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Upper Cambrian biostratigraphy of the Southern Rocky Mountains, Alberta Greggs, Robert G. 1962

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UPPER CAMBRIAN BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE SOUTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS, ALBERTA by ROBERT G. GREGGS B. A. , Queen's University, 1955 M. Sc., University of Br i t ish Columbia, 1957 A THESIS SUBMITTEO IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY In the Department of Geology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1962 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. GRADUATE STUDIES Field of Study: Geology Sedimentology Advanced Petrology Advanced Palaeontology Problems in Palaeontology Palaeobotany Research Conference Advance Structural Geology W.H. K.C. V.J. V.J. G.E. Mathews McTaggart Okulitch Okulitch Rouse Seminar W.H. White Other Studies: Special Advanced Course in Zoology History and Principles of Biology Synoptic Oceanography Dynamic Oceanography Biological Oceanography Terrestrial Zoogeography P.A. W.A. G.L. G.L. R.F. Dehnel Clemens Pickard Pickard Scagel M.D.F. Udvardy The University of British Columbia FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES PROGRAMME OF THE FINAL ORAL EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY of ROBERT GEORGE GREGGS B.A. (Hon.), Queen's University, 1955 M.Sc, University of British Columbia, 1957 TUESDAY, MAY 8th, 1962, at 9:30 A.M. IN ROOM 119, FORESTRY & GEOLOGY BUILDING COMMITTEE IN CHARGE F.H. Soward, Chairman A.E. COCKBAIN L.G.R. CROUCH W.R. DANNER P.A. DEHNEL W.H. MATHEWS V.J. OKULITCH G. ROUSE M.Y. WILLIAMS External Examiner: Dr. Christina Lochman-Balk New Mexico Institute of Science and Technology Seccoro, New Mexico, U.S.A. UPPER CAMBRIAN BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE SOUTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS, ALBERTA ABSTRACT A completely new Upper Cambrian formational nomen-clature is proposed for the southern Rocky Mountains of Alberta, The formations designated as Upper Cam-brian are: Corona, and Mount Synge, Dresbachian; Bison Creek, Franconian; and the Mistaya, Trempe-aleauan. Two additional formations are referred to the Middle Cambrian sequence immediately underlying the Upper Cambrian; the Chephren and the Waterfowl. These latter formations were previously included in the Arctomys formation considered to be Upper Cam-brian in age. The lowest Lower Ordovician formation is designated as the Howse River formation. In ad-dition to the above mentioned new formations, the Arctomys, Sullivan, Lyell, Mons, Bosworth, Paget, , Sherbrooke, Tangle Ridge, and Sabine formations are discussed in detail. All are considered obsolete, except the Sabine formation, the use of which, it is recommended, be confined to the Canal Flats area, British Columbia. The limits of the Upper Cambrian series in Alberta are more precisely determined, and tentative correla-tion of the Upper Cambrian of Alberta, Montana, and British Columbia is outlined. Trilobite faunas from a l l the Upper Cambrian Zones, except the Crepicephalus zone, are described and i l -lustrated. ' The Cedaria zone faunas contain fifteen genera and eighteen species, among them Bolaspidella  wellsyiliens is, Nixonella montanensis, several species of Arapahoia and Cedarina, and Kingstonia mucro. Abun-dant topotype material of K. mucro has made redefini-tion of this species possible. . The Aphelaspis zone is recognized by the discovery of Aphelaspis walcotti, and one questionable species of Aphelaspis. The Franconian zones are represented by Irvingella  major, Taenicephalus shumardi, Parabolinoides cordil-lerensis, Maustonia nasuta, Kendallina eryon, Pty-chaspis striata, Prosaukia longicornis and Prosaukia  curvicostata, to mention only the. more important index species. The Saukia zone of the Trempealeauan is represented by species of Eurekia, Stemopilus, Bynumiella, Hardyia and Illaenurus. PUBLICATIONS Okulitch, V.J., and Greggs:, R.G. 1958. Archaeocya-thid Localities in Washington, British' Columbia, and the Yukon Territory. Jour. Paleontology, v. 32, no. 3, p. 617-623. Greggs, R.G. 1959. Archaeocyatha from the Colville and Sa-lmo Areas of, Washington and. British Columbia. Jour. Paleontology, v. 33, no. 1, p. 63-75. Greggs, R.G., McGregor, D.C., and Rouse,• G.E. 1962. Devonian Plants from the Type Section of.the Ghost River Formation of Western Alberta. Science, v. 135, no. 3507, p. 930-931.. . ( i i ) ABSTRACT A completely new Upper Cambrian formational nomenclature is proposed for the southern Rocky Mountains of Alberta. The form-ations designated as Upper Cambrian are: Corona, and Mount Synge, Dresbachian; Bison Creek, Franconian; and the Mistaya, Trempealeauan. Two additional formations are referred to the Middle Cambrian sequence immediately underlying the Upper Cambrian; the Chephren and the Water-fowl. These latter formations were previously included in the Arctomys formation considered to be Upper Cambrian in age. The lowest Lower Ordovician formation is designated as the Howse River formation. In addition to the above mentioned new formations, the Arctomys, Sul l ivan, Lye l l , Mons, Bosworth, Paget, Sherbrooke, Tangle Ridge, and Sabine formations are discussed in de ta i l . All are considered obsolete, except the Sabine formation, the use of which, it is recommended, be confined to the Canal Flats area, British Columbia. The limits of the Upper Cambrian series in Alberta are more precisely determined, and tentative correlation of the Upper Cambrian of Alberta, Montana, and Brit ish Columbia is outlined. Tr i lob i te faunas from al l the Upper Cambrian zones, except the Crepicephalus zone, are described and i l lustrated. The Cedaria zone faunas contain fifteen genera and eighteen species, among them Bo I asp i de11 a we 11sv i11 ens i s, Nixonella montanensis, several species of Arapahoia and Cedarina, and Kinqstonia mucro. Abundant topotype material of K. mucro has made redefinit ion of this species possible. The Aphelaspis zone is recognized by the discovery of Aphelaspis walcott i , and one questionable species of Aphelaspis. The Franconian zones are represented by Irvingella  major, Taenicephalus shumardi, Parabolinoides cordiIlerens i s ,  Maustonia nasota, Kendal Iina eryon, Ptychaspis s t r i a ta , Prosaukia  lonqicornis and Prosaukia curvicostata, to mention only the more important index species. The Saukia zone of the Trempealeauan is represented by species of Eurekia, Stenop iI us, Bynumiella. Hardyia and 11 Iaenurus. (iv) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This thesis was written under the supervision of Dr. V. J . Okulitch, head of the Department of Geology, University of Br i t ish Columbia. To him the writer is indebted for continued interest in the study, for many suggestions offered, and for his careful , c r i t i c a l reading of the manuscript. To Dr. G. 0. Raasch, consultant paleontologist for Shell Oil Company of Canada, Limited, the writer extends sincere appreciation for the considerable assistance wi l l ingly given, both in the f ie ld and in the laboratory. For assistance in the f i e l d , many suggestions, and constant encouragement, the writer is very grateful to Dr. J . L. Usher, staff member of the Department of Geology, Queen's University, and to Dr. B. S. Norford, Geological Survey of Canada. Financial assistance for preliminary laboratory and off ice work on this thesis during the university term 1957 - 1958 was received from the National Research Council of Canada, for which the writer is very gratefuI. F ina l ly , the writer wishes to thank Shell Oil Company of Canada, Limited for permission to use the geological information embodied in this thesis, and for the use of their various f ac i l i t i e s for research purposes. (V) TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION: Purpose I Stratigraphy . * . . . I Paleontology 5 Boundaries of the Upper Cambrian Series 7 General Structure of Area II Field Methods 12 STRATIGRAPHY: Introduction 13 Discussion of Formations 13 Description of Sections (Appendix) 14 Discussions of Formations . 17 Bosworth . . 17 Arctomys • 19 Chephren • • 24 Waterfowl 29 Paget 36 Sul I ivan • 38 Corona . . . . . . . 43 Sherbrooke 48 Lye I I 50 Mount Synge 53 Mons 60 Sabine 63 Bison Creek 64 Mistaya 73 Howse River 78 Tangle Ridge 81 PALEONTOLOGY: Introduction • 83 Description of Species 85 Identified t r i lob i te species arranged by collection and section • • 86 Systematic Description of Species 89 SUMMARY: Conclusions 152 Recommendations 152 (vi) Page BIBLIOGRAPHY: 155 APPENDIX: Description of Measured Sections 168 Sundance (Bourgeau) Range. . . 168 Sawback Range South . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Sawback Lake 180 Pulsati I la Pass 192 Paget Peak 197 Mount Murchison . . . . 205 Basal Mount Murchison 221 Arctomys Peak (Partial) 228 Division Mountain (Glacier Lake) . . . . . 233 ( v i l ) LIST OF FIGURES Following Page Figure I Location Map of area I Figure 2 Map showing location of measured 2 sections • . . . . . Figure 3 Standard Upper Cambrian Sequence, 4 Rocky Mountains, Alberta • . • Figure 4 Correlation of nine measured Upper 13 Cambrian sections . . . . . Figure 5 Summary of nomenclature of various authors . . 13 Figure 6 Correlation of Upper Cambrian formations 16 of Montana, Alberta and Brit ish Columbia . . . Figure 7 Fossil zones arranged in stratigraphic 83 framework . . . . . . . . . Figure 8 Identified t r i lob i te species of each 84 Upper Cambrian zone LIST OF PLATES FolIowi ng Page Frontispiece Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta Plate I FIG. I To north along eastern summit of Sundance Range 16 FIG. 2 Walcott*s Ranger Brook section . . . 16 Plate II FIG. I Cambro - Ordovician section to north of Sawback 16 Lake FIG. 2 View to northwest of upper strata of Pu lsat i l l a 16 Pass section . . . . . . . Plate III FIG. I Lower portion of Pulsat i l la Pass section from 16 the north FIG. 2 Continuation to west of Pu lsat i l la pass 16 section . . . . . . . . . . Plate IV FIG. I Red Knob, on back slope of Mount Bosworth . . . 16 FIG. 2 Type section of Paget and Sherbrooke 16 formations . . . . . . . . (v i i i ) FolIowi ng Page Plate V FIG. I Outcrop of Lye I I strata on south side of Paget Peak FIG. 2 Southeast peak of Mount Murchison 16 Plate VI FIG. 1 Type section of Bison Creek formation . . . . 16 Plate VII FIG. I Type section of Mistaya formation 16 FIG. 2 Collenia bed, Mistaya formation, Division 16 Mountain . . . . . . . Facing Page Plate VIII Cedar i a zone fauna 242 Plate IX Cedaria zone fauna . . . . . . . . 243 Plate X Cedaria zone fauna 244 Plate XI Cedar la zone fauna 245 Plate XII Cedaria zone fauna 247 Plate XIII Aphelaspis, IrvingeI I a, and Conaspis 248 zone faunas Plate XIV Conaspis, and Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone 250 faunas • Plate XV Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone fauna 251 Plate XVI Ptychaspis-Prosaukja zone fauna 252 Plate XVII Ptychaspis-Prosauki a zone fauna 253 Plate XVIII Ptychaspis-Prosauki a zone fauna • 254 Plate XIX Saukia zone fauna 255 I INTRODUCTION This thesis presents the results of studies of the s t ra t -igraphy and t r i lobi te faunas of the Upper Cambrian rocks of the Southern Rocky Mountains. The study was instigated at the University of Br i t ish Columbia and completed while in the employ of Shell Oil Company of Canada, Limited. The preliminary f ie ld work was undertaken during the summer of 1957, and continued in the summers of 1959 and I960. No comprehensive re-examination of the Upper Cambrian s t ra t -igraphy and paleontology of the Rockies has been attempted since 1928, the year of publication of Walcott's final report on the sub-Devonian formations of the Rocky Mountains of Alberta and Brit ish Columbia. The Lower and Middle Cambrian stratigraphy has been reviewed, f i rs t by Deiss in 1939 and 1940, then by Rasetti in 1951, and f inal ly by Okulitch in 1956. General discussions of the Upper Cambrian s t ra t -igraphy of the Rockies were published by North and Henderson in 1954, and by Rasetti in 1956. Purpose: The present study was devoted to an examination of the Upper Cambrian rocks of the area (see figure I.), with a three-fold objective: (1) to revise and c lar i fy the stratigraphic nomenclature; (2) to recognize the fauna! zones present and to describe their t r i lobi te assemblages; and (3) to locate within the framework of the revised nomenclature, the Middle-Upper Cambrian and Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician boundar ies. Strat iqraphy: The Upper Cambrian stratigraphic nomenclature for the Southern SCALE IN MILES Fig 1= MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF AREA KEY TO SECTIONS Q SUNDANCE RANGE (§) SAWBACK RANGE SOUTH (D SAWBACK LAKE ® PULSATILLA PASS (§) PAGET PEAK (6) MOUNT MURCHISON ® BASAL MOUNT MURCHISON (§) ARCTOMYS PEAK (Partial) (§) DIVISION MOUNTAIN SCALE: |" = Smiles Fig 2- MAP SHOWING LOCATICJ OF MEASURED SECTIONS Rockies was established by C D . Walcott in a series of papers published from 1908 to 1928. In 1908, the Bosworth, Paget, and Sherbrooke form-ations were erected on Mount Bosworth; in 1920, the Murchison, Arctomys, Sul l ivan, Lye l l , and Mons formations were described in the Glacier Lake Valley; in 1923, the 1920 paper was considerably amplified; and, f ina l ly in 1928, a l l the Upper Cambrian formations of the previous publications were described with sections, and a final formation was added to the Glacier Lake sequence, the Sabine. The Sabine formation, or iginal ly defined by Schofield in 1921 from Sabine Mountain, Canal F lats, Br i t ish Columbia, was applied by Walcott to the lower 500 feet of the Mons form-ation at Glacier Lake. (See figure 5) The Upper Cambrian strata had thus been subdivided into nine formations by 1928, none of which was well defined by modern standards. Attempts to apply these nine formation names during the last thirty-four years has resulted in considerable confusion. Application of this nomenclature was d i f f i cu l t for several reasons: (1) the rock units were not defined or located with suff ic ient precision for easy recognition by other geologists; (2) repetition and overlap in WalcotMs sections resulted in erroneous thicknesses; (3) Inconsistency in application of the names by Walcott and others; (4) some of the rock units were equivalents of other rock units, a result of unrecognized facies changes; (5) precise age of the rock units was in doubt; and 3 (6) a complete, continuous section of Upper Cambrian rocks was unknown, permitting a vertical accumulation of rock units, ages poorly known, but a l l assigned to the Upper Cambrian (see figure 5, Walcott, 1928). Redefinition and c la r i f i ca t ion of the stratigraphic nomenclature was believed to be necessary before any further studies of the Upper Cam-brian of the Rocky Mountains could be attempted. Revision of the Upper Cambrian nomenclature involved remeasure-ment of Walcott's type sections: Mount Bosworth-Paget Peak section, the type local ity of the Bosworth, Paget, and Sherbrooke formations; and the Glacier Lake section where the type sections of the Murchison, Arctomys, Sul l ivan, Lye I I r Mons, and Sarback are located. Other Upper Cambrian sections in the Front Ranges, some previously described by Walcott, were also restudied (see figure 2). Field work on the Upper Cambrian was concluded by measurement of the we I I-exposed Mount Murchison sec-t ion. From the evidence provided by the above f ie ld studies, it was concluded that a complete revision of the Upper Cambrian nomenclature was necessary. For reasons to be given below, the formations Bosworth, Paget, Sherbrooke, Murchison, Arctomys, Sul l ivan, Lye I I, and Mons are considered obsolete, and a new nomenclature is provided. Comparison of the c r i t i ca l type sections is given below. The old formation names are positioned as correctly as possible with respect to age using evidence provided by the present study. This procedure was followed to fac i l i ta te comparison with the new Upper Cambrian nomenclature (see figure 3). 4 Mt. Eisenhower Mt. Bosworth Glacier Lake Mt. Murchison Walcott, 1908a Walcott,1908b Walcott.1920 this thesis. 1962 ! ORDOVICIAN LOWER Sarbach Sarbach ! ORDOVICIAN LOWER Howse River z < , i t UPPER 1 FRANCONIAN fTREMPEALEAUAN Mons Mistaya Bison Creek t UPPER 1 DRESBACHIAN Sherbrooke / Lye II ^ ? -""" "^ Sul1ivan Mount Synge t UPPER 1 DRESBACHIAN Paget Corona L MIDDLE ] El don Bosworth ? Arctomys Waterfowl Chephren L MIDDLE ] Murchison Pika ________— " E l d o n SCALE 1,000 Ft. 500 Ft. • 250 Ft. Q or o or co < o or UJ CL CL-IO < or GO < O UJ _ l Q Q o: UJ or z o z < cc Lu X o < CD V) UJ £T Q MT. MURCHISON — J H0WSE EP^iTEA RIVER 1 1 I 1 I I | I 1 | / , /, /, / MISTAYA 'I'VV'M BISON CREEK MOUNT SYNGE <3 l_Q J_P j _ e _ j ° • 5 15 15 l~g~T] CORONA / , / , / , / / / / V~7 z WATERFOWL CHEPHREN BASE NOT EXPOSED Fig. 3- STANDARD UPPER CAMBRIAN SEQUENCE, SOUTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS, ALBERTA 5 The area of application of the above stratigraphic nomen-clature has not been precisely determined, but in general it would seem to be satisfactory for the area encompassed by the Front, and Eastern Main Ranges, between Banff and Jasper (see figure I). In the v ic in i ty of Jasper, and north, the Upper Cambrian is predomin-antly a carbonate unit, the Lynx formation. Paleontology; Several publications on the Upper Cambrian paleontology of the Southern Rocky Mountains have been written by Walcott (1912a, 1914, 1924b, 1925a), and Resser (1942b). In general, the described fossi ls were not precisely located in the measured sections, nor were they referred to any particular zone. Disagreement as to which formation had yielded the fossi ls was also present. This is part icularly not-iceable in Resser's 1942 publication where many of the fossil species assigned to the Sullivan formation, were col lected, according to Walcott (1928), from the Lye I I formation. Field work completed for the present study resulted in the collection of fossi ls from several detailed measured sections. Study of these collections has established the presence of nearly a l l the upper Cambrian t r i lob i te zones known from the type Croixan area of the Mississippi Valley. (See figures 7 & 8). Many of the Upper Cambrian fauna I zones were recognized for the f i rs t time in Western Canada. Zones recognized are the Cedar ?a, Aphelaspis, E lv in ia , Conaspis, Prosauk ia-Ptychasp i s , and the Sauk ?a. The only faunal zone not represented in the col lect ions is the Crepic- ephalus zone. From unpublished data, however, this zone is known to occur in the northern part of the area, at Toma Creek. 6 The Cedaria zone is a very thick fauna I unit everywhere, and Is abundantly fossi I i ferous. Gf importance in this zone, is the d i s -covery of Bolaspidella in the basal beds of the Corona (Sullivan) form-ation on the Sundance Range. This genus, with the associated Cedaria zone elements, allows the Middle-Upper Cambrian boundary to be deter-mined with additional precision* Recovery of Aphelaspis walcotti from a col lection made near the summit of Paget Peak, marks the f i rst record of the Aphelasp is zone in Western Canada. It also serves to determine the age of the upper strata on Paget Peak as uppermost Dresbachian, previously assigned to the Lower Ordovician by Walcott. Unfortunately, the Mount Synge (Lyell) - Bison Creek contact is not exposed on Paget Peak, (it has been removed by recent erosion) otherwise it would be possible to discover what thickness of strata lies between the Aphelaspis zone and the Elvinia zone, in this one section at least. From collections made near the base of the Bison Creek form-ation on Mount Murchison, there is reason to believe that the Elvinia zone is present below the Irvi nge11 a major subzone. The material re -covered is so poorly preserved, however, that further collecting will be necessary before the existence of the lower portion of the Elvinia zone can be proven. The genera tentatively identif ied from fragments appear to be E lv in ia , Del Iea, and XenocheiI us. Abundant specimens of Irvingella major, however, firmly established the presence of this subzone of the Elvinia zone. The Conaspis zone is represented by the Maustonia nasuta teilzone, and a fauna referred to the TaenicephaI us shumardi teilzone. 7 This latter teilzone is believed to underlie the M. nasuta tei Izone, although their relat ive positions are not well established. These teilzones have not been previously recorded from Western Canada, and. it is l ikely that further collecting would uncover even more Conasp is zone faunas similar to those from the type Croixan area. The Bison Creek formation, which has yielded a l l the Conaspis zone faunas herein described, is very fossiIiferous and will undoubtedly yield more faunal assemblages on further examination. Of the numerous teilzones that could occur in the Prosaukia-Ptychaspis zone, only three were identif ied in the col lect ions; the Prosaukia curvicostata, Prosaukia lonqicornis, and the Ptychaspis  s t r i a ta . A similar observation can be made for this zone as mentioned for the Conaspis zone; further faunas of the Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone wil l certainly be found in the Bison Creek formation as exposed on Mount Murchison and elsewhere in the southern Rocky Mountains. Saukia zone collections are few. Saukia zone genera were identif ied in the collections from the tops of the Bison Creek and Mistaya formations. The faunas serve only to show that the Mistaya, in the area under discussion, is of Trempealeauan age, and contribute l i t t l e to recognition of the subzones and teilzones that may be present. The Mistaya formation is not very fossi I i ferous, and TrempeaIeauan fossi l collections will not be made easi ly . Boundaries of the Upper Cambrian Series: A change in the accepted position of the Upper Cambrian time rock boundaries, in addition to strat{graphic revis ions, and recognition of some of the Upper Cambrian zones, has followed from this study. As 8 the formation boundaries appear to approximate time lines in the area under study, it is possible to generalize regarding the position of the series boundaries, and to discuss the limits of the Upper Cambrian as a time-rock unit with reference to the rock units only, the formation. The base of the Upper Cambrian series, since Walcott's 1928 publication, has been generally placed at the lower boundary of the Chephren (basal Arctomys) formation. This lower limit of the Upper Cambrian was based on a few fragmental inarticulate brachiopods from the type section of the Arctomys formation, and other fragmentary foss i ls from the Chephren (Arctomys) formation as developed on Mount Eisenhower (Castle Mountain). Only once, however, prior to the present study, has the age of the Chephren (Arctomys) been questioned. In 1942, N. Oenson in a doctorate thesis for Princeton University, suggested that the Cheph-ren (Arctomys) was of Middle Cambrian age. This conclusion was based on a study of t r i lobi te material from the type Pika formation on Mount Eisen-hower. The fossil col lection was dated as late Middle Cambrian from a zone that correlated with the second youngest Middle Cambrian zone present in Montana, Wyoming, and Utah. Denson reasoned that the Water fowl-Chepren (Arctomys) interval probably represented the latest Middle Cambrian zone, unfossiIiferous in the Alberta facies. Denson's thesis was never publish-ed, and no one followed up his suggestion on the lower boundary of the Upper Cambrian series, thus the Waterfowl-Chephren (Arctomys) continued to be considered as Upper Cambrian in age. Fossil collections from the base of the Corona (Sullivan) formation described in the present study are considered to be of oldest Upper Cambrian age, confirming Denson's suggestion that the Waterfowl-9 Chephren (Arctomys) is Middle Cambrian. Discovery of Bolaspidella, associated with Cedaria zone genera in the basal beds of the Corona (Sullivan) formation on Sundance Range, suggests that the Middle-Upper Cambrian contact is not at the base of the Chephren (Arctomys), but much higher stratigraphicaIly, at the Water fowl-Corona (Sullivan) contact. The poss ib i l i ty exists, of course, that the Middle-Upper Cambrian boundary could occur in the Waterfowl (upper Arctomys) formation. No fossi ls have been found in this formation to eliminate or confirm this poss ib i l i t y . Until such Waterfowl faunas can be found, the Middle-Upper Cambrian contact is considered to approximate the top of the Water-fowl formation. The upper boundary of the Upper Cambrian series, like the lower boundary, is generally placed too low in the sequence. Walcott, in 1928, considered the lower Mons or Sabine (Bison Creek) to be Upper Cambrian in age, and the Upper Mons (Mistaya and Howse River), Ozarkian. Although Walcott does discuss the Gzarkian system and its boundaries (1928, p. 233), a clear definit ion of the faunal elements in this system is lack-ing. Thus it is not possible to compare Walcott's use of U l r ich 's Ozar-kian system with the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician series as current-ly defined in North America. Intentional or fortuitous, the Ozarkian system as applied by Walcott does, however, straddle the Upper Cambrian -Lower Ordovician boundary as presently defined in the southern Rocky mountains. Thus Walcott placed the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary below the Mistaya; the results of the present study indicate that the boundary l ies somewhat above the Mistaya in the basal beds of the Howse River formation. 10 In 1954, North and Henderson also located the upper boundary of the Upper Cambrian series at the base of the Mons formation (1954, p. 62). As they applied the name Mons incorrectly, however, in the sense of Mons equalling Howse River (1954, p. 66) they were more correct than Walcott in their location of the upper limit of the Upper Cambrian. Results of the present f ie ld studies i l lustrate that the major faunal break in the sequence is located between the Mistaya and the Howse River formations. The Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician contact cannot be located, however, any more precisely than that of the Middle-Upper Cam-brian. Saukia zone fossi ls occur at the top of the Mistaya formation, and Bellefontia is known from the Howse River (Walcott, 1928; and un-published data). A few beds of Mistaya l ithology, platy crystal l ine carbonates, do occur interbedded with the basal grey-green shales of the Howse River at Mount Murchison, which suggests that the lower few tens of feet of the Howse River at this locality could be of Upper Cam-brian age. On the basis of this meagre evidence, the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician contact has been placed s l ight ly above the upper beds of the Mistaya formation. In northeastern Montana the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician boundary has been located in beds of comparable lithology to the Howse River formation in well cores from theWi l l i s ton Basin (Lochman-Balk, I960). In this area, Lochman-Balk has observed that " in an unchanging succession of intercalated dark green calcareous shales and thin grey crystal l ine limestones the middle TrempeaIeauan fauna is immediately overlain by the early Tremadocian assemblage. In spite of the con-formability and apparent l i th ic continuity an important faunal break does occur within these beds". (Lochman-Balk, I960, p. 40). The l i th-ologies are nearly identical in the two areas, Montana and Alberta, and 11 differ only in the apparently greater thickness of the Alberta succession. Furthermore, a study of fossil collections from basal Howse River beds may show a comparable similar ity between the faunas of the two areas. Until this faunal study is completed, however, it is not possible to be precise in the location of the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician boundary. And, as Lochman-Balk emphasizes ( ib id , p. 40) "An arbitrary boundary must be designated for the top of the Upper Cambrian in each section depending upon the position of discovered f o s s i l s " . Genera I Structure of the Area: The area under study comprises two main structural divisions of the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, the Front Ranges Sub-province, and the eastern, portion of the Main Ranges Sub-province. Four major faults with associated secondary faults, trend northwest-southeast across the area, delimiting the four main mountain ranges of the Front Ranges Sub-province. (See North and Henderson, 1954, p. 15-81). The most easterly ranges of this Sub-province do not provide a complete Upper Cambrian sequence because of pre-Devonian erosional trun-cation. Only in the most westerly of the Front Ranges, the Sundance-Saw-back fault block, is a complete exposure of the Upper Cambrian strata to be found. For this reason, the stratigraphic sections were measured only in the Sundance-Sawback Ranges (figure 2), and other ranges to the west in the Main Ranges Sub-province. The eastern sector of the Main Ranges Sub-province is essentially an area of simple structure, consisting of a broad, gently folded, north-plunging syncline, bordered on the west by a broad faulted ant ic l ine. Several minor thrust faults cross this general structural pattern, and normal faults are reported on the western limb of the syncline. The 12 Mount Murchison section is located near the axis of the syncline; Paget Peak, and Division Mountain (Glacier Lake area) sections are located on the west limb of the ant ic l ine. For a more comprehensive survey of the structure of the south-ern Rocky Mountains, and for the source of the structural nomenclature, one is directed to the reference: North, F.K. and Henderson, G.G.L., 1954, "Summary of the Geology of the southern Rocky Mountains of Canada", Alberta Society of Petroleum Geologist, Field Conference Guidebook for 1954. Field Methods; Sections were measured by three different methods; (I ) 5' Jacob's s taf f ; (2) tape and compass; and (3) range finder and compass Of the three methods the writer prefers the 5' Jacob's staf f , for it is probably the most accurate. Lack of f ie ld time occasionally made it necessary, however, to use either of the less accurate, but quicker, measuring techniques. The choice of measured sections was governed to some extent by access ib i l i ty . As many of Walcott's sections as possible were remeasured. These included the type sections of a l l the Upper Cambrian formations erected by Walcott. The excellent Mount Murchison section was selected for study for several reasons; proximity to the type area of Glacier Lake Valley, easy access from the Banff-Jasper highway; and the nearly complete exposure of al l the Upper Cambrian formations. 13 STRATIGRAPHY Introduction The stratigraphic portion of this study has been arranged in two sections; a discussion of the Cambro-Ordovician formations of the area, and a detailed description of sections measured (see figure 4). Piscussion of Format ions: The attempt has been made to discuss the formations in chronological order, oldest to youngest, but this has not always proved possible and exceptions to this general order do occur. A total of sixteen formations are reviewed; seven new formation names are proposed, and nine restr icted or made obsolete. It may be appropriate here to include an explanatory note on the general reasons for the complete rejection of Walcott's Upper Cam-brian stratigraphic nomenclature (see figure 5). The attempt was made in the preliminary, and even in the later stages of this thesis to retain as much of Walcott's nomenclature as possible, familiar as it is to most workers in the southern Rocky Mountains geology. Formation names were redefined, restricted in their application, or supplemented by reference sections in order to retain the old names with their applications clearly i defined. The impracticability of these procedures was realized when the need for the designation of new rock units arose. The old form-ation names could not be raised to group status, as a group consists of two or more associated formations having signif icant l i thologic features in common. For example, Walcott's original Mons of 1920 in -cluded three dist inct rock units unrelated by lithology or time. The new rock units could possibly have been designated as members, but they are easily mappable, quite widespread, and it would have been d i f f i cu l t NORTHWEST SOUTHEAST Q DC O < DC CO < oc UJ 0 . Q. 3 a: S UJ o o < cc DIVISION MOUNTAIN i MT. MURCHISON PA«E>EAK PULSATILLA PASS SAWBACK LAKE SAWBACK SOUTH SUNDANCE RANGE 12 MILES / 1 / —1 —L —I \ DATUM TOP MOUNT SYNGE x o < m v> ui Q z < or m < a UJ _i Q Q / / / ARCTOMYS PEAK ( Partial ) Fig 4= GENERALIZED CORRATION CHART OF MEASURED UPPERAMBRIAN SECTIONS, SOUTHERN ROCKY MJNTAINS, ALBERTA 500 Ft. WALCOTT, 1923 ALT A, SASK WALCOTT, 1923 ALTA, BC WALCOTT, 1928 GLACIER LAKE WALCOTT, 1328 ALTA, BC NORTH a HENDERSON (954, SOUTH ROCKY MTNS HUGHES, 1955 SUNWAPTA PASS HUGHES, 1955 EMENDED,© DEWIT, 1952 © PRESENT THESIS 1962 SOUTH ALTA-ROCKY MTNS CAN A D 1 A N UPPER | SARBACH SARBACH GLENOGLE SHALES OR OOVICI AN -GOODSIR GROUP SARBACH MONS FORMATION A FORMATION A ( SARBACH) '/////// /^///// '////// // / / / /. FORMATION k • '//' FAULT CONTACT ' //WITH / , , TANGLE RIDGE FORMATION/ ///,/>// TANGLE RIDGE (CORONA) OROOV ICIAN SARBACH MONS UNNAMED FORMATION LOWER ORDOVICIAN SARBACH ? HOWSE RIVER CAN A D 1 A N LOWER MIDDLE HP 111 OR OOVICI AN GOODSIR GROUP OROOV ICIAN LOWER ORDOVICIAN OZARKIAN UPPER IP i i i GOODSIR ml •MM, MONS a UNNAMED FORMATIONS OR OOVICI AN GOODSIR GROUP OROOV ICIAN LOWER ORDOVICIAN OZARKIAN LOWER MONS MONS OR OOVICI AN GOODSIR GROUP OROOV ICIAN LOWER ORDOVICIAN OZARKIAN LOWER SABINE CAM BRIAN UPPER | OTTERTAIL FORMATION LYELL SULLIVAN TANGLE RIDGE CAMBRIAN LYELL OR OTTERTAIL BOSWORTH ARCTOMYS UPPER CAMBRIAN s lli CC O z < cc u. MISTAYA CAMBRIAN UPPER LYELL SULLIVAN ARCTOMYS OTTERTAIL CHANCELLOR SHERBROOKE PAGET BOSWORTH LYELL SULLIVAN ARCTOMYS LOWER a MIDDLE | | GOODSIR OTTERTAIL CHANCELLOR SHERBROOKE PAGET BOSWORTH ARCTOMYS CAM BRIAN UPPER | OTTERTAIL FORMATION CAMBRIAN UPPER CAMBRIAN BISON CREEK CAMBRIAN UPPER LOWER a MIDDLE | | CAM BRIAN UPPER | OTTERTAIL FORMATION CAMBRIAN UPPER CAMBRIAN |DRESBACHI AN | MOUNT SYNGE CAMBRIAN UPPER LOWER a MIDDLE | | CAM BRIAN UPPER | ARCTOMYS CAMBRIAN UPPER CAMBRIAN |DRESBACHI AN | CORONA CAMBRIAN MIDDLE y//////////, ELDON ELDON CAM BRIAN MIDDLE | PIKA SUNWAPTA PEAK SUNWAPTA PEAK CAMBRIAN UPPER ELDON OR PIKA M CAMB WATERFOWL CAMBRIAN MIDDLE MURCHISON MURCHISON CAM BRIAN MIDDLE | ELDON CAMBRIAN M CAMB CHEPHREN PIKA^-^" ~ ^ ~ E L D O N 0 Thrust fault Placing Formation A (Sarbach) Aga/nt Tangle Ridge (Sullivan) overlooked by Hughes (f) From "Ranger Brook" of DeWit, not Ranger Brook of Walcott De Wit's "Ranger Brook" Section is Probably Located on South-west Slope of Mount Ishbel, not at Ranger Brook of Walcott Fig 5- TABLE SHOWING AGE AND NOMENCLATURE OF FORMATIONS ACCORDING TO VARIOUS AUTHORS 14 to describe adequately a new member when the formation i tse l f was poorly defined as to its boundaries and l ithology. The details for the rejection of each formation are discussed ful ly under the form-ation concerned. Walcott may have foreseen changes in the Upper Cambrian stratigraphic nomenclature when he wrote "Geological nomenclature as applied to rock formations is of service only if it enables the student to refer the named formation to i ts position in an established strat-igraphic system. If it encumbers maps and texts with terms that lead only to confusion and error, the sooner it is correctly redefined or goes to the scrap heap the better". Walcott, 1928, p. 189. Description of Sections: (Appendix) The detailed descriptions of the measured sections are in order from southeast to northwest, or Front Range sections, followed by Main Range sections. Sections were selected for accessibi l i ty and exposure, but, in addition, al l sections were measured which included type loca l i t ies of Walcott's formations. The only exception to the above is the Sullivan formation in the Glacier Lake Valley which was not remeasured because of lack of available time in the f i e ld . The area of study was confined to the Western Front Ranges and the Main Ranges because complete Upper Cambrian sections are not available in the ranges east of the Sundance-Sawback Ranges due to pre-Devonian erosional truncation. The Cambro-Ordovician strata during post Ordovician-early Devonian time were generally dipping to the south-west, and penepIanation of these beds removed nearly, if not a l l , of the Upper Cambrian in the most easterly Front Ranges, and it is not until the extreme western ranges of the Front Ranges Subprovince are examined that Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician strata are found below the overlying Devonian. 15 Only a few generalizations can be made on the pa Ieogeography of the area. The formations are generally thicker and more calcareous to the north and west; that i s , the formations themselves thicken to the northwest, not just the Upper Cambrian sequence as a whole. This thickening suggests that the Upper Cambrian sea was probably deeper to the northwest, resulting in less c last ic material being deposited, and rather more carbonate deposition than in the equivalent rock units to the southeast. More measured sections through the Upper Cambrian strata are necessary before any details can be supplied on the various facies changes of each formation. Probably one of the most interesting sections for paleogeo-graphical consideration is the Paget Peak section. The formations are recognizable, but the development of oo l i t i c , bioclast ic limestones and calcareous shales in the middle of the LyelI formation is somewhat anom-alous. The suggestion is offered that the Paget Peak section provides an exposure of the Dresbachian sequence that is intermediate between the Front Ranges and the Western Main Ranges depositional provinces. The limestone and shale development in the LyelI formation of Paget Peak may, in fact, represent interfingering of the calcareous shales of Ottertai l lithology from the west (see figure 6). Further detailed study of the Cambro-Ordovician of the Rocky Mountains of Br i t ish Columbia will be necessary before any precise correlation between the eastern and western portions of the Cordil lera wi l l be achieved. The rules on stratigraphic procedure as promogulated by the American Commision on Stratigraphic Nomenclature are adhered to through-16 out this report. (See Amer. Assoc. Petrol , Geologists, 1961, vo l . 45, no. 5, p. 648 - 665). Q CC 2 — * CC m '2| Q. 3 Z < [ CC CD ] < o Q MONTANA U.S.A. N.W. RADERSBURG QUAD. LOCH MAN, 1956 RED LION •%-Elvinia Zone PILGRIM PARK MEAGHER ALBERTA. CAN. SOUTH.ROCKY MTNS PRESENT STUDY HOWSE RIVER Ml STAYA BISON CREEK # Conaspis Zone •XElvinia Zone # Aphelaspis MOUNT SYNGE ;¥ Cedar/a Zone CORONA WATERFOWL CHEPHREN ELDON BRITISH COLUMBIA. CANADA WESTERN MAIN RANGES I S E E NOTE I GOODSIR *• Elvinia Zone OTTERTAIL ROCKY MOUNTAIN TRENCH ( SEE NOTE I) # Lower Ordovician Faunas MCKAY T¥Conaspis Zone •X- Elvinia Zone -X-Crepicephaius Zone JUBILEE NOTE Data for Correlation of British Columbia Formations Derived From Several Sources: Allan, 1914 Evans, 1933 Leech, 1958 Reesor, 1957 Burling, 1922 Kobay as hi, 1938,1955 Rasetti, 1956 Walcott, 1912 Walker, 1926 Fig6= CORRELATION OF UPPER CAMBRIAN FORMATIONS OF MONTANA, ALBERTA AND BRITISH COLUMBIA Plate I Fig. 1: To north along e a s t e r n summit of Sundance Range; upper p o r t i o n of Sundance s e c t i o n i l l u s t r a t i n g upper strata of Mount S y n g e i t h e Bison C r e e k , Mistaya, Howse River and. lower beds o*' the Sarbach formation. F i g . 2: Walcott's Ranger Brook section from the northwest; illustrating Chephren, Waterfowl, Corona, Mount Synge, Bison Creek, Mistaya, Howse River and Sarbach formations. P l a t e I I Fig. 2: View to northwest of upper strata of P u l s a t i l l a P a s s section: Bison Creek, Mistaya, Howse River and lower Sarbach formations. Plate I I I F i g . 1: Lower p o r t i o n of P u l s a t i l l a Pass s e c t i o n from the north. From l e f t t o r i g h t - Eldon, Pika, Chephren, Waterfowl, Corona and basal beds of the Mount Synge. F i g . 2: Continuation to west of P u l s a t i l l a Pass se c t i o n : upper Mount Synge s t r a t a , Bison Creek, Mistaya, Howse River and basal beds of Sarbach formation. Plate IV F i g . 1: Type s e c t i o n of the Bison Creek formation on southeast face of Mount Murchison. C l i f f - f o r m i n g u n i t i n upper r i g h t i s Mistaya formation. 2 : South east peak of Mount Murchison, i l l u s t r a t i n g upper beds of the Mount Synge, the calcareous f a c i a s of the Bison Creek, Mistaya, Howse River and Sarbach formations. Plate VI F i g . 1: Red Knob, on back slope of Mount Bosworth. Lower c l i f f -forming u n i t i s Eldon/Pika, o v e r l a i n by Chephren and Waterfowl formations. Normal f a u l t places Mount Synge against Waterfowl, F i g . 2: Type section of Paget, and Sherbrooke formations, southeast side of Paget Peak; prominent dark band crossing s e c t i o n i s upper 60 f e e t of Walcott's Paget formation. F i g . 2 : C o l l e n i a bed, r i g h t centre, as developed i n Mistaya formation on northeast side of D i v i s i o n Mountain, G l a c i e r Lake area. 17 DISCUSSION OF FORMATIONS Bosworth Formation (Walcott, 1908) (obsolete) The Bosworth formation was erected in 1908 by Walcott for the oldest Upper Cambrian formation on Mount Bosworth. The original des-cription of the type locality is given in f u l l : "Bosworth formation Type Locality - Ridge extending northeast from Mount Bosworth, and southeast base of Paget Peak and Mount Daly. Derivation - From Mount Bosworth, the type loca l i ty . Character - Arenaceous, dolomitic limestones, massive, thin bedded, and shaly, with bands of purple and grey si l iceous shaIes. Thickness - At Mount Bosworth, 1,855 feet. Organic remains - None observed; formation referred to Upper Cambrian." (Walcott, 1908, p. 3) Later in 1908, Walcott published a further description of the Bosworth formation and subdivided it into five units. The lowest of these five units, described as a 268 foot interval of "variable aren-aceous shales with alternating bands of colour - greenish, deep red, buff, yellow, and grey". ( ib id, p. 208) was later removed (1928) from the basal beds of the Bosworth formation and correlated with the Arct -omys of Glacier Lake val ley. As far as the writer is aware, until the f ie ld investigations were made for this report, the Mount Bosworth and Paget Peak sections had not been examined in the f ield since Walcott's original work in 1908. Numerous reference to the Bosworth formation appear in the Rocky Mountain l i terature, and rarely do two authors treat it in the same manner. Many attempts have been made to correlate it with the type sec-tions of the Upper Cambrian at Glacier Lake, but none has arrived at a satisfactory solution. 18 The d i f f i cu l t i e s encountered in attempting to correlate the Bosworth formation with the Sullivan - LyelI interval of Glacier Lake, and the Paget - Sherbrooke strata of Paget Peak, are due solely to Walcott's assignment of the basal 268 feet of the Bosworth to the Arctomys formation (Walcott, 1928). Subsequent geologists were thus led to believe that the Bosworth formation, overlying the Arctomys at Mount Bosworth, must be correlative with the Sullivan - LyelI seq-uence, which immediately overlies the Arctomys at Glacier Lake. In real i ty no strata comparable to the Arctomys green and red shales are present at the base of the Bosworth formation. It is not possible to determine precisely what Walcott considered to be the Bosworth form-ation, even after studying the interval in the f i e l d , but the Bosworth apparently comprises some 1,000 feet of Eldon, 400 feet of Pika, 300 feet of Chephren, (Arctomys, in part) , and some of the Waterfowl form-ation. (Thicknesses are approximate). If reference is made to Walcott, 1928, plate 67, the Bosworth formation is seen to be outlined on the summit of Mount Bosworth. The unit so outlined is overlain by Chephren red and green shales (basal Arctomys) about one-half mile to the north-northwest, on the back slope of Mount Bosworth. On plate 68, (Walcott, 1928) three reference points are marked, (a). Buff Point, and Red Knob. Plate 68 is described in part thus: "The dolomitic limestones and shales of the Bosworth formation extend from Buff Point to the base of the c l i f f below Red Knob". As might be expected Red Knob is composed of Chephren (Arctomys) red shale. The strata in the lower portion of the c l i f f below Red Knob also occur on the summit of Mount Bosworth. 19 In consideration of the confusion that has always surrounded the name Bosworth, and the fact that it actually comprises a portion of the Eldon, the Pika, the Chephren, and the lower beds of the Waterfowl formation, it is proposed that the name be considered obsolete and i nval id. In 1954, North and Henderson recommended that the Bosworth formation be abandoned, but their reasons differ from those of the wr i ter. Arctomys Formation (Walcott, 1920) (obsolete) The Arctomys formation was f i rs t named and very brief ly des-cribed in 1920 by Walcott from the Glacier Lake section on the southern slopes of Sullivan Peak. The type description of this formation i s : "Upper Cambrian Arctomys Unit la Laminated limestones 520 feet Unit lb Purple, green and grey shale with layers of laminated limestone 866 feet Total thickness 1,386 feet (Walcott, 1920, p. 15) In 1923, Walcott amplified the description of the type section but omitted any mention of the maroon and green shales which are the most characteristic feature of the Arctomys formation. Part of Walcott's 1923 description of the Arctomys is given below: "Character - Bluish grey irregularly laminated cliff-forming limestones which are more or less magnesian in some layers. This limestone is underlain by a series of arenaceous and si l iceous shales with bands of hard, finely laminated, dove-coloured limestone. Thickness - Upper cliff-forming limestone 520 feet (158.5 m.). The si l iceous shales and limestone below have a thickness of 866 feet (263.9 m.) which gives 1,386 feet (422.4 m.) for the entire formation. Organic Remains - The character of the sedimentation appears to have been unfavourable for the presence and preservation of vegetable and animal l i f e . The few foss i ls found indicate the Upper Cambrian fauna". (Walcott, 1923, p. 462) 20 In 1928, Walcott's summation of the pre-Devonian geology of the Canadian Rockies was posthumously published by C.E. Resser. In this final paper, the Arctomys appears in various Upper Cambrian sec-tions in the Front and Main Ranges of the Rocky Mountains. Thicknesses of the Arctomys formation are l isted for the various sections measured in the Rockies. In summary these are: Glacier Lake (type locality 1,386 feet Cottom Grass Cirque 725 feet Ranger Canyon 95 feet Mount Bosworth 268 feet In addition to these, not l isted by Walcott, (1928, p. 246) are: Castle Mountain 218 feet Si f f leur River 725 feet From this l i s t it is apparent that the Glacier Lake Arctomys has a somewhat anomalous thickness, even after due allowance is made for the southeast - northwest thickening characterist ic of the Upper Cambrian rocks as a whole. The only foss i ls reported from the Arctomys formation by Walcott are t r i lob i te fragments from the Cotton Grass Cirque section (Walcott, 1928, p. 287) and Obolus sp. , Linqulel la isse (Walcott) and t r i lob i te fragments from the Glacier Lake section (1928, p. 347). Further f ie ld work on the Arctomys was continued by Oeiss in 1939 when he remeasured the Castle Mountain section and reported 270 feet of Arctomys from the ridge near the top of the section. Deiss also discovered poorly preserved Obolus ? sp. 133 feet below the top of the formation. With reference to the correlation of the Arctomys of Mount 21 Eisenhower (Cast Ie Mountain) with the type section near Glacier Lake, Deiss observed that: "The correlation of these rocks with those of the Arctomys in its type section 65 miles to the northwest is based upon the l i thologic similar ity and stratigraphic position of these rocks in the two areas but not upon foss i l s . Only Obolus sp. and Linqula isse (Walcott) are known from the lower part of the formation near Glacier Lake . . . " . (Deiss, 1939, p. 972). Few additional observations of importance were made of the Arctomys formation until 1954, when North and Henderson (1954, p. 62) stated that: "The Arctomys is characterized by thin beds and bright colours. It is dominated by shales, usually si l iceous or calcareous and containing beds of limestone or dolomite or both. The shales are of a l l colours - maroon, red, yellow, and buff - and frequently bear mud-cracks and casts of salt crysta ls " . . . . "The formation is now best seen around the lower slopes of the peaks in the Glacier Lake region, south of the Icef ie lds. It thins northward and southward and thickens for a short distance westward, from this central area". In 1955, a new Upper Cambrian formation, the Tangle Ridge, was established by Hughes in the area north of Sunwapta Pass. From the present understanding of the Upper Cambrian stratigraphy, it appears fa ir ly certain that the lower 535 feet of the Tangle Ridge formation is the l i thologic and stratigraphic equivalent of the Arctomys at its type loca l i ty . The general thinning of the Arctomys, northward from Glacier Lake is in agreement with the observations of the writer and of North and Henderson (1954). In 1956, R. deWit made a detailed study of the relation between the Ghost River and the Arctomys formations as exposed in the Bow Valley. He concluded that the lower unit of the Ghost River can be correlated with the Arctomys, but that the upper unit of the Ghost River is to be considered as basal Devonian. Four sections that include the Arctomys formation are described by deWit from the Bow Valley. The thickness of 22 Arctomys in each is given below: 1. Near Loder Lime Plant 35 feet 2. Near Exshaw 193 feet 3. Near Canmore, southeast end of Mt. Rundle . . . 188 feet 4. "Ranger Canyon in the Sawback Range" 209 feet + In each section, the Arctomys is designated as a unit of s i l t -stone, shales, and thin, platy dolomites coloured red, maroon, yellow, and buff. The dolomite or limestone member of the upper Arctomys has generally been called Bosworth formation by deWit. It is worth noting that the Ranger Canyon local ity mentioned by deWit is not the Ranger Canyon section examined by Walcott. Pres-umably the valley referred to be deWit is either that located above Massive or the one immediately north of Mount Cory. These valleys are about 3 miles apart in a north - south direct ion, and the valley above Massive, the most northerly of the two, is about 5 miles south of the Ranger Canyon section of Walcott. From the foregoing brief summary of the more important re f -erences on the Arctomys stratigraphy, it is possible to conclude that, in general, Walcott and later authors have consistently used the Arctomys to mean the lowest Upper Cambrian unit, characterized by green and maroon shales. Only one anomalous feature is present; the very great thickness of the type local ity in comparison with the Arctomys elsewhere. Close examination of Walcott's section at Glacier Lake, Sullivan Peak, however, shows the Arctomys type to be in two units, a lower 866 foot unit of green and red si l iceous shales, and an upper cliff-forming unit, 520 feet thick, of "bluish-grey, irregularly laminated limestone". (Walcott, 1928, p. 346). Inclusion of the carbonate unit, 520 feet thick, in the type 23 section of the Arctomys, has undoubtedly been the cause of the anomalous thickness of this formation in the Glacier Lake val ley. It is proposed to subdivide the Arctomys formation as defined in 1920 and 1928 by Walcott, into two distinct rock units, the upper carbonate unit to be given the name Waterfowl formation, and the lower maroon and green shale unit the Chephren formation. Description of these new formations, with type sections, is to follow. As the formations Waterfowl and Chephren are definitely map-pable units, it would be an unsatisfactory procedure to designate them as members. Establishment of these rock units as formations, however, makes it necessary to raise the rank of the old Arctomys formation to a group. This implies that the Waterfowl and Chephren formations are "associated formations having significant l i thologic features in common." (Amer. Comm. on Strat. Nomenclature, 1961, p . 651). These formations, however, have very l i t t l e in common and thus cannot properly be grouped. The only solution to this problem is to recommend that the Arctomys name be considered obsolete. The fact that the Arctomys has been consistently incorrectly applied, even on occasion by Walcott, encourages the discon-tinuation of Arctomys as a formation name. 24 Chephren Format ion (proposed) Der i vat ion of Name: From Mount Chephren, located on the west side of the Mistaya River val ley, six miles south of the summit of Mount Murchison. Type LocaIi ty: On the lower slopes of the west side of Mount Murchison, east of the Banff-Jasper highway. The section comprises the lowest exposures to within 65 feet of the top of the lowest c l i f f in an unnamed creek crossed by the Banff-Jasper highway 2.2 miles south of the North Sask-atchewan River bridge, Banff National Park, Alberta. Summary of Li thology: The Chephren formation at the type locality is composed of a series of red, green and buff weathering dolomitic shales or shaly dolomites. The individual beds are generally less than two inches in thickness,aI though beds up to four feet thick are present. When the Chephren is exposed on a mountainside it weathers readily into a buff, maroon, and green coloured talus slope. Mud cracks, r ipple marks, and salt casts are known to occur in this formation, but were not found at the type section. The contact of the Chephren formation with the underlying Eldon-Pika interval is not exposed at the type section, thus the thick-ness of the Chephren is not known at this local i ty . A total of 300 feet was measured at the type section, which may be less than half of the full thickness of the Chephren on Mount Murchison. For reference sections to i l lustrate the lithology of the lower beds of the Chephren formation and the form of the contact with the 25 EI don-Pika sequence, one is referred to the Arctomys Peak (Partial) and Sundance Range sections (p. 228 and|68 respectively). In these sections, the contact of the Chephren with the Pika-Eldon is well exposed. The contact is apparently conformable, but sharp and welI-def ined. DetaiIed Sect ion of Type Locali ty; Contact with overlying Waterfowl formation conformable, well-exposed (see unit 16 of type Waterfowl section p.224 ). Uni t Thickness Cumulative L i thology  of Un i t Th ickness 17 115' 115* Polomi tes: an alternating sequence of shaly dolomite, and thin to medium bedded dolomite; thin, shaly dolomite, pale grey-green and dark maroon, in 1/4" - 3/4" beds; maroon beds generally 1/4" or less in thickness in I' - 2» units; very s i l t y , cryptocrystaI Iine to lithographic; alternate with brown-grey dolomites up to 2 * in thickness, hard, resistant, of similar detailed t 11 hi— ology; about equal thickness of shaly dolomites and thicker bedded dolomites. Red, maroon units occur, from I' - 2* thick, at 15', 63' 68* and 76» down from top of unit. Unit weathers predominantly pale yellow-brown to buff. 26 Thtckness CumulatIve Li thoIoqy  of Uni t Th? ckness At 104* from top of unit 17, a thick, massive bed of medium grey, finely crystal l ine limestone with brown-weathering, si Ity "eyes" up to 1/4" diameter and s i l t y laminae and stringers; hard, resistant, weathers pale grey and buff in patches; abrupt contacts with enclosing dol -omites. 7' 122' Covered; shaly dolomite talus. 121* 243' Do Iomi tes: Similar lithology and alternating shaly and medium bedded dolomites as in unit 17; maroon units at I2», 51•, 60' and 76» from top of uni t. Units 16, 17 and 18 and 19 form f i rst high c l i f f encountered in creek bed as traverse is made upstream from highway. From 20' to 41* of unit 19, medium bedded dolomites are more abundant, and the shaly dolomites occur as thin, minor interbeds; at 20 ' , a few feet of dark grey-green to green-black, thin bedded (1/2" - I") dolomite. 27 Uni t Thi ckness Cumulat Ive Li thology  of Un i t Thi ckness 20 15' 258• ' Covered: Stream bed debris. 21 9 1 267' Dolomi tes: Similar lithology to unit 17, but lacks maroon beds; predominately yellow-brown weath-ering unit; ledge-forming. 22 9' 276' Covered: 23 8' 284' Dolomi te: Similar lithology as for unit 17, but more s i l t y , and more resi stant. 24 16* 300' Polomi te: contact gradational over 6" - I' from unit 23; black, dense, hard, lithographic; abundant s i l ty laminae; massive; s i l t stringers anastomosing and irregular occurring every 3/4" to I", and so arranged as to produce a "knotted" or "ropey" texture on the weathered surface. Cl iff-forming, weathers pale grey and pale brown to buff. Base of Chephren not exposed. 28 Known Thickness and Distr ibut ion: The uneroded thickness of the Chephren formation varies from 201 feet in the Sundance Range to 800 feet or more (Walcott's measurement) in the Glacier Lake val ley. As mentioned previously, this westward and northward increase in thickness of the Upper Cambrian formations is typ-ical for the area studied. The Chephren is very widely distributed in the southern Rocky Mountains. It has been identified in the Front and Main Ranges from Banff to north of Jasper. In the Jasper area, and north, it occurs at the base of the Lynx formation as a broad maroon talus slope. Format ion Con tact: The upper contact of the Chephren is marked by a change from maroon and green dolomitic shales to the massive limestones or dolomites of the Waterfowl formation. The contact is commonly gradational over several feet, but occasionally it is sharp and well-defined. The contact of the Chephren and the Pika formation is also gradational, but to a lesser degree than the upper boundary of the Chephren. The thin-bedded, platey dolomites of the Pika formation are often abruptly overlain by the red and green dolomitic shales of the Chephren formation. In the Sundance Range section the contact of these two formations can be located to within a few inches. Correlation and Age; No fossi ls have been found in the Chephren formation by the writer, but some fragmental, unidentifiable t r i lob i tes , and l ingulid brachiopods were1 found by Walcott (see under discussion of Arctomys formation). The Chephren underlies the Waterfowl formation, also unfossil-iferous, but fortunately, identifiabIe tr1 Iobites have been found in the 29 Pika formation below the Chephren. The fossi l collections made by Deiss, and identif ied by Denson (Denson, 1942) from the type Pika form-ation on Mount Eisenhower (Castle Mountain) are correlated with the second youngest Middle Cambrian zone of Utah, Montana, and Wyoming. Denson concluded from the Pika fossil collections that the overlying Chephren (Arctomys) must be Middle Cambrian in age. The writer has reached the same conclusion on evidence provided by a fossi l collection from the basal beds of the Corona formation on the Sundance Range. This fossi l col lection contained several excellent specimens of Bolasp i deI la  we I Isv iI I ens is , which is considered to be indicative of youngest Middle Cambrian or oldest Upper Cambrian. As the remaining species of this col lection were typical of the Cedaria zone fauna, it is concluded that the Corona is the oldest Upper Cambrian formation of the southern Rocky Mountains. Hence the Waterfowl formation underlying the Corona is prob-ably of Middle Cambrian age, and the Chephren formation, which in turn underlies the Waterfowl, must certainly be of Middle Cambrian age. Wa ter fowl Format ion (proposed) Der i vat i on of Name: From the Waterfowl Lakes, situated in the upper end of the Mistaya River val ley, ten miles south of the summit of Mt. Murchison. Type LocaIi ty: Lower slopes on the west of Mt. Murchison; top 65 feet of the lowest c l i f f to the top of the second c l i f f , approximately 400' higher in alt i tude, exposed in an unnamed creek that is crossed by the Banff-jasper Highway 2.2 miles south of the North Saskatchewan River bridge, 30 Banff National Park, Alberta. Summary of Li thology: The Waterfowl formation is essentially a cliff-forming dol -omite unit 505' thick at the type local i ty . The dolomites vary from lithographic to finely crysta l l ine , brown to grey-black, a l l are more or less s i l t y , and they are generally thick-bedded, although thin-bedded platy units do occur. At the type section, the upper 150 feet of strata are dolomitic limestones. Four miles along str ike, in the Bison Creek section, this upper limestone unit has changed to a uniformly thick-bedded, brown weathering dolomite. At the type section, the upper 150-160 feet form a near-vertical c l i f f . Below this, moderately good exposure is present, except for one 89-foot covered interval . The basal 65 feet of the formation at the type locality form a medium to thick-bedded unit which caps the lowest 170 foot c l i f f exposed in the creek bed. Deta iIed Sect i on of Type LocaIi ty; Contact with overlying Corona formation covered, probably con f ormabIe. Un i t Th? ckness Cumulat ive Li thology  of Uni t Thickness I 25* 25' Polomi te; MicrocrystaI Iine to finely crystalline} dark grey; s i l t y ; in thin 2" - 4" beds; recessive; forms shaly slope at top of main dolomite c l i f f ; weathers pale to medium brown-grey. Gradational over 2* - 3' into underlying unit 31 Un i t Thickness Cumulat ive Li tholoqy  of Uni t Thi ckness 2 138' 163' Limestone: dark grey to black; microcry-sta l l ine to lithographic; dolomitic; very s i l t y ; medium brown, s i l ty and calcareous lenses, tracery and laminae common through-out unit; presents thin bedded (I" - 2") or laminated appearance, but massive weath-ering forming near-vertical c l i f f s ; weathers dark grey to medium grey, or in many places, a pale yellow brown or buff. At 80' of unit 2, a 6" bed of fine (I mm.) ooli t ic Iimestone. Bedding planes generally irregular and un-dulating, but well defined. 3 I4» 177* Limestone: dark grey to black, s i l t y , micro-crysta l l ine; characterized by numerous lenses and bands of oolites which weather to form a pit ted, orange, and grey weathered surface; thick bedded; forms base of c l i f f . Weathers as for unit 2; bedding planes smooth, well def ined. 4 18' 195* Covered: stream debris and talus. 5 12' 207* Dolomi tes: hard, dense, lithographic, very s i l t y , s l ight ly calcareous, medium brown; weathering medium to dark brown-grey; very b r i -tt le with conchoidal fracture; in beds I 1/2 Uni t Thickness Cumulative of Uni t Thickness 2 138' |63« 3 I4» 177' 32 L? thology slope at top of main dolomite c l i f f ; weathers pale to medium brown-grey. Gradational over 2' - 3' into under-lying unit. Limestonet dark grey to black; micro-crystal l ine to lithographic; dolomitic; very s i l t y ; medium brown, s i l t y and calcareous lenses, tracery and laminae common throughout unit; presents thin-bedded (I" - 2") or laminated appearance, but massive weathering forming near-vertical c l i f f s ; weathers dark grey to medium grey, or in many places, a pale yellow brown or buff. At 80« of unit 2, a 6" bed of fine (I mm.) oo l i t i c limestone. Bedding planes generally irregular and undulating, but well defined. Limestone; dark grey to black, s i l t y , microcrystalIine; characterized by numerous lenses and bands of oolites which weather to form a pi t ted, orange, and grey weathered surface; thick-bedded; forms base of c l i f f . Weathers as for unit 2; bedding planes smooth, well defined. 33 Uni t Thickness Cumulative Li tholoqy  of Uni t Thi ckness to 2 feet thick; ledge forming. 6 II' 218' Covered! stream bed debris. 7 4' 222' Dolomi te: black, hard, cryptocrystalIine to lithographic; conchoidal fracture; in beds I" - 2" thick; poorly exposed; well bedded; recessive; weathers dark grey. 8 21* 243' Dolomi te: pale grey, lithographic, hard, dense with nodules and lenses of black lithographic limestone scattered through-out rock; abundant s i l t laminae and trac-ery; unit weathers medium brown-grey with "dolomitic tracery" and s i l t laminae weath-ering in r e l i e f ; thick bedded ( 2 - 3 feet", ledge forming. Abrupt contact with unit 9. 9 7' 250' Polomi te: as for unit 5, but with abundant s i l t laminae; laminae every 1/2" to I 1/2" anastomosing through rock; bedding indis-t inct ; occasional small patches of maroon to reddish brown weathering dolomite; unit res -istant, ledge forming. S i l t laminae weather medium orange-brown. 10 23' 273' Covered: stream bed debris. 11 7» 280' PoIomi te: as for unit 7. 34 Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive Li thology  of Uni t Thickness 12 57' 3371 Dolomi te; gradational from unit II into thick bedded (2' - 6') dolomites of same lithology as unit 7, but with dark brown weathering s i l t y laminae and irregular lenses on weathered surface. C l i f f form-ing, very resistant; weathers medium grey with buff patches. 13 89' 426' Covered; stream bed debris. 14 4' 430' Do Iomi te: hard, dense, s i l t y , cryptocry-stal l ine to lithographic; in alternating lenses or laminae 1/2" to 3/4" thick, of medium brown and medium grey dolomite; medium grey laminae are s l ight ly calcareous. A massive unit, ledge forming; top of unit weathers in thin slabs; weathers alternating pale grey and medium yellow brown. Occasional patches of fine disseminated pyrite. 15 10' 440* Covered IntervaI : 16 65' 505' Polomi test hard, dense, medium grey to medium brown-grey; some very s l ight ly calcareous horizons; cryptocrystaI Iine to lithographic; abundant thin stringers of s i l t ; weathers pale brown-grey with buff patches; very resistant, c l i f f forming unit; caps unit 17, in beds 2* to 3 1/2' 35 Uni t Thickness Cumulative Li thology  of Unit Thickness thick; regularly bedded; abrupt contact wi th uni t 17. Unit 17, f i rs t unit of underlying Chephren format i on. Known Thickness and Distr ibut ion: The uneroded thickness of the Waterfowl is known to vary from 170 feet in the Sundance Range to 520 feet (Walcott's measurement) in the Sullivan Peak Section. The westward and northward increase in thickness is normal for the Upper Cambrian formations in the area under discussion. The Waterfowl is present in every section measured, and can generally be identif ied in Walcott's, and Hughes' sections. The detailed lithology of the formation is known to vary from section to section, but in each locality it is a medium to thick bedded, resistant, cliff-forming carbonate. The Chephren consistently underlies the Waterfowl with no apparent unconformity, and the Corona overlies it in al l sect i ons. Format i on Contacts: The upper contact of the Waterfowl with the Corona is generally poorly exposed. It is conformable and marked by an abrupt change in l i t h -ology from limestone or dolomite to the overlying green-grey shales. In the type area the contact is poorly exposed. The contact of the Chephren and the Waterfowl formation is gradational over several feet in most sections, and is marked by a change from shaly and thin-bedded buff, green and red-weathering dolomite shales 36 to thicker bedded, more resistant, cliff-forming dolomites or lime-stones. No maroon shales have been observed above the Chephren-Waterfowl contact. CorreI at ion and Age: No foss i ls have yet been found in the Waterfowl formation. It underlies the Corona formation which contains the oldest Upper Cambrian faunas, and overlies the Chephren formation of late Middle Cambrian age9 The Waterfowl formation cannot be dated definitely as Middle or Upper Cambrian because it has not been proven that the Lower Cedaria zone fauna, containing Bolaspidella in the Corona formation of the Sun-dance Range, does not range into the upper beds of the Waterfowl form-ation. Until further faunal evidence is available then, it is only suggested that the Waterfowl be considered as the latest Middle Cambrian formation of the Southern Rocky Mountains. This age would satisfy the paleontologic and stratigraphic data presently available, and the Middle-Upper Cambrian boundary thus drawn would coincide with a major change in sedimentation, from the dolomites and dolomitic red and green shales of the late Middle Cambrian to the calcareous grey-green shales and oo l i t i c and bioclast ic limestones of the Upper Cambrian. Paget Formation (Walcott, 1908) (obsolete) In 1908 Walcott erected the Paget formation from the section measured on the southeastern slope of Paget Peak. The type description is given below in fu l I : "Paget formation Type local ity - Southeastern slope of Paget Peak, beneath the Sherbrooke formation, which forms the high c l i f f s and peaks of Mt. Daly. The Paget formation breaks down more readily 37 than the Sherbrooke, presently a s l ight ly broken c l i f f l ine . The most accessible locality found is on the east face of the west ridge of Mount Bosworth (Sherbrooke Ridge). Derivation - From Paget Peak, the type local i ty . Character - Bluish grey and oo l i t i c limestones, usually thin-bedded. Thickness - At Mount Bosworth, 360 feet. Organic remains - Upper Cambrian fauna". (Walcott, 1908, p. 3) The description of the Paget formation was enlarged upon in Walcott's second publication of 1908. Of importance is the addition to the description of "interbedded bands of green si l iceous shale" in the lower 300 feet of the formation. (Walcott, 1908, p. 205). In 1928 Walcott made the following observations regarding the Paget formation: "This formation might be included with the Sherbrooke as its upper 60 feet (18.3 m.) of heavy, blue limestone is underlain by 300 feet (91.4 m.) of grey oo l i t i c beds much like the oo l i t i c limestone of the Sherbrooke. There are no diagnostic forms that serve to d i s t i n -guish it from the Sherbrooke fauna. My reason for separating it as a dist inct formation was because it forms a marked topographic feature on Mount Bosworth and on Paget Peak". (Walcott, 1928, p. 243) It is worth noting at this point that the Paget formation, as described by Walcott from the southeastern slopes of Paget Peak, does not occur on Sherbrooke Ridge or on Mount Bosworth. The youngest strata at these loca l i t ies are Chephren (basal Arctomys),and Pika. The Paget formation, for purposes of this study, was remeasured at the type locality on the southeastern slope of Paget Peak. Only 130 feet of phy l l i t i c green shale and oo l i t i c limestones were found below the f i rs t c l i f f on Paget Peak. The faunas from this unit provided correlation with the Corona formation of Glacier Lake, Mount Murchison, and Sundance Range. The upper 60 foot blue limestone unit mentioned by Walcott y i e ld -ed 64 feet on remeasuring. The contact between the Paget and Sherbrooke formations i s , however, an undulating plane marking a transition from 38 limestone to a dolomite. Thus the four foot discrepancy is insignif icant. The contact of the Paget and the Bosworth formations can only be located by measuring down 360 feet from the undulating Paget-Sher-brooke contact. Unfortunately, the section is talus covered at this footage and is approximately coincident with a zone of faulting which has further disrupted the section. In 1954, North and Henderson declared the Paget formation obsolete as it was merely a local oo l i t i c limestone and shale equiv-alent of the Bosworth formation. Although the Paget is not equivalent to any part of the Bosworth formation it is not the intention of the writer to revive the Paget as a val id formation name. The type section is poor-ly exposed, indeed, some of the section is missing entirely; it is com-plicated by fault ing; and the Bosworth-Paget contact can never be determined. For these reasons the writer concurs with North and Henderson in considering the Paget formation obsolete. The Paget formation is , in general, the equivalent of the Sullivan formation of Glacier Lake. The lower 300 foot unit of the Paget, if exposed, would possibly be equivalent to the upper part of the Corona formation as exposed on Mount Murchison. SulIivan Format ion (Walcott, 1920) (obsolete) In 1920 Walcott established the Sullivan formation to include those beds lying immediately above the Arctomys formation on Sullivan Peak, north of Glacier Lake. The type description of this formation is quoted in f u l l : 39 "Upper Cambrian la Compact grey limestone 325 feet Sullivan 144 feet lb Shale with interbedded limestone . . . 975 feet (422.4 m.) Ic Ool i t ic limestone and shale . . . . . 140 feet" (Walcott, 1920, p. 15). In 1923 this description was enlarged upon and the type section more accurately located. The description and remarks regarding this formation are quoted below in part. "Type local ity - Grey limestone above with arenaceous shale and interbedded limestone on the north side of Glacier Lake canyon valley and the south c l i f f s and slopes of Sullivan Peak about a mile east of the foot of southeast LyelI Glac ier" . Derivation - From Sullivan Peak, 7,858 feet (2,395 m.) Character - Hard, grey, rather thin-bedded semi-crystalline limestone above, with arenaceous shales predominating below. The dominant feature is the development of arenaceous shales. Thickness - At the type locality in Glacier Lake canyon the upper limestone has a thickness of 325 feet (99 m.). The arenaceous shales and interbedded limestones continue down for 1,115 feet (339.8 m.), making a total thickness of 1,440 feet (438.9 m.). Organic remains - Upper Cambrian fauna of about the horizon of the Eau Claire formation of the northern Mississippi valley sect ion". (Walcott, 1923, p. 461). In 1928 Walcott summarized the known section of the Sullivan formation and added more detail on i ts thickness, distr ibut ion, character, and strat{graphic relat ions. The thickness, according to Walcott, varies from 1,440 feet in Glacier Lake area to 1,260 feet in the Sif f leur River section, and 775 feet in the Clearwater Canyon section. In regard to the contained foss i l s , Walcott states: "This formation contains a Crepi cephaI us fauna and hence is to be correlated with the Sherbrooke and Paget formations". (Walcott, 1928, p. 244). This statement appears to be refuted, at least in regard to the fauna, by Resser (1942b) when he published the descriptions and i l lustrat ions of the Sullivan fauna. Al l are Cedar{a zone genera and speci es. 40 A lack of consistency is noted in Walcott's usage of the Sul l ivan. In the Clearwater Canyon section, the lower 500 feet is described as "massive-bedded, steel-grey, hard, rough-weathering limestone". (Walcott, 1928, p. 333). This is not typical of the Sullivan at Glacier Lake. The upper 275 feet of the Sullivan at Clear-Water Canyon, however, agree well with the type description. In 1954, North and Henderson observed that "the entire interval between the base of the Bosworth formation and that of the great Lyell limestone . . . is occupied by a carbonate sequence, consisting mostly of thinly bedded blue limestone with intervals of oo l i t i c and argillaceous limestone and some shale. This sequence makes up Walcott's own Sullivan formation in the area north of Bow Lake, and its typical thickness is about 1,000 feet" (p. 47 - 48). In 1955, Hughes correlated the Sullivan formation to the Glacier Lake area with the fossiI i ferous portion of the Tangle Ridge formation. This correlation was based on the presence of Cedar i a zone faunas in both formations. Since Walcott established the Sullivan formation at Glacier Lake, it has always been d i f f i cu l t to determine the boundary between the Sullivan and overlying Lyell formations. This d i f f i cu l ty is aggr-avated if one refers to the Siff leur River or Clearwater Canyon sections for a solution to the problem. From the present study it is suggested that the sections measured by Walcott of the Sullivan formation on Sullivan Peak and of the Lyell formation on Division Mountain overlap 300 to 400 feet. The writer was not able to measure the Sullivan form-ation at Sullivan Peak, but from observations of the section from the valley f loor, coupled with Walcott's descriptions and photographs, this postulated overlap of sections can be shown. If reference is made to the measured section on Mount Murchison 41 for a standard section of the Upper Cambrian, it is seen that the Waterfowl formation is overlain by 1,077 feet of greenish-grey shales with interbedded oo l i t i c limestones in the upper portion. This seq-uence is in turn overlain by a massive cliff-forming carbonate 731 feet thick. These two units provide a total of 1,808 feet of strata. Referring to the Glacier Lake section, the Sullivan was des-cribed as 1,440 feet of oo l i t i c limestone and shale (140 feet), shale with interbedded limestone (975 feet) overlain by compact grey limestone (325 feet)(WaI cott , 1920, p. 15). The upper 325 feet of limestone appears as a c l i f f in Walcott's 1928 paper (see plate 92). The Lyell was original ly described as "massive-bedded grey limestone (1,270 feet)" overlying "l ight grey thick-bedded limestone (430 feet) . " (Walcott, 1920, p. 15). In 1923 this description of the Lyell was worded: "massive-bedded c l i f f forming rough weathering mag-nesian limestone forms the upper portion of the formation, with thinner-bedded grey and oo l i t i c limestones beneath". (Walcott, 1923, p. 460). It may be assumed that the "thinner-bedded grey and oo l i t i c limestones" is the 430 foot unit assigned to the Lyell by Walcott in 1908, and again in 1928. The two formation descriptions thus yield a sequence containing two oo l i t i c limestone and shale units and two cl iff-forming limestone units. This condition does not prevail at Mount Murchison, which is only 12 miles to the southeast on the same fault block. If the thickness of the combined Lyell and Sullivan formations at Glacier Lake is considered, an interval of 3,140 feet, it seems that an 42 error must exist in the measured thickness, because at Mount Murchison, 12 miles away, the same interval is represented by only 1,800 feet of strata. It is granted that the general northwestward thickening of the Upper Cambrian might account for a few hundred feet thickness increase, but scarcely 1,340 feet. The writer suggests that the type description of the Sullivan hasincluded in it 325 feet of strata from the overlying LyelI, and that the LyelI as or iginal ly described contains 430 feet of Sullivan strata at the base. It is recognized that the 975 foot unit of shale with interbedded limestone of the type Sullivan is being correlated, in part, with the thin-bedded grey and oo l i t i c limestone unit, 430 feet thick, of the type LyelI section. As it is known from f ie ld studies of the Sullivan interval elsewhere in the Rockies that the oo l i t i c limestones occur randomly throughout the Sullivan section, the above correlation is considered jus t i f i ed . Correlation of the upper Sullivan unit (430 feet) and the lower Lyel I unit (325 feet) removes 755 feet from the total SuI Iivan-Lye I I interval, thus eliminating some of the excessive thick-ness of the two formations, but not a l l . The SulIivan-Lye I I interval as measured by Walcott in Glacier Lake valley is s t i l l nearly 600 feet thicker than the comparable interval at Mount Murchison. As a further observation on the boundaries of the Sullivan formation type section, it should be noted that the contacts of the Sullivan as described in the text (Walcott, 1928) disagree with the contacts as sketched on plate 92 (Walcott, 1928). In consideration of the confusion that has surrounded the exact meanings of the names * Lye I I • and •Sull ivan', it is recommended that they 43 be abandoned, to be replaced by the Mount Synge and Corona formations respectively, type sections to be located on Mount Murchison. The Mount Murchison section is much more accessible than the Glacier Lake area. Furthermore, the two sections are in immediate conjunction, rather than separated by two or three miles of mountainside and valley f loor, as the Sullivan and LyelI type sections are in the Glacier Lake area. One further reason for the above recommendation is outlined in the discussion of the LyelI formation. Corona Format i on (proposed) Der i vat ion of Name: From Corona Creek, a small stream with headwaters about three miles east of the summit of Mount Murchison; drains northward into the North Saskatchewan r iver . Type LocaIi ty: On the southwest slope of Mount Murchison, exposed above the lowest c l i f f (Waterfowl formation) and below the second c l i f f (Mount Synge formation). The section was measured along Bison Creek, 6.5 miles west of the North Saskatchewan River bridge, Banff National Park, Alberta. Summary of Li thology: The Corona formation as exposed on Mount Murchison is composed predominantly of a soft green-grey, f i s s i l e shale, with minor interbeds of hard, dark green dolomite in the lower part of the section, and thick beds of oo l i t i c , b ioc last ic , and pebble limestones in the top 200 feet. Fossils are common in the dark green dolomites, and the bioc last ic , oo l i t i c limestones. The type section is 1,077 feet thick. 44 The only observed facies change of the Corona formation occurs in the Sundance Range. In this section, the Sullivan has passed southeasterly from green shales and oo l i t i c limestones to a sequence of thin-bedded, hard, platy, s i l t y limestones interbedded with oo l i t i c limestones and only minor amounts of green shale. Detailed Sect ion of Type LocaIi ty: Contact with overlying dolomites on the Mount Synge formation moderately well exposed, conformable. Un i t Th ickness Cumulat ive L i thology  of Uni t Thickness 44 6' 6* Limestone; as described for unit 43, but one massive bed with abundant large oolites in several horizons; weathers dark brown-grey; ledge forming. 45 68' 74* Covered intervaI : talus. 46 3' 77* Limestone: o o l i t i c ; oolites well-formed about I mm. in diameter; in fine-grained crystal l ine limestone matrix; some bio-clast ic lenses, but rock predominantly oo I i t i c. 47 4' 81' Covered intervaI : 48 8' 89* Limestone: medium grey; fine to medium crysta l l ine; irregular lenses and pods of oo l i t i c limestone; few yellow-brown weath-ering, s i l t y , limestone nodules, I" wide by 6" long; unit massive, ledge-forming; weathers medium-grey with yellow-brown 45 Uni t Thickness Cumulative Li thology  of Uni t Thickness patches; abrupt contact with unit 49. 49 3' 92* Shale; dark grey-green to green-brown, soft , f i s s i l e , calcareous, recessive, occasional limestone nodules, dark green-grey, finely crysta l l ine , discoidal shape; very recessive unit; weathers medium grey. Limestone: as described for unit 48. Covered interval ; Limestone; as described for unit 48; in beds I* to 3' thick; ledge-forming. ShaIe; as described for unit 49. Limestone; as described for unit 48; lower I*, a limestone pebble conglomerate; pebbles up to 2" in diameter. ShaIe; as described for unit 49. Limestone; as described for unit 48. ShaIe; as described for unit 49. Limestone: as described for unit 48. Fossil C o l l . RGI2-F60 - 2,254*. ShaIe; as described for unit 49. Limestone; as described for unit 48. Shale; as described for unit 49. Covered un i t; occupied by talus of units 48 and 49 lithology. 50 3* 95* 51 18* 113* 52 14* 127* 53 7* 134* 54 2* 136* 55 3* 139' 56 2* 141 • 57 21 • 162* 58 3' 165* 59 12* 177* 60 2* 179' 61 8* 187* 62 380* 567* 46 Un i t Th ickness Cumulat ive Li thology  of Unit Thickness 63 4' 571' Limestone; as described for unit 48. 64 II• 582' Shale; as described for unit 49. 65 18' 600* Limestone; as described for unit 48. 66 I I ' 61 I« Shale: as described for unit 49. 67 6' 617' Limestone: as described for unit 48. Fossil Co l l . RG-I2-F60 - 2,708'. 68 250' 867' Limestone and Shale: limestones, oo l i t i c , resistant ledges; detailed lithology as described for unit 48; shale, soft , grey-green, recessive. Shale forms 55 - 65% of unit, with interbeds of limestone at regular i n -tervals in I ' to 3' beds; generally poorly exposed unit. 69 ||5« 982' ShaIe: grey-green, moderately soft , calcareous, blocky to siivery weathering habit; interbedded with more resistant 6" to 8" lense-like beds of grey-green, hard dolomite, s l ight ly calcareous, s i l t y ; unit weathers pale grey-green with yellow-brown staining. Fossils Co l l . RG-I2-F60 - 3,046'. 70 95' 1,077' Covered interval : buff and grey-green shale slope. Base of Corona formation. 47 Known Th ickness and D istr i but i on: The Corona formation is only 175 feet thick in the Sawback South section in the Sawback Range, but, 1,077 feet in the type section at Mount Murchison. This variation in thickness is unusual, but may be an expression of the dominantly c last ic composition of the Corona formation, as compared with the Waterfowl, Mount Synge and other pre-dominantly carbonate units which do not show such a great variation in thi ckness.' In every section measured. Front Range and Main Range, the Corona formation was recognized, generally as a grey-green shale facies. I The only exception to this shale facies of the Corona was encountered in the Sundance Range section as previously noted. Format ion Contacts: The lower contact of the Corona formation is not well exposed on Mount Murchison, but it is apparently a transition over several feet from the underlying thin-bedded buff weathering dolomites of the Water-fowl formation to the green-grey shales of the lower portion of the Corona, The contact of the Corona with the overlying Mount Synge formation is gradational over many feet, and is marked by the gradual increase upward of thick bedded, ledge-forming oo l i t i c limestone inter-bedded with green-grey shale. The contact of the Corona and the Mount Synge has been drawn immediately above the last appearance of oo l i t i c limestones and green shales. CorreI at i on and Age: The faunas known from the Corona formation are those of the lower and middle Cedar ia subzones of the Upper Cambrian Dresbachian. 48 The lower Cedaria subzone, containing Bolaspidel la , is known only from the Corona formation in the Dundance Range; the middle Cedaria fauna is known from many outcrops of the Corona formation in the Southern Rocky Mountains. Sherbrooke Formation (Walcott, 1908) (obsolete) The Sherbrooke formation was established in 1908 by Walcott from the section overlying the type Paget Peak formation on Paget Peak. Type description is given below in f u l l : "Sherbrooke format ion Type Locality - Western slopes of Mount Bosworth, overlooking Sherbrooke Lake, Canadian Rocky Mountains, five miles north of Hector, on the Canadian Pacif ic Railway, Br i t ish Columbia. Derivation - From Sherbrooke Lake, below the type loca l i ty . Character - Bluish grey, arenaceous, dolomitic, massive and thin-bedded to shaly limestones, with a few oo l i t i c layers and cherty inclusions. Thickness - At Mount Bosworth, 1,360 feet. Organic remains - Upper Cambrian, passing at summit into Ordovi ci an". (Walcott, 1908, p. 2 - 3). The second publication of 1908 by Walcott provided a detailed section of the Sherbrooke formation and the associated faunas. From the faunal l i s t it appears that Walcott located the CrepicephaI us zone of the Upper Cambrian. In 1928, Walcott concluded his remarks on the Sherbrooke form-ation with the following observations: "The Sherbrooke as a distinct formation is known only in the western part of Mount Bosworth. It has not been traced to the east, northwest, or north, unless the Sullivan formation of the Glacier Lake Section represents i t " . (Walcott, 1928, p. 242). 49 From a remeasurement of this formation at its type locality on Paget Peak, (Mount Bosworth does not overlook Sherbrooke Lake) two faunal zones were identified in the formation, the Upper Cedaria and the ApheI asp i s. The Upper Cedar i a fauna occurs in the oo l i t i c lime-stones above the lower half of the formation, and the ApheI asp i s fauna was found only 55 feet below the top of Paget Peak. The Sherbrooke formation is correlated with the Mount Synge formation of the Mount Mur-chison section. At Mount Murchison, the Mount Synge is overlain by the Bison Creek formation and underlain by the Corona formation. The oldest fauna of the Bison Creek formation is the Irv i ngeI I a zone (this zone generally succeeds the Aphelaspis zone) and the youngest fauna of the Corona form-ation was found to be that of the lower Cedar ia zone. Thus the Mount Synge appears to be the rock equivalent of the upper Cedar i a, Crep icephaI us, and ApheI asp is zones. Since the Upper Cedaria and ApheI asp i s zones were found in the type Sherbrooke sect ion, correlation is thus made with the Mount Synge of Mount Murchison. It is suggested that the Mount Synge correlates with the upper 64 feet of Paget Peak formation, the succeeding 1,240 feet of Sherbrooke, and the upper 110 feet of "Ordovician". The shale and oo l i t i c limestone unit of the type Sherbrooke section cannot be traced to Glacier Lake or to Mount Murchison. The Sherbrooke formation was considered obsolete by North and Henderson and no purpose would be served by re-establishing i t . The lower boundary of the Sherbrooke formation is marked by an undulating limestone-dolomite transition that is not a natural rock unit boundary; the upper limit of the Sherbrooke lithology is indeterminate since the 50 summit of Paget Peak is eroded into the Sherbrooke formation. Furthermore the Sherbrooke section does not exhibit the massive carbonate lithology that is usual for this interval elsewhere in the Front and eastern Main Ranges. The Sherbrooke is the rock equivalent of the LyelI of Glacier Lake, and of the Corona formation of Mount Murchison. Lye I I Formation (Walcott, 1920) (obsolete) The LyelI formation was erected by Walcott in 1920 in the Glacier Lake valley. The LyelI was described in two units total l ing 1,700 feet. The type description of which is given below: "Upper Cambrian la Massive bedded grey limestone . . . . 1,270 feet LyelI lb Light grey, Ic thick-bedded Id limestone 430 feet" (Walcott, 1920, p. 15) The type section was located more precisely and the description expanded in 1923 (Walcott, 1923, p. 460 - 461). Since this designation of the LyelI is of more value than the or ig ina l , the relevant portions are quoted below. "LyelI Formation (Cambrian, Upper) Type Locality - Massive-bedded grey and oolite limestone at head of Glacier Lake canyon valley about 2 miles (3.2 km.) above head of lake and about 48 miles (77.2 km.) northwest of Lake Louise Station on the Canadian Pacif ic Railway, Alberta, Canada. Derivation - From Mount LyelI, 11,495 feet (3505.6 m.), on the Continental Divide northwest of Glacier Lake " . . . . "Character -Massive-bedded cliff-forming rough weathering magnesian limestone forms the upper portions of the form-ation, with thinner-bedded grey and oo l i t i c limestones beneath. Thickness - At the type locality in Glacier Lake canyon valley the upper magnesian beds have a thickness of 1,270 feet (387.1m.) subjacent to which the thick-and-thin-bedded grey 51 limestone extend down 430 feet (131 m.), a total of 1,700 feet (518.1 m.) for the formation" "Organic remains - An Upper Cambrian fauna is fa i r ly well-developed in the lower limestone". (Walcott, 1923, p. 460). In 1928, the available stratigraphic data on the Lyell formation was summarized (Walcott, 1928), and the type section was more precisely located as "Head of Glacier Lake canyon at foot of southeast branch of Lyell Glacier, and extending along the northern c l i f f s of Mount Forbes". (Walcott, 1928, p. 228). Walcott also l isted the thickness of the Lyell formation in the various measured sections of the southern Canadian Rockies as given below: Glacier Lake section (type) 1,700 feet Clearwater Canyon section 1,050 feet Oyster Peak Ridge (Cotton Grass Cirque) 1,555 feet Ranger Canyon section 1,470 feet S i f f leur River section 400 feet With regard to the age of the Lyell formation, Walcott noted that fossi ls indicate that it is younger than the Sherbrooke and Ottertail formations and possibly older the the Sabine. Only a few fossi ls are re -ported from the Lyell by Walcott. In 1954, North and Henderson equated the Lyell plus Sullivan to the Ottertai l formation, of the Ottertail range. They observed that "the upper half (of the Ottertai l formation) is heavily-bedded to un-bedded, and unfossiIiferous; this is the Lyell formation of Walcott". (North and Henderson, 1954, p. 64). 52 Hughes noted in the Sunwapta Pass area that the post-Cedar ia zone beds of the Tangle Ridge formation may be a "shaly facies equivalent of the predominantly limestone LyelI formation". (Hughes, 1955, p. 92). Many more references to the LyelI formation are found through-out the l iterature of the Southern Rocky Mountain geology. All are i n -cluded in the accompanying bibliography. In the foregoing discussion of the Sullivan formation, the suggestion was made that the Lyel I formation as defined by Walcott at Glacier Lake included 430 feet of the Sullivan in its basal beds. Re-moval of this basal 430 foot unit reduces the LyelI at the type locality to 1,270 feet. The LyelI may not even be this thick at Glacier Lake. Due to the inherent d i f f i cu l t i e s in measuring across a tree-covered slope with sporadic outcrop, such as the type section of the LyelI formation, it cannot be expected that Walcott could have secured a more accurate thickness of this unit. The Lyel I exposed on Mount Murchison is only 731 feet thick in comparison. The reasons for the abandonment of the Sullivan formation name also apply for the LyelI with one or two additions. The type sec-tion of the LyelI formation is not suff ic ient ly accurately located, particularly the base, for the section to be remeasured to determine its true thickness. Also the type local i ty , as nearly as can be determined, is v irtual ly a l l tree-covered; only the upper beds are we I I-exposed. When the type sections of LyelI, Mons, and Sarback were measured by the writer, the sections were found to be even better exposed than depicted in Walcott's photograph (Plate 87, 1928) because of the later recession 53 of the glac iers. Despite this improvement of the section, later exam-ination of the data showed that it had been possible to measure only 137 feet of the Lyell formation; the lower beds were too poorly exposed to make measurements worthwhile. For the above reasons, and for those previously outlined for the Sullivan type section, the proposition is made that the Lyell be abandoned as a formation name and to be replaced by the Mount Synge formation, type section located on Mount Murchison. Moun t Synge Forma t i on (proposed) Der ivat i on of Name; From Mount Synge, situated on the west side of the Mistaya River valley, nine miles south of the summit of Mount Murchison. Type LocaIi ty; On the west side of Mount Murchison, and forming the lower bold c l i f f that outcrops on nearly al l sides of Mount Murchison. The type section occurs between the two recessive formations, the Corona and the Bison Creek. The Mount Synge formation is generally inaccess-ible because of its cliff-forming character ist ic . Summary of L i thoIogy; On Mount Murchison, the Mount Synge formation is a thick-bedded to massive carbonate unit, predominantly dark grey to black dolomite with some dark limestone beds in the lower few hundred feet. Throughout the area, however, the Mount Synge is extremely variable in detailed Ii thology. The Mount Synge section of the Sundance Range is characterized 54 by a wide range of colour, grain s ize , and composition in the dolomites. In the Sawback Lake and Clearwater Canyon sections, dark brick red to orange coloured dolomites occur. The Sawback Lake section has, in addition, a few, thin, shale horizons. The most radical facies change, however, is that of the Paget Peak section. The Paget Peak section, the site of the type sections for Bosworth, Paget, and Sherbrooke formations, contains a development of oo l i t i c limestones and green shales in the middle of the Mount Synge carbonate, very unlike any other known Mount Synge section in the Rockies. Coincident with this facies change, the faunas appear, pre-served in the oo l i t i c limestone bands. The oo l i t i c limestone and green shale facies developed on Mount Bosworth may be of considerable lateral extent, although no section similar to that of Paget Peak has been ob-served elsewhere in the Rockies. Pet a i I ed Sect i on of Type Locali ty; The upper beds of the Mount Synge formation are conformably overlain by the argillaceous limestones and shales of the Bison Creek format i on. Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive Li thology  of Un i t Th ickness 26 160' 160' Do Iomi te: dark grey to black; finely crystal l ine to cryptocrystaI Iine, hard, dense; occasional s i l t y laminae; thick to medium bedded (8' - 3'); very res i s -tant; very uniform lithology throughout 55 Uni t Th i ckness CumuI at ive L i thology  of Uni t Thickness whole unit; weathers pale grey to medium grey-brown; well-defined bedding planes; unit forms prominent c l i f f on mountain-side. 27 4' I641 Dolomi te: black, very fine-grained;very much as described for unit 26, but has a nodular, thin-bedded weathering habit; recessive; weathers pale grey. 28 266' 430' Polomi te: as described for unit 26. At 357', a black chert horizon, in nodules 1/2" to 3/4" thick by 3" to 4" long. Below chert horizon, a 4" bed of fine slump-breccia (?); particles less than I" long, 1/8" to 1/4" thick. 29 10* 440' L imestone: black; cryptocrystaI Iine to microcrystaI I ine, argil laceous; in beds 2" to I* thick; weathers pale grey; c l i f f -forming . 30 90' 530" Polomi te: as described for unit 26. At 488» an undulating bedding plane fault; but prob-ably not causing a great change in the thick-ness of the un i t. 31 20' 550' Polomi te: dark grey to black; finely cry-56 Un i t Thickness Cumulat i ve L i tholoqy  of Uni t Thickness sta l l ine at 530* to medium crystal l ine at 550'; few pyrite f lecks; massive, cliff-forming unit; abrupt contact with underlying unit (an undulating contact); overhanging ledges are frequently present at this contact. 32 I' 551' Shale: dark blue-grey, soft , f i s s i l e , non-calcareous; rare t r i lobi te fragments; few I" beds of hard, finely crysta l l ine , s i l t y , nodular limestones. Very recessive unit, weathering back 2' to 4' under overhanging c l i f f of preceding unit. Weathers pale grey. Abrupt contact with unit 33. 33 4' 555' Limestone: dark grey; cryptocrystaI Iine to microcrystaI Iine; few pyrite grains; s i l t y ; forms ledges 2' to 4' thick, interbedded with 2" to 4" shale layers of unit 32 lithology. Weathers pale grey with yellow-brown patches. Abrupt contact with unit 34. 34 2» 557' Polomi te: as described for unit 31. 35 II* 568' Covered unit: talus. 36 12' 580' Limestone: medium grey, dense, hard 57 Uni t Th i ckness Cumu1 a t i ve Li thology  of Un i t Th i ckness cryptocrystaI Iine, in thin, irregular bedded ledges; s i l ty laminae and s t r ing-ers every I" to 2"; moderately resistant; weathers pale to medium grey. 37 4' 584' L imestone: dark grey, microcrystalIine, s i l t y ; shaly interbeds; in thin, irregular, nodular beds; very recessive unit; weathers pale grey. Contact with unit 36 undulating, with 12" to 18" amplitude; nodular beds show structure suggestive of erosional truncation. Lower 8" of unit 36, a limestone pebble con-glomerate; pebbles 1/2" to 2" in diameter. Gradational into fine-medium crystal l ine Iimestone over 4" to 6", dark grey; 38 4* 588* Covered uni t: talus. 39 5' 593' L imestone: a limestone pebble conglom-erate; thin, flat pebbles of medium grey, cryptocrystalIine limestone, with similar matrix, occasional shale lenses; in beds, irregularly bedded, I" to 4" thick; rec-essive, poorly exposed unit; weathers pale grey with yellow-brown str ingers. 40 8' 601' Covered intervaI : talus. 58 Un i t Th i ckness Cumula five L i thoIogy  of Un i t Th i ckness 41 7' 608' L imestone; dark grey, cryptocrystaI Iine, with scattered coarse crystals; a rg i l l ac -eous partings abundant; some dark brown limestone lenses up to 1/4" wide; one massive, very resistant bed; upper surface domed and ridged as to suggest Col Ienia or other algal mass. Very sharp undulating contact with unit 42. Weathers pale grey with yellow-brown patches and stringers. From base of unit 31 to base of unit 41, an interval marked by a talus slope on face of mountain. With the top of unit 42 the resistant c l i f f s as in units 26 to 28 are further developed. 42 118' 726' Dolomi te; medium grey, microcrystaI Iine hard, dense; some beds show abundant white patches I mm. diameter scattered throughout rock; in beds from 4" to 3 ' , but a l l hard, resistant, c l i f f-forming. Weathers pale grey and medium grey with yellow-brown patches. Well-bedded nature of this unit is clearly v is ible on weathered c l i f f face. From 82' to 84' a unit of possible dolomitized ool i tes , I mm. diameter. The white patches observed 59 Un i t Th ickness Cumulat ive L i tholoqy  of Un i t Th i ckness in units above may be due to dolomitized ooli tes. 43 5 1 731' Limestone: fine to medium crysta l l ine, dark grey, hard; s i l t y ; in beds l» to 2' thick, but forms recessive unit below over-hanging c l i f f of unit 42; abrupt contact with unit 42; weathers medium grey. Known Th i ckness and D i str i but i on: The Mount Synge formation is 582 feet thick in the Sawback section, Sawback Range; 731 feet thick in the type section on Mount Murchison; and over 1,412 feet thick on Paget Peak. The Paget Peak is the farthest west of al l the measured sections, and it is known that the formations increase in thickness markedly to the west and north. It may be that the greater increase in thickness occurs in a western direct ion, that is towards the Rocky Mountain Trench, rather than to the north along the ranges. The distribution of the Mount Synge formation is not completely known. Throughout the southern Rocky Mountains, south of Jasper, it is easily recognizable. In the Jasper area, and north, however, it loses its identity and merges into the great Lynx carbonate. Forma t i on Contacts: The contact of the Mount Synge with the underlying Corona has been previously described (see Corona formation). The contact with the overlying unit, to be named the Bison Creek formation, is fair ly abrupt and marked by a change from medium to thick bedded dark grey-black dolomite 60 to thin bedded, recessive, dark grey limestones. This change provides a marked physiographic impression on the mountainside, coinciding as it does with the top of a 700 foot c l i f f and the recessive shaly weathering un i t above i t• Correlat ion and Age; No faunas were found in the type section of the Mount Synge although its equivalent on Paget Peak yielded fossi ls of the highest Cedar i a subzone, and the ApheI asp i s zone. The fauna of this oo l i t i c and shale phase on Mount Bosworth contains the characteristic foss i ls of the late Cedar i a subzone. Higher on Paget Peak, very near the top, the ApheI asp i s fauna is preserved in a unit of thin to medium bedded grey limestone. It is thought that the top of Paget Peak is nearly coincident with the top of the Mount Synge formation, since the oldest fauna in the overlying Bison Creek formation at Mount Murchison is that of the EIv i n i a zone. (The EIv i n i a zone l ies immediately above the ApheI asp i s zone throughout the Upper Cambrian of North America). Thus the top of the Mount Synge is considered to be virtual ly the time equiv-alent of the end of the Dresbachian, the lowermost Upper Cambrian stage. Mons Format ion (Walcott, 1920) (obsolete) In 1920 Walcott established the Mons from the section on the eastern slopes of Division Mountain, Glacier Lake Valley. The original designation of the Mons is given below: "Upper Cambrian la Calcareous shale and limestone 235 feet Mons lb Massive bedded grey limestone 740 feet (1,480 feet) Ic Limestone and Shale 320 feet (467.2m.) Id Ool i t ic limestone 185 feet (Walcott, 1920, p. 15) 61 Walcott amplified the above description in 1923 adding considerable detail as to the exact locality of the type section, the lithology, faunas, and thickness. The more important portions of his description are given below. "Type Locality - Alternations of calcareous shale forming steep and ragged slopes near the lower and southeast side of Mons Glacier near the base of a northwest ridge extending down from Mount Forbes". (p. 459) "Character -Massive beds of calcareous shale with intercalated layers of grey limestone above with a massive-bedded dull grey limestone and calcareous shale below. Organic remains - A post-Cambrian pre-Ordovician fauna of Lower Ozarkian age". (Walcott, 1923, p. 460) In 1924, Walcott considered the Sabine formation of Sabine Mountain, Canal Flats, Br i t ish Columbia, to be a synonym of the Mons formation, and so the geographic range of the Mons formation was ex-tended to the sections at Sinclair Canyon, Fairmont Hot Springs, and Sab i ne Mountai n. Kindle noted in 1924 that if Walcott was correct in con-sidering the Mons and Sabine as synonymous units then the Sabine name should be used since it had a priority of four years. It is d i f f i cu l t to determine where Kindle derived the "four year" reference, sinee the Sabine was established in 1921 by Schofield. At any rate, Kindle was in error, for the name Mons appeared in print in 1920. Walcott accepted Kindle's recommendation, however, and applied the name Sabine to the lower 505 feet of his type Mons section at Glacier Lake. In Walcott's final publication (1928) on the pre-Devonian stratigraphy of the Southern Rocky Mountains, the type designation of the Mons formation is retained as for 1920, that i s , the ful l 1,470 feet 62 including the 505 feet previously designated as the Sabine formation. In the detailed description of the Mons in the Glacier Lake section, however, the lower 505 feet are referred to the Sabine. Many other references to the Mons formation are scattered through the geologic l iterature on the Rocky Mountains, but few are based on original f ie ld work. The Mons formation by definition (ignoring the unwarranted use of the name Sabine) comprises the sequence of beds lying between the top of the LyelI carbonate and the base of the Sarbach limestones and shales. When the type section of the Mons at Glacier Lake was remeasured, the i n -terval was subdivided into three distinct rock units; (I) an interbedded limestone and shale unit at the base (528 feet thick; (2) a massive carb-onate, 534 feet thick, and (3) a soft-weathering grey-green shale unit 626 feet thick. Walcott's thicknesses for these same units were respect-ively 505 feet, 740 feet, and 235 feet. The Mons-Sarbach contact is gradational over many feet in the Glacier Lake section, and elsewhere, and it is not possible to determine precisely where Walcott located the contact. For some reason, the Mons has been restricted in application by some authors to the upper green-grey shales, a third of the formation as defined by Walcott. (See North and Henderson, 1954, p. 65). As the Mons formation can be easily subdivided in all sections measured into the three rock units as outlined above, it is proposed that these three units be raised to formations. They are thick, widespread rock units, and thus cannot be regarded as members. Also as mentioned previously in the discussion of the Arctomys formation, the preferred 63 procedure is to raise the rank of the unit under revis ion. The name proposed for these units are from base to top, the Bison Creek form-ation, the Mistaya formation, and the Howse River formation. Detailed descriptions of these formations are to follow. Establishment of these three rock units as formations requires that the Mons be raised to group rank. The Bison Creek, Mistaya, and Howse River formations are, however, IithologicaI Iy dist inct and do not form a natural group of formations. The most easily recognized l i t h -ologic break in the whole of the Lower Paleozoic occurs at the contact of the Mistaya and the Howse River. It is thus recommended that the Mons be considered obsolete as a formation name, and that is has no application as a group name. Sabine Formation, Schofield, 1921 This formation was established in 1921 by Schofield from exposures on Sabine Mountain, Canal Flats, Brit ish Columbia. The com-plete type designation of this formation Is''quoted below: "Western Flank Eastern Flank Devonian . . . Jefferson limestone Disconformity Upper Cambrian . . . Sabine formation Beltian . . . Kitchener formation Middle Cambrian . . . Elko formation". (Schofield, 1921, p. 76) and, in addition to the abovd. "At the base of the wall (of the Trench on the east) the Elko formation outcrops and is overlain conformably by the fossiIiferous Middle Cambrian (Sabine) formation which is in turn overlain by the Devonian limestone", ( i b i d , p . 76) It has been assumed by most authors that the Sabine formation when established was intended to be indicated as Upper Cambrian, not Middle 64 Cambr i an. From the above meagre stratigraphic and pa Ieontologic data the Sabine formation was used for rock units from the southern end of Columbia Lake to the Upper Cambrian sections north of Banff, Alberta. In view of the complete lack of any l i thologic description and the tremendous distance from Canal Flats to Banff (considering the palin-pastic adjustment necessary), to give only two reasons, it is recom-mended thet the use of the Sabine as a formation name be restricted to Sabine Mountain or at least to the Western Ranges. Bison Creek Formation (proposed) Der i vaf ion of Name: From the Bison Creek which is located on the southwest slope of Mount Murchison. It is crossed by the Banff-Jasper Highway 6.5 miles south of the North Saskatchewan River Bridge, Banff National Park. Type Locali ty: On the upper slopes of Mount Murchison above the massive, cliff-forming Mount Synge carbonate. The type section was measured on the west side of the north branch of Bison Creek. Summary of L J thoIogy: An alternating sequence of thin, shaly limestone beds and med-ium to thick limestone beds 629 feet thick at the type local i ty . In general, the thicker, more resistant limestone units are confined to the upper half of the unit where they form thick ledges that extend across the rubbly slope of the Bison Creek formation. Approximately one-third or more 65 of the upper portion of the section is composed of these thick res-istant limestone beds. The lower half of the section generally com-prises thin bedded recessive limestone beds with occasional shale interbeds. Some thick bedded limestone horizons do occur in the lower half of the formation, but they do not form resistant ledges typical of the upper units of the formation. Exposure of the Bison Creek formation on Mount Murchison is quite good considering the general recessive nature of the formation. Deta iIed Sect ion of Type LocaIj ty; (Fossil collection footages are referred to total Mount Murchison section). Un i t Th i ckness CumuI at i ve Li tholoqy  of Uni t Thickness 7 2' 2' L imestone; fine-grained, dark grey-green, very thin bedded; recessive; weathers pale grey; blocky weathering. 8 41• 43* L imestone and ShaIe; a I imestone pebble conglomerate, beds 2' thick, massive weathering; with soft , grey-green shale interbeds; limestone very fine-grained, grey to grey-green. Unit generally recessive except for Iimestone beds. 9 22' 65' Limestone; dark grey-black, microcrystalIine to lithographic, hard, dense, in beds from 2' to 4' thick; c l i f f-forming; weathers pale grey. 66 Un i t Th ickness Cumulative Li thology  of Uni t Thickness 10 4' 69' Covered interval ; talus. 11 16' 85' Limestone; as described for unit 9. 12 4' 89' Limestone; as described for unit 7. 13 5' 94' Limestone; as described for unit 9. 14 3' 97' Limestone; as described for unit 7. 15 4' 101* Limestone; a four foot bed of limestone pebble conglomerate mixed with some thin beds of nodular limestone. 16 2' 103* Limestone: as described for unit 7. 17 I* 104 * L imestone: as described for unit 9. 18 3 1 107' Limestone: as described for unit 7. 19 2' 109' Limestone: as described for unit 9. 20 18' 127* Covered intervaI: may be grey-green shales. 21 52' 179* Limestone; dark grey to black, lithographic, hard, dense; in beds from I" to 4", with s i l t y laminae wavy irregular bedding planes; limestone beds tend to have a nodular weath-ering habit. Weathers medium grey, c l i f f-forming; from 170' to 173 *, a black fine grained limestone bearing abundant large, black resinous chert nodules. Fossil Collection RGI2-F60 - 882'. 22 50' 229' Limestone: alternations of l ithologies as for un i ts II to 19. 67 Uni t Thickness Cumulative Li thology  of Uni t Thickness 23 4' 233' Limestone: in detailed lithology as for unit 21 but consists of one massive bed with Co I -lenia heads on the upper surface, 24 13' 246* Limestone: as for unit 21. 25 32» 278* Limestone: as described in units II to 19, but thicker units. The thick-bedded unit is massive and resistant; the thinner-bedded limestones are recessive. Footages of the various beds are listed below: 6' thick bedded Iimestones 4* thin bedded limestones 10* thick bedded limestones 4' thin bedded limestones 8' thick bedded limestones 351 * 629' From this horizon downwards the succession changes somewhat, but is s t i l l an a l te r -nating series of thick and thin bedded limestones. The succession is quite rhy-thmical except that the resistant beds become gradually thinner and less numerous downwards, being replaced by the shaly recessive intervals. The detailed measure-ment of the thick-bedded and thin-bedded limestones is given below: 68 Un? t Thickness CumuI at ive Li thology  of Uni t Thickness 4 ' thin bedded limestone 3» thick bedded limestone 4 ' thin bedded limestone 3' thick bedded limestone 5' thin bedded limestone 8' thick bedded limestone 7* thin bedded limestone 5* thick bedded Iimestone 6 1 thin bedded limestone 2' thick bedded limestone 5' thin bedded limestone 8' thick bedded limestone 12' thin bedded limestone 10' thick bedded Iimestone At 353 feet, a we I I-deveI oped bed of Collenia algae. 21' thin bedded limestone Fossil Collection RGI2-F60 - I, 105* 4' thick bedded limestone 4 ' thin bedded limestone 2 1 thick bedded limestone 2' thin bedded limestone 4' thick bedded limestone 69 Uni t Thickness Cumulative Li thology of Unit Thickness 4* thin bedded limestone 6' thick bedded limestone 15' thin bedded limestone 2' thick bedded Iimestone 3' thin bedded limestone 4' thick bedded Iimestone 9' thin bedded limestone At 443 feet, a horizon of Col I enia heads. I I• thick bedded limestone 3' thin bedded limestone 7' thick bedded Iimestone 8* thin bedded limestone 2* thick bedded limestone 16' thin bedded limestone |» thick bedded limestone 14' thin bedded limestone 2' thick bedded Iimestone 16' thin bedded limestone At 519 feet, a possible erosion contact? 1* thick bedded limestone 4' thin bedded limestone 4* thick bedded Iimestone 80' thin bedded limestone Fossil Collection RGI2-F60 - 1,292'. 2' thin bedded limestone 70 Unit Th i ckness Cumulative Li tholoqy  of Un j t Thickness 18' thin bedded limestone Fossil Collection RG-I2-F60 - 1,300' Limestone; (thick bedded lithology) fine grained to lithographic, few fine crysta l l ine patches, dense, t ight, dark brown-black, argillaceous; in massive very r e s i s V a n t beds, ledge or c l i f f-forming; weathers medium grey; forms conspicuous ledges along mountainside; generally abrupt contacts above and below with thin bedded limestones. Limestone; (thin bedded lithology) fine grained to lithographic, few patches of finely crystal l ine limestone, dark grey, hard, dense; minor thin lenses of bioclast ic material containing foss i l s ; thin bedded, generally less than I", with thin, soft shaly partings; argil laceous; very recessive units; fa ir ly well exposed, for talus slopes along mountainside; weathers pale to medium grey. Base of Bison Creek Formation. Known Thickness and Li tholoqy; Thickness of the Bison Creek formation varies from 236 feet in the Sundance Range to 629 feet at the type locality on Mount Mur-chison. The formation loses its identity to the north of Glacier Lake 71* Area as it is not recognizable in detailed sections of the Lynx form-ation in the Robson Peak d i s t r i c t , jasper Park. The lithology of the Bison Creek at the type section has been described in detail above, and, in general, the Glacier Lake section of the Bison Creek formation has the same lithology. In the Sundance and Sawback Ranges, however, marked facies changes were observed. The Bison Creek in the Sundance Range section was examined in de ta i l , and it is composed of three l i thologies, dolomite (red-brown weathering), lime-stone (grey-weathering calcarenite), and green-grey, soft weathering shale. The shale comprises over 60% of the section, the remainder is about evenly divided between dolomite and limestone beds. The Sawback Range has sections of similar lithology to the Bison Creek formation as described for the Sundance Range, but in addit -ion, a further facies was found at Ti l ted Mountain Brook. This section was not re-measured in deta i l , but was checked in the f ie ld against WalcotPs descriptions and thicknesses (Walcott, 1928, p. 291) and found to agree fa ir ly wel l . At this locality the Bison Creek is characterized by thin to medium bedded calcarenites with minor amounts of interbedded grey shale. With the variety of facies possible in this one formation, it is not surprising that Walcott was often confused as to the exact correlation of any one section with his type formations in the Glacier Lake Valley. The Bison Creek formation, and the overlying Mistaya formation, are characterized in many sections by the development of large Col I enia 72 algae colonies. These colonies form rounded and domal masses on the upper surface of the bedding places, and may vary from eight inches to three feet in diameter. For an excellent photograph of Col I en ia , refer to Walcott, 1928, plate 56. Format ion Contacts: The Bison Creek formation is underlain conformably by the Mount Synge carbonate, and overlain conformably by the Mistaya form-ation, in a l l sections examined. The contact of the Mount Synge and the Bison Creek i s , as previously described (see Lyell formation), sharp, and marked by the change from the Mount Synge c l i f f to the recessive Bison Creek. The upper contact of the Bison Creek ( i .e . with the overlying Mistaya form-ation) is not as well marked as the lower, but can generally be located at or near the base of the prominent Mistaya c l i f f . In the Mount Mur-chison section, the contact was drawn at the change in bedding, from medium or thick bedded Mistaya to thin bedded Bison Creek, and by the lack of shales in the overlying Mistaya formation. The appearance of dark grey to black dolomites is a further characteristic of the over-lying Mistaya formation. CorreI at ion and Age: The Bison Creek formation is exceedingly fossi I i ferous. All the fauna I zones of the Franconian stage are present. The Bison Creek at the type locality is probably the rock equivalent of the Franconian stage with some Trempealeauan, since a fauna tentatively assigned to the Elvinia zone has been found near the base of the formation, and a Saukia fauna is known from near the top. More detailed collecting from this 73 formation will probably prove it the equal of the type Croixan area in abundance and variety of fossi l species. Remarks; As will be apparent in the discussion of the Mons type section, the Bison Creek formation original ly formed the lowest unit of Walcott's Mons formation (Walcott, 1920, 1923). This applies only to the type section of the Mons, however, and not necessarily to other sections through-out the Rockies in which Walcott identified the Mons, or, in 1928, in some sections, the Sabine formation. Mistaya Formation (proposed) Derivation of Name: From the Mistaya River, which flows northwest in the valley between Mount Murchison on the northeast and Mounts Chephren and Sarbach on the southwest. Type Locali ty: On the south and west sides of Mount Murchison, at an elev-ation of approximately 9,000 feet. The type section was measured, as was the Bison Creek formation, on the west side of the north branch of Bison Creek. The precise location of Bison Creek has been previously described (see Bison Creek formation). Summary of L i thology: A cliff-forming formation of medium to thick bedded limestones and dolomites 355 feet thick at the type local i ty . The carbonates are generally dark, fine-grained, s i l t y rocks. Recessive, thin bedded, shaly limestones and limestone pebble conglomerates occur in some sections, but 74 they are generally of minor importance in the section as a whole. The formation as a unit weathers into a prominent, pale yellow-brown or buff c l i f f , underlain by the recessive Bison Creek formation, and capped by the recessive, putty-coloured shales of the Howse River formation. Al l contacts appear conformable. DetaiIed Section of Type Locali ty; Un i t Th ickness CumuI at ive Li thology  of Un i t Th i ckness 2 39' 39' Limestone: finely crysta l l ine , medium grey brown; s i l t y laminae; hard, t ight, weathers yellow-brown and grey; upper 18' of unit c l i f f-forming; one 8' bed at top of unit, remainder in 6" to 2' beds. Co I I en i a hor-izon at 18'. From 18' to 39*, thin bedded, recessive unit . 3 209' 248* Dolomi te: fine grained, rare calc i te blebs, medium grey-brown, s i l t y ; massive, weathers blocky, poorly bedded at a few horizons; c l i f f-forming; weathers dark yellow-brown wi th a grey cast. At 125' bedding improves, more pronounced, bedded every I" to 3", but s t i l l massive weathering, cliff-forming unit . At 165', bedding changes to 8" - I 1/2' beds; forms ledges, no other l i thologic changes. 75 Uni t Thickness Cumulative Li thology  of Uni t Thickness At 190', top of 2' to 3» bed of Col lenia, al l heads about I* - 2 ' in diameter. At 230', black chert horizon; chert in long thin nodules, 1/2" wide by I* long. A second black chert horizon occurs at 240'. 4 12' 260' Limestone; fine grained, earthy texture, argillaceous; dark grey-black, tends to be nodular with irregular bedding planes; bedded every 3/4" to I", recessive, weathers pale grey. 5 4* 264' Polomi te; fine grained, dark grey to black, with very abundant black, fine argillaceous stringers and laminae; one massive bed weath-ers pale yellow brown with pale grey s i l t y streaks; ledge forming. 6 71* 335' Limestone; dark grey-green, and dark grey-black; nearly lithographic; s i l t y in beds from 3" to 4 ' , a quite variable thickness in bedding; ledge to cl i f f-forming; weath-ers pale yellow-grey with yellow-brown patches. Base of Mistaya formation. Known Thickness and Li thology; The Mistaya formation varies between 150 to 200 feet in the Sawback and Sundance Ranges and attains a thickness s l ight ly in excess 76 of 530 feet in the Glacier Lake area. For this same unit at Glacier Lake, Walcott reported a thickness of 740 feet. The type section on Mount Murchison is only 335 feet thick. Few pronounced facies changes of the Mistaya have been ob-served. The middle 85 foot unit of the Mistaya formation on the Sundance Range is somewhat more shaly than the type section, whereas the Sawback Lake section is more resistant and forms a more prominent c l i f f than the Mount Murchison section. Col I en ia colonies are developed sporadically throughout the Mistaya formation, but are not so common as in the underlying Bison Creek. At Sawback Lake in the upper beds of the Mistaya formation the Col I en i a horizons show the results of dolomitization. Dolomitization has destroyed completely their characteristic laminations. Format i on Contacts; The contact of the Mistaya with the underlying Bison Creek formation is fa i r ly well-defined. Usually the contact can be located at or near the change from recessive, shaly slope to near vertical c l i f f . In the Main Ranges, the change generally coincides with the appearance of dolomite beds, but in the Sundance-Sawback Range, the change is from shales to massive limestones. The upper contact of the Mistaya, the Mistaya Howse River contact, was drawn at the last appearance of the thick bedded carbonates. In the Mount Murchison section this last, or uppermost carbonate, is a thick bedded limestone. The immediately overlying rock is a soft weath-ering, putty coloured, or whitish-grey, calcareous shale. This latter 77 lithology is that generally attributed to the "Mons" formation. The Mistaya-Howse River contact is probably one of the most pronounced, most easily recognized, and most persistent of al l the contacts of the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician formations; in general, it is a conformable contact, but at Ranger Canyon Brook, north side, there are indications of an unconformity, perhaps only a minor one. Here the dolomitized Collenia colonies of the Mistaya formation appear to show some erosion and scour prior to the deposition of the Howse River shale. The pale grey-green shales of the Howse River surround and i n f i l l the Collenia colonies, forming a very sharp l ithologic break between the two formations. Elsewhere, this change of lithology is not so abrupt, since carbonates do occur through the basal beds of the Howse River shales that possess characteristic of the Mistaya carbonates. More study is certainly required before the Mistaya-Howse River contact wil l be thoroughly understood. CorreI at ion and Age: No foss i ls have been recovered from the Mistaya formation except at the very contact with the Howse River at Mount Murchison. This fauna was found to be indicative of the Saukia zone of the Trem-peaIeauan. Remarks: The Mistaya formation original ly comprised the middle unit of Walcott's Mons formation at Glacier Lake. After the Sabine form-ation had been separated from the base of the Mons, (Walcott, 1928) the Mistaya equivalent at Glacier Lake apparently was the lowest unit of 78 WaIcott's Mons formation. This concept of the Mons only applied to the type section, however, elsewhere the base of the Mons was drawn at the base of the putty-coloured shales. These shales formed the top unit of Walcott's Mons formation at Glacier Lake. Howse Ri ver Format ion (proposed) Der ivat ion of Name; From the Howse River, a large tributary of the North Sask-atchewan r iver , four miles northwest of the summit of Mount Murchison. Type LocaIi ty; On the upper slopes of Mount Murchison, southwest side of the mountain; at approximately 9,000 feet elevation immediately above the cliff-forming Mistaya formation. Summary of L i tholoqy: An interbedded series of putty-coloured, grey-green shales, limestone pebble conglomerate beds, and occasional bioclast ic limestone beds. The green shales form at least 90% of the unit; the limestones are generally more common near the base of the section. The Howse River formation is consistently an interval of putty-coloured to grey-green shales, that occasionally weathers with a silvery sheen. No other facies are known. Detailed Sect ion of Type LocaIi ty: ' Contact with overlying Sarbach (?) formation gradational; located at base of f i rst prominent carbonate bed above grey-green shales. Un i t Th i ckness CumuI at i ve L i tholoqy  of Uni t Thickness I 400' 400' Shale; dark grey-green, to medium green-brown; soft , f r iable , with plate to splintery 79 Un!t Thickness Cumulative Li thology  of Uni t Th ickness weathering habit; calcareous; poorly exposed; forms silvery to putty-coloured talus slope below topmost c l i f f s of Mount Murchison. At 270' - 274', a massive 4' bed of orange and grey weathering lime-stone with abundant imbrecated, f l a t , limestone pebbles. Shale continues to 400' with inter-bedded orange and grey weathering lime-stones in lower 25' to 30 ' . Fossil Col lect ion: RG-12-F60 - 400'. -Known Thickness and Distr ibut ion: The Howse River formation is variable in thickness, from 711 feet on the Sundance Range (which may include some of the overlying unit) to 400 feet on Mount Murchison, the type section. The thickness of the Howse River i s , of course, determined by the gradational character.of the upper contact, but it does not appear to exhibit the general southeast to northwest thickening typical of the Upper Cambrian formations. The Howse River formation is widely distr ibuted; the Jasper area equivalent is the Chushina formation. Format ion Contacts: The lower boundary of the Howse River, the contact with the Mistaya formation, is one of the easiest recognized contacts in the entire Cambrian-Ordovician sequence. The contact is probably conformable, but 80 In some sections it is so sharp as to appear nonconformat)Ie. Occas-ionally the top bed of the Mistaya formation is a Collenia colony in f i l l ed by the grey-green shales of the overlying Howse River form-at ion. To determine the time gap, if any, represented by the Mistaya-Howse River contact, wi l l require considerable detailed co l l ec t -ion of foss i l s , and a careful examination of al l available exposures of this contact. Overlying the si lvery weathering, putty-coloured Howse River shales is an alternating sequence of limestones and shales. The contact of the Howse River with the overlying unit is gradational over many feet making it d i f f i cu l t to draw a satisfactory boundary between the two units. At Mount Murchison, the Howse River-Sarbach (?) contact was placed at the base of the f i rs t grey limestone bed in the overlying alternating sequence. This shale and limestone unit is some 500 - 600 feet thick, and is overlain, in turn, by a thick, brown weathering carbonate, forming a steep c l i f f at the summit of Mount Murchison 110,936 feet) . This latter carbonate unit is estimated at 800 - 1,000 feet thick. It may be realized with further f ie ld work, that the Sarbach formation on Mount Murchison can be subdivided into two, moderately well-defined units, which might be designated the Sarbach group. Correlation and Age: From Walcott's' published data, and other unpublished infor-mation, it is known that the Howse River formation bears a Lower Ordovician Bel Iefontia-Symphysurina fauna. None of these Lower Ordovician fossi ls was described in the present study. 81 Regional correlation of the Howse River formation can be jmade with the Chushina formation of the Robson-Jasper area. The Chushina overlies the Lynx formation in the above area. Tang Ie Ri dge Format ion (Hughes, 1955) (obsolete) From an examination of the published type section description of the Tangle Ridge formation as defined by Hughes, correlation of this formation with the standard Upper Cambrian sequence can be made. The Tangle Ridge correlates with the Chephren, Waterfowl and Corona form-ations. Thicknesses of these formations as included in the type des-cr ipt ion of the Tangle Ridge formation are: 535 feet of Chephren, 460 feet of Waterfowl, and 800 feet of Corona formation. These form-ations are readily recognizable in the description of the Tangle Ridge type section, thus there seems l i t t l e need to retain Tangle Ridge as a formation name. The writer also gathered the impression, from a study of the type description of the Tangle Ridge formation, that several of the Upper Cambrian formations present in the Mount Murchison and other sections were missing between the top of the Tangle Ridge formation and the base of the Ordovician carbonates on Tangle Ridge. Confirmation of the above impression was provided by Dr. B. S. Norford, Geological Survey of Canada Limited, (personal communication, 1961) who reported that the type section of the Tangle Ridge formation is actually in fault contact with the overlying Ordovician carbonates and not con-formable as Hughes apparently supposed. The Upper Cambrian formations missing as a result of this fault are the Mount Synge, Bison Creek, Mistaya, and Howse River. 82 It Is possible that the upper beds of the Corona formation and the basal beds of the Sarbach formation are also faulted out. The fault is v is ible in Plate XVIII, Hughes, 1955, trending diagonally down and to the right across the photograph from the Tangle Ridge-Ordovician contact. Since the Tangle Ridge formation is I ithologicaIly identical to the Chephren, Waterfowl and a part of the Corona formation, and since the upper limit of the formation is a fault contact with the overlying Ordovician (Sarbach), it is proposed the Tangle Ridge form-ation be considered obsolete. 83 PALEONTOLOGY Introduct ion: Study of the available Upper Cambrian fossil collections has established the existance of many of the standard Upper Cambrian zones in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta; (see figure 7). Although only the t r i lob i te species (see figure 8) present in the collections were studied in de ta i l , atrematous brachiopods were present in severa.! of the co l lect ions. The Upper Cambrian of Alberta and the type Croixan area of the upper Mississippi Valley are amazingly s imi lar , both in kind of species=; and in proportions of each species present. This s imi lar i ty is most marked in the faunal composition of the EIvinia, Conaspis and Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zones of the Franconian. Various Conaspis and Prosaukia teilzones have been designated in this study and their presumed stratigraphic order is indicated in Figures 7 and 8. The correct arrangement of these teilzones is not certain since each teilzone recognized occurs in one section only. Thus-the Maustonia nasuta teilzone has been placed above the Taenicephalus  shumardi teilzone on faunal assemblage c r i t e r i a only. Perhaps with further col lect ing from the Bison Creek formation evidence wil l be provided to establish or reverse this order of teilzones in the Conaspis zone. The same uncertainty is also present in the order of the Pros- aukia tei lzones. The Prosaukia curvicostata teilzone has been placed above the Prosaukia longicornis teilzone only because Prosaukia curvi-ZONES > o Q CC O Bellefontia Saukia Prosaukia Ptychaspis Conaspis Elvinia Prosaukia curvicostata Prosaukia tongicornls Ptychaspis striata Mausloma nasuta Taenicephalus shumardi Irvmgello major FORMATIONS H O W S E RIVER MISTAYA BISON CREEK CL CL 3 Aphelaspis Crepicephalus M O U N T SYNGE or m < o L A T E (UPPER) CORONA E A R L Y (LOWER) WATERFOWL C H E P H R E N Q Q * DESCRIBED IN PRESENT STUDY O KNOWN TO OCCUR IN A R E A , (WALCOTT, AND UNPUBUSHED DATA) PIKA ELDON Fig 7: RECOGNIZED UPPER CAMBRIAN FAUNAL ZONES, SOUTHERN ALBERTA ROCKY MOUNTAINS i 8 4 costata Is considered to be one of the latest Prosaukia species; the order of these teilzones cannot at present be proven strat igraphical ly . The Dresbachian faunas, however, are comparable to those of Montana. The Cedaria zone especially is composed of species nearly identical to those of Montana. Very few species are unique to the Upper Cambrian of Alberta. The majority of these are of TrempeaIeauan age, and have been established by Walcott and Resser. Two of these are of special note, since they have been assigned to the incorrect stages. These are Hardy ia met ion Walcott and Bynumiella typical is Resser, both genotype species. Hardyia met ion Walcott was reported by Walcott to occur in the Mons formation. This was correct for Walcott's Mons, but not ac-cording to present popular usage of this formation name. Thus H_. met ion appears in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Arthropoda I, as a species from the Lower Ordovician Mons formation. The correct designa-tion of this species should be Upper Cambrian, TrempeaIeauan, Saukia zone, upper Bison Creek formation. Bynumiella typicaI is Resser was described by Resser from the LyelI formation of Ranger Brook, Alberta. The fossi l col lection con-taining B. typical is ( 6 6 j ) was made, however, by Walcott from an unnamed formation overlying the LyelI formation at the above loca l i ty . The genus has been attributed to the Franconian in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Arthropoda I. Present data indicate that B. typ icaI is is of Trempealeauan age, Saukia zone, upper Bison Creek formation. B. t yp i -cal i s . Hardyia met ion, and 11laenurus sinclairensis Resser are found to-gether in one col lection from the Bison Creek formation on the Sundance CORONA MOUNT SYNGE BISON CREEK MISTAYA GENERA S SPECIES DRESBACHIAN FRANCONIAN TREMP. Cedaria Crepicephalus Aphelaspis Conospis Ptychaspis -Prosaukia Saukia Lower Middle Upper Crepicephalus Aphelaspis Elvinia Irvingella major Taenicephalus shumardi Maustonia nasuta Ptych. Prosaukia Lower Middle Upper Crepicephalus Aphelaspis Elvinia Irvingella major Taenicephalus shumardi Maustonia nasuta Ptychaspis striata Prosaukia longicornis Prosaukia curvicostata Eurekia sp. i X Stenopilus sp. 1 X Hardyia met/on Walcott X i Bynumiella typicalis Resser X | Illaenurvs sinclairensis Resser X ] Prosaukia curvicostata Ulrich 8 Resser X Briscoia schucherti Ulrich 8 Resser X Idiomesus cf. I.levisensis (Rasetti) X Undet. gen. 8 sp. A. X Prosaukia longicornis Ulrich 8 Resser X Dartonaspis knight! Miller " '' X Ellipsocephaloides monsensis Resser X Prosaukia beani Ulrich 8 Resser X Litagnostus parilis (Hall) i X Ellipsocephaloides curt us (Whitfield) X Monocheiius micros (Walter) X Ptyachaspis striata Whitfield X Pseudagnostus josepha (Hall) X Ida hoi a wisconsensis (Owen) X Maustonia nasuta (Hall) X Kendal Una eryon ,(Ha 11) X Parabolinoides P sp. X — - - X . Parabolinoides cordillerensis Lochman X Irvingella major .Ulrich. 8 Resser X -• Comanchia amplooculata Frederickson X Homagnostus tumidosus (Hall 8 Whitfield) X Aphelaspis walcott! Resser X Aphelaspis ? sp. X KingsIonia mucro Resser X Coosella beltensis Lochman X Norwoodella simplex (Walcott) X Nixonella montanens/'s Lochman X Bynumia eumus Walcott X Arapahoia snowiensis Howeil 8 Duncan X Meteoraspis banffensis Resser X B/ountia corlotta Lochman X Paracedaria montanensis (Duncan) X Arapahoia aspinosa Lochman X Kormagnostus simplex Resser X X X Cedarlna alberta Lochman X X B/ount/o beltensis Duncan X Ankouro orbiculata Lochman X Talbotina cf.T.jeweli Lochman X Bolaspidella wellsvillensis ( Lochman 8 Duncan) X Brdssiclcephalus n.s.p. A. X Cedarina cordillerae (Howell 8 Duncan) X Fig 8= KNOWN OCCURRENCE OF TRILOBITE SPECIES IN UPPER CAMBRIAN OF ALBERTA 85 Range. Al l species are ful ly described in the systematic descriptions of the t r i lob i te species. Descript ion of species; The systematic descriptions of the identified t r i lob i te species are arranged by order, family and genus to conform with the systematics as specified in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Arthropoda I. The t r i lob i te terminology as recommended by the above reference is also adhered to in a l l descriptions of species. The fossi l plates, however, are grouped by zones as far as. is possible, beginning with the Cedaria zone and progressing through to the Saukia zone. It is believed that this organization of fossi l plates, in stratigraphic order, is of more value than a systematic order to a, paleontologist or stratigrapher studying or identifying further Upper Cambrian fossi l material, since the zonal assemblages are immediately obv i ous. 86 I dent i f ied tr iI obite species arranged by col Iect i on and sect iont Sundance Range: RGI4-F60-I,I79'; Hardy i a met i on Walcott Bynumiella typical is Resser 11 Iaenurus s incla irensis Resser Upper Cambrian, TrempeaIeauan, Saukia zone. RGI4-F60-I,249': Dartonaspis knight i Mi 11er Prosaukia longicornis Ulrich and Resser EI Ii psocephaIoi des monsensi s Resser Prosauk ia bean i Ulrich and Resser Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Prosauk ia subzone, P. longicornis teilzone RGI4-F60-I,354* 1  Taenicepha I us shumardi (Hall) Conasp i s ? sp. ParaboIinoides cordiI Ierensis (Lochman) Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Conasp is zone, TaenicephaI us shumardi teilzone. RGI5-F60-2,378* Cedar ina alberta Lochman Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedaria zone. GR5-F57-2,360* - 2,370* Blount i a be I tens is Duncan Ankoura orbiculata Lochman TaIbotina c f . T. jeweIi Lochman Bolaspidella welIsviI Iensis (Lochman and Duncan) Cedarina alberta Lochman Cedarina cordil lerae (Howell and Duncan) BrassicicephaI us n. sp. A. Kormagnostus s imp I ex Resser Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, lower Cedar ia zone. Sawback Lake; JU207-F57-unit 15 Bynumi a eumus Walcott NixonelI a montanensis Lochman Kormagnostus simp I ex Resser Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedar i a zone. PuI sat iI I a Pass; JU35-F57-I,442*; Bynumia eumus Walcott Paracedaria montanensis (Duncan) Cedarina alberta Lochman 87 Arapahoia aspinosa Lochman Nixonella montanensis Lochman Kormagnostus simp lex Resser Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedaria zone. Paget Peak: RGII-F60-66*: Aphelasp is walcott i Resser Aphelaspis I?) sp. Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Aphelaspis zone. RGII-F60-625': Kingstonia mucro Resser Coosella be I tens is Lochman Ndrwoodelias imp I ex (Walcott) Kormagnostus simp lex Resser Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Upper Cedaria zone. RGII-F60-633': Ki ngston ia mucro Resser Kormagnostus simp lex Resser Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Upper Cedaria zone. RGII-F60-1477': Cedar ina alberta Lochman Kormagnostus simp I ex Resser Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedaria zone. RGII-F60-1 51 2•: Arapahoia sp. Cedar ina alberta Lochman Kormagnostus simp I ex Resser Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedaria zone. Mount Murchison: RGI2^60-400*: Eurekia sp. Stenopilus sp. Upper Cambrian, TrempeaIeauan, Saukj a zone RGI2-F60-882': Briscoia schucherti Ulrich and Resser Prosaukia curvicostata Ulrich and Resser Idiomesus c f . I_. levisensis (Rasetti) Genus and species A. indet. Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone, Prosaukia subzone, Prosaukia curvicostata tei lzone. RGI2-F60-I105*: L? tagnostus par iI is (Hal I) El Iipsocephaloides curtus (Whi t f ieId) MonocheiI us micros (Walter) < 88 Pseudagrtostus josepha (Hall) Ptychaspis str iata Wh11f1eId Idahoia wisconsensis (Owen) Upper Cambrian, Franconian, PtychaspIs-Prosaukia zone, Ptychaspis subzone, Ptychaspis str iata teilzone. RGI2-F60-I292*: Maustonia nasuta (Hall) KendaI Ii na eryon (Hall) and variety. Parabolinoides? sp. Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Conaspis zone, TaenicephaI us subzone, Maustonia nasuta tei lzone. RGI2-F60-I300': Comanchia amplooculata (Frederickson) Irvingella major Ulrich and Resser Homagnostus tumidosus (Hall and Whitfield) Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Elvinia zone, Irvingella major subzone. RGI2-F60-2254': Blountia carlotta Lochman Blountia sp. Ankoura sp. Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedaria zone RGI2-F60-2708': Bynumia eumus Walcott Meteoraspis banffensis Resser Arapahoia snowiensis Howe I I and Duncan Blount ia car Iotta Lochman Kormagnostus simp I ex Resser Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedaria zone. RGI2-F60-2868': Bynumia eumus Walcott Arapahoia snowiensis Howe 11 and Duncan Kormagnostus simplex Resser Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedaria zone. RGI2-F60-3046*: Cedarina alberta Lochman Arapahoia sp. Nixonella montanensis Lochman Kormagnostus simplex Resser Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedaria zone. 89 SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES ORDER Agnostida Kobayashi Suborder Agnostlna Salter Family Agnostidae M'Coy Genus Homagnostus HowelI 1935 Homagnostus tumidosus (Hall and Whitfield) Plate XIII; Figures 4, 5. Agnostus tumidosus Hal I and Whi t f i e l d , 1877, p. 231, p i . I, f i g . 32 Geragnostus c f . G. tumidosus (Hal I and Whitf ield). Palmer, 1954, p. 719, p i . 76, f igs . 4, 6. Geragnostus tumidosus (Hall and Whitfield) Palmer, 1955, p. 89, p i .19, f igs . 3, 4; p i . 20, f igs . 1-3, 12, 15. Homagnostus tumidosus Hall and Whitfield) Palmer I960, p. 63, p i . 4 f igs . I, 2. This species very closely resembles H. obesus (Belt), but they are distinguishable by the lack or poor development in the cephalon of H. tumidosus of a dist inct preglabellar median furrow; the pygidium of H. tumidosus bears small, blunt, marginal spines, whereas the pygidium of H. obesus is smoothly rounded. Unfortunately, the specimens of H. tumidosus in the collection show these marginal spines rather poorly. The platforms to which the spines were attached can, however, be recog-nized in the better preserved pygidia. The cranidia are well preserved and show al l the characteristics of H. tumidosus c lear ly . Remarks: H. tumidosus is not abundant in the co l lect ion, and, so far as the writer is aware, it has not been prev-iously recorded from the Irvingella subzone of the Elvinia zone. A careful analysis of H. tumidosus was made by Palmer in 1955 on material from the Dunderberg shale of Nevada. Local i ty: Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, E lv inia zone, Irvingella subzone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60- 1,300* Family PhaIacromidae Hawle and Corda Genus Litagnostus Rasett i , 1944 Li tagnostus pari I is (Hall) Plate XV; Figures 5 - 8 . Agnostus pariI is Hal 1, 1863, p. 179, p i . 10, f igs . 23, 24 (not 25). Li tagnostus pari I is (Hall) Rasett i , 1944, p. 235 Several fragmental cranidia and pygidia are assigned to this species on a provisional basis. The specimens differ s l ight ly in out-line to those i l lustrated by Ha l l , but, in general, they agree more closely to the description of L i tagnostus par iI i s (Hall) than to other species of L i tagnostus The glabella is very faintly outlined and can be distinguished only with difficulty. It is completely crossed by an extremely faint 1st glabellar furrow, and only s l ight ly indented by what appears to be rudim-entary traces of a 2nd glabellar furrow. 91 Moderately well marked 1st and 2nd segments are apparent on the pygidium, with a small, but sharply outlined node located on the center of the posterior edge of the 2nd segment. The above description applies to part ia l ly exfoliated specimens. Remarks: Palmer's terminology for agnostid t r i lobi tes is used throughout in any discussion of agnostid features, (see Palmer, 1955). Local i ty: Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Ptychaspis - Prosaukia zone, Ptychaspis str iata teilzone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 1,105' Family Pseudagnostidae Whitehouse Genus Pseudagnostus Jaekel, 1909 Pseudagnostus josepha (Ha I I) Plate XV; Figures 9 - 1 2 Agnostus josepha Hal l , 1863, p. 178, p i . 6, f igs . 54, 55. Pseudagnostus josepha (Hall), Kobayashi, 1935, p. 108, 1939, p. 157. Pseudagnostus josepha (Hall) , Shimer and Shrock, 1944, p. 601, p i . 251, f igs . 5, 6. Pseudagnostus josepha (Hall), Frederickson, 1949, p. 362, p i . 72, f i g . 17. 92 Pseudaqnostus josepha (Hall), Lochman, 1950, p. 329, p i . 46, f jg. 14. Pseudagnostus josepha (Hall) , Frederickson, 1951, p. 776, p i . 107, f i g . 5. This species is only sparsely represented in the Ptychaspis  str iata teilzone collections by three cranidia and three pygidia. Preservation is excellent in a l l specimens. P. josepha is a common agnostid throughout most of the Franconian. In the collections studied, however, it was discovered only in the material from the Ptychaspis str iata teilzone on Mount Murchison. Local i ty: Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Ptychaspis str iata teiI zone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 1,105' Family Spinagnostidae Howell Genus Kormagnostus Resser, 1938 Kormagnostus simp I ex Resser Plate VIII; Figures I - 6. Kormagnostus simplex Resser, 1938, p. 49, p i . 9, f igs . II - 13. Kormagnostus simplex Resser, Palmer, 1954, p. 718, p i . 76, f igs . 8 - 1 2 (synonomy to date). Kormagnostus simplex Resser, Howell, 1959, p. 0 185, f i g . 126, 2a, 2b. Kormagnostus simplex Resser, Lochman, I960, p. 822, p i . 99, f igs . 5 - 3 1 . 93 Specimens of K. s i mpI ex are extremely abundant in a l l collections from the Cedaria zone, in a l l , several dozen specimens have been recovered from this horizon, and most of them moderately we I I preserved. As noted by Palmer, 1954, and Lochman and Hu, I960, K. simplex is rather variable in form, suff ic ient ly so that Palmer was able to assign three other species of Kormagnostus to i t . This var iabi l i ty of form was also observed by the writer in the present study. Local i ty: Corona formation, Sawback Range; Sundance Range; Mount Murchison; in Banff National Park, Alberta; and Paget Peak, Yoho National Park, Br i t ish Columbia. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedaria zone. Col lect ions: JU-35-F57 - 1,442' RG-II-F60 - 1,512'; JU-207-F57 - Unit 15; RG-II-F60 - 1,477'; GR-5-F57 - 2,360' - 2,370'; RG-I2-F60 - 2,708'; RG-II-F60 - 633'; RG-I2-F60 - 2,868'; RG-II-F60 - 625'; RG-I2-F60 - 3,046'. 94 ORDER Ptychopariida Swinnerton Suborder Ptychopariine Richter Superfamily Conocoryphacea Angel In ?Family ShumardiIdae Lake Genus Idiomesus Raymond, 1924 Idiomesus c f . J .« lev!sens is (Rasetti) Plate XV; Figures 13 - 15. Stigmametopus levjsensis Rasett i , 1944, p. 257, p i . 37, f igs . 8, 9. Idiomesus Raymond, 1924 = St igmametopus Rasett i , 1944; Poulsen, 1959, p. 0 245. The few fragmental cranidia assigned to this species closely resemble I_, levisensis in the wide librigenae, and long narrow glabel la . In each specimen, the glabella is furrowed completely across by the two posterior pairs of lateral glabellar furrows, but only deeply indented by the two anterior pairs. The specimens at hand d i f fe r , however, from I_. levisensis In possessing a wider anterior border, and in the placement of the lateral glabella furrows on the glabel la. These furrows are so arranged that a proportionally greater length of the anterior parts of the glab-e l la is unfurrowed; that i s , the four pairs of furrows are positioned more posteriorly on the glabella than in I_. Ievisensis. The specimens are fragmental, only one cranidium being fa i r ly complete, and quite small, less than I mm. in length. It is not just -i f iable to erect a new species of Idiomesus on such poor material. Local i ty : Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. 95 Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Prosaukia curvicostata teiI zone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 882• Superfamily Crepicephalacea Kobayashi Family TricrepicephaIidae Palmer Genus Meteoraspis Resser, 1935 Meteoraspis banffensis Resser Plate VIII; Figure 7. Meteoraspis banffensis Resser, 1942b, p. 73, p i . 13, f i g . 5 - 10. This species is represented by a few imperfect cranidia; the posterior area of the fixigenae are incompletely preserved. In general, the specimens are adequately described by Resser's diagnosis, but the following additions are appended to the type description: the glabella is very convex and bluntly tapered 'forward, not smoothly round-ed across the glabel la, but with a suggestion of a dorsal ridge or crest from occipital furrowto the anterior border furrow; no lateral glabellar furrows are developed on the unexfoliated surface of the glabel la ; palp-ebral lobes are inconspicuous. Local i ty : Corona formation. Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. 96 Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedaria zone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 2,708«. Superfamiiy Dikelocephalacea Mi l ler Family Idahoiidae Lochman Genus Idahoia Walcott, 1924 Idahola wisconsensis (Owen) Plate XIV; Figures 19, 20; Plate XV; Figures I - 4. Crepicephalus ? wisconsensis Owen, 1852, Tab. I, f i g . 13, named and f i gured ConocephaIites wisconsensis (Owen) Ha l l , 1863, p. 164, p i . 7, f igs . 39, 41, (not f i g . 40), p i . 8, f igs . 22, 23, 27, 28 (not f i g . 24). LonchocephaI us wisconsinensis (Owen) M i l l e r , 1889, p. 555 (species name misspelled). Saratogia wisconsensis (Owen) Walter, 1924, p. 186, p i . II, f i g . 7 - 9 . Idahoia wisconsinensis (Hall) Resser, 1935 (Author of species in error and species name misspelled). Idahoia wisconsensis (Owen), Shimer and Shrock, 1944, p. 625, p i . 265, f i g . 17. Idahoia wisconsensis (Owen), Lochman, 1950, p. 329, p i . 46, f i g . II - 15. Idahoia wisconsensis (Owen) Be l l , Feniak and Kurtz, 1952, p. 189, p i . 37, f igs . 3a-f. Idahoia wisconsensis (Owen), Berg, 1953, p. 566, p i . 61, f i g . II. 97 Idahoia wisconsensis is an easily recognized species by virtue of its large size and wide preglabellar f ie ld and anterior border. Some of the cranidia in the col lection are 30 to 35 mm. long with the preglabellar f ie ld and anterior border comprising nearly a third of this length. As noted by Be l l , Feniak, and Kurtz, the preglabellar f ie ld -anterior border rat io in K wisconsensis is highly variable. This observation is confirmed by the variation seen in the Mount Murchison col lect ions, where the anterior border may equal the preglabellar f ie ld in width, or i t may be less than half the preglabellar f ie ld width. In no specimens, however, is the anterior border of greater width than the preglabellar f i e l d . It was also observed that the anterior border furrow may exist between this straight line-crescent feature of the anterior border furrow and the preglabellar f ie ld - anterior border ra t io , but it could not be s ta t i s t i ca l l y shown with the material available. Abundant cranidia and free cheeks were found in the collection but no pygidia were discovered. Local i ty : Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Ptychaspis - Pros-aukia zone, Ptychasp is str i ata tei lzone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 1,105'. Genus Comanchia Frederickson, 1950 Comanchia amplooculata (Frederickson) 98 Plate XIII; Figures 6 - 1 0 Ptychopleurites amplooculatus Frederickson 1948, p. 803, p i . 123, f igs . 9 - 1 1 . Ptychopleurites amplooculatus Frederickson, Wilson, 1949, p. 42, p i . 10, f igs . 4, p i . II, f igs . 8, 9. Comanchia amplooculata (Frederickson), Wilson and Frederickson, 1950, p. 901. Comanchia amplooculata (Frederickson). Lochman-Balk, 1959, p. 0 252, f i g . 189, la , lb. Eight well preserved cranidiaof this species were found in association with Irvingella major, in col lections from Mount Murchison. The eranidia, although very small, generally less than 2 mm. long, show clearly al l the characteristics of the species. The posterior area of fixigenae are rarely preserved, otherwise the eranidia are complete. Local i ty : Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Irvingella subzone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - l,300» Family Dikelocephalidae Mi Iler Genus Briscoia Walcott, 1924 Brisco1 a schucherti Ulr ich and Resser Plate XV; Figures 16 - 19; Plate XVI; Figures I - 5. Briscoia schucherti Ulrich and Resser, 1930, p. 63, p i . 22, f igs . 12 - 15. This species is represented by a large col lect ion of eranidia. 99 pygidia, hypostomae, and occasional l ibr igena. The remains are gen-erally well preserved, but somewhat fragmented around the edges, par-t icularly the pygidia. The foss i ls are preserved in a very hard, s i l t y limestone, and the d i f f i cu l t i es encountered in freeing them from this matrix has added somewhat to their fragmentary condition. In a l l respects, the specimens assigned to this species agree with the original description and photographs as given by Ulrich and Resser. B. schucherti appears to di f fer from B. sinelairensis Walcott in i ts narrow, more gently rounded glabel la ; the glabella of B. sin-clairensis is nearly square on the anterior end, and quite wide in comparison to the width of the frontal area. Local i ty : Bison Creek formation. Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Ptychaspis-Prosauk?a zone, and Prosaukia curvicostata teilzone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F6G - 882« Family PterocephaIidae Kobayashl Genus Aphelaspis Resser, 1935 Aphelaspis walcotti Resser Plate XIII; Figures 2, 3. 100 Aphelaspis depressa (Shumard) Bridge, in Bridge and Girty , 1937 p. 255, p i . 69, f igs . 23 - 26. Aphelaspis walcott! Resser, 1938, p. 59, p i . 13, f i g . 14. Aphelaspis hamblenensis Resser, 1938, p. 60, p i . 13, f i g . 28. Aphelaspis walcotti Resser, Shimer and Shrock, 1944, p i . 263, f i g . 19, 20. Aphelaspis hamblenensis Resser, Shimer and Shrock, 1944, p i . 263, f i g . 37. Aphelaspis walcotti Resser, Palmer, 1954 (Jan. 15, 1955), p i . 84, p. 746, f i g . 2, 4 - 8. Aphelaspis walcotti Resser, Shaw, 1956, p. 51, p i . 9, f i g . I - 6. Aphelaspis walcotti Resser, Lochman-Balk, 1959, p. 0 256, f i g . 193, 5a, 5b. This widespread species is represented in only one col lection from the Upper Cambrian of Alberta. The col lect ion is from a limestone unit in the Mount Synge formation of Mount Bosworth. Elsewhere the Mount Synge is essential ly a black dolomite which, so far as the writer is aware, is completely unfossi I i ferous. Thus a widespread species such as A. waI cot 11 may turn out to be rather rare in the Upper Cambrian of the Alberta Rockies solely because the rocks representing the Aphelaspis zone are generally unfossi I i ferous. Most of the specimens recovered are mere fragments; a l l the better preserved material has been i l lust rated. The foss i ls are pre-served in a finely crystal l ine limestone, unlike the lower faunas of the Dresbachian which, without exception, are found in oo l i t i c , bio-c last ic limestones. Local i ty : Mount Synge formation, Paget Peak, Yoho National Park, Br i t ish Columbia. Horizon: Co 11 ec t i on: 10! Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Aphelaspis zone. RG-II-F60 - 66* ApheI asp is (?) sp. Plate XIII; Figure I. One fragmental cranidium was found in association with Aphelaspis walcotti Resser from the Mount Synge formation of Paget Peak that does not conform to the description of Aphelaspis walcott? or to any related species. There is also the poss ib i l i ty that it should be referred to a genus other than Aphelaspis. The cranidium is much narrower than is typical for Aphelaspis, with a f ine, narrow, sharply tapered glabella that possesses a r idge-like crest along its ful l length. The axial furrow is well-defined, deep, wide along the glabella sides; the preglabellar furrow is shallow and narrow. This latter feature has the effect of giving the pre-glabellar f ie ld a somewhat swollen appearance. The fixigenae are fragmentary, but the preserved portions suggest that they were moder-ately convex with large palpebral lobes situated midway along the glabellar length. Occipital ring well-defined, moderately convex, crescentIc. Porterior areas of the fixigenae are missing. Surface of cranidium roughened and somewhat granular. Librigenae, pygidium unknown. Local i ty : Mount Synge formation, Paget Peak, Br i t ish Co Iumbi a. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Aphelaspis zone. Col lect ion: RG-II-F60 - 66« 102 Super family Illaenuracea Vogdes Family Illaenuridae Vogdes Genus Illaenurus Ha l l , 1863 111aenurus sinclairensis Resser Plate XIX; Figures I - 5. 111aenurus (?) s inclairensis Resser, 1942b, p. 39, p i . 6, f igs . 13 - 15. Four nearly complete cranidia represent this species in the co l lect ion; no pygidia were found. Cranidium smooth, nearly featureless; best preserved specimen of average s ize , II mm. wide across posterior portion and 6 mm. long; moderately convex from anterior to posterior, but nearly f lat trans-versely; no glabella distinguishable, nor are lateral glabellar furrows developed; no anterior border furrow or occipital furrows; no occipital ring is delineated, or, if once present, it has been broken off in a l l specimens; only a very narrow, flat border is present across the post-erior portion of the cranidium; mesial tubercle was observed; palpebral lobes small, s l ight ly cresentic, located midway along facial suture between terminal portion of posterior border and anterior border; ant-erior border thick, wide, and turned down nearly perpendicular to dorsal 103 surface of cranidium, straight for its entire length across the front of the cranidium, anterior edge appears to be folded under very s l igh t -ly; frontal area crossed by conspicuous terrace lines in best preserved specimens* Surface very finely granulose. Local i ty : Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, TrempeaIeauan, Saukia zone. Col lect ion: RG-I4-F60 - 1,179'. Family Parabolinoididae Lochman Genus Parabolinoides Frederickson, 1949 Parabolinoides cordiI lerensis (Lochman) Plate XIV; Figures 12 - 14. Maustonia cordiI Ierensis Lochman, 1950, p. 331, p i . 47, f igs . 6 - 13. Three fragmental eranidia are assigned to this species. Al l exhibit the conical , tapered glabel la, and the wide frontal area. Un-fortunately none of the specimens is complete enough to show the out-line details of the posterior areas of the figigenae and the occipital r ing . In a l l preserved character ist ics, however, the specimens corres-pond closely to the type designation. The more important features which are noted are: the very faint eye r idges, leading' from the small, arcuate palpebral lobes; generally low convexity of glabella preglabellar f i e l d , and anterior 104 border; and the smooth outer surface. Weak venation which crosses the preglabellar f ie ld is v is ib le on one exfoliated specimen. Remarks: This species when described by Lochman could be assigned at the time only to the Conaspis zone. S ince i t occurs wi th TaenicephaI us shumardi (Ha 11) in the collections from the Sundance Range, it is probable that it occurs in the lower portion of the TaenicephaI us subzone of the Conaspis zone. Local i ty : Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Conaspis zone TaenicephaI us shumardi teilzone. Col lect ion: RG-I4-F60 - l,354». Parabolinoides ? sp. Plate XIII; Figures 18 - 20 Three cranidia in the Conaspis collections could not be assigned, with any certainty, to any of the typical Conaspis zone genera. They closely resemble Parabolinoides, but the anterior border furrow is straight, not curved. Like Parabolinoides, the glabella possess two pairs of short, diagonal, incomplete lateral glabellar furrows; small palpebral lobes located opposite the forward end of the glabella and a broad, convex, well-defined preglabellar f i e l d . Posterior areas of the fixigenae slight to moderately convex, tr iang-ular shaped. Occipital furrow broad, deep; occipital ring wide, convex, 105 and with well-defined mesial tubercle, bluntly pointed. Parabolinoides is not reported in the Maustonia nasuta teilzone of Wisconsin and Minnesota, but some variation in the comp-onents of a teilzone is perhaps to be expected considering the geo-graphic separation between the type Croixan area and the southern Alberta Rocky Mountains. Local i ty : Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta, Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Conaspis zone, Maustonia nasuta teilzone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 1,292'. Genus Kendal Iina Berg, per Lochman, 1959 Kendal Iina eryon (Ha 11) Plate XIII; Figure 21; Plate XIV; Figures I - 8 Conocephalites eryon Hal 1, 1863, p. 157, p i . 7, f igs . 10 - 16, p i• 8, f igs . 16, 31. Conaspis eryon (Hall ) , Ha l l , p. 152. Orygmaspis eryon (Hall ) , Resser, 1937, p. 22 Kendal Iia eryon (Hall ) , Raasch, 1939, p. 94. Kendal I la eryon (Hall) , Berg, 1953, p. 562, p i . 59, f i g . 9, p i . 60, f i g . I. Kendal Iina eryon (Hall ) , Lochman, 1959, p. 0 272, f i g . 202, l a , lb (Misspelled in figure, "Kendal Iia".) 106 Several well preserved cranidia of this species were found associated with Maustonia nasuta. The specimens show a l l the charac-ter is t ics of the species, but dif fer from the type in exhibiting a tendency to develop small, blunt to s l ight ly pointed, mesial tubercles. These tubercles are preserved on most specimens examined, and vary in size from mere granular projections to small, blunt spines. Since the specimens agree in all other respects with the type diagnosis of K. eryon it has not been thought advisable to erect a new species on such a variable, and occasionally absent, character. One cranidium, perhaps a new species of KendaI Iina, has been noted as a 'variant ' of K. eryon. This cranidium possesses a s l ight ly upturned anterior border, otherwise it is identical to the other specimens of K. eryon. It is exceptionally well preserved. Local i ty: Bison Creek formation. Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Conasp is zone, Taenicephalus subzone, Maustoni a nasuta teilzone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 1,292'. Genus Maustonia, Raasch in Lochman, 1950 Maustonia nasuta (Hall) Plate XIII; Figures 15 - 17. ConocephaIi tes nasutus Hal l , 1863, p. 155, p i . 7, f igs . 3 - 9 . Maustonia nasuta (Hall), Raasch, 1939, p. 94. 107 Parabolinoides paral lela Nelson, Berg, 1953, p. 563. Maustonia nasuta (Hall) Berg, 1953, p. 563, p i . 60, f igs . 2 - 4 . Maustonia nasuta (Hall) , Lochman-BaIk, 1959, p. 0 272, f i g . 202, 204 Only three eranidia of this species were found in the c o l -lections from the Conaspis zone. The three very faint pairs of lateral glabellar furrows characteristic of the genus are v is ib le in each spec-imen. Assignment to M. nasuta is based on the flat anterior border and anterior border furrow. This species has been used by Berg as the characteristic fossi l of the middle portion of the Taenicephalus subzone, Conaspis zone. It is probable that the M. nasuta teilzone of Berg is rep-resented in the southern Rocky Mountains, since the col lections also yielded Kendal Iina eryon (Hal I ) and a Parabolinoides ? sp. The former species, K. eryon, also occurs in the M. nasuta teilzone of Minnesota and Wisconsin. Local i ty: Bison Creek formation. Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Conasp is zone, Taenicephalus subzone, Maustonia nasuta teilzone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 1,292'. Genus Taenicephalus Ulrich and Resser, 1924 Taenicephalus shumardi (Hall) Plate XIV; Figures 15 - 18. 108 -Conocephalites shumardi Hall 1863, p. 154, p i . 7, f igs . I, 2, p i . 8, f i g . 32. TaenicephaI us shumardi (Hall) Walcott, 1924, p. 59, p i . 13, f i g . I; Wilson, 1951, p. 652-653, p i . 95, f igs . 21-23, 25 (synonomy to date); Berg, 1953, p. 565. Taenicephalus cordi11erens is DeLand and Shaw, 1956 (not M i l l e r ) , p. 559, p i . 67, f i g . 3 (additional synonomy to date). Taenicephalus shumardi (Hall) , Lochman-Balk, 1959, p. 0 274, f i g . 202, 10. Taenicephalus shumardi (Hall) Lochman and Hu, I960, p. 811, p i . 95, f igs . 12-23, 31. This species is represented in the collections from the Bison Creek formation in the Sundance Range by four excellently preserved cranidia and several fragmental cranidia. The cranidia vary only s l ight ly in size from 7 to 10 mm. in width, and from 5 to 7 mm. in length. All show the s l ight ly convex anterior border with the dist inct ive pointed anterior margin. The lateral glabellar furrows, two pairs, are generally well marked and rather wide, but occasionally the anterior pair are rather faint and d i f f i cu l t to dist inguish. Remarks: Since Taen?cephaI us shumardi is associated in the collections only with Parabolinoides cordiI lerensis (Lochman) and a questionable Conaspis, and since neither of the latter indicate much more than the Conasp is zone, it is not possible to determine the precise position of this fauna. T. shumardi ranges throughout the lower portion of the Taenicephalus 109 subzone in Minnesota and Wisconsin, and this is probably as fine a designation as can be attempted without further collections from this interval . For reference purposes, this fauna has been referred to the TaenicephaI us  shumardi teilzone. Local i ty : Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Conasp is zone, Taenicephalus shumardi teilzone. Col lect ion: RG-I4-F60 - l,354«. Super family Solenopleuracea Angel in Family Lonchocephalidae Hupe Genus Talbotina Lochman, 1938 TaIbot ina c f . T. jeweIi Lochman, 1944 Plate VIII; Figures 8 - 1 1 . Talbotina jeweli Lochman, in Lochman and Duncan, 1944, p. 130 - 131, p i . 12, f igs . 6 - 12. Talbotina jewel Ii Lochman, Rasett i , 1959, p. 0 279, f i g . 228, 4a - 4e. (Note misspelling of specif ic name). 110 This species is sparsely represented by four poorly pre-served cranidia. These differ from T. jeweli in the shorter, blunder posterior areas to the fixigenae, and the very small, arcuate palpebral lobes. The glabella also appears to be more sharply tapered, and there is a suggestion of a crest or ridge running lengthwise nearly the ful l length of the glabel la. The surface of al l cranidia is finely granular. Local i ty: Corona formation, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Lower Cedaria zone. Col lect ion: RG-5-F57 - 2,360' - 2,370'. Family Kingston!idae Kobayashi Genus Kingstonia Walcott, 1924 Kingstonia mucro Resser Plate VIII; Figures 12 - 17. Kingstonia mucro Resser, 1942b, p. 48, p i . 8, f igs . I - 8. Kingstonia bosworthensis Resser, 1942b, p. 48, p i . 8, f igs . 9 - 13. Kingstonia robsonensis Resser, 1942b, p. 49, p i . 8, f igs . 14, 15. Kingstonia sulIivanensis Resser, 1942b, p. 49, p i . 8, f igs . 16 - 19. Kingstonia vulgata Resser, 1942b, p. 50, p i . 8, f igs . 26 - 30. Kingstonia (?) plena Resser, 1942b, p. 50, p i . 8, f igs . 31, 32. 11 i Kingstonia montanensis Lochman, 1944, p. 113, p i . 14, f igs . 21 - 26. Ankoura apical Is Duncan, 1944, p. IG9, p i . 14, f igs . 2 9 - 3 1 . Original description: "This rather large species is rep-resented by some 20 specimens. It is characterized by enormous post-erolateral limbs, which give the cranidium great width and cause it to depart from the more nearly semi-circular outline of most species. The glabella is faintly indicated, more part icularly in the rear where shallow furrows extend forward for some distance. There is a narrow rim of the usual type. The eyes are of normal size and situated somewhat in front of the mid-point. In cross section the head is strongly arched. The post-erolatere I limbs continue the downward slope, with increasing curvature near their distal ends* Longitudinally the cranidium is high-' " ly arched. The associated pygidium, when viewed from the dorsal surface, has a rounded triangular shape. In prof i le it is very convex. At the anterior angles the sides stand ver t i ca l , but posteriorly the curv-ature increases until at the rear of the axis the pygidium is folded under. The axis is faintly outlined and in exfoliated specimens show six r ings. Pleural grooves are v i s ib l e " . Supplementary description: Width of cranidium nearly twice length; from abundant topotype material glabella very faintly outlined by axial and preglabellar furrows, highly convex; preglabellar furrow usually only v is ib le as broad shallow furrow along posterior portion of glabel la; occipital furrow and ring indistinguishable from posterior 112 end of g label la ; very shallow, narrow marginal furrow vis ible in best pre-served specimens, noticeable only as sl ight change in overall convexity of glabel la; border narrow, turned under, r idge-like; near-verticaI anterior surface ridged by three to four faint lines separated by equal faint furrows, only v is ib le in a few well preserved specimens. Fixigenae relat ively narrow, scarcely dist inguish-able from general convexity of glabel la; palpebral lobes are generally small, faintly ridged, occur opposite point just s l ight ly anterior to mid-point of length of cranidium; no eye ridges ob-served; posterior areas of fixigenae long, tapering, convex, width s l ight ly less than one-half length of cranidium at proximal end, bluntly tapered. Facial suture cuts anterior margin almost directly anterior to palpebral lobes, cross-es frontal area at a slight angle, curves around palpebral lobes then diagonally back-wards and lateral ly at about 45° to length of cranidium, curving posteriorly rather abruptly to cut posterior border within the 113 genal angles. Pygidium triangular, s l ight ly wider than long; s l ight ly convex over most of dorsal surface but sharply convex to vertical on sides and posterior end; axis one-third width of pygidium, tapering gradually to a blunt point, outlined by broad shallow axial furrow except at posterior end where border is vert ical and s l ight ly underturned; axis shows five or six very faint segments, exfoliated specimens show six to seven seg-ments, s l ight ly convex, with terminal, un-segmented axial piece. Pleural region nearly flat on dorsal surfaces, sharply convex to vertical at sides, faint segmen-tation into four or five pleura. Border ver t i ca l , smooth, may be s l ight ly turned under in some specimens. Terminal axial piece of pygidium may or may not show a definite bluntly pointed node, of greater convexity and re l i e f than the rest of the pygidium. It is frequencly present in unexfoliated specimens. Cranidia vary from 7 - 1 4 mm. in width pygidia from 4 to 9 mm. in width. I 14 Remarks: This is a peculiar species since the cranidium has definite Kinqstonia characteristics and the pygidium has just as definite Ankoura a f f i n i t i e s . Since no other Kinqstonia or Ankoura species,, and no other species with a pygidium even faintly r e -sembling Ankoura pygidia, are present in the c o l -lection from this horizon, there seems to be l i t t l e doubt that the pygidium is correctly assigned to the Kinqstonia mucro cranidium. The elements of Kinqstonia mucro in a l l respects are identical to those attributed for Kinqstonia  montanensis Lochman (cranidium) and Ankoura apical is Duncan (pygidium). Local i ty: Mount Synge formation, Paget Peak, Yoho National Park, Brit ish Columbia. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Upper Cedaria zone. Col lect ion: RG-M-F60 - 633'; RG-II-F60 - 625*. Genus Ankoura Resser, 1938 Ankoura orbiculata Lochman Plate IXj Figures 7 - 9 . Ankoura orbiculata Lochman, in Lochman and Duncan, 1944, p. 109, p i . 14, f igs . 32 - 41. Only three fragmental eranidia represent this species. The 115 smallest specimen is the best preserved; the other two are lacking the posterior areas of the fixigenae and other parts of the fixigenae. The axial furrows are indistinct in al l specimens, and although the axial furrow does not appear to be sharp and well defined in this species at any time, the described specimens appear to be poorer in this respect than usual. Local i ty: Corona formation, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Lower Cedaria zone. Col lect ion: GR-5-F57 ~ 2,360' - 2,370». Genus Bynumia Walcott, 1924 Walcott's original diagnosis of this genus is extremely br ief ; he observed only that "Bynumia d i f fers from Ucebia and Kingstonia in the deeper dorsal furrow and prolonged frontal limb". (Walcott, 1924, p. 54). Bynumia eumus was designated as the genotype. In 1925 Walcott published a more adequate description of the generic characteristics but did not enlarge on the description of the species, Bynumi a eumus. Resser, in 1942, did not contribute further to the diagnosis of the genotype, but did restr ic t the species B. eumus, as Walcott had described i t , transferring two of the three i l lustrat ions of B. eumus (Walcott, 1925) to a new species, B. walcott i. In addition, a further ten species of Bynumia were erected by Resser in the same publication. 116 From a study of abundant specimens of Bynumia collected at several loca l i t ies from the Corona formation in Banff National Park, it is concluded that the differences cited by Resser are only t r iv ia l and that his eleven "species" of Bynumia are merely intra-specif ic variations. It is here proposed that the following species (Resser, 1942b) be placed in synonomy with B. eumus Walcott, 1924: B. elegans, B. walcott i , B. venusta, B. robsonensis, B. suIcata, B. rangerensi s, B. sawbackensis, and B. mol l i s . Bynumi a (?) modesta is probably a poorly preserved specimen of Ucebia (?) ara Walcott ( = Kingstonia), and Bynumi a (?) producta, by its possession of a moderately well developed rim, is almost certainly a specimen of Kingstonia apion Walcott. B. arguta may possibly be a val id species, since the fixigenae are considerably longer, and more tapering than in B. eumus, and the anterior end of the cranidium is very blunt and round-ed. Bynumia eumus Walcott, 1924 Plate VIII; Figures 18, 19; Plate IX; Figures I - 6 Bynumia eumus Walcott, 1924, p. 55, p i . 14, f i g . 3; 1925, p. 78, p i . 17, f igs. 4 - 6. Bynumia eumus Walcott, Resser, 1942b, p. 52, p i . 9, f igs . 5 - 7 . non Bynumia eumus Walcott, Resser, 1942b, as p i . 10, f i g . 2 of Walcott, 1924 which is Burnetia urania (Walcott). Bynumia elegans Resser, 1942b, p. 52 - 53, p i . 9, f igs . 8 - 12. Bynumia walcotti Resser, 1942b, p. 53, p i . 9, f igs . 16 - 20. 117 Bynumia venusta Resser, 1942b, p. 54, p i . 9, f igs . 21 - 28. Bynumia robsonensis Resser, 1942b, p. 54, p i . 9, f igs . 30 - 34. Bynumia sulcata Resser, 1942b, p. 54, p i . 9, f igs . 35, 36. Bynumia rangerensis Resser, 1942b, p. 55, p i . 9, f igs . 3 7 - 4 1 . Bynumia sawbackensis Resser, 1942b, p. 55, p i . 9, f igs . 42 - 44. Bynumia mollis Resser, 1942b, p. 56, p i . 8, f igs . 37 - 41. Bynumia eumus Walcott, Lochman and Duncan, 1944, p. I l l , p i . 14, f igs . I - 6. Bynumia eumus Walcott, Howell, 1959, p. 0 286, f i g . 211, 6a - 6d. Specimens of Bynumia collected at several loca l i t ies in the Sawback Range al l agree with the specif ic characteristics of B. eumus as determined from Walcott's description of the genus (as the genotype) and from the diagram (1924) and from photographs (1925) of the holotype and other specimens of B. eumus. The description given below is intended as a supplement to Walcott's diagnosis of the species, Bynumia eumus. Cranidium triangular, s l ightly wider than long; specimens vary in length from 2 - 8 mm.; moderately convex laterally and antero-poster-io r l y . Glabella rectangular, approximately three-quarters length of cranidium; axial furrows inconspicuous, lateral borders of glabella marked only by change in slope and convexity between glabella and post-erior area of fixigenae; axial furrow much more pronounced in exfoliated specimens; preglabellar furrow broad, shallow, s l ight ly more conspicuous than axial furrow; anterior edge of glabella very s l ight ly rounded; la t -eral glabellar furrows completely absent in unexfoliated specimens, but I 18 possibly two or three vague, shallow furrows when exfol iated; occ-ipi ta l ring very narrow, with very shallow, almost indistinguishable occipital furrow; no mesial tubercle observed. Frontal area is rounded triangular, convex; no v is ib le anterior border furrow or anterior border; facial suture may be intramarginaI as suggested by Walcott. Posterior areas of fixigenae s l ight ly longer, more sharply triangular than frontal area, and extend to, or s l ight ly past, the posterior edge of the poorly defined occipital r ing; in some specimens, a shallow occipital furrow can be observed near the posterior edge delimiting a narrow triangular area on the posterior and lateral extremity of the posterior area of the fixigena. Palpebral lobes inconspicuous, marked only by light constr ic t -ion in cranidium opposite anterior one-third of glabel la . Course of facial suture is considered to be , intramarginaI anteriorly producing rounded, yet triangular, frontal area, cutting back to position of palpebral lobes where it diverges s l ight ly away from the glabella to cut the posterior border at a moderately high angle. This course of the facial suture produces a roughly equilateral triangular shaped cranidium, with slight indentations in its sides opposite the anterior one-third of the glabel la, and two depressions or indentations where the axial furrow intersects the posterior border of the cranidium. Librigenae unknown. Two very poorly preserved pygidia were associated with the eranidia. They are too fragmental for adequate description, but appear to approximate c losely, in general shape and outl ine, those pygidia assigned to the species by Resser 11942, p i . 9, f i g . 7). I 19 The lectotype of Bynumia eumus Walcott is herein designated as the specimen i l lustrated by Walcott 1925a, p i . 17, f i g . 4, U.S. Nat. Mus. Cat. no. 70255. Loca l i t ies : Sullivan formation, Sawback Range and Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedar?a zone. Col lect ions: JU-35-F57 - 1,442'; JU-207-F57 - Unit 15; RG-I2-F60 - 2,708»; RG-I2-F60 - 2,868'. Genus Bynumiella Resser, 1942 BynumielI a typical is Resser Plate XIX; Figures 9 - 1 4 . Bynumiella typical is Resser, 1942b, p. 57, p i . 10, f igs . I, 2. Bynumiella briscoensis Resser, 1942b, p. 57, p i . 9, f i g . 29. Bynumiella typical is Resser, Howell, 1959, p. 0 286, f i g . 211, 2a, 2b. The species is represented by eight moderately well preserved cranidia, none of which shows the small palpebral lobes, situated well forward, which characterize the genus. It is signif icant that these palpebral lobes are not v is ib le in the depicted holotype, nor in the figures of Bynumiella briscoensis. B. br iscoensi s is considered synonymous to B. typical is for it d i f fers only in the degree of roundness of the anterior portion of 120 the cranidia; the range of variation in roundness of the specimens available encompasses that of B. briscoensis and B. typical i s . To Resser's designation of the species are added the following: (1) Glabella bears two pairs of very shallow, faint lateral glabellar furrows, perhaps better described as broad, shallow, i l l-defined depressions; not v is ib le in al l specimens. (2) Occipital ring extended posteriorly into short, sharp mesial tubercle; again this is not v is ib le in a l l specimens, but where it is not present, an obvious break can be observed. Remains of this tubercle are shown in the holotype (Resser, 1942b, p i . 10, f i g . I.) (3) All specimens are less than 2 mm. in length. Local i ty : Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, TrempeaIeauan, Saukia zone. Col lect ion: RG-I4-F60 - I, 179*. Family Anomacaracea Poulsen Genus Monocheilus Resser, 1937 Monocheilus micros (Walter) Plate XVI,; Figures 6 - 1 1 . 121 ConocephaIites anatinum Ha l l , 1863 (part), p i . 8, f i g . 29. Conaspis micros Walter, 1924, p. 185, p i . II, f igs . 5, 6, p i . 12, f i g . 2. MonocheiI us micros (Walter) Resser, 1937, p. 20. MonocheiI us micros (Walter) Bell et a l , 1952, p. 191, p i . 33, f igs . 4a - 4c. Cranidia of this species occur in abundance in the collection from Mount Murchison, but only a single pygidium and a few librigenae were discovered. The cranidia agree in al l respects with the charact-e r i s t i cs of the holotype, and vary in size from 2 mm. to over 10 mm. in length. This species is apparently well represented in the Ptychaspis  str iata teilzone in Wisconsin and Iowa, but insofar as the writer is aware, this is the f i r s t reported occurrence of this species in Western Canada. Local i ty : Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone, Ptychaspis str iata teilzone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 1,105'. Superfamily Asaphiscacea Raymond Family Asaphiscidae Raymond 122 Subfamily Blountiinae Lochman Genus Blountia Walcott, 1916 Blountia beltensis Duncan Plate IX; Figures 10 - 14. Blountia beltensis Duncan, in Lochman and Duncan, 1944, p. 84, p i . II, f igs . 20 - 27. This species is known from several well preserved cranidia, but no pygidia. It may be that the cranidia might later be more correctly assigned to a new species of Blount ia since the posterior areas of the fixigenae appear to be s l ight ly longer, and more attenuate than those of B. beltensis Duncan. Such minor,differences may, however, represent intraspecific variation rather than valid specif ic dist inctions, Local i ty: Corona formation, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, lower Cedaria zone. Col lect ion: GR-5-F57 - 2,360* - 2,370*. Blount ia car Iot ta Lochman Plate IX; Figures 15 - 17. Blountia car Iot ta Lochman, in Lochman and Duncan, 1944, p. 84-85, p i . II, f igs . 28 - 31. Blountia carlotta Lochman, DeLand and Shaw, 1956, p. 548, p i . 63, f igs . 3 - 7 (not f i g . 8) . Kingstonia sp. undet., Deland and Shaw, 1956, p i . 63, f i g . 10. Blountia carlotta Lochman, Lochman, 1961, p. 132, p i . 28, f igs . 31 - 48. This species has been found in two collections only, both from the Corona formation on Mount Murchison. Three cranidia and three 123 pygidia, ai l fragmental and incompletely preserved, represent the extent of the co l lect ion. In general, the cranidia are lacking the posterior areas of the fixigenae, occipital r ings, and other parts of the fixigenae. The characteristic glabella and frontal area, however, provide enough to make specif ic identif ication possible. One pygidium, fa i r ly well preserved, agrees in al l respects to the type pygidium. Further collecting from the Cedar ia zone will probably show this species to be more widespread and more abundant in the southern Canadian Rockies than is presently indicated, Local i ty: Corona formation, Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedaria zone. Col lect ions: RG-I2-F60 - 2,254•; RG-I2-F60 - 2,708'. Super family Komaspidacea Kobayashi Family Komaspididae Kobayashi Genus Dartonaspis Miller,1936 Partonaspis kn ight i Mi 11er Plate XVI; Figures 12 - 18; Plate XVII; Figures I, 2. Dartonaspis knighti Mil ler 1936, p. 29, p i . 8, f igs . 34, 35. 124 Chariocephalus knight! M i l l e r , Resser, 1942, p. 4. Dartonaspis knighti M i l l e r , Berg, 1953, p. 566, p i . 61, f igs . 5, 6, 12. Dartonaspis knighti M i l l e r , Lochman-Balk, 1959, p. 0 295, f i g . 218, 4a - 4f. Numerous well preserved specimens of this species were found in the collections from the Sundance Range. The species is represented by abundant cranidia from 5 - 1 6 mm. in width, a few fragmental pygidia from 5 - 1 0 mm. in width, and several fragments of librigenae. The specimens agree in a l l respects with the holotype. Since it is possible to confuse Dartonaspis with Irv ingel la, a closely related genus, a brief outline of the salient differences between these genera is here included. A comparison of these genera is fac i l i tated since their respective genotypes are abundant and common species in the collections from the southern Rocky Mountains. The glabella of Irvingella is very convex, bluntly tapering, whereas the glabella of Dartonaspis is only moderately convex, with paral lel sides or even s l ight ly expanded anter ior ly. Irvingella possesses slab-like fixigenae with the course of the facial suture paral lel to or directed lateral ly and posteriorly away from the glab-e l l a ; the fixigenae of Par tonasp is are crescentic with the trace of the facial suture curving back and in toward the glabella from a point opposite the posterior glabella furrow to a point opposite the occipital furrow, then curving outwards and back to form a spur-like posterior area on the fixigena. The librigena of Irvingella possesses a fa i r ly long genal spine 125 that is directed posteriorly, the border of which follows smoothly backwards from the anterior edge of the cranidium; the librigena of Dartonaspis, however, possesses a genal spine which forms an angle of nearly 45° with the glabel la . The outer edge of the Dartonaspis librigena is not a smooth curve but is interrupted by this extension of the genal spine. Local i ty : Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Prosaukia subzone, Prosaukia longicornis teilzone. Col lect ion: RG-I4-F60 - l,249«. Genus Irvingella Ulr ich and Resser in Walcott, 1924 Irvingella major Ulrich and Resser Plate XIII; Figures II - 14. Irvingella major Ulrich and Resser in Walcott, 1924, p. 58, p i . 10, f i g . 3. Irvingella major Ulrich and Resser, Walcott, 1925, p. 98, p i . 15, f igs . 26 - 29. IrvingelI a major Ulrich and Resser, Frederickson, 1949, p. 353, p i . 69, f igs. 5 - 7. Irvingella oblonga Resser, Gaines, 1951, p. 612, 615. Irvingella plena Resser, Gaines, 1951, p. 612, 615. Irvingel la burnetensis Resser, Gaines, 1951, p. 612, 615. 126 Irvingella media Resser, Gaines, 1951, p. 612, 615 (for complete synonomy) Irvingella alberta Resser, 1942b, p. 23, p i . 4, f igs . I - 3. Irvingella major Ulrich and Resser, Lochman-Balk, 1959, p. 0 295, f i g . 218, 2a - 2d. This species is represented by several very well preserved cranidia, but only a few fragmental pygidia. The glabella is very high, convex, crossed by two pairs of joined glabellar furrows, which curve posteriorly across the dorsal surface of the glabel la . The axial furrow is deep and well defined, preglabellar f ie ld very narrow, and without any observable anterior border furrow. Anterior border sharply downs I oping to vertical in some specimens. Pygidium wider than long? axis crossed by two deep furrows, dividing it into two segments and a thick, stout terminal portion; axial lobe nearly half the width of pygidium. Pleural lobes unseg-mented, wide, f lat to s l ight ly convex, with shaI low marginal furrow, and raised,si ightIy convex border. Border not semicircular, but nearly quadrilateraI. Resser, in 1942, described twenty-two new species of I rv ingel la. Subsequent study has shown, however, that many of these species are intra-speci f ic variants of Irvingella major. Eight of these "species" were placed in synonomy with Irvi ngelI a major by Frederickson in 1949 and, two years later, Gaines took identical action with four more. A further species, I., alberta Resser, is considered by the writer to be conspecific wi th K major. Local i ty; Bison Creek formation. Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. 127 Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Irvingella subzone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 1,300* Superfamily Raymondinacea Clarke Family Raymond inidae Clarke Genus Brassicicephalus Lochman, 1940 Brassicicephalus n. sp. A Plate IX; Figures 18, 19; Plate X; Figures I - 4. The diagnosis which follows below is based on numerous, well preserved, cranidia and pygidia. Cranidium short, broad, with a very convex, subquadrate g label la ; no glabellar furrows observed; occipital furrow narrow, sharp; occipital ring moderately broad, s l ight ly convex, crescentic; axial furrow very shallow, but sharp junction with glabella and fixigenae; preglabellar furrow poorly defined, nearly merging with anterior border furrow; pre-glabellar f ie ld very narrow to absent; anterior border of moderate width, arcuate, and sl ight ly convex, anterior edge rol led down. F ix -igenae one-half width of glabel la ; moderately convex. Palpebral lobes small, poorly defined, situated precisely on transverse median line of g label la ; eye ridges absent; ocular ridge broad, low. Posterior area of fixigenae moderately broad, short, with fa i r ly wide, deep posterior border furrow. Surface of test smooth. Librigenae unknown. 128 Facial suture cuts anterior margin s l ight ly forward of line with axial furrow, then diagonally back across the palpebral lobes, curving s l ight ly outwards just on the posterior edges of the palpebral lobes, to cut the posterior border within the genal angles, producing blunt, rounded fixigenae. Pygidium nearly twice as wide as long, with bluntly tapered, moderately convex axial lobe, extending ful l length of pygidium and about one-fourth width of pygidium; pleural lobes moderately convex, border not well marked, but wide indistinct band, only observable in well pre-served specimens that also exhibit the faint pleural furrows; two or three very faint axial segments, and five to six very faintly delineated pleural segments. Surface of pygidium smooth. Remarks: Brassi cicephaI us n. sp. A di f fers from the most closely related species, B. snowyensis Lochman, in its very narrow or nearly absent brim, proportionately wider, and more arcuate border, and f la t ter , less convex, fixigenae. Local i ty : Corona formation, about 20 to 30 feet above the base, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Lower Cedaria zone. Col lect ion: GR-5-F57 - 2,360' - 2,370*. Genus Paracedaria Duncan, 1944 Paracedaria montanensis (Duncan) Plate X; Figures 5 - 10. 129 PiIgrimia montanensis Duncan, in Lochman and Duncan, 1944, p. 108, p i . 13, f igs . I - 6. Paracedaria montanensis (Duncan), Lochman, 1959, p. 0 300, f i g . 222, 7a - 7d. Many fragmental cranidia of this species were identif ied in collections from the basal Upper Cambrian of the Sawback Range. The species i s , however, represented by very few pygidia. The characteristic crescentic palpebral lobes of the cranidia are generally not well defined, but do show clearly on those specimens freshly broken from the matrix. In a l l other features the specimens assigned to this species comply with the type diagnosis. Local i ty: Corona formation, Sawback Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedaria zone. Col lect ion: JU-35-F57 - 1,442'. Subfamily Cedariinae Raymond Genus Cedarina Lochman, 1940 Cedar i na a Iberta Lochman Plate X; Figures 15 - 20; Plate XI; Figures I, 2. Cedarina alberta Lochman, 1944, p. 88, p i . 17, f igs . II - 15. The specimens in the collections ful ly agree with the type 130 designation, except for details of the mesial tubercle. The faint tubercle, as recorded by Lochman, was found to vary from faint to completely absent. Width of the occipital ring was also noted to vary from the type, broadening considerably at the center in some specimens. The pygidia assigned to C. alberta are welI represented in the col lect ions, and, with one minor exception coincide with the type. The exception observed was the occasional development of a third axial segment. It i s , of course, quite possible that such specimens might well be referred to another species of Cedarina. Local i ty: Corona formation, Sawback Range, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta; Paget Peak, Yoho National Park, Br i t ish Columbia. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedaria zone. Col lect ions: JU-35-F57 - 1,442*; RG-II-F60 - 1,477*; RG-II-F60 - 1,512'; RG-I5-F6Q - 2,378'; JU-207-F57 - Uni t 15; GR-5-F57 - 2,360* - 2,370'; RG-I2-F60 - 3,046'. Cedarina cordil lerae (Howell and Duncan) Plate XI; Figures 6 - 15. Piedmontia cordil lerae Howell and Duncan, 1939, p. 9, p i . I, f i g . 4. Cedarina cordiIlerae (Howell and Duncan), Lochman and Duncan, 1944 p. 89, p i . 17, f igs . I - 10. 131 Cedarina cordil lerae (Howell and Duncan), Lochman, 1950, p. 347, p i . 50, f igs . 20, 21. Cedarina cordiIlerae (Howell and Duncan), Lochman, 1954, p. 727, p i . 80, f igs . 8, 10. Several well preserved cranidia of C. cordiI Ierae were identif ied in the collection from the Corona formation on the Sundance Range, but none was found from the Sawback Range and Mount Murchison locations. The outstanding characteristic of the spjscies is the post-eriorly directed spine which extends from the occipital r ing . The three pairs of glabellar furrows typical of this species were found in one specimen only, despite the number of cranidia available for examination. The absence of furrows is probably caused by adverse preservation. Local i ty : Corona formation, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, lower Cedar ia zone. Col lect ion: GR-5-F57 - 2,360' - 2,370' Superfamily Norwoodiacea Walcott Family Norwoodiidae Walcott Genus Norwoodia Walcott, 1916 Norwoodella simplex (Walcott) 132 Plate XI; Figures 16 - 18. Norwoodia simplex Walcott, 1916, p. 171, p i . 27, f igs . 3 - 3b. Norwoodella simplex (Walcott) Resser, 1938a, p. 90, p i . 10, f igs . 55, 56. Norwoodella simplex (Walcott) Lochman and Duncan, 1944, p. 137, p i . 13, f igs . 55 - 58. This dist inctive species is represented by a few fragmental cranidia only. Fortunately, the characteristic long, pointed, post-er ior ly directed posterior areas of the fixigenae are preserved. The glabella is quite f la t , and the axial furrow only faintly defined. Maximum size of the cranidia in the col lect ion does not exceed 4 mm. in width. Local i ty : Mount Synge formation, Paget Peak, Yoho National Park, Br i t ish Columbia* Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Upper Cedaria zone. Col lect ion: RG-II-F60 - 625'. Family Menomoniidae Walcott Genus Bolaspidella Resser, 1937 Bolaspidella we I IsviIlensis (Lochman and Duncan) Plate XII; Figures 2 - 6 . Howe I I asp is we I Isv iI I ens i s Lochman and Denson, in Lochman and Duncan, 1944, p. 125 - 126, p i . 15, f igs . 18 - 20. 133 Howellaspls snowyensis Duncan, in Lochman and Duncan, 1944, p. 126 - 12.7, p i . 15, f igs . 1 4 - 1 7 . Bolaspidella welIsvi1lensis (Lochman and Denson), Palmer, 1954, p. 741, p i . 83, f i g . II, (synonomy to date). Bolaspidella welIsvi11 ens is (Lochman and Denson), Loehman-Ba11e, 1959, p. 0 304, f i g . 225, la - l c . BoI asp i deI la we I Isv iI I ens i s (Lochman and Duncan), Lochman and Hu, 1961 p. 138, p i . 30, f igs . I - 5. Numerous well preserved cranidia are assigned to this species. Unfortunately, these foss i ls were found in one collection only, near the base of the Corona formation, Sundance Range. The specimens agree well with the type description of the species, except for the less well developed lateral glabellar furrows. Since these lateral glabellar furrows are, however, absent in some of the cranidia depicted by Lochman (p i . 15, figs:. 14 - 17) the lack is not thought to constitute a val id reason for assigning the specimens to another species or for the erection of a new one. Local i ty: Corona formation, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, All ber ta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Lower Cedar?a zone. Col lect ion: GR5-F57-2360' - 2370'. Superfamily Marjumiacea Family Coosellidae Palmer Genus Coosella Lochman, 1936 134 CooselI a beltensis Lochman Plate XII; Figures 14 - 20 Coosella beltensis Lochman, 1944, p. 81, 82, p i . 12, f igs . 28 - 30. The discovery of numerous moderately well preserved cranidia and pygidia of this species in a col lection from the Mount Synge form-ation of Paget Peak allows the original description to be considerably amplified. Additional points of description are: 1. Posterior area of fixigenae relat ively long and narrow, as long as the posterior end of the glabella is wide; width is twice width of occipital r ing; bluntly pointed. 2. Frontal border of medium width, s l ight ly convex, but not up-turned, rather f lat in side view, in this feature differ ing from C. occidens. 3. Coarse of facial suture passing around palpebral lobes then diagonally back and lateral ly at a sharp angle, curving post-er ior ly , again rather sharply, to form a bluntly pointer posterior area of the fixigena. 4. Pygidium semicircular; width nearly twice length; axial lobe stout, convex, gently tapered nearly ful l length, then more sharply tapered and somewhat pointed in posterior one-fifth; crossed by three faint but well defined dorsal furrows; pleural lobes moderately convex, crossed by three or four faint pleural furrows directed sl ight ly posteriorly; border moderately wide, about two-thirds width of mid point of axial lobe, gently down-sloping. Surface smooth. 135 Coosella beltens is Is definitely the dominant species in the col lect ion from Paget Peak, since several dozen of both cranidia and pygidia were col lected. Local i ty : Mount Synge formation, Paget Peak, Yoho National Park, Brit ish Columbia. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Late Cedaria zone. Col lect ion: RG-II-F60 - 633'; RG-II-F60 - 625'. Family Pagodiidae Kobayashi Genus Hardyia Walcott, 1924 Hardy ia met i on Walcott Plate XIX; Figures 19 - 21. Hardyia met ion Walcott, 1924, p. 57, p i . 12, f i g . 5. Hardyia metion Walcott, Walcott, 1925, p. 91, p i . 18, f i g . 9. Hardyia metion Walcott, Lochman-Balk, 1959, p. 0 312, f i g . 231, 4a, 4b. Four cranidia, none well preserved, are assigned to H. me t i on. The observed characteristics agree in al l respects to Walcott's diagnosis and plates. The lateral glabellar furrows are generally quite fa int , and cannot be observed in a l l specimens. Glabella moderately convex, quadri lateral , very blunt anteriorly; axial furrow well defined, 136 preglabellar furrow indist inct ; no anterior border furrow; anterior border downsloping, f l a t , straight; fixigenae moderately convex, not as high as glabel la; posterior areas of fixigenae long, producing very wide cranidium with respect to its length, sharply pointed. Surface of cranidium smooth. No further additions to Walcott's des-cription can be made because of poor preservation of available material. Local i ty: Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, TrempeaIeauan, Saukia zone. Col lect ion: RG-I4-F60 - 1,179' Genus Nixonella Lochman, 1944 Nixonella montanensis Lochman Plate XI; Figures 19 - 21; Plate XII; Figure I. Nixonella montanensis Lochman, 1944, p. 105, p l . 13, f igs . 27 - 31. Nixonella montanensis Lochman, Lochman-Balk, 1959, p. 0 312, f i g . 231, 2a - 2c. Since there are several minor variations between the spec-imens of Nixonella montanensis from Alberta and from Montana, a complete description of the Alberta specimens is here included. The minor dev-iations in form from the type specimen are noted throughout. Cranidium short, broad, with moderately to strongly convex glabella that tapers very slightly- forward; glabella roughly two-thirds length of cranidium; a single pair of very faint glabella furrows could 137 be distinguished on some but not on a l l specimens (but present on the holotype); axial and preglabellar furrows welI-defined; general Iy broad and shallow; occipital ring narrow, crescentic, nearly flat to s l ight ly convex. Posterior border of fixigenae short, blunt, expanding later -a l l y , delimited from posterior area by broad, moderately deep posterior border furrow; fixigenae siightIy convex, half to s l ight ly more than half glabellar width; palpebral lobes s l ight ly more than one-third length of glabel la, located opposite anterior middle of glabel la; the poorly defined eye ridge of the holotype was not observed; preglabellar furrow is a broad, shallow continuation of anterior portion of axial furrow; anterior border of moderate width, nearly flat to very s l ight ly convex, s l ight ly curved; anterior margin rounded. Facial suture cuts anterior margin nearly directly anterior to the palpebral lobes, swings sl ight ly in and around palpebral lobes, then diagonally across to posterior border furrow where it curves back to cut posterior border of fixigenae. Outer surface of test smooth or very finely punctate. Only a few pygidia of this species were found. They are almost identical with that of the type. Remarks: The species is known from three loca l i t i es , a l l in the Sawback Range. Only fifteen cranidia and five pygidia were found. All specimens are small, the largest cranidia not exceeding 2 mm. in length. Local i ty: Corona formation, Sawback Range, Banff National Park, Alberta, Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedarja zone. Col lect ions: JU-35-F57 - 1,442*; JU-207-F57 - Uni t 15; RG-I2-F60 - 3,046*. Superfamily Ptychaspidacea Raymond Family Ptychaspididae Raymond Genus Ptychaspis Ha l l , 1863 Ptychaspis str iata Wh i t f i eId Plate XVII; Figures 3 - 7 . Ptychaspis granulosa Hall (part), 1863, p. 173, p i . 6, f igs . 33 - 40. Ptychaspis str iata Whitfield, 1878, p. 55; 1882, p. 186. Ptychaspis s t r ia ta Whitf ield, M i l l e r , 1889, p. 564. Ptychaspis s t r ia ta Whitfield, Shimer and Shrock, 1944, p. 631, p i . 262, f i g . 2. Ptychaspis s t r ia ta Whitfield, Lochman, 1950, p. 330, p i . 47, f igs . I - 5. Ptychaspis str iata Whitf ield, Bell et a l , 1952, p. 193, p i . 35, f igs . 2a - 2f. This species is characterized by a very coarsely striated surface ornament. Numerous cranidia, l ibrigenae, and several pygidia were found in the collections from Mount Murchison. The cranidia vary in length from 5 to 10 mm.; the pygidia vary in width from 10 mm. to 25 mm. 139 Local i ty : Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone, Ptychaspis str iata tei lzone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 1,105'. Genus Conaspis Ha l l , 1863 Conaspis ? sp. 8434 Plate XIV; Figures 9 - 1 1 . The description as follows below is based on three well preserved but fragmental cranidia between 3 and 4 mm. long. Glabella subquadrate, s l ightly rounded on anterior corners, s l ight ly tapered anteriorly; moderately convex anteriorly, only s l igh t -ly convex over posterior two-thirds; two pairs of lateral glabellar furrows, not reaching center of glabel la, anterior pair faint, post-erior pair well defined and directed posteriorly; axial and preglabellar furrows very wide, trenchlike, occipital ring poorly preserved but apparently moderately wide (trans.), moderately convex; occipital furrow wide, trench-like as for axial and preglabellar furrows. Anterior border moderately convex, straight across, s l ight ly rounder corners; anterior border furrow very wide, trench-like, but not so deeply incised as axial furrow; anterior border moderately convex, rounded anteriorly, and nar-rower than anterior border furrow. Fixigenae moderately convex, narrow; inconspicuous, small, arcuate palpebral lobes; no eye ridges v i s ib le . 140 Posterior areas of fixigenae not well preserved but appear to be triangular, moderately convex, crossed by deep, transverse posterior border furrow. Librigenae not known. Facial suture cuts anterior margin nearly directly in front of palpebral lobes, cuts straight back to a line midway between the anterior of the glabella and anterior glabellar furrow, then out and back in a straight line to cut the posterior edge to form a roughly triangular shaped posterior limb. Surface of test smooth. Hypostome, thorax, and pygidium not known. Remarks: This species is characterized by very wide, incised ax ia l , preglabellar, marginal, and occipital furrows. In a l l other respects the species most closely compares to the genus Conaspis, but no Conaspis, to the writer 's knowledge, possesses such trench-like furrows as are found in the specimens under discussion. Local i ty : Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Conasp is zone, Taenicephalus shumardi tei lzone. Col lect ion: RG-I4-F60 - 1,354'. I4t Family Saukiidae Ulrich and Resser Genus Prosaukia Ulrich and Resser, 1933 Prosaukia curvicostata Ulrich and Resser Plate XVII; Figures 8 - 16; Plate XVIII; Figure I. o Prosaukia curvicostata Ulr ich and Resser, 1933, p. 145, p i . 25, f i g . 1 - 7 . Prosaukia curvicostata Ulrich and Resser, Raasch, 1951, p. 142, 143. Prosaukia demissa Ulrich and Resser, Raasch, 1951, p. 142, 143. Prosaukia subrecta Ulrich and Resser, Raasch, 1951, p. 142, 143. Prosaukia alternata Ulrich and Resser, Raasch, 1951, p. 142, 143. Prosaukia transverse Ulrich and Resser, Raasch, 1951, p. 142, 143. Prosaukia subaequalis Ulrich and Resser, Raasch, 1951, p. 142, 143. Prosaukia curvicostata Ulrich and Resser, Nelson, 1951, p. 778, p i . I 10,. f igs . 6, 16, 18. Very large, well preserved cranidia, pygidia, hypostomae and librigenae of this species were collected from the Bison Creek formation on Mount Murchison. L i t t le needs to be added to their description except to note the range in size of the cranidia and pygidia. The smallest cranidium measures 5 mm. in width and 3 mm. in length; the largest cranidium is 32 mm. long, 25 mm. wide. The pygidia range in size from 12 mm. wide, 15 mm. long to 65 mm. wide and 40 mm. long. The best preserved librigena measured 55 mm. in length and it may possibly have been longer. The associated hypostomae of this species are here figured for the f i rst time. Only three hypostomae were recovered from the co l lec t ion, a l l are over 15 mm. in length. To judge from the size of these hypostomae 142 there is l i t t l e doubt that they can be assigned with reasonable certainty to P. curvicostata. Local i ty: Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Prosauk ia zone, Prosaukia curvicostata teilzone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 882». Prosaukia beani Ulrich and Resser Plate XVIII; Figure 6 Prosaukia beani Ulrich and Resser, 1933, p. 167, p i . 28, f i g . 21 Prosaukia beani Ulrich and Resser, Raasch, 1951, p. 143. Prosaukia granosa Ulrich and Resser, Raasch, 1951, p. 143. This species closely resembles P. longicornis and P_. misa but the cranidia differ in that P. beani is shorter and wider than the other two species, and the whole of the glabella is covered with coarse tubercles. This tubereulate condition is confined almost com-pletely to the glabel la, only a few small tubercles were observed on the fixigenae near the glabel la . Only one well preserved cranidium was col lected. Local i ty: Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone, Prosaukia longicornis teilzone. Col lect ion: RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'. 142b Prosaukia Iongicornis Ulrich and Resser Plate XVIII; Figures 2 - 5 Prosaukia longicornis Ulrich and Resser, 1933, p. 156 p|. 27, f igs . 12 - 21. Prosaukia longicornis Ulrich and Resser, Raasch, 1951, p. 143. Prosaukia magnicornuta Ulrich and Resser, Raasch, 1951, p. 143. Prosaukia longicornis Ulrich and Resser, Berg, 1953, p. 567, p i . 61 f igs . 7, 9. Several small, moderately well preserved cranidia and a few pygidia represent the total col lection of this species. It is d i f f i cu l t to distinguish between P. Iong icorn is and P. misa with the available material as the only apparent difference is that the anterior border of P. longicornis is narrower. It is possible that P. longicornis and P_. misa are conspecific, but in the absence of abundant material to determine the possible range of anterior border widths, no nom-enclature I changes are proposed. Since the brims of the cranidia at hand are generally narrow they have been assigned to the species P. longicornis. Local i ty: Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone, Prosaukia longicornis tei lzone. Col lect ion: RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'. 143 Family Eurkeiidae Hupe Genus Eurekia Walcott, 1924 Eurekia sp. Plate XIX; Figures 16 - 18. Glabella and occipital ring only of one cranidium preserved; glabellar quadri lateral, s l ight ly tapering anteriorly, convex, tending to be globular; two pairs of lateral glabellar furrows directed post-er ior ly toward axial furrow, equally spaced across glabel la, anterior pair much fainter than posterior; occipital furrow deep, wide; occ-ip i ta l ring wide, convex, tending to be crescentic. Surface of glabella finely granulose. Librigenae heavy, stout; ocular platform sl ight ly longer than wide, convex, separated from lateral border by well-defined, fa i r ly deep, lateral border furrow on exfoliated specimen; eye crescentic, stout, s l ight ly longer than wide, very convex, located posteriorly of mid-transverse line through ocular platform; lateral border wide, s l ight ly convex, curving smoothly backward and bearing short, stout, genal spine. Entire surface finely granulose. Pygidium not found. Remarks: The material is sparse and poorly preserved and is included here only to complete the record. Specific identif ication was not attempted because of fragmental condition of sol itary cranidium avai lable. 144 Local i ty : Mistaya formation. Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Trempealeauan, Saukia zone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 400'. Suborder Illaenina Jaanusson Superfamily Proetacea Salter Family Plethopeltidae Raymond r Genus Arapahoia M i l l e r , 1936 Arapahoia aspinosa Lochman Plate XI; Figure 3. Arapahoia aspinosa Lochman, 1944, p. i|,|6, p i . 10, f igs . 8 - 13. Arapahoia aspinosa Lochman, Lochman, 1950, p. 340, p i . 50, f igs . 12 - 18. This species of Arapahoia is characterized by the absence of a prolonged occipital spine. The course of the facial suture agrees well with the type diagnosis, but the cranidia on the whole are generally s l ight ly wider anteriorly than is typical . No pygidia or librigenae could be referred to this species. Local i ty : Corona formation, Sawback Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Hor i zon: Collect ion: 145 Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedar?a zone. JU-35-F57 - I,442*. Arapahoia snowi ensi s Howe I I and Duncan Plate XII; Figures 7 - 13. Arapahoia snowiensis Howell and Duncan, 1939, p. 6, p i . I, f i g . 10. Arapahoia walcottae Resser, 1942b, p. 46, p i . 7, f igs . 12 - 14. Arapahoia snowiensis Howell and Duncan, Lochman and Duncan, 1944,' p. 120, p i . 15, f igs . I - 9. Arapahoia snowiensis Howell and Duncan, Lochman, 1950, p. 341, p i . 50 f igs . 5 - 1 1 . Abundant specimens of A. snowiensis are present in the Cedaria zone col lections from Mount Murchison. Unfortunately, the material is poorly preserved and fragmentary. Nearly a l l the specimens are lacking the frontal area and anterior portion of the g label la . The occipital furrows are not as well developed in the available specimens as they are in the holotype, but this is not con-sidered to be a specif ic difference. There is also a siighttendency for the occipital spines to be somewhat longer than typical ; again, this was not consiaered suff ic ient difference to warrant erection of a new species. In al l there are over three dozen cranidia and some twenty pygidia in the col lect ions, besides many fragmentary remains of Arapahoia, probably of the same species. Local i ty : Corona formation, Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. 146 Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Dresbachian, Cedar i a zone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 2,868*; RG-I2-F60 - 2,708*. Genus Stenopilus Raymond, 1924 Stenop iI us sp. Plate XIX; Figures 6 - 8 . Cranidium semicircular, very convex, lateral glabel lar, ax ia l , and preglabellar furrows obsolete on exterior; no occipital furrow, and occipital ring represented only by a narrow, convex ex-tension to posterior of g label la ; posterior border of fixigenae short, convex, palpebral lobes i l l-def ined, small, s l ight ly posterior to mid-transverse line through glabel la . Librigenae and pygidium unknown. Remarks: This species is represented by four cranidia, more or less complete except for the extreme outer edges. The palpebral lobes may thus be more conspicuous on better preserved material. The specimens are herein figured solely for reference purposes. Local i ty: Mistaya formation, Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, TrempeaIeauan, Saukia zone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 400*. 147 ORDER and Family Uncertain Genus and sp. A indet. Plate XVIII; Figures 7 - 9 ; Plate XIX; Figure 15. Cranidium roughly quadrilateral; glabella smooth, highly convex, bluntly tapering anteriorly, square cut outlines posteriorly; no trace of lateral glabellar furrows even on exfoliated material; occipital ring wide, moderately convex; occipital furrow sharp, deep dorsally, fading out laterally to meet axial furrow shallowly; axial furrow broad, moderately deep, becoming shallower and less well defined across anterior end of glabella (preglabellar furrow) but s t i l l present; anterior border convex, moderately wide; anterior border furrow deep, wide, well-defined, with arcuate, or saddle-shaped trace; the frontal area is quite convex sagitta l ly and transversely; fixigenae relat ively narrow, less than one-half width of glabel la, convex, widening anter-ior ly , curving downward and forward to a near-vertical posit ion; palp-ebral lobes small, nearly f l a t , s l ight ly posterior to mid-point of glabel la; eye ridge very fa int , poorly defined. Posterior area of fixigena short, stout, triangular, crossed by moderately deep, wide, posterior border furrow. Facial suture cuts anterior margin at an angle, then,outward and back in a gentle curve to the anterior edge of the palpebral lobe, out and around the palpebral lobe, and then directly posteriorly follow-ing the same direction and position as anterior to palpebral lobes, out-ward and back to delimit a short triangular, posterior area. No associated pygidium was found that could be assigned to the species. 148 Remarks: This species cannot be assigned with certainty to any t r i lobi te family because the course of the posterior portion of the facial suture is unknown; it could be either proparian, gonatoparian, or opisthoparian. If, however, the species is assumed to have the more common opisthoparian type of facial suture, possible a f f in i t i es with the Asaphiscadae are suggested. Local i ty: Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone, Prosaukia curvicostata tei lzone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - 882'. Genus El IisocephaIoides Kobayashi, 1935 Ellipsocephaloides curtus (Whitfield) Plate XVIII; Figures 10 - 15. EI IipsocephaI us curtus Whitf ield, 1878, p. 58; 1882, p. 191, p i . I f i g . 18. Ellipsocephaloides curtus (Whitfield), Kobayashi, 1935, p. 196. Ellipsocephaloides curtus (Whitfield), Be l l , Feniak and Kurtz, 1952, p i . 34, f igs , la - lb. Abundant cranidia, but no pygidia, of this species are found in the Ptychaspis str iata zone. This absence may be due to selective winnow-ing by currents, or perhaps the pygidia were more fragile than the cranidia, 149 and were destroyed during deposition of the sediments. Of the many species of El Iipsocephalojdes erected by Resser (1942b), many appear to be conspecific. One dist inct ly new species, however, is E_. monsensis. This latter species differs from E. curtus in possessing a much wider glabel la, deeper lateral glabellar furrows, and sharper, deeper axial and preglabellar furrows. JE. cur tus has a proportionally narrower glabel la, and subdued furrows throughout. E_. monsens is dif fers from JE. cur tus in having narrow, moderately convex fixigenae with wide palpebral lobes, whereas in IE. cur tus the fixigenae are wide and nearly flat by comparison. The anterior border of E, monsensis di f fers from that of E_. cur tus in being narrow and moderately convex, whereas the anterior border of E_. cur tus is broad and nearly f l a t . Local i ty: Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Prosaukia-Ptychaspis zone, Ptychaspis str iata teilzone. Col lect ion: RG-I2-F60 - I , I05». E11ipsocephaloi des monsensis Resser Plate XVIII; Figures 16 - 18. EI IipsocephaIoides monsensis Resser, 1942b, p. 66, p i . 12, f igs . 4 - 6 . EIIipsocephal oides mentis Resser, 1942b, p. 65, p i . II, f i gs . 9 - 1 1 . El IipsocephaIoides argutus Resser, 1942b, p. 63, p i . 10, f igs . 5, 6. El Iipsocephaloides briscoensis Resser, 1942b, p. 63, p i . 10, f i g . 7. 150 Ellipsocephaloides sawbackensis Resser. 1942b, p. 64, p i . II, f igs . 4, 5. Ellipsocephaloides decl ivis Resser, 1942b, p. 67, p i . 12, f igs . 10 - 13. Ellipsocephaloides grac i l i s Feniak, in Bell et a l , 1952, p. 188, p i . 34, f i g . 3 Ellipsocephaloides monsensis Resser, Harrington et a l , 1959, p. 0 517, f i g . 410, 5a, 5b. The original description of this species by Resser is not considered adequate. The following supplementary description is based on four well preserved cranidia. Cranidium transversely quadrate, s l ight ly wider than long. Mod-erately convex transversely and longitudinally, with a tendency to develop a ridge trending longitudinally along the crest of the g label la . Glabella elongate, paral lel-sided, bluntly rounded anteriorly, length about three-fourths length of cranidium, width nearly half that of cranidium. Two lateral glabellar furrows, the posterior nearly complete across the glabel la , and pit- l ike on the sides; the anterior furrows represented only by deep pits, of the sides of the glabel la ; the anterior one-third of the glabella is unfurrowed. Axial furrow sharp, well defined; occip-i tal furrow shallow, gently curved posteriorly; occipital ring wide (sag.), ribbon-like, moderately convex. Frontal area downs I oped and narrow, no anterior border furrow or anterior border present. Fixigenae down-sloping, width about two-thirds that of the glabel la . Palpebral lobes long and arcuate, raised above fixigenae, eye ridges merge into pre-glabellar f ie ld anteriorly. Posterior border of fixigenae narrow. Facial suture probably cuts cranidium posterior to anterior border furrow, then in a smooth curve back and around palpebral lobes. 151 with a sl ight incurving at the anterior edge of the lobes, then sharply around the posterior end of the palpebral lobes and back to produce a short, f l a t , bluntly terminating, posterior border. The above description is essentially the same as that of Feniak's for E_. graci I i s, with some modifications. No librigenae or pygidia were observed. Reference is made to Resser for a description of the pygidium, but no one has, as yet, reported the librigenae of the species. Remarks: It is not improbable that several of Resser's remaining species of EI Iipsocephaloides should also be referred to EE. monsensis or even to JE. cur tus. The writer has considered only those species of El Iipsocephaloides described by Resser from the southern Rocky Mountains of Alberta and Brit ish Columbia. Local i ty : Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range, Banff National Park, Alberta. Horizon: Upper Cambrian, Franconian, Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone, Prosaukia longicornis teilzone. Col lect ion: RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'. 152 SUMMARY Cone Iusions; This biostratigraphic study i s , of necessity, merely a pre-liminary to the more detailed examination that the Upper Cambrian form-ations and faunas require. Completely new Upper Cambrian stratigraphic nomenclature has been proposed, many of the Upper Cambrian faunal zones have been recognized and their assemblages described, and the upper and lower limits of the Upper Cambrian series has been somewhat better defined. In more deta i l , sixteen Cambro-Crdovician formations have been reviewed. The Chephren, Waterfowl, Corona, Mount Synge, Bison Creek, Mistaya, and Howse River formations have been proposed as new formation names; and the Arctomys, Sul l ivan, Lye l l , Mons, Bosworth, Paget, Sher-brooke, Sabine, and Tangle Ridge formations have been restr icted or their use otherwise discontinued. The more important faunal zones of the Dresbachian, Franconian, and Trempealeauan stages have been ident i f ied, and described, with the sole exception of the Crepicephalus zone of the Dresbachian. It has been established that the I oweie limit of the Upper Cambrian series probably occurs at, or s l ight ly below, the Waterfowl-Corona contact, and that the upper limit of the Trempealeauan probably l ies somewhere in the basal beds of the Howse River formation. Recommendations: It is probably apparent from the many unanswered questions and unsolved problems mentioned throughout this report that further study of the Upper Cambrian biostratigraphy is necessary. The writer 153 has attempted to establish a working framework only for the Upper Cambrian stratigraphy. Some stratigraphical and paleontological problems that wil l only be solved by further f ie ld work are here outl ined; 1. C lar i f icat ion of the various facies changes that occur in the Corona, Mount Synge, and Bison Creek formations; 2. Study of the Mistaya-Howse River contact, a contact which may be diachronic; 3. More precise location of the limits of the Upper Cambrian series; 4. Further col lect ion and description of the Franconian and TrempeaIeauan faunas; 5. More detailed measured sections over a wider area for paleogeographical studi es> 6. Determination of the relat ive importance of the Paget Peak section; 7. More detai led, and more complete measurement of the Division Mountain section - Glacier Lake area; 8. More precise correlation with the Cambrian sequence of British Columbia; 9 . 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C o l l . , v. 53, no. 5, p. 167 - 230. , 1912a, Cambro-Crdovician Boundary in Brit ish Columbia with Descriptions of Foss i l s : Smiths, Misc. C o l l . , v. 57, no. 7 , p. 229 - 237. , 1912b, New York Potsdam-Hoyt Fauna: Smiths. Misc. C o l l . , v. 57, no. 9, p. 252 - 304. 165 Walcott, C D . , 1912c, Cambrian of Kicking Horse Valley, Br i t ish Columbia: Geol. Surv. Can., Summ. Rept. for 1911, p. 188 - 191. . . . . . . 1914, Dike IocephaI us and other Genera of the Dikelocephalinae: Smiths. Misc. C o l l . , v. 57, no. 13, p. 346 - 358. . . . . . . 1915, Cambrian Problems in the Canadian Cord i l le ra : Problems of American Geology, Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, Conn., p. 162 - 233. ,,,1916, Cambrian geology and paleontology. III, no. 3, Cambrian t r i lob i tes : Smith. Misc. C o l l . , vo l . 64, no. 3, p. 157 - 258. . . . . . . 1920, Geological Explorations in the Canadian Rockies: in Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1919. Smiths. Misc. C o l l . , v. 72, no. I, p. I - 16. , 1922, Geological Explorations in the Canadian Rockies in ' Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1921: Smiths. Misc. C o l l . , v. 72, no. 15, p. I - 22. . . . . . . 1923, Nomenclature of seme Post Cambrian and Cambrian Cordilleran Formations: Smiths. Misc. C o l l . , v. 67, no. 8, p. 457 - 476. , 1924a, Geological Formations of Beaverfott-Brisco-Stanford Range, Brit ish Columbia, Canada: Smiths. Misc. C o l l . , v. 75, no. I, p. I - 51. . . . . . . 1924b, Cambrian and Lower Ozarkian Tr i lob i tes : Smiths. Misc. C o l l . , v. 75, no. 2, p. 53 - 62. , 1925a, Cambrian and Ozarkian Tr i lob i tes : Smiths. Misc. C o l l . , v. 75, no. 3, p. 64 - 146. , 1925b, La Discordance de Strat i f icat ion at la lacune Stratigraphique Pre-devonienne dans les provinces cordiMeres d'Alberta et de Colombie Britannique, Canada: Livre Jubilaire de la Societe Geologique de Belgique. , 1927, Pre-Devonian Sedimentation in the Southern Canadian Rocky Mountains: Smiths. Misc. C o l l . , v. 75, no. 4, p. 148 - 173. , 1928, Pre-Devonian Paleozoic Formations of the Cordilleran Provinces of Canada: Smiths. Misc. C o l l . , v. 75, no. 5, p. 175 - 377. 166 Walker, J . E . , 1926, Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Windermere Map-area, Br i t ish Columbia: Geol. Surv. Can. Mem. 148. Walter, O.T., 1926, Tr i lobites of Iowa and some related Paleozoic forms: Iowa Geol. Survey, v. 31, p. 167 - 388. Warren, P.S., 1927, Banff Area, Alberta: Geol. Surv. Can. Mem. 153, No. 134 Geological Series. , 1929, Sedimentary Record in the Rocky Mountains at about the 51st Para l le l : Can. Field Naturalist, v. 43, no. 2, p. 23 - 27. Westergard, A.H. , 1947, Supplementary Notes on the Upper Cambrian Tr i lobi tes of Sweden: Sveriges Geologiska Undersokning, ser. C, no. 489, Arsbok 41, 1947, no. 8, p. 3 - 34. Whitf ield, R.P., 1877, Preliminary report on the paleontology of the Black H i l l s , containing descriptions of new species of foss i ls from the Potsdam, Jurassic, and Cretaceous form-ations of the Black H i l l s of Dakota: U.S. Geog. and Geol. Survey of Rocky Mtn. region (Powell), p. I - 49. * , 1880, Paleontology of the Black H i l l s of Dakota: In Newton, Henry, and Jenney, W.P., Report on the geology and resources of the Black H i l l s of Dakota. U.S. Geog. and Geol. Survey •of the Rocky Mtn. Region, p. 325 - 468. Wilson, J . L . , 1948, Two Upper Cambrian EIvinia zone t r i lob i te genera: Jour. Paleontology, v. 22, no. I, p. 30 - 34. , 1949a, The Tr i lobite fauna of the basal Wilberns limestone of Texas: Jour. Paleontology, v. 23, no. I, p. 25 - 44. , 1949b, The Tr i lobi te fauna of the Elvinia zone in the basal Wilberns limestone of Texas: Jour. Paleontology, v. 23, no. 4, p. 341 - 363. , 1951, Franconian tr i lobi tes of the central Appalachians: Jour. Paleontology, v. 25, no. 5, p. 617 - 654. , 1954, Late Cambrian and Early Ordovician Tr i lobi tes from the Marathon Up l i f t , Texas: Jour. Paleontology, v. 28, no. 3, p. 249 - 285. . . . . . . 1956, Revisions in nomenclature and new species of Cambro-Ordovician t r i lob i tes from the Marathon Up l i f t , Texas: Jour. Paleontology, v. 30, no. 6, p. 1341 - 1349. 167 Wilson, J . L . , 1957, Geography of Olenid Tr i lobi te Distribution and its Influence on Cambro-Ordovician Correlation: Amer. Jour. S c i . , v. 255, p. 321 - 340. Wilson, J . L . , and Frederickson, E.A., 1950, The Irvingella major ("Ptychopleurites") faunizone of the Upper Cambrian: Amer. Jour. S c i . , v. 248, p. 891 - 902. 168 APPENDIX Descr ipt i on of Measured Sect Ions Sundance (Bourgeau) Range Section located northwest of the Spray River fire-road, 8.8 miles southwest of Banff Springs Hotel. Only the Bison Creek formation was measured in detail and abundant faunal col lections were made. The Bison Creek formation is well-exposed at the summit of the ridge above the north branch of the small creek which intersects the road at the 8.8 mile point. Uni t Thi ckness Cumulat ive Li thology of Unit Thickness 55 244' 244 • Dolomi tes: Orange-grey, and grey weath-ering, thick-bedded dolomites. Resistant, c I i f f-f ormi ng . 54 53 638' 73' 882' 957' HOWSE RIVER FORMATION  Shales and Iimestones: shales putty-grey weathering, with abundant cobble, pebble, and boulder limestone conglomerate beds. Becomes less shaly and light to medium grey weathering upward. Limestones and si Itstones: thin-bedded to platy, with some interbedded grey-green shale; weathering dark brown. 52 15' 972' MISTAYA FORMATION  Limestone: grey, finely crysta l l ine , medium to thick-bedded, with Col I en ia Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive of Uni t Thickness 51 85* 1057' 50 95' 1152' 169 Li thology colonies in the more massive parts; thick beds interbedded and crossed by orange weathering argillaceous threads. Resistant unit, c l i f f-forming. Limestone: thin-bedded, laminated, grey, with interbedded s i l t s , and shales; argil laceous; weathering dark brown-grey with rusty overlay. Some intraformational pebble conglomerates, consisting of fragments of very finely -banded s i l t y limestones. Resistant, but s l ight ly less so, than either unit 52 or 50. Limestone; massive, dark grey, coarsely crystal l ine calcarenite with orange weathering argillaceous threads anas-tomosing through i t . Weathers massive, blue-grey; interbedded with shaly lime-stones, thin shale partings, and some intraformationaI limestone pebble and cobble conglomerate. Resistant, c l i f f -forming unit . Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive of Unit Thickness 49 21* 1173' 48 5* I 178* 47 5' 1183' 170 Li thology BISON CREEK FORMATION  Limestone: pale to medium grey, micro-crystal l ine, in thin, alternating beds 3/4" to I" thick with s i l t y lenses and stringers interbedded; recessive, but more resistant than shale unit; poorly bedded; weathers pale grey and pale yellow-brown. Abrupt contact with lower carbonate unit of Mistaya form-ation. Sha|e: soft , green-brown, very f i s s i l e , recessive and poorly exposed; weathers into 1/4" to 1/2" diameter chips; noncalcareous; abrupt contacts above and below; with 6" capping bed of lime-stone as in unit below. Fossil Collection RG-I4-F60 - 1,174*. Limestone: pale grey to medium grey; fine to medium crysta l l ine; some oo l i t i c material; abundant brachiopod, t r i l ob i te , and crinoidal material. On thick, massive bed, resistant, grey weathering with orange weathering patches on upper surface. 171 Un i t Thickness Cumulative Li thology  of Un?t Thickness Fossil Collection RG-I4-F60 - I,179'. The remainder of the formation is essentially a repetition of the above l ithology. The thicknesses, with associated foss i l s , are given below for detai1. 46 6' 1 189' Shale; as for unit 48. 45 4' 1 193' Limestone: as for unit 47. 44 2' 1 195' Shale: as for unit 48. 43 2* 1 197' Limestone: as for unit 47. 42 4' 1201 • Shale: as for unit 48. 41 1 • 1202' Limestone: as for unit 47. 40 4* 1206' Shale:as for unit 48. 39 1 » 1207' L imestone: as for unit 47. 38 5' 1212' Shale: as for unit 48. 37 3' 1215' Limestone: as for unit 47. 36 6' 1221 • Shale: as for unit 48. 35 1 • 1222' t Limestone: as for unit 47. 34 4' 1226' Shale: as for unit 48. 33 2' 1228' Dolomite: hare 1, si Ity, p6ssi bly s i l i ceous, very sl ightly calcareous; microcrystaI Iine; dull steel-grey to grey-black; in I" to 4" beds; irregular bedding planes; rare, thin shale partings; 172 Un? t Th?ckness Cumulat ive of Unit Thickness 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 20' 4* 8' 4' 6' 4' 18* 6* I I 2 10 I I I 1248" I252» 1260' I264» 1270' 1274' 1292' 1298' 1309' 131 I • 1321 • 1322' 1323* 1324' Li tholooy weathers into irregular slabs; resistant, ledge forming; weathers bright red-brown. Shale; as for unit 48. Limestone; as for unit 47. Fossil Collect-ion RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'. ShaIe; as for unit 48. Limestone: pale grey, medium crysta l l ine; massive; 6" zone of limestone pebble con-glomerate at base of unit; ledge-forming. Weathers pale grey. ShaIe: as for unit 48. Limestone: light to medium grey; medium crysta l l ine ; zone of huge Col I en ia heads, up to 3* in diameter. Shale: as for unit 48. Dolomi te; as for unit 33; transition to limestone occurs in patches on upper sur face. Shale: as for unit 48. Do Iomit e: as for unit 33. Shale: as for unit 48. Limestone: as for unit 47. Shale: as for unit 48. Limestone: as for unit 47. 173 Uni t Th i ckness Cumulative Li thology  of Uni t Thickness 18 3* 1327* Shale: as for unit 48. 17 I' 1328' Limestone: as for unit 47. 16 9' 1337* Shale: as for unit 48. 15 l» 1338' Limestone: as for unit 47. 14 5* 1343' Shale: as for unit 48. 13 I1 1344' Limestone: as for unit 47. 12 4» 1348' ShaIe: as for unit 48. II 2' 1350' Dolomite: as for unit 33. 10 3' 1353' Shale: as for unit 48. 9 2' 1355' Limestone: as for unit 47. Fossil Collection RG-I4-F60 - 1,354'. 8 5' 1360' Shale: as for unit 48. 7 10' 1370' Dolomite: as for unit 33. 6 18' 1388' Shale: as for unit 48. MOUNT SYNGE FORMATI ON 5 590' 1978' Dolomi tes: dense, thick-bedded, well bedded, light grey, finely crysta l l ine , s i l t y ; dolomitic weathering grey to buff with argillaceous weathering surface i .e. du l l , dusty. From these basal beds upwards follows a very rapid changing succession of limestones and dolomites. Un i t Thi ckness CumuI at ive of Uni t Thickness 4 225* 2203' 3 187' 2390' 174 Li tholoqy In rapid alternation are dense, crypto-crysta l l ine , buff to white, s i l t y lime-stones; argil laceous, banded, crossbedded limestones; coarsely crysta l l ine , white, pink and maroon, thick-bedded dolomite. Bedding varies from thin to very thick and very well-bedded. Very resistant, c l i f f -forming unit. Dolomi te: coarsely crystal I ine, a rg i l l a c -eous, mottled and white, with pink, purple and red zones, thick to massive bedded. Some suggestion of c las t i c banding on weathered surface only. Weathers medium grey, massive, dense, with patches, part-icularly under overhanging c l i f f s of bright red. Upward the unit is very massive, coarsely crysta l l ine , sugary, with mottling of white with red, grey pink, etc. CORONA FORMATI ON  Limestones and shale: pale grey to grey-black; generally argil laceous, and thin-bedded, but some massive, thick-bedded Uni t Thi ckness CumuI at i ve of Unit Thickness 2 170* 2560* I 201* 2761* 175 Li thology « limestones with ool i tes; fine grey-green shale partings with 2' bed of grey-green shale at top of unit . Unit resistant at base; poorly exposed, however, in the middle and upper portions. Fossil Collections RG-I5-F60 - 2,378*, GR-5-F57 - 2,360* - 2,370*. WATERFOWL FORMATION  Polomi tes and sh a Ie: pale grey to pale grey-brown, platy to medium bedded do l -omites; with interbeds of ye I Iow weathering dolomitic shale. Unit poorly exposed near base; contact with Sullivan formation grad-ational and not as well-defined as in other sect ions. CHEPHREN FORMATION  ShaIet yellow, green and maroon shales, dolomitic, with salt casts, and ripple marks common; some mud cracks observed; some very thin-bedded si Itstones; unit recessive, poorly exposed. Abrupt, yet conformable, contact well exposed at junction of Arctomys and underlying Pika format i on. 176 Sawback Range South Section is located on the south end of the Sawback Range, north of the Bow River, and approximately 4.5 miles due west of Banff, Alberta. Few foss i ls were found, and so the principal value of the section is to indicate the thicknesses and lithology of the various format ions. Uni t Th ickness Cumulative Li thology of Unit Thickness 3 4 20' 47" 61 • 138' 20" 67« 128' 266' SARBACH FORMATION  Polomi test interbedded, medium bedded, brown weathering, s i l t y , detrital do l -omite and si lver coloured, soft , limy shales, and limestone pebble conglomerate; in beds I to 1.5 feet thick. Contact with Pevonian covered. As above, with gradual increase in shale content. Limestone beds commonly medium grained calcarenites with macerated fossil debris, principal ly crinoid columnals, brachiopods and t r i lob i tes . Do Iomitet limestone, and shale as above. Limestone and shalet much as above but about 60 per cent s i l ve r , limy nodular shale and 40 per cent limestone pebble conglomerate beds with other detrital carbonate grains present, in beds from 177 Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive of Uni t Thickness 5 330' 596• 6 301' 897' 7 51' 948' 8 79' 1027' 9 64' 1091' Li thology I to 2.5 feet thick. HOWSE RIVER FORMATION  Limestone and shalet as above wi th rapid increase in shaliness becoming 4/5 shale upwards. Unit consists principal ly of shale, with thin beds of limestone pebble conglomerate. Limestone and shale; as above . . . putty to s i lver grey weathering, soft limy shales, with thin beds of limestone pebble conglomerate. Covered; shale debris as above. MISTAYA FORMATION  Limestone: blue grey, very finely crysta l l ine , with large colonies of Col I en ia , 8 to 12 inches in diameter, separated by columns of rusty orange, blue grey weathering detrital lime-stone which includes oolites and fossi l debris. Limestone; as above. 178 Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive Li tholoqy  of Uni t Thickness BISON CREEK FORMATION 10 362* 1453' Covered: debris consists of thin grey , shale and thin-bedded medium to coarsely crysta l l ine, limestone and dolomitic Iimestones, dense, grey, dark grey weathering. MOUNT SYN6E FORMATION || 582' 2035' Dolomi tes: medium bedded ( 1 - 2 feet in thickness), of varying texture. ' Varying from fine to medium crystal l ine light to dark grey, commonly brown or grey brown weathering. Many of them s i l t y , very finely laminated, grey, black to buff or pale grey weathering, others argillaceous and almost finely nodular. S i l t tracery appears on these rocks in form of fine threads. About 100 feet below the top sandy dolomites are to be seen. Most are microcrystalIine to cryptocrysta11ine, light grey, dense, hard,si lty and light weathering. Some Uni t Thickness Cumulati ve of Unit, Thickness 12 175* 22I0» 13 400* 2610* 14 221' 2831• 179 L i thology chert layers and nodules are present. Intervening shale intervals are thin, generally grey-green, although towards the base of the unit they become pink and lighter coloured. Lowest rocks of the unit are thick-bedded, very s i l t y . CORONA FORMATION  ShiaIe: recessively weathering, con-sist ing of grey-green shales, with thin and medium beds of bright orange weathering argil laceous, very finely crysta l l ine, s i l t y , dolomite. WATERFOWL FORMATION  Do Iomi test generally thin to medium bedded; s i l t y ; hard, resistant; weathering pale grey and buff. Unit not measured in de ta i l . CHEPHREN FORMATION  ShaI est thin-bedded, brightly weathering, s i l t y , s i l t y shales; thin, platy s i l t y , argillaceous dolomites, and argillaceous s i l tstones. Unit very poorly exposed. 180 Sawback Lake Sawback Lake is located 15 miles north-northwest of Banff, Banff National Park, about two miles northwest of the summit of the pass between Fortymile Creek and Sawback Creek. The section was measured from base to top along the ridge west of Sawback Lake. Exposure is generally quite good and the section easily accessible. Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive Li thology  of Uni t Thickness SARBACH FORMATION 39 240* 240' Limestone: unit similar to unit 37; somewhat less nodular. About 3 feet of nodular limestone to every 3 feet of massive limestone pebble conglomerate. Unit partly covered (40 per cent). Res-istant. 38 70' 310' Limestonei s i l t y , limestone pebble con-glometate and calcarenite, weathering pale grey and orange; resistant. Occas-ional beds with black chert nodules and blebs. 37 289' 599' Limestone; an interbedded series of thin, platy, nodular, hard, fine grained, medium brown, yellow grey weathering limestone with shale partings*, and thick beds one to two i feet of limestone pebble conglomerate with organic debris. Weathers pale grey with 18! Unit Th ? ckness Cumu1 a t i ve of Unit Thickness 36 160' 759' L i thol oqy s i l t y orange brown str ingers; usually 4' t o e 1 of nodular limestone followed by one to two feet of Iimestone pebble conglomerate. Unit resistant. Limestone; s i l t y , medium grey, fine grained, thin to medium bedded, with many beds of limestone detritus and pebble conglomerate. Resistant with some shaly partings; weathers pale grey with s i l t y orange brown stringers. Somewhat rubbly weathering. 35 34 170' 35' 9291 964' 33 65' 1029" HOWSE RIVER FORMATION  Limestone and shale: as at unit 33. Limestone and shalet shale as for unit 32 but not more than I to 3 inches thick, between nodular, medium grey, fine grain-ed limestones that vary from one to three inches thick. Unit recessive; gradational into units 33 and 35. Limestone and shalet Iimestones are thick beds of limestone pebble conglomerate with occasional beds of fine grained, medium grey, s i l t y limestone. Limestones weather Uni t Thi ckness Cumulat ive of Uni t Thickness 32 150' 1179' 31 35* 1234' 182 Li thology pale grey with orange brown s i l t y stringers and lenses. Shales are f i s s i l e , soft weathering, putty grey to dark grey green, argillaceous and very calcareous. Forms recessive unit. Limestone beds occur every 6 to 8 feet. Covered; on summit ridge to northeast, this interval is occupied by putty-coloured shales of the Howse River. MISTAYA FORMATION  Limestone and dolomi te; massive carbonate unit varying from medium grey limestone to hard, massive, s i l t y , fine grained, buff weathering dolomites. Both rock types contain Col Ienia, although they are poorly preserved in the dolomites. Dolomitization occurs errat ical ly along and across s t r ike , with limestone persisting 20 to 25 feet vert-ical ly and 35 to 40 feet horizontally before passing into dolomite. The buff weathering dolomite is the predominant rock type.' Limestones are s i l t y and weath-ering pale grey. 183 Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive Li thology  of Unit Thickness 30 20* 1250' Covered: 29 64' 1314* Dolomite: s i l t y , fine to medium crysta l l ine , dark brown to black, weathering medium purple brown; thick-bedded (2 to 6 feet) upper portions of unit tend to weather in slabs. 28 77' 1391' Dolomi te: s i l t y , cryptocrysta11ine, medium pearl grey, weathers pale white brown, medium bedded ( I to 3 feet). Resistant unit in part but tends to weather back in thinner bedded portions. Abrupt contacts with units 27 and 29. BISON CREEK FORMATION 37 55' 1446* Limestone: s i l t y , very finely cryst -a l l i ne , dark purple grey; thin-bedded and platy weathering; weathers pale grey with orange brown s i l t y streaks. Recessive. 26 77* 1523* Covered: probably shales, brown, earthy. 25 14' 1537' Limestone: coarse grained, de t r i ta l , massive bedded, (6' ) , irregular knobby weathering, medium to dark grey with orange flecks on the fresh surface. Uni t Thi ckness Cumulat ive of Uni t Thickness 24 17' 1554' 23 185 • 1739* 184 Lithology Weathers pale grey and orange. Some limestone pebble conglomerate. Limestone: lower one-third of massive, s i l t y , coarse grained, detrital limestone intermingled with organic debris and limestone pebble conglomerate. Appear to be some poorly developed Col I en la . Weathers pale grey and orange-brown. Massive bed grades into brown s i l t y limestones; bands 1/2 to I" wide of pale grey limestone; dark brown and black on fresh surface, argil laceous, interbedded with orange weathering s i l t y limestones about 1/2" to I 1/2" thick. Unit resembles Mons nodular lime-stones of Glacier Lake. Upper part of unit wavy and irregular, suggestive of erosional break. Covered: occasional scattered blocks of orange weathering dolomite which appear to be more or less in place. On summit of the ridge, this unit seems to be a brown, clayey, shale facies with 185 Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive of Un?t Thickness 22 I 12» |95|» 21 9' I960' 20 30' 1990' 19 31' 2021' 18 10' 2031' L i tholoqy occasional bright orange weathering beds 2» to 3' thick. MOUNT SYNGE FORMATI ON  Dolomite: s i l t y , fine grained, pale brown to medium grey, scattered chert blebs in lower 30 ' ; weathers light brown brey, gradually becoming more orange brown towards top of unit. Resistant unit . Polomi te: argil laceous, very fine grained, black, thin-bedded, 1/4" to I" rubbly weathering, weathers medium dark grey. Recessive unit . Covered: grass and snow. Polomite: s i l t y , fine grained, dark grey to black, some sandy lenses, medium bedded, 2' to 3 ' , weathers pale brown grey, resistant unit; 2" black chert layers 4' to 6 ' . Dolomi te: s i l t y , fine grained, dark purple brown, f i s s i l e to thin-bedded almost shaley, weathers to be a brown. Un i t Thi ckness Cumulative of Unit Thickness 17 580» 2611' 16 100' 2711' 15 140* 2851' 186 Li tholoqy clay-like earth, very recessive unit . At 4 ' , a 3" bed of hard dolomite brec-c i a , 1/2" - I 1/2" fragments. Dolomitei this unit forms a high, nearly sheer, c l i f f along the lower slopes at the head of the val ley. The dolomites vary in colour, but a l l are s i l t y and fine grained. The lower beds are massive, 2' - 4 ' , bright red, orange, and medium purple brown. The upper 200* of the unit is character-ized by more thinly bedded dolomites (1/2" - 3") and abundant s i l t y laminae. These upper beds tend to be darker coloured generally, colours vary from medium grey to black. The unit as a whole weathers pale white-brown with occasional black patches. Covered; dolomite, and limestone blocks. CORONA FORMATION  Limestone and shale; an alternating seq-uence of o o l i t i c , and pebble conglomerate 187 Un? t Thickness CumuI at i ve Li thology  of Uni t Thickness limestone and brown clayey shales. Brown shales predominate in the lower 30' of the unit, and massive limestone beds gradually become more and more dominant upwards. Shales weather to brown earth even on steep slopes, only the orange and grey Iimestone beds are predorainent. Limestone is massive beds, 2' - 3*, showing in some beds an intermingling of oolites and limestone pebble conglomerate and t r i lob i te frag-ments. Beds containing tr i lobi tes more common in the upper part of the unit. Also limestones, s i l t y , coarse grained, medium grey, weathering orange and grey in blotches, unit generally poorly exposed, forms recessive interval Fossil Col lect -ion JU-207-F57 - 15'. WATERFOWL FORMATION 14 72' 2923* Polomi te; s i l t y with s i l t y laminae, thin-bedded (1/2" - 3"), medium purple brown, weathers pale yellowish brown; Uni t Thi ckness CumuI a t i ve of Uni t Thickness 13 12' 2935' 12 !• 2936* II 14' 2950' 10 14' 2964• 9 3' 2967' 8 2' 2969' 188 Li thology forms top of c l i f f below recessive shaly interval; blocky weathering, medium grained. (6" - 8"). Dolomite; s i l t y , medium purple brown, dense, fine grained, s i l t y laminae, thin bedded (9" - I 1/2'), weathers pale grey brown. Limestone; one massive bed of oo l i t i c limestone as in unit 7. Dolomi te; s i l t y with s i l t y laminae, thin-bedded, weathers light brown; pale purple-brown on fresh surface. Similar to unit 8. Dolomi te: hard, dense, fine grained, dark grey to black, moderately s i l t y , weathers dark purplish brown, medium bedded (I 1/2" - 2") pale purple brown, weathers Iight brown. Limestone: as for unit 7, but 2' of oo l i t i c , I' of conglomerate. Dolomi te: hard, dense, fine grained, s i l t y , and s i l t y laminae, thin-bedded, 11/2" - 2") pale purple brown, weathers Iight brown. 189 4? Uni t Thickness CumuI a t i ve Lithology  of Uni t Thickness 7 3» 2972* Limestone: lower I 1/2', a massive bed of very fine oo l i t i c limestone, medium grey with pale grey weathering, Upper I l/2» a massive bed of limestone pebble conglomerate medium grey, weathering pale grey. 6 7' 29791 Dolomi te: s i l t y , dark grey to black, s i l t y laminae abundant, thin to medium bedded, dense; weathers pale brown grey, unit very resistant and forms the base of a c l i f f that traverses the mountain side from ridge to valley f loor . 5 57' 3036' Limestone: base of unit marked by 2' bed of oo l i t i c limestone, 2 mm. diameter, closely packed, medium purple grey, 2' - 2 1/2' thick, limestone interbedded with poorly exposed brown shales, s l igh t -ly calcareous, at 23 ' , a 2' bed of lime-stone pebble conglomerate. Al l limestones weather orange and grey; recessive unit. 4 119' 3I551 Dolomi te: s i l t y , dark grey to black hard, fine grained, bedded from 2" - 4", s i l t y laminae common, weathers medium purple brown, except for 50 1 - 55' interval which Uni t Thickness Cumulative of Unit Thickness 3 199* 3354* 2 128' 3482* 190 Li tholoqy is a black weathering black dolomite, well exposed. Abrupt contact with unit 5. CHEPHREN FORMATION  Dolomi tes s i l t y , s l ight ly calcareous in some beds, thin-bedded l/2»" - 2", colour varies from black, medium brown-grey, pale grey, medium purple brown. Most beds with s i l ty laminae, some sandy, a l l fine grained, weather bright yellow brown, abrupt colour change at bnit 4. At 75' to 82' of this unit, a zone of maroon f i s s i l e shales. This unit may be thickened by wedging since this thickness does not appear at the top of the r idge. Shale and dolomi te: unit composed pre-dominantly of chocolate brown and maroon shales; in upper 98 ' , shales appear inter-bedded with 2" - 3" beds of dolomite. Shales tend to be soft porous, yellow sandstones, as lenses U/4" - 1/2"). Lower 30' of very 191 Un? t Thickness CumuI at ive Li thology  of Uni t Thickness f i s s i l e br i t t l e shales; shales in upper part of the unit tend to be blockier. Green brown shale zone, 6' thick, appears near the top of the unit. Salt casts noted in the talus of this unit . Dolomites, s i l t y , thin-bedded (1/2" - 2"). pale medium grey, fine grained, weathers bright yellow brown. Unit recessive, generally poorly exposed, gradational contact into unit 3. PIKA FCRMATION I 150' est . 3632* Polomi te; pale to medium grey-brown with s l ight ly calcareous beds; s i l t y and s i l t y laminae in some beds, thin to medium bedded, 2" - 2 ' , hard, dense, weathers buff to yellow brown. C l i f f -forming. Rock generally fine grained. 192 PuI sat i11 a Pass This section is located to the east of Pu lsat i l la Pass, at the headwaters of Johnston Creek. Pu lsat i l la Pass is located 10 miles east of Lake Louise Station. To the east of the summit of Pu lsat i l la Pass, there is a ridge that trends toward the Pass from the east - northeast, and, at i ts western end forms the height of land between Johnston Creek and the south branch of Baker Creek. It was along thesouth side of this r idge, from east to west, that the section was measured. Unfortunately, only gross thicknesses are available for the units comprising the section. Some finer subdivision of the units could be achieved on re-examination of this section. Un i t Thi ckness CumuI at i ve L i thology  of Un i t Th i ckness MISTAYA FORMATION 20 200' 200' Dolomi test finely crystal l ine to medium crysta l l ine , white to medium grey, s i l t y and argillaceous generally; some a rg i l l a -ceous seams and shale partings separating the dolomi te beds. Numerous beds of dolomitized oolites and fossil debris. Some beds bearing Col I en i a heads. Medium bedded, r es i s t -ant unit. Unit overlain by the putty-coloured shales of the Howse River formation. Uni t Th ickness Cumulat ive of Unit Thickness 19 257' 457* 18 66' 523* 17 124' 647' 193 Li thology BISON CREEK FORMATION  Shale; green-grey to brown-grey, soft , recessive, with some interbeds of medium orange-brown weathering, finely crystal l ine limestone, medium bedded. Coarse limestone pebble and cobble conglomerates in a limestone matrix occur in the base of the unit. Numerous beds of large Col I en ia are present at this horizon. Uppermost beds are thin-bedded limestones with shaly partings. MOUNT SYNGE FORMATION 5  Polomi te: light and medium grey, fine to medium crysta l l ine , s i l t y , medium bedded; unit weathers yellow-grey, resistant. Thin beds and partings of f i s s i l e dark grey shale also occur. Polomi tes: f ine, medium and coarsely crystal l ine beds, medium grey to dark grey, medium to thick bedded. Beds weather pale yellow, buff, pale and medium grey. Resistant unit. 194 Uni t Thickness Cumulative Li thology of Unit Thickness 16 380* 15 225' 14 441 1027' 1252' 1296' Dolomi tet alternating beds of fine to coarsely crystal l ine dolomite, pale to medium grey, thin to medium bedded, s i l t y ; weathers pale yellow-grey, buff, and grey. Numerous white chert nodules in some beds. Dolomi tet very much as described for unit 16, weathers pale grey, very well bedded, medium bedded. Dolomi tet fine to medium crysta l l ine , s i l t y , medium to dark grey, and buff weathering dolomite. Many beds oo l i t i c , some de t r i t a l , and others with algal bodi es. 13 186' 1482' CORONA FORMATION  Shale; brown to green-brown, very recessive, poorly exposed; with thick to medium beds of orange and grey weathering, oo l i t i c and fossiI iferous limestone at irregular intervals. Grey and orange-brown weathering oo l i t i c Iimestones become more common near top of unit, particularly in top 50 feet. Un1t Thickness Cumulative ot Uni t Thickness 12 452* 1934' || 350* 2284• 195 Li thology Fossil Collection JU-35-F57-I3 at 1,442'. WATERFOWL FORMATION  Dolomi test a series of medium bedded, buff, pale grey, yellowish, pinkish dolomites, most of which are s i l t y ; some argillaceous beds, particularly in the basal 40 to 50 feet where the dolomites are thin to medium bedded. Numerous beds of dolomitized ool i tes, and finely c las t i c carbonates. Most beds are finely crysta l l ine, with the occasional bed of coarsely crystal l ine dolomi te. CHEPHREN FORMATION This interval is mainly covered, but the general lithology is one of shaly and s i l t y shale with some thih-bedded s i l ty dolomites. The basal maroon, dolomitic shales so characterist ic of the Chephren formation are well exposed. Thickness of the unit may be excessive, since the upper portion of 196 Thickness Cumulative Li thology of. Uni t Thickness the unit is apparently dragfolded. PIKA FORMATION 68' 2352* Dolomi te; fine grained to lithographic, in thin, platy beds, weathering buff, and pale grey-brown. Recessive unit. Remaining units of Pika formation. 197 Paget Peak Section Section located on southwest face of Paget Peak, v is ib le from highway through Kicking Horse Pass. The lower 400' was measured in the valley to the east of Paget Peak, on the shoulder of Paget Peak. The base of the Lyel I formation was traced around Paget Peak to the southwest face, i .e. contact of units 9 + 10. Section measured from base to top of mountain with 5* Jacob's s ta f f . Un i t Th ickness. Cumulat ive Li thology  of Unit Thickness MOUNT SYNGE FORMATI ON 21 8' 8' Limestone; ribbon-1 ike limestone as in unit 19, forms top of Paget Peak. 20 83' 91' Limestone: pale grey, microcrystalIine, hard, dense, s l ight ly argil laceous; very l i t t l e s i l t ; massive in 4' - 6' beds, weathers into large, angular blocks; c l i f f-forming; weathers pale grey. Fossil Collection RG-II-F60 - 66 ' . 19 95' 186' Limestone; interbedded series of unit 18 lithology with microcrystaI Iine, pale to medium grey, s i l ty limestone; in 3/4" to I 1/2" beds with 1/4" to 1/2" inter-bedded yellow-brown s i l t bands. Presents ribbon-like, grey and yellow-brown weath-ering appearance. 198 Unit Thickness Cumulat ive Li thology  of Un?t Thickness 18 97* 283* Limestone; similar to unit 17, but more massive, less s i l t , forms very resistant, near-vertical c l i f f s ; weathers pale to medium grey. 17 68* 351* Limestone; cryptocrystaI l ine, pale-medium grey; argiIlaceous-siIty; s i l t y material in fine brown stringers occurring every 1/4" to 1/2", up to 1/4" in thickness; weathers grey and yellow-brown; presents fine ribbon-like appearance on weathered surface; recessive unit, but occasional ledges. Covered from 30* - 61 ' , but probably same lithology. Gradational contact over 5* with unit 18. 16 65* 4\6* Limestone; fine-grained, fragmental, medium grey, with fine ool ites dissem-inated in patches; occasional limestone fragments up to 2" long in lower 2* -5*} at 2* - 3*, an interbedded shale zone of unit 15 lithology; unit massive, v ir tual ly no bedding; c l i f f-forming, weathers pale grey. Contact with unit 17 gradational over 4" - 5*, 199 Uni t Thickness Cumulative Li thology  of Uni t Thickness 15 297' 713» Limestone. Ool i t ic limestone and shale: an interbedded series of thick, 4' beds, of oo l i t i c limestone, green-grey shales, and nodular limestones; oolites 1^2-1 mm. diameter, weathering grey and orange-brown, resistant, ledge-forming; nodular limestones: cryptocrystalIine, pale-medium grey, in beds I" - 2" thick with grey-green shale partings; shales are hard, calcareous, splintery, grey-green, hard, partly sheared and phy l l i t i c due to faulting along east face of Paget Peak. Limestone: Ool i t ic limestone, shale, 1 : 1 : 3 , along direction of traverse; to west of line of traverse the section appears to be mainly shale. Whole unit weathers dark brown, recessive, from a distance. From 90' to 240', very few beds of oo l i t i c limestone, nearly completely hard, si l iceous (?) shale, and nodular limestone. Fossil Collections RG-II-F60 - 625', RG-II-F60 - 633*. 200 Uni t Thi ckness Cumulative of Unit Thickness Li thology 14 117* 830' Dolomi te; lower 5* - 8 ' , very coarse-grained, pale grey to white, remainder of unit as for unit II, but grading into finely crystal l ine beds, as well as medium to coarse beds. Weathers in large, angular blocks, c l i f f s , and ledges; weathers medium yellow-brown with occasional red-brown cast on patches. End of this dolomite nearly coincides with end of grey limestone knobs along str ike. medium grey; hard, dense, t ight; occasional s i l t str ingers; in beds 2" fo 4"; weathers medium blue-grey; cliff-forming or ridge-forming; breaks down into coarse, angular talus; contact with unit 12 abrupt and occurs intrabed. Apparently grey limestone of unit 12 represents undolomitized sequence remaining after extensive dolomitization of unit 13. Near top of unit, 2' - 4* interbeds of massive, pale grey calcarenites occur approximately in rat ios of 1:1 in upper 30' of unit. Calcarenite composed of well-rounded, moderate sphericity, particles of 13 85* 915* Limestone: cryptocrystalI ine, pale to Un? t Thickness Cumulat ive of Un!t Thickness 12 173' I088» II 260* 1348* 10 64' 1412' 201 Li thology dolomite, sandy, buff-coloured, and pale grey limestone. Contact with unit 14, abrupt, but undulating. At IOO1 to 150* along strike from this contact, the limestone occurs in large, salient knobs at 50' to 100* above the limestone-dolomite contact along line of section. Dolomi te; very coarsely crysta l l ine , cream to white; rate, s i l t y or a r g i l l -aceous, dark grey to black, laminae anastom-osing throughout rock;, porous, with vugs up^  to 1/2" diameter, in beds 3* to 4*a very well-bedded; forms large bedding plane sur-faces; ledgeforming. Dolomite; medium to coarsely crysta l l ine ; pale grey, hard, dense, s i l ty ; , in beds from 2" to 4" thick; generally a c l i f f -forming unit; massive weathering; weathers medium yellow-brown to buff. Strike 168°, dip 19° SW. Limestonet medium grey, finely crysta l l ine , abundant s i l t y laminae; patches of pale grey limestone U/8" to 1/4") show as 202 Li thology 'ghost' in the rock; massive, c l i f f -forming unit, resistant; weathers pale grey with yellow-brown s i l t y laminae. Contact with unit II gradational over 2" - 4". CORONA FORMATION 9 130' 1542' Phy l l i t i c shale and Ool i t ic limestone; shales, calcareous with si lky sheen probably from bedding plane slippage and shearing; oo l i t i c limestone in I' to 2' beds; oolites generally in contact with fine crystal l ine matrix; phy l l i t i c shales recessive; limestone beds resistant; shales relat ively more abundant than limestones; whole unit poorly exposed above talus slope and below main c l i f f s of Paget Peak. Inter-beds of medium grey, cryptocrystaI Iine limestones also occur throughout the phy l l i t i c shales. These beds generally present a nodular appearance; probably constitute less than 10 per cent of total uni t. Uni t Thickness Cumulative of Unit Thickness 203 Uni t Thickness Cumulative Li thology  of Uni t Thickness Fossil Collections RG-II-F60 - 1,477', RG-II-F60 - 1,512'. At top of unit 9, traced contact of unit 9 and 10 to south and west around Paget Peak. 8 180' 1722' Covered; large boulders, talus blocks from Paget Peak c l i f f s . Unit forms main talus slope around base of mountain. Fault WATERFOWL FORMATION 7 47 • 1769* Polomi te; fine to medium crysta l l ine; pale to medium grey; in beds I' to 2' in thickness; weathering medium yellow-brown; whole unit veined with white quartz from 1/4" to 2" wide. Massive weathering, ledge-forming unit. Unit bounded by thrust faults. Fault CHEPHREN FORMATION 6 20* 1789* Covered; grass, talus. 5 20' 1809' ShaIe: very dolomitic, hard; similar to unit 4, but yellow-green; also sheared; recessive unit . 4 25* 1834* Dolomite: very shaly, in beds 1/4" to 1/2" thick; maroon; hard; exhibit shear 204 Uni t Thi ckness Cumulat ive L i tholoqy of Unit Thickness features from associated fault located above unit 4. Weathers dark red, recessive. 2 I I5« 10* 1842" 1857' 1867' PIKA FORMATION Dolomi te: very fine-grained to l i tho-graphic; pale cream to buff with thin stringers of calcareous s i l t y material distributed throughout rock parallel to bedding in great abundance; weathers medium yellow-brown with stringers of darker brown s i l t y material; ledge-form-ing. Contact with unit 4 not well-exposed, but apparently abrupt. Covered: grass, shrubs. 'Dolomi te: thick-bedded to massive, weathers buff-yellow to yellow-brown. Resistant, ledge-forming. Unit I overlies blue-grey dolomites of EI don formation. 205 Mount Murchison Section Section located in headwaters of north fork of Bison Creek, southwest side of Mount Murchison. Section measured from top of Howse River shale downwards to top of Waterfowl formation with 5* Jacob's s ta f f , and rangefinder for large covered interval in the lower oo l i t i c limestone and shale unit. Overlying the si lvery weathering, putty=coloured shales of the Howse River is an interbedded unit of shale and limestone weathering dark grey-green, predominantly shale, of 500'- 600' in thickness. This latter unit is overlain by a thick, brown-weathering carbonate c l i f f , probably Sarbach, of an estimated SOO'-^OOO' thickness. Uni t Thlckness Cumulative Li thology  of Uni t Thickness HOWSE RIVER FORMATION I 400' 400* ShaIe; dark grey-green, to medium green-brown; soft , f r iab le , with platy to sp l i n -tery weathering habit; calcareous; poorly exposed; forms silvery-putty-coloured talus slope below topmost c l i f f s of Mount Mur-chison. At 270' - 274', a massive 4» bed of orange and grey weathering limestone with abundant imbrecated, f l a t , limestone pebbles. Shale continues to 400* with interbedded orange and grey weathering lime-stones in lower 25 ,-30*. Fossil Collection RG-I2-F60 - 400'. Unit Thickness CumuI atIve of Unf t Thickness 2 39* 439' 3 209* 648» 206 L'lithology MISTAYA FORMATION  Limestone: finely crysta l l ine , medium grey-brown, s i l t y laminae; hard, t ight; weathers yellow-brown and grey; upper 18' of unit c l i f f-forming; one 8* bed at top of unit^ remainder in 6" to 2' beds. Collenia horizon at 418'. From 418' to 439« thin-bedded, recessive unit. Dolomi te: fine-grained, rare calc i te blebs, medium grey-brown, s i l t y ; massive, weathers blocky, poorly bedded at a few horizons; c l i f f-forming; weathers dark yellow-brown with a grey cast. At 525*, bedding improves, more pronounced, bedded every I" to 3", but s t i l l massive?-weathering, c l i f f-forming. At 565', bedding changes to 8" to I 1/2' beds; forms ledges; no other changes from upper portion of unit . At 590*, top of 2« to 3' bed of Col lenia; a l l heads about I' to 2* diameter. At 630», black chert horizon; chert in long, thin nod-ules, 1/2" wide by l« long. A second black chert horizon at 640*. 207 Un? t Thickness CumuI a t i ve Li thology  of Unit Thickness 4 |2» 660* Limestone; fine-grained, earthy texture, argil laceous; dark grey-black, tends to be nodular with irregular bedding planes; bedded every 3/4" to I", recessive, weathers pale grey, 5 4' 664' Dolomi te: fine grained, dark grey to black, very abundant black, argillaceous; fine stringers and laminae; one massive bed, weathers pale yellow-brown with pale grey, s i l t y streaks; ledge-forming. 6 71 * 735' Limestone: dark grey-green, end dark grey-black; nearly lithographic; s i l t y ; in beds from 3" to 4*, quite variable thickness of beds; ledge to c l i f f-forming; weathers pale yellow-grey with yellow-brown patches. At 700' to 701', a shale interbed. BISON CREEK FORMATION 7 2' 737' Limestone: fine-grained, dark grey-green very thinly bedded; recessive, blocky weathering; weathers pale grey. 8 41* 778' Limestone and shale: limestone pebble conglomerate, beds 2* thick, massive weathering with soft , grey-green shale interbeds; limestone very fine-grained. 208 Uni t Thickness Cumulative Li thology  of Unit Thickness 8 41* 778* Limestone and shale: limestone pebble conglomerate, beds 2* thick, massive weathering with soft, grey-green shale interbeds; Iimestone very fine-grained, grey to grey-green. At 745' to 750', some beds with well developed ripple marks. Unit generally recessive except for the limestone beds. 9 22* 800' Limestone: dark grey-black, microcrystalIine to lithographic, hard, dense, in beds from 2* to 4* thick; clIff^forming; weathers pale grey. 10 4' 804* Covered interval : talus. 11 16* 818* Limestone: as for unit 9. 12 4* 822* Limestone: as for unit 7. 13 5* 827' Limestone: as for unit 9. 14 3* 830* Limestone: as for unit 7. 15 4* 834* Limestone: a 4* bed of limestone pebble conglomerate, mixed with some thin beds of nodular limestone. 15 2* 836* Limestone: as for unit 7. 17 I* 837* Limestone: as for unit 9. |8 3* 840* Limestone: as for unit 7. 209 Uni t Thi ckness Cumulat ive of Unit Thickness 19 20 21 2* 18' 52' 22 50" 23 4« 842' 860' 912' 962' 964" 24 13' 977' 25 32' 1009' Li thology Limestone; as for unit 9. Covered intervaI; may be grey-green shales. Limestone; dark grey to black, l i tho-graphic, hard, dense; in beds from I" to A", with s i l t y laminae; wavy irregular, bedding planes; limestone beds tend to have a nodular weathering habit; weathers medium grey, c l i f f-forming*. From 905' to 908', a black, fine-grained, limestone, bearing abundant large, black, resinous chert nodules. Fossil Col lection RG-I2-F60 - 882'. Limestones; alternation of l ithologies as for uni ts II to 19. Limestone; in detailed lithology as for unit 21, but consists of one massive bed with Collenia heads on the upper surface. Limestone: as for unit 21. Limestones: as for units II to 19, but in thicker units; the thick-bedded units are massive, resistant, units; the thinner-bedded limestones are recessive. 210 Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive Li thology  of Unit Thickness The footages of the various beds are l isted below: 6* thick Iimestone 4» thin-bedded limestone 10' thick-bedded limestone 4' thin-bedded limestone 8' thick-bedded limestone 351• 1362' The succession is quite rhythmical, except that the resistant beds become gradually thinner, and less numerous downwards, being replaced by the shaly, recessive un i ts. The detailed measurement of the thick-bedded and thin-bedded limestones is given below: 4» thin-bedded 1imestone 3' thick-bedded 1imestone 4' thi n-bedded 1imestone 3' thi ck-bedded 1imestone 5« thin-bedded 1imestone 8' thick-bedded 1imestone 7' thin-bedded 1imestone 5' thick-bedded 1imestone 6» thin-bedded 1imestone 2' thick-bedded 1imestone Uni t Thi ckness Cumulative of Uni t Thi ckness Li thology 5' thin-bedded limestone 8' thick-bedded Iimestone 12' thin-bedded limestone 10* thick-bedded Iimestone At 1088', a welI-developed bed of Collenia algae. 21» thin-bedded limestone Fossil Collection RG-I2-F60 - I, 105'. 4' thick-bedded limestone 4' thin-bedded limestone 2 1 thick-bedded limestone 2* thin-bedded limestone 4* thick-bedded Iimestone 4* thin-bedded limestone 6' thick-bedded limestone 15' thin-bedded limestone 2' thick-bedded limestone 3» thin-bedded limestone 4» thick-bedded limestone 9' thin-bedded limestone At 1,178', horizon of Co I I en i a heads. II' thick-bedded limestone 3 f thin-bedded limestone 7* thick-bedded limestone 8* thin-bedded limestone Unit Thi ckness Cumulat ive of Unit Thi ckness Li thology 2' thick-bedded limestone 16* thin-bedded limestone I' thick-bedded limestone 14' thin-bedded limestone 2' thick-bedded limestone 16' thin-bedded limestone At 1,254', a possible erosional contact? I' thick-bedded limestone 4*, thin-bedded limestone 4* thick-bedded limestone 80' thin-bedded limestone At 1,290', strike 90° , dip 9 ° N. Fossil Collection RG-I2-F60 - 1,292' 2' thick-bedded limestone 18' thin-bedded limestone Fossil Collection RG-I2-F60 - 1,300'. Limestone: (thick-bedded) fine-grained to lithographic, few fine crystal l ine patches; dense, t ight, dark brown-black; argil laceous; in massive very resistant beds, ledge or c l i f f -forming; weathers medium grey; forms conspic-uous ledges along mountainside; generally abrupt contacts above and below with thin-bedded Iimestones. Uni t Th ickness CumuI at ive of Uni t Thickness 26 160' 1522* 27 4* 1526' 213 Li thology Limestone: (thin-bedded) fine-grained to lithographic; few patches of finely crystal l ine limestone; dark grey, hard, dense, minor thin lenses of bioclast ic material containing foss i l s : thin-bedded, generally less than I", with thin soft , shale partings; argil laceous, very recessive units; rarely we 11-exposed; form talus slopes along mountainside between more resistant ledges of thick-bedded limestones; weathers pale to medium grey, MOUNT SYNGE FORMATION Dolomi te: dark grey to black; finely crystal l ine to cryptocrystaI Iine, hard, dense; occasional s i l t y laminae; thick to medium bedded; (8' - 3' ) ; very resistant; very uniform lithology throughout whole unit; weathers pale grey to medium grey-brown; well defined bedding planes; unit forms prominent c l i f f on mountainside, Dolomi te: black, very fine grained; very much as for unit 26, but has a nodular, thin-bedded weathering habit; recessive, weathers pale grey. 214 Uni t Thi ckness Cumulat ive Li thology  of Uni t Thi ckness 28 266' 1792-' Dolomite: as for unit 26. At 1719' a black chert horizon, in nodules 1/2" to 3/4" by 3" to 4" long. Below chert horizon, a 4" bed of fine slump-breccia (?), part ic les less tha I" long, 1/8" to 1/4" thick. 29 I0» 1802* Limestone: black; cryptocrystaI Iine to micro-crysta l l ine , argil laceous, in beds 2" - I" thick; weathers pale grey; c l i f f-forming. 30 90' 1892' Dolomi te: as for unit 26. At 1850' an un-dulating bedding plane fault ; probably not much change in thickness. 31 20* 1912' Dolomi te: dark grey to black; finely cry-sta l l ine at 1890' to medium crystal l ine at 1912'; few pyrite flecks; massive c l i f f -forming unit; abrupt contact with underlying unit; undulating contact. Overhanging ledges are frequently present on this contact. 32 I* 1913' ShaIe: dark blue-grey; soft , f i s s i l e , non-calcareous, rare t r i lob i te fragments; few I" beds of hard, finely crysta l l ine , s i l t y , nodular, limestone; very recessive interval , i weathering back 2' to 4* under overhanging c l i f f of preceeding unit. Weathers pale grey. Abrupt contact with unit 33. Unit Thickness Cumulative  of Uni t Thickness 33 4' 1917* 34 2' 1918* 35 I I» I930» 36 12' 1942* 37 4« I946» 38 4' I95Q' 215 Li thology Limestone; dark grey, cryptocrystalIine to microcrystaI Iine; few pyrite grains; s i l t y ; forms ledges 2« to 3» thick, interbedded with 2" to 4" shale layers of unit 32 lithology. Weathers pale grey with yellow-brown patches. 2' 9" Iimestone 3" shale 1• Iimestone I• shaIe Abrupt contact with unit 34, Dolomi te; as for unit 31. Covered uni t: talus. Limestone: medium grey; cryptocrystalI ine; hard, dense; in thin, irregularly bedded ledges; s i l t y laminae and stringers every I" - 2"; moderately resistant; weathers pale to medium grey. Limestone: dark grey, microcrysta!Iine; s i l t y ; shaly interbeds; in thin, irregular nodular beds; very recessive unit; weathers pale grey. Covered: 1a I us. 216 Uni t Thi ckness Cumulative L i thology  of Uni t Thickness 39 5* 1955' Limestone; a limestone pebble conglomerate; thin, flat pebbles of medium grey, cry-ptocrystalIine limestone, with similar matrix; occasional shale lenses; in beds, irregularly bedded, I" - 4" thick; recessive, poorly exposed unit; weathers pale grey with yellow-brown str ingers. 40 8* I9631 Covered interval ; talus. 41 7* 1970' Limestone: dark grey, cryptocrysta11ine, with scattered coarse crysta ls ; a r g i l -laceous partings abundant; some dark brown limestone lenses up to 1/4" wide; one massive, very resistant bed; upper surface domed and ridged to suggest Collenia or other algal mass. Very sharp undulating contact with unit 42. Weathers pale grey i with yellow-brown patches and str ingers. From base of unit 31 to base of unit 41 an interval marked by a talus slope and shoulder on face of mountain. With unit 42, the resistant c l i f f s of unit 26, 28, are re-developed. 42 118' 2088* Dolomite: medium grey; microcrystalIine; hard, dense; some beds show abundant white 217 Un i t Thi ckness Cumulative Li thology  of Uni t Thickness patches I mm. diameter scattered through rock; in beds from 4" - 3*, but al l hard, resistant, c l i f f-forming. Weathers pale grey, and medium grey, with yellow-brown patches. Well-bedded nature of this unit is well shown on weathered c l i f f- face . From 82* - 84*, unit of possible dolomitized ool i tes , I mm. diameter. The white patches observed in units above may be due to do l -omi t i zed ooli tes. 43 5* 2093' Limestone; fine-medium crysta l l ine , dark grey; hard s i l t y ; in beds I' to 2" thick, but forms recessive unit below overhanging c l i f f of unit 42; abrupt contact with unit 42; weathers medium grey. CORONA FORMATION 44 6* 2099* Limestone; as for unit 43, but one massive bed with abundant large oolites in several horizons; weathers dark brown-grey; ledge forming. 45 68' 2167' Covered interval ; talus, grass, etc. 46 3* 2170* Limestone; oo l i t i c limestone, oolites we I I-formed, about I mm. diameter, in fine-grained, crystal l ine limestone matrix; 218 Uni t Thi ckness Cumulative Li thology of Unit Thickness 47 4' 48 8» 49 50 51 52 3* 18' I4« 53 7» 54 2« 2174' 2182' 2185" 2188' 2206' 2220' 2227' 2229* some bioclast ic lenses, but rock pre-dominant ly ooli t i c . Covered interval . Limestonet medium grey; fine to micro-crystal I ine; irregular lenses and pods of oo l i t i c limestone; few yellow-brown weathering, siIty,Iimestone nodules, I" wide by 6" long; unit massive, ledge-forming; weathers medium grey, with yellow-brown patches; abrupt contact with unit 49. Shale; dark grey-green to green-brown, soft , f i s s i l e , calcareous, recessive; occasional limestone nodule, dark green-grey, finely crysta l l ine , discoidal shape; very recessive unit; weathers medium grey. Limestone: as for unit 48. Covered interval . Limestone: as for unit 48, in beds I' to 3* thick, ledge forming. Shale: as for unit 49. Limestone: as for unit 48; lower I' a limestone pebble conglomerate; pebbles up to 2" diameter. 219 Thickness CumuI a t i ve L i thology of Uni t Thickness 3» 2232* Shale: as for unit 49. 2* 2234* Limestone: as for unit 48. 21• 2255' Shale: as for unit 49. 3« 2258' Limestone: as for unit 48. Fossil Collection RG-12-F60 - 2,254«. 12' 2270' Shale: as for unit 49. 2« 2272' Limestone: as for unit 48. 8' 2280* Shale: as for unit 49. 380* 2660* Covered: talus of unit 48 and 49 Ii thologies. 41 2664' Limestone: as for unit 48. II t 2675' Shale: as for unit 49. poorly exposed. 18• 2693* Limestone: as for unit 48. II• 2704* Shat e: as for unit 49. 6 t 2710* Limestone: as for unit 48. Fossil Collection RG-12-F60 - 2,708*. 250* 2960* Limestone and shale: limestones, oo l i t i c . resistant ledges; detailed lithology as for unit 48; shale, soft , grey-green, recessive,shale forms 55% - 65% of unit , with interbeds of limestone in I* to 3* beds at fa i r ly regular intervals. Generally poorly exposed unit. Uni t Thickness Cumulative of Unit Thickness 69 115* 3075* 70 95* 3170' 71 300' est 3470' 220 Li thology Fossil Collection RG-I2-F60 - 2,868* Shale: grey-green, moderately soft , calcareous, blocky to sl ivery weathering habit; interbedded with more resistant 6" - 8" , lense-like beds of grey-green hard, dolomite, s l ight ly calcareous, s i l t y ; unit weathers pale grey-green, with yellow-brown staining. Fossil Collection RG-I2-F60 - 3,046' Covered interva1 : buff and grey-green shale slopes. WATERFOWL FORMATION  Dolomi te: microcrystalIine to finely crysta l l ine , dark grey, with white blebs (in upper portion of unit ) ; in beds 4" to 2' ; very resistant, cl iff-forming except for upper 25' to 30 ' ; weathers dark brown-grey. Not examined or measured in deta i l . Thickness estimated 300'. < 221 BasaI Mount Murchison Sect ion Section located in creek bed which is crossed by the Banff-Jasper highway 2.2 miles south of the North Saskatchewan River bridge. In this section, measured from top to base of last exposure, only the Waterfowl and Arctomys formations were measured. The overlying form-ations were measured in Bison Creek. Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive Li thology  of Uni t Thickness WATERFOWL FORMATION 1 25 1 25' Dolomi te: microcrystalIine to finely crysta l l ine; dark grey; s i l t y in thin 2" - 4" beds; recessive; forms shaly slope at top of main dolomite c l i f f ; weathers pale to medium brown-grey. Gradational over 2» - 3* into under-lying unit. 2 138' 163' Limestone: dark grey to black; micro-crystal I ine to lithographic; dolomitic; very s i l t y ; medium brown, s i l t y and calcareous lenses, tracery, and laminae common throughout unit; presents thin-bedded (I" - 2") or laminated appearance, but massive weathering, forming near vertical c l i f f s ; weathers dark grey to medium grey or, in many places, a pale 222 Uni t Thi ckness CumuI a t i ve Li thology  of Uni t Thickness yellow-brown or buff colour. At 80* of unit 2, a 6" bed of fine (I mm.) ooli t ic Iimestone. Bedding planes generally irregular and undulating, but well defined. 3 14' 177* Limestone: dark grey to black, s i l t y microcrystaIIine; characterized by numerous lenses and bands of oolites which weather to form a pi t ted, orange, and grey, weathered surface; thick-bedded; forms base of c l i f f . Weathers as for unit 2; bedding planes smooth, welI def ined. 4 18* 195' Covered: stream bed debris and*talus. 5 12' 207» Dolomi te: hard, dense, lithographic, very s i l t y , s l ight ly calcareous, medium brown, weathering medium to dark brown-grey; very br i t t l e with conchoidal fracture; in beds I 1/2' to 2» thick; ledge-forming. 6 II* 218' Covered: stream bed debris. 7 4 1 222' Dolomi te: black, hard, cryptocrystalIine to lithographic; conchoidal fracture; in 223 Uni t Thickness Cumulative Li thology  of Uni t Thickness beds I" - 2" thick; poorly exposed; well-bedded; recessive; weathers dark grey. 8 21* 243' Dolomi tet gale grey, lithographic, hard, dense, with nodules and lenses of black, lithographic limestone scattered through-out rock; abundant s i l t laminae and tracery; unit weathers medium brown-grey with "dolomitic tracery" and s i l t laminae weathering in r e l i e f ; thick-bedded (2' - 3' ) , ledge-forming. Abrupt contact with unit 9. 9 7* 250* Dolomite, as for unit 5, but with abundant s i l t laminae, laminae every I" -I 1/2" anastomosing through rock; bedding indist inct ; occasional small patches of maroon to reddish-brown weathering do l -omite; unit resistant, ledge-forming. S i l t laminae weathers medium orange-brown. 10 23* 273' Covered; Stream bed debris. || 7* 280' Dolomi te: as for unit 7. |2 57' 337* Polomi te: gradational from unit II into thick-bedded (2' - 6») dolomites of same lithology as unit 7, but with 224 Uni t Thickness Cumulative L i thology  of Uni t Thickness dark brown weathering s i l ty laminae and irregular lenses on weathered surfaces. Cliff-forming, very resistant, weathers medium grey with buff patches. 13 89' 426* Covered: stream bed debris. 14 4' 430' Dolomi te: hard, dense, s i l t y , crypto-crystal l ine to lithographic; in alternating lenses or laminae 1/2" - 3/4" thick, of medium brown and medium grey dolomite; medium grey laminae are s l ight ly c a l -careous. A massive unit, ledge-forming; top of unit weathers in thin slabs; weathers alternating pale grey and medium yellow-brown. Occasional patches of f ine, disseminated pyr i te . 15 I0» 440' Covered. |6 65* 505' Dolomi tes: hard, dense, medium grey to medium brown-grey; some very s l ight ly calcareous horizons, cryptocrystaI Iine to lithographic; abundant thin stringers of s i l t ; weathers pale brown-grey with buff patches; very resistant, cl iff-forming 225 LIthology unit; caps unit 17; in beds 2* - 3 l/2» thick; regularly bedded; abrupt contact with unit 17. CHEPHREN FORMATION 17 II51 620' Dolomi test an alternating sequence of shaly dolomite, and thin to medium bedded do l -omite; thin, shaly dolomite, pale grey-green and dark maroon, in 1/4" - 3/4" beds; maroon beds generally 1/4" or less in thick-ness in I' - 2» units; very s i l t y , crypto-crystal l ine to lithographic; alternate with brown-grey dolomites up to 2' in thickness, hard, resistant, of similar detailed l i t h -ology; about equal thickness of shaly dolomites and thicker bedded dolomites. Red,maroon units occur, from I • - 2% thick, at 15', 63 ' , 68' and 76* down from top of unit. Unit weathers predominantly pale yellow-brown to buff. At 104' - 109' from top of unit 17, a thick, massive bed of medium grey, f inely crystal l ine Iimestone with brown-weathering, Un i t Thickness Cumulat ive of Unit Thickness 226 Un11 Thi ckness Cumulat ive L i thology  of Uni t Thi ckness s i l t y "eyes" up to 1/4" diameter and s i l t y laminae and stringers; hard, resistant, weathers pale grey and buff in patches; abrupt contacts with enclosing dolomites. 18 7' 627* Covered! shaly dolomite talus. 19 121• 748' Dolomites: similar lithology and a l t -ernating shaly and medium bedded dolomites as In unit 17; maroon units at 12', 51*, 60* and 76* from top of unit . Units 16, 17 and 18 and 19 form f i rs t high c l i f f encountered in creek bed as traverse is made upstream from highway. From 20' to 41* of unit 19, medium bedded dolomites are more abundant, and the shaly dolomites occur as thin, minor interbeds; at 20 ' , a few feet of dark grey-green to green-black, thin-bedded d/2 " - I") dolomite. 20 15' 763' Covered: stream bed debris. 21 9' 772' Dolomi tes: similar lithology to unit 17, but lacks maroon beds; predominately yellow-brown weathering unit; ledge-forming. 227 Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive Li thology  of Unit Thickness 22 9' 781• Covered; 23 8« 789' Dolomi te; similar lithology as for unit 17, but more s i l t y , and more resistant. 24 16' 805' Dolomi te: contact gradational over 6" - I' from unit 23; black, dense, hard, lithographic; abundant s i l t y laminae; massive,si It stringers anastomosing and irregular occurring every 3/4" to I", and so arranged as to produce a "knotted" or "ropey" texture on the weathered surface. Cliff-forming, weathers pale grey and pale brown to buff. Base of Chephren not exposed. 228 Arctomys Peak Section (Partial) On the southeast side of Arctomys Peak, about I mile west from the west end of Glacier Lake on the north side of the val ley. Section measured in creek gully up the mountainside at the locality described by Walcott as being type section. Section Includes the Murchison, and part of the Arctomys formation. Un? t Thickness Cumulat ive Li thology  of Un i t Thi ckness CHEPHREN FORMATION 21 25* 25* Limestone: hard, dense, thin-bedded (2" - 6"); the lower 10' of the unit is quite dolomitic, greenish-grey; upwards the unit becomes increasingly calcareous, pale grey; the uppermost bed is 18" thick. Unit weathers pale grey-brown, c l i f f-forming. 20 53* 78' Limestone: pale purple-brown to grey with black limestone pel lets or bands scattered throughout, (pellets about 1/8" diameter) bedding indistinct but between 2" and 2 ' ; unit weathers medium yellow-brown, recessive. 19 44* 122• Shale: red and green, hard, b r i t t l e , extremely thin-bedded, crossed by s i l ty laminae, weathering colour variable -Un i t Thi ckness Cumulative of Unit Thickness 18 20» 142* 17 2» 144* 16 224' 388' 229 Li thology dark red-black, pale brown, and medium brown-green. Top of unit c l i f f-forming, remainder recessive. Dolomi te: abrupt contact with unit 17; microcrystalIine, pale green-grey, thin-bedded to flaggy, s i l t y laminae in some beds. Weathers pale yellow, cliff-forming uni t. Limestone: gradational contact over 4" to 6" from underlying shales; two I* beds of limestone, the lower, fine-grained, green-grey, hard dolomitic, irregular fracture pattern; the upper, dense, medium grey-blue, f i l l ed with scattered caIcite-fi11ed pores and veinlets. Unit resistant, weathers pale brown-grey. ShaIe: green, and maroon, f i s s i l e , 1/2" to 1/4" beds, rubbly weathering; outcrop is rather discontinuous along west side of gul ly; generally the shales appear as distinct colour units, i .e. I5» green shales, 20 1 red shales, 10' green shales, etc. Uni t Thi ckness CumuI a t i ve of Unit Thickness 15 62* 450* 14 6* 456' 13 121• 577* 12 4• 581• II 2* 583* 10 2* 585* 230 Li thology but one interval observed with red, and green shale bands intermixed, and alternating in colour every 1/4" to 1/2". Upper part of unit 16 is a thick series of red, maroon, f i s s i l e shales forming the base of the overlying dolomite sequence. Covered intervaI; shale talus. ShaIe; green, and red, f i s s i l e , thinly bedded, rubbly weatherings; green shales weathering pale brown-green, red shales weathering dark maroon, recessive unit . Covered interval ; shale talus. ShaIe; hard, b r i t t l e , green-grey, f i s s i l e , thin-bedded; weathers pale green-brown; recessive unit . Sandstone; fine-grained, s i l i ceous, hard, moderately welI-sorted, brown to brown-yellow; weathers pale brown. Dolomi te; hard, dense, green-grey, thin-bedded (I" - I 1/2" beds), weathers pale brown buff. Uni t Thickness CumuI a t i ve  of Uni t Thickness 9 7* 592* 8 16" 608* 7 31* 611' 6 29' 640« 5 6' 646* 4 30' 676• 231 Li thology Shalet green, and maroon, hard, indurated: splintery and blocky weathering habit; not well-exposed Recessive. PIKA FORMATION  Dolomi te: pale purple-brown, extremely hard, dense, microcrystalIine beds 2" to 4" thick; weathers medium yellow-brown. Well exposed in stream bed at top of limestone c l i f f . Grades upward into overlying green, and red shales. Moderately resistant. Dolomi te: very similar to unit 8, but dark brown-grey, and weathering a darker brown-grey. Resistant. Abrupt contact with unit 6. ELDON FORMATION  Limestone: hard, dense, dark grey to black; beds 4' to 6* thick; generally s i l t y , and argil laceous; weathers pale brown; massive, cliff-forming unit. Covered intervaI: Limestone: as for unit 2. 232 Uni t Thickness Cumulative Li thology  of Uni t Thickness 3 4* 680' Covered interval ; probably shaly Iimestone of un i t 2. 2 45' 725' Limestone: dark grey-black, hard, dense, s i l t y to argiIlaceous; small s i l t y zones 1/4" to 1/2" wide, as stringers and elon-gated blebs in re l ie f on the weathered surface, and parallel to the bedding. Weathers medium grey with light rusty-' brown patches, bedding from 2" to 16" thick; occasional shaly partings between beds. Moderately resistant unit. I 208* 933* Limestone: hard, dense, dark grey brown to black, very s l ight ly argil laceous; weathers pale grey; bedding from I" to 2" thick, weathering into thin platy slabs with irregular, hackly surfaces; recessive unit , not well-exposed except in stream gul ly. Base of section, the talus slope at the mouth of the stream gul ly , and only a few hundred feet above the valley f loor. 233 Div1sion Mountain Sect ion Section is located along the northwest side of Mons Glacier on the southeast slopes of Division Mountain. Division Mountain is located on the Continental Divide at the head of Glacier Lake Valley, and 80 miles northwest of Banff, Banff National Park, i Alberta, The section was measured from base to top strat igraphical ly . Exposure is excellent, and easily accessible. Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive L i thology  of Uni t Thickness MOUNT WILSON QUARTZITE 18 20* 20' Covered: 17 8' 28' Quartzi te; white, cross-bedded medium grained; weathering yellow. 16 61• 89» Covered: 15 40' 129* Sandstone; coarse grained, limy yellow and dolomitic, with bright apple green mottling; with beds of red brown, mottled, poorly sorted sand-stone, and with layers of dark red brown quartzite. A very massive, cross bedded, complex unit. 14 278* 407' Covered; 13 403' 810' Polomi tes: multi-coloured; mostly light to medium grey, extremely f ine-ly crysta l l ine , hard, dense, very 234 Uni t Thickness Cumulative Li thology  of Uni t Thi ckness finely s i l t y and finely laminated. Some very fine arenaceous beds. Weathers bright yellow, buff, cream, orange, and even mauve to pink and reddish. Bedding thin to medium with numerous beds of shaly, platy dolomite weathering recessive. One bed of very coarse sand present. Becomes cherty at top; topmost 15 feet a very coarse re-cemented dolomite breccia with matrix high in iron, weathering hematite red to rusty. SARBACH FORMATION |2 96* 906* Dolomi te: smooth, blocky, medium to dark grey, thin-bedded, weathering smooth. Very finely crysta l l ine to almost lithographic. II 268' 1174' Dolomi te: s i l iceous, massive, very finely crystal l ine to finely crysta l l ine, light grey, weathering light grey; with s i l i c i f i e d brachiopods and large Maclurites-like gastropods. Very roughly weathering. 235 Un? t Thickness Cumulative Li thology  of Uni t Thickness 10 1396* 25701 limestone: massive unit of thick to massive bedded, argillaceous and s i l t y limestone, becoming dolomitic upwards. On normal weathering surface rock weath-ers dark brown with argillaceous partings and with small nodules of grey argillaceous limestone. Nodular beds remain limestone upward, alternating with medium beds of non-nodular dolomitic limestone. Si lty upwards and passing into dolomite that weathers medium to rusty brown and very finely nodular. Black chert nodules in layers at top of unit. On freshly glaciated surface, rock has well banded appearance with regular medium bands. 9A 427* 29971 Limestone and dolomite: fine to medium crysta l l ine , medium to thick-bedded, argillaceous calcarenites, with thin brown and rusty weathering stringers of s i l t and clay. Some thin grey limy shale beds and partings between major carbonate strata. Numerous beds of finely lamin-ated, arenaceous, and s i l ty limestone. Uni t Thickness CumuI at ive of Unit Thickness 9B 300* 3297' 8 128' 3425' 236 Li tholoqy Massive units contain enormous spheroidal algae, six feet in diameter, surrounded by brown to buff, s i l t y calcarenite debris, Large irregular black chert nodules associated with algae. Top half of unit is massive grey limestone, dolomitic limestone, some thin dolomites, and s i l t y limestones containing'macerated fossil debris. Limy shale zones up to I foot thick appear in top 50 feet. Unit grades upward into unit 10, and downward into unit 9B, contact arb i t rar i ly chosen. Limestone; medium to thick-bedded extra fine to medium crysta l l ine , dense, a rg i l l a c -eous caIcarenites, with brown and rusty weathering stringers of s i l t and clay. In lower part thick numerous beds of limestone pebble conglomerate. Limestone strata alternate with thin to thick zones of s i lvery grey, nodular, limy shale. Limestone; medium to thick-bedded, extremely f i n -ely crysta l l ine , dense, banded and thin-bedded, argillaceous limestone, interbedded with equal proportions of thinly s t rat i f ied brown weathering, very finely laminated Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive of Unit Thickness 7 616' 4041• 6 342• 4383' 237 Li thology and cross bedded s i l t y limestone. Lenses and layers of limestone pebble conglomerate present. Limestone beds interbedded with zones 6 inches to 2 feet thick of si lvery grey, nodular shale. Shale and limestone: much like under-lying unit 6 but with thin interbeds of shale and limestone that weather c l i f f y . Shale is si lvery grey, limy, with small nodules and fragments of limestones; limestone very argil laceous, with much fine calcarenite debris, and with mac-erated fossi l debris. Local lenses of limestone pebble conglomerate. Unit has over-alI appearance of being pre-dominantly limestone but in outcrop it contains a very high scale content and the thin limestone beds are closely spaced within the shale. Limestone s l ight ly more abundant towards top of unit . HOWSE RIVER FORMATION  ShaIe: putty coloured to pale green, thick and uniformly cleaved, with occas-ional bed of brown weathering, arenaceous 238 Un? t Thi ckness Cumulative Li thology  of Uni t Thickness shale, and zones with small (less than I inch) limestone nodules. Weathers pale buff to si lvery green in colour. Rare beds of 4 to 6 inches of pink and green, limestone pebbles scattered rand-omly through shale. Shale shows very fine lamination but pebbles stand at high angle to the bedding. Unit becomes Iimy upward. 5 283 46661 ShaIe; arenaceous, limy, thin-bedded, grey, but with dist inct ive in weathering dark rusty brown with orange and grey colours. Numerous thin limestone beds present, s i l t y to sandy, very finely laminated and cross bedded with, in many places, slumpage structures and brecciation. Numerous beds of limestone pebble conglomerate commonly generally less than I foot thick, but sometimes up to 3 feet thick. Upwards unit becomes more shaly and brown weathering with fewer arenaceous zones. Gradational into Unit 6. Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive of Unit Thickness 4 534* 5200' 3 380' 5580• 239 L ? thology MISTAYA FORMATION  L imestone and do Iomi te; thick to massive bedded, dark grey, light grey weathering, varying from extremely finely crystal l ine to very finely crysta l l ine , with some coarse calcarenites. All rock dense. Thin shale interbeds rare, but shale partings, and irregular to anastomosing threads of shale of argillaceous material, weather orange. Pockets and lenses of organic debris and calcarenite occur in some of the massive beds. Thin layers of limestone pebble conglomerate occur generally lens-like. GolIenia-bear ing zones present but not as abundant as in unit 3. Some zones near base with thin layers are flat nodules of black chert. BISON CREEK FORMATION  Shale and limestone: massive unit up to 10 feet thick of si lvery grey, limy shale with arenaceous lenses, layers, and anastomosing threads, and with planes of discontinuous limestone nodules about Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive of Unit Thickness 240 Li thology I inch thick. Shale units separated by beds of fine calcarenite 4 inches to 4 feet thick. Limestone dense and structureless, often orange weathering dolomitic and argillaceous tracery. Several beds of Collenia wi th inter-colony spaces f i l l ed with carbonate detritus and argillaceous and s i l ty debris. Some colonies domal, giving pinching and swelling appearance to bed (from 6 to 30 inches); others with fairly regular base but domal top; look like erosion surfaces. Local lenses of limestone breccia and limestone conglomerate. Upward shale become more limy and harder. Whole unit c l i f f-forming. Shales weather si lver grey on bedding planes and drab brown grey with dark grey limestone nodules. Many limestone layers have shaly layers or partings that are s i l t y and iron-bearing and weather bright orange. Limestone pebble conglomerate beds are mostly the result of slumpage; bottom 7/8 of beds unsorted without fabric, top 1/8 wavy and folded layering. 241 Uni t Thickness Cumulat ive of Uni t Thickness Li thology 2 148* 5728' Covered: MOUNT SYNGE FORMATION 137* 5865* Limestone: alternating thick-bedded. medium grey, banded, nodular, and a r g i l l a -ceous Iimestone, and very thin-bedded, nodular, pale grey shale in two to three foot zones. Upward, shale becomes less abundant. Great variation in outward appearance of limestone from thin a l te r -nating bands of blue grey limestone and argillaceous limestone to fine and coarse nodular types. The most dist inct ive character is the weathering, consisting of alternating grey and orange nodular bands. Much macerated fossi l debris through-out. Also pyrite present. End of measured section, and end of good exposures. 242 Explanation of Plate VIII Figs, I - 6 Kormagnostus simplex Resser; I, nearly complete cephalon, x7.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360'-2,370'; 2 perfect pygidium, x9.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360'-2,370»; 3, pygidium, x7.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360'-2,370'; 4, well-preserved cephalon, x5.5, GR-5-F57 - 2,360'-2,370'; 5, cephalon, x9.0, JU-207-F57-I5; 6, pygidium, x6.5, JU-207-F57-I5. 1-4, Corona form-ation, Sundance Range; 5, 6, Corona formation, Sawback Lake* Cedaria zone. Meteoraspis banffensis Resser; fragmental cran-idium, x3.5, RG-I2-F60 - 2,708', Corona formation, Mount Murchison. Cedaria zone. 92 8 - 1 1 Talbot ina c f . T . jewe I i Lochman; 8, cranidium, x6.5, GR-5-F57~~- 2,360'-2,370'; 9, cranidium, x5.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360'-2,370'; 10a, 10b, 10c, dorsal, la tera l , and anterior views of well-preserved cranidium, a l l x2.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360'-2,370'; II, cranidium, x6.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360'-2,370'. 8-11, Corona formation, Sundance Range. Cedaria zone. p. 95 109 12 - 17 Kinqstonia mucro Resser; 12, pygidium, x3.0, RG-II-F60-625'; 13, cranidium, x3.0, RG-II-F60 - 625'; 14, partly exfoliated pygidium, x3.3, RG-II-F60 - 625'; 15, cran-idium, x3.0, RG-II-F60 - 633'; 16a, 166, dorsal and lateral views of well-preserved pygidium, x3.0, RG-II-F60 - 625'; 17, poorly preserved cranidium, x2.8, RG-II-F60 - 625'. 12-17, Mount Synge formation, Paget Peak, Brit ish Columbia. All specimens topotype mat-e r i a l . Cedaria zone. p. 110 18 - 19 Bynumia eumus Walcott; 18a, 18b, partly exfoliated cranidium, dorsal and lateral views, x3.2, RG-I2-F60 - 2,708'; 19a, 19b, partly exfoliated cranidium, dorsal and lateral views, x2.5, RG-I2-F60 - 2,708'. Corona formation, Mount Murchison, Cedarja zone. p. I 16 PLATE VIII CEDARIA FAUNA 243 Explanation of P I ate I X Figs. I - 6 Bynumia eumus Walcott; I, well-preserved cranidium, x4.5, JU-35-F57 - 1,442'; 2, perfect cranidium, x2.5, JU-35-F57 - 1,442'; 3, cranidium, x6.0, JU-35-F57 -1,442*; 4, partly exfoliated pygidium, x3.5, JU-207-F57 - 15; 5a, 5b, well-preserved cranidium, dorsal and lateral views, x4.0, JU-35-F57 - I,442*; 6, partly ex-fol iated pygidium, x2.7, JU-207-F57 - 15. I - 3, 5. Corona formation, Pu lsat i l la Pass; 4, 6,, Corona form-ation, Sawback Lake. Cedari a zone. p. 116 7 - 9 Ankoura orbiculata Lochman; 7', moderately wel l-preserved cranidium, x6.0, GR-5-F57,« 2)360' - 2,370!; 8a, 8b, dorsal and lateral views of cranidium, x5.0, GR-5-F57 -2,360* - 2,370*; 9, nearly,complete cranidium, x5.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360* - 2,370*• Corona formation, Sundance Range. Cedaria zone. p. 114 1 0 - 1 4 Blountia beltensis Duncan; 10, cranidium, x5.0, GR-5-F57 -2,360* - 2,370*; II, fragmental cranidium, x6.0, GR-5-F57 2,3*60' - 2,370*; 12, partly exfoliated cranidium, x4.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360* - 2,370*; 13a, 13b, nearly complete cranidium, dorsal and lateral views, x6.2, GR-5-F57 -2,360' - 2,370'; 14, poorly preserved cranidium, x6.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360* - 2,370*. 10 - 14, Corona formation, Sundance Range. Cedaria zone. p. 122 15 - 17 Blount i,a carlotta Lochman; 15, fragmental cranidium x5.0, RG-I2-F60 - 2,708*; 16, fragmental cranidium, x4.0, RG-I2-F60 - 2,708*; 17, pygidium, x5.0, RG-I2-F60 - 2,708*. 15 - 17, Corona formation. Mount Murchison. Cedaria zone* . . . p. 122 18 - 19 Brassicicephalus n. sp. A; 18a, 18b, 18c, dorsal, anterior, and lateral views of holotype cranidium, a l l x6.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360* - 2,370*; 19, paratype pygidium, KIO.O, GR-5-F57 - 2,360* - 2,370*. Corona formation, Sundance Range. Cedaria zone. p. 127 PLATE IX C E D A R I A F A U N A 244 Explanation of Plate X Figs. I - 4 Brassicicephalus n. sp. A; | , partly exfoliated cranidium, x7.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360' - 2,370*; 2, well-preserved pygidium, x6.8, GR-5-F57 - 2,360* - 2,370'; 3a, 3b, dorsal and anterior views of holotype pygidium, x5.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360* - 2,370*; 4, nearly complete paratype cranidium, x7.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360* - 2,370*. I - 4, Corona formation, Sundance Range. Cedaria zone. p. 127 5 - 1 0 Paracedaria montanensis (Duncan); 5; incomplete cranidium, but with well-preserved anterior portion, x4.5, JU-35-F57 - I,442*; 6a, 6b, incomplete pygidium, dorsal and lateral views, x4.0, JU-35-F57 - I,442*; 7, nearly complete cranidium, x3.0, JU-35-F57 - 1,442*; 8, fragmental cranidium, x3.0, JU-35-F57 - 1,442*; 9, poor-ly preserved cranidium, x6.0, JU-35-F57 - 1,442*; 10, moderately well-preserved cranidium, x3.2, JU-35-F57 -1,442*. 5 - 10, Corona formation, Pu lsat i l la Pass. Cedaria zone. 1 1 - 1 4 Tr i lob i te fragments; II, x2.2; 12, x2.4; 13, x2.6; 14, x2.0. Al l from RG-I2-F60 - 2,868*, Corona form-ation. Mount Murchison. Cedaria zone. p. 1 5 - 2 0 Cedarina alberta Lochman; 15, poorly preserved cranidium, x l2 .0, RG-I2-F60 - 3,046*; 16, cranidium, X2.6, JU-35-F57 - 1,442*; 17, fragmental cranidium, x3.0, RG-I2-F60 - 3,046*; 18, cranidium, x3.5, RG-I2-F60 - 3,046*; 19, nearly complete pygidium, x2.5, JU-35-F57 - 1,442'; 20a, 20b, 20c, dorsal, posterior, and lateral views of complete pygidium, a l l x4.8. 15, 17, 18, Corona formation, Mount Murchison. 16, 19, 20, Corona formation, Pu lsat i l la Pass. Cedaria zone. 128 129 PLATE X 245 Explanation of Plate XI F igs. I - 2 Cedarina alberta Lochman; 1, fragmental cranidium, x2.4, RG-I2-F60 - 3,046*; 2, pygidium, x2.6, JU35-F57 - I,442'. 1, Corona formation, Mount Murchison. 2, Corona formation, Pulsat i l la Pass, Cedaria zone p. 129 3 Arapahoia aspinosa Lochman; dorsal and lateral views of exfoliated cranidium, x2.2, JU-35-F57 -I,442*. Corona formation, Pu lsat i l l a Pass. Cedari a zone. p. 144 4 - 5 Cedarina sp. ; 4, left l ibrigena, x3.7, GR-5-F57-2,360'-2,370'; 5, right l ibrigena, x2.5, GR-5-F57-2,360*-2,370*. Corona formation, Sundance Range. Cedaria zone. P. 6 - 1 5 Cedarina cordil lerae (Howell and Duncan); 6, cranidium, showing welI-developed occipital spine, x6.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360'-2,370'; 7, cranidium, x3.7, GR-5-F57 - 2,360'-2,370'; 8, cranidium, x6.0, GR-5-F57-2,360'-2,370'; 9, partly exfoliated cranidium, x4.0, GR-5-F57-2,360'-2,370'; 10, well-preserved pygidium, x5.0, JU-207-F57-I5; II, complete pygidium, x6.0, JU-207-F57-I5; 12, cranidium, x5.6, GR-5-F57 - 2,360'-2,370'; 13, fragmental cranidium, x3.0, GR-5-F57-2,360'-2,370'; 14, well-preserved pygidium, x8.0, JU-207-F57-I5; 15, well-preserved pygidium, with s l ight ly wider pygidial axis than usual, x9.0, JU-207-F57-I5. 6-9, 12, 13, Corona formation, Sundance Range. 10, II, 14, 15, Corona formation, Sawback Range. Cedaria zone. p. 130 16 - 18 Norwoodella simplex (Walcott); 16, moderately well-preserved cranidium, x5.0, RG-II-F60 - 625'; 17, fragmental cranidium, xl2.0 RG-II-F60 - 625'; 19, fragmental and exfoliated cranidium, x6.0, RG-II-F60 625*. 16-18, Mount Synge formation, Paget Peak, Br i t ish Columbia. Cedaria zone. p. 131 PLATE XI CEDARIA FAUNA 246 1 Figs. 19 - 21 Nixonella montanensis Lochman; moderately well-preserved cranidium, x5.8, JU-207-F57-I5; 20, cranidium, x6.8, JU-207-F57-15; 21, nearly com-plete pygidium, x7.0, JU-207-F57-I5. 19-21, Corona formation, Sawback Lake. Cedaria zone. p. 136 247 Expianat ion of Plate XII F igs, I Nixonella montanensis Lochman; well-preserved cranidium, x6.0, JU-207-F57-I5. Corona form-ation, Sawback Lake, Cedaria zone, p. 136 2 - 6 Bo I asp i de11 a we I Isv ?11 ens i s (Lochman and Duncan); 2, fragmental cranidium, x8.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360'-2,370'; 3, nearly complete cranidium, x5.0, GR-5-F57-2,360'-2,370'; 4, moderately well-preserved cranidium, x7.0, GR-5-F57 - 2,360'-2,370'; 5, weathered, ex-foliated cranidium, x7.0, GR-5-F57-I5; 6, cranidium, x l0 .5 , GR-5-F57 - 2,360'-2,370'. 2-6, Corona form-ation, Sundance Range, Cedaria zone. p. 132 7 - 1 3 Arapahoia snowiensis Howell and Duncan; 7, frag-mental cranidium showing development of long occipital spine, x2.3, RG-I2-F60 - 2,868'; 8a, 8b, partly complete cranidium, dorsal and lateral views, x3.2, RG-I2-F60 - 2,868'; 9, fragmental cranidium, x3.0, RG-I2-F60 - 2,868'; 10, cran-idium, x5.5, RG-I2-F60 - 2,708'; II, well-preser-ved pygidium, x3.5, RG-I2-F60 - 2,868'; 12, cranidium, x6.0, RG-I2-F60 - 2,868'; 13, weathered pygidium, x4.0, RG-I2-F60 - 2,868'. 7-13, Corona formation. Mount Murchison. Cedar la zone. p. 145 14 - 20 Coosella be Itensi s Lochman; 14, partly exfoliated cranidium, x3.5, RG-II-F60 - 625'; 15, pygidium, x4.0, RG-II-F60 - 625' ; 16, well-preserved, but partly exfoliated pygidium, x3.0, RG-II-F60 - 625'; 17, fragmental, partly exfoliated pygidium, x2.0, RG-II-F60 - 625'; 18, fragmental cranidium, x6.0, RG-II-F60 - 625'; 19, weathered cranidium, x 3 . l , RG-II-F60 - 625'; 20a, 20b, weathered, partly ex-foliated cranidium, dorsal and anterior views, x2.6, RG-II-F60 - 625'. 14-20, Mount Synge form-ation, Paget Peak, Br i t ish Columbia, Cedaria zone. p. 133 0 PLATE XII CEDARIA FAUNA 248 Explanation of Plate XIII F igs. I Aphelaspis ? sp . ; cranidium, with long, tapered glabel la , x6.0, RG-II-F60 - 66*. Mount Synge formation, Paget Peak, Brit ish Columbia. Aphelaspis zone. 2 - 3 Aphelaspis waIcott ? Resser; 2, fragmental cranidium, x3.6, RG-II-F60 - 66*; 3, fragmental cranidium, x4.5, RG-II-F60 - 66 ' . Mount Synge formation, Paget Peak, British Columbia. Aphelaspis zone. 4 - 5 Homagnostus tumidosus (Hall and Whitfield); 4, well-preserved cephaI on, x l3 .3 , RG-I2-F60 - 1,300'; 5, moderately well-preserved pygidium, x l4.0, RG-I2-F60, 1,300'. Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison. Elv inia zone. 101 99 89 6 - 1 0 Comanchia amp Iooculata (Frederickson); 6, mod-erately well-preserved cranidium, x l4 .7 , RG-I2-F60-1,300'; 7, poorly preserved cranidium, xl4.6, RG-I2-F60-l,300'; 10, poorly preserved cranidium, x l0 .8 , RG-I2-F60 - 1,300*. 6-10, Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison, E lv inia zone. p. 97 II - 14 Irvi ngeI I a major UIr i ch and Resser; I I, we I I-preserved cranidium, x3.8, RG-I2-F60 - 1,300*; 12, fragmental cranidium, x3.0, RG-I2-F60 - 1,300*; 13a, 13b, 13c, dorsal , anterior, and lateral views of well-preserved cranidium, al l x3.0, RG-I2-F60-1,300*; 14a, 14b, 14c, dorsal, la tera l , and ant-erior views of well-preserved cranidium, al l x2.2, RG-I2-F60 - 1,300*. 11-14, Bison Creek formation. Mount Murchison. Elv inia zone. p. 125 PLATE XIII APHELASPIS, IRVINGELLA AND CONASPIS FAUNAS 249 Figs. 15 - 17 Maustonia nasuta (Hall ) ; 15, fragmental cranidium showing three pairs of glabellar furrows, x8.8, RG-I2-F60 - I,292'; 16, fragmental cranidium, x9.0, RG-I2-F60 - 1,292; 1,7, nearly complete cranidium, x3.5, RG-I2-F60 - 1,292'. 15-17, Bison Creek formation. Mount Murchison. Conaspis zone. 18 - 20 Parabolinoides ? sp . ; 18, fragmental, exfoliated cranidium, x3.0, RG-I2-F60 - 1,292; 19, nearly complete, but exfol iated, cranidium, x6.2, RG-I2-F60 - 1,292'; 20, exfoliated cranidium, x3.3, RG-I2-F60 - 1,292'. 18-20, Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison. Conaspis zone. 21 Kendal Iina eryon (Hal l ) ; fragmental cranidium, x3.3, RG-I2-F60 - 1,292'. Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison. Conaspis zone. 106 104 p. 105 250 Explanation of. Plate XIV Figs. I - 8 Kendal Iina eryon (Hall ) ; I, moderately well-preserved cranidium, x3.6, RG-I2-F60 - 1,292*; 2, partly ex-fol iated cranidium, x7.0, RG-I2-F60 - 1,292*; 3, cranidium, x5.0, RG-I2-F60 - 1,292*; 4, excellently preserved cranidium, x5.5, RG-I2-F60 - 1,292*; 5, fragmental cranidium, x2.2, RG-I2-F60 - 1,292*; 6, fragmental cranidium, x7.2, RG-I2-F60 - 1,292*; 7, well-preserved cranidium, x6.6, RG-I2-F60 - 1,292*; 8, perfectly preserved cranidium, di f fers from other specimens of K. eryon in possessing an upturned an-terior border7 x3.5, RG-I2-F60 - 1,292'. 1-8, Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison. Conaspis zone. p. 105 9 - 1 1 Conaspis ? sp . ; 9, fragmental cranidium, x7, RG-I4-F60-1,354*; 10, cranidium, x6.8, RG-I4-F60 - 1,354*; II, fragmental cranidium showing glabellar furrows c lear ly , x7.0, RG-I4-F60 - 1,354*. 9-11, Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range. Conaspis zone. p. 139 1 2 - 1 4 Parabolinoides cordiI lerensis (Lochman); 12, fragmental cranidium with wide anterior border, x l . 9 , RG-I4-F60 -I,354*; 13, fragmental cranidium, x 2 . l , RG-I4-F60 -1,354*; 14, cranidium with relat ively narrow anterior border and well developed radiating striae in pre-glabellar area, x l . 8 , RG-I4-F60 - 1,354*. 12-14, Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range. Conaspis zone p. 103 15 - 18 Taenicephalus shumardi (Hall) ; 15, fragmental c ran i -dium, x3.6, RG-I4-F60 - 1,354*; 16, s l ight ly exfoliated cranidium, x4.0, RG-I4-F60 - 1,354*; 17, moderately well-preserved cranidium, x3.8, RG-I4-F60 - 1,354'; 18, well-preserved cranidium,x3.9, RG-I4-F60 - 1,354*; 15-18, Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range. Conaspis zone. p. 107 19 - 20 Idahois wisconsensis (Owen); 19, moderately well-preserved cranidium, x3.0, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105*; 20a, 20b, 20c, dorsal, la tera l , and anterior views of fragmental cranidium, a l l x l . l , RG-I2-F60 - 1,105*. Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison. Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone. 96 PLATE XIV 20b 20c C O N A S P I S A N D P T Y C H A S P I S - P R O S A U K I A F A U N A S 251 Explanation of. Plate XV Figs. I - 4 Idahoia wisconsensis (Owen); I, fragmental cran-idium, x l . 5 , RG-I2-F60 - I,105*; 2, moderately well-preserved cranidium, x3.3, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105*; 3, cranidium, x l . 5 , RG-I2-F60 - 1,105*; 4, frag-mental cranidium with posterior area of fixigena well-preserved. Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison. Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone. 5 - 8 Li tagnostus pari I is (Hall ) ; 5, pygidium, x5.0, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105*; 6, exfoliated cephalon, x5.8, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105'; 7, exfoliated cephalon, x 5 . l , RG-I2-F60 - 1,105*; 8, partly exfoliated cephalon, x5.0, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105*. 5-8, Bison Creek form-ation. Mount Murchison. Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone. 96 90 9 - 1 2 Pseudagnostus josepha (Hall) ; 9, pygidium, xlO.O, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105'; 10, partly exfoliated cephalon, x5.0, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105*; II, nearly completely ex-foliated pygidium, x 5 . l ; 12, excellently preserved cephalon, x9.2, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105*. 9-12. Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison. Ptychaspi s-Prosaukia zone. p. 91 13 - 15 Idiomesus c f . I_. levisensis (Rasetti); 13, frag-mental cranidium, x8.0, RG-I2-F60 - 882'; 14, mod-erately well-preserved cranidium, x l2 .0, RG-I2-F60 -882*; 15, poorly preserved cranidium, x20.0, RG-I2-F60 - 882*. 13-15, Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison. Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone. p. 94 16 - 19 Briscoia schucherti Ulrich and Resser; 16, excellent-ly preserved cranidium, x l . 6 , RG-I2-F60 - 882*; 17, fragmental cranidium, x3, RG-I2-F60 - 882*; 18, very fragmented, partly exfoliated pygidium, included to i l lustrate size range of species, (plasticine impres-sion), x l , RG-I2-F60 - 882*; 19, fragmental cranidium, x l . 8 , RG-I2-F60 - 882*. 16-19, Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison. Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone. p. 98 ( PLATE XV 14 15 PTYCHASPIS- PROSAUKIA FAUNA 252 Explanation of PI ate XVI Figs. I - 5 Briscoia schuchert? Ulrich and Resser; I, moderately well-preserved cranidium, x 2 . l , RG-I2-F60 - 882*; 2, fragmental hypostoma, x l .O , RG-I2-F60 - 882'; 3, pygidium, x l . 2 , RG-I2-F60 - 882'; 4, pygidium, x l . 4 , RG-I2-F60 - 882'; 5, fragmental pygidium, x l , RG-I2-F60 - 882*. 1-5, Bison Creek formation. Mount Mur-chison. Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone. p. 98 6 - 1 1 MonocheiIos micros (Walter); 6, moderately well-preserved cranidium, x 2 . l , RG-I2-F60 - 1,105'; 7, cranidium, x7.0, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105'; 8, excellently preserved cranidium, x 4 . l , RG-I2-F60 - 1,105', part-ly exfoliated cranidium, x3.9, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105*; 10, poorly preserved cranidium, x3.0, RG-I2-F60 -1,105*; II, poorly preserved pygidium, x8.0, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105,', 6-11, Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison. Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone. p. 120 12 - 18 Dartonaspis knighti M i l l e r ; 12, partly exfol iated, but otherwise excellently preserved cranidium, x5.5, RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'; 13, poorly preserved pygidium, x2.5, RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'; 14, well-preserved cran-idium, x2.3, RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'; 15, well-preserved cranidium, x5.5, RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'; 16, partly ex-foliated l ibrigena, x l . 6 , RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'; 17a, 17b, 17c, dorsal, la tera l , and anterior views of near-perfect cranidium, a l l x l . 7 , RG-I4-F60 - 1,249*; 18, thoracic segment, tentatively assigned to this species, x2.0, RG-I4-F60 - 1,249*. 12-18, Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range. Ptychasp?s-Prosau- kia zone. p. 123 PLATE XVI 253 Explanation of. Plate XVII Figs. I - 2 Dartonaspis kniqhti M i l l e r ; I, fragmental cranidium, x l . 8 , RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'; 2, pygidium, x3.0, RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'. 1-2, Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range. Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone. p. 123 3 - 7 Ptychaspis str iata Whitfield; 3, pygidium^showing detail of striated surface, x l . 8 , RG-I2-F60 - 1,105*; 4, s l ight ly worn cranidium, x3.6, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105'; 5, excellently preserved cranidium showing str iated surface, x l . 9 , RG-I2-F60 - 1,105*; 6a, 6b, 6c, dorsal , la tera l , and anterior views of well-preserved c ran i -dium, al l x2.4, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105*; 7, moderately well-preserved cranidium, x2.0, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105*. 3-7, Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison. Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone. p. 138 8 - 1 6 Prosaukia curvicostata Ulrich and Resser; 8, large, well-preserved pygidium, (plasticine impression) x l .O , RG-I2-F60 - 882' ; 9, well-preserved cranidium, x l . 6 , RG-I2-F60 - 882*; 10, fragmental cranidium show-ing excellent deta i l , x l .O , RG-I2-F60 - 882'; II, nearly complete hypostoma, x l . 7 , RG-I2-F60 - 882'; 12, fragmental cranidium, x l .4 , RG-I2-F60 - 882'; 13a, 13b, dorsal and anterior views of nearly complete, but exfoliated cranidium, x l .4 , RG-I2-F60 - 882'; 14, f r -agmental pygidium, partly exfol iated, (plasticine impression) x l . l , RG-I2-F60 - 882'; 15, large, frag-mental cranidium, x l .O , RG-I2-F60 - 882'; 16, pygidium, x l . 2 , RG-12-F60 - 882' . 8-16, Bison Creek formation. Mount Murchison. Ptychasp i s-Prosauk j a zone. p. 141 PLATE XVII 15 16 PTYCHASPIS-PROSAUKIA FAUNA 254 Explanation of Plate XVIII Figs. I Prosaukia curvicostata Ulrich and Resser; large nearly complete pygidium, x l .O, RG-I2-F60 - 882'; Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison. Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone. p. 141 2 - 5 Prosaukia longicornis Ulrich and Resser; 2, frag-mental cranidium, x3.9, RG-I4-F60 - 1,249*; 3, wea-thered, exfoliated cranidium, x2.2, RG-I4-F6G - 1,249'; 4, pygidium, x2.3, RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'; 5, fragmental cranidium, x6.0, RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'. 2.5, Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range. Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone. 142b 6 Prosaukia beani Ulr ich and Resser; fragmental c ran i -dium, x7.0, RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'. Bison Creek form-ation, Sundance Range. Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone. p. 142 7 - 9 Genus and species A indet.; 7a, 7b, 7c, nearly complete cranidium, dorsal, la tera l , and anterior views, a l l x 3 . l , RG-I2-F60 - 882'; 8a, 8b, fragmental cranidium, dorsal and lateral views, x3.9, RG-I2-F60 - 882'; 9, fragmental, exfoliated cranidium, x3.4, RG-I2-F60 -882'. 7-9, Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison. Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone. p. 147 10 - 15 El IipsocephaIoides curtus (Whitfield); 10, fragmental cranidium, x3.2, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105'; Ma, Mb, l i e , dorsal, lateral and anterior views of nearly complete cranidium, al l x3.6, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105'; 12, well-preserved cranidium, x4.2, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105'; 13, moderately well-preserved cranidium, x4.4, RG-I2-F60 -1,105'; 14, cranidium, x5.0, RG-I2-F60 - 1,105'. 10-15, Bison Creek formation, Mount Murchison. Ptychaspis-Prosaukia zone. p. 148 16 - 18 El IipsocephaIoides monsensis Resser; 16, well pre-served cranidium, x3.6, RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'; 17, poorly preserved cranidium, x l6.0, RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'; 18, frag-mental cranidium, x l l . O , RG-I4-F60 - 1,249'. 16-18, Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range. Ptychaspis- Prosaukia zone. p. 149 PLATE XVIII PTYCHASPIS-PROSAUKIA FAUNA 255 F igs. I - 5 6 - 8 9 - 1 4 15 16 - 18 19 - 21 Explanation of Plate XIX Illaenurus sinctairensis Resser; I, fragmental c ran i -dium, x4.2, RG-I4-F60 - 1,179*; 2, excellently pre-served cranidium, x6.0, RG-I4-F60 - 1,179'; 3, f rag-mental cranidium, x 4 . l , RG-I4-F60 - 1,179'; 4, cranidium, x6.0, RG-I4-F60 - 1,179'; 5, well-preserved portion of cranidium, x3.4, RG-I4-F60 - 1,179'. 1-5, Bison Creek formation, Sundance, Range. Saukia zone. p. 102 StenopiI us sp . ; 6, exfoliated cranidium, x7.0, RG-I2-F60 - 400'; 7, small, exfoliated cranidium, xlO.O, RG-I2-F60 - 400*; 8, partly exfoliated cranidium, x6.0, RG-I2-F60 - 400'. 6-8, Mistaya formation. Mount Mur-chison. Sauki a zone. p. 146 Bynumiella typical is Resser; 9, exfoliated cranidium, x8.5, RG-I4-F60 - 1,179*; 10, exfoliated cranidium, x l4.0, RG-I4-F60 - 1,179'; II, well-preserved, but exfoliated cranidium, x l6.0, RG-I4-F60 - 1,179'; 12, fragmental cranidium, xlO.O, RG-I4-F60 - 1,179'; 13, cranidium, x l6.8, RG-I4-F60 - 1,179'; 14, exfoliated cranidium, xl8.0, RG-I4-F60 - 1,179'. 9-14, Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range. Saukia zone. p. I 19 Genus and species A indet.; fragmental, exfoliated cranidium, x5.0, RG-I2-F60 - 882'. Bison Creek formation. Mount Murchison. P tycha sp j s-Pr osauk i a zone. p. 147 Eurekia sp . ; 16, left l ibrigena, x3.8, RG-I2-F60 - 400'; 17, exfoliated cranidium, x7, RG-I2-F60 - 400'; 18, right l ibrigena, x4.0, RG-I2-F60 - 400'. 16-18, Mistaya form-ation, Mount Murchison, Sauk ia zone. p. 143 Hardyia met ion Walcott; 19, poorly preserved c ran i -dium, x8.0, RG-I4-F60 - 1,179'; 20, fragmental cran-idium, x 7 . l , RG-I4-F60 - 1,179'; 21, fragmental cran-idium, x8.0, RG-I4-F60 - 1,179. 19-21, Bison Creek formation, Sundance Range. Sauki a zone. p. 135 PLATE XIX SAUKIA FAUNA 

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