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Geology of the Wasootch Creek map-area, Alberta Scott, Darcy Lon 1959

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GEOLOGY OF THE WASOOTCH CREEK MAP-AREA ALBERTA by Darcy Lon Scott B.S., University of Oklahoma A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE i n the Department of GEOLOGY We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard from candidates for the degree of MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1959 S c a l e 5 10 ., 1 , miles I N D E X MAP Figure I 8,000 6,000 H 4,000 H 2,000-^ sea level r 8 , 0 0 0 h6,000 4,000 r-2,000 sea level I I5°08' I I5°00' i5 l °00 ' 50°54 ' LEGEND CRETACEOUS UNDIVIDED O o 0 < TRIAS CO ill SPRAY R I V E R F O R M A T I O N r PERMIAN ROCKY M O U N T A I N GROUP MISSISSIPPIAN R U N D L E GROUP O o M Ld A _J BANFF F O R M A T I O N EXSHAW F O R M A T I O N DEVONIAN P A L L I S E R F O R M A T I O N A L E X O FORMATION FAIRHOLME GROUP CAMBRIAN GHOST R I V E R (ARCTOMYS) F O R M A T I O N P I K A - E L D O N FORMATION Formation cantact (de f ined, a p p r o x i m a t e , / / a s s u m e d ) / / Bedding ( h o r i z o n t a l , i n c l i n e d , over turned) + X X Fault, th rus t (defined, approx imate , / / / assumed) / / / k • Anticlinal axis (with plunge) Synclinal axis (with p lunge) Sect ion t raverse -L WASOOTCH C R E E K Scale: One Inch = 2,000 f e e t miles ABSTRACT The Wasootch Creek area is representative of the Rocky Mountain Front Range of southern Alberta. It i s underlain by rocks of the Middle Cambrian, Upper Devonian, Mississippian, Permain and Lower T r i a s s i c , of which carbon-ates constitute the largest part. The Cambrian formations are correlated with the Eldon, Pika and Arctomys of the Bow Valley region. The Ghost River or Arctomys formation has on one f a u l t block been removed by pre-Devonian erosion. The area i s bounded on the west by the Cascade Coal Basin ""and on the east by the McConnell f a u l t . Between these two structures are several high angle, westward dipping, reverse f a u l t s named from west to east Lac des Arcs, Exshaw, Porcupine, and West McConnell. Mature disection of the f a u l t blocks has produced excellent c o r r e l a t i o n of rock hard-ness with topography. The McConnell f a u l t consists of two thrusts which merge at Kananaskis Gap. South of Kananaskis Gap the two thrusts are designated McConnell and West McConnell. In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. The University of Br Vancouver 8, Canada. CONTENTS Page Abstract i i INTRODUCTION 1 Introductory Statement 1 Location and A c c e s s i b i l i t y 3 Early History 4 Previous Detailed Geologic Work 6 F i e l d Work and Maps 7 Acknowledgments 8 PHYSIOGRAPHY 9 Topography 9 Drainage 11 Glaciation 15 STRATIGRAPHY . . 17 Introductory Statement 17 Cambrian 18 Pika and Eldon formations 18 Ghost River (Arctomys) formation 26 Devonian 32 Fairholme 32 Alexo 46 P a l l i s e r 57 Mississippian 71 Exshaw 71 Banff 80 Rundle 87 Permian 99 Rocky Mountain 99 T r i a s s i c 108 Spray River 108 STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY . . . . . 118 Lac des Arcs Fault Block 124 Exshaw Fault Block 126 Porcupine Fault Block 128 West McConnell Fault Block 129 Age of the Deformation 131 ECONOMIC GEOLOGY 134 O i l and Gas 134 Cement and Lime 134 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 137 BIBLIOGRAPHY 139 PLATES 156 - 173 ILLUSTRATIONS Page Geologic Map, Wasootch Creek pocket Table I. Comparative c o r r e l a t i o n chart of the formations i n the Rocky Mountain Front Range of southern Alberta following page 17 Figure 1. Index map of Wasootch Creek and adjacent areas pocket Figure 2. Index map of Wasootch Creek and adjacent areas 2 Figure 3« Index map of Wasootch Creek area showing major f a u l t s , ridges and streams pocket Plates follow bibliography at back Plate I. Figure 4. A e r i a l photography of Wasootch Creek area I I . Figure 5. View of Mt. Lorette from highway I I I . Figure 6. Panoramic view of north side of Kananaskis River IV. Figure 7. Exshaw v a l l e y at north end of Lac des Arcs Ridge Figure 8. View looking south from highway at north-west corner of Lac des Arcs Ridge V. Figure 9. Dolomitic mottling i n Middle Cambrian Lower Eldon formation, Loder Lime Plant Figure 10. Dolomitic mottling i n Middle Cambrian Lower Eldon formation, Pass Creek VI. Figure 11. Syngenetic folds i n highly dolomitized zone of Lower Eldon limestone Figure 12. Dolomite i n Lower Eldon i n the form of th i n layers rather than as mottlings VII. Figure 13. View of Ghost River formation at head of Wasootch Creek Figure 14. Limestone breccia at top of Ghost River formation VIII. Figure 15. Bedding surface of l i g h t grey weathering stromatoporoids i n lower Cairn Figure 16. Extremely vuggy, black, massive dolomite i n Cairn formation IX. Figure 17. Acid etched surface of dolomitic lamin-ations from the Alexo formation Figure 18. Photomicrograph;- of highly organic layer i n the P a l l i s e r formation X. Figure 19. Dolomitic mottling i n Morro member of the P a l l i s e r formation Figure 20. Dolomitic mottling i n Morro member of the P a l l i s e r formation XI. Figure 21. Dolomitic mottling i n Morro member of the P a l l i s e r formation Figure 22. Dolomitic mottling i n Morro member of the P a l l i s e r formation, bedding surface XII. Figure 23. Acid etched polished surface of dolomitic mottling i n P a l l i s e r formation Figure 24. S t y l o l i t i c seam separating medium and coarse grained dolomite XIII. Figure 25. F i s h tooth? from Exshaw formation Figure 26. Very th i n bedded, platy shales of the Lower Banff formation XIV. Figure 27. Chert nodules i n upper part of the Mt. Head formation Figure 28. Irregular chert masses i n Mt. Head formation XV. Figure 29. Lenses and layers of black chert i n the lower part of the Livingstone formation Figure 30. Donut-shaped black chert nodules i n the Livingstone formation XVI. Figure 31. Figure 32. XVII. Figure 33. Figure 34. XVIII. Figure 35. G l a c i a l t i l l and stream gravel i n the Kananaskis Va l l e y View looking south-southeast from high-way at northeast corner of Lac des Arcs Ridge View looking south at east side of Lac des Arcs Ridge View looking northwest at southern t e r -mination of f a u l t s l i c e of P a l l i s e r S y n c l i n a l l y folded P a l l i s e r formation on east side of Lac des Arcs Ridge 1 GEOLOGY OF THE WASOOTCH CREEK MAP-AREA, ALBERTA INTRODUCTION Introductory Statement This thesis deals p r i n c i p a l l y with the stratigraphy and s t r u c t u r a l geology of a small area i n the eastern part of the Front Range sub-province of the Rocky Mountains i n southwestern Alberta. The area i s underlain by sedimentary rocks of which limestone and dolomite constitute by far the greatest part. Formations ranging i n age from Middle Cambrian to Lower T r i a s s i c were examined within four thrust blocks which include the major Paleozoic petroleum bearing formations of the Alberta P l a i n s . No igneous or metamorphic rocks are present within the Front Range i n southern Alberta. It i s hoped that this study w i l l i n some manner con-tr i b u t e to the p r a c t i c a l use of this and the adjacent Bow Valley region by geologists, for by v i r t u e of i t s proximity to Calgary, ready a c c e s s i b i l i t y , excellence and c l a r i t y of s t r a t i g r a p h i c , physiographic and s t r u c t u r a l features, every opportunity i s provided for the geologist and student to acquire first-hand information that w i l l equip him to work in any part of the Front Range of the southern Alberta Rocky Mountains. r 3 Location and A c c e s s i b i l i t y The area under consideration embraces approximately 45 square miles that l i e e n t i r e l y within the mountains south of the Bow River and i s bounded on the north by 51° 00* north l a t i t u d e and on the south by 50° 54' north l a t i t u d e . The Cascade Coal Basin forms the western boundary geo l o g i c a l l y and topographically. The map-area i s traversed on the west and i n the north by the Kananaskis River, and i n the central part by northward flowing Wasootch and Porcupine Creeks, southern t r i b u t a r i e s to the Kananaskis River. (Figures 1 ,2 ,3) . Geographically the area l i e s 22 miles due east of the A l b e r t a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary at the 51s* p a r a l l e l , and 40 miles west and s l i g h t l y south of Calgary. It l i e s e n t i r e l y within the Bow River P r o v i n c i a l Forest Reserve, Kananaskis D i s t r i c t , within the P r o v i n c i a l Game Preserve, and in part within the Dominion Government Forest Experimental Station. The area i s readily traversed i n summer by means of the Kananaskis-Coleman Highway which leaves the Trans-Canada Highway at the v i l l a g e of Seebe, approximately 15 miles north of the map-area, and 50 miles west of Calgary. Except for a pack t r a i l that leads from Lorette Creek through the Cascade Coal Basin to Canmore, and a t r a i l i n the northeast corner of the area which leads from the mountains out into the f o o t h i l l s , this i s the only means of vehicular access to the area. 4 Early History The f i r s t white men known to enter this part of the mountains were David Thompson and Duncan McGillivary who f i r s t arrived i n the v i c i n i t y of. Calgary i n the f a l l of 1786 for the purpose of trade. They departed i n the spring of 1787 and returned b r i e f l y i n the f a l l of 1800 whereupon Thompson journeyed up the Bow River as far as the present town of Exshaw. (Figure 1). During 1840 the Rev. R.T. Rundle journey-ed into the mountains and camped i n front of the mountain since named i n his honor. Later i n 1840 S i r George Simpson passed through the Banff area on his way to the Columbia Valley. In 1845 Father P.J. De Smet crossed the summit of White Man Pass and camped where Canmore now stands. James S i n c l a i r was reported to have t r a v e l l e d through Kananaskis Pass, at the head of the Kananaskis River, i n 1848. The most important explorers were Captain John P a l l i s e r and his group who approached from the northeast i n July 1858 and camped at Bow Fort. On August 18, 1858 P a l l i s e r started across the mountains v i a the Kananaskis Pass to the Elk River. Dr. Hector, a geologist attached to P a l l i s e r ' s party and the f i r s t man to record geological observations i n the region, entered the mountains on a round-trip to Fort Edmonton i n 1858. In 1859 Hector once again entered the mountains i n the Bow Valley. P a l l i s e r ' s map of this region is one of the e a r l i e s t to have been compiled and many of the 5 current geographic names were bestowed by members of t h i s expedition. P a l l i s e r named Kananaskis Pass, and P a l l i s e r River; Dr. Hector named Cascade Mountain, and Mount Rundle; Mr. Bourgeau named Grotto, Pigeon and Windy Mountains, and Lac des Arcs Lake. The Fisher Range and Fairholme Mountains f i r s t appeared on P a l l i s e r ' s map. Next came two men, George McDougall and his son the Rev. John McDougall i n the 1860's, who established the s e t t l e -ment of M o r l e y v i l l e in 1864 and were a great influence among the Stony Indians. In 1874 R.G.McConnell f i r s t v i s i t e d the region of the Belly-Bow Rivers as a geologist for the Boundary Commission, but at that time was mainly confined to an area f a r to the south. In 1880 the f i r s t group of surveyors connected with the l o c a t i o n of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railroad camped i n the v i c i n i t y of Banff. In 1881 McConnell traversed nearly to the po s i t i o n now occupied by the tov/n of Canmore. During the years from 1881 to 1884 G.M. Dawson and R.G. McConnell ascend-ed the Elbow and Bow Rivers and reported on the general geology. During t h i s time Dawson gave some attention to the Cascade Coal Basin, believed to have been discovered i n 1883» and c a l l e d i t the Cascade trough. In 1886 McConnell did reconnaissance work i n the Fairholme Mountains and i n areas to the north and west, where he recognized the true nature of the great overthrusts i n the mountains, and subdivided the st r a t a into e s s e n t i a l l y the subdivisions recognized at the 6 present time (Table I ) . It i s from this date that our knowledge of the geology of this area r e a l l y dates. Previous Detailed Geologic Work The f i r s t detailed geological surveys of the region were made by D.B. Dowling beginning in 1903 5 who i n 1907 published maps.of the Cascade Coal Basin that included the area immediately to the west of the Wasootch Creek area. In 1912 J.A. A l l a n completed a geological section across the Rocky Mountains from Golden to the Cascade Coal Basin along the main l i n e of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railroad. In 1914 he worked i n areas west of the Kananaskis region but did examine b r i e f l y the Lake Minnewanka area (Figure 1). He spent a short time i n the Fairholme Mountains, the Sawback Range and near Simpson Pass i n 1915. H.W. Shimer (1911, 1913) reported on the geology of the Lake Minnewanka area. In 1924 E.M. Kindle proposed new terms for some of the upper Paleozoic formations i n the Bow Valley area (Table I ) . Shimer continued work i n the Lake Minnewanka area and i n 1926 published a number of Paleozoic sections. P.S. Warren i n 1923 made a survey of the geology and thermal springs of the Banff area but did not publish the report u n t i l 1927. B.R. McKay (1935) published two maps, of the Canmore area which dealt mainly with the coal measures associated with the Cascade Coal Basin. H.H. Beach (1943) published a report on the Moose Mountain and Morely areas which l a r g e l y l i e i n the F o o t h i l l s , the western boundary of which forms the eastern border of the Wasootch Creek area. J.A. A l l a n and J.L. Carr i n 194-7 completed the detailed geology of the Highwood-Elbow area that deals with a Mesozoic coal basin which i s a southern con-tinuation of the Cascade Coal Basin. The l a t e s t published work i s that of Clark (194-9) who mapped the area between the Kananaskis and Bow Rivers and an equal distance north of the Bow Val l e y , from the mountain front to the Second Range. Clark f i r s t used the names Mc-Connell, Exshaw, Lac des Arcs and Rundle for the four major f a u l t s i n this region. F i e l d Work and Maps This thesis i s based on f i e l d work carried out during part of May and the f i r s t two weeks of September 1958. Be-cause the work was carried out unassisted a certain amount of d e t a i l was by necessity s a c r i f i c e d and i t was decided that a somewhat generalized program would be adopted. For use i n the f i e l d a topographic base map was en-larged from a National Topographic Series 1:50,000, Evans-Thomas Creek, west of the f i f t h meridian Alberta, 82 J/14 East Half, F i r s t E d i t i o n . In conjunction with th i s topographi map, a e r i a l photographs were used extensively. The f i n a l map i s enlarged from a part of the Evans-Thomas Creek sheet to a scale of 1" = 2,000 feet. 8 Acknowledgments The writer i s indebted to S h e l l O i l Company of Canada Limited for the use of geologic equipment, and also to Mr. P. Gordy for his help regarding topographic maps. To Dr. Okulitch s p e c i a l thanks are due for his con-st r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m of the manuscripts, and for i n s t r u c t i o n i n micro-photography. I am very grateful to Mr. R. Greggs for his many suggestions and thought-provoking discussions. 9 PHYSIOGRAPHY Topography The surface of t h i s region has a maximum topographic r e l i e f of approximately 4,400 feet, the lowest elevation being i n the northern part of the area i n the Kananaskis Valley which i s 4,500 feet above sea l e v e l . The highest points are the peaks of Mt. McDougall and the f i r s t major peak north of i t which are s l i g h t l y over 8,900 feet and Mt. Lorette which i s 8,100 feet. The average r e l i e f of the mapped area i s near 2,500 feet. The most prominent topographic feature of the region are the several elongate, s u b - p a r a l l e l , dominantly westward sloping mountain ridges (Figure 3> 4). Individual mountains such as Lorette and McDougall occur as isolated peaks on these ridges and owe their o r i g i n to the resistant nature of the formations composing them and the height to which they have been raised through f a u l t i n g . These l i n e a r ridges are the d i r e c t r e s u l t of the thrusting of large s l i c e s and the subsequent d i f f e r e n t i a l erosion of them. Mature d i s e c t i o n has reduced the interstream areas to narrow, often knife - r-like ridges, and because of the markedly d i f f e r e n t resistences to erosion offered by the various l i t h o l o g i c units, every degree of r e l a t i v e hardness i s now d i s t i n c t l y marked topographically (Figure 5» 6 ) . The ridges are carved from massive limestones and dolomites of the Livingstone, P a l l i s e r , Fairholme and Eldon formations. These ridges are characterized by pre-cipitous eastern faces with slopes varying considerably accord-ing to the resistance of the rock. The west slopes are more gentle, corresponding roughly to the dip of the underlying s t r a t a , and the higher peaks are often e a s i l y reached by these western slopes. The general s t r i k e of these ridges i s 20 degrees west of north. The valleys are usually occupied by either r e l a t i v e l y non-resistant formations or by f a u l t s which may weaken highly resi s t a n t rocks. A s t r i k i n g and abrupt change i n the topography occurs at the southern and eastern border of the area. The Wasootch Creek area consists e s s e n t i a l l y of three prominent, l i n e a r , sub-parallel ridges (Figure 3, 4) which r e t a i n t h e i r character within the watersheds of Wasootch and Porcupine Creeks. South of this area i n the watershed of Canyon Creek and Elbow River, the conspicuous l i n e a t i o n i s e n t i r e l y l o s t and the area con-s i s t s of numerous high peaked, i r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d , i n t e r -stream mountains with no p a r t i c u l a r orientation. This abrupt change probably r e f l e c t s a change and complication i n the structure. The entire area i s bounded on the west by a s t r u c t -u r a l l y controlled, low lying area, i n part occupied by the Kananaskis River. This area i s trough-like topographically and i n part owes i t s low position to the nature of the bedrock which consists of Mesozoic sandstones and shales whereas the walls are composed of Paleozoic limestones and dolomites which are r e l a t i v e l y much more resistant so that d i f f e r e n t i a l erosion has caused the Paleozoic s t r a t a to stand out i n re-l i e f , several thousand feet above the v a l l e y . S t r u c t u r a l l y this trough i s a syncline, t y p i c a l l y with an overturned west limb where Paleozoic s t r a t a were thrust from the southwest along the Rundle f a u l t (Figure 1). The syncline i s a south-ern continuation of the Cascade Coal Basin that i s w e l l developed i n the Bow Valley and once extensively developed for i t s coal. The str a t a of the east flank which i s named Lac des Arcs Ridge dip westward from 75 to 15 degrees. Mt. Al l a n occupies an a x i a l p osition i n the syncline between Bow and Kananaskis Rivers and has given i t s name to the structure i n t h i s region (Crockford 1949). The depth of erosion has removed a l l of the Mesozoic beds from the area except for those i n the syncline which have been preserved by reason of th e i r downfolded p o s i t i o n . Post-Mississippian and T r i a s s i c beds have been mostly eroded from the western slopes of Lac des Arcs Ridge but on the cr e s t a l area of a small a n t i c l i n a l flexure on the west side a few o u t l i e r s of Rocky Mountain and Sulphur Mountain f o r -mations remain. Drainage Drainage within the area i s accomplished e n t i r e l y by the Kananaskis River which empties into Bow River at Seebe. The r i v e r , though not large, has been dammed at several points by Calgary Power Limited, and serves as a source of power for much of the surround area. The nearest dam to this area i s Barrie r Dam which i s located at Kananaskis Gap (Figure 1). The head of this dam l i e s just north of the northern edge of the map sheet. Within the map area the Kananaskis River has a grade of 1%, The two major tr i b u t a r y streams to the r i v e r are Wasootch Creek and Porcupine Creek. These are northward flowing, sub-parallel, subsequent streams which are i n a state of late youth i n some parts and early maturity i n others. They originate i n snowfields and springs on the high-er ridges and flow only weakly throughout most of the year. In the main branch of Wasootch Creek the v a l l e y f l o o r i s evenly a l l u v i a t e d and almost immediately soaks up any water delivered to i t from i t s t r i b u t a r i e s , and thus even i n spring the fast flowing east tr i b u t a r y f a i l e d to produce a flow of water along the main branch. During the f a l l of 1958 Por-cupine Creek contained water i n the lower reaches of both forks, between t h e i r junction and the highway, and i n the headwaters of the west branch. The subsequent nature of these two streams i s well displayed, p a r t i c u l a r l y by Wasootch Creek which i s straight for almost 6 miles (Figure 3» 4), and controlled by a f a u l t as much as by l i t h o l o g y . Along the main branch, lower F a i r -holme dolomite has been thrust over P a l l i s e r limestone. The Fairholme i s much less resistant than the P a l l i s e r and thi s weakness coupled with the fa u l t i n g has served to produce a belt of weakness along which the stream i s following, and slowly migrating i n a westward d i r e c t i o n . Because the region i s being eroded at a rapid rate due to the high maximum r e l i e f , small streams are cutting innumerable g u l l i e s into every slope. Streams which flow i n an eastward d i r e c t i o n , t r i b u t a r y to the two main creeks, and opposite to the dip of the beds, have been termed obsequent streams. These are short with steep gradients and i n this area are almost always dry. Those streams flowing i n the di r e c t i o n of the dips are designated resequent streams. These resequent and obsequent streams flowing into Wasootch Creek form an excellent example of t r e l l i s type of stream pattern near the head of the main branch, (Figure 3» 4 ) . The Kananaskis River i n i t s northward flowing course i s a subsequent stream, occupying the Mt. A l l a n syncline, and further south i t occupies a subsequent v a l l e y i n the Second Range. P e r i o d i c a l l y however i t turns sharply and cuts trans-versely across the f a u l t s and fault-blocks. This i s well demonstrated i n the Wasootch Creek area (Figure 4), where the Kananaskis River flows northward along the western border of the area, then turns abruptly and flows i n a northeastward d i r e c t i o n to a point just past the mouth of Porcupine Creek, where i t bends s l i g h t l y northward to p a r a l l e l the structure again u n t i l Kananaskis Gap i s reached, whereupon i t turns abruptly eastward at right angles to the front of the moun-tains and enters the f o o t h i l l s . The o r i g i n of these trans-verse valleys poses a d i f f i c u l t question and i t has not been 14 decided whether they are due to an antecedent or superimposed stream. Because of the r e l a t i v e l y youthful stages of the tri b u t a r y streams to the Kananaskis River no terraces have been b u i l t by them, the only terraces present are those i n the main r i v e r v a l l e y . Terraces are not too well developed i n the v a l l e y at the western side of the area but i n the trans-verse v a l l e y south of Mt. Lorette they are quite conspicuous. The r i v e r here i s cutting i t s southern bank where only a narrow terrace i s present. A higher, older terrace i s present however on the west side of V7asootch Creek, at present occupied by swampy ground on which the highway i s b u i l t . A well developed terrace i s present along the base of Mt. Lorette and upon i t three a l l u v i a l cones have formed at the mouths of Lorette Creek, the small gully i n the centre of the south face of the mountain, and the creek east of Mt. Lorette. The r i v e r swings toward the north side of the v a l l e y at the mouth of Porcupine Creek and has l e f t only a narrow but well de-veloped terrace at the base of the southern end of Heart Mountain, but a wide terrace south of the r i v e r between Porcupine Creek and the northern edge of the map. The only muskeg i n this area i s i n the Kananaskis Valley where beaver have dammed small streams. No muskeg is present anywhere i n the mountainous part of the region. G l a c i a t i o n 15 At the present time there are no glaciers i n t h i s part of the Rocky Mountains but evidence of Pleistocene g l a c i a t i o n i s abundant, though more s t r i k i n g l y developed i n the Second Range west of the Mt. A l l a n syncline. There, numerous well developed amphlitheatre-like cirques are present at the heads of most v a l l e y s . Cirque-like basins are present but not well formed i n the Wasootch Creek area and evidence for g l a c i a l action comes from other g l a c i a l features. In the Kananaskis Va l l e y g l a c i a l scouring and rounding are much i n evidence on the more exposed parts, i n p a r t i c u l a r where i t trends o b l i q u i l y across the ranges. Mygdal (1956) explains that the mountains of the Bow drainage basin had acquired approximately their present shape before the l a s t g l a c i a l period, and that the changes brought about by the gl a c i e r s were rather minor i n comparison to the major dimensions of the mountains. In the Second Range where the Kananaskis River flows northward i n a subsequent v a l l e y an excellent U-shaped va l l e y has been formed and i s best observed by looking south along the highway about 6 miles south from Boundary Cabin. In the Wasootch Creek area Crockford (1949) examined well developed roches moutonees i n the valleys of Lorette and Evans-Thomes Creeks. G l a c i a l e r r a t i c s were found by him as high as 7,500 feet. On either side of Wasootch Creek g l a c i a l e r r a t i c s are present at elevations above 6,000 feet at points where the valley f l o o r i s 5>000 feet i n elevation. Most of 16 the creek v a l l e y appears to have been somewhat g l a c i a l l y scoured, and probably Porcupine Ridge was larg e l y covered with i c e . It has been thought that the character of the great peaks of the ranges i n the Rocky Mountains show that the C o r d i l l e r a n ice-sheet did not pass d i r e c t l y over them, but was confined to the v a l l e y s . Valley glaciers near Banff may have been as much as 2,000 feet thick '(Mygdal 1956), and i n the Wasootch Creek area they may have been on the order of 1,000 feet. In the Kananaskis V a l l e y g l a c i a l deposits do not form a continuous layer but are present only l o c a l l y . The only good deposit of g l a c i a l t i l l found was exposed i n a r i v e r terrace on the south side of the main v a l l e y , at the north end of Lac des Arcs Ridge (Figures 3, 4). 17 STRATIGRAPHY Introductory Statement The formations present i n the Wasootch Creek area range i n age from Middle Cambrian to Lower T r i a s s i c and a l l are of marine o r i g i n . The Cambrian and Upper Devonian f o r -mations are represented by limestones and dolomites. The Mississippian which i s more varied i n l i t h o l o g y contains fine e l a s t i c s i n the lower part, limestones i n the middle part, and s i l i c e o u s carbonates i n the upper part. The Permian st r a t a are mostly calcareous and dolomitic sand-stones. The T r i a s s i c i s represented by one small o u t l i e r of dolomitic s i l t s t o n e . Most of the formations thicken to the north and west, and because of eastward truncations the Permian and T r i a s s i c formations are confined to the mountains proper. Three major unconformities are present within the stratigraphic succession. The f i r s t , the sub-Devonian un-conformity, separates the Upper Devonian from Upper Cambrian. The second forms the boundary between the Mississippian and Middle Permian, and the t h i r d divides the Mesozoic from the Paleozoic. A table of the formations present i n the Wasootch Creek area and the history of their development i s given i n Table I. McConnell 1 8 3 7 to u cO c o hO d C co Upper Banff Shale Dowling 1 9 0 7 E H i Upper Banff Shale Shimer 1 9 1 3 d CD a. Upper Banff Shale A l l a n 1 9 1 4 e d CD p* Upper Banff Shale Kindle 1924 E H Spray-R i v e r Walcott 1924 Shimer 1 9 2 6 EH Spray R i v e r Warren 1927 EH ^pray R i v e r McKay 1 9 3 5 Spray R i v e r Warren 1 9 3 7 EH Spray R i v e r Beach 1 9 4 3 C l a r k 1 9 4 9 d EH Spray R i v e r DeWit & McLaren 1 9 5 0 Douglas 1 9 5 0 EH Spray R i v e r Douglas 1 9 5 3 McLaren 1 9 5 5 Warren 1 9 5 6 E H Spray R i v e r Raasch 1 9 5 6 u E H Spray R i v e r Morris 1 9 5 8 u EH Spray R i v e r Douglas 1 9 5 8 E H Spray R i v e r Wasootch Creek u E H Spray R i v e r t h i c k n e s s ( f e e t ) 6 0 0 • r i CO d CQ O cfl !> ft CD n CQ 3 o o -P uCD «H •H d o ,o CO o d •H d O > CD PS Upper Banff Limestone Rocky Mountain Q u a r t z i t e Lower Banff Shale CO o u CD <H • r i d o d CO O Upper B a n f f Limestone d cO • r i a c0 > rH >» CQ C d CD Rocky Mountain Rocky Mountain Upper Banff Limestone Lower Banff Shale CO CO • r i f=H Lower Banff Shale CO o d a) <H •H d o d cO O Upper Banff Limestone Lower Banff Shale Lower Banff Limestone Lower Banff . Limestone Lower Banff Limestone Lower Banff Limestone Intermediate Limestone d CO • r i d o > Intermediate S e r i e s c CO • r i d o > CD O Intermediate Limestone d CO • r i d o > CD Intermediate Limestone d CO • r i d CO > >> CO c © a , CO CO • r i d c0 •H d o > CD Rocky Mountain e u CD Rocky Mountain Q u a r t z i t e d c CD OH Rocky Mountain Q u a r t z i t e d d CD OH Rocky Mountain d d CD PH Rocky Mountain Q u a r t s i t e d CD P . I • S P-, Rocky Mountain d d CD a . Rocky Mountain • OH 13 ky d o CD o Rundle d » d co CD CQ Pn - r i e g Rundle O- CO d co d -H Pn Rundle CQ d co CD S P* 08 Rundle Banff Shale CO CO • r i Banff CO CO • r i Banff to CO • r i Banff Banff Limestone & Dolomite > CD (=3 Loafer h a l f M. Dev? d cfl •H d o > CD Pipestone d CO •H d o > CD Minnewanka Me ss i n e s d cO •H d o > HH Minnewanka d cO • r i d o > CD a Minnewanka Ghost R i v e r ? Ghost R i v e r • CO CO • r i • S Rundle c 8 • d co d CO d) •H P i Rundle CO CO • r i 1-1 Banff CO CO • r i Banf i d cO • r i ft ft •ri CO CO • r i CO CO • r i Rundle Banff d as • r i •H CQ CQ • r i CO CO • r i S D c Rundle g A CD • rH CO CO d •ri s 03 Norquay Mountain Tunnel Mountain CD a . o o Pi Storm Creek Norquay d e~ PH g • d 10 CD CO OH •H o o Mt, Head Livingstone Banff d cO •H ft ft • r i CO tQ • r i CO to •H •=-< CD r H d Upper Unit Todhunter d d CD OH Rocky Mountain E t h e r i n g t o n Mt. Head L i v i n g s t o n e Banff d co •ri A CH •H to to •H CO CO •ri CD r H d PH Stherington Mt. Head Liv i n g s t o n e Banff s CD OH d CO •ri ft ft •H CQ 10 • H CQ to •H 43 f=-4 o o PH-CD rH d PH-Storm Creek 625 Norquay Mt, Head L i v i n g s t o n e 6 0 0 1 3 0 0 Banff 900 Exshaw Exshaw 22 U H Exshaw Exshaw Exshaw d cfl •H d o > CD a c8 Minnewanka d CO •H d o s> CD c43 C-o J=5 P a l l i s e r Fairholme c CO •H d o > CD O ?H CD ft ft M? D. P a l l i s e r Fairholme Ghost R i v e r d CO •H d o > CD n CD ft ft Exshaw u CD CQ •H rH r H CO a, Costigan Morro Alexo u •ri CO CM Upper c cO •H d o > CD CD PH ft t o Lower Exshaw Exshaw u to •H rH rH Cfl PH Costigan CD P a l l i s e r > CD o PaL l i s e r Morro Belyea & McLaren 1 9 5 7 Alexo CD s r H O - d u •ri CO Southesk d co •rl d o > CD a C a i r n Alexo CD s r H o X ! 5H •H CO CM Mt, Hawk d co •H d o > CD o 5H CD ft ft U CD CQ • r i r H rH CO AH Costigan 300 - 900 Morro Alexo 1 4 1 P e r d r i x Flume 0 s r H O X! U •ri cfl CM Southesk 1 3 0 0 C a i r n CO o C a s t l e Mt. Group Bow Ro Gp. Sawback Limestone Sawback Ghost R i v e r Sawback M.C. Fm, C. Cathedral »B,T "A" Cathedral? Ghost R i v e r (Arctomys) 0 - 4 9 a cO O Upper l l d o n - P i k a 1 0 0 0 Lower Eldon Table I * Comparative c o r r e l a t i o n chart of the formations i n the Rocky Mountain Front Range of southern A l b e r t a 1 8 PALEOZOIC Cambrian Pika and Eldon Formations NAME AND HISTORY: The Eldon formation was originally-defined by Walcott (1908) as "Massive, arenaceous, dolomitic limestones, with a few bands of purer b l u i s h gray limestone," which he assigned to the Middle Cambrian and designated the type l o c a l i t y north of Eldon Switch on Castle Mountain. The formation was redefined i n 1928 and the thickness altered. Deiss (1939) states that the formation i s actually much thinner than Walcott reported and that i t i s nearly a pure dolomite. He amended the d e f i n i t i o n and thickness to include 1,015 feet of massive, thick bedded dolomites forming shear grey c l i f f s . The Pika formation was proposed by Deiss ( 1 9 3 9 ) for 550 feet of dolomite, limestone and minor shale which Walcott had o r i g i n a l l y included i n the upper Eldon. DeWit (1956) correlated the Cambrian rocks i n the eastern part of the Fairholme Mountains at Loder Lime Plant with the Eldon formation, which he subdivided into Upper and Lower units, the Upper Eldon he believed might ac t u a l l y be the Pika. THICKNESS: The Upper Eldon or Pika as measured by DeWit (1956) t o t a l l e d 2 8 8 feet 8 inches, and a p a r t i a l section of Lower Eldon was given as 76 feet. In the eastern part of the Wasootch Creek area a c o r r e l a t i v e section of the lower part of the Upper Eldon or Pika of DeWit i s approximately 65 feet. The difference i n the thickness between these sections i s due to post-Cambrian erosion. The Lower Eldon c o r r e l a t i v e on the north side of Pass Creek probably approaches 800 to 900 feet, but i s believed to be faulted at the base. GENERAL CHARACTER AND DISTRIBUTION: From Kananaskis Gap northward Cambrian st r a t a are exposed above the McConnell fa u l t to beyond Ghost River and define the front of the mountains. South of Kananaskis River Devonian P a l l i s e r rocks form the f r o n t a l scarp of the mountains (Beach 1943). In the Wasootch Creek area Cambrian st r a t a are ex-posed above Porcupine and West McConnell f a u l t s , and i n the easternmost part of the region. The exposure above the West McConnell fa u l t i s believed a d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i v e of the Cambrian at Loder Lime Plant examined by DeWit. The strata here correlated with the Lower Eldon con-s t i t u t e the greater part of the range east of Porcupine Creek but cannot be considered as extending to the front of the mountains since Beach (1943) mapped Devonian P a l l i s e r above the McConnell f a u l t outside the map area and i n the Wasootch Creek area there was i n s u f f i c i e n t time to examine the formations to substantiate his findings. It i s quite c e r t a i n however that a fa u l t does exist i n the v a l l e y of the north fork of Pass Creek, where Cambrian beds may f a u l t over Devonian. The upper contact of these Cambrian s t r a t a , which may 20 be examined at several l o c a l i t i e s , are perhaps the most int e r e s t i n g since the superjacent Ghost River formation i s sometimes missing. The most accessible exposure of the Upper Eldon or Pika beds i s on the north side of Pass Creek i n the westernmost tr i b u t a r y . The Lower Eldon i s also best studied on the north side of Pass Creek. Near the head of Wasootch Creek below the Ghost River section the entire Cambrian ex-posure can be e a s i l y examined. R e l a t i v e l y good exposure of the upper beds are present midway along the top of the ridge between the main branches of Porcupine Creek. The Upper Eldon or Pika i n this region consists t y p i c a l l y of black, dense limestone i n thin to thick beds, with extremely prominent and d i s t i n c t ochre-brown or orange-brown mottling and banding. The Lower Eldon is a uniform, black, l i g h t grey weathering, c l i f f - f o r m i n g limestone character-ized by dolomitic mottling' and banding. These two units were found to be both t r a n s i t i o n a l over a narrow zone and i n sharp contact. The uppermost beds may or may not be t r a n s i t i o n a l into the overlying Ghost River. LITHOLOGY: The lowermost beds of the Devonian Cairn formation i n this region consist of black, fine-grained lime-stone which may not be re a d i l y distinguished from the Upper Eldon or Pika units. The presence of the Ghost River a l l e v -iates this trouble, but where this formation i s absent through pre-Devonian erosion, the problem i s enhanced since uncon-formities i n the Rocky Mountains are commonly represented by 21 bedding surfaces. DeWit and McLaren (1950) f a i l e d to f i n d on Roche Miette an i n d i c a t i o n of a clear break anywhere i n the succession from undoubted Cambrian s t r a t a to Devonian. Similar-l y on the ridge between the main forks of Porcupine Creek, a detailed section from lower Fairholme through to Lower Eldon, f a i l e d to reveal clear evidence of an hiatus of the magnitude known to be present. At the top of the ridge the lower Cairn consists of a massive unit of black, vuggy dolomite containing stromato-poroids, below which i s a t h i n zone of black dolomite con-taining black chert and stromatoporoids which overly a 7 foot zone containing many stromatoporoids. Underlying t h i s i s 19 feet of t y p i c a l black, bedded Cairn dolomite and from this unit the following section continues downwards: Unit 1 2. 3 . 4. Fairholme Dolomite, black, fine to medium-grained, even textured, dark weathering, contains Amphipora  Thickness Covered i n t e r v a l Limestone, black, organic, very f i n e -grained, l i g h t grey weathering, dolomite gives a rough weather-ed surface, thin 6 inch beds . . Limestone, Black, fine-grained, even texture, brachiopods and stromatoporoids 3' from top, upper 3' contain dolomite that weathers to a porous ir r e g u l a r tracery that grades down to banding for 2 '. Lower 2' i s black, fine limestone with f i n e dolomitic laminations, somewhat s i l t y and very t h i n l y bedded, then becomes thicker bedded for l 1 with fewer laminations 22 Unit 5. 6 . Fairholme Covered i n t e r v a l Thickness 7. Limestone, black, fine-grained, highly-organic, dolomitic, some highly-i r r e g u l a r stromatoporoids, s i l i c i f i e d , very abundant . . . Limestone, black, dense, p e l l e t limestone, dark weathering, weathered sur-face has a very rough, spongy-porous texture Upper Eldon or Pika 8. Dolomite, l i g h t grey, l i g h t tan-grey weathering, very fine-grained. A fresh surface reveals many small, very fine-grained d o l -omite p e l l e t s and chips of dark color, interbedded i n a l i g h t e r and coarser, clear dolomite matrix, flowage suggested i n thin section, thick beds, grad-at i o n a l downwards 10. Dolomite, black, very fine to dense, med-ium grey weathering, coarse, buff-brown, even bands weather-ing i n r e l i e f , that change to 1' of dense, medium grey weather-ing limestone with buff mott-l i n g , grades down rapidly . . . calcareous, l i g h t grey, l i g h t tan-grey weathering, very fine-grained, grades rapidly down 11, Limestone, black, dense, medium grey weathering, ochre-brown mott-l i n g and banding. Continues i n t h i n (1") to thick beds, with orange-brown mottling and irr e g u l a r banding interbedded with medium grey weathering, t h i n bedded, black limestones that are e s s e n t i a l l y unmottled or banded. Some intense mott-l i n g stands out i n high and very conspicuous r e l i e f . . . 60' 23 Unit Upper Eldon or Pika Thickness 12. Limestone, black, dense, only par-t i a l l y mottled, a trans-i t i o n a l zone 3 13. Lower Eldon Limestone, black, very fine-grained to dense, medium grey to l i g h t grey weathering, much dark dolomitic mottling i n very d i s t i n c t bands, thick to medium bedded, forms a shear c l i f f 100+1 As mentioned previously the Cambrian-Devonian contact was not observable i n the f i e l d so that i n order to detect the disconformity a l l samples were thin-sectioned and two important discoveries were made. F i r s t and perhaps most s i g n i f i c a n t was the finding of a number of cross sections of small t r i l o b i t e s i n the mottled limestones of unit 11, which prompted the close scrutiny of hand specimens which lead to the finding of a single agnostid t r i l o b i t e of the genus Pseudagnostus? which proves the age of these beds as Middle-Upper Cambrian. Secondly unit 8 was found to be f i n e l y brecciated with strong indications of flowage, and unit 7 to be a rather f i n e , p e l l e t and fragmental limestone. Although i t i s admitted that these c r i t e r e a do not necessarily indicate an unconformity they are the only two units which d i f f e r markedly from the remainder of the units above and below. Since units 8 to 13 a l l appear to be gradational, and a dolo-mite such as that in unit 8 was nowhere observed at the base 24 of the Fairholme, the Cambrian-Devonian contact was placed at the top of the unit. The Lower Eldon was examined along the base of the mountain on the north side of Pass Creek, where the entire ex-posure i s observable along the top of a talus slope. The greater part of the formation i s thick to massively bedded and re a d i l y forms high c l i f f s . The lower parts are s t r i k i n g l y banded with th i n layers of dark weathering dolomite which contrasts well with the l i g h t grey weathering of the limestone (Figures 9 - 1 2 ) , which i s almost e n t i r e l y black, very f i n e grained to dense, and even textured. Many of the dolomitic layers are quite regular with only minor ramifying extensions, and some show primary flow structures. About 100 to 200 feet from the top of the formation the dolomitic layers change i n character to much more ir r e g u l a r segregations referred to as mottling. The bedding also becomes much thinner nearer the top and the uppermost beds are very t h i n l y bedded, i n part argillaceous, and end abruptly at a d i s t i n c t bedding surface. Above th i s plane are a few feet of variously bedded, black, dense, limestones with a very conspicuous l i n e a r dolomitic mottling. This i n turn i s overlain by the ochre-brown mottled, medium grey weathering, black limestones of the Upper Eldon or Pika. The Lower Eldon exposed above the Porcupine f a u l t i s very much di f f e r e n t from that just described, for i t appears to have been almost completely dolomitized. At the northern 25 end of Porcupine Ridge mottling i s much i n evidence but i s not so strongly developed, and the beds as a whole are dolom-i t i c . At the southern end of the ridge below the Ghost River section the formation i s e n t i r e l y medium to very dark grey, i n part vuggy dolomite, greatly resembling parts of the Devonian Fairholme. PALEONTOLOGY AND AGE: Walcott (1908b) stated that on Mount Bosworth the Eldon contained the t r i l o b i t e genera Ogygopsis and Bathyuriscue and o r i g i n a l l y dated the formation on Castle Mountain as Middle Cambrian. Deiss (1939) reported only unrecognizable - algae (Girvanella?) from the Eldon on Castle Mountain. Deiss (1939) defined the Pika formation on the basis of i t s d i f f e r i n g l i t h o l o g i c character from the Eldon and also because i t contained an undescribed Upper Cambrian fauna older than the Cedaria fauna of lower Dresbachian i n the lower f i f t h . He tentat i v e l y placed the Upper-Middle Cambrian boundary at the Pika-Eldon contact. H.W. Shimer (1926) assigned his Cathedral formation, which i s probably DeWit's Lower Eldon, to the Middle Cambrian. Beach (1943) collected t r i l o b i t e s of the genus Ehmania of Middle Cambrian age from the middle part of his Formation D, which he suggested might be co r r e l a t i v e with the Ghost River formation. The lower 51% feet of this section however appears to be co r r e l a t i v e with the Lower Eldon or Porcupine Creek, and i t was from the upper beds of this unit that the t r i l o b i t e s 26 were co l l e c t e d . The 78 foot unit above may represent the Upper Eldon or Pika. Clark (1949) who correlated the Cambrian i n the front of the range with the Middle Cambrian Cathedral f o r -mation, collected t r i l o b i t e s 35 to 40 feet below the base of the Ghost River formation that probably represents the same zone from which Beach collected f o s s i l s . The generally accepted practice i s however to place the Middle-Upper Cambrian contact at the top of the Pika, and for the purpose of this paper that usage w i l l be followed. No f o s s i l s were found i n the Cambrian i n the Wasootch Creek area except for the cephalon of an agnostid t r i l o b i t e , probably Pseudagnostus which ranges from Middle to Upper Cambrian. PALEOZOIC Cambrian Ghost River (Arctomys) Formation NAME AND HISTORY: The Ghost River formation was re-ferred to by McConnell (1887) as a li g h t - y e l l o w i s h , s i l i c e o u s band, varying i n thickness from 100 to 400 feet, near the base of the Fairholme. L i t t l e consideration was given i t u n t i l Walcott (1921) proposed the name Ghost River for 285 feet of largely buff-yellow weathering variagated shales, s i l t s and dolomites. Walcott immediately recognized the 27 p o s s i b i l i t y of either a Devonian or Cambrian age of the beds since they were conformable with the overlying and underlying formations. In the years that followed both a Cambrian and Devonian age have been assigned the Ghost River. Recently DeWit (1956) stated "The li t h o l o g y of the Arctomys formation i s i d e n t i c a l with part of the Ghost River," and that "It now seems apparent that the lower unit of the Ghost River does f i t quite well into the Cambrian sequence, and that i t can l o g i c -a l l y be correlated with the well known Arctomys formation..." DISTRIBUTION AND THICKNESSt In the Front Ranges of the Rocky Mountains Upper Devonian s t r a t a regionally truncate southwestward dipping Cambrian and Ordovician formations by what i s ca l l e d the sub-Devonian unconformity. L i t t l e or no angular discordance i s v i s i b l e and the magnitude of the hiatus i s evaluated from faunal and str a t i g r a p h i c evidence. In the easternmost part of the Front Range, Devonian rests d i r e c t l y on Middle Cambrian units while farther west Ordo-v i c i a n formations underly the Devonian. This regional trun-cation coupled with an eastward thinning of the formations which are broken into a great many northwestward trending fa u l t s l i c e s makes a study of the sub-Devonian very complicated. The thickness of the Ghost River i s highly v a r i a b l e , i n part due to pre-Devonian erosion, i n part because d i f f e r e n t writers assign beds to the formation which i n r e a l i t y belong to other units. In the Wasootch Creek area the Ghost River i s not everywhere present. At the north end of Porcupine Ridge 28 i t i s poorly exposed but may approach 100 feet i n thickness. At the southern end of the ridge an excellent exposure of the formation i s present i n a small t r i b u t a r y to the east fork of Wasootch Creek 4jjf miles upstream from the highway (Figure 1 3 ) . At this l o c a l i t y i t i s 53^' thick but soon thins to zero along s t r i k e . In the easternmost part of the area above and below the West McConnell fa u l t the Ghost River i s e n t i r e l y absent. LITH0L0GY: In the Wasootch Creek area the Ghost River consists of pale green to yellowish-buff, thin to very t h i n l y bedded, fine-grained, n o n - s i l t y dolomite. Thin layers of maroon-red and green dolomite give the measured section a variagated appearance but these colors are l o c a l and can disappear within a few feet. Of p a r t i c u l a r interest i s the absence of s i l t i n the section on Wasootch Creek. Elsewhere the formation i s characterized by i t s s i l t and sand content which often form sandstone layers. Although s i l t i s e n t i r e l y lacking the dolomite i s probably somewhat argillaceous. The dolomite i s fine-grained to dense and usually evenly textured. Thin sections reveal that It consists of many dolomite rhom-bohedra set i n a c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e matrix. At the head of Wasootch Creek the upper part of the Pika-Eldon formation i s a fine-grained, even textured, medium grey dolomite i n t h i n beds with highly undulatory surfaces. Upwards this apparently grades into a buff weathering, f i n e -grained, buff-yellow dolomite i n t h i n to very thin beds, 3 to 29 4 feet thick, that contain many angular to sub-rounded frag-ments of the lower grey dolomite. The pebbles of t h i s con-glomerate range from \ to 4 inches which become f i n e r upwards and gradually disappear. L a t e r a l l y the conglomerate may be replaced by a few inches of fine-grained, l i g h t tan dolomite containing a few small fragments of dolomite, together with a small amount of s i l t . The contact with the underlying f o r -mation i s concordant although a peculiar fracture system below the l a t t e r l i t h o l o g y looks very much l i k e an angular uncon-formity. It i s believed that shallow water conditions are indicated by this conglomeratic zone and a small amount of erosion may have occurred during i t s formation. The uppermost unit consists of a breccia which was probably formed under shallow water conditions by the fragmentation of the underly-ing very t h i n l y bedded, platy limestone (Figure 14). Because of i t s th i n bedded and i n part argillaceous character, the formation i s r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y eroded and good exposure i s not common. Where i t i s exposed however, i t forms an excellent marker horizon for mapping purposes because of the contrast i n color with the adjacent formations. The following section was measured near the head of Wasootch Creek: Unit Thickness Total from base 1 0-11' Limestone, breccia, yellowish-buff weathering, composed of fragments and chips of the underlying unit, separ-ated by an 8" t r a n s i t i o n zone, lower surface s l i g h t -l y undulatory 42^ 5 3 ^ 30 Unit Thickness 8 10 2£-2' 2' Total from base Limestone, greenish-yellow, tan-yellow weathering, thin bedded, platy, a r g i l l -aceous recessive . . . . Dolomite, pale green, pale yellow-green weathering, dense, even textured, fi n e to sugary, middle *' yellow-tan dolomite, greatly fractured into long s p l i n -t e r s , lower 4" green d o l -omite that crumbless into small chips Dolomite, dense to very f i n e , even textured, variagated, dark red to maroon, tan-yellow, i n thin alternating layers, t h i n green shale parting . 1*' Dolomite, dense, pale green at very Dolomite, Dolomite, Dolomite, Dolomite, top, rest i s fine-grained, sugary, greenish-yellow , , dense, even textured, alter-ating red and green to pale green very fine-grained, dark red to dark maroon, with dark grey-green, fine patches . , dense even textured, a l t e r -nating red with tan-yellow weathering pale green i n % - 1' zones fine-grained to dense, thin alternating layers of pale green and dark reds-maroon with f i n e green mottling, *' of l i g h t grey-white, fine dolomite Dolomite, f i n e , even textured, dark red-maroon, at top w i t h *' green 42* 38* 36 30 28* 26* 24* 17* 14* 31 Unit Thickness T o t a l from base 11 1' Dolomite, f i n e , even textured, sp l i n t e r y fracture, upper green, lower red . , . 12^-' 12 2' Dolomite, fi n e dark red-maroon, rusty-brown weathering 11^-' 13 1' Dolomite, very t h i n l y bedded, three alternations of green and red 9 -^' 14 1' Covered i n t e r v a l 8^-' 15 1' Dolomite, fi n e grained, even textured lower half pale green, upper half dark red-maroon with small i r r e g u l a r green mottlings which weather / to tan-yellow 7% x 16 4' Covered i n t e r v a l 6 -^' 17 %x Limestone, fine-grained, grey breccia, unrelated to rest of li t h o l o g y 2£« 18 1' Dolomite, fine-grained, even textured very t h i n l y bedded, tan, tan-yellow weathering . . . 2' 19 %* Dolomite, dense, bluish-green, even textured, hard, tan weathering I 1 20 Dolomite, fine-grained, l i g h t tan, containing a few small frag-ments of the underlying grey dolomite, very s l i g h t l y s i l t y Underlying formation - Pika-Eldon Dolomite, medium to fine-grained, medium grey, medium grey weathering, medium to thick bedded with thin partings. 32 PALEONTOLOGY AND AGE: The Ghost River formation i s t y p i c a l l y barren of f o s s i l s so that i t s age and co r r e l a t i o n must be based e n t i r e l y upon l i t h o l o g i c and str a t i g r a p h i c evidence. It was p a r t l y on this basis that deWit (1956) sub-divided the Ghost River i n the Bow Valley region into an upper basal Devonian unit and a lower unit correlated with and designated as the Arctomys formation of lowermost Upper Cambrian age. Because the str a t a underlying the Ghost River i n the Wasootch Creek area are believed c o r r e l a t i v e with the Pika-Eldon of deWit i n the Fairholme Mountains, the Ghost River i s also believed c o r r e l a t i v e with the Arctomys formation i n that area. PALEOZOIC Devonian Fairholme Group NAME AND HISTORY: To the dark brownish-black and l i g h t grey dolomites below the prominent limestone c l i f f s of the P a l l i s e r , McConnell (1887) gave the name Intermediate Limestone which apparently included the Alexo and Ghost River, and to. which he assigned a Devonian age (Table I ) . This name persisted u n t i l 1924 when Kindle combined the present day Fairholme, Alexo and P a l l i s e r into the Banff Limestone and Dolomite. Walcott (1924) proposed the name Messines for equivalent beds of the Intermediate Limestone on Mount Messines at the head of Glacier Lake Canyon, and to which he assigned a Middle Devonian age. Nowhere i n the l i t e r a t u r e has a statement been found to invalidate this term, and i t should t e c h n i c a l l y therefore have p r i o r i t y as a v a l i d formational name. Shimer (1926) proposed the Minnewanka formation for the Fairholme, Alexo and P a l l i s e r , a name used u n t i l Beach (194-3) proposed the term Fairholme, from the Fariholme Moun-tains, for the o r i g i n a l Intermediate Limestone of McConnell, exclusive of the Ghost River. DeWit and McLaren (1950) ex-cluded the Alexo from the Fairholme, and McLaren (1955) raised the formation to group status by the subdivision of the F a i r -holme into two d i s t i n c t formations, the Southesk and Cairn. Belyea (1955) extended the Fairholme Group to include the carbonate sequence i n the subsurface of the southern Alberta Pla i n s . Two major facies are present i n the Fairholme Group i n Alberta, a carbonate reef or bank f a c i e s , and a dominant-l y c l a s t i c , shale or basinal f a c i e s . The c l a s t i c facies i s t y p i c a l l y developed north of the Bow Valley region and has undergone a similar nomenclatural development to the carbonate f a c i e s . Raymond (1930) proposed among other formations a basal Flume of Middle Devonian age and Perdrix of Upper De-vonian. DeWit and McLaren (1950) adopted Raymond's e a r l i e r formations and erected one new formation for the uppermost part of the sequence, the Mount Hawk. McLaren (1950) corre-34 lated the Mount Hawk and uppermost part of the Perdrix f o r -mations with the Southesk formation, and the major part of the Perdrix and the Flume with the Cairn. Belyea and McLaren (1956, 1957) however correlate the Perdrix and Flume with the Cairn and the Mount Hawk with the Southesk. Fox (1951) pro-posed the Cheviot formation to include the Alexo and Mount Hawk as members. In the Wasootch Creek area the carbonate fac i e s i s excellen t l y developed and the Fairholme Group i s re a d i l y d i v i s i b l e into the Southesk and Cairn formations. THICKNESS: In the Bow Valley area there seems to be a general eastward thinning of the carbonate f a c i e s . On Sulphur Mountain i t reaches a maximum for t h i s region of 1,672 feet, whereas on the southeastern end of Mt. Rundle at Whitemans Pass, McLaren (1955) reports 1,244 feet, and Fox (1954) measured 1,203 feet. At Lac des Arcs i n the Bow Valley the Fairholme i s 1,050 feet, and atLoder's Lime K i l n i t i s re-ported to be 1,090 (Taylor 1957) and also 1,188 feet. DeWit (1953) however reports 1,314 feet at Loder 1s Lime K i l n . In the easternmost part of the Front Range Clark (1949) measured 1,300 feet. Eastward at Moose Dome the Fairholme has thinned to between 1,100 and 1,200 feet. Good sections of Fairholme are not present i n the Wasootch Creek area so that estimations of thickness must be extrapolated from the Bow Valley area. Although the thick-nesses of correl a t i v e sections i n the Bow Valley are l i t t l e 35 more than 1,000 feet, the 1,300 feet measured by Clark (1949) is probably nearer the thickness of the Fairholme south of Kananaskis River. The formations probably th i n eastwardly somewhat because exposures occur on four fault-blocks which p a l i s p a s t i c a l l y may represent a distance several times the present distance between sections at the western and eastern parts of the area. DISTRIBUTION AND GENERAL CHARACTER: The Fairholme is known throughout the Front Range from the Crowsnest area to the Peace River area, and throughout the Plains regions of Alberta. The carbonate facies i s t y p i c a l l y developed i n the mountains from the Wasootch Creek area to the North Ram River, northwestward i n the Mt. Coleman area, and i n the easternmost ranges from Wapiabi Creek to Mt. MacKenzie. In the Front Range area of the North Saskatchewan River a c l a s t i c facies i s present, and northwest and west of the Mountain Park area to the Athabasca River region the Fairholme i s represented by the c l a s t i c f a c i e s . South of the Bow Valley region the Fairholme has been l i t t l e studied but i n the Crows-nest Pass area a c l a s t i c facies begins to appear (DeWit 1953). The carbonate Fairholme i s considered to have been deposited i n shallow water and to have consisted predominantly of material formed from the growth and destruction of form-building organisms, as well as other carbonates influenced by the proximity of organic growth. De f i n i t e reefs as well as 1 r e e f a l - b u i l d u p s 1 were present i n both d e f i n i t e l i n e a r trends and as i r r e g u l a r l y scattered growths on very extensive, shallow platforms. No evidence of a shore-line has been found i n the Eastern Rockies and the nature of the sediments was e n t i r e l y controlled by the depth of water, and the rate of subsidence, among the most important factors i n reef development, and i n some areas by the amount of c l a s t i c material brought into the area. The c l a s t i c facies represent basinal areas between the carbonate banks which received varying amounts of mud and s i l t although limestone and dolomite are the dominant l i t h o l o g i c types. Between the bank areas and c l a s t i c basins a certain amount of r e l i e f existed, although i t cannot have been great, so that deposition of e l a s t i c s was mostly prevented over the reef areas, and the carbonate facies usually are r e l a t i v e l y pure. According to Belyea (1956) subsidence seems to have been to the north and northwest away from the southeastern Alberta shelf. In a reef complex a d i s t i n c t i o n must be made between i n d i v i d u a l s t r u c t u r a l elements normally organic and the com-plex as a whole which may contain a high proportion of car-bonate e l a s t i c s . Several d i s t i n c t i v e l i t h o l o g i c types have been recognized i n the reef Fairholme which are: (1) black, bedded dolomite, f e t i d and bituminous, consisting l a r g e l y of stromatoporoids, Amphipora, and coral s , that i s commonest i n the Lower Cairn and Flume. (2) black, massive dolomite, bituminous, vuggy, la r g e l y or e n t i r e l y of stromatoporoids with subordinate Amphipora and corals, broadly l e n t i c u l a r , most common i n the Lower Fairholme, and often designated as 'black r e e f . (3) dark green and brown, bedded and massive dolomite, largely consisting of c o l o n i a l coral's, t y p i c a l l y developed i n the upper Fairholme. (4) black and grey, bedded dolomite, without obvious organic constituents, and presumably of d e t r i t a l o r i g i n . (5) l i g h t grey, massive dolomite, porous, vuggy, and frequently with a bituminous odor, without obvious structure, broadly l e n t i c u l a r , an important unit of the upper Fairholme, and often designated as 'white r e e f . The Cairn formation i s i n general somewhat more ex-tensive than the Southesk and at the margins of Southesk developments the Perdrix black shales and dark limestones overly the Cairn. The Cairn has been called a shoal reef, or a formation i n which reef growths develop i n i r r e g u l a r patches amidst submerged shoals of calcareous debris. In the Cairn, these patch reefs were larg e l y formed of stromatoporoids and Amphipora. The sediment was probably deposited i n f a i r l y shallow water into which small amounts of mud and s i l t were introduced. The very dark matrix of the Cairn usually leaves a bituminous residue after solution i n hydrochloric acid. The Cairn i s presently almost e n t i r e l y dolomite which i s believed to have secondarily replaced o r i g i n a l limestones. The main diagnostic features of the formation are i t s dark brown to black color, medium to thick and massive bedding, the very abundant traces of organic remains, p a r t i c u l a r l y stroma-toporoids, Amphipora and corals, and the common presence of a f e t i d odor when broken. McLaren (1955) states that there i s evidence of numerous breaks i n the succession, such as minor erosion surfaces, channelling, and sudden facies changes. 38 The Southesk on the other hand has been termed a bank reef, or a formation i n which large reef growths develop over submerged highs more or less completely surrounded by deeper water. These highs may be t e c t o n i c a l l y or s t r u c t u r a l l y con-t r o l l e d , so that the reefs are given a li n e a r trend. The Southesk i s believed to have been deposited, for the most part, i n very shallow water, and occassionally i t may have been ex-posed. Upper Fairholme sedimentation was i n i t i a t e d by small differences i n r e l i e f on the sea f l o o r allowing reefs to de-velop on the positive areas away from interference from c l a s t i c material. Evidence suggests that the white reefs i n the Southesk were formed by lime secreting and lime-trapping algae, probably i n very shallow water, for the reefs seem to be l a r g e l y algae when not dolomitized although they and the entire Southesk are almost always e n t i r e l y dolomitized. A l l reef growth ceased at the end of Mount Hawk and Southesk time when r e l i e f between reef and basin areas had almost vanished and p a r t i a l regression of the sea caused erosion i n some areas pr i o r to Alexo deposition. In contrast to the Cairn, the Southesk i s dominantly a l i g h t grey, coarse to medium grained, thick bedded to massive, often structureless dolomite, some-times with minor limestone. McLaren (1955) reported a middle coral bed member of a l i t h o l o g y s i m i l a r to the Cairn, which may extend beyond the l i m i t s of the formation below and i n t e r -finger with the Mount Hawk, as may the grey dolomites above. The Fairholme is exposed on each of the four main 39 f a u l t blocks i n the Wasootch Creek area but nowhere i s i t well exposed. It t y p i c a l l y outcrops on the eastern faces of the f a u l t block ridges and produces moderate to rather steep slopes that are always larg e l y vegetated. The lowermost and uppermost parts are the most resistant to erosion and on the west side of the ridge between the main branches of Porcupine Creek the lov/er Cairn i s prominently exposed, the upper Southesk to a lesser degree (Figure 4). The most r e a d i l y accessible and probably the best exposure of the entire f o r -mation i s on Porcupine Ridge, immediately east of Wasootch Creek, one mile southeast of the highway. There the Fairholme is exposed as many r e l a t i v e l y narrow, alternating exposed and covered intervals from which the general l i t h o l o g i c character of the formation may be determined. The recessive and covered interv a l s may represent s l i g h t l y argillaceous horizons. The Fairholme i n this region is r e l a t i v e l y easy to map because the dark brownish-black of the Cairn and l i g h t grey of the Southesk are very conspicuous from a distance and out-crops are usually rounded and subdued. In addition the formation i s low i n the st r a t i g r a p h i c sequence and commonly is exposed below timberline so that i t i s almost always vege-tated i n varying degrees, whereas most of the other Paleozoic formations are rarely vegetated. Also i n a normal sequence the Fairholme underlies a prominent P a l l i s e r c l i f f and over-l i e s the very conspicuous Ghost River or highly res i s t a n t Lower Eldon. 40 The upper contact of the Southest i s abrupt and non-gradational with the Alexo while the lower as previously discussed i s l o c a l l y disconformable but regionally unconform-able. LITHOLOGY: At the type l o c a l i t y the Southesk f o r -mation i s d i v i s i b l e into three members (McLaren 1955). The upper and lower members are l i g h t grey, medium to coarse-grained, thick to massively bedded, structureless dolomite, 202 and 281 feet respectively. A middle coral bed member, 45 feet thick, i s dark brownish grey, s l i g h t l y argillaceous, medium-grained, thick to massively bedded dolomite with abundant Amphipora. massive stromatoporoids, and cor a l s . In the section sampled on Porcupine Ridge the lower contact of the Southesk was taken at the base of the lowest thick bedded, 'very vuggy, l i g h t grey, medium-grained dolomite, about 15 feet thick, which has a § foot bed of black, f i n e -grained dolomite at the top containing Amphipora. The contact i s however gradational, i n most areas over some 20 to 50 feet. Near the middle of the formation i s a zone 20 to 30 feet thick that consists of dark brownish-black weathering, medium to fine-grained, even textured, vuggy, medium to t h i c k l y bedded, black dolomite that may correlate with the middle coral bed member of McLaren (1955). Immediately above and below are medium grey, fine-grained, l i g h t grey weathering, very even textured, structureless dolomites. Downward from t h i s middle unit to the base the lower unit consists of structureless, 41 l i g h t grey, medium to coarse-grained, even textured, well bedded, medium to thick dolomite, i n part with f i n e vugs. The upper unit s i m i l a r l y i s l i g h t grey, with some medium grey, medium and fine-grained, even textured, thick to medium bedded dolomite. The uppermost bed usually consists of a very coarse, very porous, l i g h t grey dolomite which because of i t s coarseness i s a f a i r l y r e l i a b l e marker. The bedding of the Southesk isanostly;'medium to thick, though some i s quite t h i n , but i t i s a l l very d i s t i n c t which suggests a r e l a t i v e l y f l a t , i n t e r - r e e f depositional area. Thin sections reveal that the dolomite consists of a mossaic of dolomite rhombohedra, often with scattered intergranular porosity. The dolomite i s com-pl e t e l y structureless and gives no hint of i t s o r i g i n a l tex-ture. On a weathered surface the dolomite has a saccharoidal or sandy appearance due to d i f f e r e n t i a l weathering of the dol-omite rhombs. Within the formation there are several 2 to 3 foot zones of dolomites which consist almost e n t i r e l y of Amphipora and may be black or l i g h t grey. Two very well developed reefs are present i n the Was-ootch Creek area, both of which are located at the eastern margin of the mapped area, east of the West McConnell Fault. One i s located on the west side of the mountain immediately north of Pass Creek and e a s i l y examined just east of the high-way i n the northernmost creek t r i b u t a r y to Kananaskis River. The second i s located near the headwaters of the east fork of Por-cupine Creek above and below the t h i n s l i c e of a n t i c l i n a l l y folded Ghost River. Both reefs are extremely massive, vuggy and the northern one i s very thick. 42 The Cairn formation at the type l o c a l i t y i s d i v i s i b l e into two members which are widely recognizable. The lower i s designated the cherty dolomite member (McLaren 1955) and consists of 101 feet of dark grey, fine to medium-grained dolomite, with nodules, bands and stringers of chert, abundant in the upper 70 feet. Some stromatoporoids occur i n the top 65 feet and Amphipora i s abundant i n the beds below. The upper or organic dolomite member i s 457 feet thick and con-s i s t s of grey to dark brownish grey to brown and black, medium grained dolomite, medium and thick bedded to massive and s l i g h t l y argillaceous, with very abundant traces of organic remains. The thicker and more massive units are la r g e l y com-posed of spheroidal stromatoporoids with scattered Amphipora and corals. Scattered c a l c i t e f i l l e d vugs occur and most beds emit a f e t i d odor when broken. Amphipora occur t y p i c a l l y i n d e f i n i t e thin units interbedded with thicker dolomites. Rapid alternations of these various types occur and the thick to massive stromatoporoidal developments appear to be broadly l e n t i c u l a r . The two members of McLaren may be said to be present in the Wasootch Creek area although the lower one i s not well developed and does not merit the designation of a member. Approximately 20 feet above the base i s a zone from 20 to 30 feet thick that consists of a brownish-black, fine-grained, even textured dolomite containing numerous stromatoporoids and many small, black chert nodules. The stromatoporoids vary i n s i z e from 1 foot to 1 inch and weather white and l i g h t grey (Figure 15.) The zone as a whole i s medium to thick bedded but many irr e g u l a r partings give i t a thin bedded appearance. In the easternmost part of the area t h i s zone i s only a few feet thick, and at the head of Wasootch Creek i t i s replaced by a sequence of dolomitic limestones approximately 15 feet thick. They are black, fine-grained and on a weathered surface t y p i c a l l y strongly laminated to banded from very thin layers of dolomite. The beds vary from * to 3 feet and s i x d i s t i n c t beds were sampled. The lowest bed i s not completely exposed but i s a dolomitic mottled limestone. Immediately above i s a 3 foot bed of strongly banded limestone which i n t h i n section i s found to be graded bedded. Below the chert and stroma-toporoidal unit i s a black dolomite which may contain numerous small, white specks 2 - 4 mm. long which give to a weathered surface a l i g h t grey color. Some medium to coarse dolomite contains coarse to fi n e sized white masses that may represent reworked fragments of Amphipora. Immediately above the chert unit i s a bed of black, even textured dolomite containing c r i n o i d columnals and some scattered s i l i c i f i e d corals. At the top of a 20 foot covered i n t e r v a l are more though fewer cri n o i d columnals. Near the base of the Cairn or Pass Creek are two thin zones of highly c r i n o i d a l , black dolomite which may be a single faulted bed. Most of the remainder of the Cairn consists of f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e , dark to very dark weathering, very even textured black dolomite, i n which are occassional th i n units of Amphipora. Some zones are s l i g h t l y l i g h t e r i n weathering colors than the majority of the beds, and some units are very vuggy. Much of the bedding i s f a i r l y even but some i s poor and massive. In the southeastern corner of the area below the Southesk reef, the Cairn i s extremely well bedded, most beds being thin to medium. In the upper part of the formation, perhaps 100 feet from the Southesk i s a 'black r e e f unit about 50 feet thick, consisting of black, fine-grained, even textured, dark weathering dolomite with extremely rough, i r r e g u l a r , vuggy weathered surfaces (Figure 16). Some Amphipora i s present and most stromatoporoids that were present have been leached out. Above th i s unit, 3 to 5 foot layers of grey weathering, grey dolomite, medium to fine-grained, alternate with black dolomite. One such layer i s 1 foot thick and consists of grey, very f i n e , even textured, dolomite, d i s t i n c t l y l i g h t e r weathering than the thin Amphipora zones on.either side. Several feet below the top of the formation i s a bed of brecciaabout 5 feet thick, that i s medium to l i g h t grey weathering and consists of an upper 1 foot of fine breccia with fragments \ to and a lower 4 feet of coarse breccia with fragments 1 to l\ inch. It i s generally massive and non-bedded. The breccia fragments are dark, brown-grey do l -omite, fine-grained, well c r y s t a l l i z e d to a mossaic of rhombs, and surrounded by a granular matrix of clear, white c a l c i t e . The whole mass Is very porous and crumbles r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y . Above a 20 to 30 foot covered i n t e r v a l i s a 15 foot unit of medium bedded, black, Amphipora dolomite that becomes li g h t e r near the top. Above this i s the lower l i g h t grey, t h i c k l y bedded dolomite of the Southesk formation. PALEONTOLOGY AND AGE: The Fairholme group i s gener-a l l y highly f o s s i l i f e r o u s but only i n the c l a s t i c f a c i e s . Any f o s s i l s that may be present i n the dolomitized carbonate sequence are usually too poorly preserved for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . In the Wasootch Creek area the Cairn formation i s much more organic than the Southesk. Near the base of the Cairn a zone containing corals and crinoid columnals i s common. Where the lower units consist of limestone, such as near the head of Wasootch Creek, a highly f o s s i l i f e r o u s zone con-taining Schizophoria may be present. Stromatoporoids and Amphipora i n thi n zones are common throughout the Cairn and a few Amphipora zones are distributed through the Southesk. The paleontology of the Fairholme has been described by many writers. Brachiopods and corals are the dominant types present and they indicate an Upper Devonian age. Some writers suggest that the basal parts may be Middle Devonian i n age but the general practice is to consider the entire group as Upper Devonian. 46 PALEOZOIC Devonian Alexo Formation NAME AND HISTORY: The Alexo formation has only recently been given formal status although McConnell (1887) referred b r i e f l y to "... passage beds partaking of the l i t h o -l o g i c a l character of both groups ... at the junction of the formations." The Alexo was included i n the Fairholme and con sidered not to be worthy of formational rank by Beach (1943). DeWit and McLaren (1950) proposed the name for s i l t y , sandy, brecciated, shaly limestones and dolomites that are present In a l l Devonian sections. Fox (195D however included the f o r -mation as a member i n the Cheviot formation. THICKNESS: In the Rocky Mountains the formation varies from about 100 to 665 feet although the average thick-ness i s less than half the l a t t e r . At the type section i n the Brazeau Range at The Gap the Alexo i s 240 feet thick. At Devils Gap, Lake Minnewanka the Alexo i s 166* feet and on Sulphur Mountain i t totals 196* feet. In the Wasootch Creek area i t i s 141* feet. Comparison of thicknesses of Alexo with facies of the underlying Fairholme has shown that the formation thickens away from the carbonate developments and increases i n thickness toward the basinal areas. As would be expected the greatest thicknesses are reported from the Athabasca Valley area, but further south the thickness of Alexo appears to be less related to the underlying f a c i e s . 47 GENERAL CHARACTER AND DISTRIBUTION: The Alexo i s present i n a l l Devonian sections from the Crowsnest region to the Athabasca River area and from as far west as Sulphur Mountain and the Banff-Jasper Highway to c o r r e l a t i v e units i n the P l a i n s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i t i s composed of s i l t y and laminated limestone and dolomite, s i l t s t o n e , breccia and i r r e g u l a r l y distributed argillaceous material. Often the lower parts are argillaceous, s i l t y and sandy though i n places they may be almost e n t i r e l y carbonate. The upper units are usually dolomite and limestone that is t y p i c a l l y s i l t y , often p a r t l y laminated, and commonly brecciated. Topographically the formation i s expressed as saddles, benches or stream g u l l i e s , for the Alexo is quite non-resis-tant r e l a t i v e to the overlying P a l l i s e r , the boldness of which i t accentuates by i t s recessive nature. Despite i t s re-cessiveness, r e l a t i v e l y good exposures are quite numerous p a r t i c u l a r l y i n stream g u l l i e s above timberline. An almost perfect exposure was measured near the headwaters of Wasootch Creek, on the east side of Lac des Arcs Ridge. A second much more accessible exposure was examined on the southeast corner of Mt. Lorette where the formation weathers i n part to a conspicuous l i g h t yellow that i s r e a d i l y seen from the highway. The Alexo i s always concordant with the underlying Fairholme but according to McLaren (1955) i n many areas there is evidence of erosion before the Alexo was deposited, and i n others there appears to have been a period of non-deposition. A disconformity may very w e l l separate the two for although the contact was not observable i n the two sections examined, the lowermost beds of s i l t y , ochrous weathering dolomite and dark green shale presumably rest d i r e c t l y on the coarsely c r y s t a l l i n e , pure, l i g h t grey dolomite of the upper-most Southesk. This abrupt break i n li t h o l o g y accompanied by the f i r s t appearance of s i l t strongly suggests a disconform-able break. The upper contact is t r a n s i t i o n a l i n many areas and at the measured section no contact could be obviously drawn. On,Mt. Lorette however a d i s t i n c t surface separates the basal P a l l i s e r from Alexo. LITHOLOGY: At the type l o c a l i t y i n the Brazeau Range the Alexo i s d i v i s i b l e into a lower one-third that i s t y p i c a l l y argillaceous and s i l t y dolomite, s i l t s t o n e and shale which i s mostly buff and ochre weathering, and an upper two-thirds that is e s s e n t i a l l y s i l t s t o n e , and limestone and dolomite breccia which dominates. At this l o c a l i t y the formation rests with sharp break on the thick bedded, dark brownish grey dolomites of the Mount Hawk formation. The upper contact i s gradational into the P a l l i s e r . This l i t h o l o g y i n general characterizes the Alexo i n the mountains although r e l a t i v e amounts of c l a s t i c and carbonate rock vary. The Alexo i n the area under consideration i s similar i n general l i t h o l o g y i n a l l sections examined but minor differences are conspicuous and probably result from the 49 shallow water o r i g i n of the rock. Following i s a detailed section from Lac des Arcs Ridge near the headwaters of Wasootch Creek: Overlying beds - P a l l i s e r black limestone, medium grey weathering Unit Thickness Total feet from base 1 - Limestone, dark grey to black, medium to dark grey weathering, thick bedded, dense, containing many d o l -omite rhombs which give the weathered surface a sandy appear-ance, t r a n s i t i o n a l between P a l l i s e r and Alexo 2 3* Limestone, black, dense, medium grey weathering, medium bedded, highly organic, s l i g h t l y p y r i t i f e r o u s , etching reveals many dolomite rhomb-ohedra which give a sparkle to fr e s h surfaces, m i c r o s t y l o l i t i c seams con-t a i n black bituminous residue, also present is similar limestone con-taining patches less than 1" long that contain only a few dolo. rhombohedra and weather out i n r e l i e f giving the appearance of smooth sur-faced breccia fragments; grades down quickly into unit 3 3. 4 Limestone, dolomitic, l i g h t grey, l i g h t grey weathering, weathered surfaces 'sandy' from dolomite rhombs, strongly laminated with tan-yellow argillaceous, recessive layers, and darker layers of dolomite rhombs which weather i n r e l i e f ; both types very t h i n , p a r a l l e l and widespread, thick bedded; a brecciated zone at the top varies from 0 to 6 inches thick, and consists of fragments of f r a c t i o n of an inch to 2 inches long, i t i s porous and varies i n thickness l a t e r a l l y , 138 141* 50 Unit Thickness Total Feet from base 4 10 5 1* 6 4 7 8 Breccia, limestone, t h i c k l y bedded; one type contains more fragments than matrix and consists of small fragments generally less than * inch, commonly 1/8 to 1/4 inch, are a yellow-ochre color on fresh and weathered surfaces and are well laminated, the matrix i s a medium grey dolomitic limestone with many dolomite rhombs giving weathered surfaces a ' s i l t y ' appearance; i n the other type most of the fragments are medium grey l i k e the matrix which about equals the fragments i n v o l -ume, very porous and vuggy; i n t e r -bedded i r r e g u l a r l y throughout i s a very t h i n l y bedded, laminated dolomitic limestone 134 Limestone, black, dark grey weathering, dense, with a few scattered dolom-i t e rhombs, very numerous s t y l o l i t i c seams which weather as recessive f i n e , subparallel and continuous lines 124 Dolomite, dark brown, dark brown weathering, s o f t , saccharoidal, extremely porous, vuggy, f e t i d odor, many fine c a l c i t e veins, the lower two feet are harder, l i g h t grey weathering but also porous and highly calcareous and bears white markings of unknown o r i g i n that are rounded to elongate rods, maximum length 2/5 inches, most 1/5 inch long; . . . 122* Limestone, l i g h t grey, l i g h t grey weathering, hard, non-lamin, con-taining numerous white specks about 1/5 inch i n d i a . , part consists of dolomite limestone, laminated, l i g h t grey weathering, f e t i d , very porous, many laminations of orange-yellow color which may be bituminous material 118* 51 • J Unit Thickness Total Feet from base 8 2* Limestone, dark grey, medium grey weathering but s l i g h t l y brownish, dense, generally even textured but with some laminated and s l i g h t l y brecciated 110* 9 7* Dolomite, calcareous, very dark grey, dark brown weathering, f e t i d odor, coarse and f i n e laminations, microscopically consists of a tight mossaic of rhombs; resembles non-vuggy Cairn dolomite . . . . 108 10 2* Limestone, s l i g h t l y dolomitic, l i g h t grey, l i g h t grey to grey white weathering, strongly laminated; laminations consist of darker more resistant bands which are r e l . large rhombs, while the l i g h t e r more recessive bands are much f i n e r c r y s t a l l i n e and possibly somewhat a r g i l l , , several bands are about 1/10 inch wide, are yellowish brown and seem to be iron stained from the weathering of limonite or hematite p a r t i c l e s scattered through the layer, these bands are more f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e than the darker bands and possibly contains some clay material; s i l t particles are angular to subangular and widely scattered throughout, they are not concentrated i n any p a r t i c u l a r layers 100* 11 7 Breccia, almost i d e n t i c a l to that of unit 4; generally fine breccia but some large fragments are 2* inches long, vuggy i n part, a dolomitic limestone, the matrix weathers a l i g h t grey and the fragments are yellowish-grey; quite s i l t y , rather massive; unbretSciated layers p a r t i c -u l a r l y i n the lower part 98 12 5 Limestone, medium brownish grey, medium grey weathering, strongly laminated bands consist of highly s i l t y zones of angular to subangular s i l t grains of quartz and feldspar; p a r t i a l l y brecciated but obscurely so . . . 91 52 Unit Thickness Total Feet from base 13 6 Limestone, dolomitic, medium to dark grey, medium grey weathering, weathered surface ' s i l t y ' looking from dolomite rhombs; microscop-i c a l l y consists of a tight mossaM of rhombs, even textured, pure, massive 86 14 3 * Limestone, s l i g h t l y dolomitic, l i g h t grey near the top, darker grey at the bottom, l i g h t grey weathering, massive, dense to very fine grained containing bands of fine angular to subangular s i l t 80 15 3 Limestone, medium to l i g h t grey, l i g h t grey weathering, f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e , even textured, massive bedded . . . . 76* 16 10 Dolomite, s l i g h t l y calcareous, medium to dark grey, medium to l i g h t grey weathering, very even textured, massive to t h i c k l y bedded; laminations con-s i s t i n g of recessive bands due to r e l a t i v e l y larger rhombs, the smaller rhombs constituting the majority of the rock between the laminations . . 73* 17 * Sandstone, o r t h o q u a r t z i t i c , l i g h t tan to d i r t y white, very hard, even tex-tured, very fine grained 6 3 * 18 2 Limestone, very l i g h t tan grey, l i g h t grey weathering, very highly s i l t y , f ine to dense, s i l t i s concentrated i n i r r e g u l a r layers and lenses which stand out strongly on weathered surfaces 63 19 1* Dolomite, medium grained, rhombs form a tight mossaic, l i g h t grey, medium to l i g h t grey weathering, even tex-tured, s l i g h t l y calcareous; a few scattered subangular s i l t grains . . 61 Limestone, medium grey, very l i g h t grey, weathering, fine to dense, very even textured, strongly lam-inated due to layers of f i n e r grained c a l c i t e (possihly s l i g h t l y argillaceous) which stand out i n high r e l i e f Dolomite, s l i g h t l y calcareous, medium grey, medium grey weathering, to l i g h t grey weathering, very even texture, pure, medium c r y s t a l l i n e consisting of a tight mossaic of dolomite rhombohedra Limestone, dolomitic, medium to l i g h t grey, l i g h t grey weathering, very even textured, pure, medium c r y s t a l l -ine, t i g ht mossaic of rhombs . . . . Limestone, l i g h t grey, l i g h t grey weath-ering, very dense, even textured, scattered angular to subangular s i l t grains Dolomite, s l i g h t l y calcareous, l i g h t grey, l i g h t grey weathering, porous, very even textured, a few scattered s i l t grains, i n t e r l o c k i n g mossaic of large and small dolomite rhombs . . Limestone, l i g h t grey weathering, very fine c r y s t a l l i n e , medium grey breccia, fragments less than 1 inch Limestone, l i g h t tan grey, l i g h t grey weathering with brownish cast, weathers 'sandy' from rhombs, fin e to medium c r y s t a l l i n e , porous, bitum-inous; becomes somewhat l i g h t e r near the bottom Limestone, l i g h t grey weathering, medium grey, dense, contains scattered dolomite rhombs, s l i g h t l y s i l t y ; upper 1 foot l i g h t , darker i n lower 2 feet which consists of black lime-stone with scattered rhombs, very f i n e l y brecciated i n thin section . 54 Unit Thickness Total Feet from base 28 6* Limestone, breccia, not obviously a breccia on weathered surface, medium to l i g h t grey weathering, fragments and matrix about equal and average about 1/4 to 1/2 inch and consist of dark grey, c r y s t a l l -ine, even texture limestone non s i l t y , a mossaic of interlocking rhombs; the matrix i s cryptocry-s t a l l i n e , l i g h t grey, with scattered rhombs and s i l t p a r t i c l e s ; lower 2 feet much f i n e r breccia 35* 29 4 Covered 29 30 6 Limestone, medium grey to l i g h t grey, medium grey weathering, very porous and f i n e l y vuggy; appears rotten and crumbles e a s i l y , s o f t , fine to medium c r y s t a l l i n e , s l i g h t l y s i l t y . 25 31 6 Covered 19 32 13 Dolomite, dense, blue-green, weathers a very c h a r a c t e r i s t i c buff-brown color, hard, s i l t y , thick to t h i n l y bedded . 13 The breccia which characterizes the Alexo, while not abundant i n the Lac des Arcs section, i s di s t r i b u t e d throughout and totals approximately 32 feet. On Mt. Lorette however, breccia constitutes almost half the formation. The occurrence of breccia i n the Alexo, and also i n the Costigan member of the P a l l i s e r has been attributed by DeWit and McLaren (1950) and others to solution of evaporites with consequent slumping and brecciation of the enclosing beds. DeWit and McLaren consider the fact that many layers between the breccias are undisturbed would seem to indicate the solution o r i g i n , and that the breccias are not tectonic i n 55 o r i g i n . In some l o c a l i t i e s however pencontemporaneous slumping shortly after deposition may have produced the breccia. Those i n the measured section may be due to leaching and slumping since they alternate with unaffected and uni-formly bedded layers. S i l t i s a rather minor constituent of the Alexo i n this area and i s confined to the lower 100 feet. It was discovered that the majority of the s i l t present i n any sample i s i r r e g u l a r l y scattered throughout and not concen-trated i n thin layers which weather i n r e l i e f to produce lam-inated surfaces. Although some laminations are ac t u a l l y s i l t y , many are the result of the t h i n layers of c r y s t a l l i n e dolomite which because of i t s resistance to weathering stands out i n r e l i e f on a weathered surface and unless tested for hardness cannot be distinguished from true s i l t y laminae. These laminae must therefore be c a l l e d dolomitic laminations (Figure 17). A similar s i t u a t i o n was found to exist i n the Costigan member of the P a l l i s e r which contains many laminations previously described as s i l t y laminae, however i n the Wasootch Creek area the Costigan was found to be e n t i r e l y lacking i n s i l t . Dilute hydrochloric etching combined with s t a i n tests for c a l c i t e and thin section examination have proven the presence of dolomite and absence of s i l t i n these rocks. The o r i g i n of thin laminae of dolomite i s commonly ascribed to either primary deposition or diagenetic replace-ment, but since negative evidence argues against the former, the l a t t e r i s generally favored. Reaction and replacement of a calcareous sediment at the sediment-water interface by magnesian carbonates i n solution might take place during continuous deposition, then cease when the magnesian carbon-ates or salt s are depleated or f a l l below a c r i t i c a l con-centration. Continued deposition of limestone would form a thicker layer of limestone the surface of which might be again replaced by magnesian carbonates or s a l t s which had be-come concentrated i n the meantime to the l e v e l necessary for replacement. It has been suggested that highly saline waters favor deposition and concentration of magnesian s a l t s and be-cause the dolomitic laminations i n the Alexo and Costigan member are clos e l y associated with brecciated limestones attributed to solution of evaporites, super-saline waters may have contributed to the formation of these dolomitic laminae. The o s c i l l a t o r y nature of the layers may r e f l e c t fluctuations i n the s a l i n i t y of the sea water which i n turn may have been due to alternating periods of evaporation and influxes of normal sea water. Within the area an excellent marker bed defines the base of the formation on Lac des Arcs Ridge, Mt. Lorette and on the ridge between the main forks of Porcupine Creek. It consists of a dense, blue-green, hard, s i l t y , thick to t h i n l y bedded dolomite that weathers a very c h a r a c t e r i s t i c buff-ochre to brown color. Associated with this may be a dark greenish, crumbly, very t h i n l y bedded shale, which i s very thin on Mt. Lorette and Porcupine Creek. 57 PALEONTOLOGY AND AGE: The Alexo i s un f o s s i l i f e r o u s over much of the Rocky Mountain region, and occurrences of f o s s i l s are highly sporadic. Rare tabulate and rugose corals are present i n limestone beds of the lower part but brachiopods constitute the greater part of the fauna. The brachiopod fauna includes C y r t o s p i r i f e r , Camaroteochia, Hypothyridina, Paurorhyncha, Pugnoides, Leiorhynchus, Athyris, a n d Nudirostra. This association indicates that the Alexo i s d e f i n i t e l y of Upper Devonian age. No f o s s i l s were d i s -covered i n any of the exposures of the formation i n the Wasootch Creek area. PALEOZOIC Devonian P a l l i s e r Formation NAME AND HISTORY: McConnell (1887) designated the highly resistant c l i f f - f o r m i n g limestone below the brown weathering, recessive Banff, the Lower Banff Limestone. The name persisted u n t i l 1924 when Walcott proposed the name Pipestone from a type section on the northeast side of Pipe-stone Pass i n Clearwater Canyon. A l l previous terminology was abandoned by Shimer (1926) who included the formation i n the Minnewanka formation. Beach (1943) proposed the formational name P a l l i s e r for the heretofore designated upper part of the Minnewanka formation, a name derived from the P a l l i s e r Range, 58 which i s a continuation of the Fairholme Range northward from Lake Minnewanka (Figure 1 ) . More recently DeWit and McLaren (1950) divided the P a l l i s e r into an upper Costigan member and a lower Morro member. THICKNESS: The P a l l i s e r formation varies i n thickness from about 800 feet to a l i t t l e more than 1,000 feet, though thicknesses of 600 feet are reported, generally from o u t l i e r ranges i n the F o o t h i l l s . On Sulphur Mountain Warren (1927) recorded 1,050 feet and DeWit and McLaren (1950) give 990 feet. At Lake Minne-wanka Shimer (1926) measured 1,000 to 1,050 feet but DeWit and McLaren (1950) report only 838 feet. In the Moose Dome area Beach(1943) found the P a l l i s e r to vary from 800 to 950 feet. In the Fairholme Mountains he measured 930 feet, and at Mount Lorette 860 feet. Clark (1949) reports a thickness of 800 to 900 feet i n the Bow-Kananaskis Valley area. The average thickness of the formation thus appears to be around 900 feet i n the Front Range and with some exceptions thicksns westward. GENERAL CHARACTER AND DISTRIBUTION: The P a l l i s e r formation i s a wide-spread unit i n the mountainous areas of southwestern Alberta, occurring from the Crowsnest Valley to beyond the Athabasca Valley, and i n such u p l i f t areas i n the F o o t h i l l s as Moose Mountain, Limestone Mountain, Brazeau and Bighorn Mountains and Nickanassin Range. It outcrops t y p i c a l l y as a single, bold v e r t i c a l c l i f f several hundred feet high, 59 commonly on the steep, eastern faces of fault-block mountains, and i s perhaps used more than any other formation as a marker in the determination of s t r u c t u r a l d e t a i l s . In the Wasootch Creek area i t i s second only to the Rundle i n the formation of the higher peaks where d i f f e r e n t i a l erosion i s allowed to operate on fault-blocks containing both Rundle and P a l l i s e r (Figures 5 and 6 ) . If generalizations are v a l i d i t may be said that the P a l l i s e r occurs more t y p i c -a l l y near timberline whereas the Lower Rundle i s never vege-tated. These relationships are ex c e l l e n t l y displayed on Mt. Lorette. Exposure i s usually excellent but because of the c l i f f - f o r m i n g nature of the P a l l i s e r , i t i s often impossible to measure sections e a s i l y . On the steeply dipping f a u l t -blocks where the outcrops extend down into a transverse v a l l e y , such as on the southern face of Mt. Lorette, almost perfect sections are r e a d i l y accessible. Almost the entire formation i s exposed at the north end of Lac des Arcs Ridge, just south of the highway, and a complete but composite section was sampled on Mt. Lorette and on the southern face of Heart Mountain (Figure 6 ) . The P a l l i s e r i s almost always read i l y distinguishable from other units i n the Paleozoic succession where they occur as a single group. Where the structure i s complicated by f a u l t i n g and poor exposure the P a l l i s e r may be confused with the massive Lower Rundle, and extreme d i f f i c u l t y was met.in 60 d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between the Cambrian Lower Eldon and Morro member of the P a l l i s e r , regardless of whether the rock was examined from a distance or i n hand specimen. The prominence of the P a l l i s e r c l i f f i s , i n uncomplicated sections, emphas-ized by the dominantly recessive nature of the underlying, t y p i c a l l y vegetated Alexo and Fairholme, and the e a s i l y eroded Banff and Exshaw shale formations above, which weather to gentle talus covered slopes. Weathering colors aid greatly i n the recognition of the formation. The Fairholme below weathers both very dark and l i g h t grey whereas the Banff above weathers to a conspicuous buff. The P a l l i s e r between the two weathers almost e n t i r e l y to a l i g h t grey, which upon closer examination i s found to be i n large part, medium grey weathering. The formation has been divided into two members, the lower of which i s much the more massive and resistant and i t i s to this part that the formation owes most of i t s c l i f f - f o r m i n g a b i l i t y . The upper member contains more t h i n l y bedded units that are less resistant than the massive limestones i n the lower member. The upper contact of the Palliserr: with the Exshaw black shale i s very abrupt and i n some areas d i s t i n c t l y discon-formable while i n others no obvious disconformity i s present. The uppermost beds and upper surface of the formation are well exposed below the Exshaw section i n the gully on the south side of Heart Mountain. One to two feet below the base of Exshaw the bedding surfaces of the P a l l i s e r are strongly 61 undulatory and p i t t e d , and contained nodules of black chert and p y r i t e , the weathering of which has stained much of the surfaces with iron oxide. Above these highly i r r e g u l a r sur-faces are beds of dense, evenly bedded limestone, the upper few inches of which are argillaceous and c r i n o i d a l , and the uppermost surface i s very regular and even. Unfortunately a very t h i n shear zone i s present between the uppermost surface and a p y r i t i c zone at the base of the Exshaw so that evidence of any gradation was destroyed, although such appeared to be the case d i s p i t e the shearing. At this l o c a l i t y evidence for a disconformity i s poor. The extreme abruptness of the change i n l i t h o l o g y from almost pure carbonate to v i r t u a l l y pure shale however, pre-sents evidence too strong to be denied. The entire deposition a l environment was changed completely and the mode of sedi-mentation was i n i t i a t e d for much of the Mississippian during an i n t e r v a l of time represented by such a very narrow zone that a considerable lapse of time must by necessity be postul-ated. It seems inconceivable that environmental and deposit-ional conditions could change so completely i n an instant of geologic time. On a regional scale however, evidence for a period of erosion i s not altogether conclusive either. The presence of a considerable amount of breccia i n the Costigan, member, which has been attributed to the solution and consequent collapse of evaporitic material, presumably anhydrite, suggests that r e l a t i v e l y shallow water 62 conditions prevailed and a small amount of u p l i f t would un-doubtedly exposed a vast area of uppermost P a l l i s e r from which varying thicknesses of s t r a t a could have been stripped of f . It i s suggested by many that the variations i n P a l l i s e r thickness i s the result of this uneven erosion. An erosion hypothesis however, breaks down when i t i s considered that black, p y r i t i c , non-calcareous shales, which are t y p i c a l l y formed i n stagnant waters under reducing conditions, immed-i a t e l y overly normal shelf limestones. It i s d i f f i c u l t indeed to imagine how the waters of an inundating sea could immed-i a t e l y form a "black shale environment,' unless of course deposition was delayed u n t i l the sea fl o o r subsided below the base l e v e l of erosion. An alternate suggestion i s that no erosional d i s -conformity is present but rather that a diastem or chemical unconformity separates the limestone and shale. Subsequent to the formation of the l a s t deposit of evaporitic material, which i s some distance below the upper surface, the waters may have gradually deepened to such a depth that near the close of Devonian time l i t t l e or no limestone was being deposited. During a period of non-deposition i t i s conceivable that organic and inorganic processes could produce i r r e g u l a r i t i e s on the sea flo o r similar to that observed at the top of the P a l l i s e r . Reducing conditions may very well have existed at this time as suggested by the presence of py r i t e nodules i n the uppermost parts. A l a s t f l o u r i s h of Devonian l i f e i s often preserved at the top of the P a l l i s e r that doubtlessly has some environmental s i g n i f i c a n c e . During t h i s hiatus, u p l i f t of adjacent land areas provided fine c l a s t i c sediment which suddenly blanketed the upper P a l l i s e r surface. That the uppermost surface of the P a l l i s e r was not yet l i t h i f i e d at the introduction of the mud i s suggested by c r i n o i d a l limestone containing many thin stringers of black, non-calcareous shale immediately below highly p y r i t i f e r o u s Exshaw shale. The variations i n the thickness of the P a l l i s e r could e a s i l y be accounted for by deposition on l o c a l l y higher bank areas. For these reasons a disconformity w i l l be considered to form the upper boundary of the P a l l i s e r formation. The lower contact of the formation i s d e f i n i t e l y gradational into the Alexo at one l o c a l i t y whereas on Mt. Lorette a d i s t i n c t bedding plane c l e a r l y separates the two but there i s no evidence of a disconformable r e l a t i o n s h i p . LITHOLOGY: The P a l l i s e r formation varies l i t t l e i n l i t h o l o g y throughout i t s known d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the mountains from the Crowsnest region to the Athabasca Valley. The only variation;; :6fr, importance i s the commonly intense dolomit-i z a t i o n i n widespread l o c a l i t i e s . The formation i s usually d i v i s i b l e into two unequal units each of variable thickness. The upper, thinner unit i s designated the Costigan member which i s much more variable i n l i t h o l o g y than the lower, thicker and more uniform Morro member. 64 L i t h o l o g i c a l l y the Costigan i s dorainantly a limestone, and dolomite i s r e l a t i v e l y minor i n amount. The dolomite is v i r t u a l l y confined to a breccia zone about 15 feet thick in the lower part of the member, and i s t y p i c a l l y tan to tan-grey, laminated, and tan-grey to medium grey weathering. The limestone units are generally medium to t h i c k l y bedded but most are only a few feet thick so that the member consists of a large number of r e l a t i v e l y t h i n , r a p i d l y changing lime-stone units. Most of the limestones are l i g h t grey to medium grey weathering, and the majority of them are black, dense and even textured, and t h i n l y bedded nearer the top. Some of the limestones however are shades of tan and brown with corresponding weathering colors. A few are highly organic and i n fact may be termed p e l l e t limestones or pseudo-o l i t i c limestones. Near the middle of the member i s a grey weathering, dark grey, even textured, f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e limestone that contains a 6 inch layer of l i g h t grey weather-ing limestone. A thin section reveals that this layer i s almost e n t i r e l y composed of organic fragmental debris (Figure 18) among which are rad i o l a r i a n s , and crinoid columnals. A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c structure of the Costigan member wherever i t occurs i s what has been referred to as s i l t y laminations. The laminations are present i n both the lime-stone and dolomites and are very conspicuous on a weathered surface for the laminae stand out i n varying degrees of r e l i e f and may be exceedingly even over long distances. From 65 the examination of thin sections i t was found that i n this area s i l t i s e n t i r e l y lacking i n the Costigan so that the laminations are not the result of the d i f f e r e n t i a l weathering of s i l t y layers. As mentioned previously i n connection with the Alexo formation, these laminae are due to very t h i n layers of dolomite, and should be c a l l e d dolomitic laminations. At the north end of Lac des Arcs Ridge approximately 7 0 feet from the top of the formation a small angular un-conformity was observed but the structure i s probably only a l o c a l development. Black, dense, even textured, medium grey weathering limestone c l e a r l y truncates at an angle of 10 to 15 degrees a fine grained, medium to l i g h t grey, sugary, t h i n bedded dolomite. Although no breccia was noted, the structure may be connected with slumping consequent on solution of what i s considered to have been primary evaporites. A t y p i c a l structure on the l i g h t grey weathered sur-faces of the black limestones of the P a l l i s e r are small pro-jections or welts which are formed by d i f f e r e n t i a l erosion. These welts are t y p i c a l of the Costigan whereas dolomitic mottling i s t y p i c a l of the Morro. D i f f e r e n t i a l erosion of small, ir r e g u l a r bodies, possibly of organic o r i g i n , produce very rough surfaces much l i k e coarse sandpaper. The masses increase i n size up to 1/4 to 1/8 inches long and project up to 1/4 inches above the weathered surface. Close examination reveals nothing that might be ascribed to f o s s i l s though such structures could have been destroyed by dolomitization, s i l i -66 c i f i c a t i o n or r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n . The welts are r e l a t i v e l y sharp and hard and may be present on any surface. A second type of d i f f e r e n t i a l weathering structure that forms on any r e l a t i v e l y smooth surface are elongate, sharp crested, narrow ridges, almost i d e n t i c a l to o s c i l a t i o n r i p p l e marks, which occur i n groups up to several feet i n area. The groups of ridges vary from being almost p a r a l l e l to perpendicular to the dip of the beds and on large surfaces two groups may trend i n e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . The ridges which may be several feet long, are not necessarily straight, and vary i n r e l i e f from less than 1/2 inch to more than 1 inch. Some may be attributed to the channeling effect of running water but others because of their orientation cannot be so explained. The major part of the Morro i s a black, very f i n e -grained to dense, even textured, thick to massively bedded, medium and l i g h t grey weathering limestone that i s generally barren of f o s s i l s and i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y mottled from the ir r e g u l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n of dolomite. In the Wasootch Creek area such li t h o l o g y i s repeated i n monotonous sequences i n a l l but the lower parts which have been completely dolomitized. The o v e r a l l weathering color of the member i s l i g h t grey when viewed from a distance but medium grey i s as common as l i g h t grey. These shades of grey are not confined to alternating beds of s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t l i t h o l o g y for the colors vary from one to the other along s t r i k e with no appar-ent control by l i t h o l o g y . Zones of intense dolomitic 67 mottling give a darker color to the member also. The mottling of the Morro i s perhaps the only char-acter worthy of spe c i a l note for i t characterizes the Morro over hundreds of square miles. Beales (1953) (1956) has described i n d e t a i l the mottling and depositional environ-ment of the P a l l i s e r and the writer has found his descriptions to be adequate and only substantiating evidence for diagenetic o r i g i n of the mottling i s here presented. The dolomitic mottling i s caused by the presence of ir r e g u l a r , r e t i c u l a t i n g masses of c r y s t a l l i n e dolomite distributed through dense limestone and is observable on a weathered^surface because of the resistance of the dolomite to weathering agents. The mottling varies from t h i n , almost inc i p i e n t masses through a l l gradations to the degree where the rock has been almost e n t i r e l y replaced by dolomite so that mottling i s almost indistinguishable. On a weathered surface normal to the bedding the mottling often defines and p a r a l l e l s the bedding because i t occurs t y p i c a l l y as r e l a t i v e l y thin, widespread layers from which i r r e g u l a r protuberances ex-tend i n a l l directions (Figures 19, 2 0 , 21) . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y the mottling i s present not evenly throughout a great thick-ness of s t r a t a , but i n zones of intense replacement which may vary from less than 1 foot up to 10 or 15 feet i n thickness (Figures 9 , 1 0 ) , which are separated by zones of limestone containing much less dolomite or, completely barren of do l -omitic mottling. At some horizons however, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the mottling i s r e l a t i v e l y even v e r t i c a l l y and the pro-nounced layered type i s wanting (Figures 20, 21). Bedding planes containing dolomitic mottling (Figure 22) generally present a uniform surface covered with highly i r r e g u l a r r e t i -culating masses of dolomite with no constant definable shape. On weathered surfaces the dolomite may be l i g h t e r than the unreplaced limestone but usually i t is much darker than the l i g h t to medium grey weathering limestone. In t h i n section the dolomitic areas are e a s i l y distinguished from the limestone by means of t h e i r differences in c r y s t a l l i n i t y . The limestone i s microcrystalline to crypto-c r y s t a l l i n e whereas the dolomite consists of a mossaic of brown colored, euhedral rhombs of fi n e to medium grain. The limestone-dolomite contact varies from extremely sharp to gradational and diffuse though the l a t t e r type i s most common. In some horizons the boundaries are commonly formed by s t y l o -l i t i c seams (Figure 24), but usually only on one side of an area of dolomite, the other side being d i f f u s e . These seams may develop because of a difference i n hardness between the limestone and dolomite when under pressure, or may be due to the growth pressure of the dolomite c r y s t a l s . Where micro-f o s s i l s and s h e l l fragments are present the dolomite may be conspicuously s e l e c t i v e , and small fractures sometimes appear to have controlled some replacement. The dolomite often truncates such primary structures as the r e c r y s t a l l i z e d s h e l l s of f o s s i l s , or very th i n layers of fine p e l l e t limestone for which the dolomite often seems to have a great a f f i n i t y . 69 The o r i g i n of the dolomitic mottling i s generally ascribed to a diagenetic replacement process, and although the d e t a i l s are far from understood a considerable amount of evid-ence favors this o r i g i n . Perhaps one of the strongest argu-ments i n favor of a diagenetic or syngenetic replacement i s the vast scale of replacement i n t h i n layers v i r t u a l l y con-tinuous for hundreds of feet. Rather d e f i n i t e evidence for an early o r i g i n of the mottling was found i n limestones of Cambrian age i n the northeastern corner of the map area. Figures 10 and 11 picture what are interpreted as flowage structures i n intensely mottled layers of dolomite which, s i g n i f i c a n t l y enough, are absent on either sides of the d o l -omitic horizon so that small scale f a u l t i n g cannot be post-ulated for t h e i r o r i g i n . These structures must have formed while the sediment was u n l i t h i f i e d but already p a r t i a l l y re-placed by dolomite, and s t i l l on the sea f l o o r . The dolomite layers may represent primary layers of dolomite, or more l i k e l y are the result of reaction and replacement of the c a l -careous sediment with magnesian carbonates i n solution i n the sea water. The concentration of these s a l t s may have f l u c t -uated p e r i o d i c a l l y above and below a c r i t i c a l amount necessary for reaction, so that layers of dolomitized and unreplaced limestone alternate i n sequences of varying thickness. Dolomitic mottling i n the Morro member may be readily examined i n a large exposure beside the highway at the north end of Lac des Arcs Ridge. 7 0 The lower part of the Morro member i n thi s region i s variously dolomitized and at some l o c a l i t i e s the rock cannot be distinguished from the black dolomites of the Cairn f o r -mation. On Mt. Lorette the lower approximately 1 0 0 feet i s almost completely dolomitized. The dolomite is large l y very dark to medium grey weathering, very dark grey to black, generally even textured and medium to very fine grained. Parts of the dolomite are laminated, and i n some areas d o l -omitic mottling appears to have progressed to the point where only small vugs represent the unreplaced limestone areas. The lowermost 6 inch bed of the P a l l i s e r on Mt. Lorette i s a th i n l y bedded, black, f i n e l y banded, dense, non - s i l t y lime-stone which i s separated from the Alexo by a bedding plane surface. PALEONTOLOGY AND AGE: At some l o c a l i t i e s the P a l l i s e r i s r i c h l y f o s s i l i f e r o u s but the fauna i s usually confined more to the Costigan member where i t occurs i n zones. Thin but widespread zones of brachiopods may be present i n the Morro and they are rar e l y found i n the mottled limestones. The uppermost beds of the Costigan member are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y r i c h l y f o s s i l i f e r o u s , brachiopods being the most abundant, but the specimens are d i f f i c u l t to recover. In the Wasootch Creek area f o s s i l s are conspicuously absent except on the uppermost surfaces which are often covered with many brachio-pods, gastropods, bryozoa, and crin o i d columnals. McConnell ( 1 8 8 7 ) collected a fauna from the P a l l i s e r which he believed to contain both Devonian and Carboniferous elements and consequently did not state precisely the age of the formation. Shimer (1913) was the f i r s t to present evid-ence suggesting the Upper Devonian age for the P a l l i s e r although he apparently assigned the formation only to the Devonian. Kindle (1924) appears to have been the f i r s t to state d e f i n i t e l y that the P a l l i s e r i s Upper Devonian i n age. Walcott (1924) also dated his Pipestone formation as Upper Devonian on the basis of a number of corals. Since t h i s time the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a great many f o s s i l s has d e f i n i t e l y established i t s Upper Devonian age, although Fox (1954) has suggested that some doubt has been cast upon this designation, and that the Mississippian-Devonian boundary may a c t u a l l y l i e somewhere near the base of the Costigan. The faunal l i s t s from the P a l l i s e r are dominated by brachiopods such as AThyris, Camarotoechia, C y r t i a , Leiorhynchus, Productella, Schizophoria, C y r t o s i p i r i f e r , C r y t i o p s i s , and S p i r i f e r most of which are decidedly Devonian. PALEOZOIC Mississippian Exshaw Formation NAME AND HISTORY; McConnell (1887) was perhaps the f i r s t to make note of the black f i s s i l e shales above the massive c l i f f s of P a l l i s e r limestone and below the buff weath-ering shales and s i l t s t o n e s of the Banff formation. He 72 included them i n the overlying Lower Banff shale and described them from "... a point about two miles up a small creek, which joins the Bow from the north a short distance above the Bow River gap" (p . l 8 D ) which sounds very much l i k e the l o c a l i t y on Jura Creek, the type l o c a l i t y proposed by Warren 51 years l a t e r . (Warren 1937). THICKNESS: The Exshaw formation i s remarkable for i t s widespread d i s t r i b u t i o n and persistence regardless of thickness, which varies from extremes of 6 inches to about 6 0 feet. It i s usually less than 50 feet thick i n outcrop and i n the subsurface of the Plains has come to be regarded as one of the p r i n c i p a l s tratigraphic markers, even though i t s thickness i s commonly * to 1 foot. Warren (1937) gives a thickness of less than 30 feet for the type section, while others give 34 and 33 feet. Beach (194-3) measured 34 feet about * mile west of the Exshaw cement plant. Beales (1950) measured 35 feet, presumably on the north face of Mt. Rundle. DeWit and McLaren (1950) re-port a thickness of 43 feet on Sulphur Mountain while on Mt. Norquay, Beales (1950) gives 55 feet. In the Kananaskis-Bow Valleys area Clark (1949) i n -cluded an overlying 30 foot bed of limestone i n the Exshaw formation, on the argument that i t was from the base of the limestone that both he and Warren (1937) collected the cehpa-lopod fauna, and since they both assigned a late Devonian age to the Exshaw, he proposed to subdivide the Exshaw into an Upper Limestone member and a Lower Shale member. The black shale member i s 30 to 40 feet in this area and with the included limestone totals 60 to 70 feet. In the Wasootch Creek area an excel l e n t l y exposed section was measured on the north side of the Kananaskis River i n a gully on the south side of Heart Mountain and was there found to t o t a l 22 feet. Eastward on Moose Dome the Exshaw i s 30 feet thick (Mountjoy 1956), and at Mt. Head i t has thinned to 12 feet. Southwestward at Beehive Pass i t i s 21 feet thick (Norris 1958). The formation has been traced northward to Wapiti Lake where i t varies from 0 to 32 feet. GENERAL CHARACTER AND DISTRIBUTION: The widespread d i s t r i b u t i o n of such a thin, incompetent unit as the Exshaw shale i s rather remarkable, for i t has been found over most of the area of the Eastern Rocky Mountains from Wapiti Lake to Crowsnest Pass, and eastward through the F o o t h i l l s into the Plains where i t is present throughout most of Alberta and into southeastern Saskatchewan. It has been correlated by several writers with th i n black shales between the Devonian and Mississippian of Montana, and with the Bakken of the W i l l i s t o n Basin. At one time i t may have been even more ex-tensive than we know i t today, since post-Paleozoic erosion has removed the Mississippian and part of the Devonian rocks i n northern and eastern parts of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The formation erodes so e a s i l y that i n the maturely disected Rocky Mountains complete and rea d i l y accessible ex-posures are rare, and even p a r t i a l exposure i s uncommon. Outcrops are almost always situated i n depressions peri o d i c -a l l y occupied by streams and mostly covered with talus and stream gravels. The formation weathers as a unit with the Banff but the Exshaw usually erodes more readily and tends to accentuate the c l i f f - f o r m i n g nature of the P a l l i s e r . In the Kananaskis Valley the topography correlates p e r f e c t l y with rock resistance on Mount Lorette, the north end of Lac des Arcs Ridge and on Heart Mountain (Figures 5 » 6 , 7 ) . On the Exshaw Fault Block (southern end of Heart Mountain) where the formation was measured, the massive buff weathering limestone of the lowermost Banff which Clark (1949) included i n the Exshaw, is very well developed and because of the color contrast between the l i g h t grey P a l l i s e r , black Exshaw, and buff limestone forms a useful marker horizon when the Exshaw is covered. The formation i s excellently exposed at the type l o c a l i t y for the area where over a distance of perhaps 10 to 20 feet both upper and lower contacts are well defined. Throughout most of the g u l l y however, the shale is covered with talus and gravel. LITHOLOGY: The Exshaw shale i s persistent not only in i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n but i n i t s general l i t h o l o g i c composition. T y p i c a l l y i t consists of black, f i s s i l e to thin bedded, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y rusty-brown weathering shale which i s usually very p y r i t i c at the base and i s distinguished from the Banff by the absence of calcareous material. S i l t i s often 75 d i s t r i b u t e d throughout but a h i g h l y s i l t y zone i s common at the base. In the Wasootch Creek area the upper 6 f e e t i s f i s s i l e , s o f t b l a c k s h a l e that v/eathers to s m a l l , t h i n f l a k e s and c h i p s . The top few f e e t are ca l c a r e o u s and grade up i n t o a 1 f o o t bed of t h i n l y bedded, b l a c k , f a i r l y hard, c a l c a r e o u s s h a l e of the B a n f f , which i n t u r n grades i n t o the hard, b l a c k , r e s i s t a n t , buff-brown weathering, a r g i l l a c e o u s limestone of the lowermost B a n f f . A l l but the remaining 6 inches at the base i s a b l a c k , even t e x t u r e d , t h i n t o very t h i n l y bedded s h a l e , w i t h s h a l e l a m i n a t i o n s between t h i c k e r l a y e r s . A r u s t y s t a i n throughout and many sharp, w e l l d e f i n e d , smooth plane f r a c t u r e s t y p i f y the formation. I t i s w e l l bedded and no sedimentary s t r u c t u r e s were observed. T h i s 16 f e e t of the forma t i o n i s w e l l i n d u r a t e d and f a i r l y hard. The lowermost beds t o t a l l i n g 6" are perhaps the most i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t of the formation f o r i t i s these beds which i n i t i a t e d the e n t i r e B a n f f c y c l e of c l a s t i c d e p o s i t i o n . I t was d i s c o v e r e d , however, that some sh e a r i n g has taken p l a c e at the lower contact so that exact i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d e p o s i t i o n a l h i s t o r y of the lowest beds i s not p o s s i b l e . Immediately below the 16 f o o t u n i t of shale i s a 2 i n c h zone of shale which contains a l a r g e amount of p y r i t e i n the form of laminae up to \ to * i n c h t h i c k . One l a y e r * i n c h t h i c k contained r i p p l e - l i k e r i d g e s which i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n i n d i c a t e d flowage, and on a bedding s u r f a c e were l o n g , s t r a i g h t , narrow tr u n c a t e d r i d g e s . T h i s p y r i t e l a y e r may be a r b i t r a r i l y taken as the base of the Exshaw since d i r e c t l y below i t the shale becomes calcareous and c r i n o i d a l and appears to grade down into the P a l l i s e r . Below the pyrite layer two l i t h o l o g i c types are present i n a zone only a few inches thick. The f i r s t type consists of medium to coarsely c r y s t a l l i n e , r e c r y s t a l l i z e d c r i n o i d a l limestone, which contains many thin stringers of black, non-calcareous shale with small, scattered c r i n o i d a l fragments. The r e l a t i v e amounts of limestone and share vary so that either an argillaceous limestone or highly calcareous shale i s present. Thin sections reveal that the shale s t r i n g -ers contain appreciable amounts of f i n e , angular s i l t , pro-bably mostly quartz and feldspar, and some c a l c i t e grains. Some of these c a l c i t e grains were p a r t i a l l y and i r r e g u l a r l y s i l i c i f p d and p y r i t i z e d prior to t h e i r f i n a l deposition as indicated by the fact that chert and pyrite end sharply and smoothly at grain boundaries and the adjacent matrix i s un-affected by secondary replacement. The c a l c i t e grains con-ta i n large and ir r e g u l a r masses of p y r i t e while small rounded to angular s i l t - s i z e grains of pyrite occur quite abundantly with the quartz and feldspar grains i n the shaly matrix. A few grains consists e n t i r e l y of pyrite and chert and i t was not determined which had replaced the other. Below this shale-calcarenite unit the second l i t h o l o g i c type i s a fine sandstone to s i l t s t o n e consisting of f i n e angular grains of quartz and feldspar, with a small amount of argillaceous and calcareous cement. This fine sandstone i s highly p y r i t i z e d i n irre g u l a r patches and considerable amounts of pyrite are scattered throughout. In such patches the pyrite equals the grains i n amount and i t i s not possible to determine d e f i n i t e l y whether the pyrite has replaced susceptible areas of some material other than sand or whether i t has replaced the sand or s i l t grains at susceptible points. Of the grains present, many of the boundaries have been s l i g h t l y replaced by the pyrite giving the grains very angular and sometimes irre g u l a r outlines. Def i n i t e evidence of shearing was found i n parts of the shaly c r i n o i d a l limestone d i r e c t l y below the p y r i t e layers. Many of the c a l c i t e grains have been obviously ro-tated and the shale matrix has sheared and 'flowed' around most of the grains. The majority of the grains have been drawn out into augen, some are bent, and a l l are subparallel. Good evidence of the shearing of this rock i s afforded by the growth of fibrous quartz on the edges of some of the contained pyrite grains, as seen i n thin section. Knopf (1929) re-ferred to such halos as feather quartz, and Pabst ( 193D i l l u s t r a t e s similar fringes called pressure shadows. Pabst describes feather quartz that was best developed i n smooth slates on the facese of pyrite cubes. The growths are always widest i n the di r e c t i o n of elongation i n the plane of schis-t o s i t y i n metamorphosed rocks. The pressure shadows appear on one or both ends of the pyrite crystals and not infrequent-l y narrow fringes occur e n t i r e l y surrounding the p y r i t e . Quartz was found to be the dominant mineral i n forming the shadows, and the axes of elongation of the grains i s invar-iab l y oriented normal to the pyrite faces. Pabst believed that the shadows are the re s u l t of extension i n the slate i n the plane of s c h i s t o s i t y which tended to p u l l the matrix from the sides of the pyrite porphyroblasts, the p o t e n t i a l opening being f i l l e d continuously with quartz. The feather quartz i n the shale-calcarentie rock i s associated only with the larger pyrite masses which are not cubic crystals but i r r e g u l a r c l a s t i c grains. The pressure shadows are only a minor development on a few of the grains but are t y p i c a l l y confined to the sides of the grains directed toward the d i r -ection of elongation of the c a l c i t e grains. Except for one grain the growths are almost e n t i r e l y absent from surfaces normal to the d i r e c t i o n of movement. The orientation of the long axes of the quartz seems to be controlled more by the d i r e c t i o n of extension and shearing, than to the d i r e c t i o n and orientation of smooth faces of the pyrite grains. One grain shows feather quartz and granular quartz growths p a r a l l e l to the side of the elongated grain but p a r a l l e l to the d i r e c t i o n of shearing. On the sides of the large pyrite grains the quartz axes are not normal to grain faces but are orientated p a r a l l e l to the d i r e c t i o n of shearing. Although the evidence for shearing and movement i s conclusive i n this very thin zone, the remainder of the formation has i n no obvious manner been sheared or contorted. 79 PALEONTOLOGY AND AGE: The Exshaw shale was considered a basal unit of the Banff formation and given a Mississippian age u n t i l Warren (1937) collected f o s s i l s , discovered by J.A. A l l a n on Jura Creek, that were subsequently i d e n t i f i e d by Dr. A.K. M i l l e r as ammonites and nautiloids among which was the genus Tornoceras cf. T. (T) uniangulare (Conrad) of Devonian age. The other cephalopods were considered to have a Devonian aspect. From this evidence, apparently quite con-clusiv e , Warren placed the Exshaw without hesita t i o n i n the uppermost Devonian and erected i t as a new formation. Just above the Exshaw Warren collected a t y p i c a l Kinderhook fauna from the Banff and on the basis of this evidence placed the Mississippian-Devonian contact at the top of the Exshaw. Clark (1949) collected Tornoceras c f . uniangulare from the basal 2 feet of a 30 foot basal Banff limestone unit and also assigned the Exshaw shale plus the limestone unit to the Upper Devonian. Crickmay (1952) explains that because the goniatite i d e n t i f i e d as Tornoceras cf. uniangulare occurs stratigraph-i c a l l y higher than the Cyrtiopsis zone of the upper P a l l i s e r i t cannot belong to the genus Tornoceras which had become extinct by early Upper Devonian time. Crickmay would i d e n t i f y the specimens as Aganides c f . A. d i s c o i d a l i s Smith and dates the formation as e a r l i e s t Mississippian. Fox (1951) was prompted by Crickmay's unpublished evidence to revise his e a r l i e r opinions, and concluded that the top of the Devonian might l i e within the P a l l i s e r , thus necessarily making the Exshaw Mississippian i n age. 80 More recently C.B.Pamenter (1956) collected a varied fauna from a p y r i t i c s i l t s t o n e lens i n the basal Ex-shaw which contained the goniatite Imitoceras, a form not previously reported from rocks older than the Mississippian i n North America. This evidence suggests a Mississippian age for the Exshaw. Baadsgaard and Folinsbee (1959) give as an absolute age for the Exshaw, at least 267 m.y. At this point the problem of the age of the formation stands, with c o n f l i c t i n g evidence for and against a M i s s i s s i -ppian age. The general practice i n such a case i s to r e l y on l i t h o l o g i c evidence, and i n the case of the Exshaw, because i t i s so closely associated with the Kinderhook by reason of i t s shale l i t h o l o g y , i t i s placed i n the Mississippian Kinderhook. This practice i s followed i n the Wasootch Creek area. Only two f o s s i l s were taken from the Exshaw by the writer, and they were taken from the sheared zone at the base of the formation. One of the f o s s i l s i s a Tentaculites sp. but a s p e c i f i c determination was not made. The other i s ten-t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d as a f i s h tooth (Figure 25) PALEOZOIC Mississippian Banff Formation NAME AND HISTORY: The Lower Banff shale of McConnell (1887) was f i r s t amended by Kindly (1924-), and the name i n use 81 today was adopted by Shimer (1926). To Shimer goes the credit for establishment of the Banff formation, for u n t i l 1926 no section had r e a l l y been designated a type section. Although Shimer did not name a type l o c a l i t y i t i s presumed to be on Mount Inglismalidie. Beales (1950) however, contends that while Shimer's sections at Lake Minnewanka have p r i o r i t y , the Banff sections referred to by Kindle (1924) are considered preferable as type sections because Kindle did designate the north end of Mount Rundle as the type l o c a l i t y for both Banff and Rundle formations. It i s also argued that Shimer, by adopting Kindle's terms, automatically related his sections back to the Banff area. THICKNESS: The Banff formation is distributed through-out the Front Ranges, F o o t h i l l s and i n the Plains regions, and from the Banff area thins northward, eastward and southward. The Mount Rundle section contains the greatest thick-ness of Banff recorded, 1,458 according to Beales (1950), and 1,408 feet according to Warren (1927). On the next f a u l t block to the west Fox (1955) reports 1 ,325 feet and Fox (1953) 1,388 feet for the Sulphur Mountain section. The Minnewanka section measured by Shimer (1926) Is about 1,200 feet thick. In the v i c i n i t y of the Three S i s t e r s Mt. on the west side of the Cascade Coal Basin Clark (1949) measured 1 ,350 feet and eastward on the easternmost range he measured 950 to 1 ,050 feet. The Mt. Lorette section measured by Beach (1943) t o t a l l e d 819 feet, while i n the Moose Mountain region Beach gives 575 to 600 feet for the thickness. 82 In the Wasootch Creek area a hurriedly measured section on Lac des Arcs Ridge was found to be approximately 900 feet. DISTRIBUTION AND GENERAL CHARACTER; The Banff f o r -mation as i s the entire Mississippian, a t y p i c a l Front Range unit, occurring most commonly i n the Front Range sub-province from at least as far north as Wapiti Lake (Laudon et a l 194-9) to as far south as Montana and Wyoming, and i n general from the Front Range-Main Range boundary eastward under the Plai n s . Throughout this large area i t retains i t s general l i t h o l o g i c character of shale, limestone, and chert. In the Wasootch Creek area the formation i s r e a d i l y d i v i s i b l e into three members (Figure 5 ) 5 the upper and lower of which are non-resistant and weather readily into gentle slopes of dark grey and buff talus. The middle member i s much more resistant and forms a well-marked prominence i n the centre of the shaly talus covered slopes above and below. The upper member is a dark grey weathering, black, a r g i l l a c -eous limestone that i s s l i g h t l y more resistant than the lower member but nevertheless outcrops poorly through talus covered slopes. The middle member contains thick limestone and dolomite beds which contain most of the chert In the formation. Hard, resistant zones alternate with weaker, which upon weathering produce many small ledges. The entire unit weathers to a l i g h t or medium grey color. The lower member i s the most e a s i l y eroded unit for i t consists of very t h i n l y bedded (Figure 2 6 ) , buff weathering, generally calcareous shale and 83 s i l t s t o n e , and i s the more c l a s t i c part of the formation. The Banff formation represents a constantly changing depositional environment. The lower member i s highly c l a s t i c and s l i g h t l y calcareous; the middle member i s predominantly hard, cherty limestone and dolomite with almost no c l a s t i c material; the upper member consists of highly f o s s i l i f e r o u s , argillaceous, limestone which becomes highly calcareous near the top and grades quickly into the Rundle The Banff formation i s an incompetent, poorly r e s i s -tant unit that i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y expressed topographically as a recessive, bench-like zone between the massive, c l i f f -forming Rundle and P a l l i s e r . It i s on ledges such as these, p a r t i c u l a r l y where the headwaters of two adjacent streams form a low, rounded saddle that almost perfect sections are located. This recessive nature coupled with the recessiveness of the Upper Rundle adds to the prominence of the Lower Rundle. LITHOLOGY: The following section was measured on Lac des Arcs Ridge. The lower member of the Banff formation is about 3L0 feet thick and weathers to a very conspicuous buff color. The lower 120 feet consist of buff weathering, black, mostly s i l t y shale, with one 25 foot zone of argillaceous limestone, that varies from thin to very t h i n l y bedded with some laminated and occasionally f i s s i l e zones. The bedding surfaces of the lower 30 feet bear small, irr e g u l a r current i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , and i s generally more t h i c k l y bedded than that above. At the northernmost end of Lac des Arcs Ridge 84 the lower 15 feet consist of thick bedded, dark, hard, brown weathering limestone. The major part of the upper 190 feet i s mostly a medium grey weathering with some buff, very t h i n l y bedded to platy laminated, evenly bedded, black, even textured, calcareous shale, that i s mostly block jointed. The lower 20 feet contain numerous white, s t r a i g h t , c a l c i t e veins. The upper 30 feet contains th i n and medium beds of black, dense limestone, s l i g h t l y a rgillaceous, varying to highly argillaceous limestone i n t h i n bedded zones. Also present are limestone beds up to 1* feet thick bearing numer-ous r i p p l e marks or i r r e g u l a r bedding surfaces, interbedded with calcareous and s i l t y shale i n beds 4 to 6 inches thick. At the head of Porcupine Creek the Lower Banff member consists almost e n t i r e l y of calcareous s i l t s t o n e and s i l t y limestone very similar to the T r i a s s i c Sulphur Mountain. On the saddle where i t i s well exposed i t forms low c l i f f s of buff-brown weathering, thin to very t h i n l y and evenly bedded, highly calcareous, dark grey to tan-brown s i l t s t o n e . The grey s i l t s t o n e i s commonly f i n e l y and evenly laminated, due to compositional and t ^ x t u r a l differences. The l i g h t e r colored beds have a higher proportion of limestone and less s i l t . Interbedded rather regularly throughout are th i n beds of black to very dark grey and s l i g h t l y brownish, very fine grained, s i l t y , hard limestone. The s i l t of the member i s angular, and argillaceous material i s f a i r l y abundant. The middle member of the Banff i s approximately 250 to 300 feet thick and is rather variable i n l i t h o l o g y . The 85 lower 80 feet Is black, dense, even textured limestone, medium to very t h i n l y bedded, and l i g h t to dark grey weather-ing. From this horizon upwards s i l i c a becomes common and accounts for some of the resistance of the member. The dolomite present i n the member i s l i g h t grey weathering, t h i n l y and evenly bedded, dense to f i n e grained and even tex-tured, black to medium and dark grey. Much contains chert or dolomitic chert i n the form of nodules, bands and i r r e g u l a r shaped lenses. Approximately 40 to 50 feet from the top of the member is a bio-stromal layer 2* feet thick that consists almost e n t i r e l y of c r i n o i d fragments. It i s very coarse, l i g h t grey and l i g h t grey weathering, and thins r a p i d l y l a t e r a l l y to be replaced by a f i n e r , l i g h t grey limestone, Above this unit are thin to medium bedded, fine grained to dense, even textured limestones, some of which are c r i n o i d a l . The uppermost beds of the middle member are th i n bedded, grey-brown weathering, calcareous shale, above which a similar l i t h o l o g y becomes very thin to medium bedded for 5 feet. From th i s unit upwards the remainder of the formation is thin bedded, black, calcareous shale or argillaceous limestone con-taining abundant cri n o i d columnals and brachiopods. This con-s t i t u t e s the upper member which i s approximately 300 feet thick. In the lower 50 feet very th i n beds are common. The uppermost beds become res i s t a n t and dark weathering and c l e a r l y grade into the lower Rundle. The highest unit i s a very fine grained to dense, hard, t h i c k l y bedded, brownish black, brown 86 weathering dolomite, with dark grey, medium c r y s t a l l i n e , medium to dark grey weathering limestone. This l i t h o l o g y grades over a distance of about 1* feet into dark grey to black, medium c r y s t a l l i n e , grey weathering, c r i n o i d a l lime-stone of the lowermost Livingstone. PALEONTOLOGY AND AGE: The Banff formation i s usually highly f o s s i l i f e r o u s but not uniformly throughout, the fauna being t y p i c a l l y confined to the central and upper parts. In the Banff area the Middle member contains mostly brachiopods which date the unit as d i s t i n c t l y Kinderhookian, although some of the forms seem to indicate a higher horizon (Warren 1927). In the Eastern Ranges of Jasper Park the upper Banff i s r i c h l y f o s s i l i f e r o u s and contains a Kinderhook fauna (Allen et a l 1932). Douglas (1958) and Douglas and Harder (1956) state that the Banff fauna from the Mount Head area i s of Kinderhook age. In the Minnewanka section Shimer (1926) collected a large number of species i d e n t i c a l with those of the Kinderhook of the M i s s i s s i p p i Valley. In the Athabasca Valley Brown (1952) found the Banff to be e n t i r e l y Kinderhook i n age. In Bow Valley, Sunwapta Pass and at Mount Coleman, Osage faunas have been collected from the upper beds of the Banff formation (Harker 1954). In the Banff area Warren (1927) collected a fauna from the uppermost beds of the Banff which had a Kinderhook aspect though not so well marked as the fauna of the lower middle horizon. Beach (1943) c o l l e c t e d forms from the upper horizon of the Banff i n the Moose Mountain 8 7 area which were also i n d i c a t i v e of a somewhat higher horizon than the fauna found i n the middle of the formation. Nelson (1958) believes that the Banff i s Kinderhook and i n part Osage i n age. Brachiopods constitute the bulk of the fauna and the following genera ;are t y p i c a l : Camarotoechia, C l i o t h y r i d i n a , Composita, Dictyoclostus, S p i r i f e r , Productus, R e t i c u l a r i a , Linoproductus. In summary i t may be said that the lower member or lower parts of the Banff formation are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y barren of f o s s i l s and that the f i r s t recognizable fauna occurs in the middle parts where a d e f i n i t e Kinderhook age i s shown. The fauna of the upper parts indicate a higher horizon and often many elements suggest and i n fact prove an Osage age. (Nelson unpublished manuscript). PALEOZOIC Mississippian Rundle Group NAME AND HISTORY: The Rundle Group was o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d the Upper Banff limestone (McConnell 1887) and was undifferentiated from the Rocky Mountain formation. E.M. Kindle (1924) proposed the name Rundle, and established the type section at the northern end of Mount Rundle at Banff (Figure 1). The Rundle has been divided into many units or members mainly for use i n the subsurface, but the twofold 88 d i v i s i o n by Douglas (1953) into an upper Mt. Head and lower Livingstone formations has been the only terminology adopted for the Wasootch Creek area because the two formations are so well developed. With better exposure however, f i n e r div-isions could e a s i l y be made, and the Mt. Head subdivided into Mt. Head and Etherington (Nelson 1958, Douglas 1958). THICKNESS: The thickness of the Rundle Group i s , l i k e most of the Paleozoic formations of the Front Ranges, much greater i n the western regions than i n the easternmost ranges, F o o t h i l l s , and Plains. At the type l o c a l i t y Warren (1927) reports a thickness of 2,431 for the group and Beales (1950) measured a t o t a l of 2,368 feet. The Rundle section at Lake Minnewanka measured by Shimer (1926) t o t a l l e d 2,100 feet. In the area between the Bow and Kananaskis Rivers Clark (1949) reports a westward thickening from 1 ,700 feet i n the easternmost part of the range to 1,900 feet i n the west. No section of Rundle was measured by the writer, but a thick-ness of 1,900 i s considered to be very close to the thickness of the Rundle on Lac des Arcs Ridge. On Moose Dome Beach (1943) recorded a thickness of 1,350 to 1,400 feet, and Douglas (1953) reported 1,215 feet. Twenty miles northeast of Moose Dome i n the subsurface of the Jumpingpound Region, Douglas (1953) gives 1,070 feet for the Rundle. DISTRIBUTION AND GENERAL CHARACTER: The Rundle Group is a readi l y recognizable unit i n the Eastern Rocky Mountains and F o o t h i l l s from the Crowsnest Region to and beyond the 89 Athabasca River, for i t retains i t s general l i t h o l o g i c character throughout. In the southern Rockies i t i s present throughout the Front Range, and in the o u t l i e r ranges i n the F o o t h i l l s i t i s often the dominant unit. Farther eastward i n the Plains i t i s extensively developed but considerably thinner due to pre-Jurassic and pre-Cretaceous erosion. The Rundle Group i n the Kananaskis-Bow Valley regions i s r e a d i l y d i v i s i b l e into two d i s t i n c t formations, the upper, thinner Mt. Head, and lower, thicker Livingstone. The Mt. Head formation i s i t s e l f d i v i s i b l e into two subequal d i v i s i o n s , the lower of which i s very dark, argillaceous and bituminous, non-resistant limestone, whereas the upper part i s t y p i c a l l y s i l i c e o u s , s i l t y and cherty, dense, even textured, hard, generally dark grey, buff weathering limestone, more resistant to weathering than the lower part. In contrast the Livingstone formation i s highly r e s i s t a n t , l i g h t grey weathering, thick to massively bedded, l i g h t grey to dark grey, fi n e to coarse grained, somewhat chefcty, c r i n o i d a l limestone. The Rundle i s well exposed on Lac des Arcs Ridge and i s an excellent example of perfect c o r r e l a t i o n of rock hardness to topographic expression. In fact Mounts Lorette and McDougall and a l l of Lac des Arcs Ridge owe t h e i r prominence to the Rundle Group (Figures 4, 5 ) . The Livingstone dips steeply westward and constitutes the backbone and highest parts of the ridge. The dip shallows quickly towards the axis of the Mt. A l l a n Syncline, but more by reason of the a n t i c l i n a l flexure on the syncline limb which i s re f l e c t e d at the surface by the Mt. Head i n i t s generally shallow dips. For purposes of measurement the Livingstone i s f a i r l y well exposed i n the second creek v a l l e y immediately north of Boundary Cabin and i t was here that the Rundle was examined. In this v a l l e y however the weaker beds i n the lower member of the Mt. Head were not exposed nor was the upper part of the member exposed because of the depth of erosion. A good section of Rundle i s ex-posed however on the southern end of Mt. Lorette. The Livingstone-Mt. Head contact was not examined i n d e t a i l but from a distance the contact i s very sharp and easi l y recognized. The Livingstone-Banff contact also lends i t s e l f r e a d i l y to mapping purposes for although the contact i s gradational, i t i s over a narrow zone, and the differences in rock resistance above and below the contact are highly contrasting. The upper contact of the Rundle with the overlying Rocky Mountain formation i s much more d i f f i c u l t to see. In the Wasootch Creek area the upper Mt. Head i s similar i n i t s l i t h o l o g y and weathering c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to the lower Rocky Mountain and from a distance i t i s almost impossible to pick the contact with accuracy. At the base of the Rocky Mountain sampled section, vegetation concealed the contact and relationships were underterminable. G.O. Reasch (1956) has given rather convincing evidence of pre-Rocky Mountain erosion. P.S.Warren (1956), Warren (1927), Beales (1950) and Norris (1958) describe conformable and continuous sequences. It seems then that u n t i l the age of the lower part of the Rocky Mountain can be d e f i n i t e l y proven, determination of the conformable relationships on the basis of l i t h o l o g y only w i l l not be successful. LITHOLOGY: The Mt. Head formation which comprising the upper one th i r d of the Rundle Group, i s re a d i l y d i v i s i b l e into two d i s t i n c t members on the basis of their contrasting l i t h o l o g y . The two units are co r r e l a t i v e with others of various names i n other areas but are here simply designated as the upper and lower members. Exposure of the Mt. Head was not s u f f i c i e n t to allow measurement or detailed sampling and although the upper part of the upper member was absent rep-resentative samples were collected from most of the member., The lower member consists of alternating resistant and non-resistant units and reference can only be made to the r e s i s -tant, outcropping units. The upper member i s t y p i c a l l y a hard, dense, s i l t y laminated, cherty, very even textured, generally dark grey, limestone that i s greenish i n some units. Thin zones of pale green calcareous shale are widespread but not abundant, and most of the limestone seemed to be s l i g h t l y argillaceous. A high percentage of s i l i c a characterized this member and i t i s present i n three forms: as s i l t evenly d i s t r i b u t e d through a bed, or concentrated i n laminated bands, as micro-c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a d i s tributed evenly through the limestone, or i n the form of chert nodules and bands. The chert i s present i n a great va r i e t y of shapes and colors and both secondary or replacement and primary or syngenetic types seem to be present (Figures 27 - 3 0 ) . Although the uppermost parts were not seen, except as scattered outcrops, the percentage of chert appeared to increase greatly. The s i l t i n the form of laminations was abundant only i n one thick zone near the middle of the member. Most of this member i s t h i c k l y bedded and weathers to a buff or dark grey color, the buff probably due to the argillaceous content. Relative to the lower member i t i s quite resistant and i n the small v a l l e y where i t was examined formed canyon-like c l i f f s up to 30 feet high. F o s s i l s are only sparingly present and those seen were poorly preserved. C r i n o i d a l fragments were conspicuously absent. The lower member of the Mt. Head d i f f e r s markedly from the upper r e s i s t a n t , s i l i c e o u s member. It i s e n t i r e l y bitum-inous and argillaceous limestone and consists of many a l t e r -nating resistant and non-resistant units. The resistant exposed units consists almost e n t i r e l y of black, very fine grained, even textured, argillaceous, bituminous, limestone which on a fresh fracture is d u l l black with small to medium sized, clear crinoid ossicles and fragments randomly d i s t r i -buted throughout which give a sparkle to a fresh fracture. There are occasional beds of medium c r y s t a l l i n e , c r i n o i d a l , grey limestone. 93 The lowest bed exposed consists of a black, very fine grained, brown-grey weathering, highly organic limestone composed of medium to coarse c r i n o i d a l fragments, organic p e l l e t s , and many r e c r y s t a l l i z e d foraminifera and a few radio-l a r i a . The uppermost unit of the member i s a medium to coarsely c r y s t a l l i n e c r i n o i d a l limestone, dark grey, grey to buff weathering, that seems to mark the upper part of the lower member and lower part of the upper member. Throughout thi s member both chert and s i l t are conspicuously absent. It may be said i n summary that the lower member i s rela t e d , by reason of the presence of c r i n o i d a l material, to the L i v i n g -stone, whereas the upper member i s more closely related, be-cause of the common occurrence of s i l t and chett, and lack of c r i n o i d a l debris to the Rocky Mountain cycle of deposition. The Livingstone formation i s the highly resi s t a n t unit i n the Rundle which i s t y p i f i e d by the presence of much c r i n o i d a l material, some chert and l i g h t grey weathered sur-faces. Its thickness i n this area i s approximately 1,300 feet and similar to the Mt. Head i t i s d i v i s i b l e on a l i t h o -l o g i c basis into an upper member occupying the upper one thir d of the formation, and a lower member representing the lower two-thirds. The lower member, as previously mentioned, grades quickly up from the Banff formation and throughout most of i t s thickness is r e l a t i v e l y uniform i n composition. It con-s i s t s mostly of medium grained c r i n o i d a l limestone, but fine and coarse c r i n o i d a l limestone i s not uncommon, i n fact some 94 some thi n beds are almost wholly c r i n o i d a l with fragments up to ^3 inches long. Within this lower member the c r i n o i d a l limestone gives way upwards to either fine grained c r i n o i d a l limestone or e s s e n t i a l l y non-crinoidal limestone which i s l i g h t grey, even textured, l i g h t grey weathering separated by a few very wide zones of c r i n o i d a l limestone measurable i n tens of feet. In the lower one quarter of the member the limestone is dark grey to very dark grey whereas i n the upper three quarters i t is l i g h t e r grey. The color of weathered surfaces are not always representative of the color of the rock, and i t varies from dark to l i g h t grey. Within the Livingstone formation the chert i s mostly confined to the lower parts where i t i s common but not too abundant. It was noted that i n the beds where chert lenses and nodules were present, c r i n o i d a l fragments were almost always absent and the rock instead consisted of very f i n e to almost dense even textured limestone. This may suggest that the chert i s primary i n o r i g i n and that certain concentrat-ions of s i l i c a were intolerable for crinoids because c r i n -o i d a l limestone i s present above and below the f i n e , chert-bearing limestone. This rel a t i o n s h i p was also reported by Warren (1927) from the Banff area. The upper one t h i r d of the Livingstone, i s also e n t i r e l y limestone which i s medium to fine to very f i n e grained dark to very dark grey, medium to l i g h t grey weathering, with fine to medium grains of clear, c r i n o i d fragments scattered throughout but not forming the bulk of the rock. The i r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d clear c r i n o i d fragments resemble those found i n the lower member of the Mt. Head formation. Chert i s occasionally present i n this member but not nearly so much as i n the lower member. The bedding of the Livingstone as viewed from a d i s t -ance appears d i s t i n c t and even. Closer inspection, however, reveals bedding that i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t i n c t , but some-what massive and sometimes rather d i f f i c u l t to trace i n weathered outcrops. Thick to medium bedding is the most common though parts may be very massive. PALEONTOLOGY AND AGE: The exact age of the upper parts of the Rundle Group has been a disputed question since Dowling (1907) subdivided the Upper Banff limestone and assigned to i t a Carboniferous age. The uppermost beds have been considered both Pennsylvanian and Mississippian i n age, and even today considerable disagreement exists as to which i s correct. The general practice i s however, to include a l l Mississippian strata i n the Rundle and a l l post-Mississippian beds i n the Rocky Mountain formation. The problem i s thus resolved to whether the uppermost beds are Chesteran or Meramecian i n age. Those who have worked with this problem believe that good evidence exists to indicate that the four subdivisions of the mid-continent Chester, Meramec, Osage and Kinderhook are represented i n the Mississippian formations of the Alberta Rocky Mountains. Laudon (194-8) however, i n s i s t s Maat the Osage series i s absent and that a very substantial unconformity exists within the Rundle. 96 A recognizable assemblage of Osage f o s s i l s occurs above the Kinderhook and there seems l i t t l e doubt that a l l of the Livingstone i s Osage i n age. G. 0. Raasch (in A.S.P.G. 1954) states that the upper part of the Livingstone at Tunnel Mountain yielded late Osage Keokuk faunas and e a r l i e r Osage faunas from the lower part (Warren 1927). Raasch (1956) correlates the Livingstone with the Osage i n the Highwood Pass region. Above the Osage fauna i s a r e l a t i v e l y u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s i n t e r v a l and the next recognizable fauna i s probably f a i r l y late Meramecian. Raasch (1956) correlates strata of Meramecian age i n the Highwood Pass area with the Mt. Head formation, and Douglas and Harker (1956) also place the Mt. Head formationjn the Meramecian. H.W. Shimer (1926) assigned the upper two thirds of the Rundle to the Pennsylvanian and the lower one th i r d to the Mississippian, but Crickmay (1955) remeasured Shimer's Minnewanka section and concluded that he had mis-i d e n t i f i e d certain species and he believes that no doubt exists of the late Mississippian age of the uppermost Rundle. Harker (1954) believes that on the basis of the contained S p i r i f e r s i t seems l i k e l y that a l l or part of the Chester i s represented at the top. P.S.Warren (1927) found the Rundle to be generally sparsely f o s s i l i f e r o u s except for the upper 400 feet which carried a fauna that was shown to be predominantly Mississipp-ian with certain Chesteran a f f i n i t i e s . Douglas and Harker (1956) have proposed that the Rundle occupies only s t r a t a of 97 Osage and Meramec age and that rocks of Chester age are Rocky Mountain. Raasch on the other hand would include a l l of the Rundle i n the Osage ,• Meramec and Chester, but to the strata of Chester age he would give the name Tunnel Mountain. R.J.W.Douglas (1950) subdivided the Rundle into members A, B, C and D, the l a t t e r of which he has correlated with the Tunnel Mountain member of the Rocky Mountain (Warren 1927), and the Etherington member of Douglas (1953). Members C and B are co r r e l a t i v e with the Mt. Head formation, and member A with the Livingstone. D.K.Norris (1958) on the other hand had subdivided the Rundle at Beehive Pass into a L i v i n g -stone, Mt. Head and Etherington formations, the l a t t e r of which seems to be cor r e l a t i v e with the upper member of the Mt. Head formation at Wasootch Creek. The Rundle has yielded a large number of f o s s i l s but they are distributed i n zones throughout and the i n t e r -f o s s i l i f e r o u s zones may be completely barren of i d e n t i f i a b l e f o s s i l s . In the lower parts Productus burlingtonensis, S p i r i f e r centronatus, S. logani, S. rundlensis, and R e t i c u l a r i a  pseudolineata are brachiopods c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Burlington-Keokuk ages of the Osage (Warren 1927). D.K. Norris (1958) collected many corals of Meramecian age from the upper half of his Mt. Head formation. These include species of Fabero-phyllum, Koninckophyllum, L i t h o s t r o t i o n , and Syringopora. About 400 feet from the top of the Rundle at Banff (Warren 1927) collected L i t h o s t r o t i o n whitneyi, L. pennsylvanicum and L. banffense and correlated the horizon with the middle Meramecian St. Louis Limestone. Above the L i t h o s t r o t i o n reef, f o s s i l s were p l e n t i f u l and Warren's l i s t includes Pentremites, Fenestrella Productus, Rhynchopora, S p i r i f e r , Composita, Igoceras which because of the association of forms he c o r r e l -ated with the Chester. D.K.Norris (1958) placed the upper contact of the Rundle at the highest beds containing the Chesteran brachio-pods S p i r i f e r l e i d y i , and S. increbescens. C.H.Crickmay (1955) considers S p i r i f e r bifurcatus and S. l e i d y i as upper-most Mississippian index species. S.J. Nelson (1958) on the basis of brachiopods has zoned the Mount Head and Etherington formations into eight zones which indicate that the Mount Head formation i s mainly Meramecian and the Etherington formation mainly Chesterian i n age. Nelson (unpublished manuscript) has also zoned the entire Mississippian into 12 divisions on the basis of Lithostrotonid corals. From the evidence gathered i n the past few years there seems l i t t l e doubt that strata of Osage, Meramec and Chester age are present i n the Rundle Group and whether beds of Chester age are included i n the Rundle or Rocky Mountain w i l l depend more on the l i t h o l o g y than on the included fauna. The formation here designated as Mt. Head correlates with the Mt. head and Etherington formations of Nelson (1958) and Douglas (1958). 99 PALEOZOIC Permian Rocky Mountain Formation NAME AND HISTORY: The name "Rocky Mountain Quartzite" was introduced by D.B. Dowling (1907) for s i l i c e o u s beds at the top of the Paleozoic sequence i n the Bow Valley area of the Front Ranges. He did not describe a section or desig-nate a type l o c a l i t y , other than to mention that the formation frequently formed the lower slopes of the west side of many of the fau l t blocks because i t occurs high i n the Paleozoic section. Dowling grouped the Rocky Mountain quartzite, the Upper Banff limestone (Rundle), the Lower Banff shale (Banff) and the Lower Banff limestone ( P a l l i s e r ) together and assigned to them a Carboniferous age. The term 'quartzite" i s current-l y abandoned because true quartzite i s very minor i n the formation. It was not u n t i l 1956 that the Rocky Mountain was subdivided into two div i s i o n s by both G.O. Raasch and P.S. Warren (Table I ) . Norris (1957) designated the lowermost part of the formation i n the Beehive Pass area south of High-wood Pass, the Todhunter member. THICKNESS: U n t i l agreement i s reached as to what str a t a should be designated Rocky Mountain and what should be designated Upper Rundle, thickness v a r i a t i o n s , except for l o c a l areas, w i l l have l i t t l e use for correlation purposes. 100 Considered regionally however, there seems to be a pro-gressive eastward truncation, similar to that of the T r i a s s i c beds above, as a result of pre-Spray River erosion. A section of Rocky Mountain on Tunnel Mountain at Banff as measured by Warren (1927) i s 698 feet, and by Beales (1950) as 615 feet. The same section has been recorded by Fox (1954) as 671, and by Warren (1956) as 657. This section i s commonly considered the type l o c a l i t y . At the western end of Lake Minnewanka the Rocky Mountain i s only 7 feet thick, a distance of just over 5 miles, but because these two sect-ions are on d i f f e r e n t f a u l t blocks the palinspastic distance may be several times t h e i r present distance apart. The Lake Minnewanka section i s however, on s t r i k e with the Highwood Pass, and Pigeon Mountain sections. The Pigeon Mountain section measures 625 feet (Crockford 1949) and l i e s 18 miles southeast of the Minnewanka section which represents a t h i n -ning of 34 feet per mile. Dowling (1907) considered 1,600 feet to be a good average for the formation i n this area, but this seems much too high when compared with the other sections. MacNeil (1942) recorded a thickness of 250 feet on Moose Dome to the east of the Front Range, but Beach (1943) states that i f Rocky Mountain was ever present i n the Moose Mountain region i t must have been very thin and at present i t i s completely absent as i s the T r i a s s i c above. Southward at Beehive Pass Norris (1957) measured 1202 101 feet of Rocky Mountain. Eastward i n the Gap Map area Douglas (1950) recorded only 66 feet of Rocky Mountain. From this regional examination there appears to be a northward and eastward thinning of the formation and i n the Bow Valley region i t i s e n t i r e l y confined to the mountains and absent i n the f o o t h i l l s . DISTRIBUTION AND GENERAL CHARACTER: Though no type l o c a l i t y was given by Dowling (1907) the exposure on Tunnel Mountain has come to be regarded as the type section. Raasch (1956) however, located what he describes as a much more complete section i n Highwood Pass at the head of Storm Creek and he advances the suggestion that this section be regarded as an alternative or supplemental type section. In the Wasootch Creek map area excellent exposures of Rocky Mountain were found on the small ridges leading to the southwest off the f i r s t two peaks immediately north of Mt. McDougall, but unfortunately these sections are d i f f i c u l t to measure. Samples of the formation were taken i n a westward trending valley on the west slope of the a n t i c l i n a l h i l l on the west side of Lac des Arcs Ridge. Exposure was r e l a t i v e l y poor although an o v e r a l l picture of the lith o l o g y was obtained from t h i r t y samples. In spite of the superior hardness of the s t r a t a , the formation weathers e a s i l y and does not form a conspicuous member i n the stratigraphic sequence. Topographically i t would be more readi l y grouped with the Mesozoic s t r a t a . In general i t occurs on the western slopes of the f a u l t block mountain ranges and i s commonly obscured by g l a c i a l d r i f t , vegetation and talus so that good exposures of the formation are rare. The Rocky Mountain i s composed mostly of fine-grained, dolomite, sandy dolomite, sandstone, bedded chert and quart-z i t i c sandstone, with chert nodules occurring frequently i n the calcareous beds. Most of the beds are noticeably lens-l i k e and l a t e r a l changes i n their l i t h o l o g y are quite rapid so that most sections are conspicuously d i f f e r e n t . The chert beds appear to be more stable and constant i n th e i r s t r a t i -graphic position than the more c l a s t i c beds, while the shale beds are the most variable. The upper surface of the Rocky Mountain formation i s always disconformable and i n l o c a l outcrop no truncation can be detected. In Highwood Pass the lowermost bed of T r i a s s i c is a d i r t y grey brown, s i l t y , thin-bedded, platy sandstone. Immediately below this i s a r e g o l i t h i c , limonite cemented chert, rusty weathering, 1.7 feet thick with a roughened upper surface. Immediately beneath this i s a dolomitic sandstone which i n places i s weathered to a v i r t u a l s o i l , but d i s p i t e these features the contact i s e s s e n t i a l l y l e v e l . The upper-most bed i n the Tunnel Mountain section i s also a massive, dark grey weathering chert with white s i l i c e o u s seams through-out. In the Ribbon Creek area Crockford describes the upper-most beds as a breccia composed of angular chert and rounded 103 quartz pebbles and having a deeply pitted upper surface. These p i t s measured as much as 18 inches i n diameter and 12 inches deep. Contrasting views are held regarding the conforma-b i l i t y of the lower contact of the Rocky Mountain on the Upper Rundle. Warren (1956) on the one hand has found l i t t l e good evidence of a time break between the two formations though the contact i s quite sharp on Tunnel Mountain. Warren (1927) states that i n most areas an unconformity does exist between Mississippian and Rocky Mountain st r a t a but that i n the Banff section sedimentation was continuous throughout Mississippian into Pennsylvanian (Rocky Mountain) time but there was a change i n l i t h o l o g y . Beales (1950) places the base of the Rocky Mountain at the base of a s i l i c i f i e d , granular dolomite (possibly quartzite) which i s 4 feet thick and well laminated i n the lower part. Below, the Rundle i s a r e l a t i v e l y massive, coarse-grained, fossil-fragmental lime-stone but upwards dolomitic, c r i n o i d a l limestones give place to fine to medium-grained, chalky weathering dolomite, with no apparent break i n the stratigraphic sequence. Raasch (1956) on the other hand believes that the Rocky Mountain i s Permian in age and that a substantial un-conformity exists between i t and the Mississippian s t r a t a . In the Storm Creek section the basal bed i s 20 feet thick and is described by Raasch (1956) as a dolomitic, grey, pale weathering p o r c e l l a n i t e . Twelve feet below the top i s a zone of f o s s i l i f e r o u s , buff dolomite with a band of black chert nodules near the base. A few inches higher i s a band with poorly sorted, rounded aand grains, dark chert gran-ules and pebbles, and debris of s i l i c i f i e d f o s s i l s . There i s no discrepancy in the dips of the basal Rocky Mountain and underlying Rundle in l o c a l outcrop, though taken on a regional basis a considerable amount of truncation seems to exi s t . In the Beehive Pass area the upper unit i s truncated by an erosional unconformity and consists i n i t s upper part of hard cherty dolomite with interbedded dolomitic sandstone. The lower contact is possibly an unconformity Norris (1957). LITHOLOGY: At the section sampled i n the Wasootch Creek area the lower contact was covered but samples from what was considered the lowest Rocky Mountain consist of medium grey, brown and grey weathering, hard, dense, dolomite i n thick to medium beds, calcareous, with highly arenaceous laminations and scattered s i l t grains throughout. Some s l i g h t l y calcareous sandstone is also present that i s l i g h t grey, medium grey weathering, medium grained, with some chert grains, well sorted and r e l a t i v e l y pure. Also some beds of medium grey, dense, hard dolomite are present and i n this material a thin zone of s i l i c i f i e d brachiopods were found. The remainder of the exposures except for the upper 50 feet consisted of sandstone. They are a l l very hard, clean and nearly a l l somewhat dolomitic, and weather most commonly to some shade of red due to the presence of grains of magnetite, 105 though some are brown and grey. The sand grains are dominantly quartz but feldspar i s probably abundant and a few chert grains were well represented i n a l l the samples examined. The upper 40 to 50 feet consists of highly s i l t y dolomites, dark grey, dense, very even textured, brown weathering and with black lenses and nodules throughout. A representative sample contain ed a small concentration of magnetite and a small chert n nodule containing s i l t grains and many dolomite rhombohedra. The uppermost bed exposed consists of 10 to 15 feet of dark grey weathering, r e l a t i v e l y fine breccia that i s composed of even textured, dark grey, calcareous dolomite. The Rocky Mountain formation i n the Wasootch Creek area, though larg e l y covered, seems to correlate well with the c l a s t i c section i n Highwood Pass and appears i t s e l f to consist mostly of calcareous and dolomitic sandstone. It i s notably more c l a s t i c than the Tunnel Mountain section. PALEONTOLOGY AND AGE: F o s s i l s are r e l a t i v e l y scarce in the Rocky Mountain formation and those present are often in a poorly preserved state, so that precise determination is i n h i b i t e d . Since 1907 when Dowling f i r s t established the formation i t has been given both an Upper Carboniferous and Permian age (Table I) and even at the present time argu-ment exists as to whether i t i s Permian, Pennsylvanian or partly both. The current practice, according to Raasch (1956) i s to consider the Rocky Mountain as that part of the Paleo-zoic section considered to be post-Mississippian, that i s 106 excluding the Chesteran beds that were o r i g i n a l l y included i n i t . Shimer (1926) was the f i r s t to consider a Permian age for the formation while Warren (1927) believed the:: fauna to be undoubtedly representative of Pennsylvanian and perhaps of Permian age i n the uppermost beds. In 1947 Warren divided the formation into an upper member probably of Permian age and a lower probably of Pennsylvanian age thus placing an uncon^ formity of considerable magnitude within the formation (Warren 1956). P.S.Warren (1956) l i s t e d the t o t a l fauna of the Tunnel Mountain member as follows: Caninia torquia (owen)? Orbiculoidea arenaria Shimer Schuchertella? sp. indet. Dictyoclostus semireticulatus (Martin) D. coloradoensis (Girty)? Juresania nebrascensis (Owen) i Paraphorhynchus obscurum Shimer Dielasma arkensanum Weller S p i r i f e r rockymontana Phricodothyris perplexa (McChesney) Bakewellia parva M. & H. Myalina wyomingensis (Lea) Deltopecten occendentalis var. l a t i s f o r m i s Shimer Euconospira turbiniformis M & W Euphemus carbonarius arenarius According to Warren (1956) t h i s fauna i s undoubtedly representative of Pennsylvanian age. The fauna from the Nor-quay Mountain member was collected mostly from the lower beds and include: 107 Linoproductus mu l t l s t r i a t u s (Meek) Dictyoclostus i v e s i (Martin)? Schizodus cf. f e r r i e r i Girty Straparollus umbilicatus M & ¥.? Euphemites arenarius Shimer Plagioglypta canna White Helicoprion Karpinsky This fauna, states Warren, has d e f i n i t e Permian a f f i n i t i e s and he would correlate the Norquay Mountain member with the Middle Permian Phosphoria and the Tunnel Mountain member with the Quadrant quartzite of Montana. Raasch (1956) l i s t s the following fauna taken from his Norquay Member: Stenopara a f f . S. g r a c i l i s (Dana) S.nigris Crockford Stenopara a f f . S. tasmaniensis Lonsdale Euphemites carbonarius arenarius Shimer Dentalium (Plagioglypta) canna White Schizodus taxanus C l i f t o n S. oklahomensis Beede Allorisma cf. r o t h i (Newell) Pleurophorus cf. albequus Beede Doz i e r e l l a gouldi (Beede) Ditomopyge cf. decurtata G.O. Raasch (1956), on the basis of r i c h l y f o s s i l -iferous chert from the Fernie-Flathead area, and the above fauna which includes Permian bryozoa, concludes that evidence is s u f f i c i e n t to consider the Norquay member as Permian i n age and thus that the entire formation i s Permian and cor r e l a t i v e with Middle Permian units i n the western United In the Wasootch Creek section the only f o s s i l s found were a few s i l i c i f i e d brachiopods i n the lower part of the formation but their fragmented condition prevented inden-t i f i c a t i o n . For the purpose of this thesis the terminology 108 and age of the formation as established by Raasch (1956) has been adopted. D.K.Norris (1957) collected Dictyoclostus cf. porthlockianus Norwood and Pratten from the lower part of his upper member, and from the Todhunted member Composita  sp. S p i r i f e r sp. Orbiculoidea arenaria Shimer, and Archimedes sp. which he considered to be Permian i n age and c o r r e l a t i v e with the Storm Creek section. MES0Z0IC T r i a s s i c Spray River Formation NAME AND HISTORY: The Spray River formation was o r i g i n a l l y designated the Upper Banff Shales by McConnell (Table I) who assigned to i t a Carboniferous age. It was not u n t i l 1915 when G.H. Girty and L.M. Lambe (1916) examined f i s h remains and invertebrate f o s s i l s from outcrops west of Banff, that the age was d e f i n i t e l y established as Lower T r i a s s i c . In 1924 E.M.Kindle proposed a number of changes i n the f o r -mational nomenclature of the Front Range units among which was the designation of the heretofore termed Upper Banff Shale as the Spray River formation with the type l o c a l i t y estab-lished 7 miles south of the town of Banff, i n the Spray River gorge, at the southern end of Sulphur Mountain. 109 THICKNESS: In the v i c i n i t y of the Bow Vall e y the T r i a s s i c beds vary greatly i n thickness due to a rapid east-ward thinning of approximately 50 feet per mile (Crockford and Clow 1953). A thickness of 3 }400 feet was recorded by Warren (1927) at the type l o c a l i t y but folding and f a u l t i n g make this figure i n v a l i d . A second section measured by Warren gives a thickness of 1,243 feet for a group of lower dark grey laminated beds, and 610 feet for upper grey limestones intermixed with darker shales. A complete section i s not present i n the area under consideration but Crockford (1949) established a type section for the Ribbon Creek area on Evans-Thomas Creek which is complete except for the basal 20 feet. The section measures 583 feet and consequently 600 feet i s suggested for the t o t a l formation. As thi s section is 2 miles long s t r i k e from the only T r i a s s i c encountered in the Wasootch Creek area i t w i l l be taken as the type l o c a l i t y and thickness. H.W. Shimer (1926) measured 1,498 feet of Spray River at the west end of Lake Minnewanka. If this section i s unfaulted i t represents an increase i n thickness of 2* times that of i t s s t r i k e equivalent on Evans-Thomas Creek. In the southern part of the Alberta Rockies the T r i a s s i c beds are e n t i r e l y confined to the mountain region for no Spray River has been found i n outcrop i n the f o o t h i l l s nor i n any wells d r i l l e d i n the f o o t h i l l s . Beach (1943) i n his study of the Moose Mountain area f a i l e d to f i n d beds 110 ascribable to the Spray River but i n place found a t h i n bed of black, chert pebble conglomerate resting on the channeled, upper surface of the Rundle of Mississippian age. Beach believes that on the basis of thinning eastward from the Banff area, T r i a s s i c sediments were probably present i n the Moose Mountain area but were reduced to rubble, as was the Rocky Mountain formation, before the advance of the Jurassic seas. Northward T r i a s s i c sediments occur i n the f o o t h i l l s and spread onto the Peace River plains. In the v i c i n i t y of the A l b e r t a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary i n that area, the T r i a s s i c system attains a thickness of 2,000 feet with Lower, Middle and Upper T r i a s s i c being present. DISTRIBUTION AND GENERAL CHARACTER: In Southern Alberta the Lower T r i a s s i c consists of a single unit, the-'Spray River formation, which i n the Wasootch Creek area i s essen-t i a l l y an argillaceous, highly calcareous s i l t s t o n e to s i l t y limestone, t h i n l y bedded, reddish-brown, and platy weathering. Farther north on the McLeod River i n the v i c i n i t y of Cadomin and Mountain Park, the Spray River i s thinner and i s d i v i s i b l e into two d i s t i n c t members, the lower Sulphur Mountain and upper Whitehorse which i s a l i g h t grey, almost white, l i t h o -graphic dolomite. The T r i a s s i c Spray River i n the Wasootch Creek area is confined to the east limb of the Mt. Al l a n Syncline, there-by placing i t on the west side of Lac des Arcs Ridge. Erosion I l l has a l l but removed the non-resistant Spray River from the ridge but a small remnant o u t l i e r remains on the c r e s t a l area of the a n t i c l i n a l flexure northwest of Mt. McDougall. Expos-ure i s generally poor to lacking on this h i l l and the only good exposure i s on the northeastern side of the outcrop area at the head of the unnamed creek whose mouth l i e s near Boundary Cabin. Here a v e r t i c a l c l i f f exposes over 50 feet of thin bedded, platy s i l t s t o n e . The easternmost occurrence i s i n a small, narrow saddle at which point the beds are almost v e r t i c a l and conformable on the steeply westward dipping Rocky Mountain, whereas only a few feet west of t h i s contact they are horizontal and from a distance give the appearance of a thrust f a u l t , though actually i t i s only a very sharp flexure. Over the rest of t h i s small a n t i c l i n a l h i l l the formation dips gently southwe'stward at angles of 10 to 15 degrees. The Spray River weathers to a d i s t i n c t i v e dark reddish-brown and because of i t s weakness to weathering and erosion i s t y p i c a l l y poorly exposed and most often outcrops i n r i v e r v a l l e y s . On the a n t i c l i n a l h i l l i n question the Spray River outcrops e n t i r e l y above timberline and outcrops are covered with a thick growth of grass. The greater part of the f o r -mation i s t h i n l y bedded, mostly not more than a few inches thick. Upon exposure the rock breaks into angular plates \ to 1 inch thick which l i t t e r slopes and add to the s t r i k i n g color. On a fresh surface the rock i s generally grey to 112 dark grey and black, and a fine banding or lamination i s not uncommon, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the lower part. Erosional disconformities form both upper and lower contacts and i n l o c a l exposures no truncation has ever been seen. In the Evans-Thomas Creek section the lowest beds are concealed but probably consist of f i s s i l e , poorly indurated, dark grey shale immediately subjacent to which i s a con-glomerate composed of pebbles and cobbles of grey quartzite and chert firmly cemented i n a s i l i c e o u s matrix and ascribed to the Rocky Mountain. In the Highwood-Elbow area immediate-l y to the south the lower contact i s d e f i n i t e l y erosional for the underlying Paleozoic beds are pitt e d by smooth depressions and the basal T r i a s s i c beds consists of a basal sandstone to chert pebble conglomerate. The upper contact i s also d e f i n i t e l y erosional since Lower Jurassic beds d i r e c t l y overly Lower or at most Middle T r i a s s i c beds. In the Ribbon Creek area i n every instance hard dolomitic s i l t s t o n e s give way abruptly to s o f t , black, f i s s i l e shale with no appreciable change i n the dip of the two (Crockford 1949). The erosional i n t e r v a l i s of greatest magnitude i n the south where Jurassic overlies Lower T r i a s s i c , and gradually becomes less northward u n t i l i n the Peace River d i s t r i c t Upper T r i a s s i c i s present beneath the Jurassic Fernie. The erosional i n t e r v a l i s also greater i n the east-ern part of the mountains than i n the western part since the formation i s truncated i n an eastward d i r e c t i o n . 113 LITHOLOGY: Spray River section measured on Evans-Thomas Creek i n the Ribbon Creek area i s predominantly a s i l t s t o n e , e s s e n t i a l l y argillaceous though dolomitic, c a l -careous and arenaceous types are well represented. Near the top dolomitic s i l t s t o n e s become c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and are prom-inent by virtue of t h e i r superior resistance to erosion than the underlying rocks. A summary of this section follows: S i l t s t o n e , hard, c l i f f - f o r m i n g , dolomitic or with argillaceous or arenaceous streaks, dark grey, thick bedded 72' S i l t s t o n e , sandy to dolomitic, thin bedded, includes two f o s s i l horizons 187' Dolomite, blue-grey, dense, massive, argillaceous, Lingulae abundant 5 ' S i l t s t o n e , dark grey, hard, dense, a r g i l l -aceous with numerous sandstone lenses, some a l g a l impressions 183' S i l t s t o n e , dark grey, hard, b r i t t l e , upper part argillaceous and d i s t i n c t l y s t r a t i -f i e d , lower part evenly bedded, laminae of fine sand, numerous, f o s s i l i f e r o u s . . . 106' Shale, dark grey, f i s s i l e , beds \ -inch, poorly indurated 30' Concealed, but probably as above 17' Total thickness of S.R. 600' The samples collected by the writer for microscopic examination were taken from scattered outcrops from the lower Spray River which consist of highly dolomitic s i l t -stone that probably accounts for i t s exposure. Thus the findings regarding the l i t h o l o g y of these samples are not i n d i c a t i v e of the l i t h o l o g y of the entire formation. 114 These resistant beds i n the lower Spray River consist e s s e n t i a l l y of s i l t , dolomite and argillaceous material. The s i l t size grains consist mostly of quartz and feldspar, both orthoclase and sodic plagioclase though the plagioclase i s not abundant. The grains are so small however, that except for an occasional pos i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , determination of the grain compositions i s very d i f f i c u l t i n thin section. The maximum sizes of grains f a l l i n the very fine sand grade while the average grade i s that of coarse s i l t , i n the range .062 to .031 mm. Grades below .031 mm. i n the medium and fine s i l t grades are also present but minor. On the whole the sediment is moderately well sorted. Muscovite i n one sample amounted to 7% to 8% and was a maximum. Many sizes of flakes are present but the greater abundance seemed to occur i n the lower sand sizes and the majority of them are alligned p a r a l l -e l to nearly p a r a l l e l to the lamination. The quartz and feldspar grains are t y p i c a l l y subangular, some being sub-rounded, while the muscovite flakes are always well rounded. Accessory minerals are few but those present are also well rounded. Where quartz and feldspar grains are i n mutual contact pressure welding i s common and where they are i n con-tact with c a l c i t e or dolomite sutured, replacement boundaries are t y p i c a l . No secondary enlargements were found on any of the grains. Inclusions were common i n most c l a s t i c grains and the feldspar was noticeably but not greatly weathered and altered. 115 In most cases the sediment contains a high pro-portion of carbonate material i n the form of dolomite and some c a l c i t e which sometimes amounts to 75% of the rock. Often the percentages of s i l t and dolomite are almost equal and d i f f i c u l t y i s met i n c l a s s i f y i n g them as dolomites or s i l t -stones. This dolomite probably i s a secondary replacement of primary c a l c i t e and is mostly in the form of rhombohedra. Typical of s i l t s t o n e s deposited i n an aqueous environ-ment is a very conspicuous lamination, which characterizes much of the Spray River. At f i r s t glance the lamination seems to be very regular and p a r a l l e l and to continue for considerable distance without v a r i a t i o n . Upon closer exam-ination however, i t i s seen that f i n e dark bands wedge-out quite rapidly and re-appear again quickly on the same l e v e l or perhaps at a higher or lower l e v e l . On a small scale, the laminae are undulatory and wavy. The lamination i s due to alternating layers of l i g h t grey dolomitic material and very dark grey clay r i c h material, or very dark grey clay and tan-brown argillaceous and dolomitic material. Some samples are notably l i g h t e r i n color, almost a tan-brown while others are very dark grey color. This color v a r i a t i o n i s due to the presence of either an ochreous, argillaceous clay associated with tan colored quartz and feldspar, or to dark grey-brown clay associated with l i g h t grey s i l t . In thi n section the clay i s not observable but the lamination may be seen to be the result of alternating layers containing 116 s l i g h t l y higher concentrations of s i l t , with others con-taining higher concentrations of dolomite. During times when the i n f l u x of fine c l a s t i c material was dominant during the deposition of this lower Spray River, the sea floor must have consisted of a very soft mud which be-cause of i t s high water content would tend to be quick, and deposition on a surface of even low r e l i e f would eventually produce some flowage of the sediment. In the Spray River formation,while i t i s admitted that very l i t t l e of i t was actually seen i n d e t a i l , flowage phenomena seemed to be absent. This observation together with the fact that the lamination i s often so well developed over such large areas that the sea bottom must have been very f l a t indeed. The presence of t h i s fine lamination also indicates that a r i c h benthonic fauna was absent, as does the paucity of f o s s i l s , since any amount of burrowing or movement by them would destroy the lamination. PALEONTOLOGY AND AGE: The Spray River formation i s sparsely f o s s i l i f e r o u s probably because during i t s deposition the sea bottom consisted of s o f t , dark mud p r o h i b i t i v e to most kinds of benthonic invertebrates. It i s therefore not surprising to f i n d that most of the f o s s i l s are free swimming ammonites such as Flemingites, Ophiceras (?), and Meekoceras (?) the pelecypod C l a r a i a stachei, and a great abundance of Lingula (Crockford 1949). In the Highwood-Elbow area a sim-i l a r fauna was collected including Meekoceras mushbackanum var. corrugata Smith. This fauna corroborates the conclusions of Lamb and Girty (Lambe 1916) that the formation i s d e f i n i t e l y Lower T r i a s s i c age. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY 118 The Wasootch Creek area i s located i n the Front Raijge sub-province of the Rocky Mountains which i s defined on the west i n the Bow Valley region by the Castle Mountain Thrust, and on the east by the McConnell Fault which i s the sole thrust of the Front Ranges. Within t h i s sub-province are four ranges defined from west to east by the Bourgeau Fault, the Sulphur Mountain Fault, the Mount Rundle Fault, and the McConnell Fault. The map area under consideration l i e s e n t i r e l y within the F i r s t Range or easternmost range, that i s between the Mount Rundle Fault and the McConnell Fault, which defines the mountain front (Figure 1). The F i r s t Range i s dominantly a thrust f a u l t area where folds are subordinate i n importance. One large f o l d however i s present at the western margin of the F i r s t Range and i s known as the Cascade Coal Basin. Throughout much of i t s length i t i s an overturned syncline, and the Mount Rundle Fault has thrusted over the overturned, west limte. Between the Mount Rundle Fault and the McConnell Fault are several major f a u l t s which from west to east are the Lac des Arcs Fault, Exshaw Fault, Porcupine Fault, West McConnell Fault and McConnell Fault (Figure 3). Four other minor f a u l t s present within the area ma;y develop into major f a u l t s to the south. Detailed mapping has revealed the two-fold nature of the previously considered single McConnell Fault. The Mc-119 Connell thrust f i r s t becomes well defined at Mt. Head, about 45 miles to the southeast i n the Highwood Range, where Rundle i s thrust over various Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations. North of Mt. Head i n the Dyson Creek area Rundle gives way to P a l l i s e r above the thrust, and farther northward i n the Moose Mountain area the thickness of P a l l i s e r exposed increases u n t i l at Kananaskis Gap the entire front of the Range consists of P a l l i s e r (Beach 1 9 4 3 ) . North of Red Deer River Cambrian formations are exposed above the sole thrust. Regionally therefore the McConnell Fault cuts deeper into the Paleozoic sequence i n a northward d i r e c t i o n , exposing older formations i n that d i r e c t i o n . Northward from the Kananaskis River at B a r r i e r Dam, Cambrian beds alone are exposed above the McConnell f a u l t to at least as far as Ghost River (Beach 1 9 4 3 , Clark 1 9 4 9 , Henderson and North 1954) and continues to do so for most of the distance to the Athabasca River. The Kananaskis Gap therefore i s a c r i t i c a l area, a point south of which Devon-ian and Mississippian beds only appear above the master thrust, and north of which Cambrian beds are e s s e n t i a l l y the only s t r a t a i n the basal part of the overriding Paleozoic block. These relationships are shown i n Figure 4 where attention i s drawn to the northeast trend of the Kananaskis River transverse to the regional s t r i k e , which abruptly changes to a north-south d i r e c t i o n to p a r a l l e l the mountain front, and which i s i n dire c t l i n e with the McConnell f a u l t 120 immediately north of B a r r i e r Dam. Detailed mapping In the v i c i n i t y of Porcupine Creek revealed the presence of a f a u l t i n which Cambrian beds have been thrust over Devonian P a l l i s e r . The f a u l t i s concealed i n the alluvium of Kananaskis Valley so a f a u l t was looked for north of the r i v e r with which t h i s f a u l t could be connected. It i s considered that by c o r r e l -ating t h i s thrust within the mountains, with the McConnell f a u l t at the mountain front north of the r i v e r , two important problems could be solved. F i r s t and most important i t ex-plains why Cambrian and Devonian formations are exposed on either side of the v a l l e y above what appears to be the same f a u l t . Secondly i t accounts for the almost north-south trend of the structures i n the lower part of the Kananaskis River, and for the d i r e c t i o n of the r i v e r i t s e l f . Examination of Henderson and North's Tectonic Com-p i l a t i o n Map (1954) reveals the presence of a lobe project-ing beyond the general even front of the mountains i n the v i c i n i t y of the Red Deer River near James Pass. This lohe begins to emerge from the mountains at 51° 30' north l a t i t u d e and the bounding thrust, which i s c a l l e d the McConnell, bends sharply northeastward, swings i n a wide arc to the northwest and continues i n that d i r e c t i o n as the sole thrust of the mountains. Close examination of the area where the lobe emerges suggests an alternate p o s s i b i l i t y . The f a u l t bounding the lobe may not be the same fa u l t which bounds the mountain front south of 51° 3 0 '. It seems rather that this southern 121 McConnell f a u l t continues northwestward and that the lobe a c t u a l l y does emerge from under the McConnell, and i s bounded by an e n t i r e l y separate f a u l t . Since Devonian beds are ex-posed immediately above this f a u l t for a short distance, i t i s suggested that this f a u l t correlates with the sole thrust south of Kananaskis River at B a r r i e r Dam, which also exposes Devonian beds above the f a u l t . This means therefore that be-tween Kananaskis Gap and 51° 30' north l a t i t u d e a second lobe, which probably exposes Cambrian above the f a u l t between these two points, has overridden a f a u l t which north and south of these two points exposes Devonian beds above the f a u l t . ' Although the thrust between Kananaskis Gap and 51° 30' i s of greater stratigraphic throw, bringing Cambrian over Cre-taceous, than the sole thrust on either side of these two points which bring Devonian over Cretaceous, i t i s consider-ably less within the mountains behind the other thrust.' Since two separate thrusts are believed to be present i n t h i s region two separate names should be used i n reference to them. The name McConnell f a u l t , however, was o r i g i n a l l y proposed by Clark (194-9) s p e c i f i c a l l y for the sole f a u l t of the Front Range i n the Bow Valley area which thrusts Cambrian over Cretaceous st r a t a but since t h i s time the term has been applied by Douglas (1950, 1958) and Norris (1958) to f a u l t s south of this area which do not expose the Cambrian. The thrust which exposes Cambrian between Kananskis Gap and'51° 30' north l a t i t u d e therefore should be c a l l e d the McConnell f a u l t 122 and the sole thrust north and south of these c r i t i c a l points referred to by a d i f f e r e n t name. Since this f a u l t however i s well established as the McConnell f a u l t and because i t soon exposes Cambrian above the f a u l t plane north of i t s emergence i t would be i l l o g i c a l to advocate this change. It is suggested however, that the thrust between Kananaskis Gap and 51° 30* north l a t i t u d e should be given a separate name, for although i t was for t h i s f a u l t that the name McConnell was o r i g i n a l l y and s p e c i f i c a l l y proposed, i t i s not, i n the opinion of the writer, the master thrust of the Rocky Moun-tains south of the Kananaskis River nor i s i t for some unknown distance northward. The proposals made above are based i n part upon interpretations made from a generalized map and before the presence of the two-fold nature of the sole f a u l t can be proven, the northern end of the lobeate region must be mapped i n d e t a i l . For this reason a new name w i l l not be proposed for t h i s second f a u l t , and i n the Wasootch Creek map area the thrust forming the sole f a u l t of the Front Range w i l l be designated the McConnell Fault and the sole f a u l t north of the Kananaskis River w i l l be designated, within the mountains, the West McConnell Fault. As mentioned previously thrust f a u l t i n g i s the dom-inant type of deformation i n t h i s area. The faul t s which a l l dip i n the same d i r e c t i o n at similar angles, are commonly thought of as originating as off-shoots from the underlying 123 low angle sole thrust, probably beginning as low angle or bedding plane thrusts that soon steepen and merge at the surface as high-angle, reverse f a u l t s of much smaller s t r a t i -graphic displacement than the master thrust from which they originate. These fa u l t s which s l i c e the thrust sheet into a series of overlapping plates or blocks produce an imbricate structure, that i s controlled l a r g e l y by the rock competency. There are many contrasting l i t h o l o g i e s i n the s t r a t i -graphic succession but the majority of the s t r a t a are compet-ent, massive limestones and dolomites, generally with s u f f i c -ient strength to transmit tectonic stresses for appreciable distances without themselves becoming greatly or noticeably deformed. Within this dominantly competent sequence are three important zones of weakness, corresponding to the Ghost River formation, the Alexo formation, and the Exshaw-Lower Banff formations. These zones, because of their r e l a t i v e incompetence and stra t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n , exercise a c o n t r o l l i n g influence i n the formation of f a u l t s , for they tend to l o c a l -ize the fa u l t s and by reason of t h e i r l u b r i c a t i n g e f f e c t , decrease the f r i c t i o n a l resistance to movement along the fa u l t planes. The elongate mountain ridges i n this area are the topographic expression of these t h r u s t - f a u l t blocks and while the valleys do not always represent f a u l t zones, they may resul t from the superposition of re s i s t a n t over weaker s t r a t a or vice versa. Because this i s a maturely eroded area and 124 because the more competent and r e s i s t a n t formations have been raised to higher elevations by f a u l t i n g , the mountain peaks and ridges are composed of the more massive, competent limestones and dolomites of the Livingstone, P a l l i s e r , South-esk, Cairn and Eldon formations. Lac des Arcs Fault Block The Lac des Arcs f a u l t block i s that ridge underlain by the Lac des Arcs f a u l t "Clark (1949) (Figure 3) which i s traceable from north of the Bow River to south of Evans-Thomas Creek. The highest parts of the ridge are carved from the Livingstone limestone, the two most conspicuous peaks being Mt. Lorette and Mt. McDougall. On the west side of the ridge, which i s the east flank of the Cascade Coal Basin, i s a small northward plunging, a n t i c l i n a l f o l d which extends beyond the southern border of the area where i t soon disappears. This flexure has contributed to the strong westward d e f l e c t -ion of the Banff and Rundle outcrop patterns i n the Kanana-skis Valley. The trace of the underlying Lac des Arcs f a u l t l i e s i n the v a l l e y of Wasootch Creek and i t i s t h i s structure that has controlled the d i r e c t i o n of the stream. Throughout the length of the f a u l t , except i n the southern part of the area, Fairholme i s overridden P a l l i s e r to Rundle. Within the Fairholme i s a subsidiary f a u l t which exposes P a l l i s e r that has been both folded and faulted. The P a l l i s e r i s f i r s t ex-125 posed south of the highway i n the lower reaches of Wasootch Creek (Figure 32) and extends southeastward on the east side of Lac des Arcs Ridge for a distance of 2\ miles (Figure 4 , 3 3 ) . Four obsequent streams flow down the eastern side of the ridge, cutting through this thrust s l i c e , thus affording excellent opportunities to observe the development of the folds and fau l t s throughout the entire exposure. By so doing i t was found that southward the deformational stresses increased i n magnetude to such a degree that the P a l l i s e r beds f a i l e d by rupture i n part, and were folded a n t i c l i n a l l y above the f a u l t (Figure 3 4 ) . The thrust along which Fairholme overrides P a l l i s e r south of the Kananaskis River must be present within the Fairholme on the north side of the r i v e r because the section i s abnormally thick. South of the highway Southesk has been thrust over several hundred feet of P a l l i s e r , which because of i t s superior resistance i s exposed i n the form of an almost v e r t i c a l c l i f f , which ends abruptly just south of the high-way (Figure 3 2 ) . A deep stream v a l l e y separates this c l i f f from the next exposure which from the north appears to be a s p i r e , but i s actually a short ridge. At this point the de-formational forces have increased and the f a u l t s l i c e i s folded into a tight syncline (Figure 3 5 ) . In the v a l l e y of the second stream the syncline has been faulted i n the a x i a l re-gion so that i n the next exposure southward there i s v i r -t u a l l y no syncline l e f t , but rather a sequence of easterly 126 dipping beds, faulted over a group of westerly dipping beds which represent the east flank of the o r i g i n a l syncline. The tectonic forces have apparently increased somewhat to the south for the o r i g i n a l syncline has soon become 1 inverted' to an a n t i c l i n e which i s faulted at the base of i t s eastern limb over west dipping P a l l i s e r that represents the east limb of the o r i g i n a l syncline. At the southern end of the structure (Figure 31) the lower P a l l i s e r has been folded into a symmet-r i c a l a n t i c l i n e , faulted over by the Fairholme, and i t s e l f faulted over lower P a l l i s e r . This l a t t e r f a u l t may not be of great displacement, i n fact i t may be only a zone of intense shearing and bending with no r e a l displacement along a single, d e f i n i t e f a u l t . With depth the rupture zone may or may not merge into the a x i a l zone of a tight syncline where no rupture has occurred. South of t h i s l a s t exposure of P a l l i s -er the presence of dense vegetation and l i t t l e outcrop makes interp r e t a t i o n of the structure d i f f i c u l t but i t does appear that one or two f a u l t s are present within the Fairholme for the section i s abnormally thick and the beds do not always dip uniformly to the west. This f a u l t i n g probably continues southward beyond the headwaters of Wasootch Creek. Exshaw Fault Block The Exshaw f a u l t from the Kananaskis River to north cf the Bow River exposes P a l l i s e r above the f a u l t plane and mid-vray between the two r i v e r s on Heart Mountain a subsidiary f a u l t has brought Rundle over Spray River. (Clark 194-9). At the southern end of Heart Mountain on the north side of Kananaskis Rivey, Mississippian and Devonian formations wrap around the end of the ridge and are truncated by the Exshaw f a u l t . Correlation of the structure with the south side of the v a l l e y i s d i f f i c u l t because of the thick a l l u v i a l cover, and absence of outcrop i n the v a l l e y . The P a l l i s e r exposures on either side of the r i v e r are believed to be c o r r e l a t i v e , as are the two Fairholme exposures. It seems evident that the Banff i s gradually truncated across the width of the v a l l e y . Correlation of the Exshaw f a u l t across the v a l l e y poses a more d i f f i c u l t problem. Of three p o s s i b i l i t i e s , there i s l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d that i t connects with the Porcupine f a u l t . The only other f a u l t with which i t might be connected i s the Lac des Arcs f a u l t , but this f a u l t i s at the top of the P a l l i s e r , whereas the Exshaw f a u l t i s at the base of the P a l l i s e r . This re-quires the fault s to cut through almost the entire thickness of the P a l l i s e r which i s questionable, though not altogether impossible. The t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y i s that the Exshaw f a u l t connects with neither f a u l t , but diminishes i n displacement across the va l l e y to be l o s t either within the Fairholme or as a bedding plane thrust between the P a l l i s e r and Fairholme, that i s within the Alexo. This l a t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s perhaps the simplest and most l i k e l y for two reasons. F i r s t , the Exshaw f a u l t quickly diminishes i n st r a t i g r a p h i c throw from the top of Heart Mountain to the north side of the Kananaskis va l l e y where P a l l i s e r overrides Fairholme, that i s younger over older, a rare s i t u a t i o n , so that f a u l t appears to be dying out. Secondly i t i s e n t i r e l y possible that a thrust could originate between the P a l l i s e r and Fairholme, that i s within the Alexo which i s a r e l a t i v e l y incompetent unit capable of co n t r o l l i n g the pos i t i o n of a f a u l t within the sequence. This thrust at the base of the P a l l i s e r may o r i g -inate as far south as the point on Porcupine Ridge where the Fairholme was sampled. The conspicuous elongation of the northern end of this ridge which consists of P a l l i s e r , may i n part be a topographic r e f l e c t i o n of this f a u l t . Porcupine Fault Block The f a u l t herein named the Procupine f a u l t oocupies a near c r e s t a l p o sition on the ridge between Wasootch and Porcupine Creeks, and gives to this ridge i t s name (Figure 3 ) . Throughout most of i t s length i t has thrust Cambrian over P a l l i s e r or Banff, but i n the southeastern part of the area a thin s l i c e of Fairholme intervenes between Cambrian and Banff. The Porcupine f a u l t was observable only on the crest of the ridge at the head of Wasootch Creek, as was the f a u l t below. It was learned that i n the Moose Mountain area (Beach 1943/)' the f a u l t which thrusts Fairholme over P a l l i s e r west of Com-pression Ridge and Mt. Bryant "... has caused st r a t a of the 129 Fairholme formation to o v e r l i e v e r t i c a l Banff shales along the backs of Compression Ridge and Mount Bryant." Extra-polation of t h i s f a u l t and the use of a e r i a l photographs en-abled i t s c o r r e l a t i o n with the f a u l t below Porcupine f a u l t and below the s l i c e of Fairholme. A second c o r r e l a t i o n was made between the Rundle out-l i e r and a similar outcrop of Rundle on the peak of Mt. Bryant which i s immediately east of the small lake i n the southeast corner of the Wasootch Creek area. These Rundle outcrops occupy the a x i a l part of a f l a t syncline which on both peaks has an overturned west limb, and which represents the northern termination of the here designated Nihahi syn-c l i n e i n the Moose Mountain area. The northern end of the Porcupine f a u l t was mapped by Clark (194-9) at the western end of Barrier Dam. The Cambrian which occupies the position above the f a u l t south of Kananaskis River apparently wedges out i n the v a l l e y so that on the north side of the r i v e r Lower Fairholme overlies a t h i n s l i c e of P a l l i s e r , both of which die out within the Fairholme i n the v a l l e y northwest of Barr i e r Dam (Figure 4). West McConnell Fault Block It has been previously discussed the manner i n which the McConnell f a u l t i s deflected westward from the mountain front i n behind the mountain scarp south of Kananaskis River and the reason for t h i s designation. The f a u l t everywhere 130 brings Cambrian over Devonian P a l l i s e r and the near i d e n t i c a l l i t h o l o g y of the Morro member and Eldon formation make st r u c t u r a l interpretations very d i f f i c u l t . The only l o c a l i t y where the f a u l t could d e f i n i t e l y be observed i s on the south side of the ridge at the northern end of the east fork of Porcupine Creek, about 2/3 miles east of i t s junction with the west fork. Near the headvraters of the east branch of the west fork of Porcupine Creek, at the edge of the mapped area, d e f i n i t e f a u l t i n g i s present but although Middle Cambrian i s s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y above Devonian, detailed relations were not determinable. Attempted c o r r e l a t i o n of t h i s f a u l t with Beach's Moose Mountain map i s impossible for the only f a u l t he has desig-nated i n the mountains i n the northwest corner of his map, i s a small thrust bringing Fairholme over P a l l i s e r , but which because of i t s position does not warrant c o r r e l a t i o n . For th i s and other reasons some discrepancy i s believed to exist i n Beach's map north of Mount Bryant. According to his map almost the entire area behind the McConnell f a u l t consists of P a l l i s e r which i s deformed into a number of f o l d s . From the northwest the West McConnell f a u l t , and probably a thrust east of i t , together with Cambrian, Fairholme, and P a l l i s e r f o r -mations pass into t h i s area and i t i s not considered l i k e l y that these formations wedge out before doing so. Also, such a sizeable area of P a l l i s e r outcrop i s not common and may i n d i -cate some error. It i s suggested that there may be Middle 131 Cambrian Eldon i n f o l d and f a u l t relationships with P a l l i s e r i n which case s t r u c t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may be almost imposs-i b l e . On the east side of the ridge between the two branches of Porcupine Creek a t h i n s l i c e of Ghost River i s exposed above a thrust which has brought Ghost River over reefy Southesk, thus accounting for the abnormal thickness of F a i r -holme. This f a u l t continues northward within the Fairholme for an unknown distance but probably does not cross Porcupine Creek. One traversewas made up Pass Creek to the saddle at i t s head, but d i f f i c u l t y was met i n the separation of Cambrian and P a l l i s e r formations. In the v a l l e y of the largest creek on the north side of Pass Creek a fa u l t i s believed to exist with Eldon above and possibly P a l l i s e r below. Beach (194-3) who mapped the front of the range on either side of the map area recorded P a l l i s e r above the McConnell f a u l t but i n the Wasootch Creek area closer examination i s required be-fore these relationships are proven. Age of the Deformation It was long considered that the period of deformation of the Canadian C o r d i l l e r a terminated the Mesozoic Era but more recently evidence indicates that orogenic movement p e r i o d i c a l l y occurred throughout much of the Mesozoic and into 132 the early T e r t i a r y , and that the r e a l Rocky Mountain defor-mation took place i n the T e r t i a r y . L . 8 . Russell ( 1 9 5 l s 1954) has dated the Front Range deformation from New Mexico to Canada and has found that the period of orogeny occurred most commonly i n Late Paleocene and Eocene. In the southern Canadian Rockies two periods of deformation have occurred (Russell 1954) which centred around the Eocene-Oligocene time boundary. Beveridge and Folinsbee (1956) made potassium/argon and lead/Uranium age dates of several volcanic and plutonic rocks i n the C o r d i l l e r a n region and suggest that the p r i n c i p a l Mesozoic intrusives are of late Cretaceous age. J.A. Dorr (1958) gives conclusive evidence for Te r t i a r y orogenies i n Middle Paleocene, l a t e Early Eocene and Middle Eocene time, i n eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. In southwestern and southern Alberta non-marine s e d i -ments of l a t e s t Cretaceous age are the Edmonton formation, and those of Paleocene age are referred to as the Paskapoo formation, both of which have s i m i l a r l i t h o l o g i e s . In the valleys of the Red Deer River and Bow River i n the p l a i n s , the Paskapoo formation rests unconformably upon the Edmonton formation, but i n the f o o t h i l l s , Tozer (1953) believes that no substantial unconformity separates the two formations. Rutherford (1927) found that f o s s i l evidence indicated that the lower beds of the Edmonton-Paskapoo group between Cochrane and Kananaskis to be l a t e Cretaceous i n age and the uppermost 133 beds to be early T e r t i a r y , so that the main orogeny occurred i n early T e r t i a r y time, and since the Paskapoo i s Paleocene, the revolution probably culminated i n Eocene time. In the Cypress h i l l s residuals of erosion are com-posed of Cretaceous sediments overlain by Paleocene s t r a t a and capped by a heavy conglomerate of Oligocene age. The paucity of Eocene sediments i n Alberta and the Oligocene con-glomerate suggest that the Rockies were elevated p r i o r to Oligocene time, and P.S. Warren places the time i n the Eocene. There seems to be l i t t l e doubt therefore that the date of the Rocky Mountain orogeny was during or near Eocene time, and although there may have been two or three phases of deformation, the Early T e r t i a r y and not the Cretaceous was the time of the revolution. 134 ECONOMIC GEOLOGY O i l and Gas Petroleum has long been produced from r e l a t i v e l y strongly faulted s t r a t a i n the F o o t h i l l s of southern Alberta. Recently exploration has been extended into the mountains which heretofore have been considered too intensely deformed to contain productive f i e l d s . In the Wasootch Creek area the Rundle and Fairholme groups, which contain tremendous quantities of petroleum i n the P l a i n s , are exposed at the surface i n several f a u l t blocks. Any o i l and gas that they may have contained has long since escaped. It i s considered that this small area holds no prospect for the discovery of petroleum. Cement and Lime The non-metallic mineral resources of this part of the Rocky Mountain Front Range have long contributed sub-s t a n t i a l l y to the industry of Alberta. Limestone has been quarried i n the Bow Gap since the l a t e 1800's for a va r i e t y of uses but primarily for the manufacture of cement and lime. Loder 1 s Lime Company Limited i s quarrying high-calcium Cambrian limestone at the front of the mountains. The Canada Cement Company Limited quarries Devonian limestone for the manufacture of Portland cement at the town of Exshaw. 135 The Cambrian and Devonian formations i n the Bow Valley from which th i s rock i s being quarried are also present i n the Kananaskis Valley, and are of a s u f f i c i e n t l y high calcium content to be potential- - sources of cement and lime. Two other requirements however, a c c e s s i b i l i t y and proximity to a r a i l r o a d , are needed to make a deposit economic and both of these to some extent are lacking i n this region. In the Kananaskis Valley there are three areas where limestone suitable for lime production outcrop beside the highway. At the north end of Lac des Arcs Ridge the P a l l i s e r formation i s well exposed but could not be too e a s i l y quarried. The second i s at the junction of Wasootch Creek with the highway (Figure 4 ) . At the north end of Porcupine Ridge on the east side of the v a l l e y , the P a l l i s e r i s exposed on a small spur. This l o c a l i t y i s much more accesible than the f i r s t mentioned and the limestone i s probably less magnesian. The adjacent area consists of a gravel floored flood p l a i n and would make an excellent foundation for quarrying oper-ations. The thi r d area l i e s outside the mapped area and i s located beside the highway i n Kananaskis Gap. The formation here i s also believed to be P a l l i s e r and some quarrying has already been done. Gravel 136 The Bow Valley and adjacent flood plains contain unlimited amounts of sand and gravel so that deposits i n the Kananaskis Valley w i l l not l i k e l y become economic. There are however probably good deposits of gravel of both f l u v i a l and g l a c i a l o r i g i n i n the v a l l e y i n the v i c i n i t y of Wasootch Creek. The even flood p l a i n and nearness to the highway would make quarrying operations f a i r l y simple. 137 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1. The Wasootch Creek area and the adjacent Bow Valley are excellent areas for examination of t y p i c a l Rocky Mountain Front Range structure, stratigraphy and physiography, and should be used extensively for such purposes. 2. Between the Cascade Coal Basin and the McConnell f a u l t are several elongate f a u l t blocks which owe the i r shape to high angle reverse f a u l t s and mature dissec t i o n of resist a n t carbonate rocks. 3. Although the area has been glaciated, g l a c i a l features are not abundantly developed. 4. Middle and Upper Cambrian, Upper Devonian, Mississippian, Permian and Lower T r i a s s i c formations constitute the stratigraphic succession. 5. The Cambrian formations i n thi s area are correlated with the Eldon, Pika, and Arctomys of the Bow Valley region. 6. The Ghost River or Arctomys formation i s absent above the West McConnell f a u l t and i s one of the few places where i t i s not present below the sub-Sevonian unconformity. 7. The Upper Devonian of this area i s a well developed carbonate facies containing two massive reefs i n the upper part. 8. The four major reverse faul t s i n this area have been con-t r o l l e d i n their p o s i t i o n within the stratigraphic succession 138 by three weak zones corresponding to the Ghost River, Alexo and Exshaw-Lower Banff formations. 9 . The McConnell f a u l t consists of two separate f a u l t s north and south of the Kananaskis River at which point the northern f a u l t overrides the southern f a u l t and i s thereby deflected westward within the mountains. 10. It i s suggested that detailed mapping of the formations above the McConnell between the Ghost and Red Deer Rivers be undertaken to prove the presence of an overthrusting lobe between Kananaskis River and 51° 30' north l a t i t u d e . 11. The Exshaw f a u l t i s believed to die out as a bedding-plane thrust i n the northern part of the area. 12. The northernmost end of the 'Nihahi syncline' i n the Moose Mountain area i s faulted over by the Porcupine f a u l t i n the southeast corner of the area. 13. There i s l i t t l e prospect of a petroleum discovery i n this area. 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P e t r o l . Geol. Jour. v o l . 4, no. 1 pp. 16-23 (1958) "Mississippian Sedimentation and O i l Fields i n Southeastern Saskatchewan" Am. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol. v o l . 42, no. 1, pp. 94-126 Follinsbee, R.E. and Baadsgaard, H. (1958) "An Absolute Age for the Exshaw Shale" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol. 8 t h Ann. F i e l d Conf. Guide Book, pp. 69-74 Fox F.G. ( 195D "Devonian Stratigraphy of Rocky Mountains and F o o t h i l l s Between Crowsnest Pass and Athabasca River, Alberta, Canada" Am. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol. B u l l . , v o l . 35 , PP. 822-43; Western Canada Sedi-mentary Basin, Symposium, Am. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., pp. 109-30 (1954) (1953) "Glosaary of Formation Names of Southwestern Alberta" Alberta Soc. P e t r o l . Geol. 3rd Annual F i e l d Conference and Sumposium, Guide Book, pp. 180-212 146 Fox, F.G., (1954a) "Alexo Formation Outcrop Note" Alberta Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., News B u l l . v o l . 2 , no. 11, pp. 4 - 5 . (1954b) "Exshaw Formation, Outcrop Notes" Alberta Soc. Pe t r o l . Geol., News B u l l . , v o l . 2, no. 7> p. 6 (1954c) "Outcrop Notes: Rundle and Banff Formations, Nordegg, Alberta" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., News B u l l . , v o l . 2, no. 5 , pp. 7-8 (1954d) "Outcrop Notes: Fairholme Formation" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., News B u l l . , v o l . 2, no. 12, pp. 5-6 (1954e) "Outcrop Notes; Rocky Mountain Formation" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., News B u l l . , v o l . 2, no.9 P. 3 (1955a) "Outcrop Notes: Banff Formation" A l t a . Soc. Pe t r o l . Geol., Jour., v o l . 3 , p. 11 (1955b) "Outcrop Notes: P a l l i s e r Formation" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol. Jour., v o l . 3 pp. 39-40 - - i - — (1955c) "Outcrop Notes: Rundle Formation" A l t a . Soc. Pe t r o l . Geol., Jour., v o l . 3» PP. 5&-57 (1955d) "Outcrop Notes: Spray River Formation" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l Geol., Jour., v o l . 3 , pp. 74-75 (1955e) "Outcrop Notes: Banff Formation" A l t a . Soc. Pe t r o l . Geol., Jour., v o l . 3 , PP. 185-86 (1956a) "Outcrop Notes: Ghost River Formation" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., J o u r l , v o l . 4, no. 1, p. 24 (1956b) "Outcrop Notes: Banff Formation" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., Jour., v o l . 4, no. 2, p. 40 (1956c) "Outcrop Notes: Cheviot Formation" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . , Geol., Jour., v o l . 4, no. 4, p. 94 (1956d) "Outcrop Notes: Rocky Mountain Formation" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., Jour., v o l . 4, no. 6 , pp. 143-44 (1956e) "Outcrop Notes: Spray River Formation" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., Jour., v o l . 4, no. 9 , p. 216. Gallup, W.B. (1956) "Bow Valley Sketches" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol. 6 t h Ann. F i e l d Conf. Guide Book, pp. 1-10 147 Gallup, W.B. (1957) "Relation of Laramide Movements to the Cretaceous and Te r t i a r y Sediments of Western Canada" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., Jour., v o l . 5, no. 6 , pp. 125-26 Ginsburg, R.N. (1956) "Environment Relationships of Grain-Size and Constituent P a r t i c l e s i n Some South F l o r i d a Carbonate Sediments" Am. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., v o l . 40, pp. 2384-2429 Goodman, A.J. ( 195D "Tectonics of East Side of C o r d i l l e r a i n Western Canada" Am. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., B u l l . , v o l . 35 , pp. 783-96; Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Symposium, pp. 341-54 Goudge, M.F. (1945) "Limestones of Canada, Their Occurrence and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " pt. 5 , Western Canada, Canada Mines Branch, Pub. 811 Greiner, H.R. (1956) "Methy Dolomite of Northeast Alberta: Middle Devonian Reef Formation" Am. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol. v o l . 40, no. 9 , pp. 2057-80 Harker, P. (1952) "Age Relationships of Carboniferous Formations i n the Rocky Mountains of Canada" (abs) Geol. Soc. Am., B u l l . , v o l . 6 3 , p. 1258 Harker and Hutchinson, R.D. and McLaren, D.J. (1954a) "The Sub-Devonian Unconformity i n the Eastern Rocky Mountains of Canada" Am. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, pp. 48-67 (1954b) "Some Thoughts on Miss i s s i p p i a n C o r r e l a t i o n (summary)" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., News B u l l . , v o l . 2, no. 9 , pp. 1-3 (1955a) "The Carboniferous of Western Canada, Extent and S a l i e n t Problems" (abs) Can. O i l and Gas Ind., v o l . 8 , no. 10, pp. 61462 Harker, P. and McLaren, D.J. (1955b) "Devonian-Mississippian Boundary i n the Canadian Rocky Mountains" (abs) Can. O i l and Gas Ind., v o l . 8 , no. 10, p. 63 Harker, P and Raasch, G .0 . (1955c) "Megafaunal Zones:.:, i n the Alberta Mississippian and Permian" (abs) Can. O i l and 3Sas Ind., v o l . 8 , no. 10, pp. 65-66 Harker, P and McLaren, D.J. (1956) "The Devonian-Mississippian Boundary i n Alberta Rocky Mountains" Jour. Paleo., v o l . 3 0 , pp. 965-66 148 Hector, J . (1861) "On the Geology of the Country Between Lake Superior and the P a c i f i c Ocean - Between the 48th and 54th P a r a l l e l s of Latitude" Geol. Soc. London, Quarterly Jour., v o l . 17, pp. 388-445 (1863) "Geological Report: The Journals ... Relative to the Exploration by Capt. John P a l l i s e r of that Portion of Br. North America ... During the Years 1857, 1859, 1860" Great B r i t a i n C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , pp. 216-45, 314-25 Hopkins, O.B. ( 193D "Rocky Mountain Structure i n Alberta" (abs) Geol. Soc. Am., B u l l . , v o l . 42, p. 185 Howard, R.A. (1954) "Upper Paleozoic Stratigraphy of the Area Between Banff and Jasper, Alberta" (abs) Can. Min. Jour., v o l . 75, No. 12, p. 104 Hughes, R.D. (1955) "Geology of Portions of Sunwapta and Southesk Map-Area, Jasper National Park, Alberta Canada" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., 5 th Ann. F i e l d Conf., Guide Book, pp. 69-116 Hume, G.S. (1957) "Fault Structures i n the F o o t h i l l s and Rocky Mountains" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., Jour., v o l . 5, no. 1, pp. 11-12 I l l i n g , L.V. (1954) "Bahama Calcareous Sands" Am. Assoc., P e t r o l . Geol., v o l . 38, pp. 1-95 Irwin, J.S. (1955) "Canada's Mountains, A New O i l Frontier; Savanna Creek S t r i k e " O i l and Gas Jour., v o l . 54, pp. 172-73 K e l l y , W.A. (1936) "Middle and Upper Paleozoic Formations In the Canadian Rockies" (abs) Geol. Soc. Am., Proc. pp. 380-81 (1939) 'Devonian and Mississippian Stratigraphy of Jasper Park, Alberta" (abs) Geol. Soc. Am., B u l l . , v o l . 50, p. 2000 Kindle, E.M. (1924a) "Three New Devonic F o s s i l s from Alberta" Pan-American Geologist, v o l . 42, pp. 217-18 (1924b) "Standard Paleozoic Section of the Rocky Mountains Near Banff, Alberta" Pan-Amer. Geol., v o l . 42, pp. 113-24 Lambe, L.M. (1916) "Ganoid Fishes From Near Banff, Alberta" Royal Soc. Can. Trans, v o l . 10, pp. 35-44 149 Lang, A.H. (1947) "Brule and Enterence Map-Areas, Alberta" Geol. Survey Can. Memoir, 244, 65 pp. Laudon, L.R. (1948) "Osage-Meramec Contact" Jour. Geol., v o l . 56, pp. 288-302 (1949) "Devonian and Mississippian Stratigraphy Wapiti Lake Area, B.C." Am. Assoc! P e t r o l . Geol., B u l l . , v o l . 3 3 , PP. 1502-52 Link, T.A. ( 193D "Alberta Syncline, Canada" Am. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., B u l l . , v o l . 15, pp. 491-507, 971, 972 (1935) "Types of F o o t h i l l Structure of Alberta, Canada" Am. Assoc., P e t r o l . Geol., B u l l . , v o l . 19, pp. 1427-71 (1946) "Tectonic Features of Western Canada" (abs.) Am. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., B u l l . , v o l . 30 , p. 747 (1950a) "Some Thoughts on "Reef" trends and Con-fig u r a t i o n s " Geol. Assoc. Canada, Proc. v o l . 3 , PP. 27-37 (1950b) "The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin Area" Can. Inst., Min. & Metall., B u l l . no. 459, pp. 379-89 McConnell, R.G. (1887) "Report on the Geological Structure of a Portion of the Rocky Mountains" Geol. Survey Canada, Ann. Rept., v o l . 2, pt. D, 41 pp (1892) "Notes on an Examination of Part of the Bow River V a l l e y , Alberta" Geol. Survey Canada, Summ. Rept. 1891, Ann. Rept., v o l . 5 , pt. A pp. 18-19 McGehee, J.R. (1949) "Pre-Waterways Paleozoic Stratigraphy of Alberta P l a i n s " Am. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., B u l l . , v o l . 33, pp. 603-13; Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Symposium, pp. 131-142, 1954 McKay, B.R. (1935) "Cahmore Area, Alberta" Geological Survey of Canada, Maps 3 2 3 A , 3 2 2 A , geology with sections. No notes. Mackenzie, H.N.S. (1956) "Outcrop Notes: Rundle Group" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., Jour., v o l . 4, no. 5, pp. 119-23 McLaren, D.J. (1953a) "Summary of the Devonian Stratigraphycf the Alberta Rocky Mountains" Alb. Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., Third Ann. F i e l d Conference and Symposium Guide Book, pp 89-104 150 McLaren, D.J. (1953b) "Reef Development i n the Devonian of the Canadian Rocky Mountains" Can. Inst. Min. & Metall., B u l l . 499, pp. 706-10; O i l i n Canada, v o l . 6 , pp 9168-71 (1954) "Upper Devonian Rhynchonellid Zones i n the Canadian Rocky Mountains" Am. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Symposium, pp. 159-81 (1955a) "Devonian Formations i n the Alberta Rocky Mountains Between Bow and Athabasca Rivers" Geol. Survey Canada, B u l l . 35, 59 pp. (1955b) "Carbonate Bank Deposits i n the Devonian of the Alberta Rocky Mountains, Canada" (abs.) Geol. Soc. Am., B u l l . , v o l . 66 , pp. 1595-96 (1956) "Outcrop Notes: Alexo and Mt. Hawk Formations at Junction of Cline and North Saskatchewan Rivers" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., Jour., v o l . 4 , no. 8 , pp. 189-91 MacNeil, D.J. (1942) "Stratigraphy and Structure of Moose Mountain Area, Alberta" Am. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., B u l l . , v o l . 27, pp. 38-50 MacNeil, F.S. (1954) "Organic Reefs and Banks and Associated D e t r i t a l Sediments" Am. Jour. S c i . , v o l . 252, pp. 385-401 Marshall, J.R. (1922) "Kananaskis Lakes-Palliser River Map Area" Geol. Survey Canada, Summ. Rept. 1921, pt. B, pp. 91-94 Matthews, J.G. (1956) "Non-Metallic Mineral Resources of Cochrane-Canmore Area, Alberta" Alberta Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., 6 t h Ann. F i e l d Conf. Guide Book, pp. 39-43 M e r r i t t , W.H. (1886) "The Cascade Anthracite Coal F i e l d of the Rocky Mountains, Canada" Geol. Soc. London, Quarterly Jour., v o l . 4 2 , pp. 560-64 Moore, P.F. (1955a) " H i s t o r i c a l Review of Alberta Carbonif-erous Nomenclature" (abs) Can. O i l and Gas Ind., v o l . 8 , no. 10, p. 62 (1955b) "Mississippian Symposium Committee, Discussion of Proposed Correlations by" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., News B u l l . , v o l . 2, pp. 207-210 151 Moore, P.F. (1956) "Late Paleozoic Stratigraphy i n the Rocky Mountains and F o o t h i l l s of Alberta - A C r i t i c a l H i s t o r i c a l Review" Am. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., Carboniferous Symposium Mountjoy, E.W. (1956) "The Exshaw Formation, Alberta" Transactions, v o l . 54, pp. 376-80 Mygdal, K.A. (1956) "Bow Drainage Basin: Power, Water and Some Geology" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., 6 t h Ann. F i e l d Conf. Guide Book, pp. 11-20 Nelson, S.J. (1958) "Brachiopod Zones of the Mount Head and Etherington Formations, Southern Canadian Rockies" Royal Soc. Can., Trans., v o l . 52, ser. 3 , sec. 4 , PP. 45-53 Newland, J.B. (1954) "Interpretation of Alberta Reefs Based on Experience i n Texas and Alberta" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., News B u l l . , v o l . 2, no. 4 , pp. 1-6 Norris, D.K. (1957) "Rocky Mountain Succession at Beehive Pass" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., Jour., v o l . 5 , no. 10, pp. 248-53 (1958) "Beehive Mountain, Alberta and B r i t i s h Columbia" Geol. Survey Canada, Paper 58-5 North, F.K. and Henderson, G.G.L. (1954) "Summary of the Geology of the Southern Rocky Mountains of Canada" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., 4 t h Ann. F i e l d Conf. Guide Book, pp. 15-81 Pabst, A. (1931) "'Pressure-Shadows' and the Measurement of the Orientation of Minerals i n Rocfes" Am. Mineral., v o l . 16, no. 2 , pp. 55-70 Pamenter, C.B. (1956) "Imotoceras from the Exshaw Formation of Alberta" Jour. Paleo., v o l . 30 , pp. 965-66 Patterson, A.M. (1955) "The Devonian of Jasper Park" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., 5th Ann. F i e l d Conf. Guide Book, pp. 117-27 Porter J.W. (1955) "Madison Complex of Southeastern Sask-atchewan and Southwestern Manitoba" A l t a . Soc. Pe t r o l . Geol. Jour., v o l . 3 , pp. 126-30 Raasch, G . 0 . (1953) "Chester Faunas i n the Highwood Pass, Alberta" (abs.) A l t a . Soc. Petrol." Geol., News B u l l . , v o l . 1, no. 12, p. 9 Raasch, G.O. (1955) "Carboniferous Section at Highwood Pass Alberta" (Abs.) Can. O i l and Gas Ind., v o l . 8 , no.10 pp. 6 2 -63 (1956) "Permian Rocky Mountain Group i n Alberta" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., 6 t h Ann. F i e l d Conf., Guide Book, pp. 114-19 (1956) "Pterodpods and Devonian Black Shale Descrimin-ation" A l t a . Soc. Pe t r o l . Geol., Jour., v o l . 4 , no. 2 , pp. 38 -39 (1956) et a l l "Megafossil Zones i n the Alberta Mississippian and Permian" (abs,]f Am. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., v o l . 4 0 , no. 2 , p. 421 Raymond, P.E. (1930) "The Paleozoic Formations i n Jasper Park, Alberta" Am. Jour. S c i . 5 t h ser., v o l . 2 0 , pp. 289-300 Reudemann, R. (1936) "Eastern New York Ordovician Cherts" Geol. S o c , Am., v o l . 4 7 , pp. 1535-86 Russell, L.S. (1950) "Correlation of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Transition i n Saskatchewan and Alberta" Geol. 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Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol. VJestern Canada Sedimentary Basin, Symposium, pp. 214-18 Warren, P.S; (1956) "The Exploration Desk: The Exshaw Shale" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., Jour., v o l . 4, no. 6 , pp. 141-42 (1956) "Age and Subdivisions of the Rocky Mountain Formation of the Canadian Rockies" A l t a . Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., Jour., v o l . 4, no. 11, pp. 243-48 Webb, J.B., ( 195D "Geological History of Plains of Western Canada" Am. Assoc., P e t r o l . Geol., B u l l . , v o l . 35 , pp. 2291-2315; Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Sympos., Am. Assoc. P e t r o l . Geol., pp. 3-28 (1954) Wheeler, H.E. (1942) "Age of the Rocky Mountain Quartzite i n Southern Alberta (abs.) Geol. Soc. Am., B u l l . , v o l . 53, P. 1839 Williams, M.Y. (1947) "The Canadian Rockies" Royal Soc. Can. Trans. 3rd ser., v o l . 41, sec. 4, pp. 73-85. Winwood, H.H. (1885) "Geological Age of the Rocky Mountains" Geol. Mag., 3rd ser., v o l . 2, p. 240 156 Plate I Figure 4. A e r i a l photograph of the Wasootch  Creek and adjacent areas, showing  relationship of McConnell and West McConnell faul t s 157 Plate II Figure 5 . View of Mt. Lorette from highway. From l e f t to right are Mt. Head, Livingstone, Banff, Exshaw and  P a l l i s e r formations, representing  the east limb of the Cascade Coal  Basin or Mt. Allan Syncline. Figure 6 . Panoramic view looking north to north side of Kananaskis  Valley showing Mt. Lorette on l e f t , and southern end of  Heart Mt. on right. Lac des Arcs fault occupies the valley between the two mountains, Exshaw fault i s below ^ P a l l i s e r c l i f f on Heart ht. o° Plate IV 159 Figure 7. Exshaw valley at north end of Lac  des Arcs Ridge. Uppermost P a l l i s e r  on l e f t , Exshaw in v a l l e y occupied by snow s l i d e , snow-covered Banff  in center at top, Livinstone form-peak at ri g h t. Figure 8. View looking south from highway at  northwest corner of Lac des Arcs  Rid^e, showing resistant Livingstone  and non-resistant Kt. Head formations. Dips change rapidly due to a n t i -c l i n a l flexure at r i g h t . 160 Plate V Figure 9 . Dolomitic mottling i n Middle Cambrian  Lower Eldon formation i n Bow Valley at Loder Lime Plant Figure 10. Dolomitic mottling i n Middle Cam-brian Lower Eldon on Pass Creek. Highly dolomitized zone contains  syngenetic flowage folds Figure 11. Syngenetic folds i n highly dolomitized zone of Lower Eldon limestone 162 Plate VII Figure 13* View looking north at yellow-buff  weathering Ghost River, exposed on  l e f t side of gully. Dark, thin  beds of Cairn above, dark weather-ing Lower Eldon below Figure 14. Limestone breccia at top of Ghost  River Formation. Magnification 2x Plate VIII Plate IX 164 Figure 18. Photomicrograph of highly organic  layer i n the Costigan member of  the P a l l i s e r formation. MaBni- f i c a t i o n . X20 Plate X Figure 19, Dolomitic mottling normal to bedding i n Morro member, P a l l i s e r formation Figure 20. Dolomitic mottling normal to the  bee ding i n Morro member, P a l l i s e r  formation 166 Plate XI Figure 21. Dolomitic mottling in Morrc member  of the P a l l i s e r formation, which  has almost completely replaced the  or i g i n a l limestone Figure 22. Dolomitic mottling i n Morro member  of the P a l l i s e r formation, showing  a bedding surface Plate XII Figure 23. Acid etched polished surface of  dolomitic mottling i n the Morro  member of the P a l l i s e r formation. Dolomite i s white and medium cry-s t a l l i n e , limestone i s black and dense Figure 24. S t y l o l i t i c seam separating medium  and coarse-grained dolomite. Magnification X 3 5 Plate XIII 168 Figure 26. Very thin bedded, platy shales of  the Lower Banff member. Plate XIV 169 Figure 27. Chert nodules i n upper part of the  Mt. Head formation. Probably or i g -inated by the replacement of the  limestone Figure 28. Very irregular chert masses i n dense  limestone of the upper Mt. Head f o r - mation. Probably secondary in o r i g i n 170 stone formation Figure 30» Bedding surface of figure 29 shoving donut-shaped black chert  nodules. These suggest a prim-ary o r i g i n . 171 Plate XVI Figure 31. G l a c i a l t i l l and stream gravels  exposed in river terrace. South  side of Kananaskis River, north  end of Lac des Arcs Ridge figure 32. View looking south-southwest from  highway at northeast corner of Lac  des Arcs Ridge. Most northerly ex- posure of P a l l i s e r i n f a u l t - s l i c e on east side of the ridge. Plate XVII 172 Figure 33. View looking south at east side of  Lac des Arcs Ridge. Wasootch Creek  at l e f t . Figure 34. View looking northwest at southern termination of fa u l t s l i c e of P a l l i -ser. A n t i c l i n a l l y folded P a l l i s e r i s  faulted over by Southesk, and i t s e l f  faulted over west dipping lowermost  P a l l i s e r . Mt. Lorette i n background, Wasootch Creek in foreground. Plate XVIII 173 Figure 35. S y n c l i n a l l y folded P a l l i s e r f o r -mation, faulted over by steeply  Southesk formation. Fault  occupies almost v e r t i c a l , snow-f i l l e d gully 

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