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Palynology of Tertiary rocks of the Whatcom Basin, Southwestern British Columbia and Northwestern Washington. Hopkins, William Stephen 1966

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PALYNOLOGY OF TERTIARY ROCKS OF THE WHATCOM BASIN, SOUTHWESTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA AND NORTHWESTERN WASHINGTON by W i l l i a m Stephen Hopkins, J r . B. Sc., U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 195^ M. Sc., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962 A t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of doctor of philosophy i n the Department of Geology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the. r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA' J u l y , 1966 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia,' I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission., for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my wri t t e n permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada The University of B r i t i s h Columbia FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES PROGRAMME OF THE FINAL ORAL EXAMINATION FOR THE . DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY of WILLIAM STEPHEN HOPKINS, JR. B. Sc ., ., Univers i t y . of Washington, 1954 M.Sc, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962 MONDAY, AUGUST 1, 1966, AT 3:30 P„M„. . IN ROOM. 101, FORESTRY AND GEOLOGY COMMITTEE,IN CHARGE Chairman: I. McT. Cowan V. H. J. Best Mathews Okulitch G. E. Rouse : W. Bo Schofield A. J. S i n c l a i r Research Supervisor: G. E.. Rouse External Examiner: L. R. Wilson Dept. of Geology University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma PALYNOLOGY OF TERTIARY ROCKS OF THE WHATCOM. BASIN SOUTHWESTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA AND NORTHWESTERN WASHINGTON ABSTRACT Lower and Middle Tertiary continental sedimentary- rocks comprise the f i l l i n a large structural basin adjacent to the Georgia Depression i n southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia and northwestern Washington, Upper Cretaceous continental sedimentary rocks apparently underlie the entire basin. Outcrops of Tertiary rocks are r e s t r i c t e d to the north, south and east margins where they are dipping into the basin and overlying older rocks rimming the basin. Relationships to the west are obscured by the St r a i t of Georgia, but apparently the Whatcom basin i s part of, and contiguous with, the Georgia depression. Over most of the area, surface cover i s Pleistocene and Recent sediments. Investigations of plant microfossils from two deep basin wells indicate three d i s t i n c t floras i n pre- Pleistocene rocks. Basal portions contain a r e l a t i v e l y small Upper Cretaceous" f l o r a l assemblage. . Above this are Middle and probably Upper Eocene assemblages. Upper parts of the section contain a predominantly dicotyledonous Miocene assemblage. Palynological. study of the outcrops indicates-a Middle to Upper Eocene age for a l l except the Brothers Creek outcrop on the north side of Burrard Inlet,, which appears to be Upper. Cretaceous. Miocene rocks are found only i n the w e l l s s and apparently do not crop out. Eocene assemblages contain P l s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s and Platycarya together with significant numbers of Cactrl- cosisporites and Anemia spores, and suggest a warm temperate to subtropical climate. Miocene assemblages are generally characterized by Glyptostrobus, Pterocarya, Ulmus-Zelkoya and Fagus and several other dicotyledonous pollen. Miocene assemblages indicate a more temperate aspect than those of the Eocene. '* GRADUATE' STUDIES Field of Study: Paleobotany Advanced paleobotany G. E. Rouse G. E. Rouse Advanced invertebrate paleontology V. J. Okulitch Related Studies: Advanced structural geology W. H.- White Geology of North America Advanced sedlmentology W. H. Mathews W. R. Danner Problems in sedlmentology Permafrost and seasonally W. H. Mathews T. L. Pewe frozen ground Volcanology Petroleum geology of Northern Alaska R. Forbes F. Weber WILLIAM STEPHEN HOPKINS, J r . PALYNOLOGY OF TERTIARY ROCKS OP THE WHATCOM BASIN, SOUTHWESTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA AND NORTHWESTERN WASHINGTON. Supervisor: G. E. Rouse .£ ABSTRACT Lower and Middle T e r t i a r y c o n t i n e n t a l sedimentary rocks comprise the f i l l i n a la r g e s t r u c t u r a l "basin adjacent to the Georgia Depression i n southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia and north western Washington. Upper Cretaceous c o n t i n e n t a l sedimentary rocks apparently u n d e r l i e the e n t i r e b a s i n . Outcrops of T e r t i a r y rocks are r e s t r i c t e d to the nor t h , south and east margins where they are dipping i n t o the b a s i n and o v e r l y i n g older rocks rimming the b a s i n . R e l a t i o n s h i p s to the west are obscured by the S t r a i t of Georgia, but apparently the Whatcom b a s i n i s part of, and contiguous w i t h , the Georgia Depression. Over most of the area, surface cover i s P l e i s t o  cene and Recent sediments. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s of plan t m i c r o f o s s i l s from two deep b a s i n w e l l s i n d i c a t e three d i s t i n c t f l o r a s i n p r e - P l e i s t o c e n e r o c k s . B a s a l p o r t i o n s c o n t a i n a r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll Upper Cretaceous f l o r a l assemblage. Above t h i s are Middle and probably Upper Eocene assemblages. Upper parts of the s e c t i o n c o n t a i n a predominantly dicotyledonous Miocene assemblage. P a l y n o l o g i c a l study of the outcrops i n d i c a t e s a Middle to Upper Eocene age f o r a l l except the Brothers Creek outcrop on the nor t h side of Burr a r d I n l e t , which appears to be Upper Cretaceous, Miocene rocks are found only i n the w e l l s , and. apparently do not crop out. i ( a ) Eocene assemblages c o n t a i n PisUllipQllenites and Platy carya together w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t numbers of C i e a t r l e o s i s p o r l t e s and Anemia spores, and suggest a warm temperate to s u b t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e . Miocene assemblages are g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Glvptostrobus, P t a r o a a r y a , Ulnrns-ZfTlkova, Fagus and s e v e r a l other dicotyledonous p o l l e n . Miocene assemblages i n d i c a t e a more temperate aspect than those of the Eocene. TABLE OF CONTENTS Abs t r a c t i Table of Contents i i L i s t of Figures and Tables i v L i s t of P l a t e s v Acknowledgements v i INTRODUCTION . 1 General Statement 1 Purpose and Scope of the I n v e s t i g a t i o n 2 Geography h L o c a t i o n Topography 5 Access and Culture 8 Vegetation 8 Climate . 9 Previous Work 10 GENERAL GEOLOGY 12 GEOLOGY OF THE LOWER TERTIARY ROCKS 16 General Remarks 16 Chuckanut Formation 19 Burrard Formation 21 K i t s i l a n o Formation 2h Huntington Formation 28 Other T e r t i a r y C o n t i n e n t a l Rocks 3*+ AGE AND CORRELATIONS 38 Wells 38 i i i L o c a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n 38 D i s c u s s i o n of Well Data *+2 P o i n t Roberts Well k5 Sunnyside W e l l *+9 D i s c u s s i o n of W e l l R e s u l t s 51 Outcrops 52 K i t s i l a n o Formation 52 Remaining Outcrop C o r r e l a t i o n 56 PALEOECOLOGICAL INTERPRETATIONS 60 General 60 Upper Cretaceous 63 Eocene 68 Miocene 70 GEOLOGIC HISTORY 72 PALYNOLOGY 78 C o l l e c t i n g and Laboratory Procedures 78 Photomicography 82 Taxonomy 82 Systematic Taxonomy 85 BIBLIOGRAPHY 17^ i v FIGURES AND TABLES FIGURES A » Regional Index Map > • 6 B. Gross-Section of Highbury Tunnel 2 9 C. S t r a t i g r a p h i c Column, Highbury Tunnel 3 0 D. Generalized Geologic Map i n pocket TABLES A. S t r a t i g r a p h i c C o r r e l a t i o n Chart . 1 8 B.' M i c r o f o s s i l Frequency, Poi n t Roberts Well i n pocket c M i c r o f o s s i l Frequency, Sunnyside W e l l i n pocket D. M i c r o f o s s i l Frequency, Outcrop Samples i n pocket E. Range and E c o l o g i c a l Requirements of Modern Pla n t Genera 6h-67 V PLATES ( M i c r o f o s s i l I l l u s t r a t i o n s ) PLATES Facing Page 1 160 • 2 161 ' ' 3 162 h 163 • 5 • 16^ - . 165 7 166 8 167 9 168 • 10 169 11 170 12 171 13 172 173 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am indebted to a number of i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s who c o n t r i b u t e d during the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . I am most g r a t e f u l to Dr. Glenn E. Rouse under whose s u p e r v i s i o n t h i s work was conducted. Dr. Rouse o f f e r e d c o n t i n u a l encour agement and i n t e r e s t i n t h i s p r o j e c t and was a never f a i l i n g source of s t i m u l a t i o n . A p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o expressed to Drs. W.'H. Mathews, W. R. Danner, and R. V. Best of the Geology Department, and Dr. W. B. S c h o f i e l d of the Botany Department, a l l of whom read t h i s manuscript and made many h e l p f u l suggestions. Dr. J . Murray, i n conversation, k i n d l y made a v a i l a b l e r e s u l t s of seismic s t u d i e s i n the Georgia Depression. I wish a l s o to thank the R i c h f i e l d O i l Company whose courtesy i n making a v a i l a b l e samples from t h e i r two deep What com b a s i n w e l l s made the major p o r t i o n of t h i s p r o j e c t p o s s i b l e . The Washington D i v i s i o n of Mines and Geology, Olympia, k i n d l y allowed me to examine and sample a number of w e l l - c u t t i n g s which they had on f i l e . Mr. Wayne Moen of the above agency was most h e l p f u l i n the matter of samples and .,ih\dis- c u s s i o n of northwestern Washington geology. I am a l s o indebted to my w i f e Therese, not only f o r t y p i n g t h i s manuscript, but a l s o f o r her moral support, patience and understanding during the p e r i o d of i t s p r e p a r a t i o n . v i i And f i n a l l y , I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge f i n a n c i a l support from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n the form of. Grad uate Fellowships during 1 9 6 H-196 5 and 1965-1966. Portions of the p r o j e c t were supported by N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l grants- i n - a i d to Dr. Rouse from 196^-1966. INTRODUCTION General Statement In recent years the study of f o s s i l p l a n t spores and p o l l e n has become a r a p i d l y growing f i e l d of endeavor. From Mid-Paleozoic to the present time, t e r r e s t r i a l p l a n t s have been abundant and d i v e r s i f i e d , covering most of the land areas of the world. Plants produce enormous q u a n t i t i e s of spores and p o l l e n and w i t h the coming of each f l o w e r i n g season these are w i d e l y dispersed by wind, water, i n s e c t s , b i r d s and occa s i o n a l l y mammals. Coupled w i t h the tremendous production of spores and p o l l e n . i s the f a c t that most spores arid p o l l e n are i n c r e d i b l y r e s i s t a n t to d e s t r u c t i o n . A hard cutinous coating aids i n t h e i r p r e s e r v a t i o n under a v a r i e t y of d e p o s i t i o n a l environments, and permits them to survive the r a t h e r r i g o r o u s treatment they undergo during maceration. Furthermore, they show a wide d i v e r s i t y i n morphology i n c l u d i n g s i z e , shape, and ornamentation which makes many of them r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e . These three f a c t o r s then, abundance, r e s i s t a n c e to d e s t r u c t i o n , and morphologic d i v e r s i t y , make spores and p o l l e n very v a l u a b l e f o r study and r e - i n t e r p r e t i n g the past record of p l a n t l i f e . Most c o n t i n e n t a l , and many marine sediments, c o n t a i n f o s s i l p o l l e n and spores, a p a r t i a l record of the f l o r a extant at the time of d e p o s i t i o n . From spores, p o l l e n and other p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s v a rious data can be d e r i v e d , such as i n f o r m a t i o n -2- on the environment of d e p o s i t i o n , suggestions as to p l a n t e v o l  u t i o n , and g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s and age of the e n c l o s i n g rock. And f i n a l l y , c o r r e l a t i o n s of time e q u i v a l e n t sedimentary rocks are p o s s i b l e , depending on the number of m i c r o f o s s i l s present, and t h e i r degree of p r e s e r v a t i o n . An aspect of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to me i s paleoecology. I n f o r m a t i o n of t h i s s o r t i s l a r g e l y a v a i l a b l e o n l y from C r e t a  ceous and T e r t i a r y r o c k s , because o n l y here can we r e l a t e nany of the m i c r o f o s s i l s to extant genera. By analogy w i t h r e q u i r e  ments of modern day genera, c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn as to what the probable f l o r a was and what i t s environmental and other e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s might have been.• Complications o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r i s e , however, because o f l o c a l c l i m a t i c and edaphic f a c t o r s , p l a n t e v o l u t i o n , p l a n t s u c c e s s i o n , and d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s e r v a t i o n . With c a r e , however, much u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n can be deduced. Purpose and Scope of the I n v e s t i g a t i o n This r e p o r t presents the r e s u l t s of a T e r t i a r y palyno l o g i c a l study i n the Whatcom sedimentary b a s i n i n northwestern Washington and southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia. The p r o j e c t i n v o l v e s an e x t e n s i v e s e c t i o n of T e r t i a r y and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks i n the Vancouver, B r i t i s h - Columbia-Bellingham, Washington area. At t h i s p o i n t I should make i t c l e a r t h a t I have not made -3- a p a l y n o l o g i c a l study of the Paleocene Chuckanut Formation i which crops out to the south and forms the southern "boundary of the Whatcom b a s i n . The geology of the Ghuckanut Formation i s b r i e f l y discussed i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n so^ that comparisons can be drawn w i t h the Middle Eocene and younger rocks that f i l l the Whatcom b a s i n , as w e l l as w i t h the Upper Cretaceous rocks that u n d e r l i e the b a s i n . The T e r t i a r y s e c t i o n i n the Whatcom b a s i n , as w e l l as the underlying Cretaceous, i s an a l t e r n a t i n g sequence of conglomerates, sandstones, shales and coals that i s almost t o t a l l y l a c k i n g i n ve r t e b r a t e or i n v e r t e b r a t e remains. S e v e r a l p o s s i b l e v e r t e b r a t e remains were found i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation but they w i l l be discussed i n a f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s formation. Plant m a c r o f o s s i l s have been found l o c a l l y , but w i t h the exception of those found i n the Burr a r d , K i t s i l a n o and Chuckanut Formations, l i t t l e of a systematic nature has been done w i t h them. However, spores and p o l l e n and other p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s are present, and o c c a s i o n a l l y i n lar g e numbers. A study of t h i s m i c r o f l o r a would add s i g n i f i c a n t l y to our knowledge of T e r t i a r y h i s t o r y and environments of t h i s r e g i o n , and provide a b a s i s f o r c o r r e l a t i n g and a l s o p o s s i b l y dating the i s o l a t e d m i c r o f o s s i l - bearing outcrops. This t h e s i s presents as i t s focus a type s e c t i o n of pl a n t m i c r o f o s s i l assemblages based on the a n a l y s i s of two deep w e l l s . In a d d i t i o n , other T e r t i a r y rocks of the area have been c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the type s e c t i o n on the basis of t h e i r contained m i c r o f l o r a . Although a r e l a t i v e chronology has been e s t a b l i s h e d , i t has not been p o s s i b l e to give absolute dates f o r the u n i t s of the s e c t i o n . The main reason i s the dearth of p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l i n f o r m a t i o n from the P a c i f i c c o a s t a l areas of.North America; but a l s o l a c k of i n v e r t e b r a t e f o s s i l c o n t r o l and the absence of r a d i o m e t r i c a l l y datable ash beds or v o l c a n i c rocks has made i t impossible to e s t a b l i s h absolute ages. Nevertheless, a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n i s made here w i t h the establishment of a f l o r a l succession to which other T e r t i a r y rocks throughout the P a c i f i c Northwest may be c o r r e l a t e d i n the f u t u r e . As research continues, more absolute dates of some of the u n i t s considered here should become a v a i l a b l e . A t h i r d o b j e c t i v e of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was an attempt to i n t e r p r e t and discuss the environment as i n d i  cated by these p l a n t s . To place the e n t i r e p r o j e c t i n i t s g e o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g , a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the r e g i o n a l geology, and a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the T e r t i a r y sedimentary formations precedes the p a l y n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . Geography L o c a t i o n The area under d i s c u s s i o n i s r o u g h l y - t r i a n g u l a r i n shape, l y i n g i n northwestern Washington State and southwestern B r i t i s h - 5 - Columbia (see Index Map, F i g u r e A; Geologic Map, Figure D). The northern boundary of the area i s the southern end of the B r i t i s h Columbia Coast Mountains, the east margin i s the Cascade Mountain f o o t h i l l s , the south margin i s near Bellingham j u s t n o r t h of the Chuckanut H i l l s , and to the west the study area i s terminated by the waters of Georgia S t r a i t . The sedimentary b a s i n which i n c l u d e s the sedimentary sequence under study i s i n d i c a t e d on Figure D by the dashed l i n e . The e n t i r e land area encompassed i n t h i s study i s approximately 1,200 square m i l e s , but the area of T e r t i a r y outcrop forms a minute f r a c t i o n of t h i s . Topography E l e v a t i o n s w i t h i n the area range from-sea l e v e l to 3,000 f e e t . At l e a s t 9 0 percent of the r e g i o n l i e s below 3 0 0 f e e t and the surface i s l a r g e l y of Recent deposits o-f the Fraser and Nooksack R i v e r s or of P l e i s t o c e n e t i l l and outwash. North of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary t h i s lowland i s termed the Fraser Lowland (Armstrong, I960) and-, i s l a r g e l y an area of extensive low h i l l s separated by broad flat-bottomed v a l l e y s . South of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary the land surface i s mostly f l a t - t e r r a c e d g l a c i a l outwash o v e r l y i n g the r i v e r a l l u v i u m which has been c a l l e d the Bellingham-Sumas Coa s t a l P l a i n ( M i l l e r and Misch, 1 9 6 3 ) . In subsequent s e c t i o n s the e n t i r e area i s termed the Fraser Lowland; topography, l i k e geology, does not n e c e s s a r i l y change at I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundaries. R e l i e f on the lowland i s s l i g h t , ranging from 0 to 500 f e e t , although topographic changes can he abrupt against b l u f f s of P l e i s t o c e n e outwash. O c c a s i o n a l l y near the north, south, and east margins of the b a s i n (see Geologic Map, Figure D) knobs of older rock penetrate the a l l u v i u m and/or P l e i s t o c e n e out- wash. R i s i n g a b r u p t l y at the margin of the:basin> are f o o t h i l l s , which to the n o r t h and east are composed of p r e - T e r t i a r y rocks. To the south the Whatcom b a s i n i s bordered by h i l l s carved i n the Paleocene Chuckanut Formation. The dashed l i n e on F i g  ure D approximately conforms to the basin-margin and l i e s roughly along the l i n e where the r e l i e f changes* a b r u p t l y . Drainage i n the area i s dominated by the ,-slxth l a r g e s t r i v e r i n North America, the F r a s e r , which has an average discharge of 12*+,000 cubic f e e t per second, drains 92,000 square miles of i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia, and which on the Fraser Lowland flows across the northernmost part of the area. Of l e s s e r importance i s the much smaller Nooksack Ri v e r which enters the S t r a i t of Georgia near the c i t y of Bellingham, Washington, and heads on the slopes of Mount Baker, a P l e i s  tocene volcano l o c a t e d east of the b a s i n . A number of smaller streams serve as t r i b u t a r i e s to these master r i v e r s , or enter the S t r a i t of Georgia on t h e i r own. v On the whole, the area i s w e l l - d r a i n e d except near r i v e r mouths where bogs and swamps occur. Much of the land i n these l o w - l y i n g areas has been recovered f o r human use by d i k i n g both the r i v e r s and - 8 - parts of Georgia S t r a i t . Access and C u l t u r e A l l p o r t i o n s of the area are r e a d i l y and e a s i l y acces s i b l e , and three large m e t r o p o l i t a n areas e x i s t w i t h i n the b a s i n margins. Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia and adjacent New. Westminster l i e at the northwest corner, and Bellingham, Washington l i e s at the southwest t i p . Numerous, towns, v i l l a g e s , and farms throughout the lowland are served w i t h a complete network of highways and r a i l r o a d s . Four r a i l r o a d s , the Great Northern, the Milwaukee Road, the Canadian P a c i f i c , and Cana d i a n N a t i o n a l , a l l serve various parts of the area. A net work of good paved roads encompasses a l l p o r t i o n s of the area, both i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington, although a few of the more extreme.marginal highlands can be reached o n l y by logging or farm roads. The lowland i s i n t e n s i v e l y farmed, the bulk being u t i l i z e d i n d a i r y i n g , t r u c k farming, or the cu l t i v a t i o n of various g r a i n products. Areas marginal to the b a s i n continue to pro duce timber, i n m o s t places on a sustained y i e l d b a s i s . V e g e t a t i o n Except f o r l o c a l wood l o t s , a l l the native- v e g e t a t i o n has been removed from the lowlands and replaced by a g r i c u l t u r a l crops. P r i o r to c l e a r i n g by man, the lowland was covered by - 9 - the western hemlock (Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a ) - red cedar CHiiiia' p l i c a t a ) climax v e g e t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the r e g i o n . The surrounding h i l l s support a f o r e s t c o n s i s t i n g of douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii), red cedar (Thuja p l i c a t a ) , western hemlock (T_sjiga heterophylla), broad l e a f maple (Aoar. macro- phyllum)-, and red a l d e r (Almis jrjibxa.). At higher e l e v a t i o n s , and f a r t h e r back from the b a s i n , the f o r e s t becomes charac t e r i s t i c a l l y mountain hemlock Qlsuga mertensiana). yellow cedar (or cypress) (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) and a l p i n e f i r (Abies l a s i o c a r p a ) . Ferns and s a l a l are e s p e c i a l l y common i n the ground cover. Further d i s c u s s i o n of modern f l o r a f o l l o w s i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n on p a l e o e c o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Climate ; The c l i m a t e w i t h i n the area i s c l a s s i f i e d as humid- temperate w i t h c o o l , dry summers and moderate, wet w i n t e r s (Trewartha, 1951*-). More r e c e n t l y Krajina - ( 1 9 5 9 , 1965) has assigned the Whatcom b a s i n area to h i s C o a s t a l Douglas F i r B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone which he considers to have a mediterranean subhumid to humid cl i m a t e w i t h : a t o t a l annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n of 26 to 60 inches. Summers are mostly warm, w i t h J u l y and August being e s s e n t i a l l y r a i n l e s s . The winters, tend to be m i l d , cloudy and wet. * At Bellingham the average p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s 32.6 inches, i n c l u d i n g an average s n o w f a l l of 10.7 inches. Most of the -10- p r e c i p i t a t i o n f a l l s between October and March. The average J u l y temperature i s 60.6° and the average January tempera ture i s 36.3°• Days above 90° or below 32° are uncommon (Smith, 1955)• Conditions at Vancouver are s i m i l a r , although average annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s s l i g h t l y higher w i t h 4-0.5 inches, which i n c l u d e s l5«3 inches of snow ( M e t e r o l o g i c a l D i v i s i o n , 1961). C l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s across the lowlands vary only s l i g h t l y from c o n d i t i o n s at Bellingham and Vancouver. As one reaches the surrounding highlands, however, the average annual p r e c i  p i t a t i o n increases r a p i d l y because of condensation i n the r i s i n g moisture-laden east-moving a i r masses. Snowfall Increases w i t h i n c r e a s i n g e l e v a t i o n , although nowhere i n the map-area i s there permanent snow. Previous Work L o c a l areas w i t h i n the r e g i o n encompassed by t h i s r e p o r t have been examined g e o l o g i c a l l y many times i n the past, but to my knowledge no comprehensive d i s c u s s i o n of the geology has ever been pub l i s h e d . In the s e c t i o n on geology which f o l l o w s , I w i l l attempt to synthesize the work of a number of g e o l o g i s t s and give a b r i e f but general a r e a l p i c t u r e of the Whatcom b a s i n , and I n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e , the rock u n i t s of p e r t i n e n t i n t e r e s t . -11- Daly (1912) mapped through the center of the area along the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary. Although he d i d l i t t l e south of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary, he d i d examine b r i e f l y Canadian Sumas Mountain and the T e r t i a r y rocks cropping out i n the v i c i n i t y of Vancouver. Johnston (1923) made a ra t h e r comprehensive study of the F raser R i v e r D e l t a and v i c i n i t y but confined h i s e f f o r t s to the Canadian p o r t i o n of the Whatcom b a s i n . Crickmay (1930) discussed the s t r u c t u r a l connection between the Coast Range of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Cascade Mountains of Washington. L a t e r , Crickmay and Pocock (1963) expounded t h e i r views regarding the "Cretaceous" rocks of Vancouver. South of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary l i t t l e study has been undertaken on the T e r t i a r y rocks of the Whatcom b a s i n . Outcrops are r e l a t i v e l y few and the assumption has been t a c i t l y made that these are eq u i v a l e n t to the T e r t i a r y Huntington Formation of B r i t i s h Columbia. In t h i s connection Moen (1962) presents a v a l u a b l e d i s p u s s i o n of the s t r u c t u r e and l i t h o l o g y of the c o n t i n e n t a l T e r t i a r y rocks composing, the-west side of American Sumas Mountain. M i l l e r and Misch (1963) demonstrated that these, and the T e r t i a r y rocks cropping out near Bellingham, are a d i s t i n c t l y younger sequence than the Chuckanut Formation. . L i t t l e work has been published on the T e r t i a r y f l o r a s of the Whatcom b a s i n . Heer (1859) examined and i d e n t i f i e d some -12- T e r t l a r y f o s s i l p l a n t s from Vancouver and Bellingham; Lesquereux (1859) r e p o r t e d on f o s s i l p l a n t s from the Bellingham Bay area. Newberry (I863) d i d f u r t h e r work w i t h p l a n t m a c r o f o s s i l s from the Orcas Island-Belllngham Bay area. J . -W. Dawson (1895) reported on a c o l l e c t i o n of p l a n t s from the Vancouver area. Berry (1923, quoted.in Johnston) examined a c o l l e c t i o n from the south s i d e of Burrard I n l e t i n Vancouver. Somewhat l a t e r B erry (1926) published a paper on the T e r t i a r y f l o r a s of B r i t i s h Columbia i n which he r e f e r r e d again to the K i t s i l a n o and Burrard f l o r a s . Pabst (1962) presented a Ph.D. t h e s i s on the E q u i s e t a l e s , F i l i c a l e s , and the Coniferales^ from the Chuckanut Formation south of Bellingham. - . < Studies of the palynology are recent-and incomplete. Rouse (1962) published the r e s u l t s of h i s - i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the Burrard Formation cropping out at Vancouver. More r e c e n t l y , Griggs (1965) reported on a p a l y n o l o g i c a l - s t u d y - o f the Chuck anut Formation w i t h samples taken from the c l a s s i c a l type sec t i o n along Chuckanut D r i v e , south of Bellingham. To my know ledge, these are the only p a l y n o l o g i c a l studies* that have been published f o r the T e r t i a r y c o n t i n e n t a l rocks of the Whatcom b a s i n i n northwestern Washington. GENERAL GEOLOGY. The name Whatcom b a s i n was f i r s t a p p l i e d by Newcomb, e_£ .al (19If9) and the name was again used by Moen (1962). Although - 1 3 - M i l l e r and Misch ( 1 9 6 3 ) r e f e r to i t as the "Bellingham Basin" the name "Whatcom" appears to have c h r o n o l o g i c a l p r i o r i t y i n the l i t e r a t u r e , and I w i l l use i t throughout t h i s t h e s i s . The term i s here a p p l i e d to a s t r u c t u r a l b a s i n which apparently began to form during the Middle Eocene and i n t e r  m i t t e n t l y subsided during the E a r l y and Middle T e r t i a r y . The Whatcom b a s i n i s u n d e r l a i n by Upper Cretaceous rocks but these are not considered part of the b a s i n f i l l but probably rep resent a part of a once much l a r g e r b a s i n of subsidence. The Chuckanut Formation, which bounds the b a s i n to the south, and i s p o s s i b l y i n f a u l t contact w i t h the younger b a s i n rocks, i s not part of the Whatcom b a s i n . The Whatcom b a s i n l i e s i n what has been termed the "wes t e r n part of the 'Paleozoic-Mesozoic C o r d i l l e r a n v o l c a n i c orogenic b e l t ' or P a c i f i c eugeosyncline" (Danner,.I960). In t h i s r e g i o n and extending n o r t h and south, a l i n e a r s t r u c t u r a l depression runs n o r t h from the Willamette V a l l e y of Oregon, through western Washington and Puget Sound, and through the Georgia Depression (Bostock, 19*+8; Holland, 196k) that separ ates Vancouver I s l a n d from the mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. South of Oregon t h i s s t r u c t u r a l trough continues as the Great V a l l e y of C a l i f o r n i a , and f i n a l l y i n t o the Gulf of C a l i f o r n i a . ( B r e t z , . 1 9 1 3 ) • ' Much of t h i s l i n e a r trough i s c u r r e n t l y below sea l e v e l ; the remaining p o r t i o n s are low and-only s l i g h t l y above sea l e v e l . The nature of t h i s depression i s not known, but i t i s both a topographic and s t r u c t u r a l low. The Whatcom b a s i n l i e s on the east side of the l i n e a r trough and i s apparently p a r t of i t . The b a s i n i s closed to the n o r t h , south and east, but appears open to and contiguous w i t h the Georgia Depression to the west. Un f o r t u n a t e l y , however, l i t t l e can be d e f i n i t e l y s a i d about t h i s because of l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n . The waters of Georgia S t r a i t obscure r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the west, and v i r t u a l l y a l l of the lowland p o r t i o n s of the b a s i n are covered w i t h s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l of Pl e i s t o c e n e and Recent age. To my knowledge, a dozen or so w e l l s have penetrated the T e r t i a r y sedimentary rocks i n t o the und e r l y i n g Cretaceous. Paleocene rocks, e q u i v a l e n t to the Chuckanut Formation, were not encountered w i t h i n . t h e w e l l s , which presents a problem of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . This problem i s discussed more f u l l y i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . To date, the w e l l data have y i e l d e d no Information concerning the unde r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e and b a s i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the Georgia Depression. T e r t i a r y rocks of the Whatcom b a s i n , and the un d e r l y i n g Cretaceous r o c k s , lap up t o the no r t h on the g r a n i t i c rocks of the Coast Mountains. This i s a complex u n i t of m u l t i p l e i n t r u s i o n s and metamorphic rocks formed over a long span of time, apparently beginning i n the J u r a s s i c and contin u i n g i n t o the T e r t i a r y (White, i 9 6 0 ) . A recent d e t a i l e d study of the igneous and metamorphic rocks to the north of the Whatcom b a s i n has been presented by Roddick (1965)• At s e v e r a l places small r e l i c s of younger, p o s t - g r a n i t i c sedimentary rocks are pre served on. the south slopes of the Coast Range, a l l dipping -15- southward. To the east, on Canadian and American Sumas Mountains, the T e r t i a r y rocks lap upon the complex of p r e - T e r t i a r y met- amorphic rocks and u l t r a b a s i c i n t r u s i o n s , and a l s o upon the Paleocene Chuckanut Formation. These older rocks and t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s are described by Criekmay (1930), Misch (1952), Moen (1962) and M i l l e r and Misch (1963)-. On the south the r e l a t i o n s h i p s are obscured. Post- Chuckanut, T e r t i a r y c o n t i n e n t a l sedimentary rocks appear north and east of Bellingham, g e n e r a l l y dipping n o r t h i n t o the b a s i n . South of Bellingham and to the east are the s o - c a l l e d Chuck anut H i l l s , a highland formed i n the Chuckanut Formation. Although no contact i s v i s i b l e at the south end of the b a s i n between the younger and older r o c k s , the contact i s probably a f a u l t r e l a t i o n of some type. A more d e t a i l e d - d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s w i l l f o l l o w i n a d i s c u s s i o n of geologic h i s t o r y . In summary, the Whatcom b a s i n appears to be a s t r u c t u r a l and topographic low, connected to the Georgia- Depression and rimmed by h i l l s and mountains composed of older and d i v e r s e rock types. A c t i v e subsidence and concomitant d e p o s i t i o n probably took place through most of the E a r l y and Middle Ter t i a r y p e r i o d . - 1 6 - GEOLOGY OF THE LOWER TERTIARY ROCKS General Remarks Study of post-Chuckanut, T e r t i a r y sedimentary outcrops i s l i m i t e d to only a narrow s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n f o r s e v e r a l reasons. The r o c k s , w i t h minor and l i m i t e d exceptions, a l l dip i n t o the b a s i n (see Figure D, i n pocket). Outcrops are r e s t r i c t e d to the extreme margins of the b a s i n , and except to the. n o r t h the dips are steep and width of outcrop narrow. Ter t i a r y rock exposures w i t h i n the b a s i n andaway from the margin are absent; P l e i s t o c e n e and Recent deposits cover them a l l . Although the thickness of the Quaternary and P l e i s t o c e n e deposits i s not everywhere known, w e l l s i n various places have penetrated the s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l . At P i t t Meadows i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the P l e i s t o c e n e and Recent i s 1,000 f e e t t h i c k . At Steveston, 700 f e e t of Recent sediment o v e r l i e s 160 f e e t of P l e i s t o c e n e sediment (Johnston, 1923). A deep w e l l near Point Roberts penetrated 800 f e e t of P l e i s t o c e n e and Recent d e p o s i t s ; whereas a w e l l n o r t h of B l a i n e encountered 1,200 f e e t of Quat ernary deposits ( R i c h f i e l d O i l Company). ,The maximum t h i c k  ness of the methane-bearing P l e i s t o c e n e deposits i n the Whatcom County gas f i e l d i s 6 l 5 f e e t ( L i v i n g s t o n , 19-58). In a d d i t i o n to the narrow w i d t h of outcrop, exposures are f u r t h e r concealed by a dense • cover of v e g e t a t i o n . The h i g h p r e c i p i t a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y on the h i l l s rimming the b a s i n , com bined w i t h m i l d temperatures, supports v e g e t a t i o n that i s - 1 7 - u s u a l l y dense, and which covers a l l rock except< that on very steep slopes, i n deep stream cuts or along a r t i f i c i a l l y exca vated road c u t s . The cli m a t e appears to hasten-rock decay so that only those cuts made i n the past few years provide expo sures of f r e s h rock. When sampling f o r p a l y n o l o g i c a l purposes i t i s u s u a l l y necessary to chip back i n t o the outcrop a consid erable distance to acquire r e l a t i v e l y unweathered rock. F i n a l l y , outcrop i s r e s t r i c t e d by the almost ubiquitous coating of P l e i s t o c e n e t i l l that i s p l a s t e r e d on most surfaces. Even i n the marginal uplands, t i l l i s abundant , 1 covering l a r g e areas where T e r t i a r y rocks should otherwise be abundantly exposed. Hence, outcrop study i s l i m i t e d : b y four f a c t o r s : narrow w i d t h of outcrop, dense v e g e t a t i o n , P l e i s t o c e n e t i l l cover, and a t m o s p h e r i c a l l y decayed rock. The only other place ".where T e r t i a r y rocks can be d i r e c t l y observed i s i n w e l l c u t t i n g s and cores. However, these are few, and l i t t l e s t r a t i g r a p h y and l e s s structure- can be deter mined from them. As a consequence, knowledge of T e r t i a r y rocks i s based almost e n t i r e l y on examination of l i m i t e d expo sures, both h o r i z o n t a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y . The paragraphs f o l l o w i n g give a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of each of the f i v e formations. In a l a t e r s e c t i o n , f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s  s i o n of palynology, an attempt i s made to,place these formations i n time, and to present a p l a u s i b l e h i s t o r i c a l account of t h e i r d e p o s i t i o n a l environments and t h e i r present g e o l o g i c a l occur rence. Table A s y n o p t i c a l l y summarizes the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n - 18 - TABLE A STRATIGRAPHIC CORRELATION CHART OF THE NANAIMO GROUP, CHUCKANUT FORMATION, AND WHATCOM BASIN ROCKS EPOCH WELL SECTIONS BRITISH COLUMBIA OUTCROPS WASHINGTON OUTCROPS PLIOCENE MIOCENE OLIGOCENE EOCENE PALEOCENE UNNAMED SEDIMENTARY ROCKS KITSILANO AND BURRARD EQUIVALENTS KITSILANO FORMATION ?_- BURRARD FORMATION ?- z Z l - CK  < 2 < o tn << < Z < "GO 2 $ to U l < — I 2 < 3 Q OO U l _ l < ^ o 2. 2 K K Z o I— eo xoo U I 3 l-O w<2 U l o CO CHUCKANUT FORMATION UPPER CRETACEOUS ? ? — LOWER CHUCKANUT? NANAIMO GROUP -19- of the s e v e r a l s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s . The l i s t i n g of outcrop samples i n d i c a t e s only that they are Eocene i n age; not that one outcrop i s n e c e s s a r i l y younger ,or older than another. Chuckanut Format ion While the present r e p o r t does not deal s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the Chuckanut Formation, i t i s necessary to provide a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n , so that a s a t i s f a c t o r y d i s t i n c t i o n may be made when d i s c u s s i n g the T e r t i a r y c o n t i n e n t a l sedimentary rocks. The Chuckanut Formation crops out south of Bellingham, to the west on Lummi I s l a n d , east on American Suisas Mountain, and s p o r a d i c a l l y southeast through the Cascade Mountains. Glover (1935) and Weaver (1937) presented d e t a i l e d s t r a t  i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n s from the type s e c t i o n along Chuckanut D r i v e , south of Bellingham. Glover s t a t e s t h a t ' t h e r e are at l e a s t 10,000 f e e t of c o n t i n e n t a l c l a s t i c sediments here, but i n f e r e n c e s drawn from d r i l l hole data i n d i c a t e a p o s s i b l e thickness of 16,000 f e e t . East of Sumas Mountain, 15»000 to 20,000 f e e t of Chuckanut Formation have been measured ( M i l l e r and Misch, 1963). The formation has been considered continen t a l and c o n s i s t s predominently of arkose w i t h considerable amounts of shale, s i l t s t o n e , and conglomerate. • According to Glover, the few c o a l seams present are mainly confined to the upper part of the s e c t i o n . S t r u c t u r a l l y the Chuckanut Formation i s r a t h e r i n t e n s e l y deformed. F o l d s , which are open to moderately t i g h t , trend - 2 0 - northwesterly south of Bellingham and n o r t h e a s t e r l y north of the Nooksack R i v e r . L o c a l l y there i s evidence of minor reverse f a u l t i n g or o v e r t h r u s t i n g . Crickmay (1930) and Moen (1962) have mapped, a major west south-west f a u l t »'e"a'st of American Sumas Mountain which cuts Chuckanut f o l d s ; M i l l e r and Misch (1963) have i n d i c a t e d a displacement of greater--than 5 5000 f e e t on t h i s f a u l t , and f i n d i t i s overlapped by post-Chuckanut T e r t i a r y c o n t i n e n t a l sedimentary rocks which show no o f f s e t t i n g . As a consequence, an unconformable r e l a t i o n s h i p * i s i n f e r r e d between the two formations. T r a d i t i o n a l l y the Chuckanut Formation i s reported as e n t i r e l y c o n t i n e n t a l and assumed to have been deposited i n broad a l l u v i a l v a l l e y s . However., according to W. H. Mathews ( w r i t t e n communication), Marie Pabst observed probable v e r t e  brate remains (Ichthyosaur?) at the southern end of Chuckanut Bay, but apparently these have never been * c o l l e c t e d . I f t h i s r e p o r t i s c o r r e c t , the lowermost Chuckanut i s marine and pro bably Upper Cretaceous. With t h i s one exception, n e i t h e r v e r t e b r a t e nor i n v e r t e  brate remains are known from the Chuckanut Formation, but p l a n t micro- and m a c r o f o s s i l s are local l y • • abundant. On the ba s i s of f o s s i l p l a n t remains, the Chuckanut has been dated as Cretaceous, Paleocene or Eocene (McLellan, 1927; Weaver, 1935; and Misch, 1952). A f t e r working w i t h f d s s i l p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n s from various l o c a l i t i e s , Pabst (1962) concluded that the Chuck- ^  anut Formation ranges i n age from Late Cretaceous to E a r l y -21- .. • . • Oligocene. However, these workers d i d not recognize the existence of a younger T e r t i a r y c o n t i n e n t a l sedimentary sequence which unconformably o v e r l i e s the Chuckanut Formation. The T e r t i a r y c o n t i n e n t a l sedimentary rocks which were defined by Moen (1962) and Misch (1963) and assigned by me to the Whatcom b a s i n sequence were considered u n t i l 1962 as p a r t of the Chuckanut Formation. Th i s , of course, confused t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and r e s u l t e d i n erroneous c o r r e l a t i o n . Griggs (1965) working w i t h p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s from the Chuckanut type s e c t i o n along Samish Bay, south of Bellingham, concluded the age of the Chuckanut i s most l i k e l y Paleocene to Lower Eocene.' ' The c o r r e l a t i o n of the Chuckanut Formation w i t h other rock u n i t s i s g e n e r a l l y known. Moen (1962) suggests that the Chuck anut Formation may, i n part at l e a s t , be c o r r e l a t a b l e w i t h the Marine Nanaimo group mapped by McLellan on the San Juan I s l a n d s . Others are more d e f i n i t i v e : "On the bas i s of f o s s i l evidence, l i t h o l o g l c s i m i l a r i t y , outcrop p a t t e r n s , s t r u c t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y , and degree of deformation, the lower part of the Chuckanut Formation i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the upper p a r t of the Nanaimo Group" ( M i l l e r and Misch, 1963). Burrard Formation The Burrard Formation was named by Johnston (1923) f o r a s e r i e s of conglomerates, sandstones, and shales that u n d e r l i e the c i t y of Vancouver and which s p o r a d i c a l l y crop out along the - 2 2 - south shore of Burrard I n l e t as f a r east as Burnaby Mountain. Several small outcrops occur on the n o r t h shore of Burrard I n l e t along the lower reaches of Capilano Creek. The Burrard Formation i s about 2,000 f e e t t h i c k , con s i s t i n g of conglomerates, sandstones, and shales and a few t h i n interbedded l i g n i t i c • s e a m s ' (Johnston, 1923). The base of the formation r e s t s unconformably upon the g r a n i t i c rocks of the Coast Range Mountains and i s exposed only on the lower canyon of the Capilano R i v e r . Beds higher up i n the s e c t i o n are exposed at Prospect P o i n t , then more or l e s s c ontinuously along the west side of Stanley Park. The general a t t i t u d e of the formation appears to be a continuous south dip at 10 to 1 5 ° - The base of the formation i s marked by a b a s a l conglom erate about 50 f e e t t h i c k that i s composed l a r g e l y of sub- angular g r a n o d i o r i t e boulders up to 6 inches i n diameter, accompanied by minor amounts of d i o r i t e , greenstone, c h e r t , qu a r t z i t e , . .'and s c h i s t boulders set i n a sandy, ferruginous matrix (Johnston, 1923; Hughes, 1946). The upper p o r t i o n of the Burrard Formation c o n s i s t s of a coarse-grained f e l d s p a t h i c sandstone interbedded w i t h sandy shale. According to Johnston, a t o t a l of 1,300 f e e t of s t r a t a i s exposed.along the west shore of Stanley Park; of t h i s t h i c k n e s s , 1,100 f e e t i s sandstone and the remainder shale. Johnston placed the top of the Burrard Formation beneath a "basal conglomerate" of the o v e r l y i n g K i t s i l a n o Formation. - 2 3 - • This conglomerate i s not everywhere present and the s i m i l a r l i t h o l o g i e s of the two formations make d i s t i n c t i o n s d i f f i c u l t . A very r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s that t h i s may simply be an i n t e r - bedded conglomerate and may have no p a r t i c u l a r time s i g n i f i c a n c e , i . e . a time break here may be i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l (Rouse, 1 9 6 2 ) . A number of assemblages of f o s s i l p l a n t s have been c o l  l e c t e d and examined from the Burrard Formation. J . W. Dawson ( 1 8 9 5 ) s t u d i e d a c o l l e c t i o n of pl a n t remains from the S t a n l e y Park area along the south shore of Burrard I n l e t and concluded the beds were Eocene i n age. E. W. Berry, a f t e r studying a pl a n t c o l l e c t i o n made by Johnston- from, the same general site-, r e ported t h a t the rocks were Middle or Upper Eocene (reported i n Johnston, 1923). Berry (1926) added: "There can be no ques t i o n of the Eocene age of these p l a n t s , — ." Rouse (1962), a f t e r a study of the p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s , concluded that the Burrard Formation south of Burrard I n l e t i s Middle Eocene i n age. He reported f u r t h e r t h a t the "Burrard Formation" of the nor t h shore i n Capilano Canyon was con s i d e r a b l y o l d e r , p o s s i b l y Cretaceous and equ i v a l e n t to part of the Upper Nanaimo Group. The nature of the contact between the north shore Burrard and the Burrard Formation to the south of the I n l e t i s unknown because i t l i e s below the waters of Burrard I n l e t . Crickmay and Pocock (1963). using p a l y n o l o g i c a l techniques, suggested t h a t the Burrard Formation was Upper Cretaceous and c o r r e l a t e d i t w i t h the p l a n t - b e a r i n g p o r t i o n s of the Nanaimo Group on "Vancouver I s l a n d . -2k- According to Johnston ( 1 9 2 3 ) the "Burrard Formation was deposited mostly i n shallow water and i n part s u b - a e r i a l l y on an a l l u v i a l p l a i n under humid-warm c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s and n e a r l y at sea l e v e l . I t i s not a true d e l t a d e p o s it, at l e a s t i n the landward p a r t , but may pass i n t o d e l t a d e p o s i t s . " He suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y t hat a l l of the Georgia Depression was an a l l u v i a l p l a i n and that the sea d i d not extend i n t o the r e g i o n . Because some 2 , 0 0 0 f e e t of. sedimentary rock i s present i n the Burrard Formation, subsidence probably was a c t i v e during the per i o d of d e p o s i t i o n . For the purposes of the d i s c u s s i o n to f o l l o w I w i l l con t i n u e to use Burr a r d Formation as defined by Johnston, except ing however, the outcrops on the n o r t h side of Burrard I n l e t . As I w i l l d i s c u s s more f u l l y i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n , these n o r t h shore rocks are probably e q u i v a l e n t to the Upper Cretaceous encountered i n the w e l l samples, and p o s s i b l y e q u i v a l e n t to the lower Chuckanut Formation. K i t s i l a n o Formation The K i t s i l a n o i s a r a t h e r inadequately d e l i m i t e d u n i t o v e r l y i n g the Burrard Formation, and unde r l y i n g the P l e i s t o c e n e sediments on which i s b u i l t the c i t y of Vancouver. I t outcrops along K i t s i l a n o Beach,..at v a r i o u s places along the south shore of Burrard I n l e t , and east to Burnaby Mountain. The Kanaka Creek sediments to the east, northwest of Whonock, apparently belong to the K i t s i l a n o Formation, but the character of the -25- sediments i s not d e f i n i t i v e and they may a c t u a l l y he Burrard e q u i v a l e n t (Johnston, 1923). The bottom of the K i t s i l a n o Formation has been placed more or l e s s l a t e r a l l y continuous. As suggested above, the evidence f o r a prolonged time break between the Burrard and K i t s i l a n o Formations i s h i g h l y u n c e r t a i n at best. Indeed, even Johnston (1923). observed " since both formations are i n l a r g e part composed of m a t e r i a l deposited on land or i n shallow w a t e r , . i t i s p o s s i b l e that the apparent break i s due to contemporaneous e r o s i o n . " Roddick (1965) no longer main t a i n s the d i s t i n c t i o n between K i t s i l a n o and Burrard Formations and considers them one u n i t . He adds that "Armstrong ( r e p o r t i n preparation) i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s u b d i v i s i o n should be aban doned and a new name, proposed f o r the assemblage." For the purpose of the r e p o r t , I s h a l l continue to use the terms Burrard. and K i t s i l a n o Formations i n the older sense of d i s t i n c t rock u n i t s and i n the sense they were defined by Johnston. Because the K i t s i l a n o dips to the south and disappears beneath a mantle of P l e i s t o c e n e outwash and t i l l , the top of the formation i s not v i s i b l e . From s e v e r a l l i n e s of evidence, Johnston considered a conservative estimate f o r the thickness of the K i t s i l a n o Formation to be 1,500 f e e t . However, i n the Highbury t u n n e l , which was not a v a i l a b l e to Johnston, there i s a s t r a t i g r a p h i c thickness of K i t s i l a n o Formation of approxi mately 900 f e e t . From 5th and Highbury S t r e e t s due nor t h to the northernmost outcrop mapped by Johnston on E n g l i s h Bay, the - 2 6 - distance i s l£ m i l e s . Assuming an average dip of 10° due south, there i s a t o t a l s t r a t i g r a p h i c thickness i n t h i s l a t t e r i n t e r v a l of 1,225 f e e t . Because to the east^, near Second Narrows^, outcrops of K i t s i l a n o Formation are known s t i l l f a r t h e r n o r t h , i t would appear that a minimum thickness of 2,500 f e e t i s pres ent. However, because outcrops are l i m i t e d and because we are s t i l l u n c e r t a i n as to the v a l i d i t y of the K i t s i l a n o - B u r r a r d contact, the a c t u a l thickness i s s t i l l unknown. The s o - c a l l e d b a s a l conglomerate contains pebbles and boulders ranging from 1 to 10 inches i n diameter. Near Second Narrows Johnston described i m b r i c a t e d g r a v e l s , suggesting d e p o s i t i o n by a w e s t e r l y f l o w i n g r i v e r . The rock fragments, according to Johnston, are mostly g r a n i t i c and apparently d e r i v e d from the Coast Mountains. A l s o present are s c h i s t o s e rocks and pebbles of shale, the l a t t e r presumably deri v e d from the Burrard Formation. Sandstones and shales make up most of the middle and upper parts of the K i t s i l a n o Formation. The sandstones are coarse grained, f r e q u e n t l y cross-bedded on a small s c a l e , and occa s i o n a l l y c o n t a i n t h i n - lenses and i r r e g u l a r masses of l i g n i t i c c o a l s . The sand grains are g e n e r a l l y angular, c o n t a i n an abundance of heavy minerals such as b i o t i t e , c h l o r i t e , horn blende, o l i v i n e , garnet and sphene (Thomson, 1958). Thomson al s o added that the f r e s h , angular nature of the sand grains " i n d i c a t e s t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has not been great, and that c o n d i t i o n s of rock d e s t r u c t i o n were mechanical r a t h e r than -27- chemical." The source rocks were apparently metamorphic and igneous, a l s o suggesting a source i n the Coast Range to the north. The shale i s o f t e n blue-grey and u s u a l l y sandy. L o c a l l y both sands and shales c o n t a i n remains of logs that have been a l t e r e d to l i g n i t e . Stream channeling, s i m i l a r to that of the Burrard Formation, i s found throughout the middle and upper K i t s i l a n o . The K i t s i l a n o Formation shows the same a t t i t u d e as the u n d e r l y i n g B u r r a r d Formation and at K i t s i l a n o Beach dips to the south at 6 to 9 ° . A t t i t u d e s measured south of the K i t s i l a n o Beach outcrop, w i t h i n the a r t i f i c a l l y excavated north-south Highbury Tunnel are 9 to 10° . (See Figures B and C.) To the south, f o r as f a r as d i r e c t measurements can be made, the s o u t h e r l y dip i s reasonably constant. What happens deeper i n the Whatcom b a s i n can only be i n f e r r e d from the study of p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l assemblages i n w e l l s and outcrops. The r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o l l o w i n l a t e r s e c t i o n s of t h i s r e p o r t . Plant m a c r o f o s s i l s are abundant i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation. A c o l l e c t i o n of p l a n t s from rock exposures at K i t s i l a n o Beach were i d e n t i f i e d and discussed by E. W. Berry. He concluded that "the general f a c i e s of the K i t s i l a n o p l a n t s i s , i n my judgement, e n t i r e l y Eocene and does not i n the s l i g h t e s t degree suggest l a t e r T e r t i a r y " (quoted by Johnston, 1923). Berry, i n personal communication to Johnston, goes, on to say "there i s no o b j e c t i o n to c o n s i d e r i n g the Burrard I n l e t p l a n t s as Middle - 2 8 - or Upper Eocene, and K i t s i l a n o p l a n t s as Upper Eocene or Lower Oligocene." Somewhat l a t e r Berry (1926) s t a t e d "the conclu s i o n that the; feeds, a t K i t s i l a n o are Eocene i s s t r o n g l y i n d i  cated J u s t what part of the Eocene i s perhaps not deter minable at the. present time. I would regard i t as l a t e Eocene II Johnston, i n r e f e r r i n g to the o r i g i n of the K i t s i l a n o sediments, suggests they are s i m i l a r to the B u r rard, i . e . an a l l u v i a l p l a i n deposit which may pass i n t o d e l t a sediments westward and southward. In n e i t h e r formation i s there any evidence of marine d e p o s i t i o n , nor are there any marine f o s s i l s . Channel s t r u c t u r e s , cut and f i l l s t r u c t u r e s , and i m b r i c a t e d g r a v e l s a l l imply an a l l u v i a l o r i g i n . Even the shales must have been deposited i n shallow,water because they c o n t a i n abun dant sand grains which probably could not have been c a r r i e d f a r . Huntington Formation The Huntington Formation crops out on the southwest end of Canadian Sumas Mountain, j u s t n o r t h of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary, at the northeast side of the Whatcom, b a s i n (see Figure D). Sumas Mountain i s the most imposing topographic f e a t u r e of the Lower Fraser V a l l e y , r i s i n g a b r u p t l y from the' f l o o d p l a i n to a maximum height of 3 5 000 f e e t . The upland c o n s i s t s of a b o u t k O square m i l e s , of which about f i v e are u n d e r l a i n by T e r t i a r y sedimentary rocks. The remainder c o n s i s t s of older v o l c a n i c rocks and i n t r u s i v e rocks (Kerr, 19^2). A H HA' 4 DISTANCE FROM PORTAL IN FEET D" = 1000^ « ^ NORTH SOUTH PORTAL «• - ^ HIGHBURY AND FIFTH KITSILANO FM H PLEISTOCENE NORTH-SOUTH SECTION OF HIGHBURY TUNNEL VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA Scale T = 1000' STRATA DIP SOUTH AT 8 - 1 0 ° IV) Gi C ro oo FIGURE B - 3 G - FIGURE C IS TO CE NE  SAMPLE No8 1377' 3 OL SAMPLE No7 1262' SAMPLE No6 1072' SAMPLE No5 to cn FO R M A TI O N SAMPLE No4 SAMPLE No 3 SAMPLE No 2 SAMPLE No 1 641' 627' g < 560' J CO 497' £ HIGHBURY TUNNEL PORTAL 362' 0 SAMPLE FROM W 1st 0 STRATIGRAPHIC SECTION OF KITSILANO IN HIGHBURY TUNNEL S C A L E i " = 200' -31- Although Daly was not the f i r s t g e o l o g i s t to; v i s i t Sumas Mountain, he Was the f i r s t to d e s c r i b e , w i t h any degree of accuracy, the rocks cropping out there. During h i s 4-9th par a l l e l study, Daly (1912) concluded that the sedimentary rocks of Sumas .Mountain were Eocene i n age and proposed the name "Huntington Formation" f o r them. The f i r s t d e t a i l e d study of the T e r t i a r y rocks on Sumas Mountain was by Kerr (194-2). Later the c l a y beds of the Hunt ington were examined and reported on by Cummings and McCammon (1952). The sediments comprising the T e r t i a r y range from con glomerates w i t h component pebbles up to 4 inches i n diameter, to shales'and l i g n i t e s . K e r r , and Cummings and McCammon, both commented on the general.tendency of the u n i t to become coarser s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y upward. I.observed the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c during my c o l l e c t i n g i n the area. As i n the K i t s i l a n o and Burrard Formations, l e n s i n g and pinc h i n g of sandstone i s common. However, the conglomerates appear to be more constant. L i k e w i s e , channeling, cut and f i l l s t r u c t u r e s , and cross-bedding;are commonplace f e a t u r e s . On the co n t r a r y , however, the shales and l i g n i t e s are f a i r l y r e g u l a r and may extend as much as 1,000 f e e t along s t r i k e without appreciable change i n thickness or character. The l a t t e r u n i  f o r m i t y was observed i n mine d r i f t s by Kerr (194-2) but these d r i f t s were no longer open i n 1964 and 1965 when the present p a l y n o l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i n g was being done. The s t r u c t u r a l a t t i t u d e of the Huntington Formation appears - 3 2 - to be a more or l e s s constant dip of 10 to 15° to the southwest w i t h s t r i k e s averaging N 4-5° W. Many l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s occur i n the Huntington, however, presumably as the r e s u l t of sag and d i f f e r e n t i a l movement during u p l i f t . The t o t a l thickness i s not known because n e i t h e r a top nor a bottom of the formation i s exposed. However, Kerr managed.to measure a s t r a t i g r a p h i c t h i c k n e s s of 1,4-00 f e e t . He found that " about 300 f e e t c o n s i s t s of clayey s h a l e s , l i g n i t e seams, gray shales, indurated g r i t and sandstone. The remaining 1,100 f e e t are made up p r i n c i p a l l y of pebbly conglomerate w i t h i n t e r  bedded sandy l a y e r s and they are found on the upper slopes of the h i l l . " (Kerr, 194-2) The c l a s t s i n the conglomerate are p r i n c i p a l l y of g r a n i t e , d i o r i t e , q u a r t z i t e , black a r g i l l i t e and greenstone. U n l i k e some of the K i t s i l a n o rocks, they do not show i m b r i c a t i o n , although l i m i t e d cross-bedding suggests a source to the north east. Contrary tp the views of Kerr, Cummings and McCammon re p o r t on the l a t e r a l u n i f o r m i t y of the conglomerates, but the l a t t e r authors had the advantage of numerous d r i l l h o les. The sandstones are f e l d s p a t h i c , o c c a s i o n a l l y bearing primary b i o t i t e , and not as w e l l c o n s o l i d a t e d as the conglomerates. Cummings and McCammon (1952) discuss the c l a y and shale deposits of B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h considerable emphasis on the Sumas Mountain area. Here, they comment, occur the only true f i r e - c l a y deposits i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Because of the g l a c i a l d r i f t and t h i c k brush, most of t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l i n t e r  p r e t a t i o n s are based on d r i l l h o les. The basement rocks, both p l u t o n i c and v o l c a n i c , have an upper surface dipping g e n e r a l l y to the southwest, but there are numerous hollows and depressions on t h i s surface. I t i s i n these that the f i r e - c l a y seams formed (Cummihgs,and McCaramon, 1 9 5 2 ) . Beneath the o b v i o u s l y c l a s t i c zone, and above the base ment, l i e s a t h i c k k a o l i n i z e d zone, presumably the r e s u l t of intense weathering of basement rocks p r i o r to the d e p o s i t i o n of the c l a s t i c sediment. The thickness of the c l a y zone v a r i e s , but reaches at l e a s t 70 f e e t i n places. The lower p o r t i o n of the c l a s t i c sequence, o v e r l y i n g the clay,, i s made up of a l t e r  n a t ing shales, l i g n i t e s and sandstones, but higher up the. sec t i o n t h i c k beds of conglomerate become numerous. K a o U n i t e i s almost pure, two-layered aluminum s i l i c a t e , which here i s apparently a r e s u l t of l a t e r i z a t i o n . L a t e r i t e s are now forming only i n areas of good drainage i n h u m i d - t r o p i c a l and s u b t r o p i c a l r e g i o n s , so presumably these c l a y s have an environmental s i g n i f i c a n c e . The shales and l i g n i t e s , o v e r l y i n g the c l a y , appear to have been deposited on f l a t swampy land w i t h at l e a s t i n t e r  m i t t e n t l y p r o l i f i c p l a n t growth.: The i n v e r s e grading, or. f i n e r sediment becoming coarser s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y upward, i s t y p i c a l of non-marine |rasins, and i n most cases i s the r e s u l t of b a s i n f i l l i n g (Dr. R. V. Best, o r a l communication). A l s o p o s s i b l e i s u p l i f t i n the source area, becoming more intense w i t h time. Leaf remains have been found i n the Huntington, but they are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y p o o r l y preserved and l i t t l e has been - 3 ^ - done w i t h theml F o s s i l p l a n t specimens were c o l l e c t e d by Daly and submitted to F. H. Knowlton, who reported that, the c o l l e c t i o n was of l i t t l e d i a g n o s t i c value (Daly, 1 9 1 2 ) . Much l a t e r , R. W. Ch a n e y ; c o l l e c t e d at Sumas Mountain but s t a t e d i n a communication to Kerr (194-2) that the f o s s i l leaves he c o l l e c t e d were fragmentary and p o o r l y preserved, and that he was unable to do anything w i t h them. I t has been g e n e r a l l y assumed, w i t h l i t t l e s u b s t a n t i a t i n g evidence, that the Huntington Formation i s Eocene i n age, and p o s s i b l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the Burrard or K i t s i l a n o Formations. Other T e r t i a r y C o n t i n e n t a l Rocks T e r t i a r y c o n t i n e n t a l sedimentary rocks (excluding the Chuckanut Formation), crop out i n a discontinuous b e l t from the southeastern end' of Vedder Mountain, to the southern end of American Sumas Mountain, thence westward along Squallcum Moun t a i n to King Mountain n o r t h of Bellingham. At various places t h i s u n i t unconformably o v e r l i e s pre-Cretaceous rocks. South of the Nooksack R i v e r i t unconformably o v e r l i e s the Chuckanut Formation. The T e r t i a r y c o n t i n e n t a l sedimentary rocks are a sequence of conglomerates, sandstones, shales, and very minor c o a l seams. Because t h i s u n i t dips westward i n t o the Whatcom b a s i n and i s unconformably o v e r l a i n by P l e i s t o c e n e and Recent sediments, i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e to give i t s true o r i g i n a l t h i c k n e s s . However, - 3 5 - at the northern end of the outcrop be l t , there are 3 , 0 0 0 feet of s t rata (Moen, 1 9 6 3 ) . Conglomerates make up about 3 0 percent of the section and are composed of pebbles and cobbles 1 to 3 inches i n diameter. These pebbles are mainly volcanic rocks, g r a n i t i c and gneissic rocks, chert, white quartz, and a r g i l l i t e . The matrix i s gen e r a l l y arkosic and moderately well indurated so that topograph i c a l l y the conglomerates form v e r t i c a l c l i f f s as much as 2 0 0 feet high. The conglomerates are d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the section, and on Sumas Mountain occur also as a basal conglomer ate which overlies Paleozoic rocks, and l o c a l l y the Chuckanut Formation. The sandstone i s l a r g e l y arkosic, massive and coarse grained. It i s composed of poorly-sorted angular p a r t i c l e s and according to Moen (1962) may contain up to 5 0 percent feldspar as w e l l as rock fragments and mica. Ordinarily the sandstone Is poorly cemented by calcium carbonate or i r o n oxide and tends to be somewhat f r i a b l e . Shale i s moderately common as interbeds throughout the section. These shales range from a s i l t y clay to a refractory f i r e - c l a y very similar to that found at Canadian Sumas Mountain. A l l the shale beds are s l i g h t l y carbonaceous but never highly so. Coal beds are t h i n and uncommon. In general, the carbon aceous" material i n the Te r t i a r y continental sedimentary rocks i s much less than that found i n the Chuckanut Formation. Although the refractory clays are similar to those of -36- Sumas Mountain, they are not i n s i t u and are not lying on weathered basement rocks. The clays here l i e i n pockets at the southwestern end of Vedder Mountain, some 3 miles south east of the town of Sumas, and 5 miles south of the clay occur rence at Canadian Sumas Mountain. The clays are separated by several hundred feet of c l a s t i c shales and sandstone, and the basement rocks show no sign of k a o l i n i z a t i o n . Because these clays were not formed i n place, they are by d e f i n i t i o n a l l o c - thonous. The most l i k e l y place of o r i g i n was Canadian Sumas Mountain or some similar but unknown location. Locally, on the west side of Sumas Mountain, a l a t e r i t i c shale occurs at the base of the Tert i a r y continental sedimen tary rocks, and was apparently developed as the r e s u l t of weathering on a pre-Tertiary p e r i d o t i t e i n t r u s i o n . The l a t - e r i t e i s ferruginous and contains up to ^ 8 percent iron, with the deposit ranging from 30 to 50 feet thick (Moen, 1963). S t r u c t u r a l l y the rocks show l i t t l e deformation besides t i l t i n g . . On the west flank of American Sumas Mountain they have a general northward to north-northeast s t r i k e and dip 30 to 3.5° to the west. A small and l o c a l antic line-sync l i n e at the south end of Sumas Mountain produces almost v e r t i c a l dips. In the v i c i n i t y of Bellingham, the Tert i a r y continental rocks have an e s s e n t i a l l y east-west s t r i k e with dips up to 60° north. A few Isolated remnants of basal T e r t i a r y continental rocks occur on the north end of American Sumas Mountain and on - 3 7 - southeast Vedder Mountain. These are now mostly f l a t remnants of a once greater extent of T e r t i a r y r o c k s . A l l the f i r e - c l a y deposits occur i n these remnants. As w i t h a l l the other u n i t s discussed, these s t r a t a are c o n t i n e n t a l and were deposited unconformably on an o l d e r o s i o n surf a c e . The environment of d e p o s i t i o n was probably s i m i l a r to that of the Chuckanut Formation w i t h l o c a l westward fl o w i n g drainage c a r r y i n g m a t e r i a l from r i s i n g highlands to the east, d e p o s i t i n g the m a t e r i a l on a near-sea l e v e l c o a s t a l p l a i n . The composition of boulders w i t h i n the conglomerate suggests that a l l were der i v e d from the northern Cascade Mountain area to the east. The h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of conglomerate and sandstone, w i t h the correspondingly low q u a n t i t y of shale and c o a l suggests a r a t h e r unstable environment. More or l e s s c o n t i n u a l u p l i f t of the source area to the east i s i n d i c a t e d . The presence of aluminum-rich f i r e c l a y on Canadian Sumas Mountain and ferruginous shales on American Sumas Mountain i n d i c a t e s a p e r i o d of l o c a l s t a b i l i t y i n a humid s u b t r o p i c a l to t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e . But i n both cases these l a t e r i t e s are at or near the base of the s e c t i o n , and were formed p r i o r to the d e p o s i t i o n of the c l a s t i c sequence. To my knowledge, only a few p o o r l y preserved l e a f f o s s i l s have ever been found i n these rocks, on which no work has been done. M i l l e r and Misch (1963) have considered the T e r t i a r y c o n t i n e n t a l sedimentary rocks equivalent to the Huntington Formation of B r i t i s h Columbia on the b a s i s of l i t h o l o g i c -38- s i m i l a r i t y , degree of deformation and outcrop d i s t r i b u t i o n . From t h i s they assume a probable Middle Eocene age f o r the sequence. AGE AND CORRELATIONS Wells L o c a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n s A number of w e l l s have been d r i l l e d i n the Whatcom b a s i n w i t h the f i r s t on r ecord being a 30 f o o t hole d r i l l e d near Bellingham i n 1893• E a r l y w e l l s i n c l u d e d water w e l l s , gas w e l l s , and e x p l o r a t o r y o i l h o l e s . P r i o r to 19^0, d r i l l i n g was g e n e r a l l y on a haphazard and u n s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s w i t h l i t t l e g eologic c o n t r o l . As the o i l p o t e n t i a l of various T e r t i a r y basins along the P a c i f i c Coast became apparent, the Whatcom b a s i n took on minor i n t e r e s t as a p o t e n t i a l o i l or gas bearing r e g i o n . E a r l y i n the century a w e l l d r i l l e d near Ferndale, f i v e m iles northwest of Bellingham, encountered gas i n modest quan t i t i e s i n the P l e i s t o c e n e overburden. A d d i t i o n a l w e l l s revealed the presence of s e v e r a l gas horizons at depths of 170 to 500 f e e t ( L i v i n g s t o n , 1958). Although t h i s gas, w i t h a h i g h methane- n i t r o g e n content, was not a v a i l a b l e i n commercial q u a n t i t i e s , i t has been s u p p l i e d to nearby homes and farm b u i l d i n g s . The maximum thickness of P l e i s t o c e n e here i s 615 f e e t , and the - 3 9 - assumption i s made that the gas has been generated i n , and migrated from, c o a l seams i n the unde r l y i n g p r e - P l e i s t o c e n e rocks. L i v i n g s t o n (1958) has sta t e d these are Chuckanut beds beneath the P l e i s t o c e n e , but the r e s u l t s of the i n v e s t i  g a t i o n reported here i n d i c a t e a Miocene age. In the 1930's and 194-0's other deeper e x p l o r a t o r y holes were sunk, pene t r a t i n g the P l e i s t o c e n e f o r a considerable d i s  tance Into the underlying "Chuckanut", as the older sediments have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a l l e d . Companies i n v o l v e d i n t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n have been u s u a l l y small and l o c a l l y organized. Their operations have been random and without adequate geologic c o n t r o l . D r i l l i n g records were o f t e n kept i n a haphazard method by the d r i l l e r s . Samples were u s u a l l y taken, but i n many cases t h e i r whereabouts are no longer a matter of record. I spent s e v e r a l days i n Olympia, Washington, v i s i t i n g the o f f i c e s of the State D i v i s i o n of Mines and Geology, where a v a i l  able records and samples of w e l l s d r i l l e d w i t h i n the State are stored. Data are very incomplete, and i n most cases add nothing to published m a t e r i a l already a v a i l a b l e . R e s u l t s from four w e l l s were s c r u t i n i z e d p a r t i c u l a r l y be cause the data appeared comparatively good, and because the w e l l s are l o c a t e d on s i t e s which might have produced u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . These are: Rus s l e r No. 1, l o c a t e d about 4 miles west of the south end of American Sumas Mountain. This w e l l was spudded i n 1935, reached a depth of 4,175 f e e t w i t h s e v e r a l reported gas shows. H i l l e b r e c h t No. 1, l o c a t e d about 2-g- miles south of Lynden, Washington. Spudding was i n 19^7 w i t h a t o t a l depth of 3,^92 f e e t . Gas shows were reported at 790 and 1,200 f e e t . Lange No. 2, l o c a t e d i n the earlier-mentioned Ferndale gas f i e l d . This w e l l was spudded i n 1931 and reached a t o t a l depth o f 2,008 f e e t . Again, gas shows were recorded, one of s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y to be used l o c a l l y . F i n a l l y I n 19^5, the Standard O i l Company of C a l i f o r n i a d r i l l e d the Ferndale Community w e l l about 6 miles south of B l a i n e . Although i t was completed as a dry hole, i t reached a t o t a l depth of 6,231 f e e t and penetrated a considerable s e c t i o n of T e r t i a r y rocks. While i n Olympia, I examined and sampled c u t t i n g s from these four w e l l s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y samples from the bottom ^,000 f e e t of the Ferndale Community w e l l were mis s i n g . Cuttings on f i l e were, f o r the most p a r t , sand and hence u n s u i t a b l e f o r p a l y n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . Some shale samples were chosen but the maceration r e s u l t s were d i s a p p o i n t i n g . In almost every case m i c r o f o s s i l s were absent or so p o o r l y preserved nothing could be done w i t h them. The few adequately preserved forms were not d i a g n o s t i c and of no value. North of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary, i n Canada, a v a i l a b l e w e l l data are l e s s complete, but a number of w e l l s have been d r i l l e d , some of which penetrate the P l e i s t o c e n e . Although an o v e r a l l c o m p i l a t i o n of l o c a t i o n s i s a v a i l a b l e , there i s no l i t h - o l o g i c or t e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . " - 4 l - One i n t e r e s t i n g w e l l i s the Boundary Bay w e l l No. 3 5 which was reported hy Johnston (1923). The w e l l , l o c a t e d near Boundary Bay, was d r i l l e d w i t h r o t a r y t o o l s to a depth of 4,112 f e e t . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s at the time suggest 2,300 f e e t of P l e i s t o c e n e and Recent, hut more recent d r i l l i n g w i t h more s o p h i s t i c a t e d equipment i n d i c a t e s t h i s may he an excessive t h i c k n e s s . However,' the bottom s e v e r a l thousand f e e t of the w e l l are composed of poo r l y c o n s o l i d a t e d sands, shales and l i g n i t e s . The w e l l bottomed i n what i s i n t e r p r e t e d as con glomerate or g r a v e l . F o s s i l s were absent, but Johnston sug gested these rocks represent a formation s i m i l a r t o , but younger than the K i t s i l a n o Formation which he had mapped and named to the n o r t h . On r e g i o n a l s t r a t i g r a p h i c grounds he suggested that these r o c k s , which he termed the Boundary Bay Formation, are of Pliocene or p o s s i b l y Miocene age. As a consequence, Johnston must have been the f i r s t to suspect that rocks younger, than K i t s i l a n o were present i n the Whatcom b a s i n . More r e c e n t l y , the R i c h f i e l d O i l Company and the Pure O i l Company together d r i l l e d two w e l l s i n the Whatcom ba s i n , both i n B r i t i s h Columbia. These two wel l s , , because of t h e i r funda mental importance to the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n , are i n d i c a t e d on the geologic map i n the pocket (Figure D). The Point Roberts w e l l i s l o c a t e d near Tsawassen and was d r i l l e d during the l a s t seven months of 1962. A t o t a l depth of 1^»337 f e e t was reached. The Sunnyside w e l l , l o c a t e d 14- miles to the east, and d r i l l e d during the f i r s t f i v e months of 1962, -k2- reached a t o t a l depth of 10,899 f e e t . Although I have l i t t l e of f a c t u a l data concerning l i t h o l o g i c samples or s p e c i f i c logs run, I do have e l e c t r i c logs from both of these holes. A l s o , through the courtesy of the R i c h f i e l d O i l Company, I have examined s l i d e s of macerated samples taken at approximately 100 f o o t i n t e r v a l s . I am a l s o u n o f f i c i a l l y informed that key horizons were not encountered. G e o l o g i s t s at the w e l l - s i t e r eported a continuous, non-diagnostic sequence of sandstones, shales, and coals from the base of the P l e i s t o c e n e to t o t a l depth. I have attempted to c o r r e l a t e between w e l l s on the b a s i s of e l e c t r i c logs but w i t h no provable success. L i t h o l o g i c u n i t s are v a r i a b l e , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y p inching and l e n s i n g . However, some zones y i e l d e d p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l assemblages, and these have been a p p l i e d here i n an attempt to provide some measure of c o r r e l a t i o n between w e l l s . D i s c u s s i o n o f W e l l D a t a P o t e n t i a l l y , p a l y n o l o g i c data from w e l l s i s very good f o r problems of c o r r e l a t i o n , d a t i n g and paleoecology. In the case of the two deep w e l l s under d i s c u s s i o n , a t h i c k sequence of sedimentary rocks was penetrated. Accepting as v a l i d the t h e s i s that a m i c r o f l o r a l assemblage i s t y p i c a l of the f l o r a extant at the time, c a r e f u l sampling and a n a l y s i s of samples at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s should produce a sequence of f l o r a s r e f l e c t  i n g e v o l u t i o n a r y and c l i m a t i c change through time. G e n e r a l l y - 4 3 - this appears to be true, although c e r t a i n pollen grains, because of th e i r f r a g i l e nature, ( i . e . Thuja and Populus) or because they are e a s i l y destroyed by b a c t e r i a l action, ( i . e . Acer) may be under-represented. Others, because of their excep t i o n a l l y durable nature ( i . e . c e r t a i n fungal spores) may be over-represented. However, i f f l o r a s are taken as a whole, and i f too much weight i s not placed on r e l a t i v e proportions of m i c r o f o s s i l s , a f a i r l y r e l i a b l e analysis of surrounding vegetation i s possible. Furthermore, because the Ter t i a r y was a period of cli m a t i c and topographic change, f l o r a s did change and evolve. Analysis of the f l o r a l record should be, and often i s , usable as an age dating method. However, c e r t a i n additional problems and p i t f a l l s arise of which the palynologist must be cognizant, and make allowance fo r . The three basic problems involved i n palynologic analyses of well samples are 1) reworking, 2) well-caving and 3) non- representative samples. Many plant m i c r o f o s s i l s are exceptionally r e s i s t a n t and are often reworked from older to younger sediments. This i s es p e c i a l l y true i f minute shale chips are being eroded and redeposited. The seriousness of this problem, of course, varies from area to area but may be c r i t i c a l i n the Whatcom basin region where a m i c r o f o s s i l - r i c h Chuckanut Formation pre sumably was at least a p a r t i a l source for the younger basin sediments. • -44- The e x t e n t o f W e l l - c a v i n g i s u s u a l l y unknown, but p o t e n  t i a l l y poses p r o b l e m s . As the d r i l l b i t r e a c h e s i n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t e r d e p t h s , a t a l l c y l i n d e r o f u n s u p p o r t e d r o c k remains above . Mud p r e s s u r e , of c o u r s e , g i v e s c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , m o t i o n o f the r o t a t i n g d r i l l s tem, c o u p l e d w i t h mud moving upward a t a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h v e l o c i t y w i l l i n d u c e c a v i n g from l e s s w e l l s u p p o r t e d u n i t s , n o t a b l y s h a l e , up the h o l e . As a consequence , d i t c h samples t a k e n at a s p e c i f i e d d e p t h may a c t u a l l y c o n t a i n b i t s o f s h a l e or c o a l f rom d i f f e r e n t h o r i z o n s up the h o l e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , the apparent s t r a t i - g r a p h i c range o f c e r t a i n f l o r a l elements may appear l o n g e r than i t a c t u a l l y i s . C o r e s , of c o u r s e , e l i m i n a t e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r problem because we can be c e r t a i n o f the s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n t e r v a l f rom w h i c h t h e y were t a k e n . However, cores are u s u a l l y i n c o n  v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d from the p a l y n o l o g i s t ' s v i e w , and g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t l a r g e l y o f s a n d s t o n e . The t h i r d problem o f n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples i s always a cause f o r c o n c e r n i n p a l y n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s and the problem i s a c c e n t u a t e d w i t h w e l l s a m p l e s . Samples t a k e n at a r b i t r a r y i n t e r  v a l s , i n t h i s case 100 f e e t , may not be t o t a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h a t i n t e r v a l . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s , such as l i t h o l o g y , e d a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s , and m i c r o c l i m a t e a t the s i t e o f d e p o s i t i o n c o u l d r a d i c a l l y a l t e r the type and p r o p o r t i o n o f m i c r o f o s s i l s . A l l i n a l l , the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the f l o r a l r e c o r d as r e v e a l e d by p o l l e n and spore a n a l y s i s o f w e l l s are m a n i f o l d . However, w i t h j u d i c i o u s use o f p a l e o n t o l o g i c -1+5- techniques, w i t h c a r e f u l use of p r o f e s s i o n a l judgement, and above a l l w i t h a strong sense of conservatism, conclusions of value can be drawn. With these r e s e r v a t i o n s i n mind, conclu sions are drawn as to the probable age of rocks encountered i n the w e l l s . Point Roberts Well The i n t e r v a l from 8^7 f e e t to ^-,800 f e e t , beneath the Pl e i s t o c e n e and Recent sediments, i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by mostly dicotyledonous p o l l e n , l a r g e l y from a r b o r e a l p l a n t s . The f o l l o w i n g genera, although not always abundant, are character i s t i c and conspicuous: S a i i x , Alnus, Carpinus, Castanea,; Eagua, QuerCUS, Harys, Engelhardtla; J u l i a n s , P t e r o c a r v a . Momipitesj Ulmus-Zelkova, T l l l a and Acer. Representatives of the Pinaceae such as Pinus and Picea do occur, but only i n minor q u a n t i t y . S e v e r a l grains of Cedrus and K e t e l e e r i a were found, both c o n i  ferous genera now r e s t r i c t e d to the eastern hemisphere. Glypto- strobus and Metasequoia occur r a r e l y along w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Cupressaceae. The f e r n Osmunda i s abundant; the only other spores of importance being several- species of L a e v i g a - t o s p o r i t e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , most of the above dicotyledonous p o l l e n range throughout the e n t i r e w e l l s e c t i o n and are of l i t t l e value i n dating s t u d i e s . Indeed, as Chaney (19^0) has s t a t e d , "few phylogenetic trends are shown by T e r t i a r y p l a n t s , most of whose -46- arborescent genera have su r v i v e d without change since the Eocene." As a r e s u l t , many of the i d e n t i f i e d plants,, espec i a l l y at the generic l e v e l , are of l i t t l e value i n dating of the e n c l o s i n g rocks. The data d e r i v e d by counting were"plotted i n v a r ious ways, but f o r the most part d i d not m a t e r i a l l y increase the understanding of m i c r o f o s s i l occurrence. How ever, reference to Table B i n d i c a t e s 10 palynomorphs which do appear to have a strong age s i g n i f i c a n c e . This chart i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i v e percentage of m i c r o f o s s i l types to the e n t i r e f l o r a . In t h i s w e l l i t i s apparent that Pteronarya. Ulmus- Zelkova, Liq.uidambar and cnvptostrobus are r e s t r i c t e d t o , or are at l e a s t most abundant, i n the upper 4,800 f e e t . Attempts to e s t a b l i s h an age f o r t h i s s t r a t i g r a p h i c sec t i o n i n v o l v e d two approaches. The f i r s t i n v o l v e d p l o t t i n g the ranges of those m i c r o f o s s i l s which seemed to be r e s t r i c t e d to c e r t a i n i n t e r v a l s of the w e l l . The r e s u l t s of t h i s are.shown i n the t a b u l a t i o n s on Table B. This t a b l e was then compared w i t h t a b u l a t i o n s made by Kru t z s c h (1957) on the Upper Cretaceous and T e r t i a r y of c e n t r a l Europe. R e l a t i v e abundance and ranges which I derived from w e l l samples t a l l y q u i t e c l o s e l y w i t h the Miocene of middle Europe, although there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y Upper Oligocene may be in c l u d e d . Next I compared the t o t a l f l o r a w i t h those published f l o r a l l i s t s which are considered T e r t i a r y i n the c i r c u m p a c i f i c b e l t . The most s i g n i f i c a n t l i s t from t h i s standpoint was tha t of Sato (1963) whose Miocene f l o r a s of Hokkaido (Japan) -h7- correspond.very c l o s e l y w i t h those of the Whatcom b a s i n . Com pa r i s o n w i t h Wolfe, £_£ (1965) from the Oligocene (?) - Miocene of the Cook I n l e t area of Alaska a l s o suggests a Miocene age. M a r t i n and Rouse (1966) i n t e r p r e t e d the age of the f l o r a of the Skonun Formation i n the Queen C h a r l o t t e Islands of B r i t i s h Columbia as Upper Miocene and/or p o s s i b l y Lower P l i o c e n e . G e n e r a l l y the Whatcom and Skonun assemblages are s i m i l a r , although the Skonun m a t e r i a l contains a greater abundance of the Pinaceae. F i n a l l y , comparisons were made w i t h the Miocene Sooke Formation as described by Cox (1962). Although not e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l , nothing was found to c o n t r a d i c t e a r l i e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of a Miocene age. As a r e s u l t of these compar i s o n s , I have here considered t h i s sequence of rocks to be of probable Miocene age.. Casual i n s p e c t i o n of Table B i n d i c a t e s a marked change i n the number and types of index f o s s i l s I n the I n t e r v a l from ^,800 to 10,000 f e e t . Although many of the same anthophytes and coniferphytes are present, they occur i n lower frequency. More common are the f e r n spores, i n c l u d i n g forms which do not occur f a r t h e r up the hole, such as AzollS., Anemia and H i c ^ i r J , - c o s i s p o r i t e s . P i s t i U . i p o l l e n i t e s r a presumed anthophyte and a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o s s i l of the Middle Eocene (Rouse, H i l l s , and others) i s l o c a l l y abundant. P l a t y c a r y a , which i n North Amer i c a appears r e s t r i c t e d to the Eocene, i s moderately common i n the middle and lower parts of. the s e c t i o n . I l e x , which i s mainly c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Miocene, i s r e s t r i c t e d to the -48- upper and middle p o r t i o n s of t h i s s e c t i o n . This i n t e r v a l (4 ,800 - 10,000 f e e t ) was analyzed i n the same way as the Miocene.section. Comparison w i t h K r u t z s c h (1957) was not n e a r l y so h e l p f u l as i n the Miocene i n t e r v a l . However, there i s nothing to suggest an age younger than Eocene. Upper Cretaceous elements are missing. Comparison w i t h known c o a s t a l Eocene f l o r a s i s l i m i t e d to the Burrard Formation (Rouse, 1962)... The- general s i m i l a r i t y to the Burrard i s high, as i s the s i m i l a r i t y to more i n l a n d Eocene f l o r a s such as that of' H i l l s (1965) from the P r i n c e t o n "basin and Wodehouse (1933) from the Eocene Green R i v e r "basin of Wyoming. On the b a s i s of these s i m i l a r i t i e s and on the s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s to be discussed l a t e r , I here consider t h i s e n t i r e ' s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n t e r v a l to represent Middle and Upper Eocene. At about 9,600 f e e t the q u a l i t y of samples d e t e r i o r a t e s w i t h l i t t l e or. nothing i n the way of contained m i c r o f o s s i l s . A core of 10,100 f e e t contains very few m i c r o f o s s i l s , but i t s exact s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n i s known. Only two m i c r o f o s s i l ; - , species are present and only s e v e r a l specimens of each were found. However, these were G l e l c h e n l a and P r o t e a c i d l t e s , both of which appear to be r e s t r i c t e d to Upper Cretaceous rocks i n northwestern North America. Macerations from 10,000 f e e t to t o t a l depth are not p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l , as they c o n t a i n very few m i c r o f o s s i l s . O c c a s i o n a l l y they c o n t a i n p o l l e n or spores c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Miocene or Eocene sequences, but most of these occurrences are probably the r e s u l t of caving or -4-9- contamination f u r t h e r up the hole. The sporadic occurrence of Prpteacidites and Gleinheni a Is s u f f i c i e n t l y d i a g n o s t i c to con s i d e r the sequence below 10,000 f e e t as Upper Cretaceous. Simnvsi.de Well The Sunnyside w e l l was analyzed i n a s i m i l a r way to the Point Roberts w e l l (see Table C).> In o v e r a l l aspect the p a t t e r n of m i c r o f o s s i l d i s t r i b u t i o n i s s i m i l a r to the Point Roberts w e l l , but i n d e t a i l s there are some v a r i a t i o n s . Here the base of the Miocene has been placed at the l a s t occurrence of Anemia and C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s . Although ILLmus- ZelkQVa, Liquidainbar and Glyptostrobus are abundant elements i n the.Miocene, they extend down through most of the T e r t i a r y sec t i o n . Although one i s tempted to consider t h i s l a r g e l y a r e s u l t of contamination, i t i s not a t . a l l unreasonable, and i n f a c t i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y , that they would occur i n the Eocene. In general, the m i c r o f l o r a of the Miocene i s dicotyledonous and i d e n t i c a l to that described i n the Poi n t Roberts w e l l . From 4,900 f e e t to 8,950 f e e t the f l o r a i s s i m i l a r to the Eocene sequence described i n the Point Roberts w e l l . P l a t y c a r y a i s c o n s i s t e n t l y present i n small amounts. Again I l e x i s - found i n the upper and middle parts of the u n i t . Anemia i s r a r e ; C i c a  t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s , although present, occurs i n much reduced num bers. P i s t i l l i p o l l e n l t e s , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Middle Eocene f o s s i l , shows maximum abundance i n the same comparable p o s i t i o n as i n - 50- the P o i n t Roberts w e l l . Sabaj does not appear to be present i n the Eocene rocks i n t h i s w e l l . A lthough I have a m p l i f i e d t h i s s t r a t i g r a p h i c zoning i n gr e a t e r d e t a i l under paleoecology, i t does not appear amiss to suggest t h a t these minor f l o r a l d i f f e r e n c e s are mainly a r e s u l t of e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . The s i t e o f d e p o s i t i o n at P o i n t Roberts appears to have been an area of herbaceous p l a n t and f e r n growth together w i t h at l e a s t one a r b o r e a l palm. To the east , near B l a i n e , v e g e t a t i o n i n g e n e r a l was more a r b o r e a l , and presumably somewhat l e s s swampy. These v a r i a t i o n s i n e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s appear to have p e r s i s t e d throughout the Middle and Upper Eocene. Co n v e n i e n t l y , i f a n a d v e r t e n t l y , a core was taken of the i n t e r v a l 8,938-60 f e e t . Chips from t h i s core p r o v i d e a s m a l l m i c r o f o s s i l assemblage from a known s t r a t i g r a p h i c zone. The upper p o r t i o n of the core c o n t a i n s what I have c o n s i d e r e d a t y p i c a l M iddle Eocene f l o r a , i n c l u d i n g T.ycopodium, Osmund a, PillUS, Cupressaceae, Taxodiaceae, Podocarpus , S a l j x , A l n u s , Castanea, Querelas/ P i a t y n a r v a . Acer, P i s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s , Typha, and s e v e r a l t r i l e t e and monolete spores. The lower f i v e f e e t of the core c o n t a i n fewer of the above genera, but i n a d d i t i o n c o n t a i n s e v e r a l specimens o f G j e j c h e n i a and P r o t e a c i d i t e s which, as i n d i c a t e d , are Upper Cretaceous markers. The 9,000 f o o t d i t c h sample c o n t a i n s a rather, e x t e n s i v e f l o r a , , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of zones up the hole but i t a l s o c o n t a i n s P r o t e a c i d i t e s and G l e i c h e n i a . In a d d i t i o n , a p o o r l y preserved g r a i n which appears -51- to be T r i p o r i n a was encountered. This p a r t i c u l a r form has been found only i n the Lower Paleocene and Upper Cretaceous rocks of Rus s i a . A core from 10,850 - 10,895 f e e t had a very s m a l l but c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Cretaceous ;assemblage, i n c l u d i n g G l e i c h e n i a , T r i l e t e s so-iidus, P r o t e a c i d i t s s , E x t r a t r i p o r o - P P l l e n i t e s , Sabal and B r o c h o t r i l e t e B . D i s c u s s i o n of Well Results On the b a s i s of a v a i l a b l e data, which i n c l u d e ten s i g n i  f i c a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s , plus the appearance of the o v e r a l l micro f o s s i l assemblage, I have subdivided the s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n i n both w e l l s i n t o Miocene, Upper and Middle Eocene and Upper Cretaceous. The study of T e r t i a r y palynology has not progressed to the p o i n t where i t can give absolute answers to the question of age. In f a c t , because of i n t e r p r e t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s , some workers have assigned only Paleogene or Neogene age to c e r t a i n f l o r a s . The problem of the P a c i f i c Coast T e r t i a r y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f  f i c u l t because only enough has been done to be t a n t a l i z i n g . S e v e r a l of the Alaskan and B.C. f l o r a s are not pinned down by absolute d a t i n g , but are themselves dated by f l o r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s . Recently M a c G i n i t i e (1966), w h i l e d i s c u s s i n g Eocene f l o r a s of the Middle Rocky Mountains, commented on the s i g n i f i c a n t v e g e t a t i v e v a r i a t i o n present i n Wyoming f l o r a s of e s s e n t i a l l y the same age. "He added (p. ho) that "such d i v e r s e v e g e t a t i o n types i n d i c a t e that f o s s i l f l o r a s cannot be used as -52- ac curate- age i n d i c a t o r s on the "basis of f l o r a l composition alone, unless a sequence of v e g e t a t i o n types i s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r each separate sedimentation b a s i n . " Of course i n the What com b a s i n we have only two c o n t r o l w e l l s , and these cannot be t i e d i n t o any system of absolute age d a t i n g . Further complications of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n are added i n that d e f i n i t e Paleocene, Oligocene, and Pliocene f l o r a s have not been reported i n the n o r t h P a c i f i c area. In short, we r e a l l y do not know what the t y p i c a l m i c r o f o s s i l or l e a f assemblages are f o r these time i n t e r v a l s . However, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the a v a i l a b l e data suggest that Miocene, Upper and Middle Eocene and Upper Cretaceous rocks are,present, and occupy approxi mately the s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n t e r v a l s shown on Tables B and C. Outcrops K i t s i l a n o Formation The K i t s i l a n o Formation, as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , l i e s s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y above the Burrard Formation i n the northwest part of the Whatcom b a s i n , where i t u n d e r l i e s the c i t y of Vancouver. Rouse ( 1 9 6 2 ) suggested that the Burrard Formation i s most probably Middle, Eocene, which i n d i c a t e s - t h a t the K i t  s i l a n o i s Middle Eocene or younger. M i c r o f l o r a l study of t h i s u n i t was based on samples taken from K i t s i l a n o Beach, and a s e r i e s of samples taken from the north-south Highbury sewer tunnel on P o i n t Grey (see Figures B and C and Table D). This -53- t u n n e l , which was d r i v e n from 5th and Highbury S t r e e t s due south to Sea I s l a n d , penetrated about 1,000 f e e t of K i t s i l a n o Formation dipping 8 to 10° due south. In the v i c i n i t y of 22nd and Highbury S t r e e t s , the tunnel passed through the K i t j s i l a n o i n t o the o v e r l y i n g P l e i s t o c e n e outwash and t i l l . ! There i s l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of a fundamental change i n e i t h e r age or environment w i t h i n the rocks of the K i t s i l a n o Formation. As a r e s u l t , I have considered the formation as a s i n g l e u n i t . The m i c r o f o s s i l assemblage i s very s i m i l a r to that of the underlying Burrard as described by Rouse (1962). Some of the more important genera are Osmunda, Anemia, C l c a t r i - c o s i s p o r i t e s , Lygodium, £ i n u s , Taxodium, Podocarpus, S a l i z , A lnUS, GarpinUS, C o r y l U S , Castanea. Fagus ? Quercus. Carva, E n g e l h a r d t i a , P t e r o c a r y a , U l m u s - Z e l k o v a , l i l i a , M y r i c a , and L i l i a c e a e . A v a r i e t y of fu n g a l spores are a l s o w i d e l y rep resented. There are, however, s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t and s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the m i c r o f o s s i l assemblages of the two u n i t s . N e ither S_a£aj, nor Tsuga are found i n the K i t s i l a n o but occur i n low frequency i n the Bur r a r d Formation. However, Sa,bal leaves were found i n the K i t s i l a n o by Berr y (1926). JJLsz i s absent i n the Burrard, but i s commonly present throughout the K i t s i l a n o , becoming more abundant s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y upwards. In the s t r a t l - g r a p h i c a l l y highest K i t s i l a n o sample, which i s a carbonaceous shale, I l e x reaches 27 percent of the t o t a l p o l l e n count. P l a t y c a r y a , w h i l e not common, i s present i n the upper h a l f of - 5 V - the K i t s i l a n o but was not reported from the Burrard. F i n a l l y , P i s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s , which l o c a l l y reaches s e v e r a l percent i n the Burrard, i s not present i n the K i t s i l a n o except f o r s e v e r a l grains found i n the K i t s i l a n o Beach sample. The f a c t that I l e x i s present suggests e i t h e r a short time break between Burrard and K i t s i l a n o times or the establishment of X l S 2 during the e a r l y stages of K i t s i l a n o d e p o s i t i o n . £lai- ycarya appears i n the upper part of the K i t s i l a n o , suggesting that the p l a n t migrated: i n t o the r e g i o n during K i t s i l a n o time. Rouse (1962 and personal communication) and H i l l s (1965) b e l i e v e that P i s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s i s most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Middle Eocene, but may occur i n o l d e r rocks. I t s presence i n the K i t s i l a n o , i n the lowest p a r t of the formation examined, sug gests that at l e a s t the lowermost K i t s i l a n o i s Middle Eocene; although, the p o s s i b i l i t y of reworking P i s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s i n t o the K i t s i l a n o from Burrard rocks undergoing e r o s i o n cannot be discounted. Because of the presence of C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s and P l a t y c a r y a I have concluded that the K i t s i l a n o i s no younger than Eocene. Geologic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a l s o bear on the age of the K i t  s i l a n o . These were discussed e a r l i e r but I w i l l summarize them here. T h e . l i t h o l o g i e s of the Burrard and K i t s i l a n o are s i m i l a r , and apparently were formed under the same d e p o s i t i o n a l e n v i r  onment. The two formations are contiguous w i t h no apparent angular unconformity of any s o r t between them, although Johnston suggests the presence of a d i s c o n f o r m i t y . Indeed, no c l e a r cut -55- f o r m a t i o n a l contact appears between them, except f o r a discon tinuous conglomerate which has been assumed to be a b a s a l con glomerate. No r e a l evidence has been presented to show that t h i s has more r e g i o n a l or temporal s i g n i f i c a n c e than any other l o c a l conglomeratic l e n s . The l a c k of a conspicuous break between the formations, the l i t h o l o g i c and s t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y , plus the f l o r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s lead me to conclude that the K i t s i l a n o i s not r e a l l y a d i s t i n c t u n i t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the Burrard, but that both represent a long continued period of l o c a l l y discon tinuous d e p o s i t i o n . Perhaps l o c a l diastems occur w i t h i n the B u r r a r d - K i t s i l a n o , but they are not of s u f f i c i e n t magnitude to be c a l l e d u nconformities. I f t h i s i s so, the f o r m a t i o n a l names Burrard and K i t s i l a n o should be discarded and an all-encompassing name a p p l i e d to both. The p o r t i o n considered K i t s i l a n o i s i n t e r p r e t e d as repre senting the upper part of the Middle Eocene. P o s s i b l y Upper Eocene rocks are included as w e l l . The Burrard equivalent i n the Sunnyside w e l l , as i n t e r p r e t e d by p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s and s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s , i s the i n t e r v a l 7,300 to 8,955 f e e t . The s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o r t i o n of t h i s w e l l , thought to represent the K i t s i l a n o Formation, i s about 4,850 to 7,300 f e e t (see Table C). E q u i v a l e n t i n t e r v a l s i n the Point Roberts w e l l are: Bur r a r d , 8,300 to 10,000 f e e t ; K i t s i l a n o about 5,300 to 8,300 f e e t . Because of poor sample c o n t r o l i n the i n t e r v a l 5?000 to 6,000 f e e t , the upper l i m i t of the K i t s i l a n o e q u i v a l e n t i s u n c e r t a i n - 5 6 - but s t r a t i g r a p h i c thicknesses suggest i t should be about 5,300 f e e t (see Table B). Remaining Outcrop C o r r e l a t i o n A number of outcrops were c a r e f u l l y examined and sampled. In a d d i t i o n , the s i t e s of three abandoned Whatcom County c o a l mines were v i s i t e d . No f r e s h exposures are v i s i b l e at any of these mines, but c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of shales and c o a l from the abandoned dumps were made, and these samples and those from outcrops were macerated and examined. A summary of s i g n i f i c a n t t a b u l a t i o n s i s shown i n Table D. At the onset of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n I should say that the Kanaka Creek samples, which I worked on f o r a considerable p e r i o d of time, have y i e l d e d a very l i m i t e d m i c r o f l o r a . E v i  d e n t l y m i c r o f o s s i l s were once present but have been rendered u n i d e n t i f i a b l e by b a c t e r i a l a c t i o n , by other biochemical r e a c t i o n s , or by.rock diagenesis. The m i c r o f o s s i l s are l a r g e l y fused and appear now to be only amorphous globules of wax. The few recognizable forms are not age d i a g n o s t i c . Samples from Blue Mountain near Al o u e t t e Lake and from S i l v e r d a l e proved to be barren of m i c r o f o s s i l s and are not discussed f u r t h e r . King Mountain, n o r t h of Bellingham, i s made up l a r g e l y of pebble conglomerates, but even the t h i n shale interbeds proved essen t i a l l y barren and y i e l d e d no d i a g n o s t i c f o s s i l s . This p a r t i  c u l a r outcrop i s not considered f u r t h e r here. -57- The remaining outcrop samples ( l o c a t i o n s on Figure D, m i c r o f o s s i l content on Table D) are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a high c o n c e n t r a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t types of fungal spores. In t h i s respect they are more l i k e K i t s i l a n o - B u r r a r d rocks than any other i n t e r v a l i n e i t h e r w e l l . Most probably t h i s i s a func t i o n of environment r a t h e r than age. On the b a s i s of geographic l o c a t i o n and p h y s i c a l a t t i t u d e , i t has been assumed (Moen, 1962; M i l l e r and Misch, 1963) that outcrops from Canadian Sumas Mountain south, and those west to Bellingham, are e q u i v a l e n t to e i t h e r the.Burrard or K i t s i l a n o Formations. R e s u l t s of t h i s study bear out t h i s assumption. With one exception, there are no t y p i c a l l y Cretaceous p o l l e n or spores such as G l e i c h e n i a or P r o t e a c i d i t e s i n these rocks. The one exception i s on American Sumas Mountain where a t h i n , shaly lens interbedded between massive conglomerates was sampled. This y i e l d e d s e v e r a l proteaceous grains as w e l l as other more t y p i c a l Eocene m i c r o f o s s i l s . However, the rocks themselves suggest vigorous e r o s i o n i n the headwaters, and I suspect the proteaceous grains are contaminants from the older r o c k s . Furthermore, these rocks are l y i n g w i t h strong a n g u l a r i t y on f o l d e d , f a u l t e d , and eroded rocks of the Chuckanut Formation, which i s considered most l i k e l y Paleocene i n age. Dicotyledonous p o l l e n i s present, but i s not s t r i k i n g e i t h e r i n v a r i e t y or numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s . Liquidambar and Glyptostrobus are conspicuous by t h e i r absence. UJjnils i s absent from a l l outcrop samples, except Toad Lake, where i t - 5 8 - reaches about k percent of the t o t a l . The absence of a r i c h dicotyledonous f l o r a as described e a r l i e r , and the absence of Liquidambar and Glvptostrohns and the v i r t u a l absence of U lim is suggest the rocks are not as young as Miocene. On the other hand, Anemia i s present i n one outcrop f l o r a , C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s i n three, P i s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s i n f o u r , and P l a t y c a r y a i n f o u r . As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , these genera are reasonable i n d i c a t o r s of an Eocene age. Although I b e l i e v e there i s no doubt that a l l the T e r t i a r y outcrops are s t r a t i g r a p h i c e q u i v a l e n t s of the Burrard or K i t  s i l a n o Formations, a f i n e r s u b d i v i s i o n becomes more d i f f i c u l t and u n c e r t a i n , l a r g e l y because of the s i m i l a r i t y of the Burrard and K i t s i l a n o f l o r a s . The Toad Lake outcrop, the Glen Echo Coal Mine, the Goshen Coal Mine, and probably the Bellingham Coal Mine appear gener a l l y to be Burrard e q u i v a l e n t s . None contains X l f i x , w i t h the exception of a few percent i n / t h e Bellingham c o a l sample. A l s o , P l a t y c a r y a i s not present i n any of these s i t e s . With the excep t i o n of the Bellingham Coal Mine, a l l c o n t a i n P i s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w h i l e admittedly l i m i t e d , suggest that these four outcrops are e q u i v a l e n t to the B u r r a r d Formation and to the Burrard equivalent i n the two w e l l s . Data from the B e l l  ingham Coal Mine i s sketchy and non-conclusive, but i t i s c l o s e to and appears s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y contiguous w i t h the sediments Of Toad Lake and the GoShen Coal Mine. However, the p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s that the Bellingham c o a l seam migjai a c t u a l l y be Miocene - 5 9 - i n age, although at the present time there i s no way to prove or disprove the contention. . M i c r o f o s s i l assemblages from Canadian Sumas Mountain, the Whatcom Clay Mine, Dale Creek (American Sumas Mountain), and the Whatcom Quarry, suggest a K i t s i l a n o age. I l e x charac t e r i z e s two of the outcrops, P l a t y c a r y a i s found i n three out crops, P i s t l l l i p o l l e n i t e s " i s represented by only two grains i n the Dale Creek (American Sumas Mountain) assemblage, and i f these are not contaminents, t h e i r presence would suggest t h i s s e c t i o n i s equi v a l e n t to the K i t s i l a n o beach p o r t i o n of the K i t s i l a n o Formation. However, as mentioned e a r l i e r , t h i s might be e r o s i o n a l contamination from older rocks. C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s i s abundant i n three of the outcrops, but absent i n the proble m a t i c a l Dale Creek sample. Anemia i s abundant i n the Canadian Sumas Mountain f l o r a . From t h i s evidence, I t e n t a t i v e l y consider these four f l o r a s as equivalent to the K i t s i l a n o Formation, and the K i t s i l a n o - e q u i v a l e n t i n the two w e l l s . -The preceding d i s c u s s i o n should not be construed as an argument f o r r e t a i n i n g the B u r r a r d - K i t s i l a n o s u b d i v i s i o n . The overwhelming f l o r a l evidence suggests a c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y between the two u n i t s , and the appearance or disappearance of s e v e r a l genera during a 1 6 m i l l i o n year pe r i o d i s not unexpected. How ever, t h i s presence or absence may be u s e f u l i n suggesting w i t h what part of the B u r r a r d - K i t s i l a n o sequence one i s d e a l i n g . -60- PALE0EC0L0GICAL INTERPRETATIONS Genera l I d e a l l y , p l a n t s are the most s e n s i t i v e of the t e r r e s t r i a l e c o l o g i c a l I n d i c a t o r s . Animals can roam and move about i f c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s become unfavorable, but p l a n t s are rooted to one spot and must t o l e r a t e the environment i n which they grow. ; Furthermore, the t o l e r a n c e i n t h e i r environmental requirements i s l e s s than f o r most animals. Because the most c r i t i c a l stage i n a p l a n t ' s e n t i r e growth c y c l e i s at germin a t i o n , a changing environment w i l l allow s u r v i v a l of the repro d u c t i v e propagules only i f they f a l l i n a fav o r a b l e s i t e . Because of t h i s , a changing c l i m a t e can markedly a l t e r the f l o r a i n comparatively few years. As a consequence, a n a l y s i s of f o s s i l f l o r a s should provide data on c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s at the time of growth. And indeed they do; but s e v e r a l problems loom l a r g e , one of which we have mentioned e a r l i e r . In palynology, as i n a l l paleontology, a . g e n e r a l l y accepted t r u i s m i s the o l d saw, "the present i s the key to the past." In pale o e c o l o g i c i n t e r p r e  t a t i o n s one must assume that organisms, whether p l a n t or animal, reacted to a given environment i n much the same way as t h e i r modern counterparts do. In other words, an a l d e r or elm would have had the same e c o l o g i c requirements i n the Miocene as they do today. The problem w i t h t h i s assumption i s that we are not -.61- r e a l l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the complete e c o l o g i c a l requirements and the range of tolerance of most genera and species of p l a n t s . This i s true w i t h temperate species,, and i s even more so f o r t r o p i c a l and s u b t r o p i c a l s p e c i e s . Furthermore, w i t h i n any given genus the range of v a r i a b i l i t y may (and u s u a l l y i s ) high w i t h each species r e q u i r i n g s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s . However, i n v i r t u a l l y a l l s t u d i e s where p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s are used to i n t e r p r e t paleoecology we are not d e a l i n g w i t h n a t u r a l species but only w i t h n a t u r a l genera. The species of m i c r o f o s s i l s or other p l a n t parts are a r t i f i c i a l , at l e a s t i n rocks older than P l i o c e n e , and are based on various morpholo g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s which may or may not have s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e f l e c t i n g n a t u r a l (or phylogenetic) r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In any event, i n very few cases can they be equated to modern species. P a l y n o l o g i s t s u s u a l l y take the t o t a l range of v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n a genus, and u t i l i z e as many genera as p o s s i b l e to i n t e r p r e t paleoecology. Ho p e f u l l y , a l a r g e m i c r o f o s s i l assemblage w i l l give a q u a l i t a t i v e estimate of the c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s at the s i t e of d e p o s i t i o n w h i l e the p a r t i c u l a r f l o r a was i n e x i s t e n c e . The other problem i s whether a given sample i s t r u l y rep r e s e n t a t i v e of the extant f l o r a at the time of d e p o s i t i o n . As pointed out p r e v i o u s l y , d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s e r v a t i o n i s always a f a c t o r ••— some p o l l e n grains s u r v i v e b a c t e r i a l and f u n g a l a t t a c k , o x i d a t i o n , h y d r o l y s i s and rock diagenesis more r e a d i l y than others. Furthermore, p o l l e n and spores are produced i n v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t q u a n t i t i e s i n d i f f e r e n t genera. For example, - 6 2 - a ten year o l d branch system of beech has been estimated to produce 2 8 - m i l l i o n p o l l e n grains per year, w h i l e an equivalent branch system of pine may produce 3 5 0 m i l l i o n grains ( F a e g r i and Iverson, 1 9 6 4 ) . This d i f f e r e n c e w i l l o b v i o u s l y be r e f l e c t e d i n the q u a n t i t i e s of p o l l e n grains obtained from maceration of rock samples and used i n s l i d e counts. The method of p o l l e n d i s p e r s a l a l s o r e f l e c t s r e l a t i v e q u a n t i t i e s . Wind p o l l i n a t e d species ( i . e . Pinus) which u s u a l l y produce p o l l e n i n enormous q u a n t i t i e s , w i l l be abundant i n the f o s s i l r e c o rd, whereas i n s e c t p o l l i n a t e d p l a n t s ( i . e . Acer) pro duce r e l a t i v e l y few p o l l e n g r a i n s . As a r e s u l t , Acer may be under-represented i n a m i c r o f o s s i l spectrum and i t s importance i n the assemblage w i l l be under-rated. In the case of Acer, a p o l l e n g r a i n which i s a l s o e a s i l y destroyed, the combination of low r e l a t i v e p r o d u c t i v i t y and comparative f r a g i l i t y may r e s u l t i n i t s absence e n t i r e l y from the p o l l e n record. Factors such as these undoubtedly lead to complications of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and must always be born i n mind when a r r i v i n g at e c o l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s . Provided enough samples are c o l l e c t e d , both l a t e r a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y i n a formation, a f a i r l y s a t i s  f a c t o r y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of some aspects of ecology should be p o s s i b l e . However, when using w e l l samples which are taken only at a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d i n t e r v a l s ( i n t h i s case 1 0 0 f e e t ) , any conclusions of paleoecology must be regarded as t e n t a t i v e and can be presented only i n general q u a l i t a t i v e terms. This i s what 1 have done i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , w i t h b r i e f i n t e r -- 6 3 - p r e t a t i o n s . o f the o v e r a l l f l o r a l p i c t u r e through time. Refer ence can.be made to Table E where g e n e r a l i z e d statements are made on both h a b i t a t and c l i m a t i c requirements of the more common genera. Upper Cretaceous I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Upper Cretaceous environments are ham pered by the small f l o r a present i n w e l l samples of t h i s age. However, examination of Table E i n d i c a t e s that a l l the genera - are e i t h e r t r o p i c a l or s u b t r o p i c a l . M i c r o f o s s i l s found i n the Cretaceous r o c k s , i n c l u d i n g CH eichenja, P r o t e a c i d i t e s . and Sabal I n d i c a t e a t r o p i c a l to s u b t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e but w i t h vary ing h a b i t a t s . A s u b t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e i s more l i k e l y , because as Brooks (195D pointed out, the Late Cretaceous was a time of world wide c o o l i n g . Smiley (1966) working w i t h Cretaceous megafloras I n the Kuk R i v e r area of northern Alaska was able to document a c o o l i n g trend throughout the l a t e r Cretaceous. Modern genera of the Proteaceae commonly grow i n areas where a prolonged annual dry season occurs. P o s s i b l y t h i s was so i n the Cretaceous because of the v a r i e t y and abundance of the Proteaceae during the Late Cretaceous of the Northwest. Because the Cretaceous rocks are not d i r e c t l y observable i n the w e l l s , l i t t l e can be s a i d d i r e c t l y about the d e p o s i t i o n a l environment which they i n d i c a t e . However, i f they are equi v a l e n t to some part of the Chuckanut Formation, as seems l i k e l y , they would i n d i c a t e i n t e r m i t t e n t c o n t i n e n t a l d e p o s i t i o n on a la r g e -6i+- TABLE E RANGE AND ECOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS OF MODERN GENERA WHICH HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED FROM THE WHATCOM BASIN (Modified after Rouse (1962), H i l l s (1965), with additions from Bailey (19^9), Lawrence ( 1 9 5 D , W i l l i s (1955),-Graham (1965), and Smiley ( 1 9 6 6 ) . ) GENUS HABITAT AND GEOGRAPHIC RANGE CLIMATE Isoetes LycQpodium Osmunda Anemia Gleichenia A z o l l a Ginkgo Ced-FUS Keteleeria Laxix Moist areas to aquatic, cosmopolitan Most are mesophytic, cosmopolitan Swamps, shaded moist woodlands, mainly Northern Hemisphere Wet lowlands and r a i n  forests, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t r o p i c a l America Swamps, shaded moist areas, Southern Hemisphere Quiet lake and pond waters Open stands, well-drained areas, west'China Dense forests, northern A f r i c a , southern Asia Dense forests, China Marshes to woodlands, mainly Northern Hemisphere Temperate to t r o p i c a l Temperate to t r o p i c a l Temperate to t r o p i c a l Subtropical to t r o p i c a l T r o p i c a l Warm temperate to t r o p i c a l Warm temperate, ^0-60" precip i t a t i o n Temperate to subtropical Warm temperate Cool temperate to boreal Moist s o i l s , mainly Northern Hemisphere Cool temperate, generally high al t i t u d e - 6 5 - TABLE E GENUS HABITAT AND GEOGRAPHIC RANGE CLIMATE Swamps to rocky highlands, predominantly dry s i t e s , Northern Hemisphere V a r i a b l e GlyptQStrobus A s s o c i a t e d w i t h evergreen oak f o r e s t , g e n e r a l l y moist to swampy h a b i t a t s , southeast China Warm temperate to s u b t r o p i c a l , 50-60" p r e c i  p i t a t i o n Metasequoia Wet r a v i n e s i n mountains, c e n t r a l , China Taxodium Swamps and f l o o d p l a i n s of southeastern United States and Mexico Warm temperate to s u b t r o p i c a l , 50-60" p r e c i p i  t a t i o n Podocarpus Moist woodlands and moun t a i n s of the Southern Hemisphere, Caribbean and South America Warm temperate Northern Hemisphere, mostly small trees i n woodlands Temperate Magnoliaceae Trees and shrubs, some . c l i m b i n g , cosmopolitan Warm temperate, s u b t r o p i c a l to t r o p i c a l Liquidambar Tree, component of oak- h i c k o r y f o r e s t , Northern Hemisphere Warm temperate Damp t h i c k e t s , swamps, c o o l woods, cosmopolitan V a r i a b l e •Swamps, wet woods, stream margins, cosmopolitan V a r i a b l e B e t u l a Uplands to bog and wooded swamp, Northern Hemisphere Cool temperate Carpinus Upland woodlands to c o a s t a l swamps, Northern Hemisphere Cool temperate -66- TABLE E GENUS HABITAT AND GEOGRAPHIC RANGE CLIMATE C a r y l u s T h i c k e t s , woodlands, Northern Hemisphere Temperate Castanea Dry woods, t h i c k e t s , Northern Hemisphere Cool to warm temperate Fagus Forms, homogeneous, Northern Hemisphere Temperate Quercus Wide range of h a b i t a t s , Northern Hemisphere, moun t a i n s of the t r o p i c s V a r i a b l e Carva V a r i a b l e h a b i t a t s , China, southeast A s i a , eastern North America Cool temperate to s u b t r o p i c a l E n g e l h a r d t i a A s i a Juglans Woods and r i v e r t e r r a c e s , southeastern United S t a t e s , South America, southeastern Europe, A s i a Warm temperate to s u b t r o p i c a l P l a t y c a r y a Japan and- northern China P t e r o c a r y a Northern Hemisphere of o l d world Temperate l i i i a Low slopes and along streams, Northern Hemisphere Temperate Acer V a r i a b l e h a b i t a t s , Northern Hemisphere Cool to warm temperate Aescuius Woods, bottomlands and stream borders and t h i c k e t s , Northern Hemisphere and South America Temperate Bogs, moist depressions, cosmopolitan Warm temperate to s u b t r o p i c a l Proteaceae M o s t l y x e r o p h y t i c , r e s t r i c t e d to Southern Hemisphere Most i n d i c a t e long annual dry season -67- TABLE E GENUS HABITAT AND GEOGRAPHIC RANGE CLIMATE Mvrica V a r i a b l e h a b i t a t s , cosmopolitan Temperate to s u b t r o p i c a l Sabal Lowlands,: r i v e r bottoms, c o a s t a l p l a i n s , southeastern United S t a t e s , Caribbean, Cblumbia S u b t r o p i c a l to t r o p i c a l I x p h a Marshes, along r i v e r banks, cosmopolitan, except south of equator i n A f r i c a Temperate to t r o p i c a l Potamo'geton- Herbaceous i n streams and ponds, a few along sea margin Cool temperate to s u b t r o p i c a l - 6 8 - . f l o o d p l a i n w i t h a l l i t s r e s u l t a n t v a r i a t i o n s i n l i t h o l o g y . EjiGjejas The Eocene f l o r a i s l a r g e l y composed of genera whose modern components are warm temperate to s u b t r o p i c a l . Most of the genera, such as Anemia, Taxodium, M i x , ' A l m s , I l s x , fiabal and I^pjaa are now c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a low, moist and p o o r l y drained c o a s t a l area. The presence of A z o l l a and Potamogeton, which p r e s e n t l y i n h a b i t ponds and/or l a k e s , show that bodies of water e x i s t e d on t h i s lowland. Other m i c r o f o s s i l s are present which suggest a more upland h a b i t a t . These i n c l u d e PJLruis, Po-flo c a r p u s , I laxya, Cpry- l u s and Quercus. How f a r these trees were growing from the source of d e p o s i t i o n i s u n c e r t a i n , but t h e i r low frequency of occurrence would suggest i t was some dis t a n c e away. . . E l a n s , whose p o l l e n i s produced i n p r o l i f i c amounts, i s not a common m i c r o f o s s i l i n any of the Whatcom b a s i n r o c k s . Furthermore, bladdered c o n i f e r grains are seldom w e l l preserved, are o f t e n p h y s i c a l l y broken and almost i n e v i t a b l y corroded. The i m p l i  c a t i o n i s that t h e i r h a b i t a t was a considerable d i s t a n c e away, probably to the n o r t h , east and south but not to the west. Transport to the d e p o s i t i b n a l s i t e was probably l a r g e l y by streams, which accounts f o r the poor p h y s i c a l p r e s e r v a t i o n . Although we do not know the p r e v a i l i n g wind d i r e c t i o n s during the Eocene, i t was porbably southeast to northwest, as at present. At the present time, during the f a l l and winter - 6 9 - months, the p r e v a i l i n g winds are southeast; the spring and summer months are dominated by w e s t e r l y to northwesterly winds (Vancouver Weather O f f i c e , o r a l communication). Because the , f l o w e r i n g season i s dominated by w e s t e r l y winds there would be a f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n i n the number of p o l l e n grains that '. would move westward to the s i t e of d e p o s i t i o n i n the Whatcom b a s i n . The l i t h o l o g i e s , i n s o f a r as they are v i s i b l e i n the ; K i t s i l a n o and Burrard Formations, as w e l l as i n other Eocene outcrops, bear out t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a lowland environ ment. Sands and shales predominate, r i v e r and stream channels are common, t h i n c o a l seams are present, as are o c c a s i o n a l cross-beds. Together these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d i c a t e the existence of lowlands and swamps. The p i c t u r e that emerges i s s i m i l a r to that proposed by Johnston (1923) of a low, swampy ' c o a s t a l p l a i n , spotted w i t h s m a l l l a k e s , ponds and swamps, and t r a v e r s e d by g e n e r a l l y slow-moving, meandering streams f l o w i n g westward an unknown dis t a n c e to t h e i r j u n c t i o n w i t h ; the sea. In summary, the Eocene i n the area of the Whatcom b a s i n appears to have been warmer and more humid than at present, but probably not t r u l y s u b t r o p i c a l . Highlands must have sur rounded the b a s i n of d e p o s i t i o n , but r e l i e f was f a r l e s s than ,. at present. P r e c i p i t a t i o n was probably 50 to 60 inches annu a l l y and was more or l e s s u n i f o r m l y d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the : year. -70- Miocene L i t t l e can be i n t e r p r e t e d from the rocks as to the pro bable environment of d e p o s i t i o n , as the Miocene rocks are t o t a l l y subsurface and w e l l data are not p a r t i c u l a r l y e n l i g h t  ening. Apparently, however, c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r to those of the Eocene p r e v a i l e d , w i t h d e p o s i t i o n on a low, e s s e n t i a l l y f l a t , g r a d u a l l y subsiding c o a s t a l p l a i n . A v a i l a b l e f l o r a l evidence suggests that the Miocene was s l i g h t l y warmer than at present, w i t h p r e c i p i t a t i o n more equably d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the year. Three d e f i n i t e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s appear to have e x i s t e d w i t h i n the r e g i o n , implying more topographic r e l i e f than during the Eocene. The abundance of Taxodium and 01vptostrobus i s an i n d i c a  t i o n of lar g e bodies of standing water i n a warm temperate to s u b t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e . These two genera f i l l i d e n t i c a l e c o l o g i c a l n i c h e s , but at the present time Glyptostrobus i s r e s t r i c t e d to China whereas Taxodium i s found only i n the southeastern United States and nort h e a s t e r n Mexico. During the T e r t i a r y , both of these genera were widespread over North America. At present, these genera r e q u i r e $0 to 60 inches of p r e c i p i t a t i o n y e a r l y and a temperature that r a r e l y f a l l s below 32° F. The abundance of Potamogeton a t t e s t s to the apparently r a t h e r extensive bodies of standing water. Typha and I l e x , both abundant i n warm swampy environments a l s o i n h a b i t e d these lowlands. • On s l i g h t l y higher uplands, probably on the b a s i n margins, stood a hardwood f o r e s t much l i k e that c u r r e n t l y present i n -71- the eastern United States and eastern Asia. Typical trees i n th i s association were l i l i a , £agjiS, Cast ana a, Ulmus, Carpinus, Lifluiflamfrar, Quercus, and Jjiglana. Such trees have a modern d i s t r i b u t i o n i n moderately well drained s i t e s where the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s ^0 to 60 inches (Chaney, 19^ +0) with both winter and summer ra i n s . S t i l l farther back from the basin were more pronounced uplands that supported at least some coniferous genera, such as £iniis and JEicjaa. Abies has not been found i n the Miocene rocks, so presumably any s i t e of growth during t h i s time was well removed from the basin. In modern f l o r a s , Ab_ie_s. generally grows at a considerably higher elevation than Picea so probably no highlands of s u f f i c i e n t height existed to support AbJL&s. In general, the f l o r a s of the Miocene ranged from warm temperate assemblages to those at s l i g h t l y higher elevations consisting of deciduous hardwood trees. Temperate conditions must have existed at higher a l t i t u d e s . As i n the Eocene, pre c i p i t a t i o n was somewhat higher, and mean low temperatures not so extreme as at present. Generally, Miocene temperatures appear to be somewhat less than those of the Eocene. At the present time the p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s concentrated mainly i n the winter months with a comparatively dry summer. Miocene precip i t a t i o n was probably more equably d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the year. GEOLOGIC HISTORY This summary of geologic h i s t o r y of the Whatcom b a s i n and immediate surroundings i s concerned only w i t h Late Cretaceous and T e r t i a r y h i s t o r y , and hence no mention i s made of the complex and i n v o l v e d P a l e o z o i c and Mesozoic e u g e o s y n c l i n a l events that preceded the T e r t i a r y . The present review begins w i t h the d e p o s i t i o n of the Chuckanut Formation of northwestern Washington. Apparently during the Middle Cretaceous, deformation and low-grade metamorphlsm a f f e c t e d the e n t i r e area. In Late Cret aceous time subsidence began again i n a long trough which extended from Bellingham southeast across the s i t e of the Cas cade Mountains, at l e a s t as f a r as Wenatchee, Washington. W i t h i n t h i s trough, c o n t i n e n t a l d e p o s i t i o n took p l a c e , i n some areas to greater thickness because of greater subsidence. Quite p o s s i b l y subsidence and d e p o s i t i o n took place i n the S t r a i t of Georgia which i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s trough. This sequence of c o n t i n e n t a l rocks i s now known as the Chuckanut Formation. The lowest p a r t of the Chuckanut i s perhaps e q u i v a l e n t to the upper part of the Nanaimo Group of Vancouver I s l a n d , but w h i l e the Nanaimo Group contains numerous marine s e c t i o n s , the Chuck anut Formation, w i t h the one exception noted, appears to be e n t i r e l y c o n t i n e n t a l . D e p o s i t i o n apparently continued i n the elongated northwest- southeast trough through p a r t or a l l of the Paleocene and -73- p o s s i b l y i n t o the Lower Eocene u n t i l a maximum l o c a l thickness of 20,000 f e e t was reached. At t h i s time, the e n t i r e sequence was deformed. As was pointed out i n an e a r l i e r s e c t i o n , the Chuckanut was f o l d e d i n t o n orthwesterly and n o r t h e a s t e r l y t r e n d  i n g f o l d s , some t i g h t , some r e l a t i v e l y open. L o c a l l y , minor reverse f a u l t i n g and o v e r t h r u s t i n g has been observed. At l e a s t one major f a u l t , c a l l e d the North Nooksack F a u l t by Moen (1962) and the Boulder Creek F a u l t by M i l l e r and Misch (1963), has been mapped. Reportedly i t s displacement i s at l e a s t 5 5000 f e e t and must e i t h e r terminate or post date defor mation because Chuckanut f o l d s have been d i s p l a c e d . This normal f a u l t s t r i k e s e s s e n t i a l l y east-west w i t h the south block down, and disappears beneath the Middle Eocene rocks without any evidence of o f f s e t or displacement. E v i d e n t l y there has been no movement on t h i s f a u l t s ince the Middle Eocene. The h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of what fol l o w e d Chuckanut deformation i s cloudy and d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t i n d e t a i l . B a s i c a l l y there i s no doubt that the Whatcom b a s i n i s a d i s t i n c t e n t i t y — w e l l - d a t a and outcrop i n f o r m a t i o n are i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e . But the question i s : how d i d the b a s i n form, and when. Several i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are p o s s i b l e . Middle Eocene rocks crop out i n a discontinuous band around the e n t i r e b a s i n . They are a l l c l a s t i c , w i t h the excep t i o n of s e v e r a l s m a l l and l o c a l r e s i d u a l d e p o s i t s . A l l dip i n t o the basin :and comparable Middle Eocene rocks are found i n a l l the b a s i n w e l l s which penetrate deeply enough. In f a c t , M i l l e r -74- ( i n M i l l e r and Misch, 1963) considered a l l the T e r t i a r y rocks to be Eocene, i n c l u d i n g those which I have i n t e r p r e t e d as Miocene. How extensive the Eocene deposits were o r i g i n a l l y i s a question that cannot be given a d e f i n i t i v e answer. How ever, they were probably never much more extensive than at present, because remnants are not found f a r outside the b a s i n margin. Furthermore, at American Sumas Mountain, the Eocene i s represented by a t h i c k sequence of coarse conglomerates that suggest a nearby source. Component boulders are composed of rock types that could have been derived from a c t i v e e r o s i o n of the area now comprising the northern Cascades. E v i d e n t l y , d i f f e r e n t i a l e r o s i o n of the Chuckanut Formation d i d take place p r i o r to the formation of the Whatcom b a s i n because Paleocene rocks are not recognized i n the two deep w e l l s . Griggs (1965) has considered the Chuckanut Drive sequence of rocks as mainly Paleocene, but nothing comparable to h i s f l o r a occurs i n the w e l l s . However, as I e a r l i e r remarked, we do not r e a l l y know what Paleocene i n t h i s area should look l i k e , or whether the Chuckanut i s t r u l y Paleocene. Even i f i t i s , i t may not be the age of the lowermost Chuck anut, which as I have suggested e a r l i e r may be Upper Cretaceous. A l s o , a p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s that Paleocene rocks were not depos i t e d on the s i t e of the Whatcom b a s i n , and that a l l that i s eq u i v a l e n t to the Chuckanut, i s Upper Cretaceous. Our i n t e r  p r e t a t i o n s here are confused by the f a c t the s t r a t i g r a p h y and paleobotany of the Chuckanut Formation i s not known. E v i d e n t l y during the Middle Eocene, the Whatcom b a s i n g r a d u a l l y subsided, accompanied by c o n t i n u a l d e p o s i t i o n of f l o o d - p l a i n and c o a s t a l - p l a i n d e p o s i t s . That subsidence never o u t s t r i p p e d d e p o s i t i o n i s suggested by the absence of marine u n i t s which would have r e s u l t e d had the sea transgressed the re g i o n . Eocene rocks are not known on the east side of Van couver I s l a n d , hence they presumably wedge out westward be neath the waters of the S t r a i t of Georgia. Presumably a l s o , the S t r a i t of Georgia, at l e a s t west-of the Whatcom b a s i n , but not as f a r west as Vancouver I s l a n d , was a subsiding area. Source areas f o r the Eocene sediments were apparently highlands occupying the s i t e s of the Coast Mountains and the Cascade Range. As i n d i c a t e d i n e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n s , the f l o r a l evidence suggests much lower highlands than at present, prob ably not much more than low h i l l s . L o c a l l y , to the east, more vigorous u p l i f t must have occurred to provide a source f o r the conglomerates. Near the end of the Eocene, or e a r l i e s t Oligocene, depo s i t i o n apparently came to an end. Quite probably, r e l i e f over the e n t i r e area was very low at t h i s time w i t h n e i t h e r u p l i f t nor subsidence t a k i n g place. The upper surface of the Eocene was near grade and probably l i t t l e more than l o c a l reworking of the uppermost Eocene took place. By the Miocene, orogenic a c t i v i t y had become pronounced over most of what i s now western Washington and Oregon. In the area of western Washington, a s e r i e s of pronounced north--76- west-southeast upwarps developed w i t h the formation of a number of closed basins (Snavely, si . a l , 1963). The Whatcom b a s i n became one of these closed areas again, on the north slope of an u p l i f t centered south of Bellingham and passing through the San Juan Islands and presumably onto Vancouver I s l a n d . U p l i f t was: probably m i l d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area w i t h the highlands subdued and showing none of the high - r e l i e f charac t e r i s t i c of the r e g i o n today. Probably, however, r e l i e f was con s i d e r a b l y more than during the Eocene. Gradual subsidence i n the center of the Whatcoiri b a s i n during part or. a l l of the Miocene again r e s u l t e d i n i n f i l l i n g by c o n t i n e n t a l sediments. Subsidence was more r e s t r i c t e d and was not as extensive as during the Eocene. By the end of the Miocene, r e l i e f was again low and more s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s resumed w i t h l i t t l e subsidence or u p l i f t . By Late Pliocene and P l e i s t o c e n e the north-south Cascade Mountain u p l i f t began w i t h the r e s u l t i n g i n c i s i o n by drainage and. w i t h abundant c l a s t i c m a t e r i a l - c a r r i e d westward to the S t r a i t o f Georgia. P l e i s t o c e n e g l a c i a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n mantling much of the r e g i o n w i t h outwash and t i l l , covering a l l the lowlands except the p o s t - P l e i s t o c e n e d e l t a s of the Fras e r , Nooksack, Skagit and other r i v e r s . One a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t i s the I n t e r e s t i n g topographic r e l a t i o n s present at the south end of the b a s i n . The Chucka nut Formation i s t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y h i g h south of Bellingham, l o c a l l y reaching e l e v a t i o n s i n excess of 2 ,000 f e e t . The -77- • Eocene rocks cropping out n o r t h of the Chuckanut Highlands are dipping s t e e p l y i n t o the b a s i n , more s t e e p l y than one would expect i f i t were simply an onlap r e l a t i o n . Recently, i n t e n s i v e seismic i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have been con ducted i n the S t r a i t of Georgia from west of Vancouver to the area n o r t h of Orcas I s l a n d . P r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s of t h i s work have i n d i c a t e d a very l a r g e and s i g n i f i c a n t seismic d i s c o n t i n  u i t y extending southeast along the southwest side of the S t r a i t of Georgia o f f the eastern coast of the Gulf Islands (Dr. J . Murray, o r a l communication). This d i s c o n t i n u i t y i s i n d i c a t e d on the g e n e r a l i z e d Geologic Map (Figure D, i n pocket). North of Saturna I s l a n d the d i s c o n t i n u i t y swings to a more e a s t e r l y bearing, passing w e l l n o r t h of Orcas I s l a n d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , c o n t r o l i s not extended beyond t h i s p o i n t although u l t i m a t e l y a d d i t i o n a l work i s planned. However, i f one continues the p r o j e c t i o n of t h i s d i s c o n t i n u i t y , i t passes i n t o the vegeta t i v e l y covered area between the Chuckanut Formation and the Eocene rocks i n the v i c i n i t y of Bellingham. I t must be admitted that as f a r as I am aware there i s no surface m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h i s d i s c o n t i n u i t y on the mainland. However, Dr. Murray b e l i e v e s that q u i t e probably t h i s d i s  c o n t i n u i t y i s a major f a u l t , although the sense of movement i s not c l e a r . P r e l i m i n a r y examinations of the seismic p r o f i l e s , however, suggest that t h i s i s a normal f a u l t w i t h the down block to the northeast and east. I f t h i s i s so, and i f t h i s " f a u l t " continues eastward i n t o the mainland of Washington, i t i may account f o r the t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y h i g h p o s i t i o n of the Chuck anut Formation. I t would a l s o e x p l a i n by drag the very steep dips which c h a r a c t e r i z e the Eocene rocks at the south end of the b a s i n . Because t h i s ' d i s c o n t i n u i t y a f f e c t s the sea f l o o r i n the S t r a i t of Georgia, i t would appear to be a moderately recent f e a t u r e , perhaps Pliocene or P l e i s t o c e n e and i n some way asso c i a t e d w i t h the Cascade Mountain u p l i f t . Because the seismic data have not been completely e v a l  uated, and xbecause much work remains to be done, i t would be unwarranted to speculate f u r t h e r . However, the p o t e n t i a l s i g  n i f i c a n c e of t h i s d i s c o n t i n u i t y to e x p l a i n the s t r u c t u r a l r e l a  t i o n s of T e r t i a r y and Cretaceous rocks i n t h i s r e g i o n should be born i n mind. Much remains to be done before a more complete understanding of the T e r t i a r y geologic h i s t o r y of northwestern Washington and southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia i s achieved. I hope that i n a s m a l l way the r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n have c o n t r i b u t e d to the u l t i m a t e understanding of t h i s h i s t o r y . PALYNOLOGY Co l l e c t i n g , and Laboratory Procedures In the e a r l y stages of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n I found that the most productive rock samples, i n terms of p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l content, were f i n e - g r a i n e d c l a s t i c rocks of c l a y s i z e , and -79- carbonaceous sediments, e s p e c i a l l y c o a l . In almost a l l cases, silts-tones or sandstones y i e l d e d no m i c r o f o s s i l s ; i f they were ever present, p h y s i c a l damage or c o r r o s i o n made them unrecog n i z a b l e . As a general r u l e , the d e p o s i t i o n a l environment of sand i s one of considerable turbulence which almost c e r t a i n l y r e s u l t e d i n p h y s i c a l a b rasion, d e s t r u c t i o n , or washing out of any contained m i c r o f o s s i l s . Furthermore, the higher permea b i l i t y of sandstones, as contrasted w i t h s h a l e s , would l i k e l y have permitted the entrance of atmospheric oxygen i n t o the sands, w i t h the concomitant growth of d e s t r u c t i v e f u n g i and b a c t e r i a . Although a number of s i l t y and sandy shale samples were macerated, v i r t u a l l y a l l of the m a t e r i a l on which f l o r a l conclusions are based was deriv e d from shales and c o a l s . The sampling procedure was simple, w i t h short channel sample's taken from shales and c o a l s . w i t h i n the rock u n i t s . With c a r e f u l sampling at K i t s i l a n o Beach and through the north- south Highbury Tunnel, s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y l o c a t e d samples were taken through a p a r t i a l s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n of the K i t s i l a n o Formation. With the Huntington Formation and T e r t i a r y c o n t i n  e n t a l sedimentary rocks, c o l l e c t i n g on a complete s t r a t i g r a p h i c b a s i s was not p o s s i b l e because of the narrow width of outcrop, and the p a u c i t y of s a t i s f a c t o r y f o s s i l - b e a r i n g zones. Mostly d i t c h , but some core samples were used from the various w e l l s examined. The maceration procedure was e s s e n t i a l l y the same f o r a l l samples, w i t h minor m o d i f i c a t i o n s to s u i t . s p e c i f i c cases. - 8 0 - Approximately six grams of sample were selected and crushed u n t i l the maximum p a r t i c l e size was about 3 mm. The crushed sample was placed i n 50 percent hydrochloric acid for about 2*+ hours to remove any carbonate present. A l l of the samples contained some carbonates; some of the shales were a c t u a l l y calcareous shales. Following HC1 treatment, the sample was thoroughly washed i n tap water, then placed i n 50 percent hydrofluoric acid to remove the s i l i c a . With occasional a g i t a t i o n the time required i n HF ranged from 2h to 72 hours. Following this treatment, the sample was thoroughly washed and examined under the micro scope. On occasion the microfossils were clear at this point and no further treatment was necessary. Usually, however, the microfossils were coated with a carbonaceous f i l m which had to be removed -before they could be mounted on s l i d e s . To remove the carbonaceous f i l m the residue was immersed i n 30 percent n i t r i c acid for periods ranging from 3 to 2^ hours. As the carbon gradually oxidized the carbonaceous mat e r i a l turned red and transparent. At this point the sample was washed i n water, then immersed i n a 5 percent solution of potassium carbonate. This e f f e c t i v e l y removed the red f i l m and l e f t the mi c r o f o s s i l s clear and ready for staining. Occasional samples were encountered i n which the carbon aceous f i l m was e s p e c i a l l y thick and tenacious. O r i g i n a l l y an attempt was made to oxidize t h i s using Schultzes solution ( n i t r i c acid, potassium chlorate and water). This solution i s -81- a very strong and rapid oxidizing reagent; thus i t i s d i f f i c u l t to use without excessive oxidation and eventual loss of the entire m i c r o f l o r a l assemblage. I found i t more s a t i s f a c t o r y and less damaging to u t i l i z e several treatments with r e l a t i v e l y weak n i t r i c acid alternated with treatment with potassium car bonate. Following immersion i n potassium carbonate, regardless of whether the oxidation treatment was applied once or several times, the sample was thoroughly washed. A solution of s a f r a n i n dye i n water was applied and the sample allowed to stand for several minutes. This was followed by a rinse i n alcohol to absorb any remaining water. F i n a l l y , the samples were stained i n a safranin dye-alcohol solution and permanently mounted on glass slides with Gelva p l a s t i c dissolved i n dioxane. During the course of t h i s project I macerated nearly 200 rock samples, although only about lh-0 of these contained s u i t  able microfossils for permanent s l i d e mounts. For each of the lh-0 samples, 3 to 6 slides were prepared, depending upon the m i c r o f o s s i l concentration. Three hundred and twenty s l i d e s were obtained from the well samples, each from a d i f f e r e n t horizon. The value of these varied widely, some being comple t e l y barren, others bearing a r i c h m i c r o f l o r a l assemblage. An attempt was made to count at least 200 grains per s l i d e , occasionally more than t h i s . However, at times fewer than 200 were counted per preparation, simply because of the low concen t r a t i o n of grains on the s l i d e . -82- Photomicography Examination and counting of the m i c r o f o s s i l s was done w i t h a L e i t z Ortholux research microscope equipped w i t h an automatic L e i t z Orthomat camera. The f i l m used was I l f o r d Pan F,.processed i n Acufine f i n e - g r a i n e d developer. Enlarge ments were made on Kodak Kodabromide paper using Kodak Dektol developer. , Taxonomy As every p a l y n o l o g i s t knows, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s i s i n a c h a o t i c s t a t e w i t h no uniform system acceptable to a l l workers. There are, however, two broad schemes i n use, each w i t h i t s advantages and d i s a d  vantages. The f i r s t , o r i g i n a l l y championed by Potonie' and other European p a l y n o l o g i s t s , i s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on p o l l e n and spore morphology. Here grains are assigned to d i s t i n c t i v e groups on the b a s i s of s i z e , number and nature of pores, c o l - pae and laesurae; and on the nature of s c u l p t u r i n g , i . e . warty, smooth, spiny, e t c . T h i s , of course, does not consider any b o t a n i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n , and of consequence i s of l i m i t e d value i n p a l e o e c o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I t i s , however, a compar a t i v e l y easy system to use and may provide u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on c o r r e l a t i o n and age of various, rock u n i t s . This s o - c a l l e d " a r t i f i c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " i s much i n use by o i l company paly-- 83 - n o l o g i c a l l a b o r a t o r i e s i n t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n and dating s t u d i e s . The second broad system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the s o - c a l l e d " n a t u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . " Here the p a l y n o l o g i s t makes a deter mined e.ffprt to as s i g n p o l l e n grains to e x i s t i n g n a t u r a l p l a n t groups wherever p o s s i b l e . This procedure i s only p o s s i b l e w i t h Upper Cretaceous and T e r t i a r y m i c r o f o s s i l s because during t h i s p e r i o d of time many of the extant p l a n t genera made t h e i r f i r s t appearance. Throughout the T e r t i a r y the f l o r a s pf the world were ta k i n g on an ever more modern aspect, w i t h most, i f not a l l , of the modern genera appearing before the end of the Pl i o c e n e . By comparison w i t h both the l i t e r a t u r e and modern reference m a t e r i a l , many T e r t i a r y p o l l e n and spores can be assigned to modern genera. Species are a more d i f f i c u l t prob lem, and f o r the most part are created on the ba s i s of minor morphological v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n grains of the e s t a b l i s h e d genus. These may or may not represent true species i n the b o t a n i c a l sense. Some p a l y n o l o g i s t s have assigned modern spec i f i c names to m i c r o f o s s i l s as o l d as Miocene (e.g. Macko, 1957; 1959; 1963), but t h i s I consider to be misleading and i n c o r r e c t procedure f o r s e v e r a l reasons. In the f i r s t p l a c e , i t seems u n l i k e l y that a species would sur v i v e f o r 25 or more m i l l i o n s of years without change, e s p e c i a l l y during the T e r t i a r y w i t h i t s world wide c l i m a t i c changes and constant t e c t o n i c i n s t a b i l  i t y . In the second pl a c e , p o l l e n grains are seldom so p e r f e c t l y preserved t h a t they can be compared i n every respect w i t h modern m a t e r i a l . In l a t e Pliocene or Pl e i s t o c e n e r o c k s , perhaps the - 6 V assignment of modern s p e c i f i c names has va l u e , but I b e l i e v e that i n rocks older than Pliocene t h i s i s not v a l i d . For rocks older than Upper Cretaceous, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s very tenuous, assignment to modern genera i s u s u a l l y not p o s s i b l e , and the usage of an " a r t i f i c i a l system" becomes mandatory. In t h i s work I have e l e c t e d to use the system which i s most commonly a p p l i e d by T e r t i a r y p a l y n o l o g i s t s , i . e . a com b i n a t i o n of these two broad systems. This i n v o l v e s i d e n t i f i  c a t i o n to a n a t u r a l genus wherever p o s s i b l e , and i n some cases assignment to a form species i n that genus. However, I have g e n e r a l l y been conservative i n my approach to s u b d i v i d i n g a genus i n t o s p e c i e s . I t has o f t e n been the p r a c t i c e i n paleorir t o l o g y to subdivide, or to s p l i t i n t o ever smaller u n i t s , o f t e n on dubious grounds. I f , w i t h i n a given.genus there are two or more forms which are c l e a r cut, d i s t i n c t , and e a s i l y recog n i z e d , a s u b d i v i s i o n i n t o form-species i s more u s e f u l i n s t r a t  i g r a p h i c s t u d i e s . I f , however, as appears to be more o f t e n the case, s u b d i v i s i o n s are based on end products showing i n t e r - gradations of form or on i n d e f i n i t e and vague c r i t e r i a , l i t t l e but confusion r e s u l t s and comparison between m i c r o f o s s i l assem blages becomes d i f f i c u l t . Besides, t h i s leads to unnecessary and meaningless p r o l i f e r a t i o n of species names. As a r e s u l t , i f I have erred i t i s on the side of conservatism, or as i t i s sometimes c a l l e d , "lumping." For g rains which cannot be assigned to modern genera I have used the form generic names which have been assigned by - 8 5 - various other i n v e s t i g a t o r s . At times, I have suggested pos s i b l e or probable b o t a n i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s , but t h i s i s only an o p i n i o n and i n some cases cannot be completely s u b s t a n t i a t e d . Because of the v a r i a t i o n i n a p p l i c a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of various t e x t u r a l and s c u l p t u r i n g terms, I have followed c l o s e l y the terminology suggested by F a e g r i and Iverson (196^). This i s not to suggest I f e e l t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s are always the best, but i t does provide some s o r t of consistency to the d e s c r i p t i o n s . In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n I have described approximately 100 palynomorphs from the Whatcom b a s i n whose occurrence ranges from abundant i n n e a r l y a l l samples to very r a r e i n one sample. The n a t u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n I have employed i s the phylogenetic system as o u t l i n e d i n Scagel, si al (1965)- DIVISION EUMYCOTA CLASS FUNGI IMPERFECTI Dvariosporites^ sp. P l . 1 F i g . 1 DIAGNOSIS: Spores b i l o c u l a r , 35 to jk^c long, e l l i p t i c a l , aperature c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s questionable but a p i c a l and presum ably c i r c u l a r , c e n t r a l septum simple and 2~3_/^  t h i c k . W a l l p s i l a t e . REMARKS: This fungal spore most c l o s e l y resembles e l l i p s u s C l a r k 19655 but i s not d e f i n i t e l y assigned to that species because of i t s somewhat l a r g e r s i z e and because the - 8 6 - aperature c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are not c l e a r . S i m i l a r f u n g a l spores have been reported i n Upper Creta ceous, Eocene, and Pliocene beds. As suggested by M a r t i n and Rouse (1966) the spores are probably t e l i s p o r e s of a r u s t . OCCURRENCE: These spores were found i n low frequency i n s e v e r a l K i t s i l a n o samples and i n samples from the Sumas Clay Mine. DyadQSpQrites 2 sp. Pl . . 1 F i g s . 2-3 • DIAGNOSIS: Spores e l l i p t i c a l , b i p o r a t e , and b i c e l l u l a r , s i z e 55. to 75/00 . Pores l a r g e , c i r c u l a r , s l i g h t l y a s pidate, some sub-wall t h i c k e n i n g . Large thickened septum through middle of g r a i n , apparently d i v i d i n g g r a i n i n t o two c e l l s , each w i t h an a p i c a l pore. W a l l t h i c k (ca. ) and heavy. REMARKS: This g r a i n i s r e f e r r e d to the genus Dyadosporites as r e d e f i n e d by C l a r k , 1965- I t d i f f e r s from Dyadosporites-^ sp. i n having a heavier and l e s s w e l l defined septum as w e l l as l a r g e r and more d i s t i n c t a p i c a l pores. OCCURRENCE: These spores were found i n low frequency i n s e v e r a l K i t s i l a n o samples and from the Sumas Clay Mine. P l u r i c e l l a e s p o r i t e s p s i l a t u s C l a r k 1965 P l . 1 F i g s , k-6 DIAGNOSIS: U n i s e r i a t e f u n g a l spores w i t h I n d i v i d u a l s con s i s t i n g of s e v e r a l to many c e l l s . The width v a r i e s from 12 to -87- 25/A. and the leng t h may be i n excess of 100/^ , depending upon the number of component c e l l s , l e n g t h of i n d i v i d u a l c e l l s 6 to 12^6-.. A 0 .5 to 1.0/^ aperature occurs i n each septum. Thick enings on one side of the septum appear as adjacent t r i a n g l e s w i t h the aperature o c c u r r i n g between them. C e l l w a l l s p s i l a t e . REMARKS: These spores are i d e n t i c a l i n a l l respects to those described by C l a r k (1965)' They are p a r t i c u l a r l y common i n many E a r l y T e r t i a r y horizons of A r c t i c and western Canada and of northwestern Washington State. OCCURRENCE: These f u n g a l spores are very abundant i n a l l the K i t s i l a n o samples examined. They occur i n l e s s e r frequency i n a l l the outcrop samples from the Whatcom b a s i n . A cursory examination of samples from the Eocene and Oligocene rocks of the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State i n d i c a t e they are a l s o present there. P l u r i o e l l a e s p o r i t e s sp. P l . 1 F i g . 7 DIAGNOSIS: Spores 35 to 50/^ long w i t h a l e n g t h t w i d t h r a t i o : of about 2:1, are m u l t i c e l l u l a r , u s u a l l y w i t h three per f o r a t e cross w a l l s . There i s a suggestion of a pore at e i t h e r end, but ruptured ends leave t h i s unclear. The cross w a l l s are t r i a n g u l a r and are 1 to 3/^ t h i c k . REMARKS: The p a t t e r n of thickened septa, which appear t r i a n g u l a r , suggests s t r o n g l y that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f u n g a l spore should be assigned to the genus P l u r i c e l l a e s p o r i t e s . P o s s i b l y - 8 8 - t h i s form i s i d e n t i c a l to 2- p s i l a t u s but i s a more mature form, developed by c o n s t r i c t i o n at every f o u r t h c e l l . However, these forms always have four c e l l s separated by three septa; furthermore, noMntermediate stages were recognized. Conse quently, assignment to a separate species i s t e n t a t i v e . OCCURRENCE: This species occurs i n low frequency i n a l l the c o a l samples from the south end of the Whatcom ba s i n . I t was not encountered i n any w e l l samples and was probably a fungus r e s t r i c t e d to a l o c a l swamp-forming environment. Fungal Hyphae P l . 1 F i g . 8 DIAGNOSIS: Segmented and germinating f u n g a l hyphae, over a l l l e n g t h 150//- , average thickness of hypha i s fy/. . REMARKS: Although of no known d i a g n o s t i c value t h i s i s a common f o s s i l i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t are the young budding hypha and w i d e l y spaced and per f o r a t e septa shown on P l a t e 1, Figure 8. OCCURRENCE: Fungal hypha are p a r t i c u l a r l y abundant i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation but are a l s o present i n other outcrop samples, as w e l l as various w e l l samples. 1 -89- DIV.ISION LYCOPODOPHYTA i ORDER ISOETALES? FAMILY ISOETACEAE? Isoetes? sp. P l . 1 F i g s . 9-10 DIAGNOSIS: Small (17 to 23/6,) monolete spore (or p o l l e n ? ) . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y the l a e s u r a extends about two/ t h i r d s length, of g r a i n , i n some gaping s l i g h t l y , i n others t i g h t l y c l o s e d . Sculpture scabrate. REMARKS: Assignment of t h i s m i c r o f o s s i l to Isoetes micro spores remains t e n t a t i v e , but i t c l o s e l y resembles the i l l u s t r a  t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i o n s given by Erdtman (19^3)• OCCURRENCE: This i s an almost always present but never abundant m i c r o f o s s i l from both the Sunnyside and Point Roberts w e l l s . I t i s e s p e c i a l l y abundant i n the Miocene s e c t i o n , but occurs a l s o i n the Eocene s e c t i o n . A few grains were a l s o iden t i f i e d i n the K i t s i l a n o samples from the Highbury tunne l . ORDER LYCOPODIALES FAMILY LYCOPODIACEAE LvoopodluTti a n n o t i n j o d e s M a r t i n and Rouse 1966 P l . 1 F i g . 11 DIAGNOSIS: T r i l e t e spore, 30 to 35//, , w i t h moderately d i s t i n c t laesurae reaching from pole to equator. S u b - c i r c u l a r i n polar view, d i s t a l surface and near e q u a t o r i a l area of prox imal surface covered w i t h a r e t i c u l u m of narrow muri and wide - 9 0 - lumina. Reticulum h to between muri, muri up to 2yU, high. Exine t h i n . REMARKS: These specimens are i d e n t i c a l w i t h those found by M a r t i n and Rouse ( 1 9 6 6 ) from the Miocene or Pliocene Skonun Formation of the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , B r i t i s h Columbia. Their extremely t h i n exine makes them r a t h e r inconspicuous and d i f f i c u l t to photograph. OCCURRENCE: Lycopodium i s not common but occurs i n the Sunnyside w e l l i n both Miocene and Eocene rocks. I t was not found i n the Point Roberts w e l l , and w i t h the exception of s e v e r a l specimens i n the K i t s i l a n o samples, i t was not found i n outcrop samples. DIVISION PTEROPHYTA ORDER FILICALES FAMILY OSMUNDACEAE Osmunda r e g a l i t e s M a r t i n and Rouse 1 9 6 6 P l . 2 F i g . 1 2 DIAGNOSIS: " T r i l e t e spores, s p h e r i c a l i n o u t l i n e . Lae- surae simple, u s u a l l y gaping s l i g h t l y , and ranging from 1 8 to 22yu, i n length. A t h i n but d i s t i n c t margo borders the commis sure. The w a l l i s about t h i c k and appears to be r i g i d , as l i t t l e f o l d i n g has been observed. The ornamentation i s charac t e r i s t i c a l l y r u g u l a t e w i t h the rugulae short and t h i c k , and packed close together. I n d i v i d u a l rugulae range to 3 / ^ i n lengt h but r a r e l y exceed 0 . 5 / ^ i n height." ( M a r t i n and Rouse, - 9 1 - 1 9 6 6 ) OCCURRENCE: This ' p a r t i c u l a r species appears throughout a l l the rocks of the Whatcom b a s i n but i s most abundant i n the K i t s i l a n o . F o r m a t i o n . Osmunds i r r e g u l i t e s M a r t i n and Rouse 1 9 6 6 P l . 2 F i g s . 1 3 - 1 ^ DIAGNOSIS: " T r i l e t e spores, s u b - c i r c u l a r i n o u t l i n e but u s u a l l y f o l d e d or s p l i t open. Laesurae d i s t i n c t , w i t h a t h i n margo, and measuring a b o u t ' 1 7 to 2 2 / 6 i n le n g t h . The ornamen t a t i o n c o n s i s t s of bacula 1 . 5 to 2 . 5 / ^ long, 0 . 5 to 2 / * - wide and spaced 1 to 3 ^ apart. The bacula are u s u a l l y s t r a i g h t , o c c a s i o n a l l y c l a v a t e . There are no rugulate t h i c k e n i n g s sub tending the bacula. The most d i a g n o s t i c f e a t u r e i s the com p l e t e i r r e g u l a r i t y of the width of the bacula; d e l i c a t e slender bacula are randomly mixed w i t h s t o u t , stump-like bacula, and w i t h a l l grades inbetween. S i z e range: hi to 57/^ •" (M a r t i n and Rouse, 1 9 6 6 ) OCCURRENCE: These are not common m i c r o f o s s i l s i n the Whatcom b a s i n . Only about ten specimens were encountered, and these were r e s t r i c t e d to the c o n t i n e n t a l T e r t i a r y rock outcrops i n Washington State. However, see remarks under Osmunda^ sp. Osmunda x sp. P l . 2 F i g s . 1 5 - 1 7 DIAGNOSIS: T r i l e t e spores showing considerable v a r i a t i o n i n shape. T r i l e t e mark u s u a l l y not d i s t i n c t , hut laesurae extend to equator. Ornamentation v a r i e s s l i g h t l y from d e f i n  i t e l y baculate to weakly vermicula-baculate; baculae c l o s e l y spaced, ranging from 1 to 3 / 6 i n height. The w a l l i s compara t i v e l y t h i n which probably accounts f o r the wide v a r i a t i o n i n shape which ranges from p r o l a t e to s p h e r i c a l t o ' i r r e g u l a r . Observed s i z e range i s 4-2 to 60/c- . REMARKS: These m i c r o f o s s i l s d i f f e r from £. i r r e g u l i t e s i n the smaller and more densely packed baculae. G e n e r a l l y t h i s spore appears very much l i k e spores of the modern Q. c l a y t o n i a . OCCURRENCE: This p a r t i c u l a r form was comparatively abun dant i n a l l the w e l l samples, i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation, and to a l e s s e r extent i n the outcrop samples. Osmunds^ sp. P l . 2 F i g s . 18-20 DIAGNOSIS: S u b - s p h e r i c a l , echinate, t r i l e t e spore, laesurae sharp and d i s t i n c t , t a p e r i n g to a poin t at the equator w a l l t h i n ; covered w i t h short spines l e s s than 1/6 high which : are w i d e l y spaced over the e n t i r e surface. S i z e range 4-5 to 5 5 /6 • REMARKS: This form d i f f e r s from Osnrnnda.^ sp. i n having much more w i d e l y spaced p r o j e c t i o n s . Furthermore, the orna mentation appears to be much more spiny than i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the three preceding spe c i e s . Occasional b l u n t baculae are observed but on the whole the ornamentation i s echinate. - 9 3 - Although four d i f f e r e n t species of Osmunda are described here, these are i n r e a l i t y probably end products of what i s a continuum. Attempts to count Osmunda were c o n t i n u a l l y f r u s  t r a t e d by u n c e r t a i n t y as to which of the four groups the par t i c u l a r species should be assigned. I f e e l that at t h i s time i t would be unwise to assume these grains represent four d i f  f e r e n t n a t u r a l species. A l l that can be s a i d w i t h c e r t a i n t y i s t hat Osmunda was a common genus of f e r n throughout the Eocene and Miocene. OCCURRENCE: This i s never a common m i c r o f o s s i l , but occurs throughout Miocene and Eocene rocks i n the Sunnyside and Point- Roberts w e l l s . A few grains were a l s o found i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation. FAMILY SCHIZACEAE Anemia poolensis Chandler 1955 P l . 3 F i g s . 21-23 DIAGNOSIS: These t r i l e t e spores are i d e n t i c a l i n a l l respects to those described by Chandler. The s i z e range i s 3^ to 58/^ w i t h the m a j o r i t y approximately 5 2 ^ . REMARKS: These specimens are i d e n t i c a l to those described by Rouse (1962) from the Burrard Formation and by H i l l s (1965) from the Middle Eocene s t r a t a of i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia. OCCURRENCE: This i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y common spore i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation. In much reduced numbers i t i s present i n the Eocene of the Sunnyside and Poin t Roberts w e l l s . I t was - 9 4 - not found i n any of the other outcrop samples. C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s I n t e r s e c t s Rouse 1962 P l . 3 F i g s . 24-27 DIAGNOSIS: " T r i l e t e spore, w i t h two sets of p a r a l l e l r i b s on the spore w a l l : the d i s t a l r i b s are a l l i g n e d i n one d i r e c t i o n , and the proximal r i b s are o r i e n t e d approximately 90° to the d i s t a l s e t . The proximal r i b s e n c i r c l e the equator and run o b l i q u e l y across the proximal pole. Distance between - r i b s ca. 2 . g / ^ . S i z e range 50 to 65/*. ." (Rouse, 1962) Specimens from the Whatcom b a s i n are i d e n t i c a l to those described by Rouse, although a few specimens ranged down to 48/c i n diameter. REMARKS: Rouse has suggested (1962) that spores of Cica-- t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s i n t e r s e c t u s are more c l o s e l y a l l i e d to those of the modern genus Mohria than to Anemia. However, overlap of the characters precludes c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the generic a l l i a n c e at t h i s time. C j c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s has not been found to date i n the Middle Eocene beds from the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. Appar e n t l y i t i s an Eocene form r e s t r i c t e d to the c o a s t a l lowlands. OCCURRENCE: " T h i s i s a very common m i c r o f o s s i l i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation, o c c a s i o n a l l y o c c u r r i n g i n high frequency. I t was a l s o encountered i n lower frequency i n the Eocene sec t i o n s of both the Poi n t Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . S e v e r a l gr a i n s were found i n the Sumas Clay Mine and the Whatcom Quarry. - 9 5 - LygPcHum r e t i c u l o s p o r i t e s Rouse 1962 P l . V F i g . 28 DIAGNOSIS: The, grains of t h i s species agree w i t h those described by Rouse (1962) w i t h an observed s i z e range of 55 to 70/6 . REMARKS: Rouse comments (1962, p.197) that "spores of t h i s species resemble those of the l i v i n g Lygodium japonicum Swartz and Jj. k e r s t e n i i Kuhn very c l o s e l y . " OCCURRENCE: Lvgodium, wh i l e never abundant, occurs i n a l l the K i t s i l a n o samples examined. Only a few grains were found i n the Eocene rocks i n the Point Roberts w e l l . FAMILY GLEICHENIACEAE ' G l e i c h e n i a sp. P l . h F i g s . 29-30 DIAGNOSIS: Sharply t r i a n g u l a r , l a e v i g a t e , t r i l e t e spores 25 to 30//* i n diameter. Rounded corners, weakly to s t r o n g l y concave i n t e r r a d i a l areas. Wall thickens near poles i n areas between laesurae; the th i c k e n i n g s extend toward the angles so that the t r i l e t e mark i s enclosed by t h i c k e n i n g s . REMARKS: Very few forms were found and I could not, w i t h confidence, place them i n an e s t a b l i s h e d s p e c i e s . G l e i c h e n j a appears r e s t r i c t e d , at l e a s t i n North America, to uppermost Cretaceous or Paleocene and older rocks. OCCURRENCE: Gleip.hftnja. i s a ra r e m i c r o f o s s i l and i s found only i n very low frequency i n the Upper Cretaceous rocks of the - 9 6 - Sunnyside and Poin t Roberts w e l l s . FAMILY POLYPODIACEAE L a e v i g a t o s p o r i t e s fl.iscprd.atus Thompson and P f l u g 1953 P l . 4 F i g s . 3 1 - 3 2 DIAGNOSIS: Spores g e n e r a l l y bean-shaped; monolete, laesurae s h o r t , w a l l l a e v i g a t e , although some appear to be n e a r l y c i r c u l a r . S i z e range: ho to QO^U. . REMARKS: Rouse ( 1 9 6 2 ) s t a t e s "the c l o s e s t a f f i l i a t i o n appears to be w i t h D r y o p t e r i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y £. l a t i f o n s . " OCCURRENCE: This i s a moderately common m i c r o f o s s i l i n a l l the Eocene and Miocene rocks . I t i s e s p e c i a l l y abundant i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation L a e v l g a t o s p o r i t e s albertensiS:Rouse 1 9 6 2 P l . h F i g . 33 DIAGNOSIS: Kidney-shaped, monolete spores w i t h a weakly defined suture, always o c c u r r i n g along the concave c r e s t . Ornamentation weakly punctuate (Rouse, 1 9 6 2 ). S i z e range: 3 2 to 3 6 / ^ . REMARKS: Rouse ( 1 9 6 2 ) described t h i s specimen from the Burrard Formation, suggesting that i t i s most l i k e l y r e l a t e d to Dryop t e r i s or A s p l e n i t e s , both of which have been reported as leaves i n the Burrard. OCCURRENCE: This i s an uncommon m i c r o f o s s i l found only s p o r a d i c a l l y i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation. S e v e r a l grains were - 9 7 - found I n the upper part of the Eocene sequence i n the Point Roberts w e l l . L a e v i g a t o s p o r i t e s ovatus Wilson and Webster 19^6 Not I l l u s t r a t e d DIAGNOSIS: Monolete, bean-shaped spores, l e n g t h 33 to 37/<c 5 smooth w a l l , simple monolete suture. REMARKS: These forms are i d e n t i c a l to those described by Wilson and Webster (19^6). OCCURRENCE: This i s a common m i c r o f o s s i l throughout the Eocene and Miocene rocks. L a e v i g a t o s p o r i t e s g r a c i l i s Wilson and Webster 19^6 Not I l l u s t r a t e d DIAGNOSIS: Bean-shaped monolete spores, l a e v i g a t e , . s i m p l e monolete suture on concave s i d e , l e n g t h 25 to 32yt^ . REMARKS: Wilson and Webster (19^6) remark that J j . g r a c i l i s and 1 . ovatus probably belong to T h e l v p t e r i s , Asplenlum, A£hv J rium, Aspidium or Blectinum. OCCURRENCE: This i s a very uncommon m i c r o f o s s i l which occurs s p o r a d i c a l l y throughout the Eocene and Miocene rocks. FAMILY DENNSTAEDTIACEAE - POLYPODIACEAE P i s . k~5 F i g s . 3^-39 - REMARKS: M a r t i n and Rouse (1966) have discussed the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c l a s s i f y i n g the la r g e r e t i c u l a t e - v e r r u c a t e -- 9 8 - warty monolete spores which are abundant i n the Miocene or Pliocene Skonun Formation. This spore p a t t e r n occurs i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t f e r n genera i n at l e a s t two f a m i l i e s ; v i z . the Polypodiaceae and Dennstaedtiaceae, and s u f f i c i e n t grada t i o n of ornamentation e x i s t s as to defy generic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . P o t o n i / (1956) e s t a b l i s h e d three form genera to i n c l u d e these three spore types, i . e . P o l y p o d i s p o r i t e s . Polypodia.tes and V e r r u c a t o s p o r i t e s . However, the f o s s i l spores encountered i n the Skonun Formation could not be assigned, even to form genera. As a r e s u l t , M a r t i n and Rouse e l e c t e d to use "non-committal form designates" f o r the three main forms. In my work w i t h the T e r t i a r y rocks of the Whatcom b a s i n I encountered i d e n t i c a l problems of c l a s s i f y i n g these monolete spores. As a r e s u l t , I have u t i l i z e d the same system suggested by M a r t i n and Rouse. Forms 1, 2 and 3 are i l l u s t r a t e d but not described. They are i d e n t i c a l i n a l l respects to the d e s c r i p t i o n s given by M a r t i n and Rouse (1962, p. I87-I88). OCCURRENCE: Although these m i c r o f o s s i l s are nowhere abundant, they are s p o r a d i c a l l y present i n low frequency throughout the Eocene and Miocene rocks,of the Point Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . They occur a l s o i n the K i t s i l a n o Forma t i o n and other outcrops. One, two or three of the forms may occur i n the same sample. - 9 9 - ORDER SALVTNIALES FAMILY SALVINIACEAE Genus Azsills. sp. P l . 5 F i g . hO DIAGNOSIS: . Only i s o l a t e d anchor-shaped g l o c h i d i a of A z o l l a were found in. t h i s study. The massulae and microspores were not encountered; the reason f o r t h e i r absence i s not known. The g l o c h i d i a are about 2 0 > t x l o n g , and 8/A across the barbs. REMARKS: A z o l l a appears to be e s p e c i a l l y common i n Eocene rocks i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia ( H i l l s , 1 9 6 5 ) but has a l s o been reported from Upper Cretaceous and rocks of other T e r t i a r y epochs. OCCURRENCE: A z o l l a has been found i n the Eocene and Upper Cretaceous rocks i n both the Point Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . I t was not encountered i n any outcrop samples. DIVISION GINKGOPHYTA ORDER GINKGOALES FAMILY GINKGOACEAE Ginkgo sp. P l . 5 F i g s . 4-1-1+3 DIAGNOSIS: P o l l e n monosulcate, shape oblate to peroblate, sulcus broad, g e n e r a l l y c l o s e d i n the middle and gaping at the ends. Sculpture p s i l a t e to s l i g h t l y scabrate. Length 2 8 to 3 4 / t v . REMARKS: Comparison w i t h modern Ginkgo b i l o b a s t r o n g l y -100- suggests a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h Ginkgo. S i m i l a r , grains have "been reported as Cvcadopites Wodehouse 1933, and Cvcadopites f o l l i c u l a r i s Wilson and Webster 19^6. OCCURRENCE: Ginkgo i s acvery uncommon g r a i n but has been found i n both'Eocene and Miocene rocks. I t appears most com monly, and i n a b e t t e r s t a t e of p r e s e r v a t i o n , i n the upper part of the Miocene sequence i n both the Sunnyside and P o i n t Roberts w e l l s . DIVISION CONIFEROPHYTA . ORDER CONIFERALES FAMILY PINACEAE Cearns sp. P l . 5 F i g . DIAGNOSIS: The few grains that appear to be those of Cedrus are about 65//. i n diameter. The bladders are moderately- l a r g e and tend to enclose the body, except at the leptoma which separates the bladders. The c i r c u l a r cap i s t h i c k and grades without p e r c e p t i b l e d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n t o the w a l l of the bladders. Sculpture of the body i s f i n e l y r e t i c u l a t e whereas the bladders are somewhat more c o a r s e l y r e t i c u l a t e . REMARKS: Only three of these grains were found, a l l h igh i n the Sunnyside w e l l , w i t h i n the Miocene sequence of rocks. P r e s e r v a t i o n i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y good and the f i n e r d e t a i l s are not c l e a r . As a consequence, these grains are only t e n t a t i v e l y - 1 0 1 - assigned to Cedrus. There have been very few r e p o r t s of Cedrus i n North American T e r t i a r y rocks, the most recent well-documented occurrence being i n the Miocene of the Queen C h a r l o t t e Islands ( M a r t i n and Rouse, 1966) . OCCURRENCE: Three grains were found w i t h i n the Miocene sequence of s t r a t a i n the Sunnyside w e l l . The low frequency • and i n d i f f e r e n t p r e s e r v a t i o n i n d i c a t e the source area was probably some distance away. c f . K e t e l e e r l a P l . 6 F i g s . 45-46 DIAGNOSIS: Bis a c c a t e g r a i n s , l a r g e , body o v a l , 85 by 65/>c ; bladders n e a r l y s u b - s p h e r i c a l , 55 by 45/6 . The body appears to be scabrate to minutely punctate, cap t h i n . Bladders are f i n e l y r e t i c u l a t e , attached d i s c r e t e l y to body and d i r e c t e d d i s t a l l y . S t r u c t u r e and dimensions of leptoma obscured by bladders. REMARKS: The character of t h i s g r a i n f i t s c l o s e l y those of K e t e l e e r l a davidana as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Erdtman ( 1 9 4 3 ) and Macko ( 1 9 5 7 ) . However, Macko gives o v e r a l l dimensions of up to 2 0 0 / x , w h i l e Erdtman gives dimensions of 1 0 2 - l 6 l / d . Be cause only a few of these g r a i n s were found, I have no s a t i s  f a c t o r y range of s i z e s and i t may w e l l be the average s i z e i s higher. The only other g r a i n which resembles t h i s i s Ps e u d o l a r i x which i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r . According to Wodehouse ( 1 9 3 5 ) ? -102- P s e u d o l a r l x ranges from 51 to 5 3 / c v . At the present time, K e t e l e e r i a i s r e s t r i c t e d to c e n t r a l China where i t grows i n damp lowland f o r e s t s and lower b e l t s of mountain f o r e s t up to 2,500 meters above sea l e v e l . OCCURRENCE: Only a few grains were found i n the Upper Eocene and Miocene rocks of the Sunnyside w e l l . L a r i x p l i g a t i p o l l e n i t e s Rouse 1962 P l . 6 F i g s . ^7-^8 DIAGNOSIS: These gr a i n s appear to be i d e n t i c a l w i t h those reported by Rouse (1962) from the Burrard Formation. However, a number are smaller w i t h the observed s i z e range f o r the pres ent specimens being 50 to 70//. . REMARKS: These specimens c l o s e l y agree i n s i z e w i t h those of L a r i x p l i c a t i p o l l e n i t e s r e p o r t e d by H i l l s (1962) from the Pr i n c e t o n h a s i n . Their s m a l l s i z e suggests a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h L a x i x r a t h e r than Pseudotsuga. OCCURRENCE: Nowhere i s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r m i c r o f o s s i l abun dant, although i t occurs most commonly i n the K i t s i l a n o Forma t i o n . I t i s s p a r s e l y present, however, w i t h i n the Eocene and Miocene sequences i n both the Point Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . P i c e a g r a n d i v e s o i p i t e s Wodehouse 1933 P l . 6 F i g s . ^9-50 DIAGNOSIS: This b i s a c c a t e p o l l e n g r a i n appears to be e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h that described by Wodehouse (1933) -103- and Rouse (1957; 1962). The observed range of body s i z e i s 75 to 80/6- . REMARKS: P o l l e n of P.. g r a n d I v e s c l p i t e s i s r a r e i n the Whatcom b a s i n and isf u s u a l l y not w e l l preserved. This suggests that the trees o r i g i n a l l y producing the p o l l e n were some d i s  tance away from the sedimentary s i t e . OCCURRENCE: This form occurs very s p a r s e l y throughout a l l the rocks of the Whatcom b a s i n . I t i s i n v a r i a b l y p o o r l y preserved and o f t e n p h y s i c a l l y broken, suggesting a consid erable d i s t a n c e of t r a n s p o r t . Plnus s t r o b l p i t e s Wodehouse 1933 P l . 6 F i g s . 51-52 DIAGNOSIS: There i s l i t t l e doubt that t h i s i s the same specimen described by Wodehouse (1933) from the Eocene Green R i v e r Formation. I t has a l s o been reported from the Eocene Burrard Formation by Rouse (1962). REMARKS: P r e s e r v a t i o n of t h i s species i s almost i n v a r  i a b l y poor. OCCURRENCE: Although t h i s p a r t i c u l a r species i s more common than any other bladdered c o n i f e r , i t i s by no means abundant. I t occurs most commonly i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation and other outcrop samples but i s found i n both the Point Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . -103- and Rouse (1957; 1962). The observed range of body size i s 75 to 80yto . REMARKS: Pollen of P. ,grandivesoipites i s rare i n the Whatcom basin and iSi L usually not well preserved. This suggests that the trees o r i g i n a l l y producing the pollen were some d i s - . tance away from the sedimentary s i t e . OCCURRENCE: This form occurs very sparsely throughout a l l the rocks of the Whatcom basin. It i s in v a r i a b l y poorly preserved and often p h y s i c a l l y broken, suggesting a consid erable distance of transport. Pinna strofrlpltes Wodehouse 1933 P l . 6 F i g s . 51-52 DIAGNOSIS: There i s l i t t l e doubt that t h i s i s the same specimen described by Wodehouse (1933) from the Eocene Green River Formation. It has also been reported from the Eocene Burrard Formation by Rouse (1962). REMARKS: Preservation of t h i s species i s almost invar i a b l y poor. OCCURRENCE: Although th i s p a r t i c u l a r species i s more common than any.other bladdered conifer, i t i s by no means abundant. It occurs most commonly i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation and other outcrop samples but i s found i n both the Point Roberts and Sunnyside wells. - 1 0 4 - PlnUS sp. haploxvlon-type P l . 7 F i g s . 53-54 DIAGNOSIS: Disaccate p o l l e n g r a i n w i t h bladders attached to l a t e r a l e q u a t o r i a l extremeties of body, bladders l a r g e r than body, body c i r c u l a r and f i n e l y r e t i c u l a t e , bladders mod e r a t e l y c o a r s e l y r e t i c u l a t e , becoming f i n e r toward bladder roots.: Leptoma broad, s t r a i g h t margined and f i n e l y granular. Body ranges from 40 to 50yU- , bladders s l i g h t l y l a r g e r . REMARKS: Thompson and P f l u g r e f e r t h i s species to the form species P i t y o s p o r i t e s microa,latus which they Say belongs to the Pinus haploxyIon group of Rudolph. OCCURRENCE: This p a r t i c u l a r species i s present I n low frequency throughout the Poin t Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . I t i s a l s o represented by a few grains i n the K i t s i l a n o Forma t i o n . Pinus sp. P l . 7 F i g . 55 DIAGNOSIS: Bi s a c c a t e p o l l e n g r a i n w i t h bladders about equal i n s i z e to body, the body i s e s s e n t i a l l y s p h e r i c a l w i t h exine c o a r s e l y g r a n u l a r p r o x i m a l l y . L i g h t l y r e t i c u l a t e s c u l p  ture on both bladders and d i s t a l p o r t i o n of body. Cap t h i c k . The bladder connection at the poximal root w e l l defined, at d i s t a l r oot the contact i s sharp and d i s t i n c t . Leptoma i n d i s  t i n c t , but smooth to f i n e granulate. Observed body diameter 50 to 5 5/t . -105- REMARKS: This g r a i n i s very s i m i l a r to p o l l e n of extant - Pinus. strobus. OCCURRENCE: , Only a few gra i n s of t h i s form were found, a l l i n the Miocene p o r t i o n of the Sunnyside w e l l . FAMILY CUPRESSACEAE P l . 7 F i g s . 56-57 DIAGNOSIS: P o l l e n grains s u b - s p h e r i c a l , although i n some cases deformed by f o l d i n g . Inaperaturate, s i z e range 20 to hOj/. . Exine t h i n , transparent," i n v a r i a b l y w i t h surface f o l d s , o c c a s i o n a l l y ruptured. Surface of exine covered w i t h small f l e c k s that are s l i g h t l y more s t a i n e d than exine. No evidence of pores, colpae or p a p i l l a e . I r r e g u l a r area of t h i n n i n g i s commonly present which may represent a leptoma. REMARKS: This p o l l e n appears to be that of Juniperus. However, other genera of the Cupressaceae have s i m i l a r p o l l e n , and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t to imp o s s i b l e . As a r e s u l t , I have placed grains of t h i s morphology and s i z e i n the f a m i l y Cupressaceae, r e c o g n i z i n g that one or more genera may be rep resented. OCCURRENCE: This i s a moderately abundant g r a i n found throughout a l l the rocks of the Whatcom b a s i n . I t i s espec i a l l y abundant i n the Miocene sequence of rocks i n both the Sunnyside and Point Roberts w e l l s . -106- '. 'FAMILIES CUPRESSACEAE, TAXODIACEAE or PINACEAE P l , 7 F i g s . 58-59 DIAGNOSIS: U s u a l l y s u b - c i r c u l a r , i n a p e r a t u r a t e , l a e v l - gate p o l l e n g r a i n s , i d e n t i c a l to L a r i x , except s m a l l e r . Ob served s i z e range 22 to k2ju^ • REMARKS: These grains would be assignable to i s x i x -except f o r t h e i r s m a l l s i z e . They a l s o bear a marked resemblance i n s i z e and form to modern species of Thuj a.. At t h i s time, i t i s not p o s s i b l e to c l a s s i f y them c l o s e r than probably a f f i l i a  ted to one or more of the above f a m i l i e s . OCCURRENCE: Grains of t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n are moderately common throughout the Sunnyside and Point Roberts w e l l sec t i o n s . They are present, but i n l e s s e r amount, i n the K i t s i  lano Formation and other outcrop samples. FAMILY TAXODIACEAE GlyptOStrobus vacuipites Wodehouse 1933 P l . 7 F i g s . 60-61 DIAGNOSIS: According to Wodehouse (1933) "the case skins of p o l l e n g r a i n s s p l i t i n t o two approximately equal halves. Exine i n l i f e apparently s t i f f and under mechanical s t r a i n so that i n se p a r a t i n g , the two halves buckle w i t h the formation . of l o n g i t u d i n a l f o l d s . Outer surface dotted w i t h small f l e c k s , openly and i r r e g u l a r l y spaced. Length of halves 37'6/d ." M a r t i n and Rouse (1966) add that the " p o l l e n grains usu a l l y s p l i t i n t o two halves, w i t h the w a l l f o l d e d p a r a l l e l to - 1 0 7 - the. s p l i t edges. S i z e range 2 7 to 3 0 ^ , , w a l l t h i c k n e s s about 0 . a n d the ornamentation d e c i d e d l y s c a b r a t e . " The specimens i n t h i s study correspond c l o s e l y to the above d e s c r i p t i o n s except t h a t the l e n g t h of the s p l i t h a l v e s ranges from 30 to 3 3 ^ • REMARKS: Although G l y p t o s t r o b u s is-now c o n f i n e d to cen t r a l China i t appears to have been widespread i n the T e r t i a r y o f western North America. OCCURRENCE: Although G l y p t o s t r o b u s has been r e p o r t e d from rocks as o l d as Eocene i n North America i t appears r e s t r i c t e d to the Miocene i n t h i s study. G l y p t o s t r o b u s has been i d e n t i  f i e d o n l y i n the Miocene o f both the Point Roberts and Sunny s i d e w e l l s . I t was not seen i n the K i t s i l a n o or other outcrop samples. M e t a s e q u o l a p a p i l l a p o T l e n i t e s Rouse 1Q62 P l . 7 F i g . 62 DIAGNOSIS: The few g r a i n s o f Metasequola encountered appear to be i d e n t i c a l w i t h those d e s c r i b e d by Rouse (1962) from the B u r r a r d Formation and by H i l l s (1962) from the P r i n c e t o n c o a l f i e l d s . However, the Observed s i z e range o f the present g r a i n s i s . 22 to 26J/Cwhich extends the 20 to 26,66 range suggested by H i l l s (1962). OCCURRENCE: Metasequoia i s f r e q u e n t l y d i f f i c u l t to d i s  t i n g u i s h - from J^jtojiiuia and so the apparent; frequency may be -108- i e s s than i t i s i n r e a l i t y , ; D e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i a b l e H s i a - sequoia i s uncommon, but i s most frequently, seen i n the Miocene s e c t i o n of the Sunnyside w e l l . A few grains were found i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation. Scladopltys sp. P l . 7 F i g s . 63-64 DIAGNOSIS: P o l l e n grains l a r g e (68 to 7 5 / 0 , s p h e r i c a l , covered w i t h l a r g e warts, 3 to 6/6 i n diameter, u s u a l l y lower than broad. Although a d i s t i n c t apperature i s not v i s i b l e , there i s a d i s t i n c t leptoma, that i s u s u a l l y p s i l a t e to gran u l a t e , but covered w i t h warty p r o j e c t i o n s i n some specimens. REMARKS: Although t h i s g r a i n c l o s e l y resembles the s i n g l e extant species S c i a d o p i t v s v e r t l c e l l a t a . as f i g u r e d and de s c r i b e d by Erdtman (194-3) and Van Campo (195D » i t i s consid e r a b l y l a r g e r , fi. v e r t i c e l l a t a , both i n modern reference s l i d e s and i n the above l i t e r a t u r e , appears to have a s i z e range of 28 to 4 4 / c w i t h most being 35 to 4o_/x . M o r p h o l o g i c a l l y t h i s g r a i n i s s i m i l a r to S. se r r a t u s as described by M a r t i n and Rouse (1966) but again i s much l a r g e r , fi. se r r a t u s has an observed s i z e range of 29 to 41//.. Because of the s i z e discrepancy t h i s g r a i n i s not assigned to any p a r t i c u l a r species of S c i a d o p i t v s . OCCURRENCE: S c i a d o p i t v s i s a very uncommon m i c r o f o s s i l w i t h only a few ..grains found w i t h i n the Miocene s e c t i o n of the Sunnyside w e l l . - 1 0 9 - Taxodium h l a t l p l t e s Wodehouse 1933 P l . 8 F i g s . 6 5 - 6 6 DIAGNOSIS: The specimen here appears to be i d e n t i c a l w i t h those described by Wodehouse 1933 , . Wilson and Webster 19^6 , Rouse 1 9 6 2 , and H i l l s 1 9 6 2 . . REMARKS: I t i s . q u i t e p o s s i b l e that some of these grains are Metasequoia because of the frequent d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s t i n  g uishing the two species except under c o n d i t i o n s of e x c e p t i o n a l p r e s e r v a t i o n . OCCURRENCE; Taxortium i s a moderately abundant m i c r o f o s s i l throughout the Whatcom b a s i n rocks. FAMILY P0D0CARPACEAE Podocarpus sp. P l . 8 F i g s . 6 7 - 6 8 DIAGNOSIS: Bi s a c c a t e g r a i n , body c i r c u l a r , 28 to 33ycv- i n diameter. Bladders l a r g e and i r r e g u l a r . Body s c u l p t u r e scabrate, bladders f i n e l y r e t i c u l a t e . REMARKS: Only a few grains r e f e r a b l e to Podocarpus were found i n t h i s study and a l l are p o o r l y preserved. As a r e s u l t , no attempt has been made to a s s i g n the grains to p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s . S u p e r f i c i a l l y these g r a i n s appear s i m i l a r to Podocarpi- d i t e a T n i c r o r e t i c u l o i d a t u s Cookson as reported by M a r t i n and Rouse ( 1 9 6 6 ) from the Miocene or Pliocene Skonun Formation. H i l l s ( 1 9 6 2 , 1965) reported Podocarpus from the Eocene rocks -110- •of i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia. Rouse (1962) found a s i n g l e g r a i n of Podocarpus from the Middle Eocene Burrard Formation. OCCURRENCE: Podocarpus i s nowhere common i n the Whatcom b a s i n but i t i s present i n both the Miocene and Eocene sequences i n the Point Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . S e v e r a l grains were found i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation but i t i s only d o u b t f u l l y present i n outcrop samples. FAMILY TAXACEAE Xazais? sp. P l . 8 F i g s . 69-70 DIAGNOSIS: S p h e r i c a l p o l l e n grains 1-8 to 21/^ i n diameter. In most specimens a leptoma appears to have ruptured to form a la r g e i r r e g u l a r opening. Exine p s i l a t e to f a i n t l y scabrate. REMARKS: Lack of d e f i n i t i v e and"diagnostic features makes assignment of t h i s g r a i n to Haxiis. somewhat tenuous. How ever, m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y i t i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h grains of the west ern yew, Taxus b r e v i f o l i a . However, the present grains average about 5//, smaller than extant p o l l e n . OCCURRENCE: Taxus was found only i n two samples from the Miocene sequence i n the Sunnyside w e l l . - 1 1 1 - DIVISION GNETOPHYTA ORDER EPHEDRALES FAMILY GNETACEAE Ephedra? sp. P l . 8 F i g . 7 1 DIAGNOSIS: Large (80/6- ), e l l i p t i c a l p o l l e n g r a i n s . Exine t h i c k , heavy and provided w i t h broad, low and i r r e g u l a r r i d g e s that are s u b - p a r a l l e l to the long a x i s of the g r a i n . Ridges appear to b i f u r c a t e and anastomose i n an i r r e g u l a r p a t t e r n . No furrows or pores are apparent. REMARKS: I t i s w i t h the greatest u n c e r t a i n t y that I as s i g n t h i s g r a i n to Ephedra, which i n extant forms ranges from 3 5 to 5 5 / ^ i n len g t h . I t i s much l a r g e r than modern mem bers of t h i s genus, but i s s i m i l a r i n morphology to Ephedri- £jLifiS Bokhowitina ( 1 9 5 3 ) as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Potonie' ( 1 9 5 8 ) . OCCURRENCE: Only three grains of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r form were found, a l l i n the Goshan and Glen Echo Coal Mines samples. DIVISION ANTHOPHYTA CLASS DICOTYLEDONAE ORDER MAGNOLIALES . FAMILY MAGNOLIACEAE P l . 8 F i g . 7 2 DIAGNOSIS: E l l i p s o i d a l , monocolpate g r a i n s ranging from 46 to 56/"- i n po l a r length. A s i n g l e furrow extends from end to end of the g r a i n , u s u a l l y gaping s l i g h t l y at the ends. -112- Margins of the furrow are closed and s l i g h t l y wavy, and are not thickened along margins. Exine moderately t h i c k and s l i g h t l y roughened. -... REMARKS: Except f o r the roughened exine t h i s p o l l e n i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h that of telodendron p s l l Q P l t e s reported by Wodehouse (1933) from the Eocene Green R i v e r Formation. OCCURRENCE: This p o l l e n g r a i n occurs i n very low f r e  quency i n the Eocene and Miocene rocks of the Sunnyside and Point Roberts w e l l s . S e v e r a l specimens were found i n the upper p a r t of the K i t s i l a n o Formation. ORDER ARALIALES FAMILY CORNACEAE Nyssa? sp. P l . 8 F i g . 73 .".DIAGNOSIS: Large (k-5 to 50/^ e q u a t o r i a l diameter) t r i c o l - porate p o l l e n g r a i n s . O utline e s s e n t i a l l y c i r c u l a r , colpae long and t a p e r i n g , becoming wider at the equator. Each colpus contains a deeply sunken, pronounced, s l i g h t l y e l l i p t i c a l pore. Exine f i n e l y but d i s t i n c t l y granulate. REMARKS: M o r p h o l o g i c a l l y these grains appear to be a f f i l  i a t e d w i t h Nyssa but are g e n e r a l l y l a r g e r than extant p o l l e n . A l s o , the shoulders of the w a l l surrounding the colpae are s l o p i n g r a t h e r than r i g h t - a n g l e d as i n extant p o l l e n of Nyssa. OCCURRENCE: Only three grains of t h i s type were found, a l l i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation. - 1 1 3 - ORDER HAMAMELIDALES FAMILY HAMAMELIDACEAE Liquidambar sp. P l . 8 F i g s . 7 1+-75 DIAGNOSIS: S p h e r i c a l to i r r e g u l a r , polyporate p o l l e n g r a i n s . Pores l a r g e , up to h "by 8 / A i n s i z e ; g e n e r a l l y 8 to 12 pores per g r a i n . Weak a n n u l i surrounding each pore. Exine very minutely r e t i c u l a t e to punctate. Pore membranes weakly scabrate. Extexine and endexine sharply d i s t i n c t . REMARKS: Liquidambar was w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d throughout T e r t i a r y f l o r a s i n North America and i s even reported from the Upper Cretaceous F r o n t i e r Formation of Wyoming (Axelrod, 1 9 5 0 ) . Representative T e r t i a r y occurrences i n North America i n c l u d e the Eocene Wilcox Formation, the Oligocene Brandon l i g n i t e , the Oligocene Bridge Creek f l o r a , the ; 0 1 i g o c e n e (?) - Miocene of the Cook I n l e t area of A l a s k a , and the Miocene Latah Forma t i o n . Gradual c o o l i n g during the Pliocene destroyed L i q u i d  ambar i n the western United States but i t s t i l l p e r s i s t s i n the warm temperate part of the eastern United S t a t e s . I t i s a l s o a common element i n p o r t i o n s of the east A s i a t i c f l o r a s at the present time. Sato ( 1 9 6 3 ) and others describe L i q u i d - ambar from the Miocene of Japan. In short, during the T e r t i a r y , Liquidambar was wide- . spread throughout North America, EtUrope and eastern A s i a . OCCURRENCE: Liquidambar i s r e l a t i v e l y common i n the Mio- cene rocks of the Sunnyside and Point Roberts w e l l s . In the - 1 1 4 - Sunnyside w e l l there are s e v e r a l occurrences i n the Eocene pa r t of the s e c t i o n , Ljquidambar was not observed i n e i t h e r the K i t s i l a n o Formation or any of the other outcrop samples. ORDER SALICALES FAMILY SALICACEAE ; s_aiix discQloripites Wodehouse 1933 . P l . 8 F i g s . 7 6 - 7 7 DIAGNOSIS: The grains found i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n are i d e n t i c a l w i t h those described by ; Wodehouse except f o r a more r e s t r i c t e d s i z e range of 15 to 1 9 / c • OCCURRENCE: S a l j x i s never abundant, but o c c a s i o n a l l y occurs up to s e v e r a l percent i n the Miocene rocks-..in the Sunny^ side and Point Roberts w e l l s . I t i s r a r e i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation. Salix? sp. P l . 8 F i g s . 7 8 - 7 9 DIAGNOSIS: T r i c o l p a t e g r a i n s , mostly oblate w i t h colpae extending almost from pole to pole. Furrows c l o s e d , show a s l i g h t i n t e r n a l marginal t h i c k e n i n g . Sculpture minutely r e t i c u l a t e to punctate, maintained r i g h t up to the margins of the colpae. Length 25 to-3 0 / / , J width 15 to 2 0 / / . REMARKS: This g r a i n i s only t e n t a t i v e l y assigned to S a l i x because of the l a c k of co n c l u s i v e and d i a g n o s t i c f e a t u r e s . - 1 1 5 - T r i c o l p a t e , r e t i c u l a t e p o l l e n grains are abundant i n various f a m i l i e s and t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s always an u n c e r t a i n pro cedure. OCCURRENCE: These p a r t i c u l a r forms are.only s p a r i n g l y present i n the Miocene s e c t i o n of the Sunnyside and Point Roberts w e l l s . They i n f r e q u e n t l y occur i n the Eocene sections as w e l l as the K i t s i l a n o Formation. They were not encountered i n the other outcrop samples. ORDER FAGALES FAMILY BETULACEAE Alnus q u a f l r a p p i l e n i t e s Rouse 1 9 6 2 P l . 8 F i g s . 8 0 - 8 2 :; DIAGNOSIS: According to Rouse ( 1 9 6 2 ) these " p o l l e n grains are t y p i c a l l y square i n o u t l i n e , w i t h four pores s i t u a t e d at the angles. Bands of the w a l l connecting the pores are obvious. The exine around the pores i s not g r e a t l y thickened, so that no prominent p r o t r u s i o n s are i n evidence. Exine l a e v i g a t e . S i z e range 2 5 to 2 7 / / . ." The Alnus g r a i n s f o u n d i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation match t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , but the-minimum s i z e range i s 2 0 / / , w i t h the m a j o r i t y measuring about 2 3 / / C . REMARKS: Alder grains are common throughout the T e r t i a r y s e c t i o n represented i n the w e l l samples. However, the older forms g e n e r a l l y appear more aspidate, w i t h heavier l i p s around the pores. There i s no doubt, however, that these are AJLnus - 1 1 6 - grains-. In t h i s study a l l four-pored Alnus grains have been i n c l u d e d i n the species A« q u a d r a p o l l e n i t e s . See f u r t h e r d i s  c u s s i o n under "Remarks" of A- h e x a p o l l e n j t e s . OCCURRENCE: Four-pored ald e r i s extremely common i n a l l the w e l l samples. I t i s present, i n much reduced numbers, i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation and i n most of the outcrop samples. Aln,US q u i n q u a p o l l e n i t e s Rouse 1 9 6 2 P i s . 8 - 9 F i g s . 8 3 - 8 6 DIAGNOSIS: Rouse ( 1 9 6 2 ) s t a t e s " p o l l e n grains broadly pentagonal i n o u t l i n e , w i t h f i v e pores s i t u a t e d at the angles. The pores are d i s t i n c t , w i t h a prominent t h i c k e n i n g of the exine immediately surrounding the pore. Thickened bands be tween the pores are sometimes present, but g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g . S i z e range 2 0 to 2 2 / ^ . " I can add l i t t l e to t h i s except to s t a t e the thickened bands are i n v a r i a b l y present but i n some specimens are weakly developed. REMARKS: A l l f i v e - p o r e d Alnus grains are placed i n t h i s s p e c i e s . As i n A . quadrapol lenites the pores appear more aspidate i n ol d e r g r a i n s . See f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n under "Re marks" , A • hej££&oJj££ij^e£. OCCURRENCE: Five-pored a l d e r i s extremely common i n a l l the w e l l samples. I t i s present i n much reduced numbers i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation and i n most of the outcrop samples. -117- A l m i s h e x a p o l l e n i t e s n. sp. P l . 9 F i g s . 87-88 DIAGNOSIS: S u b - c i r c u l a r to broadly hexagonal w i t h s i x pores s i t u a t e d at the angles. The pores are always d i s t i n c t w i t h prominent thi c k e n i n g s of exine around the pores. Pores moderately aspidate. -Thickened-ibands between the pores almost always prominent. S i z e range i s 21 to 2h/A . REMARKS: A l l six-pored Alnus grains are placed i n t h i s s p e c i e s . Probably A . a u a d r a p g l l e n l t e s , kx. aulnqneppl lenlte5 and A . hexaPQllerutes would f a l l w i t h i n A . s p e c i i p i t e s (Wode house, 1933). Wodehouse gave an all-encompassing d e s c r i p t i o n that i n c l u d e d three to six-pored forms w i t h a s i z e range of. 20 to 30.1+/<v . Thus, as Rouse (1962) points out, there i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g d i f f e r e n t species to encompass, these three d i s t i n c t types of Alnus p o l l e n . There i s no i m p l i c a t i o n here that these three species represent d i s t i n c t n a t u r a l s p e c i e s . Modern reference m a t e r i a l i n d i c a t e that the same anther may paroduce p o l l e n grains w i t h d i f f e r e n t pore numbers. F i n a l l y , M a r t i n and Rouse (1966) have in c l u d e d a l l f o s s i l Alnus as Alnus verus R. Potonie 1931 because there i s no essen t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i n morphology between the v a r i o u s forms. How ever, I p r e f e r maintaining separate s p e c i f i c names f o r the d i f  f e r e n t morphological types because of the p o s s i b i l i t y of each having s t r a t i g r a p h i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . HOLOTYPE: 2 , 1 0 0 f t . s l i d e , Sunnyside w e l l , coordinates -118- 3 8 . 8 - 1 0 8 . 0 . OCCURRENCE: Six-pored p o l l e n grains are never as common as the fo u r - and f i v e - p o r e d types. However, they o f t e n occur a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them, and o c c a s i o n a l l y comprise s e v e r a l percent of the t o t a l a l d e r count. In a general way, they appear more common in'.the Miocene sequences w i t h i n the w e l l s , than they do i n the Eocene sequences. They are r a r e l y present i n the K i t - : s i l a n o Formation and were not observed i n other outcrop samples. I f more c o n t r o l were a v a i l a b l e i n the Whatcom b a s i n , i t might become p o s s i b l e to use Alnus pore numbers i n zoning. However, at the present time t h i s i s only s p e c u l a t i v e . B^Ltiila, c f . £. C l a r i p i t e s Wodehouse 1933 P l . 9 F i g s . 89-90 DIAGNOSIS: P o l l e n grains assignable to B e t u l a are very r a r e i n . r o c k s from t h i s area. The s e v e r a l grains found f i t the d e s c r i p t i o n of £. c l a , r i p i t e s as given by Wodehouse (1933). REMARKS: B e t u l a i s a widespread and common element i n T e r t i a r y rocks throughout North America. I t has been found i n the Eocene Green R i v e r Formation, the Eocene of i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia, i n the Paleocene F o r t Union Formation, the Miocene F l o r i s s a n t Formation and i n the Miocene Latah Forma t i o n . B e t u l a i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c o o l ajid humid c o n d i t i o n s which probably accounts f o r i t s r a r i t y i n the Whatcom, b a s i n rocks. OCCURRENCE: Only three or four grains were found which - 1 1 9 - could be assigned to B e t u l a w i t h c e r t a i n t y , and those were a l l i n the Miocene s e c t i o n of the Sunnyside w e l l . I t was not encountered i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation nor i n any of the out crop samples. c f . Carpinus sp. P l . 9 F i g s . 91-92 DIAGNOSIS: A number of gr a i n s were found which suggest d e f i n i t e a f f i n i t i e s w i t h C a r p i n u s . -. Ge n e r a l l y they f i t the d e s c r i p t i o n of Carpinus a n c i p i t e s Wodehouse 1933 but many are c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r . The s i z e range of the present specimens are 25 to 37//, , whereas Wodehouse re p o r t s a range of 27.4 to ¥ + . 5 / c • The only modern Carpinus a v a i l a b l e f o r reference i s IL. betulus w i t h a s i z e averaging 35/t • REMARKS: Carpinus was once much more widespread than i t i s at present, and appears to have been a common element i n many of the North American f l o r a s during the T e r t i a r y . OCCURRENCE: Although Carpinus i s never abundant, i t i s almost i n v a r i a b l y present, even i f represented on a s l i d e by a s i n g l e specimen. I t has been observed throughout the s e c t i o n i n both w e l l s and i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation. I t was a l s o recorded i n Dale Creek (American Sumas Mountain) and the Toad Lake outcrop. -120- Corylus t r i p o l l e n i t e s . Rouse 1962 P l . 9 F i g s . 93-9^ DIAGNOSIS: " P o l l e n grains s u b t r i a n g u l a r i n o u t l i n e . Three-pored w i t h the pores e l l i p t i c a l i n o u t l i n e and subtended by s l i g h t bulbous expansions of the w a l l (see Wodehouse, 1933, t e x t - f i g u r e ^9. Corylus pattern'). The w a l l i s t y p i c a l l y f o l d e d between the pores, but the p a t t e r n i s i r r e g u l a r . Ornamenta t i o n l a e v i g a t e to weakly punctate. S i z e range 25 to 2 7 ^ ." Specimens from the Whatcom b a s i n are m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l , but tend to be smaller w i t h a minimum s i z e of 18 and an average of about Ih/M . REMARKS: Corylus has been reported l o c a l l y from the Bur r a r d Formation (Rouse, 1962) and the Miocene or Pliocene Skonun Formation ( M a r t i n and Rouse, 1966). OCCURRENCE: Corylus, l i k e Carpinus, i s never abundant but i t i s commonly present. I t was encountered i n the Miocene and Eocene sequences i n both the Point Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . A few grains were found i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation but i t was not observed i n the other outcrop samples. FAMILY FAGACEAE Castanea? sp. P l . 9 F i g s . 95-96 DIAGNOSIS: Grains small (16 to 19/6 ), t r i c o l p a t e w i t h colpae extending from pole to pole. Small c i r c u l a r pore, s i t  uated i n short transverse furrow, l i e s i n the center of each -121- colpus. The exine i s p s i l a t e to very f a i n t l y granular. REMARKS: These specimens look very much l i k e p o l l e n of the modern species Castanea dentata b u t are s l i g h t l y l a r g e r . However, according to Wodehouse (1935) p o l l e n of the genus CastangpsiS looks much l i k e that of Gastanea. In f a c t , Casta- n a a s i a chryso-phyl la i s i d e n t i c a l to Castanea dentata. For t h i s reason the assignment to Castanea i s questionable. Castanea-type p o l l e n has been described from numerous T e r t i a r y rocks ranging i n age from Eocene to P l i o c e n e . Rouse (1957): and GoUper (1965) have a l s o reported Castanea-type p o l l e n from Upper Cretaceous rocks. OCCURRENCE: Castanea-type p o l l e n i s f a i r l y common i n a l l the samples examined. I t was found through the e n t i r e s t r a t i  graphic s e c t i o n s represented i n the Point Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s , as w e l l as i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation and other out crop samples. ? . Fagus g r a n u l a t a M a r t i n and Rouse 1966 P l . 9 F i g s . 97-99 DIAGNOSIS: " P o l l e n t r i c o l p o r a t e , 27"38 X 20-30/6 , c i r c u l a r i n polar-view, broadly e l l i p t i c a l l n e q u a t o r i a l view. Colpae w i t h narrow borders, about 20-23y6t long, w i t h l a r g e e l l i p ^ t i c a l pores about 7-9/6 i n diameter. The w a l l , about 0.5 to 1.5/A t h i c k , i s d i s t i n c t l y d i v i d e d i n t o endexine and ectexine that supports a coarse- to f i n e - g r a n u l a t e ornamentation. The endexine forms d i s t i n c t costae around the pores" ( M a r t i n and -122- Rouse, 1966). REMARKS: The Whatcom b a s i n specimens appear i d e n t i c a l to,those described by M a r t i n and Rouse. They go on to say that t h i s species probably represents " e i t h e r an e x t i n c t or extant A s i a t i c species." OCCURRENCE: Zagiis granulata, has been observed p r i n c i  p a l l y i n the Miocene rocks, but Is a l s o present i n much of the Eocene sequence i n the Sunnyside and Point Roberts w e l l . A few grains were found i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation. Zagus^ sp. P l . 9 F i g s . 100-101 DIAGNOSIS: Sub-sp h e r i c a l t r i c o l p a t e g r a i n , 30 to 3 ^ i n diameter. Colpae one-half to two-thirds t o t a l g r a i n l e n g t h . Conspicuous margo bordering colpae; s m a l l , s l i g h t l y e l l i p t i c a l . pores i n center of each colpus. Exine f i n e l y scabrate, becom in g much f i n e r on the margo. REMARKS: This g r a i n d i f f e r s from F. granulata mainly i n having shorter colpae, but a l s o appears to have c o n s i s t e n t l y smaller pores. This probably represents an undescribed s p e c i e s , but there i s l i t t l e doubt that i t i s Fagus, p o s s i b l y an e x t i n c t form. OCCURRENCE: This p a r t i c u l a r form i s present i n small q u a n t i t y i n the Miocene rocks of the Point Roberts and Sunny side w e l l s . -123- Fagv.s 2? sp. P l . 9 F i g . 102 DIAGNOSIS: A s i n g l e , s u b - s p h e r i c a l t r i c e l p o r a t e g r a i n , • 30/^o i n diameter. Colpae extend almost from end to end of g r a i n . Conspicuous margo bordering colpae, expanding i n width at equator. Small c i r c u l a r pore l o c a t e d i n center of each colpus. Exine f i n e l y scabrate, becoming f i n e r on margo. REMARKS: Assignment of t h i s g r a i n to Fagus i s question- . a b l e , but i t i s c l o s e r to p o l l e n of t h i s genus than any other known to me. . OCCURRENCE:. Only one g r a i n was found and that was i n the Miocene of the Sunnyside w e l l at a depth of *+,100 f e e t . QUercus e x p l a n a t a Anderson i 9 6 0 P l . 9 F i g s . 103-10^ DIAGNOSIS: " P r o l a t e t r i c o l p a t e p o l l e n w i t h long furrows extending f a r i n t o the p o l a r area; furrows u s u a l l y of unequal l e n g t h and o f t e n w i t h a margo, a d e f i n i t e pore not present, but the middle of the furrow sometimes s l i g h t l y gaping; grains tend to be s l i g h t l y rhomboidal i n e q u a t o r i a l view; exine c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and t h i c k e r at the poles; t e c t a t e - c o l u m e l l a t e exine gives the appearance of scabrate s c u l p t u r e . "Length ( p o l a r a x i s ) 33 to hQ/z, , mostly greater than hO^c ; width 23 to 37/6 , exine as much as t h i c k at p o l e s . " (Anderson, i960) -I2h- REMARKS: Anderson's specimens occur i n the lowermost Pliocene, hut i n the present study area they are probably some what older. OCCURRENCE: These m i c r o f o s s i l s are l o c a l l y moderately abundant i n the Miocene sections of the Point Roberts and Sunnyside wells. Quercus^ sp. P l . 9 Figs. 105-106 DIAGNOSIS: Prolate,' t r i c o l p a t e pollen grains with fur rows extending nearly from pole to pole,, occasionally weak margo along colpae, no pores but the middle of the furrow may gape s l i g h t l y , a tectace-columellate exine suggests a r e t i c u  l a t e pattern; appears s l i g h t l y coarser at the poles. Polar axis varies from 33 to hO/A. , width 23 to 3 0 ^ REMARKS: This grain resembles Quercus Tnngi canalis Traverse 1955* See remarks under Quercus^ sp. OCCURRENCE: This m i c r o f o s s i l occurs l o c a l l y i n low f r e  quency throughout the Miocene and Eocene sequences of the Point Roberts and Sunnyside wells. Two specimens were found i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation. Quercus2 sp. P l . 10 Figs. 107-108 DIAGNOSIS: F a i r l y large (29 to 35//. polar diameter) t r i  colpate grains, nearly c i r c u l a r i n polar and equatorial views. -125- Colpae two-thirds to three-fo u r t h s length of g r a i n , u s u a l l y t i g h t l y c l o s e d . No sub-exinous thickenings along colpae. Sculpture scabrate. REMARKS: See remarks under Quercus 1 sp. k OCCURRENCE: This g r a i n occurs only s p o r a d i c a l l y through out the Miocene and Eocene w e l l s e c t i o n s , and i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation. Quercus^  sp. P l . 10 F i g s . 109-110 DIAGNOSIS: T r i c o l p a t e g r a i n s , 20 to 2k//. long, p r o l a t e . Closed colpae extending from end to end of g r a i n . Weak sub- exinous t h i c k e n i n g beneath colpae margins. Sculpture f a i n t l y scabrate. REMARKS: This g r a i n , although somewhat sm a l l e r , super f i c i a l l y resembles .Qjiexcjis zlr^iniajaa. M i l l as described by Macko, 1957. See remarks under Quercns^ sp. OCCURRENCE:. This g r a i n i s found throughout the Whatcom b a s i n rocks but i s somewhat more common i n the Miocene sec t i o n of the Poin t Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . Quercus sp. k P l . 10 F i g . I l l DIAGNOSIS: T r i c o l p a t e g r a i n w i t h the same s i z e and same morphology as Quercus^ sp. The s c u l p t u r e , however, i s p s i l a t e r a t h e r than scabrate. -126- REMARKS: Quercus i s a widespread genus c o n s i s t i n g of over 300 s p e c i e s ' a t the present time. During post-Eocene times Quercus appears to have been a main element of northern 1. hemisphere f l o r a s . In the Whatcom b a s i n , Miocene rocks have a conspicuously l a r g e percentage of Quercus p o l l e n which undoubtedly represent more than k species. However, on the b a s i s • o f p o l l e n , Quercus i s very d i f f i c u l t to subdivide i n t o s p e c i e s . A l l are t r i c o l p a t e w i t h few d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s . Some previous workers (esp. Macko, 1957; Traverse, 1955) have assigned these grains to numerous species. I f e e l t h i s i s meaningless and that a v a l i d species s u b d i v i s i o n of the types encountered here i s not p o s s i b l e on the b a s i s of p a l y n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s . As.a r e s u l t I have shown the four d i s t i n c t Quercus groups present i n the Whatcom b a s i n but have not attempted to a s s i g n a species name to any. OCCURRENCE: This form occurs i n l i m i t e d q u a n t i t y through out the rocks of the Whatcom b a s i n , but i s more common i n the Miocene rocks of both w e l l s . ORDER JUGLANDALES FAMILY JUGLANDACEAE Carva juxtapoi-itas (Wodehouse 1933) Rouse 1962 P l . 10 F i g s . 112-115 DIAGNOSIS: C i r c u l a r to s u b - t r i a n g u l a r t r i p o r a t e g r a i n s , 2k to 36/x. i n diameter. Pores u s u a l l y c i r c u l a r , 1-g- to 2/6* i n diameter, o c c a s i o n a l l y s l i g h t l y o v a l . Pores on one hemisphere - 1 2 7 - s l i g h t l y o f f s e t from equator. Ornamentation ranges w i d e l y from p s i l a t e to d i s t i n c t l y granulate. REMARKS: The Whatcom b a s i n specimens appear i d e n t i c a l w i t h the H i c o r i a j u x t a p o r i t e s Wodehouse 1 9 3 3 and to Carva  j u x t a p o r i t e s (Wodehouse 1 9 3 3 ) Rouse 1 9 6 2 . The s i z e range given by Rouse ( 2 3 to 29/A ) i s s l i g h t l y l e s s than given above but i n a l l other respects they appear i d e n t i c a l . The average s i z e of the specimens encountered i n t h i s study Is 30/U an^ the range i n ornamentation i s pronounced. P o s s i b l y more than one species i s included under t h i s d e s i g n a t i o n but the grada- t i o n a l nature of the ornamentation makes i t d i f f i c u l t to draw d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s . ', Wodehouse ( 1 9 3 3 ) i n h i s o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p  t i o n of., t h i s species i n c l u d e d p s i l a t e to granular forms, and I have f o l l o w e d the same procedure i n t h i s study. OCCURRENCE: Carya i s an almost omnipresent element i n a l l specimens from the Whatcom b a s i n i n c l u d i n g the Miocene arid Eocene rocks i n both w e l l s , the K i t s i l a n o Formation and most of the outcrop samples examined. E n g e l h a r f l t i a 'of. g r a n u l a t a Simpson 1 9 6 1 PI. 1 0 F i g s . 1 1 6 - 1 1 7 DIAGNOSIS: P o l l e n grains 2 2 to 2 6 / * i n diameter, p r o f i l e i n p o l a r view t r i a r c u a t e ; three pores, c l o s e to c i r c u l a r , s l i g h t l y a s p i d a t e ; on most specimens there i s a narrow and o f t e n inconspicuous c o l l a r , s c u l p t u r e s l i g h t l y scabrate. 'On proximal hemisphere, between pores, there are three s u b - c i r c u l a r -128- : areas of exine t h i n n i n g ; a broad i n d e f i n i t e t r i r a d i a t e mark i s present on proximal surface. REMARKS: These forms appear very s i m i l a r to those described by Simpson ( I 9 6 I ) from Lower T e r t i a r y rocks of Scot land., See remarks under Ejig l^haxdiia sp. OCCURRENCE: These p a r t i c u l a r forms were found only i n the lower part of the Eocene sequences.and the Cretaceous w i t h i n both w e l l s . They occur o n l y i n very low q u a n t i t y . Kngelharfltia sp. P I . 10 F i g s . U 8 - 1 1 9 DIAGNOSIS: P o l l e n grains i n t h i s group are s i m i l a r to those of E. granulata but d i f f e r i n two r e s p e c t s : 1) there i s no area of t h i n n i n g i n the i n t e r p o l a r areas and 2) the exine i s l a e v i g a t e to f a i n t l y scabrate. REMARKS: This g r a i n appears s i m i l a r to Engejhardtia o o r y l i p l t e s Wodehouse 1933- I t i s o n l y w i t h some u n c e r t a i n t y that I a s s i g n the grains encountered here to .two f o s s i l species of E n g e l h a r d t i a . Mod ern E n g e i h a r d t i a p o l l e n can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Myrica and Corylus mainly on the b a s i s of s i z e but i t i s only s u p p o s i t i o n that t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p ) : h e l d throughout the T e r t i a r y . Because these forms are smaller than t y p i c a l Myrica and because the pores are not set p r e c i s e l y on the equator, which i s a char a c t e r i s t i c of the Juglandaceae, I have concluded that these grains are those of E n g e l h a r d t i a species. -129- OCCURRENCE: These forms never occur i n high frequency but are present i n the Miocene and Eocene sequences i n the two wells as w e l l as most of the outcrop samples. . '. P l a t y c a r y a sp. P l . 10 Figs. 120-122 DIAGNOSIS: Small (14 to 1^6- ), triporate pollen grains. More or less d i s t i n c t l y triangular; sharp, s l i t - l i k e pores at each angle. Pores are reported by several authors (Wodehouse, 1935; Thiergart, '194-0)'to have a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Corvlus-pattern. Pores are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y s l i g h t l y offset-from the equator, i n the Juglandaceous fashion. Exine i s f a i n t l y scabrate and always crossed by at least two crossed f o l d s . REMARKS: Although i t i s not i n print to my knowledge, the u n o f f i c i a l f e e l i n g among Te r t i a r y palynolegists i s that Platycarya i s r e s t r i c t e d to Eocene rocks. However, as a num ber of writers have mentioned, the d i s t i n c t i o n between Platy c a r y a and E n g e l h a r d t i a and c e r t a i n members of the Betulaceae can at times be d i f f i c u l t . I have not had access to the mod- ern Platycarya or Engelhardtia but have compared descriptions- and i l l u s t r a t i o n s and can see how d i f f i c u l t i e s of d i f f e r e n t i a  t i o n might occur. As a r e s u l t of this p o t e n t i a l confusion, i t seems possible to me that Platycarya might be more long ranging than commonly thought, simply because i t has not been i d e n t i f i e d . I have assigned these grains with some confidence because -130- of t h e i r s m a l l s i z e , t h e i r s l i t - l i k e pores and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c r o s s - f o l d s OCCURRENCE: Platy o a r y a i s never abundant but i s a common element In the Eocene se c t i o n s o f both the Point Roberts and Sunnyside wells.; I t i s a l s o present i n low frequency.in the upper part of the K i t s i l a n o Formation, at K i l g a r d Quarry on • Canadian Sumas Mountain, at Dale Creek on American Sumas Moun t a i n , at the Whatcom Quarry and'at the Glen Echo Coal Mine. Juglans p e r i p o r i t e s M a r t i n and Rouse 1966 P l . 10 F i g s . 123~12^ DIAGNOSIS: These forms,are e s s e n t i a l l y m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l to those described by M a r t i n and Rouse. However, the s i z e range can be expanded because forms from the Whatcom b a s i n range from 26 to 3 5 / 6 .'• M a r t i n and Rouse give an annu- l u s diameter of 8 to 10/6. which i s somewhat higher than shown i n t h e i r i l l u s t r a t i o n s . .The annulus of the present specimens ranges from 5 to 6/6 w i t h pore diameters, i n d i f f e r e n t s p e c i  mens, va r y i n g from 1.5 to . REMARKS: Juglans has been found i n numerous T e r t i a r y f l o r a s , i n c l u d i n g the Eocene Green R i v e r Formation, the O l i g o  cene (?) - Miocene of A l a s k a , the Miocene of Nevada and the . Miocene of Japan. Wodehouse (1933? p. 50^) s t a t e s : "Juglans i s an ancient group, w i t h a h i s t o r y d a t i ng back to the Upper Cretaceous. In the T e r t i a r y i t was represented by many d i f  f e r e n t species and i s a conspicuous fea t u r e of most of the • -131- T e r t i a r y f l o r a s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those' of. the more n o r t h e r l y and colde r climates ." OCCURRENCE: This p a r t i c u l a r m i c r o f o s s i l , w h i l e never abundant, occurs i n a l l the rocks of the Whatcom ba s i n . Jugjans sp. , P l . 10 F i g . 125-127 DIAGNOSIS: Polyporate p o l l e n g r a i n , 28 to 35/6 » sub- rounded. Number of pores, h i g h l y v a r i a b l e but u s u a l l y around- twelve. Most l o c a t e d near the equator, the remainder l o c a t e d on one hemisphere. Pores g e n e r a l l y small (1 to'2/6 i n d i a  meter) c i r c u l a r to s l i g h t l y e l l i p t i c a l , annulus weak or absent a l t o g e t h e r . Sculpture weakly scabrate. REMARKS: The c l o s e s t species appears to be Juglans per i p o r i t e s M a r t i n and Rouse 1966, but these have a more pronoun ced annulus. This type of Juglans p o l l e n from the Whatcom b a s i n i s s i m i l a r to that of the modern J_. n i g j i a . OCCURRENCE: This p a r t i c u l a r form appears to be r e s t r i c t e d to the Miocene sequence of rocks i n the Point Roberts and Sun nyside w e l l s . Pterocarva s t e l l a t u s M a r t i n and Rouse 1966 P l . 11 F i g s . 128-130 DIAGNOSIS: Polyporate g r a i n w i t h 5 to 8 s u b c i r c u l a r to c i r c u l a r pores, l o c a t e d at or near the equator. Pores vary . from 5 to w i t h the m a j o r i t y having s i x pores. Grains -132- d e f i n i t e l y angular w i t h the number of sides dependent on the number of pores. Sub-exinous thickenings beneath the pores shallow. Almost i n v a r i a b l y the surface i s fo l d e d i n t o one or more f o l d s . Surface s c u l p t u r e ranges from p s i l a t e to f a i n t l y scabrate. S i z e range 28 to 37/U- . REMARKS: These grains appear i d e n t i c a l to Pterocarya  s t e l l a t u s M a r t i n and Rouse 1966. No r e a l d i f f e r e n c e seems to. e x i s t between f o s s i l and extant.Pterocarya p o l l e n . OCCURRENCE: Pterocarya i s p a r t i c u l a r l y common i n the Miocene se c t i o n s of the Point Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . However, i t i s al s o present i n l e s s e r q u a n t i t y i n the Eocene s e c t i o n s and i n various outcrops. FAMILY JUGLANDACEAE? Momipltes tenuipolus Anderson i960 P l . 11 F i g s . 131-133 DIAGNOSIS: These grains are i d e n t i c a l to those described by Anderson ( i960). S i z e range 1*+ to 17/sO • REMARKS: Stanley (1965) describes what appears to be M- tenuipolu,s from the Paleocene of South Dakota, and c a l l s . i t E n g e l h a r d t i a microfOYeolata. He does not r e f e r to Anderson's s p e c i e s , nor does he comment on polar exine t h i n n i n g which c h a r a c t e r i z e s Momjpjtes t e n u i p o l u s , but h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s appear to show t h i s t h i n n i n g . Probably t h i s g r a i n belongs to the f a m i l y Juglandaceae; p o s s i b l y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to E n g e l h a r d t i a or P l a t v c a r v a . -IBS- OCCURRENCE: This i s a common g r a i n throughout the Point Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . I t was al s o observed i n the Dale Creek sample on American Sumas Mountain. ORDER UTRICALES FAMILY ULMACEAE Illmus or Zelkova sp. P l . 11 F i g s . 13^-135 DIAGNOSIS: Square to sub-rectangular p o l l e n g r a i n ; 28 to 37//* i n diameter- Four pores are the r u l e , although three and f i v e have been observed; they are g e n e r a l l y somewhat e l l i p t i c a l , 3 to k/U> i n len g t h . As a r u l e , pores are l o c a t e d on the angles of the g r a i n , but. as i n modern Illmus they may be a l l on one hemisphere, adjacent to the equator. S l i g h t , sub-exinous thickenings do occur. Exine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y l a e v i g a t e w i t h a r u g u l a t e to r e t i c u l a t e p a t t e r n impressed i n t o i t . Wodehouse (1935) has remarked that these undulations are due to " I n t e r  n a l t h i c k e n i n g s . " REMARKS: HlmilS and Zelkova cannot be d i s t i n g u i s h e d on the bas i s of p o l l e n , even i n modern p o l l e n g r a i n s , so I have not attempted to separate them here. I have not seen an HlmiiS" • Zelkova of t h i s type described before. I t i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the 'II» gr a n o p o l l e n j t e s described by Rouse from the Bur r a r d Formation. I t looks much l i k e U. americana but according to Wodehouse (1935)» II• americana c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y has f i v e pores. The Illmus described here i s dominently four pored. -131+- OCCURRENCE: Common i n the Miocene s e c t i o n s of both w e l l s . A few specimens o c c a s i o n a l l y present i n Eocene w e l l samples. .. Planera sp. P l . 11 F i g . 136 DIAGNOSIS: M o r p h o l o g i c a l l y . Planera i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h • the Ulmus-Zelkova a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d , but has the a d d i t i o n of a r c i or curved l i n e a r t h i c k e n i n g s reaching from pore to pore. A d e s c r i p t i o n of Planera given by Simpson (1961) f i t s these . grains almost e x a c t l y . Wodehouse (1935)? commenting on the a r c i of Planera, s t a t e s that a r c i are more than adequate to d i f f e r e n t i a t e Planera from Ulmus. REMARKS: I f e e l there i s l i t t l e doubt these are t r u l y Planera. The d i f f e r e n c e i n these grains to those r e f e r r e d to as Ulmus-Zelkova Is s t r i k i n g and c o n s i s t e n t . Leaves of Planera have been found i n the Burrard and K i t s i l a n o Formations (Rouse, 1962), although i t has not been commonly i d e n t i f i e d before i n T e r t i a r y f l o r a s on the b a s i s of m i c r o f o s s i l s . OCCURRENCE: Planera i s not common, w i t h only about 15 grains i d e n t i f i e d . However, they have been found i n both the Miocene and Eocene sections of the P o i n t Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . S e v e r a l grains were also- found i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation. -135- ORDER TILIALES FAMILY TILIACEAE . ' l i l i a v e s c l p l t e s Wodehouse 1933 P l . 11 F i g s . 137-139 DIAGNOSIS: These specimens appear i d e n t i c a l w i t h those described by Wodehouse. They range i n polar diameter from 2+ to 3 ^ Except f o r the s l i g h t l y smaller s i z e , these specimens are s i m i l a r to the modern T.. amer i c ana as suggested by Wodehouse (1933)• OCCURRENCE: This m i c r o f o s s i l i s l o c a l l y r a t h e r abundant and i s found throughout the Eocene and Miocene of the two w e l l s as w e l l as i n most of the outcrop samples. ,... TjJLia sp. . P l . 11 F i g . lkO DIAGNOSIS: Small (21 to 2k/*- ), t r i p o r a t e .grain, i n v a r  i a b l y s u b c i r c u l a r . Pores c i r c u l a r and deeply sunken forming p i t s . Sub-exinous t h i c k e n i n g around pores i s con s i d e r a b l e , and always conspicuous. Exine i s p i t t e d to minutely r e t i c u l a t e . REMARKS: This g r a i n d i f f e r s from, TjJLia v e s c i p i t e s i n i t s smaller s i z e ; i n the punctate r a t h e r than c o a r s e l y r e t i c u l a t e s c u l p t u r e ; and i n the pronounced thickenings around the pores. OCCURRENCE: This i s a r e l a t i v e l y uncommon m i c r o f o s s i l found p r i n c i p a l l y i n the Miocene s e c t i o n of the Point. Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . However, a few grains were found i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation -136- FAMILY TILIACEAE? P l . 11 F i g . 1^ 1 . DIAGNOSIS: E l l i p t i c a l p o l l e n g r a i n , 22 t o 26//, , mark e d l y p o i n t e d end. T r i c o l p o r a t e , c o l p a e e x t e n d i n g from end to end. o f g r a i n . Marked sub-exinous t h i c k e n i n g . S m a l l c i r  c u l a r pore l o c a t e d i n s h o r t , s h a l l o w t r a n s v e r s e f u r r o w . E x i n e i s f i n e g r a n u l a r w i t h a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a l l i g n m e n t o f o r n a  m e n t a t i o n i s p a r a l l e l t o l o n g a x i s o f g r a i n . REMARKS: Assignment t o the T i l l l a c e a e i s t e n t a t i v e , and done o n l y on the b a s i s o f the resemblance o f t h i s g r a i n t o "Grewia-type" as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Erdtman (1952). OCCURRENCE: Not a common m i c r o f o s s i l , o c c u r r i n g v e r y r a r e l y i n the Miocene r o c k s o f the P o i n t R o b e r t s and Sunny s i d e w e l l s . . ORDER SAPINDALES FAMILY ACERACEAE ... A£LST_sp. P l . 11 F i g s . 1^2-1^3 DIAGNOSIS: G r a i n s p r e d o m i n a n t l y o b l a t e , 2k t o 3 0 / * l o n g , 10 t o 20/c i n w i d t h . Colpae e x t e n d from p o l e t o p o l e , u s u a l l y c l o s e d , but where ga p i n g s l i g h t l y , a re f a i n t l y g r a n u l a r . No t h i c k e n i n g a t c o l p a e m a r g i n s . The e x i n e i s always d i s t i n c t l y g r a n u l a t e ; a l m o s t always the g r a n u l e s are a l l i g n e d i n rows, g i v i n g a s t r i a t e appearance, a l t h o u g h a t times the s t r i a t i o n s a re w e a k l y d e v e l o p e d . - 1 3 7 - REMARKS: Wodehouse ( 1 9 3 5 ) and Simpson ( 1 9 6 1 ) remark on the d i a g n o s t i c value.of these granular s t r i a t i o n s . Among modern forms, only Acer negundo f a i l s to show t h i s s t r i a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . As"a consequence I have i d e n t i f i e d as Acer only those grains which show t h i s f e a t u r e . T r i c o l p a t e grains are common i n many diverse groups i n the Dicotyledonae, and I am convinced that many m i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s are found i n the l i t  e r a t u r e . As a r e s u l t , I have decided to e r r on the conserva t i v e side and a s s i g n to Acer only those forms which show the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ' s t r i a t i o n s . This may have r e s u l t e d i n Acer appearing i n l e s s e r percentage than i t d i d i n r e a l i t y . OCCURRENCE: Rare, but omnipresent i n a l l Whatcom b a s i n rocks. . FAMILY HIPPOCASTANACEAE Aescuius sp. P l . 11 Fig.- ikh DIAGNOSIS: P r o l a t e , t r i c o l p a t e g r a i n s , 20 to 26 / 6 i n pol a r diameter. Colpae s h o r t , each c o n t a i n i n g a weak e l l i p  t i c a l pore i n center. Exine f a i n t l y scabrate. OCCURRENCE: A very uncommon m i c r o f o s s i l , i d e n t i f i e d d e f i n i t e l y o n l y i n s e v e r a l samples from the Miocene of the Sunnyside w e l l . -138- ORDER CHENOPODIALES? FAMILY CHENOPODIACEAE? P l . 11 F i g . 1^5 DIAGNOSIS: P o l l e n grains small (17 to ) J s p h e r o i d a l , c r i b e l l a t e . Twelve or more c i r c u l a r pores covered by a t h i n , f l e c k e d membrane; exine t h i c k and f a i n t l y scabrate. REMARKS: Although I have assigned these p o l l e n grains to the Chenopodlaceae, there remains the p o s s i b i l i t y they may be i n the f a m i l y Caryophyllaceae. . Erdtman .(19^3) points out the s i m i l a r i t y of p o l l e n from the two f a m i l i e s , and that many are d i f f i c u l t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e . Because there are over 550 genera i n the Chenopodiaceae and 80 genera i n the Caryophyl laceae, w i t h a combined t o t a l of about.2 ,000 s p e c i e s , a l l w i t h s i m i l a r p o l l e n , i t i s . i m p o s s i b l e to r e f i n e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t o . any lower l e v e l . OCCURRENCE: Only four grains of t h i s type were observed, and they a l l occurred i n the Miocene s e c t i o n of the Sunnyside w e l l . ORDER C0NT0RTAE FAMILY GENTIANACEAE P i s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s m c g r e g o r i i Rouse 1962 P l . 12 F i g s . 1^6-14-9 ' DIAGNOSIS: The d e s c r i p t i o n given by Rouse f o r the genus i s as f o l l o w s : " P o l l e n grains c i r c u l a r t o broadly s u b - t r i a n g u l a r i n o u t l i n e . T r i p o r a t e ( ? t r i c o l p a t e ) w i t h the three openings -139- g e n e r a l l y obscured by the club or p i s t i l - s h a p e d elements of ornamentation. The w a l l i s about 2/c- t h i c k , w i t h no obvious d i v i s i o n into, ektexine and endexine; the presence of costae has not been confirmed because no c l e a r view of the pores has been a v a i l a b l e . S i z e range 20 to 30/6 ." For the d e s c r i p t i o n of P i s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s m c g r e g o r i i , Rouse adds the f o l l o w i n g to the. generic d e s c r i p t i o n : "The p i s t i l - s h a p e d ornaments resemble young mushrooms emerging from the s o i l , i . e . they are c i r c u l a r to o v a l i n shape, • pores or (colpae?) which are hidden between and under the p r o j e c t i o n s . — the p r o j e c t i o n s are not g e n e r a l l y evenly d i s t r i b u t e d on the surface of the w a l l but tend to be concen t r a t e d ;on one surface. The s i z e range i s 20 to 3 0 / A . " REMARKS: There i s no doubt these forms are i d e n t i c a l to those described by Rouse,,although a-wider range of orna ment v a r i a t i o n i s present. The exine may have as few as s i x p i s t i l s or the e n t i r e surface may be densely covered. Accord ing to H i l l s (1965) the;range of P i s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s m cgregorii i s , i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Middle Eocene. However, the t o t a l range may be Paleocene to Middle Eocene (Rouse, personal com munication) . OCCURRENCES: P i s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s has a r e s t r i c t e d occur rence i n the Whatcom b a s i n . . In the Sunnyside and Point Roberts w e l l s i t occurs only, and sometimes i n high percentage, i n the middle and lower parts of the Eocene s e c t i o n . I t was a l s o encountered i n the lower part of the K i t s i l a n o Formation and -1*4-0- i n s e v e r a l outcrops i n Washington State. D i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s m i c r o f o s s i l i s i n d i c a t e d on Tables B, C and D. FAMILY AQUIFOLIACEAE I l e x sp. .... P l . 12 Figs... 150-155 DIAGNOSIS: T r i c o l p a t e p o l l e n g r a i n , subprolate to pro l a t e . Some grai n s show the colpae d i s t i n c t l y , others w i t h the colpae b a r e l y v i s i b l e . A l l specimens show a cl a v a t e s c u l p t u r e d ektexine. Clavae vary from 1.5 to 3.5//- i n diameter, markedly expanded and rounded on d i s t a l ends. Most specimens have e q u a l - s i z e d clavae, others have s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s . No clavae present on furrows. S i z e range (excluding ornaments) 25 to 2>7/A- i n po l a r l e n g t h . • > REMARKS: At the present time there are over 180 species of I l e x ( W i l l i s , 1955) and these presumably a l l have very s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n i n p o l l e n morphology. Presumably t h i s m u l t i p l i c i t y of species was present i n the T e r t i a r y , as s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t forms of. I l e x are reported from T e r t i a r y f l o r a s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n the f o s s i l I l e x of the Whatcom b a s i n are s l i g h t and do not lend themselves to meaningful s u b d i v i s i o n . Considerable over l a p of forms e x i s t s , and i t i s d i f f i c u l t and a r b i t r a r y to as s i g n most of the grains to any p a r t i c u l a r species. Traverse (1955) has created f i v e f o s s i l s p e c i e s , but to my mind t h i s has very l i t t l e v a l i d i t y . As a r e s u l t I have simply placed a l l forms of i l f i x sp. and i l l u s t r a t e d some of the minor v a r i a t i o n s present. - 1 4 - 1 - ; OCCURRENCE: I l e x i s common, and sometimes abundant, i n the Miocene and upper part of the Eocene sequence i n both the Poin t Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . I t i s a l s o present i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation and some of the other outcrop samples. D i s t r i b u t i o n of I l e x i s i n d i c a t e d on Tables B, C and D. ORDER PROTEALES • ". FAMILY PROTEACEAE P r o t e a c i d i t e s thalmanni Anderson i960 P l . 12 F i g s . 156-158 DIAGNOSIS: T r i p o r a t e , t r i a n g u l a r p o l l e n g r a i n about 22 to 30/^ i n diameter. Rounded corners, s l i g h t l y convex i n t e r r a d i a l areas. Pores at angles, somewhat v a r i a b l e i n character. Pores g e n e r a l l y appear e l l i p t i c a l , and notch l i k e . Annulus u s u a l l y pronounced around pores. Exine i s r a t h e r c o a r s e l y r e t i c u l a t e near equator, becoming f i n e r toward poles. REMARKS: P r o t e a c i d i t e s p o l l e n i s d i f f i c u l t to break i n t o species because of the t r a n s i t i o n a l nature of the p o l l e n g r a i n morphology. However, the present^ specimens appear i d e n t i c a l w i t h £. thalmanli Anderson: i960. A v a i l a b l e evidence I n d i c a t e s that P r o t e a c i d i t e s i s r e  s t r i c t e d to Upper Cretaceous i n New Mexico. Stanley (i960) found P r o t e a c i d i t e s retusus Anderson i960 r e s t r i c t e d to Upper Cretaceous i n northwestern South Dakota. Rouse (1962) s t a t e d that two s p e c i e s , £. t e r r a z u s Rouse 1962 and £. marginus Rouse -1^2- 1962, Is r e s t r i c t e d to Upper Cretaceous rocks i n B r i t i s h C o l  umbia. Informal d i s c u s s i o n w i t h o i l company p a l y n o l o g i s t s has i n d i c a t e d to me that most workers accept proteaceous grains as i n d i c a t o r s of Upper Cretaceous age i n North America. OCCURRENCE: S e v e r a l of these grains were found i n the Dale Creek (American Sumas Mountain) sample, but as explained i n the t e x t , I f e e l these are contamination from older rocks. They were found i n the Upper Cretaceous, rocks i n both the Sunnyside and Point Roberts w e l l s . D i s t r i b u t i o n of proteaceous grains i s given on Tables B and C. : P r o t e a c i d i t e s sp. '• P l . 12 F i g . 159 DIAGNOSIS: Rather s h a r p l y t r i a n g u l a r g r a i n , a b r u p t l y rounded angles, s t r a i g h t to s l i g h t l y concave s i d e s . S i z e about 28//- . Pores i n d i s t i n c t but appear n o t c h - l i k e , no par t i c u l a r t h i c k e n i n g of exine around pores. Sculpture i s wart l i k e at equator grading to r e t i c u l a t e and punctate at poles. • REMARKS: This g r a i n appears s i m i l a r to P r o t e a c i d i t e s  t e r r a z u s Rouse 1962, but i s r a t h e r p o o r l y preserved and can't be i d e n t i f i e d any c l o s e r to speci e s . OCCURRENCE: Only three of these p a r t i c u l a r m i c r o f o s s i l s were found, a l l i n the Upper Cretaceous of the Sunnyside w e l l . - 1 ^ 3 - . ORDER MYRICALES FAMILY MYRICADEAE Mvrica annulites Martin and Rouse 1966 P l . 13 Figs. 160-161 DIAGNOSIS: Triporate grains, 26 to 33/6 i n diameter. Specimens from the Whatcom basin appear very similar to those described by Martin and Rouse so I have assigned them to this species. '• REMARKS: Wodehouse ( 1 9 3 3 ) has stated " (Myxisa) i s one of the most abundant and widely d i s t r i b u t e d genera of the T e r t i a r y occurring i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the f l o r a s of the epoch. It was also present i n the Upper Cretaceous period and i s s t i l l widely d i s t r i b u t e d though greatly reduced i n numbers of species." Myrica i s reported from t h e M i o c e n e or early Pliocene Skonun Formation of the Queen Charlotte Islands (Martin and Rouse, 1966) but has not been found i n either the Eocene Bur rard Formation (Rouse, 1962) nor i n the Eocene of i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia ( H i l l s , 1965). OCCURRENCE: This i s a very uncommon m i c r o f o s s i l i n the Whatcom basin with only a few grains encountered i n the Miocene section of the Point Roberts and Sunnyside wells. CLASS DICOTYLEDONAE Form genus E x t r a t r i p o r o p Q l l e n i t e s sp. P l . 13 F i g . 162 DIAGNOSIS:: Strongly triangular grain, with strongly protruding pores. Size about 22/A . Annulus prominent, ves- tibulum appears present but d i f f i c u l t to define i t s nature. Sculpture appears rough, almost, beaded. REMARKS: This form compares most: c l o s e l y with £. Fractus Pf lug i n Thomson and Pf lug (1953).. A number of species of E x t r a t r i p o r o p o l l e n i t e s have been described. However, there appears to be considerable overlap of features, and I prefer not to commit myself to the species l e v e l . E x t r a t r i p o r o p o l l e n i t e s appears to be a good indicator of Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks. Thomson and Pflug (1953) f i n d i t abundant i n Upper Cretaceous, r a r e l y present i n the Paleocene, and absent i n younger rocks. Samolovitch, .e_± a l (1961) found Ext r a t r i p o r o p o l l e n i t e s i n both Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks i n Russia. OCCURRENCE: Several grains of this form were found within the Upper Cretaceous, part of the Point Roberts and Sunnyside wells. - 1 4-5- •• . - CLASS MONOC0TYLEDONAE ORDER LILIALES FAMILY LILIACEAE? c f . L3.liacid3.tes sp. P l . 13 F i g s . 163-164 • - DIAGNOSIS: Monocolpate p o l l e n g r a i n s , p r o l a t e to per- p r o l a t e , l 4 to 45//. i n polar l e n g t h . Furrow extending to e x t r e m i t i e s of g r a i n , u s u a l l y not gaping but w e l l d e f i n e d ; • some grains show a s l i g h t margo. Sculpture r e t i c u l a t e , becoming f i n e r toward the furrow and end of g r a i n . Lumina - i r r e g u l a r and angular i n shape. REMARKS: These grains are mor p h o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r to those of L i l i a c i d i t e s l e a l Anderson I960, but many are 5 to 1 0 / A shorter i n po l a r diameter. They are a l s o s i m i l a r to Aponogeton as described by Simpson (1961) but because t h i s l a t t e r i s s t r i c t l y an A f r i c a n genus i t seems u n l i k e l y i t was ever n a t i v e to North America. Because of the considerable doubt surrounding t h e i r b o t a n i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n , I have t e n t a  t i v e l y assigned them to the form-genus L i l i a c i d i t e s , though they may w e l l be a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a f a m i l y other than L i l i a c e a e OCCURRENCE: This i s a very uncommon m i c r o f o s s i l found on i n a few places i n the s e c t i o n i n both the. Point Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . I t a l s o was encountered i n s e v e r a l of the K i t s i l a n o Formation samples. -146- ORDER PALMALES FAMILY PALMAE Sabal granopoll enttes Rouse- 1Q62 P l . 13 F i g s . 165-166 DIAGNOSIS: '•/."Pollen monocolpate, f u s i f o r m i n o u t l i n e , c o a r s e l y granulate to. weakly r e t i c u l a t e . ; The s i n g l e colpae. i s long and narrow w i t h weak margins. S i z e range 28 to 32/ c " (Rouse, 1 9 6 2 ) . '"..; REMARKS: S a b a l granopol1en.1t.es has been reported from the Eocene Burrard Formation (Rouse, I962), the Middle Eocene A l l e n b y Formation ( H i l l s , 1 9 6 5 ) and the Paleocene (?) Chuck anut Formation (Griggs, 1965). OCCURRENCE: S_aMl i s r e l a t i v e l y abundant i n the lower part of the Eocene s e c t i o n and i n the Cretaceous of both the Point Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . ORDER PANDANALES FAMILY TYPHACEAE ; • Typha sp. , >1. 13 F i g s . 1 6 7 - 1 6 8 DIAGNOSIS: P o l l e n g r a i n s small (18 to 2 5/6), i r r e g u l a r l y s p h e r o i d a l . S i n g l e germ pore, which i s o f t e n not d i s t i n c t , but u s u a l l y occurs as a rat h e r i r r e g u l a r hole. Exine i s t h i n and covered w i t h a f i n e foam-like r e t i c u l a t i o n . REMARKS: These grains appear i d e n t i c a l to those of the extant. I x j t f i a l a t i f o l i a which grows i n marshes throughout In temperate North America, sometimes abundantly. OCCURRENCE: Tvpha has been found i n low frequency throughout the s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n represented i n the Point Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . I t i s e s p e c i a l l y abundant i n se v e r a l Miocene samples from the Sunnyside w e l l . ORDER NAJADALES •>•'••'• ;> Potamogeton hollickipltes Wodehouse 1933 P l . 13 F i g . 169 DIAGNOSIS: According to Wodehouse these grains are "s p h e r o i d a l , somewhat e l l i p s o i d a l or v a r i o u s l y i r r e g u l a r , 16 to 27<>h/U- i n diameter. Exine r a t h e r t h i n and conspicuously r e t i c u l a t e w i t h a coarse network, of.beaded r i d g e s . Without pores or furrows or v e s t i g e s of them." ,: REMARKS: The specimens here are s i m i l a r to those described . by. Wodehouse except the upper s i z e l i m i t i s 32/* • My s p e c i  mens are i d e n t i c a l to those described by H i l l s (1965) from the Eocene A l l e n b y Formation, P r i n c e t o n b a s i n , i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia.. Wodehouse (1933) remarked: " I t i s not known f o r c e r t a i n whether they fPotamogeton p o l l e n ) have a germ pore or not, the absence of which i s the only character which d i s t i n g u i s h e s these grains from those of Sparganium and some species of JEjpJia'. " However, d e t a i l e d examination of the r e t i c u l a t e ornamentation i n d i c a t e s that the muri of modern Sparganium grains are not - 1 4 8 - always c l o s e d , w h i l e Potamogeton appears to always have closed muri. Furthermore, Typha has a much f i n e r and more d e l i c a t e r e t i c u l u m than e i t h e r Sparganium or Potamogeton and u s u a l l y has a conspicuous germ pore. Because a germ pore i s never present and the muri are always c l o s e d , I have assigned these grains to the genus Potamogeton. Potamogeton has been described from a number of T e r t i a r y Formations i n c l u d i n g the Eocene Green R i v e r , the Middle Eocene A l l e n b y of i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia and the Miocene Latah of the Columbia Plateau. OCCURRENCE: L o c a l l y t h i s i s an abundant m i c r o f o s s i l and i s found i n both Miocene and Eocene rocks. INCERTAE SEDIS T r i l e t e s SQlidus K r u t z s c h 1 9 5 9 P l . 1 3 F i g s . 1 7 0 - 1 7 1 DIAGNOSIS: Moderate s i z e d ( 3 5 to 50/6 ) t r i l e t e spore, sub-angular, rounded angles. S l i g h t l y concave to s l i g h t l y convex i n t e r r a d i a l areas. T r i l e t e mark d i s t i n c t , extending from pole almost to equator. Ornamentation c o a r s e l y warty- r u g u l a t e . REMARKS: Krutzsch s t a t e s t h i s spore occurs i n the Eocene of Germany, but i t s o v e r a l l s t r a t i g r a p h i c range i s unknown. I t s b o t a n i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n i s unknown. OCCURRENCE: Only four specimens of t h i s g r a i n were found, two i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation and two at the Sumas Clay Mine. -lh-9- T r i l e t e spore ( u n i d e n t i f i e d ) . P l . 13 F i g . 172 DIAGNOSIS: T r i l e t e spore, s u b t r i a n g u l a r , 36/6 , laesurae extend almost to equator; c o a r s e l y r e t i c u l a t e , lumina essen t i a l l y round, i n s t e a d of angular. REMARKS: This g r a i n looks much l i k e B r o c h o t r i l e t e s  f ovealatus as described by Naumova (Pbtonie, 1958) from the Upper Devonian of Russia. I t i s a l s o s i m i l a r to Foveasporis K r u t z s c h 1959 but i s smaller than any of the species described f o r t h i s genus. However, Foveasporis i s found i n the Creta ceous of Germany. De s c r i p t i o n s f o r both of these genera are ambiguous and there i s apparently overlap of morphological character. Ser ious restudy of these genera may r e s u l t i n an a l l - i n c l u s i v e term but t h i s i s beyond the scope of t h i s work. The b o t a n i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n of t h i s g r a i n i s unknown but i t may belong to the Lycopodophyta. OCCURRENCE: Only one g r a i n was found, and that from a core at 10,873 f e e t (Cretaceous) of the Sunnyside w e l l . D e l t o i d o s p o r a ^ sp. P l . 13 F i g . 173 DIAGNOSIS: Small (22 to 28/6 ), t r i l e t e spore. Sub- t r i a n g u l a r , broadly rounded angles, s t r a i g h t to s l i g h t l y con cave i n t e r r a d i a l areas. T r i l e t e mark weakly developed, extend ing about two-thirds of distance toward equator. Exine very - 1 5 0 - weakly and minutely punctate. REMARKS: This spore i s s i m i l a r to Deltoidospora ml££Q- forma Rouse 1962 but these forms do not have the g e n e r a l l y gaping laesurae which Rouse de s c r i b e s . In s i z e and shape i t i s more l i k e U. rhytisma but does not o f t e n have the concave i n t e r r a d i a l areas which c h a r a c t e r i z e Rouse's i l l u s t r a t i o n s . OCCURRENCE: Only a few of these m i c r o f o s s i l s were found i n the Miocene and Eocene rocks of the two w e l l s . Deltoidospora sp. 2 P l . 13 F i g . 17*+ DIAGNOSIS: Small (20 to 2 2 / c ) t r i l e t e spore. Sub- t r i a n g u l a r i n shape, broadly rounded angles, s t r a i g h t to weakly concave i n t e r r a d i a l areas. T r i l e t e mark weak, extends to spore equator. Sculpture scabrate. REMARKS: This g r a i n . i s s i m i l a r to Deltoidospora taenia Rouse 1 9 6 2 , but i s somewhat sma l l e r . Rouse gives a s i z e range f o r t h i s species of 26 to • No b o t a n i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n can be suggested f o r t h i s g r a i n . OCCURRENCE: Only two specimens of t h i s m i c r o f o s s i l were found, both i n the Toad Lake outcrop. Monoporate A P l . 13 F i g s . 175-176 DIAGNOSIS: Almost s p h e r i c a l spore, 16 to 17//- , w i t h one. very s l i g h t l y aspidate pore. Exine about 3/£ t h i c k , w i t h no -151- t h i c k e n i n g about the pore. Exine p s i l a t e . REMARKS: This i s almost c e r t a i n l y a f u n g a l spore, but no clue as to i t s a f f i l i a t i o n can be presented at t h i s time. OCCURRENCE: This i s not a common g r a i n but i t i s ra t h e r widespread. I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y abundant i n the Whatcom Quarry and Dale Creek samples, but has been found i n the Miocene sec t i o n of the Sunnyside w e l l . Monoporate B P l . 13 F i g . 177 DIAGNOSIS: S p h e r i c a l to o v a l , 17 to 20/6 , monoporate spore. Pore very minute, surrounded by s l i g h t sub-exinous t h i c k e n i n g , non-aspidate. Exine p s i l a t e . REMARKS: This i s undoubtedly a fung a l spore, w i t h no known a f f i l i a t i o n s . OCCURRENCE: This spore was found only at the base of the Eocene s e c t i o n of the Sunnyside w e l l . Monoporate C P l . 13 F i g . 178 DIAGNOSIS: Small ( 1 5 to 1 6 / 6 ), o v a l , monoporate spore. Pore l o c a t e d at one end, c i r c u l a r , showing s l i g h t t h i c k e n i n g of the exine at pore margins. Exine p s i l a t e . REMARKS: This i s undoubtedly a fungal spore, w i t h no known a f f i l i a t i o n . OCCURRENCE: This spore was found only at the base of -152- the Eocene s e c t i o n i n the Sunnyside w e l l . F u s i f o r m i s p o r i t e s m i c r o s t r l a t u s n. sp. P l . 13 F i g . 1 7 9 DIAGNOSIS: Oval spore, 4-2 to k9/jL i n l e n g t h . G r a i n d i v i d e d i n t o two c e l l s by a septum i n the middle of the g r a i n . Fine l o n g i t u d i n a l r i b s extend from the poles to the e q u a t o r i a l septum (which i s very s l i g h t l y c o n s t r i c t e d ) . Most of these r i b s terminate at the equator, although o c c a s i o n a l l y s e v e r a l may be continuous across i t . The w a l l i s t h i c k and appears granular. REMARKS: This form i s placed i n the genus Fusiform!-, s p o r i t e s Rouse 1962 but has much f i n e r grooves than £. c r a b b i i Rouse 1962. HOLOTYPE: S l i d e 1 4 - 5 - 6 5-3-1 (Whatcom Quarry), coordin ates 25.2-118.0. OCCURRENCE: Apparently r e s t r i c t e d i n s m a l l numbers to the Whatcom Quarry and Toad Lake samples. D i p o r i t e s granulatus Rouse 1962 P l . 13 F i g s . 180-181 DIAGNOSIS: " P o l l e n grains elongate, e l l i p t i c a l to f u s i  form i n o u t l i n e . Diporate w i t h the pores d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed and p r o t r u d i n g . P o r a l costae prominent, s e v e r a l microns below the pore; the p r o j e c t i n g pore appears to be an extension of the ektexine only. Ornamentation c o a r s e l y and densely - 1 5 3 - granulate. S i z e range 4 - 5 to 5 0 / ^ " (Rouse, 1 9 6 2 ) . Specimens from the Whatcom b a s i n are i d e n t i c a l to those described by Rouse except f o r t h e i r l a r g e r s i z e . The s i z e range here i s 5 0 to 6^/6. . REMARKS: Rouse has suggested that D i p o r i t e s granulatus belongs to the Onagraceae, but t h i s remains to be v e r i f i e d . OCCURRENCE: This g r a i n occurs i n low frequency i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation and most of the outcrop samples. D i p o r i t e s p s i l a t u s n. s p . P l . Ik F i g . 1 8 2 DIAGNOSIS: Elongate spore or p o l l e n g r a i n , e l l i p t i c a l to f u s i f o r m i n o u t l i n e , 5 5 to 60/x- i n length. B i p o r a t e , pores opposed, s l i g h t l y aspidate. P o r a l costae prominent w i t h exine thinner toward pores. Exine i s p s i l a t e . REMARKS: This g r a i n i s almost i d e n t i c a l w i t h D i p o r i t e s  granulatus Rouse 1 9 6 2 except f o r the character of the exine and the l a r g e r chambers subtending the pores. Rouse has ten t a t i v e l y suggested these grains belong to the Onagraceae, but no f u r t h e r c l u e on a f f i l i a t i o n can be o f f e r e d . HOLOTYPE: S l i d e 1 4 - 5 - 6 5 - 6 - 1 (Goshen Coal Mine), coordin ates 3 1 . 7 - 1 1 7 . 6 . OCCURRENCE: This m i c r o f o s s i l has been found i n low f r e  quency i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation and other outcrops. Diporate A P l . l * f F i g . 183 DIAGNOSIS: Large ( 6 3 to 68/A ), i r r e g u l a r l y o v a l p o l l e n (?) g r a i n . Diporate; pores are s m a l l , c i r c u l a r and surrounded by a narrow zone of sub-exinous t h i c k e n i n g . Pores are always on the same surface but not always i n the same place. W a l l i s t h i n and always creased w i t h a number of f o l d s . Sculpture minutely scabrate. REMARKS: No suggestion can be given as to the probable b o t a n i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n of t h i s g r a i n . OCCURRENCE: L o c a l l y abundant w i t h i n samples from the Sumas Clay Mine. .Diporate B P l . Ik F i g . 18>+ DIAGNOSIS: Large 0+5 to 55 / 6 )» dipo r a t e g r a i n , o v a l . Pores at each end, markedly aspidate, exine f l a r i n g out to form l i p s which border the l a r g e , c i r c u l a r pore. No sub- . exinous t h i c k e n i n g or t h i n n i n g around the pores. Plane of weakness c u t t i n g through pores. Although only a few grains of t h i s type were observed, one pore i s always ruptured along t h i s plane. Exine l a e v i g a t e to s l i g h t l y i r r e g u l a r . REMARKS: This i s s i m i l a r to D i p o r i t e s g r a n u l a n s but i n t h i s present form the prominent p o r a l costae i s "absent. Furthermore, the exine i n D. granulatus i s " c o a r s e l y and densely" granulate. No b o t a n i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n can be suggested -155- f o r t h i s g r a i n . OCCURRENCE: An uncommon g r a i n o c c u r r i n g only i n the Goshan Coal Mine samples. Diporate C P l . Ik F i g . 185 DIAGNOSIS: Large (75 t o &5yUL ), o v a l , diporate f o s s i l . C i r c u l a r , s l i g h t l y aspidate pore at each end. Sub-exinous t h i c k e n i n g around each pore. G r a i n d i v i d e d i n t o four c e l l s hy three moderately t h i c k , but simple septa. No pores appar ent i n septa. W a l l p s i l a t e . REMARKS: No b o t a n i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n can be suggested f o r t h i s g r a i n , although the general morphology resembles a fu n g a l spore. OCCURRENCE: Only s e v e r a l grains of t h i s form were found at the Sumas Clay Mine. T r i c o l p a t e A P l . Ik F i g s . 186-187 DIAGNOSIS: Large (kO to kkjLo ) t r i c o l p a t e p o l l e n g r a i n . Colpae about three- f o u r t h s t o t a l l e n g t h of g r a i n , somewhat wavy and tending to gape i n middle. Exine c o a r s e l y r e t i c u l a t e , becoming s l i g h t l y coarser at poles and f i n e r toward the colpae. REMARKS: No suggestion can be made as to the b o t a n i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n of these g r a i n s , although they have been found i n T e r t i a r y rocks of southwestern Washington (T. Sparks, personal - 1 5 6 - communication). OCCURRENCE: These grains are found i n very low occurrence throughout the T e r t i a r y sequence i n both the Point Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . T r i c o l p a t e B P l . ik F i g . 188 DIAGNOSIS: P r o l a t e , t r i c o l p a t e p o l l e n g r a i n , 26 to 2 8 / 6 i n polar, diameter. Colpae sharp and t i g h t l y c l o s e d , extending about three-f o u r t h s l e n g t h of g r a i n . Exine l a e v i g a t e . REMARKS: No b o t a n i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n can be suggested f o r t h i s p o l l e n g r a i n . OCCURRENCE: Uncommon p o l l e n g r a i n , o c c u r r i n g only i n the Miocene s e c t i o n of the Point Roberts and Sunnyside w e l l s . T r i c o l p a t e C P l . Ik F i g . 189 DIAGNOSIS: Small- ( 15 to 1 9 / 6 ),. p r o l a t e , t r i c o l p a t e p o l l e n g r a i n . Colpae extending almost from end to end of . g r a i n , always t i g h t l y c l o s e d , and showing no sub-exinous t h i c k e n i n g . Exine moderately t h i c k , scabrate to minutely granular. REMARKS: No b o t a n i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n can be suggested f o r t h i s g r a i n . OCCURRENCE: A moderately common g r a i n throughout the Miocene and Eocene rocks of the Point Roberts and Sunnyside -157- w e l l s . T r i c o l p o r a t e A P l . Ik F i g . 190 DIAGNOSIS: T r i c o l p o r a t e p o l l e n g r a i n , p r o l a t e , 23 to 2Qyju long. Three colpae extend almost from pole to pole. C i r c u l a r p r o t r u d i n g pore i n center of each colpae. Weak sub- exinous t h i c k e n i n g along margin colpae. Exine scabrate. REMARKS: The a f f i l i a t i o n of t h i s g r a i n i s not known, but i t resembles s u p e r f i c i a l l y some genera of the f a m i l y Cornaceae. OCCURRENCE: Not a common g r a i n but does occur i n the Miocene rocks and to a l e s s e r extent i n the Eocene rocks of both w e l l s . T r i p o r a t e A P l . Ik F i g . 191 DIAGNOSIS: T r i p o r a t e p o l l e n g r a i n , 2 8 ^ i n diameter. Pores moderately aspidate but nature of exine around pores i s not c l e a r ; there does not appear to be any t h i c k e n i n g of exine around pores. Exine i s f i n e l y and i r r e g u l a r l y s t r i a t e . REMARKS: Only one specimen was found and i t s ornamenta t i o n i n no way resembles anything I have seen. OCCURRENCE: One specimen was found i n the upper part of the K i t s i l a n o Formation. -158- A c r i t a r c h , c f . Micrhystrldium? P l . Ik F i g . 192 DIAGNOSIS: F o s s i l 23/ 6 i n diameter, no openings i n body. Surface i s warty and bears spiny appendages about lk//s long, about 3/c i n diameter at base, tapering d i s t a l l y to a p o i n t . OCCURRENCE: Only one specimen was found, i n a core at 10,873 f e e t (Cretaceous) i n the Sunnyside w e l l . A c r i t a r c h , c f . M i c r h v s t r i d i u m ? P l . Ik F i g . 193 DIAGNOSIS: More or l e s s c i r c u l a r , sometimes i r r e g u l a r l y f o l d e d . S i z e range from 22 to 28// . Ornamented w i t h spines, u s u a l l y s t r a i g h t b u t , o c c a s i o n a l l y curved, about 3 / t long. OCCURRENCE: Only one specimen was found i n the Miocene s e c t i o n of rocks i n the Sunnyside w e l l . c f . A s t e r i n a P l . Ik F i g . 19^ DIAGNOSIS: These s t r u c t u r e s , which range from 65 to 8$JA i n diameter are i d e n t i c a l to the c y l i n d r i c a l p l a t e s of c e l l s described by M a r t i n and Rouse (1966). REMARKS,: Di l c h n e r (1963) described s i m i l a r forms from the Eocene and placed them i n the funga l f a m i l y M i c r o t h y r i a c e a e , genus A s t e r i n a . S i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e s are i l l u s t r a t e d , but not described by H i l l s (1965) from the Eocene of i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia. -159- , OCCURRENCE: These forms are found i n low frequency i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation and other outcrop samples. U n i d e n t i f i e d P l . Ik F i g s . 195-196 DIAGNOSIS: Large (75 t o 8 0 / 6 ), c i r c u l a r organic body of unknown o r i g i n . OCCURRENCE: Found i n very low q u a n t i t y i n the K i t s i l a n o Formation. -160- PLATE 1 Figure Page I Dyadosporites^ sp. (x iooo) . 8 5 2 - 3 Dvadosporites^ sp. C X ^ O O ) 8 6 ^ - 6 P l u r i c e l l a e s p g r i t e s p s i i a t u s Clark 1 9 6 5 8 6 (X500) 7 P l u r i c e l l a e s p o r i t e s sp. (X1000) 8 7 8 Fungal hyphae (X500) 8 8 9-10 Isoetes? microspore (X1000) 8 9 I I Lycopodium annotinlodes Martin and 8 9 Rouse 1966 (X1000) PLAT E -161- PLATE 2 F i g u r e Page 12 £smunda r e e a l i t f t s M a r t i n a n d * ™ i e o 1966 (X1000) 90 13 -lh Hsmunda i r r e e u l i t . f i f i M a r t i n a n r l R n i i s e 1966 (X1000) 91 15-17 Osinunda1 sp. ( x i o o o ) 91 18 Osmunda sp. (Y~\ non^ 92 19 Osmunda2 sp. (X5oo) 92 20 Osmund a sp. ( X I nnn 'i 92 18 20 -162- PLATE 3 Anemia p o o l e n s l B Chandler 1955 (X1000) Ci c a t r l C O S i a p Q r l t e S l n t e r s e o t u s Rouse 1 9 6 2 ( X 1 0 0 0 ) ClcatriQQSiSPQritef? i n t a r s e p t u s Rouse 1962 (X500) ClQatriCQSispQriteS i n t a r s e n t n s Rouse 1962 (X1000) -163- PLATE k F i g u r e Page 28 LygPflium r e t i c i ^ o a p n r l tea Rouse 1962 95 (X1000) 29-30 Glelchenift sp. ( x i o o o ) 95 31-32 LaevigatospQrit.es disoordatiia Thompson 96 and P f l u g 1953 (X1000) 33 L a e v i g a t o s p o r i t e a a l b e r t e n s i s Rouse 96 1957 (XIOOO) 3^ Dennstaedtiaceae-Polypodiaceae, Form 1 97 . (XIOOO) 35-36 Dennstaedtiaceae-Polypodiaceae, Form 2 97 (XIOOO) - 1 6 1 + - PLATE 5 Figur e Page 3 7 - 3 8 Dennstaedtiaceae-Polypodiaceae, 97 Form 2 (XIOOO) 39 Dennstaedtiaceae-Polypodiaceae, 97 Form 3 (XIOOO) H-0 A z o l j a g l o c h i d i a (XIOOO) .99 hl-k3 Ginkgo sp. (XIOOO) 99 ^ £ad£iis sp. (XIOOO) 100 -165- PLATE 6 Figure p a g e k5-k6 of. K e t e l e e r l a sp. (X750) 101 k?-kQ L a r l X P l i o a t i p n l l e n i t a s Rouse 1962 102 (XIOOO) ^9-50 P i c e a g r a n d l v a f l G i p i t a s Wodehouse 1933 102 (X750) 51-52 Pinus s t r o b i p l t f l s Wodehouse 1933 (X750) 103 -166- PLATE 7 F i g u r e p a g e 5 3 - 5 ^ Pinus sp. haploxyion-type (X750) 10k 5 5 Pinus sp. ( X 7 5 0 ) io>f 5 6 - 5 7 Cupressaceae (XIOOO) 1 0 5 5 8 - 5 9 Cupressaceae, Taxodiaceae or Pinaceae 106 . (XIOOO) 60-61 GlYPtostrQfrlJS vacuipites Wodehouse 106 1933 (XIOOO) 62 Metasequola p a p i l l a p o l l a n l t a s Rouse 107 1962(XIOOO) 63-6»+ S c i a d o p i t y s sp. ( X 7 5 0 ) 108 PLATE 7 -167- PLATE 8 Figure p a g e 65-66 TaXQdlUTn h i a t i p i t e s Wodehouse 1933 109 (X1000) 67-68 Podocarpus sp. (X1000) 109 69-70 xaania? sp. '(xiooo) 110 71 Ephedra? sp. ( x i o o o ) i l l 72 Magnoliaceae sp. (XIOOO) 111 73 . toaa? sp. ( x i o o o ) 112 7^-75 L i c m i d a m h a r s p . (XIOOO) 113 76-77 S a l i x d i s c o l o r l p l t e a Wodehouse 1933 114 (XIOOO) 78-79 fialix? sp. (XIOOO) 114 80-82 Alnus -aiiadrapollenit.ftfl Rouse 1962 115 (XIOOO) 8 3 - 8 4 AlriUS a u l n q u e p o l l e n l tes Rouse 1962 116 (XIOOO) - 1 6 8 - PLATE 9 Figure Page 8 5 - 8 6 Alnus a u i n a u e p o l l e n i t e s Rouse 1962 ;116 (XIOOO) 8 7 - 8 8 Alnus h e x a p o l l e n l t a s n . sp. (XIOOO) 117 8 9 - 9 0 Betula, c f . £. c l a r i p l t e s Wodehouse 118 1933 (XIOOO) 9 1 - 9 2 c f . C a r p i n u s sp. (XIOOO) 119 9 3 - 9 ^ Corylus t r i p o l l e n i t e s Rouse 1962 120 (XIOOO) 9 5 - 9 6 Castanea? sp. (xiooo) 120 9 7 - 9 9 Paeus g r a n u l a t a Martin and Rouse 1966 121 (XIOOO) 1 0 0 - 1 0 1 Fagus i sp.' (XIOOO) . 122 102 Zagiia 2? sp. (xiooo) 123 1 0 3 - 1 0 ^ Quercus e x p l a n a t a Anderson i 9 6 0 (XIOOO) 123 105-106 Quercus^ sp. (XIOOO) 12^f P L A T E 9 -169- PLATE 10 F i g u r e Page 107-108 Q u e r C u s 2 sp. (X1000) 12h 109-110 Quercus. sp. (XIOOO) . 125' 111 QjlfircjlS^. sp. (XIOOO) 125 112-115 Carva j u x t a p o r i t e s (Wodehouse 1933) 126 Rouse 1962 (XIOOO) 116-117 E n g e l h a r d t i a . c f . E.. granulata Simpson 127 1961 (XIOOO) 118-119 Engelhardtia- sp. (XIOOO) 128 120-122 P l a t y c a r v a sp. (XIOOO) 129 123"12V Juglans p e r i p o r i t e s M a r t i n and Rouse 130 1966 (XIOOO) 125-127 j j igiana sp. (xiooo) 131 PLATE 10 -170- PLATE 11 F i g u r e - Page 128-130 Pterocarya s t e l l a t u s M a r t i n and Rouse 131 1966 (X1000) 131-133 MoiBlpltflB tenulpnlus Anderson I960 132 (XIOOO) 131+-135 Ulmus-Zelkova sp. (Y1()C)C)) 133 136 Planera sp. (xiooo) 134. 137-139 T i l i a v e s c i p l t a s Worlehonsa 1033 (XIOOO) 135 1^ 0 l i l i a sp. (xiooo) 135 1^1 T i l i a c e a e ? (X1000) 136 1^2-1^3 Acer sp. (XIOOO) 136 ikk Aesmalus sp. (xiooo) 137 lk5 Chenopodiaceae? (XIOOO) 138 PLATE 1 1 -171- PLATE 12 Figure Page 146-14-9 P i s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s mogregorii Rouse 138 1966 (X100G) 150-155 Hex sp. (XIOOO) 140 156-158 P r o t e a c i d i t e s thalmanni Anderson i960 i 4 i (XIOOO) 159 Proteacidites sp. (XIOOO) 142 PLATE 1 2 157 1 5 8 159 -172- PLATE 13 Figure Page 160-161 M y r i c a annul3tea Martin and Rouse ikj 1966 (XIOOO) 162 E x t r a t r i p o r o n o l l e n i t e s sp. (XIOOO) 144- 163-164 cf. L i l i a c i d i t e s sp. (XIOOO) 145 165-166 fiaMl granopollenitfts Rouse 1962 146 (XIOOO) 167-168 Tjrj2na sp. (xiooo) 146 169 Potamogeton h o l l i c k i p i t e a Wodehouse 14-7 1933 (XIOOO) 170-171 T r i l e t e s s o l i d u s TOutzar.h IQ^Q (XIOOO) 148 172 ' Unidentified t r i l e t e spore (XIOOO) l49 173 Deltoidospora^ sp. (XIOOO) l49 174 Deltoidospora^ sp. (XIOOO) 150 175-176 Monoporate A (X1000) 150 177 Monoporate B (XIOOO) 151 178 Monoporate C (XIOOO) 151 179 F u s i f o r m i s p p r i t e s microstriatus n. sp. 152 (XIOOO) - " 180-181 D i p o r i t e s granulatus Rouse 1962 ~ 152 (X750 and X500) -173- PLATE 1 4 F i g u r e Page 182 ' D i p c - r i t e s u s i i a t u s n . sp. (x56o) 153 183 Diporate A (XIOOO) ' 154 184 . Diporate B (XIOOO). 154; 185 Diporate C ( X 5 0 0 ) ' 155 186-187 T r i c o l p a t e A (XIOOO) 155 188 T r i c o l p a t e B (XIOOO) 156 189 T r i c o l p a t e C (XIOOO) 156 190- T r i c o l p o r a t e A (XIOOO) 157 . 191 . T r i p o r a t e A (XIOOO) 157 192 . - A c r i t a r f i h , c f . Mi'orhvs t r i d ium? (XIOOO V 158 >93: A c r i t a r c h . c f . Mifirnvstridium? moOOV 158 194 c f . A s t e r l n a sp. fXTOOO} 158 195-196 U n i d e n t i f i e d (X500) 159 -17k- BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, R. 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B, p. 1-138 Thomson, R.V., 1958, Petrographic and sedimentary comparison of sandstones of the K i t s i l a n o and Burrard Formation: Unpublished B.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 21 p. Toshimasa, T., 1963, Miocene f l o r a s of southwestern Hokkaido, Japan; pt. 1, composition and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : i n T e r t i a r y f l o r a s of Japan, i n Miocene f l o r a s ; Geol. Survey Japan, p. 9-96 Traverse, A., 1955, P o l l e n a n a l y s i s of the Brandon l i g n i t e of Vermont: U.S. Bureau of Mines Report of Inv. 5151, 107 p. Trewartha, G.T., 1954, An i n t r o d u c t i o n to c l i m a t e : McGraw- H i l l Book Co., New York, 377 p. 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N1-N36 DEPTH 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 • 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6500 6600 6700 6800 6900 7000 7100 7200 7300 7400 7500 7600 7700 7800 7900 8000 8100 8200 8300 8400 8500 8600 8700 8800 8900 9000 9100 9200 9300 9400 9500 9600 9700 9800 9900 10,000 10,100 10,200 10,300 10,400 10,500 10,600 10,700 10,800 10,900 11,000 11,100 11,200 11,300 11,400 11,500 11,600 11,700 11,800 11,900 12,000 12,100 12,200 12,300 12,400 12,500 12,600 12,700 12,800 12,900 13,000 o o z r r? ] D Z3 b I 1 3 UPPER QCEN (?) EO ,4 CE N E 4?" 1 1 0) o > 3 D" U J O C O MIDD UPPE p p 0 C EN E R CRE P 5 T~I T A C E 0 US c D > '5 c r U J w o u. 3 CD MICROFOSSIL FREQUENCY P O I N T R O B E R T S W E L L 20 Percent of Total Fossil Count TABLE B D E P T H 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4571-99 4600 4700 4850 4900 5000 5090 5100 5200 5300 5400 5530 5600 5700 5800 5930 6000 6100 6200 6300 . 6400 6500 6600 6700 6800 6900 7000 7100 7200 7300 7400 7500 7650 7700 7800 7900 8000 8100 _ 8200 8310 8400 8500 8600 8700 8800 8920 8938-60 9000 9100 9220 9300 9350 9400 9500 9630 9720 9800 9900 10,000 10,100 10,200 10,300 10,400 10,500 10,620 10,700 10,800 10,858-93 I r i i I a • • b i UP M I 0 P E R C ? ) C E N E E O C E I I I ! HE c D > 3 O" UJ o c o M M D D L E U P P E R C I f E O C E N E R E T A C EOUS c 0) o _> '5 o- LU T3 1_ D 3 CD r M I C R O F O S S I L SUNNYSIDE FREQUENCY W E L L 0 20 1 1 I I 1 Percent of Total Fossil Count TABLE C 4 S A M P L E N o 6 - 3 - 6 6 - l and 2 , 1st A V E N U E , K I T S I L A N O B E A C H E Q U I V A L E N T HIGHBURY T U N N E L , S A M P L E No I No 2 No 3 No 4 No 5 No 6 No 7 CANADIAN SUMAS MOUNTAIN AND KILGARD Q U A R R Y S U M A S C L A Y MINE A M E R I C A N S U M A S M O U N T A I N , D A L E C R E E K W H A T C O M QUARRY - 1 4 - 5 - 6 5 - 3 MICROFOSSIL FREQUENCY T O A D L A K E OUTCROP SAMPLES GLEN ECHO C O A L M I N E GOSHON C O A L M I N E B E L L I N G H A M C O A L M I N E 0 2 5 1 • • I . 1 P e r c e n t o f T o t a l TABLE D LEGEND P l e i s t o c e n e and R e c e n t D e p o s i t s M i d d l e a n d U p p e r ( ? ) E o c e n e D e p o s i t s B u r r a r d , K i t s i l a n o , H u n t i n g t o n F o r m a t i o n s in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e r t i a r y C o n t i n e n t a l R o c k s i n W a s h i n g t o n U p p e r C r e t a c e o u s t o L o w e r E o c e n e ( ? ) C h u c k a n u t F o r m a t i o n O Q O V 0 0 O o o o o o 0 °o o ° 0 0 0 ° O o 0 © o o U p p e r C r e t a c e o u s N a n a i m o G r o u p \ \ \ \ \ ^ \ P r e - U p p e r C r e t a c e o u s M e t a m o r p h i c , S e d i m e n t a r y , I n t r u s i v e Rocks Da fa Compiled from: United States Geological Survey Geologic Map of Washington, 1961 Moen, 1962 Miller and Misch, 1963 Geological Survey of Canada Geologic Map, Vancouver sheet, 1957 Field work by Hopkins 1964-1965 49° 30' N 4 9 ° 0 0 N HYPOTHETICAL CROSS SECTION OF THE WHATCOM BASIN Horirontal and Vertical Scale the Same FIGURE D 

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