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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Silver-lead relationships in British Columbia Little, Heward Wallace 1940

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L&b ft ? .  ir^fo  Fly . i~ < s i,"  SILVER.- LEAD RELATIONSHIPS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  fey HEWARD ¥. LITTLE  A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f The Requirements f o r /the Degree o f MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE i n the Department of GEOLOGY  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1940  - CONTENTS Page Introduction  !•  Preparation of the M a t e r i a l  ....  Assay Methods SU-l"t S  94  3. 4.  e o « o « is « • « e » 0 e » « o « e 0 •  7 ©  10 *  C one I n s 3- ons Acknowledgments  11*  Calculations Galena H i l l D i s t r i c t Y. T. miss.  ««••«••••  12 o 1 3  S i l v e r King Galena H i l l Cariboo  ...............  •  13*  District  C a r i b o o G o l d Quartz  14.  I s l a n d Mountain  14.  Sloean D i s t r i c t Corinth  .......«••••»•••••  15.  Mammoth, No. 4  15*  Mammoth, No. 1  16.  Whitewater Sloe an S t a r  .....  16. 1.7.  Portland Canal D i s t r i c t 17.  Page Hudson Bay Mountain D i s t r i c t S i l v s r Lsk© ••©•••••••••©•  17*  Greenwood D i s t r i c t D©Tl"tOTH9- «©*»©©©»©«••©«>»••  18«  Merritt District  Nelson D i s t r i c t SXIVQT* L©Q.f  Kootenay  • •••••••©•••©©;  19©  District  S u l l i von ••©«••••••©•••••• .Add6x1 clu,in ••••«•••••©©••»•••»©••  19• 20©  SILVER - LEAD. RELATIONSHIPS  IN  BRITISH".. COLUMBIA  Introduction; P r i o r t o 1915, l i t t l e had been p u b l i s h e d upon the manner of occurrence o f s i l v e r i n a r g e n t i f e r o u s g a l e n a .  In  t h i s y e a r , A. E. N i s s o n and S. L. Hoyt^ p u b l i s h e d the r e s u l t s of t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d . synthetic  Commencing w i t h  d r y m e l t s composed o f m i x t u r e s of g a l e n a and  a r g e n t i t e , these workers compared i n c l u s i o n s found i n etched n a t u r a l g a l e n a w i t h those which t h e y found i n t h e i r material.  synthetic  I n g a l e n a s which c o n t a i n e d l e s s than 0.2 per cent  o f A g S , no i n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be found. 2  From t h i s f a c t they  concluded t h a t t h i s f i g u r e marks the l i m i t o f s o l i d s o l u t i o n o f AggS i n PbS. Two  years l a t e r , a v e r y widespread i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  s i l v e r ores was c a r r i e d out by F. N. G u i l d  who by e t c h i n g  found i n c l u s i o n s i n a l l galenas which c o n t a i n e d more than p e r cent of s i l v e r .  0.1  These s p o t s were i d e n t i f i e d as  argentiferous tetrahedrite, argentite, pyrargyrite, and o t h e r l e s s common s i l v e r m i n e r a l s .  proustite,  Of a l l t h e s e ,  t e t r a h e d r i t e was by f a r the most widespread and abundant. H. V. Warren , i n h i s work on t h e Combination  and  Groundhog mines, has s i n c e reduced the l i m i t i n g c o n t e n t o f s i l v e r i n g a l e n a t o 0.09  per c e n t , and suggests t h a t t h i s  f i g u r e p r o b a b l y w i l l be lowered when more p r e c i s e work i s done. •^Nisson and Hoyt, "On the Occurrence o f S i l v e r i n A r g e n t i f e r o u s G a l e n a Ores," Econ. G e o l . , V o l . 1 0 , p.172, 1915. ^ G u i l d , "A M i c r o s c o p i c Study o f the S i l v e r Ores and t h e i r A s s o c i a t e d M i n e r a l s , " Econ. G e o l . , V o l . 1 2 , p.304, 1917. ^Warren, " D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S i l v e r i n Base-Metal Ores," Trans. A. I . M. E., V o l . 115, p.87, 1935.  In B r i t i s h Columbia, r e f e r e n c e t o s i l v e r m i n e r a l s 4  i n g a l e n a i s made by A. M. Bateman who s t a t e s : "The h i g h s i l v e r c o n t e n t o f these (Slocan) ores may be accounted f o r by the abundant presence  o f minute specks o f s i l v e r - b e a r i n g  m i n e r a l s ( i n galena) t h a t can o n l y be seen under t h e microscope." W. D. B u r t o n ^ , r e f e r r i n g t o Premier o r e , l i k e w i s e observes: "Galena, a f t e r c a r e f u l m i c r o s c o p i c s e a r c h , w i l l p r a c t i c a l l y always show a few s c a t t e r e d b l e b s o f i n c l u d e d t e t r a h e d r i t e , as w e l l as an o c c a s i o n a l b l e b o f e l e c t r u m , both these m i n e r a l s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d as b e l o n g i n g t o the same g e n e r a l p e r i o d o f m i n e r a l f o r m a t i o n as g a l e n a . i n c l u d e d g r a i n s d o u b t l e s s account  These  f o r t h e g o l d and s i l v e r  v a l u e s c a r r i e d by t h e base-metal s u l p h i d e o r e . " Many a d d i t i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f a l i k e n a t u r e have been made i n u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s by graduates graduates  and under-  o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  Reference  to these o b s e r v a t i o n s w i l l be made by t h e w r i t e r i n t h e d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f each o r e . ^Bateman, "Notes on S i l v e r - L e a d D e p o s i t s o f the S l o c a n , " Econ. G e o l . , V o l . 20, p.554, 1925. ^ B u r t o n , "Ore D e p o s i t i o n a t Premier Mine, B. C.," Econ. G e o l . , V o l . 21, p.590, 1926.  -3P r e p a r a t i o n of the M a t e r i a l ; The methods employed, suggested by Dr. H. V. Warren, who  a l s o p r o v i d e d the m a t e r i a l , w i l l be b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d  here. Samples o f "cube" g a l e n a were c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d and broken, and c l e a n g a l e n a cubes hand-picked w i t h f o r c e p s under b i n o c u l a r s .  These p r o d u c t s were re-examined under the  U l t r o p a k and the impure ones r e j e c t e d . A f t e r b e i n g crushed by means o f a m o r t a r and p e s t l e , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples of the c l e a n galenas were mounted i n r e d b a k e l i t e w i t h the a i d of an h y d r a u l i c p r e s s , and p o l i s h e d by hand.  Assays f o r s i l v e r , copper, a r s e n i c and  antimony  were run w i t h the remainders o f the g a l e n a powders. Some of the impure powders were separated i n t o  two  p a r t s , a c c o r d i n g t o s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y , on the H a u l t a i n superpanner.  The h e a v i e r p r o d u c t s i n each case appeared to  c o n s i s t o f c o m p a r a t i v e l y pure g a l e n a , w h i l e the  lighter  p r o d u c t s c o n s i s t e d of v a r y i n g amounts o f s p h a l e r i t e , q u a r t z , and o t h e r r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t m i n e r a l s .  Each product  was  assayed f o r s i l v e r , but i n o n l y one case, namely i n t h a t o f the Yankee G i r l , was  t h e r e s u f f i c i e n t o f the product t o mount,  p o l i s h , and examine under the microscope.  Assay Methods; A l l a s s a y i n g was c a r r i e d o u t by the w r i t e r . M o d i f i e d s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s , as suggested by Mr, F. A. Forward, were used.  R e s u l t s were r e c o r d e d t o one hundredth  of one p e r c e n t , the accuracy b e i n g somewhat g r e a t e r .  The  presence o f l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f l e a d n e c e s s i t a t e s g r e a t care i n f i l t e r i n g a f t e r the f i r s t p r e c i p i t a t i o n . are  Other  elements  u s u a l l y so l i m i t e d i n q u a n t i t y t h a t they do n o t i n t e r f e r e  with analyses. Silver; Weigh out Oil assay t o n o f g a l e n a and run by t h e excess l i t h a r g e method. Copperi Antimony and A r s e n i c ; Weigh out 5 grams o f g a l e n a i n t o a f l a s k .  Add 10  grams o f NagSO^ 20 c c . o f HgS04 and o n e - e i g h t h o f a f i l t e r paper or a c r y s t a l o f t a r t a r i c a c i d .  Fuse on a h o t p l a t e  u n t i l t h e l i q u i d i s no l o n g e r brown.  Cool.  water and d i g e s t f o r h a l f an hour.  Add 150 c c . o f  F i l t e r i n t o a beaker and  wash t h e PbS04 ppte. t h o r o u g h l y w i t h h o t 10% HgS04.  Reject  t h e ppte. Filtrate;  Make j u s t b a s i c w i t h NaOH, adding a  l i t t l e excess h y d r o x i d e .  Add f i v e t o t e n drops o f NagSx u n t i l  the l i q u i d i s golden y e l l o w i n c o l o r . f o r two hours.  F i l t e r i n t o a beaker through a f i l t e r  moistened w i t h 2% NaOH. 5% NaOH. ''.  D i g e s t on a low p l a t e paper  Wash the ppte. s e v e r a l times w i t h h o t  Ppjbe:  ( f o r Cu) D i s s o l v e from the f i l t e r paper w i t h  h o t 1 : 1 HNOg and bromine water. Evaporate  Add 5 c c . o f 1 : 1 H 2 S O 4 .  t o moist dryness, and c o o l .  Add 10 - 15 c c . o f  water, and n e u t r a l i z e w i t h 5 - 1 0 grams o f NaAc, necessary t o d e c o l o r i z e the FeAc . 2  under t h e t a p .  Add NaF i f  Add 2 c c . o f HAc, and c o o l  Add 2 grams, o f K I and 5 c c . o f s t a r c h s o l u t i o n .  T i t r a t e w i t h 1 / 1 0 0 N. E"a2S 03 u n t i l t h e blue c o l o r i s 2  completely discharged. Filtrate:  ( f o r Sb and As) Make j u s t a c i d w i t h H C 1 ,  adding 2 - 3 c c . i n excess.  Warm, and pass i n H^S u n t i l t h e  supernatent l i q u i d i s c l e a r .  F i l t e r through paper  by a p l a t i n u m cone, and wash w e l l w i t h h o t water. filtrate.  supported R e j e c t the  P l a c e the o r i g i n a l beaker under t h e f u n n e l and wash  the ppte. w i t h h o t 3 : 1 (75%) H C 1 , u s i n g about 50 t o 75 c c . Filtrate:  ( f o r Sb)  Add a c r y s t a l o f t a r t a r i c  and b o i l f o r 15 - 2 0 minutes t o remove HgS.  acid  Bulk to 100 c c .  w i t h c o l d water and make j u s t ammoniacal, adding t h e NH^OH carefully. tap.  Make j u s t a c i d w i t h H C 1 , and c o o l w e l l under the  B u l k t o 300 c c . w i t h c o l d water and make a l k a l i n e w i t h  NaHC0 . 3  (Add t h e b i c a r b o n a t e v e r y s l o w l y u n t i l a c t i o n s t o p s  and some i s l e f t u n d i s s o l v e d . )  Add s t a r c h s o l u t i o n and  t i t r a t e w i t h 1 / 1 0 0 N. i o d i n e s o l u t i o n . Ppte: ( f o r As) Remove t h e - p l a t i n u m cone and wash the ppte. i n t o a f l a s k w i t h h o t 10% NaOH. Na S04, 1 0 c c . o f H g S 0 2  4  Add 1 0 grams o f  and one-eighth o f a f i l t e r paper.  Fuse on a h o t p l a t e u n t i l t h e l i q u i d i s c l e a r . 1 0 0 c c . o f water.  Pass i n H S f o r 5 minutes. 2  C o o l , and add I f arsenic i s  p r e s e n t i t w i l l be p r e c i p i t a t e d . F i l t e r , wash t h e ppte. i n t o a f l a s k and f u s e , as above.  C o o l and d i l u t e t o 50 c c . B o i l t o remove SOg.  Add  50 c c . o f c o l d water and c o o l under t h e t a p . Make j u s t a l k a l i n e w i t h NaOH, and j u s t a c i d w i t h HC1. b a s i c w i t h NaHCOs. solution.  Cool w e l l .  Make  Add 2 grams o f KI and 5 c c . o f s t a r c h  T i t r a t e w i t h 1/100 N. i o d i n e  solution.  -7-  Resuits; . . The p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s were now examined under the r e f l e c t i n g microscope; s m a l l amounts o f q u a r t z , s p h a l e r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and t e t r a h e d r i t e b e i n g r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d .  Due t o  the g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the p a r t i c l e s , a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e s o f the q u a n t i t i e s o f the l a s t two m i n e r a l s c o u l d n o t be made.  Wherever p o s s i b l e , however, rough e s t i m -  ates o f the p r o p o r t i o n s o f one t o the o t h e r were noted,, The p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s were immersed i n i r i d e s c e n t f i l m i n g s o l u t i o n w i t h a view t o i d e n t i f y i n g s i l v e r m i n e r a l s . H i g h i n t e r f e r e n c e c o l o r s produced i n t h e g a l e n a u n f o r t u n a t e l y obscured those produced i n o t h e r m i n e r a l s . E t c h i n g o f t h e g a l e n a w i t h 1;1 n i t r i c a c i d , o r w i t h f e r r i c c h l o r i d e s o l u t i o n r e v e a l e d t h e presence o f minute i n c l u s i o n s o f m i n e r a l s w i t h i n t h e galena, c r y s t a l s . ed and e l o n g a t e d spots were v i s i b l e .  The l a t t e r , which as a  r u l e are more numerous, f o l l o w t h e cleavage ing a "grid" structure.  B o t h round-  f r a c t u r e s , produc-  More r a r e l y , l a r g e r masses, which ex-  h i b i t a c r o s s - c u t t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , are seen.  I n g e n e r a l , the  i n c l u s i o n s are n o t u n i f o r m l y d i s t r i b u t e d throughout t h e galena, but are more numerous i n one p a r t o f t h e s e c t i o n t h a n i n another. The s i l v e r - b e a r i n g m i n e r a l s , which are too s m a l l t o be i d e n t i f i e d by m i c r o c h e m i c a l  methods, were determined by c o l o r ,  a n i s o t r o p i s m , e t c h t e s t s , and o t h e r s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s , as shown i n t h e t a b l e i n t h e appendix.  T h i s t a b l e was p a t t e r n e d  after  -8one by C/ M. Farnham^, and was expanded and m o d i f i e d t o i n 7  elude e t c h r e a c t i o n s o u t l i n e d by M. N. S h o r t .  Some o f these  r e a c t i o n s were c o n f i r m e d by t h e w r i t e r upon known m i n e r a l specimens which Dr. Warren k i n d l y s u p p l i e d .  Because no  a r s e n i c was found i n any o f t h e ores? m i n e r a l s c o n t a i n i n g t h i s element were removed from t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a b l e . By a p p l y i n g t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s e s t o t h e minerals,determined,. the w r i t e r attempted t o account f o r t h e s i l v e r content o f the galenas.  These c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e g i v e n  w i t h t h e d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f each ore. The r e s u l t s a r e t a b u l a t e d below i n descending value o f the galenas: Mine Elsa C a r i b o o G o l d Quartz S i l v e r King Galena H i l l C o r i n t h •'.".'"." I s l a n d Mountain Mammoth, No* 4 S i l v e r Lake Whitewater Sloean S t a r Mammoth, No. 1 Duthie Premier N i c o l a ( K i n g Wm. v e i n ) Dentonia S i l v e r Leaf S u l l i v a n , No. 2 S u l l i v a n , No. 1  ES . 1.94% 0.84 0.76 0.75 0.46  0.38 0.36 0.35 0.34 .0.33  'Cu  Sb  033% 0.25 0.20 0.19 0.06  0.56% nil 0.31 0.36  -•  0.15 0.01 0.14 0.16  0.31  ~  0.15  0.03 0.03 0.36  •0.13  0.13 0.11 0,08 0.017 0.008  0.03 -  -  •0.16  0,11 0.16 0,15 0.16 •0.13  0.13 0,04 Q,M  0.08 0.01 0.01 nil nil  assay  Ag unaccounted f o r 0.54 - 0.84% 0.84% 0.32 - 0.47% 0.21 - 0.45% 0.23 - 0,33% : 0.09% 0.22 - 0.26% 0.22% 0.18 - 0.19% 0.26% 0. 23% 0.10% 0.04 - 0.09% 0.10% 0.11% 0,08% . 0.017% 0.008%  °Farnham, " D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e Opaque M i n e r a l s , M c G r a w - H i l l , 1931. S h o r t , " D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Opaque M i n e r a l s , " B u l l e t i n 825, U. S. G. S. 7  11  Assays o f t h e two p r o d u c t s o f t h e impure g a l e n a o r e s , o b t a i n e d on t h e H a u l t a i n superpanner, a r e here •  Mine  Mammoth No,« 3 N i c o l a (540' L e v e l ) Kootenay B e l l e Sullivan Yankee G i r l C a r i b o o Hudson  listed:  Heavy P r o d u c t  L i g h t Product  154.5 20.1 15.1 12.0 50,0 20.2  363.5 o z / t o n 18 e 2 8.0 5.0 30.5 12.5  oz/ton  Because some g a l e n a was l e f t i n t h e l i g h t e r p r o d u c t s , assays o f these a r e g r e a t e r than would be expected. From these r e s u l t s i t may be seen t h a t t h e h e a v i e s t m i n e r a l , namely g a l e n a , c a r r i e s most o f t h e s i l v e r where assays o f t h e o r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y low.  I n t h e Mammoth ore  much t e t r a h e d r i t e was p r e s e n t , so t h a t t h e l i g h t e r p r o d u c t c o n t a i n e d more s i l v e r . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e heavy p r o d u c t o f t h e Yankee G i r l ore r e v e a l e d t h e presence o f e l o n g a t e d i n c l u s i o n s o f t e t r a h e d r i t e i n the galena. seen i n t h i s p r o d u c t .  V e r y -few o t h e r m i n e r a l s were  Conclusions: 1.  I n g e n e r a l , the h i g h e r the o r i g i n a l  silver  c o n t e n t o f g a l e n a , the g r e a t e r the amount o f s i l v e r unaccounted f o r a f t e r s u b t r a c t i o n o f the s i l v e r - b e a r i n g minerals  identified. 2.  0.08%  Except i n the galenas which c o n t a i n l e s s than  o f s i l v e r , and i n the ores o f the C a r i b o o D i s t r i c t ,  t e t r a h e d r i t e was p r e s e n t e i t h e r as rounded and/or e l o n g a t e d i n c l u s i o n s , o r as r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e masses p r o b a b l y o l d e r than and surrounded by, g a l e n a . 3.  No a r s e n i c m i n e r a l s were p r e s e n t i n any of the  g a l e n a s examined. 4.  N e i t h e r a r g e n t i t e nor a c a n t h i t e was found i n  any o f the o r e s . 5.  I n c l u s i o n s i n g a l e n a are more numerous i n some  p a r t s o f the p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s t h a n i n o t h e r s . 6.  G a l e n a from r i c h s i l v e r mines may c o n t a i n  e i t h e r more o r l e s s s i l v e r than g a l e n a from mines not worked for  silver.  -11Acknowledgments; To Dr. H. V. Warren, f i r s t f o r s u p p l y i n g the ore specimens, and subsequently f o r h i s e n t h u s i a s t i c i n t e r e s t and h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s as the work p r o g r e s s e d , to Mr. W. B. B i s h o p who s u p e r v i s e d t h e f i r e a s s a y i n g , and t o Mr. F. A. Forward who devoted c o n s i d e r a b l e time t o t h e working out o f the wet assay procedures, the w r i t e r i s d e e p l y i n d e b t e d . Thanks i s due a l s o t o Mr. E. P. D a v i s who the i r i d e s c e n t f i l m i n g s o l u t i o n s used.  prepared  -12Calculations; 8  Dr. V/arren has shown t h a t the s i l v e r c o n t e n t o f t e t r a h e d r i t e i s c o n s t a n t throughout any one v e i n system. o f t h i s f a c t has "been made i n the c a l c u l a t i o n s below. s i l v e r c o n t e n t s o f the v a r i o u s  Use  The  t e t r a h e d r i t e s have been  o b t a i n e d from the f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s ; (a) Warren, H. .V., "The Importance of T e t r a h e d r i t e  in  B r i t i s h Columbia," The M i n e r , J a n u a r y , 1938. (b) E l f s t r o m , R. H., Tetrahedrite  "The I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f S i l v e r i n  Ores," Master's T h e s i s , U. B. C., A p r i l ,  1939.  (c) Annual R e p o r t o f the B. C. M i n i s t e r o f Mines, N 110, 1923. (d) Assays made by the w r i t e r . I n the f o l l o w i n g pages, a maximum and a minimum of s i l v e r are accounted f o r i n the o r d e r named.  F o r t h i s purpose  the minimum r a t i o of antimony t o bismuth i n aramayoite i s t a k e n as  1:2. G a l e n a H i l l D i s t r i c t , Yukon T e r r i t o r y  E l s a: E x a m i n a t i o n o f ore specimens from t h i s mine by E. J . W. Irish® r e v e a l e d  the presence o f s p h a l e r i t e ,  c h a l c o p y r i t e , t e t r a h e d r i t e , p y r a r g y r i t e and m i a r g y r i t e ( ? ) . Masses o f p y r a r g y r i t e , and some o f c h a l c o p y r i t e were r e a d i l y % a r r e n , " S i l v e r - T e t r a h e d r i t e R e l a t i o n s h i p i n the Coeur d'Alene D i s t r i c t , Idaho," Econ. G e o l . , V o l . 2 9 , p.694, 1934. I r i s h , " M i c r o s c o p i c E x a m i n a t i o n o f Ore from Galena H i l l , Y. T.," Geology 9 R e p o r t , U. B. C , A p r i l , 1939, y  -13i d e n t i f i e d by t h e w r i t e r i n t h e p o l i s h e d  section.  Etching  w i t h 1:1 n i t r i c a c i d brought o u t numerous e l o n g a t e d , and some rounded, i n c l u s i o n s o f t e t r a h e d r i t e .  No  miargyrite  was found. Cu 0.78% c h a l c o p y r i t e 0.28% t e t r a h e d r i t e 2.24% p y r a r g y r i t e f  (cO  0.29% c h a l c o p y r i t e 1.08% T e t r a h e d r i t e 1.43% p y r a r g y r i t e  0.27 0.06  0.33 0.10 0.23  -  0.33  Sb  -  0.06 0.50 0.56 —  0.24 0.32 0.56  Ag  -  0.06 1.34 1.40  0.'54% Ag.  _  0.24 0,86 1.10  0.84% Ag.  S i l v e r King; Tetrahedrite and numerous. andorite,  (a)  i n c l u s i o n s i n t h i s g a l e n a are l a r g e  I n a d d i t i o n , o t h e r i n c l u s i o n s which a r e e i t h e r  f r e i e s l e b e n i t e o r aramayoite, a r e found.  1.04% t e t r a h e d r i t e 0.59% aramayoite  Cu  Sb  0.20  0.21 .. 0.10 0.31  0.26 0.18 0.44  0.32% Ag.  0,21 0.10 0.31  0,26 0.03 0,29  0.47% Ag.  0.20 (a)  1.04% t e t r a h e d r i t e 0.24% a n d o r i t e  0.20 0.20  Galen;a H i l l : T h i s o r e i s almost i d e n t i c a l t o t h e p r e c e d i n g one, the same m i n e r a l s b e i n g determined.  1.00% t e t r a h e d r i t e 0.94% aramayoite  Cu  Sb  •Ag  0.19  0.20 0.16 0.36  0,25 0.29 0.54  0,19  -14-  tetrahedrite andorite  1.00% 0.38%  Cu  Sb  Ag  0.19  0.20 0.16 0,36  0.25 0.05 0.30  0.19  0.45% Ag  Cariboo D i s t r i c t C a r i b o o G o l d Quartz; E t c h i n g w i t h f e r r i c c h l o r i d e s o l u t i o n renders v i s i b l e s m a l l v e i n l e t s and masses o f b i s m u t h i n i t e c u t t i n g the g a l e n a .  No s i l v e r - b e a r i n g m i n e r a l s were i d e n t i f i e d .  A p i c k e d sample o f c o s a l i t e , assayed by t h e w r i t e r , c o n t a i n e d about 100 Oz./ton o f s i l v e r . was p r e s e n t i n t h e g a l e n a .  N e i t h e r a r s e n i c n o r antimony I t i s suggested t h a t s m a l l , s c a t -  t e r e d i n c l u s i o n s o f n a t i v e s i l v e r , m a t i l d i t e o r some o t h e r s i l v e r m i n e r a l h a v i n g s i m i l a r e t c h r e a c t i o n s t o g a l e n a are present. I s l a n d Mountain;  : -  I n h i s s t u d i e s o f t h i s o r e , A.E.I. G o r d o n  1 0  tentat-  i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d i n c l u s i o n s o f w i t t i c h e n i t e i n etched g a l e n a , B i smuth was p r e s e n t i n t h e g a l e n a i n such q u a n t i t y as t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e copper assay which was u n e x p e c t e d l y h i g h . Thus t h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n may have been c o r r e c t . I n c l u s i o n s were f o u n d by t h e w r i t e r upon e t c h i n g with f e r r i c chloride solution.  R e a c t i o n s were s i m i l a r t o  those g i v e n by Mr. Gordon, b u t t h e m i n e r a l was e i t h e r i s o t r o p i c o r v e r y weakly a n i s o t r o p i c . 10  The c o l o r , furthermore  G o r d o n , "Report on Ore from the I s l a n d Mountain Mine, C a r i b o o D i s t r i c t , B.C.," G e o l . 9 Report, U.B.C., 1935.  -15was g a l e n a - w h i t e .  This mineral i s therefore dycrasite.  0.40% d y c r a s i t e  Cu  Sb  Ag  -  0.11  0.29  0.09% Ag  Slocan D i s t r i c t Corinth; Here rounded i n c l u s i o n s o f t e t i * a h e d r i t e and elonga t e d ones o f e i t h e r f r e i e s l e b e n i t e o r aramayoite  were  determined.  (a)  (a)  Cu  Sb  Ag  0.06  0.03 0.20 0.23  0.23% Ag  0.06  0.05 0.11 0.16  0,06 0.27% t e t r a h e d r i t e •.. 0.41%f r e i e s l e b e n i t e - • 0.06  0.05 0,11 0.16  0.03 0.10 •0.13  0.33% Ag  0V27% t e t r a h e d r i t e 0.65% aramayoite'  -  Mammoth, No 4;  . ,. „ r  Both rounded and e l o n g a t e d s p o t s i n the g a l e n a were i d e n t i f i e d as t e t r a h e d r i t e , and were q u i t e numerous. o t h e r s i l v e r m i n e r a l c o u l d be found, b u t a l i t t l e  No  antimony-  s i l v e r m i n e r a l may have been p r e s e n t .  (a)  (a)  Cu  Sb  Ag  0.58% t e t r a h e d r i t e 0.09% p y r a r g y r i t e  0.15 0.15  0.14 0.02 0.16  0.09 0.05 0.14  0.22% Ag  0.58% t e t r a h e d r i t e 0.05% a n d o r i t e  0.15 0.15  0.14 0.02" 0.16  0.09 0.01 0.10  0.26% Ag  -16Mammoth, No 1: The i n c l u s i o n s i n t h i s specimen a r e n o t so l a r g e o r numerous as i n t h e p r e v i o u s one.  There are r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e  c r y s t a l s o f t e t r a h e d r i t e along the galena - s p h a l e r i t e boundaries.  C h a l c o p y r i t e i s present i n v e r y minute  quantities. Cu, (a)  0.03% c h a l c o p y r i t e 0.53% t e t r a h e d r i t e  0.01 0.14 0.15  Sb ' 0.13 0.13  Ag 0.08 0.08  0.23% Ag  Whitewater• J . W. McCammon^-*- has found o n l y one s i l v e r - b e a r i n g m i n e r a l i n Whitewater  o r e . He p o i n t e d out t h a t etched g a l e n a  shows 2 t o 3% o f t e t r a h e d r i t e .  From t h i s he deduced t h a t a l l  the s i l v e r content o f the g a l e n a (93.75 oz./ton) i s due t o the presence o f t h i s m i n e r a l .  The w r i t e r , however, has found  by c a l c u l a t i o n t h a t n o t more than 0.5% o f t e t r a h e d r i t e i s p r e s e n t i n t h e o r e . Many o f t h e i n c l u s i o n s were shown t o be miargyrite.  Some c h a l c o p y r i t e i s p r e s e n t . Cu  (b)  0.03% c h a l c o p y r i t e 0.20% t e t r a h e d r i t e 0.18% m i a r g y r i t e  0.01 0.13 0.14  (b)  0.27% c h a l c o p y r i t e 0.30% t e t r a h e d r i t e 0.26% m i a r g y r i t e  0.09 0,05 0.14  XJ  Mine,"  Sb  Ag  0.07 0.09 0.16  0.08 0.08 0.16  0.18% Ag  0.03 0.13 0.16  0.03 0.12 0.15  0.19% Ag  -McCammon, "Mineralogy Report on the Whitewater Geology 9 Report, U. B. C., A p r i l , 1938.  -17Slocan Star: Most o f t h e I n c l u s i o n s i n t h i s ore are e l o n g a t e d , and  a l l are t e t r a h e d r i t e .  (a)  0.65% t e t r a h e d r i t e  Cu  Sb  Ag  0.14  0.13  0.07  0.26% Ag  Portland Canal D i s t r i c t >  Premier: I n P r e m i e r o r e s , t e t r a h e d r i t e , p y r a r g y r i t e and 1 2  p o l y b a s i t e were n o t e d by W. H. W h i t e .  I n t h e low grade  g a l e n a examined by t h e w r i t e r , o n l y s m a l l masses o f t e t r a h e d r i t e c o u l d be seen.  I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t minute  q u a n t i t i e s o f p y r a r g y r i t e o r o f p o l y b a s i t e were p r e s e n t . The s i l v e r c o n t e n t o f the t e t r a h e d r i t e here i s assumed. Cu  Sb  Ag  0.14% t e t r a h e d r i t e 0.10% p o l y b a s i t e  0.03 _^ 0.03  0.03 0.01 0.04  0.01 0.08 0.09  0.04% Ag  0.14% t e t r a h e d r i t e 0.05% p y r a r g y r i t e  0.03  0.03 0.01 0.04  0.01 0.03 0.04  0.09% Ag  0.03  Hudson Bay Mountain D i s t r i c t S i l v e r Lake: Rounded i n c l u s i o n s o f t e t r a h e d r i t e , v e r y few i n number, and e l o n g a t e d ones o f m i a r g y r i t e  are found i n t h i s  galena. 1 2  Mine,  11  W h i t e , "Geology and Ore D e p o s i t i o n a t M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U.B.C., A p r i l , 1939.  Premier-Silbak  -18-  0,04% t e t r a h e d r i t e 0.34% m i a r g y r i t e  Cu  Sb  Ag  •0.01  0.01 0.14 0,15  0.00 0.13 0.13  0.01  D u t h i e: Tetrahedrite,  p y r a r g y r i t e and an unknown m i n e r a l ,  a l l found as b l e b s and i n c l u s i o n s i n the g a l e n a , were noted 13 by W. J . G. C l a r k e  .  I n the p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n of galena  examined by t h e w r i t e r , t e t r a h e d r i t e i n the form o f s m a l l masses was seen.  Threadlike  veinlets of pyrargyrite cutting  the g a l e n a were observed i n two o r t h r e e p a r t s o f the s e c t i o n . Cu  Sb  0.14% t e t r a h e d r i t e 0.09% p y r a r g y r i t e  0.03 0.03 _^ 0.02 0.03 0.05 Greenwood D i s t r i c t  Ag 0.00 0.05 0.05  0.10% Ag  Dentonia: A few t e t r a h e d r i t e i n c l u s i o n s , b o t h rounded and e l o n g a t e d , are found i n t h i s g a l e n a .  0.04% t e t r a h e d r i t e  £u  Sb  Ag  0.01  0.01  0.00  0.11% Ag  Merritt District N i c o l a (King William Chalcopyrite  Vein):  and a few r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e masses o f  t e t r a h e d r i t e were found i n t h i s o r e . 1 3  C l a r k e , "A M i c r o s c o p i c Examination o f the Ores o f the D u t h i e Mine," G e o l . 24 R e p o r t , U.B.C., A p r i l , 1939.  -19-  (a)  0.67% c h a l c o o y r i t e 0.4.3% t e t r a h e d r i t e  Cu  Sb  Ag  0.23 0.13 0,36  0.08 0.08  0.03 0.03  0.10% Ag  Nelson D i s t r i c t S i l v e r Leaf: A l i t t l e c h a l c o p y r i t e i n s p h a l e r i t e and a v e r y few minute i n c l u s i o n s o f t e t r a h e d r i t e were noted here.  0.06% c h a l c o p y r i t e 0.05% t e t r a h e d r i t e  Cu.  Sb  Ag  0.02 0.01 0.03  0.01 0.01  0.00 0.00  0.08% Ag  Kootenay D i s t r i c t S u l l i v a n , No. 1 and No. 2. Two samples o f S u l l i v a n ore were crushed, and c l e a n g a l e n a s e p a r a t e d out on the H a u l t a i n superpanner.  These  assayed 2.4 o z / t o n and 5,0 o z / t o n r e s p e c t i v e l y , and c o n t a i n e d no a r s e n i c o r antimony. The se g a l e n a s were examined m e t i c u l o u s l y under the h i g h e s t powers a v a i l a b l e , about 1400 d i a m e t e r s .  I n the  etched o r e , s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s o f q u a r t z and s p h a l e r i t e , and o f one o t h e r m i n e r a l which c o u l d n o t be i d e n t i f i e d , were observed.  -20-  Addendum: D u r i n g the course of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , f i v e samples o f g a l e n a from the C e n t e n i l l o and L i n a r e s mines, S p a i n , c o l l e c t e d and hand-picked by Dr. H. V. Warren, were assayed by the w r i t e r .  The r e s u l t s are t a b u l a t e d below:  S 2 S 3 S 4 -  4.5 4.5 8.2  S 50 S 87  5.5 6.5  -  oz/ton " " " :»  Each o f these ores was mounted i n r e d b a k e l i t e , and -harid-polished.  E x a m i n a t i o n o f etched and unetched  m a t e r i a l under the h i g h e s t powers a v a i l a b l e (1400 x) f a i l e d to r e v e a l the.presence o f any i n c l u d e d m i n e r a l s .  Bibliography Bateman, A. M., "Notes on S i l v e r - Lead D e p o s i t s o f t h e Slocan,"  Econ. G e o l . , V o l . 20, 1925.  B u r t o n , W. D., "Ore D e p o s i t i o n a t P r e m i e r Mine, B. C.," Econ G e o l . , V o l . 21, 1926. C l a r k e , W. J . G., "A M i c r o s c o p i c E x a m i n a t i o n o f the Ores at t h e D u t h i e Mine," Geology 24 Report, U.B.C., A p r i l , 1939. Farnham, C. M., " D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e Opaque M i n e r a l s , " McGraw - H i l l , 1931. Gaudin, A. M. and McGlashan, D. W.,  "Sulphide S i l v e r  M i n e r a l s — A C o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e i r P y r o s y n t h e s i s and to t h e i r I d e n t i f i c a t i o n by S e l e c t i v e I r i d e s c e n t F i l m i n g , " Econ. G e o l . , V o l . 33, 1938. Gordon, A. E. I . , "Report on Ore from t h e I s l a n d Mountain Mine, C a r i b o o D i s t r i c t , B. C.," Geology 9 R e p o r t , U.B.C, A p r i l , 1935. G u i l d , F. N., "A M i c r o s c o p i c Study o f t h e S i l v e r Ores and t h e i r A s s o c i a t e d M i n e r a l s , " Econ. G e o l . , V o l . 12, 1917. I r i s h , E. J . W., " M i c r o s c o p i c E x a m i n a t i o n o f Ore from G a l e n a H i l l , Y. T., " Geology 9 R e p o r t , U.B.C., A p r i l 1939. McCammon, J . W.,  " M i n e r a l o g y Report on t h e Whitewater Mine,"  Geology 9 R e p o r t , U.B.C, A p r i l , 1938. N i s s o n , A. E. and Hoyt, S. L., "On t h e Occurrence o f S i l v e r i n A r g e n t i f e r o u s G a l e n a Ores, "Econ. G e o l . , V o l . 10, 1915. S h o r t , M. N., " D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e Opaque M i n e r a l s , " B u l l e t i n 825, U. S. G. S., 1931.  Warren, H. V,, " S i l v e r - T e t r a h e d r i t e R e l a t i o n s h i p i n the Coeur d' Alene D i s t r i c t , Idaho," Econ. G e o l . , V o l . 29, 1934. Warren, H. V., " D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S i l v e r i n Base - M e t a l Ores," Trans. A. I . M. E., V o l . 115, White, W. H.,  1935.  "Geology and Ore D e p o s i t i o n a t Premier - S i l b a k  Mine," Master's T h e s i s , U.B.C., A p r i l ,  1939.  IDENTIFICATION ffiTO.  5  Effervesces  HgCl  X-Nicols  2  Color  Reacts  Is o t r o p i c  Silver-white  Negative  Anisotropic  Silver-white  Galena-white  KCN  CHART  -FOR  HC1  'SILVER  MINERALS.  EeClj  Mineral  Gray t o brown N e g a t i v e t o iridescent slight tarnish Negative Negative Negative to slight tarnish Negative Negative Negative Negative Negative Negative  Silver C h i l e n i t e (?) Calaverite  Negative  Negative  negative  Black  Composition Ag Ag,;Bi -0-  '  '  .  (Au,Ag)Te  2  Krehnerite Sylvanite  (Ag,Au)Te (Ag,Au)Te  2  Negative  Benjaminite  (Ctl,Ag) S.2PbS.2Bi Sj  Light  Matildite  Ag S.Bi S  :Sternbergite  Ag S.Fe S  Dycrasite  Ag^b  2  Reacts  Reacts  Anisotropic  brown  P a l e brown  Negative  Slowly  Sliver-white  D i f f u s ed stain  Negative to slight tarnish Iridescent  tarnish  Negative  Galena-white  Crookesite  2  2  2  2  3  4  5  (Cu,Tl,Ag) Se 2  Negative (Slowly iridescent,) Grayishwhite  Negative  Gray  Negative to slight tarnish Iridescent  Black (Weak)  S l o w l y brown Dark gray  (Weak)  Negative Black  (Very slow) (Slow)  Isotropic  Anisotropic  (Slowiy iridescent)  Negative  Reacts  Anis o t r o p i c  Aramayoite  Ag S.(Sb,Bi) S ,  Hessite  Ag Te  ;Miargyrite  2  2  2  Ag S.Sb Sj 2  2  (Ag,Cu) S  Acanthite Naumannite Canfieldite  Ag S (Ag Pb)Se 4Ag S.SnS  Internal r e f l e c t ion Brown t o p u r p l e P o l y b a s i t e Dycrasite  2  2  2  2  2  Ag S .PbS .SbgSj  (Rare)  2  9Ag S.Sb S 2  2  3  AgjSb  Hessite  Ag Te  Argentlte Jalpaite  Ag S  •  Aguilarite  kg (B,Se)  2  2  3Ag S.Cu S 2  2  Negative  Negative to slight tarnish  Canfieldite  4Ag S.Sn8  P a l e brown  Negative  Slowly  Negative  Sternbergite  Ag^S.yo^S-.  Silver-white  Negative  Negative  Sylvenite  Galena-white  Negative  Slight  Negative to yellow Negative  Andorite  Ag S.2PbS.3Sb S  Negative  Fumes  Negative  Freieslebehite  3Ag S.4PbS.3Sh S  Negative  Negative  tarnish  tarnish tarnish  Iridescent Negative  Petzite Red i n t e r n a l r e f l e c t i o n (?)  Negative  Miargyrite  3  2  Stromeyerite  Brongniardite  Iridescent  2  Dark gray  2  (Ag,Au) Te 2  Ag S.Sb Sj 2  2  2  2  J  (Ag,Au)Te '  1  2  2  2  2  Aramayoite  Ag S.(Sb,Bl) S  Alaskaite  Ag S.PbS.ZBi S2  Miargyrite  Ag E.Sb S^  Owyheeite  2Ag S.bPbS.5Sb 8 CUgSe.AgjSe  2  2  |  3  2  j  3  j  3  1  Gray  Black .Negative  Iridescent .Negative t o slight tarnish Negative Negative Iridescent Diffused stain  Silver-white  iilacE  negative  Iridescent  jsucairite •  Galena-whi.te  Negative t o l i g h t brown  .Negative  Negative to iridescent  Freibergite  5(Cu,Ag) S.2(Cu,Fe)S.2Sb Sj  Schlrroerite  3(Ag Pb)S.2Bi S,  Hlargyrite  Ag S,Sb S^  Pyrargyrite  3Ag S.Sb S  Stephanite  5Ag S.Sb Sj  Argyrodite  4Ag S.GeS  2  4Ag 8.GeS  2  G r a y i s h - w h i t e Gray  Negative to negative to slight tarnish slight tarnish Gray t o b l a c k N e g a t i v e Negative  (Brown t o Iridescen A (Irldescerit)  Negative  3Ag S.4PbS.3Sb S  Black  (Brown)  isotropic  Negative  Freieslebenite  Negative to fumes t a r n i s h Negative to iridescent Negative  Grayish-white Negative  Isotropic  Negative  Black Iridescent Negative to slight tarnish Negative Negative t o iridescent-.  Hed i n t e r n a l , reflection  Iridescent Diffused Negative to stain slight tarnish Galena-white Negative t o Iridescent Negative to Slowly b l a c k b l a c k . Grayish-white Black Fumes t a r n i s h Black ;  Negative  Negative  Negative to slight tarnish Negative t o slight tarnish Fumes t a r n i s h Negative Negative  Iridescent  Silver-white  Negative  Reacts  Negative  Negative Negative Negative to Negative to slowly b l a c k black  Black (Slow)  Fumes t a r n i s h  Dark gray Slowly l i g h t br own uray.isn-white Ssiowly l i g h t br own Dark brown  N e g a t i v e to fumes t a r n i s h Negative  Triangular  pits  hed i n t e r n a l reflection Hed i n t e r n a l reflection  Negative to tarnish Negative  Negative  Negative  Argyrodlte  Cream  Negative  Negative  Electrum  Anisotropic  G r a y i s h - w h i t e Gray  Isotropic  G r a y i s h - w h i t e Gray  Negative slight Negative slight  Negative to tarnish slight Negative to tarnish slight  to tarnish to tarnish  Red i n t e r n a l reflection  2  2  2  ?  2  ?  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  2  (Au.Ag)  Kiargyrite  AgjS.SbgSj  Miargyrite  Ag S.SbgS^ 2  (Hare)  2  2  2  5  3  

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