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The mineralogy of some of the gold mines of British Columbia Irish, Ernest James Wingett 1940

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THE MINERALOGY 0? 33ME OF THE GOLD MINES QE BRITISH COLUMBIA By ^ Brnest James. Wlnge.tt. I r i s h A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OE ARTS " I n the Department of Geology. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia . . A p r i l , 1940. <^t^v . i^Tl / ? V-INTRODUCTION ACKNOWLEDGMENT The w r i t e r wishes to acknowledge the inv a l u a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n and suggestions given to him "by Doctor H. V. Warren, of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, under whom t h i s work was c a r r i e d out. The assistance of Mr'. E. P. Davis was al s o g r e a t l y appreciated. - A -ILLUSTRATIONS P l a t e Page l a . Gold i n an interbrowth of c o s a l i t e and galenabismutite. The gold conforms to the st r u c t u r e of the bismuth minerals... 113 Lb. Showing a lar g e g r a i n of gold i n I l a . Gold occurring i n a f r a c t u r e i n p y r i t e 114 l i b . •'. Gold i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . Galena o c cu.3?s xi0Q.3?t)^ r • • • « • • e » « • • • • • • • • • • • » • • » 13_^ 1~ IIIa« Gold o c c u r r i n g i n a f r a c t u r e i n arsenopyrxte ««•.«»........«»........... 115 "Iilb... Showing i n c l u s i o n s of gold i n arseno-TVa. Showing m i l l e r i t e i n quartz......... r.. 116 I¥by Unteaown mineral containing t e l l u r i u m i n c o s a l i t e and galenabismutite......... 116 Ya.* Showing an i n c l u s i o n of gold i n galena. 117 Tbv ' Showing gold w i t h quartz i n f r a c t u r e d YTa... Showing gold i n s p h a l e r i t e near p y r i t e . 118 T i b . Showing gold i n p y r r h o t i t e near quartz. 118 - B ~ INDEX Page Acknowledgment ............................ A I l l u s t r a t i o n s B I n t r o d u c t i o n I PART A: . THE SHEEP "CREEK MINING DISTRICT D e s c r i p t i o n of the D i s t r i c t L o c a t i o n . 1 General geology . 1 S t r u c t u r a l geology „. 3 M i n e r a l i z a t i o n « 3 . The Q,ueen Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the property: L o c a t i o n 4 Economic geology 4 Mineralogy: I n t r o d u c t i o n « j? D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals 6 Paragenesis 7 D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of the gold p a r t i c l e s 8 D e s c r i p t i o n of se c t i o n s «............. 8 Conclusions 9 The Gold B e l t Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the property: L o c a t i o n '. 10; Economic geology ..................... 10 M i n e r a l i z a t i o n 11 - C -D. The Gold B e l t Mine (Cont.) ; Page Mineralogy: Intro d u c t i o n ......... 11 D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals 12 Par agenesis ... 13 D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of gold p a r t i c l e s .......... ^................« 13 D e s c r i p t i o n of se c t i o n s 14 Conclusions 14 The Reno Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the property: L o c a t i o n • 13 Economic geology «,. 13 M i n e r a l i z a t i o n ....................... 16 Mineralogy: 'introduction ......................... l 6 D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals l 6 Paragenesis l 8 D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of gold p a r t i c l e s 18 D e s c r i p t i o n of sec t i o n s 18 . Conclusions................ i 19 The Koo.tenay B e l l e Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the property: Location ............................... 19 Economic geology ..................... 19 Mineralogy: I n t r o d u c t i o n 20 D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals........... 20 Paragenesis .......................... 22 D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of gold p a r t i c l e s 23 D e s c r i p t i o n of sections ............... 23 Conclusions .......................... 23 Table of d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of gold p a r t i c l e s i n the Sheep Creek ore 23a • E. PART B;: THE ZEBALLQS MINING DISTRICT D e s c r i p t i o n of the P r o p e r t y Page Loca t i o n 24 General geology .......................... 2.4 S t r u c t u r a l geology. 23 Mineralogy 26 The P r i v a t e e r Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the property: L o c a t i o n ." 27 Economic geology 27 Mineralogy: . I n t r o d u c t i o n 27 D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals ......... 28 Paragenesis ......................... 31 D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of gold p a r t i c l e s 31 D e s c r i p t i o n of s e c t i o n s . 32 Conclusions ..... 32 The T r i t e s Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the,property: L o c a t i o n 33 Economic geology 33 • Mineralogy: I n t r o d u c t i o n ......................... 33 D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals 34 Paragenesis ,...,...........:...»».... 33 D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of go l d p a r t i c l e s ... 3& D e s c r i p t i o n of sec t i o n s 37 Conclusions 37 The Rey Pro Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the property: L o c a t i o n 37 Economic geology 37 F. The Re'y-;0ro Mine (Cont.) Page 'Mineralogy: I n t r o d u c t i o n 38 D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals .......... 38 Paragenesis ............. 3? ' D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of gold p a r t i c l e s 40 D e s c r i p t i o n of sec t i o n s .............. 40 Conclusions 40 Table of d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of the gold p a r t i c l e s : i n the Zeballos ore 40a PART C: THE CARIBOO MINING- DISTRICT D e s c r i p t i o n of the D i s t r i c t L o c a t i o n 41 General geology 41 S t r u c t u r a l geology 44 M i n e r a l i z a t i o n 43 The Cariboo G-old Quartz Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of. the property: L o c a t i o n ........... .... 46 Economic geology 46 Mineralogy: . . . I n t r o d u c t i o n 48 D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals .......... 48 Paragenesis 31 D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of go l d p a r t i c l e s 52 D e s c r i p t i o n of sec t i o n s .............. 53 Conclusions .. ^  53 • < . -The I s l a n d Mountain Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the property: L o c a t i o n 54 Economic geology 54 Mineralogy: . . . . I n t r o d u c t i o n 55' D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals . 55 Paragenesis 56 G. The .Island Mountain Mine (Cont.) Page Mineralogy (Cont.): D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of gold . p a r t i c l e s 57 D e s c r i p t i o n of sections*,...... 57 Conclusions 58 The Cariboo Hudson Mine De s c r i p t i c n of the property: L o c a t i o n 58 Economic geology 59 Mineralogy: I n t r o d u c t i o n 39 D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals 60 Paragenesis 6 l D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of gold p a r t i c l e s 62 >Description of sections 63 Conclusions, ... 63 Table of d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of the gold p a r t i c l e s i n the Cariboo ore 6 4 a PART D: THE BRIDGE RI vER 'MIUING DISTRICT D e s c r i p t i o n of .the D i s t r i c t L o c a t i o n 65 General geology 65 S t r u c t u r a l geology 68 M i n e r a l i z a t i o n 69 The Bralorne Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the property: L o c a t i o n 69 H i s t o r y .. 70 , Economic geology ..................... 70 Mineralogy: I n t r o d u c t i o n 71 D e s c r i p t i o n of the M i n e r a l s 72 Paragenesis 74 Conclusions 6 75 PARTE: THE YMIR MINING DISTRICT Page D e s c r i p t i o n of the D i s t r i c t L o c a t i o n . «. 76 General geology 1& M i n e r a l i z a t i o n ,9............. 77 The Ymir Yankee G i r l Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the property: Location ..................:. 78 Economic geology 78 Mineralogy: I n t r o d u c t i o n 79 D e s c r i p t i o n of?the minerals 80 Paragenesis 8 l Assays 82 D e s c r i p t i o n of sections ............... 82 Conclusions 82 The Second R e l i e f Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the property: L o c a t i o n 83 H i s t o r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Economic geology ....................... 83 Mineralogy: I n t r o d u c t i o n 85 D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals 85 Paragenesis 86 D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of g o l d p a r t i c l e s ...... 87 D e s c r i p t i o n of s e c t i o n s 87 Conclusions 88 PART E: THE SURE INLET AND HUNTER PROPERTIES D e s c r i p t i o n of the D i s t r i c t L o c a t i o n 89 General Geology 89 D e s c r i p t i o n of the D i s t r i c t (Cont.) Page S t r u c t u r a l geology 91 M i n e r a l i z a t i o n • 91 The Surf I n l e t Mine . D e s c r i p t i o n of the property: Location ............................. 91 Economic geology 92 Mineralogy: I n t r o d u c t i o n .......................... 93 D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals .......... 94 Paragenesis • .-. 93 D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of gold p a r t i c l e s 95 D e s c r i p t i o n of s e c t i o n s .............. 96 Conclusions 96 The Hunter Property D e s c r i p t i o n of the property:,^. L o c a t i o n ........... General Geology........... . / .......... 96 Economic geology « 96 Mineralogy: I n t r o d u c t i o n _ " 97 D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals 98 Paragenesis 99 D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of gold p a r t i c l e s 100 D e s c r i p t i o n of se c t i o n s .............. 100 Conclusions '.. 100 PART G: THE DIYIDEND-LAKBYIEW PROPERTY D e s c r i p t i o n of the property: Location 102. General Geology 102 Economic geology 103 Mineralogy: I n t r o d u c t i o n 103 D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals .......... 104 Paragenesis 105 D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of gold p a r t i c l e s 107 Conclusions 107 ' Page Summary and Conclusion...................... 108 B i b l i o g r a p h y I l l • THE MINERALOGY Off SOME OF THE GOLD MINES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA INTRODUCTION The f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t s are based on the megascopic and microscopic study of p o l i s h e d sections of ore from some of the gold mines of B r i t i s h Columbia. The c h i e f objects of the work were to study and determine the mode of occurrence of the gold i n various mines and to a s c e r t a i n any s i m i l a r i t i e s or d i f f e r e n c e s i n the miner- > alogy of the i n d i v i d u a l mines i n each d i s t r i c t , and between., each d i s t r i c t . Laboratory procedure consisted of c u t t i n g , mounting and p o l i s h i n g s e c t i o n s of ore from d i f f e r e n t mines. These se c t i o n s were then examined under the microscope, and the va r i o u s minerals and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s were determined. The. i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the minerals was c a r r i e d out by means of etch t e s t s and microchemistry. 7 Due t o the extreme f r i a b i l i t y of some ores, such as Zeballos and Cariboo Gold Quartz, a process known as "impregnating" was employed. This consisted of half-submerg-i n g the s e c t i o n to be mounted i n an impregnating f l u i d . The s e c t i o n and f l u i d were then placed under a p a r t i a l vacuum f o r about twenty minutes to allo w the f l u i d t o penetrate i n t o the i n t e r s t i c e s of the ore, and then "cooked" i n an e l e c t r i c oven - I -at 80 degree,s c e n t i g r a d e ' u n t i l hard. The s e c t i o n was then ready to mount. Parageneses f o r each mine have been suggested, and g r a p h i c a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s given. I t must be kept i n mind, however, that the breaks between the various periods of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n are not n e c e s s a r i l y as sharp as i s . i m p l i e d by t h i s method.. I n some deposits i t i s known that two or more periods of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n have occurred, separated by long time i n t e r v a l s , while i n others, mineral sequences have been deposited c o n t i n -uously from the same s o l u t i o n over a p e r i o d of time. A l s o , movement along a v e i n may take place at any time, and deposi-t i o n need not n e c e s s a r i l y stop during these periods of s t r e s s . It" i s the w r i t e r ' s opinion t h a t c r i t e r i a obtained only from a microscopic examination of p o l i s h e d sections of ore are not s u f f i c i e n t to warrant a conclusion as t o whether the deposits are of h i g h , medium or low temperature. A complete study i n the f i e l d of w a l l - r o c k , veins and country-rock as w e l l as a microscopic study of t h i n s e c t i o n s , i s essen-t i a l f o r an accurate determination of the temperature conditions e x i s t i n g at the time or times of d e p o s i t i o n . Therefore, i n the f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t s , which are the r e s u l t of p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n work only, the suggested temperatures of deposit i o n are derived only from the v a r i e t y and type of minerals present i n the s e c t i o n s , and serve only to compare the various deposits. I n most cases, no d i s t i n c t i o n has been made between gold and the g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y "electrum." I t i s probable that the s i l v e r content of some of the gold i s high enough f o r i t to be c a l l e d electrum. P A R T ,. ..A SHEEP CREEK; MINING DISTRICT PART A::. / SHEEP CREEK -MINING- DISTRICT D e s c r i p t i o n of the D i s t r i c t L o c a t i o n . The Sheep Creek Mining Camp i s l o c a t e d about eight m i l e s southeast of the town of Salmo i n the Kootenay d i s t r i c t of southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia. A t e n mile automobile road connects the .mine w i t h the town of Salmo on the Great Northern Railway. General Geology. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows" the g e o l o g i c a l forma-t i o n s of the Salmo map-area, B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a , as mapped by Walker.1 TABLE GE FORMATIONS Pl e i s t o c e n e G l a c i a l t i l l and s t r a t i f i e d s i l t s , sands and g r a v e l s . Mesozoic P o s t - T r i a s s i c Nelson B a t h o l i t h : g r a n i t e , g r a n o d i o r i t e , q u a r t z - d i o r i t e , s y e n i t e , monzonite, d i o r i t e . T r i a s s i c ? Beaver mountain - Rossland group. Late Pre-Cambrian Winderernere Pend d ' O r e i l l e s e r i e s . Reno formation. Q u a r t z i t e Range formation. Three S i s t e r s formation. H o r s e t h i e f Creek s e r i e s . Irene Vo.lcanics formation. 1. Walker', J.F. - Memoir 1?2 , G.S.C. 19.34-. Geology and M i n e r a l Deposits of the Salmo map-area, There are four of these rock formations exposed i n the Sheep;Greek Mining Camp. P o s t - T r i a s s i c . Kelson B a t h o l i t h Late Pre-Cambrian Pend d ? O r e i l l e s e r i e s . Reno formation. Qua r t z i t e Range formation. The o l d e s t rocks i n the d i s t r i c t are those of the Quartzite.Range formation which c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y of massive, white q u a r t z i t e i n the lower p a r t . Overlying t h i s i s 200 f e e t of a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s and s l a t y a r g i l l i t e s , and above the a r g i l l i t e i s more q u a r t z i t e w i t h a f i n a l top-member of interbedded q u a r t z i t e s and s l a t e s . The Reno formation v a r i e s g r e a t l y i n character. The lower p a r t i s composed of interbedded q u a r t z i t e s , a r g i l l i t e s , limestone and s c h i s t s . The upper part of the forma-t i o n c o n s i s t s of b r i t t l e q u a r t z i t e s . Above the Reiio formation i n the t a b l e i s the Pend d f O r e i l l e s e r i e s . T h i s i s composed c h i e f l y of dark grey to black p h i l l i t e s . I n the lower p a r t of the s e r i e s the p h i l l i t e s grade i n t o beds of dark grey q u a r t z i t e and f o u r w e l l - d e f i n e d limestone horizons. Where the p h i l l i t e s have contained Carbonaceous matter and are sheared, they give place to g r a p h i t i c s c h i s t s . The p o r t i o n of the Nelson b a t h o l i t h exposed near the mining camp i s p o r p h y r i t i c g r a n i t e composed mainly of f l e s h - c o l o u r e d o r t h o c l a s e . 5. S t r u c t u r a l Ge'ology. The four mines studied i n t h i s area are a l l l o c a t e d on the st e e p l y dipping west limb of an asymmetrical a n t i c l i n e . F a u l t s are exposed i n some p a r t s . The gold-bearing f i s s u r e s i n the v i c i n i t y of Sheep Creek are small f a u l t f i s s u r e s . Minor f a u l t s w i t h displacements of only a few f e e t are exposed i n many of the mine workings. Some l a r g e r f a u l t s w i t h considerable displacement e x i s t , but are not important i n regard t o these p r o p e r t i e s . M i n e r a l l z a t i o n . The m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s t h a t formed the mineral deposits are b e l i e v e d t o have come from a g r a n i t i e magma at a l a t e stage of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n . A p l i t e tongues from i t are cut by the mineral v e i n s , and the only igneous rock t o cut the m i n e r a l occurrences are lamprophyre dykes. Hence, the age of the mineral deposits can be placed as o c c u r r i n g at a l a t e stage i n the i n t r u s i o n of the Nelson b a t h o l i t h of p o s t - T r i a s s i c age. The mi n e r a l deposits c o n s i s t of f i s s u r e v e i n s c a r r y i n g values p r i n c i p a l l y i n g o l d w i t h minor amounts of base metals. The f i s s u r e s are t i g h t and are not known to be of commercial value where they cut s o f t e r rocks such as a r g i l l i t e and limestone, but where they cut the b r i t t l e q u a r t z i t e s of the upper Reno formation and Qu a r t z i t e Range formation, ore-shoots may occur. The formation,of ore-shoots i s f u r t h e r con-t r o l l e d b y a p i n c h i n g and s w e l l i n g of the f i s s u r e s caused by movement along them, both h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l . 'The o r i g i n a l v e i n matter consisted of quartz, p y r r h o t i t e , p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , galena and, f r e e gold. Oxida-t i o n of the sulphides extends to considerable depths w i t h ; a c e r t a i n amount of enrichment an apparent r e s u l t . The Queen Mine (Sheep Creek Mine) D e s c r i p t i o n of the Property. • L o c a t i o n . The Queen property, owned by E. V. Buckley and a s s o c i a t e s , i ncludes the. Queen.,- Yellowstone, Hide Away, and Alexandra groups, c o n s i s t i n g of f i f t e e n Crown-granted claims, namely: Alexandra, A r g y l e , B u r l i n g t o n fraction., B u l l i o n , Edward, Hide Away, Lewiston, Mat, Malwaaz, Niagara, Pat, P l a c e r f r a c t i o n , Queen, Wolf, Yellowstone. The property l i e s along the v a l l e y of Wolf creek, immediately above i t s j u n c t i o n w i t h Sheep creek. Economic Geology. The property l i e s i n rocks of the Pre-Cambrian Reno and Q u a r t z i t e Range formation. Four east-west, gold-bearing f i s s u r e s occur on Queen ground. These are the Yellowstone, Queen and Hide Away, a l l of which cut rocks of the Reno formation,; and the Alexandra, which i s i n the Q u a r t z i t e Range formation. The Yellowstone outcropped low down on the ridge southeast of the j u n c t i o n of Sheep and Wolf creeks. So f a r as i s known, only brown i r o n oxides and f r e e gold occurred i n t h i s f i s s u r e at the surface. The Queen:fissure outcrops on the west side of Wolf creek, p a r a l l e l to and south of the Yellowstone. This f i s s u r e i s o x i d i z e d down to' about the l e v e l of Wolf creek. The Alexandra f i s s u r e , on the .east side of Wolf creek, outcrops about l 6 0 0 f e e t south of the Queen, and i s o x i d i z e d to some depth. Between the Queen and Alexandra on the east side of Wolf creek, i s the small Hide Away f i s s u r e . These f i s s u r e s , have been f i l l e d w i t h quartz and sulphide minerals. Mineralogy. I n t r o d u c t i o n . T h i r t e e n p o l i s h e d . s e c t i o n s of ore from the Queen (now Sheep Creek) mine were studied m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y . These se c t i o n s were, prepared by Mr. J . W. McCammon, whose system of numbering has been maintained by the w r i t e r , and i s tabulated belotv* Sections Ml t o 14 c o n s i s t of ore from the o l d Queen workings, ?/hile Sections M5 to M13 .consist of ore from the newer workings. . S e c t i o n Ml From the 760 l e v e l , Stope west. S e c t i o n M2 From the 8lQ l e v e l , Stope east.-S e c t i o n M3 From the 520 l e v e l , Stope west. S e c t i o n M4 From the west ore-shute No.2. Seetlon M5 From No. 2 l e v e l . 81 v e i n . S e c t i o n M6 From N O . 2 l e v e l . 8 3 v e i n . S e c t i o n M? From No. 2 l e v e l . . 92 v e i n . S e c t i o n M8 From N O . 3 l e v e l . Queen v e i n . Seetion M? From No. 5 l e v e l . 75 v e i n * S e c t i o n M10 From No. 5 l e v e l . 76 v e i n . . S e c t i o n M i l From No. 7 l e v e l . 8 l v e i n . S e c t i o n M12 From No. 7 l e v e l . 92 v e i n . S e c t i o n M l 3 From No. 9 l e v e l . Queen v e i n . 6 'The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c minerals l i s t e d i n order of abundance, were determined to be present i n the s e c t i o n s . 1. P y r i t e , 2. P y r r h o t i t e , 3. S p h a l e r i t e , 4. G-alena, 5« C h a l c o p y r i t e , 6. Electrum.: Quartz w i t h minor amounts of c a l e i t e were the only gangue minerals recognized. D e s c r i p t i o n ,.of the Minerals*, P y r i t e . Two generations of p y r i t e occu.r i n t h i s ore. The e a r l i e r p y r i t e was probably the f i r s t sulphide to be deposited. I t occurs as cubic c r y s t a l s and as anhedral masses. Q u a r t z ' f i l l s a l l spaces between the euhedral grains and surrounds the anhedral masses. I n places where the p y r i t e i s broken, quartz and other sulphides f i l l the f r a c t u r e s . The l a t e r generation of p y r i t e occurs (Section M8). f i l l i n g a f r a c t u r e i n p y r r h o t i t e s i n S e c t i o n M3 f i l l i n g a f r a c t u r e i n s p h a l e r i t e and also in, quartz. I n a l l s e c t i o n s , s m a l l , rounded i n c l u s i o n s of p y r r h o t i t e . occur i n the e a r l y p y r i t e . Quartz. Quartz, l i k e the p y r i t e , occurs as two generations.- The f i r s t generation, which i s f r a c t u r e d , occurs f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and f i l l i n g the spaces between the p y r i t e c r y s t a l s . The second generation of quartz occurs f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n s p h a l e r i t e i n S e c t i o n M3. P y r r h o t i t e * P y r r h o t i t e occurs i n l a r g e masses, and as minute i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . The m i n e r a l i s r e l a t i v e l y abundant i n a l l s e c t i o n s . I t was observed f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n s p h a l e r i t e and as i r r e g u l a r masses i n quartz. Intimate 7. a s s o c i a t i o n with c h a l c o p y r i t e was al s o noted. S p h a l e r i t e . , S p h a l e r i t e i s abundant i n most se c t i o n s . I t occurs as lar g e masses, and i n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz and p y r i t e . Chalcopyrite blebs are numerous i n t h e . s p h a l e r i t e and l a r g e r masses f r e q u e n t l y occur near the boundaries of the s p h a l e r i t e . Galena. Galena i s not. as abundant as s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h which m i n e r a l i t i s quite often i n contact. I n most cases these t¥/o sulphides appear to be contemporaneous, but i n S e c t i o n M6, galena v e i n s the s p h a l e r i t e . The de p o s i t i o n of galena may have continued longer than that of the s p h a l e r i t e . Galena was also'observed f i l l i n g fractures'-"in p y r i t e . C h a l c o p y r i t e . Chalcopyrite occurs as blebs i n s p h a l e r i t e , i n masses associated w i t h p y r r h o t i t e , i n quartz f r a c t u r e s , and to some extent f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e . Gold. Gold occurs as the g o l d - s i l v e r ; a l l o y "electrum. n Electrum i s r e l a t i v e l y abundant i n some sec t i o n s and absent i n others. I t occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: 1. I n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz w i t h galena or s p h a l e r i t e . 2. Included i n s p h a l e r i t e . 3* At q u a r t z - s p h a l e r i t e contacts and quartz-galena contacts. C a l c i t e . C a l c i t e occurs i n small q u a n t i t i e s f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n a l l other minerals and sometimes along the boundaries of two min e r a l s . Paragenesis» The f o l l o w i n g paragenes i s suggested. Quartz, p y r i t e and some p y r r h o t i t e were the f i r s t minerals to be deposited. A p e r i o d of f r a c t u r i n g followed. 8® during which the p y r i t e and quartz were considerably shattered. These f r a c t u r e s were then f i l l e d by some p y r r h o t i t e and sphal-e r i t e , which were a l s o f r a c t u r e d l a t e r . The second p e r i o d , of f r a c t u r i n g was followed by the d e p o s i t i o n of more p y r i t e and quartz, together w i t h p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , galena, and electrum. C a l c i t e was probably the l a s t mineral t o p r e c i p i t a t e . GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PARAGENESIS Quartz • — — - — — — : — - • P y r i t e — — P y r r h o t i t e — — S p h a l e r i t e -————:—- — — — — — Galena -— Ghaleopyrite : — — — Electrum C a l c i t e D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e of Gold P a r t i c l e s . The study of the ore from t h i s mine i n d i c a t e s that the gold was deposited l a t e i n the m i n e r a l o g i c a l sequence* I t i s i r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d and i s associated, c h i e f l y w i t h galena and s p h a l e r i t e , i t s , d e p o s i t i o n probably being contemp-oraneous w i t h , and l a t e r than, these two sulphides. The s i z e of the p a r t i c l e s v a r i e s from j5 mierons to l 6 o microns, w i t h an average of about 20 microns. Host of the grains appear- as • i r r e g u l a r patches i n other minerals or as short v e i n l e t s . i n f r a c t u r e s . D e s c r i p t i o n of S e c t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of the sec t i o n s w i t h t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t - m i n e r a l s . The minerals are separated according to t h e i r abundance i n each i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n . Section ffl-I: Major — P y r i t e and Quartz. Minor — Ghaleopyrite and Pyrrho-t i t e . Rare — C a l c i t e . * Section M-l (cont.): Two generations of p y r i t e occur i n t h i s s e c t i o n . S e c t i o n M-2: Major — Quartz. Minor — P y r r h o t i t e . • Rare — ' C h a l c o p y r i t e and electrum. Section M-3,£ Major — Quartz and s p h a l e r i t e . Minor — P y r i t e and galena. Rare — Ch a l c p y r i t e and electrum. Two generations of p y r i t e occur i n t h i s s e c t i o n . S e c t i o n M-4: Major — P y r i t e . Minor — Quartz and s p h a l e r i t e * Rare — P y r r h o t i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . S e c t i o n M-5t Major —- Quartz. M i n o r — Galena and P y r i t e . S e c t i o n M-6: •> Major — S p h a l e r i t e . Minor — Quartz, p y r i t e and galena. Rare —- Electrum and chalcopyrite„ Electrum i s r e l a t i v e l y abundant i n t h i s s e c t i o n . S e c t i o n M-7: Major — P y r i t e , quartz and s p h a l e r i t e . Minor —• Galena and c h a l c o p y r i t e . S e c t i o n M - 8 : Major — P y r i t e , quartz, and p y r r h o t i t e . Minor •-- S p h a l e r i t e . Rare —- Electrum. P y r i t e veins p y r r h o t i t e i n t h i s s e c t i o n . S e c t i o n M-9: Major — Quartz. Minor Quartz, p y r r h o t i t e , A s p h a l e r i t e , galena.. Rare — Chalcopyrite and eleetrum. Electrum i s r e l a t i v e l y abundant i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Sections 10, 11, 12 and 13: Major — P y r i t e and quartz. Rare — S p h a l e r i t e , galena and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Conclusions. 1. The primary ore of the mine c o n s i s t s of pyrite,' s p h a l e r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , galena, and c h a l c o p y r i t e . 2. The gold occurs as the g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y "electrum. 1 1 2.0 ' j . The gold was probably the l a s t of the m e t a l l i c minerals t o deposit. I t i s associated with, galena, s p h a l e r i t e , and p y r r h o t i t e . 4. In most cases the electrum was l o c a t e d In f r a c t u r e s i n quartz and p y r i t e w i t h galena or s p h a l e r i t e . 5. P a r t i c l e s of electrum are more abundant when galena or s p h a l e r i t e are present. 6. Gold p a r t i c l e s are of f a i r s i z e , but not coarse. 7. The minerals belong t o the mesothernal zone of d e p o s i t i o n . . The Gold B e l t Mine .De s c r i p t i o n of the Property. L o c a t i o n . The property of the Gold B e l t Mining Company L i m i t e d c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g Crown-granted claims, as w e l l as two h e l d on l o c a t i o n : J o i n t , Double J o i n t , B l u e b i r d , Shamrock, Golden West, Dominion f r a c t i o n , Sunbeam f r a c t i o n , Bruce f r a c t i o n , Nevada. The Gold B e l t property extends n o r t h e r l y from the steep side of Sheep creek v a l l e y across the ridge to the more gentle slope of the east side of Reno (Fawn) creek v a l l e y . Access to the property i s afforded by a branch road from the Reno Mine road, and the distance from Salmo i s about fourteen and one-half m i l e s . Economic Geology. The p r i n c i p a l showings on Gold B e l t ground are e a s t e r l y s t r i k i n g f i s s u r e s f i l l e d w i t h quartz, sulphides and fr e e gold. They s t r i k e across the n o r t h e r l y s t r i k i n g upper 11. p a r t of the Reno formation. M i n e r a l i z a t i o n * The ore c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , galena, and s p h a l e r i t e , Sparingly d i s t r i b u t e d through the quartz w i t h f r e e gold v i s i b l e i n some specimens. Unl i k e the. e x t e n s i v e l y o x i d i z e d c o n d i t i o n which p r e v a i l e d i n the upper p a r t s of ore-bodies i n other mines of the camp, o x i d a t i o n i s very shallow or e n t i r e l y absent, primary ore being exposed at the surface. Mineralogy. .Introduction. F i v e p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s of ore from the Gold B e l t mine- were examined. These sections were a l l prepared by Mr. J". "W. McGammon, and h i s system of numbering i s maintained by the w r i t e r . They were from various p a r t s of the mine as f o l l o w s : S e c t i o n M l From the 1850 l e v e l . No v e i n s p e c i f i e d . S e c t i o n M2 From the 2100 l e v e l . 8000 v e i n . S e c t i o n M3 From the 1780 l e v e l . 8000 v e i n . S e c t i o n M4 From the 178O l e v e l . , 8 2 0 0 v e i n . S e c t i o n M5 From the 1975 l e v e l . 8200 v e i n . The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c minerals, l i s t e d i n order of abundance, were .found to be present i n the ore: . 1 . P y r i t e . 2 . P y r r h o t i t e . 3 • S p h a l e r i t e . 4. Galena. 3:. C h a l c o p y r i t e . • 6. Electrum. Quartz i s abundant and i s the only important gangue min e r a l , although c a l c i t e Is present. D e s c r i p t i o n of the M i n e r a l s . P y r i t e . P y r i t e i s ' t h e predominating sulphide i n a l l f i v e s e c t i o n s . I t i s badly f r a c t u r e d , and the f r a c t u r e s are f i l l e d w i t h quartz, p y r r h o t i t e and some.chalcopyrite. The p y r i t e occurs most commonly i n large f r a c t u r e d masses, and to some extent as i s o l a t e d cubes i n quartz. Quartz. Quartz f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n the p y r i t e and i s the. p r i n c i p a l m a t r i x f o r the euhedral gr a i n s of that m i n e r a l . I t i s f r a c t u r e d , but not as much as i s the p y r i t e . P y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , galena and ch a l c o p y r i t e occur i n the f r a c t u r e s . P y r r h o t i t e . P y r r h o t i t e occurs i n a l l sections except S e c t i o n M l . I t f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n both p y r i t e and quartz, but some places were noted where smooth, rounded boundaries e x i s t e d between p y r r h o t i t e and quartz, which seems to i n d i c a t e that both minerals s o l i d i f i e d a t approximately the same time. S p h a l e r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e i s p l e n t i f u l i n Sections M4 and Mj?. I t occurs i n small masses and i n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz. I t contains small bodies of p y r r h o t i t e and ch a l c o p y r i t e Galena. Galena i s present only i n Section Mj?, where i t f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n quartz and s p h a l e r i t e . I t i s apparently l a t e r than a l l other minerals except c a l c i t e . C h a l c o p y r i t e . Chalcopyrite i s present i n a l l s e c t i o n s , o c c u r r i n g i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e , and a l s o along s p h a l e r i t e - p y r r h o t i t e contacts. Electrum. Electrum i s present i n Sections M2 and 1 3 . M-3 as minute'inclusions i n galena, u s u a l l y near galena-quartz contact. I t s intimate a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h galena i n d i c a t e s a l a t e d e p o s i t i o n , more or l e s s contemporaneous w i t h that m i n e r a l . C a l c i t e . . C a l c i t e i s l a t e r than a l l the other minerals observed. I t occurs v e i n i n g galena and s p h a l e r i t e . Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g paragenesis i s suggested. P y r i t e was the f i r s t mineral t o be deposited. ' I t was l a t e r f r a c t u r e d and the f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d by quartz. A second p e r i o d of f r a c t u r i n g then occured a f f e c t i n g both of these e a r l y minerals. S p h a l e r i t e was then deposited, and f i l l e d some of the f r a c t u r e s i n both p y r i t e and quartz. As p y r r h o t i t e was seen v e i n i n g s p h a l e r i t e along a frac t u r e , , a t h i r d p e r i o d of s t r e s s i s I n d i c a t e d . The de p o s i t i o n of p y r r h o t i t e and Ghaleopyrite took place at about the same time f o l l o w i n g that of the s p h a l e r i t e . Galena appears to have come In later', probably accompanied by electrum. The c a l c i t e I s l a t e r than a l l the other m i n e r a l s . GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OE PARAGENESIS P y r i t e -——:—— Quartz — — — S p h a l e r i t e ••— P y r r h o t i t e —•— Ghaleopyrite • Galena . Electrum — •• ;— C a l c i t e — D i s t r i b u t i o n and Si z e of Gold P a r t i c l e s . The gold, as i n the other mines from t h i s d i s t r i c t , occurs as the g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y "electrum." Although i n these sections i t appeared more f i n e l y disseminated than i n the 14. sections from the other mines, i t s intimate a s s o c i a t i o n with galena i s t y p i c a l . Very l i t t l e electrum i s seen where galena i s scarce or absent. The average s i z e of the p a r t i c l e s i n these s e c t i o n s was l e s s than 6 microns. P y r i t e . Quartz. C h a l c o p y r i t e . P y r i t e and quartz. P y r r h o t i t e . Chalcopyrite and c a l c i t e . P y r i t e and quartz. P y r r h o t i t e . C h a lcopyrite and c a l c i t e . P y r i t e and quartz. S p h a l e r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e . Chalcopyrite and ca l c i t e , . P y r i t e , quartz and s p h a l e r i t e . P y r r h o t i t e and galena. C h a l c o p y r i t e , electrum and c a l c i t e . : The.electrum i s very f i n e and can only be seen under very h i g h power. I t occurs as small blebs i n galena. Conclusions. 1. The primary ore of the mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and galena. 2. The gold occurs as the g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y , "electrum," which i s very f i n e l y disseminated i n the galena. 3. No electrum-was seen except i n the one s e c t i o n where galena occured. 4 . The electrum i s i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d v/ith the galena, and was probably the l a s t m i n e r a l to be deposited. 5. The minerals belong to the mesothernal zone . -of d e p o s i t i o n . D e s c r i p t i o n of Sections. . S e c t i o n M-Ii Major Minor Rare -S e c t i o n M-2: Major Minor Rare Se c t i o n M-3; Major Minor. Rare -Section M-4:' Major Minor Rare S e c t i o n M-5: Major Minor Rare 15 The. Reno Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the Property. L o c a t i o n . " The Reno group, the property of Reno Gold Mines, L i m i t e d , c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g Crown-granted claims, and a number h e l d on L o c a t i o n : Reno, Blue Stone, B l a c k Stone, Cur lev/, Donnybrook, Latham, Dandy, Red Rock, Clarence, Clarence f r a c t i o n , Gartan, Lynx, Manhattan.fraction, Triune and Snowdrift. The, workings are at the head of Reno (Fawn) creek, a t r i b u t a r y of Sheep creek, on the west slope ;of the west peak of Reno mountain. A branch road leaves the Sheep creek road at an e l e v a t i o n of 3,100 f e e t , and i n 5«8 miles climbs to the mine b u i l d i n g s at an e l e v a t i o n of 6,240 f e e t . The t o t a l distance, from Salmo i s approximately 15 m i l e s . Economic Geology. Two east-west f i s s u r e s occur on Reno ground, c u t t i n g s t r a t a of the Reno formation. These are .'the1 Reno and the Donnybrook. The southerly,, or Reno f i s s u r e , s t r i k e s about. 70 degrees, dips almost v e r t i c a l l y , and cuts q u a r t z i t e s , a r g i l l a -ceous q u a r t z i t e s , and s i l i c e o u s a r g i l l i t e s of the upper part of the Reno formation. The f i s s u r e appears to die out as i t approaches the contact of the Reno formation w i t h the l e s s competent Pend &'Oreille s e r i e s t o the west and the lower pa r t of the Reno formation to the east. The Donnybrook, nor n o r t h e r l y f i s s u r e i s of l i t t l e importance w i t h respect to gold v a l u e s . 1 6 . M i n e r a l i z a t i o n . . The m i n e r a l i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s of v e i n quartz, p y r r h o t i t e , p y r i t e , galena, s p h a l e r i t e , and a l i t t l e chalco-p y r i t e . I t extends outwards from the f i s s u r e i n t o the crushed country rock. Well-defined w a l l s to the ve i n are not common, the width of ore being determined by the extent to which m i n e r a l i z a t i o n can be seen t o have spread from the f i s s u r e , and by sampling. This width v a r i e s from nothing up to f i v e f e e t ; the average being about two f e e t . Reported values i n gold range from a trace to as high as 21 ounces across one f o o t . Oxidation has completely removed the primary sulphide m i n e r a l i z a t i o n from the Reno f i s s u r e f o r some distance from the surface. Mineralogy. / • In t r o d u c t i o n . F i v e sections of ore from the Reno mine were examined. These s e c t i o n s were prepared by Mr. 1* W. MeCammon, and h i s system of numbering i s maintained by the w r i t e r . The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c minerals i n order of abundance were i d e n t i f i e d m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y : 1* P y r r h o t i t e * 2 . .Sphalerite. 3. Galena; . 4. C h a l c o p y r i t e . 5. .Electrum. Quartz i s the only gangue mineral i n these s e c t i o n s . D e s c r i p t i o n of. the. M i n e r a l s . P y r r h o t i t e . P y r r h o t i t e i s rat h e r abundant i n these s e c t i o n s . I t occurs i n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz, and i n f r a c t u r e s i n s p h a l e r i t e (Section 2 ). Contacts between p y r r h o t i t e and 17. s p h a l e r i t e were not numerous, but where seen, the p y r r h o t i t e appears to be l a t e r than the s p h a l e r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e , S p h a l e r i t e Is not as abundant as p y r r h o t i t e . I t occurs i n small i r r e g u l a r masses, and i n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz. I t i s s l i g h t l y f r a c t u r e d i n places , and these f r a c t u r e s are f i l l e d w i t h p y r r h o t i t e and sometimes galena. Galena. Galena occurs s p a r i n g l y and has the same general d i s t r i b u t i o n as s p h a l e r i t e . I n general the. galena-p y r r h o t i t e contacts are smooth and r e g u l a r , i n d i c a t i n g contemporaneous d e p o s i t i o n . However, galena was observed to f i l l f r a c t u r e s i n s p h a l e r i t e as w e l l as i n p y r r h o t i t e . The depositi o n of galena probably overlapped that of p y r r h o t i t e , and was l a t e r than that of s p h a l e r i t e . Ghaleopyrite.. Ghaleopyrite i s not abundant and occurs mainly i n small blebs or i r r e g u l a r masses w i t h p y r r h o t i t e and s p h a l e r i t e . I t i s commonly seen w i t h - p y r r h o t i t e i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e . Quartz. Quartz appears to be the f i r s t mineral to be deposited. I t occurs i n a l l s e c t i o n s , and I s consider-ably f r a c t u r e d . P y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , and galena f i l l , these f r a c t u r e s . Electrum. Electrum occurs i n sections 1.A, l.B and 2. I t occurs i n quartz f r a c t u r e s w i t h p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and galena, and along boundaries between quartz and the sulphides. Minor amounts occur as i s o l a t e d p a r t i c l e s i n quartz f r a c t u r e s , but the most common a s s o c i a t i o n i s w i t h galena. Electrum, t h e r e f o r e , was probably deposited at a l a t e 18. stage with-'galena. Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g paragenesis i s suggested. Quartz was the f i r s t mineral to he deposited. I t was then f r a c t u r e d and t h e . f r a c t u r e s healed by s p h a l e r i t e . Another p e r i o d of f r a c t u r i n g occurred causing cracks i n the s p h a l e r i t e , which i n t u r n were f i l l e d by p y r r h o t i t e ? c h a l c o p y r i t e , galena and electrum. :' GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION Off PARAGENESIS Quartz S p h a l e r i t e — ••— P y r r h o t i t e Galena — Chalcopyrite : Electrum . - :—— D i s t r i b u t i o n and Si z e of Gold p a r t i c l e s . The gold occurs as the g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y "electrum", J. and i s i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h galena, and to a; l e s s e r extent w i t h p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . I n these s e c t i o n s a v a r i a t i o n i n colour Was n o t i c e d from a very pale to deeper gold. This i s probably due to a change i n the gold-s i l v e r ratio:. I n s i z e the p a r t i c l e s vary from 3 microns to 84 microns, w i t h an average of about 23 microns. D e s c r i p t i o n of S e c t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of the se c t i o n s w i t h t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t minerals. The minerals are separated according to t h e i r abundance i n each i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n . S e c t i o n 1-A: Major — P y r r h o t i t e and quartz. Minor — Ghalcopyrite. Rare — Electrum. S e c t i o n 1-B: Major - - P y r r h o t i t e and quartz. Rare — Chalcopyrite and electrum. S e c t i o n 2: Major — Quartz. 19 "Section 2(cont:.| Minor P y r r h o t i t e and galena.'" - Rare — S p h a l e r i t e and electrum. Electrum i s r e l a t i v e l y p l e n t i f u l i n t h i s s e c t i o n . S e c tion 7-A: M a j o r — Quartz. Minor Pyrrhotite.. Rare — C h a l c o p y r i t e . S e c t i o n 7-B: Major — Quartz. Minor — S p h a l e r i t e and galena. Conclusions. . 1 . The g o l d occurs as the g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y "electrum." 2. The electrum i s i n t i m a t e l y a s s ociated w i t h galena i n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz. 3>. Most of the electrum observed was associated w i t h galena. , 4. The minerals present suggest that d e p o s i t i o n occurred under'conditions between mesothermal and hypothermal. •• - . • The Kootenay B e l l e Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the Property. L o c a t i o n . This property i s owned by Kootenay B e l l e Gold Mines s and c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g Crown-granted claims: B a t t f r a c -t i o n , Pasadena, Rio T i n t o , R i o Tinto f r a c t i o n , Sultana, Yosemlte, Yosemlte f r a c t i o n . The property i s on the south side'of Sheep Creek, about a quarter of a mile above the j u n c t i o n w i t h Wolf creek. Economic Geology. Two gold-bearing f i s s u r e s cut rocks of the Q u a r t z i t e Range formation that s t r i k e approximately north and dip from $0 to 7 5 degrees east. No. 1 f i s s u r e s t r i k e s on an average 6 0 degrees and dips south at angles of 6 ? to 7-6 20 degrees. Noi 2 f i s s u r e , south of No. 1, s t r i k e s on an average 64 degrees south. The two s t r i k e along the h i l l s i d e and dip i n t o i t . The two f i s s u r e s e i t h e r j o i n or cross. Four ore-shoots outcropped, two on each f i s s u r e . Ore c o n s i s t s of quartz, pyrite', s p h a l e r i t e , galena and gold. Mineralogy. ' I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . * Three p o l i s h e d sections of ore from the Kootenay B e l l e mine were examined m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y . The sections were' prepared by Mr. J . W. McOammon, and h i s system of numbering has been.used by the w r i t e r . f S e c t i o n M-l From the 6 t h l e v e l east. S e c t i o n M-2 From the 303 stope. S e c t i o n M-3 From the 303 raise-. . The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c minerals, l i s t e d i n order of abundance were•determined i n the s e c t i o n s . 1. S p h a l e r i t e . 2 . Galena. , 3 . P y r i t e . 4 . C h a l c o p y r i t e . 5* P y r r h o t i t e . 6 . Electrum* Quartz i s the c h i e f gangue m i n e r a l , but small amounts, of c a l c i t e were noted. D e s c r i p t i o n of the M i n e r a l s . P y r i t e . P y r i t e i s not very abundant i n these s e c t i o n s . I t occurs as euhedral g r a i n s or small masses u s u a l l y surrounded by quartz., but sometimes sc a t t e r e d through s p h a l e r i t e and galena, P y r i t e , was probably the f i r s t mineral to be deposited, as i t contains f r a c t u r e s and embayments which are now f i l l e d w i t h quartz, galena, or s p h a l e r i t e . 21 - * Quartz. Quartz I s r e l a t i v e l y abundant. I t occurs f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s and c a v i t i e s i n p y r i t e * The quartz i n t u r n i s f r a c t u r e d , and these f r a c t u r e s are f i l l e d w i t h s p h a l e r i t e , and a few blebs of c h a l c o p y r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e i s common i n the sec t i o n s , but not as p l e n t i f u l as galena. I t u s u a l l y occurs i n quartz f r a c t u r e s , and where i n contact w i t h galena, shows mainly smooth, i n t i m a t e , rounded boundaries. Occasionally., the galena veins i n t o the s p h a l e r i t e . P y r r h o t i t e . P y r r h o t i t e i s very r a r e . I t was seen as small rounded blebs i n galena and s p h a l e r i t e , r Chalcopyrite., C h a l c o p y r i t e , l i k e p y r r h o t i t e i s very scarce i n these s e c t i o n s . I t occurs as small patches i n quartz f r a c t u r e s , and as blebs i n s p h a l e r i t e . Galena. Galena i s f a i r l y abundant. I t occurs i n i r r e g u l a r masses associated w i t h s p h a l e r i t e and ..quartz. Often i t i s found f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n quartz and l e s s commonly i s seen as veins i n s p h a l e r i t e . Electrum. Gold occurs i n s e c t i o n s M-l, M-2 and M-4, as the g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y "electrum." This i s i n t i m a t e l y associated w i t h galena, and occurs most commonly as i n c l u s i o n s i n the galena. A minor amount of electrum occurred i n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz. I t was noted that sections c o n t a i n i n g a l a r g e percentage of galena a l s o contained the l a r g e s t amount of electrum. C a l c i t e . C a l c i t e was observed i n small q u a n t i t i e s i n Sections M-2 and M-^. I t always occurs i n small f r a c t u r e s 22 i n the other-minerals. Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g paragenesis i s suggested. P y r i t e was the f i r s t m i n e r a l t o he deposited. This mineral was then f r a c t u r e d , and the f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d w i t h quartz. A second p e r i o d of f r a c t u r i n g shattered both p y r i t e and quartz, and In these l a t e r f r a c t u r e s were deposited s p h a l e r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , galena and electrum. S p h a l e r i t e apparently s o l i d i f i e d f i r s t as i t i s -veined by p y r r h o t i t e , galena and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Galena, i n places veins p y r r h o t i t e , and at other places appears t o be contemporaneous w i t h i t . ' This suggests that the galena was deposited w i t h , and l a t e r than, the p y r r h o t i t e . Chalcopyrite i s I n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p y r r h o t i t e , and t o some extent w i t h s p h a l e r i t e . I t i s reasonable,-therefore, to assume that the d e p o s i t i o n of c h a l c o p y r i t e occurred w i t h , and probably overlapped that of these two sulphides.-As has been p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , by f a r the greater p r o p o r t i o n of the electrum i s c l o s e l y associated w i t h galena. Some, however, occurs i s o l a t e d In quartz f r a c t u r e s . These c r i t e r i a i n d i c a t e that electrum was p r e c i p i t a t e d contemporan-eously w i t h , and l a t e r than, the galena. The c a l c i t e i s probably a much l a t e r m i n e r a l . GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PARAGENESIS P y r i t e — Quartz : — S p h a l e r i t e -—. , • P y r r h o t i t e — — • —— Chalcopyrite ; Galena :—-Electrum — — — : 2 3 . D i s t r i b u t i o n : and;Size of Gold P a r t i c l e s . The study of sections from t h i s mine shows that the gold was probably the l a s t mineral to be deposited from the m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s . I t I s found i r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t ed as i n c l u s i o n s i n galena and i n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz. The most important a s s o c i a t i o n i s with galena, as the quantity of electrum appears to vary w i t h the amount of galena i n the ore. The p a r t i c l e s range i n s i z e from 5 microns to 40 mierons w i t h an average of 27 microns. D e s c r i p t i o n ,of Sections. S e c t i o n ffl-1: : M a j o r ' — P y r i t e , quartz and galena. . Minor — S p h a l e r i t e . ' Rare — C h a l c o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e and electrum. S e c t i o n M - 2 : : Major — - P y r i t e , quartz and galena. Minor —- S p h a l e r i t e . Rare — C h a l c o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , electrum and c a l c i t e . S e c t i o n M-5: Major — P y r i t e and quartz. Minor — S p h a l e r i t e and galena. Rare --- C h a l c p y r i t e and c a l c i t e . Conclusions. 1. The primary ore of the mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and galena. 2 . The gold occurs as the g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y "electrum". 3« The electrum i s i n t i m a t e l y associated with galena i n which m i n e r a l i t u s u a l l y occurs as : i n c l u s i o n s . 4. The s e c t i o n s containing v i s i b l e electrum had galena as a major c o n s t i t u e n t . 5» 1'he minerals belong to the mesothermal zone of d e p o s i t i o n . CO H cd -P O EH -P .Pi, CD > O u © PH -P © Pj I -P © U -H O H -P fH O © H P^ fl, I © •H ,a p CQ Pi •H "tf H O +3 Pi H © © CtJ-P o PI ft f-t © H ra © pn vO cd Pi © H Pi cd •P Pi © o u © P4 © to i -P PS o © Pi © Pi -p © ca PH Pi Pi k p>5 © H cd p,^ © -P Pi Pi H © CO Pi © © -P •d «H Pi P! !>> H P) -P Pi © o © PH to © bD-P Pi o O cd i—I Pi -P Pi © o Pi © P4 PJ •H •d H O .a •H ta pj ^ © © N -H O •P^i Pi Fj Pi cd H -P d. Pi Pi © o c5 a1 co ,q © H PH o p VO NO vO CO CN CO OMvO ON HH voko ivO VO IVO CN^O vO IvO SO vO 3-KJ KN VO VO VO M3 IvO VO VO VO VD vO SO VO CO to K> H CM |KN K\ H vo vo VO ^O vO VD C\J CM • -H OJ CM » KN H CO © o loo CM o o |oo CM I LrJoo o o'lvo i o Oi trJcoi Oi o IvO H o o H O O K\| CM .4-O O KO; o o CM KN *|-O O NN CM II to H © O o CM K\ I cd o o © EH PH P A R T B 24. PART B: THE ZEBALLOS TUNING DISTRICT D e s c r i p t i o n of the D i s t r i c t L o c a t i o n • Z e b a l l o s R i v e r mining camp i s located, on the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d , approximately 195 n a u t i c a l miles northwestward from V i c t o r i a , B. C. At present, the area i s comprised of the v a l l e y of the r i v e r and i t s watersheds, i n c l u d i n g the v a l l e y s of Van I s l e , Spud, and Gold v a l l e y creeks. Z e b a l l o s i s reached e i t h e r by Canadian P a c i f i c steamships, which maintain a t r i - m o n t h l y s e r v i c e from Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , or by aeroplane. General Geology. . t,... The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the g e o l o g i c a l formations of the Zeballos mining area. TABLE OF FORMATIONS J u r a s s i c •;tipper" j Coast Range J u r a s s i c 1 I n t r u s i v e s Z e b a l l o s g r a n o d i o r i t e . I n t r u s i v e Contact Mesozoic T r i a s s i c Upper T r i a s s i c (Vancou-ver group) Bonanza Flows, t u f f s , lime-stone, a r g i l l i t e , br.eccia. Quatsino C r y s t a l l i n e l i m e - . stone w i t h i n t e r -bedded v o l c a n i c s . Earmutsen Flows, b r e c c i a , minor interbeds of limestone. 2 5 . The main feature of the geology i s a northwesterly trending .belt of g r a n i t i c ; rocks which .'have been c a l l e d the Zeballos b a t h o l i t h . Rock types, i n t h i s i n t r u s i o n , range :from-gabbro through q u a r t z - d i o r i t e to quartz monzonite. W i t h i n the smaller area of present-mining operations, the p r e v a i l i n g type i s quartz-diorite.. The g r a n i t i c rocks have intruded Mesozoic v o l c a n i c s and sediments of the Vancouver group. The Vancouver group has been d i v i d e d i n t o three members: 1. Karmutsen v o l c a n i c s , a lower assemblage of v o l c a n i c rocks l y i n g northeast of the b a t h o l i t h , 2. Quatsino limestone, or middle member, l i e s above the Karmutsen v o l c a n i c s . 3. Bonanza member, southwest of the b a t h o l i t h , which c o n s i s t s of interbedded v o l c a n i c s and sediments. Dykes are numerous near the i n s t r u s i o h , and are a l l premineral i n age. s t r u c t u r a l Geology. I n the Ze b a l l o s mineral area the p r e v a i l i n g dip of the sediments i s to the southwest. Pre-mineral f a u l t i n g and f r a c t u r i n g cut the fold e d rocks and b a t h o l i t h i n such a way as t o develop major shears along northwest-southeast l i n e s . The m a j o r i t y of the gold-bearing veins on-Vancouver I s l a n d s t r i k e northwest-southeast, and these are w e l l - d e f i n e d i n the Zeballos d i s t r i c t * 26-. Mlner.alogyV :> The ore deposits of the Zeballos area.may be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three.groups: • ' 1 . High-temperature replacement deposits. 2 * High-temperature v e i n s . 3 . Intermediate-temperature, v e i n s . The high temperature replacement deposits are l e n t i c u l a r replacements i n l i m y sediments. T y p i c a l minerals of t h i s type of deposit are:, p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , and molybdenite. High-temperature veins are not common, but where . found.are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an abundance of p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , and s p h a l e r i t e . The main deposits of the area are gold-bearing quartz-sulphide veins occupying faulty f i s s u r e s . The form,, texture and mineralogy i n d i c a t e conditions of de p o s i t i o n between those p r e v a i l i n g f o r medium and high temperature v e i n s . The veins occupy w e l l - d e f i n e d f i s s u r e s that maintain a f a i r l y uniform s t r i k e and dip over considerable l e n g t h . Comb te x t u r e s are ..common i n the veins, which suggests the f i l l i n g of open f i s s u r e s . The sulphide minerals i n the veins i n c l u d e : p y r i t e , sphalerite., a r s e n o p y r i t e , galena, c h a l c o p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e . Quartz and a l i t t l e c a l c i t e are the only gangue minerals* The m i n e r a l deposits are r e l a t e d to the Ze b a l l o s b a t h o l i t h , and t h e i r age i s probably l a t e upper J u r a s s i c . 2 7 . The P r i v a t e e r Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the Property. L o c a t i o n . The P r i v a t e e r property, owned by the P r i v a t e e r Mine L i m i t e d , includes the f o l l o w i n g claims: P r i v a t e e r Nos. 1 to. 4 i n c l u s i v e , P r i v a t e e r No. 7 , Progress Nos. 1 to 4 i n c l u s i v e , and the Ray f r a c t i o n . The camp'' i s on the southwest side of Spud creek at an e l e v a t i o n of approximately 430 f e e t , and i s reached by 4^ m i l e s of road up. the Zeballos v a l l e y from the town of Ze b a l l o s . Economic. Geology. The property i s crossed by; the southwestern eontact of the Ze b a l l o s b a t h o l i t h and the Vancouver v o l c a n i c s . The main v e i n i s a f i s s u r e v e i n f i l l e d w i t h quartz and sulphides. I t s t r i k e s north 6 5 degrees east, dips 8 7 degrees northwest, and averages 6 inches i n width. Mineralogy. '-•••-,•' I n t r o d u c t i o n . -Megascopically the ore c o n s i s t s of bands of sulphides i n a tr a n s l u c e n t quartz gangue. P y r i t e , aresenopyrite, and small mounts of s p h a l e r i t e and galena are v i s i s b l e i n the ore. : S i x p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s of ore from t h i s property were prepared and studied m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y . The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c minerals were determined 2 8 • by microseopic examination to be present i n the ore. They are l i s t e d i n order of abundance. 1. P y r i t e . 2. Arsenopyrite. . *>;. Galena. 4. S p h a l e r i t e . 5« Ghaleopyrite. 6 . P y r r h o t i t e . . -7 - Gold. 8. Unknown. F r i a b l e quartz and c a l c i t e were the only gangue minerals observed. ' D e s c r i p t i o n of the M i n e r a l s . P y r i t e . P y r i t e i s the major sulphide mineral i n the ore, and c o n s t i t u t e s , w e l l over h a l f of the sulphides present i n the s e c t i o n s studied. I t i s exceedingly broken and f r a c t u r e d , and occurs mainly as anhedral masses, but occasion-a l l y shows c r y s t a l form against l a t e r sulphides. Where arseno-p y r i t e i s i n contact w i t h the p y r i t e , the boundaries are very smooth. Some arsenopyrite i s included i n the masses of p y r i t e . The major i n t e r s t i c e s between g r a i n s , and the l a r g e r f r a c t u r e s i n the p y r i t e are f i l l e d w i t h quartz, s p h a l e r i t e , galena, and sometimes c h a l c o p y r i t e . Smaller f r a c t u r e s are f i l l e d by a l a t e r generation of quartz, which i s darker than the f i r s t . A r s e n o p y r i t e . I n the s e c t i o n s s t u d i e d , arsenopyrite i s f a i r l y abundant. I t occurs as small anhedral masses, but g e n e r a l l y shows a more or l e s s c r y s t a l l i n e form. I n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e are t r i a n g u l a r or rhombohedral i n o u t l i n e , as are many i s o l a t e d patches and g r a i n s i n quartz. L i k e the pyrite,, ; the arsenopyrite i s a l s o badly f r a c t u r e d , and the f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d w i t h quartz, s p h a l e r i t e and galena. 29. Galena,. Galena occurs i n massive, anhedral patches I t forms i r r e g u l a r contacts w i t h p y r i t e and arsenopyrite, and in-some cases f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n these minerals. The boundar-i e s batween p y r i t e and galena are seldom mutual, the two being separated by s t r i n g e r s of lat e , quartz. "Where galena and s p h a l e r i t e are i n contact, the boundaries are smooth and mutual. No ease was observed where e i t h e r of these sulphides veined i n t o the other. The same smooth mutual boundaries e x i s t between galena and gold, showing that the gold was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d e p o s i t i o n of the galena. . S p h a l e r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e i s not as abundant as the galena. I t occurs l i k e galena i n massive patches, and i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and a r s e n o p yrite. The sphalerite-galena boundaries are smooth and mutual, but the p y r i t e - s p h a l e r i t e boundaries are very i r r e g u l a r . Late'quartz s t r i n g e r s separate the s p h a l e r i t e from p y r i t e i n most cases. C h a l c o p y r i t e . C h a l c o p y r i t e i s present only i n small amounts. I t occurs as minute b l e b s ' i n s p h a l e r i t e ; as minute, rounded or elongated, blebs i n the p y r i t e ; as long, narrow, v e i n l e t s i n the p y r i t e and arsenopyrite f r a c t u r e s ; and r a r e l y as l a r g e r i r r e g u l a r masses i n quartz. Boundaries between c h a l c o p y r i t e , galena, and s p h a l e r i t e are mutual and smooth; while those between c h a l c o p y r i t e and p y r i t e are i r r e g u l a r . \ P y r r h o t i t e . I n the s e c t i o n s , p y r r h o t i t e occurs only as minute rounded blebs i n the p y r i t e , and o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the a r s e n o p y r i t e . I n many cases p y r r h o t i t e and chalcopyrite occur together i n one bleb i n d i c a t i n g a close r e l a t i o n s h i p . P y r r h o t i t e was not observed to occur i n any other way i n 30. these s e c t i o n s , hut has been p r e v i o u s l y reported i n small masses i n quartz. •Quartz* Quartz i s the only important gangue mineral observed. There appear to be two generations of quartz i n the ore, the second one being darker than the f i r s t . The e a r l i e r generation f i l l s i n t e r s t i c e s between the p y r i t e and arsenopyrite masses, but does not v e i n the l a t e r sulphides. The l a t e r , or dark, quartz f i l l s small f r a c t u r e s In p y r i t e and arse n o p y r i t e , veins between the l a t e r sulphides and p y r i t e , and f i l l s i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n galena, s p h a l e r i t e and cha l c o p y r i t e I t would seem that the d e p o s i t i o n of the l a t e r quartz was contemporaneous w i t h or overlapped the de p o s i t i o n of galena, s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Gold. The' g o l d occurs i n d i f f e r e n t ways i n t h i s ore, as f o l l o w s : 1. I s o l a t e d i n quartz. 2. .At contacts between galena and pyrite". ~ 3* At contacts between arsenopyrite and p y r i t e . 4 . R a r e l y as I n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . I t s boundaries w i t h galena are mutual, but are i r r e g u l a r w i t h p y r i t e - and arsenopyrite ;. C a l c i t e . C a l c i t e was observed i n small q u a n t i t i e s i n quartz f r a c t u r e s . Unknown. This mineral occurred very s p a r i n g l y i n p y r i t e as minute specks, and was oft e n seen near blebs of p y r r h o t i t e or c h a l c o p y r i t e . The colour i s dark-grey w i t h a decided purple t i n g e , but due to the extremely small s i z e of the p a r t i c l e s , i t s i d e n t i t y could not be determined. Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g paragenesis i s suggested. P y r i t e was the f i r s t sulphide mineral to be, deposited. The deposition of arsenopyrite' and'pyrrhotite probably overlapped that of the p y r i t e . Some gold was al s o deposited at t h i s time. The p y r i t e and arsenopyrite were f r a c t u r e d , and the f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d by the f i r s t generation quartz. I t i s thought that t h i s f i r s t generation quartz may have s t a r t e d t o deposit w i t h the p y r i t e and arsenopyrite.. A second p e r i o d of f r a c t u r i n g , i n which a l l the e a r l y minerals were shattered, was followed by the deposition of s p h a l e r i t e , galena, c h a l c o p y r i t e and gold. Also about t h i s time, a second generation of quartz was introduced. C a l c i t e i s thought to have been deposited at a much l a t e r time, as i t may be seen f i l l i n g small f r a c t u r e s i n the l a t e r sulphides. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION 01* PARAGENESIS Quartz — — — : — — — P y r i t e — — : — — Arsenopyrite — — - — — P y r r h o t i t e - — — Gold — — S p h a l e r i t e —-— Galena ;: — — — — — Chalcopyrite — ;— : — D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e of G o l d . P a r t i c l e s . In some sec t i o n s of the P r i v a t e e r ore very l i t t l e gold was seen, while i n others i t was very abundant. I t was observed to be mainly associated w i t h the l a t e r sulphides, although a small quantity was found as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . The gold p a r t i c l e s vary i n s i z e from 3 microns to grai n s of megascopic s i z e , about one quarter of an i n c h i n length. The f i n e r p a r t i c l e s were g e n e r a l l y those included i n the p y r i t e , while the coarser grains were associated w i t h galena, s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . D e s c r i p t i o n of the Sections. Section.No. 1: S e c t i o n No. 2 : S e c t i o n No. 3: S e c t i o n No.. 4: Section, No. 5' S e c t i o n No.. 6: Sec t i o n No. ?: Major Minor Rare Major Minor Rare Major Minor Rare Major Rare • P y r i t e , arsenopyrite and quartz. C h a l c o p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and galena. • Gold and p y r r h o t i t e . P y r i t e , arsenopyrite and quartz, C h a l c o p y r i t e . P y r r h o t i t e , gold and unknown. P y r i t e . A rsenopyrite. Chalcopyrite and p y r r h o t i t e . P y r i t e , and .arsenopyrite. P y r r h o t i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e Major -» A l l quartz. Rare Gold and s p h a l e r i t e . Major — Quartz. -Rare •— Gold. — Hoadley S e c t i o n No. 1. Major — P y r i t e , arsenopyrite and quartz. . . . Minor — Galena and s p h a l e r i t e . Rare -— P y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and g o l d . . Conclusions .i 1. The primary ore of the mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , a r s e nopyrite, p y r r h o t i t e , chalcopyrite., s p h a l e r i t e and galena. 2. The minerals belong t y p i c a l l y to'the mesothermal : zone of d e p o s i t i o n . 3. The greater p a r t of the gold i s associated w i t h the l a t e r sulphides, p a r t i c u l a r l y galena. 4. A very small amount of gold appears to have been deposited w i t h the p y r i t e , but the bulk of the metal was probably one of the l a s t t o s o l i d i f y . 33. 5*. There i s a decided tendency of the gold to occur i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e , arsenopyrite or quartz, u s u a l l y with, galena, but often alone. ' U b U x U - x * The T r i t e s Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of tha Property. L o c a t i o n . The North S t a r group i s owned by A. B. T r i t e s i n t e r e s t s of Vancouver, and c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g mineral claims;: Golden Key, Golden Nugget, Zero f r a c t i o n , North Star No. 2, North Star, Don f r a c t i o n , Golden Stray, Nod f r a c t i o n , Golden Rocket and Golden Lode. The group i s s i t u a t e d between e l e v a t i o n s of 2,423 f e e t and 2,6l5 f e e t , on a steep mountain side s l o p i n g south-westward i n t o the headwaters of Go l d v a l l e y creek. The work-ings are reached by the G o l d v a l l e y t r a i l , which leaves the creek, bottom at an e l e v a t i o n of 1,640 f e e t and climbs steeply to the camp. Economic Geology. This property i s i n t y p i c a l g r a n o d i o r i t e , which i s traversed by f o u r n o r t h - e a s t e r l y s t r i k i n g shear zones. Much weathering has taken place i n the upper p a r t s , but f r e s h , unoxidized m a t e r i a l occurs i n the lower cuts. Mineralogy. I n t r o d u c t i o n . The ore from the T r i t e s property i s very s i m i l a r to that from the P r i v a t e e r , . though i n the sections studied the sulphides are r a t h e r more disseminated. P y r i t e , arsenopyrite 34. and galena* are v i s i b l e megaseopieally. The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c minerals were i d e n t i f i e d i n the s e c t i o n s . They are l i s t e d i n order of abundance. 1. P y r i t e . 2. Arsenopyrite. 3. S p h a l e r i t e . 4. Galena. 5- C h a l c o p y r i t e . 6. Gold. 7- P y r r h o t i t e . Quartz i s the only gangue mineral In these sections. D e s c r i p t i o n of the M i n e r a l s . P y r i t e . P y r i t e i s the most abundant sulphide i n the ore:. I t i s f r a c t u r e d and occurs as both massive and c r y s t a l l i n e . Inclusions of p y r r h o t i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e , although not as numerous as i n the P r i v a t e e r . s e c t i o n s , are present to some extent, as are also euhedral i n c l u s i o n s of arsenopyrite. Quartz, galena, s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e occur f i l l i n g the f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and arsenopyrite. Gold occurs as i n c l u s i o n s i n both p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e . A r s e n o p y r i t e . Arsenopyrite i s not as abundant as p y r i t e and.does not occur i n l a r g e masses. Where i t i s seen i n q u a n t i t y , i t i s i n swarms of small fragments, u s u a l l y showing c r y s t a l l i n e form. P y r i t e - a r s e n o p y r i t e boundaries are smooth and mutual, i n d i c a t i n g d e p o s i t i o n at about the same time.. S p h a l e r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e occurs i n masses i n quartz, and v e i n i n g p y r i t e . The usual specks of exolved chalcopyrite were observed i n the s p h a l e r i t e . Generally these show no o r i e n t a t i o n . 3 6 . Some gold "evidently accompanied the de p o s i t i o n of these minerals,, as. i t occurs as i n c l u s i o n s i n ' p y r i t e and arseno-p y r i t e . The depositi o n of quartz must have continued longer than the others as i t f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and arseno-p y r i t e , and al s o f i l l s the i n t e r s t i c e s between masses. Following a s h a t t e r i n g of these e a r l i e r minerals, s p h a l e r i t e , chalcopyrite., galena and gold were deposited. The gold was probably one of the l a t e s t minerals to be deposited. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PARAGENESIS Quartz - — — — — — P y r i t e - — ; — — — .-. Arsenopyrite . — — T y r r h o t i t e — - — • Gold . ' . — — — S p h a l e r i t e — Galena • .Chalcopyrite —- — D i s t r i b u t i o n and Size of Gold P a r t i c l e s . Most of the gold p a r t i c l e s seen i n these sections occurred as i n c l u s i o n s i n e i t h e r p y r i t e or arsenopyrite, but a few were observed i n f r a c t u r e s i n these two minerals. I t i s j t h e r e f o r e , evident that the gold was deposited at the same time and l a t e r than the p y r i t e and arsenopyrite. The p a r t i c l e s vary i n s i z e from 2 microns to 1 2 . 3 microns, w i t h an average s i z e of 4 microns. I t w i l l be seen tha t t h i s gold i s f i n e r than that i n the P r i v a t e e r s e c t i o n s . And again, as i n the P r i v a t e e r s e c t i o n s , the f i n e r p a r t i c l e s are found i n p y r i t e and arsenopyrite as i n c l u s i o n s . Those grains i n p y r i t e and arsenopyrite are more or l e s s round, whi l e those o c c u r r i n g i n f r a c t u r e s are i r r e g u l a r or elongated. 35 Galena. Galena I s present i n about the same aaount as s p h a l e r i t e . I t occurs as masses and veins i n quartz f r a c t u r e s , and as v e i n l e t s i n p y r i t e f r a c t u r e s . In a l l sections i t appears to be:contemporaneous wi t h s p h a l e r i t e . Ghaleopyrite. Ghaleopyrite i s present as masses i n quartz, as v e i n l e t s i n p y r i t e and arsenopyrite, as small, rounded blebs i n pyrite,, and as minute specks i n s p h a l e r i t e . Gold. Gold occurs associated w i t h p y r i t e , arseno-p y r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . I n "these se c t i o n s no gold was observed w i t h galena or s p h a l e r i t e , although some p a r t i c l e s -.-occurred i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and arsenopyrite. P y r r h o t i t e . P y r r h o t i t e i s very scarce i n these s e c t i o n s . Only one or two t i n y specks were seen as i n c l u s i o n s In p y r i t e and arsenopyrite.. / Quartz. Quartz i s abundant i n these two se c t i o n s . I t occurs f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and arsenopyrite. Some of the f r a c t u r e s i n the quartz are f i l l e d w i t h galena, s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g paragenesis i s suggested. The order of de p o s i t i o n of the minerals i n the T r i t e s ore appears t o be i d e n t i c a l w i t h that i n the P r i v a t e e r s e c t i o n s . The only d i f f e r e n c e noted was the absence of a l a t e generation of quartz, the absence of c a l c i t e and the absence of the u n i d e n t i f i e d , purple mineral i n the T r i t e s s e c t i o n s . Quartz, p y r i t e , arsenopyrite, w i t h minor amounts of ch a l c o p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e were the f i r s t minerals to s o l i d i f y , D e s c r i p t i o n of Sections. Section N o . l : Major — P y r i t e and quartz. , Minor --Arsenopyrite.. Rare — Chalcopyrite and p y r r h o t i t e . S e c t i o n No. 2: Major -- P y r i t e and quartz. Minor — Galena, s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Rare — Gold. Conclusions. 1 . The primary ore of the mine consists, of p y r i t e , a r s e nopyrite, p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and galena, 2. The minerals belong mainly to the mesothermal zone of d e p o s i t i o n . 3 . Tho gold p a r t i c l e s seen i n these sections occurred as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e and arsenopyrite, and i n f r a c t u r e s i n these minerals. Yery l i t t l e galena or s p h a l e r i t e occurs i n the sections,•• and n e i t h e r of these minerals was seen .associated w i t h any of the g o l d . 4. The gold p a r t i c l e s are f i n e . Apparently the coarser p a r t i c l e s of gold occur w i t h or near galena and s p h a l e r i t e . . 5. The g o l d appears to have been deposited at two periods during the s o l i d i f i c a t i o n of the sulphide minerals. The Rey Pro Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the Property. L o c a t i o n . The Lone Sta r c l a i m i s owned by the Rey Oro Gold Mining Company, L i m i t e d . The workings are l o c a t e d on the north-east bank of G o l d v a l l e y creek between e l e v a t i o n s of 1 3 0 0 f e e t and 1,420 f e e t . Economic Geology. The deposits are i n j o i n t s or i n crushed zones i n the p r e v a i l i n g granodiorite.. 3 8 . •Mineralogy*;, I n t r o d u c t i o n . The samples of Hey Oro ore which were studied are s i m i l a r to that from the T r i t e s property, and are, l i k e most of -the ore from the d i s t r i c t , extremely f r i a b l e . The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c minerals were determined by microscopic examination t o be present i n the ore. They are l i s t e d i n order of abundance. 1. P y r i t e . 2. S p h a l e r i t e . 3 . Galena. 4. Arsenopyrite. 3 « C h a l c o p y r i t e . 6. P y r r h o t i t e . 7. Gold. Quartz was the only gangue mineral seen i n the s e c t i o n s . D e s c r i p t i o n of M i n e r a l s . • <» • P y r i t e . P y r i t e i s present as small masses and grains., some of which show a c r y s t a l l i n e form. I t i s consider-ably f r a c t u r e d , and these•fractures are f i l l e d w i t h quartz. Small blebs of c h a l c o p y r i t e occur as i n c l u s i o n s i n the p y r i t e . Arsenopyrite. Arsenopyrite i s not as abundant i n these sections as i t i s i n those of p r i v a t e e r and T r i t e s ore. I t occurs mainly as masses of small euhedral p a r t i c l e s surround-ed by quartz. One g r a i n only was seen included i n p y r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e i s r e l a t i v e l y abundant i n the s e c t i o n s . In most cases i t occurs as s m a l l , i r r e g u l a r masses, but o c c a s i o n a l l y i t f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n quartz and p y r i t e . A few s c a t t e r e d blebs of c h a l c o p y r i t e are u s u a l l y included i n the s p h a l e r i t e masses. . Galena. Galena i s rather scarce, but occurs l i k e s p h a l e r i t e i n small masses and v e i n l e t s i n quartz, p y r i t e and arsenopyrite. In one place galena was observed v e i n i n g s p h a l e r i t e , suggesting deposition l a t e r than the s p h a l e r i t e . Chalcopyrite.. Chalcopyrite i s r a r e , and occurs , only as minute i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e and arsenopyrite, and as exsolved blebs i n s p h a l e r i t e . P y r r h o t i t e . P y r r h o t i t e i s exceedingly r a r e i n these two s e c t i o n s . Two small blebs were.observed i n p y r i t e . Gold. Gold i s observed to occur i n the f o l l o w i n g ways.: 1. In f r a c t u r e s i n quartz. 2. In f r a c t u r e s i n arsenopyrite.. 3* Along the contact of p y r i t e and arsenopyrite. No intimate a s s o c i a t i o n q.f the gold w i t h galena and s p h a l e r i t e was observed. The gold occurs i n f r a c t u r e s i n the e a r l y sulphides or quartz, and tends to be i n elongated blebs or v e i n l e t s . Paragene s i s . The f o l l o w i n g paragenesis i s suggested. P y r i t e , arsenopyrite and quartz were the f i r s t minerals to be deposited. The quartz continued to deposit a f t e r the p y r i t e and arsenopyrite had s o l i d i f i e d , and been f r a c t u r e d , as i t i s seen f i l l i n g these f r a c t u r e s . Continued movement caused s h a t t e r i n g of both quartz and sulphides with subsequent de p o s i t i o n of s p h a l e r i t e , galena, c h a l c o p y r i t e and gold. . , GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OP PARAGENESIS Quartz: • • —• •—— P y r i t e ; — — — : — Arsenopyrite —.-• . ,•, — . P y r r h o t i t e — — — •— Chalcopyrite — : • — Sp h a l e r i t e — — — Galena : Gold D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e of G o l d , P a r t i c l e s * I n the two sections of Rey Oro ore which were studied, the gold occurs only In f r a c t u r e s i n e i t h e r quartz, p y r i t e or a r s e n o p y r i t e . I t i s not i n t i m a t e l y associated w i t h e i t h e r galena or s p h a l e r i t e , although both of these minerals occur near to the g o l d . The gold p a r t i c l e s vary i n s i z e from 12 microns to. 420 microns with an average of 3 0 microns. D e s c r i p t i o n of Sections. S e c t i o n No. 1: Major — - Q u a r t z . Minor — P y r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and s p h a l e r i t e . Rare — Gold. S e c t i o n No. 2: Major -- Quartz. Minor — S p h a l e r i t e , galena and arsenopyrite. Rare — Gold. Conclusions. 1. The primary ore of the mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , a r s e nopyrite, p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and galena. 2. The minerals belong to the mesothermal zone of de p o s i t i o n . . 3 . The gold occurs In f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e , arseno-r p y r i t e and"quartz, and therefore, must be l a t e r than these minerals. . 4. No gold was seen i n contact w i t h s p h a l e r i t e or galena, although both of these minerals are present i n the v i c i n i t y of the gold. 5* The gold p a r t i c l e s are g e n e r a l l y r a t h e r coarse. to o pq CO & o H EH PH O Hi o o B H EH £> pq H §H CO H Q 4^> K3 Pi H CD cd o •P FH o co EHDH CO © •H Pi CO, P! •H n3 H O C5 I • -p O © Pi O +3 <D H -H O Cd FH fH Pi rCl S © H o ftpH I -P H • Pi cd © © rf.-P o Pl'H FH Pi w FH © H © PM . -p cd pi Pi © © o H JH Pi cd © H EJDPH O +3 pj Pi -H © CD PJ o ra >>Pi FH Pi H cd P< © PH © 43 •H PH Pi H CO » +3 Pi © Pi © 43 CD -H o FH FH ,Pi i>> © H ftpM CO © M43 © Pi o o o cd FH FH © <H PH Pi •H H O C5 .3 4J ~ •H CO £ © <€>' 43 M «H o 43^ Pi FH P, cd H +3 Pi Pi P5 D* CO fix $ -P © Pi xi © 4-3 O . FH N © © ,Q PM CO © UN O O Lf> OC Kv-s4 »4-«+ UNCO O 3° kO; O IO 'CM, o «N H I O O » • H CM O IX) c\l *4| o o CM| 1 o LCVOO o oko I o o LfMea KMCM H O O o o H CO +3 Pi H © cd o 4-3 FH o © EHPH P A R T 0 THE CARIBOO MINING DISTRICT 41. PART C: THE CARIBOO MINING DISTRICT D e s c r i p t i o n of the D i s t r i c t L o c a t i o n . The B a r k e r v i l l e area embraces approximately 210 square m i l e s , and i s p a r t of the Cariboo d i s t r i c t of c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia. This area i s i n the pl a t e a u region of B r i t i s h Columbia, and i s bounded on the west by the Coast range and on the east by the Cariboo and other mountain ranges. The three mines studied from t h i s area are r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e by road from the towns of Quesnel and B a r k e r v i l l e . Q,ues,nel i s on the Cariboo highway from Vancouver, and i s a l s o the northern terminus of the P a c i f i c Great Eastern r a i l w a y . General Geology. . -The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the g e o l o g i c a l formations of the Cariboo d i s t r i c t : ; . TABLE OF FORMATIONS T e r t i a r y Gravel p a r t l y cemented, s l i d e rock. , . • Unconformitv Mesozoic J u r a s s i c Mount Murry s i l l s and dykes. Quesnel r i v e r group. Diabase, gabfero d i o r i t e . A r g i l l i t e and basalt. (Continued on next page) 42. TABLE OF FORMATIONS (continued) . I n t r usive Contact Palaeozoic M i s s i s s i p -• pl a n S l i d e mountai s e r i e s A n t l e r n Waverly Green-berry Guyet Thin-bedded white, red and black chert w i t h interbedded grej shale. B a s i c v o l c a n i c flows and b r e c c i a s . C r i n o i d a l limestone.. Basal conglomerate. Unconformity -Proserpine s i l l s and dykes. Quartz porphyry, f e l s i t e and a p l i t e . .V..-.„ • ' v . I n t r u s i v e Gonta ct Pre-Cambriat — " — r 1 Cariboo s e r i e s Pleasant v a l l e y • Bark e r v i l l e R i c h f i e l d S l a t e , p h y l l i t e , s e r c i t e s c h i s t , c h l o r i t e s c h i s t , schistose v o l c a n i c b r e c c i a . Limestone, s l a t e , . • " q u a r t z i t e , micaceous q u a r t z i t e , s e r i c i t e s c h i s t , Q u a r t z i t e , quartz, s l a t e , f i n e - g r a i n e d conglomerate, black carbonaceous s l a t e . The oldest rocks of the Cariboo d i s t r i c t are known as the Cariboo s e r i e s . The rocks are not f o s s i l i f e r o u s , but from t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l p o s i t i o n , degree of metamorphism, and t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y to Pre-Cambrian rocks f a r t h e r south, they are b e l i e v e d to be of Pre-Cambrian age. This s e r i e s c o n s i s t s of q u a r t z i t e s , a r g i l l i t e s , and limestones, s l i g h t l y to s t r o n g l y sheared and having a t o t a l t hickness of many thousand f e e t . ' The s e r i e s has been f o l d e d i n t o a northwesterly trending a n t i c l i n e . The medial p a r t of the a n t i c l i n e i s exposed f o r a width of f i f t e e n miles,, and a length of more than f i f t y miles.. 43 . In t r u d i n g the Cariboo s e r i e s are a few dykes and s i l l s of quartz porphyry and a l l i e d a c i d rock types. They are c a l l e d the Proserpine i n t r u s i v e s and are b e l i e v e d to be p r e - M i s s i s s i p p i a n , and p o s s i b l y pre-Cambrian i n age. TJnconformably o v e r l y i n g the northeastern limb of the a n t i c l i n e i s the S l i d e Mountain s e r i e s of upper Palaeozoic age, c o n s i s t i n g of conglomerate, c r i n o i d a l limestone, banded cherts, a r g i l l i t e and b a s a l t i c l a v a s . The upper p a r t of the s e r i e s i s cut by many gabbroic dykes?. The general dip of the s e r i e s i s northeast. Overlying' the southwestern limb of the a n t i c l i n e , unconformably., are J u r a s s i c a r g i l l i t e s and b a s a l t s c a l l e d the Quesnel R i v e r group. The sediments of the group dip southwest. The Cariboo s e r i e s i s of s p e e i a l i n t e r e s t f o r i n i t are a l l the known lode gold deposits of the d i s t r i c t . In the B a r k e r v i l l e map-area the s e r i e s has been d i v i d e d i n t o three formations: 1. Pleasant V a l l e y formation. 2. B a r k e r v i l l e formation. 3« R i c h f i e l d formation. The R i c h f i e l d formation, the lowest exposed forma-t i o n of the Cariboo s e r i e s , c o n s i s t s mainly of q u a r t z i t e , but includes as w e l l limestone, black a r g i l l i t e , and other rock , types g r a d a t l o n a l between the three named. The B a r k e r v i l l e formation o v e r l i e s the R i c h f i e l d formation conformably, and c o n s i s t s mainly of b l u i s h - g r e y limestone, b l a c k l i m y a r g i l l i t e , and q u a r t z i t e . *The Pleasant V a l l e y formation o v e r l i e s the Barker-v i l l e and c o n s i s t s mainly of black a r g i l l i t e . S t r u c t u r a l Geology. The upper-part of the R i c h f i e l d formation i n the v i c i n i t y of B a r k e r v i l l e i s cut by a multitude of quartz v e i n s , many of which are gold-bearing. The part of the formation chara c t e r i z e d by the numerous quartz veins i s c a l l e d the B a r k e r v i l l e Gold B e l t . The gold b e l t rocks are on the northeastern limb of the northwesterly t r e n d i n g a n t i c l i n e . I n general, the s t r i k e i s northwest, with a northeast d i p . Shearing of the rocks has taken place i n v a r y i n g degrees, so that although the general nature of the o r i g i n a l rock i s r a r e l y In doubt, the b e d d i n g / i n some places has been obscured. These rocks are traversed by a great many pre-, mineral f r a c t u r e s , many of which are occupied by quartz v e i n s . Most of the f r a c t u r e s cut the s t r a t a at roughly r i g h t angles, and t h e i r s t r i k e s range from north 15 degrees to north 60 degrees east. Another set of f r a c t u r e s cross the s t r i k e of the beds diagonally,.and s t r i k e from north 60 degrees east to east. Others are approximately p a r a l l e l t o the s t r a t a . A l l the f r a c t u r e s d i a g o n a l l y c r o s s i n g the s t r a t a and so f a r as i s khovm, also those that p a r a l l e l the s t r a t a , contain quartz v e i n s . The transverse and diagonal f r a c t u r e s are not faults.. Those roughly p a r a l l e l i n g the s t r a t a are f a u l t s . 45. .A:, number of post mineral f a u l t s occur i n the gold b e l t . Most of them are small, but s e v e r a l large ones e x i s t . These dip approximately 60 degrees t o the east. S t r i k e f a u l t s are the most common type i n the d i s t r i c t . M i n e r a l i z a t i o n . The ore deposits of the B a r k e r v i l l e d i s t r i c t are of two fundamentally d i f f e r e n t types; • 1. Quartz v e i n s . 2. Eeplacement deposits i n limestone. Quartz v e i n s . The quartz v e i n type i s the more numerous of the two. These d i f f e r g r e a t l y i n s i z e , shape and s t r i k e . The veins pinch and s w e l l along the s t r i k e i n short dis t a n c e s , and i n places " s t r i n g e r " out w i t h p y r i t i z e d s c h i s t l y i n g between the s t r i n g e r s . The m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of the veins c o n s i s t s of quartz, a n k e r i t e , p y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , galena, galena-b i s m u t i t e , e o s a l i t e and gold. Free gold occurs i n grains from minute specks to nuggets. The galenabesmutite and e o s a l i t e occurs s p o r a d i c a l l y i n small bunches, and much coarse gold i s associated with i t . Small q u a n t i t i e s of s c h e e l i t e occurs i n p l a c e s . Replacement type. I n these d e p o s i t s , the gold-bearing p y r i t e replaces white c r y s t a l l i n e limestone. The limestone i s i n the form of lenses, which vary g r e a t l y i n t h i c k n e s s , probab-l y due to the r e s u l t of f o l d i n g . The replacement may be found anywhere i n the l i m e -stone bed, but an e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n f o r the formation of an 46. ore "body i s ibhe presence of numerous " h o r s e t a i l " f r a c t u r e s i n the a d j o i n i n g rocks. I t seems probable that these were the avenues by which the m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s entered the limestone. They are from one-half to-'two inches i n width, and may or may not be m i n e r a l i z e d . The massive p y r i t e of the replacements I s much f i n e r grained than that of the v e i n s , and ore of t h i s type i s i n general higher grade than the v e i n ore. Rarely the ore contains nests of s c h e e l i t e , and some samples have contained c h a l c o p y r i t e and galena. The Cariboo Gold. .Quartz Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the Property. l o c a t i o n . * The Cariboo Gold Quartz mine, owned by the Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining Company, L i m i t e d , i s situated-southeast of Jack of Clubs lake on the northern slope of Cow mountain, which r i s e s between the lake and Lowhee creek. Economic Geology. The property i s i n the rocks of the R i c h f i e l d formation of the Cariboo s e r i e s . Two or more periods of f r a c t u r i n g have developed many transverse f r a c t u r e s , and s e v e r a l hundred of these _ ... contain quartz v e i n s . L a t e r than these f r a c t u r e s are f a u l t s t h a t s t r i k e i n three p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s . A few w i t h a very small throw l i e along some of the quartz veins and s t r i k e from.north s i x t y degrees east to north e i g h t y degrees east. 47. These are o f f s e t by others of small throw which p a r a l l e l the s t r a t a . Two f a u l t s , the R ainbow and Lowhee, s t r i k e roughly north and dip approximately at s i x t y degrees to the east. These are of much greater magnitude and are crushed zones twenty or more f e e t wide, w i t h h o r i z o n t a l displacements of 400 f e e t and 1000 f e e t r e s p e c t i v e l y . The mineral deposits are of two types: ' 1, Gold-bearing, p y r i t i c , quartz v e i n s . 2. Gold-bearing, p y r i t i c , replacements. The veins are of. three types; transverse v e i n s that s t r i k e from north t h i r t y degrees east, to north s i x t y degrees east, and cross the s t r a t a roughly at r i g h t angles; diagonal veins that s t r i k e north seventy degrees east to east, and cross the s t r a t a d i a g o n a l l y ; and s t r i k e veins that are p a r a l l e l or n e a r l y p a r a l l e l to the s t r a t a . . The transverse v e i n s are the most numerous and about seven-eighths of these are l e s s than a foot wide; the r e s t average about three f e e t i n width. The diagonal veins are l e s s numerous, but these are also narrow. Many- of the transverse and diagonal veins are commercially v a l u a b l e , but no s t r i k e v e i n i s yet known t o be m i n e r a l i z e d . The replacement deposits are bodies of massive, f i n e - g r a i n e d sulphides i n limestone, as described i n the foregoing d i s c u s s i o n of the whole area. 48. Mineralogy.; \ .Intr.o.du o ti.on... The sulphides i n the Cariboo. Gold Quartz ore occur disseminated through, and i n segregations i n a white, c r y s t a l l i n e quartz. Megaseopically, p y r i t e and small amounts of galena are the only sulphide minerals v i s i b l e , except where pockets of c o s a l i t e and galenabismutite occur. The quartz v a r i e s from p a r t s that are massive, t o p a r t s where i n t e r l o c k -ing c r y s t a l s up to two inches i n length form a loose network. S i x p o l i s h e d sections were prepared from ore from the mine. These were studied m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y , and w i l l be r e f e r r e d to by number. - . The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c m inerals, l i s t e d i n order of abundance, were determined i n the ore. 1. P y r i t e \ 2. Galena. 3. S p h a l e r i t e . 4. C h a l c o p y r i t e . 5» C o s a l i t e . 6. Galenabismutite. 7. Ar s e n o p y r i t e . 8. P y r r h o t i t e . . 9. Gold. 10. T e l l u r i d e ? Quartz i s the p r i n c i p a l gangue m i n e r a l , but a small amount of c a l c i t e i s present. D e s c r i p t i o n of the. M i n e r a l s . P y r i t e . P y r i t e occurs both c r y s t a l l i n e and massive, the former type being the more common. The s i z e of the c r y s -t a l s v a r i e s from those of microscopic s i z e to cubes measuring h a l f an i n c h along a s i d e . The p y r i t e i s more or l e s s f r a c t u r e d . The f r a c t u r e s and i n t e r s t i c e s between the c r y s t a l s 4 9 , are f i l l e d * by quartz. A l s o , some of ttie f r a c t u r e s hare been healed by galena, s p h a l e r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and gold. Minute blebs of p y r r h o t i t e and cha l c o p y r i t e occur s p a r i n g l y as i n c l u s i o n s i n the p y r i t e . A rseno-pyrite. Arsenopyrite was seen only i n Sec t i o n No. 3« Here a few sma l l , euhedral grains are associated W i t h p y r i t e . Quartz. The quartz i s milky-white to t r a n s l u c e n t , and occurs both massive and c r y s t a l l i n e . Many f r a c t u r e s are present i n the quartz, some of which have.been f i l l e d w i t h gold, galena, s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e i s very scarce i n these s e c t i o n s . The only occurrence noted was as small v e i n l e t s i n quartz. . Ch a l c o p y r i t e . Chalcopyrite occurs i n r e l a t i v e l y small-amounts. I t was noted as v e i n l e t s i n f r a c t u r e s of both . quartz and p y r i t e , e i t h e r alone or associated with galena. Rarely i t occurred as minute, rounded or elongated blebs i n p y r i t e . The most i n t e r e s t i n g occurrence of t h i s mineral was seen i n Se c t i o n No. 1, where i t i s included i n an intergrowth of e o s a l i t e and galenabismutite. The smooth, re g u l a r boundaries of the c h a l c o p y r i t e w i t h the other two sulphides i n d i c a t e s a contemporaneous d e p o s i t i o n . -P y r r h o t i t e . P y r r h o t i t e occurs r a r e l y as minute, rounded i n c l u s i o n s i n the p y r i t e , C o s a l i t e and Galenabismutite. G o s a l i t e and galena-bismutite occur as an intergrowth i n Sections No. 1 and No.2. 50. These sections were made from ore which showed megaseopically only quartz and a n e e d l e - l i k e grey mineral containing v i s i b l e gold p a r t i c l e s . ' I t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the two -minerals by colour under the microscope a f t e r studying the surface f o r some time. I n a f r e s h , p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n , galena-bismutite i s s l i g h t l y darker than c o s a l i t e . However, i f the s e c t i o n i s etched f o r a minute with h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d , the two minerals are r e a d i l y discerned, due to a s l i g h t darkening of the galenabismutite. Below are the etch r e a c t i o n s f o r these two minerals: Colour HC1 HN-03 F e C l j KCN, KOH HgGl 2 C o s a l i t e Galena-white blackens w i t h e f f . s l i g h t - -i r r i d e s c . -Galena-bis: mutite -Light grey darkens blackens <Dark ' -s t a i n N e i t h e r of these minerals was.observed associated w i t h p y r i t e i n the s e c t i o n s , but they have both been reported v e i n i n g p y r i t e i n small q u a n t i t i e s , Coarse, v i s i b l e gold i s associated w i t h these two minerals. Cold. Gold occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g ways i n the s e c t i o n s studied: 1. As v e i n l e t s i n f r a c t u r e d quartz. 2. As i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . 3. In c o s a l i t e and galenabismutite. . Gold o c c u r r i n g i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e i s often associated w i t h galena. One example (Section No.l) shows gold i n c h a l c o p y r i t e , both of which are Included i n c o s a l i t e and 51. .galenabism.tita.te. I n some cases gold i n the bismuth, sulphides conforms w i t h the c r y s t a l s t r u c t u r e of those minerals. • T e l l u r l d e . This mineral occurs In what appears to be swarms, of minute i n c l u s i o n s i n c o s a l i t e and galenabismutite. The mineral looks white against the surrounding bismuth-lead minerals and i s s o f t , but i s so extremely f i n e that i t i s i n v i s i b l e except under very high power. I t has a tendency to occur near the edges of the sulphide mass. Microchemical tests" revealed the presence of the element t e l l u r i u m , and etch r e a c t i o n s placed i t i n a small group of minerals of which " a l t a i t e " and "tetradymite" are the two most l i k e l y p o s s i b i l i t i e s . C a l c i t e . . A small amount of t h i s mineral was observed i n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz and sometimes,, i n f r a c t u r e s i n the sulphides. Paragenesis.. P y r i t e and quartz were undoubtedly the f i r s t minerals to be deposited. Arsenopyrite, p y r r h o t i t e , some cha l c o p y r i t e and a l i t t l e gold accompanied the p y r i t e . I t i s probable that d e p o s i t i o n of the quartz preceded, was contemp-oraneous w i t h , and continued l a t e r than the depositi o n of the p y r i t e . P y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and gold , o c c u r r i n g as t i n y i n c l u s i o n s , i n d i c a t e s o l i d i f i c a t i o n w i t h the p y r i t e . Arseno-p y r i t e must also have been deposited at about the same time as the p y r i t e . Both p y r i t e and quartz were f r a c t u r e d p r i o r to the deposition of the l a t e r sulphides; galena, s p h a l e r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , c o s a l i t e , galenabismutite, and gold. No 5 2 - c r i t e r i a were noted f o r the d e f i n i t e determination of the age-r e l a t i o n s h i p s of e o s a l i t e and galenabismutite, except the a s s o c i a t i o n (Section N o . l ) , w i t h c h a l c o p y r i t e . From t h i s , i t i s assumed that they came i n w i t h the l a t e r sulphides. The s p h a l e r i t e , galena, and chalcopyrite. were probably deposited more or l e s s together w i t h some overlap. Most of the gold i n the ore was deposited near the end of the mineral sequence. GRAPHICAL HEPRESBNTATION OF PARAGENESIS Quartz P y r i t e Arsenopyrite P y r r h o t i t e S p h a l e r i t e Galena . Chalcopyrite C o s a l i t e Galenab i smuti te Gold C a l c i t e D i s t r i b u t i o n and Si z e of Gold P a r t i c l e s . I t i s apparent from studying these sections that by f a r the greater percentage of gold present was deposited, and i s a s s ociated w i t h the l a t e r sulphides; galena, c o s a l i t e , galenabismutite and s p h a l e r i t e . Extremely high values are associated with, the two bismuth minerals, and, so f a r as could be ascertained, g o l d occurs with both c o s a l i t e and galenabis-mutite i n equal p r o p o r t i o n s . The estimated percentage of gold i n Sections No.l and No. 2 i s betweenone percent and s i x percent of the t o t a l m i n e r a l content, and v a r i e s i n s i z e from specks about 1 micron i n s i z e t o gra i n s v i s i b l e megaseopically. In general, g o l d associated w i t h these minerals i s f a i r l y coarse. Coarse gold a l s o occurs i s o l a t e d i n quartz, and much of t h i s can be seen without the a i d of a microscope. 5 3 . P a r t i c l e s in-.pyrite f r a c t u r e s tend to take elongated forms, sometimes being very narrow and, long, and varying from 4 microns to 1 0 5 microns i n s i z e . Gold oc c u r r i n g i n p y r i t e as i n c l u s i o n s i s much f i n e r , averaging about 5 microns i n s i z e . D e s c r i p t i o n of Sections,. S e c t i o n No., 1 : Major — C o s a l i t e and galenabismutite. Minor —• Gold and quartz. Rare — Chalcopyrite and t e l l u r i d e . S e c t i o n No. 2: Major — C o s a l i t e and galenabismutite. Minor — Q u a r t z and gold. Rare — T e l l u r i d e . S e c t i o n No,. 3 : Major — P y r i t e , Minor — Quartz. .Rare ; — P y r r h o t i t e , gold and arsenopyrite. Section No. 4: Major —- P y r i t e (very f i n e grained). Minor — Quartz, galena, and s p h a l e r i t e . Rare — Gold. Gold i s abundant ; i n t h i s s e c t i o n . S e c t i o n No. 3: Major — P y r i t e and quartz. Minor — P y r r h o t i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Rare — Gold. -;- : : : S e c t i o n No. 6: Major — P y r i t e and quartz. Minor — Galena and s p h a l e r i t e . •Rare — Gold and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Conclusions.. 1. The primary ore of the mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , a r s e nopyrite, c h a l c o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , galena, c o s a l i t e and galenabismutite. 2. The minerals belong to the mesothermal zone of de p o s i t i o n . 3 « The greater part of the ; gold i s associated w i t h the l a t e r sulphides, and therefore must have come i n with them. The gold was probably one of the l a t e s t minerals to be deposited. 4. T e r y high g o l d values occur w i t h the two bismuth sulphides. . 54 5*. .'Higher values are associated w i t h f i n e - g r a i n e d p y r i t e than with coarsely c r y s t a l l i n e p y r i t e . 6. Although very l i t t l e gold was seen i n contact with e i t h e r galena or s p h a l e r i t e , these minerals were u s u a l l y pres-ent i n the se e t i on, 7» A small amount of gold appears as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e , and t h i s must have s o l i d i f i e d w i t h t h i s e a r l y sulphide. 8. The l a t e r gold occurs c h i e f l y i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e , or quartz. . ' 9. I n general, the gold p a r t i c l e s from t h i s s p r o p e r t y are f a i r l y coarse. The I s l a n d Mountain Mine. D e s c r i p t i o n of the Property. L o c a t i o n . The property of the I s l a n d Mountain Mines Company, Lim i t e d , c o n s i s t i n g of t h i r t y - t w o claims and f r a c t i o n s , com-p r i s e s 1027 acres on I s l a n d mountain, along the north shore of Jack of Clubs l a k e , f o u r miles northwest of the town of B a r k e r v i l l e . Economic G-eology. This mine i s also i n rocks of the R i c h f i e l d forma-t i o n . Both rocks and mineral deposits are cut by f a u l t s , the l a r g e s t of which s t r i k e s about north f i f t e e n degrees west, and dips from f o r t y - f i v e degrees to s i x t y degrees east. I t i s s i m i l a r to the l a r g e f a u l t s i n the Cariboo Gold Quartz mine. There are also many f a u l t s of small throw, p a r a l l e l or n e a r l y p a r a l l e l t o the s t r a t a . The m i n e r a l deposits are o f two types: 1. Gold-bearing, p y r i t i c , quartz v e i n s . 2. Gold-bearing, p y r i t i c replacements i n limestone, • •> Most of the quartz, veins s t r i k e from north t h i r t y degrees east to north s i x t y degrees east, and dip steeply southeast. The veins eonsist of quartz, sulphides and free gold. They occur i n swarms or zones which cut across the formation* The replacement type of deposit c o n s i s t s mainly of gold-bearing p y r i t e w i t h minor amounts of other sulphides, and so f a r the grade of t h i s type i s roughly twice as high as the grade of the b e t t e r v e i n s . Mineralogy. . * I n t r o d u c t i o n . The four p o l i s h e d sections of ore from I s l a n d Mountain were s e c t i o n s which had been already mounted. They were r e - p o l i s h e d and studied by the ..writer. Megascopically, I s l a n d Mountain ore i s s i m i l a r to that of the Cariboo Gold Quartz. The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c minerals, i n order of abundance, were determined m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y i n the sections. 1. P y r i t e . 2. Arsenopyrite. . • . 3 . Galena. 4. C h a l c o p y r i t e . 3 . Gold. Quartz i s the main gangue mineral w i t h small amounts of c a l c i t e . D e s c r i p t i o n of the M i n e r a l s . P y r i t e . P y r i t e i s the most abundant sulphide i n the ore. I t i s both massive and c r y s t a l l i n e , commonly showing euhedral faces against quartz. The p y r i t e i s w e l l - f r a c t u r e d , 5 6 . .and these,fractures are f i l l e d by quartz, galena, c h a l c o p y r i t e , and to some extent w i t h g o l d . No i n c l u s i o n s of p y r r h o t i t e or gold i n p y r i t e were noted i n these s e c t i o n s . Arsenopyrite. Arsenopyrite was observed i n only one s e c t i o n , (Section No.2). I t i s rather p l e n t i f u l i n t h i s s e c t i o n , but not abundant g e n e r a l l y . I t appears intergown wi t h p y r i t e and i s s i m i l a r l y f r a c t u r e d . Galena. Galena i s not abundant i n any of these sections studied. I t occurs v e i n i n g p y r i t e and arsenopyrite, and to a l e s s e r extent i n quartz f r a c t u r e s , as v e i n l e t s , or small, i r r e g u l a r masses. Ghaleopyrite. Chalcopyrite was not abundant, and where found,occurred as narrow v e i n l e t s i n f r a c t u r e d p y r i t e , sometimes i n t i m a t e l y associated w i t h .galena. Gold. Gold was seen to occur i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: 1. I n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and' arsenopyrite. 2. I n t i m a t e l y associated with galena. Those g r a i n s occurring alone i n p y r i t e f r a c t u r e s appear as ve i n l e t s,,_vsrhile those w i t h galena appear as i r r e g u l a r masses i n t i m a t e l y associated w i t h the galena* Paragenesis;. The f o l l o w i n g paragenesis i s suggested. Quartz, p y r i t e : and arsenopyrite were the f i r s t minerals t o be deposited. The quartz continued/ to p r e c i p i t a t e during and a f t e r a p e r i o d of f r a c t u r i n g , which shattered the p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e . This conclusion i s based on the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a . 57. . 1.. Buhedral p y r i t e cubes i n a groUndmass of quartz. 2.'Fractured p y r i t e i n which the f r a c t u r e s are f i l l e d w i t h quartz. Later than t h i s p e r i o d of f r a c t u r i n g , galena, chalco-p y r i t e and gold were deposited. These three sulphides occupy, to some extent, fractures, i n quartz and p y r i t e . C a l c i t e appears to be the l a t e s t m i n e r a l , occurring i n f r a c t u r e s i n the other minerals. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PARAGENESIS Quartz P y r i t e Arsenopyrite Galena Chalcopyrite Gold C a l c i t e D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e of Gold P a r t i c l e s . I n the s e c t i o n s s t u d i e d , gold occurred i n only two ways; i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e , and associated w i t h galena. Both of these occurrences i n d i c a t e d e p o s i t i o n l a t e r than that of the p y r i t e . The greater p a r t of the gold seen occurs with or near galena, and suggests a more or l e s s contemporaneous o r i g i n . The s i z e of the gold p a r t i c l e s v a r i e s from 4 microns to 42 microns, w i t h an average of l 6 microns. No gold was noted as i n c l u s i o n s i n the p y r i t e i n these s e c t i o n s . However, i t must not be concluded that the gold does not occur i n t h i s way. D e s c r i p t i o n of S e c t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g i s .a. l i s t of the sections w i t h t h e i r constituent m i n e r a l s . The minerals are separated according to, t h e i r , abundance i n each i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n . 58. ..Section No. I : Major — P y r i t e (very f i n e - g r a i n e d ) . Minor — Rare — Quartz,, galena, gold and ch a l c o p y r i t e . • S e c t i o n No. 2: Major .— P y r i t e and quartz. Minor — Arsenopyrite. Rare — Gold and galena. Section No. g: Major — P y r i t e . . Minor — - Q u a r t z . Rare — Gold and galena. Section No. 4: Major — P y r i t e . Minor — Quartz. • , Rare — Gold and galena. Conclusions. 1. The primary ore of the mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , arsenopyrite, galena, and c h a l c o p y r i t e . 2. The minerals belong t o the mesothermal zone of d e p o s i t i o n . 5. A l l the gold seen i n these sections was deposited l a t e r than the p y r i t e and quartz. The intimate a s s o c i a t i o n of gold and galena suggests t h a t the-' two minerals were deposited a t about the same time. 4. Most of the gold p a r t i c l e s occur i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e w i t h galena. ' The Cariboo Hudson Mine. D e s c r i p t i o n of the Property. L o c a t i o n . The Cariboo Hudson, property i s s i t u a t e d i n the Cariboo Gold b e l t i n c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia. The group i s located at the head of Harvey and Cunningham creeks, approximately twenty miles southeast of B a r k e r v i l l e , which i s s i t u a t e d 260 m i l e s north and G0 m i l e s east of Vancouver. B a r k e r v i l l e i s reached by a motor-road from Quesnel, which i s the northern terminus of the P a c i f i c Great Eastern r a i l w a y . *Quesnel i s a l s o served by the Cariboo Highway from from "Vancouver to Hazelton. Economic Geology, The mineral deposit occurs i n rocks of the R i c h f i e l d formation, which c o n s i s t s of q u a r t z i t e , s c h i s t , a r g i l l i t e and some limestone. The. deposit c o n s i s t s of a zone of veins and lenses of quartz which s t r i k e s g e n e r a l l y to the southeast. The m i n e r a l i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e and galena i n a quartz gangue. Small amounts of s e h e e l i t e and ankerite also occur as gangue minerals* Mineralogy. -I n t r o d u c t i o n , Cariboo Hudson ore i s s i m i l a r i n appearance to that of the Cariboo Gold Quartz mine. ; P y r i t e w i t h small amounts of s p h a l e r i t e and galena are seen i n the ore samples. E i g h t s e c t i o n s of ore from t h i s property were -prepared and studied. They are numbered from one to e i g h t , and w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o by number. The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c minerals, l i s t e d i n order of abundance, were determined i n the ore: 1. P y r i t e . 2. S p h a l e r i t e . 3. Galena. . . . 4. C h a l c o p y r i t e . •5. P y r r h o t i t e . 6. Gold." Quartz i s the u s u a l gangue mineral w i t h minor amounts of carbonates, mainly c a l c i t e . 6o. D e s c r i p t i o n of the M i n e r a l s , P y r i t e , P y r i t e i s the most abundant sulphide, occurring i n a l l of the sections studied. I t i s f r a c t u r e d i n a l l cases t o some extent, and the f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d with quartz and l a t e r sulphides. Larger i n t e r s t i c e s between p y r i t e masses and i n d i v i d u a l c r y s t a l s are also f i l l e d w i t h quartz. About f i f t y percent of the p y r i t e observed appeared to be e i t h e r wholly or p a r t l y c r y s t a l l i n e . Chalcopyrite and p y r r h o t i t e . occur s p a r i n g l y as minute round, or elongated blebs i n the-p y r i t e , • Quartz, Quartz occurs abundantly f i l l i n g i n t e r -s t i c e s between g r a i n s , and i n f r a c t u r e s i n the p y r i t e . Most of the quartz was probably deposited at the same time or l a t e r than the p y r i t e . No evidence was seen of more than one type of quartz. S p h a l e r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e i s r a t h e r abundant i n some sec t i o n s , and scarce i n others. I t occurs as large and small masses between p y r i t e masses, and also i n f r a c t u r e s i n both p y r i t e and quartz. Blebs of c h a l c o p y r i t e occur s p a r i n g l y i n the s p h a l e r i t e . Where i t i s i n contact w i t h galena, v e i n l e t s and embayments o f galena penetrate Into the s p h a l e r i t e , i n some cases l e a v i n g i s l a n d s of s p h a l e r i t e i n the galena. Where these f e a t u r e s occur, replacement of s p h a l e r i t e by galena i s In d i c a t e d , but quite often the contact i s smooth and regu l a r , g i v i n g the appearance of contemporaneous d e p o s i t i o n . Galena. Galena has the same general d i s t r i b u t i o n as s p h a l e r i t e , and i s present i n about the same q u a n t i t i e s . 6 i . I n section*No. 6, a wide v e i n l e t of galena occurs i n a quartz f r a c t u r e and shows a curved cleavage s t r u c t u r e . This deforma-t i o n may be due t o movement along the f r a c t u r e during s o l i d i -f i c a t i o n of the galena. Chalcopyrite.. Chalcopyrite i s very scarce i n these sec t i o n s . I t occurs only as a few small i n c l u s i o n s i n the p y r i t e and as minute blebs i n s p h a l e r i t e . One t i n y v e i n l e t was observed i n a p y r i t e f r a c t u r e . P y r r h o t i t e . A few small round, or elongated i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . Gold. Gold occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g ways; 1. In p y r i t e as i n c l u s i o n s . 2. I n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz. 3» I n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e , Y/ith or without galena or s p h a l e r i t e . 4. With s p h a l e r i t e and, p y r r h o t i t e . Gold contacts w i t h galena, s p h a l e r i t e or chalcopyrite are smooth and r e g u l a r , suggesting simultaneous deposition; but g o l d occ u r r i n g i n f r a c t u r e s has an i r r e g u l a r v e i n i n g appearance. Paragene s i s . . The f o l l o w i n g paragenesis i s suggested. Quartz, and p y r i t e were the f i r s t minerals to be deposited, though p r e c i p i t a t i o n of quartz probably continued longer than t h a t of the p y r i t e . Small q u a n t i t i e s of gold and p y r r h o t i t e appear to have been s o l i d i f i e d , w i t h the p y r i t e , as they occur as i n c l u s i o n s i n massive p y r i t e . . F r a c t u r i n g took place a f t e r the p y r i t e and most of the quartz had been deposited. These f r a c t u r e s were l a t e r f i l l e d by quartz, s p h a l e r i t e , galena, gold and minor q u a n t i t i e s of c h a l c o p y r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e and galena probably came i n at the same time w i t h the dep o s i t i o n of galena continuing l a t e r than ' s p h a l e r i t e . Gold accompanied' both of these minerals, but apparently favoured the galena. This i s i n d i c a t e d by the frequent intimate a s s o c i a t i o n of gold w i t h galena. Ghaleopyrite i s associated w i t h both galena and s p h a l e r i t e . . GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OP PARAGENESIS Quartz — — • • ••—^ —• P y r i t e P y r r h o t i t e Ghaleopyrite Gold S p h a l e r i t e Galena C a l c i t e D i s t r i b u t i o n and. S i z e of Gold P a r t i c l e s . The gold a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h i s ore i s s i m i l a r to.that In the Cariboo Gold Quartz ore. By f a r the greater p a r t of the gold i s associated w i t h the l a t e r sulphides, galena and s p h a l e r i t e . Deposition of gold d i d , however, occur w i t h the p y r i t e at a much e a r l i e r time. I n the sections studied, r i c h gold-bearing bismuth sulphides l i k e those of the Cariboo Gold Quartz were not i d e n t i f i e d : , but they are b e l i e v e d t o be present, I n small q u a n t i t i e s , at l e a s t , i n the ore. The f i n e s t gold p a r t i c l e s were, i n general, those o c c u r r i n g as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . These averaged about 8 microns. The r e s t of the gold v a r i e d i n s i z e from 3 microns 6 3 to 20 microns. Those grains occurring i n f r a c t u r e s had the usual elongated shape i n contrast to the i r r e g u l a r patches observed when the grains were associated w i t h s p h a l e r i t e and galena. D e s c r i p t i o n of Sections. The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of the sections w i t h t h e i r constituent m i n e r a l s . The minerals are separated according t o t h e i r abundance i n each i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n . - Section No. 1: .. Major — - Q u a r t z . Minor — P y r i t e and s p h a l e r i t e . Hare — Galena and chalcopyrite, Section No. ,4: S e c t i o n No; 2 i Major '— P y r i t e , quartz and galena. Minor — S p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . S e c t i o n No. 3 : Major — P y r i t e . M i n o r — Quartz and s p h a l e r i t e . Rare — G o l d . Major — P y r i t e and quartz.. Rare — Gold. S e c t i o n No. 3• Major — Quartz. Minor —• P y r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Rare — P y r r h o t i t e . S e c t i o n No. 6: Major — Quartz. Minor — Galena. Rare — Gold and c h a l c o p y r i t e . S e c t i o n No.~7" Major — Quartz. Minor -- P y r i t e and galena. Section No. 8; M a j o r — Quartz and s p h a l e r i t e . Minor •— P y r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e . . Conclusions. 1. The primary ore of the mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and galena. 2. The minerals belong to the mesothermal zone of d e p o s i t i o n . 64. 3'. Most of the gold appe-ars to have been deposited w i t h the l a t e r ' sulphides, and e s p e c i a l l y w i t h galena, w i t h which mineral i t i s p r i n c i p a l l y associated. 4. There i s a tendency f o r the gold p a r t i c l e s to occur i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and i n quartz. PS •H O & CO -P o PS CO •H CD +3 •H -P I CO •H cd Pi CD H cd ttf n3 Pi Cd . CD P •H r-i cd CO O O "M -P •H W Pi •H • Pi — PI CD Pi H o ,a o cd O +3 fCi CO H *H C5 +3 P A R T D. mE_ BRIDGE RlfEB MTWTNG DISTRICT 6 5 . THE BRIDGE RIVER MINING- DISTRICT D e s c r i p t i o n of. the D i s t r i c t Looation. The Bridge R i v e r D i s t r i c t , i n the L i l o o e t Mining d i v i s i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, i s s i t u a t e d between 25 and 40 miles northwest of Shalath on the P. G« E. r a i l w a y . This d i s t r i c t i s on the eastern margin of the Coast Range b a t h o l i t h i c ' i n t r u s i v e s . General Geology. The. f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows, i n general, the g e o l o g i -c a l formations of the d i s t r i c t . TABLE 0E FORMATIONS I Cenozoic i Modern i i Recent: stream deposits, v o l -eanic ash, s l i d e debris Pleistocene;:. f l u v i o g l a c i a l , " g l a c i a i ; r and stream deposits. Cenozoic ! Post and ; j Lower Mesozoic : Cretaceous I i ':. 1'. • • ' i K e r s a n t i t e and b a s a l t i c • dvke. Bendor, I n t r u s i v e s Hornblende-biotite-quartz» d i o r i t e , .(mainly) g r a n i t e , -•granodiorite. B a t h o l i t h and r e l a t e d stocks and dykes. Feldspar and hornblende porphyrite dykes, and r e l a t e d d i o r i t i c stocks. ! • Quartz a l b l t i t e and a l b l t i t e dykes. Mesozoic J u r a s s i c President Entrusives Peridotite.,dunite and pyroxaniiB Serpentine (mainly. (?) 3umner Gabtrc Dia l l a g e - - o l i v i n e gabbro. i r a l o r n e Intrusives Soda gra n i t e t a l b l t e f e i d ) ~. Gabbro, aUgite d i o r i t e , quartz d i o r i t e . •raiasozoic ana Mesozoic Bridge R i v e r . s e r i e s . 66. The oldest rocks i n the area belong t o the Bridge R i v e r s e r i e s , which, has been subdivided i n t o four formations: the Hurley, the Pioneer, the Noel and the Eergusson. I n t h i s r e p o r t , however, they w i l l be classed together as the Bridge River s e r i e s . The s e r i e s c o n s i s t s mainly of sediments and i n t e r -c a l a t e d v o l c a n i c rocks. S l a t y to schistose a r g i l l i t e , c r y s t a l l i n e limestone, amygdaloidal b a s a l t i c and a n d e s i t i c l a v a s , b r e c c i a s and t u f f s w i t h massive chert i n t i m a t e l y interbedded with t he a r g i l l i t e , are the rock types. The a r g i l l i t e s become more abundant toward the top of the s e r i e s , but interbedded chert bands s t i l l occur. These chert bands are cream-coloured and very pure. Extensive thermal metamor-phis over l a r g e areas by the Bendor i n t r u s i v e s , together w i t h f o l d i n g and shearing of the s e r i e s has a l t e r e d the lavas to greenstones, while the limestone has been r e - c r y s t a l l i z e d and the a r g i l l i t e s have become s l a t y and s c h i s t o s e . The r e s u l t of t h i s a l t e r a t i o n was to make i t very d i f f i c u l t to determine which p a r t of the s e r i e s i s exposed at ; any p o i n t . The Bralorne i n t r u s i v e s are so named because they are t y p i c a l l y developed on the property of Bralorne Mines, l i m i t e d . These are of two types; one of which may be r e f e r r e d to as the Bralorne d i o r i t e , 'and the other as the, Bralorne soda g r a n i t e . They c o n s t i t u t e the important host rocks to the a u r i f e r o u s , quartz veins of the area, and together repres-ent the i n t r u s i v e s which have g e n e r a l l y been r e f e r r e d t o as the Bridge E i y e r augite d i o r i t e . The Bralorne d i o r i t e I s , t y p i c a l l y , a greyish-green, .medium-grained, c r y s t a l l i n e rock i n t e r s e c t e d by a network of minute, l i g h t e r - c o l o u r e d v e i n l e t s f rozen to the wall - r o c k . The rocks vary i n composition and degree of a l t e r a t i o n , but the common types are d i o r i t e , q u a r t z - d i o r i t e and augite d i o r i t e The soda-granite occurs f r e q u e n t l y as small masses I r r e g u l a r l y . d i s t r i b u t e d through bodies of augite d i o r i t e . I n some places the contacts are sharp and the bodies are roughly dyke-shaped. Elsewhere'., the contacts appear grada-t i o h a l . . . . . ' ' . • This soda g r a n i t i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t because the known gold-quartz deposits l i e i n or near areas of the Bralorne d i o r i t e where there are conspicuous amounts of soda, g r a n i t e and r e l a t e d dykes. The gold-bearing deposits i n . many pl a c e s are i n t i m a t e l y a s s ociated w i t h these g r a n i t i c rocks and the quartz of the vei n s has c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r f e a t u r e s that are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the quartz i n the soda g r a n i t e s . The Sumner gabbro r e c e i v e s i t s name from Sumner creek, near the head of which the gabbro i s exposed. I t resembles the Bralorne augite d i o r i t e , but i s more veined, more decomposed and more b a s i c i n appearance. The P r e s i d e n t i n t r u s i v e s vary from dunite to p y r o x i -n i t e i n composition, but p e r i d o t i t e i s the most common v a r i e t y . S e r p e n t l n i z e d equivalents of these rocks are 6 8 abundant, *and i n some cases, l a t e r thermal a l t e r a t i o n of the serpentine has transformed large bodies t o a mixture of ankerite carbonate and t a l c . The Bendor i n t r u s i v e s are the youngest of the major i n t r u s i v e rocks, and are representatives of the Coast Range b a t h o l i t h i c complex. The rocks are mainly g r a n o d i o r i t e and q u a r t z - d i o r i t e w i t h small d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s . The Bendor b a t h o l i t h invades a l l of the Bridge R i v e r s e r i e s , and the P r e s i d e n t i n t r u s i v e s . Metamorphism of the intruded formations i s g e n e r a l l y s t r o n g l y pronounced f o r s e v e r a l hundred yards from the contact, and i s notieable f o r a distance.of a m i l e or more. Numerous other lamprophyre and b a s a l t i c dykes i n the area are probably of T e r t i a r y age. S t r u c t u r a l Geology. The general s t r u c t u r a l feature of the area i s a s y n c l i n e w i t h i n a major a n t i c l i n a l arch trending northwesterly. Zones of weakness along the s y n c l i n a l axes have been penetrated by i n t r u s i o n s . Minor f o l d i n g and shearing have caused the s t r u c t u r e to be very complex. The sediments and i n t e r c o l a t e d v o l c a n i c rocks stand mostly at high angles, and, l o c a l l y , as a r e s u l t of the Bendor b a t h o l i t h i c i n t r u s i o n , are overturned. Two main f a u l t systems occur. One system comprises two sets of f r a c t u r e s at angles of about 3 5 degrees w i t h the f o r m a t i o n a l trend. These f r a c t u r e s crosscut the formations and are best developed i n the more massive rock. These are the f i s s u r e s which contain the p r i n c i p a l gold-quartz veins of the area. The other system c o n s i s t s of f a u l t s or shears con-forming w i t h the s t r i k e of the formations traversed by them. These are best developed i n the l e a s t competent formations, and develop marked shear zones. M i n e r a l ! z a t i on. The mineral deposits are of the f i s s u r e v e i n type, and most appear to be g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the Bralorne i n t r u s i v e s . Other deposits of d i f f e r e n t character are probably r e l a t e d to the;Bendor b a t h o l i t h . I n general, the v e i n s are continuous along \ s t r a i g h t f i s s u r e s , though pinching and s w e l l i n g may occur. Quartz i s the c h i e f gangue mi n e r a l , but c a l c i t e also occurs abundantly. The sulphides i n order of abundance are: p y r i t e , arsenopyrite and galena, while p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , t e t r a h e d r i t e and s t i b n i t e are comparatively scarce. Native gold i s associated w i t h the sulphides. The Bralorne Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e Property. L o c a t i o n . The property of Bralorne Mines, L i m i t e d , i s at Bralorne on Codwallader creek. I t l i e s northwest of, and a d j o i n s , t h a t of Pioneer Gold Mines, and comprises f i f t y - e i g h t or more claims, mostly Crown-granted, w i t h i n which l i e the 70. workings of the King, Empire, and Coronation mines. The property i s equipped at Bralorne w i t h a 450 ton m i l l , and i s operated by power generated by i t s own plant and supplemented, as required, by Bridge .River Power Company, L i m i t e d . The mine can be reached e i t h e r by aeroplane, or by motor road from Shalath, a distance of 25 m i l e s . Shalath i s served by the P a c i f i c Great Eastern r a i l w a y from Squamish,B*C. H i s t o r y . Most of the o r i g i n a l claims were staked i n l 8 9 7 5 . and f o r a number of years were owned i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n small groups, and were prospected and, operated on the l i m i t e d scale n e c e s s i t a t e d by d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and finance. Between 1900 and 1928 development proceeded slowly, small companies operating roups of claims. In 1928 Lome Gold: Mines, L i m i t e d of Vancouver, took over the e n t i r e group of mines, and a heavy program of underground development work was s t a r t e d . . Owing to f a i l u r e of the Company's f i s c a l agents, a l l development ¥rark was suspended e a r l y i n 1930, and another company, Bralorne Mines, L i m i t e d was formed to acquire a s i x t y percent i n t e r e s t i n Lorne Gold Mines. Since that time to the present, production has been heavy and continuous. Economic Geology. The geoiogy of the Bralorne property comprises a . f a u l t e d s y n c l i n e of Bridge.River formations s t r i k i n g n o rth-w e s t e r l y and penetrated by Bralorne i n t r u s i v e s , bands of s e r p e n t i n i z e d p e r i d o t i t e and numerous dykes. The Bralorne i n t r u s i o n s form three bodies, one of 71. . which i s much l a r g e r than the others and Is e x c e p t i o n a l l y important i n that i t contains the p r i n c i p a l v e i n deposits. I t c o n s i s t s mainly of a u g i t e - d i o r i t e , hut along i t s north-eastern f l a n k i s composed of soda g r a n i t e . Numerous dykes of d i f f e r e n t types are encountered i n underground workings. Those of most i n t e r e s t are l i g h t - c o l -oured, q u a r t z - a l b i t i t e dykes. Th e i r . c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the v e i n f i s s u r e s and t h e i r probable r e l a t i o n t o the Bralorne • soda-granite 1, suggest that they were intruded along f r a c t u r e s that were l a t e r re-opened to permit access of vein-bearing s o l u t i o n s . The p r i n c i p a l ' v e i n d e p o s i t s occur i n f a u l t f i s s u r e s s t r i k i n g mainly about east. Other veins f o l l o w f i s s u r e s s t r i k i n g more to the north. Only some of the l a t e r are f a u l t f i s s u r e s . I n most cases the vein'-bearing f i s s u r e s s t r i k i n g east, dip to the north, and the north-south veins dip to the west. M i n e r a l i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s of white quartz w i t h I r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d amounts of p y r i t e , arsenopyrite, galena, s p h a l e r i t e , t e t r a h e d r i t e and g o l d . Mineralogy. I n t r o d u c t i o n . Three p o l i s h e d sections of ore from the Bralorne '. mine were prepared and studied m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y . S e c t i o n 1. — Mainly quartz w i t h a small amotint of v i s i b l e gold, galena and m i l l e r i t e ? S e c t i o n 2. — Co n s i s t s of J i g concentrate m a t e r i a l . Section g» -— Mainly quartz w i t h a l i t t l e v i s i b l e - gold, s p h a l e r i t e , galena and t e t r a h e d r i t e 7 2 . .The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c minerals were i d e n t i f i e d i n the s e c t i o n s . 1. P y r i t e . 2. Arsenopyrite. 3. S p h a l e r i t e . 4. T e t r a h e d r i t e . 5. Galena. 6. Gold.' 7 « C h a l c o p y r i t e . • 8. M i l l e r i t e ? Quartz i s the only gangue mineral present. D e s c r i p t i o n of the Mi n e r a l s . P y r i t e . P y r i t e occurs as euhedral grains and small masses i n the quartz. U s u a l l y the p y r i t e i s surrounded and veined by the quartz; a few cases were seen, however, where galena and s p h a l e r i t e veined and enclosed the p y r i t e p a r t i c l e s . A r s e nopyrite. Arsenopyrite occurs i n the same way and i n about the same qua n t i t y as p y r i t e . I n Section No. 3, arsenopyrite was seen to be veined by s p h a l e r i t e , i n d i c a t i n g deposition p r i o r t o that of the s p h a l e r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e occurs r e l a t i v e l y abundant-l y i n a l l s e c t i o n s , although i t comprises a very small percent-age of the v e i n m a t e r i a l . As noted above, i t veins i n t o arseno-p y r i t e , and p y r i t e i s , t h e r e f o r e , of l a t e r o r i g i n than both of these mi n e r a l s . Chalcopyrite occurs as small blebs i n most of the s p h a l e r i t e . C h a l c o p y r i t e . The only occurrence of chalcopyrite noted was a> few small blebs w i t h rounded boundaries i n s p h a l e r i t e . I t appears t o tee due t o e x s o l u t i o n . Galena. Galena i s r e l a t i v e l y abundant. I t occurs' as i r r e g u l a r masses i n the quartz, u s u a l l y along f r a c t u r e s . Where p y r i t e and galena are i n contact, the galena appears to be the l a t e r mineral of the two. Galena forms rounded, smooth boundaries with s p h a l e r i t e where the two minerals occur together. No d e f i n i t e c r i t e r a were noted t o r e v e a l the age r e l a t i o n s between the two. Tet r a h e d r i t e . Tetrahedrite was seen i n small .quantities i n Se c t i o n No. 3. I t i s In t i m a t e l y associated w i t h galena, with which mineral i t forms smooth, intimate boundaries. Tetrahedrite and galena were probably deposited at the same time. Gold. Gold was observed i n a l l three s e c t i o n s . I t occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g , ways: 1. As i s o l a t e d blebs or masses i n quartz. 2. I n t i m a t e l y associated w i t h galena. By f a r the greater proportion of the gold occurred as l a r g e and small masses e i t h e r Included i n or beside patches of galena, w i t h which m i n e r a l i t forms smooth, rounded boundar-. i e s , suggesting simultaneous d e p o s i t i o n . A few sca t t e r e d g r a i n s were seen i n quartz f r a c t u r e s w i t h no other mineral near them. The .gold: i s mainly very coarse, and much of i t i s v i s i b l e megascopically, but the average s i z e of the grains i s about 30 microns. Quartz. Quartz makes up approximately 95 percent of the s e c t i o n s . I t ranges from m i l k y white to t r a n s l u c e n t , and i s In general f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e . Two d i f f e r e n t generations of quartz occur i n Se c t i o n No. 1. The e a r l y quartz i s by f a r the more abundant, and t h i s generation has been f r a c t u r e d , and t h e s e . f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d w i t h 74. s p h a l e r i t e , galena and gold. The l a t e r generation was observed rimming c a v i t i e s i n the older quartz. In nearly a l l cases where the younger generation was seen, i t contained numerous r o d - l i k e i n c l u s i o n s of a yel l o w m i n e r a l , M i l l e r i t e ? The r o d - l i k e , brass-yellow mineral included i n the second generation quartz, was t e s t e d both by etching and by microchemistry. Due, however, to the extremely f i n e s i z e and the^rareness of the min e r a l , conclusive r e s u l t s were not obtained. However, both the etch r e a c t i o n s and the microchemical r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that i t was the n i c k e l sulphide, m i l l e r i t e . Its strong anisotrpism and f i b r o u s form also suggest t h i s m i n e r a l . Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g paragenesis i s suggested. P y r i t e appears to be the f i r s t sulphide mineral deposited. Arsenopyrite may be of the same time, but no p y r i t e - a r s e n o p y r i t e boundaries were observed. Probably some quartz accompanied these minerals. F r a c t u r i n g of the p y r i t e and. arsenopyrite followed t h e i r d e p o s i t i o n and preceded the p r e c i p i t a t i o n of more quartz, which was then i t s e l f f r a c t u r e d . L a t e r , s p h a l e r i t e , galena and t e t r a h e d r i t e were deposited, w i t h galena and t e t r a h e d r i t e probably overlapping and l a t e r than the s p h a l e r i t e . Gold i s i n t i m a t e l y associated w i t h galena, and must have been deposited w i t h that mineral. No d e f i n i t e age r e l a t i o n s h i p s were observed between the second generation of quartz, and the above-mentioned sulphide minerals, and i t i s therefore not advisable to place i t s p r e c i p i t a t i o n at a d e f i n i t e time i n the m i n e r a l o g i c a l sequence. A l l t h a t can be s a i d about i t i s that i t i s l a t e r than the other quartz i n the s e c t i o n s . With t h i s l a t e r quartz, i s associated the mineral t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d as m i l l e r i t e . I t appears to be present as i n c l u s i o n s i n the quartz, and must, therefore, be of the same age. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OP PARAGENESIS P y r i t e Arsenopyri te Quartz S p h a l e r i t e Galena Gold Conclusions. 1. The primary ore of the mine ; c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , a rsenopyrite, s p h a l e r i t e and galena, 2. The minerals present suggest the deposit ••/belongs to the, mezothernal zone of d e p o s i t i o n . J>. The gold i s associated mainly with galena and was one of the l a s t minerals to be deposited. 4. A brass-yellow mineral of .'fibrous or r o d - l i k e s t r u c t u r e occurs i n quartz, which i s thought to be the n i c k e l sulphide, m i l l e r i t e . The w r i t e r suggests that,more research be. done on t h i s m i n e r a l before a d e f i n i t e conclusion as to i t s i d e n t i t y i s reached. P A R T E THE YMIR MINING DISTRICT AND THE SECOND RELIEF MINE 76. g A E f l : ,Q3EE.-.iMIR. MINING DISTRTCT Description•-of the- D i s t V i r v h Location, The Ymir d i s t r i c t i s l o c a t e d about twenty miles south of the town of Nelson i n the Kootenay d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia. The area i s r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e . Nelson, on the Canadian P a c i f i c r a i l w a y and the southern t r a n s p r o v i n e i a l highway, a c t s as a d i s t r i b u t i n g centre. A branch l i n e of the Great Northern r a i l w a y , which f o l l o w s f o r some way the v a l l e y of Salmo r i v e r , passes near the main productive mines. A highway from Nelson t o Spolcane also traverses the area, and connecting branch roads l e a d t o many of the p r o p e r t i e s . General Geology. The mineral deposits of the area occur mainly i n three formations; the Pend d " O r e i l l e s e r i e s , the Rossland v o l c a n i c group, and the Nelson b a t h o l i t h . The Pend d " O r e i l l e s e r i e s s t r i k e s roughly north, .conforming i n a general way wi t h the north-south border of the g r a n i t i c masses. This group c o n s i s t s of metamorphosed sedimentary rocks; a r g i l l i t e s , q u a r t z i t e s , quartz-mica s c h i s t s , and c r y s t a l l i n e limestone w i t h some t u f f s and greenstones. The Rossland v o l c a n i c group occurs to the west of the Pend d * O r e i l l e s e r i e s , and extends north i n a wide b e l t 77. to near Nelson. I n the Salmo map-area, to the south, the. name Beaver Mount a in-Boss land group has "been ap p l i e d due to the d i f f i c u l t y i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g the Rossland from the Beaver Mountain flows-. The rocks of t h i s b e l t consist of a complex assemblage of basic v o l c a n i c rocks w i t h p y r o c l a s t i c s . I n places where these rocks are h i g h l y sheared, they are con-verted i n t o c h l o r i t e s c h i s t s . Both of these groups are cut by gra n o d i o r i t e of the Nelson b a t h o l i t h . One large tongue of the b a t h o l i t h '• occurs to the east of the p r i n c i p a l b e l t of the Pend d ' O r e i l l e rocks, and many smaller apophyses or dykes cut the intruded Pend d ! O r e i l l e s c h i s t s . ' G-rey g r a n o d i o r i t e of medium texture i s the most common g r a n i t i c type i n the area, but v a r i a t i o n s range from a true g r a n i t e to quartz d i o r i t e . A number of gran i t e porphyry tongues, s l i g h t l y o l d e r than the Nelson b a t h o l i t h , but younger than the Rossland v o l c a n i c s , are b e l i e v e d t o be r e l a t e d to some of the ore deposits. I n m o s t cases these are a l t e r e d and sc h i s t o s e . A small stock of monzonite and p u l a s k i t e , occurring near Tmir, i s thought to be of T e r t i a r y , age. Numerous dykes of syenite-porphyry, granite-porphyry, quartz-porphyry, and lamprophyre have invaded a l l but the youngest of the rocks described. Some of these cut the v e i n deposits, and some occupy post-mineral f a u l t s . M i n e r a l i z a t i o n . The m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s are thought to have been l a t e d i f f e r e n t i a t e s of the Nelson b a t h o l i t h i c magmas. 78. A lar g e number of the veins are mainly sulphide-bearing s i l i e i f i e d s c h i s t v e i n s . Fragments of both s c h i s t and granite are included i n the matrix. : The Ymir Yankee G i r l Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the Property. L o c a t i o n . The Yankee G i r l property, owned by Ymir Yankee G i r l Gold Mines, L i m i t e d , c o n s i s t s of the Yankee G i r l , Canadian G i r l , Lake view j, B l a ck Diamond, Yukon f r a c t i o n , and Klondyke •No. 1 f r a c t i o n claims. The mine i s s i t u a t e d on the northern slope of Bear creek v a l l e y , about two m i l e s from Ymir. A branch road from the road up Bear creek connects w i t h the lower or working tunnel of the mine. .Economic Geology. The Yankee.Girl v e i n deposits occur i n the contact zone of a mass of the Nelson g r a n o d i o r i t e , which trends north-e a s t e r l y across the camp. At the mine, a large number of ton-gues of t h i s rock intrude the Pend d ' O r e i l l e s c h i s t s . The deposits of the Yankee G i r l are of the f i s s u r e v e i n type, having been l o c a l i z e d i n f a u l t s . Three of these veins are present; the Yankee G i r l , the Spur, and the Lakeview. The Yankee G i r l v e i n s t r i k e s north 6 0 to 7 0 degrees ' east, w i t h an average dip of 6 5 degrees to the southeast. I t averages about four f e e t wide, and has a maximum width of ' JO f e e t . I n productive s e c t i o n s , i t does not exceed 1 2 f e e t . 79. .The Spur v e i n p a r a l l e l s the Yankee G i r l v e i n f o r a considerable distance. This i s a branch of the Yankee G i r l v e i n because i t s i n t e r s e c t i o n s w i t h the l a t t e r are known. The Lakeview, a non-commercial v e i n , occurs w i t h i n the Lakeview f a u l t f i s s u r e , which p a r a l l e l s the formation i n a long, narrow remnant of Pend d ' O r e i l l e rocks enclosed, between t h i c k granite tongues. The Yankee G i r l v e i n l i e s t o the southwest of the Lakeview f o r a considerable distance, and then merges w i t h or i s o f f s e t by the Lakeview v e i n . The p r i n c i p a l s t r u c t u r a l c o n t r o l of ore deposition appears to be the i n t e r s e c t i o n of the Lakeview and Yankee G i r l v e i n s , but. l o c a l l y ' o r e shoots occur where tongues of g r a n o d i o r i t e are c:ut by the Yankee. G i r l v e i n . Oxidation occurs, but i n general does not extend below the 400 foot l e v e l . Mineralogy. I n t r o d u c t i o n . Four se c t i o n s of ore from the Ymir Yankee G i r l mine, p r e v i o u s l y prepared by D. M. McKinnon, were remounted and super-p o l i s h e d by the w r i t e r . The sections were re-numbered to correspond w i t h the,numbers on the o r i g i n a l s e c t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c minerals, l i s t e d i n order of abundance, were determined to be present i n the s e c t i o n s . 1. P y r i t e . 2. S p h a l e r i t e . 3. Galena. . .4. C h a l c o p y r i t e . 5 * P y r r h o t i t e . 6 . Gold. 8 o . D e s c r i p t i o n of the M i n e r a l s . P y r i t e . P y r i t e i s found g e n e r a l l y as i r r e g u l a r masses i n quartz, and to a l e s s e r extent i n s p h a l e r i t e , and galena. As a r u l e , p y r i t e developes c r y s t a l form, but i n Sec t i o n No. 2, massive p y r i t e was seen f i l l i n g a f r a c t u r e i n s p h a l e r i t e . These c r i t e r i a suggest the presence of two generations of p y r i t e . The e a r l y p y r i t e i s considerably f r a c t u r e d , and these f r a c t u r e s are f i l l e d w i t h quartz, sphal-e r i t e and galena. I t contains a few blebs of chalcopyrite. . S p h a l e r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e i s r e l a t i v e l y abundant i n the s e c t i o n s . I t occurs i n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz and p y r i t e , and i n areas of much shattered p y r i t e . Intimate intergrowths of galena and s p h a l e r i t e are numerous, but galena was noted i n a f r a c t u r e i n z i n c sulphide. Quartz. This mineral i s the ch i e f gangue c o n s t i t -uent. I t ..occurs between p y r i t e masses, and g r a i n s , and i n f r a c t u r e s i n the p y r i t e . S h a t t e r i n g of the quartz allowed s p h a l e r i t e , galena and p y r i t e to f i l l the f r a c t u r e s . The occurrence of a second generation,of quartz i s suggested by i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h - p y r i t e and galena i n f r a c t u r e s i n s p h a l e r i t e Galena. Galena has about the same general d i s t r i b u -t i o n as s p h a l e r i t e . I t occurs f o r the most part i n t i m a t e l y associated w i t h s p h a l e r i t e . This suggests d e p o s i t i o n more or l e s s at the same time, but some galena must have been deposited l a t e r than the s p h a l e r i t e , as i t f i l l s a f i s s u r e i n that m i n e r a l . Galena was also noted i n f r a c t u r e d quartz. P y r r h o t i t e . P y r r h o t i t e occurs as a few small blebs i n p y r i t e , 8 l . ':• g h a l e o p y r i t e . Chalcopyrite i s exceedingly scarce. A few blebs were observed i n p y r i t e . A rsenopyrite. A few grains of t h i s mineral were noted i n S e c t i o n No. 3. I t , o c c u r s intergrown w i t h p y r i t e . , Gold. Gold occurs only i n Section No. 2. I t i s associated w i t h both galena and s p h a l e r i t e i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e . The greater number of gold blebs were w i t h or near galena. Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g paragenesis i s suggested. P y r i t e , was the f i r s t sulphide to be deposited. Some f r a c t u r i n g then occurred and was followed by the deposi-t i o n of quartz, which f i l l e d spaces between p y r i t e grains and masses, and also i n smaller f r a c t u r e s In p y r i t e . A f t e r s o l i d i f i c a t i o n of the quartz, a- seebnd period of f r a e t u r l n g caused cracks i n both p y r i t e and quartz i n which some of the . s p h a l e r i t e and galena, were deposited. .Shattering of the s p h a l e r i t e i s not extensive i n the se c t i o n s , but some deforma-t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d . F r a c t u r e s caused by t h i s deformation are f i l l e d by galena, quartz and p y r i t e . Galena was the l a s t sulphide to be deposited although i t probably overlapped the de p o s i t i o n of the s p h a l e r i t e . Gold appears to be associated with both s p h a l e r i t e and galena and probably accompanied these two minerals. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PARAGENESIS P y r i t e P y r r h o t i t e Chalcopyrite Quartz S p h a l e r i t e Galena Gold 82.. Assay's.-I n order to determine the mode of occurrence of the gold, the f o l l o w i n g samples were picked out under the microscope and assayed by Mr. D. M. McKinnon. 1 . Pure p y r i t e of the f i r s t generation i n contact vd.th quartz. (Section No. J>\ 0.08oz. 2. Pure s p h a l e r i t e . (Section No. 1) Trace. 3« Pure galena (Section No. 4) O.o4oz. 4. Pure p y r i t e i n contact with galena and s p h a l e r i t e . (Section No. 2) 1.80oz. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that S e c t i o n No. 2, which gave by f a r the highest assay, was the only s e c t i o n i n which the g o l d was seen m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y by the w r i t e r . • D e s c r i p t i o n of Sections. The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of the sections w i t h t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t - m i n e r a l s . The minerals /are separated according to t h e i r abundance i n each i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n . Section.1: Major — S p h a l e r i t e . Minor — P y r i t e and galena. Rare •— Quartz and c h a l c o p y r i t e . S e c t i o n 2: Major -- P y r i t e . Minor — S p h a l e r i t e , galena and quartz. Rare -— C h a l c o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e and gold. S e c t i o n 5» Major — P y r i t e . Minor — Quartz, s p h a l e r i t e and galena. Rare — Chalcopyrite and p y r r h o t i t e . S e c t i o n 4: Major — Galena. • . • Minor —• Quartz. Rare • — P y r i t e and s p h a l e r i t e . Conclusions. ; 1. The primary ore i n the mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , galena, w i t h minor amounts of c h a l c o p y r i t e . ' 2 . The minerals belong, to the mesothermal zone of d e p o s i t i o n . 8 3 . galena. 3. The gold I s associated with s p h a l e r i t e and •P *. ' * 4* T i ie m a j o r i t y of the gold p a r t i c l e s o c c u r s i f l f r a c t u r e d p y r i t e , w i t h galena and s p h a l e r i t e ; 0 G G ^ r e d m se c t i o n s . 3' N° Seconaary S e r a i s were observed i n these The Second B e l i e f Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the Property. L o c a t i o n . The Second R e l i e f Mine i s owned by R e l i e f - A r l i n g t o n Mines, L i m i t e d , which i n t u r n i s c o n t r o l l e d by Premier Gold Mining Company, L i m i t e d . The property i s on E r i e creek, about 1 3 m i l e s from the v i l l a g e of E r i e on the Great Northern r a i l w a y . I t i s connected by a road w i t h E r i e . H i s t o r y . This i s an o l d property which has been operated I n t e r m i t t e n t l y f o r many years, g e n e r a l l y by Lessees. I n 1 9 2 9 , the Second R e l i e f Mining Company, L i m i t e d was amalgamated w i t h the A r l i n g t o n Mining Company to form the R e l i e f - A r l i n g t o n Mines, L i m i t e d , and-in 1934- the Premier Gold Mining Company, L i m i t e d secured c o n t r o l . Economic Geology. The property i s u n d e r l a i n by rocks of the Rossland-Beaver-Mountain group, which here c o n s i s t s of greenstone, s l a t e , t u f f and a r g i l l i t e . At the surface these sediments dip east-ward at moderate angles, but underground they have been found dipping to the west. About h a l f a m i l e north of the mine, the Rossland-84. Beaver-Mountain rocks are Invaded by the Nelson b a t h o l i t h . The i n t r u s i v e rocks of the b a t h o l i t h are l i g h t - g r e y , medium-grained, granodiorite, i n general. Two groups of dykes occur on the property. One group c o n s i s t s of d i o r i t e and d i o r i t e - p o r p h y r y , and i s pre-mineral. A prominent dyke of t h i s type Is followed by the main v e i n . So f a r as i s known, most ,of the other dykes are younger than the v e i n deposits and s t r i k e from north to north-west. These c o n s i s t of granite-porphyry, quartz-porphyry, and a few lamprophyre dykes. I t i s thought that the lamprophyres are. the youngest of the dyke rocks, but l i t t l e evidence as to t h e i r age has been obtained except that one of them cuts the Second R e l i e f v e i n . . The ore-deposits are f i s s u r e Veins, occurring mainly i n the greenstone of the Rossland v o l e a n i c s . The veins s t r i k e northeast and d i p , g e n e r a l l y , t o the northwest at, steep angles. One v e i n , known, as"the Second R e l i e f v e i n , i s the most important and has supplied most .of the production of the mine. I t f o l l o w s the hanging-wall of a d i o r i t e - p o r p h y r y dyke, as mentioned above. Small l a t e r dykes cut both the v e i n and granite-porphyry, some of these f o l l o w i n g the v e i n f o r a distance before passing out on the other w a l l . Small f a u l t s are present which o f f s e t the v e i n a few f e e t . The ore minerals c o n s i s t of p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Molybdenite has also been reported. The gangue c o n s i s t s of country rock and quartz c a r r y i n g some magnetite, garnet and epidote. The time of formation of the v e i n i s 85-between that} of the i n j e c t i o n of the d i o r i t e - p o r p h y r y dyke, and the i n j e c t i o n of the quartz or granite-porphyry dykes. Both the ore deposits and the dykes are undoubtedly r e l a t e d to the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the Nelson g r a n o d i o r i t e * . Mineralogy. I n t r o d u c t i o n . Three p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s , p r e v i o u s l y prepared by Mr. H. Kipp, and two new sections prepared by the w r i t e r , were studied m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y . The f o l l o w i n g minerals, i n order of abundance, were determined to be present i n the s e c t i o n s examined. 1. P y r r h o t i t e . 2. P y r i t e . 3' S p h a l e r i t e . 4. Galena. 5« C h a l c o p y r i t e . 6. Arsenopyrite » • • . ' . 7. Gold. Quartz and c a l c i t e are the gangue minerals present. Quartz i s by f a r the.more abundant. D e s c r i p t i o n of the .Minerals., P y r i t e . P y r i t e i s f a i r l y abundant. I t occurs as an h e d r a l masses and a l s o c r y s t a l l i n e . Two generations of p y r i t e appear to be present i n the ore. The f i r s t generation occurs as i s o l a t e d c r y s t a l s and small anhedral f r a c t u r e d masses. P y r r h o t i t e and quartz f i l l the f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e , and also the i n t e r s t i c e s between the p y r i t e g r a i n s , suggesting deposi-t i o n l a t e r than the p y r i t e . The second generation occurs v e i n i n g p y r r h o t i t e , and' i s e v i d e n t l y l a t e r than the p y r r h o t i t e . Arsenopyrite. Arsenopyrite occurs as euhedral gra i n s i n p y r r h o t i t e , and i s i n t i m a t e l y associated w i t h p y r i t e , 86. with which mineral i t forms mutual,, smooth boundaries. I t i s not as p l e n t i f u l i n the sections as p y r i t e . P y r r h o t i t e . P y r r h o t i t e i s the most abundant mineral i n the ore. I t occurs massive, and f i l l s spaces between p y r i t e and arsenopyrite g r a i n s , and al s o f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n these minerals. Hexagonal sections of quartz c r y s t a l s were observed i n the p y r r h o t i t e , i n d i c a t i n g d e p o s i t i o n l a t e r than some of the quartz. One small mass of p y r r h o t i t e was seen i n a quartz f r a c t u r e . S p h a l e r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e i s rather scarce i n the sections studied:. I t occurs as small masses i n quartz, and i n one s e c t i o n was seen to f i l l a f r a c t u r e i n p y r r h o t i t e . Some s p h a l e r i t e was e v i d e n t l y deposited l a t e r than the p y r r h o t i t e . Chalcopyrite'.- Chalcopyrite i s not abundant. I t occurs as small masses i n quartz, as small, included blebs i n p y r r h o t i t e , .and along contacts bet?ireen p y r r h o t i t e and quartz. Quartz. Quartz occurs both c r y s t a l l i n e and massive. Sections of hexagonal c r y s t a l s were observed i n p y r r h o t i t e , and massive quartz occurs f i l l i n g , f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e . Gold. Most of the gold p a r t i c l e s occurred e i t h e r i n quartz f r a c t u r e s or along q u a r t z - p y r r h o t i t e boundaries. A small amount was seen included i n p y r r h o t i t e and s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h which minerals i t forms smooth, mutual contacts. Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g paragenesis i s suggested. P y r i t e and arsenopyrite were the f i r s t sulphides t o be deposited. Some quartz may have accompanied or even 87. • preceded t h e i r p r e c i p i t a t i o n , but most of i t appears to be l a t e r than the p y r i t e and arsenopyrite. Some f r a c t u r i n g took place e i t h e r p r e v i o u s l y to or during the deposition of the quartz. The dep o s i t i o n of p y r r h o t i t e appears t o have occurred l a t e r than the quartz. Some of i t e v i d e n t l y f i l l s c a v i t i e s i n the quartz, as sections of quartz c r y s t a l s were seen p r o j e c t -i n g i n t o the p y r r h o t i t e masses. Some s p h a l e r i t e was deposited l a t e r than the p y r r h o t i t e , as i t was observed f i l l i n g a f i s s u r e i n the p y r r h o t i t e . Gold appears associated w i t h both p y r r h o t i t e and sphalerite,.. but most of i t was probably deposited near the end and l a t e r than the deposition of the s p h a l e r i t e . GRAPHICAL EEPRESENTATI ON OF PARAGENESIS Quartz. P y r i t e Arsenopyrite P y r r h o t i t e Chalcopyrite S p h a l e r i t e Gold D i s t r i b u t i o n and Si z e of Gold P a r t i c l e s . I n these s e c t i o n s , a large p a r t of the gold occurred at the contact of p y r r h o t i t e and quartz, a l i t t l e occurred i n quartz and some was seen i n s p h a l e r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e . This d i s t r i b u t i o n suggests that most of the gold was l a t e and probably was the l a s t / m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l to be deposited. The s i z e of the gold p a r t i c l e s v a r i e s from 4 microns to 15 microns, w i t h an average of about 12 microns. No very large, pieces were seen, but i n general i t i s f a i r l y coarse. D e s c r i p t i o n of Sections. S e c t i o n No:.Kl: Major — P y r r h o t i t e . Minor — - Q u a r t z and p y r i t e . Rare — Chalcopyrite and gold. Section No. K2: Major — P y r r h o t i t e and quartz. Minor — Chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite. Rare — P y r i t e and gold. Section No. K3: M a j o r — P y r r h o t i t e . Minor — S p h a l e r i t e and quartz. Rare — " P y r i t e , arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and gold. S e c t i o n No. 1: Major —- P y r r h o t i t e . Minor •— Quartz, p y r i t e and s p h a l e r i t e . Chalcopyrite and gold. Rare ' — Section No. 2: Major -~ P y r r h o t i t e . Minor -- P y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and quartz. Rare — C h a l c p y r i t e . The sections marked (K) are those prepared "by Mr. H. Kipp. Conclusions'.' 1. The primary ore seen i n the sections c o n s i s t s of p y r r h o t i t e , p y r i t e , arsenopyrite,, c h a l c o p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e . 2. The minerals; suggest deposition under conditions between medium and high temperatures. 3.. Deposition of the gold appears l a t e i n the m i n e r a l o g i c a l sequence, probably accompanying the l a s t sulphides. • 4. No gold was observed as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e or a r s e n o p y r i t e . 5« Most of the gold p a r t i c l e s occur along the boundaries between p y r r h o t i t e and quartz, or i n quartz f r a c t u r e s . 1 j f e s g H F INLET AND HUNTER PROPERTIES 89. PART F: THE SURF INLET MINING DISTRTOT1 D e s c r i p t i o n of the D i s t r i c t L o c a t i o n . The Surf I n l e t area,, as used here, r e f e r s only to those p a r t s of the B r i t i s h Columbia coast i n the v i c i n i t y of and . i n c l u d i n g P r i n c e s s Royal I s l a n d . The d i s t r i c t i s l o c a t e d approximately east of Moresby i s l a n d of the Queen Charlotte group,, and about 4^0 miles northwest of Vancouver, B. C. I t I s a c c e s s i b l e only by boat, as i t i s an exceedingly rugged and mountainous area c o n s i s t i n g of a p a r t of the Coast Range b a t h o l i t h . General Geology. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the g e o l o g i c a l formations of the d i s t r i c t . -TABLE OF FORMATIONS T e r t i a r y Post P l e i s t o c e n e Tuffs and flows P l e i s t o c e n e or Pliocene B a s i c dykes Mesozoic From end of J u r a s s i c extending i n t o Cretaceous Coast Range i B a t h o l i t h i c i i n t r u s i o n s r r a n o d i o r i t e , quartz-l i o r i t e , g r a n i t e , e t c . Probably J u r a s s i c and T r i a s s i c Metamorphose d sediments and v o l c a n i c s 90. This s e c t i o n of the P a c i f i c coast c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y of one great formation, the Coast Range b a t h o l i t h . More than nine-tenths of the area i s occupied by q u a r t z - d i o r i t e and r e l a t e d rock types. The only older rocks are a few r e l a t i v e l y small patches of metamorphosed sedimentary and v o l c a n i c rocks, which occur as i n c l u s i o n s i n the batholith.- The only rocks younger than the b a t h o l i t h are dykes of l a t e P liocene or e a r l y P l e i s t o c e n e age, and some t u f f s and flows of post-P l e i s t o c e n e age. The o l d e s t rocks i n the d i s t r i c t c o n s i s t of a few small i n c l u s i o n s i n the b a t h o l i t h i c rocks about one mile i n width s c a t t e r e d throughout the d i s t r i c t , and one or two much larger, ones, which occur i n the northern part of i t . These rocks c o n s i s t of c h l o r i t i c and s e r i c i t i c s c h i s t s , grading i n t o gneiss. Some of them are Interbedded limestones and andesite, and resemble the Vancouver v o l c a n i c s of upper T r i a s s i c age. The rocks of the b a t h o l i t h vary considerably i n type. The most t y p i c a l rock o f . t h i s s e c t i o n i s a l i g h t - g r e y , medium-grained, q u a r t z - d i o r i t e , c o n s i s t i n g of white p l a g i o -c l a s e , quartz, hornblende, and va r y i n g amounts of b i o t i t e , w ith l i t t l e or no a l k a l i f e l d s p a r . A l i g h t - c o l o u r e d , medium-grained, g r a n o d i o r i t e i s the c h i e f v a r i a t i o n , ' P e gmatitic and a p l i t i c , v a r i a t i o n s are common i n the v i c i n i t y of P r i n c e s s Royal i s l a n d . These occur as dykes and p i p e - l i k e masses, but d i f f e r only i n t h e i r coarser texture from the normal country rock. They contain no minerals of the r a r e r elements. 91 B a s i c v a r i a t i o n s are very uncommon, but do occur near some of the more b a s i c i n c l u s i o n s . These are darker i n colour due to a higher percentage of hornblende and l i t t l e or no quartz* The p o s t - b a t h o l i t i i i c dykes are dark-coloured, and of b a s i c composition. One of these cuts the veins i n the Surf I n l e t mine* Structural.Geology. The b a t h o l i t h i c rocks are g n e i s s i c i n many places near i n c l u s i o n s . The f o l i a t i o n i s p a r a l l e l to that of the i n c l u s i o n s . F a u l t i n g i s general i n the d i s t r i c t , but i s more pronounced near the Surf I n l e t mine where there i s a strong shear zone. M i n e r a l i z a t i o n . M i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n the v i c i n i t y of Surf I n l e t consist of p y r i t i z e d quartz veins i n a zone of intense shearing, which s t r i k e s a few degrees east of north. The mineral deposits are probably associated w i t h the l a t e r stages i n the c o o l i n g of the Coast Range b a t h o l i t h . The Surf I n l e t Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the Property. L o c a t i o n . ' , ' The Surf I n l e t gold mine i s owned and operated by the P r i n c e s s Royal Gold Mines, L i m i t e d . I t i s s i t u a t e d about ?2. seven m i l e s i n l a n d from the head'.of .Surf I n l e t , on P r i n c e s s Royal i s l a n d . The mine i s one mile from Be;ar lake, which i s one mile above Cougar lake, and Cougar lake extends to w i t h i n two_ hundred yards of the head of Surf I n l e t . Economic Geology. The ore of the Surf I n l e t mine occurs i n large p y r i t i z e d quartz v e i n s . These l i e i n a zone of intense shear-i n g , which cuts the rocks of the Coast Range b a t h o l i t h i n a d i r e c t i o n about north three degrees east, and f o r a distance passes through an i n c l u s i o n of c h l o r i t i c s c h i s t . The f o l i a t i o n and contacts of the s c h i s t w i t h the b a t h o l i t h i c rocks s t r i k e approximately p a r a l l e l to the shear . zone. I n c l u s i o n s of the o l d e r rocks occur at s e v e r a l places, but 'the most important i s a l a r g e band of s c h i s t which occurs on the surface above the upper l e v e l s of the mine and extends down to the lower l e v e l s . . This s c h i s t i s a dark-green, medium-fine rock, grading i n t o gneiss, composed c h i e f l y of c h l o r i t e , s e r i c i t e and t a l c . B a t h o l i t h i c rocks i n the mine c o n s i s t e n t i r e l y of q u a r t z - d i o r i t e . Two pegmatite dykes occur on.the•550 foot l e v e l and vary from one to two f e e t i n width. The pegmatites and veins are s i m i l a r i n composition and t h e r e f o r e , probably c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n o r i g i n . The ore occurs mainly i n two large guartz v e i n s , one on the west or hanging-wall s i d e , and the other on the f o o t - w a l l side of the shear zone. In the upper l e v e l s the 93. veins are'from 1 0 0 to 1 6 0 f e e t apart, but converge u n t i l they meet at t h e 5 5 ® foot l e v e l to form one large v e i n . The veins have a maximum.length of 1 0 0 0 . f e e t , a maximum width of 40 f e e t , and dip from 40 t o 6 0 degrees t o the west. Above the 5 5 0 f o o t l e v e l , the two veins are connect-ed by a large cross-vein s t r i k i n g at r i g h t - a n g l e s to the other two. Besides t h i s , there are numerous small veins i n the f r a c t u r e s and shear planes of the d i o r i t e . These s t r i k e i n a l l : d i r e c t i o n s . The p y r i t e u s u a l l y l i e s i n streaks and bands p a r a l l e l to and.sometimes adjacent t o , the bands of included country rock. The veins c o n s i s t c h i e f l y of quartz and p y r i t e , the l a t t e r carrying'the gold. Minor amounts of c h a l c o p y r i t e , n a t i v e s i l v e r , c h a l c o c i t e , b o r n i t e , c o v e l l i t e , hematite and molybdenite also occur. • • Mineralogy. I n t r o d u c t i o n . • Three sections of Surf I n l e t ore were cut, mounted and p o l i s h e d . The ore consisted of massive p y r i t e i n white, to t r a n s l u c e n t , quartz, which was i n a l l samples seen, f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e . P y r i t e was the only sulphide v i s i b l e i n the ore. samples. The folloY/ing m e t a l l i c minerals were determined by microscopic examination to be present i n the ore. They are l i s t e d i n order of abundance. 1 . P y r i t e . 2. C h a l c o p y r i t e . 3• Cold. 94. Quartz was the only gangue mineral i n the sections. D e s c r i p t i o n of. the Minerals. P y r i t e . P y r i t e i s the only abundant sulphide i n a l l these three s e c t i o n s . I t occurs massive, and i s somewhat f r a c t u r e d . Quartz f i l l s a l l the f i s s u r e s i n the p y r i t e . A few s m a l l , scattered i n c l u s i o n s of c h a l c o p y r i t e were observed: i n t h i s mineral. These were i n a l l cases very small and more or l e s s rounded. C h a l c o p y r i t e . Chalcopyrite i s present i n s m a l l , s c a t t e r e d blebs i n the p y r i t e , and r a r e l y as small v e i n l e t s f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n the p y r i t e . The boundaries between p y r i t e and the i n c l u s i o n s of c h a l c o p y r i t e are very smooth and mutual, • i n d i c a t i n g contemporaneous d e p o s i t i o n , while the v e i n l e t s o c c u r r i n g i n f r a c t u r e s v/ere undoubtedly s o l i d i f i e d l a t e r than the p y r i t e . : Cold. Gold was seen only i n Section No, 1, and occurred i n only one way. In t h i s s e c t i o n two grains of f a i r s i z e were observed only a f t e r etching w i t h n i t r i c a c i d . . Before e t c h i n g , each s e c t i o n was studied f o r a long time without d e t e c t i n g any gold. 1:1 N i t r i c a c i d was then placed on the p o l i s h e d surface f o r about 30 seconds and then washed o f f . The surface of the p y r i t e , a f t e r e t c h i n g , revealed multitudes of p i t s of various shapes and s i z e s . Many of the f r a c t u r e s ' appeared wider and new ones were observed. In two of these p i t s gold was observed. The grains were of f a i r s i z e , but had not been v i s i b l e on the o r i g i n a l p o l i s h e d surface. The f o l l o w i n g explanation of the phenomenon of gold appearing a f t e r e t c h i n g , i n a p r e v i o u s l y barren f i e l d , 9 5 . i s suggested by the writer'.' To obtain a high p o l i s h on the p y r i t e , as much weight as p o s s i b l e was used on the sections i n the p o l i s h i n g process. A l s o , i n the f i n a l stages of p o l i s h i n g , the sections were kept very dry. This would be l i k e l y , .to cause "smearing" • of the s o f t minerals. A coating ground i n t o the surface of the gold p a r t i c l e s during the p o l i s h i n g process would make the detec t i o n very d i f f i c u l t . * This explanation appears probable, e s p e c i a l l y as no other m i n e r a l , which might mask the gold, occurred w i t h i t . Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g paragenesis i s suggested. . P y r i t e and p o s s i b l y some quartz were the f i r s t minerals to be deposited. Some f r a c t u r i n g of the p y r i t e took. place and was fol l o w e d by de p o s i t i o n of more quartz, - some of which f i l l e d ' f r a c t u r e s i n the p y r i t e . A l l the gold.that was seen appeared t o be Included i n the p y r i t e and e v i d e n t l y s o l i d i f i e d w i t h t h a t m i n e r a l . Some ch a l c o p y r i t e i s present as i n c l u s i o n s i n pyrite,, and some i s present" i n f r a c t u r e s . I t would seem, t h e r e f o r e , that part of the cha l c o p y r i t e was deposited l a t e r than the p y r i t e . GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PARAGENESIS Quartz P y r i t e C halcopyrite Gold D i s t r i b u t i o n and Size, of Gold P a r t i c l e s . The gold was observed to occur only as i n c l u s i o n s i n the p y r i t e . The s i z e s of the two p a r t i c l e s seen were 8 microns and 2:0 microns r e s p e c t i v e l y . D e s c r i p t i o n , of Sections. Sections No. 1, No. 2 and No, 3, a l l consisted of p y r i t e w i t h small amounts"of .chalcopyrite. Gold occurred i n S e c t i o n No. 1. Conclusions, 1. The primary ore of the mine i n the sections studied c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . 2. The gold occurs w i t h the p y r i t e , and i s included i n the p y r i t e . 3. No conclusion was a r r i v e d at as t o the probable temperature of the d e p o s i t . ™ ; THE HITNTER PROPERTY D e s c r i p t i o n of the Property. L o c a t i o n . The Hunter group, composed of 12 claims, i s owned by. C. . W,' Me.ldrum and associates of Vancouver. . The property i s s i t u a t e d e i g h t and one h a l f m i l e s up the north f o r k of the Khutze r i v e r , ; and 13 m i l e s from seaboard at the head of Khutze i n l e t , about 100 miles south of Prince Rupert, B. C. General Geology. Although the Hunter property l i e s considerably • n o r t h of Surf I n l e t , the general geology of the d i s t r i c t i s very s i m i l a r , both p r o p e r t i e s occurring i n the rocks of the Coast Range b a t h o l i t h and associated with remnants of older sedimentary and v o l c a n i c r o o f - r o c k s . Economic Geology. The Khutze r i v e r s e c t i o n i s s i t u a t e d i n the heart 9 7 . of the Goast Range b a t h o l i t h . B i o t i t e and biotite-hornblende q u a r t z - d i o r i t e are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c rock types of the area. Besides the b a t h o l i t h i c rocks, there occur small, i s o l a t e d areas of older roof-rocks of limestone and a l t e r e d sediments. The d i s t r i c t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a wide d i s t r i b u -t i o n of pegmatite and a p l i t e . dykes, and zones of d i f f e r e n t i a -t i o n near the remnants of o l d e r r o o f - r o c k s . The ore deposit c o n s i s t s of narrow and e r r a t i c quartz v e i n s , m i n e r a l i z e d w i t h high-grade gold-bearing p y r i t e . Two systems of veins occur v a r y i n g from one-half to 1 8 inches wide, one s t r i k i n g n o r t h - e a s t e r l y and dipping between 30 and 8 0 degrees east, the other s t r i k i n g approximately north and dipping from 5 0 to 8 0 degrees east. There i s a tendency f o r ore to occur i n greater quantity, near the more b a s i c p o r t i o n s of the w a l l - r o c k . M i n e r a l i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s of c r y s t a l l i n e , gold-bearing p y r i t e i n i s o l a t e d patches, s c a t t e r e d blebs and s t r e a k s . At l e a s t nine v e i n s and s t r i n g e r s are exposed, and these have been tr a c e d f o r distances up to 400 f e e t . Mineralogy. I n t r o d u c t i o n . The ore from t h i s property c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , with minor amounts of other sulphides i n a quartz gangue. Mega-s c o p i c a l l y , p y r i t e was the only sulphide m i n e r a l observed. Four sections of t h i s ore were prepared and st u d i e d m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y . The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c minerals were determined by 98. microscopic examination to "be present i n the sec t i o n s . They are l i s t e d i n order of abundance. 1. P y r i t e . 2. S p h a l e r i t e . - Galena. 4. Cha l c o p y r i t e . 5. P y r r h o t i t e . 6. Gold. Quartz was the only gangue mineral observed i n the sections, D e s c r i p t i o n of the M i n e r a l s . P y r i t e . The p y r i t e occurs as large anhedral masses. I t i s considerably f r a c t u r e d and these f i s s u r e s are f i l l e d w i t h quartz, and s p h a l e r i t e , and w i t h galena and cha l c o p y r i t e to a l e s s e r extent.. Small, rounded'inclusions of c h a l c o p y r i t e , and r a r e l y p y r r h o t i t e , occur In the p y r i t e . The boundaries between these i n c l u s i o n s and p y r i t e are smooth, reg u l a r and mutual. U s u a l l y , the p y r r h o t i t e blebs are associated w i t h c h a l c o p y r i t e . P y r r h o t i t e . P y r r h o t i t e i s extremely rare and occurs only as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . C h a l c o p y r i t e . C h a l c o p y r i t e occurs, as noted above, i n p y r i t e as Inclusions, and also sometimes i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e . Some masses occ u r r i n g i n f r a c t u r e s are up t o 40 microns i n s i z e , but i n general, c h a l c o p y r i t e i s a minor con s t i t u e n t of the ore. S p h a l e r i t e . . S p h a l e r i t e i s not abundant. I t occurs i n masses; surrounding p y r i t e and sometimes f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e . I n most cases s m a l l , rounded and elongated blebs, of c h a l c o p y r i t e occur In the s p h a l e r i t e as I n c l u s i o n s . 9 9 . The c h a l c o p y r i t e i s probably due to e x s o l u t l o n . 'Galena was al s o seen as i r r e g u l a r patches and -veinlets' i n the s p h a l e r i t e . Galena. Galena i s l e s s abundant that the s p h a l e r i t e I t o.ccurs mainly i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e . Galena-sphalerite boundaries are u s u a l l y smooth and r e g u l a r , but o c c a s i o n a l l y galena veins i n t o the z i n c sulphide. The two minerals appear to have been deposited at the same time with the deposition of the galena l a s t i n g longer than that of s p h a l e r i t e . Quartz. Quartz i s abundant. I t occurs surrounding p y r i t e masses and f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n that mineral. Some f r a c t u r e s are present i n the quartz, and to some extent these are f i l l e d by galena, s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Gold. Gold was observed only i n Sec t i o n No. 4. I t occurred i n the 'following ways'; / 1. As i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . 2. At the contact of p y r i t e and s p h a l e r i t e . 3» With galena i n p y r i t e f r a c t u r e s , 4. With s p h a l e r i t e i n p y r i t e ' f r a c t u r e s . Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g paragenesis i s suggested. P y r i t e and quartz with-minor amounts of c h a l c o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e and gold, were the f i r s t minerals to be deposited. F r a c t u r i n g of the p y r i t e was followed by the de p o s i t i o n of more quartz, which f i l l e d most of the f i s s u r e s i n the p y r i t e . Some s h a t t e r i n g of the quartz also occurred, causing f r a c t u r e s i n t o which some of the c h a l c o p y r i t e , gold, galena and s p h a l e r i t e virere deposited. S p h a l e r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , and galena were deposited at about the same time, w i t h t h e de p o s i t i o n of galena extending beyond th a t of s p h a l e r i t e . Gold i s i n t i m a t e l y 100. associated w i t h both galena and s p h a l e r i t e , and was evidently-deposited w i t h these two minerals. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PANGENESIS Quartz . • — — — — P y r i t e — ;—•—:—— P y r r h o t i t e — — Chalcopyrite — — — S p h a l e r i t e — Galena — — Gold : . The m a j o r i t y of the gold p a r t i c l e s occurred associated w i t h e i t h e r galena or s p h a l e r i t e i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e . A few were observed i n p y r i t e as i n c l u s i o n s , and none at a l l seen i n quartz. The s i z e of the grains v a r i e s from 4.2 microns to 25 microns. The average s i z e i s about 12 microns. ••.Description of Se c t i o n s . <; Major — P y r i t e and quartz. Minor - - C h a l c o p y r i t e and s p h a l e r i t e . Rare — P y r r h o t i t e . Major — P y r i t e and quartz. Minor — Chalcopyrite.: Rare — P y r r h o t i t e . Major P y r i t e and quartz. Rare — Chalcopyrite and p y r r h o t i t e . Section No. - 1 - » 2: S e c t i o n No. 3: Se c t i o n No. 4:. Minor — Galena, ch a l c o p y r i t e and s p h a l e r i t e . Rare — P y r r h o t i t e and gold. Conclusions. 1. The primary ore i n the sections c o n s i s t of p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , galena and c h a l c o p y r i t e . 2* The minerals belong to the mesothermal zone of d e p o s i t i o n . , 3. The greater p a r t of the gold i s associated with the l a t e r sulphides, galena and s p h a l e r i t e . 101. 4. A small amount of gold appears t o have been deposited w i t h the p y r i t e . 5. There i s a tendency f o r the gold to occur i n p y r i t e f r a c t u r e s . 6. The g o l d p a r t i c l e s are i r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d and occur i n groups or swarms. P A R T G THE D IYIDEND -LAKEYIEW MINE i o a* PART G: THE DIVIDEND-EAEEvTEWMINE D e s c r i p t i o n of the Property. L o c a t i o n . The Dividend-Lakeview property, p a r t l y owned by Osoyoos Mines, L i m i t e d , and p a r t l y leased by that company , from the Dividend-Lakeview Consolidated Gold Mining Company of E l m i r a , New York, c o n s i s t s of e i g h t claims and three f r a c t i o n s . The property i s l o c a t e d on the eastern slope of Kruger mountain, to the west of Osoyoos lake, and about a mile north of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary, A branch l i n e of the K e t t l e V a l l e y r a i l w a y extends south from P e n t i c t o n to O l i v e r , which i s about 16 miles north of Osoyoos, and the main t r a n s -p r o v i n c i a l highway passes down the southern Okanagan v a l l e y to Osoyoos. A branch road connects the property w i t h the highway, . General Geology. The oldest and most important rocks i n the d i s t r i c t are the Anarchist s e r i e s . These c o n s i s t of micaceous q u a r t z i t e s , mica and c h l o r i t e s c h i s t , c r y s t a l l i n e limestone, and greenstone. The rocks are a l l h i g h l y metamorphosed and sheared, and as a r e s u l t , almost complete a l t e r a t i o n to secondary minerals has. taken place. The general s t r i k e of the rock i s to the n o r t h w i t h a p r e v a i l i n g dip to the west. The Osoyoos b a t h o l i t h i s the only i n t r u s i v e rock 103. i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of the property. These rocks are thought to have been o r i g i n a l l y of gr a n o d i o r i t e or quartz d i o r i t e composition, but subsequent a l t e r a t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n a d e c i d e d g n e i s s i c texture In places. An assemblage of p l u t o n i c rocks, c o n s i s t i n g of syenites and g r a n o d i o r i t e s occur several miles to the west. These form a larg e mass on the slope of the Similkameen r i v e r . Economic Geology. The ore-bodies are t y p i c a l high temperature replace-ment de p o s i t s , developed at some distance from the i n t r u s i o n , which gave r i s e to them, and occurring mainly i n the lime beds of the Anarchist s e r i e s . Some occur i n the a l t e r e d v o l c a n i c s , which also contain considerable lime. The sulphide m i n e r a l i z a t i o n followed i n general the development of the l i m e - s i l i c a t e gangue. The gangue con-s i s t s of a l t e r e d limestone or a l t e r e d v o l c a n i c s i n which • occur t y p i c a l s i l i c a t e minerals such as garnet, epidote and w o l l a s t o n i t e . . The most, probable source of the mineral s o l u t i o n s appears t o be the rocks of the Osoyoos b a t h o l i t h . Mineralogy. . I n t r o d u c t i o n . No p o l i s h e d sections of ore from t h i s property were made by the w r i t e r . The sections studied were those prepared by Miss N* I . King. The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c minerals were found to be present i n the ore: 104. • 1. P y r i t e . 2. Arsenopyrite. , J . P y r r h o t i t e . 4. Magnetite. 5 . C h a l c o p y r i t e . 6. Gold. 7. Unknown. The gangue consisted of quartz and a l t e r e d v o l c a n i c rock. D e s c r i p t i o n of the M i n e r a l s . Pyrite.. P y r i t e i s abundant i n the sections, examined, I t occurs as small f r a c t u r e d masses and as euhedral g r a i n s . Quartz, p y r r h o t i t e and magnetite, w i t h small amounts of chalco-p y r i t e , ' f i l l f r a c t u r e s i n the p y r i t e . Arsenopyrite-. Arsenopyrite i s not p l e n t i f u l . I t occurs'sometimes .with, p y r i t e and forms s t r a i g h t , smooth, mutual contacts w i t h t h i s m i n eral, but g e n e r a l l y i t was seen as shattered euhedral g r a i n s i n e a r l y quartz. L i k e p y r i t e , i t i s badly f r a c t u r e d , and these f r a c t u r e s are f i l l e d w i t h quartz and p y r r h o t i t e . • Quartz. Two generations of quartz are present i n the sections s t u d i e d . The e a r l y quartz occurs surrounding p y r i t e , and arsenopyrite masses and g r a i n s , and also f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n these minerals. The quartz i t s e l f i s extremely Shattered and the f r a c t u r e s are f i l l e d mainly w i t h a l a t e r quartz of darker colour, and t o a l e s s e r extent by p y r r h o t i t e , magnetite and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Pew f r a c t u r e s were noted i n p y r r h o t i t e , but where these occur, they are f i l l e d mainly by the l a t e r quartz, and sometimes w i t h magnetite. P y r r h o t i t e . P y r r h o t i t e i s abundant i n some 105. s e c t i o n s , but rare i n others. I t was seen surrounding p y r i t e masses and g r a i n s , f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and arsenopyrite, and sometimes f i l l i n g f i s s u r e s i n e a r l y quartz. The p y r r h o t i t e masses are anhedral and i r r e g u l a r . Magnetite. Magnetite occurs i n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz, p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e . I n a l l cases, i t appears granular and U s u a l l y d e f i n i t e , euhedral o u t l i n e s are v i s i b l e . Where p y r i t e and magnetite are i n contact there appears to be no a l t e r a t i o n of the former mineral. This suggests that the i r o n oxide was deposited i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e . The same r e l a t i o n s h i p holds f o r p y r r h o t i t e and magnetite. C h a l c o p y r i t e . This mineral i s abundant i n some s e c t i o n s , but i s not a major constituent of the ore. I t i s seen i n f r a c t u r e s i n the e a r l y quartz, i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e • and ar s e n o p y r i t e , and i n some' cases surrounding magnetite g r a i n s . I n one case, i t was seen f i l l i n g a small f r a c t u r e i n magnetite. U s u a l l y i t occurs as small blebs and s t r i n g e r s , but o c c a s i o n a l l a r g e r masses are present. Gold. The gold occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: 1. As blebs i n c h a l c o p y r i t e . 2. I n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e associated w i t h l a t e quartz and c h a l c o p y r i t e . 3« As i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . Unknown. This mineral was seen i n small q u a n t i t i e s i n t i m a t e l y associated w i t h c h a l c o p y r i t e . I t i s very s o f t , greyish-white i n colour, and s t r o n g l y a n i s o t r o p i c . Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g paragenesis i s suggested. 106). " P y r i t e and arsenopyrite were the f i r s t sulphides : to be deposited. These two minerals are extremely shattered and the f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d w i t h quartz. The quartz i s also shattered. . P y r r h o t i t e appears t o have been deposited l a t e r than the e a r l i e r quartz and before the magnetite. The c r i t e r i a which i n d i c a t e t h i s order are: 1. P y r r h o t i t e f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n e a r l y quartz. 2. Magnetite f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n p y r r h o t i t e . • Chalcopyrite occurs v e i n i n g magnetite, and also, e n c l o s i n g g r a i n s of t h a t mineral. Rarely, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between two minerals are reversed, but enough evidence was seen to i n d i c a t e that most c h a l c o p y r i t e was deposited l a t e r than the magnetite. The l a t e r deposition of quartz took place about the same time as the deposition of chalcopyrite, or perhaps l a t e r . No d e f i n i t e c r i t e r i a between the two were observed. The de p o s i t i o n of most of the gold occurred l a t e r , probably w i t h the c h a l c o p y r i t e and quartz, as i t i s mainly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these minerals. A small quantity may be of the same time as the p y r i t e , as some blebs appeared t o be i n c l u s i o n s i n the i r o n sulphide. The u n i d e n t i f i e d , s o f t , white mineral occurs i n t i m a t e l y associated with c h a l c o p y r i t e only, and the deposi-t i o n of the two must have been at about the same time. SUMMARY AMD CONCLUSION 107. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OE PARAGENESIS P y r i t e Arsenopyrite Quartz P y r r h o t i t e Magnetite Chalcopyrite Gold Unknown D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e of Gold P a r t i c l e s . . The m a j o r i t y of the gold p a r t i c l e s occurred e i t h e r i n c h a l c o p y r i t e or w i t h t h i s sulphide i n p y r i t e f r a c t u r e s . A small amount was seen with l a t e quartz i n f r a c t u r e d p y r i t e , and a very minute quantity appeared as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . . . The s i z e of. the g r a i n s v a r i e d from 3 microns to, 40 microns, w i t h an average of 10 microns. Conclusions. 1. Primary ore of the mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , a r s e nopyrite, p y r r h o t i t e , magnetite.-and c h a l c o p y r i t e . 2. The minerals present suggest that the deposit belongs to the hypothermal zone of d e p o s i t i o n . -3. Most of the gold.was one of the l a s t minerals to be deposited, and i s associated w i t h c h a l c o p y r i t e and l a t e quartz. Values are l i k e l y t o be higher where these l a t e minerals occur w i t h shattered p y r i t e . 4. A small q u a n t i t y of gold probably occurs as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e . 5. The u n i d e n t i f i e d , greyish-white mineral may contain s i l v e r and thereby account f o r the s i l v e r values i n the o r e . 6. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between magnetite and the i r o n sulphides i n t h i s ore are unusual. The oxide i s g e n e r a l l y formed before the sulphide minerals. I t i s p o s s i b l e that a d e f i c i e n c y amount of sulphur i s a p a r t of the explanation i n t h i s case. 108 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION . The study of the ore from the foregoing p r o p e r t i e s shows two, and p o s s i b l e y three, types of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . The f i r s t type includes a l l those quartz v e i n deposits except p o s s i b l y the Hunter and Surf I n l e t p r o p e r t i e s . Deposits of t h i s type contain minerals which suggest p r e c i p i -. t a t i o n under conditions g e n e r a l l y of medium temperature, but grading from the mesothermal Into the upper part of the hypothermal zone. The Reno mine, i n the Sheep Creek d i s t r i c t , contains a greater abundance of p y r r h o t i t e than the other p r o p e r t i e s s i m i l a r to i t . This may-indicate a temperature higher than u s u a l , or may be the r e s u l t of other conditions at the time of d e p o s i t i o n . T y p i c a l minerals of t h i s type of deposit are p y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , galena, c h a l c o p y r i t e and gold. Frequently small amounts of p y r r h o t i t e are present. The second type of deposit i s i l l u s t r a t e d by one mine only; the Dividend-Lakeview property near Osoyoos. This i s a high-temperature replacement deposit containing an abundance of p y r r h o t i t e , magnetite and c h a l c o p y r i t e , but no s p h a l e r i t e and galena. ••The Hunter and Surf I n l e t p r o p e r t i e s may represent a quartz-vein type deposited under conditions of f a i r l y high 109* temperature. The veins on these p r o p e r t i e s occur i n g r a n i t i c rocks of the Coast Range "batholith. This occurrence of the ore f i l l i n g ..fractures i n the igneous rock from which the mineral s o l u t i o n s are thought to have been derived, and the s c a r c i t y of minerals t y p i c a l of the mesothermal zone, i n d i c a t e s d i f f e r e n t conditions of deposition to the other v e i n deposits studied. P y r i t e i s the p r i n c i p a l sulphide mineral, w i t h small amounts of s p h a l e r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and galena. I n general, gold occurs i n only two ways i n a l l the ore examined; 1. With massive p y r i t e as i n c l u s i o n s . 2. With galena, s p h a l e r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e . G-old o c c u r r i n g as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e or arseno-p y r i t e i s very f i n e l y disseminated, and i n most cases extremely r a r e . Only i n a few cases could i t be p o s i t i v e l y s a i d that a. p a r t i c l e was included i n these sulphides. However, i t i s p o s s i b l e that n e a r l y a l l p y r i t e contains minute amounts of gold, i n t h i s way; but very r a r e l y are the values h i g h enough to c o n s t i t u t e ore. In the Surf I n l e t ore, the few grains of gold seen, : occurred as i n c l u s i o n s i n massive p y r i t e . While i n the Hunter ore, some occurred as i n c l u s i o n s and some i n f r a c t u r e s i n the i r o n sulphide. The great abundance of gold observed i n the var i o u s ores studied was ass o c i a t e d w i t h galena, and to a small extent w i t h p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and s p h a l e r i t e . I n n e a r l y a l l lip.. cases where-much gold was seen i t was i n t i m a t e l y associated w i t h , or occurred near, galena. The converse to t h i s statement i s not t r u e . Gold i s not n e c e s s a r i l y present where galena Is found. I n some cases, gold was. seen to he associated w i t h p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . The amount occurring i n t h i s way i s s m a l l , and was found i n ore that contained l i t t l e or no galena. There i s a strong tendency f o r gold p a r t i c l e s to be deposited i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and arsenopyrite, and many more occur w i t h the l a t e r sulphides i n such f r a c t u r e s than,in the l a t e r sulphides alone. In general, i t appears t h a t the c o n d i t i o n most favorable f o r high gold values In the ores studied, i s the presence of galena, s p h a l e r i t e or c h a l c o p y r i t e i n shattered p y r i t e and arsenopyrite. This i s true also of the Dividend property, except that galena and Sp h a l e r i t e are absent. High values occur w i t h the intergrowth of c o s a l i t e and galenabismutite i n the Cariboo Gold Quartz mine. I n the sections s t u d i e d , no p y r i t e was present, but evidence was seen t h a t the bismuth minerals Y/ere deposited at about the same time.as the.galena. I t i s therefore evident that while some gold i s undoubtedly deposited e a r l y i n the sequence of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , most of i t i s p r e c i p i t a t e d w i t h the l a s t minerals to s o l i d i f y . From, t h i s , i t i s concluded t h a t , w i t h a few exceptions, higher gold values may be expected i n p y r i t i c deposits containing amounts of sphalerite,, galena and c h a l c o p y r i t e , than i n deposits where these minerals are absent. I l l , , BIBLIOGRAPHY The Sheeu Greek D i s t r i c t . 1, Walker, J , F., , Geology and Ore Deposits of the Salmo Map-Area. C.G.S. Mem. 172, 1934. •The Zeballos D i s t r i c t . 1. MacDonnel, G.F. Canadian Mining and Me t a l -l u r g i c a l B u l l e t i n , J u l y , 1939. 2 . Gunning, H. C C.G.S. Summary Report,1 9 3 1 ; P a r t A-2, pp. 29-50. 3 . Bancroft, M. F. Gold-Bearing Deposits of the West Coast of Vancouver I s l a n d Between Esperanza I n l e t and A l b e r n i Canal. C.G.S., Mem. 204, 1937 . 4. Clothier,. G. A. Annual Reports, M i n i s t e r of Mines, B. 0. The. Cariboo D i s t r i c t . 1. BoYjman, Amos, Report on the Geology of the Mining D i s t r i c t of Cariboo, B. C. C.G.S. Ann. Report, Vol.. I l l , P t . 1, 1 8 8 7 - 1 8 8 8 , pp. 1C-49C. P l a c e r and Vein Gold Deposits of B a r k e r v i l l e , Cariboo D i s t r i c t , B. C. C.G.S.,Mem. 149, 1926. 3. Dolmage", V. The Cariboo and Bridge R i v e r G o l d f i e l d s , B. C , Canadian Mining and Met a l -l u r g i c a l B u l l e t i n , Aug. 1934, pp. 410-412. 2. Uglow, W. L. and Johnson, W.A 112. The Cariboo- D i s t r i c t .(contlnuted) . B a r k e r v i l l e Gold B e l t , Cariboo D i s t r i c t , B.C. CG.S., Mem., l 8 l . Geology and M i n e r a l Deposits of Bridge River Mining Camp, B.C. CG..S. Memi 21j. Summ. Report, QvG.S., 1952, P a r t A. M i n i s t e r of Mines, B. C Lode Gold Deposits of Ymir-Nelson Area. CG.S. Mem. 191. The Ymir Mining Camp, Cifc*S* Mem. 94, 191*/. Geology and Ore Deposits of the Salmo 'Map-Area, CG.S. Mem. 192 , 1 9 3 4 . The. Hunter and Surf I n l e t D i s t r i c t s . 1. M i n i s t e r of Mines, B. C , B u l l e t i n No. 1 , 1 9 3 2 . 2 . Annual Reports, M i n i s t e r of Mines, B.C. . 1 9 2 8 - 3 8 . 3 . Dolmage, V* Coast and Islands Between Burke and Douglas Channels, B.C., CG.S. Summ.Report, 1921^ Pt.A. , pp .29-41.: - . The Osoyoos D i s t r i c t . 1. C o c k f i e l d , W.. E. Gold Deposits of, P a i r v i e w Camp, Camp McKInnly, V i d e t t e Lake Area, and Dividend-Lakeview Property near Osoyoos,..B.C. CG.S.Mem. 1 7 9 . 4. Hanson, G. The Bridge R i v e r D i s t r i c t . 1. Cairnes, C. E. 2 . C o c k f i e l d , W.E. and Walker, J . P. 3* Annual Reports, •The Ymir D i s t r i c t . 1. C o c k f i e l d , W. B. 2 . Drysdale, C.ff. 3. Walker., 3". P. 113. PLATE l a . Gold i n an intergrowth of c o s a l i t e and galena-b i s m u t i t e . The gold conforms to the structure of the bismuth minerals. XbOO PLATE l b . Showing a large g r a i n of gold i n quartz. X 6 0 Q 114. .600 115 r ^ PLATE I l i a . Gold occurring i n a f r a c t u r e i n arseno-p y r i t e . Z1050 Z 6 0 0 PLATE I7a. Showing m i l l e r i t e i n quartz. XI050 PLATE IJJb. Unknown mineral con t a i n i n g t e l l u r i u m i n c o s a l i t e and galenabismutite. Ta. XI030 117. PLATS Va. Showing an i n c l u s i o n of gold i n galena. PLATE Vb. Showing gold with quartz i n f r a c t u r e d p y r i t e . X 6 0 0 118 PLATE V i a . Showing gold i n sp h a l e r i t e near p y r i t e . XIO^O " 1 PLATE VIp. Showing gold i n pyrrho-t i t e near quarts. ,',rr. J? .. J 

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