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The geology and ore deposits of the interior plateaux region south of the 54th parallel of latitude Gray, John Gardiner 1935

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" g i n mohom i i i i B ORB DEPOSITS Off' %m IMDERIOR 3?LA3?lffl3X BEGXQN SG?J2H OF 2HS, $4$E Sm&W* Of x^iEKfDE" . by J* G* GRAY A ESSSX3 5?0 !?S5 DSM^JLSM 1 Oi? ammo** um^MiBim 0 ? BRXStfSH- COTMBXA,. ^mmm rms DJSGRSS O? JOSSSE OP ARTS. A p r i l 1935. The w r i t e r wishes to express h i s thanks to Dr .S. J a S c h o f i e l d , Professor of Economic and S t r u c t u r a l Geology, and to Dr. M„ Y. W i l l i a m s , Pro-fes s o r of S t r a t i g r a p h y and Paleontology, f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l suggestions and c r i t i c i s m s . Thanks are a l s o due to Messrs, J„ M« B l a c k , A*' 3. Gordon, A. Ee B u l l e r and J . E« Armstrong f o r t h e i r helxj and c o n t r i butions of material» I B D E I Page I B f . B O B U C I I O . i l - Including c l i m a t e , .' h i s t o r y , and general r e l a t i o n of the Plateaux Area t o the r e s t o f B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . . . . 1 General Geology and M i n e r a l i z a t i o n . . 8 CHAB1EB 1. - General f e a t u r e s of the D i s t r i c t . • IE D i s t r i b u t i o n r . . 12 Topography(Seg i o n a l ) . • . . IS Local Topography . • . • • 14 (1) Hedley Map Area . . . . 14 Drainage . . . . . . . 16 (g) (Dulameen Map Area . . . . 16 Drainage . . . . . . . . . 17 (2) Kamloops Map Area . . . . 17 Drainage . 18 (4) Eegion Korth of Kamloops 18 Drainage . . . . . . . 19 'GB&SEB&^Z*.'' • *i- . OfiB DEBGSIfS •. In t r o d u c t i o n and General Summary • . 20 De t a i l e d D e s c r i p t i o n of the ore deposits . 24 Part 1. - Lode Gold Deposits . . . . 24 ( A ) l e d l e y A r e a . . . . . . . 25 (a) General Geology . . . 25 (b) S t r u c t u r a l Geology • • 26 f a u l t i n g . . . .. . 27 . . ^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ gage CHAPgEB 2. (cont'd) -(e) Economic Geology » « • 29 D i s t r i b u t i o n • « * S9 •Mineralogy » * .» • * > » SO Paragenesis « • , . • * 38 R e l a t i o n of Deposits t o .' , •' - . • •. strmottir© 33 ; (a) Bedding . • •' • 33 -'(b) f i s s u r e s - ' * '» • . 3 4 E e l a t i o n to Igneous Hocks 34 Bel at i o n t o Sedimentary • Roefcs 35 Genesis of the Deposit * 35 Age of the Deposit * * * * 37 Sequence of Events i n the • " -£reav •• 37 (B) LODE GOLD DEPOSITS OF iTHE CARIBOO' « . . 37 General Geology . . . . . .37 S t r u c t u r a l Geology • • • . 40 F o l d i n g . . . . . . . . 40 F a u l t i n g • • • • • » • ' 41, ECONOMIC GEOLOGY . . . . 4S n A n VEMS • , 43?; "B" f E I I S • • • « , « • • 44 Source of the M i n e r a l i s a t i o n • 45 Mineralogy of the Cariboo Gold Quartz Or© • * • 46 In&ez - 5. Pag© CHAPTER 8» (eont*d) -Paragenesis • . • 47 Depth of the .Deposit, » 47 BEHAGBMMg BODIES IB ~ — "'v"-'""HBSfOHE • . 48 Dis c u s s i o n . . . . . . . . . . 49 Summary of Considerations • 53 Sequence of Events . • . . . . 54 (C) LODE GOLD DEPOSITS OF iaQBTHSBB , pMflA&Aii TALLEST .. 55 '. . General Geology • . • • • • • • 5 5 Economic Geology « • • • • • • 56 . • M i n e r a l i s a t i o n * • « • « • • 57 . . Development * • .« « •»•••.« » ». 67/' (D) BISOELLAHEOPS LODE GOLD DEPOSITS . . . .58 PAHS' '2V ~ DEPOSITS OP THE 133TBBIOR ** "~ "' ' ' ,n mMW3T~M&lOM . . 58 I n t r o d u c t i o n ( l e a i r e r d o l l ••••• •;Di s t i i i 0 t | •'*/.»••• '||8... General Geology { D e s c r i p t i o n of formations) 58 West K e t t l e Quarts M©a?it# *• 62,. Be a y e r d e l l Quarts Mongonit® .».'* .#3. QBE, DEPOSITS . . . . • • » * , # * 64 .Mineralised Shear 2ones:.:* 64 . Mineralogy *. * »:.,« #& f a u l t i n g s » . * *-,•.•; % • 6 6 Index' - 4. ~~™ mm. CHAPTER 2. (cont'd) ^ * Genesis • » • » . * • • * » 66 Secondary Deposition . .» 67 Age of the Deposits • • . 68 Sequence of I n t r u s i o n and ore format ion> • . • .. 68. Stocks » » *••*•* . « •* •. • 69 Mineralogy y .«*..<•• • « 69' . D i s t r i b u t i o n . . . . . . . 69 Genesis . • . • . . . . . 70 The Contact Metamorphic Deposits •» .. 70 Genesis- . . • *>••#•*.». 70 PASS 3. " ~ COPPER DEPOSITS . . . . . . . . . . . 71 In t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . 71 (A) COPPER MGTJHTAIU . . . . . . 72 General Geology »..«.*'. 72 D e s c r i p t i o n of Deposits • 75 (1) S o m i t e Deposits • . 75 (a) Contact Deposits • 76 •'Mineralogy » * . 77 • Parag neB s • • • .79(b) Gabbro Deposits • 79 (G) Pegmatite Deposits 80 (2) C h a l c o p y r i t e -Hematite Deposits •. 80 (3) C h a l c o p y r i t e - - . . P y r i t e Deposits . • 81 CBAggm •&».-. (coat*, a) & d e s - 6. ^-»B»e»»«»WOT» Page. Genesis o f • t h e 1 Copper • • Mountain Ore Deposits • • .81 (B) M£SCS£IAaEOI?-S,C^PBR DBP0S1TS-82 (1) Hedley Area . . . . . . 82 (2) fixlameen Area # • #- v 82 (S) South Central Area-.-.' 82 • Northern•Okanagan V a l l e y (4) Kruger Mounta i n s •«a « '80-(5) Other Deposits . . . . 85 CHAPTER #S, STRATIGRAPHY OF TgB XSTERIQB, PM ! I n t r o d u c t i o n • • « • • • • . . . 84 (1) Pre-Cambrian Bocks . • • • . 84 (A) Cariboo Series . . . # 85 (B) Horth Thompson Riv e r • - V a l l e y 88 (G) Slmswap 'Sheet * • > > - 87 12) P a l e o z o i c Rooks . . . . . . 88 (a) Ordovician, S i l u r i a n , Devonian • * . 88 (b) Carboniferous • . * 88 Samloops Map Sheet » 89 Shuswap Sheet • . . . 89 (c) M i s s i s a i p p i a n . . . . . 90 (3) Mesozoie Formations • . . . 90 (a) JErlasBio »•* * * » • 90 GHAH?ER 3. (cont'd) Index - 6* SimLllsaniesD. • 91 iCamloops i«Iap Sheet, rculaineen Arsa - 9S Shusimp Sheet - 92 Copper Mountain Area 93 Be a v e r d e l l Area 93 (b) J u r a s s i c * • * » *• 93 Siialifesaieos D i s t r i c t * 94 JCaaloops Ma£ Shoot - 94 Eulameon • • • * 94 Shusmp Shoot • # ©4 •Copper Mountain 9.§ Beagordell Area 95 Cariboo # » » <• ,05 Cretaceous . . . . . . 95 T e r t i a r y • • • * . . 95 Slaillcaaieea . . 96 Ean&oops » * * * 96 E a r l y Miocene 7oleanics-96 Late Miocene Volcantos 9? i'ulanioen . . • . 9? Shuswap ifep Sheet '• 98 Copper llo u n t a i n 98 Beavor&ell * • 98 Index - 7. Page CHAPTEE 8» (cont'd) -. ' ' Creative H i s t o r y of the Plateaux Region • » 99 (1) Da\¥Sonss theory . . . . . . . 99 (2) Daly's Theory • • 100 (S) S e h o f i e l d ' s Theory » . . * 10G B e l t i a n Time . . . . . . 101 Pa l e o z o i c and E a r l y Mesozoie •• - 101 H i s t o r y of the Physiography of the Plateaux Region • *. 102 Bi b l i o g r a p h y • . « * . . . . » • « • 104 I 1 L TJ S T R A T 1 0 1 8 (1) Map t o show nomenclature of the Mountains of Western Canada * • Opp.P.12 (2) Chart of the Important Ore Deposits of the Plateaux Region w i t h t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , e t c . " 20 (3) Chart of Miscellaneous M i n e r a l Deposits 20 (4) Sketch Map t o show the Geology of the M i n e r a l i z e d B e l t of the B a r k e r v i l l e Area . . . . . . • . . " 55 (5) flap t o show the Geology of the B e a v e r d e l l D i s t . n 58 (6) Sketch l i s p to show the Geology of the Copper Mountain Area v » »: * ... . » « * « . • *•. " 71. (7) C o r r e l a t i o n Table • • » • • • • • • • • • • • • " 84 (8) General Map showing Geology and Location of '.Mineral D i s t r i c t s . . . . . . *':• . * * • H. BOLDER*-(1) f i l l s t t o s i s ©assists o f a treateteatt o f the geology, lttcludiBg- straMgraphy aaa or© deposits o f a port-Ion o f the J/rovince o f B r i t i s h Coluabia vMoh I s ph y s i o g r a p h i c a i 1 y knovm as the " I n t e r i o r Plateaus .Region" as de f i n e d by the deograplii© Board o f Canada* The l i o i t s of t M a area ar© shorn on Mfe ae0oc^aii^iiig map* The fl©M t?ork and d e s c r i p t i o n o f tho rook fomatioss lias haen ton© -almost emtiroXy by ©ffietaX-s o f the feoXogtesl Sisr-ir©y o f Canada and i t i s fees til© r e p o r t s o f the so ties that t h i s t h e s i s has been eoBpll©a and the geology c o r r e l a t e d * Aetem?ls%aaeJits are sad© tJmmghoiit the sorl:* Hafo^tuiiately o n l y a p e l a t i i r e X y staell p o r t i o n o f th© GS?S*-SOSG 5 0 kooo square aile0*»**!iaa been studied end aegpod and henoo t h i s t r e a t i s e i e by no rasans complete* SOB&V&V a l l tho eraaiX&bXg e t a t e r i a l o f any iaportanao hae been sta&IM by tho tra i t o r and the vrnvk raay bo ea i d to be complete l a t h i s respect and i t i a 'toped that i t w i l l present the general picture oi? the area w i t h reepeet to general geology,, s t r a t i g r a p h y and The f o l l o w i n g account o f tho phyaio^raphy oXinat©, h i s t o r y o f d i n i n g , dev&lopm&lt* and gemml .geology o f the PrdFlne© of B r i t i s h Goluat&a i s given both as a matter o f general I n t e r e s t and to show the r e l a t i o n the Plateaux Area bears to the r e s t o f the Province i n these r e s p e c t s * The Province oir B r i t i s h Columbia I l e a almost s f c o l l y T?i-thin the Postern C o r d i l l e r a , tslhleh i n c l u d e s a l l the mountain systems and i n t e r i o r p l a t e a u x bordering th© Western s i d e o£ th© Worth Aaeriean Continent* f M Boeky Hountalns form the Southern p a r t o f the . Eastern boundary o f the Province c o n t i n u i n g i n a Ifortfc-T/eater-l y d i r e c t i o n to the Yukon* They form a rugged b a r r i e r averag-i n g f i f t y t a i l e d i n v&dth and over sis© Josnared. m i l e s long and are separated from the mountain systems Immediately t o ttt© West by a remarkably l o n g intermontano v a l l e y occupied f r o a South t o Hbrth by IhB Xootenay, Columbia, Canoe, >¥aser, Parsnip, F i n l a y and fox r i v e r s * flie&ts mountain systems Wcasft o f the ^  t r ench ore, from South t o Itorth, the Solfcirfc. Columbia,. Cariboo, Oaineea and Caeoiar* Th© Cariboo and Qmlnoea. Mountains are separated by p a r t o f the iSteohako Plateau ^rhioh abuts ASjraotiy against the Becky Mountains S&ot o f Priaee George* Sties© soufitalii Byjstoas varying f r o a s i x t y t o one hunfirod and t ^ e n t y - f l v e m i l e s l a width, mmm into the I n t e r i o r Plateaus: s t r e t c h i n g xfcrth-w e s t e r l y f r o a the I n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary throughout the c o n t r o l p a r t o f the P r o v i n c e * The I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u has' been m o d i f i e d by the Q.Q&pml'm the r i v e r vali^er© i n en ©area o r i g i n a l l y o f p l a i n s and X o w M t l s l y i n g between the sotmtaiB eys'teas a f o r e -mentioned and the Coast manses* 5?te r e s u l t i s t h a t the I n t e r -i o r Plateaux present a v a r i e t y o f l a n d teas* from cossparativG-l y l e v e l country t o that v M e h i s »aitfiliicm& but iae&lng the • (3) -rugged a l p i n e «hara#te:r of the bordering mountain ranges* 5hey • average s i x t y to one hundred and twes$y*fito utile© i n width* To the Sest o f tho I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u x l i e s t h e on© hundred and f i f t y m i l e t?Xdo b e l t o f mount nine forminc the Coast liange* She coast l i n e i s deeply Indented and lon& f i o r d s reach i n t o the heart o f the range* Bsyond the mainland are Sancouver and Qaeen C h a r l o t t e IsXando t i n p a r t mount a i i i o n s , belonging t o V7fcat i s considered a aountain system Westerly and d i s t i n c t from the Coast Range* B r i t i s h Colmahia l i e s w i t h i s the b e l t o f p r e v a i l i n g u e s t e r l y winds, tihich* coming from the great area o f the P a c i f i c Ocean are m i l d and laden w i t h xaoistnr©. iSnGOimtering the c o l d -e r areas o f the mountains they are c h i l l e d and p r e o l p i t a t o a great p o r t o f t h e i r moisture producing a l u x u r i a n t f o r e s t growth on the Western slopes o f the Goaet Bange* Passing Saotward, the a i r current a deprived o f most o f t h e i r s o i s t n r e , again take i t up over the Eastern Slopes o f the Coast Sange and the I n t e r i o r SXatdaoXy causing the avAft *° s e a l a r l f i eo»Siti«i's preiuil&ng throughout the i n t e r i o r * . ' Onoo again encountering high* c o l d e r l a n d i n the ' S e l k i r k and other Eountaln aystoras p r e c i p i t a t i o n I s great and once again the a i r c u r r e n t s c o l l e c t moisture as they pass ISast-"ward toward tho Eoekies producing the d r y b e l t s fonnd i n some -o f the l a r g o r interaoatane v a l l e y s ms&t as the upper Colombia* l a the Jftbrthera p a r t o f the Province the changes are not m marked m tit© Southern part* Ste e l i s a t e v a r i e s aoooarfLisgLy, with moderate temperatures and heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n along the (4) c o a s t a l r e g i o n , a n d more extreme termperatures, w i t h g r e a t e r . s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n s , i n - t h e i n t e r i o r a n d Eastern p a r t s o f the Province* Physiographic and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s e s e r t e d a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e I n the e a r l y e x p l o r a t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e Prov-i n c e * The n a t u r a l routes o f t r a v e l f o l l o w the I n t e r i o r Plateaux system and the great intermontane v a l l e y s which trend from South-east to. North-west and from S o u t h to North* Only a few passes s u i t e d t o a l l y e a r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e x i s t between the i n t e r i o r o f the Province and the coast, and the great p l a i n s r e g i o n o f Canada to the East o f the Rockies* E a r l y navigators explored t h e coast and some o f the deep i n l e t s b u t found the Coast Range a b a r r i e r to i n l a n d e x p l o r -a t i o n * The Hudson's Bay Company ana iforthwest Company sent t h e i r t r a d e r s i n t o the i n t e r i o r by way o f passes through the Eastern mountains from t h e i r f o r t s o n the great p l a i n s . M©Kem;gIe i n 1793 and I r a s e r i n I808 succeeded i n c r o s s i n g the Western C o r d i l l e r a to the c o a s t but I t was many years before r e g u l a r routes o f t r a v e l were e s t a b l i s h e d across the coast range* In 1821 the Sforthwest Company purchased Fort A s t o r i a at the mouth o f the Columbia R i v e r and four years l a t e r , a f t e r merging w i t h the Hudson* s Bay Company, F o r t Vancouver, higher upstream was b u i l t as headquarters o f the company on the West coast* The t r a d i n g posts I n the I n t e r i o r o f the Province i*ere now s u p p l i e d from F o r t Vancouver, a l s o posts e s t a b l i s h e d a l o n g the coast from the Eraser to Fort Taku i n the I f a r t h . 3y c o n t r o l o f the route i n t o the i n t e r i o r byXvay o f the Columbia and (5) Okanagan, the Hudson 1 s Bay Company dominated the whole o f the d i s t r i c t now B r i t i s h Columbia* The Coast Range was an e f f e c t -i v e b a r r i e r to independent t r a d e r s , and the Hudson 1s Bay Company made no attempt to open routes o f t r a v e l through i t * I t was not u n t i l 1843 when the s e l e c t i o n o f the 49th p a r a l l e l as the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary between B r i t i s h and Ameri-can possessions was a foregone c o n c l u s i o n , that the Hudson* s Bay Company moved t h e i r headquarters Kbrth to where V i c t o r i a not? stands, and looked f o r routes i n t o the I n t e r i o r * The presence o f Coal on Vancouver I s l a n d had been known f o r some years and i t was mined i n a small T?ay by the Hudson* s Bay Company* The f i r s t a u t h e n t i c r e c o r d o f the presence o f m i n e r a l other than c o a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia was that o f the reported occurrence o f gold on Moresby I s l a n d i n 1850 and i t s attempted development i n l8j>2* The development o f t h i s gold quartz v e i n was hindered by the h o s t i l i t y o f the na t i v e s and t h e f t o f the gold by them T i l t h the r e s u l t that i t was abandoned the year o f i t s d i s c o v e r y * P l a c e r gold was found on Columbia r i v e r near the mouth o f the Pend d» O r e i l l e i n I853 and though o f l i t t l e im-portance i n i t s e l f i t l e d to the d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d two years l a t e r at t h e f u n c t i o n o f the Eraser and Thompson T i v e r s where I<ytton now stands* This d i s c o v e r y was as important to the futur e o f B r i t i s h Columbia as the d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d I n 184? -was to C a l i f o r n i a . The next year, 1858, the w i l d e r n e s s , now B r i t i s h Columbia, was invaded by some 30,000 people seeking f o r g o l d * Most o f the people came from C a l i f o r n i a , some 20,000 t o 23,000 by boat to V i c t o r i a and about 8000 overland to the Fraser (6) R i v e r * Few crossed from V i c t o r i a to the mainland and o n l y a few thousand ascended the Eraser R i v e r and worked i t s bars as f a r as I & l l o o e t . !Che -day o f t h e f u r t r a d e r v;as over and a new Zand opened f o r settlement* The following year the miners ascended the Fraser to the Qaesnel and explored i t and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s . I n l 8 6 l they crossed over from the Quesnel R i v e r to d i s c o v e r the f a b u l o u s l y r i c h d eposits o f W i l l i a m s and L i g h t n i n g Creeks and the Cariboo blossomed f o r a few years a s ana o f the worlds greatest p l a c e r camps* M i n e r s t r a v e l l i n g overland to the new diggings on the leaser,, discovered p l a c e r g o l d i n - the Simllkameen a n d falameen. i n i 8 6 0 * I n 186> p l a c e r g o l d was discovered on W i l d Horse Greek i n B a s t JEooteaay and -ttwa- years l a t e r i n the lag-'Send d i s t r i c t o f the Columbia* f i l e Cariboo excitement wattling.,, the m i n e r s spread out N o r t h e r l y i n t h e i r search f o r g o l d and found i t i n 186? on Hanson Creek, and i n 187-2' reached the Caa-elar- and found i t along the t r i b u t a r i e s a f the Peace, S h e next lode, d i s c o v e r y , a f t e r d i s c o v e r y o f l o d e g o l d on Moresby I s l a n d i n 1852, u s the f i n d i n g o f s i l v e r - l e a d ore i n 1868 at the o l d Sareka property near Hope, f o l l o w i n g f o u r y e a r s ' l a t e r by s t a k i n g o f t h e S i g S l i d e p r o p e r t y near ^ a v i l l l o n * In 1875 George H e a r s t v i s i t e d the Blue B e l l ahewinge on Eeo.tenay £ake but found the ore to be o f low grade and s t a k i n g d i d not take p l a c e f o r another ten y e a r s . f h e quartz ledges o f the Cariboo d i d not a t t r a c t much a t t e n t i o n so long as the p l a c e r d e p o s i t s p a i d and i t was not <7> u n t i l 18?6 t h a t development commenced r e s u l t i n g i n q u i t e a boom f o r two y e a r s and a t i n t e r m i t t e n t p e r i o d s a f t e r a l t h o u g h no r e a l d e v e l o p m e n t t o o k p l a c e . u n t i l r e c e n t l y * 3?he next important e v e n t i n t h e deve lopment o f t h e P r o v i n c e was t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c H a l l w a y * • W i t h r a i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n 1886 d e p o s i t s o f t h e b a s e m e t a l s c o u l d he worked i f f o u n d w i t h i n reasonable d i s t a n c e from the railway*. S i l v e r - l e a d prospects were f o u n d i n M e e i l l e -wait V a l l e y during cons true t i o n , and i t was not l o n g before prospectors spread out from the r a i l w a y , d i s c o v e r i n g gold-copper deposits at Nelson, s i l v e r - l e a d d e p o s i t s i n the Ainswo&h, Slocan, Lardeau, Windermere, and Cranbrook d i s t r i c t s . - 5?he gold-copper and copper ©amps o f Rossland, Pheonix, and Greenwood i n the " Boundary country were a l l developed i n the e a r l y n i n e t i e s * About the same time g o l d was discovered at Camp McKinney, F a i r -view, and Eedley i n the Southern I n t e r i o r , and s i l v e r - l e a d a t ' F r a n k l i n and B e a v e r d e l l * Irode g o l d was discovered i n the Bridge R i v e r area o f the Coast Range i n 18?6 and Copper a t • B r i t a n n i a i n 1898* . Gold was discovered at P h i l l i p s Arm on the coast i n I896 and on Vancouver I s l a n d , and the Klondyke r u s h o f I 8 9 S s t a r t e d p r o s p e c t i n g a t many other places a l o n g the Coast* ' . 1 f h e surveying o f the route o f the G r a n d (Trunk P a c i f i c stimulated prospecting along the Skeena and B u l k l e y V a l l e y s i n • the f i r s t years o f t h i s century and i t can be s a i d that p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the raining camps i n B r i t i s h Columbia had been discovered by 1905 and development of the p r o p e r t i e s was c a r r i e d o n according t o economic c o n d i t i o n s . L a t e l y c oncentration has (8) been foeussed on gold deposits and due t o the a p p r e c i a t i o n i n v a l u e o f g o l d a n d l o w e r e d - costs of production t h e r e has b e e n q u i t e a n a c t i v i t y l a t h i s p h a s e o f t h e P r o v i n c e ' s minora! wealth* At the expense of the base metal deposits o l d cempe h a v e b e e n r e j u v e n a t e d a n d some deposits unworkable a few years ago may now bo p r o f i t a b l y mined• She Borth-east comer o f t h e I r o v i n c o , l a s t of the C o r d i l l e r a , belongs to tho great p l a i n s r e g i o n and i s u n d e r l a i n c h i e f l y by sedimentary and r o c k s o f Mososoic Age* She Hocky Mountains c o n s i s t mainly of sedimentary rocks of l a l e o s o l c and Mosozolc Age* At only a few p l a c e s , as I c e R i v e r * , a r e igneous r o c k s knoraa t o e x i s t * M e t a l l i f e r o u s deposits are t h e r e f o r e , so f a r as known, r e s t r i c t e d t o r e l a t i v e - • l y small areas, c h i e f l y South of the main l i n e of the Canadian P a c i f i c Hallway. . f h e Gassier Mountains are b u i l t up of P a l e o z o i c and • M e s o s o l c r o c k intruded by the Ca s s i a r b a t h o l i t h of g r a n i t e and g r a n o d i o r i t e * Tho e x t e n t of the b a t h o l i t h has not been determined, M i n e r a l i s a t i o n has not been found t o occur i n any great extent i n connection w i t h t h i s b a t h o l i t h . S i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s . exist*- i n t h e Omineea Mountains only m i n e r a l i s a t i o n has been developed t o a greater extent and • i there are a few s h o w i n g s of l e a d , 2 i n c , copper and g o l d * • _ On the W e s t e r n slopes o f the Cariboo iiountains South-easter l y across the Beefcake Plateau from the Omineea Mountains (9) i s found the famous B a r k e r v l l l e p l a c e r a r e a and i n t h e same r e g i o n l o d e - g o l d d e p o s i t s , a n d some c o n t a i n i n g t u n g s t e n . l o d e r a i n i n g i s s t i l l l a r g e l y i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s t a g e i n t h i s area. B a t h o l i t h l c r o o k s a r e n o t knomto fee p r e s e n t i n abundance a n d t h i s may t j e l l account f o r r e l a t i v e l y l a r g o areas i n the C a r i b o o Mountains v?here m i n e r a l l i s a t i o n appears t o be scarce* C o n t i n u i n g Scxuth-'ea-eterly i n t o the Cold Range and S e l k i r k Mountai jae* b a t h o l ^ t h i © r o c k s become more abundant .and o u t c r o p over l a r g e areas e x t e n d i n g W e s t e r l y across t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u s country to the Coast Hongs* I n t h i s area South o f the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c Railway r i g h t ©cross the Southern part o f the Pr o v i n c e are many o f the o l d e s t and best developed raining camps in which are found ores mainly o f g o l d , l e a d - 2 i n c , s i l v e r and copper. L o c a l l y I n the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u s e c t i o n t e r t i a r y l a v a s and sediments o v e r l i e and hide the o l d e r r o c k s * Iforth-??esterly throughout the I n t e r i o r Plateaux country to the P r i n c e Rupert l i n e o f the Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l -ways* are great areas o v e r l a i n by t e r t i a r y v o l c a n i c s . The u n d e r l y i n g rocks where exposed a r e h i g h l y deformed, metamor-phlsed, and i n p l a c e s intruded by igneous rooks* - Horth o f the. Canadian National R a i l w a y , , P r i n c e Rupert l i n e , the P l a t e a u x country In i n t e r r u p t e d u n t i l near the 3fukon boundary by mountains extending from the Coast Range to the Ca s s i a r and Omlneca Mountains* Tho area i s l a r g e l y u n d e r l a i n m f a r as known, b y Paleo-aOi« and Meso'ssois- s e d i m e n t s and v o l o a n l c s , but not by extensive areas o f b a t h o l i t h l c r o c k s . Along t h e e n t i r e Western side o f the Province l i e s (10) the Coast Range batholith* 'Deposits, of copper and gold are found along i t s Western side and along the Eastern side are go l d , s i l v e r , l e a d - e i n o , and copper* (12) C H A P T E R i , GENERAL FEATURES OF THE DISTRICT DISTRIHITIOItf •*Sise> I n t e r i o r Plateaux Region o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s one o f the .most dominant and p e r s i s t e n t features o f the i n t e r i o r o f the Province* In d e f i n i n g t h e physiographic d i v i s i o n s o f the Prov-in c e t h e Geographic Board of Canada, l a accordance w i t h t h e -information obtained by G«M* Dawson i n h i s e a r l y e x p l o r a t i o n s i n t h e Province., have described the area l y i n g between the Coast Range and the Rocky Mountains as the I n t e r i o r Plateaux Region together w i t h the various ranges i n c l u d e d under the. general name o f the Cold Range and other s m a l l e r detached mountain systems* The r e g i o n has an a r e a l extent o f some 5 0 , 0 0 0 square m i l e s and extends i n a general Morth-west t r e n d from 'itftthin a few m i l e s o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary at the 4 9 t h p a r a l l e l and i s d i v i d e d broadly i n t o the Eraser and JNechako Plateaux* I t has an average -width o f 100. m i l e s and I t s l e n g t h i s some 500 m i l e s * The boundaries are marked by changes o f topography where mountainous e l e v a t i o n s r i s e above the general P l a t e a u l e v e l * The l i m i t s o f the area are shown o n the accompanying map and the p o r t i o n described I n t h i s work w i l l i nclude that p a r t o f the area South o f the J54th p a r a l l e l o f latitude* 'Bio elevation of the area varies according to local structural features fcut in a general way i t say he said that its average elevation i s 3500 foot and there i s a gradual decrease in a Horth~t?OGterly direction such that the Southern part i s considerably higher than the general elevation given and heigths of 4000 to 4B00 feet are cotaaon* locally tho area nay give the impression of being rathei* aountainous and In placoo a somewhat rugged topography Is found such that to regard i t as a Plateau It m a t be con-sidered in u broad and general way and observed at an elevation above that at t«h4'©h the latest cycle of erosion i s dominating $2&-l&gid fom* With roqpeafc to this Bmmon. says: " I t is only tiiea regarded in a broad general m y and by contrast to the lofty and rugged raenmtaitxo by *?Meh i t i s bordered that this £»t#rto 3?sgion can be t e s l g t a f a t a plateau* Seen from points along i t s larger and lower valleys i t might be described ae a h i l l y or in places even mountainous country* Horo carefully essasiiied i t i s fa-oad to consist, pm*tioalaa&3r to i t s Southern part, of numerous blocks of plateau like contour separated by ijapGrteat depressions* ajid—"it i s not a a n s t e a l to designate this region generally m a plateau, for, standing upon any paint o f m f f i e f e a t elevation, the great icm©r valleys' are entirely lost to view, while the higher tracts run together ( 1 * ) everywhere in the distances %o form, a nearly l e v e l horizontal line a b o v e tibial* t h e ' m g g j e d f o r m s o f some o f t h e adjacent mountains stand out*11 She origin of tho feature nay bo accounted f o r by the base l e v e l l i m g forces o f t t e 'fertlary under ©e*tia£ti$sa of l o n g s t a b i l i t y tklttfi saableS d e i m d a f i m to" areatifx b a s e l ^ e l conditions t?Ith r e s u l t i n g $>en0plaiiatio& and. deTOl£p&@&t <*£ a p l a t e a u f o r a * During tli© l a t t e r part of the Pliooene, uplift and relative f a l l of the soa l e v e l rejuvenated erosion and a new -aysl® s t a r t e d w h i c h i s . s t i l l in i r o p r a e s h a s .octased the modification o f the a i m t e a % P l a t e e ^ j & r s Into a s y a t e i of 4tep?©ssIoas a n d e l ^ ^ s t f o m e giving the apparent tosstaiitsuss a^pearaaee*. She fimin drainage of the area l i a s been established pretty well in one g e n e r a l d l r e & t i a l i over the whole c i rea* namely. South, and tfoerfe to the Pacific* 2ho dominating streams have established this? trend duo t o structural conditions and also due to a o c l l f i c a t l o i i o of the old dra iaag© pattcc&o by the PleistO'^ea© ^ l a & i a l agtfosi* Kio ^ © a t e ? part of the area i s drained by the Eraser and i t s main i i ? i l » t a r y » . S ioaps©»* A portion o f i t s I f o r t h e r f i end d r a i n s into the Skcona River* Thcr S t o i X t e a e e % Ok&nagan and Kettle Hiv©rs» vslioae water* a l l flow into the C o l u m b i a River, drain the Southern and South~v?e8tem end* .th©.. ' topo^ra^hy ©f. t h e H e d l e y a r e a , , wh£<sli l i e s i n l a t i t u d e-4 - 9 0 - 2,$\ i s neith©? *Bh©Xly representative of that of the Jftodteaox r e g i o n nor i s i f a o m t a i m s u s : i n a g e n e r a l , mm®* Wxb rivers ta dissected the old plateau surface *aad out so deeply that a mountainous rel i e f has been formed x&tti a vertical range of about £000 feet from the valley • bottoms* 2b8 area lies on the Western flank of the Okanegas range and i t s i g h t -toe salt- t o aju* "almcsat at th® s©athei?a m&vmftj o f the whole Plateaux region uhich i s xuirrottod dctm due to being flanked o n the West by the Western branch o f the Cascade xaouatain DyGtemj the chief branch of vMea, tho Tlosameea Range, con.tiiia«0 tetteayd along, the iSastom side of ths Eraser River auft j g ^ a f i a a l l y c u t i n the 3nf arte? In the v i c i n i t y of the Shon5?coa River* On the East* the <8cessag&% range marks the . taste^ -Qfi t h e osssa TOtiBa^© t& so u n t i l , f t d i p s town to the level of tte Plateau in the region of ffwentyraile CbcedE* ftas- ths general ^ p e s s s B s e of the HQfresass area ta it s S$atb<$3x ^ a ^ m l t y 1 is that of a " f 1 M&fch o'f 59 Miles abutting against the respective mountain, ranges on -each side , m 4temESA&BL anil r i s l s g . mp -to- » a t Htm ..is a mxHom.QS mtlim M i l s iffith increasing elevation until froa an elevation of 5806 f e e t i t ohastges to mountainous topography v;ith heights of 6000 to fOOO feet* interesting feature in this Southern region i s the strustee temm m *$#$asmfimL- i^mmix^f oNScseetog i a t h e centre of the in the latitude of 4f° 25* * 53ie slopes of t h e tOTXBira&L&g ^ e u n t e y JSael, South and Seat, a l l eozrosggga downward into t h i s depression and i t s influsncG osi the drainage (16) o f the area i s shorn by the f a c t t h a t t h e Similkameen from the South and t h e Tulameen f r o m the West which are the two main streams, u n i t e i n t h i s l a r g e b a s i n and then f l o w i n a South-eastward d i r e c t i o n towards the Okanagan Eountalns* As has been i n d i c a t e d , the main drainage o f the area i s by -pay o f the Sjuailkameen and Tula iaeen B i k e r s * In the immediate v i c i n i t y o£ Hedley the Siailkameen has two main t r i b u t a r i e s , Twentymile and Bighteenmile Greeks, t o which a l l the other creeks o f the area are t r i b u t a r y * I n the l a t i t u d e o f the Sulas>.een area, i * e * , the 50th P a r a l l e l , the Plateaux Region has a w i d t h o f 100 m i l e s from Hast to West and i s bordered on the South and West by d i f f e r e n t u n i t s o f the Cascade Mountains and on the Sast by the Columbia Mountains* I n the immediate v i c i n i t y o f the Tulsmeen area the character of the topography i s that o f a r a t h e r rugged t r a n s i -t i o n a r y form between the Hope Mountains which have e l e v a t i o n s o f about 7^00 f e e t above sea l e v e l and the P l a t e a u to the West which i s some 1800 f e e t l e s s i n e l e v a t i o n such that e l e v a t i o n s i n t h i s p a r t o f the P l a t e a u average, around &000 f e e t * To the SSorth-east, topography more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the P l a t e a u x r e g i o n i s developed \r i t h e l e v a t i o n s o f 5000 f e e t * As \ve approach the centre o f the Tula&een area i n a South-westerly d i r e c t i o n we f i n d the p l a i n g r a d u a l l y r i s e s u n t i l the t r a n s i t i o n a r y form o f t h e Talameen I s developed at e l e v a t i o n s o f 6000 f e e t and. past t h i s , the slope again increases u n t i l the mountain heights at f&Q0 f e e t are reached* DRAIMA05 The p r i n c i p a l stream, o f the area i s the Tulameen R i v e r which r i s e s i n the Hope Mountains and i n whose drainage b a s i n the -whole o f the area l i e s * The Otter R i v e r , the main t r i b u t a r y o f the Tulameen, f l o w i n g I n from the Horth d r a i n s d i r e c t l y the l a r g e r p o r t i o n o f the I n t e r i o r P lateau i n t h i s l o c a l i t y * Other streams t r i b u t a r y to the Tulameen are the Champion, S l a t e and Cedar Creoles on the South, and Slwash, Eagle, Bear, Cook and China Creeks on the North* KW&Q02S MAP AREA ' ' The area enclosed by the Kamloops map sheet namely t l i a t l y i n g between l a t i t u d e s and 5?.° and l o n g i t u d e s 121° and 11^° which i n c l u d e s the H i o o l a , -Bonaparte, Orecn Timber, Kuk-Waue, T r a n q u i l l e and Red Plateaux areas, represents the i d e a l expression o f general P l a t e a u x country* General e l e v a -t i o n s are 4J500 feet i n the Southern p a r t and decreasing to 3500 f e e t i n the Northern l i m i t s * To the West there i s a general Increase t o the e l e v a t i o n s o f the Coast. Range* There are i n t e r -mediate p o i n t s o f higher e l e v a t i o n v/hi oh ore o f V F O k i n d s — higher p r o j e c t i n g r i d g e 3 o f the o l d r o c k s and.secondly l o c a l volo&nlc accumulations o f the Miocene p e r i o d * The Marble K t s * and the P a v i l i o n Uts* come under the f i r s t category and the Clear Mountains under the second* (18) ZRAIHAGB Q?he master streams are the Eraser and Thompson R i v e r s , the l a t t e r being t r i b u t a r y to the s w i f t f l o w i n g Eraser which has played such an important r o l e i n the development o f the main drainage o f the lower p a r t o f the Province by i t s aggressive c u t t i n g and eroding w i t h consequent capture o f the smaller streams* I t may be s a i d .that the Eraser f u r n i s h e s the o u t l e t to p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the drainage o f the greater p a r t o f the I n t e r i o r Plateaux r e g i o n , as w e l l as the bordering mountainous s l o p e s , Ihe Kamloops map sheet l i e s c h i e f l y i n the drainage b a s i n o f the Thompson R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s , the c h i e f o f which are the Glearwater, Bonaparte and M c o l a R i v e r s , A t Kamloops the Borth and South f o r k s o f t h e Thompson u n i t e and t h e main stream then, flows almost due «est t o Ashcroft where i t t u r n s a b r u p t l y South and l o i n s the Eraser a t Irytton* In the r e g i o n Uorth o f the Eamloops area, that i s up to the $ych p a r a l l e l e f l a t i t u d e and i n c l u d i n g the r e g i o n g e n e r a l l y kno^n as the Ifechako P l a t e a u , the great Plateaux region extends i a a gradual widening b e l t u n t i l i t a t t a i n s i t s maximum width i n the v i c i n i t y o f the £4th p a r a l l e l where i t i s some 200 m i l e s wide* The contour o f the country i s s i m i l a r to that des-c r i b e d i n the Kamloops area, although the r e l a t i v e e l e v a t i o n decreases t o some extent as we go f a r t h e r North, The f l a t topped t o p o g r a p h y w i t h l o c a l u n d u l a t i o n s and e l e v a t i o n s a r o u n d i s - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d a n d t h e a r e a i s broadly known a s t h e Neonako P l a t e a u l y i n g between t h e 52nd a n d 55th p a r a l l e l o f l a t i t u d e a n d i t i s b o r d e r e d o n t h e West by t h e l o f t y peaks o f the C o a s t Range Mountains* She E a s t e r n b o u n d a r y i s marked b y t h e C a r i b o o M o u n t a i n s Hhieh a r e the- Northern e x t e n s i o n s o f the Columbia S y s t e m . She Cariboo f o u n t a i n s merge i n t o the Rockies o n t h e East a n d t h e l a t t e r r a n g e t h e n l i m i t s t h e boundary o f t h e Plateaux o n t h i s s i d e a s t h e y t r e n d i n a n o r t h -e r l y d i r e c t i o n * On the Eastern boundary the topography i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f B a r k e r v i l l e e x e m p l i f i e s the general t r a d i t i o n a r y form on t h i s margin* I n t h i s area the P l a t e a u c o n s i s t s o f a highly d i s s e c t e d p l a i n where e l e v a t i o n s r i s e from 5500 t o 6600 f e e t -above:-sea lev©!* In an Easterly diarwtlon there i s -a g e n e r a l slope w i t h decrease o f e l e v a t i o n such -that at Stanley, w h i c h l i e s Saot o f B a r k e r v i l l e , t h e sujsBi.it l e v e l s do n o t exceed ,5500 f o o t g i v i n g a g e n e r a l slope i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n o f 75 f e e t to t h e m i l e * The main streams o f t h i s l a r g e area a l l d r a i n i n t o the 3raeer* They c o n s i s t o f th© C a l i c o t i n , Biackwater and Heehako R i v e r s , and a l l have extended drainage p a t t e r n s * X D CL J . 0 C 0 0 <r C 'i '6 ) X. QJ ) Z o 0 8 Cy S .o 6 N O V) 0) X . s £> C o o = _ o o ! ° ?* z z 0 +-? UJ z ' 2. o o Oi 0 a: 8 £ £) 1 -o g t o QJ C n m 8 •ir c — ** a — w m O n- O £ o c = J? s o t JO w o D O 4) c o -(D O Oi 9 S 5 o e c ° o o Q ?• . TO «B O. -t= . (o e> ^ " a> 1 O 2 C 1) "O o 1 c ° d I. C H ID *1 ID g O X g .£ •S 0 2 ? Q [ Type of 1 Deposit 0 _C ' J D-s 1 2 p r -o +-S z o-= d. 6 a -CL E ^ a: £ . P a -0 L <C >~ 0 1 0 c D CD QJ £ «J .£«>:= c o 4-a) E L >D o~ J; " O "t o 0 0 a-o »^ ? t o © o c to _ <n < ^ - , ^ 1 *-| o v ?2 3 « i t -° f t> tu h c _r t> o »- o f 4! S i f " J - vj a c - - ^ — o t » -5 L 2 c^i; p I * o> C c Jr o. -c - o e> oi CD o c to o to c QJ o c 0 L *8 L <0 a <D "5 -5 •o o £ « 0 c 2 1 4 -c ID £ O in u © a « e v. = 10 IT it w -P _0 o o 0 _J a> 03 — c •o H 2 :x z 1 0 C o » 2 — .0 c 1 .c -O "O c c | 0 a JT"* c c = % 5 ^ I 8l © r o c O | o 1 ! c k i S. i o 2 •o p » i Ore Mineral <§ 0 1 -c 0 CD L (U 2; (-> CO c <y Q -O-0 u L QJ a . D-O «J o ra' <—i O o •xs > ar £ r-i J, O « S3 Hfl 53 O <TJ O *» +s C3 C f-i o e B & •IS © < a Of" o! i-4 o © Pi © © o & © & © ra S3 © $3 © O c u S o 53 © o t pi 49 2 o o o o S3 © 8 E i-H © . ss S3, • ra o S3 o > "5s i^" O (D $3 •» «t-i •S3 o o <© O ffi © « ^ o ••{ u © As < £ > . » » . . as a «a *2; o ra B '-{3 o o u © O +=> C 53 B 23 C C3 A, S3 0 SD r-J « -S o u o « » » S » 0 • 3 o o s o C3 © J3 m to +» o a —< c o fi ^ 4 it*, i® O »-! i-J O G3 O ».* w« »« a o • JcS ra H © ® a *> C «-< o S£ <3 © •ra © o •60 O to o •4 • * » . » « 1^ <D 3^ m • o •— 0 © & > S3 o 5 o N <1J o to--*=• C © o CS <H t-l « J* o -e • « E O O ft © o' S3 M © B o r-l •© O M M .o o <8 CEJ «« O it! -a o <6 tei •19 «•« OS O J3 03 * » S3 ^= w-l -S-5 a 0 o m e •4* fi o «> ft B •P5 «a p . e *^ o C3 P< U & cQ o m T* ^ J3 <S £•< G) O -i-= L-< c J « C c tft © J3 v4 O o a S 4 3 g «-i o O o •«•» o 13 ra <^ o •*» CO O J3 o > • « as ca — M 13 o 8 ST u o O w o «a m> • » *« © eg Pt * » to -J-= ^ & o .fXr o 03 o cs >a ^ * i C C «-! p< o o a a > . o g •o r-i Q • w O o P CS B O 1 © 53 •ffl O (3 a1 ta m o «3 O C3 > id "3 o C5 Si •g Is .5 E « c 5 1 I S 5 « C +» C O O r © a ja f i 3 O •3 CT Q r-i • « D -O J3 g I S J3 N 11ll o 3 ° on • © I 1 O 53 !3 O £ 5 43 02 s ore deposits of the Elsrt&attae Kegloa «*© Gonaon-t f a t e d according to- the -tllsS^i'tetio^ of the t&aa&ad rocks >ndbui«ffit were ralhorallziHg In their intrusions Bms I t I s to he -' ©footed that ths laore ©otelliferou© areas w i l l be found along the boundary #f the &r©Ss# p ^ t i ^ t o ^ y i a the Southern extealty Miere the- foamed;s4m fOTiftw tatfeo&ithe -m(t a&rtifes ©£•MesoroS*? <*go constitute th«* sain rock jaoss* The accompanying table illustrates this relation and gi«s the age aafi type of intru* ; sion. as *?eXX as the hoj?t roclcs of the p f o w a l 4gpeai$&» A wfc&a variety typen c-f j^jUs£ora3. dg$88£$8 occur within the area* It contains moat fa&ous of a l l British Columbia a i a e r a l districts--tho Caarlboo goldfiolds—T?hioli •pw®®mm&. asay:«illi0Bs a&&&i£o& i s s r l l r ^ f $$mm -g^ &ft* As . the description of placer deposit© I s beyond tha scope of this thesis* reference w i l l he aate to thm cnly insofar as- the Relation they -bear to fife* Zode d ^ o s f t a £n»t Mbiofc they teiirad* . Another fmmm gold deposit i n tha aroa i s the nickel 21at© Mine in the Siailkaracen distinct* 5*Ma property was an .actual .mwfaLmt. tmm %f04 ?estI3* S$2$ sdfh a to$«& ^rototian. M %%tt$%&$®0 in gold* She deposit i s famous f o r the tmi<jae type of laiaaraligatlOB i t contained* It i s .out ©taadlag amongst tho izi) contact motowrp&io d e p o s i t s o f the IhrZk American <w»tl*te«.t# ' the only om i n \shich Ar*j«nopyrit© fiao played st*.oh a signifi-cant part in th© rdneralization*, A great deal of literature hes been -written eosieemiiig the deposit and reference i s made to i t i a tliQ ©atslajidiag geology texts* Many geologists have g W W t t e fiepssit ' t o t«y i t s peeuXiarlti®© aafi i t to t r l U i l ^ d - a - i © a l s f tmQtlMm t®, the. s;tti4y 9f $m%m$-i?itM& the Sfjdlsy exes, t&m oeetsr s e r f e l a teppaits o f -sapper- i s i a s r c l t * SSia&o ffii|?fe.t ax^oeeafc ^ o t e a t i B l s s j p l t o of e^pp^r bit m yst tlie ere has sot prsve??. to -of fmffieio&t tescs? t o warrant ati aconor.i£ teatesifw .i ( , Fart&ss? $o t&s tfettll m& Sast, M r t s r i B ^ e*n t f e West*'-ms, Ximttw «f tbs floigttiaaw ^ - t e i t y tt«r Spates? • ve-i&m% esp© . the-? a&dfe ca$ «&*»B»l*tid *%gp*B&Ur of tfs® .Sfetmir&©lX sfiS Cajwai tK&ps»- Although p r A c t i o n hap xevor been very gooS* Ei»ifirai£s*s.tioti. o f tit© «raa l a erteasiT©« If, Is ta&t&iteA I s a ctrlRt gaoloffical BOHOO to fics&aite nenee eontycdtlnfi by ^©logical irlraetmrsa rod? r&X'ailoinu $hs?m -%ypm of twtrll i f croup deposits am fc&om and have feeen' USRO^S (1) "Kin-JJa^as&f®**. Stear .Zo&so ai?0 o f t to •.greatest jtas^fcanasi as i t i s jboast fern that any pro&tat&oa o f aoto has been made* Slfdsg fevj&lopusat ha© novcr bets* toy «3dsss3Slv# © M Mostly a l l o f the profisstotiois has beoa made fe*om the Sally Mlt«© at Beaver* dell* end th« CEHSI Hta, directly Jfertfc sad $1o6Q to the torn (2-2) Passing' back again to the South-was t e r n border o f the area we com® to the Tulameen d i s t r i c t tfhich forms a p a r t o f the Sisiilkaseen Mining D i v i s i o n * The Southern border o f the area i s , 31 m i l e s JMbrth o f the International Boundary and the northern border i s 20 m i l e s Sast o f the Eraser at the tomi o f Y a l e * A© the area l a y i n the r o u t e o f t h e e a r l y miners t r a v e l l i n g t o the Cariboo, tho dieeovery o f valuable minerals i n the forza o f p l a c e r g o l d and platlnu&i was mads here e a r l y i n the mining h i s t o r y of the Erovinoe, i * e * t i n tho 1850's» jfeter, i n 18?0, prospecting f o r the source rocks o f the p l a c e r s mm c a r r i e d on and s t a k i n g o f h i g h grade g o l d quartz on Granite Greek was done i n 2898 and ; Slier e i s ;io i t e a v a r i e t y o f primary mineral deposits i n the area but as yet none o f then have proven to be tiomraorcially important* Besides deposits o f Gold, Platinum, Copper associated w i t h gold and a l l v e r , magnetite, ohromite, and EolyMejilte* the area i s unique i n t h a t the presence o f email diamonds associated v&th C&roa&Su eegrogatians i n b a s i s p e i ' i d o t i t e has been noted* They are not kaowi to occur in- any other p a r t o f the Provinee* I n Bliia area again mineral prbdue-' t i o n has iiever b&en on a e o a u e r e i a l s c a l e due to the tenor o f • the agfea feeing too low grade to warrant extensive development. G e n e t i c a l l y the deposits may be c l a s s e d as Jfegamtie Segregations, Veins or Bepla-eeaeEt d e p o s i t s , and Contact Hetaaorphio deposits*. In the South c e n t r a l p e r t o f the Plateaux country lie© the long v a l l e y o f Okanacan l a k e * In i t s • v i c i n i t y sone work 'has boen done on c e r t a i n lode g o l d deposits which s r e found o h i e f l y i n the Iforthern p a r t o f the T a l l e y . Shere are a number ( 2 5 ) •-. /-fry ' ' o f prospects c a r r y i n g g o l d ' values but t h e y a r e on t h e whole too sma l l f o r development?* The type o f m i n e r a l i s a t i o n I s c h i e f l y that o f f l e s o r e v e i n s . The. .smaller v e i n s i n general are b e t t e r m i n e r a l i s e d than the l a r g e r . The veins vary i n width from a fetr iitches to ' one hundred ' f e e t hut t h e y r a r e l y ' e r o e e d - t e n f e e t and are r e l a t i v e l y " s h o r t on the surface* The values are sp o t t y , although i n p l a c e s s p e c t a c u l a r , end Ijenise It- Is d i f f i c u l t %o . .Carry OE. development- . The m l n e r a t l s r & ' t i o n i s c h i e f l y ^ o a f i a e d to one formation i n the area and I t l a g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to I n the v i c i n i t y o f Kami oops X»e3ce c e r t a i n d e p o s i t s of, Cinnabar occur I n a none 22 s i l l as l o n g extending from C r i e s Greeks S b r t h o f Ksmloopsl Xeabav t o Toenlta X-ske,, Smith o f Kamlooptes >?lth the a d a p t i o n o f e x p l o r a t o r y work on the deposi t s t h e y have heen unersploited* There i s a l s o some copper s j l n e r a i ~ 1 a at I o n i n a sraall area East o f Copper Creek oc c u r i n g i n the form o f fjpu&l f S s s u r e v e i n s c a r r y i n g fcornitc and c h a l c o p y r i t e 'and a l i t t l e s o l d and s i l v e r * 'Here ©gain, -no body o f o r e has '06en found l a r g e enough t o f & s t i f y m l a i a g o p e r a t i o n s * - Small prospects c a r r y i n g g o l d v o l t e s a r e fourd elsewhere w i t h i n the r e g i o n * - , -The- l a r g e area o f the Plateaux r e g i o n l y i n g t o the , West o f the Eraser R i v e r ha s n o t bsen found a s yet to c o n t a i n m i n e r a l i s a t i o n o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e elthco^.\ I n t h e Coast Range f o u n t a i n s bordering the area 2i»por£a&t d i s c o v e r i e s have .been • i/iade c h i e f l y i n the f o r m o f lode- gold, a a i n the M l l o o e t and Satlayoco country* P o s s i b l y the roc lcs e ^ o s e d i n t h i s p a r t o f (24) the Plateaux Region are too. young i n age to eon t a i n important deposits o f Hesosoie age as found i n t h e bordering mountains and e r o s i o n has n o t as y e t uncovered any o f t h e o l d e r r o c k s . I n t h e c o u n t r y bordering t he E r a s e r R i v e r between M X l o o e t and £rinoe George a number o f s m a l l -minera l - d e p o s i t s occur but they are r e l a t i v e l y unimportant according to t h e i r . pre cent s t a t u s . Scattered through t h i s t e r r i t o r y ar« found Chroraite, Molybdenite* Mar.ganese, TTiokel, Gold, S i l v e r ^ Copper, ' a&d l e a d d e p o s i t s * Wo production ot a n y iraportasofj has ever" been aa.de f rom these occurences* I n the basi n o f the upper SirnilkSReen l y i n g between the Ho-ameen M o u n t a i n s on the West, and the Okanagan V a l l e y on t h e ®ast.| l i e s the' .Copper M o u n t a i n Area, i n w h i ^ h linrcartanfe popper o r e 4le$«ysits are found* % the b a s i s o f mineral «oa-• p o s i t i o n , genetic a s s o c i a t i o n * and geographic p o s i t i o n , the deposits l ? a l l .into t h r a e ^ e l l d e f i n e d gxxtagn--*wmh type b e i n g , a s s o c i a t e d Tilth, a s n ? e ^ M l igneous Intrmelve* *£he types''ares (1) " B o r n i t e Deposits" <2> C i m t o o p y r i t e - H e m a t i f e e ^ p o s r i t s " nOhalcop:^rite-?:,rrlto Deposits"« the most i m p o r t a n t o f these ..are t h e ® b m l t e d e p o s i t s t M t i l i i n c l u d e s the d e p o s i t s - o f C o p p e r {fountain m e r e extensive mining development h a s been c a r r i e d •on* f ' -( 2 5 ) A* ^ H Q ^ i P J l A The rock formations i n the area •consist o f the follor?ln«jt Quaternary - Stream deposits and' g l a c i a l d r i f t * T o r t l a r y - G r a n o a i o r l t e * Hesosole - D I o r i t e ana Gobbro.* $ r i a s n i c - -Cache Creole Group* . (4) Aberdeen forfflatioa,-(5) Red Mountain formstIon* . (-2) Mlckel H a t e formation* (1) Bed Sop -Formation, fhe T r i a s s l c s e r i e s are the mo%t important In an economic sense end the5.r lifh.ology M -as follows:, (4) ^ e r e^ e e ^ ^ r r c a t ^ o n — Consists o f • i n t e r l u d e s c h e r t y o u a r t z l t e s * 1 letestoaee, s l l l e i o u s o r g i l l l t e s »?!d v o l c a n i c m a t e r i a l s a l l i n t h i n bads.—Thickness 3 0 0 0 ' * (3) S^JSSSIS^&JfeS^ISSffiF ' c^3PS8ed e s s e n t i a l l y of beds o f v o l c a n i c materials, f i n e t u f f s -to coarse b r e c c i a s r e g u l a r -l y bedded• 2?hese rocks -are of l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and q u i c k l y pinch out between true sediments.--Maximum t h i c k -ness 1200*» (2) M e k e l P l a t e ffortt*>.ticn; — C o n s i s t s o f massive limestones at the top end bottom- with Intsrij^nded. q u s r t s i t e s and e i l i e l o u e limestones l a the middle* •Cl) H s l ^ QP formation — Composed of int^rbanded limestones eherfey q u a r t z i t e s , s i l i o i o u s o r g i l l i t e s . ^ t u f fa and 'some "b recc i a r e s t i n g on a massive l i n e stone, t h e base o f which i s cu t by a g r a n i t i c i n t r u s i o n * — t h i c k n e s s 1200" • IGHEOUS BOCKS The igneous rocks n e a r l y a l l bear i n t r u s i v e r e l a t i o n s t o the Cache Greek sediments and c o n s i s t o f b a t h o l i t h s , s t o c k s , apophyses, dykes, and sheets* B t e i t ^ G a b J ^ C o ^ l ^ The o l d e s t and most important i n t r u s i v e i s a gabbro d i o r i t e complex considered to be Mesozoic i n age* This r o c k occurs i n i r r e g u l a r stock l i k e - masses from ^ihlch many apophyses branch o f f * The d i n r i t e nember o f t h e complex, c l a s s e d a s a quartz d i o r i t e , i s the more common o f the two types and t r a n s i -t i o n ! phases e x i s t between them* Shis t r a n s i t i o n i s most marked i n the apophyses and suggests d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l roek magaia^intq the gabbro and d i o r i t e phases* Granodlorite $h« most w idesp read- - igneous i n f e m s i o i i i n the -area i s a g r a n o d i o r i t e which occurs I n the form o f a l a r g e b a t h o l i t h d i s t r i b u t e d t o the Southern and Wes t e rn p o r t i o n s o f the map area* 2his body i s dated as t e r t i a r y i n age* A s e r i e s o f dykes o f d i f f e r e n t ages occur, some c u t t i n g and others being cut by the l a r g e r igneous masses* A p l i t e s and quarts porphyries appear to be connected w i t h the g r a n o d i o r i t e * Q?he most important s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s of the area ( 2 7 ) are the fo3,ds m&- f a u l t s * Wlvmtrm and $**£nt© ere -present but are ftf a, subordinate nature* She ^osipresslye stresses whloh , caused the folding believed to have been i n a'general 33a&fe« West d i r e c t i o n ishich caused the elevation of a great Morth-South a&tlclJaie; i n a d i r e c t i o n p a r a l l e l -to the Okanogan Bang© ishieh. l i e s to the- E a s t • *&e c r e s t of t h i s a n t i c l i n e was probably over the bed of S i x t e e n I f i l e 0r©<3&> However* except for miner f o l d s oceurlnc i a ^ect flitleh. i n Aberdeen Canyon and on the face -of Striped Mountain^ e^oe&m has p r a c t i c a l l y destroyed the '$aJor s t e c t u r e * Slie period o f f o l d i n g and - u p l i f t lias -hem dated as following- ologely OK the- t e i r a i n a t i o s o f the Paehe Oreek (H?r l a s s i e ) , sedimentstion and p r i o r to <?he Meeozole during a period Tfesn- orogeMe -movements were seaerai throughout B«0« *Dhe rooks T&ieh were most affected fcy the movement \?©re the ©Hl'dous md B r & l l l a e e o u s portions o f the s e r i e s * A l l o f these 'Socks ^tdpli tsore? c l o s e l y compressed, developing minor folds rfeoe© axes are p a r a l l e l to the axis o f the main artScIir.e, and some ??ero f a u l t e d a!ort£; the crest o f the a n t i -cline-, ffcfc? massive limestone withstood the 'compressive forces -and bonce minor folds have sot "been developed i n them* There i s s t i l l another s e r i e s of f o l d s developed l a t t e r than the previous types and t r e n d i n g I n an East-West d i r e c t i o n and t h i s f o l d i n g has affected a l l n embers of the series* ^ e s e folds are defined i n the neighborhood of the SaauiysIdG Elce and on the face of Stemtdjudcr H i l l * Faulting •fhe ma^nitudo of' the f a u l t i n g I s extoaely variable (28) but* on the rho l c i t has h e m o f small e-rrtent» $he f a u l t s vary froxa those having an average displacement o f one 'ineh to the great EFadsfeaTJ f a u l t f h i c h has a thro5? of some 'eight hundred •£eet* .  .. . ; She age o f the f a u l t i n g cannot' be d e f i n i t e l y set but i t i s apparent i t ' h a s bee.n'inore or l e s s continous" .ever s i n e s the beginning o f intrusion i n the Hess sole, brought about by re- : adjustment of the l a n d 'masses* Fer those hrea!r.£ whiph. have oocurod since the igneous a c t i v i t y and • co n t i n u i n g up to the Pliocene,, another cause has %o be' l o o k e d f a r * f t ' i s b e l i e v e d t o have been causred in. part by erogenic movements -in the area close to the Smith inhere the Casced* Hountains were e l e v a t e d i n the P l i o c e n e * Shis a l e vat i o n representn the l a s t erogenic movement • in: the area.* 5fre nature? of the u p l i f t wae such- t h a t V e r t i c a l f a u l t s l i k e these recorded in. the- awiey area stf&tf' r e a d i l y bo produced' by a siapl© t*arping withctit l a t e r a l coa« •• praosioiis At any gate, i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t a l l the major faults" •have- been l a t e r than they a i n a r a l i s a t i o n - i n . the- area and t h i s f a c t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n ecenot&ie dl'stjusnlon of the r e g i o n * Fissures are Of l i t t l e importance i n the economic geology o f the area as the mineral deposits, being e h i s f l y •of contact ja^taffitarphic tgfpe,. are .such t h a t the f i s s t i r i n g has had no greet control' over t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n , being for the most part l a t e r i n age than the. ore, d e p o s i t s * She most pronounced f i s c a r i n g trends i n a d i r e c t i o n F JO°'S and p a r a l l S s the ^adsh&w f a u l t ana arc probably -due to the same causes thut prodtieed the f a u l t i n g * Eqqimm^mLQGt The o n l y ore deposits o f the area which have been worked l a as eaonomic basis are these containing g o l d * Certain copper deposits g e n e t i c a l l y connected w i t h the go l d ores have been prospected i n an e x p l o r a t o r y manner but as yet have not proven t o be o f s u f f i c i e n t s i z e to warrant development* A n the .-deposits are o f the true -mmtmf, -tastamorphic type, c o n t a i n i n g a l l the normal c h a r a c t e r ! s t i c s o f min e r a l I s a - -t i o n and gangue* In a d d i t i o n i t contains arsenopyrite as the. p r i n c i p a l sulph5.de vdth which the gold i s i n t i m a t o l y a s s o c i a t e d . 5!his i s th<*. o n l y kaoxm occurrence i n M>rth iiaeriea o f a contact metemorphie deposit o f t h i s type rhere t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n has been found* " " Althtfttg-fc the mineralisation i n the Hedley Bist-rlct' i» •spread over a comsiderabi© area .-ind v a r i o u s g o l f bearing deposits have been discovered only two o f these have been, work-ed s u c c e s s f u l l y ; the others ho tug too s m a l l to develop. 5?he productive area i s confined t o tho'region l y i n g near the top of H i c k e l J?le.te Mountain on i t s Eastern slope and here are l o c a t e d the U i o k e i Plate and Simnyside Mines from f h i c h nil of the production of g o l d ore has been made* fhe g e o l o g i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the productive ore boQlas i s c o n t r o l l e d by. f l e f l n i t e sedimentary cud igneous rook formations* Of tho Sstsx d i v i s i o n s -of the f r i a s s i c sedimentary rocks> o n l y one, the Sannyside. limestone which i s the lowest member o f the N i c k e l P l a t e formation has proven t o be productive.. Of the intrusive rocks in the area, i t appears as though the gabbro stock and i t s apophysis was the carrier of t h e g o l d b e a r i n g s o l u t i o n s * Deposition o f t h e m i n e r a l s t o o k place in t h e vicinity o f t h i s i n t r u s i v e * fhe diorlte p l a y e d & v e r y s m a l l p a r t m t h e action. Also,, the granodiorite has not been important in this respeot*, However, the best ore i s not found ' i s t h e immediate v i e i s i i y o f the gabbre, stock 'but generally at some distance from i t * Shus It would appear that the temperature of the mineralizing solutions ms high enough to a l l o w them to travel some distance into the host rock before solidification took place and at the same time to cause meta-morphism of the sediments* M i n e r a l ^ , She following minerals, consisting of twenty-eight species, were Identified in the ore by Camsell*In 1?0?: Gold • Arsenopyrlte Magnetite Garnet Silver Molybdenite Llmonite Spidote ' -HatSmta . Galena • Ckleite. Aximite Mckel Chalcopyrite ' ' Feldspars Apatite Cobalt • Sphalerite • Pyroxene Serielte fetradymite Pyrrhotite • , ¥ollastponite Chlorite Pyrite Quartz Janphibole Frythrite Ore Kinerals • • • ; Cold ' In the free state this mineral Is seen only at the surface where oxidation of the sulphides and gold tellorides has caused its concentration*' fhe oxidized zone extends only a few feet and concentration has taken place in the underlying secondary zone* She gold Is chiefly associated w i t h arsenopyrlte * Chas* Cgmsell: Geol*Surv*t Canada, Mem*2* (l?lo):Pg* 13,5* • <3l) although I t s r e l a t i o n to the sulphide i s not very w e l l known* .It i s b e l i e v e d t h a t I n the deeper p a r t s o f the deposit the gold occurs e i t h e r s p a r i n g l y disseminated i n the c l e a r age planes o f the arsenopyrite o r e l s e i t i s I n a c t u a l s o l i d s o l u t i o n in t h i s m ineral* 3)he other sulphides a l s o c o n t a i n a l i m i t e d amount o f gol d hut arsenopyrite i s by far the most a u r i f e r o u s , although i t s g o l d content i s not .constant throughout the area* • J ^ r j j t e Confined to the contact gone and I s s p a r i n g l y dissem-i n a t e d throughout the area* I s the commonest and most widespread s u l p h i d e * I t oceurB i n a l l the igneous rocks o f the area and i t s presence i s o f prime importance as i t has been shown t h a t g o l d , r a r e l y , i f ever, occurs i n payable amounts u n l e s s ar&enopyrite I s present i n the o r e . the presenee^of the s u l p h i d e i n the i n -- t r u s l v e - r o o k s suggests i t s ' o r i g i n i n ' emanations from the- igneoue mess during the processes o f metemorphlsm and c r y s t a l l i z i n g simultaneously w i t h the contact metamorphie mine r a l s * Picked samples o f the m i n e r a l gave the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : Au 12*38 oz, Ag .78 oz and Au 8*56 oz, Ag *78 oz. ; Ojhalcopyriti^ 53iis m i n e r a l i s o f very common occurrence but i s con-f i n e d to the contact metamorphie zone i n the sedimentary rocks* I n p l a c e s i t accompanies arsenopyrite but i s never a s s o c i a t e d with h i g h g o l d values* I t c a r r i e s higher s i l v e r values than any o f the other sulphides* * Ghas. Camsell: Geol Surv*, Canada, Hem.2. ( l ? l o ) P g * 139. (32) S p h a l e r i t e Although t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s mineral i s v e r y l i m i t e d when f o u n d , i t s presence i n the ore I s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f - h i g h g o l d v a l u e s * I t i s f o u n d i n t h e S o n n y s i d e Mine i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a r s e n o p y r i t e * Chaleopyrlte» and p y r r h o t i t e * An assay o f s p h a l e r i t e concentrates gave* 11*38 oz Au* f l.ZO oz Ag* P y r r h o t i t e Economically, p y r r h o t i t e i s unimportant as i t contains o n l y very small amounts o f g o l d . I t i s next i n abundance to arsenopyrite and o c c u r s most abundantly on the contact o f the more basic igneous r o c k s with t h e o l d e r sedimentary r o c k s * C a l e i t e i s the most important gangae mi n e r a l but i t i s l e s s abundant i n the p a r t o f the ox"© bodies where contact • metamorphisa has been l e s s intense due to the replacement by the sulphide minerals and development o f the s i l i c a t e s of l i m e i r o n and magnesium. 'She most important o f the s i l i c a t e s are pyroxene* e p i d o t e , garnet and amphibole* Qaartz i s present i n minor amounts* ( 1 ) .Ore H i n e r a l s _ According t o Camsell 1 the sulphides-»arsenopyrit e, e h a l c o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e and s p h a l e r i t e a l l appear t o have been formed c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s l y from the same s o l u t i o n * IThere i s a l s o a second generation o f e h a l c o p y r i t e and arsenopyrite *Ghas* Camsell: Geol.Sorv., Canada* LIem*2. (1910) 3?g. 150. ( 3 3 ) vhltih. i s r e l a t i v e l y unimportant a s t h e s e younger m i n e r a l s o c c u r i n s m a l l amounts f i l l i n g s m a l l f i s s u r e s i n t h e r o c k * • <2) S a n ^ u e ' M i n e r a l s , 1 * -She p a r a g e n e s i s o f t he gang&e m i n e r a l s i s d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e a s i t appea r s t o v a r y according t o t h e i n t e n s i t y ' o f t h e metamorphism* I t i s - e v i d e n t howeve r t h a t t h e c a l c l t e was t h e o r i g i n a l m i n e r a l p r e s e n t and i t was l a t e r completely r e p l a c e d by the metamorpM-fc s i l i c a t e s and s u l p h i d e s * 2hus garnet, epidote, t r e m o l i t e , and dio p s i d e as w e l l a s the su l p h i d e minerals and a l i t t l e quartz are a l l r e p l a c i n g the e a l e i t e * 1 • • Bostock 1 concluded from h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f the area I n 1?29 t h a t the order o f d e p o s i t i o n o f the three c h i e f sulphides was a r s e n o p y r i t e f i r s t , then e h a l e o p y r i t e and f i n a l l y p y r r h o t l t e * ' ' ' delation 7of;;the p o s i t s to Straetur^ The bedding has not been o f prime importance i n c o n t r o l l i n g , the . p o s i t i o n and a t t i t u d e o f t h e f l a t l y i n g o r e . bodies* Although there are more bodies i n alignment w i t h the bedding than those which are not i t appears t h a t the p o s i t i o n o f t he r e l a t e d Igneous i n t r u s i o n was o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n c e as the t a b u l a r ore bodies d i p i n a general way p a r a l l e l to the a x i s O f the gabbro apophyses I n v e s t e d i n t o t h e s e d i m e n t s a l o n g the d i v i s i o n s o f the r o c k s * 2he m i n e r a l i z a t i o n I s not confined to one sedimentary h o r i z o n b u t cuts across the beds a c c o r d i n g to the d i r e c t i o n o f the i n t r u s i v e gabbro* 1 Bo s t o c k , H . S * - Summary R e p o r t * 1?Z9 r t * A * G . S . C , Pg*235 A. (54) ^ a s s u r e s •M the f i s s u r e ' s €»' the area,' -120813 o f which- aire very s m a l l and p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d , a r e a p p a r e n t l y a l l l a t e r t h a n t h e i n t r u s i o n o f the gabbro and f o r m a t i o n o f t h e ore bodies * t h e y ''have l i t t l e economic importance other than t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i n c o n t r o l l i n g the processes o f secondary enrichment. ftevdiorii© .gabbro rooks which ere the o l d e s t i n t r a -• s i v e s i n the area are o f f i r s t importance as a l l the known ore bodies occur in connection w i t h the g a b b r c - d i o r i t e stocks or apophyses from these bodies* 2hey i n t r u d e the Sl i e k e l Plate,. Bed Mountain,, a n l Aberdeen .fomattona In great numbers* t h e r e s u l t a n t contact metamorphism has been most marked i n the s i l l c l o u s limestones and the interbanded limestones and quart a-i t e formations r?hlch have been thoroughly a l t e r e d t o a mass of epidote, garnet and pyroxene. • The m i n e r a l i z i n g e f f e c t s o f these two types of i n t r u -s l v e s v a r i e s , although they both have caused replacement by the same minerals t h e r e appears t o be r e l a t v e l y more p y r r h o t i t e and e h a l c o p y r i t e found on the d i o r i t e contact than on the gabbro contact* • S p h a l e r i t e appears to favour the gabbro r a t h e r than the d i o r i t e * Arsenopyrite I s common t o both and cannot be said, to favour one contact more than the other* The most important ore bodies which have been d i s -covered l i e on or near the contact of the. gabbro I n t r u s i v e as in the case of the Miokel Hate and Sunnyside occurrences* She s i z e of the i n t r u s i v e apparently bears no r e l a t i o n to the ( 3 5 ) ri-ehness. o f t h e ,• o r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h I t * • 3?his.-is. shown. i n t h e H l c k e l P l a t e e r e body vvhleh l i e s d i r e c t l y o n a small gabbro i n t r u s i v e o n l y a Sew f e e t I n t h i c k n e s s \shile below \«here t h e r e i s . a-much l a r g e r gabbro i n t r u s i v e the o r e a s s o c i a t e d K i t h I t i s o f a much l o c e r grade* Many small dykes o f lemprophyre andeslte, r h y o l i t e , and quarts p o r p h y r y occur 'but are o f l i t t l e importance except i n the- o x i d i s e d • zone where' t h e y form impervious basins i n w h i c h enrichment from c i r c u l a t i n g voters has taken p l a c e * ffi.3;^0^ JP. .Sedentary,, a i^okg l she o n l y productive beds so f a r knoim are those o f the U i o k e l P l a t e (!?r l a s s i e ) formation which I s some ?0D f e e t t h i c k and consists o f impure limestones and q u a r t z l t e s l y i n g between two massive limestone f o r m a t i o n s — the Snnnyslde at the baste and the i r ings ' ton, l i m e s t o n e ' a t t h e t o p * The m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n these beds i s wholly confined to the impure t h i n l y bedded . limestones and q u a r t z l t e s * She reason f o r t h i s i s not c l e a r . text I t has been suggested that these beds afforded b e t t e r c h a n n e l s a l o n g ? jh ieh emana t ions from' t h e i g n e o u s mass c o u l d ' make t h e i r way* ' ' _ . genes i s off, t h e . D e p o s i t (a) l y l d e n c e ^ ' ' ^he i n t r u s i o n ^ o f t h e d i o r i t e g a b b r o complex took p l a c e i n ' e a r l y tesozole t i m e c l o s e l y a f t e r the u p l i f t o f t h e U r i a s s i c sedimentary rocks* Dhis i n t r u s i v e was metamorphic i n i t s act io n * I t s e f f e c t was most pronounced as i t eaused the complete e l i m i n a t i o n o f c a l c i t e and the meta~somatic (36) development o f tfie lime s i l i c a t e minerals garnet* epldote and t r e m o l i t e accompanied by a u r i f e r o u s a r s e n o p y r i t e , p y h r r o t l t e , e h a l c o p y r i t e , and ephalente* 2hat tlie sulphides ivere a l l i n -troduced contemporaneously I s suggested by t h e i r c l o s e r e l a t i o n -ship w i t h the gangue minerals* She ore bodies are r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n to the Ubrth c e n t a l p o r t i o n o f the d i s t r i c t around the stocks and dykes o f the d i o r i t e gabbro complex and they are found on the contacts -of the r o c k s o f t h i s complex with, the .sedimentary s e r i e s * - . Enrichment by secondary "processes has taken p l a c e by the a c t i o n o f waters c i r c u l a t i n g along the f i s s u r e s o f the ore bodies causing concentration o f values around, impervious dykes In troughs that have been formed by tho conduction o f a c r o s s c u t t i n g dyke w i t h the f o o t w a l l sld© o f the ore body* (b) t h e o r e t i c a l Gofcs^dgranions' The gabbro magma under c o n d i t i o n s o f h i g h tempera-ture and pressure f o r c e d i t s way up through the o v e r l y i n g rooks* As i t reached the higher l e v e l s there vas a decrease i n pressure and the mass s t a r t e d to cool and co n s o l i d a t e during which'the dissolveu' substances' werte g i v e n o f f - a n d they' penetrated the favorable r o c k s and there aided i n the metamor-p h i c processes w i t h consequent formation o f primary g o l d ore 1 b o d i e s near the -contacts, o-f the g a b b r o Intrusive- and I t s .apophyses-* , f-he presence o f such gangue minerals as garnet, epidote, d i p p s i d o , and t r e m o l i t e i n d i c a t e d e p o s i t i o n i n the (57) deep v e i n zone under c o n d i t i o n s of high temperature and pressure* She deposit as i t e x i s t s today has been exposed by deep, e r o s i o n * Tk® d a t e o f the- gabbe r i n t r u s i v e * 'Wi th w h i c h t h e deposits a r e r e l a t e d * • cannot be d e f i n i t e l y f i x e d o t h e r than- to-s s y t h a t i t i s p o s t - t i r i a s s i e and si n c e i t i s I n t r u s i v e i n t o T r i a s s i c ssdinents i t i s probably e a r l y EOBOZOIC i n age and may have i n t r u d e d t h e s e d i m e n t s c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e i r ; u p l i f t . S e r e n a s . o f ^fent-s . i & . t h e / ^ e a lOriassie — (1) Deposition o f SJriassic limestones, q u a r t z i t e s , e t c * - • - -E a r l y lie so so i c — (1) Orogenic mo vement s - r . p l 5 .ft and development o f a n t i c l i n e * (2) I n t r u s i o n o f q u a r t s - d i o r i t e and gabbro. stocks. ( a ) •* ^ sanations o f mineral s o l u t i o n s * - formation o f ore bodies at depth. t e r t i a r y — ( l ) I n t r u s i o n of g r a n o d i o r i t e b a t h o l i t h (2) F r a c t u r i n g and f a u l t i n g - i n t r u s i o n o f minor dykes (3) Erosion and enrichment by c i r c u l a t i n g ground '.waters:' • <4) C l a e i a t l o n Recent — Development o f present topography <* p l a c e r deposits*-She. most, important developments o f lode, g o l d d e p o s i t s th& Cariboo, d i s t r i c t . , have- te&tm p l a c e I n the? t a r t e v l l l e .-area*.. ' irom the economic p o i n t view the- 'IPr^'G-ambrian Cariboo s e r i e s are the most important, sediments* fhese are ( 5 B ) - • ,\ i n t r u d e d by i g n e o u s r o o k s known as t h e P r o s e r p i n e S i l l s and Dykes ipi'th which t he m i n e r a l i s a t i o n i s b e l i e v e d t o be r e l a t e d , ' • ;-She ;Garlbo0' Series are' d i v i d e d as-follows.? I n t r u s i v e • Con t ac t . . • ( P l e a s a n t ? a l l e y - 5000"' p l u s C a r i b o o S e r i e s - ( B a r k e r v i l l e - 2500* ( R i o h f i e l d - 800Q* E i e h f j e l d gormation. 5 h l s formation:' eonsMtutes the mala p a r t of -thai i s "known as t h e Cariboo S c h i s t s and are t he r o c k s In w h i c h 11©' t h e - most i m p o r t a n t g o l d' ore- d e p o s i t s "so f a r d i s c o v e r e d * I t- "iar exposes -in a b e l t f i f t e e n m i l e s t?£de s t r i k i n g from Sou th-east fcc Ivbrth-\?e£=t and I t o c c u p i e s e i g h t y per c e n t o f the map area* Ihe b o l t can be t r a c e d t h r o u g h a r e a s i n A n t l e r Creek canyon below S a w m i l l mat., u p p e r Croa.se C r e e k , B a l d E p u n t a i n Pleteati,. GOT? and B a r k e r v i l l e M o u n t a i n s and p a r t o f I s l a n d M o u n t a i n as mil as Barns 'and Ai^dor fountains.- The foraatlon consists c h i e f l y o f d a r k g r a y q u & r t s l t e s , i n p l a c e s heavily sheared, q u a r t s s e n c l t e s c h i s t s , b l a c k ca rbonaceous and g r a p h i t i c , s c h i s t s , g r e y t o d a r k g r e y calcareous s c h i s t s - , and t h i n l y bedded g r e y i s h lime atones* ' The thickness o f t h i s u n i t i s some th ing o v e r .8000 f e e t * O v e r l i e s the R i c h f i e l d formation and i t s p o s i t i o n can be t r a c e d i n a b e l t l y i n g on t h e Northern edge o f the (3?) exposed R i c h f i e l d formations. These r o c k s are well^on t he A n t l e r Greek r o a d at the f o o t o f Bcgge Sulch,at the f o o t of Conklins Gulch opposite the town o f Barkervill© end i n t he town i t s e l f n ea r tho memorial c a i r n on the P a r k e r v i l l c Boat* The formation i s best developed on TTaverly ffioantain where i t occurs as a t h i c k l y bedded, massive, grey, metamorphosed type* t r a n s i t i o n phases between the o l d e r R i c h f i e l d and the younger Pleasant f a l l e y formations are represented b y a v a r i e t y o f calcareous and a r g i l l a c e o u s s c h i s t s * T h i s formation c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f e s s e n t i a l l y a r g i l l a c e o u s rooks* The dominant type I s a pale brown to black c l a y s l a t e * Other types i n t h i s formation are* Calcareous e l a t e , s e a c l t e s c h i s t , s l a t e w i t h knots o f oardlente* c h l o r i t e s c h i s t , s c h i s t o s e b a s i c v o l c a n l e s , greenish t u f f s , black g r a p h i t i c s l a t e impregnated w i t h cubes and g r a i n s o f p y r l t e * f e i n l e t s and l e n s e s o f quartz occur abundantly throughout the . formation, and the n i d a t i o n o f dessemina'ted p y r i t e has produced a prominent brownish c o l o r * flieee rocks conformably o v e r l i e the B a r k e r v l l l e formation and are p o o r l y exposed, esceept i n the gorges o f some o f the cr»eks* , . Grouped under t h i s name i s a s e r i e s o f a c i d i c s i l l s mid dykes whioh are not known cut any other formation than the Pre-Gembrian ( ? ) Cariboo Series* Shese i n t r u s i v e a are p o o r l y exposed and a r e u s u a l l y not more than a few f e e t thick but i n (40) the odd exposure thicknesses of 30 or 40 feet have been noted. Dae to the presence of f inely disseminated pyr i t© they weather to a character i s t i o buff c o l o r * Che.main types are quartz porphyry, f e l s i t e , . a p l i t e and quartz l a t i t e * 2rom their observed i n t r u s i v e relations the dykes have been placed as pre~ H i*3sissippian and they are believed to be the source of the- mineralization i n the area, although as yet the most prospective developments which have been c a r r i e d on occur i n an area where these I n t r u s i v e s are almost unknown i n the immediate v i c i n i t y o f the mines, Tho s i l l s are most common on Proserpine Mountain ^ h i e h l i e s at the Eastern end o f the f a v o r a b l y m i n e r a l i z e d belt» SMTuCSSJBXL GK0L0GY She main structural features o f the area are' the'''v" large open f o l d s and a n t i c ! i n o r l a s and the extend vo ©hearing developed In certain formations accompanying the- deformation which i n v o l v e s both the Cariboo and the younger ( H is s issippian) S l i d e Mountain s e r i e s * Folding ^he s t r u c t u r e o f the B a r k e r v i l l e area lis a broad open a n t i c l i n o r i u t a whose axis trends Morth ^j?°W6 from the top o f ••Mount - Sardettv' ^ hrortgh •temte* Pinkerten and Amador toMount Nelson* 1'he incompetent fe a t u r e s o f the main s t r u c t u r e are the s l a t e s and associated rocks of the Pleasant %lley formation and the thinly bedded* argellaeeoue* and schistose members of' the R i c h f i e l d formation* Jhese rocks are marked by pronounced drag f o l d i n g , f r a c t u r e cleavage and l o c a l faults and s l i p s * (41) •Pile uotnpetejit h o r i z o n s Ira t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a r e a c o n t r o l l i n g the f o l d i n g were the B a r k e r v i l l e l i m e s t o n e and the h e a v i l y bedded, non-schistose d a r k c o l o r e d q u a r t K i t e memberf3 o f the. R i c h f i e l d formation outoropp.iag a l o n g t h e c r e s t o f the main a n t i c l i n e * She l a t t e r rocks were o b s e r v e d by the w r i t e r i n the bed o f *Tack o f Clubs Creek ana o n t h e slopes o f Barns f o u n t a i n * She i n t e n s e period of fol&isg iahlo.h e l e v a t e d t h i s a n t i o l i n o r i u m h a s b e e n d a t e d by U g l e w a s . J f e e ^ i s o l s s l p p i a a * lie has a l s o I n d i c a t e d a second p e r i o d l e s s i n t e n s e i n i t s e f f e c t s "srhlch xms subsequen t to t he i n t r u s i o n o f t h e Mount JSm?ay i n t r s s l v e s ' {early Keso^oM") .and a f t e r the- c l o s e of the S l i d e Mountain . s e d i M e n t a M e n * ^ s u i t i n g * . , fhree types o f f a u l t s eeeur In. the area?. •(&) Reverse f a u l t s o f c o m p r e s s i o n (2) S t r i k e f a u l t s o f t e n s i o n * (p) Iformal c r o s s - r a n g e f a u l t s o f t ens ion* . She most i m p o r t a n t o f these , f a u l t s 'are t h e n o r m a l eross*-.range. t y p e w i t h t r e n d s o f from 15 d eg ree s t o 40 deg ree s l a s t c r o s s -i n g a l l t h e formations o f t h e map a r e a w i t h s t e e p d i p s * The r o c k s o f the e n t i r e a r e a are c r o s s e d by J o i n t s and f a u l t s r ; i t h a H o r t h ~ e a s t e r l y trend such that they are a l l r e l a t e d to the s e t t l i n g - o f t h e f a u l t e d b l o c k s a f t e r the e l e v a t i o n o f the region b y f o l d i n g * Such f a u l t s commonly have Influenced the topography and drainage o f the area and many o f the steams such as Grouse and lowhee Greek have meadily e s t a b l i s h e d -themselves along the broken zones o f major f a u l t planes* !Phe displacement i n some cases has been as much as 800 feet on these f a u l t s * As f a r as could be determined a l l the f a u l t i n g has been post^mineral* ECONOMIC QEQLQGY . . . Although lode mining i n the Cariboo, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the v i c i n i t y of B a r k e r v i l l e has r e c e i v e d a good deal o f a t t e n t i o n o n l y two producing mines have been developed* Both •of these -mines' are l o c a t e d on. Jack of Clubs Isake- and t h e i r ' p r o p e r t i e s a d j o i n one another* A good d e a l of agressive pros-p e c t i n g has been c a r r i e d on through the s c h i s t o s e b e l t of the B i c h f i e l d formation and to a l e s s e r extent i n the B a r k e r v i l l e 'and Pleasant V a l l e y formations-* C e r t a i n values i n gold and . s i l v e r have been found and i n some pl a c e s are reported t o be .high but i t i s uncertain yet as to what the . p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t these p r o p e r t i e s are., Development costs i n the are-a are r e l a t i v e l y high, due to the f l a t l y i n g character o f the topography n e c e s s i t a t i n g ' the d r i v i n g of long adits to i n t e r s e c t surface showings at ,depth and also the schistose and f a u l t e d character, o f 1ib& eountry rook causes much broken ground making necessary a great '-deal o f timbering* M i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n the area i s of tv?o types- (1) t r u e f i s s u r e and bed veins and (a) r e p l a c i t e n t veins i n limestone* 'According to 8glo$*s^ c l a s s i f i c a t i o n * the veins"^ace i n t o two- ''• groups: - "A" veins and "13" veins* ^Uglow, 'W*l..s Geo!.* Surv*, Canada Sum*Report t -193%* 3?art AL», Pg. 3OA* ( 4 3 ) " A " £ho " A " t y p e a r e the most conspicuous as t h e i r s i z e v a r i e s from l a r g e , ledges, i n p l a c e s a s much a s 100 f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s ^ , to s m a l l v e i n s 1 t o 2 i n c h e s vJide* fl i e d i s t z ' i l m t i o n o f t h e s e v e i n s i s c o n f i n e d t o a zone s t r i k i n g ^or th~? /es t and p a r a l l e l to t h e t r e n d o f t h e Cariboo s e r i e s . 2hoy a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n s p i c u o u s i n t h e B i e h f i e l d formation along the .top of the main a n t i c l i n e where they ocxro.r i n a r g i l l a c e o u s qu&rfraites on t h e f l a t t o p o f B a l d l i o ' u n t a i n , Mount Burdettj riount A g n e s , Proserpine*. S l e h f l e M • and Cow M o u n t a i n s as r/ e l l as P i n k e r t o n , , Burner Amador and XelaM Souutates*: She veins are generally, very' poorly mineralised con-t a i n i n g small amounts of pyx*Its and a l i t t l e ephaleSte -and • •galena* I n p l a c e s the q u a r t z I s r u s t s t a i n e d but I t i s more eomnaon to f i n d the veins c o n s i s t i n g o f c l e a n , m i l k y white,, b a r r e n l o o k i n g quartz s t a n d i n g o u t f rom the surrounding r o c k s ; w l t h some- r e l i e f * I n the v i c i n i t y o f Sow a n d I s l a n d f o u n t a i n s , these "A"11 veins are quite heavily mineralized with pyKlte* S h e *B,GVn ledge oe.ouring at the- head of Stoats Galah. and rec e n t l y r e f e r r e d to. by some a s the "Wells 1 1 mtai.is- • p a r t i c u l a r l y mil m i n e r a l i z e d wi t h p y r i t e * l a r g o quartz boulders c a r r y i n g heavy eolphides ere found i n the lessee h y d r a u l i c , p i t and they -are . b e l l e ^ d t o . 3 ^ ^ ... .,. 3!lie gold c o n t e n t of t h e t!A" v e i n s v a r i e s from a mere trace up - to- £10 and §12? - the values being .ii^eretet- I n the. p y r i t e * ^Uglow,. «*£•».:•• §eol*-Surv.*, Canada*. Som».Beport 1 > . 1932 P a r t A l „ Pg. 31Al. ( 4 4 ) I t i s evident t l i a t these veins were concerned i n the f o l d i n g o f the area i n t o an a n t i c l i n a l s t r u c t u r e as the vein s are found t o be i n t e n s e l y brecciated and i n p l a c e s the country r o c k which has been Included i n some p a r t s o f the vein s con-s i s t s of a bl a c k g r a p h i t i c s c h i s t * 3)his i n d i c a t e s that both the country rock surrounding the v e i n and tha t included w i t h i n i t has undergone the suae proses ses of metamorphism s i n c e d e p o s i t i o n o f the v e i n f i l l i n g * A g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n between tho Proserpine quartz porphyry s i l l s and the "A" vei n s , which are g e n e r a l l y found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h them, has been suggested*^ A l l the rocks o f the Barkervill© area are cha r a c t e r -i s e d by p o i n t i n g planes and f i s s u r e s s t r i k i n g between 25° and 35° Barth-east* I n the Cariboo s e r i e s these f i s s u r e s have been f i l l e d w i t h m i n e r a l i s e d quart z-i s i d a r l t e-ankerite f i l l i n g s and c o n s t i t u t e what are known as the "B" veins* S?hey vary i n s i z e from a f r a c t i o n o f an i n c h up t o f i v e f e e t but l a general they--are; i " ^ a t i v e l y narrow* .In: p l a c e s t h e y -are,.spaeBiv.sxt^tteiy' c l o s e together and they then might be s a i d t o f o r m a ^lode " type o f deposit* When found i n the s l a t y a r g i ^ l l t e s o f the B l e h f l e l d formation they are v e r y narrow and form a f i n e network f i l l i n g the c l o s e l y spaced f r a c t u r e s I n the rock* She m i n e r a l i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f quartz, s i d e r i t e , a n k e r i t e , w i t h galena, a r s e n o p y r i t e , p y r i t e . s o h e e l i t e and minor amounts of s p h a l e r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e * Pyi !.ite-'ls.the:most abundant mineral and both i t and the arsenopyrite are a u r i f e r o u s ^Uglow, W.L.s Geol*Snrv* Canada, Sum.Report, 1?22« P a r t Pg* 52A1, (45 ) The l a t t e r mineral 1B present o n l y i n very minor amounts* According to U g l o # the "B" veins are d i v i d e d i n t o three types:-(1) Undeformed comb s t r u c t u r e type - w i t h f i l l i n g o f sulphides* (2) l o r m a l undefarmed type - no comb structur©* (;?) A u t o c l a s t i c type r e s u l t i n g from b r e c c i a t i o n and subse-quent cementation o f ( l ) and ( 2 ) * The formation o f these three t y p e s o f veins i s explained by assuming two p e r i o d s o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h two separate periods o f deformation. She second, i n pre-Mississi-ppian time caused the re-opening and b r e c c i a t i o n o f the o r i g i n -a l veins although the s t r e s s e s must have been f a i r l y w e l l l o c a l i z e d so as t o allow some o f the o r i g i n a l veins to be un~ • According t o t J g i o w % i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h e veins-were formed a f t e r the b u i l d i n g o f the a n t i c l i n a l s t r u c t u r e i n the Cariboo s e r i e s and before the d e p o s i t i o n o f the .Slide Mountain s e r i e s * A f t e r the d e p o s i t i o n and f o l d i n g o f the. l a t t e r s e r i e s the tendency o f the country to s e t t l e back r e -opened the "B" f i s s u r e s and the movement o f one w a l l over the other b r e c c i a t e d the v e i n f i l l i n g * As the o n l y intmsi-ve r o c k s o c c u r i n g w i t h i n the area are the Proserpine S i l l s i t i s reasonable to assume th a t the source o f the minerals lie® i n connection w i t h these i n t r u s i v e s , c i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n connection attfo a ueeply b u r l e d igneous mass o f which the Proserpine S i l l s are a m a n i f e s t a t i o n * As i t ^Uglow, W*£*: Geol.3urv* Canada* Sum*Report 1?32* ?"art A i Pg*52* ( 4 6 ) has been r e c e n t l y shewn that the most prospective developments i n the a r e a — t h e Cariboo Gold Quarts and the I s l a n d Mountain Mines, l i e i n a d i s t r i c t where as yet no Proserpine S i l l s o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e have been recognized i t seems q u i t e probable that the presence o f Proserpine S i l l s does not bear d i r e c t l y on a u r i f e r o u s m i n e r a l i s a t i o n and that the s i g n i f i c a n t Igneous mass i s a deeply b u r i e d b a t h o l i t h which has hot been exposed by e r o s i o n * Mineralogy; o f Cariboo .%ld. r i i.^art4.. i |0jre , . Cold, galena, sphalerite-, p y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e , and quarts and anker i t e have been d e f i n i t l e y i d e n t i f i e d In the ore* In a d d i t i o n to these galeno-bismuthite, c o s a l l t e and a t e l l u r i d e have been i d e n t i f i e d by E,W# Johnston' and reported on by H* ¥* Warren, Cold lite© gold i s most abundant i n the upper l e v e l s o f the mine and i s faund i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n with the galeno-bismu-t h i t e m i n e r a l . Here, i t occurs as .wire g o l d and i n the form o f s m a l l nuggets, .:Salena:.v • • Argentiferous galena c a r r y i n g some values I n s i l v e r and g o l d I s found d i s t r i b u t e d through the upper l e v e l s o f the mine* When seen i n the veins the galena I s badly contorted and f r a c t u r e d I n d i c a t i n g that i t has been subjected t o considerable pressure since d e p o s i t i o n * A n assay o f galena concentrates gaves Pb o4*J0fa Ag 1*05^ S 13*7f> * ?9*Q5 Au .48 oz I Tat? E.H'*Johnston;- Mineral© graphic Report on Cariboo Gold Quartz Ore,-\]*fi*G.,, 1^34*. *" Dr*H»7*Warren:- "Mineralogy o f the Cariboo Cold Quarts Mine" -E.W.Johnston:- 0 & ? ' 0 ^ e r ( 4 7 ) G o e a l i t e f h i s m i n e r a l which has t h e formula 2PbS, £1235* i s found as f i b e r s and a e c i c u l a r masses oecuring along the f r a c t u r e s o f tbe q u a r t z v e i n f i l l i n g * I t i s c l o s e l y associated with f r e e gold and i s o f t e n found e n c l o s i n g s m a l l nuggets and w i r e s o f t h e m e t a l * f rom an e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e h a n d s p e c i m e n i t would appear as though t h e c b s a l r t e was introduced l a t e r than the ' f r a c t u r i n g o f t h e quartz a s i t i s i n v a r i a b l y t o be found f o l l o w i n g t h e f r a c t u r e s i n the rock as w e l l as i n t h e f r a c t u r e d , p y r i t e .cubes*. : . • • g e l l u r i d e ; . • She presence o f t e l l u r i d e has been i n d i c a t e d by chemical t e s t s but as i t occurs i n s u c h very small q u a n t i t i e s , t h e mineral has not been i d e n t i f i e d * Para^enes^s rfhe f o l l o w i n g i s the order i n Which Johnston has placed the age o f t he minerals a s concluded f rom h i s i n v e s t i g a -t i o n o f the o r e by p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n ^ ork: ( P y r i t e f P y r i t o (Go s a l i t e 1*~ (Quartz - 2 * -(Galena -5«-(Ankerite)-4*-CGaleno-Blsmu- " ( S p h a l e r i t e ( t t e , . . {mm Depth o f t h e D e p o s i t Very l i t t l e can be s a i d as regards the depth o f the dep o s i t * The mine workings have been extended to a depth o f 600 feet and there i s no apparent change e i t h e r i n m i n e r a l i z a -t i o n o r w a l l rock a l t e r a t i o n other than a decrease i n the amount o f galena present which i s found i n i n s i g n i f i c a n t amounts on the (48) upper l e v e l s * The deposit i s considered by some to be undoubtedly o f the deep seated type and the f o l l o w i n g i s quoted from Dr* H* V* Warren: « "A study o f the ores leaves no doubt as to the deep seated o r i g i n o f the gold"* 3" B B B L A G l M E l g rBQD,IBS,. XW XlgOSSf Ogg . • . . . E x p l o i t a t i o n o f replacement ore c a r r y i n g good values i n g o l d i s being c a r r i e d on at the I s l a n d Mountain Hine which ; i s s i t u a t e d d i r e c t l y across from the Cariboo Gold Quarts Mine on Jack o f Clubs l a k e , She deposit c o n s i s t s o f auriferous p y r i t e r e p l a c e -ment i n a limestone bed 40 f e e t t h i c k * 2he ore can be tra c e d across a width o f 6 f e e t and 300 f e e t along the s t r i k e * In places i t shows over two feet .of almost so l id p y r i t e * Occasion-a l samples o f s p h a l e r i t e , galena and c h a l c o p y r i t e occur* S c h e e l i t e has been found i n one p l a c e * Mr* A,S* Qerdon who has recently made a .:aine3?allo« • graphic study o f the Isl a n d Mountain ore has I d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g minerals which are here arranged according to t h e i r probable paragenesls: ' Oldest - (1) P y r i t e & Quartz (2) Arsenopyrite i f ) % t a r t z ( 4 ) S p h a l e r i t e (3) W i t t i c h e n i t e ( ?) (b) Chalcopyrite (?) Galena She deposit i s probably another phase o f the ? t B n . type m i n e r a l -i z a t i o n as I t occurs i n a bed o f limestone which has been cut by a "B" ve i n * 1* "B.C. I l i n e r " , J u l y 1935* ( 4 ? ) Heplaeement i s a l s o found i n the C a r i b o o G o l d Quartz w o r k i n g s bu t I t h a s taken p l a c e I n a " l ^ s s s i g n i f i c a n t manner . D u r i n g t h e summer o f 1^4 t h e w r i t e r was engaged i n the; B a r k e r v l l l © : -area a c t i n g a s a s s i s t a n t i n g e o l o g i c a l l y • mapping t h e m i n e r a l i z e d b e l t w h i c h e x t e n d s f o r a l e n g t h o f 1.5 • m i l e s i n a iforth-east d i r e c t i o n from Sta n l e y o v e r a width o f some e i g h t mi les .* She f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s based o n the w r i t a r " s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the f a c t s observed* S h i s b e l t i s o f f i r s t i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e , a r e a da© to. t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n c f mining a c t i v i t y - w i t h i n I t d u r i n g t h e p a s t -few years* I t a l r e a d y c o n t a i n s the o n l y two producing mines i n the area, whose present combined pro d u c t i o n amounts" t o approximately #70,000 a month i n g o l d * : fh© most s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t l a t h i s r e l a t i o n i s the f a c t t h a t the b e l t c o n s i s t s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e C a r i b o o S e r i e s known a s t h e R i e h f i e l u f o r m a t i o n * Another p o i n t worth/of m e n t i o n I n t h i s r e s p e c t i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c r e e k s from w h i c h t h e l a r g e s t production o f p l a e s y g o l d I s s a i d t c have' come, a l l . f l o w n o r t h w a r d across ths? s t r i k e o f the R i e h f i e i a formation I n the p o r t i o n s o f them, which proved t o be r i c h e s t * Agreeing t h a t the p l a c e r g o l d had i t s o r i g i n i n the- - a u r i f e r o u s ve in s - o f - t h e -area -and t h a t I t 'has been gson* centra ted c l o s e to i t s source then t h e importance -of the P . i c h f i e l d f o r m a t i o n as the h o s t rocks o f t h e mothe r l o d e Is :, . o u t s t a n d i n g * E a r l y i n the p l a c e r mining h i s t o r y o f the d i s t r i c t (50) a general r o l e was e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h o s e creeks f l a w i n g i n a N o r t h e r l y d i r e c t i o n wcrold be most product l i r e * S i n c e the R i c h f i e l d formation c o n s t i t u t e s the bed r o c k of. t h e streams f l o w i n g i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n t h e n the o l d r u l e may be m o d i f i e d . i n t o , s a y i n g t h a t o n l y t h o s e s t r e a m s w i l l be p r o d u c t i v e "which e r o s s a c e r t a i n b e l t o f t h e R i c h f i e l d formation and due to the topographic p o s i t i o n of t h i s b e l t the o n l y d i r e c t i o n I n v/hieh they can f l o w I s Sbrthwsrd* I t may be n o t i c e d , however, that c e r t a i n steams flow across the R i c h f i e l d r o c k s which have not proven to be product-* i v e t o any great extent* Such a stream i s Jack o f Clubs Creek which flows i n a ISsrth-westerly d i r e c t i o n i n the v a l l e y be tween P l n k e r t o n , Cow* and Amador Mountains* On examination o f the rocks i n t h i s - v a l l e y they- are found t o c o n s i s t o f hard, massive, g r e y q u a r t z i t e s c o n t a i n i n g a few minor i n t e r c a l a t i o n s o f s h a l y m a t e r i a l and on the whole unsheared* This formation was tra c e d by the w r i t e r f o r f o u r m i l e s up the bed o f Jack o f Clubs Greek and I t i s w e l l exposed along the lowhee B i t c h , on the "Southern slope o f Cow M o u n t a i n a n d o n the c r e s t o f B o m s M o u n t a i n * s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t i s t h a t o n e e y o u p a s s beyond the l i m i t s ot the Northern slope o f Cow Mountain, the change i n the character o f the R i c h f i e l d formation manifests i t s e l f i n a change from h e a v i l y sheared, f i s s i l e , grey and dark-grey, a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z l t e through a band o f sheared s l a t y a r g l l l i t e and thence i n t o the massive grey q u a r t a i t e s o f the Jack o f Clubs Creek •i .bed* .. mm width of t h i s b e l t o f sheared, f i s s i l e rocks o f (51) the R i c h f i e l d f o r m a t i o n l y i n g o n t h e N o r t h e r n s l o p e s o f Cow M o u n t a i n and o f which I s l a n d M o u n t a i n i s c h i e f l y Composed, i s at most two . m i l e s wide* On i t s n o r t h e r n l i m i t i s i s b o r d e r e d b y t h e massive Barker v i l l e l i m e s t o n e * B r i e f l y , t h e c o n d i t i o n s a r e — a n a u r i f e r o u s band o f r o c k s some two m i l e s w i d e . • c o n s i s t i n g o f f i s s i l e , sheared, nigh-t-l y m i n e r a l i z e d , grey and a r g i l l a c e o u s grey q u a r t z i t e s , g e n e r a l l y l i m y , l y i n g between the massive Barker v i l l e limestone formation on the B e r t h and a massive r e l a t i v e l y unsheared grey q u a r t z i t e , o f t h e R i c h f i e l d formation on the South* Between the product-i v e f i s s i l e q u a r t z i t e s and the massive, barren, g r e y q u a r t z i t e s l l o s a- w i d e band o f s l a t y a x g i l l i t e w h i c h e x t e n d s p a r a l l e l to; • the c r e s t o f the main a n t i c l i n e through Cow and R i c h f i e l d Mts*. and extending some d i s t a n c e to the Sast« Uglow2" h a s r e f e r r e d t o the m a s s i v e grey q u a r t z i t s o f the R i c h f i e l d together w i t h the Barker v i l l e limestone as being the competent horizons t a k i n g p a r t i n the f o l d i n g o f the main - a n t i c l i n e w i t h r e s u l t a n t shearing i n t h e intermediate r o c k s * According t o Ogiow "the productive nB :' veins rare •formed a f t e r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e m a i n a n t i c l i n e and some o f these veins w a r © l a t e r b r coclated w h i l e others were r e l a t i v e l y undeformed* I/nderground e v i d e n c e i n t h e productive b e l t seems t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s a s c e r t a i n o f t h e v e i n s , w h i c h a r e very numerous, f i l l J o i n t i n g and f i s s u r e , p l a n e s i n t h e c f u a r t s i t e s occuring i n t he shea red acne and a r e i n g e n e r a l undeformed and c o n t a i n d r u s y quartz w i t h a n k e r i t e f i l l i n g w h i l e o t h e r s are . b a d l y b roken* . • l 0?^Al'* L* ? G e o l * i k l T V ' * C a n a < i a * S u m . K e p t , l ^ J 2 f P a r t Al,., (52) I t I s the w r i t e r * s o p i n i o n t h a t t h e competency o f t h e rocks, a l r e a d y sheared, -©as i n c r e a s e d b y s l l i c i f l e a t i o n p r i o r to t h e f I s s o r i n g and f i l l i n g w i t h :'B" q u a r t s * 2?hls p r o c e s s .gave r i s e t o the v e r y many m i n e r a l i s e d g a s h v e i n s r a n g i n g from 1" t o 6 " i n width i s h l e h a r e e n c o u n t e r e d u n d e r g r o u n d * The o r i g i n o f t h e s e . secondary f r a c t u r e s may have been o f the -nature o f f r a c t u r e c l e a r age i * i t h stresses a c t i n g f rom t h e North-east but s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e -was not seen t o be d e f i n i t e l y i n t e r -p r a t as, s u c h Jsy the w r i t e r : * h i s • f i s e u r l n g e x t e n d s o n l y t h r o u g h the sheared a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t s i t e c o n t a i n i n g t h i n bands o f limestone p a r t l y s i l i e i f i e d , t he whole o f -which was of s u f f i -c i e n t competency t o m a i n t a i n openings f o r °B n 3 ; : ; ~ri m i n e r a l i z a -t i o n * l ihe re the a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t a i t a s grade Into the s l a t y a r g i l l i t e o , the competency o f the rocks changed ( a s i t i s u n i v e r s a l l y known that a r g l l l i t e i e an i n c o m p e t e n t r o c k ) and t h i s acted a s a boundary t o f r a c t u r e s and vein f i l l i n g * 3?hie Is; W e l l b rough t out i n u n d e r g r o u n d w o r k i n g s p e n e t r a t i n g t h i s :zom: o f a r g l l l i t e . * : . I t i s .found, t h a t t h e r e I s .a d e c i d e d p i n c h , - : i n g o u t o f the v e i n s as t h e y e n t e r t h e u n f a v o r a b l e 'rock* fJ?hls b e l t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y wl&® s u c h that i t cannot be r e a d i l y expect-ed t h a t m i n e r a l i s a t i o n w i l l p a s s beyond i t and i n t o the h a r d .aaBsiw ' q u a r f e i t e * I t - i s t h e w l t e r * ' B. o p i n i o n t h a t : t hese , quar t igf l tes a r e m a s s i v e b y r e a s o n o f t h e i r ; a b i l i t y t o w i t h s t a n d f r a c t u r i n g due t o t h e i r homogeneous character and a l s o t o the f a c t that the shearing f o r c e s wore d i s s i p a t e d i n the band o f a r g i l l l t e s l y i n g on t h e i r N o r t h e r n edge* 3?hese a r g l l l i t e s are n o t m i n e r a l i s e d due t o - t h e i r I n a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n f r a c t u r e s (53) and were badly sheared l y i n g a g a i n s t the m a s s i v e , eompetenent q u a r t z i t e s * • - . The zone o f f r a c t u r i n g and v e i n f i l l i n g l i e s i n the a r g i l l a c e o u s g r e y q u a r t s i t e w h i c h was f r a c t u r e d w i t h greater f a c i l i t y than' the m a s s i v e q u a r t sites'-due t o i t s intermediate p o s i t i o n between t h e competent h o r i z o n s and al s o because o f i n t e r c a l a t i o n s o f b l a d e a r g i l l l t e w h i c h l o c a l l i z e d and d i s s i p a -ted the compressive f o r c e s t o some extent« 9?his intermediate zone w a s , then, i n an I d e a l p o s i t i o n f o r f r a c t u r i n g end main-. t a inenace - o f dU©<sur©s f o r vein:, f i l l i n g o f the> nW t y p e * •• Although q u a r t s v e i n s occur i n t h e m a s s i v e g r e y q u a r t s i t e s , a s f a r a s the w r i t e r h a s observed, t h e y a r e a l l o f t h e "A" type w h i c h a r e considered to bo l e s s important and o f an e a r l i e r age than the veins and bear no r e l a t i o n t o them* Thus the a r e a . covered by m a s s i v e ' q u a r t z i t e s may toe c o n s i d e r e d , a s -an u n f a v o r a b l e a r e a f o r n S " t y p e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n and c r e e k s r u n n i n g a a r o s s i t - w i l l c o n t a i n c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e p l a c e r g o l d a s has been proven out I n t h e case o f Jaclc o f Clubs Creek* Strong, w e l l m i n e r a l i z e d "A" veins were observed at places i n the bed o f the. above c r e e k b u t a s v e r y l i t t l e work h a s been done on them, the w r i t e r concludes t h a t they do not run h i g h I n g o l d •values* Summary : Of. i C i o u s l d s r a t l e a . s SJhere I s a b e l t o f a r g i l l a c e o u s g r e y q u a r t z i t e s , grey q u a r t z i t e s and limestones w i t h m i n o r i n t e r c a l a t i o n s o f b l a c k . f i s s i l e a r g i l l i t e s extending South-oast' from I s l a n d Mountain t o Proserpine M o u n t a i n and h e r e d e f i n e d as the p r o d u c t i v e b e l t * (.54) She a r e a has an a v e r a g e width o f t h r e e m i l e s and i s bounded on the South b y a l i m i t i n g band o f s l a t y a r g i l l i t e s l a contact w i t h m a s s i v e grey q u a r f e i t e * On t h e Sforth i t l a bounded fey t h e m a s s i v e B a r k e r v i l l e l i m e s t o n e * Concentration o f W v e i n m i n e r a l i s a t i o n has t a k e n p l a c e i n t h i s p r o d u c t i v e Bone by r e a s o n o f I t s I n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n and a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n f r a c t u r e s * The o n l y p r o d u c i n g mines o f the B a r k e r \ ' l l l e area l i e i n t h i s sons as w e l l as t h e r i c h e s t p l a c e r c r e e k s such a s lowhee Greek* S t o u t s Oulch. W i l l i a m s Creek, Contain Gulch, Beggs Gulch and Grouse Creek* She accompanying diagram I n d i c a t e s t h e p o s i t i o n o f the productive b e l t as w e l l as the f a c t o r s c o n t r o l l i n g i t s p o s i t i o n * (1) 2r*-Camb*(?) - D e p o s i t i o n o f C a r i b o o Ser ies -* .15 . ,500 f e e t o f q u a r t s i t e s , a r g i l l i t e s and t h i n bedded l i r a e -, . . .stones* (2) Pr e-ffis a i as ipp i att 1* E l e v a t i o n above water* 2* Folding Into a n t i c l i n a l s t r u c t u r e * 3* f a c t o r i n g 4* I n t r u s i o n - B a t h o l i t h l c (?) - Proserpine S i l l s and Dykes* 5* "A" v e i n f i l l i n g — p a r a l l e l t o bedding* 6* Read^ustment-^Eaating-Development o f d r a g f o l d s * and sys tem of .flUK. f r a c t u r e s I n a r e a s undergoing adjust-ment u n d e r favorable c o n d i t i o n s f o r maintenance o f f r a c t u r e a * 7* Second I n t r u s i o n ( ? ) — " B " v e i n f i l l i n g . 8* i i r o s l o n — d e v e l o p m e n t o f unconformity and S c s a l Con-glomerate* ( 3 ) PaleoKcic I . S l i d e Mountain Tories deposited - cherts basic flows, basal eong* 2* F o l d i n g - e l e v a t i o n o f l a n d above sea* (55) 3* I n t r u s i o n - &£t* H u r r a y S i l l s & Bykes* 4* P e r i o d closed by g e n e r a l f a u l t i n g o v e r t h e a rea* 5* IS ros lon (-4) ffiertisry * 1* E r o s i o n - g r a v e l s cemented' - formation o f deep l e a d p l a c e r s * ( 5 ) P l e i s t o c e n e :, - # i a c i a t i c n ; ' > (g) IQDB-mm Dmmiw m JQ^^^jggm^g^i^gi 5?he r o c k s Bhich c o n t a i n t h e most i m p o r t a n t g o l d deposits o f the area consist o f one m a i n group which have been g i v e n a g e n e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u n d e r $he name o f Group (2) b y ,0*3£#. Qaimes^* . Shey are u i s t r i b u t e d I n a wide, a r e a l o n g , , and to the West o f Gkanagan f a l l e y and extend Northward from Okanagan l a n d i n g to Salmon River*' .She l l t h o l o g y - c o n s i s t s o f b o t h s e d i m e n t a r y and i g n e o u s rocks* limestones o f v a r y i n g thicknesses, v o l c a n i c t u f f s and br e c c i a s , black c h e r t y a r g H l i t e s end minor amounts o f quartz-i t e s , conglomerates and s l a t e s a re the c h i e f types* ; J t e * . - " • -tShis group i s belioved t o Include formations o f post-Garboniferaas, probably Kesozolo i n age and have been t e n t a t i v e -l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Dawson ' s M i s k o n l i t h s e r i e s o f t h e Sbuswap map sheet* . Of I m p o r t a n t economic r e l a t i o n t o t h i s g roup i s a s e r i e s o f i n t r u s i v e r o c k s c h i e f l y o f g r a n i t i c t e x t u r e and 1 G.B* Cairnes; Geol . S u r v .*,Canada, Suioia* Report, 1931, Pg*67A-(56) r a n g i n g I n e o m p o s i t i o n . f rom g r a n i t e a n d s y e n i t e t o g r a n o ^ d i o r i t e o r quartz d l o r l t e * $ h i s s e r i e s I s d i v i d e d i n t o two s u b d i v i s i o n s on the b a s i s o f age— t he o l d e r group b e i n g p r e - t e r t i a r y p robab ly -l a t e M e s o z o i e and the younge r c o n s i s t i n g o f a t e r t i a r y s y e n i t e * fhese i n t r u s i v e s are b e l i e v e d to be the source o f m i n e r a l i z a t l o n in the d i s t r i c t * E|O ^ T O i c _ J e o l e ^ JSrelusiv© o f p l a c e r s the m e t a l l i f e r o u s d e p o s i t s o f the area f a l l Into three groups-; (a) .Auriferous quartz veins* (b) Ilixed sulphide d e p o s i t s * (c) Kagnaatle. segregations* 2be most important o f these as f a r as the d i s c u s s i o n o f l o d e gold deposits i s eoneerned i s the f i r s t group* The mixed sulphide deposits c o n t a i n t r a c e s o f gold but are more important for t h e i r copper content* •She- s i z e o f the 4 j a a r % veins v a r i e s from l w to 100T i n width but the narrower widths are commoner and b e t t e r miner-a l i z e d * On the surface t h e -veims do not e x t e n d f o r v e r y great distances as they are i l l d efined and pi n c h out or are f a u l t e d w i t h i n a few hund red yards* • • • She v e i n f i l l i n g i s quartz, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y o f the massive, semi-vitreous type, g e n e r a l l y p o o r l y m i n e r a l i z e d * I n pl a c e s oomb s t r u c t u r e i s q u i t e w e l l defined i n d i c a t i n g near surface d e p o s i t i o n under decreased pressure* She trond o f the ve i n system i s West to teth-east w h i c h conforms w i t h the s t r u c t u r a l trend o f the c o n t a i n i n g (57) rocks*. • Mineraliga t i on 32ie various minerals are arEenopyrlte, e h a l c o p y r i t e , galena, p y r r h O v i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , magnetite, free g o l d , and t e t r a d y a i t e . On the whole p y r i t e I s the most abundant of the sulphides and the re lat ive abundanee- of the other m i n e r a l s v a r i e s aecording to l o c a l i t i e s , * A genetic r e l a t i o n e x i s t i n g between' the p r e * 2 e r t i a r y I n t r u s i v e s and the veto deposits has been suggested and the •Allowing evidence p o i n t s to t h i s J** (1) Mineral deposits are rddely distributed within the older lnt?MsIves bat are m% found i n the tPeritary gftsnltic rocks* , .it) The. Mineralized ^oarts. veins are l i t general broken and faulted to a greater deifeee than the fer lary Intrusives themselves. ( j ) The ^ e r i t e r y rooks c a r r y an appreciable amount of sulphide Mineral whereas such Minerals are commonly conspicuously disseminated i n the p r e - t e r t i a r y erupt Ives* PovelopTflont lining'development has been c h i e f l y its- the nature i»f exploratory work* The veins are too narrow t o develop l a r g e _ tonnages and although gol& values I n placed, may be •spectacular* on the average the ore is too low grade to develop commercially. (53) (D) ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ J ^ M J ^ L ^ W ^ 53iere i s a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n of small,gold prospects tJnroughout the South c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of the Plateaux r e g i o n and a general description of the more' important p r o p e r t i e s i s g i v e n In the annual reports o f the B*0-. M i n i s t e r o f Mines f o r the various years* M o s t l y a l l - o f the d e s c r i p t i o n i s of a summary nature eonsls?ti»g c h i e f l y o f pr o p e r t y h e l d , surface develops ments* and mining methods* ?h© presence o f these prospects has l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n other than t o emphasize the wide d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m i n e r a l i s a t i o n throughout the area and I t s concentration around Igneous roclcs o f ISaeozoic age* : PASS- 11 - BILTOB nmQpvm Qg m&t&mjL As y e t , the o n l y important s i l v e r deposits occaring I n t l i e P l a t e a u Area are those which have been found i n the Beaverdell D i s t r i c t which i s s i t u a t e d about twenty-five miles up the ®est forfc^ a branch o f K e t t l e B l v e r I n the Southern pert o f the re g i o n * The- m i n e r a l i s a t i o n i s o f two types, the s i l v e r - l e a d ores ou '-Tallace f o u n t a i n , near the town o f Peaver-d e l l * and the g o l d - s i l v e r deposits at Cexmi. Canal l i e s f i v e m i l e s up the r i v e r from the town o f Beaverdell and' i s twenty-f i v e m i l e s West o f P o n t i c ton* Within the Beaverdell area occurs the Wallace group o f v o l c a n i c r o c k s w i t h s u b o r d i n a t e sediments., s c h i s t s and c o a r s e g r a i n e d i n t r u s i v e s , the g r e a t e r p a r t o f Which h a s been t e n t a t i v e l y r e f e r r e d t o the E a s o z o i e * 2hey have been i n t r u d e d and metamorphosed f i r s t by the V7 est k e t t l e quarts d i o r i t e b a t h -o l i t h o f J u r a s s i c age and l a t e r by the B e o v e r d e l l q u a r t s mon-• z o n i t e batholith batholith probably of Eocene age* ' The Gurry Greek series o f O l i g o o e n e conglomerates and t u f f s l i e s un-c o n f o r m a b l y over the older r o c k s * 5)he younges t r o c k s are a series of lavas probably of H i o o e n e age which o v e r l i e the Gurry Greek as w e l l as the other f o r m a t i o n s unconformably" ' f ab le of F o r m a t i o n s _,_>gg :- ^formation , , i L i t h o l o ^ i c a l Gharac$eTO^f£blekness ,1a,,1% Quaternary! ' ~~" : :l!i5p'iTTI$n"~. O l i v i n e B a s a l t - % Series rAugite .Andesits i 4000 Miocene :. : Hornblende Andes i t s : t o : -.Dacite * 5000 : • i i B i o t i t e An&esite : :!Praebyte t t : *' Gurry Creek ;s White d a o i t i c t u f f s t Oligocene % S e r i e s : Conglomerate w i t h : , 2500 P l u s : :some sandstone and i % , ^agglomerate ' • t "t • t ? • •. ' « Bsaverde.il :Augite Syenite porphyry: Socene ? i B a t h o l i t h : Quartz Monzonite : • -J u r a s s i c •» West Pork 1 ' * 5 B a t h o l i t h :Quartz D i o r i t e : _ J.. _^ .Jt _ ,,. „..,,• ^ ^^^.^V ' % • i Wallace :(a) Hornblende D i o r i t e : Group : -Porphyrite 1 Heinicke, L*; Geol-.Surv*C*, Kern.* Pg: 51* (6o) gable o f Formations - cont 7 d Age m it. t Formation ^XithoXqgieal. Oha^^qterssghiotoess i n f t j Wallace ;(b) Audesite & daeite t : Group : s c h i s t s .: : : (c) Basic I n t r u s i v e a : : : Olivene gabbro, sex- : : ; o n i t e , Pyroxenite : : % .aomblendite : :(d) Augite and Hornblende:- 200 P l u s : „ Andesite t Hornblende and S u f f s s-lloo P l u s Hornfels t - 100 P l u s • Limestone . "• 200 P l u s , «(g) The rocks o f most economic importance are the Wallace Group, the West Pork B a t h o l i t h ( a l s o known as the Weetkettle Bathe** 11th), and the Beaverdell b a t h o l i t h * V£KL£&& GROIIP Shis group c o n s i s t s c h i e f l y o f h i g h l y metamorphosed andesltes and a n d e s l t l e t u f f s accompanied by b a s i c i n t r u e i v e s which occur i n dykes and s m a l l s t o c k s * Among these igneous rocks are found s m a l l i r r e g u l a r bodies o f c r ^ t a l l i n e limestone and h o r n f e l s * S?his formation covers about one-*third the map area . and i s w e l l developed i n the South-east p a r t * 5?wo l a r g e areas l i e between Cedar Creek and the K e t t l e R i v e r and on S t . John and Mosher r i d g e s * Another area occupies the South s i d e o f Curry Mountain and p a r t o f the West f l a n k o f Wallace Mountain* L l t h o i o g y - Limestone The limestone at the base i s g e n e r a l l y white i n c o l o r (61 ) and coarse g r a i n e d t o m a s s i v e * I n places* c l o s e t o o u t c r o p s o f younger in t r u s l v e s , , contact metamorphism lias t a k e n place and t l i e s i l i c a t e m i n e r a l s g a r n e t r d i o p s l d e , and epidote have t a k e n t h e -p lace o f t h e c a l c i t e g r a i n s * • ^ OM&telg' : / • Dense , f i n d grained, , , g r e y to r e d d i s h r o c k s which have c o m p l e t e l y l o s t t h e i r o r i g i n a l t e x t u r e * guffS Dense , grey, r e d d i s h t o b l a c k r o c k s g e n e r a l l y banded b u t i n p l a c e s m a s s i v e * Hornblende , A n d e s i t e t u f f s are t h e commonest type. B a s l e . I n t r u s l y e g . C o n s i s t c h i e f l y o f pyroxenite, hornblendlte, saxonite, saxonite porphyry, and o l i v i n e g a b b r o . Pyroxenites are g r e e n i s h black, coarse grained, granular r o c k s o c c a s i o n a l l y f o l i a t e d * HOrablendites are black, coarse grained rocks made up almost entirely o f hornblende- a n d bietlte* • .Mefamorphisa A l l the r o c k t y p e s have b e e n metamorphosed t o some degree w i t h r e s u l t a n t r e o r y s t a l l i z a t l o n , b r e c c i a t i o n and development o f s c h i s t o s e s t r u c t u r e s * 53he cause o f t h i s meta-morphism i s a t t r i b u t e d to the a c t i o n o f the Beaverdell quartz monzonite b a t h o l i t h i n t r u d i n g the o v e r l y i n g rocks at high temperature and pressure* 0?he Wallace group has been c o r r e l a t e d on l i t h o l o g l c -a l grounds wi t h Mesozoie i n t r u s i v e s to the South* ( 6 2 ) mSTKETTLE QUiRgZ PI OB ITS This r o c k u n d e r l i e s about one t h i r d o f the Beaverdell area 'and I s o f most economic s i g n i f i c a n c e a s 1% c o n t a i n s a l l the important s i l v e r deposits so f a r discovered* M t h o l o g y She. quarts d i o r i t e . i s . a grey r a t h e r b l a c k .and whit© even grained granular rock c o n t a i n i n g f e l d s p a r , quartz, b i o t i t e , and hornblende. I t c o n s i s t s o f two types, a medium and a f i n e g r a i n e d type. The f i n e grained v a r i e t y i s a marginal type and o c c u r s . o n the t o p o f t h e h i l l s o r n e a r a contact w i t h r o c k s o f the Wallace group. Hetamorphism has a f f e c t e d the r o c k s l i g h t l y and i n pla c e s a g n e l s s i c s t r u c t u r e I s ifound* I n some cases i n and near -breaks and shear •sones,: the rock .has been a l t e r e d t o a greenish white a l t e r e d l o o k i n g mass. Sh i s a l t e r a t i o n i s i n -tense i n places but i s g e n e r a l l y confined to narrow zones. Along these a l t e r e d zones sulphides o f the metals have been deposited and the s i l v e r ores upon Wallace Mountain occur i n ' them. f a u l t i n g f a u l t i n g has occured i n r e g u l a r systems and s i l v e r ores o f Wallace. Mountain are found I n the shear sones* The d i r e c t i o n s o f the f a u l t s are as f o l l o w s : -(1) Oldest - 40° to ?6° S. (2) Second - 5°r,*est to 50°Kas t o f B.- d i s p l a c e s (1)* (?) Offsets (2) and has steeper d i p s * ( 6 3 ) Age She s e r i e s i s younger than the Wallace (Mesozoie) and older than the Gurry Greek (01igocene) and has been t e n t a t i v e l y placed i n the J u r a s s i c . Has c o r r e l a t e d on l i t h o l o g i c a l grounds wi t h the Osoyoos member o f the Okanagan B a t h o l i t h which i s o f J u r a s s i c Age and l i e s 35 m i l e s West o f the Wostkettle b a t h o l i t h at S e a v e r d e l l * ' .BEAIBHDSLl .ffiAagg ICOa^QBggat Efctis member i s important as I t i s be l i e v e d that the ores on Wallace f o u n t a i n and at Carmi were formed by hot waters which accompanied or followed the i n t r u s i o n of the oval shaped mass at Sea v e r d e l l * , A great mass o f quartz monzonite occupies the i f c r t h -e m part o f the map area and branch o f t h i s mass runs down the Eastern side as far as Supple l a k e s * A smaller mass i s found at C r y s t a l M o u n t a i n * L i t h o l o g y The main mass consists o f ' a pinkish 'white, medium t o coarse grained rock o f g r a n i t o i d t e x t u r e * I n some l o c a l i t i e s a f i n e r grained v a r i e t y i s found* Related .ffykes A few dykes o f quartz l a t i t e porphyry r a d i a t e out from the main mass* They are p o r p h y r i t i c w i t h p h e n o c ^ s t s o f pink f e l d s p a r and quartz i n a grey ground mass* Pegmatite dykes occurfas o f f s h o o t s o f the b a t h o l i t h are o f t e n seen near I t s edges* j»rom t h i s evidence i t i s apparent that the b a t h o l i t h underwent d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n * The a c i d i c phases are represented (64) I n the nature o f r e l a t e d d y k e s and i t s m i n e r a l i s i n g a c t i o n * The monzonite i s o l d e r than the C u r r y C r e e k Ollgocene sed imen t s and y o u n g e r t h a n the Wsstkettle b a t h o l i t h ( J u r a s s i c ? ) * . I t I s h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e monzonite b a t h o l i t h was I n t r u d e d much l a t e r t h a n the Westkettle b a t h o l i t h and t h a t a p e r i o d o f e r o s i o n oeeured between the two i n t r u s i o n s a s more pebbles o f quartz d l o r i t e than pebbles o f quartz monzonite are found I n the Gurry Creek s e r i e s * i s t h e r e i s m s i g n i f i c a n t f o l d i n g or d e f o r m a t i o n i n the b a t h o l i t h I t i s evident that I t was intr u d e d a f t e r profound disturbances which took place at the end o f the Cretaceous* I t i s therefore p l a c e d i n the Eocene* ORE DSPOSIgS The ore deposits of the area are o f three d i s t i n c t igroupss'T': • •  (1) M i n e r a l i s e d s h e a r Kones (2) Stocks (3) Contact Met amorphic deposits 9ans type c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f more o r l e s s tabu-l a r bodies o f b r a c e l e t e d r o o k , quartz, and ore minerals which l i e between well defined w a l l s * IPhey Include the galena, s p h a l e r i t e , p y r i t e , s i l v e r bearing ores and the c h a l c o p y r i t e g e l d bearing ores* Among the former are the o n l y o r e bodies • i n t h e d i s t r i c t w h i c h have been worked at a p r o f i t * She deposits a r e found I n an area o f three square (65) m i l e s o n Wallace Mountain and a l s o a t t h e town o f C a n a l * Their d i s t r i b u t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d b y the p r e s e n c e o f the Westkettle quartz d i o r i t e w h i c h i s t h e o n l y c o u n t r y rock in w h i c h they are found t o be d e v e l o p e d ' t o any e x t e n t • The reason f o r t h i s I s bel i e v e d t o be t h a t the q u a r t s d i o r i t e was more competent to h o l d open the fractures o r s h e a r zones d e v e l o p e d p r i o r t o t h e i n t r u s i o n o f t h e Beaverdell monzonite which was m i n e r a l i z i n g i n i t s a c t i o n . T e x t u r e o f t h e g e u e i s i t a ' Tne t e x t u r e o f the s h e a r sxme depos i t s i s most commonly brecciated fragments o f a l t e r e d country rock f i l l e d w i t h quartz* I n some cases w e l l defined v e i n s are found and they show a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c drasy s t r u c t u r e . The a l t e r e d rock w i t h i n the shear zones c o n s i s t s o f fragments o f quartz d i o r i t e h i g h l y a l t e r e d by ore bearing s o l u t i o n s * gJnera%Oi^ . • The ore deposits on Wallace f o u n t a i n c o n s i s t o f P y r i t e , galena, s p h a l e r i t e , t e t r a h i d r l t e , p y r a r g y r l t e , Hative S i l v e r and ar g e n t i t e i n a gangue o f s e r i e i t e r quartz, b a r i t e , i r o n oxide and C a l c i t e . The moat common o f the ore minerals are p y r i t e , galena, and Sphalerite*-. Tne o r e s at Garni are made up o f S p h a l e r i t e , p y r i t e , e h a l c o p y r i t e , galena, molybdenite, s e r i e i t e , quartz and a n k e r i t e . P a ragenesis ' According to Reinecke 1 the minerals bear the f o l l o w i n g c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n to one another: 1 Reiufeeke, L . : G . S . C . iiemV 79, P g : 91. (66) S e r i c i t e ) . _ >. SSI; ) (Youngest) - SSST™ ) S ^ j j f i r o n Gride} g a u l t i n ^ A g r e a t many f a u l t s occur w i t h i n t h e a r e a and t h e o r e b e a r i n g s h e a r zones have been o f f s e t t o some degree* The d i r e c t i o n o f the f a u l t s v a r i e s and t h e r e i s no g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n between the d i r e c t i o n o f f a u l t planes and the amount o f d i s -placement along them* There i s , however* a connection between the amount o f displacement and the d i p * Along those planes which have a shallow d i p the g r e a t e s t displacement has occured and the d i s p l a c e d blocks are broken up by a l a r g e number of, s m a l l e r f a u l t s o f steep> d i p * The nature o f the m i n e r a l i z i n g agents was that o f hot-water s o l u t i o n s and vapors emanating from the Beaverdell quartz monzonite* These s o l u t i o n s were concentrated i n the shear zones p r e v i o u s l y developed i n the W s s t k e t t l e B a t h o l i t h * They deposited the ore by p a r t l y r e p l a c i n g the broken country rock and p a r t l y f i l l i n g the c a v i t i e s between the broken fragments* The depth a t which c o n s o l i d a t i o n took place was probably around £ 0 0 0 f t i n the v i c i n i t y o f Wallace JSountain and at some greater depth at C a r m i — p o s s i b l y 2000 f t . That there has been a d i f f e r e n c e i n p h y s i c a l con-d i t i o n s o f the ore forming s o l u t i o n s a t Carmi and those a t Wallace Mountain i s shown b y the d i f f e r e n c e i n m i n e r a l i z a t i o n In t h e two camps* She presence o f Sfetrahedrite, P y r a r g y r l t e and b a r i t e at Wallace Mountain 1 a l l i n d i c a t e formation a t moderate o r shallow d e p t h s , whereas a t Carmi t h e s e t h r e e minerals a r e conspicuously absent and ' the ' a s s o c i a t i o n o f c h a l c o p y r i t e and molybdenite w i t h s m a l l amounts o f g a l e n a I n -d i c a t e s formation e i t h e r at great or moderate depths probably around jJOOO f e e t * Boweyer si n c e the mlncralif?a.tlon and mode o f occur-ence I s i n d i c a t i v e o f d e p o s i t i o n a t d e p t h s g r e a t e r t h a n £000 or 3000 f e e t , being more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f depths o f 4000 to 12000 f e e t , Reineehe has- accounted for- - t h i s - by c o n s i d e r i n g the : o v e r l y i n g Wallace formation a f a c t o r which a r t i f i c i a l l y pro-duced t h e conditions o f d e p o s i t i o n under high temperature and ; pressure* This: caused d e p o s i t i o n o f minerals c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f temperature from l ? J j ° to 300°C. and o f pressures from 140 to 400 atmospheres* • According to h i s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ^ t h e c l e a n cut shears i n the quartz d i o r i t e d i e d out i n the o v e r l y i n g un- • s h e a r e d Wallace formation w h i c h t'hea'Wt'ed as a blanket and caused concentration of the mineral s o l u t i o n s and increase o f temperature and 7)ressure i n the shear zones o f the d i o r i t e * However, under these conditfcns, i n the t 7 r i t e r T s o p i n i o n , a greater degree o f replacement than was described should be present* On the other hand i f t h i s theory i s disregarded e r o s i o n o f thousands o f f e e t of m a t e r i a l has to be po s t u l a t e d t o s u i t t he c o n d i t i o n s as t h e y e x i s t today* Secondary Depos-it^on She zone o f secondary d e p o s i t i o n I s v e r y shallow and (68) I t r a r e l y e x t e n d s f o r more than a few fee t from t h e surface* G a l c i t e * n a t i v e s i l v e r and s o f t c l a y e y m a t e r i a l o f t e n appear i n t h e c r o s s f a u l t s w h i c h o f f s e t the o r e b o d i e s and v e i n l e t s o f c l a c i t e and c h l o r i t e a r e found c u t t i n g a c r o s s t h e ore b o d i e s * P y r a r g y r i t e i n some eases may be secondary* i A g e _ o > f ^ g p ^ s | t s * .She formation. o f t h e s h e a r zones has not , been d e f i n i t e l y d a t e d * I t i s probalbe t h a t t h e y were ftamed a f t e r the i n t r u s i o n o f the Westkettle q u a r t z d i o r i t e and b e f o r e o r d u r i n g - t h a t o f ' - the . B e a v e r d e l l q u a r t z ,m&mzonIte*.. that, i s * between the J u r a s s i c and Soeene* P o s s i b l y t h e y -were formed d u r i n g the Post-haramie r e v o l u t i o n o f the Cretaceous* The formation o f t h e ore d e p o s i t s , however, took place ^ust a f t e r the I n t r u s i o n o f t h e quartz mon Konite f o r they occur a f t e r intense s e r i c i t i z a t i o n i n the shear zones, an a l t e r a t i o n which has a f f e c t e d the quartz monzonite to a very s l i g h t extent, i f a t a l l * Also t h e o r e i s found i n dykes which f o l l o w along the shear zones and which a r e , t h e r e f o r e , very probably s a t e l l i t e s o f t h e quartz monzonite intruded before the main mass came t o p l a c e * Sequence ..of J n t i m a ^ (1) She formation of ISast-west s h e a r zones i n the Westkettle quartz d i o r i t e , ( 2 ) The i n t r u s i o n of the Eeaverdell quarts monzonite preceded by the i n t r u s i o n o f dykes o f andesite* and accompanied by i n t r u s i o n s o f a p l l t e dykes* (3) The formation o f s e r i c i t e i n the shear zones during the I n t r u s i o n o f the q u a r t z monzonite* (4) The formation o f quartz and p y r i t e and the other m e t a l l i c sulphides-(6?) ( 5 ) ? a i i l t i n g and o f f s e t t i n g o f the o r e s . (6) The f o r m a t i o n s o f n a t i v e s i l v e r , i r o n o x i d e , c h l o r i t e , , c a l c i t e , and K a o l i n . STOCKS- . . ' . .IHxe s t o c k s a r e d e f i n e d as a -number o f o r e b o d i e s o f i r r e g u l a r fo rm w i t h i n which t h e s h a t t e r e d c o u n t r y rock has been impregna t ed w i t h m e t a l l i c minerals and • sometimes w i t h quar ts*. They dc n o t have t h e two w e l l ' d e f i n e d w a l l s o f t h e s h e a r zones* W i t h t h e s t o c k s are i n c l u d e d ' i r r e g u l a r b o d i e d o f ore o c c u r i n g i n quar tz , ve ins ' w h i c h have n o t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e shea r zone o r contact-metaniorphic type* l i l n e r a l o g x ' • The sulphides c o n s i s t c h i e f l y o f ,p y r i t e and pyrrho-t i te w i t h minor amounts o f e h a l c o p y r i t e , m o l y b d e n i t e , and a r s e n o p y r i t e * The gangue i s g e n e r a l l y quar tz* . I n p l a c e s , i t c o n s i s t s o f c a l c i t e and epldote* O f t e n the country r o c k forms t he gangue where i t has been r e p l a c e d b y the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n * D i s t r i b u t i o n The d e p o s i t s a r e on the who le c o n f i n e d to" a r e a s I n w h i c h the country r o c k i s some member o f t h e W a l l a c e f o r m a t i o n * In" t he greater number o f oases i t i s a dense g r e y t u f f o r sed imen t* The " s t o c k s " very o f t e n occur i n b e l t s o f shattered r o c k w h i c h have o n o c c a s i o n s a well, d e f i n e ! 'w a l l bu t two c l e a n c u t w a l l s a r e as a rule. . , not p r e s e n t * They a r e found on the .eas tern side o f Wallace Mountain, i n Curry Greek and on S t* J o h n • r i d g e * ••••••• ' • im • .Genesis, o f the S t o c k s i n s u f f i c i e n t development l i a s been done t o r e a c h a d e f i n i t e o p i n i o n as t o whe the r the b o d i e s were a l l o f contem-poraneous o r i g i n as t h e y v a r y a good d e a l i n m i n e r a l make u p . However, the n a t u r e o f m i n e r a l i s a t i o n w i t h the presence o f P y r r h o t i t e I n d i c a t e that t h e y were formed u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f h i g h temperature and pressure eharacterxstle••of" depths'of I2.,u00 f e e t , The s o u r c e o f t h e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n was I n h o t r i s i n g s o l u t i o n s w h i c h were p o s s i b l y d e r i v e d from the q u a r t z d i o r i t e magma* THE- GQIiTAGT M M Q R E S I . q B1P0SITS A r e r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t a s t h e y a r e no t extensive n o r I s t h e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e ' I n a n economic sense* O n l y one body i s known and i t i s l o c a t e d o n Copper Creek* • • The c o u n t r y rock i l l w h i c h t h e d e p o s i t l i e s i s l i m e -stone and hornblende d i o r i t e of t h e Wallace group* Most of the ore i s I n t h e limestone* The area I s c o m p l e t e l y s u r r o u n d e d b y T e r t i a r y l a v a f l o w s and dykes o f t h e same m a t e r i a l * The m i n e r a l s found I n the d e p o s i t oa&sist o f c h a l c o p y r i t e , b o r n i t e , m a l a c h i t e , a z u r i t e and p y r i t e w i t h g a r n e t , epidote, q u a r t s , & a l i a s t o n i t o and p r o b a b l y c a l c i t e * fenesis • The m i n e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e t y p i c a l o f c o n t a c t met amorphic d e p o s i t s * There a r e three p o s s i b i l i t i e s as t o the i g n e o u s i n t r u s i o n w h i c h caused the metamorphism* F i r s t . , t h a t t h e d e p o s i t s were due t o the a c c e s s o f hea t and mineral!zers (71) brough t about by T e r t i a r y l a v a s ; i3econd, t h a t t h e y a r e t h e r e s u l t o f the i n t r u s i o n o f a l a r g e b a t h o l i t h i e mass which i s covered.;. T h i r d , t h a t t h e y were due t o the i n t r u s i o n o f t h e W a l l a c e d i o r i t e * . • O f t h e s e t h r e e hypotheses the second p r o v i d e s the', mos t s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a h a t i i m to s u i t t h e c o n d i t i o n s * ' The B e a v e r d e U L - q u a r t s m o n z o n i t e b a t h o l i t h o u t c r o p s t l i r e e a x l e s to the JSast ami a few m i l e s , t o ' t h e West of t h i s p l a c e * ' It' c o v e r s l a r g e a r e a s i n l o t h c a s e s and i t i s h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t t h i s same b a t h o l i t h u n d e r l i e s the Copper C reek c o n t a c t metamorphic dep6slV ; a n d i s the s o u r c e o f the .aetamorphism*. The most i m p o r t a n t o f the d e p o s i t s o f c o p p e r o r e I n t he P l a t e a u s A r e a a r e t h o s e w h i c h a r e found i n t he Copper M o u n t -a i n m i n i n g a r e a * O t h e r copper d e p o s i t s are found s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h t h e P la teaux r e g i o n but on the whole t h e y a r e no t o f s u f f i c i e n t g rade to warrant development u n d e r o r d i n a r y c o n d i -t i o n s * Kov/ever, I n the event o f a f a v o r a b l e p r i c e f o r c o p p e r , c e r t a i n deposits such as t h o s e at Hedley are o f s u f f i c i e n t s i z e t o r e p r e s e n t p o t e n t i a l s u p p l i e s , o f t h e m e t a l * I n the Copper M o u n t a i n mining a r e a there i s a -wide d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Copper m i n e r a l i s a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the N o r t h -e r n p a r t o f the a r e a on bo th s i d e s o f t h e Simllkameen B l v e r * The most noted d e p o s i t s a re t h o s e w h i c h o c c u r e n Copper Moun t -a i n * A t one t ime ( l ? l 8 ) p r o d u c t i o n amounted t o £,500 t o n s o f 7 f s to E o s i & t i f e Af tdesi te .T j f f , Breccta FelSlW Porphyry-Mine Oyk.es Syenod 'O f tte , ^AonzomVe W o l f C r e e K - ar>d€5ite,toff ehc. S K E T C H M A P TO SHOW GEOLOGY OF COPPER. MOUNTAIN AREA. — -A p p r o x . S c a l e i" - 35o' (72) ore a day. Hone o f the other deposits In t h i s area have ever been developed t o the productive stage. (A) POPPER HCPHPAIN iiGeneralii ^ Geology She g e o l o g i c a l formations i n the v i c i n i t y o f Copper Mountain are as f o l l o w s : ' • ' Quaternary : T e r t i a r y : fi Alluvium G l a c i a l D r i f t t E n s t a t i t e andesite flows, t u f f s b r e c c i a ^ basic, dykes ,1 s S : Andesite Dykes* •»-"Mine Dykes": quartz uorphyry, f e l ~ s i t e porphyry., _ Dykes of monzonite pegmatite and : Copper Mountain stock: syenogabbro, * d i o r i t e , monzonite. s Voigt and Smelter Lake stocks: syeno-Bodies o f Augite D i o r i t e , i :• Mesozoic : T r i a s s I c ( ? ) : Wolf Creek: B a s a l t , Auglte porph#±£«e In an economic d i s c u s s i o n o f the area the Wolf Creek formation and the Copper Mountain and Folgt steeks are the most important r o c k s . These formations are d i n e c t l y concerned w i t h the ore bodies.*, .ttf..:CBEg,'TO|gM . This formation u n d e r l i e s the greater- p a r t o f the map area and c o n s i s t s o f a t h i c k s e r i e s o f voleanle t u f f s , flows, • mi.-and b r e c c i a s * The t u f f s a m f i n e l y banded , d a r k b rown, f i n e g r a i n e d - . . rocks r e s e m b l i n g t r u e sed iments , .and are. b e s t d e v e l o p e d i n t h e . Southernmost s e c t i o n o f t h e map a r e a * Adjacent t o t h e s e t a f f s are a few flows from two to four feet t h i c k of a m y g d a l o i d a l b a s a l t , w e l l e x p o s e d i n Simillcameen Canyon Sou th o f t h e Copper Mountain Stock* K o r t h o f these-,, occupying a wide b e l t i n the central part of the area and surrounding the Copper Mountain s t o c k , i s a i h i c k s e r i e s o f medium to c o a r s e , d a r k g r e e n b r e c c i a s * T h i s l a t t e r g roup a r e of g r e a t e s t Impor t ance because t h e y e n c l o s e a l l t h e ore- b o d i e s o f t h e d i s t r i c t * g f r a ^ t u r ^ ^ $a$. br-eeielaa ;hay© been sab^etga. to. s t r e s s e s * S r a c t u r i n g 'and f o l i a t i o n has been -developed i n them i n a zone which p a r a l l e l s the contact between the breccias and the Copper Mountain stock on i t s iSbrtb-east side*- -The f o l i a t i o n extends p r a c t i c a l l y the f u l l length o f the stock ant has a w i d t h o f s e v e r a l hund red f e e t * S t r i k i n g n o r m a l t o t h e contact v a s t numbers o f c l o s e l y s p a c e d s t r a i g h t p a r a l l e l f r a c t u r e s c u t a c r o s s t h e ' f o l i a t i o n * These feactures and t h e f o l i a t i o n were o f the greatest importance i n a l l o w i n g the s o l u t i o n s t h a t deposited the ore minerals access to the b r e c c i a s as the bulk o f the ore minerals are found to be i n these f r a c t u r e s * C o r r e l a t i o n The formation i s d o u b t f u l l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Dawson* s . M c o l a s e r i e s which I s Of T r i a s s l c age* GGESm HOISTA1H STOCK T h r e e s t o c k - l i k e b o d i e s a r e f o u n d I n t r u d i n g " t h e : wolf (74 ) Greek formation, t he l a r g e s t o f w h i c h i s known a s the Copper Mountain Stock. S h i s body o c c u p i e s s e r v e r s ! s q u a r e m i l e s ' i n t h e Sou th c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h e a r e a . T h i s body I s g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to t h e l a r g e c o p p e r d e p o s i t s f o r Y?hioh t h e d i s t r i c t I s •noted* -Simllkameea Canyon c u t s t h r o u g h t h e c e n t r e o f t h e stock* The Copper M o u n t a i n o r e d e p o s i t s l i e a g a l n s the North-east s i d e o f the body* The composition o f t he slock i s h i g h l y v a r i a b l e and i t shows a t r a n s i t i o n across i t s width from a syenogabbro at i t s outer margin t o n e a r l y pure f e l d s p a r Orthoelase and a l b i t e i n a c e n t r a l core n e a r l y a m i l e i n diameter* This c e n t r a l phase being i n the nature o f a peg n a t i t e which i s oopper bearing. Solmage ' ' i n t e r p r e t s t h i s a r rangement a s r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n from a s i n g l e magaa and that the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n took p l a c e l a r g e l y i n s i d e . jge,.qnd Correlation, The age o f t h e i n t r u s i o n canno t be d e f i n i t e l y f l s - e d other than i t was I n j e c t e d a f t e r the d e p o s i t i o n and f o l d i n g o f t h e %>!£••Creek' f o r m a t i e n - a n d t h a t I t ' i s e o n s i d e r a b l y younge r -in age than the Wolf Creek sediments which p l a c e s i t as post- . S r i a s s l e * 'The f b i g t stock o c c u p i e s abou t 1£ square M i e s i n the Sbrth-east corner o f the map area and extends to the East. The Smelter l a k e stock occupies about one square i d l e i n the West-ern pa r t o f Smelter l a k e V a l l e y and extends outside o f the map 1 V. Dolmage:. Mem* 171 C.S.C.- Pg: 15* <1$) area to the l lort l i* These stocks d i f f e r from the Copper Mountain stool: In that tbggr a r e tifilforit I n aoag^tJltSon* Also the :t$p© crff mine rail sat Ion l e d i f f e r e n t as in association with them are large amounts of hematite* magnetite and pyrite with no . borttlfe©* . These stocks are both |,a^smsi«e Into the Wolf Creek formation isnd are therefore bath p o e t ^ ^ l a i s o l e in ago* ^Shais similarity in composition to the Coppor Mountain stock suggests 0, boaaon o r i g i n ' a M .age* Hiefe? hoiaQgeaelty a n t their t y p e o f associated raineralisct lost suggest that they aro slightly younger than the Copper Mountain etceJc" * ** thsi %asls -of • M a ^ r a i $!»g^ sl2l#;Oi% geaette mmnstetim tlcn, and geographic posit Ion, the capper deposits o f the district_ f a l l into three WB12 defined groups which, in order of iRjportanee <are: (1) Bornite deposits associated in position and origin with the Copjer Mountain ctock* (2) Ciioicopyrite-Homailte deposits related to and situated in the Toigt stock* (30 Chaloopyeite-pyrlto deposits occupying a wide belt e » tending zrorn the West side of Voigt* s Camp across BihaiU^sasesi %3.Iey -to beyonS f.a l i a i t f o f tt^ ts attp area* The bornite group includes the deposits o f tho Copper Hountain mine as well m several lose? important deposits at V. Dolmage: Geol. Survey Can. Mem. 171. Pg. (76) various p l a c e s i n o r a d j a c e n t t o t h e Copper Mountain s t o c k * The ores c o n s i s t o f bo r n l t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e w i t h small amounts of magnetite and p y r i t e , and l a r g e amounts o f o r t h o c l a s s , a l b i t e , a u g i t e , b i o t i t e , epidote and s o i s l t e as gangue minerals and a l t e r a t i o n products* These m i n e r a l © o c c u r i n (;1) t h e gabbro ' of the stock (2) i n pegmatite v e i n s . I n the c e n t r a l core o f the stock, and (?) most abundantly i n the f r a c t u r e d v o l c a n i c b r e c c i a s o f the S o l f Greek formations adjacent t o the s t o c k , • c l a s s i f i e d as contact d e p o s i t s * The l a t t e r type a r e the most Important a s t h e y i n c l u d e t h e e r e ^ b o d i e s •which' have been developed on Copper Mountain and t h e y a r e the r i c h e s t and l a r g e s t of the d i s t r i c t * (1) Cpntaet ^ ^ ^ o s l t ^ . The ores occur mainly i n fragtaental v o l c a n i c rocks which have been I n t e n s e l y metamorphosed, f r a c t u r e d and sheared before being m i n e r a l i z e d . * This b e l t o f a l t e r a t i o n and m i n e r s a l i z a t i o n extends f o r 2-g- m i l e s along the contact o f the Coppe r ^ G u n t a l f t a t o c k e f ' g a b b r o ' w i t h t h e f r a b s e n t a l v o l e a & i e . m a t e r i a l which approaches the gabbro I n composition* The c o n t r o l l i n g s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e i n the d e p o s i t i o n o f t h e o r e * a s the p r e ^ m i n e r a l -J^'aeturlng w h i c h d e v e l o p e d i n c l o s e p a r a l l e l arrangement s t r i k i n g g e n e r a l l y at r i g h t angles t o t h e contact- a n d a c r o s s the f o l i a t i o n o f t h e ' h o s t r o c k * As these f r a c t u r e s served as the channels f o r t he mineral s o l u t i o n s the ore bodies show a tendency t o p a r a l l e l them* The width o f the f r a c t u r e s v a r i e s from a f r a c t i o n o f a m i l l i m e t r e to a centimetre and averages not more than a few m i l l i m e t r e s * Their (77) l e n g t h ' v a r i e s g r e a t l y but o n t h e w h o l e t h e y a r e f a i r l y shor t . , t h e l o n g e s t found b e i n g t w e n t y f e e t . 'The t e n o r d f t h e o r e i s determined according to t h e s p a c i n g o f t h e o r e f r a c t u r e s and where t h e y a v e r a g e two i n c h e s a p a r t the o r e g rade I s about Z% . c o p p e r * The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f m i n e r a l i s a t i o n i s c o n f i n e d t o zones o f . r o c k s w h i c h were ' s u i t a b l y f r a c t u r e d to s e r v e a s m i n -e r a l c h a n n e l s . This c o n c e n t r a t i o n along the c o n t a c t may also have' %een a i d e d by t h e o c c u r e n c e o f - b e d s or - c i l i a o f non f r a g m e n t s ! t, : c r y s t a l l i n e r o c k s w h i c h 'are ' l n t e r b e d d e d w i t h the f r a g m e n t s ! rocks i n the v i c i n i t y 6f 'the-' deposits and may have acted as dams.to the mineralisation o r as competent horizons which ' l o c a l i z e d the- f r a s . t u r i n g betweeS thesseiyes and t h e gabbro;. s t o c k * A l t e r a t ^ i The main type o f a l t e r a t i o n which occured previous to a n d d u r i n g t h e - ' m l n e r a l l - & a t i Q n w a s - b l o t i t l z a t i o n o f t h e m a t r i x • o f t h e I n t r u d e d ro-ek» A second type a l s o occurred i n the form o f the I n t r o -duct i o n of l a r g e amounts of pyroxene i n the fragmental ro,ek* This a l t e r a t i o n took place a f t e r the b l o t i t i s a t i o n and previous t o the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . The ©ompesI,M©n o f t h e o r e s d i f f e r s f rom o t h e r -copper' o r e s o f B.C.' i n t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s p e c t s * (1) The l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f B o r n l t e . (2) Almost e n t i r e absence o f p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e * ( J ) The l a r g e amount o f s y e n i t i e pegmatite. (4) The absence o f quartz* ( 7 8 ) The f o l l o w i n g minerals have been I d e n t i f i e d : Bornlte Chaleopyrite P y r i t e Magnetite Ohalcocite C o r e l l i t e M a l a c h i t e Asrarite Hematite Galena S p h a l e r i t e Augit© , Orthoclase A l b i t e O l i g o c l a s e B i o t i t e Epidote Z o r s i t e S e r i c i t e Quartz >lite Piediaon'tlte ( D -\Boaroite- ' I s the most important o f the sulphides due t o I t s h i g h copper content* I t s presence determines t h e value o f the ore* Where i t i s absent the grade o f the ore i s non commer-c i a l * She m i n e r a l occurs as masses i n the ore f r a c t u r e s and as disseminations through the a d j o i n i n g rocks* (2) Chaleo:oyrite Is -the most abundant m e t a l l i c ialaerut i n ' a l l the ores except those that occur i n pegmatite dykes where i t Is re p l a c e d by b o r n l t e * • . . . . (3) C h a l c o c i t e Occurs In minor amounts and i s more common i n the o x i d i s e d zone where I t i s associated with other supergene copper mi n e r a l s . Smaller amounts b e l i e v e d to be hypergene i n o r i g i n are found i n lower l e v e l s * Tery minor amounts o f Hematite, Galena, S p h a l e r i t e , Colo, and S i l v e r occur but are o f l i t t l e economic importance* iGangaeii Minerals ' . The most abundant of the non-metallic minerals i s augite which occurs i n the m a t r i x o f the v o l c a n i c b r e c c i a * (19) Here I t - h a s d e v e l o p e d due t o . c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e b r e e o i a t e d r o c k m a t e r i a l * O r t h o d a s e and a l b i t e a r e ' a l s o • abundan t bu t a r e c h i e f l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e p e g m a t i t e d e p o s i t s where-. a u g l t e i s o n l y s l i g h t l y developed* B i o i i t e i s common and ©xtemely abundant i n a l l t h e o r e s * I n some c a s e s t h e v o l c a n i c b r e c c i a s have been a lmos t c o m p l e t e l y b i o t i z e d by c o n t a c t metamorphic a g e n c i e s p r i o r t o the d e p o s i t i o n o f t h e o r e minerals* . f a r a g e n e M s 2he o r d e r o f d e p o s i t i o n I s n o t c l e a r but I t c an be •vorked o u t w i t h r e s p e c t t o c e r t a i n g r o u p s : ( 1 ) I'ir.st acpasitedV.Xiaglt3.and J^atlt.eK~by..replacement &£ \ o r i g i n a l m i n e r a l s o f vol-can ' le rocks* \ D e p o s i t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y * E h a l c o p y r i t e ^ , t i o n s o n l y - s i m a l t a n e o u s l y v? i th A u g l t e and .Biotlte-* . ..Some -feldspars*, . , ' (2) IPraeiuring followed by d e p o s i t i o n o f B^gmatdte and bulk o f • minerals*-' . (1) O r t ' h o c l a s e , A l b i t e , A u g l t e , % l d a t e , B l o t l t e and Garne t* (2) e h a l c o p y r i t e , Bornlte and C h a l c o e i t e * (33 Development; o f S e r i c l t e . and. C h l o r i t e * .(.4). l a s t .group Snpergeae l l i a i e r a l s ^ S a l a c h l t e . , Asaar l te* K a o l i n , C o v e l l i t e and C h a l c o e i t e . (2) Gabbro D e p o s i t s D e p o s i t s : o c c u r i n g i n - t h e g a b b r o phase o f the- s t o c k a r e f o u n d I n two; w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d p l a e e a * - o n e on the . south , s i d e , o f t h e s t o c k and t h e -other o n t h e W e s t e r n -side* i n - bo th p l a c e s t h e gabbro h a s g n e l s s l e s t r u c t u r e w i t h w h i c h t h e C o p p e r m i n e r a l s . (80) a r e a s s o c i a t e d * f h e o r e s c o n s i s t o f f r e s h .lo.o&ing, s l i g h t l y gn@ia.sJLo •gabbro c o n t a i n i n g i n t h e f o l i a t i o n p l a n e s , d i s s e m i n a t e d g r a i n s o f b o m i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , e h a l c o e l t e and e o r a l l l t s * (3) P e ^ B a t l t e i Beues i i t ia The o r e s contained l a t h e p e g m a t i t e s d i f f e r f r o m those of the Copper Mountain mine o n l y i n t h a t t hey occur i n pegmatite dykes o f normal s i z e , composition, and mode o f o c c u r e n c e * She d y k e s occur w i t h i n , the;sto,6fc or* near- i t s margin* S h e o t h e r o r e s o c c u r I n v o l e a n i e . b r e c c i a s accompan ied by l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f pegmatltie m a t e r i a l a s gangue mine r a l s * ••• She d e p o s i t s .are f o u n d i n t h e p e g m a t i t e s © a t t i n g t h e •outer p o r t i o n o f • the Sapper ti&ma&e&M . s tock ' I n ' the. v i c i n i t y o f .F r iday ; 'C re . ek* ' , (B) ^Bo^m^&j^^msm^^^^ . fhg.se.deposits occur a s r e p l a c e m e n t v e i n s I n "the Y o l g t s t o c k n e a r I t s Wes t e rn .contact and have been, n o t e d i n two places.*., the. v e i n s v a r y i n w i d t h .from 2. to. 14 f e e t and • . s t r i k e ' at., r i g h t , ' a n g l e s t i : ' t h e . i » E M f t - f e e t w e e m - 'the. s y e n o d i e r i t e v s t o c k . amds/the ' l « S ! # i C r e e k ^©•••^eia-miaerai^' ln--orde^ -of 'their- atadafct*e a*e* h e a o t l t © . , p . y r i t e , o r t h o c l a s e . , a l b t | e : a e l l g o o l & s © ^ q u a r t s , . c a l e i t e , m a g n e t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , c h l o r i t e , e p l d o t e and s e r f e - . The d e p o s i t s a r e g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e F o i g f s t o c k o f s y e n o d l o r l t e which wae m i n e r a l i z i n g i n I t s a c t i o n * (81) SJo commercial development o f t h e d e p o s i t s has been a t t e m p t e d a l t h o u g h t h e y represent* i n two I n s t a n c e s , p o s s i b l e p o t e n t i a l sources o f copper ore* (C) G^OOFHSIgB, ~, ' PffiI$E/IE£pSIT3 !£he§e d e p o s i t s a r e b e l i e v e d to have b e e n d e p o s i t e d i n t h e W o l f G r e e k v f o r m a t l o n -under - f a i r l y h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e con* a i t I o n s by the "host - horse* i n t r n s i v e s ( s y e n i t e ) . * Z b e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i s confined t o a r eas ' i n w h i c h the l a t t e r f o r m a t i o n I s -found,.• 2hus t h e y a r e s c a t t e r e d over t h e Hbrthero p a r t o f the area f rom Toigt's Gamp West across the Similkameen* • ;fhe m i n e r a l i s a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f I n d e f i n i t e - e h a l e o -p y r i t e - p y r i t e d i s s e m i n a t i o n s apparently u n r e l a t e d to any s t r u c t u r a l features* ' ihe b o d i e s ' are elongated g e n e r a l l y i n a n .JBast-west . d i r e c t i o n * l*he d e p o s i t s do no t r e p r e s e n t i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s o f " o c p p e r ore*. Dr.* Dolmage 3" has d e f i n i t e l y sho.Mi t h a t t h e ore d e p o s i t s a r e g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o the i n t r u s i o n o f t h e Copper M o u n t a i n s t o c k * A summary o f h i s c o n c l u s i o n s o n w h i c h t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s b a s e d , i s as f o l l o w s : - ( ! ) She c o p p e r ores• a r e t y p i c a l o f o t h e r d e p o s i t s known to-have t h e i r o r i g i n i n i g n e o u s i n t r u s i o n s * ( 2 ) 3?he m i n e r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s among t h e ores, pegmatites, and v a r i o u s phases o f t h e s t o c k * (3) She v a s t amounts o f p e g m a t i t e i n the o r e s and o f c o p p e r i n t h e pegmatite core and dykes* X Bolmage., 7*? C e o l * S u r v * f l a n ^ Mem* 171**- Pg.;- 34* z o h z LU U_ !± Q •G z 0 Z> Q! I— U z u-i a UJ o o h < X o £ - Q . c Q II 8 U to b c ex £ "c 0 o •Sir-©.0 <0 o 0 o c V) rr <L> ° U 5. e.s Q . O 4 w I o a. u © >- a) •o <0 1 e 6^ o CD C o i . « z, D. 0 uJ a a O a "8 -0 C u :.• -to-,1) <*0 ,1; J ; TO _ i0 0 - . r s o . 3 2 •2 ~ o •o 4- £ v, 2' ! O. o .,0 5 ' f t o, 2 £ © « 6 9 O c | 3 "^ 3 6 C o "O o • c CM 6 4,5 c •I '"2 u o o-c to a o O > i -S' 3 ^ 5 m Sr 8 : I I r '/'•'o'-.'-vir'. o V CL. EU 6 o-o 6 • - is s g. o >-2 o ja d £ pi o u C C3 "5 = £ E-6 ^ Q j5 m i % o c . c 0 o ••. - • • -o a) 3 TS u o JO a is r a CO a . rc5 (0 a-to (82) (B) HISCELLAHEOUS COPgBR MBOSIgS (i) grossr mm, -Copper m i n e r a l s are s p a r i n g l y disseminated t h r o u g h a l l the m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s o f the area but o n l y I n two p l a c e s have t h e y been eoneentrated s u f f i c i e n t l y t o form p o s s i b l e ' s o u r c e s o f c o p p e r o r e* e h a l c o p y r i t e i s . t h e ,oM©# s u l p h i d e ' a n f I t i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e g o l d m i n e r a l i s a t i o n such that the copper o r e s are g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the gabbro i n t r u s i v e aiid are o f t h e c o n t a c t .metamor'phis type*-(a) g g ^ ^ j g . . , - ! g l ^ I n t h i s area the copper d e p o s i t s are the most im-portant m e t a l l i c deposits and ere the most widespread* fhey are-o-f.three classBS* •. Jl} S i s s e m l i i a t e d -Ores* ( 2 ) Contact Metamarphic Ores* (3) Veins ana replacement deposits* She t h i r d c l a s s are t h e most important and the c h i e f copper mineral i s e h a l c o p y r i t e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S p h a l e r i t e , Magnetite, t e t r a h e d r i t e o r molybdenite i n a gangue w h i c h - i s e i t h e r s l l i c i o u s o r calcareous* Shese deposits are c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h igneous i n t r u s i v e s ( g r a n o d i o r i t e ) and have been formed e i t h e r i n the Igneous rocks themselves along f r a c t u r e zones o r t h e y have been d e v e l o p e d i n the intruded r o c k s by a replacement of c e r t a i n s t r a t a i n these rocks* (3) S003H CSMBAL C e r t a i n mized sulphide deposits are found at the (83) JTor taern e n d o f Olsanagan L a k e * Th© copper m i n e r a l i s c h i e f l y c h a l c o p y r i t e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p y r r h o t i t e , p y r i t e , m a g n e t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a * The eopi^er content: o f the o r e v a r i e s ' .and i n n o p l a c e , i s t h e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n " e x t e n s i v e enough to w a r r a n t e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e -depos i t s* I n t h e v i e l a i t y of l i u g e r M o u n t a i n l y i n g be tween t h e West s i d e o f Ofcenagaii i T a l l e y a n d t h e S l s l t k a m e e n R i v e r v a l l e y deposits o f c o p p e r a r e . f o u n d * T h e s e c o n s i s t o f d i s s e & l m t e d -d e p o s i t s c a r r y i n g c o p p e r w i t h some g o l d g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d w i t h g r a n o d i o r i t e * The e o u & t r y r e e k s o f t h i s a r e a I n c l u d e g r e e n s t o n e s , green-. s « f & & t & .asid l ense s^ o f " l lme ' s t e i i e^ . The ' d e p o s i t s -are . r e l a t e d t o t h e I n t i n x s i . o a o f t h e g r a n o d i o r i t e and a r e o f t h e •contact- me tamorpMc t y p e * T h e o r e m l t t e T a l s - a ^ e t p y r i t e ^ . a r s e n o p y r i t e .and m a g n e t i t e * The gatzgoe i s t y p i c a l o f c o n t a c t m e t a m o r p M c d e p o s i t s . a n d ' . c o n s i s t s o f l i m e s t o n e .and i t s a l t e r a t i o n , t o . g a r n e t , / e p i d o M o a l e i t e p y r o ^ n e and h o r n b l e n d e * • .. ' IS) •QTBBjg .BIPftSITS •-' Various*' o t h e r d e p o s i t s - c o n t a i n i n g c o p p e r ' m i n e r a l s a r e found i n the P l a t e a u x A r e a but t h e y a r e o f a v e r y m i n o r n a t u r e * KAMLOOPS Geo M D a w s o n Annuol Rep> G-5.C. 1694 5HU5WAP SHEET Dawson & Mfevoy 1 8 9 8 THOMPSON R.VAILEY Summary Report 1912-13 Pry's d a l e INTERIOR PLATEAUX REGION OF B.C. SIMILKAMEEN Summary Kept 1929 H-S. Bostock TULAMEEN AREA Memoir 26 Chas. c a m s e l l COPPEB MTN. M e m o i r 171 V- Oolmoqe BEAVERDELL CARIBOO Memoir 14© Uqlow I Johnston T E R T I A ft y_ M E 5 0, I 0 PLIOCENE MIOCENE Conglomerates Lo(er Vol.(2*.largelybasalt 5'ooi^ Tron^uille Beds -TufTs-1000' Eorlier Vol-Ric. Ion] etyFUphy rile 5wd Basalt £ Basalt Breccia TronquiKe bodsC?) 0LIGOCENE } Cold water Group. Corxj & ss iooo' Basalt Breccia Tconquille bods 1 Co I d waler Grp. shales & ss. EOCENE ! IEortyCret. . Queen[Chor|oJfc?Form. C o n q . S S . & An^i i l i tes L 7000" Coidwoter Group ? Oiler Form. Olivine basoll Gromte CbldwolerSeries Cedar Vol-Senes ss, shale Conq Andes tie brecc 10s. JURASSIC TRIA5SIC Queen Charlotte Isle. Form-_ , Andesrtes - SponceBndqeVot- TufFs _J Ac^lom. J Granites J Sh.Con«j Granite Granodiorite -Nicola Form I Ch.ef|yVol. some Is. Nicola Forrn. Diorite Gabbro Complex PERMIAN PENN. MISS. DEVONIAN i [Upper _ Motble Ganyor • Cache voiRx.Arqiii.iesX ii cache 1 Creek q « " I M e s - ,5 .000- i C f e e K ; Form. t L o w e r A f f i l e . Qtx.tesji -i vol Rx&some Is. 1 r u ' l T V i ! eoo»' •, Greenstones | volcanics Arqillltcs-ls. fiquarfiites Nicola Formation Cache Formation. Form-Boulder Form. Unnomed Formation Aberdeen - (jfxile - Art] Vol. RedMI'n -TutTshBreccias ^Tulameenj j KidcelPlate-1stquorizitei j Q r o u P i Red Top-qutiiteArq.Vol-Ls. j qranodionVe auqite Syenite pyroxonits pendotite cjramte Volcanic Ex. Li m est ones AnpDites I Nipple Mla| j 5enes Flows luffs Breccias Olivine basalt Andes lies Oocit? Trochyle Curry Creek. Series j Beaverdell | AoqileSyemle , Balhohth ? lotzMonxonrte.; Andesile dykes Nine dyKes"- quortiporpSyry! Verde CrecK qramte j~ Poqmatite Monroniledykes j West Foric CopperMi'fiStooK-syeno^abbro ^ o l i l h dyK«f ibodies ofcwq«te durite Quarli Oionle! Wolf Crfc. Form. ? basalt auqite porphryifc W<3ll3CC breccia I Group tuffs rferphyntes Andesile Schtsis Basic Inlrusivey Tuffs-Vol. Seds. Limestone Cemented Grovels*. MtMurray Diabase Sills 8 DyKej Oobbro ? Diorite SILURIAN ORDOVIC1AN CAMBRIAN i! Adams I LaKeS. Vol .Rx £ some gtKoje !| AdamS C o r f \ - 17,100' Lofce -Series > Nisconltth j Senes Altered Volcamcs k schists & i. Aqqlomerates. --* H Denoles Unconformable Contact • Intrusive Contact Aqe Doubtful Limthnq R s n o d DarKArq.mtes^ooo' ; NiSCOnlith ArqiHUc-Schlsts 1 ) Series ' Beltian- Schofield ~Si«de Mln Series* Uawujftti T — 1 rVojerpineSiiuSDyk-es. Schuswap Sprifi*-; Series Archaen - Da*/son-Crystalline Is. quartzites (PleaMnlVane/'Schut Cariboo L Series (Borterville -is. ? Ipjchf.eld -schist. (84 ) CHAPTER 111. STRATIGRAPHY OP THE INTERIOR PLATEAUX REGION .IMIROIPCglOIJ Mapping and d e s c r i p t i o n o f the rocks o f the Plateaux Region I s by no means complete. Most o f the d e t a i l e d work has •been done i n connection with, the economic development o f the p a r t i c u l a r map areas* She gre a t e r p a r t o f the area, e s p e c i a l l y the. South c e n t r a l part was described by Dawson I n h i s e a r l y ex-p l o r a t o r y r e p o r t s on B r i t i s h Columbia i n which he c o r r e l a t e d the rocks o f t h i s p a r t o f the Province w i t h .various other l o c a l i t i e s i n a very broad way. Workers f o l l o w i n g a f t e r him i n the d i s t r i c t have added considerable d e t a i l i n d i f f e r e n t areas and s u f f i c i e n t work has been done t o compare the geology I n d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s across the area® The various areas which w i l l be t r e a t e d here are the Kamloops, Shuswap,, B e a v e r d e l l , Hedley, Tnlameen*' Popper Sffiouat-a i n , the Thompson Riv e r tfalley and p a r t o f the B a r k e r v i l l e map area. C o r r e l a t i o n between the d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s i s shown on the accompanying chart and the general geology i s i l l u s t r a t e d on the enclosed map. I n .order to present the m a t e r i a l i n a comprehensive manner the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the rocks o f the map areas are grouped together according to age. (1) CAMBRIAN. ROOKS There are ho rocks o f the described p a r t o f the Plateaux Area which have been d e f i n i t e l y dated as Pre-Cambrian. C e r t a i n formations have been assigned to t h i s p e r i o d c h i e f l y m) • on the basis o f s t r u c t u r a l and s t r a t i g r a p h l e a l r e l a t i o n s - * ffhese formations c o n s i s t e£ the Cariboo S e r i e s o f the Barker-* v i l l e area,. Dawson7 s Shusr/ap S e r i e s which he c a l l e d Archaen, and c e r t a i n rocks oe curing i n the North Thoispson £iver V a l l e y described by Uglow* (A) OiRIBQO SigRISS These rooks u n d e r l i e a l a r g e p a r t o f the Barker v i l l e area and they have heen sub-divided i n t o three formations as f o l l o w s : „. (..a) .Pleasant. V a l l e y * S l a t e s P h y l l l t e s , , s e r i e i t e schist,, c h l o r i t e s c h i s t , sehiotose v o l c a n i c breccia—-5000^pius» (b) Barker v i l l e - limestone, q u a r t z i t e , micaceous c-uartz-i t e , e l a t e s e r l e l t e schist--2 5 0 0 1 {e) B i e h f i e l d - Q u a r t z i t e , quartz elate,, s e r l e i t e s c h i s t f i n e grained conglomerate black carbon-aceous •slate-*i«8©a:0:*-1' • Associated with these rocks are the Proserpine B i l l s and dykes which bear i n t r u s i v e r e l a t i o n s to them* The. nest younger rocks are the P a l e o z o i c S l i d e Mountain S e r i e s and are the o n l y rooks i n the whole B a r k e r v i l l e column which have been d e f i n i t e l y dated, the evidence o f age depending on f o s s i l s . The Cariboo S e r i e s have. been... f o l d e d into, a broad, a n t i e l i n o r i u m whose a x i s trends Horth 55° West and the rocks on the whole are h i g h l y sheared and a l t e r e d * ^he h i s t o r y o f the s e r i e s i s summarised as follows;.-* ( 1 ) R i c h f i e l d Epoch* - Continental d e p o s i t i o n o f coarse Band and quartz pebbles and a l i t t l e carbonaceous c l a y i n l o c a l i t i e s o f considerable r e l i e f * Whether the country from which the (86 ) sediments were d e r i v e d l a y to the .aast o r West has n o t been worked o u t * . (2) B a r k e r v i l l e Epoch* - D e p o s i t i o n o f t h e a r e n a c e o u s s e d i m e n t s w a s . f o l l o w e d b y l i m e s t o n e s , c o n t a i n i n g - numerous- s a n d y -and. c l a y e y beds I n d i c a t i v e o f l o w e r r e l i e f and c l e a r e r m a r i n e wa te r* (3) P l e a s a n t V a l l e y Epoch* - D e p o s i t i o n o f c a l c a r e o u s and ca rbonaceous c l a y s and v o l c a n i c a shes* (4) Epoch o f D e f o r m a t i o n , I n t r u s i o n and B r o s i o n * - E l e v a t i o n above - sea*. •• •• -(J?) S l i d e Mountain Spoch* - Submergence and d e p o s i t i o n uncon-formably on p r e v i o u s s ed imen t s* The e v i d e n c e b y r e a s o n o f w h i c h Uglow h a s t e n t a t i v e l y p l a c e d t h e C a r i b o o Series I n t h e P r e - C a m b r i a n ,1s (.1). H i g h l y a l t e r e d c o n d i t i o n o f the r o c k s (2) P r e s e n c e o f unconformity be tween t h e o v e r l y i n g Siide Mountain Ser i e s (3) Absence o f f d s s l l s * S o m a n p l a c e d t h i s s e r i e s as l o w e r P a l e o z o i c - i n h i s - e a r l y work i n the area* (JB) mum THoysoH JRX IBR 11 ? A M % ' The r o c k s i n t h i s area o f p o s s i b l e pre-Cambrian age a r e a s f o l l o w s : - * ' B a r r i e r e Formation - Q u a r t z i t e , s e r i c i t i c q u a r t z i t e , s e r i c i t e s c h i s t , quartz pebble conglomerate, a r g l l l i t e , c r y s t a l l i n e limestone, c h l o r i -t i e s c h i s t , s c h i s t o s e amygdalordal li m e -stone • F e n n e l F o r m a t i o n - E l l i p s o i d a l ( p i l l o w ) greenstone, gabbro and d i o r i t e s i l l s , c h e rt, v o l c a n i c b r e c c i a * Badger Creek - S l a t y q u a r t z i t e . Quartz s l a t e , b i o t i t e "Formation ^ s c h i s t , dolomite, hornblende s c h i s t s . (87 ) Here again there I s no d e f i n i t e evidence as to the age of these rocks and Uglow has considered them e i t h e r as Pre-Garabrian or P a l e o z o i c . The nearest, equivalents which he mentions are the Cambrian rocks described by Dawson i n the Adams lake area* The r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the Badger Creek, Fennel and. B a r r i e r e formations t o the formations o f Dawson and Daly are represented i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e * B«i„ DALY W.L. UCrLOW Kamloops & Shuswap Sheeti Shtssviap Latre Sheet ITorth Thompson River Valley AcJaas Lalce Series Upper port ion: green sciiists of volcanic origin, lime fit one. tt ® Middle portion: grey schists •a ° Lower portion: green schist & volcanic greenstone Eiskonlith Series Adams Lafee greenstone * t - l ' g Tshinatein limestone s i ••at • • t , •j u t Bastion Schist . Hot on this sheet Hot on this sheet Hon on this sheet Hot on this sheet Barriere formation Pennell formation Badger Greek formation (C). SHJSY/AP SHBS5 Dawson placed a s e r i e s o f rocks tvhieh he c a l l e d the Shusv;ap S e r i e s i n the Archaeozoic d i v i s i o n o f the Pre-Cambrian* This s e r i e s c o n s i s t s o f g r e y i s h gneisses m i c a - s c h i s t s , some hornblende-schists and c r y s t a l l i n e limestones* "The described rocks undoubtedly represent p a r t s o f a bedded s e r i e s but are associated -nith a much greater mass of m i c a - s c h i s t s , gneisses and grant to i d gneisses, many p a r t s o f v?hieh are e v i d e n t l y f o l i a t e d g r a n i t e s from which i t i s impossible to separate them" "Shuswap Map Area" — G.M.Dawson: Geol.Surv.Can. 1898. (88) This group of rooks i s important i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f the o r i g i n o f the l a t e r sedimentary u n i t e s i n the Plateaux and a d j o i n i n g areas* Reference I s made t o them again i n a l a t e r p a r t o f t h i s work* Dawson b e l i e v e d that they formed the o l d Ire-Cambrian A x i s o f B.C. and e x p l a i n s l a t e r sedimentation on t h i s b a s i s . (2). PALEOZOIC ROCKS Ho rocks referable t o these three d i v i s i o n s have-been described i n any o f the s e c t i o n s considered, (b) Carboniferous The r o c k s o f t h i s p e r i o d have been recognized l a various p a r t s o f B.C. and t h e i r presence i n d i c a t e s a p e r i o d o f widespread f l o o d i n g and sedimentation d u r i n g Carboniferous time* I n the Plateaus: region they are best developed I n the ' Kamloops and Shuswap map sheets where they are l l t h o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r and extend from the M i s s i s s i p p i a n . to the Permian* In connection with the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Cache Greek rocks Dawson, says: "The existence, o f rocks r e f e r a b l e to the Cache Creek formation I n -the. Morthera p a r t o f . B r i t i s h Columbia has been shown and the rocks have now been found to occur at I n t e r v a l s from the Southern boundary o f B r i t i s h Columbia Northwestwards to the upper waters o f the Yukon c h a r a c t e r i s i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y a b e l t o f country which l i e s to the JSast o f the Coast Ranges and which corresponds more or l e s s c l o s e l y w i t h the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u o f the Southern p a r t o f the 1 Dawson, G.H.: Geol.Surv.Can*, Annual Rept*. 18?4» Pg.37 6 • • •••:1:8a) ' Province* Their l i t h o l o g i e a l composition t h r o u g h o u t t h i s l e n g t h o f o v e r 800 m i l e s p a r a l l e l t o t h e g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e o f t he G o r d i l l e r a i s everywhere much t h e same: m a s s i v e limestones, c h e r t y q u a r t z i t e s , and volcanle products b e i n g characterise£e« The g e n e r a l p r e s e n c e o f t h e f o s s i l l i s s i l i n a ' h a s c l o s e l y defined the age o f t he s e r i e s which as a r u l e u n d e r l i e s t he M c o l a S e r i e s unconformably* ( G ) lOfffiOOPS M . f g ' The most t y p i c a l exposures o f the Gaehe Greek s e r i e s a r e f o u n d • i n . t h e W e s t e r n p a r t o f t h e map' a r e a between the "Thompson and Bonapar t e R i v e r s * t h r o u g h o u t a wide b e l t c o n s i s t -i n g o f massive l i g h t c o l o r e d limestones* l o c a l l y , i n t e r c o l a - . • t i o n s o f a r g l l l i t e , c h e r t y q u a r t z i t e and m a t e r i a l s o f v o l c a n i c o r i g i n occur* This phase o f the s e r i e s i s known BB t h e M a r b l e l i m e s t o n e * -The lower p a r t o f the Cache Creek s e r i e s c o n s i s t s o f ch e r t y q u a r t z i t e s , v o l c a n i c m a t e r i a l s , a r g l l l l t e s , and l i m e -: s t o n e s * The probable t o t a l thickness o f the Cache Creek s e r i e s oecuring i n the Western p a r t o f the map area i s approximately 9,500 f e e t I n c l u d i n g $O0O; f e e t - o f l i m e s t o i j e , -2009 f e e t of' v o l c a n i c m a t e r i a l s and limestones with some a r g i l l i t e s , and 4,500 f e e t o f cherty q u a r t z i t e e , a r g i l l i t e s , v o l c a n i c m a t e r i a l s , ' . and ' se rpen t ines* (3) Sim swap Sheet In t h i s a r e a the upper p a r t o f the Cache Creek s e r i e s ( 9 0 ) i s not w e l l developed* The lower d i v i s i o n c o n s i s t s o f dark a r g l l l i t e s , greywaekes* g u a r t z i t e s , (sometimes c h e r t y ) , i n t e r -eolated beds of limestone and m a t e r i a l s o f v o l c a n i c o r i g i n . A l l of the r o c k s have been subjected to s t r e s s e s and l o c a l l y have become s c h i s t o s e * (4) aisslBSip^JLas The o n l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h i s p e r i o d Is found i n the B a r k e r v i l l e area where the S l i d e Mountain S e r i e s occurs which i s b e l i e v e d to correspond to the lower p a r t -of the Cache Creek s e r i e s o f Dawson* The d i v i s i o n s and l i t h o l o g y o f the series is as (.a) A n t l e r formation - T h i n l y bedded white r e d and black chert i n t e r bedded w i t h g r e y i s h green indurated shale—3500 p l u s (b) i i a v e r l y Format- - Basic v o l c a n i c f l e e s and b r e c c i a s — i o n . mm (c) Greenberry Form- - Grenoidal limestone—400 a t i o n (a) Guyet formation ~ Basal GqngXo3&erat©«~900 •Beginning . s l t h : the T r i a s s i s . a mere .sompfete: i?ec:or4 o f sedimentation i s found over the whole- Plateaux Area and thej lie so s o l e rocks represents a p e r i o d o f sedimentation which was closed by Exogenic movements i n v o l v i n g u p l i f t and l a r g e scale igneous i n t r u s i o n throughout the whole Province o f B*C« (a) TKIA8SIC ThlB period, i s moslr w i d e l y represented by the "H&eolay • • • <m > -S e r i e s which forms the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f Cache C reek sedimenta-t l o n * I n places an unconformity Is suggested as e x i s t i n g between the two formations, the.;:evldenee being based o n f o s s i l s although i t i s not apparent l i t h o l o g i e a l l y o r s t r u c t u r a l l y * She N i c o l a formation appears t o a t t a i n . I t s g r eatest development along the c e n t r a l p a r t o f the I n t e r i o r Plateaux* •'"•It is'most w i d e l y ..spread a n d eovers a -great' p a r t ' o f t h e surface i n a b e l t o f country l y i n g about midway between the i n l a n d borders o f the Coast Ranges on one hand, and the South Western mountains o f the Cold Ranges on the other, bounded on both s i d e s by P a l e o z o i c formation"« The T r i a s s i e was the on l y Kesozoic p e r i o d i n which sedimentation occured I n the Pl a t e a u Region and. I t was followed by u p l i f t above the seae* £a) Simiygameen. P i s ^ g j s t ( .Hedley isrea). I n the v i c i n i t y o f Hedley the o l d e s t recks are T r i a s s i c i n age although t o the B a s t and South - e a s t o f t h i s area, older: rocks are found which represent the g n e i s s i e rocks o f the Shuswap T e r r a i n * The l i t h o l o g y o f the T r i a s s i e rocks i s as f o l l o w s * - -(a) Unnamed Section - (Upper T r i a s s i e ) - Sedimentary and vo l c a n i c s t r a t a c o n t a i n i n g T r i a s s i e f o s s i l s * (b) Aberdeen Forma- - Interbanded -cherty quartssites, limestone, • t i o n s l l l c i o u s argillites-•and'-vol&anic 1 materials*: • •;"'•'. (c) Red Lltn liorraa- - Beds o f v o l c a n i c m a t e r i a l s - f i n e t u f f s to t l o n coarse b r e c c i a s r e g u l a r l y bedded— e s s e n t i a l l y l o c a l and q u i c k l y p i n c h i n g out between true sediments* (d) U i e k e l P l a t e - Massive Kingston limestone on top with formation t h i n bedded, interbanded limestones and 1 Dawson, G,M.* Geol*8urv*Can*, Annual Rept. lB?4 Pg. 55 e ( 9 2 ) (a) H I c k e l P l a t e Pormation - c o n t ' d , - quart s i t e s i n t he middle and the massive Sunnyside limestone a t the base* (e) Red Sops 'Formation - Interbanded limestones eherty ' ouartalteSy s i l l e i o u s argill'ltes-;. •.. t u f f s and some b r e c c i a r e s t i n g on a massive limestone the base o f w h i c h i s . p u t o ; f f . h y a . ,g ran i t i c - : i n -t rus ion*- . (b ) Kamloops Kan Sheet W i t h i n the a r e a o f t h e s h e e t t h e M e o l a formation, c o n s i s t s o f a great mass o f v o l c a n i c d e p o s i t s w i t h a probable t o t a l t h i c k n e s s o f 10,000 to 15,000 f e e t * I n the lower p a r t o f the formation some t h i n and probably i r r e g u l a r beds o f l i m e -stone o c c u r * M t h o l o g i c a i i y t he v o l c a n i c s are f o r t h e most p a r t a l t e r e d diabases and a u g l t e porphyrites*-; f u l a B l e e n ^ ^ ^ i The o l d e s t rooks i n t h i s area are the Tnlameen group w h i c h a r e T r i a s s l & i n age and a r e -corre la te 1 ! ! tAXt 3fecwsoa*s N i c o l a s e r i e s * The rocks are d i s t i n c t l y bedded and are made up o f v o l c a n i e flows I n t e r s t r a t i f i e d w i t h some a r g l i l i t e s and limestones*) The v o l c a n i c p o r t i o n makes u p about $0% o f the whole group as exposed w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f t h i s d i s t r i c t and the rocks o f t h i s p e r i o d a r e more e x t e n s i v e l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n t h i s area than any others* They have been subjected to a good 'deal ' of'metamorphisffi:1 a n d a. schistose, -iehfiracter ' i s common*.. Shuswap .Sheet The N i c o l a rocks are t h e t y p i c a l greenstones o f other l o c a l i t i e s and a calcareous g r i t o r conglomerate occurs at the (93) base of the -volcanic beds r e s t i n g unconformably on the Cache Creek limestones* Copper Mountain Area The T r i a s s i e rocks i n t h i s area are the o l d e s t recognized and are known as the Wolf Creek formation which 'is o f economic importance and c o n s i s t s o f b a s a l t a u g i t e j porphy-r i t e , b r e c c i a and andesite t u f f * On l i t h o l o g i c a l , s t r u c t u r a l , and geographic evidence.,, these reeks have been d o u b t f u l l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Dawson 1s H i c o l a s e r i e s * B e a v e r d e l l -%ea I n t h i s area the Wallace -group of r o c k s which eoa-s i s t o f a s e r i e s o f v o l c a n i c s and minor limestones, has been compared i n p a r t , w i t h Bawson's H e o l a s e r i e s * Kb f o s s i l s are p r e s e n t I n the rocks and Heineeke has s t a t e d that the complete group may be -assigned to three •ages- extending.f^om Carboniferous to low J u r a s s i c * I t i s h i g h l y probable they c o n t a i n a 'Certain phase representing'Triassie 'rooks as the , area l i e s i n a r e g i o n i n which extensive sediment a t i o n was t a k i n g p l a c e during t h i s p e r i o d * The next youngest rock forma-t i o n i n the area i s " the West Fork b a t h o l i t h which has been d o u b t f u l l y r e f e r r e d to the J u r a s s i c p e r i o d * JtffiASSIG I n general the widespread sedimentation o f the T r i a s s i e continued on i n t o the lower J u r a s s i c at the c l o s e o f which the sedimentary record I s broken and general igneous i n t r u s i o n supplements sedimentation which was rejuvenated to 1 Beineeke, 1*: Geol*8urv* Can., Hem. Pg. <ol (94 ) some extent* i n the T e r n a r y * Generally speaking, no p o s i t i v e d i v i s i o n has been made between T r i a s s i e and J u r a s s i c sediments throughout the area*. S%13^aise;en In the v i c i n i t y o f N i c k e l - H a t e f o u n t a i n and c l a s s e d g e n e r a l l y as post-SrlassIe-Eesogoio, a D i o r i t e - G a b b r o camples: o f g r e a t economic s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t r u d e s t h e o l d e r r o c k s * She o n l y J u r a s s i c r o c k s I n t h i s a r e a are t h e N i c o l a s e r i e s w h i c h extends i n t o the l e v ; J u r a s s i c as p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d * . Jkjameeia -. ' . • I n the'"period between the • d e p o s i t i o n - o f the rocks o f t h e Tulameen group and t h e Cretaceous,. & n&mber o f i g n e o u s I n t r u s i o n s came i n t o p l a c e , being contemporaneous with l a r g e b a t h o l i t h i c i n t r u s i o n s t h roughout the - shole Western C o r d i l l e r a * These rocks" a r e r e f e r r e d to the J u r a s s i c p e r i o d and have been thrust through the'Tolasae'en-g^oup i n the "fo|»l-owiag sequence : (1) Boulder Granite (H) P e r i d o t l t e & Pyroxenlte ( 3 ) A u g l t e S y e n i t e ( 4 ) JSagle G r a n o d i o r i t e . * B e s t i n g unconfoxmably on the above rocks are two groups o f conformable r o c k s which are r e f e r r e d to the Oligoeene-Shuswap Sheet There are no l l e s o z o i c r o c k s other than the N i c o l a s e r i e s In t h i s a r ea* Copper H o u n t a i n E x t e n d i n g f rom d o u b t f u l T r i a s s i e t i m e t o • T e r t i a r y , . ' a s e r i e s o f d y k e s , ; s t o c k s and: S o w s r e p r e s e n t the. r o o k making- , e p o c h s . The mos t i m p o r t a n t o f t he se r o o k s a r e t h e Copper M o u n t a i n , ? o l g t and S m e l t e r l a k e s t o c k s w h i c h have been d e s -c r i b e d i n the. economic d i s c u s s i o n * 2iie Westkettle .quarts - d i o r l t e b a t h o l i t h . , . w h i c h has. been -previously,, d e s c r i b e d . . . ' r e p r e s e n t s .^pper- : Jurass i t s t i m e i n . t h i s a r e a * The b a t h o l i t h - ' i s o f economic i m p o r t a n c e a s i t i s g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to t h e o r e d e p o s i t s - o f t h e a r e a * £g£&&2£ • • The s e r i e s known a s thp. fiount H u r r a y s i l l s and dykes i s d o u b t f u l l y r e f e r r e d t o t h e J u r a s s i c , p e r i o d i n t h i s a r ea* They c o n s i s t o f - d i a b a s e ^ , gabforo and. d i o r i t e * . •SB.STACSQBS-.-- - : ' ' ' W i t h i n the Ki^a-Loops m a p ' s h e e t ' i s found a s e r i e s o f e a r l y C r e t a c e o u s sed imen t s which h a s bees c a l l e d the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d formation* Those r o o k s occur a s l o c a l i n s e t s among t h e o l d e r r o c k s due to combined f o l d i n g and f a u l t i n g * G e n e r a l l y the d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t o f c o a r s e c l a s t i c m a t e r i a l I n -c l u d i n g massive cong lomera te s* T B B T I i B Y I n g e n e r a l t h e T e r i t a r y w a s a p e r i o d o f i n t e r m i t t e n t i g n e o u s a c t i v i t y , e r o s i o n , and sedimentation vJhieh c o n t i n u e d from the c l o s e o f t he J u r a s s i c p e r i o d . ' The Xaramide r e v o l u t i o n ;(?&)• which 'was post - 2pper Cretaceous ana" pre-Uppor locene was accompanied by erogenic movements which caused u p l i f t and f o l d i n g and- introduced a p e r i o d o f e r o s i o n and l o c a l sedimen-t a t i o n * 2his i s a n important p e r i o d i n t h e development o f the physiography o f the area and w i l l be discussed l a t e r * Simiilcameen-I n t h i s a r e a the T e r i t a r y i s represented by a batho~ l i t h i e mass o f Granodiorite w h i c h covers more a r e a t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r Igneous bodies* Kamloops . The ol d e s t T e r t i a r y r o c k s w i t h i n the Hemloops map sheet are contained In t he Coldwater group (pligoeene) which, i n p l a c e s , e x h i b i t s a. b a s a l c h a r a c t e r * Dawson b e l i e v e d t h e bed-0' were l a i d down i n t a k e s o r r i ^ e r - e s t u a r i e s , i n hotlows-then e x i s t i n g i n t h e o l d denuded surfatje o f ;the Paleoaoie and T r l a s s i c rocks and were d e p o s i t e d by r i v e r sys tems o f t h e e a r l y T e r t i a r y time o f g r e a t denudation during which the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u was being worn down t o an approximately l e v e l s urface* . The beds c o n s i s t c h i e f l y o f conglomerates, sandstones and shales and t h e basal members have been derived l a r g e l y frost; t h e Immediately u n d e r l y i n g -surfme. and c o n s i s t c h i e f l y o f c o n -glomerates and b r e c c i a conglomerates w i t h some greywackes and a r k o s i c sandstones. T h i s p e r i o d o f sedimentation was followed by orographic changes which developed an unconformity between these rocks and l a t e r T e r t i a r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s * E a r l y Miocene Tblcanlcs f o l l o w i n g the above changes eruptive a c t i v i t y took (97) p l a c e with centres w e l l distributed, over the area and the rocks produced by t h i s a c t i o n consisted c h i e f l y o f po r p h y r l t e s and porph y r i 11 e agglomerate s* In l a k e s formed by d i s r u p t i o n o f the drainage, s e d i -ments of .volcanic o r i g i n were l a i d down and 'are referred to as the T r a n q u i l l e beds* 'These beds consist -ehiefly o f ' s t r a t i f i e d ' t u f f s and aggioiaerltie materials* ^They-are l a r g e l y developed -In'the v i c i n i t y of Kami oops Lake* Second. Period of iYolcanism - (Late Miocene) f o l l o w i n g the period of l a e u s t r i n e • sedimentation, a period of v o l c a n i c a c t i v i t y eosffienced, •which' was general over 'the whole Plateaux- Area. ' B a s a l t s , b a s a l t b r e c c i a s , mica andesites, some porp h y r i t e s and other v o l c a n i c rocks were ex-truded* 'This-activity a&dct out In' the' Plio»ene« Ifo further- Tertiary took place except minor amounts' o f lake sedimentation i n the v i c i n i t y of Hat Creek,* Here again the Coldwater group are the o l d e s t Tertiary, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and are cla s s e d a?? ollgoeen© In age* These rocks occur i n i s o l a t e d basins o f i i a & t e d extent* Such basins are found at Princ e t o n , Granite Creek, HI cola,' and a few other p l a c e s * They c o n t a i n conglomerate, sandstone, shales, and c o a l seams* Unconformably above these beds l i e s a p l u t o n i e igneous body* •Sarly Miocene times are i n d i c a t e d by. volcanic- rocks o f a p r e v a i l i n g l y a n d e s i t i c composition, which ©over a very l a r g e a rea* L a t e r M i o c e n e t ime I s r e p r e s e n t e d by r o c k s r e f e r a b l e t o Dawson*s Tranquil1©. g roup* They c o n s i s t o f v o l c a n i c m a t e r i a l s m i x e d w i t n t h r e s e d i m e n t s and a r e b e s t d e v e l o p e d i n t h e N o r t h e r n p a r t o f the r e g i o n * T o l e a n i e r o c k s o f b a s a l t i c c h a r a c t e r a re t h e y o u n g -e s t o f t h e c o n s o l i d a t e d f o r m a t i o n s * They r e s t u n c o n f o r m a b l y o n O l i g o c e n e s ed imen t s and s t i l l p r e s e r v e an a lmos t h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n * These r o c k s a r e l o c a l l y known a s the O t t e r fo rma-t i o n * They have a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e N o r t h e r n p a r t s o f the r e g i o n but a re n o t so w i d e s p r e a d t o t h e Sou th* SteHSJ? 3hqe\ Rocks r e f e r r e d t o the Coldwater g roup occur i n the N o r t h Thompson 1/alley* They antedate the pe r i o d o f T e r t i a r y v o l c a n i c eruptions and a r e believed to be o f Oligoeene age* The s e r i e s c o n s i s t s o f w a t e r formed shales and sandstones h o l d i n g seams o f c o a l * .Popper. M o u n t a i n . ' ' " ' ' & • '-V' ' '•' * ' F i n e g r a i n e d amygdaloi&al flows.* t u f f s , and b a s i c dykes a r e r e f e r r e d t o the T e r t i a r y p e r i o d i n t h i s area* These r o c k s o v e r l i e . .Mesosoi#,y.CTrlasaIe ' ' ( :? .) ' )••"volcantes unconfo rmab ly . . Beyond the l i m i t s o f the a r e a t h e y r e s t c o n f o r m a b l y on s e d i -ments s a i d t o be o f O l i g o c e n e age* B e a v e r a e l l The o l d e s t o f t h e T e r t i a r y f o r m a t i o n s i n t h i s area i s t he B e a v e r d e l l Q u a r t z monzon i t e b a t h o l i t h w h i c h has d o u b t -f u l l y been r e f e r r e d t o the Eocene by R e i n e e k e ' t « The i n t r u s i v e 1 R e l n e e k e , I-.: Geol*8urv*0an», iiem» 7?. Pg« i s o f great, economic s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t he s i l v e r o r e s o f the a r e a * ffhe l i t h o l o g y end age r e l a t i o n s o f the b a t h o l i t h have been d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s connection* Oligocene t i m e I s r e p r e s e n t e d by the C u r r y Creek s e r i e s w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f a co lumn o f f i n e g r a i n e d w h i t e t u f f s o v e r l y i n g 2 , 5 0 0 f e e t o f c o n g l o m e r a t e and i n c l u d e d a r k o s i e sand*, s tone and c l a s t i c m a t e r i a l of s o l e a n l e o r i g i n * These r o c k s are o f the g e n e r a l t y p e o f t h i s p e r i o d found throughout the aKLates&x area*-The nex t youngest f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f t h e Hippie M o u n t a i n s e r i e s w h i c h i s made up e f l a v a f l o w s and dykes o f whizh s i x main, t y p e s a re s e e n - - O l i v i n e b a s a l t , , a u g l t e andesite,--h o r n b l e n d e s n d e s i t e , b l o t i t e a n d e s i t s , d a e l t e and t r a c h y t e * T h i s s e r i e s l i a s been d o u b t f u l l y p l a c e d i n the Miocene*. There •la some e v i d e n c e o f a n u n a o n f o r m l t y e x i s t i n g between them' and the o l i g o c e n e sedSment* The f o l l o w i n g resume- presents t h e t h e o r i e s d e a l i n g w i t h the o r i g i n o f t he s ed imen t s and t h e changes t h e y have undergone d u r i n g g e o l o g i c t ime* B r i e f l y , the hypothesis advanced so i ' a r are as f o l l o w s : ( l ) Dawson * s ;i Theo ry . I n h i s e a r l y tvork i n B»C. Dawson advanced t h e hypo-t h e s i s t h a t the e a r l i e s t s ed imen t s were d e r i v e d from an o l d Arehaen l a n d -mass s t r e t e l l i n g through the c e n t r e o f B r i t i s h Columbia t o Yukon and A l a s k a and t h a t t h e sediments were ( 1 0 0 ) deposited i n goosynclines l y i n g t o t h e East and K'est o f l:hir, mass* H i s e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s l i e s i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r o c k s o f the Shuswap t e r r a n e as b e i n g A r e h a e n i n age and p r o v i d i n g t h e l o w e r P a l e o z o i c sediments" " f o r i t h e '*Hast. and West geosynclines... Baring Mesosoie time the .syncllnes' were f l o o d e d and t h e sediments were derived f rom t h e o l d land mass o f which' the S o l d -Ranges a r e a remnant. Daly* s t h e o r y differ© l l t t l o from Dawsons. He assumes that t h e Arehaen l a n d mass s t r e t c h e d Nor thward from 'Xootenay and Shusmp Intakes a l o n g the- I fe r^hern Rocky . 'Mountains t r e n c h t o t h e Y u k o n and l e f t w a r d t-o- thm B a d f i e Q<3©«m«» E r o s i o n supplied . sediments t o a s i n g l e Bast e m geosynellne u n t i l the , b e g i n n i n g o f U p p e r Carboniferous t i m e whence l a n d mass was submerged and became a n a r e a o f d e p o s i t i o n as i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h Dawson 1 s t h e o r y * 1 in tf. J , Se h o f i e l d p r e s e n t e d e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t no Archaen r o o k s o f undisputed age o poured i n B»C«* and., o n t h e b a s i s o f t h i s -evidence,, -he showed t h a t I f there a r e no such sedlaients t h e n no Archaen a x i s o r l a n d mass e v e r e x i s t e d i n B,C% The d i s p u t e d rocks more p r o p e r l y belonged, i n the B o l t Ian and the n a t u r e o f t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n suggested t h e i r o r i g i n i n a l a n d -mass l y i n g -to the .Vest o f the A r c h a e n a x i s and sedimentary b a s i n . T h i s l a n d xaasc e x i s t e d f rom B e l t i a n to T e r t i a r y t i m e and has been c a l l e d Caser.dltu I S e h o f i e i a , S. J . • Trans.Royal iioc.Can., Vol. - 1923. Pg. %J The S o s t e r a s h o r e l i n e o f Oasead ia ex t ended a l o n g a " l i n o marked a p p r o x i m a t e l y b y t h e A r r o w l a k e s and t h r o u g h J S b r t h e m B f c i t l s h C o l u m b i a I n t o A l a s k a * T h i s I s shown b y t h e f a c t t ha t , c o a r s e eoag lo rae ra tes o f B e l t l a n age- w h i c h w o u l d r e p r e s e n t the n e a r - s h o r e f a d e s o f s ed imen t s d e r i v e d from :Caacadla e x t e n d s a l o n g t h i s l i n e * —The c o n g l o m e r a t e s become l e s s coarse to the iSast*— ••—ultimately they grade i n t o l i m e s t o n e s t hus d e a o t i a g i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a n c e f rom the s h o r e i n . t h i s d i r e c t i o n * g A X j ^ O X C . , AMD. . . M L ! ' jlgSOZOJE^ The E a s t e r n s h o r e l i n e o f Caseadia s l o w l y moved West -ward* B y the. beginning of- the S i l u r i a n * or e v e n earlier,* t h e s h o r e had r eached a p o s i t i o n a l i t t l e VZggt o f t h e p r e s e n t c o a s t l i n e , o f K b r t h A m e r i c a * The proof o f the e x i s t e n c e ' o f the l a n d mass i n t h i s period rests e n t i r e l y upon the necessity f or a source t o s u p p l y s e d i m e n t s f o r t h e g r e a t g e o s y n c l i h e to t h e l a s t * S u c h e v i d e n c e i s p r e s e n t i n . the e x t e n s i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a t w i d e -s p r e a d s e d i m e n t a t i o n went on w i t h no o t h e r s o u r c e o f m a t e r i a l f o r theoe sed imen t s w i t h i n the b a s i n i t s e l f * The p r e s e n c e o f c o n g l o m e r a t e s i n s u i t a b l e p l a c e s s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e o l d C a s c a d i a n s h o r e l i n e t o t h e West* A f t e r t he c l o s e o f t he J u r a s s i d e r e v o l u t i o n , f o u r m o u n t a i n r a n g e s had made t h e i r appea rance i n the o l d s e d i m e n t -a r y b a s i n * From t h e n o n , the o l d l a n d mass o f C a s c a d i a p l a y e d a much l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the s e d i m e n t a t i o n o f the a r e a * (102) Its last effects vere to cause outpourings of l a v a in late Tertiary times* At the close of the Klocene i t was do-^nfaulted and the igneous act iv i ty commenced as s result o f re-adjustment of the earth's crust In this v i c i n i t y * The vulcanism TVQS most highly developed i n the Plateaux Area* Daring Tertiary times there was local sedimentation i n staall basins* . . . The physiographic development -of the plat e a u topo-graphy dates back to the Tertiary* For the sake of brevity i t s history i s set dorm i n the f o l l o w i n g f©ris*~* Eocene - Formation of f i r s t I n terior Plateau or Plain through peneplanation by a r i v e r system having i t s o r i g i n i n the C o r d i l l e r a at the close of the Post-Laremie disturbance* Oligoceiie - Drainage Interrupted by mountain building* Miocene - Chiefly level l ing up processes; (a.) Formation of large lakes by interrupted drain-age systems (b) Lacustrine Sedimentation* ( c j l/alcanlsm* -(d) Re-ad jus tment of drainage system* Pliocene - Sraser and i t s system - extended drainage pattern-"° """(a) captured other streams - development of new valleys* (b) Late Pliocene ~ Uplift of Pl a t e a u l e v e l . (e) Deeper cutting of r iver valleys - Plateau cut into . blocks* a) C-iaciation. b) Modification of drainage* c) Jepression of land* cm) He cent ~ (a) Re-adjustment o f drainage* (b-j Clear l u g and deepening of r i v e r v a l l e y s * (e) U p l i f t o f land'surface* BIBLIOGRAPHY; (?) (8) (9) (1) "Geology and ore Deposits of N i c k e l P l a t e Mountain, Hedley, B.C . :-By H.S.B$.stock, Geo .Surv.Can. , Summ0 Kept., 1929, Part A . (2) "Geology and Ore Deposits of Hedley Mining D i s t r i c t " :-By ChaSo Carasell, Geol.Surv.Can., Memoir 2 (1910). (3) "Geology and Ore Deposits of Copper Mountain, B r i t i s h Columbia" :-By V.PoImage, Geo.Surv.Gan., Memoir 171 (1934), (4) "Geology and M i n e r a l Deposits of Tulameen D i s t r i c t " :-C.G.S*, Sum.Rept., 1912. (5) "M i n e r a l Deposits Between l i l l o o e t and Prince George" :-C.G.S.9 Memo, 118, 1920o (6) "Geology of Chil k o Lake and V i c i n i t y " :- Can.Geo.Surv„ Surn.Kept., 1929, pp 59-75. "Placer and Vein Gold Deposits of B a r k e r v i l l e " :» C.G.S., Mem. 14S - 1926. "Undeveloped Mineral Resources of the C l i n t o n D i s t r i c t " : - Canadian Mining Institute, Trans.Vol, 22, pp 341-367 t 1920. "Mesozoic M i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n B.C." By S. J . S c h o f i e l d , Canadian M i n i n g Ins t„ Trans„ Vol.21, pp.422-427(1919) (10) "Geology of the North Thompson V a l l e y Map Area" :-By W.L. Uglow, C.G.S. , Sum. Kept.,1921, P t e A , pp.72-106. (11) "Mineral Resources of Northern Okanagan Valley,B<,C." :-By C .EeCalrnes, C .G.S. sSuiruRept 0 ,ly31, pp.66-109. (12) "Clearwater R i v e r and Foghorn Creek, Kamloops D i s t r i c t " : -By Walker,. Su.Rept. -1»3G,PT.A., pp-126-153. (13) "Report on Area of Kamloops Map Sheet" :«C .G.S. Annual Report 7, 1895.- G.M.Dawson. (14) "Sohusvsap Map Sheet" - G.M.Dawson - C .G.S. (15) " G e o l o g i c a l Record o f the C o r d i l l e r a i n Canada" ;- By S„J.Scbofield -Trans.Vol. Royal S o c i e t y of Canada Pg. 86. (Cont'd) 54' 1 \ 'Sv L / T S L ' K TefiachucK 45 V. f n l . a k o L TsacHa. L %*9 M A P SHOWING BEDROCK GEOLOGY OF INTERIOR PLATEAU REGION OF B.C. SOUTH Or 54 * PARALLEL SCALI 15-78 MI TO I IK. CH1LKO " " L E G E N D — Upper Terhery V o l c ^ l c s & s e g m e n t a r y ©qu.va.leot": ' Offer For-m«{,on - 6<3Salt& G r a n i t e - • ron.lte - T u l a m e e n L o w e r Te r t . o ry Ch.efly C o l d w a t e r ^ n d S t o n e . .Shale,Conqi omerates r Eocene (?) B Q a v e r d e l . o a t h o \ . t h Aoq.te S>yen.te , Q u a r t z Monzon.le Creta ce O U S Q u e e n C h a H o V f e Island Form. S a n d 5 l o n e . A r q ( | | , f e Shale. Conq. J I n t r u s i v e s G r * n i 1 e - G r a n o d . r W e - T u l a m o e n Q u a r t z O.or-.fe - B e a v e r d e i i N . c o l a F o r m 6 f . o n & e q u . v a l e n f s . Vol can.c sed.ments. some limestone C a r b o m f e r o u s C a c h e C r e e k , L.mestone. A^.i i . tes. Quer.r.tej .Volcanic Sediments. H e d l e y C a m p - H»ck.el Plate M»ne B e a v e r d e i i C a m p - W a l l a c e M f n Pb.-Aq. C a r m i C a m p - Silver. C o p p e r Mountain C a m p - C o p p e r N o r t h e r n O k e n a q a n V a l l e y - Gold BarKerville C a m p . J a c k o f Clubs L a k e - G o l d . D e n o t e s the b o u n d a r y o f the R e q . o n o f the Inferior- P l a t e a u x . \ Cdmbrion Adams Lake S e n e s V o l c a n . e s . Arkoses. H i s c o o h t ^ Series Ar9.11.tes Schrsts. Pre-C 8 mbr,eo S c h „ s w a p S e „ « - L a ^ l y Altered , c A « h quartzites, limestones. 4 9 -O • • ft-119 

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