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Fossil plants applied to dating of the Hazelton group Whiton, Geoffrey Arthur 1962

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FOSSIL PLANTS APPLIED TO DATING OF THE HAZELTON GROUP  by GEOFFREY ARTHUR WHITON B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  A T h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r the degree o f MASTER OF SCIENCE _ i n the Department of GEOLOGY  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standards  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1962  In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. f o r extensive  I f u r t h e r agree that permission  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be  granted by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s  representatives.  I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  <^ujj  ABSTRACT  P o s s i l p l a n t remains from the "upper sedimentaryu n i t " of the Hazeltori Group were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n order to attempt the assignment of a p r e c i s e age to the s t r a t a . C o l l e c t i o n s of leaves and specimens f o r plant m i c r o f o s s i l a n a l y s i s were c o l l e c t e d i n the Hazelton area, and were supplemented by l e a f c o l l e c t i o n s loaned by the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada.  Intensive maceration of rock specimens  f a i l e d to y i e l d s u f f i c i e n t m i c r o f o s s i l s f o r d a t i n g or c o r r e l a t i o n , and subsequent work was l i m i t e d to the a n a l y s i s of megafossils.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of leaves and other remains  r e s u l t e d i n the discovery of one new species and the recogn i t i o n of 7 species p r e v i o u s l y unreported i n the Hazelton flora.  S t a t i s t i c a l analyses and c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h other  f l o r a s have l e d to the conclusion that, the f l o r a from the "upper sedimentary u n i t " of the Hazelton Group i s l a t e J u r a s s i c to e a r l y Cretaceous i n age, encompassing the stages P o r t l a n d i a n to Neocomian i n c l u s i v e .  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  Appreciation  and thanks are due Dr. G.E. Rouse  who suggested t h i s problem and accompanied the w r i t e r the f i e l d c o l l e c t i o n s . for  The w r i t e r i s indebted  during  to Dr. Rouse  h i s e n t h u s i a s t i c encouragement, t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e ,  c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s , and thought p r o v o k i n g d i s c u s s i o n throughout the course o f the work.  Thanks are extended to  Dr. J.E. Armstrong o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada f o r information  on f o s s i l l o c a l i t i e s  i n the H a z e l t o n and Smithers  areas. The  a s s i s t a n c e granted to t h i s problem and the w r i t e r  i n the form of a grant  from the G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada  i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged.  Appreciation  i s a l s o due the  G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada f o r l o a n i n g the w r i t e r of f o s s i l p l a n t s from the Hazelton-Smithers  area.  collections  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1  INTRODUCTION Purpose P r e v i o u s Work Geology  •. .  3  PART I - METHODS  3  Microfossils Field  1 1 2  3  Collections  L a b o r a t o r y Work  4 6  Macrofossils  8 8 9  Field Collections L a b o r a t o r y Work Identifications PART I I - COMPARISON OF THE HAZELTON FLORA WITH OTHER FLORAS IN NORTH AMERICA Comparison w i t h the J u r a s s i c Cape L i s b u r n e , A l a s k a  21  Flora of  Comparison w i t h t h e F l o r a o f the Kennecott Formation, C h i t i n a V a l l e y ,  25  Alaska  . .  26  Comparison w i t h the F l o r a o f the R i d d l e Formation, Douglas County, Oregon  27  Comparison w i t h the F l o r a Group  30  o f t h e Potomac  Comparison w i t h the F l o r a o f the Kootenay Formation  32  Comparison w i t h the F l o r a o f the Blairmore Formation  33  Lower F l o r a  33  Upper F l o r a  34  PART I I I - INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS  35  CONCLUSIONS  44  BIBLIOGRAPHY'  53  LIST OF PLATES AND  FIGURES To  follow page  Figure 1  9  Figure 2  9  Figure 3  22  Figure 4  24  Figure 5  i n folder  Plate I  51  Plate II  52  INTRODUCTION  Purpose;  The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to attempt an a s s i g n ment of g e o l o g i c a l age  to the "upper sedimentary  H a z e l t o n Group on the b a s i s of f o s s i l p l a n t s .  u n i t " of the  Discussion i s  l i m i t e d to f o s s i l p l a n t s which were c o l l e c t e d i n the and,  to a l e s s e r extent, the Smithers  Hazelton  map-areas of c e n t r a l  B r i t i s h Columbia. P r e v i o u s Work: The sedimentary  only p r e v i o u s work on d a t i n g of the u n i t " by f o s s i l p l a n t s was  "upper  done by W.A.  the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada (1956).  B e l l of  Prom c o l l e c t i o n s made  i n the H a z e l t o n a r e a B e l l a s s i g n e d an e a r l y Cretaceous comian-Barremian age probable A p t i a n age A p t i a n age  was  Neo-  to f l o r u l e s from 13 l o c a l i t i e s and to f l o r u l e s from 6 l o c a l i t i e s .  a l s o assigned by B e l l  i t i e s i n the Smithers  a  An  to f l o r u l e s from 7 l o c a l -  area.  Both Armstrong (1944, 1953)  and B e l l  (1956) have  indi-  c a t e d that there i s a d i s c r e p a n c y i n the ages i n d i c a t e d by i n v e r t e b r a t e evidence the o t h e r .  on the one hand and by f o s s i l p l a n t s on  T h i s discrepancy has a r i s e n from the d i s c o v e r y of  upper J u r a s s i c or e a r l i e s t Cretaceous  marine s h e l l s 300  feet  s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y above beds c o n t a i n i n g a f l o r a of B l a i r m o r e  2  (Aptian) age.  In a d d i t i o n the Hazelton f l o r a was assigned to  the Cretaceous by c o r r e l a t i o n to the Kootenay, lower Blairmore and Bullhead f l o r a s of A l b e r t a and eastern B r i t i s h Columbia ( B e l l , 1956, p.23), the ages of which are s t i l l i n dispute (Rouse, 1959; Gussow, I960; Pocock, I960).  These c o n f l i c t i o n s  have l e d to a general u n c e r t a i n t y as to the age of the "upper sedimentary u n i t " of the Hazelton Group.  The present study  was  undertaken to attempt to shed new evidence concerning the age, p a r t i c u l a r l y by the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l assemblages. For t h i s purpose the w r i t e r , accompanied by Dr.  G.E.  Rouse, spent 8 days i n mid-September of I960 c o l l e c t i n g f o s s i l p l a n t s and samples to be macerated for p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s i n the Hazelton-Smithers area of c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia.  These  c o l l e c t i o n s , together with most of B e l l ' s o r i g i n a l c o l l e c t i o n s loaned by the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, form the basis f o r most of the work done i n the present study. Geology; The Hazelton Group, as p r e s e n t l y defined, i s known most completely from mapping conducted i n the Hazelton, Smithers, and Terrace map-areas.  In the Smithers map-area  (Armstrong, 1944) the group c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g f i v e map  units: (1)  v o l c a n i c d i v i s i o n (Lower J u r a s s i c ) .  (2)  marine sedimentary d i v i s i o n (Middle J u r a s s i c ) .  3 (3)  v o l c a n i c d i v i s i o n (Middle or Upper J u r a s s i c ) ,  (4)  c o n t i n e n t a l and marine sedimentary d i v i s i o n (Upper J u r a s s i c and Lower Cretaceous).  This i s  r e f e r r e d to i n subsequent pages as the "upper sedimentary u n i t . " (5)  v o l c a n i c d i v i s i o n (Lower Cretaceous or l a t e r ) .  According to Armstrong, the Hazelton Group i n t h i s area has a p o s s i b l e thickness of 10,000 f e e t . In the Hazelton map-area the two lower members of the Hazelton Group ( l ) and ( 2 ) , are e i t h e r missing or have not been recognized (Armstrong, 1953).  The lowermost member of the  Hazelton Group i n t h i s area i s the v o l c a n i c d i v i s i o n of Middle J u r a s s i c age (3)«  O v e r l y i n g these v o l c a n i c s i s the "Upper  J u r a s s i c and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary d i v i s i o n " (4) which c o n s i s t s of at l e a s t 5000 feet of interbedded c o n t i n e n t a l and marine s t r a t a .  O v e r l y i n g the sedimentary d i v i s i o n i s a  v o l c a n i c d i v i s i o n of Lower Cretaceous age or younger, c o r r e s ponding to d i v i s i o n 5 of the Smithers map-area.  A compre-  hensive d i s c u s s i o n of the Hazelton Group from other areas has been given by Tipper (1959).  PART I - METHODS (l) Microfossils Samples to be macerated f o r plant m i c r o f o s s i l s were c o l l e c t e d from 31 l o c a l i t i e s i n the Hazelton-Smithers area.  4 All  samples were taken from carbonaceous s h a l e s , s h a l y c o a l s  or c o a l y s h a l e s . Care was  Many of the shales c o n t a i n e d  leaf  impressions.  taken d u r i n g the sampling to ensure that only f r e s h  m a t e r i a l was  c o l l e c t e d , and  m a t e r i a l was  i n c l u d e d i n the  Laboratory  analyses  that no h i g h l y weathered s u r f a c e samples. were performed on the samples f o r  m i c r o f o s s i l s u s i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the procedure o u t l i n e d by Rouse (1959).  G e n e r a l l y , the b a s i c procedure f o r the  treat-  ment of samples i s as f o l l o w s : (1)  The  sample i s broken to 1 mm.  (2)  The  rock fragments are immersed i n h y d r o c h l o r i c  a c i d (HCl) u n t i l a l l v i s i b l e (3)  The  (4)  Concentrated  effervescence  r e s i d u e i s washed two  12 hours with 3  fragments;  ceases;  or three  h y d r o f l u o r i c a c i d (HF)  times; i s applied for  stirrings;  (5)  The  (6)  P o r t i o n s of the sample are spot checked under  r e s i d u e i s washed three  times; the  microscope f o r i n d i c a t i o n s o f p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s ; (7)  The  sample i s immersed i n S c h u l t z e ' s s o l u t i o n  ( n i t r i c a c i d p l u s potassium c h l o r a t e ) , or n i t r i c a c i d alone, depending on the degree of p r e s e r v a t i o n of the m i c r o f o s s i l s . The  sample i s p e r i o d i c a l l y checked under the microscope  during  t h i s step; (8)  The  o x i d i z e d r e s i d u e i s washed two  (9)  A 10%  or three  times;  s o l u t i o n of potassium carbonate (K^CO^)  i s added f o r 1 - 1 2  hours.  T h i s r e s i d u e i s checked f r e q u e n t l y  under the microscope d u r i n g t h i s  step;  5 (10)  The r e s i d u e i s c e n t r i f u g e d and mounted i n corn  syrup or a p l a s t i c medium. Treatment o f the f i r s t f o s s i l s , and i t was decided sequent samples.  few samples y i e l d e d no m i c r o -  to modify the procedure f o r sub-  The m o d i f i c a t i o n s  i n the treatment  involved  the f o l l o w i n g : (1) increased  The time i n h y d r o f l u o r i c and h y d r o c h l o r i c acidwas  (up to 75 h o u r s ) .  In some i n s t a n c e s , the a c i d  sol-  utions were r e p l a c e d w i t h f r e s h a c i d , and the number o f s t i r r i n g s increased. (2) one  The time i n S c h u l t z e ' s  case up to 141 hours.  c h l o r a t e i n the S c h u l t z e ' s  Increases  s o l u t i o n was i n c r e a s e d , i n i n the amount o f potassium  s o l u t i o n were made.  stances, where o x i d a t i o n o f carbonized complete, f r e s h S c h u l t a e ' s (3)  In s e v e r a l i n -  p a r t i c l e s was slow or i n -  was added to the sample.  The time i n 10$ potassium carbonate s o l u t i o n was  decreased because some o f the fragments appeared to d i s s o l v e i n the s t r o n g s o l u t i o n . (4)  P r i o r to c e n t r i f u g i n g (step 10), s e p a r a t i o n  tech-  niques i n v o l v i n g the " v i b r a f l u t e " and z i n c c h l o r i d e s o l u t i o n (sp. g r . 2.0) were employed. The  f i r s t m o d i f i c a t i o n o f adding f r e s h HF was  intended  to d i s s o l v e as much rock m a t e r i a l as p o s s i b l e from around the plant m i c r o f o s s i l s .  The second m o d i f i c a t i o n was  considered  necessary because o f the black carbonaceous f i l m remaining on the " m i c r o f o s s i l s " f o l l o w i n g normal treatment.  6  It  was hoped t h a t  the  coaly  f i l m w o u l d be removed.  were o n l y i n order  partially  successful.  to discount  completely carbonate The  by i n c r e a s i n g t h e t i m e  dissolved solution.  to dispose  a better  "vibraflute" posing  and z i n c  o f excess  increase  immersion  modification  p r o c e d u r e was made i n and hence  the  treatment  ing" and  preserved  At continued.  followed yield  (2)  microfossils.  In order  a very  stage,  few  to ensure  twice,  work o n t h e that  results, further studies  with negative  that  "promis-  Two samples were r e t r e a t e d  sample was r e t r e a t e d  by e x h a u s t i v e  once, results.  m i c r o f o s s i l samples was  a l t h o u g h the w r i t e r ' s  sampling  i n the Hazelton  i n the laboratory  would  dis-  work area probably  a limited microflora.  Macrqfqssils Plant  the  plant  I t i s considered  gave n e g a t i v e  i n dis-  i n some s a m p l e s , b u t d i d n o t  p r o c e d u r e s were e f f e c t i v e , 3 o f t h e more  this  The  of microfossils.  s a m p l e s were r e t r e a t e d . the other  facilitate  t r e a t m e n t s were s u c c e s s f u l  • T r e a t m e n t o f a l l 31 samples y i e l d e d o n l y poorly  results.  o f m i c r o f o s s i l s i n the sample. chloride  been  i n the potassium  gave n e g a t i v e  i n the treatment  f i n e rock material  the y i e l d  modifications  o f m i c r o f o s s i l s having  o f excess rock m a t e r i a l  concentration  two  solution,  The t h i r d m o d i f i c a t i o n was made  by e x c e s s i v e  fourth modification  order  The f i r s t  any p o s s i b i l i t y  This  i n Schultze's  macrofossils  Hazelton-Smithers area  were c o l l e c t e d f r o m 16 l o c a l i t i e s i n ( s e e sample l o c a l i t y map, f i g . 5 ) .  7 Of t h i s number, 14 are i n the Hazelton map area and two a r e i n the Smithers map a r e a . collected. few  A l t o g e t h e r , over  300 specimens were  Most o f these a r e compressions o f leaves although a  stem fragments were i n c l u d e d . In a d d i t i o n to the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned m a c r o f o s s i l s ,  c o l l e c t i o n s o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada from an a d d i t i o n a l 14 l o c a l i t i e s to the w r i t e r .  i n the Hazelton area were made a v a i l a b l e  Some o f these c o l l e c t i o n s were made p r i o r to  p u b l i c a t i o n o f W.A. B e l l ' s memoir i n 1956; others were made s i n c e that time by personnel o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey, and serve to i n c r e a s e the a r e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Hazelton  species.  TABLE I G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada F o s s i l Plant L o c a l i t i e s (These are the l o c a l i t i e s as given by the G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada) Locality__Nq.  2386  HaBelton a r e a , from r i d g e L at e l e v a t i o n 6220 f e e t ,  2388  Hazelton  area, from head o f Salmon R i v e r .  2393  Hazelton  area, Canyon Creek, Skeena R i v e r V a l l e y .  2394  Hazelton  area, Canyon Creek, Skeena R i v e r V a l l e y .  2408  Suskwa R i v e r , 1/2 m i l e above 20 m i l e Creek.  2413  Creek f l o w i n g i n t o Skeena R i v e r o p p o s i t e  2419  2 m i l e s up Campbell Creek from K i s p i o x R i v e r .  4993  2 miles along road l e a d i n g to S i l v e r Standard short d i s t a n c e east o f Hazelton.  Mine,  4996  Old road c u t , approach to Skeena R i v e r bridge of Hazelton.  north  Hazelton.  8  4 9 9 8  Road cut on # 1 6 j u s t east of bridge over K i t s e q u e l a , east o f Skeena C r o s s i n g .  4 9 9 9  Road cut on road n o r t h o f K i s p i o x where road leaves # 1 6 ) .  5000  West end of 1 7 m i l e bridge on K i s p i o x R i v e r (= l o c . H-26).  5054  Rocher de Boule Range.  ,5055  Rocher de Boule Range.  ( 1 5 . 2  miles  from  The most noteworthy f e a t u r e o f the f i e l d c o l l e c t i o n s i s the apparent s e g r e g a t i o n o f the p l a n t species i n s t r a t a from different o n l y one  localities.  For example, o f 2 9 l o c a l i t i e s  7 contain  species, 6 contain 2 species, 3 contain 3 species, 2  contain 4 species, 2 contain 5 species, 4 contain 6 species, 5 c o n t a i n 7 species and of 29 l o c a l i t i e s  ( 5 5 . 1 $ )  1 locality 3  contains 1 0 species.  species or l e s s are p r e s e n t .  observed a l s o ( f i g . 1) that i n the case o f l o c a l i t i e s taining  s e v e r a l ' s p e c i e s , g e n e r a l l y 1 and  con-  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f species among the 2 9 l o c a l i t i e s  1: 11 10 4 3 4 1 1 1 1  It i s  localities.  be shown a l s o by the f o l l o w i n g data which are d e r i v e d fig.  16  sometimes 2 s p e c i e s  comprise the bulk o f the f l o r u l e at these The  In  s p e c i e s occur i n 1 l o c a l i t y . species occur i n 2 l o c a l i t i e s . species occur i n 3 l o c a l i t i e s . species occur i n 4 l o c a l i t i e s . species occur i n 5 l o c a l i t i e s . s p e c i e occurs i n 6 l o c a l i t i e s . s p e c i e occurs i n 8 l o c a l i t i e s . specie occurs i n 1 2 l o c a l i t i e s . s p e c i e occurs i n 1 5 l o c a l i t i e s .  from  can  9 From the above t a b l e I t i s observed that 32 o f 36 species (88.8$) i d e n t i f i e d occur i n 5 l o c a l i t i e s or l e s s , and that 11 o f 36 species (30.5$) occur  i n 1 locality.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the species according to l o c a l i t i e s i s shown i n f i g u r e 1, and the frequency o f species d i s t r i b u t i o n i s shown i n f i g . 2.  I t i s apparent that there are no s i g n i f i -  cant discrepancies i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n which would suggest that there are plants of d i f f e r e n t ages represented.  This i s f u r t h e r  substantiated by the r e l a t i v e l y close geographic proximity of many o f the c o l l e c t i n g s i t e s , and the general l i t h o l o g i c s i m i l a r i t i e s of the rocks containing the p l a n t s .  Thus i t appears  most reasonable to consider the plants from a l l of the l o c a l i t i e s c o l l e c t e d i n the "upper sedimentary  u n i t " o f the Hazelton  Group as belonging to a s i n g l e contemporaneous and syngenetic flora.  This i s i n marked contrast to the suggestions o f B e l l  ( i n Armstrong, 194-4; B e l l , 1956, p.23) that some f l o r u l e s are of probable A p t i a n age, others o f Cretaceous  age (Neocomian-  Barremian), while s t i l l others were admitted as p o s s i b l y J u r a s s i c age. Id ent i f i c a t ions A l l specimens c o l l e c t e d by the w r i t e r were numbered (B-3084 to B-3432) and are housed i n the permanent c o l l e c t i o n of the Department of B i o l o g y and Botany at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. No type specimens were a v a i l a b l e and a l l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s  w e r e made by c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e s p e c i m e n s  o n hand w i t h  photo-  graphs, i l l u s t r a t i o n s , and w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f p r e v i o u s l y described  forms.  E x a m i n a t i o n o f the specimens  i n v o l v e d use o f  a 10 power hand l e n s a n d , t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , a b i n o c u l a r scope.  In general,  factory  f o r t h i s type o f work because  larged the mineral  t h e b i n o c u l a r m i c r o s c o p e was n o t s a t i s -  grains  i n the rock  h i g h m a g n i f i c a t i o n ent o such an extent  d e t a i l s o f t h e p l a n t s were obscured r a t h e r t h a n F r o m t h e two c o l l e c t i o n s s t u d i e d  (i.e.,  that  improved. the w r i t e r ' s  c o l l e c t i o n and t h a t o f t h e G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f C a n a d a ) , of  560 s p e c i m e n s  36 s p e c i e s , w e r e  representing  S e v e n t e e n o f t h e 36 s p e c i e s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d described others  were i d e n t i f i e d o n l y summary l i s t  p i l a t i o n from 3  a total  identified.  as p r e v i o u s l y  s p e c i e s , some w e r e compared t o s p e c i e s , and  The  micro-  still  t o genus.  o f species  t h a t f o l l o w s i s a com-  identified  from the w r i t e r ' s  sources:  (1)  A l l species  (2)  Species  identified  collection  from t h e G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f  C a n a d a c o l l e c t i o n s t h a t w e r e made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e w r i t e r ; (3)  Species  are not reported In t h i s plant species  identified  i n e i t h e r (1) summary l i s t  i s designated  the w r i t e r ' s c o l l e c t i o n ,  by W.A. o r (2)  Bell  (1956)  but which  above.  t h e source c o l l e c t i o n f o r each as f o l l o w s :  W for species  G.S.C. f o r s p e c i e s  from  from t h e G e o l o g i c a l  S u r v e y c o l l e c t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e w r i t e r , and B f o r s p e c i e s not found i n e i t h e r o f the f o r e g o i n g  but reported  by W . A . B e l l  11 I n h i s memoir. previously  Forms  marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k have n o t b e e n  reported  i n the Hazelton  Division  ARTHROPHTTA  flora.  Source o f Collection  Order  EQUISETALES  W  Equisetites l y e l l i  W  E q u i s e t i t e s sp. c f . l y e l l i  Division  (Mantell)  Unger (Mantell) Unger  PTEROPHYTA  Order FILICALES Cladophlebls  sp.  ?  Cladophlebls  sp.  &  Cladophlebis  heterophylla  W  Cladophlebia  impressa  B  Cladophlebis  parva  w  W G.S.C.  W  ft  ? Cladophlebis  Fontaine  Bell  Fontaine  (Gleichenites) p o r s i l d i  w  Cladophlebis  virginiensis emend B e r r y  W  Cladophlebis  sp. c f . v i r g i n i e n s i s emend  C o n i o p t e r i s sp.  W  Coniopteris b r e v i f o l i a ii  Coniopteris  (Fontaine)  (Sphenopteris) (Brdrigniart)  B  Dictyophyllum  W  G l e i c h e n i t e s sp.  Fontaine Fontaine  Berry  W  G.S.C.  Sewarfl  fuchsiforme  Bell  hymenophylloldes Seward (Bell)  Seward  12  ¥  G l e i c h e n i t e s n o r d e n s k i o l d i (Heer) emend Seward  B  K l u k i a canadensis  B  P h l e b o p t e r i s ? elongata  B  Sphenopteris a c r o d e n t a t a  G.S.C.  Bell Bell Fontaine  S phenopt e r i s dentata (Velonovsky)  B  Sphenopteris  Seward  (Ruf f o r d i a ) g q p p e r t i (Dunker) Seward  D i v i s i o n PTERIDOSPERMOPHYTA Order G.S.C.  CAYTONIALES Sagenopteris sp. Sagenopteris W i l l i a m s i  B  (Newberry)  Bell  D i v i s i o n CYCADOPRYTA Orders BENNETTITALES and CYCADALES B  Ctenopteris insignis  Fontaine  B  Nilssonia brongniarti  (Mantell)  w  N i l s s o n i a canadensis  Bell  W  N i l s s o n i a p a r v u l a (Heer)  W  _  Dunker  Fontaine  Nilssonia pterophylloides  Nathorst  B  N i l s s o n i a s chaumburgens i s (Dunker)  B  Pseudoctenis h a z e l t o n e n s i s  B  Pseudocycas dunkeriana  W  i  G.S.C.  A  Bell  (Goppert)  Florin  Pterophyllum t e n n u i p i n n a t u s n. sp. Pterophyllum r e c t a n g u l a r e  B  Nathorst  Bell  P t i l o p h y l l u m a r c t i c u m (Goppert)  Seward  13 B  P t i l o p h y l l u m Columbianurn  B  P t i l o p h y l l u m hirturn  B  Ptilophyllum  Bell  Bell  (Anomozamites) montanense CFontaine) B e l l  D i v i s i o n GINKGOPHYTA Order GINKGOALES W  B a i e r a sp. c f . f u r c a t a ( L i n d l e y and Hutton) Braun  G.S.C.  B a i e r a sp. c f . g r a c i l u s (Bean)  Bunberry  W  Ginkgoites  a r c t i c u s - (Heer)  Florin  W  Ginkgoites  sp. c f . a r c t i c u s (Heer)  W  Ginkgoites  sibirica  W  Ginkgo sp. c f . s i b i r i c a  Florin  Heer Heer  D i v i s i o n CONIFEROPHYTA Order CONIFERALES B  Athrotaxites berry!  ¥  Bell  ? E l a t i d e s sp.  V/  Elatides curvifolia  (Dunker)  B  E l a t i d e s splendida  Bell  W  _  Nathorst  ? Elatocladus, sp.  W  P i t y o p h y l l u m sp.  B  Pityophyllum  c f . nordenskiol'dl (Heer) Krystofovich  INCERTAE SEDIS ¥  Czekanowskia sp.  ¥  Czekanowskia sp. c f . r i g i d a  Heer  14  Phoenicopsis  B  W  ?  arctica  (Heer)  Podozamites sp.  W  Podozamites sp.  W  Podozamites laneeolatus HuttonT~ The  ( L i n d l e y and Schimper  d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages i s l i m i t e d t o  t h o s e p l a n t s a b o u t w h i c h t h e w r i t e r h a s new i n f o r m a t i o n , o r w h i c h h a v e n o t been t r e a t e d a d e q u a t e l y i n f o r m e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . The supplement  the discussion of species  strate the s i g n i f i c a n t the  first  ( p l a t e s 1 and 2 ) a r e p r e s e n t e d  photographs  to  i n t h e t e x t , and t o i l l u -  features of species  reported  here f o r  time.  G e n e r a l l y , two p r o b l e m s w e r e e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e i d e n tification  o f the plants.  The f i r s t  p r o b l e m was t h a t o f h a v i n g  t o d e a l w i t h many i m p e r f e c t l y p r e s e r v e d  specimens.  The s e c o n d  and most f r u s t r a t i n g p r o b l e m , was t h e v a r i a t i o n shown i n p h o t o g r a p h s and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f some p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d These v a r i a t i o n s a l l o w e d in  some c a s e s ,  f o r considerable  latter  plified  study.  p r o b l e m , t h a t o f v a r i a t i o n among s p e c i e s , i s exem-  In considering  and i n p a r t i c u l a r  leaves  virginiensis  and C o n i o p t e r i s  t h e problem o f -plant s p e c i a t i o n ,  f r o m one p l a n t  measurable v a r i a t i o n s e x i s t , quately.  of species  groups e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h i s  s t r o n g l y by C l a d o p h l e b i s  brevifolia.  overlapping  and most c e r t a i n l y p o i n t o u t t h e n e e d f o r r e v  v i s i o n o f some o f t h e p l a n t The  species.  species  (eg. Ginkgo),  unless  c a n n o t be s e p a r a t e d  ade-  15  Equisetites:  Although  the specimens o f E q u i s e t i t e s l y e H i  ( M a n t e l l ) Unger ( p l a t e 1 ,  f i g . 12) a r e incomplete,  the e x c e l l e n t  p r e s e r v a t i o n allows f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n to be made w i t h able confidence. Hazelton  consider-  This s p e c i e s i s r e l a t i v e l y r a r e i n the  flora.  Cladophlebist  In the many specimens o f C l a d o p h l e b i s  virginiensis  Fontaine which were s t u d i e d by the w r i t e r , i t i s considered virtually  impossible to e s t a b l i s h any d i s t i n c t boundaries be-  t\\reen the many v a r i a n t s , as they grade i m p e r c e p t i b l y i n t o other.  Bell  ( 1 9 5 6 , p. 5 1 - 5 2 ) recognized  Cladophlebis v i r g i n i e n s i s .  each  three main v a r i a n t s o f  However, the present w r i t e r was un-  able to do t h i s because o f the f a c t that imperfect p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the specimens made i t impossible to observe d e t a i l s o f venation.  I t i s considered  that among the specimens o f  C l a d o p h l e b i s v i r g i n i e n s i s s t u d i e d by the w r i t e r there are forms which could be r e f e r r e d  j u s t as e a s i l y to C l a d o p h l e b i s d e n t i c u l a t a ,  s i n c e some forms o f t h i s l a t t e r not d i f f e r  s p e c i e s w i t h e n t i r e margins do  i n any e a s i l y observable o r measurable c h a r a c t e r from  forms o f C l a d o p h l e b i s y i r g i n i e n s i s i n the Hazelton f l o r a .  The  w r i t e r has had a v a i l a b l e f o r study a specimen o f C l a d o p h l e b i s d e n t i c u l a t a from the J u r a s s i c o f Y o r k s h i r e , England, i n which imperfect noted. and  p r e s e r v a t i o n does not a l l o w v e n a t i o n d e t a i l s to be  However, the g e n e r a l shape o f the p i n n u l e s , t h e i r  manner o f attachment to the r a c h i s , and t h e i r  angle  apparently  16 e n t i r e margins suggest  s t r o n g l y that the specimen i s t y p i c a l  of some forms o f C l a d o p h l e b i s v i r g i n i e n s i s i n the Hazelton Coniopteris:  Coniopteris b r e v i f o l i a  ( p l a t e 2, f i g . 14)  most common l e a f i n the Hazelton f l o r a next virginiensis.  to  flora.  i s the  Cladophlebis  Once again, because of the great v a r i a b i l i t y of  t h i s s p e c i e s , i t o v e r l a p s c e r t a i n forms r e f e r r e d by  other  authors, n o t a b l y by Seward (1900, p. 99) to C o n i o p t e r i s hymenophy1loides.  The w r i t e r has  identified  s e v e r a l specimens  °£ C o n i o p t e r i s hymeno phy l l o i d es, which are i d e n t i c a l in. morphology to the E n g l i s h J u r a s s i c s p e c i e s (see p l a t e 1, f i g . lOw). At the same time, however, some of the l e a f remains are w i t h C o n i o p t e r i s b r e v i f o l i a from the Potomac f l o r a . there do not appear to be any  identical  However,  satisfactory c r i t e r i a for d i s t -  i n g u i s h i n g between the many v a r i a n t s of the two  s p e c i e s , and  there i s a good p o s s i b i l i t y that the 2 f o s s i l s p e c i e s  represent  one n a t u r a l s p e c i e s . Sphenopteris:  Leaves named Sphenopteris  ( i n B e l l , 1956, Seward i n 1926 fig.  5)j and  Nilssonia:  latiloba  Fontaine  p. 69-70) had been synonymized p r e v i o u s l y by under Sphenopteris  dentata Velonovsky ( P l a t e 1,  hence should bear the l a t t e r name. N i l s s o n i a p a r v u l a , an abundant form at l o c a l i t y  H-8,  i s c o n s i d e r e d by the w r i t e r to be synonymous w i t h N i l s s o n i a n i g r a c o l l e n s i s Wieland, ( i n Ward, 1905, p.103).  p. 320) and B e l l (1956,  B e l l i n r e f e r e n c e to N i l s s o n i a n i g r a c o l l e n s i s w r i t e s :  17  " N i l s s o n i a p a r v u l a , Fontaine (non Heer)... o b v i o u s l y belongs to t h i s s p e c i e s . " Fontaine  ( i n Ward, 1 9 0 5  }  p. 3 2 0 )  w r i t e s as f o l l o w s :  "This p l a n t (N. n i g r a c o l l e n s i s ) i s s t r i k i n g l y l i k e N i l s s o n i a p a r v u l a (Heer) Fontaine o f the J u r a s s i c o f Oregon. As however i t i s c o n s t a n t l y l a r g e r , and more robust than the predominant forms o f that f o s s i l , i t i s probably d i s t i n c t . " N i l s s o n i a p a r v u l a was by Heer i n I 8 7 6 , and  first  d e s c r i b e d as T a e n i o p t e r i s p a r v u l a  since i t i s obviously con-specific with  takes precedence over N. n i g r a c o l l e n s i s , the w r i t e r has to r e i n s t i t u t e t h i s Pterophyllum Hazelton  seen f i t  species.  (Ctenophyllum):  In the w r i t e r ' s c o l l e c t i o n of  p l a n t s are 5 specimens which are s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to  forms from the Oregon J u r a s s i c f l o r a which Fontaine 1905,  and  p. 1 0 5 ,  p i . XXII) has  ( i n Ward,  r e f e r r e d to Ctenophyllum a n g u s t i f o l i u m .  Ctenophyllum, however, as o r i g i n a l l y d e f i n e d by Schimper  (Fon-  taine, 1 8 8 3 j  surface  p. 67)  on the r a c h i s and, i n no o  f  has  the pinnae attached  to the upper  a c c o r d i n g to Seward, (1917  5  p. 5 2 8 )  differs  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s p e c t s from forms o f P t i l o p h y l l u m or  Dioonites.  Consequently, as Seward (1917  }  out, t h e r e would seem to be no adequate reason °f Ctenophyllum as a generic  has  pointed  f o r the r e t e n t i o n  designation.  A t r a n s f e r p r e p a r a t i o n o f one shows that the pinnae are attached  o f the w r i t e r ' s specimens  l a t e r a l l y as i n s p e c i e s o f  the b e n n e t t i t a l e a n genus Pterophyllum. planned, o r i g i n a l l y to e s t a b l i s h a new p l a n t under Pterophyllum  p. 5 2 8 )  fronds  Consequently, i t was combination f o r t h i s  angustifolium.  However, s i n c e t h i s  18 name has a l r e a d y been used f o r another s p e c i e s o f Pterophyllum (Seward, 1900, p. 228), the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e i s the circums c r i p t i o n o f a new s p e c i e s o f Pterophyllum.  T h i s i s given below.  Seward (1917, p. 549), i n r e f e r e n c e to Pterophyllum nathorsti, writes: "The J u r a s s i c fronds from Oregon d e s c r i b e d by Fontaine as Ctenophyllum a n g u s t i f o l i u r n are s i m i l a r forms." Although these  two species a r e indeed  somewhat s i m i l a r , the  d i f f e r e n c e s between them are s u f f i c i e n t  to preclude  to combine the forms r e f e r r e d to C t enqp hy Hum under Pterophyllum  nathorsti.  Probably  angustifolium  the most  d i f f e r e n c e between these two species i s that  any attempt  striking  Pterophyllum  n a t h o r s t i has up to 1 6 veins per p i n n u l e , whereas the Oregon and  Hazelton  forms are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by 3 to 5 veins per p i n n u l e .  The  Hazelton  specimens have a constant Pterophyllum  number o f veins (4).  t ennuip innatus n. sp.  1896 - Ctenophyllum a n g u s t i f o l i u m F o n t a i n e : 4th s e r . , V o l . I I , p. 274 (nomen). 1900 - Ctenophyllum a n g u s t i f o l i u m F o n t a i n e :  Am. Journ. S c i . Twentieth Ann.  Rep. U.S. Geol. Surv., 1898-99, P t . I I , p. 360, p i . L X I I I , f i g s . 2, 3.  1905 - Ctenophyllum a n g u s t i f o l i u m Fontaine: Mon. 48, p. 105, p l . XXII.  U.S. Geol. Surv.,  1916 - Ctenophyllum a n g u s t i f q l i u m ? F o n t a i n e : P r o c , v o l . 51, p. 4-58, p l . 80, f . 2 .  U.S. Nat. Mus.,  Type Specimen B-3407, and counterpart B-3399, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P a l e o b o t a n i c a l Collection.  Description: Frond:  fragments 8 cm. long are a v a i l a b l e , but the o r i g i n a l l e n g t h must have approached 15 cm. oblong-elliptical and apex.  i n o u t l i n e , narrowing toward base  fragments 7 cm. wide. L e a f l e t s : - i n the b a s a l r e g i o n s , l e a f l e t s are p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the a x i s ; i n the d i s t a l r e g i o n becoming more and more i n c l i n e d , or somewhat f a l c a t e (more so i n the d i s t a l parts of l e a f l e t s ) . l e a f l e t s are g e n e r a l l y s l i g h t l y expanded at base and some appear to coalesce w i t h adjacent pinnules;' others have w i d t h unchanged to middle o f p i n n u l e and then narrow g r a d u a l l y to the t i p . w i d t h o f l e a f l e t s v a r i e s from 2 to 3 mm., creases towards l e a f apex. the t i p s o f l e a f l e t s  are o b t u s e l y  and de-  rounded.  the longest l e a f l e t observed i s 6 cm. long-. the spacing between" adjacent 15 to 1 . 5 mm.  l e a f l e t s v a r i e s from  Attachment ; to r a c h i s ; - a l t e r n a t e to o p p o s i t e , but mostly  sub-opposite.  the l e a f l e t s are attached l a t e r a l l y on the r a c h i s . T h i s was suspected i n the hand specimen and confirmed by the t r a n s f e r p r e p a r a t i o n . R a c h i s : - whole w i d t h o f r a c h i s i s exposed and uncovered by l e a f l e t bases. r a c h i s v a r i e s from 2 to 3 . 5 mm. i n width, decreases towards apex o f frond g e n e r a l l y . Venation:- the veins are non-branching, are 3 to 5 i n number and are p a r a l l e l a l l the way out to the d i s t a l ends o f the l e a f l e t s .  20 Baierat  The problem of species v a r i a t i o n together with that of  imperfect p r e s e r v a t i o n d i d not permit s p e c i f i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of specimens of B a i e r a . None of the.specimens showed enough of the l e a f lamina or s u f f i c i e n t venation to be c e r t a i n of a species affinity.  Consequently,  these specimens could be i d e n t i f i e d with  confidence only as "sp. c f . g r a c i l u s " ( p l a t e 2, f i g . 16) or "sp. c f . f u r c a t a " ( p l a t e 2, f i g . 15). were noted by B e l l Ginkgo: Two  Similar reservations  (1956).  species of Ginkgo were d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the w r i t e r  as Ginkgoites s i b i r i c a ( p l a t e 2, f i g . 6) and Ginkgoites a r c t i c u s (plate 2, f i g . 3 ) .  F l o r i n (1936, p. 34).  Some specimens were  r e l a t i v e l y easy to i d e n t i f y , whereas others were most d i f f i c u l t to assign to one species or the other. I t should be mentioned here that Ginkgoites a r c t i c u s has been c a l l e d Ginkgo p l u r i p a r t i t a by B e l l (1956, p. 85) and other authors, but represents a p r e v i o u s l y omitted synonymy.  In  r e f e r r i n g s e v e r a l 'Ginkgos" to Ginkgoites s i b i r i c a , I have been influenced by A.C.Seward (1919, p. 24) who  wrote:  "For the present the most convenient course would seem to be the r e t e n t i o n of Ginkgoites s i b i r i c a f o r leaves' s i m i l a r to some of the more deeply d i v i d e d forms of G. d i g i t a t a and to G. p l u r i p a r t i t a , but normally characteri z e d by a lamina d i v i d e d almost or quite to the base i n t o oblong, obtuse or more or l e s s acute segments." t The w r i t e r considers Ginkgo nana Dawson ( i n B e l l , p. 86) synonymous with the e a r l i e r Ginkgoites s i b i r i c a . (1956, p. 86) s t a t e s i n reference to Ginkgo nana and  1956, Bell  two  s i m i l a r species that: "In form and venation a l l three of these species are much l i k e Ginkgoites s i b i r i c a , (Heer) Seward, ... Although they are of smaller s i z e than normal with that species."  21  B e l l (1956, p. 86) gives i n h i s l i s t of synonymies for Ginkgo nana the species S a l i s b u r i a (Ginkgo) s i b i r i c a Dawson, 1886. However, Ginkgoites s i b i r i c a (Heer, 1876)  Seward, by r u l e s of  b o t a n i c a l nomenclature, takes p r i o r i t y over Dawson's species. On the problem of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Ginkgo leaves i n general, Seward (1919, p. 14) w r i t e s : " I t i s impossible to define p r e c i s e l y the s e v e r a l species of Ginkgoites founded on leaves; i n the account of the recent species a t t e n t i o n i s c a l l e d to the range i n l e a f form and i t s bearing on the determination of f o s s i l s . A l l that can be done i s to adopt c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c names as a matter of convenience, r e c o g n i z i n g that the d i f f e r e n c e s on which the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based are not e i t h e r s u f f i c i e n t l y sharply defined or morphologically important to be regarded as c r i t e r i a of true s p e c i f i c d i s t i n c t i o n . " F.H. this topic: >  Knowlton (1914, p. 55) w r i t e s as f o l l o w s on  "In dealing with such an abundance of specimens and m u l t i p l i c i t y of forms, one must needs make e i t h e r many 'species' to accommodate t h i s d i v e r s i t y , or only one or two, and i n view of the known v a r i a t i o n e x h i b i t e d by the s i n g l e l i v i n g species, the l a t t e r plan seems p r e f e r a b l e . " These l a s t two quotations serve to. i l l u s t r a t e  many v a r i a t i o n s i n ginkgoalean  the  leaves; these r e s u l t i n im-  measurable d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s p e c i f i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and i n d i c a t e that leaves of Ginkgo have l i t t l e use i n c o r r e l a t i o n or dating. PART I I - COMPARISON OF THE HAZELTON FLORA WITH OTHER FLORAS IN NORTH AMERICA In attempting  to date the Hazelton f l o r a by comparisons  and' c o r r e l a t i o n s with other f l o r a s , i t i s apparent that there  22  are v e r y few f l o r a s of comparable age  i n North America.  With a  few exceptions of r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l f l o r a s , the o n l y ones cons i d e r e d s u i t a b l e f o r c o r r e l a t i o n with the H a z e l t o n f l o r a are those l i s t e d fig.  4).  i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs  Rather  (see also f i g . 3  and  than attempting l o n g d i s t a n c e i n t e r - c o n t i n e n t a l  c o r r e l a t i o n s , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t , by l i m i t i n g the  correl-  a t i o n s to r e l a t i v e l y short ( i n t r a - c o n t i n e n t a l ) d i s t a n c e s , the v a l i d i t y of the c o r r e l a t i o n s w i l l be i n c r e a s e d . Simpson (i960) d i s c u s s e s s e v e r a l methods f o r the measurement of f a u n a l resemblance under the f o l l o w i n g two groups; ( l ) measurement i a s e d on numbers of taxa; (2) measures i n v o l v i n g abundance of t a x a . cannot  be undertaken  The  a p p l i c a t i o n o f the l a t t e r measurements  i n the present study, as numbers o f s p e c i e s  are o n l y p a r t i a l l y known f o r the H a z e l t o n f l o r a , and are  un-  known f o r other f l o r a s with which the Hazelton f l o r a can be compared. A c c o r d i n g to Simpson, the most obvious and  acceptable  measurement of f a u n a l resemblance i s expressed as f o l l o w s : C N  /', x  x 100  U t  where C = number of t a x a common to b o t h  >  faunas;  N^' = t o t a l taxa i n both. I f both faunas are almost they are of at l e a s t approximately  completely r e p r e s e n t e d and i f equal s i z e , the above index  (l) i s useful. . Samples, however, are f r e q u e n t l y o f unequal  s i z e and  the  f o l l o w i n g index e l i m i n a t e s t h i s  C where  disadvantage:  x 100  /  C = number o f t a x a common to both  9  v  faunas;  = t o t a l t a x a i n the s m a l l e r o f the two faunas  compared.  As an estimate o f a p o p u l a t i o n index from samples, the second index minimizes two  faunas.  the e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i z e between  When samples are s m a l l , both ( l ) and ( 2 ) have  c o n s i d e r a b l e sampling e r r o r ; but ( 2 ) i s a l s o p r e f e r a b l e i n t h i s r e s p e c t , and the l a r g e r the d i s c r e p a n c y between N-^ and  (total  taxa i n the l a r g e r o f the two faunas compared), the b e t t e r but not  i s sampled, the lower the b i a s r e s u l t i n g from the  sampling e r r o r .  When the sample (and p o p u l a t i o n ) s i z e s are  equal, index ( 2 ) i s s t i l l The Patuxent,  a t l e a s t as good as ( l ) .  % c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the 4 l a r g e s t f l o r a s  Grundel and Patapsco)  index ( 2 ) ,  (Oregon,  have been c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g  with the H a z e l t o n f l o r a as N-^.  Three  floras, v i z . ,  Kootenay, lower Blairmore and upper B l a i r m o r e , are o f s l i g h t l y smaller s i z e than the H a z e l t o n , and i n these cases N-^ r e p r e s e n t s the s m a l l e r f l o r a .  Both the Kennecott  and Cape L i s b u r n e f l o r a s  are much s m a l l e r than the H a z e l t o n and again figure.  i s the s m a l l e r  The r e s u l t a n t measurements are presented i n f i g u r e 3 ,  and are given again under the d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f each  flora.  In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , a l l c o r r e l a t i o n s have been made on the b a s i s of number o f s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i e d  s p e c i f i c a l l y plus  the number of d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i e d as "sp. c f . " l a t t e r group i n c l u d e s s p e c i e s i n b r a c k e t s .  This  24 In the s e c t i o n on " I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f R e s u l t s , " c o r r e l a t ions made on the b a s i s of species only are discussed.  These  c o r r e l a t i o n s do not include bracketed species, i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , unless such species represent e s t a b l i s h e d synonymies. It i s observed i n the summary l i s t (pages 11 to 14) and f i g u r e 4, that the Hazelton f l o r a has 35 species  identified  s p e c i f i c a l l y and 4 species i d e n t i f i e d as "sp. c f . " For the other f l o r a s discussed i n subsequent pages, the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e summarizes the number of species  identified  s p e c i f i c a l l y e t c . , f o r each f l o r a which i s used as N^ i n index (2). TABLE I I Total Species  Number of species ident i f i e d specifically.  Number of species i d e n t i f i e d speci f i c a l l y plus number i d e n t i f i e d as sp. c f .  Cape Lisburne  17  16  17  Kennecott  16  8  11  Kootenay  33  21  26  Lower Blairmore,  37  33  36  Upper Blairmore^  35  18  20  In f i g u r e 4, where presence of a species i s another f l o r a i s i n d i c a t e d by quotation marks, that species i s a " c f . " species. The l i s t of species i n f i g u r e s 1 and 2 i s a compilation from the w r i t e r ' s c o l l e c t i o n of p l a n t s , and the G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada c o l l e c t i o n s loaned to the w r i t e r .  Some of the  s p e c i e s l i s t e d by B e l l lists  i n succeeding  (1956) and a l s o given i n the f l o r a l  pages, are not i n c l u d e d i n f i g u r e s 1 and 2.  T h i s i s because the w r i t e r has no i n f o r m a t i o n on the frequency of occurrence;  or on the numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s of these s p e c i e s .  Although a r e c o r d of the occurrence of s p e c i e s s a i d to be " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the J u r a s s i c p e r i o d " e t c . , i s u s e f u l information  f o r d a t i n g a f l o r a , the method i s s u b j e c t to  personal opinion.  I f , however, a s t a t i s t i c a l method, as out-  l i n e d can be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n  with  the " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  s p e c i e s " method, the r e s u l t s should prove to be much more meaningf u l and o b j e c t i v e . J u r a s s i c F l o r a o f Cape L i s b u r n e ,  Alaska  F.H. Knowlton (1914) has i d e n t i f i e d seventeen o f p l a n t s from the Cape Lisburne  r e g i o n o f northwestern  16 of the p l a n t s are i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i f i c a l l y . are contained  i n the Corwin  These p l a n t s  r e g i o n i n c l u d e s the  f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s which are a l s o present  equivalent,  Alaska.  formation.  The f l o r a of the Cape Lisburne  Where a Cape Lisburne  species  i n the Hazelton  flora.  species d i f f e r s i n name from the Hazelton  the Hazelton  s p e c i e s i s given i n b r a c k e t s .  C o n i o p t e r i s hymenophylloides. "Podozamites l a n c e o l a t u s . Elatides  curvifolia.  ' Pityophyllum  nordenskioldi.  Ginkgo d i g i t a t a ( G i n k g o i t e s  arcticus).  These f i v e s p e c i e s r e s u l t i n a 29.4% c o r r e l a t i o n with  the Hazelton f l o r a .  The l a s t species named above ( i . e . Ginkgo  d i g i t a t a , i n Knowlton, p l a t e V I I , f i g . 5) appears s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r to species i n the Hazelton f l o r a , that the w r i t e r has r e f e r r e d to Ginkgoites a r c t i c u s , and consequently has been i n cluded i n a l i s t o f species common to both F l o r a of the Kennecott Formation C h i t i n a V a l l e y , Alaska  floras.  (Albian)  The f l o r a of the Kennecott formation (Knowlton, i n M a r t i n , 1926, p. 344—346) includes 16 species of which only 8 are i d e n t i f i e d  specifically.  The f o l l o w i n g species are a l s o present i n the Hazelton flora.  Where a Kennecott species d i f f e r s i n name from the  Hazelton equivalent, the Hazelton species i s given i n brackets. Elatides c u r v i f o l i a . Pinus n o r d e n s k i o l d i (Pityophyllum n o r d e n s k i o l d i ) . Ginkgo schmidtiana (Ginkgoites s i b i r i c a ) . Podozamites sp. (Podozamites l a n c e o l a t u s ) . Taeniopteris parvula? ( N i l s s o n i a p a r v u l a ) . Cladophlebis c f . C. moissenti (Cladophlebis h e t e r o p h y l l a ) . These 6 species r e s u l t i n a 54.5$ c o r r e l a t i o n with the Hazelton f l o r a . Pinus n o r d e n s k i o l d i has been synonymized with Pityophyllum n o r d e n s k i o l d i ( i n B e l l , 1956, p. 112).  I t i s also  probable that some o f the specimens i n the Hazelton f l o r a , r e f e r r e d by the w r i t e r to Pityophyllum sp., are r e f e r a b l e to  27  t h i s species although such an assignment cannot be made w i t h confidence. Ginkgo schmidtiana i s r e f e r a b l e to Gingoites s i b i r i c a of the Hazelton f l o r a (Seward, 1919, p.24). Knowlton ( i n M a r t i n , 1926, p.34-4) s t a t e s , "The Podozamites i s o f the type P. l a n c e o l a t u s . . , " hence i t appears that t h i s form i s also common to the Hazelton f l o r a . In reference to the forms o f Cladophlebis present, Knowlton ( i n M a r t i n , 1926, p. 344) w r i t e s : "One form may be compared w i t h C. moissenti from the French J u r a s s i c , or w i t h C. h e t e r o p h y l l a as known from the Kootenai." Consequently,  t h i s form has been i n c l u d e d , though p o s s i b l y  somewhat d o u b t f u l l y , i n the l i s t of species common to both the Kennecott and Hazelton  floras.  F l o r a o f the R i d d l e Formation, Douglas County, Oregon ( P o r t l a n d i a n , Middle to Late Tithonian) F.H. Knowlton (1910) l i s t s 79 plant species plus 2 indeterminate leaves from the plant beds of Douglas. County, Oregon.  S i x t y - f i v e of the 79 plants are i d e n t i f i e d  specifically.  The f o l l o w i n g species are also present i n the Hazelton flora.  Where an Oregon species d i f f e r s i n name from the  Hazelton equivalent, the Hazelton species i s given i n brackets. Coniopteris  hymenophylloides.  Thyrsopteris murrayana (Coniopteris hymenophylloides). Polypodium oregonense (Cladophlebis_ parva). Cladophlebis vaccensis (Cladophlebis v i r g i n i e n s i s , p a r s . ) .  28 Ruffordia gopperti. Nilssonia  parvula.  Nilssonia pterophylloides. Pinus n o r d e n s k i o l d i (Pity_qphyllum nordenskio>ld1 i ) . Ctenophyllum a n g u s t i f o l i u m (Pterophyllum  tennuipinnatus).  Podozamites l a n e e o l a t u s . Ginkgo d i g i t a t a Ginkgo  (Ginkgoites_ a r c t i c u s ) .  sibirica.  Sagenopteris  grandifqlia  (Sagenopt e r i s  Williamsi).  PterophylluiTi contiguum ( P t i l o p h y l l u m a r c t i c u m ) . Pterophyllum  aequale ( P t i l o p h y l l u m columbianum).  Cladophlebis  d e n t i c u l a t a (Cladophlebis v i r g i n i e n s i s , p a r s . ) .  Taeniopteris o r o v i l l e n s i s  (Nilssqnia. c a n a d e n s i s ) .  Ginkgo l e p i d a ( G i n k g o i t e s  sibirica).  The the Hazelton  foregoing l i s t  r e s u l t s i n a 46.1% c o r r e l a t i o n  with  flora.  T h y s o p t e r i s murrayana has been synomymized under C o n i o p t e r i s hymenophylloides by Seward Fontaine  ( i n Ward, 1905,  (1900, p. 100), however,  p. 61) maintains  they are separate  species. W.A.Bell  (1956, p.57) i n r e f e r e n c e to Polypodium  oregonense Fontaine states i n part:  ( i n Ward, 1905, P I . X, f i g .  1-7)  29 Fontaine's 1905  5  species C l a d o p h l e b i s v a c c e n s i s  ( i n Ward,  p. 6 6 - 6 8 , p l a t e X, f i g . 8-12) appears i d e n t i c a l to forms  i n the Hazelton f l o r a which the w r i t e r has r e f e r r e d to .Cladophlebis v i r g i n i e n s i s , and f o r t h i s reason the l i s t  o f p l a n t s common to both  floras.  Some o f the forms r e f e r r e d by Fontaine digitata  i s included i n  ( i n Ward, 1905, p l . 3 0 , f i g . 1-7)  to Ginkgo  are seemingly  identical  to G i n k g o i t e s a r c t i c u s i n . t h e w r i t e r ' s c o l l e c t i o n o f Hazelton plants:  t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f Fontaine's  f i g . 5 which  shows the lobes d i s s e c t e d to the same degree as the Hazelton specimens. Other s i m i l a r i t i e s noted  i n s p e c i e s o f ginkgos are as  follows: (1)  Ginkgo h u t t o n ! m a g n i f o l i a ( i n Ward, 1905, p l . 31?  f i g . 4?r8) i s , i n the o p i n i o n o f the w r i t e r , i d e n t i c a l w i t h specimens o f Ginkgoites a r c t i c u s i n the Hazelton (2) Some forms that Fontaine fig.  flora.  ( i n Ward, 1905, p l a t e 3 2 ,  3-8) has r e f e r r e d to Ginkgo l e p i d a , a r e very c l o s e to  Ginkgoites s i b i r i c a ,  ( e s p e c i a l l y f i g . 6 o f Fontaine's)  except  that Fontaine's m a t e r i a l has a greater number o f l o b e s , feature of doubtful s p e c i f i c The Fontaine  significance.  strong resemblance o f Sagenopteris  ( i n Ward, 1905, p l . 15, f i g . 4,  W i l l i a m s i o f the Hazelton W.A.Bell (1956i  p. 8 0 ) .  a  grandifolia  5) to Sagenopteris  f l o r a has a l r e a d y been c i t e d by  Specimens r e f e r r e d by Fontaine to continuum ( i n Ward, 1905, i n g to B e l l  (1956, p. 95)  p. 99,  p l . 19,  (1956, p. 96)  f i g . 7-11)  are a c c o r d -  possibly conspecific with  P t i l o p h y l l u m arcticum i n the Hazelton Bell  Pterophyllum  flora.  c i t e s P t i l o p h y l l u m c q l i ^ b i a n u m of  the Hazelton f l o r a as b e a r i n g a c l o s e resemblance to Pterophyllum aequale Fontaine  ( i n Ward, 1905,  p l . 20).  Fontaine's example of C l a d o p h l e b i s d e n t i c u l a t a ( i n Ward, 1905,  p l a t e 11,  f i g . 7)  w i t h e n t i r e margins i s not u n l i k e  forms o f C l a d o p h l e b i s v i r g i n i e n s i s i n the w r i t e r ' s c o l l e c t i o n o f Hazelton p l a n t s . N i l s s o n i a canadensis o f the Hazelton f l o r a 1956,  p. 104)  is'comparable w i t h forms r e f e r r e d by Fontaine to  Taeniopteris o r o v i l l e n s i s fig.  (in Bell,  ( i n Ward, 1905,  p. 78,  79,  plate  1 2 - 1 7 ) , the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e being t h a t i n the Oregon form  the v e i n s are somewhat  curved.  From the foregoing l i s t , from the R i d d l e Formation  i t can be noted  that 9 s p e c i e s  are considered s p e c i f i c a l l y  w i t h c o u n t e r p a r t s from the Hazelton.  identical  T h i s has been done c a r e -  f u l l y and c a u t i o u s l y because o f the i n f e r e n c e s t h i s has but the w r i t e r i s c o n f i d e n t of the accuracy of the and  12,  i n dating,  identifications  comparisons.  Comparison w i t h Potomac F l o r a The Potomac Group o f Maryland e x t e n s i v e f l o r a t o t a l l i n g 174  and V i r g i n i a c o n t a i n s an  s p e c i e s (Dorf, 1952,  p. 2165,2166).  T h i s f l o r a i s contained i n three formations comprising  the  31 Potomac Group,, namely, the Patuxent o f Neocomian age, the Arundel o f Neocomian age and the Patapsco o f A l b i a n age. T h i s f l o r a contains the f o l l o w i n g species that are a l s o found  i n the Hazelton  flora.  i n name from the Hazelton  Where a Potomac s p e c i e s  e q u i v a l e n t , the Hazelton  differs  species i s  given i n b r a c k e t s . Ruffordia goepperti. Onychiopsis  brevifolia  Equisetum l y e l l i  (Coniopteris  brevifolia).  (Equisetites l y e l l i ) .  Gleichenites nordenskioldi. Podozamites l a n e e o l a t u s . Cladophlebis  virginiensis.  Cladophlebis  parva.  Sphenopteris  dentata.  The f i r s t  four species i n the above l i s t occur o n l y i n  the Patuxent f o r m a t i o n , whereas the f i f t h (Podozamites l a n e e o l a t u s ) occurs formations.  The l a s t  through the Patapsco If this  Formation.  f l o r a i s considered as a whole, i t has a 2 0 . 5 $  much l e s s f o r the Arundel  Patapsco  i n the Patuxent and Patapsco  three species range from the Patuxent  c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the Hazelton  considered  s p e c i e s above  flora.  The $ c o r r e l a t i o n i s  and Patapsco f l o r a s  s e p a r a t e l y ; v i z , Patuxent, 2 0 . 5 $ ,  10.2$.  i f each f l o r a i s Arundel, 7 . 6 $ ,  32 Comparison w i t h the F l o r a o f the Kootenay Formation W.A.Bell ( 1 9 5 6 ,  f i g . 1)  a t o t a l o f 33 p l a n t  lists  s p e c i e s i n the Kootenay f l o r a , o f which 21 are i d e n t i f i e d specifically. The f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s from the Kootenay a l s o occur i n the Hazelton  flora.  from the Hazelton  Where a Kootenay s p e c i e s d i f f e r s i n name  e q u i v a l e n t , the Hazelton  species i s given in  brackets. Coniopteris Cladophlebis  brevifolia. virginiensis.  Cladophlebis heterophylla. Sphenopteris l a t i l o b a Equisetites  (Sphenopteris  dentata).  lyelli.  Baiera c f . furcata. Baiera c f . gracilus. Ginkgo p l u r i p a r t i t a  (Ginkgoites a r c t i c u s ) .  Ginkgo c f . l e p i d a (Ginkgoites  sibirica).  Czekanowskia c f . r i g i d a . Ptilophyllum  (Anomozamites)  Ptilophyllum  arcticum.  montanense.  N i l s s o n i a s chaumb u r g e n s i s . Nilssonia nigracollensis Nilssonia  (Nilssonia parvula).  canadensis.  Pseudoctenis h a z e l t o n e n s i s . Pityopnyllum  c f . nordenskioldi.  Podozamites l a n c e o l a t u s . These 19 s p e c i e s provide a 7 3 . 0 % c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the  33 Hazelton  flora. As p o i n t e d out p r e v i o u s l y i n the s e c t i o n on i d e n t i f i -  c a t i o n s , the f o l l o w i n g synonymies occur Sphenopteris p 1 uripart±t  l a t i l o b a f o r Sphenopteris  i n the f o r e g o i n g  list:  den t a t a, Ginkgo,  f o r Ginkgoites a r c t i c u s , Ginkgo_ nana f o r  a  G i n k g o i t e s s i b i r i c a , and N i l s s o n i a n i g r a c o l l e n s i s f o r N i l s s o n i a parvula. The Kootenay s p e c i e s Ginkgo c f . l e p i d a ( i n B e l l , p. 87, p l . 37, f i g . 5) d i f f e r s  1956,  i n no s i g n i f i c a n t r e s p e c t s from  forms r e f e r a b l e to Ginkgoites s i b i r i c a .  As pointed out by  Seward (1919, p. 11) an i n c r e a s e i n the number o f lobes i s not considered to be a f e a t u r e f o r s p e c i f i c  distinction.  Comparison w i t h the F l o r a o f the BlaiEmore Group Lower F l o r a : The B l a i r m o r e  "lower f l o r a " comprises 37 p l a n t  s p e c i e s ( B e l l , 1956, f i g . 1).  33 o f the s p e c i e s are i d e n t i f i e d  specifically. The  f o l l o w i n g species a l s o occur  Where a lower Blairmore e q u i v a l e n t , the Hazelton  species d i f f e r  i n the Hazelton  i n name from the Hazelton  s p e c i e s i s given i n b r a c k e t s .  Coniopt er i s brev i f o l i a . Cladophlebis  virginiensis.  Cladophlebis  parva.  Klukia  canadensis.  Sphenopteris  (Ruffordia)  Sphenopteris  latiloba  floral  goppert!.  (Sphenopteris  dentata).  Equisetites Sagenopteris  lyelli. Williamsi.  Ginkgo p l u r i p a r t i t a  (Ginkgoites a r c t i c u s ) .  Ginkgo nana ( G i n g o i t e s s i b i r i c a ) . Phoenicopsis  arctica.  Ptilophyllum  (Anomozam11es) montanense.  P t i l o p h y l l u m arcticurn. Pseudocycas Mlssonia Elatides  dunkeriana.  canadensis. curvifolia.  Pityophyllum c f . nordenskioldi. Podozamites l a n c e o l a t u s . These 18 s p e c i e s r e s u l t i n a 5 0 . 0 $ c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the Hazelton f l o r a . list  The synonymies f o r those names i n the above  that d i f f e r from names i n the Hazelton f l o r a , have been  p o i n t e d out i n the previous s e c t i o n and elsewhere paper,  and need not be repeated  i n this  here.  The most noteworthy f e a t u r e o f the B l a i r m o r e f l o r a " i s the presence ( B e l l , 1 9 5 6 , p. 1 1 ) .  "lower  o f one d i c o t y l e d o n , Sapindopsis  angusta  T h i s s p e c i e s a l s o occurs i n the B l a i r m o r e  "upper f l o r a " which w i l l be compared w i t h the Hazelton f l o r a i n the next  section.  Upper F l o r a : The "upper f l o r a " o f the B l a i r m o r e group c o n t a i n s a t o t a l o f 35 p l a n t s p e c i e s ( B e l l , 1 9 5 6 , f i g . 1) o f which 18 a r e specifically  identified.  The f o l l o w i n g species also occur i n the Hazelton Cladophlebis  flora:  virginiensis.  Equisetites l y e l l i . These two plants c o n s t i t u t e a 10.0% the Hazelton  correlation with  flora.  The most s i g n i f i c a n t feature of the Blairmore  "upper  f l o r a " i s the presence of 9 d i c o t y l e d o n s , whereas none i s r e ported from the Hazelton  flora.  PART I I I - INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS The f l o r a s of the Riddle and Kennecott formations  are  the only f l o r a s , i n the previous s e c t i o n , which have the f l o r a l datings substantiated by faunal datings. In the case of the f l o r a of the Kennecott Formation, at l e a s t three molluscan assemblages are present  (Imlay et a l ,  1954-) which can be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y w i t h beds of the A l b i a n of the l a t e s t e a r l y Cretaceous i n C a l i f o r n i a , i n the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , and i n Europe. In sharp contrast to the foregoing evidence of the of the Kennecott formation, Knowlton ( i n M a r t i n , 1926, 346) was  p.  age 344-  quite d e f i n i t e that the age of the Kennecott Formation  i s e i t h e r l a t e J u r a s s i c or e a r l i e s t Cretaceous.  Hox^ever, the  overwhelming faunal evidence together w i t h the g e n e r a l l y acknowledged f a c t that faunas take precedence over f l o r a s f o r d a t i n g , makes i t apparent that Knowlton, although his i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s of  36 t h e p l a n t s a r e u n d o u b t e d l y c o r r e c t , has too  J u r a s s i c f l o r a o f D o u g l a s C o u n t y , O r e g o n , has  (Fontaine,  However, the  i n Ward) b e e n a c c e p t e d as a J u r a s s i c  exact  o v e r l y i n g and  contained  i n the R i d d l e Formation  ( r e d e f i n e d ) , and  f o s s i l s of l a t e J u r a s s i c  to l a t e T i t h o n i a n )  age.  formations.  The  The  between the R i d d l e  Formation i s considered  Imlay  t o be  and  angular  on  onto o l d e r J u r a s s i c o v e r l y i n g Days C r e e k  a disconformity  p a r t o f the V a l a n g i n i a n  this  Dothan  Days C r e e k F o r m a t i o n r e s t s c o n c o r d a n t l y  contact  B e r r i a s i a n and  that  Riddle Formation rests w i t h  l o c a l l y overlaps  plants  (Portlandian-middle  t h e o l d e r J u r a s s i c G a l i c ' e , R o g u e , and  t h e R i d d l e F o r m a t i o n and rocks.  The  the  recently.  shown t h a t t h e  unit also contains  u n c o n f o r m i t y on  beds t o  s t r a t a have b e e n i n d o u b t u n t i l  I m l a y e t a l (1959) has  since  flora.  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the p l a n t - b e a r i n g  underlying  R e c e n t w o r k by R.W. are  slightly  old. The  1905  dated the f l o r a  i n v o l v i n g the  stages.  (1959, p. 278O) i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p l a n t s  says:  "The e v i d e n c e b a s e d on m o l l u s k s shows t h a t t h e p a l e o b o t a n i s t s were c o r r e c t i n t h e i r J u r a s s i c age a s s i g n m e n t s o f c e r t a i n p l a n t s , but t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r beds i n D o u g l a s C o u n t y , O r e g o n , i n w h i c h the p l a n t s occur are l a t e s t J u r a s s i c rather than Middle J u r a s s i c . " K n o w l t o n ( 1 9 1 0 , p. o l d as  the The  addition  145)  thought t h a t the p l a n t s were  Lower O o l i t e ( B a j o c i a n ) o f  as  Europe.  Corwin Formation of northwestern Alaska  t o t h e J u r a s s i c f l o r a o f Cape L i s b u r n e  contains,  (Knowlton,  in  1914),  37 a younger Early  at inland  to Late Cretaceous  i960,  Sable, with  flora  the  125).  p.  exposures by  structural  s e v e r a l authors  Attempts  c o a s t a l o n e s , on c o n t i n u i t y , do  been d a t e d  the  the b a s i s o f s i m i l a r not  appear  i n the  exposures,  entirely  w h i c h are based  t o be  propose to d i s c u s s f u r t h e r  and  inland  exposures  lithologies  and  entirely conclusive.  ages o f t h e on  from  ( i n Chapman  to c o r r e l a t e  In view o f the d i s c r e p a n c y  does n o t  t h a t has  fossil  inland  and  coastal  p l a n t s , the w r i t e r  t h e Cape L i s b u r n e o r  inland  floras. At  the present  Cretaceous  the  boundary i n western  o f t h e K o o t e n a y and there  time,  Blairmore  location  Canada and formations  i s considerable controversy  Inspection of figure  o f the H a z e l t o n  f l o r a with other  indicate  flora, o f an on  and age  the  lower  t h e ages o f t h e s e  floras  lower  are not It  this  flora  that  3 and  flora  flora.  flora  o f the  has  The  which  10;  previous  i t s strongest  particularly  floras.  age  comparisons  Consequently  the any  Kootenay assignment extent  the ages o f  ages o f  these  the  last  established conclusively. in figure  the H a z e l t o n  4 and  flora  has  a previous few  I n so f a r as  section  similarities  w i t h t h e Cape L i s b u r n e , K e n n e c o t t ,  more f l o r a s .  9)  depends t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e  floras,  Blairmore  i s observed  thesis  importance  three  I960,' p.  o f the R i d d l e Formation,  Blairmore  to the H a z e l t o n  K o o t e n a y and 2  the  the  are problems about  f l o r a s made i n t h e  that the Hazelton  correlations with  Jurassic-  in particular  (Pocock,  Gussow, I960).  section,  of the  and  t h e Cape L i s b u r n e and  Upper  of of  Blair-  Kennecott  38 f l o r a s are concerned  t h i s i s undoubtedly  s m a l l number o f p l a n t s that comprise  due i n part to the  these  floras.  i n f i g u r e 4 that o n l y 2 s p e c i e s i n the  It i s observed  Hazelton f l o r a occur a l s o i n the upper B l a i r m o r e f l o r a ing i n a 10.0% c o r r e l a t i o n .  result-  T h i s v e r y low c o r r e l a t i o n , t o -  gether w i t h the presence o f 9 d i c o t y l e d o n s i n the upper B l a i r more f l o r a  (whereas no d i c o t y l e d o n s occur i n the Hazelton  f l o r a ) makes i t apparent not  that these.two f l o r a s are d e f i n i t e l y  correlative. E i g h t e e n s p e c i e s i n the Hazelton f l o r a a l s o occur i n  the lower B l a i r m o r e f l o r a , as pointed out e a r l i e r , in a 50.0% correlation.  resulting  Probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t  aspect  o f a f l o r a to be considered when a s s i g n i n g an age, i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new s p e c i e s .  T h e r e f o r e , the presence  d i c o t y l e d o n , S a p i n d o p s i s angusta  of a  i n the lower B l a i r m o r e  flora  assumes prime importance.  The presence o f t h i s d i c o t y l e d o n In  the lower B l a i r m o r e f l o r a  (and the complete absence o f d i c o t y -  ledons i n the Hazelton f l o r a ) , together w i t h the absence o f such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c J u r a s s i c s p e c i e s as C o n i o p t e r i s  hymenophylloides,  B a i e r a c f . f u r c a t a , B a i e r a c f . g r a c i l u s , e t c . , (which are present i n the Hazelton f l o r a ) i s considered s u f f i c i e n t  evidence to  p r e c l u d e a c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n o f these two f l o r a s f o r purposes o f a s s i g n i n g an age.  However, the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h % c o r r e l a t i o n  i n d i c a t e s a general syngenetic r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the 2 f l o r a s .  The  f l o r a o f the R i d d l e Formation  and the f l o r a o f the  Potomac Group are the only two major J u r a s s i c - C r e t a c e o u s i n North America that are w e l l dated;  floras  the Kennecott has been  a c c u r a t e l y dated but c o n t a i n s a r e l a t i v e l y  small f l o r a .  the Potomac f l o r a i s an "accepted" Lower Cretaceous  Although  flora,  i s a p p a r e n t l y some doubt as to the ages o f the three  there  floras  comprising  the o v e r a l l Potomac f l o r a , and hence o f the three  formations  (Patuxent, A r u n d e l , and Patapsco) comprising the  Potomac Group. Bell  Some d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s problem i s given by  (1956, p . 1 2 ) , who i n d i s c u s s i n g the age o f the lower  more f l o r a and the presence Potomac f l o r a  Blair-  o f 15 lower Blairmore s p e c i e s i n the  says:  " I f the Patuxent and Arundel were d e p o s i t e d w i t h i n the Neocomian-Barremian time u n i t as thought by B e r r y (1911, p. 172) an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the occurrence o f the A p t i a n lower Blairmore s p e c i e s , Gleichenites nordenskioldi, Elatocladus b r e v i f o l i a and E l a t o c l a d u s a c i f o l i a , i n the supposedly Neocomian Patuxent formation might be a t t r i b u t e d to the d i s t a n c e between the o c c u r r e n c e s . On the other hand, there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that the Patuxent and Arundel f l o r u l e s may be as young as A p t i a n . Dorf ( 1 9 5 2 , p. 2176) has recorded E.H. C o l b e r t ' s summary of the age s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Arundel dinosaurs as p o s s i b l y p o i n t i n g to 'a high stage i n the Lower Cretaceous X" 1  E i g h t species i n the Hazelton f l o r a a l s o occur i n the f l o r a o f the Potomac Group, r e s u l t i n g  i n a 20.5$ c o r r e l a t i o n ,  as has been pointed out i n the previous s e c t i o n .  This $  c o r r e l a t i o n f i g u r e i n c l u d e s species and " c f " forms. I f , however, o n l y w e l l d e f i n e d species are c o n s i d e r e d , the Hazelton f l o r a has a 22.8$ c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the Potomac f l o r a .  40  I f t h e Potomac f l o r a with respect  i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e sub  to the three formations  Patapsco) comprising  floras  (Patuxent, Arundel,  t h e P o t o m a c Group t h e n  w i t h a n y one sub f l o r a becomes much l e s s .  the %  and  correlation  Of t h e e i g h t  Hazel-  t o n s p e c i e s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e Potomac Group f o u r o f them (Ruffordia goepperti, Onychiopsis and  brevifolia,  G l e i c h e n i t e s n o r d e n s k i o l d i ) occur  Formation  o f supposed Neocomian age.  laneeolatus) occurs and  three species  and  Sphenopteris  Patuxent  One  (Podozamites  species  and P a t a p s c o  (Cladophlebis v i r g i n i e n s i s , occur  lyelli  only i n the  i n both the Patuxent  dentata)  Equisetum  formations,  Cladophlebis  only i n the Arundel  parva,  Formation  o f presumed Neocomian age. Considering  species only then, the Hazelton  flora  t h e f o l l o w i n g % c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e t h r e e sub f l o r a s Potomac  has  o f the  Group: Patapsco Arundel Patuxent  8.7% 8.5% 22.8%  These very low % c o r r e l a t i o n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a , serve t o p o i n t out t h a t a c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n o f these  floras  w i t h the Hazelton  flora  i s n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h any  confidence: (a)  The a b s e n c e i n t h e P o t o m a c f l o r a o f t h e J u r a s s i c  element present hymenophylloides,  i n the Hazelton  flora, i . e . , Coniopteris  Czeckanowskia c f . r i g i d a ,  species of Baiera,  etc.); (b)  The p r e s e n c e o f 6 ( o u t o f 111)  angiosperm  species  41 in and  the Patuxent  flora,  25 ( o u t o f 91)  flora  5 ( o u t o f 37)  i n the Patapsco  i n the Arundel  flora,  flora,  whereas t h e  Hazelton  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e c o m p l e t e a b s e n c e o f a n g i o s p e r m s . The  flora  Oregon, c o n t a i n s  o f the Riddle 9 species  These 9 s p e c i e s  flora.  Formation  that occur  result  I f species  also  i n Douglas i n the  County,  Hazelton  i n a 25.6$ c o r r e l a t i o n  the  two f l o r a s .  the  c o m p a r i s o n , however, t h e $ c o r r e l a t i o n  between  and ''cf" f o r m s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n i s increased  sharply  to 46.1$. This flora  of late  strong  correlation with  J u r a s s i c age, together  of dicotyledons Hazelton  statistical  i n these  floras  with  well-dated  the complete  and t h e p r e s e n c e  f l o r a o f such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  a  absence  i n the  J u r a s s i c s p e c i e s as  C o n i o p t er i s hy_menqphy 1 l o i d e s , N i l s s o n i a p t e r q p h y l l o i d . e s , Pterophyllum  tennuipinnatus,  gracilus, N i l s s o n i a parvula strongly least,  Baiera  and C z e c k a n o w s k i a c f . r i g i d a  to the acceptance o f a l a t e  f o r the Hazelton In  comparing  c f . furcata, Baiera c f . point  J u r a s s i c age, i n p a r t a t  flora.  floras  t h e words o f A.C. Seward  (1900, p.  3025 a r e w o r t h y o f n o t e : " I n t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f f l o r a s more o r l e s s w i d e l y separated geographically, the r e c o g n i t i o n o f s p e c i f i c i d e n t i t y i s n a t u r a l l y d e s i r a b l e , but the o b j e c t o f a comparative study o f f o s s i l f l o r a s i s p r i m a r i l y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e s e m b l a n c e s and d i f f e r e n c e s as r e g a r d s t h e g e n e r a l f a c i e s o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n r a t h e r than the a b s o l u t e s p e c i f i c identity of individual plants."  42  Fourteen species of plants are common to both the Hazelton and Kootenay f l o r a s r e s u l t i n g i n a 6 6 . 6 % c o r r e l a t i o n . I f " c f " forms are i n c l u d e d , then the % c o r r e l a t i o n i s increased to  7 3 . 0 % .  The l i s t of species common to both f l o r a s has been  given i n the previous s e c t i o n and w i l l not be repeated  here.  The age of the Kootenay f l o r a i s to some extent dependent on the ages of the lower Blairmore and upper Blairmore f l o r a s , the ages of which depend to a considerable extent on the age of the Potomac f l o r a s .  Hence i t i s observed that the ages  of the 3 Potomac f l o r a s , though apparently not e s t a b l i s h e d conc l u s i v e l y , have considerable s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the present  dis-  cussion. The f o l l o w i n g s i x species i n the Kootenay f l o r a occur also i n the Potomac f l o r a ( B e l l , 1 9 5 6 , p . 7 ) : Cladophlebis v i r g i n i e n s i s . Sphenopteris  latiloba.  Onychiopsis  psilotoides.  Coniopteris b r e v i f o l i a . Equisetites l y e l l i . Podozamites l a n c e o l a t u s . It i s observed i n the Hazelton f l o r a .  that a l l the foregoing species occur also These 6 species give the Kootenay f l o r a  a 28.5% c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the Potomac f l o r a .  As pointed out  e a r l i e r , the Hazelton f l o r a has 8 species common to the Potomac f l o r a f o r a 22.8% c o r r e l a t i o n .  I f however, " c f " forms are  included  f o r a $ correlation figure, the $ correlation  duced t o 2 3 . 5 $ The also  f o r t h e K o o t e n a y and 2 0 . 5 $  following  i s re-  f o r the Hazelton  8 species o f the Kootenay f l o r a  i n the f l o r a of the Riddle Formation.  flora  occur  Where a n O r e g o n  s p e c i e s d i f f e r s in.name f r o m t h e K o o t e n a y e q u i v a l e n t , t h e Kootenay species i s given i n b r a c k e t s . Nilssonia  parvula  (Nilssonia  nigracollensis).  Taeniopteris orovillensis (Nilssonia Cladophlebis vaccensis  canadensis).  (Cladophlebis v i r g i n i e n s i s  pars.)  Ginkgo d i g i t a t a ( G i n k g o i t e s a r c t i c u s ) . Ginkgo s i b i r i c a Pterophyllum  (Ginkgo  contiguum  nana. Ginkgo c f . l e p i d a ) . (P t i l o p h y 1 l u m a r c t i c u m ) .  Podozamites l a n e e o l a t u s . Pityophyllum cf. nordenskioldi. These 8 s p e c i e s r e s u l t  in a 32.5$  Kootenay w i t h t h e Oregon f l o r a ( 4 6 . 1 $ If,  c o r r e l a t i o n of the  f o r the Hazelton  however, s p e c i e s o n l y a r e c o n s i d e r e d ,  then  the $  flora). correlation  o f t h e Kootenay w i t h t h e Oregon f l o r a i s reduced t o 1 4 . 3 $ (25.7$  f o r the Hazelton Bell  (1956,  flora).  p . 7 ) s i t e s 6 species  which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Jurassic the  same page B e l l  i n the Kootenay f l o r a  species.  At the bottom o f  states:  "The o c c u r r e n c e o f s u c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c W e a l d e n s p e c i e s as S p h e n o p t e r i s c o r d a i , O n y c h i o p s i s p s i l o t o i d e s and N i l s s o n i a s c h a u m b u r g e n s i s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o d a t e t h e K o o t e n a y f l o r a a s e a r l y C r e t a c e o u s and f a l l i n g w i t h i n the time u n i t f o r I n f r a v a l a n g i n i a n to Barremian i n c l u s i v e . "  44 The acteristic  w r i t e r most c e r t a i n l y Wealden s p e c i e s .  however, one c o u l d a r g u e age  f o r the Kootenay  flora,  pars  these are char-  same method o f r e a s o n i n g , f o r an Upper  on t h e J u r a s s i c  cf. rigida,  p a r v u l a , Podozamites  Cladophlebis v i r g i n i e n s i s  that  as s t r o n g l y  based  e.g., Czeckanqwskia  Nilssonia  Using t h i s  just  flora  agrees  element  l a n e e o l a t u s and some forms o f (=C.den11culata).  new s p e c i e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  hances  from o l d e r  an argument  floras.  i n this  Baiera cf. Furcata,  Presumably,  t h e h y p o t h e s i s b e h i n d t h e argument p r e s e n t e d by B e l l  ing over  Jurassic  superimposed  If this  f o r a lowermost  i s that  on s p e c i e s c a r r y -  i s s o , then i t indeed en-  C r e t a c o u s age.  CONCLUSIONS  A lower unit,"  limit  f o r t h e age o f t h e "upper  i n the Smithers area at l e a s t ,  has been e s t a b l i s h e d by  (1926, p . 89) who i d e n t i f i e d a f a u n a f r o m t h e  F.H.McLearn underlying  sedimentary  sedimentary  unit  as b e i n g o f L a t e S o n n i n i a n t o E a r l y  S t e p p h e o c e r a t a n o r M i d d l e B a j o c i a n age.  As a r e s u l t , t h e  H a z e l t o n f l o r a may be as o l d as O x f o r d i a n o r C a l l o v i a n . At apparent  this  point  conflicts  i t i s pertinent  between f o s s i l  t o comment on t h e  faunas  and p l a n t s  i n both  t h e H a z e l t o n and S m i t h e r s map a r e a . Armstrong H a z e l t o n map  (1953) i n t h e d e s c r i p t i v e n o t e s on t h e  states:  45 " F o s s i l fauna were c o l l e c t e d from at l e a s t twentyl o c a l i t i e s , but o n l y two o f the c o l l e c t i o n s cont a i n e d d i a g n o s t i c specimens. These are o f l a t e Upper J u r a s s i c age. They were c o l l e c t e d from beds that a p p a r e n t l y l i e s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y above beds c o n t a i n i n g f o s s i l p l a n t s o f Kootenay age." Dr. Armstrong  ( p e r s o n a l communication) s t a t e d that the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s fauna was done by F.H.McLearn. appear  I t would  then that i n t h i s i n s t a n c e the p l a n t s were dated too  young, s i n c e t h e r e i s no evidence to i n d i c a t e that t h e s t r a t a i n q u e s t i o n are o v e r t u r n e d . In the d e s c r i p t i v e notes on the Smithers map-area, Armstrong  (1944) s t a t e s :  "In G l a c i e r Gulch, however, f o s s i l s h e l l s o f Upper J u r a s s i c or very e a r l y Lower Cretaceous age were c o l l e c t e d from a bed 300 f e e t s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y above a bed c o n t a i n i n g f o s s i l p l a n t s o f B l a i r m o r e age." T h i s fauna was i d e n t i f i e d by F.H.McLearn ( J . E. Armstrong, (see  p e r s o n a l ! communication).  S i n c e some c o n t r o v e r s e y  B e l l , 1 9 5 6 , p.24) p r e v a i l s about t h e s t r a t i g r a p h y i n t h i s  area, the w r i t e r does not propose to d i s c u s s the problem any further. In  an attempt  to determine how many H a z e l t o n s p e c i e s  occur i n J u r a s s i c areas and how many i n Lower Cretaceous (Wealden) areas the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e was compiled.  The H a z e l t o n  f l o r a was compared w i t h the Potomac, Oregon J u r a s s i c , Y o r k s h i r e J u r a s s i c , and E n g l i s h Wealden f l o r a s . data from these comparisons, on f o s s i l  plants.  Kennecott,  To supplement  use was made o f Seward's 4 volumes  TABLE I I I H a z e l t o n Species  Equisetites  Jurassic  X  lyelli  X  Cladophlebis heterophylla C.  Lower Cretaceous (Wealden)  impressa  C. parva  X  C. v i r g i n i e n s i s  X  Coniopteris  X  brevifolia  C. hym e no p hy 11 o i d e s  X  Dictyophy11urn fuchsiforme Gleichenites nordenskioldi Klukia  X  canadensis  Sphenopteris  acrodentata X  S. dentata (Ruffordia) gopperti Sagenopteris Ctenopteris Nilssonia N.  Williams1  X  X  X  insignis  brongniarti  canadensis  X  N. p a r v u l a  X  N. p t e r o p h y l l o i d e s  X  N. schaumbur g ens i s  X  Pseudoctenis h a z e l t o n e n s i s Pseudocycas Pterophyllum  dunkeriana tennuipinnatus  P. r e c t a n g u l a r e  X  X  47 Hazelton Species  Jurassic  Lower Cretaceous (Wealden)  P t i l o p h y l l u m arcticum P. Columbianurn  X  P. Hirtum P.  (Anomazamites)  montanense  B a i e r a sp. c f . f u r c a t a  X  B_aiera. sp. c f . g r a c i l u s  X  Ginkgoites  X  arcticus  X  X  X  X  P i t y o p h y l l u m c f . nordenski51di  X  X  Czekanowskia sp. c f . r i g i d a  X  G.  sibirica  Athrotaxites Elatides  berryi  curvifolia  Elatides splendida  Phoenicopsis  arctica  Podozamites l a n c e o l a t u s  X  X  48 From the f o r e g o i n g t a b l e i t i s observed  that 18 s p e c i e s  occur i n J u r a s s i c areas and 14 occur i n Lower Cretaceous  areas.  Seven s p e c i e s occur i n both J u r a s s i c and Lower Cretaceous T h i s data i s s u f f i c i e n t undoubtedly  areas.  to i n d i c a t e that the Hazelton f l o r a i s  a t r a n s i t i o n a l f l o r a between the J u r a s s i c and  Cretaceous. I t i s considered that the H a z e l t o n f l o r a , and the "upper sedimentary  u n i t " i n which i t i s c o n t a i n e d , can be dated  w i t h confidence as l a t e J u r a s s i c to e a r l y Cretaceous, that i s , P o r t l a n d i a n to Neocomian i n c l u s i v e because o f the f o l l o w i n g : (1)  A strong s t a t i s t i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n  (46.1%)  with  the f l o r a o f the R i d d l e Formation i n Douglas County, Oregon. (2)  The presence o f an undoubted J u r a s s i c  i n the H a z e l t o n (3)  element  flora.  The presence o f 6 angiosperms out o f 111  i n the Patuxent  Formation  the Hazelton f l o r a .  sperms i n i t i a l l y  (Neocomian), whereas none occurs i n  T h i s would suggest an age assignment o f  younger than Purbeckian the H a z e l t o n f l o r a .  species  (Uppermost J u r r a s i c ) cannot  However, a c c o r d i n g to A x e l r o d  be made f o r  (1959)  angio-  invaded lowland basins at g e n e r a l l y lower  l a t i t u d e s , and appeared  i n the r e c o r d at higher l a t i t u d e s o n l y  i n the l a t e r part o f the E a r l y Cretaceous.  I f t h i s i s indeed  the case, then the Hazelton f l o r a may be Neocomian when compared to the lower B l a i r m o r e (Aptian) f l o r a w i t h i t s one dicotyledon.  49 (4)  The wide ranging nature o f some o f the f o s s i l  p l a n t s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y o f the assignment e  «g«j  o f an E a r l y Cretaceous age to the Hazelton  flora,  G i n k g o i t e s s i b i r i c a , E l a t i d e s curv i f o l i a , P i t y o p h y l l u m  n o r d e n s k i o l d i , N i l s s o n i a p a r v u l a , Podozamites l a n c e o l a t u s . (5)  The presence o f s h e l l s o f Upper J u r a s s i c age  i n the Hazelton area at two l o c a l i t i e s . (6)  The presence  i n the Hazelton f l o r a o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  Lower Cretaceous s p e c i e s such as N i l s s o n i a  schaumburgensis,  ( R u f f o r d i a ) g o p p e r t i , and C o n i o p t e r i s b r e v i f o l i a . It not range  i s considered probable that the Hazelton f l o r a does through the e n t i r e Neocomian, but r a t h e r t h a t i t may  be r e s t r i c t e d  to the lower h a l f o f the Neocomian epoch.  Evidence  f o r t h i s c o n s i s t s o f the f o l l o w i n g : (1) Hazelton  Presence o f a s t r o n g J u r a s s i c element i n the  flora; (2)  Absence o f angiosperms i n the Hazelton f l o r a and  the presence o f them i n the Patuxent  and Arundel f l o r a s which  a p p a r e n t l y r e p r e s e n t part o f the Neocomian, and presumably the later  part; (3)  Absence i n the Patuxent  and Arundel f l o r a s o f  many o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c J u r a s s i c s p e c i e s which a r e present i n the H a z e l t o n  flora.  Future Work: Suggestions f o r f u r t h e r work on the age o f the "upper  50 sedimentary the  u n i t " and t h e H a z e l t o n Group i n g e n e r a l ,  following: (1) A d d i t i o n a l c o l l e c t i n g o f  to a i d i n the study of conclusive In t h i s  ages t o  regard  regard  to  being of  the s t r a t i g r a p h y  the u n i t s  and a l s o  fossils  any use due t o  in  faunas  assigning  is  Another feature  the u n l i k e l i h o o d o f  the metamorphism o f  of with  cuticle  the rocks  and  work the  leaves. F o s s i l plant  (2)  collections  should, i f possible,  t a k e n t o E u r o p e and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and compared w i t h type  be  directly  specimens'.  (3) fossil  and  c o m p r i s i n g the H a z e l t o n Group.  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d .  the plant  contained  f o s s i l plants  the p o s s i b i l i t y of having J u r a s s i c f l o r a s  more t h a n one age  Further collections  analysis (4)  of  include  of  s h o u l d be made, a s  samples discussed  C o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n  u s i n g o t h e r methods  for dating;  for plant  eg.  micro-  earlier.  to the  possibility  potassium-argon.  51  PLATE I (Photographs are n a t u r a l s i z e ; s c a l e d i v i s i o n s are i n mm.)  Figure  12  Figure Figure  9.W 11 10.W  Figure F i g u r e 5*  Equisetites l y e l l i Cladophlebis ?  (Mantell)  heterophylla  Cladophlebis  Unger.  Fontaine.  (Gleichenites) p o r s i l d i  C o n i o p t e r i s (Sphenopteris) (Brongniart) Seward. Sphenopteris dentata  hymenophylloides  (Velonovsky)  Figure  4  N i l s s o n i a parvula  Figure  7  Nilssonia pterophylloides  Figure  1  Pterophyllum tennuipinnatus ("type specimen B - 3 4 0 7 ) . ~ ~  n.sp.  Figure  2  Pterophyllum (counterpart  n.sp.  Figure  8  Ptilophyllum arcticum  (Heer)  tennuipinnatus B-3399).  Seward.  Seward.  Fontaine. Nathorst.  (Goppert)  Seward.  PLATE I I (Photographs are n a t u r a l s i z e unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d , scale d i v i s i o n s are i n mm.) Figure 15  B a i e r a sp. c f . f u r c a t a ( L i n d l e y and Hutton) Braun.  Figure  3  Ginkgoites a r c t i c u s (Heer)  Figure 13  E l a t i d e s c u r v i f o i i a (Dunker)  Figure  Ginkgoites s i b i r i c a  6  Florin. Nathorst.  Heer  Figure 16  B a i e r a sp. c f . g r a c i l u s (Bean)  Bunberry.  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