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The geology of Lummi and Eliza islands, Whatcom County, Washington Calkin, Parker Emerson 1959

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THE GEOLOGY OF LUMMI AND ELIZA ISLANDS WHATCOM COUNTY, WASHINGTON by PARKER EMERSON CALKIN B.S. Tufts University, Medford, Mass.  A Thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of GEOLOGY  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1959  ABSTRACT  Lummi San  Juan  narrow half  and E l i z a  I s l a n d group  island  Lummi  Metamorphic knob  ness, The  rock  through  found  metamorphic,  Cenozoic  form  "basement"  age.  isolated  are hornblendic  o f these rocks  The  Island  a small,  rocks,  aplite  rocks  brought  and g r a n u l e  conglomerate  ( P a l e o z o i c or Mesozoic) These  "graywacke  were  I s l a n d may  long,  southern  and c u t by numerous  rocks suite"  and  i s un-  to  their  of the  underly  most  show a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r such  bedding,  as g r e a t  and graded  a few c a r b o n i z e d  i n f i n e - g r a i n e d graywacke.  of E l i z a  i s a  T-shaped  o f t h e Lummi  These  character, rhythmic  fossils  of the  faulting.  Island.  of the typical  only  rocks  be o l d e r  graywacke  Lummi  mountainous  t o Lower  The age and o r i g i n  formation  clastic  bedded  of  Point  southern  istics  may  position Shale,  of  of the island.  dikes.  Lummi  i s a small  Complex w h i c h  by q u a r t z - a l b i t e  part  Island.  of Paleozoic  and Igneous  known b u t t h e y  Carter  Eliza  a r e b e l i e v e d t o be t h o s e  lamprophyric  present  Washington.  i s u n d e r l a i n by i g n e o u s ,  rocks  i n the middle  intruded  half.  o f Lummi  Island  sedimentary rocks  the northeast  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r o c k y ,  southeast  oldest  form  i n northwest  and a low, n o r t h e r n  island  and  Islands  The rocks  plant  bedding.  stems  forming  be a more metamorphosed  thick-  im-  the bed-  equivalent  these. Overlying  the Carter Point  formation  on t h e  southeast  side of Lummi Island and d i r e c t l y underlying  the sandstone at  the northern end are the R e i l Harbor volcanics.  Although  they occur i n f i v e isolated outcrops these rocks are grouped together on the basis of l i t h o l o g y and outcrop features.  In  contrast to an e a r l i e r intrusive interpretation these occur as submarine (pillow) lavas and interbedded breccia with tuffaceous  - argillaceous rocks rather than as dikes or s i l l s .  The lavas of some of the outcrops are s p i l i t i c and i n most cases are extremely altered.  The breccias are dominantly v o l -  canic - c l a s t i c types which show some reworking.  The age of  the volcanics and underlying Carter Point formation i s unknown; however, interbedded sedimentary rocks contain r a d i o l a r i a n tests suggestive of Mesozoic age. Northern Lummi Island i s underlain by plant-bearing l i t h i c - f e l d s p a t h i c arenites and conglomerates of the Chuckanut formation (Paleocene).  These are believed to have a contin-  ental f l u v i a t i l e o r i g i n on the basis of: absence of marine f o s s i l s ; conspicuous amounts of hematite imbedded i n the sandstone; moderate sorting and rounding; apparent large-scale heterogeneity  evidenced by i n t e r n a l structures such as prom-  inant cross bedding and cut - f i l l structures, and the dominance of sandstone and conglomerate f a c i e s . The Carter Point formation and the overlying volcanics on the southeast side of Lummi Island s t r i k e N 40 W and dip 45 degrees NW. Drag folds suggest that southern Lummi Island represents  the eastern limb of a northwest plunging a n t i c l i n e .  The  Chuckanut  canics three  formation  at the north  end o f t h e i s l a n d  synclines which  gently  been  northwest-southeast  the Pleistocene, northern  blanketed  with  the  of southern  rocks the  strike  have  Harbor  vol-  folded  into  and  plunge  northwest. During  by  and t h e u n d e r l y i n g R e i l  glacial  glaciers.  drift  while  Lummi w e r e  Lummi  the higher  grooved,  Island knobs  was  here  polished or  and  eroded  In presenting  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may  be granted by the Head of  Department or by his representatives.  my  It i s understood  that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Parker E». Galkin  Department of Geology The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8\ Canada. Date  29- A ^ r l l ,  1959  CONTENTS Chapter I.  II.  III.  Page INTRODUCTION L o c a t i o n and access P r e v i o u s g e o l o g i c a l work F i e l d Work Acknowledgments . . . .  1 1 1 4 5  GEOGRAPHY Surface Features Lummi I s l a n d E l i z a Island Climate Vegetation Culture ' Water s u p p l y and d r a i n a g e  6 6 6 8 9 9 10 11  ,  GEOLOGY General Features Lummi I s l a n d M e t a m o r p h i c a n d I g n e o u s C o m p l e x . . . Introduction Description Hornblendic rocks . . . . . Quartz-albite rocks Dikes V e i n s and a l b i t i z a t i o n Sequence o f events Discussion Carter Point Formation Introduction P r e v i o u s Work S t r a t i g r a p h i e s r e l a t i o n s o n Lummi I s l a n d . . . . Sedimentary structures Graded-bedding Cross-bedding Slump s t r u c t u r e s Intraformational breccia Lithology at the coarse f r a c t i o n D i a g e n e s i s and t h e graywacke problem Lithology of the fine fraction . Veins O r i g i n and c o n d i t i o n s o f d e p o s i t i o n Age and c o r r e l a t i o n R e i l Harbor v o l c a n i c s General Outcrop features Description P i l l o w Lavas Amygdules, v e i n s , and vugs Alteration  12 12 14 14 15 16 19 21 22 22 23 25 25 25 26 30 30 31 31 31 32 37 39 40 40 42 45 45 46 51 51 54 54  Page Breccias Origin of the c l a s t i c breccias The s p i l i t e problem Tuffs Previous g e o l o g i c a l work Age R e l a t i o n s Chuckanut formation General P r e v i o u s work G e n e r a l s t r a t i g r a p h y - Lummi I s l a n d Lithology Conglomerate Sandstone Diagenesis Sedimentary structures Cross-bedding Graded-bedding Concretions Intraformational breccias Mud b a l l s . C a r b o n a c e o u s d e p o s i t s o f Lummi I s l a n d O r i g i n and c o n d i t i o n s o f d e p o s i t i o n Paleoclimatology Age and c o r r e l a t i o n Glaeiation Geomorphology Coastlines L i t h o l o g i c control of weathering Marine c l i f f s and t e r r a c e s Fretted surfaces Lummi P o i n t Structure . Regional structure C a r t e r P o i n t f o r m a t i o n and R e i l H a r b o r v o l c a n i c s o f t h e s o u t h e r n h a l f o f Lummi I s l a n d E l i z a Island S t r u c t u r e o f t h e s e d i m e n t a r y and v o l c a n i c r o c k s a.t t h e n o r t h e r n h a l f o f Lummi I s l a n d Cross-island faults Bibliography Appendix  56 61 62 68 70 72 75 75 75 77 80 80 82 90 91 91 93 93 95 95 96 105 106 107 108 114 114 114 115 117 117 119 119 120 123 123 126 128 133  ILLUSTRATIONS Plate 1. 2. 3.  Page Geologic map of Lummi and E l i z a Islands i n pocke4^^ Diagramatic Structural Sections, Lummi Island . . i n pe^ekWc^s. Map showing location of water wells on the ( northern half of Lummi Island i n poefce-15) View looking East from Orcas Island showing the southern two-thirds of Lummi Island . . . frontispiece  Figure Index Map 3 E l i z a Island looking southeast from Lummi Island . 18 Hand specimen of hornblendic rock, Lummi Island Metamorphic and Igneous complex 18 4 . Section of the Carter Point formation 28 5. Laminated s i l t s t o n e and fine-grained graywacke, Carter Point formation 29 6. Photomicrograph of graywacke, Carter Point formation 29 7. Photomicrograph showing graded bedding i n laminated s i l t s t o n e , Carter Point formation . . 33 8. Hand specimen of shale granule breccia, Carter Point formation 33 9. Mineral composition, Carter Point formation, graywackes 35 10. Carbonized plant stems i n a specimen of f i n e grained graywacke, Carter Point formation . . . 47 11. Pillow lavas, R e i l Harbor volcanics . . . 47 12. Limestone pod interbedded with ribbon chert , R e i l Harbor volcanics 50 13. Contorted ribbon chert, R e i l Harbor volcanics . . . 50 14. Photomicrograph of s p i l i t i c lava, R e i l Harbor volcanics 57 15. Breccia of the R e i l Harbor volcanics 57 16. Photomicrograph of tuffaceous a r g i l l i t e , R e i l Harbor volcanics 67 17. Photomicrograph of specimen 5/7/6-2A from the t u f f sequence overlying the R e i l Harbor volcanics 67 18. View looking SE at Migley Point showing conglomerate of the Chuckanut formation lying upon the eroded surface of the pillow lavas of the R e i l Harbor volcanics 78 19. Short stratigraphic section of the Chuckanut formation at i t s base on Lummi Island 79 20. View of the Chuckanut formation at Fern Point . . . 92 21. Cumulative frequency, curve of a t y p i c a l sandstone, Chuckanut formation 84 1. ''2, 3.  p  s  Figure 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.  Page Mineral composition, Chuckanut formation, sandstone 86 Petrography of representative samples of the Chuckanut formation,sandstone . . . 87 View N. showing cross-bedded sandstone, Chuckanut formation 94 View SW of spine-like pattern i n sandstone, Chuckanut formation 94 Hand specimen of black micaceous sandstone lens, Chuckanut formation 97 Photomicrograph of the micaceous sandstone shown above (Figure 25) 97 C o a l i f i e d wood fragment interbedded with sandstone, Chuckanut formation 99 Irregular masses of c o a l i f i e d vegetal material with radiating stringers occurring i n sandstone,Chuckanut formation 99 Photomicrograph of a tangential section from a specimen of c o a l i f i e d wood, Chuckanut formation 102 View NE showing a c o a l i f i e d log (A) cutting across beds of the Chuckanut formation 104 View SW showing g l a c i a l grooves and polished surfaces i n R e i l Harbor volcanics , 104 Folds i n s t r a t i f i e d outwash deposits (A) formed by thrust of glacier 116 Wave-cut c l i f f and bench i n R e i l Harbor volcanics . 116 (a and b) Fretted surface, formed by d i f f e r e n t i a l wave erosion of sandstone, Chuckanut formation 118 View NE of Chuckanut formation showing small scale fault 125  TABLES  Page  Table  1.  Table  of  Table  2.  Comparison Reil  Table  3.  formations  Harbor  Petrography Reil  of  of  Harbor  14  outcrop  features  of  volcanics the  outcrops  volcanics  the 48  of  the 52  View l o o k i n g E. from Orcas I s l a n d shov; ing the southern two-thirds of Lummi Island and Mt. Baker i n the background W.R.Danner, J u l y , 1957.  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  LOCATION AND ACCESS  Lummi Island and adjacent E l i z a Island are located i n western Whatcom County i n northwestern Washington 1).  (see Figure  They form the northeastern part of the San Juan Island  group.  The area included i n the geologic map of this report  i s that occupying the northern half of the Anacortes Topographic Quadrangle between 122° - 34' and 122° - 44' west longitude, and between 40° - 30' and 48° - 45' north l a t i t u d e . The mainland opposite Lummi Island i s e a s i l y reached by car and i s an approximate two hours drive from Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia or a f i f t e e n minute drive from Bellingham.  Roads  lead from US 99 through Ferndale or v i a shore road from Bellingham through the Lummi Indian Reservation to a car ferry at Gooseberry Point.  Lummi Island may be reached i n ten  minutes by this ferry.  E l i z a Island may be reached only by  private boat or plane.  Small boats may be rented at Gooseberry  Point or on Lummi Island. PREVIOUS GEOLOGICAL WORK The most complete published account of the general  2 geology of the San Juan Islands including Lummi Island was written by R.D.McLellan of the University of Washington as a Ph.D.  thesis.  McLellan worked i n this area i n the spring and  summer months of 1922 through 1925 and his report and geologic map at a scale of 1" = 1 mile were published by the University of Washington Press i n 1927. In recent years Dr. W.R. Danner of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia has been studying the geology of the San Juan Island area i n some d e t a i l and his report w i l l be published by the University of Washington Press as a r e v i s i o n of the McLellan work previously mentioned. Most of the geological work near Lummi Island has been prompted by the occurrence of c o a l , building stone, natural gas, and the possible presence of o i l i n the Chuckanut formation  of western Whatcom County.  A complete account of  the general geology of western Whatcom County was given by Jenkins  (1923)  i n connection with the coal deposits.  Shedd  (1902)  reported on the Chuckanut Bay sandstone.  (1919)  reported on the roadbuilding sands and gravels of  Leighton  Washington and included i n this report a sieve analysis of a sample of g l a c i a l d r i f t from Lummi Island.  In 1935 Glover  reported on the o i l and gas p o s s i b i l i t i e s of this area and described the general l i t h o l o g y , structure, and stratigraphy of the Chuckanut formation.  The Chuckanut formation has been  reported on by numerous other writers including Weaver  (1916  3  Figure 1. Index map of northwest Washington and southwest B r i t i s h Columbia showing the l o c a t i o n of Lummi and E l i z a Islandso  4 and 1 9 3 7 ) , Culver ( 1 9 3 6 ) , and Newcomb, Sceva, and Olaf (1949) i n t h e i r report of the ground water resources of western Whatcom County. FIELD WORK Fieldwork on Lummi Island by the writer was begun A p r i l 4 , 1958, and was continued on a part-time basis through May 2 2 , 1958.  Several additional t r i p s were made i n October  1958 and January 1959 to re-examine c e r t a i n areas i n more detail. The geology was mapped on low-level a e r i a l photographs taken i n 1955.  These photographs were of p a r t i c u l a r  help i n working the inland area of the mountainous southern half of Lummi Island as they show most of the logging roads which are not plotted on the topographic map.  The geology was  transferred to a topographic map at a scale of 1302 feet to 1 inch enlarged from the U.S. Geological Survey Anacortes Quadrangle, 15 minute s e r i e s , topographic sheet.  5 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  Many persons have contributed to this report and have aided the writer i n this study.  Dr. J.V. Ross and Dr.  H.P. T r e t t i n have offered advice and constructive c r i t i c i s m both i n the f i e l d and i n the laboratory.  Dr. W.H.Matthews  and Dr. K.C.McTaggart also aided i n the laboratory work. For helpful suggestions i n the study of the c o a l i f i e d plant material and for their i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , the writer wishes to thank Dr. G.E. Rouse.  Assistance was rendered i n the f i e l d  early i n A p r i l 1958 by Mr. D. Shipp of Vancouver.  Thanks are  also due to my wife Joan for her c r i t i c a l reading of the manuscript. Acknowledgment i s due to the o f f i c e r s of the U.S. Department of Conservation  o f f i c e i n Bellingham for t h e i r help  i n securing a e r i a l photographs of the area.  Information on  water supply and well records was given by Mr. Livermore of Ferndale and Mr. R.F.Chatfield of Bellingham. Many residents of Lummi Island have offered  information  on the l o c a t i o n of f o s s i l s , the vegetation, and the c u l t u r a l history of the i s l a n d . The writer e s p e c i a l l y wishes to express his appreci a t i o n of the many h e l p f u l suggestions i n the f i e l d and i n the laboratory received from Dr.W.R. Danner, under whose d i r e c t i o n the work was carried out.  CHAPTER II GEOGRAPHY GENERAL Lummi and E l i z a Islands l i e within the Puget Trough section of the P a c i f i c Border physiographic province.  The  Puget Trough section i s a long north-south lowland l y i n g just west of the Cascade Mountains and east of the Olympic Mountains. Locally, Lummi and E l i z a Islands l i e just to the west of the Whatcom Basin which consists of a low, glacially-smoothed, upland t i l l p l a i n , drained c h i e f l y by the Nooksack River. SURFACE FEATURES Lummi Island Lummi Island i s separated from the mainland to the east by Hale Passage, and from Orcas Island to the west by the s t r a i t of Georgia. It i s nine miles long, nearly two miles wide at i t s maximum, and 8.2 square miles i n area. The most s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the i s l a n d , espe c i a l l y as seen from a distance, i s the sharp change i n topography between the southern and northern h a l f , piece) .  (see f r o n t i s -  The southern half of Lummi Island i s very rocky and  mountainous; i t s highest point, Lummi Peak, r i s e s precipitously to an a l t i t u d e of 1740 feet. This mountainous topography i s dominated by a long  7 r i d g e which i s bounded on the southwest s i d e by steep  cliffs  and t h e i r t a l u s slopes which are a l l a l i g n e d n o r t h w e s t e r l y , p a r a l l e l to the s t r i k e of the rock f o r m a t i o n s .  On the  opposite  s i d e of the r i d g e , the s u r f a c e slopes more g e n t l y toward n o r t h e a s t and  the  c l o s e l y f o l l o w s the d i p of the beds.  Some of the t a l u s slopes on the southwest s i d e of the i s l a n d extend  from water l e v e l up to 1000  feet.  In most  the a c t u a l mantle cover i s l e s s than a f o o t t h i c k on slopes which are dangerous to c r o s s . 1927) met  that s e v e r a l people who  I t was  cases  these  reported  (McLellan  attempted to climb the s l o p e s  with f a t a l accidents. Two  s m a l l rocky i s l a n d s r i s e 25 f e e t above the h i g h  t i d e mark o f f the southwest shore, d i r e c t l y west of Lummi Peak. C a l l e d Lummi Rocks, they have a combined area of  approximately  three a c r e s . Two island.  bays are cut i n t o the s o u t h e a s t e r n s i d e of the  I n a t i Bay,  the northernmost one,  provides good  shelter  f o r s m a l l f i s h i n g boats d u r i n g p a r t s of the stormy w i n t e r season.  R i e l Harbor to the south forms only a shallow  inden-  tation. Towards the extreme south the h i g h a l t i t u d e s o f the i s l a n d q u i c k l y d e c l i n e , and  the i s l a n d becomes narrower,  ending  i n Carter Point. The  abrupt  change i n topography between the  northern  and southern p a r t s of Lummi I s l a n d occurs across the i s l a n d i n a l i n e w i t h another  shallow i n d e n t a t i o n c a l l e d S u n r i s e Covev.  8 North of t h i s point much of the island i s covered by g l a c i a l d r i f t , and with the exception of a rocky knob near the northernmost t i p , i t s elevations are below 200 f e e t .  This northern-  most t i p of Lummi Island i s called Migley Point.  About three  hundred feet to the west of this point i s a small, rocky island of less than a quarter of an acre i n area.  Local residents  report that i t i s at times a resting place for seals. Along the west side of Lummi Island there are four low points extending out to the west.  The southernmost of these  forms a sheltered bay, now used for small boat landings, and is called Legoe Bay. To the east from Fern Point, the northernmost of these points, r o l l i n g , rocky h i l l s reach an a l t i t u d e of 357 feet.  Opposite this height on the east side of Lummi  Island i s low, sandy, Lummi Point which projects into Hale Passage. E l i z a Island E l i z a Island i s named after Lieutenant Francisco E l i z a , the Spanish explorer who discovered the San Juan Islands i n  1791  (McLellan,  1927).  It i s located about three quarters of  a mile to the east of Carter Point, and i s 170 acres i n area (see figure 2).  E l i z a Island i s b u i l t mainly of g l a c i a l d r i f t  which stretches out i n a d i r e c t i o n about N 15 W from a bedrock knob.  Two long sand bars extend about a half mile from the  west side of this bar to join with another small rock knob. The highest elevation occurs between the aforementioned bars where a swamp and small slough e x i s t .  sand  9  CLIMATE Lummi Island and the immediate surrounding area has an equable oceanic climate with extreme temperatures and p r e c i p i t a t i o n moderate.  uncommon  The average r a i n f a l l varies between  25 and 30 inches per year and occurs mostly i n the winter.  The  mean average temperature i s about 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Winds are gentle on the average, usually coming from the southwest i n the summer and from the southeast i n the winter. VEGETATION The southern mountainous half of Lummi Island i s generally quite heavily wooded despite the thin cover of s o i l in certain areas.  The most extensive of the larger trees i s  Douglas F i r (Pseudotsuga  t a x i f o l i a ) which with Grand F i r (Abies  grandis). Cedar (Thu.ja p l i c a t a ? ) , and Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) has been cut for lumber and pulp over the past quarter century or more.  Many of the areas which have been stripped of  large timber are now covered by second growth Maple, Alder, Willow, Cottonwood, and small F i r trees.  On the elevated bed-  rock knob south of Inati Bay there i s an extensive cover of Madrona (Arbutus menziesii) trees. The northern end, where not cleared for farming, i s t h i c k l y wooded, mainly by deciduous trees such as Alder, Maple, Oak, Western Birch, Wild Cherry, Willow, and other trees. Some of the area i s poorly drained and supports only shrub growth.  Some of the more numerous low f l o r a s of Lummi Island  10 include  Buckbrush,  Hardhack,  a  good  Island  similar  deal  covered  Rose, S a l a l ,  B l a c k b e r r y , Oregon  Eliza conifers  Wild  a t one t i m e  has been  low shrubs  Devil's  was  t o the assemblage  of this  with  Grape,  Salmonberry,  cut,  a n d some  Club,  heavily  o n Lummi  and N e t t l e s .  wooded  with  Island.  and these small  Thimbleberry,  areas  deciduous  Recently,  a r e now second  growth  trees.  CULTURE  The most is  northern  of the land  cultivated  utilized Some  area  f o r market  farming  Logging roads  been  i swell Some  but a larger  f o r beef  i s also  Island  i n farming.  crops,  has been  have  o f Lummi  utilized  as g r a z i n g l a n d  chicken  access  half  or dairy  carried  important  cut over  settled, of this  percentage  cattle  and  with  land i s  sheep.  on.  i n the past  the h i l l y  and t h u s  southern  many  end o f t h e  island. The in  the waters  more  recently,  is  t h e most  The  Island  commercial homes  private  i n d u s t r y over  surrounding sport  i s also resort  the years  the Island,  fishing.  important  are located At  a  biggest  Reef-net  commercial  a summer  both  method  resort  area.  commercial  fishing o n Lummi  the present  fishing and,  f o r salmon Island.  Although  i s i n o p e r a t i o n , numerous along  has been  private  only  one  summer  the shores. time  Eliza  e s t a t e by a B e l l i n g h a m  Island family.  i s owned a n d u s e d  as  11 WATER S U P P L Y AND  The secured rise of  f r e s h water  from  Cove  good  outwash  sometimes  and  Lummi  tiary  brackish.  Island.  sandstones  i n the t i l l do n o t a l w a y s  a s some h o r i z o n s  of  while  probably poorly  sorted,  stratified  and o f t e n  that  streams  end, and even  here  year.  the  beds  and  i n the Quarternary deposits  toward  small  sloughs  they and  o r swampy  of  Company  from  sand  The T e r -  large  source  quantities  This i s  are well-cemented,  discontinuous  1949)  Island  are limited  a r e few w h i c h  these few streams  the northeast.  i s taken  producers.  and O l a f ,  there  records  t o be a r e l i a b l e  locally  all  support  In general,  poor  o n Lummi  well  relatively  irregularly  (Newcomb, S c e v e ,  Surface south  produce  deposits  Island.  o f outwash.  appear  others are quite  due t o t h e f a c t  glacial  and C D r i l l i n g  water  o r beds  to the  i s p r e s e n t i n some o f  of the water  I n c . , and o f t h e B  object-  (Newcomb,  f o r m a t i o n o n Lummi  some  of water water  t h e deeper  Much o f t h e ground  lenses  chiefly  Sun-  water i s  common  deposits  Sulfur  above  ground  i s t h e most  alluvial from  i s generally  stream  In general,  Iron  Water  I shows  and Sons,  gravel  homes.  t h e Chuckanut  Appendix Livermore  a l t h o u g h a dammed  and Recent  slightly  from  Island  although i t i s confined  1949).  and O l a f ,  the water  on  water  and hardness.  constituent  recessional  is  s u p p l y o n Lummi  supports nearby  quality  ionable  Sceve,  ground  DRAINAGE  to the  run continuously  follow  the dip of  Depressions i n the bedrock over  some p a r t s  areas.  of the  island  CHAPTER III GEOLOGY GENERAL FEATURES Lummi Island i s underlain by igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic? to Lower Cenozoic age.  The  oldest rocks, the Lummi Island Metamorphic and Igneous Complex, are exposed i n a completely isolated knob near the middle of the i s l a n d .  These are dominantly hornblendic metamorphic  rocks which are cut by a leucocratic igneous rock and by a p l i t e and lamprophyric dikes. The southern, mountainous h a l f of Lummi Island i s underlain by the Paleozoic or Mesozoic Carter Point formation. This formation consists of a thick, e s s e n t i a l l y u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s sequence of graywackes and interbedded black shales, s i l t s t o n e s , a r g i l l i t e s , and conglomerate-breccias. the "graywacke s u i t e " throughout  They resemble rocks of  the world.  Similar appearing  but s l i g h t l y more metamorphosed rocks crop out on E l i z a Island and are correlated to the Carter Point formation. the Carter Point formation strike northwest  Rocks of  and dip towards  the northeast. Five small, isolated knobs of volcanics, grouped together on the basis of l i t h o l o g y and outcrop c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and here designated as the R e i l Harbor volcanics, are found at the margins of the northern low half of Lummi Island and at  one l o c a l i t y on the southeast  side of the island.  These  volcanics appear to unconformably overlie the Carter Point f o r mation and are probably of Upper Paleozoic or Mesozoic age. They consist of s p i l i t i c and andesitic? pillow lavas of i n t e r bedded ribbon cherts, breccias and interbedded  argillites.  At  certain places the lavas contain small mostly r e c r y s t a l l i z e d lenses of limestone. The northern h a l f of the island i s dominantly underl a i n by the Chuckanut formation of Early Eocene or Paleocene age.  At the northern end of Lummi Island i t i s seen to l i e  on the eroded surfaces of the R e i l Harbor volcanics.  It i s  composed of moderate to poorly sorted, cross-bedded, f e l d spathic and l i t h i c arenite, conglomerate, and s i l t s t o n e . Interbedded with these rocks are fragments of c o a l i f i e d wood, leaves, and other plant remains. The rocks of the Chuckanut formation and the underlying volcanics at the northern end of the island are folded into three synclines which s t r i k e northwest - southeast and appear to plunge to the northwest.  14  TABLE I Table of Formations Era  Period-Epoch  Cenozoic  Name  Quaternary-Recent  Alluvium and beach deposits.  Pleistocene Tertiary-Paleocene  Mesozoic or Paleozoic  Unknown  Lithology  G l a c i a l and interg l a c i a l deposits. Chuckanut formation  Cross-bedded, feldspathic areni t e , conglomerate and s i l t s t o n e \tfith carbonaceous material.  R e i l Harbor volcanics  Pillow lavas, interbedded rib= bon chert, breccia and interbedded a r g i l l ites.  Carter Point Formation  Graywacke, int erbedded black shale, s i l t s t o n e , a r g i l l i t e , and conglomeratebreccia.  Lummi Island Metamorphic and Igneous complex  Hornblendic rocks, cut by igneous rocks, a p l i t e and lamprophyric dikes.  LUMMI ISLAND METAMORPHIC AND IGNEOUS COMPLEX Introduction The Lummi Island Metamorphic  and Igneous Complex i s a  name here assigned to a small composite mass of metamorphic  and  intrusive  rock  the  middle  Lummi  imately by  twenty  glacial  shown  on  though other the  t i l l  the  the  knob  other  of  rock  This  found  and  were  These  on  outcrop  rocks  of  the  Lummi  in  approx-  a l l sides was  not  Island a l -  mapped  latter  rocks  varying and  rocks  exposed  amounts  showing  rocks.  localities  poor  Because  deposits.  Cove  knob,  i s surrounded  of  minerals,  dikes.  of  elevated  1927)  with  intrusive  through  bare  of Sunrise  (McLellan,  majority  lamprophric  rocks  which  an  by he  It  should  i s covered or  present  these  are  the  him  on  named  are  heavy  are  i t i s thought  which were  not  degrees are  of  of  leucocratic, in a  the  that  shrub  often  knob  that  and  exposures  growth  covered  few,  knob.  several aplite  emphasized  a  this  compositions  exposed  margin  rocks  be  by  trees  hindrance,  types  around  hornblendic  shrubs  this  These  on  and  various  Closely associated with  isolated  the  forms  Islands.  rocks  contamination.  as  map  northwest  Complex.  light-colored  Cutting  outwash  Juan  great  quartz-albite  i n area,  similar  hornblendic  small,  It  and  San  Turtleback  are  Island.  acres  somewhat of  out  McLellan's  The  of  of  cropping  and  with  there  are  those  moss. may  be  seen.  Description  The of  rocks  description,  (1)  hornblendic  and  (3)  aplite  of  into  the  three  rocks: and  Complex  (2)  are  general  divided, for  groups.  leucocratic  lamprophyric  dikes.  convenience  These  are:  quartz-albite rocks: Q  16 Hornblendic A rocks made  Rocks  number  from from  composition.  and  of  Described  texture  texture  lenses  green  (,20mm)  hornblende,  of  and  are  of  Hess  category.  (1949)  minations.  Chlorite  as  as  and  similar  quartz,  and  3%  hornblendic were  considerable variation  the  of  the  variations  to  are  sheaflike  taken  The  from with  rocks in  i n part  rock  in  which  composition  which  bands  and  thin-section  slightly to  brown  inclusions Small  of  also  present.  have  been  largely  of  g r a i n s were  i n the not  rocks  veins masses  of  albite  large,  above  i n the  3)  and raggedly  grains to  compared  i n this  this  type.  f o r 2V section  of  pale-  to  the  deterbut  Cutting  albite,  is  this  sericite,  prehnite.  5/5/3-13 d i f f e r s m e g a s c o p i c a l l y f r o m  described  (An  Endiopside-Diopside  of water-clear of  Porphyro-  converted  suitable  is insignificant  of  of  actinolitic  These  o i l determinations these  consists  hornblende  amounts  good  schlierenrlike  biotite.  are  place  shows  bluish-green,  xenoblastic laths  of  i n other  rocks  Specimen specimen  the  Thin-sections  three  outcrop,  full  Index  Available  abundant  of  knob.  are  of  epidote.  appear  hornblende.  curves  few  smaller  clinopyroxene  clinopyroxene green  below  idioblastic,  granular  terminated  the  taken  showed  hornblende.  transformed  present,  clouds  and  i n the  (1.30mm) a n d  blasts  a  of  5/5/3-5 was  schistose  are  of  were  seen.  Specimen  small  parts  these  examples  of  specimens  different some  represent  of  lack  of  alignment  of  the hornblende.  17 In  thin-section  tain in  fresh  addition  to i t s highly  3).  50$ to  andesine green  chlorite of  These  sericite The to ite  associated  brown  white  mica  similar  of granular They  which  to  ferroan  replaces  The s e c t i o n  and a v e i n  except  diopside  with  quartz  rocks 11%  bluish-green  oxidized  magnetite.  epidote,  a n d some tabular  h a s b e e n made  has a l t e r e d quartz  and d e e p l y  Many  zoned.  c l a y and  i n shape. over  t o deep  i n part  green  chlor-  i s grouped  i n irregular  embays  epidotized  the  of extremely  Specimen  5/5/3-14  i s i s c u t by a 2 i n c h  prominant  contains:  a n d 4% d e e p - g r e e n  i s c u t by a v e i n  that  stringers  completely  of prehnite.  5/5/3-5  quartz;  are generally  i n turn  and  these  con-  plagioclase.  a n d some  Intergranular  and i n part  plagioclase.  2% p a r t i a l l y  l a r g e l y anhedral,  biotite  from  to  clusters  contain  of feldspars  taken  a r e weakly  inclusions.  and m a g n e t i t e .  clusters  of  laths  are f u l l  hornblende,  i n t h e knob  intergranular  with  i t i s seen  more s o d i c  2% b r o w n b i o t i t e ;  hornblende;  laths  seen  5/5/3-10 30%  (An42);  that  i n i r r e g u l a r , connected  i r r e g u l a r masses  Specimen  the andesine  i t except  epidotized,  of the rocks  contiguous,  (Figure  ( A n 33)  andesine  Many and  i t resembles  parting  parallel  fine  i s  wide  vein  t o 100  (Diallage). Mineralogically or  recrystallized  cannot of  truly  the rocks  rocks  and t e x t u r a l l y these which  are i n an unstable  be a s s i g n e d  t o a metamorphic  most  resemble  nearly  a r e metamorphic state.  They  f a c i e s ; however  metamorphic  rocks  of the  many  Figure east July  2. E l i z a Island looking south f r o m Lummi I s l a n d , W.R. Danner 1957. I n f r a r e d film.  rO  F i g u r e 3. Cut s u r f a c e o f hand s p e c i men o f h o r n b l e n d i c r o c k f r o m t h e Lummi I s l a n d M e t a m o r p h i c a n d I g neous complex (age unknown) showing i r r e g u l a r masses o f q u a r t z and feldspar.  19 "Quartz-Albite-Epidote-Almandine"  subfacies  schist"  Verhoogen,  The  facies  present  products ence  is  mineral  of  small  by  the  epidote  from  development  progressively being  It regionally after  unusual  of  first  of  The  the  of  suggest  Quartz-Albite  the  the  true  of  224). they  feldspars,  igneous of  rocks  other  Evid-  rock  production  and  rocks  are  metamorphism  parent  pyroxene,  i n these  these  as  of  patchy  are  types  of  degrees  andesine  plagioclase; presence  wet  some n e a r b y  of and  have  by  i n the  in a  rock  and,  found  well of  in  as  regionally  of  represent  been  contaminated  second already  clear  embaying  of  light  (5/5/3-5)  finally,  fresh,  contamination body  do  injection  discussed  feldspar;  hornblende  late,  specimens  which  specimen  fresh  sodic  (5/5/3-10),  from  of  seen  rocks  to various  the  altered  minerals  p.  therefore that  direction  to  alteration  metamorphosed  porphyroblasts  may  as  basic  i s believed that  In  the  calcic  biotite  1958,  "Green-  rocks.  porphyroblasts all  more  the  r e g i o n a l metamorphism.  to  or  metamorphosed  appearance  highly case  brown  formation  minerals.  as  Uralitization  characteristic  metamorphosed  the  outcrop  originally of  suggests  low-grade  assemblage  inconclusive.  and  assemblage  relatively  in this  exhibited  (Fyfe, Turner,  of  the  with  the  }  case  containing  i n the  quartz altered light  (5/5/3-13) third  enclosing feldspar,  colored  magma.  Rocks  second  group  i s composed  of  d e n s e , medium  to  20 coarse-grained  somewhat  specimen,  (5/5/3-D,  replacing  or  percentages of  the  ever  albite  those  somewhat less the to  3%t  and  and  5%,  section  proof not In  of  the  the  locations,  good  of  the  rocks  i t i s seen  rounding  the  the  general  lack of  to  the  apparent  the  quartz  occurrence  clear  homogeneity  lines  the  appear  seen  could  by be  the  sedimentary seen  rock. and  appear albite  to  even show  grains  somewhat rocks and,  with at  other  the  clearly  writer to  suggested  on  the of  relationships, rocks.  i n many  feldspars,  and  the  sporadic finally,  the  the  and the  no  case cut  basis  of  quartz, that  However,  of  do  rounded.  In  the  and,  amounting  gradational.  of  outcrops,  between  rocks  sharp,  how-  usually  i n the  l a r g e amounts  intrusive  Most  Biotite,  plates  quartz-albite very  average  grains;  Epidote,  section,  somewhat  zoning  bent  immediately  and  The  clusters  albite.  quartz-albite  the  feldspar,  complete  the  be  It  in clusters, of  shear  not  thin  rocks  recrystallized the  and  of  or  typical  i n amounts  crystals.  i s sometimes  quartz-albite  of  i s present  deformed  does  contact  54$  albite.  these  In  with  n e a r l y pure  t a b u l a r form  the  of  as  (,45mm).  epidote  fractures  rocks.  basis  are  A  (,30mm) i n  with  plagioclase  metamorphic  are  be  chlorite,  the  rocks  to  origin.  show  field,  the  quartz  examination  metamorphic  were  38$  relations  their  always the  be  packed  rocks.  quartz  crystals  occurs  fills  Field thin  to  clear  albite  determinable  quartz about  to  appears  altered  than  contains  embaying appear  granitic-looking  and  these  on  the  feldspars;  arrangement  of  intrusive-like implication  of  21 nearby magmatic rocks,  these  igneous  action  quartz-albite  rocks  of the hornblendic  areinterpreted  as i n t r u s i v e ,  rocks. These  intrusives  ization  and s t r e s s  through  adjacent  faulted  plagioclase.  the  i nthecontamination  feldspar  have  undergone  some  a s shown b y p a r a l l e l  quartz  grains,  Some  may h a v e  strain  recrystall-  lines  running  and by t h e occurrence o f  further  occurred  later  replacement  at this  and s o l u t i o n o f  time.  Dikes Cutting group  rocks  a r eaplite  sugary,  of thefirst  and lamprophyric  xenomorphic  and perhaps dikes.  Aplite  (An 10), averaging  mostly  altered  1.5mm  t o epidote;  i ndiameter.  the rock  dikes  (.45mm)  t e x t u r e o f 40$ q u a r t s  albite  o f t h e second show a  and 60$  The a l b i t e i s  i s c u t by v e i n s  o f granular  i ngrain  Specimen  epidote. The  lamprophyric  dikes  5/20/2-1 i s a f i n e - g r a i n e d of J  subhedral  altered the  feldspar,  dikes  show  The however, source  green  rock  hornblende biotite,  foliation  source  be r e l a t e d  vary with  (.09mm  chlorite,  5 to'10$ long)  dikes  i n a groundmass o f Some o f  phenocrysts.  i s n o t known.  t o t h e same m a g m a t i c  of contamination  microphenocrysts  and magnetite.  o f thehornblend  o f these  size.  T h e y may,  body w h i c h was  of thehornblendic  rocks.  the  22 Veins  Veins many  the  of albite,  of the rocks  these  veins  albite  may  matic  represent o f more  prehnite,  thermal  veins  ence In  of sodic  addition,  These  plagioclase  formation  solutions f o r  explain  by heated  have  metamag-  evidence, the as l a t e and  hydrolampro-  t h e common  of the rocks  of the plagioclase  when  indicate  to the aplite  low-grade  however,  occurr-  o f t h e Complex.  metamorphism and  played  a role  i nthe  of the albite.  The  following  formation 1.  may  available  then  that  Sequence  the  rocks  are interpreted  i n many  i t i s probable  saussuritization  From  may  seen;  Prehnite,  plagioclase  be r e l a t e d  veins  evidence  of albitizing  i n sodic  and q u a r t z  cut through  significance of  plagioclase.  1950).  w h i c h may  dikes.  from  of calcic  (Harker,  albite,  phyric  groups  and quartz  The whole  a source calcic  transformation  waters  knob.  be r e a l i z e d  i n sheaf-like  somatic  Albitization  prehnite,  i n this  cannot  transformation found  and  of this  theory complex  Pre-existing,  of Events  as t o t h e sequence  of events i n  i s offered:  r e g i o n a l l y metamorphosed,  hornblendic  rocks. 2.  (a) of  Intrusion  group  two.  of leucocratic,  quartz-albite  rocks  23 (b)  Contamination  blendic  3.  (a)  Intrusion of  (b)  I n t r o d u c t i o n of of  It  later  hornblendic  cut  complete and  mixed by  history  illustrate this  with  dikes  textures  a  and  Complex has  probably  of  the  two.  been  this  albitiz-  quartz,  pre-  rocks.  represents  a  meta-  partially  true  other  However,  this  inter-relations  contam-  rock,  i s the  Various  present.  probably  solutions, of  horn-  dikes  quartz-albite  Whether  proven.  group  lamprophyric  i n a l l of  that  minerals,  of  formation  this  veins.  complexity  composite  and  and  rock  be  light  rocks  leucocratic,  cannot  are  the  host  metamorphosed,  hydrothermal  veins  that  of  the  aplite  albite  i s suggested  and  formed  plagioclase  and  regionally  injection  magma w h i c h  hnite,  inated  by  from  ation  morphic,  rocks  of  rock may  and or  types at  least  represented  in  body.  Discussion  As sides used  by  t i l l  i n age  Lummi  or  glacial  Turtleback  on  No  resemble other San  Complex.  confused  1  drift,  determination.  occur  1  "a  previously this  Island which  similar" "  as,  noted  Personal  so  Juan  i s surrounded  contact  rocks  them.  (McLallen  network",  knob  are  Rocks  relations  found  5  Dr.  are  to  following  W.R.  Danner  be  on  be  quite  called  14-9) d e s c r i b e d  p.  c o n t a i n i n g the  communication,  cannot  elsewhere  reported  I s l a n d s , and  ( 1 9 2 7  on a l l  the  them  types:  24 "dunites of the Fidalgo formation; Eagle C l i f f porphyrites; Work gabbro-diorites; Colquitz quartz-diorites; scattered o f f shoots of d i o r i t e porphyrites; scattered off-shoots of r h y o l i t e porphyry; a series of granodiorite porphyry off-shoots  together  with a p l i t e s , pegmatites, and igneous quartz veins; a series of lamprophyric  off-shoots, ranging from basic porphyrites to  ultrabasic pyroxenites and hornblendites."  Because of the  small amount of rock exposed, such a separation on Lummi Island would be d i f f i c u l t with these  i f not impossible, even for one f a m i l i a r  formations.  McLellan  (1927) considered the igneous rocks of this  Turtleback Complex to be pre-Cretaceous i n age due to the fact that Cretaceous and Eocene sediments of the San Juan Island region were not cut by igneous rocks.  They were thought to  be Mesozoic because they were composed of rock  formations  which were seen to cut l a t e Paleozoic sedimentary rocks on some of the San Juan Islands.  He related the intrusions to  the late Jurassic batholiths of the P a c i f i c Coast. The age of the Lummi Island Metamorphic and Igneous Complex i s not known and cannot be determined on the basis of contact r e l a t i o n s . However, i f these were recently intruded or contaminated rocks, i t would be l i k e l y  that there would be  some i n d i c a t i o n of s i m i l a r intrusion or contamination i n the arenites, graywackes or volcanic rocks of the island. The simplest s t r u c t u r a l s o l u t i o n i s that these are older rocks, possibly pre-Carboniferous,  around which the  2  younger  rocks  posited, brought  now  or that from  concealed they  depth  by g l a c i a l  represent  drift  "basement"  to the surface  CARTER POINT  through  have  rocks  5  been dethat  have  been  faulting.  FORMATION  Introduction  The thick,  erates,  the  Point  formation,  black  shales  and b r e c c i a s ,  o f Lummi  and s i l t s t o n e s ,  which  Island.  southernmost  form  T h e name  projection  The Island  were  sedimentary included  considered  ern  part  including  coal.  area  on S a n Juan The  schist,  t o be w e l l  o f t h e map  syncline  Island  group  was  graywacke,  phyllite,  from  conglom-  elevated  t h e name o f  Island.  map  exposed  o f Lummi  i n the Leech  area.  The Leech R i v e r  on o t h e r  and t o form  islands  River  said  t o be composed  of varied  conglomerate tuff,  group  i n the  the central part  t o the west.  volcanic  half  (1927)  Island  slate,  and  of the southern  argillite,  to a  Work  by M c L e l l a n  o f the San Juan  was  rocks  argillites,  i s derived  o f Lummi  here  o f graywackes and  the southern  Previous  group  i s applied  e s s e n t i a l l y u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s sequence  interbedded  half  name, C a r t e r  of the  rock  and b r e c c i a ,  chert,  east-  limestone  types grit, and  26 McLellan of  their  ceous  lithologic  sedimentary  Southern Island by  named  the  and  Malahat  ern  half  from  sea  lying a  of  the  section  Leech River  end  that  principal highly many  formation  underlies  volcanics  Reil  Harbor  are  convenience  say  on  west  of at  is  shale  argillaceous  localities,  are  graywacke  or  s i l t s t o n e beds  to  three  feet  in  overlie  is the  section  regularly  down  and  thickness.  in  sequence  however,  will  i t is  in  be  con-  here in  called  the  may  bedded,  argillite.  section,  with  aafe The  much t h i n  thickness  These  probably  character.  and  interbedded  varying  as  volcanics.  shale  material,  over-  represents  total  the  silty  the  some d o u b t  here,  clastic,  south-  exposed  This  graywacke;  the  the  with  coast. There  of  the  e s p e c i a l l y low  rocks  east  argillaceous or  most  with  with  is wholly  domlnantly  material  indurated  or  Island  i t s contact  volcanics  contact  argillaceous  two  Lummi  4500 f e e t .  description  sequence  to  the  interbedded  the  i t is  on  distinguished  formation.  Relations  approximately  they  In  on  of  Vancouver  were  coast  whether  to  former  on  the  or  The  w e r e known  the  arena-  volcanics  Stratigraphically, i t is  the  to  tuffaceous  because  and  Island.  whether  sidered  argillaceous  latter and  group  Lummi  to  for  the  River  Point  Harbor of  Leech  Carter  level  Reil  The  volcanics  Stratigraphic  The  the  overlying  Island.  (1912) as  Clapp  rocks  identity with  rocks  Vancouver  as  the  these  fine-grained from  well  be  laminae described  27 as  rhythmites  roughly  measured  southwest bedded  side  parting  beds  o f Lummi  of fissile parallel  40 f e e t have  been  most  cliffs  along  200  t h e west  feet  i s shown i n t h e s e  black The  along unable  or shale shale most  Point  to trace  along  the strike  logic  facies.  sections  For this  a r e found  units of  form  half  vertical  o f Lummi  sections  they  150  up t o  indication  of of  o f aand-  6). of a l l of the units may  n o t be t r a c e d  distance.  a distance  with  detailed  c a n be l i t h o l o g i c a l l y localities, section.  only  one i s as  a coarser  measured  of the  laterally  F o r example  f o r as g r e a t  reason,  up  located  o c c a s i o n a l alignment  i t interfingers  o f t h e whole  good  or s u b p a r a l l e l arrangement  i s that  at other  a  argillites,  which  these  except  feature  before  are thick  with  massive  macroscopic  noteworthy  unit  and  southern  (figure  localities  characteristics  Little  f o r any great  measured  of shales  particles  a shale  there  conveniently  conglomerate  beds  from t h e  mantle.  to find  lenses  formation  the strike  different  cases,  of this  i n thickness.  conglomerate  Carter  side  5)j  sequences  are the thick,  and g r a n u l e  a  formation  and s h a l e  These  f o r road  I t i s n o t uncommon  bedding  sized  to the bedding.  the predominance  graywacke  Point  (figure  argillite,  rocks  4 illustrates  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e medium-  sequences  shale,  quarried  coarse  or  rock  conspicuous  Island.  Figure  Island.  t h i c k and i n s e v e r a l  Despite the  1957).  section of the Carter  t o laminated  sections  to  (Pettijohn,  50  litho-  sections  correlated through  F o r example,  yards  from  with  general a zone o f  0 TOP 20  708  20  142  61  167  143  K^vVv  BOTTOM  S Y M B O L S  Graywacke S.Ssrlty _  83  shaly  163  interbedded shale  8 75 50  Shale _ •  213  894  0 0  A r g i l li te  OO O O  —  Siltstone  interbedded  84  shale  69 Cgl. _ Breccia Lens  III 986  282  • o •a  o •  Conglomerate  24  26  1  Sh._ Argillite Lens  1010  308  Concealed  667 44 41  Thick bedded Med._Thin bedded Thin bedded_ Laminae  F i g u r •e 4 . S e c t i o n o f t h e C a r t e r P o i n t f o r m a t i o n m e a s u r e d on t h e s o u t h w e s t s i d e o f L u i n m i I s l a n d (SE£ sec,26, T. 37 N . j R» I E , ) ,  29  Figure 5. Thin bedded to laminated sequence of siltstone and fine grained graywacke of the Carter Point formation (age unknown). View facing E . at the NW corner of the southern mountainous half of Lummi Island. W.R.Danner, 1958.  Figure 6. Photomicrograph of graywacke of the Carter Point formation (age unknown) showing alignment of dark shale chips. Ordinary light, X24.  30 massive, part  coarse  of the section  along  the general  siltstone. find 6  As  inches  show  whole  conglomerate  c a n be t r a c e d  f o r nearly  with  shale  small  i n figure  or order  represented of coarse  Carter or  Point  argillaceous  bedding;  units.  and s t r u c t u r e s  i t i s also  of rock  units  on a s m a l l  yards or  common t o  i n lenses  from  and l e n s e s  seem  scale;  however, t h e  o n Lummi  Island  appears  material  toward  the top.  sedimentary  formation  1000  of shale  or a r g i l l i t e  Sedimentary  Small-scale  4  breaks  i n t h e upper  i n length.  arrangement  reason  increase  only  breccias,  feet  vertical  sequence  and g r a n u l e  illustrated  to several  little  general  here  strike  conglomerate,  The to  graywacke  a  Structures  structures  and a r e g e n e r a l l y These  t o show  include:  a r e seen  confined  i n the  to the  graded-bedding;  due t o contemporaneous  silt cross-  deformation.  Grade-Bedding The rhythmic silt  graded-bedding  sequence  and s i l t y  principle single  i n single  shale.  o f graded-bedding  bipartite  layer,  of the stratum  upper  part  ending  abruptly  layer."  bipartite  may  layers  be s t a t e d  to fine against  I n many  developed  by S h r o c k  the texture  part  overlying  i s best  As d e f i n e d  lower  next  here  or laminae (1949,  from  i n t h e upper the coarse here,  part,  the  "In a  coarse  base  of  p . 78),  as f o l l o w s :  grades  cases  i n the  i n the  the  finer  of the  the lower  three-  fifths the  of the b i p a r t i t e unit  field.  actual black  graded shale.  material, The  This  similar less  part  material; This  f o r example,  shale  coarse  section  grade.  Much  where except of this  graded i n  silt  grades  each that  of  up t o  one-fifth part  o f t h e example  i s the type  1957)  to the preceding  by about  t o be  by o n e - f i f t h p a r t  black  i n the case  graded-bedding  (Pettijohn,  not appear  i s overlain  i s overlain  or black  actual  currents  lower  does  of fine  above.  attributed  to turbidity  successive  increment i s  the former  grading  contains  i s best  seen  one  i n thin-  7).  (figure  Cross-Bedding Frequently formly  textured  bedding are  Slump  or s i l t  scale.  t o bands  i s interrupted and these  Individual less  than  by  often  show  cross-bedded  s i x inches  unicross  units  thick.  Structures  features,  associated  or structures  are variously  hassock found  o f sand  small  confined  Closely  These  beds  on a v e r y  usually  the graded-bedding  structure,  on a  small  Intraformational  as s l i p  and c o n v o l u t e  scale  the graded  bedding  due t o contemporaneous  described  bedding,  bedding.  i n the finer  They  a r e slump  deformation. curly  bedding,  are  generally  units.  Breccia  Particularly sections  with  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the conglomerate a r e  of intraformational  breccia  and e v i d e n c e s  of  small-  scale scour and channeling.  Figure 8 i l l u s t r a t e s the common  appearance of a shale - granule breccia.  It i s thought that  the wedges of shale and s i l t s t o n e i n the coarse rock and the channels of granules i n the shale are due to the subaqueous fragmentation and scour of t u r b i d i t y currents.  These breccias  are not only found at the base of the conglomerate are often scattered throughout  the whole section of  It i s believed that thin beds of mud  units but conglomerate  and s i l t , deposited with  the conglomerate, were broken-up and brecciated when the coarse p a r t i c l e s were swept over them. Lithology of the Coarse Fraction The conglomerate to a brownish-red  color.  i s a massive, grey rock which weathers It i s dominantly a granule conglom-  erate with few larger p a r t i c l e s . to  In the outcrop, i t i s seen  grade into graywacke and, mineralogically, there i s l i t t l e  difference.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , the granules of the conglom-  erate are often discoid or wedge shaped and generally subrounded Sorting varies but i n general i s f a i r . The matrix which may to  form 1%  of the rock i s similar  that of the sandstones and w i l l be discussed below.  Bedding  as previously mentioned i s rare; however, lenses of f i n e r rocks and a r g i l l i t e s l i v e r s of granule size present i n the rocks are normally aligned p a r a l l e l to the bedding of the associated f i n e r rocks (figure 6). The graywackes of this formation show considerable  F i g u r e 7. Photomicrograph showing graded bedding in laminated siltstone of the Carter Point formation ( a g e unknown). Ordinary light,  X26.  F i g u r e 8. C u t s u r f a c e o f h a n d s p e c i m e n of shale - granule b r e c c i a o f the C a r t e r P o i n t f o r m a t i o n ( a g e unknown) showing s h a l e lenses i n m a t r i x o f subrounded granules. Specimen from b r e c c i a s e q u e n c e n e a r t h e $00 f o o t l e v e l o n t h e S E s i d e o f Lummi I s l a n d .  variance. stones of  A l l are highly indurated  might  easily  the coarser  orientation,  be m i s t a k e n  grained  parallel  particles.  According  1955), t h i s  orientation  arrangement thick beds  poor  with  particles  are tightly  chlorite,  sericite,  ogically,  the rock  of  lava  in  mineral  matrix,  i s typical.  fragments  size  i s  the rock  detrital  The average  extinction  quartz  alignment  of strain  micaceous  minerals  lines.  i s common.  moderate  a general  composition i s  No  replacement  secondary  These matrix  of  Mineraldominance  variation  excluding the  approximately:-  o f s e v e r a l specimens Marginal  very  and t h e  material.  g r a i n s , o f t e n wedge-shaped,  and t h e g r a i n s  by  9 shows t h e  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e specimens  or  particles.  Rock fragments Plagioclase Quartz B i o t i t e , hornblende, pyroxene, and o t h e r u n s t a b l e m i n e r a l s Chert The  chaotic  reduced.  i s marked  Figure  Gilbert  graywackes  sandstones;  i s p o l y m i c t i c ; however, i s observed.  and  i n a recrystallized  and c l a y - s i z e d  rock  of bedding  to subangular  compressed  composition.  o f seven  Lack  Many  argillite  i n typical  f o r the coarser  angular  or  and  (1957) a c o m p l e t e l y  to Pettijohn  the microscope  sorting  of shale  sand-  by p r e f e r r e d  of minerals  i s t o be e x p e c t e d  i s the rule  rocks.  (Williams, Turner,  t h i n n e r as t h e g r a i n  Under to  slivers  to Gilbert  of particles  bedding become  thin  igneous  are typified  to the bedding,  especially  according  for basic  specimens  particles,  however,  and t h e f i n e r - g r a i n e d  37% 27% 20$ 9% 8% show  undulatory  show  parallel  by  authogenic  overgrowth  was  F i g u r e 9 . M i n e r a l composition, mat i o n graywackes. g  Carter Point  for-  36' observed.  Some  interlocking vein  of these  aggregates  derivation.  marginal ticles  full  t o o , was  Apparently,  of original  feldspar  i s apparently  observed  i n t h i n - s e c t i o n were  thoclase  i s present,  epidote.  Because t h i s  i t i s probable  most  impurities  i n the t y p i c a l l y  Other  aggregates  t o be  before and most  much  to sericite,  o f i t must  par-  of the  chlorite,  have  Ifor-  amounts.  complete  The  grains  composition.  alteration i s nearly that  chert  deposition.  i n insignificant  altered  suggest  undergoing  of these  of andesitic  i t occurs  are a l l highly  occur  seen  a l l plagioclase  feldspars  cases,  grains  of quartzite.  The c h e r t ,  replacement.  were  quartz  The and  i n many  occurred  after  deposition. Subrounded fragments, many  rock  are the dominating  o f t h e specimens  andesites, highly  ophitic both  basalts,  vesicular,  phyritic  with  texture.  Locally,  constituent  rocks.  common  are  relatively  rocks  phenocrysts  Other  rock  of the lavas  of augite,  fragments  i n a fine-grained  plagioclase  laths  c a n be  metamorphic-derived,  i n the coarser fresh,  showing  contain  rocks.  and judging  In  consist  of  and  areporpoor, sub-  phenocrysts  of  groundmass i n  distinguished.  quartz-feldspar aggregates  particles of s i l t s t o n e , shale,  are  volcanic  of the sandstone.  volcanic  Many  hornblende-biotite-chlorite-feldspar Sliver-like  altered  m i c r o f e l s i t e s , a n d some a m y g d a l o i d a l  and a u g i t e  occasional  mainly  examined, these  glassy  large  hornblende  which  fragments,  and  a r e numerous.  argillite,  and  slate  Many  of the shale  particles  from  the indented  borders  of  many, w e r e  i n a plastic  Dark minerals horizons mineral  relatively  fresh  augite  dimension,  erosion  and d e p o s i t i o n  minerals  hornblende,  The  without  commonly  found  a n d some e p i d o t e  problem  much d i s c u s s e d  a n d many  classifications.  (1952),  and Dunbar  with  minor  (1950)  Twenhofel  appear  to prefer  matrix  Krumbein  Pettijohn clay-sized  defines  biotite,  i n  indicate  rapid  muscovite,  been w r i t t e n  writers, that  and a p a s t e  a graywacke  rock  exceeding  or Krumbein  students  must  and  (1957)  Sloss  contain and  as a sandstone 15$.  equi-  of Pettijohn  of chlorite  i n part  materials  fragments.  h a n d , many  classification  a graywacke  that  i s a  weathered  as t h e b a s i c  on t h e o t h e r  been  Carozzi  a graywacke  33% o f e a s i l y  graywackes  has  describing  including  states  matrix  a s 1.7mm  o f a graywacke  (1955)>  detrital  locally,  Problem  and G i l b e r t  of clay  one  disintegration.  and metamorphic  the textural  Turner,  composed  Today  have  consider  at least  considered  o f an arkose.  (1956).  9  No  however,  minerals  extensive  i n many  fragments.  Some  of basic  valent  Williams,  These  include  papers  (1957)  amounts  the sequence;  of the definition  containing  a r e common  and t h e Graywacke  various  sandstone  deposition.  c r y s t a l s , some a s l a r g e  a r e common.  Diagenesis  origin  of  t o a s m u c h a s 15%.  amount  throughout  longest  Other  a t the time  of detrital  and sometimes i s dominant  state  20%  sericite. with  Gilbert places  the  38 matrix  cut-off  point  a t 10%.  definition  i s t h e most  notes  "there  that  grains sider  He a l s o  matrix  points  w h i c h may  sized  matrix  that  although  composed  out that  rocks  is  have  matrix  and i n most  compose  as l i t t l e  aceous  material.  from  i s reduced  the  original  by t h e m a t r i x  before  induration  20$  clay-sized  into ation  thin  under  mineral  cases,  most  people  packed,  con-  20  microns.  poorly sorted  20% o r m o r e o f  t o form  have  with  clay-  result  as l i t t l e  as  detrital  fragments  that  the grains,  leaving  i n evidence.  o f opaque  carbon-  of the quartz, to  distinguish  recrystallization of the larger  of  par-  probable  that  contained  up t o 15  or even  compaction  forced  and subsequent  amounts  I t i s thought  formation  of the matrix  outlines  the present  subordinate  to  I t i s also  the rock  has formed  most  appears  are difficult  has o c c u r r e d .  however,  extremely i n -  matrix  and s t r i n g s  a n d some r e p l a c e m e n t  around  been  the clay-sized  and s e r i c i t e  particles;  and subsequent  Gilbert  the subsequent  i n bulk  graywackes  occurred,  pressure  flakes,  particles ation  films  above.  smaller than  contained  and i t i s e v i d e n t  ticles  Gilbert's  rock.  and t h e r o c k  matrix  that  for distinguishing  loosely  compression  The o r i g i n a l  the matrix,  given  basis  a s 5% o f t h e r o c k  of chlorite  plagioclase,  when many  Carter Point  durated  feels  he i m p l i e s t h a t  originally  10% o f t h e i n d u r a t e d  composed  of those  of particles  a r e put under  their  The  useful  i s no s t a t i s t i c a l  and m a t r i x " , thet  The w r i t e r  that  of large  recrystalliz-  matrix of  the clay  o f micaceous  clay-sized  i n many  chlorite  cases  flakes  alteraround  the  g r a i n s must  opinion the  that  fact  sized  hide  these  that  rocks  their  detrital  the finer should  matrix  larger and  percentage  become  .The s o r t i n g  but o f t e n  of their  Under  quartz  This  altered  i s the only  under  a microscope.  matter or  which  reducing  Some  clay-  with  fine  a  fragments size more  A  detrital  fraction  bedding  was  of these  plane  seen  be  when  are  seen  matter  called examined  shales  of this  appears  i s organic  non-circulating  i n these  fissility  to the  particle.  silty  o f d e p o s i t i o n under pyrite  rocks  which would  t o be v e r y  of  sericite  schistosity  fine  large percentage  No  of  o f carbonaceous  rocks  lavas  evidence  of folia  of these  specimen  f o r basic  show  a crude  and f u l l  platy  i s indicative  of these  many  The c l a y  conditions.  rock  i n t h e hand  others  gives  a r e seen  a semi-opaque mass.  contain  seem t o become  be m i s t a k e n  identifiable  of the fine,  i n the outcrop,  they  b e t t e r as t h e g r a i n  i n the alignment  alignment  shale  as  10$  Fraction  of the siltstones  the microscope  Many  despite  rounded.  induration, while  be s o c o m p l e t e l y  that  than  unstable  themselves  Some m i g h t  and c l e a v a g e  chlorite.  rock. to  appearance  considerably.  shearing and  less  and l e s s  i s also  spherical  because  less  finer-grained  of quartz,  and t h e p a r t i c l e s  varies  contains  of the Fine  decreases  The  graywackes  material.  the rocks  minerals.  I t i s the w r i t e r ' s  be c a l l e d  often  Lithology  As  matrix.  rocks.  a r e hard  and  40  apparently Others  highly  less  indurated  fissile  would  and might  better  easily  be c a l l e d  be d e s c r i b e d  as  slate.  argillite.  Veins  Although great,  the rocks  undergone scale  faults,  rocks  sequent  veins.  noticeable  I n some  ground  a marblized  McLellan  or  Juan  Islands  the area  limestone writer  which  helieves  Point  formation,  wacke  suites  small  the  joints.  deformation,  calcite,  Quartz give  prehnite,  i s seen calcite  veins  sub-  to may  and  replace be  are particularly  the finer  invaded  appearance.  and C o n d i t i o n s  (1927) c o n s i d e r e d  He  thought  and d e p o s i t e d occur that  within  that  throughout  Deposition  part,  at intervals,  the group  the World  of  on other  o n Lummi  of flysch  group  deposited  the sections  t h e sequence  i s typical  of  the Leech River  t o be, f o r t h e most  brackish water.  invaded  apparently  solutions with  calcite  and o f t e n  have  irregular  with  Much o f t h i s  waters.  i n the sequence  Origin  San  quartz,  has not been  by numerous  and numerous  instances,  units  formation  by h y d r o t h e r m a l  o f numerous  from  Point  contemporaneous  o f the graywacke.  precipitated  rocks  invaded  of individual  as evidenced  cleavage,  and p o s s i b l y were  matrix  stress  folds,  formation  sericite the  of the Carter  tremendous  Following, the  disarrangement  fades  i n fresh  marine  waters  fossiliferous islands.  Island,  The  the Carter  or of the  and t h e r e f o r e  of the  that  gray-  i t i s best  41  explained  by m a r i n e ,  orogenic suggest  environment. that The  typical the  The p i l l o w l a v a s  was  a eugeosynclinal  similarities deposits  t h i c k , continuous  the  lack  lavas  rocks  interbedded  ally  the with  fe\ir  coalified  deposition. t o be p r o d u c t s  appearance pillow  of faunal r e -  which  i n many  flysch  include:  structures;  the general  a r e found  a r e found  flysch  de-  deposits  a r e gener-  o f deep w a t e r marine  deposition  of the Carter  were waste  products  of high  texturally  and m i n e r a l o g i c a l l y v e r y  source rocks  terranes  were  border was  sediment  of the geosyncline  inclination. sediments were  where  dislodged  Thrown  into  formation  intermediate  was  the sediments  i n as much as t h e y a r e  immature.  and metamorphic  Much o f t h i s  periodically  Point  landmasses,  dominantly  but c r y s t a l l i n e  sources.  the  slump  remains  the  sequence; the  the associated  plant  These  and  with  alternation of  v o l c a n i c s ) ; and t h e absence  the case  over  formation  of a carbonate  i n the section;  volcanics)  geosyncline. In  and  Harbor  a r e numerous  and a s s o c i a t e d  t h e graywacke  o f marine  considered  a  high  Harbor  Even  posits  the absence  o f graded-bedding  (Reil  mains.  Point  of large-scale cross-bedding;  coarse  (Reil  i n an  environment.  of the Carter of the World  deposition  d e p o s i t i o n and rhythmic  and s h a l e ;  occurrence  in  this  flysch  graywacke  of  p o s s i b l y b r a c k i s h water  The types or basic  terranes  were  volcanic  also  rapidly transported  i t formed  unstable  of  to the  accumulations  by storms,  submarine  suspension  i n the sea water,  rapidly transported  by t u r b i d i t y  tremors  currents  or  42 down  the slope  settled  upon  sediments, erosion  the coarser  these  with  this  like  bedding  erosion  heavy  coarser The  shales that  was  o f marine  fossils,  most was  River members  stones  caused  minor  surface  and  were  and s h a l e s calm  of lens-  to the slope  accum-  During  occurred,  and  and  black  pillow lavas restricted  where  times  deposited.  carbonaceous  probably  not an a r e a  were  water.  erosion  the highly  fauna  indicate although  lived.  and C o r r e l a t i o n  of Permian  and other  intra-  combined  that  the lower  members  were M i s s i s s i p p i a n i n age and t h a t  g e n e r a l l y based  corals,  rapid  (1927) b e l i e v e d  group  to depositing  to the formation  and t h e a s s o c i a t e d  Age  Leech  more  a n d i t was  McLellan  particles  cross-beds,  bottom  silts  o f d e p o s i t i o n was  marine  probably  of relatively  brought  and s i l t s t o n e s ,  the basin  In addition  contributed  and storms  material  probably  irregular  the fine  of the units.  i n times  rain  lack  currents  of the thin-bedded  slowly  where  of small-scale  An  effect  i n some  Many  of  turbidity  breccias.  water  particles.  and the f o r m a t i o n  formational  ulated  and i n t o d e e p e r  and p o s s i b l y T r i a s s i c  on t h e o c c u r r e n c e  larger  of the Leech River  faunas group  of Fusulina,  of the  the upper-  age.  This  fragments  i n the r e c r y s t a l l i z e d  lime-  on t h e n o r t h  Orcas  shore  of  of  Island. The formation  only  fossils  o n Lummi  Island  w h i c h were were  found  small,  i n the Carter  Point  unidentifiable, coalified  43 plant  stems  grained These  graywacke  These were  i n only  one l o c a l i t y  which  contain recrystallized  thought  t o resemble this  sequence  i s correlated  sequences  to  o n Lummi  metamorphosed fine-grained  with  Island  except  and deformed graywackes  and s i l t s t o n e s  outcrop.  Since  the R e i l  I s l a n d and E l i z a  for  continuous  brought this  the Reil  San  Juan  Leech type their  Harbor  rocks  age i s unknown. or very  morphosed  rocks  have  been  position  cleavage  similar regionally of the the  i n the  reasonably  The  have  evidence  Passage.  group,  on other  of the  o f the type  locality  of the  Island  i s uncertain.  The  c o n t a i n no f o s s i l s  are typically graywacke  to this  be  i n one  I s l a n d may  by f a u l t i n g .  formation  highly indurated  seen  n e a r l y reached  Eliza  River  the rocks  are assigned  are  Many  i t might  however,  the Leech  They  western  volcanics are interbedded  River  Lummi  v o l c a n i c s l i e between t h e  on Vancouver  o f the Leech  Here  and s h a l e have  plain  on  on t h e  by the i n t e r v e n i n g Hale  with  formation  Mesozoic.  degree.  sequences,  sequence;  Islands, or with  River  schist,  Island  obscured  Correlation  axial  Harbor  to i t s present  i s now  siltstone  inter-  radiolarian  occur  they  and  and s h a l e  Island.  to a greater  a n d show g o o d  originally  which  that  lavas  to the  o f graywacke  o f graywacke,  grade  that  common  the rocks  phyllitic  assumed  by p i l l o w  projections of Eliza  rhythmic those  genera  i n medium-  ( s e e g e o l o g i c map).  argillites  southernmost  been  imbedded  are overlain  Island  Lummi  found  rocks  Locally  and  10).  sedimentary  bedded tests  (figure  composed although  formation  of  and  phyllite,  unmeta-  on o t h e r  parts  44 of  Southern  Islands River land the  Vancouver  might  Island.  be a l e s s  formation;  metamorphosed  however,  and on the mainland Leech  River  The r o c k s  except  equivalent  f o r the rocks  to the east,  on t h e San Juan  o f Lummi  other  Islands  and  Eliza  of the  Leech  on S a m i s h I s -  rocks  a s s i g n e d to  are of varying  ages  2 and  of different  differs who  from  stated  type  that,  with  and  series  Hozomeen  Hozomeen  those  series  was  considered  the  San Juan  ies  correlated  characteristics  was  the also  To  consider  the Carter  2  Personal  communication,  series  members,  group.  parallel  River  map-area." group  with  of the group.  British  Columbia  of rocks  i n  the Cache  and graywacke  River  i n  In the Skagit  part  and n o r t h e r n  considered  of the Leech  Island  the Leech River  argillite  49th  are identical  the upper  In i t s upper  p. I l l )  occurring at the  areas.  to the Paleozoic  of the Leech  (1927.  the Leech River  with  of central  limestone,  out near  Island  i n the San Juan  of Washington,  equivalent  Columbia  Vancouver  correlation  of McLellan  i n the surrounding  series  t o those  This  sediments  correlated  Island area.  contains  British  was  Creek  cropping  found  (1927)  ranges  Cache  similar  "the Leech River  of rocks  The  Creek  correlation  on S o u t h e r n  McLellan other  composition.  the e a r l i e r  locality  lithology  overall  sequences  The C h i l l i w a c k s e r -  i n Washington  t o possess  the  and  general  group.  Point  formation  W.R.  Danner  similar  to  other  sequences that  i s understandable  and e a s i l y  i t i s t h e same a g e a s t h e s e  lithologic sequences easily  and t e x t u r a l a r e common  been  rocks  similarity  at different  however,  on t h e b a s i s  i s dangerous.  i n the western  deposited  done;  Cordillera times  under  to say  of  general  Graywacke  a n d may  have  similar  crustal  conditions.  R E I L HARBOR  VOLCANICS  General  The series flow  o f sub-marine  rocks  occur  island  The  rocks  which  also  pillow crop  directly  cove  distinct Harbor  is  material.  a long  outcrop  Lummi  Point,  ectly  overlain  outcrops without  areas,  o f Lummi  the largest  on t h e s o u t h e a s t  and  Island. of which  side of  fifty  overlie  the Carter Point  formation.  Besides  separated  outcrops  the Carter Point o u t a n d come  outcrop  by t h e Chuckanut from  formation.  one a n o t h e r  t o b e o f t h e same  Point  At  only  outcrops,  with  there  north of  which  Although  and cannot  age, they  one o f  formation.  the shore  at Migley  acres.  occur,  i n contact  the aforementioned  of the volcanics along  and another  clastic  of approximately  overlies  are isolated doubt  the shores  for a  an area  Legoe Bay the v o l c a n i c s crop glacial  i s proposed  and i n t e r b e d d e d  out along  two s l i g h t l y  directly  volcanics,  lavas  to Reil  and o c c u p i e s here  Sunrise  Harbor  i n five  located adjacent  the  At  Reil  breccias which  These is  name,  be  i s dir-  the  five  proven  a r e a l l grouped t o -  46 gether  on t h e b a s i s  these  outcrops  Point  form  with  of lithology  and o u t c r o p  the exception  conspicuous  marine  features.  o f t h e one j u s t  A l l of  north  o f Lummi  cliffs.  3 Outcrop  In p.  contrast to earlier  70), the Reil  sequence  are  sediments  which  lava rather  o f a dark  11),  and range  four  feet  from  at Reil  are  quite massive  are  locally  flows than  green,  as d i k e s  the smaller  z o n e was  probably  formed  zone  pillow  outcrops porphyritic  ellipsoidal  (figure  by r a p i d  they are  glassy basalt.  chilling  Bay  Individual  and a t one o u t c r o p  of fine  of  the pillows  p i l l o w s a t Legoe  the average.  h i g h l y sheared black  The  with  a t L e g o e B a y t o a maximum  although  by a narrow  of the  f a r as determined,  than  as a  breccias  or s i l l s .  three  are roughly  As  are locally  to occur  a p h a n i t i c , sometimes  a few i n c h e s  more v e s i c u l a r  of McLellan (see  and i n t e r b e d d e d  Harbor.  outlined  of  v o l c a n i c s are observed  The p i l l o w s themselves  pillows  interpretations  c h a r a c t e r i z e and dominate  composed  rock.  Harbor  o f submarine  tuffaceous lavas  Features  of the outer  This skin  the pillow. Interbedded  stallized  limestone feet  with  some  pods  ranging  i n length  of the pillow from  ly  three  of  3 T a b l e 3 shows a c o m p a r i s o n the five different outcrops.  lavas  a few i n c h e s  are recryt o approximate  (figure 12).  of the outcrop  features  F i g u r e 10. C a r b o n i z e d p l a n t stems i n specimen o f f i n e - g r a i n e d graywacke of the C a r t e r Point formation (age unknown) e x p o s e d i n t h e s o u t h c e n t r a l p a r t o f Lummi I s l a n d . A c t u a l  size.  F i g u r e 11. Pillow lavas of the H a r b o r v o l c a n i c s ( a g e unknown) posed a t S u n r i s e Cove. Taken the v e r t i c a l . D i p o f p i l l o w s i s t i c a l and i n d i c a t e s bottom t o (bottom o f photograph) October  Reil exfrom verSW 1958  Table  Outcrop  Pillow lava and percent of Outcrop  95$  Reil Harbor  2 - Comparison  B r e c c i a s and p e r c e n t of Outcrop  None  24$ - C l a s t i c a n d some flow breccia -Frag, are l a p e l l i bomb s i z e . -Occur i n m i d d l e o f p i l l o w sequence.  50%  40$  99$  Lummi Point -Pillov/s poorly defined  -Pillows mostly poorly defined  - C l a s t i c a n d some flow breccia. -Frag, are l a p e l l i bomb s i z e . -Overlie pillow lavas.  -Present i n 10 f o o t sequences, w i t h pillowlavas.  Limestone Pods  .i  -Occurs as veins in lava.  -Present with ribbon chert.  rNone observed  -Present in pillow lava.  -Plentiful as veins and a s inclusions in breccia.  .-None observed  i  1  -Numerous t h i n beds interbedded with b r e c c i a and c o n t a i n recrystallized Radiolarian tests.  Jasper  :  - T h i n beds o f a r g i l l i t e 1 - T r a c e w i t h sedimentary o v e r l i e b r e c c i a s and layers. some c o n t a i n recrystalized Radiolarian tests.  10$  Volcanics  4$  i$  ; ' -. O c c u r s only as angular blocks i n breccia.  1$ -None  observed  -None  observed  -Victric tuff, probably not part o f p i l l o w lava sequence. -Overlies pillow lava.  60$  Migley Point  Harbor  1$  -Pillows quite well defined  -Pillows s m a l l and well defined  the Reil  Ribbon Chert and p e r c e n t o f Outcrop  Interbedded Sedimentary Rocks and p e r c e n t o f Outcrop  - T h i n beds o f a r g i l l i t e at upper contact - T h i n laminae between ribbon chert layers .  75%  Legoe Bay  of  features  observed  -Pillows poorly defined  Sunrise Cove  of outcrop  -Hone observed  —None observed  .-None observed  -Scattered single beds i n breccia.  -Noticeable as veins i n l a v a and in breccia.  .-Present i n pillow lava.  40$ -Clastic breccias. -Frag, are E a p e l l i t o bomb s i z e d . -Interbedded throughout p i l l o w lava.  49 The  ribbon  at  Reil  of  submarine  black  Harbor  chert  thickness sistent can  be  under  the  three  Harbor at  at  occurs Harbor The  amount  lengthy  than  In  the  or  of  they  few  p o s s i b l e answer  and  built  up  the  the  chert  i n the the  remains  were  never  action.  i s that  the  concentration  colloidal  silica At  one  indication  are  green  13).  A  feet  some  or  bedding  of  perthese  specimens  recrystallized  beds  examined  and  con-  disseminated  car-  to  small  Ferruginous  problem  lavas  green  or  chert and  breccias  locality,  does  not  and  warrant are  chert  syn-  appears  to  examined were  either  that  be  and  the  of  barren  destroyed  vulcanism  occurred  extensive  following observations  present  so  is  volcanics  non-biological precipitation.  one  good  lavas  Point.  on  were  60  of  s t r i n g e r s i n the  sections  the  the  i s remarkable  long.  the  remains,  volcanic  foot  with  beds  is limited  bedded  organic  or  The  the  Since  stallization  chert  field  origin.  of  a  present  genetic  ition  outcrops  a  (figure  thickness  d e s c r i p t i o n ; however,  offered.  product  a  the  partially  Migley  chert  these  i m p u r i t i e s and  literature of  for  were  veins  and  is also  locality.  other  as  Point  contorted  and  this  micaceous  i s interbedded  Generally,  inches  stringers less  Reil  Migley  highly  microscope  Chert  (jasper)  the  at  are  Reil  fine  bonate.  of  and  measured  tained  black  and  which  extrusion.  of  at  chert  by  of  recry-  chert"is  a  Assuming  the  latter,  supplied  the  silica  flocculation  and  depos-  contemporaneously  with  a  pod  large  limestone  the is  50  Figure 1 3 . Contorted ribbon chert i n the volcanics (age unknown) at R e i l Harbor. View looking northwest. Vv.R.Danner, May 1958.  51 found out,  interbedded  are  difficult  those to  delicate  noted a  rhythmic  i n the  very  similar  pH  and  Franciscon  i n the  dissolved, i t is and  the  chert  chert  and  Cascades  limestones  formation  precipitated  of  without  (1957)  However, Danner  ribbon  and  of  points  limestone  foothills  are  in  of  observed  California  has  in  the  (Tollaferro  Description  Lavas Due  and' t h e rock  to  the  variance  extreme  between  descriptions for  comparison  purposes  The lavas  at  Legoe  the  composition a  without angles  few  outcrops,  each  outcrop  Bay.  in a  rock  g r a i n s were  appeared  to  the  the  lavas  constructed  were  consists  enclosed  groundmass  by of  definitely  from of  for  near  pure  lamp  clean  enough  to determine  below  20  however,  degrees.  and  of  augite,  microlites.  albite  immersion  that The  pillow  plagioclase  plagioclase  sodium  noted,  the  phenocrysts  with  I t was be  of  of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  been  Here,  examined  question.  has  examined  felted  most  table  specimens  f e l d s p a r s were as  a  of  4).  sub-ophitically  included of  alteration  (table  freshest  phenocrysts  Only  of  (1950)  Correns  1943).  Hudson,  Pillow  Many  ratio.  cherts  are  limestone  sequence  .  all  the  precipitation  Washington State,  I f , as  carbonates  explain both  change  chert.  for accumulation  at which  graywacke-volcanic  and  the  conditions necessary  silica  a  with  the  in methods.  relief  extinction  clinopyroxene  52 Table  Reil Harbor Sunrise Cove  Mineral  of  5/13/2-2 and  5/13/4-1  10/24/34  4/29/1-2  Avg.  of  Legoe Bay  10/25/3 -3 a n d 5/6/1-3  5/6/1-4  Migley Point  Lummi Point  Avg.  of  10/24/21 and 10/25/11 10/25/21  1  the  o f the outcrops o f  Reil  Harbor  Volcanics  i  Locality and Specimen Avg.  3 - Petrography  Composition  Texture  j  ;  P l a g i o c l a s e (comp. u n d e t e r m i n e d ) Clinopyroxene (augite) Chlorite * Semi-opaque groundmass  -60 -25 - 5 -10  Subophitic  P l a g i o c l a s e (comp. u n d e t e r m i n e d ) P l a g i o c l a s e (secondary a l b i t e ) Clinopyroxene Chlorite Calcite Semi-opaque groundmass  - 1 - 5 -;.'5 -10 - 9 -70  Extremely f i n e grained and glassy  Plagioclase (albite-oligoclase) Clinopyroxene • Chlorite Semi-opaque groundmass  -30 -50 -10 -10  P l a g i o c l a s e (5$ p h e n o c r y s t s ( A l b i t e - A n 5 a n d some Andesine?) Clinopyroxene (phenocrysts) (Mg - r i c h A u g i t e ) Olivine Orthoclase (phenocrysts) Quartz M a g n e t i t e and Semi-opaque groundmass  -67  P l a g i o c l a s e (comp. u n d e t e r m i n e d ) Clinopyroxene (phenocrysts) C h l o r i t e and Semi-opaque groundmass P l a g i o c l a s e (5$ p h e n o c r y s t s ) (Na O l i g o c l a s e - A l b i t e ) Clinopyroxene (Mg-rich augite) Chlorite Magnetite Semi-opaque groundmass P l a g i o c l a s e (comp. u n d e t e r m i n e d ) (An 40 - M c L e l l a n , 1927) Clinopyroxene Semi-opaque groundmass  -15 -  1 3 1  i i  Cataclastic  Plagioclase (extreme)3  Alteration  t o epidote  &  p sericite  Clinopyroxene t o chlorite (low) Olivine to chlorite (complete)  ; Plagioclase t o epidote & s e r i c i t e ' (moderate) ! to a l b i t e ? Clinopyroxene t o c h l o r i t e < (moderate) C a l c i t e & c h l o r i t e a l t . of ground| mass (moderate - extreme)  Bp.hitic  Porphyriticfelted texture. Subophitic  Dominant  Veins, Fracture and Vesicle Fillings  Rock  Veins: calcite, chlorite, quartz, & epidote Quartz veins l i n e d with actinolite Veins: albite, calcite, and q u a r t z . Quartz and a l b i t e veins lined with actinolite  Type  Altered AndesiteBasalt?  KeratophyreSpilite?  Plagioclase t o epidote & s e r i c i t e (extreme-complete) Clinopyroxene t o c h l o r i t e rims (moderate)  Spilite Veins and V e s i c l e Fillings: prehnite, calcite, chlorite, actinolite and a l b i t e  Plagioclase t o epidote & s e r i c i t e (low) Clinopyroxene t o c h l o r i t e  Vesicle Fillings: chlorite zeolites  Spilite  Plagioclase t o epidote & s e r i c i t e (extreme) Pyroxene t o c h l o r i t e (low) C a l c i t e replacement (moderate)  Vesicle Fillings: chlorite calcite  Spilite?  Plagioclase t o epidote (extreme) Pyroxene t o c h l o r i t e (low)  Vesicle Fillings: chlorite quartz  Spilite  i  -14 -50 -25  Porphyritic Subophitic  -25 -48 Microporphyritic. -25 - 2 - 5 -20  Subophitic  -50 Subophitic -20 -30  Semi-opaque groundmass - c o m p o s i t i o n v a r i e s b u t p r o b a b l y a mixture o f secondary i r o h oxides, p a r t i a l l y d e v i t r i f i e d basic g l a s s , l e u c o x e n e , sphene and c l a y m i n e r a l s .  &  Plagioclase to epidote, & and o t h e r c l a y m i n e r a l s Clinopyroxene t o c h l o r i t e (moderate)  sericite  sericite  Veins: c a l c i t e , quartz, and epidote  2.  A l b i t i z a t i o n has probably o c c u r r e d C o v e , L e g o e B a y , a n d Lummi P o i n t .  3.  Extent  of alteration - trace,  i n the pillow  low,moderate,  lavas  extreme,  A l t e r e d Andesite-Basalt?  of Sunrise  and  complete,  53 examined  by sodium  light  and immersion  determinable,  t o be a u g i t e , v e r y  border.  than  morphs  Less  of serpentine  section  examined  magnetite, amounts. an  i s t h e change  position  feldspars  a  Point  relief  Reil  could  equal  zoning The  localities,  that  sphene,  feldspar  and  and a u g i t e and  that  the rock  was  than  nearly  the exact  com-  of the large  the r e l i e f  of only  number  a few  balsam.  Point,  At the type  that  or  t o have locality,  t h e f e l d s p a r s x^ere of relief  from  so  com-  composition  the feldspars  exhibit  o f t h e t h i n - s e c t i o n s examined.  groundmass  varies  but i t i s thought  i n t h e specimens  from  leucoxene,  iron  different  t o be g e n e r a l l y composed  of glass-palagonite, chlorite,  pyroxene.  of the  In thin-sections of rocks  I t i s noteworthy  semi-opaque mixture als,  cases,  as  o f t h e f e l d s p a r s and  because  no d e t e r m i n a t i o n  i n many  such  Cove:,., t h e f e l d s p a r s a p p e a r e d  t o or less  altered  met  thin-  i n insignificant  i n determining  be d e t e r m i n e d .  and a t M i g l e y  be made.  poor  Difficulty  and S u n r i s e  Harbor,  pletely  a  could  pseudo-  noticeable i n thin-  size  so f i n e  augite  i n one  minerals,  of plagioclase  difference,  being  and i n most  Other  are present  i n the grain  cases  and p o s s i b l e observed  where  -  to characterize the lavas  o f t h e f e l d s p a r s was  inclusions  were  outcrop.  i s found  cryptocrystalline.  Lummi  this  One m a j o r  i n some  olivine  combination  texture  outcrops.  pyroxene,  of  after  proved,  the endiopside  i s present  and i l m e n i t e ,  T h e same  section,  olivine  from  sphene,  aphitic  other  1%  near  methods  oxides  and f i n e  clay  particles  of a minerof  54 Amygdules,  Veins,  Vesicule and  zeolites  they  appear  authors.  jasper,  were  pennine were  radiating  pale  t o deep  aggregate  Reil  although  examined,  filling.  Veins  (chlorite),  they  or lines  clusters  green  t h e edges  of green  i n color,  s t r u c t u r e i n some t h e p r e h n i t e was  Harbor  and as rounded  lavas  by  quartz,  sericite,  were  of quartz  needles.  of the rocks. observed  inclusions  c h e r t and  also  the a c t i n o l i t e  as  were t h e  actinolite,  and  found  of  generally  or a l b i t e  veins  The c h l o r i t e i s  and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  only  epidote,  many  and c a l c i t e  of c a l c i t e ,  however,  calcite,  a r e n o t s o numerous  A l l combinations  that  Sunrise  quartz,  chlorite  albite,  i n the veins;  by i t s e l f  with  noted  observed  identified.  minerals  occurs  of chlorite,  t o be i n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f p i l l o w  vesicle  prehnite these  fillings  In the rocks  dominant  and Vugs  I t should  shows  good  also  i n specimens  be  from  i n the breccias at  Cove.  Alteration With are  the exception  extremely  altered.  unrecognizable by  some  were  groundmass. mass  and c h l o r i t e . removed  mafic  alteration, I n some  or rendered  Chloritization,  and f i n e r  a t Legoe Bay, t h e r o c k s  The Tfeldspars have  by a r g i l l a c e o u s  sericite  completely  of the rocks  minerals  been  rendered  almost  saussuritization,  cases  the feldspars  u n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from  and s e r p e n t i n i z a t i o n i s also  and  the  of the ground-  considerable, giving  a  •55 distinct light.  green  Chlorite  siderable ference  area  leucoxene, limonite,  to  Locally,  argillaceous hematite,  ity, veins  albite  primary Five  importance  of the lavas  disseminated  to of  with  difficulty. gone  and i n a t l e a s t  one  the rock  pseudomorphing  on  local-  from  the highly  feldspars.  i n determining  rocks  the general  are of  conditions  possible  and degree  of  they a r e :  The presence plagioclase  2.  i s  i n t h e groundmass  throughout  without  i t  formation  has apparently  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these  albitization; 1.  mentioned  inter-  or v e s i c l e  although  i s indicated  con-  i s important  Alteration of ilmenite  are distinguished  previously  has been  locally  a  anomalous  by c a l c i t e  occurs  and e p i d o t e  i n most  shows  a l t e r a t i o n , and s e c o n d a r y  and has c r y s t a l l i z e d  altered  also  polarized  covering  r e s t r i c t e d to the veins  i n d i v i d u a l grains  extent  i n plain  as p l a t e s  and g e n e r a l l y  a t any l o c a l i t y .  albitization some  appears  replacement  Silicification  extensive  The  typically  i t i s generally  fillings.  although  to the thin-sections  of the s l i d e  colors.  although  not  color  The presence  o f poor  zoning  i n some  of the  fresher  grains. of relatively  unaltered  pyroxene  (figure  14). 3.  The u n s t a b l e  4.  The occurrence relief  5.  albitized  represented.  of plagioclase  and o l i g o c l a s e  The absence or  assemblage  of calcic feldspar.  or sodic  with  apparent  andesine  plagioclase  positive  composition.  inclusions  i n albite  56 It ization and  may  be s u g g e s t e d  has been  not others The  which  slight,  t h e above  i n many  although  lavas  from  cases  completely  generally  are characteristic  points  lavas  grains  the grains  the following  of s p l l i t i c  albit-  e f f e c t i n g some  altering  exhibit  that  attacked.  features  throughout  the  world: 1.  2.  Basic  composition  sodic  plagioclase.  Evidence veins  of hydrothermal  and v e s i c l e  The presence  4.  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  5.  The a s s o c i a t i o n o f j a s p e r  6.  The low p o t a s h  7.  The g e n e r a l addition  of  lack  primary  mafic  mineral  the basaltic  pillow  of  lava  occurrence.  and bedded  as e x h i b i t e d  points,  of augite  serve  rock  of  chert. by m i n e r a l  content.  olivine.  to these  and t h e presence  i n the form  augite.  content  texture  activity  of highly  fillings.  3.  In  with  consisting principally  the ophitic or  as t h e o n l y  to predict  subophitic  significant  the former  association  clan.  Breccias Extensive interbedded Point, where  they  the  form  of breccias  the pillow  and a r e found  Closely Legoe  with  sections  more  interbedded  a t Legoe  with  at Sunrise  Bay o v e r l y i n g  $0% o f t h e o u t c r o p  than  Bay a r e tuffaceous  recrystallized  lavas  of volcanic  these  breccias  siltstones  remains  Cove  origin are and  Migley  the pillow (figure  at Sunrise  and a r g i l l i t e s ,  of radiolarian tests.  lavas 15).  Cove  and  containing  F i g u r e 14. P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h o f s p i l i t i c l a v a from the R e i l Harbor v o l c a n i c s ( a g e unknown) c r o p p i n g out a t Legoe Bay. R e l a t i v e l y f r e s h a u g i t e (A) c r y s t a l s o c c u r r i n g i n a groundmass o f extremely a l t e r e d ( c h l o r i t i z e d ) p l a g i o c l a s e (B) l a t h s . Ordinary l i g h t , X64,  F i g u r e 15. B r e c c i a o f R e i l Harbor v o l c a n i c s (age unknown) e x p o s e d Legoe Bay. View SE, October 1958.  58 At  Sunrise  inclusions The do  varies  general not  texture. for  With  true  nature made,  volcanic  rock in  a  One  prehnite  feldspar  and  were  tified near of  cite.  rocks lined  (An are with  Vesicules  minerals.  a  there  to  below  10) cut  as  the  inclusions  deceiving  matrix green  in by  and  these  because  of  the  and  of  fractures  of  of  very  volcanic  crystals,  but  relief, The  quartz by also  laths  in  deformed,  quite  a  and  few were  filled  veins with  of  fibrous fragments  were  iden-  probably and  water-clear  actual  of  any  these  fragments and  rock  water-clear  present  of  breccia  basalt,  smaller  feldspars  are  packed  of  fine-grained  occasional,  also  thin-sections  gathering  fragments  quartz  composition.  fine  matrix.  percentage  in  the  were  phenocrysts,  numerous  in  diversified  the  aphanitic mistaken  However,  specimen  balsam  and  and  be  pyroxenes were  of  the  might  inclusions  large  of  both matrix  color  flows  epidote,  sericite, and  a  were  Most  altered  slightly  albite  the  veins  as  inches.  recognizable  Few  crystals.  extremely  six  as  secondary  sericite. but  and  semi-opaque  feldspar  by  millimeters  fairly  of  fragments,  fragments,  hornblende  even  These  showed  enclosed  size  the  dark  a  thin-section  containing  the  appearance.  textures.  vein  fragments  or  revealed  Cove  point  inspection,  fine-grained  from 'Sunrise  the  breccias  was  few  above  casual  Migley  somewhat  typical  homogenous  there  albite,  a  flow  and  tightly  the  at  a  is  weather  are  and  between  appearance  usually  inclusions  Cove  of  matrix albite seri-  these  late  59  greatly from  Although  original  changed,  i t is  minerals  likely  that  overlying  flows  invaded  Some p y r o x e n e s  which  originally  ically  were  replaced  by  Soda-bearing  liquids  as  throughout  veins  calcic  and  andesine  localized zation  epidote  and  occurred  or  sheets of  been  somewhat  of  fine  glassy  matrix  or  feldspars  altered  to  albite  albitized,  feldspar  however,  subangularity  ophit-  was  deposited  much  and  breccia.  hornblende.  of  the  sericite  deposited.  fragments  rounded; and  the  hydrothermal  the  solutions  Subsequently,  from  probably  consolidated  and  probably  epidote  are  magmatic  also  present  rock.  were  this  inclusions  have  the  late  enclosed and  also  textures  partially  l a b r a d o r i t e was  l a r g e l y since  to  quartz  were  formation  The  the  and  and  Chloriti-  have  probably  invasion. of  the  the  breccia  general  indicates  a  appear  homogeneity f a i r l y rapid  deposition. At ments  Legoe  varying  Bay  from  three  obviously  considered  than  breccias  flow  brown  and  Blocky are  green)  noticeably  stained some  trap  rounding  of  rocks, or  clastic to  as  often  to  fine-grained  tightly material  of  fine,  dark-green, inclusions  s c o r i a s , and  reworking  and  in a  as  packed  at  and  the  rock  frag-  are  more  outcrop  red  rather  colors  and  red  chert  with  These  together. of  These  green  fragments  composed  coarser,  various  along  tuffs.  the  are  inches.  breccias  fragments  enclosed black,  breccias  eighteen  clastic  often  abundant  Cove, be  are  as  as  are  inclusions  the  (red, matrix. (jasper)  hematite-  fragments  did  at  The  show  Sunrise matrix  particles,  appears glass,  60 and  fine a l t e r a t i o n minerals (epidote, clay and  The matrix composes less than 1% breccia examined. ments and  chlorite).  of most specimens of the  Fine earthy hematite i s common i n many frag-  i n the matrix of the breccia.  Specimen 5/22/2-3, taken from the f i n e r breccia at this outcrop (Legoe Bay) contains  was  examined i n thin-section.  numerous scoriaceous rock fragments.  characterized  It  These are  by f a i n t l y outlined feldspar laths i n a l i g h t -  brown, hematite-stained matrix of c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e material and p a r t i a l l y d e v i t r i f i e d basic glass.  Amygdules are formed  of p a r t i a l l y d e v i t r i f i e d glass, c a l c i t e , and  chlorite.  fragments consist of porphyritic andesite with % crystals larger than 2 mm.  A  few  andesine  These occur i n a fine hematitic  groundmass of feldspar microlites and  glass.  fragments were seen to contain nearly 10$  One  quartz.  of these In  general,  the p a r t i c l e s of this specimen show only s l i g h t rounding. Specimen 5/6/1-6 taken from the same outcrop at another l o c a l i t y contains  2%  75$ rock fragments packed t i g h t l y i n  matrix which i s composed of f i n e f e l s i t i c p a r t i c l e s , grains clinopyroxene, and  fine micaceous material.  Fragments consist  of andesite (plagioclase, An 40), dacite, scoraceous and volcanic rocks, v l t r i c and c r y s t a l t u f f p a r t i c l e s , and s l i g h t l y reworked pyroxene c r y s t a l s . with c a l c i t e .  The.scoria  glassy  large,  These are a l l cemented  fragments contain  quartz-lined,  c h l o r i t e - f i l l e d v e s i c l e s , and a few vesicles containing aggregate of a mineral resembling t a l c .  of  an  A l t e r a t i o n i n these  last two specimens i s moderate i n comparison to most of those at Sunrise Cove. Specimen 5/6/1-8 was taken from a highly weathered portion of the breccia sequence at Legoe Bay. It consists of very fine-grained traprock fragments i n a groundmass of even finer grained aphanitic rock, apparently of the same composition.  This represents a small (six feet thick) section of  flow breccia interbedded with the c l a s t i c breccias and s e d i mentary rocks. The interbedded sedimentary  rocks are generally f i n e ,  s i l t y , tuffaceous or argillaceous rocks which weather to a d u l l brown color. throughout  They occur most generously at Legoe Bay  the breccias, but also occur at Sunrise Cove and  at R e i l Harbor.  Thin-sections of the a r g i l l i t e s at Sunrise  Cove and Legoe Bay reveal innumerable r e c r y s t a l l i z e d radiol a r i a n tests (Figure 16), Origin of the C l a s t i c Breccias The evidence for the o r i g i n of the c l a s t i c breccia sequence from this discussion indicates that while pillow lavas were being extruded at one spot, pyroclastic material may have been l a i d down elsewhere.  Some of these p y r o c l a s t i c  and flow rocks were carried to this area where they were deposited i n water with the lavas and flow breccias.  Periods  without volcanic a c t i v i t y were characterized by deposition and accumulation of clay and s i l t i n water abundant i n Radiolaria  62 and  probably  other  protozoans.  mode o f  transportation  breccia  flow  by  deposits  turbidity  of or  currents.  however,  i t i s only  probably  not  were  is  fragments. carried  lacking  Perhaps  from  land  Innumerable methods  safe  directly  the  Evidence  to  by  for  they  and  are  the are  deposited  possible;  say  that  transportation  a i r as  some  rounding  and  was  sorting  is  indicated.  The  Spilite  Problem  4/ The spilites years only  origin  has  and  been  a  much has  possible  effects  the  to  the  that  is generally a  of  exactly  how  whether  they  should  in  or  silica  on  this to  a  rocks  called  large  number  subject. the  Here  problem  of  i t is  as  a  spilite  oligoclase and  is  an  i t  extrusive  feldspars  has  a l l the  other  example, o p h i t i c  texture  and  characterized  a  rich  be  assemblage,  4  geologists for  today,  albite  for  volcanic  by  a  larger  than  but  one  characteraugite.  normal  amount  oxide.  Without  It  rich  volcanics. used  low  i t is  sodium  by  .  some a t t e n t i o n  is  basalt,  Chemically,  for  been w r i t t e n  name  characterized  soda.  problem  Harbor  rock  of  the  give  Reil  As  istics  of  chemical the  lavas  would  f i t most  noted  that  as  Soda  Na20  i t is  of  Island  most  considerable  -  analysis Lummi  authors' of  the  impossible are  in  requirements rocks  alteration  of  show an the  to  know  sodarand for  a  .  ;  spilite.  unstable  plagioclase  to  epidote more  has occurred.  altered  rocks,  saussuritlzation epidote  form  in  soda.:-. A l t h o u g h  in  rocks  process  i t would  of albite  i n addition  to residual  The whether basalt  first  the spilites or t h o l e i i t i c  contamination  origin rocks  step  of albite, which  secondary  points  Harbor  pillow  i texplain veins.  that  the a l b i t i z a t i o n  was  use o fthe  Clearly,  these  rocks  a magma  either  some  methods  a l t e r a t i o n , have  from  relatively  o r make  other  i n the  ofthe  of albitIzbeen  active.  i s to decide  of olivine -  by d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  b a s a l t i c magma,  i . e . primary  introduction  as "normal"  o f soda  basalts,  ^ into  i.e.  may l e n d  support  The presence  o f many,  enclosing  The presence  to a  primary  i n the spilites  of  lavas: relatively  albite  of lateral  calcium-deficient 3.  the feldspar  or by metasomatic  following  crystals, 2.  explain  o f the a l b i t e - o l i g o c l a s e feldspars  Reil 1.  importance  composition,  crystallized  plagioclase  origin of albite.  The origin  first  from  i s o f some  derived  of a normal  be a p r o d u c t o f  of the plagioclase  i n explaining  were  of these  enrichment  or prehnite  and suggest  i n some  of calcium  neither  o f Legoe B a y where  are spilitic  ation,  the  this  that  may i n p a r t  subsequent  o f i n c l u s i o n s , n o r would  occurrence  or  with  of albite,  the rocks  clear  the albite  appear  or o f t h e removal  to  production  I t would  unaltered  augite  crystals.  zoning  i n a few o f t h e  feldspars.  The l a c k  of partially  clusions  of calcic  albitized  feldspars  feldspars  or i n -  i n the albitized  64 feldspar The of  following  the feldspars 1.  crystal.  2.  lend  support  or to the metasomatic  The presence some  may  of albite  of the s p i l i t i c  The presence prehnite  redeposition  origin  theory:  i n vesicles  and as v e i n s i n  rocks.  of chlorite,  as v e i n s  t o the secondary  calcite,  and v e s i c l e  of displaced  actinolite,  fillings  calcium  which  removed  and/  suggests  from  the  feldspars. 3.  The uneven feldspars in  4.  t h e same  support  repudiated  fairly  inclusions  might  tremendous  degree  and  be  fresh in  remnants  mechanism albite  be  a r e always  by w h i c h  or soda  rich  well As  i n these  that  they  In addition  rocks  and t h e r e  texture could  feldspars.  or  alteration  of the r e l a t i v e l y  were  left  to this,  unaltered ophitic  plagioclase  formed  The p r e s e n c e  andesine  i n c l u s i o n s or  i s as y e t no be  be  by t h e  by l a t e r  of calcium  itself.  a b o v e may  of labradorite  be c o v e r e d  be s a i d  rocks,  given  I f t h e r e were  characteristic  this  albitized  activity  f o r the nature  process.  albitized  theory  The l a c k  of alteration.  i t may  some  apparently not  o f metasomatic  explained  might  with  specimen.  of the primary  well  the a l b i t i z a t i o n  supposed  a n d some  evidence  indistinguishable.  textures of  rock  easily.  they  feldspars,  of the a l b i t i z a t i o n ,  albitized  The g e n e r a l The  basic  nature  from  or  known primary  of the zoning,  although  i t i s poorly  albitization outlines albite i.e.  varied  were  origin  following the time  indicates  slight  that  i n these  It i s generally  and p o s s i b l y  metasomatic,  concerning  a n d was  preserved.  o f many  The  defined,  points  rocks  be t a k e n  of albitization  that  zone  the  i s of secondary,  1951).  and Verhoogen,  must  of  so t h a t  regarded  of a l l spilites  (Turner  the degree  into  consideration  of the volcanics  on  Lummi  Island: 1.  Vesicles filled rocks  Lack  had c o o l e d  went 3.  of the soda  veins  may  on n e a r l y  albite  relations  indicate  of keratophyre  that  the  of the volcano  is the  some  inconclusive matrix  likely  breccia  the  intro-  of the albite  most  and  of the veining  prior  however,  Cove  may  occurred  i n  the evidence  c u t fragments  I f the albite  of the a l b i t i z i n g  the a l b i t i z a t i o n  deposited.  keratophyre  t o the e j e c t i o n and  veins  breccia.  the source that  or quartz  of the a l b i t i z a t i o n  as a l b i t e  i n this  was  that  before  at Sunrise  of the fragments;  represents is  that  i n the breccias  deposition  indicate  entirely  liquids.  indicate neck  or  contemporaneously.  The occurrence fragments  rimmed  and c r y s t a l l i z e d  of cross-cutting  other  fillings  with water-clear  duction 2.  and f r a c t u r e  occurred  and  vein  solutions, i t after the  4r.(2>.  66 The thin-sections of the breccias at Legoe Bay-  showed no good indication of any a l b i t i z a t i o n . Evidence for more than one period of a l b i t i z a t i o n i s lacking at any of the outcrops. The next l o g i c a l question i s :  Where did the a l b i t i z i n g  solutions come from? Two main alternative mechanisms have been recognized by most authors. 1.  They are:  That the s p i l i t e s are a direct result of the marine environment and the sodium ions and water necessary for soda metasomatism may come from the seawater.  2.  That chemical a l t e r a t i o n of the rocks occurred by residual f l u i d s derived from the rock's own parent magma, i . e . autometasomatism.  Perhaps as geosynclinal  sinking and vulcanism occurs, c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n proceeds, giving r i s e to sodic, residual solutions necessary for a l b i t i z a t i o n and related processes (Turner and Verhoogen,195D. It has also been pointed out by Turner and Verhoogen, (1951) and others that soda might be assimilated into b a s a l t i c magma from underlying graywacke or subarkose sequences known to be r i c h i n soda. Descriptions of the s p i l i t i c rocks of the Metchosin volcanics on the Olympic Peninsula (Park, 194-6) indicate that there i s some s i m i l a r i t y of these rocks with the R e i l Harbor volcanics on Lummi Island. Park used the sea water theory  Figure 16. Photomicrograph of the R e i l Harbor volcanics (age unknown) of tuffaceous a r g i l l i t e containing radiolarian tests (white spots). Note conical tests on right side of photograph and suggestion of minute spines on large test to l e f t . Ordinary l i g h t X64.  Figure 17. Photomicrograph of specimen 5 / 7 / 6 - 2 A from the t u f f sequence overlying the R e i l Harbor volcanics (age unknown) north of Lummi Point. Shows euhedral quartz embayed by glass (A) fresh plagioclase c r y s t a l (lower r i g h t ) , and numerous other grains of fresh quartz and feldspar. Crossed n i c o l s , X24.  68 to  e x p l a i n the  time, G.C.  this  theory  Amstutz  three for  main  the  pected  pointed why  gradation  of  high  the  low rocks  many  albite  i n an sea  Olympic albite  content  unpublished  water  theory  Peninsula. content at  the  First,  at  top  the  solutions  and  thirdly,  there  d e p o s i t i o n , f o r example  that  this  the  criticism  problem  of  a  good  the  bottom  i s not  enough  that  that  manuscript,  i s not  n e a r l y porous  Although  since  criticism.  not  sea-water  illustrate  however,  are  of  halites.  out  this  the  to  albitization;  received considerable  of  aqueous  exof  the  shown.  for  the  i s not  'Sec-  passage  evidence  gypsum, p o l y h a l i t e s ,  may  be  hasty  albitization  i t serves  i s not  one  yet  and to  solved  areas. Further  the  has  reasons  of  in  has  of  spilites  sequence ondly,  source  Reil  Harbor  evidence  for  one  investigation v o l c a n i c s on of  the  and Lummi  mechanisms  more  through  I s l a n d may of  sampling lead  to  of  good  albitization.  Tuffs  A exposed  series  between  formation  on  the  Lummi P o i n t . with  no  merged  low  grade w i t h i n arenites  of  the  the  Reil  and  Harbor  coast  tuffs  of  feet  They with  Chuckanut  crystal  Lummi  (actual  are  tuffaceous  v o l c a n i c s and  apparently  unconformity  tide). 25  vitric  east  These  angular at  of  Island  north  the  contact  slightly  as  angular  formation.  just  are  Chuckanut  overlie  deposited  complete  the  rocks  of  pillow  sub-  r e g u l a r beds conformity  lavas  which  into  69 At green,  extreme  massive,  devitrified seen  vitric  glass  tuff  shards  vitrified  groundmass  upon  silicified,  typical  of these  quartz,  6%  and these  of o l i v e -  Irregular,  t h a n . 75%  shards  o f f i n e micaceous  sections  tuffs.  slightly  of the rock  are held material  a r e medium  i n a  as  glassy,  and d e -  felsitic  25%  iron  fractured  clear,  fragments,  i n a cloudy  glass,  matrix  oxide, tuff  bedded,  Thin-section  I t contains  of the v i t r i c  appears  tuff  crystal tuffs.  fragments  material,  Quartz  up m o r e  the v i t r i c  subrounded  plagioclase sitic  a r e exposed.  two f e e t  glass. Lying  highly  approximately  make  i n the thin-section  semi-opaque  and  low t i d e ,  5/7/6-3 i s subangular  a n d 1% o f  Both  cataclastic  and s m a l l e r  fractured  of s i l i c i f i e d ,  and c l a y .  show  bluish  grains  this  felsection,  textures.  show  undulatory  extinction. Circulating the  underling  crystal in  bad  vitric  tuff.  fresh  twinned  (Figure  i n silica  compared  layers  have  highly  from  silicified  this  a l t e r a t i o n has a l s o  the rock  occurred  i n thin-section  to the R e i l Harbor crystals  derived  appear  appears  volcanics.  completely  Carls-  unaltered  17).  stone  beds  above  a n d was  true  rich  however,  plagioclase  Specimen  the  tuff  water  Some a r g i l l a c e o u s  t h e groundmass;  unusually  ground  lying  5/7/6-2A  conformably  at f i r s t  arenite  was  when  taken  from  coarse,  on t h e c r y s t a l t u f f seen  o f the Chuckanut  i n the f i e l d formation.  buff-sandreferred  believed The  to  t o be  thin-section  70  reveals 15$  40$  rock  fied,  andesine  untwinned  sist  which  clear  o f rounded  microfelsitic metamorphic barely the  basalt,  twinned  aphanitic Juan  igneous  I s l a n d map  Juan  sills  rocks  area.  on t h e b a s i s  called  which  he  (probably  observed  serpentinized  dunites  and  o f low-grade  sphereolites,  indication  of a  b u t i t may w e l l  Harbor  t o be p a r t  of a  crop  out over  named  o f exposures  with  con-  i s turbid,  formed  No  these  he s a i d ,  have  action.  volcanics,  o f t h e San Juan  the Carter  much o f t h e S a n the Eagle  Cliff  occurred  Leech  as  dikes  Island, San  Islands.  Point  were  l a r g e s e r i e s of  on c y p r e s s  "porphyrites" cutting  correlative  glass,  which  the R e i l  themselves,  I s l a n d , and on o t h e r  Island  fragments  by e x p l o s i v e v o l c a n i c  McLellan  The bodies  the rock.  G e o l o g i c a l Work  (1927)  by M c L e l l a n  porphyrite. and  here  euhedral  l a w ) b u t shows e x -  The r o c k  i s indicated,  Previous  considered  (albite  appearing.  directly  devitri-  somewhat i n c o m p o s i t i o n , i s  f o r the glass,  fresh  environment  rocks,  dominates  a n d h a s i n some c a s e s  down a l m o s t  The  The f r e s h  and o c c a s i o n a l fragments  Except  4 2 ) , and  of partially  by g l a s s ,  to vary  30-An  andesites, devitrified  particles,  i s extremely  laid  (An  shards.  concentric zoning.  birefringent  rock  composed  embayed  faintly  andesine  glass  appears  rocks.  depositional been  deeply  or only  ceptionally  i n a matrix  birefringent,  i n part  1%  crystals,  fragments  weakly  quartz, The  quartz  River  On  Cypress  slates  f o r m a t i o n ) , and  of the Fidalgo formation.  McLellan  ad-  mitted would  that  ordinarily  lieved that  the e l l i p s o i d a l  that  they  indicate  they  were  represented  Except  On  Orcas  back taken ilar  place to that  Lummi more  acid  thought  type  of basalt into  h i s examination  Island  must  having  have  been  at Migley  a t Legoe  rapid,  Point.  viously  i n this  report,  andesitic McLellan Point  rather  McLellan  Cliff  the specimens so a l t e r e d  spilitic  made n o m e n t i o n  i n h i s report.  as most  on  to the  they  Porphyrites  were  the rock  here  large  As p o i n t e d lava  feldspar rocks  o n Lummi  i n detail  of pillow  that  Cove  sim-  porphyrites. A l -  a relatively  andesine.  has  suite  said,  he d i d e x a m i n e  a c c u r a t e l y and so t h e s e than  Albitization  He d e s c r i b e d  or intermediate  n o t b e made  of the Turtle-  Bay or S u n r i s e  a semi-andesitic texture with  described  andesites.  by r o c k s  or andesite  of the Eagle  thought  of the dikes.  p o r p h y r i t e and i n p l a c e s  of acid  could  and  associated alteration  diorites  by t h e w r i t e r were  rocks  but be-  p o r p h y r i t e s were  i s considerable.  very  of the rocks  rocks  b a s a l t s and b a s i c  centage  here  flow  portions  The p o r p h y r i t e s belong,  t o grade  outcrop  t o former  flow  are intruded  recognized  though  the  they  the typical  now  were  I s l a n d , these  alteration  Island.  they  as r e s e m b l i n g  with  and t h e t e x t u r e  t h e uppermost  I s l a n d , where  complex,  that  feeders  on Orcas  petrographically  nature  as per-  out precollected  determination  may w e l l  be  o f the rocks a r e .  o f t h e abundant  breccias at Migley  Age  (1927)  McLellan (and or  therefore  early  Cliff turn  Juriassic  porphyrites intrude  River by  group;  Turtleback McLellan  Migley  were  Point  Cliff  Jurassic  that  volcanics  outcrops  together  and have  been  Although  t h e l i t h o l o g y and t h e o u t c r o p  of  outcrops  the rocks  i s intruded  and B l a k e l y  He  of volcanics the R e i l  belonged  (Paleocene) believed  (Vancouver  have Harbor  half  by a l a r g e  Cove  (see p.126). that  fault  Island  volcanics.  features  of the  cutting  If this  across  fault  the volcanics  from  the island  i s present,  at Reil  age and  Harbor  the near  there  rocks  t o prove  i n d i c a t i o n that  i s separated  of  considered  a r e o f t h e same  o f Lummi  they  the rocks  been  on  group).  outcrops  southern  lies  that  of a l l five  i s some  t o the  t h e c o n t a c t at  i t i s impossible  There  i n the  islands.  similar,  position.  possibility  Leech  are very  stratigraphic half  to Mesozoic  formation  isolated  that  Eagle whichin  d e s c r i p t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n ,  called  the  formation  a g e b u t he n o t e d  of the porphyrites.  to the Vancouver  Triassic  batholith included  five  these  to the late  the porphyrites  o f Eocene  Porphyrites  porphyrite  on Orcas  the Chuckanut  the past  Cliff  previously,  Paleozoic  the Eagle  supposed  surface  related  upper  by M c L e l l a n  where  volcanics)  of the Fidalgo  the l a t e  volcanics  In the  from  the Eagle  As noted  cut rocks  complex  eroded  Harbor  period.  however,  first  Metchosin  assigned  the supposed  off-shoots  the  the R e i l  Relations  the  northern Sunrise  i s a  and p o s s i b l y o f  73 those  at Sunrise  rocks  of the other The  is  actual  partially  here  Cove  three  outcrops  lower  contact  obscured;  l i e upon  unconformity.  Sunrise  Cove  mentary  rocks  i s also  graywacke  dips  o f t h e outcrops  faulting contact  formation  of the volcanics shows  of the lavas  istics;  however,  and s t r i k e s  considered  close  that  formation  the tuffaceous as p a r t  angular  imply  formation.  there  with  The  of the was  some  The  upper  the Chuckanut  unconformity.  i n directional  t o those  sedi-  Cove a r e  unconformity.  Point  and  i n the adja-  outcrop  that  sequences  sequence  of the Reil  conformity  and t h e R e i l  extremely  tiere,  of chert  Point  angular  The  character-  i n the volcanics  i n t h e Chuckanut  show  for-  Harbor  dissimilarity  o f Lummi P o i n t  volcanics  a t Lummi  between  f r e s h appearance  and t h e i r  north  Harbor  t h e same a g e a s t h e v o l c a n i c s  said  the  very  noticeable  and a t S u n r i s e  or s l i g h t  chert  lavas  at the contact. If  of  ribbon  the pillow  t o those  of the closest  a r e poor  Harbor,  of the volcanics at  correspond  Harbor  Island.  at Reil  without  contact  at Migley  here  that  but the s t r i k e  no s i g n i f i c a n t  o n Lummi  of the volcanics  formation  w h i c h may  formation  pillows  mation  those  the volcanic  t o the north  of the Carter  at Reil  than  between  formation  dips  obscured  with  i t appears  The lower  and s h a l e  steeper  Point  Point  i n the breccias  cent  Carter  however,  the Carter  angular  somewhat  are not correlative  Point,  was  of the v i t r i c with  sequence  other  certain.  be  Chuckanut However,  and c r y s t a l  rocks  or  i t could  the overlying  volcanics  was  o n Lummi  tuffs Island  leads the  one t o b e l i e v e  underlying  deposition  is  just  siltstones examined  they  lavas  are quite  a n d may  action  even  i n the Cretaceous  early  and the p i l l o w  the tuffs  but the pillows  of the Reil  to s t r i k e conformably  b y D r . W.R. there  below  for-  lavas  Harbor  volcanics  the Chuckanut  radiolarian tests of the volcanics  Danner.  were  evidence  Island  were  The o n l y  quite  a  while  limestone  accumulating  subsequently  presented  deposited  and p r o b a b l y ,  location,  were  or  between  and a r g i l l i t e s  The  one  subaerial  o f the Chuckanut  and  albitized  were  he  could  tests  which  that  the volcanics  and b r e c c i a s  lavas  were  precipitated Some  16)  information  indicates  pillow  elsewhere.  (figure  tuffaceous  genera.  as f l o w s  was  i n the  few c o n e - s h a p e d  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f some M e s o z o i c  floor,  represent  than  to the deposition  recrystallized  i s that  Lummi  a b i t younger  tuffs.  The  are  here,  appear  conformable  give  prior  The c o n t a c t  submerged  nearby  pillow  and v o l c a n i c  Paleocene mation.  that  on t h e s e a  being  extruded at  or breccia  deposits  of the volcanics  and a l l were  highly  on  were  chloritized  and  epidotized. Whether volcanics brought  a l l of the volcanics  of the southern  t o the surface  (McLellan,  1927),  is  question  another  detailed  mapping  here  or possibly  or of the northern  by t h e E a g l e  and s h o u l d w h i c h may  Cliff  be i n c l u d e d possibly  i n the San Juan  Island  outcrops  porphyrite with  this  be a n s w e r e d group.  only  the  were dikes  formation by  further  Structural re-  lations the  and r a d i o l a r i a n  rocks  are probably  tests  o n Lummi  Mesozoic  Island  indicate  that  i n age.  CHUCKANUT  FORMATION  General  Arkosic, of  t h e Chuckanut  northern along  third  formation  o f Lummi  the shores,  dominantly of  plant-bearing  fluviatile  form  of conglomerate, These  most  Island.  but poor,  the i n t e r i o r .  sandstones  partially  rocks  (1923), At  of this  and S k a g i t as p a r t  Washington.  found  exposures,  knolls  and  ridges  a r e b e l i e v e d t o be c o n t i n e n t a l  formation,  L a t e r w o r k was  the present  (1927)  time  Group done  Work  exposed  c o u n t i e s , were  o f the Puget  McLellan  first  described  o f t h e Eocene  College  of Education  the  assemblage  of western by W h i t e  of western  (1902),  Jenkins  and Weaver  (1937).  by Shedd  (1935),  Glover  i n parts  g e o l o g i s t s and p a l e o b o t a n i s t s  Washington floral  are  origin.  Rocks  (1888)  of the  exposures  drift-free  the high  Previous  Whatcom  conglomerates  of the bedrock  The best  form  and  i n Bellingham  at Western  are studying  and s t r a t i g r a p h y o f t h e Chuckanut  formation. McLellan  (1927)  first  described  these  rocks  as  they  76 occur  on  fossils was  Lummi were  well  I s l a n d and  identical  exposed  Highway. subsequent  of  of  this  and  11,272  the  complete  foot  from and  the a  section  shaly  base  considerable  portion  is  grained  sandstone  of  grayish-brown  of  conglomerate  sequence which  are  are In  the  rocks  sandy of  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  thin  most the of  alternating  common area  the  pre-Cretaceous,  but  Pacific  formation,  and  30$  of  shale  with  the  Bellingham,  and  described the  most sandstone  by  massive  shale.  o f medium-  of  subordinate contains  upward  of  the  middle  and  massive  amounts  thick  of  lens  in  this  coal  section.  excluding  rest  a  leaves  The  Included beds  shore  between  containing f o s s i l  part  formation  the  thickness  part  schists  as  sandstone."  upper  on  79)  above  carbonaceous  upper  stratigraphic  predominantly  i n the  graphitic  the  p.  important  Chuckanut  which  Lake Whatcom  economically  around  Group  drive  alternations  The  Puget  Drive,  (1937,  intercalations  shale.  of  followed  About  quantity  with  side  portion of  of  plant  measured  Chuckanut  intercalcations  consists  ehuckanut  Weaver  sandstone.  and  on  Chuckanut  west  along  Drive  (1937)  along  the  lithology  same.  Weaver  lower  their  of White's  the  the  Louise.  "the  coarse-grained  done  along  Lake  those  them  and  that  Chuckanut  formation  and  with:  containing  called  (1935)  S a m i s h Bay,  S o u t h Bay  the  w r i t e r s have  Glover sections  with  along  McLellan  found  Lummi  unconformably  phyllites.  Island, on  77 General  On Lummi overlies canics,  Stratigraphy  Island  pillows  lavas  the Chuckanut and b r e c c i a s  and a t one p o i n t  sandstones  appear  to  of volcanic  40 f e e t  mentioned  where  the Chuckanut  tuffs  formation  i s seen  (figure  18).  19  section  measured  the  19.  Harbor  stable  that  conditions  Contrary  material  while  unstable  compared  conglomerate  and t h a t  i t was  pebbles  deposition  was  equal  o f the Chuckanut  seaward  amounts formation  noticeable  stratigraphic tide  mark.  i n  at low t i d e  out, leaving  where  arkosic  surface  of the Reil  be e x p e c t e d ,  very  be i d e n t i f i e d  i n the  a t the base.  This  deposited  and  The  of the volcanics  deposited  going  30  Point  i s represented  or cobbles  t o the quartz  Approximately sandstone  could  s e c t i o n was  at Migley  at the high  might  the  by  correlation.  the eroded  t o what  volcanics  pebble  residual volcanic  to lens  overlying  the basal  seen  vol-  volcanics  the short  c a n be t r a c e d  Harbor  t o l i e without  conglomerate  i s observed  of these  and c h e r t  contact  of basal  immediately  volcanics.  suggest  these  surface  illustrates  at t h i s  the contact  pebbles  quartz  The  feet  conglomerate  sandstone  few  Figure  disconformably  of the island,  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s well-exposed  on t h e e r o d e d  Figure  side  of uncertain  unconformity  25  formation  from  angular  Although  Island  of the Reil  on t h e east  t o be s e p a r a t e d  first  - Lummi  under fairly  were  relatively slowly.  ground  on, and were  would  to  fine  relatively  chert. of pebble a r e found  conglomerate and o n Lummi  Island.  F i g u r e 18. V i e w l o o k i n g S E a t M i g l e y P o i n t showing conglomerate o f the Chuckanut f o r m a t i o n (Lower T e r t i a r y ) l y i n g upon the eroded s u r f a c e o f p i l l o w lavas of the R e i l Harbor volcanics. S t r i k e and d i p o f t h e C h u c k a n u t f o r m a t i o n h e r e i s N 50 V/ 55SW. T h e s t r i k e a n d d i p o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g v o l c a n i c s a p p e a r s t o be w i t h i n a few d e g r e e s o f t h e s e v a l u e s . May 1958  79  1 0 o Sandstone, a r k o s i c , b u f f ; coarse t o medium g r a i n e d . 67 66  E H  9 . Sandstone, a r k o s i c , pebbly; subrounded  chert pebbles.  8. Sandstone, a r k o s i c , r u s t y ; few p e b b l e s .  7 o Sandstone, a r k o s i c , pebbly, g r a y - b u f f ; c a l c i t e cement, 6  0  Sandstone, a r k o s i c , pebbly; pebbles l e s s than £in.  5o Sandstone, a r k o s i c , g r a d i n g t o pebble conglomerate. 2  o 39  H  36 <  4 o Sandstone, a r k o s i c , g r a y - b u f f ; s t r e a k e d w i t h biotite. 3 o Sandstone, a r k o s i c , pebbly, b u f f ; pebbles £in. i n diameter and w e l l rounded.  0- 0 Co o o <p  o 0  3  o 0 e>  < 25  e o oo O O O o o o O © *  0  o 3 X O  |o o O © ° O o  O  *  O ©  •  •> © o  O  OO  O  o  O  eo  1 . Conglomerate pebble, l o o s e l y packed, massive; medium g r a i n e d sandstone m a t r i x , p e b b l e s w e l l rounded, dominatly o f c h e r t , j a s p e r , and q u a r t z ; break i n conglomerate where t h e r e i s a t h i n l e n s o f gray s i l t s t o n e with t h i n c h i p s o f gray s h a l e . r  [© a© * • k  2. Sandstone, a r k o s i c , gfayljfcp b u f f ; c o n t a i n s t h i n conglomerate l a y e r s every one t o two f e e t .  o  * °  o oO O o o e o o O © « O A oO O O A  o # *»  0 o> o e d  0  O k " <7 A 1/VAyVV  RE IL HARBOR V OLCAWGS  F i g u r e 1 9 o Short s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n o f the Chuckanut f o r m a t i o n at i t s base on Lummi Island,,  Characteristically, layers  (figure  20).  the conglomerate Neither  t h e beds  beds  of sandstone  c a n be t r a c e d  lens  out or grade  into  facies.  Here,  apparent  large-scale  the Chuckanut  cut-  and f i l l - s t r u c t u r e s ,  the  conglomerate  structures.  average  layer  resistant nor the  any d i s t a n c e before  coarser  or f i n e r  also  litho-  a s i t i s n o t uncommon  cross-bedding, thickness  nearly three  fine  and o t h e r  i s also  feet  they  d i s p l a y s an  i n contact with  Bedding  being  the  of conglomerate  formation  heterogeneity  the coarse  contact  over  distinctly  find  forms  to  sandstone types  highly  i n  of  variable  thick.  LITHOLOGY  Conglomerate Conglomerate almost They in  half  form  beds  o f the Chuckanut  formation  of the outcrop  of the formation  o n Lummi  most  outcrops  and  units  of the h i l l s  along  the shore,  of varying The  conglomerate  are greater  color  i s a r u s t y brown red to black  than  however,  granules.  The pebbles  developed  occur  end o f t h e i s l a n d as r e s i s t a n t  i s g e n e r a l l y massive thirty  feet  although  to white.  glomerate;  approach  they  Island. and  lenses  width.  units  from  on t h e n o r t h  form  i n thickness.  the pebbles  vary  a r e subrounded  an e q u i d i m e n s i o n a l and i s u n r e l i a b l e  shape.  from  The  overall  a pebble  vary con-  large cobbles  to wellrounded  Imbrication  as a d i r e c t i o n a l  o f the  themselves  I t i s dominantly  the particles  a n d some  and  i s poorly  criterion.  to  81 Rough pebble collections scope. type  An  counts  of pebbles estimate  w e r e made  were  examined  of the relative  i n the conglomerate  at Fern  i n the f i e l d , under  a binocular  amounts  Point  o f each  somewhat to  between  approach  cropping  many  abundant Point.  units,  black  b u t t h e above  or green  dominantly  types  43$ 23$ 19$ 5$ 5$ 3$ 2$ represented  percentages  composition  chert  vary  would  seem  o f the comglomerates  and t h e g r a n i t i c  pebbles.  Pebbles  as f o r example  The v o l c a n i c s , a r e dark  pebble  Island.  of the larger locally,  altered,  or p a r t i c l e  the approximate  o u t o n Lummi The  form  compositions  micro-  shows:  C h e r t , Q u a r t z i t e , and J a s p e r Volcanics G r a n i t i c r o c k s and G n e i s s e s Quartz Arkose Graywacke and S i l t s t o n e A r g i l l i t e , S l a t e and P h y l l i t e The  and random  which  green  of andesitic  particles  of jasper are  at the basal  contact  are generally quite  t o grey  i n color,  or d a c i t i c  highly  and appear  composition.  at Migley  One  t o be specimen  i of  conglomerate  of  dacites,  t i d e s  examined  a n d e s i t e s , and q u a r t z  are highly  particles amounts  i n thin-section-revealed  have  sericitized  been  replaced  to greater than  granitic  types  appear  examined  In thin-section  40$  latites.  A l l of these p a r -  or c h l o r i t i z e d . so t h a t  were  quartz  A number  the secondary  of the particle.  t o c o n t a i n much  particles  quartz, diorites,  Many  of  chlorite of the  and those quartz  few  monzon-  82 ites,  and  pebbles other and of the  diorites.  i s not  pebbles  the  excessive contain  finer  quartz.  arkosic  metamorphic  also  from  to  show  do  few  veins,  quartzite.  sandstone  A  material  a  not  and  pebbles  the extent,  increasing  amounts  that  t o be  some  many  finer  graywacke  appear  of  great  and  The  quartz  most  examination revealed  of  rocks  examined.  sizes  derived  boundaries  more  outcrops  are  of actual  conglomerate,  quartz-vein  Thin-section  interlocking  grade  i n the  conglomerate  quartz pebbles  contains  A l t h o u g h t h e number  of  show  the  fraction  also  particles.  numerous  of serpentine  in  were  Lowthe  seen  in  thin-section. The stage The  to a  matrix  Chuckanut  conglomerate  laced  genic  of about  is similar  the  with  are  The  of  floating  observed  it  i s assumed or  in a that  and  pebbles  grained  pebbles  of  the  the  was  In  sandy  30$ of  sand.  the  appear  to  fractured traces  be  pebbles  of  autho-  one-thin-section  conglomerate  crystalline  cement  rocks  Occasional  of  and  often  i n the matrix.  coarsely the  70$  many  calcite.  t h e m a t r i x and  be  finer  a very dilute,  conglomerates  calcite,  with veins  to  burial  to  formation.  silica  examined  from  concentration  well-cemented are  varies  calcite  precipitated  appeared  cement,  prior  to  and deep  compaction.  Sandstone The Island of  this  finer  consist  facies  of  the  Chuckanut  of sandstone  and  siltstone.  formation crops  out  on  Lummi  f o r m a t i o n on  Island.  No  shale  Lummi  facies  Although  there  are olive-gray s i l t s t o n e units here, they are not numerous. In general, the sandstone i s of medium grade, with grains between } 50mm and .25 mm i n diameter, and i s a rusty brown to grey color.  According to the standard rock color chart  (Geological Society of America), the color ranges from dusky yellow (5y6/4) to l i g h t olive-gray (5y5/2). A size analysis of a t y p i c a l sandstone was made using U.S. Standard screens #20 through #270, and a cumulative frequency curve was plotted (figure 21).  According to Trask  (1932), a c o e f f i c i e n t of sorting (So) of less than 2.5 i n dicates a well-sorted sediment.  This value appeared  to be  high as noted by Pettijohn (1949), and also according to Krunbein and T i s d e l (1940, after Leroy 1955) who gave 1.45 as the average.  In the sample considered here the figure was  1.36 which indicates that i t i s certainly moderately w e l l sorted.  A skewness of 0.B6 indicates that coarser sizes pre-  dominate i n the sample plotted.  The sandstones are true  arenites according to Williams, Turner, and Gilbert (1955) as they are clean and contain no s i g n i f i c a n t d e t r i t a l clay-sized matrix.  The average p a r t i c l e appears to be subangular shaped,  although the chert and rock fragments present are generally more rounded, and the quartz i s often more angular than the average.  Numerically, the sphericity averages 0.4-0.6 ( P e t t i -  John, 1949). A number of t y p i c a l hand specimens and nine representative thin-sections were examined.  Although there i s con-  DIAMETER  IN  MM  Median  —  First  Quartile-  Third  Quartile  Sorting Skewness  -  -  Coefficient  -  53 67  -  - —.36 1.36 .86  Figure 21. Cumulative frequency curve of a t y p i c a l specimen of sandstone of the Chuckanut formation on Lummi Island,  Tor  MDj  IQI  siderable specimen  variation contains  i n composition  quartz,  potassium-feldspar, morphic  rock  fragments  low-grade  schists.  particles  of siltstone  Many duced  Many  cataclastic in  some  These  rows  Much  of the quartz  the  clear,  appear  a  seen  i n aggregates  Many  were  under  chert  pores  i s seen  produced  extent.  origin  present  with  of vein i n other  i n many  transversed the i n the parent setting.  interlocking origin  i n some  cases.  b u t n o t common.  the binocular microscope  Secondary Much o f  was  of the  variety. particles than  present  the rest  a r e g e n e r a l l y c o a r s e r and of the grains  a r e c u t by secondary  t o be p a r t i a l l y  chalcedony  small  of  i s pronounced  of stress  apparently  pro-  and o f t e n wedge-  the beginnings  fluid  and  23).  t o be c h i p s  extinction  and i s a p p a r e n t l y  b e t t e r rounded  specimen.  men,  were  occurs  of quartz  transparent The  often  Undulatory  and i s o f metamorphic  quartz  show  meta-  and o c c a s i o n a l  i t s e r o s i o n and d e p o s i t i o n i n i t s p r e s e n t  boundaries,  overgrowths  appear  and  phyllite,  (figure  are quite angular  of secondary  effects  before  cases,  present  particles  also  average  low-grade  slate,  fragments  g r a i n s , and t h e e f f e c t  rock  grain  also  grains  breakdown.  where  grains.  were  as they  fragments,  rock  the  chert, plagioclase-  as a r g i l l i t e ,  Granitic  quartz  quartz  particles  such  of the quartz  by c r u s h i n g  shaped.  quartzite,  volcanic rock  22),  (figure  quartz  recrystallized.  or chert  has been  veins  i n a and  In at least  precipitated  as a  given also  one  speci-  cement  to  36  QUARTZ  FELDSPAR  QUARTZITE  CHERT  ROCK  FRAGMENTS MICA  Figure 22. Mineral composition, Chuckanut formation, sandstone.  «7  F i g u r e 23. Petrography o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Chuckanut f o r m a t i o n , sandstone.  samples  of  the  Slides with  of  the  hydrofluoric  cobaltinitrite.  sandstone  acid, The  and  particles  sections  The  mainly  orthoclase with  composition oligoclase albite, but  and  pericline  are  the  many of  a  few  of  was are as  only  to  often  difficult  ation  and  such to  three  to  the  one  in  an  Wormy  extent  i s not  cloudy  i n the as  one  of  Being  As  nature  of  third  rule,  the  and  quartz  but  of  the  suggesting of  quartz  also  fractured  often  the  show  feldspars  sericitized individual  feldspar. common  The  Carlsbad,  twinned,  bent  being  that  are  replacement-perthite  the a  the  plagioclase,  intergrowths  particles  as  present  determined.  partially  slides.  identify  the  seen much  alteration,  decomposition  w r i t e r by  also  f e l d s p a r s and  hydrothermal  saussuritized  the  albite  or  amounts  predepositional stress.  show h i g h  of  outnumber  i s g e n e r a l l y andesine,  origin.  i n s t a n c e s , the  ratio  to  of m i c r o c l i n e .  sometimes  number  seen  sodium  only minor  i s untwinned  in a  stained with  etched  types  twinning  o r t h o c l a s e and  noted  signs  to  that  was  w e r e made a n d  potassium-feldspar  some r a r e  i t i s noted  were  in a  plagioclase  p o s s i b l e metamorphic  in  in  the  and  plagioclase a  of  then  plagioclase  potassium-feldspar studied.  particles  and grains  Argillaceous  although some  of  i t was the  are  alterevidenced  feldspar  grains. Often quartz,  the  c h e r t , and  particles. chlorite,  In and  most the  common  identifiable  f e l d s p a r s are  the  particles  after  volcanic-greenstone  almost  every  case  they  are  i n some  cases  more  than  half  highly altered of  the  to  particle  is  89 covered are is  with  so f i n e  a single grained  difficult, In  particles appeared  but those  some  t o be o f t h e p e l i t i c  flakes.  In addition  case,  greenschist facies.  mica,  chlorite,  Chlorite  common.  It i s likely  intergrown  Particles  that  quantity.  was  sections  studied, possibly  these  were In  uents out  i n layers  covite  rock  i s also  present  probably  i n these  of  schists are  enclosing graphite  flakes i s  observed  a r e o f metamorphic  origin  with  i n three  indicating of high  rocks  i n some clear  with also.  are not too  o f t h e specimens quartz and  or four  either  iron  fragments,  schists,  and d i o r i t i c  of the  a granitic  parent  rank.  particles  were  one o f t h e most  are long  10 t o 20 mm  chlorite,  graphite or  also  i n any o f t h e specimens  units,  o f the sandstone  muscovite,  and p h y l l i t e  Myrmekite  of siltstone  specific  o f them  of the particles  as a p a r t i c l e  not abundant  Most  opaque  t o be p r e s e n t  feldspar  number  some  and q u a r t z  o r a metamorphic  and e l o n g a t e d  g r a p h i t e , f e l d s p a r , and  studied  A  dusty,  type  andesitic.  epidote,  of granitic  found  with  were  shown  observed  rock  with  common.  of rock  Minerals  common b u t w e r e i n good  type  pokiolitically  feldspar  by t h e w r i t e r  o f low-grade  calcite,  quartz.  determination  were  to the slate  are often particles  Generally, the particles  s t u d i e d , rounded  and p h y l l i t e  and i n every  the  that  determined  of the slides  of slate  flake.  and c l o u d y  quartz,  there  chlorite  biotite  observed  studied.  important  flakes,  but  often  constitlaid  apart, p a r a l l e l t o the bedding.  b u t n o t n e a r l y s o numerous  as t h e  Mus-  biotite. biotite  I n one l o c a l i t y forms  adjacent  The  mentioned  above  Other  serpentine,  e p i d o t e , and m i c r o p e r t h i t e ,  minor  amounts.  disintegrated sandstone  important rock  sandstone  amounts  specimens, o f some  observed  and m i n e r a l g r a i n s  particles  containing  composed  i n this  of  several  garnets, The  were  red hematite,  of earthy  i n only  limonite.  separation  specular hematite  olivine  i n the coarser  transparent pink a n d some  of the  augite,  made  revealed  coated with  wholly  The  most  are present  separation,  of magnetite,  particles  precipitate  as h o r n b l e n d e ,  A magnetic  the presence  negligible  such  island,  long.  constitute  sandstone.  very  minerals  of the  1 3 $ biotite.  c o n t a i n s about  particles  side  and 3 f e e t  o f *jr i n c h w i d t h  a lens  sandstone  on t h e e a s t  flakes,  a  most  numerous white  and  some  hematite.  Diagenesis The units  with  i n these  overgrowth ence  and c e m e n t a t i o n  i n the sandstones.  compaction Noted  packing  sheared tightly  Many  friable  grains.  In other  at grain units,  w i t h no o r n e g l i g i b l e  resulting  i n a highly  Approximately  porous  between  show a l a r g e  different amount  q u a r t z , and wavy  sandstones  o f q u a r t z , a n d , t o some  of pressure solution  feldspar  units  feldspars, packed  varies  was  some  of  biotite.  secondary  extent, the apparent  occurr  c o n t a c t s i n the q u a r t z and the sandstones  cement  and l i t t l e  and permeable  are extremely compaction,  sandstone.  one q u a r t e r o f t h e s a n d s t o n e s  and  almost  all  the  with  conglomerates  finely  packed, ently cite  granular  and  i n one  wedged  biotite stones  or are  appears  to  very be  to  plant  along  lines  be  thin, most  a l l of  quite  sandstones was  wavy  are  seen  have  where  the  sand-  calcite  rock  replaced along  Cal-  areas  the  and  appar-  sheets.  Where  calcite,  mineral  tightly  to  i n those  i s abundant.  the  well-cemented  biotite  common  with  i s being  fluid  are  calcite  cemented  which of  Some  material  replacing  quartz  Island  the  between  firmly  including the  section,  seems  fossil  Lummi  calcite.  i t s way  cementation  on  particles,  fractures  and  pores.  Sedimentary  Structures  i s the  obvious  Cross-bedding Cross-bedding the  Chuckanut  proper  formation  statistical  to  vary  cross-bedding biotite-rich  planes layers,  layers.  showed  an  change  direction  It  unstable  that  themselves by  several these  24  shows  to  Time the  however,  three are  times  within  cross-beds but a  the  on  typical  or  often  direction  as  dips  25  foot  Lummi  dominant  units  well-outlined  the  a  inclin-  in thickness.  often  variability  and  dip  i s not  The by  by  thin  dip  appeared  Island  cross-bedded  of  long  of  permit  cross-bedded  feet  of  structure  d i d not  scale  claystone inclusions,  extreme  c u r r e n t system Figure  and  as  Rough measurements  apparent  is likely  one  internal  Island.  variability;  between  pebble  Lummi  determinations  ational-directional appear  on  most  to  unit.  indicate  an  known.  sandstone  unit  F i g u r e 20. View of the Chuckanut f o r mation (lowar T e r t i a r y ) exposed at Fern Point showing more r e s i s t a n t beds of conglomerate, and l e s s r e s i s t a n t sandstone d i p p i n g s t e e p l y northeast. View l o o k i n g SE, . May 1958.  93 on  Lummi  Island.  These  "tops"  i n near-vertical  Graded  Bedding Graded  bedding  of  the Chuckanut  in  some  dilute, finer  the best  sandy  (1957)  i s shown i n many  units  graded  points  a r e earmarks  facies,  respectively.  t h e mean  but the s o r t i n g  typical  turbidity  size  would  of deposition currents  and i s o f t e n  here  to a better  sorted  graded  bedding  i t would  sorted,  and  does  current  sedimentation  occur  be normal  with  t o expect  would  decrease  constant.  This  latter  currents  rather  than  by waning  of  sandstone.  bedding  of the p a r t i c l e remain  found  i s shown b y u n i t s  and s h a l l o w water  here,  units  cross-bedding i s found.  g r a d i n g upward  I f graded  grading  is  bedding  o f a deep  as i t does  ward  i n which  out that  cross-bedding where  i n identifying  of the coarser  Island,  or t o a moderately  bedding  useful  beds.  conglomerate  conglomerate  Pettijohn  often  f o r m a t i o n o n Lummi  of the thicker  Generally,  beds were  a up-  type by  1957).  (PettiJohn,  Concretions Differential by  i n F i g u r e 25.  illustrated  found  ential The  due t o d i f f e r e n t i a l  c a l c i t e - c e m e n t e d c o n c r e t i o n s has produced  pattern are  weathering  throughout  cementation  bedding  i s seen  Concretions  the sandstone,  of calcite t o pass  the  around  straight  spine-like  such  and a r e formed  resistance  as by  these differ-  carbonaceous  detritus.  through  of these  some  F i g u r e 24. View N. showing cross-bedded sandstone of the Chuckanut formation (Lower T e r t i a r y ) . Fern P o i n t , October 1958.  F i g u r e 25. View SW of s p i n e - l i k e p a t t e r n i n sandstone of the Chuckanut f o r mation produced by r e s i s t a n t c a l c i t e c o n c r e t i o n s . NE s i d e of Lummi I s l a n d , 1/2 mile south of Migley P o i n t , May 1958.  concretions, are  thus  a  post-depositional  origin;  others  structureless.  Intraformational Near sandstone zones. silty In  cases  slow  stream  clay  was of  swept  The the  On and  some  of which or  wet  stream  stream  mud  are  of of  a  masses  and  clays  a  breccia  bluish  conglomerate. similar  s i l t -  during periods  lake  of  formation,  volume  were  coarser  narrow of  or  that  increased  these  the  found  s h a l e or  damming  with  of  sandstone  sturdy, plastic  east  side  occur  i n the  are  two  of  1950,  or  broken  pieces of  channel  sediments.  to  was be At  Island,  large  coarse  steepenup  clay  They  sandstone  are Here,  dislodged  and  remained  they from  first,  the  are a  structures,  masses  beds.  These  t o be  "mud  grey masses,  thought  c l i f f  and  of  t h e mud  spher-  balls" to  be  formed  rolled  subsequently with  center  of  are weathering  believed  incorporated  channel  spherical  i n diameter,  593).  p.  which  Lummi  and  feet  exfoliating.  (Twenhofel,  or  gradient,  fill-structures,  shale  beds  i t i s believed  Later,  more  number  breccia.  the  silty  from  and  a  lensoid  trace  transportation  away.  Balls  ically  i s no  beneath;  stream  Mud  of t h i c k ,  coarse matrix  there  the  formed  contacts of  conglomerate  deposited.  and  cut-  lower  consist  in a  layer  Breccias  pebble  These  most  ing  the  or  shale  stone  a  indicating  into  the  ball  was  impervious to water but, l a t e r , water entered after l i t h i f i c a t i o n , and expanded, compelling cracking of the outside layers into spherical chips. Carbonaceous Deposits of Lummi Island Two very small carbonaceous deposits worthy of d i f f e r entiation and description occur i n the Chuckanut formation on Lummi Island.  The f i r s t deposit  consists of well-rounded coal  p a r t i c l e s found i n a black micaceous lens (figure 26) on the northeast side of the i s l a n d .  The second deposit  comprises  c o a l i f i e d leaves and woody debris found i n great abundance i n the sandstones at Fern Point.  The l a t t e r appear as though they  had been predominantly c o a l i f i e d a f t e r deposition i n t h i s l o cation. The black, disc-shaped lenses containing  the rounded  coal fragments of the f i r s t category are one inch thick and approximately two feet i n diameter.  In addition to the coal,  they are composed of: over 65% b i o t i t e ; lesser but equal amounts of quartz, chert, and sodic plagioclase with minor microcline; quartzite; volcanic and metamorphic rock f r a g ments (figure 2 7 ) .  The surrounding cross-bedded sandstone,  a feldspathic arenite (Williams, Turner, G i l b e r t , 1955) contains a few scattered p a r t i c l e s of coal. Examined i n d e t a i l , the coal p a r t i c l e s appear to be approximately semibituminous to subanthracite  i n rank.  Some  large < c e l l u l a r particules examined i n thin-section resembled  F i g u r e 26. Hand specimen of b l a c k micaceous sandstone lens found i n the Chuckanut formation (Lower T e r t i a r y ) on the NE s i d e of Lummi I s l a n d . Cont a i n s small p a r t i c l e s of c o a l .  F i g u r e 27. Photomicrograph of the micaceous sandstone shown above ( f i g ure 25). C o a l fragment (A) s u r r ounded by wavy f l a k e s of b i o t i t e (B) and f e l d s p a r ( C ) . O r d i n a r y l i g h t , X24.  98 opaque a t t r i t u s , but several t h i n spots revealed the uniform red-brown of t y p i c a l c o a l i f i e d wood, anthrazylon.  Other f r a g -  ments were of opaque a t t r i t u s , consisting of pyrite and fussain, and translucent a t t r i t u s with leaf fragments, wood, some c u t i c l e t i s s u e , and at least one pollen grain. There are two possible explanations this deposit.  for the formation  of  F i r s t , the fragments could have been derived  from the erosion of former coal deposits and redeposited  here.  By the second method, plant remains dropped into the water with mica were l a t e r metamorphosed to c o a l i f y the plant fragments. The second method i s the more probable answer since the coal p a r t i c l e s are so f r i a b l e that even short transportation i s unl i k e l y , and also, since most of the other woody material apparently  c o a l i f i e d i n place.  was  Probably woody fragments and  b i o t i t e were carried from a nearby source to a quiet, shallow r i v e r pool where the two s e t t l e d to the bottom and were rapidly buried.  As evidenced by the weaving of the b i o t i t e around  the sand grains, subsequent compaction with deep b u r i a l and metamorphism produced this coaly lens as found today. The more obvious c o a l i f i e d fragments (second category) are found dominantly on Fern Point where they are with the sandstones and conglomerates.  interbedded  Here are found:  numerous small lenses of shiny coal, probably actual c o a l i f i e d leaves lying p a r a l l e l to the bedding; c o a l i f i e d pieces of wood (figure 29)  some s t i l l showing tree ring structure when  cross-sectioned; a few whole c o a l i f i e d logs, often f i l l e d with  99  F i g u r e 28. C o a l i f i e d wood f r a g m e n t interbedded w i t h sandstone of the C h u c k a n u t f o r m a t i o n (Lower T e r t i a r y ) , at F e r n P o i n t . The f r a g m e n t i s s u r r o u n d e d by a n a r r o w s h e l l o f v e r y limy sandstone (white). May, 1958.  F i g u r e 29. I r r e g u l a r mass o f c o a l i f i e d vegetal material with r a d i a t i n g s t r i n gers, o c c u r r i n g i n sandstone of t h e Chuckanut f o r m a t i o n (Lower T e r t i a r y ) . Fern P o i n t , October 1958.  100  limy siltstone or clay; and also, shapeless masses of coalified vegetal material sending out stringers for three or four feet in every direction (figure 2 9 ) . Much of the coalified wood is apparently banded with alternating shiny bands (vitrain) and dull bands (durain). Most of this banding or stratification appears to be i n t r i n s i c , and probably iias resulted from differential coalification of annual rings or woodrays. on as follows:'^  One specimen examined was reported  "The petrological types represented are  anthraxylon and translucent attritus, approximately  50-50.  However, the attritus appears to be a degradation product of woody cells lying between anthraxylon lenses."  It is  possible  that some of the logs had been acted on by bacteria and coalified slightly before finally coming to rest in their present setting.  Microscopic examination of a few specimens showing  flattened tree rings and a general woody make-up revealed opaque strands of coalified material (figure 3 0 ) . These strands appear to represent intruded humic materials and are not intrinsic in the wood.  They probably resulted from i n f i l -  tration of and subsequent solidification of organic solutions with fissures and cracks of the wood. A l l of the coal when tested with cold HCL effervesced to some extent, and one hard specimen observed in thin-section  5  Personal communication, Dr. G.E. Rouse.  101  showed a compressed c e l l structure in which each c e l l was f i l l e d with finely crystalline calcite.  The presence of lime  solutions in and around the coal after i t s deposition apparently was general as concretion-like, calcite-cemented knobs of sand and siltstone hold fragments of coalified matter, and many stretched-out, coalified wood fragments are surrounded by calcite-cemented sandstone or limy siltstone (figure 28). The rank of a l l of this coalified matter appears to be sub-subituminous  on the basis of hand specimen character-  istics. No evidence of animal or plant microfossils was found with which to date the wood, but examination of sections of one specimen revealed structures, indicating a f a i r l y close relationship to the modern conifer genera Pinus, Larix, or Picea. Because sufficient detail i s not present for a f f i l i a t i n g the coalified wood to any of these modern genera, i t would be more accurate to a f f i l i a t e the wood taxonomically with either the f o s s i l genera Piceoxylon Gothan or Pithyoxylon Kraus. Most of the wood material was probably deposited inv.a river and carried to this area.  As decaying leaves and wood  became waterlogged and soft, they sank to the bottom where they were interbedded with sands and gravels or rolled about collecting much coarse sand and then were covered over.  One  exception to this general case occurs at Fern Point where a coalified log lies at a high angle to the obvious s t r a t i f i cation of the sandstone, (figure 31).  The undisturbed nature  F i g u r e 30. P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h o f a t a n g e n t i a l s e c t i o n from a specimen of c o a l i f i e d wood f r o m t h e C h u c k a n u t form a t i o n (Lower T e r t i a r y ) , showing opaque s t r a n d s o f c o a l i f i e d material ( A ) , l e n t i c u l a r wood r a y c e l l s (B) and a g e n e r a l compressed c e l l s t r u cture. Specimen from F e r n P o i n t . Ordinary l i g h t , X64.  103 of  the adjacent  stuck and  almost  some  feet,  there  intensified  and  loose  and c o n c r e t i o n s  distributed Chuckanut  of considerable  beds  underlying  the c i t y  However, small,  portance pect hopes  p i t that  was  of finding  probably  logs  Soft  logs  lenticular  were  by c a l c i t e  flattened with  i n many  l a y e r s , and l e n s e s , i s t h e whole  Washington some  part.  thickness  (Glover,  of which  at several One  places  have  of the  1935). been o f  i n the  o f t h e more  series,  important  t h i c k , and i s i n t h e s y n c l i n e  Bellingham.  a l l of the coal  as sources  were  or contemporaneously  replaced  was  o f t h e o v e r b u r d e n and  out i n t o  thin  occur  as mentioned  area  l o g i n the sediment.  squeezed  thickness,  of  i n this  folding.  throughout  i s 14 f e e t  the  formed.  i n the upper  commercial  sand  log i s nearly s i x  tight  time  i n western  importance,  dominantly  very  were  i n fragments,  formation  commercial  was  Since  processes  the sturdy  at this  irregularly  this  pressure  were  the cellulose  Coal,  but  Either  i t .  deposition  coalification  material  apparently-  medium t o c o a r s e  around  to preserve  and s t r i n g e r s , and even  deposition,  Beds  that  the v e r t i c a l  watery  t h e l o g was  while  o f the r e l a t i v e l y  stretched.  cases,  i n order  with  compression  and  that  by t h e c o a l i f i e d  evidence  o f t h e wood,  the  shapes  i n the s i l t  crossed  i s good rapid  burial  indicates  l a y e r s were w a t e r l a i n  thickness  relatively Upon  upright  silt  vertical  bedding  before,  of coal.  dug i n s h o r e  deposits  o n Lummi  and a r e o f no  Local from  residents these  a n economic .source,  Island are  economic tell  coalified  of a  impros-  logs i n  b u t n o c o a l was  found.  F i g u r e 3 1 . View NE, showing a c o a l i f ied l o g (A) c u t t i n g across beds o f the Chuckanut formation (Lower T e r t i a r y ) which s t r i k e NW (lov/er l e f t to upper r i g h t ) and d i p s t e e p l y NE. Fern P o i n t , October, 1 9 5 8 .  »  F i g u r e 3 2 . View SW showing g l a c i a l grooves and p o l i s h e d surfaces i n the R e i l Harbor v o l c a n i c s (age unknown) at Legoe Bay. S m a l l , shallow grooves i n foreground and l a r g e r grooves i n background. G l a c i e r moved SW ( l e f t to r i g h t ) . October 1 9 5 8 .  105 Origin  Evidence indicates that the of  i t  that  was  from  the  1.  The  The  2.  3.  apparent  the  conglomerate i n  of  cut-  lenses  and  moderate  sorting  some  The  (1937) laid wide  tabulated  and  the  toward  i n  support  abundance  imbedded  i n  clays,  and  matter  formed  of  reports  i n  but  contact  of  the  sandstone  with  for  example,  fine  sand-  cross-bedding.  rapid  dominant or  by  have  described  down  on  a l l u v i a l  the  heterogeneity;  large-scale  limestone  permitted  the  broad  deposition  the  sandstone  significant  White  (1888),  the  Chuckanut  evidenced  allowed  shale Glover  conglomerate deposits.  (1935)  formation  and  i n  general  floors,  probably  i n  the  Local  ponding  of  i n  the  accumulation  present  and  valley  fans.  development  deposition  sediments.  moving  locations.  presence  Previous  of  and  f i l l - s t r u c t u r e s .  The  valleys  Island  origin,  streams is  fossils  large-scale  5.  of  i n  Lummi  origin:  hematite  of  without  time  amount  presence  being  on  remains.  The  Weaver  evidence  marine  4.  6.  form  swiftly-moving  The  in  formation  continental  f l u v i a t i l e of  Deposition  conglomerate.  stone  as  and  large  and  is  following  absence  plant  by  of  Chuckanut  formation  The  continental  Conditions  the  deposited  southwest. a  and  of coal  of  large beds.  water  s t r a t i f i e d  swamps  whose  Subsidence  accumulation  of  great  sands  and  vegetal during  the  thicknesses  of  106 On L u m m i the  sedimentary  transportation The  exact  however,  nature  of  of  the It  nearby  mountain ology the  rocks and  known;  ferred.  I s l a n d no r e a l  source  due  to  of  the  their  moderate  that  and  continuous  rocks  risen  suggests  sorting  material  and metamorphic  o n Lummi I s l a n d  themselves  is  and the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n might  the  c h a i n w h i c h had newly  closest  recorded  relatively  sediments  a lengthy  believed  lavas,  indicate  is  reworking.  grains,  is  present  swamp p h a s e  that  came  the  the  east.  lavas  subrounded be  in-  from the  and g r a n i t e s  to  not  of  erosion a  The  v/ere  lith-  probably  source.  Paleoclimatology A  luxuriant vegetation  deposition  by  including:  palm l e a v e s ,  well-preserved numerous  the  at  ferns;  and  mainland, The  and  of  what  and warmer  dryer  c l i m a t e was perature  on t h e  have  palm leaves the  Some  than  i n the  leaves east  at  the  that  the  lower  of  present.  only);  and  o f wood  Lummi I s l a n d  the  Barton  but  Drive. of  c l i m a t e was  This  are  localities  beginning  by a g r a d u a l  in rainfall.  remains  sandstone,  various  the  of  sequence  leaves;  Chuckanut at  time  plant  and p i e c e s  side  found  the  i n the  formation,  followed  and an i n c r e a s e  fossil  found  along  suggest  Chuckanut  apparently  been  at  angiosperm  remains  especially  deposition  numerous  deciduous,  tree  assemblages  of  indicated  (prevalent  shales.  Fern Point  large  on t h e  presence  coniferous  conglomerate, found  the  is  dry,  some-  warm  lowering  of  (1916) i n  tem-  107 studying of  arkose  t h etype  deposits  here  indicates that  described  continental  are typical  o f moist  deposits  temperate  conditions.  Age  Early o f what  i s now named (1859)  Lesquereux fossil Upper  plants  contain  fossils 1927), the  fossil  i n 1901,  and  Washington, were the  Puget  south. on  thef o s s i l  stated  (p.  the  he n o t e d  McLellan  formation  o f the  138)  Doughty  Nanaimo  Although  of plant  of the  on Orcas  series,  this  fossils  correlation marine (McLellan  i nlithology.  boulders  In fact,  and pebbles  i nquestion  by Landes  that  are iden-  i n King (1927,  and P i e r c e  by Dr.  "the  Eocene  Knowlton  states  beds  these  leaves  c o a l measure o f 100 m i l e s that:  has placed  i n t h elower  formation)  deposits of  containing  counties  p . 136-137)  vicinity that  the  studied  (Chuckanut  on t h e c o a l  thestrata  correlated with  plants  i nthe  o f the  those  U.S. G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y  strata  i na report  Group  with  1927).  from  temporarily  area  correlated  o f theinterbedded  similar  their  w e r e made b y  Newberry  of Point  fossils.  a r equite  Knowlton  leaves  Drive  as p a r t  comparisons  composing  (McLellan,  (1863).  on thebasis  and by l a t e r  Dr;  known  and c o r r e l a t i o n  formation  t o thesouth  marine  discarded  materials  tical  rocks  interbedded  t h erocks  t h e Chuckanut  t h eChuckanut  The l a t t e r ,  later  a t age determinations  and Newberry  from  Cretaceous  Island.  was  attempts  and C o r r e l a t i o n  Eocene,"  do n o t r e p r e s e n t  to  "recent  the work  t h e Chuckanut b u t he a l s o t h e lowermost  108 portion that: and  " t h e Chuckanut  upper  Weaver as  o f the Eocene."  Eocene  interval  into  the middle  probably  i n part  time  Group  interval  Paleocene  rocks  were  formations  formed  summary,  formation  has been  Eocene." with  the writer  made  a r e now  cannot  b e made  of the entire  t o the top.  yet  been  published.  The r e s u l t s  i t  i s  Eocene  represents  which the  (1952) n o t e d  Misch  generally that  a  continuing  means  considered  at least  part  of  Cretaceous.  agrees w i t h Weaver  a definite  base  This  during  the late  that  the  represent  and p r o b a b l y  he b e l i e v e s  during  statement  the continental  accumulated.  formations  of Seattle." last  may  138)  the middle  C r e t a c e o u s and  i n Eastern Washington  i n h i s reasoning  Chuckanut  later  (p.  from  this  formation  t o the south  i n age, however,  In  study  different  i n the late  contemporaneous  t h e Chuckanut  these  remarked  i n the vicinity  " t h e Chuckanut  or possible  o f the Puget  that  i s very  occurring  beginning  Swauk a n d R o s l y n  90)  flora  that:  time  the  flora  further  (1935, p . 90) a p p a r e n t l y d i s r e g a r d s  he s t a t e s  beds  McLellan  correlation  until  (1935, p . of the  a complete  assemblage  monographic  of flora  of such a study  from  have n o t  GLACIATION  The  history  o f the Puget  i n detail  by W i l l i s  (1898).  two g l a c i a t i o n s ,  Admiralty  and Vashon,  described of  glacial  Sound  area  was  He p r o p o s e d a with  first  sequence  a single  inter-  glacial ing  interval  Willis  account  tails  general  1  of  the  attempted of  to  Puget  have  Willis  conditions the  i n age;  Pleistocene interval);  Vashon of  carbon  appear  from  the  14,000 y e a r s  Range  peat  lowland  to  an  by  the  climate  the  present.  part  recent  in  the  the  separated  approached Their be  se-  early  interval;  the  the  Puyallup  interval  middle (non-  Vashon g l a e i a t i o n .  United  lowland  of  of  They  g l a e i a t i o n of  erosion  by-  Crandell,  glaciations  correlated with  south  work  Pleistocene;  unnamed  de-  contributed  nonglacial  middle  most  stage  Local  i s noteworthy.  Salmon Springs  the  in  of  which  the  (Tazewell)  States,  suggest  Seattle  at  some  and  that  radio-  the  time  max-  glacier  prior  to  ago.  is believed  contributed to  and  Wisconsin  dates  It  age,  glaeiation is  the  uncovered  the  region  g l a e i a t i o n w h i c h may  Alderton  early  interval;  which  follow-  detailed  southeastern  four  those  Orting  the  g l a e i a t i o n of  nonglacial  like  been  Recent  Washington by  a  glaeiation.  i n the  sequence  1  gave  Sound  have  time.  intervals during  includes:  glacial  that  of  Pleistocene  imum  since  area  lowland  attained  late  i n the  Puget the  (1913),  Bretz  sequence,  of  Sound  or  The  a l l phases  (1958)  nonglacial  to  part  Waldron  by  Stuck  Puyallup.  and  replaced  quence  three  sequence  writers  Mullineaux, the  the  g l a e i a t i o n i n the  cover  the  different  called  have  that  little  originated  to  mountain the  g l a c i e r s from  continental  in British  the  glaciers  Columbia.  Cascade  which  110 Evidence plentiful in  the  ed  by  not of  as  the  general the  upper  of  glaciers  the  or  performed  of  the  a  Juan  The  ice in this  partly or  of  by  is erosion  direction  topography,  zones  Islands  l a r g e amount  1927).  e r o s i o n was  fracture  San  glacial  underlying  glacial  fault  i n the  (McLellan,  portions by  deepest  presence  glaclatlon  region  controlled the  of  but  follow-  region  the  was  course  determined  by  the  previously  existing  channels. The graphy  of  extent  Lummi  to which  Island  apparently  overrode  elevations  of  southern glacial  the  half  of  action  ing  went  on  was  deposited  i s not  the  at  the over  higher most  and  have  3 2 ) .  (figure  island.  half  island  has  completely  whole  northern the  glaciation  many  the  low  but  at  the  outcrops  glacial  the  higher  on  the  northern  blanket  half  high  grooved  e r o s i o n and  thick  topo-  glaciers  p o l i s h e d and  elevations, a  of  known  Rocks  been  While  modified  of  by  polishof  drift  Lummi  Island. In stoss  and  (geologic half  of  lee  change  deep the  northern slopes  map).  indicate  sharp the  the  The thickness  of  indicate  glacial that  Similar glacial a  south  to  body  a as  bedrock the  general the  might  the  i c e moved  markings  suggest  southerly  i c e overrode  s u r f a c e was  drift  striations,  on  grooves  cover  very  varies,  or the  the  higher This  some l o c a l  southern apparent  c o n t r o l of  southeasterly  movement  islands.  uneven the  and  southwestward  s o u t h e a s t e r l y movement.  in direction  i c e and  main  half,  and  therefore  original  the  depressions  Ill holding  the thicknest deposits  and t h e h i l l s  lightly  covered.  deposits  ceed  160  feet.  stratified sorted beds and  The t h i c k e s t The d r i f t  or u n s t r a t i f i e d  t i l l  and c l a y .  clayey  gravels  composition faceted in  pebbles  diorite,  as w e l l  diorite,  from  many  The thickness  pebbles.  from  iron  i n places  but they  a  and sand Island.  distance  appear  rounded.  The  to those  porphyritic pebbles,  and  of the material i s probably  coniferous  trees,  are also  feet  or s l i g h t l y  greenish  i n color  sections  deposits  easily  i n  c o n s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t s of show a r u s t y - b r o w n  to unstratified  up t o 8 0 f e e t  these  present.  u p t o 50  to contain  de-  Wood  occur  which  outwash and poor  deposits  that  quartz  to the northeast.  appear  some m i g h t  of the rocks  and i n c l u d e : and  to vary i n  to lack  and most  are well  local  region  of clay  Often  by  clays,  Mountain  and weathered  Stratified  Lummi  Most  soft  hardpan  composition  formation  are generally blue  fresh  clays,  shale, volcanic breccia  deposits  when  gravel  or boulders  and un-  i n l e n s e s and  appears  granodiorite, andesite  the Cascade  fragments,  The t i l l  are of similar  argillite,  and c h e r t  occur  deposits  as i n t h e outwash  i n the Chuckanut  andesite,  rived  pebbles  and b o u l d e r s  found  quartz  the strike.  or striated  the t i l l  are  along  unconsolidated,  o r outwash,  called  of these  only  I s l a n d ex-  of both  and p e b b l y  and sand,  r e s i d e n t s (A<p:p'endix' I ) . A l l  drift  and sand  gravelly  o n Lummi  consists  washed  Gravel  interspaced with hard  cover  being  i n thickness  are tightly  be c o n f u s e d  with  color.  washed occur  packed  on  and a t  the Chuckanut  112 formation.  In general these outwash deposits are quite clean  and f a i r l y well sorted.  A sieve analysis made i n 1919 of a  sample of the outwash from a deposit near V i l l a g e Point appears to bear out this s i t u a t i o n . Retained  on Sieves  Passing  10-Mesh 20-Mesh 30-Mesh 40-Mesh 50-Mesh 80-Mesh 100-Mesh 200-Mesh 200-Mesh  28.2 49.8 70.4 80.4 90.2 97.5 98.2 99.8 0.2  Remarks: "sand from this place i s w e l l graded, composed of hard materials, and showed a t e n s i l e strength i n 7-day briquets 138.9 per cent as great as the Standard Ottawa sand, and i n the 28day briquets 162.8 per cent as great. No organic content was detected by the colorimetric t e s t . "  Sieve Analysis and Remarks on a Sample of Sand Taken from a G l a c i a l Outwash Deposit Near V i l l a g e Point on Lummi Island (after Leighton, 1919: The Road Building Sands and Gravels of Washington). On the east side of E l i z a Island a c l i f f of t i l l and outwash up to 50 feet thick occurs.  Here are seen regular  alternating layers of well s t r a t i f i e d d r i f t and unsorted  till.  At one location s t r a t i f i e d layers have been folded by the overr i d i n g g l a c i e r , and these folds are unconformably overlain by a thin deposit of unsorted, These unconsolidated  clayey d r i f t  (figure 3 3 ) .  sediments of g l a c i a l o r i g i n were  p a r t l y , i f not wholly l a i d down i n marine water and contain shells and s h e l l fragments.  In parts of Whatcom County these  shells are very abundant i n the t i l l and the outwash.  On  Lummi Island, marine shells have been found i n the s t r a t i f i e d d r i f t and some have reportedly been found i n the t i l l .  At a  l o c a l i t y just a few hundred feet south of the knob of Lummi  113 Island  Metamorphic  found  resting  clean  gravel  close  to 200 feet.  been  on t h e t i l l deposits.  recorded  resting well  found  diorite,  quartz  trusions Baker of  a very  numbers  dense,  of valves  believed  t o have  been  of the Pelecypod been  as 2 9 0 f e e t  transported  or granite. from  quite  gneiss, Most  of  the Coast I n just  west  of the  a r e found  containing  Bucia.  or  are generally  Island  from  have  i n diameter are i n the t i l l ,  On t h e b e a c h  sandstone  sorted,  1927).  They  derived  was  at an a l t i t u d e  Island  o f Lummi  black  of well  feet  granodiorite,  side  s i x feet  of quartzo-feldspathic  Columbia.  on t h e west fine,  Lummi  surfaces.  t o have  of British  farm  up t o 6  consist  shell  as h i g h  boulders over  a marine  occurred  (McLellan,  diorite,  are believed  shell  sea levels  bedrock  and most  below  Island  scattered  on e x p o s e d  rounded  these  Former  erratic  Complex,  surface  This  on O r c a s  Large commonly  and Igneous  These  Harrison  boulders  large  boulders Lake  are  north  of  6 the  Fraser  Valley  It vasions as  were  from  great  the material done  bulk  deposited  ination the  i s not possible  has been  the  of well  glacial  6  i n southwestern B r i t i s h to separate exposed  to the south.  of the sediments during  drift  Personal  o n Lummi  (1927)  interglacial 1)  and c l i f f  sequences,  communication,  W.R.  glacial i n -  or E l i z a  i n the San Juan  (Appendix  show v a r i o u s  distinct  McLellan  the Puyallup  records  Columbia.  some  Danner  Islands  believed Island  that area  epoch. exposures sections  Examof  114 apparently or  pure  may  showing  clay  only  a s many  between  as three  gravel  i n d i c a t e minor  separate  layers  layers.  These  o r sandy  retreats  and readvances  of  t i l l  sequences  of the ice.  GEOMORPHOLOGY  In  addition  logical  processes,  by  o n Lummi  them  cussed  t o g l a c i a t i o n , c e r t a i n other their  geomorpho-  c o n t r o l s , and the features  Island  produced  a r e o f i n t e r e s t and a r e b r i e f l y  dis-  here.  Coastlines  It that and  i s apparent  t h e southwest straight  while  when  coastline  and p r o b a b l y  the southeastern  believed washing  that  against  t o even-out  formed  due t o l i t h o l o g y .  rocks  Passage were attacked  many  apparently  been  a state  i s sinuous  open waters the c l i f f  On t h e e a s t  not as important  i n determining  previously  Island  o f Lummi  Island  i s quite  regular  of  of Georgia  on t h e e a s t  mentioned,  an important  side  It  i s  Strait  s i d e has  which might  the currents  be  of  as t h e l i t h o l o g y o f t h e  t h e form  Control  maturity,  and uneven.  of the irregularities  Lithologic  As  represents  the r e l a t i v e l y  and beating  a t a map  o f Lummi  coastline  tended  Hale  looking  of the coastline.  of Weathering  l i t h o l o g y o f the bedrock has  factor  i n erosion  of the south-  east  coast  have  been  carved  argillite sisted into  o f Lummi  Hale  of  Peak  highly  In  higher  glomerate examined  Harbor  rock  volcanics example  part  of this  locations. elevation  a t t h e peak  Island  high  when  by the  probably  a r e composed resemble  appearance.  northern  and i t i s a p p a r e n t  a r e formed  of high  o f Lummi  stands  have r e -  p r o j e c t s out  graywacke which  i n general  Harbor  and  volcanics  at other  The rocks  formation  portions  Harbor  shale  out as a knob w h i c h  fine-grained  the northern  that  nonresistent  r e s i s t a n t knobs  control.  igneous  the Chuckanut  The  stand  i s another  indurated  I n a t i Bay and R e i l  the Reil  Similar  of the R e i l  fine-grained  of  a n d now  to lithologic  Here,  relatively  while  Passage.  Lummi due  into  sequences  erosion  outcrops  Island.  above  part  the conglomerate the sandstone.  a r e formed  the geologic  l i t h o l o g y i s an important  control  by  outcrop i n the  conmap i s erosion  here.  Marine  Wave-cut places the  along  terraces  cliffs  water  and d e c r e a s e  Point  such  bare  the distance  sediments,  marine occurs  are conspicuous Island.  the marine  o f wave  of equilibrium  and a n o t i c e a b l e  Terraces  I n most  by t h e development  from  the e f f e c t s  a profile  of fine  o f Lummi  are characterized  increase  and  and t e r r a c e s  the coastline  which  reached  Cliffs  cliff  action.  or maturity  cliff  At  cases  o f beaches t o deep Migley  has not been  and wave-cut  on t h e R e i l  a t many  Harbor  bench  nearly  volcanics.  Figure 33. Folds i n s t r a t i f i e d outwash deposits (A) formed by thrust of g l a c i e r . Folds overlain by unsorted t i l l (B) which i s i n turn overlain by s t r a t i f i e d sand and gravel (C). View SW, glacier moved SE ( j r e f l Lu right-). &I9k* f° East side E l i z a Island, W.R.Danner, May, 1958.  Figure 34. Wave-cut c l i f f and bench i n R e i l Harbor volcanics (age unknown) at Migley Point. View NW at low t i d e . October 1958.  117 Most  of this  exposed  bench  i s a p p a r e n t l y above  at the low t i d e  level  (figure  Fretted  Figure in  35a  the sandstone  few  feet  Lummi  above  Island.  differential stones and  rough  water,  sandstone paw  the  lithologic  to erosion  It i s believed  h i g h waves b r e a k  (b) i s produced  particles  on t h e s a n d s t o n e  causing  c a n be s e e n  i n the sand-  that  times  during  of  storms  h i g h and l i c k - a w a y a t the pattern  (a).  The  effect  of  as t h e waves b r e a k  cat's splashing  against  shore.  into  A  cuspate  beach  Hale  Passage  from  submerged  sandy  except  ridge  or s p i t ,  extends  f o r a small  break  is  thought  that  of  t h e Lummi action  and  pebbles spit.  the spit Delta  of longshore from  Lummi  has been from  from  projects Island.  Lummi  formed  A  Point  of the passage,  on t h e M a i n l a n d . by t h e  the mainland  currents  the Chuckanut  River  Point  o f Lummi  i n the middle  t o t h e m o u t h o f Lummi  the  called  northeastward  extends  River  Point  the northeast side  it  the  shore of  difference  by t h e e r o s i o n  Lummi  and  developed  formation cropping out a  producing the groove-like  pattern  water  resistance  surfaces  mark on t h e n o r t h w e s t  discernable  themselves.  34).  a n d b show t h e f r e t t e d  the high tide  and i s  Surfaces  o f t h e Chuckanut  No  t h e wave base  It  encroachment  i n combination  i n e r o d i n g and moving  with  sand  f o r m a t i o n n o r t h and s o u t h o f  Figure 3 5 . Fretted surfaces formed byd i f f e r e n t i a l wave erosion of sandstone of the Chucaknut formation (Lower Tertiary) at Fern Point. View taken NE, May 1 9 5 8 .  119 STRUCTURE  Regional  To  communication),  Juan  Island  rocks  have  faulting rocks.  map-area been  and Many  of  continuity  also  probably  the  give  a  of  key  Juan,  broad  and  open  likely  each  of  into  his  to  hide  the  periods  at  of  various  separated  is  often  faults  or  of  San  Paleozoic  by  wide  Danner  the  folding  times by  W.R.  The  broken.  and igneous  channels  These  unconformities  comprehensive  a  a  fault  that on  the  shore  and  channels which  structural picture  of  of  large-scale  structural  three  islands;  that  35  plunging  Island  degrees  Exactly i s not  islands  SE.  He  magnitude  where  also  as  both  have  thought  Island  fits He  (Carter  structurally related  Island  displayed  clear.  rocks  Orcas,  occupied  Lummi  altogether  sedimentary  were  Orcas  large  these  considerable  Leech River  of  of  believed  channels.  Lummi  his  nucleus  He  syncline  major  north  same  around  much o f  structural picture  formation) the  built  Lopez.  that  the  believed  the  structure  structure  complicated.  many  are  recently  region.  San  on  to  more  detailed  intruded  to  and  extremely  islands  serve  interpretation  it  been  the  McLellan  a  is  the  subjected  have  thus  might  (1927)  quote M c L e l l a n  (personal  Structure  to  Point those  approximately  strike. Both McLellan  and  Weaver  (1935)  recognized  that  the  120 Chuckanut related but  formation  to corresponding  that  i t i s also  of  t h e Nanaimo  to  the northwest.  and  o n Lummi  were  rocks  probably  series  These  Point of  The  structurally  during  Formation  units  and R e i l Half  structure of the Carter Point  be  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ; however,  may  and t h e t h i c k  inject  some n o t e  The represent cline. I  and near  has  whole  southern  The o v e r a l l  down  southern Carter  Point,  of this  half  the d i p slope.  Small  that  and o f t h e  cover  appears  a t some  t h e beds  locations  island  appears plunging  varies  along  anti-  b e t w e e n N 20 ¥ at  angles  the east  the shale scale  to  or  ord i p This  graded-bedding  are not  as t h e t o p o g r a p h y  of the island  clearly  follows the structure. and n o r t h  and  overturned.  as w e l l  i s N 40 W  may  argillite  outline  the s t r i k e  to  interpretation.  are not consistent. places  indicates  folding.  of horizon  the northeast  and s t r i k e s  another  Island  of a northwesterly of the rocks  one  Volcanics  the scarcity  i n many  general  half  that  half  miles  of  formation  o f Lummi  and b r u s h  d i p towards  of the southern  cross-bedding The  strike  The d i p s  due t o t h e f a c t slipped  limb  and t h e beds  45 d e g r e e s . side  timber  half  five  Island  of uncertainty i n the  the eastern  60 W  slope be  of the southern  mainland,  t o the rocks  into  periods  Harbor  o f Lummi  rocks  markers,  on t h e  related  strike  t h e same  volcanic quite  structurally  Island approximately  two r o c k  the Southern  i s not only  of the formation  on M a t i a  evidently folded  Carter  Island  from  here  of the  the  At  rocks  curve  quarter and  westward  north  continue  with  the  side  of  the  on  N  Carter  Point,  the  strike drift  Island.  average N  southern  rocks  strike  a  glacial the  general  of  to  half  strike  northward.  in  these  observed canics  at  Both Carter most  Point  greater  two  Harbor  Paleozoic  Where  plunging common, and  but  cleavage  cut  ently and to  i n the  caused  numerous the  by  the  i n the  volcanics wave  joints  northeast,  contact  the  a  parallel  ribbon  are  measured,  the  and  trend to  Reil  beds.  A  Harbor  weakened  chert  the in a  dip  cleavage  Jointing  by  northwest/southeast  the  in  formation  volcanics.  rock,  structure.  Point  Harbor  of  vol-  depositing solutions  Reil  of  folds  the  i t showed  veins.  north  of  defined  quartz  just  eastern  folds  above  joints  Carter  drag  clearly  for mineral  out-  the  developed  was  The  on  chert  not  the  degrees  Small-scale  the  well  80  - Mesozoic  small  of  strike  of  erosion which  few  west  Here,  to  i n the  are  bedding.  l a r g e number  50  folds  corroborate  they  channelways  developed  but  cleavage  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned,  cove  on  Cove.  anticline.  i n the  to  and  well  the  l a r g e - s c a l e drag  as  also  of  of  served  extremely  the  northern  dip  ends  and  formation  and  changes  tend  jointing  i n the  near S u n r i s e  east-west  planes  an  to  outcrop  conspicuous  two  not  found  island  that  by  W  the  than  as  northernmost  40  of  argillite  locations.  N  again  end  are  Reil  turn northward  is  trend  northwestward  i n the  a  W  opposite  rocks  and  40  represent  a  a mile  the  crops  of  rocks  approximately  the  approximately These  About  noticeable variance with  at  limb  at  W.  Another  occurring may  of  60  a  i s cut is  small is  appar-  fault, and  dip  122 The is  extent  not completely  of faulting known  and t h e l a c k  faults  displacements  shoreline island.  o f these  These  probably  occur  throughout Two  faults Reil  there  not  certain.  and  brush.  the of  sedimentary  volcanics relation here no the  appear  t o be v e r t i c a l  volcanics.  faults  knob  a t t h e base  o f bedding  Whether  lava  andt h e  from  by s e d i m e n t s  with  suggest  Cove rocks  view  the fact  that the  the nearest  rocks of  that  this  i n relation  the contact i s also  observed  large  block  to the  between t h e  obscured  andt h e  of thevolcanics  i s not completely  has been  NW-SE,  t o t h e west i s  southerly outcrop  graywackes  lavas at  of the volcanics i n this  downward  At Sunrise  to  formation  s t e e p l y than might  beds.  of pillow  and t h i s ,  faulted  t h e most  which  related  and s t r i k e  of the chert  i s obscured  and t h e sedimentary  indication  similar  NW-SE.  the pillow  sequence,  and adjacent  d i p and t r e n d  of the  here.  of the Carter Point  rocks.  half  cut through  d i p more  between  of the southern  small  a l o n g the  displacement  v o l c a n i c s has been  sedimentary  a r e seen  possibly  The contact  beds  feet  of shearing  The c h e r t  chert  15  than  Numerous  zones  i s b r e c c i a t e d however  basal  cover i n  a vertical  between t h i s  rocks  brush  corner  to the strike  i s a fault  sedimentary  area  defined  These  parallel  of the thick  b u t a f e w o f many  the rocks  o f unknown  Harbor.  nearly  less  have  represent  well  formation  o f horizon markers.  a t t h e northwest Many  Point  because  many p l a c e s with  i n the Carter  understood  i n this  outcrop  as of  123 Eliza  The have  Island  cleavage. form  a n d many  a small  syncline  which  at  Just Reil  appear at  t o have  with  synclines plunge  identical of  volcanics been  gently  axial  on  plain  appear  toward the knob  form  another  the southeast. 20  to  rocks  the rocks  strikes N  Cleav35  E and d i p s  also  here  as a u n i t , t o have  t o that  trend  have  been  folded  on t h e m a i n l a n d formation  From M i g l e y  Point  formation  half  folded  and  o f Lummi Harbor  Island  volcanics  as a c l o s e  This  are folded  where  a series  structure  to the southeast into  NW-SE a n d p l u n g e  Point  into  s t r i k e approximately  to the northwest.  gently  Island  the R e i l  been  Rocks  knit  formation.  and a n t i c l i n e s w h i c h gently  o f Lummi  on t h e s o u t h e r n  end a p p e a r  rocks  Half  and V o l c a n i c  of the Carter  folded  the Chuckanut  the Chuckanut  that  knob  appear  those  defined  bedrock  toward  of the Sedimentary  as t h e r o c k s  Harbor  The  and  of this  the Northern  the northern  unit  t o plunge  than  knob,  plunging  Island  SE.  Structure  the  bedrock  of the southern  appears side  degree  show a w e l l  s y n c l i n a l bowl  on t h e east  degrees  outcrops  The r o c k s  on E l i z a  to a greater  On t h e w e s t e r n m o s t  northeast.  age  and a r g i l l i t e  been metamorphosed  Lummi  to  graywacke  Island  broad,  of  N  50  W  i s nearly where  open  rocks  folds  northwestward.  the conglomerate  overlies the  124 volcanics, into At  a  series  Migley  syncline The  two  the of  Point which  v o l c a n i c s at three  the  s y n c l i n e s and  rocks  trends  expression  interbedded  strike  of  this  argillites  sedimentary  rocks  of  to  the  northwest.  These  rocks  (80-85°)  into  southwest  the  limbs  northeast  faults  than  northern  a  fracturing, the  does the  are  few  half  the  and  about  to  60  N  are  SW  the  W.  folded  anticlines.  55  dip  plunges  v o l c a n i c s at  Chuckanut strike  the  N  into  The  most  and  northeast.  In  to  be  in  Legoe Bay,  W  a  northeast.  formation  40  s y n c l i n e s appear  feet  of  and  not  appear  Chuckanut  the some  which  the  deformation  zones  and  a  island  be  an  i s most  epidote  along  (figure  faulting  l a r g e number  i n secondary  to  formation  occur  v o l c a n i c s underlying the  stringers.  complete  on  dip  and  strike  steeply  general,  steeper  important and  small-scale features with  Point  rich  rocks  the  than  limbs.  s t r u c t u r e of  less  syncline to  of  Faulting  visible  the  W  the  structure is reflected  the  the  the  and  fold  of  two  50  N  n e a r l y E/W  in  the  Legoe Bay,  southerly synclines strike  southerly the  to  has  and  36).  evident  only  Extreme gone  formation. with  fault  or  often f i l l e d  in  clearly  displacements  coastline  apparently  Chuckanut  of narrow  the  the  factor  of  shearing, on  within  At  quartz-rich shear with  the  Migley fracture  breccias,  jasper  125  F i g u r e 36. View NE of Chuckanut f o r mation (Lower T e r t i a r y ) showing small s c a l e f a u l t (2 f t . displacement). Fern P o i n t , October 1958.  Cross-Island  (1927)  McLellan Lummi  Island  sharply  across  pretation. large  is  Reil  and  fault  the  Reil  ascribe that  the  the  age  and  the  is  said  history  of  the  more these Late  than  to  age  there  from  be  seen  with also Lummi  north.  the  of  cuts  this be  interanother  Island  Chuckanut  the in  which  may  the  the  to  of  the  i s not  the be  period  may  Paleozoic.  have  known,  formation However,  rocks  Coast the  most  for  no  either  the  orogeny.  been  folded  The  i s not  Point  to  some  of  Lower  of  by  de-  White in  the  periods  known,  (1927)  extent  the  event  formation  McLellan  to  period  i n Canada  number  and  probable  between  tectonic  period  Carter  difficult  This  orogeny  formation  i t is  time  period.  complex  orogenic  i t is  some  Cordillera.  in of  Range  Point  however,  at  Cretaceous  this  jointing  Carter  deformation;  Canadian  during  one  rocks  the  Upper  (1959)j  and  agrees  separates  folding occurred  called  cleavage  fault  part  Deformations  volcanics  formation,  deformation  of  exact  to  major  Jurassic  a  southern  faults.  Harbor an  of  that  outcrops can  the  writer  complex  evidence  Age  Since  The  which  that  side  believed  volcanics  physical large  island.  Igneous  Harbor  these  believed  up-thrown  also  cross-island  actual of  the the  It  Metamorphic and  was  Faults  but  may  noted  during  of  suggest that the  127 The the  Coast  the  Recent  (1959). late and  next  Range  in  the  of  Lummi  seen  It  or  and  folds  the  sulted  in a  structural into  Point ing  at  the  the  after  Miocene  south this  folding.  southern  block  was  to  able  of  resist  The  whole  ial  period.  This  the  drift  Orcas  in  the  above  Island.  suggest  Island.  of  that area.  150  largest  part  of  The  was  It  surfacial  Island  sedimentary  been  i s evidenced on  of  by  Lummi  Elevated, gravelly there  has  been  a  the  time  and  San  this  of  and  beaches  recent  at  uplift  of  foldbe  the  rocks  up-thrown reason  orogeny. the  shells  seen  Carter  faulting  this  since  and  Islands  I t may  Tertiary  Island  general  Tertiary  known.  marine  re-  the  f o r some u n k n o w n  the  a  Juan  rocks  uplifted  again  deformation  e l e v a t e d by  the  end  folding  this  that  and  northern  i n nature  possible  rocks  stresses  r e g i o n has  were  formation  Range  why  reflect  time  occurred  the  completely  is also  feet  reason  i n the  NW-SE  of  to  White  this  at  Cascade  by  Sceva,  This  through  not  i s not  Lummi  the  the  of  continues  developed  the  on  that  (Newcomb,  deformation  extended  folding  end  at  1949)  uplift  extent  at  p r o b a b l y went  a p p a r e n t l y do  great  were  Chuckanut  P l i o c e n e Epoch.  upwarp w h i c h  any  that  and  orogeny  volcanics  the  Olaf,  the  Vancouver  Puget  i n the  Harbor  rocks  regional  formation  to  that  of  the  Pliocene deformation  Although  and  succeeding  Cretaceous  Cascade Mountains  developed  i n these  close  folding,  Upper  is called  underlying Reil Island.  of  i t is believed  were  (Newcomb, S c e v a ,  and  i n the  early  1949)  today  near  period  ancestral  Miocene  trending  began  time.  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S c i . , v. 251, Woodruff, E.G., 1914, The Glacier coal f i e l d , Whatcom County, Washington: U.S. Geol. Survey B u l l . 541, p. 389-398.  133 APPENDIX  Appendix I . - Record of t h e N o r t h e r n H a l f  o f a few o f t h e Water o f Lummi I s l a n d ?  Wells  Thickness Feet 1.  Well  on P e a r s o n  (SWjjTWj s e c . 15,  property  T . 3 7 N. , R . I . 5 . ) 5 10 11 2 17 3  Gravel Hardpan, y e l l o w Clay, sandy, blue G r a v e l (some w a t e r Sandstone, gray G r a v e l , medium, ( w a t e r ) 2.  W e l l on J . S e l k e (SW^NW^ s e c . 15,  5 15 26 28 4-5 48  property T . 3 7 N,,R.1,E.)  2  Soil Hardpan, g r a v e l l y C l a y , sandy, blue S a n d , c o a r s e - some c l a y Clay, blue C l a y , v e r y sandy, blue Sand, (water) 3.  Depth Feet  2  13 14 5 39 2  15 29 34 73 75  2 4 1 9 17 5 2 3 3 8 14 5 6 7  2 6 7 16 33 38 40 43 46 54 68 73 79 86  82  7  W e l l on L. P a r b e r r y p r o p e r t y ( N E ^ N E ^ s e c . 16, T . 3 7 N , , R . I . 35.)  Soil C l a y , sand, and g r a v e l f i n e Sand, f i n e and g r a v e l C l a y , brown Sand, c o a r s e , and g r a v e l - l i t t l e c l a y Sand, f i n e , g r a v e l , c l a y , blue C l a y , blue and sand, f i n e Sand, c o a r s e and g r a v e l Sand, f i n e and c l a y , brown Sand, c o a r s e and c l a y , brown - l i t t l e c l a y C l a y , v e r y sandy, brown Clay, sandy, blue Sand and g r a v e l , c o a r s e and c l a y , b l u e Sand, f i n e (water)  7  See w e l l  location  map i n p o c k e t  (Plate  3)  134 4.  Well on Flockenhagen  property  (SE|SE£ sec. 9, T. 37 N., R.l.E.) Soil Hardpan, gravelly - boulder Clay, gravelly, blue Boulder clay Clay, hard, gravelly, blue Sand (water) 5.  1 1 4 7 27 6 124  1 2 6 13 40 46 170  1 12 11 6 40 38 10 20  5  1 13 24 30 70 108 118 138 143  4 4 6 16 52 33  4 8 14 30 82 H5  Well on Haven property (SE^NE^ sec. 9, T.37 N.,R.l.E.)  Soil Sand, coarse and gravel Clay, gravelly, blue-boulder Sand, blue and gravel Sand, coarse and gravel Sand and gravel Sand, gravel, and clay, blue Sand and gravel Sandstone, coarse (water, 400 G . P i H . ) 7.  1 8 60 101 109 114  Well on J . Granger property (NW^SW^ sec. 10, T. 37 K., R.ltE.)  Fill Soil Clay, hard, black Hardpan Clay, s o f t , blue - some gravel Conglomerate Rock, very hard, green (water at 105-159 f t . 1/2 G.P.M.) 6.  1 7 52 41 8 5  Well on C E . Castle property (SE^NW^ sec. 9, T.37 N R.l.E.) n  Soil Sand and gravel Clay, blue Sandstone, coarse and conglomerate Sandstone, coarse - conglomerate Sandstone, coarse (some water)  135 8.  'Well  o n M. T u t t l e  (NE^NW^ s e c . 9,  property  T . 37  N.,R.l.E.)  Soil Hardpan, very g r a v e l l y Hardpan C l a y , v e r y sandy, blue Clay, gravelly, blue Gravel (water) 9.  clay clay  - salt  3 11 18 27 33 35 55 62  3 9 14 4 5 24 3  3 12 26 30 35 59 62  -  W e l l o n G. J o h n s o n p r o p e r t y (NW^NW^ s e c . 9, T . 37 N«,R.3..E.)  Gravel, loose G r a v e l - some b l u e c l a y ( s a l t lower g r a v e l ) C l a y , s o f t , sandy, blue G r a v e l , coarse, sandy (water) 12.  3 8 7 9 6 2 20 7  W e l l on Walker p r o p e r t y ( N W ^ N W £ s e c . 9, T . 37 N , , R . l . E . )  Gravel, coarse G r a v e l , c o a r s e - some c l a y Gravel, coarse - salt C l a y , b l a c k and green and sand Clay, blue Clay, gravelly, blue Sand, coarse - blue c l a y (water) 11.  1 5 10 34 47 51  W e l l o n K. G a r d n e r p r o p e r t y (NW^NW^ s e c . 9, T . 37 N . - , R . l . E . )  Gravel, coarse G r a v e l , c o a r s e - some G r a v e l , c o a r s e - some Gravel, fine Sand, b l a c k C l a y , b l a c k and green Clay, blue Sand, f i n e (water) 10.  1 4 5 24 13 4  5  5  25 24 4  30 54 58  18 5 3 4 55 7 3  18 23 26 30 85 92 95  water i n  W e l l on J . Brown p r o p e r t y ( N W £ N W £ s e c . 9, T . 37 N.„ R . l . E . )  Gravel, coarse Gravel, coarse - salt G r a v e l (water) Sand, b l a c k C l a y , s o f t , sandy, blue - l a r g e S a n d , f i n e - some c l a y Sand, f i n e and g r a v e l (water)  rocks  136 13  W e l l on Chambers p r o p e r t y (NE|-NE| s e c . 8, T. 37 N . , R . 1 . E . )  Gravel, coarse G r a v e l , c o a r s e - some s a l t Clay, s o f t , green t o blue S a n d , f i n e ( w a t e r , 9 G.P.M.) Clay, blue 14.  W e l l on J . M i l l e r N E ^ N E ^ s e c . 8, T.  13 4 21 4 8 4 27 3  13 17 38 42 50 54 81 84  W e l l on F . Granger p r o p e r t y (SW|- s e c 4, T.37 N , , R . X . E . )  Soil Gravel Sand, f i n e C l a y , s o f t , blue and g r a v e l Sand, c o a r s e and g r a v e l Clay, sandy, blue Sand and g r a v e l , very hard Sand, f i n e , t u r n i n g blue (water) C l a y and sand Sand (water) 16.  18 33 77 85  property 37 N . , R . 1 . E . )  Gravel, coarse G r a v e l , c o a r s e and c l a y G r a v e l , coarse, sandy ( s a l t water) Sand, f i n e C l a y , s o f t , sandy, g r e e n i s h C l a y , h a r d , sandy and g r a v e l C l a y , sandy, blue Sand, f i n e (water) 15.  18 15 44 8  6 8 19 25 7 17 20 4 9  1  1 7 15 34 59 66 83 103 107 116  7 13 32 29 9 13 38 4 155  7 20 52 81 90 103 141 145 300  W e l l on F. Granger p r o p e r t y ( (NE^SW^ s e c . 5, T.37 N , , R . I . E . )  Gravel, coarse G r a v e l , coarse and c l a y , Clay, s o f t , sandy, blue Sandstone Shale, blue Conglomerate Sandstone S h a l e , deep blue Sandstone, fine  blue  17.  Well on J . Melcher property (NE^NW| sec. 5, T. 37 N,, R.l.E.)  Sand, dry Clay, yellow Sandstone, coarse, gray  (water)  18. Well on Griesing property (NE^SW|- sec. 32, T. 38 N,,R.l.E.) Gravel, dry and boulder Sand, muddy, brown Sand, muddy, blue Shale, blue Sandstone, dark (water) 19.  Well on Austin property (SW^-SE^ sec. 29, T. 38 N.,R.2..E.)  Soil Clay, gravelly Clay, hard, gray Sandstone, s o f t , reddish Sandstone, gray 20. Well on A. Granger property (NE^Ejjf sec. 32, T. 38 N R.1-E.) M  S o i l , clay and gravel Sandstone and conglomerate Sandstone, fine 21.  Well on Langdon property (SW^NE^ sec. 4, T. 37 N,,R.l.E.)  Soil Hardpan, gravelly Sandstone, soft Sandstone, gray Sandstone, gray (water, 1000 G.P.H. with sulphur) 22.  Well on As'tell property (SW^NE^ sec. 4, T. 37 1'«,R-l* -) E  S o i l and hardpan, gravelly Sandstone, brown Sandstone, gray (water)  23.  Well on M. Heath property ( S E £ N E £ sec. 4 T . 37  M ,R.I.E.) C  Soil Gravel Gravel, hardpan - boulder Gravel and clay, blue Sandstone, gray Sandstone (water at 90 f t . 3 G.P.M.) 24.  Well on J . Christenson property ( N E £ see. 4,  T . 37 K . , R . I . E . )  Dirt and gravel Clay, soft, blue Sandstone Sandstone (water),(50 G.P.H.) Sandstone, Hard 25.  Well on Brown property (WE4-SE| sec. 4, T . 37 N.,R.I.E.)  Soil Gravel Hardpan, gravelly S and stone, b r own Sandstone, gray (water at 89 f t . 500 G.P.H. with sulfur) Sandstone, gray 26.  Well on J . Anderson property (NE4-SE4- sec. 4,  T . 37  N„,R.I.E.)  Soil Gravel, dry Hardpan, gravelly Sandstone (water at 65 f t ) 27.  Well on O'Rouke property ( S W £ S W £ sec. 3,  T . 37  N,,R.I.E.)  Hardpan, gravelly Sandstone, gray (water seepage: 40-45 f t . 1 G.P.M. Chert, hard ??  93-95 f t . 1 G.P.M. 153-155 f t . 1 G.P.M.  139 28.  Well on L. Luke property (SE|-NE^ sec. 15.  T. 37 1 , j R.l.E.)  Clay, soft, blue Shale, soft, gray Shale, hard, gray Shale, hard, black Shale, gray Shale, dark gray with purple cast Rock, black, with quartz Sandstone 29.  35 3 37 6 9 13 31 16  35 38 75 81 90 103 134 150  37 15 66  37 52 118  Well on Nolte property (SE^NE| sec. 15,  Clay Clay, blue and gravel Sand ??  T. 37  R. i l E . )  


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