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Age and correlation of the Sooke formation with a section on its palynology Cox, Raymond L. 1962

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AGE AND CORRELATION OF THE SOOKE FORMATION WITH A SECTION ON ITS PALYNOLOGY  by RAYMOND L . COX B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1957  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT  OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in  t h e Department o f GEOLOGY  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d from c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e d e g r e e o f MASTER OF SCIENCE.  Members o f t h e Department o f Geology "THE UNIVERSITY ' April,  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1962  In presenting  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study.  I further agree that permission  f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may granted by the Head of my Department or by his  be  representatives.  It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada.  vii  ABSTRACT  The earlier  purpose of t h i s  i s to c r i t i c a l l y  s t u d i e s o f t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n ,  p r e v i o u s l y unreported to  study  the f o r m a t i o n  review  to present a  m i c r o f l o r a and t o a s s i g n an age  on t h e b a s i s o f p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l  evidence. The clusions  methods u s e d  to a r r i v e  consisted of f i e l d  a t tHe g e n e r a l  work and l a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s e s ,  supplemented by r e f e r e n c e  to the l i t e r a t u r e  authorities  of palynology,  i n the f i e l d s  ebrate paleontology The  and v e r t e b r a t e  Sooke F o r m a t i o n  crops  southwest coast o f Vancouver areas.  Each area  imentary  basin.  The l i t h o l o g y sandstones  and t o  Tertiary  invert-  paleontology.  out along  t h e s o u t h and  Island i n a s e r i e s of  isolated  conglomerates,  con-  appears to r e p r e s e n t a  sed-  consists of interbedded  and s h a l e s  i n varying  pro-  portions. Sooke s t r a t a and flora. -  contain a well preserved  The f a u n a  fauna  c o n s i s t s o f one v e r t e b r a t e and  132 m a r i n e i n v e r t e b r a t e s . cones, l e a f  fossil  The f l o r a  c o n s i s t s o f a few  and wood f r a g m e n t s and a w e l l  preserved  microflora. The  Sooke F o r m a t i o n  Blakeley Formation  i s correlated  with  the upper  o f W a s h i n g t o n and shows c l o s e f a u n a l  viii  resenblance Oregon.  t o the A s t o r i a  It i s correlated  s t a g e , b u t may  fauna with  r a n g e as h i g h as  of Washington  the European  and  Aquitanian  the H e l v e t i a n  stage.  V  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e ervisor,  h i s suggestions  the  preparation  and c o n s t r u c t i v e  of t h i s  I wish a l s o  and  sup-  D r . W. R. D a n n e r , o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o l o g y ,  for  ance  t o my t h e s i s  i n preparing  criticisms  during  paper.  t o t h a n k D r . G. E . Rouse f o r h i s a s s i s t material  f o r h i s guidance  f o r palynological  investigations  i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e p o l l e n and s p o r e s  recovered. Mr.  I. E. Cornwall  identified  the f o s s i l  significance. California  Cirripeda  and d i s c u s s e d  Island, their  D r . Wyatt Durham o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f  a t Berkeley  i d e n t i f i e d many  s p e c i m e n s and commented H. R e i n h a r t  of V i c t o r i a , Vancouver  invertebrate  on t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e .  o f Miami U n i v e r s i t y ,  Oxford,  D r . R.  Ohio and D r .  Tadao Kamei o f t h e D e s m o s t y l u s R e s e a r c h Committee, made many h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s the  vertebrate  genus,  helpful read  S u r v e y o f Canada  suggestions.  the i n i t i a l  criticism.  status of  Cornwallius•  I w i s h t o t h a n k my f e l l o w Geological  on t h e p r e s e n t  Japan  geologists  ofthe  i n C a l g a r y f o r t h e i r many  Mr. T. P. Chamney k i n d l y  d r a f t and o f f e r e d  proof-  h i s constructive  i  TABLE OP  CONTENTS  CHAPTER I.  II.  PAGE  INTRODUCTION  1  Purpose  1  Scope  2  Location  2  Accessibility  3  REVIEW OP GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY  , I|i  Previous  Studies  k-  Validity  o f t h e Terra "Sooke F o r m a t i o n "  8  Regional  Tertiary Stratigraphy  9  The  Pacific  coast  of North America  Vancouver I s l a n d  10 12  G e o l o g y o f t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n  12  Stratigraphy Discussion  of the type s e c t i o n  Contact r e l a t i o n s  with  Structure Megafossil  9  Studies  other  formations.  l6 1920 21  Plant megafossils  21  A marine v e r t e b r a t e  22  Marine  22  invertebrates  ii  CHAPTER III.  PAGE  PALYNOLOGY Field  2l+ procedures  2li  Laboratory procedures Pollen  and S p o r e  25  Study  27  Classification Pollen IV.  AGE AND  30  and s p o r e  classification  CORRELATION  Evidence  from P l a n t  Evidence  from  Evidence  from P l a n t M i c r o f o s s i l s  Evidence  from  SUMMARY AND  ...  33 Ill  Megafossils  the V e r t e b r a t e F o s s i l  the Marine  Fossils V.  keys  Ill J+l J+3  Invertebrate lx$  CONCLUSIONS  51  SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES  53  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  55  iii  L I S T OP  ILLUSTRATIONS  PLATE 1. (a,b) Sea  Cliffs,  Muir Creek b a s i n :  f o l l o w i n g page  15  2. (a,b) Sea  Cliffs,  Muir Greek b a s i n :  following plate  1  3. (a,b) Sea  Cliffs,  Muir Creek b a s i n :  following plate  2 28  i;.  Microf o s s i l s :  f o l l o w i n g , page  5.  Microf o s s i l s :  f o l l o w i n g p l a t e li.  6.  Microfossils:  following plate  5  7.  Microfossils:  following-plate  6  8.  Microfossils:  following plate  7  FIGURE 1.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of T e r t i a r y sediments the  s o u t h and  of Vancouver  southwest  Sample l o c a l i t y  3.  Maximum r a n g e s  • .  areas  Island:  2.  coast  coastal  on  -ia-pooke-t-  map:  i n pookot-  of s e l e c t e d  Pacific  T e r t i a r y f o r m a t i o n s and  faunas:  I)..  Muir Creek B a s i n :  5.  Sooke f a u n a l o c a l i t y  6.  Fauna  7.  Table: i l l u s t r a t i n g q u a l i t y of r e c o v e r y  in-^e-eice-^ i n packed  check l i s t :  c o r r e l a t i o n check l i s t :  o f m i c r o f o s s i l s f r o m Sooke s a m p l e s :  -in pocke-tio-pocko-fr-  page  28  iv  FIGURE 8.  Histogram  of m i c r o f o s s i l s  (RC 23):  f o l l o w i n g page  9.  Histogram  of m i c r o f o s s i l s  (RG 9):  following figure  8  10.  Histogram  of m i c r o f o s s i l s  (RC  following  9  11.  Composite h i s t o g r a m :  12.  Microfossils  common t o B u r r a r d  Sooke F o r m a t i o n s :  11-3):  28  figure  following figure and page  kh  10  vi  Finally, me  I wish  t o t h a n k my  the encouragement to f i n i s h  tributed presented  substantially here.  by  wife Elaine  who  gave  t h e s t u d y and  who  con-  typing  a l l o f the  material  1.  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  The  Sooke F o r m a t i o n  sedimentary out  rock u n i t  i n isolated  west  localities  of conglomerates,  ing proportions. J. Richardson ported  fossiliferous  o f e a r l y M i o c e n e age t h a t  coast of Vancouver  sists  i s a highly  a l o n g the s o u t h and s o u t h -  Island.  The l i t h o l o g y  sandstones  con-  and s h a l e s i n v a r y -  Sooke b e d s were f i r s t  i n 1879*  crops  d e s c r i b e d by  S i n c e t h e n , w o r k e r s have r e -  a small megaflora,  one v e r t e b r a t e f o s s i l  l a r g e marine i n v e r t e b r a t e  fauna  from  and a  the s t r a t a .  Purpose The logical  main o b j e c t i v e investigation  of t h i s  study i s a paleonto-  o f t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n .  l a r g e , p r e v i o u s l y unknown m i c r o f l o r a , Sooke s e d i m e n t s and  that  this  tribution record. and  i n t h i s present study,  classified.  Columbia  recovered  Tertiary  Its affinities floras  to the P a c i f i c The p u r p o s e  age r e l a t i o n s h i p s  from  i s illustrated  w i t h two o t h e r  are discussed.  information w i l l  A  British  I t i s hoped  s e r v e as a n a d d i t i o n a l  Coast T e r t i a r y  i s also of this  con-  palynological  t o show t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c microflora  t o t h e Sooke  2.  megafossils. logical age  To  data  are  this  end,  compiled  determinations  based  previously described and  on  both  paleonto-  correlations  the fauna  are  and  critically  reviewed. Scope Paleontological a t i o n were g a t h e r e d These f i e l d  stratigraphic  and  d u r i n g a one  observations  p r e v i o u s workers' al  evidence  are  lithologic  stratigraphic month f i e l d  inform-  season.  s u p p l e m e n t e d by  using  data  a region-  to p r o v i d e  framework f o r the p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l  discussion. The  investigation  eastern half w h i c h was  it  o f t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n  the a s s i g n e d  considered  t o be  contains both  sedimentary  is restricted  thesis  to the (Figs.  area.  south1,  This area  2) is  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the f o r m a t i o n the  type  s e c t i o n and  t h e most  as  complete  sequences.  Location The  Sooke F o r m a t i o n  i s l o c a t e d a l o n g the  and  southwest  coast of Vancouver  Island  Its  known e x t e n t  tip  of Vancouver I s l a n d , northwest  i s f r o m Betcher Bay  area  a t the  l ) .  southern  t o and  including  i s indicated  on F i g u r e  Owen P o i n t .  The  and  on F i g u r e 2 i n c l u d e s o n l y t h e  enlarged  thesis  (Fig.  south  1  southeastern  portion its  o f t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n  strata  a t Becher  In the  thesis  in a series appear for  with  area,  t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n  crops  isolated  localities.  to r e p r e s e n t  distinct  depositional basins  From s o u t h are:  quarter  by  Vye  each b a s i n , each outcrop  number.  For  example, t h e  out  localities and  geographic  e a s t t o n o r t h west a l o n g  P o i n t b a s i n , B e g g C r e e k b a s i n and  a special  These  Sooke b a s i n , M u i r C r e e k b a s i n ,  Within  of  Bay.  ease of r e f e r e n c e , each d e s i g n a t e d  these  exception  of f i v e  names.  the  the  the  coast  Glacier  Creek b a s i n . i s designated  outcrop  by  about  one  o f a m i l e west o f t h e mouth o f M u i r C r e e k ,  Muir Creek b a s i n  where RC  are  number o f  the  the  ( F i g u r e 2)  initials  i s designated  o f t h e w r i t e r and  RC  23  in  23,  i s the  outcrop.  Accessibility The all  area  y e a r by  Vancouver  discussed  in this  Island.  The  travelled  l o g g i n g road  All  c o a s t a l areas  accessible  is accessible  c a r , a l o n g h i g h w a y lij. f r o m area  o n l y by  Victoria,  from Jordan  P o r t Renfrew i s a c c e s s i b l e by  other  study  car along a  o n l y a t n i g h t and  boat.  River  to  wellon  weekends.  n o r t h of P o r t Renfrew  are  are,  CHAPTER  REVIEW OP  GEOLOGY AND  Previous The  a  and  century.  During this  listed  the  1.  to the  sections  the  near  a quarter a b o u t 22i^  ,  two  of  335'  of the  nearly writers  formation. are  beginning with  the  described  two  up  the  stratigraphic The  first  Sooke R i v e r  interbedded  parts:  139'  sandstones  consisted  with  and  a b o r e h o l e b e n e a t h the  conglomerate,  s a n d s t o n e and  section,  Harris  (I892)  Merriam  (1896)  stated  that  ( C l a r k and published  divided shales  cliffs,  shale  the  and  interbeds  Sooke b e d s  Arnold, the  of  clay.  cliffs.  D a l l and  J . C.  the  s e c t i o n , a t W h i f f e n S p i t , was  were Neocene i n age. 3.  for  so numerous, t h e y  order,  sandstone  e n c o u n t e r e d by  2.  are  town o f S o o k e .  of a m i l e  second  into  i n t e r e s t of  study. (I878)  in  knowledge of  contributions  J. Richardson  The  the  time, a t l e a s t twenty  below i n n u m e r i c a l  earliest  aroused  especially paleontologists  have c o n t r i b u t e d Because  PALEONTOLOGY  Studies  Sooke F o r m a t i o n has  geologists  II  first  I923) faunal  5list  o f Sooke m a r i n e  c o n c l u s i o n was Neocene age. faunal  list  that  from  Sooke s p e c i e s ,  n  e  (I898)  saying  In  the d e s c r i p t i o n s  and  adding a c h e c k l i s t  5.  Arnold  pp.  "...correlated  Miocene.' (1906  and  "...referred equivalent  "  Clapp  Carmanah F o r m a t i o n s  7.  Clapp in  (I912)  s e c t i o n near  8.  A r n o l d and of  marine  listed  than the Empire  a  of Coal  l8i|'  middle  and  the  p.  128)  and the  and  Miocene.  stratigraphic and  section a  101'  River.  i n a generalized  f o r m a t i o n s of the P a c i f i c  a Sooke f a u n a  or  California."  t h e Sooke  ( K i r b y ) Creek,  (1913),  Miocene  128)  t h e mouth o f J o r d a n  Tertiary  F o r m a t i o n was  p.  to the O l i g o c e n e -  Hannibal  I923,  Miocene,  of middle  referred  described  the v i c i n i t y  fauna."  t h e Sooke w i t h the  of the San P a b l o  (I9H)  the  128.)  t h e Sooke t o t h e u p p e r  and A l l a n  he  agreed w i t h Merriam  ( C l a r k and A r n o l d , 1923, 6.  short  figured  ( C l a r k and A r n o l d ,  1909)  middle  1899*  of the  127,  i t i s 'probably l a t e r  Astoria  His  p u b l i s h e d another  t h e Sooke b e d s .  ( C l a r k and A r n o l d , 1923,  1+. D a l l  fossils.  t h e Sooke b e d s were o f  1897*  In  "...republished  invertebrate  concluded  that  O l i g o c e n e i n age,  g e t h e r w i t h the Twin R i v e r s F o r m a t i o n ,  study Coast,  t h e Sooke and, had  tosubtropical  faunas  (p. 575)•  established in  They r e p o r t e d t h a t G l a p p had  the type  the sea c l i f f s  Clapp  and Cooke  between Muir  (I917)  a l o n g K i r b y Creek. in  the Muir  s e c t i o n f o r t h e Sooke  described a 528'  They s t a t e d  that  them (pp 336 - 3 3 9 ) .  Sooke F o r m a t i o n  from  Creeks. section  the s t r a t a 2000'  C r e e k B a s i n were a t l e a s t  C. E . Weaver i d e n t i f i e d by  and K i r b y  Formation  thick.  a faunal collection M  e  concluded  made  t h a t " 'The  s u c h e v i d e n c e as i s a v a i l a b l e  i s p r o b a b l y the e q u i v a l e n t of the upper p o r t i o n o f the lower  Miocene o f Washington.  C l a r k and A r n o l d the lower  (I9I8)  Oligocene.  1  referred  In a l a t e r  however, t h e y r e t r a c t e d c o r r e l a t e d "...the fauna  this  " ( p . 339) t h e Sooke b e d s t o (1923)  study  age d e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d  o f t h e Sooke  Formation  w i t h Weaver's B l a k e l e y , o r A c i l a g e t t y s b u r g e n s i s horizon."  ( p . 129)  zone r e f e r r e d  They  showed t h a t  t o b y Weaver i s t h e A c i l a  g e n s i s h o r i z o n , and i s g e n e r a l l y , doubt,  referred  partially  "The B l a k e l e y  w i t h some  t o t h e u p p e r O l i g o c e n e ; i t may be  or e n t i r e l y  lower  ( C l a r k and A r n o l d , 1 9 2 3 ,  Miocene i n age."  p. 1 2 9 . )  r e p o r t was a m o n o g r a p h i c s t u d y Sooke F o r m a t i o n .  though  gettysbur-  I t included  numerous p h o t o g r a p h i c p l a t e s  This  (1923)  of the fauna a check  list  of the of species,  o f t h e f a u n a , and t h e  description by 11.  Formation  T. W a y l a n d V a u g h a n . (1922)  I. E. Cornwall fossil  12.  o f a new c o r a l f r o m t h e Sooke  d e s c r i b e d a few v e r t e b r a t e  r e m a i n s f r o m t h e M u i r C r e e k B a s i n and named  them D e s m o s t y l u s  sookensis.  0. P. Hay (1923)  s t u d i e d these  r e m a i n s , and re-named  fossil  vertebrate  them C o r n w a l l i u s  sookensis  (Cornwall). 13.  lij..  15.  Hertlein  and C r i c k m a y  (1925)  Formation  as M i o c e n e  i n age.  I. E. Cornwall  (1927)  f r o m t h e Sooke  Formation.  R. M. L o g i e  (1929)  in-;an u n p u b l i s h e d  and d i s c u s s e d  paleontology, 16.  La Motte  MA t h e s i s a t  reviewed  (1936) d e s c r i b e d p l a n t m e g a f o s s i l s He c a l l e d  these  26, apta  I961)  conclusions  1923.  Durham (I9I4.I4.) d e s c r i b e d a " S o o k e " f a u n a Olympic P e n i n s u l a  presently believes  from  the formation  i n age and r e f e r r e d  C l a r k and A r n o l d ,  northern  earlier  and t h e age o f t h e f o r m a t i o n .  upper Oligocene  17.  Columbia  barnacles  t h e mode o f d e p o s i t i o n , t h e  the Muir Creek B a s i n .  to  t o t h e Sooke  d e s c r i b e d two f o s s i l  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h studies  referred  from the  of Washington.  ( p e r s o n a l communication,  He April  t h i s m a t e r i a l t o be w i t h i n h i s E c h i n o p h o r a  zone w h i c h " . . . i n  turn f a l l s  w i t h i n the top of  8.  the b i o z o n e  of A c i l a  g e t t y s b u r g e n s i s as d e f i n e d b y  Schenck". 18.  Weaver e t a l (lylili)  compiled  the U n i t e d S t a t e s P a c i f i c In i t they i n c l u d e d showed t o be the upper apta  lower  a correlation  Coast T e r t i a r y  t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n M i o c e n e i n age  B l a k e l e y Formation  and  and  chart  of  formations. which  they  e q u i v a l e n t to  to the  Echinophora  zone o f Durham.  19. J e l e t z k y (1953) d i s c o v e r e d a s e r i e s o f f a u n a s i n the sediments  of the H e s q u i a t  west c o a s t of Vancouver these faunas 20.  Danner  thirds  t o be  Vaqueros  Validity  I879.  marine  chart  1923  fauna  of the u n i t ,  and H a n n i b a l , 1913; and  Clapp  had no  showed  of  the lower  Formation"  d e s c r i b e d by  from  described a  t h e Sooke b e d s .  subsequent and  J. Richardson  workers  Cooke, 1917;  In  (Arnold Clark  and  Weaver e t a l , I9J4.I1..) a l l r e f e r r e d  t e r m "Sooke F o r m a t i o n " apparently  one  most B l a k e l e y and  I n I896 - I899, J . C. M e r r i a m  discussions  Arnold,  upper  o f _the Term "Sooke  invertebrate  equated  the  i n age.  Sooke b e d s were f i r s t in  He  of  fauna.  in a correlation  Sooke F o r m a t i o n two  Island.  t o t h e Sooke  (i960),  - Nootka area  to Merriam.  Merriam,  the  however,  I n t e n t i o n o f naming t h e f o r m a t i o n as  t h e t e r m "Sooke F o r m a t i o n " writings. "Sooke  He  consistently referred  t i m e no The  (I961,  sixty  the  p r e s e n t Code o f S t r a t i g r a p h i c  p.  650)  defines  a f o r m a t i o n : "A  as  and  cognized p u b l i c a t i o n s , It  i s beyond  i t is a valid  the scope  tained  i n i t s g e n e r a l l y understood  The  s t u d y , s h o u l d be  accurately be  treated  of  Formation.  Pacific  coast of North  Tertiary  is  "Sooke  fulfills  i n many r e -  term. to  sense,  formally  The  and  and,  in  a type  status  i n the d i s c u s s i o n  Regional Tertiary  and  t e r m s h o u l d be r e -  defined  described.  section will t h e Sooke  tabular,  of t h i s paper  the Sooke F o r m a t i o n .  s h o u l d be  homogeniety;  S i n c e the  has b e e n u s e d  define  some f u t u r e  formation i s a  i t i s generally understood,  these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  to s u p p l a n t  Nomenclature  lithologic  i s p r e v a i l i n g l y but not n e c e s s a r i l y  Formation",  "formalized"  o t h e r t e r m has b e e n s u g g e s t e d  mappable a t the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e . . . " .  The  as  y e a r s o f u n d i s p u t e d usage d u r i n g  body o f r o c k c h a r a c t e r i z e d by it  of h i s  to the u n i t  t e r m "Sooke F o r m a t i o n " has become  through almost  it.  i n any  beds".  The  which  i s not found  section  of the  of the  type  geology  Stratigraphy  America  sedimentary bodies are found  scattered  10.  along Baja  the P a c i f i c California  typically  coastal  in  e l o n g a t e , n a r r o w and  In o r i g i n ,  continental. marine  formations mations,  i n this  and  range  their  and  region.  Maximum r a n g e s  relationships  s t a g e names a r e  for-  The  f r o m Weaver e t a l The  and  bulk  of  (iylxl±),  purpose  of  i s t o show t h e most r e c e n t c o n c l u s i o n s as  w i t h t h e Sooke  their  relationships  Formation.  Island  Tertiary  areas  of the  indicated.  t o t h e ages o f t h e s e f o r m a t i o n s and  Island  the  Tertiary  to both European  o t h e r s o u r c e s have a l s o b e e n u s e d .  the  to  continental  t h e more i m p o r t a n t  but  from  and  floras.  i n f o r m a t i o n i s compiled  Vancouver  i n space  the  from marine  the  the  table  basin-shaped  other both  the sediments  3 illustrates  North American  this  are  f o r m a t i o n , many o f  y i e l d i n g faunas  yielding  Figure  each  from  Nearly a l l basins are f o s s i l i f e r o u s ,  sediments  sediments  These b o d i e s  very thick  During their  were i s o l a t e d f r o m  time.  of North America,  n o r t h to U n a l a s k a .  g e o m e t r i c a l forms. basins  areas  sedimentary  s o u t h and  ( F i g . 1).  sequences  s o u t h west c o a s t a l These  sediments  that are separated from  of o l d e r r o c k s or by superficial  have b e e n r e p o r t e d  one  infillings  deposits.  areas of Vancouver  a r e exposed another by  in  isolated  either  of younger g l a c i a l  Many o f t h e s e i s o l a t e d  areas  knolls and  li.  probably  represent d i s t i n c t  The  formations  represented  t h r e e f a u n a l assemblages fauna  i s represented  Escalante Formation "B".  presented  by the fauna  The n e x t  ed  ( C l a r k and A r n o l d ,  "C" and i s c o r r e l a t e d  o r Durham's E c h i n o p h o r a Oligocene  assemblage  "A" a n d of early is re-  i n s e d i m e n t s above t h e "Conglom1923) and  w i t h t h e lower (Durham, ltykh)  r e x zone  a g e . The y o u n g e s t  i n t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n  "D",  the L i n c o l n fauna  youngest  a t Carmanah P o i n t " ,  of l a t e  ^he o l d e s t  and J e l e t z k y ' s D i v i s i o n s  age.  Blakeley  1951+) •  carry  i n t h e Carmanah F o r m a t i o n , t h e  Oligocene  Jeletzky's Division  i n t h e known b a s i n s  (Jeletzky,  I t i s correlated with  erate  depositional basins.  fauna  i s represent-  and i n J e l e t z k y ' s D i v i s i o n  a n d i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Durham's E c h i n o p h o r a  apta  zone. I n d i v i d u a l beds w i t h i n the b a s i n s a r e t y p i c a l l y lenticular from  marine  mainly units  i n shape.  t o non marine.  o f f i n e r marine  o f d e p o s i t i o n ranged  The o l d e r s e d i m e n t s  elastics,  while  sediments  consist  the younger  r e p r e s e n t more r a p i d l y f l u c t u a t i n g  d e p o s i t i o n and c o n s i s t sorted  Environments  rock  conditions of  o f c o a r s e r g r a i n e d , more p o o r l y  i n c r o s s bedded, l e n t i c u l a r  strata.  12.  Geology  o f t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n  Stratigraphy The of  Sooke F o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s  sedimentary s t r a t a  south coast coast  thickest  a quarter  Creek expose Cooke the  (I917)  base  reported  penetrated l£60'  t h a n 1700'  effect  thickness  sediments  from three  sea-cliffs  Clapp and  t h a t a h o l e t h a t was d r i l l e d  thick.  ( F i g . 2) a p p e a r  to t h i s  isin  o f t h e mouth o f M u i r  through the f o r m a t i o n .  o f sediments  similar  o f Sooke b e d s  2, I4.). The  at  o f sediments  Thus,  t h e Sooke  The s e d i m e n t s i n  t o be much t h i n n e r  of the Muir Creek b a s i n ,  evidence  than  although conclusive  i s not available.  A 30'  thick-  i s exposed  i n t h e Vye C r e e k b a s i n .  i s exposed  i n the Begg Creek  of G l a c i e r  here, because  Allan  (I9H)  basin.  i t was  on t h e i r map.  15> f e e t .  so r e p o r t e d  I t i s termed a by Clapp and  The s e d i m e n t s  they r e p o r t e d  G l a c i e r P o i n t a r e a t p r e s e n t p r o b a b l y obscured by  surficial  deposits  A  Point basin vary i n thickness  inches t o p o s s i b l y  basin  at  northwest a l o n g the  s e c t i o n of sediments.  of these c l i f f s  other basins  The  (Figs.  o f a m i l e west  F o r m a t i o n i s more  ness  Island  known s e q u e n c e  a 150'  without passing  those  e x t e n d i n g f r o m B e c h e r Bay o n t h e  of Vancouver  Muir Creek basin'  about  of basins  t o Owen P o i n t . The  the  of a s e r i e s  and a d e n s e  forest  growth.  This  13  covered along  interval  the  coast.  coarse  basal  on  e a s t by  the  extends f o r about It i s flanked  conglomerate with a few  very  on  extending past  the  River  Sooke R i v e r  mile,  f o r about f o u r m i l e s .  The  could  to  Sooke F o r m a t i o n were i n the  Spit.  The  remainder of the  Sooke R i v e r poorly The  as  edible  forms  in  this  ed  shales  c l a m s , and  j u s t b e l o w the  area.  near the  of  and  The  and  up  (1911)  top  the  Whiffen  the  the  concentrated along  by  of clays.  k i t c h e n - midden  of  c l a y s and  lower  massive  shells  the  poorly  coast  line  consolidat-  Richardson  definately included  of  i n vast  the Sooke R i v e r must a w a i t  being  Sooke  of  along  Indian  soil,  as  shoreline  the  vicinity  entirely are  The  ascribe definately  cliffs  green sands r e p o r t e d  mouth o f  studies before  massive  the  and  con-  town o f Sooke c o n s i s t e d  c o n s i s t almost of  area  low  and  the  s h e l l - l a d e n c l a y s and  were p r o b a b l y  they  quantities  Sooke  near the  consolidated  shells  type  and  Allan  only exposures  writer the  locate i n this  very  sandstone  east along  f o r one  a  of v o l c a n i c d e b r i s .  Clapp and  Spit,  yards  the west b y  t h i n b e d s of  r e p o r t e d by  from Whiffen  hundred  a sandstone matrix,  t a i n i n g numerous s m a l l f r a g m e n t s Sooke b a s i n was  two  (I876)  further  as p a r t  of  the  Formation. Emphasis,  basin,  not  i n this  study,  only because of  has  b e e n on  its vertical  the  Muir  thickness,  Creek but  11*.  a l s o because inland  I t i s the o n l y b a s i n w i t h an a p p r e c i a b l e  extent.  Furthermore,  Creek b a s i n t y p i f y were  sediments  the sediments of the Muir i n the other b a s i n s  that  investigated. I n g e n e r a l , t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n  lenticular erates  i n t e r b e d s o f sandstones  consists of  and s a n d y  conglom-  and m i n o r s h a l e s .  According  t o Clapp  a n d Cooke  (1917,  P«  331)  "The s a n d i s a n g u l a r t o s u b r o u n d e d and i s composed l a r g e l y of q u a r t z , p l a g i o c l a s e , f e l d s p a r and m a g n e t i t e g r a i n s and s m a l l r o c k f r a g m e n t s , a l m o s t e n t i r e l y f r a g m e n t s o f t h e M e t c h o s i n metab a s a l t s . ...Accessory minerals, c h i e f l y b i o t i t e , muscovite, hornblende, epidote, c h l o r i t e , serpent i n e a n d l i m o n i t e a r e numerous a n d o c c u r i n r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e amounts. The s a n d s t o n e s a r e r a t h e r f i r m l y cemented c h i e f l y b y a b u n d a n t c a l c i t e , b u t i n p l a c e s b y l i m o n i t e , and a l t h o u g h s o f t when f r e s h , hardens w i t h s e a s o n i n g . " Sandy c o n g l o m e r a t e out  the formation.  fragments vary at  b e d s and l e n s e s o c c u r  In general, the conglomeratic  i n size  from pebbles  the base of the f o r m a t i o n  o f 20 t o 30 f e e t . generally granitic  Metchosin  to cobbles,  t h e y may r e a c h  The c o n g l o m e r a t i c  s u b r o u n d e d , and composed material.  angular basalt  through-  fragments are  The b a s a l c o n g l o m e r a t e  volcanic rocks.  diameters  of basalt,  fragments d e r i v e d from  however,  q u a r t z and  consists of  the u n d e r l y i n g  The s a n d s t o n e  the  same c o m p o s i t i o n  as t h e i n t e r b e d d e d  and  t h e s a n d s d e s c r i b e d above b y C l a p p .  matrix  i s of  sandstone  lenses  Commonly, t h e  15.  sandstones In thin,  and  conglomerates  the sea c l i f f s  sandy,  conglomerates. fossil  deposition locally  i n t h e f o r m a t i o n and  of t h i s m a t e r i a l  the sediments  sandstones  i n the s h a l e s  and  sandy  a r e abundant  fossils  become more f r a g m e n t a l .  clastic material  imprints,  and  Depositional  centres  o f the r e s p e c t i v e b a s i n s ,  5°at  Fragments  c a r b o n i z e d cones  shape.  near  dips  of these beds,  the f l a n k s  As  coarser  throughout  sediments.  indicate  that  positive  relief,  the p e r the  of p e t r i f i e d have b e e n  basins. lenticular  a l l towards  vary rapidly  Cross bedding  than  i s well  the f o r m a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y Attitudes  the sediments  the  from  of the b a s i n s to l e s s  the c e n t r e s of the b a s i n s .  developed  Well  i n shales,  increases,  f r o m t h e Sooke and M u i r C r e e k  30°  re-  resulted  Beds o f t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n a r e t y p i c a l l y  nearly  from  composed  conglomerates.  of coarser  i  has  are f o s s i l i f e r o u s .  centage  collected  and  subsequent  other invertebrates,  original material,  wood, l e a f  of  of marl.  p r e s e r v e d m o l l u s c a and  marls,  lenses  L e a c h i n g of the c a l c i u m carbonate  i n lenses  their  few  i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h the sandstones  shells  Locally,  of  o f the Muir Greek b a s i n a  f o s s i l i f e r o u s or carbonaceous  s h a l e are exposed  the  intergrade l a t e r a l l y .  i n the  o f the f o r e s e t beds  ( F i g . Ii)  were d e r i v e d , f r o m an a r e a o f  n o r t h of t h e i r p r e s e n t s i t e  of  deposition.  PLATE  1.  Sea c l i f f s , M u i r C r e e k b a s i n (RC 2 3 ) . A bedding p l a n e e x p o s e d a t low t i d e . Note t h e w h i t e f o s s i l s h e l l f r a g m e n t s and t n e c o n c r e t i o n a r y s t r u c t u r e s .  Sea c l i f f s , M u i r C r e e k b a s i n (RC 23); l o o k i n g e a s t a l o n g t h e c o a s t , a t t h e l o w e r s e c t i o n o f the c l i f f s . P h o t o by I . E . C o r n w a l l , 1918.  PLATE  2.  Sea c l i f f s , M u i r C r e e k b a s i n (HG 2 3 ) . P h o t o g r a p h by I . E. C o r n w a l l , 1918. Note the d e n s i t y of the w e l l preserved f o s s i l s . Many f o s s i l s a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the c o n g l o m e r a t i c f o r e s e t beds.  Sea c l i f f s , M u i r C r e e k b a s i n (RC 2 3 ) . A slumped fragment from the c l i f f s , l o o k i n g a t b e d d i n g p l a n e s . N o t e t h e d e n s i t y o f f o s s i l s on t h e b e d d i n g p l a n e s .  PLATE  3.  a:  b: Sea c l i f f s , M u i r G r e e k b a s i n (RC 2 3 ) . 3-a shows f o s s i l i f e r o u s f o r e s e t beds i n the f a c e of the c l i f f . 3-b i s a c l o s e - u p p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e r i g h t h a l f o f 3-a. Both photographs are taken l o o k i n g n o r t h .  16.  Some o f t h e s e  sedimentary f e a t u r e s  the photographs 1,  (Plates  o f type  In 1912, cliffs  (1913)  a 1614.'  Clapp d e s c r i b e d  along  Kirby  Creek.  s e c t i o n exposed i n  Later, Arnold  Hannibal  1  t o I4.97 ' •  this  reported  They c o n s i d e r e d  t h a t "The t y p e  exposed a l o n g  a few m i l e s  I n 1917>  C l a p p and  s e c t i o n and e x t e n d e d  s e c t i o n o f Sooke s e d i m e n t s .  i t t h e most  Formation  concept o f the type  o f C l a p p and Cooke i n t h a t t h e y p l a c e d  section differed  C l a p p and Cooke p l a c e d  Kirby  C r e e k and i n c l u d e d  only a short distance  i t along  of Kirby  t o t h e same s e c t i o n .  It is  they  were  C l a r k and A r n o l d  did  not describe  nor  has such a s e c t i o n ever been d e s c r i b e d work.  a section i n their  the shore  Creek.  t h a t , due t o some m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  both r e f e r r i n g  Creeks  the lower p a r t o f  i n i t the beds a l o n g east  from  the type  t h e b e a c h b e t w e e n M u i r and K i r b y  while  creeks  I t i s possible  that  published  (I923, p . 1 2 9 )  t h e b e a c h b e t w e e n M u i r and K i r b y  their  possible  representative  s e c t i o n o f t h e Sooke  west o f Sooke H a r b o r . . . " .  section along  i t s thick-  C l a r k and A r n o l d  that  for  and  s t a t e d t h a t C l a p p s l 6 i | ' s e c t i o n was t h e t y p e  Cooke r e - d e s c r i b e d  Is  o f Muir Greek b a s i n .  section  s e c t i o n o f t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n .  ness  by  2, and 3 . )  Discussion  the  of the sea c l i f f s  are i l l u s t r a t e d  "type  locality", i n any  17-  Following the  i s a description  of the type s e c t i o n of  Sooke F o r m a t i o n t a k e n f r o m C l a p p and Cooke  p. 332).  (1917,  I t was d e s c r i b e d b y them i n d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r ,  however t h e s e c t i o n ease o f r e f e r e n c e INTERVAL  i s described  i n this  i n ascending order f o r  study.  LITHOLOGY  0 - 20' 20 - 3 0 ' 30 35 100 Ilk 287 307 307 350 355 362 361; 381  kn  U n c o n s o l i d a t e d , s t r a t i f i e d sand and g r a v e l . S a n d s t o n e - s o f t , f e r r u g i n o u s , banded y e l l o w and r e d , and c o n c r e t i o n a r y . - 35' Conglomerate, f o s s i l i f e r o u s . -100' S a n d s t o n e : c o a r s e t o medium g r a i n e d , b u f f - c o l o r e d , c r o s s b e d d e d and c o n cretionary. I0I4.' S a n d s t o n e : g r e y , a r g i l l a c e o u s and f o s s i l i f erous.. III4' A l t e r n a t i n g s o f t s a n d s t o n e and m a r l . - 287' U n e x p o s e d (Mouth o f K i r b y C r e e k t o road crossing.) - 307' Sandstone. - 3 0 7 ' 8 " L i g n i t e , sandy and i m p u r e . 8 " - 350 Unexposed. --3551 Sandstone - 362 S h a l e ; sandy and m i c a c e o u s . - 36I+' Conglomerate, f i n e g r a i n e d . - 381' Sandstone. P r o t r u d i n g knob o f m e t a - b a s a l t . - 14.17' Conglomeratej w i t h t h i n l a y e r s of Sandstone. 1  1  - 14,21'  k21 - i-j.23' - I4.87 1+23 - li-97' 1  M3?  Sandstone.  Fine conglomerate. Unexposed. Basal conglomerate.  F i g u r e I4. i s a d i a g r a m m a t i c features  i n the Muir Creek B a s i n .  crops are p l o t t e d  individually  M e g a f a u n a l and m i c r o f l o r a l the  study of the sedimentary  section  The i s o l a t e d  at their  localities  t o show t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p  out-  localities.  are p l o t t e d  on  t o one a n o t h e r ,  18  and  to the s t r a t a .  rapid  facies  The s e c t i o n s  diagrammatic  the  writer's  cross  section  i n this basin.  changes, l e n t i c u l a r i t y I t also  however, t h a t Intervals  physical  the  basis,  i s hazardous.  illustrated  the s e c t i o n  section  on F i g u r e  described I4..  is a stratigraphic  cliffs  along Kirby  t o RC 1 1 ;  Creek.  and i n t e r v a l "b  and i n t e r v a l " d " t o a s m a l l  creek.  distance of F i g u r e  succession.  ,f  Interval t o RC 3 2 ;  The c o v e r e d  a t t h e mouth o f  The d i a g r a m m a t i c  another  interval  C r e e k and  i n t e r v a l s correspond  between c l i f f s . J4. shows t h a t  cliff  "a" cor-  to the  cross  the high i n i t i a l  intervals  dips  and r a p i d  a, b , c, and d o f C l a p p  may b e , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , than separate  sections  section  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n other  t h a t p r o p o s e d b y C l a p p and Cooke i s p o s s i b l e . of  above  I t i s doubtful  t o a c l i f f b e t w e e n t h e mouth o f K i r b y  RC 3 2 ;  initial  a, b , c and d o f C l a p p and Cooke's s e c t i o n a r e  individual  "c"  I t shows t h e f a c i e s  t y p e o f c o r r e l a t i o n was u s e d b y C l a p p and  graphically  responds  section  c o r r e l a t i o n o f the i s o l a t e d  Cooke t o s e t up t h e I4.97 ' t y p e and  I4. i l l u s t r a t e s  o f t h e b e d s , and t h e h i g h  shows t h a t  on a p u r e l y  This  i n Figure  outcrops.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a t y p i c a l cross  o f Sooke s e d i m e n t s  outcrops,  demonstrate the  changes b e t w e e n i s o l a t e d , a d j a c e n t  The  dips.  also  facies  deposited  facies  than  Because  changes,  and Cooke's  section  o f one a n o t h e r at different  rather  times.  19.  Reference  to t h i s  s e c t i o n as a p r o p e r l y d e s c r i b e d  type  s e c t i o n i s s u b j e c t to q u e s t i o n .  this  type  physical  o f s e d i m e n t must be criteria.  as p a l e o n t o l o g y used  Other  and  be  tools  data.  to each  Contact  and  was  C r e e k , and  13,  other  their  relation-  (1917,  p.  33k)  reported  that  u n c o n f o r m a b l y upon  t h e Sooke g a b b r o . "  t h e w r i t e r a t l o c a l i t y RC  This 7 on  At  Clapp  these  and  localities  immediately  on K i r b y C r e e k ,  overlie  volcanic tuffs  rates.  The  typical  v o l c a n i c beds  may  be  may  l i e s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y between the  and  t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n .  may  reveal their  age  Sooke  the M e t c h o s i n  con-  contact.  sandstones  w i t h minor i n t e r b e d d e d  of these  e q u i v a l e n t to  the  contact  des-  basal  above t h e  the  Vye  at others  Cooke, w e l l d e v e l o p e d  were p r e s e n t  age  as  "The  Tugwell  i n t h e B e g g C r e e k , G l a c i e r P o i n t and  glomerates A t RC  and  formations.  clearly rests  by  Creek b a s i n s . by  be  This "type s e c t i o n "  o f b e d s and  other  v o l c a n i c s and  observed  cribed  with  Cooke  Sooke F o r m a t i o n Metchosin  such  other.  relations  Clapp  purely  studies should  re-studied using paleontology  methods t o show c o r r e l a t i o n ships  on more t h a n  for correlation,  heavy m i n e r a l  to supplement f i e l d  should  based  C o r r e l a t i o n s of  agglome-  i s unknown.  v o l c a n i c s , or Metchosin  They  they volcanics  More d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  relationships  as  they are  stratified  2-Q.  and  c o n t a i n a few  bedding planes. in  carbonaceous Too  few  p o l l e n and  these beds d u r i n g t h i s The  Sooke F o r m a t i o n  Formation e v e r be  and,  found,  partings along  s p o r e s were  study to i n d i c a t e i s younger  found  their  than the  s h o u l d a c o n t a c t o f t h e two i t would p r o b a b l y be  their  age.  Carmanah  formations  r e p r e s e n t e d by  an  unconformity. The  Sooke F o r m a t i o n  Pleistocene  glacial  i s o v e r l a i n unconformably  d e p o s i t s and more r e c e n t  by  soils.  Structure Clapp geology  and  o f the f o r m a t i o n .  evidence  t h a t might  reported broad Muir  and  add  folds  dips.  d i s c u s s e d the The  writer  to t h e i r  The  however has  Throughout  general attitude  resulted  angles  to the s h o r e .  to 15'• ic  The  activity  iments  writer  i n the a r e a  t h a t would  pretation  i s that  t h a t formed  has  cause  strikes Their  They  the  deposition-  Clapp  and  Cooke  f a u l t s with angles  displacement varies any  indication  the d e p o s i t i o n  such f a u l t s  right  from of  His  sed-  inter-  gravity  the f o r m a t i o n d u r i n g or  5'  tecton-  of these  to form.  they are s m a l l h i g h angle  throughout  new  that are n e a r l y at  not found since  no  of  mainly from  t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n  and  found  Creek b a s i n , between  have o b s e r v e d numerous s m a l l n o r m a l o f f r o m I4.5 ° t o 6 o ° ,  has  structural  observations.  i n the Muir  K i r b y Creeks.  Sooke s t r a t a al  (1917)  Cooke  faults  shortly  21 .  after  lithification.  Megafossil During  the p a s t  Studies  century,  at least  have c o n t r i b u t e d t o m e g a f o s s i l Formation. plants, ebrate Plant  fauna  of  invert-  strata.  have b e e n c o l l e c t e d  i n t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n . sookensis  i n t h e Sooke b a s i n .  reported the  fossil  megafossils  t h a t a cone, P i c e a Spit  several  and a l a r g e m a r i n e  f r o m t h e Sooke  Plant megafossils ities  workers  s t u d i e s o f t h e Sooke  T h e y s t u d i e d and r e p o r t e d  the v e r t e b r a t e fauna  eighteen  ten f o s s i l  sea c l i f f s ,  La M o t t e  (1936)  local-  reported  was d i s c o v e r e d a t W h i f f e n  I n t h e same p a p e r , La M o t t e  l e a v e s and one r o o t f r a g m e n t  one q u a r t e r  from  o f a m i l e w e s t o f t h e mouth  Muir Creek i n the Muir Creek b a s i n .  presented  a t two  The l i s t  he  i s as f o l l o w s : Carpinus grandis Cinnamomum c f . p e d u n c u l a t u m Fagus p a c i f i c a Hicoria pecanoides Lauroph'yllum s p . Magnolia c f l a n c e o l a t a ^uercus c o n s i m i l i s Salix californica Trochodendroides sp. DTmus r a c e m o s a and  During  a r o o t f r a g m e n t as c f . A c e r  the p r e s e n t  been i d e n t i f i e d ,  study,  was c o l l e c t e d  one cone t h a t has n o t from the Whiffen  Spit  locality. found and  A number o f u n i d e n t i f i a b l e  a t the Muir Creek b a s i n l o c a l i t y  small  A marine  of  a jaw,  sea  about a q u a r t e r  remains  consisting  from  o f a m i l e west  were i d e n t i f i e d  the specimen,  sookensis.  the f o s s i l s  In l a t e r  part  from the  o f t h e mouth Connell.  b y Lambe I n I916  or sirenean, Desmostylus  Desmostylus  of teeth,  I . E . C o r n w a l l and R e v e r e n d  Cornwall described  (1925)  Large  basin.  a few v e r t e b r a e were c o l l e c t e d  M u i r C r e e k by  cow  the Muir Creek  v e r t e b r a t e remains  and  cliffs  These  (RC 23)•  were  vertebrate.  Fossil  sea  fragments  c a r b o n i z e d wood f r a g m e n t s were c o l l e c t e d  b o t h t h e Sooke b a s i n and  of  leaf  as  the  1922,  hesperus. In  and re-named i t s t u d i e s by 0. P.  were re-named C o r n w a l l i u s  Hay  sookensis.  (Cornwall) Marine  invertebrates.  The  Sooke F o r m a t i o n I s w e l l known f o r i t s p r o l i f i c  marine  invertebrate fauna.  lected  from a l l b a s i n s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Becher  Sooke b a s i n s . pods,  a scaphopod,  neurid,  vermes,  Since in  The  fauna c o n s i s t s  fossils  have b e e n  a c e p h a l o p o d , b r a c h i o p o d s , an  the e a r l i e s t  1899,  and a  and  s t u d i e s by  faunal l i s t s  have b e e n  C l a p p and  amphi-  coral.  Sooke f a u n a l  and H a n n i b a l (1913),  col-  of gastropods, p e l e c y -  echinoderms, b a r n a c l e s  I896, I897 and  by A r n o l d  These  Cooke  Merriam published  (I917),  23.  and  C l a r k and  the  Sooke f a u n a ,  and  listing  Anomia s p .  Cooke  Kirby  Creeks.  (9)  f r o m the  The  numbers  numbered r e f e r e n c e s i s patterned  their  ities,  f r o m the New  indicate that %li  the  3  one  by  marine  the  example,  reported  refer  to  C l a r k and  by and  the This  Arnold  locations,  and  i n v e r t e b r a t e s were  the  Vye  1 1  Creek  w r i t e r i n these previous  workers 3> and  Sooke F o r m a t i o n has  gastropods,  echinoderms.  For  between Muir  checklists Figures  a m p h i n e u r i d , I4. b a r n a c l e s ,  p o d s and  discovered  selected bibliography.  not been noted by on  (9)  and  found by  checklists  pelecypods,  (3)  cliffs  was  M u i r C r e e k , B e g g C r e e k and  "RC"  1  (3)  of  date.  study,  fossils,  t h a t had  sea  the  to  designated  65  discoveries.  a c t u a l geographic  t a b l e up  In the p r e s e n t  basins.  i n the after  (1923) b u t i t l i s t s  collected  to t h e i r  is a checklist  f o r m s were  n e a r m a c r o s c h i s m a Dehayes  and  brings  5  Figure  s h o w i n g where the  references  Clapp  table  (1923).  Arnold  scaphopod, 1  coral,  1  6.  localare These  yielded  cephalopod,  vermes, 2  brachio-  21*.  CHAPTER I I I  PALYNOLOGY  D u r i n g an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the carbonaceous of  t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n ,  finer  sediments  microfossils.  contained  this discovery,  ified  the m i c r o f l o r a  were mounted  The  cussed.  The p u r p o s e  on s l i d e s , a n d  In t h i s section  microflora  f r o m Miocene  w h i c h may be v a l u a b l e relations,  with other m i c r o f l o r a s of t h i s s e c t i o n  o f the  dating  i s to report  a new  Coast  f o r regional  and p a l e o e c o l o g i c a l  class-  are dis-  s t r a t a of the P a c i f i c  i n the f u t u r e  grained  residues  t h e s e p o l l e n and s p o r e s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d ,  and a f f i n i t i e s  Field  the f i n e  and d i s i n t e g r a t e d .  examined w i t h a m i c r o s c o p e . thesis,  that the  m o d e r a t e numbers o f p l a n t  Following  s e d i m e n t s were sampled containing  i t was d i s c o v e r e d  strata  cor-  interpretations.  procedures In order  fossils  to obtain  f r o m any s e q u e n c e o f s e d i m e n t s ,  desirable  i n the sampling  s h o u l d be made order. igraphic consist  a good r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  Second,  technique.  t o sample t h e s e c t i o n samples  three  First,  o f unweathered m a t e r i a l ,  steps are an attempt  i n some s t r a t i g r a p h i c  should represent  i n t e r v a l as p o s s i b l e .  of micro-  Third,  as s m a l l  samples  a  strat-  should  or of rock from  well  25-.  beneath  the o u t c r o p .  The  t y p e s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e d by  C l a p p and  Cooke  (1917)  along Kirby  C r e e k was  chosen f o r sampling to p r o v i d e a  microfossil  reference  section for further  The  upper p o r t i o n  of K i r b y  imentary sequences coast in  detail.  in flood.  t r a v e r s e began near C l a p p and  along  Cooke  inaccessible T r a v e r s e s up  somewhere up base  (1917),  about  d i d n o t exceed  constant f o r 10' ologic  unit  was  taken by f i r s t crops,  and  of v o l c a n i c s  described  section  traverses  and p r o c e e d e d  began  down t o i t s  upstream. sampled  10'  sampled removing  in detail.  Sample  inter-  i n zones where l i t h o l o g i e s  o r more.  sample.  the  Creek,  to i t s base  In thinner  separately.  zones, These  the weathered  A l l samples  each  samples  surfaces  then c h a n n e l i n g the i n t e r v a l  presentative  traversing  each c r e e k began  p r o c e e d e d up  i n the s e c t i o n ,  three miles  to  sampled  At Kirby  A t Tugwell Creek,  E a c h o u t c r o p was vals  the k n o l l  a l o n g the  C r e e k s were  t h e c r e e k , t h e n down t h e s e c t i o n  f u r t h e r upstream.  150  a l l of the sed-  t h e mouth and p r o c e e d e d u p s t r e a m .  the by  M u i r C r e e k was  i t was  and  a l o n g T u g w e l l C r e e k and  l i n e b e t w e e n M u i r and K i r b y  because at  Creek,  correlations.  were lithwere  of the out-  to o b t a i n a r e -  weighed  approximately  grams.  Laboratory procedures. In  the l a b o r a t o r y ,  a l l samples  whose  components  ranged  i n size  prepared used  s h a l e to sandstone  f o r maceration.  i n the m a c e r a t i o n  1. A  The  f o l l o w i n g are  The  o f the  steps  HC1  each  sample;  cuts are broken  the b r o k e n  a  the  were  technique:  i n t o p e a - s i z e d fragments,  the bottom of a p o l y t h e n e beaker  3.  inclusively  small but r e p r e s e n t a t i v e cut i s taken from  piece 2.  from  c a n be  until  covered  with  rock;  i s added  to determine  the presence  or absence  carbonate.  I f the t e s t  is positive,  the  is  d i s s o l v e d by  a d d i n g HG1  I4.. The  c a r b o n a t e - f r e e sample  5.  sample  The the  to the  carbonate  sample;  i s washed  several  i s p l a c e d i n JtiP f o r 2I4. h o u r s  to  times; dissolve  silica;  6.  The  sample  i s washed a g a i n s e v e r a l  7.  The  sample  i s p l a c e d i n about  the carbonaceous hours, that  of  and  remains.  must be  checked  the o x i d a t i o n p r o c e s s  aceous  material  has  m i c r o f o s s i l s become  2"  times;  o f HN0  3  to  oxidize  T h i s takes from | to 6 c o n s t a n t l y to stops a f t e r  insure  the  carbon-  b e e n removed, and b e f o r e  the  oxidized;  8.  The  r e s i d u e i s washed  9.  The  r e s i d u e i s p l a c e d i n a 1% KOJti s o l u t i o n f o r 30  minutes  to d i s s o l v e  The  also prepares  KOM  several  times;  the o x i d i z e d  carbonaceous  matter.  the o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l f o r the  absorption  of  10.  The  i s washed s e v e r a l  11.  A  sample  safranin  small, representative  f r o m the  sample w i t h  a microscope 12.  One  drop  syrup 13.  Mix of  the  The  a s p a t u l a , and  added  surface  to  and  sample and of  is left  I t must a l s o be  the  dye  to dry.  and  spread  The  remainder  corn  corn  i t over  kept  syrup  k e p t away f r o m d u s t ,  of  f  the  may  or  in a run  off.  i t may  be-  to c o n t a i n a l a r g e ,  well  contaminated.  Spore  Study  number o f m i c r o f o s s i l s .  ed m o d e r a t e l y w e l l - p r e s e r v e d m a i n d e r had  o n l y a few  7 is a l i s t  recovery  amount o f  I t must be  T h r e e samples were f o u n d  contained  a small  slide.  P o l l e n and  Figure  on  the m i c r o f o s s i l r e s i d u e ;  h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n , or the  preserved  i s placed  labelled;  slide  come  i s extracted  slide;  syrup,  is  times;  channel s l i c e  o f s a f r a n i n dye  are  the  slide II4..  dye;  spores  of a l l of  and  m i c r o f l o r a whereas  very poorly preserved  m i c r o f o s s i l s , and of  Three others  the  samples  a qualitative  pollen.  containthe  re-  microfossils  studied n o t e on  that the  28.  SAMPLE  NO.  ' RECOVERY  1-2-1 9-1 RC-11-2-1 RC-11-3  poor good fair v e r y good v e r y poor v e r y poor fair very poor excellent poor fair  RCRC-  RC-11-J+  RC-lii-1-1 RC-17-1-1 RC-18-1 RC-23 RC-29-1 RC-30-1-1  F i g u r e no. 7, i l l u s t r a t i n g of m i c r o f o s s i l s f r o m Sooke  In  a l l , 30  samples  t h e s a n d s t o n e and  c o u l d be u s e d  c o n s i s t i n g of sandstone  shale  (20%)  contained microfossils  i n a study of t h i s  P l a t e s 14.-8  illustrate  are i l l u s t r a t e d  graph paper. meter d i v i s i o n  The  t h e most common p o l l e n  by l i n e  s c a l e was  fossils 85 and  drawings  c h o s e n so t h a t e a c h  e n l a r g e d 500  times.  The  drawings 103  The  d i f f e r e n t m i c r o f o s s i l f o r m s , 83 s p o r e s and  2 whose b i o l o g i c a l  These  an  milliactual  show the m i c r o -  drawings  illustrate  of which are affinities  pollen  are not  known. Three  samples,  RC  23-1,  RC  9-1  and  on c e n t i m e t e r  on t h e g r a p h p a p e r r e p r e s e n t s  measurement o f 2 m i c r o n s .  that  type.  s p o r e forms r e c o v e r e d f r o m t h e Sooke s e d i m e n t s . forms  or  Of t h e s e , o n l y 8 samples  s h a l e were m a c e r a t e d . of  quality samples.  and RC  11-3  were  PLATE ]+.  All  f i g u r e s x500  Microfossil  Formula  A l - 2 b x (1+2x33x61-77) Ml-l(ll)  EI-K7)  Al-2by(51x99x96-127) El-l(l5xl0) El-1(29) E9-I (20x11).)  E1-1(18) Al-2ax(72x80x107-156) El-1(kh-Sk)  B1-K5D E1-K67)  El-l(l8xl0)  El-1(31x18) 11-1(23x17 1)  E17-l(l6xll) H7-1 (37x214.)  Affiliation Pinus sp. f u n g a l spore f u n g a l spore Picea sp. unknown a f f i n i t i e s f u n g a l spore I n a p e r t u r o p o l l e n i t e s sp. Cupressaceae? or Taxodiacene? Abies sp. L a r i x sp. f u n g a l spore? f u n g a l spore o r a l g a l c y s t unknown a f f i n i t i e s f e r n spore? c f . Taxodium s p . T r i c o l p o p o l l e n i t e s sp. f e r n spore  PLATE 4.  PLATE 5.  all  figures  Microfossll  x500.  Formula  H7-13 (55-76x39-^.1+) H7-20(58-7iixI|.l-57) Nl-1(28x16) N l - l (1+5x23) Jl-l(36xl2) Nl-l(l2x7) E9-6(l6) J25-l(17x8) E17-l(2l+xl6) Incertae  Sedis  E7-KI+0) El-1(22) H7-l(39x20) H7-1([+I4jc26) E17-6(28x33)  Affiliation Polypodium sp. f e r n spore f u n g a l or a l g a l spore fungal spore? unknown a f f i n i t i e s fungal spore? unknown a f f i n i t i e s T r i c o l p o r o p o l l e n i t e s sp. Angiospermae? Body o f an i n s e c t ? unknown a f f i n i t i e s I n a p e r t u r o p o l l e n i t e s sp? f e r n spore? cf. L a e v i g a t o s p o r i t e s sp. Tricolpate pollen simililar t o Q u e r c u s o r Fagus  PLATE 5.  PLATE  all  figures  6.  x500  Microfossil  Formula  El-l(96x60) H7-l(37-Ul|x23-29) El-2l+( 35x36) El-6(3J+x21) E1-K31JX28)  H7-20(92x63) E9-6'(23-25xl2-l6) El-6(37) E17-6 (1+5x31+) H7-22(56x34) Bi-13(59) H7-6( 70x1^0) E5-l(l7-l8x8-l0) H7-l(28xl7) E25-K 26x18) 11-1(22 6x20) E17-6(26xl6) EI7-6(33x20) K1-1(1|ILX10)  Affiliation Pseudotsuga? cf. L a e v i g a t o s p o r i t e s sp. unknown a f f i n i t i e s Angiospermae unknown a f f i n i t i e s f e r n spore Angiospermae unknown a f f i n i t i e s Angiospermae f e r n spore c f . Tsuga aff. fern? M o n o s u l c i t e s sp. ( a f f . w i t h the cycads or the Palmaceae) cf. Laevigatosporites T r i c o l p o r o p o l l e n i t e s sp. (Anacardiaceae?) Taxodiaceae Angiospermae Angiospermae f u n g a l spore  PLATE 6.  PLATE  all  figures  Microfossil  7.  x500  Formula  Bl-6(8) Bl-22(15) El-2(llpc36) 11-1(31 3x29) El-3(35x30) Bi-2J+(53x57) El-1(96) Bi-5,l3(5l+-59) El-2l|(J 0) Jl-1(32x11) +  Incertae Sedis  El-l(kk-Bk) E l - 1 (57x1+3) E5-22(il|5-i53x6i) Bl-23,22(61) El-1(38x26) El-6( 79x21+)  Affiliation f u n g a l spore? fungal spore? unknown a f f i n i t i e s Taxodiaceae unknown a f f i n i t i e s Tsuga s p . c f . Pseudotsuga sp. Tsuga sp. Inaperturopollenites ?Monosulcites sp. ?Larix sp. unknown a f f i n i t i e s f e r n spore f e r n spore cf. Taxodiaceae fern.spore  PLATE 7  PLATE  all  figures  x500  Microfossil  Formula  E11-K31) G12-K3U) G12-K26) E12-K27) G12-K29) Ei7-6(32) Ell-1(27)  E8-6(29) EH-K26)  F11-K31) Fl-6(36) F8-22(i|0x35)  F8-l(35xliO)  Pll-l(20xl6) P8-K50) F8-K 71x60)  E6-K68)  8.  H7-l(3lpc2l+) Kl-l(17x12) E9-l(3ipc2l|.) 25-1(17-18x8-10) E17-l(23xl5) H7-l(72x3U H7-13(52x21) El-13(lU)  Affiliation cf. Corylus sp. Alnus sp. cf. Pterocarya sp. c f . P t e r o c a r y a sp. cf. Alnus sp. Quercus s p . Angiosperma e unknown a f f i n i t i e s cf. Corylus sp. Carpinus sp. f e r n spore f e r n spore? f e r n spore Angiospermae Deltoidospora sp. f e r n spore f e r n spore unknown a f f i n i t i e s unknown a f f i n i t i e s unknown a f f i n i t i e s Monosulcites sp. ( a f f . with the c y c a d s o r t h e P a l m a c e a e ) Angiospermae unknown a f f i n a t i e s f e r n spore? f e r n spore?  PLATE 8.  FIGURE  •fo-  NO. 8.  POLLEN  SAMPLE ul  30  < I\Z  M a.  2 0  H  !>>>  " x< • »)  X  F O R M U L A  E  :  RC  23  HISTOGRAM  FIGURE:  NO. 7  POLLEN  SAMPLE  RC  HISTOGRAM  1-1  30-  lul  i<  -  IO 2 0 -  •cc 0-  Ii  p n  (poo CP  m  pi  Z Z  - ro 1\) (C  ^1  FO R M U L A t  FIGURE  NO  10  POLLEN  SAMPLE • RC  FORMULAE  11-3  HISTOGRAM  29-  chosen to  show t h e  relative  distribution  Two  h u n d r e d m i c r o f o s s i l s were c o u n t e d  and  combined  ification. 10.)  i n t o groups based  A  relative  composite histogram  m i c r o f o s s i l forms present  and  the  relative  8  In F i g u r e  are  Abies,  reported  tion  of  this are  are  and  each  Formation, illustrated  Prom the  plants  grains  growth.  At  At  species  propor-  v a r i e t y of 23  was  not  probably  sample  are  groups.  these  locality  Saccate  spores locality.  t r e e s and  sample ' l o c a l i t y RC  occuring  i n large  from  grains  t o the  T s u g a and  fungal  reported  p o l l e n and  coniferous  f e r n s predominate, with  an unknown s p e c i e s  large  were  t h a t were i n d i g e n o u s  c o n s i s t e d of  species  (?) p r e d o m i n a t e , and  small that  the  o f RC  water.  Eighteen  I t appears  with  the  Larix  dominant p o l l e n .  an unknown  flora  a i r and  m o s t l y as  developed f u n g a l 10)  and  locality.  Tsuga and  vegetation  (Pig.  ferns  t h a t the  t h e r e by  locality,  represented The  Sooke  i s the  grains, together  abundant.  absent.  Picea  that l o c a l i t y ,  ( P i g . 9)  spores  23)  from t h i s  to  transported 9  (RC  i t appears  indigenous  RC  in  t o show a l l o f  abundance o f e a c h f o r m i s  Larix(?),  saccate  species,  forms  9,  11.  Figure  Pinus,  class-  ( P i g s . 8,  the  designed i n the  sample,  artificial  percentage of  the  by  an  i n each  T h r e e h i s t o g r a m s were p l o t t e d  s h o w i n g the  sample.  on  of m i c r o f o s s i l s .  Larix  numbers.  a  well  11-3 (?)  30.  Saccate  grains  s p o r e s and dicate is  the  that  local  rain  general  The  lack  large,  of  Figure  11  the  of m i c r o f o s s i l s p e c i e s . consisted  of  preserved forms i n -  spores  illustrates  and  pollen  the r e l a t i v e  It indicates  coniferous  s i m i l a r to a s s o c i a t i o n s  forest  well  transported  f o l i a g e r e p r e s e n t e d by  Sooke f l o r a  glades  rare.  in origin.  percentages the  are  within  forests  the  that  and  modern  fern  coastal  area.  Classification There are fossils  methods o f a r r a n g i n g  systematically.  ification and  two  i n which taxa  a formal binomial  second  i s an  artificial usually  and  fossil  p o l l e n are of  the  are  first  arranged  plant  producing plants.  the A  and  International  p a l e o n t o l o g y because  natural  s y s t e m s and  ships.  Because  of  nomenclatural research,  informal  under  this  the  amount o f  the  the  jurisdiction  Nomenclature.  i s important  i t groups  Spores  represent  Because of  illustrates the  i n which  and  Code o f B o t a n i c a l  system of nomenclature  The  for reference.  f o r m a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f names f a l l s of  is applied.  organs,  class-  phylogenetically,  classification employed  micro-  is a "natural"  nomenclature  designates are  taxa  The  plant  in  organisms  biology into  t h e i r mutual r e l a t i o n time  involved  however, i t s use  in  in  solving  31.  local In  or r e g i o n a l  c o r r e l a t i o n p r o b l e m s , where the  access and  c o r r e l a t i o n problems  to a l l of  the  is usually  investigator  palynological  material,  limited. has  b o t h known  unknown, a n o m e n c l a t u r e e m p l o y i n g d e s i g n a t e s  formulae The grouped  is usually fossil in a  version  of  sufficient.  s p o r e s and  series  d e s i g n a t e d by  or  of  pollen  artificial  formulae.  The  (1958)  Norem's  of  this  study  categories  grouping i s a  proposed  are  that  are  modified  system of  classific-  ation. Norem p r o p o s e d artificial above t h e what he  classification generic  value.  apertures, on  the  the  the  first  s e c o n d on  shapes of  classification  The  t o be His  was  of  key  grain  the  could  International The  fossils  at  palynologist the  was  "key"  on  The  them u n d e r  and  the  of  the his  which apply  rules  of  Nomenclature. present  study  nomenclatural studies  level  class-  types  a framework w i t h i n  i n the  in  purpose of  study m i c r o f o s s i l s  to  spores  decreasing  based  Code o f B o t a n i c a l  a framework f o r f u r t h e r the  of  grains.  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used  enables  p o l l e n and  o r n a m e n t a t i o n and  f o r m a l b i n o m i a l nomenclature to the  the  k e y s were o u t l i n e d order  to p r o v i d e  other p a l y n o l o g i s t s  t h r e e keys f o r  of f o s s i l  level.  considered  ificatory  last,  a series  apply formulae for local  to  provides  and  also  the  micro-  stratigraphic  32.  purposes  without  recourse  nomenclature1  to extensive  research. Norem's k e y s f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n are re-arranged more r e a l i s t i c  i n what t h e w r i t e r c o n s i d e r s t o be a order of decreasing c l a s s i f i c a t o r y  Key  # 1 i s based  but  i n a broader  #2  on t h e o u t l i n e sense  first  two k e y s .  t h a n Norem's s h a p e - k e y .  fossil  and a r e v e r y  Each formula  generally consists  a capitalized  letter  shape o f t h e g r a i n . numerical  and r e f e r  from  are found  similar  The s e c o n d  i s enclosed  first,  designates the  t o t h e a p e r t u r e and  values are ornamentation  These f i r s t  three  values  r e s p e c t i v e keys, term.  i n b r a c k e t s and r e f e r s  s i z e range of the g r a i n  The  and t h i r d  panied by the a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i v e value  o f the  a p p l i e d to the micro-  the alphabet,  underlined i n their  Keys  t o Norem's  of four values.  the g r a i n r e s p e c t i v e l y .  value.  o r shape o f t h e g r a i n ,  a n d # 3 d e s c r i b e a p e r t u r e s and o r n a m e n t a t i o n  grains respectively  of  of the m i c r o f o s s i l s  accom-  The f o u r t h  t o t h e maximum  i n microns.  T h u s , a g r a i n may be d e s i g n a t e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a : E7-6(J4.I-I4.IPC22-28). that  the o u t l i n e  The l e t t e r  o r shape o f t h e g r a i n  subcircular.  The number " 7 " s i g n i f i e s  is  monolete.  Number " 6 " d e n o t e s  is  granulate.  "E" s i g n i f i e s i s c i r c u l a r to that the aperture  that the  ornamentation  The l o n g a x i s o f t h e g r a i n r a n g e s i n  33-  l e n g t h f r o m i+l—I4J4. m i c r o n s , length  from  22-28  Exceptions are  found  ular  to  the  general  i n the A n n u l a t e  explained  P o l l e n and  A.  Saccate.  B.  Annulate  spore  C.  Auriculate.  D.  Elaterate.  E.  C i r c u l a r to  F.  Triangular  (B), T r i a n g u l a r  as  and  side  the  range  Equilateral,  only  ( i f the the  i s given  Subtrianggroupings. i n Key  the  #1.  range  of  brackets.)  range  indicated in  triangle is  range  i n length  i n brackets,  i n lengths  ( o n l y the  is  Papillate,  only  is indicated in  t r i a n g u l a r body are  I.  pattern  Subcircular.  one  R e n i f o r m to  in  keys.  to S u b t r i a n g u l a r .  R\  to  encountered  shape i s r o u n d ,  diameter  value  P a p i l l a t e (I)  they are  equilateral,  G.  short a x i s ranges  size-range  classification  ( i f the the  the  microns.  ( P ) , E q u i l a t e r a l (G)  These are  and  o f two  of  otherwise  sides  of  the  indicated.) i n length  of  one  side  brackets.)  Elliptical. (the  the  length  formula  of the within  papilla the  i s added  size-range  to  brackets;  (2I4. 2 - 1 8 )  i.e. has  a 2 micron  longest J.  signifies  that  long p a p i l l a  the  grain  along  the  diameter.)  Fusiform.  K. S p a t u l a t e . L. T e t r a d s . M.  Polyads.  N.  Filamentous.  Saccate gcaios A special  formula  i s used  to i d e n t i f y  saccate  grains: 1  - inaperturate  2 = aperturate 1,  2,  or 3 b l a d d e r s a • presence b  of a d i s t a l  • absence of a d i s t a l x  cap cap  = bladders d i s t i n c t  from  the  y • bladders continuous with An  example o f a S a c c a t e  Al-2ax  grain formula  (57-82x27-U2x96-llil|)  could  grain be:  where:  A  - signifies  that  the g r a i n  1  - signifies  that  i t i s inaperturate.  2 - signifies  that  i t has  two  i s saccate.  bladders.  grain  35.  a  - signifies  that  t h e b o d y has a d i s t a l c a p .  x - signifies  that  the b l a d d e r s  the  dimentions grain  of  - signifies  57-82x27-1+2  including  the bladders  £EY_#2  Nonaperturate  II.  With 1.  Apertures  apertures  Plicate  2  Tenuate  3  1  apertures Monoaperturate monoporate 2.  1+  Sulcate monosulcate trisulcate  5 6  22. L a e s u r a t e monolete trilete 222.  1 _8_  Colpate monocolpate  9  that  the main  body  m i c r o n s , and t h e e n t i r e  o f 57-82x96-ll|i+ m i c r o n s .  Without  from  grain.  (57-82x27-1+2x96-11+1+)  I.  are d i s t i n c t  has t h e d i m e n t i o n s  Multiaperturate 2.  Multiporate 3.  Mesoporate diporate  10  triporate  11  oligoporate 33-  12  Periporate oligoperiporate  13  polyperiporate 333.  lLj.  Latlporate 15  trilatiporate 22.  Multicolpate 3.  Colpate dicolpate  l6  tricolpate  17  oligocolpate 33«  18  Pericolpate oligopericolpate  19  polypericolpate 333'  Latlcolpate dilaticolpate trilaticolpate oligolaticolpate  222.  Multicolporate 3.  20  Colporate  21 22 23  37-  dicolporate  2l+ 25  tricolporate  26  oligocolporate 33«  Pericolporate oligopericolporate  28  polypericolporate 333*  27  Multiheterocolpate 29  he.terocolpate  30  perilaterocolpate 3333. Syncolpate spiraperturate  21+.  Dense  (included effect  III.  Sculptural 1.  32  here because  i t has t h e same  as o r n a m e n t a t i o n . )  elements  Sculpture 2.  zonacolpate  1  I. P s i l a t e II.  31  present.  s i m p l e and  Sculptural  homogenous.  elements  3« S c u l p t u r a l  tangentially.  Sculptural punctate  1+1+.  or separate.  e l e m e n t s more o r l e s s  isodiametric 1+.  distinct  Sculptural  elements depressed, 2 elements  raised.  38.  3  clavate  Ix  dolumnate 5  gemmate  6  granulate 7  lepidote lobate  8 9  papillate setose  10 11  spinate  12  tuberose  13  verrucose  thin processes 33-  Sculptural elongated  23  e l e m e n t s more o r l e s s tangentially.  J+. S c u l p t u r a l  elements  depressed,  rivulate l i | striate  15  vallate  l6  vermiculate I4I4. S c u l p t u r a l  17  elements  extervermiculate rugate 22.  Sculptural 3.  elements  Sculptural  raised, 18  19 continuous or connected.  e l e m e n t s more o r l e s s  isodiametric.  39-  ii.  Sculptural  elements 20  areolate I4.I4.. S c u l p t u r a l lophate  elements  Sculpture  complex,  of  appropriate sculpture,  by a  The f i r s t is  sizes  and s e p a r a t e e a c h d e s i g n a t e  ranges  o f the g r a i n s , measured  If possible,  system o u t l i n e d  above.  and f a c i l i t a t e s  t h e maximum s i z e  five  advantages  First,  plant  names.  ranges  correlation  a r e used Third,  of the key-  the key-system of strata  basins without nomenclatural research. that  and t h e s e c o n d  s h o u l d be u s e d .  There a r e a t l e a s t  formulae  i n microns.  E x c e p t i o n s t o t h e s e measurements a r e  i n K e y #1.  the grains  rapid  d e s i g n a t e s f o r each type  measurement i s t h e l o n g a x i s ,  the short axis.  outlined of  actual  sculpture.)  comma.  Size Use  22  ( i n c l u d e s more t h a n one f o r m of  Use  raised,  21  reticulate 11.  depressed,  i s very  i n local  Second, t h e  c a n n o t be c o n f u s e d w i t h f o r m a l  the keys  are based  on d e t a i l e d  l+o.  morphological  criteria  eind t e n d  to group  nomenclatural  studies.  fossils  for later  formula  actually provides a description  in question. be  added  Fifth,  key-system i s disadvantageous  formulae  are bulky  familiar  with  for  resolving  impractical have  t o be  Finally, because not  disrupting  the  and  probably  technique.  local  reinterpreted  familiar  igrapher,  grain  forms  the  can  system.  i n that  the  c o n f u s i n g t o one  Secondly,  each  un-  i t is practical It is  f o r r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s because a l l r e f e r e n c e s  interpretation  formulae  f o r the  c o r r e l a t i o n problems o n l y .  w i t h i n the  t h e method i s n o t  The  micro-  Fourth,  previously undescribed  to the keys w i t h o u t  The  the  by  any  i s impossible.  correlation with  w i t h i n a sedimentary  the  keys.  reader  key-system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  i s a rapid familiar  the  for publications  of the formulae  w i t h the keys  proposed  suitable  scope of  tool  for a  using  biostrat-  system, p r o v i d e d  i t i s used  b a s i n or o t h e r r e s t r i c t e d  area.  1+1.  CHAPTER IV  AGE AND  In s p i t e age  CORRELATION.  of i t s f l o r a  and w e l l p r e s e r v e d  o f t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t s  plant megafossils ficiently  evidence  from P a c i f i c  is still  relations  o f t h e Sooke m i c r o f l o r a .  brates provide  t o o meagre t o a l l o w  the b e s t  evidence,  be o f a n i n s u l a r n a t u r e  from other  because  Therefore,  b u t the fauna  from P l a n t  Megafossils  that  appears  c o r r e l a t a b l e forms  Evidence  decided  cor-  The m a r i n e i n v e r t e -  are scarce.  (1936)  Tertiary  any d e t a i l e d  formations  to base a c o r r e l a t i o n  t h e r e was n o t s u f f i c i e n t  on h i s p l a n t  collections.  he r e f e r r e d t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n t o C l a r k and  (1923)  Arnold's  are i n s u f -  Coast  Tertiary  Motte  evidence  The  w e l l known t o be u s e f u l f o r c o r r e l a t i o n .  sediments  La  a problem.  and t h e v e r t e b r a t e f o s s i l  Known m i c r o f o s s i l  to  fauna, the  late  Oligocene  - e a r l y M i o c e n e age d e t e r -  mination.  Evidence Cornwallius ations,  from the Vertebrate  i s only reported  the San G r e g e r i o  Fossil  f r o m two o t h e r  Formation of Baja  (Weaver e t a l , 191+1+) and t h e C o r n w a l l i u s  form-  California  bearing  beds  ij.2. of Unalaska  (Mac  Reinhart  Neil  et a l ,  I961).  ( p e r s o n a l communication,  Oct.  I4.,  1961)  indicated: "The g e o l o g i c r a n g e o f C o r n w a l l i u s i s u p p e r O l i g o c e n e . . . . I n my o p i n i o n , t h e O l i g o c e n e ? C o r n w a l l i u s i s the d i r e c t a n c e s t o r o f the m i d d l e M i o c e n e D e s m o s t y l u s . ...The g e o g r a p h i c p r o v i n c e s i n w h i c h C o r n w a l l i u s has b e e n l o c a t e d a r e B a j a , Mexico; Vancouver I s l a n d ; Japan. I r e g a r d the f i r s t two l o c a l i t i e s as Oligocene. The J a p a n e s e s p e c i m e n i s m i d d l e M i o c e n e and I made i t t h e t y p e s p e c i m e n o f a new genus P a l e o p a r a d o x i a . . . . I n my o p i n i o n C o r n w a l l i u s w o u l d n o t be a good f o r m f o r c o r r e l a t i o n b e c a u s e i t Is unknown e x c e p t f o r i s o l a t e d t e e t h and i t i s e x t r e m e l y r a r e . I would r e g a r d a good m a r i n e i n v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a , i f p r e s e n t , as f a r s u p e r i o r t o the genus C o r n w a l l i u s f o r purposes of c o r r e l a t i o n . " I n d i s c u s s i n g the M e x i c a n s i t e found,  Van  d e r Hoof  the northernmost 1921 . ed by  Julia  outcrop  o f the 'Monterey o f  c o l l e c t e d by D a r t o n  G a r d n e r as  'probably  Weaver e t a l c o r r e l a t i o n claims  t h a t the San  California as  contains  chart  Gregorio the  that there  California  Darton"  must be  the  (19IU+, p . 575)  Formation  i s o n l y one  O c t . I4,  were  determin-  of  In  the  Durham  lower Cornwallius  o f Vancouver- I s l a n d . " R e i n h a r t  where C o r n w a l l i u s  communication,  Darton,  Vaqueros.' "  "Same s p e c i e s o f  i n the Sooke F o r m a t i o n  reported  was  (191+1, p . 1985), w r i t e s , " T h i s i s  Invertebrates  1  where C o r n w a l l i u s  1961).  looality  has  i n Lower  been found,  Thus t h e  same as Durham's San  (personal  "Monterey Gregorio  of  U3.  Formation. the  San  I n the  Gregorio  Echinophora The  correlation  chart  (Weaver e t a l ,  i s i n the upper B l a k e l e y Stage,  apta  zone o f  t h e Lower  with  I961).  f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on  No  the  Miocene.  U n a l a s k a n beds c o n t a i n i n g C o r n w a l l i u s  correlated  19UU)  t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n  (Mac  this  Neil  are et a l ,  occurrence  is  available. If better  Cornwallius documented,  fossil.  i t would be  value  distributed,  a very  However, a t t h e p r e s e n t  particular it  were more w i d e l y  for correlation  good  time,  correlation  i t has  excepting  little  i n b e d s where  is diagnostic.  Evidence The  from P l a n t  amount o f p u b l i s h e d  Microfossils  literature  describing  T e r t i a r y p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s from the P a c i f i c region  i s small.  Information  i n g E o c e n e , M i o c e n e and Columbia  important first  Two  sources  Burrard consists  of  for correlation  i s a paper by Formation of  G.  of t h i s  Pliocene  i s i n preparation at  Columbia.  of  and  nature,  floras  of  E . Rouse  spores  British  (1962)  on  from  British  particularly  t h e Sooke f l o r a .  the V a n c o u v e r a r e a .  o f p o l l e n - and  concern-  the U n i v e r s i t y of  i n f o r m a t i o n are of  Coast  The  the  Eocene  The  second  the Skonun F o r m a t i o n  t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , l o a n e d  to t h e w r i t e r  by  G. E . R o u s e . (Cox,  The Skonun F o r m a t i o n  i n age  manuscript). The Sooke f l o r a  Skonun f l o r a s . ed  i s Pliocene  was compared  Three  these  flora  i n t h e Sooke f l o r a .  Burrard  and Sooke  appear-  F i g . 12  correlatives. SOOKE FM.  BURRARD FM. Rouse's designates  t h e B u r r a r d and  species of the Burrard  t o have c o r r e l a t i v e s  illustrates  with  Cox's designates  Name  Name  N 1+1.. . P i c e a alipollenites.  Al-2by (51x90x96-127). P i c e a s p .  0 1+ .. . L a e v i g a t o sporites ovatus.  H7-l(l+l+x26) .... c f .  Q 1+0. . . A l n u s quinquepollenites.  G12-K31+)  Laevigatosporites. .Alnus s p .  F i g u r e n o . 12, i l l u s t r a t i n g m i c r o f o s s i l s t o B u r r a r d and Sooke F o r m a t i o n s .  F o u r s p e c i e s were f o u n d Skonun f l o r a s .  i n common b e t w e e n  common  t h e Sooke and  These forms a r e :  1. A t r i l e t e f e r n  spore  F8-l(35~ij-0)  2. T s u g a s p .  Bl-5,13(51+-79)  3. P o l y p o d i u m s p .  H7-13(55-76x39-1+1+)  1+. A b i e s s p .  Al-2ax(72x80xl07-l56)  In general Skonun f l o r a s  t h e r e s e m b l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e Sooke and  appeared  t o be c l o s e r  than between the  45.  Sooke and B u r r a r d  floras.  The c o r r e l a t i v e s o f t h e  Skonun m i c r o f l o r a  i n t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n were  abundant  in  terms o f numbers o f i n d i v i d u a l s , b u t n o t i n numbers  of  species.  On t h e o t h e r  the B u r r a r d This  m i c r o f l o r a were i n f r e q u e n t  conclusion,  istical with  hand, c o r r e l a t i v e s p e c i e s o f i n t h e Sooke  however, i s t e n t a t i v e , b e c a u s e  comparisons  o f the Burrard  i t appears  that  i n age t o t h e P l i o c e n e  Evidence from the Marine The  earliest  faunal  this  i s more  than to the Burrard  T h u s , on p a l y n o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e , closer  With  t h e Sooke f l o r a  l y r e l a t e d t o t h e Skonun f l o r a  five  other  these marine On that  than to the Eocene.  Invertebrate  studies  Fossils  o f t h e Sooke  Formation  and H a n n i b a l  C l a p p and Cooke's  of  studies.  o f h i s s t u d i e s , Merriam  (1913)  the.middle Oligocene.  that  Since,  c o n t r i b u t i o n s have b e e n made t o  invertebrate  the b a s i s  flora.  concluded  t h e Sooke b e d s were o f m i d d l e Neocene a g e .  Arnold in  major  close-  t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n i s  were made b y J . C. M e r r i a m f r o m 1896 t o 1 9 0 2 . then,  stat-  and Skonun m i c r o f l o r a s  t h e Sooke m i c r o f l o r a were n o t made.  limitation  flora.  (I9I7)  t h e "Sooke F o r m a t i o n  placed  t h e Sooke  G. E . Weaver, who faunal  Formation studied  c o l l e c t i o n s decided  ... i s p r o b a b l y  the equivalent  the upper p o r t i o n o f the lower Miocene o f Washington."  ii6.  Cooke, 1917,  ( C l a p p and  p.  339).  C l a r k , and  Arnold  (1923) p r e p a r e d a monograph on t h e Sooke f a u n a . placed lower  the Sooke F o r m a t i o n  i n the upper  Miocene B l a k e l e y s t a g e .  I n the  Wayland Vaughan d e s c r i b e d a new Formation. barnacles nor  In from  I927,  6  Fig.  I. E. Cornwall  the Muir  C o r n w a l l added  to the s o l u t i o n  illustrates  Coast  of North America.  o f the age  (I923)  and  They suggest  Blakeley  the  Pacific  is  similar  diagram  ( p . 137)  t o be  zone and  chart  correlated  of  each  mainly  (I9l4.il-)the  Sooke  that  upper  ornamented  common t o t h e two."  (p.  " . . . t h e Sooke f a u n a  characteristic The  i s compiled  upon t h e h i g h l y  pelecypods  e q u i v a l e n t .to t h e u p p e r burgensis  of the  Sooke  B l a k e l e y beds of Washington.  c o n c l u s i o n i s based  found  problem.  of the  technique here  t o i n F i g . 6 and  w i t h t h e "...  gastropods  two  N e i t h e r Vaughan  faunas  the Weaver e t a l c o r r e l a t i o n  Formation  T.  Sooke  F i g . 3 shows the g e o l o g i c r a n g e s  C l a r k and A r n o l d  be  The  the  -  t o numbers p r e c e e d i n g e a c h r e f e r e n c e i n t h e  formation referred  This  from  o f F i g . 5 where t h e numbers on  bibliography.  from  same p a p e r ,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  w i t h o t h e r known T e r t i a r y  correspond  Oligocene  identified  Creek b a s i n .  fauna  to t h a t  coral  They  of the upper  part  part  part  135).  will of  the  o f the B l a k e l e y i s  o f Weaver's A c i l a  t o Durham's E c h i n o p h o r a  apta  gettyszone  of the lower This  Miocene o r European  Aquitanian stage.  (19i|2),  c o n c l u s i o n has b e e n s u p p o r t e d b y Weaver  Weaver e t a l  (I9I4IJ.),  and J e l e t z k y  that  the "Sooke" fauna  iyl\l±  " . . . c a n be c o r r e l a t e d  Formations  Formation  April  26, 1961).  Echinophora  apta  Durham  states  o f W a s h i n g t o n he r e p o r t e d i n  of C a l i f o r n i a . "  Creek  (1^5h)'  w i t h t h e S a n Ramon and P l e i t o and " . . . w i t h t h e upper  of Alaska." (personal  communication,  Me p l a c e s h i s "Sooke" f a u n a zone.  Poul  i n the  I t i s the w r i t e r ' s c o n c l u s i o n  t h a t Durham's "Sooke" f a u n a  o f W a s h i n g t o n and t h e Sooke  fauna  Island  o f southern Vancouver One  column on F i g . 6 shows t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f  Invertebrates Pacific  that  other T e r t i a r y  f o r m a t i o n s , on t h e  C o a s t , have i n common w i t h t h e Sooke  In theory, those formations centage  are correlative.  of f o s s i l s  remaining equal.  t h a t have t h e h i g h e s t p e r -  i n common w i t h t h e Sooke  s h o u l d be t h e c l o s e s t  Formation.  correlatives,  Formation  a l l other  I t i s considered that  those  factors faunas  h a v i n g 5% o r more c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e Sooke f a u n a a r e its  closest  correlatives.  San Ramon (6%) and V a q u e r o s California; ations  the A s t o r i a  (5%),  These a r e the P l e i t o (6.7%)  (13,5%)  Formations of  and E m p i r e  (5%)  Form-  o f W a s h i n g t o n and O r e g o n ; Durham's " S o o k e "  (9^) f r o m W a s h i n g t o n ; and t h e "Carmanah P o i n t above t h e c o n g l o m e r a t e "  (10.5$)  fauna  beds,  d e s c r i b e d b y C l a r k and  1+8.  (1923, p. 136)  Arnold  The Astoria  of Vancouver  highest percentage Formation  c o r r e l a t i o n i s with  (13.5$) •  Weaver e t a l  the A s t o r i a F o r m a t i o n i n the Miocene, e q u i v a l e n t  to  Island. the  (I9J4J4.) p l a c e  Temblor  stage  of  the  middle  the H e l v e t i a n  stage  of  European  chronology. The of  Blakeley  their  and  invertebrates  a t i o n was  explained  li'5f°  Sooke F o r m a t i o n s have o n l y i n common.  by  C l a r k and  T h i s moderate Arnold  correl-  (1923, p«  136):  "The most c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e o f the s t r a t I g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n o f the Sooke F o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e O l i g o c e n e b e d s i n the v i c i n i t y o f Carmanah P o i n t a l i t t l e t o the s o u t h o f the I n d i a n v i l l a g e o f C l o - o o s e ; the top o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s j u s t b e y o n d and t o the s o u t h o f Carmanah Point lighthouse. A typical Lincoln f a u n a was f o u n d i n the l o w e r p a r t o f the s e c t i o n , w h i l e t h e B l a k e l e y f a u n a was f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t the u p p e r p o r t i o n . Heavy c o n g l o m e r a t e s s e p a r a t e the b e d s c o n t a i n i n g the faunas". T h e y go  on  to d e s c r i b e  a f a u n a f r o m above  erates which i s "...of interfingering (p. 136). 10.$%  of  of  and  typical Blakeley  and  Blakeley  t h o u g h t t o be  fauna.  The  transitional faunas. due  This  the  Sooke  faunas"  conglomerate  contain  the Sooke f a u n a w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d  or  conglom-  s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t because of  T h e s e b e d s above the  typical Blakeley Sooke age  the  beds are  t o be  e i t h e r of  i n time between the  early  Sooke  d i f f e r e n c e i n faunas i s  to environmental  a  differentiation.  1*9.  According  t o C l a r k and A r n o l d  (1923, p . 131+) J  "The t y p i c a l f a u n a o f the B l a k e l e y i s u s u a l l y found i n r a t h e r f i n e sandstones and s h a l e s and u n d o u b t e d l y l i v e d i n m a r i n e w a t e r s some d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e shore; b u t the fauna o b t a i n e d f r o m the t y p e s e c t i o n o f t h e Sooke r e p r e s e n t s a shore l i n e f a c i e s , a fauna which would be f o u n d l i v i n g on a r o c k y b e a c h b e t w e e n h i g h and low t i d e , . . . c e r t a i n elements of t h i s fauna i n d i c a t e b r a c k i s h water c o n d i t i o n s f o r a t l e a s t p a r t of the time. The h a b i t a t was p r o b a b l y i n o r c l o s e t o an e s t u a r y o r t h e mouth o f a river." A number o f f o s s i l s  t h a t have b e e n r e c o r d e d f r o m  the Sooke F o r m a t i o n have g e o l o g i c r a n g e s t h e age  to e a r l y Miocene  that  a t the e a r l i e s t .  These  a r e : Macoma, Panope g e n e r o s a , C a l y p t r a i a Sinum scopulosum  and S c u t e l l a .  range  t o R e c e n t by S c h i m e r  of Miocene  They  Miocene,  i s a v e r y common c o n s t i t u e n t  to the  o f t h e Sooke t o be  J . W.  indicates (i.e.  Durham that  (personal  communication,  t h e Sooke f a u n a  l o w e r most M i o c e n e )  (I923)  i n age  26,  April  i s most l i k e l y  t i m e , however, F i g u r e 6 i n d i c a t e s correlation  restrict-  Miocene.  E v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d b y C l a r k and A r n o l d by  (I9I4.9).  of Oligocene to  Thus t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n a p p e a r s  ed i n age  mammilaris,  and S h r o c k  has  fauna.  fossils  are assigned a  Molopophorus and  a g e o l o g i c range  delimit  ( F i g . 3).  and 1961)  Aquitanian,  A t t h e same  an a p p a r e n t l y  o f t h e Sooke f a u n a w i t h t h e A s t o r i a  close  ( H e l v e t i a n ) fauna Helvetian) probably  and t h e V a q u e r o s  faunas.  Aquitanian  Aquitanian  (Aquitanian to  Thus t h e Sooke F o r m a t i o n i s most i n age, b u t may  range  from  t o H e l v e t i a n , o r f r o m t h e upper. B l a k e l e y  t o the*^Temblor s t a g e s  of P a c i f i c  Coast  terminology.  51.  CHAPTER V  SUMMARY AND  The and  Sooke F o r m a t i o n has n e v e r b e e n f o r m a l l y  the v a l i d i t y  question. ation  The  o f the type  Throughout  i s used  of sandstone,  Vancouver  along Island.  disconnected, surface, rapidly fairly  the south  that  I t was d e p o s i t e d  basins  on t h e s l o p e s  west  unit  and c o n g l o m -  out i n i s o l a t e d coast of  i n small,  apparently  of a volcanic  i n a s h o r e l i n e environment.  Facies  rock  change  i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s and d e p o s i t i o n a l d i p s a r e steep.  Thus c o r r e l a t i o n  a purely physical basis The  i s hazardous.  Sooke F o r m a t i o n  contains  vertebrate  and  a moderately large m i c r o f l o r a . types  fossil,  o f i n d i v i d u a l b e d s , on  one  fossil  shale  crops  and s o u t h  Form-  connotation.  i s a sedimentary rock  i n varying proportions,  localities  t h e t e r m Sooke  i n i t s g e n e r a l l y accepted  of interbeds  defined  s e c t i o n i s open t o s e r i o u s  the paper,  Sooke F o r m a t i o n  consisting erate  CONCLUSIONS  a small  a l a r g e marine  megaflora,  invertebrate  Since  these  a r e so i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d i n t h e i r  fauna  various strat-  i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n s , they  were d o u b t l e s s l y  deposited  during  of time.  invertebrate  t h e same i n t e r v a l  evidence  from  the P a c i f i c  Marine  Coast T e r t i a r y i s extensive,  52.  and  the  invertebrates  age  and  c o r r e l a t i o n of  basis,  the  i n age,  but  extend  ditional or  the  equivalent as  evidence  vertebrate  Pacific few  for  was  fossil  two  comparison  than  and  may  relation  Temblor  to  the  to  that the  Eocene B u r r a r d of the  information  paleoecology.  the  the  stage,  No  ad-  megaflora  this  age.  studies were  Sooke m i c r o f l o r a .  indicated  studies  lower  the  delimit  other microfloras  i n p a r t i c u l a r of  additional and  stage.  the  this  t o be  from e i t h e r  to f u r t h e r  the  On  upper B l a k e l e y  Coast T e r t i a r y p a l y n o l o g i c a l  Further palynological  strata  the  more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d  microflora  Tertiary  the  is available  comparison with  preliminary flora  determine  Sooke F o r m a t i o n .  to  h i g h as  i n number; o n l y  able  the  to  Sooke F o r m a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d  Miocene may  have b e e n u s e d  Sooke  Pliocene  are  availA microSkonun  microflora. Pacific  Sooke and  Coast related  c o n c e r n i n g age,  cor-  53.  SUGGESTIONS FOR  As  a r e s u l t of  p r o b l e m s have b e e n 1.  In  order  limits  stratigraphy  s e t t i n g s h o u l d be  of m i c r o f o s s i l species that  the  established closely  burgensis  fauna  conglomerate at  are  present  palynological  Carmanah P o i n t , coast and  i n the  and  of Vancouver  studies  Island  of  the  the  Sooke F o r m a t i o n a p p e a r s  t o modern e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s  or  gettys-  Carmanah area.  made a t  along  s e d i m e n t s would be  of  good c o m p a r i s o n and  contrast  c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the explained.  the  the  west  formations  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of  advancement o f k n o w l e d g e .  must be  be  to d e l i m i t the  the  The  Acila  - Nootka  could  to  a  delimited.  microfloras.  studies  f a u n a s , f l o r a s and  Hesquiat  northwestward  t h e i r contained  Paleoecological  w i t h the  area, and.  c o r r e l a t i v e s of  and  above the  Sooke,  in this  Carmanah f a u n a s  Further  3-  of  Sooke and  Point,  2.  the  (I95I4.) r e p o r t e d  Jeletzky  following  recognized:  other T e r t i a r y formations  a palynological the  t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the  to r e s o l v e  Carmanah and  FURTHER STUDIES  o f much v a l u e  The  paleoecology  sufficiently i n the could  may  that  made.  Astoria  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s may  s a m p l i n g methods o r p r e s e r v a t i o n  similar  same a r e a  be  Sooke and  the  be  faunas  i n error,  have  provided  5i|. poorly representative  faunas.  In a d d i t i o n , the form-  ations may be much more c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t i v e than i s presently  suspected with the differences  the r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n t e c o l o g i c a l  i n faunas  settings.  55-  SELECTED  if  BIBLIOGRAPHY  American Commission o f S t r a t i g r a p h i c Nomenclature (1961):  Code o f S t r a t i g r a p h i c N o m e n c l a t u r e ;  Amer. A s s o c . P e t r . G e o l . ,  Bull.,  v o l . 1+5,  no. 5 , P«P» 61+5-6652. A r n o l d ,  R. A.  (1906): the  Geological reconnaissance  Olympic P e n i n s u l a ,  Amer., B u l l . , 3.  (I906):  Tertiary  California;  v o l . 17,  o f the coast o f  W a s h i n g t o n ; Geo], S o c . o f p . p . 1+51-1+68.  and Q u a t e r n a r y p e c t e n s o f  U. S. G e o l .  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