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The mineralogy of some of the gold mines of British Columbia Irish, Ernest James Wingett 1940

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THE MINERALOGY 0? 33ME OF THE GOLD MINES QE BRITISH COLUMBIA  By  ^  B r n e s t James. Wlnge.tt. I r i s h  A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OE ARTS " I n  the Department of Geology.  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia .  . A p r i l , 1940.  <^t^v  . i^Tl  /  ?  V-  o f the  INTRODUCTION  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The w r i t e r w i s h e s t o acknowledge t h e i n v a l u a b l e i n s t r u c t i o n and s u g g e s t i o n s g i v e n t o h i m "by Doctor H. V. Warren, o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, under whom t h i s work was c a r r i e d  out.  The a s s i s t a n c e o f Mr'. E. P. D a v i s was a l s o greatly appreciated.  - A -  ILLUSTRATIONS Plate la.  Page Gold i n an i n t e r b r o w t h o f c o s a l i t e and g a l e n a b i s m u t i t e . The g o l d conforms t o the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e bismuth m i n e r a l s . . .  Lb.  Showing a l a r g e g r a i n of g o l d i n  Ila.  Gold o c c u r r i n g i n a f r a c t u r e i n p y r i t e  l i b . •'.  Gold i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . o c cu.3?s xi0Q.3?t)^r • • • « • •  IIIa«  113  114  Galena  e»« • • • • • • • • • • • »• •»  13_^1~  Gold o c c u r r i n g i n a f r a c t u r e i n arsenopyrxte ««•.«»........«»...........  115  "Iilb...  Showing i n c l u s i o n s o f g o l d i n arseno-  TVa.  Showing m i l l e r i t e i n q u a r t z . . . . . . . . . r . .  116  I¥by  Unteaown m i n e r a l c o n t a i n i n g t e l l u r i u m i n c o s a l i t e and g a l e n a b i s m u t i t e . . . . . . . . .  116  Ya.*  Showing an i n c l u s i o n o f g o l d i n g a l e n a .  117  Tbv '  Showing g o l d w i t h q u a r t z i n f r a c t u r e d  YTa...  Showing g o l d i n s p h a l e r i t e near p y r i t e .  118  Tib.  Showing g o l d i n p y r r h o t i t e near q u a r t z .  118  - B ~  INDEX Page Acknowledgment  ............................  A  Illustrations  B  Introduction  I  PART A: . THE SHEEP "CREEK MINING DISTRICT D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e D i s t r i c t Location  .  1  General geology .  1  S t r u c t u r a l geology „.  3  Mineralization  «  3 .  The Q,ueen Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the property: Location Economic g e o l o g y Mineralogy: Introduction « Description of the minerals Paragenesis D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of t h e g o l d particles D e s c r i p t i o n o f s e c t i o n s «............. Conclusions  4 4 j? 6 7 8 8 9  The G o l d B e l t Mine Description of the property: Location '. Economic geology ..................... Mineralization - C -  10; 10 11  D.  The Gold B e l t Mine (Cont.)  ;  Mineralogy: I n t r o d u c t i o n ......... Description of the minerals P a r a g e n e s i s ... D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of g o l d p a r t i c l e s .......... ^................« D e s c r i p t i o n of s e c t i o n s Conclusions  Page 11 12 13 13 14 14  The Reno Mine D e s c r i p t i o n o f the p r o p e r t y : Location • Economic geology «,. M i n e r a l i z a t i o n ....................... Mineralogy: ' i n t r o d u c t i o n ......................... D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals Paragenesis D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e o f g o l d particles D e s c r i p t i o n of sections . Conclusions................ i  13 13 16 l6 l6 l8 18 18 19  The Koo.tenay B e l l e Mine Description of the property: L o c a t i o n ............................... Economic geology ..................... Mineralogy: Introduction D e s c r i p t i o n of the minerals........... P a r a g e n e s i s .......................... D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e o f g o l d particles D e s c r i p t i o n o f s e c t i o n s ............... C o n c l u s i o n s .......................... Table o f d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e o f g o l d p a r t i c l e s i n t h e Sheep Creek ore  19 19 20 20 22 23 23 23 23a  • E.  PART B;: THE ZEBALLQS MINING DISTRICT Description of the Property Page Location  24  G e n e r a l geology ..........................  2.4  S t r u c t u r a l geology.  23  Mineralogy  26 The P r i v a t e e r Mine  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the p r o p e r t y : Location Economic geology  ."  Mineralogy: . Introduction D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m i n e r a l s ......... P a r a g e n e s i s ......................... D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e o f g o l d particles Description of sections . Conclusions .....  27 27 27 28 31 31 32 32  The T r i t e s Mine D e s c r i p t i o n o f the,property: Location Economic g e o l o g y Mineralogy: I n t r o d u c t i o n ......................... D e s c r i p t i o n of the m i n e r a l s P a r a g e n e s i s ,...,...........:...»».... D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e o f g o l d p a r t i c l e s ... Description of sections Conclusions  33 33 • 33 34 33 3& 37 37  The Rey P r o Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the property: Location Economic geology  37 37  F.  ;  The Re'y- 0ro Mine (Cont.)  Page  'Mineralogy: Introduction D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m i n e r a l s .......... P a r a g e n e s i s ............. D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e o f g o l d particles D e s c r i p t i o n o f s e c t i o n s .............. Conclusions  40 40 40  Table o f d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of t h e g o l d p a r t i c l e s : i n the Zeballos ore  40a  PART C:  38 38 3? '  THE CARIBOO MINING- DISTRICT  Description of the D i s t r i c t Location  41  G e n e r a l geology  41  S t r u c t u r a l geology  44  Mineralization  43  The C a r i b o o G-old Q u a r t z Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of. t h e p r o p e r t y : L o c a t i o n ............... Economic geology Mineralogy: ... Introduction D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m i n e r a l s .......... Paragenesis D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e o f g o l d particles D e s c r i p t i o n o f s e c t i o n s .............. C o n c l u s i o n s .. ^ • <  46 46 48 48 31 52 53 53  .-  The I s l a n d M o u n t a i n Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the property: Location Economic g e o l o g y  54 54  Mineralogy: . . . . Introduction D e s c r i p t i o n o f the m i n e r a l s . Paragenesis  55' 55 56  G.  The .Island M o u n t a i n Mine (Cont.) Mineralogy (Cont.): D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e o f g o l d particles D e s c r i p t i o n of s e c t i o n s * , . . . . . . Conclusions  Page .  57 57 58  The Cariboo Hudson Mine Descripticn of the property: Location Economic geology  58 59  Mineralogy: Introduction Description of the minerals Paragenesis D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e o f g o l d particles >Description of sections Conclusions,  39 60 6l  ...  Table o f d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e o f t h e g o l d p a r t i c l e s i n the Cariboo ore PART D:  62 63 63 64a  THE BRIDGE R I vER 'MIUING DISTRICT  D e s c r i p t i o n o f .the D i s t r i c t Location  65  G e n e r a l geology  65  S t r u c t u r a l geology  68  Mineralization  69 The B r a l o r n e  Mine  Description of the property: Location H i s t o r y .. Economic g e o l o g y ..................... Mineralogy: Introduction D e s c r i p t i o n o f the M i n e r a l s Paragenesis Conclusions 6  69 70 , 70 71 72 74 75  Page PARTE:  THE YMIR MINING DISTRICT  D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e D i s t r i c t Location  .  76  «.  1&  G e n e r a l geology  77  M i n e r a l i z a t i o n , ............. 9  The Ymir Yankee G i r l Mine D e s c r i p t i o n o f the p r o p e r t y : L o c a t i o n .................. . Economic geology  78 78  Mineralogy: Introduction D e s c r i p t i o n of?the minerals Paragenesis Assays D e s c r i p t i o n o f s e c t i o n s ............... Conclusions  79 80 8l 82 82 82  :  The Second R e l i e f Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the p r o p e r t y : Location History...................... Economic geology ....................... Mineralogy: Introduction D e s c r i p t i o n o f the m i n e r a l s Paragenesis D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e o f g o l d p a r t i c l e s ...... D e s c r i p t i o n of sections Conclusions PART E:  83 83 83 85 85 86 87 87 88  THE SURE INLET AND HUNTER PROPERTIES Description of the D i s t r i c t  Location  89  G e n e r a l Geology  89  D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e D i s t r i c t (Cont.)  Page  S t r u c t u r a l geology  91  Mineralization •  91 The S u r f I n l e t Mine  . D e s c r i p t i o n o f the p r o p e r t y : L o c a t i o n ............................. Economic geology  91 92  Mineralogy: I n t r o d u c t i o n .......................... D e s c r i p t i o n o f the m i n e r a l s .......... Paragenesis • .-. D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e o f g o l d particles D e s c r i p t i o n o f s e c t i o n s .............. Conclusions The Hunter  95 96 96  Property  Description of the property:,^. L o c a t i o n ........... General Geology............ Economic geology «  /  96 96  ..........  Mineralogy: Introduction D e s c r i p t i o n o f the m i n e r a l s Paragenesis D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e of g o l d particles D e s c r i p t i o n o f s e c t i o n s .............. Conclusions '.. PART G:  93 94 93  _ " 97 98 99 100 100 100  THE DIYIDEND-LAKBYIEW PROPERTY  D e s c r i p t i o n of the p r o p e r t y : Location G e n e r a l Geology Economic geology Mineralogy: Introduction D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e m i n e r a l s .......... Paragenesis D i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e o f g o l d particles Conclusions  102. 102 103 103 104 105 107 107  ' Summary and C o n c l u s i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Page 108  Bibliography  I l l  • THE MINERALOGY Off SOME OF THE GOLD MINES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  INTRODUCTION  The f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t s are based on t h e megascopic and m i c r o s c o p i c study o f p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s o f o r e f r o m some of the g o l d mines o f B r i t i s h  Columbia.  The c h i e f o b j e c t s of t h e work were t o s t u d y and determine t h e mode o f o c c u r r e n c e o f the g o l d i n v a r i o u s mines and t o a s c e r t a i n any s i m i l a r i t i e s o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e miner- > a l o g y of t h e i n d i v i d u a l mines i n each d i s t r i c t , and between., each  district. L a b o r a t o r y procedure c o n s i s t e d of c u t t i n g ,  and p o l i s h i n g s e c t i o n s o f o r e f r o m d i f f e r e n t mines.  mounting These  s e c t i o n s were then examined under t h e m i c r o s c o p e , and t h e v a r i o u s m i n e r a l s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s were determined. The. i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e m i n e r a l s was c a r r i e d out by means of e t c h t e s t s and m i c r o c h e m i s t r y .  7  Due t o t h e extreme f r i a b i l i t y o f some o r e s , such as Z e b a l l o s and Cariboo Gold Q u a r t z , a p r o c e s s known as " i m p r e g n a t i n g " was employed. ing  T h i s c o n s i s t e d of h a l f - s u b m e r g -  the s e c t i o n t o be mounted i n an i m p r e g n a t i n g f l u i d .  The  s e c t i o n and f l u i d were t h e n p l a c e d under a p a r t i a l vacuum f o r about twenty minutes t o a l l o w the f l u i d t o p e n e t r a t e i n t o t h e i n t e r s t i c e s o f the o r e , and t h e n "cooked" i n an e l e c t r i c oven -I-  a t 80 degree,s c e n t i g r a d e ' u n t i l h a r d .  The s e c t i o n was then  ready t o mount. Parageneses f o r each mine have been suggested, graphical i l l u s t r a t i o n s given.  and  I t must be kept i n mind, however,  t h a t the breaks between t h e v a r i o u s p e r i o d s of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n are not n e c e s s a r i l y as sharp as i s . i m p l i e d by t h i s method.. I n some d e p o s i t s i t i s known t h a t two o r more p e r i o d s of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n have o c c u r r e d , s e p a r a t e d by l o n g time  intervals,  w h i l e i n o t h e r s , m i n e r a l sequences have been d e p o s i t e d c o n t i n u o u s l y f r o m the same s o l u t i o n over a p e r i o d of t i m e .  Also,  movement a l o n g a v e i n may take p l a c e a t any t i m e , and d e p o s i t i o n need not n e c e s s a r i l y stop d u r i n g these p e r i o d s of s t r e s s . It" i s the w r i t e r ' s opinion t h a t c r i t e r i a obtained o n l y from a m i c r o s c o p i c e x a m i n a t i o n of p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s o f ore are n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o warrant  a c o n c l u s i o n as t o whether  the d e p o s i t s are o f h i g h , medium or low temperature.  A  complete study i n the f i e l d of w a l l - r o c k , v e i n s and c o u n t r y r o c k as w e l l as a m i c r o s c o p i c study of t h i n s e c t i o n s , i s essent i a l f o r an a c c u r a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the temperature e x i s t i n g a t the time or times o f d e p o s i t i o n .  conditions  Therefore, i n  the f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t s , w h i c h a r e the r e s u l t of p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n work o n l y , t h e suggested temperatures  of d e p o s i t i o n a r e d e r i v e d  o n l y from t h e v a r i e t y and type of m i n e r a l s p r e s e n t i n the s e c t i o n s , and serve o n l y t o compare the v a r i o u s d e p o s i t s . I n most cases, no d i s t i n c t i o n has been made between g o l d and t h e g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y " e l e c t r u m . "  I t i s probable that  the s i l v e r content o f some o f t h e g o l d i s h i g h enough f o r i t t o be c a l l e d e l e c t r u m .  P A R T  ,. ..A  SHEEP CREEK; MINING DISTRICT  PART A::. / SHEEP CREEK -MINING- DISTRICT  D e s c r i p t i o n of the D i s t r i c t Location. The Sheep Creek M i n i n g Camp i s l o c a t e d about e i g h t m i l e s s o u t h e a s t o f the town o f Salmo i n t h e Kootenay d i s t r i c t o f s o u t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia.  A ten mile  automobile r o a d connects the .mine w i t h the town o f Salmo on the Great N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y . G e n e r a l Geology. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows" the g e o l o g i c a l format i o n s of the Salmo map-area, B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a , as mapped by Walker.1 TABLE GE FORMATIONS  Pleistocene  Post-Triassic Mesozoic Triassic? Late Pre-Cambrian  Winderernere  G l a c i a l t i l l and s t r a t i f i e d s i l t s , sands and g r a v e l s . Nelson B a t h o l i t h : granite, granodiorite, quartz-diorite, s y e n i t e , monzonite, d i o r i t e . Beaver mountain - R o s s l a n d group. Pend d ' O r e i l l e s e r i e s . Reno f o r m a t i o n . Q u a r t z i t e Range f o r m a t i o n . Three S i s t e r s f o r m a t i o n . H o r s e t h i e f Creek s e r i e s . I r e n e Vo.lcanics f o r m a t i o n .  1. Walker', J.F. - Memoir 1?2 , G.S.C. 19.34-. Geology and M i n e r a l D e p o s i t s o f the Salmo map-area,  There are f o u r of these r o c k f o r m a t i o n s exposed i n the Sheep;Greek M i n i n g Camp. Post-Triassic  . Kelson B a t h o l i t h ?  Pend d O r e i l l e s e r i e s . Reno f o r m a t i o n . Q u a r t z i t e Range f o r m a t i o n .  Late Pre-Cambrian The  o l d e s t r o c k s i n the  district  are those of  the Q u a r t z i t e . R a n g e f o r m a t i o n which c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y of massive, w h i t e q u a r t z i t e i n the lower p a r t . i s 200 f e e t o f a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s and  Overlying  this  slaty argillites,  and above the a r g i l l i t e i s more q u a r t z i t e w i t h a f i n a l member of i n t e r b e d d e d q u a r t z i t e s and The The  top-  slates.  Reno f o r m a t i o n v a r i e s g r e a t l y i n  character.  lower p a r t i s composed of i n t e r b e d d e d q u a r t z i t e s ,  a r g i l l i t e s , l i m e s t o n e and t i o n c o n s i s t s of b r i t t l e  schists.  The  upper p a r t of the forma-  quartzites.  Above the Reiio f o r m a t i o n i n t h e t a b l e i s the Pend f  d Oreille series. black p h i l l i t e s .  T h i s i s composed c h i e f l y of dark grey t o I n the l o w e r p a r t o f the  grade i n t o beds of dark grey q u a r t z i t e and limestone horizons.  s e r i e s the four  phillites  well-defined  Where the p h i l l i t e s have c o n t a i n e d  Carbonaceous m a t t e r and  are sheared, t h e y g i v e p l a c e to  graphitic schists. The  p o r t i o n o f t h e N e l s o n b a t h o l i t h exposed near  the m i n i n g camp i s p o r p h y r i t i c g r a n i t e flesh-coloured  orthoclase.  composed m a i n l y of  5.  S t r u c t u r a l Ge'ology. The f o u r mines s t u d i e d i n t h i s a r e a a r e a l l l o c a t e d on the s t e e p l y d i p p i n g west l i m b of an a s y m m e t r i c a l F a u l t s are exposed i n some p a r t s .  anticline.  The g o l d - b e a r i n g  f i s s u r e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y of Sheep Creek a r e s m a l l f a u l t fissures.  Minor f a u l t s w i t h d i s p l a c e m e n t s o f o n l y a few f e e t  are exposed i n many o f t h e mine w o r k i n g s . w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e displacement  Some l a r g e r f a u l t s  e x i s t , b u t are n o t important  i n regard t o these p r o p e r t i e s . Minerallzation. The m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s t h a t formed t h e m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s a r e b e l i e v e d t o have come from a g r a n i t i e magma a t a l a t e stage o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n .  Aplite  tongues from i t are cut by t h e m i n e r a l v e i n s , and t h e o n l y igneous r o c k t o c u t t h e m i n e r a l o c c u r r e n c e s a r e lamprophyre dykes.  Hence, the age o f t h e m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s can be p l a c e d  as o c c u r r i n g a t a l a t e stage i n t h e i n t r u s i o n o f t h e N e l s o n b a t h o l i t h o f p o s t - T r i a s s i c age. The m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t o f f i s s u r e v e i n s c a r r y i n g v a l u e s p r i n c i p a l l y i n g o l d w i t h minor amounts of base metals.  The f i s s u r e s are t i g h t and are n o t known t o be o f  commercial v a l u e where t h e y cut s o f t e r r o c k s such as a r g i l l i t e and l i m e s t o n e , b u t where they c u t the b r i t t l e q u a r t z i t e s of the upper Reno f o r m a t i o n and Q u a r t z i t e Range f o r m a t i o n , o r e s h o o t s may o c c u r .  The f o r m a t i o n , o f o r e - s h o o t s i s f u r t h e r con-  t r o l l e d b y a p i n c h i n g and s w e l l i n g o f t h e f i s s u r e s caused by movement along them, both h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l .  'The  o r i g i n a l v e i n m a t t e r c o n s i s t e d of q u a r t z ,  p y r r h o t i t e , p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a and, f r e e g o l d .  Oxida-  t i o n of the s u l p h i d e s extends t o c o n s i d e r a b l e depths w i t h a ;  c e r t a i n amount o f enrichment  an apparent  result.  The Queen Mine (Sheep Creek Mine) D e s c r i p t i o n o f the P r o p e r t y . • Location. The Queen property, owned by E. V. B u c k l e y  and  a s s o c i a t e s , i n c l u d e s the. Queen.,- Y e l l o w s t o n e , Hide Away, and A l e x a n d r a groups, c o n s i s t i n g of f i f t e e n Crown-granted c l a i m s , namely:  Alexandra, Argyle, B u r l i n g t o n fraction., B u l l i o n ,  Edward, Hide Away, L e w i s t o n , Mat, Malwaaz, N i a g a r a , P a t , P l a c e r f r a c t i o n , Queen, W o l f , Y e l l o w s t o n e . The p r o p e r t y l i e s a l o n g t h e v a l l e y o f Wolf creek, i m m e d i a t e l y above i t s j u n c t i o n w i t h Sheep creek. Economic Geology. The p r o p e r t y l i e s i n r o c k s of t h e Pre-Cambrian Reno and Q u a r t z i t e Range f o r m a t i o n . Four e a s t - w e s t , g o l d - b e a r i n g f i s s u r e s occur on Queen ground.  These are the Y e l l o w s t o n e , Queen and Hide Away,  a l l of which cut r o c k s of the Reno formation,; and the A l e x a n d r a , w h i c h i s i n the Q u a r t z i t e Range f o r m a t i o n . The Y e l l o w s t o n e outcropped low down on t h e r i d g e s o u t h e a s t of t h e j u n c t i o n of Sheep and Wolf c r e e k s .  So f a r  as i s known, o n l y brown i r o n o x i d e s and f r e e g o l d o c c u r r e d i n t h i s f i s s u r e a t the s u r f a c e . The Q u e e n : f i s s u r e o u t c r o p s on the west s i d e o f  Wolf c r e e k , p a r a l l e l t o and south of the Y e l l o w s t o n e . fissure  This  i s o x i d i z e d down to' about the l e v e l of Wolf creek. The A l e x a n d r a f i s s u r e ,  on the .east s i d e o f Wolf  creek, o u t c r o p s about l 6 0 0 f e e t south of the Queen, and i s o x i d i z e d t o some depth. Between t h e Queen and A l e x a n d r a on the e a s t s i d e of Wolf creek, i s t h e s m a l l H i d e Away  fissure.  These f i s s u r e s , have been f i l l e d w i t h q u a r t z and sulphide  minerals.  Mineralogy. Introduction. T h i r t e e n p o l i s h e d . s e c t i o n s o f ore f r o m the Queen (now Sheep Creek) mine were s t u d i e d m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y .  These  s e c t i o n s were, p r e p a r e d by Mr. J . W. McCammon, whose system of numbering has been m a i n t a i n e d by t h e w r i t e r , and i s t a b u l a t e d belotv* S e c t i o n s M l t o 14 c o n s i s t o f ore f r o m the o l d Queen w o r k i n g s , ?/hile S e c t i o n s M5 t o M13 .consist of ore from the newer w o r k i n g s . . Section Section Section Section Seetlon Section Section Section Seetion Section Section Section Section  Ml M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M? M8 M? M10 Mil M12 Ml3  From From From From From From From From From From From From From  the the the the No. NO. No. NO. No. No. No. No. No.  760 l e v e l , Stope west. 8lQ l e v e l , Stope east.520 l e v e l , Stope west. west ore-shute No.2. 2 level. 81 v e i n . 2 level. 8 3 vein. 2 l e v e l . . 92 v e i n . 3 l e v e l . Queen v e i n . 5 level. 75 v e i n * 5 level. 76 v e i n . . 7 level. 8 l vein. 7 level. 92 v e i n . 9 l e v e l . Queen v e i n .  6  'The  f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c minerals l i s t e d i n order  of abundance, were determined 1. 2. 3. 4. 5« 6.  t o be p r e s e n t i n the s e c t i o n s .  Pyrite, Pyrrhotite, Sphalerite, G-alena, Chalcopyrite, Electrum.:  Quartz w i t h minor amounts of c a l e i t e were the o n l y gangue m i n e r a l s r e c o g n i z e d . D e s c r i p t i o n ,.of the Minerals*, Pyrite. ore.  Two  g e n e r a t i o n s of p y r i t e occu.r i n t h i s  The e a r l i e r p y r i t e was p r o b a b l y the f i r s t s u l p h i d e t o  be d e p o s i t e d . masses.  I t o c c u r s as c u b i c c r y s t a l s and as a n h e d r a l  Q u a r t z ' f i l l s a l l spaces between the e u h e d r a l g r a i n s  and surrounds the a n h e d r a l masses.  I n p l a c e s where the p y r i t e  i s broken, q u a r t z and o t h e r s u l p h i d e s f i l l the f r a c t u r e s . The l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n of p y r i t e o c c u r s ( S e c t i o n M8). f i l l i n g fracture i n pyrrhotite  s  a  i n S e c t i o n M3 f i l l i n g a f r a c t u r e i n  s p h a l e r i t e and a l s o i n , q u a r t z .  In a l l sections, small,  rounded i n c l u s i o n s o f p y r r h o t i t e . occur i n t h e e a r l y p y r i t e . Quartz. generations.-  Q u a r t z , l i k e t h e p y r i t e , o c c u r s as  two  The f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n , w h i c h i s f r a c t u r e d ,  o c c u r s f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and f i l l i n g the spaces between the p y r i t e c r y s t a l s .  The  second g e n e r a t i o n of q u a r t z  o c c u r s f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n s p h a l e r i t e i n S e c t i o n M3. Pyrrhotite*  P y r r h o t i t e o c c u r s i n l a r g e masses,  and as minute i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . abundant i n a l l s e c t i o n s .  I t was  The m i n e r a l i s r e l a t i v e l y  observed f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s  i n s p h a l e r i t e and as i r r e g u l a r masses i n q u a r t z .  Intimate  7.  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h c h a l c o p y r i t e was a l s o noted. S p h a l e r i t e . , S p h a l e r i t e i s abundant i n most sections.  I t o c c u r s as l a r g e masses, and i n f r a c t u r e s i n q u a r t z  and p y r i t e .  C h a l c o p y r i t e b l e b s are numerous i n t h e . s p h a l e r i t e  and l a r g e r masses f r e q u e n t l y occur near t h e boundaries  of the  sphalerite. Galena.  Galena i s not. as abundant as s p h a l e r i t e ,  w i t h which m i n e r a l i t i s quite often i n contact.  I n most  cases these t¥/o s u l p h i d e s appear t o be contemporaneous, b u t i n S e c t i o n M6, g a l e n a v e i n s t h e s p h a l e r i t e .  The d e p o s i t i o n  of g a l e n a may have c o n t i n u e d l o n g e r t h a n t h a t of t h e s p h a l e r i t e . Galena was a l s o ' o b s e r v e d f i l l i n g fractures'-"in p y r i t e . Chalcopyrite.  C h a l c o p y r i t e occurs as b l e b s i n  s p h a l e r i t e , i n masses a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p y r r h o t i t e , i n q u a r t z f r a c t u r e s , and t o some e x t e n t f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e . Gold. "electrum. and absent  n  Gold o c c u r s as the g o l d - s i l v e r ; a l l o y  E l e c t r u m i s r e l a t i v e l y abundant i n some s e c t i o n s i n others.  I t o c c u r s i n the f o l l o w i n g ways:  1. I n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz w i t h galena or sphalerite. 2. I n c l u d e d i n s p h a l e r i t e . 3* A t q u a r t z - s p h a l e r i t e c o n t a c t s and quartz-galena contacts. Calcite.  C a l c i t e occurs i n small q u a n t i t i e s  f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n a l l o t h e r m i n e r a l s and sometimes along the boundaries  of two m i n e r a l s .  Paragenesis» The f o l l o w i n g paragenes i s suggested. Q u a r t z , p y r i t e and some p y r r h o t i t e were t h e f i r s t m i n e r a l s t o be d e p o s i t e d .  A p e r i o d of f r a c t u r i n g f o l l o w e d .  8®  d u r i n g w h i c h the p y r i t e and q u a r t z were c o n s i d e r a b l y s h a t t e r e d . These f r a c t u r e s were t h e n f i l l e d by some p y r r h o t i t e and s p h a l e r i t e , w h i c h were a l s o f r a c t u r e d l a t e r .  The second p e r i o d ,  of f r a c t u r i n g was f o l l o w e d by the d e p o s i t i o n of more p y r i t e and q u a r t z , t o g e t h e r w i t h p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a , and e l e c t r u m .  C a l c i t e was p r o b a b l y the l a s t m i n e r a l t o  precipitate. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PARAGENESIS Quartz • ——-— —— —• Pyrite — — Pyrrhotite — — Sphalerite -————:—— — — — — Galena -— Ghaleopyrite ——— Electrum Calcite :  :  D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e o f Gold P a r t i c l e s . The s t u d y o f t h e o r e f r o m t h i s mine i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e g o l d was d e p o s i t e d l a t e i n t h e m i n e r a l o g i c a l sequence* I t i s i r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d and i s a s s o c i a t e d , c h i e f l y w i t h galena and s p h a l e r i t e , i t s , d e p o s i t i o n p r o b a b l y b e i n g contemporaneous w i t h , and l a t e r t h a n , these two s u l p h i d e s .  The s i z e  of t h e p a r t i c l e s v a r i e s from j5 mierons t o l 6 o m i c r o n s , an average of about 20 m i c r o n s .  with  Host o f the g r a i n s appear- as  • i r r e g u l a r p a t c h e s i n o t h e r m i n e r a l s o r as s h o r t v e i n l e t s . in fractures. D e s c r i p t i o n of S e c t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of t h e s e c t i o n s w i t h t h e i r constituent-minerals. to  The m i n e r a l s a r e s e p a r a t e d  according  t h e i r abundance i n each i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n . Section  ffl-I:  Major — Minor — Rare —  P y r i t e and Quartz. G h a l e o p y r i t e and P y r r h o tite. Calcite.  * Section M-l (cont.): Two g e n e r a t i o n s o f p y r i t e occur i n t h i s  section.  S e c t i o n M-2:  Major — Quartz. Minor — P y r r h o t i t e . Rare — ' C h a l c o p y r i t e and e l e c t r u m .  S e c t i o n M-3,£  Major — Quartz and s p h a l e r i t e . M i n o r — P y r i t e and g a l e n a . Rare — C h a l c p y r i t e and e l e c t r u m .  •  Two g e n e r a t i o n s of p y r i t e o c c u r i n t h i s  section.  S e c t i o n M-4:  Major — Minor — Rare —  Pyrite. Q u a r t z and s p h a l e r i t e * P y r r h o t i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e .  S e c t i o n M-5t  M a j o r —- Q u a r t z . M i n o r — Galena and P y r i t e .  S e c t i o n M-6: • > Major — Sphalerite. M i n o r — Q u a r t z , p y r i t e and g a l e n a . Rare —- E l e c t r u m and chalcopyrite„ E l e c t r u m i s r e l a t i v e l y abundant i n t h i s  section.  S e c t i o n M-7:  M a j o r — P y r i t e , q u a r t z and s p h a l e r i t e . M i n o r —• Galena and c h a l c o p y r i t e .  Section M-8:  M a j o r — P y r i t e , q u a r t z , and M i n o r •-- S p h a l e r i t e . Rare —- E l e c t r u m .  P y r i t e veins pyrrhotite S e c t i o n M-9: A  Major — Minor Rare  —  i n this  pyrrhotite.  section.  Quartz. Quartz, p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , galena.. C h a l c o p y r i t e and e l e e t r u m .  E l e c t r u m i s r e l a t i v e l y abundant i n t h i s  section.  S e c t i o n s 10, 11, 12 and 13: M a j o r — P y r i t e and q u a r t z . Rare — S p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a and chalcopyrite. Conclusions. 1. The p r i m a r y ore of t h e mine c o n s i s t s o f p y r i t e , ' s p h a l e r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , g a l e n a , and c h a l c o p y r i t e . 2. "electrum.  11  The g o l d o c c u r s as t h e g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y  2.0 ' j. The g o l d was p r o b a b l y the l a s t of the m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s t o d e p o s i t . I t i s a s s o c i a t e d with, g a l e n a , s p h a l e r i t e , and p y r r h o t i t e . 4. I n most cases the e l e c t r u m was l o c a t e d In f r a c t u r e s i n q u a r t z and p y r i t e w i t h g a l e n a o r s p h a l e r i t e . 5. P a r t i c l e s of e l e c t r u m are more abundant when g a l e n a o r s p h a l e r i t e are p r e s e n t . 6. 7. of d e p o s i t i o n .  G o l d p a r t i c l e s are of f a i r s i z e , but n o t The m i n e r a l s b e l o n g t o the mesothernal  coarse.  zone  . The G o l d B e l t Mine . D e s c r i p t i o n of the P r o p e r t y . Location. The p r o p e r t y of t h e G o l d B e l t M i n i n g Company L i m i t e d c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g Crown-granted c l a i m s , as w e l l as two h e l d on l o c a t i o n :  J o i n t , Double J o i n t , B l u e b i r d ,  Shamrock, Golden West, Dominion f r a c t i o n , Sunbeam f r a c t i o n , Bruce f r a c t i o n , Nevada. The Gold B e l t p r o p e r t y extends n o r t h e r l y from the steep s i d e of Sheep c r e e k v a l l e y a c r o s s the r i d g e t o the more g e n t l e s l o p e of t h e e a s t s i d e of Reno (Fawn) creek valley. Access to the p r o p e r t y i s a f f o r d e d by a  branch  road f r o m the Reno Mine road, and the d i s t a n c e f r o m Salmo i s about f o u r t e e n and o n e - h a l f m i l e s . Economic Geology. The p r i n c i p a l showings on Gold B e l t ground are e a s t e r l y s t r i k i n g f i s s u r e s f i l l e d w i t h q u a r t z , s u l p h i d e s and free gold.  They s t r i k e a c r o s s the n o r t h e r l y s t r i k i n g upper  11.  p a r t of t h e Reno f o r m a t i o n . Mineralization* The ore c o n s i s t s o f p y r i t e , g a l e n a , and s p h a l e r i t e , S p a r i n g l y d i s t r i b u t e d through t h e q u a r t z w i t h f r e e g o l d v i s i b l e i n some specimens. U n l i k e the. e x t e n s i v e l y o x i d i z e d c o n d i t i o n which p r e v a i l e d i n the upper p a r t s of ore-bodies  i n o t h e r mines of  the camp, o x i d a t i o n i s v e r y s h a l l o w o r e n t i r e l y absent, p r i m a r y ore b e i n g exposed a t the s u r f a c e . Mineralogy. .Introduction. F i v e p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s o f ore f r o m the G o l d B e l t mine- were examined.  These s e c t i o n s were a l l p r e p a r e d by  Mr. J". "W. McGammon, and h i s system o f numbering i s m a i n t a i n e d by the w r i t e r .  They were f r o m v a r i o u s p a r t s of the mine  as f o l l o w s : Section Section Section Section Section  M l From t h e M2 From t h e M3 From t h e M4 From t h e M5 From the  1850 2100 1780 178O 1975  level. level. level. level. level.  No v e i n s p e c i f i e d . 8000 v e i n . 8000 v e i n . ,8200 v e i n . 8200 v e i n .  The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s , l i s t e d i n o r d e r of abundance, were .found t o be p r e s e n t  i n the ore:  . 1 .  Pyrite. 2. P y r r h o t i t e . 3 • Sphalerite. 4. Galena. 3:. C h a l c o p y r i t e . • 6. E l e c t r u m .  Quartz i s abundant and i s t h e o n l y important mineral, although  calcite  Is present.  gangue  D e s c r i p t i o n of the Minerals. Pyrite.  P y r i t e i s ' t h e predominating sulphide i n  a l l f i v e sections.  I t i s b a d l y f r a c t u r e d , and t h e f r a c t u r e s  are f i l l e d w i t h q u a r t z , p y r r h o t i t e and s o m e . c h a l c o p y r i t e . The p y r i t e o c c u r s most commonly i n l a r g e f r a c t u r e d masses, and t o some e x t e n t as i s o l a t e d cubes i n q u a r t z . Quartz.  Quartz f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n t h e p y r i t e and  i s the. p r i n c i p a l m a t r i x f o r the e u h e d r a l g r a i n s o f t h a t mineral.  I t i s f r a c t u r e d , b u t n o t as much as i s t h e p y r i t e .  P y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a and c h a l c o p y r i t e occur i n the fractures. Pyrrhotite. except S e c t i o n M l .  P y r r h o t i t e occurs i n a l l sections  I t f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n b o t h p y r i t e and  q u a r t z , b u t some p l a c e s were noted where smooth, rounded b o u n d a r i e s e x i s t e d between p y r r h o t i t e and quartz, which seems to i n d i c a t e that both minerals s o l i d i f i e d a t approximately the same t i m e . Sphalerite. M4 and Mj?. quartz.  Sphalerite i s p l e n t i f u l i n Sections  I t o c c u r s i n s m a l l masses and i n f r a c t u r e s i n  I t contains Galena.  s m a l l b o d i e s o f p y r r h o t i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e Galena i s p r e s e n t o n l y i n S e c t i o n  where i t f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n q u a r t z and s p h a l e r i t e . apparently  Mj?,  It is  l a t e r t h a n a l l o t h e r m i n e r a l s except c a l c i t e . Chalcopyrite.  Chalcopyrite  i s present i n a l l  s e c t i o n s , o c c u r r i n g i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e , and a l s o a l o n g s p h a l e r i t e - p y r r h o t i t e Electrum.  contacts.  E l e c t r u m i s p r e s e n t i n S e c t i o n s M2 and  13.  M-3 as m i n u t e ' i n c l u s i o n s i n g a l e n a , u s u a l l y near g a l e n a - q u a r t z contact.  I t s intimate a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h galena i n d i c a t e s a  l a t e d e p o s i t i o n , more or l e s s contemporaneous w i t h t h a t mineral. Calcite.. m i n e r a l s observed.  C a l c i t e i s l a t e r than a l l t h e o t h e r  I t o c c u r s v e i n i n g g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e .  Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g p a r a g e n e s i s i s suggested. P y r i t e was t h e f i r s t m i n e r a l t o be d e p o s i t e d . ' I t was l a t e r f r a c t u r e d and the f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d by q u a r t z . A second p e r i o d of f r a c t u r i n g then occured a f f e c t i n g b o t h o f these e a r l y m i n e r a l s . filled  S p h a l e r i t e was t h e n d e p o s i t e d , and  some of t h e f r a c t u r e s i n b o t h p y r i t e and q u a r t z .  As  p y r r h o t i t e was seen v e i n i n g s p h a l e r i t e a l o n g a f r a c t u r e , , a t h i r d period of stress i s Indicated.  The d e p o s i t i o n o f  p y r r h o t i t e and G h a l e o p y r i t e t o o k p l a c e a t about t h e same time f o l l o w i n g that of the s p h a l e r i t e .  Galena appears t o have  come I n l a t e r ' , p r o b a b l y accompanied by e l e c t r u m .  The c a l c i t e  Is l a t e r than a l l the other m i n e r a l s . GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OE PARAGENESIS Pyrite -——:—— Quartz — — — Sphalerite ••— Pyrrhotite —•— Ghaleopyrite • Galena . Electrum — •• — Calcite ;  —  D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e o f Gold P a r t i c l e s . The g o l d , as i n t h e o t h e r mines f r o m t h i s o c c u r s as t h e g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y " e l e c t r u m . "  district,  A l t h o u g h i n these  s e c t i o n s i t appeared more f i n e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d than i n the  14.  s e c t i o n s from t h e o t h e r mines, i t s i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h galena i s t y p i c a l .  V e r y l i t t l e e l e c t r u m i s seen where g a l e n a  i s s c a r c e o r absent.  The average s i z e o f the p a r t i c l e s i n  these s e c t i o n s was l e s s than 6 m i c r o n s . Description of Sections. . S e c t i o n M - I i Major Minor Rare -  Pyrite. Quartz. Chalcopyrite.  S e c t i o n M-2:  Major Minor Rare  P y r i t e and q u a r t z . Pyrrhotite. C h a l c o p y r i t e and c a l c i t e .  S e c t i o n M-3;  Major Minor. Rare -  P y r i t e and q u a r t z . Pyrrhotite. C h a l c o p y r i t e and c a l c i t e .  Section  M-4:' M a j o r Minor Rare  S e c t i o n M-5:  Major Minor Rare  P y r i t e and q u a r t z . S p h a l e r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e . C h a l c o p y r i t e and c a l c i t e , . P y r i t e , q u a r t z and s p h a l e r i t e . P y r r h o t i t e and g a l e n a . Chalcopyrite, electrum and c a l c i t e . :  The.electrum under v e r y h i g h power.  i s v e r y f i n e and can o n l y be seen I t o c c u r s as s m a l l b l e b s i n g a l e n a .  Conclusions. 1. The p r i m a r y ore of t h e mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and g a l e n a . 2. The g o l d o c c u r s as the g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y , "electrum," which i s v e r y f i n e l y disseminated i n the galena. 3. No electrum-was seen except i n t h e one s e c t i o n where g a l e n a o c c u r e d . 4. The e l e c t r u m i s i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d v/ith the g a l e n a , and was p r o b a b l y the l a s t m i n e r a l t o be d e p o s i t e d . 5. of d e p o s i t i o n .  The m i n e r a l s b e l o n g t o the m e s o t h e r n a l  zone . -  15  The. Reno Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the P r o p e r t y . Location. "  The Reno group, the p r o p e r t y of Reno Gold Mines,  L i m i t e d , c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g Crown-granted c l a i m s , and a number h e l d on  Location:  Reno, B l u e S t o n e , B l a c k Stone,  Cur lev/, Donnybrook, Latham, Dandy, Red Rock, C l a r e n c e ,  Clarence  f r a c t i o n , G a r t a n , Lynx, M a n h a t t a n . f r a c t i o n , Triune and  Snowdrift.  The, w o r k i n g s are a t the head of Reno (Fawn) creek, a t r i b u t a r y o f Sheep creek, on the west s l o p e ;of the west peak o f Reno mountain.  A b r a n c h road l e a v e s the Sheep creek  r o a d a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 3,100  f e e t , and i n 5«8 m i l e s c l i m b s  to the mine b u i l d i n g s a t an e l e v a t i o n of 6,240 f e e t .  The  t o t a l distance, f r o m Salmo i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 m i l e s . Economic Geology. Two east-west f i s s u r e s occur on Reno ground, c u t t i n g s t r a t a of the Reno f o r m a t i o n .  1  These are .'the Reno and  the Donnybrook. The  s o u t h e r l y , , or Reno f i s s u r e , s t r i k e s about. 70  degrees, d i p s almost v e r t i c a l l y , and c u t s q u a r t z i t e s , a r g i l l a ceous q u a r t z i t e s , and s i l i c e o u s a r g i l l i t e s of the upper p a r t of t h e Reno f o r m a t i o n .  The  f i s s u r e appears t o d i e out as i t  approaches the c o n t a c t of the Reno f o r m a t i o n w i t h the competent Pend & ' O r e i l l e s e r i e s t o the west  and the  less  lower  p a r t o f the Reno f o r m a t i o n to the e a s t . The Donnybrook, nor n o r t h e r l y f i s s u r e i s of importance w i t h r e s p e c t t o g o l d v a l u e s .  little  16.  Mineralization.. The m i n e r a l i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f v e i n  quartz,  p y r r h o t i t e , p y r i t e , g a l e n a , s p h a l e r i t e , and a l i t t l e pyrite.  chalco-  I t extends outwards f r o m t h e f i s s u r e i n t o t h e crushed  country rock.  Well-defined  w a l l s t o t h e v e i n a r e n o t common,  the w i d t h o f ore b e i n g determined by the e x t e n t t o which m i n e r a l i z a t i o n can be seen t o have spread from t h e f i s s u r e , and by sampling.  T h i s w i d t h v a r i e s f r o m n o t h i n g up t o f i v e f e e t ;  the average b e i n g about two f e e t .  Reported values i n gold  range f r o m a t r a c e t o a s h i g h as 21 ounces a c r o s s one f o o t . Oxidation  has c o m p l e t e l y removed t h e p r i m a r y  s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n f r o m t h e Reno f i s s u r e f o r some distance  from the s u r f a c e .  Mineralogy.  /  •  Introduction. F i v e s e c t i o n s o f ore from t h e Reno mine were examined.  These s e c t i o n s were p r e p a r e d by Mr. 1* W. MeCammon,  and h i s system o f numbering i s m a i n t a i n e d by t h e w r i t e r . The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s i n o r d e r of abundance were i d e n t i f i e d m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y : 1* 2. 3. 4. 5.  Pyrrhotite* .Sphalerite. Galena; . Chalcopyrite. .Electrum.  Quartz i s the o n l y gangue m i n e r a l i n these  sections.  D e s c r i p t i o n of. the. M i n e r a l s . Pyrrhotite. sections.  P y r r h o t i t e i s r a t h e r abundant i n these  I t occurs i n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz,  i n sphalerite (Section 2 ) .  and i n f r a c t u r e s  C o n t a c t s between p y r r h o t i t e and  17.  s p h a l e r i t e were n o t numerous, b u t where seen, t h e p y r r h o t i t e appears t o be l a t e r t h a n the s p h a l e r i t e . Sphalerite, pyrrhotite.  Sphalerite  I s n o t as abundant as  I t o c c u r s i n s m a l l i r r e g u l a r masses, and i n  fractures i n quartz.  I t i s s l i g h t l y f r a c t u r e d i n p l a c e s , and  these f r a c t u r e s are f i l l e d w i t h p y r r h o t i t e and sometimes g a l e n a . Galena.  Galena o c c u r s s p a r i n g l y and has t h e same  g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n as s p h a l e r i t e .  I n g e n e r a l the. g a l e n a -  p y r r h o t i t e c o n t a c t s are smooth and r e g u l a r , contemporaneous d e p o s i t i o n .  indicating  However, g a l e n a was observed  to f i l l f r a c t u r e s i n s p h a l e r i t e as w e l l as i n p y r r h o t i t e . The d e p o s i t i o n  of g a l e n a p r o b a b l y o v e r l a p p e d t h a t of p y r r h o t i t e ,  and was l a t e r t h a n t h a t of s p h a l e r i t e . Ghaleopyrite..  G h a l e o p y r i t e i s n o t abundant and  o c c u r s m a i n l y i n s m a l l b l e b s or i r r e g u l a r masses w i t h p y r r h o t i t e and s p h a l e r i t e .  I t i s commonly seen  with-pyrrhotite  in fractures i n pyrite. Quartz. t o be d e p o s i t e d . ably fractured.  Quartz appears t o be t h e f i r s t m i n e r a l  I t o c c u r s i n a l l s e c t i o n s , and I s P y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , and g a l e n a  considerfill,  these f r a c t u r e s . Electrum. and  2.  E l e c t r u m o c c u r s i n s e c t i o n s 1.A, l . B  I t occurs i n quartz f r a c t u r e s with  pyrrhotite,  s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a , and a l o n g b o u n d a r i e s between q u a r t z and  the s u l p h i d e s .  M i n o r amounts o c c u r as i s o l a t e d p a r t i c l e s  i n q u a r t z f r a c t u r e s , b u t t h e most common a s s o c i a t i o n i s w i t h galena.  E l e c t r u m , t h e r e f o r e , was p r o b a b l y d e p o s i t e d a t a l a t e  18.  stage with-'galena. Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g p a r a g e n e s i s i s suggested. Quartz was the f i r s t m i n e r a l t o he d e p o s i t e d . I t was t h e n f r a c t u r e d and t h e . f r a c t u r e s h e a l e d b y s p h a l e r i t e . Another p e r i o d of f r a c t u r i n g o c c u r r e d c a u s i n g c r a c k s i n the s p h a l e r i t e , which i n t u r n were f i l l e d by p y r r h o t i t e c h a l c o p y r i t e , g a l e n a and e l e c t r u m .  ?  :  ' GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION Off PARAGENESIS Quartz Sphalerite — ••— Pyrrhotite Galena — Chalcopyrite : Electrum . —— :  D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e of G o l d p a r t i c l e s . The g o l d o c c u r s as t h e g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y " e l e c t r u m " , J.  and i s i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a l e n a , and t o a; l e s s e r e x t e n t w i t h p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . I n these s e c t i o n s a v a r i a t i o n i n c o l o u r Was n o t i c e d from a v e r y p a l e to  deeper g o l d .  s i l v e r ratio:.  T h i s i s p r o b a b l y due t o a change i n t h e g o l d I n s i z e t h e p a r t i c l e s v a r y f r o m 3 microns t o  84 microns, w i t h an average o f about 23 m i c r o n s . D e s c r i p t i o n of S e c t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f t h e s e c t i o n s w i t h t h e i r constituent minerals. to  The m i n e r a l s a r e s e p a r a t e d a c c o r d i n g  t h e i r abundance i n each i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n . S e c t i o n 1-A: Major — P y r r h o t i t e and q u a r t z . Minor — G h a l c o p y r i t e . Rare — Electrum. S e c t i o n 1-B: M a j o r - - P y r r h o t i t e and q u a r t z . Rare — C h a l c o p y r i t e and e l e c t r u m . S e c t i o n 2:  Major —  Quartz.  19  " S e c t i o n 2(cont:.| M i n o r - Rare  P y r r h o t i t e and galena.'" —  S p h a l e r i t e and e l e c t r u m .  Electrum i s r e l a t i v e l y p l e n t i f u l i n t h i s section. S e c t i o n 7-A: S e c t i o n 7-B:  M a j o r — Quartz. Minor Pyrrhotite.. Rare — C h a l c o p y r i t e . Major — Quartz. Minor — S p h a l e r i t e and  galena.  Conclusions. . 1 . The g o l d o c c u r s as the g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y "electrum." 2. The e l e c t r u m i s i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h galena i n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz. 3>. Most of the e l e c t r u m observed was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h galena. , 4. The m i n e r a l s p r e s e n t suggest t h a t d e p o s i t i o n o c c u r r e d u n d e r ' c o n d i t i o n s between mesothermal and hypothermal.  •• - .  •  The Kootenay B e l l e Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the P r o p e r t y . Location. T h i s p r o p e r t y i s owned by Kootenay B e l l e Gold M i n e s and c o n s i s t s o f the f o l l o w i n g Crown-granted c l a i m s :  Batt frac-  t i o n , Pasadena, R i o T i n t o , R i o T i n t o f r a c t i o n , S u l t a n a , Yosemlte, Yosemlte f r a c t i o n . The p r o p e r t y i s on the south s i d e ' o f Sheep Creek, about a q u a r t e r of a m i l e above the j u n c t i o n w i t h Wolf creek. Economic Geology. Two  g o l d - b e a r i n g f i s s u r e s cut r o c k s of the  Q u a r t z i t e Range f o r m a t i o n t h a t s t r i k e a p p r o x i m a t e l y n o r t h and d i p f r o m $0 t o 7 5 degrees e a s t .  No.  s  1 f i s s u r e s t r i k e s on an  average 6 0 degrees and d i p s south a t a n g l e s of 6 ? t o 7-6  20  Noi 2 f i s s u r e , south of No.  degrees.  64 degrees south. into i t .  The  The  two  1,  s t r i k e s on an average  s t r i k e a l o n g the h i l l s i d e and  two f i s s u r e s e i t h e r j o i n or c r o s s .  shoots outcropped, two on each f i s s u r e . p y r i t e ' , s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a and  Ore  dip  Four ore-  c o n s i s t s of q u a r t z ,  gold.  Mineralogy. '  Introduction. . .  *  Three p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s of ore f r o m the Kootenay B e l l e mine were examined m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y .  The  s e c t i o n s were'  p r e p a r e d by Mr. J . W. McOammon, and h i s system of numbering has been.used by the w r i t e r . f  S e c t i o n M-l S e c t i o n M-2 S e c t i o n M-3  From the 6 t h l e v e l e a s t . From the 303 stope. From the 303 raise-.  . The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s , l i s t e d i n order of abundance were•determined i n the s e c t i o n s . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5* 6.  Sphalerite. Galena. Pyrite. Chalcopyrite. Pyrrhotite. Electrum*  ,  Quartz i s the c h i e f gangue m i n e r a l , but  small  amounts, of c a l c i t e were n o t e d . D e s c r i p t i o n of the M i n e r a l s . Pyrite. sections.  P y r i t e i s not v e r y abundant i n these  I t o c c u r s as e u h e d r a l g r a i n s or s m a l l masses  u s u a l l y surrounded by quartz., but sometimes s c a t t e r e d through s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a ,  P y r i t e , was p r o b a b l y  the f i r s t  mineral  t o be d e p o s i t e d , as i t c o n t a i n s f r a c t u r e s and embayments which are now  f i l l e d w i t h q u a r t z , g a l e n a , or s p h a l e r i t e .  21  - * Quartz.  Quartz I s r e l a t i v e l y abundant.  f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s and c a v i t i e s i n p y r i t e *  I t occurs  The q u a r t z i n t u r n  i s f r a c t u r e d , and these f r a c t u r e s a r e f i l l e d w i t h s p h a l e r i t e , and a few b l e b s o f c h a l c o p y r i t e . Sphalerite.  S p h a l e r i t e i s common i n the s e c t i o n s ,  but n o t as p l e n t i f u l as g a l e n a .  I t u s u a l l y occurs i n quartz  f r a c t u r e s , and where i n c o n t a c t w i t h g a l e n a , shows m a i n l y smooth, i n t i m a t e , rounded b o u n d a r i e s .  Occasionally., the galena  v e i n s i n t o the s p h a l e r i t e . Pyrrhotite.  P y r r h o t i t e i s very r a r e .  I t was seen  as s m a l l rounded b l e b s i n g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e , r  Chalcopyrite., C h a l c o p y r i t e , l i k e p y r r h o t i t e i s  v e r y scarce i n these s e c t i o n s .  I t occurs as s m a l l p a t c h e s  i n q u a r t z f r a c t u r e s , and as b l e b s i n s p h a l e r i t e . Galena.  Galena i s f a i r l y abundant.  I t occurs  i n i r r e g u l a r masses a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p h a l e r i t e and ..quartz. O f t e n i t i s found f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n q u a r t z and l e s s commonly i s seen as v e i n s i n s p h a l e r i t e . Electrum.  G o l d o c c u r s i n s e c t i o n s M - l , M-2 and  M-4, as the g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y " e l e c t r u m . "  This i s intimately  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a l e n a , and o c c u r s most commonly as i n c l u s i o n s i n the galena.  A minor amount o f e l e c t r u m  occurred i n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz.  I t was noted t h a t s e c t i o n s  c o n t a i n i n g a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of g a l e n a a l s o c o n t a i n e d t h e l a r g e s t amount o f e l e c t r u m . Calcite.  C a l c i t e was observed  i n S e c t i o n s M-2 and M-^.  i n small quantities  I t always o c c u r s i n s m a l l f r a c t u r e s  22  i n the other-minerals. Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g p a r a g e n e s i s  i s suggested.  P y r i t e was t h e f i r s t m i n e r a l t o he d e p o s i t e d . T h i s m i n e r a l was then f r a c t u r e d , and t h e f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d with quartz.  A second p e r i o d o f f r a c t u r i n g s h a t t e r e d both  p y r i t e and q u a r t z , and I n these l a t e r f r a c t u r e s were d e p o s i t e d s p h a l e r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , galena and electrum.  S p h a l e r i t e a p p a r e n t l y s o l i d i f i e d f i r s t as i t i s -  v e i n e d by p y r r h o t i t e , g a l e n a and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Galena, i n p l a c e s v e i n s p y r r h o t i t e , and a t o t h e r p l a c e s appears t o be contemporaneous w i t h i t . ' T h i s suggests t h a t the g a l e n a was d e p o s i t e d w i t h , and l a t e r t h a n , the p y r r h o t i t e .  Chalcopyrite  i s I n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p y r r h o t i t e , and t o some e x t e n t with sphalerite.  I t i s r e a s o n a b l e , - t h e r e f o r e , t o assume t h a t  the d e p o s i t i o n o f c h a l c o p y r i t e o c c u r r e d w i t h , and p r o b a b l y o v e r l a p p e d t h a t o f these two sulphides.As has been p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , by f a r the g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of the e l e c t r u m i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a l e n a . Some, however, o c c u r s i s o l a t e d I n q u a r t z f r a c t u r e s .  These  c r i t e r i a i n d i c a t e t h a t e l e c t r u m was p r e c i p i t a t e d contemporane o u s l y w i t h , and l a t e r t h a n , t h e g a l e n a .  The c a l c i t e i s  p r o b a b l y a much l a t e r m i n e r a l . GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PARAGENESIS Pyrite — Quartz — Sphalerite -—. , • Pyrrhotite — — •—— Chalcopyrite ; Galena —Electrum ——— :  :  :  23. D i s t r i b u t i o n : and;Size o f G o l d P a r t i c l e s . The  study of s e c t i o n s from t h i s mine shows t h a t  the g o l d was p r o b a b l y the l a s t m i n e r a l t o be d e p o s i t e d from the m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s .  I t I s found i r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t  ed as i n c l u s i o n s i n g a l e n a and i n f r a c t u r e s i n q u a r t z .  The  most important a s s o c i a t i o n i s w i t h g a l e n a , as the q u a n t i t y of e l e c t r u m appears t o v a r y w i t h the amount of g a l e n a i n the o r e . The p a r t i c l e s range i n s i z e from 5 microns t o 40 mierons w i t h an average of 27 m i c r o n s . D e s c r i p t i o n ,of S e c t i o n s . S e c t i o n ffl-1: M a j o r ' — P y r i t e , q u a r t z and g a l e n a . . Minor — S p h a l e r i t e . ' Rare — C h a l c o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e and e l e c t r u m . :  S e c t i o n M-2:  S e c t i o n M-5:  :  M a j o r — - P y r i t e , q u a r t z and g a l e n a . M i n o r —- S p h a l e r i t e . Rare — Chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, e l e c t r u m and c a l c i t e . M a j o r — P y r i t e and q u a r t z . M i n o r — S p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a . Rare --- C h a l c p y r i t e and c a l c i t e .  Conclusions. 1. The p r i m a r y ore of t h e mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and g a l e n a . 2.  The g o l d o c c u r s as the g o l d - s i l v e r a l l o y  "electrum". 3« The e l e c t r u m i s i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a l e n a i n w h i c h m i n e r a l i t u s u a l l y o c c u r s as i n c l u s i o n s . :  4. The s e c t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g v i s i b l e e l e c t r u m had g a l e n a as a major c o n s t i t u e n t . 5» 1'he m i n e r a l s b e l o n g t o the mesothermal zone of d e p o s i t i o n .  © •H  ,a p CQ Pi •H  "tf H O  © -P  Pi Pi H  1  cd  CO H -P O EH  H  I  U  H  +3  -P Pj © O fH © fl,  -P .Pi, CD > O  u  © PH  © -P -H -P O  P ^  I Pi © o  f-t © © pn  H © CtJ-P PI ft H ra  -P Pi ©  © PH  -P Pi © o Pi  © P4  © p  PH  P4  ©  u  o  •P Pi ©  H cd  ©  cd Pi  Pi  ©  -P o Pi H o  ,q  -P Pi © o  ca PH P i k p>5 © cd p , ^  to i PS o © © Pi - p Pi H  © CO Pi © © -P •d «H Pi !>> P)  P! H to © bD-P Pi o O cd i—I P i  © ©  ta pj  co  -H O ^ i Pi © Pi H Pi  .a •H  a  PJ ^ •H N • P Fj cd d. •d H O c5  CO ©  vO  VO NO  vO  o loo CM  o  3-  CO CO v O  CN OMvO VO VO  VO M 3 V O IvO  vO SO  KJ KN  VO VO  vo vo  O o  VO  CM KN *|-  O O  CM |KN  Oi O o O IvO K\| H CM .4o O o O H KO;  II  CM  N N CM K\  I  K\ H  K> H  CO to  VO  o o  VD  ON C N ^ O H H  voko ivO v O  o  VD  ^O vO  V O IvO  IVO  SO  LrJoo  i  o ' l v o Oi trJcoi  o o |oo I  CM  C\J  •  CM  -H  to H cd  OJ »  CM KN  H  o  ©  o© EH PH  P A R T  B  24.  PART B:  THE ZEBALLOS TUNING DISTRICT  D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e D i s t r i c t Location• Z e b a l l o s R i v e r m i n i n g camp i s located, on the west c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 195 n a u t i c a l m i l e s northwestward from V i c t o r i a , B. C.  At present, the area i s  comprised o f t h e v a l l e y of t h e r i v e r and i t s watersheds, i n c l u d i n g t h e v a l l e y s o f Van I s l e , Spud, and G o l d v a l l e y c r e e k s . Z e b a l l o s i s reached e i t h e r by Canadian P a c i f i c steamships, which m a i n t a i n a t r i - m o n t h l y s e r v i c e from Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , o r by a e r o p l a n e . G e n e r a l Geology.  . t,...  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the g e o l o g i c a l f o r m a t i o n s of the Z e b a l l o s m i n i n g a r e a . TABLE OF FORMATIONS Jurassic  Triassic Mesozoic  ;  • tipper" j Coast Range Jurassic 1 Intrusives I n t r u s i v e Contact Upper Bonanza Triassic (Vancouver group) Quatsino Earmutsen  Zeballos granodiorite. F l o w s , t u f f s , limestone, a r g i l l i t e , br.eccia. Crystalline lime- . stone w i t h i n t e r bedded v o l c a n i c s . Flows, b r e c c i a , minor i n t e r b e d s of l i m e s t o n e .  25.  The main f e a t u r e o f t h e geology i s a n o r t h w e s t e r l y t r e n d i n g .belt o f g r a n i t i c ; r o c k s which .'have been c a l l e d t h e Zeballos batholith.  Rock t y p e s , i n t h i s i n t r u s i o n , range  :from-gabbro through q u a r t z - d i o r i t e t o q u a r t z monzonite. W i t h i n the smaller area of present-mining operations, the p r e v a i l i n g type i s q u a r t z - d i o r i t e . .  The g r a n i t i c r o c k s have  i n t r u d e d Mesozoic v o l c a n i c s and sediments o f t h e Vancouver group. The Vancouver group has been d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e members: 1. Karmutsen v o l c a n i c s , a lower assemblage o f v o l c a n i c rocks l y i n g northeast of the b a t h o l i t h , 2. Quatsino l i m e s t o n e , o r m i d d l e member, l i e s above t h e Karmutsen v o l c a n i c s . 3. Bonanza member, southwest o f the b a t h o l i t h , w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f i n t e r b e d d e d v o l c a n i c s and sediments. Dykes are numerous near t h e i n s t r u s i o h , and are a l l p r e m i n e r a l i n age. s t r u c t u r a l Geology. I n t h e Z e b a l l o s m i n e r a l a r e a the p r e v a i l i n g d i p o f the sediments i s t o t h e southwest.  P r e - m i n e r a l f a u l t i n g and  f r a c t u r i n g c u t t h e f o l d e d r o c k s and b a t h o l i t h i n such a way as t o develop major shears a l o n g n o r t h w e s t - s o u t h e a s t  lines.  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e g o l d - b e a r i n g v e i n s on-Vancouver I s l a n d s t r i k e northwest-southeast, the Zeballos d i s t r i c t *  and these a r e w e l l - d e f i n e d i n  26-.  :  Mlner.alogyV > The  ore d e p o s i t s o f t h e Z e b a l l o s area.may be  classified into  three.groups:  • ' 1 . High-temperature replacement d e p o s i t s . 2 * High-temperature v e i n s . 3 . Intermediate-temperature, v e i n s . The h i g h temperature replacement d e p o s i t s are l e n t i c u l a r replacements i n l i m y sediments. of t h i s type o f d e p o s i t are:,  Typical minerals  p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , and  molybdenite. High-temperature v e i n s a r e n o t common, b u t where . found.are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an abundance o f p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , and s p h a l e r i t e . The main d e p o s i t s o f t h e a r e a a r e g o l d - b e a r i n g q u a r t z - s u l p h i d e v e i n s occupying t e x t u r e and m i n e r a l o g y  faulty f i s s u r e s .  The form,,  i n d i c a t e conditions of deposition  between those p r e v a i l i n g f o r medium and h i g h temperature v e i n s . The v e i n s occupy w e l l - d e f i n e d f i s s u r e s t h a t m a i n t a i n a f a i r l y u n i f o r m s t r i k e and d i p over c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h . Comb t e x t u r e s are ..common i n t h e v e i n s , w h i c h suggests the f i l l i n g of open f i s s u r e s . The  s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l s i n the v e i n s i n c l u d e : p y r i t e ,  s p h a l e r i t e . , a r s e n o p y r i t e , g a l e n a , c h a l c o p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e . Quartz and a l i t t l e  c a l c i t e a r e the o n l y gangue m i n e r a l s *  The m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e Z e b a l l o s b a t h o l i t h , and t h e i r age i s p r o b a b l y l a t e upper J u r a s s i c .  27.  The P r i v a t e e r Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the P r o p e r t y . Location. The P r i v a t e e r p r o p e r t y ,  owned by the P r i v a t e e r  Mine L i m i t e d , i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g c l a i m s :  P r i v a t e e r Nos. 1  to. 4 i n c l u s i v e , P r i v a t e e r No. 7 , P r o g r e s s Nos. 1 t o 4 i n c l u s i v e , and the Ray f r a c t i o n . The camp'' i s on the southwest s i d e o f Spud creek a t an e l e v a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 430 f e e t , and i s reached by 4^ m i l e s of r o a d up. the Z e b a l l o s v a l l e y from the town of Zeballos. Economic. Geology. The p r o p e r t y  i s c r o s s e d by; the southwestern eontact  of the Z e b a l l o s b a t h o l i t h and the Vancouver v o l c a n i c s . main v e i n i s a f i s s u r e v e i n f i l l e d w i t h q u a r t z and  The  sulphides.  I t s t r i k e s n o r t h 6 5 degrees e a s t , d i p s 8 7 degrees northwest, and averages 6 i n c h e s i n w i d t h . Mineralogy.  '-•••-,•'  Introduction. Megascopically sulphides  i n a translucent  t h e ore c o n s i s t s o f bands o f q u a r t z gangue.  P y r i t e , aresenopyrite,  and s m a l l mounts o f  s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a a r e v i s i s b l e i n t h e o r e . :  S i x p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s o f ore from t h i s  property  were p r e p a r e d and s t u d i e d m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y . The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s were determined  28 •  by m i c r o s e o p i c examination  t o be p r e s e n t i n the ore.  They  are l i s t e d i n order of abundance. 1. 2. *>. 4. 5« 6. 78. ;  .  Pyrite. Arsenopyrite. Galena. Sphalerite. Ghaleopyrite. Pyrrhotite. Gold. Unknown.  . -  F r i a b l e q u a r t z and c a l c i t e were the o n l y gangue m i n e r a l s observed. ' D e s c r i p t i o n of the M i n e r a l s . Pyrite.  P y r i t e i s the major s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l i n  the o r e , and c o n s t i t u t e s , w e l l over h a l f of the p r e s e n t i n the s e c t i o n s s t u d i e d .  sulphides  I t i s e x c e e d i n g l y broken and  f r a c t u r e d , and o c c u r s m a i n l y as a n h e d r a l masses, but a l l y shows c r y s t a l form a g a i n s t l a t e r s u l p h i d e s .  occasion-  Where  arseno-  p y r i t e i s i n c o n t a c t w i t h the p y r i t e , the b o u n d a r i e s are v e r y smooth.  Some a r s e n o p y r i t e i s i n c l u d e d i n the masses of p y r i t e .  The major i n t e r s t i c e s between g r a i n s , and the l a r g e r f r a c t u r e s i n the p y r i t e are f i l l e d w i t h q u a r t z , s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a , sometimes c h a l c o p y r i t e .  S m a l l e r f r a c t u r e s are f i l l e d by a  l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n of q u a r t z , which i s d a r k e r t h a n the Arsenopyrite. i s f a i r l y abundant.  and  first.  I n the s e c t i o n s s t u d i e d , a r s e n o p y r i t e  I t o c c u r s as s m a l l a n h e d r a l masses, but  g e n e r a l l y shows a more or l e s s c r y s t a l l i n e form.  Inclusions  i n p y r i t e are t r i a n g u l a r or rhombohedral i n o u t l i n e , as are many i s o l a t e d p a t c h e s and g r a i n s i n q u a r t z .  L i k e the p y r i t e , ,  the a r s e n o p y r i t e i s a l s o b a d l y f r a c t u r e d , and the f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d w i t h q u a r t z , s p h a l e r i t e and  galena.  ;  29.  Galena,.  Galena o c c u r s i n massive, a n h e d r a l patches  I t forms i r r e g u l a r c o n t a c t s w i t h p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e , and in-some cases f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n these m i n e r a l s .  The boundar-  i e s batween p y r i t e and g a l e n a are seldom m u t u a l , the two b e i n g s e p a r a t e d by s t r i n g e r s of l a t e , q u a r t z .  "Where g a l e n a and  s p h a l e r i t e are i n c o n t a c t , the boundaries are smooth and mutual.  No ease was observed where e i t h e r of these s u l p h i d e s  v e i n e d i n t o the o t h e r .  The same smooth mutual  boundaries  e x i s t between g a l e n a and g o l d , showing t h a t the g o l d was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d e p o s i t i o n of the g a l e n a . . galena.  Sphalerite.  S p h a l e r i t e i s not as abundant as the  I t o c c u r s l i k e g a l e n a i n massive p a t c h e s , and i n  f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e . The s p h a l e r i t e - g a l e n a b o u n d a r i e s are smooth and m u t u a l , but the p y r i t e - s p h a l e r i t e b o u n d a r i e s are v e r y i r r e g u l a r .  L a t e ' q u a r t z s t r i n g e r s separate  the s p h a l e r i t e from p y r i t e i n most c a s e s . Chalcopyrite. amounts.  Chalcopyrite i s present only i n small  I t o c c u r s as minute b l e b s ' i n s p h a l e r i t e ; as minute,  rounded o r elongated, b l e b s i n the p y r i t e ; as l o n g , narrow, v e i n l e t s i n the p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e f r a c t u r e s ; and r a r e l y as l a r g e r i r r e g u l a r masses i n q u a r t z .  B o u n d a r i e s between  c h a l c o p y r i t e , galena, and s p h a l e r i t e are mutual and smooth; w h i l e those between c h a l c o p y r i t e and p y r i t e are i r r e g u l a r . \ Pyrrhotite.  I n the s e c t i o n s , p y r r h o t i t e o c c u r s  o n l y as minute rounded b l e b s i n the p y r i t e , and o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the a r s e n o p y r i t e . I n many cases p y r r h o t i t e and  chalcopyrite  o c c u r t o g e t h e r i n one b l e b i n d i c a t i n g a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p . P y r r h o t i t e was not observed t o o c c u r i n any o t h e r way i n  30.  these s e c t i o n s , h u t has been p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d i n s m a l l masses i n q u a r t z . •Quartz* m i n e r a l observed. in  Quartz i s the o n l y important gangue There appear t o be two g e n e r a t i o n s of quartz  the o r e , t h e second one b e i n g d a r k e r than the f i r s t .  The  e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n f i l l s i n t e r s t i c e s between t h e p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e masses, b u t does n o t v e i n t h e l a t e r s u l p h i d e s . The l a t e r , or dark, q u a r t z f i l l s  s m a l l f r a c t u r e s I n p y r i t e and  a r s e n o p y r i t e , v e i n s between the l a t e r s u l p h i d e s and p y r i t e , and f i l l s i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n g a l e n a , s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e I t would seem t h a t t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f the l a t e r q u a r t z was contemporaneous w i t h o r o v e r l a p p e d the d e p o s i t i o n o f g a l e n a , s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Gold.  The' g o l d o c c u r s i n d i f f e r e n t ways i n t h i s  o r e , as f o l l o w s : 1. 2. 3* 4.  Isolated i n quartz. .At c o n t a c t s between g a l e n a and p y r i t e " . ~ A t c o n t a c t s between a r s e n o p y r i t e and p y r i t e . R a r e l y as I n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e .  Its  boundaries w i t h g a l e n a a r e mutual, b u t are  i r r e g u l a r w i t h p y r i t e - and a r s e n o p y r i t e . ;  Calcite. in  C a l c i t e was observed  i n small quantities  quartz f r a c t u r e s . Unknown.  This mineral occurred very s p a r i n g l y i n  p y r i t e as minute specks, and was o f t e n seen near b l e b s of p y r r h o t i t e o r c h a l c o p y r i t e . The c o l o u r i s dark-grey w i t h a decided p u r p l e t i n g e , but due t o the e x t r e m e l y s m a l l s i z e of the p a r t i c l e s , i t s i d e n t i t y c o u l d n o t be  determined.  Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g p a r a g e n e s i s  i s suggested.  P y r i t e was t h e f i r s t s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l t o be, deposited. probably  The d e p o s i t i o n o f a r s e n o p y r i t e ' a n d ' p y r r h o t i t e  overlapped  t h a t of the p y r i t e .  d e p o s i t e d a t t h i s time.  Some g o l d was a l s o  The p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e were  f r a c t u r e d , and t h e f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d by the f i r s t quartz.  generation  I t i s thought t h a t t h i s f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n q u a r t z may  have s t a r t e d t o d e p o s i t w i t h t h e p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e . . A second p e r i o d o f f r a c t u r i n g , i n which a l l the e a r l y m i n e r a l s were s h a t t e r e d , was f o l l o w e d by the d e p o s i t i o n of s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a , c h a l c o p y r i t e and g o l d .  A l s o about t h i s  t i m e , a second g e n e r a t i o n o f quartz was i n t r o d u c e d .  Calcite  i s thought t o have been d e p o s i t e d a t a much l a t e r time, as i t may be seen f i l l i n g s m a l l f r a c t u r e s i n t h e l a t e r  sulphides.  GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION 01* PARAGENESIS Quartz — — — ——— Pyrite —— —— Arsenopyrite — — - — — Pyrrhotite -— — Gold — Sphalerite —-— Galena — — — — — :  :  —  ;:  Chalcopyrite  —  ;  —  :  —  D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e o f G o l d . P a r t i c l e s . I n some s e c t i o n s of t h e P r i v a t e e r ore v e r y g o l d was seen, w h i l e i n o t h e r s i t was v e r y abundant. observed t o be m a i n l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l a t e r  little I t was  sulphides,  a l t h o u g h a s m a l l q u a n t i t y was found as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . The g o l d p a r t i c l e s v a r y i n s i z e from 3 microns t o g r a i n s o f megascopic s i z e , about one q u a r t e r o f an i n c h i n  length.  The f i n e r p a r t i c l e s were g e n e r a l l y those i n c l u d e d  i n the p y r i t e , w h i l e the c o a r s e r g r a i n s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h galena,  s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e .  D e s c r i p t i o n o f the S e c t i o n s . S e c t i o n . N o . 1: Major • P y r i t e , arsenopyrite and q u a r t z . Minor Chalcopyrite, sphalerite and g a l e n a . Rare • Gold and p y r r h o t i t e . S e c t i o n No. 2 :  Major Minor Rare  P y r i t e , arsenopyrite and q u a r t z , Chalcopyrite. P y r r h o t i t e , g o l d and unknown.  S e c t i o n No. 3:  Major Minor Rare  Pyrite. Arsenopyrite. C h a l c o p y r i t e and pyrrhotite.  S e c t i o n No.. 4:  Major Rare  P y r i t e , and . a r s e n o p y r i t e . P y r r h o t i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e  S e c t i o n , No. 5'  M a j o r -» A l l q u a r t z . Rare Gold and s p h a l e r i t e .  S e c t i o n No.. 6:  Major — Quartz. Rare •— G o l d .  -  S e c t i o n No. ?: — Hoadley S e c t i o n No. 1. Major — P y r i t e , arsenopyrite and q u a r t z . . . . M i n o r — Galena and s p h a l e r i t e . Rare -— P y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and g o l d . . Conclusions .  i  1. The p r i m a r y ore of t h e mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e . , s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a . 2. The m i n e r a l s b e l o n g t y p i c a l l y t o ' t h e mesothermal : zone of d e p o s i t i o n . 3. The g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e g o l d i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l a t e r s u l p h i d e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y g a l e n a . 4. A v e r y s m a l l amount of g o l d appears t o have been d e p o s i t e d w i t h the p y r i t e , b u t the b u l k of the m e t a l was p r o b a b l y one of t h e l a s t t o s o l i d i f y .  33. 5*. There i s a d e c i d e d tendency o f the g o l d t o o c c u r i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e or q u a r t z , u s u a l l y with, g a l e n a , but o f t e n a l o n e . ' - * U b U x U  The  x  T r i t e s Mine  Description of t h a Property. Location. The N o r t h S t a r group i s owned by A. B. T r i t e s i n t e r e s t s o f Vancouver, and c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g claims;:  mineral  Golden Key, Golden Nugget, Zero f r a c t i o n , N o r t h S t a r  No. 2, N o r t h S t a r , Don f r a c t i o n , Golden S t r a y , Nod f r a c t i o n , Golden Rocket and Golden Lode. The  group i s s i t u a t e d between e l e v a t i o n s of 2,423  f e e t and 2,6l5 f e e t , on a steep mountain s i d e s l o p i n g s o u t h westward i n t o the headwaters o f G o l d v a l l e y  creek.  The work-  i n g s a r e reached by the G o l d v a l l e y t r a i l , which l e a v e s the creek, bottom a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 1,640 f e e t and c l i m b s s t e e p l y t o the  camp. Economic Geology. This property  i s i n t y p i c a l g r a n o d i o r i t e , which i s  t r a v e r s e d by f o u r n o r t h - e a s t e r l y s t r i k i n g shear zones. w e a t h e r i n g has taken p l a c e  Much  i n the upper p a r t s , but f r e s h ,  unoxidized m a t e r i a l occurs i n the lower cuts. Mineralogy. Introduction. The  ore from the T r i t e s p r o p e r t y  i s very s i m i l a r to  t h a t from t h e P r i v a t e e r , . though i n the s e c t i o n s s t u d i e d the s u l p h i d e s a r e r a t h e r more d i s s e m i n a t e d .  Pyrite,  arsenopyrite  34. and galena* are v i s i b l e m e g a s e o p i e a l l y . The  f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s were i d e n t i f i e d  i n the s e c t i o n s .  They are l i s t e d i n o r d e r of abundance. 1. 2. 3. 4. 56. 7-  Pyrite. Arsenopyrite. Sphalerite. Galena. Chalcopyrite. Gold. Pyrrhotite.  Quartz i s the o n l y gangue m i n e r a l D e s c r i p t i o n of the Pyrite. the ore:.  I n these s e c t i o n s .  Minerals.  P y r i t e i s the most abundant s u l p h i d e  I t i s f r a c t u r e d and o c c u r s as both massive  crystalline.  I n c l u s i o n s of p y r r h o t i t e and  in  and  c h a l c o p y r i t e , although  not as numerous as i n the P r i v a t e e r . s e c t i o n s , are p r e s e n t t o some e x t e n t , as are a l s o e u h e d r a l i n c l u s i o n s of Q u a r t z , g a l e n a , s p h a l e r i t e and the f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and  Arsenopyrite.  c h a l c o p y r i t e occur f i l l i n g  arsenopyrite.  i n c l u s i o n s i n b o t h p y r i t e and  arsenopyrite.  G o l d o c c u r s as  arsenopyrite.  Arsenopyrite  i s not as abundant as  p y r i t e and.does not o c c u r i n l a r g e masses.  Where i t i s seen  i n q u a n t i t y , i t i s i n swarms of s m a l l fragments, u s u a l l y showing c r y s t a l l i n e f o r m .  Pyrite-arsenopyrite  boundaries  are smooth and m u t u a l , i n d i c a t i n g d e p o s i t i o n at about the same time.. Sphalerite. and v e i n i n g p y r i t e .  S p h a l e r i t e o c c u r s i n masses i n q u a r t z , The  u s u a l specks of e x o l v e d c h a l c o p y r i t e  were observed i n the s p h a l e r i t e . orientation.  Generally  these show no  36. Some g o l d " e v i d e n t l y accompanied the d e p o s i t i o n of these minerals,, as. i t occurs as i n c l u s i o n s i n ' p y r i t e and arsenopyrite.  The d e p o s i t i o n of q u a r t z must have continued  longer  than the o t h e r s as i t f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and arsenop y r i t e , and a l s o f i l l s t h e i n t e r s t i c e s between masses. F o l l o w i n g a s h a t t e r i n g o f these e a r l i e r m i n e r a l s , s p h a l e r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e . , g a l e n a and g o l d were d e p o s i t e d . probably  The g o l d was  one o f the l a t e s t m i n e r a l s t o be d e p o s i t e d . GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PARAGENESIS  Quartz Pyrite Arsenopyrite Tyrrhotite Gold Sphalerite Galena .Chalcopyrite  -— .  - — — — —— .— — ;  — '  — — .-. —-— .  • —  — —  — •• —-  —  D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e o f G o l d P a r t i c l e s . Most o f t h e g o l d p a r t i c l e s seen i n these s e c t i o n s o c c u r r e d as i n c l u s i o n s i n e i t h e r p y r i t e o r a r s e n o p y r i t e , but a few were observed i n f r a c t u r e s i n these two m i n e r a l s . It  i s j t h e r e f o r e , e v i d e n t t h a t the g o l d was d e p o s i t e d a t the  same time and l a t e r t h a n the p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e . The p a r t i c l e s v a r y i n s i z e f r o m 2 microns t o 1 2 . 3 m i c r o n s , w i t h an average s i z e o f 4 m i c r o n s .  I t w i l l be seen  t h a t t h i s gold i s f i n e r than that i n the P r i v a t e e r s e c t i o n s . And  a g a i n , as i n t h e P r i v a t e e r s e c t i o n s , the f i n e r p a r t i c l e s  are found i n p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e as i n c l u s i o n s .  Those  g r a i n s i n p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e a r e more o r l e s s round, w h i l e those o c c u r r i n g i n f r a c t u r e s a r e i r r e g u l a r o r elongated.  35  Galena. as s p h a l e r i t e .  Galena I s p r e s e n t i n about t h e same aaount  I t o c c u r s as masses and v e i n s i n q u a r t z  f r a c t u r e s , and as v e i n l e t s i n p y r i t e f r a c t u r e s . sections  i t appears t o be:contemporaneous w i t h Ghaleopyrite.  In a l l sphalerite.  G h a l e o p y r i t e i s p r e s e n t as masses  i n q u a r t z , as v e i n l e t s i n p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e ,  as s m a l l ,  rounded b l e b s i n p y r i t e , , and as minute specks i n s p h a l e r i t e . Gold.  Gold o c c u r s a s s o c i a t e d  p y r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e .  w i t h p y r i t e , arseno-  I n "these s e c t i o n s no g o l d was  observed w i t h g a l e n a o r s p h a l e r i t e , a l t h o u g h some p a r t i c l e s .-occurred i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and Pyrrhotite. sections.  arsenopyrite.  P y r r h o t i t e i s v e r y s c a r c e i n these  Only one o r two t i n y specks were seen as i n c l u s i o n s  I n p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e . . Quartz.  /  Q u a r t z i s abundant i n these two s e c t i o n s .  I t o c c u r s f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e .  Some  of t h e f r a c t u r e s i n the q u a r t z a r e f i l l e d w i t h g a l e n a , s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Paragenesis. The  f o l l o w i n g p a r a g e n e s i s i s suggested.  The  o r d e r of d e p o s i t i o n  of t h e m i n e r a l s i n t h e  T r i t e s ore appears t o be i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h a t i n the P r i v a t e e r sections.  The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e n o t e d was t h e absence of a l a t e  g e n e r a t i o n o f q u a r t z , t h e absence o f c a l c i t e and t h e absence of t h e u n i d e n t i f i e d , p u r p l e m i n e r a l i n t h e T r i t e s Quartz, p y r i t e , arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite  sections.  w i t h minor amounts o f  and p y r r h o t i t e were t h e f i r s t m i n e r a l s t o s o l i d i f y ,  D e s c r i p t i o n of S e c t i o n s . Section No.l: ,  M a j o r — P y r i t e and q u a r t z . Minor - - A r s e n o p y r i t e . . Rare — C h a l c o p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e .  S e c t i o n No. 2: M a j o r -- P y r i t e and q u a r t z . M i n o r — Galena, s p h a l e r i t e and chalcopyrite. Rare — Gold. Conclusions. 1 . The p r i m a r y ore o f t h e mine c o n s i s t s , of p y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and galena, 2. The m i n e r a l s b e l o n g m a i n l y t o t h e mesothermal zone o f d e p o s i t i o n . 3 . Tho g o l d p a r t i c l e s seen i n these s e c t i o n s o c c u r r e d as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e , and i n f r a c t u r e s i n these m i n e r a l s . Y e r y l i t t l e g a l e n a or s p h a l e r i t e occurs i n t h e sections,•• and n e i t h e r of these m i n e r a l s was seen . a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any of the g o l d . 4. The g o l d p a r t i c l e s are f i n e . A p p a r e n t l y the c o a r s e r p a r t i c l e s of g o l d o c c u r w i t h o r near g a l e n a and sphalerite.. 5. The g o l d appears t o have been d e p o s i t e d a t two p e r i o d s d u r i n g the s o l i d i f i c a t i o n of the s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l s .  The Rey P r o Mine D e s c r i p t i o n o f the P r o p e r t y . Location. The Lone S t a r c l a i m i s owned by the Rey Oro Gold M i n i n g Company, L i m i t e d .  The workings are l o c a t e d on the  n o r t h - e a s t bank o f G o l d v a l l e y c r e e k between e l e v a t i o n s of 1 3 0 0 f e e t and 1,420 f e e t . Economic Geology. The d e p o s i t s a r e i n j o i n t s o r i n crushed zones i n the p r e v a i l i n g g r a n o d i o r i t e . .  38.  •Mineralogy*;, Introduction. The  samples of Hey  Oro  ore which were s t u d i e d  s i m i l a r t o t h a t from the T r i t e s p r o p e r t y ,  are  and a r e , l i k e most  of -the ore f r o m the d i s t r i c t , e x t r e m e l y f r i a b l e . The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s were determined by microscopic  e x a m i n a t i o n t o be p r e s e n t i n the ore.  They are  l i s t e d i n o r d e r of abundance. 1. 2. 3. 4. 3« 6. 7. Quartz was  Pyrite. Sphalerite. Galena. Arsenopyrite. Chalcopyrite. Pyrrhotite. Gold. the o n l y gangue m i n e r a l  seen i n the  sections. D e s c r i p t i o n of M i n e r a l s . Pyrite.  • <»  •  P y r i t e i s p r e s e n t as s m a l l masses and  grains., some of which show a c r y s t a l l i n e form. a b l y f r a c t u r e d , and t h e s e • f r a c t u r e s  It is  are f i l l e d w i t h  consider-  quartz.  S m a l l b l e b s of c h a l c o p y r i t e o c c u r as i n c l u s i o n s i n the p y r i t e . Arsenopyrite.  Arsenopyrite  i s not as abundant i n  these s e c t i o n s as i t i s i n those of p r i v a t e e r and T r i t e s ore. I t o c c u r s m a i n l y as masses of s m a l l e u h e d r a l p a r t i c l e s surrounded by q u a r t z .  One  g r a i n o n l y was  Sphalerite. i n the s e c t i o n s .  seen i n c l u d e d i n p y r i t e .  S p h a l e r i t e i s r e l a t i v e l y abundant  I n most cases i t o c c u r s as s m a l l ,  irregular  masses, but o c c a s i o n a l l y i t f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n q u a r t z pyrite.  A few s c a t t e r e d b l e b s of c h a l c o p y r i t e are  i n c l u d e d i n the s p h a l e r i t e masses.  and  usually  . Galena.  Galena i s r a t h e r s c a r c e , but occurs  like  s p h a l e r i t e i n s m a l l masses and v e i n l e t s i n q u a r t z , p y r i t e and arsenopyrite.  I n one p l a c e g a l e n a was observed v e i n i n g  s p h a l e r i t e , s u g g e s t i n g d e p o s i t i o n l a t e r than the s p h a l e r i t e . Chalcopyrite..  C h a l c o p y r i t e i s r a r e , and occurs  , o n l y as minute i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e , and as exsolved blebs i n s p h a l e r i t e . Pyrrhotite. two s e c t i o n s . Gold.  P y r r h o t i t e i s e x c e e d i n g l y r a r e i n these  Two s m a l l b l e b s were.observed i n p y r i t e . Gold i s observed t o occur i n the f o l l o w i n g  ways.: 1. I n f r a c t u r e s i n q u a r t z . 2. I n f r a c t u r e s i n a r s e n o p y r i t e . . 3* A l o n g the contact o f p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e . No i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n q.f the g o l d w i t h g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e was observed.  The g o l d occurs i n f r a c t u r e s  i n the e a r l y s u l p h i d e s o r q u a r t z , and tends t o be i n e l o n g a t e d blebs or v e i n l e t s . Paragene s i s . The f o l l o w i n g p a r a g e n e s i s  i s suggested.  P y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e and quartz were the f i r s t m i n e r a l s t o be d e p o s i t e d .  The q u a r t z continued  to deposit  a f t e r the p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e had s o l i d i f i e d , and been f r a c t u r e d , as i t i s seen f i l l i n g these f r a c t u r e s .  Continued  movement caused s h a t t e r i n g of b o t h quartz and s u l p h i d e s w i t h subsequent d e p o s i t i o n o f s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a , c h a l c o p y r i t e and  gold.  . , GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OP PARAGENESIS Quartz: Pyrite Arsenopyrite Pyrrhotite Chalcopyrite Sphalerite Galena Gold  • • —• •—— ——— — —.-• . ,•, — ——— •—  ;  :  — — — —  . :  •  — :  D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e o f G o l d , P a r t i c l e s * I n the two s e c t i o n s o f Rey Oro ore which were studied, the gold occurs o n l y I n f r a c t u r e s i n e i t h e r quartz, p y r i t e or arsenopyrite. I t i s not intimately associated with e i t h e r g a l e n a o r s p h a l e r i t e , a l t h o u g h b o t h o f these m i n e r a l s occur near t o the g o l d .  The g o l d p a r t i c l e s v a r y i n s i z e  from 12 microns to. 420 microns w i t h an average  of 3 0 m i c r o n s .  Description of Sections. S e c t i o n No. 1: M a j o r — - Q u a r t z . Minor — P y r i t e , chalcopyrite and s p h a l e r i t e . Rare — G o l d . S e c t i o n No. 2:  Major -- Q u a r t z . Minor — S p h a l e r i t e , galena and a r s e n o p y r i t e . Rare — Gold.  Conclusions. 1. The p r i m a r y ore o f t h e mine c o n s i s t s o f p y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a . 2. The m i n e r a l s b e l o n g t o t h e mesothermal zone of deposition. . 3 . The g o l d o c c u r s I n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e , arseno-r p y r i t e and"quartz, and t h e r e f o r e , must be l a t e r than these minerals. . 4. No g o l d was seen i n c o n t a c t w i t h s p h a l e r i t e o r g a l e n a , a l t h o u g h b o t h of these m i n e r a l s a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e g o l d . 5* The g o l d p a r t i c l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y r a t h e r c o a r s e .  to o pq  CO  &  o H EH PH  O  Hi  o  o  B H EH  pq  £> H  §H  CO H Q  CO ©  •H  Pi CO, P! •H  <D  -p Pi O fH © ftpH  4^>  K3 P i H CD cd o  • © +3 -H FH S  • P FH o co EHDH  Pi H  . -p cd p i Pi © © o H JH cd © EJDPH  I -P H • Pi cd © © rf.-P o P l ' H FH w FH © © PM  I O O H Cd P i rCl H o  Pi H  Pi H  PH  CO  O  FH  PM fixN ©  UN  O  kO;  Kv-s4 3 ° »4-«+ UNCO  Lf> OC  xi ©  -P Pi  Pi o o o cd FH FH © <H PH  M43 ©  ©  CO  CO » +3 Pi © P i © 43 CD © -H o 43 FH FH •H , P i i>> © H ftpM  n3 O +3 p j H Pi - H © O CD PJ o C5 ra > > P i P i FH P< © H cd PH  .3  D*  4J ~ • H CO Pi £ © $ <€>' 43 •H © M «H o 4 3 ^ Pi FH P, H 4-3 O cd H +3 . C5 P i P i P5 © , Q  CO ©  *4|  O O IO IX) c\l 'CM,  o o « N o H CM| I 1  O  O  LCVOO  I  o o o o kLof M oe a  KMCM  CM  O O » • o o H  O  H  H  O  +3 CO P i H © cd o 4-3 FH o © EHPH  P A R T  0  THE CARIBOO MINING DISTRICT  41.  PART C:  THE CARIBOO MINING DISTRICT  D e s c r i p t i o n of the D i s t r i c t Location. The B a r k e r v i l l e a r e a embraces a p p r o x i m a t e l y 210 square m i l e s , and i s p a r t of t h e C a r i b o o d i s t r i c t of c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia.  This area i s i n the p l a t e a u r e g i o n of  B r i t i s h Columbia, a n d i s bounded on t h e west by the Coast range and on the e a s t by t h e Cariboo and o t h e r mountain ranges. The t h r e e mines s t u d i e d from t h i s a r e a are r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e by r o a d from t h e towns of Quesnel and B a r k e r v i l l e . Q,ues,nel i s on t h e Cariboo highway from Vancouver, and i s a l s o the n o r t h e r n terminus o f the P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n r a i l w a y . G e n e r a l Geology.  .  -  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h e g e o l o g i c a l f o r m a t i o n s of t h e Cariboo d i s t r i c t : ; . TABLE OF FORMATIONS Tertiary  Mesozoic  Gravel p a r t l y cemented, s l i d e rock. , . • Jurassic  Unconformitv Mount Murry D i a b a s e , gabfero s i l l s and dykes. diorite. Quesnel r i v e r group. A r g i l l i t e and basalt. (Continued on next page)  42. TABLE OF FORMATIONS (continued) . I n t r u s i v e Contact Antler Thin-bedded w h i t e , Palaeozoic M i s s i s s i p - Slide mountai n r e d and b l a c k chert •plan series w i t h interbedded grej shale. Waverly Basic volcanic flows and b r e c c i a s . Green-berry C r i n o i d a l l i m e s t o n e . . Guyet B a s a l conglomerate. Unconformity Proserpine s i l l s Quartz porphyry, and dykes. f e l s i t e and a p l i t e . .V..-.„ • ' . I n t r u s i v e Gonta c t Pre-Cambriat Pleasant Slate, phyllite, Cariboo v a l l e y • sercite schist, series chlorite schist, schistose volcanic breccia. B a r k e r v i l l e Limestone, s l a t e , . • " q u a r t z i t e , micaceous quartzite, sericite schist, R i c h f i e l d Quartzite, quartz, slate, fine-grained conglomerate, b l a c k carbonaceous s l a t e . — "— r v  1  The o l d e s t r o c k s of t h e Cariboo d i s t r i c t a r e known as the C a r i b o o s e r i e s .  The r o c k s a r e n o t f o s s i l i f e r o u s , but  from t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l p o s i t i o n , degree of metamorphism, and t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y t o Pre-Cambrian r o c k s f a r t h e r s o u t h , t h e y are b e l i e v e d t o be o f Pre-Cambrian age.  This s e r i e s consists  of q u a r t z i t e s , a r g i l l i t e s , and l i m e s t o n e s , s l i g h t l y t o s t r o n g l y sheared and h a v i n g a t o t a l t h i c k n e s s o f many thousand f e e t . ' The s e r i e s has been f o l d e d i n t o a n o r t h w e s t e r l y trending a n t i c l i n e .  The m e d i a l p a r t o f t h e a n t i c l i n e i s  exposed f o r a w i d t h o f f i f t e e n miles,, and a l e n g t h o f more than f i f t y m i l e s . .  43  . I n t r u d i n g the Cariboo s e r i e s a r e a few dykes and s i l l s of q u a r t z porphyry  and a l l i e d a c i d r o c k t y p e s .  They  are c a l l e d t h e P r o s e r p i n e i n t r u s i v e s and a r e b e l i e v e d t o be p r e - M i s s i s s i p p i a n , and p o s s i b l y pre-Cambrian i n age. TJnconformably o v e r l y i n g the n o r t h e a s t e r n limb of the a n t i c l i n e i s the S l i d e Mountain s e r i e s o f upper P a l a e o z o i c age, c o n s i s t i n g of conglomerate, c r i n o i d a l l i m e s t o n e , banded c h e r t s , a r g i l l i t e and b a s a l t i c l a v a s .  The upper p a r t of t h e  s e r i e s i s c u t by many g a b b r o i c dykes?.  The g e n e r a l d i p of t h e  series i s northeast. Overlying' t h e southwestern  l i m b of the a n t i c l i n e ,  unconformably., are J u r a s s i c a r g i l l i t e s and b a s a l t s c a l l e d the Quesnel R i v e r group.  The sediments of t h e group d i p  southwest. The C a r i b o o s e r i e s i s of s p e e i a l i n t e r e s t f o r i n i t a r e a l l the known l o d e g o l d d e p o s i t s of the d i s t r i c t .  In  the B a r k e r v i l l e map-area the s e r i e s has been d i v i d e d i n t o three formations: 1. P l e a s a n t V a l l e y f o r m a t i o n . 2. B a r k e r v i l l e f o r m a t i o n . 3« R i c h f i e l d f o r m a t i o n . The R i c h f i e l d f o r m a t i o n , t h e lowest exposed format i o n of the C a r i b o o s e r i e s , c o n s i s t s m a i n l y o f q u a r t z i t e , b u t i n c l u d e s as w e l l l i m e s t o n e , b l a c k a r g i l l i t e , and o t h e r r o c k , types g r a d a t l o n a l between t h e t h r e e named. The B a r k e r v i l l e f o r m a t i o n o v e r l i e s t h e R i c h f i e l d f o r m a t i o n conformably,  and c o n s i s t s m a i n l y of b l u i s h - g r e y  l i m e s t o n e , b l a c k l i m y a r g i l l i t e , and q u a r t z i t e .  *The P l e a s a n t V a l l e y f o r m a t i o n o v e r l i e s t h e B a r k e r v i l l e and c o n s i s t s m a i n l y of b l a c k  argillite.  S t r u c t u r a l Geology. The upper-part  o f the R i c h f i e l d f o r m a t i o n i n the  v i c i n i t y of B a r k e r v i l l e i s cut by a m u l t i t u d e of q u a r t z v e i n s , many of w h i c h are g o l d - b e a r i n g .  The p a r t of the  formation  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the numerous q u a r t z v e i n s i s c a l l e d the B a r k e r v i l l e Gold B e l t . The g o l d b e l t r o c k s are on the n o r t h e a s t e r n l i m b of the n o r t h w e s t e r l y t r e n d i n g a n t i c l i n e . s t r i k e i s northwest,  I n g e n e r a l , the  with a northeast dip.  S h e a r i n g of the r o c k s has t a k e n p l a c e i n v a r y i n g degrees, so t h a t a l t h o u g h the g e n e r a l n a t u r e of the o r i g i n a l /  r o c k i s r a r e l y I n doubt, the b e d d i n g i n some p l a c e s has been obscured. These r o c k s are t r a v e r s e d by a g r e a t many pre-, m i n e r a l f r a c t u r e s , many of which are o c c u p i e d by q u a r t z v e i n s . Most of the f r a c t u r e s cut the s t r a t a a t r o u g h l y r i g h t a n g l e s , and t h e i r s t r i k e s range from n o r t h 15 degrees e a s t .  degrees t o n o r t h 60  Another s e t of f r a c t u r e s c r o s s the s t r i k e o f  the beds d i a g o n a l l y , . a n d s t r i k e f r o m n o r t h 60 degrees e a s t t o east.  Others are a p p r o x i m a t e l y p a r a l l e l t o the  strata.  A l l the f r a c t u r e s d i a g o n a l l y c r o s s i n g the and so f a r as i s khovm, a l s o those t h a t p a r a l l e l the contain quartz v e i n s . are not f a u l t s . . faults.  strata strata,  The t r a n s v e r s e and d i a g o n a l f r a c t u r e s  Those r o u g h l y p a r a l l e l i n g the s t r a t a are  45.  .A:, number of p o s t m i n e r a l f a u l t s occur i n the g o l d belt.  Most of them are s m a l l , but s e v e r a l l a r g e ones e x i s t .  These d i p a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 degrees t o the e a s t . f a u l t s are the most common type i n the  Strike  district.  Mineralization. The ore d e p o s i t s of the B a r k e r v i l l e d i s t r i c t are of two f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t •  types;  1. Quartz v e i n s . 2. Eeplacement d e p o s i t s i n l i m e s t o n e . Quartz v e i n s .  numerous of the two. strike.  The q u a r t z v e i n type i s the more  These d i f f e r g r e a t l y i n s i z e , shape and  The v e i n s p i n c h and s w e l l a l o n g the s t r i k e i n s h o r t  d i s t a n c e s , and i n p l a c e s " s t r i n g e r " out w i t h p y r i t i z e d l y i n g between the  schist  stringers.  The m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of the v e i n s c o n s i s t s of q u a r t z , a n k e r i t e , p y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , galena, galenab i s m u t i t e , e o s a l i t e and g o l d . minute specks t o nuggets.  Free g o l d occurs i n g r a i n s from  The galenabesmutite  and  eosalite  occurs s p o r a d i c a l l y i n s m a l l bunches, and much coarse g o l d i s associated with i t .  S m a l l q u a n t i t i e s of s c h e e l i t e  occurs  in places. Replacement t y p e .  I n t h e s e d e p o s i t s , the gold-bearing  p y r i t e r e p l a c e s white c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e .  The l i m e s t o n e i s  i n the f o r m of l e n s e s , w h i c h v a r y g r e a t l y i n t h i c k n e s s , probabl y due t o the r e s u l t of f o l d i n g . The replacement  may  be found anywhere i n the l i m e -  stone bed, but an e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n f o r the f o r m a t i o n of an  46.  ore "body i s ibhe presence  of numerous " h o r s e t a i l " f r a c t u r e s  i n the a d j o i n i n g r o c k s .  I t seems probable t h a t these were t h e  avenues by which the m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s e n t e r e d the limestone. and may  They are from o n e - h a l f to-'two i n c h e s i n w i d t h ,  or may  not be m i n e r a l i z e d .  The massive p y r i t e of the replacements  I s much  f i n e r g r a i n e d than t h a t of the v e i n s , and ore of t h i s type i s i n g e n e r a l h i g h e r grade t h a n t h e v e i n o r e . R a r e l y the ore c o n t a i n s n e s t s of s c h e e l i t e , some samples have c o n t a i n e d c h a l c o p y r i t e and  and  galena.  The Cariboo Gold. .Quartz Mine D e s c r i p t i o n o f the P r o p e r t y . location.  *  The Cariboo G o l d Quartz mine, owned by the  Cariboo  G o l d Quartz M i n i n g Company, L i m i t e d , i s s i t u a t e d - s o u t h e a s t of J a c k of Clubs l a k e on the n o r t h e r n slope of Cow  mountain,  which r i s e s between the l a k e and Lowhee creek. Economic Geology. The p r o p e r t y i s i n the r o c k s of the R i c h f i e l d f o r m a t i o n o f the C a r i b o o Two  series.  o r more p e r i o d s of f r a c t u r i n g have  developed  many t r a n s v e r s e f r a c t u r e s , and s e v e r a l hundred of these contain quartz v e i n s .  _ ...  L a t e r than these f r a c t u r e s are f a u l t s  that s t r i k e i n three p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n s .  A few w i t h a v e r y  s m a l l throw l i e a l o n g some of the q u a r t z v e i n s and  strike  from.north s i x t y degrees e a s t t o n o r t h e i g h t y degrees e a s t .  47. These are o f f s e t by o t h e r s of s m a l l throw w h i c h p a r a l l e l the  strata. Two f a u l t s , the R i n b o w and Lowhee, s t r i k e r o u g h l y a  n o r t h and d i p a p p r o x i m a t e l y  a t s i x t y degrees to t h e e a s t .  These a r e of much g r e a t e r magnitude and are crushed zones twenty o r more f e e t wide, w i t h h o r i z o n t a l displacements of 400 f e e t and 1000 f e e t r e s p e c t i v e l y . The m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s are o f two t y p e s :  '  1, G o l d - b e a r i n g , p y r i t i c , q u a r t z v e i n s . 2. G o l d - b e a r i n g , p y r i t i c ,  replacements.  The v e i n s are of. t h r e e t y p e s ; t r a n s v e r s e v e i n s t h a t s t r i k e from n o r t h t h i r t y degrees e a s t , t o n o r t h s i x t y degrees e a s t , and c r o s s the s t r a t a r o u g h l y a t r i g h t a n g l e s ; d i a g o n a l v e i n s t h a t s t r i k e n o r t h seventy degrees e a s t t o e a s t , and c r o s s t h e s t r a t a d i a g o n a l l y ; and s t r i k e v e i n s t h a t a r e p a r a l l e l o r n e a r l y p a r a l l e l t o the s t r a t a . . The t r a n s v e r s e v e i n s are the most numerous and a b o u t seven-eighths  of these are l e s s than a f o o t wide; the r e s t  average about t h r e e f e e t i n w i d t h .  The d i a g o n a l v e i n s are  l e s s numerous, b u t these a r e a l s o narrow. Many- o f the t r a n s v e r s e and d i a g o n a l v e i n s are commercially v a l u a b l e , but no s t r i k e v e i n i s y e t known t o be mineralized. The replacement d e p o s i t s are b o d i e s o f massive, f i n e - g r a i n e d s u l p h i d e s i n l i m e s t o n e , as d e s c r i b e d i n the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e whole a r e a .  48. Mineralogy.; \ .Intr.o.du o ti.on... The s u l p h i d e s i n t h e Cariboo. Gold Quartz ore occur d i s s e m i n a t e d through, and i n s e g r e g a t i o n s i n a w h i t e , c r y s t a l l i n e quartz.  M e g a s e o p i c a l l y , p y r i t e and s m a l l amounts  of g a l e n a are t h e o n l y s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l s v i s i b l e , except where p o c k e t s o f c o s a l i t e and g a l e n a b i s m u t i t e occur.  The quartz  v a r i e s from p a r t s t h a t are massive, t o p a r t s where i n t e r l o c k i n g c r y s t a l s up t o two i n c h e s i n l e n g t h f o r m a l o o s e network. S i x p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s were p r e p a r e d from ore from the mine.  These were s t u d i e d m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y , and w i l l be  r e f e r r e d t o by number.  -  .  The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s , l i s t e d i n order of abundance, were determined 1. 2. 3. 4. 5» 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  i n the o r e .  P y r i t e \ Galena. Sphalerite. Chalcopyrite. Cosalite. Galenabismutite. Arsenopyrite. Pyrrhotite.. Gold. Telluride?  Quartz i s the p r i n c i p a l gangue m i n e r a l , b u t a s m a l l amount of c a l c i t e i s p r e s e n t . D e s c r i p t i o n of the. M i n e r a l s . Pyrite. P y r i t e o c c u r s both c r y s t a l l i n e and massive, the former type b e i n g the more common.  The s i z e o f the c r y s -  t a l s v a r i e s from those of m i c r o s c o p i c s i z e t o cubes measuring h a l f an i n c h a l o n g a s i d e . fractured.  The p y r i t e i s more o r l e s s  The f r a c t u r e s and i n t e r s t i c e s between t h e c r y s t a l s  49,  are f i l l e d * by q u a r t z .  A l s o , some of ttie f r a c t u r e s hare been  h e a l e d by g a l e n a , s p h a l e r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and g o l d .  Minute  b l e b s o f p y r r h o t i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e occur s p a r i n g l y as i n c l u s i o n s i n the p y r i t e . Arseno-pyrite. S e c t i o n No. 3« With  A r s e n o p y r i t e was seen o n l y i n  Here a few s m a l l , e u h e d r a l g r a i n s are a s s o c i a t e d  pyrite. Quartz.  The q u a r t z i s m i l k y - w h i t e t o t r a n s l u c e n t ,  and o c c u r s both massive and c r y s t a l l i n e .  Many f r a c t u r e s are  p r e s e n t i n t h e q u a r t z , some o f which have.been f i l l e d w i t h g o l d , g a l e n a , s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Sphalerite. sections.  S p h a l e r i t e i s v e r y s c a r c e i n these  The o n l y occurrence noted was as s m a l l v e i n l e t s  in quartz.  . Chalcopyrite.  small-amounts.  C h a l c o p y r i t e occurs i n r e l a t i v e l y  I t was noted as v e i n l e t s i n f r a c t u r e s of both  q u a r t z and p y r i t e , e i t h e r alone o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a l e n a . R a r e l y i t o c c u r r e d as m i n u t e , rounded o r e l o n g a t e d b l e b s i n pyrite.  The most i n t e r e s t i n g occurrence  o f t h i s m i n e r a l was  seen i n S e c t i o n No. 1, where i t i s i n c l u d e d i n an i n t e r g r o w t h of e o s a l i t e and g a l e n a b i s m u t i t e .  The smooth, r e g u l a r  b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e c h a l c o p y r i t e w i t h t h e o t h e r two s u l p h i d e s i n d i c a t e s a contemporaneous d e p o s i t i o n . Pyrrhotite.  -  P y r r h o t i t e o c c u r s r a r e l y as minute,  rounded i n c l u s i o n s i n t h e p y r i t e , C o s a l i t e and G a l e n a b i s m u t i t e .  G o s a l i t e and g a l e n a -  b i s m u t i t e occur as an i n t e r g r o w t h i n S e c t i o n s No. 1 and No.2.  .  50.  These s e c t i o n s were made f r o m ore which showed  megaseopically  o n l y q u a r t z and a n e e d l e - l i k e grey m i n e r a l c o n t a i n i n g v i s i b l e gold p a r t i c l e s .  '  I t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the two m i n e r a l s by c o l o u r under the microscope a f t e r s t u d y i n g the s u r f a c e f o r some time.  I n a f r e s h , p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n , galena-  b i s m u t i t e i s s l i g h t l y d a r k e r than c o s a l i t e . However, i f the s e c t i o n i s etched f o r a minute w i t h h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d , the two m i n e r a l s are r e a d i l y d i s c e r n e d , due  t o a s l i g h t darkening  of the  galenabismutite.  Below are the e t c h r e a c t i o n s f o r these two Colour Cosalite  HC1  HN-03  Galenawhite  Galena-bis: - L i g h t mutite grey  FeClj  KCN,  KOH  blackens slight with e f f . i r r i d e s c . darkens b l a c k e n s  <Dark ' stain  minerals: HgGl  2  -  -  -  N e i t h e r of these m i n e r a l s was.observed a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p y r i t e i n the s e c t i o n s , but t h e y have b o t h been r e p o r t e d veining p y r i t e i n small q u a n t i t i e s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these two Cold.  Coarse, v i s i b l e g o l d i s  minerals.  Gold o c c u r s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ways i n the  sections studied: 1. As v e i n l e t s i n f r a c t u r e d q u a r t z . 2. As i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . 3. I n c o s a l i t e and .  galenabismutite.  Gold o c c u r r i n g i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e i s o f t e n  associated with galena.  One  example ( S e c t i o n N o . l )  shows g o l d  i n c h a l c o p y r i t e , both of w h i c h are I n c l u d e d i n c o s a l i t e  and  51.  .galenabism.tita.te.  I n some cases g o l d i n the bismuth, s u l p h i d e s  conforms w i t h the c r y s t a l s t r u c t u r e o f those m i n e r a l s . •  Tellurlde.  T h i s m i n e r a l occurs I n what appears t o  be swarms, o f minute i n c l u s i o n s i n c o s a l i t e and g a l e n a b i s m u t i t e . The m i n e r a l l o o k s white a g a i n s t t h e s u r r o u n d i n g  bismuth-lead  m i n e r a l s and i s s o f t , b u t i s so e x t r e m e l y f i n e t h a t i t i s i n v i s i b l e except under v e r y h i g h power.  I t has a tendency t o  occur near t h e edges o f t h e s u l p h i d e mass. M i c r o c h e m i c a l t e s t s " r e v e a l e d the presence of the element t e l l u r i u m , and e t c h r e a c t i o n s p l a c e d i t i n a s m a l l group of m i n e r a l s of which " a l t a i t e " and " t e t r a d y m i t e " a r e t h e two most l i k e l y p o s s i b i l i t i e s . C a l c i t e . . A s m a l l amount of t h i s m i n e r a l was  observed  i n f r a c t u r e s i n q u a r t z and sometimes,, i n f r a c t u r e s i n t h e sulphides. Paragenesis.. P y r i t e and q u a r t z were undoubtedly the f i r s t m i n e r a l s t o be d e p o s i t e d .  A r s e n o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , some  c h a l c o p y r i t e and a l i t t l e g o l d accompanied the p y r i t e . probable  It is  t h a t d e p o s i t i o n o f the q u a r t z preceded, was contemp-  oraneous w i t h , and c o n t i n u e d l a t e r than the d e p o s i t i o n o f the pyrite.  P y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and g o l d , o c c u r r i n g as t i n y  i n c l u s i o n s , i n d i c a t e s o l i d i f i c a t i o n w i t h the p y r i t e .  Arseno-  p y r i t e must a l s o have been d e p o s i t e d a t about the same time as the p y r i t e .  B o t h p y r i t e and q u a r t z were f r a c t u r e d p r i o r t o  the d e p o s i t i o n of the l a t e r s u l p h i d e s ; g a l e n a ,  sphalerite,  c h a l c o p y r i t e , c o s a l i t e , g a l e n a b i s m u t i t e , and g o l d .  No  52  - c r i t e r i a were noted f o r t h e d e f i n i t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the ager e l a t i o n s h i p s o f e o s a l i t e and g a l e n a b i s m u t i t e , except the a s s o c i a t i o n ( S e c t i o n N o . l ) , w i t h c h a l c o p y r i t e . From t h i s , i t i s assumed t h a t they came i n w i t h the l a t e r s u l p h i d e s . s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a , and c h a l c o p y r i t e . were p r o b a b l y more o r l e s s t o g e t h e r w i t h some o v e r l a p .  The  deposited  Most o f t h e g o l d i n  the ore was d e p o s i t e d near the end o f t h e m i n e r a l sequence. GRAPHICAL HEPRESBNTATION OF PARAGENESIS Quartz Pyrite Arsenopyrite Pyrrhotite Sphalerite Galena . Chalcopyrite Cosalite Galenab i smuti te Gold Calcite D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e o f G o l d P a r t i c l e s . I t i s apparent from s t u d y i n g these s e c t i o n s t h a t by f a r t h e g r e a t e r percentage of g o l d p r e s e n t was d e p o s i t e d , and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l a t e r s u l p h i d e s ; g a l e n a , g a l e n a b i s m u t i t e and s p h a l e r i t e .  cosalite,  E x t r e m e l y h i g h v a l u e s are  a s s o c i a t e d with, t h e two bismuth m i n e r a l s , and, so f a r as could be a s c e r t a i n e d , g o l d occurs w i t h b o t h c o s a l i t e and g a l e n a b i s mutite i n equal proportions.  The e s t i m a t e d percentage o f g o l d  i n S e c t i o n s N o . l and No. 2 i s betweenone p e r c e n t and s i x percent  of the t o t a l m i n e r a l c o n t e n t , and v a r i e s i n s i z e from  specks about 1 m i c r o n i n s i z e t o g r a i n s v i s i b l e  megaseopically.  I n g e n e r a l , g o l d a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these m i n e r a l s i s f a i r l y  coarse.  Coarse g o l d a l s o o c c u r s i s o l a t e d i n q u a r t z , and much of t h i s can be seen w i t h o u t the a i d of a m i c r o s c o p e .  53.  P a r t i c l e s i n - . p y r i t e f r a c t u r e s tend t o t a k e e l o n g a t e d  forms,  sometimes being v e r y narrow and, l o n g , and v a r y i n g from 4 microns to 1 0 5 microns i n s i z e .  Gold o c c u r r i n g i n p y r i t e as i n c l u s i o n s  i s much f i n e r , a v e r a g i n g about 5 m i c r o n s i n s i z e . D e s c r i p t i o n of Sections,. S e c t i o n No., 1 : Major — C o s a l i t e and g a l e n a b i s m u t i t e . Minor —• Gold and q u a r t z . Rare — C h a l c o p y r i t e and t e l l u r i d e . S e c t i o n No. 2:  M a j o r — C o s a l i t e and g a l e n a b i s m u t i t e . Minor — Q u a r t z and g o l d . Rare — T e l l u r i d e .  S e c t i o n No,. 3 :  Major — P y r i t e , Minor — Quartz. .Rare ; — P y r r h o t i t e , g o l d and arsenopyrite.  S e c t i o n No. 4:  Major —- P y r i t e ( v e r y f i n e g r a i n e d ) . M i n o r — Q u a r t z , g a l e n a , and sphalerite. Rare — Gold. ;  Gold i s abundant i n t h i s s e c t i o n . S e c t i o n No. 3:  M a j o r — P y r i t e and q u a r t z . M i n o r — P y r r h o t i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Rare — Gold. -;  S e c t i o n No. 6:  Major — Minor — •Rare —  :::  P y r i t e and q u a r t z . Galena and s p h a l e r i t e . G o l d and c h a l c o p y r i t e .  Conclusions.. 1. The p r i m a r y o r e of t h e mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , arsenopyrite, c h a l c o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , galena, c o s a l i t e and g a l e n a b i s m u t i t e . 2. The m i n e r a l s belong t o t h e mesothermal zone of deposition. 3 « The g r e a t e r p a r t o f the g o l d i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l a t e r s u l p h i d e s , and t h e r e f o r e must have come i n w i t h them. The g o l d was p r o b a b l y one o f t h e l a t e s t m i n e r a l s t o be deposited. ;  sulphides.  4. T e r y h i g h g o l d v a l u e s o c c u r w i t h t h e two bismuth .  54 5*. .'Higher v a l u e s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i n e - g r a i n e d p y r i t e than w i t h c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e p y r i t e . 6. Although v e r y l i t t l e g o l d was seen i n contact w i t h e i t h e r g a l e n a or s p h a l e r i t e , these m i n e r a l s were u s u a l l y p r e s ent i n the se e t i on, 7» A s m a l l amount of g o l d appears as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e , and t h i s must have s o l i d i f i e d w i t h t h i s e a r l y s u l p h i d e . 8. The l a t e r g o l d occurs c h i e f l y i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e , or q u a r t z . . ' 9. I n g e n e r a l , the g o l d p a r t i c l e s from t h i s p r o p e r t y are f a i r l y c o a r s e . s  The I s l a n d Mountain Mine. D e s c r i p t i o n of the Property. Location. The p r o p e r t y of the I s l a n d Mountain Mines Company, L i m i t e d , c o n s i s t i n g of t h i r t y - t w o c l a i m s and f r a c t i o n s , comp r i s e s 1027  a c r e s on I s l a n d mountain, a l o n g the n o r t h  shore  of Jack of C l u b s l a k e , f o u r m i l e s northwest of the town of Barkerville. Economic G-eology. T h i s mine i s a l s o i n r o c k s of the R i c h f i e l d formation.  B o t h r o c k s and m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s are cut by f a u l t s , the  l a r g e s t of which s t r i k e s about n o r t h f i f t e e n degrees west, and d i p s from f o r t y - f i v e degrees t o s i x t y degrees e a s t .  It  i s s i m i l a r t o the l a r g e f a u l t s i n the C a r i b o o Gold Quartz mine.  There are a l s o many f a u l t s of s m a l l throw, p a r a l l e l  or n e a r l y p a r a l l e l t o the  strata.  The m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s are o f two  types:  1. G o l d - b e a r i n g , p y r i t i c , q u a r t z v e i n s . 2. G o l d - b e a r i n g , p y r i t i c replacements i n limestone,  • •> Most o f t h e quartz, v e i n s s t r i k e from n o r t h t h i r t y degrees e a s t t o n o r t h s i x t y degrees e a s t , and d i p s t e e p l y southeast. gold.  The v e i n s e o n s i s t of q u a r t z , s u l p h i d e s and f r e e  They occur i n swarms o r zones which cut a c r o s s the  formation* The replacement type of d e p o s i t c o n s i s t s m a i n l y of g o l d - b e a r i n g p y r i t e w i t h minor amounts of o t h e r s u l p h i d e s , and  so f a r the grade of t h i s type i s r o u g h l y t w i c e as h i g h  as t h e grade o f t h e b e t t e r v e i n s . Mineralogy.  .  *  Introduction. The f o u r p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s o f ore from I s l a n d Mountain were s e c t i o n s which had been a l r e a d y mounted.  They  were r e - p o l i s h e d and s t u d i e d by the ..writer. M e g a s c o p i c a l l y , I s l a n d Mountain ore i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of t h e Cariboo Gold  Quartz.  The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s , i n o r d e r of abundance, were determined m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y i n the s e c t i o n s . 1. 2. .•.3. 4. 3.  Pyrite. Arsenopyrite. Galena. Chalcopyrite. Gold.  Quartz i s t h e main gangue m i n e r a l w i t h s m a l l amounts of c a l c i t e . D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e M i n e r a l s . Pyrite.  P y r i t e i s t h e most abundant s u l p h i d e i n  the o r e . I t i s b o t h massive and c r y s t a l l i n e , commonly showing euhedral faces against quartz.  The p y r i t e i s w e l l - f r a c t u r e d ,  56.  .and t h e s e , f r a c t u r e s are f i l l e d by q u a r t z , g a l e n a , c h a l c o p y r i t e , and t o some extent w i t h g o l d .  No  i n c l u s i o n s of p y r r h o t i t e  or g o l d i n p y r i t e were n o t e d i n these s e c t i o n s . Arsenopyrite. one  A r s e n o p y r i t e was  s e c t i o n , ( S e c t i o n No.2).  observed i n o n l y  I t i s rather p l e n t i f u l i n this  s e c t i o n , but not abundant g e n e r a l l y .  I t appears intergown  w i t h p y r i t e and i s s i m i l a r l y f r a c t u r e d . Galena. sections studied.  Galena i s not abundant i n any of these  I t o c c u r s v e i n i n g p y r i t e and  arsenopyrite,  and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t i n q u a r t z f r a c t u r e s , as v e i n l e t s , or s m a l l , i r r e g u l a r masses. Ghaleopyrite.  C h a l c o p y r i t e was  not abundant,  and where f o u n d , o c c u r r e d as narrow v e i n l e t s i n f r a c t u r e d p y r i t e , sometimes i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h .galena. Gold.  G o l d was  seen to o c c u r i n the f o l l o w i n g  ways: 1. I n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and' a r s e n o p y r i t e . 2. I n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a l e n a . Those g r a i n s o c c u r r i n g alone i n p y r i t e f r a c t u r e s appear as ve i n l e t s,,_vsrhile those w i t h g a l e n a appear as i r r e g u l a r masses i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  galena*  Paragenesis;. The f o l l o w i n g p a r a g e n e s i s  i s suggested.  Q u a r t z , p y r i t e : and a r s e n o p y r i t e were the m i n e r a l s t o be d e p o s i t e d .  The  first  q u a r t z c o n t i n u e d / to p r e c i p i t a t e  d u r i n g and a f t e r a p e r i o d of f r a c t u r i n g , which s h a t t e r e d p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e . following c r i t e r i a .  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s based on  the  the  57. . 1.. B u h e d r a l p y r i t e cubes i n a groUndmass of q u a r t z . 2 . ' F r a c t u r e d p y r i t e i n which the f r a c t u r e s are f i l l e d with quartz. L a t e r than t h i s p e r i o d of f r a c t u r i n g , g a l e n a , p y r i t e and g o l d were d e p o s i t e d .  chalco-  These t h r e e s u l p h i d e s occupy,  to some extent, f r a c t u r e s , i n q u a r t z and p y r i t e .  Calcite  appears t o be the l a t e s t m i n e r a l , o c c u r r i n g i n f r a c t u r e s i n the o t h e r m i n e r a l s . GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PARAGENESIS Quartz Pyrite Arsenopyrite Galena Chalcopyrite Gold Calcite D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e of G o l d P a r t i c l e s . I n the s e c t i o n s s t u d i e d , g o l d o c c u r r e d i n o n l y ways; i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e , and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Both of t h e s e o c c u r r e n c e s of the p y r i t e .  two  galena.  i n d i c a t e d e p o s i t i o n l a t e r than t h a t  The g r e a t e r p a r t o f the g o l d seen occurs w i t h  or near g a l e n a , and suggests a more or l e s s contemporaneous origin.  The  s i z e of the g o l d p a r t i c l e s v a r i e s from 4 microns  t o 42 m i c r o n s , w i t h an average of l 6 m i c r o n s .  No g o l d  noted as i n c l u s i o n s i n the p y r i t e i n these s e c t i o n s . i t must not be concluded this  was However,  t h a t the g o l d does not occur i n  way. D e s c r i p t i o n of S e c t i o n s . The  f o l l o w i n g i s .a. l i s t of the s e c t i o n s w i t h t h e i r  constituent minerals.  The m i n e r a l s are separated  to, t h e i r , abundance i n each i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n .  according  58.  ..Section No.  I:  Major — P y r i t e (very f i n e - g r a i n e d ) . Minor — Rare — Quartz,, g a l e n a , g o l d and chalcopyrite.•  S e c t i o n No.  2:  M a j o r .— P y r i t e and q u a r t z . Minor — A r s e n o p y r i t e . Rare — G o l d and g a l e n a .  S e c t i o n No.  g:  Major — P y r i t e . Minor — - Q u a r t z . Rare — Gold and  galena.  Major — P y r i t e . Minor — Quartz. Rare — G o l d and  galena.  S e c t i o n No. 4: •  ,  .  Conclusions. 1. The p r i m a r y ore of the mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e , g a l e n a , and c h a l c o p y r i t e . 2. The m i n e r a l s b e l o n g t o t h e mesothermal zone of deposition. 5. A l l the g o l d seen i n these s e c t i o n s was d e p o s i t e d l a t e r than the p y r i t e and q u a r t z . The i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n of g o l d and g a l e n a suggests t h a t the-' two m i n e r a l s were d e p o s i t e d a t about the same t i m e . 4. Most of the g o l d p a r t i c l e s occur i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e w i t h galena. '  The C a r i b o o Hudson Mine. D e s c r i p t i o n of the P r o p e r t y . Location. The C a r i b o o Hudson, p r o p e r t y i s s i t u a t e d i n the C a r i b o o G o l d b e l t i n c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia.  The group i s  l o c a t e d a t the head of Harvey and Cunningham c r e e k s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty m i l e s s o u t h e a s t of B a r k e r v i l l e , which i s s i t u a t e d 260 m i l e s n o r t h and G0 m i l e s e a s t of Vancouver. B a r k e r v i l l e i s reached by a motor-road from Quesnel, which i s the n o r t h e r n terminus of t h e P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n  railway.  *Quesnel i s a l s o s e r v e d by the Cariboo Highway from  from "Vancouver t o H a z e l t o n . Economic Geology, The m i n e r a l d e p o s i t occurs i n r o c k s of the R i c h f i e l d f o r m a t i o n , w h i c h c o n s i s t s of q u a r t z i t e , s c h i s t , a r g i l l i t e and some l i m e s t o n e . The. d e p o s i t c o n s i s t s o f a zone of v e i n s and l e n s e s of q u a r t z which s t r i k e s g e n e r a l l y t o t h e s o u t h e a s t . The m i n e r a l i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e and g a l e n a i n a q u a r t z gangue.  S m a l l amounts of s e h e e l i t e and a n k e r i t e a l s o  occur as gangue m i n e r a l s * Mineralogy.  -  Introduction, C a r i b o o Hudson ore i s s i m i l a r i n appearance t o t h a t ;  of t h e C a r i b o o G o l d Quartz mine. P y r i t e w i t h s m a l l amounts of s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a are seen i n the ore samples. E i g h t s e c t i o n s o f ore from t h i s p r o p e r t y were -prepared and s t u d i e d .  They are numbered from one t o e i g h t ,  and w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o by number. The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s , l i s t e d i n order o f abundance, were determined  i n the o r e :  1. P y r i t e . 2. S p h a l e r i t e . 3. Galena. 4. C h a l c o p y r i t e . •5. P y r r h o t i t e . 6. Gold."  . .  .  Quartz i s the u s u a l gangue m i n e r a l w i t h minor amounts of c a r b o n a t e s , m a i n l y  calcite.  6o. D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e M i n e r a l s , Pyrite,  P y r i t e i s t h e most abundant s u l p h i d e ,  o c c u r r i n g i n a l l of t h e s e c t i o n s s t u d i e d .  I t i s fractured i n  a l l c a s e s t o some e x t e n t , and t h e f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d w i t h q u a r t z and l a t e r s u l p h i d e s . and  L a r g e r i n t e r s t i c e s between p y r i t e masses  i n d i v i d u a l c r y s t a l s are also f i l l e d w i t h quartz.  About  f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e p y r i t e observed appeared t o be e i t h e r wholly or p a r t l y c r y s t a l l i n e .  Chalcopyrite  and p y r r h o t i t e .  occur s p a r i n g l y as minute round, or e l o n g a t e d b l e b s i n thepyrite,  • Quartz,  Quartz occurs abundantly f i l l i n g i n t e r -  s t i c e s between g r a i n s , and i n f r a c t u r e s i n the p y r i t e . of t h e q u a r t z was p r o b a b l y d e p o s i t e d than t h e p y r i t e . of  Most  a t the same time o r l a t e r  No evidence was seen o f more t h a n one type  quartz. Sphalerite.  S p h a l e r i t e i s r a t h e r abundant i n some  s e c t i o n s , and s c a r c e i n o t h e r s .  I t o c c u r s as l a r g e and s m a l l  masses between p y r i t e masses, and a l s o i n f r a c t u r e s i n b o t h p y r i t e and q u a r t z . the s p h a l e r i t e .  B l e b s of c h a l c o p y r i t e o c c u r s p a r i n g l y i n  Where i t i s i n c o n t a c t w i t h g a l e n a , v e i n l e t s  and embayments o f g a l e n a p e n e t r a t e I n t o t h e s p h a l e r i t e , i n some cases l e a v i n g i s l a n d s o f s p h a l e r i t e i n the g a l e n a .  Where  these f e a t u r e s o c c u r , replacement o f s p h a l e r i t e by g a l e n a i s I n d i c a t e d , b u t q u i t e o f t e n the contact i s smooth and r e g u l a r , g i v i n g t h e appearance of contemporaneous d e p o s i t i o n . Galena.  Galena has t h e same g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n  as s p h a l e r i t e , and i s p r e s e n t i n about t h e same q u a n t i t i e s .  6i.  I n s e c t i o n * N o . 6, a wide v e i n l e t o f galena o c c u r s i n a q u a r t z f r a c t u r e and shows a curved cleavage s t r u c t u r e .  T h i s deforma-  t i o n may be due t o movement a l o n g the f r a c t u r e d u r i n g s o l i d i f i c a t i o n of t h e g a l e n a . Chalcopyrite.. sections.  C h a l c o p y r i t e i s v e r y scarce i n these  I t o c c u r s o n l y as a few s m a l l i n c l u s i o n s i n the  p y r i t e and as minute b l e b s i n s p h a l e r i t e . was observed i n a p y r i t e Pyrrhotite.  One t i n y v e i n l e t  fracture.  A few s m a l l round, o r e l o n g a t e d  inclusions i n pyrite. Gold.  G o l d o c c u r s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ways;  1. I n p y r i t e as i n c l u s i o n s . 2. I n f r a c t u r e s i n q u a r t z . 3» I n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e , Y/ith o r without galena or s p h a l e r i t e . 4. W i t h s p h a l e r i t e and, p y r r h o t i t e . Gold contacts w i t h galena, s p h a l e r i t e or are smooth and r e g u l a r , but g o l d o c c u r r i n g  s u g g e s t i n g simultaneous  i n f r a c t u r e s has an i r r e g u l a r  chalcopyrite  deposition; veining  appearance. Paragene s i s . . The f o l l o w i n g p a r a g e n e s i s i s suggested. Q u a r t z , and p y r i t e were t h e f i r s t m i n e r a l s t o be d e p o s i t e d , though p r e c i p i t a t i o n of q u a r t z p r o b a b l y continued l o n g e r t h a n t h a t o f the p y r i t e . pyrrhotite  S m a l l q u a n t i t i e s of g o l d and  appear t o have been s o l i d i f i e d , w i t h the p y r i t e , as  they o c c u r as i n c l u s i o n s i n massive p y r i t e . .  Fracturing  took p l a c e a f t e r the p y r i t e and most o f  the q u a r t z had been d e p o s i t e d .  These f r a c t u r e s were l a t e r f i l l e d by q u a r t z , s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a , g o l d and minor q u a n t i t i e s o f c h a l c o p y r i t e . S p h a l e r i t e and galena p r o b a b l y  came i n a t t h e same  time w i t h t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f galena c o n t i n u i n g l a t e r than ' sphalerite.  Gold accompanied' both o f these m i n e r a l s , b u t  apparently favoured the galena.  T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d by the  f r e q u e n t i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n of g o l d w i t h  galena.  G h a l e o p y r i t e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o t h galena and sphalerite.  . GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OP PARAGENESIS ——• • ••—^—•  Quartz Pyrite Pyrrhotite Ghaleopyrite Gold Sphalerite Galena Calcite  D i s t r i b u t i o n and. S i z e o f G o l d P a r t i c l e s . The g o l d a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h i s ore i s s i m i l a r t o . t h a t I n t h e Cariboo G o l d Q u a r t z o r e .  By f a r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e  g o l d i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l a t e r s u l p h i d e s , g a l e n a and sphalerite.  D e p o s i t i o n o f g o l d d i d , however, occur w i t h t h e  p y r i t e a t a much e a r l i e r  time.  I n t h e s e c t i o n s s t u d i e d , r i c h g o l d - b e a r i n g bismuth s u l p h i d e s l i k e those o f t h e Cariboo G o l d Quartz were n o t i d e n t i f i e d : , b u t t h e y a r e b e l i e v e d t o be p r e s e n t , I n s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s , at l e a s t , i n the o r e . The f i n e s t g o l d p a r t i c l e s were, i n g e n e r a l , o c c u r r i n g as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . microns.  those  These averaged about 8  The r e s t o f t h e g o l d v a r i e d i n s i z e from 3 microns  63  t o 20 m i c r o n s .  Those g r a i n s o c c u r r i n g i n f r a c t u r e s had  the  u s u a l e l o n g a t e d shape i n c o n t r a s t t o the i r r e g u l a r patches observed when the g r a i n s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p h a l e r i t e  and  galena. D e s c r i p t i o n of  Sections.  The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f the s e c t i o n s w i t h t h e i r constituent minerals.  The m i n e r a l s are separated  according  t o t h e i r abundance i n each i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n . -  S e c t i o n No.  1: .. Major — - Q u a r t z . M i n o r — P y r i t e and s p h a l e r i t e . Hare — Galena and c h a l c o p y r i t e ,  S e c t i o n No;  2i  Major '— P y r i t e , q u a r t z and g a l e n a . M i n o r — S p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e .  S e c t i o n No.  3:  Major — P y r i t e . M i n o r — Quartz and s p h a l e r i t e . Rare —Gold.  S e c t i o n No.  ,4:  Major — Rare —  S e c t i o n No. 3•  S e c t i o n No.  6:  S e c t i o n No.~7" S e c t i o n No.  8;  P y r i t e and Gold.  quartz..  Major — Quartz. M i n o r —• P y r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Rare — P y r r h o t i t e . Major — Minor — Rare —  Quartz. Galena. G o l d and  Major — Q u a r t z . M i n o r -- P y r i t e and  chalcopyrite. galena.  M a j o r — Q u a r t z and s p h a l e r i t e . M i n o r •— P y r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and pyrrhotite. .  Conclusions. 1. The p r i m a r y ore of the mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a . 2. The m i n e r a l s b e l o n g t o the mesothermal zone of deposition.  64.  3'. Most of the g o l d appe-ars t o have been d e p o s i t e d w i t h the l a t e r ' s u l p h i d e s , and e s p e c i a l l y w i t h g a l e n a , w i t h which m i n e r a l i t i s p r i n c i p a l l y a s s o c i a t e d . 4. There i s a tendency f o r t h e g o l d p a r t i c l e s t o occur i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and i n q u a r t z .  PS •H  O  CO  & -P  o PS CO •H CD +3 •H -P  I  CO •H cd Pi CD H cd ttf n3 Pi Cd  . CD P •H r-i cd CO O O -P •H  "M  W Pi •H • Pi — PI CD Pi H o ,a o cd O +3  fCi CO H *H  C5 +3  P A R T  D.  mE_ BRIDGE R l f E B MTWTNG DISTRICT  65.  THE BRIDGE RIVER MINING- DISTRICT  D e s c r i p t i o n of. t h e D i s t r i c t Looation. The B r i d g e R i v e r D i s t r i c t , i n the L i l o o e t M i n i n g d i v i s i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia, i s s i t u a t e d between 25 and 40 m i l e s northwest of S h a l a t h on the P. G« E. r a i l w a y .  This d i s t r i c t  i s on the e a s t e r n margin o f t h e Coast Range b a t h o l i t h i c 'intrusives. G e n e r a l Geology. The. f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows, i n g e n e r a l , the g e o l o g i c a l f o r m a t i o n s of t h e d i s t r i c t . TABLE 0E FORMATIONS I Cenozoic i Modern i i  Recent: stream d e p o s i t s , v o l eanic ash, s l i d e d e b r i s Pleistocene;:. f l u v i o g l a c i a l , " g l a c i a i ; and stream d e p o s i t s . K e r s a n t i t e and b a s a l t i c • dvke. Cenozoic ! P o s t Bendor, Hornblende-biotite-quartz» and ; j Lower Mesozoic : Cretaceous I n t r u s i v e s d i o r i t e , .(mainly) g r a n i t e , • g r a n o d i o r i t e . B a t h o l i t h and I r e l a t e d s t o c k s and dykes. i : F e l d s p a r and hornblende i p o r p h y r i t e dykes, and r e l a t e d d i o r i t i c stocks. Quartz a l b l t i t e and a l b l t i t e ! • dykes. P r e s i d e n t P e r i d o t i t e . , d u n i t e and pyroxaniiB Mesozoic Jurassic Entrusives Serpentine (mainly. (?) 3umner Gabtrc D i a l l a g e - - o l i v i n e gabbro. iralorne Soda g r a n i t e t a l b l t e f e i d ) ~. I n t r u s i v e s Gabbro, a U g i t e d i o r i t e , quartz d i o r i t e . •raiasozoic ana Mesozoic Bridge R i v e r . s e r i e s . r  '. 1'. • • '  66.  The o l d e s t r o c k s i n t h e a r e a belong t o t h e B r i d g e R i v e r s e r i e s , which, has been s u b d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r f o r m a t i o n s : the H u r l e y , t h e P i o n e e r , the N o e l and t h e Eergusson.  In this  r e p o r t , however, they w i l l be c l a s s e d t o g e t h e r as t h e B r i d g e River series. The s e r i e s c o n s i s t s m a i n l y of sediments and i n t e r calated volcanic rocks.  S l a t y to schistose a r g i l l i t e ,  c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e , a m y g d a l o i d a l b a s a l t i c and a n d e s i t i c l a v a s , b r e c c i a s and t u f f s w i t h massive c h e r t i n t i m a t e l y interbedded with t h e a r g i l l i t e , are the rock types.  The  a r g i l l i t e s become more abundant toward t h e t o p o f the s e r i e s , but i n t e r b e d d e d c h e r t bands s t i l l o c c u r . are cream-coloured  and v e r y p u r e .  These c h e r t bands  E x t e n s i v e t h e r m a l metamor-  p h i s over l a r g e areas by the Bendor i n t r u s i v e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h f o l d i n g and s h e a r i n g o f t h e s e r i e s has a l t e r e d the l a v a s t o g r e e n s t o n e s , w h i l e the l i m e s t o n e has been r e - c r y s t a l l i z e d and the a r g i l l i t e s have become s l a t y and s c h i s t o s e . The r e s u l t of t h i s a l t e r a t i o n was t o make i t v e r y difficult  t o determine w h i c h p a r t o f t h e s e r i e s i s exposed a t  ; any p o i n t . The B r a l o r n e i n t r u s i v e s a r e so named because t h e y are t y p i c a l l y developed limited. to  on the p r o p e r t y of B r a l o r n e Mines,  These are of two t y p e s ; one o f which may be r e f e r r e d  as the B r a l o r n e d i o r i t e , 'and the o t h e r as the, B r a l o r n e  soda g r a n i t e .  They c o n s t i t u t e the important h o s t r o c k s t o  the a u r i f e r o u s , q u a r t z v e i n s of the a r e a , and t o g e t h e r r e p r e s ent t h e i n t r u s i v e s w h i c h have g e n e r a l l y been r e f e r r e d t o as  the B r i d g e E i y e r a u g i t e d i o r i t e . The B r a l o r n e d i o r i t e I s , t y p i c a l l y , a g r e y i s h - g r e e n , .medium-grained, c r y s t a l l i n e r o c k i n t e r s e c t e d by a network of minute, l i g h t e r - c o l o u r e d v e i n l e t s f r o z e n t o the w a l l - r o c k . The r o c k s v a r y i n c o m p o s i t i o n and degree of a l t e r a t i o n , but the common t y p e s are d i o r i t e , q u a r t z - d i o r i t e and a u g i t e diorite The s o d a - g r a n i t e occurs f r e q u e n t l y as s m a l l masses I r r e g u l a r l y . d i s t r i b u t e d through b o d i e s of a u g i t e d i o r i t e . I n some p l a c e s the c o n t a c t s a r e sharp and the b o d i e s a r e r o u g h l y dyke-shaped.  Elsewhere'., the c o n t a c t s appear grada-  tiohal. . . . . ' ' .  •  T h i s soda g r a n i t i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t because the known g o l d - q u a r t z d e p o s i t s l i e i n or near areas of t h e B r a l o r n e d i o r i t e where t h e r e a r e conspicuous g r a n i t e and r e l a t e d dykes.  amounts of soda,  The g o l d - b e a r i n g d e p o s i t s i n .  many p l a c e s a r e i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these  granitic  r o c k s and t h e q u a r t z of t h e v e i n s has c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r f e a t u r e s t h a t a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e q u a r t z i n t h e soda granites. The Sumner gabbro r e c e i v e s i t s name f r o m Sumner creek, n e a r t h e head o f w h i c h the gabbro i s exposed.  I t resembles  the B r a l o r n e a u g i t e d i o r i t e , but i s more v e i n e d , more decomposed and more b a s i c i n appearance. The P r e s i d e n t i n t r u s i v e s v a r y f r o m d u n i t e t o p y r o x i n i t e i n c o m p o s i t i o n , b u t p e r i d o t i t e i s the most common variety.  S e r p e n t l n i z e d e q u i v a l e n t s of these r o c k s a r e  68  abundant, *and i n some cases, l a t e r thermal a l t e r a t i o n of the s e r p e n t i n e has transformed l a r g e b o d i e s t o a mixture of a n k e r i t e carbonate  and  talc.  The Bendor i n t r u s i v e s are the youngest of the major intrusive  r o c k s , and are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the Coast Range  b a t h o l i t h i c complex.  The r o c k s are m a i n l y g r a n o d i o r i t e and  quartz-diorite with small d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s . The Bendor b a t h o l i t h invades a l l of the B r i d g e R i v e r s e r i e s , and the P r e s i d e n t i n t r u s i v e s .  Metamorphism  of the i n t r u d e d f o r m a t i o n s i s g e n e r a l l y s t r o n g l y pronounced f o r s e v e r a l hundred y a r d s from the c o n t a c t , and i s n o t i e a b l e f o r a d i s t a n c e . o f a m i l e or more. Numerous o t h e r lamprophyre and b a s a l t i c dykes i n the area are p r o b a b l y of T e r t i a r y  age.  S t r u c t u r a l Geology. The g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e of the area i s a s y n c l i n e w i t h i n a major a n t i c l i n a l a r c h t r e n d i n g n o r t h w e s t e r l y . Zones of weakness a l o n g the s y n c l i n a l axes have been p e n e t r a t e d by i n t r u s i o n s .  M i n o r f o l d i n g and s h e a r i n g have caused the  s t r u c t u r e t o be v e r y complex. The  sediments and i n t e r c o l a t e d v o l c a n i c r o c k s stand  m o s t l y a t h i g h a n g l e s , and, l o c a l l y , as a r e s u l t of the Bendor b a t h o l i t h i c i n t r u s i o n , are  overturned.  Two main f a u l t systems o c c u r .  One  system  comprises  two s e t s o f f r a c t u r e s a t a n g l e s of about 3 5 degrees w i t h the formational trend.  These f r a c t u r e s c r o s s c u t the f o r m a t i o n s  and are b e s t developed  i n the more massive r o c k .  These are  the f i s s u r e s which c o n t a i n the p r i n c i p a l g o l d - q u a r t z v e i n s of the a r e a . The o t h e r system c o n s i s t s of f a u l t s or shears conforming w i t h the s t r i k e of the f o r m a t i o n s t r a v e r s e d by them. These are b e s t developed  i n the l e a s t competent f o r m a t i o n s ,  and develop marked shear zones. M i n e r a l ! z a t i on. The m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s are of t h e f i s s u r e v e i n type, and most appear t o be g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o the B r a l o r n e intrusives.  Other d e p o s i t s of d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r are  p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d t o the;Bendor b a t h o l i t h . I n g e n e r a l , the v e i n s are continuous along \ s t r a i g h t f i s s u r e s , though p i n c h i n g and s w e l l i n g may  occur.  Quartz i s the c h i e f gangue m i n e r a l , but c a l c i t e a l s o occurs abundantly.  The  s u l p h i d e s i n o r d e r of abundance a r e :  pyrite,  a r s e n o p y r i t e and g a l e n a , w h i l e p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , t e t r a h e d r i t e and s t i b n i t e are c o m p a r a t i v e l y s c a r c e .  Native  g o l d i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s u l p h i d e s .  The B r a l o r n e Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the Property. Location. The p r o p e r t y of B r a l o r n e M i n e s , L i m i t e d , i s a t B r a l o r n e on Codwallader  creek.  I t l i e s northwest o f , and  a d j o i n s , t h a t of P i o n e e r Gold M i n e s , and comprises f i f t y - e i g h t or more c l a i m s , m o s t l y Crown-granted, w i t h i n which l i e the  70. w o r k i n g s of the K i n g , Empire, and C o r o n a t i o n mines.  The  p r o p e r t y i s equipped a t B r a l o r n e w i t h a 450 t o n m i l l , and i s operated by power generated by i t s own p l a n t and supplemented, as r e q u i r e d , by B r i d g e .River Power Company, L i m i t e d . The mine can be reached e i t h e r by a e r o p l a n e , or by motor road from S h a l a t h , a d i s t a n c e of 25 m i l e s .  Shalath i s  served by t h e P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n r a i l w a y f r o m Squamish,B*C. History. Most of the o r i g i n a l c l a i m s were s t a k e d i n l 8 9 7  5  . and f o r a number of y e a r s were owned i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n s m a l l groups, and were p r o s p e c t e d and, operated on the l i m i t e d s c a l e n e c e s s i t a t e d by d i f f i c u l t i e s Between 1900  and 1928  i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and f i n a n c e .  development proceeded s l o w l y , s m a l l  companies o p e r a t i n g roups of c l a i m s .  I n 1928  Lome Gold:  Mines, L i m i t e d of Vancouver, took over the e n t i r e group o f mines, and a heavy program of underground development work was started. .  Owing t o f a i l u r e of the Company's f i s c a l  a l l development ¥rark was  suspended e a r l y i n 1930,  company, B r a l o r n e Mines, L i m i t e d was percent  and  agents, another  formed t o a c q u i r e a s i x t y  i n t e r e s t i n Lorne G o l d M i n e s .  p r e s e n t , p r o d u c t i o n has been heavy and  S i n c e t h a t time t o the continuous.  Economic Geology. The geoiogy  of the B r a l o r n e p r o p e r t y comprises a  f a u l t e d s y n c l i n e of B r i d g e . R i v e r formations s t r i k i n g n o r t h w e s t e r l y and p e n e t r a t e d by B r a l o r n e i n t r u s i v e s , bands of s e r p e n t i n i z e d p e r i d o t i t e and numerous dykes. The B r a l o r n e i n t r u s i o n s form t h r e e b o d i e s , one  of  .  71. . w h i c h i s much l a r g e r t h a n the o t h e r s and I s e x c e p t i o n a l l y important  i n that i t contains t h e p r i n c i p a l v e i n deposits.  I t c o n s i s t s m a i n l y of a u g i t e - d i o r i t e , hut along i t s n o r t h e a s t e r n f l a n k i s composed o f soda g r a n i t e . Numerous dykes o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s are encountered i n underground w o r k i n g s .  Those of most i n t e r e s t are l i g h t - c o l -  oured, q u a r t z - a l b i t i t e dykes.  Their.close association with  the v e i n f i s s u r e s and t h e i r p r o b a b l e r e l a t i o n t o t h e B r a l o r n e • 1  soda-granite ,  suggest t h a t t h e y were i n t r u d e d along f r a c t u r e s  t h a t were l a t e r re-opened t o p e r m i t access of v e i n - b e a r i n g solutions. The p r i n c i p a l ' v e i n d e p o s i t s occur i n f a u l t f i s s u r e s s t r i k i n g m a i n l y about e a s t .  Other v e i n s f o l l o w f i s s u r e s  s t r i k i n g more t o t h e n o r t h .  Only some o f t h e l a t e r are f a u l t  fissures.  I n most cases t h e vein'-bearing f i s s u r e s s t r i k i n g  e a s t , d i p t o the n o r t h , and t h e n o r t h - s o u t h  veins dip to the  west. M i n e r a l i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s of white quartz w i t h I r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d amounts of p y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e ,  galena,  s p h a l e r i t e , t e t r a h e d r i t e and g o l d . Mineralogy. Introduction. Three p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s o f ore from t h e B r a l o r n e  '.  mine were p r e p a r e d and s t u d i e d m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y .  -  S e c t i o n 1. —  M a i n l y q u a r t z w i t h a s m a l l amotint of v i s i b l e g o l d , g a l e n a and m i l l e r i t e ?  S e c t i o n 2. —  C o n s i s t s of J i g concentrate m a t e r i a l .  S e c t i o n g» -— M a i n l y q u a r t z w i t h a l i t t l e v i s i b l e g o l d , s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a and t e t r a h e d r i t e  72.  .The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s were i d e n t i f i e d i n the s e c t i o n s . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7« • 8.  Pyrite. Arsenopyrite. Sphalerite. Tetrahedrite. Galena. Gold.' Chalcopyrite. Millerite?  Quartz i s t h e o n l y gangue m i n e r a l  present.  Description of the Minerals. Pyrite.  P y r i t e occurs as euhedral  masses i n t h e q u a r t z .  g r a i n s and s m a l l  U s u a l l y the p y r i t e i s surrounded and  v e i n e d by t h e q u a r t z ; a few cases were seen, however, where g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e v e i n e d and e n c l o s e d t h e p y r i t e p a r t i c l e s . Arsenopyrite.  Arsenopyrite  occurs i n t h e same way  and i n about t h e same q u a n t i t y as p y r i t e .  I n S e c t i o n No. 3,  a r s e n o p y r i t e was seen t o be v e i n e d by s p h a l e r i t e , i n d i c a t i n g d e p o s i t i o n p r i o r t o t h a t of t h e s p h a l e r i t e . Sphalerite.  S p h a l e r i t e occurs r e l a t i v e l y abundant-  l y i n a l l s e c t i o n s , although age o f t h e v e i n m a t e r i a l .  i t comprises a v e r y s m a l l  percent-  As noted above, i t v e i n s i n t o arseno-  p y r i t e , and p y r i t e i s , t h e r e f o r e , of l a t e r o r i g i n t h a n both o f these m i n e r a l s .  C h a l c o p y r i t e o c c u r s as s m a l l b l e b s i n most  of t h e s p h a l e r i t e . Chalcopyrite. n o t e d was a> few sphalerite.  The o n l y occurrence o f c h a l c o p y r i t e  s m a l l b l e b s w i t h rounded b o u n d a r i e s i n  I t appears t o tee due t o e x s o l u t i o n . Galena.  Galena i s r e l a t i v e l y abundant.  I t occurs'  as i r r e g u l a r masses i n t h e q u a r t z , u s u a l l y a l o n g f r a c t u r e s . Where p y r i t e and g a l e n a a r e i n c o n t a c t , t h e g a l e n a appears  t o be the l a t e r m i n e r a l of t h e two.  Galena forms rounded,  smooth boundaries w i t h s p h a l e r i t e where the two m i n e r a l s occur together.  No d e f i n i t e c r i t e r a were noted t o r e v e a l the age  r e l a t i o n s between the two. Tetrahedrite.  T e t r a h e d r i t e was seen i n s m a l l  . q u a n t i t i e s i n S e c t i o n No. 3.  I t i s Intimately associated with  galena, w i t h which m i n e r a l i t forms smooth, i n t i m a t e b o u n d a r i e s . T e t r a h e d r i t e and g a l e n a were p r o b a b l y d e p o s i t e d a t t h e same time. Gold.  Gold was observed i n a l l t h r e e s e c t i o n s .  I t o c c u r s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g , ways: 1. As i s o l a t e d b l e b s o r masses i n q u a r t z . 2. I n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a l e n a . By f a r t h e g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e g o l d o c c u r r e d as l a r g e and s m a l l masses e i t h e r I n c l u d e d i n o r b e s i d e  patches  of g a l e n a , w i t h w h i c h m i n e r a l i t forms smooth, rounded boundar. i e s , s u g g e s t i n g simultaneous  d e p o s i t i o n . A few s c a t t e r e d  g r a i n s were seen i n q u a r t z f r a c t u r e s w i t h no o t h e r m i n e r a l n e a r them. The .gold: i s m a i n l y v e r y c o a r s e , and much of i t i s v i s i b l e m e g a s c o p i c a l l y , b u t t h e average s i z e of the g r a i n s i s about 30 m i c r o n s . Quartz. of the s e c t i o n s .  Quartz makes up a p p r o x i m a t e l y 95 p e r c e n t I t ranges from m i l k y white t o t r a n s l u c e n t ,  and i s I n g e n e r a l f i n e l y  crystalline.  Two d i f f e r e n t g e n e r a t i o n s o f q u a r t z occur i n S e c t i o n No. 1.  The e a r l y q u a r t z i s by f a r the more abundant, and t h i s  g e n e r a t i o n has been f r a c t u r e d , and t h e s e . f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d w i t h  74. s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a and g o l d .  The l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n was  observed rimming c a v i t i e s i n the o l d e r  quartz.  In nearly a l l  cases where t h e younger g e n e r a t i o n was seen, i t contained numerous r o d - l i k e i n c l u s i o n s o f a y e l l o w m i n e r a l , Millerite?  The r o d - l i k e , b r a s s - y e l l o w m i n e r a l  i n c l u d e d i n the second g e n e r a t i o n q u a r t z , was t e s t e d b o t h by e t c h i n g and by m i c r o c h e m i s t r y . f i n e s i z e and t h e ^ r a r e n e s s were n o t o b t a i n e d . microchemical  Due, however, t o t h e extremely  of the m i n e r a l , c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s  However, both t h e e t c h r e a c t i o n s and t h e  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was the n i c k e l  sulphide, m i l l e r i t e .  I t s s t r o n g a n i s o t r p i s m and f i b r o u s f o r m  a l s o suggest t h i s m i n e r a l . Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g p a r a g e n e s i s  i s suggested.  P y r i t e appears t o be t h e f i r s t s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l deposited.  A r s e n o p y r i t e may be o f the same time, b u t no  p y r i t e - a r s e n o p y r i t e b o u n d a r i e s were observed. q u a r t z accompanied these m i n e r a l s .  P r o b a b l y some  F r a c t u r i n g of t h e p y r i t e  and. a r s e n o p y r i t e f o l l o w e d t h e i r d e p o s i t i o n and preceded the p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f more q u a r t z , w h i c h was then i t s e l f f r a c t u r e d . L a t e r , s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a and t e t r a h e d r i t e were d e p o s i t e d , w i t h g a l e n a and t e t r a h e d r i t e p r o b a b l y o v e r l a p p i n g and l a t e r than the s p h a l e r i t e . Gold i s i n t i m a t e l y associated w i t h g a l e n a , and must have been d e p o s i t e d w i t h t h a t m i n e r a l . No d e f i n i t e age r e l a t i o n s h i p s were observed between the second g e n e r a t i o n of quartz, and t h e above-mentioned s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l s , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e n o t a d v i s a b l e t o p l a c e i t s p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t a d e f i n i t e time i n t h e m i n e r a l o g i c a l sequence.  A l l t h a t can be s a i d about i t i s t h a t i t i s l a t e r than the other q u a r t z i n the s e c t i o n s . W i t h t h i s l a t e r q u a r t z , i s a s s o c i a t e d the m i n e r a l t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d as m i l l e r i t e .  I t appears t o be  p r e s e n t as i n c l u s i o n s i n the q u a r t z , and must, t h e r e f o r e , be of the same age. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OP PARAGENESIS Pyrite A r s e n o p y r i te Quartz Sphalerite Galena Gold Conclusions. 1. The p r i m a r y ore of the mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a , ;  2. The m i n e r a l s p r e s e n t suggest the d e p o s i t ••/belongs t o the, m e z o t h e r n a l zone o f d e p o s i t i o n . J>. The g o l d i s a s s o c i a t e d m a i n l y w i t h g a l e n a and was one o f t h e l a s t m i n e r a l s t o be d e p o s i t e d . 4. A b r a s s - y e l l o w m i n e r a l of .'fibrous o r r o d - l i k e s t r u c t u r e o c c u r s i n q u a r t z , which i s thought t o be the n i c k e l sulphide, m i l l e r i t e . The w r i t e r suggests that,more r e s e a r c h be. done on t h i s m i n e r a l b e f o r e a d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n as t o i t s i d e n t i t y i s reached.  P A R T  E  THE YMIR MINING DISTRICT AND THE SECOND RELIEF MINE  76.  gAEfl:  ,Q3EE.-.iMIR. MINING DISTRTCT  D e s c r i p t i o n • - o f the- D i s t V i r v h Location, The Ymir d i s t r i c t i s l o c a t e d about twenty m i l e s south of t h e town o f N e l s o n i n t h e Kootenay d i s t r i c t of B r i t i s h Columbia.  The a r e a i s r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e .  N e l s o n , on  the Canadian P a c i f i c r a i l w a y and t h e southern t r a n s p r o v i n e i a l highway, a c t s as a d i s t r i b u t i n g c e n t r e .  A branch l i n e o f t h e  Great N o r t h e r n r a i l w a y , w h i c h f o l l o w s f o r some way the v a l l e y of Salmo r i v e r , passes near t h e main p r o d u c t i v e mines.  A  highway from N e l s o n t o Spolcane a l s o t r a v e r s e s the a r e a , and c o n n e c t i n g b r a n c h roads l e a d t o many o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s . G e n e r a l Geology. The m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s of t h e a r e a occur m a i n l y i n t h r e e f o r m a t i o n s ; t h e Pend d " O r e i l l e s e r i e s , the R o s s l a n d v o l c a n i c group, and t h e N e l s o n b a t h o l i t h . The Pend d " O r e i l l e s e r i e s s t r i k e s r o u g h l y n o r t h , .conforming i n a g e n e r a l way w i t h t h e n o r t h - s o u t h b o r d e r of t h e g r a n i t i c masses.  T h i s group c o n s i s t s o f metamorphosed  sedimentary r o c k s ; a r g i l l i t e s , q u a r t z i t e s , q u a r t z - m i c a s c h i s t s , and c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e w i t h some t u f f s and greenstones. The R o s s l a n d v o l c a n i c group o c c u r s t o the west of the Pend d * O r e i l l e s e r i e s , and extends n o r t h i n a wide b e l t  77. t o near N e l s o n .  I n the Salmo map-area, t o the south, the.  name Beaver Mount a in-Boss l a n d group has "been a p p l i e d due t o the d i f f i c u l t y i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h e R o s s l a n d from the Beaver Mountain flows-.  The r o c k s o f t h i s b e l t c o n s i s t of a complex  assemblage o f b a s i c v o l c a n i c r o c k s w i t h p y r o c l a s t i c s . I n p l a c e s where t h e s e r o c k s a r e h i g h l y sheared, t h e y are converted into c h l o r i t e s c h i s t s . B o t h o f t h e s e groups are c u t by g r a n o d i o r i t e of the N e l s o n b a t h o l i t h .  One l a r g e tongue o f t h e b a t h o l i t h '•  o c c u r s t o the e a s t o f t h e p r i n c i p a l b e l t of t h e Pend d ' O r e i l l e r o c k s , and many s m a l l e r apophyses o r dykes c u t t h e i n t r u d e d !  Pend d O r e i l l e s c h i s t s . ' G-rey g r a n o d i o r i t e o f medium t e x t u r e i s the most common g r a n i t i c type i n t h e a r e a , but v a r i a t i o n s range from a t r u e g r a n i t e t o q u a r t z d i o r i t e . A number of g r a n i t e p o r p h y r y tongues, s l i g h t l y o l d e r t h a n t h e N e l s o n b a t h o l i t h , but younger t h a n t h e R o s s l a n d v o l c a n i c s , are b e l i e v e d t o be r e l a t e d t o some of t h e ore deposits.  I n m o s t cases these are a l t e r e d and s c h i s t o s e . A s m a l l s t o c k of monzonite and p u l a s k i t e , o c c u r r i n g  near T m i r , i s thought t o be o f T e r t i a r y , age. Numerous dykes o f s y e n i t e - p o r p h y r y ,  granite-porphyry,  q u a r t z - p o r p h y r y , and lamprophyre have invaded a l l b u t t h e youngest o f t h e r o c k s d e s c r i b e d .  Some o f t h e s e c u t t h e v e i n  d e p o s i t s , and some occupy p o s t - m i n e r a l  faults.  Mineralization. The m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s a r e t h o u g h t t o have been l a t e d i f f e r e n t i a t e s of t h e N e l s o n b a t h o l i t h i c magmas.  78.  A l a r g e number o f t h e v e i n s a r e m a i n l y s u l p h i d e - b e a r i n g s i l i e i f i e d schist veins. are  Fragments o f both s c h i s t and g r a n i t e  included i n the matrix.  :  The Ymir Yankee G i r l Mine Description of the Property. Location. The Yankee G i r l p r o p e r t y , owned by Ymir Yankee G i r l G o l d M i n e s , L i m i t e d , c o n s i s t s of t h e Yankee G i r l , Canadian G i r l , Lake v i e w j, B l a c k Diamond, Yukon f r a c t i o n , and Klondyke •No. 1 f r a c t i o n c l a i m s . The mine i s s i t u a t e d on the n o r t h e r n slope of Bear c r e e k v a l l e y , about two m i l e s f r o m Y m i r . the  A branch r o a d f r o m  r o a d up Bear creek connects w i t h t h e lower o r w o r k i n g  t u n n e l of t h e mine. .Economic  Geology.  The Y a n k e e . G i r l v e i n d e p o s i t s o c c u r i n the c o n t a c t zone o f a mass o f the N e l s o n g r a n o d i o r i t e , which t r e n d s n o r t h e a s t e r l y a c r o s s the camp.  A t t h e mine, a l a r g e number o f t o n -  gues o f t h i s r o c k i n t r u d e the Pend d ' O r e i l l e s c h i s t s .  The  d e p o s i t s of the Yankee G i r l a r e of t h e f i s s u r e v e i n t y p e , h a v i n g been l o c a l i z e d i n f a u l t s .  Three o f these v e i n s a r e  p r e s e n t ; t h e Yankee G i r l , t h e Spur, and t h e Lakeview. The Yankee G i r l v e i n s t r i k e s n o r t h 6 0 t o 7 0 degrees ' e a s t , w i t h an average d i p o f 6 5 degrees t o t h e s o u t h e a s t . I t averages about f o u r f e e t wide, and has a maximum w i d t h of ' JO f e e t .  I n p r o d u c t i v e s e c t i o n s , i t does n o t exceed 1 2 f e e t .  79. .The  Spur v e i n p a r a l l e l s the Yankee G i r l v e i n f o r  a considerable  distance.  T h i s i s a b r a n c h of the Yankee G i r l  v e i n because i t s i n t e r s e c t i o n s w i t h the l a t t e r are known. The Lakeview, a non-commercial v e i n , o c c u r s w i t h i n the Lakeview f a u l t f i s s u r e , w h i c h p a r a l l e l s the f o r m a t i o n  in  a l o n g , narrow remnant of Pend d ' O r e i l l e r o c k s enclosed, between t h i c k g r a n i t e tongues.  The Yankee G i r l v e i n l i e s t o  the southwest of the Lakeview f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e  distance,  and  then merges w i t h o r i s o f f s e t by the Lakeview v e i n . The p r i n c i p a l s t r u c t u r a l c o n t r o l of ore  deposition  appears t o be the i n t e r s e c t i o n of the L a k e v i e w and Yankee G i r l v e i n s , but. l o c a l l y ' o r e shoots occur where tongues of g r a n o d i o r i t e are c:ut by the Yankee. G i r l v e i n . O x i d a t i o n o c c u r s , but i n g e n e r a l does not below the 400  foot  extend  level.  Mineralogy. Introduction. F o u r s e c t i o n s o f ore from the Ymir Yankee G i r l mine, p r e v i o u s l y p r e p a r e d by D. M. McKinnon, were remounted and p o l i s h e d by the w r i t e r .  The  super-  s e c t i o n s were re-numbered to  correspond w i t h the,numbers on the o r i g i n a l s e c t i o n s . The  following m e t a l l i c minerals,  l i s t e d i n o r d e r of  abundance, were determined t o be p r e s e n t i n the 1. 2. 3. .4. 5* 6.  Pyrite. Sphalerite. Galena. . Chalcopyrite. Pyrrhotite. Gold.  sections.  8o. D e s c r i p t i o n of the M i n e r a l s . Pyrite.  P y r i t e i s found g e n e r a l l y as i r r e g u l a r  masses i n q u a r t z , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t i n s p h a l e r i t e , and galena.  As a r u l e , p y r i t e developes  c r y s t a l form, b u t i n  S e c t i o n No. 2, massive p y r i t e was seen f i l l i n g a f r a c t u r e i n sphalerite.  These c r i t e r i a suggest t h e presence  g e n e r a t i o n s of p y r i t e .  of two  The e a r l y p y r i t e i s c o n s i d e r a b l y  f r a c t u r e d , and these f r a c t u r e s a r e f i l l e d w i t h q u a r t z , s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a .  I t c o n t a i n s a few b l e b s of c h a l c o p y r i t e . .  Sphalerite. the s e c t i o n s .  S p h a l e r i t e i s r e l a t i v e l y abundant i n  I t occurs i n f r a c t u r e s i n q u a r t z and p y r i t e , and  i n areas o f much s h a t t e r e d p y r i t e .  Intimate intergrowths of  g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e a r e numerous, but g a l e n a was noted i n a fracture i n zinc sulphide. Quartz. uent.  T h i s m i n e r a l i s t h e c h i e f gangue  constit-  I t ..occurs between p y r i t e masses, and g r a i n s , and i n  f r a c t u r e s i n the p y r i t e .  S h a t t e r i n g of the quartz allowed  s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a and p y r i t e t o f i l l the f r a c t u r e s . occurrence  The  o f a second g e n e r a t i o n , o f q u a r t z i s suggested by  i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h - p y r i t e and galena i n f r a c t u r e s i n s p h a l e r i t e Galena. t i o n as s p h a l e r i t e .  Galena has about t h e same g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u I t o c c u r s f o r the most p a r t i n t i m a t e l y  associated with sphalerite.  T h i s suggests d e p o s i t i o n more o r  l e s s a t t h e same time, b u t some galena must have been d e p o s i t e d l a t e r t h a n t h e s p h a l e r i t e , as i t f i l l s a f i s s u r e i n t h a t mineral.  Galena was a l s o noted i n f r a c t u r e d q u a r t z . Pyrrhotite.  in pyrite,  P y r r h o t i t e o c c u r s as a few s m a l l b l e b s  8l.  ':• g h a l e o p y r i t e . A few b l e b s were observed Arsenopyrite. noted i n S e c t i o n No. 3. Gold.  Chalcopyrite i s exceedingly scarce. i n pyrite. A few g r a i n s of t h i s m i n e r a l were I t , o c c u r s intergrown w i t h p y r i t e . ,  Gold occurs o n l y i n S e c t i o n No. 2.  It is  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e i n f r a c t u r e s i n pyrite.  The g r e a t e r number o f g o l d b l e b s were w i t h o r near  galena. Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g p a r a g e n e s i s i s suggested. P y r i t e , was t h e f i r s t s u l p h i d e t o be d e p o s i t e d . Some f r a c t u r i n g then o c c u r r e d and was f o l l o w e d by the d e p o s i t i o n o f q u a r t z , w h i c h f i l l e d spaces between p y r i t e g r a i n s and masses, and a l s o i n s m a l l e r f r a c t u r e s I n p y r i t e .  After  s o l i d i f i c a t i o n of the q u a r t z , a- seebnd p e r i o d of f r a e t u r l n g caused c r a c k s i n both p y r i t e and q u a r t z i n which some of the . s p h a l e r i t e and galena, were d e p o s i t e d . . S h a t t e r i n g o f t h e s p h a l e r i t e i s n o t e x t e n s i v e i n t h e s e c t i o n s , b u t some deformation i s indicated.  F r a c t u r e s caused by t h i s d e f o r m a t i o n a r e  f i l l e d by g a l e n a , q u a r t z and p y r i t e .  Galena was t h e l a s t  s u l p h i d e t o be d e p o s i t e d a l t h o u g h i t p r o b a b l y overlapped the d e p o s i t i o n of t h e s p h a l e r i t e .  Gold appears t o be a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h b o t h s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a and p r o b a b l y accompanied these two m i n e r a l s . GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PARAGENESIS Pyrite Pyrrhotite Chalcopyrite Quartz Sphalerite Galena Gold  82..  Assay's.I n o r d e r t o determine the mode of occurrence of the g o l d , the f o l l o w i n g samples were p i c k e d out under the microscope and assayed by Mr. 1.  D. M. McKinnon.  Pure p y r i t e of the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n vd.th q u a r t z . ( S e c t i o n No. J>\  2. Pure s p h a l e r i t e . ( S e c t i o n No. 3« Pure g a l e n a ( S e c t i o n No.  i n contact 0.08oz.  1)  Trace.  4)  O.o4oz.  4. Pure p y r i t e i n contact w i t h g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e . ( S e c t i o n No.  2)  1.80oz.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t S e c t i o n No. which gave by f a r the h i g h e s t a s s a y , was which the g o l d was  the o n l y s e c t i o n i n  seen m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y by the w r i t e r .  • D e s c r i p t i o n of The  2,  Sections.  f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of the s e c t i o n s w i t h t h e i r  constituent-minerals.  The m i n e r a l s /are separated  according  t o t h e i r abundance i n each i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n . S e c t i o n . 1 : Major — S p h a l e r i t e . Minor — P y r i t e and g a l e n a . Rare •— Quartz and c h a l c o p y r i t e . S e c t i o n 2:  M a j o r -- P y r i t e . Minor — S p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a and q u a r t z . Rare -— C h a l c o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e and gold.  S e c t i o n 5»  Major — Minor — Rare —  S e c t i o n 4:  Major — Galena. M i n o r —• Q u a r t z . Rare • — P y r i t e and s p h a l e r i t e .  Conclusions.  Pyrite. Q u a r t z , s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a . C h a l c o p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e . •  . •  ;  1. The p r i m a r y ore i n the mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a , w i t h minor amounts of c h a l c o p y r i t e . ' 2 . deposition.  The m i n e r a l s  belong, to the mesothermal zone of  83.  3. The g o l d I s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p h a l e r i t e and  galena.  •P *. ' * * e m a j o r i t y of the g o l d p a r t i c l e s o c c u r s i f r a c t u r e d p y r i t e , w i t h galena and s p h a l e r i t e ; ^red m 4  Tii  f l  0 G G  sections.  3  N  '°  Seconaary  S e r a i s were observed i n these  The Second B e l i e f Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e P r o p e r t y . Location. The Second R e l i e f Mine i s owned by R e l i e f - A r l i n g t o n Mines, L i m i t e d , w h i c h i n t u r n i s c o n t r o l l e d by P r e m i e r Gold M i n i n g Company, L i m i t e d .  The p r o p e r t y i s on E r i e creek, about  1 3 m i l e s from t h e v i l l a g e o f E r i e on the Great N o r t h e r n railway.  I t i s connected by a r o a d w i t h E r i e .  History. T h i s i s an o l d p r o p e r t y which has been o p e r a t e d I n t e r m i t t e n t l y f o r many y e a r s , g e n e r a l l y by L e s s e e s . I n 1 9 2 9 , the Second R e l i e f M i n i n g Company, L i m i t e d was amalgamated w i t h the A r l i n g t o n M i n i n g Company t o f o r m t h e R e l i e f - A r l i n g t o n Mines, L i m i t e d , a n d - i n 1934- the P r e m i e r Gold M i n i n g Company, L i m i t e d secured c o n t r o l . Economic  Geology.  The p r o p e r t y i s u n d e r l a i n by r o c k s o f t h e R o s s l a n d Beaver-Mountain  group, which here c o n s i s t s o f greenstone,  t u f f and a r g i l l i t e .  slate,  A t the s u r f a c e these sediments d i p e a s t -  ward a t moderate a n g l e s , b u t underground  t h e y have been found  d i p p i n g t o t h e west. About h a l f a m i l e n o r t h o f the mine, t h e R o s s l a n d -  84. Beaver-Mountain  r o c k s are Invaded by the N e l s o n b a t h o l i t h .  The i n t r u s i v e r o c k s o f the b a t h o l i t h a r e l i g h t - g r e y , mediumgrained, g r a n o d i o r i t e , i n g e n e r a l . Two  groups of dykes occur on the p r o p e r t y .  One  group c o n s i s t s of d i o r i t e and d i o r i t e - p o r p h y r y , and i s p r e mineral.  A prominent  main v e i n .  dyke o f t h i s type I s f o l l o w e d by the  So f a r as i s known, most ,of the o t h e r dykes are  younger than the v e i n d e p o s i t s and s t r i k e from n o r t h t o n o r t h west.  These c o n s i s t of g r a n i t e - p o r p h y r y , q u a r t z - p o r p h y r y ,  a few lamprophyre dykes.  I t i s thought t h a t the  and  lamprophyres  are. the youngest of the dyke r o c k s , but l i t t l e evidence as t o t h e i r age has been o b t a i n e d except t h a t one of them c u t s the Second R e l i e f v e i n .  .  The o r e - d e p o s i t s are f i s s u r e V e i n s , o c c u r r i n g m a i n l y i n the greenstone  o f the R o s s l a n d v o l e a n i c s . The v e i n s  s t r i k e n o r t h e a s t and d i p , g e n e r a l l y , t o the northwest at, steep angles.  One v e i n , known, as"the Second R e l i e f v e i n , i s the  most i m p o r t a n t and has s u p p l i e d most .of t h e p r o d u c t i o n of the mine.  I t f o l l o w s the h a n g i n g - w a l l of a d i o r i t e - p o r p h y r y dyke,  as mentioned above.  S m a l l l a t e r dykes cut b o t h t h e v e i n and  g r a n i t e - p o r p h y r y , some of these f o l l o w i n g the v e i n f o r a d i s t a n c e b e f o r e p a s s i n g out on the o t h e r w a l l .  Small f a u l t s  are p r e s e n t which o f f s e t the v e i n a few f e e t . The ore m i n e r a l s c o n s i s t o f p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e chalcopyrite.  M o l y b d e n i t e has a l s o been r e p o r t e d .  and  The gangue  c o n s i s t s of c o u n t r y r o c k and q u a r t z c a r r y i n g some m a g n e t i t e , garnet and e p i d o t e .  The time of f o r m a t i o n of the v e i n i s  85-  between that} of the i n j e c t i o n of the d i o r i t e - p o r p h y r y and the i n j e c t i o n of the q u a r t z or g r a n i t e - p o r p h y r y  dyke,  dykes.  B o t h the ore d e p o s i t s and the dykes are undoubtedly r e l a t e d t o the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f the N e l s o n g r a n o d i o r i t e * . Mineralogy. Introduction. Three p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s , p r e v i o u s l y p r e p a r e d by Mr. H. K i p p , and two new  s e c t i o n s p r e p a r e d by the w r i t e r ,  were s t u d i e d m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y . The  following minerals,  i n o r d e r of abundance,  were determined t o be p r e s e n t i n the s e c t i o n s examined. 1. 2. 3' 4. 5« 6. 7.  Pyrrhotite. Pyrite. Sphalerite. Galena. Chalcopyrite. Arsenopyrite » • • . ' . Gold.  Quartz and  c a l c i t e are the gangue m i n e r a l s p r e s e n t .  Quartz i s by f a r the.more abundant. D e s c r i p t i o n of the .Minerals., Pyrite.  P y r i t e i s f a i r l y abundant.  h e d r a l masses and a l s o c r y s t a l l i n e . appear t o be p r e s e n t i n the ore. as i s o l a t e d c r y s t a l s and P y r r h o t i t e and  The  Two  I t occurs as  an  g e n e r a t i o n s of p y r i t e  f i r s t generation  occurs  s m a l l a n h e d r a l f r a c t u r e d masses.  q u a r t z f i l l the f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e , and  the i n t e r s t i c e s between t h e p y r i t e g r a i n s , s u g g e s t i n g t i o n l a t e r t h a n the p y r i t e .  The  second g e n e r a t i o n  also deposi-  occurs  v e i n i n g p y r r h o t i t e , and' i s e v i d e n t l y l a t e r than the p y r r h o t i t e . Arsenopyrite.  Arsenopyrite  o c c u r s as e u h e d r a l  g r a i n s i n p y r r h o t i t e , and i s i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p y r i t e ,  86. w i t h which m i n e r a l i t forms mutual,, smooth b o u n d a r i e s .  It is  not as p l e n t i f u l i n t h e s e c t i o n s as p y r i t e . P y r r h o t i t e . P y r r h o t i t e i s t h e most abundant m i n e r a l in  the o r e .  I t occurs m a s s i v e , and f i l l s spaces between  p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e g r a i n s , and a l s o f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n these m i n e r a l s .  Hexagonal s e c t i o n s of quartz c r y s t a l s were  observed i n the p y r r h o t i t e , i n d i c a t i n g d e p o s i t i o n l a t e r than some of t h e q u a r t z . in  One s m a l l mass of p y r r h o t i t e was seen  a quartz f r a c t u r e . Sphalerite.  s e c t i o n s studied:. in  S p h a l e r i t e i s r a t h e r scarce i n t h e  I t occurs as s m a l l masses i n q u a r t z , and  one s e c t i o n was seen t o f i l l a f r a c t u r e i n p y r r h o t i t e .  Some s p h a l e r i t e was e v i d e n t l y d e p o s i t e d l a t e r than t h e pyrrhotite. Chalcopyrite'.-  C h a l c o p y r i t e i s not abundant. I t  occurs as s m a l l masses i n q u a r t z , as s m a l l , i n c l u d e d  blebs  i n p y r r h o t i t e , .and along c o n t a c t s bet?ireen p y r r h o t i t e and q u a r t z . Quartz.  Quartz o c c u r s b o t h c r y s t a l l i n e and m a s s i v e .  S e c t i o n s o f hexagonal c r y s t a l s were observed i n p y r r h o t i t e , and massive q u a r t z occurs f i l l i n g , f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e . Gold. in  Most o f t h e g o l d p a r t i c l e s o c c u r r e d e i t h e r  q u a r t z f r a c t u r e s or along q u a r t z - p y r r h o t i t e b o u n d a r i e s .  A s m a l l amount was seen i n c l u d e d i n p y r r h o t i t e and s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h which m i n e r a l s i t forms smooth, m u t u a l c o n t a c t s . Paragenesis. The  f o l l o w i n g paragenesis  i s suggested.  P y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e were t h e f i r s t t o be d e p o s i t e d .  sulphides  Some q u a r t z may have accompanied o r even  87. • preceded t h e i r p r e c i p i t a t i o n , but most of i t appears t o be l a t e r than t h e p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e .  Some f r a c t u r i n g t o o k  p l a c e e i t h e r p r e v i o u s l y t o or d u r i n g the d e p o s i t i o n of the quartz.  The d e p o s i t i o n o f p y r r h o t i t e appears t o have o c c u r r e d  l a t e r t h a n the q u a r t z .  Some o f i t e v i d e n t l y f i l l s  cavities  i n t h e q u a r t z , as s e c t i o n s o f q u a r t z c r y s t a l s were seen p r o j e c t i n g i n t o the p y r r h o t i t e masses.  Some s p h a l e r i t e was d e p o s i t e d  l a t e r t h a n t h e p y r r h o t i t e , as i t was observed f i l l i n g a f i s s u r e i n the p y r r h o t i t e .  Gold appears a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both p y r r h o t i t e  and s p h a l e r i t e , . . b u t most o f i t was p r o b a b l y  d e p o s i t e d near t h e  end and l a t e r t h a n the d e p o s i t i o n o f the s p h a l e r i t e . GRAPHICAL EEPRESENTATI ON OF PARAGENESIS Quartz. Pyrite Arsenopyrite Pyrrhotite Chalcopyrite Sphalerite Gold D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e o f G o l d P a r t i c l e s . I n these s e c t i o n s , a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e g o l d  occurred  a t the c o n t a c t o f p y r r h o t i t e and q u a r t z , a l i t t l e o c c u r r e d i n q u a r t z and some was seen i n s p h a l e r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e .  This  d i s t r i b u t i o n suggests t h a t most of t h e g o l d was l a t e and p r o b a b l y was the l a s t / m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l t o be d e p o s i t e d . The s i z e o f t h e g o l d p a r t i c l e s v a r i e s f r o m 4 microns t o 15 microns, w i t h an average of about 12 m i c r o n s .  No v e r y  large, p i e c e s were seen, b u t i n g e n e r a l i t i s f a i r l y  coarse.  D e s c r i p t i o n of S e c t i o n s . S e c t i o n No:.Kl: Major — P y r r h o t i t e . Minor — - Q u a r t z and p y r i t e . Rare — C h a l c o p y r i t e and g o l d .  S e c t i o n No. K2:  Major — P y r r h o t i t e and q u a r t z . Minor — C h a l c o p y r i t e and arsenopyrite. Rare — P y r i t e and g o l d .  S e c t i o n No. K3:  M a j o r — Pyrrhotite. M i n o r — S p h a l e r i t e and q u a r t z . Rare — " P y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and g o l d .  S e c t i o n No.  1:  M a j o r —- P y r r h o t i t e . M i n o r •— Q u a r t z , p y r i t e and sphalerite. Rare ' — C h a l c o p y r i t e and g o l d .  S e c t i o n No.  2:  M a j o r -~ P y r r h o t i t e . M i n o r -- P y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and q u a r t z . Rare — Chalcpyrite.  The Mr. H.  s e c t i o n s marked (K) are those p r e p a r e d "by  Kipp.  Conclusions'.' 1. The p r i m a r y ore seen i n the s e c t i o n s c o n s i s t s of p y r r h o t i t e , p y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e , , c h a l c o p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e . 2. The m i n e r a l s ; suggest d e p o s i t i o n under c o n d i t i o n s between medium and h i g h temperatures. 3.. D e p o s i t i o n of t h e g o l d appears l a t e i n the m i n e r a l o g i c a l sequence, p r o b a b l y accompanying the l a s t sulphides. • 4. No g o l d was or a r s e n o p y r i t e .  observed as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e  5« Most of the g o l d p a r t i c l e s occur a l o n g the b o u n d a r i e s between p y r r h o t i t e and q u a r t z , or i n q u a r t z fractures.  1  j f e s g H F INLET AND HUNTER PROPERTIES  89.  PART F: THE  1  SURF INLET MINING DISTRTOT  D e s c r i p t i o n of the  District  Location. The  S u r f I n l e t area,, as used h e r e , r e f e r s o n l y t o  those p a r t s of t h e B r i t i s h Columbia coast i n the v i c i n i t y of and . i n c l u d i n g P r i n c e s s R o y a l I s l a n d .  The  d i s t r i c t i s located  a p p r o x i m a t e l y e a s t of Moresby i s l a n d of the Queen C h a r l o t t e group,, and about 4^0  m i l e s northwest of Vancouver, B.  I t I s a c c e s s i b l e o n l y by b o a t , as i t i s an e x c e e d i n g l y  C. rugged  and mountainous a r e a c o n s i s t i n g o f a p a r t of the Coast Range batholith. G e n e r a l Geology. The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the g e o l o g i c a l f o r m a t i o n s  of t h e d i s t r i c t .  TABLE OF FORMATIONS  Tertiary  Mesozoic  Post Pleistocene Pleistocene or Pliocene  T u f f s and flows B a s i c dykes  From end of Jurassic extending into Cretaceous Probably J u r a s s i c and Triassic  Coast Range Batholithic intrusions  Metamorphose d sediments and volcanics  ir r a n o d i o r i t e , q u a r t z il i o r i t e , g r a n i t e , e t c .  90.  T h i s s e c t i o n o f the P a c i f i c coast c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y of one g r e a t f o r m a t i o n , the Coast Range b a t h o l i t h .  More than  n i n e - t e n t h s of t h e a r e a i s o c c u p i e d by q u a r t z - d i o r i t e and r e l a t e d rock types.  The o n l y o l d e r r o c k s a r e a few r e l a t i v e l y  s m a l l patches of metamorphosed sedimentary  and v o l c a n i c r o c k s ,  which occur as i n c l u s i o n s i n the b a t h o l i t h . -  The o n l y r o c k s  younger than t h e b a t h o l i t h a r e dykes o f l a t e  Pliocene or  e a r l y P l e i s t o c e n e age, and some t u f f s and f l o w s o f p o s t P l e i s t o c e n e age. The o l d e s t r o c k s i n t h e d i s t r i c t c o n s i s t of a few s m a l l i n c l u s i o n s i n the b a t h o l i t h i c r o c k s about one m i l e i n w i d t h s c a t t e r e d throughout  t h e d i s t r i c t , and one o r two much  l a r g e r , ones, w h i c h occur i n t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f i t .  These  r o c k s c o n s i s t of c h l o r i t i c and s e r i c i t i c s c h i s t s , g r a d i n g i n t o gneiss.  Some of them a r e I n t e r b e d d e d  l i m e s t o n e s and a n d e s i t e ,  and resemble t h e Vancouver v o l c a n i c s of upper T r i a s s i c age. The r o c k s of the b a t h o l i t h v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n type.  The most t y p i c a l r o c k o f . t h i s s e c t i o n i s a l i g h t - g r e y ,  medium-grained, q u a r t z - d i o r i t e , c o n s i s t i n g of w h i t e p l a g i o c l a s e , q u a r t z , hornblende,  and v a r y i n g amounts o f b i o t i t e ,  o r no a l k a l i f e l d s p a r . A l i g h t - c o l o u r e d , medium-  with l i t t l e  g r a i n e d , g r a n o d i o r i t e i s the c h i e f v a r i a t i o n , ' P e g m a t i t i c and a p l i t i c , v a r i a t i o n s a r e common i n the v i c i n i t y o f P r i n c e s s R o y a l i s l a n d .  These occur as dykes  and p i p e - l i k e masses, b u t d i f f e r o n l y i n t h e i r c o a r s e r t e x t u r e f r o m the normal country r o c k . of the r a r e r  elements.  They c o n t a i n no m i n e r a l s  91  B a s i c v a r i a t i o n s are v e r y uncommon, but do occur near some of t h e more b a s i c i n c l u s i o n s . c o l o u r due t o a h i g h e r percentage  These are darker i n  of hornblende  and l i t t l e or  no q u a r t z * The p o s t - b a t h o l i t i i i c dykes are d a r k - c o l o u r e d , and of b a s i c c o m p o s i t i o n .  One  of these c u t s the v e i n s i n the  S u r f I n l e t mine* Structural.Geology. The b a t h o l i t h i c r o c k s are g n e i s s i c i n many p l a c e s near i n c l u s i o n s .  The f o l i a t i o n i s p a r a l l e l t o t h a t of the  inclusions. F a u l t i n g i s g e n e r a l i n the d i s t r i c t , but i s more pronounced near the S u r f I n l e t mine where t h e r e i s a s t r o n g shear zone. Mineralization. M i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n the v i c i n i t y of S u r f I n l e t c o n s i s t of p y r i t i z e d q u a r t z v e i n s i n a zone o f i n t e n s e s h e a r i n g , which s t r i k e s a few degrees e a s t o f n o r t h .  The m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s are  p r o b a b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l a t e r stages i n the c o o l i n g of the Coast Range b a t h o l i t h .  The S u r f I n l e t Mine D e s c r i p t i o n of the P r o p e r t y . Location.', ' The S u r f I n l e t g o l d mine i s owned and operated the P r i n c e s s R o y a l Gold M i n e s , L i m i t e d .  by  I t i s s i t u a t e d about  ?2. seven m i l e s i n l a n d from the head'.of .Surf I n l e t , on P r i n c e s s Royal i s l a n d .  The mine i s one m i l e from Be;ar l a k e , which i s  one m i l e above Cougar l a k e , and Cougar l a k e extends t o w i t h i n two_ hundred yards o f the head of S u r f I n l e t . Economic Geology. The  ore of the S u r f I n l e t mine o c c u r s i n l a r g e  p y r i t i z e d quartz v e i n s .  These l i e i n a zone of i n t e n s e shear-  i n g , w h i c h c u t s the r o c k s o f the Coast Range b a t h o l i t h i n a d i r e c t i o n about n o r t h t h r e e degrees e a s t , and f o r a d i s t a n c e passes through an i n c l u s i o n of c h l o r i t i c  schist.  The f o l i a t i o n and c o n t a c t s of the s c h i s t w i t h the b a t h o l i t h i c r o c k s s t r i k e a p p r o x i m a t e l y p a r a l l e l t o the  shear  . zone. I n c l u s i o n s of the o l d e r r o c k s occur a t s e v e r a l p l a c e s , but 'the most important i s a l a r g e band of s c h i s t which o c c u r s on the s u r f a c e above the upper l e v e l s of the mine and extends down to the lower .  levels.  T h i s s c h i s t i s a dark-green, medium-fine r o c k ,  g r a d i n g i n t o g n e i s s , composed c h i e f l y of c h l o r i t e , and t a l c .  sericite  B a t h o l i t h i c r o c k s i n the mine c o n s i s t e n t i r e l y of  quartz-diorite. Two pegmatite  dykes o c c u r on.the•550 f o o t l e v e l  v a r y from one t o two f e e t i n w i d t h .  The pegmatites and v e i n s  are s i m i l a r i n c o m p o s i t i o n and t h e r e f o r e , p r o b a b l y  closely  related i n origin. The ore o c c u r s m a i n l y i n two l a r g e g u a r t z v e i n s , one on the west o r h a n g i n g - w a l l s i d e , and the o t h e r on the f o o t - w a l l s i d e o f the shear zone.  and  I n the upper l e v e l s the  93.  v e i n s a r e ' f r o m 1 0 0 t o 1 6 0 f e e t a p a r t , but converge u n t i l they meet a t t h e 5 5 ® f o o t l e v e l t o f o r m one l a r g e v e i n . The v e i n s have a maximum.length o f 1 0 0 0 . f e e t , a maximum w i d t h o f 40 f e e t , and d i p f r o m 40 t o 6 0 degrees t o the w e s t . Above t h e 5 5 0 f o o t l e v e l , t h e two v e i n s are connected by a l a r g e c r o s s - v e i n s t r i k i n g a t r i g h t - a n g l e s t o the other two.  B e s i d e s t h i s , t h e r e are numerous s m a l l v e i n s i n the  f r a c t u r e s and shear p l a n e s of t h e d i o r i t e .  These s t r i k e i n  all:directions. The p y r i t e u s u a l l y l i e s i n s t r e a k s and bands p a r a l l e l t o and.sometimes a d j a c e n t country rock.  t o , the bands of i n c l u d e d  The v e i n s c o n s i s t c h i e f l y of q u a r t z and p y r i t e ,  the l a t t e r c a r r y i n g ' t h e g o l d .  M i n o r amounts of c h a l c o p y r i t e ,  n a t i v e s i l v e r , c h a l c o c i t e , b o r n i t e , c o v e l l i t e , hematite and molybdenite a l s o occur.  • •  Mineralogy. Introduction. • Three s e c t i o n s of S u r f I n l e t ore were c u t , mounted and p o l i s h e d .  The ore c o n s i s t e d o f massive p y r i t e i n w h i t e ,  t o t r a n s l u c e n t , q u a r t z , w h i c h was i n a l l samples seen, f i n e l y crystalline.  P y r i t e was the o n l y s u l p h i d e v i s i b l e i n the  ore. samples. The folloY/ing m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s were determined by microscopic  e x a m i n a t i o n t o be p r e s e n t  l i s t e d i n o r d e r of abundance. 1. Pyrite. 2. C h a l c o p y r i t e . 3• C o l d .  i n the o r e .  They are  94.  Quartz was  the o n l y gangue m i n e r a l i n the s e c t i o n s .  D e s c r i p t i o n of. the M i n e r a l s . Pyrite.  P y r i t e i s t h e o n l y abundant s u l p h i d e i n  a l l these t h r e e s e c t i o n s . fractured.  I t occurs massive, and i s somewhat  Quartz f i l l s a l l the f i s s u r e s i n the p y r i t e .  A  few s m a l l , s c a t t e r e d i n c l u s i o n s of c h a l c o p y r i t e were observed: i n this mineral.  These were i n a l l cases v e r y s m a l l and more  or l e s s rounded. Chalcopyrite.  Chalcopyrite i s present i n s m a l l ,  s c a t t e r e d b l e b s i n the p y r i t e , and r a r e l y as s m a l l v e i n l e t s f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n the p y r i t e .  The b o u n d a r i e s between p y r i t e  and the i n c l u s i o n s of c h a l c o p y r i t e are v e r y smooth and mutual, • i n d i c a t i n g contemporaneous d e p o s i t i o n , w h i l e the v e i n l e t s o c c u r r i n g i n f r a c t u r e s v/ere undoubtedly s o l i d i f i e d l a t e r t h a n the p y r i t e .  :  Cold.  Gold was  seen o n l y i n S e c t i o n No,  o c c u r r e d i n o n l y one way.  1,  and  I n t h i s s e c t i o n two g r a i n s of f a i r  s i z e were observed o n l y a f t e r e t c h i n g w i t h n i t r i c a c i d . . Before e t c h i n g , each s e c t i o n was d e t e c t i n g any g o l d .  s t u d i e d f o r a l o n g time w i t h o u t  1:1 N i t r i c a c i d was  t h e n p l a c e d on the  p o l i s h e d s u r f a c e f o r about 30 seconds and t h e n washed o f f . The  s u r f a c e of the p y r i t e , a f t e r e t c h i n g , r e v e a l e d m u l t i t u d e s  of p i t s of v a r i o u s shapes and s i z e s . appeared w i d e r and new p i t s g o l d was  observed.  Many of the f r a c t u r e s '  ones were observed. The  I n two of  these  g r a i n s were of f a i r s i z e , but  had  not been v i s i b l e on t h e o r i g i n a l p o l i s h e d s u r f a c e . The appearing  f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n o f the phenomenon of g o l d  a f t e r etching, i n a previously barren  field,  95.  i s suggested by the writer'.' To o b t a i n a h i g h p o l i s h on the p y r i t e , as much weight as p o s s i b l e was used on the s e c t i o n s i n the p o l i s h i n g process.  A l s o , i n t h e f i n a l stages of p o l i s h i n g , the s e c t i o n s  were k e p t v e r y d r y . T h i s would be l i k e l y , .to cause "smearing" • of t h e s o f t m i n e r a l s .  A c o a t i n g ground i n t o t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e  g o l d p a r t i c l e s d u r i n g the p o l i s h i n g p r o c e s s would make the detection very d i f f i c u l t .  *  T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n appears p r o b a b l e ,  e s p e c i a l l y as  no other m i n e r a l , which might mask t h e g o l d , o c c u r r e d w i t h i t . Paragenesis. The f o l l o w i n g p a r a g e n e s i s  i s suggested.  . P y r i t e and p o s s i b l y some q u a r t z were the f i r s t m i n e r a l s t o be d e p o s i t e d .  Some f r a c t u r i n g of t h e p y r i t e took.  p l a c e and was f o l l o w e d by d e p o s i t i o n o f more q u a r t z , - some of w h i c h f i l l e d ' f r a c t u r e s i n the p y r i t e . A l l the g o l d . t h a t was seen appeared t o be I n c l u d e d i n t h e p y r i t e and e v i d e n t l y s o l i d i f i e d w i t h t h a t m i n e r a l . Some c h a l c o p y r i t e i s p r e s e n t as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e , , and  some i s present" i n f r a c t u r e s .  I t would seem, t h e r e f o r e ,  t h a t p a r t of the c h a l c o p y r i t e was d e p o s i t e d l a t e r than t h e pyrite. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PARAGENESIS Quartz Pyrite Chalcopyrite Gold D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e , of G o l d P a r t i c l e s . The g o l d was observed t o o c c u r o n l y as i n c l u s i o n s i n the p y r i t e .  The s i z e s of the two p a r t i c l e s seen were  8 m i c r o n s and 2:0 microns r e s p e c t i v e l y . D e s c r i p t i o n , of S e c t i o n s . S e c t i o n s No.  1, No.  2 and No,  3, a l l c o n s i s t e d of  p y r i t e w i t h s m a l l amounts"of . c h a l c o p y r i t e . S e c t i o n No.  Gold occurred i n  1.  Conclusions, 1. The p r i m a r y ore of the mine i n the s e c t i o n s s t u d i e d c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . 2. The g o l d occurs w i t h the p y r i t e , and i s i n c l u d e d i n the p y r i t e . 3. No c o n c l u s i o n was a r r i v e d at as t o p r o b a b l e temperature of the d e p o s i t .  ;  ™ D e s c r i p t i o n of the  THE  the  HITNTER PROPERTY  Property.  Location. The Hunter group, composed of 12 c l a i m s , i s owned by. C. . W,' Me.ldrum and a s s o c i a t e s of Vancouver. . The p r o p e r t y i s s i t u a t e d e i g h t and one h a l f m i l e s up the f o r k of the K h u t z e r i v e r , ; and 13 m i l e s from  north  seaboard at  the head of Khutze i n l e t , about 100 m i l e s south of P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.  C.  G e n e r a l Geology. A l t h o u g h the Hunter p r o p e r t y l i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y  •  n o r t h o f S u r f I n l e t , the g e n e r a l geology of the d i s t r i c t i s very s i m i l a r ,  b o t h p r o p e r t i e s occurring i n the r o c k s of the  Coast Range b a t h o l i t h and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h remnants of o l d e r sedimentary and v o l c a n i c r o o f - r o c k s . Economic Geology. The Khutze r i v e r s e c t i o n i s s i t u a t e d i n the  heart  97. of the Goast Range b a t h o l i t h .  B i o t i t e and  biotite-hornblende  q u a r t z - d i o r i t e are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r o c k t y p e s of the  area.  B e s i d e s the b a t h o l i t h i c r o c k s , t h e r e occur s m a l l , i s o l a t e d a r e a s of o l d e r r o o f - r o c k s of l i m e s t o n e The  and a l t e r e d sediments.  d i s t r i c t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a wide d i s t r i b u -  t i o n of pegmatite and a p l i t e . dykes, and zones of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n near t h e remnants of o l d e r r o o f - r o c k s . The  ore d e p o s i t c o n s i s t s of narrow and  erratic  q u a r t z v e i n s , m i n e r a l i z e d w i t h high-grade g o l d - b e a r i n g Two  pyrite.  systems of v e i n s occur v a r y i n g f r o m one-half t o 1 8  w i d e , one  inches  s t r i k i n g n o r t h - e a s t e r l y and d i p p i n g between 30  8 0 degrees e a s t , the o t h e r s t r i k i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y  north  and and  d i p p i n g from 5 0 t o 8 0 degrees e a s t . There i s a tendency f o r ore to occur i n g r e a t e r q u a n t i t y , near the more b a s i c p o r t i o n s of the w a l l - r o c k . M i n e r a l i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s of c r y s t a l l i n e , g o l d - b e a r i n g p y r i t e i n i s o l a t e d patches,  s c a t t e r e d b l e b s and s t r e a k s .  At  least  n i n e v e i n s and s t r i n g e r s are exposed, and these have been t r a c e d f o r d i s t a n c e s up t o 400 f e e t . Mineralogy. Introduction. The  ore from t h i s p r o p e r t y c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , w i t h  minor amounts of o t h e r s u l p h i d e s i n a q u a r t z gangue. s c o p i c a l l y , p y r i t e was  Mega-  the o n l y s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l observed.  F o u r s e c t i o n s of t h i s ore were prepared  and  studied microscopically. The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s were determined by  98. microscopic  e x a m i n a t i o n t o "be p r e s e n t i n the s e c t i o n s .  They are l i s t e d i n o r d e r of abundance. 1. P y r i t e . 2. S p h a l e r i t e . Galena. 4. C h a l c o p y r i t e . 5. P y r r h o t i t e . 6. G o l d .  -  Quartz was the o n l y gangue m i n e r a l  observed i n the  sections, D e s c r i p t i o n o f the M i n e r a l s . Pyrite. I t i s considerably  The p y r i t e o c c u r s as l a r g e a n h e d r a l masses. f r a c t u r e d and these f i s s u r e s are f i l l e d  w i t h q u a r t z , and s p h a l e r i t e , and w i t h g a l e n a and c h a l c o p y r i t e t o a l e s s e r extent..  Small, rounded'inclusions  and r a r e l y p y r r h o t i t e , o c c u r I n the p y r i t e .  of c h a l c o p y r i t e , The b o u n d a r i e s  between t h e s e i n c l u s i o n s and p y r i t e are smooth, r e g u l a r and m u t u a l .  U s u a l l y , the p y r r h o t i t e b l e b s are a s s o c i a t e d  with  chalcopyrite. Pyrrhotite.  P y r r h o t i t e i s e x t r e m e l y r a r e and occurs  o n l y as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . Chalcopyrite.  Chalcopyrite  occurs, as noted above,  i n p y r i t e as I n c l u s i o n s , and a l s o sometimes i n f r a c t u r e s i n pyrite.  Some masses o c c u r r i n g i n f r a c t u r e s are up t o 40  m i c r o n s i n s i z e , but i n g e n e r a l , c h a l c o p y r i t e i s a minor c o n s t i t u e n t of t h e o r e . S p h a l e r i t e . . S p h a l e r i t e i s n o t abundant. i n masses; s u r r o u n d i n g p y r i t e and sometimes f i l l i n g in pyrite.  I t occurs fractures  I n most cases s m a l l , rounded and e l o n g a t e d b l e b s ,  of c h a l c o p y r i t e o c c u r I n the s p h a l e r i t e as I n c l u s i o n s .  99.  The  c h a l c o p y r i t e i s p r o b a b l y due t o e x s o l u t l o n .  'Galena was  a l s o seen as i r r e g u l a r p a t c h e s and -veinlets' i n t h e s p h a l e r i t e . Galena.  Galena i s l e s s abundant t h a t t h e s p h a l e r i t e  I t o.ccurs m a i n l y i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e .  Galena-sphalerite  b o u n d a r i e s a r e u s u a l l y smooth and r e g u l a r , b u t o c c a s i o n a l l y galena veins i n t o the z i n c sulphide.  The two m i n e r a l s appear  t o have been d e p o s i t e d a t the same time w i t h the d e p o s i t i o n of t h e g a l e n a l a s t i n g l o n g e r t h a n t h a t of s p h a l e r i t e . Quartz.  Quartz i s abundant.  I t occurs s u r r o u n d i n g  p y r i t e masses and f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n t h a t m i n e r a l . f r a c t u r e s are present i n the quartz,  Some  and t o some e x t e n t these  are f i l l e d b y g a l e n a , s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Gold.  G o l d was observed o n l y i n S e c t i o n No. 4.  I t o c c u r r e d i n the ' f o l l o w i n g ways'; / 1. 2. 3» 4.  As i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . A t the c o n t a c t o f p y r i t e and s p h a l e r i t e . With galena i n p y r i t e f r a c t u r e s , With sphalerite i n p y r i t e ' f r a c t u r e s .  Paragenesis. The  f o l l o w i n g p a r a g e n e s i s i s suggested.  P y r i t e and q u a r t z w i t h - m i n o r amounts of c h a l c o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e and g o l d , were t h e f i r s t m i n e r a l s t o be d e p o s i t e d . F r a c t u r i n g o f t h e p y r i t e was f o l l o w e d by t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f more q u a r t z , which f i l l e d most o f the f i s s u r e s i n t h e p y r i t e .  Some  s h a t t e r i n g of the quartz also occurred, causing f r a c t u r e s i n t o which some o f the c h a l c o p y r i t e , g o l d , g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e virere d e p o s i t e d .  S p h a l e r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , and g a l e n a were  d e p o s i t e d a t about t h e same time, w i t h t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f g a l e n a e x t e n d i n g beyond t h a t o f s p h a l e r i t e .  Gold i s i n t i m a t e l y  100.  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o t h g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e , and was e v i d e n t l y d e p o s i t e d w i t h these two m i n e r a l s . GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PANGENESIS Quartz Pyrite Pyrrhotite Chalcopyrite Sphalerite Galena Gold  .• — —  :  — — — —•—:—— — — — — ;  — — ——  .  The m a j o r i t y o f the g o l d p a r t i c l e s o c c u r r e d a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e i t h e r g a l e n a or s p h a l e r i t e i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e . A few were observed i n p y r i t e as i n c l u s i o n s , and none a t a l l seen i n q u a r t z . The s i z e o f the g r a i n s v a r i e s from 4.2 microns t o 25 m i c r o n s .  The average s i z e i s about 12 m i c r o n s .  ••.Description o f S e c t i o n s . Major — P y r i t e and q u a r t z . M i n o r - - C h a l c o p y r i t e and s p h a l e r i t e . Rare — Pyrrhotite. <;  -1- »  S e c t i o n No. 2:  Major — P y r i t e and q u a r t z . Minor — Chalcopyrite.: Rare — P y r r h o t i t e .  S e c t i o n No. 3:  Major Rare —  P y r i t e and q u a r t z . C h a l c o p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e .  Minor —  Galena, c h a l c o p y r i t e and s p h a l e r i t e . P y r r h o t i t e and g o l d .  S e c t i o n No. 4:. Rare  —  Conclusions. 1. The p r i m a r y ore i n the s e c t i o n s c o n s i s t of p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a and c h a l c o p y r i t e . 2* The m i n e r a l s b e l o n g t o the mesothermal zone of deposition. , 3. The g r e a t e r p a r t of the g o l d i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l a t e r s u l p h i d e s , g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e .  101.  4. A s m a l l amount of g o l d appears t o have been d e p o s i t e d w i t h the p y r i t e . pyrite  5. There i s a tendency f o r the g o l d t o o c c u r i n fractures.  6. The g o l d p a r t i c l e s are i r r e g u l a r l y and o c c u r i n groups o r swarms.  distributed  P A R T  G  THE D IYIDEND -LAKEYIEW MINE  i o a*  PART G:  THE DIVIDEND-EAEEvTEWMINE  D e s c r i p t i o n of the P r o p e r t y . Location. The Dividend-Lakeview  p r o p e r t y , p a r t l y owned  by Osoyoos Mines, L i m i t e d , and p a r t l y l e a s e d by t h a t company , from the Dividend-Lakeview of E l m i r a , New  C o n s o l i d a t e d G o l d M i n i n g Company  Y o r k , c o n s i s t s o f e i g h t c l a i m s and t h r e e  fractions. The p r o p e r t y i s l o c a t e d on the e a s t e r n slope of K r u g e r mountain, t o the west of Osoyoos l a k e , and about a m i l e n o r t h of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary,  A branch l i n e o f the  K e t t l e V a l l e y r a i l w a y extends south from P e n t i c t o n to O l i v e r , which i s about 16 m i l e s n o r t h o f Osoyoos, and the main t r a n s p r o v i n c i a l highway p a s s e s down the southern Okanagan v a l l e y t o Osoyoos.  A branch r o a d connects  highway,  .  the p r o p e r t y w i t h the  G e n e r a l Geology. The  o l d e s t and most important r o c k s i n the  d i s t r i c t are the A n a r c h i s t s e r i e s .  These c o n s i s t of micaceous  q u a r t z i t e s , m i c a and c h l o r i t e s c h i s t , c r y s t a l l i n e and greenstone. sheared,  limestone,  The r o c k s are a l l h i g h l y metamorphosed and  and as a r e s u l t , almost complete a l t e r a t i o n t o  secondary m i n e r a l s has. taken p l a c e .  The g e n e r a l s t r i k e o f the  r o c k i s t o the n o r t h w i t h a p r e v a i l i n g d i p t o t h e west. The Osoyoos b a t h o l i t h i s the o n l y i n t r u s i v e r o c k  103.  i n t h e immediate v i c i n i t y of the p r o p e r t y .  These r o c k s a r e  thought t o have been o r i g i n a l l y of g r a n o d i o r i t e o r q u a r t z d i o r i t e composition,  b u t subsequent a l t e r a t i o n has r e s u l t e d  in a decidedgneissic  texture In places.  An assemblage of p l u t o n i c r o c k s , c o n s i s t i n g o f s y e n i t e s and g r a n o d i o r i t e s o c c u r s e v e r a l m i l e s t o the west. These form a l a r g e mass on t h e s l o p e o f t h e Similkameen r i v e r . Economic Geology. The  o r e - b o d i e s a r e t y p i c a l h i g h temperature replace-  ment d e p o s i t s , developed a t some d i s t a n c e from t h e i n t r u s i o n , which gave r i s e t o them, and o c c u r r i n g m a i n l y i n t h e l i m e beds of t h e A n a r c h i s t s e r i e s .  Some o c c u r i n the a l t e r e d  v o l c a n i c s , which a l s o c o n t a i n c o n s i d e r a b l e The  lime.  sulphide m i n e r a l i z a t i o n followed i n general  the development o f t h e l i m e - s i l i c a t e gangue. s i s t s o f a l t e r e d limestone  or a l t e r e d v o l c a n i c s i n which  • occur t y p i c a l s i l i c a t e m i n e r a l s wollastonite.  The gangue con-  such a s g a r n e t , e p i d o t e and  .  The most, p r o b a b l e source o f the m i n e r a l  solutions  appears t o be the r o c k s o f t h e Osoyoos b a t h o l i t h . Mineralogy. . Introduction. No p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s o f ore from t h i s were made by t h e w r i t e r .  property  The s e c t i o n s s t u d i e d were those  p r e p a r e d b y M i s s N* I . K i n g . The f o l l o w i n g m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s were found t o be present i n the ore:  104. •  1. P y r i t e . 2. A r s e n o p y r i t e . J. P y r r h o t i t e . 4. M a g n e t i t e . 5. Chalcopyrite. 6. G o l d . 7. Unknown.  ,  The gangue c o n s i s t e d of q u a r t z and a l t e r e d v o l c a n i c rock. D e s c r i p t i o n of the M i n e r a l s . Pyrite..  P y r i t e i s abundant i n the s e c t i o n s , examined,  I t o c c u r s as s m a l l f r a c t u r e d masses and as e u h e d r a l g r a i n s . Q u a r t z , p y r r h o t i t e and magnetite, w i t h s m a l l amounts of c h a l c o p y r i t e , ' f i l l f r a c t u r e s i n the p y r i t e . Arsenopyrite-.  A r s e n o p y r i t e i s not p l e n t i f u l .  It  occurs'sometimes .with, p y r i t e and forms s t r a i g h t , smooth, mutual c o n t a c t s w i t h t h i s m i n e r a l , but g e n e r a l l y i t was seen as shattered euhedral g r a i n s i n e a r l y quartz.  Like pyrite, i t  i s b a d l y f r a c t u r e d , and these f r a c t u r e s a r e f i l l e d w i t h q u a r t z and p y r r h o t i t e .  •  Quartz.  Two g e n e r a t i o n s o f q u a r t z are p r e s e n t i n  the s e c t i o n s s t u d i e d .  The e a r l y q u a r t z occurs  surrounding  p y r i t e , and a r s e n o p y r i t e masses and g r a i n s , and a l s o f i l l s f r a c t u r e s i n these m i n e r a l s .  The q u a r t z i t s e l f i s extremely  S h a t t e r e d and t h e f r a c t u r e s are f i l l e d m a i n l y w i t h a l a t e r q u a r t z of d a r k e r c o l o u r , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t by p y r r h o t i t e , m a g n e t i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . Pew f r a c t u r e s were noted i n p y r r h o t i t e , but where these o c c u r , t h e y a r e f i l l e d m a i n l y by t h e l a t e r q u a r t z , and sometimes w i t h  magnetite.  Pyrrhotite.  P y r r h o t i t e i s abundant i n some  105.  sections, but rare i n others.  I t was seen s u r r o u n d i n g p y r i t e  masses and g r a i n s , f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e , and  sometimes f i l l i n g f i s s u r e s i n e a r l y q u a r t z .  The p y r r h o t i t e  masses a r e a n h e d r a l and i r r e g u l a r . Magnetite. p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e .  Magnetite occurs i n f r a c t u r e s i n quartz, I n a l l cases, i t appears g r a n u l a r and  U s u a l l y d e f i n i t e , euhedral o u t l i n e s are v i s i b l e .  Where p y r i t e  and m a g n e t i t e a r e i n c o n t a c t there appears t o be no a l t e r a t i o n of the former m i n e r a l .  T h i s suggests t h a t the i r o n o x i d e  was d e p o s i t e d i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e .  The same r e l a t i o n s h i p  h o l d s f o r p y r r h o t i t e and m a g n e t i t e . Chalcopyrite.  T h i s m i n e r a l i s abundant i n some  s e c t i o n s , but i s n o t a major c o n s t i t u e n t of t h e ore. seen i n f r a c t u r e s i n t h e e a r l y q u a r t z , • and a r s e n o p y r i t e , grains.  It is  i n fractures i n pyrite  and i n some' cases s u r r o u n d i n g magnetite  I n one case, i t was seen f i l l i n g a s m a l l f r a c t u r e i n  magnetite.  U s u a l l y i t occurs as s m a l l b l e b s and s t r i n g e r s ,  but o c c a s i o n a l  l a r g e r masses are p r e s e n t .  Gold.  The g o l d o c c u r s i n the f o l l o w i n g ways:  1. As b l e b s i n c h a l c o p y r i t e . 2. I n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a t e q u a r t z and c h a l c o p y r i t e . 3« As i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . Unknown.  T h i s m i n e r a l was seen i n s m a l l  intimately associated with chalcopyrite.  I t i s very soft,  g r e y i s h - w h i t e i n c o l o u r , and s t r o n g l y a n i s o t r o p i c . Paragenesis. The  quantities  f o l l o w i n g p a r a g e n e s i s i s suggested.  106). " P y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e were the f i r s t :  t o be d e p o s i t e d .  These two m i n e r a l s are e x t r e m e l y s h a t t e r e d  and t h e f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d w i t h q u a r t z . shattered.  sulphides  The quartz i s a l s o  . P y r r h o t i t e appears t o have been d e p o s i t e d  t h a n the e a r l i e r q u a r t z and b e f o r e t h e m a g n e t i t e .  later  The c r i t e r i a  which i n d i c a t e t h i s order a r e : 1. P y r r h o t i t e f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n e a r l y q u a r t z . 2. M a g n e t i t e f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s i n p y r r h o t i t e . •  C h a l c o p y r i t e o c c u r s v e i n i n g m a g n e t i t e , and a l s o ,  enclosing grains of that mineral.  Rarely, the relationships  between two m i n e r a l s a r e r e v e r s e d , b u t enough evidence was seen t o i n d i c a t e t h a t most c h a l c o p y r i t e was d e p o s i t e d than t h e m a g n e t i t e .  later  The l a t e r d e p o s i t i o n of q u a r t z took p l a c e  about t h e same time as t h e d e p o s i t i o n of c h a l c o p y r i t e , o r perhaps l a t e r .  No d e f i n i t e c r i t e r i a between the two were  observed. The d e p o s i t i o n of most of the g o l d o c c u r r e d  later,  p r o b a b l y w i t h t h e c h a l c o p y r i t e and q u a r t z , as i t i s m a i n l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these m i n e r a l s .  A s m a l l q u a n t i t y may be of  the same time as the p y r i t e , as some b l e b s appeared t o be i n c l u s i o n s i n the i r o n sulphide. The u n i d e n t i f i e d , s o f t , white m i n e r a l  occurs  i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h a l c o p y r i t e o n l y , and the d e p o s i t i o n o f t h e two must have been a t about the same time.  SUMMARY AMD CONCLUSION  107.  GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OE PARAGENESIS Pyrite Arsenopyrite Quartz Pyrrhotite Magnetite Chalcopyrite Gold Unknown D i s t r i b u t i o n and S i z e of Gold P a r t i c l e s . . The m a j o r i t y of the g o l d p a r t i c l e s occurred e i t h e r i n c h a l c o p y r i t e or w i t h t h i s s u l p h i d e i n p y r i t e f r a c t u r e s . A s m a l l amount was  seen w i t h l a t e q u a r t z i n f r a c t u r e d p y r i t e ,  and a v e r y minute q u a n t i t y appeared as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e . . . The  s i z e of. the g r a i n s v a r i e d from 3 microns to,  40 m i c r o n s , w i t h an average of 10  microns.  Conclusions. 1. P r i m a r y ore of the mine c o n s i s t s of p y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , magnetite.-and c h a l c o p y r i t e . 2. The m i n e r a l s p r e s e n t suggest t h a t the b e l o n g s t o t h e hypothermal zone of d e p o s i t i o n . -  deposit  3. Most of the gold.was one of the l a s t m i n e r a l s t o be d e p o s i t e d , and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h a l c o p y r i t e and l a t e q u a r t z . V a l u e s are l i k e l y t o be h i g h e r where these l a t e m i n e r a l s occur w i t h s h a t t e r e d p y r i t e . 4. A s m a l l q u a n t i t y o f g o l d p r o b a b l y occurs i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e .  as  5. The u n i d e n t i f i e d , g r e y i s h - w h i t e m i n e r a l may c o n t a i n s i l v e r and thereby account f o r the s i l v e r v a l u e s i n the o r e . 6. The sulphides i n t h i s formed b e f o r e the d e f i c i e n c y amount i n t h i s case.  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between magnetite and the i r o n ore are u n u s u a l . The oxide i s g e n e r a l l y sulphide minerals. I t i s possible that a of s u l p h u r i s a p a r t o f the e x p l a n a t i o n  108  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  . The s t u d y of t h e ore from t h e f o r e g o i n g p r o p e r t i e s shows two, and p o s s i b l e y t h r e e , t y p e s of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . The f i r s t type i n c l u d e s a l l those q u a r t z v e i n d e p o s i t s except p o s s i b l y t h e Hunter and S u r f I n l e t p r o p e r t i e s . D e p o s i t s o f t h i s type c o n t a i n m i n e r a l s w h i c h suggest p r e c i p i . t a t i o n under c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y of medium temperature, b u t g r a d i n g f r o m the mesothermal I n t o the upper p a r t o f the hypothermal zone.  The Reno mine, i n the Sheep Creek  district,  c o n t a i n s a g r e a t e r abundance o f p y r r h o t i t e than t h e o t h e r properties similar to i t .  This may-indicate  a temperature  h i g h e r t h a n u s u a l , o r may be t h e r e s u l t o f o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s at the time o f d e p o s i t i o n . T y p i c a l m i n e r a l s o f t h i s type o f d e p o s i t a r e p y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a , c h a l c o p y r i t e and g o l d . F r e q u e n t l y s m a l l amounts o f p y r r h o t i t e a r e p r e s e n t . The  second type o f d e p o s i t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by one  mine o n l y ; t h e D i v i d e n d - L a k e v i e w p r o p e r t y near Osoyoos.  This  i s a high-temperature replacement d e p o s i t c o n t a i n i n g an abundance of p y r r h o t i t e , m a g n e t i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e , but no s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a .  ••The Hunter and S u r f I n l e t p r o p e r t i e s may r e p r e s e n t a q u a r t z - v e i n type d e p o s i t e d under c o n d i t i o n s o f f a i r l y h i g h  109*  temperature.  The v e i n s on t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s occur i n g r a n i t i c  r o c k s of t h e Coast Range " b a t h o l i t h . T h i s occurrence o f t h e ore f i l l i n g ..fractures i n the igneous rock from which t h e m i n e r a l s o l u t i o n s are thought t o have been d e r i v e d , and t h e s c a r c i t y o f m i n e r a l s t y p i c a l o f the mesothermal zone, i n d i c a t e s d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s of d e p o s i t i o n t o the other v e i n d e p o s i t s studied.  P y r i t e i s t h e p r i n c i p a l s u l p h i d e mineral, w i t h s m a l l  amounts o f s p h a l e r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and g a l e n a . I n g e n e r a l , g o l d occurs i n o n l y two ways i n a l l the ore examined; 1. W i t h massive p y r i t e as i n c l u s i o n s . 2. W i t h g a l e n a , s p h a l e r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e . G-old o c c u r r i n g as i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e o r arsenop y r i t e i s very f i n e l y disseminated, extremely r a r e .  and i n most cases  Only i n a few cases c o u l d i t be p o s i t i v e l y  s a i d t h a t a. p a r t i c l e was i n c l u d e d i n these s u l p h i d e s . However, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t n e a r l y a l l p y r i t e c o n t a i n s minute amounts o f g o l d , i n t h i s way; but v e r y r a r e l y are t h e v a l u e s h i g h enough t o c o n s t i t u t e o r e . I n the S u r f I n l e t o r e , t h e few g r a i n s of g o l d seen, o c c u r r e d as i n c l u s i o n s i n massive p y r i t e .  W h i l e i n the H u n t e r  o r e , some o c c u r r e d a s i n c l u s i o n s and some i n f r a c t u r e s i n t h e iron sulphide. The g r e a t abundance o f g o l d observed i n the v a r i o u s o r e s s t u d i e d was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g a l e n a , and t o a s m a l l e x t e n t w i t h p y r r h o t i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and s p h a l e r i t e . I n n e a r l y a l l  :  lip..  cases where-much g o l d was seen i t was i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h , or o c c u r r e d near, g a l e n a . i s not t r u e . found.  The converse t o t h i s statement  G o l d i s not n e c e s s a r i l y p r e s e n t where galena I s  I n some cases, g o l d was. seen t o he a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . The amount o c c u r r i n g i n t h i s way i s s m a l l , and was found i n ore t h a t  contained  l i t t l e or no g a l e n a . There i s a s t r o n g tendency f o r g o l d p a r t i c l e s t o be d e p o s i t e d i n f r a c t u r e s i n p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e , and many more occur w i t h t h e l a t e r s u l p h i d e s i n such f r a c t u r e s t h a n , i n the l a t e r s u l p h i d e s  alone.  I n g e n e r a l , i t appears t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n most f a v o r a b l e f o r h i g h g o l d v a l u e s I n the ores s t u d i e d , i s t h e presence o f g a l e n a , s p h a l e r i t e or c h a l c o p y r i t e i n s h a t t e r e d p y r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e .  T h i s i s t r u e a l s o of the D i v i d e n d  p r o p e r t y , e x c e p t t h a t g a l e n a and S p h a l e r i t e a r e absent. H i g h v a l u e s occur w i t h the i n t e r g r o w t h of c o s a l i t e and g a l e n a b i s m u t i t e  i n t h e Cariboo Gold Quartz mine.  I n the  s e c t i o n s s t u d i e d , no p y r i t e was p r e s e n t , but evidence was seen t h a t t h e b i s m u t h m i n e r a l s Y/ere d e p o s i t e d a t about the same time.as  the.galena.  I t i s t h e r e f o r e e v i d e n t t h a t w h i l e some g o l d i s u n d o u b t e d l y d e p o s i t e d e a r l y i n t h e sequence of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , most o f i t i s p r e c i p i t a t e d w i t h the l a s t m i n e r a l s t o s o l i d i f y . From, t h i s , i t i s concluded  t h a t , w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s ,  higher  g o l d v a l u e s may be expected i n p y r i t i c d e p o s i t s c o n t a i n i n g amounts o f s p h a l e r i t e , , g a l e n a and c h a l c o p y r i t e , t h a n i n d e p o s i t s where these m i n e r a l s are a b s e n t .  Ill,,  BIBLIOGRAPHY  The Sheeu Greek D i s t r i c t . 1 , Walker, J , F., ,  Geology and Ore D e p o s i t s of t h e Salmo Map-Area. C.G.S. Mem. 172, 1 9 3 4 .  •The Z e b a l l o s D i s t r i c t . 1 . MacDonnel, G.F.  Canadian M i n i n g and M e t a l l u r g i c a l B u l l e t i n , J u l y , 1939.  2 . Gunning, H. C  C.G.S. Summary R e p o r t , 1 9 3 1 ; P a r t A-2, pp. 29-50.  3 . B a n c r o f t , M. F.  Gold-Bearing Deposits of the West Coast o f Vancouver I s l a n d Between Esperanza I n l e t and A l b e r n i C a n a l . C.G.S., Mem. 204, 1 9 3 7 .  4. C l o t h i e r , . G. A.  Annual Reports, M i n i s t e r of Mines, B. 0.  The. C a r i b o o D i s t r i c t . 1. BoYjman, Amos,  Report on t h e Geology o f the M i n i n g D i s t r i c t o f C a r i b o o , B. C. C.G.S. Ann. R e p o r t , Vol..  I l l , P t . 1, 1 8 8 7 - 1 8 8 8 ,  pp. 1C-49C. 2. Uglow, W. L. and Johnson, W.A  P l a c e r and V e i n G o l d Deposits of B a r k e r v i l l e , C a r i b o o D i s t r i c t , B. C. C.G.S.,Mem. 149, 1926.  3. Dolmage", V.  The C a r i b o o and B r i d g e R i v e r G o l d f i e l d s , B. C , Canadian M i n i n g and M e t a l lurgical Bulletin, Aug. 1934, pp. 410-412.  112.  The Cariboo- D i s t r i c t .(contlnuted) . 4. Hanson, G.  B a r k e r v i l l e Gold B e l t , Cariboo D i s t r i c t , B.C. CG.S., Mem., l 8 l .  The B r i d g e R i v e r D i s t r i c t . 1. C a i r n e s , C. E.  Geology and M i n e r a l D e p o s i t s of B r i d g e R i v e r M i n i n g Camp, B.C. CG..S. Memi 21j.  2. Cockfield, and  Summ. R e p o r t , QvG.S., 1952, P a r t A.  W.E.  Walker, J . P. 3* Annual R e p o r t s , M i n i s t e r of Mines, B.  C  •The Ymir D i s t r i c t . 1. C o c k f i e l d , W. B. Lode G o l d D e p o s i t s of Y m i r N e l s o n A r e a . C G . S . Mem. 191. 2 . D r y s d a l e , C.ff.  The Ymir M i n i n g Camp, Cifc*S* Mem. 94, 191*/.  3. Walker., 3". P.  Geology and Ore D e p o s i t s of t h e Salmo 'Map-Area, C G . S . Mem. 1 9 2 , 1 9 3 4 .  The. Hunter and S u r f I n l e t  Districts.  1. M i n i s t e r of M i n e s , B. C , B u l l e t i n No. 1 , 1 9 3 2 . 2 . Annual R e p o r t s , M i n i s t e r of Mines, B.C. .  3 . Dolmage, V*  1928-38.  Coast Burke B.C., 1921^  and I s l a n d s Between and Douglas Channels, C G . S . Summ.Report, P t . A . , pp.29-41.: -.  The Osoyoos D i s t r i c t . 1 . C o c k f i e l d , W.. E. G o l d D e p o s i t s of, P a i r v i e w Camp, Camp McKInnly, V i d e t t e Lake A r e a , and D i v i d e n d Lakeview P r o p e r t y near Osoyoos,..B.C. CG.S.Mem. 1 7 9 .  113.  PLATE l a . Gold i n an i n t e r g r o w t h of c o s a l i t e and galenab i s m u t i t e . The g o l d conforms t o t h e s t r u c t u r e of the bismuth m i n e r a l s .  XbOO  PLATE l b . Showing a l a r g e g r a i n of g o l d i n q u a r t z .  X60Q  114.  .600  115  r  ^ PLATE I l i a . Gold o c c u r r i n g i n a f r a c t u r e i n arsenopyrite.  Z1050  Z600  PLATE I 7 a . Showing m i l l e r i t e i n quartz.  XI050  PLATE IJJb. Unknown m i n e r a l con taining tellurium i n c o s a l i t e and galenabismutite.  Ta.  XI030  117.  PLATS Va. Showing an i n c l u s i o n of g o l d i n g a l e n a .  PLATE Vb. Showing g o l d w i t h quartz i n f r a c t u r e d pyrite.  X600  118  PLATE V i a . Showing g o l d i n s p h a l e r i t e near pyrite.  XIO^O  " 1 PLATE V I p . Showing g o l d i n pyrrhot i t e near q u a r t s .  ,',rr.  J?  ..  J  

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