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UBC Theses and Dissertations

General and economic geology of the west Kootenay batholith with special reference to the Cranbrook area Thurber, Judson Bishop 1937

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GENERAL AND ECONOMIC GEOLOGY OF THE WEST KOOTENAY BATHOLITH WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE CRANBROOK AREA b y J.3. Thurber Submitted, f o r the degree of MASTER OF ARTS U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1957-C O N T E N T S Page Chapter I Int r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter I I General. Character of D i s t r i c t .... ..,...*«,...-... 4 Topography 4 Regional .•.>...................4 Lo c a l 5 Chapter I I I General Geology .... 8 The P u r c e l l Series 12 General Statement 12 For t Steele Formation 14 Aldridge Formation .." 15 D i s t r i b u t i o n ............................. 15 Thickne ss 16 Li t h o l o g y 16 Metamorphlsm ... . 17 Structure 18 Ores ton Formation 19 D i s t r i b u t i o n 19 Thickne ss ................................ 20 Li t h o l o g y 21 Metamorphlsm 21 Structure „ 22 Kitchener Formation 22 D i s t r i b u t i o n 22 Thickness 23 Li t h o l o g y ............ 24 Metamorphlsm .............. 24 Structure .« 25 Siyeh Formation - .......... ............... 25 D i s t r i b u t i o n ......... 25 Li t h o l o g y 26 Thickness 26 Structure 26 Gateway Formation <;......«,................... 26 Dutch Greek formation 27 D i s t r i b u t i o n ........ . 27 L i t h o l o g y 27 Thickness ............................... 28 * Metamorphism ...... 28 Structure .. • • • 29 Mount Nelson Formation 29 D i s t r i b u t i o n . • 29 L i t h o l o g y • 29 Thickness 30 Structure . ... 30 .-• O r i g i n of the p u r c e l l s e r i e s . . . . 30 Sources of the Sediments , ...... 33 P u r c e l l Sea 33 Structure of the P u r c e l l Land Mass .......... 34 Windermere Seri e s 34 Toby Conglomerate ; 35 D i s t r i b u t i o n 35 L i t h o l o g y 35 Thickness 36 Horsethief Formation 37 D i s t r i b u t i o n .. • 37 L i t h o l o g y 37 Thickness 38 Structure ........ * ........ . .'. 38 H a m i l l Series ... * 38 L i t h o l o g y / . 39 O r i g i n of the Windermere Series .-. ........... 39 Palaeozoic Formations of the Area * 40 Cranbrook Formation ............ ..•«......*.'..-.. * 40 D i s t r i b u t i o n 40 L i t h o l o g y . .... ,. 41 Thickness 41 Structure 41 Eager Formation 41 D i s t r i b u t i o n 41 L i t h o l o g y 42 Age and C o r r e l a t i o n 42 S u p e r f i c i a l Deposits 9....... ........... 43 Chapter IV Igneous Geology .............. . • 44 Pre-Windermere I n t r u s i o n s .................. . 44 L i t h o l o g y ................... . • » 44 I n t e r n a l R e l a t i o n s •.4b E x t e r n a l R e l a t i o n s • • • • 46 Age of t h e ' P u r c e l l S i l l s ................ 47 Post-Or ogenic I n t r u s i o n ' f , • 47 L i t h o l o g y •> • • 49 Age and 0 o r r e l a t i o n 50 Chapter V S t r u c t u r a l Geology ,, 51 Folds ...... .... ................................. 51 F a u l t s ... . ...... 53 Age of F a u l t i n g ............................. 58 Chapter VI Pre-Gambrian ( B e l t l a n ) Sedimentation ............. 59 Aldridge Epoch ,. ........................... 59 Creston Epoch 59 Kitchener Epoch 60 Siyeh Epoch . , 60 Dutch Creek Epoch 60 Mount Nels on Epoch .......................... 60 Pre-Windermere Epoch .. 61 IBoby Conglomerate Epoch 62 Horsethief Epoch .. 62 H a m i l l Epoch ..................... 62 Cambrian Sedimentation 63 Cranbrook Epoch 63 Eager Epoch •. . 63 Devonian-Carboniferous Epoch ..................... 63 J u r a s s i c 63 Late J u r a s s i c or E a r l y Cretaceous 64 Cretaceous ........ » ..... 65 T e r t i a r y «..,....................,*...........»». • • 65 Pre-Miocene Epoch 65 Miocene Epoch 66 Quaternary 66 Chapter V I I Economic Geology 67 H i s t o r y of Mining 67 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Economic Deposits ......... 69 P u r c e l l Gabbro M i n e r a l i z a t i o n -.. . . . .... ........ 70 D i s t r i b u t i o n ................ .......... 71 Geology 71 Character of "the Deposits ............... 71 Mineralogy ....... ............ 72 Native Elements 72 -. "Sulphides •>« 72 .Slides • 73 Carbonates ........................ 74 S i l i c a t e s • . 74 Arsenates • 74 Per s i s t e n c y . •• • 75 Ho mbl ende e « « « » ® , « » ® ® o » * « ® o « * « 76 Py r r ilO 111 @ * » » © » • • » . 9 0 * . < B © « « « . 77 ChalooDyri te 77 Pen U1 B.Ild.X Ii© 77 IViSi gn e l» 1 ii e ® a c « © © © 9 © 0 © ® » * » ® © « © ® © © © 0 « « » 8 77 Genesis of the Deposits • « < > . . • • » • » ! > . . . . . c e 78 Detailed. D e s c r i p t i o n of Copper P r o p e r t i e s . 8l Evans Property »••«!><>«»«««*» ©«»«».<>»• 81 Mystery Min© • . • • « * * * o e * * » * « « * * e . « « * « 36 Tracy Property <<.<>••»«• 86 Late J u r a s s i c M i n e r a l i z a t i o n .....«...«<.*..<>... 86 Re l a t i o n of Mi n e r a l Deposits to Faul t and Shear Zones; «fte«ftft»ftft-ftftftOfte«ft-* o « « «> & & e « o e « o « e « A • • • it ft e • » © © « . » * » * - « « . O • • • • » • • ft « « • » • • • * * F i s s u r e Veins S i l v e r - l e a d Type D i s t r i b u t i o n Mineralogy « Sulphides tilosplis. 1J©s €«•••«»»••«•»•• 3?Eir3,g©Il 6 S X S © e * ® « © » » * ® * « * * * ® » * o Q , U . Q . X * T J £ 1 « o o o « ft & so « e o « © © © * * P y r i t e P y r r h o t i t e Chalco p y r i t e -Sphalerite and Galena *«,» li m o n i t e and Pyromorphite D e s c r i p t i o n o f Mines and Prope Hoy Scout Mine . '• • Well i n g t o n Mine Great Dane Mine Society G i r l Mine Traeey Property e * Go 14""c^ ixa r t z Hyp© • • • « • • * • . * e * » o / e e « * * o -Si. s t r x "bu.t xoxx »• •« »« •« G"0 OX O 0 9* © « © » e « a. o » e « « « © Miners,lo^y $ » » « « & « t « < » « e « « 4 # ( » e c c < F a t i v e Elements «•»•••»••• SixlpIixcLes * «•««••«»•••«>««& J03cxcLe s • • • • • • • • • • •»« • • • !Para^en© s x s «•«»««•• GeiieS X S ©®««©«.ft©«»ft<ft©ftft<»»o. *»#©*•* D e t a i l e d D e s c r i p t i o n of Propert Roman V a l l e y Group * * Quartz Mountain .. Ho me stake Mine Midway Mine '..••«.»••»•;••••»« Gogle Creek. Property ».... Southern Cross Property *. • ft«fr*eeeo»eft'0O«eee o e c • o ® © © e ©«.<>.* » . • e o e © » » a- ft- • e •> . o. & 9 «. ft « © » © & & O f t f i f t « © • © ® ft a ® 87 » © * © "ft * 88 88 ® e © » « © 88 & s & e « a 89 e • • • « • 89 © ft, ft • « ft 90 90 • ft <B & O * 90 * © a © © * 91 O ft ft O ft o 91 o ft 6 e o ft 91 » © 9 © ® e 91 & *- © ® a * 92 © © e 6 ft ft 92 t i e s . 92 • ft » » a o 92 o ft o o ft e 94 e * © © c » 95 ft.- © a' 96 ft • a. 43 ft 9 97 © 0 © » © <3> 98 0 0 0 9 0 f t 99 e * ©. & « « 99 6 ft A ft ft <9 99 © © © 0 0 « 100 e o a « e 0 l o o ft ft O ft « © 100 o • • e » e 100 ft ft ft ft © o 100 e • • • ft ft 101 xes •« 102 e> «- • A • « 102 e «: e « • * 103 • ft ft ft ft 0 105 @ ft e » 9 ft 104 •. « * « • e 105 ft • • • • • 106 H©I113.*ti X"ij © J)© » © a a a 0 0 0 0 o o e > 0 Q 9 3 > « o e 9 « 9 6 0 Q o c > o -13 X S U X* X"b IX U XO XI • 0 « e « 9 « e < B A b d * « a e b o 0 0 0 0 0 10? 10? 0*0 0 X 0 l 9 t « « ( i D t i 0 0 0 0 0 0 a e o e » « » e 0 » © 9 o © 107 li/EXXl© X*£^X Q£~)tf ® © ® « e © e ©• © e> « ©o © © # * 107 O^ X. X CL O S ® 9 9 « 9 9 Q i D a O 9 < g O 9 4 ) 0 a a o a a e a Q 107 S TiXjpll X(3.© 3 . » * 0 e 0 a * 9 0 o # 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 e « 9 108 IP El Xs 9< j£j © iX© 5 X 3 A 6 > « e A « « e e e 6 S i & * « « a « e ® n « 9 e , 108 G" ©XX© 3 X 3 ® e> «•»••.«« a « » 9 a < * e a « » » a « & * •» a « 9 a © 109 Detailed. D e s c r i p t i o n of Properties,"...... 110 Weaver Creek Property o . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Perry Creek Property i l l GrQiX©XX<3<""^ >0XO» p © o©»»<*»«»«»»* 9 • a a a « « e e e « « ® i l l •D X 3 *tj X* X13 \X"t X 0 XI e & * e * e o o * « e e « 0 0 c « e c s * o « i l l Gr© 0 X 0 ^"^f o o a a a o « * * e • « « e « e 4 e © « « > 111 HUXXX© X*Q, X . © a a © 9 © e . © © « © « . ® » ® © @ 112 I^ Q-ij x v© El©m©xi"tj s •<>••• e 112 3 IXX J^lXXQ.© 3 ft & o e a « 9 0 9 0 © © 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 •<- 112 O^CXQ.© 3 © o * e « *• a • e « • o • © © e 0 » a • • * • • 112 0Qii£*"b 0 XI2. *ti 6 3 0 0 0 * a a a 0 o • 113 D e t a i l e d D e s c r i p t i o n of P r o p e r t i e s • 113 A l k i Greek Property ............ 113 Arsenopyrite Gold Type 114 -DX S°ti X'X'blXij XO XX <& e t> © * © o 0 0 0 9 « e « « » a « « 0 « & o 114 G r © O l O j £ j y »-©s»e«ft©o«eo«.**©«»» 114 Character of the.Deposits 114 J/IXXl© X*£lX © 0 • 0 0 0 O a » « 9 @ « a e * « a * 9 « « a 0 114 Native Elements ............... 115 StxX *0 JXX CL © 3 c o • • 00 • • « • • • o a • • • • • « © 115 OXX Ci, © S o o « a » a e o « e e * o e « 6 » < » 0 * « a e e 115 •PQiICQiS ©XX© 3 X 3 © ® » ® e © » 9 e . o « - © » 9 © * e © « » . e 9 ® ® 116 Gr©XX©3 X S 0 0 0 0 9 © a v a o e e c a e e e a 0 9 9 9 0 0 0 9 0 ® 116 SxXV©X***X©cl& D © p O S X U 3 e e • o « e » » o e « • e « A • e « • « 117 D X 3 X* X 0 txii X O 10. © o « 0 ® © o e e © « ® © * e « * d f f i o « © * 117 i^ LXXl © X*ci XOjSjy @©®©®,e®«<&e o o . o » 6 o 0 o 0 0 6 0 9 0 0 118 - Nat iv e Element s • .«..'.....• 118 SlXXjplXXQ.© 3 - 0 * © t» 118 StxX jpiio **S9< X*w s.©©®©©©©©**©©©*©®®© 119 03C X(l0 3 0 o 9 a e 0 a 0 a e a a e o a c e c * • a 0 X j- / 0 Q/X,"b 0 XlQ/ij © 3 0 o o 0 a e • a o e «• a o o a o a a • o 120 SxX iCS.1; 6 S « 0 o « 9 o a < > * # < > « 0 6 e o « • • o • 120 •PilO 3 J)3X3i *ij©3 0> -o- o a . • • a • e e a « « a a a « « « e 121 J?9iX* 3f££© XX© 3 X 3 e e « a » « o » o « 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 « « a e a 121 &©X1© X S 9 9 a a » 9 • 9 « 9 9> 0 9 9 1 6 0 9 0 9 9 9 ® e O O A C O 122 D e s c r i p t i o n of Mines 123 The Kimberley Area .............. 123 Gr©OXO{£^y e o 9 « e « « 9 • * o 123 Character of.Deposits ..... 124 SlXXX X"V"Q<IX J^IXXl© « ©« 9 . 0 9 9 9 9 A 9 0 0 * 6 • 9 0 124 XiO © St"tj X 0 XX 0 « * • a a a a a e a a e a * « « 9 124 Ail X S "fc 0 X'y 0 e o s a 9 a 9 9 0 * a a a a a a a « J?X,OCLlXC C XOXX o ^  «!• « » 0 0 ® # « e e 6 » 9 9 125 126 Character of Ore-bodies ... 126 North S t a r Mine................ 130 l o c a t i o n 130 ; H i story ............. 130 Geology 131 Deposit . 1 3 1 Stemwinder ..................... 133 The Moyie Area . 1 3 3 Geology ........................ 135 F i s s u r e System 135 S t . Eugene Mine 136 l o c a t i o n ....... 136 H i s t o r y 1 3 6 Production ,,,................ 1 3 7 Character of Ore-bodies .... 1 3 7 G o l d - P y r i t e Type ....• • . . . 1 3 8 D i s t r i b u t i o n ........................ 1 3 8 Geology ...... e ...........» , 138 Character o f Deposits ............... 1 3 9 Mineralogy .. •.......................... 1 3 9 N a t i v e Elements ................. 1 3 9 Sulphides ...................... 1 3 9 Gangue »* 1 3 9 D e t a i l e d D e s c r i p t i o n of P r o p e r t i e s 1 4 0 Cogle Creek Property ........... 1 4 0 Dewar Shear Zone 1 4 1 Genesis ........................ 1 4 1 P l a c e r Deposits .................. ........»<......<>.. 1 4 2 D e t a i l e d D e s c r i p t i o n of P r o p e r t i e s ........... 1 4 2 Perry Creek Property <.... ........ 1 4 2 East Kootenay P l a c e r Company ............ 1 4 3 H e l l - R o a r i n g Creek ... 1 4 3 St. Mary T e r t i a r y Gravels ................ 1 4 3 Moyie R i v e r ....................... 1 4 5 Consolidated Mining & Smelting Go. , 1 4 5 I n d i v i d u a l Operations ........ •........ 1 4 5 ¥/eaver Creek ....................... 1 4 5 l i g n i t e ............................. 1 4 b B u i l d i n g Stones ». * 1 4 b Hutchcroft Granite Quarry 1 4 ? Magnesite Deposits « . . . . . . . o » • . . • . . . . . . . . . » • • • * » • • • • • 1 4 7 O r i g i n . . . a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 8 Future of the D i s t r i c t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c 1 4 9 CHAPTER I This paper presents the general and economic geology of the Cranbrook area i n which the West Kootenay batho-l i t h i c rocks intrude the overlying sediments. It also em-braces work by the writer on the mineralogical determination and genesis of the ores c o l l e c t e d i n the f i e l d i n the summer of 1936, together with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the "Cambrian fauna found there. The writer wishes to record his indebtedness to Dr. M.Y. Williams, Head of the Department of Geology, Dr. S.J. Schofield, Professor of Structural Geology, and Dr. H.V. Warren, Assistant Professor of Mineralogy, under whose guidance t h i s work was. made possible. To Dr. H.M.A. Rice, Chief of the Survey party, the writer i s very grateful f o r the help i n the writing of t h i s paper. The area to be discussed i s drained mainly by the o St. Mary River. The northern l i m i t of the area i s 30 north l a t i t u d e , i t s western l i m i t longitude ll6 04j> 1, and eastern .0 l i m i t longitude l i b • The southern l i m i t i s variable. The chief town and d i s t r i b u t i n g point for the region i s Cranbrook. The Orowsnest d i v i s i o n of the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l -way passes to the south and east of the area. Cranbrook i s the d i v i s i o n a l point for the C.P.R., and from there a branch l i n e runs to Kimberley, the centre of the Kimberley mining area. From Yahk, a town situated i n the southern part of the area» another l i n e divides along the Moyie River, crossing the International Boundary at Kingsgate, on i t s way to Spokane and Portland. The drainage area of the St. Mary River i s accessible by a wagon road from Marysville, as far as the ranch of Wm. Meachem. From here a new t r a i l was constructed in the summer of 19j6. This t r a i l follows the west fork of the St. Mary-River to Rose Pass. From t h i s point i t follows Crawford Creek to where i t joins a wagon road eleven miles from Crawford Bay. The t r a i l s on the south^ocoit and north forks of the St. Mary River are i n poor condition, and are either overgrown or covered by windfalls. From the foot of St. Mary lake a good t r a i l runs up Whitefish Creek to Sanca on Kootenay lake. One branch t r a i l from the Whitefish t r a i l goes over the St. Mary River—§oafc River summit and follows the Goat River to Kitchener on the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. However, due to a forest f i r e i n 1936, the Goat River t r a i l i s now inaccessible f o r t r a v e l . A good t r a i l runs up Hell-Roaring Creek to some old placer workings, and also to the old Boy Scout Mine. On Perry Creek a good road reaches Morehester Creek, from where the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company have b u i l t a t r a i l leading to t h e i r magnesite deposits at the head of H e l l -Roaring Creek. From lumberton a logging road runs up to Cooper Lake. This road has numerous branching logging roads which make travel i n t h i s section comparatively easy. A t r a i l from the mouth of Irishman creek leads up t h i s creek to the limestone F a l l s . .From Yahk a logging railway runs to Canuck Creek. A logging road follows Canuck Creek to the International Boun-dary. There are many numerous branching roads along Canuck Creek. A l l these t r a i l s , although well defined, are usually covered; by windfall which renders t r a v e l exceedingly slow. This area i s p r a c t i c a l l y impassable for a pack t r a i n without t r a i l s . CHAPTER I I In the southern part of B r i t i s h Columbia the Interior Plateau region separates the North American c o r d i l l e r a i n Canada into two main d i v i s i o n s , each of which, i n contrast to the Interior Plateau region, i s characterized by alpine moun-ta i n topography* Each d i v i s i o n i s subdivided into mountain systems which a re separated from each other by well defined topographic features. The eastern d i v i s i o n includes - from west to east - the Columbia, Selkirk, Pu r c e l l and Rocky Mountain systems. The P u r c e l l system, to be discussed i n t h i s paper, according to Daly i s an e l l i p t i c a l - s h a p e d group of mountains, 250 miles long and 60 miles wide, l y i n g between the Selkirk system on the west and the Rocky Mountain system on the east. Although the greater part of t h i s range i s contained i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a section extends into the United States. The Pur c e l l system i s separated from the Selkirk system on the west by the Pur c e l l trench i n which occur Duncan River, Koo-tenay lake, and the north-f1owing part of the Kootenay River. The Pur c e l l Range i s separated from the Rocky Mountains on the east by the Rocky Mountain trench, i n which occur the north-flowing portion of the Columbia River and a south-flowing section of Kootenay River. The l a t t e r r i v e r , a f t e r flowing southwards into the United States, swings through a semi-ci r c l e , * and with a northward course crosses the International Boundary l i n e again, emptying i t s e l f into Kootenay lake. This semi-circular v a l l e y forms the southern boundary of the P u r c e l l Mountain system. Local The area embraced by this report includes the central part of the P u r c e l l Range i n southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia. The mountains here are very rugged, and r i s e on the average to over 8,500 feet i n elevation. Intercirque divides or arretes are saw-1ike i n character, and are almost v e r t i c a l . The peaks have serrated summits, and are subject to rapid erosion by the action of ice and snow. Valley-head cirques or basins are numerous throughout the d i s t r i c t , and are somewhat modified by the talus slopes which at times encroach upon the small tarns so characteristic of these g l a c i a l amphitheatres© One small g l a c i e r exists on a c l i f f above H a l l Lake, while another large ice f i e l d exists near Jung Mountain. To the east and south-east of t h i s mountainous region l i e s the subdued mountain belt characterized by rounded h i l l s r i s i n g to a height of 7,000 to 7,500 feet above sea-level. This section of the Cranbrook area i s drained mainly by the St. Mary River which rises i n the heart of the Purcell Range, and the south-flowing Kootenay River near Fort Steele. The headwaters of Findlay Creek and Skookamchuck Creek drain t h i s area. In the southern portion of the area the Moyie River traverses a large section of the area. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the t r i b u t a r i e s of the St. Mary River owe th e i r beginnings to beautiful cirque lakes. These streams which flow through wide,rocky f l o o r s contain many small f a l l s , the result of the hanging valleys l e f t by the continental g l a c i a t i o n , near t h e i r confluence with the main stream. These streams enter the St. Mary River at grade, and thei r lowest reaches are characterized by gravel cut banks about f i f t y feet i n height. The main t r i b u t a r i e s of the St. Mary River are Hell-Roaring Creek, Whitefish Creek, Perry Creek, Horth, East, South and West Fork Creek, Pyramid Greek, A l k i Creek and Matthew Creek. The main stream of the St. Mary River pursues a meandering course eastward i n a wide, f l a t v a l l e y f l o o r , the walls of which r i s e abruptly to a height of 4*000 to j?,000 feet. The spurs have facetted fronts which give the v a l l e y a trough-like shape. As St. Mary lake i s approached the val l e y f l o o r becomes marshy, and contains many oxbowv.lakes. The r i v e r forms a delta at the point i t enters St. Mary Lake - a body of water two miles i n length and one mile i n width, on either side of which the hard Aldridge quartzites and intercalated P u r c e l l s i l l s r i s e abruptly, while the va l l e y -7-i t s e l f i s narrowed. Terraces gradually make t h e i r appearance i n the s t r a t i f i e d gravels and sands of the trough through which the r i v e r continues i t s winding course. CHAPTER III During early Pre-Cambrian times there was l a i d down a great thickness of extremely homogeneous sediments i n the western part of the Rocky Mountain geosyncline. These sedi-ments consist of fine-grained quartzites» argillaceous quart-z i t e s , a r g i l l i t e s and limestones, which show at various horizons shallow water ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as ripple marks and mudcracksc These strata are c a l l e d the lower P u r c e l l series, and include the Fort Steele, Aldridge, Creston, K i t -chener, Siyeh and Gateway formations. Afte r t h i s series had been deposited there occurred a period when the old land-mass to the west was eroded to a surface of very low r e l i e f . Deposition took place only in the western part of the basin of sedimentation. These formations are c a l l e d the Upper Pur-c e l l s e ries, and include the Dutch Creek and the Mount Nelson formations. In the l a t e Pre-Cambrian times a broad u p l i f t oc-curred which resulted i n the deposition of the Windemere serie At the base th i s series i s marked by a coarse eonglomerate, v/hile higher pebble conglomerates and inter-bedded limestone are to be found. After the Windemere series was l a i d down the whole surface was submerged., and at t h i s time the Cambrian sediments were deposited. These sediments preserve records of e a r l y l i f e g r a n i t e and p o r p h y r i t i o g r a n i t e , which intrude the P u r c e l l s e r i e s , are b e l i e v e d to bear a ^ a n i - t o r e l a t i o n s h i p to the. great West Kootenay g r a n i t e b a t h o l i t h . The age s u b d i v i s i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n o f the great thickness of sedimentary s t r a t a exposed i n the P u r c e l l Range have been the subject of much study. The s u b d i v i s i o n i n t o formations i s based on p h y s i c a l and l i t h o l o g i c a l as w e l l as p a l a e o n t o l o g i c a l grounds. The ta b l e of formations given be-low i s based on the work of previous surveys and also on the new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used by the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada. POST GLACIAL S t r a t i f i e d c l a y s and sands GLACIAL W y c l i f f e d r i f t -MIOCENE St. Eugene s i l t s and g r a v e l s as f o s s i l remains. The l a r g e stocks and small c r o s s - c u t t i n g bodies of JURASSIC Kootenay Granite MISSISSIPPIAN DEVONIAN SILURIAN ORDOVICIAN JNot represented II 18 lO'ffER CAMBRIAN Eager formation Cranbrook formation UNCONFORMITY Windermere Hamil l s e r i e s H o r s e t h i e f formation Toby conglomerate * Unconformity PRE-CAMBRIAN Upper P u r c e l l Mount Nelson formation Dutch Greek ( R o o s v i l l e formation Formation ( P h i l l i p s " (Gateway 'I Lower P u r c e l l Gateway formation P u r c e l l l a v a P u r c e l l s i l l s Siyeh formation Kitchener n Crest on !! Al d r i d g e " • Fort S t e e l e " TABULAR STATEMENT OF GEOLOGICAL RECORD Post G l a c i a l ~ E r o s i o n , d e p o s i t i o n of c l a y s and QUATERNARY sands i n depressions i n d r i f t . G l a c i a l - E r o s i o n , d e p o s i t i o n of W y c l i f f e d r i f t TERTIARY(Miooene) - E r o s i o n , d e p o s i t i o n of St. Eugene s i l t s , sands, T e r t i a r y gravels; and f o s s i l leaves. U p l i f t i n e a r l y T e r t i a r y and d i s s e c t i o n of Cretaceous peneplain CRETACEOUS - E r o s i o n , formation of Gretaeeous peneplain POST TRIA3SIC ( J u r a s s i c ? ) - Orogenic movements, formation of P u r c e l l Range followed or accom-panied by i n t r u s i o n of Kootenay gr a n i t e and some p e r i d o t i t e . CARBONIFEROUS - E r o s i o n DEVONIAN n SILURIAN » . -11-ORDOVICIAN Er o s i o n MIDDLE CAMBRIAN LOWER CAMBRIAN PRE-CAMBRIAN " Eager Formation, marine d e p o s i t i o n of green, blade, brown and re d d i s h a r g i l l i t e s ( f o s -s i l i f e r o u s ) . Cranbrook Formation - c o n t i n e n t a l deposi-t i o n o f f i n e - g r a i n e d , white, pink and sometimes green quartz conglomerate and s i l i c e o u s massive sandstone. UPLIFT AND EROSION -/Windermere Series 1) H a m i l l s e r i e s 2) H o r s e t h i e f formation - d e p o s i t i o n o f grey, green and purple s l a t e , coarse q u a r t z i t e , pebble conglomerate and magnesium limestone 3) Toby conglomerate - d e p o s i t i o n of conglomerate beds and some l e n t i c u l a r beds of s l a t e and q u a r t z i t e . UPLIFT.AND EROSION 1 S e r i e s - l ) Gateway - ( c o n t i n e n t a l deposition) sandstones, sandy a r g i l l i t e s , some concretionary, s i l i c e o u s dolomites. 2 ) P u r c e l l S i l l s and Lava -i n t r u s i o n of gabbro, accom-panied by outpouring o f b a s a l t over l a n d surface* 3) Siyeh Formation -(mainly con-t i n e n t a l , and some p o s s i b l e marine deposition) red, purple and green mud - cracked a r -g i l l i t e s , sandstones and some limestones. 4) K i t c h e n e r Formation -(continen-t a l and p o s s i b l e marine de-a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s , r i p p l e marked, mud-cracked, some limestones. j>) Creston Formation - shallow water d e p o s i t i o n , q u a r t z i t e s , a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s , mud-cracked and r i p p l e marked. 6) Fort Steele - wide banded, a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s -12-The Pre-Cambrian Rooks of East Kootenay - General Statement The P u r c e l l series of East Kootenay was described, .. • • * ' 1 by Daly i n the Annual Report of 1904. The following i s Daly's stratigraphic section: Feet MIDDLE CAMBRIA! - Moyi© , 3,400 Pu r c e l l lava 465 Kitchener, upper part 6,000+ LOWER CAMBRIAN Kitchener, lower part 1,400$ Creston, upper part 3 , 0 0 0 -BELTIAN Creston, lower part 6 , 5 0 0 -Base unexposed Later work by Schofield on the East Kootenay proved that Daly rs work was erroneous, and Schofield's s t r a t i graphic section i s as follows: Erosion Surface Feet PRE-CAMBRIAN - Gateway 2,000+ Purcell lava 300 Siyeh 4 , 0 0 0 Kitchener 4 ,500 Creston 5 ,000+ Aldridge 8 , 0 0 0 -Base unexposed. 1. Daly, R.A., C.G.S. Annual Report, 1904, p«91A Daly, R.A., C.G.S* Memoir 3 8 , 1913» p.119 2. Schofield, S.J., C.G.S. Memoir .76, 1915, P« 25• - 1 3 -Walker Ts report on the Windermere area and the Kootenay lake area subdivides the Pre-Cambrian rooks as follows:" UNCONFORMITY PRE-CAMBRIAN Windermere Series Feet lardeau Series 1 5 , 0 0 0 Badshot Formation. 250 Hamill Series 2 ,500 Horsethief Formation 5 ,000+ Toby Conglomerate 50+ UNCONFORMITY m Upper Pu r c e l l Series Mt. Nelson Formation 3 ,000+ Dutch Creek " 2,550+ Subsequent work by Rice i n the East Kootenay sub divides the Purc e l l series as follows: PRE-CAMBRIAN Gateway Formation Purc e l l Lava Siyeh Kitchener Formation Creston Formation Aldridge Formation Fort Steele Formation The Fort Steele formation i s exposed on the west flank of the Rocky Mountains near Wildhorse Creek and underlie the Aldridge formation conformably. Work in the East Kootenay during the f i e l d season of 1936 was able to correlate the Pre-Cambrian complex of that d i s t r i o t . The Creston formation was measured by the writer with 1. Walker, J.F. G.S.C., Memoir 148, 19.26, p.6 2. Walker, J.F* G.S.C., Summ. Rept., 1928, Part A, p. 121 A 3 . Rice, H.M.A* G.S.C., Mem. , 1935. -14 = telemeter and rod near Yank, and i t s thickness was determined to be 5 ,700 f e e t . The f o l l o w i n g i s the w r i t e r s s t r a t i g r a p h i c sections? Erosion Surface PRE-CAMBRIAN Windermere S e r i e s lardeau S e r i e s Badshot Formation H a m i l l S e r i e s H o r s e t h i e f Formation Toby Conglomerate UNCONFORMITY Upper P u r c e l l S e r i e s Mt. Nelson Formation Dutch Creek 15 Lower P u r c e l l S e r i e s Gateway Formation P u r c e l l l a v a Siyeh Formation K i t c h e n e r " Creston 11 A l d r i d g e " Fort Steele " Fort Steele Formation The Fort Steele formation i s the oldest known mem-ber of the P u r c e l l s e r i e s . This formation, named by Rice i n 1935, embraces a succession of dark grey, a r g i l l a c e o u s quart-z i t e s which are noted f o r t h e i r wide banding. These rocks u n d e r l i e the Al d r i d g e beds conformably, and are found i n the western f l a n k of the Rocky Mountains. Aldridge Formation D i s t r i b u t i o n The Fort Steele formation passes by gradual tran-s i t i o n into the overlying Aldridge quartzites. As the base of the Aldridge i s approached the rocks take on the rusty, weathered appearance which characterizes t h i s formation. This formation consists of a very homogeneous succession of dark grey argillaceous quartzites, noted for t h e i r rusty weathering, and occupies a large region within the discussed area• A northern belt embraces part of the area drained by the St. Mary River. The northern border of t h i s belt i s drawn at the point where the formation i s cut o f f by the East fork granite. The western border of t h i s belt passes conformably beneath the Creston formation. The strata here form, i n general, an anticlinorium plunging to the north. The southern border i s formed by a f a u l t which brings the Aldridge and the overlying formation from the Creston to the Eager i n contact. From Marysvilie t h i s fault strikes on the one hand south-west, and on the other east. The eastern portion of this belt passes under the Pleistocene deposits of the Koote-nay River v a l l e y . The next area of the Aldridge formation to the south i s separated from the northern area by a block of Creston argillaceous quartzites• The western border of t h i s belt was explored to the head of Moyie River. Its eastern l i m i t i s formed by the Moyie fault which brings Aldridge into contact -16-with the overlying Creston and. Kitchener formations. The most southerly area of the Aldridge formation i s an e l l i p t i c a l shaped mass of a n t i c l i n a l structure whose greater portion l i e s south-east of the Ganadian P a c i f i c Railway and west of the main Yahk River. Its western l i m i t i s formed by passing conformably under the overlying Creston argillaceous quartzites. The eastern border was not explored. Thickness The Aldridge formation from measured sections i s 8,000+ feet. l i t h o l o g y The Aldridge formation i s made up of a series of argillaceous quartzites, purer quartzites and a r g i l l i t e s . The argillaceous quartzites form the greater portion of the whole series and occur i n beds with an average thickness of one foot. In the hand-specimen they are fine-grained rocks, dark grey on fresh fracture and weather to a brown colour due to t h e i r content of i r o n oxide. In a few cases purer white quartzites were noted i n t h i s formation. Near the top of Bootleg Ridge the rocks are well bedded j, brown, purple, green and white argillaceous quartzites. The Aldridge f o r -mation, exposed to the north of Cone Mountain, contains an interformational conglomerate bed whose pebbles vary i n size from a f r a c t i o n of an inch to one inch i n diameter, consisting of sandy pebbles and black, sheared pebbles probably of igneous -17-o r i g i n . Most of the pebbles are sheared as they are near a f a u l t zone* Metamorphism The metamorphism of the rock types of the A l d r i d g e formation has been f o r the most part very slight© I t i s notable that at the contact of some s i l l s the q u a r t z i t e s be-come bleached and charged w i t h s e r i c i t e , while at others a green c h l o r i t i c s c h i s t i s formed. On Bootleg and P i t t Greek ridges a b e l t of quartz-mica s c h i s t , g a r n e t i f e r o u s mica s c h i s t and s i l l i m a n i t e s c h i s t i s exposed. These s c h i s t s represent the metamorphosed a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s of the Al d r i d g e formation since they pass g r a d u a l l y on a l l sides i n t o the normal a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s . I n the hand-specimen i t i s a g l i s t e n i n g rock containing a great quantity of mica (musco-v i t e and b i o t i t e ) and quartz. The garnets are idiomorphic, pink i n c o l o u r , and from a f r a c t i o n of an inch to one-half an i n c h i n s i z e . On Bootleg Ridge an i n t r u s i v e dike of graphic g r a n i t e pegmatite was found g i v i n g evidence as to the source of the metamorphism. At two l o c a l i t i e s i n the area two regions of o t t r e l i t e s c h i s t were l o c a t e d . Numerous stocks and apophyses of gr a n i t e intrude t h i s formation, and thermal meta-morphism plays a large r o l e i n the metamorphism produced. A perfect example of zoning i n a metamorphic r e g i o n i s afforded on the G r o l l e property. -18-Shearing plays an important r o l e i n the incompetent beds of t h i s formation, and u s u a l l y forms schistose rocks* Near the*contact of the East Fork g r a n i t e , the A l d r i d g e f o r -mat-ion i s metamorphosed to a quarts-mica schist© Some of these q u a r t z i t e s are changed to a knotted or spotty s c h i s t , the knots c o n s i s t i n g of the accumulation of carbonaceous m a t e r i a l . The A l d r i d g e formation i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the oc-currence of economic deposits of s i l v e r - l e a d ores. The ore deposits from f i e l d evidence seem to be g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the g r a n i t e i n t r u s i o n . They are a l s o r e l a t e d to w e l l defined shear zones which provided access f o r the m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s . These s o l u t i o n s t r a v e r s i n g these zones replaced the purer, thick-bedded q u a r t z i t e s and to a l e s s extent the a r g i l l a c e o u s thin-bedued members. Structure The present a t t i t u d e of the s t r a t a of the A l d r i d g e formation shows that i t has s u f f e r e d some orogenic movements. In g e n e r a l , i t i s warped i n t o a s e r i e s of a n t i c l i n e s and syn-c l i n e s s t r i k i n g i n a n o r t h e r l y d i r e c t i o n . The Mpyie V a l l e y i n the neighborhood of Yahk has been eroded along the a x i s of an a n t i c l i n e which plunges to the north. ' The f o l d s are u s u a l l y g e n t l e , but o c c a s i o n a l l y as i n the mountains minor overturned a n t i c l i n e s , mashing and f a u l t i n g modify the major f o l d s . The f a u l t s can be traced f o r great distances i n t h i s -19-formation. S c h i s t o s l t y i s developed i n the incompetent beds as small drag f o l d s . Creston Formation D i s t r i b u t i o n As the top of the A l d r i d g e formation i s approached the rocks, while s t i l l rusty-weathered, take on a p e c u l i a r .. greenish colour* This zone i s from 10-100 feet t h i c k . Above t h i s i s a s e r i e s of rocks which are green i n colour and mud-craeked. The base of the Creston formation i s placed at the point where these beds are encountered. There are f o u r main b e l t s of Creston q u a r t z i t e s i n t h i s area. The northern border of Creston rocks i s formed by the c u t t i n g o f f of the formation by the East and North Fork g r a n i t e s . The western b e l t has as i t s northern border the North Fork g r a n i t e . The western border i s formed by t h i s formation passing conformably beneath the o v e r l y i n g Kitchener formation. I t s eastern border i s formed by the East Fork g r a n i t e and by being conformably u n d e r l a i n by the A l d r i d g e q u a r t z i t e s . This boundary i s modified by the i n t r u s i o n of the H a l l granite© I t s southern boundary has only been ex-plored as f a r as the head of W h i t e f i s h Creek. The north-eastern b e l t of the Creston rocks l i e s north of Matthew Creek, and i s cut o f f to the north-west by the East Fork g r a n i t e * I t s western and southern "borders are formed by the conformable underlying A l d r i d g e formation* The north-eastern border passes conformably below the o v e r l y i n g Kitchener formation* The north-eastern and western b e l t s of the Creston format i o n are parts of the great a n t i c l i n o r i u m plunging to the north. This a n t i c l i n o r i u m i s cut o f f by the g r a n i t e s to the north®. -. -The middle b e l t of the Creston formation, where the A l d r i d g e i s f a u l t e d against i t , appears at the head of P i t t Creek. This b e l t o f Creston rocks^south-west to the head of H e l l - R o a r i n g Creek. The eastern border i s formed by the formation passing conformably into the underlying A l d r i d g e formation. The southern border has only been explored to the headwaters of the Moyie R i v e r . The southern b e l t pursues from Moyie Lake a course varying w i t h the Moyie f a u l t . The western and north-western borders are bounded p a r t l y by the Moyie f a u l t which brings the Aldridge formation i n t o contact w i t h the Creston rocks. At the head of Irishman's Creek the Creston was found to pass conformably beneath the o v e r l y i n g Kitchener formation. The eastern border i s formed by passing conformably i n t o the underlying A l d r i d g e q u a r t z i t e s . Thickness The s e c t i o n of the Creston formation south-west of Yahk was neasured by the w r i t e r , and i t s thickness was found ra21— to be 3 , 7 0 0 f e e t e As t h i s belt i s free from f o l d i n g , the w r i t e r ? s measurement may be considered correct. Lithology , The Creston formation embraces a succession of ar-gillaceous quartzites which have the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The base i s formed of mud-cracked, green a r g i l l i t e s and ar-gillaceous quartzites. Further up i n the section the rocks become green-white and purple mottled. This purple mottling i s now regarded as t y p i c a l of the Creston quartzite formation, and i s due to f i n e l y divided, specular hematite contained i n the rocks. The greenish v a r i e t i e s range i n colour from dark to l i g h t green. Near the top . n f tfrn ±0$. of the formation the Creston quartzites become interbedded with the calcareous rocks of the Kitchener formation. The quartzites of the formation under discussion are i n beds sometimes measuring up to one foot i n thickness, while the interbedded argillaceous material varies from one inch to three inches i n thickness. Charac-t e r i s t i c s of th i s formation are rip p l e markings, mud cracks and cross-bedding. Metamorphism The members of the Creston formation are not meta-morphosed to any considerable degree. Around the Skye grani-t i c intrusion the rocks are quartz-mica s c h i s t s . There are also some spotted schists due to accumulation of carbonaceous m a t e r i a l . As the Creston formation i s t y p i c a l l y q u a r t z i t i e , that i s a metamorphosed, sandstone, f a r t h e r metamorphlsm has no appreciable e f f e c t . Regional metamorphism has induced shearing at r i g h t - a n g l e s to the bedding planes of the a r -g i l l i t e s which separate the thick-bedded purer q u a r t z i t e s * •-Structure Since the Creston q u a r t z i t e s l i e conformably upon the A l d r i d g e formation, i t would f o l l o w that these two s e r i e s must have a s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e . That i s , the Creston has been folde d i n t o a n t i c l i n e s and s y n c l i n e s . The Creston q u a r t z i t e s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d at various horizons by shallow water feature s : mud cracks and r i p p l e marks are notable character-i s t i c s of t h i s r e g i o n . K i t c h e n e r Formation D i s t r i b u t i o n The K i t c h e n e r formation embraces four b e l t s of c a l -careous a r g i l l i t e s and q u a r t z i t e s * The northern b e l t , conformably o v e r l i e s the Creston q u a r t z i t e s near the head of Skookumchuck Creek, has not been explored f a r past i t s contact w i t h the underlying Creston formation. The western b e l t i s cut o f f to the north by the North Fork g r a n i t e . I t s north-east border i s formed by a —23"' s y n c l i n a l r o l l through which the North Fork of the St. Mary Ri v e r flows. This b e l t crosses the West Fork R i v e r near the head of Moon Greek. The southern boundary has been explored as f a r south, as the head of Redding Creek. The western border of t h i s formation passes conformably under the Dutch Greek formation. The South Fork of the S t . Mary R i v e r cuts through an a n t i c l i n e of Kitchener q u a r t z i t e s l e a v i n g i t exposed on both sides of t h i s creek. The H e l l - R o a r i n g b e l t of K i t c h e n e r rocks has as i t s northern boundary the H e l l - R o a r i n g f a u l t . The eastern border i s formed by the underlying Creston formation, and the western border by the o v e r l y i n g Siyeh formation. Small s y n c l i n a l pods of Kitchener rocks occur i n the Creston formation. On Perry Creek near the Sawmill f a u l t there occurs a b e l t of calcareous q u a r t z i t e . The southern b e l t of Kitchener formation at the head of Irishman's Creek i s wedge-shaped, and i s cut o f f to the north by the Moyie f a u l t . The southern border passes conformably i n t o the underlying Creston q u a r t z i t e s . Thickness The best s e c t i o n of the Kitchener formation f o r measurement i s to be found along the Canadian P a o i f i c Railway on Upper Moyie lake i n the v i c i n i t y of Jerome. Here exposures are s a t i s f a c t o r y , and show l i t t l e evidence of f o l d i n g . Hence 1 the measured thickness of 4 ,500 feet can be taken as c o r r e c t . 1. S c h o f i e l d , S.J. G.S.C., Memoir 7 6 , 1915--24— L i t h o l o g y I n comparison w i t h the underlying Creston and Aldridge* formations, the most notable feature of the Kitchener formation i s i t s content of lime.. I t l i e s conformably on the Creston q u a r t z i t e s , and the contact i s t r a n s i t i o n a l . The formation c o n s i s t s of calcareous and a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s , q u a r t z i t e s and limestones, having general weathering colours of b u f f w i t h some grey tones. On the weathered surface p a r a l -l e l to the bedding planes are numerous l i n e a r depressions about one-eighth to one-quarter i n c h wide and one-half inch deep, while on the planes perpendicular to the bedding these depressions are i r r e g u l a r and sometimes vermicular. E v i d e n t l y these depressions are the r e s u l t of the leaching out of the purer calcareous phases. The p e c u l i a r weathering e f f e c t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these a r g i l l a c e o u s limestones and i s termed "molar tooth" s t r u c t u r e . A r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s c o n s i s t i n g o f banded white and black rocks are commonly found i n t e r -bedded w i t h the calcareous members. Metamorphism The impure members of the Kitchener formation form schistose rocks when subjected to metamorphism. These rocks are u s u a l l y quartz-mica s c h i s t s . On the North Fork of the St. Mary Ri v e r one zone of thermal metamorphism was found to c o n t a i n an andalusite s c h i s t . Much p y r i t e was found i n t h i s zone; the i n t r u s i o n was l o c a t e d i n the near v i c i n t i y of the metamorphic rock. -25-Structure The Kitchener formation rests conformably on the Creston .formation. The-contact i s t r a n s i t i o n a l , and. the d i v i s i o n between the two formations i s drawn at that point where the limey beds predominate. The Kitchener i s overlain conformably by the Siyeh formation, t h i s contact also being t r a n s i t i o n a l . Siyen Formation D i s t r i b u t i o n There i s one main belt of Siyeh rocks i n . t h i s portion of the Cranbrook area® This belt starts half-way up the main fork of H e l l -Roaring Creek, and follows the creek bottom for 2-§- miles, then swings to the west of the head of that creek. The northern border i s formed by the Hell-Roaring f a u l t which brings the underlying Aldridge formation into contact with the Siyeh formation. On the western border the Siyeh rocks pass unconformably below the Cranbrook formation. The eastern border i s formed by the t r a n s i t i o n to the underlying Kitchener formation, while the southern border has not been explored south of the head of Hell-Roaring Creek. The western belt i s of too small a thickness to be mapped. It has the same relations to the other formations as stated above. -26-L i t h o l o g y The Siyeh formation exposed i n t h i s area i s composed of thin-bedded purple, o l i v e green, white and black banded a r g i l l i t e s and a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s . Thickness As the Siyeh formation i s not very t h i c k i n t h i s area, a s e c t i o n was not measured. According to Schofield"'" and Daly^ the thic k n e s s i s 4,000 f e e t . S t r u c t u r a l R e l a t i o n In t h i s area the Siyeh formation i s u n d e r l a i n con-formably by the Kitchener formation and therefore has the same s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s . The P u r c e l l l a v a i s absent i n t h i s area, but S e h o f i e l d 1 places the top of the Siyeh formation at the bottom of the l a s t flow of l a v a . Gateway Formation In t h i s area there i s one b e l t of Gateway rocks. 3 • -Walker proposes that the Dutch Creek and Mount Nelson f o r -mations be c a l l e d the Upper P u r c e l l s e r i e s . The base of t h i s s e r i e s i s defined as being the ho r i z o n of the uppermost 1. S o h o f i e l d , 3.J. G . S . C . Memoir '/b, l?lj > . 2. Daly, R.A. G.S.C. " 38, 1912. 3 . Walker, J.F. G.S.C. '! 148, 1926, p.7 - 2 7 -Puroell lava at the boundary between the Gateway (lowest horizon of the Dutch Greek formation) and. the underlying Siyeh formation. As the only Gateway rocks found i n t h i s area occur i n the Dutch Greek formation i t w i l l be permissible to include them i n i t as defined by Walker. Dutch Greek Formation The name of t h i s formation which i s the northern extension of the Roosville, P h i l l i p s and Gateway i s derived 1 from Dutch Creek. Work i n 1936 proved that i d e n t i c a l l y the same f o r -mation occurs i n the Kootenay d i s t r i c t i n the St. Mary River drainage area. This formation occurs i n one belt on the western side of the area. The North fork granite forms the northern boundary which follows the North fork south for f i v e miles from where i t crosses the West fork at Bftgjbe Pass. The southern border has not been explored below -Bag^e Pass. To the east the formation i s underlain conformably by the Kitchener formation. The western border i s formed by the conformably overlying Mount Nelson formation and i s modified by the Stub g r a n i t i c stock which intrudes this formation. Lithology This formation isiimade up of a succession varying 1. Walker, J.F. G.S.C. Memoir 148, 1?26, p. 7 -28-from a r g i l l i t e and quartzite to magnesium limestone. The a r g i l l i t e comprising the greater part of the formation i s grey green and. purple on fresh fracture, fine-grained and laminated. There are some sandy beds but t h i s i s not a common ch a r a c t e r i s t i c . Pyrite cubes are numerous i n the a r g i l l i t e s . The quartzites are thin-bedded and fine-grained with a f a i n t greenish colour. The limestones .are s l a t y magnesium and tfciin-bedded, i n colour, grey, weathering cream to buff. Some chert beds were found to be associated with the limestone. Thickness The maximum observed thickness of t h i s formation i n the Windermere map-area i s about 3 , 5 0 0 feet.''' Metamorphism This formation has been intruded by and i s probably underlain by igneous rocks. It has been subject to a great amount of thermal metamorphism. The rocks form garnetiferous mica schists and quartz mica schists. Some gneisses are formed andtthe limestone i n one l o c a l i t y formed wollastonite, probably due to metasomatism. 1. Walker, J.F. G.S.C. Memoir 148, 1926, p. 8 Structure As t h i s formation conformably overlies the Kitche-ner formation, i t w i l l have the same structural r e l a t i o n s . However, these are modified somewhat hy the intrusive stocks of granite material, ' Mount Nelson Formation ' D i s t r i b u t i o n In the Cranbrook area one belt of Mount Nelson rocks were found, The northern border of this belt i s formed by the Stub g r a n i t i c stock. The formation was not explored beyond t h i s stock, but i t i s probable that i t runs north into the Windermere map-area. The southern border was ex-plored as f a r south as Cogle Pass, The eastern border i s formed by the conformable underlying Dutch Creek formation. The unconformable Toby conglomerate forms the western border of this; b e l t , Lithology The Mount Nelson formation i s a succession of c r y s t a l l i n e magnesium limestones and sl a t e s , and has at i t s base and also near the upper erosional surface massive white quartzites. The magnesium limestones are grey blue, white, purple and brick red on fresh fracture and weather to a grey cream, buff and purple• The a r g i l l i t e s are grey to black, green and purplish and, weather to the same colours. The beds average one foot i n thickness. A Thickness The observed thickness i s 2,400*. Structure As t h i s formation i s conformably underlain by the Dutch Creek formation, the structural features are i d e n t i c a l . Origin of the P u r c e l l Series In the foregoing description of.the P u r c e l l series the writer stated that the series consist of a great t h i c k -ness of argillaceous quartzites, quartzites, a r g i l l i t e s and limestones. In general the rocks are well bedded, the individual beds varying from 1 inch to 8 feet i n thickness. The rocks consist of interlocking grains of quartz, s t r i a t e d feldspar and argillaceous material. A<§ various horizons i n the series occur ripple marks and mud cracks which are es-p e c i a l l y abundant i n the Creston and Siyeh formations. Casts of salt crystals are numerous only i n the Gateway formation (lower Dutch Creek)• Evidence of contemporaneous erosion i s seen i n the Aldridge formation© ., . -31-The extreme fineness of grain and the almost perfect separation of the s i l i c e o u s and aluminous material advances the opinion that these sediments were derived from an older terraine probably composed of acid gneisses and schists i n a 1 ' •• region of topographic l a t e maturity* The Aldridge argillaceous quartzites are dark grey on fresh fracture and weather to a rusty brown colour, hence, the i r o n contained i n these quartzites i s i n the ferrous con-dition.,, It i s also probable that some carbonaceous material i s present,. This would show that the. climate at the time of the deposition of the Aldridge sediments was humid. The presence of s t r i a t e d feldspar i n the quartzites supports the idea that mechanical d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the source of supply was more rapid than decomposition or weathering. The evidence of contemporaneous erosion, as well as the conglomerates found i n the Aldridge formation.on Cone Mountain suggests that the water i n which the sediments were deposited was shallow and that subsidence and deposition proceeded approximately at the same rate. The quartzitio Creston formation i s characterized by a green and purple colour. The base of the Creston i s notable for i t s abundance of mud-cracks. This fact suggests that at the close of the Aldridge sedimentation the basin of deposition was very shallow. Ripple markings are found i n t h i s formation. The top of the Oreston formation i s characterized by interbeds of limestone indicating a deepening of the sea. The more calcareous portion of the Kitchener f o r -mation seemingly accumulated, i n comparatively deep water, since" no shallow water features were noted i n i t . The next succeeding formation, the Siyeh metar-g i l l i t e , i s characterized by the presence of alternating greyish-green and purple to chocolate brown a r g i l l i t e s , which are especially distinguished by the presence of abundant mud cracks. Hence the water in which these sediments were deposited was shallow and even shallower probably than the Aldridge or Creston sea. Continental deposition under a r i d conditions pre-vailed throughout the Gateway times, as i s shown by the presence of the casts of salt crystals and the abundance of ripple marks. Sources of the Sediments The Aldridge formation i n the eastern part of the P u r c e l l range contains no conglomerates, but i n the central and western parts as in the v i c i n i t y of the Goat River and Cone Mountain these conglomerates are abundant. The Creston formation i s coarser i n the western part of the range, from which i s drawn the conelusion that the land from which these sediments were derived was situated to the west of the Pur c e l l Range and probably as close as West Kootenay, for the Pre-Cambrian complex of gneisses and schists outcrops at various points i n that region. Daly i n his study across the whole Rocky Mountain geosyncline remarks on the decrease i n the coarseness of the sediments from west to east. Purcell Sea The water i n the Purcell continental basin i n which the Pu r c e l l sediments were deposited was shallow f o r 2 the most part. Walcott believes from the abrupt appearance of the Cambrian fauna i n the sediments of the Rocky Mountain geosyncline that the Purc e l l sea was not connected with the ocean and that the water in the sea was either fresh or brackish. Walker's opinion i s that the great thickness of limestone i n the neighborhood of the International Boundary /•a.-6f>er scarcely bears out such a hypothesis as Walcotts, but rakfoor indicates true marine conditions. The apparent lack of l i f e i n the Purcell strata can now be explained by the extent of the hiatus existing between the Cambrian and the Pu r c e l l series, for the gap i s much greater than had previously been believed even by those who claimed unconformable relations. Evidence of the extent of the break i s afforded by the Pre-Cambrian Windermere series which i s d e f i n i t e l y post-Purcell 1. Daly, R.A. G.S.C. Summ. Rept. 1904 2. Walcott, Smithsonian C o l l e c t i o n . Vol. j>7, 1910, p. 1 Walker, J.F. G.S.C. Memoir 148, 1926, p. 12 i n age, and the r e l a t i o n s as propounded on a l a t e r page are suoh that i t i s evident the P u r c e l l sediments were subjected to at l e a s t two cycles of erosion before the l a y i n g down of the lower Cambrian marine sediments* Structure of the P u r c e l l Land Mass The P u r c e l l sediments were subjected to f o l d i n g i n Pre-Windermere time, t h i s being i n d i c a t e d by the angular unconformity between the two s e r i e s * The unconformity i s marked, though the discordance seldom reaches 45 degrees. There i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the degree of metarnorphism e x h i b i t e d by the two s e r i e s , and t h i s f a c t coupled w i t h the moderate angular discordance would point that the Pre-Winder-mere f o l d i n g was of an open broad character. There must, however, have been considerable u p l i f t to give a . r e l i e f that would account f o r the formation of the great basal conglomer-ate of the Windermere s e r i e s . Windermere S e r i e s The s t r a t a of the Windermere s e r i e s were observed by S c h o f i e l d and Shepard, but t h e i r r e l a t i o n s to the under-^ l y i n g and o v e r l y i n g formations were not, determined. Walker f i r s t proposed t h i s name f o r the s e r i e s of s t r a t a l y i n g 1. Walker, J.F. Geol. Surv. Can. Mem. 148, 192$, p. 15 unconformable above the Mount Nelson formation i n the Winde-mere map-area. Walker^correlated t h i s s e r i e s w i t h the Windermere s e r i e s i n the Kootenay l a k e d i s t r i c t * Work i n 1936 by the Ge o l o g i c a l Survey was able to c o r r e l a t e the P u r c e l l s e r i e s of the Granbrook map-area wit h the Windermere of the Kootenay la k e d i s t r i c t . Toby Conglomerate D i s t r i b u t i o n The Toby Conglomerate forms a narrow b e l t that l i e s to the west of Rose Greek. The northern border of t h i s b e l t i s formed by the Stub g r a n i t i o stock which cuts the Toby conglomerate o f f from i t s northern extension. The eastern border i s formed by unconformably o v e r l y i n g the Upper P u r c e l l sediments while the western border of t h i s b e l t passes conformably under the Horsethief formation. The southern border was explored only as f a r south as Rose Pass. l i t h o l o g y The Toby Conglomerate i s the basal member of the Windermere s e r i e s and was named a f t e r Toby Greek i n the Windermere area. I t s nature i s extremely v a r i a b l e . In places the matrix i s l a r g e l y s l a t e through which are scattered fragments of s l a t e and shale and occasional boulders of limestone and q u a r t z i t e . Along or across the 1. 'Walker, J.F. Sum. Rept. G.S.C , 1928 Part A p. 124A • ^ 6 -s t r i k e the matrix may change r e p i d l y to one of limestone holding c h i e f l y limestone boulders, or i t may grade into a h i g h l y s i l i c e o u s type i n which the boulders are c h i e f l y q u a r t z i t e . In other places q u a r t z i t e and limestone boulders are e q u a l l y abundant and l i e i n a s l a t y matrix* The percen-tage of boulders to matrix i s extremely v a r i a b l e , ranging from s c a t t e r e d fragments forming only ji to 10 percent of the rock to a compact boulder mass* .Within the formation are a few l e n t i c u l a r beds of s l a t e and q u a r t z i t e * The m a t e r i a l s comprising the cnnglomerate have not t r a v e l l e d f a r , and i n a l l cases the boulders can be i d e n t i -f i e d with the underlying rocks of the P u r c e l l s e r i e s * A large number of the boulders are rounded while many others are subangular and angular i n d i c a t i n g r a p i d e r o s i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h but l i t t l e opportunity f o r wear. The boulders and fragments vary i n s i z e from 4 to j? feet down to pebbles and shingle. The average s i z e i s about 4 to 10 inches. Thickness The Toby Conglomerate i n the Windermere area v a r i e s from to 2000 feet t h i c k . Horsethief Formation D i s t r i b u t i o n This formation conformably o v e r l i e s the Toby Con-glomerate. The northern border of t h i s s e r i e s i s formed by i t s contact w i t h the Stub g r a n i t i c stock; the western border passes conformably beneath the o v e r l y i n g H a m i l l s e r i e s . The southern border was explored only as f a r south as Rose Pass. L i t h o l o g y . This formation i s made up i n large part of grey, green and purple s l a t e w i t h several l e n t i c u l a r beds of coarse q u a r t z i t e and pebble conglomerate and numerous t h i n interbeds of blue-grey c r y s t a l l i n e and mostly non-magnesium limestone, which occur at d i f f e r e n t horizons but form a r e l a t i v e l y small part of the whole formation. The coarse q u a r t z i t e and pebble beds vary i n thickness from 20 up to 100 feet or more. Most of the pebbles are quartz and q u a r t z i t e , but a few are limestone which are w e l l sorted and c l o s e l y packed. The pebbles which are apparently derived i n large part from the P u r c e l l s e r i e s , d i f f e r i n s i z e i n the various beds and grade down-ward from an average minimum diameter of !•§• inches to grains such as make up the coarse q u a r t z i t e s . There are some a r g i l l a c e o u s s c h i s t s w i t h beds of f i n e conglomerate, some grey q u a r t z i t e , and grey limestone. A few beds of limy boulder conglomerate occur i n the lower part of the s e r i e s - 3 8 -thus indicating that the conditions giving r i s e to the massive Toby Conglomerate were s t i l l active to a s l i g h t extent. Thickness 1 Walker states that i n the northern part of the Kootenay lake d i s t r i c t the series reaches a thickness of 5000 feet and i n the southern part 7 »000 feet. Structure The Horsethief formation conformably overlies the Toby Conglomerate. In the eastern part of the Windermere map-area i t i s overlain unconformably by the Upper Cambrian O t t e r t a i l limestone and i n t h i s area i t i s overlain conformably by the Hamill series of Windermere age. Hamill Series The Hamill series conformably overlies the Horse-t h i e f formation s and i s part of the same sedimentary suc-cession. This series was not explored f a r past i t s contact with the underlying Horsethief formation and therefore i t s base w i l l be described. 1. Walker, J.F. Sumrn. Rept. G.S.C. 1 9 2 8 , Part A, p 125 A -39 -L i t h o l o g y The base of the Hamil l s e r i e s i s composed of massive white and. greenish q u a r t z i t e which forms many of the 'highest, most rugged peaks along the west side of the Pur-c e l l Range. The area surveyed f i e l d season of 1936 d i d not cover the upper beds of the Windermere s e r i e s mentioned by 1 Walker, so that they are not included i n t h i s . r e p o r t . O r i g i n o f the Windermere Seri e s Toby Conglomerate The s i z e and shape of the boulders, the unassorted character of the formation as a whole, and the evident d e r i v a t i o n of the boulders from the immediately underlying P u r c e l l s e r i e s i n d i c a t e that the ma t e r i a l s were not t r a n s -ported any great distance. Horsethief Formation The conglomerate at the base of the Horsethief formation s i m i l a r to that of the Toby conglomerate seems to i n d i c a t e that the conditions were i d e n t i c a l with the above, but . s l i g h t l y diminished. The formation was probably formed i n a subsiding b a s i n or v a l l e y bordering on an area 1. Walker, J.F. Sum. Rept. G.S.C. 1928, Part A, p. 126A -40-o f high r e l i e f along the margin of which the Toby conglome-rat e was deposited. No shallow water features were noted i n t h i s formation, but there was some cross-bedding i n the q u a r t z i t i c beds. Palaeozoic Formations of the Discussed Area The Palaeozoic formations o c c u r r i n g i n t h i s area are of lower Cambrian age. The Cambrian near the Fort Steele-Eugene mission road were i d e n t i f i e d as lower Cambrian by S c h o f i e l d . 1 In the area under d i s c u s s i o n , the Cambrian s t r a t a w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as the Cranbrook and Eager formations* £ranbrook Formation D i s t r i b u t i o n The Cranbrook formation embraces one b e l t i n the Cranbrook area. The northern border of t h i s b e l t i s formed by the He l l - R o a r i n g f a u l t . This border i s just west of where the f a u l t crosses H e l l - R o a r i n g Creek, b r i n g i n g the underlying A l d r i d g e formation into..contact with the Cran-brook formation. The Cranbrook rocks uneonformably o v e r l i e the Siyeh formation to the east. The western border i s formed by passing conformably under the o v e r l y i n g f o s s i l i f e r o 1. S c h o f i e l d , S.J. Mus. B u l l . Ho. 3 5 , 1915, p.i2-- 4 1 -Eager formation to the west. The southern border was not explored south of the Hell-Roaring -Goat River divide. ' Lithology This formation consists es s e n t i a l l y of a quartz pebble conglomerate at the base and grades upwards into a massive quartzite. The colour i s green, red or white and the rock has a very decided vitreous appearance. Some magnesite was found i n t h i s formation. Thickness This formation i s about 600 feet thick. Structure The Cranbrook formation unconformably overlies the Siyeh formation, urogenic movements and this i s evidenced by the change of the Siyeh a r g i l l i t e s to the Cranbrook pebble conglomerate. The land mass must have stood high i n r e l a t i o n to the basin of deposition i n early Cambrian times. Eager Formation. D i s t r i b u t i o n This formation overlies the Cranbrook formation conformably. It forms one belt i n the area under discussion^ -42-The northern border of t h i s b e l t i s formed by the south-west trending H e l l - R o a r i n g f a u l t , which f a u l t brings the Aldridge formation i n t o contact w i t h the Eager formation. The eastern border i s formed by passing conformably into the Cranbrook formation. The southern border was only explored to the H e l l - R o a r i n g - Goat River d i v i d e . The western border was traced to the headwaters of the east f o r k of the Goat R i v e r , l i t h o l o g y Near the top of the Granbrook formation the massive q u a r t z i t e becomes more sandy and contains t h i n interbeds of a r g i l l i t e . These a r g i l l i t e s f i n a l l y make up the l a r g e r por-t i o n of the Eager formation. Chocolate brown and b l a c k , weathering to a reddish brown colour, they are characterized by t h e i r p e c u l i a r s i l k y l u s t r e and content of f o s s i l s . Age and C o r r e l a t i o n The age and c o r r e l a t i o n o f the Eager formation based on the f o s s i l consent of the rocks were i d e n t i f i e d by the w r i t e r . The f o s s i l s are as f o l l o w s : Holmia .? ( Z i t t e l ) Wanneria wallcottanus (Wanner) Gl e n e l l u s g i l b e r t i Walcott S a l t e r e l l a B i l l i n g s The fauna belong to the lower Cambrian, p o s s i b l y the upper p o r t i o n , and are of the same age as the Eager formation. - 4 3 -S u p e r f i c i a l Deposits iv.!, * The v a l l e y "bottoms i n t h i s area are u s u a l l y covered •with g l a c i a l d r i f t . Near M a r y s v i l l e the St. Mary River has cut through about 300 feet o f g l a c i a l d r i f t which are some-times s t r a t i f i e d . One good exposure of t i l l may be seen on the St. Msry road near Bear Creek. Recent stream a l l u v i u m i s represented as gravel bars and sands throughout the area. -44-•••••}' •• OHAPTER IV IGNEOUS GEOLOGY The P u r c e l l and Windermere s e r i e s have been i n -truded by two d i s t i n c t periods of igneous a c t i v i t y . These w i l l be discussed under the headings of: 1) Pre-Windermere I n t r u s i o n 2 ) Post Orogenio I n t r u s i o n Pre-Windermere I n t r u s i o n s To t h i s group of i n t r u s i o n s i s given the name 1 P u r c e l l s i l l s . This s e r i e s of rocks intruded the sediments when they were h o r i z o n t a l , l a t e r being t i l t e d i n t o t h e i r present c o n d i t i o n . They are i n greatest abundance i n the Aldridge formation and occur o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the Creston, Kitchener, Mount Nelson and Dutch Greek formations. The P u r c e l l s i l l s have a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n i n East Kootenay and Idaho since the Aldridge formation and i t s equivalents occupy extensive areas. I n t h i s area the s i l l s can be w e l l ^ f r e ^ I ^ d i n the v a l l e y w a l l s which enclose St. Mary Lake. The Moyie s i l l s outcrop on the western slope of the f i r s t l o n g i t u d i n a l v a l l e y west of Kingsgate on the I n t e r n a t i o n a l 1. S c h o f i e l d , S.J. G.S.C. Memoir 7b, 1915, pT"5o - 4 5 -Boundary. These s i l l s occur i n a l l the formations named above; they vary i n thickness from 2 to 2,000 feet and being*more r e s i s t a n t to weathering agencies than the s t r a t i -f i e d rocks which enclose them u s u a l l y form steep c l i f f s which are conspicuous features i n the topography of the country. L i t h o l o g y The rocks which c o n s t i t u t e the P u r c e l l s i l l s vary i n composition from a hypersthene gabbro to a very aci d g r a n i t e or granophyre w i t h intermediate members between these extreme types. The texture of the s i l l rock v a r i e s from f i n e - g r a i n e d to p o r p h y r i t i c . The granophyre i s always asso-c i a t e d w i t h the gabbro and occurs at or near the upper con-t a c t of the s i l l s . The thickness of the granophyre which grades downwards in t o a hornblende gabbro bears no r e l a t i o n -ship to the thickness of the s i l l . For a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t types of s i l l rock, the w r i t e r would r e f e r 1 the reader to the report of Dr. S.J. S c h o f i e l d . I n t e r n a l R e l a t i o n s The f o l d i n g and f a u l t i n g to which the s i l l s have been subject are evidenced by the a t t i t u d e and the. d i s t r i -b u t i o n of the s i l l s now exposed i n the P u r c e l l Range• As they were intruded when the s t r a t a were f l a t , they have suffered a l l the movements which have taken place i n that 1 . S c h o f i e l d , S.J. G.S.C. Memoir 7 6 , 1915, P» 57 range, so that they now form a n t i c l i n e s and s y n c l i n e s w i t h a l l angles of dip from zero to 90- degrees. The s i l l s o f t e n end abruptly against s t r a t a which are older or younger than 'those holding the s i l l s , and i n some cases, the v e r t i c a l displacement may be sev e r a l thousand f e e t . The most s t r i k i n g phenomenon i n the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of the s i l l s i s a s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l according to d e n s i t y . The w r i t e r studied Dr. S c h o f i e l d s S i l l G on the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary. This s i l l had an upper zone of g r a n i t i c composition which graded i n t o the normal q u a r t z i t i c rocks. The lower zone passed i n t o a rock of s l i g h t l y b a s i c character and f i n a l l y i n t o a zone of gabbroie rock. The lower border of the s i l l d i d not e x h i b i t a g r a n i t i c zone. -The second type of s i l l was studied on St. Mary lake and a l l gradations from micropegmatite and gabbro were observed. Exte r n a l R e l a t i o n s The metamorphism produced at the contacts of the s i l l and country rock i s very s l i g h t . The country rock i s u s u a l l y baked thoroughly, v i t r i f i e d and charged with needles of hornblende. Shreds of white mica are commonly found i n these zones, which vary from 1 inch to 1 foot i n width, and pass i n t o normal q u a r t z i t i c rocks. -47-Age of the P a r o e l l S i l l s The youngest rocks which the gabbroic s i l l s i n -trude* are the Upper P u r c e l l formations. These s i l l s were intruded when the s t r a t a were h o r i z o n t a l f o r they have been f a u l t e d and fold e d i n the same manner and to the same degree as the q u a r t z i t e s which enclose them* The g r a n i t i c border i s always at the upper contact while the d i f f e r e n t i a t e ore i s always near the lower border. This f a c t would i n d i -cate that at the time of i n t r u s i o n the s t r a t a must have been h o r i z o n t a l . The s i l l s we re not found above the unconformity at the base of the Windermere s e r i e s . This f a c t seems to i n d i c a t e that the age of the P u r c e l l s i l l s i s Pre-Windermere. At the close of the period of P u r c e l l d e p o s i t i o n a broad upwarping occurred. That the s t r a t a were not g r e a t l y d i s -turbed i s shown by the o v e r l y i n g Windermere s e r i e s . The P u r c e l l s i l l s would have greater access f o r i n t r u s i o n as a r e s u l t of the upwarping; and as shown above, the sediments were approximately h o r i z o n t a l . Igneous i n t r u s i o n and u p l i f t have been proven u s u a l l y contemporaneous and hence the Pur-c e l l s i l l s are probably Pre-Windermere i n age. Post Orogenic I n t r u s i o n The northern border of t h i s area i s underlain by a large number of huge g r a n i t i c stocks. These were explored as f a r north as l a t i t u d e 50 degrees. One stock occurs on -48-the east fork of the S t , Mary River and i s c a l l e d the East Pork g r a n i t e , The other two northern, "belts are designated North fork granite and Stub g r a n i t i c . The formations i n the v i c i n i t y of these i n t r u s i o n s are cut by numerous dykes and veins which are found•in shear and f a u l t zones. These zones must have afforded easy access f o r the magmatic s o l u t i o n s . These g r a n i t e s are p o r p h y r i t i c i n texture and contain l a r g e pink f e l d s p a r c r y s t a l s of ortho-clase embedded i n a groundmass of quartz, mica and f e l d s p a r . The apophyses u s u a l l y are f i n e r grained and contain abundant quartz, mica, and f e l d s p a r . The veins are composed of quartz together w i t h c e r t a i n minerals such as p y r i t e , galena, chaleo-p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e e t c . A s i m i l a r p o r p h y r i t i c g r a n i t e was exposed at the headwaters of Meaehem C^eek, and was i d e n t i c a l l y the same . as the northern g r a n i t e s . Such a s i m i l a r i t y seems to i n d i -cate that the whole area i s underlain by a great mass of igneous rocks. This f a c t i s f u r t h e r evidenced by the out-croppings of g r a n i t i c rocks throughout the whole area. A micaceous v a r i e t y of g r a n i t e i s w e l l exposed on the v a l l e y w a l l s of H a l l Lake, while i n the v i c i n i t y of the Boy Scout Mine a pegmatitic g r a n i t e i s exposed. This granite consisted of large f l a k e s of muscovite, f e l d s p a r c r y s t a l s and black tourmaline c r y s t a l s , one c r y s t a l a t t a i n i n g a length of s i x inches. In the ridge to the east of Bootleg Mountain a graphic g r a n i t e pegmatite i s exposed. The graphic i n t e r -growth i s between the quartz and f e l d s p a r . The dyke rocks cut both the g r a n i t e and sedimentary rocks* and u s u a l l y have a maximum width of lj> feet and the •pegmatites a width of 200 f e e t . L i t h o l o g y Megaseopically the g r a n i t e s are a l l l i g h t grey i n c o l o u r s and vary i n texture from pegmatitie to f i n e - g r a i n e d . The p o r p h y r i t i s v a r i t i e s are cha r a c t e r i z e d by the presence of pink orthoclase f e l d s p a r c r y s t a l s . The pegmatites contain l a r g e f l a k e s of museovite, c r y s t a l s of f e l d s p a r , quartz and sometimes tourmaline. The f i n e r grained v a r i e t i e s are com-posed of b i o t i t e , quartz and f e l d s p a r . S t r u c t u r a l R e l a t i o n s The g r a n i t i c i n t r u s i o n s cut a l l the formations i n t h i s area. Contact metamorphism v a r i e s from place to place. Me tamo rp'.ism r e s u l t s i n the formation of quartz mica s c h i s t s , garnetiferous mica s c h i s t s , s i l l i m a n i t e and andalusite s c h i s t s . The P u r c e l l s i l l s are i n the v i c i n i t y of the gra n i t e s me t a -mo rphosed to c h l o r i t e s c h i s t s . In the ridge to the east of Bootleg Mountain, a f i n e example of an aureole of metamorphism i s exposed near a pegmatite body. The metamorphism was greater around the pegmatitie stocks than i t was near the other v a r i e t i e s of g r a n i t e . That the magma intruded the o v e r l y i n g rocks by stoping was e x h i b i t e d on Meachen Creek. Here l a r g e , i r r e g u l a r i n c l u s i o n s of sediments were found i n the gran i t e body. Age and C o r r e l a t i o n As the youngest sedimentary formation with which the g r a n i t e s are found i n contact i s Windermere (Pre-Cambrian), the age of t h i s i n t r u s i v e can only d e f i n i t e l y be placed as B e l t i a n or younger. The r e l a t i o n s of the gr a n i t e to the f o l d i n g and f a u l t i n g movements which a f f e c t e d the region i n d i c a t e that the i n t r u s i o n i s younger than the orogeny. From work i n the Blue Mountains of Oregon, lindgren^places the date of the granite as c e r t a i n l y post T r i a s s i c and pre-Heoeene and l i k e l y p o s t - J u r a s s i c . Working to the west of 2 t h i s area, Walker dates these i n t r u s i v e s as P o s t - T r i a s s i o . 1. Lindgren, W. 22nd Annual Rept. U.S.G-.S. P t . 2 , 1901, pp. 551-766 2. Walker, J.F. Summ. Rept. 1928, P t . A, p. 1274. -51" CHAPTER 7 STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY The str u c t u r e of the P u r c e l l i n t h i s area may he described, as a huge, northward p i t c h i n g arch composed of numerous s y n c l i n o r i a and a n t i c l i n o r i a . These f o l d s are modified by f a u l t s , f i s s u r e s and j o i n t s which are very ,. abundant and of d i f f e r e n t ages* Folds The f i r s t period of f o l d i n g i n t h i s area was at the close o f the P u r c e l l p e r i o d , which was char a c t e r i z e d by u p l i f t and broad open f o l d i n g , l a t e r accompanied probably by i n t r u s i o n of the P u r c e l l gabbro. The f o l d i n g which now char a c t e r i z e s t h i s area i s d e f i n i t e l y older than the i n t r u -1 s i o n of g r a n i t e . S c h o f i e l d dates the b u i l d i n g of the Pur-cell„as l a t e J u r a s s i c and Drysdale gives the gr a n i t e mass along the S e l k i r k s a J u r a s s i c age. The f o l d s have a general north and south trend, and are the r e s u l t of compressive 1. S c h o f i e l d , S.J. G.S.C. Memoir 76, 1?15, p. ?5 2. Drysdale, C.W. G.S.C. Memoir 56, pp. 61-62 forces a c t i n g i n an east and west d i r e c t i o n . The Yank Range has as i t s c o n t r o l l i n g s t r u c t u r e the northward plunging Yahk a n t i c l i n e . The a x i a l p o r t i o n of t h i s a n t i c l i n e i s made up of Aldridge a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s The eastern limb was only traced as f a r as west longitude 116 The western limb i s formed by the conformably o v e r l y i n g K i t -chener formation which i s cut o f f to the west by the Moyie f a u l t . To the east of Yahk t h i s a n t i c l i n e i s modified by the formation o f the Yahk s y n c l i n e . North of the Moyie f a u l t and into the drainage of the St. Mary Ri v e r the general'structure i s that of a huge arch which plunges to the north. The St. Mary R i v e r , flowing i n an e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n , cuts across the a x i s of t h i s a n t i -c l i n e . The s t r u c t u r e of t h i s arch i s complex, as i t i s g r e a t l y modified by minor overturned a n t i c l i n e s smashed and f a u l t e d . The northward extension of the arch i s cut o f f by the large i n t r u s i o n of g r a n i t i c rocks. The general trend of the axes of f o l d i n g i s northwest and southeast, with the a n t i c l i n a l a x i s of the arch passing to the west of Pyramid Mountain i n a southeasterly d i r e c t i o n . To the west a s y n c l i n a l axis runs through the North fork of the St. Mary R i v e r . This s y n c l i n e i s followed by an a n t i c l i n a l ^ a x i s to the west. The western limb of t h i s a n t i c l i n e dips steeply to the west and was explored as f a r west as the St. Mary River - Crawford Creek d i v i d e . The eastern limb of the "Se-arch i s formed, by Creston and Kitchener rocks which dip to the east and pass oat of the discussed area. F a u l t s The t h i r d great movement which a f f e c t e d the . P u r c e l l Range was f a u l t i n g , which was a northeast-southwest system, i n c l u d i n g the H e l l - R o a r i n g , Sawmill, Perry Creek and Mojeie f a u l t s and several small f a u l t s of l e s s e r importance, and a northwest-southeast system, the c h i e f one being the A l k i f a u l t . A l l of these major f a u l t s are th r u s t f a u l t s , due to compressive forces o r i g i n a t i n g from the west. The reason f o r t h i s statement i s as f o l l o w s : 1. A l l of the f a u l t s dip to the west. 2 . The ol d e r s t r a t a always l i e to the west of the f a u l t and the younger s t r a t a always to the east. 3. The succession of rocks shows that the formations are younger to the west; t h e r e f o r e , only t h r u s t f a u l t i n g could b r i n g the older rocks which are exposed i n the west i n t o contact with the younger rocks to the east. 4 . Development of s t r e t c h t h r u s t s i n e a s i l y v i s i b l e s ections c l e a r l y demonstrates that the western or hanging w a l l of the f a u l t s have moved up i n r e l a t i o n to the eastern or f o o t w a l l side® - 5 4 - ' ' 5 . In a l l these f a u l t s the s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y older formations are always found on the hanging w a l l or west side *of the f a u l t plane. These f a u l t s may be subdivided as f o l l o w s : 1 ) Thrusts or Compression F a u l t s a) Branching F a u l t s i ) High Angle Oblique F a u l t s Hell-Roaring F a u l t i i ) L 0w Angle S t r i k e F a u l t s Perry Creek F a u l t Sawmill F a u l t b) Independent F a u l t s i ) High Angle S t r e t c h F a u l t s A l k i Faulty ; ' i i ) High Angle Oblique F a u l t s Moyie f a u l t . e) Minor f a u l t s Dewar Shear Zone 2) Normal F a u l t s a) Low Angle F a u l t s H a l l F a u l t b) High Angle F a u l t Creston F a u l t ' - 5 5 -1) a) I) The Hell-Roaring f a u l t was located j u s t at the point; where P i t t Creek crosses west, longitude 116°. Here the .Creston and Aldridge formation are i n contact.. The f a u l t • s t r i k e s southwest to where i t crosses Angus Greek, and then pursues a more westerly course. In the v a l l e y . o f Hell-Roaring Greek, Kitchener, Siyeh, Cranbrook and Eager formations are In contact w i t h the Aldridge formation to the west. This f a u l t was traced only as f a r as the headwaters of the G-oat R i v e r , but the b e l i e f i s that I t swings south at that p o i n t . The f a u l t cuts o b l i q u e l y across the s t r i k e of the beds and has a westerly d i p of over 50 degrees. The displacement along t h i s f a u l t has been very great, as i t brings i n t o con- ' t a c t the Lower Cambrian Eager formation and the Aldridge formation. 1) a) i i ) The Sawmill f a u l t was f i r s t e x p l o i t e d at the headwaters of Sawmill. Creek.. Here the Creston formation i t -s e l f was f a u l t e d . The f a u l t s t r i k e s i n a southwesterly d i r e c t i o n and passes beyond the l i m i t s of e x p l o r a t i o n to the west of the head of Hell-Roaring Creek. From the head of Sawmill Creek the f a u l t pursues a n o r t h e a s t e r l y course and I t i s b e l i e v e d , j o i n s the Hell-Roaring and Perry Creek f a u l t s . T h i s ' f a u l t dips to the West at an angle of 40 degrees and p a r a l l e l s the s t r i k e of the strata.. The. d i s -placement on t h i s f a u l t i s not as great as that on the H e l l -Roaring f a u l t . The Perry Greek f a u l t i s " a branching f a u l t of the Hell-Roaring f a u l t . This f a u l t s t r i k e s southwesterly and p a r a l l e l s , Perry Creek up to the point where the creek f o r k s . Prom t h i s point the f a u l t swings due south and passes beyond the l i m i t s of e x p l o r a t i o n . I t h r i n g s the Creston to the .west i n t o contact with the Kitchener to the east. I t s southern contact i s i n the Creston formation i t s e l f . This f a u l t p a r a l l e l s the s t r i k e of the beds and dips to the west at an angle of about 45 degrees,. 1) b) i ) The A l k i f a u l t was f i r s t explored at the head-waters of A l k i Creek. The sections are w e l l exposed and the fault 1, i s : c l e a r l y defined. I t s a t t i t u d e , i s s t r i k e south-east with a dip of 50 degrees west. On e i t h e r side of t h i s f a u l t the Aldridge formation i s found.. To the south t h i s f a u l t curves u n t i l i t passes i n t o the Dewar shear zone and d i s -appears, under the v a l l e y of-the S t . Mary River j u s t west of St. Mary Lake. The northwesterly extension of the f a u l t i s not d e f i n i t e l y known. To the north of t h i s f a u l t a s i m i l a r f a u l t was l o c a t e d on Cone Mountain. This f a u l t s t r i k e s south-east and dips 50° west and i s i d e n t i c a l l y of the same type as the A l k i f a u l t . No formations other than the A l d -ridge was found i n t h e ; v i c i n i t y of t h i s f a u l t . - 5 7 -1) b) i i ) The Moyie f a u l t enters t h i s area at the head-waters of Irishman's Greek where the Aldridge and Kitchener formations are i n contact. I t then s t r i k e s southwest to the 'head of Englishman's Greek, at which point the Aldridge and Oreston formations are i n contact. The f a u l t swings i n an arc. to the east of G o a t f e l and pursues a southerly course, crossing the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary l i n e i n the v a l l e y of the Moj^ie: River at Kingsgate. The Moyie f a u l t dips on the average 60° to the west and does not e x a c t l y p a r a l l e l the s t r i k e of the s t r a t a . 1) c) The Dewar shear zone i s located on A l k i Greek near the Mystery Mine. Here two open cuts have revealed a very h e a v i l y m i neralized shear zone. This zone i s 8 f e e t wide. The s t r i k e of the shearing Is south and the dip i s 85 degrees west. 2) a): There was only a small number of normal f a u l t s found In t h i s area. The H a l l ; f a u l t which i s l o c a t e d at the head of . H a l l Greek i s one example. The s t r i k e of the f a u l t Is south-east and the dip 30 degrees west. 2)b) The Creston f a u l t Is a minor one, occurring In the Creston s t r a t a to the southeast of the head of H a l l Creek, wi t h i t s s t r i k e southeast and dip 70 degrees west. - 5 8 -Age of F a u l t i n g As the g r a n i t i c i n t r u s i o n s i n t h i s area are known to be g e n e t i c a l l y associated with the f a u l t i n g , the f a u l t i n j must be J u r a s s i c . A l s o , the f a u l t s are l a t e r than the f o l d i n g which i s considered to be of J u r a s s i c age. This seems to jjlace the f a u l t i n g as middle or l a t e J u r a s s i c . -59-i CHAPTER VI -GEOLOGICAL HISTORY The g e o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y o u t l i n e d below w i l l r e f e r only to the area under d i s c u s s i o n . Pre-Cambrian ( B e l t i a n ) A ldridge Epoch During B e l t i a n times the f i r s t record i s that of /sedimentation, the d e p o s i t i o n of-the Aldridge a r g i l l a c e o u s ' q u a r t z i t e s . No shallow water features were noted except the i'nterformational conglomerates found on Cone Mountain. These .^sediments were l a i d down i n a shallow sea w i t h the shore-l i n e to the west. Creston Epoch The Creston sediments were deposited, i n a shallower sea, as they e x h i b i t numerous shallow water features such as 'ripple marks and mud cracks. The sediments are more s i l i c e o u s than the Aldridge q u a r t z i t e s . Kitchener Epoch The sediments of the Kitchener formation, c o n s i s t -ing &f calcareous; .quartzites and limestones suggest, a deep-•ening of the B e l t i a n sea, or a lowering of the land e i t h e r by erosion or subsidence. Siyeh Epoch Towards the close of the Kitchener time, mudflat conditions must have p r e v a i l e d over a very wide area. This i s evidenced by the great prevalence of mud cracks and r i p p l e markings i n the Siyeh formation. The r e l a t i v e thinness of the s t r a t a separating the mud-cracked surfaces i n d i c a t e probably seasonal v a r i a t i o n s from a r i d to p l u v i a l c o n d i t i o n s . Dutch Greek Epoch This period of sedimentation was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the l a y i n g down of the Gateway, P h i l l i p s and R o o s v i l l e f o r -mations. As these formations are only present i n the western h a l f of the P u r c e l l Range, the eroded land mass to the west must have stood very low, thus sedimentation d i d not cover the whole b a s i n , but only the western p a r t . These formations e x h i b i t shallow water f e a t u r e s . Mount Nelson Epoch This epoch of sedimentation i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the same features as the Dutch G^eek, namely shallow water ones. At the close of the P u r c e l l period of Mount Nelson d e p o s i t i o n a broad u p l i f t occurred* This was accompanied by f o l d i n g as i s evidenced by the angular unconformity between the P u r c e l l and Windermere s e r i e s . There i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the degree of metamorphism e x h i b i t e d by the two s e r i e s , and t h i s f a c t , coupled w i t h the moderate angular d i s -cordance, i n d i c a t e s that the pre-Windermere f o l d i n g was one of a broad open character. The^must, however, have been con-s i d e r a b l e u p l i f t to give a r e l i e f that would account f o r the formation of the great basal conglomerate of the Windermere s e r i e s . That igneous i n t r u s i o n and u p l i f t or mountain b u i l d i n g are u s u a l l y contemporaneous seems to i n d i c a t e that t h i s u p l i f t and the P u r c e l l s i l l s were g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d . This broad f o l d i n g would provide the means of access (zones of weakness) f o r i n t r u s i o n s of the igneous rocks. As the s i l l s have been found as high up as the Mount Nelson f o r -mation seems to i n d i c a t e that the i n t r u s i o n was P o s t - P u r c e l l . There are not any s i l l s i n the Windermere s e r i e s ; t h i s f a c t places the i n t r u s i o n as Pre-Windermere. Since t h i s period of orogenic movement produced f o l d s that were broad, a form such as a s i l l could very e a s i l y be formed i n the sediments. Pre-Cambrian (Windermere) Toby Conglomerate Epoch The period of u p l i f t and intrusion.was followed by-r a p i d erosion of the land surface* The s i z e and shape of the conglomerate boulders, the unassorted character of the formation as a who 1 e, and the evident d e r i v a t i o n of the boulders from the immediately underlying P u r c e l l s e r i e s i n d i c a t e that the m a t e r i a l was not transported any great d i s t a n c e . Horsethief Epoch Th© Horsethief formation has as i t s base a t h i n -bedded limestone and f u r t h e r up a pebble conglomerate* Ho shallow water features such as sun-cracks or r i p p l e marks were observed* This formation was depo s i t e d i n standing water i n a subsiding b a s i n or v a l l e y bordering the area o f high r e l i e f along the margin of which the Toby conglomerate was deposited* Hamill Epoch This formation was not explored beyond i t s con-formable contact w i t h the underlying Horsethief formation* Cambrian Cranbrook Epoch An unconformity e x i s t s between the Cranbrook f o r -mation and. the Siyeh formation of tre-Cambrian age. The pebble conglomerate contains pebbles of the underlying Pre-Cambrian rocks and e x h i b i t s shallow water f e a t u r e s . Eager Epoch No shallow water features were seen i n t h i s f o r -mat i o n . The f o s s i l s i n d i c a t e marine conditions were present at the time of d e p o s i t i o n . Devonian-Carboniferous Epoch The Devonian sea spread over the eastern part of the P r u c e l l Range, and are missing i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The deposits o f the Devonian-Carboniferous epoch are mainly limestones w i t h minor amounts of a r g i l l a c e o u s and quartzose limestones. J u r a s s i c No record of sedimentation i s present i n the P u r c e l l Range during t h i s p e r i o d . -64-Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous The next event recorded i n East Kootenay is.the folding and f a u l t i n g which affected the broadly folded Pur-c e l l sediments and the nearly horizontal l a t e r deposits*. The f i r s t movement was one of compression which caused the region of the P u r c e l l Range to be raised above the sea and to form an area of erosion. At thi s time the dominant structure of northerly s t r i k i n g a n t i c l i n e s and synclines of the range was created. This period of compression was accompanied and followed by thrust and normal f a u l t i n g . The strike of these f a u l t l i n e s i s dominantly northeast-south-west and one northwest-southeast. The folding and faulting were accompanied by an intrusion of granite magma which apparently slowly replaced the overlying sediments by over-head stoping. These g r a n i t i c masses occur i n large stocks. The small bodies of granites occur i n the neighborhood of the main f a u l t s and probably have some genetic relationship to them. Following the intrusion of the granite, with no great interval of time came the intrusion of numerous dykes of a p l i t e and pegmatite. During the cooling stages of the gran i t i c magma occurred the deposition of the metallic ores of t h i s d i s t r i c t . -6.5-Cretaoeous Erosion A f t e r the J u r a s s i c u p l i f t which formed the P u r c e l l Range, no record of younger sedimentation other than the Miocene has been found. During the Cretaceous p e r i o d , erosion was very a c t i v e i n wearing down the P u r c e l l Range and i n depositing most of the eroded m a t e r i a l i n the Cretaceous geosyncline, which covered the area now occupied by the Rocky Mountain system and the Great P l a i n s . E r osion had proceeded so f a r at the close of the Cretaceous and e a r l y T e r t i a r y periods that the P u r c e l l Range was reduced to a land of low r e l i e f or to a peneplain, which might be c a l l e d the P u r c e l l peneplain. T e r t i a r y Pre-Miocene Epoch In e a r l y T e r t i a r y times the Cretaceous geosyncline to the east of the P u r c e l l Range was mountain-built with the formation of the Rooky Mountain system. At the same time the P u r c e l l Range, cha r a c t e r i z e d by a r o l l i n g , monotonous landscape, was u p l i f t e d without any deformation, thus r e -juvenating the streams which proceeded to entrench them-selves i n t o the Cretaceous peneplain. The v a l l e y s now seen i n the P u r c e l l Range, are due to T e r t i a r y r i v e r erosion. —66— Miocene Epoch Deposition of the gold-bearing Miocene gravels occurred during t h i s p e riod. There are a few beds of l i g n i t e associated with these gravels® Quaternary The Quaternary h i s t o r y was characterized by the advance of the c o n t i n e n t a l i c e sheet and also by the erosion produced by l o c a l a l p i n e i c e caps. The b e a u t i f u l cirque lakes so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s mountainous reg i o n were produced by the pluc k i n g e f f e c t of the i c e caps. The main movement of the c o n t i n e n t a l i c e sheet was governed by the d i r e c t i o n s of the main v a l l e y s , the two main v a l l e y s being the Rocky Mountain and P u r c e l l trenches. From a study of roches-moutonnees and g l a c i a l markings the co n t i n e n t a l i c e sheet moved i n a southerly d i r e c t i o n . This was f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d by l a r g e g l a c i a l e r r a t i c s which were moved i n a southerly d i r e c t i o n from t h e i r o r i g i n . During the disappearance of t h i s ice-sheet, the clays which l i e i n the depressions i n the W y c l i f f e d r i f t were deposited, l a t e r the streams cut down t h e i r channels i n t o the deposits of c l a y s , sands and g r a v e l s , g i v i n g us the present topography o f the v a l l e y f l o o r s . CHAPTER VII ECONOMIC GEOI/0GY The Kootenay area contains v a r i e d deposits of economic value* The great l e a d - z i n c - s i l v e r producing mine, the S u l l i v a n , and the now-exhausted St. Eugene Mine are to be discussed* A p o r t i o n of t h i s area was never g e o l o g i c a l l y surveyed or prospected before 192&: i n t h i s chap%r\ the economic geology of a l l the resources of the Kootenay area w i l l be reported upon® Many o f the specimens c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s area and i t s mines were m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y examined and these are reported on later® H i s t o r y of Mining i n the Fort Steele Mining D i v i s i o n The bars of the Columbia River above C o l v i l l e , i n what i s now the State of Washington, had been mined to some extent befor© the East Kootenay and B i g Bend d i s c o v e r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia a t t r a c t e d thousands of men. Some gold colours had been found on the bank of the Columbia at C o l -v i l l e i n 1855» and the prospecting expedition of Angus McDonald found moderately remunerative diggings at the mouth of the Pend d ' O r e i l l e , near the boundary l i n e . Miners gradually worked t h e i r way up the Kootenay River from Idaho, and*in 1863-64 a short distance north of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary l i n e r i c h diggings were discovered which gave r i s e to the Kootenay gold mining excitement-Wild Horse Greek became the centre of the East Kootenay mining d i s t r i c t i n 1863 when gold was discovered there. The Greek, which received i t s name from the number of w i l d horses i n i t s d i s t r i c t , had by May 1864 become an important camp, w i t h f o u r hundred miners d i s t r i b u t e d along i t s banks. Prospects of one d o l l a r to the pan were obtained, while ordinary claims paid twenty to t h s ^ a d o l l a r s per day: nuggets running from two and one-half d o l l a r s to seventy-eight d o l l a r s were found. In 1863 the Dewdney t r a i l to the Kootenay River was b u i l t , thus g i v i n g the miners an o u t l e t to V i c t o r i a , without t r a v e l l i n g south of the Boundary, From 1864-69 h y d r a u l i c mining was c a r r i e d on; a number of new gold-bearing creeks having been discovered, the most important of which was Perry Greek, a branch of the St. Mary R i v e r , Here the ground g e n e r a l l y y i e l d e d an ounce a day per man, while on one occasion three men took out two hundred and twenty-five d o l l a r s i n f i v e days. In 1869, good prospects we re found on Moyie R i v e r . Despite t h i s success, however, the Gold Commissioner, A.W. Vowell,in 1872 stated that the p r i n c i p a l mines, w i t h the exception of those on Wild Horse and Perry Creeks, were exhausted. In 1876 most of the white men had l e f t and the output dwindled to twenty-five thousand d o l l a r s . The next year, c h i e f l y through the work of Chinese miners, the y i e l d from Wild Horse, Perry and Palmer creeks increased to t h r i t y seven thousand d o l l a r s . The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s w i l l show the output of the d i s t r i c t : X 8 8 ""[L 8 8 • • • • • • e < D o « e « a o e e « « » « o ^ 1 88 4 ^  80 l8<5J?""l88(5 a • • e * « • * « • - * » • . * • • • » * * * J?0 0 • 0 00 Value of gold per ounce ....... 1 8 . 2 5 1 3 84 £)0 • 3 2 6 From 1888 to 1895 h y d r a u l i e k i n g and lode mining were c a r r i e d on with the y i e l d of gold varying from twelve thousand to t h r i t y thousand d o l l a r s per year. Many new lode mines were discovered between 1893 and the e a r l y 1900's, notably among these d i s c o v e r i e s were the S u l l i v a n and St. Eugene mines. During 153&» placer mining operations were c o n t i n -ued on Wild Horse, Palmer and Perry creeks. The S u l l i v a n Mine operated the f u l l year. Prospecting i n the Cranbrook area was not c a r r i e d onuto any extent. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Economic Deposits 1. Lode Deposits a. P u r c e l l Gabbro M i n e r a l i z a t i o n -7Q-1) Hydrothermal veins 2) D i f f e r e n t i a t e s " b. Late Jurassio M i n e r a l i z a t i o n 1) F i s s u r e veins a) s i l v e r l e a d type b) gold-quartz type c) hematite type d) galena-gold type e) arsenopyrite-gold type 2) Replacement deposits a) s i l v e r - l e a d type b) g o l d - p y r i t e type 2. P l a c e r Gold 3* L i g n i t e 4. B u i l d i n g Stones 5, Magnesite Deposits 1 a P u r c e l l Gabbro M i n e r a l i z a t i o n Thf m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s wide spread throughout the area, but has not, up to date, produced any mines,, This i s p a r t i a l l y due to the great importance of the s i l v e r - l e a d d e p o s i t s , and also due to the f a c t that *s&s& not s u f f i c i e n t work has been done on the deposits to prove t h e i r s i z e . Nevertheless from t h e i r extent and character, c a r e f u l working of these deposits may produce s a t i s f a c t o r y r e t u r n s . "71-D i s t r i b u t i o n Since these deposits are associated, with the Pur eel s i l l s , . t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i s governed by that of the P u r c e l l s i l l s , which occur almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n the Aldridge f o r -mation. The s i l l s i n the younger formation are t h i n and do not contain workable ore de p o s i t s . The deposits of t h i s nature which have received most a t t e n t i o n occur on the several branches of the S t , Mary R i v e r , where s u f f i c i e n t work has been done to expose t h e i r g e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . Geology These deposits occur only i n the P r u c e l l s i l l s . These s i l l s are t a b u l a r i n t r u s i v e bodies i n j e c t e d along the bedding planes of the q u a r t z i t e s and vary i n thickness from 2 to 2,000 f e e t . They co n s i s t mainly of hornblende gabbro with l a r g e i r r e g u l a r masses of d i f f e r e n t i a t e s of a p e c u l i a r hornblende -gafei^o. Character of the Deposits The deposits are of two v a r i e t i e s : (1) Hydrothermal veins perpendicular to the plane of the s i l l s * (2) I r r e g u l a r bodies which have been formed by d i f f e r e n t i a t -in g out from the co o l i n g body. The veins of the v a r i e t y ( l ) vary from 2 to 4 feet i n width and always occur i n shear zones i n the s i l l s . A notable feature of these v e i n s i s that they end abruptly at the contact of the s i l l and q u a r t z i t e . In not any case was one of the veins noted entering the q u a r t z i t e . The hornblende gabbro which forms the w a l l r o e k , shows the e f f e c t of shearing at the time of the formation of the shear zone by the occurrence of an alignment of the f e l d s p a r constituents of the gabbro p a r a l l e l to the v e i n . The f i l l i n g of the shear zones c o n s i s t s most frequently of quartz impregnated wi t h c h a l c o p y r i t e , p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e . E r y t h r i t e , a hydrated arsenate of c o b a l t , was noted as a red s t a i n on the weathered surface of the outcrops. Native copper i s reported as sometimes being found i n the quartz. Coarsely c r y s t a l l i n e c a l c i t e formed part of the veins i n several cases and u s u a l l y i s the l a t e s t f i l l i n g . Mineralogy v ' Native.Elements _Cop_per Cu: Native copper occurs i n a v e i n on the Evans property on W h i t e f i s h Creek. I t occurred as small p l a t e s in. quartz. Sulphides P y r r h o t i t e Ee^Sgj This mineral occurs i n large amounts i n these d e p o s i t s . I t occurs as small masses of i r r e g u l a r o u t l i n e associated with p y r i t e and chalcopyrite i n both the d i f f e r e n t i a t e s and. the true veins Chalcopyrite CuFeS : Copper p y r i t e s - c h a l c o p y r i t e occurs i n small i r r e g u l a r masses i n the copper deposits associated with p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e . Pyri_te FeS 2: Iron p y r i t e s , p y r i t e , occurs s p a r i n g l y i n both the d i f f e r e n t i a t e s and i n the true v e i n s * Pentlandi_te FeNiS: N i c k e l i f e r o u s p y r r h o t i t e - pent 1 audite occurs i n these deposits of the d i f f e r e n t i a t e type and i s u s u a l l y found bordering the- p y r r h o t i t e * I t s colour i s creamyvwhite* Oxides Quartz SiO,,: Oxide of s i l i c o n - quartz i s the most abundant gangue mineral i n the copper-bearing veins. I t occurs massive and contains the sulphides as impregnations. In the d i f f e r e n t i a t e s quartz occurs as an opalescent v a r i e t y . Magnetite* Fe^O-j : Magnetic i r o n ore - magnetite occurs i n the deposits of the d i f f e r e n t i a t e type and veins the f i r s t -formed minerals. I t i s u s u a l l y i n the form of threads and small i r r e g u l a r masses containing i n c l u s i o n s of the e a r l i e r minerals. The colour i s grayish white. -74-Carbonates C a l c i t e CaCO : Calcium carbonate i s a prominent gangue mineral of the copper deposits of the v e i n type*. I t i s ge n e r a l l y white and coarsely c r y s t a l l i n e . Malachite CuCO_Cu(OH) : Malachite occurs as green irierus-" P. .2 t a t i o n s on the out crop of the copper-bearing veins as a r e s u l t of the decomposition of c h a l c o p y r i t e and cupiferous p y r i t e . A z u r i t e 2CuG0^Gu(0H) : A z u r i t e occurs as a blue i n c r u s -t a t i o n on the weathered outcrops of the copper-bearing deposits. S i l i c a t e s Hornblende: Hornblende i s the most common mineral i n the d i f f e r e n t i a t e s , occuring as b l a c k , l u s t r o u s c r y s t a l s associated w i t h micro-pegmatite and sulphides of copper and i r o n . Arsenates Ery_thrit_e Co^As^Og. SH^O: Hydra ted arsenate of colbat -known as cobalt bloom. E r y t h r i t e occurs as a crimson-red i n c r u s t a t i o n on the o x i d i z e d outcrop of the copper-bearing veins. Although no cobalt sulphides were i d e n t i f i e d i n the copper d e p o s i t s , i t i s very probable that they e x i s t i n small -15-q u a n t i t i e s associated w i t h the other sulphides. The d i f f e r e n t i a t e s (2) occur u s u a l l y i n the i n t e r i o r of the s i l l s and are of v a r i e d shape and s i z e , No s i n g l e body has been o u t l i n e d , but they.:are be l i e v e d to be at l e a s t 200 t o 200 feet i n diameter. The boundaries of these bodies with the surrounding rocks are always gradationalc The d i f f e r e n t i a t e s c o n s i s t g e n e r a l l y of a p e c u l i a r hornblende d i o r i t e containing some quartz. The hornblende i s u s u a l l y f i b r o u s and makes up to 50 per cent of the ore. The ore mi n e r a l s , c h a l c o p y r i t e , p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e and p e n t l a n d i t e , occur s p o r a d i c a l l y throughout the d i f f e P e r s i s t e n c y The d i f f e r e n t i a t e s from t h e i r very nature cannot extend beyond the l i m i t s of the s i l l s . In the case of the v e i n s , they were not found at any l o c a t i o n to extend beyond the l i m i t s o f the s i l l . The f o l l o w i n g f a c t s tend to v e r i f y the above statement: ( i ) The veins occur w i t h i n the s i l l s themselves. ( i i ) A l l gradations e x i s t between the d i f f e r e n t i a t e s and the true veins and show that the deposits o r i g i n a t e d from the s i l l s . ( i i i ) I n K e l l y b a s i n a very good example of the top of a v e i n can be seen. Here the v e i n comes up through the s i l l to the contact with the q u a r t z i t e s where i t abruptly pinches out© ( i v ) Ho veins have heen located i n the q u a r t z i t e s . Paragenesis The- age r e l a t i o n s of a l l minerals i n the d i f f e r e n -t i a t e s are c l e a r l y e x h i b i t e d i n the polished s e c t i o n s . ( F i g . 1 & 2) The general order of formation may be summarized as f o l l o w s ; ( i ) Hornblende ( i i ) P y r r h o t i t e ( i i i ) C halcopyrite ( i v ) P e n t l a n d i t e (v) Magnetite The above l i s t i s the primary m i n e r a l i z a t i o n seen i n the f i r s t specimen. The zone of o x i d a t i o n i s of no great extent and i s represented by stainsand encrustations of s.upergene green malachite and blue a z u r i t e on the surface of the outcrops. The c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the age r e l a t i o n s given above i s as f o l l o w s : Hornblende: ( i ) The hornblende e x h i b i t s unhindered c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , ( i i ) The hornblende i s veined and embayed by a l l l a t e r minerals, ( i i i ) The hornblende e x h i b i t s i r r e g u l a r and d e f i n i t e l y corroded borders. - 7 7 -Pyrrhojtite: ( i ) This mineral has embayments which are f i l l e d w ith ehaleopyrite. ( i i ) The c h a l c o p y r i t e has replaced, portions of t h i s m i n e r a l , l e a v i n g i t i s o l a t e d i n a c h a l c o p y r i t e ground mass* ( i i i ) This mineral forms advance i s l a n d s i n the hornblende. Ohal^opjyrite: ( i ) This mineral forms advance i s l a n d s i n the hornblende. ( i i ) Cusps i n the hornblende are f i l l e d w i th chalco p y r i t e ( i i i ) Advance i s l a n d s are found i n the p y r r h o t i t e (iv) This mineral veins the c h a l c o p y r i t e . (v) Cusps i n the p y r r h o t i t e are f i l l e d w i t h . c h a l c o p y r i t e . P e n t l a n d i t e : ( i ) As t h i s mineral borders the p y r r h o t i t e and cuts the c h a l c o p y r i t e , i t i s l a t e r than both. Magnetic : ( i ) This mineral veins a l l the e a r l i e r minerals except the p e n t l a n d i t e . I t was never observed i n contact with the n i c k e l i f e r o u s p y r r h o t i t e . ( i i ) Replacement remnants of the e a r l i e r sulphides are found i n the magnetite. - 7 8 -Genesis of the Deposits The. o r i g i n of these deposits may be s a f e l y associated w i t h the c o o l i n g stages of the P u r c e l l s i l l s , since a l l gradations e x i s t from "the normal gabbro through the di f f e r e n t i a t e s to the true v e i n s and a l l gradations carry sulphides of copper and iron© A l s o , the occurrence of the copper deposits always i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the s i l l s , and the f a c t that the veins pinch out when passing from the s i l l s to the q u a r t z i t e support t h i s statement. A notable feature i s that the concentration of d i f f e r e n t i a t e ore minerals does not occur i n the top h a l f of the s i l l s , but i s confined to the lower p o r t i o n . A l s o , these bodies are of an i r r e g u l a r shape and grade out i n t o a gabbroic rock. That the ore sulphides are concentrated i n the lower h a l f o f the s i l l , and i n i r r e g u l a r bodies i n d i c a t e s that some type o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n has taken place. 1 Vogt has c l e a r l y demonstrated that at furnace temperatures the mutual s o l u b i l i t i e s of copper i r o n s u l -phides and s i l i c a t e s are s m a l l . Analyses show that the metal always contains a small proportion of s i l i c a t e , while the s i l i c a t e s l a g contains a l i t t l e sulphide. These s u l -phides and s i l i c a t e s , when heated to a higher temperature, are found to d i s s o l v e more of the other u n t i l eventually a 1. Vogt, J.H. Die S u l f i d - S i l i k a t s c h m e l z l o s u g e n K r i s t i a n i a temperature i s reached above which the two are misc i b l e i n a l l p r o portions, The reverse i s true when the melt i s cooled. This l i m i t e d m i s c i b i l i t y of s o l u t i o n s i s character-i s t i c of sulphide s i l i c a t e magmas observed i n nature. The above f a c t s r e f e r to intermediate or a c i d s l a g s . Further work by Wanjukoff 1 i n d i c a t e s that sulphides of copper, n i c k e l i r o n , z i n c and cadmium are soluble i n basic slags to a notable degree. Vogt suggests that the presence of minera-l i z e r s other than sulphur would increase the s o l u b i l i t i e s . Many observers have stated that the chal c o p y r i t e and p y r i t e which of t e n occur i n basic rocks are o f primary raag-2 matic o r i g i n . However, none have t r e a t e d the subject b e t t e r and 3 more conv i n c i n g l y than E. Howe who described the gabbro-n o r i t e and pyroxenite of the Cortlandt s e r i e s . H is con-c l u s i o n s are as f o l l o w s : The extremely f r e s h rocks contain small amounts of p y r r h o t i t e , pentlandite and c h a l c o p y r i t e . There i s no post-magmatic a l t e r a t i o n . The sulphides are as e s s e n t i a l l y magmatie as the s i l i c a t e s . Although most of the sulphides separated from s o l u t i o n s at an e a r l y stage i n the c o o l i n g of the magma, small q u a n t i t i e s continued to separate or to r e d i s -s o l v e , u n t i l the magma had ne a r l y c r y s t a l l i z e d . The form 1. M e t a l l u r g y , 1 9 1 2 , pp. 1-48 2 . l i n d g r e n , l ? t h Annual Rept. U.S.G.S. P t . 2 , pp. 67-70 3 . Economic Geology 10 1913 , PP» 330-347 and the i n t e r s t i t i a l r e l a t i o n s of the sulphides seem to show t h a t , although they may have separated e a r l y from the s i l i c a they* remained l i q u i d u n t i l the s i l i c a t e s had c r y s t a l l i z e d . , The sulphide-hearing rocks are regarded as products of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n from magmas which are poorer i n these sub-stances. This type of o r i g i n e x a c t l y answers that of the P u r c e l l s i l l s , except that other f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to a s i l l have to be considered. As the temperature of the P u r c e l l magma decreased the sulphides would no longer be f u l l y m i s c i b l e with the s i l i c a t e melt. I t i s conceivable that i n such a way d i s - . solved sulphides may separate out i n globules which would grow and e v e n t u a l l y , i f the magma continues f l u i d , would s e t t l e to a molten sulphide l a y e r . The molten sulphides, as i n s l a g s , mix i n a l l proportions to form a uniform f l u i d phase. They are extremely l i q u i d with low v i s c o s i t y and c r y s t a l l i z e l a t e r than the rock minerals. The basic P u r c e l l magma had a very low v i s c o s i t y as i s evidenced by the absence of deformative features and the great extent o f sediments they traversed. However, as the P u r c e l l s i l l s are only r e l a t i v e l y t h i n bodies of molten rock, the l o s s of heat due to the heating of the country rock would be very great. This l o s s of heat would tend to promote c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of the femie minerals before the f l u i d phase of the sulphide melt had time to c o l l e c t i n the bottom of the s i l l . This a c t i o n would tend to prevent the globules of sulphide melt -81-from-.coming i n t o contact.with each other. There would be a concentration of the sulphide minerals i n the lower p o r t i o n of the s i l l s , but i t would not.be c a r r i e d . t o completion. Grading from one large sulphide mass through a mixture of s i l i c a t e sulphide' m a t e r i a l to another- sulphide mass would occur. As the rock minerals c r y s t a l l i z e d out, the pressure of t h i s mass on the s t i l l l i q u i d sulphides, contained between the c r y s t a l s of the femics, would tend to e x p e l l the sulphides The .sulphides would be then concentrated i n a region of less pressure and l e s s t e m p e r a t u r e s o that i n t h i s manner they may conceivably form large bodies. The c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of the sulphides now proceeds i n the order discussed under para-genesis . On c o o l i n g , the P u r c e l l magma underwent a per i o d evidenced by the formation of c o n t r a c t i o n f i s s u r e s normal to the. plane of the s i l l s . The more v o l a t i l e components s t i l l c ontaining some metals i n s o l u t i o n , together with the second i n j e c t i o n of a c i d m a t e r i a l from the parent magma, 1 f i l l e d these f i s s u r e s and deposited t h e i r minerals there.. D e t a i l e d , D e s c r i p t i o n of Copper Properties Evans Property The Evans group of claims owned by C. and w. Evans of M a r y s v i l l e i s s i t u a t e d on the western slope of Evans Mountain. The mountain Is composed of e a s t e r l y dipping 1. S c h o f i e l d , S.J. G.S.C.. Museum B u l l e t i n , No. 2 p. 1 -82-Aldridge q u a r t z i t e s intruded by d i o r i t e s i l l s . The lower one i s f a u l t e d and. i t s lower h a l f forms the lower deposit while the upper p o r t i o n forms the upper deposit. The summit of Evans Mountain i s formed by a gabbro s i l l . The claims on which there are showings of ore are the Gigantic and S.J* S c h o f i e l d i n K e l l y basin; the E l i z a b e t h and Kokore i n P o l l e n , b a s i n ; the Gurfew a n d : P a c i f i c down near the main camp.on F i d d l e r Greek, They have i n a l l f i f t e e n claims held by annual assessment. F i d d l e r Greek i s a small c r e e k l e t ; e n t e r i n g W h i t e f i s h , P o l l e n and' K e l l y basins are the heads of small creeks which have the same main stream. Besides the camp of two cabins near the head of F i d d l e r Greek, there i s another i n P o l l e n b a s i n , and a base camp down near the. confluence of F i d d l e r and W h i t e f i s h creeks. The elevations are as. f o l l o w s : Base camp, 4750 f e e t ; F i d d l e r Greek camp, 6200 f e e t ; P o l l e n Basin camp, 7,000 f e e t ; K e l l y basin 7,500 f e e t . I n K e l l y basin there i s a high b l u f f which i s not p o s s i b l e to climb, but i n the s l i d e - r o c k at the foot there i s a considerable percentage of rock showing s l i g h t m i n e r a l i z a t i o n w i t h c h a l c o p y r i t e and l a r g e r amounts of p y r r h o t i t e . Along the, face of t h i s b l u f f s e v e r a l large patches of copper s t a i n and I r o n oxide can be:: seen. I t i s evident that whatever ore there i s i n t h i s b l u f f i s i r r e g u l a r and of the d i f f e r e n t i a t e type. A piece of the best looking ore picked from t h i s s l i d e i s s a i d to have y i e l d e d on assay: gol d , t r a c e ; s i l v e r , 2 ounces; copper, 1.4$. -83-* On the Gigan t i c c l a i m i n K e l l y b a s i n , what i s known as NOl 3 v e i n i s developed by an open cut which i s 25 fee t l o n g i w i t h a 12-foot f a c e . The v e i n i s about 5 feet -wide- and , s t r i k e s east and west, w i t h a dip of 75 degrees to the north. The centre of the v e i n shows from 12 to 18 inches of good copper ore, and the r e s t of the v e i n , l a r g e l y quartz w i t h . some c a l c i t e , c a r r i e s a l i t t l e copper s t a i n . The mineralized p o r t i o n o f t h i s v e i n has y i e l d e d values as high as 16 per cent copper with some gold and silver•• values. . On the S.J. S c h o f i e l d c l a i m i n K e l l y b a s i n , there are two v e i n s , No* 1 and No. 2. No. 1 v e i n has a 10 foot cut on i t w i t h a 5-foot face.- The v e i n i s 3 fee t wide and con-s i s t s l a r g e l y of quartz c a r r y i n g a l i t t l e c h a l c o p y r l t e , while the No. 2 v e i n i s r e l a t i v e l y barren. The Kokonee c l a i m , at the head of P o l l e n b a s i n , contains a large quartz v e i n varying from 10 to 15 fee t i n width. The s t r i k e of the v e i n i s east and west,and has a dip to the south of 75 degrees. I t i s developedoby an open cut 40 f e e t long w i t h a lO-foot face. The m i n e r a l i z a t i o n here c o n s i s t s of c h a l c o p y r l t e , p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e i n a quartz-c a l c l t e gangue. This ore c a r r i e s about 2 per cent copper and traces of gold and s i l v e r . On the E l i z a b e t h c l a i m , also i n p o l l e n b a s i n , there i s a v e i n from 4 to 8 f e e t In width. I t i s developed by several open cuts and a shaft 15'feet deep from the end of one cut. The m i n e r a l i z a t i o n here occurs i n bands from 1 to 3 f e e t wide. Galena was noted i n some of the specimens of -84-t h i s v e i n , the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of which i s very i r r e g u l a r i n character. M 0re work has been done at the F i d d l e r Creek camp „than at any of the other p r o p e r t i e s . The main workings are a tunnel 300 f e e t long which prospects a q u a r t z - c a l c i t e vein of the u s u a l type. I t contains very l i t t l e c h a l c o p y r i t e or other sulphides. In the summer of 1936 the bottom of the tunnel was p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d w i t h water. The v e i n i s of a very low grade type w i t h the r e s u l t that no f u r t h e r work w i l l b b e pursued. The'lower claims contain a tunnel 200' feet long d r i v e n i n t o a low grade ore body of the d i f f e r e n t i a t e type contained i n a gabbro s i l l about 400 feet t h i c k and forming the lowest of the three s i l l s . The ore c o n s i s t s of pyrrho-t i t e , cupiferous p y r i t e and p e n t l a n d i t e . On the mountain on the north side of W h i t e f i s h creek i s the A l l i a n c e group of four claims owned by the Evans Bros. The d i o r i t e s i l l at t h i s point i s a continuation across the v a l l e y of the one exposed i n K e l l y b a s i n . The ore body here i s one of the d i f f e r e n t i a t e type. The m i n e r a l i z e d zone runs east and west, and c r o s s i n g i t there i s at l e a s t one quartz v e i n , p o s s i b l y others; these v e i n s , however, carry p r a c t i c a l l y no sulphides. In the'-neighborhood of the vein the gabbroic rock i s s l i g h t l y more m i n e r a l i z e d , the ore c o n s i s t i n g of c h a l c o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e i n a q u a r t z - c a l c i t e gangue. Mystery.Mine This property, owned by J . Dewar of Fort Steele, i s i t u a t e d on the western side of A l k i Creek, about 4 miles from where the ereek j o i n s the S t u Mary R i v e r . The e l e v a t i o n of the creek at the camp i s 4 , 0 0 0 f e e t . The country rocks consist of Aldridge q u a r t z i t e s intruded by hornblende gabbro-s i l l s , a l l dipping at an angle of 20 degrees to the west. The e n t i r e workings are confined to one gabbro s i l l whose base i s not exposed near the camp. The top of t h i s s i l l . i s 500 feet above the creek bottom. Three tunnels are d r i v e n at i n t e r v a l s of 50 feet i n e l e v a t i o n from the creek bottom and numerous open cuts expose three veins and a small body of d i f f e r e n t i a t e ore across the e n t i r e width of the s i l l * A notable f a c t i s that the v e i n exposed near the top of the s i l l pinches out as the quartzite-gabbro contact i s reached. The veins average from one foot to three feet i n thickness and are very i r r e g u l a r . Concentration of the ore minerals along the vein-gabbro contact was observed. M i n e r a l i z a t i o n of the v e i n type i s confined to the v e i n or contacts, but does not enter the gabbroic rock. The veins s t r i k e i n a north-westerly d i r e c t i o n and the dip i s nearly v e r t i c a l . The di f f e r e n t i a t e body has only been exposed by an open cut. The ore of the v e i n type c o n s i s t s of p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , i n a q u a r t z - c a l c i t e gangue. The d i f f e r e n t i a t e ore c o n s i s t s of p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and hornblende -86-i r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d . The copper content of the ore i s said to be 3 per cent copper. The .Tracy Property T h i s property i s l o c a t e d at an e l e v a t i o n of 4 ,300 feet on the ridge to the north of the ranch of W. Meachera. I t i s owned by Mr. Tracy o f Cranbrook and Mr. Meachem of I f a r y s v i l l f « The workings c o n s i s t o f two open cuts exposing two q u a r t z - c a l c i t e veins i n sheared gabbro. The gabbro s i l l i s about 50 feet t h i c k and i s intruded i n t o the Aldridge a r g i l -laceous q u a r t z i t e formation. The sediments here s t r i k e north 15 degrees east and dip steeply to the west. The veins vary i n thickness from 1-|- feet to 3 f e e t , and the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s of yellow c h a l c o p y r i t e i n a q u a r t z - c a l c i t e gangue. l b Late J u r a s s i c M i n e r a l i z a t i o n A f t e r the P u r c e l l p e r i o d of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n Pre-Cambrian times, the next record of m i n e r a l i z i n g a c t i v i t y i s that of the l a t e J u r a s s i c p e r i o d . This period i s character-i z e d by i n t r u s i o n s o f g r a n i t i c stocks, dikes , and a l l i e d apo-physes of the West Kootenay b a t h o l l t h . These bodies of igneous rock are l a t e r than the f o l d i n g and f a u l t i n g to which the region was subjected. The mineral deposits are genetical-l y r e l a t e d to t h i s great mass of i n t r u s i v e s . The genesis of the deposits w i l l be discussed l a t e r under that heading. -8 7-R e l a t i o n of Mineral Deposits to F a u l t and Shear Zones The q u a r t z i t e s of the Aldridge and Creston f o r -mations, e s p e c i a l l y the A l d r i d g e , i n the part of B r i t i s h • Columbia and i n the a d j o i n i n g parts of the State of Idaho are e x c e p t i o n a l l y favourable f o r ore-deposits and contain several of the l a r g e s t deposits i n the world. Their favourable character i s due to two causes; namely, (,i) Their a b i l i t y to s u s t a i n large uniform f r a c t u r e s f o r great d i s t a n c e s , ( i i ) The s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of c e r t a i n of the beds to replacement by m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s . To the former h a b i t may be a t t r i b u t e d the immense veins of the Coeur d'Alene d i s t r i c t of Idaho, such f o r ex-ample , as the Bunker H i l l and S u l l i v a n and, more notably-s t i l l , the Morning v e i n which has been followed continuously f o r about one mile down the d i p . To the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n of the beds and the r e s i s t a n c e of adjacent beds to replacement by m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s may be a t t r i b u t e d the great ore-body of the S u l l i v a n Mine. Under the heading of S t r u c t u r a l Geology, the f a u l t s t h e r e i n discussed were demonstrated to continue f o r several miles i n • length* The; f a u l t s we re the zones of weakness through which the igneous rocks gained access to the over-^ l y i n g sediments, and i n their many small dykes, e s p e c i a l l y pegmatite dykes, are found. Vein-forming s o l u t i o n s entered these zones and there deposited t h e i r mineral content, e i t h e r as veins or as replacements i n the country rock. The a b i l i t y of these rocks to s u s t a i n l a r g e , uniform f r a c t u r e s warrants thorough prospecting i n the v i c i n i t y of f a u l t zones. The f a c t •that a l l of the good prospects and mines l i e on wel l - d e f i n e d l i n e s of f a u l t i n g i s a s i g n i f i c a n t one. A l s o , a l l f a u l t s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t contain some type of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . l b ( l ) F i s s u r e Veins True f i s s u r e v e i n s are common i n t h i s area and embrace a number of d i f f e r e n t types of deposits® Si l v e r - L e a d Type D i s t r i b u t i o n Since these deposits are associated w i t h the J u r a s s i c i n t r u s i o n s , t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n w i l l be widespread, as a l l favourable m i n e r a l i z i n g conditions e x i s t i n t h i s area. Such a statement i s aut h e n t i c , since these deposits are by f a r the most important economic deposits i n the region. The ores g e n e r a l l y consist of an intimate mixture of the sulphides p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , galena and some s p h a l e r i t e . The gangue i s u s u a l l y quartz and c a l c i t e ; the deposits of t h i s type are widespread and include the S o c i t y G i r l , Aurora, Boy Scout, Wellington and Great d^me mine s. Mineralogy Sulphides in r :s • The sulphides of i r o n , l e a d and zinc comprise almost the e n t i r e ore content of the s i l v e r - l e a d deposits© Galena PbS: Sulphide of le a d i s the most important mineral, as i t contains not only the lead values, but also the s i l v e r * I t occurs as two v a r i e t i e s - the fin e - g r a i n e d type seen at the Boy Scout Mine and the coarse, cubic v a r i e t y of the Great ^eare cMine. Zinc^blende - S p h a l e r i t e ZnS: Sulphide of zin c i s always present i n varying q u a n t i t i e s i n a l l the s i l v e r - l e a d de-p o s i t s . I t occurs i n t i m a t e l y associated w i t h the galena and i r o n sulphides. The percentage of zinc-blende v a r i e s widely i n the several d e p o s i t s . To such a degree i s t h i s •tugs that the Aurora might be c l a s s i f i e d as a zin c mine, Marmatite - F e r r i f e r o u s S p h a l e r i t e FeZnS : This mineral, found at the Boy Scout Mine, was observed to be i n t i m a t e l y associated w i t h f i n e - g r a i n e d galena, Ir£n_py_ri_tes FeSg.. Bisulphide. of i r o n . P y r i t e i s widely d i s t r i b u t e d throughout a l l the de p o s i t s , P y r r h o t i t e - Magnetic s u l p h i de of i r o n : P y r r h o t i t e occurs abundantly i n the Boy Scout and Great Dane Mine, Ghale^o^rite CuFeS 2: Copper p y r i t e s - c h a l c o p y r i t e occurs abundantly at the Great Dane Mine. Oxides Quartz SiO^: Quarts occurs as the main gangue mineral i n these depositSo l i m o n i t e 2Fe 0 ,JH 0: Limonite commonly occurs as a pro-_ & p 2 duct of the decomposition of the sulphides of i r o n . I t u s u a l l y occurs as a brown s t a i n on the outcrop surface. Phosphates Pyromorphite ( P b C l ) P b 4 ( P 0 4 ) ^ : Lead phosphate. Pyromor-phite was found i n the o x i d i z e d zone of two of the deposits. Paragenesis The age r e l a t i o n s of the minerals i n l e a d - s i l v e r f i s s u r e v e i n type were found by examining p o l i s h e d sections of these minerals. , The general sequence may be summarized as f o l l o w s : ( i ) Quartz ( i i ) P y r i t e ( i i i ) P y r r h o t i t e ( i v ) Zinc-blende (v) Galena ( v i ) Pyromorphite, l i m o n i t e P y r i t e : The mineral sequence was best observed, i n the pol i s h e d s e c t i o n from the Great Dane Mine. The c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the age r e l a t i o n s given above i s as f o l l o w s : Quartz: The quartz i s always f r a c t u r e d and the f r a c t u r e s are mineralized® ' ( i ) Always f i l l s the f r a c t u r e s i n the quartz* ( i i ) Presents idiomorphic faees to the other sulphides. ( i i i ) l e f t , as replacement remnants i n the l a t e r sulphide ground-mass. ( i v ) Contains replacement embayments i n which the other minerals have replaced it© 2^£rhotite;' y , ( i ) Replaced by ch a l c o p y r i t e and galena - replace-ment embayments. ( i i ) l e f t as replacement remnants i n galena. £haJljjo jay r i t e : ( i ) Replaces p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e ( i i ) Found as replacement remnants i n a galena ground-mass. S_pb.aleri^e_and_Gralena: Bo c r i t e r i a was es t a b l i s h e d to prove one e a r l i e r "than* the other. From a study of contacts they appear to be contemporaneous. Limo ni^ e_and^ Py^ r£m£rp_hi.t e: Subsequent hydration and phosphatization produced the minerals l i m o n i t e and pyromorphite i n the o x i d i z e d zone. D e s c r i p t i o n of Mines and Prospects Boy Scout Mine This group, c o n s i s t i n g of four crown-granted claims, i s s i t u a t e d on Hell-Roaring Creek at a distance of approximately 4-g- miles by t r a i l from the wagon road at S t . Mary Lake. I t i s owned by-A.-H. Mayland of Calgary, Mrs. John Bennet'-and. N.AV Wallinger of Cranbrook. The workings are s i t u a t e d on a steep, wooded h i l l s i d e on the eastern side of the v a l l e y . The formation i n which the deposit occurs i s the o l d e s t s u b d i v i s i o n o f the P u r c e l l s e r i e s , and i s c a l l e d the Aldridge formation. The property l i e s i n the shear zone formed near the Hell-Roaring f a u l t y the shearing s t i k r e s south-easterly and dips from 50 degrees to 60 degrees to the south-west. The p r i n c i p a l working developing the shearr'zo.ne c o n s i s t s of three tunnels at approximate e l e v a t i o n (aneroid) of 5,410, 5 ,300 and 5 ,100 feet above s e a - l e v e l . The upper or I f Q . 1 t u n n e l , about l 6 0 feet l o n g , i s d r i v e n along the ,general d i r e c t i o n of the lead from where the o r i g i n a l d i s -covery was made* At the p o r t a l a wide exposure of r u s t y -weathering, a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e contains narrow bands of s i l i c i f i e d rock and quartz mineralized with l e a d and i r o n sulphides. The greater part of the tunnel l i e s on the hanging-wall side of the lead where no d e f i n i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s i n evidence; but towards the inner end a t u r n i s made towards the f o o t w a l l side so that a 3"£oot width of ore i s exposed. This showing,is of a more d e f i n i t e character than the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n at the p o r t a l and gives promise of more c o n t i n u i t y , the sulphides being uniformly d i s t r i b u t e d throughout a quartz ganguec In the inner showing the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n apparantly conforms with the bedding of the country rock, which s t r i k e s about south 50 degrees east, and dips at 58 degrees to the south-west. The No. 2 t u n n e l , which i s s i i g h t l y more than 300 feet i n l e n g t h , i s also d r i v e n i n a general south-e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n , but l i e s f o r the most part i n the s o f t e r a r g i l l a c e o u s rocks on the f o o t w a l l side of the lead. From t h i s tunnel three short corsscuts have been made to the south-west, or hanging-wall s i d e . The f i r s t two cross-cuts cut widths from 4 to 5 feet of quartz interbanded with country rock with which some disseminated sulphides and streaks of o x i d i z e d m a t e r i a l are associated. The t h i r d eross&^fe, about 75 feet back from the face of the main tunnel, exposes a width of 6 f e e t of strong m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n which galena i s uniformly d i s t r i b u t e d . The lower or Bo.3 "tunnel has been driven f o r a length of over 700 f e e t , At about 400 feet i n from the p o r t a l a wide zone of scattered galena and p y r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , associated w i t h quartzose phases of the country rock,., was encountered. Some cross-c u t t i n g at t h i s point shows the mineralized zone i s from 20 to 25 feet wide. At about 700 f e e t i n from the p o r t a l crosscuts have been dri v e n on both sides of the main tunnel to f u r t h e r explore the extent and character of the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . The ore c o n s i s t s of f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e galena, s p h a l e r i t e , marmatite, c h a l c o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e and p y r i t e i n a quartz gangue. Wellington: Mine This property, owned by J . Angus of M a r y s v i l i e , i s s i t u a t e d on the East Fork of Hell-Roaring Creek, about 7 m i l e s by t r a i l from the road near St. Mary Lake. The v e i n , very sharply defined, f o l l o w s the strong H e l l - R o a r i n g f a u l t zone. I t conforms c l o s e l y with the s c h i s t o s i t y of the enclosing q u a r t z i t e s r a n t e r than with t h e i r s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , the s t r i k e o f which approximates l i o r t h 30 degrees east w i t h the dip varying from 65 to 80 degrees east. About 200 f e e t down the h i l l from the outcrop - 9 5 -of the v e i n , the sediments are intruded by a granite por-phyry dyke which contains large idiomorphic c r y s t a l s of orthoclase i n a groundmass of p l a g i o e l a s e , quartz and horn-blende. The workings cover a length of 1 ,000 feet of out-crop ranging from 5 ,950 to 6,160 feet i n e l e v a t i o n . They consist of eight open c u t s , one shaft and one d r i f t . The ore c o n s i s t s of galena, p y r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e i n a quartz gangue« Great Dane Mine This property i s optioned by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. I t i s located 4 miles up the west fork of the St. Mary R i v e r , from where the east, north and west for k s u n i t e . The entrance to the p o r t a l of the tunnel i s approximately 5 , 0 0 0 feet above s e a - l e v e l . The workings c o n s i s t of 2 open cuts and a tunnel 180 feet long. The v e i n occurs i n the a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s of the Creston formation which here s t r i k e north 20 degrees east and dip 70 degrees to the west. The v e i n s t r i k e s due north, and dips to the west at an angle of 75 degrees. The tunnel runs from the p o r t a l along the s t r i k e of the v e i n f o r about 85 f e e t and then swings 100 feet due west. The v e i n v a r i e s i n width from 2 feet at the p o r t a l to 1-J- feet at a distance of 85 f e e t . The crosscut to the west d i d not d i s c l o s e any new v e i n s . The ore c o n s i s t s of g n e i s s i c galena, p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , p y r i t e , chal co p y r i t e , e o b a l t i t e ^ i n a quartz gangue* Many f i n e specimens of e r y t h r i t e s t a i n s were found on the c e i l i n g of the tunnel* Society G i r l This-group comprises seven Crown-granted, claims s i t u a t e d about 2 miles east of Moyie, at an e l e v a t i o n of 5,000 feet and a d j o i n s the eastern boundary of the St. Eugene Mine* Work was c a r r i e d out on the property between the years 1908 and 1914* Small i r r e g u l a r shipments of ore were made, but there was no steady production* The formation i n which the deposits occur i s the oldest s u b d i v i s i o n of the P u r c e l l s e r i e s and i s c a l l e d the Aldridge formation, which here s t r i k e s north and south with a dip of 25 degrees to the east* The deposit i s a v e i n that s t r i k e s north 60 degrees west and dips 60 degrees to the south* The v e i n i s narrow where i t traverses the thin-bedded a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s and widens i n the heavier bedded q u a r t z i t e s ; and the ore i s e s s e n t i a l l y galena c a r r y i n g about one-half ounce of s i l v e r to the per cent of lead., occurring i n a quartz gangue, and w i t h i t i s associated some zin c blende. In the upper workings the ore i s o x i d i z e d , and consis t s of c e r u s s i t e and pyromorphite, both massive and i n b e a u t i f u l c r y s t a l s * The c e r u s s i t e i s commonly embedded i n dense masses of l i m o n i t e * The workings c o n s i s t of open cu t s , prospect shafts and several t u n n e l s . Auro ra The Aurora group i s on the west side of lower Moyie Lake opposite the town of Moyie, from which 3won i t i s reached by motor-road. The group was o r i g i n a l l y operated by the Aurora Mining and M i l l i n g Company of Mopie. About 1,500 feet of workings, mostly i n the form of tunnels, con-s t i t u t e d the development work. I n 192j> the property was taken over by the Aurora Mines Syndicate and work was recommenced. The ore i s hand-picked, shipped by motor-truck to Moyie, and f i n a l l y by t r a i n to T r a i l . The deposit i s a f i s s u r e v e i n s t r i k i n g e a s t e r l y across the q u a r t z i t e s e r i e s . The v e i n v a r i e s up to 6 feet i n t h i c k n e s s , and the ore i s massive sulphides, c h i e f l y z i n c blende with minor amounts of galena. In places the sulphides are deposited around fragments of breeciated country rock, and i n some places there i s evidence of r e -placement , .the sulphides extending i n t o the w a l l - r o c k . M i n e r a l i z a t i o n has c l e a r l y taken place along f r a c t u r e or shear zones. The deposit i s c h i e f l y i n the nature of a f i s s u r e v e i n , but a certain.amount of replace-mnet has taken place. The source of the m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s was probably an underlying mass of g r a n i t e . The p r o b a b i l i t y that such an i n t r u s i v e mass underlies the region i s suggested by the outcrops of a number of granite stocks along a north and, south l i n e i n the d i s t r i c t . .The upper workings are reached from No. 1 s h a f t , and fthe lower from No. 2 t u n n e l . The l a t t e r enters on the 200 foot l e v e l . I t shows a main f i s s u r e zone and a p a r a l l e l one which i s c a l l e d the S u l l i v a n v e i n . In the stopes above t h i s l e v e l there i s a d e f i n i t e ore zone about 2 feet wide showing sharp contaxts with the country rock. The 1 0 0-foot l e v e l reached from the s h a f t , shows an almost v e r t i c a l v e i n about 1 foot wide. The ore zone rakes to the west, the lower showings appearing on the sur-face.. This low, westerly rake i s p a r a l l e l to the bedding of the q u a r t z i t e s and suggests that c e r t a i n beds have been more i n f l u e n t i a l than others i n p r e c i p i t a t i n g ore. The more a r g i l l a c e o u s beds seem to be b e t t e r ore-making horizons than the massive blue q u a r t z i t e s . The ore contains 18.4 per cent, of z i n c , 8.7 per cent of l e a d , and 2.5 ounces of s i l v e r to the ton. The Tracey Property This property i s located on the ridge to the north of the ranch of W. Meachem at an e l e v a t i o n o f 4 , 3 0 0 f e e t . I t i s owned by Mr. Tracey of Cranbrook and Mr. Meachem of M a r y s v i l l e , and i s reached by p a c k - t r a i l from the Meachem ranch, a distance of one-half a m i l e . The workings consist of numerous open cuts and two tunnels i n the Aldridge q u a r t z i t e s . These two tunnels expose two small quartz v e i n s . The country rocks here s t r i k e north 15 degrees east and dip steeply to the west. Thejveins s t r i k e north 30 degrees west and d i p at an angle ' of 30 degrees to the southwest. The ore c o n s i s t s of very coarsely c r y s t a l l i z e d galena with small amounts of chalco-p y r i t e i n a q u a r t z - c a l c i t e gangue• Gold Quartz Type D i s t r i b u t i o n -The gold-quartz veins-occur widely d i s t r i b u t e d throughout t h i s area. The majority of claims were staked by prospectors on the north side of Perry Greek when i n search f o r p l a c e r g o l d . ' Geology The deposits occur i n the A l d r i d g e , Creston and Duteh Creek a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s . These q u a r t z i t e s are well-bedded i n beds 2 inches to 2 feet i n t h i c k n e s s , and ar separated by t h i n beds of a r g i l l a c e o u s m a t e r i a l . The de-p o s i t s u s u a l l y occur i n w e l l defined shear zones as true f i s s u r e v e i n s . Their width averages about 8 f e e t , but some are as wide as 20 f e e t . They can be traced f o r long distances along the s t r i k e . -100-Mineralogy The mineralogy of the gold-quartz veins i s very simple and co n s i s t s of free g o l d , p y r i t e and quartz. How-ever, small amounts of /chal copy r i t e have been found i n these depo s i t s , Native Elements Gold Au: Gold occurs native i n the weathered outcrops, but i n depth i t i s associated w i t h the p y r i t e * Sulphides P y r i t e FeSg : Sulphide of i r o n , occurs disseminated i n the quartz gangue, u s u a l l y as idiomorphic c r y s t a l s or as large masses, £hal£o_£yrit_e_ CuEeS^: Sulphide of copper occurs s p a r i n g l y i n some of the deposits. Oxides Quartz S i 0 2 : Quartz i s the only gangue mineral noted i n the deposits. Paragenesis The age r e l a t i o n s of the minerals i n the veins of the gold-quartz type were found by examination of polished s e c t i o n s . -101-The general sequence may be summarized as follows ( i ) Quartz ( i i ) P y r i t e and gold (?) ( i i i ) Ghalcopyrite The p y r i t e f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n the quartz,while the c h a l c o p y r i t e replaces the p y r i t e where the two are found together* . No v i s i b l e gold was noted i n any of the specimens, Genesis On the west fork of the St* Mary R i v e r , near the confluence of t h i s f o r k and Rose Greek;, a body of g r a n i t e outcrops•in the r i v e r bottom* This body of g r a n i t e can be followed f o r a mile u n t i l i t ends f i n a l l y i n a quartz v e i n on Cogle Creek. Gradations from true g r a n i t e through peg-matite to quartz ve i n c a r r y i n g p y r i t e were observed. This v e i n occurs on a property which i s being worked, and around the v e i n the country rock -KPO a distance of 20 feet has been replaced by p y r i t e . This occurrence, combined wi t h the f a c t that t h i s area i s presumably u n d e r l a i n by igneous rocks, i n d i c a t e s that these gold-quartz type of deposits are associated with the l a t e J u r a s s i c i n t r u s i o n s . - 1 0 2 -P e t a i l e d D e s c r i p t i o n s of Proper-ties Roman V a l l e y Group This group i s s i t u a t e d approximately one mile up Roman Greek from that creek's confluence with Perry Greek. The property i s reached b,y pack t r a i l from t h i s j u n c t i o n p o i n t . The property i s owned by Mr. J . Hutcheroft and as s o c i a t e s , of Cranbrook. The deposits occur as f i s s u r e veins i n the green Creston a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s which s t r i k e north 20 degrees east and dip at 60 degrees to the southeast. The workings consist of surface s t r i p p i n g and about twelve open cu t s , which d i s c l o s e three veins varying i n width from 6 f e e t to 10 f e e t . The veins s t r i k e northeast, and d i p about 50 degrees to the east*. The l a s t open cut, some J 0 0 fe e t down the d i p of the v e i n , proves that the veins do extend to t h i s depth. The ore c o n s i s t s of p f e e ^ s of p y r i t e disseminated i n the quartz gangue. Some pyromorphite c r y s t a l s i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c barrel-shape were noted, but the galena from whi ch they weare probably derived was not v i s i b l e . The ore assays from |l.j>0 to $17.00 a ton i n gold. - 1 0 3 -Qnartz Mountain This group o f claims i s s i t u a t e d at the headwaters of Sawmill Greek, a short t r i b u t a r y o f Perry Creek. An ' i n t e r e s t i n g discovery of quartz mineralized w i t h gold-bearing i r o n and copper sulphides was made by Elmer Rice and associates of Kimberley. There are two massive quartz out-crops on the property. The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Kimberley took an op t i o n on the property and since that time development work has been c a r r i e d out. The westerly showing l i e s up the h i l l from the camp at 6,400 f e e t e l e v a t i o n , and averages 30 to 70 feet i n width. I t s c o n t i n u i t y has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a length of se v e r a l hundred f e e t by two s e r i e s of trenches and numerous outcrops. About 600 feet to the east,downhill from the massive showing and separated from i t by a dyke of d i o r i t e , i s the second and most important of the showings. Here the owners have dug a 150-foot trench. The gold values f o r 103-foot length assayed .25 ounces of gold per ton. Further work i s planned f o r 1937 by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. Homestake.Mine This property i s s i t u a t e d on the west side of Perry Creek, near i t s head, between Manchester and Li v e r p o o l creeks, and i s owned by the Cranbrook Gold Mining Company. A s e r i e s of p a r a l l e l quartz v e i n s , very p e r s i s t e n t i n l e n g t h , and i n some cases very wide, s t r i k e parallel with -104-the enclosing a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s and s c h i s t s of the Creston formation. In the v i c i n i t y of the Homestake Mine the s t r i k e of these rocks i s n o r t h - e a s t e r l y . The deposits •are true f i s s u r e veins* The workings c o n s i s t i n g of open c u t s , shafts and tunnels. The ore i s composed of f r e e gold and p y r i t e i n a quarts gangue. A few men were engaged i n the summer of 1936 doing assessment work. Midway Mine This prospect adjoins the highway near A l d r i d g e , a s i d i n g south of Moyie l a k e , and i s owned by the B.C. Garib.oo Gold F i e l d s l i m i t e d . The deposit c o n s i s t s of a , quartz v e i n h e a v i l y mineralized with p y r i t e and small amounts of l e a d , z i n c and copper sulphides, and occurs i n the Aldridge formation. The veins s t r i k e north-westerly i n t o the mountain and d i p 45 degrees and 55 degrees to the -north-east. I n width, the ore shoot v a r i e s from 5 to 8 f e e t , and near the face of the tunnel i s over 8 feet wide. The v e i n has been followed f o r about JQQ feet by the tunnel and has been traced on the surface f o r over 800 f e e t . There i s a f a u l t just beyond;the wide ore s e c t i o n r e f e r r e d 10.The v e i n v a r i e s i n width from a seam to 3 f e e t , but i s always i n the same shear zone. As the sheared rock required much timbering i n the v e i n zone, the tunnel was driven- i n the hanging-wall country rock p a r a l l e l to the v e i n . At 2?0 f e e t i n from the - 1 0 5 -p o r t a l the v e i n was 18 inches wide, w i t h s i m i l a r i n t e n s i t y of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n as i n the ore-shoot south-east of the fa u l i f , where the sulphides c o n s i t i t u e d probably 30 per cent "of the t o t a l volume. The gangue co n s i s t s e n t i r e l y of quartz w i t h minute amounts of s i d e r i t e . In places the quartz has been i n t e n s e l y breeciated and recemented. The sulphide content i s mainly p y r i t e , with only minute amounts of z i n c -blende, galena, t e t r a h e d r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Arsenopyrite has been i d e n t i f i e d as w e l l as small but d e f i n i t e amounts of t i n . The p r i n c i p a l value i s i n gold, but s i l v e r i s i n -v a r i a b l y pre sent, and i n places i n important amounts. The c o n t i n u i t y o f the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n exposed throughout the l i m i t s of the work done, the uniform character o f the ore, and gold and s i l v e r values so f a r obtained warrant a &S#ge amount of development work•to explore f o r the p o s s i b l e occurrence of larg e ore bodies. The i d e a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , and e x c e p t i o n a l l y favourable g e o l o g i c a l conditions combine to make t h i s prospect of-unusual i n t e r e s t . Cogle Greek Property This property l i e s 2 miles up Cogle Creek from where i t j o i n s the west fork of the St. Mary Ri v e r . Here Cogle C reek cuts a canyon 30 feet deep and 15 feet wide i n the Duteh Creek formation, exposing a h e a v i l y mineralized quartz v e i n . The s t r a t a here s t r i k e north 20 degrees east, and d i p at 30 degrees to the south-east. The v e i n can he traced by continuous outcrops d i r e c t l y to a g r a n i t i c mass expos-ed i n the west fork v a l l e y bottom. The workings con-• s i s t of a s i n g l e open cut exposing the mineralized v e i n . Around the v e i n and r e p l a c i n g the country rock f o r a width of 30 f e e t i s much pyrite® The p y r i t e c a r r i e s low gold values not warranting f u r t h e r work on t h i s property. The low gold values are probably due to the f a c t that the temperature conditions were too high f o r the de p o s i t i o n of gold. Southern Cross This property i s located 5 miles up Boulder Creek from lumberton Ho. 2 camp. The b u i l d i n g s at the prospect are s i t u a t e d on the creek bottom, while the workings are 300 f e e t above on a s i d e - h i l l . The v e i n occupies a shear zone i n the Creston formation. The shearing s t r i k e s north 10 degrees east and dips 75 degrees to the north-west. The workings c o n s i s t of a tunnel 83 f e e t long which f o l l o w s a v e i n varying i n width from !-§• feet at the p o r t a l to 6 inches at the face of the tunnel. The wa l l - r o c k i s al s o replaced by p y r i t e . The ore, c o n s i s t i n g of p y r i t e , i s s a i s to assay | 5 a ton i n gold; the gangue i s mainly quartz. Hematite Type * D i s t r i b u t i o n These deposits occur mainly i n the Creston f o r -mation. The purple m o t t l i n g e f f e c t , s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s formation, i s due to the presence of f i n e l y d i v i d e d specular hematite* Thus m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s t r a v e r s i n g the Creston formation may have d i s s o l v e d and p r e c i p i t a t e d the hematite i n a more concentrated form as deposits. This d i s t r i b u t i o n would be expected to be greater i n the Creston formation, but could conceivably be present i n other f o r -mations through which the s o l u t i o n s traversed© Geology These deposits occur mainly i n the a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s of the Creston formation. The q u a r t z i t e s are u s u a l l y sheared and the deposits occur as true f i s s u r e veins i n w e l l - d e f i n e d l i n e s of f a u l t i n g . A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of the Moyie f a u l t i s that at the places where i t crosses the Creston formation t h i s type of deposit occurs. Mineralogy Oxides Hematite F e 2 0 ^ : Iron oxide - Hematite occurs as the main mineral constituent :' of these d e p o s i t s . In the Creston -10 8-formation i t occurs as the f i n a l l y d i v i d e d specular v a r i e t y . In the V i c i n i t y of f a u l t i n g the hematite occurs as -large micaceous p l a t e s t i n c h long by •£• i n c h wide. In veins t h i s mineral i s found i n dark red masses v e i n i n g a quartz gangue. Quartz SiO^ - Oxide of s i l i c o n : Vein quartz occurs only i n the true f i s s u r e veins. Here i t i s u s u a l l y b r e c c i a t e d and the i n t e r s t i c e s are f i l l e d w ith l a t e r p y r i t e and hematite. Sulphides P j r i t e FeS^- I r o n p y r i t e s : P y r i t e occurs i n f i v e and s i x -sided forms modified by the l a t e r r e p l a c i n g hematite s o l u -t i o n s . Paragenesis The mineral sequence may be summarized as f o l l o w s : ( i ) Quartz and p y r i t e ( i i ) B r e c e i a t i o n ( i i i ) Hematite The c r i t e r i a f o r the age r e l a t i o n s are as f o l l o w s : ( i ) The quartz and p y r i t e e x h i b i t smooth contacts, no cusps, no c o r r o s i v e e f f e c t s and no replaced embayments. ( i i ) The quartz v e i n containing the p y r i t e was b r e c c i a t e d . ( i i i ) The b r e c c i a t e d m a t e r i a l forms bosses i n the - 1 0 9 -l a t e r hematite f i l l i n g . ( i v ) The hematite veins the quartz, f o l l o w i n g the zones of f r a c t u r e • (v) The hematite replaces the quartz i n the form of cusps and. as corrosive borders. ( v i ) The hematite replaces the p y r i t e . Genesis The hematite occurs widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n the Creston formation as the f i n e l y d i v i d e d specular v a r i e t y . The purple mottling e f f e c t so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s forma-t i o n i s a sedimentary feature. Thus the formation of the hematite and sedimentation were contemporaneous. The de-p o s i t i o n of the hematite was syngenetic. As the period of f a u l t i n g and f o l d i n g took place the small p a r t i c l e s of hematite seem to act as does carbonaceous m a t e r i a l when subject to the processes of metamorphism. l i k e the car-bonaceous m a t e r i a l , the hematite c o l l e c t e d i n large flakesoo knots i n zones of metamorphism.!"?,.Accompanying the period of f a u l t i n g and f o l d i n g are the i n t r u s i o n s of the West Kootenay b a t h o l i t h i c rocks, which f i l l e d f a u l t and f i s s u r e zones with v e i n m a t e r i a l and the i r o n sulphides. A f t e r the v e i n had cemented i t s e l f , a f u r t h e r process of f a u l t i n g b r ecciated the v e i n . The downward p e r c o l a t i n g meteoric waters with t h e i r l o a d of i r o n oxide found access to these c a v i t i e s and p r e c i p i t a t e d t h e i r l oad i n them. Detailed. D e s c r i p t i o n of P r o p e r t i e s Although no work has been done i n the v i c i n i t y of . the Moyie fault., i t i s of s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t . This f a u l t i s w e l l defined, and i n places brings the Aldridge formation Into contact w i t h the Kitchener formation and also the Creston formation. Where t h i s f a u l t traverses the Creston a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s , large amounts of specular hematite p l a t e s are developed. There i s s u f f i c i e n t quantity of t h i s m a t e r i a l to warrant some work being done, as i t i s reported that the hematite c a r r i e s some values i n gold* Weaker Creek Property This property i s located i n the v i c i n i t y of Weaaaer Creek, lg- miles up from t h i s creek's confluence with the Moyie R i v e r . Here the creek cuts a canyon through the con-ta c t of the Aldridge q u a r t z i t e s and a P u r c e l l s i l l . There i s a l a r g e shear zone developed i n the q u a r t z i t e s , which i s f i l l e d by an 8-ihch v e i n o f hematite and quartz w i t h amounts of g ^ n f l f i . The b r e c c i a t i o n of the v e i n i s c l e a r l y ex-h i b i t e d i n the hand specimens. The workings consist of two tunnels i n the shear zone on opposite sides of the creek. This ore i s s a i d to carry up to f 10 a ton i n gold. The ore c o n s i s t s of hematite and mareasite, and the gangue of b r e c c i a t e d quartz* -111-Perry Greek Property This property, located on the ridge at the head of Perry Creek, i s owned by Mr. B. Frasseni of Cranbrook. " The workings occur at the top of a steep t a l u s s l i d e , where a tunnel penetrates a v e i n about 6 feet wide. The v e i n i s contained i n the a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s of the Creston 0 o formation which here s t r i k e s north 10 east and dips 40 to the north-west. Due to the inconvenience of t h i s t a l u s slope the property was abandoned, The v e i n outcrops at the top of the r i d g e , about pOO f e e t above the workings. The ore con-s i s t s of large masses of hematite i n a quartz gangue. The owner s a i d that some of the assays ran §30 a ton i n g o l d . Galena Gold Type D i s t r i b u t i o n There was only one deposit of t h i s type of any economic value i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . This type i s confined to the A l d r i d g e a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s and r e l a t e d to a w e l l -defined f a u l t zone. Geology The A l d r i d g e formation, w i t h which t h i s type of deposit i s a s s o c i a t e d , i s a hard, a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e formation. I t i s able to carry a f r a c t u r e f o r long d i s -tances, producing a means of access f o r the m i n e r a l i z i n g - 1 1 2 -s o l u t i o n s . Mineralogy Native Elements Gold Au.: Gold does not occur n a t i v e , but i s e v i d e n t l y associated with the galena. S i l v e r Ag: S i l v e r does not occur n a t i v e , but i s associated with the galena. Sulphides Galena PbS: Sulphide of lead i s the most important mineral, as i t contains the gold values. I t i s u s u a l l y i n the coarse, cubic v a r i e t y , and i n places i s of a g n e i s s i c v a r i e t y . £hal£op_yrite CuFeS^ : Copper p y r i t e s - chalco p y r i t e occurs s p a r i n g l y i n t h i s type of deposit. P y r i t e FeS : Iron p y r i t e s - p y r i t e was absent i n the sec t i o n . Oxides Quartz S i 0 2 : Oxide of s i l i c o n , quartz i s the most a b u n -dant gangue mineral i n these deposits. I t occurs massive and has been f r a c t u r e d , the f r a c t u r e s being f i l l e d w ith the sulphides. -113-Carbonates ^al^cjLtej CaGO^t Carbonate of calcium was noted, i n these deposits. Generally i t i s white and coarsely c r y s t a l l i z e d * The genesis and paragenesis are i d e n t i c a l with the s i l v e r - l e a d type. D e t a i l e d D e s c r i p t i o n of P r o p e r t i e s A l k i Creek Property This property i s l o c a t e d at the headwaters of A l k i Creek, and i s reached by p a c k - t r a i l from the M a r y s v i l l e Meachem road, a distance of s i x m i l e s . The workings con-s i s t of a tunnel w i t h s e v e r a l crosscuts. The v e i n occurs i n a w e l l defined f a u l t zone. The m i n e r a l i z a t i o n has been traced from the Alki-Matthew Creek d i v i d e to the Mystery Mine. The v e i n i s 5 feet wide, and i s h e a v i l y mineralized w i t h galena,. •Work...'on t h i s property during the winter of 1936 has d i s c l o s e d some very s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s . Assays from .77 to 2 .36 ounces per ton i n gold across the f u l l width of the v e i n were recovered. This property has prospects of becoming a small scale producer. -114-Arsenopyrite Gold Type D i s t r i b u t i o n There i s only one example of t h i s type of deposit i n the d i s t r i c t , and i t occurs on the eastern ridge of Bootleg Mountain* Geology The deposit occurs i n the a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s of the Aldridge formation* These q u a r t z i t e s are w e l l ex-posed on the r i d g e . About 500 feet to the east of the deposit an outcrop of graphic g r a n i t e pegmatite outcrops* The sediments around t h i s dyke are metamorphosed i n d i s -t i n c t zones* Near the dyke s i l l i m a n i t e s c h i s t s are develop-ed, while away from the i n t r u s i o n these grade into g a r n e t i -ferous mica s c h i s t s and f u r t h e r to quartz mica s c h i s t s containing b i o t i t e which are of the low temperature type* A d i o r i t e . s i l l at the property i s metamorphosed to a c h l o r i t e s c h i s t . Character of Deposits The deposits occur as v e i n s . The width v a r i e s , but i s about 3 f e e t * Mineralogy The mineralogy of these veins i s very simple and - 1 1 5 -c o n s i s t s of gold , arsenopyrite, p y r i t e and galena i n a quartz gangue. Native Elements GoM Au: Gold i s e v i d e n t l y associated w i t h the arseno-p y r i t e or galena. Sulphides Arsenopyrite FeAsS: M i s p i c k e l - Arsenopyrite occurs widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n these de p o s i t s . I t was the e a r l i e s t formed min e r a l , as i t i s br e c c i a ted and the f r a c t u r e s produced are f i l l e d w i t h a l l the l a t e r minerals. P / r i t e FeSgS Iron p y r i t e s - sulphide of i r o n occurs s p a r i n g l y throughout these deposits and was not found i n contact with the ars e n o p y r i t e . Galena PbS: Sulphide of lead occurs as an i n t r i c a t e v e i n system f o l l o w i n g the f r a c t u r e s i n the arsenopyrite. Oxides Quartz SiO^: Oxide of s i l i c o n - quartz i s the only gangue mineral noted i n the deposits. I t e v i d e n t l y came i n l a t e r than the ars e n o p y r i t e , as i t veins t h i s mineral but was contemporaneous with the galena. - 1 1 6 -Paragenesis The general sequence of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n may he summarized as f o l l o w s ; ( i ) Arsenopyrite ( i i ) P y r i t e (?) ( i i i ) B r e c c i a t i o n ( i v ) Quartz and galena. The c r i t e r i a f o r the age r e l a t i o n s are as f o l l o w s : ( i ) The arsenopyrite i s b r e c c i a t e d and the i n t e r s t i c e s l a t e r f i l l e d with v e i n quartz and galena. ( i i ) In the p y r i t e replacement type of deposit the arseno-p y r i t e was .found e a r l i e r than the p y r i t e . ( i i i ) The p y r i t e was a l s o i n v o l v e d i n the f r a c t u r i n g movements ( i v ) The quartz and galena v e i n the arsenopyrite and ex-h i b i t smooth contacts one to the other. Genesis The close proximity of the deposit to the graphic g r a n i t e pegmatite dyke and also the presence of the mineral arsehopyrite suggest that the p r e - b r e c c i a t i o n minerals are g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the dyke i n t r u s i o n . A notable feature i n t h i s d i s t r i e t i s that the mines near these peg-matite i n t r u s i o n s contain the high temperature mineral arsenopyrite. Elsewhere i n the d i s t r i c t , t h i s mineral i s missing i n the deposits. The l a t e r galena and quartz i n d i c a t e that they were probably formed from the same -117-magma but expelled at a l a t e r stage, probably the hydro thermal stage© Si l v e r - L e a d Deposits D i s t r i b u t i o n The s i l v e r - l e a d deposits at present are by f a r the most important economic deposits i n the region. They occur, w i t h few exceptions, associated with the Aldridge formation and w i t h the more q u a r t z i t i c phases of t h i s group of rocks® The ores g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t of an intimate mix-ture of the sulphides p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e and galena, e i t h e r as f i s s u r e veins or replacement deposits i n a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s . The gangue,usually small i n amount, includes garnet, d i o p s i d e , c a l c i t e and quartz. Within the Cranbrook area, two d i s t r i c t s i n c l u d e most of the important mines, the Moyie and Kimberley d i s t r i c t s , the former containing the St. Eugene, Society G i r l and Aurora; the l a t t e r , the S u l l i v a n , North Star and Stemwinder mines. Several deposits of minor importance occur throughout the region. -118-Mineralogy Native Elements * Silv_er__. Native s i l v e r occurs i n the oxidized, zone i n the North Star Mine as arborescent and r e t i c u l a t e d aggregates i n c a v i t i e s i n l i m o n i t e . Sulphides Galena PbS: Sulphide of lead i s the most important mineral, as i t contains not only the lead values but the s i l v e r values as w e l l . In general, i t i s the f i n e - g r a i n e d , s t e e l y v a r i e t y i n the S u l l i v a n ore body; but i t o f t e n occurs as the coarse, cubic v a r i e t y which c o n s t i t u t e d the ore-bodies of the North Star and St. Eugene. Sjphalerite ZnS: Sulphide of zinc - s p h a l e r i t e i s always present i n greater or l e s s q u a n t i t i e s i n a l l the s i l v e r -l e a d deposits i n the S u l l i v a n . I t i s I n t i m a t e l y associated w i t h the f i n e - g r a i n e d galena and i r o n sulphides. In the St• Eugene and the Aurora the l a r g e r part of the s p h a l e r i t e i s coarse i n texture and o f a dark brown colour. Pjyrr&otite - Magnetic sulphide of i r o n : P y r r h o t i t e occurs abundantly i n the S u l l i v a n and Stemwinder intimately;:;mixed with p y r i t e and zinc-blende. I t occurs r a r e l y i n the St. Eugene and as f a r as known, i s absent from the Aurora. -119-I_r£n_P^ritB_s FeS - Bisulphide of i r o n : P y r i t e i s widely d i s t r i b u t e d throughout a l l the d e p o s i t s , but i s e s p e c i a l l y prominent i n the S u l l i v a n and Stemwinder. A r s e n o j y r i t e FeAsS - M i s p i c k e l : Arsenopyrite i s a rare mineral i n the s i l v e r - l e a d deposits and was only noted i n the S u l l i v a n Mine where i t was i n the form of c r y s t a l s embedded i n a mixture of p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e and zinc-blende. clial.c2J)Y.ri"fe®, GuFeS2 - Copper P y r i t e s : Chalcopyrite occurs s p a r i n g l y i n the S u l l i v a n and the St. Eugene,.associated w i t h the sulphides of i r o n . Sulpho-Salts Jamesonrfce 2PbSSb 2S^ - Sulpho-antimonite of l e a d : Jame-sonite has been found only i n the S u l l i v a n Mine i n small s t r i n g e r s of c a l c i t e s which were deposited l a t e r than the main ore-body. I t s form i s always f i b r o u s . I t has a s t e e l grey colour and a m e t a l l i c l u s t r e . Oxides Q,uartz_ SiO^: Quartz occurs i n small amounts i n the s i l v e r -lead deposits as i r r e g u l a r grains of glassy appearance. Magnetite FeOFe 0 , - Magnetic Iron Ore: Magnetite occurs 2 only i n the St. Eugene Mine, where i t i s associated with garnet and a c t i n o l i t e . - 1 2 0 -l i m o n i t e 2 F e o 0 «3H 0 : l i m o n i t e i s a common mineral i n the 2 ? 2 o x i d i z e d zone of the deposits. In the Society G-irl i t . occurs as a dark, brown, compact mineral associated w i t h c e r u s s i t e and pyromorphite. Carbonates £alcit_e CaCO - Calcareous Spar: C a l c i t e occurs s p a r i n g l y 3 as a gangue mineral i n a l l the s i l v e r - l e a d d e p o s i t s , but more abundantly i n the St. Eugene. In the S u l l i v a n , i t i s found i n s t r i n g e r s c u t t i n g the ore-bodies, and was e v i d e n t l y formed at a period l a t e r than that of the amin ore d e p o s i t i o n . C e r u s s i t e PbCO, - lead carbonate or white lead ore: " - - - 3 Cerussite i s white and co l o u r l e s s , and occurs i n the o x i -dized zone of the North Star and Society G i r l mines, mainly i n the form of c r y s t a l s and c r y s t a l aggregates, but o f t e n compact and massive, coating the surfaces along f i s s u r e s . At the Society G i r l , the c e r u s s i t e i s o f t e n embedded i n dense masses of l i m o n i t e . S i l i c a t e s Diopside CaMg(SiO,)_ , Oa(MgFe)(SiO,) : Diopside occurs P 2 i n the S u l l i v a n ore-body and towards the centre of the mass". I t forms transparent, l i g h t green c r y s t a l s of imperfect o u t l i n e and good cleavage. - 1 2 1 -A c t i n o l i t e (MgFe)Si0 3 - non-aluminous v a r i e t y of amphibole: A c t i n o l i t e i s a gangue mineral i n the S u l l i v a n and S t . Eugene ore b o d i e s . I t occurs as r a d i a t i n g aggregates associated " w i t h the other gangue, minerals. Garnet,: Manganese-bearing garnet occurs i n the S u l l i v a n -S t . Eugene ore bodies.. In the S u l l i v a n , the garnet i s found as idiomorphic c r y s t a l s embedded i n f i n e - g r a i n e d galena. B i o t i t e - magnesium-iron mica: B i o t i t e occurs g e n e r a l l y i n the e x t e r i o r sulphide zone of the ore bodies and i n the neighbouring country rocks i n s m a l l , i r r e g u l a r p l a t e s . Phosphates P_yromorphite (PbCl)Pb^(PG^) 3 - lead phosphate: Pyromorphite occurs only i n the oxidized zone of the S o c i e t y G i r l Mine where i t occurs i n massive forms i n barrel-shaped aggregates, and i n c r y s t a l s - w i t h a high degree of c r y s t a l development. Paragenesis The general order of mineral sequence may be summarized as follows:: ( i ) Magnetite ; ( i i ) A c t i n o l i t e ( l i t ) Garnet, d i o p s i d e , p y r i t e and arsenopyrite ( i v ) P y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , zinc-blende, and galena (v) C a l c i t e -122-( v i ) C e r u s s i t e , pyromorphite, n a t i v e s i l v e r and l i m o n i t e ( v i i ) Jamesonite The gangue minerals such as garnet and diopside are u s u a l l y regarded as deposited f i r s t , since the f r a c t u r e s i n them are f i l l e d w i t h a mixture of p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , zinc-blende,and galena. Some of the sulphides are probably contemporaneous wi t h the gangue minerals, f o r idiomorphie c r y s t a l s of p y r i t e and arsenopyrite were observed embedded i n the f i n e - g r a i n e d sulphides. The s u l p h o - s a l t 5 gamesonite, i s associated with the small c a l c i t e veins which are l a t e r than Che main ore-bodies, and i s probably a secondary mineral. Genesis The presence of the d i a g n o s t i c minerals, garnet, d i o p s i d e , a c t i n o l i t e and muscovite, which are e n t i r e l y r e -s t r i c t e d to the ore deposit and absent from the surrounding q u a r t z i t e s , suggests that the d e p o s i t i o n of the ore took plaee i n the, deeper v e i n zone under conditions of temperature and pressure comparable to those of contact metamorphic de-p o s i t s . Three miles to the southwest of Kimberley, on the western ridge of Mathew Creek, a dyke of graphic g r a n i t e pegmatite was found c u t t i n g the sedimentary formations. This dyke was composed of large f l a k e s of muscovite and graphic intergrowths of quartz and f e l d s p a r ( o r t h o c l a s e ) . Surrounding t h i s dyke were pronounced aureoles of metamorphism. Garnet, mica and s i l l i m a n i t e s c h i s t s were developed i n these aureoles. - 1 2 3 -About;. 500 f e e t from t h i s dyke, i n a b i o t i t e s c h i s t , i s a deposit of quartz and arsenopyrite, These minerals are i d e n t i c a l w i t h those found i n the replacement deposits, and present a very good example of zpnal arrangement from high to low temperature types. I t i s therefore concluded that the i n t r u s i v e basement of g r a n i t e upon which the P u r c e l l Series of East Kootenay r e s t s was the source of the s i l v e r -lead ores developed there. D e s c r i p t i o n of Mines The Kimberley Area * This area i s s i t u a t e d near Kimberley, the terminus of the Canadian P a c i f i c branch l i n e from Cranbrook to Kim^ b e r l e y , and includes the S u l l i v a n , Stemwinder and North Star mines. Geology The Kimberley; area i s u n d e r l a i n by the a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s arid a r g i l l i t e s of the Aldridge formation. These rocks are Intruded by sev e r a l P u r c e l l s i l l s composed of gabbro, which are v/ell exposed on Mark Creek, above Kimberley. The Aldridge q u a r t z i t e s of the Kimberley area form the eas-t e r n limb•of the large a n t i c l i n e the axis of which i s located i n the v i c i n i t y of Matthew Creek. In general, the s t r i k e of the rocks near Kimberley i s nearly north and south, w i t h the -124-most prevalent dip to the east, but minor f o l d s modify t h i s simple s t r u c t u r e . <*•< ' Character of the Deposits These deposits are replacement deposits i n a r g i l -laceous q u a r t z i t e s . The ore bodies In general conform to the d i p and s t r i k e of the q u a r t z i t e s . The hanglng-walIs and : f o o t - w a l l s are not u s u a l l y w e l l defined; but the ore gradually passes i n t o the normal country rocks, so that the d i s t i n c t i o n between rocks and ore i s commercial rather than s t r u c t u r a l . Exceptions to t h i s occur Where the w a l l s c o n s i s t of the t h i n -bedded, s l a t y q u a r t z i t e s which are e v i d e n t l y d i f f i c u l t to replace. The deposits are arranged i n d i s t i n c t zones. The centre of each body i s occupied by a f i n e - g r a i n e d mixture of galena and zinc-blende In which occur masses of purer galena as lenses. This inner p o r t i o n g r a d u a l l y passes e x t e r i o r l y i n t o a f i n e - g r a i n e d , Intimate mixture of p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e - and zinc-blende. The sulphides g r a d u a l l y d i m i n i s h i n amount and f i n a l l y give way to a f i n e - g r a i n e d chert and then to normal a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s . V S u l l i v a n Mine Location The S u l l i v a n Mine i s s i t u a t e d at Kimberley which i s 19 miles by r a i l from Granbrook on the Crow's Nest l i n e of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. I t i s e a s i l y reached from -125-Cranbrook by t r a i n or motor-bus. H i s t o r y ' This deposit was staked i n the summer of 1892. From 1896 to 1899 some surface s t r i p p i n g was done and several small shafts were sunk. In 1900 systematic development was begun, and the f i r s t shipments of ore made to the H a l l Mines smelter at Nelson and to the Canadian Smelting Works at T r a i l . In 1903 c o n s t r u c t i o n was commenced of a smelter . and power plant at M a r y s v i l l e , 5 miles below Kimberley, on Mark Greek. Many m e t a l l u r g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered, and i n 1907 the mine and smelter were closed down. In 1909, the bond holders and the c r e d i t o r s of the., company reorganized the company under the name of the Fort Steele Mining and Smelting Company, the c o n t r o l being vested i n the Federal Mining and Smelting Company. I n December, 1909, the Con-s o l i d a t e d Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Li m i t e d , took a lease and bond on the Federal Mining and Smelting Company's holdings i n the Fort Steele Mining and Smelting Company. Underground development and diamond d r i l l i n g were c a r r i e d out w i t h the r e s u l t that towards the close of 1910 the option on the stock of the Federal Mining and Smelting Company and on that.of some of the other share-holders was exercised and the c o n t r o l passed i n t o the hands of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada. Other claims were acquired by the company i n 1911 and the m e t a l l u r g i c a l problem was -126-attacked In.earnest.' Continuous shipments of ore to T r a i l have been made since 1910. ' Production The production of the S u l l i v a n Mine from 1894 to September 50, 1913, was 188,648 tone of ore, containing 1,694,402 ounces of s i l v e r and 86,821,629 pounds of lead. The; production f o r the year 1935 was 1,861,245.tons o f ore, containing 226,837 tons of l e a d concentrates and 209,078 tons of zinc concentrate.. This was an increase of 112,844 tons over the production of 1934. Ofaaraoter of the Ore Bodies The S u l l i v a n occurs i n the Aldridge formation of a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s of l a t e Precambrlan age. In the v i c i n i t y O f the mine the; beds s t r i k e approximately north and south, and d i p east at angles of 10 t o 60 degrees. The, Aldridge formation i s Intruded by s e v e r a l large s i l l s of gabbro, but none of these occur i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of the mine. To.the north and west of the deposit the s t r a t a are intruded by g r a n i t e of l a t e J u r a s s i c age. A f a u l t zone l i e s In the immediate v i c i n i t y of the mine and I t swings from there over towards the1 north side of Bootleg Mountain. The deposit c o n s i s t s of massive sulphides occupying a d e f i n i t e zone In the sedimentary s e r i e s . Though there are i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the f o o t - w a l l and hanging-wall, i n general the deposit Is conformable to the beds, forming a lens -127-s t r i k i n g north and south and dipping at an angle of 23 degrees to the east. The lens has a maximum thickness of 272 f e e t , and4*a length of over 6,000 f e e t , with a rake to the north. . The ore lens con s i s t s of p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and argentiferous galena. Small amounts of other minerals such as garnet, c a s s i t e r i t e and tourmaline a l s o occur. Of the i r o n sulphides, p y r i t e i s dominant i n the upper work-i n g , whereas i n the lower working p y r r h o t i t e predominates. The s p h a l e r i t e i s of the iron-bearing v a r i e t y known as marma-t i t e . The ore i s commonly a fi n e - g r a i n e d mixture of the four common sulphides. In places i t shows a banded s t r u c t u r e , and the bands may be e i t h e r s t r a i g h t or contorted. The de-p o s i t was formed by replacement of the Aldridge formation. The banding of the ore probably corresponds to o r i g i n a l bed-ding planes of the replaced s t r a t a . Deposition c l e a r l y took place under conditions of high temperature approaching that of contact metamorphism. The source of the s o l u t i o n s i s be- . l i e v e d to be the underlying mass of g r a n i t e exposed 3 miles to the southwest of the deposit. The lens i s mined from two a d i t s , an upper known as the 4,600-foot l e v e l and a lower c a l l e d the 3,900-foot l e v e l , these f i g u r e s approximately representing t h e i r respec-t i v e e l e v a t i o n s above' s e a - l e v e l . There are two connections between the upper and lower workings. I n both l e v e l s there are two ore-shoots, known r e p s e c t i v e l y as the north ore-body and the south ore-body. -128-• I n the upper workings, stoping i n the south ore-body was c a r r i e d on over a length of 2,000 f e e t . The ore i s lead 8 - and zinc i n a gangue of p y r i t e . I n the north ore-body stoping on the same l e v e l was c a r r i e d on over a length of 1,200 f e e t . This zone contains more z in c than lead. Between these two zones i s a barren zone of massive p y r i t e 7 0 0 feet long. Work i s al s o being c a r r i e d out on the 4,500-foot and 4,400-foot l e v e l s , but the ore from these Is sent down to the 3,900-foot l e v e l : to be hauledttotthe surface. The lower,, or 3,900-foot tunnel, has a length of over 13,000 f e e t . At a distance "of 7,100 f e e t from the p o r t a l , the ore lens i s reached. The south ore-body on t h i s l e v e l c o n s i s t s of s p h a l e r i t e i n a gangue of p y r r h o t i t e . The amount of galena Is s m a l l . Stoping i s c a r r i e d on over a length of 900 f e e t . Between the south and north ore bodies there i s a zone of p y r r h o t i t e w i t h only low values of zinc and lead , and about 1,100 feet long. In the north ore-body stop-ing i s being c a r r i e d on over a leng t h of 1,200 f e e t . "Though the ratios, of lead and zin c vary considerably, lead I s here uniformly i n greater amounts than zinc'. The greatest t h i c k -ness of the ore lens i s 272 f e e t . The 3,900-foot tunnel bears north 2 degrees east for the f i r s t 9,000 f e e t from the p o r t a l . At t h i s p o i n t - i t swings to the west u n t i l i t s d i r e c t i o n i s north ,40 degrees west. I n the south and north ore-bodies i t follows the f o o t - w a l l , but north of the north body the lens i s so I r r e g u l a r that the d r i f t , being s t r a i g h t , i s sometimes i n the - 1 2 9 -f o o t w a l l and sometimes i n the hanging-wall. The average width of the lens i n t h i s c o ntinuation of the north ore-body i s $0 feet and i t has been followed f o r over 4 , 0 0 0 feet be-yond the north ore-body. I t c a r r i e s here an excellent grade of ore w i t h high values'of both lead and z i n c . The sulphides found i n the S u l l i v a n Mine are galena s p h a l e r i t e (marmatite), p y r r h o t i t e , p y r i t e , arsenopyrite(rare and the gangue i s composed of garnet, d i o p s i d e , chert and normal a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s . In 1936 the S u l l i v a n Mine continued to be the most important f a c t o r i n the economic l i f e of the East Kootenay d i s t r i c t . The concentrator treated an average of j?,959 tons of ore per day. An i n t e r e s t i n g feature i n t h i s year's operations i s the f i l l i n g of the "K" stope w i t h boulder-clay from the surface. This i s an i n i t i a l and, to some extent, an e x p e r i -mental step i n the programme designed to make pos s i b l e r e -covery of the l a r g e tonnage of ore i n mine p i l l a r s . The ore i s t r e a t e d by f l o t a t i o n , and the lead and z i n c concentrates are shipped to T r a i l f o r treatment. At the present rate o f mining the reserves i n sight are estimated to l a s t 35 years, l i t t l e i s known of the depth to which the ore lens extends below the 3 , 9 0 0-foot l e v e l , but i t s thickness and i t s great length suggest the p r o b a b i l i t y that there i s as much ore below t h i s l e v e l as there i s above. -130 — !.or.th Star Mine l o c a t i o n i i i • I I I ) T The North S t a r Mine i s on the east slope of the North Star h i l l at an e l e v a t i o n of 3 ,260 feet above sea-l e v e l or about 1 ,500 feet above Kimberley, which l i e s at the foot of the North Star h i l l on Mark Greek, H i s t o r y The property was located i n 1912 by Boureois and l a n g i l l who bonded the claims to Woods Brothers of Quebec; the l a t t e r t r a n s f e r r e d f o u r - f i f t h s of t h e i r i n t e r e s t to D.P. Mann of Montreal i n 1 8 9 3 . l a t e r the North Star Mining Company was organized. In 1895» 62 tons of ore, valued at | 6 8 . 7 0 a to n , was shipped to the United States, In 1900, the rail w a y from Cranbrook to Kimberley was completed and an a e r i a l tram b u i l t to j o i n the mine wi t h the r a i l w a y . During the same year, 16 ,000 tons of ore, averaging 50 to 55 per cent l e a d and 20 to 25 ounces of s i l v e r , was shipped. In 1904 the mine was reported to have been worked out, but the cleaning up of the deposit l a s t e d u n t i l 1908, i n which year 3,000 tons were shipped. I n 1918, a lease was taken on the property by 0 . 0 . Thompson and a s s o c i a t e s , and between that year and 1920 over 16 ,000 to ns of lead carbonate was shipped from the dumps and shallow surface diggings. -131-In 1924 the property was acquired under option by the Porcupine G o l d f i e l d s Development and Finance Company, Li m i t e d , of London, England, and a c e r t a i n amount of diamond-d r i l l e x p l o r a t i o n was c a r r i e d out. Geology The country rocks are a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s of the A l d r i d g e formation of Precambrian age, forming part of the eastern limb of the Kimberley a n t i c l i n e . In the v i c i n i t y of the mine small a n t i c l i n e s and s y n c l i n e s modify t h i s general s t r u c t u r e . The general s t r i k e of the q u a r t z i t e s i s north and the dip i s to the east at various angles. In the immediate v i c i n i t y of the ore-bodies the q u a r t z i t e s are bleached to a g r e y i s h white colour. Deposit The ore was p r i m a r i l y a very clean, s o l i d , argen-t i f e r o u s galena, r a t h e r f i n e - g r a i n e d and w i t h only a small amount of s p h a l e r i t e . The assay value from smelter r e t u r n was: s i l v e r , 22*50 to 43«>2 ounces to the ton; l e a d , 33 to 68 per cent. The upper part of the ore-shoot was composed of a reddish brown, b l a k c , and yellow mixture of oxides and carbonates of i r o n and l e a d , w i t h specimens of wire s i l v e r , c r y s t a l s of c e r u s s i t e and sulphides of i r o n . Most of t h i s secondary m a t e r i a l c a r r i e d a higher s i l v e r value than the crude galena. The. values from smelter returns of t h i s car-bonate ore are; s l v e r 52 to 60 ounces per ton; lead 49 to 31 per cent© There are two main ore-bodies l y i n g i n s y n c l i n a l basins formed of a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s separated by an a n t i c l i n e . The l a r g e r ones o f these ore-bodies are p a r a l l e l , both s t r i k i n g a l i t t l e east of north. The western had a length of 400 f e e t , a width of 70 f e e t , and a depth of 5 0 ; the eastern had a length of 180 feet and a depth of 40 f e e t . The o r i g i n a l ore-body was a replacement deposit, s i m i l a r to the S u l l i v a n , occupying a d e f i n i i t e zone i n the Aldr i d g e q u a r t z i t e s . During subsequent erosion most of the ore zone was removed, l e a v i n g only the lower portions i n the two s y n c l i n e s . The exposure to surface agencies a l t e r e d the o r i g i n a l ore, forming carbonates and removing the z i n c . The main bulk of the tonnage was mined by g l o r y -hole methods, and taken out by an a d i t - t u n n e l i n the foo t -w a l l at a depth of 60 feet below the surface, and thousands of f e e t of t u n n e l l i n g and numerous small shafts were sunk to rpospect and prove the content of the ore-bodies. Regarding future p o s s i b i l i t i e s , langley s t a t e s : "Conditions would seem to warrant f u r t h e r exploratory work by d i a m o n d - d r i l l i n g at some distance down the mountain s i d e . Besides a l a r g e tonnage of low-grade carbonate ore being a v a i l a b l e , there i s al s o a considerable tonnage of good m i l l i n g grade of sulphide ore s i m i l a r i n character to some -133 -of that at the Stemwinder® A sample taken of t h i s ore ran: s i l v e r , ? ounces to the ton; l e a d , 12 ,1 per cent; z i n c , 1719 per;* cent« On the n o r t h e r l y end of the property a good deal of exploratory work has been done on strong showings of i r o n sulphides, but i t i s understood the. values were too low to c o n s t i t u t e ore«" Stemwinder Mine The Stemwinder i s s i t u a t e d near Kimberley, on Mark Greek about h a l f a mile to the west of the p o r t a l of the S u l l i v a n Mine. I t i s .readily; reached e i t h e r by t r a i n or by-bus from Cranbrook on the Crow's Nest l i n e of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. The property was o r i g i n a l l y owned by the Mackenzie and Mann i n t e r e s t s . I n 1922 i t was bonded by D.'C. Thompson who i n 1924 i n t e r e s t e d the Porcupine G o l d f i e l d s Development and Finance Company, Work was c a r r i e d out i n 1923 and 1926, but e a r l y i n 192? work was discontinued and the option dropped. The country rock c o n s i s t s of a r g i l l a c e o u s quart-z i t e s of the Aldridge formation, intruded by several s i l l s of hornblende gabbro, one of which outcrops a short distance to the east of the workings. - 1 3 4 -The ore-body i s - a lens of massive sulphides en-t i r e l y enclosed by the q u a r t z i t e s * The lens c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y o f p y r r h o t i t e , s t r i k e s n e a r l y n o r t h , and dips at an angle of ' about 75 degrees to the west. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to see i t s r e l a t i o n s to the country roek, f o r the contacts are not w e l l exposed i n the workings. The thickness of the sulphide zone i s about 200 f e e t . The ore zone l i e s along the f o o t - w a l l side of the sulphide l e n s . I t c o n s i s t s of a f i n e - g r a i n e d mixture o f galena and s p h a l e r i t e passing i n t o a f i n e - g r a i n e d mixture of p y r r h o t i t e , p y r i t e and zinc-blende• The ore zone has a width of about 20 f e e t . I t i s separated from the normal q u a r t z i t e by a cherty l a y e r . The workings consist of a shaft sunk to a depth of 250 feet and d r i f t s run from i t on the 8 0 , 1 2 5 , 200 and 250-foot l e v e l s . This work and a c e r t a i n amount of diamond-d r i l l e x p l o r a t i o n have d i s c l o s e d the extent of the ore zone. The l a t t e r has apparently a length of 260 feet and a width from 15 to 30 f e e t . The average values are reported to be 20 per cent z i n c , 1 percent l e a d , and 1 ounce i n s i l v e r to the ton. -135-— The Moyie Area Geology . , The Moyie area i s • u n d e r l a i n by the Aldridge and Creston formations of the P u r c e l l s e r i e s . These formations are f o l d e d into a n o r t h e r l y - d i p p i n g a n t i c l i n e , the axis of which roughly coincides w i t h the depression occupied by the Moyie lakes and r i v e r s . The Aldridge formation occupies the a x i a l p o r t i o n of the a n t i c l i n e , and c o n s i s t s of dark grey, a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s i n beds up to 1 foot i n t h i c k n e s s , and dark grey, s i l i c e o u s a r g i l l i t e s g e n e r a l l y not exceeding 2 inches i n thickness*, The weathering colour of these rocks i s a dark rus t y brown® On the eastern side of the l a k e , i n the v i c i n i t y of Moyie, the rocks s t r i k e east and west with a d i p of 30 degrees to the north and are close to the a x i s of the a n t i c l i n e , while proceeding eastward up the h i l l t o -wards the Society G i r l the formation gradually changes i t s s t r i k e to a northwest-southeast s t r i k e with a dip of 25 de-grees to the northeast• The a x i a l p o r t i o n of the a n t i c l i n e i s occupied by the Creston a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s which are w e l l exposed on each side of the Upper Moyie Lake. Fissure System A l l the ore deposits i n the Moyie area are connected wi t h two main p a r a l l e l f i s s u r e s s t r i k i n g a l i t t l e north of west and dipping on an average 70 degrees to the south. They cross the a x i s of the a n t i c l i n e composed of the Aldridge -136-formation. These two f i s s u r e s occur on both the east and west side of the lake and i t i s probable that they occur i n the rock»*formation under the l a k e . The w a l l s bounding the f i s s u r e show very l i t t l e evidence o f r e l a t i v e displacement, the greatest movement observed being 18 inches; however, i n such a homogeneous se r i e s of q u a r t z i t e s the d e t e c t i o n of such a movement might be impossible®. St. Eugene Mine l o c a t i o n The St. Eugene Mine i s owned by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, and the property i s s i t u a t e d on the east side of Moyie lake near Moyie, B.C. H i s t o r y This property was f i r s t discovered by an Indian who l i v e d at the S t . Eugene M i s s i o n . On the advent of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, John Finch of,Spokane, Washington, purchased the holdings f o r $12,000 and t h i s money was used i n b u i l d i n g the bea u t i -f u l ohurch howstOiibetseem at..tHegSt* Eugene Mission.-The development of the St* Eugene Mine now pro-gressed r a p i d l y under the management of Mr. Croxin. l a t e r , the Moyie and the lake Shore group of claims, which 1 i e between the St. Eugene and Moyie Lake, were purchased and the S t . Eugene Consolidated Mining Company formed. In T905, the p r o p e r t i e s of t h i s company were taken over by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, Steady production continued t i l l 1914, and since that time only i r r e g u l a r shipments of ore were made. Production The t o t a l production of the St. Eugene Mine,since i t s discovery,has been about 1 , 0 1 7 » 1 0 6 tons of ore containing 5 , 3 6 p s 2 3 2 ounces of s i l v e r and 2 2 9 , 3 0 5 , 7 2 1 pounds of l e a d , having a given value of $ 7 0 , 6 2 6 , 6 0 8 . Character of Ore-bodies The ore bodies are replacement deposits i n the heavy bedded purer q u a r t z i t e s , and are r e s t r i c t e d to the f r a c t u r e d area between the two main f i s s u r e s . Where the f i s s u r e s cross the more a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s , the veins are narrow and u s u a l l y f i l l e d w i t h quartz containing small q u a n t i t i e s of sulphides. The ore c o n s i s t s mainly of coarse-grained galena w i t h subordinate amounts of zinc-blende, p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , magnetite, and a l i t t l e c h a l c o p y r i t e . I t i s also reported that the sulphides p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e and zinc-blende were s l i g h t l y more abundant near the periphery of the ore-bodies and that zinc-blende showed no increase w i t h depth. The -128-gangue, which i s small i n amount, c o n s i s t s of pink garnet, a c t i n o l i t e , quartz and some c a l c i t e . The garnet, a c t i n o l i t e and quartz are more abundant i n the t r a n s i t i o n zone of the • ore and country rock, and at times the f i s s u r e d q u a r t z i t e s near the v e i n are h e a v i l y charged w i t h these minerals. In some cases the q u a r t z i t e s show evidence of s i l i c i f i c a t i o n , although no true c h e r t , as found i n the S u l l i v a n d e p o s it, was i d e n t i f i e d i n the St. Eugene. In the ground above the l e v e l of Moyie Lake, the veins are. mined by a s e r i e s of a d i t s driven along the main v e i n s . The ore from the higher l e v e l s i s transported by an a e r i a l tramway to the ore b i n s . Below the l e v e l of the lake a ^-compartment shaft has been sunk to a depth of 800 f e e t . Gold P y r i t e Type D i s t r i b u t i o n These deposits occur i n a l l the formations from the Aldridge to the Dutch Greek. They are not worked at the present time except i n one case,that being on A l k i Greek. Geology These deposits occur disseminated i n the more schistose rocks. They are found u s u a l l y i n d e f i n i t e shear and f a u l t zones and near i n t r u s i v e v e i n dykes. The schistose rocks are c h l o r i t e and quartz mica s c h i s t s . - 1 3 9 -Character of Deposits These deposits occur as replacements i n the schistose q u a r t z i t e s . Their s i z e v a r i e s , and i n the v i c i n i t y ' of shear and f a u l t zones i s r e s t r i c t e d to the width of the zone. Mineralogy Native Elements Gold Au: Gold occurs free i n the Dewar Shear zone, and i s also associated w i t h the p y r i t e . Sulphides P j r i t e FeSgt Sulphide of i r o n occurs widely d i s t r i b u t e d throughout these d e p o s i t s . Gangue The gangue u s u a l l y occurs as e h l o r i t i c and quartz mica s c h i s t . Considerable q u a n t i t i e s of c a l c i te -were noted at the Dewar shear zone. -140 D e t a i l e d D e s c r i p t i o n of P r o p e r t i e s .Gogle Greek Property This property i s located 3 miles up Gogle Creek from i t s confluence w i t h the west fork of the St. Mary R i v e r . The e l e v a t i o n of the property i s about 4 ,500 f e e t . The t r a i l of the west fork-Crawford Creek branches at Gogle Creek, one branch going over Cogle Pass and the other over Rose Pass, This t r a i l over Cogle Pass f o l l o w s Cogle creek past t h i s property. Here the creek flows through a box canyon 30 feet deep and 15 feet wide, exposing a mi n e r a l i z e d v e i n and r e -placement of the sediments by p y r i t e . The v e i n i s worked by an open cut. The m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n the country rock was traced t h i r t y feet from the v e i n . Under the microscope a specimen showed that the p y r i t e was formed by r e p l a c i n g the sediments. A f t e r r e p l a c i n g the sediments, the rock was deformed by some shearing s t r e s s . This produced f r a c t u r e s i n the b r i t t l e p y r i t e . These f r a c t u r e s provided access f o r the easy flowage of the a r g i l l a c e o u s m a t e r i a l which occupied and replaced the p y r i t e i n these f r a c t u r e s . The sediment i t s e l f took the form o f gneiss. The gold is. not v i s i b l e , but t h i s deposit i s s a i d to assay §4 a ton i n gold. X<So -141-Dewar Shear Zone This property i s located J>00 feet south of the Mystery Mine. I t i s owned by J . Dewar of Fort S t e e l e . The workings c o n s i s t of two open cuts i n sheared d i o r i t e . The m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n penetrated the sheared d i o r i t e along the planes of s c h i s t o s i t y . This i s seen by the q u a r t z - c a l c i t veins which pinch and s w e l l along these planes. The p y r i t e occurs i n the c a l c i t e and also i n the s c h i s t . The form i s the cube and v a r i e s i n s i z e from a f r a c t i o n of an inch to about three-eighths of an i n c h . Free gold was found i n t h i s deposit only i n small disseminated fragments. The average value o f the ore i s $4 a ton i n gold. Genesis These deposits are r e l a t e d to the g r a n i t i c i n -t r u s i o n s as explained f o r the Gogle v e i n under the Gold-Quartz type. However, the s o l u t i o n s i n which they were con-tained must have been t h i n as compared w i t h the pasty v e i n type. I f the pasty type had been present, a quartz v e i n would have been formed, as t h i s type of s o l u t i o n would have been able to force i t s way along the planes of the s c h i s t . That the s o l u t i o n s were t h i n i s seen from the f a c t that no v e i n i s formed, and the s o l u t i o n s probably l o s t themselves i n the s c h i s t . Subsequent shearing and metamorphism would o b l i t e r a t e a l l t r a c e s of t h i s quartz i f i t d i d form i n such small v e i n s . -142-2. Placer.Deposits P l a c e r deposits have been an important source of .gold i n East Kootenay d i s t r i c t , hut during the l a s t few years the only a c t i v i t y has been on Werner, Moyie., Palmer Bar and Perry creeks. In l 8?4 the output of the d i s t r i c t was | 5 0 , 0 0 0 , and j.n 1912 was $ 2 , 0 0 0 . In 1936, the value of the p l a c e r output was l e s s than that i n 1912, D e t a i l e d D e s c r i p t i o n of P r o p e r t i e s Perry Creek Hydraulic Mining Company Property In 1903 t h i s company s t a r t e d operations on a l a r g e scale to h y d r a u l i c a high bank over which Perry Creek f a l l s to a depth of 400 f e e t , A tunnel was d r i v e n i n the bank from 1,200 to 2 ,000 feet to tap the o l d creek bottom. However, t h i s was d i s a p p o i n t i n g as i t was f0und that bedrock d i d not cnntain the g o l d , but that i t was concentrated on a f a l s e c l a y bedrock i n the g l a c i a l d r i f t . This necessitated the h y d r a u l i c i n g of the whole bank i n order to work the several pay streaks. This work was c a r r i e d on u n t i l 1914 when only §1,000 was c r e d i t e d to t h i s operation. Since that year i n d i v i d u a l miners have worked the ground,averaging f a i r wages. -143" The East Kootenay P l a c e r Mining Company This company, operated a-property about Ah miles abovfe the f a l l s , and used a steam shovel f o r l i f t i n g the g r a v e l into the s l u i c e boxes. The stream here has a grade of • 2 per cent, and at a depth from 3 to 10 feet there occurs a " f a l s e bedrock" c o n s i s t i n g of sandy c l a y , on and above which gold i n considerable q u a n t i t i e s has been found. Numerous shafts were sunk to bedrock, and are reported to have y i e l d e d f a i r to good remuneration i n gold values. The dipper of the shovel was found to be too short, due to f l a t t e n i n g of the bedrock, and operations had to cease. I n d i v i d u a l p l a c e r miners were working t h i s property i n 1936. H e l l - R o a r i n g Creek On a southeasterly flowing t r i b u t a r y , 8 miles up H e l l - R o a r i n g C reek from i t s confluence w i t h the St. Mary R i v e r , i s a placer working. The gravel c o n s i s t s of the ordinary stream type interspersed with l a r g e g l a c i a l boulders. The s l u i c e derives i t s water from a point f u r t h e r up, the creek. P o s s i b i l i t i e s of the St.. Mary T e r t i a r y Gravels In three l o c a l i t i e s between W y c l i f f e and Kootenay R i v e r , St. Mary Ri v e r has exposed unconsolidated sediments which have been determined on f o s s i l evidence to be T e r t i a r y (Miocene) i n age. At two of these l o c a l i t i e s gravels are missing. The t h i r d i s l o c a t e d on the north end of a sharp -144-angle i n the r i v e r 2 miles i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e below W y o l i f f e . At the base o f t h i s exposure, at r i v e r l e v e l , l i e s a small patch of rusty gravels® The gravies-are composed of well-rounded pebbles up to 6 inches i n diameter, many of which are s u f f i c i e n t l y decomposed to be crushed between the f i n g e r s . Interbedded w i t h these g r a v e l s are sandy beds i n which are fragments o f wood almost completely changed to 1 i g n i t e . I t i s b e l i e v e d , f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons, that there i s some p o s s i b i l i t y of commercial q u a n t i t i e s of gold at some point i n these g r a v e l s : ( i ) The immediate source of the bulk of the gold i n the pla c e r s elsewhere i n the d i s t r i c t must have been p r e - e x i s t i n g T e r t i a r y p l a c e r s . ( i i ) These gravels are d e f i n i t e l y o f T e r t i a r y age. ( i i i ) Small q u a n t i t i e s of f i n e gold may be panned from the gravels at the place where they are exposed. However, i t i s not c e r t a i n that a l l T e r t i a r y streams deposited p l a c e r s and nothing i s known of the shape or l o c a t i o n of the o l d channel. I t , however, seems to warrant prospecting® 145-Moyie R i v e r Consolidated. Mining and Smelting Company This s e c t i o n has been the scene of renewed vigour i n placer mining i n 1956c The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada operated a steam-shovel near the mouth of Palmer B a r Greeks Seven men were employed i n t h i s operation. The gr a v e l i s scooped up from the creek bed and emptied i n t o a s l u i c e box and the gold i s caught by r i f f l e s and a l s o by means of mercury pits<> This work proved a success t h i s year, and f u r t h e r work i s planned f o r the coming season. I n d i v i d u a l Operations At Camp Number 5 of the lumberton lumber Company a p l a c e r pr ojeet was i n operation. Here the miner had the Mohie Ri v e r dammed up and h i s s l u i c e box of the "Long Tom" type was placed on the creek bottom. The r i v e r at t h i s point cut through g l a c i a l t i l l and the g o l d i s concentrated on f a l s e bedrock. Considerable d i f f i c u l t y was encountered i n t r y i n g to remove the la r g e g l a c i a l boulders -which are sometimes 5 feet i n diameter. The gold he re was o f the coarse v a r i e t y , and wages not lower than |4 a day were achieved. -146-We safer Creek This property i s l o c a t e d 3 miles up Severer Creek from i t s confluence with the Moyie R i v e r . The property i s owned by S.A. Hogals of Cranbrook. A lar g e "boomer" dam i s constructed across the ereek, and the bedrock i s washed int o s l u i c e boxes. At t h i s property $400 worth of nuggets the s i z e of small gravels have been recovered. They con-s i s t of yellow gold mixed w i t h small amounts of v e i n quartz. 3« L i g n i t e L i g n i t i z e d wood occurs i n the T e r t i a r y grave Is of Miocene age near W y c l i f f e . The pieces of l i g n i t e are scattered and do not consititufe a workable deposit. 4. B u i l d i n g Stones :, B u i l d i n g stones have not received much a t t e n t i o n i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . However, t h i s i s not due to a s c a r c i t y of them, but to the high cost of t r a n s p o r t i n g the rocks i n t h i s almost i n a c c e s s i b l e area. The b e a u t i f u l green and purple mottled Creston q u a r t z i t e i n foot beds would be an excellent b u i l d i n g stone. There are numerous g r a n i t e s which could be te s t e d . The only rocks which have received any a t t e n t i o n are the d i f f e r e n t i a t e s of the P u r c e l l s i l l s . -147-Hutohcroft Granite Quarry Shis quarry i s owned by a small syndicate of Cranbrook men headed by J.F. Hutchcroft, who opened up a quarry which adjoins the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway 3"fr miles southwest of Cranbrook* The rocks here are part of a con-si d e r a b l e area of P u r c e l l s i l l s which vary from a hypersthene gabbro to a very a c i d g r a n i t e or granophyre w i t h intermediate members between these two extreme types. Of the various grades o f g r a n i t i c rock present i n the deposit, the greenish black v a r i e t y which takes a f i n e p o l i s h i s reported to be the most i n demand*. The gran i t e shipped i s reported to have been h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r monumental work and f o r b u i l d i n g purposes. This property i s only i n the experimental stage. 5« Magnesite Deposits Magnesite deposits were f i r s t discovered i n t h i s area i n 1934 by Rice of the Geological Survey. These de-p o s i t s occur on the western ridge of Perry Greek near Old Town. The claims are now a l l h e l d by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada. These claims have not had much work done on them. At the Hell-Roaring-Moyie River d i v i d e occurs another deposit of magnesite. Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada have constructed a t r a i l from the Perry Greek wagon road over the Perry Creek-Hell-Roaring -148-Creek d i v i d e . t o the property. Several tons of the magnesite have been ex t r a c t e d , but as t h i s deposit i s considerably smaller than the Perry Greek one, i t has been abandoned. This deposit occurs i n a monoclinal s y n c l i n e interbedded with the Cranbrook massive q u a r t z i t e s . The mineral i s very coarse-l y c r y s t a l l i n e , brown i n colour, hardness of about 4, and a s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y s l i g h t l y heavier than a dolomite rock. O r i g i n The o r i g i n o f these magnesite deposits i s not known. However, they are of a sedimentary o r i g i n , and probably were deposited as c o l l o i d a l magnesite. Upon the metamorphism to which t h i s region was subjected the magnesite became coarsely c r y s t a l l i n e . Since the deposit i s covered by impervious a r g i l l i t e s , i t does not seem possible that the deposit would be due to the a c t i o n of magnesium-bearing waters on ca 1 c i t e . -149-CHAPTER V I I I THE FUTURE OF THE DISTRICT The future of mining i n t h i s area depends p r i n c i -p a l l y on development i n the lode d e p o s i t s . Of these, the lead-zinc deposits are the most important, and-it i s possible that some of the now developing prospects w i l l become produ-cing mines i n the f u t u r e . C a r e f u l prospecting i n the P u r c e l l s i l l s may d i s c l o s e l a r g e , low grade copper d e p o s i t s . Facts regarding t h i s area may be summarized as f o l l o w s : > ' • ( i ) This area i s u n d e r l a i n by a basement of g r a n i t i c or r e l a t e d r o c k s . ( i i ) The a b i l i t y of the formations to s u s t a i n l a r g e , uniform f r a c t u r e s f o r great d i s t a n c e s . ( i i i ) The s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of c e r t a i n of the formations, es-p e c i a l l y the Aldridge formation, to replacement by m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s . ( i v ) . That every w e l l defined f a u l t and shear zone i n t h i s area contains some type- of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . (v) That a l l the deposits of the w e l l known mines and pros-pects (except the P u r c e l l m i n e r a l i z a t i o n ) are on or •150-r e l a t e d to w e l l defined shear zones. They occur a s . f i s s u i veins or replacement de p o s i t s . ( v i ) "That the J u r a s s i c i n t r u s i v e s are younger than the f o l d i n g and f a u l t i n g to which the d i s t r i c t was subject. ( v i i ) The northern contact of the g r a n i t i c mass has y i e l d e d some very I n t e r e s t i n g l e a d - z i n c - s i l v e r d eposits. Prom these f a c t s the f o l l o w i n g conclusions are drawn as regards prospecting In t h i s d i s t r i c t . (I) A l l f a u l t and w e l l defined shear zones should be care-f u l l y g e o l o g i c a l l y mapped, ( i l ) Prospecting should be confined to work along these . w e l l defined f a u l t zones, or i n t h e i r near v i c i n i t y . ( i i i ) Mining at some depth may d i s c l o s e an e a s i l y replaceable bed where replacement of the sediments may produce a workable deposit. (E.G. S u l l i v a n and St. Eugene mines.) ( i v ) Because of the a b i l i t y to s u s t a i n f r a c t u r e s f o r long distances and the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of t h i s formation to replacement the Aldridge formation should be given c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . (v) The contacts of the g r a n i t i c stocks should be c a r e f u l l y prospected as m i n e r a l i z a t i o n was noted near them. ( v i ) Poor t r a v e l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s are a hindrance to work In t h i s area. Travel i s e i t h e r confined to creek bottoms or extremely high and p r e c i p i t o u s r i d g e s . -151-P u r c e l l M i n e r a l i z a t i o n Facts ( i ) From the nature of the d i f f e r e n t i a t e ore-bodies, i t i s evident that they are l i m i t e d to the s i l l s * ( i i ) The present development has not shown any of these de-p o s i t s to ca r r y s u f f i c i e n t copper to c o n s t i t u t e even low-grade ore. ( i i i ) The veins are confined to the s i l l s . ( i v ) Their depth i s l i m i t e d to the thickness of the s i l l . (v) The length of the v e i n i s l i m i t e d by the l a t e r a l extent of the s i l l . Conclusions ( i ) The deposits are very l i m i t e d . ( i i ) They are mainly of geologic or s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t , ( i i i ) Further work may d i s c l o s e large low grade.bodies, but up to the present t h i s has not been the case. P l a c e r Mining The future of the placer mining i n d u s t r y i n t h i s area does not look very b r i g h t . The only, way i t can be pro-f i t a b l y worked i s by i n d i v i d u a l s f o r no w e l l defined pay stakes seem to occur i n the de p o s i t s , thus e l i m i n a t i n g large-scale workings. The T e r t i a r y gravels may present some i n -t e r e s t i n g features when f u r t h e r work i s done on them. -152» B u i l d i n g Stones U n t i l t h i s area Is opened up, the b u i l d i n g stone i n d u s t r y cannot p o s s i b l y progress because of high t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n c o s t s . Goal The small amount of l i g n l t i z e d wood i n the T e r t i a r y gravels i s of no economic value. Lumbering This i n d u s t r y i s concentrated In the area around the t f f i of Yahk and has opened up quite an area. However, i n the c e n t r a l and northern p o r t i o n there i s no logging c a r r i e d on at a l l because of poor t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . A g r i c u l t u r e On account of the e a r l y f r o s t s i n t h i s area, a g r i -c u l t u r e i s not a p r o f i t a b l e e n t e r p r i s e . ' . Summing up the assets of t h i s area, only one con-c l u s i o n can be drawn and that Is that mining and only mining w i l l open up t h i s now I d l e d i s t r i c t . BIBLIOGRAPHY Bauermann, H. Geol. Surv. Can., Rept. of Progress, 1882, Pt. B Daly, R.A. Geol. S u r v . Can., Annual Rept. 1904, p. 91A '» " " Memoir 3&\ 1913, p. 119 Dawson, G.M. Geol. Surv. Can., Ann. Rept., V o l . 1 , 1885, Pt.A Drysdale, C.W. Geol. Surv. Can., Memoir 3 6 , pp. 61-62 Du To i t , A lex. Geology of South A f r i c a Howe, E. Economic Geology 10, 1915, pp. 330^347 Lindgren, W. 22nd Annual Rept., U.S.G.S. P t . 2 , 1901 , pp. 551-766 Ore Deposits, Revised E d i t i o n 17th Annual Rept. U.S.G.S. P t . 2 pp. 67-70 McEvoy, Jas. Geol. Surv, Can., Ann. Rept. 1904, Pt« A Ric e , H.M.A. Geol. Surv. Can., Memoir 1935 S c h o f i e l d , S.J. Geol c Surv. Can., Memoir 7 6 , 1915, p. 95 " " . " Memoir 7 6 , 1915, p. 57 " " " Museum B u l l e t i n Ho. 2, p . l 11 «« " « » Ho. 3 5 , 1915, . p. 12 Economic Geo 1., V o l . 7, P« 3 5 1 , 1912. : Vogt, J.H. Die S u l f i d - S i l i k a t s c h m e l z l o s u g e n , K r i s t i a n a . Wagener, Percy Platinum and A l l i e d Deposits of South A f r i c a 1933 Walcott, C D. Smithsonian C o l l e c t i o n , V o l . 5 3 . 1910 » » V o l . 67 »» n V o l , 75 " » V o l . 85 Walker, J.F. Geol, Surv. Can, Summ. Rept. 1928, Pt.A p. 1 2 7 A tt it 11 n ir 1928 , Pt.A p. 124A n it 11 " " 1928, Pt.A p. 121A i» n '« •» Memoir 148, 1926, p. 12 " p. 13 p. 7 p- ° Wanjukoff, Metall u r g y , 1912, pp. 1-48 Soaoo' 6uoo 'QEND o r •-"i,<'JVV.i .- 1 '•"'I' UPpfft /fa*s0.-/6,e /crOfr,-ia-6'on 5 I <3 % I I ct v. £>c,r^/i c«-«fA <*&•»>./*•» ft'or, \ U o I C^as ;Y>u„ O 4 ret- wt) Size// y \.6mmp//;fV/?:/.;! y/y<A/r'/<'//^vy ' ' 1 - * - < — ' - — ' - — - — : — i — • — / , / . ' , / / , , i /':•:.}!; /• i ^y/?ac/cjpe 5£c77ons Sooo ' 6ooo (Uooa ' ^y^:::^-;;.<//,';/;• I /••;; '. . \0 ?:;!;:; <//////, idtt'PZ'i:: V»-y f m ^ ^ j r - ' - r - w , , • / . ' . ' t LLyyyyyy/i1i//////< / M f r ? > s & $ : —— ; £- 1 I I I < I II I: • I ,/<V i/ • v- v s * K, „ (/ ^ 5 

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