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Hanging wall quartzites, Sullivan mine Williams, Edwin Philp 1942

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HANGING WALL QUARTZITES, SULLIVAN MINE  by Edwin P l i i l p W i l l i a m s  A T h e s i s submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of The Req.uirem.ents f o r the Degree o f MASTER  OF  APPLIED  SCIENCE  i n the DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l 1942  Preface  The problem w i t h which t h i s t h e s i s i s concerned suggested  by Dr. C. 0. Swanson i n August 1941.  was  Arrangements  were made by Dr. Swanson whereby the w r i t e r c o u l d remain a f t e r the c l o s e of the f i e l d season i n September to c o l l e c t the necessary specimens and d a t a . The main p a r t of the work was a p e t r o g r a p h i c study o f t h i r t y - n i n e t h i n s e c t i o n s , on the b a s i s of which the m i n e r a l s and specimens were d e s c r i b e d . work was preceded f e e t of d r i l l  This microscopic  by a megascopic study of over two thousand  core.  The w r i t e r wishes to acknowledge h i s to Dr. Swanson and the C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g and  indebtedness Smelting  Company f o r the arrangements whereby the t h e s i s m a t e r i a l c o u l d be c o l l e c t e d , and to Mr. F. M. l a l d i e and Dr. A.  Pent-  l a n d f o r the use of the d r a u g h t i n g o f f i c e , access to d r i l l core f i l e s and p r o v i s i o n o f necessary equipment.  In t h i s  r e g a r d , i t should be s t a t e d t h a t the w i l l i n g h e l p and afiiricee of the e n g i n e e r i n g s t a f f was g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d .  C O N T E N T S. Page Preface  ,  i  Introduction A. The Precambrian S e c t i o n as exposed i n the Cranbrook Map Area  '  ?  .By The A l d r i d g e Formation C. The S e c t i o n Examined The Sedimentary S e c t i o n s  1 2 3. 4  The R e l a t i v e P o s i t i o n s of the D r i l l H o l e s , and the S t r u c t u r e I n d i c a t e d .  5  The M i c r o s c o p i c E x a m i n a t i o n of the Specimens  6  D e s c r i p t i o n s of the M i n e r a l s  6  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the M i n e r a l s  24  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Specimens  25  D e s c r i p t i o n s of the Specimens  30  Conclusions A. P o s s i b l e Source l o c k s  35  B. Stage of E r o s i o n and Type of O l d Land  36  0. S i t e of D e p o s i t i o n  37  D. Metamorphism  37  Bibliography  40  ii  T A B L E S Page Table I  P r o t e r o z o i c .(Belt!an:) Formations of the Oranbroofc Map Area  2  Table I I C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the M i n e r a l s Table I I I C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the  25  Specimen^  Part 1  27  Part 2  28  Part 3  29  EI  G U R E S  Fig.  I.  Logs of D r i l l Holes  3A"  Fig.  I I . P r o g r e s s P l a n , S u l l i v a n Mine,:, w i t h added: Area shorn i n F i g . I I I .  Fig.  4A  I I I . L o c a t i o n of D r i l l Holes and .Indicated S t r u c t u r e of the Hanging Wall  '  5A  Fig.  IVi Growth of Quartz Grains  7  Fig.  V. , Quartz .Stringer  Fig.  V I . P l e o c h r o i c Halos i n C h l o r i t e around  — ••  Zircon  8  1&  F i g . V I I . M i c r o c l i n e and C a l c i t e  18  Fig.VIII.Fibrous Tremolite  21  Fig.  IX. Garnet  22  Fig.  X*  Pebbles in. Q u a r t z i t e  iii  ,23  HANGING WALL QJJARTZTTES, SULLIVAN MINE  Introduction  A. The Precambrian S e c t i o n as exposed i n the Cranbrook Map Area, B r i t i s h Columbia ^ In the C o r d i l l e r a n Geosyncline from Idaho t o C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia, a u n i f o r m group o f sediments was l a i d down d u r i n g the l a t e Precambrian.  T h i s group i s known  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s as the B e l t Terrane and i n Canada as the B e l t i a n .  I n Canada i t , has been s u b d i v i d e d i n t o the  P u r c e l l S e r i e s and the Windermere S e r i e s , and the former has been f u r t h e r  s u b d i v i d e d i n t o the Lower and Upper P u r c e l l  series. The P u r c e l l d i o r i t e s , Precambrian i n age, occur p r i n c i p a l l y as s i l l s and dykes. but n o t the Upper P u r c e l l  They c u t t h e Lower P u r c e l l  series.  The younger B e l t i a n , i . e . , the Windermere s e r i e s , i s not r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Cranbrook map a r e a .  1. R i c e , Mem.207, pp. 3-4.  1  Table I . P r o t e r o z o i c ( B e l t i a n ) f o r m a t i o n s of the Granbfook Map Area Unconformity Upper P u r c e l l  Gateway  Lower Puree11  P u r c e l l Igneous Rocks I n t r u s i v e Contact Siyeh Kitchener Creston Aldridge Fort Steele  Base Unexposed 1 B. The A l d r i d g e Formation The A l d r i d g e f o r m a t i o n  i s a g e o l o g i c a l u n i t of great  t h i c k n e s s , p e r s i s t e n c e , and u n i f o r m i t y . thickest formation  I t i s by f a r the  i n the lower P u r c e l l s e r i e s , being not l e s s  than 16,000 f e e t t h i c k . The sediments are f i n e - g r a i n e d f o r the most p a r t and c o n s i s t o f grey r u s t y weathering a r g i l l i t e and a r g i l l a c eous q u a r t z i t e .  The f o r m a t i o n  some beds a r e c a l c a r e o u s  and, i n a few p l a c e s , limestone  occur.  1. R i c e , Mem.  i s , i n g e n e r a l , not l i m e y , but  207, pp.6-8.  lenses  "The a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s c o n s i s t of f i n e ragged-edged quartz g r a i n s and s m a l l f l a k e s and aggregates o f brown b i o t i t e . P l a g i o c l a s e , about the composition o f andesine, occurs s p a r i n g l y . C a l c i t e i s u s u a l l y absent, but may, l o c a l l y , be abundant. A r g i l l a c e o u s m a t e r i a l , g a r n e t , tourmal i n e , z i r c o n , sphene, magnetite, p y r i t e , c o l o r l e s s mica', c h l o r i t e , and a p a t i t e occur i n s m a l l amounts. The a r g i l l i t e s are g e n e r a l l y smooth, dense l o o k i n g r o c k s d i f f e r i n g i n composition from the q u a r t z i t e s o n l y i n a lower p r o p o r t i o n o f q u a r t z g r a i n s . " The A l d r i d g e f o r m a t i o n has r a t h e r i n d e f i n i t e upper and lower l i m i t s .  1  I t grades downward i n t o the F o r t S t e e l e  f o r m a t i o n w i t h the appearance of grey-green d o l o m i t i c a r g i l l i t e a l t e r n a t i n g v/ith b l a c k a r g i l l i t e , and upward i n t o the Greston f o r m a t i o n where, above a few hundred f e e t o f a l t e r n a t i n g grey and g r e e n i s h a r g i l l i t e s , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c g r e e n i s h a r g i l l i t e s and a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s o f the Greston become dominant. C. The S e c t i o n Examined The  s e c t i o n examined i s i n the hanging w a l l o f the  S u l l i v a n ore body, and extends upward from the hanging w a l l for  a d i s t a n c e o f 700 f e e t s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y . I n f o r m a t i o n obtained d u r i n g the summer o f 1941  p l a c e s the ore h o r i z o n a t 14,200 f e e t below the lowest beds of the Greston f o r m a t i o n .  The s e c t i o n was measured from the  contact on Mather (Cherry) Creek, near the highway b r i d g e seven m i l e s east o f K i m b e r l e y ,  t o a diamond d r i l l h o l e one  h a l f m i l e n o r t h o f L o i s Lake and hence down the d r i l l hole to 1. P e r s o n a l communication from Dr.N.F.G.Davis.  5A r  f /G. 7. y C^  i  j  c <u?<>  J L  c  / / ~ 1f /  iJ  ) / / (/ (— •  /  /1  /  /  i  >  _L_L  i  J |  c\  A r \ Ors f\i \\  s  c M s 1 1 1 VI i ft % J  f^° \ 0 ( s  _>  s  i C7'rr  |  i t  u  0-  1 1  ij  j  . 1 • -ei. 1  • • ?•/  • ,-r.  /•7  <t\'  /  •  —  e  • /7" r• a •  1  Q t\  - j -  -  (7'  =£<b_ 'j i•v  <\  £>  -  !  i \  *~ ~IJ m •l •  • W  7-  1  - gf_  *  NJ N  •j .1 -  /<  o  IN  -  ta/n V u a t-i I. t'  SO > ft  s  <\  _f  •  •  ^ •I  J  y J  £7  j TiT '  •  •  - r7 •  I \  m • •9•  t *  s 1  A*  >  ;  A k  ^•  ••  [  | |  —  0 i:  f -  -  Z/ • *  • »|c i • • -  J  ?  te It  -  1l  !  £^  '  > »^ *  N V  I)/ i  • i7~~  <  \  •  \  c IJ / J n tJ I  -—^—  Lf  M  CI *'. *•  •  i «;  #  >-  ;  •*•  if, /  I  a. •  1 - <5  u  cV h,  10  1  fT*  j 1  s  \  •>  i  s. cN  n  -L1 c7 —  i"-! -  a  .* 1" ,|  • j •  "e J J. a  Y  #  ft  ••••  ill  i. !  *  ai  1 !  !  °-  i  <>.  rK Y  -f-d-  x: : -  |  1 ••  |  !  1 1 '] 1 | i ~J— | ! i I ! i  Ij j j j  Ii • I f /lh' * . i -'l •' : 1 ! 1 ! "1" i ! Ii 1 j 1  ) V  1  I  i  -  j  !  f<  •  .4( •a  \  |  s —  i  _  • -  !  :  1 |  ^• -  !  4  •at-  1  «  i  V  f f—  i 1  I  | 1 _s_  • -|• •  i  1  — j —  l  -  | 1 ) !  j  J  {  -  i jj  4 the hanging w a l l o f the ore h o r i z o n . Thus the S u l l i v a n ore body i s somewhere near the base §£ fche/JLldridge f o r m a t i o n .  The Sedimentary S e c t i o n s  The  s e c t i o n s were obtained by t h e d e t a i l e d examina-  t i o n o f d r i l l core from three h o l e s , namely D.D.104, D.D.235, and D.D.468.  The core was examined over a l e n g t h o f 700 t o  800 f e e t i n each h o l e .  D e t a i l e d l o g s were made, based on  hardness, r e a c t i o n t o 1:1 H C l , g r a i n s i z e , c o l o r , and content of m e t a l l i c s .  The angle between the core and the bedding was  measured a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , where p o s s i b l e , so that the core l e n g t h s c o u l d be converted  into stratigraphic  thick-  nesses . The d e t a i l e d l o g s were condensed and s i m p l i f i e d , and g r a p h i c l o g s p l o t t e d a g a i n s t s t r a t i g r a p h i c t h i c k n e s s . F i n a l l y , these l o g s were r e p l o t t e d u s i n g terminology t o f i t the m i c r o s c o p i c d e s c r i p t i o n s . F i g u r e I shows the three s e c t i o n s as l a s t p(Lotted. The g r a p h i c l o g s , a l l p l o t t e d a g a i n s t  strati-  graphic t h i c k n e s s from the hanging w a l l up, do not correspond as c l o s e l y as might be expected,  c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the  g r e a t e s t d i s t a n c e between h o l e s i s o n l y 1200 f e e t .  1. c f . " S i t e of D e p o s i t i o n " , p.  37.  f^/G.  ''  -/I  f  o  r  / t'j.~3%£") r  I T  5  The R e l a t i v e P o s i t i o n s of the D r i l l Holes and the S t r u c t u r e I n d i c a t e d  The i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s , e l e v a t i o n s of c o l l a r s , and d i p s and d i r e c t i o n s of the three diamond d r i l l h o l e s , the core from which was examined, was obtained from, the company's d r i l l core f i l e s i n the Engineering  Office. The p o s i t i o n s o f the d r i l l h o l e s r e l a t i v e to the  mine workings are shown on the accompanying P r o g r e s s P l a n (Fig.  I I ) . They are shown again on a l a r g e r s c a l e i n F i g . I I I . Assuming the hanging w a l l to be a plane w i t h i n  the area marked o f f by the d r i l l h o l e i n t e r s e c t i o n s , contours 1. were drawn and the average s t r i k e and d i p thus o b t a i n e d . These worked out to N39°W and 27°NE.  At the nearest outcrop  above the a r e a (at around 119Q0N, 6500E) the s t r i k e and d i p were M16°to 23°W, and 27°to 30°N1. However, the hanging w a l l i s a p p a r e n t l y f a r from being a p l a n e , f o r i t i s h a r d l y l i k e l y t h a t the 3356  X.G.  would be d r i v e n i n t o the hanging w a l l t o a p o s i t i o n 150 v e r t i c a l l y above o r e .  1. see F i g . I I I . . 2. Compare contoured plane i n F i g . I l l w i t h p o s i t i o n of 3356 X.C. i n F i g . I I .  feet •  Fig.  5A  Ill  LOCATIONS  OF DRILL AMD STRUCTURE OF THE  INDICATED  HOLES HANGING  YiALL  1 x  J  i LU  dH  l«- 4 a  JL  1  i U jJj  1 4 J. Lkt J i ? )H i? /  T  \|  d 8 u j]  1 1 \ |  H  If-  i  1  i !  )(  6V  |  \\  i i  60 0 I 1  -  \ \  J  |  J.  /  11  1 1"  \  \  K  i  \  \  eF r  y hi l i :e  f  0w  K\  !  i  /  \  1  "?  K i (J 1 r>  cM R  c>y0 0 -  1  i i  k\  /  i  />  i i l  \  -  \ \  'd  N. \  5  / /  |  \ \  1  f f  s  ! 1 i \y I ! y  A  y i / y 1 1 1uV\ i i !r i I1I ! 1 i ! i i i i  ll V  ). I •  y  T 1 •7  L:  1  1 1 1  1 j I 1  i  I  i  i i  !M  /—i  iiia 7 i i i i J' i I !y i ! i ! i i I !•i  /\  \  s \ 1,  >  /"  ^1 r  /  1  1 Jft k t 3 -i.  0 pi )C c E  tr LP•an J 1 c 1i 1•(-r t • u )L r  j  /  y i I 1 / 1 |  l  |i  5 r E r  1  i  i  i 1 I i I ! 1/ I  i/  i .  /  1  H ir  (h o u  1 i  L-  <!  1  1i '  \|  T  Li  \  i  1/  1 \ I  T  ; 06 i  s  )  ' I  l , /  ! ,  l  =•  \  1 i  1  \  j  A i i  -  F1  \  ft  /  C J.L .t r U 4 T.u >-»  0U i  1 , AC  1  / /  1  i x .c 0 (E  i 1 i i  ' \  yr\ \ \ 1 i i_>' -y i i i 1 1 ! ! 1 1 1 1 . ! ! i ! n s, m 1 1 Vt-r Vf | i i 1 l ! i i 1 ! 1 I l  T.  I  1 1 1 \  i  i  i 1  ± 1 n i ' 0 "illie t i f i f ,(  . r e 0 •'•  Kj  '  i 1  "i V i n i  n b ei  li ' i I s u s e:d 1 1 J1 i i 1 531ul i &. 2< c n d Iii ICe -1 G r' fl  V ~f~  2:  A  0m i  •ITT  I  S r )C c >  ji  The M i c r o s o o p l o Examination of the Specimens  Thirty-rnine t h i n s e c t i o n s were, examined, w i t h a p e t r o g r a p h i c microscope. encountered  Twenty-six d i f f e r e n t m i n e r a l s were  and determined.  I n t h i s r e g a r d the w r i t e r i s  indebted t o Dr. C. 0. Swanson f o r the f i n a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n of seven or e i g h t s p e c i e s .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the v a r i o u s  m i n e r a l s were noted, so t h a t they c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d  accord  i n g to o r i g i n . The s i z e - a n d r e l a t i v e abundance of each m i n e r a l were observed w i t h the a i d of a micrometer eyepiece o r d i n a r y mechanical  stage.  a c c u r a t e l y determined subject to e r r o r .  and  The g r a i n s i z e i s t h e r e f o r e  but the percentage  compositions are  These estimated percentages  a r e , however,  accurate enough f o r the purpose of c l a s s i f y i n g the specimens  D e s c r i p t i o n s o f the M i n e r a l s  The f o l l o w i n g m i n e r a l s are d e s c r i b e d below:Quartz, B i o t i t e , C h l o r i t e , S e r i c i t e ,  Muscovite,  C a l c i t e , M a g n e t i t e , Carbonaceous M a t t e r , Z i r c o n , A p a t i t e , A l b i t e , T i t a n i t e , Leucoxenej Z o i s i t e o r C l i n o z o i s i t e , M i c r o c l i n e , Tourmaline,  Aegerine-  A u g i t e , Green Amphibole, K a o l i n , P y r r h o t i t e , P y r i t e , S p h a l e r i t e , Galena, P h l o g o p i t e , T r e m o l i t e , Garnet,  (and P e b b l e s ) .  7  A. Quartz Quartz g r a i n s e x h i b i t a l l shapes from very ragged to w e l l rounded.  In g e n e r a l the medium and coarse quartz  g r a i n s are b e t t e r rounded than the s m a l l e r g r a i n s .  However  many f i n e and s i l t y g r a i n s show good r o u n d i n g . The i r r e g u l a r i t y i n shape, shown e s p e c i a l l y w e l l i n some specimens w i t h g r a i n s i z e from 0.2 to 0.5 mm.,  i s due to c r y s t a l growth.  No "textbook"' examples"of q u a r t z g r a i n growth were observed, but the f o l l o w i n g photomicrograph shows compaction of q u a r t z a g a i n s t q u a r t z which c o u l d h a r d l y be e x p l a i n e d o t h e r wise.  I n c o n t r a s t , see the w e l l rounded g r a i n s i n F i g . X. F i g . IV.  Growth o f Quartz G r a i n s  Calcareous Medium-grained Q u a r t z i t e . - Crossed N i c o l s (from s l i d e  (X63)  #13)  Quartz s t r i n g e r s are not common i n the s l i d e s examined.  The one i l l u s t r a t e d below i s 0.36 am. wide and the  i n d i v i d u a l components making up the s t r i n g e r are m o s t l y between 0.5 and 1.1 mm.  long.  As the photomicrograph shows,  the i n d i v i d u a l c r y s t a l s are i n a l l o r i e n t a t i o n s .  The one  under the c r o s s h a i r s shows s t r a i n shadows, as do about one quarter o f the c r y s t a l s i n t h i s v e i n l e t .  I n the r o c k , the  quartz g r a i n s are p o o r l y s o r t e d and very ragged,  indicating,  probably, g r a i n growth. F i g . V.  Quartz S t r i n g e r  F i n e - g r a i n e d Q u a r t z i t e - Crossed N i c o l s (X25) (from s l i d e #67) What appears t o be f i n e c l a s t i c q u a r t z i n t h e a r g i l l i t e s and f i n e r - g r a i n e d s i l t s t o n e s i s p r o b a b l y r e c r y s t ' a l l i z e d from much f i n e r q u a r t z i n the o r i g i n a l sediment, or produced by the b r e a k i n g down o f c l a y m i n e r a l s . Quartz occurs as an a l l o g e n i c , an e p i g e n e t i c , and a metamorphic m i n e r a l .  The a l l o g e n i c quartz i s i n the form  o f d e t r i t a l g r a i n s ; the e p i g e n e t i c q u a r t z i s i n v e i n l e t s ; and the metamorphic q u a r t z i s the r e c r y s t a l l i z e d q u a r t z .  B. B i o t i t e B i o t i t e occurs as s m a l l brown p l e o c h r o i c f l a k e s , g e n e r a l l y 0.05 flakes.  t o 0.3 mm.  i n s i z e , and aggregates of these  . As the t h i n s e c t i o n s were cut p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the  bedding, and as most of the b i o t i t e appeared as f l a t f l a k e s , a metamorphic o r i g i n i s i n d i c a t e d . B i o t i t e i s common i n the s e c t i o n examined.  Only  three s l i d e s have none, and o n l y s i x o t h e r s have l e s s than 4 percent.  Most s l i d e s have from 4 to 19 p e r c e n t , and t h r e e  have over 20 p e r c e n t .  The r o c k s having over 15 percent  b i o t i t e would be d e s c r i b e d as brown i n the hand 1 • . B i o t i t e i s the index m i n e r a l  specimen.  f o r the metamorphic  stage of the Hanging W a l l Q u a r t z i t e s c o n s i d e r e d as a u n i t . 0.  Chlorite C h l o r i t e i s p r e s e n t i n a l l but f i v e s l i d e s ,  making up, g e n e r a l l y , 2 to 6 percent of the s l i d e . Occasiona l l y i t i s more abundant, amounting to 15 percent of one medium-grained q u a r t z i t e .  A d e f i n i t e greenish cast i s given  to the hand specimen by 10 percent or more c h l o r i t e . The c h l o r i t e f l a k e s are g e n e r a l l y s m a l l , 0.08 0. 3 mm.,  and appear i n a l l o r i e n t a t i o n s .  I n two  to  specimens  c h l o r i t e occurs as a v e r y narrow bedded band, having the appearance of a v e i n l e t . C h i o r i t e shows the i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e of p l e o c h r o i c h a l o s around z i r c o n i n two specimens.  The best occurrence  1. B i o t i t e zone; see Harker, Me tamorphism, Chap. XIV.  ?  i s i n the c h l o r i t i c s i l t s t o n e p a r t of s l i d e #19.  Here  p o e c i l o b l a s t i c c h l o r i t e /makes up over h a l f the bed, quartz about 40 p e r c e n t . of the bed, and  and  Z i r c o n g r a i n s make up 3 percent  the remainder c o n s i s t s of p y r r h o t i t e ,  s p h a l e r i t e , garnet, and  clinozoisite.  On one  side o f t h i s  bed  i s a g a r n e t - c a l c i t e - f i n e - g r a i n e d q u a r t z i t e and on the other a normal f i n e - g r a i n e d q u a r t z i t e . the one  slide.  A l l three beds appear i n  F i g . V I . shows the p l e o c h r o i c  C h l o r i t e represents  halos.  a low grade of metamorphism,  but the more abundant b i o t i t e i n d i c a t e s that the forming stage has been passed.  chlorite-  M/^M"^-^  D. S e r i c i t e White m i c a occurred as both s e r i c i t e and  muscovite.  S e r i c i t e i s not d e f i n i t e l y separated from m u s c o v i t e , but overlap i s small. white mica was  the  In general., f o r the purpose of s u b d i v i s i o n ,  c a l l e d s e r i c i t e when i t o c c u r r e d as narrow  f l a k e s under 0.15  mm.,  l o n g , and  up to f i r s t order y e l l o w .  showed i n t e r f e r e n c e  colors  Muscovite., on the o t h e r hand,  i n c l u d e s a l l l a r g e f l a k e s of white m i c a , which show a v a r i e t y of i n t e r f e r e n c e c o l o r s up t o h i g h second o r d e r , and  those  s m a l l f l a k e s , the s i z e of the l a r g e s t s e r i c i t e f l a k e s , which showed'-either two  l o n g dimensions, or second o r d e r i n t e r f e r -  ence c o l o r s , or both. S e r i c i t e i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s i l t s t o n e s , c a l c a r eous s i l t s t o n e s , and  a r g i l l i t e s , o c c u r s i n some f i n e - a n d  I* B a r k e r , Me tamorphism. Chap. XIV.  medium-grained  q u a r t z i t e s - ( w i t h c a l c i t e under 6 p e r c e n t ) ,  and i s r a r e i n a l l e t h e r types. Metamorphism of a r g i l l a c e o u s sediments 1  (kaolin,etc  produces white mica i n Harker's "0" zone of R e g i o n a l Metamorphism.' T h i s zone i s o u t s i d e the f i r s t r e g i o n a l l y metamorphosed zone (the C h l o r i t e Zone) and r e p r e s e n t s Dynamic Metamorphism before the temperature i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y . However, c h l o r i t e or b i o t i t e or both are always present showing that s e r i c i t e i s not the index m i n e r a l . I , Muscovite The museovite f l a k e s , as d e f i n e d above, are p r o b a b l y the r e s u l t of f u r t h e r r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , a l t h o u g h an a l l o g e n i c o r i g i n i s suggested f o r the c o a r s e r mica o c c u r s i n the c o a r s e r sediments. l a r g e f l a k e s (G*30 mm.  However a g r e a t many o f the  and l a r g e r ) are o r i e n t e d p a r a l l e l  to or n e a r l y p a r a l l e l t o the s l i d e s , which a r e , as noted b e f o r e , cut p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the bedding*  ^^>-^  Twinned f l a k e s were observed i n one s l i d e , but t h i s was an e x c e p t i o n a l o c c u r r e n c e . F. C a l c i t e No crcagineOi; c a l c i t e remained i n the s l i d e s examined for,, under the metamorphic c o n d i t i o n s which e x i s t e d , i t was e n t i r e l y r e c r y s t a l l i z e d .  The average c a l c i t e content  of the t h i r t y - n i n e s l i d e s examined was over 9 p e r c e n t , and, 1. Harker, Metamorphism,Chap.XIV.  as o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f t h i s was o b v i o u s l y e p i g e n e t i c , i t i s concluded  that there was o r i g i n a l l y perhaps 6 percent  c a l c i t e i n t h i s p a r t o f the A l d r i d g e  c\..i,lo  formation.  The r e o r y s t a l l i z e d c a l c i t e occurs as i r r e g u l a r f i l l i n g matter.  Some t w i n n i n g i s g e n e r a l l y e v i d e n t .  cementing m a t t e r and, as such, i s a u t h i g e n i e .  It is  However i t s  present form i s due t o metamorphism. C a l c i t e s t r i n g e r s are common i n t h i s s e c t i o n of hanging w a l l sediments.  Many of the s t r i n g e r s are only  about 0.2 mm. wide, but c a l c i t e i n the rock next t o the s t r i n g e r i s more abundant them normal and t h e r e a c t i o n t o a c i d g i v e s the appearance o f a much wider s t r i n g e r . occurrence  A further  of v e i n c a l c i t e i s i n a bedded v e i n , 6 mm. wide,  w i t h m i c r o c l i n e , q u a r t z , c h l o r i t i e matter, p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , and galena* under " M i c r o c l i n e " .  T h i s occurrence  i s described  later  The twinned c a l c i t e a l o n g s i d e m i c r o c l i n e  i s shown i n J i g . VII.. G. Magnetite :  Magnetite  amounts t o as much as 2 percent of some  s l i d e s , but does not commonly occur. 0.12  The g r a i n s , 0.05 t o  mm. i n s i z e , were d u l l brownish b l a c k i n r e f l e c t e d l i g h t  and were d i f f i c u l t t o determine w i t h c e r t a i n t y .  Magnetite  i s probably d e t r i t a l i n o r i g i n , but may be formed by metamorphic  processes.  13 H i Carbonaceous M a t t e r Small b l a c k specks a r e present i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers i n wavey bands i n some specimens t o g i v e a very d e f i n i t e banding to those specimens.  The bands are p a r a l l e l  to the bedding and show up e s p e c i a l l y w e l l under the low power.  Examination a t h i g h m a g n i f i c a t i o n s showed these  specks to have no a n g u l a r i t y , to be about 0.004 mm. i n diameter, and t o be n o t so numerous .'as low power examination would i n d i c a t e . These specks are almost c e r t a i n l y  carbonaceous  matter, and t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t o r g a n i c remains, f o r no o t h e r o r i g i n f o r carbonaceous m a t t e r i n such an occurrence i s accepted.  Carbonaceous:matter  would be c l a s s e d w i t h ' t h e  a u t h i g e n i c m i n e r a l s , b e i n g p a r t o f t h e m a t r i x surrounding the d e t r i t a l g r a i n s , .  Wftue<« ,  I. Zircon Round, o v a l , o r pear-shaped occur i n n e a r l y h a l f the s l i d e s .  grains of z i r c o n  T h i s common accessory 1  m i n e r a l ranged i n s i z e from 0.03 t o 0.12 mm., and o f t e n amounted t o ^ o r | percent of t h e s l i d e .  A f i n e large  ;  z i r c o n i s shown i n F i g . I"]y» The i n t e r e s t i n g occurrence o f z i r c o n i n p e o c i l o b l a s t i c c h l o r i t e i s shown below.  The p l e o c h r o i c h a l o s a r e  produced by the r a d i o e t i v i t y o f the z i r c o n . Z i r c o n i s h i g h l y r e s i s t a n t t o weathering and  14 hence occurs F i g . VI.  commonly as a d e t r i t a l m i n e r a l . P l e o c h r o i c Halo3  i n C h l o r i t e around Z i r c o n  Chloritie Siltstone; Poeciloblastic Chlorite e n c l o s i n g Z i r c o n , Quartz, and P y r r h o t i t e . (X63) (from s l i d e #19) J. Apatite Very s m a l l prisms ( l o n g s e c t i o n s ) o f a p a t i t e were determined i n two s l i d e s .  I t i s possible that  the  occurrence i s more wide-spread, because the s m a l l prisms are n e a r l y c o l o r l e s s , are the same s i z e as the s m a l l s e r i c i t e f l a k e s , and are dark (grey) between c r o s s e d n i c o l s . o n l y a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n r e v e a l s t h e i r presence.  The  Hence grains  are d e t r i t a l i n o r i g i n . K.  Albite D e t r i t a l p l a g i o c l a s e was  observed i n only  s l i d e , and made up o n l y ifo o f the r o c k .  The  one  smooth g r a i n s ,  maximum s i z e 0.12 X 0.27 mm., had a r e f r a c t i v e index l e s s than q u a r t z and a b i r e f r i n g e n c e o f .009, gave a b i a x i a l p o s i t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e f i g u r e w i t h l a r g e 2V, and showed 16 - 20° e x t i n c t i o n angles f o r almost s y m m e t r i c a l l y c u t a l b i t e twioas.  These d e t e r m i n a t i o n s i n d i c a t e a l b i t e o r  a l b i te-oligoclase. L. T i t a n i t e T i t a n i t e o c c u r r e d as semi-opaque g r a i n s about 0.1 mm. diameter.  Other s i m i l a r g r a i n s i n the same s l i d e s were  opaque and w h i t e .  An i n t e r f e r e n c e f i g u r e from one of the  c l e a r e r g r a i n s i n d i c a t e d t i t a n i t e , and, a c c o r d i n g t o Dr. Swanson, the a s s o c i a t i o n i s t i t a n i t e a l t e r i n g t o amorphous leucoxene  (see b e l o w ) . The t i t a n i t e i s a l l o g e n i c i n o r i g i n .  M.. Leucoxene Leucoxene, opaque and w h i t e , occurs i n round patches about 0.1 t o 0.2 mm. i n s i z e .  I t i s sometimes  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t i t a n i t e and may s i m p l y be formed from the a l t e r a t i o n of d e t r i t a l  titanite.  A c c o r d i n g to Milner''" leucoxene i s "a decomposition product o f i l m e n i t e , as y e t i l l - d e f i n e d . I t i s p r o b a b l y f o r the most p a r t a form o f t i t a n i t e , w i t h p o s s i b l y some carbonate. I t has been d e s c r i b e d by I d d i n g s as a form o f anatose^ o r p e r o v s k i t e i ' 0  4  ____  1. 2. 3. 4.  ;  i  M i l n e r : Sed. Petrog.,£.205. T i t a n i t e = GaTiSi05 Anat&se (= O c t a h e d r i t e ) = TiOg (as f o r R u t i l e ) . P e r o v s k i t e - GaTiO*  16 The l a t e s t e d i t i o n o f Dana  1  l i s t s leucoxene as an  a l t e r a t i o n product of i l m e n i t e and f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t " t h i s (leucoxene) f o r the most p a r t i s to be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h tiianite." 2 ' A c c o r d i n g to Rogers and K e r r ,  leucoxene, the white  opaque a l t e r a t i o n product o f i l m e n i t e , i s " a c c o r d i n g t o a recent i n v e s t i g a t i o n . . . a m o r p h o u s hydrous t i t a n i u m d i o x i d . " The f o l l o w i n g notes are from c o p i e s of M i n e r a l o g i c a l 5 Abstracts. (1) Leucoxene o b t a i n e d from sandstone  i n Oklahoma  "ranges from white to r e d d i s h brov/n- i n c o l o r and shows a great v a r i e t y o f forms. I t may be d e r i v e d from i l m e n i t e o r r u t i l e or from i n t e r g r o w t h s o f these w i t h magnetite and haematite« M  (2) The a n a l y s i s o f the e a r t h y opaque m a t e r i a l i s i n t e r p r e t e d as 72,2 percent leucoxene  (TiO *nHgO) w i t h g  24 p e r c e n t q u a r t z and minor i l m i n i t e and h e m a t i t e .  The  combined water i s s m a l l i n amount and n i s p r o b a b l y l e s s than one. (3) "X-ray photographs  of leucoxene g i v e i n nine cases 6  the p a t t e r n o f r u t i l e , and i n one that o f anatase." The v a r i o u s a u t h o r s do not agree, but the most r e c e n t evidence a i l . i n d i c a t e s t h a t leucoxene i s a form o f titanium dioxide.  In order t o g i v e an X-ray  photograph  i t must be c r y s t a l l i n e , hence "amorphous leucoxene" may be n o t h i n g more nor l e s s than v e r y f i n e r u t i l e or anatase. 1. Textbook of M i n e r a l o g y , 4 t h Ed*, p. 486, 2. T h i n S e c t i o n M i n e r a l o g y , p. 171, 3* See B i b l i o g r a p h y . 4. Min.Abstr., vol.4,1929-31,p.506. 5, M i n . A b s t r v o l . 5 , 1932-34,p*285. 6. M i n . A b s t r . v o L 7 , 1938-40, p.234.  17 The water shown by a n a l y s i s would not be p a r t of the c r y s t a l s t r u c t u r e , f o r the X-ray p a t t e r n s of the anhydrous m i n e r a l s , r u t i l e and anatase, were o b t a i n e d .  A  v a r i a b l e amount of water might be adsorbed on to the s u r f a c e of the minute c r y s t a l s , and, i f t h i s were the case, n, i n the formula TiOg'nHaO, would be a n y t h i n g but c o n s t a n t . formula f o r leucoxene  Thus the  i s reduced to TiOg.  The occurrence of t i t a n i t e , as observed i n some s l i d e s , i s not mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e . however, to i n d i c a t e that t h i s leucoxene d i f f e r e n t from other white leucoxene.  There i s n o t h i n g ,  should be  any  I t i s t h e r e f o r e an  a l t e r a t i o n product and should be c l a s s e d as a u t h i g e n i c . N. Z o i s l t e or C l i n o z o i s i t e These m i n e r a l s are almost i m p o s s i b l e to separate by p e t r o g r a p h i c means. The f o l l o w i n g occurrences are s u g g e s t i v e o f c l i n o z o i s i t e : - i n a v e i n l e t w i t h c a l c i t e (one o c c u r r e n c e ) , and as i r r e g u l a r p a t c h e s , e i t h e r alone o r  surrounding  p y r r h o t i t e (seven o c c u r r e n c e s ) . ' These would i n d i c a t e ah epigenetic o r i g i n . On the other hand, z o i s i t e , of metamorphic o r i g i n , i s suggested by the t h r e e occurrences as wavy banding, p a r a l l e l to the bedding and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h carbonaceous matter.  T h i s banding c o u l d , however, be e p i g e n e t i c . Thus the sum t o t a l of occurrences  indicates  c l i n o z o i s i t e , i f t h e r e i s p r e s e n t o n l y one of. the two  18 minerals,  but v e r y l i k e l y both o c c u r .  0. M i c r o c l i n e The o n l y occurrence of m i c r o c l i n e i s along one edge of the bedded c a l c i t e v e i n p r e v i o u s l y mentioned.  The  photomicrograph below shows most of a c r y s t a l 3 mm. 0.36  mm.  wide.  by  I t i s p a r a l l e l e d , on the edge away from the  v e i n w a l l , by a w e l l - t w i n n e d same s i z e .  long  c a l c i t e c r y s t a l of about the  The m i c r o c l i n e and  c a l c i t e twinning  movement p a r a l l e l to the w a l l of the v e i n .  indicate a  Away from the  v e i n w a l l having the m i c r o c l i n e , the r e s t of the v e i n c o n s i s t s m a i n l y of twinned c a l c i t e , w i t h some s t r a i n e d q u a r t z " g r a i n s " , s c a t t e r e d p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , and c h l o r i t i c m a t t e r c h i e f l y around c a l c i t e Fig. VII.  galena,  and  grains.  M i c r o c l i n e and C a l c i t e  A p a r t of a bedded v e i n l e t i n s i _ t s t o n e - c r o s s e d n i c o l s (X57). (from s l i d e #27)  19 Pi  Tourmaline Tourmaline .-occurred as p r i s m s , e i t h e r l o n g s e c t i o n s  (0.14 by 0.0.5 mm.) slides.  or c r o s s s e c t i o n s (0.05 mm.)  i n eight'  The c r o s s s e c t i o n s are g r e e n i s h or g r e y i s h and the  l o n g s e c t i o n s are h i g h l y p l e o c h r o i c colorless.  g r e e n i s h brown to  Some show what appears t o be a l t e r a t i o n t o  b i o t i t e , b u t , on the o t h e r hand, the t o u r m a l i n e may produced from the b i o t i t e by hydrothermal a c t i o n .  be  Thus the  tourmaline may be d e t r i t a l or may be produced as an e p i g e n e t i c alteration. Q,. Aeger i n e - A u g i t e C r y s t a l fragments, up tp 0.5 mm.,  which were s l i g h t l y  p l e o c h r o i c , the d a r k e s t c o l o r s being blue-grey o r y e l l o w green, were determined by Dr. Swanson as sodie pyroxene, i . e . , aegerine-augite*  They are most l i k e l y d e t r i t a l g r a i n s  showing c r y s t a l o r cleavage edges. R. Green Amphibole A p r i s m 0.17 mm.  l o n g w i t h a b r i g h t -green color,,  a r e f r a c t i v e index of 1.7 and an e x t i n c t i o n angle of 35° could not be a c c u r a t e l y determined. i s suggested.  The amphibole  family  I t i s assumed to be a d e t r i t a l g r a i n .  S. K a o l i n Foggy w h i t e agglomerations o f k a o l i n occur i n two slides.  These agglomerations measure 9.2 t o 0.3 mm.  and are  20  translucent i n strong l i g h t .  They show a f i r s t order grey  i n t e r f e r e n c e c o l o r which i s e i t h e r due t o q u a r t z o r to ,crystalline kaolinite.  T h i s i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o the  somewhat s i m i l a r leucoxehe, vrtiich may show a h i g h b i r e f r i n g ence ( t h a t of t i t a n i t e ) . T. The S u l f i d e s Of the four s u l p h i d e s , p y r r h o t i t e i s the most common. I t o c c u r s as bands p a r a l l e l to the bedding, patches, i n patches  surrounded  i n irregular  by c l i n o z o i s i t e and sometimes  a l s o c h l o r i t e , ' a n d as a minor c o n s t i t u e n t o f a c a l c i t e  veinlet.  P y r i t e may accompany t h e p y r r h o t i t e or may occur alone i n bands o r as i s o l a t e d cubes.  S p h a l e r i t e o c c u r s as angular  " g r a i n s ^ , g e n e r a l l y under 0.25 mm. i n s i z e , w i d e l y d i s s e m i n ated I n t h e rock.:  Galena i s r a r e I n the s l i d e s examined,  o c c u r r i n g as v e r y s m a l l s c a t t e r e d specks i n one s l i d e and as a few s m a l l specks a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l i n o z o i s i t e i n another. As might be expected  t h e ? s u l f i d e s a r e most common  i n the specimens taken from w i t h i n 100 f e e t o f t h e hanging wall.  The e p i g e n e t i c o r i g i n o f the s u l f i d e s i s very e v i d e n t .  U. P h l o g o p l t e and T r e m o l i t e The occurrence o f p h l o g o p i t e and t r e m o l i t e together i s l i m i t e d to one s l i d e . origin.  They a r e a p p a r e n t l y o f metamorphic u r l L t * * P L  The p h l o g o p i t e i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from muscovite by i t s p a l e brown c o l o r , and s m a l l ( 2 V ( 1 0  o i  ). F l a k e s up t o  -•.  21 0.36 ram. i n s i z e make up 2 percent of the s l i d e . R a d i a t i n g f i b r o u s t r e m o l i t e , l i g h t green i n the hand specimen and c o l o r l e s s i n t h i n s e c t i o n , makes up 16% of the s l i d e .  The photomicrograph  below shows very  clearly  the occurrence o f t h i s m i n e r a l . ( T r e m o l i t e occurs i n o n l y one other s l i d e , amounting t o l e s s than 1 percent of the slide. ) Fig. VIII.  Fibrous Tremolite  T r e m o l i t e C r y s t a l s i n a Calcareous Coarseg r a i n e d Quartzite,-crossed n i c o l s (X63) (from s l i d e #38) The r e s t o f t h e s l i d e i s made up o f : - coarse wellrounded q u a r t z g r a i n s , 35%; p e b b l e s , 10%; c a l c i t e , 25%; muscovite, 7%; p y r r h o t i t e , 5f ; and c l i n o z o i s i t e , 1%. 0  Fig.X  shows a p a r t o f t h i s s l i d e , showing q u a r t z g r a i n s , p e b b l e s , etc.  22 V. Garnet The hanging w a l i immedlately a t the ore zone cont a i n s garnet.  I t occurs as rough hexagons or as p a r t s of  c r y s t a l s without any p a r t i c u l a r shape, and r e p r e s e n t s a h i g h e r grade of metamorphism than the b i o t i t e zone.  A  development of s m a l l amounts o f garnet a t 200 f e e t o r more above the hanging w a l l was observed i n s l i d e s #78 and #29. The o u t s t a n d i n g occurrence o f garnet i s i n s l i d e #19 where i t makes up 30% o f a quartzite.  garnet-calcite-fine-grained  T h i s bed i s l e s s than 1 cm. t h i c k , and i n c l u d e s  numerous g a r n e t s , showing w e l l - d e v e l o p e d dodecahedral up to 5 mm. i n diameter.  shape,  These g a r n e t s , one o f which i s  shown below, are f r a c t u r e d and c o n t a i n i n c l u s i o n s of z o i s i t e ( c l i n o z o i s i t e ? ) , q u a r t z , and p y r r h o t i t e . F i g . IX.  The r e s t of the  Garnet  A l a r g e g a r n e t , showing f r a c t u r e p a t t e r n and i n c l u s i o n s o f q u a r t z , z o i s i t e , and p y r r h o t i t e . (X25) (from s l i d e #19)  23  bed i s composed of f i n e q u a r t z - g r a i n s , c a l c i t e f i l l i n g b i o t i t e , c h l o r i t e , and muscovite f l a k e s , a l i t t l e  matter,  pyrrhotite,  and some z o i s i t e o r c l i n o z o i s i t e i n i r r e g u l a r patches.  The  a d j o i n i n g c h l o r i t e bed has been d e s c r i b e d above. W.  Pebbles Two specimens contained 9 or 10% p e b b l e s .  A cal-  careous medium-grained q u a r t z i t e and a c a l c a r e o u s c o a r s e g r a i n e d q u a r t z i t e both contained rounded pebbles of s i z e s equal t o the q u a r t z g r a i n s p r e s e n t .  The pebbles i n the  coarse q u a r t z i t e were of a f i n e * g r a i n e d q u a r t z i t e which was p r a c t i c a l l y pure q u a r t z , w i t h g r a i n s , measuring 0.11 c l o s e packed by r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n . below shows t h i s o c c u r r e n c e .  The  mm.,  photomicrograph  The pebbles i n the medium-  g r a i n e d q u a r t z i t e were of s i l t s t o n e , composed o f q u a r t z Fig:. X.  Pebbles i n Q u a r t z i t e  Calcareous Coarse-grained Quartzite w i t h F i n e - g r a i n e d Q u a r t z i t e Pebbles,-crossed n i c o l s (X57) (from s l i d e #38)  24  g r a i n s (0.05}mm.) w i t h s e r i c i t e f l a k e s l y i n g along the boundaries between these g r a i n s .  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note  that the o n l y white mica i n the s l i d e occurred i n these siltstone  pebbles.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the M i n e r a l s The accompanying- t a b l e g i v e s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the m i n e r a l s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r o r i g i n and mode of occurrence, •The f o u r c l a s s e s a r e : a l l o g e n i c , a u t h i g e n i c , e p i g e n e t i c , and metamorphic.  '  The four-way c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s necessary because the s e c t i o n shows the e f f e c t s o f metamorphic and i n t r u s i v e p r o c e s s e s added t o those of the sedimentary p r o c e s s e s .  The  a l l o g e n i c m i n e r a l s are the d e t r i t a l m i n e r a l s , and t h e iaartJaig^niO' m i n e r a l s are' the cementing m i n e r a l s formed i n t h the c o n s o l i d a t i o n ,of sediment's.  The metamorphic m i n e r a l s  are produced by metamorphic processes and may be e i t h e r new m i n e r a l s or d e t r i t a l m i n e r a l s r e e r y s t a l l i z e d . m i n e r a l s are v e i n m i n e r a l s , o r replacements  The e p i g e n e t i c  and a l t e r a t i o n s  by hydrothermal o r other metasomatic processes* The a l l o g e n i c s u i t e g i v e s a h i n t as t o the source rocks.  The metamorphic s u i t e t e l l s of the type and grade o f  met amor p h i sin to which t h e f o r m a t i o n has been s u b j e c t e d .  The  e p i g e n e t i c s u i t e r e f l e c t s t o some extent the ore-forming processes which went on j u s t beneath the s e c t i o n examined. Ihe a u t h i g e n i c s u i t e i n d i c a t e s very l i t t l e because the l a t e r metamorphic and e p i g e n e t i c processes have changed t h e  rooks c o n s i d e r a b l y , and. e s p e c i a l l y affected the a u t h i g e n i c minerals* Table I i ' . ;  Mineral * - • • Quartz Biotite Chlorite Sericite Muscovite Calcite Magnetite Carbonaceous Matter Zircon Apatite Albite • Titanite Leucoxene Z o i s i t e or Clinozoisite Microcline Tourmaline Aegerine-Augite Green Amphibole Kaolin The S u l p h i d e s : Pyrrhotite pPy-ri<|e Sphalerite Galena Phlogopite T r e m o l i t e '.. Garnet  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the M i n e r a l s .. . ' MetaA l l o g e m c A u t h i g e n i c E p i g e n e t i c morphio n  i  x  X ? X  X  X  X X X X X X ?  x X X X  X X X X  X X X  X X X X X X X  Pebbles  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the Specimens  Two v a r i a b l e s o n l y were considered f o r the c l a s s i 1  f i c a t i o n of the, rook types as observed i n t h i n s e c t i o n . . •1. She p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d garnet and c h l o r i t e beds were . not considered i n t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  The f i r s t v a r i a b l e i s g r a i n s i z e .  The diameter  of the l a r g e s t q u a r t z g r a i n s ( e x c l u d i n g e r r a t i c s } was used f o r naming the specimens as shown i n the f o l l o w i n g p l a n : diameter 0.01  0.1  i  in  millimeters 0.25  L _  Argillite  Fine-grained Quartzite  Siltstone  0.5 i_  1.0  2.0 L_  7  Coarsegrained Quartzite  Conglomerate  Medium-grained Quartzite Very Coarse Quartzite The second v a r i a b l e i s the c a l c i t e c o n t e n t .  The  specimens were a r b i t r a r i l y d i v i d e d on t h i s b a s i s i n t o , (1) those w i t h 10% or more c a l c i t e , and (2) those w i t h l e s s than .10% c a l c i t e .  The f i r s t group were c a l l e d  calcareous,  and the second group m e r i t e d no m o d i f i e r . Table I I I ( p a r t s 1, 2, &,.3) as so c l a s s i f i e d .  l i s t s the specimens  Where the q u a r t z : w h i t e mica r a t i o appears  to have s o m e . s i g n i f i c a n c e ( s t a t i s t i c a l l y ) ,  the.specimens  of each group are l i s t e d i n o r d e r of t h i s r a t i o .  Otherwise  they a r e l i s t e d i n o r d e r of percentage of q u a r t z . From the. e x a m i n a t i o n of t h i s t a b l e , the f o l l o w i n g are observed: l a . Almost constant q u a r t z : s e r i c i t e r a t i o i n siltstones.  -P  (4  erf ft H H H  m d  CD  O  <D •H  ft! CO  <D P  o d  o  o •ri  •H P Ctf  erf  0) H /a  <<H • H  EH CO CO Crf O §J  H  a_  ft !*> EH M  a o W  SUTIOTUnOJ,  9q.TAoosnw:zg-reri^  s  n  o  8  0  t  }  t  I  o  c  l  J  B  o  egtAOoetiH  eaxoTjeg  eg T oiB o  noojfz  eaisfoz JO QgTSTOZOTtTXO  J 8 q . q . ^  enezoonei  eajaen-h  8aTaoqjj___  H  •  OO  CK  © -P •H H H -JO  •H  CO  H  OJ K\,CK  1  Q  vO  O H  H  d  KM_"\oj<X>  O W H H H  H T H "  O r l H H H H W W W  GO  KNO  HI  ^ O W ^ H H  H'H  HI-  «d-K\KWK\,c\JC\IOJOJ  QC0  OJ vO  SO OJ OJ H  HI  Hf  tAOJ O  H  COHNN OJ  •  H  —R-  u - \ © s © c — O C ~ - C ~ - 0 0 us\ K\*5fr K \ " s f -s}Lf\v_5 LT\  O J  tf\H  HI  UT\SO t—9 CO OJ K\ OS P- K\CQ if « \ OJ tf\s© c~-OJ -«^CD  d  o -p ra •p H  CO  H  ~ a —  OJ <M  S0  f\  OJ  — i I  H  VO CM O 0 0"N OJ OJ H H H H © O OJ OJ OJ OJ H H OJ  o  H  O O O H  O LT\I ur\LnJ  OJ o Os o s -*t c ~ OJ H H H C V I r ! O O J l£\0 OJ KN-sf  O H  H  H  27  cd  • f l  p CO CO © H  CO CD  erf  4 3  o  d  •H  . d  vO K N O LT\H, _ r \ s 0 OJ OJ rH urv 02  o rt  -H CO  CD O %4 P Crf CO o p H Crf  H  O  CD Pi  • H  P Pi O o  CQ Pi CD  <i-i o  •p  CD  Spec in id 0 0 «  -  ©  ff 1 c •r >; cc  mpositi ons  -p 0 0 o •H 0) 4+ • H cd m CQ P I cd CO >-s o ' P0 H CO Pi  ion  sq.TAoosn]?f  .  ©q.TAoosni;:zq.JBnb  eq.xox.ies:zq..n3nfe  nxxoB2 ©q.x§ny -©ttxjsSlsy 9q.TSTO<7 &o ©tfTsxozorcjxo eufxiBTnjnoj,  ©q-X-Aoosnn ©q-TjoxTio 8q.Tq.oxa  ©rr83:oon©i Bn©XBQ ©q.xj:©xBqdg sq.xq.etrgBp'i ©q-xj^d  Tioxq.o9g  ©q.xq.oqjjjfj jGqnmM  ••9  CM  «  [ 1  ••  '  >sj- 0 H H  fA  •A -^^j. H  .O CVJ  ir\ H K\ . . • • H -<t I A H  NMA | ON  :  ... < H  H r l r l H r l H  00  •A ; x o H IACVJCO OJ •^•VO (AV0 fAtAlACM  ^  H  1  ; H I '  OJ © v O H H  OJ  •  — —  HHrlrlrl P! i-4 •. O H O C-lACM H HHH H H  "AC-O O O O , HH H H , VO CM OJ xfr K\vD  H'  . M  H  «A\  OO CM fA CM  • H  c-t  Ps  LAOO O CM CM H H OJ • H ;H H C—H IA K\ OJ ON K\CO fA N \ 0 l A H O O CO OO C~>.C—C—vOvO if\ LT\ .  .:Pl  ;  OJ CM UT\|—| OJ OJ IA <sf  ;  cd  H  a?  CO 0 E) tip O I CD -H CD CO p| N P-l Pi -H pi cd «H cd O |i( fH <d ti 2  ONVJ3 C~ IA HI ON tr\ -4- ON H C O CM HOD CM H / AO C— IA KV-0 OJ C—tACM K\C--IA CD «t* P 1 CD -H fl) N. 'HP  P |  t-i vH U  <3>  •  28  29  l b . More v a r i a b l e r a t i o i n c a l c a r e o u s s i l t s t o n e s . l c . N e a r l y constant b i o t i t e content (around 20%) i n c a l c a r e o u s s i l t s t o n e s (one e x c e p t i o n ) . 2a. Calcareous f i n e - g r a i n e d q u a r t z i t e s have muscovite  and no s e r i c i t e .  2b. Two-thirds o f the c a l c a r e o u s f i n e - g r a i n e d q u a r t z i t e s have quartz:muscovite  ratio  approximately 6. 2c. With one n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n , the b i o t i t e  content  of f i n e - g r a i n e d q u a r t z i t e s i s much g r e a t e r f o r the specimens w i t h l e s s than 70% q u a r t z . 2d. The b i o t i t e , muscovite, and c a l c i t e i n c a l c a r eous f i n e - g r a i n e d q u a r t z i t e s vary t o g e t h e r . (N.B.: the specimen without any b i o t i t e i s " exceptional. ) 3.  I n medium and coarse g r a i n e d q u a r t z i t e s , whether c a l c a r e o u s o r not, s e r i c i t e i s not. generally present.  f  •  •  D e s c r i p t i o n s o f the Specimens A* A r g i l l i t e Only one specimen was examined i n t h i n s e c t i o n .  It  c o n s i s t e d , o f 88% a r g i l l a c e o u s m a t t e r and 12% secondary minerals. The a r g i l l a c e o u s matter c o n s i s t e d o f q u a r t z g r a i n s 0.008 mm.,  and narrow s e r i c i t e f l a k e s , 0.015 mm. l o n g , i n  31 •the r a t i o 50:38 (approximately 1.3:1). The and  remainder was  quartz occurring  b i o t i t e and  made up o f : aggregates of garnet  t o g e t h e r , .12  to .2 mm  c h l o r i t e f l a k e s up to 10X  in size; a  the s i z e of  few  the  q u a r t z g r a i n s i n the a r g i l l a c e o u s matter; s m a l l bronze p y r r h o t i t e "grains*'; and  a v e r y few patches of c a l c i t e f i l l i n g .  A narrow v e i n l e t of c a l c i t e , q u a r t z , p y r r h o t i t e , and c u t s the s e c t i o n examined.  The  chlorite  12% of secondary m i n e r a l s i s  d i v i d e d as f o l l o w s : 1% Garnet, 4% Quartz, 1% B i o t i t e , 1% C h l o r i t e , 4% P y r r h o t i t e , . a n d B.  1% C a l c i t e .  Siltstone The  most n e a r l y  t y p i c a l s i l t s t o n e i s #52.  The  groundmass (70% of the s l i d e ) c o n s i s t s of i r r e g u l a r q u a r t z g r a i n s (0.03  mm.,  diameter) and  s e r i c i t e f l a k e s (0.025  mm.  long ) - . ' • • I n a narrow v e i n l e t and  i n i r r e g u l a r agglomerations  occur the f o l l o w i n g : p y r r h o t i t e , surrounded i n p a r t c l i n o z o i s i t e and A few of the  by  c h l o r i t e , the whole b e i n g rimmed by b i o t i t e .  s m a l l a n g u l a r g r a i n s of s p h a l e r i t e accompany some pyrrhotite. C a l c i t e f i l l i n g matter, b i o t i t e f l a k e s ,  muscovite f l a k e s oocur r a t h e r A few  and  sparingly.  t o u r m a l i n e c r y s t a l s surrounded by b i o t i t e  suggests a l t e r a t i o n by e p i g e n e t i c  processes.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note the near constancy of the q u a r t z - s e r i c i t e r a t i o .  In seven out o f ten specimens  i t l i e s between 1 and 2.  I n g e n e r a l , w i t h both i n c r e a s i n g  and d e c r e a s i n g q u a r t z - s e r i e i t e r a t i o , the c h l o r i t e content drops o f f . C. Galcareous S i l t s t o n e Apart from the f a c t t h a t specimen #23 ( c a l c a r e o u s s i l t s t o n e ) corresponds q u i t e c l o s e l y w i t h specimen #79(B) ( s i l t s t o n e ) , . the composition o f the c a l c a r e o u s v a r i e t i e s d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y from the non-calcareous o r l o w - c a l c i t e varieties. Specimen #20 i s taken as t y p i c a l .  I t s high  s u l f i d e content i s e x p l a i n e d by n o t i n g t h a t the specimen i s taken from j u s t w i t h i n the ore zone. i s near-average  Otherwise the,rock  f o r calcareous s i l t s t o n e .  Quartz geralns, mostly about 0.04 mm. (and a few as l a r g e as 0.07 mm.), s m a l l s e r i c i t e f l a k e s , i r r e g u l a r - a p p e a r i n g b i o t i t e f l a k e s , and c a l c i t e m a t r i x make up 80$> o f t h e s l i d e . The e a l e i t e tended to be concentrated i n bands p a r a l l e l t o the bedding,  i n l e s s e r amounts were c h l o r i t e f l a k e s and  d e t r i t a l magnetite and t i t a n i t e . I n d i c a t i v e of the ore zone i s the occurrence of p y r i t e , p y r r h o t i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , and g a r n e t .  Pyrite i s  the most common i n t h i s specimen, making up 10% of t h e s l i d e and t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e s u l f i d e s . to the bedding.  I t occurs i n bands p a r a l l e l  P y r r h o t i t e has a s i m i l a r o c c u r r e n c e , and  a l s o o c c u r s as minute specks and rods s c a t t e r e d i n the rock. S p h a l e r i t e occurs as a g g p l a r " g r a i n s " .  The garnet c r y s t a l s  are p o o r l y developed and s m a l l i n number.  33 B. F i n e - g r a i n e d Q u a r t z i t e This very common rock-type shows great v a r i a b i l i t y , and no t r u l y t y p i c a l specimen e x i s t s .  #41 i s i n many ways  an average f i n e - g r a i n e d q u a r t z i t e . Ragged g r a i n s o f q u a r t z up t o 0.25 mm., i n diameter make up 72% of the s l i d e . chlorite  F l a k e s , of muscovite (up t o 0.35 mm.)',  (up t o 0.18 am.), and b i o t i t e (0.08 mm.)  w i t h i n t e r s t i t i a l c a l c i t e makes up the m a t r i x .  together  Accessories  a r e : 2% p y r r h o t i t e and minor galena and z i r c o n , E. Calcareous F i n e - g r a i n e d Q u a r t z i t e The " t y p i c a l " c a l c a r e o u s f i n e - g r a i n e d q u a r t z i t e c o n s i s t s o f 65% w e l l - s o r t e d , poorly-rounded up t o 0.15 mm. i n diameter.  quartz grains  The m a t r i x c o n s i s t s of  a p p r o x i m a t e l y equal amounts of muscovite, c a l c i t e and a s m a l l amount o f c h l o r i t e .  b i o t i t e , and The muscovite  and c M o r i t e f l a k e s are 0.2 t o 0.4 mm. l o n g and the b i o t i t e f l a k e s are 0.1 mm. i n s i z e .  Interstitial calcite  i n patches up t o 0.36 mm. a c r o s s .  occurs  Accessory m i n e r a l s are  p y r r h o t i t e , p y r i t e , a e g e r i n e - a u g i t e , and z i r c o n . Medium-grained Q u a r t z i t e None o f the three specimens corresponds average o r t y p i c a l medium-grained q u a r t z i t e .  t o an  #79(A) has  no c h l o r i t e , #47 has an e x c e p t i o n a l l y l a r g e amount o f c h l o r i t e , and #10 has s e r i c i t e i n s t e a d o f muscovite.  '  Specimen #47 c o n s i s t s o f the f o l l o w i n g : - q u a r t z , p o o r l y rounded and p o o r l y s o r t e d g r a i n s up t o 0.5 mm., 58%; c h l o r i t e , f l a k e s up to 0.9 mm. l o n g , 15$; muscovite f l a k e s , i n a l l o r i e n t a t i o n s , up to 0.2 mm., 0.2 mm.,  12%; b i o t i t e f l a k e s up t o  10%; i r r e g u l a r patches of c a l c i t e 0.2 t o 0.35 mm.  i n s i z e , 5%; and accessory  z i r c o n and t i t a n i t e .  The other specimens d i f f e r fundamentally  o n l y as  noted above. G. Calcareous Medium-grained Q u a r t z i t e The most n e a r l y average c a l c a r e o u s medium-grained q u a r t z i t e i s #60. Of t h e s l i d e .  Ragged quartz g r a i n s , make up 63%  They are p o o r l y s o r t e d , being m o s t l y under  0.3 mm. but r a n g i n g a l l the way up to 0*56, mm. Muscovite,  (erratics).  b i o t i t e , c h l o r i t e and c a l c i t e make up the m a t r i x .  T h e - c h l o r i t e and muscovite f l a k e s are mostly-about 0.25 mm., the b i o t i t e f l a k e s about 0.17 mm.  I r r e g u l a r , patches o f  p y r r h o t i t e make up 1% o f the s l i d f e . H. Calcareous Coarse-grained  Quartzite  Of the two specimens examined. #38 i s an unusual occurrence and has a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d under  "Phlogopite  and Tremolits'** The  other spxeclmen, #11, c o n s i s t s o f 55% smooth,  round o r o v a l , q u a r t z gcseins, the l a r g e s t measuring 0.65 :  X 0.4 mm,.  The m a t r i x i s m o s t l y c a l c i t e which i s more o r  l e s s continuous infcer s t i t a a l i L y . M a t r i x and v e i n c a l c i t e make  up 34% of the s l i d e .  The r e s t o f the s l i d e c o n s i s t s of 3%  c h l o r i t e f l a k e s , 2% s e r i c i t e f l a k e s , 1% muscovite f l a k e s , a v e r y few b i o t i t e f l a k e s , 2% magnetite grains., a few specks o f p y r i t e , 1% z i r c o n , 1% t i t a n i t e w i t h 1% leucoxene, and a few tourmaline c r y s t a l s .  Gonclusions  A. P o s s i b l e Source Bocks The a l l o g e n i c s u i t e , shown i n Table I I , i s made up of q u a r t z , m a g n e t i t e , z i r c o n , a p a t i t e , a l b i t e ,  titanite,  t o u r m a l i n e , a e g e r i n e - a u g i t e , green amphibole, k a o l i n , s e d i mentary pebbles, and p o s s i b l y muscovite.  The quartz content  of the r o c k s averages around 60%. Z i r c o n occurs commonly i n amounts up t o 1%.  The other m i n e r a l s occur o n l y r a r e l y o r  never appear i n l a r g e amounts.  '  A l l the m i n e r a l s which make up t h i s a l l o g e n i c c o u l d have been d e r i v e d from an a r e a  suite  o f sedimentaryQiimeta-  morphic and Igneous r o c k s o f the more common t y p e s .  Albite  and a e g e r i n e - a u g i t e suggest a s o d i c g r a n i t e ; t i t a n i t e , an i n t e r m e d i a t e igneous rock; t o u r m a l i n e , aametamorphic r o c k ; and z i r c o n , a g r a n i t i c r o c k o r pegmatite.  Furthermore,  magnetite and z i r c o n p e r s i s t through many sedimentary c y c l e s 'and might have t h e i r o r i g i n i n o l d e r sedimentsc o u l d come from a l l o f these s o u r c e s .  Quartz,  K a o l i n i s indicat^ST©  iQsfiLy df chemical w e a t h e r i n g o f a l u m i n o - s i l i c e o u s r o c k s . -Pebbles are the best c r i t e r i a o f source r o c k s , and  36  here they i n d i c a t e - t h a t p a r t , a t l e a s t , o f the d e t r i t a l m a t e r i a l came from o l d e r sediments.  The f a c t that the  pebbles were w e l l rounded and about the same s i z e as the q u a r t z g r a i n s present i n d i c a t e s t h a t the source .sediments were w e l l c o n s o l i d a t e d and perhaps even metamorphosed before e r o s i o n took p l a c e . Much o f the evidence as to the nature o f the source rocks i s lacking.  The common metamorphic m i n e r a l s - s e r i c i t e ,  muscovite, b i o t i t e and c h l o r i t e - c o n t a i n o n l y t h e s u b s t a n c e 4  of m i n e r a l s i n the source r o c k .  Thus micas, f e l s p a r s , *  amphiboles, pyroxenes, e t c . have p r o b a b l y a l l been decomposed, l e a v i n g very l i t t l e t o i n d i c a t e the exact nature o f the source rocks. 'B. Stage o f E r o s i o n and Type of O l d Land The .old l a n d from which the sediments o f the A l d r i d g e formation'came  was p r o b a b l y a l a n d o f complex geo-  l o g i c a l h i s t o r y w i t h the e r o s i o n c y c l e i n a mature s t a g e . Deep e r o s i o n i s i n d i c a t e d i f one aecepts the conc l u s i o n t h a t the pebbles observed were e i t h e r . w e l l c o n s o l i dated o r metamorphosed p r i o r , t o erosion*,  The o r i g i n a l  r o c k s must have been almost c o m p l e t e l y decomposed before  '7 rk*~ ,  removal from t h e i r source, because q u a r t z i s the o n l y abundant d e t r i t a l m i n e r a l .  The sediments d e p o s i t e d are almost  e n t i r e l y f i n e - g r a i n e d q u a r t z i t e s and s i l t s t o n e s ,  indicating  t h a t the m a t e r i a l was brought i n by streams of moderate c a r r y i n g power.  A l l t h i s i n d i c a t e s a mature stage o f e r o s i o n .  t/  n  The o l d l a n d need not have been h i g h , but must have r i s e n continuously f o r a long period of time.  This p a r t i c u l -  ar s e c t i o n was o v e r l a i n by n e a r l y 12,000 f e e t o f s i m i l a r sediments before the a r g i l l i t e s at the top of the A l d r i d g e formation'were l a i d down.  Thus a l o n g p e r i o d of e r o s i o n  must have ensued,, d u r i n g which time the land mass remained at about the same e l e v a t i o n , r e l a t i v e to the l e v e l of the g e o s y n c l i n a l sea, and the e r o s i o n c y c l e remained i n the mature stage. G. S i t e of D e p o s i t i o n The g r a p h i c l o g s , F i g . I , show t h a t the amount of d e f i n i t e c o r r e l a t i o n between the s e c t i o n s i n each hole i s very s m a l l .  The  sequence i s probably d i s t u r b e d e i t h e r by  a h o r i z o n t a l change i n the c h a r a c t e r of the beds or by lensing,. is  I n e i t h e r ease a near shore or d e l t a i c d e p o s i t  suggested.  . D. Metamorphism The metamorphic s u i t e of m i n e r a l s c o n s i s t s of . c a l c i t e , q u a r t z , s e r i c i t e , muscovite, c h l o r i t e ,  biotite,  g a r n e t , phlogopite., t r e m o l i t e , and p o s s i b l y magnetite and zoisite. A p p a r e n t l y there are two p e r i o d s o f metamorphism, one b e i n g wide-spread r e g i o n a l metamorphism a f f e c t i n g the whole of the s e c t i o n examined, and the o t h e r being a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r grade o f metamorphism contemporaneous w i t h the forma-  t i o n of the S u l l i v a n ore body and l o c a l i z e d  to the p r o x i m i t y  of the ore zone. S e r i c i t e , muscovite, c h l o r i t e , and  recrystallized  c a l c i t e and q u a r t z r e p r e s e n t low grade r e g i o n a l metamorphism of s l i g h t l y c a l c a r e o u s a r g i l l a c e o u s sediments.  Biotite  i s the index m i n e r a l f o r the next h i g h e s t grade of r e g i o n a l metamorphism.of the same type o f r o c k .  As the normal assem-  blage o f metamorphic m i n e r a l s i n c l u d e s o n l y these s i x , the whole o f the. s e c t i o n examined may 1 b i o t i t e zone.  be s a i d to be i n the  P h l o g o p i t e and t r e m o l i t e r e p r e s e n t magnesian l i m e stone or dolomite i m p u r i t i e s i n the o r i g i n a l sediment.  They  belong to a zone of f a i r l y low grade metamorphism, probably the b i o t i t e zone. Zoisite  < is.produced i n c a l c a r e o u s sediments by the  r e a c t i o n of muscovite, 2 and z o i s i t e . .  c h l o r i t e , and c a l c i t e = to g i v e b i o t i t e  Therefore z o i s i t e too belongs i n the b i o t i t e  zo ne.  * M a g n e t i t e , i f metamorphic, r e p r e s e n t s  iron minerals.  original  I t does n o t f i t d e f i n i t e l y i n t o •themtoeta;  morphic zone c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . ; Garnet i s the index m i n e r a l f o r the next h i g h e r grade of r e g i o n a l metamorphism. 1 zone.  T h i s i s the Almandine  Garnet occurs i n the ore zone, and o n l y r a r e l y at  any great d i s t a n c e above the hanging w a l l .  I t i s therefore  c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t a more advanced grade of metamorphism 1. E a r k e r : Me tamorphism, Ghap. XIV. 2. I b i d . , Ghap. XVI.  produced at the time when the S u l l i v a n ore body was formed.  being  40  B I B L I O G R A P H Y Dana, E.S. , A Textbook of M i n e r a l o g y ; F o u r t h E d i t i o n , Revised and E n l a r g e d by Wm.E.Ford; New York; John W i l e y & Sons, I n c . ; London: Chapman & H a l l , L t d . ; 19 32. Harker,. A.., Metamorphism; M e t h u e n & G o ; ; L t d . , London; 1932, Krumbein, W.C*  and P e t t i John, F . J . , Manual o f Sedimentary  Petrography; D. Appleton-Century Co., New  York  and London; 1938. . M i l n e r , H.D.,  Sedimentary Petrography; Second  (Revised and  Complete) E d i t i o n ; London: Thomas Murby & Co.; New Y o r k : D.Van Nostrand Co.;  1929.  R i c e , H*M.A., Cranbrook Map-Area, B r i t i s h Columbia; Canada, G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Memoir 207; Ottawa,  1937.  Rogers, A.F. and K e r r , P.F., T h i n - S e c t i o n M i n e r a l o g y ; McGrawH i l l Book Co., I n c . ; New York a n d L o n d o n ; 1933. M i n e r a l o g i c a l A b s t r a c t s ; London: Humphrey M i l f o r d , Oxford University  A.J  j  4  .  Press.  J \  ,-  .-,  „  C;  '  "  j  

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