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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Glacio-marine foraminifera of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska Smith, Roberta K. 1965

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GLACIO-MARINE FORAMINIFERA OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AND SOUTHEAST ALASKA By Roberta K. Smith B.A. University of Alaska, 1957 M..A. University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, I960  A, Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Ph.D.  in the Department Qf Geology We Accept This Thesis as Conforming to the Required Standard  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia May,  1965  In the  presenting  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d  British  Columbia, I agree  available mission  f o r reference  f o r extensive  representatives.  cation  that  I further  that  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  Department  ^<j/o<2cS  -jy  -  f  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  * t e 2z?fac/r  shall  £0^.  -  Columbia,  / f ^ J l  of •  make i t f r e e l y  agree  that  per-  f o r scholarly  by the Head o f my Department  permission*  D  the L i b r a r y  and s t u d y *  w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  of  fulfilment of  degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y  I t i s understood  of t h i s thesis  i n partial  copying of t h i s thesis  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d his  this thesis  o r by  copying or p u b l i -  shall  n o t be a l l o w e d  The  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES PROGRAMME OF THE FINAL ORAL EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY of ROBERTA KATHERINE SMITH M„ A., U n i v e r s i t y  of C a l i f o r n i a , 1960  WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 10, 1966 a t 10:00 A.M. IN.ROOM 102, FORESTRY GEOLOGY BUILDING  COMMITTEE IN CHARGE Chairman:  I . McT. Cowan  R. V. Best P. A. Dehnel  V. J . O k u l i t c h G. L . P i c k a r d G. E. Rouse  Research S u p e r v i s o r : External  R. V. Best  Examiner: M i s s Frances L . Parker  • SCRIPPS INSTITUTE OF OCEANOGRAPHY LA  JOLLA, CALIFORNIA  GLACIO-MARINE FORAMINIFERA OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AND SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA ABSTRACT F o r a m i n i f e r a are d e s c r i b e d from massive, uncons o l i d a t e d g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s probably of l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e age from the coast of B r i t i s h Columbia and southeast A l a s k a . Twenty f a m i l i e s , 44 genera, and 102 s p e c i e s are r e c o r d e d . The s p e c i e s B o l i v i n a a l e x a n d e r e n s i s and the v a r i e t i e s F i s s u r i n a marginata (Montagu) v a r , juneauensis and O o l i n a c o l l a r i s (Cushman) v a r , howensis are d e s c r i b e d as new. The F o r a m i n i f e r a l i v e d i n shallow water ( l e s s than 30 meters), which was c o l d ( p o s s i b l e range -2°C t o summer maxima o f 25°C) and of v a r i a b l e s a l i n i t i e s from b r a c k i s h t o normal marine (approximately 15 /oo t o 35°/oo), w i t h s a l i n i t y a t L a k e l s e h a v i n g been the lowest. T h i s work i n combination w i t h t h a t of others demonstrates the e x i s t e n c e o f a f o r a m i n i f e r a l province i n h i g h l a t i t u d e s of the n o r t h e r n hemisphere i n c o l d , shallow, c o a s t a l waters o f b r a c k i s h t o normal marine s a l i n i t i e s throughout Quaternary time. This province i s n o t a b l e f o r i t s wide geographic extent around North America and E u r a s i a . Samples s t u d i e d are from the v i c i n i t i e s o f Vancouver and L a k e l s e and Graham I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia and Juneau, A l a s k a , Specimens were o b t a i n e d from d e p o s i t s a t e l e v a t i o n s from near sea l e v e l t o s e v e r a l hundred f e e t above present sea l e v e l ; i s o s t a t i c rebound f o l l o w i n g i c e l o a d removal and l o c a l u p l i f t a l o n g f a u l t s probably caused the present e l e v a t e d exposures. The sediments c o n s i s t mainly o f c l a s t s of heterogeneous g r a i n s i z e ( c l a y t o b o u l d e r ) which r a i n e d down i n t o nearshore marine waters from m e l t i n g g l a c i a l i c e . As w e l l as F o r a m i n i f e r a and other marine f o s s i l s , much woody plant m a t e r i a l occurs i n the sediment. A presumably s i m i l a r s e d i m e n t a t i o n p a t t e r n was observed o c c u r r i n g i n Taku I n l e t , Alaska.' S h e l l c a s t s i n many outcrops i n v e s t i g a t e d i n d i c a t e marine o r i g i n of the sediment though weathering has advanced t o o f a r f o r r e t e n t i o n o f t e s t s of F o r a m i n i f e r a . S i m i l a r d e p o s i t s d o u b t l e s s are widespread a l o n g the B r i t i s h Columbia and southeast A l a s k a coast and extend some d i s t a n c e south -into the s t a t e o f Washington and f u r t h e r n o r t h a l o n g the A l a s k a c o a s t , as w e l l as b e i n g present elsewhere i n North. America and Eurasia.  GRADUATE STUDIES Field  of Study:  Invertebrate Palaeontology  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Problems i n Palaeontology Seminar i n Sedimentology Problems i n Sedimentology I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S y n o p t i c Oceanography Marine I n v e r t e b r a t e Zoology Biogeography  R. V. Best W, H. Mathews W. H. Mathews G,.L„ P i c k a r d P. A . D e h n e l R. W. P i l l s b u r y  U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Seminar  i n Micropaleontology  Seminar i n B i o s t r a t i g r a p h y Problems i n P a l e o n t o l o g y Advanced Research i n M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y  .M„ A r n o l d R. M. K l e i n p e l l R. M. K l e i n p e l l J , W. Durham R. M, K l e i n p e l l  PUBLICATION Smith, R. K. M i d d l e T e r t i a r y F o r a m i n i f e r a from Soquel Creek, Santa Cruz County, C a l i f o r n i a , ( i n p r e s s : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s in Geological Sciences).  AWARDS 1959  1964  - S o c i e t y of Economic P a l e o n t o l o g i s t s and M i n e r a l o g i s t s - O u t s t a n d i n g Graduate Student, Department of P a l e o n t o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f California. - E l e c t e d t o S o c i e t y of Sigma X i .  ROBERTA K. SMITH, Chairman:  i  GLACIO-MARINE FORAMINIFERA OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AND SOUTHEAST ALASKA.  P r o f e s s o r R. V. Best  ABSTRACT  F o r a m i n i f e r a a r e d e s c r i b e d from massive, u n c o n s o l i d a t e d deposits probably and  of l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e age from t h e c o a s t o f B r i t i s h  southeast A l a s k a .  recorded. marginata  glacio-marine  Twenty f a m i l i e s , 44 genera,  and 102 s p e c i e s a r e  The s p e c i e s B o l i v i n a a l e x a n d e r e n s i s and t h e v a r i e t i e s (Montagu) v a r . j u n e a u e n s i s  Columbia  and O o l i n a c o l l a r i s  Fissurina  (Cushman) v a r .  howensis a r e d e s c r i b e d as new.  The F o r a m i n i f e r a l i v e d  than 30 m e t e r s ) , which was c o l d  ( p o s s i b l e range -2°C t o summer maxima o f 25°C)  and  of v a r i a b l e s a l i n i t i e s  i n s h a l l o w water  from b r a c k i s h t o normal marine (approximately  t o 35 /oo), w i t h s a l i n i t y a t L a k e l s e having b een t h e lowest. combination  15°/oo  T h i s work I n  w i t h t h a t o f o t h e r s demonstrates t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a f o r a m i n i f e r a l  province i n high latitudes  o f t h e n o r t h e r n hemisphere i n c o l d ,  c o a s t a l waters o f b r a c k i s h t o normal marine s a l i n i t i e s time.  (less  T h i s p r o v i n c e i s n o t a b l e f o r i t s wide geographic  shallow,  throughout  Quaternary  extent around  North  America and E u r a s i a . Samples s t u d i e d a r e from t h e v i c i n i t i e s  o f Vancouver and L a k e l s e and  Graham I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia and Juneau, A l a s k a .  Specimens were o b t a i n e d  from d e p o s i t s a t e l e v a t i o n s from near sea l e v e l t o s e v e r a l hundred f e e t above p r e s e n t sea l e v e l ;  i s o s t a t i c - r e b o u n d f o l l o w i n g i c e l o a d removal and l o c a l  u p l i f t along f a u l t s probably sediments c o n s i s t m a i n l y  caused  the p r e s e n t  e l e v a t e d exposures.  The  o f c l a s t s o f heterogeneous g r a i n s i z e ( c l a y t o b o u l d e r )  which r a i n e d down i n t o n e a r - s h o r e marine waters from m e l t i n g g l a c i a l i c e . As w e l l as F o r a m i n i f e r a and o t h e r marine f o s s i l s , much woody p l a n t m a t e r i a l occurs  i n t h e sediment.  A presumably s i m i l a r s e d i m e n t a t i o n  observed o c c u r r i n g i n Taku I n l e t , A l a s k a .  p a t t e r n was  S h e l l c a s t s i n many  outcrops  i n v e s t i g a t e d i n d i c a t e marine o r i g i n of t h e sediment though weathering has advanced t o o f a r f o r r e t e n t i o n o f t e s t s o f F o r a m i n i f e r a . doubtless  a r e widespread a l o n g  t h e B r i t i s h Columbia and s o u t h e a s t  coast and extend some d i s t a n c e south north along the Alaska America and E u r a s i a .  S i m i l a r deposits Alaska  i n t o t h e s t a t e of Washington and f u r t h e r  c o a s t , as w e l l as b e i n g p r e s e n t  elsewhere i n N o r t h  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page Abstract  . . . . . . « . * . . . . . • • • • • * • • • • • « •  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . « . • • • > • • • • •  1  1  Statement o f the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1  Acknowledgements  2  L o c a t i o n and S e t t i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3  Methods.  5  . . . . . . . « . . . . . « . * • . • • • • • • • •  D e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e Fauna! P r o v i n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H i s t o r y o f Study D e s c r i p t i o n of the Faunal Province . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Features,  9 9 13 19  Vancouver A r e a . . . » . . . . . . . . . • • . . • • • • • •  19  Juneau A r e a .  19  Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s A r e a  20  Lakelse Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21  Geology.  22  Areal,  22  Vancouver A r e a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . « • • • • 22 Juneau A r e a . « . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • * • • • • • •  23  Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s .  24  Lakelse Area . . . . . . . . . . . . * * « * < • • • • • • •  25  O t h e r G l a c i o - M a r i n e and R e l a t e d D e p o s i t s on t h e A l a s k a n Panhandle Coast Recognized b e f o r e 1930 . . . . . . . . .  26  Lithology. . „ » « „ , « . • . . , » « * • « * « • • * • ; • •  29  Stratigraphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . > • • • * •  31  Ecology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . « . . . . . » . • • • • •  34  General Considerations  34  Page Ecological Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35  Comparison o f F o r a m i n i f e r a l D i s t r i b u t i o n with that o f Marine Larger I n v e r t e b r a t e s w i t h i n t h e Present Area of Study . .  40  E v a l u a t i o n o f E c o l o g i c a l D i f f e r e n c e s Among t h e A s s e m b l a g e s Studied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41  Summary o f P a l e o e c o l o g y o f t h e P r e s e n t F o r a m i n i f e r a l Assemblages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53  Comparison w i t h other Quaternary Northern, Cold, ShallowWater F o r a m i n i f e r a l Faunas, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56  Faunal Composition. . . . . . . . . Age  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  65  and C o r r e l a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  67  D e f i n i t i o n and C o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e P l e i s t o c e n e S e r i e s and Epoch Age  and C o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h  Alaska Conclusions  67  Columbia and S o u t h e a s t  Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  69  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74  Systematic Catalog.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Description of Localities Bibliography.  85  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  198  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  211  TABU:  Figure 1  OF  ILLUSTBATIONS  Maps of Vancouver A r e a and Queen C h a r l o t t e Islands L o c a l i t i e s  Page 83  Figure 2  Maps o f Juneau A r e a and L a k e l s e L o c a l i t i e s  Page 84  Figure 3  Check L i s t o f F o r a m i n i f e r a  I n Pocket a t Back  P l a t e s 1-22  F i g u r e s of F o r a m i n i f e r a  F o l l o w i n g Page 228  1 INTRODUCTION  Statement of the Problem  T h i s study attempts the s y s t e m a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n , I n t e r n a l and  external faunal correlation,  c o r r e l a t i o n , and  ecological evaluation,  s t r a t i g r a p h i c and  geochronologic  d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the r o l e i n the g e o l o g i c h i s t o r y  F o r a m i n i f e r a from Quaternary  of  d e p o s i t s of t h e northwest c o a s t of N o r t h America  i n B r i t i s h Columbia and A l a s k a , e s p e c i a l l y those from g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s . The  content and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the fauna, as to the s p e c i e s r e p r e s e n t e d  and  t h e i r r e l a t i v e abundances and a r e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , p r e v i o u s l y were p o o r l y known. T h i s study  i s designed  ( g e o g r a p h i c and  t o i n c r e a s e the knowledge of content and  e c o l o g i c ) of h i g h - l a t i t u d e f o r a m i n i f e r a l faunas  of the p r e s e n t assemblages and s i m i l a r age and hemisphere.  by e v a l u a t i o n  comparison w i t h f o s s i l and Recent faunas  T h i s c o m p a r i t i v e study a l l o w s d e l i n e a t i o n of a f a u n a l p r o v i n c e . from comparable l o c a t i o n s i n the s o u t h e r n hemisphere  not attempted s i n c e the r e l a t i v e l y meagre work done does not suggest  s i m i l a r i t y between n o r t h e r n and t o shed l i g h t  southern  faunas.  on some problems of the g e o l o g i c h i s t o r y of the B r i t i s h  The  Columbia-  of the  t e c t o n i c h i s t o r y of the a r e a , c o n d i t i o n s of s e d i m e n t a t i o n ,  and marine p a l e o e c o l o g y .  much  The p r e s e n t work a l s o attempts  s o u t h e a s t A l a s k a c o a s t , a l l o w i n g some c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the age sediments,  of  environment r e p o r t e d from v a r i o u s areas of t h e n o r t h e r n  Comparison w i t h faunas was  distribution  climate,  r e l a t i o n of those f o r a m i n i f e r a l d e p o s i t s t o the  problem of the d e f i n i t i o n of the P l e i s t o c e n e i s e x p l o r e d i n s o f a r as the d a t a permit.  S i n c e t h i s study was  the f o r a m i n i f e r a l sediments,  i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y t o d e s c r i b e and the g e n e r a l geology was  f o r r e l a t i o n s t o the g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s .  evaluate  examined o n l y  cursorily  2 Acknowledg ement s  C o l l e c t i o n o f the m a t e r i a l used i n t h i s study was g r e a t l y a i d e d and encouraged  by many t o whom the author owes thanks.  A. Sutherland-Brown,  the B r i t i s h Columbia  These i n c l u d e  D i v i s i o n o f Highways, J . E, Armstrong,  W. H. Mathews, A. Davidson, W. Hay, C. P. M. Heath, R. A. Loney, t h e l a t e D. M i l l e r , N. E. Smith, L . C. N. Smith, K. C. Smith, and H e l e n L a u r e n t , a l l of whom a s s i s t e d the a u t h o r i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l . V. A. Z u l l o .  examined the m e g a f o s s i l s c o l l e c t e d .  J . W. Durham and  The Museum o f P a l e o n t o l o g y  of the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , has a i d e d m a t e r i a l l y by p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s and equipment and by a g r e e i n g t o be t h e d e p o s i t o r y f o r t h e type and assemblage s l i d e s o f t h e f o s s i l s  collected i n this  A t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Geology,  study.  t h e f a c u l t y o f the Department of  e x p e c i a l l y R. V. B e s t , W. H. Mathews, V. J . O k u l i t c h , G. E. Rouse,  and R. M. Thompson, and the members o f t h e t h e s i s committee from o t h e r departments,  G. L . P i c k a r d and P. Dehnel, have g i v e n the a u t h o r much a i d and  encouragement.  R. V. B e s t and G. E. Rouse k i n d l y gave p a r t i c u l a r  t o the m a n u s c r i p t .  attention  A. EL. Cockbain and W. T. Brown a l s o most k i n d l y a s s i s t e d  the a u t h o r . Much g r a t i t u d e i s owed t o m i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g i s t s F. L . P a r k e r , H. Tappan, 0. Bandy, Ruth Todd, and Patsy Smith o f v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s  for their  examination o f specimens and comments thereon, and t o Ruth Todd, M a r t i n Buzas, and J . Graham f o r a l l o w i n g the a u t h o r t o examine type m a t e r i a l . a i d e d over the y e a r s w i t h h e l p f u l taxonomic and m a n u s c r i p t . and E. Y o c h e l s o n .  Ruth Todd  a d v i c e and by examining  the f o s s i l s  H e l p f u l a d v i c e on the manuscript was a l s o g i v e n by R. C i f e l l i M a r t i n Buzas a l s o o f f e r e d much h e l p f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on  f o r a m i n i f e r a l ecology.  3 0.  G. Agren made p o s s i b l e the study of comparative m a t e r i a l from the  Gullmar F j o r d i n Sweden.  Dr. and Mrs. G. D. Hanna a l l o w e d examination pf  specimens a t t h e C a l i f o r n i a Academy of S c i e n c e s and o f f e r e d h e l p f u l a d v i c e about  illustration.  illustrations  Joachim Hampel devoted much time and energy t o the  of the F o r a m i n i f e r a .  R. M. K l e i n p e l l , G. H. Curtis,. M.  N.  C h r i s t e n s e n , P. I s r a e l , and V. N o l l , a l l of the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , and the a u t h o r ' s p a r e n t s , Mary K. and Elmer H. Smith, have a s s i s t e d i n making t h i s p r o j e c t p o s s i b l e .  Great debts of g r a t i t u d e a r e owed t o  J . F. Evernden and J . N. K. Langton, w i t h o u t whose h e l p t h i s work would  have  been h a l t e d on many a c c o u n t s .  L o c a t i o n and  Setting  The f o r a m i n i f e r a l m a t e r i a l d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s r e p o r t comes from the northwest coast o f N o r t h America, m a i n l y from the v i c i n i t i e s B r i t i s h Columbia and Juneau, A l a s k a .  of Vancouver,  Samples a l s o come from two i n t e r m e d i a t e  p o i n t s , the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s and L a k e l s e on the road from K i t i m a t t o T e r r a c e , B r i t i s h Columbia.  Examined but found b a r r e n o f F o r a m i n i f e r a  was  o t h e r m a t e r i a l from many a r e a s i n c l u d i n g the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y ,  Victoria,  Ocean F a l l s ,  British  Columbia and,  i s l a n d s i n the S t r a i t  of G e o r g i a , and P r i n c e Rupert,  i n Alaska, v i c i n i t i e s  of Juneau and W r a n g e l l , Taku  Harbor,  Copper Harbor on P r i n c e of Wales I s l a n d , Green Gove on A d m i r a l t y I s l a n d ,  and  the mainland s u r r o u n d i n g K e t c h i k a n as w e l l as the nearby i s l a n d s o f A n n e t t e and G r a v i n a .  S e v e r a l bottom samples  from I c y S t r a i t , Lynn C a n a l , Stephens  Passage, G a s t i n e a u Channel, and Taku I n l e t , A l a s k a , o b t a i n e d f o r comparative purposes, y i e l d e d o n l y a few F o r a m i n i f e r a .  4 Almost a l l samples s t u d i e d were from u n c o n s o l i d a t e d  glacio-marine  d e p o s i t s o f t h e same gross l i t h o l o g i c a s p e c t o f heterogeneous g r a i n s i z e ( u s u a l l y from b o u l d e r t o c l a y ) and nonbedded. sediment w i t h a d i s t i n c t i v e b l u e - g r e y  A l l sampled unweathered  color cast  grey o r g r e y i s h brown sediment c o n t a i n e d  contained f o s s i l s ;  fossils also.  some  The suggested  c o r r e l a t i o n between b l u e cast; and marine d e p o s i t i o n a l environment o f f e r s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e g e o l o g i s t may t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f y such b l u i s h sediment as g l a c i o - m a r i n e when c l o s e r examination  i s not p o s s i b l e .  The g l a c i o - m a r i n e sediment r e s t s on i n d u r a t e d r o c k s , most of which a r e of pre-Genozoic Vancouver a r e a .  age, w i t h some Cenozoic  bedrock p r e s e n t  l o c a l l y i n the  A l l but one l o c a l i t y sampled i n t h e g l a c i o - m a r i n e sediment  a r e c o n s i d e r e d o f l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e age, p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e l a s t advance; t h e o t h e r l o c a l i t y  glacial  (D-1210, Highbury Tunnel, Vancouver a r e a ) may  r e p r e s e n t an e a r l i e r g l a c i a l advance.  S i m i l a r d e p o s i t s occur a l o n g t h e c o a s t  from Vancouver t o Juneau and beyond, b o t h n o r t h and south, extending a t l e a s t 1,000 m i l e s  ( s e e pp. 26-29 jfor e a r l y r e p o r t s ; g e o l o g i s t s R. A. Loney, R. W. !  Hodder, V. S. M a l l o r y , C. W a h r h a f t i g ,  D. Hopkins, L. G. N. Smith, and J . Jensen  r e p o r t e d other g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s i n t h i s a r e a t o t h e a u t h o r ,  deposits  which were examined a t l e a s t c u r s o r i l y but n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study;  other  d e p o s i t s were seen but n o t s t u d i e d by t h i s a u t h o r which were c a l l e d t o a t t e n t i o n by v a r i o u s p r o s p e c t o r s , f o r e s t e r s , w i l d l i f e  b i b l o g i s t s , engineers,  fisherman,  and r e s i d e n t s o f t h i s c o a s t a l a r e a ) . I n some a r e a s t h e g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s can be found a t l e a s t s e v e r a l hundred f e e t above p r e s e n t  sea l e v e l  (see pp. 20-32)*  I f r e l a t i v e sea stand  was lower d u r i n g t h e P l e i s t o c e n e than a t p r e s e n t , as i s commonly p o s t u l a t e d , uplift  r e l a t i v e t o sea l e v e l has been g r e a t e r than would be i n f e r r e d  from use  5  of p r e s e n t sea l e v e l as datum.  T h i s a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t some d e p o s i t s may  have been u p l i f t e d above sea l e v e l and subsequently The  probable  inundated by r i s i n g  seas.  causes o f t h e p r e s e n t exposure o f g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s from  below p r e s e n t  sea l e v e l up t o s e v e r a l hundred f e e t above i n c l u d e b o t h  rebound due t o removal o f i c e - l o a d i n g p r e s e n t d u r i n g times  isostatic  of great extent of  i c e and r e l a t i v e u p l i f t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a u l t i n g and r e l a t e d  tectonic  phenomena. A t p r e s e n t t h e v e r t i c a l and a r e a l extent and c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e g l a c i o marine d e p o s i t s a r e not known. of exposures;  The heavy v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l  t h e r a p i d weathering,  b o t h mechanical  steep topography i n many a r e a s ; t h e d i f f i c u l t y f a c t o r s w i l l always r e t a r d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  cover and l a c k  and c h e m i c a l ; t h e v e r y  o f a c c e s s ; and o t h e r  o f the geographic  related  extent o f t h e s e  g l a c i o - m a r i n e sediments and a l s o o f t h e i r f o s s i l c o n t e n t and t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t can be drawn therefrom. c e r t a i n l y i s important  Knowledge of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these d e p o s i t s  i n f u l l y understanding  t h e Quaternary  h i s t o r y of the  northwest P a c i f i c Coast and i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y and new r o a d - c u t s , building  e x c a v a t i o n s , and q u a r r i e s d o u b t l e s s W i l l  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e d e p o s i t s and faunas  provide further detailed  discussed i n this report.  Methods A f t e r c o l l e c t i o n o f samples and removal o f l a r g e c l a s t s , t r e a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. removed e i t h e r  immediately,  First,  20 and 120 mesh T y l e r Standard Examination  l a r g e r marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s were  i f they c o u l d be removed w i t h o u t  b r e a k i n g down t h e samples by soaking  samples were  i n water.  damage, o r a f t e r  Samples t h e n were washed  through  Screen S c a l e S i e v e s e i g h t i n c h e s i n diameter.  o f t h e r e s i d u e on t o p o f t h e 20 mesh s c r e e n f o l l o w e d , and such few  6 F o r a m i n i f e r a remaining  thereon  as w e l l as t h e s m a l l specimens and r e c o g n i z a b l e  fragments o f l a r g e r marine I n v e r t e b r a t e s l a t e r study.  and v e r t e b r a t e s were p i c k e d out f o r  The m a t e r i a l which passed through t h e 120 mesh s i e v e s was  d i s c a r d e d , t h a t remaining  on t h e 120 mesh s i e v e s r e t a i n e d .  W i t h some samples,  s c r e e n i n g a l s o i n c l u d e d passage through 200 mesh s i e v e s i n o r d e r t o examine the m a t e r i a l i n t h e s i z e range 120 t o .200 mesh f o r f o r a m i n i f e r a l c o n t e n t . S i n c e almost no specimens were found, t h i s procedure^aoandoned. procedure, .material remaining  on t h e 120 mesh s i e v e s was washed o f f onto  f i l t e r paper i n f u n n e l s and a l l o w e d crucibles followed.  In the regular  to drain.  Drying  o f samples p l a c e d i n  Some were oven d r i e d a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y  200°F, some a l l o w e d  t o d r y a t room temperature. S i n c e t h e volume o f sand g r a i n s i n these  samples rendered  f o r examination under t h e microscope, a f u r t h e r s t e p was t a k e n .  them  excessive  Dry samples  were soaked i n carbon t e t r a c h l o r i d e . I n t h i s procedure t h e woody d e b r i s and calcareous  t e s t s o f the F o r a m i n i f e r a f l o a t w h i l e t h e q u a r t z , ?  heavier mineral  grains sink.  f e l d s p a r , and  A s e r i e s of s e v e r a l ' s u c c e s s i v e decantings  of the  f l o a t i n g m a t e r i a l f o l l o w e d by a d d i t i o n o f more carbon t e t r a c h l o r i d e t o t h e remaining all  sample and v i g o r o u s  of t h e c a l c a r e o u s  stirring  foraminifers.  these c o n d i t i o n s ; a p p a r e n t l y  of t h e sample i n s u r e s removal o f almost  Some arenaceous specimens a l s o f l o a t  under  t h i s i s because o f t h e i r low s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y due  t o t h e h i g h amount o f cement i n t h e t e s t .  However, as no c e r t a i n t y e x i s t e d as  to t h e c o l l e c t i o n of most o r a l l arenaceous specimens by t h i s method, examination o f s e v e r a l t r a y s o f each o f t h e samples which sank i n t h e c a r b o n t e t r a c h l o r i d e followed. concentrates; material.  No arenaceous specimens were r e c o v e r e d  those p r e s e n t  from t h e heavy  i n t h e samples s t u d i e d were found i n t h e f l o a t e d  F o l l o w i n g t h e carbon t e t r a c h l o r i d e treatment, samples were d r i e d  and were p l a c e d i n l a b e l e d c l o s e d c o n t a i n e r s , w i t h those p o r t i o n s which e i t h e r  7 f l o a t e d o r sank i n carbon t e t r a c h l o r i d e r e t a i n e d s e p a r a t e l y .  Subsequently,  a l l m a t e r i a l which had f l o a t e d was examined under t h e microscope as w e l l as some o f t h a t which sank.  A l l f o r a m i n i f e r s were I d e n t i f i e d and n u m e r i c a l l y  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s u i t e s from each sample were p l a c e d i n assemblage hypotypes set of the  o f each taxon p l a c e d i n s e p a r a t e s l i d e s .  o f hypotype  s l i d e s and  These assemblages  and one  s l i d e s were d e p o s i t e d i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Museum  P a l e o n t o l o g y and another s e t o f hypotypes Department o f Geology Many samples  deposited i n the c o l l e c t i o n s of  of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  c o n t a i n e d l a r g e i amounts of f i b r o u s and woody p l a n t  debris.  Presence o f t h i s d e b r i s makes examination and p i c k i n g o f F o r a m i n i f e r a d i f f i c u l t and time consuming.  I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , d e s i r a b l e t o remove t h e p l a n t  S e v e r a l i g n i t i o n and d i g e s t i o n methods were attempted with l i t t l e  success.  debris.  i n t h e p r e s e n t study, b u t  I t i s a s i m p l e m a t t e r t o remove most o f such m a t e r i a l by  i g n i t i o n , however, w i t h o u t damaging t h e F o r a m i n i f e r a , i f s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h temperatures  can be reached.  The procedure advanced  by Sachs.f C l f e l l i ,  and  Bowen (1964) and Sachs  (1965) has been found most u s e f u l by t h e a u t h o r , a l t h o u g h  o n l y used i n t h e f i n a l  stages o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y .  employs a f u r n a c e c a p a b l e o f m a i n t a i n i n g samples degrees of 500°C f o r p e r i o d s o f time s u f f i c i e n t  In brief, this  a t temperatures w i t h i n a few t o a l l o w i g n i t i o n o f almost a l l  o r g a n i c compounds ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y one t o two hours is, adequate samples).  So l o n g as t h e c a l c i n i n g temperature  c a l c a r e o u s F o r a m i n i f e r a remain i n t a c t . temperatures. ability  Arenaceous  specimens  others w i l l n o t .  f o r normal-sized  o f 550°C i s n o t reached, t h e  S i l i c e o u s specimens  m e l t a t higher.-,  must be t e s t e d i n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n  t o w i t h s t a n d 500°C w i t h o u t d i s i n t e r g r a t i n g .  remain i n t a c t ,  procedure  their  Some types o f cement w i l l  8 L a r g e samples were examined whenever p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r to see the r e l a t i v e abundance of v a r i o u s taxa and p o p u l a t i o n dynamics.  clearly  thus t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o  Such samples a l s o a l l o w e d  the  comparison of many specimens  of s i m i l a r morphology, thus p e r m i t t i n g c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c and r e l a t i o n s of the more abundant f o s s i l forms. approximately  200  S i z e s of samples s t u d i e d were  c u b i c incfies from a l l Juneau-area l o c a l i t i e s ,  from D-1208, D-1210, D-1212, and D-1213 I n the Vancouver a r e a ,  50 c u b i c 1500  from D-1209 and D-1211 i n the Vancouver a r e a , n i n e c u b i c inches two  samples from the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , and  diameter cores  from the L a k e l s e s l i d e .  A l l samples except those  study.  The  samples s t u d i e d p r o v i d e d  p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d from t h i s and  others.  cubic  °f  three-inch  from the  a g r e a t e r taxonomic v a r i e t y  r e l a t e d areas;  inches  at l e a s t adequate f o r the  these a d d i t i o n a l taxa  among the r a r e forms o r a r e forms here g i v e n d i f f e r e n t s p e c i f i c than p r e v i o u s l y done by  inches  each f o r the  two-foot lengths  Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s and L a k e l s e a r e c o n s i d e r e d present  generic  than  are  identifications  9 DELINEATION OF FAUNAL PROVINCE  H i s t o r y of Study  I n the e a r l y y e a r s provided  significant  northern waters. i n his Testacea I s l e s was as  1851  of Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a s e v e r a l workers  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n c o l d  Montagu (1803) i n c l u d e d F o r a m i n i f e r a from around Great Britannica.  The  study  of f o r a m i n i f e r a from around t h e  f u r t h e r advanced by W i l l i a m s o n  (1858) and Wright (1876-77).  B a i l e y d i s c u s s e d F o r a m i n i f e r a from a l o n g  United States.  Parker  the c o a s t of Norway and Davis  of the study  and Jones (1857, 1865)  The  Davis  outstanding  s p e c i e s from t h e S h e t l a n d  Islands  s e v e r a l e x p e d i t i o n s i n c l u d i n g one  the  d e s c r i b e d F o r a m i n i f e r a from o f f  S t r a i t was  f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d by  Carpenter  Many c o l d , n o r t h e r n  (1864) and A r c t i c f o r a m i n i f e r a l faunas from t o the shores  e a r l y Scandinavian  on the voyage of the  workers Goes and  d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Norwegian Sea and s p e c i e s of F o r a m i n i f e r a  of Novaya Zemlya (1978, 1881a,  forms were i n c l u d e d i n Brady's  of the N o r t h A t l a n t i c and A r c t i c F o r a m i n i f e r a .  166  the A t l a n t i c Coast of  early  e a r l y worker, B r a d y d e s c r i b e d f o r a m i n i f e r a l  r e p o r t on t h e F o r a m i n i f e r a o b t a i n e d The  As  F o r a m i n i f e r a from the G u l f and R i v e r S t . Lawrence were I n v e s t i g a t e d  by Dawson (1870).  1881b).  British  from the N o r t h A t l a n t i c and A r c t i c Oceans, i n c l u d i n g  S t r a i t and B a f f i n Bay.  (1876).  Britain  (1884) monumental  Challenger.  K i a e r c o n t r i b u t e d t o the  Goes (1894) d i s c u s s e d f o r a m i n i f e r a l  around S p i t s b e r g e n .  K i a e r (1899) noted  i n the Norwegian and Greenland Seas.  he d i s c u s s e d the f o r a m i n i f e r a l c o n t e n t  of Tr^mso F j o r d .  Siberian Islands.  Kara, and L a p t e v Seas and  Later  (1908)  From t h e second Norwegian  A r c t i c E x p e d i t i o n i n the Fram, K i a e r (1909) s t u d i e d sediments and from the B a r e n t s ,  study  Foraminifera  the A r c t i c B a s i n n o r t h of t h e  New  10 P r i o r t o 1930  the o u t s t a n d i n g  American m i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g i s t Cushman  d e s c r i b e d l i v i n g F o r a m i n i f e r a from the N o r t h P a c i f i c A r c t i c Ocean (1920), Hudson Bay t h e t h i r d decade of t h i s c e n t u r y helped  Two  and  Cushman continued  from the A t l a n t i c  o f f the n o r t h e a s t  o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t works were p u b l i s h e d  i n 1933.  c o n s i d e r e d by Sparck (1933) who  temperature, and  s a l i n i t y d e s c r i p t i o n s w i t h h i s study  from F r a n z J o s e f F j o r d and a d j a c e n t  made a p i o n e e r i n g e c o l o g i c a l and  (1931) and  Ecology  (1933b).  i n c l u d e d topography, sediments, of i n v e r t e b r a t e communi-  p a l e o e c o l o g i c a l study  the f o r a m l n i f e r a l fauna from around K i e l ,  the Foxe  of Recent  east Greenland w a t e r s .  d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o temperature and  L i t t l e was  During  h i s work which  coast of Greenland  F o r a m i n i f e r a was  ties  1917),  s e v e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s were made which a l s o  s t u d i e s of the F o r a m i n i f e r a  B a s i n n o r t h of Hudson Bay  1915,  (1922), and B r i t i s h Columbia (1925).  t o s e t t h e framework f o r t h i s study.  Included  (1913, 1914,  depth.  Natland  (1933)  of f o r a m l n i f e r a l  Rhumbler (1936) d i s c u s s e d  Germany.  p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g the y e a r s  of World War  II.  The  r e p o r t s of  the  f o r a m l n i f e r a l c o l l e c t i o n s made by t h e V e l e r o I I I , however, d i d b e g i n t o come into print  (Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , 1939,  a f t e r t h e war.  1940,  1942,  1948,  1950)  and  These r e p o r t s i n c l u d e d samples from many s t a t i o n s i n  water i n the n o r t h e a s t  Pacific.  shallow-water F o r a m i n i f e r a  continued shallow  Cushman (1944) p u b l i s h e d a s h o r t paper  from the New  England Coast and  Cushman and  on  Todd  (1947a, 1947b) p u b l i s h e d s h o r t papers on f o r a m i n i f e r a l faunas from Puget Sound and Amchitka I s l a n d .  A l s o f o l l o w i n g the war  and about the time of h i s death,  Cushman's (1948) monograph on A r c t i c F o r a m i n i f e r a appeared. r e p o r t on F o r a m i n i f e r a from I c e l a n d appeared i n 1945 the F o r a m i n i f e r a from Gullmar F j o r d and F. L. Parker Foraminifera  and  Nf^rvang's long  Hfiglands monograph on  the Skagerak appeared i n  1947.  (1948, 1952a, 1952b) began p u b l i s h i n g her s t u d i e s  from shallow water a l o n g  on  the east coast of the U n i t e d S t a t e s  just  11 l e s s than 20 y e a r s ago.  B e g i n n i n g around  t h a t time a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of s t u d i e s  on n o r t h e r n , shallow, c o l d - w a t e r f o r a m i n i f e r a l faunas r e s u l t e d i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l d a t a on the s p e c i e s of t h e s e faunas and  the  i n c e p t i o n o f an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the ecology of the faunas.  Bandy's work on  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a w i t h r e s p e c t t o temperature  and depth and  r e l a t i o n t o t e s t morphology, n a t u r e of w a l l , and 1950.  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n h i s e c o l o g i c a l papers  ornamentation  of 1953  the  began around  and 1960.  I n 1960  also  P h l e g e r p u b l i s h e d h i s comprehensive study of the e c o l o g y and d i s t r i b u t i o n of Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a , and geology.  i n 1964  Walton's (1952) paper  h i s r e p o r t on f o r a m i n i f e r a l e c o l o g y and marine on s t a i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n of  l i v i n g F o r a m i n i f e r a has proved v e r y h e l p f u l i n e c o l o g i c a l  studies.  I n 1953 L o e b l l c h and Tappan p u b l i s h e d t h e i r monograph on A r c t i c Foraminifera.  S i n c e 1950 many papers d e a l i n g w i t h p a r t i c u l a r n o r t h e r n ,  s h a l l o w , cold-water f o r a m i n i f e r a l faunas o f P l e i s t o c e n e and Recent appeared.  age have  Those d e a l i n g w i t h the e a s t e r n N o r t h A t l a n t i c and r e l a t e d  i n c l u d e the works of Fey ling-Hans sen (1953j  1954a,.b; 1957;  1964;  areas  1965)  on  P l e i s t o c e n e F o r a m i n i f e r a from Norway and S p i t s b e r g e n ; R i s d a l (1964), a l s o  on  P l e i s t o c e n e and Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a from Norway; J a r k e (1960) on the F o r a m i n i f e r a from the Barents Sea; Bowen (1954) on F o r a m i n i f e r a from a beach i n West S p i t s b e r g e n ; B r o d n i e w i c z  (1965) on Quaternary  raised  F o r a m i n i f e r a of  the s o u t h e r n B a l t i c ; and Adams and Frampton (1965) on some Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a from northwest and K i e l ,  Iceland.  Other s t u d i e s a r e b e i n g c a r r i e d on i n Great  Britain  shallow, c o l d - w a t e r f o r a m i n i f e r a l faunas o f t h e  western  Germany.  The Quaternary  N o r t h A t l a n t i c and r e l a t e d areas have been r e p o r t e d on -by P a r k e r above),  S a i d (1951) on N a r r a g a n s e t t Bay,  F o r a m i n i f e r a o f t h e New  Ronai  (mentioned  (1955) on b r a c k i s h - w a t e r  Y o r k B i g h t , Todd and Low  (1961) on  nearshore  12 F o r a m i n i f e r a from Martha's V i n e y a r d I s l a n d , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , Buzas  (1965a, 1965b)  on P l e i s t o c e n e s p e c i e s from Maine and Recent s p e c i e s from Long I s l a n d Sound, and A t h e a r n (1954) on L a b r a d o r .  On t h e faunas from t h e N o r t h American A r c t i c  and r e l a t e d waters come s t u d i e s by P h l e g e r (1951, 1952) Greenland A r c t i c , L e s l i e  on t h e Canadian and  (1963) on Hudson Bay, and Green (1960) on " s h e l f " and  deeper faunas from t h e m i d d l e of t h e A r c t i c Ocean.  G. J . Anderson  (1963) has  r e p o r t e d on d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s of Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a of t h e B e r i n g and Cooper  Sea,  (1964) on t h o s e from t h e Chukchi Sea.  S t s c h e d r i n a and o t h e r s have accomplished much I n t h e i r s t u d i e s o f s h a l l o w water f o r a m l n i f e r a l faunas from t h e R u s s i a n A r c t i c .  Stschedrina herself  has  c o n t r i b u t e d a l a r g e number of papers on s p e c i e s of p a r t i c u l a r waters i n t h e A r c t i c such as t h e Kara, Okhotsk, Murman, and Greenland Seas as w e l l as t h e A r c t i c Ocean i n g e n e r a l ; e c o l o g y and d i s t r i b u t i o n of A r c t i c F o r a m i n i f e r a ; and s y s t e m a t i c s of F o r a m i n i f e r a of t h e A r c t i c waters 1939;  1946;  and 1959). workers  1947;  1948;  (see S t s c h e d r i n a , 1936;  1950a,b,c; 1952a,b; 1953;  1955a,b; 1956;  1957;  1938; 1958;  S a i d o v a (1956) d i s c u s s e d the method i n g e n e r a l use by R u s s i a n  f o r e x t r a c t i n g F o r a m i n i f e r a from sediments.  Beljaeva  (1960) d e s c r i b e d  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n t h e w e s t e r n p a r t o f t h e B e r i n g Sea, w h i l e Saidova (1960) t r e a t e d t h e Okhotsk Sea s i m i l a r l y .  Much R u s s i a n work i s not  a v a i l a b l e t o Western s t u d e n t s o f t h e F o r a m i n i f e r a . Enbysk  (I960) and A. B. Smith (1963, 1964)  d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the northeast P a c i f i c .  described  U c h i o (1953, 1959)  foramlniferal r e p o r t e d on Recent  Japanese f o r a m l n i f e r a l faunas and r e l a t e d e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s .  P. Smith (1963)  d e s c r i b e d f o r a m l n i f e r a l faunas from cores i n t h e G u l f o f A l a s k a . Schmidt  Mumby i n  (1963) d i s c u s s e d F o r a m i n i f e r a from g l a c i a l marine sediments n e a r  Anchorage, A l a s k a .  A c h e c k l i s t of F o r a m i n i f e r a p r e p a r e d by L o e b l i c h from  marine g l a c i a l sediments and t e r r a c e s of M i d d l e t o n I s l a n d , A l a s k a was  g i v e n by  13 Miller  (1953).  Cockbain  from t h e S t r a i t  (1963) c a r r i e d out a study of Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a  of G e o r g i a and Juan de Fuca S t r a i t  Vancouver I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia. from p r o f i l e s  i n the v i c i n i t y  of  L a n k f o r d (1962) s t u d i e d F o r a m i n i f e r a  from shore out t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 meters a l o n g t h e u n p r o t e c t e d  P a c i f i c c o a s t o f B a j a C a l i f o r n i a and the U n i t e d States>(not i n c l u d i n g A l a s k a ) .  D e s c r i p t i o n of the F a u n a l P r o v i n c e  Comparison of t h e p r e s e n t fauna w i t h those d e s c r i b e d by the v a r i o u s workers mentioned above has a l l o w e d t h i s author t o r e c o g n i z e the e x i s t e n c e and extent o f t h e f o r a m i n i f e r a l f a u n a l p r o v i n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of shallow, c o l d waters  of v a r i a b l e s a l i n i t y  ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 t o 35°/oo) i n the h i g h  l a t i t u d e s of the n o r t h e r n hemisphere. A review of these works r e v e a l s the g e o g r a p h i c e x t e n t of the h i g h - l a t i t u d e , shallow, cold-water, v a r i a b l e - s a l i n i t y , n o r t h e r n hemisphere. temperature,  f o r a m i n i f e r a l f a u n a l p r o v i n c e of t h e  Some s p e c i f i c q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a r e g a r d i n g depth,  and s a l i n i t y t o l e r a n c e s e x i s t s but i n most cases the l i m i t s  of  these p a r t i c u l a r e c o l o g i c parameters  can o n l y be i n f e r r e d f o r p a r t i c u l a r  l o c a l i t i e s which have been s t u d i e d .  Such e c o l o g i c v a r i a b l e s as s u b s t r a t e ,  n u t r i e n t s , and  oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n cannot be I n c l u d e d i n a d e s c r i p t i o n of  the f a u n a l p r o v i n c e as almost no d a t a e x i s t The most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c taxa throughout E l p h i d i u m clavatum,  sensu l a t o  on t h e s e  the e n t i r e province are  ( i n c l u d i n g E. s u b a r c t i c u m , E_. i n c e r t u m of some,  E. excavatum of some), E. f r i g i d u m , E. b a r t l e t t i , Cassidulina t e r e t i s ,  factors.  Cibicides  lobatulus,  C_. c r a s s a , C. I s l a n d i c a , C. n o r c r o s s i , B u c c e l l a f r i g Ida,  B. t e n e r r i m a , Nonion l a b r a d o r i c u m , Pseudononion a u r i c u l u m , N o n i o n e l l a t u r g i d a v a r . d i g i t a t a , A s t r o n o n i o n galloway!, P r o t e l p h i d i u m o r b i c u l a r e ,  Eggerella  14  advena, " V i r g u l i n a " f u s i f o r m i s , "VV l o e b l i c h i ,  s p e c i e s of Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a  i n c l u d i n g (£. s e m i n u l i n a , (£. s t a l k e r ! , (£. f u s c a , 0% subrotunda, and  f^. a g g l u t i n a t a .  Locally^  (£. a r c t i c a ,  other s p e c i e s a r e abundant or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  r e p r e s e n t e d a l o n g w i t h t h e more g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c forms. such taxa as P r o t e l p h i d i u m marginata,  japonicum, D i s c o r b i s b e r t h e l o t i ,  These i n c l u d e  Bulimina  B u l i m i n e l l a e l e g a n t i s s i m a , some s p e c i e s of E l p h i d i u m n o t g i v e n  above, Ammonia b e c a r r i i ,  shallow-water  b o l i v i n a s , some arenaceous forms  I n c l u d i n g s p e c i e s of P r o t e o n l n a , Reophax, Haplophragmoides, and Trochammlna, and members of t h e Polymorphinidae  and Lagenidae.  I n most assemblages r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e f a u n a l p r o v i n c e (where s a l i n i t y i s or was n o t t o o low), numerous o t h e r taxa a r e p r e s e n t  i n s m a l l numbers.  These i n c l u d e u n i l o c u l a r o r u n i s e r i a l members o f t h e Lagenidae,  various  members o f t h e M i l i o l i d a e , a few s p e c i e s o f B o l l v i n a and B u l i m i n a , one o r two  s p e c i e s of U v i g e r i n a , and v a r i o u s members o f t h e Polymorphinidae.  Most  of t h e taxa l i s t e d above a r e l i m i t e d t o t h e f a u n a l p r o v i n c e but some extend i n t o e i t h e r o r b o t h warmer or deeper The  waters.  samples examined i n t h e p r e s e n t study y i e l d e d assemblages which a r e  v e r y s i m i l a r and c o n s t i t u t e a s i n g l e l i m i t e d fauna. by s p e c i e s o f E l p h i d i u m ,  e s p e c i a l l y E . clavatum,  dominants i n c l u d i n g o t h e r s p e c i e s o f E l p h i d i u m , E. f r i g i d u m , sensu  T h i s fauna  sensu  i s dominated  lato, with  secondary  e s p e c i a l l y E. b a r t l e t t ! and  l a t o , C a s s i d u l i n a t e r e t i s , CJ. i s l a n d l c a , B u c c e l l a  t e n e r r i m a , B, f r i g i d a ,  C i b i c i d e s l o b a t u l u s , and t o a l e s s e r degree  Pseudononion a u r i c u l a , " V i r g u l i n a " f u s i f o r m i s , Nonion  labradorium,  E p i s t o m i n e l l a v i t r e a , and s p e c i e s o f Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a . As w i t h almost are mainly  a l l boundaries  i n nature, the l i m i t s of t h e faunal province  g r a d a t i o n a l and can b e s t be d e f i n e d as such,  a r e not r e a l i s t i c and would be extremely  since arbitrary  d i f f i c u l t to set.  In a  limits  geographic  15 sense,  t h e p r o v i n c e , i n i t s modern r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , can be r e c o g n i z e d a l l  a l o n g the c o a s t s of the A r c t i c Ocean, extending latitudes  of c e n t r a l  t o about t h e l a t i t u d e  Japan and  south i n the P a c i f i c t o the  the s t a t e of Washington, and,  of Cape Cod  and Germany on the e a s t .  i n t h e p r o v i n c e a r e the l a r g e I n l a n d marine water b o d i e s Some workers may  but an examination  Atlantic,  o r t h a t of Maryland ( t r a n s i t i o n a l a r e a ) on  the west and t o t h a t of n o r t h e r n England  t h e B a l t i c Sea.  i n the  differentiate  of t h e l i t e r a t u r e and  Included  of Hudson Bay  " A r c t i c " and  and  " B o r e a l " faunas,  of m a t e r i a l from v a r i o u s a r e a s does  not s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s s e p a r a t i o n . A d e f i n i t i o n of the s o u t h e r n boundary a l o n g the P a c i f i c c o a s t of America would be p a r t i c u l a r l y  p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s study.  Unfortunately,  however, such a boundary cannot be d e l i m i t e d c l o s e l y . Juan de Fuca S t r a i t , and  the a r e a immediately  C e r t a i n l y Puget Sound,  t o the south a l o n g  the  Washington c o a s t can be I n c l u d e d i n t h e p r e s e n t f a u n a l p r o v i n c e . Washington c o a s t has  received l i t t l e study.  North  Lankford's  The  (1962) work was  not  e x t e n s i v e i n t h e P a c i f i c Northwest, but h i s northernmost p r o v i n c e extended northward from P o i n t C o n c e p t i o n California  in California.  c o a s t but the n o r t h e r n boundary was  d e s c r i b e d by D e t l i n g (1958) from Sunset Bay  I t was left  w e l l defined along  In doubt.  The  on the Oregon coast has  examined by t h e author as have s p e c i e s d e s c r i b e d by L a n k f o r d . fauna has  s i m i l a r i t y t o t h a t of the p r e s e n t  study and  The  i t appears s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t  t h e f a u n a l p r o v i n c e next  s o u t h e r l y a d j a c e n t t o t h a t p r o v i n c e found  and d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s t u d y .  of t h e p r e s e n t f a u n a l p r o v i n c e may  been Sunset  i n the  P o s s i b l y the s o u t h e r n  (or c o u n t e r c u r r e n t ) which  shoreward of the s o u t h - f l o w i n g C a l i f o r n i a  c u r r e n t and  Bay  as t o r e p r e s e n t  limit  c o r r e l a t e d i r e c t l y w i t h the n o r t h e r n  of the n o r t h - f l o w i n g Davidson C u r r e n t  fauna  of the n o r t h e r n  p r o v i n c e i n g e n e r a l , but  highest latitudes  small  the  exists  limit  flows  from t h e s u r f a c e  16 downward o r o n l y below 200 meters, r e s p e c t i v e l y , d u r i n g w i n t e r and summer seasons.  T h i s c o u n t e r c u r r e n t i s b e l i e v e d t o extend  a t l e a s t as f a r as 48°N  latitude. One  f u r t h e r problem a r i s e s i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , however.  C a l i f o r n i a , Oregon, and Washington stands remarkably c o a s t immediately  The  c o a s t of  unprotected, while that  n o r t h c o n t a i n s a l a b y r i n t h of i n l a n d marine waterways.  The  p r e s e n t samples, as w e l l as most of t h o s e c o n t a i n i n g e s s e n t i a l l y the same fauna from o t h e r a r e a s , have been o b t a i n e d from r e l a t i v e l y p r o t e c t e d s i t e s . comparison between l i v i n g faunas  from r e l a t i v e l y p r o t e c t e d and  l o c a l i t i e s s h o u l d i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the degree of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , a l t h o u g h the e c o l o g i c e f f e c t may  be d i f f i c u l t  Thus  y  unprotected geographic  to evaluate.  I n g e n e r a l , fewer t a x a are r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c o l d e r areas of the province.  Moving s o u t h , the fauna becomes t r a n s i t i o n a l w i t h t h a t o f warmer-  water p r o v i n c e s i n the boundary a r e a s . disappearance  The most p r o b a b l e r e a s o n f o r the  of most of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a u n a l elements i s a r e s u l t of  c o m p e t i t i v e e x c l u s i o n wherein h i g h e r temperatures preferentially.  Such o t h e r s p e c i e s have temperature  them from t h e c o l d e r , more n o r t h e r l y a r e a s . of the c o l d e r p r o v i n c e have been observed temperature  maxima may  temperatures The  allow other species to exist  reach 25°C.  i n themselves  temperature  l i v i n g i n areas where the summer  T h i s s t r o n g l y supports the idea that higher  do not l i m i t the f a u n a l p r o v i n c e .  l i m i t s o f the f a u n a l p r o v i n c e range from the c o l d e s t  where w i n t e r temperatures 25°C.  exclude  Most of t h e s p e c i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  water where the y e a r l y v a r i a t i o n i s w i t h i n one o r two  approximately  t o l e r a n c e s which  may  degrees  of 0°C t o areas  be as low as 0° C but t h e summer maxima may  reach  The s o u t h e r n l i m i t s i n the A t l a n t i c o c c u r i n warmer  waters t h a n they do i n the P a c i f i c .  I n t h e P a c i f i c , however, w i n t e r minima  are n o t as low a t t h e s o u t h e r n boundary as have been observed i n t h e A t l a n t i c and a d j o i n i n g water b o d i e s . The s a l i n i t y  t o l e r a n c e s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a u n a range  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 35°/oo t o 15°/oo.  Most o f t h e f a u n a l elements  from  drop out around  25P/oo, however, l e a v i n g mainly E l p h i d i u m clavatum w i t h a few specimens o f B u c c e l l a , C a s s i d u l i n a , and Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a .  I n some areas t h e arenaceous  s p e c i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f even l o w e r - s a l i n i t y "marsh f a u n a s " b e g i n t o appear a l o n g w i t h E . clavatum a t about 15° /oo and E . clavatum r a p i d l y d i s a p p e a r s as s a l i n i t i e s go much below 15°/oo.  The fauna i s n o t r e p r e s e n t e d i n h y p e r s a l i n e  water. The depth boundary o f t h e f a u n a l p r o v i n c e i s r a t h e r h a r d t o f i x c l o s e l y except when c o n s i d e r i n g E l p h i d i u m clavatum. shore t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 meters.  That s p e c i e s f l o u r i s h e s  from  I t t h e n decreases r a p i d l y , seldom b e i n g  found l i v i n g below 60 t o 100 meters.  Other s p e c i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the  f a u n a l p r o v i n c e have v a r i o u s l y g r e a t e r depth ranges.  These ranges o v e r l a p  those o f t h e s p e c i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e " s h e l f f a u n a " and such s p e c i e s as C i b i c i d e s l o b a t u l u s c h a r a c t e r i z e t h a t fauna a l s o .  In general, the present  f a u n a l p r o v i n c e can be said, t o extend from shore t o 30 o r 60 o r 100 meters. As t o t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e f a u n a and t h e s u b s t r a t e , l i t t l e s a i d at t h i s time.  can be  Such e v i d e n c e as e x i s t s i n d i c a t e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d e f i n i t e  substrate preference.  Both Gockbain  (1963) and Cooper (1964) found  assemblages on c o a r s e and f i n e sediment, w i t h t h e arenaceous  different  elements  on t h e  fine substrate. So f a r o n l y t h e modern l i m i t s o f t h e f a u n a l p r o v i n c e have been c o n s i d e r e d . I n t i m e , t h e p r o v i n c e has e x i s t e d from approximately t h e f i r s t t o t h e p r e s e n t , i n o t h e r words, throughout Quaternary  time.  glacial  Fossil  advance  18 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e found throughout  t h a t i n t e r v a l , and i t i s presumed t h a t  e c o l o g i c t o l e r a n c e s i n t h e p a s t agree w i t h those o f t h e p r e s e n t .  During the  Quaternary Epoch t h e s o u t h e r n l i m i t s o f t h e f a u n a l p r o v i n c e a r e expected t o have m i g r a t e d s o u t h and n o r t h , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e f l u c t u a t i o n s of i c e advance and r e t r e a t . of  No c l o s e l i m i t s  can be drawn on t h e s e s o u t h e r n l i m i t s  advances and r e t r e a t s , however, as i n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a e x i s t f o r synchronous  c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e time i n t e r v a l c o n s i d e r e d . demonstrated  locally  F a u n a l m i g r a t i o n s c a n be  (as i n S p i t s b e r g e n , see pp. 62-64).  n o t i n g t h e p r e s e n c e and absence present geographic ranges.  T h i s i s done by  o f p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s i n comparison w i t h  their  No o v e r a l l c o r r e l a t i o n has been made as y e t and  p r e s e n t s a most d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m . B i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c methods a r e n o t a p p l i c a b l e i n the s t r i c t  sense s i n c e no r e l e v a n t s p e c i e s e v o l v e d o r become e x t i n c t d u r i n g  the Quaternary Epoch. intricate  R a d i o c a r b o n and o t h e r r a d i o g e n i c d a t i n g may s o l v e t h i s  problem.  A l t h o u g h l o c a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t , t h e fauna was found t o be b a s i c a l l y t h e same throughout t h e marine s h a l l o w water Quaternary sediments all  around t h e n o r t h e r n hemisphere.  can be d e l i n e a t e d .  a t high l a t i t u d e s  Thus a l a r g e f o r a m i n i f e r a l f a u n a l p r o v i n c e  The g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s f a u n a o r f a u n a l  p r o v i n c e e x c i t e s those concerned w i t h f oriaminif e r a l f a u n a l ; p r o v i n c e s , p a s t and modern, because  i t covers a f a r l a r g e r geographic a r e a t h a n any o t h e r known  p r o v i n c e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b e n t h o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a . That t h i s s h o u l d be t h e c a s e i n s h a l l o w water, where c o n d i t i o n s change markedly  i n r e l a t i v e l y short  d i s t a n c e s , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g , even though F o r a m i n i f e r a as a group have an o f f - s h o r e environmental optimum r e f l e c t i n g abundance and d i v e r s i t y when compared t o most marine i n v e r t e b r a t e groups.  Some deep-water p r o v i n c e s may  have a g r e a t e r geographic e x t e n t , but data a r e not s u f f i c i e n t t o determine  this.  19 PHYSICAL FEATURES  Vancouver Area  J.  E . Armstrong (1957) has d e s c r i b e d the p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s o f the  Vancouver a r e a .  He s t a t e s t h a t t h i s r e g i o n l i e s  w i t h i n two major p h y s i o -  g r a p h i c d i v i s i o n s , the Coast Mountain and C o a s t a l Trough.  The Coast M o u n t a i n  area i s t h a t where the mountains r i s e a b r u p t l y 5,000 t o 7,000 f e e t sea  l e v e l , s e p a r a t e d by deep U-shaped  f e e t above o r below s e a l e v e l .  above  v a l l e y s w i t h f l o o r s up t o a few hundred  The C o a s t a l Trough l i e s  between the Coast  Mountains and t h e o u t e r mountain a r e a of Vancouver I s l a n d . r e f e r r e d t o as t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y ,  (See F i g u r e  I t i s often  1.)  The F r a s e r Lowland c o n s i s t s o f e x t e n s i v e low h i l l s  up t o 1,100  e l e v a t i o n and s e p a r a t e d by wide, f l a t - b o t t o m e d v a l l e y s .  The h i l l s  c o n s i s t e n t i r e l y of g l a c i a l d e b r i s o r have cores o f b e d r o c k .  The  feet i n either  glacial  d e b r i s i n c l u d e s g l a c i o - m a r i n e m a t e r i a l , some of which i s t r u l y marine b u t c o n s i s t s o f reworked g l a c i a l and g l a c i o - m a r i n e m a t e r i a l .  The major v a l l e y s  range i n e l e v a t i o n from a few t o 75 f e e t above s e a l e v e l .  Some are former  embayments and some a r e t h e r e s u l t of stream e r o s i o n .  Juneau A r e a  The Juneau a r e a resembles t h a t o f t h e Coast Mountain a r e a o f the Vancouver r e g i o n .  (See F i g u r e 2.)  Both on the m a i n l a n d and on Douglas  I s l a n d t h e mountains r i s e s t e e p l y out of t h e s e a .  The narrow marine  G a s t i n e a u Channel s e p a r a t e s t h e m a i n l a n d and i s l a n d .  D e b r i s from t h e  20 Mendenhall G l a c i e r f i l l e d  and c l o s e d t h e n o r t h e r n end o f G a s t i n e a u  i n h i s t o r i c t i m e s , making t h e upper end o f G a s t i n e a u A s h a l l o w channel for  Channel a s a l t marsh,  dredged i n r e c e n t y e a r s r e e s t a b l i s h e d t h e marine  shallow-draft boats.  Channel  connection  The r i s e o f t h e l a n d on Douglas I s l a n d i s n o t as  steep as on t h e mainland; t h e r e i s a f l a t - t o p p e d r i d g e on t h e e a s t s i d e o f the i s l a n d between t h e Channel and t h e h i g h core o f mountains o f t h e I s l a n d , This ridge rises evidence material.  i n a n o r t h e r l y d i r e c t i o n from s e a l e v e l  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e e n t i r e r i d g e may be covered by g l a c i o - m a r i n e L a r g e U-shaped v a l l e y s such as t h a t o f t h e Mendenhall G l a c i e r  separate the high ridges of the mainland. deposits.  t o about 500 f e e t ;  Some o f t h e s e c o n t a i n g l a c i o - m a r i n e  The v a l l e y o f t h e E a g l e R i v e r and E a g l e R i v e r G l a c i e r t y p i f i e s  this  s i t u a t i o n ; t h e lower p a r t o f t h e v a l l e y i s f i l l e d w i t h g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e b r i s , i n d i c a t i n g former e x i s t e n c e o f an i n l e t debris.  i n t o which t h e g l a c i e r d e p o s i t e d  B o t h E a g l e R i v e r and Mendenhall G l a c i e r s have r e t r e a t e d thousands o f  f e e t i n h i s t o r i c times.  A few rocky headlands l e s s t h a n 200 f e e t above s e a  l e v e l j u t o u t i n t o t h e s e a n o r t h o f Juneau. resemble roches moutonnees.  Only  Some o f t h e s m a l l e r  islands  one s m a l l r a i s e d beach has been found i n  the a r e a ( a t t h e n o r t h end o f Douglas I s l a n d ) , a l t h o u g h t h e g l a c i o - m a r i n e m a t e r i a l i s found t o extend  t o approximately  500 f e e t above p r e s e n t s e a l e v e l  on t h e s t e e p s i d e s o f t h e mountains on both s i d e s o f G a s t i n e a u P h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r a i s e d beach p o s t d a t e s deposits. extremely  Unexpectedly,  Channel.  the glacio-marine  r a i s e d beach d e p o s i t s : o r marine t e r r a c e s a r e  r a r e i n most o f s o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a ,  Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s Area  The m a t e r i a l from t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s comes from t h e e a s t c o a s t of  Graham I s l a n d near Cape B a l l .  I n t h i s area T e r t i a r y bedrock i s covered  21 by l a t e C e n o z o i e d e p o s i t s which subdue the topography.  The p r e s e n c e of  marine sediment along w i t h the n a t u r e o f the topography i n d i c a t e t h a t a slight uplift  of g e n e r a l l y l o w - l y i n g t e r r a i n accomplished t h e p r e s e n t  exposure of sediment formed i n s h a l l o w marine w a t e r s ,  Lakelse Area  L a k e l s e and the s l i d e s found t h e r e are l o c a t e d i n a narrow v a l l e y i n the Coast Mountains of B r i t i s h Columbia, between T e r r a c e and K i t i m a t .  The  v a l l e y r e p r e s e n t s a former marine f j o r d - l i k e embayment, r u n n i n g i n a n o r t h e r l y d i r e c t i o n from t h e head o f Douglas Channel.  The n a t u r e of the  g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t , although below s e a l e v e l , t h e aqueous medium i n which the sediments were formed was  s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by an  i n f l o w o f f r e s h water, assumed t o be from m e l t i n g i c e .  22 GEOLOGY  Areal  Vancouver Area  ( F i g u r e 1)  The C o a s t M o u n t a i n s a r e composed volcanic rocks. locally deposits  o f g r a n i t o i d , metamorphic, and  I n t h eF r a s e r Lowland area, T e r t i a r y sediments a r e exposed  and v o l c a n i c rocks  c u t through other Cenozoie m a t e r i a l .  Surficial  o f presumed P l e i s t o c e n e age ( s e e A r m s t r o n g , 1957) o v e r l i e t h e r o c k s  of t h e L o w l a n d and t h e C o a s t M o u n t a i n s where t o p o g r a p h y a l l o w e d Most a r e o f g l a c i a l  deposition.  o r i g i n b u t some a r e n o t . A r m s t r o n g s t a t e s t h a t t h e  L o w l a n d a r e a was s u b j e c t t o f o u r g l a c i a t i o n s , t h r e e o f w h i c h p r o b a b l y of ice-sheet p r o p o r t i o n .  Since  thetraditionally  accepted  four  were  glaciations,  presumably c o r r e l a t i v e on a worldwide s c a l e , have proved t o be an over s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , o n e may q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r h e r e ,  as i n c e n t r a l North  in  a d v a n c e s may h a v e b e e n o b s c u r e d  E u r o p e , A f r i c a , a n d e l s e w h e r e , some g l a c i a l  by l a t e r e v e n t s  (see?pp.68*69 )•  The forward  movement o f t h e i c e i n t h e  V a n c o u v e r a r e a was t o w a r d t h e s e a , a n d t h u s g e n e r a l l y i n a w e s t e r l y with withdrawal  toward t h e e a s t .  Of t h e g l a c i o - m a r i n e "The s t o n y , in  deposits Armstrong  clayey s i l t  statesi  and r e l a t e d t i l l - l i k e  a large part glacio-marine  m a r i n e d e p o s i t s t h a t were l a i d  mixtures are  and t o a l e s s e r extent  normal  down i n t h e s e a d u r i n g t h e  subsequent u p l i f t  of the land.  are marine d r i f t ;  that i s , t h e stones  The g l a c i o - m a r i n e  m a t e r i a l were t r a n s p o r t e d by f l o a t i n g  America,  deposits  and p a r t o f t h e f i n e i c eand t h e remainder  of t h e f i n e m a t e r i a l c a r r i e d by meltwater and s e a water. T h e somewhat s i m i l a r d e p o s i t s o f n o r m a l m a r i n e o r i g i n a r e  direction,  23 mainly  reworked t i l l  and marine d r i f t  from submarine slumping sea.  Mechanical  resulting  as t h e l a n d r o s e above t h e  analyses of stony, clayey  s i m i l a r t o those found  silts  i n t h e mapped a r e a show t h a t ,  e x c l u s i v e o f t h e s t o n e s , they comprise  about 50 p e r  cent s i l t , 40 p e r cent sand, and 10 p e r cent  clay.  Many o f these d e p o s i t s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r i n appearance* to  true  till."  The work o f J . E . Armstrong (see 1954 (1953), 1965, 1957, and 1960) formed much o f t h e g e o l o g i c framework f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y o f t h e Vancouver a r e a .  Juneau A r e a The  ( F i g u r e 2)  geology  r o c k s , thought of  the area.  be i n f a u l t  o f t h e Juneau a r e a i s complex.  V a r i o u s s o r t s o f metamorphic  t o be a t l e a s t as o l d as T r i a s s i c , comprise  t h e major p a r t  The rocks on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e narrow G a s t i n e a u Channel may c o n t a c t s i n c e they a r e o f d i f f e r e n t l i t h o l o g i e s .  Metagranodiorite,  s l a t e and o t h e r l e s s common r o c k types a r e found on t h e mainland and s c h i s t dominate t h e e a s t s i d e o f Douglas I s l a n d .  while  slate  These r o c k s a r e over-  l a i n l o c a l l y by s u r f i c i a l d e p o s i t s m a i n l y o f g l a c i a l o r i g i n .  Glacio-marine  d e p o s i t s have t h e appearance o f b e i n g p a s t e d onto t h e s i d e s o f t h e s t e e p s l o p e s o f t h e bedrock. glacial valleys.  Recent g l a c i a l d e b r i s o c c u p i e s t h e lower p a r t o f t h e  As mentioned above, one s m a l l r a i s e d beach d e p o s i t was  found by t h e author on Douglas I s l a n d . s l a t e p e b b l e s , sand, and marine s h e l l s . U n i t e d S t a t e s G e o l o g i c a l Survey  I t i s composed m a i n l y  o f rounded  Members o f t h e A l a s k a Branch o f t h e  a r e s t u d y i n g the geology  o f t h e Juneau  24 Area; t h e i r 195 8 )  c o n s u l t a t i o n and w o r k ( s e e L a t h r a m ,  L o n e y , C o n d o n , and  aided the author i n understanding the geology  Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s ( F i g u r e 1 Concerning  t h e g e o l o g i c h i s t o r y o f t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s d u r i n g  c o l l e c t e d t h e s a m p l e s s t u d i e d by (1962, p e r s o n a l  s a m p l e d , A. S u t h e r l a n d B r o w n ,  the present author, reports the  Q u e e n C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s seem t o h a v e b e e n a n little  a f f e c t e d by g l a c i a l r e b o u n d .  c h a n g e s a p p e a r t o be m o s t l y g l a c i a l sea l e v e l present.  on t h e s e a l e v e l  G l a c i a l marine  are exposed  The  Hill.  The  s t o n y c l a y s and m a r i n e  good e x p o s u r e s  Late g l a c i a l  o n l y exposure  c o a s t w h i c h was  marine of  till  o c c u r a t Gape B a l l  and  Eagle  outwash covers the n o r t h e a s t e r n p a r t  of o l d e r sediments  to Rose  i s on t h e  Point.  east  u n d e r s e v e r e wave a t t a c k d u r i n g s o u t h e a s t exposed  and s t o n y c l a y s and h e r e t h e y o v e r l i e  p o s s i b l e P l i o c e n e age.  Other  good e x p o s u r e s  t h e e n t r a n c e o f N a d e n H a r b o u r and o n t h e r o a d J u s k a t l a Camp.  Island  River.  On M a s s e t S o u n d t h e r e a r e l e s s w e l l tills  the  a t i n t e r v a l s a l o n g t h e c o a s t o f Graham  Graham I s l a n d f r o m M a s s e t t o Cape B a l l  storms.  highest post-  lowering i s not  f r o m Lawn P o i n t t o t h e mouth o f t h e Oeanda Particularly  level  i s o f t h e o r d e r o f 20 f e e t a b o v e  Evidence  apparent.  eustatic.  axial  Sea  sands  occur near  I n general the lowland i s covered  by  at  who  following  communication);  a r e a and  of  of the Juneau Area.  inset)  the time of d e p o s i t i o n of the m a t e r i a l  "The  Berg,  25 o r g a n i c t e r r a i n over t i l l few exposures.  The  of some s o r t but' t h e r e  e l e v a t i o n of the h i g h e s t marine  d e p o s i t s i s unknown but may  Lakelse Area  are  w e l l o n l y be 100  feet or so."  (Figure 2 inset)  A t e n t a t i v e g e o l o g i c h i s t o r y o f t h e L a k e l s e a r e a encompassing  the  time of d e p o s i t i o n of the m a t e r i a l s t u d i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s has been g i v e n by W.  RV Mathews (1963, p e r s o n a l communication).  study do not  i n d i c a t e o r suggest  any p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f e r e n t  Dr. Mathews s t a t e s , i n r e f e r r i n g t o a map "The map  F i n d i n g s of the p r e s e n t  of the s l i d e  area:  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the upper l i m i t of the  i s c l o s e t o the 300  foot level  and  l e s s than t h i s .  I s h o u l d add t h a t a broad  w i t h an a l t i t u d e between 600  slides  i t is likely  the o r i g i n a l a l t i t u d e of the sediment was  and 700  feet,  conclusions.  that  somewhat saddle, separates  L a k e l s e V a l l e y from K i t i m a t t o the south and t h a t were t h i s f l o o d e d i n l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e time t h e r e would be a broad  inlet  (2 t o 4 m i l e s wide) extending  from L a k e l s e  t o the s e a ; below t h i s a l t i t u d e a much narrower c o n n e c t i o n to the west (av. 1 t o 1-1/2 l i n k s Lakelse  Valley  m i l e s wide)  t o the sea v i a Skeena R i v e r ,  the p o s s i b i l i t y of h i g h s a l i n i t y extending i n l a n d would not have been as good.  this far  For t h i s  reason,  t h e r e f o r e , . , « c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e level  and  sea  contemporaneous w i t h d e p o s i t i o n of the c l a y s as  b e i n g 600  f e e t + above p r e s e n t  ( r e l a t i v e to p r e s e n t  p o s i t i o n of the l a n d ) , i . e . , 300  f e e t of water over  26 the s i t e of deposition.  I f the depth of water were  less, the connection with the sea must have been correspondingly more constricted."  Other Glacio-Marine and Related Deposits on the Alaskan Panhandle Coast Recognized Before 1930 Benches and terraces of fossiliferous marine gravel, sand, and clay are found l o c a l l y at altitudes up to 600 feet throughout southeastern Alaska, although the comparative r a r i t y of geomorphic features representing old sea stands has been commented upon by many geologists.  In the Hyder  d i s t r i c t , marine interlaminated clay and sand occur up to altitudes of 450 feet near Elevenmile on Salmon River at the head of Portland Canal and are found at similar altitudes on Bear River, In the Ketchikan d i s t r i c t , fossiliferous gravel and blue clay are found on Gravina Island, about half a mile northwest of the cabin at the head of Dall Bay, at an altitude of about 80 feet. sides by vegetation.  The outcrop is covered on a l l  The exposed base contains about two feet of g l a c i a l  t i l l and blue clay and is overlain by s t r a t i f i e d beds of g l a c i a l gravel five or s i x feet thick.  Fossils occur i n both the blue clay and the s t r a t i f i e d  gravel, A long-time resident of Wrangell, Alaska, reported seeing, approximately 30 years previously, a f o s s i l l o c a l i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia on Goat Creek, a small tributary entering the Stikine River from the west about 40 miles above i t s mouth and about five miles above the international boundary, William Healey Dall had early reported what probably i s the same f o s s i l occurrence to members of the Harriman Alaska Expedition of 1899, The author found fossiliferous sediments about half a mile up the creek at an altitude estimated as 175 to 200 feet above sea l e v e l .  The beds crop  27 out i n t h e s t e e p bank of the brook and c o n s i s t o f c l a y w i t h f o s s i l c a s t s o v e r l a i n by coarse I n 1899  gravel.  on Douglas I s l a n d , W i l l i a m Healey D a l l  t r a c e d e l e v a t e d beaches c o n t a i n i n g Quaternary  from the same s o u r c e and up t o 600 t h a t t h e r e was  (see D a l l ,  1904)  s h e l l s a l o n g a d i t c h f o r the  town of Douglas water p i p e t o an a l t i t u d e of 200  Dall f e l t  shell  feet.  Other  fossil  shells  f e e t were c o l l e c t e d by Spencer i n  no doubt t h a t t h e r e was  an u p l i f t  1903.  of some 200  i n the c o a s t r e g i o n of s o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a d u r i n g Quaternary  feet  time, and t h a t  the Goat Creek f o s s i l s a r e p r o b a b l y of about the same age as those of Douglas I s l a n d but were d e p o s i t e d i n s i l t  a t the end of a g l a c i e r , whereas the  Douglas I s l a n d f o s s i l s o c c u r i n o r d i n a r y beach g r a v e l .  D a l l ' s exact  localities  have n e v e r been r e d i s c o v e r e d , p a r t l y because a l l e a r l y r e c o r d s f o r the town o f Douglas p u b l i c works were d e s t r o y e d by f i r e many y e a r s ago because dense v e g e t a t i o n covers former exposures s h a f t s whose concealed presence attempting  a thorough  and  partly  as w e l l as abundant o l d mine  t h e a u t h o r found a dangerous d e t e r r e n t i n  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the a r e a .  i n v e r t e b r a t e f o s s i l s a t e l e v a t i o n s up t o 500  The w r i t e r has  found marine  f e e t nearby and a l l f o s s i l  s h e l l s found near the town of Douglas by the p r e s e n t author were i n g l a c i o marine sediment r a t h e r t h a n beach  gravel.  S i m i l a r f o s s i l marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s h e l l s were found by Buddington  (see Buddington,  1927,  1929,  and Buddington  i n September, and Chapin,  1922, 1929)  i n the moraine of Great G l a c i e r on the west bank of S t i k i n e R i v e r above the mouth of Isku.t ; River,.  The  f o s s i l s were l y i n g on t h e s u r f a c e where they  been washed out of c l a y a t the top of the moraine j u s t  had  i n f r o n t of the i c e .  C l a y w i t h marine s h e l l s i s r e p o r t e d t o have been s t r u c k i n d i g g i n g t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r the o l d c a b l e o f f i c e a t W r a n g e l l , A l a s k a .  28 U p l i f t e d g r a v e l d e p o s i t s of marine o r i g i n are found at s e v e r a l localities.  Along the e a s t s i d e of F r e d e r i c k Sound a g r a v e l t e r r a c e extends  from the p o i n t about t h r e e m i l e s n o r t h of P o i n t A g a s s i z Brown Cove. represent  T h i s t e r r a c e may  continue  l e a s t 40  f e e t above the r i v e r l e v e l .  may  J u s t n o r t h of P o i n t A g a s s i z  c o a s t a l edge of the t e r r a c e i s about 20 f e e t above low R i v e r , Thomas Bay,  including  a c r o s s to P a t t e r s o n R i v e r and  u p l i f t e d former d e l t a d e p o s i t s .  mouth of P a t t e r s o n  s o u t h t o and  tide level.  t e r r a c e s of sand and M i c r o f o s s i l s were n o t  the  At  the  g r a v e l occur  at  seen i n t h i s  sandy m a t e r i a l . A remnant of an a n c i e n t u p l i f t e d d e l t a of S t i k i n e R i v e r , c o n s i s t i n g of c l a y beds topped by f i n e sand, forms the p o i n t a t the s o u t h e n t r a n c e t o Le Conte Bay,  extending  f e e t above s e a l e v e l .  out  to Camp I s l a n d ,  Its highest  e l e v a t i o n i s 60  Remnants of u p l i f t e d d e l t a s of sand and  gravel  common a t the mouths of many of the streams, such as Powers Creek, E n d i c o t t Arm;  P a t t e r s o n R i v e r , on Thomas Bay;  are  on  and H a r d i n g Creek, on B r a d f i e l d  Canal. F o s s i l i f e r o u s marine g r a v e l s are p r e s e n t c l o s e t o Juneau and  at an a l t i t u d e of 100  on Lemon Creek and E a g l e  River  f e e t on the summit of the d i v i d e  through which the Amalga tramway passes a f t e r l e a v i n g the f l a t s of  Eagle  River. Subsequent work has which are d e s c r i b e d  revealed f u r t h e r glacio-marine  in publications.  d e t a i l t o the p r e s e n t  Some of these were d e s c r i b e d  author by g e o l o g i s t s and  along w i t h o t h e r areas c o n s i d e r e d  d e p o s i t s , few  promising  others.  i n varying  Some were i n v e s t i g a t e d  by the a u t h o r .  These i n c l u d e  V i c t o r i a , Ocean F a l l s , and P r i n c e Rupert, B r i t i s h Columbia and Annette Gravina  I s l a n d s , Copper Harbor and  of  and  o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s on P r i n c e of Wales I s l a n d ,  29 Green Cove and o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s on A d m i r a l t y I s l a n d , P e t e r s b u r g , Taku Harbor, and o t h e r s i t e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y  of Juneau, A l a s k a .  Wagner (1959) mentions f o s s i l l o c a l i t i e s i n t h e Vancouver a r e a d e s c r i b e d by e a r l y w o r k e r s .  Lithology  The m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n i n g t h e F o r a m i n i f e r a s t u d i e d i s v e r y s i m i l a r a t most l o c a l i t i e s ; i t c o n s i s t s o f g l a c i o - m a r i n e , u n c o n s o l i d a t e d , massive sediment o f heterogeneous g r a i n s i z e i n the Vancouver a r e a appears c o b b l e s , and pebbles  (clay to boulder).  Most o f the sediment  d e r i v e d from g r a n i t o i d r o c k s .  Boulders,  o f g r a n i t o i d r o c k are common, and q u a r t z g r a i n s abound.  F i n e - g r a i n e d dark c l a s t s , both s l a t y and v o l c a n i c , a l s o o c c u r i n f a i r numbers.  C l a s t s o f a few o t h e r r o c k types a r e found.  These o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e  i n keeping w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e major s o u r c e areas o f t h e g l a c i a l p r o b a b l y were i n the Coast Range b a t h o l i t h , comprising m a i n l y  debris  granitoid rocks.  Other r o c k s , i n c l u d i n g metasediments, m e t a v o l c a n i c s , sediments and v o l c a n i c s crop out l o c a l l y . In t h e Juneau a r e a m e t a g r a n o d i o r i t e and s l a t e and s c h i s t -apparently comprise  t h e major s o u r c e - r o c k s .  D e b r i s dropped out o f g l a c i a l  the i c e e n t e r e d marine waters forms most o f t h e sediment.  ice after  The a u t h o r  examined m a t e r i a l , s i m i l a r t o t h e f o r a m i n i f e r a l sediment, i n s i t u and i n the l a b o r a t o r y .  I n many cases l e a c h i n g may have removed f o s s i l s which once  were p r e s e n t ; some c a s t s of l a r g e r marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s were seen. r a i n f a l l o f t h e r e g i o n produces r a p i d chemical weathering  of the  The h i g h  30 unconsolidated deposits i n the a r e a s t u d i e d .  Most r e l a t i v e l y  fresh  f o s s i l i f e r o u s d e p o s i t s have a p e c u l i a r b l u e c a s t , , e s p e c i a l l y when wet; t h e s e sometimes a r e c a l l e d b l u e c l a y . f o s s i l s and b l u e cast  The c o r r e l a t i o n between p r e s e n c e o f  of the sediment i s so h i g h t h a t one may  assume marine  d e p o s i t i o n f o r b l u i s h sediment o f t h i s s o r t when c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n i s not feasible.  Sediment  of d i f f e r e n t t y p e o c c u r s a t B-6892 from the n o r t h end  of Douglas I s l a n d , near Juneau, where a narrow r a i s e d beach i s exposed  about  t e n f e e t above p r e s e n t h i g h t i d e . • T h i s d e p o s i t c o n s i s t s m a i n l y of s m a l l rounded s l a t e pebbles and s i l t w i t h many l i m p e t s h e l l s . at Tee Harbor near Juneau, c o n s i s t s m a i n l y of f i n e l y  Sediment  from B-7076,  comminuted fragments of  tie dark g r e e n , f i n e - g r a i n e d bedrock upon which i t r e s t s . The  c o r e m a t e r i a l from L a k e l s e and the samples from Graham I s l a n d ,  though n o t examined  i n s i t u by the a u t h o r , appear t o d i f f e r somewhat from  more t y p i c a l g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s observed by the a u t h o r .  The m a t e r i a l  from t h e L a k e l s e s l i d e i s h i g h l y m o n t m o r i l l o n i t i c , which i s , a p p a r e n t l y , unusual. Taku I n l e t , whose e n t r a n c e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e m i l e s s o u t h e a s t o f the Juneau township l i n e , extends i n l a n d f o r more t h a n 10 m i l e s i n a d i r e c t i o n a few degrees e a s t o f n o r t h .  I t i s l e s s than f i v e m i l e s wide.  I t appears  t o p r o v i d e a s i t e of s e d i m e n t a t i o n q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h a t presumed f o r most o f the l o c a l i t i e s of t h i s s t u d y .  Taku I n l e t forms a narrow,  which today has a l a r g e g l a c i e r e n t e r i n g i t from the Juneau a u t h o r examined  l o n g embayment ice f i e l d .  The  the d e b r i s b e i n g moved i n t o the I n l e t a l o n g w i t h t h e i c e  from t h e g l a c i e r .  Some attempt a l s o was made t o o b t a i n samples  sediment of t h e I n l e t , but r e s u l t s were meagre.  of t h e bottom  O b s e r v a t i o n of the sediment  b e i n g t r a n s p o r t e d r e v e a l e d t h a t c l a s t s from b o u l d e r t o c l a y s i z e s were b e i n g  31 c a r r i e d t o t h e I n l e t by meltwater and out i n t o t h e water o f t h e I n l e t by floating  i c e . A few p a r t i c l e s were seen t o melt out o f t h e i c e and s i n k  toward t h e bottom o f t h e I n l e t .  Presumably  t h i s phenomenon o c c u r s commonly.  What sediment was r e t r i e v e d from t h e bottom o f t h e I n l e t  consisted of  ill-  s o r t e d c l a s t s o b v i o u s l y d e r i v e d from t h e g l a c i e r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no o p p o r t u n i t y a r o s e t o examine an a r e a where s e a i c e covered t h e water.  Such an a r e a might a l s o be r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e f o s s i l  sediments a t some o f t h e l o c a l i t i e s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , a l t h o u g h t h e possibility  i s more remote t h a n i s t h a t of a type o f d e p o s i t i o n more s i m i l a r  t o modern Taku  Inlet.  Stratigraphy  The u n c o n s o l i d a t e d sediments which were examined jin s i t u d i r e c t l y o v e r lie  i n d u r a t e d r o c k , and may be o v e r l a i n by almost any s i z e o f t e r r i g e n o u s  c l a s t i c o r peat o r s o i l . material i s distributed  A t many l o c a l i t i e s  c o n s i d e r a b l e f r a g m e n t a l peaty  i n t h e g l a c i o - m a r i n e sediment.  No apparent c o n n e c t i o n  e x i s t s between t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e f o r a m i n i f e r a l faunas and t h e p r e s e n c e o r absence o f peaty m a t e r i a l  ( o r l i g n i t i c , found a t two l o c a l i t i e s ) ; t h e  j o i n t o c c u r r e n c e appears s i m p l y t o r e f l e c t t h e s h a l l o w - w a t e r d e p o s i t i o n and the t r a n s p o r t o f much t e r r i g e n o u s m a t e r i a l t o t h e s i t e o f d e p o s i t i o n . a m a t t e r o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s r e g a r d , c o a l d e p o s i t s a p p a r e n t l y o f marine are known.  As origin  The a u t h o r has seen a c o a l bed o f Eocene age conformably under-  l a i n and o v e r l a i n by what a r e b e s t i n t e r p r e t e d as f a i r l y deep-water marine sediments i n t h e S a n t a Cruz Mountains o f C a l i f o r n i a . e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a heavy  (bathyal)  A l l geologic  i n f l u x o f t e r r i g i n o u s p l a n t d e b r i s moved down  32 r e l a t i v e l y s t e e p s l o p e s t o the bottom of a deep but g e o g r a p h i c a l l y restricted basin.  The presence  of much woody o r l i g n i t i c p l a n t d e b r i s a t  c e r t a i n h o r i z o n s i n the t h i c k upper T e r t i a r y s e c t i o n i n t h e Los  Angeles  b a s i n of C a l i f o r n i a has been e x p l a i n e d t e n t a t i v e l y as r e s u l t i n g  from  temporary g r e a t i n c r e a s e s of such p l a n t d e b r i s i n the r u n o f f from nearby land f o l l o w i n g forest The  fires.  t h i c k n e s s of most of the p r e s e n t d e p o s i t s was  because t o p s and bottoms of d e p o s i t s were not seen and sediment i s m a s s i v e , d i p s c o u l d n o t be determined  not a s c e r t a i n a b l e f u r t h e r , s i n c e the  (see l o c a l i t y  The  d e p o s i t s form l i m i t e d n a t u r a l o u t c r o p s , b e i n g exposed m a i n l y  and  e x c a v a t i o n s , as w e l l as some stream  cuts.  The  descriptions). i n road  cuts  g l a c i o - m a r i n e sediment  c l e a r l y l a c k s s i g n i f i c a n t s t r a t i g r a p h i c c o n t i n u i t y with u n d e r l y i n g rock; sediment i t s e l f b a d l y deformed.  i s massive and most of the rock i s e i t h e r u n s t r a t i f i e d The presence  the  or  of the g l a c i o - m a r i n e w i t h the nonmarine  d e p o s i t s o v e r l y i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t u p l i f t o r sea withdrawal  took p l a c e  between d e p o s i t i o n of the marine m a t e r i a l and development o f o v e r l y i n g d e p o s i t s . The  a u t h o r found g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s from s e a l e v e l t o approximately  f e e t e l e v a t i o n i n the Juneau a r e a . area came from below 100 Graham I s l a n d .  A l l those sampled from the Vancouver  f e e t above s e a l e v e l , as d i d the samples from  The L a k e l s e m a t e r i a l s t u d i e d was  cored from between 200  300  f e e t above sea l e v e l i n a d e p o s i t a p p a r e n t l y r e a c h i n g t o  300  f e e t above p r e s e n t s e a l e v e l .  M a r i n e sediments,  and  approximately  I n the Vancouver a r e a , marine d e p o s i t s  have been r e c o r d e d from as h i g h as 1,000 1959).  500  f e e t above s e a l e v e l  (see Wagner,  e s p e c i a l l y g l a c i o - m a r i n e , of Quaternary  age have  been w i d e l y r e p o r t e d from the B r i t i s h Columbia - s o u t h e a s t A l a s k a c o a s t a l  33 area  (see pp..26»29} as w e l l as from t h e s t a t e of Washington and  up the A l a s k a n  coast  1965,  communications).  personal  (V. S. M a l l o r y , 1963,and D. M. No  H o p k i n s , 1960,  c l a i m i s made t h a t the p r e s e n t  e s t a b l i s h e s the l o c a l l i m i t s of t h e s e it  further 1963, work  d e p o s i t s w i t h i n the a r e a s t u d i e d  appears c l e a r t h a t widespread d e p o s i t i o n of s h a l l o w marine and  marine sediments took p l a c e d u r i n g Quaternary t i m e .  but  glacio-  34  ECOLOGY  General  The  Considerations  f o r a m i n i f e r a l assemblages o b t a i n e d from t h e B r i t i s h  Columbia-  s o u t h e a s t A l a s k a coast a l l b e l o n g t o t h e same f a u n a l p r o v i n c e . d e f i n e d by i t s f o r a m i n i f e r a l c o n t e n t , extends  a l l around t h e h i g h e r  of the n o r t h e r n hemisphere i n s h a l l o w , c o l d c o a s t a l w a t e r s ; throughout  Quaternary  time*  That p r o v i n c e , latitudes  i t has e x i s t e d  The F o r a m i n i f e r a which c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s f a u n a l  p r o v i n c e b e l o n g t o a few e u r y h a l i n e s p e c i e s .  The dominant forms a r e s p e c i e s  of E l p h i d i u m which t o l e r a t e a wide range o f s a l i n i t y , from normal marine (approximately  35°/oo) down t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y  a v a i l a b l e data i n d i c a t e . salinity  15°/oo, so f a r as p r e s e n t l y  I t s h o u l d be emphasized a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e s e  d a t a have o n l y become a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s , and  m a i n l y d u r i n g t h e l a s t two.  Other species c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s faunal  p r o v i n c e but l e s s e u r y h a l i n e i n c l u d e v a r i o u s members o f C a s s i d u l i n a , C i b i c i d e s , B u c c e l l a , Nonion, P r o t e l p h i d i u m , N o n i o n e l l a , A s t r o n o n i o n , E g g e r e l l a , Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a , and " V i r g u l i n a " and, l o c a l l y , members o f such o t h e r  genera  as Trochammina, Reophax, Hap1ophragmoides, P r o t e o n i n a , B o l i v i n a , B u l i m i n a , B u l i m i n e l l a , Ammonia, t h e P o l y m o r p h i n i d a e ,  the Lagenidae,  and some o t h e r t a x a .  I n t h e v a r i o u s assemblages s t u d i e d f o r t h i s r e p o r t , many o t h e r s p e c i e s are r e p r e s e n t e d as w e l l as most o f t h e c a l c a r e o u s forms l i s t e d above. of t h e t a x a found  Most  i n the assemblages s t u d i e d here a r e o f t e n found as l e s s  abundant elements o f t h e n o r t h e r n c o l d , shallow-water  faunas.  I t i s important  t o note t h a t i n a l l areas and samples, E l p h i d i u m dominates, a c c o u n t i n g f o r from 50 t o 100 p e r cent o f t h e assemblages s t u d i e d .  35 Along  a g i v e n p r o f i l e , such as a l o n g the s t r i k e of a bed, moving  ward s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y through  up-  a s e r i e s of beds, o r toward t h e head of a  modern embayment o r what one presumes on g e o l o g i c grounds t o have been an embayment, a p r o g r e s s i v e d e c r e a s e i n d i c a t e s a p r o g r e s s i v e decrease of E l p h i d i u m appears  i n number of s p e c i e s p r e s e n t u s u a l l y in salinity.  The  almost  e x c l u s i v e presence  t o i n d i c a t e the lowest s a l i n i t i e s of t h e f a u n a l p r o v i n c e .  The range i s between 20 and 15°/oo; t h i s occurs i n the L a k e l s e samples t o a l e s s e r degree, former  a t D-1208 ( F o r t Langley)  i n the Vancouver a r e a .  a r e a , the p a u c i t y of t a x a i n combination w i t h t h e topography  and  For  the  also  i n d i c a t e a v e r y r e s t r i c t e d seaway. "Marsh faunas" c o n s i s t i n g of arenaceous forms and u s u a l l y i n d i c a t i v e of even lower s a l i n i t i e s than 15°/oo were not observed have they been r e p o r t e d i n the p r o v i n c e .  i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , nor  Some o t h e r arenaceous forms have  been r e p o r t e d o c c u r r i n g i n l a r g e numbers w i t h i n the p r e s e n t l y d e s c r i b e d f a u n a l p r o v i n c e (see P h l e g e r , 1952,  Cockbain,  Ecological  1963,  Cooper, 1964).  Tolerances  U n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y v e r y few s p e c i f i c e c o l o g i c d a t a were a v a i l a b l e on the F o r a m i n i f e r a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t fauna e i t h e r on such major e c o l o g i c c r i t e r i a as s a l i n i t y o r depth o r temperature  t o l e r a n c e s , not t o  say any o t h e r e c o l o g i c v a r i a b l e s such as s u b s t r a t e , n u t r i e n t s , o r oxygen. I n f a c t , F o r a m i n i f e r a were g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t o be s t e n o h a l i n e around normal marine s a l i n i t i e s  (approximately 33°/oo) almost w i t h o u t  w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d as t o depth and  temperature.  e x c e p t i o n , although  36 Natland and  (1933) began the comparison of F o r a m i n i f e r a w i t h  l a t e r Bandy (1953, 1960)  s t u d i e s of F o r a m i n i f e r a .  and P h l e g e r  (1960) began modern e c o l o g i c a l  Recent work i n d i c a t e s t h a t some s p e c i e s t h r i v e i n  b r a c k i s h water or can t o l e r a t e wide ranges of s a l i n i t y Buzas, 1965a, and being  1965b, whose work on these  genera p r e s e n t  The  s p e c i e s of E l p h i d i u m ,  i n t h i s fauna,  peculiar specifically  especially  Elphidium  figures strongly  as w e l l as of most of the  other  do n o t , however, l i v e i n h y p e r s a l i n e water.  With r e s p e c t to s a l i n i t y Although brackish-water  (see  e c o l o g i c problems i s p r e s e n t l y  c a r r i e d on at the S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n ) .  i n t h a t group.  environment  t o l e r a n c e s , the f o l l o w i n g examples are n o t e d .  F o r a m i n i f e r a were not r e c o g n i z e d  u n t i l recently,  l i m i t e d endemic f o r a m l n i f e r a l faunas have l o n g been  known from t h e h i g h l y s a l i n e " s a l t p o o l s " of Hungary and T u r k e s t a n .  As  mentioned above, r e c e n t work has  from  the n o r t h e a s t e r n although  still  coast of the U n i t e d S t a t e s t o l e r a t e much reduced s a l i n i t i e s ,  brackish^  Lake Te Nggano, R e n n e l l the s a l i n i t y the F i j i  demonstrated t h a t some F o r a m i n i f e r a  T h i s a u t h o r has Island, B r i t i s h  i s 5,6°/oo.  observed l i v i n g F o r a m i n i f e r a i n  Solomon I s l a n d s P r o t e c t o r a t e , where  L i v i n g F o r a m i n i f e r a have a l s o been observed i n  I s l a n d s on the s u r f a c e and  i n the sediment where t h e s a l i n i t y  drops  w e l l below normal marine a t some times of day because o f f r e s h - w a t e r  runoff  ( a b s o l u t e measurements not  salinity  available).  of the i n t e r s t i t i a l waters may  In t h i s c a s e , of c o u r s e ,  the  be h i g h e r t h a n t h a t i n the water column  above. With r e s p e c t to temperature, the n o r t h e r n s h a l l o w , e x i s t s i n waters of s l i g h t l y  l e s s t h a n 0°C  c o l d water f a u n a  and, where s e a s o n a l  v a r i a t i o n of  bottom temperature i s c o n s i d e r a b l e , where summer temperatures r i s e as h i g h 25°G, b e i n g  eurythermal.  The  l i m i t i n g temperatures as w e l l as  salinities  as  37 and  depths have not been c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i o l o g i c a s p e c t s  of t h e F o r a m i n i f e r a , such as m e t a b o l i s m , phase of l i f e habits.  cycle, or reproductive  W h i l e d o u b t l e s s l i m i t i n g h i g h temperatures e x i s t f o r t h e s p e c i e s  of F o r a m i n i f e r a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s n o r t h e r n f a u n a l p r o v i n c e , i t i s probable  t h a t t h e l i m i t s as t o temperature a r e more c l o s e l y s e t by  c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r F o r a m i n i f e r a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f warmer-water p r o v i n c e s . When temperatures a r e reached where s p e c i e s l e s s t o l e r a n t o f c o l d water those o f t h e p r e s e n t p r o v i n c e can p r o l i f e r a t e , p r o b a b l y expense o f t h e s p e c i e s t o l e r a n t o f c o l d e r water. the c o m p e t i t i v e v i t r e a , found  exclusion p r i n c i p l e .  they  do e x i s t a t t h e  T h i s i s i n keeping  with  G i b i c i d e s l o b a t u l u s and Ep i s t omi ne11a•  commonly i n t h e p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l , a l s o a r e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n  s h a l l o w warm waters round t h e G u l f o f Mexico and e l s e w h e r e . the p r e s e n t  than  I n any case,  f a u n a l / p r o v i n c e extends a l l around t h e n o r t h e r n hemisphere i n  h i g h l a t i t u d e s , w i t h the s o u t h e r n i n N o r t h America on both I n Europe t h e s o u t h e r n  l i m i t s somewhat t r a n s i t i o n a l b u t p r e s e n t  coasts i n the northern part of the United States.  l i m i t s o c c u r a t approximately  the latitudes of central  England and North Germany and t h e p r o v i n c e i n c l u d e s S c a n d i n a v i a and t h e Baltic.  I n t h e western P a c i f i c t h e p r o v i n c e extends as f a r s o u t h as C e n t r a l  Honshu on t h e west coast o f J a p a n and along t h e e a s t c o a s t o f Korea (approximately  35° N l a t i t u d e ) and t o n o r t h e r n Honshu ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y  40° N  l a t i t u d e ) on t h e e a s t coast o f J a p a n . The probably  more n o r t h e r n l i m i t s  i n Europe than i n e a s t e r n N o r t h America  r e f l e c t t h e warming e f f e c t o f t h e waters extended  northeastward  by t h e G u l f Stream and N o r t h A t l a n t i c C u r r e n t , i n c o n t r a s t t o the c o o l i n g e f f e c t o f t h e Labrador C u r r e n t which extends southward i n t h e western North Atlantic.  Although  t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e G u l f Stream o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f "Sargasso  Water" c a n be r e c o g n i z e d a t l e a s t as f a r n o r t h as 4 0 ° N l a t i t u d e o f f t h e e a s t  38 c o a s t o f N o r t h America, c o l d e r water may f l o w southward immediately cent t o t h e coast*  ( T h i s problem p r e s e n t l y i s b e i n g  adja-  i n v e s t i g a t e d , using  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a , by R. C i f e l l i  and t h i s author.)  On n e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e P a c i f i c do warm waters extend as f a r n o r t h as they do i n t h e e a s t e r n A t l a n t i c .  Understanding o f t h e f a u n a l - p r o v i n c e  boundary i n t h e western P a c i f i c i s c o m p l i c a t e d around J a p a n and t h e mainland c o a s t . adjacent  by t h e c u r r e n t  Apparently,  patterns  however, c o l d e r waters  t o t h e mainland a l l o w t h e p r o v i n c e t o extend a few degrees f u r t h e r  south a l o n g western J a p a n and t h e mainland than a l o n g e a s t e r n Japan* Apparently  a l s o , t h e c o l d Oyashio C u r r e n t  e f f e c t s t h e e a s t c o a s t o f Hokkaido  so as t o make i t p a r t of t h e c o l d , n o r t h e r n , shallow-water f o r a m l n i f e r a l province described i n this report.  The warm waters o f t h e K u r o s h i o  Current  f l o w i n g northward along t h e e a s t c o a s t o f J a p a n mix w i t h t h e c o l d Oyashio waters o v e r a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l g e o g r a p h i c a r e a .  This results i n a f a r less  g e o g r a p h i c a l l y e x t e n s i v e " t r a n s i t i o n a l ' ' c o o l temperate-tennperate  shallow-  water f o r a m i n i f e r a l p r o v i n c e t h a n i s found on t h e west c o a s t o f North America, an area where s i m i l a r c o o l temperatures occur over a l o n g d i s t a n c e even though s e a s o n a l Unfortunately and  r e v e r s a l o f along-shore  surface current takes  place.  t h e f a u n a l s i t u a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e west c o a s t of Honshu  e s p e c i a l l y t h e Chinese m a i n l a n d i s n o t known i n any d e t a i l . The  lower depth boundary o f t h e p r o v i n c e under d i s c u s s i o n o b v i o u s l y i s  a f u n c t i o n o f o t h e r depth f a c t o r s and shows no e f f e c t o f temperature T h i s boundary, w h i l e n o t c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d a t p r e s e n t ,  decrease.  can be d e l i n e a t e d  by t h e v e r y marked r e l a t i v e and a b s o l u t e decrease I n numbers o f t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species Elphidium a t approximately  clavatum, sensu l a t o .  30 meters (Buzas, 1965, p e r s o n a l  T h i s decrease  communication).  occurs  Considering  the depth ranges o f F o r a m i n i f e r a as a group, i t was f o r m e r l y b e l i e v e d t h a t  39 they c o u l d w i t h s t a n d no exposure t o a i r and thus c o u l d not e x i s t a t the s u r f a c e i n t h e i n t e r t i d a l zone except r e c e n t l y saw  i n permanent p o o l s *  author  an abundance of t h e a t t a c h e d " l a r g e " f o r a m i n i f e r M a r g i n o p o r a  l i v i n g as an e p i f a u n a l element completely Fiji,  The  exposed a t low t i d e i n Suva Harbour,  A t t h e same time a l a r g e number of s m a l l e r f o r a m i n i f e r s were p r e s e n t  i n the u n d e r l y i n g damp muddy sand. boundary of the p r e s e n t c o l d - w a t e r o f the v a g i l e forms c o u l d m i g r a t e were a t t h e s u r f a c e when i t was  The  author b e l i e v e s t h a t the upper depth  f a u n a may  be i n the i n t e r t i d a l zone; a l l  down Into the sediment a t low t i d e i f they  covered by water.  The  only  questionable  element of the fauna i s C i b i c i d e s l o b a t u l u s , an a t t a c h e d form; where t h a t s p e c i e s i s p r e s e n t water c o v e r may  be necessary  at a l l times.  There are  no  r e p o r t s of i t s b e i n g exposed a t i.6<$i t i d e , but t h a t does n o t deny the possibility. D e s p i t e the d i s j u n c t sample d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y ,  the  assemblages a r e e s s e n t i a l l y the same and i l l u s t r a t e the remarkable homogeneity p o s s i b l e throughout  the f a u n a l p r o v i n c e .  The p r o v i n c e as a whole shows  r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t homogeneity, both i n l i v i n g and  fossil  faunas,  although  l o c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s h i f t s of dominance and t o t a l taxonomic content Comparison w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l and  e c o l o g i c d a t a a v a i l a b l e on  exist.  living  assemblages r e v e a l s t h a t the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e t h a t can be r e c o g n i z e d a t t h i s time c o n s i s t s o f the r e l a t i v e abundance d i f f e r e n c e s between E l p h i d i u m clavatum  and o t h e r t a x a .  40 Comparison of F o r a m i n i f e r a l D i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h t h a t Marine Larger Invertebrates w i t h i n the Present Area of  At  t h i s p o i n t i t i s p e r t i n e n t t o compare t h i s  province  of Study  foraminiferal faunal  as d e v e l o p e d on t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - s o u t h e a s t  Alaska  coast  t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a r g e r m a r i n e i n v e r t e b r a t e s i n t h e same a r e a * similarity  of f o s s i l  f o r a m i n i f e r a l assemblages of the present  s e v e r a l h u n d r e d m i l e s o f l a t i t u d e and blages  with  living  faunas recorded  s h a r p l y w i t h t h e P l e i s t o c e n e and invertebrates.  F. J . E»  The  study  over  the c l o s e a f f i n i t i e s of these  f r o m t h e same a r e a s a p p a r e n t l y  assem-  contrast  Recent d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e marine l a r g e r  Wagner (1959) i n d i c a t e s t h a t n o r t h - s o u t h  displacement  o f l a r g e r m a r i n e i n v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a s c a u s e d by t e m p e r a t u r e c h a n g e was the order  of s e v e r a l hundred m i l e s  i n the Quaternary Epoch.  s p e c i e s which l i v e d i n the Vancouver area during g l a c i a l approximately fossils  600  miles further north.  from l o c a l i t i e s  megafossils  and  The  as c l o s e t o t h o s e  study  author.  While only t e n t a t i v e conclusions  of these  s h e l l s has  Z u l l o (1962, p e r s o n a l  ment w i t h W a g n e r , p o i n t i n g o u t c o l l e c t e d by  t h i s author  and  are data from the east  now  living  d e s c r i b e d by  states that  t i m e s now  author  live  c o l l e c t e d mega-  Dr*  b e e n u n d e r t a k e n by V. c a n be  W a g n e r as p o s s i b l e ;  Z u l l o and  In  them does n o t  support  coast of North  A  the as  i n complete agree-  t h a t e c o l o g i c i n f o r m a t i o n about  species  i n d i c a t e the  o f Wagner's h y p o t h e s i s ,  A m e r i c a where, as B u z a s  s h e l l s found i n l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e deposits  approximately  A*  drawn, such workers  communications) are not  e x a m i n e d by  m i g r a t i o n s u g g e s t e d by W a g n e r .  out, megafossil  present  She  of  Recent s h e l l s a l s o were c o l l e c t e d from the Juneau area*  separate  Durham a n d  with  great however,  (1965a) p o i n t s  represent  e i g h t degrees of l a t i t u d e f u r t h e r n o r t h .  species  41 Simply  comparing F o r a m i n i f e r a w i t h l a r g e r marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s , i t i s  g e n e r a l l y accepted  t h a t t h e former do n o t respond as r e a d i l y t o e c o l o g i c  changes as do t h e l a t t e r ; f u r t h e r , t h e p r e s e n t f o r a m i n i f e r a l fauna i s relatively  eurythermal.  The above d i s c u s s i o n means t h a t i  (1) t h e F o r a m i n i f e r a  do n o t show c l e a r l y any Quaternary n o r t h - s o u t h m i g r a t i o n , m i g r a t i o n which might be expected  because o f temperature changes; (2) Wagner (1959) p o s t u l a t e s  n o r t h - s o u t h m i g r a t i o n o f 600 m i l e s based on e c o l o g i c i n f o r m a t i o n o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a r g e r marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s s t u d i e d by h e r , a p o s t u l a t e supported  i n theory by d a t a from t h e e a s t c o a s t o f N o r t h America; (3)  Durham, Z u l l o , and t h i s author d i s a g r e e w i t h Wagner on t h e b a s i s o f f o s s i l and r e c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n and e c o l o g i c i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g s p e c i e s o f l a r g e r marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s i d e n t i f i e d by them from Vancouver and Juneau, c o n c l u d i n g t h a t the s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i e d by them do not suggest  much more t h a n  local  m i g r a t i o n caused by an o s c i l l a t o r y s e r i e s o f temperature changes d u r i n g t h e Quaternary; (4) whatever t h e m a r i n e l a r g e r i n v e r t e b r a t e s i n d i c a t e , f o r a m i n i f e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n a l d a t a do not c o n t r a d i c t t h e c o n c l u s i o n s , because, on t h e whole and most p r o b a b l y  i n t h i s case, t h e F o r a m i n i f e r a a r e l e s s  s e n s i t i v e t o e c o l o g i c changes t h a n a r e marine l a r g e r i n v e r t e b r a t e s .  E v a l u a t i o n o f E c o l o g i c a l D i f f e r e n c e s Among the Assemblages S t u d i e d  Returning  t o t h e F o r a m i n i f e r a themselves, t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f  the f a u n a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e a r e a s t u d i e d i s i n o r d e r . above, e x a m i n a t i o n  of the f o s s i l s  As p o i n t e d out  from a l l t h e l o c a l i t i e s o f t h e p r e s e n t  study does n o t r e v e a l any p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a u n a l  content  (see F i g u r e 3 ) , The L a k e l s e s l i d e m a t e r i a l shows t h e most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s from t h e o t h e r assemblages, b e i n g v e r y impoverished  compared t o t h e fauna  42 as a whole.  Only D-1216 c o n t a i n s much b e s i d e s t h e u b i q u i t o u s  clavatum, and i n a l l L a k e l s e assemblages E . clavatum i s smaller than u s u a l .  Elphidium  has a t h i n n e r s h e l l and  The p a u c i t y o f t a x a and p o s s i b l y the c o n d i t i o n o f  t e s t s i n d i c a t e low s a l i n i t y , p r o b a b l y  15 t o 20°/oo, d u r i n g t h e d e p o s i t i o n  of most i f n o t a l l o f t h e L a k e l s e s l i d e m a t e r i a l .  A s i m i l a r fauna c o n s i s t i n g  s o l e l y o f E . clavatum  (1953) a t Romerike, Norway,  The  was found by F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n  samples from L a k e l s e c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e - i n c h - d i a m e t e r  author.  Therefore, the megafossil  cores sent t o the  content would n o t be expected  t o be  e n t i r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ; n e v e r t h e l e s s i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t almost a l l o f the m e g a f o s s i l m a t e r i a l o b t a i n e d Balanus, The  both  euryhaline.  Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s samples r e f l e c t p r o x i m i t y t o t h e open ocean  i n t h e i r comparatively fauna  c o n s i s t e d o f M y t i l u s and a s p e c i e s of  l a r g e r number o f p l a n k t o n i c specimens.  Otherwise t h e  i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e  assemblages.  The f a c t t h a t t h e taxonomic d i v e r s i t y among r a r e l y o c c u r r i n g  forms does n o t equal t h a t o f t h e Juneau a r e a p r o b a b l y  r e s u l t s from t h e  r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l sample s i z e . As a r u l e , t h e Vancouver-area samples c o n t a i n fewer s p e c i e s than do t h e Juneau-area samples, although a r e common t o both a r e a s .  t h e p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s found  around Vancouver  D-1208 ( F o r t L a n g l e y ) and D-1212 ( K i n g George  Highway) i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n t a i n o n l y a r e l a t i v e l y few s p e c i e s and p r e s e n t t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g  examples o f s p e c i f i c p a u c i t y found  i n t h e Vancouver a r e a ,  c o n t a i n i n g o n l y s i x and n i n e s p e c i e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The assemblage s l i d e made from t h e D-1208 m a t e r i a l i n c l u d e s v i r t u a l l y every the matrix.  specimen removed from  Rather than t h e u s u a l assemblage s l i d e p r e p a r a t i o n , mainly  i l l u s t r a t i n g r e l a t i v e , n o t a b s o l u t e , abundance, D-1208 was p r e p a r e d t o demonstrate the l a c k o f s p e c i f i c v a r i e t y and t h e v e r y l a r g e a b s o l u t e ( n o t  43 r e l a t i v e ) number of E l p h i d i u m clavatum, D-1208 c o n t a i n e d o n l y E. clavatum,  sensu l a t o o c c u r r i n g i n a sample.  Buccella frigida, Cassidulina islandica,  £ . t e r e t i s , E l p h i d e l l a a r c t i e a , and E. n i t i d a , a l l s p e c i e s v e r y  characteristic  of the n o r t h e r n s h a l l o w , c o l d water f o r a m i n i f e r a l p r o v i n c e . The except  o t h e r Vancouver-area s i t e s y i e l d e d an i n t e r m e d i a t e number of s p e c i e s  f o r D-1211 (Burnaby Lake) and D-1213 (Boundary B a y )  y  which c o n t a i n e d  about as much s p e c i f i c v a r i e t y as d i d the Juneau-area samples. an e s p e c i a l l y l a r g e sample, c o n t a i n i n g approximately unwashed m a t e r i a l , but D-1213 was  was  t h r e e c u b i c f e e t of  an average s i z e d sample of  50 c u b i c i n c h e s , both w i t h b o u l d e r s removed.  D-1211  approximately  More f o r a m i n i f e r a l  localities  i n the Vancouver a r e a are needed t o determine i f t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l taxonomic v a r i e t y i s common t o the a r e a .  I f i t i s common i t r e v e r s e s t h e u s u a l  s i t u a t i o n i n which marine faunas, e s p e c i a l l y v a r i e t y from n o r t h towards t h e e q u a t o r . that l o c a l  c o n d i t i o n s , probably  i n shallow water, increase i n  A t p r e s e n t , i t seems more l i k e l y  relatively  low s a l i n i t y  d i l u t i o n of marine waters by g l a c i a l m e l t waters, of t a x a i n t h e Vancouver a r e a .  caused by  caused  excessive  t h i s r e l a t i v e paucity  P o s s i b l y a l s o depth p l a y e d a r o l e and  v i t h g r e a t e r taxonomic v a r i e t y may  represent a s l i g h t l y  samples  deeper-water  environment, r e f l e c t i n g the g e n e r a l o f f s h o r e optimum of t h e F o r a m i n i f e r a . With F o r a m i n i f e r a , as opposed t o marine l a r g e r i n v e r t e b r a t e s , t h e number of s p e c i e s g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e s markedly w i t h depth from t h e i n t e r t i d a l t o the o u t e r n e r i t i c o r upper b a t h y a l zone.  zone out  I t i s a l s o t r u e , however, i n  common w i t h l a r g e r marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s , t h a t the f o r a m i n i f e r a l  taxonomic  v a r i e t y g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e s i n s h a l l o w water moving from t h e p o l e s toward the equator.  I n the p r e s e n t case reduced  s a l i n i t y probably  f o r r e l a t i v e l y low taxonomic d i v e r s i t y .  i s t h e major cause  44 The most abundantly l o c a l i t i e s except one  r e p r e s e n t e d s p e c i e s i n the faunas  i s E l p h i d i u m clavatum, sensu l a t o .  from a l l I n the e x c e p t i o n a l  sample, B-7076, the dominant element i s another s p e c i e s of E l p h i d i u m , r e f e r r e d t o E.  f r i g i d u m Cushman.  here  O t h e r s p e c i e s o f the E l p h i d i i d a e o c c u r  commonly t o r a r e l y a t many l o c a l i t i e s but t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i s more, l o c a l . They do, however, make up p a r t of t h e group of secondary The  dominant  forms*  s p e c i f i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the E l p h i d i i d a e may. not I n d i c a t e p a r t i c u l a r  d i f f e r e n c e s between the Vancouver and Juneau a r e a *  ( F i g u r e 3.)  Perhaps  s i g n i f i c a n t l y , however, E* f r i d u m and E. (?) sp* c f . E . f r i g i d u m are p r e s e n t o n l y i n t h e Juneau a r e a and are t h e r e p r e s e n t a t almost  every  locality.  More e c o l o g i c a l d a t a on l i v i n g E . f r i g i d u m would c e r t a i n l y shed matter.  this  D i s t r i b u t i o n a l d a t a a v a i l a b l e seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s c o n f i n e d  t o more n o r t h e r l y waters t h a n i s E* clavatum. reduced  l i g h t on  s a l i n i t y than has JE. clavatum  I t has l e s s t o l e r a n c e f o r  and p r o b a b l y i t can l i v e i n deeper water.  I t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o e v a l u a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l d a t a because d i f f e r e n t worker's methods and d e s c r i p t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t a l parameters o f t e n a r e not directly is  comparable, even when s u c h a seemingly  s i m p l e phenomenon as  depth  considered. The  o t h e r secondary  n u m e r i c a l dominants w i t h i n t h e assemblages s t u d i e d  i n c l u d e Pseudononion auriculum and l e s s e r Nonion l a b r a d o r i c u m of the C a s s i d u l i n a t e r e t i s and C,  Nonionidae,  i s l a n d i c a of the C a s s i d u l i n i d a e , B u c c e l l a f r i g i d a  and B. t e n e r r i m a of the R o t a l i i d a e , and C i b i c i d e s l o b a t u l u s of the Anomalinidaeiv from l o c a l i t y  The r e l a t i v e abundance of a l l of t h e s e forms appears t o l o c a l i t y w i t h no  and Vancouver a r e a s .  important  to vary  d i f f e r e n c e s between the Juneau  Pseudononion auriculum does appear t o be dominant over  Nonion l a b r a d o r i c u m i n the Juneau a r e a whereas i n t h e Vancouver a r e a  N.  l a b r a d o r i c u m o c c u r s but Pseudononion auriculum does n o t ; however, few  nonionids  are p r e s e n t i n the l a t t e r  area.  With C a s s i d u l i n a , which u s u a l l y o c c u r s i n a t l e a s t moderate C. t e r e t i s u s u a l l y dominates.  numbers*  L o c a l l y , however, as a t D-1211 (Burnaby  and D-1214 and D-1215 (Graham I s l a n d ) , C. i s l a n d i c a p r e d o m i n a t e s .  Lake)  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f C a s s i d u l i n a c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e s w i t h temperature, b e i n g a " c o l d water" form g e n e r a l l y found i n abundance i n s h a l l o w c o l d water and thought t o move down v e r t i c a l l y a l o n g isotherms as s u r f a c e - w a t e r temperature increases.  C. t e r e t i s was r e p o r t e d by Green (1960) as t h e dominant  element  of a " s h e l f " fauna i n t h e A r c t i c Ocean a t depths o f 433 t o 510 meters.  This  s p e c i e s appears t o have a r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t depth r a n g e , from 0 meters downward, a l t h o u g h not b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d much below the uppermost  bathyal  zone.  C a s s i d u l i n a i s l a n d i c a has been r e p o r t e d from n e r i t i c depths o f f I c e l a n d (N^rvang, 1945).  P r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e d a t a do not s u p p l y any reasons f o r  d i s t r i b u t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between C. t e r e t i s and C.  islandica.  C i b i c i d e s l o b a t u l u s , p a r t i c u l a r l y abundant a t D-1211, i s r e l a t i v e l y e u r o p i c and w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d a t n e r i t i c as w e l l as l i t t o r a l depths i n many areas a l t h o u g h , as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, i t iswyunlikely t h a t C»  lobatulus  e v e r l i v e s i n t h e i n t e r t i d a l zone, except perhaps i n permanent p o o l s .  C.  l o b a t u l u s has a g r e a t e r s o u t h e r l y g e o g r a p h i c range than most s p e c i e s found i n the present fauna. Among the l e s s abundant t a x a more n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r between the l o c a l i t i e s sampled.  The Lagenidae comprise a l a r g e number of i d e n t i f i e d  s p e c i e s but a r e found i n s m a l l numbers a t any one l o c a l i t y .  I n the p r e s e n t  seas t h i s f a m i l y has an o f f s h o r e optimum i n waters o f normal marine around t h e o u t e r s h e l f and upper b a t h y a l zone.  salinity  I n the r e g i o n s t u d i e d  lagenids  o c c u r i n g r e a t e s t numbers and v a r i e t y from the Juneau a r e a and D-1209  (Shannon  Creek) and D-1211 (Burnaby Lake)  (see F i g u r e 3 ) .  Even w i t h o u t l a g e n i d s  46 t h e s e l o c a l i t i e s e x h i b i t r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t taxonomic v a r i e t y , so t h a t p r e s e n c e of l a g e n i d s s e r v e s t o s u p p o r t areas was,  the  the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t d e p o s i t i o n i n these  as w e l l as i n waters of normal o r only s l i g h t l y  marine s a l i n i t y , i n s l i g h t l y deeper water t h a n o t h e r areas  l e s s t h a n normal of t h i s  study,  e v e n though i t i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t h a t a s h a l l o w e r h a b i t a t c o u l d have been a t t a i n e d by l a g e n i d s i n t h e more n o r t h e r l y , c o l d e r w a t e r s . M i l i o l i d s a l s o reach greatest frequency Juneau a r e a , although  taxonomic d i v e r s i t y i n the  the c o n t r a s t i s not as g r e a t between t h e Juneau  Vancouver a r e a s as i t i s w i t h l a g e n i d s . as a group they  and  a r e found w i d e l y  T h i s may  o n l y r e f l e c t the f a c t t h a t  distributed geographically  i n modern s h a l l o w  w a t e r s , r e g a r d l e s s of temperature, but having s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r t o l e r a n c e s t h a n do the l a g e n i d s *  I t may  salinity  be s i g n i f i c a n t , however, t h a t  l i t t l e i n d e t a i l i s known about t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of  they  o n l y occur i n the Juneau a r e a of t h e p r e s e n t  s m a l l numbers, but at most l o c a l i t i e s * £*  a r c t i c a of t h e O p h t h a l m i d i i d a e ,  The  e i t h e r p r e s e n t l y or i n past To  s t u d y , b e i n g found i n  a s p e c i e s o r i g i n a l l y d e s c r i b e d from the These t h r e e s p e c i e s may  not reached as f a r s o u t h  time. small  assemblages but w i t h some p a r t i c u l a r e c o l o g i c s i g n i -  f i c a n c e , t h e a u t h o r has s e l e c t e d B u l i m i n e l l a e l e g a n t i s s i m a , B o l i y i n a s p e c i e s were found i n t h i s s t u d y ) , T r i f a r i n a f l u e n s and T. h u g h e s i  w  fusiformis.  at four l o c a l i t i e s  B u l i m i n e l l a e l e g a n t i s s i m a was  (two  (taken  t o g e t h e r ) , U v i g e r i n a cushmani, E p i s t o m i n e l l a v i t r e a and E. p a c i f i c a , "Virgulina  have  as Vancouver,  c o n s i d e r some o t h e r genera and s p e c i e s found i n r e l a t i v e l y  numbers i n the p r e s e n t  Arctic  same i s t r u e of Gorjiipspira c f .  A r c t i c and h e r e found o n l y i n the Juneau a r e a . a n o r t h e r l y d i s t r i b u t i o n which has  although  Quinquloculina  a g g l u t i n a t a and (J, a r c t i c a , they were o r i g i n a l l y d e s c r i b e d from the and  and  and  found i n s m a l l numbers  i n the Juneau a r e a and most abundantly a t B-6892 (the  4  r a i s e d beach on Douglas I s l a n d ) .  ?  I t o c c u r s i n g r e a t r e l a t i v e and a b s o l u t e  abundance i n modern shore sands and i n s h a l l o w waters o f t h e E n g l i s h Channel, which has been s t u d i e d i n g r e a t d e t a i l .  From t h i s and o t h e r o c c u r r e n c e s , i t  i s always t a k e n t o i n d i c a t e s h a l l o w water (up t o the s h o r e ) o f normal marine salinity.  B o l i v i n a was found i n r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l numbers a t most Juneau-area  localities.  B o l i v i n a s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r m o r p h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r s have  d e l i m i t e d depth ranges (see Bandy, 1960).  closely  The p r e s e n t b o l i v i n a s a r e  m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y v e r y s i m i l a r t o known s h a l l o w - w a t e r forms f r o m o f f s o u t h e r n California.  B u l i m i n e l l a and B o l i v i n a were found o n l y i n t h e Juneau a r e a .  T r i f a r i n a fluens  (a c o s t a t e form) and T. hughesi ( n o n - c o s t a t e but v e r y  s i m i l a r and a p p a r e n t l y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d ) were found i n t h e Vancouver a r e a (D-1211 and D-1213), t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s (D-1215), and a t t w e l v e localities  i n t h e Juneau a r e a , b u t t h e i r r e l a t i v e numbers i n c r e a s e d from r a r e  elsewhere t o few i n the Vancouver a r e a . relatively  U v i g e r i n a cushmani i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n  l a r g e numbers ( t h i r t y specimens p r e s e n t i n t h e assemblage s l i d e ) a t  D-1211 and by n i n e specimens from D-1213, w h i l e i t i s o n l y r e p r e s e n t e d by one specimen each from B-7067 and B-7068 i n the Juneau a r e a .  I n t h e absence o f  o t h e r d a t a , t h e s o u t h e r l y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u v i g e r i n i n s would appear t o r e f l e c t a p r e f e r e n c e f o r r e l a t i v e l y warm water. and 0* Bandy  However, a c c o r d i n g t o F . L . P a c k e r  (1964, p e r s o n a l communications) the p r e s e n c e of c o s t a t e  u v i g e r i n i n s does not harmonize w i t h t h e shallow-water a s p e c t o f t h e faunas i n d i c a t e d by the dominant forms.  Most c o s t a t e u v i g e r i n i n s l i v e a t b a t h y a l  depths today; however, a few s p e c i e s such as T r i f a r i n a f l u e n s and T, hughesi which a r e not h e a v i l y  c o s t a t e , a r e known t o l i v e i n s h a l l o w w a t e r .  s e e n t h e s e s p e c i e s i n moderate abundance deep i n I c y S t r a i t near Juneau.  The a u t h o r has  i n a sample from water 13 meters  On t h e o t h e r hand, U c h i o (1959) r e p o r t s a  48 f a u n a l boundary a t approximately 70 meters based on t h e dominance change t o T. f l u e n s from o t h e r s h a l l o w e r - w a t e r forms,  U v i g e r l n a cushmani i s h e a v i l y  c o s t a t e and h e a v i l y c o s t ate forms a r e not common i n s h a l l o w water a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , a l t h o u g h the a u t h o r has  i d e n t i f i e d t h i s s p e c i e s from depths o f  l e s s t h a n 100 meters i n Taku H a r b o r , A l a s k a .  S p e c i f i c t o l e r a n c e s of the  s p e c i e s d i s c u s s e d here a r e not known; however, v e r y s i m i l a r u v i g e r i n i n s were found c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e o u t e r s h e l f Anderson  (100-200 meters) i n the B e r i n g Sea  by  (1963).  Of t h e two s p e c i e s o f E p i s t o m i n e l l a i n t h i s s t u d y , E« v i t r e a dominates over JE. p a c i f j c a i n abundance and w i d e r d i s t r i b u t i o n though both a r e l o c a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the a r e a .  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that t h e i r greatest  abundance t o g e t h e r , as w e l l as the greatest abundance o f E. v i t r e a , occurs a t B-6892, t h e r a i s e d beach d e p o s i t on Douglas  Island  (Juneau a r e a ) , an o b v i o u s l y  shallow-water d e p o s i t c o n t a i n i n g many s h e l l s o f i n t e r t i d a l  limpets.  Parker  and Bandy (1964, p e r s o n a l communications) a l s o f i n d the p r e s e n c e of E p i s t o m i n e l l a v i t r e a and E , p a c i f i c a i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the o t h e r elements E, v i t r e a was  of the  assemblages.  o r i g i n a l l y d e s c r i b e d by P a r k e r from s h a l l o w water i n San A n t o n i o  Bay, T e x a s , however, and w h i l e o b v i o u s l y a eurythermal s p e c i e s , i t would t o be s t e n o b a t h i c a t l e a s t t o the e x t e n t o f " s h a l l o w water," appears  appear  E, p a c i f i c a  e u r y b a t h i c ; b e i n g r e c o v e r e d from "deep" ( b a t h y a l a t l e a s t ) and " s h a l l o w "  ( n e r i t i c a t l e a s t ) - water s e d i m e n t s .  Such sediments  containing E. p a c i f i c a  have been s t u d i e d by the a u t h o r from o i l w e l l s i n t h e Los Angeles b a s i n o f California*  The author a l s o has i d e n t i f i e d a few specimens o f E . v i t r e a  and  E. p a c i f i c a from a modern sample from 13 meters depth i n I c y S t r a i t . . I f , however,  Parker and Bandy a r e c o r r e c t , a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r  the p r e s e n c e o f these u v i g e r i n i n s and e p i s t o m i n e l l a s e x i s t s i n the downward d i s p l a c e m e n t o f the r e s t of the f a u n a , whereby i t j o i n e d t h e  autochthonous  49 u v i g e r i n i n s and e p i s t o m i n e l l a s . particularly  I n narrow deep i n l e t s t h i s mechanism i s  f e a s i b l e , both c o n s i d e r i n g s t e e p s l o p e s  and g r a v i t y and r e t r a n s -  p o r t o f s h e l l s p i c k e d up by n e a r s h o r e i c e o r c a r r i e d o u t onto i c e  shelves  (see Gow, Weeks, H e n d r i c k s o n , and Rowland, 1965) and s u b s e q u e n t l y dropped. This explanation, with t i e very  however m e c h a n i c a l l y  f e a s i b l e , seems n o t t o be i n keeping  l a r g e number o f specimens (over 90% o f t h e assemblages) which  would have t o be a l l o c h t h o n o u s  elements o f t h e f o s s i l  faunas u n l e s s  deeper  bottom c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e s i t e s o f d e p o s i t i o n were s u c h t h a t few f o r a m i n i f e r s could l i v e .  One p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t e c o l o g i c f a c t o r s were changing  r a p i d l y on t h e b a s i n bottoms s o as t o permit o n l y o c c a s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n by Foraminifera,  as n o t e d i n some f j o r d s w i t h s i l l s where bottoms a r e a n a e r o b i c  most o f t h e t i m e .  Another p o s s i b i l i t y  b a s i n bottom remained so r i g o r o u s If the f o s s i l  faunas r e p r e s e n t ,  i s that the e c o l o g i c conditions of the  t h a t o n l y t h e h a r d i e s t forms c o u l d  survive.  on t h e o t h e r hand, autochthonous assemblages,  p r o b a b l y t h e s e few l i v i n g s i t e s were i n s l i g h t l y deeper water t h a n t h o s e represented  by any o t h e r assemblages o f t h i s s t u d y .  " V i r g u l i n a " f u s l f o r m i s , r a r e i n t h e Vancouver a r e a b u t i n r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e numbers (few t o common) a t some Juneau-area l o c a l i t i e s , i s a common constituent of s h e l f faunas.  T h i s s u p p o r t s an. i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s l i g h t l y  deeper-water h a b i t a t f o r most o f t h e Juneau-area m a t e r i a l t h a n f o r most o f the Vancouver-area samples.  I t i s , however, s t i l l p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n  can be m a i n l y r e s o l v e d on t h e b a s i s o f s a l i n i t i e s lower a t most o f t h e Vancouver-area s i t e s t h a n a t the Juneau-area s i t e s . A l t h o u g h d e t a i l e d knowledge o f t h e e c o l o g i c t o l e r a n c e s not  e x i s t p r e s e n t l y , n o r can p a r t i c u l a r c o n c l u s i o n s  o f t h e t a x a does  be drawn h e r e , i t seems  worthwhile t o summarize what may be s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , f i r s t g r a p h i c a l l y and t h e n by a few paragraphs o f e x p l a n a t i o n .  50  Represented I n The Juneau A r e a but not P r e s e n t i n the Vancouver Area  Present i n Areas but Rarely i n Vancouver  Both Only the Area  B e t t e r Represented o r only P r e s e n t i n the Vancouver Area  Buliminidae BoliVina  (2 spp.)  X  Buliminella elegantissima  X  Globobulimina auriculata  X  "Virgulina" fusiformis Uvigerina  X X  cushmani  Elphidiidae. .andiNpnlpnldae Elphidium  frigidum,  sensu l a t o  X X  Elphidium  bartletti X  Protelphidium orbiculare X  Pseudononion a u r i c u l a  X  Nonionella turgida d i g i t a t a Astrononion  gallowayi  X  Lagenidae Dentalina  X  spp.  Some spp. F i s s u r i n a , Lagena, Oolina F i s s u r i n a of 2 Oolina  X  spp.  X X  collaris  Planularia  X  Miliolidae Miliolinella. & Pateoris  X  Quinqueloculina arctica  X  51 Represented i n the Juneau A r e a but not P r e s e n t i n the Vancouver Area 2.*  Present i n A r e a s but Rarely i n Vancouver  Both Only the Area  B e t t e r Represented or only Present i n t h e Vancouver Area  X  • aggliitinata:  O t h e r c a l c a r e o u s forms G o r d i o s p i r a c f . G. arctica  X  Discorbis  X  Epistomaroides E . rimosa  cf. X  Cibicides lobatulus Arenaceous t a x a X  E g g e r e l l a adyena H aplophragmoldes  spp.  Trochammina (?) s p .  X X  Of a l l t h e forms c o n s i d e r e d above, those whose t o t a l numbers a r e more than a few i n c l u d e C i b i c i d e s l o b a t u l u s , E l p h i d i u m b a r t l e t t i , E l p h i d i u m f r i g i d u m , sensu  l a t o , n o n i o n i d s , and " V i r g u l i n a " f u s i f o r m i s , and,  Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a , B o l i v i n a and  to a lesser  extent,  l a g e n i d s taken as groups.  Taxa w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e Juneau area but not i n t h e Vancouver a r e a , unless otherwise  i n d i c a t e d , i n c l u d e members of the B u l i m i n i n a e  (Buliminidae)  w i t h B o l i v i n a a l e x a n d e r e n s i s and B. p a c i f i c a , B u l i m i n e l l a e l e g a n t i s s i m a , and Globobullmina  a u r i c u l a t a , r e p r e s e n t e d i n s m a l l numbers i n the Juneau a r e a ,  " V i r g u l i n a " f u s i f o r m i s , common a t Juneau and H a r e a t two D i s c o r b i s ; E g g e r e l l a advena, Hap1ophragmoides spp.,  and  Vancouver s i t e s ;  and Trochammina (?) s p .  ( i n s m a l l numbers but the o n l y t r u l y arenaceous groups r e p r e s e n t e d ) ^  ;  -  52  Elphidium lagenids  f r i g i d u m and E . s p . c f . E . f r i g i d u m ; E p i s t o m a r o i d e s i n c l u d i n g species of Dentallna  (one s p e c i e s i s r a r e a t one Vancouver  l o c a l i t y ) , F i s s u r i n a c f . F* c u c u r b i t a s e m a , F* c f . F . quadrata, (fissurinas  a r e present  c f . E . rimosa;  F» s e r r a t a ( ? )  o n l y i n s m a l l numbers and o t h e r s p e c i e s o f t h e genus  o c c u r b o t h a t Juneau and Vancouver and Graham I s l a n d and two s p e c i e s o c c u r a t V a n c o u v e r ) , and one o r more s p e c i e s o f Lagena and f i v e o f O o l i n a species occur  only  (other  i n t h e Juneau, Graham I s l a n d , and Vancouver m a t e r i a l and a l l  s p e c i e s o f both genera a r e r a r e except 0. c o l l a r i s which a t t a i n s moderate numbers a t t h e Shannon Creek l o c a l i t y ) , and P l a n u l a r i a (one s p e c i e s o n l y ) ; G o r d i o s p i r a c f * G. a r c t i c a ; some m i l i o l i d s i n c l u d i n g b o t h the r e c o r d e d of M i l l o i i n e l l a and P a t e o r i s , Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a the Nonionidae, Astrononion are r a r e b u t p r e s e n t  species  a g g l u t i n t a and CJ. a r c t i c a ; o f  g a l l o w a y i and N o n i o n e l l a t u r g i d a V a r .  digitata  a t almost a l l Juneau l o c a l i t i e s and t h e former a r e r a r e  at one L a k e l s e and t h e l a t t e r a t one Vancouver l o c a l i t y , and Pseudononion auriculafek which i s common i n t h e Juneau area and o n l y q u e s t i o n a b l y from one Vancouver s i t e .  recorded  The o n l y s p e c i e s whose abundance appears s i g n i f i c a n t l y  h i g h e r i n t h e Vancouver a r e a t h a n i n t h e Juneau a r e a a r e E l p h i d i u m b a r t l e t t i , Profeelphidium o r b i c u l a r e , O o l i n a c o l l a r i s ^ and U v i g e r l n a cushmani.  Cibicides  l o b a t u l u s i s common i n t h e Juneau a r e a b u t abundant a t two Vancouver s i t e s ; t h i s may i n some way r e f l e c t t h e g e n e r a l l y more s o u t h e r n  d i s t r i b u t i o n of that  s p e c i e s t h a n o f any o t h e r which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d Although present  i n this  fauna.  elsewhere a t Vancouver, Queen C h a r l o t t e , and Juneau l o c a l i t i e s ,  the f a c t t h a t E l p h i d i u m b a r t l e t t i and P r o t e l p h i d i u m g r e a t e s t abundance ("abundant!'  1  o r b i c u l a r e reach  their  and "few," r e s p e c t i v e l y ; s e e F i g u r e 3) a t D-1210,  a l o c a l i t y w i t h o n l y 10 t o 15 s p e c i e s  (14 s p e c i f i c d e s i g n a t i o n s n o t e d , s e e  F i g u r e 3) undoubtedly has e c o l o g i c s i g n i f i c a n c e , b u t i t cannot p r e s e n t l y be e v a l u a t e d ; p o s s i b l y these s p e c i e s c a n f l o u r i s h i n somewhat reduced s a l i n i t y  where c o m p e t i t o r s  a r e e l i m i n a t e d , b u t a t depths g r e a t e r t h a n s u i t a b l e f o r t h e  53 almost e x c l u s i v e presence o f E l p h i d i u m clavatum. l o b a t u l u s a t D-1210 s u p p o r t s t h i s c o n t e n t i o n .  The abundance o f C i b i c i d e s  G l o b i g e r i n a s and F i s s u r i n a  lucida  a r e most abundant a t the Graham I s l a n d l o c a l i t i e s and C a s s i d u l i n a n o r c r o s s i o n l y < occurs t h e r e . I n p a s s i n g , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t some specimens have been f i l l e d by p y r i t e .  from D-1212  The presumed age o f t h e d e p o s i t seems t o i n d i c a t e  a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t time f o r t h i s phenomenon t o have d e v e l o p e d , a l t h o u g h common w i t h F o r a m i n i f e r a from o l d e r  deposits.  The v i r t u a l absence o f arenaceous a whole i s u n e x p l a i n e d .  it'is  forms from t h e p r e s e n t fauna t a k e n as  C e r t a i n l y enough p a r t i c l e s o f t h e u s u a l s i z e - r a n g e s  faosen f o r a g g l u t i n a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t i n the sediment.  T h i s l a c k of  arenaceous  F o r a m i n i f e r a has a l s o been n o t e d i n s i m i l a r faunas e l s e w h e r e , a l t h o u g h , i n modern w a t e r s , Cockbain (1963) found many arenaceous f o r a m i n i f e r s i n f i n e sediment  i n the S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a , and Cooper (1964) found a fauna  by E g g e r e l l a adyena i n f i n e sediment  of the Chukchi S e a , and arenaceous s p e c i e s  c h a r a c t i z e "marsh f a u n a s " i n b r a c k i s h water. advena a t l e a s t was  dominated  I t i s highly l i k e l y that Eggerella  r e p r e s e n t e d i n g r e a t e r numbers i n t h e l i v i n g f a u n a of t h e  p r e s e n t s t u d y ; the author observed many t e s t s of t h i s s p e c i e s crumble d u r i n g sample p r e p a r a t i o n .  They a r e v e r y e a s i l y d e s t r o y e d .  Summary o f P a l e o e c o l o g y o f t h e P r e s e n t F o r a m i n i f e r a l Assemblages  To sum  up the p a l e o e c o l o g y o f the fauna r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , as  a Whole the fauna l i v e d i n s h a l l o w water, p r o b a b l y i n depths l e s s t h a n 30 m e t e r s , i n waters of v a r i a b l e s a l i n i t y , from normal marine (probably down t o 15 t o 2 0 ° / o o ) , and i n c o l d temperatures  (35°/oo) t o b r a c k i s h (possible  range,  54 s e a s o n a l minimum o f ~2°C t o s e a s o n a l maximum o f 2 5 ° C ) . caused t h e reduced s a l i n i t i e s .  Glacial  meltwater  Reduced faunas may a l s o i n d i c a t e q u i t e .  l i m i t e d open ocean c o n n e c t i o n s f o r t h e i r  localities.  A l t h o u g h isotherms d u r i n g g l a c i a l times p r o b a b l y p a r a l l e l e d those o f today but showed c o l d e r water  extending f u r t h e r south, l i t t l e  about t h e v a r i a t i o n i n temperatures  c a n be s a i d  o f t h e near-shore environment where i c e  r e a c h i n g t h e s e a throughout t h e a r e a o f study must have kept temperatures low, w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e l o c a l d i f f e r e n c e .  quite  Even t o d a y , when near-shore isotherms  can be measured and p r o b a b l y show l e s s l o c a l v a r i a t i o n because o f l e s s m e l t i n g i c e , t h e f a u n a o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y e x i s t s through a c o n s i d e r a b l e temperature range.  Such temperature  c o n t r o l l e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a u n a l content as do e x i s t  have n o t been documented i n any d e t a i l . W h i t h i n t h e r e g i o n s t u d i e d , no Juneau a r e a sample c o n t a i n e d a t r u l y reduced f a u n a , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s a l i n i t y a t any o f t h e l o c a l i t i e s  sampled  d i d n o t drop below 20°/oo, i f ever r e a c h i n g t h a t low. Normal marine  conditions  are i n f a c t Juneau a r e a .  i n d i c a t e d by assemblages  w i t h as much d i v e r s i t y  T h i s would e x c l u d e h a b i t a t s where s a l i n i t i e s dropped below 25°/oo  and where seaways were much r e s t r i c t e d  (such as l o n g , narrow f j o r d s ) .  depths a t - w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s A l a s k a n assemblages  l i v e d probably varied  l-owtfid'e (B-6892 and p o s s i b l y o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s ) t o something meters.  as found i n t h e  The from  l e s s t h a n 30  The q u e s t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e p o s i t i o n o f f o s s i l s i n depths  below t h e i r l i v i n g s i t e s cannot be answered but such d e p o s i t i o n seems l e s s likely  f o r most o f t h e J u n e a u - a r e a  area s i t e s .  l o c a l i t i e s t h a n f o r some o f t h e Vancouver-  On t h e whole, t h e Juneau-area  seemblages appear t o have l i v e d  i n s l i g h t l y deeper o r more s a l i n e o r l e s s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d e n v i r o n ments ( o r any combination t h e r e o f ) t h a n t h e Vancouver-area assemblages.  The  55 case f o r t h i s c o n c l u s i o n r e s t s plainly on t h e r e l a t i v e number of t a x a p r e s e n t i n both a r e a s .  Juneau-area assemblages average 38.5 t a x a p e r l o c a l i t y  with  a maximum o f 50 and a minimum o f 18 and o n l y f i v e assemblages out o f 15 c o n t a i n i n g l e s s t h a n 40 t a x a ( s e e F i g u r e 3 ) ; V a n c o u v e r - a r e a assemblages average 17 t a x a p e r sample w i t h a maximum o f 31 and a minimum of s e v e n and t h r e e assemblages each o v e r and under 15.  A t L a k e l s e low s a l i n i t y  (between a p p r o x i -  mately 15 and 20°/oo w i t h one and perhaps two samples i n d i c a t i v e o f s l i g h t l y higher s a l i n i t y  of perhaps 17 t o 25°/oo) and a r e s t r i c t e d seaway a r e i n d i c a t e d  by t h e c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e p r e s e n c e o f E l p h i d i u m clavatum, a s p e c i e s which can t o l e r a t e s a l i n i t i e s a t l e a s t as low as l5°/oo, and t h e low a b s o l u t e numbers of o t h e r t a x a .  The p r e s e n t topography of the a r e a s u p p o r t s t h e i n d i c a t i o n o f  a r e s t r i c t e d seaway.  Out o f s i x samples the maximum number of t a x a encountered  i s 12, t h e minimum one, and t h e average f i v e .  Regarding t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e  I s l a n d s , t h e two samples c o n t a i n e d 21 and 30 t a x a ; w h i l e t h i s i s n o t as h i g h as Juneau, n e i t h e r i s i t as low as Vancouver.  The unwashed samples were  s m a l l and, f o r the content o f t h e f a u n a , ttie a u t h o r b e l i e v e s t h a t  larger  samples would c o n t a i n more t a x a , a t l e a s t e q u a l l i n g t h o s e from Juneau i n diversity*  Taxa from t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e samples i n d i c a t e a l i v i n g - s i t e  environment i n c o l d water, l e s s t h a n 30 meters deep, a l t h o u g h p o s s i b l y a b i t deeper t h a t a t many o t h e r sampled l o c a l i t i e s , p r o b a b l y o f normal marine s a l i n i t y and c e r t a i n l y not more t h a n a few p a r t s p e r thousand below normal marine.  P l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a i n d i c a t e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e open ocean, an  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e p r e s e n t g e o g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n t o t h e sea of t h e l o c a l i t y For a l l  sampled.  of the l o c a l i t i e s s t u d i e d , l i f e  i n depths o f l e s s t h a n 30  meters i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e overwhelming a b s o l u t e and r e l a t i v e abundance of E l p h i d i u m clavatum, sensu l a t o .  So f a r as i s p r e s e n t l y known, the s p e c i e s  56 l i v e s abundantly approximately almost  today throughout  i t s geographic  range i n water from 0 t o  30 meters, t h e n f a l l s o f f very r a p i d l y  completely  below about 60 m e t e r s .  e c o l o g i c i n d i c a t o r f o r the<present to 25°C), s a l i n i t y  i n numbers, d i s a p p e a r i n g  E . clavatum p r o v e s  fauna.  (35°/oo to approximately  The  the  outstanding  ranges of temperature  (-2°G  l 5 ° / o o ) , and depth (0 to 30 meters^,  i n d i c a t e d f o r the p r e s e n t fauna l a r g e l y depend on knowledge of t o l e r a n c e s of K.  clavatum  present  and on the more g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t most o t h e r s p e c i e s  cannot w i t h s t a n d s a l i n i t i e s as low as can E . clavatum.  l i m i t s of temperature,  s a l i n i t y , and depth,very  i s p o s s i b l e a t the p r e s e n t t i m e .  little  Within  these  further delineation  E x p l a n a t i o n s f o r most d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t o c c u r  between v a r i o u s assemblages of t h i s study can be o n l y t e n t a t i v e and  suggestive.  P o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have been g i v e n above.  Comparison w i t h o t h e r i Q u a t e r n a r y , N o r t h e r n , F o r a m i n i f e r a l Faunas  C o l d , Shallow-Water  At t h i s j u n c t u r e i t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o draw a comparison between t h i s fauna and  some o t h e r f o s s i l and  cold-water  r e c e n t faunas  foraminiferal province.  from t h e n o r t h e r n ,  shallow,  F o s s i l assemblages i n c l u d e some from  Anchorage i n A l a s k a , the G u l f of A l a s k a , Maine, and S p i t s b e r g e n . faunas  d i s c u s s e d are from marine waterways near Vancouver, B r i t i s h  and S e a t t l e , Washington; from o f f J a p a n ; i n B e r i n g S t r a i t ; Sea;  i n t h e Okhotsk Sea;  Recent Columbia  i n the Chukchi  I c e l a n d ; and Long I s l a n d Sound, New  York.  The B o o t l e g g e r Cove C l a y n e a r Anchorage, A l a s k a , y i e l d e d s p e c i e s r e f e r r e d to Quinqueloculina seminula J a c o b ) , G. incertum  (Linne), Guttulina lactea  (Walker  s p . , G l o b u l i n a c f . G. G l a c i a l i s Cushman and Ozawa, E l p h i d i u m  (Williamson) V a r . clavatum  Cushman, E l p h i d i u m c f . E .  bartletti  and  57 Cushman, E l p h i d i e l l a g r e e n l a n d i c a Cushman, and P r o t e l p h i d i u m o r b i c u l a r e (Brady),  These s p e c i e s were i d e n t i f i e d by J o y c e Mumby i n Schmidt (1963),  As  Schmidt s t a t e s , these s p e c i e s have been r e p o r t e d from A r c t i c and N o r t h A t l a n t i c waters.  They have a l s o been r e p o r t e d from e i t h e r o r b o t h Recent anfl f o s s i l  d e p o s i t s a l o n g the N o r t h P a c i f i c  coasts.  S h e l l s w i t h i n the Bootlegger  C l a y were dated by Ibnium/Th6riHB)methods as 46,000 t o 31,000 B, C. p. 350).  The  correspond  c l o s e l y with the g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s of the p r e s e n t  although  Cove  (ibid.,  d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e sediments c o n t a i n i n g the f o s s i l s does not  Schmidt b e l i e v e d the sediment r e p r e s e n t e d  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n the l i t h o l o g y may  a s h a l l o w marine d e p o s i t .  indicate different ecologic conditions,  a c c o u t i n g f o r the f a u n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the B o o t l e g g e r present m a t e r i a l .  study,  Cove C l a y and  I f the s m a l l number of s p e c i e s l i s t e d r e p r e s e n t s the  the  entire  f a u n a , p o s s i b l y v e r y c o l d water o r a r e s t r i c t e d seaway i s i n d i c a t e d . P,  Smith (1963) r e p o r t s f o u r shallow-water (76 t o 240 meters) cores  the G u l f of A l a s k a . top and  She  s t a t e s t h a t these  an A r c t i c fauna below.  cores show a b o r e a l fauna at the  Comparison w i t h modern d i s t r i b u t i o n of  s p e c i e s i n c l u d e d i n d i c a t e s , however, t h a t the evidence two  faunas from each o t h e r may  not be s u f f i c i e n t .  range and s e a i c e c o n d i t i o n s found  i s reasonable  the  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  W i t h i n the  these  temperature  i n the modern f a u n a l p r o v i n c e under  d i s c u s s i o n , l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n a t t r i b u t a b l e t o these f a c t o r s e x i s t s . it  from  Therefore,  t o assume t h a t the same s i t u a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n the p a s t ,  e s p e c i a l l y w i t h the s l i g h t l y deeper water probably  r e p r e s e n t e d by  samples, as l o c a l v a r i a t i o n i s l e s s i n deeper water.  F u r t h e r , no  and  Smith s 1  particular  r e a s o n e x i s t s t o suppose t h a t the B e r i n g l a n d b r i d g e p r o v i d e d a major b a r r i e r t o m i g r a t i o n of shallow-water F o r a m i n i f e r a between the n o r t h P a c i f i c A r t i e Oceans from l a t e P l i o c e n e t i m e t o the p r e s e n t . as t o the c o r r e l a t i o n between times  Although  of g l a c i a l advances and  and  opinions  r e t r e a t s and  differ times  58 of opening and c l o s i n g of B e r i n g S t r a i t ment e x i s t s t h a t B e r i n g S t r a i t was Quaternary  (see Hopkins, 1959), g e n e r a l agree-  open f o r considerable p e r i o d s d u r i n g the  Epoch.  C o c k b a i n (1963) r e c o r d s two Recent  faunas, one, m a i n l y  arenaceous,  from the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a and t h e o t h e r , m a i n l y c a l c a r e o u s , from J u a n Fuca S t r a i t .  de  The c a l c a r e o u s f a u n a s t u d i e d by C o c k b a i n i s s i m i l a r t o the  fauna, of the p r e s e n t study a l t h o u g h C a s s i d u l i n a a p p a r e n t l y i s t h e dominant element  o f h i s f a u n a , whereas E l p h i d i u m i s the dominant element  t h e samples  of the p r e s e n t s t u d y .  water" genus, commonly dominates waters deeper than about  i n a l l of  Cassidulina* although u s u a l l y a "shallow o v e r E l p h i d i u m , as i s the case h e r e , i n  60 m e t e r s .  I n the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a , C o c k b a i n  lists  h i s "Fauna A4" which does c o n t a i n E l p h i d i u m and E l p h i d i e l l a as the dominant element, more c l o s e l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e p r e s e n t f a u n a .  Cockbain a t t r i b u t e s  t h e g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e between h i s two major faunas m a i n l y t o " s a l i n i t y , and  depth,  temperature." Cushman and Todd (1947a) r e p o r t another s i m i l a r f a u n a , m a i n l y  F r i d a y H a r b o r i n the San J u a n A r c h i p e l a g o j u s t n o r t h o f S e a t t l e ,  from  Washington.  A l t h o u g h the fauna c o n t a i n s fewer s p e c i e s t h a n do Cockbain's o r the p r e s e n t fauna, perhaps due t o the s m a l l e r a r e a s t u d i e d o r t o sample s i z e , most of t h e i r s p e c i e s o c c u r i n the t h r e e faunas and i n s i m i l a r r e l a t i v e  abundance.  Cockbain's and Cushman and Todd's work concerns modern assemblages same f a u n a l p r o v i n c e as t h a t of t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , assemblages  from the  which a r e  those most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y t o t h a t o f the p r e s e n t study o f t h e Vancouver  area.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, i n s u f f i c i e n t taxonomic  d a t a are g i v e n i n both works t o a l l o w c l o s e comparison,  and  ecologic  V. S. M a l l o r y ,  B e t t y Enbysk, and o t h e r s are c o n t i n u i n g the study of l a t e Cenozoie F o r a m i n i f e r a from the Puget Sound r e g i o n .  59 Uchio (1959) d e s c r i b e d a shallow-water f o r a m i n i f e r a l N o b o r i b e t s u o f f t h e s o u t h e a s t c o a s t o f Hokkaido, J a p a n . belongs t o t h e p r e s e n t f a u n a l p r o v i n c e .  f a u n a from near T h i s fauna o b v i o u s l y  Uchio d e s c r i b e d depth z o n a t i o n s a t  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 meters and 50 meters which were marked by s h i f t s i n frequency o f Pseudononion  japonlcum, B u c c e l l a frigida» E l p h i d i u m clavatum, and  E g g e r e l l a advena.  A l t h o u g h Uchio found t h a t t h e warm T s u g a r u and K u r b s h i o  and c o l d O y a s h i o s u r f a c e c u r r e n t s a r e a l l w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l a r e a o f h i s s t u d y , as w e l l as t h e c o l d I n t e r m e d i a t e Water below 25 t o 50 meters, he conc l u d e d t h a t t h e nearshore branch o f t h e Oyashio mixed w i t h t h e Tsugaru o c c u p i e d t h e immediate a r e a o f h i s study most o f t h e y e a r , perhaps r e p l a c e d by t h e Tsugaru i t s e l f the c u r r e n t s , temperature  i n summer.  being  He found t h a t * i n combination w i t h  and s a l i n i t y v a r i e d s e a s o n a l l y and a f f e c t e d t h e  fauna t o a depth of 50 m e t e r s .  Below t h a t t h e c o l d I n t e r m e d i a t e Water  t o remain and s u s t a i n a " s h e l f f a u n a " dominated  appeared  by T r i f a r i n a f l u e n s and  C a s s i d u l i n a i s l a n d i c a below 70 m e t e r s . I n t h e w e s t e r n p a r t o f t h e B e r i n g Sea, B e l j a e v a (1960) r e c o g n i z e d f i v e s h e l f f a u n a s , a l l dominated  by c a l c a r e o u s s p e c i e s .  Many s p e c i e s were n o t e d  i n t h e d i f f e r e n t f a u n a s , w i t h t h o s e faunas from t h e s h a l l o w e s t water most s i m i l a r t o that of the present study.  Anderson  (1963) a l s o s t u d i e d B e r i n g  Sea assemblages s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e s e n t fauna, but he d i d n o t f i n d as many s p e c i e s as d i d B e l j a e v a .  He found E l p h i d i u m clavatum dominant i n r e s t r i c t e d ,  b r a c k i s h environments, w i t h a change i n dominance t o E g g e r e l l a advena i n u n r e s t r i c t e d environments be t h e c o n t r o l l i n g  o f normal marine s a l i n i t y .  He found s a l i n i t y t o  factor.  Cooper (1964) r e c o g n i z e d t h r e e faunas i n t h e s h a l l o w water ( l e s s 200 f e e t ) o f  than  t h e e a s t e r n Chukchi S e a . The t h r e e faunas were d e l i n e a t e d on  60 dominance i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f E g g e r e l l a advena, B u c c e l l a f r i g i d a , and E l p h i d i u m clavatum, along w i t h t h e p r e s e n c e o r absence A l t h o u g h some d i f f e r e n c e s i n s a l i n i t y  o f some o t h e r s p e c i e s .  and temperature were found t o e x i s t ,  Cooper concluded t h a t t h e most r e a s o n a b l e e c o l o g i c a l - c o n t r o l c o r r e l a t i o n was between F o r a m i n i f e r a and sediment  particle size.  l a g e s were found i n c o a r s e sediment fine  D i v e r s e c a l c a r e o u s assemb-  and reduced arenareous  assemblages i n  sediment, S a i d o v a (1960) r e c o g n i z e d 21 d i f f e r e n t assemblages i n t h e Okhotsk Sea  based on d e p t h , temperature, s a l i n i t y , oxygen, sediment C a l c a r e o u s forms dominated  t y p e , and l o c a l i t y .  i n a l l b u t one sample taken from s h a l l o w water.  B u c c e l l a f r i g i d a was c o s m o p o l i t a n and E l p h i d i u m clavatum b r o a d - r a n g i n g , Adams and Frampton (1965) found 17 s p e c i e s i n l i t t o r a l of  t h r e e f j o r d s i n northwest  r e p o r t e d one dominated all  Iceland,  marine  sediments  Two faunas were r e p r e s e n t e d .  They  by C i b i c i d e s l o b a t u l u s and E l p h i d i u m excavatum ( i n  l i k e l i h o o d t h i s form i s JS. clavatum) and c o n t a i n i n g 11 o t h e r s p e c i e s .  The o t h e r fauna c o n t a i n e d E» clavatum and a few o t h e r f o r a m i n i f e r a l s p e c i e s a l o n g w i t h abundant o s t r a c o d s , n o t found w i t h t h e f i r s t M. A .  Buzas  fauna.  has conducted s t u d i e s o f t h e f o r a m i n i f e r a l faunas  l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e c l a y from Messalonskee  from  stream near W a t e r v i l l e , Maine, and  from t h e modern fauna from Long I s l a n d Sound (1965a and 1965b).  Writing  i n 1965, Buzas s t a t e d t h a t "no e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e as t o t h e salinity  t o l e r a n c e o f any o f t h e s p e c i e s found i n t h e Messalonskee  area."  Most of t h e s p e c i e s , i n c l u d i n g a l l abundant forms, s t u d i e d by Buzas a r e found i n t h e p r e s e n t fauna, a l t h o u g h he l i s t e d o n l y 19 s p e c i e s .  By  " e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a " Buzas n o t o n l y meant l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s but measurements made i n programs d e s i g n e d t o c o r r e l a t e : f o r a m i n i f e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h e c o l o g i c parameters  i n t h e n a t u r a l environment,  Buzas p r e s e n t l y  i s engaged  61 i n a r e s e a r c h program t o determine  quantitatively  the e c o l o g i c v a r i a b l e s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n of some shallow-water Regarding  benthonic Foraminifera.  the fauna of t h e Mesalonskee Stream s e c t i o n , Buzas  determined  t h a t i t s a f f i n i t i e s were more w i t h t h o s e of modern A r c t i c s h a l l o w waters t h a n w i t h waters a t the l a t i t u d e s of s o u t h e r n Maine, on t h e b a s i s of the presence of " E l p h i d i u m " o r b i c u l a r e and C a s s i d u l i n a b a r b a r a  (conspeeific with  the North American form r e f e r r e d t o C a s s i d u l i n a i s l a n d ! c a ) which s p e c i e s a r e relatively  r a r e i n the modern fauna immediately  n o r t h of Cape Cod but common  i n the modern A r c t i c and f o s s i l Messalonskee f a u n a s .  C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , Buzas  p o i n t e d out t h a t the m o l l u s k s of t h e Presumpscot f o r m a t i o n ( i n which the f o r a m i n i f e r s of Messalonskee Stream occur) c o u l d be found seven t o e i g h t degrees  of l a t i t u d e f u r t h e r n o r t h today.  T h i s would tend t o support Wagner's  (1959) h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g P a c i f i c Northwest n o r t h - s o u t h m o l l u s k i n modern and, l a t e g l a c i a l t i m e s ,  distribution  P r o t e l p h i d i u m o r b i c u l a r e , however, i s commoner  i n the Vancouver f o s s i l fauna t h a n t h e more n o r t h e r l y J u n e a u , which does not correspond w i t h the s i t u a t i o n found by Buzas on t h e e a s t c o a s t . p e r s o n a l communication) s t a t e s , however, t h a t h i s comparative c o n c l u s i o n s based  Buzas (1965,  distributional  on the F o r a m i n i f e r a were s u s t a i n e d o n l y by meagre d a t a on the  o c c u r r e n c e s of the C a s s i d u l i n a and P r o t e l p h i d i u m i n q u e s t i o n , but t h a t the mollusk  d i s t r i b u t i o n was  b e t t e r known.  I n Long I s l a n d Sound Buzas (1965b) found E l p h i d i u m clavatum, B u c c e l l a f r i g i d a , and E g g e r e l l a adyena t h e dominant elements, p e r cent of t h e l i v i n g and t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n s .  r e p r e s e n t i n g over  T h r e e zones were d e f i n e d by  the change i n r e l a t i v e abundance of t h e s e s p e c i e s w i t h d e p t h . p o p u l a t i o n s , the mean depth of s t a t i o n s i n the E l p h i d i u m f r i g i d a , and E g g e r e l l a adyena zones was  75  I n the  living  clavatum,Buccella  12 meters, 25 m e t e r s , and 29 m e t e r s ,  62 respectively*  E l p h i d i u m clavatum.comprising over 90% o f t h e fauna i n water  s h a l l o w e r t h a n 15 meters>continued i n abundance down t o 30 m e t e r s , where i t began t o f a l l  o f f r a p i d l y , almost  S i n c e Buzas s e p a r a t e d l i v i n g  d i s a p p e a r i n g between 60 and  specimens from empty t e s t s by  100  meters.  the r o s e  s t a i n i n g method (see Walton, 1952), h i s r e s u l t s a r e most r e l i a b l e .  bengal The  abundance of t h e arenaceous f o r a m i n i f e r E g g e r e l l a advena i n c r e a s e d w i t h decrease  of sediment p a r t i c l e s i z e , but Buzas (1965, p e r s o n a l  does not b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s apparent  communication)  r e l a t i o n between p a r t i c l e s i z e  and  arenaceous v e r s u s c a l c a r e o u s t e s t n e c e s s a r i l y c o r r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y , e i t h e r i n Long I s l a n d Sound o r elsewhere where t h e phenomenon has been r e p o r t e d . concluded  t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the F o r a m i n i f e r a w i t h depth cannot  r e l a t e d t o temperature,  s a l i n i t y , phosphate, n i t r a t e , oxygen, pH,  t r a t i o n of p h y t o p l a n k t o n ,  o r p a r t i c l e s i z e of t h e sediment.  Eh,  To  Feyling-Hanssen  concenthat  their  feed.  i l l u s t r a t e t h e e s s e n t i a l homogeneity of the p r e s e n t  f o l l o w i n g comparison i s made.  be  He suggested  the f o r a m i n i f e r s i n Long I s l a n d Sound a r e s e l e c t i v e f e e d e r s , and t h a t d i s t r i b u t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e m a t e r i a l upon which they  Buzas  fauna,  the  (1965) r e c o r d s f o u r assemblages  b e l o n g i n g t o the same f a u n a l p r o v i n c e as t h e p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l from sediments he  i n t e r p r e t s as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the "Post G l a c i a l Warm i n t e r v a l " i n  S p i t s b e r g e n and w i t h which he Greenland  and S p i t s b e r g e n .  compares Recent assemblages from N o r t h e a s t  Of 57 s p e c i e s r e p o r t e d from f o u r u p l i f t e d marine  sediment samples from the T a l a v e r a a r e a , Barents^Y.a, S p i t s b e r g e n , o n l y arenaceous s p e c i e s , p o l y m o r p h i n i d s s p e c i e s , and p o s s i b l y two  of two  o r t h r e e s p e c i e s , one  rotaloid  o r t h r e e o t h e r s p e c i e s , a l l r a r e , a r e not  i n the B r i t i s h Columbia-Alaska  material.  five  present  A few o t h e r s p e c i e s a r e not  referred  t o as the same taxa.' as they are i n t h i s r e p o r t but a r e c o n s p e c i f i c i n f a c t . The  dominant forms i n F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n ' s  f o u r sampes a r e E l p h i d i u m  clavatum  63 (sensu l a t o ) , A s t r o n o n i o n g a l l o w a y ! , Nonion l a b r a d o r i c u m , C i b i c i d e s l o b a t u l u s , B u c c e l l a t e n e r r i m a , and C a s s i d u l i n a c r a s s a (which  i s t h e same s p e c i e s as  here  r e f e r r e d t o C. i s l a n d i c a ) .  Between the f o u r sampled, a marked d i f f e r e n c e i n  dominance o c c u r s , however.  I n one,  E l p h i d i u m clavatum  (sensu l a t o )  constitutes  31 p e r c e n t o f the fauna, A s t r o n i o n i o n galloway! 15 p e r c e n t , B u c c e l l a t e n e r r i m a 11 p e r c e n t , Nonion l a b r a d o r i c u m 10 p e r c e n t , and C a s s i d u l i n a c r a s s a and C i b i c j d e s l o b a t u l u s each 8 p e r c e n t , t o t a l i n g 83 p e r c e n t of t h e assemblage, w i t h t h e o t h e r 26 s p e c i e s each c o n s t i t u t i n g l e s s than t h r e e p e r cent of the assemblage.  I n t h e o t h e r t h r e e samples C i b i c j d e s l o b a t u l u s , A s t r o n o n i o n g a l l o w a y i ,  and JJonion l a b r a d o r i c u m a l l dominate over E l p h i d i u m clavatum,(sensu  lato)  w h i l e B u c c e l l a t e n e r r i m a i s r a r e and C a s s i d u l i n a c r a s s a i s p r e s e n t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s p e c t i v e percentages:  g r e a t e r , approximately  than E l p h i d i u m claVatum (pensu l a t o ) i n the t h r e e samples. f  remain r e l a t i v e l y  t h e same, and  lesser  A l l other species  rare.  I t can be seen c l e a r l y t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two  groups  of dominants ( E l p h i d i u m and B u c c e l l a v e r s u s A s t r o n o n i o n , C i b i c i d e s , and Nonion) i s s t r i k i n g when compared t o t h e p i c t u r e seen i n the B r i t i s h material  Columbia-Alaska  (see F i g u r e 3) where i n a l l 29 assemblages s t u d i e d , t h e E l p h l d i u m -  B u c c e l l a group dominantes.  Regarding  t h e o t h e r forms abundant a t T a l a v e r a ,  A s t r o n o n i o n g a l l o w a y ! i s p r e s e n t but r a r e i n many samples from Juneau L a k e l s e ; C i b i c i d e s l o b a t u l u s i s a subdominant i n t h e B r i t i s h material;  and  Columbia-Alaska  c a s s i d u l i n a s a l s o a r e subdominant, but a l t h o u g h b o t h are numerous,  the s p e c i e s t e r e t i s i s more abundant t h a n t h e c r a s s a - i s l a n d i ca form, whereas t e r e t i s i s p r e s e n t but n o t important  at Talavera.  though p r e s e n t i n most B r i t i s h Columbia-Alaska only two;  Nonion  labradoricum,  samples, o c c u r s commonly i n  and Pseudononion a u r i c u l t m and, t o a l e s s e r degree,  Elphidium  b a r t l e t t i , E p i s t o m i n e l l a v i t r e a and " V i r g u l i n a " f u s i f o r m i s a r e s p e c i e s which  64 form a s i g n i f i c a n t , component o f the B r i t i s h Columbia-Alaska  f a u n a but  which a r e r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y i n s m a l l numbers i n the T a l a v e r a samples. A l t h o u g h F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n does not mention the comparison o f dominants i n h i s f o u r samples,  i n s t e a d comparing  them, as a group more g e n e r a l l y t o  Recent N o r t h e a s t Greenland and S p i t s b e r g e n f a u n a s , i t seems warranted c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e Elphidium-dominated water t h a n d i d t h e o t h e r t h r e e ,  to  assemblages l i v e d i n s l i g h t l y s h a l l o w e r  Probably a l l l i v e d i n water shallower than  100 meters, based on the f a i r l y h i g h p e r cent of E. c l a v a t u m , sensu l a t o i n a l l samples and the s h a l l o w e r - w a t e r a s p e c t o f t h e f a u n a as a whole, but w i t h t h e Elphidium-dominated the s h o r e .  group most l i k e l y somewhere between 30 meters and  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a b r a c k i s h water environment  samples does not appear g r e a t and no l i k e l i h o o d e x i s t s t h a n 25°/oo even f o r the Elphidium-dominated  f o r any o f the  f o r s a l i n i t y of  assemblage,  F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n makes an a p p a r e n t l y V a l i d case f o r temperatures warmer t h a n o c c u r a t comparable l o c a l i t i e s today. on comparison  Greenland,  He  age, c o l l e c t e d  somewhat  He bases t h i s c o n c l u s i o n  o f the T a l a v e r a assemblages w i t h 12 A r c t i c bottom  assumed t o be o f Recent  less  samples,  by him from S p i t s b e r g e n and N o r t h e a s t  c i t e s as e v i d e n c e f o r c o l d e r water the r e l a t i v e  p a u c i t y and g r e a t dominance o f two s p e c i e s , s t a t i n g  taxonomic  t h a t one sample from  eight  meters o f f S p i t s b e r g e n c o n t a i n e d 33 s p e c i e s and one from 10 meters o f f N o r t h e a s t G r e e n l a n d y i e l d e d 24 s p e c i e s . samples v a r i e d from seven t o 16.  The number o f s p e c i e s i n the o t h e r 10 A t o t a l o f 53 s p e c i e s were observed.  f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t i n most samples E l p h i d i u m clavatum and C a s s i d u l i n a accounted f o r more t h a n 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e assemblage, a f r e q u e n c y characteristic glacial  He crassa  distribution  of A r c t i c s h a l l o w - w a t e r faunas today and o f l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e  c l a y s i n Norway ( F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n 1954,  1957).  65  FAUNAL COMPOSITION  Most l o c a l i t i e s y i e l d remarkably homogeneous assemblages. fewer s p e c i e s than u s u a l , n e v e r t h e l e s s these reduced  faunas e x h i b i t t h e same  k i n d of s p e c i e s dominance as the more d i v e r s e assemblages; the samples a r e o u t s t a n d i n g examples o f t h i s , The  (See F i g u r e  f o s s i l s s t u d i e d come from s i x l o c a l i t i e s  B r i t i s h Columbia; two  localities  i n t h e r e g i o n of Vancouver,  from the e a s t c o a s t of Graham I s l a n d , Queen Columbia;  f i f t e e n l o c a l i t i e s from the a r e a around Juneau, A l a s k a , r e p r e s e n t i n g a  l i n e a r d i s t a n c e of about 900 m i l e s , Arenaceous forms a r e r e p r e s e n t e d two  Lakelese  3.)  C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s ; t h r e e cores from a s l i d e a t L a k e l s e , B r i t i s h and  Some comprise  ( F i g u r e s 1 and  2.)  o n l y by o c c a s i o n a l specimens of one  s p e c i e s of Haplophragmoides o f the f a m i l y L i t u o l i d a e , a few  E g g e r e l l a advena of t h e f a m i l y V a l v u l i n i d a e , one Saccamminidae, one  of the Hyperamminidae, and one  o r two  or  specimens of  s p e c i e s of  the  q u e s t i o n a b l e Trochammina o f  the Trochamminidae, The The  s i l i c e o u s forms i n c l u d e one  specimen q u e s t i o n a b l y r e f e r r e d t o R z e h a k i n a .  c a l c a r e o u s i m p e r f o r a t e group comprises r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l numbers of  the  M i l i o l i d a e , w i t h a t l e a s t f o u r s p e c i e s of Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a , two s p e c i e s of M i l i o l i n e l l a , one o r two one o r two  s p e c i e s o f P a t e o r i s , two s p e c i e s o f T r i l o c u l i n a ,  s p e c i e s of P y r g o , and t h e O p h t h a l m i d i i d a e ,  and  w i t h s e v e r a l specimens  of G o r d i o s p l r a . Calcareous found, b o t h two  p e r f o r a t e F o r a m i n i f e r a a r e by f a r t h e most abundant forms  i n a c t u a l numbers and  taxonomic d i v e r s i t y .  Specimens of one  s p e c i e s o r v a r i e t i e s of E l p h i d i u m g r e a t l y outnumber a l l o t h e r forms.  O t h e r members of t h e E l p h i d i i d a e , some o c c u r r i n g i n f a i r l y  l a r g e numbers,  or  66 include at l e a s t four species of Elphidium, two s p e c i e s o f P r o t e l p h i d i u m ,  two s p e c i e s o f E l p h i d i e l l a , and  O t h e r f a m i l i e s r e p r e s e n t e d by r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e  numbers o f specimens, although n o t n e a r l y as numerous as t h e E l p h i d i i d a e and of more l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n c l u d e the C a s s i d u l i n i d a e , t h e N o n i o n i d a e , t h e R o t a l i i d a e ^ and the A n o m a l i n i d a e .  The C a s s i d u l i n i d a e i n c l u d e two  fairly  numerous s p e c i e s , w i t h one r a r e s p e c i e s and two r a r e and q u e s t i o n a b l e of  Cassidulina,  The N o n i o n i d a e comprise two f a i r l y  species  numerous s p e c i e s , one of  Nonion and one o f Pseudononion, and s m a l l numbers of specimens a s s i g n e d t o Astrononion  (two s p e c i e s ) , N o n i o n e l l a (two s p e c i e s ) , and Pseudononion  two s p e c i e s ) .  (one o r  Two s p e c i e s o f B u c c e l l a r e p r e s e n t t h e most abundant r o t a l i i d s .  Two s p e c i e s of E p i s t o m i n e l l a , one r e p r e s e n t e d by q u i t e a few specimens, and one q u e s t i o n a b l e s p e c i e s of B u c c e l l a complete t h e l i s t  of the R q t a l i i d a e .  The A n o m a l i n i d a e i n c l u d e one s p e c i e s o f C i b i c i d e s , which o c c u r s  in fairly  l a r g e numbers l o c a l l y , and a few specimens r e f e r r e d t o D y o c i b i c i d e s . The L a g e n i d a e comprise a g r e a t v a r i e t y of s p e c i e s but a l l o c c u r i n s m a l l numbers.  T h e r e a r e about 12 s p e c i e s of Lagena, 1 0 of O o l i n a , s i x of F i s s u r i n a ,  t h r e e o f D e n t a l i n a , and one each o f Robulus and P l a n u l a r i a . The B u l i m i n i d a e a r e not numerous but r e p r e s e n t a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number o f t h e more minor elements of t h e f a u n a .  T h e r e a r e two s p e c i e s each of, B o l i v i n a and T r i f a r i n a ,  and one s p e c i e s each o f B u l i m i n e l l a , R o b e r t i n a , G l o b o b u l i m i n a , 3 1 1 ( 1  Pvigerina.  "Virgulina,"  Of t h e s e , " V i r g u l i n a , " f o l l o w e d by B o l i v i n a , B u l i m i n e l l a ,  T r i f a r i n a , and U v i g e r l n a , i n c l u d e most of the specimens of t h i s f a m i l y .  The  f a m i l i e s P o l y m o r p h i n i d a e (one s p e c i e s each o f Polymorphina,Sigmomorphina(?) , Laryngosigma), S p i r i l l i n i d a e  (one s p e c i e s of P a t e l l i n a ) , D i s c o r b i d a e (two  s p e c i f i c a l l y u n i d e n t i f i e d and two q u e s t i o n a b l e members o f D i s c o r b l s ) , Epistomariidae  (one s p e c i e s of E p i s t o m a r o i d e s ) ,  G l o b i g e r i n a , f a i r l y w e l l represented elsewhere) complete the fauna.  and G l o b i g e r i n i d a e (two s p e c i e s  i n the Queen C h a r l o t t e m a t e r i a l and r a r e  67 AGE  AND  CORRELATION  D e f i n i t i o n and C o r r e l a t i o n of the P l e i s t o c e n e S e r i e s and Epoch  I t i s reasonable  t o assume t h a t a l l of the l o c a l i t i e s  t h i s study are of P l e i s t o c e n e age,  examined i n  u s i n g the d e f i n i t i o n of P l e i s t o c e n e  i n c l u s i v e o f a l l l a t e Cenozoie e p i s o d e s of advanced i c e a l o n g w i t h  as  their  r e l a t e d i n t e r g l a c i a l episodes.  O r i g i n a l l y , L y e l l d e c l a r e d t h a t h i s "Newer  P l i o c e n e " or P l e i s t o c e n e should  be t h a t time when a p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e t y  cent of the marine fauna b e l o n g t o e x t a n t per  cent t o e x t i n c t s p e c i e s .  changed the d e f i n i t i o n .  He  s p e c i e s and  per  only approximately  ten  Subsequently, i n h i s tenth e d i t i o n , L y e l l f o l l o w e d the work of g l a c i o l o g i s t s , s t a t i n g t h a t  the P l e i s t o c e n e s h o u l d be t h a t time of advanced i c e .  T h i s posed a p a r t i c u -  l a r l y d i f f i c u l t problem i n world-wide c o r r e l a t i o n of contemporaneous d e p o s i t s . The  first  appearance of one  o r the o t h e r o r both of the  forms A r c t i c a (=Cyprina) i s l a n d i c a baltica  "colder-water"  (a p e l e c y p o d ) and H y a l i n e a  (a f o r a m i n i f e r ) i n the M e d i t e r r a n e a n has  (=Anomalina)  a l s o been recommended by  members of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission on S t r a t i g r a p h i c Nomenclature as marking t h e b e g i n n i n g  of the P l e i s t o c e n e .  Radioactive  decay schemes  o t h e r methods a l s o are p r e s e n t l y b e i n g used t o d e f i n e the  and  Pliocene-Pleistocene  boundary.  Such o t h e r methods as oxygen i s o t o p e r a t i o s , C 14,  decay, and  d i r e c t i o n s of c o i l i n g of p l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a have a l s o been  used t o s u b d i v i d e the P l e i s t o c e n e S t a g e .  The  Ionium/Thorium  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the V i l l a f r a n c h i a n  d e p o s i t s t o C a l a b r i a n i n the P l e i s t o c e n e type a r e a of I t a l y and presents  a n o t h e r problem; t h i s i s , s h o u l d  equated w i t h  elsewhere  the base of the P l e i s t o c e n e  be  the base of the V i l l a f r a n c h i a n , the base of t h e C a l a b r i a n o r  base of the Upper C a l a b r i a n ?  Such workers as Evernden, C u r t i s , and  the  68 Savage a r e s t u d y i n g  t h i s problem from t h e b a s i s o f r a d i o a c t i v e decay age  d a t a and g l a c i a l sediment and f a u n a l c o r r e l a t i o n s . C a l a b r i a n d e p o s i t s , which a r e c o n s i d e r e d  C l e a r l y , t h e base o f  as much a p a r t o f t h e type  P l e i s t o c e n e as t h e V i l l a f r a n c h i a n , i s n o t as o l d as t h e b a s e o f t h e Villafranchian.  In a s e r i e s apparently  representing  continuous d e p o s i t i o n ,  the C a l a b r i a n i s immediately u n d e r l a i n by beds r e f e r r e d t o t h e P l i o c e n e . However, g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s have been f o u n d i l o w i n t h e V i l l a f r a n c h i a n , i n m a t e r i a l probably  c o r r e l a t i v e with  ( C u r t i s , 1965, p e r s o n a l  t h e " P l i o c e n e " beds below t h e C a l a b r i a n  communication),  potassium/Argon dates on lower  V i l l a f r a n c h i a n m a t e r i a l are approximately three m i l l i o n years  before  present.  I f t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e P l e i s t o c e n e i s t o r e s t on g l a c i a t i o n , i t i s reasonable  t o assume t h a t no l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n e x i s t s between P l e i s t o c e n e  and Recent o r Holocene, p a r t i c u l a r l y today r e c o g n i z e  i n l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t most workers  that, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , the s e r i e s of g l a c i a l  numbered many more than t h e " c l a s s i c " f o u r . represent,  Present  i n t h e o p i n i o n o f many m e t e o r o l o g i s t s ,  advances  i c e d i s t r i b u t i o n may  a r e l a t a t i v e l y warm  p e r i o d w i t h i n a c o n t i n u i n g s e r i e s o f g l a c i a l advances and r e t r e a t s . and G e i s s  (1957)  Emiliani  g i v e a p e r t i n e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l problem o f  g l a c i a t i o n and an e x c e l l e n t b i b l i o g r a p h y on t h e s u b j e c t , a l t h o u g h t h e i r dates on " P l e i s t o c e n e " i c e advances do n o t agree w i t h more r e c e n t subject.  E m i l i a n i (1965, p e r s o n a l  time-scale presently The  d a t a on t h a t  communication) now agrees w i t h the l o n g e r  advanced.  p r e s e n t work c a n shed no l i g h t on t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e P l e i s t o c e n e  o t h e r t h a n t o suggest t h a t d e p o s i t s h e r e i n and elsewhere r e f e r r e d t o t h e P l e i s t o c e n e S e r i e s are probably type area of I t a l y .  younger t h a n any d e p o s i t s s o r e f e r r e d i n t h e  I t i s t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t t h e problem o f t h e base  69 o f t h e P l e i s t o c e n e a t l e a s t s h o u l d be r e s o l v e d i n t h e t y p e a r e a i f p o s s i b l e . The  problems o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e end o f t h e P l e i s t o c e n e and o f w o r l d -  wide c o r r e l a t i o n o f P l e i s t o c e n e d e p o s i t s s t i l l  remain.  Age and C o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia and Southeast A l a s k a  The  Deposits  b a s i s f o r assumption o f l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e age f o r t h e m a t e r i a l  s t u d i e d h e r e r e s t s on t h e f a c t s t h a t C 14 dates a v a i l a b l e correspond  with  time o f t h e l a s t i c e advances and t h e d e p o s i t s o b v i o u s l y have a g l a c i a l origin.  T h e s e g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s appear t o o v e r l i e i n d u r a t e d m a t e r i a l o f  T e r t i a r y and o l d e r ages i n a l l c a s e s .  The g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s a r e o v e r l a i n  l o c a l l y by beds o f p e a t , sand, and g r a v e l , o r s o i l s and humus. s a i l , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e C zone, i s weathered glac^-marine  material.  marine d e p o s i t s a r e n o t i n d u r a t e d enough t o be c o n s i d e r e d grounds o f p h y s i c a l s t r a t i g r a p h y , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e  Some o f t h e  rock.  The g l a c i o Thus, on  t o a s s i g n a l l the m a t e r i a l  studied t o the Pleistocene S e r i e s , T h e r e i s no b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c way t o determine c l o s e l y t h e age o f these d e p o s i t s because a l l forms r e c o g n i z e d the p r e s e n t .  range from a t l e a s t l a t e P l i o c e n e t o  S i n c e some s p e c i e s have n o t been r e p o r t e d from r o c k s o l d e r t h a n  l a t e P l i o c e n e , i t i s c o r r e c t t o s a y t h a t F o r a m i n i f e r a i n d i c a t e a n age o f from l a t e P l i o c e n e t o present present  f o r the deposits studied; s i n c e Elphidium  clavatum,  i n a l l samples, has been r e p o r t e d o n l y from l a t e P l i o c e n e and  Quaternary d e p o s i t s and i s b e l i e v e d r e s t r i c t e d t o t h a t time range, t h e age designation applies to a l l studied l o c a l i t i e s ,  Ttte  assumption t h a t t h e  sediments a r e o f P l e i s t o c e n e age because they a r e f o s s i l b u t c o n t a i n only  70 s p e c i e s which a r e l i v i n g today i s i n c o r r e c t i n i t s b a s i s a l t h o u g h c o n c l u s i o n may  prove c o r r e c t f o r t u i t o u s l y .  the  I t i s possible to f i n d a  fossil  f a u n a , t h e members of which a r e a l l l i v i n g but a r e a l l l o n g r a n g i n g , which r e p r e s e n t an age of many m i l l i o n s o f y e a r s . and  Ranges o f s p e c i e s must be known  c o n c l u s i o n s as t o age kept w i t h i n t h e i r bounds.  a r i s e s t o g i v e age  assignments and  on i n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a .  The  may  Often great  temptation  t o make s t r a t i g r a p h i c c o r r e l a t i o n s based  temptation  extends i n the p r e s e n t  case beyond t h e  assumption t h a t a l l of t h e d e p o s i t s s t u d i e d a r e of P l e i s t o c e n e age t o assuming t h a t they are indeed contemporaneous.  R e l a t i v e contemporaneity may  here i f one presumes t h a t a l l d e p o s i t s r e p r e s e n t t h e same ( l a s t )  be assumed  glacial  advance i n t h i s a r e a , but t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i s based on p h y s i c a l s t r a t i g r a p h y and homogeneity of f a u n a l c o m p o s i t i o n ,  not known s t r a t i g r a p h i c ranges of  fossils. R a d i o a c t i v e decay d a t a on the p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l do p r o v i d e a more c e r t a i n basis for correlation. it  M a t e r i a l i n t h e sediments can be d a t e d by C 14,  since  f a l l s w i t h i n the time-range c a p a b i l i t y of r a d i o c a r b o n d a t i n g (back t o  approximately  30,000 t o 40,000 y e a r s b e f o r e p r e s e n t ) .  I t has been found  t h e f o s s i l i f e r o u s g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s and o v e r l y i n g peat  that  i n the sewer  e x c a v a t i o n j u s t n o r t h of Burnaby Lake (D-1211) gave C 14 ages o f about 12,000 y e a r s and  9,000 y e a r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y (Mathews, 1962,  Armstrong (1964, p e r s o n a l communication) has Boundary Bay  (D-1213) gave a C 14 age  personal  i n d i c a t e d t h a t marine s h e l l s a t  of 12,800 + 175  and  at F o r t  (D-1208) an age of 11,930 +1190, w h i l e wood from the l o c a l i t y George Highway (D-1212) gave a C 14 age of 12,625 + 450. HighburyifTunnel  communication).  Langley  on the King  A date on the .  (D-1210) m a t e r i a l would be i n t e r e s t i n g because t h e sample i s  from t h e "base of the P l e i s t o c e n e s u c c e s s i o n " i n the t u n n e l as r e c o g n i z e d  by  t h e d r i l l e r s and because the C i b i c i d e s l o b a t u l u s of t h i s sample d i f f e r some-  71 what from t h o s e found elsewhere and E l p h i d i u m clavatum. sensu s t r i c t o i s missing.  P e a t o v e r l y i n g t h e g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t sampled  near Juneau  on Montana Creek  (B-7068) gave a C 14 age of around 8,000 y e a r s (Loney,  p e r s o n a l communication).  A t the same t i m e , s h e l l s i n d e p o s i t s  1962,  looking  i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e d i s c u s s e d above but o c c u r r i n g on Vancouver I s l a n d (not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y ) gave a minimum C 14 age o f 35,000 y e a r s ( B r o e c k e r , 1964, p e r s o n a l communication).  Assuming  t h a t t h e s e ages a r e c o r r e c t , a  d i s c u s s i o n o f the problems o f C 14 d a t i n g not b e i n g i n o r d e r h e r e , i t can e a s i l y be seen t h a t l i t h o l o g i c c o r r e l a t i o n s remain, as they have always  been,  dubious a t b e s t . Such s t u d i e s as t h o s e o f Armstrong  (1965  (1953), 1956, 1957, and  1960)  i l l u s t r a t e t h e v a l u e o f l i t h o l o g i c c o r r e l a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y where a c t u a l p h y s i c a l s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s can be observed i n t h e f i e l d .  I n areas of  r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e s t r u c t u r e and s t r a t i g r a p h y , and where exposures a r e s u f f i c i e n t , p h y s i c a l or l i t h o l o g i c  c r i t e r i a do g i v e a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f t h e  r e l a t i o n s between b o d i e s o f sediment o r r o c k .  However, they o n l y g i v e  r e l a t i v e ages w i t h i n an a r e a s t u d i e d and do not i n themselves a l l o w age assignments t o any s t a n d a r d a c c e p t a b l e t i m e - r o c k u n i t s . Another problem a r i s e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h age assignments o f units.  T h i s problem i s met p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n the Quaternary where  lithologic first  appearances and e x t i n c t i o n s o f f o s s i l s become uncommon and where d i s c i p l i n e s o t h e r t h a n p a l e o n t o l o g y and geology a r e used t o o b t a i n r e l a t i v e and/or ages of d e p o s i t s .  actual  There i s a s t r o n g tendency among many workers t o apply t h e  i l l - c o n c e i v e d assumption t h a t change o f r o c k type and/or f o s s i l s  (because of  e c o l o g i c f e a t u r e s s u c h as temperature) n e c e s s a r i l y means t h a t a known o r r e c o g n i z a b l e time l i n e has been crossed. workers do t h i s  Few  biostratigraphically-oriented  i n t e n t i o n a l l y , a l t h o u g h workers grounded  i n other d i s c i p l i n e s  72  may  not be  aware of the problem.  ghost o f E . 0 , The by  t r u e , however, t h a t  assumption t h a t the top of the P l e i s t o c e n e o r a " t i m e - l i n e " i s marked e c o l o g i c changes i l l u s t r a t e d by  faunal differences i n a  ( o r c o r e ) i n a g l a c i a t e d a r e a , such as t h a t of the p r e s e n t  based on f a u l t y r e a s o n i n g correct.  The  a l t h o u g h the assumption may  l i t h o l o g i c and  e c o l o g i c changes o n l y  s e t of c o r e s o r t h i c k e r d e p o s i t may  study, i s  fortuitiously  prove  indicate that, i f properly  i n t e r p r e t e d , a c o l d e r p e r i o d p r e c e d e d a warmer one.  I n s u c h a case* a  longer  show a l t e r n a t i n g c o l d e r and warmer p e r i o d s *  I f no t r u l y t i m e - s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t e r i a are a v a i l a b l e , the assumption t h a t P l e i s t o c e n e i s represented "warmer" and  by  a c o r e o r s e c t i o n w i t h a l t e r n a t i o n of  relatively  ( o r o n l y observed) appearance o f " c o l d - w a t e r sediments,"  be worth p r o p o s i n g *  I t must be s t r e s s e d , however, t h i s t h i s  i s only an assumption o r a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n .  cannot be p r o v e d .  The  problems of the  conclusion  I f such a sediment change i s  a l s o found elsewhere, a c o r r e l a t i o n between the two and  the  " c o l d e r - w a t e r s e d i m e n t s , " o r t h a t the top of the p l e i s t o c e n e i s  marked by the h i g h e s t may  the  U l r i c h i s s t i l l w i t h many i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e .  l i t h o l o g i c and  deposit  I t i s unfortunately  i s a g a i n o n l y an  assumption  Pliocene-Pleistocene-Recent  b o u n d a r i e s o r of c o r r e l a t i o n s o f s u b d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h i s time range have never been t r u l y s o l v e d and  i t i s thus t h a t  i n t h i s time range workers are  prone t o f a l l back on p h y s i c a l s t r a t i g r a p h y o r other  particularly  c r i t e r i a t h a t are  not  t r u l y t i m e - s i g n i f i c a n t t o i n d i c a t e time and c o r r e l a t i o n . The  p r o b l e m of f a u n a l m i g r a t i o n becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y  l a t e C e n o z o i e , making c o r r e l a t i o n s f r o m one  a r e a t o a n o t h e r , such as from  Juneau t o Vancouver, d i f f i c u l t b o t h w i t h l a r g e r and B i o s t r a t i g r a p h e r s tend t o assume t h a t the f i r s t considered  important i n the  s m a l l e r marine  invertebrates,  appearance of a taxon can  contemporaneous throughout t h a t taxons g e o g r a p h i c r a n g e .  be  The  assumption o f homotaxis on the p a r t o f a b i o s t r a t i g r a p h e r becomes more and more comfortable the o l d e r the r o c k s he  considers.  The  time of e x t i n c t i o n of a  73 taxon u s u a l l y a l s o i s considered graphic  almost contemporaneous throughout the geo-  range of t h a t t a x o n j even though such n o t a b l e r e l i c faunas as "Permian"  f o s s i l s i n the T r i a s s i c of Timor s e r v e t o remind one assumption.  No  of t h e dangers of t h i s  doubt, however, i f a b i o s t x a t i g r a p h e r  were l i v i n g a t any  time  i n the g e o l o g i c p a s t he would be b e s e t w i t h problems of f a u n a l m i g r a t i o n time b o u n d a r i e s *  The  p o i n t i s t h a t when the b i o s t r a t i g r a p h e r i s l i v i n g a t a  time not f a r removed f r o m t h a t of h i s b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c s t u d i e s , f a u n a l looms l a r g e when p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l t i m e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e attempted. generally  a c c e p t e d t h a t temperature changes cause northward and  f a u n a l m i g r a t i o n s as w e l l as some depth m i g r a t i o n ; i n s h a l l o w water.  I f one  does n o t  recognize  i n s t e a d of d i f f e r e n t e c o l o g i c c o n d i t i o n s , c o n d i t i o n s  invertebrates  dealing with Pliocene  on the west coast  It is  southward  such f a u n a l m i g r a t i o n s i n b i o o r more s i m i l a r faunas  the same time, o r t h a t d i s s i m i l a r faunas r e p r e s e n t  Paleontologists  migration  t h e s e a r e noted p a r t i c u l a r l y  s t r a t i g r a p h i c s t u d i e s , i t becomes easy t o assume t h a t two represent  and  d i f f e r e n t times  t h a t change w i t h t i m e .  and P l e i s t o c e n e  l a r g e r marine  of N o r t h America c o n s t a n t l y must a s s e s s  r o l e of f a u n a l m i g r a t i o n when making c o r r e l a t i o n s .  the  They are b e s e t w i t h  the  problem o f d e c i d i n g ttiether they a r e c o n f r o n t e d  w i t h time-e-r e c o l o g i c - c o r r e l a t i v e  c r i t e r i a as they work up  Further,  and  down the  coast.  r a d i o a c t i v e decay  (K/Ar) d a t e s show t h a t no doubt e x i s t s t h a t l a t e T e r t i a r y m e g a f o s s i l w i d e l y a c c e p t e d as t r u e t i m e - s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s , are t o t h e e x t e n t of s e v e r a l m i l l i o n y e a r s , K/Ar J , W.  i n fact  Durham, a p a l e o n t o l o g i s t l o n g  time-transgressive  (This l a s t c o n c l u s i o n  work done a t the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y and  "ages,"  i s based upon  agreed t o  by  concerned w i t h problems o f West Coast  Tertiary biostratigraphic correlation,)  74 CONCLUSIONS  The p r e s e n t study of t h e f o r a m i n i f e r a l faunas along the B r i t i s h Columbia-southeastern  from u n c o n s o l i d a t e d d e p o s i t s  A l a s k a c o a s t of N o r t h America p r o v i d e s  a framework f o r f u t u r e d e t a i l e d work i n t h e r e g i o n and f a c t s i n t h e g e o l o g i c h i s t o r y of t h e  establishes certain  area.  F i r s t , g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s c o n t a i n i n g F o r a m i n i f e r a and o t h e r marine f o s s i l s o c c u r l o c a l l y throughout  t h e a r e a of s t u d y ; they a r e exposed a t  e l e v a t i o n s from s e a l e v e l t o a t l e a s t s e v e r a l hundred f e e t h i g h e r , w i t h  the  h i g h e s t d e p o s i t s appearing t o o c c u r a t d i f f e r e n t e l e v a t i o n s a t d i f f e r e n t localities.  The  reasons  f o r the p r e s e n t exposure o f t h e s e d e p o s i t s above s e a  l e v e l p r o b a b l y a r e i s o s t a t i c rebound f o l l o w i n g removal of i c e l o a d i n g , and local tectonic u p l i f t .  Assuming lower s e a s t a n d d u r i n g times of  advance, t h e d e p o s i t s p r o b a b l y down drop a l s o may  glacial  o c c u r below p r e s e n t s e a l e v e l a l s o ;  have submerged some d e p o s i t s .  have been shown t o be t i l l - l i k e ,  The  glacio-marine deposits  p o o r l y s o r t e d and unbedded, but have a  d i s t i n c t i v e b l u i s h c o l o r ; the c o r r e l a t i o n between c o l o r and marine suggests  tectonic  fossils  t h a t , i n r e c o n n a i s s a n c e work, the c o l o r can be used t o r e c o g n i z e  t e n t a t i v e l y a marine d e p o s i t e , d i s t a n c e s o u t h and  These g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s extend a s h o r t  a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e n o r t h o f the p r e s e n t area of  s t u d y ; s i m i l a r d e p o s i t s a r e found  i n h i g h n o r t h e r n l a t i t u d e s around the  world.  Second, the p r e s e n t s t u d y demonstrates c l e a r l y t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a n o r t h e r n , c o l d , shallow-water  f o r a m i n i f e r a l p r o v i n c e on t h e B r i t i s h  southeast A l a s k a coast during g l a c i a l times. and  Columbia-  I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h e v a l u a t i o n of  c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h o t h e r work done on s h a l l o w , c o l d - w a t e r n o r t h e r n  faunas  i n t h e p a s t few y e a r s , t h e p r e s e n t f a u n a l d a t a b r i n g s i n t o c l e a r f o c u s s u r p r i s i n g l y g r e a t geographic  the  e x t e n t o f t h i s p r o v i n c e ; t h e p r o v i n c e i s much  75 l a r g e r t h a n a r e mostbenthonic out Quaternary  time.  foraminiferal provinces.  I t has e x i s t e d  through-  T h i s p r o v i n c e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a few s p e c i e s and  t h e s e same s p e c i e s o c c u r t o g e t h e r i n about t h e same r e l a t i v e abundance i n h i g h l a t i t u d e s a l l around t h e n o r t h e r n hemisphere.  The p r e s e n t  distribution  and t h e r e f o r e presumably a l s o p a s t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e s p e c i e s taken t o g e t h e r i s i n s h a l l o w (0 t o 30 m e t e r s ) , c o l d salinities  (approximately  35°/oo t o 20°/po)»  (-2°C t o 25°C) water o f v a r y i n g Some e c o l o g i c a l t o l e r a n c e l i m i t s  of t h e p r e s e n t assemblages have b e e n p o i n t e d out and p a l e o e c o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s suggested.  A t t e n t i o n has been f o c u s e d on t h e problem o f p a l e o e c o l o g i c a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n when l i t t l e e c o l o g i c a l d a t a e x i s t e v e n when t h e s p e c i e s o f t h e f o s s i l fauna a l s o e x i s t  today.  T h i r d , t h e age o f t h e d e p o s i t s s t u d i e d has been c o n f i r m e d as P l e i s t o c e n e , with reasonable accuracy.  P r o b a b l y most of t h e d e p o s i t s r e p r e s e n t t h e l a s t  g l a c i a l advance i n t h e a r e a o f s t u d y and a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y . 10,000 t o 12,000 y e a r s o l d ( a l t h o u g h D-1210 mast p r o b a b l y  i s o l d e r and g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s  on Vancouver I s l a n d have been d a t e d as a t l e a s t 35,000 y e a r s o l d ) . F i n a l l y , t h e s y s t e m a t i c p a l e o n t o l o g y o f t h e F o r a m i n i f e r a found has been d i r e c t e d toward c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e taxonomy o f t h e more abundant forms wherever p o s s i b l e and some s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been established. synonymy i s p r e s e n t e d wherever p o s s i b l e . have been d e s c r i b e d .  An e x t e n s i v e  One new s p e c i e s and two new v a r i e t i e s  76 Summation and the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f a u n a l c r i t e r i a f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e f o r a m i n i f e r a l f a u n a l p r o v i n c e d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s r e p o r t s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e an important a s p e c t o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s work.  For s a l i n i t i e s  not l e s s t h a n 25°/oo n o r more t h a n 35°/oo, a s i t e o f d e p o s i t i o n not g r e a t l y r e s t r i c t e d i n i t s marine c o n n e c t i o n s  (as not a v e r y l o n g , v e r y narrow f j o r d ) ,  and depths o f l e s s than about 30 meters, t h e fauna s h o u l d be dominated by the following: E l p h i d i u m clavatum  Cushman  B u c c e l l a f r i g i d a (Cushman) E g g e r e l l a advena (Cushman) S p e c i e s o f t e n found i n l a r g e numbers w i t h t h e s e dominants, o r sometimes r e p l a c i n g one, e s p e c i a l l y o f t h e l a t t e r two, i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g j Elphidium b a r t l e t t i  Cushman  E l p h i d i u m f r i g i d u m Cushman E l p h i d i u m s u b a r c t i c u m Cushman ( i f t h a t s p e c i e s i s v a l i d ) C a s s i d u l i n a t e r e t i s Tappan C a s s i d u l i n a i s l a n d i c a NjSrvang  ( o r another s p e c i e s which i s  m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y v e r y s i m i l a r and e a s i l y confused C. i s l a n d i c a ) C i b i c i d e s l o b a t u l u s (Walker B u c c e l l a tenerrima  and J a c o b )  (Bandy)  Pseudononion a u r i culum ( H e r o n - A l l e n and E a r l a n d ) Protelphidium orbi culare  (Brady)  Nonion l a b r a d o r i c u m (Dawson) A s t r o n o n i o n g a l l o w a y i L o e b l i c h and Tappan "Virgulina" fusiformis  (Williamson)  with  77 Buliminella elegantissima  (d'Orbigny)  Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a of s u c h s p e c i e s as £ . a g g l u t i n a t a Cushman, a k n e r i a n a b e l l a t u l a Bandy,  a r c t i c a Cushman, £ .  s t a l k e r i L o e b l i c h and Tappan, and £ . s e m i n u l i n a (Linne) A l s o found f r e q u e n t l y but g e n e r a l l y  i n s m a l l numbers a r e c e r t a i n o t h e r  s p e c i e s o f the above genera and c e r t a i n s p e c i e s o f the f o l l o w i n g  genera?  Elphidiella Bolivina Buiimina Globobulina Buliminella Lagena Oolina Fissurina T r i l o c u l i n a * Pyrgo»  and o t h e r m i l i o l i d  genera  Polymorphina and r e l a t e d p o l y m o r p h i n i d genera such as Sigmomorphina, Pseudopolymorphina,  Laryngosigma,  G l a n d u l i n a , P s e u d o g l a n d u l i n a , and G u t t u l i n a Some arenaceous s p e c i e s of such genera as  Haplophragmoides,  Trochammina, P r o t e o n i n a , and Reophax I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t on the s p e c i f i c and sometimes g e n e r i c  level  g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s i n comparing R u s s i a n and J a p a n e s e r e c o r d s o f s h a l l o w , c o l d - w a t e r f o r a m i n i f e r a l faunas w i t h t h o s e of N o r t h America and Western Europe.  Taxonomic d e s i g n a t i o n s g i v e n by Russian-and Japanese  workers, as w e l l as those g i v e n i n such Chinese works as become a v a i l a b l e , f r e q u e n t l y d i f f e r from t h o s e g i v e n by North American and Western workers.  F a u n a l l i s t s , t h e n , are o f t e n of l i t t l e v a l u e , and  European  frequently  78 i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y c a r e f u l l y d e t a i l e d t o o f f e r much further c l a r i f i c a t i o n .  Only when comparative m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t i n g o f  a c t u a l specimens becomes a v a i l a b l e can faunas be c o r r e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d taxonomically.  I n t h e case of t h e R u s s i a n A r c t i c , p o s s i b l y t h e taxa  named t h e r e do r e p r e s e n t suggested  indigenous  s p e c i e s i n some cases.  This i s  because t h e presence o f l a r g e a r e a s of s h a l l o w b r a c k i s h water  i n t h e A r c t i c Ocean produced by g r e a t amounts o f r i v e r r u n o f f ( t h e presence o f t h i s water was c a l l e d t o t h e a u t h o r ' s S t a t e s Naval Oceanographic O f f i c e r p e r s o n n e l e v o l u t i o n o f endemic s p e c i e s i n t h i s  a t t e n t i o n by U n i t e d  i n 1966) c o u l d l e a d t o t h e  area.  When t h e e c o l o g i c c o n d i t i o n s o f s a l i n i t y ,  depth, temperature, and  perhaps s u b s t r a t e r e p r e s e n t e d b e g i n t o a l t e r , t h e changes a r e r e f l e c t e d i n changes i n t h e f a u n a l composition. changes p r o b a b l y most o f t e n f i r s t  Considering the present  can be seen i n t h e r e l a t i v e dominance  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h e t h r e e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s , clavatum, B u c c e l l a f r i g i d a , and E g g e r e l l a advena. w i l l be r e f l e c t e d  r e s t r i c t i o n may a l s o b r i n g about t h i s change. below l5°/oo, E. clavatum  The  i n salinity  clavatum, e v e n t u a l l y  o f t h e o t h e r two s p e c i e s , a l o n g w i t h such o t h e r o f  the s p e c i e s p r e v i o u s l y mentioned as may be p r e s e n t .  of "marsh f a u n a s , "  Elphidium  A decrease  i n a r e l a t i v e increase i n Elphidium  to t h e disappearance  fauna, t h e  Great  seaway  When s a l i n i t y drops much  w i l l be r e p l a c e d by t h e m a i n l y  arenaceous s p e c i e s  such as s p e c i e s o f Ammobaculites and Trochammina.  t h r e e s i g n a l s p e c i e s may show dominance changes w i t h d i f f e r e n c e  i n s u b s t r a t e , but t h e r e l a t i o n has n o t been e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o the s u b s t r a t e .  P o s s i b l y o t h e r f a c t o r s such as c u r r e n t s , f o o d supply, o r  some o t h e r phenomena may cause t h e r e l a t i v e dominance a l t e r a t i o n s .  79 Currents  c o u l d a l s o make a d i f f e r e n c e i n p a r t i c l e s i z e of sediment.  R e g a r d i n g changes i n d e p t h , E g g e r e l l a adyena and B u c c e l l a f r i g i d a still  f l o u r i s h i n s l i g h t l y deeper water t h a n does E l p h i d i u m  clavatum,  perhaps c o n t i n u i n g as dominants from the 30 meter maximum f o r dominance of E«  c l a v a t u m t o as deep as 100  meters.  In most c a s e s , however,  B u c c e l l a f r i g i d a and E g g e r e l l a adyena, as w e l l as E l p h i d i u m probably  clavatum,  become secondary t o s p e c i e s which become dominant i n " s h e l f  faunas"  below 40 o r 50 m e t e r s .  Between 50  and  faunas"  b e g i n t o be w e l l d e v e l o p e d , w i t h many s p e c i e s not l i s t e d  making t h e i r appearance, some i n l a r g e numbers.  200 meters these " s h e l f  Among t h e  above  species  l i s t e d above, C a s s i d u l i n a t e r e t i s , C i b i c i d e s l o b a t u l u s , " V i r g u l i n a " f u s i f o r m i s , and E l p h i d i u m b a r t l e t t i , which a r e subdominant i n t h e shallowest-water  p r o v i n c e d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s work, c o n t i n u e  i n deeper " s h e l f faunas."  With them, some p^olymorphinids,  l a g e n i d s , and o t h e r forms o c c u r abundantly. m o r p h i n i d s p e c i e s appear f i r s t important  Usually c e r t a i n poly-  i n c o n s i d e r a b l e numbers and p l a y  l a t i t u d e s next below ( i n depth) those  dominated by t h e  f r i g i d a - E g g e r e l l a adyena complex.  o t h e r s p e c i e s a l s o , such as A s t r o n o n i o n  f o r a m i n i f e r a l fauna, the E l p h i d i u m adyena complex d i s a p p e a r s .  at  first  northern  dominate. increases.  different  clavatum-Buccel1a f r i g i d a - E g g e r e l l a  C i b i c i d e s lobatulus s t i l l  l a r g e numbers; Ammonia b e c c a r i i and  ;  Locally, particular  g a l l o w a y i , may  t h e warming i s s u f f i c i e n t t o produce a b a s i c a l l y  an»  Elphidium  With a warming of the w a t e r s , the number of s p e c i e s If  buliminids,  r o l e i n these f o r a m i n i f e r a l faunas found i n h i g h  clavatum-Buccella  i n abundance  continues  in  some s p e c i e s of D i s c o r b i s appear,  o v e r l a p p i n g the E l p h l d i u m - B u c c e l i a - E g g e r e l l a  complex, b u t  continuing f u r t h e r south. clavatum.  D i f f e r e n t species of Elphidium replace E  The n o r t h e r n c a s s i d u l i n a s d i s s a p p e a r from s h a l l o w waters  though t h e genus c o n t i n u e s i n abundance i n s h a l l o w c o o l  temperate  t o deep t r o p i c a l waters, t h e genus t e n d i n g t o move downward a l o n g isotherms.  The n o r t h e r n n o n i o n i d and n o n i o n o i d s p e c i e s  N o n i o n e l l a , Pseudononion, A s t r O n o n i o n ,  (Nonion,  and P r o t e l p h i d i u m ) a r e  r e p l a c e d by o t h e r s p e c i e s o f some o f the same genera;  but the  t a x o n o m i c a l l y enigmatic group, d i f f i c u l t t o a s s i g n e i t h e r t o Nonionidae  o r E l p h i d i i d a e because o f t h e i r a p p a r e n t l y i n t e r m e d i a t e  nature, d i s a p p e a r i n favor of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y h e a v i l y s c u l p t u r e d forms o f E l p h i d i u m , such as E * crispum, i n s h a l l o w waters and, moving deeper, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y unornamented Nonion* S p e c i e s o f B u l i m i n a and B o l i v i n a n o t found  i n high northern  l a t i t u d e s appear i n t h e s h a l l o w waters t o t h e s o u t h .  Many o t h e r  forms r e p r e s e n t i n g many s h a l l o w water p r o v i n c e s a l s o make t h e i r appearances.  D u r i n g t h e development of the p r e s e n t s t u d y , s e v e r a l problems not immediately  s o l v a b l e but n e e d i n g  Of t h e s e , p r o b a b l y the most important v i e w was  a t t e n t i o n came i n t o sharp  focus.  from, the g e o l o g i c a l p o i n t of  s i m p l y the p a u c i t y of d e t a i l e d knowledge of t h e geology  the a r e a of study and the d i f f i c u l t y  of  of o b t a i n i n g such knowledge.  A g r e a t need e x i s t s f o r f u r t h e r r e g i o n a l and d e t a i l e d  geological  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia and s o u t h e a s t A l a s k a , T h i s need i s b e i n g met  as time goes by and g e o l o g i s t s a p p l y them-  s e l v e s t o t h e s e problems. F o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y , the o t h e r o u t s t a n d i n g problems c o n s i s t s of a g r e a t need of more knowledge of the e c o l o g y of F o r a m i n i f e r a , s p e c i f i c a l l y of t h o s e l i v i n g s p e c i e s w h i c h the fauna of t h i s s t u d y .  living  constitute  The a b i l i t y t o make v a l i d p a l e o e c o l o g i c a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s c o r r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y w i t h the e x t e n t of knowledge of the forms r e p r e s e n t e d .  At f i r s t  ecological  i t seemed v i r t u a l l y  i m p o s s i b l e t o make any but t h e most g e n e r a l p a l e o e c o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the fauna found  i n the g l a c i o - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s of  B r i t i s h Columbia and s o u t h e a s t A l a s k a \shich were sampled.  Then  c a r e f u l study of d i s t r i b u t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of s p e c i e s found  i n the  p r e s e n t s t u d y , made by comparison w i t h r e c o r d s of t h e s e s p e c i e s g i v e n by o t h e r workers and by s t u d y of samples from some o t h e r a r e a s , a l l o w e d a d i s t r i b u t i o n a l p a t t e r n toenerge. geographic  faunal province r e s u l t e d .  The r e c o g n i t i o n o f a  A r e l a t i v e w i n d f a l l of  e c o l o g i c d a t a became a v a i l a b l e i n time through  careful consideration  of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of the s p e c i e s s t u d i e d ; but  especially  t h i s w i n d f a l l r e s u l t e d from the study o f t h e work of Di. A. Buzas (1965a, b; and p e r s o n a l communications,  1965, 1966), one of t h e  few workers" t o attempt d e t a i l e d c o r r e l a t i o n o f e c o l o g i c with foraminiferal distribution.  A t t h e same time, i t became  i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t h a t a g r e a t need e x i s t s f o r f u r t h e r e c o l o g i c work. t h i s problem,  Thus, f i n a l l y , a problem which  t h a t o f t h e p r e s e n t study.  variables  such  t h e author determined t o pursue i s , i n essence, a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f  W i t h i n t h e a v a i l a b l e courses o f a c t i o n ,  t h i s author has chosen t o pursue t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e e c o l o g y of t h e l i v i n g shallow-water southeastern Alaska.  (0 t o 200 meters) F o r a m i n i f e r a of  Working w i t h another p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r ,  a study of t h e f o r a m i n i f e r a l faunas from s e v e r a l water  environments has been i n i t i a t e d .  s o r t s of shallow-  I t i s hoped t h a t ,  as w e l l  as t h e s y s t e m a t i c s and d i s t r i b u t i o n , a c a r e f u l s t u d y o f t h e environmental parameters  can be accomplished.  as  136  c  130°  122°  50°  I  49° 00'  5 miles 1  30  123°00'  Figure X  122°30  84  128°30'  Figure 2  '85 SYSTEMATIC  CATALOG  I n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n synonymy i s b a s e d u p o n p u b l i s h e d and  d e s c r i p t i o n s , except where remarks i n d i c a t e o t h e r w i s e .  f i c a t i o n g i v e n b y Cushman economic u s e .  (1955, F o r a m i n i f e r a ,  l o c a l i t y numbers r e f e r t o c o l l e c t i o n s  of the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y . is  specifically  r e t a i n e d , as i t a l l o w s  Press;  i n t h e Museum o f  The u s e o f t h e t e r m " v a r i e t y "  the concept of phenotypic  the  term "subspecies" followed.  Type  Paleontology  g e o g r a p h i c v a r i a t i o n as w e l l as t h a t o f g e n e t i c v a r i a t i o n ,  is  605 p p . ,  some m o d i f i c a t i o n s .  and  i s limited  classi-  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  4 t h ed., Cambridge, Mass., Harvard Univ.  55 p i s . , 31 t e x t p i s . ) i s f o l l o w e d h e r e i n w i t h and  their  The  figures  i f a constant  philosophy  ecologic  t o which  o f taxonomy  Order of Systematic Catalog  Family:  Saccamminidae  Genus: Proteonina Family: Hyperammirddae Genus j Saccorhiza Family: Lituolidae Genus:  Haplophragmoides  Family: Valvulinidae Genus: Eggerella Family:  Silicinidae  Genus: Rzenakina Family: Miliolidae Genus j Quinqueloculina Millolinella Pateoris Triloculina Pyrgo Family: Ophthalmidiidae Genus: Gordiospira Family: Trochamminidae Genus j Trochammina  Family:  Lagenidae  Genus t  Robulus Dentalina Planularia Lagena Oolina Fissurina  Familyt  Polymorphinidae  Genus:  Polymorphina S igmomorphina Laryngosigma  FamilyI Genusi  Nonionidae Nonion Astrononion Nonionella Pseudononion  Family: Genus:  jklphidiidae Elphidium Elphidiella Protelphidium  Family: Genus:  Buliminidae Buliminella Robertina Globobulimina Fursenkoina  (= *Virgulina ) t  ,t  Bolivina Uvigerina Trifarina Family?  Discorbidae  Genus:  Discorbis  Family:  Epistomariidae  Genus:  Epistomaroides  Family:  Spirillinidae  Genus:  Family;  Patellina  Rotaliidae  Genus:  Epistominella Buccella  Family; Genusi  Family: Genus:  Family: Genus;  Cassidulinidae Cassidulina  Globigerinidae Globigerina  Anomalinidae Cibicides Dyocibicides  89 Family  SACCAMMINIDAE  Subfamily  Saccammininae  Genus PROTEONINA W i l l i a m s o n , Proteonina  1858  l o n g i c o l l i s Wiesner  ( P l a t e 1, F i g u r e 1) Proteonina  l o n g i c o l l i s Wiesner, 1929, Deutsche Sud-Polar-Exped., v o l . 20,  Z o o l . , p. 82, p i . 6, f i g . 55; Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , 1939, A l l a n Hancock P a c i f i c Exped., v o l . 6, no. 1, p. 42, p i . 1, f i g s . Hypotype No.  7-9.  1, L o c . D-1211.  Proteonina  (?) sp.  ( P l a t e 1, F i g u r e 2) Hypotype No. 2, L o c . B-7069. A s i n g l e specimen c o n s i s t i n g of a g l o b u l a r chamber w i t h a s h o r t neck i s q u e s t i o n a b l y r e f e r r e d t o t h i s genus. Proteonina  I n shape i t c l o s e l y resembles  l o n g i c o l l i s Wiesner, one specimen of which was  identified i n  t h i s study, but t h e t e s t w a l l appears t o be formed o f cemented  sponge  spicules.  Family  HYPERAMMINIDAE  Subfamily Dendrophryinae Genus SACCORHIZA Elmer and F i c k e r t , Saccorhiza  1899  (?) sp.  ( P l a t e 1, F i g u r e 3) Hypotype No. 3, L o c . B-7072. A single, tubular, f i n e l y agglutinated i n d i v i d u a l i s questionably ascribed to t h i s  genus.  90 Family Subfamily  LITUOLIDAE  Haplophragmiinae  Genus HAPLOPHRAGMOIDES Cushman, Hap1ophragmoides c f . H.  subglobosum (G. 0.  ( P l a t e 1, F i g u r e Hypotype No. Two  1910 Sars)  4)  4, L o c . B-7068.  s m a l l but robust  f o r a m i n i f e r s from B-7068 most c l o s e l y  Haplophragmoides subglobosum (G. 0.  Sars) as d e s c r i b e d by Cushman and  M c C u l l o c h (1939, A l l a n Hancock P a c i f i c Exped., v o l . 6, no. p i . 6,  figs.  7, 8 ) .  The  ferruginous  content  3, pp.  periphery  p o o r l y d e f i n e d but d i s c e r n a b l e , s l i g h t l y depressed s u t u r e s ;  u m b i l i c a l r e g i o n i s s l i g h t l y depressed; they a r e m o d e r a t e l y The  aperture  can be  seen on one  s l i t a t the base of the f i n a l chamber. i n d i v i d u a l i s a l s o s l i g h t l y but  Hap1ophragmoides ( P l a t e 1, F i g u r e Hypotype No.  finely  i t is a  long  preserved  sp. 5)  5, L o c . B-7071. i n the m a t e r i a l from B-7071.  c o a r s e l y arenaceous, has a v e r y rounded, v e r y  l o b u l a t e p e r i p h e r y , and n e a r l y f l u s h s u t u r e s . chambers i n the f i n a l w h o r l . discerned.  the  asymmetrical.  A s i n g l e specimen of t h i s genus occurs It i s small, very  specimen and  T h i s same b e t t e r  clearly  81,  Both have seven  chambers i n the f i n a l w h o r l ; have a s l i g h t l y l o b a t e , rounded  arenaceous.  80,  of t h e i r cement i s a t t e s t e d  t o by the f a c t t h a t b o t h specimens a r e r e d d i s h brown.  and  resemble  The  T h i s specimen i s v e r y  Apparently  slightly  there are  apertural characteristics  cannot  five be  s i m i l a r t o Hap1ophragmo i d es p u s i l l u m  91 to  Hogland from the Gullmar F j o r d , but i s l a r g e r and a p p a r e n t l y has fewer chambers.  I t a l s o resembles Haplophragmoides major Cushman, but c l e a r l y  has fewer chambers  t h a n t h e t y p i c a l form.  The p r e s e n t Haplophragmoides  i s a l s o s i m i l a r t o Haplophragmoides p l a n i s s i m a Cushman except t h a t i t i s not  as compressed as i s t h a t form.  F a m i l y VALVULINIDAE Subfamily E g g e r e l l i n a e Genus EGGEBKIJA Cushman, 1933 E g g e r e l l a advena  (Cushman)  ( P l a t e 1, F i g u r e  6)  E g g e r e l l a advena (Cushman), Cushman, 1937a, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P i i b l . 8, p. 51, p i . 5, f i g s .  12-15;  1944, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec.  P u b l . 12, p. 13, p i . 2, f i g s . . 6, 7; 1948, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 23, pp. 32, 33, p i . 3, f i g . 12; Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , 1939,  Allan  Hancock P a c i f i c Exped., v o l . 6, no. 1, pp. 95, 96; p i . 10, f i g . 1; Cushman and Todd, 1947a, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 21, p. 5, pi.  1, f i g . 9; P a r k e r , 1952a, Mus.  Comp. Z o o l . H a r v a r d , B u l l , , no. 9,  p. 404, p i . 3, f i g s . 12, 13; 1952b, I b i d . , no. 10, p i , 2, f i g . 3; P h l e g e r , 1952, C o n t r i b . Cushman Found. Foram. Res., v o l . 3, p t . 2, no. 61, p. 83, p i . 13, f i g . 24; L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c , C o l l . , v o l . 121, no. 7, pp. 36, 37, p i . 3, f i g s . 8-10;  R o n a i , 1955,  C o n t r i b . Cushman Found.. Foram. Res., v o l . 6, p t . 4, no. 145, p. 143, p i . 20, f i g . 6; D e t l i n g , 1958, C o n t r i b . Cushman Found. Foram. Res., vol.  9, p t . 2, no. 179, p. 25, p i . 7, f i g . 2; L a n k f o r d MS,  1962, Recent  F o r a m i n i f e r a from t h e n e a r s h o r e t u r b u l e n t zone, w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s and  92 northwest M e x i c o ; Unpub. Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v . C a l i f o r n i a , San D i e g o , p* 150, pl» 1, f i g * pt.  18; Cooper, 1964, C o n t r i b . Cushman Found. Foram. Res., v o l . 15,  3, p , 94, p i , 5, f i g . 5; Buzas, 1965a, S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c . C o l l . , v o l .  145, no. 8, pp. 15, 1.6, p i . 1, f i g . 1; 1965b, S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c . C o l l . , vol.  149, no, 1, pp, 55, 56, p i . 1, f i g s . 4,  5.  E g g e r e l l a a r c t i c a Hogland, 1947, Z o o l . B i d r a g U p p s a l a , v o l . 26, p . 193, p i , 16, f i g , 4, t e x t f i g s . 166-168. not  Y e r n e u l l i n a advena Cushman, H o g l a n d , I b i d . , p . 185, p i . 13, f i g . 11, t e x t  fig.  169.  Hypotype No,  6, L o c . B-7074.  E g g e r e l l a s , which a r e r a r e a t f o u r l o c a l i t i e s i n t h e Juneau a r e a , a r e found synonymous w i t h t h i s s p e c i e s . very e a s i l y . as  L o e b l i c h and Tappan  They a r e v e r y f r a g i l e and d i s i n t e g r a t e  (1953, pp. 36, 37) s h o u l d be c o n s u l t e d  t o t h e taxonomic p o s i t i o n of t h e forms i d e n t i f i e d by Hogland as w e l l as  soma of t h o s e l i s t e d  i n t h e synonymy g i v e n by Cushman and M c C u l l o c h (1939,  pp. 95, 9 6 ) .  Family  SLLICINIDAE  Subfamily Rzehakininae Genus RZEHAKINA Cushman, 1927 R z e h a k i n a (?) s p , ( P l a t e 1, F i g u r e 7) Hypotype No. 7, L o c , D-1210. A single s i l i c i n i d  from t h e Highbury T u n n e l m a t e r i a l f r o m Vancouver  i s t e n t a t i v e l y r e f e r r e d t o t h i s genus,  Ruth Todd  communication) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s specimen may  (1965, p e r s o n a l  belong t o Miliammina o r  some o t h e r s i m i l a r n o n - c a l c a r e o u s genus s i n c e Rzehakina i s known o n l y from  93 deposits  of Cretaceous and Paleocene age.  w e l l preserved be  The p r e s e n t  specimen i s n o t  and t h e morphology i s h a r d t o d i s c e r n , b u t , from what; can  seen, t h i s f o r a m i n i f e r most c l o s e l y resembles t h e genus Rzehakina as  the genus was d e f i n e d by Cushman and has been r e f e r r e d t o s i n c e . Foraminifera with s i l i c i o u s  t e s t s have n o t been e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d and  thus t h e time ranges may be I m p e r f e c t l y  known o r p o s s i b l y p a r a l l e l  may have produced a l a t e Cenozoic form v e r y  Family  d'Orbigny, 1826  a g g l u t i n a t a Cushman  ( P l a t e 2, F i g u r e Quinqueloculina  s i m i l a r t o Rzehakina.  MILIOLIDAE  Genus QUINQUELOCULINA Quinqueloculina  evolution  1)  a g g l u t i n a t a Cushman, 1917, U. S. N a t . Mus. B u l l .  71, p t . 6,  p. 43, p i . 9, f i g . 2; 1948, Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 23, p. 33, p i . 3, f i g . 13; Cushman and V a l e n t i n e ,  1930, C o n t r i b . Dept.  Geol.  S t a n f o r d Univ., v o l . 1, no. 1, p. 9, p i . 1, f i g . 7; Cushman and Todd, 1947b, C o n t r i b . Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., v o l . 23, p t . 3, no. 297, p. 61, pi.  14, f i g s . 12, 13; L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c .  v o l . 121, no. 7, p. 39, p i . 5, f i g s  Coll.,  1-4; Cooper, 1964, C o n t r i b . Cushman Found.  Foram.. Res. , p. 94, p i . 5, f i g . 6; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n , 1964, Norges G e o l . no.  Unders.,  225, pp. 247, 248, p i . 4, f i g . 11. Hypotype No. 8, L o c . B-7077.  A few q u i n q u e l o c u l i n e members of t h i s s p e c i e s .  specimens from s e v e r a l l o c a l i t i e s a r e judged The f i g u r e g i v e n by F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n shows a form  which seems t o be l e s s a g g l u t i n a t e d than t y p i c a l .  94 Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a a k n e r i a n a d'Orbigny v a r . b e l l a t u l a Bandy ( P l a t e 2, F i g u r e  2)  Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a a k n e r i a n a d'Orbigny v a r . b e l l a t u l a Bandy, 1950, J o u r . P a l e o n . , v o l . 24, no. 3, p. 273, p i . 41, f i g .  1; Goodwin and Thompson,  1954,  C o n t r i b . Cushman Found. Foram. Res., v o l . 5, p t . 4, no. 120, pp. 172, p i . 32, f i g s .  19, 25, 26; L a n k f o r d MS,  1962,  173,  Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a from t h e  n e a r s h o r e t u r b u l e n t zone, w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s and northwest Mexico; Unpub. Ph.D.  T h e s i s , U n i v . C a l i f o r n i a , San Diego, p. 182, p i . 2, f i g . 7.  Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a b e l l a t u l a Bandy, A r n a l ,  1958,  C o n t r i b . Cushman Found, Foram.  Res., v o l . 9, p t . 2, no. 182, p. 39, p i . 10, f i g s . Hypotypes  No.  13-15.  9a, 9b, 9c, L o c . B-7066 - 9a, 9b; B-7065 - 9c,  Numerous q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a s from s e v e r a l l o c a l i t i e s ,  i n c l u d i n g some v e r y  l a r g e i n d i v i d u a l s , appear t o r e f l e c t Bandy's d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n from t h e s p e c i e s sensu s t r i c t o i n t y p i c a l l y h a v i n g l e s s d e p r e s s e d s u t u r e s than the form d e s c r i b e d by d'Orbigny.  Those specimens  from the Queen C h a r l o t t e  Islands  m a t e r i a l seem t o be b r o a d e r than t h e o t h e r s , r e s e m b l i n g most c l o s e l y the i n d i v i d u a l s f i g u r e d as the s p e c i e s sensu s t r i c t o by Galloway and W i s s l e r (1927a, p. 38, p i . 7, f i g . pi.  2, f i g s .  1, 2 ) .  3) and Cushman, Stewart, and Stewart (1930, p. 52,  Specimens  from p r e s e n t c o l d waters, which a r e r e f e r r e d  t o Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a seminula ( L i n n e ) , such as i s done by P a r k e r (1952a, p. 406, p i . 3, f i g s . 21, 22; p i . 4, f i g s . 1, 2 ) , may w i t h the present, specimens.  w e l l be  conspecific  Ruth Todd r e c o g n i z e d C^. a k n e r i a n a i n g l a c i o -  marine m a t e r i a l from around Juneau and i n s h a l l o w water i n the A l e x a n d e r A r c h i p e l a g o i n 1958 and 1959  (1962, p e r s o n a l  communication).  95 Quinqueloculina a r c t i c a ( P l a t e 2, F i g u r e Quinqueloculina a r c t i c a no*  Bull., 1953, 12,;  p i . 4,  v o l , 106, Smithsonian  9, p. 405,  Misc.  Feyling-Hanssen,  p. 27,  p i . 1,  1952a, Mus.  10a,  10b,  Quinqueloculina  7, p. 40,  p. 33,  stalkeri  C o l l . , v o l . 121,  s t a l k e r ! L o e b l i c h and  no.  p i . 3,  figs.  7, pp.  40,  41, 225,  no.  11,  93,  16,  10b.  Tappan  Cushman Lab. Foram.  Res.,  17.  p i . 5,  Smithsonian  f i g s . 5-9;  p. 252,  p i . 4,  Misc.  Feyling-Hanssen,  figs.  13-18.  11, L o c . B-7065.  almost a l l l o c a l i t i e s , a r e t y p i c a l  recognized  figs.  1)  Numerous q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a s , which a r e found  Tappan's  Meddelelser,  L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953,  Norges G e o l . Unders., no.  Hypotype No.  at  Tappan,  p i . 5,  L o c . B-7065 - 10a; B-7066 -  f u s c a Brady, Cushman, 1948,  S p e c P u b l . 23,  1964,  no.  Norsk P o l a r i n s t i t u t t  ( P l a t e 3, F i g u r e  Quinqueloculina  Gomp. Z o o l . Harvard,  f i g . 1.  Hypotypes No.  Quinqueloculina  Spec. P u b l .  p i . 3, f i g . 19; L o e b l i c h and  C o l l . , v o l . 121,  1965,  M i s c . C o l l . , v o l . 89,  Gushman Lab. Foram. Res.,  f i g . 2; Parker, no.  3)  Cushman, 1933b, Smithsonian  9, p. 2, p i . 1, f i g . 3; 1948,  23, p. 35,  Gushman  i n c l u s i o n In t h i s  of t h i s  in relatively  species.  s m a l l numbers  L o e b l i c h and  group of the s p e c i e s Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a  f u s c a as  from the A r c t i c by Cushman appears warranted as (J. f u s c a Brady  appears much more a g g l u t i n a t e d .  Quinqueloculina  c f (£. s t a l k e r i L o e b l i c h and Tappan ( P l a t e 3, F i g u r e 2)  Hypotype No. 12, L o c . D-1212. Three specimens from t h e King George Highway l o c a l i t y c l o s e l y Quinqueloculina  resemble  s t a l k e r i L o e b l i c h and Tappan b u t appear t o be r e l a t i v e l y  w i d e r and have a smoother, a l t h o u g h  still  rough, s u r f a c e t h a n Q.  stalkeri.  Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a spp. ( P l a t e 3, F i g u r e s 3 and 4) Hypotypes No. 13, 14,. L o c . B-7077 - 13; D-1216 - 14. A single Quinqueloculina  from B-7077 (hypotype 13) ( P l a t e 3, F i g . 3)  appears c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h t h e form a s s i g n e d  to Quinqueloculina  d'Orbigny by Cushman i n 1917 (pp. 48, 49, p i . 14, f i g . 1 ) .  disparilis  I n 1921,  however, Cushman (p. 424) p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s form s h o u l d not have been r e f e r r e d t o (£. d i s p a r i l i s .  The o r i g i n a l specimens o f t h a t s p e c i e s were  from t h e Recent o f t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n ,  The forms r e f e r r e d t o t h e s p e c i e s by  Cushman i n 1921 were from t h e Recent o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e and a d j a c e n t i n 1929 (p. 32, p i . 5, f i g . 4) Cushman a s s i g n e d to t h i s species.  forms from A t l a n t i c waters  Cushman (1921, p. 424) makes no f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f  the taxonomic p o s i t i o n o f t h e form he d e s c r i b e d as (£. d i s p a r i l i s No f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s present  specimen appears v e r y  disparilis  except  seas;  form was found  i n later literature.  s i m i l a r t o these  The  forms r e f e r r e d t o (£.  t h a t t h a t s p e c i e s seems t o have fewer  This Quinqueloculina  i n 1917.  striations.  from B-7077 i s v e r y s i m i l a r i n form t o  Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a a r c t i c a Cushman, b u t has t h e s e v e r a l s t r i a t i o n s r u n n i n g t h e l e n g t h o f t h e chambers on t h e i r t r u n c a t e d p e r i p h e r i e s .  These  angulate  97 chambers t y p i f y (J. a r c t i c a .  The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e p r e s e n t which i t o c c u r s .  shape of the t e s t and  the a p e r t u r a l  specimen a r e i d e n t i c a l t o f^, a r c t i c a ,  Other s i m i l a r forms have been d e s c r i b e d :  with  Quinqueloculina  k a n s i r e i e n s i s Nakamura from the l a t e T e r t i a r y of Taiwan seems more compressed; some e a r l y - d e s c r i b e d forms such as Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a c r a s s i c o s t a t a Terquem a l s o show c o n s i d e r a b l e s i m i l a r i t y . by the p r e s e n t of  a new  A new  s p e c i e s or v a r i e t y may  taxon unwarranted.  A n o t h e r f o r a m i n i f e r , from B-7074, shows minor  i t i s retained i n Quinqueloculina  three  striations,  arctica.  A s i n g l e s m a l l t e s t from the L a k e l s e s l i d e m a t e r i a l (hypotype ( P l a t e 3,  f i g . 4) cannot be i d e n t i f i e d as t o s p e c i e s , a l t h o u g h  an immature Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a a k n e r i a n a  Miliolinella  californica  v o l . 1, no.  c a l i f o r n i c a Rhumbler, 1936,  5)  1, p. 15, p i . 4,  f i g . 4.  Foram. K i e l e r Bucht, T e l l 2, Bd..  1,  1962,  Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a from the  t u r b u l e n t zone, western U n i t e d S t a t e s and northwest Mexico;  Unpub. Ph.D.  T h e s i s , Univ,  California,  San Diego, p. 168,  p i . 2,  Hypotype No.  15, L o c . B-7076.  One  specimen has been a s s i g n e d t o t h i s species..  distinct  circularis  Contrib.  type f i g u r e i s t h a t of Cushman and V a l e n t i n e (1930)  l i s t e d d i r e c t l y above; L a n k f o r d MS, nearshore  be  1931  T r i l o c u l i n a c i r c u l a r i s Bornemann, Cushman and V a l e n t i n e , 1930,  H e f t . 1, p. 215;  i t might  Rhumbler  ( P l a t e 3, F i g u r e  Dept. G e o l . S t a n f o r d Univ.,  14)  d'Orbigny v a r . b e l l a t u l a Bandy.  Genus MILIQLINELIA Wiesner,  Miliolinella  represented  i n d i v i d u a l but the p a u c i t y of m a t e r i a l makes d e s c r i p t i o n  development of the same p a t t e r n of ornamentation, having but  be  f i g . 8.  Miliolinella  (Bornemann) i s v e r y s i m i l a r and might be c o n s p e c i f i c , a l t h o u g h  98 the c e n t r a l chamber on t h e three-chambered s i d e of M,  c a l i f o r n i c a appears  t o have i t s v i s i b l e l o n g a x i s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y a 30° a n g l e w i t h the v e r t i c a l , as does M.  oblonga (Montagu)(?) o f t h i s r e p o r t .  T h i s may be a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  feature. Miliolinella  oblonga (Montagu)(?)  ( P l a t e 3, F i g u r e  6)  ? Vermiculum oblongum Montagu, 1803, T e s t a c e a B r i t t a n i c a , p. 522, p i . 14, fig.  9.  T r i l o c u l i n a oblonga (Montagu), Cushman, 1921, U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l . v o l . 4, p. 459, p i . 92, f i g .  3; 1948, Cushman Lab, Foram. Res.,  P u b l . 23, p. 38, p i . 4, f i g s . 5, 6 ( i n p a r t p r o b a b l y ) 5 V a l e n t i n e , 1930,  100, Spec.  Cushman and  C o n t r i b . G e o l . Dept. S t a n f o r d U n i v . , v o l . 1, no. 1,  p. 16, p i . 4, f i g s . 5, 6; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n , Norges G e o l . Dnders., no.  225,  A  p. 257, p i . 6, f i g s . 9, Miliolinella  10.  oblonga (Montagu^ L a n k f o r d MS,  1962, Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a from  the n e a r s h o r e t u r b u l e n t zone, w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s and northwest Mexico; Unpub. Ph.D.  T h e s i s , U n i v . C a l i f o r n i a , San Diego, p. 169, p i . 2, f i g .  Hypotype No.  9.  16, L o c . B-7076.  Cushman (1948) gave a l e n g t h l y synonymy f o r t h i s s p e c i e s and t h a t i t has a " t o o t h s i m p l e or narrow and b i f i d a t t h e t i p ; ' "  remarked  The form he  f i g u r e d has t h e " s i m p l e tooth," which a c t u a l l y i s the a p e r t u r a l p l a t e , t h a t t y p i f i e s t h e genus M i l i o l i n e l l a . w i t h narrow and b i f i d pi.  11, f i g .  morphology of p a r a l l e l  I f the genus M i l i o l i n e l l a  is valid,  forms  t e e t h , such as f i g u r e d by Cushman (1933c, p. 50,  10) must b e l o n g t o the genus T r i l o c u l i n a i n s t e a d .  The  o f t h e t e s t of t h e s e forms i s o t h e r w i s e v e r y s i m i l a r and a case e v o l u t i o n may  be represented..  I t i s impossible to t e l l  whether  99 Miliolinella  o r T r i l o c u l i n a i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n cases where the a u t h o r s  do  not f i g u r e specimens or where t h e a p e r t u r a l a r e a i s not seen c l e a r l y ,  as  w i t h Cushman and Gray (1946, p. 6,  genera  a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n some cases (gmch t e x t f i g s . 35  and 36).  Finally,  p i . 1, a  s  f i g . 21).  Apparently, both  Cushman,.1917, p. 69,  p i . 26,  the o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n and  f i g . 3,  f i g u r e of  vermiculum oblongum Montagu does not make c l e a r the n a t u r e of t h e a p e r t u r a l appurtenance,  so t h a t i t cannot be determined  the s p e c i e s oblonga i f b o t h genera  from the l i t e r a t u r e whether  s h o u l d «©fe be c a l l e d T r i l o c u l i n a or M i l i o l i n e l l a .  are v a l i d ,  i m p o s s i b l e t o determine  two  t a x a p r o b a b l y a r e r e p r e s e n t e d , but i t i s  whether the p r e s e n t forms, w i t h the M i l i o l i n e l l a  a p e r t u r e or those w i t h the b i f i d t o o t h s h o u l d be g i v e n a new  s p e c i f i c name.  I n the p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l , a few s m a l l specimens from s e v e r a l Juneau have been r e f e r r e d t o M i l i o l i n e l l a  oblonga Montagu ( ? ) .  localities  The p r e s e n t  w i t h t h e i r c e n t r a l chamber always a t an a n g l e of about 3 0 ° may  Thus,  specimens,  from the v e r t i c a l ,  r e p r e s e n t a d i s t i n c t v a r i e t y because a p p a r e n t l y i n the more t y p i c a l  the c e n t r a l chamber has a v e r t i c a l  long a x i s .  L a n k f o r d h a s . f i g u r e d a specimen  showing the same p l a n of growth as those r e p r e s e n t e d  here.  1953  Genus PATEORIS L o e b l i c h and Tappan, Pateoris hauerinoides ( P l a t e 3, M i l i o l i n a semilunum ( L i n n e ) v a r i  Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a of Great B r i t a i n , p. 86, Miliola  ( Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a ) subrotunda  T r a n s . Roy.  Soc. London, v o l . 155,  numbered 28  on the plate).  (Rhumbler)  Figure  disciformis  7) 1858,  (Macgilllvray), Williamson, p i . 7,  figs.  188,  (Montagu), Parker and Jones, p. 411,  form  p i . 15,  f i g . 38  189. 1865,  Philos.,  (erroneously  100 Q u n l q u e l o c u l i n a subrotunda (Montagu) forma h a u e r j n o i d e s der K i e l e r B u c h t , T e i l 2, Bd. (p. 205),  208-212 (p.  1, H e f t , 1 pp.  206,  Rhumbler, 1936,  217,  226,  Spec. P u b l . 23, p . 35, p i . 3, f i g s . 20,  no. 9, p . 406,  Cushman Found. Foram* Res., Pateorls hauerlnoides C o l l . , v o l . 121, L a n k f o r d MS,  21, p i . 4, f i g . 1.  p i . 4,  fig*  Comp. Z o o l . H a r v a r d ,  4; Todd and Low,  (Rhumbler), L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953,  Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a from the nearshore  C a l i f o r n i a , San Diego* p . 177,  1964,  p i . 2, f i g . 14;  Norges G e o l . Unders., no*  Smithsonian  no.  225,  p . 256,  Smithsonian B;  Thesis,  Cooper, 1964,  Univ.  C o n t r i b . Cushman  Feyling-Hanssen,  p i . 6, f i g . 5; 1964,  Norsk.  93, p. 26, p i . 1, f i g , 3; Buzas, 1965a,  M i s c . C o l l . , v o l . 145, no. 8, p* 17, p i . 1, f i g . 5.  ? M a s s i l i n a secans ( d ' O r b i g n y ) , Cushman, 1929, 6, p , 37, p i . 7, f i g s . 3,  U. S. Nat. Mus.  Bull.  104,  pt.  4.  ? Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a d i s c i f o r m l s ( M a c g i l l i v r a y ) , Cushman, 1944, Res.,  Misc.  t u r b u l e n t zone,  v o l . 15, p t . 3, p. 94, p i . 5, f i g . 7;  P o l a r i n s t i t u t t Meddelelser,  Contrib.  t e x t f i g s . 1A,  western U n i t e d S t a t e s and northwest Mexico; Unpub. Ph.D.  Found. Foram. Res,,  1961,  v o l . 12, p t . 1, p. 15, p i . 1, f i g . 8.  no. 7, pp. 42-45, p i . 6, f i g s . 8-12,  1962,  167  Cushman L a b . Foram. Res .,  Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a subrotunda (Montagu), P a r k e r , 1952a, Mus. v o l . 106,  text f i g s .  225).  Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a subrotunda (Montagu)? Cushman, 1948,  Bull.,  Foram.  S p e c . P u b l . 12, pp.  15,  16, p i . 2, f i g s . 17, 18;  Cushman Lab.  Foram.  Cushman and Todd,  1947a, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res*, Spec* P u b l . 21, p. 6, p i . 1, f i g . 16. Hypotypes No.  17a,  17b,  L o c . B-7065 - 17a; B-7066 -  S e v e r a l specimens from f i v e ascribed to t h i s species. t h a t two  localities  17b.  i n t h e Juneau a r e a have been  G i v e n o n l y these specimens, i t c o u l d be presumed  v a r i a n t s were r e p r e s e n t e d , one  approaching  the form f i g u r e d by  L o e b l i c h and Tappan although n e a t e r t h a n most o f t h e i r f i g u r e d specimens,  and  101 the other  form more l i k e t h e specimens  by P a r k e r (1952a).  f i g u r e d by Cushman (1944,  1948)  and  The a u t h o r has not seen l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n s which c o u l d  r e f e r r a b l e t o t h i s taxon and has not, t h e r e f o r e , v a r i a t i o n of t h e a s p e c t s .  be  observed the range of  The a u t h o r i s thus f o l l o w i n g L o e b l i c h and Tappan  In t h e i r synonymy and hence r e f e r r i n g t h e two seeming v a r i a n t s of t h e  present  c o l l e c t i o n t o the same taxon.  Pateoris  sp.  ( P l a t e 3, F i g u r e Hypotype No.  18, L o c . B-6891.  A s i n g l e specimen appears t o be a P a t e o r i s l a c k i n g any a p e r t u r a l appurtenance. on the other, w i t h the p e r i p h e r y be needed  8)  being  I t Is f l a t  I n p l a n o f growth and i n on one s i d e and r a t h e r  quite angular.  would  t o i d e n t i f y t h i s form more c l o s e l y .  Genus TRILOCULINA d'Orbigny, T r i l o c u l i n a inornata  1)  T r i l o c u l i n a i n o r n a t a d'Orbigny, 1846, F o r a m i n i f e r e s t e r t i a r e de Vienne ( A u t r i c h e ) . 17, f i g s .  16-18; L a n k f o r d MS,  turbulent  zone, western U n i t e d  1826  d'Orbigny  ( P l a t e 4, F i g u r e  Thesis,  Further material  convex  f o s s i l e s du  bassin  Gide et Comp., P a r i s , F r a n c e , p. 279, p i . 1962, Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a States  from t h e n e a r s h o r e  and northwest Mexico; Unpub. Ph.D..  U n i v . C a l i f o r n i a , San Diego, p, 206, p i . 2, f i g . 19.  Hypotype No.  19, L o c , D-1214.  A few r a t h e r l a r g e t r i l o c u l i n e f o r a m i n i f e r s appear r e f e r r a b l e t o t h i s species.  They a r e f a i r l y  f l a t on the b i l o c u l i n e s i d e and moderately convex  on  102 the o t h e r .  The p e r i p h e r y i s m o d e r a t e l y a n g u l a r .  l a r g e r than t h e p e n u l t i m a t e .  The f i n a l chamber i s much  There i s a s m a l l , simple t o o t h i n t h e a p e r t u r e .  I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e form a s c r i b e d t o t h i s s p e c i e s by Cushman and Hanna (1927, p. 58, p i . 6, f i g s . Illustrations  10, 11) i s c o n s p e c i f i c .  show minute s t r i a t i o n s  I t i s s i m i l a r but t h e  covering the t e s t .  T r i l o c u l i n a t r l h e d r a L o e b l i c h and Tappan { P l a t e 4, F i g u r e s 2a, 2b) T r i l o c u l i n a t r l h e d r a L o e b l i c h and Tappan, v o l . 121, no. 7, p. 45, p i . 4, f i g .  1953, S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c . C o l l . ,  10; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n , 1964, Norges  G e o l . Unders., no. 225, p. 259, p i . 6, f i g .  6; Buzas, 1965a, S m i t h s o n i a n  M i s c . C o l l . , v o l . 145, no. 8, p. 16, p i . 1, f i g .  4.  Hypotype No. 20, L o c . B-7073. T h r e e specimens have been synonymized w i t h t h i s s p e c i e s .  Probably  T r i l o c u l i n a t r i c a r i n a t a d'Orbigny, Cushman (1917, pp. 66, 67, p i . 25, f i g . 2, t e x t f i g . 32) and Cushman and Gray (1946, p. 6, p i . 1, f i g . r e f e r e n c e s t o T. t r i c a r i n a t a  18) and other  from n o r t h e r n waters s h o u l d be a s c r i b e d t o t h e  p r e s e n t s p e c i e s , but t h e s e two s p e c i e s a r e so s i m i l a r t h a t synonymizing t h e s e forms w i t h o u t s e e i n g t h e a c t u a l specimens would be unwise.  Genus PYRGO D e f r a n c e , 1824 Pyrgo r o t a l a r i a L o e b l i c h and Tappan ( P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 3) B i l o c u l i n a murrhyna  Schwager,  Cushman ( I n p a r t ) ,  1917 (not Schwager,  U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l . 71, p t . 6, p. 75, p i . 29, f i g . Pyrgo r o t a l a r i a L o e b l i c h and Tappan,  1886),  1 (not p i . 28, f i g . 3 ) .  1953, S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c . C o l l . , v o l . 121,  no. 7, pp. 47, 48, p i . 6, f i g s . 5, 6.  103 Hypotype No. 21, L o c . B-6891. A few r a t h e r l a r g e specimens from s e v e r a l o f t h e p r e s e n t shallow-water l o c a l i t i e s appear t o be c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h t h e form d e s c r i b e d by L o e b l i c h and Tappan.  I t may be noted t h a t t h e i r specimens were from deep water as were  those s i m i l a r specimens found by Cushman (1917) from N o r t h P a c i f i c dredgings The p r e s e n t specimens appear t o be v e r y s i m i l a r t o forms r e f e r r e d t o o t h e r s p e c i e s of Pyrgo a l s o .  L o e b l i c h and Tappan do not compare t h e i r s p e c i e s w i t h  those f o l l o w i n g but t h e s e s p e c i e s seem v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e found by t h e present author:  Pyrgo d e p r e s s a ( d ' O r b i g n y ) , Pyrgo l a e v i s Defranee, and Pyrgo  l u c e r n u l a .(Schwager).  P. l a e v i s does not appear t o have an a p e r t u r a l  however, e i t h e r as i t was Blainville,  o r i g i n a l l y d e s c r i b e d and f i g u r e d  tooth,  (Defrance I n :  1824, p. 273, p i . 88, f i g . 2) or as g i v e n by Cushman and Gray  (1946, p. 7, p i . 1, f i g s . 26, 2 7 ) .  P. l u c e r n u l a was  originally  ( B i l o c u l i n a l u c e r n u l a Schwager, 1866, p. 202, p i . 4, f i g .  described  17; not f i g .  14)  as h a v i n g a s m a l l t o o t h , but the forms a s c r i b e d t o t h i s s p e c i e s by Cushman (1917, p. 475, p i . 97, f i g . 2; p i . 98, f i g .  1) a r e ( p i . 97) t r i l o c u l i n e w i t h  no t o o t h and ( p i . 98) b i l o c u l i n e w i t h a t o o t h .  The form a s c r i b e d t o P.  d e p r e s s a (d'Orbigny) by Cushman and Gray (1946, p. 7, p i . 1, f i g . 24) i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e s e n t specimens.  There was no o r i g i n a l t y p e d e s c r i p t i o n  g i v e n by d'Orbigny and the f i g u r e g i v e n f o r B i l o c u l i n a d e p r e s s a d'Orbigny (1826, p. 298) i n E l l i s and Messina (1940) i s taken from P a r k e r , Jones, and Brady (1871, p i . 8, f i g . 5 ) . of a p e x y t u r e i l l u s t r a t e d  T h i s f i g u r e i s v e r y g e n e r a l i z e d but the form  s t r o n g l y suggests t h e p r e s e n c e o f a t o o t h .  Cushman  (1917, pp. 74,75, p i . 28, f i g s . 1, 2; 1921, pp. 469, 470, p i . 96, f i g . d e s c r i b e d and f i g u r e d t h i s s p e c i e s , Pyrgo d e p r e s s a . may  The p r e s e n t  2)  specimens  f a l l w i t h i n the range of v a r i a t i o n of any o f t h e above-mentioned  taxa.  104 Other d e s c r i b e d forms,  such as t h a t p l a c e d i n B i l o c u l i n a s a r s i i  by Cushman (1921, pp. 471,  472,  p i . 97,  s i m i l a r t o the p r e s e n t specimens.  The  Schlumberger  f i g . 1, t e x t f i g . 48) a l s o a r e v e r y taxonomic r e l a t i o n s of d e s c r i b e d  specimens of Pyrgo can o n l y be r e s o l v e d by c a r e f u l r e s t u d y of m a t e r i a l p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d i n the  literature.  Pyrgo (?) c f , P_. r o t a l a r i a L o e b l i c h and Tappan ( P l a t e 4, F i g u r e s 4a, Hypotypes No.  22a,  22b,  4b)  22c, L o c . B-6891 - 22a; D-1211 - 22b,  22c.  Ten specimens, which a r e r e f e r r e d t o i n the above manner, have been C o l l e c t e d from the Juneau and Vancouver a r e a s .  They may  be immature  pyrgos  of the s p e c i e s Pyrgo r o t a l a r i a o r some o t h e r s i m i l a r s p e c i e s (see d i s c u s s i o n of Pyrgo r o t a l a r i a ) or may  be a s e p a r a t e s p e c i e s .  I n numbers, the p r e s e n t  specimens a r e about equal i n t h e m a t e r i a l under study t o P_. r o t a l a r i a  and  a r e , f o r the most p a r t , much s m a l l e r .  tend  They a r e m a i n l y b i l o c u l i n e but  toward the t r i l o c u l i n e c o n d i t i o n , resembling T e s t f r e e ; when viewed i n the normal way  the genus F l i n t i a  i n this  of v i e w i n g Pyrgo^oyate  l i n e , much i n f l a t e d , w i t h a sharp but not c a r i n a t e b o r d e r around the  regard.  i n outlast  chamber; p e n u l t i m a t e chamber not smoothly meeting the f i n a l chamber, as i s t y p i c a l w i t h Pyrgo,  but h a v i n g an i n f l a t e d  c e n t r a l p o r t i o n , bordered,  w i t h a sharp change i n a n g l e , by an a r e a almost a x i a l p l a n e of the t e s t .  sometimes  a t a 90° a n g l e t o the v e r t i c a l  I n t h i s a r e a the s u t u r e between the two  final  chambers o c c u r s , but i s sometimes s e p a r a t e d by a s m a l l p a r t of t h e p r e v i o u s chamber, showing the t r i l o c u l i n e c o n d i t i o n .  The  a p e r t u r e i s on a  neck, i s somewhat e l o n g a t e , and c o n t a i n s a v e r y low, tooth.  though broad,  slight bifid  105 Family  OPHTHALMIDIIDAE  Subfamily  Cornuspirinae  Genus GORDIOSPIRA H e r o n - A l l e n  and E a r l a n d ,  1932  G o r d i o s p i r a c f • G. a r c t i c a Cushman ( P l a t e 5, F i g u r e s  l a , lb)  Hypotype No. 23, L o c . B-7065 A few specimens appear t o belong t o t h i s genus.  They a r e s i m i l a r t o  G o r d i o s p i r a a r c t i c a Cushman as t y p i f i e d by Cushman (1933b, p. 3, p i . 1, f i g s . 5-7; and 1948, p. 47, p i . 4, f i g s . 11-13) and L o e b l i c h and Tappan (1953, pp. 49, 50, p i . 7, f i g s . 1-3). The p r e s e n t  specimens, however, appear  to be more i n v o l u t e than t h e t y p i c a l form and have a s m a l l , boss-like,  calcareous  growth i n t h e u m b i l i c a l a r e a  These specimens may r e p r e s e n t  a new s p e c i e s  insufficient material available to t e l l these ophthalmidiids Gordiospira a r c t i c a . c o u l d be a t t a c h e d  rectangular,  of t h e v e n t r a l s i d e .  o r v a r i e t y but t h e r e i s  whether t h i s i s t h e case o r whether  f a l l w i t h i n t h e m o r p h o l o g i c range o f v a r i a t i o n o f M a t e r i a l from B-7077 a l s o c o n t a i n e d  members o f t h e f a m i l y O p h t h a l m i d i i d a e .  not members o f any known genus o f F o r a m i n i f e r a , s m a l l specimens o f a worm such as S e r p u l a .  two specimens which They a r e a p p a r e n t l y  however, and a r e more  probably  106 F a m i l y TROCHAMMINIDAE Subfamily  Trochammininae  Genus TROCHAMMINA P a r k e r and Jones,  1859  Trochammina (?) sp. ( P l a t e 5, F i g u r e Hypotype No. A single,  2)  24, L o c . B-7068.  I n d i s t i n c t l y c o i l e d , arenaceous  assigned to t h i s  foraminifer i s questionably  genus.  F a m i l y LAGENIDAE Subfamily N o d o s a r i i n a e Genus ROBULUS M o n t f o r t , Robulus  sp.  ( P l a t e 5, F i g u r e Hypotype No.  1808  3)  25, L o c . B-7074.  Four members of t h i s genus were found, one from B-7074 (Juneau a r e a ) and t h r e e from the sample near Burnaby Lake i n the Vancouver  area.  They appear,  t o be c o n s p e c i f i c but do not seem r e f e r r a b l e t o any o f the s p e c i e s found i n l a t e Cenozoie m a t e r i a l a l o n g the e a s t e r n P a c i f i c Coast o r i n A r c t i c w a t e r s . These f o r a m i n i f e r s a r e s m a l l , have f i v e o r s i x chambers i n the f i n a l w h o r l , are  smooth^surfaced, w i t h l i m b a t e , curved s u t u r e s which a r e f l u s h w i t h the  surface.  The p e r i p h e r y i s sharp, w i t h a t h i n k e e l .  B-7074 i s much s h i n i e r result  of p r e s e r v a t i o n .  closely.  The i n d i v i d u a l  from  t h a n the o t h e r s , but t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s l i k e l y a More m a t e r i a l i s needed  t o i d e n t i f y t h i s form more  107 Genus PLAMJLARIA. Defranee, 1824 Planularia  c a l i f o r n i c a (Galloway and W i s s l e r ) ( P l a t e 5, F i g u r e 4)  C r i s t e l l a r i a r e n i f o r m i s Bagg, 1912 (not d'.Orbigny), U. S. G e o l . Survey, B u l l . 513, p. 66, p i . 19, f i g . 2. A s t a c o l u s c a l i f o r n i c u s Galloway and W i s s l e r , 1927% J o u r . P a l e o n . v o l . 1, p. 46, p i . 8, f i g . 4. Planularia  c a l i f o r n i c a (Galloway and W i s s l e r ) ,  Cushman and Gray; 1946,  Cushman Lab, Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 19, p, 12, p i . 2, f i g . 16; Cushman and  Todd, 1947b, C o n t r i b . Cushman Lab, Foram. Res., v o l . 23, p. 62, p i , 15,  f i g s . 4-7; Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , 1950, M i a n Hancock P a c i f i c Exped., v o l . 6, no. 6, p. 303, p i . 39, f i g s .  6-9.  Hypotype No. 26, L o c . B-7077. A s i n g l e specimen i s a s s i g n e d t o t h i s s p e c i e s . easily  I t i s w e l l p r e s e r v e d and  Identified.  Genus DENTALINA d'Orbigny,,1826 Dent a U n a  costai  (Schwager)  ( P l a t e 5, F i g u r e 5) N o d o s a r i a c o s t a i Schwager, pi.  6, f i g . 62.  Dentalina costai p.  1866, Novara Exped., G e o l . T h e i l . , Bd. 2, p. 229,  (Schwager), Cushman, 1933c, U. S. Nat. M u s . , . B u l l . 161, p t . 2,  11,. p i , 3, f i g . 6; Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , 1950, A l l a n Hancock P a c i f i c  Exped., v o l . 6, no. 6, p. 311, p i . 41, f i g s . Hypotype No. 27, L o c . B-7067.  15, 16.  108 Dent a U n a  I t t a l L o e b l i c h and Tappan ( P l a t e 5, F i g u r e 6)  D e n t a U n a cf, calomorpha  (Reuss), Cushman, 1948,  Cushman Lab, Foram. Res.,  Spec, P u b l . 23, p. 44, p i . 5, f i g s . 4, 5; Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , 1950, A l l a n Hancock P a c i f i c  Exped., v o l . 6, no. 6, p. 317, p i . 41 f i g . 6.  D e n t a l i n a i t t a i L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, Smithsonian M i s c . C o l l . , v o l . 121, no.  7, pp. 56, 57, p i . 10, f i g s .  G e o l . Unders.,  10-12; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n , 1964, Norges  no. 225, p. 273, p i . 9, f i g s .  1, 2.  Hypotype No. 28, L o c , B-6891. A few d e n t a l i n a s from f i v e forms r e c o r d e d above.  l o c a l i t i e s appear  t o be c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h t h e  L o e b l i c h and Tappan do not i n c l u d e t h e form r e c o r d e d  by Cushman and M c C u l l o c h i n t h e i r synonymy; however, t h e f i g u r e s shown by Cushman and M c C u l l o c h d e p i c t a form here b e l i e v e d t o be c o n s p e c i f i c .  D e n t a l i n a pauperata  d'Orbigny  ( P l a t e 6, F i g u r e 1) D e n t a l i n a pauperata d'Orbigny, de Vienne  (Autriche).  1846, F o r a m i n i f e r e s f o s s i l e s  du b a s s i n T e r t i a r e  Gide et Comp., P a r i s , F r a n c e , p. 46, p i . 1, f i g s , 57,  58; Cushman, 1929, C o n t r i b . Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., v o l , 5, p t . 4, p. 85, pi.  12, f i g s . 23, 24; Cushman and L a i m i n g , 1931, J o u r . P a l e o n . , v o l . 5,  p. 99, p i . 11, f i g s . 11, 12; L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, Smithsonian M i s c . C o l l . , v o l . 121, no. 7, pp. 57, 58, p i . 9, f i g s . N o d o s a r i a pauperata pt.  7-9.  ( d ' O r b i g n y ) , Cushman 1923, D. S. Nat. Mus., B u l l .  104,  4, p. 72, p i . 14, f i g . 13.  D e n t a l i n a c f . r o e m e r i Neugeboren, Cushman and Gray, Res.,  Spec. P u b l . 19, p. 13, p i . 2, f i g s .  19-22.  1946, Cushman L a b . Foram.  109 Dentalina pi.  5,  s p , Cushman, 1 9 4 8 ,  Spec. P u b l .  No.  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  synonymy a p p e a r s  pauperata i s subject  t o some q u e s t i o n ,  Lagena  c f . L. amphora  ( P l a t e 6, F i g u r e s No.  1798  Reuss  3 and  4)  3 1 a , 3 1 b , L o c . B - 7 0 6 5 - 3 1 a ; D-1211 -  few specimens, v a r y i n g  somewhat i n s i z e a n d  most s i m i l a r t o t h i s  p y r l f o r m and h a v e numerous h i g h , a l l had  but t h e above  Lageninae  Genus LAGENA W a l k e r a n d J a c o b ,  morphologically  so  valid.  Subfamily  Hypotypes  Naturally the  s y n o n y m i z i n g o f a s i n g l e specimen o f a genus and s p e c i e s  v a r i a b l e as D e n t a l i n a  Probably  45,  29, L o c . B-7073.  single large foraminifer Is referred to this species.  A  23, p.  f i g . 7.  • Hypotype A  Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . ,  species.  31b.  i n number o f c o s t a e ,  They a r e a l l e l o n g a t e  seem  and  p l a t e - l i k e costae which extend onto the neck.  long necks although  m o s t a p p e a r now  t o b e b r o k e n a t some p o i n t .  They r e s e m b l e Lagena m e r i d i o n a l i s W i e s n e r b u t a r e w i d e r a t t h e b a s e and  have  less regular costae.  (1862  (1863),  p . 3 3 0 , p i . 4,  334, p i . 43, f i g s . Lagena figs.  They have b e e n compared w i t h Lagena  costata  f i g . 5 7 ) a n d Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h ( 1 9 5 0 , p p . 329  11-14) and M a l l o r y  (Williamson)  f i g u r e d by M a l l o r y . f o r m may  be an O o l i n a  Cushman ( 1 9 1 3 , p . 2 1 , p i . 1 0 ,  1929, p. 70, p i . 11, f i g s .  ( 1 9 3 0 , p. 1 9 , p i . 5,  f i g . 5).  Todd (1965, p e r s o n a l rather than a  and  ( 1 9 5 9 , p . 1 7 5 , p i . 14, f i g , 2 ) ; a n d  v a r . amphora R e u s s ,  2, 3; p i . 1 2 , f i g . 2; a n d  and V a l e n t i n e  amphora Reuss  I have examined  communication)  Lagena,  1 1 , 12) a n d the  Cushman  hypotype  Infers that the  present  110 The s p e c i e s Lagena amphora Reuss 1862 s i n c e i t i s p r e d a t e d by Lagena l a e v i s which v a r i e t y Is now  (1863) i s t a x o n o m i c a l l y  invalid  (Montagu) v a r . amphora W i l l i a m s o n ,  r e c o g n i z e d as a s p e c i e s .  1848,  Thus, Lagena amphora Reuss needs  a new s p e c i f i c name.  Lagena distoma Parker and Jones ( P l a t e 6, F i g u r e Lagena l a e v i s  7)  (Montagu) v a r . s t r i a t a Parker and Jones, 1857, Ann. Mag.  H i s t . s e r . 2, v o l . 19, p. 278, p i . 11, f i g .  Nat.  24.  Lagena distoma P a r k e r and Jones tn: Brady, 1864, T r a n s . L i n n . Soc. London, v o l . 24, p. 467, p i . 48, f i g .  65  ( Z o o l . ) , p. 461, p i , 58, f i g s , 71, p t . 3, p. 22, p i . 13, f i g s . 104, p t . 4, p. 14, p i . 3, f i g .  1884, Rept. Voy. C h a l l e n g e r , v o l . 9,  11-15;  Cushman, 1913, U. S. Nat. Mus.  1, 2; 1923  Bull.  ( p a r t ) , tJ. S. Nat. Mus.  Bull.  3 (not f i g . 2 ) ; ? Cushman and Gray,  1946,  Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 19, p. 21, p i . 4, f i g s , 8,  9;  Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , 1950, A l l a n Hancock P a c i f i c Exped., v o l . 6, no. 6, p, 337, p i . 44, f i g .  12; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n , 1964, Norges G e o l . Unders., no, 225, p.  286, p i . 11, f i g s .  6-8.  Hypotype No. 34, L o c . D-1211. See Cushman (1923) f o r o t h e r e a r l y  references.  Four f o r a m i n i f e r s , one from n e a r Burnaby Lake, and t h r e e from t h e Juneau area, are assigned to t h i s species. i s t h i n n e r than the o t h e r s .  That i n d i v i d u a l from t h e Vancouver a r e a  The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s based m a i n l y on the  o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n and f i g u r e .  L o e b l i c h and Tappan (1953, pp. 63,  64)  suggest t h a t t h e form they have r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e i r m a t e r i a l as Lagena m o l l i s Cushman may be the same s p e c i e s as Lagena distoma, i n which case L . distoma  Ill takes p r e f e r e n c e .  From t h e o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f these s p e c i e s ,  however,  L . distoma appears t o have fewer c o s t a e ( c e r t a i n l y fewer than t h e specimens f i g u r e d by L o e b l i c h and Tappan) and a l e s s fusiformc. shape, w i t h more p a r a l l e l sides.  L o e b l i c h and Tappan f u r t h e r say, "Lagena m o l l i s Cushman d i f f e r s from  Lagena g r a c i l i s W i l l i a m s o n , 1848, i n p o s s e s s i n g many more f i n e r i b s and i n being l e s s f u s i f o r m . "  T h i s may w e l l be so, b u t t h e type f i g u r e o f L_.  distoma shows a form which i s l e s s f u s i f o r m , w i t h more p a r a l l e l s i d e s , and has fewer r i b s t h a n t h e type f i g u r e o f L . g r a c i l i s W i l l i a m s o n , 1848.  The  form f i g u r e d by Cushman and Gray as Lagena distoma appears t o be more l i k e L . gracilis.  C o c k b a i n (1963, C o n t r i b . Cushman Found. Foram. Res., v o l . 14,  p t . 2, no. 260, t a b l e 2) r e p o r t s Lagena d i s t o m a .  Lagena f l a t u l e n t a L o e b l i c h and Tappan ( P l a t e 6, F i g u r e 8) Lagena l a e v i s  (Montagu), Cushman, 1913, U. S. Nat. Mus, B u l l . 71, p t . 3, p. 5,  p i . 38, f i g . 5; ? p i . 1, f i g . 3; 1948, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 23, p. 47, p i . 5, f i g .  11; Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , 1950 ( p a r t ) , A l l a n  P a c i f i c Exped., v o l . 6, no. 6, p. 341, p i . 45, f i g .  15 (not f i g s .  Hancock  14, 16);  ? Bagg, 1912 ( i n p a r t ) , U. S. G e o l . Survey B u l l . 513, p. 48, p i . 13, f i g . 5, f i g s . 8e, 8 j (not f i g s . 6, 7, 8a-d, f ) . Lagena l a e v i s  (Montagu) v a r . Cushman and Gray, 1946, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,  Spec. P u b l . 19, p. 18, p i . 3, f i g s . 24, 25. Lagena f l a t u l e n t a L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c , C o l l . , v o l , 121, no. 7, p. 60, p i . 11, f i g s . 9, 10. Hypotype No. 35, L o c . B-7074.  112 Lagena g r a c i l l l m a  (Seguenza)  ( P l a t e 6, F i g u r e 9) Amphorina g r a c i l l i m a Seguenza, 1862,  Descrizeone d e l f o r a m i n i f e r i monotalamici  Marne M i o c e n l c h e . . . M e s s i n a . . . , p. 51, p i . 1, f i g . 37. ( E l l i s Amphorina d i s t o r t a Seguenza, 1862,  and M e s s i n a ,  1940)  Descrizeone d e l f o r a m i n i f e r i monotalamici  Marne M i o c e n i c h e . . .Messina..., D i s s . 2, p. 52, p i . 1, f i g . 3 8 . ( E l l i s and M e s s i n a , 1940 Lagena g r a c i l l i m a p. 456,  (Seguenza), Brady,  p i . 56, f i g s .  1884,  19-28; ? Bagg, 1912,  p. 47, p i . 13, f i g . 3; Cushman, 1913, f i g . 4; 1923,  U, S. Nat. Mus.  L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, 61, p i . 11, f i g s . Lagena c l a v a t a  Rept. Voy.  Bull.  H. S. G e o l . Survey B u l l .  U. S. Nat. Mus.  104,  Bull.  (Zool.),  513,  71, p t . 3, p i . 11,  p t . 4, p . 23, p i , 4, f i g . 5;  S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c . C o l l . , vol.. 121, no.  7, pp.  60,  1-4.  ( d ' O r b i g n y ) , Cushman, 1944,  Cushman Lab, Foram. Res.,  P u b l . 12, p. 21, p i . 3, f i g . 6; Cushman and Gray, Res.,  C h a l l e n g e r , v o L 9,  1946,  Spec.  Cushman Lab. Foram.  Spec. P u b l . 19, p. 18, p i . 3, f i g s . 31-33.  Hypotype No.  36, L o c . B-7073.  These lagenas, which a r e r a r e a t many l o c a l i t i e s , a r e thought w i t h the above forms.  conspecific  The form f i g u r e d by Bagg appears too e l o n g a t e and s l e n d e r  to belong to t h i s species.  F i g u r e s o f forms r e f e r r e d t o Lagena c l a v a t a  (d'Orbigny) s u r e l y appear c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h the p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l . s p e c i e s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r and may  be c o n s p e c i f i c .  These  two  Ruth Todd (1962, p e r s o n a l  communication) r e p o r t s Lagena g r a c i l l i m a from u n c o n s o l i d a t e d marine d e p o s i t s of  the Juneau a r e a .  The form r e f e r r e d t o Lagena c l a v a t a by F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n  (1964j p. 285, p i . 11, f i g . 4) appears more s i m i l a r t o the p r e s e n t form than t h a t he  (p. 288, p i . 11, f i g . 11) r e f e r r e d t o Lagena g r a c i l l i m a .  113 Lagena l a e v i s  (Montagu)  ( P l a t e 7, F i g u r e 1) vermiculum l a e v e Montagu,  1803, T e s t a c e a B r i t a n n i c a , p . 524.  Lagena v u l g a r i s W i l l i a m s o n , 1858, Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a of Great B r i t a i n , p. 3, pi.  1, f i g s . 5, 5a; Cushman and Gray, 1946, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec.  P u b l . 19, p. 18, p i . 3, f i g s . 28-30. Lagena s u l c a t a Walker and Jacob v a r . l a e v i s  (Montagu), Parker and Jones, 1865,  P h i l o s . T r a n s . Roy. Soc. London, v o l . 155, p. 349, p i . 13, f i g . 22 Lagena l a e v i s on p l a t e Lagena l a e v i s pi.  description).  (Montagu), Bagg, 1912, U. S. G e o l . Survey B u l l .  13, f i g s .  6, 7, 8a-k  fig,  Bull.  71, pp. 5, 6, p i . 1,  3, p i . 38, f i g . 5; 1933c, U, S. Nat. Mus. B u l l .  p i . 4,  161, p t . 2, pp. 19, 20,  f i g . 5; 1948, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 23, p. 47, p i . 5,  11; Cushman and Gray, 1946,  Cushman Lab, Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 19,  p. 18, p i . 3, f i g s . 21-23; Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , 1950  ( i n part),  Hancock P a c i f i c Exped., v o l . 6, no. 6, p. 341, p i . 45, f i g s . fig. 7j  513, p. 48,  ( p r o b a b l y not f i g . 5 and f i g s . 8e and 8 j ) ; p i . 14,  f i g s . 23, 24; Cushman, 1913, U. S. Nat. Mus. fig,  (called  Allan  14, 16 (not  15); L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c . C o l l . v o l . 121, no.  pp. 51, 62, p i . 11, f i g s . 5-8; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n , 1964, Norges G e o l .  Dnders., no. 225, p. 289, p i . 11, f i g s .  13-15.  Lagena v u l g a r i s W i l l i a m s o n ? , Cushman, 1944, Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 12, p. 21, p i . 3, f i g . 7. Hypotype No. 37, L o c . B-7075. A s i n g l e f o r a m i n i f e r from B-7075 I s a s c r i b e d t o Lagena l a e v i s .  N^rvang  r e c o r d s t h i s s p e c i e s as r a r e o f f I c e l a n d i n 38-94, 75, and 141 meters of water  114 (1945, p. 2 0 ) . laevis  Lagena v u l g a r i s W i l l i a m s o n i s an o b j e c t i v e synonym of Lagena  (Montagu).  The two specimens i n t h i s m a t e r i a l which have been a s s i g n e d  t o Lagena l a e v i s and L . f l a t u l e n t a c o u l d e a s i l y be t h e same s p e c i e s , but w i t h so few specimens and a s m a l l s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t  Lagena m o l l i s  t o be s u r e .  Cushman  ( P l a t e 7, F i g u r e 2) Lagena g r a c i l l i m a  (Seguenza) v a r . m o l l i s Cushman, 1944, Cushman Lab. Foram.  Res., Spec. P u b l . 12, p. 21, p i . 3, f i g . 3. Lagena m o l l i s  Cushman, L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c .  Coll.,  v o l . 121, no. 7, pp. 63, 64, p i . 11, f i g s . 25-27; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n , 1964, Norges G e o l . Dnders., no. 225, p. 290, p i . 11, f i g s .  16-19.  Hypotype No. 38, L o c . B-7074. A few specimens from t h e Juneau and Vancouver a r e a s a r e members o f t h i s species.  They a r e covered w i t h f i n e s t r i a e , which d i s t i n g u i s h them from t h e  o t h e r s i m i l a r forms found i n t h i s s t u d y .  The specimen from Canada has more  p a r a l l e l s i d e s and more s t r i a e t h a n t h e o t h e r s . The l a t e Cenozoic lagenas r e f e r r e d t o Lagena g r a c i l i s W i l l i a m s o n by Bagg (1912, p. 47, p i . 14, f i g s .  7, 8a, b ) , Cushman (1929, p. 67, p i . 11, f i g .  2)  and Cockbain (1963, t a b l e 2) may a l s o be c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h t h e p r e s e n t forms, although i t i s d i f f i c u l t  to t e l l .  The p r e s e n t specimens appear t o have more  and f i n e r s t r i a t i o n s than t y p i c a l Lagena g r a c i l i s , and tend t o be s l i g h t l y p y r i f o r m , and, a l t h o u g h q u i t e e l o n g a t e , would n o t be d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g exceedingly  thin.  115 Lagena p a r r i L o e b l i c h and Tappan ( P l a t e 7, F i g u r e 3) Lagena l a e v i s  (Montagu) v a r . b a g g i , Cushman and Gray, Cushman and M c C u l l o c h ,  1950, A l l a n Hancock P a c i f i c Exped., v o l . 6, no. 6, p. 342, p i . 45, f i g . 17. Lagena p a r r i L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c . C o l l . , v o l . 121, no. 7, p. 64, p i . 11, f i g s .  11-13.  Hypotype No. 39, L o c . B-7073. Seven f o r a m i n i f e r s a r e a s s i g n e d t o t h i s  species.  Those f i v e from n e a r  Burnaby Lake l a c k a p i c a l s p i n e s , b u t t h e s p i n e s can be seen t o have been broken o f f .  Lagena p e r l u c i d a  (Montagu)(?)  ( P l a t e 7, F i g u r e 4) ? Vermiculum p e r l u c i d u m Montagu, fig.  1803, T e s t a c e a B r i t t a n i c a , p. 525, p i . 14,  3.  Lagena v u l g a r i s W i l l i a m s o n v a r . p e r l u c i d a  (Montagu), W i l l i a m s o n , 1858, Recent  Fpramlnifier^; o f Great B r i t a i n , p. 5, p i . 1, f i g s . Lagena p e r l u c i d a  7, 8.  (Montagu), Cushman, 1923, U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l .  p. 46, p i . 8, f i g s .  104, p t . 4,  12, 13} ? 1927, C o n t r i b . Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., v o l .  3, p t . 2, p. 123, p i . 24, f i g .  3; ? 1933c, U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l .  161, p. 20,  p i . 4, f i g s . 6-8; ? Cushman and P a r k e r , 1931, C o n t r i b . Cushman Lab. Foraim Res,, v o l . 7, p. 6, p i . 1, f i g . 22; ? Cushman and Gray, 1946, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 19, p. 18, p i . 3, f i g s .  17-20; Cushman and Todd,  1947a, Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 21, p. 11, p i . 2, f i g . 5; ? Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , 1950, A l l a n Hancock P a c i f i c Exped., v o l . 6, no. 6, pp. 342, 343, p i . 46, f i g s . 1, 2.  116 Hypotype No. 40, L o c . B-7075. C o n s p e c i f i c i t y w i t h the p r e s e n t forms i s q u e s t i o n e d f o r t h e forms i l l u s t r a t e d by Cushman and Gray and Cushman and M c C u l l o c h .  T h e i r specimens  appear t o show a more r o b u s t form w i t h s h o r t e r neck and c o s t a e l i m i t e d t o the v e r y b a s a l p a r t of t h e t e s t as opposed t o c o s t a e extending on t h e p r e s e n t specimens.  f u r t h e r up t h e t e s t  The forms f i g u r e d by Cushman and Parker and Cushman  (1933) have c o s t a e o n l y v e r y b a s a l l y b u t a r e perhaps even l e s s r o b u s t t h e p r e s e n t specimens.  The form f i g u r e d by Cushman and Todd appears  c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h t h e author's m a t e r i a l .  than definitely  The f o r a m i n i f e r s i l l u s t r a t e d by  Cushman i n 1923 appear t o f a l l w i t h i n t h e range o f v a r i a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbian and/or A l a s k a n s p e c i e s , but these f i g u r e s a r e c o p i e s o f those o f Williamson. W i l l i a m s o n c o n s i d e r e d t h e s p e c i e s p e r l u c i d a as a v a r i e t y of h i s s p e c i e s Lagena v u l g a r i s . "differs  He s t a t e d t h a t h i s form, L . v u l g a r i s , v a r . s e m i s t r i a t a  from v a r i e t y p e r l u c i d a i n t h e c o s t a e t e r m i n a t i n g a b r u p t l y a t t h e i r  upper e x t r e m i t y i n s t e a d o f g r a d u a l l y merging i n t h e a n t e r i o r p a r t of t h e s h e l l . " O r i g i n a l f i g u r e s o f Lagena v u l g a r i s W i l l i a m s o n v a r . s e m i s t r i a t a and Vermiculum p e r l u c i d u m Montagu show b a s a l l y bulbous Williamson's  forms topped by long necks.  However,  f i g u r e s of t h e " v a r i e t y " p e r l u c i d a show a form w i t h much s h o r t e r  c o s t a e than t h e o r i g i n a l o f Montagu. seem t o have f o l l o w e d W i l l i a m s o n .  Thus, I n g e n e r a l , subsequent  Bagg (1912, p. 50, p i . 14, f i g s .  authors 1-4) was an  e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s i n r e f e r r i n g specimens t o Lagena s u b s t r i a t a W i l l i a m s o n .  He  a p p a r e n t l y f o l l o w e d Reuss (1862, p i . 2, f i g s . 2, 3) whose f i g u r e s he c o p i e s , and which d e p i c t e d s h o r t c o s t a e .  Brady (1884, p. 465, p i . 57, f i g s . 14-18)  a l s o r e f e r r e d h i s specimens t o Lagena s e m i s t r i a t a .  Cushman (1927) simply  d i s c u s s e d t h e taxonomic p o s i t i o n o f t h e name Vermiculum and reproduced  117 Montagu's o r i g i n a l f i g u r e .  Cushman (1933) p o i n t s out t h a t authors  subsequent  t o Montagu have v e r y l a r g e l y r e f e r r e d the s p e c i f i c name p e r l u c i d a t o a  form  w i t h a l o n g neck but w i t h c o s t a e l i m i t e d t o the b a s a l p a r t of the t e s t . f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t he f o l l o w e d t h i s  practice.  The p r e s e n t lagenas a r e f l a s k - s h a p e d w i t h l o n g necks w i t h l i p s and numerous (20+) test.  c o s t a e extending  He  from the base t o as much as h a l f way  with  up  the  Some i n d i v i d u a l s show a s u g g e s t i o n of a s m a l l b a s a l s p i n e or knob.  In  the p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l , t h e s e lagenas a r e most s i m i l a r t o Lagena s e m i l i n e a t a , from which they can be r e a d i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r l a c k of an a p i c a l s p i n e , more rounded bottom, and have fewer c o s t a e .  t e n d e n c i e s t o be l e s s bulbous  i n t h e lower p a r t and  T h i s s p e c i e s occurs i n s m a l l numbers a t a few  The  form r e f e r r e d by F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n  pi.  12,  f i g . 2) may  t o Lagena s e m i l i n e a t a Wright  be c o n s p e c i f i c with, the p r e s e n t  to  localities. (1964, p.  291,  specimens.  . Lagena s e m i l i n e a t a Wright ( P l a t e 7, F i g u r e 5) Lagena s u l c a t a Walker and Jacob v a r . s e m i s t r i a t a W i l l i a m s o n , Parker and 1865,. P h i l o s . T r a n s . Roy Lagena s e m i l i n e a t a Wright, app.  9, p. 320,  p i . 26,  p t . 4, p. 49, p i . 9,  Soc. London, v o l . 155, 1886,  P a c i f i c Exped., v o l . 6, no. 1953,  pi.  13;  p i . 46,  Smithsonian M i s c . C o l l . , v o l . 121,  12,  f i g . 2.  1964,  U. S. Nat. Mus.  Cushman and M c C u l l o c h ,  6, p. 345,  14-22; ? not F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n ,  p i . 13, f i g , 23.  P r o c . B e l f a s t Nat. F i e l d Club, n. s., v o l . 1,  f i g . 7; Cushman, 1923,  f i g s . 12,  p. 350,  Jones,  no.  1950,  Bull.  104,  A l l a n Hancock  f i g . 11; L o e b l i c h and Tappan,  7, pp. 65, 66, p i . 11,  Norges G e o l . tJnders., no. 225,  figs. p.  291,  118 ?Lagena s e m i s t r i a t a W i l l i a m s o n , Cushman and Gray, 1946, Gushman L a b . Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 19, pp. 18, 19, p i . 3, f i g . 34. Lagena caudata ( d ' O r b i g n y ) , Cushman, 1948, C o n t r i b . Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 23, p. 46, p i . 5, f i g s . 8, 9. Hypotype No. 41, L o c . D-1211. The f i g u r e from t h e Timms P o i n t P l i o c e n e , d e p i c t e d by Cushman and Gray as Lagena s e m i s t r i a t a , appears t o show an a p i c a l s p i n e .  I f t h i s spine i s  p r e s e n t , t h e form p r o b a b l y s h o u l d be a s s i g n e d t o L . s e m i l i n e a t a .  In t h e  p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l specimens o c c u r i n v e r y s m a l l numbers a t s e v e r a l  localities.  The hypotype shows t h e s t r i a t i o n s on t h e neck mentioned by Wright i n t h e original description.  Todd (1959, p e r s o n a l communication) r e p o r t s t h i s  from bottom samples i n s o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a n w a t e r s .  species  The form r e f e r r e d t o  Lagena s e m i l i n e a t a by F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n p r o b a b l y i s c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h t h e form h e r e i n r e f e r r e d t o Lagena p e r l u c i d a  (Montagu) ( ? ) .  Lagena s e t i g e r a  Millett  ( P l a t e 7, F i g u r e 6) Lagena c l a v a t a  (d'Orbigny) v a r . s e t i g e r a M i l l e t t ,  Soc. London, p t . 11, p. 491, p i . 8, f i g . Lagena p e r l u c i d a  1901, J o u r . Roy. M i c r .  9.  (Montagu) v a r . Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , 1950, A l l a n  Hancock  P a c i f i c Exped., v o l . 6, no. 6, p. 343, p i . 46, f i g s . 3, 4. Lagena s e t i g e r a M i l l e t t , L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c .  Coll.,  v o l . 121, no. 7, pp. 66, 67, p i . 11, f i g s . 23, 24; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n , 1964, Norges G e o l . Unders., no. 225, p. 292, p i . 12, f i g . 3. Hypotype No. 42, L o c . B-7075. Specimens which a r e r a r e a t s e v e r a l l o c a l i t i e s have been a s c r i b e d t o Lagena s e t i g e r a .  M i l l e t t ' s type f i g u r e shows a somewhat more s l e n d e r form.  119 Lagena s u b s t r i a t a  Williamson  ( P l a t e 7, F i g u r e 7) Lagena s u b s t r i a t a W i l l i a m s o n , 1848, Ann. Mag. Nat. H i s t . ,  s e r . 2, v o l . 1,  p. 15, p i . 1, f i g . 2; Cushman, 1923, U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l .  104, p t . 4,  pp. 56, 57, p i . 10, f i g . 11; 1929, C o n t r i b , Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., v o l . 5, p t . 3, p. 68, p i . 11, f i g . 4; 1 1944, Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 12, p. 21, p i . 3, f i g . 8; Cushman and L a i m i n g ,  1931, J o u r .  Paleon., v o l . 5, no. 2, pp. 100, 101, p i . 11, f i g . 1. Lagena v u l g a r i s W i l l i a m s o n v a r , s u b s t r i a t a W i l l i a m s o n ,  1858, Recent  F o r a m i n i f e r a o f Great B r i t a i n , p. 7, p i . 1, f i g . 14. Lagena s t r i a t a  ( d ' O r b i g n y ) , Cushman and Gray, 1946, Cushman L a b . Foram. Res.,  Spec. P u b l . 19, p. 20, p i . 3, f i g s . 51-53, ? f i g , 54. not Lagena s t r i a t a 1964,  ( d ' O r b i g n y ) , forma s u b s t r i a t a W i l l i a m s o n ,  Feyling-Hanssen,  Norges G e o l . Unders., no. 225, p. 294, p i . 12, f i g . 6.  Hypotype No. 43, L o c . D-1211. Four  specimens from t h e e x c a v a t i o n near Burnaby Lake have been a s c r i b e d  to t h i s species.  I n t h e synonymy, forms have been excluded w h i c h a r e c i r c u l a r  r a t h e r than e l o n g a t e on t h e grounds t h a t they a r e more p r o b a b l y w i t h the form h e r e a s s i g n e d t o Lagena s t r i a t a  (d'Orbigny).  conspecific  By t h e same token,  the e l o n g a t e specimens r e f e r r e d t o L . s t r i a t a by Cushman and Gray have been here a s c r i b e d t o L . s u b s t r i a t a ,  Cushman and Gray's f i g . 54 d e p i c t s an i n d i v i d u a l  w i t h fewer s t r i a t i o n s than t h e r e s t of t h e i r f i g u r e d specimens and ambulation around t h e neck a n d . a p p a r e n t l y  w i t h a s l i g h t l y s p i n o s e base; these c h a r a c t e r s  cause a q u e s t i o n as t o i t s taxonomic d e s i g n a t i o n . Cushman i n 1944 i s s i m i l a r t o t h i s l a s t except  The specimen figured by  i n b e i n g l e s s e l o n g a t e and  120 apparently l a c k i n g the b a s a l spines.  The form d e p i c t e d by F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n i s  much more s l e n d e r than t h a t h e r e r e f e r r e d t o L .  Lagena s u l c a t a  substriata.  (Walker and Jacob)  ( P l a t e 7, F i g u r e 8) S e r p u l a (Lagena) s t r i a t a s u l c a t a r o t u n d a t a Walker and Boys, 1784, T e s t a c e a minuta r a r i o r a , p, 2, p i . 1, f i g . 6.  ( T h i s taxonomic d e s i g n a t i o n i s n o t  a c c e p t a b l e by t h e Rules o f Z o o l o g i c Nomenclature.) S e r p u l a (Lagena) s u l c a t a Walker and Jacob, 1798, IniKanmacher, F. Addams Essays on t h e m i c r o s c o p e .  1  Ed. 2, London, England, p r i n t e d by D i l l o n and  K e a t i n g , p. 634, p i . 14, f i g . 5. Lagena s u l c a t a  (Walker and J a c o b ) , Bagg, 1912 ( i n p a r t ) , U. S. G e o l . Survey  B u l l . 513, pp. 52, 53, p i . 14, f i g . 12, ? f i g . 9 (not f i g s . 10, 11); ? Cushman, 1923, U. S. N a t . Mus. B u l l . fig.  104, p t . 4, pp. 57, 58, p i . 11,  1; 1929, C o n t r i b . Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., v o l . 5, p t . 3, no. 83,  p. 70, p i . 11, f i g . 5; 1948, Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 23, p. 46, p i . 5, f i g , 12. ?Lagena c o s t a t a ( W i l l i a m s o n ) , Cushman, 1913, U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l . pi.  10, f i g . 1 (not p i . 9, f i g . 6; p i . 12, f i g . 1 ) .  Lagena a c u t i c o s t a Reuss, Cushman, 1923, U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l , pi. not  71, p. 21,  104, p t . 4, p. 5,  1, f i g , 3 (not f i g s . 1, 2 ) .  Lagena s.ulcata (Walker and J a c o b ) , Gushman, 1913, U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l .  71, p. 22, p i . 9, f i g . 2; Cushman, Stewart, and Stewart, 1930, T r a n s . San Diego Soc. Nat. H i s t . , v o l . 6, no. 2, p. 58, p i . 3, f i g . 12; Cushman and Gray, 1946, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 19, p. 19, p i . 3, f i g . 46.  121 Hypotype No. 44, L o c . B-7065. Lagenas which a r e r e c o r d e d from f i v e l o c a l i t i e s have been i d e n t i f i e d Lagena s u l c a t a . species.  as  Many forms found i n the l i t e r a t u r e have been r e f e r r e d t o t h i s  They a r e not c o n s i d e r e d i n the synonymy m a i n l y because o f d i v e r g e n t  appearances, d e s c r i p t i o n s and/or Inadequacy t h e r e o f . Cushman (1923).  F o r e a r l y r e f e r e n c e s see  The a u t h o r has been concerned m a i n l y w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l  d e s c r i p t i o n and w i t h forms.which a r e f a i r l y  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the p r e s e n t  m a t e r i a l i n g e o l o g i c time and g e o g r a p h i c and e c o l o g i c p o s i t i o n .  In d i f f e r -  e n t i a t i n g t h e p r e s e n t form from O o l i n a c o s t a t a ( W i l l i a m s o n ) , the d e s c r i p t i o n of t h a t s p e c i e s g i v e n by L o e b l i c h and Tappan  (1953, p. 68) i s f o l l o w e d .  A l t h o u g h t h e a u t h o r ' s m a t e r i a l i s s p a r s e , t h e synonymy i s b e l i e v e d t o r e f l e c t c o n s p e c i f i c i t y as c l o s e l y as i t can be determined from t h e l i t e r a t u r e , .  The  two forms s p e c i f i c a l l y not r e t a i n e d i n Lagena s u l c a t a a r e p r o b a b l y O o l i n a costata.  The f o u r p r e s e n t specimens most c l o s e l y resemble the form f i g u r e d by  Cushman (1948) i n h i s p u b l i c a t i o n on A r c t i c F o r a m i n i f e r a .  C o c k b a i n (1963,  t a b l e 2) r e p o r t s Lagena s u l c a t a from Recent bottom samples I n the J u a n de Fuca and G e o r g i a S t r a i t s  region,  • Lagena spp. ( P l a t e 7, F i g u r e 9; P l a t e 8, F i g u r e s 1 and 2) Hypotypes No. 45a, 45b, 46, L o c . B-7067 - 45a, 45b; B-6892 - 46. The group r e p r e s e n t e d by Hypotypes No. 45a and 45b P l a t e 8j f i g . distinct neck).  ( P l a t e 7, f i g .  9 and  1) c o n s i s t s of t e n s m a l l lagenas w i t h f a i r l y numerous, low but  c o s t a e which r u n from t h e base t o t h e neck (and perhaps up onto the They a r e e l o n g a t e and somewhat p y r i f o r m , t h o s e from B-7072 and B-7077  being t h e l e a s t p y r i f o r m .  V a r y i n g somewhat, t h e base i s rounded t o rounded  122 with a small point projecting  from the c e n t e r .  They c l o s e l y resemble what a r e  here i d e n t i f i e d as Lagena c f . L . amphora, but they a r e much s m a l l e r and have lower c o s t a e which do not c l e a r l y r u n up onto t h e neck; f u r t h e r , t h e s e lagenas a r e more l u c i d than t h o s e i d e n t i f i e d as L . c f . L. amphora.  T h i s group o f  Lagena s p . c l o s e l y resembles t h e form i d e n t i f i e d as Lagena c f . f i l i c o s t a  Reuss  by Cushman and M c C u l l o c h (1950, pp. 338, 339, p i . 45, f i g s . 2-4) but i s more p y r i f o r m and has a s h o r t e r neck than t h e o r i g i n a l Lagena f i l i c o s t a  Reuss.  Three specimens of Lagena from two l o c a l i t i e s n e a r Juneau appear t o be c o n s p e c i f i c but not r e f e r r a b l e t o a known s p e c i e s . Hypotype No, 46 ( P l a t e 8, f i g . 2 ) .  They a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by  They a r e s m a l l , q u i t e e l o n g a t e , v e r y  s l i g h t l y p y r i f o r m , w i t h almost p a r a l l e l s i d e s throughout most of t h e t e s t , narrowing a t the top 20 t h i n ,  t o a l o n g , smooth neck.  low but d i s t i n c t  The t e s t s a r e covered w i t h 16 t o  s t r i a e , most o f which extend from t h e base of t h e  t e s t t o the bottom o f t h e neck; the h e i g h t of t h e c o s t a e v a r i e s between t h e t h r e e specimens.  The base of the t e s t  considerably  i s rounded, which  clearly  s e p a r a t e s t h e s e f o r a m i n i f e r s from such p o i n t e d o r a p i c u l a t e s p e c i e s as L . gracilis.  These f o r a m i n i f e r s from t h e Juneau a r e a p r o b a b l y most  closely  resemble L. s u b s t r i a t a except t h a t , as t y p i f i e d by W i l l i a m s o n , L . s u b s t r i a t a shows more s t r i a t i o n s , which c o n t i n u e onto t h e neck, and has a l e s s test.  elongate  Q u i t e a range o f v a r i a t i o n o f specimens have been a s c r i b e d t o L.  s u b s t r i a t a over the y e a r s , most of which, however, a r e l e s s e l o n g a t e than t h e p r e s e n t forms.  These forms have more c o s t a e and a r e l e s s p y r i f o r m than  the group r e p r e s e n t e d by Hypotypes No. 45a and  45b.  A s i n g l e specimen from B-7067 i s p l a c e d i n t h i s genus. deformed Lagena f l a t u l e n t a .  I t might be a  S i n c e i t occurs w i t h no o t h e r s i m i l a r  specimens  and p r o b a b l y i t s shape i s p a t h o l o g i c I n o r i g i n , i t seems unwise t o attempt a  123 closer identification.  The hypotype o f t h i s  form was d e s t r o y e d .  S i n c e lagenas and m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r forms u s u a l l y occur i n such s m a l l numbers, a l t h o u g h w i t h what seems t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e taxonomic d i v e r s i t y , i n t h e m a t e r i a l o f t h e p r e s e n t study, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s a r e made more d i f f i c u l t and  c l e a r l y more u n c e r t a i n than w i t h most taxa o c c u r r i n g i n l a r g e r numbers.  T h i s n u m e r i c a l c o n d i t i o n i s common w i t h t h e s e u n i l o c u l a r forms and must be kept i n mind as b e i n g a problem i n r e s o l v i n g t h e phylogeny group.  Probably o v e r - s p l i t t i n g  and taxonymy o f t h i s  i s t h e most common r e s u l t o f t h i s problem.  Genus OOLINA d'Orbigny, 1839 O o l i n a a f f . 0. a l c o c k i  (White)  ( P l a t e 6, F i g u r e 2) Hypotype No. 30, L o c B-7075. T h i s species, sensu s t r i c t o , has been d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g s u b g l o b u l a r t o pyriform.  The p r e s e n t specimens a t l e a s t a r e a c t u a l l y o n l y s l i g h t l y p y r i f o r m  and a r e o n l y s l i g h t l y rounded i n s i d e view, t e n d i n g toward h a v i n g s i d e s i n t h e main body o f t h e t e s t . developed  parallel  These specimens a l s o do n o t have as w e l l  a r e t i c u l a t e a r e a below t h e neck as appears  t o be t y p i c a l .  The  a u t h o r b e l i e v e s , however, t h a t t h e s e n o r t h e a s t e r n P a c i f i c specimens do belong or a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s p e c i e s O o l i n a a l c o c k i .  Only a few specimens  were found i n t h e m a t e r i a l under study; they a r e from s i x l o c a l i t i e s .  Three  specimens a r e from B-7075 and they tend t o be l e s s e l o n g a t e than t h e o t h e r s . The p r e s e n t specimens a r e perhaps most s i m i l a r t o t h e form named O o l i n a tasmanica by P a r r (1950, p. 303, p i . 8, f i g . 4) but have fewer c o s t a e ( a l t h o u g h P a r r ' s form has fewer c o s t a e than t y p i c a l Lagena a l c o c k i ) and a r e less pyriform.  P a r r makes no mention o f an i n t e r n a l tube.  Lagena s p . A  Cushman and Todd (1947b, p. 63, p i . 15, f i g . 10) and O o l i n a b o r e a l i s L o e b l i c h  124 and Tappan, F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n (1965, p. 26, p i . 2, f i g s , 5, 6) *may be n o n s p e c i f i c with the present  specimens.  Oolina apiopleura  O o l i n a b o r e a l i s L o e b l i c h and Tappan  ( L o e b l i c h and Tappan) and  (see f o l l o w i n g pages) a r e s u p e r f i c i a l l y  s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e s e n t specimens b u t have d i f f e r e n t numbers o f c o s t a e and l a c k t h e r e t i c u l a t e a r e a j u s t below t h e neck. seen b u t Todd  No e n t o s e l e n i a n tube c a n be  (1965, p e r s o n a l communication) s t a t e s t h a t a s h o r t tube can be  seen i n broken specimens, so t h e s e specimens a r e here r e f e r r e d t o O o l i n a . The name Lagena W i l l i a m s o n i comparative l i s t , fig.  ( A l c o c k ) , which I i n c l u d e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  was found t o be preoccupied, so White (1956, p. 246, p i . 27,  7) proposed t h e name Lagena a l c o c k i f o r t h i s  species.  The f o l l o w i n g  forms  have been compared w i t h t h e p r e s e n t specimens: E n t o s e l e n i a w i l l j a m s o n i A l c o c k (1865, p. 193 (no f i g u r e ) ) , W i l l i a m s o n i (Alcock} Wright (1876-77, p. 104, p i . 4, f i g .  Lagena  14^, Cushman (1923,  p. 61, p i . 11, f i g s . 8, 9; 1927, p. 146; 1929, p. 70, p i . 11,' f i g s . 1933c, p. 34, p i . 8, f i g .  7, 8;  8 ) , Cushman, Stewart and Stewart (1930, p. 59, p i . 8,  f i g . 5 ) , Cushman and M c C u l l o c h (1950, p . 362, p i . 48 f i g s . . 14, 15), M a r t i n !  (1952, p, 122, p i . 18, f i g .  -  1 0 ) . The above a r e q u i t e l i k e the. p r e s e n t specimens,  The f o l l o w i n g two forms a r e s i m i l a r but c l e a r l y not c o n s p e c i f I c : Lagena willjamsoni  ( A l c o c k ) , Cushman and Todd (1947b, p . 63, p i . 15, f i g .  Lagena a l c o c k i White (1956, p. 246, p i . 2.7, f i g . and Lagena s p . o f M a l l o r y  9) and  7 ) . Lagena g u n t h e r i E a r l a n d  (1959, p. 176, p i . 14, f i g .  10, t y p j i f i e d by hypotype  number 41, 530 and seen by t h e p r e s e n t a u t h o r ) a l s o a r e quite| s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e s e n t specimens b u t have a pronounced b a s a l r i n g .  j i  I i  Oolina apiopleura  ( L o e b l i c h and Tappan) i  ( P l a t e 6, F i g u r e 5) Lagena s u l c a t a  •  (Walker and J a c o b ) , P a r k e r and Jones ( p a r t ) ,  ' 1865, P h i l o s .  125 T r a n s . Roy. Soc. London, v o l . 155, p. 351, p i . 13, f i g s .  28-31.  Lagena a c u t i c o s t a Reuss, Brady, 1884, Rept. Voy. C h a l l e n g e r , v o l . 9 ( Z o o l . ) , p. 464, p i . 58, f i g . 2 (not p i . 57, f i g s . 31, 32 and not p i . 48, f i g . 20); Cushman, 1913, U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l .  71, p t . 3, pp. 23, 24, p i . 8, f i g . 9,  ? f i g . 10; p i . 23, f i g . 2; 1923, U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l . pi.  1, f i g s .  104, p t . 4, p. 5,  1, 2, (not f i g . 3 ) ; 1933c, U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l .  161, p t . 2,  pp. 34, 35, p i . 8, f i g s . 9, 10 (not f i g . 12); ? 1944, Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 12, p. 20, p i . 3, f i g . 5; ? Cushman, Stewart and Stewart, 1930., T r a n s . San Diego Soc. Nat, H i s t . , v o l . 6, no. 2, p. 57, p i . 3, f i g , 10; Cushman and Gray, 1946, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . p. 19, p i . 3, f i g . 45; Cushman and Todd, 1947a, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res,, Spec. P u b l . 21, p. 11, p i . 1, f i g . 28; Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , 1950, A l l a n Hancock Exped., v o l . 6, no, 6,. p. 329, p i . 43,. f i g s . 9,  Pacific  10.  Lagena a p i o p l e u r a . L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c . C o l l . , v o l . 121, no. 7, p, 59, p i . 10, figs.. 14, 15; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n , 1964, Norges G e o l . Unders., no. 225, p. 284, p i . .11,  fig,;.3.  Hypotype No. 32, L o c . ,B-6892. L o e b l i c h and Tappan p o i n t out t h a t Lagena a c u t i c o s t a . R e u s s i s a s u b g l o b u l a r form w i t h a f l a t t e n e d base and does not have t h e . p y r i f o r m shape of t h e p r e s e n t species.  T h i s c l e a r - c u t d i f f e r e n c e i n shape, which i s w e l l - d e f i n e d i n t h e  p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l , c e r t a i n l y appears t o j u s t i f y L o e b l i c h and Tappan's of. a new  s p e c i e s and t h e r e f e r e n c e t o i t of those specimens With t h a t  shape which were f o r m e r l y r e f e r r e d t o L . a c u t i c o s t a . a l s o a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a tendency t o be s l i g h t l y the  costae.  frequently.  Tests of Oolina  erection pyriform aipiopleura  c o n s t r i c t e d a t t h e top of  I t may be noted t h a t t h e c o s t a e a r e q u i t e broad and f l a t  on top  126 In r e f e r e n c e to the q u e s t i o n a b l e t h e f o l l o w i n g remarks a r e made.  The  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s i n the above synonymy, form d e p i c t e d by Cushman, Stewart,  Stewart (1930) i s a damaged specimen and of the chamber cannot be observed. few  c o s t a e I n f i g u r e s e i g h t and  L. a c u t i c o s t a . and  The  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the upper p a r t  Cushman (1933) shows forms w i t h  nine, while  i s not  truly  l a c k s the c o n s t r i c t i o n of the t e s t at the top'.of the c o s t a e .  probable  Oolina apiopleura  t h a t some other r e f e r e n c e s  t o Cj. a p i o p l e u r a i n s t e a d . p l a c i n g of t h i s  ( L o e b l i c h and  pyriform  It is  t o Lagena a c u t i c o s t a should be r e f e r r e d  Todd (1965, p e r s o n a l  O o l i n a c f . 0_. a p i o p l e u r a  communication) concurs i n the  ( L o e b l i c h and  ( E l a t e 6, F i g u r e  Two  original  Cockbain  Tappan).  s p e c i e s i n O o l i n a s i n c e she a s s e r t s i t has  Hypotype No.  rather  f i g u r e 12 looks l i k e the  form d e s c r i b e d by Cushman i n 1944  (1963, t a b l e 2) r e c o r d s  and  an entoselenean  tube.  Tappan)  6)  33, L o c . B-7077.  specimens from B-7077 and B-7070 d i f f e r from t y p i c a l O o l i n a  i n b e i n g more rounded, s m a l l e r and  having  distinctly  l o n g e r necks.  apiopleura They  may  be immature forms.  O o l i n a b o r e a l i s L o e b l i c h and ( P l a t e 8, F i g u r e Entoselenia costata Williamson, p. 9, p i . 1, f i g . 18;  pp.  Cushman, Stewart, and  52,  U. S. Nat. Mus.  J a c o b ) , Bagg, 1912 53,  p i , 14,  Stewart, 1930,  3)  Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a of Great  Cushman, 1923,  Lagena s u l c a t a (Walker and Survey B u l l . 513,  1858,  Tappan  (probably  ? f i g . 9; Trans.  figs.  Bull.  104,  Britain, p t . 4, p.  i n p a r t ) , U. 10,  San Diego Soc.  11;  S.  12.  Geol.  (not f i g . 12);  Nat. H i s t . ,  127 vol.  6, no. 2, p. 58, p i . 3, f i g . 12; Cushman and Gray, 1946, Cushman  Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 19, p. 19, p i . 3, f i g . 46. Lagena c o s t a t a ( W i l l i a m s o n ) , Cushman, 1913 ( i n p a r t ) , U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l . 71, p. 21, p i . 9, f i g . 6; 1 p i . 10, f i g . 1 (not' p*l. 12, f i g . 1 ) ; 1923, U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l .  104, p t . 4, p. 12, p i . 1, f i g . 16; p i . 2, f i g s . 1,  2; 1 p i . 3, f i g . 8; ? 1929, C o n t r i b . Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., v o l . 5, pt.  3, no. 83, p. 70, p i . 11, f i g . 9; 1944, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,  Spec. P u b l . 12, p. 21, p i . 3, f i g . 4; Cushman and Todd, 1947a, Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 21, pp. 10, 11, p i . 2, f i g . 1; Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , 1950,  A l l a n Hancock P a c i f i c  Exped., v o l . 6, no. 6, p. 335, p i . 44, f i g . 7.  ? Lagena a c u t i c o s t a Reuss, Cushman, 1913, D, S. Nat. Mus. B u l l . pp.  71, pt,. 3,  23, 25, p i . 8, f i g s . 9, 10 ( n o t p i . 23, f i g . 2 ) ,  Oolina c o s t a t a (Williamson), Parker, vol.  1952a, Mus. Comp. Z o o l . Harvard,  Bull.,  106, no. 9, p. 409, p i . 4, f i g s . 20, .21;.; L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953,  Smithsonian L a n k f o r d MS,  M i s c . C o l l . , v o l . 121, no. 7, p. 68, p i . 13, f i g s . 4-6; 1962, Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a from t h e n e a r s h o r e  t u r b u l e n t zone,  w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s and northwest Mexico; Unpub. Ph.D. T h e s i s , California,  Univ.  San .Diego.  O o l i n a b o r e a l i s L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1954, Washington Acad. S c i . , J o u r . , vol.  44, no. 12, p. 384 (not Q o l i n a c o s t a t a Egger, 1857).  Hypotype No. 47, L o c . D-1214. Specimens r e f e r r e d t o t h i s taxon a r e r a r e i n t h e g l a c i o - m a r i n e m a t e r i a l . The  synonomy f o l l o w s m a i n l y  by L o e b l i c h and Tappan. ascribed t o the species.  the d e s c r i p t i o n and f i g u r e s o f t h e s p e c i e s  Many d i v e r g e n t  forms, n o t i n c l u d e d here, have been  (See Cushman, 1923, .for e a r l y r e f e r e n c e s , )  seems t o be a grave problem o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Williamson,  along w i t h a b r i e f  given  The o r i g i n a l  There  f i g u r e g i v e n by  d e s c r i p t i o n , and repeated by Cushman (1923,  128 pi.  1,  f i g . 16),  extending  i s a poor i l l u s t r a t i o n but  t o the a p e r t u r a l end  forms f i g u r e d by  shows a form w i t h  of the t e s t and w i t h no d i s t i n c t neck.  Cushman as Lagena c o s t a t a i n 1913  e s p e c i a l l y i n 1929,  costae  ( p i . 10,  are. v e r y much l i k e the o r i g i n a l  figure.  f i g . 1) The  have a s h o r t neck.  from o f f the I s l e of Skye near S c o t l a n d , L o e b l i c h and Tappan may  but  The  not  t h e i r d e p o s i t o r y i s unknown.  have m a t e r i a l from the same a r e a but  f o l l o w e d h e r e i n , however, as they had access  N a t i o n a l Museum c o l l e c t i o n s .  the  o r i g i n a l specimens were Thus,  cannot be c e r t a i n  t h a t the form they d e s c r i b e d i s c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h the o r i g i n a l . being  and  r e s t of  f i g u r e s of the forms here synonymized, however, have c o s t a e which do extend t o the a p e r t u r e and  The  T h e i r work i s  t o a l l the U n i t e d  States  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s g i v e n h e r e a r e a l s o m a i n l y based  i n f i g u r e s , as d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e o f t e n inadequate and  divergent.  I t Is  difficult  t o s e p a r a t e members of O o l i n a b o r e a l l s as here i d e n t i f i e d  from specimens of  O o l i n a a p i o p l e u r a , which a r e l e s s e l o n g a t e ,  c o n s t r i c t e d at  top t h a n i s t y p i c a l .  p y r i f o r m , and  Cockbain (1963, t a b l e 2) r e c o r d s O o l i n a b o r e a l i s .  form r e f e r r e d t o O o l i n a w i l l j a m s o n i ( A l c o c k ) by F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n pi.  15,  f i g . 8) i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o and may  this report.  The  P_.  2,  f i g s . 5,  The 312,  be c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h 0_. b o r e a l i s of  forms r e f e r r e d to Lagena a p i o p l e u r a L o e b l i c h and Tappan by  Cooper (1964, p. 94, pi.  (1964, p.  the  p i . 5,  f i g . 15)  and which F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n  6) r e f e r s t o 0. b o r e a l i s p r o b a b l y  a l c o c k i (White) of t h i s  (Wiesner)  ( P l a t e 8, F i g u r e Lagena ( E n t o s e l e n i a ) g l o b o s a  v o l . 12), p. 119,  p i . 18,  2)  (Montagu) v a r . c a u d i g e r a , Wiesner, 1931,  Deutsche Sud  P o l a r Exped. 1901-1903, v o l . 20  f i g . 214.  26,  a r e c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h 0. a f f .  report.  Oolina caudigera  D r y g a l s k i , E. Von;  (1965, p.  In:  (Zool.  129 Lagena  ( E n t o s e l e n i a ) ovata  (Terquem) v a r . c a u d i g e r a Wiesner, 1931, I n :  D r y g a l s k i , E, von; Deutsche Sud P o l a r Exped. 1901-1903, v o l . 20 ( Z o o l . vol.  12), p. 119, p i . 18, f i g . 215,  Entoselenia lineata  (Williamson),  Cushman, 1948, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,  Spec. P u b l . 23, p. 64, p i . 7, f i g . 5; ? Cushman and Gray, 1946, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 19, p. 30, p i . 5, f i g s . Oolina caudigera Meddelelser,  (Wiesner, 1931), F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n ,  28-30.  1965, Norsk  Polarinstitutt  no. 93, p. 50, p i . 2, f i g s . 8.210.  Hypotype No. 48, L o c . B-7072. Specimens which a r e r a r e a t a few l o c a l i t i e s have been a s s i g n e d species.  F o r d i s c u s s i o n , see O o l i n a l i n e a t a h e r e i n .  appear t o be t h e same s p e c i e s . for  smooth forms l i k e 0.  Oolina caudigera not  to this  B o t h of Wiesner's forms  The use of t h e name O o l i n a l i n e a t a , however,  c a u d i g e r a may be q u e s t i o n a b l e .  by F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n  c o n s p e c i f i c with the present  The form r e f e r r e d t o  (1964, p. 310, p i . 15, f i g . 3) p r o b a b l y i s  specimens as i t i s more n e a r l y  Oolina c o l l a r i s  circular.  (Cushman)  ( P l a t e 8, F i g u r e 3) Lagena c o l l a r i s  Cushman, 1913, U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l .  71, p t . 3, p. 10, p i . 1,  f i g . 2. O o l i n a heteromorpha P a r r , 1950, B. A. N. Z. A n t a r c t i c Res. Exped.,  1929-1931,  Repts., s e r . b, v o l . 5, p t . 6, p. 304, p i . 8, f i g , 6. Hypotype No. 49, L o c . D-1209. Some o o l i n a s , which a r e most numerous a t t h e Shannon Creek appear t o belong North P a c i f i c .  to this Specimens  with sides tending  species, described o r i g i n a l l y  from deep water i n t h e  of Oolina c o l l a r i s a r e r a t h e r elongate,  t o be p a r a l l e l . . The s u r f a c e i s smooth.  but v e r y wide, sometimes  locality,  t a p e r i n g , w i t h a round aperture,,  subovate,  The neck i s s h o r t The i n t e r n a l tube  130 can be seen c l e a r l y on some specimens (and i s seen i n Cushman;'s o r i g i n a l The base i s somewhat f l a t t e n e d and knob i n the c e n t e r , a l t h o u g h original description. t h e f o l l o w i n g new o n l y completely The  The  sometimes has a s m a l l but  t h i s c h a r a c t e r was  clearly  evident  not d e s c r i b e d or shown i n t h e  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s p e c i e s sensu s t r i c t o  v a r i e t y appears to be g r a d a t i o n a l and  arbitrary.  smooth specimens a r e r e f e r r e d t o t h e s p e c i e s sensu  d e s c r i p t i o n and  figure).  f i g u r e of the h o l o t y p e  and  Thus,  here,  stricto.  g i v e n by P a r r f o r h i s s p e c i e s  Oolina  heteromorpha s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t i t i s c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h the e a r l i e r - d e s c r i b e d 0. c o l l a r i s and  i s thus a j u n i o r synonym.  Oolina c o l l a r i s  (Cushman) v a r . howensis Smith n.  ( P l a t e 8, F i g u r e s .6, 7, and H o l o t y p e No,  50a,  L o c . D-1209, Paratypes No.  Foraminifers  from a few  8)  50b,  l o c a l i t i e s are assigned  var.  50c,  L o c . D-1209.  t o t h i s new  variety.  The  morphology of t h e t e s t  i s e x a c t l y l i k e t h a t of the s p e c i e s sensu s t r i c t o ,  f r e e , r a t h e r elongate,  subovate, w i t h s i d e s t e n d i n g t o be p a r a l l e l ; t h e neck i s  s h o r t but v e r y wide and  sometimes t a p e r s . i n w a r d  i s round; the base i s somewhat f l a t t e n e d and  f r e q u e n t l y has  e v i d e n t knob; the c a l c a r e o u s w a l l i s smooth and tube can .be seen c l e a r l y  i n some specimens.  t y p i c a l form i n p o s s e s s i n g up the t e s t  s e v e r a l low,  knob as a more constant  aperture  a s m a l l but  finely perforate.  The v a r i e t y d i f f e r s  The  internal  from the way  from near the base only t o a  These c o s t a t e specimens seem t o have the b a s a l  c h a r a c t e r t h a n do members of the species, sensu  T h i s v a r i e t y seems, to grade away from the t y p i c a l form of the s p e c i e s , i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h few,  clearly  rounded c o s t a e , which extend p a r t  from the base, the d i s t a n c e v a r y i n g  p o i n t c l o s e t o the a p e r t u r e .  toward the apex; the  being  indistinct,  stricto. with  s h o r t c o s t a e t o . t h o s e whereon the c o s t a e  are  131 r e l a t i v e l y w e l l developed.  The  -test of t h e v a r i e t y a l s o appears t o be more  l u e i d than t h a t o f t h e t y p i c a l form.  The v a r i e t y i s thus s e p a r a t e d from t h e  s p e c i e s i n i t s t y p i c a l form i n a somewhat a r b i t r a r y manner. c o s t a e have here been r e f e r r e d t o t h e v a r i e t y howensis. from Howe Sound, immediately n o r t h o f Vancouver;  Individuals having  The v a r i e t a l name comes  t h e g l a c i o marine  material  exposed a l o n g Shannon Creek on t h e east s i d e o f t h e Sound y i e l d e d most o f t h e specimens  of t h e new v a r i e t y .  Length of holotype:  0.27 mm  G r e a t e s t diameter o f h o l o t y p e : Length of paratypes:  0.16 mm  p a r a t y p e 1 - 0.38 mm;  G r e a t e s t diameter o f p a r a t y p e s :  p a r a t y p e 2 - 0.32 mm  p a r a t y p e 1 - 0.18 mm; p a r a t y p e 2 - 0.20 mm  Oolina lineata  (Williamson)  ( P l a t e 8, F i g u r e 9) E n t o s e l e n i a l i n e a t a W i l l i a m s o n , 1848, Ann. Mag. N a t . H i s t . , London, England, s e r . 2, v o l . 1, p. 18, p i . 2, f i g . 18; ? Cushman and Gray, Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 19, p. 30, p i . 5, f i g s . Lagena l i n e a t a  1946, Cushman  28-30.  ( W i l l i a m s o n ) , Cushman, 1923, U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l .  104, p t . 4,  pp. 31, 32, p i . 5, f i g . 10; p i . 6, f i g . 6, ? f i g s . 5, 7, 8; 1933c, D. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l . Oolina lineata  161, p t . 2, pp. 36, 37, p i . 9, f i g s . 3, 4.  ( W i l l i a m s o n ) , L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c .  C o l l . , v o l . 121, no. 7, p. 70, p i . 13, f i g s .  11-13,  Hypotype No. 51, L o c . B-7074. F o r e a r l i e r r e f e r e n c e s see Cushman (1933, U. S. N a t . Mus. B u l l . 161). F o r a m i n i f e r s which a r e r a r e a t a few l o c a l i t i e s to t h i s s p e c i e s .  i n t h e Juneau a r e a a r e a s c r i b e d  Cushman (1948, p. 64, p i . 7, f i g . 5) f i g u r e d a specimen  132 from the A r c t i c which he r e f e r r e d t o E n t o s e l e n i a l i n e a t a W i l l i a m s o n . and Tappan (1953, p. 70) p o i n t out t h a t t h i s specimen i s smooth and  Loeblich further  s t a t e t h a t i t s h o u l d thus be r e f e r r e d t o O o l i n a c a u d i g e r a ( W i e s n e r ) . f i g u r e s o f Cushman and Gray's  The  (1946) specimens a l s o l o o k smooth, a l t h o u g h one  cannot be p o s i t i v e , and i f they a r e smooth they b e l o n g t o t h e same group as Cushman's (1948) form. specimens  Three l o c a l i t i e s  i n s m a l l numbers.  from around Juneau a l s o y i e l d e d  smooth  There i s a g r e a t e r s i m i l a r i t y o f form between t h e  smooth and t h e f i n e l y s t r i a t e specimens, and the s t r i a t i o n s a r e so f i n e sometimes as t o b a r e l y be seen.  Thus, t h e s e two forms appear t o be v e r y c l o s e l y  r e l a t e d i f not c o n s p e c i f i c .  A l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n would, however, be n e c e s s a r y  to determine whether  t h e s e forms i n t e r g r a d e s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  Although Oolina  c a u d i g e r a (Wiesner) i s not w e l l d e s c r i b e d and the type f i g u r e s show one somewhat more g l o b o s e i n d i v i d u a l t h a n t h e above mentioned  forms, the s i m i l a r i t y seems  g r e a t enough t o r e t a i n t h a t name f o r the smooth forms.  O o l i n a melo d'Orbigny ( P l a t e 8, F i g u r e  10)  O o l i n a melo d'Orbigny, 1839, Voyage dans 1'Amerique m e r i d i o n a l e , F o r a m i n i f e r e s , v o l . 5, p. 20, p i . 5, f i g . 9; L o e b l i c h and Tappan,  1953,  C o l l . , v o l . 121, no. 7, pp. 71, 72, p i . 12, f i g s . 8-15;  Smithsonian Misc. Detling,  1958,  C o n t r i b . Cushman Found. Foram. Res., v o l . 9, p t . 2, p. 27, p i . 7, f i g . L a n k f o r d MS,  1962, Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a from t h e n e a r s h o r e t u r b u l e n t  w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s and northwest Mexico, Unpub. Ph.D. C a l i f o r n i a , San Diego; Cooper, 15, p t . 3, p. 94, p i . 5, f i g . no. 225, p. 312, p i . 15, f i g s . no. 93, p. 50,  p i . 2, f i g .  7.  1964,  • 14;  zone,  Thesis, Univ.  C o n t r i b . Cushman Found. Foram. Res. , v q l . -  16; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n , 1964, Norges G e o l . Unders., 6, 7; 1965,' Norsk P o l a r i n s t i . t u t t M e d d e l e l s e r ,  E n t o s e l e n i a squamosa (Montagu) v a r . c a t e n u l a t a W i l l i a m s o n , 1848, Ann. Mag. Nat. H i s t . , London, England, s e r . 2, v o l . 1, p. 19, p i . 2, f i g . 20; 1858, Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a of Great B r i t a i n ,  p. 13, p i . 1, f i g . 31.  E n t o s e l e n i a c a t e n u l a t a W i l l i a m s o n , Cushman and Gray, 1946, Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l , 19, p. 31, p i . 5, f i g s . 40-42; Cushman and Todd, 1947a, Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 21, pp.. 19, 20, p i . 3,  fig.  10; 1947b, C o n t r i b . Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., v o l . 23, p t , 3, p. 66, p i . 15,  f i g . 28.  E n t o s e l e n i a squamosa  (Montagu) v a r , s c a l a r i f o r m i s W i l l i a m s o n , 1848, Ann. Mag.  Nat. H i s t , , London, England, s e r . 2, v o l . 1, p, 20, f i g s . 21, 22. E n t o s e l e n i a squamosa (Montagu), Brady, 1884, Rept. Voy. C h a l l e n g e r , v o l . 9 ( Z o o l . ) , p. 471, p i . 58, f i g s .  28-31.  Lagena melo (d'Orbigny), Bagg, 1912, U. S. G e o l . Survey B u l l . pi.  14, f i g s .  513, pp. 49, 50,  16, 17.  Lagena hexagona ( W i l l i a m s o n ) s c a l a r i f o r m i s W i l l i a m s o n , Cushman, 1913, U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l . Bull.  71, p t . 3, p. 17, p i . 6, f i g . 4; 1921, U. S. Nat. Mus.  100, v o l . 4, p. 177.  Lagena c a t e n u l a t a (Williamson), ? Cushman, 1913, U. S. N a t . Mus. B u l l . 3, pp. 18, 19, p i . 7, f i g s . 1, 2; 1923, U. S. Nat. Mus. B u l l .  71, p t .  104, p t . 4,  p. 9j p i . 1, f i g . 11; 1944, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 12, pp. 21, 22, p i . 3, f i g . 9. E n t o s e l e n i a hexagona W i l l i a m s o n v a r . s c a l a r i f o r m i s W i l l i a m s o n , Cushman, Stewart, and  Stewart,. 1930, T r a n s . San Diego Soc. Nat. H i s t . , v o l . 6, no. 2, p. 58,  pi.  3, f i g . 8; Cushman, 1948, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 23,  p. 64, p i . 7, f i g . 6. E n t o s e l e n i a c a t e n u l a t a W i l l i a m s o n , Cushman and Gray, 1946, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,  Spec. P u b l . 19, p. 31, p i . 5, f i g s . 40-42; Cushman and Todd, 1947a,  134 Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l .  21, pp. 19, 20, p i . 3, f i g . 10; 1947b,  C o n t r i b . Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., v o l . 23, p t . 3, p. 66, p i . 15, f i g . 28. Lagena s c a l a r i f o r m i s ( W i l l i a m s o n ) ,  Martin,  1952, C o n t r i b . Cushman Found.  Foram. Res., v o l . 3, p t . 3, no. 63, p. 121, p i . 18, f i g . 5. ? O o l i n a p s e u d o c a t e n u l a t a (Chapman and P a r r ) , P a r r , Res. Exped. 1929-1931 Repts., A d e l a i d e ,  1950, B. A. N. Z, A n t a r c t i c  s e r . B, v o l . 5, p t . 6, p. 304,  p i . 8, f i g . 5 ) . Hypotype No. 52, L o c . B-7067. Topotypic examined.  specimens from Cushman and T o d d s  (1947a) l o c a l i t i e s have been  r  C o c k b a i n (1963, t a b l e 2) r e p o r t s  t h i s s p e c i e s , O o l i n a melo.  t h e s e above l i s t e d taxa appear t o be c o n s p e c i f i c .  A l l of  See L o e b l i c h and Tappan  (1953, pp. 71, 72) f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e taxonomic c o n f u s i o n  surrounding  this  species.  O o l i n a s t r i a t o p u n c t a t a (Parker ( P l a t e 8, F i g u r e  and Jones)  11)  Lagena s u l c a t a (Walker and Jacob) v a r . s t r i a t o p u n c t a t a Parker and Jones, 1865, P h i l o s . T r a n s . Roy. Soc. London, v o l . 155, p. 350, p i . 13, f i g s . Entoselenia  s t r i a t o p u n c t a t a ( P a r k e r and J o n e s ) ,  25-27.  Dawson, 1870, Canadian Nat.  n. s., v o l . 5, p. 178, f i g . 11. Lagena s t r i a t o p u n c t a t a P a r k e r and Jones, Brady, 1884, Rept. Voy. vol. Bull.  9 ( Z o o l . ) , p. 468, p i . 58, f i g s . 37, 40; Bagg, 513, p. 52, p i . 14, f i g s .  Mus. B u l l .  Challenger,  1912, U. S. G e o l .  Survey,  13, 14, ? f i g . 15; Cushman, 1913, U» S. Nat.  71, p t . 3, p. 30, p i . 14, f i g . 10; 1923, D, S. Nat. Mus. B u l l .  p t . 4, p. 55, p i . 10, f i g . 10; 1948; Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., Spec.  104,  Publ.  23, p. 47, p i . 5, f i g . 10; Cushman and Gray, 1946, Cushman L a b . Foram. Res,, Spec. P u b l .  19, p. 20; Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , 1950, A l l a n Hancock  Pacific  Exped., v o l . 6, no. 6, p. 351, p i . 47, f i g s . 5-9; L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953,  135 S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c . C o l l . , v o l . 121, Hypotype No. A The  few  53,  Loc.  no.  7, pp.  74,  p i . 12,  f o r a m i n i f e r s from s e v e r a l l o c a l i t i e s a r e r e f e r r e d t o t h i s  o f f neck, but;  t y p i c a l of O o l i n a  s t r i a t o p u n c t a t a , a r e not  ( P l a t e 9, F i g u r e  Three and  the  construction  Tappan  1)  A p p a r e n t l y , the p r e s e n t  figs.  10,  11)  L o e b l i c h and  s t a t e d t h a t t h i s s p e c i e s has  specimens  o r a l view of the h o l o t y p e , i n the p r e s e n t  however, shows no k e e l .  a t h i n marginal k e e l , paratype.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s dup-  specimens, v i e w i n g them from s i d e and  what appears from the s i d e view t o be a t h i n k e e l can be  differ  Tappan (1953,  whose p r e s e n c e i s suggested i n the s i d e views of the h o l o t y p e and  licated  however,  perhaps f o u r specimens from t h r e e l o c a l i t i e s have been t e n t a -  from the t y p i c a l form i n the f o l l o w i n g manner.  The  of  B-7070.  t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d with this species.  p i . 14,  tubercules  1850  F i s s u r i n a c f . F_. cucurbitasema L o e b l i c h and  Loc.  The  apparent e i t h e r .  Genus FISSDRINA Reuss,  54,  species.  c l e a r l y evident;  of a l t e r n a t e l e n g t h and  t y p i c a l of Lagena m e r i d i o n a l i s a r e not  Hypotype No.  2-5.  s t r i a t o p u n c t a t a w i t h a broken-  i t might be a Lagena m e r i d i o n a l i s Wiesner.  the o r d e r l y arrangement of c o s t a e  p. 76,  figs.  B-7070.  specimen from B-7074 appears t o be an O o l i n a  the costae,  75,  o r a l views;  seen, when the  speci-  mens are r o t a t e d , t o be a s t r i p e of c l e a r s h e l l m a t e r i a l r u n n i n g down the edge of the t e s t . m a t e r i a l along  The  present  specimens tend to have a band of more opaque s h e l l  the s i d e s of the t e s t s , w i t h a more l u c i d c e n t e r ,  F i s s u r i n a l u c i d a (Williamson),  but  not  as w e l l - d e v e l o p e d as  L o e b l i c h and Tappan suggest no  such c h a r a c t e r  In F.  as does  i n that  cucurb i t a s ema.  species. Although  136 L o e b l i c h and Tappan's s p e c i e s i s d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g not as produced F. marginata  (Montagu), the h o l o t y p e as f i g u r e d has a somewhat produced  a l t h o u g h the f i g u r e d paratype does n o t . a r e not produced  at a l l .  The a p e r t u r e s of the p r e s e n t  These specimens may  l a r g e as F. cucurbitasema mens, except  either.  specimens  These s p e c i -  as a r e L o e b l i c h and Tappan's  the p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l i s t o meager t o warrant  E n t o s e l e n i a marginata  s e r . 2, v o l . 1, p. 17, p i . 2,  ( W i l l i a m s o n ) , Cushman, 1923  p t . 4, p. 33, p i . 6,  Entoselenia lucida Foram. Res.,  and Gray, 1946,  1848,  Ann.  Mag.  ( W i l l i a m s o n ) , Cushman and  Bull.  2). Cole, 1930,  97, p. 98, p i . 13,  Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,  C o n t r i b . Cushman Lab.  f i g s . 11,  12;  Cushman  Spec. P u b l . 19, p. 30, p i . 5,  f i g s . 16-18; Cushman and Todd, 1947a, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,  Spec.  P u b l . 21, p. 20, p i . 3, f i g . 11; 1947b, C o n t r i b . Cushman L a b . Foram. v o l . 23, p t . 3, p. 65, p i , 15, Foram. Res.,  f i g . 22;  Nat.  f i g . 17.  ( i n p a r t ) , tf. S. Nat. Mus.  f i g . 1 (not f i g .  v o l . 6, p t . 4, no.  comparison.  4)  (Montagu) v a r . l u c i d a W i l l i a m s o n ,  H i s t . , London, England, Lagena l u c i d a  closer  forms.  (Williamson)  ( P l a t e 9, F i g u r e s 2, 3, and  ? Cushman, 1948,  Res,,  Cushman Lab.  Spec. P u b l . 23, p. 63, p i . 7, f i g . 2.  E n t o s e l e n i a c f . l u c i d a W i l l i a m s o n , Cushman, 1941, Res.,  aperture  the q u e s t i o n a b l y c o n s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l from B-7074, a r e  Fissurina lucida  104,  as  not be q u i t e as f l a t t e n e d or as  A mucronate base i s p r e s e n t .  c e r t a i n l y more e l o n g a t e than F. marginata, Finally,  orally  C o n t r i b . Cushman Lab. Foram.  v o l . 17, p t . 2, p. 36, p i . 9, f i g . 12.  F i s s u r i n a l u c i d a • ( W i l l i a m s o n ) , Bandy, 1950, p. 274,  p i . 41,  J o u r . P a l e o n . , v o l . 23, no.  f i g . 12; L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953,  Smithsonian M i s c .  3, Coll.  137 v o l * 121, no. 7, pp. 76, 77, p i . 14, f i g , 4} D e t l i n g , 1958, Cushman Found. Foram. Res,, L a n k f o r d MS,  1962,  v o l . 9, p t . 2, n o . 179, p . 27, p i . 7, f i g .  Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a from the n e a r s h o r e  C a l i f o r n i a , San Diego; C o c k b a i n ,  Undersokelse,  T h e s i s , Univ.  C o n t r i b , Cushman Found. Foram, Res.,  t a b l e 2; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n ,  1964,  Norges G e o l o g i s k e  p. 315, p i , 15, f i g . 21.  F i s s u r i n a marginata Foram. Res.,  260,  1963,  15;  t u r b u l e n t zone,  western U n i t e d S t a t e s and n o r t h w e s t e r n Mexico; Unpub, Ph.D.  v o l . 14, p t , 2, no*  Contrib.  (Walker and B o y s ) , Cooper, 1964,  C o n t r i b . Cushman Found.  v o l * 15, p t . 3, p . 94, p i . 5, f i g , 17; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n ,  Norges G e o l . Unders., no, 225, p . 315, p i , 15, f i g . 22;  1965,  1964,  Norsk  P o l a r i n s i t u t t M e d d e l e l s e r , no. 93, p, 49, p i , 2, f i g . 11. Hypotypes No*  55a, 55b,  55c, L o c * D-1211 - 55a; L o c D-1214 - 55b,  See Cushman (1923) f o r e a r l y r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s s p e c i e s *  55e.  Test free,  u n i l o c u l a r , rounded t o ovate i n o u t l i n e , compressed, w i t h o r w i t h o u t a narrow k e e l ; w a l l c a l c a r e o u s , h y a l i n e , w i t h a horseshoe-shaped ( o f t e d s l o t t e d a t t h e base) opaque a r e a around t h e base and s i d e s of t h e t e s t , c e n t r a l a r e a  clear;  a p e r t u r e produced, t e r m i n a l , o v a t e , w i t h an I n t e r n a l t u b e , surrounded  by  c o l l a r - l i k e area.  a  Most of t h e p r e s e n t specimens have a s l o t - l i k e break i n the  opaque b o r d e r of s h e l l m a t e r i a l , t h e break l o c a t e d I n the c e n t e r of the b a s a l p a r t of t h e opaque b o r d e r .  T h i s i s not t y p i c a l of t h e s p e c i e s , b u t , of  i t does n o t seem worthy of the e r e c t i o n of a new Cushman and Gray  taxon.  itself,  Specimens f i g u r e d  (1946) and by Bandy (1950) a l s o show t h i s break.  by  Some o f  t h e p r e s e n t specimens have a narrow k e e l , o t h e r s do n o t ; on many specimens t h i s k e e l i s i n d e n t e d i n a r e g u l a r l y o r i r r e g u l a r l y c r e s c e n t - s h a p e d manner a t the c e n t r a l a r e a of the base, c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e break i n t h e opaque a r e a of t h e t e s t w a l l . may  E i t h e r o r b o t h of the o u t e r edges of t h i s i n d e n t e d c r e s c e n t  p r o j e c t below t h e g e n e r a l r i m of t h e t e s t , o c c a s i o n a l l y g i v i n g the appear-  138 ance o f b e i n g one o r two s p i n e s .  W i l l i a m s o n ' s o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n and f i g u r e  show, on t h e o t h e r hand, t h a t t h e s p e c i e s can be s l i g h t l y mucronate. specimen  from B-7066, which i s q u e s t i o n a b l y a s c r i b e d t o t h i s s p e c i e s , does have  a mucronate base, but a l s o d i f f e r s produced  One s m a l l  aperture.  from t h e o t h e r specimens i n having a l e s s  T h i s v a r i a t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e base p r o b a b l y i s on  an i n f r a s p e c i f i c l e v e l , b u t f u r t h e r work might  prove d i f f e r e n t l y .  Occasional  specimens have a s t r i a t i o n p a r a l l e l i n g and b o r d e r i n g t h e i n n e r edge o f t h e opaque areas o f t h e t e s t ; t h e presence o f t h i s  c h a r a c t e r might warrant t h e  e r e c t i o n o f a new taxon i f more specimens w i t h t h i s c h a r a c t e r c o u l d be found f o r comparative purposes.  One i n d i v i d u a l from t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s has  t h i s s t r i a t i o n but no opaque w a l l a r e a , and a l s o has a s t r o n g l y produced area.  oral  I n d i v i d u a l s from near Burnaby Lake a r e g e n e r a l l y more opaque t h a n t h o s e  from the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s and elsewhere, irregular,  s u b v e r t i c a l banding  and show some s o r t o f f a i n t ,  (as does t h e i n d i v i d u a l from B-7074).  c h a r a c t e r s may, however, r e s u l t from f o s s i l i z a t i o n . a l s o tend t o be rounder t h a n t h o s e from elsewhere.  These  The Burnaby Lake forms The more elonage  speci-  mens c o r r e s p o n d , i n t h i s r e s p e c t , more c l o s e l y w i t h W i l l i a m s o n ' s o r i g i n a l  type.  I n t h i s m a t e r i a l , t h i s s p e c i e s i s e a s i l y s e p a r a t e d from F i s s u r i n a m a r g i n a t a by t h e opaque b o r d e r , round o r i n d e n t e d r a t h e r t h a n p o i n t e d c e n t r a l b a s a l a r e a , and by a tendency  t o be s l i g h t l y more produced  o r a l l y and s l i g h t l y  larger. L o e b l i c h and Tappan s t a t e t h a t the form r e f e r r e d t o t h i s s p e c i e s by Cushman i n 1948 i s not F i s s u r i n a l u c i d a i n t h a t i t does not have t h e opaque border.  Cushman, however, c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h a t t h i s b o r d e r i s p r e s e n t and h i s  f i g u r e shows a v e r y broad opaque horsesho'e-shaped  area.  I t a l s o shows t h e  b a s a l i n d e n t a t i o n which i s p r e s e n t I n some o f the p r e s e n t a u t h o r ' s m a t e r i a l . The p r e s e n t author's q u e s t i o n of Cushman's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n r e s t s on t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a p e r t u r e Is n o t produced w i t h the broad c o l l a r r - l i k e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a .  139 P r o b a b l y , however, Cushman s form belongs t o t h i s 1  Fissurina  species.  c f . F , m a r g i n a t a (Montagu) ( P l a t e 9, F i g u r e 5)  Hypotype No..56, L o c . No. D-1211. Two s m a l l f i s s u r i n a s from n e a r Burnaby Lake and. one from t h e Highbury tunnel, e x c a v a t i o n a r e t e n t a t i v e l y r e f e r r e d  to this species.  They a r e much  s m a l l e r than F i s s u r i n a m a r g i n a t a (Montagu) v a r . j u n e a u e n s i s Smith n. v a r . and do not have t h e mucronate  base, a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a s l i g h t s u g g e s t i o n of a  point, a t t h e c e n t e r o f t h e base of t h e t e s t .  The i n d i v i d u a l from Highbury  "tunnel has a s m a l l i n d e n t a t i o n i n t h e k e e l a t the c e n t e r o f t h e base. specimens, e s p e c i a l l y t h e one from Highbury T u n n e l , most c l o s e l y  These  resemble  Lagena m a r g i n a t a (Montagu) v a r . Cushman (1933c, pp. 17, 18, p i . 5, f i g . 4 ) . The p r e s e n t specimens do not p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e l y resemble o t h e r f i g u r e s a s s i g n e d t o t h i s s p e c i e s or v a r i e t i e s t h e r e o f which Todd  (1954 i n Cushman,  Todd, and P o s t , p. 351, p i . 87, f i g . 27) has i n c l u d e d i n h e r s p e c i e s  Fissurina  c i r c u l a r i s a l o n g w i t h some o t h e r s of Cushman's (1933, Op. c i t . , p i . 4, 11, 14;; p i . 5, f i g s . 4, 6, 8, 9 ) .  Perhaps t h e p r e s e n t specimens  figs,  s h o u l d be  a s s i g n e d t o F. c i r c u l a r i s o r t o F_. m a r g i n a t a , but t h e m a t e r i a l i s inadequate for closer i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  F i s s u r i n a m a r g i n a t a (Montagu) var-. j u n e a u e n s i s Smith n. v a r . ( P l a t e 9, F i g u r e s 6, 7, and 8) H o l o t y p e No. 57a, L o c . No. B-7075; Paratypes No. 57b, L o c . No. B-7075 57c, L o c , No. B-7070. Test free, u n i l o c u l a r ,  somewhat compressed,  rounded t o ovate i n o u t l i n e ,  140 a p e r t u r a l end s l i g h t l y produced,  a b o r a l end s l i g h t l y produced,  mucronate o r  w i t h a s m a l l s p i n e ; w a l l c a l c a r e o u s , f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e , smooth; a p e r t u r e terminal, s l i t  t o ovate, w i t h a c o l l a r - l i k e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g i t and w i t h an  i n t e r n a l tube extending downward. stricto  T h i s form d i f f e r s  In h a v i n g t h e s l i g h t l y produced  It also d i f f e r s  from the o r i g i n a l  base, mucronate or w i t h a s m a l l s p i n e .  d e s c r i p t i o n of the s p e c i e s i n l a c k i n g a k e e l .  Montagu's type i l l u s t r a t i o n shows a broad S i n c e Montagu's o r i g i n a l  from the s p e c i e s sensu  keel.  d e s c r i p t i o n (Vermlculum  p. 524), many a u t h o r s have a s c r i b e d specimens t o t h i s variety i s illustrated  i n these d e s c r i b e d forms and  a r e a l l t h e same s p e c i e s .  The  s p e c i e s may  marginatum Montagu, species.  f i g s . 6-9)  Considerable  i t i s u n l i k e l y that  they  be v a r i a b l e as t o p o s s e s s i o n or  l a c k of a k e e l ; a l l t h e p r e s e n t specimens a r e k e e l l e s s . (1953, p. 77, p i . 14,  1803,  L o e b l i c h and Tappan  d e s c r i b e d the s p e c i e s as h a v i n g a k e e l but  f i g u r e a form i n which the k e e l i s e i t h e r v e r y narrow or p o o r l y developed. any  case, the b a s a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the p r e s e n t specimens seems t o be  and  e x h i b i t e d by no o t h e r form r e f e r r e d t o the s p e c i e s sensu s t r i c t o .  distinct These  f o r a m i n i f e r s o c c u r i n s m a l l numbers a t s e v e r a l l o c a l i t i e s near Juneau. form r e f e r r e d t o E n t o s e l e n i a marginata pi.  (Montagu) ? by Cushman i n 1948  7, f i g . 7) has some s o r t of b a s a l s t r u c t u r e and  t a x o n as t h e Juneau specimens. cucurbitasema  The (p. 65,  c o u l d b e l o n g t o the same  These specimens d i f f e r  from F i s s u r i n a  L o e b l i c h and Tappan i n b e i n g l e s s e l o n g a t e , not h a v i n g a k e e l ,  a p p a r e n t l y h a v i n g a more mucronate base. Height  of h o l o t y p e :  0.23  mm  Breadth of holotype;  0.21  H e i g h t of p a r a t y p e s :  p a r a t y p e 1 - 0.21  B r e a d t h of p a r a t y p e s :  mm  p a r a t y p e 1 - 0.16  mm; mm;  In  p a r a t y p e 2 - 0.27 p a r a t y p e 2 - 0.20  mm mm  and  141 F i s s u r i n a c f . F. q u a d r a t a ( W i l l i a m s o n ) ( P l a t e 9, F i g u r e 9) Hypotype No. 58, L o c . No. B-7065. Three specimens species.  from two l o c a l i t i e s a r e t e n t a t i v e l y r e f e r r e d t o t h i s  They d i f f e r  from t h e t y p i c a l form i n l a c k i n g a k e e l .  T h i s l a c k may  be w i t h i n t h e range o f v a r i a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i e s , but t h r e e specimens a r e t o o few t o make a c l o s e r  identification.  Fissurina serrata  (Schlumberger) (?)  ( P l a t e 9, F i g u r e 10) ? Lagena s e r r a t a Schlumberger, pi.  3, f i g . 7.  1894, Mem.  Soc. Z o o l . F r a n c e , v o l . 7, p. 258,  ( E l l i s and Mess i n a ,  ? Entoselenia serrata  (Schlumberger), Cushman, 1948, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,  Spec. P u b l . 23, p. 63, p i . 7, f i g . t Fissurina serrata  3.  (Schlumberger), L o e b l i c h and Tappan,  M i s c . C o l l . , v o l . 121, no. 7, p. 78, p i . 14, f i g .  1953, S m i t h s o n i a n  5.  Hypotype No. 59, L o c . No. B-7065. Specimens  which a r e r a r e a t a s m a l l number o f l o c a l i t i e s appear  ably referrable to this species.  question-  The p r e s e n t specimens a r e , however, v e r y  s m a l l and t h e exact n a t u r e of t h e i r margins and a p e r t u r e s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o determine.  I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s e specimens b e l o n g t o more than one  s p e c i e s because a l t h o u g h t h e margins a r e s e r r a t e or f i m b r i a t e , they a r e different.  The specimen from B-7076 shows a k e e l e d margin, b u t w i t h t u b u l e s  a b i t back from the margin, g i v i n g the specimen a s l i g h t l y quadrate appearance. The specimens margin.  from B-7065 and B-7073 have t h e t u b u l e s r i g h t a l o n g t h e k e e l e d  The s e r r a t e d n a t u r e of the edge o f t h e specimen from B-7075 i s p o o r l y  developed but seems t o be p r e s e n t i n t h e k e e l .  These specimens a r e a l s o v e r y  142 s i m i l a r t o forms r e f e r r e d t o F i s s u r i n a l a g e n o i d e s  Fissurina  sp.  ( P l a t e 9, F i g u r e Hypotype No.  (Williamson).  11)  60, Loc. D-1215.  A s i n g l e l a r g e F i s s u r i n a from the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s closely identified. i n t e r n a l tube, and gate, w i t h  one  I t i s compressed, has a very  s i d e being  c l e a r calcareous  a produced a p e r t u r e , perforate test.  ovate or rounded and  the o t h e r  cannot be more a  short  I t i s rather  edge b e i n g more or  l e s s a s t r a i g h t l i n e f o r most of i t s l e n g t h , f i n a l l y c u r v i n g around a t base, g i v i n g a somewhat p y r i f o r m shape t o t h a t s i d e . pathologic.  With only one  the  T h i s development i s  specimen a v a i l a b l e , the s p e c i e s  Family  elon-  cannot be  identified.  POLYMORPHINIDAE  S u b f a m i l y Polymorphininae Genus POLYMORPHINA d'Orbigny, Polymorphina k i n c a i d i Cushman and ( P l a t e 9, F i g u r e Polymorphina k i n c a i d i Cushman and P u b l . 21, Res.,  p. 12,  v o l . 23,  Hypotype No.  p i . 2,  61, Loc.  297,  Todd  12)  Todd, 1947a, Cushman Lab.  f i g s . 9,  p t . 3, no.  1826  10;  p. 64,  Foram. Res.,  1947b, C o n t r i b . Cushman Lab. p i . 15,  figs.  16,  Foram.  17.  B-7076.  A s i n g l e specimen from B-7076 seems r e f e r r a b l e t o t h i s d i s t i n c t a l t h o u g h the a p e r t u r a l a r e a  Spec.  i s broken away.  species,  143 Genus SIGMQMQRPHINA Cushman and Ozawa, 1928 Sigmomorphina  (?) sp.  ( P l a t e 9, F i g u r e 13) Hypotype No. 62, L o c . D-1215. A s i n g l e p o l y m o r p h i n i d from t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s has been q u e s t i o n a b l y r e f e r r e d t o t h i s genus.  I t i s a l s o s i m i l a r t o specimens which have been  a s c r i b e d t o G u t t u l i n a , Polymorphina, Pseudopolymorphina, and Laryngosigma. The p r e s e n t specimen does n o t seem i d e n t i c a l t o any specimen d e s c r i b e d and figured i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  There i s much v a r i a b i l i t y among specimens o f  p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s of t h e P o l y m o r p h i n i d a e and i t i s thus d i f f i c u l t o m i c a l l y a s s i g n a s i n g l e specimen w i t h c e r t a i n t y .  Further, the generic  c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e v a r i o u s genera o f t h i s f a m i l y a r e n o t t o o w e l l Sigmomorphina  trilocularis  t o taxon-  clarified.  (Bagg) and Polymorphina c h a r l o t t e n s i s ( o r  Pseudopolymorphina) have b o t h been r e p o r t e d from Recent m a t e r i a l i n t h e a r e a under study (Ruth Todd, 1959, p e r s o n a l communication; and see Cushman, 1925, p. 41, p i . 6, f i g . 9; and Cockbain, 1963, t a b l e 2 ) .  The p r e s e n t  specimen  might b e l o n g t o e i t h e r o f t h e s e t a x a i f t h e i r range o f v a r i a b i l i t y  i s as wide  as i s d e p i c t e d f o r Polymorphina c h a r l o t t e n s i s by Cushman and Ozawa  (1930,  pp. 119, 120, p i . 31, f i g s . L o e b l i c h and Tappan  1-6).  I t a l s o resembles Laryngosigma h y a l a s c i d i a  (1953, pp. 83, 84, p i . 15, f i g s .  6-8); however, i t i s n o t  p o s s i b l e t o determine t h e p r e s e n c e o r absence of t h e g e n e r i c a l l y f e a t u r e , t h e " e n t o s e l e n i a n " tube.  distinquishing  144 Genus LARYNGOSIGMA L o e b l i c h and Tappan (?) Laryngosigma h y a l a s c i d i a L o e b l i c h and Tappan ( P l a t e 9, F i g u r e  14)  ? Laryngosigma h y a l a s c i d i a L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, vol.  121,  no.  7, pp. 83,  Hypotype No. Two to  84, p i . 15,  6-8.  from B-7072 and B-7070 a r e q u e s t i o n a b l y r e f e r r e d  They c l o s e l y resemble L o e b l i c h and Tappan's d e s c r i p t i o n  f i g u r e s , except t h a t they may forms.  Coll.,  63, Loc. B-7072.  small polymorphinids  t h i s taxon.  figs.  Smithsonian M i s c .  be s l i g h t l y more compressed than the  and  typical  Small numbers of members of t h i s f a m i l y a r e hard t o i d e n t i f y and  with  the p r e s e n t i n d i v i d u a l s the main d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t the a p e r t u r a l area i s too obscured  t o be c e r t a i n of the presence  by Cushman (1933c, p. 40, p i . 9, var.  terquemiana  figs.  6-9)  The  form f i g u r e d  as Sigmomorphina s e m i t e c t a (Reuss)  ( F o r n a s i n i ) i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o the p r e s e n t specimens a l s o ,  as i s Pseudopolymorphina n o v a n g l i a e pi.  of an i n t e r n a l tube.  (Cushman) of Todd and Low  (1961, p.  16,  1, f i g . 26) as i t i s seen i n the f i g u r e w i t h a f r o n t view o n l y .  F a m i l y NONIONIDAE Genus NONION M o n t f o r t ,  1808  Nonion l a b r a d o r i c u m (Dawson) ( P l a t e 10, F i g u r e 1) Nonion l a b r a d o r i c u m (Dawson), Cushman, 1939, p. 23, p i . 6,  figs.  13-16- 1944,  U. S. G e o l . Survey  Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,  p. 24, p i . 3, f i g . 23;  1948,  Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,  52,  1955,  F o r a m i n i f e r a , 3rd ed., Key  53, p i . 6,  Ncirvang, 1945,  f i g . 2;  P r o f . Pap.  191,  Spec. P u b l .  12,  Spec. P u b l . 23,  pp.  PI. 23,  f i g . 2;  Z o o l . I c e l a n d , v o l . 2, p t . 2, F o r a m i n i f e r a , p. 27; L o e b l i c h  145 and Tappan, 1953, Smithsonian M i s c . C o l l . , v o l . 121, no. 7, pp. 86, 87-, pi.  17, f i g s .  1, 2; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n ,  p. 331, p i . 17, f i g s . p. 50, p i . 2, f i g s .  1964, Norges G e o l . Unders., no. 225,  15-18; 1965, Norsk P o l a r i n s t i t u t t M e d d e l e l s e r , no. 93,  20, 21.  Nonion l a b r a d o r i c u s (Dawson), M a r t i n , 1953, C o n t r i b . Cushman Found. Foram. Res., v o l . 3, p t . 3, p. 123, p i . 19, f i g . 1. Hypotype No. 64, L o c . B-7077. See Cushman (1939 and 1948) f o r r e f e r e n c e s .  T h i s w e l l known s p e c i e s i s  found i n c o n s i d e r a b l e abundance i n t h e m a t e r i a l o f t h i s study.  I t i s also  l i s t e d as o c c u r r i n g i n s i m i l a r d e p o s i t s on M i d d l e t o n I s l a n d , G u l f o f A l a s k a (Loeblich i n M i l l e r ,  1953, p. 3 0 ) .  Genus ASTRONONION Cushman and Edwards, 1937 A s t r o n o n i o n g a l l o w a y i L o e b l i c h and Tappan ( P l a t e 10, F i g u r e 2) A s t r o n o n i o n s t e l l a t u m Cushman and Edwards, 1937 ( n o t Nonionina  stellata  Terquem,  1882), C o n t r i b . Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., v o l . 13, p t . 1, p. 32, p i . 3, f i g s . 9-11; Cushman, 1939, D. S. G e o l . Survey, P r o f . Pap. 191, p. 36, p i . 10, f i g s . 3-5; 1948, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 23, p. 56; Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , pi.  1940, A l l a n Hancock P a c i f i c Exped., v o l . 6, no. 3, p. 168,  18, f i g . 11; Cushman and Todd, 1947a, Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., Spec.  P u b l . 21, p. 13, p i . 2, f i g . 15; Parker, Bull.,  1952a, Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard,  v o l . 106, no.59, p. 410, p i . 5, f i g s . 2, 3.  A s t r o n o n i o n s t e l l i g e r u m ( d ' O r b i g n y ) , Cushman, 1948, Cushman L a b . Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 23, p. 55, p i . 6, f i g . 6. A s t r o n o n i o n g a l l o w a y i L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, Smithsonian M i s c . C o l l . , v o l . 121, no, 7) pl»  f i g s . 4"*7j D e t l i n g 1958, Contirib. Cushman Found. Foram.  146 Res.,  v o l . 9, p t . 2, no.  G e o l . Unders., no. Hypotype No. A few  225,  179,  p. 28,  p. 332,  p i . 8,  p i . 18,  f i g . 1; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n ,  f i g . 4.  65, L o c . B-6891.  specimens from s e v e r a l l o c a l i t i e s a r e a s s i g n e d  Todd (1958, p e r s o n a l communication) r e p o r t e d A s t r o n o n i o n numbers from A l a s k a .  The  viragoense  Cushman and  ( P l a t e 10, F i g u r e ? Astrononion viragoense  Cushman and  v o l . 13, p t . 1, p. 32,  G e o l . Survey P r o f . Pap. 1940,  191,  p. 36,  Edwards, 1937, p i . 3, p i . 10,  figs.  Res.,  gallowayi i n small  Edwards  f i g . 6;  Cushman, 1939, Cushman and  3, p. 168,  Hypotype No.  p t . 3, p.  McCulloch,  p i . 18,  Foram.  S.  f i g . 12; 26,  Res.,  1947b, C o n t r i b . Cushman Lab.  Foram.  64.  66, L o c . B-7072.  A s i n g l e poorly preserved t o t h i s genus and  U.  Spec, P u b l . 19, p.  36-38; Cushman and Todd, 1947a, Cushman Lab.  v o l . 23,  seen.  C o n t r i b . Cushman Lab.  f i g . 12;  Cushman Lab. Foram. Res.,  Spec. P u b l . 21, p. 13, p i . 2, f i g . 16;  species.  3)  A l l a n Hancock P a c i f i c Exped., v o l . 6, no.  Cushman and Gray, 1946, p i . 4,  to t h i s  supplementary chamberlets a r e c l e a r l y  (?) A s t r o n o n i o n  Foram. Res.,  Norges  species.  f o r a m i n i f e r from B-7072 i s q u e s t i o n a b l y  referred  The g e n e r i c c h a r a c t e r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e supplementary  chamberlets cannot be d i s c e r n e d  clearly.  Genus NONIONELLA Cushman, N o n i o n e l l a t u r g i d a (Williamson)  1926  v a r . d i g i t a t a N^rvang  ( P l a t e 10, F i g u r e s 4a and  4b)  147 N o n i o n e l l a t u r g i d a ( W i l l i a m s o n ) v a r . d i g i t a t a N^rvang, 1945, Z o o l . I c e l a n d , vol.  2, p t . 2, F o r a m i n i f e r a , p. 29, t e x t f i g . 4; Cushman, 1948, Cushman  Lab. Foram. Res., Spec. P u b l . 23, p. 55, p i . 6, f i g . 5; Parker, Mus.  Comp. Z o o l . Harvard, B u l l . ,  1952a,  v o l . 106, no. 9, p. 413, p i . 5, f i g s .  15, 16. Hypotype No. 67, L o c . B-7077. N o n i o n e l l a s , which a r e r a r e a t most Juneau-area l o c a l i t i e s ^ c l e a r l y t o t h i s taxon. near Vancouver.  Cockbain r e p o r t e d t h i s taxon  (1963, t a b l e 2) l i v i n g  Todd (1958, p e r s o n a l communication) a l s o l i s t e d  belong  i n waters  i t rarely i n  m a t e r i a l from t h e Juneau a r e a .  N o n i o n e l l a (?) s p . ( P l a t e 10, F i g u r e 5) Hypotype No. 68, L o c . D-1211. A s i n g l e N o n i o n e l l a from near Burnaby Lake does n o t seem r e f e r r a b l e t o a particular species. Nonion l a b r a d o r i c u m ;  I t c o u l d a l s o be a Pseudononion.  I t occurs w i t h some  A n o t h e r specimen from B-6892 c o u l d be a N o n i o n e l l a b u t i s  more p r o b a b l y a s l i g h t l y  deformed N o n i o n  labradoricum.  Genus PSEUDONONION Asano, 1936 Pseudononion auriculum ( H e r o n - A l l e n and E a r l a n d ) ( P l a t e 10, F i g u r e 6) N o n i o n e l l a a u r i c u l a H e r o n - A l l e n and E a r l a n d , 1930, J o u r . Roy. M i c r . S o c , v o l . 50, p. 192, p i . 5, f i g s . Pap.  68-70; Cushman, 1939, U. S. G e o l . Survey  191, p. 33, p i . 9, f i g s .  Prof.  7-9; 1944, Cushman Lab. Foram. Res., S p e c  P u b l . 12, p. 25, p i . 3, f i g s . 26, 27; Cushman and M c C u l l o c h ,  1940, A l l a n  Hancock P a c i f i c Exped., v o l . 6, no. 3, p. 159, p i . 17, f i g s .  6, 7; Parker,  148 1 9 5 2 a , Mus. figs. no.  13,  Camp. Z o o l . H a r v a r d ,  Bull.  v o l . 106,  14; L o e b l i c h and T a p p a n , 1953,  7, p p .  92, 93, p i . 16, f i g s ,  Foram. Res.,  6-10;  no.  9, p . 4 1 3 ,  Smithsonian Misc.  C o o p e r , 1964,  Polarinstitutt  225,  p.  M e d d e l e l s e r , no.  Smithsonian Misc. H y p o t y p e No,  C o n t r i b , Cushman F o u n d .  327,  9 3 , p . 4 9 , p i , 2,  C o l l . , v o l . 45, no.  69, L o c .  p i . 16, f i g s .  8, p .  21-23; 1965,  figs,  1 9 , p i . 2,  1964,  Norsk  17-19; Buzas, 1965a, f i g . 6.  B-7077,  F o r a m i n i f e r s w h i c h a r e numerous a t s e v e r a l l o c a l i t i e s numbers a t o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s b e l o n g  to this species.  reports the species a l s o from waters  original  C o l l . , v o l . 121,  v o l * 1 5 , p t . 3, p . 9 5 , p i . 5, f i g . 2 0 ; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n ,  Norges G e o l * Unders., no.  munication)  p i . 5,  and  Cockbain  near Vancouver.  Todd  appear i n l e s s e r (1933, t a b l e  (1958, p e r s o n a l  records the species from glacio-marine deposits near Juneau.  f i g u r e s of N o n i o n e l l a a u r i c u l a H e r o n - A l l e n and  o f t h e m u s e d by  Cushman (1939  are  auriculum  ( H e r o n - A l l e n and  ( P l a t e 10, F i g u r e  A single  70, L o c .  auriculum i n apparently having two  slightly  chambers, and  as g r e a t as  more d e p r e s s e d  i n having The  i t i s i n P*  sutures,  especially  extented  rather  e l o n g a t i o n of the t e s t of  this  auricula.  ( P l a t e 10, F i g u r e 71, Loc.  Earland)  from Pseudononion  a vertically  Pseudononion (?)  H y p o t y p e No.  copies  7)  a t B-7072 w h i c h d i f f e r s  t h a n somewhat r o u n d e d a p e r t u r a l f a c e . Pseudononion i s not  The  B-7072.  i n d i v i d u a l occurs  between the l a s t  the  com-  poor,  P s e u d o n o n i o n c f . P.  H y p o t y p e No.  E a r l a n d and  2)  sp. 8)  B-7072,  A s i n g l e s p e c i m e n f r o m B-7072 a p p e a r s d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r specimens  of  149 Pseudononion i n having periphery,  a d u l l e r , more c o a r s e - a p p e a r i n g  fewer chambers, and, though s l i g h t l y  s u r f a c e , a more r o u n d e d  e l o n g a t e , a much r o u n d e r  test  t h a n P s e u d o n o n i o n auriculxm).  Family  ELPHIDIIBAE  Genus E L P H I D I U M M o n t f o r t , Elphidium b a r t l e t t i  1808  Cushman  ( P l a t e 1 1 , F i g u r e s 1, 2, a n d 3 ) Nonionina Trans. fig.  s t r i a t o p u n c t a t a ( F i c h t e l and M o l l ) ,  R o y . S o c . L o n d o n , v o l . 1 5 5 , p . 4 0 2 , p i . 4, f i g s .  Cushman, 1 9 3 3 b , S m i t h s o n i a n  p . 4, p i . 1, f i g . 9; 1 9 3 9 , U. S. G e o l .  31-34; p i . 17,  Misc. Coll.,  v o l . 8 9 , n o . 9,  S u r v e y P r o f . Pap. 191, p. 64, p i .  f i g . 10; 1 9 4 1 , C o n t r i b . Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 1 7 , p t . 2, n o .  2 2 7 , p. 3 4 , p i . 9 f i g s . 23,  1865, P h i l o s .  60.  Elphidium b a r t l e t t i  18,  P a r k e r and Jones,  2, 3; 1 9 4 8 , Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , S p e c . P u b l .  p . 5 9 , p i . 6, f i g . 1 3 ; L o e b l i c h a n d T a p p a n , 1 9 5 3 , S m i t h s o n i a n  Coll.,  v o l . 1 2 1 , n o . 7, p p . 9 6 , 9 7 , p i . 1 8 , f i g s .  Contrib.  Misc.  10-14; ? R o n a i , 1955,  Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 6, p t . 4, p . 1 4 5 , p i . 2 1 , f i g s .  C o o p e r , 1 9 6 4 , CCFFR, v o l . 1 5 , p t . 3, p . 9 5 , p i . 6, f i g s .  1, 2;  1964, N o r g e s G e o l . U n d e r s . , n o . 225, p. 3 4 3 , p i . 2 1 , f i g s . Norsk P o l a r i n s t i t u t t Meddelelser,  6;  Feyling-Hanss  1, 2; 1 9 6 5 ,  n o . 9 3 , p. 4 3 , p i . 3, f i g s .  8, 9.  C r i b r o e l p h i d i u m a r c t i c u m T a p p a n , 1 9 5 1 , C o n t r i b . Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , vol.  2, p t . 1, p . 6, p i . 1, f i g s .  Elphidium a r t i c u l a t u m (d'Orbigny), Bull.,  27, 28. Parker,  1 9 5 2 a , Mus. Comp. Z o o l .  v o l . 1 0 6 , n o . 9, p. 4 1 1 , p i . 5, f i g s .  ? Cribroelphidium b a r t l e t t i  (Cushman), P h l e g e r ,  Harvard,  5-7. 1 9 5 2 , C o n t r i b . Cushman F o u n d .  150 F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 3, p t . 2, n o . Hypotypes The  No.  72a,  72b,  Northeast P a c i f i c samples  coast.  fig.  9.  7 2 c , L o c . D-1209.  h o l o t y p e of E l p h i d i u m b a r t l e t t i  species i s f a i r l y d i s t i n c t  the  6 1 , p . 8 3 , p i . 14,  Gushman h a s b e e n e x a m i n e d .  i n the m a t e r i a l under  c o n s i d e r a t i o n from the  I t occurs i n the greatest r e l a t i v e  from the Vancouver  vicinity.  abundance i n  The a p e r t u r e c o n s i s t s o f a row  v a r i o u s numbers o f p o r e s o r a few p o r e s and a s m a l l m e d i a l s l i t small s l i t the  a t the base  apertural face.  apertural  Unless a s l i t  cover the apertural  face.  have pores i n the a p e r t u r a l f a c e . may  Tappan (1953, pp. 96-98) p o i n t  Rarely,  specimens  articulatum.  other l o c a l i t i e s T h e s e may  cf, articulatum articulatum 10), 19, fig.  a r e s e e n w h i c h do  E l p h i d i u m b a r t l e t t i a n d E.  b e E. b a r t l e t t i ,  out, d'Orbigny s 1  p . 1 4 , p i . 2, f i g . 17) h a v e i d e n t i f i e d and  o r some s p e c i -  f o r , as L o e b l i c h  and  t y p e f i g u r e shows a s h a r p ,  specimens  Cushman a n d T o d d  from F r i d a y  (1947a,  Harbor,  i n t h e Puget Sound a r e a , as E l p h i d i u m be E l p h i d i u m  ( d ' O r b i g n y ) Cushman ( 1 9 4 4 , p . 2 6 , p i . 3, f i g . 4 1 ) , E l p h i d i u m  ( d ' O r b i g n y ) ( ? ) Cushman a n d V a l e n t i n e  ( n o t f i g . 1 7 ) ) , and The  not  articulatum  b e c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h E. b a r t l e t t i , a s may  Elphidium articulatum  7).  of the  extends out a l o n g t h e depressed s u t u r e s  a c u t e l y a n g l e d p e r i p h e r y , n o t f o u n d o n E. b a r t l e t t i .  Washington  a  Granular material occupies the  b e c o n s p e c i f i c , a s s u g g e s t e d b y P a r k e r ( 1 9 5 2 a , p. 4 1 1 )  mens r e f e r r e d t o E. a r t i c u l a t u m may  to only  i s p r e s e n t , the pores at the base  on many s p e c i m e n s  of  face, w i t h supplementary apertures i n  f a c e t e n d t o be q u i t e o b s c u r e .  u m b i l i c a l a r e a and a n d may  of the a p e r t u r a l  This  (d'0rbigny)  (  ( 1 9 3 0 , p. 2 1 , p i . 5, f i g .  Cushman ( 1 9 3 9 , p . 5 3 , p i . 1 4 , f i g s .  Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h ( 1 9 4 0 , p p .  171,  f i g u r e g i v e n by R o n a i f o r E l p h i d i u m b a r t l e t t i  Phleger's figured  specimen  is  18,  172, p i . 1 9 , indistinct.  o f " C r i b r o e l p h i d i u m b a r t l e t t i " has a n e n t i r e  margin  151 and  more chambers t h a n a r e t y p i c a l o f t h e s e  sutures.  species and a p p a r e n t l y has f l u s h  Todd (1958, p e r s o n a l communication) i d e n t i f i e d E l p h i d i u m  bartletti  from t h e g l a c i o - m a r i n e m a t e r i a l around Juneau. Seemingly, a v a r i a n t of t h i s material.  species occurs  F i v e f o r a m i n i f e r s , and e s p e c i a l l y t h e l a r g e s t  a p p e a r t o b e m o r e c o m p r e s s e d t h a n t y p i c a l E. pores  i n t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d  i n the apertural face.  bartletti  two o f t h o s e  five,  and appear n o t t o have  Some o t h e r t a x o n may b e r e p r e s e n t e d , b u t t h e s e  f i v e s p e c i m e n s h a v e b e e n r e t a i n e d i n E. b a r t l e t t i .  Elphidium clavatum  Cushman  ( P l a t e 1 1 , F i g u r e s 4, 5, a n d 6 ) Elphidium incertum Bull. 191,  (Williamson) v a r . clavatum  Cushman, 1 9 3 0 , D". S. N a t . M u s .  1 0 4 , p t . 7, p . 2 0 , p i . 7, f i g . 1 0 ; 1 9 3 9 , D. S. G e o l . p. 5 7 , p i . 16, f i g s .  Survey P r o f . Pap.  1, 2; ? 1 9 4 4 , Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , S p e c .  Publ-  1 2 , p . 2 5 , p i . 3, f i g s .  Publ.  2 3 , p . 5 7 , p i . 6, f i g . 8; ? Cushman a n d C o l e , 1 9 3 0 , C o n t r i b . Cushman  Lab.  F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 6, p t . 4, p . 9 6 , p i . 1 3 , f i g s .  M u s . Comp. Z o o l . H a r v a r d , 11; P h l e g e r , p.  3 2 , 3 3 ; 1 9 4 8 , Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , S p e c .  Bull.,  1 9 5 2 , C o n t r i b . Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 3, p t . 2,  (Williamson) v a r i a n t s Parker,  Mus, Comp. Z o o l . H a r v a r d ,  Bull.,  1 4 , 1 6 , 1 7 ; p i . 4, f i g s .  Elphidium clavatum vol.  1 9 6 3 , C o n t r i b . Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m .  v o l . 1 4 , p t . 2, n o . 2 6 0 , t a b l e 2 ( n o f i g u r e ) .  ? Elphidium incertum  figs.  1952a,  v o l . 1 0 6 , n o . 9, p . 4 1 2 , p i . 5, f i g s . 1 0 ,  8 3 , p i . 14, f i g . 10; ? C o c k b a i n ,  Res.,  8, 9; ? P a r k e r ,  1952b ( i n p a r t ? ) ,  v o l . 1 0 6 , n o . 1 0 , p p . 4 4 8 , 4 4 9 , p i . 3,  1, 2.«  Cushman, L o e b l i c h a n d T a p p a n , 1 9 5 3 , S m i t h s o n i a n  1 2 1 , n o . 7, p p . 9 8 , 9 9 , p i . 1 9 , f i g s .  8-10; ? R o n a i ,  Misc.  Coll.,  1955, C o n t r i b .  Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 6, p t . 4, p . 1 4 6 , p i . 2 1 , f i g s .  7, 8; T o d d  152 and  Low, 1 9 6 1 , C o n t r i b . Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 1 2 , p t . 1, n o .  217,  p p . 18, 1 9 , p i . 2, f i g . 1; C o o p e r , 1 9 6 4 , C o n t r i b . Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m .  Res.,  v o l . . 1 5 , p t . 3, p . 9 5 , p i . 6, f i g s .  ? E l p h i d i u m c f . E. i n c e r t u m  5-7.  (Williamson), Detling,  1 9 5 8 , C o n t r i b . Cushman  F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 9, p t . 2, n o . 1 7 9 , p. 2 8 , p i . 8, f i g . 2. E l p h i d i u m s p . c f . E. c l a v a t u m from the nearshore Mexico; fig.  Cushman- L a n k f o r d MS, 1 9 6 2 , R e c e n t F o r a m i n i f e r a  t u r b u l e n t zone, w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s and  Unpub. Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v .  California,  San Diego,  northwest  p. 1 5 1 , p i . 3,  24 ( n o f i g u r e ) .  1 Elphidium incertum  (Williamson), Cockbain,  1 9 6 3 , C o n t r i b . Cushman F o u n d .  F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 14, p t . 2, n o . 2 6 0 , t a b l e ? Polystomella striatopunctata  2.  ( F i c h t e l and M o l l ) , Brady,  1884 ( i n p a r t ) ,  Voy.  C h a l l e n g e r , v o l . 9 ( Z o o l . ) , p . 7 3 3 , p i . 1 0 9 , f i g . 23 ( n o t f i g .  1912  ( i n p a r t ) , U. S. G e o l .  figs. fig.  Survey  Bull.  Rept.  2 2 ) ; Bagg,  5 1 3 , p. 9 2 , p i . 2 7 , f i g . 1 2 , ( n o t  10, 1 1 ) ; Cushman, 1 9 1 4 , U. S. N a t . Mus. B u l l .  7 1 , p t . 4, p . 3 1 , p i . 1 8 ,  2.  1 Elphidium incertum clavatum  Cushman, F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n ,  U n d e r s . , n o . 2 2 5 , p. 3 4 5 , p i . 2 0 , f i g s .  1964, Norges  11-15; 1965, N o r s k  Geol.  Polarinstitutt  M e d d e l e l s e r , n o . 9 3 , p. 4 8 , p i . 3, f i g . 10. H y p o t y p e s No. 7 3 a , 7 3 b , 7 3 c , L o c . D-1212. In a t t e m p t i n g t o i d e n t i f y t h e specimens r e f e r r e d those questionably a s c r i b e d to t h i s Elphidiidae,  taxon  to this  (see below),  the following material i n the collections  N a t i o n a l Museum h a s b e e n e x a m i n e d , t h a n k s  material;  Elphidium hughesi  including  a n d some o t h e r s o f t h e of the United  to the kindness  States  of R u t h Todd and  M a r t i n Buzas i n making them a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a u t h o r ; E l p h i d i u m Cushman, h o l o t y p e ; E l p h i d i u m c l a v a t u m  species,  bartletti  Cushman, h y p o t y p e s o f L o e b l i c h a n d T a p p a n ' s  Cushman a n d G r a n t , p a r a t y p e s ;  ( W i l l i a m s o n ) v a r . l e n e Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h ,  paratype;  Elphidium  Elphidium  incertum  incertum  153 ( W i l l i a m s o n ) v a r . l e n e , Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h , specimens from  Cushman a n d T o d d ,  (1947a)  C a t t l e P o i n t ; E l p h i d i u m f r i g i d u m Cushman, p a r a t y p e s ;  s u b a r c t i c u m Cushman, p a r a t y p e s ; E l p h i d i u m t r a n s l u c e n s N a t l a n d ,  Elphidium  holotype;  E l p h i d i u m t u m i d u m N a t l a n d , h o l o t y p e ; N o n i o n p a u c i l o c u l u m Cushman, h o l o t y p e . Joseph  Graham o f S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y k i n d l y showed t h e a u t h o r  paratypes  of Elphidium hughesi  that of Elphidium hughesi  Cushman a n d G r a n t  and a h o l o t y p e b e l i e v e d t o be  H a n n a made a v a i l a b l e a h y p o t y p e o f E l p h i d i u m h u g h e s i  was showed t o t h e a u t h o r b y F r a n c e s Oceanography. discussion  Having  (thousands  concluded  A paratype  stricto,  D r . G. D a l l a s  Cushman i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n s  o f E l p h i d i u m tumidum N a t l a n d  Parker at the Scripps I n s t i t u t i o n of  t h a t many o f t h e s p e c i m e n s p r e s e n t l y u n d e r  were viewed) were most p r o b a b l y E l p h i d i u m  Cushman, a n d t h a t some w e r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d s p e c i e s sensu  t h e h o l o t y p e and  Cushman a n d G r a n t v a r . o b e s u m Cushman.  o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a Academy o f S c i e n c e .  Dr.  to this  clavatum  species i fnot c l e a r l y the  i t i s p e r t i n e n t t o p o i n t o u t t h a t Ruth Todd (1964,  p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) s t a t e s t h a t M a r t i n Buzas has o b t a i n e d on l o a n from t h e B r i t i s h Museum a p a r a l e c t o t y p e ( o n e o f W i l l i a m s o n ' s  specimens) o f Elphidium  i n c e r t u m , s h o w i n g t h a t t h e r e i s n o c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n E. i n c e r t u m a n d E. c l a v a t u m a n d t h a t jE. i n c e r t u m o f Cushman i s E_. c l a v a t u m . (1953, The  p. 99) had s t a t e d t h e i r b e l i e f  f i g u r e s g i v e n by F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n  of t h e c o n s p e c i f i c i t y of t h i s also  i d e n t i f i e d a form  L o e b l i c h and Tappan  i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e s e two t a x a a r e not c l e a r but suggest  f o r m w i t h E. c l a v a t u m .  also.  the probability  Feyling-Hanssen  has  referred to Elphidium incertum incertum (Williamson).  Of a l l o f t h e s p e c i e s c o n s i d e r e d i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t s p e c i e s , t h o s e most s i m i l a r  i n appearance a r e Elphidium hughesi  Cushman a n d G r a n t ,  E l p h i d i u m t r a n s l u c e n s N a t l a n d , and E l p h i d i u m tumidum N a t l a n d .  Of t h e s e , _E.  154 hughes1  appears t o have e i t h e r a r a t h e r sharp p e r i p h e r y  (not found I n the  p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l ) o r a l o b a t e p e r i p h e r y and a p p e a r s t o h a v e a more c o a r s e s u r face than the present specimens.  Groups  o f p a r a t y p e s o f E, h u g h e s ! b o t h f r o m  t h e S t a n f o r d a n d U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Museum c o l l e c t i o n s a p p e a r t o c o n t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s w h i c h a r e n o t E.  hughesi.  T h e h o l o t y p e o f E. t r a n s l u c e n s  i s very  s i m i l a r t o t h e g r o u p o f s p e c i m e n s w h i c h a r e h e r e somewhat t e n t a t i v e l y t o E. c l a v a t u m b u t h a s m o r e c h a m b e r s umbilicus. and has  and a s l i g h t l y d e p r e s s e d a r e a around t h e  The h o l o t y p e o f E. t u m i d u m i s t h i c k e r t h a n t h a t  f e w e r ( 1 0 v s . 12) c h a m b e r s .  translucens.  S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Museum.  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e specimens were s e n t t o t h e U n i t e d  There M a r t i n Buzas and R u t h Todd  (1964, p e r s o n a l  All  B o t h forms  comappear  i n t h e h y p o t y p e m a t e r i a l o f E l p h i d i u m c l a v a t u m Cushman,  L o e b l i c h and Tappan ( 1 9 5 3 ) . sufficiently  Both appear to  d i s t i n c t t y p e s w h i c h , i n many  m u n i c a t i o n s ) c o n s i d e r e d b o t h forms t o be E l p h i d i u m c l a v a t u m . t o be r e p r e s e n t e d  translucens  area.  I n t h e p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l t h e r e a r e two f a i r l y samples, appear t o i n t e r g r a d e .  dfc E.  There i s a s l i g h t l y depressed area around  t h e u m b i l i c a l a r e a , b u t n o t a s l a r g e a s w i t h E. have s m a l l p a p i l l a e i n t h e u m b i l i c a l  referred  different  These two forms a p p e a r h e r e i n , however,  t o q u e s t i o n t h e r e f e r e n c e t o E.  o f t h e s y n o n y m y i s i n c l u d e d u n d e r E.  t o be  c l a v a t u m o f one  group.  clavatum, sensu s t r i c t o , however,  and  w h i l e t h e two g r o u p s w e r e s e p a r a t e d I n t h o s e a s s e m b l a g e s w h i c h p e r m i t t e d differentiation,  i n most t h e specimens were lumped.  Other specimens might  also  h a v e b e e n r e f e r r e d t o E l p h i d i u m s u b a r c t i c u m Cushman, a s m i g h t some o t h e r foraminifers included  included here i n other species.  F o r t h e most p a r t ,  specimens  i n Elphidium clavatum, sensu l a t o are reasonably d i s t i n c t  elphidiids  i n this material.  C o n s i d e r e d a s a u n i t , many s p e c i m e n s  g r o u p s do n o t h a v e t h e u m b o n a l b o s s o r i g i n a l l y  here  from other i n the  considered c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  two of  155 this  species.  T h e b o s s i s p r o m i n e n t o n many s p e c i m e n s  t y p i c a l group, however,  whereas  o f t h e more  t h e members o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p i n g e n e r a l do  n o t h a v e t h e b o s s , b u t may h a v e a r o u g h l y p a p i l l a t e a r r a n g e m e n t t h i c k e n e d s h e l l m a t e r i a l i n t h e umbonal a r e a . b e t t e r d e v e l o p e d on t h e l e s s  specifically  specifically  of areas of  T h e r e t r a l p r o c e s s e s a r e much  t y p i c a l specimens, however, a l t h o u g h  many h a v e s u b a c u t e p e r i p h e r i e s a n d do n o t h a v e d e p r e s s e d s u t u r e s a s do a l l t h e more t y p i c a l  specimens.  are reasonably f l a t ,  with,  A l l o f t h e specimens o f t h e more t y p i c a l  typical  f o r m s t e n d t o b e much l a r g e r a n d h a v e t h i c k e r  typical  forms.  The r e a l l y  immature  o f E.  o f some o t h e r s p e c i e s .  shell walls  Some l o c a l i t i e s y i e l d e d  The d i f f e r e n c e s between  one o r t h e o t h e r v a r i a n t  either entirely or I n the latter  groups v i r t u a l l y  y  T h e q u e s t i o n m a r k s i n t h e synonymy a r e b a s e d o n e i t h e r p o o r o r  lack of descriptions morphology  ecologic  e a s y , w i t h t w o d i s t i n c t g r o u p s , a n d some-  t i m e s i n t e r g r a d a t i o n made s e p a r a t i o n i n t o t w o d i s t i n c t impossible.  immature  t h e s e two g r o u p s  m a i n l y a n d some l o c a l i t i e s y i e l d e d b o t h f o r m s i n l a r g e n u m b e r s . c a s e , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was s o m e t i m e s  The l e s s  t h a n t h e more  t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e from  c l a v a t u m , s e n s u l a t o may r e f l e c t p h y l o g e n y o r may i n d i c a t e  variants.  typical  specimens a r e f r e q u e n t l y d i f f i c u l t t o  a s s i g n t o e i t h e r group and would be d i f f i c u l t individuals  group  o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , many members o f t h e l e s s  g r o u p b e i n g much t h i c k e r . ; / ; i n - t h e u m b o n a l a r e a t h a n a t t h e p e r i p h e r y .  of  or figures  i n some c a s e s o r s e e m i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n  f r o m E_. c l a v a t u m .  E l p h i d i u m c l a v a t u m Cushman ( ? ) ( P l a t e 11, F i g u r e s  7 a n d 8; P l a t e 1 2 , F i g u r e s  1 a n d 2)  H y p o t y p e s No. 7 4 a , 7 4 b , 7 4 c , 7 4 d , L o c . D-1215 - 7 4 a , 7 4 b ; L o c . D-1211 74c, 74d.  156 Foraminifera numerical present  referred  to Elphidium  m a j o r i t y over a l l other  study.  c l a v a t u m and clavatum.  The  clavatum,sensu l a t o  species  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f E.  64,  p i . 18,  pi.  6,  5,  p i . 1,  f i g . 8;  figs.  9-11;  T a p p a n , 1953,  18,  figs.  MS,  no.  1962,  United San  4-9;  135,  3,  p.  Foram. Res.,  and  4,  1948,  p.  147,  1955,  p i . 21,  D i e g o , p.  Misc.  Foram. Res.,  75,  Some e l p h i d i u m s ,  although  S.  Geol.  p i . 3,  Loc.  Coll,  1940,  figs. 21,  p.  6, 14,  no.  S u r v e y P r o f . Pap.  8;  C o l l . , v o l . 121,  Todd,  f i g . 18;  1947a,  Loeblich  v o l . 6,  pt.  f i g . 12  Lankford  indistinct  7,  57,  C o n t r i b . Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , (a v e r y  no.  p.  p.  Pacific  Cushman a n d  p i . 2,  9,  191,  Spec. P u b l . 23,  A l l a n Hancock  pp.  99,  fugure);  from the n e a r s h o r e t u r b u l e n t zone, w e s t e r n  f i g . 20;  C o o p e r , 1964,  95,  p i . 6,  figs.  Thesis,  Univ.  California,  C o n t r i b . Cushman F o u n d . 3,  4.  B-7074.  occurring generally with Elphidium study,  (?) sp.  appear to represent  T h e y seem t o h a v e t h e m o r p h o l o g i c c h a r a c t e r s they  v o l . 89,  pi.  f r i g i d u m Cushman o f t h e p r e s e n t Cushman.  Misc.  100,  v o l . 1 5 , p t . 3, p.  H y p o t y p e No.  3)  n o r t h w e s t M e x i c o ; Unpub. Ph.D.  152,  E,  l t i s presumed t h a t a l l  Foram. Res.,  p i . 19,  Spec. P u b l .  Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a  S t a t e s and  U.  McCulloch,  171,  Smithsonian  Ronai,  1939,  Cushman L a b .  Cushman a n d  E x p e d . , v o l . 5, no. Cushman L a b .  f i g . 8;  under  E.  have been observed.  Figure  f r i g i d u m Cushman, 1 9 3 3 b , S m i t h s o n i a n p.  the  f r i g i d u m Cushman  ( P l a t e 12,  p u b l . 322,  in  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  clavatum (?) were d i s c u s s e d  under study  Elphidium  Elphidium  individuals  W i t h thousands of specimens a v a i l a b l e ,  morphologic v a r i a n t s from the area  great  i n the m a t e r i a l considered  d i f f e r e n c e s between those  those  form a  o c c u r w i t h more n u m e r o u s E_.  (?) sp.  Elphidium  typical  c f . E.  cf.  of the  frigidum.  E. frigidum species Paratypes  157 o f E l p h i d i u m f r i g i d u m Cushman h a v e b e e n e x a m i n e d .  R u t h Todd s u g g e s t s (1964,  p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) t h a t E. f r i g i d u m a n d E l p h i d i u m s u b a r c t i c u m may  be c o n s p e c i f i c ,  f o l l o w i n g T o d d a n d Low  s u b a r c t i c u m have a l s o been examined.  Most  (1961, p. 2 0 ) . certainly,  Cushman  Paratypes  specimens w i t h the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t r i b u t e d t o E. s u b a r c t i c u m do n o t seem t o f o r m a group w h i c h i s d i v i s i b l e  from other s p e c i e s .  o f E.  cohesive  There a r e specimens i n t h e  p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l w h i c h c o u l d e a s i l y b e r e f e r r e d t o E. s u b a r c t i c u m , b u t , l o n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m , i t h a s b e e n d e c i d e d t h a t E. w i l l n o t be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r e s e n t  s t u d y as a v a l i d  E l p h i d i u m frigidum-Cushman ( P l a t e 12, F i g u r e s 4 and H y p o t y p e s No.  this  species.  localities, present  subarcticum  species.  (?) 5)  7 6 a , 76b, L o c . B - 7 0 7 6 - 7 6 a ; D-1210 -  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e e l p h i d i u m s  76b.  f r o m B-7076 a r e q u e s t i o n a b l y r e f e r r e d  Morphologically similar  specimens  e s p e c i a l l y a t D-1210, b u t h a v e b e e n  w h i c h a p p e a r t o be s e p a r a b l e f r o m o t h e r t a x a .  other  included i n other species.  The  Some s p e c i m e n s d o ,  elphidiums  however,  l o o k l i k e t y p i c a l E l p h i d i u m f r i g i d u m a n d JS. ( ? ) s p . c f . E. f r i g i d u m a s  Individuals,  elsewhere i n the present  probably Cushman."  study.  A few  elphidiums  those  other  r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e h y p o t y p e f r o m D-1210, h a v e a l s o b e e n  t o E. f r i g i d u m Cushman ( ? ) . The  assigned  f r o m B-7076 a r e m o s t s i m i l a r  i d e n t i c a l i n p a r t w i t h forms a s s i g n e d t o " E l p h i d i u m F o l l o w i n g t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f R u t h Todd  "Nonion pauciloculum" a l s o ,  and  subarcticum  (1964, p e r s o n a l  communication)  t h a t t h e s p e c i e s s u b a r c t i c u m i s c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h t h e s p e c i e s f r i g i d u m and possibly  to  o c c u r i n s m a l l numbers a t  forms a r e s e t o f f because they r e p r e s e n t a c o h e s i v e b l o c k of  t a x a have been i d e n t i f i e d  after  t h e p r e s e n t a u t h o r has q u e s t i o n a b l y  158 ascribed these  present  species, as t h e author a  specimens t o E l p h i d i u m has seen i t ,  mainly  frigidum.  by h a v i n g  They d i f f e r  from  that  a more r e g u l a r o u t l i n e w i t h  smooth, n o n l o b a t e m a r g i n .  ( ? ) s p . c f . E.  Elphidium  f r i g i d u m Cushman  ( P l a t e 13, F i g u r e s  1 a n d 2)  H y p o t y p e s N o . 7 7 a , 7 7 b , L o c . B-7077 - 7 7 a ; B-7066 - 7 7 b . Test  free, subelliptical with relatively  f a c e , o f medium s i z e  the  rounded, u s u a l l y s l i g h t l y  f i n a l whorl,  pressed,  indentation of the apertural  f o r t h e genus, p l a n l s p i r a l and m a i n l y  n e a r l y f l a t and p a r a l l e i , w i t h a s l i g h t l y broadly  little  involute, sides  depressed u m b i l i c a l area;  i f at a l l lobulate; eight or nine  increasing gradually i n size;  sutures  specimens, r a r e l y very  very  slight  chambers i n  f l u s h t o s l i g h t l y de-  r a t h e r o b s u r e o n d r y s p e c i m e n s , d i s t i n c t when w e t , c u r v e d ,  numerous s m a l l s u t u r a l p o r e s ,  periphery  with  tendency f o r r e t r a l processes  f i n e grooves developed from sutures  p s e u d o s t r i a t i o n s d e v e l o p e d by l i n e a r arrangement o f p o r e s ;  outward or wall  calcareous,  r a t h e r c o a r s e l y p e r f o r a t e and/or f i n e l y rugose over a l l t h e t e s t , being rugose development t h a t coves t h e s u r f a c e and obscures t h e sutures impossible aperture This  t o demonstrate t h i s  rugose surface i n t h e present  c o n s i s t i n g o f a row o f p o r e s a c r o s s  f o p m may b e E l p h i d i e l l a .  o n some  part of a  ( i t was  illustrations);  t h e base o f the a p e r t u r a l face.  The s u t u r a l p o r e s c a n n o t be s e e n on most s p e c i -  mens b u t o n o n e s h o w i n g t h e p o r e s a d o u b l e r o w o f p o r e s was s e e n o n p a r t o f t h e test. the  Elphidium  ( ? ) s p . c f . E.  form d e s c r i b e d as E l p h i d i u m  f r i g i d u m Cushman d i f f e r s subarcticum  i n tending  i n this material  from  t o b e l a r g e r , have more  chambers, b e more c o a r s e l y p e r f o r a t e o r r u g o s e a n d n o t t r a n s l u c e n t , h a v e more obscurely  d e f i n e d , more f l u s h s u t u r e s , a n d have a l e s s l o b a t e p e r i p h e r y - and a  159 more e l l i p t i c a l are d i f f i c u l t T o d d a n d Low  outline with less indented a p e r t u r a l face.  to assign taxonomically. (1961,  p.  20)  and  those  present  differs  from these  processes  repeats  that E.  conspecific.  i n t h e s y n o n y m y f o r E l p h i d i u m f r i g i d u m Cushman ( ? ) , a n d  o f E_. f r i g i d u m a n d  i n the l a t e r  the author  specimens, w h i c h a r e l o c a l l y numerous, have b e e n compared w i t h  forms l i s t e d  paratypes  light  specimens  Todd (1964, p e r s o n a l communication) suggest  f r i g i d u m a n d -E. s u b a r c t i c u m a r e The  In this  Small  E.  subarcticum.  Elphidium  forms i n g e n e r a l by h a v i n g  chambers, h a v i n g  and/or grooves,  frigidum  lobate periphery,  especially  sutures, less well-developed  retral  i n not possessing the porate apertures  i n the  a p e r t u r a l f a c e a s c r i b e d t o t h e s p e c i e s s e n s u s t r i c t o by L o e b l i c h and  Tappan  (1953, pp.  present  99,  s p e c i m e n s may  100,  p i . 18,  figs.  i n the paratypes.  mens h a v e t h e f i n a l  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , many o f t h e p r e s e n t  f r o m t h e g e n e r a l o u t l i n e o f t h e t e s t as i s t y p i c a l s i m i l a r t o f i g u r e s and  Elphidium granulosum (Galloway Galloway  and W i s s l e r ( 1 9 2 7 a , p.  a s Themeon d e c i p i e n s a n d  T.  figs.  10,  11  (not f i g . 12))  Elphidium granulosus f i g . 8).  83,  p i . 12,  B.  figs. T.  16,  and  to the  species  The  by 193)  form  (1912. ( i n p a r t ) , p. and  speci-  These  1927b, p.  92,  W i s s l e r ; and  and W i s s l e r ) o f Bandy (1950, pp.  conspecificity.  t h e amount, i f any,  15,  granulosus;  B r a d y , Bagg  None o f t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d  however, t o d e t e r m i n e  frigidum.  d e s c r i p t i o n s of the  s y n o n y m i z e d by G a l l o w a y  (Galloway  o f E.  and  i f i t extended  and W i s s l e r ) i n ' t h e o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n  g r a n u l o s a , and  P o l y s t o m e l l a s t r i a t o p u n c t a t a H.  and  F u r t h e r , the surface of the  chamber b r o k e n o f f so i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o say  specimens a l s o appear v e r y  41,  4-9).  be more r u g o s e t h a n t h o s e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e r e f e r e n c e s l i s t e d  than are evidenced  out  and  l e s s depressed  a less  ( ? ) s p . c f . E.  with  275,  figures are detailed  p i . 27,  to 276, p i .  enough,  c h a r a c t e r of the s u r f a c e of the  of d e p r e s s i o n of the u m b i l i c a l area, both  test  distinctive  160 f e a t u r e s of the present specimens, The  may  be  different  f i g u r e g i v e n b y B a n d y seems e s p e c i a l l y T h e s e e l p h i d i u m s may  r e p r e s e n t a new  from t h e forms l i s t e d  s i m i l a r to the present s p e c i e s , but  t y p e s p e c i m e n s w o u l d be r e q u i r e d b e f o r e e r e c t i n g a new paratypes  o f E.  particularly  f r i g i d u m does n o t  i n l i g h t of the f a c t  above.  specimens.  examination of v a r i o u s taxon.  seem t o o f f e r a s o l u t i o n  Examination  to t h i s  of  problem,  t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f u s i o n e x i s t s as t o  the  s p e c i f i c i d e n t i t y of cold-water e l p h i d i i d s . The  hypotypes  of t h i s group of f o r a m i n i f e r s have the f o l l o w i n g Greatest diameter 0.56  mm  0.49  mm  H y p o t y p e No.  77b  0.43  mm  0.34  mm  (Plate  13, F i g u r e  P o l y s t o m e l l a s i b e r i c a G o e s , Cushman, 1914, p i . 19,  5, pv. 79, p i . 8,  San D i e g o U,  S. G e o l . S u r v e y  2 2 , p i . 5, Elphidiella  Elphidiella 24, n o .  1952,  f i g . 5,  P r o f . Pap.  text  Bull.  71, p t .  4,  277,  1927,  T r a n s . San D i e g o  S t e w a r t , 1930,  2, p . 6 2 , p i . 4,  191,  Soc. Nat.  p. 50, p i , 13,  Hist.,  Trans.  figs.  1, 2;  figs.  14-16;  Cushman, van  v o l . 3, p t . 1,  p.  f i g . 1.  Foram. Res.,  oregonensis  3, p .  S. N a t . Mus.  C o n t r i b . Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . ,  o r e g o n e n s e (Cushman a n d  Cushman L a b .  Grant  3)  f i g . 3; Gushman, S t e w a r t , a n d  S o c . N a t . H i s t . , v o l . 6, n o .  Voorthuysen,  U.  measured)  f i g . 1.  E l p h i d i u m o r e g o n e n s e Cushman a n d G r a n t ,  1939,  diameter  77a  E l p h i d i u m o r e g o n e n s e Cushman a n d  vol.  Least  H y p o t y p e No.  (thickness not  p . 34,  measurements:  G r a n t ) , Cushman, 1941  v o l . 17,  (Cushman a n d  p i . 41,  f i g . 13.  p t . 2, p.  34,  p i . 9,  G r a n t ) , B a n d y , 1950,  ( i n part), Contrib. figs.  8,  9 (not f i g . 7 ) .  Jour, Paleon., v o l .  161 Hypotype A  78, L o c . B - 7 0 7 7 .  s i n g l e v e r y l a r g e E l p h i d i u m f r o m B-7077 i s a s c r i b e d  species. typical  No.  I t has  possibly,  The  as Bandy  (1950) r e p o r t e d , h a s  f o r m i n g one o p e n i n g d i v i d e d  two  rows o f s u t u r a l p o r e s , w h i c h  I n d i v i d u a l pores have t h e appearance  i n t h e c e n t e r by a l i n e o f s h e l l m a t e r i a l  7) i s E l p h i d i e l l a  problem.  Elphidiella  No.  E.  would of  which  More m a t e r i a l o f Cushman  would  (1941,  g r o e n l a n d i c a Cushman.  Elphidium Hypotype  oregonense  of  t o a s c e r t a i n and i t  t o show t h r o u g h f r o m b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e t e s t .  be n e e d e d t o c l a r i f y t h i s fig.  In a l l other features i t i s typical  nature of the s u t u r a l pores i s d i f f i c u l t  place the species i n E l p h i d i e l l a .  appears  and  16 c h a m b e r s i n t h e f i n a l w h o r l , h o w e v e r , w h i c h i s f e w e r t h a n tor  a d u l t E l p h i d i u m oregonense.  oregonense.  t o t h i s genus  spp.  7 9 , L o c . D-1210.  V a r i o u s e l p h i d i u m s w h i c h most p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t t a x a h e r e d e s c r i b e d , b u t which are impossible to s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f y , T h i s usage  a r e i n c l u d e d under t h i s  o c c u r s w h e n n o o t h e r c o u r s e o f a c t i o n seems  G e n u s E L P H I D I E L L A Cushman, Elphidiella  arctica  ( P a r k e r and  ( P l a t e 14, F i g u r e Polystomella arctica  P a r k e r and.Jones,  1864,  T r a n s . , Z o o l . , v o l . 24, p . 4 7 1 , p i . 4 8 , E l p h i d i u m a r c t i c u m Cushman, 1 9 3 0 , 1 1 , f i g s . 1-6; 6;  1939,  U.  1933a,  U.  £n:H.  possible.  1936 Jones)  1) B. B r a d y , L i n n . S o c .  London  f i g . 18.  S. N a t . Mus.  Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . ,  S . ' G e o l . S u r v e y P r o f . Pap.  heading.  191, pp.  Bull.  104, p t . 7, p . 2 7 , p i .  S p e c . P u b l . 5, p i . 2 3 , f i g . 65, 66, p i . 18, f i g s .  11-14.  162 Elphidiella Pap.  arctica  i  ( P a r k e r a n d J o n e s ) , Cushman, 1 9 3 9 , U. S. G e o l . S u r v e y P r o f .  191, p. 65, p i . 18, f i g s .  1 1 - 1 4 ; 1948', Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , S p e c .  v j  P u b l . 2 3 , p . 5 9 , p i . 6, f i g . 1 5 ; Cushman a n d T o d d , 1 9 4 7 b , C o n t r i b . Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 2 3 , p t . 3, p . 6 5 , p i . 1 5 , f i g . 2 0 ; C o o p e r ,  1964,  Contrib.'  Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . ' 1 5 , p t . 3, p . 9 5 , p i . 6, f i g . 1 0 ; F e y l i n g - B a n s sen 1965,  NorskPolarinstitutt  M e d d e l e l s e r , n o . 9 3 , p . 4 8 , p i . - 3, f i g . 1 3 .  *V  .  H y p o t y p e No. 8 0 , L o c . D-1210.  ^ j • j  See  Cushman ( 1 9 3 9 )  forearlier  references.  Three worn specimens  s p e c i e s were found i n t h e m a t e r i a l from Highbury Tunnel. ologic distortion  of this  <  One shows some p a t h -  '  i n form.  t  , i  Elphidiella nitida  Cushman  i  ( P l a t e 1 4 , F i g u r e 2)  i  < —•  E l p h i d i u m h a n n a i Cushman a n d G r a n t v a r . , 1 9 2 7 , T r a n s . S a n D i e g o vol.  Soc. Nat. H i s t . ,  5, n o . 6, p . 7 8 , p i . 8, f i g . 2. J  E l p h i d i u m h a n n a i Cushman a n d G r a n t , Cushman, S t e w a r t , a n d S t e w a r t , 1 9 3 0 , S a n Diego  Soc. Nat. H i s t . ,  v o l . 6, n o . 2, p . 6 2 , p i . 3, f i g s .  16, 17.  c  x  Elphidiella  hannai  ( C u s h m a n a n d G r a n t ) , Cushman, 1939 ( i n p a r t ) ,  U. S. G e o l .  S u r v e y P r o f . P a p . 1 9 1 , p . 6 6 , p i . 1 9 , f i g . 2 ( n o t f i g . 1 ) ; Cushman a n d McCulloch, 20,  1940, A l l a n  Hancock P a c i f i c  Exped.,  v o l . 6, n o . 3, p . 1 7 7 , p i .  f i g . 1 1 ; Cushman a n d T o d d , 1 9 4 7 a , Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , S p e c .  Publ.  2 1 , p . 1 5 , p i . 2, f i g . 2 2 ; B a n d y , 1 9 5 0 , J o u r . P a l e o n . , v o l . 2 3 , n o . 3, p p . 276,  277, p i . 4 1 , f i g . 10; G o o d w i n a n d Thomson, 1954, C o n t r i b .  F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 5, p t . 4, p . 1 7 4 , p i . 3 2 , f i g s . MS,  1962, ( p a r t ? ) ,  Cushman  27, 28; L a n k f o r d  Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a from t h e n e a r s h o r e t u r b u l e n t zone,  w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d n o r t h w e s t M e x i c o ; U n p u b . Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v . California,  S a n D i e g o , p p . 1 5 0 , 1 5 1 , p i . 3, f i g . 2 6 .  *  163 Elphidiella  nitida  Cushman, 1941, C o n t r i b . r  Cushman L a b .  Foram. Res., v o l . 17, .  p t . 2, p . 3 5 , p i . 9, f i g . 4; L o e b l i c h a n d T a p p a n , 1 9 5 3 , S m i t h s o n i a n Coll.,  v o l . 1 2 1 , n o . 7, p p . 1 0 7 , 1 0 8 , p i . 1 9 , f i g s .  Contrib. pi.  Misc.  11, 12; D e t l i n g , 1958,  Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 9, p t . 2, n o . 1 7 9 , p p . 2 8 , . 2 9 ,  8, f i g . 4. H y p o t y p e No. 8 1 , L o c . B-6892. A few f o r a m i n i f e r s from f i v e l o c a l i t i e s  genus and s p e c i e s . Elphidiella E.  hannai  Whether they should  be a s c r i b e d  t o belong t o t h i s  to this  (Cushman a n d G r a n t ) seems q u e s t i o n a b l e .  f r o m E. h a n n a i " i n t h e v e r y  narrow sutures  with very  species  or to  The t y p e f i g u r e o f  Cushman i s m o s t o b s c u r e a n d Cushman s t a t e d t h a t E.  nitida  wall."  a r e considered  nitida  differs  f i n e pores and p o l i s h e d  A s w e l l a s t h e f i g u r e s g i v e n b y Cushman a n d G r a n t , t h o s e o f Cushman,  Stewart, and Stewart a r e r a t h e r poor b u t appear t o have r e l a t i v e l y sutures.  O t h e r f o r m s a s c r i b e d b y Cushman a n d o t h e r s  t o E. n i t i d a  narrow have l i m b a t e ,  sutures,  although perhaps n o t as broad as i n t h e type f i g u r e and others  hannai.  Some f i g u r e s o r i g i n a l l y  limbate  sutures  tapering  o r subsequently ascribed  outward t o t h e p e r i p h e r y  Some o f t h e p r e s e n t s p e c i m e n s e x h i b i t t h i s  t o E. n i t i d a  Todd  width.  L o e b l i c h and Tappan p o i n t  ( 1 9 4 7 a ) r e f e r s p e c i m e n s t o E.  i n t h e synonymy o f h i s s p e c i e s  phenomenon.  E. n i t i d a  including This  t h e s p e c i m e n f i g u r e d b y Cushman a n d T o d d s h o u l d  be placed  apertural face,  these i n E.  forms, nitida?  f r o m some o f  L o e b l i c h and Tappan f u r t h e r p o i n t  a l t h o u g h Cushman a n d G r a n t d e s c r i b e d  included  narrowing toward t h e  The p r e s e n t a u t h o r has examined t o p o t y p i c m a t e r i a l  Cushman a n d T o d d ' s l o c a l i t i e s .  but a  Cushman a n d  They f u r t h e r suggest t h a t  f o r m f i g u r e d b y Cushman a n d T o d d h a s t h e s u t u r e  periphery.  sutures,  o u t (1953, p. 108) t h a t  thin.  Cushman,  h a n n a i w h i c h Cushman h a d f o r m e r l y  E. n i t i d a .  show  where they a r e r a t h e r  L o e b l i c h a n d Tappan, h o w e v e r , shows n o s u c h n a r r o w i n g o f , t h e constant  o f E.  out that,  E_. h a n n a i a s h a v i n g s c a t t e r e d p o r e s i n t h e  t h e y h a v e s e e n n o s u c h p o r e s i n a l l t h e m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e to' 'v*  164 them, a n d  that  the  chambers o f t h e t h e y saw  r u g o s e n a t u r e of t h e a p e r t u r a l f a c e and  f i n a l w h o r l may  pores where t h e r e were none.  rugose or granular  "spinose is  h a n n a i and E.  t h a t JE. h a n n a i a n d of " f i n e l y  spinose  s t a t e d t h a t he  thus a l l are  and  without spinose  loss the  of spinose  the  surface In the  larger,  two  retained  but  believes  Bandy on  p o l i s h may  be  event that  the  i n E.  Lankford  (1962  may  t h a t E.  the b a s i s  h a n n a i and  that  He  E.  forms  150)  asserts  o f p r e s e n c e on Whether  I n any  n i t i d a are  states  to  Tappan case,  conspecific  that the  forms  t h a t he  with  believes  276,  277)  also considers  E.  hannai  o f E.  represented.  observed d i f f e r e n c e s of pore s i z  h a n n a i a r e w i d e r and  the  s u t u r a l pores  Thus, s i n c e t h e p r e s e n t few many h a v e t a p e r i n g  sutures,  specimens they  are  nitida.  orbiculare  ( P l a t e 14, N o n i o n i n a o r b i c u l a r i s B r a d y , 1881, 1884,  and  preservation.  f i n e s u t u r a l pores and  f i g . 5;  E.  these  of L o e b l i c h and  same d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d  that the  Protelphidium  p i . 21,  two  a w e a t h e r i n g p h e n o m e n o n e s p e c i a l l y common t o  sutures  be  p.  same s t r u c t u r e s .  r u l e of p r i o r i t y .  (1950, pp.  due  the  G e n u s PROTELPHIDIUM H a y n e s ,  415,  MS,  the basis  "fine granules"  be  s t r u c t u r e s have the  species  species  the  t h e y may  s t r u c t u r e s t o be  one  have exceedingly  same a s  h a n n a i by  l a r g e r specimens.  JE. n i t i d a a s and  E.  nitida.  common t o  s t r u c t u r e s i n the a p e r t u r a l area."  somewhat p r o b l e m a t i c a l  and  E.  or  present specimens e x h i b i t t h i s  n i t i d a w e r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on  structures" are  Lankford  The  one  Grant to think  development, w h i c h a p p e a r s t h e n t o be  r e f e r r e d t o b o t h E.  nitida  h a v e c a u s e d Cushman a n d  first  Ann.  R e p t . Voy.  Mag.  (Brady)  Figure Nat.  1956  3) H i s t . , s e r . 5,  Challenger,  vol. 9  v o l . 8,  ( Z o o l . ) , p.  p. 727,  l  165 pi.  109, f i g s .  (1921),  2 0 , 2 1 ; Cushman, 1 9 2 2 , C o n t r i b . C a n a d i a n B i o l . ,  p . 13 ( 1 4 5 ) .  no. 9  ~[  ,  r  N o n i o n o r b i c u l a r e ( B r a d y ) , Cushman, 1 9 3 0 , U. S. N a t . Mus. B u l l .  '|  1 0 4 , p t . 7, p . 12,-! i  pi.  5, f i g s .  1-3; 1 9 3 9 , U. S. G e o l .  v|  S u r v e y P r o f . P a p . 1 9 1 , p . 2 3 , p i . 6, f i g s .  1 7 - 1 9 ; ? 1 9 4 4 , Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , S p e c . P u b l . 1 2 , p . 2 4 , p i . 3, f i g . 2 4 ; " 1 1948,  E l p h i d i u m o r b i c u l a r e ( B r a d y ) , L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h s o n i a n vol.  J  Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , S p e c . P u b l . 2 3 , p. 5 3 , p i . 6, f i g . , 3 .  1 2 1 , n o . 7, p p . 1 0 2 , 1 0 3 , p i . 1 9 , f i g s .  Misc.  Coll.,-'|  1-4; C o o p e r , 1 9 6 4 , C o n t r i b .  Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 1 5 , p t . 3, p . 9 5 , p i . 5, f i g . 2 1 ; B u z a s , Smithsonian,  Misc.  pi.  la, lb.  4, f i g s ,  Coll.,  v o l . 1 4 5 , n o . 8, p p . 2 3 , 2 4 , p i . . 3 ,  1965a,j  f i g . 5a, 5b, |  E l p h i d i u m o r b i c u l a r e ( H . B. B r a d y ) , R o n a i ,  1 9 5 5 , C o n t r i b . Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m .  R e s . , v o l . 6, p t . 4, p . 1 4 5 , p i . 2 1 , f i g . 1. P r o t e l p h i d i u m o r b i c u l a r e ( B r a d y ) , T o d d a n d Low, 1 9 6 1 , C o n t r i b . Cushman F o u n d .  fr  j  i  v  | i.  F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 1 2 , p t . 1, n o . 2 1 7 , p . 2 0 , p i . 2 , f i g . 1 1 ; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n , 1964,  |  N o r g e s G e o l . . U n d e r s . , n o . 2 2 5 , p . 3 4 9 , p i . 2 1 , f i g . 3; 1 9 6 5 , N o r s k  Polarinstitutt  Meddelelser,  *; i  n o . 9 3 , p . 5 0 , p i . 3, f i g . 1 4 .  \  M H y p o t y p e No. 8 2 , L o c . D-1215.  I A few f o r a m i n i f e r s found species,  i n t h e present m a t e r i a l appear t o belong  to this  ' • 3  I am r e f e r r i n g t h e s p e c i e s t o t h e g e n u s P r o t e l p h i d i u m a s i t h a s a  p o r a t e a p e r t u r e a n d seems t o l a c k s u t u r a l p o r e s  and r e t r a l  processes.  The i  absence o f pores,  however, i s d i f f i c u l t  by t h e m i n o r b u t d i s t i n c t  ( l 9 6 l , p. 2 0 ) .  ( 1 9 4 4 ) d o e s n o t show t h e s u t u r e s c l e a r l y  to  These specimens a r e marked  excavation of t h e sutures near t h e u m b i l i c a l  a f e a t u r e m e n t i o n e d b y T o d d a n d Low  Parker  to verify.  area,  T h e f i g u r e s h o w n b y Cushman  enough t o be s u r e o f t h e  t <j  identification.^|  ( 1 9 5 2 a , p . 4 l l ) s t a t e d t h a t Cushman's " p l e i s o t y p e w a s e x a m i n e d " a n d  be d i f f e r e n t f r o m " N o n i o n o r b i c u l a r e " f r o m t h e A r c t i c .  r  She r e f e r r e d  found  Cushman's  |  166  [  T  '  form t o E l p h i d i u m a r t i c u l a t u m ( d ' O r b i g n y ) . incertum (1952,  ( W i l l i a m s o n ) by  p. 83,  p i , 14,  •< i  j ^ -i  Specimens r e f e r r e d t o E l p h i d i u m  Cushman ( 1 9 4 8 , p . 56,  p i . 6,  f i g . 7) a n d b y  f i g . 7) m i g h t b e P r o t e l p h i d i u m o r b i c u l a r e .  i  Phleger  „!  Cushman's  " \ •< j  f i g u r e shows a f o r m w h i c h  a l o n g and  p a r a l l e l t o t h e s u t u r e s a r e shown.  disagree with Williamson's  umbilicatula Ronai a n d N.  p.  t  i, ^ i  145)  T h e s e s l i t s may  A  b e t h e same  \,  !•  orbiculare, although t h e i r presence^  \  i  (1858) o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of P o l y s t o m e l l a  (Walker) v a r . i n c e r t a , which  (1955,  Phleger  —* — — — — —  f e a t u r e o f t h e i n c i s i o n o f t h e s u t u r e s o f P. does n o t  orbiculare.  F i g u r e s o f t h e s e s p e c i m e n s show no r e t r a l p r o c e s s e s , b u t \S  shows o n l y a s i d e v i e w . slits  i s p e r h a p s t o o c o m p r e s s e d f o r P.  i s now  *  i  'j  ascribed to Elphidium incertum.  remarks t h a t " E l p h i d i u m o r b i c u l a r e , Nonion  pauciloculum,j  t i s b u r y e n s i s appear t o be v e r y s i m i l a r e x t e r n a l l y , and have a d i v i d e d  aperture."  F u r t h e r , he  t h e s e t h r e e and  s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e may  b e t w e e n them and  f o r t u n a t e l y , Ronai*s  be t r a n s i t i o n a l  stages  E l p h i d i u m b a r t l e t t i a n d j£. f r i g i d u m .  between Un-  ••  figures are i n d i s t i n c t .  (?) P r o t e l p h i d i u m pauciloculum  -\  (Cushman)  r  ( P l a t e 14, F i g u r e 4 )  •  .  1  <  J'  ( ? ) ______ N o n i o n p a u c i l o c u l u m Cushman, 1 9 4 4 , ' C u s h m a n L a b . p. 24,  p i . 3,  and  <  pores are c l e a r l y  seen i n the holotype of  The  h o l o t y p e i s l a r g e r and  <l  i !  smoother and has more  than the P a c i f i c Northwest specimens here  "\  this  l e n t t h e a u t h o r by R u t h Todd and M a r t i n B u z a s o f t h e U n i t e d  S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Museum. chambers (seven)  1 2 , _^  83, L o c . B-7065.  typical sutural slits  species, kindly  Spec. P u b l .  f i g . 25.  H y p o t y p e No. The  Foram. Res.,  j  referred to this  taxon.I  "'I Perhaps a l s o t h e opaque bands a l o n g t h e s u t u r e s o f t h e h o l o t y p e a r e n a r r o w e r . The  nature of the s u t u r a l openings  i s not  c l e a r i n the present m a t e r i a l .  Todd  ^ *'  167 writes  T  (1964, p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) t h a t N o n i o n p a u c i l o c u l u m as w e l l  Elphidium subarcticum  Cushman a r e p r o b a b l y  present m a t e r i a l r e l a t i v e l y  c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h E.  s m a l l numbers o f chambers and  as  frigidum.  In the '  deep d e p r e s s i o n o f  the •r  s u t u r e s h a v e b e e n u s e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e (?) P r o t e l p h i d i u m p a u c i l o c u l u m other taxa, although  s u c h a s e p a r a t i o n may  occur at s e v e r a l l o c a l i t i e s . Massachusetts. 145,  p i . 21,  The  Nonion pauciloculum f i g . 2) b u t  t h e s p e c i m e n s h o u l d be  n o t be v a l i d .  holotype  from  Specimens so r e f e r r e d  i s from the Recent of Buzzards  Cushman was  r e p o r t e d by R o n a i  t h e f i g u r e i s poor and  i t i s hard  Bay,  (1955, pp.  to t e l l  v  t o what  |  144,  I  taxon'  referred.  '  ;  Family  BDLIMINIDAE  Subfamily  Turrilininae  "  G e n u s B U L I M I N E L I A Cushman, Buliminella  elegantissima  .  1911  (d'Orbigny)  ( P l a t e 1 5 , F i g u r e 1)' B u l i m i n a e l e g a n t i s s i m a d ' O r b i g n y , 1839, F o r a m i n i f e r e s , p. 5 1 , vol.  p i . 7,  9 ( Z o o l . ) , p. 402,  Bull.  513,  Buliminella Trans. 1938,  p.  38,  figs,  p i . 50,  p i . 9,  13,  figs.  Miocene  Cushman L a b .  Nat.  B r a d y , 1884,  Rept.Toy.  20-22; B a g g , 1912,  S t r a t i g r a p h y , of Foram. Res.,  S p e c . P u b l . 12,  Cushman a n d  T o d d , 1 9 4 7 a , Cushman L a b .  f i g . 1;  Cushman a n d  66,  p i . 17,  figs.  p.  64,  U.  Parker,  p.  27,  S.  Challenger,< j  Geol. Survey  Foram. Res., U.  S.  1930,  figs.  43,  .  44; p.  28;  Spec; P u b l . 21, p. S u r v e y P r o f . Pap.  1948,  < -|  f i g . 10; Cushman, 1944,  S p e c . P u b l . 19,  Geol.  1 0 - 1 2 ; Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h ,  Stewart,  f i g . 7; K l e i n p e l l ,  p i . ;16,  p i . 3,  Foram. Res.,  1947,  and  p i . 4;  C a l i f o r n i a , p.. 2 4 9 ,  Cushman L a b .  3,  Cushman, S t e w a r t ,  H i s t . , v o l . 6,  G r a y , 1946,  p.  14;  5,  V  Cushman a n d  pi.  A m e r . M e r l d . , v o l . 5, p t .  f i g . 8.  elegantissima (d'Orbigny),  San D i e g o Soc.  Voy.  A l l a n Hancock  15, 210-D, ~  ;  Pacific  168 E x p e d . , v o l . 6, n o . 5, p p . 2 3 6 - 2 3 8 , p i . 2 9 , f i g . 4; B a n d y , 1 9 5 0 , J o u r . P a l e o n . , v o l . 2 4 , n o . 3, p p . 2 7 9 , 2 8 0 , p i . ' 4 2 , f i g . 1 0 ; P a r k e r , 1 9 5 2 a , M u s . Comp. Z o o l . H a r v a r d ,  Bull.,  p . 4 1 6 , p i . 5, f i g s .  27, 28; Cooper, 1964, C o n t r i b . -  Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 1 5 , p . .3, p . -95, p i . 6, f i g . 1 1 ;  1  Feyling-Hanssen  1 9 6 4 , N o r g e s G e o l . U n d e r s . , n o . 2 2 5 , p . 3 0 2 , p i . 1 4 , f i g . 1. H y p o t y p e No. 8 4 , L o c . B-6892. No a t t e m p t a t a c o m p l e t e s y n o n y m y h a s b e e n made f o r t h i s w i d e l y species.  A s m a l l number o f ^ s p e c i m e n s o c c u r  from t h e r a i s e d beach l o c a l i t y  identified  i n t h e p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l , m a i n l y '•  (B-6892) on D o u g l a s I s l a n d , a l t h o u g h a l s o I n  s m a l l e r numbers a t t h r e e o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s  i n t h e Juneau_area.  Genus ROBERTINA d ' O r b i g n y , 1846  (?) Rok^ti* -. c h a r l o t t e n s i s 1  >  (Cushman)  ( P l a t e 15, F i g u r e 2) ?  Cassidulina charlottensis vol. pi.  ?  Cushman, 1 9 2 5 , C o n t r i b . Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . ,  1, p t . 2 , p." 4 1 , p i . 6, f i g s . 8, f i g s .  Robertina  6, 7; 1 9 2 5 , I b i d . , v o l . 1, p t . 3, p . 5 3 ,  17, 1 8 .  charlottensis  ;  •• « ( C u s h m a n ) , Cushman, 1 9 3 3 a , Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , •  m  S p e c . P u b l . 5, p i . 2 7 , f i g . 9, v o l . 1 2 , p t . 4; 1 9 5 5 , F o r a m i n i f e r a , K e y P I . 27, vol.  f i g . 9; Cushman a n d P a r k e r ,  ,  1 9 3 6 , C o n t r i b . Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . ,  1 2 , p t . 4, n o . 1 7 9 , p . 9 7 , p i . 16, f i g . 1 2 ; 1 9 4 7 , U. S. G e o l .  <-  Survey  P r o f . P a p . 210-D, p . 7 4 , p i . 1 8 , f i g . 1 4 ; Cushman a n d T o d d , 1 9 4 7 a , Cushman Lab.  i I  F o r a m , R e s . , S p e c . P u b l . 2 1 , p . 1 8 , p i . 3, f i g . 2; Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c _ , " ; \  1 9 4 8 , A l l a n H a n c o c k P a c i f i c E x p e d . , v o l . 6, n o . 5, p . 2 4 1 , p i . 3 0 , f i g s . ?  Robertinoides Smithsonian Detling,  (?) charlottensis Misc. Coll.,  1, 2.|  (Cushman), L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953,  v o l . 1 2 1 , n o . 7, p p . 1 0 8 - 1 1 0 , p i . 2 0 , f i g s .  6, 7;  1 9 5 8 , C o n t r i b . Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 9, p t . 2, n o . 1 7 9 ,  3  | \  169 p . 2 9 , p i . 8, f i g . 6; L a n k f o r d MS,  _ |  1962, Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a from t h e n e a r -  -,-| i  shore t u r b u l e n t zone, w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s and n o r t h w e s t Mexico; Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v . ,  California,  San Diego,  Unpub.  ;|  p. 190.  ! I 1.-j  H y p o t y p e No. 8 5 , L o c . B - 7 0 7 5 . A s i n g l e s p e c i m a n f r o m B-7075 a p p e a r s  the a p e r t u r a l a r e a i s broken and t h e f i n a l In size,  t o belong  to this  c h a m b e r may h a v e b e e n b r o k e n  i t i s c l o s e r t o t y p i c a l R o b e r t i n a a r c t i c a d'Orbigny  resembles.  Is the apparent  variability  figure of Robertina charlottensis c l o s e l y resembles  t h a n i t does t h o s e o f R o b e r t i n a c h a r l o t t e n s i s  (1936  and 1947).  depict a c  form which  !  j  should  F o r example, t h e  j  (1948) more  A  (1936 and  j \  ( C u s h m a n ) Cushman a n d P a r k e r  o f R. a r c t i d a  a p p a r e n t l y has f a r fewer  ~  "j  Cushman a n d P a r k e r  1947)  H  i n identi-  One d i f f i c u l t y  ( C u s h m a n ) , Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h  Further, the figures  l talso  v  feature, then the  of species of Robertina.  t h o s e o f R. a r c t i c a d ' O r b i g n y ,  off.  however, s i z e a l o n e  not be t o o h i g h l y v a l u e d i n s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . . flcation  which  I f the stated size i s the outstanding identifying  p r e s e n t f o r a m i n i f e r p r o b a b l y b e l o n g s t o R. a r c t i c a ;  j  species, although  }.  i n t h e s e two p u b l i c a t i o n s  chambers i n t h e f i n a l w h o r l t h a n  \ i  \  the a u t h o r s d e s c r i b e as t y p i c a l by  o f t h e s p e c i e s R. a r c t i c a .  The f i g u r e s p u b l i s h e d  Cushman a n d P a r k e r ( 1 9 3 6 ) show R. c h a r l o t t e n s i s a s b e i n g much m o r e  t h a n R. a r c t i c a ,  and having a d i f f e r e n t l y  l a s t may b e t h e r e s u l t  curved  shaped a p e r t u r a l f a c e , a l t h o u g h  of preservation of the figured  specimen.  this  The p r e s e n t  I « -I  r  specimen i s curved b u t perhaps  n o t a s much a s t y p i c a l R. c h a r l o t t e n s i s .  c o n f u s i o n on b o t h a s p e c i f i c and g e n e r i c l e v e l e x i s t s and Tappan ( 1 9 5 3 ) .  (Cushman), Cushman a n d T o d d  be  on t h i s  The  1-4) a p p e a r s  form.  ^ .•  form  ( H e r o n - A l l e n and E a r l a n d 1932) by F e y l i n g -  p . 4 7 , p i . 2, f i g s .  conspecific w i t h the present  light  Topotypes o f R o b e r t i n a c h a r l o t t e n s i s  (1947) have been seen by t h e a u t h o r .  referred to Buliminella auricula  Hanssen (1965,  i s p o i n t e d out by L o e b l i c h  The p r e s e n t a u t h o r i s i n no p o s i t i o n t o shed  m a t t e r , h a v i n g o n l y one i n d i v i d u a l .  That  t o b e a R o b e r t i n a a n d may  _j I T  170 Subfamily  Bulimininae  G e n u s GLOBOBULIMINA  Cushman, 1927  Globulimina auriculata ( P l a t e 15, F i g u r e  3)  B u l i m i n a a u r i c u l a t a B a i l e y , 1851, Smithsonian pi.,  figs.  Bulimina  4.  (Bailey)  Contr.,  v o l . 2, a r t . 3,  p..12,  25-27.  (Desinobulimina)  a u r i c u l a t a B a i l e y , Cushman a n d P a r k e r ,  Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 1 6 , p . 2 0 , p i . 3, f i g s . G e o l . S u r v e y P r o f . P a p . 210-D, p . 1 2 9 , p i . 2 9 , f i g s .  1940, C o n t r i b .  1 9 - 2 1 ; 1 9 4 7 , U.  22-24;  S.  Cushman, 1 9 4 4 ,  Cushman L a b . F o r a m . Res.,. S p e c . P u b l . 1 2 , p . 2 8 , p i . 3, f i g . 4 8 ; Cushman and Todd,  1 9 4 5 , Cushman L a b . F o r a m R e s . , S p e c . P u b l . 1 5 , p . 4 0 , p i . 6,  f i g .  1 4 ; 1 9 4 7 a , Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , S p e c , P u b l . 2 1 , p . 1 8 , p i . 3, f i g . 3; Cushman a n d G r a y , 1 9 4 6 , Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , S p e c . P u b l . 1 9 , p . 2 9 ; Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h ,  1 9 4 8 , A l l a n H a n c o c k P a c i f i c E x p e d . , v o l . 6, n o . 5,  p . 2 4 9 , p i . 3 1 , f i g . 4.  .  H y p o t y p e No. 8 6 , L o c . B - 7 0 6 7 . Todd  (1958, p e r s o n a l  ^  communication) r e p o r t s t h i s  species, rare i nthe  present m a t e r i a l , from glacio-marine deposits around Juneau; Cockbain t a b l e 2) a l s o r e p o r t s i t f r o m t h e a r e a  Subfamily  of the Straits  o f J u a n de Fuca and  fusiformis  ( P l a t e 15, F i g u r e  p . 6 3 , p i . 5, f i g s .  129, 130.  1961  (Williamson) 4)  Bulimina pupoides v a r . f u s i f o r m i s Williamson, Britain,  Georgi  Fursenkoininae  Genus FURSENKOINA L o e b l i c h a n d T a p p a n , Fursenkoina  (1963,  1858, Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a o f  Great  Virgulina  fusiformis (Williamson), Parker,  1 9 5 2 a , M u s . Comp. Z o o l . H a r v a r d ,  B u l l . v o l . 1 0 6 , n o . 9, p . 4 1 7 , p i . 6, f i g s . 461,  p i . 4, f i g . 6; P h l e g e r ,  ..j  3-6; 1 9 5 2 b , I b i d . , n o . 1 0 , p .  ' J  1 9 5 2 , C o n t r i b . Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l .  3, p t . 2, n o . 6 1 , p . 8 7 , p i . 1 4 , f i g s .  17, 18; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n ,  1964, Norges  ./j  „i G e o l . U n d e r s . , no. 225, p. 307, p i . 14, f i g s .  15-18.  ' j i  ? __________ B u l i m i n a _e _x i_l_i _ s B r a d y , Cushman, 1 9 4 8 , Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , S p e c . P u b l . 23,  p . 6 2 , p i . 7, f i g . 1; L o e b l i c h a n d T a p p a n , 1 9 5 3 , S m i t h s o n i a n  Misc.  A  Coll.,  |j' i  <>' • t  vol.  1 2 1 , n o . 7, p . 1 1 0 , p i . 2 0 , f i g s . 4, 5.  not V i r g u l i n a  " j  f u s i f o r m i s Cushman, 1 9 3 7 , Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , S p e c . P u b l .  ;  9, p p . 1 8 , 1 9 , p i . 2, f i g . 2 9 .  .n t  H y p o t y p e No. 87, L o c . B-7074.  '|  A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f s p e c i m e n s b e l o n g  to this  first  r e f e r r e d t o V i r g u l i n a b y Cushman a n d P a r k e r  1947,  p . 1 3 1 ) . Thus, s i n c e t h i s  t a x o n was f i r s t  species.  T h e s p e c i e s was  (1940, p. 22, and a g a i n i n  g i v e n t h e s p e c i f i c name f u s i f o r m i s j J  in  1858, V i r g u l i n a  f u s i f o r m i s Cushman, f i r s t  described i n B u l l e t i n 4 ofthe  Florida  S t a t e G e o l o g i c a l Survey i n 1930, i s i n v a l i d b y r u l e o f p r i o r i t y as  another  species  i s t h e r e i n represented.  The forms a s c r i b e d t o B u l i m i n a  exilis  B r a d y b y Cushman ( 1 9 4 8 ) a n d L o e b l i c h a n d T a p p a n ( 1 9 5 3 ) a p p e a r t o f a l l w i t h i n t h e range of v a r i a t i o n of Fursenkoina t h i s author  b y R u t h Todd  a number o f t h e p r e s e n t Museum.  This  t h a n now o c c u r  f u s i f o r m i s ( W i l l i a m s o n ) , a s was s u g g e s t e d  (1964, p e r s o n a l  communication).  Miss  specimens w i t h m a t e r i a l i n t h e U n i t e d  species i s very  to  Todd a l s o compared I States National  e a s i l y b r o k e n , s o many m o r e may h a v e b e e n  present  I n t h e samples.  found t o be p r e o c c u p i e d ,  S i n c e t h e g e n e r i c name V i r g u l i n a was r e c e n t l y . t h e names F u r s e n k o i n a and, t h u s , F u r s e n k o i n i n a e r e p l a c e  6  | " l -j  J them.  This  c h a n g e may b e r u l e d a g a i n s t , h o w e v e r , a n d t h e name " V i r g u l i n a " i s  used elsewhere i n t h i s  report.  q  j j•  172 Genus B O L I V I N A d ' O r b i g n y , 1839  "j  *  i  B o l i v i n a alexanderensls ( P l a t e 15, F i g u r e s  5,  S m i t h , n. 6,  7,  and  sp.  j  8)  ^j i  H o l o t y p e No.  88a,  Loc.  B-7075, P a r a t y p e s  No.  88b,  88d  - B-7075; 88c  j  -  B-7066.  j •  Test  compressed t o s l i g h t l y  subacute i n i t i a l across  final  end,  two  to three times  chambers; p e r i p h e r y  l a t e r chambers, v a r y i n g  rounded, elongate, as  slightly  t a p e r i n g from an a c u t e  to  s  i ,  l o n g as b r o a d g e n e r a l l y , b r o a d e s t  •  rounded, g e n e r a l l y more so i n t h e  from almost s t r a i g h t to s t r o n g l y lobate; sutures  |  oblique  '! i J  r  in  general,  limbate, varying from merely sinuate to having  reentrants  (such  i  v a r i a t i o n may by  be  present  i n s i n g l e specimens), s l i g h t l y  the s u r f a c e ornamentation; s u r f a c e rough, tending  t h e p r e s e n c e o f numerous s m a l l p o r e s ,  depressed, often obscured T  t o be  opaque b e c a u s e  m a r k e d o n many i n d i v i d u a l s b y  of  distinct  V i  l o b a t e s c u l p t u r i n g which i n p a r t appears to correspond s i n u a t i o n and  reentrance  from b a r e l y present  of the  to f a i r l y  broad i n the  of the in  s t r o n g l y d e v e l o p e d ; c h a m b e r s many, v a r y i n g e a r l y p a r t of the t e s t t o about e q u a l l y  l a t e r chambers, shape m o d i f i e d by  sutures, which, i n the  the sinuate-tending  shapes; aperture  the  s u t u r e s , degree of l o b a t i o n of s u r f a c e v a r i a b l e ,  f r o m much w i d e r t h a n h i g h i n t h e and  i n position with  t h e s i n u a t i o n and  l e s s s i n u a t e forms, causes curved  to reentrant  a straight slit  i n shape high  reentrance  chambers and,  .,  f o r m s , causes a n g u l a t i o n o f t h e chamber  from t h e b a s e a l m o s t t o t h e apex of t h e  ~'  final  chamber, w i t h a s l i g h t l i p . This  species  i s s i m i l a r to the  lobately-sculptured species B o l i v i n a  plicate!!; j  Cushman, B o l i v i n a p s e u d o p l i c a t a  Heron-Allen  and  E a r l a n d and  Bolivina  decussata  j »•  Brady, the 126,  last  p i . 16,  e s p e c i a l l y as  figs.  7-9).  specimens i n the present than the present  t y p i f i e d by  This group.  specimens.  figure nine  figure could represent The  other  i n Cushman ( 1 9 3 7 b , p p . the  extremely  lobate  forms m e n t i o n e d above a r e more  Those of the present  125, ~ i 'j  lobate  specimens which have e x t e r n a l  173 l o b a t i o n p o o r l y i f a t a l l developed tendencies  toward  danvillensis  but which  s i n u a t e sutures and  r e e n t r a n t s u t u r e s , a r e more s i m i l a r t o s u c h  Howe a n d W a l l a c e , B o l i v i n a  subexcavata  B o l i v i n a a d y e n a Cushman, a n d , i n t h e l e a s t to B o l i v i n a  have merely  compacta Sidebottom  complexly  forms as B o l i v i n a  Cushman a n d W i c k e n d e n ,  *\ ,:  s u t u r e d and ornamented  forms,  ( s e e Cushman, 1 9 3 7 b , p p . 1 3 5 , 1 3 6 , p i . 17, f i g s .  * J  I 2 2 - 2 4 ; Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h ,  1 9 4 2 , p p . 1 9 0 , 1 9 1 , p i . 2 3 , f i g . 4).  Bolivina  "] r  c o m p a c t a a n d B. d e c u s s a t a material pi.  from t h e n o r t h e a s t P a c i f i c  3, f i g . 5; a n d C o c k b a i n ,  also reports Bolivina L a n k f o r d MS forms. of  (1962,  coast  1 9 6 3 , t a b l e 2.  decussata  Todd, 1958, p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,  from t h e Juneau a r e a . ) .  Bolivina  subexcavata  of  p . 1 3 8 , p i . 4, f i g . 8 ) may b e c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h t h e p r e s e n t  southeastern Alaska.  The s p e c i e s i s l o c a l l y  of holotype:  Width of holotype: Height  * -j  ( s e e Cushman a n d T o d d , 1 9 4 7 a , p . 1 8 ,  T h i s new s p e c i e s i s named f o r t h e A l e x a n d e r A r c h i p e l a g o w h i c h  Height  i  have been r e p r e s e n t e d i n l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e and Recent  of paratypes:  Width of paratypes:  0.34  | i o r  forms much  numerous.  mm  0.14 mm  ...  paratype  1 - 0.29 mm;  paratype  3 - 0.27  paratype  1 - 0.14 mm;  paratype  3 - 0.14  paratype  2 - 0.38  mm;  paratype  2 - 0.18  mm;  mm i  •c  Bolivina  p a c i f i c a Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h (Plate  B o l i v i n a acerosa  mm  15, F i g u r e 9)  Cushman v a r . p a c i f i c a Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h ,  1942, A l l a n  H a n c o c k P a c i f i c E x p e d . , v o l . 6, n o . 4, p p . 1 8 5 , 1 8 6 , p i . 2 1 , f i g s .  2, 3;  Cushman a n d G r a y , 1 9 4 6 , Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , S p e c . P u b l . 19,. p . 3 6 , p i . 6, f i g . 6; Cushman a n d T o d d , 1 9 4 7 a , Cushman L a b . Foram.. R e s . , p.  1 8 , p i . 3, f i g . 4.  Spec. P u b l . 21  174 B o l i v i n a p a c i f i c a Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h , L a n k f o r d MS, "' f r o m t h e n e a r s h o r e t u r b u l e n t M e x i c o ; U n p u b . Ph.D. fig.  1962, Recent  Foraminifera  zone, western U n i t e d S t a t e s and northwest  T h e s i s , U n i v . C a l i f o r n i a , S a n D i e g o , p . 1 3 7 , p i . 4,  7.  Hypotype  No.  89, L o c . B-7072.  B o l i v i n a s which are rare at several this species.  localities  a p p e a r t o be t y p i c a l  C o c k b a i n ( 1 9 6 3 , t a b l e 2) r e c o g n i z e d B o l i v i n a p a c i f i c a i n t h e  waters near Vancouver  and Todd (1958, p e r s o n a l communication)  species from g l a c i o - m a r i n e m a t e r i a l near Juneau* Hogland o f L o e b l i c h and Tappan (1953, p. I l l , s i m i l a r and p e r h a p s  Bolivina  p i . 20, f i g s .  c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h the present specimens  identified  16, f i g . 6 ) .  the  pseudopunctata 1 3 , 14) a s may  i s very  a l s o be  c a s e w i t h B. p s e u d o p u n c t a t a a s i d e n t i f i e d by F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n ( 1 9 6 4 , p . pi.  of  the  319,  ( T h e f i g u r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n u n f o r t u n a t e l y makes t h e s m o o t h  t r a n s l u c e n t upper p a r t s o f t h e chambers l o o k d e p r e s s e d , w h i c h t h e y a r e n o t . ) '  Subfamily  Uvigerininae  G e n u s U V I G E R I N A d ' O r b i g n y , 1826 U v i g e r i n a cushmani  Todd  ( P l a t e 16, F i g u r e s 1 and U v i g e r i n a cushmani 23, no.  .  2)  T o d d , 1 9 4 7 b , C o n t r i b . Cushman L a b , F o r a m . R e s . , v o l .  297, p. 66, p i . 16, f i g s .  4, 5; Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h , 1 9 4 8 ,  H a n c o c k P a c i f i c E x p e d . , v o l . 6, n o . 5, p p . 2 5 7 , 2 5 8 , p i . 3 3 , f i g . Hypotypes  No.  from t h e Burnaby  Lake l o c a l i t y  n e a r J u n e a u has more s t r o n g l y the  1.  9 0 a , 90b, L o c . D-1211.  A number o f specimens h a v e b e e n a s s i g n e d t o t h i s s p e c i e s . are  Allan  near Vancouver,  The  Most of them  s p e c i m e n f r o m B-7068  d e v e l o p e d c o s t a e , t h u s more s t r o n g l y  d e s c r i b e d d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n U v i g e r i n a cushmani  reflecting  a n d U v i g e r i n a j u n c e a Cushman  175 and  Todd, t y p i f i e d  specimens from  f r o m t h e P l i o c e n e o f Timm's P o i n t , C a l i f o r n i a .  t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a a r e c l e a r l y , however, more s t r o n g l y  t h a n U. j u n c e a a n d t h e i r c o s t a e may e x t e n d the i n d i v i d u a l  c o s t a e o f U. J u n c e a  t h a n one chamber. waters  The p r e s e n t  Cockbain  (1963,  ornamented  o v e r more t h a n one chamber, w h i l e  a r e d e s c r i b e d a s n o t e x t e n d i n g o v e r more t a b l e 2) h a s r e f e r r e d s p e c i m e n s f r o m  modem  o f f V a n c o u v e r t o U. j u n c e a , b u t t h e y may w e l l b e c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h t h e  present  specimens.  Genus T R I F A R I N A Cushman, 1 9 2 3 Trifarina  f l u e n s (Todd)  ( P l a t e 16, F i g u r e s 3 and 4) A n g u l o g e r i n a f l u e n s T o d d , MS,  i n Cushman a n d T o d d , 1 9 4 7 b , C o n t r i b . Cushman L a b .  Foram. R e s . , v o l . 23, p. 67, p i . 16, f i g s . 1948,  A l l a n Hancock P a c i f i c  6, 7; i n Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h ,  Exped.., v o l . 6, n o . 5, p p . 2 8 8 , 2 8 9 , p i . 3 6 , f i g .  1; L o e b l i c h a n d T a p p a n , 1 9 5 3 , S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c . C o l l . , v o l . 1 2 1 , n o . 7, p . 112, no.  p i . 20, f i g s .  10-12; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n ,  9 3 , p . 4 7 , p i . 2, f i g s .  1965, Norsk  Polarinstitutt  Meddelels  12,- 1 3 .  H y p o t y p e s N o . 9 1 a , 9 1 b , L o c . B - 7 0 7 5 - 9 1 a ; D-1211 - 9 1 b . Numerous c o s t a t e a n g u l o g e r i n e s p e c i m e n s i n t h e p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l h a v e b e e n referred.to this  species.  T h e y a p p e a r t o t e n d t o show c o n t i n u o u s  o f chambers and t h u s have a more c o n i c a l  p.  they c o u l d be c o n f u s e d .  angulosa  L o e b l i c h and Tappan  Cushman ( 1 9 4 8 ,  synonymize t h e form r e f e r r e d t o A n g u l o g e r i n a  p. 6 6 , p i . 3 6 , f i g . 1) w i t h A n g u l o g e r i n a  g i v e n for A . f l u e n s b y T o d d ( i n Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h , 36,  than  (1953,  1 1 2 ) r e m a r k e d t h a t t h e s p e c i e s f l u e n s i s much l e s s a n g u l a r t h a n t h e s p e c i e s  a n g u l o s a , and f u r t h e r , by  Increase  shape and a l s o h a v e more c o s t a e  e i t h e r T r i f a r i n a s e m i t r i g o n a (Galloway and W i s s l e r ) o r T r i f a r i n a (Williamson), w i t h which  size  f i g . 1) a r e v e r y d i s t i n c t  from her f i g u r e s  fluens.  angulosa The  figures  1948, pp. 288, 289, p i .  of Angulogerina semitrigona  176 and A n g u l o g e r i n a a n g u l o s a pi.  35,  f i g . 6) a n d  however, l i k e  (1948,  pp.  292,  293,  170,  to c a l l  (1944, 414,  171,  p i . 5,  p i . 4,  figs.  18,  6;  p i . 19,  T o d d MS (1963,  1948,  p.  and W i s s l e r (1927,  1947a, p.  ;  p.  1 9 , p i . 3,  would, See  Cushman,  1923,  P a r k e r , 1952a, pp.  f i g . 12).  413,  See a l s o U v i g e r i n a  f i g . 21)  f i g . 7 ) , Cushman a n d See  author  280,  ( W i l l i a m s o n ) Cushman  f i g . 8;  77, p i . 1 1 ,  (1962).  i n Cushman a n d T o d d , p .  t a b l e 2) h a s  p i . 14,  279,  species.  f i g . 2;  Cushman a n d T o d d ( 1 9 4 1 , p .  f i g . 1 6 ) , a n d L a n k f o r d MS  (1947,  66, p i . 7,  P h l e g e r , 1952,  ( G a l l o w a y and W l s s l e r ) f i g . 18;  3 7 , p i . 6,  19;  75, p i . 22,  17-20); A n g u l o g e r i n a angulosa  f i g . 9;  seroitrigona Galloway semitrigona  figs.  p.  pp.  The  a t t e n t i o n t o a f e w r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s e two  p i . 41,  p. 3 0 ,  f i g . 5, a n d  the descriptions are reasonably d i s t i n c t .  U v i g e r i n a a n g u l o s a W i l l i a m s o n , Bagg (1912, pp.  p i . 36,  and  Angulogerina  7 6 , p i . 18, f i g . Gray  (1946,  p.  also Angulogerina fluens  67, p i . 16,  figs.  6,  7).  Cockbain  r e f e r r e d specimens b o t h t o A n g u l o g e r i n a a n g u l o s a and  • A.  semitrigona. From t h e l i t e r a t u r e a l o n e , i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t h e s e two  species.  The  Many f i g u r e s ,  tions are inadequate.  o r g r o u p s o f F o r a m i n i f e r a when r e l y i n g e s p e c i a l l y photographs,  Thus, t h e d e s i d e r a t u m  w o u l d be t o be a b l e t o examine h o l o t y p i c , mens s p e c i f i c a l l y  limited,  at least  the present  paratypic,  t o p o t y p i c and The  t o s e v e r a l s p e c i e s and  referred.  other  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , most a u t h o r s  this point.  to  only  descrip-  g r e a t e s t degree  i n part, to examination of the l i t e r a t u r e .  specimens i l l u s t r a t e s  these foraminifers have been so  i n t h i s way.  a r e p o o r and  or  f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a  d e s i g n a t e d by p a r t i c u l a r a u t h o r s .  a c c u r a c y c o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d  fact  or i m p o s s i b l e t o g i v e s p e c i f i c assignment  synonymy o f i n d i v i d u a l s  on t h e l i t e r a t u r e .  between  above r e f e r e n c e s s e r v e t o i n d i c a t e the well-known  that frequently i t i s d i f f i c u l t determine  to discriminate  The  of  are  identity  I t would be p o s s i b l e t o  i t may. b e  speci-  that conspecific  of  refer  forms  177 T r i f a r i n a hughesi  (Galloway and W i s s l e r )  ( P l a t e 16, F i g u r e s 5 a n d Uvigerina hughes! Galloway pi.  6)  a n d W i s s l e r , 1 9 2 7 , J o u r . P a l e o n . , v o l . 1, p . 7 6 ,  1 2 , f i g . 5.  Angulogerina hughesi 1930, T r a n s .  (Galloway and W i s s l e r ) ,  Cushman, S t e w a r t , a n d  Stewart,  S a n D i e g o S o c . N a t . H i s t . , v o l . 6, p . 7 0 , p i . 5, f i g . 1 6 ;  Cushman a n d T o d d , 1 9 4 1 , C o n t r i b . Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , v o l . 1 7 , p . 7 6 , pi.  1 8 , f i g . 4; p i . 1 9 , f i g . 17; 1 9 4 7 a , Cushman L a b . F o r a m . R e s . , S p e c .  P u b l . 2 1 , p . 1 9 , p i . 3, f i g . 8; Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h ,  1948, A l l a n  Hancock  P a c i f i c E x p e d . , v o l . 6, n o . 5, p p . 2 8 9 , 2 9 0 , p i . 3 6 , f i g . 2. H y p o t y p e s No. 9 2 a , 9 2 b , L o c . D - 1 2 1 1 . A few smooth a n g u l o g e r i n e specimens o c c u r i n t h e p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l . have a l l been r e f e r r e d t o t h i s  species.  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d  w i t h i n the range of v a r i a t i o n of T r i f a r i n a baggl (in  Cushman a n d M c C u l l o c h ,  t h a t some  They fall  (Galloway and W i s s l e r ) .  Todd  1948, pp. 2 8 1 , 290, and 293) p o i n t s o u t t h e c l o s e  r e l a t i o n s h i p and p o s s i b l e c o n s p e c i f i c i t y between t h e s e forms as w e l l as a described species, Trifarina  s e m i t r i g o n a (Galloway and W i s s l e r ) .  cannot r e c o g n i z e a s i g n i f i c a n t  third  As t h e a u t h o r  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e l o b a t i o n o f t h e chambers  between t h e l a r g e r and t h e s m a l l e r s p e c i m e n s , a d i f f e r e n c e u s e d by Todd t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between t h e l a r g e r h u g h e s i and t h e s m a l l e r b a g g l , a l l of t h e p r e s e n t specimens have been a s s i g n e d t o t h e s p e c i e s h u g h e s i . foraminifers here placed i n T r i f a r i n a  f l u e n s T o d d may  Some o f t h e  f a l l w i t h i n t h e r a n g e of-  v a r i a t i o n of I . semitrigona, but here a l l c o s t a t e angulogerine i n d i v i d u a l s been a s s i g n e d t o T r i f a r i n a  f l u e n s as t h e r e i s no c l e a r - c u t  d i s c e r n a b l e between c o s t a t e specimens. s t r i a t e and a r e s i m i l a r  specific  difference  F u r t h e r , some i n d i v i d u a l s a r e  enough i n t e s t shape t o be d i f f i c u l t  have  faintly  to assign to either  178 Trifarina  fluens  o r t o T r i f a r i n a h u g h e s i ; t h e s e two  forms always occur  F a m i l y DISCORBIDAE  *  Genus D I S C O R B I S L a m a r k , Discorbis ( P l a t e 16, H y p o t y p e s No.  100a,  Rare d i s c o r b i d s Discorbis.  pi.  and  h y p o t y p e 101  present specimens are  Cushman a n d 7,  Gray  f i g . 12)  dorsal  ( 1 9 4 6 , p. but  101,  from several  H y p o t y p e s 100a  common t y p e a n d of the  100b,  Figures  do  not  7a  Loc.  8a  and  16,  figs. 8a,  7a,  8b)  the  very s i m i l a r to Discorbis  38,  p i . 6,  8b)  f i g . 25)  and  7b)  species  represent the  less  common.  globularis  more  (d'Orbigny),  Cushman ( 1 9 4 8 , p p .  68,  69, and  sides.  H y p o t y p e s No.  102,  Two  specimens w i t h  referred  t o t h i s genus.  smaller  than the  2a,  are  other.  103,  convex v e n t r a l  ventral  Other r a r e sp.  side  and  2b)  c e n t r a l a r e a b r o k e n away a r e c o n s p e c i f i c , , a l t h o u g h one  specimens  ( h y p o t y p e no.  and  l b , 2a  B-7066.  T h e y seem t o b e  l i k e Discorbis  spp.  F i g u r e s l a and  Loc.  the  (?)  a much l e s s  ( h y p o t y p e 103) 100)  of t h i s  lobate  tentatively i s much  ( P l a t e 17,  report,  periphery.  of  Some  h a v e p o r e s o f d i f f e r e n t c o a r s e n e s s on v e n t r a l  ( P l a t e 17,  strongly  7b,  a p p e a r t o b e l o n g t o two  figs.  Discorbis  2b)  and  B-7066.  (Plate  ( P l a t e 16,  1804  spp.  localities  100b  together.  but  figs.  have  a  179 Family  EPISTOMARIIDAE  Genus EPISTOMAROIDES U c h i o , Epistomaroides  c f . E_. r i m o s a  ( P l a t e 17, H y p o t y p e No. The  they belong  (1941) i n t h e i r  and  B-6892.  ( P a r k e r and  P a r k e r and  T e r t i a r y of Grignoh, Thei^e may  be  same s p e c i e s a n d used f o r the type Le  species  Calvez  Jones,  was  not  but  1865,  (probably  some q u e s t i o n a s  figure.  p i . 19,  Jones;  (see E l l i s  and  1940,  Calvez  does not  "the  Soc.  described  for  two  in this  localities  o r i g i n of the context,  Epistomaria  y i e l d e d the specimen  to note that i n  seperans) described  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , I can  f i n d no  t h a t t h e r e was  t h a t o f P a r k e r and  i s presently the  The  Jones has  liberty  practice.  f u r t h e r mention of the species rimosa  generic assignment i n the l i t e r a t u r e ,  (1941) must have had  more a r t i s t i c  a  Parker  s u b j e c t t o the m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y c l o s e taxonomic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n as  specimens than  type  known s p e c i e s , f r o m G r i g n o n .  i t i s w e l l known t h a t s u c h e a r l y w o r k a s  i n figuring  W.  found i n the  c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e t h a t d e s c r i b e d by  and  Recent  from Recent A u s t r a l i a n c o r a l  to whether these  Messina,  Heminway  from Carpenter,  f i g . 6) as b e i n g  Eocene) and  It is interesting,  been p r a c t i c e d i n more r e c e n t y e a r s  probable  and  o f t h e F o r a m i n i f e r a ; L o n d o n , Ray  Jones,  France  Parker  o f t h i s g e n u s , of w h i c h t h e r e a r e few  and  G a l l o w a y and  H o w e v e r , t h e s p e c i e s was  t h e r e i s no m e n t i o n o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c  f o r m d e s c r i b e d by Le  taken  Jones)."  (see D i s c o r b i n a rimosa  I n t r o d u c t i o n to the study  reefs.  3b)  o f t h e T e r t i a r y F o r a m i n i f e r a o f P u e r t o R i c o as  rimosa  Jones  d e s c r i p t i o n and  1949  F i g u r e s 3a a n d  Jones)  t o t h e g r o u p r e p o r t e d r e f e r r e d t o by  study  s p e c i e s , E.  by P a r k e r 1862,  Loc.  ( P a r k e r and  s p e c i f i c p l a c e m e n t o f t h e f e w members o f t h i s g e n u s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e .  Probably  Arctic  99,  1952  although  G a l l o w a y and  with  Heminway  information at t h e i r d i s p o s a l In order to r e f e r to  "the  any  B.,  180 Recent A r c t i c In and  s p e c i e s E_. r i m o s a . "  g e n e r a l , t h e p r e s e n t specimens compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l  d e s c r i p t i o n o f " D i s c o r b i n a r i m o s a " and they c l e a r l y b e l o n g  Epistomaroides. but  slightly  These seven  individuals are small,  rounded  e l o n g a t e i n o u t l i n e , b e i n g e v o l u t e on t h e d o r s a l s i d e w i t h t h e f i n a l  the v e n t r a l s i d e i s covered w i t h secondary p r o j e c t i o n s o r secondary  chambers.  material to the basic whorls  i n n e r e d g e o f one s e c o n d a r y  shell  The e x a c t r e l a t i o n o f t h i s  shows i t t o b e a n a l a r p r o j e c t i o n .  to discern.  I n some c a s e s  p r e s e n t on t h e d o r s a l s i d e o f t h e t e s t . on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e t e s t a n d a r e c u r v e d . The s u r f a c e o f t h e t e s t  Dr. H e l e n Tappan L o e b l i c h  (1964,  t h a t t h e present specimens belong  shell  I n one c a s e , t h e  a p e r t u r e s between t h e chambers a l o n g t h e s u t u r e s on t h e v e n t r a l are frequently d i f f i c u l t  secondary  I n some c a s e s a p e r t u r e s a t  m a t e r i a l may b e o b s e r v e d .  flap  The c e n t r a l p a r t o f  s t r u c t u r e i n t h e form o f a l a r  i s hard t o determine.  t h e o u t e r edge o f t h e s e c o n d a r y  Jones).  t o t h e genus  compressed specimens,  w h o r l h a v i n g much l a r g e r c h a m b e r s t h a n t h e e a r l i e r w h o r l s .  f i n a l whorl.  figure  The i m p o r t a n t  side of the test  such a p e r t u r e s appear t o be  The p r i m a r y s u t u r e s a r e q u i t e Seven chambers u s u a l l y  i s glossy but plainly  depressed  comprise t h e  perforate.  p e r s o n a l communication) s t r o n g l y  suggested  t o Epistomaroides p o l y s t o m e l l o i d e s ( P a r k e r and  The t y p e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h a t s p e c i e s , however, i n c l u d e s t h e s t a t e m e n t  " t h i s may b e s a i d t o b e a g r a n u l o s e f o r m o f D. r i m o s a , " a n d t h e t y p e f i g u r e granulose (see Parker and Jones,  i s very  1865, p. 421, p i . 19, f i g . 8 as D i s c o r b i n a t u r b o  (d'Orbigny) v a r . p o l y s t o m e l l o i d e s ) .  Family  Both  s p e c i e s have Recent A u s t r a l i a n t y p e s .  SPLRILLINIDAE  Genus P A T E L L I N A W i l l i a m s o n , 1 8 5 8  181 Pat e l U n a  corrugata  ( P l a t e 17, Patellina 46,  corrugata Williamson,  1858,  8 6 - 8 9 ; Cushman, 1 9 3 1 ,  1 1 , p i . 2,  figs.  6, 1948,  1944,  4,  f i g . 14;  pi.  7,  f i g . 1 1 ; N ^ r v a n g , 1945,  2 2 - 2 4 ; Cushman a n d p.  20,  106,  p i . 3,  no.  9,  Smithsonian Lankford  MS,  p.  420,  Misc.  H y p o t y p e No.  Parker,  p i . 6,  and  D i e g o , p. 225,  93,  p.  Loc.  Foraminifers which are this  species.  For  16,  v o l . 121,  17;  no.  177,  p i . 5,  335,  p i . 18,  L o e b l i c h and  7,  pp.  114,  165,  p i . 5,  37,  pp.  p i . 6,  115,  30, 68,  figs. 21, vol.  1953,  p i . 21,  figs.  Thesis,  f i g . 7; F e y l i n g - H a n s s e n ,  p.  and  Spec. P u b l .  Tappan,  p.  67,  Cushman  from the nearshore t u r b u l e n t  4,  5;  zone,  Univ.  1964,  Norges  f i g . 9.  rare at four l o c a l i t i e s  ( P l a t e 17,  p.  p t . 8,  Comp. Z o o l . H a r v a r d , B u l l . ,  see  Cushman, 1927, figs.  14,  15;  from the Juneau area  Cushman ( 1 9 3 1  and  belong  1948).  ROTALIIDAE  Epistominella pacifica  1,  p.  Foram. Res.,  Genus E P I S T O M I l t F L L A H u s e z i m a a n d  vol.  19,  38;  p.  B-7067.  early references  pacifica  104,  S p e c . P u b l . 12,  n o r t h w e s t M e x i c o ; U n p u b . Ph.D.  Family  Pulvinulinella  Bull.  S p e c . P u b l . 23,  Spec. P u b l .  1 9 5 2 a , Mus.  figs.  Mus.  of Great B r i t a i n ,  Z o o l o g y o f I c e l a n d , p.  Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a  States  G e o l U n d e r s . , no.  The  4b)  Foram. Res.,  Foram. Res.,  Foram. Res.,  Coll.,  1962,  San  S. N a t .  T o d d , 1 9 4 7 a , Cushman L a b .  f i g . 13;  western United California,  Cushman L a b .  Cushman L a b .  U.  Cushman L a b .  pi.  4a and  Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a  figs.  G r a y , 1946,  to  Figures  p i * 3,  7;  Williamson  Maruhasi,  1944  (Cushman)  Figures  5a and  Bull.  Scripps  5b) I n s t . Oceanog., Tech.  Cushman, S t e w a r t ,  and  Stewart,  1930,  Ser.,  182 Trans.  San Diego  S o c . N a t . H i s t . , v o l . 6, n o . 2, p . 7 3 , p i . 6, f i g . 5.  Epistominella pacifica Res.,  ( C u s h m a n ) , M a r t i n , 1 9 5 2 , C o n t r i b . Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m .  v o l . 3, p t s . 3 a n d 4, p . 1 3 6 , p i . 2 4 , f i g .  8.  H y p o t y p e No. 9 4 , L o c . B - 6 8 9 2 . A few f o r a m i n i f e r s o f t h i s of C a l i f o r n i a , were i d e n t i f i e d  species, abundantly  found  In the late  Cenozoie  i n t h e p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l , m a i n l y a t B-6892.  s p e c i e s has a l s o been r e p o r t e d by C o c k b a i n  (1963,  p e r s o n a l communication) from bedded sediments  near  Epistominella vitrea  t a b l e 2) and by Todd  This  (1958,  Juneau.  Parker  ( P l a t e 1 7 , F i g u r e s 6 a a n d 6 b , 7a a n d 7b, a n d 8 a a n d 8 b ) E p i s t o m i n e l l a v i t r e a P a r k e r , 1953 i n P a r k e r , F . L , , F . B. P h l e g e r , a n d J . F. Pierson,  Cushman F o u n d . F o r a m . R e s . , S p e c . P u b l . n o . 2, p . 9, p i . 4,  figs.  34-36; 40, 4 1 . ? Eponides  patagonica  (d'Orbigny,  1839),  Feyling-Hanssen,  P o l a r i n s t i t u t t M e d d e l e l s e r , n o . 9 3 , p . 4 8 , p i . 3, f i g s .  1965, Norsk 1, 2.  H y p o t y p e s No. 9 5 a , 9 5 b , 9 5 c , L o c B - 7 0 7 3 . Test free,  calcareous, rotaliform,  biconvex w i t h dorsal side moderately slightly  convex t o f l a t ;  subacute,  f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e , planoconvex  convex and v e n t r a l  three t o four whorls  rounded t o s l i g h t l y  depressed  l o b a t e , when l o b a t e t e n d i n g t o b e s o i n a n a n g u l a r curved o r angled,  slightly  s u t u r e , f l u s h i n e a r l y p a r t , becoming  slightly  o n many s p e c i m e n s i n t h e f i n a l w h o r l ; s u t u r e s on v e n t r a l  r a d i a l b u t t e n d i n g t o be s l i g h t l y depressed;  irregularly  on t h e d o r s a l s i d e ; p e r i p h e r y  manner; s u t u r e s on d o r s a l s i d e o b l i q u e t o s l i g h t l y limbate, especially the s p i r a l  side  to slightly  curved or angled, s l i g h t l y  side nearly  limbate,  slightly  u m b i l i c a l a r e a f l u s h t o s l i g h t l y u m b i l i c a t e ; aperture s l i t - l i k e ,  dorsal margin  or f i n a l  chamber, p a r a l l e l  t o the plane of c o i l i n g  near  of the t e s t ,  w i t h a narrow r i m of t h i c k e n e d s h e l l m a t e r i a l running from s l i g h t l y below t h e  183 p e r i p h e r y of the t e s t to the base of the f i n a l in  the f i n a l The  United  chamber; s i x o r s e v e n chambers  whorl.  holotype,  paratypes,  and  hypotypes deposited  S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Museum h a v e b e e n e x a m i n e d .  w i t h the specimens from the P a c i f i c Northwest. p a r t i c u l a r l y d e f i n i t i v e and species, very  similar  t h i s author  m a t e r i a l t o _E. e x i g u a b u t p o i n t e d out by  P a r k e r , who  erected the  specimens proved t h i s d i a g n o s i s warm w a t e r o f t h e G u l f C o a s t . naraensis  (Kuwano) b u t  more c u r v e d  s u t u r e s , and  had  Parker  published  (Brady).  had  latter  correct.  is slightly  The  t h a t she had  subsequently  T h e y show c l e a r l y  by  fcir_qu_wfcly  f i n a l whorl.  umbilical region closed. atlantisae  t h e s y n o n y m y w i t h E. species.  Examination  of  described from  f i n a l whorl.  E_. v i t r e a  type shallow  resembles:]E.  (Brady) but  The  to t h i s  species  the  present  species d i f f e r s  and  b;ro.b-bl.y  i n having  E. b r a d y a n a a l s o i s d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g i s also very  from  fewer the  similar to Epistominella  at least  one  but  i s not  more chamber i n t h e  f u r t h e r c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s E p i s t o m i n e l l a h a r d y ana  (LeRoy) f r o m t h e M i o c e n e of Sumatra, and  is  t h e c o n s i s t e n t l y g r e a t e r number of  less biconvex  c o n s i s t e n t l y has  has  aperture."  Specimens b e l o n g i n g  E. v i t r e a  i s l a r g e r , and  personal  vitrea  (Cushman), d e s c r i b e d f r o m an Eocene c o r e i n t h e A t l a n t i c ,  as b i c o n v e x ,  new  the l a c k of a pronounced l o b a t e p e r i p h e r y ,  (Cushman) i s b e i n g  chambers i n t h e f i n a l w h o r l .  not  l a r g e r , m o r e c o n c a v e on t h e v e n t r a l s i d e ,  have been a s c r i b e d to.E. exigua.  E p i s t o m i n e l l a bradyana  (1965,  s t a t e d t h a t I t "most c l o s e l y  g r e a t e r o b l i q u i t y o f t h e d o r s a l s u t u r e s , ..and chambers i n t h e  synonymy  originally ascribed conspecific  E. v i t r e a was  a much m o r e e l o n g a t e  from i t mainly  the  the  f o r m as a  R u t h Todd  T h i s s p e c i e s does a l s o c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e E p i s t o m i n e l l a e x i g u a distinguished  of  f i g u r e s are  o r i g i n a l l y described the  to E p i s t o m i n e l l a exigua  communication) Informed the author  i n the c o l l e c t i o n s  E p i s t o m i n e l l a amakusaensis Asano  and  184 Murata from t h e Eocene of Japan, d i f f e r i n g  mainly  i n the umbilical characters.  E p i s t o m i n e l l a p u l c h e l l a Husezima and M a r u h a s i , from t h e P l i o c e n e very  s i m i l a r b u t has a narrow k e e l .  the P l i o c e n e ar