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Age and correlation of the Sooke formation with a section on its palynology 1962

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AGE AND CORRELATION OF THE SOOKE FORMATION WITH A SECTION ON ITS PALYNOLOGY by RAYMOND L. COX B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of GEOLOGY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the standard r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE. Members of the Department of Geology "THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ' A p r i l , 1962 In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Department of v i i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study i s to c r i t i c a l l y review e a r l i e r s t u d i e s of the Sooke Formation, to p r e s e n t a p r e v i o u s l y unreported m i c r o f l o r a and to a s s i g n an age to the fo r m a t i o n on the b a s i s of p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l evidence. The methods used to a r r i v e a t tHe gen e r a l con- c l u s i o n s c o n s i s t e d of f i e l d work and l a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s e s , supplemented by r e f e r e n c e to the l i t e r a t u r e and to a u t h o r i t i e s i n the f i e l d s of pa l y n o l o g y , T e r t i a r y i n v e r t - ebrate p a l e o n t o l o g y and v e r t e b r a t e p a l e o n t o l o g y . The Sooke Formation crops out al o n g the south and southwest coast of Vancouver I s l a n d i n a s e r i e s of i s o l a t e d areas. Each area appears to r e p r e s e n t a sed- imentary b a s i n . The l i t h o l o g y c o n s i s t s of interbedded conglomerates, sandstones and shales i n v a r y i n g pro- p o r t i o n s . Sooke s t r a t a c o n t a i n a w e l l p r e s e r v e d f o s s i l fauna a n d - f l o r a . The fauna c o n s i s t s of one v e r t e b r a t e and 132 marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s . The f l o r a c o n s i s t s of a few cones, l e a f and wood fragments and a w e l l p r e s e r v e d m i c r o f l o r a . The Sooke Formation i s c o r r e l a t e d with the upper B l a k e l e y Formation of Washington and shows c l o s e f a u n a l v i i i r e s enblance to the A s t o r i a fauna of Washington and Oregon. I t i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the European A q u i t a n i a n stage, but may range as h i g h as the H e l v e t i a n stage. V ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to express my g r a t i t u d e to my t h e s i s sup- e r v i s o r , Dr. W. R. Danner, of the Department of Geology, f o r h i s suggestions and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s paper. I wish a l s o to thank Dr. G. E. Rouse f o r h i s a s s i s t - ance i n p r e p a r i n g m a t e r i a l f o r p a l y n o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and f o r h i s guidance i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the p o l l e n and spores r e c o v e r e d . Mr. I. E. Cornwall of V i c t o r i a , Vancouver I s l a n d , i d e n t i f i e d the f o s s i l C i r r i p e d a and d i s c u s s e d t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . Dr. Wyatt Durham of the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a a t Ber k e l e y i d e n t i f i e d many i n v e r t e b r a t e specimens and commented on t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . Dr. R. H. R e i n h a r t of Miami U n i v e r s i t y , Oxford, Ohio and Dr. Tadao Kamei of the Desmostylus Research Committee, Japan made many h e l p f u l suggestions on the presen t s t a t u s of the v e r t e b r a t e genus, C o r n w a l l i u s • I wish to thank my f e l l o w g e o l o g i s t s of the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada i n Cal g a r y f o r t h e i r many h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . Mr. T. P. Chamney k i n d l y p r o o f - read the i n i t i a l d r a f t and o f f e r e d h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . i TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose 1 Scope 2 L o c a t i o n 2 A c c e s s i b i l i t y 3 I I . REVIEW OP GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY , I|i Previous S t u d i e s k- V a l i d i t y of the Terra "Sooke Formation" 8 Reg i o n a l T e r t i a r y S t r a t i g r a p h y 9 The P a c i f i c coast of North America 9 Vancouver I s l a n d 10 Geology of the Sooke Formation 12 S t r a t i g r a p h y 12 D i s c u s s i o n of the type s e c t i o n l6 Contact r e l a t i o n s w i t h other f o r m a t i o n s . 19- S t r u c t u r e 20 M e g a f o s s i l S t u d i e s 21 P l a n t m e g a f o s s i l s 21 A marine v e r t e b r a t e 22 Marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s 22 i i CHAPTER PAGE I I I . PALYNOLOGY 2l+ F i e l d procedures 2li L a b o r a t o r y procedures 25 P o l l e n and Spore Study 27 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 30 P o l l e n and spore c l a s s i f i c a t i o n keys ... 33 IV. AGE AND CORRELATION Ill Evidence from P l a n t M e g a f o s s i l s Ill Evidence from the V e r t e b r a t e F o s s i l J+l Evidence from P l a n t M i c r o f o s s i l s J+3 Evidence from the Marine I n v e r t e b r a t e F o s s i l s lx$ V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 51 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES 53 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 55 i i i LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS PLATE 1. (a,b) Sea C l i f f s , Muir Creek b a s i n : f o l l o w i n g page 15 2. (a,b) Sea C l i f f s , Muir Greek b a s i n : f o l l o w i n g p l a t e 1 3. (a,b) Sea C l i f f s , Muir Creek b a s i n : f o l l o w i n g p l a t e 2 i ; . M i c r o f o s s i l s : f o l l o w i n g , page 28 5. M i c r o f o s s i l s : f o l l o w i n g p l a t e li. 6. M i c r o f o s s i l s : f o l l o w i n g p l a t e 5 7. M i c r o f o s s i l s : f o l l o w i n g - p l a t e 6 8. M i c r o f o s s i l s : f o l l o w i n g p l a t e 7 FIGURE 1. D i s t r i b u t i o n of T e r t i a r y sediments on • . the south and southwest c o a s t a l areas of Vancouver I s l a n d : -ia-pooke-t- 2. Sample l o c a l i t y map: i n pookot- 3. Maximum ranges of s e l e c t e d P a c i f i c coast T e r t i a r y formations and faunas: in-^e-eice-^ I).. Muir Creek B a s i n : i n packed 5. Sooke fauna l o c a l i t y check l i s t : -in pocke-t- 6. Fauna c o r r e l a t i o n check l i s t : io-pocko-fr- 7. Table: i l l u s t r a t i n g q u a l i t y of r e c o v e r y of m i c r o f o s s i l s from Sooke samples: page 28 i v FIGURE 8. Histogram of m i c r o f o s s i l s (RC 23): f o l l o w i n g page 28 9. Histogram of m i c r o f o s s i l s (RG 9): f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e 8 10. Histogram of m i c r o f o s s i l s (RC 11-3): f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e 9 11. Composite histogram: f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e 10 12. M i c r o f o s s i l s common to B u r r a r d and Sooke Formations: page kh v i F i n a l l y , I wish to thank my wife E l a i n e who gave me the encouragement to f i n i s h the study and who con- t r i b u t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y by t y p i n g a l l of the m a t e r i a l presented here. 1. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The Sooke Formation i s a h i g h l y f o s s i l i f e r o u s sedimentary rock u n i t of e a r l y Miocene age t h a t crops out i n i s o l a t e d l o c a l i t i e s along the south and south- west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d . The l i t h o l o g y con- s i s t s of conglomerates, sandstones and shales i n v a r y - i n g p r o p o r t i o n s . Sooke beds were f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by J . Richardson i n 1879* Since then, workers have r e - po r t e d a sma l l megaflora, one v e r t e b r a t e f o s s i l and a l a r g e marine i n v e r t e b r a t e fauna from the s t r a t a . Purpose The main o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study i s a p a l e o n t o - l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Sooke Formation. A l a r g e , p r e v i o u s l y unknown m i c r o f l o r a , recovered from Sooke sediments i n t h i s p r e s e n t study, i s i l l u s t r a t e d and c l a s s i f i e d . I t s a f f i n i t i e s w i t h two other B r i t i s h Columbia T e r t i a r y f l o r a s are d i s c u s s e d . I t i s hoped th a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l serve as an a d d i t i o n a l con- t r i b u t i o n to the P a c i f i c Coast T e r t i a r y p a l y n o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . The purpose i s a l s o to show the s t r a t i g r a p h i c and age r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h i s m i c r o f l o r a to the Sooke 2. m e g a f o s s i l s . To t h i s end, p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d p a l e o n t o - l o g i c a l data are compiled and both c o r r e l a t i o n s and age determinations based on the fauna are c r i t i c a l l y reviewed. Scope P a l e o n t o l o g i c a l evidence and s t r a t i g r a p h i c inform- a t i o n were gathered d u r i n g a one month f i e l d season. These f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s are supplemented by u s i n g p r e v i o u s workers' l i t h o l o g i c data to p r o v i d e a r e g i o n - a l s t r a t i g r a p h i c framework f o r the p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d to the south- e a s t e r n h a l f of the Sooke Formation ( F i g s . 1, 2) which was the a s s i g n e d t h e s i s a r e a . T h i s area i s considered to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the f o r m a t i o n as i t c o n t a i n s both the type s e c t i o n and the most complete sedimentary sequences. L o c a t i o n The Sooke Formation i s l o c a t e d a l o n g the south and southwest coast of Vancouver I s l a n d ( F i g . l ) . I t s known extent i s from Betcher Bay a t the southern t i p of Vancouver I s l a n d , northwest to and i n c l u d i n g Owen P o i n t . The t h e s i s area i s i n d i c a t e d on F i g u r e 1 and enlarged on F i g u r e 2 i n c l u d e s o n l y the s o u t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n of the Sooke Formation w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of i t s s t r a t a a t Becher Bay. In the t h e s i s area, the Sooke Formation crops out i n a s e r i e s of f i v e i s o l a t e d l o c a l i t i e s . These l o c a l i t i e s appear to r e p r e s e n t d i s t i n c t d e p o s i t i o n a l b a s i n s and are, f o r ease of r e f e r e n c e , each designated by geographic names. From south e a s t to n o r t h west a l o n g the coast these a r e : Sooke b a s i n , Muir Creek b a s i n , G l a c i e r P o i n t b a s i n , Begg Creek b a s i n and Vye Creek b a s i n . W i t h i n each b a s i n , each outcrop i s designated by a s p e c i a l number. For example, the outcrop about one q u a r t e r of a m i l e west of the mouth of Muir Creek, i n the Muir Creek b a s i n ( F i g u r e 2) i s d e s i g n a t e d RC 23, where RC are the i n i t i a l s of the w r i t e r and 23 i s the number of the outcrop. A c c e s s i b i l i t y The area d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s study i s a c c e s s i b l e a l l year by c a r , a l o n g highway lij. from V i c t o r i a , Vancouver I s l a n d . The area from Jordan R i v e r to P o r t Renfrew i s a c c e s s i b l e by car a l o n g a w e l l - t r a v e l l e d l o g g i n g road o n l y a t n i g h t and on weekends. A l l other c o a s t a l areas n o r t h of P o r t Renfrew are a c c e s s i b l e o n l y by boat. CHAPTER I I REVIEW OP GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY Prev i o u s S t u d i e s The Sooke Formation has aroused the i n t e r e s t of g e o l o g i s t s and e s p e c i a l l y p a l e o n t o l o g i s t s f o r n e a r l y a century. D u r i n g t h i s time, a t l e a s t twenty w r i t e r s have c o n t r i b u t e d to the knowledge of the f o r m a t i o n . Because the c o n t r i b u t i o n s are so numerous, they are l i s t e d below i n numerical order, b e g i n n i n g w i t h the e a r l i e s t study. 1. J . Richardson ( I 8 7 8 ) d e s c r i b e d two s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s near the town of Sooke. The f i r s t s e c t i o n , a q u a r t e r of a m i l e up the Sooke R i v e r c o n s i s t e d of about 22i^ , of sandstone interbedded w i t h c l a y . The second s e c t i o n , a t Whiffen S p i t , was d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s : 1 3 9 ' sandstones and shales encountered by a borehole beneath the c l i f f s , and 3 3 5 ' of conglomerate, sandstone and shale i n t e r b e d s i n the c l i f f s . 2. D a l l and H a r r i s ( I 8 9 2 ) s t a t e d t h a t the Sooke beds were Neocene i n age. ( C l a r k and A r n o l d , I 9 2 3 ) 3 . J . C. Merriam (1896) p u b l i s h e d the f i r s t f a u n a l 5- l i s t of Sooke marine i n v e r t e b r a t e f o s s i l s . His c o n c l u s i o n was that the Sooke beds were of middle Neocene age. In 1897* n e p u b l i s h e d another s h o r t f a u n a l l i s t from the Sooke beds. In 1899* he " . . . r e p u b l i s h e d the d e s c r i p t i o n s and f i g u r e d the Sooke s p e c i e s , adding a c h e c k l i s t of the fauna." ( C l a r k and A r n o l d , 1923, pp. 127, 128.) 1+. D a l l (I898) " . . . c o r r e l a t e d the Sooke w i t h the Miocene s a y i n g i t i s 'probably l a t e r than the Empire or the A s t o r i a Miocene.' " ( C l a r k and A r n o l d , I923, p. 128) 5. A r n o l d (1906 and 1909) agreed w i t h Merriam and " . . . r e f e r r e d the Sooke to the upper Miocene, the e q u i v a l e n t of the San Pablo of middle C a l i f o r n i a . " ( C l a r k and A r n o l d , 1923, p. 128) 6. Clapp and A l l a n ( I 9 H ) r e f e r r e d the Sooke and Carmanah Formations to the Oligocene - Miocene. 7. Clapp (I912) d e s c r i b e d a l8i|' s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n i n the v i c i n i t y of Coal (Kirby) Creek, and a 101' s e c t i o n near the mouth of Jordan R i v e r . 8. A r n o l d and Hannibal (1913), i n a g e n e r a l i z e d study of marine T e r t i a r y formations of the P a c i f i c Coast, l i s t e d a Sooke fauna and concluded t h a t the Sooke Formation was middle Oligocene i n age, and, t o - gether w i t h the Twin R i v e r s Formation, had s u b t r o p i c a l faunas (p. 575)• They r e p o r t e d t h a t Glapp had e s t a b l i s h e d the type s e c t i o n f o r the Sooke Formation i n the sea c l i f f s between Muir and K i r b y Creeks. Clapp and Cooke ( I 9 1 7 ) d e s c r i b e d a 5 2 8 ' s e c t i o n a l o n g K i r b y Creek. They s t a t e d t h a t the s t r a t a i n the Muir Creek B a s i n were a t l e a s t 2 0 0 0 ' t h i c k . C. E. Weaver i d e n t i f i e d a f a u n a l c o l l e c t i o n made by them (pp 336 - 3 3 9 ) . M e concluded t h a t " 'The Sooke Formation from such evidence as i s a v a i l a b l e i s p r o b a b l y the e q u i v a l e n t of the upper p o r t i o n of the lower Miocene of Washington. 1 " (p. 339) C l a r k and A r n o l d ( I 9 I 8 ) r e f e r r e d the Sooke beds to the lower Oligocene. In a l a t e r study (1923) however, they r e t r a c t e d t h i s age d e t e r m i n a t i o n and c o r r e l a t e d "...the fauna of the Sooke Formation with Weaver's B l a k e l e y , or A c i l a g e t t y s b u r g e n s i s h o r i z o n . " (p. 129) They showed t h a t "The B l a k e l e y zone r e f e r r e d to by Weaver i s the A c i l a g e t t y s b u r - gensis h o r i z o n , and i s g e n e r a l l y , though w i t h some doubt, r e f e r r e d to the upper Oligocene; i t may be p a r t i a l l y or e n t i r e l y lower Miocene i n age." ( C l a r k and A r n o l d , 1 9 2 3 , p. 1 2 9 . ) T h i s (1923) r e p o r t was a monographic study of the fauna of the Sooke Formation. I t i n c l u d e d a check l i s t of s p e c i e s , numerous photographic p l a t e s of the fauna, and the d e s c r i p t i o n of a new c o r a l from the Sooke Formation by T. Wayland Vaughan. 11. I. E. Cornwall (1922) d e s c r i b e d a few v e r t e b r a t e f o s s i l remains from the Muir Creek B a s i n and named them Desmostylus sookensis. 12. 0. P. Hay (1923) s t u d i e d these f o s s i l v e r t e b r a t e remains, and re-named them C o r n w a l l i u s sookensis ( C o r n w a l l ) . 13. H e r t l e i n and Crickmay (1925) r e f e r r e d to the Sooke Formation as Miocene i n age. lij. . I. E. Cornwall (1927) d e s c r i b e d two f o s s i l b a r n a c l e s from the Sooke Formation. 15. R. M. Lo g i e (1929) in-;an unpublished MA t h e s i s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia reviewed e a r l i e r s t u d i e s and d i s c u s s e d the mode of d e p o s i t i o n , the pa l e o n t o l o g y , and the age of the f o r m a t i o n . 16. La Motte (1936) d e s c r i b e d p l a n t m e g a f o s s i l s from the Muir Creek B a s i n . He c a l l e d the fo r m a t i o n upper Oligocene i n age and r e f e r r e d these c o n c l u s i o n s to C l a r k and A r n o l d , 1923. 17. Durham (I9I4.I4.) d e s c r i b e d a "Sooke" fauna from the n o r t h e r n Olympic P e n i n s u l a of Washington. He p r e s e n t l y b e l i e v e s ( p e r s o n a l communication, A p r i l 26, I961) t h i s m a t e r i a l to be w i t h i n h i s Echinophora apta zone which " . . . i n t u r n f a l l s w i t h i n the top of 8. the biozone of A c i l a g e t t y s b u r g e n s i s as d e f i n e d by Schenck". 18. Weaver et a l (lylili) compiled a c o r r e l a t i o n c h a r t of the U n i t e d S t a t e s P a c i f i c Coast T e r t i a r y f o r m a t i o n s . In i t they i n c l u d e d the Sooke Formation which they showed to be lower Miocene i n age and e q u i v a l e n t to the upper B l a k e l e y Formation and to the Echinophora apta zone of Durham. 19. J e l e t z k y (1953) d i s c o v e r e d a s e r i e s of faunas i n the sediments of the Hesquiat - Nootka area of the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d . He equated one of these faunas to the Sooke fauna. 20. Danner (i960), i n a c o r r e l a t i o n c h a r t showed the Sooke Formation to be upper most B l a k e l e y and lower two t h i r d s Vaqueros i n age. V a l i d i t y of _the Term "Sooke Formation" Sooke beds were f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by J . Richardson i n I879. In I896 - I899, J . C. Merriam d e s c r i b e d a marine i n v e r t e b r a t e fauna from the Sooke beds. In d i s c u s s i o n s of the u n i t , subsequent workers (Arnold and Hannibal, 1913; Clapp and Cooke, 1917; C l a r k and A r n o l d , 1923 and Weaver et a l , I9J4.I1..) a l l r e f e r r e d the term "Sooke Formation" to Merriam. Merriam, however, a p p a r e n t l y had no I n t e n t i o n of naming the f o r m a t i o n as the term "Sooke Formation" i s not found i n any of h i s w r i t i n g s . He c o n s i s t e n t l y r e f e r r e d to the u n i t as the "Sooke beds". The term "Sooke Formation" has become " f o r m a l i z e d " through almost s i x t y years of undisputed usage d u r i n g which time no other term has been suggested to supplant i t . The p r e s e n t Code of S t r a t i g r a p h i c Nomenclature (I961, p. 650) d e f i n e s a f o r m a t i o n : "A f o r m a t i o n i s a body of rock c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l i t h o l o g i c homogeniety; i t i s p r e v a i l i n g l y but not n e c e s s a r i l y t a b u l a r , and i s mappable at the earth's s u r f a c e . . . " . Since the "Sooke Formation", as i t i s g e n e r a l l y understood, f u l f i l l s these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and has been used i n many r e - cognized p u b l i c a t i o n s , i t i s a v a l i d term. I t i s beyond the scope of t h i s paper to f o r m a l l y d e f i n e the Sooke Formation. The term should be r e - t a i n e d i n i t s g e n e r a l l y understood sense, and, i n some f u t u r e study, should be d e f i n e d and a type s e c t i o n should be a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d . The s t a t u s of the type s e c t i o n w i l l be t r e a t e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the geology of the Sooke Formation. R e g i o n a l T e r t i a r y S t r a t i g r a p h y The P a c i f i c coast of North America T e r t i a r y sedimentary bodies are found s c a t t e r e d 10. a l o n g the P a c i f i c c o a s t a l areas of North America, from Baja C a l i f o r n i a n o r t h to Unalaska. These bodies are t y p i c a l l y elongate, narrow and very t h i c k basin-shaped g e o m e t r i c a l forms. D u r i n g t h e i r f o r m a t i o n , many of the b a s i n s were i s o l a t e d from each other both i n space and i n time. In o r i g i n , the sediments range from marine to c o n t i n e n t a l . N e a r l y a l l b a s i n s are f o s s i l i f e r o u s , the marine sediments y i e l d i n g faunas and the c o n t i n e n t a l sediments y i e l d i n g f l o r a s . F i g u r e 3 i l l u s t r a t e s the more important T e r t i a r y formations i n t h i s r e g i o n . Maximum ranges of the f o r - mations, and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to b o t h European and North American stage names are i n d i c a t e d . The b u l k of the i n f o r m a t i o n i s compiled from Weaver e t a l (iylxl±), but other sources have a l s o been used. The purpose of t h i s t a b l e i s to show the most r e c e n t c o n c l u s i o n s as to the ages of these formations and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the Sooke Formation. Vancouver I s l a n d T e r t i a r y sedimentary sequences have been r e p o r t e d from the south and south west c o a s t a l areas of Vancouver I s l a n d ( F i g . 1). These sediments are exposed i n i s o l a t e d areas t h a t are separated from one another by e i t h e r k n o l l s of o l d e r rocks or by i n f i l l i n g s of younger g l a c i a l and s u p e r f i c i a l d e p o s i t s . Many of these i s o l a t e d areas l i . p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t d i s t i n c t d e p o s i t i o n a l b a s i n s . The formations r e p r e s e n t e d i n the known b a s i n s c a r r y three f a u n a l assemblages ( J e l e t z k y , 1951+) • ^he o l d e s t fauna i s re p r e s e n t e d i n the Carmanah Formation, the E s c a l a n t e Formation and J e l e t z k y ' s D i v i s i o n s "A" and "B". I t i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the L i n c o l n fauna of e a r l y Oligocene age. The next youngest assemblage i s r e - presented by the fauna i n sediments above the "Conglom- er a t e a t Carmanah P o i n t " , ( C l a r k and A r n o l d , 1923) and J e l e t z k y ' s D i v i s i o n "C" and i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the lower B l a k e l e y or Durham's Echinophora rex zone (Durham, ltykh) of l a t e Oligocene age. The youngest fauna i s r e p r e s e n t - ed i n the Sooke Formation and i n J e l e t z k y ' s D i v i s i o n "D", and i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Durham's Echinophora apta zone. I n d i v i d u a l beds w i t h i n the b a s i n s are t y p i c a l l y l e n t i c u l a r i n shape. Environments of d e p o s i t i o n ranged from marine to non marine. The o l d e r sediments c o n s i s t mainly of f i n e r marine e l a s t i c s , while the younger rock u n i t s r e p r e s e n t more r a p i d l y f l u c t u a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s of d e p o s i t i o n and c o n s i s t of co a r s e r g r a i n e d , more p o o r l y s o r t e d sediments i n cross bedded, l e n t i c u l a r s t r a t a . 12. Geology of the Sooke Formation S t r a t i g r a p h y The Sooke Formation c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of b a s i n s of sedimentary s t r a t a extending from Becher Bay on the south coast of Vancouver I s l a n d northwest a l o n g the coast to Owen P o i n t . The t h i c k e s t known sequence of Sooke beds i s i n the Muir Creek basin' ( F i g s . 2, I4.). The s e a - c l i f f s about a q u a r t e r o f a mile west of the mouth of Muir Creek expose a 150' s e c t i o n of sediments. Clapp and Cooke (I917) r e p o r t e d t h a t a hole t h a t was d r i l l e d a t the base of these c l i f f s p e n e t r a t e d l£ 6 0 ' of sediments without p a s s i n g through the f o r m a t i o n . Thus, the Sooke Formation i s more than 1700' t h i c k . The sediments i n other b a s i n s ( F i g . 2) appear to be much t h i n n e r than those of the Muir Creek b a s i n , although c o n c l u s i v e evidence to t h i s e f f e c t i s not a v a i l a b l e . A 30' t h i c k - ness of sediments i s exposed i n the Vye Creek b a s i n . A s i m i l a r t h i c k n e s s i s exposed i n the Begg Creek b a s i n . The sediments of G l a c i e r P o i n t b a s i n vary i n t h i c k n e s s from three inches t o p o s s i b l y 15> f e e t . I t i s termed a b a s i n here, because i t was so r e p o r t e d by Clapp and A l l a n (I9H) on t h e i r map. The sediments they r e p o r t e d at G l a c i e r P o i n t are a t p r e s e n t p r o b a b l y obscured by s u r f i c i a l d e p o s i t s and a dense f o r e s t growth. T h i s 13 covered i n t e r v a l extends f o r about two hundred yards a l o n g the c o a s t . I t i s f l a n k e d on the west by a v e r y coarse b a s a l conglomerate w i t h a sandstone matrix, and on the east by a few very t h i n beds of sandstone con- t a i n i n g numerous s m a l l fragments of v o l c a n i c d e b r i s . The Sooke b a s i n was r e p o r t e d by Clapp and A l l a n (1911) as extending from Whiffen S p i t , e a s t a l o n g the s h o r e l i n e p a s t the Sooke R i v e r f o r one m i l e , and up the Sooke R i v e r f o r about f o u r m i l e s . The o n l y exposures the w r i t e r c o u l d l o c a t e i n t h i s area and a s c r i b e d e f i n a t e l y to the Sooke Formation were i n the v i c i n i t y of Whiffen S p i t . The remainder of the low c l i f f s a l o n g the lower Sooke R i v e r and near the town of Sooke c o n s i s t e d of p o o r l y c o n s o l i d a t e d s h e l l - l a d e n c l a y s and massive c l a y s . The s h e l l s were p r o b a b l y of the Indian k i t c h e n - midden type as they c o n s i s t almost e n t i r e l y of the s h e l l s of e d i b l e forms of clams, and a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n v a s t q u a n t i t i e s j u s t below the top s o i l , a l o n g the coast l i n e i n t h i s a r e a . The massive c l a y s and p o o r l y c o n s o l i d a t - ed s h a l e s and green sands r e p o r t e d by Richardson ( I 8 7 6 ) near the mouth of the Sooke R i v e r must await f u r t h e r s t u d i e s b e f o r e b e i n g d e f i n a t e l y i n c l u d e d as p a r t of the Sooke Formation. Emphasis, i n t h i s study, has been on the Muir Creek b a s i n , not only because of i t s v e r t i c a l t h i c k n e s s , but 11*. a l s o because I t i s the o n l y b a s i n with an a p p r e c i a b l e i n l a n d e x t e n t . Furthermore, the sediments of the Muir Creek b a s i n t y p i f y sediments i n the other b a s i n s t h a t were i n v e s t i g a t e d . In g e n e r a l , the Sooke Formation c o n s i s t s of l e n t i c u l a r i n t e r b e d s of sandstones and sandy conglom- e r a t e s and minor s h a l e s . A c c o r d i n g to Clapp and Cooke ( 1917 , P« 331) "The sand i s angular to subrounded and i s com- posed l a r g e l y of q u a r t z , p l a g i o c l a s e , f e l d s p a r and magnetite g r a i n s and s m a l l rock fragments, almost e n t i r e l y fragments of the Metchosin meta- b a s a l t s . ...Accessory m i n e r a l s , c h i e f l y b i o t i t e , muscovite, hornblende, e p i d o t e , c h l o r i t e , serpen- t i n e and l i m o n i t e are numerous and occur i n r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e amounts. The sandstones are r a t h e r f i r m l y cemented c h i e f l y by abundant c a l c i t e , but i n p l a c e s by l i m o n i t e , and although s o f t when f r e s h , hardens with seasoning." Sandy conglomerate beds and l e n s e s occur through- out the f o r m a t i o n . In g e n e r a l , the conglomeratic fragments v a r y i n s i z e from pebbles to cobbles, however, a t the base of the f o r m a t i o n they may r e a c h diameters of 20 to 30 f e e t . The conglomeratic fragments are g e n e r a l l y subrounded, and composed of b a s a l t , quartz and g r a n i t i c m a t e r i a l . The b a s a l conglomerate c o n s i s t s of angular b a s a l t fragments d e r i v e d from the u n d e r l y i n g Metchosin v o l c a n i c r o c k s . The sandstone matrix i s of the same composition as the interbedded sandstone l e n s e s and the sands d e s c r i b e d above by Clapp. Commonly, the 1 5 . sandstones and conglomerates i n t e r g r a d e l a t e r a l l y . In the sea c l i f f s of the Muir Greek b a s i n a few t h i n , sandy, f o s s i l i f e r o u s or carbonaceous lenses of shal e are exposed interbedded w i t h the sandstones and conglomerates. Leaching of the c a l c i u m carbonate from the f o s s i l s h e l l s i n the f o r m a t i o n and subsequent r e - d e p o s i t i o n of t h i s m a t e r i a l i n the shales has r e s u l t e d l o c a l l y i n l e n s e s of marl. L o c a l l y , the sediments are f o s s i l i f e r o u s . Well p r e s e r v e d mollusca and other i n v e r t e b r a t e s , composed of t h e i r o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l , are abundant i n s h a l e s , marls, sandstones and sandy conglomerates. As the p e r - centage of c o a r s e r c l a s t i c m a t e r i a l i n c r e a s e s , the f o s s i l s become more f r a g m e n t a l . Fragments of p e t r i f i e d wood, l e a f i m p r i n t s , and c a r b o n i z e d cones have been c o l l e c t e d from the Sooke and Muir Creek b a s i n s . i Beds of the Sooke Formation are t y p i c a l l y l e n t i c u l a r shape. D e p o s i t i o n a l dips of these beds, a l l towards the centres of the r e s p e c t i v e b a s i n s , vary r a p i d l y from n e a r l y 30° near the f l a n k s of the b a s i n s to l e s s than 5°at the centres of the b a s i n s . Cross bedding i s w e l l developed throughout the f o r m a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c o a r s e r sediments. A t t i t u d e s of the f o r e s e t beds ( F i g . Ii) i n d i c a t e t h a t the sediments were de r i v e d , f r o m an area of p o s i t i v e r e l i e f , n o r t h of t h e i r p r e s e n t s i t e of d e p o s i t i o n . PLATE 1. Sea c l i f f s , Muir Creek b a s i n (RC 2 3 ) . A bedding plane exposed a t low t i d e . Note the white f o s s i l s h e l l fragments and tne c o n c r e t i o n a r y s t r u c t u r e s . Sea c l i f f s , Muir Creek b a s i n (RC 23); l o o k i n g east along the coast, at the lower s e c t i o n of the c l i f f s . Photo by I. E. Cornwall, 1918. PLATE 2. Sea c l i f f s , M u i r Creek b a s i n (HG 2 3 ) . Photograph by I . E. C o r n w a l l , 1918. Note the d e n s i t y of the w e l l p r e s e r v e d f o s s i l s . Many f o s s i l s are c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the c o n g l o m e r a t i c f o r e s e t beds. Sea c l i f f s , M u i r Creek b a s i n (RC 2 3 ) . A slumped fragment f r o m the c l i f f s , l o o k i n g a t b e d d i n g p l a n e s . Note the d e n s i t y o f f o s s i l s on the b e d d i n g p l a n e s . PLATE 3 . a : b : Sea c l i f f s , M uir Greek b a s i n (RC 2 3 ) . 3-a shows f o s s i l i f e r o u s f o r e s e t beds i n the f a c e of the c l i f f . 3-b i s a c l o s e - u p p hotograph of the r i g h t h a l f of 3-a. B o t h photographs a r e t a k e n l o o k i n g n o r t h . 16. Some of these sedimentary f e a t u r e s are i l l u s t r a t e d by the photographs of the sea c l i f f s of Muir Greek b a s i n . ( P l a t e s 1, 2, and 3 . ) D i s c u s s i o n of type s e c t i o n In 1912 , Clapp d e s c r i b e d a 1614.' s e c t i o n exposed i n the c l i f f s along K i r b y Creek. L a t e r , A r n o l d and Hannibal (1913) s t a t e d t h a t Clapp 1 s l 6 i | ' s e c t i o n was the type s e c t i o n of the Sooke Formation. In 1917> Clapp and Cooke r e - d e s c r i b e d t h i s s e c t i o n and extended i t s t h i c k - ness to I4.97 ' • They co n s i d e r e d i t the most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e c t i o n of Sooke sediments. C l a r k and A r n o l d (I923, p . 1 2 9 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t "The type s e c t i o n of the Sooke Formation Is exposed a l o n g the beach between Muir and K i r b y creeks a few mi l e s west of Sooke Harbor...". I t i s p o s s i b l e that t h e i r concept of the type s e c t i o n d i f f e r e d from that of Clapp and Cooke i n t h a t they p l a c e d the type s e c t i o n a l o n g the beach between Muir and K i r b y Creeks while Clapp and Cooke p l a c e d i t alo n g the lower p a r t of K i r b y Creek and i n c l u d e d i n i t the beds al o n g the shore f o r o n l y a s h o r t d i s t a n c e e a s t of K i r b y Creek. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t , due to some misunderstanding, they were both r e f e r r i n g to the same s e c t i o n . C l a r k and A r n o l d d i d not d e s c r i b e a s e c t i o n i n t h e i r "type l o c a l i t y " , nor has such a s e c t i o n ever been d e s c r i b e d i n any p u b l i s h e d work. 17- F o l l o w i n g i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the type s e c t i o n of the Sooke Formation taken from Clapp and Cooke (1917, p. 332). I t was d e s c r i b e d by them i n descending order, however the s e c t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d i n ascending order f o r ease of r e f e r e n c e i n t h i s study. INTERVAL LITHOLOGY 0 20 30 35 100 Ilk 287 307 307 350 355 362 361; 381 kn k21 1+23 M3? - 20' U n c o n s o l i d a t e d , s t r a t i f i e d sand and g r a v e l . - 30 ' Sandstone - s o f t , f e r r u g i n o u s , banded y e l l o w and r e d , and c o n c r e t i o n a r y . - 35 ' Conglomerate, f o s s i l i f e r o u s . - 1 0 0 ' Sandstone: coarse to medium gr a i n e d , b u f f - c o l o r e d , cross bedded and con- c r e t i o n a r y . - I 0 I 4 . ' Sandstone: grey, a r g i l l a c e o u s and f o s s i l i f erous.. - I I I 4 ' A l t e r n a t i n g s o f t sandstone and marl. - 287' Unexposed (Mouth of K i r b y Creek to road c r o s s i n g . ) - 307' Sandstone. - 3 0 7 ' 8 " L i g n i t e , sandy and impure. 8 " - 350 1 Unexposed. - - 3 5 5 1 Sandstone - 362 1 Shale; sandy and micaceous. - 36I+' Conglomerate, f i n e g r a i n e d . - 381' Sandstone. P r o t r u d i n g knob of meta-basalt. - 14.17' Conglomeratej w i t h t h i n l a y e r s of Sandstone. - 14,21' Sandstone. - i-j.23' F i n e conglomerate. - I4.871 Unexposed. - li-97' B a s a l conglomerate. F i g u r e I4. i s a diagrammatic study of the sedimentary f e a t u r e s i n the Muir Creek B a s i n . The i s o l a t e d out- crops are p l o t t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y a t t h e i r l o c a l i t i e s . Megafaunal and m i c r o f l o r a l l o c a l i t i e s are p l o t t e d on the s e c t i o n to show t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to one another, 18 and to the s t r a t a . The s e c t i o n s a l s o demonstrate the r a p i d f a c i e s changes between i s o l a t e d , a djacent outcrops. The diagrammatic cross s e c t i o n i n F i g u r e I4. i l l u s t r a t e s the w r i t e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a t y p i c a l c r o s s s e c t i o n of Sooke sediments i n t h i s b a s i n . I t shows the f a c i e s changes, l e n t i c u l a r i t y of the beds, and the h i g h i n i t i a l d i p s . I t a l s o shows t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n of the i s o l a t e d outcrops, on a p u r e l y p h y s i c a l b a s i s , i s hazardous. T h i s type of c o r r e l a t i o n was used by Clapp and Cooke to s e t up the I4.97 ' type s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e d above and g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d on F i g u r e I4.. I t i s d o u b t f u l however, t h a t the s e c t i o n i s a s t r a t i g r a p h i c s u c c e s s i o n . I n t e r v a l s a, b, c and d of Clapp and Cooke's s e c t i o n are i n d i v i d u a l c l i f f s a l o n g K i r b y Creek. I n t e r v a l "a" cor - responds to RC 11 ; and i n t e r v a l "b , f to RC 3 2 ; i n t e r v a l " c " to a c l i f f between the mouth of K i r b y Creek and RC 3 2 ; and i n t e r v a l "d" to a small c l i f f a t the mouth of the creek. The covered i n t e r v a l s correspond to the d i s t a n c e between c l i f f s . The diagrammatic cross s e c t i o n of F i g u r e J4. shows that another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n other than t h a t proposed by Clapp and Cooke i s p o s s i b l e . Because of the hi g h i n i t i a l d i ps and r a p i d f a c i e s changes, i n t e r v a l s a, b, c, and d of Clapp and Cooke's s e c t i o n may be, a t l e a s t i n p a r t , f a c i e s of one another r a t h e r than separate s e c t i o n s d e p o s i t e d a t d i f f e r e n t times. 1 9 . Reference to t h i s s e c t i o n as a p r o p e r l y d e s c r i b e d type s e c t i o n i s s u b j e c t to q u e s t i o n . C o r r e l a t i o n s of t h i s type of sediment must be based on more than p u r e l y p h y s i c a l c r i t e r i a . Other t o o l s f o r c o r r e l a t i o n , such as p a l e o n t o l o g y and heavy m i n e r a l s t u d i e s should be used to supplement f i e l d d a t a. T h i s "type s e c t i o n " should be r e - s t u d i e d u s i n g p a l e o n t o l o g y and other methods to show c o r r e l a t i o n of beds and t h e i r r e l a t i o n - s h i p s to each other. Contact r e l a t i o n s w i t h other f o r m a t i o n s . Clapp and Cooke ( 1917 , p. 33k) r e p o r t e d t h a t "The Sooke Formation c l e a r l y r e s t s unconformably upon the Metchosin v o l c a n i c s and the Sooke gabbro." T h i s c o n t a c t was observed by the w r i t e r a t l o c a l i t y RC 7 on Tugwell Creek, and i n the Begg Creek, G l a c i e r P o i n t and Vye Creek b a s i n s . At these l o c a l i t i e s as a t others des- c r i b e d by Clapp and Cooke, w e l l developed b a s a l con- glomerates were prese n t immediately above the c o n t a c t . At RC 1 3 , on K i r b y Creek, the t y p i c a l Sooke sandstones o v e r l i e v o l c a n i c t u f f s w i t h minor interbedded agglome- r a t e s . The age of these v o l c a n i c beds i s unknown. They may be e q u i v a l e n t to the Metchosin v o l c a n i c s , or they may l i e s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y between the Metchosin v o l c a n i c s and the Sooke Formation. More d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s may r e v e a l t h e i r age r e l a t i o n s h i p s as they are s t r a t i f i e d 2-Q. and c o n t a i n a few carbonaceous p a r t i n g s a l o n g t h e i r bedding p l a n e s . Too few p o l l e n and spores were found i n these beds d u r i n g t h i s study to i n d i c a t e t h e i r age. The Sooke Formation i s younger than the Carmanah Formation and, should a c o n t a c t of the two formations ever be found, i t would pr o b a b l y be r e p r e s e n t e d by an unconformity. The Sooke Formation i s o v e r l a i n unconformably by P l e i s t o c e n e g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s and more r e c e n t s o i l s . S t r u c t u r e Clapp and Cooke (1917) d i s c u s s e d the s t r u c t u r a l geology of the f o r m a t i o n . The w r i t e r has found no new evidence t h a t might add to t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s . They r e p o r t e d broad f o l d s i n the Muir Creek b a s i n , between Muir and K i r b y Creeks. The g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e of the Sooke s t r a t a however has r e s u l t e d mainly from d e p o s i t i o n - a l d i p s . Throughout the Sooke Formation Clapp and Cooke have observed numerous sma l l normal f a u l t s w i t h angles of from I4.5 ° to 6 o ° , and s t r i k e s t h a t are n e a r l y at r i g h t angles to the shore. T h e i r displacement v a r i e s from 5 ' to 1 5 '• The w r i t e r has not found any i n d i c a t i o n of t e c t o n - i c a c t i v i t y i n the area s i n c e the d e p o s i t i o n of these sed- iments t h a t would cause such f a u l t s to form. His i n t e r - p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t they are s m a l l h i g h angle g r a v i t y f a u l t s t h a t formed throughout the f o r m a t i o n d u r i n g or s h o r t l y 21 . a f t e r l i t h i f i c a t i o n . M e g a f o s s i l S t u d i e s D u r i n g the p a s t century, at l e a s t e i g h t e e n workers have c o n t r i b u t e d to m e g a f o s s i l s t u d i e s of the Sooke Formation. They s t u d i e d and r e p o r t e d s e v e r a l f o s s i l p l a n t s , the v e r t e b r a t e fauna and a l a r g e marine i n v e r t - ebrate fauna from the Sooke s t r a t a . P l a n t m e g a f o s s i l s P l a n t m e g a f o s s i l s have been c o l l e c t e d a t two l o c a l - i t i e s i n the Sooke Formation. La Motte (1936) r e p o r t e d t h a t a cone, P i c e a sookensis was d i s c o v e r e d a t Whiffen S p i t i n the Sooke b a s i n . In the same paper, La Motte r e p o r t e d ten f o s s i l l e aves and one r o o t fragment from the sea c l i f f s , one q u a r t e r of a mile west of the mouth of Muir Creek i n the Muir Creek b a s i n . The l i s t he presented i s as f o l l o w s : Carpinus grandis Cinnamomum c f . pedunculatum Fagus p a c i f i c a H i c o r i a pecanoides Lauroph'yllum sp. Magnolia c f l a n c e o l a t a ^uercus c o n s i m i l i s S a l i x c a l i f o r n i c a Trochodendroides sp. DTmus racemosa and a r o o t fragment as c f . Acer D u r i n g the p r e s e n t study, one cone that has not been i d e n t i f i e d , was c o l l e c t e d from the Whiffen S p i t l o c a l i t y . A number of u n i d e n t i f i a b l e l e a f fragments were found a t the Muir Creek b a s i n l o c a l i t y (RC 23)• Large and sma l l carbonized wood fragments were c o l l e c t e d from b o t h the Sooke b a s i n and the Muir Creek b a s i n . A marine v e r t e b r a t e . F o s s i l v e r t e b r a t e remains c o n s i s t i n g of t e e t h , p a r t of a jaw, and a few v e r t e b r a e were c o l l e c t e d from the sea c l i f f s about a q u a r t e r of a mil e west of the mouth of Muir Creek by I. E. Cornwall and Reverend C o n n e l l . These remains were i d e n t i f i e d by Lambe In I916 as the sea cow or s i r e n e a n , Desmostylus hesperus. In 1922, Cornwall d e s c r i b e d the specimen, and re-named i t Desmostylus sookensis. In l a t e r s t u d i e s by 0. P. Hay (1925) the f o s s i l s were re-named C o r n w a l l i u s s o o k e n s i s. (Cornwall) Marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s . The Sooke Formation Is w e l l known f o r i t s p r o l i f i c marine i n v e r t e b r a t e fauna. These f o s s i l s have been c o l - l e c t e d from a l l b a s i n s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Becher and Sooke b a s i n s . The fauna c o n s i s t s of gastropods, p e l e c y - pods, a scaphopod, a cephalopod, brachiopods, an amphi- n e u r i d , vermes, echinoderms, b a r n a c l e s and a c o r a l . S i n c e the e a r l i e s t Sooke f a u n a l s t u d i e s by Merriam i n I896, I897 and 1899, f a u n a l l i s t s have been p u b l i s h e d by A r n o l d and Hannibal (1913), Clapp and Cooke (I917), 23. and C l a r k and A r n o l d (1923). F i g u r e 5 i s a c h e c k l i s t of the Sooke fauna, showing where the forms were d i s c o v e r e d and l i s t i n g r e f e r e n c e s to t h e i r d i s c o v e r i e s . For example, Anomia sp. near macroschisma Dehayes (3) was r e p o r t e d by Clapp and Cooke (9) from the sea c l i f f s between Muir and K i r b y Creeks. The numbers (3) and (9) r e f e r to the numbered r e f e r e n c e s i n the s e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y . T h i s t a b l e i s p a t t e r n e d a f t e r the one by C l a r k and A r n o l d (1923) but i t l i s t s a c t u a l geographic l o c a t i o n s , and b r i n g s t h e i r t a b l e up to date. In the p r e s e n t study, marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s were c o l l e c t e d from the Muir Creek, Begg Creek and Vye Creek b a s i n s . New f o s s i l s , found by the w r i t e r i n these l o c a l - i t i e s , t h a t had not been noted by p r e v i o u s workers are designated "RC" on the c h e c k l i s t s F i g u r e s 3> and 6. These c h e c k l i s t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the Sooke Formation has y i e l d e d 65 pelecypods, %li gastropods, 1 scaphopod, 1 cephalopod, 1 amphineurid, I4. b a r n a c l e s , 1 c o r a l , 1 vermes, 2 b r a c h i o - pods and 3 echinoderms. 21*. CHAPTER I I I PALYNOLOGY During an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the carbonaceous s t r a t a of the Sooke Formation, i t was d i s c o v e r e d that the f i n e r sediments contained moderate numbers of p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s d i s c o v e r y , the f i n e g r a i n e d sediments were sampled and d i s i n t e g r a t e d . The r e s i d u e s c o n t a i n i n g the m i c r o f l o r a were mounted on s l i d e s , and examined wi t h a microscope. In t h i s s e c t i o n of the t h e s i s , these p o l l e n and spores are i l l u s t r a t e d , c l a s s - i f i e d and a f f i n i t i e s w i t h other m i c r o f l o r a s are d i s - cussed. The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n i s to r e p o r t a new m i c r o f l o r a from Miocene s t r a t a of the P a c i f i c Coast which may be v a l u a b l e i n the f u t u r e f o r r e g i o n a l cor- r e l a t i o n s , d a t i n g and p a l e o e c o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . F i e l d procedures In order to o b t a i n a good r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of micro- f o s s i l s from any sequence of sediments, three steps are d e s i r a b l e i n the sampling technique. F i r s t , an attempt should be made to sample the s e c t i o n i n some s t r a t i g r a p h i c order. Second, samples should r e p r e s e n t as sm a l l a s t r a t - i g r a p h i c i n t e r v a l as p o s s i b l e . T h i r d , samples should c o n s i s t of unweathered m a t e r i a l , or of rock from w e l l 25-. beneath the outcrop. The type s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e d by Clapp and Cooke (1917) alo n g K i r b y Creek was chosen f o r sampling to p r o v i d e a m i c r o f o s s i l r e f e r e n c e s e c t i o n f o r f u r t h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s . The upper p o r t i o n of K i r b y Creek, and a l l of the sed- imentary sequences a l o n g Tugwell Creek and a l o n g the coast l i n e between Muir and K i r b y Creeks were sampled i n d e t a i l . Muir Creek was i n a c c e s s i b l e to t r a v e r s i n g because i t was i n f l o o d . T r a v erses up each creek began at the mouth and proceeded upstream. At K i r b y Creek, the t r a v e r s e began near the k n o l l of v o l c a n i c s d e s c r i b e d by Clapp and Cooke ( 1 9 1 7 ) , proceeded up the s e c t i o n a l o n g the creek, then down the s e c t i o n to i t s base f u r t h e r upstream. At Tugwell Creek, t r a v e r s e s began somewhere up i n the s e c t i o n , and proceeded down to i t s base about three m i l e s upstream. Each outcrop was sampled i n d e t a i l . Sample i n t e r - v a l s d i d not exceed 1 0 ' i n zones where l i t h o l o g i e s were constant f o r 1 0 ' or more. In t h i n n e r zones, each l i t h - o l o g i c u n i t was sampled s e p a r a t e l y . These samples were taken by f i r s t removing the weathered s u r f a c e s of the out- crops, and then c h a n n e l i n g the i n t e r v a l to o b t a i n a r e - p r e s e n t a t i v e sample. A l l samples weighed approximately 150 grams. Laboratory procedures. In the l a b o r a t o r y , a l l samples whose components ranged i n s i z e from shale to sandstone i n c l u s i v e l y were prepared f o r maceration. The f o l l o w i n g are the steps used i n the maceration technique: 1. A s m a l l but r e p r e s e n t a t i v e cut i s taken from each p i e c e of the sample; 2. The cuts are broken i n t o p e a - s i z e d fragments, u n t i l the bottom of a polythene beaker can be covered w i t h the broken rock; 3 . HC1 i s added to determine the presence or absence of a carbonate. I f the t e s t i s p o s i t i v e , the carbonate i s d i s s o l v e d by adding HG1 to the sample; I4.. The c a r b o n a t e - f r e e sample i s washed s e v e r a l times; 5 . The sample i s p l a c e d i n JtiP f o r 2I4. hours to d i s s o l v e the s i l i c a ; 6 . The sample i s washed agai n s e v e r a l times; 7. The sample i s p l a c e d i n about 2" of HN03 to o x i d i z e the carbonaceous remains. T h i s takes from | to 6 hours, and must be checked c o n s t a n t l y to i n s u r e t h a t the o x i d a t i o n process stops a f t e r the carbon- aceous m a t e r i a l has been removed, and b e f o r e the m i c r o f o s s i l s become o x i d i z e d ; 8. The r e s i d u e i s washed s e v e r a l times; 9 . The r e s i d u e i s p l a c e d i n a 1% KOJti s o l u t i o n f o r 30 minutes to d i s s o l v e the o x i d i z e d carbonaceous matter. The KOM a l s o prepares the organic m a t e r i a l f o r the a b s o r p t i o n of s a f r a n i n dye; 10. The sample i s washed s e v e r a l times; 11. A s m a l l , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e channel s l i c e i s e x t r a c t e d from the sample wi t h a s p a t u l a , and i s p l a c e d on a microscope s l i d e ; 12. One drop of s a f r a n i n dye and a s m a l l amount of corn syrup are added to the m i c r o f o s s i l r e s i d u e ; 13. Mix the syrup, sample and dye and spread i t over f of the s u r f a c e of the s l i d e . The remainder of the s l i d e i s l a b e l l e d ; II4.. The s l i d e i s l e f t to dry. I t must be kept i n a h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n , or the corn syrup may run o f f . I t must a l s o be kept away from dust, or i t may be- come contaminated. P o l l e n and Spore Study Three samples were found to c o n t a i n a l a r g e , w e l l preserved number of m i c r o f o s s i l s . Three others c o n t a i n - ed moderately w e l l - p r e s e r v e d m i c r o f l o r a whereas the r e - mainder had only a few very p o o r l y p r e s e r v e d m i c r o f o s s i l s F i g u r e 7 i s a l i s t of a l l of the samples s t u d i e d t h a t contained m i c r o f o s s i l s , and a q u a l i t a t i v e note on the r e c o v e r y of spores and p o l l e n . 28. SAMPLE NO. ' RECOVERY RC- 1-2-1 poor RC- 9-1 good RC-11-2-1 f a i r RC-11-3 very good RC-11-J+ ver y poor R C - l i i - 1 - 1 v e r y poor RC-17-1-1 f a i r RC-18-1 very poor RC-23 e x c e l l e n t RC-29-1 poor RC-30-1-1 f a i r F i g u r e no. 7, i l l u s t r a t i n g q u a l i t y of m i c r o f o s s i l s from Sooke samples. In a l l , 30 samples c o n s i s t i n g of sandstone or shal e were macerated. Of these, only 8 samples (20%) of the sandstone and shale contained m i c r o f o s s i l s t h a t could be used i n a study of t h i s type. P l a t e s 14.-8 i l l u s t r a t e the most common p o l l e n and spore forms recovered from the Sooke sediments. These forms are i l l u s t r a t e d by l i n e drawings on centimeter graph paper. The s c a l e was chosen so t h a t each m i l l i - meter d i v i s i o n on the graph paper r e p r e s e n t s an a c t u a l measurement of 2 microns. The drawings show the micro- f o s s i l s e n l a r g e d 500 times. The 103 drawings i l l u s t r a t e 85 d i f f e r e n t m i c r o f o s s i l forms, 83 of which are p o l l e n and spores and 2 whose b i o l o g i c a l a f f i n i t i e s are not known. Three samples, RC 23-1 , RC 9-1 and RC 11-3 were PLATE ]+. A l l f i g u r e s x500 M i c r o f o s s i l Formula A f f i l i a t i o n A l - 2 b x (1+2x33x61-77) M l - l ( l l ) EI-K7) Al-2by(51x99x96-127) El-l(l5xl0) El-1(29) E9-I (20x11).) E1-1(18) Al-2ax(72x80x107-156) El-1(kh-Sk) B1-K5D E1-K67) E l - l ( l 8 x l 0 ) El-1(31x18) 11-1(23x17 1) E 1 7 - l ( l 6 x l l ) H7-1 (37x214.) P i n u s sp. f u n g a l spore f u n g a l spore P i c e a sp. unknown a f f i n i t i e s f u n g a l spore I n a p e r t u r o p o l l e n i t e s sp. Cupressaceae? or Taxodiacene? A b i e s sp. L a r i x sp. f u n g a l spore? f u n g a l spore o r a l g a l c y s t unknown a f f i n i t i e s f e r n s pore? c f . Taxodium sp. T r i c o l p o p o l l e n i t e s sp. f e r n spore PLATE 4. PLATE 5. a l l f i g u r e s x500. M i c r o f o s s l l Formula H7-13 (55-76x39-̂ .1+) H7-20(58-7iixI|.l-57) Nl-1(28x16) N l - l (1+5x23) Jl-l(36xl2) Nl-l(l2x7) E9-6(l6) J25-l(17x8) E17-l(2l+xl6) I n c e r t a e Sedis E7-KI+0) El-1(22) H7-l(39x20) H7-1([+I4jc26) E17-6(28x33) A f f i l i a t i o n Polypodium sp. f e r n spore f u n g a l or a l g a l spore f u n g a l spore? unknown a f f i n i t i e s f u n g a l spore? unknown a f f i n i t i e s T r i c o l p o r o p o l l e n i t e s sp. Angiospermae? Body of an i n s e c t ? unknown a f f i n i t i e s I n a p e r t u r o p o l l e n i t e s sp? f e r n spore? c f . L a e v i g a t o s p o r i t e s sp. T r i c o l p a t e p o l l e n s i m i l i l a r to Quercus or Fagus PLATE 5. PLATE 6 . a l l f i g u r e s x500 M i c r o f o s s i l Formula A f f i l i a t i o n El-l(96x60) H7-l(37-Ul|x23-29) El-2l+( 35x36) El-6(3J+x21) E1-K31JX28) H7-20(92x63) E9-6'(23-25xl2-l6) El-6(37) E17-6 (1+5x31+) H7-22(56x34) Bi-13(59) H7-6( 70x1^0) E5-l(l7-l8x8-l0) H7-l(28xl7) E25-K 26x18) 11-1(22 6x20) E17-6(26xl6) EI7-6(33x20) K1-1(1|ILX10) Pseudotsuga? c f . L a e v i g a t o s p o r i t e s sp. unknown a f f i n i t i e s Angiospermae unknown a f f i n i t i e s f e r n spore Angiospermae unknown a f f i n i t i e s Angiospermae f e r n spore c f . Tsuga a f f . f e r n ? Monosulcites sp. ( a f f . w i t h the cycads or the Palmaceae) c f . L a e v i g a t o s p o r i t e s T r i c o l p o r o p o l l e n i t e s sp. (Anacardiaceae?) Taxodiaceae Angiospermae Angiospermae f u n g a l spore PLATE 6. PLATE 7. a l l f i g u r e s x500 M i c r o f o s s i l Formula Bl-6(8) Bl - 2 2 ( 1 5 ) El-2(llpc36) 11-1(31 3x29) El-3(35x30) Bi-2J+(53x57) El-1(96) Bi-5,l3(5l+-59) El-2l|(J+0) Jl-1(32x11) Incertae Sedis El-l(kk-Bk) El-1 (57x1+3) E5-22(il|5-i53x6i) Bl-23,22(61) El-1(38x26) El-6( 79x21+) A f f i l i a t i o n f u n g a l spore? f u n g a l spore? unknown a f f i n i t i e s Taxodiaceae unknown a f f i n i t i e s Tsuga sp. c f . Pseudotsuga sp. Tsuga sp. I n a p e r t u r o p o l l e n i t e s ?Monosulcites sp. ? L a r i x sp. unknown a f f i n i t i e s f e r n spore f e r n spore c f . Taxodiaceae f e r n . s p o r e PLATE 7 PLATE 8. a l l f i g u r e s x500 M i c r o f o s s i l Formula A f f i l i a t i o n E 1 1 - K 3 1 ) G12-K3U) G 1 2 - K 2 6 ) E12-K27) G12-K29) Ei7-6(32) Ell-1(27) E8-6(29) E H - K 2 6 ) F11-K31) Fl-6(36) F8-22(i|0x35) F8-l(35xliO) Pll-l(20xl6) P8-K50) F8-K 71x60) E6-K68) H7-l(3lpc2l+) Kl-l(17x12) E9-l(3ipc2l|.) 25-1(17-18x8-10) E17-l(23xl5) H7-l(72x3U H7-13(52x21) El-13(lU) c f . Corylus sp. Alnus sp. c f . P t e r o c a r y a sp. c f . P t e r o c a r y a sp. c f . Alnus sp. Quercus sp. Angiosperma e unknown a f f i n i t i e s c f . C o r y lus sp. Carpinus sp. f e r n spore f e r n spore? f e r n spore Angiospermae D e l t o i d o s p o r a sp. f e r n spore f e r n spore unknown a f f i n i t i e s unknown a f f i n i t i e s unknown a f f i n i t i e s M onosulcites sp. ( a f f . w i t h the cycads or the Palmaceae) Angiospermae unknown a f f i n a t i e s f e r n spore? f e r n spore? PLATE 8. • f o - ul 30 < I - \ Z M a. 2 0 H FIGURE NO. 8. P O L L E N H I S T O G R A M S A M P L E : R C 2 3 !>>> " x< • » ) X F O R M U L A E FIGURE: NO. 7 P O L L E N H I S T O G R A M S A M P L E R C 1-1 3 0 - lul i< - I O 2 0 - •cc 0 - I i (poo CP p n m pi Z Z 1̂ - ro 1\) (C FO R M U L A t FIGURE NO 10 P O L L E N H I S T O G R A M S A M P L E • R C 11-3 F O R M U L A E  29- chosen to show the r e l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n of m i c r o f o s s i l s . Two hundred m i c r o f o s s i l s were counted i n each sample, and combined i n t o groups based on an a r t i f i c i a l c l a s s - i f i c a t i o n . Three histograms were p l o t t e d ( P i g s . 8, 9, 10.) showing the r e l a t i v e percentage of the forms i n each sample. A composite histogram designed to show a l l of the m i c r o f o s s i l forms p r e s e n t i n the Sooke Formation, and the r e l a t i v e abundance of each form i s i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g u r e 11. In F i g u r e 8 (RC 23) P i c e a i s the dominant p o l l e n . Pinus, A b i e s , L a r i x ( ? ) , f e r n s and an unknown sp e c i e s are r e p o r t e d from t h i s l o c a l i t y . Prom the l a r g e propor- t i o n of saccate g r a i n s , together w i t h the v a r i e t y of s p e c i e s , i t appears t h a t the f l o r a of RC 23 was not indigenous to t h a t l o c a l i t y , the g r a i n s were pro b a b l y t r a n s p o r t e d there by a i r and water. A t sample l o c a l i t y RC 9 ( P i g . 9) Tsuga and L a r i x (?) predominate, and f u n g a l spores are abundant. E i g h t e e n s p e c i e s are r e p o r t e d from t h i s l o c a l i t y , mostly as s m a l l groups. Saccate g r a i n s are absent. I t appears t h a t these p o l l e n and spores r e p r e s e n t e d p l a n t s that were indigenous to the l o c a l i t y . The v e g e t a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s and a w e l l developed f u n g a l growth. A t sample ' l o c a l i t y RC 11-3 ( P i g . 10) f e r n s predominate, wi t h Tsuga and L a r i x (?) and an unknown s p e c i e s o c c u r i n g i n l a r g e numbers. 30. Saccate g r a i n s are r a r e . The l a r g e , w e l l p r e s e r v e d spores and the general l a c k of t r a n s p o r t e d forms i n - d i c a t e t h a t f o l i a g e r e p r e s e n t e d by the spores and p o l l e n i s l o c a l i n o r i g i n . F i g u r e 11 i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i v e percentages of m i c r o f o s s i l s p e c i e s . I t i n d i c a t e s that the Sooke f l o r a c o n s i s t e d of c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s and f e r n glades s i m i l a r to a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n the modern c o a s t a l r a i n f o r e s t area. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n There are two methods of a r r a n g i n g p l a n t micro- f o s s i l s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . The f i r s t i s a " n a t u r a l " c l a s s - i f i c a t i o n i n which taxa are arranged p h y l o g e n e t i c a l l y , and a formal b i n o m i a l nomenclature i s a p p l i e d . The second i s an a r t i f i c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n which i n f o r m a l designates are u s u a l l y employed f o r r e f e r e n c e . Spores and p o l l e n are f o s s i l p l a n t organs, and r e p r e s e n t the taxa of the p r o d u c i n g p l a n t s . Because of t h i s the f o rmal a p p l i c a t i o n of names f a l l s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Code of B o t a n i c a l Nomenclature. A system of nomenclature i s important i n b i o l o g y and p a l e o n t o l o g y because i t groups organisms i n t o n a t u r a l systems and i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i r mutual r e l a t i o n - s h i p s . Because of the amount of time i n v o l v e d i n nomenclatural r e s e a r c h , however, i t s use i n s o l v i n g 3 1 . l o c a l or r e g i o n a l c o r r e l a t i o n problems i s u s u a l l y l i m i t e d . In c o r r e l a t i o n problems, where the i n v e s t i g a t o r has access to a l l of the p a l y n o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l , both known and unknown, a nomenclature employing d e s i g n a t e s or formulae i s u s u a l l y s u f f i c i e n t . The f o s s i l spores and p o l l e n of t h i s study are grouped i n a s e r i e s of a r t i f i c i a l c a t e g o r i e s t h a t are d e s i g n a t e d by formulae. The grouping i s a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of Norem's (1958) proposed system of c l a s s i f i c - a t i o n . Norem proposed a s e r i e s of three keys f o r the a r t i f i c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f o s s i l p o l l e n and spores above the g e n e r i c l e v e l . The keys were o u t l i n e d i n what he c onsidered to be the order of d e c r e a s i n g c l a s s - i f i c a t o r y v a l u e . His f i r s t key was based on types of a p e r t u r e s , the second on g r a i n ornamentation and the l a s t , on the shapes of the g r a i n s . The purpose of h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was to p r o v i d e a framework w i t h i n which other p a l y n o l o g i s t s could study m i c r o f o s s i l s and a pply formal b i n o m i a l nomenclature to them under the r u l e s of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Code of B o t a n i c a l Nomenclature. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used i n the p r e s e n t study p r o v i d e s a framework f o r f u r t h e r nomenclatural s t u d i e s and a l s o enables the p a l y n o l o g i s t to apply formulae to the micro- f o s s i l s a t the "key" l e v e l f o r l o c a l s t r a t i g r a p h i c 3 2 . purposes without recourse to ext e n s i v e nomenclature 1 r e s e a r c h . Norem's keys f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the m i c r o f o s s i l s are re-arranged i n what the w r i t e r c o n s i d e r s to be a more r e a l i s t i c order of d e c r e a s i n g c l a s s i f i c a t o r y v a l u e . Key # 1 i s based on the o u t l i n e or shape of the g r a i n , but i n a broader sense than Norem's shape-key. Keys # 2 and # 3 d e s c r i b e a p e r t u r e s and ornamentation of the gr a i n s r e s p e c t i v e l y and are very s i m i l a r to Norem's f i r s t two keys. Each formula a p p l i e d to the micro- f o s s i l g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t s of f o u r v a l u e s . The f i r s t , a c a p i t a l i z e d l e t t e r from the alphabet, designates the shape of the g r a i n . The second and t h i r d values are numerical and r e f e r to the ape r t u r e and ornamentation of the g r a i n r e s p e c t i v e l y . These f i r s t three values are found u n d e r l i n e d i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e keys, accom- panied by the a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i v e term. The f o u r t h value i s enclosed i n b r a c k e t s and r e f e r s to the maximum s i z e range of the g r a i n i n microns. Thus, a g r a i n may be designated by the f o l l o w i n g formula: E7-6(J4.I-I4.IPC22-28). The l e t t e r "E" s i g n i f i e s t h a t the o u t l i n e or shape of the g r a i n i s c i r c u l a r to s u b c i r c u l a r . The number " 7 " s i g n i f i e s t h a t the a p e r t u r e i s monolete. Number "6" denotes t h a t the ornamentation i s g r a n u l a t e . The l o n g a x i s of the g r a i n ranges i n 33- l e n g t h from i+l—I4J4. microns, and the s h o r t a x i s ranges i n l e n g t h from 22-28 microns. Exceptions to the g e n e r a l s i z e - r a n g e value p a t t e r n are found i n the Annulate (B), T r i a n g u l a r to S u b t r i a n g - u l a r (P), E q u i l a t e r a l (G) and P a p i l l a t e (I) groupings. These are e x p l a i n e d as they are encountered i n Key #1. P o l l e n and spore c l a s s i f i c a t i o n keys. A. Saccate. B. Annulate ( i f the shape i s round, on l y the range of the diameter i s i n d i c a t e d i n b r a c k e t s . ) C. A u r i c u l a t e . D. E l a t e r a t e . E. C i r c u l a r to S u b c i r c u l a r . F. T r i a n g u l a r to S u b t r i a n g u l a r . ( i f the t r i a n g l e i s e q u i l a t e r a l , only the range i n l e n g t h of one s i d e i s given i n b r a c k e t s , otherwise the range i n lengths of two s i d e s of the t r i a n g u l a r body are i n d i c a t e d . ) G. E q u i l a t e r a l , ( o n l y the range i n l e n g t h of one s i d e i s i n d i c a t e d i n b r a c k e t s . ) R\ Reniform to E l l i p t i c a l . I. P a p i l l a t e , (the l e n g t h of the p a p i l l a i s added to the formula w i t h i n the s i z e - r a n g e b r a c k e t s ; i . e . (2I4. 2-18) s i g n i f i e s that the g r a i n has a 2 micron l o n g p a p i l l a a long the l o n g e s t diameter.) J . F u s i f o r m . K. S p a t u l a t e . L. T e t r a d s . M. Polyads. N. Filamentous. Saccate gcaios A s p e c i a l formula i s used to i d e n t i f y saccate g r a i n s : 1 - i n a p e r t u r a t e 2 = a p e r t u r a t e 1, 2 , or 3 b l a d d e r s a • presence of a d i s t a l cap b • absence of a d i s t a l cap x = b l a d d e r s d i s t i n c t from the g r a i n y • b l a d d e r s continuous w i t h g r a i n An example of a Saccate g r a i n formula could be: A l - 2 a x ( 5 7 - 8 2 x 2 7 - U 2 x 9 6-llil|) where: A - s i g n i f i e s t h a t the g r a i n i s s a c c a t e . 1 - s i g n i f i e s t h a t i t i s i n a p e r t u r a t e . 2 - s i g n i f i e s t h a t i t has two b l a d d e r s . 3 5 . a - s i g n i f i e s t h a t the body has a d i s t a l cap. x - s i g n i f i e s t h a t the blad d e r s are d i s t i n c t from the g r a i n . (57-82x27-1+2x96-11+1+) - s i g n i f i e s t h a t the main body dimentions of 57-82x27-1+2 microns, and the e n t i r e g r a i n i n c l u d i n g the b l a d d e r s has the dimentions of 57-82x96-ll|i+ microns. £EY_#2 Apertures I. Without aper t u r e s Nonaperturate 1 P l i c a t e 2 Tenuate 3 I I . With aper t u r e s 1. Monoaperturate monoporate 1+ 2. S u l c a t e monosulcate 5 t r i s u l c a t e 6 22. Laesurate monolete 1 t r i l e t e _8_ 222. Colpate monocolpate 9 M u l t i a p e r t u r a t e 2. M u l t i p o r a t e 3. Mesoporate d i p o r a t e 10 t r i p o r a t e 11 o l i g o p o r a t e 12 33- P e r i p o r a t e o l i g o p e r i p o r a t e 13 p o l y p e r i p o r a t e lLj. 333. L a t l p o r a t e t r i l a t i p o r a t e 15 22. M u l t i c o l p a t e 3. Colpate d i c o l p a t e l6 t r i c o l p a t e 17 o l i g o c o l p a t e 18 33« P e r i c o l p a t e o l i g o p e r i c o l p a t e 19 p o l y p e r i c o l p a t e 20 333' L a t l c o l p a t e d i l a t i c o l p a t e 21 t r i l a t i c o l p a t e 22 o l i g o l a t i c o l p a t e 23 222. M u l t i c o l p o r a t e 3. C o l p o r a t e 37- d i c o l p o r a t e 2l+ t r i c o l p o r a t e 25 o l i g o c o l p o r a t e 26 33« P e r i c o l p o r a t e o l i g o p e r i c o l p o r a t e 27 p o l y p e r i c o l p o r a t e 28 333* M u l t i h e t e r o c o l p a t e he.terocolpate 29 p e r i l a t e r o c o l p a t e 30 3 3 3 3 . Syncolpate s p i r a p e r t u r a t e 31 zonacolpate 32 I. P s i l a t e 1 I I . Dense 21+. ( i n c l u d e d here because i t has the same e f f e c t as ornamentation.) I I I . S c u l p t u r a l elements p r e s e n t . 1. S c u l p t u r e simple and homogenous. 2. S c u l p t u r a l elements d i s t i n c t or separate. 3« S c u l p t u r a l elements more or l e s s i s o d i a m e t r i c t a n g e n t i a l l y . 1+. S c u l p t u r a l elements depressed, punctate 2 1+1+. S c u l p t u r a l elements r a i s e d . 38. c l a v a t e 3 dolumnate Ix gemmate 5 granulate 6 l e p i d o t e 7 l o b a t e 8 p a p i l l a t e 9 setose 10 s p i n a t e 11 tuberose 12 verrucose 13 t h i n processes 23 33- S c u l p t u r a l elements more or l e s s elongated t a n g e n t i a l l y . J+. S c u l p t u r a l elements depressed, r i v u l a t e l i | s t r i a t e 15 v a l l a t e l 6 v e r m i c u l a t e 17 I4I4. S c u l p t u r a l elements r a i s e d , e x t e r v e r m i c u l a t e 18 rugate 19 22. S c u l p t u r a l elements continuous or connected. 3. S c u l p t u r a l elements more or l e s s i s o d i a m e t r i c . 39- i i . S c u l p t u r a l elements depressed, a r e o l a t e 20 I4.I4.. S c u l p t u r a l elements r a i s e d , lophate 21 r e t i c u l a t e 22 11. S c u l p t u r e complex, ( i n c l u d e s more than one form of s c u l p t u r e . ) Use a p p r o p r i a t e designates f o r each type of s c u l p t u r e , and separate each designate by a comma. S i z e ranges Use a c t u a l s i z e s of the g r a i n s , measured i n microns. The f i r s t measurement i s the l o n g a x i s , and the second i s the sh o r t a x i s . E x c e p t i o n s to these measurements are o u t l i n e d i n Key #1. I f p o s s i b l e , the maximum s i z e ranges of the g r a i n s should be used. There are a t l e a s t f i v e advantages of the key- system o u t l i n e d above. F i r s t , the key-system i s very r a p i d and f a c i l i t a t e s c o r r e l a t i o n of s t r a t a i n l o c a l b a s i n s without nomenclatural r e s e a r c h . Second, the formulae t h a t are used cannot be confused with formal p l a n t names. T h i r d , the keys are based on d e t a i l e d l+o. m o r p h o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a eind tend to group the micro- f o s s i l s f o r l a t e r nomenclatural s t u d i e s . Fourth, each formula a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n f o r the g r a i n i n q u e s t i o n . F i f t h , p r e v i o u s l y u n d e s c r i b e d forms can be added to the keys without d i s r u p t i n g the system. The key-system i s disadvantageous i n that the formulae are b u l k y and p r o b a b l y c o n f u s i n g to one un- f a m i l i a r w i t h the technique. Secondly, i t i s p r a c t i c a l f o r r e s o l v i n g l o c a l c o r r e l a t i o n problems o n l y . I t i s i m p r a c t i c a l f o r r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s because a l l r e f e r e n c e s have to be r e i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n the scope of the keys. F i n a l l y , the method i s not s u i t a b l e f o r p u b l i c a t i o n s because i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the formulae by any reader not f a m i l i a r w i t h the keys i s i m p o s s i b l e . The proposed key-system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u s i n g formulae i s a r a p i d c o r r e l a t i o n t o o l f o r a b i o s t r a t - i g r a p h e r , f a m i l i a r with the system, p r o v i d e d i t i s used w i t h i n a sedimentary b a s i n or other r e s t r i c t e d a r e a . 1+1. CHAPTER IV AGE AND CORRELATION. In s p i t e of i t s f l o r a and w e l l p r e s e r v e d fauna, the age of the Sooke Formation p r e s e n t s a problem. The p l a n t m e g a f o s s i l s and the v e r t e b r a t e f o s s i l are i n s u f - f i c i e n t l y w e l l known to be u s e f u l f o r c o r r e l a t i o n . Known m i c r o f o s s i l evidence from P a c i f i c Coast T e r t i a r y sediments i s s t i l l too meagre to allow any d e t a i l e d c o r - r e l a t i o n s of the Sooke m i c r o f l o r a . The marine i n v e r t e - b r a t e s p r o v i d e the b e s t evidence, but the fauna appears to be of an i n s u l a r nature because c o r r e l a t a b l e forms from other T e r t i a r y formations are s c a r c e . Evidence from P l a n t M e g a f o s s i l s La Motte (1936) decided t h a t there was not s u f f i c i e n t evidence to base a c o r r e l a t i o n on h i s p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , he r e f e r r e d the Sooke Formation to C l a r k and Arnold' s (1923) l a t e Oligocene - e a r l y Miocene age d e t e r - mination. Evidence from the V e r t e b r a t e F o s s i l C o r n w a l l i u s i s onl y r e p o r t e d from two other form- a t i o n s , the San Greg e r i o Formation of Baja C a l i f o r n i a (Weaver et a l , 191+1+) and the C o r n w a l l i u s b e a r i n g beds ij.2. of Unalaska (Mac N e i l e t a l , I961). R e i n h a r t ( p e r s o n a l communication, Oct. I4., 1961) i n d i c a t e d : "The g e o l o g i c range of C o r n w a l l i u s i s upper Oligocene. ...In my o p i n i o n , the Oligocene? C o r n w a l l i u s i s the d i r e c t a n cestor of the middle Miocene Desmostylus. ...The geographic p r o v i n c e s i n which C o r n w a l l i u s has been l o c a t e d are Baja, Mexico; Vancouver I s l a n d ; Japan. I regard the f i r s t two l o c a l i t i e s as Oligocene. The Japanese specimen i s middle Miocene and I made i t the type specimen of a new genus Pal e o p a r a d o x i a . ...In my o p i n i o n C o r n w a l l i u s would not be a good form f o r c o r r e l a t i o n because i t Is unknown except f o r i s o l a t e d t e e t h and i t is extremely r a r e . I would regard a good marine i n v e r t e b r a t e fauna, i f p r e s e n t , as f a r s u p e r i o r to the genus Co r n w a l l i u s f o r purposes of c o r r e l a t i o n . " In d i s c u s s i n g the Mexican s i t e where C o r n w a l l i u s was found, Van der Hoof (191+1, p. 1985), w r i t e s , " T h i s i s the northernmost outcrop of the 'Monterey of Darton, 1921 1. I n v e r t e b r a t e s c o l l e c t e d by Darton were determin- ed by J u l i a Gardner as 'probably Vaqueros.' " In the Weaver et a l c o r r e l a t i o n c h a r t (19IU+, p. 575) Durham claims that the San Gregorio Formation of lower C a l i f o r n i a c o n t a i n s the "Same s p e c i e s of C o r n w a l l i u s as i n the Sooke Formation of Vancouver- I s l a n d . " R e i n h a r t r e p o r t e d t h a t there i s o n l y one l o o a l i t y i n Lower C a l i f o r n i a where C o r n w a l l i u s has been found, ( p e r s o n a l communication, Oct. I4, 1961). Thus the "Monterey of Darton" must be the same as Durham's San Gregorio U 3 . Formation. In the c o r r e l a t i o n c h a r t (Weaver et a l , 19UU) the San Gregorio i s i n the upper B l a k e l e y Stage, the Echinophora apta zone of the Lower Miocene. The Unalaskan beds c o n t a i n i n g C o r n w a l l i u s are c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the Sooke Formation (Mac N e i l e t a l , I961). No f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s occurrence i s a v a i l a b l e . I f C o r n w a l l i u s were more widely d i s t r i b u t e d , and b e t t e r documented, i t would be a very good c o r r e l a t i o n f o s s i l . However, at the p r e s e n t time, i t has l i t t l e p a r t i c u l a r value f o r c o r r e l a t i o n e x c e p t i n g i n beds where i t i s d i a g n o s t i c . Evidence from P l a n t M i c r o f o s s i l s The amount of p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e d e s c r i b i n g T e r t i a r y p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s from the P a c i f i c Coast r e g i o n i s s m a l l . Information of t h i s n ature, concern- i n g Eocene, Miocene and P l i o c e n e f l o r a s of B r i t i s h Columbia i s i n p r e p a r a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Two sources of i n f o r m a t i o n are p a r t i c u l a r l y important f o r c o r r e l a t i o n of the Sooke f l o r a . The f i r s t i s a paper by G. E. Rouse (1962) on the Eocene B u r r a r d Formation of the Vancouver a r e a . The second c o n s i s t s of pollen- and spores from the Skonun Formation of the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , loaned to the w r i t e r by G. E. Rouse. The Skonun Formation i s P l i o c e n e i n age (Cox, m a n u s c r i p t ) . The Sooke f l o r a was compared wi t h the B u r r a r d and Skonun f l o r a s . Three s p e c i e s of the Bur r a r d f l o r a appear- ed to have c o r r e l a t i v e s i n the Sooke f l o r a . F i g . 12 i l l u s t r a t e s these B u r r a r d and Sooke c o r r e l a t i v e s . BURRARD FM. SOOKE FM. Rouse's Name designates Cox's designates Name N 1+1.. .Picea a l i - p o l l e n i t e s . Al-2by (51x90x96-127) .Picea sp. 0 1+ .. .Laevigato- s p o r i t e s ovatus. H7-l(l+l+x26) ... . c f . L a e v i g a t o - s p o r i t e s . Q 1+0. . .Alnus quinque- p o l l e n i t e s . G12-K31+) .Alnus sp. F i g u r e no. 12, i l l u s t r a t i n g m i c r o f o s s i l s common to B u r r a r d and Sooke Formations. Four s p e c i e s were found i n common between the Sooke and Skonun f l o r a s . These forms a r e : 1. A t r i l e t e f e r n spore F8-l(35~ij-0) 2. Tsuga sp. Bl-5,13(51+-79) 3. Polypodium sp. H7-13(55-76x39-1+1+) 1+. Abies sp. Al-2ax(72x80xl07-l56) In g e n e r a l the resemblance between the Sooke and Skonun f l o r a s appeared to be c l o s e r than between the 4 5 . Sooke and Burrard f l o r a s . The c o r r e l a t i v e s of the Skonun m i c r o f l o r a i n the Sooke Formation were abundant i n terms of numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s , but not i n numbers of s p e c i e s . On the other hand, c o r r e l a t i v e s p e c i e s of the B u r r a r d m i c r o f l o r a were i n f r e q u e n t i n the Sooke f l o r a . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n , however, i s t e n t a t i v e , because s t a t - i s t i c a l comparisons of the Bur r a r d and Skonun m i c r o f l o r a s w i t h the Sooke m i c r o f l o r a were not made. With t h i s l i m i t a t i o n i t appears t h a t the Sooke f l o r a i s more c l o s e - l y r e l a t e d to the Skonun f l o r a than to the Bu r r a r d f l o r a . Thus, on p a l y n o l o g i c a l evidence, the Sooke Formation i s c l o s e r i n age to the P l i o c e n e than to the Eocene. Evidence from the Marine I n v e r t e b r a t e F o s s i l s The e a r l i e s t f a u n a l s t u d i e s of the Sooke Formation were made by J . C. Merriam from 1896 to 1 9 0 2 . Since, then, f i v e other major c o n t r i b u t i o n s have been made to these marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s t u d i e s . On the b a s i s of h i s s t u d i e s , Merriam concluded that the Sooke beds were of middle Neocene age. Arn o l d and Hannibal (1913) p l a c e d the Sooke Formation i n the.middle Oligocene. G. E. Weaver, who s t u d i e d Clapp and Cooke's ( I 9 I 7 ) f a u n a l c o l l e c t i o n s decided t h a t the "Sooke Formation ... i s prob a b l y the e q u i v a l e n t of the upper p o r t i o n of the lower Miocene of Washington." i i 6 . (Clapp and Cooke, 1917, p. 3 3 9 ) . Clark, and A r n o l d (1923) prepared a monograph on the Sooke fauna. They p l a c e d the Sooke Formation i n the upper Oligocene - lower Miocene B l a k e l e y stage. In the same paper, T. Wayland Vaughan d e s c r i b e d a new c o r a l from the Sooke Formation. In I927, I. E. Cornwall i d e n t i f i e d two b a r n a c l e s from the Muir Creek b a s i n . N e i t h e r Vaughan nor Cornwall added to the s o l u t i o n of the age problem. F i g . 6 i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the Sooke fauna with other known T e r t i a r y faunas of the P a c i f i c Coast of North America. The technique here i s s i m i l a r to t h a t of F i g . 5 where the numbers on the diagram correspond to numbers pr e c e e d i n g each r e f e r e n c e i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y . F i g . 3 shows the g e o l o g i c ranges of each f o r m a t i o n r e f e r r e d to i n F i g . 6 and i s compiled mainly from the Weaver et a l c o r r e l a t i o n c h a r t (I9l4.il-)- C l a r k and A r n o l d (I923) c o r r e l a t e d the Sooke Formation w i t h the "... B l a k e l e y beds of Washington. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s based upon the h i g h l y ornamented gastropods and pelecypods common to the two." (p. 135) . They suggest (p. 137) t h a t " ...the Sooke fauna w i l l be found to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the upper p a r t of the B l a k e l e y The upper p a r t of the B l a k e l e y i s e q u i v a l e n t .to the upper p a r t of Weaver's A c i l a g e t t y s - b urgensis zone and to Durham's Echinophora apta zone of the lower Miocene or European A q u i t a n i a n stage. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n has been supported by Weaver (19i|2), Weaver et a l (I9I4IJ.), and J e l e t z k y (1^5h)' Durham s t a t e s t h a t the "Sooke" fauna of Washington he r e p o r t e d i n iyl\l± "...can be c o r r e l a t e d with the San Ramon and P l e i t o Formations of C a l i f o r n i a . " and "...with the upper Poul Creek Formation of A l a s k a . " ( p e r s o n a l communication, A p r i l 26, 1961). Me p l a c e s h i s "Sooke" fauna i n the Echinophora apta zone. I t i s the w r i t e r ' s c o n c l u s i o n that Durham's "Sooke" fauna of Washington and the Sooke fauna of southern Vancouver I s l a n d are c o r r e l a t i v e . One column on F i g . 6 shows the percentage of In v e r t e b r a t e s that other T e r t i a r y f o r m a t i o n s , on the P a c i f i c Coast, have i n common wit h the Sooke Formation. In theory, those formations t h a t have the h i g h e s t per- centage of f o s s i l s i n common wit h the Sooke Formation should be the c l o s e s t c o r r e l a t i v e s , a l l other f a c t o r s remaining equal. I t i s considered t h a t those faunas having 5% or more c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the Sooke fauna are i t s c l o s e s t c o r r e l a t i v e s . These are the P l e i t o (5%), San Ramon (6%) and Vaqueros (6.7%) Formations of C a l i f o r n i a ; the A s t o r i a (13,5%) and Empire (5%) Form- a t i o n s of Washington and Oregon; Durham's "Sooke" fauna (9^) from Washington; and the "Carmanah P o i n t beds, above the conglomerate" (10.5$) d e s c r i b e d by C l a r k and 1+8. A r n o l d (1923, p. 136) of Vancouver I s l a n d . The h i g h e s t percentage c o r r e l a t i o n i s with the A s t o r i a Formation (13.5$) • Weaver et a l (I9J4J4.) p l a c e the A s t o r i a Formation i n the Temblor stage of the middle Miocene, e q u i v a l e n t to the H e l v e t i a n stage of European chronology. The B l a k e l e y and Sooke Formations have on l y li'5f° of t h e i r i n v e r t e b r a t e s i n common. T h i s moderate c o r r e l - a t i o n was e x p l a i n e d by C l a r k and A r n o l d (1923, p« 136): "The most c o n c l u s i v e evidence of the s t r a t - I g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n of the Sooke Formation was obtained from the Oligocene beds i n the v i c i n i t y of Carmanah P o i n t a l i t t l e to the south of the I n d i a n v i l l a g e of Clo-oose; the top of t h i s s e c t i o n i s j u s t beyond and to the south of Carmanah P o i n t l i g h t h o u s e . A t y p i c a l L i n c o l n fauna was found i n the lower p a r t of the s e c t i o n , while the B l a k e l e y fauna was found throughout the upper p o r t i o n . Heavy conglomerates separate the beds c o n t a i n i n g the faunas". They go on to d e s c r i b e a fauna from above the conglom- er a t e s which i s " . . . o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t because of the i n t e r f i n g e r i n g of t y p i c a l B l a k e l e y and Sooke faunas" (p. 136) . These beds above the conglomerate c o n t a i n 10.$% of the Sooke fauna which i s considered to be a t y p i c a l B l a k e l e y fauna. The beds are e i t h e r of e a r l y Sooke age or t r a n s i t i o n a l i n time between the Sooke and B l a k e l e y faunas. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n faunas i s thought to be due to environmental d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . 1*9. A c c o r d i n g to C l a r k and A r n o l d (1923, p. 131+) J "The t y p i c a l fauna of the B l a k e l e y i s u s u a l l y found i n r a t h e r f i n e sandstones and shales and undoubtedly l i v e d i n marine waters some d i s t a n c e from the shore; but the fauna obtained from the type s e c t i o n of the Sooke r e p r e s e n t s a shore l i n e f a c i e s , a fauna which would be found l i v i n g on a r o c k y beach between h i g h and low t i d e , . . . c e r t a i n elements of t h i s fauna i n d i c a t e b r a c k i s h water c o n d i t i o n s f o r a t l e a s t p a r t of the time. The h a b i t a t was p r o b a b l y i n or c l o s e to an e s t u a r y or the mouth of a r i v e r . " A number of f o s s i l s t h a t have been r e c o r d e d from the Sooke Formation have g e o l o g i c ranges t h a t d e l i m i t the age to e a r l y Miocene a t the e a r l i e s t . These f o s s i l s a r e : Macoma, Panope generosa, C a l y p t r a i a mammilaris, Sinum scopulosum and S c u t e l l a . They are a s s i g n e d a range of Miocene to Recent by Schimer and Shrock (I9I4.9). Molopophorus has a g e o l o g i c range of Oligocene to Miocene, and i s a very common c o n s t i t u e n t of the Sooke fauna. Thus the Sooke Formation appears to be r e s t r i c t - ed i n age to the Miocene. Evidence presented by C l a r k and A r n o l d (I923) and by J . W. Durham ( p e r s o n a l communication, A p r i l 26, 1961) i n d i c a t e s t hat the Sooke fauna i s most l i k e l y A q u i t a n i a n , ( i . e . lower most Miocene) i n age ( F i g . 3). A t the same time, however, F i g u r e 6 i n d i c a t e s an a p p a r e n t l y c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n of the Sooke fauna w i t h the A s t o r i a ( H e l v e t i a n ) fauna and the Vaqueros ( A q u i t a n i a n to H e l v e t i a n ) faunas. Thus the Sooke Formation i s most probably A q u i t a n i a n i n age, but may range from A q u i t a n i a n to H e l v e t i a n , or from the upper. B l a k e l e y to the*^Temblor stages of P a c i f i c Coast terminology. 51. CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The Sooke Formation has never been f o r m a l l y d e f i n e d and the v a l i d i t y of the type s e c t i o n i s open to s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n . Throughout the paper, the term Sooke Form- a t i o n i s used i n i t s g e n e r a l l y accepted c o n n o t a t i o n . The Sooke Formation i s a sedimentary rock u n i t c o n s i s t i n g of i n t e r b e d s of sandstone, shale and conglom- erate i n v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n s , t h a t crops out i n i s o l a t e d l o c a l i t i e s a l o n g the south and south west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d . I t was de p o s i t e d i n s m a l l , a p p a r e n t l y disconnected, b a s i n s on the slopes of a v o l c a n i c rock s u r f a c e , i n a s h o r e l i n e environment. F a c i e s change r a p i d l y i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s and d e p o s i t i o n a l dips are f a i r l y steep. Thus c o r r e l a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l beds, on a p u r e l y p h y s i c a l b a s i s i s hazardous. The Sooke Formation contains a smal l megaflora, one v e r t e b r a t e f o s s i l , a l a r g e marine i n v e r t e b r a t e fauna and a moderately l a r g e m i c r o f l o r a . S i n c e these v a r i o u s f o s s i l types are so i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d i n t h e i r s t r a t - i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n s , they were d o u b t l e s s l y d e p o s i t e d d u r i n g the same i n t e r v a l of time. Marine i n v e r t e b r a t e evidence from the P a c i f i c Coast T e r t i a r y i s e x t e n s i v e , 52. and the i n v e r t e b r a t e s have been used to determine the age and c o r r e l a t i o n of the Sooke Formation. On t h i s b a s i s , the Sooke Formation i s c onsidered to be lower Miocene i n age, e q u i v a l e n t to the upper B l a k e l e y stage, but may extend as h i g h as the Temblor stage. No ad- d i t i o n a l evidence i s a v a i l a b l e from e i t h e r the megaflora or the v e r t e b r a t e f o s s i l to f u r t h e r d e l i m i t t h i s age. P a c i f i c Coast T e r t i a r y p a l y n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s are few i n number; only two other m i c r o f l o r a s were a v a i l - able f o r comparison w i t h the Sooke m i c r o f l o r a . A p r e l i m i n a r y comparison i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Sooke micro- f l o r a was more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the P l i o c e n e Skonun m i c r o f l o r a than to the Eocene B u r r a r d m i c r o f l o r a . F u r t h e r p a l y n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s of the P a c i f i c Coast T e r t i a r y and i n p a r t i c u l a r of the Sooke and r e l a t e d s t r a t a may a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n concerning age, c o r - r e l a t i o n and p a l e o e c o l o g y . 5 3 . SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES As a r e s u l t of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g problems have been r e c o g n i z e d : 1. In order to r e s o l v e the s t r a t i g r a p h y of the Sooke, Carmanah and other T e r t i a r y formations i n t h i s area, a p a l y n o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g should be e s t a b l i s h e d and. the l i m i t s of m i c r o f o s s i l s p e c i e s c l o s e l y d e l i m i t e d . J e l e t z k y (I95I4.) r e p o r t e d t h a t c o r r e l a t i v e s of the Sooke and Carmanah faunas and w i t h the A c i l a g e t t y s - b u rgensis fauna above the conglomerate at Carmanah P o i n t , are p r e s e n t i n the Hesquiat - Nootka a r e a . F u r t h e r p a l y n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s could be made a t Carmanah P o i n t , and northwestward a l o n g the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d to d e l i m i t the formations and t h e i r contained m i c r o f l o r a s . 2. P a l e o e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the faunas, f l o r a s and sediments would be of much value to the advancement of knowledge. The p a l e o e c o l o g y of the Sooke Formation appears s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r to modern e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n the same area t h a t a good comparison and c o n t r a s t could be made. 3- The c o r r e l a t i o n between the Sooke and A s t o r i a faunas must be e x p l a i n e d . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s may be i n e r r o r , or sampling methods or p r e s e r v a t i o n may have pro v i d e d 5i|. poorly representative faunas. In addition, the form- ations may be much more clos e l y c o r r e l a t i v e than i s presently suspected with the differences i n faunas the r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n t ecological settings. 5 5 - SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY if American Commission of S t r a t i g r a p h i c Nomenclature (1961): Code of S t r a t i g r a p h i c Nomenclature; Amer. Assoc. P e t r . Geol., B u l l . , v o l . 1+5, no. 5 , P«P» 61+5-665- 2. A r n o l d , R. A. (1906): G e o l o g i c a l reconnaissance of the coast of the Olympic P e n i n s u l a , Washington; Geo], Soc. of Amer., B u l l . , v o l . 17, p.p. 1+51-1+68. 3 . ( I 9 0 6 ) : T e r t i a r y and Quaternary pectens of C a l i f o r n i a ; U. S. Geol. Surv., P r o f . Pap., 1+7, p. 10. 1+. (1909) : Environment of T e r t i a r y faunas of the P a c i f i c Coast; J O U E of Geol., v o l . 17, opposite p. 535. 5 . A r n o l d , R. A. and Hannibal, H. (1913): The Marine T e r t i a r y s t r a t i g r a p h y of the North P a c i f i c coast of America; Amer. P h i l . Soc. P r o c , v o l . 52 , p. 575. 6. B a n c r o f t , M. P. (1937) : Gold-bearing d e p o s i t s on the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d between Esperanza I n l e t and A l b e r n i Canal; Geol. Surv. of Can., Mem. 20l+. The numbers p r e c e e d i n g b i b l i o g r a p h i c r e f e r e n c e s are used as c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s on F i g u r e s 6 and 7« 56. 7. Brown, R. D. J r . , Gower, h. D. 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( M a n u s c r i p t ) : The geology of Graham I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia; (unpublished r e p o r t f o r R i c h f i e l d O i l C o r p o r a t i o n , Calgary, A l b e r t a , 1958). 25. D a l l , W. H. (I898): A t a b l e of North American T e r t i a r y ...form- a t i o n s , c o r r e l a t e d with one another and those of western Europe w i t h a n n o t a t i o n s ; U. S. Geol. Surv., 18th Ann. Rept., p t . 2, pp. 323̂ 31+8. 26. D a l l , W. H. and H a r r i s , G. E. (I892):Neocene of North America; U. S. Geol. Surv., B u l l . no. 81L, p. 230. 27. Danner, W. R. (i960): An i n t r o d u c t i o n to the s t r a t i g r a p h y of southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia and n o r t h western Washington; guidebook f o r g e o l o g i c a l f i e l d t r i p s i n southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia, prepared by 59 - G e o l o g i c a l D i s c u s s i o n Club, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r Meetings of the C o r d i l l e r a n S e c t i o n of the G e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of America, pp. 1-6. 28. Durham, J. W. (I9I+I+) : Megafaunal zones of the Oligocene of n o r t h western Washington; Univ. C a l . P u b l . , B u l l . Dept. Geol. S c i . , v o l . 27, no. 5 , pp. 101-211. 29. (1950): Cenozoic marine c l i m a t e s of the P a c i f i c c oast; Geol. Soc. of Amer., B u l l . , v o l . 6 l , no. 11, pp. 12i+3-1263. 30. Erdtman, G. (19i+3) : An I n t r o d u c t i o n to p o l l e n a n a l y s i s ; The Ronald Press Co., New York. 31. E t h e r i n g t o n , T. J. (1931)J S t r a t i g r a p h y and fauna of the A s t o r i a Miocene of south west Washington; Univ. C a l . Publ . , B u l l . Dept. Geol. S c i . , v o l . 20, no. 5, pp. 31-11+2. 32. Hay, 0. P. (1923): C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of sundry f o s s i l v e r t e - b r a t e s ; Pan Am. Geol., v o l . XXXIX, pp. 101-120. 33. H e r t l e i n , L. G. and Crickmay, C. H. (1925): Summary of the nomenclature and s t r a t - igraphy of the marine T e r t i a r y of Oregon and Washington; Amer. P h i l . Soc. P r o c , v o l . 61+, 6o. no. 2, pp. 22l;-282. 3i|. Howe, H. V. (1922): Paunal and s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the Empire Formation, Coos Bay, Oregon; Univ. of C a l . Publ., B u l l . Dept. Geol. S c i . , v o l . l l i , no. 3» pp. Q^-lllx. 3$. J e l e t z k y , J . A. (1951+) : T e r t i a r y Rocks of the Hesquiat - Nootka area west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia; Geol. Surv. of Can., Pap. 53-17« 36. Kew, W. S. (I92I4.): Geology and o i l r e s o u r c e s of a p a r t of Los Angeles and Ventura c o u n t i e s , C a l i f o r n i a ; U.S. G. S., B u l l . , no. 753- 37. La Motte, R. S. (1936): An upper Oligocene f l o r u l e from Vancouver I s l a n d ; C o n t r i b . to Paleo., Carnegie I n s t , of Wash., p t . V, pp. 51-57' 38. L o e l , W. and Corey, W. H. (1932): The Vagueros Formation, lower Miocene of C a l i f o r n i a , I, P a l e o n t o l o g y ; U n i u C a l . Publ. B u l l . , Dept. Geol. S c i . , v o l . 22, no. 3, pp. 31-1+-10. 39. L o g i e , R. M. (Ma n u s c r i p t ) : Some notes on the Sooke Formation, Vancouver I s l a n d , Unpublished MA t h e s i s , Univ. 6l. of B. C , 1929. MacKenzie, J . D. (1916): Geology of Graham I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia; Geol. Surv. of Can., Mem. 88. MacNeil, P. S., Wolfe, J . A., M i l l e r , D. J . , and Hopkins, D. M. (1961): C o r r e l a t i o n s of T e r t i a r y formations of A l a s k a ; Amer. Assoc. Pe.tr. Geol., B u l l . , v o l . 1+5, no. 11, pp. I8OI-I809. M a r t i n , B. (1912): Fauna from the type l o c a l i t y of the Monterey s e r i e s i n C a l i f o r n i a ; Univ. C a l . Publ. B u l l . Dept. Geol. S c i . , v o l . 7, no. 7, pp. li+3- 150. Merriam, J . C. (1896) : Note on two t e r t i a r y faunas from the rocks of the southern coast of Vancouver I s l a n d ; Univ. C a l . Dept. Geo. B u l l . , v o l . 2, pp. 105-108. (1897) : The g e o l o g i c r e l a t i o n s of the Martinez Group of C a l i f o r n i a at the t y p i c a l l o c a l i t y ; Jour, of Geol. v o l . 5, pp« 767-775- (I897): New s p e c i e s of mollusca from Vancouver I s l a n d ; N a u t i l u s , v o l . 11, no. 6, pp. 61+-65- (I899): The fauna of the Sooke beds of Vancouver I s l a n d ; Proc. of the C a l . Acad, of S c i . (3), Geology, v o l . 1, no. 6, pp. 175-188. 6 2 . Norem, W. L. ( 1 9 5 8 ) : Keys f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f o s s i l spores and p o l l e n ; Jour, of Paleo., v o l . 3 2 , no. i i , pp. 666-676. Parker, P. (I9I4.9) : F o s s i l and r e c e n t s p e c i e s of the Pelecypod genera Chione and S e c u r e l l a from the P a c i f i c c oast; Jour, of Paleo., V o l . 2 3 , no. l 6 , PP. 5 7 7 - 5 7 9 - Richardson, J . ( I 8 7 8 ) : Report on the c o a l f i e l d s of Nanaimo, Comox, Cowitchen, B u r r a r d I n l e t and Sooke; Geol. Surv. Can., Rept. of Prog., pp. 1 6 0 - 1 9 2 . R i c k e t t s , E. p. and C a l v i n , J . ( 1 9 5 6 ) : Between P a c i f i c t i d e s ; T h i r d ed., S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Rouse, G. E. ( 1 9 6 2 ) : P l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s from the B u r r a r d Form- a t i o n of southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia. M i c r o p a l e ( i n p r e s s f o r A p r i l , 1 9 6 2 ) . 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Soc. of Amer., B u l l . , v o l . 5 2 , no. 12, p t . 2, pp. I98I4.-I985. (I9I+I) • Oligocene sea cow remains from e a s t coast of Baja, C a l i f o r n i a ; ( a b s t . ) , Geol. Soc. of Amer., B u l l . , v o l . 52 , no. 12, p t . 2, p. I985. Vaughan, T. W. (1923) : D e s c r i p t i o n of a new c o r a l ; Univ. C a l . Publ. B u l l . Dept. Geol. S c i . , v o l . 11+, no. 5 , PP» 175-176. 61+. 60. Wagner, C. M. and S c h i l l i n g , K. H. (1923): The San Lorenzo Group of the San Emigdio r e g i o n , C a l i f o r n i a ; Univ. C a l . P u b l . B u l l . Dept. Geol. S c i . , v o l . ll+, no. 6, pp. 235-276. 61. Weaver, C. E. (19i+2): P a l e o n t o l o g y of the marine T e r t i a r y formations of Oregon and Washington, p t s . I- I I I ; Univ. Wash. Pu b l . i n Geol., v o l . 5. 62. Weaver, C. E. et a l . (I9I+I+) : C o r r e l a t i o n of the marine Cenozoic form- i a t i o n s of western North America; Geol. Soc. of Amer., B u l l . , v o l . 55, PP. 569-598. 63. Wilmarth, M. G. (Ed.) (1938): L e x i c o n of g e o l o g i c names of. the U n i t e d S t a t e s ; U. S. Geol. Surv., B u l l . , no. 396, p t s . 1, 2.

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