 N  DANSEY - RAYFIELD HORNBLENDE  TOPOGRAPHIC .1000-  in:  LEGEND  Contour  Interval  Creeks,  and  100  feet  RIVER  SYENITE  COPPER  FLOAT  PROPERTY  SAMPLE  GEOCHEMICAL • 1978  Sample  S  Location  LOCATIONS LEGEND and  Number  Rivers'  Swamps Lakes Local  Grid  5000  Control  Points  FEET  S J  HOFFMAN  October 6, 1970  IC  2(  THE N  DANSEY - RAYFIELD FIGURE 30  TOPOGRAPHIC -— •c^Z"^  Li  I f  LEGEND  Interval iGO feet and Rivers  Contour Creeks,  3000--  OUTCROP  RIVER COPPER SAMPLE  PROPERTY  LOCATIONS  GEOCHEMICAL •sea  Sample  Location  LEGEND and Number  Swamps Lakes Local  Grid  5000  Control  Points  FEET  S J . HOFFMAN '  October  0 , h"*'  THE DANSEY - RAYFIELD RIVER COPPER PROPERTY FIGURE 29 WATER AND SEDIMENT SAMPLE LOCATIONS TOPOGRAPHIC —3000-  Contour Creeks,  GEOCHEMICAL  Interval 100 feet and Rivers  Swamps Lakes  Local  LEGEND  Grid  5000  Control  Points  Sample ,  OR (904 1908  ^[j  - Both  *  1003  Water  Only  1318  Silt  1367  3ter t  LEGEND  Location Present  and at  Number Same  Site  Only  FEET  S J  HOFFMAN  

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