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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Faunal and stratigrgraphic study of Upper Paleozoic rocks of Vancouver Island, British Columbia Yole, Raymond William 1965

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The U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  PROGRAMME OF THE FINAL ORAL EXAMINATION FOR. THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY of RAYMOND WILLIAM YOL.E  B.Sc,(Honours Geology), U n i v e r s i t y  of New Brunswick, 1947  M.A., Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y , 1958  TUESDAY  3  JANUARY 12., 1965, AT 11 30 P.M.  IN ROOM 1.19, FORESTRY AND GEOLOGY BUILDING  COMMITTEE IN CHARGE Chairman? I . McT. Cowan R. V. Best: W. R. Danner P. A. Dehnel External  W„ H. Mathews V. J . Okulitcb. G. E. Rouse Examiner:  University  S. J . Nelson  of A l b e r t a ,  (Calgary)  Department, of Geology  A FAONAL AND STRATIGRAPHI.G STUDY OF UPPER. PALEOZOIC ROCKS OF VANCOUVER ISLAND, BRITISH COLUMBIA ABSTRACT P a l e o z o i c r o c k s of Vancouver I s l a n d a r e exposed i n t h r e e major b e l t s ? the China Greeks S a l t s p r i n g . t h e Home Lake-Gameron R i v e r , and t h e B u t t l e 'Lake-Big I n t e r i o r belts o S t r a t i g r a p h i c sequences i n t h e s e t h r e e b e l t s a r e g r o s s l y s i m i l a r , though d i f f e r i n g i n d e t a i l . The P a l e o z o i c r o c k s of each belt: a r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e S i c k e r Group, o r i g i n a l l y d e f i n e d i n the s o u t h e r n p a r t of the China C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t . W i t h i n t h e S i c k e r Group, two major l i t h o l o g i c a l u n i t s a r e recognized;, and a r e r e f e r r e d t o as t h e Lower and Upper D i v i s i o n s of t h e group. The base of t h e S i c k e r Group has not: been seen. The upper contact, of t h e group appears t o be a p a r a c o n f o r m i t y , above w h i c h Upper T r i a s s i c v o l c a n i c and sedimentary r o c k s of the Vancouver Group o c c u r . The Lower D i v i s i o n c o n s i s t s m a i n l y of v o l c a n i c r o c k s and n o n - c a l c a r e o u s c l a s t i c r o c k s . I n the. Upper D i v i s i o n , l i m e s t o n e s and thin-bedded c h e r t y sediments, predominate. The major u n i t w i t h i n t h e Upper D i v i s i o n of t h e B u t t l e L a k e - B i g I n t e r i o r b e l t i s a l i m e s t o n e formation, (named h e r e i n ) of 1000 t o 1100 f e e t maximum t h i c k n e s s . Thinbedded, f i n e - g r a i n e d n o n - c a l c a r e o u s r o c k s of unknown age, t e n t a t i v e l y i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e S i c k e r Group Upper D i v i s i o n , conformably o v e r l i e t h e l i m e s t o n e a t c e r t a i n localities. A r i c h fauna of b r a c b i o p o d s , bryozoans, m o l l u s c s , c o r a l s and forami.nife.rs has been found i n the Upper D i v i s i o n . A meagre f l o r a of a l g a e and fragments of v a s c u l a r p l a n t s i s present: i n a l o c a l l y - d e v e l o p e d b a s a l sandstone of the Upper D i v i s i o n . At l e a s t 42 genera, r e p r e s e n t e d by .52 s p e c i e s , have been r e c o g n i z e d i n the Upper D i v i s i o n fauna; many f o s s i l s remain t o be i d e n t i f i e d . Four of t h e b r a c h i o p o d s p e c i e s a r e regarded as new. Faunas s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the. Upper D i v i s i o n of t h e S i c k e r Group have been l i s t e d or d e s c r i b e d from other n o r t h e r n C o r d i l l e r a n r e g i o n s . C o r r e l a t i o n i s thus suggested w i t h t h e Permian Coyote B u t t e F o r m a t i o n of c e n t r a l Oregon, the Black, M o u n t a i n F o r m a t i o n of  n o r t h w e s t e r n Washington;, p a r t o f t h e Cache C r e e k Group o f m a i n l a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a n d pa:r.t.s o f t h e Per/moC a r b o n i f e r o u s s u c c e s s i o n s of' A l a s k a a n d Y u k o n T e r r i t o r y , P e r m i a n f a u n a s o f t h e A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o ^ Greenland;, S p i t s b e r g e n a n d n o r t h w e s t e r n R u s s i a c o n t a i n , many g e n e r a and some s p e c i e s i n . common w i t h t h e f a u n a o f t h e S i c k e r G r o u p > S p e c i e s o f jj.or ;r I d on l a , S p l r ji £erelj_a a n d Koch i • productus a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s regard, l i n k i n g the. S i c k e r G r o u p f a u n a w i t h t h e " A r c t i c P e r m i a n " and " R u s s i a n " b o r e a l f a u n a s . Despite the s t r o n g b o r e a l a f f i n i t i e s o f the. V a n c o u v e r : I s l a n d f a u n a , however.;, r e l a t i o n s h i p s a l s o w i t h w e s t e r n P a c i f i c e q u a t o r i a l faunas a r e suggested by c e r t a i n b r a c h i o p o d s and many o f t h e b r y o z o a n s . ;  The f a u n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h u s e s t a b l i s h e d , a n d t h e presence o f c e r t a i n d i a g n o s t i c b r a c h i o p o d s and t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d fusulin.i.d'S i n d i c a t e t h e a g e o f t h e U p p e r D i v i s i o n o f the. S i c k e r G r o u p t o b e E a r l y P e r m i a n (Wolfcampian-Leonardian)„ 3  The. e v i d e n t m i x i n g i n t h e P e r m i a n f a u n a o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d o f e l e m e n t s o f b o r e a l and e q u a t o r i a l faunas p r o h i b i t s conclusive biogeographic a n a l y s i s at the p r e s e n t s t a g e o f investigation„ The, p r e s e n t , e v i d e n c e of f a u n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s i s a l s o i n c o n c l u s i v e w i t h r e s p e c t t o the. a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e o r i e s o f c o n t i n e n t a l d r i f t a n d p o l a r wandering» Lower D i v i s i o n r o c k s r e p r e s e n t d e p o s i t s o f a moderat e l y d e e p g u l f o r b a s i n on t h e c o n t i n e n t a l b o r d e r l a n d , f o r m e d d u r i n g a p e r i o d m a r k e d by t e c t o n i c a n d v o l c a n i c activity. Diminishing c r u s t a l unrest culminated i nthe s h o a l i n g w a t e r s and c a r b o n a t e d e p o s i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e Upper D i v i s i o n . GRADUATE STUDIES Fields  of  Study;  Invertebrate Paleobotany Biogeography Oceanography  Paleontology  V . J . Ok.ulif.ch G„E„ R o u s e R.W. P i l l s b u r y G.L. P i c k a r d R..F. Scagel  SCHOLARSHIPS 1944  - I.O.D.E. S c h o l a r s h i p - h i g h e s t  standing  1944-47 - M i d d l e s b r o u g h E d u c a t i o n Committee 1961-62  Scholarship  N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l of Canada,, Fellowship  1961-62 - S h e l l O i l Co., Research S c h o l a r s h i p PUBLICATION "An E a r l y Permian Fauna from Vancouver I s l a n d , B r i t i s h Columbia" B u l l , of Canadian Petroleum Geology, V o l . 11, No. 2, 1963, p. 138-149.  A FAUNAL AND STRATIGRAPHIC STUDY OF UPPER PALEOZOIC ROCKS OF VANCOUVER BRITISH  ISLAND,  COLUMBIA  by  RAYMOND W I L L I A M YOLE  B.Sc, M.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y o f New B r u n s w i c k , The J o h n s H o p k i n s U n i v e r s i t y ,  1947 1958  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR  THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in  the Department of GEOLOGY  We a c c e p t t h i s required  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  to the  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H J a n u a r y , 1965.  COLUMBIA  In the  requirements  British  mission  for  Columbia, I  available  for  for  an  reference  be  without  of my  Department  this  and  by  for  the  study.  the  of  Head  financial  of  7C o l u m b i a ,  the  Library I  this  permission*  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a Date  that  in partial  degree at  of  I t i s understood  thesis  written  thesis  advanced  copying  granted  representatives.  cation  this  agree  extensive  p u r p o s e s may his  presenting  thesis my  make i t  agree for  that  or  c o p y i n g or  shall  not  of  of freely per-  scholarly  Department  that  gain  University  shall  further  fulfilment  be  by publi-  allowed  ABSTRACT  P a l e o z o i c rocks major b e l t s : R i v e r , and  of Vancouver I s l a n d are exposed i n t h r e e  the C h i n a C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g ,  the Home Lake-Cameron  the B u t t l e L a k e - B i g I n t e r i o r b e l t s .  Stratigraphic  sequences i n these three b e l t s are  s i m i l a r , though d i f f e r i n g i n d e t a i l . b e l t are c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  The  P a l e o z o i c rocks  contact  Upper D i v i s i o n s of the  base of the S i c k e r Group has  of the group appears to be  Upper T r i a s s i c v o l c a n i c and Group  Within  major l i t h o l o g i c a l u n i t s are r e c o g n i z e d ,  r e f e r r e d to as the Lower and The  of each  the S i c k e r Group, o r i g i n a l l y d e f i n e d i n  the southern p a r t of the China C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t . S i c k e r Group, two  grossly  the  and  are  group.  not been seen.  The  upper  anpeunconformity, above which  sedimentary rocks  of the Vancouver  occur. The Lower D i v i s i o n c o n s i s t s mainly of v o l c a n i c rocks  calcareous  c l a s t i c rocks.  bedded c h e r t y  In the Upper D i v i s i o n , limestones  sediments predominate.  and  non-  and  thin-  The major u n i t w i t h i n the Upper  D i v i s i o n of the B u t t l e L a k e - B i g I n t e r i o r b e l t i s a l i m e s t o n e  forma-  tion  Thin-  (named h e r e i n )  of 1000  to 1100  f e e t maximum t h i c k n e s s .  bedded, f i n e - g r a i n e d n o n - c a l c a r e o u s rocks  of unknown age,  tentative-  l y i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the S i c k e r Group Upper D i v i s i o n , conformably overlie  the l i m e s t o n e  at c e r t a i n l o c a l i t i e s .  A r i c h fauna of b r a c h i o p o d s , bryozoans, m o l l u s c s , f o r a m i n i f e r s has of algae  and  been found i n the Upper D i v i s i o n .  fragments of v a s c u l a r p l a n t s i s present  developed b a s a l  sandstone of the Upper D i v i s i o n .  corals  and  A meagre f l o r a in a  locally-  iii  A t l e a s t 42 g e n e r a , r e p r e s e n t e d b y 52 s p e c i e s , h a v e b e e n r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e U p p e r D i v i s i o n f a u n a ; many f o s s i l s r e m a i n tified.  Four  o f t h e b r a c h i o p o d s p e c i e s a r e r e g a r d e d a s new.  Faunas s i m i l a r  t o t h a t o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r  Group have been l i s t e d regions.  or d e s c r i b e d from other n o r t h e r n C o r d i l l e r a n  C o r r e l a t i o n i s thus suggested w i t h t h e Permian  Formation of central western Washington, Columbia,  t o be i d e n -  Oregon, t h e B l a c k Mountain p a r t o f t h e Cache Creek  Permian  faunas  Butte  Formation of north-  Group o f m a i n l a n d  and p a r t s o f t h e Permo-Carboniferous  and Yukon T e r r i t o r y .  Coyote  British  successions of A l a s k a  o f t h e A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o , Green-  l a n d , S p i t s b e r g e n a n d n o r t h w e s t e r n R u s s i a c o n t a i n many g e n e r a a n d some s p e c i e s i n common w i t h t h e f a u n a o f t h e S i c k e r G r o u p .  Species o f Hor-  r i d o n i a , S p i r i f e r e l l a and K o c h i p r o d u c t u s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y in  this regard, linking  t h e S i c k e r Group f a u n a w i t h t h e " A r c t i c  ian"  and " R u s s i a n " b o r e a l faunas.  ties  o f t h e Vancouver  western P a c i f i c  significant  Despite the strong boreal  Perm-  affini-  I s l a n d fauna, however, r e l a t i o n s h i p s a l s o w i t h  equatorial  faunas  a r e suggested by c e r t a i n b r a c h i o -  p o d s a n d many o f t h e b r y o z o a n s . The of  i n d i c a t e t h e age o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r  be E a r l y Permian The  of  thus e s t a b l i s h e d , and t h e presence  c e r t a i n d i a g n o s t i c brachiopods and t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d f u s u -  linids, to  faunal relationships  elements  Group  (Wolfcampian-Leonardian).  e v i d e n t m i x i n g i n t h e Permian o f b o r e a l and e q u a t o r i a l  fauna o f Vancouver  faunas  prohibits conclusive bio-  geographic a n a l y s i s a t the present stage of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . sent evidence of faunal d i s t r i b u t i o n s  Island  The p r e -  i s also inconclusive with r e -  iv  spect  to the assessment of t h e o r i e s of c o n t i n e n t a l d r i f t  and  polar  wandering. Lower D i v i s i o n r o c k s r e p r e s e n t g u l f o r b a s i n on marked by  acteristic  the c o n t i n e n t a l b o r d e r l a n d ,  t e c t o n i c and  r e s t culminated  deposits of a moderately  volcanic activity.  i n t h e s h o a l i n g w a t e r s and  of the Upper  Division.  deep  formed d u r i n g a p e r i o d  Diminishing crustal  un-  carbonate deposits  char-  V TABLE OF CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  page  1  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM  1  LOCATION AND ACCESS  2  PREVIOUS WORK  3  Summary  3  History  of Paleozoic studies  PRESENT WORK  5 17  Scope  17  F i e l d Work  18  L a b o r a t o r y Work  19  REGIONAL GEOLOGY  22  GENERAL STATEMENT  22  TABLE OF FORMATIONS  23  STRATIGRAPHY  25  LIMESTONES OF THE S I C K E R GROUP  25  B A S I C I N T R U S I V E ROCKS  27  COAST INTRUSIONS  28  STRUCTURE  28  SUMMARY  30  CHINA CREEK-SALTSPRING BELT  32  GENERAL STATEMENT  32  STRATIGRAPHY  33  Sequence and n o m e n c l a t u r e  33  Table  36  o f formations  S i c k e r Group  37  vi  S t r a t i g r a p h i c boundaries  37  Lower D i v i s i o n  38  Upper D i v i s i o n  39  Bald Mountain Peninsula  section  39  F a i r s e r v i c e Mountain s e c t i o n  40  Bear Creek s e c t i o n  43  S t r a t i g r a p h i c sequence  and t h i c k n e s s  44  Fauna  47  Faunal l i s t s  49  STRUCTURE  51  HORNE LAKE-CAMERON R I V E R BELT  53  GENERAL STATEMENT  53  STRATIGRAPHY  55  Sequence and n o m e n c l a t u r e  55  Table o f formations  59  S i c k e r Group  60  STRUCTURE  Lower D i v i s i o n  60  Upper D i v i s i o n  61  Mt. Mark s e c t i o n  61  West H o m e Lake s e c t i o n  64  Cameron Draw s e c t i o n  65  Cameron R i v e r  66  area  Fauna  67  Faunal l i s t s  68 70  vii  BUTTLE L A K E - B I G INTERIOR BELT  71  GENERAL STATEMENT  71  STRATIGRAPHY  72  S e q u e n c e and  nomenclature  72  Table of formations  77  S i c k e r Group  78  Lower D i v i s i o n  78  Upper D i v i s i o n  81  B u t t l e Lake Formation  82  Azure Lake s e c t i o n  83  Marblerock  86  Creek s e c t i o n  West F o r k W o l f R i v e r s e c t i o n  88  Fauna  89  Faunal  lists  90  STRUCTURE  93  CORRELATION  96  REGIONAL CORRELATIONS, VANCOUVER ISLAND  96  INTER-REGIONAL CORRELATIONS  99  C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h C e n t r a l Oregon Correlation with  Cache Creek Group  99 100  Correlation with Alaska  101  Correlation with  103  the Yukon  Correlation with Grinnell Peninsula  104  Correlation with other A r c t i c  106  regions  Correlation with Russia  107  Correlation with Australia  107  viii  C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h southwestern United States  108  AGE OF THE S I C K E R GROUP FAUNA  109  BIOGEOGRAPHY  112  ENVIRONMENT OF D E P O S I T I O N  117  P e t r o g r a p h i c and S t r a t i g r a p h i c e v i d e n c e  117  Evidence  from sedimentary  119  Evidence  from f o s s i l s  and o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s  120  Discussion  122  Conclusions  128  SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY  130  Phylum P r o t o z o a  130  Phylum Brachiopoda  132  Genus HORRIDONIA  132  Genus ANTIQUITONIA  141  Genus ECHINOCONCHUS  144  Genus KOCHIPRODUCTUS  147  Genus KROTOVIA  152  Genus MUIRWOODIA  154  Genus N E O S P I R I F E R  155  Genus BRACHYTHYRINA  160  Genus S P I R I F E R E L L A  161  Genus P T E R O S P I R I F E R  165  Genus I N G E L A R E L L A  167  Genus SQUAMULARIA  175  Genus HUSTEDIA  177  Genus S P I R I F E R I N A Genus C L E I G T H Y R I D I N A Genus LAEVICAMERA Genus RHYNCHOPORA Genus SCHIZOPHORIA Genus ORTHOTICHIA Genus DERBYIA PHYLUM  MOLLUSCA CLASS PELECYPODA Genus  NUCULANA  Genus CHAENOMYA Genus SCHIZODUS Genus A V I C U L O P E C T E N C L A S S GASTROPODA PHYLUM COELENTERATA ORDER TABU LATA G e n u s CHAETETES Genus M I C H E L I N I A Genus CLADOCHONUS "ORDER RUGOSA PHYLUM  BRYOZOA Genus  STENOPORA  Genus STREBLASCOPORA Genus RHABDOMESON Genus NICKLESOPORA Genus CLAUSOTRYPA Genus FENESTELLA  Genus POLYPORA  page  218  Genus PROTORETEPORA  219  Genus ACANTHOCLADIA  220  Genus PENNIRETEPORA  221  Genus SULCORETEPORA  222  Genus GONIOCLADIA  224  FAMILY FISTULIPORIDAE  225  P O S I T I O N UNCERTAIN  226  BIBLIOGRAPHY  227  APPENDIX  240  FIGURES 1.  2.  3.  I n d e x map, w e s t e r n B r i t i s h adjacent areas  C o l u m b i a and ..  f o l l o w i n g page  1  f o l l o w i n g page  2  P a l e o z o i c b e l t s o f Vancouver I s l a n d  G e o l o g i c a l map o f C o w i c h a n A r e a In  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  10.  G e o l o g i c a l map o f H o m e L a k e - C a m e r o n River Area  pocket  I n pocket  G e o l o g i c a l map o f B u t t l e L a k e A r e a In  pocket  In  pocket  S t r a t i g r a p h i c S e c t i o n s , Upper D i v i s i o n of S i c k e r Group, Vancouver I s l a n d  S o u t h e a s t e r n end o f C h i n a belt.  Creek-Saltspring F o l l o w i n g page  32  Cowichan V a l l e y , east o f Lake Cowichan  Chanlog Creek s e c t i o n , upper  F o l l o w i n g page  32  F o l l o w i n g page  40  F o l l o w i n g page  40  part  C h a n l o g Creek e x p o s u r e s o f l i m e s t o n e s and s i l i c e o u s l i m e s t o n e - c h e r t beds o f Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group  xi 11.  12.  13.  14.  15.  16.  17.  18.  19.  20.  21.  22.  Limestone lens w i t h i n thin-bedded s i l i c e o u s sequence o f Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group, on C h a n l o g C r e e k . F o l l o w i n g page  41  Contorted thin-bedded s i l i c e o u s rocks of U p p e r D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r G r o u p , on C h a n l o g Creek F o l l o w i n g page  41  Limestone exposures, Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group, s o u t h e a s t from west f o r k o f Chanlog Creek . F o l l o w i n g page  42  S i n k h o l e exposures of limestones of Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r G r o u p , on F a i r s e r v i c e Mountain, south of headwaters of Chanlog Creek F o l l o w i n g page  42  F r a c t u r e d , p a r t l y s i l i c i f i e d and d o l o m i t i z e d limestone, with chert nodules; Upper D i v i s i o n S i c k e r Group, n e a r headwaters west f o r k , Chanlog Creek F o l l o w i n g page  42  Thin-bedded s i l i c e o u s l i m e s t o n e - c h e r t sequence, Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group, i n road-cut, east side of F a i r s e r v i c e Creek  F o l l o w i n g page  42  F o l l o w i n g page G r e y w a c k e and a r g i l l i t e , L o w e r D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group; s o u t h bank o f west f o r k , Bear Creek F o l l o w i n g page  43  Limestone containing p a r t l y s i l i c i f i e d f o s s i l s ( b r a c h i o p o d s , b r y o z o a n s ) ; Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r G r o u p , on B e a r C r e e k  43  G r e y w a c k e and a r g i l l i t e , n o r t h b a n k o f west f o r k , Bear Creek, near v e r t i c a l F o l l o w i n g page  43  T h i n - b e d d e d s i l i c e o u s l i m e s t o n e and c h e r t o f Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group; F a i r s e r v i c e Mountain, east of Bear Creek .......  F o l l o w i n g page  44  U n c o n f o r m i t y between Nanaimo Group c o n g l o m e r a t e s and s c h i s t o s e v o l c a n i c rocks o f S i c k e r Group, A l b e r n i H i g h way, 0.3 m i l e s s o u t h e a s t o f S t o k e s Creek  Following  page  54  Mt. Mark s e c t i o n , Upper S i c k e r Group  Following  page  61  Division,  xii  23.  Mt. Mark s e c t i o n , a e r i a l v i e w t o n o r t h Following  24.  25.  26.  27.  28.  29.  30.  31.  32.  33.  34.  35.  36.  page  61  F o l l o w i n g page  64  F o l l o w i n g page  64  Thin-bedded t u f f s , Lower D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r G r o u p . W e s t s i d e C a m e r o n Draw  F o l l o w i n g page  65  C o n g l o m e r a t i c l i m e s t o n e ( U n i t 23) o f Mt. Mark s e c t i o n , Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group  F o l l o w i n g page  65  Upper s u r f a c e o f c o n g l o m e r a t i c bed o f U n i t 23, Mt. Mark s e c t i o n  F o l l o w i n g page  66  Chert layers (white-weathering) i n limes t o n e , upper p a r t o f Mt. Mark s e c t i o n , Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group  F o l l o w i n g page  66  S i l i c i f i e d c r i n o i d stem fragments, p a r a l l e l t o bedding planes, i n limestone o f Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group; l a k e - s h o r e exposure, H o m e Lake, west s i d e o f o u t l e t (Qualicum River)  F o l l o w i n g page  67  F o l l o w i n g page  71  F o l l o w i n g page  71  F o l l o w i n g page  79  Light-weathering limestones of B u t t l e Lake F o r m a t i o n on west s i d e o f B u t t l e Lake, below M a r b l e Peak  F o l l o w i n g page  79  T u f f s and b r e c c i a s o f Lower D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group; l a k e - l e v e l exposure, west side B u t t l e Lake, 2 miles north of P h i l l i p s Creek  Following  page  80  View southwest across Azure Lake. L i g h t - w e a t h e r i n g B u t t l e Lake Format i o n s p l i t and o v e r l a i n by dark basic intrusions  Following  page  80  West H o m e L a k e s e c t i o n . west from Mt. Mark  View south-  N o r t h e n d o f Cameron D r a w , v i e w e d e a s t from Mt. Mark  south-  B i g I n t e r i o r Mountain, southern end of B u t t l e Lake-Big I n t e r i o r b e l t  West f o r k o f W o l f R i v e r , v i e w west  south-  P h i l l i p s Creek v a l l e y , viewed from M a r b l e Peak  south  xiii  37.  38.  39,  40,  41.  42.  43.  44.  45.  46.  47.  48.  V i e w s o u t h w e s t up M a r b l e r o c k C r e e k toward Azure Lake  F o l l o w i n g page  81  F o l l o w i n g page  81  B u t t l e Lake Formation southwest of Azure Lake. View n o r t h e a s t across measured Azure Lake s e c t i o n  F o l l o w i n g page  83  View n o r t h e a s t from Azure Lake s e c t i o n t o l i m e s t o n e - c a p p e d r i d g e on e a s t s i d e of Azure Lake  F o l l o w i n g page  83  F o l l o w i n g page  84  P a n o r a m i c v i e w ( a t 245 d e g r e e s t o 340 d e g r e e s f r o m s o u t h e a s t s i d e o f l a k e ) of exposures of B u t t l e Lake F o r m a t i o n on n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f Azure Lake  F o l l o w i n g page  85  B a s i c i n t r u s i v e body s p l i t t i n g B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n on e a s t s l o p e o f M a r b l e Peak  F o l l o w i n g page  86  Contact between b a s i c i n t r u s i v e (above) and l o w e r l i m e s t o n e o f B u t t l e Lake Formation, s o u t h e a s t of Marble Peak  F o l l o w i n g page  86  V i e w w e s t up M a r b l e r o c k C r e e k from B u t t l e Lake  F o l l o w i n g page  87  View n o r t h e a s t , from p o i n t about two m i l e s s o u t h w e s t o f m o u t h o f Marblerock Creek, across f a u l t shown i n F i g . 45  F o l l o w i n g page  87  Upper c o n t a c t of b a s i c i n t r u s i o n and l i m e s t o n e o f u p p e r p a r t o f B u t t l e Lake F o r m a t i o n ; n o r t h side Marblerock Creek, 2 m i l e s s o u t h w e s t o f mouth  F o l l o w i n g page  87  Cherty l i m e s t o n e o f B u t t l e Lake F o r m a t i o n , j u s t above c o n t a c t shown i n F i g . 47  F o l l o w i n g page  87  Mt.  Golden Hinde.  View  southwest  B a s a l s a n d s t o n e ( U n i t 1) o f B u t t l e Lake F o r m a t i o n , Azure Lake s e c t i o n  xiv 49.  50.  51.  52.  53.  54.  55.  S i l i c e o u s n o d u l e s i n l i m e s t o n e of B u t t l e Lake F o r m a t i o n , b e l o w m e d i a l i n t r u s i v e , n o r t h bank of M a r b l e r o c k C r e e k , below l o c a l i t y o f F i g u r e s 47, 48  Following  page  87  T a l u s b l o c k of p i l l o w b a s a l t from Vancouver Group; north s i d e of M a r b l e r o c k Creek  Following  page  87  S y n c l i n e i n B u t t l e Lake 3 miles south-southwest McBride  Following  page  93  T r a n s v e r s e f a u l t (above east<-west), s o u t h e n d o f s y n c l i n e shown i n F i g - 51  Following  page  93  View north-northwest of Marble Peak  Following  page  94  C o r r e l a t i o n diagram, Vancouver I s l a n d  Following  page  96  Following  page  108  page  139  page  186  Formation, o f Mt.  S i c k e r Group,  C o r r e l a t i o n of Permian formations of C o r d i l l e r a n and A r c t i c regions  56.  Sections  of Horridonia  s p . A.  57.  S e r i a l s e c t i o n s o f Laevicamera. n. s p .  PLATES I  II  III  IV  V  Kochiprpductus, Krotovia, Muirwoodia  Following  page  250  N e o s p i r i f er,, A n t i q u i t o n i a , Echinoconchus, Hustedia,.  Following  page  251  S p i r i f e r e l l a , Laevicamera, N e o s p i r i f e r , Ingela.re 11a?, K r o t o v i a , Squa.mula.ria, Rhynchopora  Following  page  252  H o r r i d o n i a , Stenopora^ Protoretepora, Acanthocladia, F u s u l i n i d , A z u r e Lake S e c t i o n .  Following  p a g e . 253  Schwagerina?, radiolaria.  Following  page  Pseudofusulinella?, 254  XV  TABIES 1.  T a b l e o f f o r m a t i o n s , Vancouver  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  Page  24  Table of formations, w i t h proposed nomenclature f o r s u b d i v i s i o n s o f S i c k e r Group, C h i n a CreekSaltspring belt.  Page  36  Ta,ble o f f o r m a t i o n s , w i t h p r o p o s e d n o m e n c l a t u r e f o r s u b d i v i s i o n s of t h e S i c k e r Group, H o m e Lake*-Cameron R i v e r b e l t .  Page  59  Table of formations, Buttle Lake-Big I n t e r i o r b e l t , w i t h proposed nomenclature f o r P a l e o z o i c sequence  Page  77  Faunal c o r r e l a t i o n s between the t h r e e P a l e o z o i c b e l t s of Vancouver I s l a n d  Page  97  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f c e r t a i n key f o s s i l s i n C o r d i l l e r a n , A r c t i c and R u s s i a n r e g i o n s .  Page  111  F o l l o w i n g Page  239  ADDENDUM  Isla,nd Pa,leozoic b e l t s .  XVI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The for  writer  e x p r e s s e s h i s deep g r a t i t u d e  much i n v a l u a b l e  this  assistance  t o D r . V. J . O k u l i t c h  and guidance d u r i n g  the preparation  t h e s i s , and most p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e t i m e f r e e l y g i v e n ,  busy schedule, f o r d i s c u s s i o n the w r i t e r Island  i s greatly  and encouragement.  indebted f o r i n i t i a l  t o t h e s t u d y , and f o r f r u i t f u l  problems and t h e s i s p r e p a r a t i o n . Island  Paleozoic  rocks contributed  from a  To D r . W. R. D a n n e r ,  information  on V a n c o u v e r  geology, which l e d t o the present study, f o r other  critical  discussion  information  of the geological  P e r s o n a l knowledge o f Vancouver b y D r . W. H. M a t h e w s was o f g r e a t  h e l p i n t h e work, and i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged.  For assistance i n  many w a y s , b u t m o s t e s p e c i a l l y f o r s t i m u l a t i n g a n d e n t h u s i a s t i c ance i n t h e f i e l d ,  the w r i t e r  at a critical  time by D r . Rouse,  c o l l e c t i o n s o n w h i c h much o f t h i s s t u d y i s b a s e d w o u l d h a v e b e e n  much l e s s  complete.  Material  assistance  from t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Department of  Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , M i n e r a l o g i c a l acknowledged.  Branch, i s g r a t e f u l l y  The w r i t e r w o u l d e s p e c i a l l y l i k e  t o t h a n k D r . H. S a r -  g e n t a n d D r . W. G. J e f f e r y f o r e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d v a l u a b l e The in  readily offered  assistance  equipping f o r the f i e l d Financial  ogy  assist-  i s d e e p l y g r a t e f u l t o D r . G. E . R o u s e ;  w i t h o u t t h e h e l p so g e n e r o u s l y o f f e r e d the  of  Department, U n i v e r s i t y  Council  o f M r . A. F . S h e p h e r d o f t h i s B r a n c h  was g r e a t l y  assistance  discussions.  f o r parts  of B r i t i s h  appreciated. of the project  from the Geol-  Columbia, the National  a n d S h e l l O i l Company o f C a n a d a a r e a c k n o w l e d g e d w i t h  Research gratitude.  xvii  Many c o u r t e s i e s were extended t o the w r i t e r by r e s i d e n t s of Vancouver I s l a n d , among whom Mr. and Mrs. S . J . Grant are s i n g l e d out f o r s p e c i a l mention.  1 INTRODUCTION  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Previous  work  on Vancouver I s l a n d  suggested that the P a l e o z o i c rocks  yielded information  exposed i n w i d e l y  l o n g e d t o t h e same s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t .  separated  areas be-  E v i d e n c e b a s e d on f o s s i l s  the  upper p a r t o f t h e sequence r e s u l t e d i n c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s  its  age.  fossils  The m a j o r i t y  of determinations  from s e v e r a l l o c a l i t i e s  which  from  as t o  i n d i c a t e d Permian age, b u t  s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e beds were  Pennsly-  vanian. The  present  study  was i n i t i a t e d  t o gather  apparent discrepancy  additional information  w i t h which t o assess  this  to t e s t the v a l i d i t y  of the suggested c o r r e l a t i o n .  Rugged t o p o g r a p h y , w i d e l y  separated  i n age d e t e r m i n a t i o n s  areas o f exposure,  and  limited  a c c e s s i n c e r t a i n p l a c e s , and complex s t r u c t u r e s i n o t h e r s , have a l l had some b e a r i n g  on t h e c o m p a r a t i v e d e a r t h  upper P a l e o z o i c rocks  of Vancouver I s l a n d .  however, a r e the r e l a t i v e l y succession, preserved  more  complex s t r a t i g r a p h y o f t h i s  important, eugeosyclinal  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s r e g a r d e d as a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p  i n the  o f a much b r o a d e r a s p e c t o f C o r d i l l e r a n g e o l o g y - t h e s o - c a l l e d Although t h e occurrence o f upper  i n many a r e a s o f B r i t i s h  Paleozoic  C o l u m b i a h a s b e e n known f o r a b o u t a  century,  r e g i o n a l s y n t h e s i s h a s b e e n l i m i t e d b y t h e s m a l l number o f  detailed  s t u d i e s o f r e l a t i v e l y w e l l - e x p o s e d and f o s s i l i f e r o u s  The  the  fossils.  "Cache C r e e k p r o b l e m " . rocks  Probably  on  t h e l a c k o f c o n t i n u o u s m a r k e r b e d s , and t h e p a u c i t y o f w e l l -  This study  of d e t a i l e d information  Vancouver I s l a n d study,  combined w i t h  others  recently  sections.  completed,  FIG. I  Index map, western British Columbia and adjacent areas. Distribution of upper Paleozoic rocks. (Sicker Group, Cache Creek Group, and probable equivalents) shown by shaded areas.  2  now i n p r o g r e s s o r p r o j e c t e d f o r t h e f u t u r e , w i l l on  the l a r g e r problem  in  l a t e P a l e o z o i c (Cache C r e e k )  LOCATION AND The  provide data  of the h i s t o r y of the C o r d i l l e r a n  bearing  eugeosyncline  time.  ACCESS d i s t r i b u t i o n o f upper P a l e o z o i c r o c k s i n western  C o l u m b i a a n d a d j a c e n t r e g i o n s i s shown i n F i g u r e 1.  Areas  British  i n which  t h e s e r o c k s a r e exposed on Vancouver I s l a n d a r e i n d i c a t e d on a l a r g e r s c a l e i n F i g u r e 2. Paleozoic rocks occur Ranges, which exposures  i n s e v e r a l p a r t s of the Vancouver  trend along the l o n g i t u d i n a l axis of the i s l a n d .  may b e g r o u p e d c o n v e n i e n t l y i n t o  Buttle Lake-Big Interior belt; and  three belts:  Island These  the northern  t h e c e n t r a l Horne Lake-Cameron R i v e r  the southern China C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t  ( F i g u r e 2).  The l a s t  belt; two  b e l t s may b e c o n t i n u o u s , b u t m a p p i n g i s n o t a s y e t a t t h e s t a g e a t w h i c h this  c o n t i n u i t y c a n be p r o v e d .  The C h i n a C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t  c a t e s a t t h e e a s t end o f Cowichan L a k e because o f t h e p r e s e n c e rocks a l o n g the Cowichan v a l l e y The  present  bifuro f younger  to the east.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s b a s e d on f i e l d w o r k i n t h e n o r t h e r n  p a r t o f t h e B u t t l e L a k e - B i g I n t e r i o r b e l t , i n t h e Horne Lake-Cameron R i v e r b e l t , and a l o n g t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n  border  of the China C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g  belt. Most exposures from  o f t h e two s o u t h e r n b e l t s a r e r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e  l o g g i n g r o a d s , many o f w h i c h  a r e no r o a d s posures  a r e n e g o t i a b l e by a u t o m o b i l e .  There  t r a v e r s i n g t h e n o r t h e r n b e l t , however; upper P a l e o z o i c ex-  of the n o r t h e r n p a r t of the b e l t a r e a c c e s s i b l e by boat  around  FIG- 2  Paleozoic of Azure  belts of Vancouver Island. Numbers 1,2,3 indicate Lake, Mt. Mark, and Fairservice Mountain sections.  locations  3 B u t t l e Lake, access  by f o o t e l s e w h e r e .  moderately  and mine r o a d s  f e e t , and  provide  belt.  Vancouver I s l a n d upper P a l e o z o i c b e l t s v a r y i n r e l i e f to extremely rugged.  the n o r t h e r n b e l t  forest  Foot-trails  to a s m a l l p o r t i o n of the southern p a r t of t h i s The  of  and  Maximum r e l i e f  from  i n the B u t t l e Lake  area  i s a b o u t 6 5 0 0 f e e t ; a t H o r n e L a k e i t i s a b o u t 2800  a t Cowichan L a k e i n the s o u t h e r n b e l t about 4000 f e e t .  c o v e r i s common a t l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s , b u t p a r t s o f t h e  b e l t s have been c o m p l e t e l y or p a r t i a l l y  Dense  southern  c l e a r e d by l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s .  W i t h i n the b e l t s , outcrops below timber l i n e u s u a l l y occur i n precipitous  cliffs  and  4000 f e e t , exposures  steep stream v a l l e y s .  a r e more numerous, and  Buttle Lake-Big Interior belt,  Above e l e v a t i o n s of  about  i n the h i g h e r r i d g e s of  they are v i r t u a l l y  the  continuous.  PREVIOUS WORK Summary Geological e a r l y as 1858, Commission.  investigations  when H.  on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d b e g a n a t l e a s t  B a u e r m a n made p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s f o r t h e B o u n d a r y  A.R.C. S e l w y n ,  of the G e o l o g i c a l Survey  of Canada,  a p p a r e n t l y the f i r s t  to r e p o r t the presence  island  e a r l i e s t r e c o r d of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s  fossils in  (1872) .  The  from Vancouver I s l a n d  James R i c h a r d s o n ' s L a t e r workers  was  o f P a l e o z o i c r o c k s on  the  of P a l e o z o i c  f o r m a t i o n s , by E. B i l l i n g s ,  r e p o r t of  i s contained  1873.  a l s o r e c o g n i z e d r o c k s o f p r o b a b l e P a l e o z o i c age  southern Vancouver I s l a n d d e s p i t e the e a r l i e r  as  (Dawson, 1878;  C l a p p , 1909  to 1914).  However,  r e p o r t by R i c h a r d s o n of upper P a l e o z o i c f o s s i l s  the l i m e s t o n e s of Horne L a k e ,  on  a l l of the major l i m e s t o n e bodies of  from southern  4  Vancouver I s l a n d were r e g a r d e d by Clapp I t was n o t u n t i l the presence  as Mesozoic  1931 t h a t a d d i t i o n a l  i nage.  f o s s i l evidence  confirmed  o f undoubted upper P a l e o z o i c r o c k s on Vancouver I s l a n d . I n  the year Gunning's p u b l i c a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e B u t t l e Lake a r e a o f cent r a l Vancouver I s l a n d  l i s t e d a bryozoan  west s i d e o f B u t t l e Lake. zoic  fossils The  S i n c e then s e v e r a l d i s c o v e r i e s of upper  from v a r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s bryozoans  f a u n u l e f r o m l i m e s t o n e s on t h e  s o u t h o f B u t t l e L a k e h a v e b e e n made.  o f t h e B u t t l e Lake f a u n a , d e s c r i b e d by F r i t z  were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a Permian fauna  of Timor.  (1932),  A P e r m i a n age a l s o h a s  been a s s i g n e d t o most o f t h e o t h e r upper P a l e o z o i c f o s s i l from Vancouver I s l a n d ;  Paleo-  collections  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e f o s s i l s have, however, n o t  been p u b l i s h e d . Danner  (1957), recorded  the presence  of faunas  of Late  Mississip-  p i a n o r E a r l y P e n n s y l v a n i a n , E a r l y P e n n s y l v a n i a n , and " M e d i a l " and L a t e Permian ages i n n o r t h w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n .  I n 1960, he extended  his Early  P e n n s y l v a n i a n d e t e r m i n a t i o n s t o some l i m e s t o n e s o f s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , on t h e b a s i s o f l i t h o l o g i c a l alysis. The  and p r e l i m i n a r y f a u n a l an-  M o s t o f Danner's age d e t e r m i n a t i o n s were f r o m f u s u l i n i d  only published reference to the occurrence  Vancouver I s l a n d of  similarity  two E a r l y  o f f u s u l i n i d s on s o u t h e r n  i s t h a t o f F y l e s ( 1 9 5 5 ) , who r e p o r t e d t h e  Permian f u s u l i n i d s  from  evidence.  the Cowichan Lake  identification  area.  P r e v i o u s s t r a t i g r a p h i c work on t h e u p p e r P a l e o z o i c r o c k s o f Vancouver The  I s l a n d and a d j a c e n t areas has been r e l a t i v e l y  limited  i n scope.  o n l y d e t a i l e d s e c t i o n measurements and d e s c r i p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e  r e g i o n a r e t h o s e r e c o r d e d by Danner  (1957) , and by S m i t h  (1961) ; b o t h o f  these d e a l p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e upper P a l e o z o i c s e c t i o n s of northwestern  5  Washington, i n c l u d i n g (Yole,  1963) o f t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r ' s  area dealt with Paleozoic the  t h e San Juan I s l a n d s .  investigations  the fauna, stratigraphy,  sequence of t h a t  area.  of Paleozoic The  i n the Buttle  Lake  and c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e Upper  presented.  Studies  h i s t o r y of Paleozoic  s i v e and complex.  account  A diagrammatic columnar s e c t i o n of  u p p e r d i v i s i o n o f t h e s e q u e n c e was  History  A preliminary  studies  on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d  i s exten-  To t h e w r i t e r ' s k n o w l e d g e a c h r o n o l o g i c a l  s u c h as t h e f o l l o w i n g , i s n o t a v a i l a b l e e l s e w h e r e .  summary,  I t i s presented  h e r e as a b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e e n s u i n g s t r a t i g r a p h i c d i s c u s s i o n s ,  and as  a reference f o r future workers i n the f i e l d .  1872 Selwyn's p r e l i m i n a r y bia  included  part  exploration  of Vancouver I s l a n d .  (1872, p. 5 4 ) , he p l a c e d u n i t V I I ,  of the rocks of B r i t i s h In h i s table  Colum-  of formations  "Cascade M o u n t a i n s and Vancouver  I s l a n d C r y s t a l l i n e S e r i e s " below t h e Lower Cache Creek Group.  The  l a t t e r he r e g a r d e d as b e i n g o f p o s t - S i l u r i a n , p r e - T r i a s s i c a g e , on t h e basis poorly  of f o s s i l s  i d e n t i f i e d by B i l l i n g s  preserved, s i l i c i f i e d ,  ( S e l w y n , 1 8 7 2 , p. 6 2 ) .  fragmentary f o s s i l s were c o l l e c t e d  b o t h t h e Cascade Mountains and Vancouver I s l a n d In h i s report  on t h e c o a l f i e l d s  parts  o f Vancouver I s l a n d ,  to " c r y s t a l l i n e rocks",  c o a l measures.  bodies of limestone i n the v i c i n i t y  were d e s c r i b e d  older  from  of u n i t V I I (p. 63).  (1872) r e f e r r e d b r i e f l y Several  Similar  Richardson  than the Mesozoic of V i c t o r i a  ( p . 9 0 - 9 2 ) , a n d some " f o r m s w h i c h a p p e a r t o b e  silicified  6  fragments  of E n c r i n a l  f o s s i l s mentioned  columns" mentioned.  by Selwyn,  examination of the V i c t o r i a  as h e was  T h e s e a r e p r o b a b l y t h e same  a s s i s t e d by R i c h a r d s o n i n h i s  area.  1873 Richardson's  ( 1 8 7 3 ) r e p o r t on  the Vancouver I s l a n d  i n c l u d e d a d e s c r i p t i o n of " c r y s t a l l i n e r o c k s " encountered a c r o s s c o u n t r y f r o m t h e mouth o f the Q u a l i c u m A l b e r n i , b y way "large crinoidal  of Horne L a k e .  These were determined "Permian  by B i l l i n g s  on a t r a v e r s e  R i v e r , westward  C o r a l s , bryozoans,  columns" were c o l l e c t e d  coalfields  towards  brachiopods  and  from l i m e s t o n e s a t Horne  ( i n R i c h a r d s o n , 1873,  or C a r b o n i f e r o u s , most p r o b a b l y the  p . 54)  to  Lake. be  latter".  1874 R i c h a r d s o n r e p o r t e d two  additional  " c r y s t a l l i n e r o c k s " of Vancouver I s l a n d . u n i d e n t i f i a b l e forms were found near Nanoose Bay. was  referred  by B i l l i n g s .  A "tolerably  fossil  localities  i n the  Poorly preserved, apparently  Schooner Bay,  good c o l l e c t i o n " f r o m  t o as C a r b o n i f e r o u s o r P e r m i a n ,  on  the c o a s t east of  the B a l l e n a s I s l a n d s  "most p r o b a b l y t h e  former",  This fauna i n c l u d e d c o r a l s , brachiopods, " E n c r i n i t e s "  a n a u t i l o i d cephalopod  ( R i c h a r d s o n , 1874,  p.  and  98).  1878 G. M.  Dawson ( 1 8 7 8 ,  o f v o l c a n i c and  sedimentary  p. 101)  named t h e V i c t o r i a S e r i e s ,  consisting  r o c k s , i n c l u d i n g some l i m e s t o n e s , o c c u r r i n g  n o r t h of the Leech R i v e r " a u r i f e r o u s b e l t " of southern Vancouver  Island.  7  The  age o f t h e V i c t o r i a  s e r i e s was c o n s i d e r e d  t o be p r o b a b l y  Carbonif-  erous .  1887 Dawson ( 1 8 8 7 , p . 9B) "volcanic series" older  recognized  that the lower  portion of the  o f t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d was p o s s i b l y  than T r i a s s i c .  He i n c l u d e d t h e w h o l e s e q u e n c e i n t h e V a n c o u v e r  S e r i e s , and s t a t e d ( p . 10B):  " T h i s name may a l s o be u n d e r s t o o d t o i n c l u d e t h e s i m i l a r beds o f t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , as w e l l as those o f t h e southern p a r t o f Vancouver Island t o which i t was o r i g i n a l l y a p p l i e d by D r . S e l w y n i n 1 8 7 1 . I f t h i s g r e a t mass o f r o c k s should e v e n t u a l l y prove separable i n t o T r i a s s i c and C a r b o n i f e r o u s p o r t i o n s , I w o u l d s u g g e s t t h e r e t e n t i o n o f t h e name V a n c o u v e r S e r i e s f o r t h e former".  1896 Sutton  (1896, p. 649)  sance work i n the v i c i n i t y  i n describing the results  of A l b e r n i I n l e t , noted  of reconnais-  t h a t the Vancouver  S e r i e s "amounts t o many t h o u s a n d s o f f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s , a n d w i l l l i k e l y be found even lower  t o cover n o t only T r i a s s i c  i n the geological scale".  and C a r b o n i f e r o u s  most  rocks, but  Sutton also discovered  limestone  d e p o s i t s n e a r t h e h e a d o f " H i w a t c h e s R i v e r " (now known a s F r a n k l i n on  the east side of the i n l e t .  than c r i n o i d  T h e s e r o c k s y i e l d e d no f o s s i l s  stems, b u t a c c o r d i n g t o S u t t o n ,  ( p . 654)  River)  other  they resemble the  limestone a t Home Lake and i n other Vancouver I s l a n d areas  (p. 654).  8  1909 C l a p p u t i l i z e d Dawson's t e r m i n o l o g y o f 1 8 7 3 a n d 1887 i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e geology i n t h e southern p a r t o f Vancouver words,  Island.  I n Clapp"s  (1909, p. 5 4 , 5 5 ) : " i t seems b e s t t o r e s t r i c t t h e t e r m V a n c o u v e r S e r i e s to T r i a s s i c rocks of the northern part of the i s l a n d , a n d t o i n t r o d u c e a new t e r m f o r t h e o l d e r r o c k s . H e n c e , I s u g g e s t t h e name V i c t o r i a S e r i e s , a s a g e n e r a l name e m b r a c i n g t h e o l d e r m e t a m o r p h i c s o f t h e southern part of the i s l a n d belonging to the Paleozoic era".  The  V i c t o r i a S e r i e s was p l a c e d b y C l a p p  ( p . 54) i n t h e D e v o n i a n  system,  on t h e b a s i s o f a f a u n a c o l l e c t e d o n t h e s o u t h s h o r e o f C o w i c h a n L a k e . To  t h e n o r t h o f t h e V i c t o r i a S e r i e s , and s e p a r a t e d f r o m i t by a " p r o f o u n d  u n c o n f o r m i t y " , Clapp d e s c r i b e d a sedimentary and v o l c a n i c  sequence  named  the M t . S i c k e r S e r i e s , r e g a r d e d as b e i n g o f M e s o z o i c age ( p . 5 4 ) .  1910 The vised  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e age o f t h e C o w i c h a n L a k e  ( C l a p p , 1 9 1 0 , p. 8 7 ) . The f o s s i l i f e r o u s  the P a l e o z o i c  sequence,  w i t h t h e Vancouver Victoria  "group",  l i m e s t o n e was r e m o v e d  and p l a c e d i n a r e v i s e d Vancouver  V o l c a n i c s and Mt. S i c k e r "Formation".  "group",  from  along  The r e v i s e d  i n c l u d i n g t h e N i t i n a t , H i g h l a n d and Leech R i v e r  t i o n s , and p o s s i b l y the upper  f a u n a was r e -  Forma-  t h e M a l a h a t F o r m a t i o n , was q u e s t i o n a b l y r e f e r r e d t o  Paleozoic.  1911 I n a p r e l i m i n a r y account o f t h e V i c t o r i a and S a a n i c h a r e a s , C l a p p (1911)  i n c l u d e d i n t h e Vancouver  Group a b e l t  of limestone lenses extend-  9  i n g from Saanich  inlet  to Cowichan Lake.  canic rocks near V i c t o r i a , Group, were t e n t a t i v e l y  (p.  though p o s s i b l y o l d e r than  included within i t .  s a i d t o be L o w e r J u r a s s i c Paleozoic"  L i m e s t o n e s and  and  The  probably T r i a s s i c ,  associated vol-  the Vancouver  Vancouver Group "and  may  was  i n c l u d e Upper  104).  1912 In Clapp's  ( 1 9 1 2 ) summary o f h i s w o r k on  l a n d , the Leech R i v e r Formation iferous  (p. 36).  was  southern Vancouver I s -  questionably assigned  T h i s f o r m a t i o n was  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the lower  t h e Cache C r e e k Group and w i t h t h e P e s h a s t i n F o r m a t i o n (p. 4 4 ) .  The  N i t i n a t Formation,  z o i c V i c t o r i a G r o u p , was (p. 36,  49,  50) .  The  fossiliferous  Sutton Formation, .  . .  at this  time  The  Mt.  S i c k e r S e r i e s was  described i n detail assic  age  (p.  called  extended to i n c l u d e  the  "provisionally  i n the Vancouver v o l c a n i c s of  T h i s d e f i n i t i o n encompassed  Horne L a k e a r e a , where, a c c o r d i n g t o C l a p p , (p. 61,  Paleo-  t r a n s f e r r e d t o the Vancouver Group  " L o w e r J u r a s s i c " , was  limestones"  of  of Washington  l i m e s t o n e o f C o w i c h a n L a k e , now  southern Vancouver I s l a n d " (p. 61).  Carbon-  part  p r e v i o u s l y i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the  a l l of the i n t e r c a l a t e d l i m e s t o n e s  fossiliferous  to the  "Richardson  records  the similar  70). a b b r e v i a t e d t o S i c k e r S e r i e s , and  as p a r t o f t h e V a n c o u v e r G r o u p , o f T r i a s s i c  and  was Jur-  71-83).  1913 In Clapp's t a b l e of formations  memoir  ( 1 9 1 3 ) on  t h e V i c t o r i a and  differed very l i t t l e  from those  Saanich  areas  the  previously published.  10  The  S i c k e r S e r i e s , h o w e v e r , was s u b d i v i d e d  S c h i s t s and S i c k e r V o l c a n i c s  into  two members:  the Sicker  (p. 27).  1914 In a preliminary report (1914, p. 4 2 , 45) s t a t e d  that  on t h e Sooke and Duncan a r e a s ,  t h e L e e c h R i v e r F o r m a t i o n and M a l a h a t V o l -  c a n i c s were t h e o l d e s t f o r m a t i o n s them t o t h e C a r b o n i f e r o u s . was r e p l a c e d  Clapp  of the region,  In a later report,  by " S i c k e r sediments"  Clapp,  provisionally  assigning  the term " S i c k e r  schists"  (1914c, p. 9 2 ) .  1917 The  memoir by C l a p p and Cooke  areas contained  (1917) on t h e Sooke and Duncan  C o o k e ' s comment t h a t "no d e f i n i t e  e i t h e r as t o t h e age o f t h e S i c k e r  s t a t e m e n t c a n b e made  series relative  t o that of the other  members o f t h e V a n c o u v e r g r o u p o r a s t o i t s c o n f o r m a b i l i t y w i t h ( p . 1 5 2 ) . I n t h e same p u b l i c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , C l a p p p r o v i s i o n a l l y sidered  the Sicker Series  Vancouver V o l c a n i c s  t o be c o n f o r m a b l e w i t h  them" con-  and younger t h a n t h e  (p. 53).  1927 I n d e s c r i b i n g t h e geology o f t h e San Juan I s l a n d s , ( 1 9 2 7 , p . 91) c o r r e l a t e d t h e P a l e o z o i c Series  of Clapp.  The u p p e r p a r t  t o as t h e L e e c h R i v e r  San Juan S e r i e s w i t h  Group; on t h e b a s i s  This  the Sicker  o f t h e S a n J u a n S e r i e s was r e f e r r e d of f u s u l i n i d s  found i n lime-  s t o n e members, i t was r e g a r d e d a s . . . " t o a l a r g e e x t e n t vanian age" (p. I l l ) .  McLellan  g r o u p was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  of Pennsly-  the upper  part  11  of the Cache Creek S e r i e s  (named b y  Columbia, the upper p a r t of 1904), of 1912)  of  the n o r t h e r n  C a s c a d e s , and w i t h  lower p a r t of  tained f o s s i l s related with Series  t h e Hozomeen S e r i e s  southwestern B r i t i s h The  S e l w y n , 1892)  and  Calkins, (Daly,  Columbia.  the San  lower p a r t of  ( M c C a n n , 1922)  (Smith  the C h i l l i w a c k S e r i e s  Juan S e r i e s , the Orcas Group, con-  d e t e r m i n e d as C a r b o n i f e r o u s  the  of c e n t r a l B r i t i s h  and  D e v o n i a n , and  was  cor-  the Cache Creek Series,- the B r i d g e  of southwestern B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , and  part  River of  t h e Hozomeen S e r i e s .  1928 Map  196A  a compilation British  of  of  the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Vancouver  geological information  C o l u m b i a , showed one  couver I s l a n d .  on  the  b e l t of P a l e o z o i c  southwestern part rocks  on  of C a r b o n i f e r o u s  of  s o u t h e r n Van-  T h i s b e l t c o m p r i s e d C l a p p ' s L e e c h R i v e r and  F o r m a t i o n s , w h i c h w e r e shown as b e i n g  sheet,  and?  Malahat Permian  age.  1931 Gunning's r e p o r t  ( 1 9 3 1 ) on a l a r g e a r e a  Vancouver I s l a n d d i s c l o s e d the rocks  i n the B u t t l e Lake area.  from c e r t a i n of d e f i n i t e proof Island",  (p.  the of  59).  limestone  i n the  central part  presence of f o s s i l i f e r o u s "Fossils l a y e r s and  the o c c u r r e n c e of r o c k s  o f P e r m i a n age f o r the  first  of P a l e o z o i c  of  Paleozoic were c o l l e c t e d  time age  afforded on  Vancouver  12 The  bryozoans  t o be o f P e r m i a n G i r t y , who ferid  of this  age.  1931, p . 5 9 ) c o n s i d e r e d t h a t some o f t h e s p i r i -  "may b e l o n g t o a n h o r i z o n up i n t h e P e n n s y l v a n i a ^  t h i s b e i n g more p r o b a b l e t h a n t h a t t h e h o r i z o n i s P e r m i a n " . chose  the Permian  and s a i d  Other p a r t s o f t h e fauna were i d e n t i f i e d by  ( i n Gunning,  brachiopods  fauna were i d e n t i f i e d by F r i t z  Gunning  d e s i g n a t i o n , but noted t h a t t h e t h i c k sequence o f  v o l c a n i c s and o t h e r sediments  beneath  t h e l i m e s t o n e s c o u l d be P e n n s y l -  vanian or o l d e r . 1932 G u n n i n g ' s b r y o z o a n m a t e r i a l f r o m B u t t l e L a k e was d e s c r i b e d a n d illustrated  by F r i t z  fauna and t h e Permian The  (1932).  The " s t r i k i n g r e s e m b l a n c e "  bryozoan  this  fauna o f Timor l e d her t o c o r r e l a t e  two a r e a s were s a i d t o have o n l y f o u r bryozoan  them.  s p e c i e s i n common,  b u t among t h e o t h e r s p e c i e s p r e s e n t some o f t h e V a n c o u v e r were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d  between  Island  forms  t o the Timor species (p. 9 3 ) .  1941 Several isolated c e n t r a l Vancouver  limestone bodies  I s l a n d were d e s c r i b e d by Sargent.  were r e g a r d e d by W i l s o n ( i n S a r g e n t , Paleozoic age.  i n the Bedwell River area of  Brachiopods  C o r a l s from  1 9 4 1 , p . 19) a s b e i n g o f l a t e  f r o m t h e same a r e a w e r e s a i d  Sargent presented s e v e r a l  these  lines  t o be  Permian.  of evidence t o support a  hypothesis that a l l of the limestone d e p o s i t s of the area belonged t o one  h o r i z o n ( p . 1 7 ) . A "complex" o f sedimentary, v o l c a n i c and i n t r u -  s i v e r o c k s o c c u r r i n g b e l o w t h e l i m e s t o n e s i n t h e B e d w e l l R i v e r a r e a was also assigned t o the Paleozoic,  on t h e b a s i s  m i n a t i o n and s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n  o f t h e l i m e s t o n e age d e t e r -  (p. 16).  1945 A brachiopod  c o l l e c t e d by  S t e v e n s o n f r o m one  stone b o d i e s i n the China Creek area i d e n t i f i e d by W i l s o n , f o s s i l was  new,  "but  who  of s e v e r a l  lime-  of c e n t r a l Vancouver I s l a n d  ( i n S t e v e n s o n , 1945,  p.  6)  was  concluded that  i t s development s u g g e s t s Upper C a r b o n i f e r o u s  the  or  Permian". The Stevenson  sediments a s s o c i a t e d w i t h (p. 7 ) , are  S i c k e r s c h i s t s found  " s c h i s t o s e and ...  the ...  limestones, very  according  similar  on M o u n t S i c k e r , n e a r  to  t o some o f  the  Duncan".  1947 A Mathews  study  of c a l c a r e o u s  deposits  ( 1 9 4 7 ) i n c l u d e d comments on  l a n d and Islands  Vancouver I s l a n d regions and  mainland Washington.  of  the G e o r g i a S t r a i t  Paleozoic  Several  a t Mt.  One  the  (p.  limestone  4 and  Mathews f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d deposits  of  of  Paleo"Series"  56). 20  p u b l i s h e d maps on w h i c h P a l e o z o i c  the S i c k e r r o c k s . Paleozoic  t i m e shown t o be  Juan  assigned  body w i t h i n t h e S i c k e r  the w r i t e r ' s knowledge, F i g u r e s  earliest  t h e San  deposits, previously  Brenton, southern Vancouver I s l a n d To  are  of these i s the limestone  by  of both main-  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , of  to the M e s o z o i c Vancouver group were a t t h i s z o i c age.  limestones  area  of Mathews' age  ( p . 41)  was  report  assigned  that the  to  larger  the whole r e g i o n belonged to the  same  horizon. The  Leech R i v e r Formation of  d i c a t e d i n t h i s r e p o r t as  "age  s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d was  uncertain"  ( F i g s . 4,  20).  in-  14  1948 On a g e o l o g i c a l c o m p i l a t i o n map C a n a d a Map  of B r i t i s h Columbia  932A, 1 9 4 8 ) , m o s t o f t h e V a n c o u v e r  I s l a n d r o c k s now  a s b e i n g o f P a l e o z o i c age w e r e g r o u p e d u n d e r one map " U p p e r T r i a s s i c " b u t " i n c l u d i n g some f o s s i l i f e r o u s L e e c h R i v e r F o r m a t i o n on t h i s map  was  (Geol. Surv. regarded  unit, described  Permian beds".  as  The  d e s i g n a t e d " C a r b o n i f e r o u s and  later".  1955 C l a p p ' s S i c k e r S e r i e s was Mesozoic Vancouver by F y l e s  (1955).  f o r m a l l y r e v i s e d and removed f r o m t h e  G r o u p i n a r e p o r t a n d map  of the Cowichan Lake  C l a p p ' s S i c k e r S e r i e s was  o f P e r m i a n a n d o l d e r age  (p. 11, 19).  changed  to "Sicker  Sutton F o r m a t i o n of the Vancouver  Group, y i e l d e d  p o r t e d t o be o f E a r l y P e r m i a n age  (p. 19).  The  formation of the S i c k e r  Triassic  f o s s i l s w h i c h were r e l i m e s t o n e was  group"  considered  ( p . 1 6 ) , and  t o p o f t h e l i m e s t o n e i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e b a s e o f t h e group"  Group",  L i m e s t o n e on t h e p e n i n s u l a a t  t h e s o u t h e a s t end o f C o w i c h a n L a k e , p r e v i o u s l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e  t o be " t h e uppermost  area  "the  Vancouver  (p. 19). G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f C a n a d a c o m p i l a t i o n map  1054A ( 1 9 5 5 )  t h r e e b e l t s o f " C a r b o n i f e r o u s a n d P e r m i a n " r o c k s on V a n c o u v e r  showed  Island.  These were i n t h e B u t t l e L a k e a r e a , Horne Lake-Cowichan L a k e a r e a , the Leech R i v e r b e l t of s o u t h e r n Vancouver  and  Island.  1957 M a t h e w s and McCammon's ( 1 9 5 7 ) r e v i s i o n o f M a t h e w s ' 1947 w o r k calcareous d e p o s i t s of the G e o r g i a S t r a i t  area of B r i t i s h Columbia  on  gave  15  additional  information  on s e v e r a l P a l e o z o i c a r e a s .  r e p o r t showed t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , Paleozoic  limestones  Lockie  and o t h e r  rocks  (1957) d e s c r i b e d  Figure  as p r e s e n t l y u n d e r s t o o d , o f  i n southwestern B r i t i s h  be  Columbia.  t h e p e t r o g r a p h y o f some P a l e o z o i c  stones o f Vancouver I s l a n d and m a i n l a n d B r i t i s h Columbia. c r i t e r i a were p r e s e n t e d  3 of this  which suggested that Paleozoic  d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n hand-specimen and t h i n s e c t i o n s  lime-  Certain  limestones  could  from those of younger  age. Danner  (1957) t e n t a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d t h e E a r l y P e r m i a n  Mountain Formation of northwestern Washington Group o f Vancouver I s l a n d .  by  the Sicker  The B l a c k M o u n t a i n b e d s w e r e d a t e d o n e v i -  dence f r o m f u s u l i n i d s , b r y o z o a n s and c o r a l s s l y v a n i a n , and "Middle"  ( p . 298) w i t h  Black  (p. 152, 1 5 3 ) . Lower  and Upper Permian s t r a t a were a l s o  Danner i n t h e Upper P a l e o z o i c  Penn-  recognized  sequence o f t h e r e g i o n .  1959 G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f C a n a d a Map 1 0 6 9 A , V i c t o r i a - V a n c o u v e r , p i l e d by R i c e ,  ( 1 9 5 9 ) shows s e v e r a l b e l t s o f r o c k s  I s l a n d as "Permian and/or e a r l i e r " . belts Fyles  The f o r m a t i o n s  com-  on s o u t h e r n Vancouver included  i n these  a r e C l a p p s L e e c h R i v e r F o r m a t i o n and M a l a h a t V o l c a n i c s , and 1  1  Sicker  Group.  1960 In a s t r a t i g r a p h i c and of  summary o f t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h  n o r t h w e s t e r n Washington r e g i o n , Danner "some l i m e s t o n e s  Columbia  (1960) p r o p o s e d t h e i n c l u s i o n  o f Horne L a k e and Cowichan V a l l e y " w i t h i n a sequence  16  of  E a r l y and  Mountain  " M e d i a l " P e n n s y l v a n i a n age,  Formation  of Washington  ( P l a t e 1 ) , c o m p i l e d by Danner and  c o r r e l a t e d i n p a r t w i t h the  ( F i g . 1, p. 3 ) .  others, indicated  s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d a s P e n n s y l v a n i a n , and Clapp's Leech  River Formation  Kirkham  An  and M a l a h a t  accompanying  t h e S i c k e r Group of  P o o r l y p r e s e r v e d c o r a l s and  by  V o l c a n i c s a s o f unknown near  c r i n o i d remains  i n l i m e s t o n e s of the upper p a r t of the sequence  (p.  age.  the K o k s i l a h  R i v e r on s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d d e s c r i b e d a s m a l l s e c t i o n o f Group r o c k s .  map  the b e l t occupied  (1960), i n a study of mine workings  Red  were  Sicker found  10-14).  1961 A detailed Pennsylvanian?  stratigraphic  Red M o u n t a i n  and  lithological  Formation  study of the  of Washington, c o r r e l a t e d i n p a r t  w i t h t h e S i c k e r Group o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d by Danner  ( 1 9 6 0 ) was  j e c t o f a t h e s i s by S m i t h  fauna of  (1961).  Early  The  f e r a , brachiopods, c o r a l s , pelecypods,  Red  Mountain  gastropods  the  sub-  foramini-  and r a d i o l a r i a  was  l i s t e d but not d e s c r i b e d .  1962 G e o l o g i c a l Survey c o m p i l e d by L i t t l e ) Island.  o f C a n a d a Map  indicated  two  932A, s e c o n d  These a r e the B u t t l e L a k e - B i g I n t e r i o r  f o r m a t i o n s a r e l i s t e d as s e d i m e n t a r y Permian".  (1962,  a r e a s o f P a l e o z o i c r o c k s on a r e a , and  b e l t extending from Home Lake to S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d .  entirely  edition  a  Vancouver  continuous  The P a l e o z o i c  and v o l c a n i c r o c k s , " m a i n l y  The L e e c h R i v e r and M a l a h a t  Formations  of  or  southern  V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , shown on e a r l i e r G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y maps a s P a l e o z o i c ,  17  were p l a c e d  i n the Mesozoic  (Triassic  and/or J u r a s s i c ) .  1963 A p r e l i m i n a r y account vestigation described  ( Y o l e , 1963)  of part of the present  t h e s t r a t i g r a p h y , and l i s t e d  fauna o f upper P a l e o z o i c  rocks  and i l l u s t r a t e d t h e  of the B u t t l e Lake Area.  n o m e n c l a t u r e f o r t h e s e q u e n c e was u s e d .  in-  Informal  Correlations with  Permian  faunas o f C o r d i l l e r a n and A r c t i c R e g i o n s were p r o p o s e d .  PRESENT WORK Scope The  present  study  i s essentially  an a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e  c i s e c o r r e l a t i o n and d a t i n g o f t h e upper P a l e o z o i c r o c k s Island.  I t i s b a s e d on a r e g i o n a l r e c o n n a i s s a n c e  Paleozoic  outcrop  widely of  separated  these areas.  studies i s also  areas, parts  Geologic  pre-  of Vancouver  of the main upper  measurements o f s e c t i o n s  o f t h e r e g i o n , and f o s s i l  more  i n each of  three  c o l l e c t i o n s from  mapping performed c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h  each  these  presented.  F o s s i l s were c o l l e c t e d and i d e n t i f i e d by t h e w r i t e r . c r i p t i o n s appear i n a l a t e r faunas of the three suggested l i t h o l o g i c  section of t h i s report.  Paleozoic b e l t s are presented,  Comparisons of the i n support of the  and s t r a t i g r a p h i c c o r r e l a t i o n s .  Longer-range  c o r r e l a t i o n and d a t i n g o f t h e Vancouver I s l a n d upper P a l e o z o i c have a l s o been accomplished by use o f the f o s s i l s . d i s c u s s e d , under a p p r o p r i a t e  headings, i n l a t e r  The d e s -  rocks  These t o p i c s a r e  sections of this  report.  18  I n each o f the three areas  s t u d i e d by t h e w r i t e r ,  stratigraphic  s e c t i o n s o f the upper p a r t o f the upper P a l e o z o i c rock s u c c e s s i o n D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group) were measured. e a r l i e r workers  Although  g e o l o g i c a l maps b y  were a v a i l a b l e f o r a t l e a s t p a r t s o f each of the areas  i n v e s t i g a t e d b y t h e w r i t e r , new d a t a w e r e mapped i n e a c h . sections  (Upper  ( F i g u r e 6) a n d maps  Stratigraphic  ( F i g u r e s 3, 4, 5) a r e p r e s e n t e d  f o r each o f  the areas s t u d i e d .  Field  Work S t u d i e s on w h i c h  1960.  t h e p r e s e n t r e p o r t i s b a s e d commenced i n A p r i l ,  A t t h a t t i m e , the w r i t e r , prompted by a s u g g e s t i o n  W. R. D a n n e r , v i s i t e d  t h e l i m e s t o n e d e p o s i t s a t Horne Lake.  c o l l e c t i o n of brachiopods, bryozoans locality.  Paleozoic  collections  A small  a n d c o r a l s was o b t a i n e d f r o m  The same a r e a was a g a i n v i s i t e d  augment f o s s i l  from  i n October  this  of that year to  and t o examine t h e s t r a t i g r a p h y o f t h e Upper  section.  This preliminary examination having indicated a r e l a t i v e l y fauna  i n t h e Horne L a k e l i m e s t o n e s , a broader  the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s : yield  significant  determine  rich  s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n  (a) t o a s c e r t a i n i f f o s s i l  evidence,  with  would  i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o t h e a g e o f t h e l i m e s t o n e s ; (b)  whether t h e w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d Upper P a l e o z o i c l i m e s t o n e  of Vancouver I s l a n d were of s i m i l a r  or w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g ages;  measure s e c t i o n s where f e a s i b l e , and attempt These p h a s e s o f t h e p r o j e c t w e r e u n d e r t a k e n  correlations  accomplished.  bodies  (c)  to  of these.  i n t h e summer a n d e a r l y  a u t u m n o f 1 9 6 1 , a n d p a r t s o f t h e summers o f 1962 a n d 1 9 6 3 . 20 w e e k s f i e l d w o r k was  to  A total of  19  L i m e s t o n e d e p o s i t s and a s s o c i a t e d r o c k s o f t h e Upper P a l e o z o i c sequence a t Cobble H i l l ,  W i l d Deer L a k e , Cowichan L a k e , Nanoose B a y ,  Cameron R i v e r , H o m e L a k e a n d B u t t l e L a k e were examined Measured s e c t i o n s were o b t a i n e d Lake areas, i n which areas In ized ing  i n t h e Cowichan, Home L a k e , and B u t t l e  t h e m a j o r i t y o f f i e l d w o r k was d o n e .  p l a c e s w h e r e g e o l o g i c a l maps w e r e a v a i l a b l e ,  to select fossils.  (See F i g u r e 2).  these were  util-  s u i t a b l e p l a c e s f o r s e c t i o n measurements and f o r c o l l e c t R e c o n n a i s s a n c e mapping on a e r i a l  p h o t o g r a p h s and one i n c h  to  o n e m i l e t o p o g r a p h i c maps was done i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s  In  later  o f t h e work.  s t a g e s , p a r t s o f t h e t h r e e a r e a s w h i c h a f f o r d e d more o r l e s s  complete s t r a t i g r a p h i c  s e c t i o n s o f t h e l i m e s t o n e u n i t o f t h e Upper  Paleo-  z o i c w e r e mapped a t a s c a l e o f o n e i n c h t o o n e - h a l f m i l e w i t h t h e a i d o f aerial  photographs.  T h e mapped' d a t a a r e shown o n F i g u r e 3 ( C o w i c h a n  area) , F i g u r e 4 (Home Lake area) , and F i g u r e 5 ( B u t t l e Lake area) . In line  t h e e a r l y stages  o f t h e work, t r a v e r s e s were arranged  the extent of the limestone-bearing u n i t ,  ision)  ( S i c k e r Group, Upper  Div-  t o examine i t s c o n t a c t s , and t o t r a v e r s e a c r o s s t h e s t r i k e o f t h e  formations  i n a s many p l a c e s a s t i m e a n d t e r r a i n p e r m i t t e d .  H o m e L a k e , and B u t t l e L a k e areas the rocks below t h e limestone of these place.  stick").  additional  I n Cowichan,  t r a v e r s e s w e r e made  ( S i c k e r Group, Lower D i v i s i o n ) .  across  I n each  t h r e e a r e a s , t h e l i m e s t o n e u n i t was m e a s u r e d i n m o r e t h a n o n e The most c o m p l e t e s e c t i o n s o b t a i n e d a r e p r e s e n t e d The  and  t o out-  i n F i g u r e 6.  s e c t i o n m e a s u r e m e n t s w e r e made b y u s e o f a 5" s t a f f  ("pogo  I n t h e C o w i c h a n a r e a a s e c t i o n was a l s o m e a s u r e d b y t h e t a p e  compass m e t h o d . F o s s i l s were c o l l e c t e d  otherwise, provisional  i n t h e f i e l d w h e r e t h i s was p r a c t i c a b l e ;  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s w e r e made i n s i t u .  20  Rock samples f o r l i t h o l o g i c a l were o b t a i n e d  from a l l s e c t i o n s examined.  w o r k , more o r l e s s s y s t e m a t i c undertaken.  s t u d i e s and  microfaunal  I n the  later  Specimens were spaced about f i v e about ten  feet apart  u n i t s , and  stone u n i t s .  Where p r e f e r r e d o r i e n t a t i o n o f f o s s i l s  study  batches of l i m e s t o n e  acids  (hydrochloric, a c e t i c , formic)  of i n s o l u b l e r e s i d u e s .  i n t h e more  or  graded  Hydrochloric  a c i d was  F r a g m e n t a r y b r y o z o a n s , b r a c h i o p o d s and  i n a few  thus o b t a i n e d  cases,  specific  was  b r a c h i o p o d s were i d e n t i f i a b l e , but t h e b r y o z o a n s was for precise The  g a s t r o p o d s , and  i n t h i s manner.  A few  the m a j o r i t y  i n too fragmentary a s t a t e , or too p o o r l y  and than  preserved  determination. small  s i z e and  poor p r e s e r v a t i o n of  the f o r a m i n i f e r s  so  sparsely distributed  i n these rocks  t h a t i s was  of  only faunal  s e c t i o n s w e r e made p r o v i d i n g n o t  slices  few  generic,  of m a t e r i a l other  s p e c i m e n s as  rock  a The  foraminifers  t o make " t h i n " s e c t i o n s o f as many r o c k  petrographic  most  completely  v e n t e d t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n or i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n hand specimen. are  for  f o u n d t o be  g e n e r a l l y adequate f o r  identification.  with  to provide m a t e r i a l  the m a t e r i a l , of w h i c h twenty specimens were  bryozoan m a t e r i a l  205  lime-  textures  f r o m Horne L a k e were t r e a t e d  f o r a m i n i f e r s were removed f r o m the r o c k m a t r i x  fossils  was  Work  e f f e c t i v e on  and  the  obtained.  Small  digested.  of  to twenty f e e t i n the massive  were a p p a r e n t , o r i e n t e d specimens were  various  stages  s a m p l i n g of the measured s e c t i o n s  thinly-bedded  Laboratory  analysis  information  on  of t h i c k n e s s e s  the  limestones.  somewhat g r e a t e r  For  possible. data, but  this  than the  type of standard  pre-  These decided A  total  also work, 0.03  mm.  21  were f o u n d t o be p r e f e r a b l e . always provide details.  d e f i n i t i o n of both rock  t e x t u r e s and  s l i d e was d e t e r m i n e d b y v i s u a l  inspections during  will  fossil  I n t h e s l i d e s made b y t h e w r i t e r , o p t i m u m t h i c k n e s s  individual stages  the best  T h e r e i s no s i n g l e t h i c k n e s s w h i c h  f o r each the f i n a l  of grinding. The t h i n s e c t i o n s y i e l d e d a s m a l l number o f r e c o g n i z a b l e  linids,  some w e l l - p r e s e r v e d  fossils  f o r microscopic  b r y o z o a n s , and f r a g m e n t a r y r e m a i n s o f  b a s a l u n i t of the limestone  formation  from the m a t r i x  oriented sections of the s h e l l s c a t i o n prevents Serial  other  study.  The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a f e w f u s u l i n i d s i n f r i a b l e  moval of the f o s s i l s  fusu-  determination  sandstone of the  at B u t t l e Lake permitted by m e c h a n i c a l means, thus  t o b e made.  Unfortunately,  of the w a l l s t r u c t u r e of these  s e c t i o n s w e r e made f o r two o f t h e b r a c h i o p o d  ascertain c r i t i c a l internal  features.  the r e permitting  silicifispecimens. species, to  The f e w c o r a l s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e  c o l l e c t i o n were n o t i n t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d . P l a n t - b e a r i n g beds a t t h e base o f the A z u r e L a k e s e c t i o n of the B u t t l e Lake area were sampled f o r p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s . of  these rocks  were t r e a t e d w i t h  a standard  maceration  Several  samples  technique.  The p r e s e n c e o f a f e w p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s was t h u s d i s c l o s e d , b u t no identifiable  spores,  o r o t h e r m i c r o f o s s i l s were found.  p e r m i t f u r t h e r r o c k work i n t h i s  direction.  Time d i d n o t  22  REGIONAL GEOLOGY  GENERAL STATEMENT The three may  separate  be  parts  r e f e r r e d t o as  called south  known P a l e o z o i c r o c k s of  of Vancouver I s l a n d  the r e g i o n , each of w h i c h , f o r  a "belt"  ( F i g u r e 2).  The  not  been d e l i m i t e d .  belt,  approximately  southeast  Island, east  The  southern,  of P o r t A l b e r n i , to the  of Duncan.  north-  I t s southern boundary  or China C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g  extends i n a northwest-southeast d i r e c t i o n from China Creek, miles  herein  the west s i d e of B u t t l e Lake, to B i g I n t e r -  i o r M o u n t a i n , northwest of Great C e n t r a l L a k e . has  found i n  convenience,  northern  the B u t t l e L a k e - B i g I n t e r i o r B e l t , trends f r o m W o l f R i v e r , on  are  A much s m a l l e r  H o r n e L a k e - C a m e r o n R i v e r b e l t may  seven  s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n of S a l t s p r i n g area  continue  C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t , but mapping has  belt,  of P a l e o z o i c  rocks,  southward to j o i n  not  yet covered the  the  the China  intervening  area. The miles  B u t t l e Lake-Big I n t e r i o r b e l t i s approximately  long; i t s width  v a r i e s from three  to ten m i l e s .  the China C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t i s approximately southern p o r t i o n the w i d t h Mesozoic rocks The  small  p o r t i o n of  boundary of  and  the b e l t has  i t s extent.  R i v e r b e l t i s about twelve i s possibly greater  extensive  The  miles;  to the  In  of the  O u t l i e r s of  i n the w i d e r p a r t of  the  been determined over only  known l e n g t h o f the w i d t h  south.  length  sixty miles.  i s from ten to f i f t e e n m i l e s .  a r e n u m e r o u s and  northeastern  The  twenty-five  belt. a  the Horne Lake-Cameron  i s four miles  a t Horne L a k e ,  23  A small area present on  on  u n d e r l a i n by r o c k s o f  the c o a s t near Nanoose Bay,  p o s s i b l e P a l e o z o i c age  between Nanaimo and  the east coast of Vancouver I s l a n d ( F i g u r e 2 ) .  r o c k s of t h i s a r e a have been i d e n t i f i e d .  The  were c o l l e c t e d by R i c h a r d s o n main bodies  i n t r u d e P a l e o z o i c and Groups. matic  Minor  igneous  Parksville  fossils  from  the  From the B a l l e n a s I s l a n d s ,  about three m i l e s o f f s h o r e to the n o r t h , f o s s i l s P e r m i a n age  No  is  of C a r b o n i f e r o u s  ( 1 8 7 4 , p.  or  98).  of the g r a n i t i c rocks of the Coast I n t r u s i o n s  Triassic  s e q u e n c e s o f t h e S i c k e r and  b o d i e s , perhaps r e l a t e d  Vancouver  t o t h e same g e n e r a l  p e r i o d , a r e known t o i n t r u d e U p p e r C r e t a c e o u s  Nanaimo Group  magrocks  i n c e r t a i n p a r t s of Vancouver I s l a n d .  TABLE OF  FORMATIONS The  following  t i o n s encountered  ( T a b l e 1)  i n and  i s a t a b u l a r summary o f t h e m a j o r  forma-  near the P a l e o z o i c b e l t s of Vancouver I s l a n d .  24 TABLE OF FORMATIONS  Series  *  Group and F o r m a t i o n  Lithology  Nanaimo Group  Shale, sandstone, conglomerate  Upper C r e t a c e o u s *  U N C O N F O R M I T Y  Upper T r i a s s i c and? Jurassic  B o n a n z a Fm.  Andesitic to basaltic flows, breccias, tuffs; A r g i l l a c e o u s and t u f f a c eous s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s  -""^  Vancouver S u t t o n Fm.  Crystalline limestone, minor v o l c a n i c rocks.  Upper T r i a s s i c Quatsino  Group  Fm.  F r a n k l i n Creek Volcanics  Upper T r i a s s i c and? earlier  K a r m u t s e n Fm. X?  O  V  Permian  Sicker Division  Lower  Permian  and? earlier  B a s a l t i c and andesitic flows, p y r o c l a s t i c rocks; minor limestone  P A R A C O N F O R M I T Y Upper  Lower  B a s a l t i c flows, diabase; minor sedimentary rocks  Group  Unnamed u n i t  T h i n bedded c l a s t i c  rocks  B u t t l e Lake Formation  L i m e s t o n e and c h e r t ; t h i n bedded c h e r t y r o c k s , minor sandstone, t u f f a c eous? r o c k s . T h i n bedded c l a s t i c r o c k s t u f f s , b r e c c i a s , conglome r a t e s , minor limestone?  Lower  Division  T u f f s , b r e c c i a s ; minor t h i n bedded t u f f a c e o u s and/or c h e r t y r o c k s .  TABLE 1 Table o f formations, Vancouver I s l a n d P a l e o z o i c b e l t s . F y l e s (1955), Gunning (1932), and Hoadley (1953).  I n part  after  * * Approximate span o f time ( J u r a s s i c t o E a r l y T e r t i a r y ) d u r i n g w h i c h s e v e r a l periods of g r a n i t i c i n t r u s i o n occurred (Coast I n t r u s i o n s ) . x x Approximate time span ( p o s t - E a r l y Permian, p r e - L a t e T r i a s s i c ) o f b a s i c i n t r u s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h F r a n k l i n Creek B a s a l t and e q u i v a l e n t rocks (Cassiar orogeny?).  STRATIGRAPHY I n each of the three b e l t s  t h e exposed P a l e o z o i c ( S i c k e r Group)  sequence f r o m base t o t o p i s : (1) a t h i c k s e c t i o n of f i n e t o c o a r s e g r a i n e d , bedded t o non-bedded r o c k s o f m a i n l y v o l c a n i c o r i g i n ; unit  (2) a  c o n s i s t i n g l a r g e l y o f l i m e s t o n e and c h e r t , w i t h a t h i c k n e s s i n  the o r d e r  o f 500' t o 1000'.  O v e r l y i n g the P a l e o z o i c sequence, appar-  e n t l y comformably, i s a t h i c k s u c c e s s i o n of mainly rocks of the T r i a s s i c Vancouver Group, t h e lower  basaltic  igneous  p o r t i o n o f w h i c h com-  monly c o n t a i n s p i l l o w l a v a s . I n t h e Cowichan L a k e a r e a , t h e P a l e o z o i c s u c c e s s i o n has been called  t h e S i c k e r Group  larities tions  ( C l a p p , 1909; F y l e s , 1955).  The v i s i b l e  simi-  of the P a l e o z o i c r o c k s of a l l t h r e e b e l t s have l e d t o sugges-  t h a t they a r e c o r r e l a t a b l e  (Mathews, 1947, p. 4 1 ; F y l e s , 1955,  p. 1 9 , 27) w i t h t h e S i c k e r G r o u p . p a r t s o f t h e group a r e r e f e r r e d the present  The two l i t h o l o g i c a l l y  distinctive  t o as t h e Lower and Upper D i v i s i o n i n  report.  LIMESTONES OF THE S I C K E R GROUP Diagnostic  i n t h e upper l i m e s t o n e  unit  (Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group o f t h i s r e p o r t ) o f a l l t h r e e b e l t s .  The  age  o f t h e l i m e s t o n e , b a s e d on t h e f o s s i l  Lake p.  f o s s i l s have been found  (Gunning,  evidence,  1 9 3 1 , p. 5 9 A ) , B i g I n t e r i o r M o u n t a i n  1 9 ) , and Cowichan L a k e  (Stevenson,  Horne L a k e were determined  (Sargent, 1941,  ( F y l e s , 1955, p. 1 9 ) . A t L i z a r d L a k e , i n  the China Creek a r e a , a brachiopod P e r m i a n a g e was f o u n d  i s Permian a t B u t t l e  suggesting Late Carboniferous or 1 9 4 5 , p. 6 ) . F o s s i l s  collected at  as b e i n g " e i t h e r Permian o r C a r b o n i f e r o u s ,  26  most p r o b a b l y  the l a t t e r "  ( R i c h a r d s o n , 1873, p. 5 4 ) .  D i s t i n c t i v e brachiopods Lake l o c a l i t y  and f u s u l i n i d s  1  Cowichan  p e r m i t t e d a more r e f i n e d a g e d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h a n was  possible f o r the other l o c a l i t i e s . E a r l y Permian age; t h e f u s u l i n i d s son  from F y l e s  Both  suggested  in F y l e s , 1 9 5 5 , p . 1 9 ) . F o s s i l s  present w r i t e r  provide evidence  fossil  groups i n d i c a t e d an  Wolfcampian  (M. L . Thomp-  c o l l e c t e d and i d e n t i f i e d by t h e  i n support  o f E a r l y Permian age f o r  the main l i m e s t o n e b e a r i n g beds o f each o f t h e t h r e e P a l e o z o i c b e l t s . T h e s e d a t a a r e d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l  i n other  sections of this  account. Lithologically,  the Permian limestone u n i t s of the three  h a v e c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common. o i d a l , and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i g h t - t o c h e r t , i n i r r e g u l a r nodules lithological  l i t h o l o g y occur  Paleozoic  sequence.  (Figure 6 ) .  the other areas  types found  examined.  i n t h e Cowichan Lake area  than  T h i n b e d d e d , c h e r t y s e d i m e n t s f o r m more  i n parts of the area.  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e l a t i v e l y pure l i m e s t o n e beds and l e n s e s  (thenorthern part of the B u t t l e Lake-Big  l i m e s t o n e forms a r e l a t i v e l y almost  i n one  i n t h e upper p a r t o f t h e  w i t h i n t h e upper p a r t of t h e sequence i s n o t u n i f o r m . Lake area  Certain  The p r o p o r t i o n o f pure l i m e s t o n e w i t h i n t h e Upper  of the unit  The  sheets.  However, l i m e s t o n e s o f almost  i n a l l three b e l t s  D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r Group i s lower  than h a l f  dark-coloured, fine-grained  and t h i n i n t e r c a l a t e d  i n others  identical  in  Much o f t h e l i m e s t o n e i s c r i n -  d i f f e r e n c e s do o c c u r , a n d c e r t a i n r o c k  area a r e n o t found  belts  I n the Buttle  Interior belt)  t h i c k and p e r s i s t e n t f o r m a t i o n ,  comprising  t h e whole o f t h e upper u n i t o f t h e P a l e o z o i c sequence (see  F i g u r e 5, 6 ) . G u n n i n g ( 1 9 3 1 ,  p . 60A) s t a t e d t h a t " a t l e a s t  two o t h e r  27  beds of l i m e s t o n e lower area. one  i n the P a l e o z o i c s e c t i o n " , were exposed i n the  I n the a r e a c o v e r e d by  the present study the presence  other limestone lens besides  of  only  the upper c a l c a r e o u s f o r m a t i o n i s  suggested. B e t w e e n B u t t l e L a k e and  t h e s o u t h e r n end  of t h i s b e l t ,  s t o n e s a r e n o t as p e r s i s t e n t as i n t h e B u t t l e L a k e a r e a p.  21; F i g . 1 ) .  I s o l a t e d masses of l i m e s t o n e a r e a l s o  of the C h i n a Creek area  (Stevenson,  1945,  p. 6; m a p ) ,  (Sargent,  1941,  characteristic i n the  northern  p a r t o f t h e C h i n a C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t , w h e r e l i m e s t o n e s may w e l l b e l o w t h e t o p o f t h e P a l e o z o i c s e q u e n c e , as w e l l  lime-  occur  as i n t h e u p p e r  part. I n t h e H o m e L a k e and C o w i c h a n L a k e a r e a s belts,  limestone i s generally r e s t r i c t e d  S i c k e r Group. Lake,  The  o f t h e two  southern  t o the Upper D i v i s i o n o f  the  l i m e s t o n e l e n s e s on M t . L a n d a l t , n o r t h o f C o w i c h a n  p o s s i b l y represent a calcareous h o r i z o n lower  the main l i m e s t o n e u n i t of the sequence.  i n the s e c t i o n  These l e n s e s were  than  correlated  w i t h t h e m a i n l i m e s t o n e s o f t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e S i c k e r Group by F y l e s (1955, ogy,  p. 17)  and  on t h e b a s i s o f a p p a r e n t  poorly preserved  stratigraphic  position,  lithol-  fossils.  B A S I C INTRUSIVE ROCKS B a s i c igneous diabases  rocks, referred  o r g a b b r o s i n t r u d e t h e v o l c a n i c and  S i c k e r Group i n a l l t h r e e b e l t s . bodies  t o i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e as  t o d i k e s and  In form,  i r r e g u l a r masses  sedimentary  they v a r y from  rocks of  the  sill-like  ( s e e F i g u r e s 5, 2 3 , 4 2 ) .  Cowichan L a k e a r e a , these r o c k s have been c a l l e d  basalts,  the F r a n k l i n  In  the  Creek  28  volcanics  (Stevenson, 1945,F y l e s ,  T r i a s s i c Vancouver Group. p.  1 9 5 5 , p. 20) and a s s i g n e d t o t h e  I n the B u t t l e Lake area, Gunning  (1931,  60A) c o n s i d e r e d s i m i l a r r o c k s t o be e i t h e r l a t e P a l e o z o i c  or early  Mesozoic.  COAST INTRUSIONS The  B u t t l e L a k e - B i g I n t e r i o r b e l t and t h e China  spring belts are intruded Coast I n t r u s i o n s , position. olithic  of diorite,  to large-sized bodies of the  granodiorite  These igneous r o c k s a r e u s u a l l y  rocks of the mainland.  Lake area the granodiorite stratigraphic age  by small  Creek-Salt-  or quartz-diorite correlated with  the bath-  I n t h e Cowichan Lake a r e a and B u t t l e  p l u t o n s have been dated on s t r u c t u r a l and  evidence as b e i n g o f pre-Upper C r e t a c e o u s ,  post-Triassic  ( F y l e s , 1955, p. 2 8 , G u n n i n g , 1 9 3 1 , p. 6 2 A ) . Younger  rocks,  com-  plutonic  o f s i m i l a r a p p e a r a n c e , a l s o may b e p r e s e n t i n t h e r e g i o n  (Gunning, 1931, p. 6 4 A ) .  STRUCTURE The complex. Fig.  structural pattern  The l a r g e r  51) w i t h  axial  scale traces  within  features  t h e Upper P a l e o z o i c  are gently  belts i s  plunging folds (see  t e n d i n g t o be p a r a l l e l  t o the trends of  the b e l t s  themselves, and f a u l t s o f l o n g i t u d i n a l type.  structure  i n t h e B u t t l e L a k e - B i g I n t e r i o r b e l t and H o m e Lake-Cameron  River and  b e l t appears t o be a n t i c l i n a l  The m a j o r  ( G u n n i n g , 1 9 3 1 , p. 61A, Mathews  McCammon, 1 9 5 7 , p . 5 1 ) a n d may w e l l b e i n t h e C h i n a  spring belt also.  Innumerable minor f o l d s and t r a n s v e r s e  Creek-Saltand o b l i q u e  29  faults myriads  are also present.  of small f a u l t blocks  relations  into  ( s e e F i g u r e s 5, 4 2 ) , m a k i n g l o c a l  i n areas of incomplete outcrop  The in  The P a l e o z o i c r o c k s a r e t h u s b r o k e n  cor-  difficult.  i n t e n s i t y of deformation i s apparently least  i n the n o r t h ,  t h e B u t t l e L a k e - B i g I n t e r i o r b e l t , where t h e f o l d s a r e open and  dips r e l a t i v e l y  shallow except  t r u s i v e bodies of the Coast  i n the v i c i n i t y  Intrusions.  o f f a u l t s and l a r g e i n -  In contrast, folds i n the  C h i n a C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t a r e t i g h t e r , a n d commonly a s s y m m e t r i c a l to overturned.  I n t h i s b e l t , d i p s a r e moderate t o steep.  Knowledge  of t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Horne Lake-Cameron R i v e r b e l t i s i n c o m p l e t e . On t h e f l a n k s o f t h e b e l t , d i p s a r e m o d e r a t e t o s t e e p . border suggest  of the b e l t i s complexly  f a u l t e d , but the o v e r a l l  t h a t t h e P a l e o z o i c r o c k s d i p a t a moderate angle  The n o r t h e r n attitudes (25° t o 35° )  below t h e o v e r l y i n g Vancouver Group t o t h e n o r t h . In the Cowichan Lake area of the southern b e l t , which i n more d e t a i l  i s mapped  t h a n any o t h e r l a r g e a r e a o f upper P a l e o z o i c r o c k s o f  the I s l a n d , s t r u c t u r a l  evidence  indicates  that at least  two, and prob-  a b l y t h r e e , p e r i o d s o f d e f o r m a t i o n have a f f e c t e d t h e P a l e o z o i c r o c k s ( F y l e s , 1955, p. 2 5 ) . The  two i d e n t i f i e d  deformation periods are:  Intrusions  (Saanich G r a n o d i o r i t e , which  Cretaceous  age) and (2) post-Upper  The  (1) p r e - C o a s t  i s of p o s t - T r i a s s i c ,  pre-Upper  Cretaceous.  major unconformity beneath  the Upper-Cretaceous  sediments  b e v e l l e d t h e complex s t r u c t u r e o f P a l e o z o i c and T r i a s s i c r o c k s , and exposed  the g r a n i t i c rocks i n places.  scale u p l i f t  This indicates at least a large  and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t f o l d i n g and f a u l t i n g a l s o  occurred  30  d u r i n g the i n t e r v a l Cretaceous,  i.e.  r e p r e s e n t e d by  Coast  the unconformity  Range Orogeny  (Jurassic-Lower  (White,  1959)).  of the P a l e o z o i c b e l t s  are not  SUMMARY The mapped. least  boundaries  completely  From the p r e s e n t e v i d e n c e , however, i t i s c l e a r  two  distinct  outcrop b e l t s  a r e p r e s e n t , s e p a r a t e d by a r e a s  l a i n by y o u n g e r v o l c a n i c , p l u t o n i c o r s e d i m e n t a r y The  age  that at  of the lowest exposed u n i t  under-  rocks.  (Lower D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r  G r o u p ) o f m a i n l y v o l c a n i c r o c k s i s p r e s u m e d t o be o f P e r m i a n o r o l d e r age. The  u p p e r p a r t o f t h e P a l e o z o i c s e q u e n c e , (Upper  S i c k e r Group) c o n s i s t s o f s e d i m e n t a r y prominent is  constituent. Fossils  r o c k s , of which  limestone i s a  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e age  of the  limestone  Permian. The  P a l e o z o i c sequence of a l l t h r e e b e l t s  v o l c a n i c r o c k s of the T r i a s s i c Vancouver Group. from  Division,  i s o v e r l a i n by The  mainly  whole assemblage,  the base of the exposed P a l e o z o i c r o c k s t o the Vancouver Group  a p p e a r s t o be  a conformable  succession.  Stratigraphic, lithologic,  and  faunal evidence  the P a l e o z o i c sequences of each of the t h r e e b e l t s are and b e l o n g  that  correlative,  to the S i c k e r Group.  The folds.  indicates  Paleozoic belts  E a c h i s a f f e c t e d by  o b l i q u e , and  probably are the cores of major important  transverse faults.  the major s t r u c t u r a l  elements  anticlinal  steeply dipping longitudinal,  Numerous m i n o r f a u l t s h a v e  t o an a s s e m b l a g e o f r e l a t i v e l y  reduced small  31  fault blocks. probably  These s t r u c t u r e s  a r e t h e r e s u l t o f a t l e a s t two,  t h r e e or more, p e r i o d s of t e c t o n i c I n t r u s i v e r o c k s o f a t l e a s t two  p e r i o d s of igneous period  activity  and  r e s u l t e d i n extensive bodies of d i a b a s i c basaltic  e x t r u s i v e r o c k s o f T r i a s s i c age.  the major g r a n i t i c bodies of the r e g i o n , E a r l y Cretaceous  age  activity. p r o b a b l y more  a r e known w i t h i n t h e b e l t s .  o f T r i a s s i c and? L a t e P e r m i a n age  and  distinct The  earlier  (Cassiar orogeny, White rocks probably r e l a t e d The  later  period  probably of J u r a s s i c  ( C o a s t Range o r o g e n y , W h i t e  1959).  1959) to  produced and  32  CHINA CREEK-SALTSPRING BELT  GENERAL STATEMENT P a l e o z o i c r o c k s a r e exposed i n g from China Creek  southward  i n a belt  of variable width  and s o u t h e a s t w a r d  t o Cowichan Lake,  east-southeastward to S a l t s p r i n g Island, o f f the east coast of Island (1912  extend-  Vancouver  ( F i g u r e s 2, 7 ) . L a r g e p a r t s o f t h i s b e l t w e r e mapped b y C l a p p G.S.C. Map 1 7 A ) a n d C l a p p a n d C o o k e  ( 1 9 1 7 , G.S.C. Map 4 2 A ) .  r e c e n t m a p p i n g b y F y l e s ( 1 9 5 5 , F i g . 2) i n t h e C o w i c h a n L a k e a r e a fied  then  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the stratigraphic  substantial  sequence,  the whole o f t h e exposed  "Group").  clari-  and p r o v i d e d  e v i d e n c e f o r t h e age o f C l a p p ' s S i c k e r " s e r i e s "  by F y l e s , p. 1 9 , t o S i c k e r  More  According to Fyles,  (changed  ( p . 1 3 , 19)  P a l e o z o i c s u c c e s s i o n s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n  the S i c k e r Group, " o f Permian  and o l d e r age".  W i t h i n the China C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t , considerable areas are u n d e r l a i n by r o c k s younger than t h e S i c k e r Group. rocks c o n s i s t o f Coast I n t r u s i o n s and o u t l i e r s  and s a l i e n t s o f v o l -  c a n i c and sedimentary r o c k s o f t h e T r i a s s i c Vancouver C r e t a c e o u s Nanaimo Group. Lake,  Southeastward  These younger  Group and Upper  from t h e e a s t end o f Cowichan  t h e i n c r e a s i n g a r e a o c c u p i e d by r o c k s younger than t h e S i c k e r  restricts  the P a l e o z o i c exposures  the edges o f t h e b e l t The  t o narrow  d i s c o n t i n u o u s bands on  (see F i g u r e 8 ) .  p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n was r e s t r i c t e d  t o an examination o f  t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r Group and s m a l l s e c t i o n s o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g rocks a l o n g the southwestern border of the China Saltspring belt.  Creek-  The Upper D i v i s i o n r o c k s were examined on t h e  F i g u r e 7. S o u t h e a s t e r n end o f C h i n a C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t . View east f r o m C o b b l e H i l l ( S i c k e r Group) a c r o s s l o w - l y i n g b e l t of Mesozoic grani t i c i n t r u s i o n s and Upper C r e t a c e o u s s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s toward southern end o f S a l t s p r i n g I s l a n d ( l e f t b a c k g r o u n d ) c o m p o s e d o f r o c k s o f S i c k e r and V a n c o u v e r G r o u p s .  F i g u r e 8. Cowichan V a l l e y , east of Lake Cowichan. View e a s t - n o r t h e a s t f r o m F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n toward Mt. P r e v o s t ( d i s t a n t p e a k ) . Permian limestones i n r i g h t foreground. Upper C r e t a c e o u s s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s of t h e v a l l e y , m a n t l e d by P l e i s t o c e n e and r e c e n t s e d i m e n t s , p r o b a b l y i n f a u l t c o n t a c t w i t h complex o f S i c k e r Group r o c k s and M e s o z o i c granitic i n t r u s i o n s of n o r t h e r n v a l l e y - w a l l .  peninsula on  a t t h e e a s t end o f Cowichan L a k e  the north  face  of the ridge  (Bald Mountain  southeast of Lake Cowichan  peninsula), townsite  ( F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n ) , and i n t h e a r e a between F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n and  Tadjiss Lake to the southeast.  Reconnaissance work d i s c l o s e d t h e  p r e s e n c e o f l i m e s t o n e s o f t h e same u n i t f a r t h e r s o u t h e a s t , a t W i l d Deer L a k e . Hill  The l i m e s t o n e d e p o s i t s  a r e a were b r i e f l y  o f E a g l e H e i g h t s and t h e Cobble  examined.  R e l a t i v e l y complete sections China Creek-Saltspring Mountain exposures.  Mountain peninsula, Bear  b e l t were o b t a i n e d  Partial  complexity prohibited  of the limestone u n i t i n the only  i n the Fairservice  sections, or sections  where s t r u c t u r a l  s i g n i f i c a n t m e a s u r e m e n t s , were examined on B a l d  a l o n g " C h a n l o g C r e e k , and on t h e west f o r k o f  Creek.  STRATIGRAPHY Sequence and N o m e n c l a t u r e The  h i s t o r y of the s t r a t i g r a p h i c terminology of the rocks of  the C h i n a C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g given  briefly  discussion  b e l t now a s s i g n e d t o t h e P a l e o z o i c i s  i n the e a r l i e r  s e c t i o n on p r e v i o u s work, and i n F y l e s '  (1955, p. 18-19) o f t h e S i c k e r G r o u p .  follows Fyles  i n assigning  t h e e n t i r e exposed s e c t i o n of  rocks i n the China Creek-Saltspring  b e l t to the Sicker  Two m a j o r l i t h o l o g i c u n i t s w i t h i n nized  by F y l e s  The p r e s e n t w r i t e r  (1955, F i g . 2 ) :  Paleozoic  Group.  t h e S i c k e r Group were r e c o g -  a lower major u n i t , " v o l c a n i c s " , which  T h e s e names a r e i n l o c a l u s e , b u t do n o t a p p e a r on p u b l i s h e d  maps.  34  c o u l d be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o cias";  an upper  " m a i n l y a m y g d a l o i d a l f l o w s " and " m a i n l y b r e c -  u n i t o f " s e d i m e n t s " , w h i c h was d i v i d e d i n t o  "cherty t u f f , c r y s t a l  subunits  t u f f , and t h i n bedded s e d i m e n t s " and " m a i n l y  limestone". The  p r e s e n t w r i t e r ! s work c o n f i r m s t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e  S i c k e r G r o u p o f t h e C h i n a C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t may t h u s b e s u b d i v i d e d into ogy  two p a r t s .  The l o w e r p a r t i s a c o m p l e x u n i t , o f v a r i a b l e  and marked f a c i e s  changes;  can be r e c o g n i z e d l o c a l l y . ordinate l i t h o l o g i c units by t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r .  Details  of t h i s  sub-units, or " f a c i e s "  o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e sub-  o f t h e lower d i v i s i o n have n o t been  The u p p e r  s u b u n i t , w h i c h was " t h o u g h t the S i c k e r Group"  various lithologic  part contains Fyles'  limestone  t o b e l o n g t o t h e uppermost f o r m a t i o n o f  i n the R i f t Creek, B a l d Mountain p e n i n s u l a ,  and F a i r s e r v i c e a r e a s , F y l e s s t a t e d  (p. 17):  "Although the l o c a l i t i e s  a r e many m i l e s a p a r t , t h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t t h e s e d i m e n t s t h e same f o r m a t i o n " .  In this  the w r i t e r  features of this  belong to  c o n c u r s , and c a n add t h a t t h e  "formation" are recognizable i n the  southwestern border of the China Creek China Creek  studied  ( F y l e s , 1955, p. 1 6 ) . . R e f e r r i n g t o t h e o c c u r r e n c e s  stratigraphic unit  characteristic  lithol-  b e l t from Mt. Spencer  i n the  a r e a t o a t l e a s t as f a r s o u t h e a s t as Bear C r e e k ,  south-  east of the Cowichan Lake a r e a . It  i s h e r e i n proposed  t h a t t h e l o w e r , v o l c a n i c and s e d i m e n t a r y  u n i t o f t h e S i c k e r be p r o v i s i o n a l l y and  the upper,  sedimentary u n i t  d e s i g n a t e d a s t h e "Lower  t h e "Upper D i v i s i o n "  E a c h o f t h e s e d i v i s i o n s may e v e n t u a l l y w a r r a n t names r a t h e r  than the proposed  terms.  Division"  (see Table 2 ) .  f o r m a t i o n a l name o r  However, t h e s t a g e a c h i e v e d i n  35  stratigraphic  studies  Creek-Saltspring  of t h e upper P a l e o z o i c  b e l t seems i n t h e w r i t e r ' s  present only p r o v i s i o n a l nomenclature. rectable  over l o n g distances,  correlations  are not possible.  sequence of the China opinion  The u n i t s  to warrant at  appear t o be  but at the present time,  detailed  As has been s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r  a c c o u n t , and d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r  i n a following  section,  D i v i s i o n of the southern b e l t s  probably correlates  with  cor-  i n this  t h e Upper the B u t t l e  L a k e F o r m a t i o n and a s u p e r j a c e n t u n i t o f t h e B u t t l e L a k e - B i g I n t e r i o r belt.  However, r a t h e r  than e x t e n d i n g the term B u t t l e Lake Formation  to southern a r e a s , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d a d v i s a b l e t h e more g e n e r a l i z e d  f o r the present to use When  cer-  t a i n s t r a t i g r a p h i c problems of the B u t t l e Lake area a r e r e s o l v e d  and  more p r e c i s e be  n o m e n c l a t u r a l system proposed above.  correlations  established,  extended over the e n t i r e  region.  formational  n o m e n c l a t u r e may  36  Table of Formations Table 2 i n d i c a t e s the terminology recognized  i n the Paleozoic  and T r i a s s i c  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e u n i t s successions  i n this  belt.  System  Series  Group  Formation  Lithology  Triassic  Upper Triassic  Vancouver Group  Unnamed unit  P y r o c l a s t i c s and noncalcareous sediments  Sutton Limestone  Fine-grained limestone and n o n - c a l c a r e o u s sediments  Franklin Creek Volcanics  B a s a l t f l o w s and i n t r u s i o n s of d i a base; minor l i m e s t o n e and o t h e r sediments  Paraconformity Permian  Lower Permian  Upper Division  Fine-to coarsegrained limestone; chert, siliceous limestone, minor argillite  Lower Division  B r e c c i a s , massive tuffs, fine-grained non-calcareous sediments, b a s a l t i c f l o w s , minor limestone .  Sicker ? Permian and/or Older  9  Group  TABLE 2 Table of formations, w i t h proposed nomenclature f o r s u b d i v i s i o n s of S i c k e r Group, C h i n a C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t .  Sicker  Group  Stratigraphic The  boundaries  l o w e r boundary of the S i c k e r Group has  Vancouver I s l a n d .  not been seen  E q u i v a l e n t s of the S i c k e r Group p r o b a b l y  are  on pre-  sent i n a d j a c e n t r e g i o n s , where a sequence of r o c k s , b e l i e v e d t o l i e b e l o w , and p . 1-3;  o l d e r t h a n , t h e S i c k e r G r o u p , i s known ( D a n n e r ,  1962,  p.  8-12;  2 maps).  However, s t r a t i g r a p h i c  s h i p s between t h e u p p e r P a l e o z o i c sequence and not  relation-  the e a r l i e r rocks  are  clear. The  formity. The  1960,  upper c o n t a c t of the S i c k e r Group i s p r o b a b l y  I t s n a t u r e has  present  been d i s c u s s e d by F y l e s  ( 1 9 5 5 , p.  an  25,  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the China C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t  y i e l d e d no v i s i b l e  evidence  uncon27).  has  of a b r e a k between the S i c k e r Group  the o v e r l y i n g Vancouver Group, other  and  than the s t r i k i n g change i n  l i t h o l o g y from the l i m e s t o n e or c h e r t y r o c k s of the S i c k e r to massive or p i l l o w e d b a s a l t s of the succeeding places a f a u l t ;  unit.  The  c o n t a c t i s i n many  i n o t h e r s , the c o n t a c t s u r f a c e i s not  exposed.  bedded r o c k s of the S i c k e r Group below the c o n t a c t appear t o parallel  to the c o n t a c t where i t i s n o t  at the c o n t a c t are not sarily  faulted.  a l w a y s t h e same l i t h o l o g y ;  be  Sicker rocks  t h i s i s not  neces-  proof of b e v e l l i n g of the upper s u r f a c e of the S i c k e r Group,  f o r f a c i e s c h a n g e s w i t h i n t h e S i c k e r a r e common. in  The  The  support  best  evidence  of unconformable r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t the c o n t a c t between  S i c k e r and V a n c o u v e r G r o u p s l i e s of these  The  two  units.  The  age  i n the apparent  of the lower  disparity  the  i n ages  p a r t of the Vancouver Group  38  o f t h e C o w i c h a n L a k e a r e a i s " T r i a s s i c and to F y l e s (p. 1 1 ) . u n i t of  The  the Vancouver Group  l y i n g Sutton Limestone, evidence age  stratigraphic  as  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the b a s a l  d e s c r i b e d by F y l e s  (p. 24-25),  as a c o n f o r m a b l e  The  S i c k e r Group has  as E a r l y P e r m i a n .  been determined  a t i o n g i v e n above i s v a l i d , C r e e k v o l c a n i c s and 1958,  p. 1 1 9 ) .  The  lacuna  p.  overstrong the age  o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n of I f the  (Wheeler,  1958)  the  interpret-  Franklin  the S i c k e r Group i s a p a r a c o n f o r m i t y  (Dunbar  represented  and  may  from mid-Permian to m i d - T r i a s s i c .  i s c o n s i d e r e d to have been a time of u p l i f t  i n other parts of B r i t i s h Columbia 1959,  The  then the c o n t a c t between the  thus i n c l u d e the time i n t e r v a l This i n t e r v a l  are  f o r m a t i o n s as b e i n g n o t w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t . age  the  s u c c e s s i o n , and  of the Sutton i s L a t e T r i a s s i c .  Rogers,  according  ( F r a n k l i n C r e e k v o l c a n i c s ) and  for interpreting this  o f t h e two  (or) Permian"  (Armstrong,  1949,  and  erosion  p. 4 2 - 4 3 ;  White,  72).  Lower  Division  Rocks o f t h e L o w e r D i v i s i o n h a v e been d e s c r i b e d by F y l e s (1955,  p. 1 3 - 1 5 ) .  Amygdaloidal  eous s e d i m e n t s ,  and  and  tuffs,  feldspathic  the prominent  thin-bedded  r o c k s , b r e c c i a s and m a s s i v e non-calcareous  (cherty  t u f f a c e o u s g r e y w a c k e s and b r e c c i a s ) a r e among  l i t h o l o g i e s present.  g e n e r a l a s s e m b l a g e may  sediments  tuffac-  A c c o r d i n g to F y l e s (p. 13),  be r e c o g n i z e d w i d e l y on s o u t h e r n  "this  Vancouver  Island". The of t h i s  present i n v e s t i g a t i o n d i d not i n c l u d e d e t a i l e d  p a r t of the sequence.  Each of the main r o c k  types  studies mentioned  39  by F y l e s was  e x a m i n e d by  n o t e d by F y l e s  ( p . 13)  t h e w r i t e r , and  the r a p i d f a c i e s changes  were a p p a r e n t i n even t h i s  Rocks v a r y i n g from massive green tuffaceous? and  limited  survey.  sediments to b r e c c i a s  g r e y w a c k e - a r g i l l i t e sequences are exposed immediately  the c a l c a r e o u s  and  cherty  Marker horizons unit.  A 600  sequence o f the Upper  beneath  Division.  are r a r e to absent i n t h i s  f o o t sequence of thin-bedded c h e r t y  heterogeneous  tuffs  i n the  o f t h e e x p o s e d s e c t i o n ( o f a b o u t 7500 t o 9000 f e e t ) o f t h e D i v i s i o n rocks recognizable  on  the n o r t h  middle  Lower  s i d e of Cowichan Lake appears to  o v e r a t l e a s t 20 m i l e s  ( F y l e s , p.  18).  I n g e n e r a l , i t w o u l d a p p e a r f r o m d e s c r i p t i o n s and t i o n s by F y l e s  ( 1 9 5 5 , F i g . 2)  t h e m a r k e r and  sedimentary rocks  be  that v o l c a n i c rocks  cross  sec-  are dominant below  above.  Upper D i v i s i o n  Bald Mountain Peninsula On Figure t o be  B a l d M o u n t a i n , on  3 ) , an 700  incomplete  Section  t h e n o r t h f a c e a t i t s e a s t end  s e c t i o n o f t h e U p p e r D i v i s i o n was  feet i n thickness.  Of  this  the remainder of the i n t e r v a l  fine grained  siliceous  the  sequence i s o c c u p i e d  in thickness.  The  limestone,  composed of t h i n - b e d d e d , the upper p a r t of the  dark grey  s e c t i o n are  cherty r o c k s , or w i t h covered  is  estimated  The  base  t o be  100  t h e s e c t i o n ( a b o u t 300  chert.  The  limestone  i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h those  intervals, with  the  feet  thin-bedded,  or covered.  by m a s s i v e l i m e s t o n e  m i d d l e p o r t i o n of  estimated  t h i c k n e s s , l e s s t h a n 300  c o n s i s t s of l i m e s t o n e ; c h e r t and  (see  of feet  feet) i s  exposures i n of  thickest  the limestone  40  at the top, estimated  a t 50 f e e t .  The l o w e r  D i v i s i o n was n o t s e e n i n t h i s a r e a .  Fine  contact  to coarse  o f t h e Upper volcanic  brec-  c i a s , presumably u n d e r l y i n g t h e Upper D i v i s i o n r o c k s , a r e exposed on a l o w k n o l l n o r t h o f M a r b l e B a y . b r e c c i a s and c l a s t i c peninsula  According  to Fyles  (1955, p. 17)  sediments o f t h e n o r t h and e a s t s i d e s o f t h e  " a r e o v e r l a i n and grade l a t e r a l l y  into limestone  and  chert". The interval  u p p e r c o n t a c t , w h e r e s e e n b y t h e w r i t e r , was i n a  between t h e uppermost l i m e s t o n e  S i c k e r Group, and brown w e a t h e r i n g  member o f t h e U p p e r  v o l c a n i c rocks  above.  covered Division,  Fyles  ( p . 17)  m e n t i o n s a b a n d o f v a r i c o l o u r e d c h e r t , up t o 40 f e e t t h i c k n e a r t h e contact.  F a i r s e r v i c e Mountain Several  Section  s e c t i o n measurements were a t t e m p t e d on t h e n o r t h  of F a i r s e r v i c e Mountain.  The s e c t i o n s e x a m i n e d o n t h e s o u t h  F a i r s e r v i c e Creek, and i n a g u l l y  south  of  face  side of  S k i d d e r s F l a t were n o t  s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r m e a s u r e m e n t s b e c a u s e o f i n a d e q u a t e e x p o s u r e a n d complex structure. Figure  A section along  the west f o r k of Chanlog Creek (see  9) a t t h e e a s t e n d o f F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n , p r o v i d e d  good e x p o s u r e o f t h e U p p e r D i v i s i o n . panying shearing sive bodies  and  provides  However, f a u l t i n g , w i t h  accom-  and b r e c c i a t i o n , and t h e presence o f s e v e r a l  intru-  i n the lower  graphic value.  relatively  Despite  part of this these  s e c t i o n d e t r a c t from i t s s t r a t i -  d e f i c i e n c i e s t h e s e c t i o n was m e a s u r e d ,  a u s e f u l c o m p a r i s o n w i t h a more s a t i s f a c t o r y  L o c a l name; s e e F i g u r e  3  section to  F i g u r e 9. Chanlog Creek s e c t i o n , upper p a r t . View southwest. Creek e x p o s u r e s o f r o c k s o f U p p e r D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r G r o u p , o v e r l a i n by v o l c a n i c r o c k s o f V a n c o u v e r Group (upper l e f t , below h o r i z o n t a l band o f timber).  F i g u r e 10. C h a n l o g C r e e k e x p o s u r e s o f l i m e s t o n e s and s i l i c e o u s l i m e s t o n e - c h e r t beds o f Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group.  41  the n o r t h .  The  l a t t e r was  near-by exposures, Flat, This  one  and  measured i n a l a r g e g u l l y and  w h i c h l i e midway b e t w e e n C h a n l o g C r e e k and  one-half m i l e s south-west of the Chanlog  s e c t i o n , although not  o c c u p i e d by  f a u l t i n g , and  The  i n Figure  the limestone f o r m a t i o n .  on  This  the  section i s  i s shown d i a -  6.  measured t h i c k n e s s of the Upper D i v i s i o n i n the  M o u n t a i n s e c t i o n i s 2580 f e e t . massive green v o l c a n i c rocks few  railpoint.  i n c l u d e s almost  r e f e r r e d t o as t h e F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n s e c t i o n , a n d grammatically  Skidders  o f f e r i n g as c o m p l e t e e x p o s u r e as t h a t  C h a n l o g C r e e k i s l e s s c o m p l i c a t e d by whole i n t e r v a l  several smaller  The  i s not  Fairservice  b a s a l c o n t a c t w i t h the u n d e r l y i n g e x p o s e d , b u t must l i e w i t h i n a  tens of f e e t of the base of the measured s e c t i o n .  t a c t o f t h e S i c k e r Group l i e s w i t h i n a few measured s e c t i o n , w h i c h i s s e p a r a t e d by  The  upper  f e e t of the top of  a covered  interval  con-  the  from  the  o v e r l y i n g F r a n k l i n Creek v o l c a n i c s . The is  m a j o r i t y o f t h e e x p o s e d s e c t i o n , as i s shown i n F i g u r e  composed o f t h i n l y b e d d e d  (6 i n c h e s grey  to 2 f e e t ) dark  limestone  (1 i n c h t o 6 i n c h e s )  grey  (see F i g u r e 1 0 ) .  grained c r i n o i d a l  Small  f i n e - g r a i n e d medium  l e n s e s of l i g h t  the s e c t i o n ( F i g u r e 11).  of the s e c t i o n , exposure i s poor,  s t o n e s , one  t o medium-bedded  grey,  coarse-  limestone, w i t h thicknesses from 1 foot to 6  are s p a r s e l y s c a t t e r e d through middle  t o b l a c k c h e r t and  o f 182  f e e t and  t h e o t h e r 112  except  f o r two  to massive.  The  upper l i m e s t o n e i s extremely  20 f e e t , and  c o n t a i n s a few  poorly preserved  and  feet,  Above thick  feet i n thickness.  l i m e s t o n e s a r e medium t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d , c r i n o i d a l  6,  the limeThese  thick-bedded  cherty i n the brachiopods.  top  Figure 11. Limestone lens w i t h i n thin-bedded s i l i c e o u s D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r G r o u p , on C h a n l o g C r e e k .  Figure Sicker  sequence  12. C o n t o r t e d t h i n - b e d d e d s i l i c e o u s r o c k s of Upper G r o u p , on C h a n l o g C r e e k .  of Upper  Division,  42 The  interval  from t h e t o p of t h e uppermost t h i c k l i m e s t o n e t o  the t o p o f t h e s e c t i o n i s c o v e r e d , In traverses across found  the h i l l s i d e  t o c o n s i s t of thin-bedded  except  f o r the upper f i v e  to the south, this  lenses of coarse-grained, f o s s i l i f e r o u s  greenstone  i n t e r v a l has been  c h e r t w i t h minor limestone l e n s e s . I n  the s m a l l exposure a t the t o p , thin-bedded  torted, are present.  feet.  c h e r t and l i m e s t o n e , w i t h  limestone, a l l highly  con-  W i t h i n a few f e e t above t h i s , f i n e - g r a i n e d  o f t h e base o f t h e Vancouver Group i s exposed.  A comparison of the F a i r s e r v i c e Mountain s e c t i o n w i t h  that  o b t a i n e d o n C h a n l o g C r e e k shows t h a t t h e two a r e c o m p a r a b l e o n a gross half  scale.  D e t a i l e d c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e two, a l i t t l e  over  a m i l e a p a r t , i s , h o w e v e r , i m p o s s i b l e ; one o f t h e two t h i c k  l i m e s t o n e s o f t h e F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n s e c t i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , does not  appear t o outcrop  ities  i n the Chanlog Creek s e c t i o n .  i n detailed lithologic  s u c c e s s i o n a r e apparent  s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n s e c t i o n i s compared t o t h e r o u g h l y one-half mile to the north, i n the gully the l a t t e r ,  Similar disparwhen t h e F a i r estimated section  south of Skidders F l a t .  t h e o n l y prominent t h i c k l i m e s t o n e i s near t h e b a s e , and  is  p e r h a p s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e 90 f o o t l i m e s t o n e  in  the F a i r s e r v i c e Mountain  i n a similar  a t t e m p t i n g t o match these  closely  themselves  contributing to the d i f f i c u l t y The  thin-bedded  involved i n  spaced s e c t i o n s a r e the r e s u l t o f  c o m p l e x i t i e s and incomplete  ing h a b i t of the limestones  position  section.  T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  structural  In  i n such  exposure. probably  However, t h e l e n s i s the major  short range  cherty rocks of this  factor  correlations.  s e c t i o n a p p e a r t o be  F i g u r e 13. L i m e s t o n e e x p o s u r e s , Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r from west f o r k of Chanlog Creek,  Group, s o u t h e a s t  F i g u r e 14. S i n k h o l e e x p o s u r e s o f l i m e s t o n e s o f Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r G r o u p , on F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n , s o u t h o f h e a d w a t e r s o f C h a n l o g C r e e k . F r a n k l i n Creek v o l c a n i c s i n h i l l s i d e , l e f t background. View n o r t h .  F i g u r e 15. F r a c t u r e d , p a r t l y s i l i c i f i e d and d o l o m i t i z e d l i m e s t o n e , w i t h c h e r t n o d u l e s ; Upper D i v i s i o n S i c k e r Group, n e a r h e a d w a t e r s west f o r k , Chanlog Creek.  F i g u r e 16. T h i n - b e d d e d s i l i c e o u s l i m e s t o n e - c h e r t s e q u e n c e , Upper s i o n , S i c k e r Group, i n r o a d - c u t , east s i d e of F a i r s e r v i c e Creek.  Divi-  identical Fyles  to those  f r o m t h e same s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n t e r v a l  (1955, p. 16, p i . V I I I ) .  I n most o f t h e l a r g e e x p o s u r e s ,  are h i g h l y contorted; i n s i n g l e exposures,  e f f e c t of such  deformation  they  10 t o 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e  s e c t i o n may b e i n v o l v e d i n t i g h t , s m a l l a m p l i t u d e The  d e s c r i b e d by  of the o r i g i n a l  f o r m a t i o n cannot be e s t i m a t e d w i t h t h e d a t a  folds  total  (Figure 12).  thickness of the  available.  Bear Creek S e c t i o n Along  the west f o r k of Bear Creek, approximately  t h e same  t h i c k n e s s o f Upper D i v i s i o n S i c k e r Group r o c k s a r e exposed as on t h e n o r t h e a s t f a c e o f F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n and a t t h e e a s t end o f B a l d Mountain.  A unit of fine  t o medium-grained, g r e e n i s h greywacke (see  F i g u r e s 1 8 , 19) o c c u r s h e r e , h o w e v e r , i n a m e d i a l  band o f exposures  s e p a r a t i n g two s e c t i o n s , o f t h e U p p e r D i v i s i o n c a l c a r e o u s a n d c h e r t y rocks.  One a t t i t u d e i n t h e g r e y w a c k e s , f o r w h i c h t o p d e t e r m i n a t i o n s  were o b t a i n e d f r o m graded b e d d i n g , l a m i n a t i o n s , i n d i c a t e s tops  s m a l l - s c a l e c h a n n e l i n g and c r o s s -  to the east i n a n e a r - v e r t i c a l  sequence.  I n t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n s e c t i o n o f Upper D i v i s i o n r o c k s , t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of a m i l e n o r t h o f Bear Creek, graded bedding  i n outcrops  of steeply-  d i p p i n g c h e r t and s i l i c e o u s l i m e s t o n e a l s o i n d i c a t e s tops  t o the east  ( s e e F i g u r e s 3, 2 0 ) . These d a t a suggest  that the exposures represent a f o l d e d sec-  t i o n , w i t h t h e greywackes exposed i n t h e core o f an a n t i c l i n e . g r e y w a c k e s do n o t r e a p p e a r  The  on t h e n o r t h e a s t b o u n d a r y o f t h e Upper  D i v i s i o n ; h e r e a n a r r o w zone o f g r e e n i s h t u f f s and f i n e b r e c c i a s l i e s between t h e most n o r t h e a s t e r l y l i m e s t o n e  outcrop  and t h e m a s s i v e ,  F i g u r e 17. L i m e s t o n e c o n t a i n i n g p a r t l y s i l i c i f i e d f o s s i l s b r y o z o a n s ) ; U p p e r D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r G r o u p , on B e a r C r e e k .  (brachiopods,  F i g u r e 18 ( a b o v e ) . Greywacke and a r g i l l i t e , L o w e r D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group; s o u t h bank o f west f o r k , Bear Creek. Exp o s u r e 30 t o 40 f e e t h i g h .  F i g u r e 19 ( l e f t ) . Greywacke and a r g i l l i t e , n o r t h bank o f west f o r k , Bear Creek. Nearv e r t i c a l beds s t r i k e n o r t h w e s t - s o u t h e a s t , and f a c e northeast.  44  fine-grained the  g r e e n s t o n e s o f t h e Lower D i v i s i o n t o t h e n o r t h .  Whether  greywackes a r e m i s s i n g because o f f a u l t i n g , o r have been  replaced  i n a f a c i e s change by t h e p y r o c l a s t i c r o c k s That these  rocks underlie the limestone  is still  open t o q u e s t i o n .  i s shown b y t h e a t t i t u d e s  n o r t h w e s t o f t h e n o r t h e a s t e r l y greywacke c o n t a c t , by t h e i n t e r f i n g e r i n g of limestone such rocks  and greywacke a t t h e c o n t a c t , and by t h e absence o f  above t h e l i m e s t o n e  elsewhere  (e.g., along  the northwest  f a c e o f F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n ) where t h e beds f a c e s o u t h w e s t and a r e o v e r l a i n by F r a n k l i n Creek v o l c a n i c s . the  same t y p e  "clastic  of rocks  The g r e y w a c k e s p r o b a b l y a r e  d e s c r i b e d by F y l e s  s e d i m e n t s " on t h e n o r t h  ( 1 9 5 5 , p . 1 7 ; F i g . 2)  side of Bald Mountain  He s u g g e s t s t h a t h e r e a l s o t h e c l a s t i c  as  peninsula.  sediments i n t e r f i n g e r w i t h the  limestone.  Stratigraphic The  sequence and t h i c k n e s s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s t r a t i g r a p h i c  the Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r Group h i n g e s  not in are  areas.  These s e c t i o n s  i n v o l v e d i n s t r u c t u r e s o f l a r g e and s m a l l m a g n i t u d e s .  beds, with which to decipher known.  the detailed structural  Marker  pattern, are  I t was h o p e d t h a t f o s s i l h o r i z o n s m i g h t b e o f some u s e  this analysis. present,  within  on t h e s e c t i o n s ob-  t a i n e d on F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n and i n a d j a c e n t are  succession  Unfortunately,  fossils  a r e s c a r c e , and where  a r e u s u a l l y so p o o r l y p r e s e r v e d  tions are d i f f i c u l t ,  i fnot impossible.  that precise  they  identifica-  With such a poor fauna, i t  i s u n w i s e t o p l a c e much c r e d e n c e i n d e t a i l e d l o c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s based on t h e f o s s i l s .  I n the absence o f other  criteria  n i z i n g s t r a t i g r a p h i c horizons w i t h i n the limestone  unit,  f o r recoghowever,  F i g u r e 2 0 . Thin-bedded s i l i c e o u s l i m e s t o n e and c h e r t of Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group; F a i r s e r v i c e Mountain, e a s t of Bear Creek. Beds s t r i k e n o r t h to northwest, and f a c e e a s t . View n o r t h .  45  the f o l l o w i n g extremely for  the w r i t e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The  in  t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s a r e g i v e n as a b a s i s  evidence  from complete or p a r t i a l  stratigraphic  t h e a r e a between Cowichan Lake and T a d j i s s Lake  sections  ( s e e F i g u r e s 3, 6)  i n d i c a t e s t h a t l i m e s t o n e l e n s e s o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n a r e s p o r a d i c in  their vertical  of s i m i l a r  and h o r i z o n t a l  d i s t r i b u t i o n with the unit.  g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r , a n d i n some c a s e s  pear throughout spring belt. Schwagerina?  the length of this  t h e same g e n e r a , a p -  segment o f t h e C h i n a  T h e two k n o w n o c c u r r e n c e s  Fossils  of the f u s u l i n i d  Creek-Saltgenus  (Bald Mountain p e n i n s u l a , F a i r s e r v i c e Mountain) are i n  the Upper o n e - t h i r d o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r Group. t i n c t i v e brachiopods  occur  Dis-  i n t h e upper o n e - t h i r d of exposed s e c t i o n  of t h e l i m e s t o n e f o r m a t i o n on B a l d M o u n t a i n p e n i n s u l a .  Similar  iopods  stratigraphi-  cally  occur near the middle  of the Bear Creek s e c t i o n ,  above r o c k s o f t h e Lower Fyles  brach-  Division.  ( 1 9 5 5 , p . 1 7 ; f i g . 2, c r o s s s e c t i o n s A - B , C - D ) , i n t e r -  p r e t e d t h e s t r u c t u r e on B a l d M o u n t a i n and F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n as a pair  of f o l d s , a n t i c l i n a l  formation from the present c l u s i v e evidence  on t h e w e s t , s y n c l i n a l study  of these  on t h e e a s t .  In-  two s e c t i o n s g i v e s no  pertaining to this hypothesis.  The t h r e e  con-  prominent  l i m e s t o n e members o f t h e F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n s e c t i o n c o u l d p o s s i b l y r e p r e s e n t r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e same h o r i z o n ; b u t t h e y d i f f e r t h i c k n e s s , d e t a i l e d l i t h o l o g y and observed in  fossil  content.  i n exposed However,  t h e a r e a between C h a n l o g C r e e k and Bear C r e e k , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  rock  types  and s t r u c t u r a l  interpretation  data obtained tend  ( s e e page 4 3 ) .  to corroborate Fyles'  46  S t r u c t u r a l r e p e t i t i o n of the sequence and s i l i c e o u s in  l i m e s t o n e o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n  of l i m e s t o n e ,  t h u s seems p r o b a b l e  s e c t i o n s from B a l d Mountain p e n i n s u l a to Bear Creek.  of marker  chert  The  absence  beds w i t h i n t h e u n i t p r e v e n t s an a c c u r a t e measurement o f  the t r u e t h i c k n e s s o f beds i n v o l v e d i n the f o l d i n g .  Depending  on  the s t y l e of f o l d i n g , f i g u r e s of one-quarter to o n e - t h i r d of the e x p o s e d t h i c k n e s s may true thickness. valid,  be p o s t u l a t e d as r e a s o n a b l e e s t i m a t e s o f t h e  I f the above a n a l y s i s of the Bear Creek s e c t i o n i s  the t h i c k n e s s of the w e s t e r n upper  limb of the a n t i c l i n e i s  c a l c u l a b l e from the western p a r t of the Bear Creek exposures. t h i c k n e s s o f a b o u t 1,000 p r e s e n t on t h i s l i m b . lar  F a i r s e r v i c e Mountain Fyles  f e e t o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n a p p e a r s t o be  An  s t r u c t u r e , o f 700  t o 900 f e e t i s c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e  ( 1 9 4 5 , map;  t o 1,000  f e e t northwest of the west  feet at Fairservice  interpretation.  c r o s s - s e c t i o n C-D)  f e e t o f l i m e s t o n e on t h e e a s t f a c e o f M t .  relationships  I t must s t i l l  found.  Either  end  I n the C h i n a Creek  area,  shows a m i n i m u m o f  1,000  Spencer. to  and t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n s t r a t i g r a p h i c  b e r e g a r d e d h o w e v e r as an h y p o t h e s i s , f o r  c o n c l u s i v e evidence i n the form of marker c o n f i g u r a t i o n proposed  lime-  Mountain,  s t r u c t u r a l h y p o t h e s i s g i v e n above appears adequate  e x p l a i n the f i e l d sections.  measured  e s t i m a t e d the t h i c k n e s s of the  t o b e a b o u t 1,000  b a s e d on h i s s t r u c t u r a l  The  simi-  section.  o f C o w i c h a n L a k e a n d 500  Stevenson  e s t i m a t e , made on t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f  ( 1 9 5 5 , p . 1 6 , 17)  stone "formation"  A  horizons folded i n the  (an a n t i c l i n e - s y n c l i n e p a i r ) has n o t been  f a u l t i n g or f a c i e s  changes, or a combination of  47  f a u l t i n g and f a c i e s change w i t h i n t h e upper S i c k e r Group, account f o r the observed data. g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s needed  Additional  structural  could  also  and s t r a t i -  to s a t i s f a c t o r i l y resolve  the problem.  Fauna The  fossils  f o u n d i n l i m e s t o n e s o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e  S i c k e r Group i n t h e s e c t i o n s mentioned above c o n s i s t o f a few  sili-  c i f i e d b r a c h i o p o d s , s e v e r a l f o r a m i n i f e r a , one c o r a l , and abundant f r a g m e n t a r y r e m a i n s o f ramose and f e n e s t r a t e b r y o z o a n s . the p r e s e n t w r i t e r ' s  collections  b u t some a t l e a s t a r e s i m i l a r  are not s p e c i f i c a l l y  to fossils  Those i n  identifiable,  present i n other collections  from the area. B r a c h i o p o d s c o l l e c t e d by F y l e s  ( 1 9 5 5 , p . 19) f r o m l i m e s t o n e  of t h e S i c k e r Group on B a l d M o u n t a i n p e n i n s u l a i n c l u d e a s p e c i e s o f Spiriferella. fied  The same l o c a l i t y y i e l d e d f o s s i l s  as H o r r i d o n i a ?  ( D u t r o , p e r s . comm. t o D a n n e r ,  genera have been t e n t a t i v e l y of  o f a genus 1962).  i d e n t i f i e d by t h e w r i t e r  identiThese  two  i nlimestones  t h e upper p a r t o f t h e S i c k e r Group on Bear C r e e k , where t h e y a r e  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r b r a c h i o p o d s , bryozoans and c o r a l s . M. L . Thompson ( i n F y l e s , 1 9 5 5 , p . 19) i d e n t i f i e d Schwagerina i n specimens  from the upper p a r t o f t h e l i m e s t o n e forma-  t i o n on B a l d M o u n t a i n p e n i n s u l a . identified writer  t h e genus  a l s o i n specimens  T h i s genus h a s b e e n  tentatively  o f l i m e s t o n e c o l l e c t e d by t h e p r e s e n t  from the upper, t h i c k limestone of the F a i r s e r v i c e  s e c t i o n , a b o u t 730 f e e t f r o m t h e t o p o f t h e s e c t i o n .  Mountain  Other  f o r a m i n i f e r a , i n c l u d i n g T e t r a t a x i s and a s m a l l f u s u l i n i d  small  species  48  occur  i n t h e same s e c t i o n , a n d a l s o i n l i m e s t o n e  Creek.  W. R. D a n n e r  limestones south  exposures near  Bear  ( 1 9 6 2 , p e r s . comm.) c o l l e c t e d f o r a m i n i f e r a f r o m  o f t h e upper S i c k e r Group on t h e w e s t s i d e o f Bear  of Skutz F a l l s .  Creek,  The s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n f r o m w h i c h t h e  specimens were o b t a i n e d  i s n o t known.  The most i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g -  n i f i c a n t of the f o s s i l s  i sa fusulinid  s p e c i e s which has been s t a t e d  by  J . W. S k i n n e r  ( p e r s . comm. t o W. R. D a n n e r , 1 9 6 2 ) t o b e l o n g t o  one  o f three genera:  F u s u l i n e l l a , Waeringella, orP s e u d o f u s u l i n e l l a .  The  s m a l l f u s u l i n i d mentioned above, w h i c h has been found i n t h e  F a i r s e r v i c e Mountain and Bear Creek s e c t i o n s , i s s i m i l a r  to the  specimens d i s c u s s e d by S k i n n e r . Large thick  shelled brachiopods,  silicified  and u n i d e n t i f i -  a b l e even a t t h e g e n e r i c l e v e l , have been found i n t h e l i m e s t o n e exposed i n t h e W i l d Deer L a k e a r e a . semble b r a c h i o p o d s donia?"). Eagle  Some o f t h e f o r m s v a g u e l y  from the Bald Mountain peninsula  (e.g.,  From t h e l a r g e l i m e s t o n e body on t h e s o u t h e a s t  Heights,  poorly preserved,  and thus  c o r a l s were c o l l e c t e d .  pect  to that of the limestones  the fauna  west along  looks  theChina Creek-Saltspring b e l t .  Lake and Eagle  Heights  the s t r a t i g r a p h i c  flank of brachio-  I n general as-  I n both  to the north-  the W i l d  Deer  a r e a s , mapping has n o t y e t been done, and  sequence remains t o be worked  Examinations were m a i n l y  similar  "Horri-  far unidentified,  pods, bryozoans and s o l i t a r y  re-  of the limestones  d i r e c t e d towards a search  a t Cobble H i l l for identifiable  f o s s i l s were found i n t h e d e p o s i t s b e i n g C o l u m b i a Cement Company, ( r e f e r r e d  out.  developed  ( s e e F i g u r e 2) fossils.  by t h e B r i t i s h  t o a s t h e "Raymond" d e p o s i t b y  No  49  M a t h e w s a n d McCammon, 1 9 5 7 , southwest  of Cobble H i l l  the southeast Hill  station.  The  and  three-quarter m i l e s west-  s m a l l limestone exposure  s i d e of Cobble H i l l , one-half m i l e southwest  station, contains poorly preserved, s i l i c i f i e d  solitary  c o r a l s and  precisely of  p . 4 5 ) , one  coarse c r i n o i d a l  identifiable,  looks similar  the other f o s s i l i f e r o u s  debris.  The  on  of Cobble  brachiopods,  fauna, though  not  i n general character to that  l i m e s t o n e s of the China C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g  belt. The  age  o f t h e f a u n a d i s c u s s e d above and  treated i n detail  in a  later  s e c t i o n of t h i s r e p o r t (p.  Faunal The from  l i s t e d below i s 109).  lists  f o l l o w i n g i s a c o m p i l a t i o n of f o s s i l  identifications  the Upper P a l e o z o i c r o c k s of the C h i n a C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t . Lizard  Lake  From l i m e s t o n e one-half m i l e southeast of L i z a r d Lake s o n , 1 9 4 5 , map; p . 6 ) : Spiriferella C r i n o i d d i s k s and stems  (Steven-  Bald Mountain peninsula F r o m l i m e s t o n e one a n d o n e - h a l f m i l e s n o r t h w e s t o f M a r b l e B a y , a t e l e v a t i o n o f a b o u t 1,000 f e e t ; f r o m b e d s " b e t w e e n 200 and 400 f e e t b e l o w t h e b a s e o f t h e F r a n k l i n C r e e k b a s a l t " ( F y l e s , 1 9 5 5 , p. 1 9 ) : P r o d u c t u s c f . P. u r a l i c u s T s c h e r n . P r o d u c t u s c f . P. w e y p r e c h t i T o u l a S p i r i f e r e l l a saranae v a r . a r c t i c a Haughton Schwagerina? F r o m l i m e s t o n e " o n e - q u a r t e r m i l e by t r a i l f r o m t h e end o f a f o r e s t r y l o o k o u t r o a d " and "20 t o 25 f e e t e a s t o f t h e t r a i l " . "The h o r i z o n a p p e a r s t o be s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y n e a r t h e t o p o f t h e l i m e stone bed". (W. R. D a n n e r , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1 9 6 2 ) :  50  Muirwoodia? "Dictyoclostus" Horridonia? Spiriferella Localities cliffs:  stone  6 1 - 7 - 1 0 , 1 8 , 20 - F o r e s t r y  trail  south of  lime-  Fusulinids. Fairservice  Mountain  L o c a l i t y unknown:  ( F y l e s , 1955, p.  19)  Quasifusulina L o c a l i t y 6 2 - 4 8 - 2 F - Top o f F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n s e c t i o n (1.4 m i l e s s o u t h w e s t o f C h a n l o g r a i l p o i n t ) , Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group ( U n i t 32): T e t r a t a x i s sp Cladochonus sp. R h a b d o m e s o n sp Streblascopora pulchra?  between  L o c a l i t y 62-43A-3 - F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n s e c t i o n , l i m e s t o n e 1773 f e e t a n d 1851 f e e t f r o m b a s e o f s e c t i o n ( U n i t 3 0 ) : Schwagerina? sp. ( 7 2 from top of l i m e s t o n e ) G o n i o c l a d i a sp. (82 from top of limestone) S t r e b l a s c o p o r a p u l c h r a ? (62 from top) 1  1  1  1013  L o c a l i t y 62-43-12 - F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n s e c t i o n , l i m e s t o n e f e e t from base of s e c t i o n (Unit 22): Fistuliporid  957'  bryozoan  L o c a l i t y 62-43-11 - F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n s e c t i o n , l i m e s t o n e from base of s e c t i o n (Unit 20): Fusulinid  between  L o c a l i t y 62-45-3F - F a i r s e r v i c e M o u n t a i n s e c t i o n , l i m e s t o n e 150' and 240' f r o m b a s e o f s e c t i o n ( U n i t 2 ) : Tetrataxis West F o r k Bear Locality  fork:  Creek  6 2 - 5 2 - 3 - 1 3/4  m i l e s west  of confluence w i t h east  S p i r i f e r e l l a ? sp. Horridonia? sp. H u s t e d i a ? sp Schizophoria sp. Michelinia sp. A Sulcoretepora s o l i t a r y rugose c o r a l s . East  f o r k Bear Greek, and adjacent  Various  a r e a on each s i d e .  localities Tetrataxis Fusulinids Streblascopora pulchra? Rhabdomeson s p . G o n i o c l a d i a sp F i s t u l i p o r i d bryozoan  south  "From t h e s o u t h s i d e o f t h e C o w i c h a n V a l l e y a b o u t 2 o r 3 m i l e of Skutz F a l l s " (W. R. D a n n e r , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1 9 6 2 ) . Fusulinella? Millerella  (possibly Waeringella or Pseudofusulinella) or Paramillerella  STRUCTURE Structure w i t h i n the China Creek-Saltspring b e l t Fyles' for of  (1955) r e p o r t on t h e C o w i c h a n L a k e a r e a p r o v i d e s  most o f t h e d e t a i l e d s t r u c t u r a l  information.  the b e l t i n the Cowichan Lake a r e a ,  c l i n a l , with Within Axial  steep w e s t e r l y and s o u t h w e s t e r l y  planes  c h a r a c t e r i s e d by l e s s steep planes.  mapped; t h e s e  predominating.  ( F y l e s , p . 2 6 ; f i g . 2)  appear t o s u b d i v i d e  over-turned  p a r t of the Cowichan Lake area i s  d i p s and f o l d s w i t h  Longitudinal faults  side  s t r u c t u r e i s homo-  d i p southwest i n t h e w e s t e r n p o r t i o n , where The n o r t h e a s t e r n  the source  Along the west  dips  the b e l t , large-scale folds are evident  f o l d s a r e common.  axial  the gross  i s complex.  northeast-dipping  of considerable  l e n g t h have been  t h e b e l t i n t o l o n g i t u d i n a l segments  52  d i f f e r i n g f r o m one rock are  types,  another i n e i t h e r s t r u c t u r a l pattern  or both  common w h e r e v e r  other Figure  (Fyles, f i g . 2).  T r a n s v e r s e and o b l i q u e  faults  m a p p i n g w i t h i n t h e b e l t h a s b e e n done t o  scales  upper  contains  almost complete  l a c k of marker beds w i t h i n the  a unit  limestones  ( t h e Upper D i v i s i o n ) i n w h i c h l i m e s t o n e Within  a r e r a r e o r a b s e n t , and o n l y  f o o t sequence  3,500 f e e t b e l o w  of t h i n bedded c h e r t y  p. 1 8 ) .  highly  contorted.  isoclinal The problems  one  is a  tuffs,  The  The  belt,  promin-  sequence,  lithologic unit  on t h e n o r t h  with  latter  is a  occurring at least over  s i d e of Cowichan  t h i n - b e d d e d p y r o c l a s t i c and  which form a l a r g e proportion exposed,  the  difficult.  the top of the S i c k e r Group, r e c o g n i z a b l e  poorly  and  of the P a l e o z o i c  so f a r b e e n f o u n d .  of a t l e a s t twenty m i l e s  ( F y l e s , 1955, rocks  the remainder  as a h o r i z o n m a r k e r has  distance  structure exceedingly  Sicker  p a r t of the S i c k e r Group i n the w e s t e r n b o r d e r of the  ent c o n s t i t u e n t .  600  map;  3 of t h i s r e p o r t ) .  G r o u p make's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f l o c a l  value  dominant  t h a n r e g i o n a l . ( e . g . , F y l e s , f i g . 2; S t e v e n s o n , 1 9 4 5 ,  The  The  or  a Lake  sedimentary  of the S i c k e r Group a r e u s u a l l y  a n d w h e r e t h e y do c r o p o u t , a r e commonly f o u n d t o Within  f o l d s c a n be  them, i n c e r t a i n l o c a l i t i e s ,  overturned  observed.  d i s c u s s i o n on p a g e s 43 of l o c a l  be  a n d 44  of t h i s  account  structural interpretation i n this  illustrates  belt.  HORNE LAKE-CAMERON R I V E R BELT  GENERAL STATEMENT Of Paleozoic  the area u n d e r l a i n by rocks  of Paleozoic or possible  age i n t h e H o m e Lake-Cameron R i v e r b e l t , o n l y  small  p o r t i o n s h a v e b e e n mapped.  The m a j o r i t y  formation  i n F i g . 6 o f Mathews ( 1 9 4 7 ) , and  Fig.  i s that contained  5 o f M a t h e w s a n d McCammon ( 1 9 5 7 ) ,  stone deposits (1873), parts  around Home Lake.  MacKenzie  F i e l d work by t h e present the H o m e Lake a r e a  extending  E a r l i e r maps b y R i c h a r d s o n  only data  miles  the  type.  ( F i g u r e 4) . 4, P a l e o z o i c  from t h e south  east-southeast  The  ( 1 9 1 2 , Map 17A) c o v e r  o f a reconnaissance  rocks  a r e known t o o c c u r  f a c e o f Mt. Mark, on t h e n o r t h  s i d e o f H o m e Lake, t o a p o i n t on t h e e a s t 2.2  the lime-  w r i t e r , has added i n f o r m a t i o n m a i n l y i n  shown i n F i g u r e  i n an area  both dealing with  (1922, f i g . 5 ) , and Clapp  of theb e l t , but provide  As  o f a v a i l a b l e map i n -  s i d e o f Cameron R i v e r  o f Summit L a k e .  e a s t e r n boundary o f t h e b e l t extends southward  from  o u t l e t o f Home Lake, Qualicum R i v e r , through t h ewest endo f  Cameron L a k e t o t h e w e s t f a c e o f t h e r i d g e o n t h e e a s t Cameron R i v e r , j u s t The  south  side of  o f Cameron L a k e .  w e s t e r n b o u n d a r y o f t h e b e l t h a s b e e n mapped i n t h e  H o m e Lake area.  South o f t h ewest end o f Home Lake, t h i s  boun-  d a r y i s n o t w e l l - k n o w n ; M a t h e w s ( 1 9 4 7 , f i g . 20) i n d i c a t e s t h a t Paleozoic rocks  are present  i n a prominent s a l i e n t west o f Home  L a k e , between t h e l a k e and t h e E s q u i m a l t  and Nanaimo  Railway.  54  The  northwest-southeast  and  Bainbridge  s t r e t c h o f r a i l w a y l i n e b e t w e e n Cameron R i v e r  forms an a p p r o x i m a t e s o u t h w e s t l i m i t o f t h i s p o r t i o n  of t h e b e l t , w i t h Upper Cretaceous Group f o r m i n g  sedimentary  r o c k s o f t h e Nanaimo  t h e bulk o f exposures t o t h e southwest  (see F i g u r e  21).  S o u t h o f t h e A l b e r n i H i g h w a y , a n d w e s t o f Cameron R i v e r , M a c K e n z i e ( 1 9 2 2 , f i g . 5) mapped r o c k s similar  (which he r e f e r r e d t o t h e Vancouver Group)  t o those n o r t h o f t h e highway and r a i l w a y , and a s s i g n e d by  Mathews (1947) t o t h e P a l e o z o i c . whose w e s t e r n  This area of pre-Cretaceous  margin trends north-northwest  B a i n b r i d g e Lake, appears t o extend  n e a r t h e n o r t h e a s t end o f  southward toward  mapped b o u n d a r y o f S i c k e r G r o u p r o c k s o f t h e C h i n a has  b e e n shown a s " m a i n l y  2nd  Edition,  1962,  Creek area.  I t  compila-  ( G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f C a n a d a , Map 932A,  b y H. W. L i t t l e ) .  the H o m e Lake-Cameron R i v e r b e l t w i t h the China  the northern  o r e n t i r e l y P e r m i a n " on t h e l a t e s t  t i o n map c o v e r i n g t h e a r e a  rocks,  interpretation i s valid,  o f P a l e o z o i c rocks i s contiguous  Creek-Saltspring belt  present w r i t e r has n o t covered  I f this  t o the south.  F i e l d work by t h e  the area i n question; rocks  correlat-  a b l e w i t h t h e P a l e o z o i c r o c k s o f H o m e Lake have been t r a c e d o n l y as f a r s o u t h a s t h e p o i n t o n t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e Cameron R i v e r m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , a n d a s f a r w e s t a s a p o i n t 0.7 m i l e s e a s t o f t h e j u n c t i o n o f the A l b e m i  and P o r t A l b e m i  highways.  L i m e s t o n e s o f t h e P a l e o z o i c s e q u e n c e a r e known t o o c c u r  on t h e  n o r t h a n d w e s t s i d e s o f H o m e L a k e , i n Cameron D r a w b e t w e e n M t . H o m e and M t . W e s l e y , a n d i n t h e w e s t f a c e o f t h e s t e e p - s i d e d r i d g e p a r a l l e l i n g Cameron R i v e r , s o u t h o f t h e w e s t e n d o f Cameron L a k e .  F i g u r e 21. Unconformity between Nanaimo Group conglomerates (upper l e f t ) and s c h i s t o s e v o l c a n i c r o c k s of S i c k e r Group (lower r i g h t ) , A l b e r n i Highway, 0.3 m i l e s southeast of Stokes Creek. Contact i s i r r e g u l a r s u r f a c e d i p p i n g west ( t o l e f t ) .  55 Richardson  (1873, p. 55-56) r e p o r t e d l a r g e l i m e s t o n e  deposits  a t "View M o u n t a i n " , between t h e west end o f Horne L a k e and A l b e r n i . These d e p o s i t s have a p p a r e n t l y n o t been examined by l a t e r workers M a t h e w s 1 9 4 7 ; M a t h e w s a n d McCammon, 1 9 5 7 ) . M o u n t a i n " cannot be determined of the s e v e r a l h i l l s  (e.g.,  The e x a c t l o c a t i o n o f "View  from Richardson's  map; i t c o u l d b e one  i n t h e a r e a , none o f w h i c h b e a r s  t h a t name o n r e -  c e n t maps.  STRATIGRAPHY Sequence and Nomenclature The and  lower  breccias.  limestones  p o r t i o n o f the observed  a r e interbedded massive green t u f f s rocks.  Locally,  o f t h e upper p a r t o f t h e sequence grade l a t e r a l l y  grained varicoloured c l a s t i c over The  1 t o 15 f o o t  rocks  into  tuffaceous? limestones. sent i n the middle  unit  tuffs or crinoidal  into  green  grade upwards i n t o c r i n o i d a l  lime-  intervals.  s e p a r a t e d by a u n i t  The  tuffs  I n other places, the f i n e -  l i m e s t o n e i s b e s t exposed on Mt. Mark  where i t i s d i v i s i b l e units,  and thin-bedded  t h e base o f t h e coarse  and maroon t u f f a c e o u s r o c k s a n d b r e c c i a s .  stone  coarse  Between these r o c k s and t h e base o f an upper p o r t i o n o f  tuffaceous-sedimentary limestones  s e c t i o n comprises  thick-bedded  (see F i g u r e s 22, 2 3 ) ,  upper and lower  coarse  o f more t h i n l y b e d d e d c r i n o i d a l  Locally,  crinoidal  and impure,  s a n d y t o c o n g l o m e r a t e members a r e p r e -  ( F i g u r e s 6, 2 7 , 2 8 ) .  upper c o n t a c t o f t h e l i m e s t o n e and o v e r l y i n g p i l l o w  of t h e T r i a s s i c V a n c o u v e r Group h a s been a c t u a l l y p l a c e , where i t s c h a r a c t e r i s n o t w e l l  displayed.  lavas  s e e n i n o n l y one On t h e n o r t h e a s t  face of Mt. Mark, o v e r a l l a t t i t u d e s o f t h e limestone appear t o s t r i k e  56  in  t h e same d i r e c t i o n a s t h e u p p e r c o n t a c t . According  t o M a t h e w s a n d McCammon ( 1 9 5 7 ) ,  there i s a westward  t h i n n i n g o f t h e l i m e s t o n e u n i t on M t . M a r k , a n d a l s o e a s t w a r d the exposures o f Qualicum R i v e r .  I n t h e West H o r n e L a k e  ( F i g u r e 2 4 ) , t h e Cameron Draw e x p o s u r e s River exposures, stone  are present  Mark.  toward  exposures  ( F i g u r e 2 5 ) , a n d t h e Cameron  t h i c k n e s s e s o f o n l y a few hundreds o f f e e t o f l i m e c o m p a r e d t o t h e 1500'  The W e s t H o r n e L a k e e x p o s u r e s ,  o f s e c t i o n measured on Mt.  are obviously faulted at the  u p p e r c o n t a c t ; t h e o t h e r s e c t i o n s a r e n o t known t o b e b o u n d e d b y faults. That the limestone u n i t s o f t h e succession a r e l e n s i n g i n h a b i t is  i n d i c a t e d by l a t e r a l  gradations from limestones  t o non-calcareous  r o c k s on t h e west s i d e o f Horne L a k e , and by t h e d i s c o n t i n u o u s e x posures  o f l i m e s t o n e on t h e e a s t s i d e o f Cameron Draw and e a s t s i d e o f  Cameron R i v e r . M a t h e w s a n d McCammon ( 1 9 5 7 , p . 5 0 ) s u g g e s t e d  t h a t the apparent  v a r i a t i o n s i n t h i c k n e s s o f t h e l i m e s t o n e s , and t h e absence o f t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e l i m e s t o n e s e c t i o n i n c e r t a i n p l a c e s i n d i c a t e d an "unconformable c o n t a c t between t h e l i m e s t o n e With  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on h a n d , no a n g u l a r u n c o n f o r m i t y  to be p r e s e n t , the  contact.  tributable cussed in age  and o v e r l y i n g l a v a " .  and no evidence The a p p a r e n t  support  proved  o f an e r o s i o n a l break i s v i s i b l e a t  t h i n n i n g o f t h e l i m e s t o n e u n i t may b e a t -  to i t s lensing habit, facies  i n an e a r l i e r  c a n be  section of this  o f p l a c i n g an u n c o n f o r m i t y  changes, o r both.  account,  As d i s -  t h e most c o g e n t  evidence  i n t h i s p o s i t i o n i s given by t h e  d i s p a r i t y o f t h e r o c k s b e l o w and above t h e c o n t a c t .  In this  regard,  57  petrologic character  and s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n o f t h e v o l c a n i c  overlying the limestone  i n d i c a t e that they a r e equivalent  F r a n k l i n Creek Volcanics The s i m i l a r i t i e s  of the China Creek-Saltspring of thePaleozoic  rocks  to the  belt.  sequence o f rocks  i n the  H o m e Lake-Cameron R i v e r b e l t t o t h o s e o f t h e o t h e r  Paleozoic belts  of Vancouver I s l a n d have been p o i n t e d  Faunal  out earlier.  f o r c o r r e l a t i n g t h e sequences i n a l l three b e l t s a r e g i v e n in  a later section.  I n the w r i t e r ' s opinion, there  the H o m e Lake-Cameron R i v e r b e l t c o n t a i n s graphic belt.  equivalent  the  i n detail  i s no doubt t h a t  which are the s t r a t i -  o f t h e S i c k e r Group o f t h e C h i n a  Creek-Saltspring  The e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e m a j o r d i v i s i o n s  of t h e S i c k e r Group r e c o g n i z e d in  rocks  criteria  i n the southern b e l t are also  t h e H o m e Lake-Cameron R i v e r b e l t . same t e r m i n o l o g y  present  I t i s therefore proposed  be a p p l i e d i n b o t h  that  belts.  I n t h e H o m e Lake-Cameron R i v e r b e l t , however, t h e Lower i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r Group, comprising s e q u e n c e , may b e f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d  Div-  thenon-calcareous part of the  i n t o a lower part  consisting  mainly  of b r e c c i a s , and an upper p a r t  c h a r a c t e r i s e d by thin-bedded t u f f s o r  tuffaceous  Both o f these l i t h o l o g i e s  in  sedimentary rocks.  t h e Cowichan Lake area  however, "cherty  of the southern b e l t .  t u f f s " and o t h e r  also  occur  I n the l a t t e r  thin-bedded c l a s t i c rocks  area,  probably  o c c u r i n more t h a n o n e s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n i n t h e s e q u e n c e ( s e e Fyles,  1 9 5 5 , p . 1 8 ; f i g . 2, s e c t i o n K - L ) .  Such a s t r a t i g r a p h i c  s e q u e n c e may e v e n t u a l l y b e f o u n d a l s o i n t h e H o m e L a k e - C a m e r o n b e l t , when t h e t o t a l investigated  thickness  i ndetail.  o f exposed pre-limestone  A t the present  time,  rocks  River  has been  i t can o n l y be s t a t e d  t h a t t h e Horne Lake s e c t i o n s are  s i m i l a r t o the upper p a r t  Cowichan Lake For  o f t h e Lower D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r  o f t h e same u n i t o f t h e S i c k e r i n t h e  area.  the reasons given  i n t h e e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e nomen-  clature i n the China Creek-Saltspring proposed a t t h i s may w i t h  Group  time.  belt,  formational  names a r e n o t  The p r o p o s e d " d i v i s i o n s " o f t h e S i c k e r  f u r t h e r w o r k b e shown t o h a v e t r u e f o r m a t i o n a l  status.  Group  59  Table of Formations The f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m  ( T a b l e 3) i l l u s t r a t e s  the w r i t e r ' s pro-  p o s a l s f o r n o m e n c l a t u r e i n t h e Horne Lake-Cameron R i v e r  System  belt.  Series  Group  Formation  Lithology  Triassic  Upper Triassic  Vancouver Group  Franklin Creek volcanics  Basaltic pillow lavas; i n t r u s i v e diabase  ?  ? 1  Paraconformity  Lower Permian  Upper Sicker  Permian  Division  Permian and/or  Lower Group  Fine to coarse-grained l i m e s t o n e ; c h e r t and siliceous limestone; thinly interbedded, f i n e - g r a i n e d noncalcareous sediments; minor conglomerate Interbedded massive and t h i n - b e d d e d t u f f s or tuffaceous sediments; minor breccias  older Division  TABLE  Mainly coarse t u f f s and b r e c c i a s .  3  Table of formations, w i t h proposed nomenclature f o r s u b - d i v i s i o n s the S i c k e r Group, Horne Lake-Cameron R i v e r b e l t .  of  60  Sicker  Group  Lower  Division  Greenish be  fine-grained clastic  of mainly v o l c a n i c o r i g i n ,  s i d e s a b o v e t h e w e s t arm and  rocks  and b r e c c i a s , p r e s u m e d  are exposed below limestones  on  the  lake.  and  t h i c k n e s s o f t h i s u n i t i s n o t known, f o r t h e base has lower h a l f  the whole, w i t h f i n e  of the observed  Angular  the c l a s t s  i n these  i n the b r e c c i a s .  upper h a l f  bedded t u f f s  units  t o one  not been  tuffs  and m a r o o n and  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n has  on the  massive,  f o o t i n maximum d i m e n s i o n  No  total  seen.  forming  rounded fragments of  for  green com-  been  observed  rocks. The  cias.  coarse  f i n e - g r a i n e d rocks, greenish cherty rocks  p o r p h y r i t i c v o l c a n i c r o c k s up prise  and  The  section i s coarse-grained  t o c o a r s e b r e c c i a s and  predominant c o n s t i t u e n t s . green,  the  A t h i c k n e s s o f o v e r 5,000 f e e t i s e s t i m a t e d  the exposed r o c k s o f the Lower D i v i s i o n o f the S i c k e r Group.  The  hill-  of H o m e Lake, along the southern s h o r e - l i n e  i n t h e w e s t s l o p e s o f t h e p e n i n s u l a b e t w e e n t h e w e s t arm  main body of the  to  i s mainly  fine-to coarse-grained  or tuffaceous sedimentary  t h i n t o medium  rocks, w i t h minor f i n e  I n t h e uppermost p o r t i o n , p a l e g r e e n and w h i t e , t h i n l y  brecbanded  occur. On  t h e w e s t s i d e o f C a m e r o n D r a w , a s e c t i o n o f 1,500  banded t u f f s  or tuffaceous sedimentary  L o w e r D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r G r o u p was green to b r i g h t green,  rocks of the upper p a r t of examined.  The  rocks are  fine-to very fine-grained, with a pale  to white weathered s u r f a c e .  Thin  t o medium b e d d e d u n i t s a r e  s t r a t i f i e d w i t h t h i c k massive u n i t s .  f e e t of the  pale  green inter-  Some o f t h e t h i n b a n d s d i s p l a y  61  weakly  graded  t e x t u r e s ( s e e F i g u r e 2 6 ) , and more r a r e l y ,  l a m i n a t i o n s ; both of these f e a t u r e s suggest east- or n o r t h e a s t e r l y - d i p p i n g Along the A l b e m i exposure  of massive  Lower D i v i s i o n ,  green,  sequence.  f i n e - g r a i n e d r o c k s , presumably  and  sandstones  o v e r l y i n g Upper C r e t a c e o u s Nanaimo Group  Upper  the  of the  to  unconformably  (Figure 21).  The  older rocks  Division  The  most complete  Mark S e c t i o n  exposures  of the limestones of the  p a r t o f t h e P a l e o z o i c s e q u e n c e a r e on of  Mt.  of  s e v e r a l attempts  Mark.  Transverse  the upper 500', complete.  about 800' The  clastic  one  southeast sides i n each  o r more f a u l t s may  a r e v a r i a b l e and  measured i n exposures  t o 2,300' i m m e d i a t e l y  exposures  exposure  e x t e n d i n g f r o m an  sec-  occur i n  less  than  elevation  at t h i s  locality.  are of a p h a n i t i c to f i n e - g r a i n e d ,  rock, w i t h t h i n laminae  The  s o u t h o f t h e 2,037' p e a k .  base of the sequence i s covered  lowest observed  upper  t o measure an u n d i s t u r b e d s e c t i o n h e r e .  where a t t i t u d e s  I t was  t h e s o u t h and  or o b l i q u e f a u l t s were encountered  t i o n given i n Figure 6 i s composite;  It  of  schistose i n places.  Mt.  of  scattered  are i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h outcrops of f l a t - l y i n g  f r a c t u r e d and  cross  tops to the e a s t i n the  h i g h w a y , w e s t o f Cameron R i v e r ,  gently d i p p i n g conglomerates  are s t r o n g l y  faint  The green  of sand-sized angular f e l d s p a r  contains scattered radiolarian f o s s i l s .  these probably tuffaceous sedimentary  A covered  interval  grains. separates  rocks from the base of the main  F i g u r e 22. Mt. Mark s e c t i o n , Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group (measured r i g h t o f c e n t r e ) . V o l c a n i c r o c k s o f V a n c o u v e r Group i n d a r k - w e a t h e r i n g c l i f f s above l i m e s t o n e (upper l e f t ) . Dark-weathering diabase separates two p o r t i o n s o f l i m e s t o n e s e c t i o n ( u p p e r r i g h t ) . View n o r t h e a s t from southwest corner of Home Lake.  F i g u r e 23.  Mt. Mark s e c t i o n , a e r i a l v i e w  to north.  62  limestone ous  cliff  clastic  exposures.  rocks  limestones  Coarse-grained the lower  500  crinoidal  f e e t of the s e c t i o n .  t o 260  F r o m 550  foot interval  cliff  f e e t from the  G r e y c h e r t and  diabase  i n t r u s i o n , dark-weathering  p u r e l i m e s t o n e and  calcareous, fine-grained c l a s t i c  This unit i s gradational into  t h e one  coloured crinoidal  g r a d u a l l y decreases  23)  seen,  a b o u t 150  splitting  as i t o c c u r s  t o 200  10  f e e t s e p a r a t i n g t h e two  (p.  thin-bedded  im-  rocks  predominate. light  upwards.  the l i m e s t o n e s e c t i o n (see F i g u r e t o 1,900  feet i n thickness.  and  rock  limestone unit types.  The  The  feet; i t i s lower  b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d by F a r q u h a r s o n  The  i s a dark  was The  about  green  p e t r o l o g y of  ( 1 9 6 3 ) , who  esti-  contact  i s covered, with  diabase  b l a c k , medium t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d , m a s s i v e r o c k . i n t r u s i v e has  of  i n an i n a c c e s s i b l e p o r t i o n o f t h e c l i f f .  upper c o n t a c t of the diabase  abun-  to the base  b e l o w , as t h e amount o f  o c c u r s b e t w e e n e l e v a t i o n s o f a b o u t 1,700  m a t e d t o be not  basic intrusive  silicified  base.  a thick s i l l - l i k e ,  The  lithology  t h i n d i s c o n t i n u o u s beds a r e  f e e t above the base of the l i m e s t o n e  limestones  the  T h i n , v a r i c o l o u r e d , impure l i m e -  interval. and  into  section.  l i m e s t o n e i s the dominant  i n the form of nodules  d a n t f r o m 75  a 15  of the lower  s t o n e b e d s a r e common i n t h i s limestone  green f i n e - g r a i n e d f o s s i l i f e r -  grade upwards, through  coarse, crinoidal  in  Maroon and  the  concluded  25-26) t h a t : "Its mineralogical character i s consistent with t h e m i n e r a l o g y o f o t h e r w e l l known d i a b a s e s ... The b u l k c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s i l l p a r a l l e l s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e l a t e d i f f e r e n t i a t e s o f some l a r g e d i a b a s i c i n t r u s i v e s where the pyroxene h a s p a s s e d f r o m t h e two p y r o x e n e f i e l d i n t o t h e one p y r o x e n e f i e l d . I t i s evident t h a t the Horne L a k e S i l l i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d " .  to  63  The  field  relations  established. west. (p.  of the " s i l l "  The d i a b a s e  and l i m e s t o n e have n o t been  i s c u t o f f b y a s t e e p l y d i p p i n g f a u l t on t h e  I t s e a s t e r n e x t e n t has n o t been determined,  4 ) h a s t r a c e d i t 1,500' i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n .  between t h e diabase l i m e s t o n e above. sured  section.  firmly  but  Farquharson  The o b s c u r e d  contact  and l i m e s t o n e appears t o f o l l o w t h e s t r i k e o f t h e  No o t h e r s i l l - l i k e  bodies  are present  i n t h e mea-  M a t h e w s a n d McCammon ( 1 9 5 7 , p . 5 0 ) , h o w e v e r , s t a t e  t h a t " s e v e r a l gabbro s i l l s  are v i s i b l e "  i n the upper p a r t of the sec-  tion. Above t h e d i a b a s e , limestone occurs.  cherty, impure, f i n e - t o  N e x t , a b o v e a 30 f o o t c o v e r e d  s e c t i o n o f medium t o c o a r s e This unit  contains angular  throughout  (Figure 27).  up  The c l a s t s  a r e rounded pebbles,  of the pebbly  t o 2 i n c h e s i n maximum d i m e n s i o n  u n i t s up t o 6 i n c h e s  partially  c l a s t i c r o c k s and d a r k ,  A s s o c i a t e d w i t h the coarse  (Figure 28).  shells,  .  P a r t i n g s i n the en-  display small-scale cross laminations i n  thick.  r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s e c t i o n , above t h e c o n g l o m e r a t i c covered.  Thin-bedded, impure, cherty limestone  u p w a r d s i n t o medium t o t h i c k b e d d e d c r i n o i d a l thin  appear  1/4" t o 2" i n maximum  lenses are large productid brachiopod  c l o s i n g impure limestones  is  limestone.  s e v e r a l l e n s e s o f c o n g l o m e r a t e 1" t o 4" t h i c k  o f green and maroon n o n - c a l c a r e o u s  The  arenaceous  i s a 55 f o o t  I n t h e u p p e r 10 f e e t o f t h e a r e n -  fine-grained porphyritic volcanic rocks. clasts  interval,  t o rounded c l e a r quartz g r a i n s s c a t t e r e d  the calcareous matrix.  aceous u n i t ,  dimension,  grained, s l i g h t l y  medium-grained  l e n s e s and nodules  of chert  (Figure 29).  beds, grades  l i m e s t o n e w i t h numerous Between t h e t o p o f t h e  64  l i m e s t o n e s e c t i o n and  the base of the f i n e - g r a i n e d , dark  l a v a s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r G r o u p , a 30' The  scarp  terminates  of the f a u l t .  On  to Hunts Creek  a g a i n s t a f a u l t , w i t h p i l l o w l a v a s on the south  The  affords l i t t l e  evidence  along  the  lime-  the n o r t h  s i d e o f t h e c r e e k , an a l m o s t The  pillow  intervenes.  (see F i g u r e 4 ) , where the  l i m e s t o n e - v o l c a n i c contact i s exposed. t e r e d and  interval  limestone-volcanic contact trends northeastward  base of a steep stone  covered  green  side  flat-lying  contact i s sheared  and a l -  of the type of s u r f a c e i t r e p r e s e n t s .  b a s a l p a r t o f the Vancouver Group i s a p a l e g r e e n ,  a p h a n i t i c r o c k , g r a d i n g upwards i n t o  f i n e - g r a i n e d to  f i n e to medium-grained  basaltic  pillow lavas. The  base o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n has  b a s e o f t h e 15  foot transition  b e e n t a k e n h e r e as b e i n g  zone b e l o w the main body of  Elsewhere along the base of the c l i f f ,  this  g r a i n e d g r e e n o r maroon n o n - c a l c a r e o u s  clastic  occupies  1 f o o t t o 10 f e e t o f s e c t i o n .  t h e U p p e r D i v i s i o n on M t .  transition  Using  M a r k m e a s u r e s 1,525  Such a t h i c k n e s s o f l i m e s t o n e i s n o t  rocks this  to  the  limestone.  zone f r o m  fine-  limestones  concept  of the  base,  feet i n thickness. a t t a i n e d i n any  known e x p o s u r e o f t h e u n i t i n t h e H o r n e L a k e - C a m e r o n R i v e r  other  belt.  West H o r n e L a k e S e c t i o n Along w e s t arm  a logging road  south  of Horne Lake, l i m e s t o n e s  of the Qualicum R i v e r , west of and  of the P a l e o z o i c sequence are exposed. c o n t a c t on couver  o t h e r rocks of the upper p a r t The  the west w i t h p i l l o w l a v a s of the  Group; the  fault  the  trends north-south,  limestones  are i n f a u l t  lower p a r t of the Vanand  a p p e a r s t o be  vertical.  F i g u r e 24. West Home Lake s e c t i o n . View southwest from Mt. Mark. Upper D i v i s i o n l i m e s t o n e s occur i n logged a r e a ( c e n t r e ) between Vancouver Group ( p a r t l y c l e a r e d scarp) and v o l c a n i c and sedimentary r o c k s of Lower D i v i s i o n ( s p a r s e l y timbered k n o l l s ) .  F i g u r e 25. North end of Cameron Draw ( r i g h t c e n t r e ) , viewed southeast from Mt. Mark. Limestone of Upper D i v i s i o n a t about timber's edge i n draw, w i t h Vancouver Group above and l e f t , Lower D i v i s i o n r i g h t .  65  The  limestone  i s e x p o s e d i n two s m a l l a r e a s , s e p a r a t e d b y o u t c r o p s  of massive green c l a s t i c southern  and t h i n bedded grey  chert.  coloured tuffs  g r a d a t i o n s between t h e c a l c a r e o u s r o c k s and v a r i -  and b r e c c i a a r e e v i d e n t a t t h e base o f t h e l i m e s t o n e .  maximum t h i c k n e s s o f l i m e s t o n e e x p o s e d i s e s t i m a t e d  1,000  t o b e 500 t o  feet. According  t o M a t h e w s a n d McCammon ( 1 9 5 7 , p . 5 0 ) , t h e l i m e s t o n e  deposits o f the west s i d e o f the lake terminate miles  I n the  p a t c h o f l i m e s t o n e , one m i l e s o u t h w e s t o f t h e mouth o f Q u a l -  icum R i v e r , l a t e r a l  The  rocks  a g a i n s t a f a u l t two  south o f Qualicum R i v e r , "although other d e p o s i t s ,  undoubtedly  p a r t s o f t h e same m a i n b o d y , o c c u r w i t h i n a m i l e " s o u t h w a r d s . n o r t h , t h e l i m e s t o n e s , though broken by t r a n s v e r s e f a u l t s , ross t h e Qualicum R i v e r , toward stone exposures.  thins  extend a c -  end o f t h e Mt. Mark l i m e -  M a t h e w s a n d McCammon c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e l i m e s t o n e  s e c t i o n above t h e n o r t h w e s t main c l i f f  thewestern  To t h e  corner of t h e lake i s t h i n n e r than i n the  exposures o f Mt. Mark.  t o less than  400 f e e t "  They s t a t e ( p . 5 0 ) :  "the s e c t i o n  here.  Cameron Draw S e c t i o n Along  an o l d l o g g i n g r o a d  i n Cameron Draw, e x p o s u r e s o f  massive f i n e - g r a i n e d green r o c k s and banded g r e e n i s h t u f f s o r t u f f a c eous s e d i m e n t a r y these  rocks  a r e p o o r l y exposed  (see F i g u r e 4 ) .  Overlying  r o c k s , a l o n g t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e draw, w i t h t h e c o n t a c t n o t  exposed, limestones  occur.  south o f the southeast h a l f mile south  One l e n s - l i k e  l i m e s t o n e body i s one m i l e  c o r n e r o f H o m e L a k e ; a n o t h e r was f o u n d o n e -  of the f i r s t .  F i g u r e 26. Thin-bedded t u f f s , Lower D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group. E a s t s i d e Cameron Draw. V e r t i c a l beds s t r i k e n o r t h w e s t - s o u t h e a s t , and f a c e n o r t h east (graded b e d d i n g ) .  F i g u r e 27. Conglomeratic l i m e s t o n e ( U n i t 23) of Mt. Mark s e c t i o n , Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group,  66  The  n o r t h e r l y limestone  c o n t o r t e d and b r o k e n b y o f a b o u t 1,400  and  posure i s v i s i b l e  1,600 a t any  faults  c o n s i s t s of a coarse and  feet. one  Not  place.  body i s s e v e r a l hundreds of f e e t . separates south.  this  limestone  Massive  e x p o s u r e and  are not  more t h a n 50 f e e t o f v e r t i c a l The  north-south  A covered  v o l c a n i c rocks  No occurs  l i m e s t o n e was  to the  s i z e to  incomplete  Brown w e a t h e r i n g above toward  massive  s e e n a t t h e h e a d o f Cameron D r a w , and  of these  Arrowsmith.  The  occur  p.  59).  Area a l o n g the west s l o p e of  i s c r o s s e d by  limestone  i s 1.4  a trail  miles east-southeast  c u r s a t an e l e v a t i o n o f a b o u t 2,600 f e e t , o n  coloured, coarse nodules. 100  I t extends  f e e t up  were not  crinoidal  obtainable.  of  the  It  oc-  The  rock i s a  limestone, with minor cherty lenses  a b o u t 200  the s l o p e .  of  the n o r t h s i d e of  t r i b u t a r y o f Cameron R i v e r .  feet i n a north-south  Contacts Massive  are not  exposed.  the  f r o m Cameron R i v e r  r i g h t a n g l e b e n d i n t h e A l b e r n i H i g h w a y e a s t o f Summit L a k e .  small, west-flowing  Mt.  none  t h e e a s t s i d e o f Cameron R i v e r , s o u t h o f t h e w e s t end One  Con-  east.  Several limestone outcrops  Cameron L a k e .  the  vol-  the top of  o n t h e n o r t h s i d e o f C a m e r o n L a k e ( M a t h e w s , 1947,  r i d g e on  south  d e c i p h e r a b l e here because of  Cameron R i v e r  t o Mt.  interval  the  limestone.  complex minor s t r u c t u r e s .  to the n o r t h  extent of  ex-  l i e above t h e  c a n i c r o c k s of the Vancouver group extend W e s l e y and  rock,  l y i n g between e l e v a t i o n s  from a body o f a p p a r e n t l y s i m i l a r  blue-green  tact relationships  fractures,  crinoidal  direction,  Bedding  a lightand and  attitudes  g r e e n and m a r o o n , f i n e - g r a i n e d c l a s t i c  F i g u r e 28. Upper s u r f a c e o f c o n g l o m e r a t i c bed o f U n i t 23, Mt. Mark s t i o n . P a r t l y s i l i c i f i e d p r o d u c t i d s h e l l s c e n t r e and upper l e f t .  F i g u r e 29. Chert l a y e r s (white-weathering) i n l i m e s t o n e , upper p a r t o f Mt. Mark s e c t i o n , Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group.  rocks  a r e p o o r l y e x p o s e d 4 0 0 t o 500 f e e t b e l o w t h e l i m e s t o n e .  steep  cliffs  above t h e l i m e s t o n e , f i n e  I n the  t o medium-grained, green  vol-  c a n i c r o c k s , w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c brown w e a t h e r e d s u r f a c e o f t h e Vancouver Group, a r e t h e o n l y rocks v i s i b l e . form t h e peaks o f Mt. Arrowsmith  S i m i l a r rocks appear t o  t o the south.  Fauna Richardson's and  crinoid  being  c o l l e c t i o n s of brachiopods,  stems f r o m H o m e L a k e were d e t e r m i n e d  p. 5 4 ) .  west o f H o m e Lake c o n t a i n e d (p. 5 5 ) , s u g g e s t i n g  The l i m e s t o n e s crinoidal  rocks s i m i l a r  o i d a l remains a r e t h e only f o s s i l s  bryozoans  b y E. B i l l i n g s as  " e i t h e r P e r m i a n o r C a r b o n i f e r o u s , most p r o b a b l y  ( R i c h a r d s o n , 1873,  son  corals,  the l a t t e r "  o f "View M o u n t a i n " ,  south-  debris, according to Richardt o those  found  o f Home Lake.  t o date  Crin-  i n the limestones  o f Cameron Draw a n d o n t h e e a s t s i d e o f C a m e r o n R i v e r . The stones  present w r i t e r ' s c o l l e c t i o n s of f o s s i l s  from the lime-  o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r Group on t h e n o r t h and  w e s t s i d e s o f H o m e L a k e i n c l u d e numerous b r y o z o a n s ,  b r a c h i o p o d s , and  a few c o r a l s and m o l l u s c s , and v e r y few f o r a m i n i f e r s . The  upper p a r t o f t h e s e c t i o n y i e l d e d specimens o f a f u s u l i n i d  tentatively identified iopods.  The l a t t e r  identified  as Schwagerina? s p . , and t h i c k  areprobably  shelled  brach-  c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h H o r r i d o n i a s p . A.  i n t a l u s b l o c k s f r o m t h e same a r e a .  These f o s s i l s ,  together  w i t h s e v e r a l other genera and species b e a r i n g c l o s e s i m i l a r i t i e s t o P e r m i a n forms i d e n t i f i e d  i n sections i n the Buttle Lake-Big  b e l t , i n d i c a t e a s i m i l a r age f o r t h e H o m e L a k e b e d s .  Interior  The c o r r e l a t i o n  F i g u r e 30, S i l i c i f i e d c r i n o i d stem fragments, p a r a l l e l to bedding p l a n e s , i n l i m e s t o n e of Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group; l a k e - s h o r e exposure, Horne Lake, west s i d e of o u t l e t (Qualicum R i v e r ) .  68  and  age  of t h i s  f a u n a a r e d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l  t i o n of t h i s account  ( p.  sec-  109).  Faunal Mt.  i n a following  lists  Mark  L o c a l i t y 62-56-1F - Base o f l i m e s t o n e c l i f f , e a s t s i d e o f l a r g e g u l l y on s o u t h f a c e o f Mt. M a r k , o n e - q u a r t e r m i l e n o r t h e a s t of p o w e r - l i n e c r o s s i n g l o g g i n g r o a d n e a r west end o f Horne Lake: Tetrataxis M i c h e l i n i a ? sp. Brachiopods S o l i t a r y rugose  A. corals  L o c a l i t y 62-56-2A - Base of Mt. Mark l i m e s t o n e s e c t i o n , about 500 f e e t e a s t o f L o c a l i t y 5 6 - 1 F , e l e v a t i o n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 850 f e e t (Unit 1): Brachiopods Chaetetes sp. S o l i t a r y rugose c o r a l s Fenestrate bryozoans Locality  62-56-2 - M t .  Mark s e c t i o n , above d i a b a s e :  Fusulinid 4 0 0 ' a b o v e d i a b a s e ( U n i t 25) Schwagerina? 3 5 0 ' a b o v e d i a b a s e ( U n i t 25) Streblascopora pulchra ) S u l c o r e t e p o r a sp. ) 55' t o 110' Fusulinid ) above d i a b a s e Brachiopods ) ( U n i t 23)  crossing  L o c a l i t y H-2 - B a s e o f l i m e s t o n e c l i f f , r o a d , w e s t end o f Horne L a k e : Schizophoria Hustedia?  n o r t h of  sp.  M i c h e l i n i a s p . B. Penniretepora grandis S u l c o r e t e p o r a sp G o n i o c l a d i a c f . G. i n t e r m e d i a Talus - Chaetetes  sp.  power-line  L o c a l i t y 61-24TF - T a l u s s l o p e o n n o r t h s i d e o f H o m e L a k e , 0.8 m i l e s s o u t h e a s t o f 3,165' p e a k o f M t . M a r k ( e a s t o f L o c a l i t y 61-56-2); e l e v a t i o n about 800': Squamularia? sp. H o r r i d o n i a s p . A. Corals Bryozoans L o c a l i t y 6 2 - 5 5 - 4 F - On s o u t h s i d e o f l o g g i n g r o a d , o n e a s t s p u r o f M t . M a r k , 0.35 m i l e s s o u t h e a s t o f 3,037' p e a k ; e l e v a t i o n a b o u t 2,060': Brachiopods L o c a l i t y 6 2 - 5 5 - 9 F - On l o g g i n g r o a d , 0.5 m i l e s e a s t - s o u t h e a s t o f 3,037' p e a k o f M t . M a r k ; e l e v a t i o n a b o u t 1,700': Brachiopods Bryozoans  West s i d e H o m e L a k e L o c a l i t y 6 2 - 5 8 - l F - On w e s t s i d e l o g g i n g r o a d , o n e - q u a r t e r m i l e southwest o f upper b r i d g e over Qualicum R i v e r , e l e v a t i o n 620' Cladochonus Bryozoans  sp  70  STRUCTURE Published structural  i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e H o m e Lake-Cameron  River b e l t of Paleozoic rocks  i slimited  t o t h a t g i v e n i n Mathews'  ( 1 9 4 7 ) a n d M a t h e w s a n d McCammon's ( 1 9 5 7 ) maps f o r t h e H o m e L a k e  area,  and  (1922)  a f e w a t t i t u d e s shown o n R i c h a r d s o n ' s  e a r l i e r maps. The p r e s e n t in  (1873) and M a c K e n z i e ' s  w r i t e r ' s m a p p i n g h a s a d d e d some i n f o r m a t i o n  t h e H o m e Lake area, along  t h e A l b e r n i Highway, and on t h e east  s i d e o f Cameron R i v e r . According "the  rocks  t o Mathews a n d McCammon ( 1 9 5 7 , p . 5 1 ) , a t H o m e L a k e  are folded into a broad n o r t h e r l y plunging  l i c a t e d by subordinate  folds  Vancouver Group a r e i n f a u l t west limb o f t h i s  a n d numerous f a u l t s " .  f o l d , west o f the Home Lake  brings Paleozoic rocks The  reported a limestone-bearing  anticlinal  gross  South-  sequence i n  ( 1 8 7 3 , p . 55) s u g -  f o l d , west of t h eHome Lake  anticline,  to the surface.  s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n o f t h e b e l t thus  that o f an a n t i c l i n o r i u m ,w i t h north-northwesterly nate folds  of the  ( s e e F i g u r e 24) .  are either v e r t i c a l o r east dipping  g e s t i n g that another  comp-  P i l l o w lavas ofthe  contact with Paleozoic limestones  west o f Home Lake, Richardson which the rocks  anticline  and l o n g i t u d i n a l and t r a n s v e r s e f a u l t s  d i s t r i b u t i o n of rock types  appears t o be  plunge.  Subordi-  control the local  (see F i g u r e 4 ) .  S t r u c t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s l a c k i n g f o r t h e p i l l o w l a v a sequence o f t h e V a n c o u v e r Group w h i c h o v e r l i e s f i c a t i o n i sn o t prominent i n these obtained  suggest only t h a t these  deformation.  thePaleozoic rocks.  Strati-  r o c k s ; the few d o u b t f u l a t t i t u d e s  rocks have a l s o been s u b j e c t e d t o  71  BUTTLE L A K E - B I G I N T E R I O R BELT  GENERAL STATEMENT The o n l y p u b l i s h e d maps s h o w i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r o c k within this belt fig.  are those  of Sargent  (1941,  f i g . 1 ) , and Mathews  2 0 ) , a n d M a t h e w s a n d McCammon ( 1 9 5 7 , f i g . 3 ) .  s c a l e o f one i n c h t o one m i l e ; t h e l a t t e r i n c h maps.  Figure 2 of this  types  The f o r m e r  (1947,  i s on a  two a r e s i x t e e n m i l e s t o t h e  r e p o r t shows t h e o v e r a l l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  Paleozoic rocks of t h i s b e l t .  I n F i g u r e 7, r e s u l t s o f t h e w r i t e r ' s  mapping i n the B u t t l e Lake a r e a a r e i n d i c a t e d . Exposures of P a l e o z o i c rocks extend B u t t l e Lake, t o the v a l l e y of Drinkwater end  of Great  C e n t r a l Lake.  f r o m M t . Con R e i d , w e s t o f  Creek, northwest  o f the west  The e a s t e r n b o u n d a r y o f t h e b e l t  trends  along the east side of the south h a l f of B u t t l e Lake, south along the e a s t s i d e o f P r i c e Creek and a l o n g t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e D r i n k w a t e r valley.  V o l c a n i c r o c k s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r Group l i e t o t h e e a s t o f t h e  boundary. The n o r t h e r n b o u n d a r y o f t h e b e l t o c c u r s of Marblerock  Creek, then  f l a n k o f Mt. M c B r i d e ,  along the north  trends northwesterly across  side  the southern  a c r o s s W o l f R i v e r t o M t . Con R e i d .  The w e s t  b o u n d a r y i s a l o n g t h e e a s t f l a n k s o f E l P i v e t o M o u n t a i n a n d M t . De V o e , then trends s o u t h e a s t e r l y t o the n o r t h e r n spur of the Golden Hinde. Exposures on t h e e a s t f a c e o f Golden Hinde a r e t e r m i n a t e d  to the south  a g a i n s t t h e c o n t a c t w i t h a l a r g e body of Coast I n t r u s i o n s , w h i c h the western  forms  boundary of the P a l e o z o i c b e l t from here t o the southern-  m o s t known e x p o s u r e s o f t h e B u t t l e L a k e - B i g  I n t e r i o r b e l t , near B i g  F i g u r e 3 1 . B i g I n t e r i o r M o u n t a i n , s o u t h e r n end o f B u t t l e L a k e B i g - I n terior belt. View northwest from a i r . Complex of Upper D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group, and g r a n i t i c i n t r u s i v e s i n c i r q u e ( r i g h t c e n t r e ) . Lower D i v i s i o n complex i n f o r e g r o u n d .  F i g u r e 32. W e s t f o r k o f W o l f R i v e r , v i e w s o u t h w e s t . L i m e s t o n e s o f B u t t l e Lake Formation form lower, l i g h t - w e a t h e r i n g c l i f f s r i g h t of centre. Upper c l i f f s a r e v o l c a n i c r o c k s o f V a n c o u v e r Group.  72  I n t e r i o r Mountain The by  (see Figure 31).  majority  of the area included  non-calcareous rocks,  sediments. occurring  i n the b e l t i s underlain  mainly t u f f s , breccias,  and thin-bedded  Along the borders of the b e l t , limestones are prominent, e i t h e r as p e r s i s t e n t u n i t s p a r a l l e l  r e l a t i v e l y small  isolated  t o t h e b o u n d a r y o r as  blocks.  STRATIGRAPHY  Sequence and N o m e n c l a t u r e For that  the B u t t l e Lake a r e a , Gunning  the Paleozoic  ( 1 9 3 1 , p. 59A) c o n c l u d e d  rocks:  "consist of a t h i c k series of volcanic rocks including andesitic to b a s a l t i c flows, t u f f s , and c o a r s e v o l c a n i c b r e c c i a s w i t h a t l e a s t two a n d p r o b a b l y t h r e e i n t e r b e d d e d h o r i z o n s of w h i t e , g r e y , o r p i n k , c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e and m i n o r amounts o f a r g i l l i t e a n d q u a r t z i t e . The u p p e r m o s t h o r i z o n o f l i m e s t o n e i s t h e o n l y one t h a t i s w e l l e x p o s e d f o r a n y d i s t a n c e " . Sargent River  portion  o f t h e b e l t i n t o two u n i t s .  into a "Paleozoic plex  ( 1 9 4 1 , p . 1 3 , 1 6 , 17) d i v i d e d  the rocks of the Bedwell  The l o w e r r o c k s w e r e  and M e s o z o i c Complex", d e s c r i b e d  stratigraphically-below  eous and a r g i l l a c e o u s  as f o l l o w s :  the Permian limestones; v o l c a n i c s ,  sediments, of Paleozoic  age; b a s i c  The  upper u n i t i n the Bedwell R i v e r  "Comtuffac-  intrusives,  r e l a t e d t o Lower M e s o z o i c v o l c a n i c s ; and g r a n i t i c i n t r u s i v e s R a n g e ) " ( p . 1 3 ) . The u p p e r u n i t he r e f e r r e d  grouped  (Coast  t o as "Permian Limestone". area includes  bulk of the calcareous rocks of the area, but also  not only the  an o v e r l y i n g  unit of  73  "thin-bedded, separated which  siliceous  and p r o b a b l y  from the l i m e s t o n e by from  i s intrusive  tuffaceous, a r g i l l i t e s  10 t o 200 f e e t o f b l a c k b a s a l t  i n t o t h e l i m e s t o n e " ( S a r g e n t , p. 1 8 ) .  n e s s and u p p e r c o n t a c t o f t h e s e  ... u s u a l l y  sediments  The  thick-  were n o t d e s c r i b e d .  The w r i t e r ' s w o r k i n t h e B u t t l e L a k e a r e a h a s y i e l d e d more d e tailed  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c s u c c e s s i o n i n t h e B u t t l e  portion of the b e l t . the sequence. tuffs  B r e c c i a s a r e dominant i n the lowermost p a r t o f  The m i d d l e p o r t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y f i n e  and t h i n - b e d d e d  tuffaceous sediments.  limestone of variable sediments  to coarse  The u p p e r m o s t u n i t s a r e  t h i c k n e s s and o v e r l y i n g thin-bedded  non-calcareous  o f unknown t h i c k n e s s .  In the southern p a r t of the b e l t , b a s a l t i c p i l l o w l o w e r p a r t o f t h e V a n c o u v e r Group have been found the Permian limestone  ( S a r g e n t , p. 2 1 ) .  lavas of the  directly  overlying  I n the B u t t l e Lake area, the  upper s t r a t i g r a p h i c c o n t a c t of the l i m e s t o n e has n o t been seen. some p l a c e s , a f a u l t Vancouver Group. position.  In  separates t h e limestone from younger rocks of the  I n others, a covered  I n a t l e a s t one l o c a l i t y ,  interval  i s . p r e s e n t i n t h e same  a thick basaltic  intrusive  ates t h e uppermost l i m e s t o n e from o v e r l y i n g , a p p a r e n t l y fine-grained, non-calcareous the nature  Lake  sedimentary  separ-  conformable,  or tuffaceous rocks.  of the upper limestone contact i s n o t well-known.  Thus A  thick  s e q u e n c e o f p i l l o w l a v a s i s known t o o c c u r w i t h i n a f e w h u n d r e d s o f f e e t above t h e l i m e s t o n e and n o n - c a l c a r e o u s the l a v a s has n o t been  sediments,  b u t the base of  observed.  T h u s , i n t h e B u t t l e L a k e a r e a , t h e known P a l e o z o i c s e q u e n c e c o n s i s t s o f two m a j o r d i v i s i o n s ;  the lower u n i t  comprises  non-calcareous.  74  r o c k s , which may  be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a lower s e c t i o n of massive  and b r e c c i a s , and an upper p a r t o f l a r g e l y t h i n bedded The upper d i v i s i o n i s made up of l i g h t  tuffs  clastic  rocks.  t o dark l i m e s t o n e s , w i t h v a r i -  a b l e amounts o f l i g h t t o dark c h e r t i n nodules and t h i n l e n s e s . t h i n b a s a l sandstone of the upper d i v i s i o n has been seen at one  A local-  ity. The base of the lower, n o n - c a l c a r e o u s d i v i s i o n has not been seen.  The t h i c k n e s s of the d i v i s i o n i s p r o b a b l y i n the o r d e r of  s e v e r a l thousands of f e e t ; a t h i c k n e s s of about 4,000' of these rocks i s exposed between P h i l l i p s Creek and M a r b l e r o c k Creek, assuming form a t t i t u d e s .  uni-  I n the same p l a c e , the upper, t h i n l y - b e d d e d p a r t of  t h i s d i v i s i o n has been c a l c u l a t e d to be about 1,000  feet i n thickness.  The upper, l i m e s t o n e d i v i s i o n of the P a l e o z o i c sequence measures 1,050  f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s i n the Azure Lake s e c t i o n .  I t i s about  800 t o 900 f e e t t h i c k on M a r b l e r o c k Creek, and 800 f e e t on the west s i d e of Wolf R i v e r ; a c c o r d i n g to Sargent, i t i s 700-800 f e e t i n maximum  t h i c k n e s s i n the Bedwell R i v e r a r e a .  Incomplete exposures of the  limestone d i v i s i o n elsewhere i n the a r e a suggest t h i c k n e s s e s l e s s than these f i g u r e s .  Gunning  (1931, p. 61A)  v a r i e d i n t h i c k n e s s from 100 t o 500  c o n s i d e r e d that the l i m e s t o n e s  feet.  A r e l a t i v e l y t h i n s e c t i o n of thin-bedded f i n e - g r a i n e d  clastic  rocks i s known to o v e r l i e the l i m e s t o n e of the Upper D i v i s i o n i n c e r t a i n p a r t s of the b e l t .  Where t h i s u n i t has been seen (west of Wolf  R i v e r , Azure Lake s e c t i o n , and Bedwell R i v e r a r e a ) , i t appears to be conformable w i t h the u n d e r l y i n g l i m e s t o n e s and may upper d i v i s i o n of the P a l e o z o i c sequence.  b e l o n g t o the  I t s relationships with  75  o v e r l y i n g b a s a l t s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r Group a r e n o t c l e a r , however, on t h e basis of present information. A l t h o u g h no f o s s i l s have as y e t been f o u n d calcareous unit, Sargent to those and  (1941,  i t seems p r o b a b l e  p. 1 8 ) .  t h a t i t i s P a l e o z o i c , as i m p l i e d by  I t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h b a s a l t i c rocks  similar  o f t h e V a n c o u v e r Group appear t o be g r a d a t i o n a l on Wolf R i v e r  other areas  seen o n l y from a i r c r a f t .  calated with the c l a s t i c are p i l l o w e d . by  i n t h i s upper, non-  rocks are massive,  whereas t h e o v e r l y i n g  from  a distance.  I f , as s u g g e s t e d  by Sargent  of the b e l t d i r e c t l y  overlie  the limestones of the  P a l e o z o i c sequence, whereas i n o t h e r p a r t s of the Bedwell R i v e r t h e B u t t l e Lake area thin-bedded  from  (1941,  p i l l o w - l a v a s o f t h e b a s a l p a r t o f t h e V a n c o u v e r Group i n  some l o c a l i t i e s  and  lavas  The b a s e o f t h e p i l l o w - l a v a s e q u e n c e h a s n o t b e e n s e e n  the w r i t e r except  p. 2 1 - 2 2 ) ,  The b l a c k b a s a l t s i n t e r -  the p i l l o w - l a v a s ,  r e c o r d o f an e r o s i o n a l  sediments  separate  the absence o f the c l a s t i c  area  the limestone  r o c k s may b e t h e  interval.  The c o n t a c t b e t w e e n t h e p i l l o w t h u s may r e p r e s e n t a n u n c o n f o r m i t y  l a v a s and t h e u n d e r l y i n g r o c k s  a t the P a l e o z o i c - M e s o z o i c boundary.  As was m e n t i o n e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e same h o r i z o n i n t h e o t h e r belts  o f P a l e o z o i c r o c k s , age d e t e r m i n a t i o n s b a s e d o n f o s s i l s  the p l a c i n g o f a major s t r a t i g r a p h i c break type here.  of the "paraconformity"  S t r u c t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e o v e r l y i n g p i l l o w b a s a l t s o f  t h e T r i a s s i c V a n c o u v e r Group i s s p a r s e , and cannot quate a t the present this  favour  stratigraphic  be c o n s i d e r e d  ade-  time f o r p o s t u l a t i n g a s t r u c t u r a l d i s c o r d a n c e a t  level.  The two m a j o r u n i t s o f t h e known a n d p r o b a b l e P a l e o z o i c r o c k s are regarded  as " D i v i s i o n s " as i n t h e o t h e r b e l t s .  Subunits  of these  76  divisions sufficient  are recognizable.  The  only s t r a t i g r a p h i c unit  i s known o f i t s l a t e r a l p e r s i s t e n c e  formal nomenclature i s the limestone Lake F o r m a t i o n " i s here proposed  (see  unit,  about  and c o n t a c t s  to warrant  f o r w h i c h t h e name  p. 8 2 ) .  4  which  "Buttle  77  Table of  Formations Table 4 p r e s e n t s the w r i t e r ' s p r o p o s a l f o r nomenclature  stratigraphic units l y i n g rocks of the  i n the P a l e o z o i c s u c c e s s i o n  and  of  immediately  the  over-  belt.  System  Series  Group  Formation  Lithology  Triassic  Upper Triassic and? earlier  Vancouver Group  Karmutsen Formation  Basaltic pillow lavas; m i n o r p y r o c l a s t i c and sedimentary rocks.  Paraconformity  Permian or Triassic  Unnamed unit 9  Thin-bedded, n o n - c a l c a r eous c l a s t i c r o c k s  0  Lower  B u t t l e Lake Formation  Permian Permian  Light-coloured crinoidal limestone; dark d o l o m i t i c limestone; l i g h t to dark chert. T h i n b a s a l sandstone i n places  Sicker  Group Permian and/or older  Lower  ?  Mainly thin-bedded calcareous c l a s t i c r o c k s ; minor t u f f s breccias 0  0  nonand 0  Division M a i n l y m a s s i v e t u f f s and b r e c c i a s ; minor t h i n bedded n o n - c a l c a r e o u s c l a s t i c rocks  TABLE 4 Table of formations, Buttle Lake-Big I n t e r i o r b e l t , w i t h nomenclature f o r P a l e o z o i c sequence.  proposed  78  Sicker  Group Gunning  ( 1 9 3 1 , p.  59A)  s u g g e s t e d t h e name " B u t t l e L a k e g r o u p  formation"  f o r a l l or p a r t of the P a l e o z o i c  area.  lithology,  The  Paleozoic  s t r a t i g r a p h i c sequence and  sequence of  to those of  present  w r i t e r considers The  the  sequence has  F y l e s , 1955,  p.  19)  Paleozoic  rocks  faunal content  be  other  b e e n named " S i c k e r G r o u p "  ( s e e p.  of  (Clapp,  the  so c l o s e l y  b e l t s that  r e f e r r e d t o by  the  the same  1909,  p.  t h e r e f o r e most c o n v e n i e n t l y  be  i n the C h i n a C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g  to a formation  Interior belt  i n the  that they should  G u n n i n g ' s s u g g e s t e d name may applied  i n the B u t t l e Lake  the B u t t l e L a k e - B i g I n t e r i o r b e l t are  similar  name.  rocks  or  56;  belt.  w i t h i n the S i c k e r Group of  the B u t t l e L a k e - B i g  82).  Lower D i v i s i o n Some o f in  a g u l l y on  west of  the The  stones, The  the best the  southeast  greywacke type,  i n colour.  grey, black  or  as  green.  fine  The  coarser  argillite  The  silty  sequence. to and  i s dark  graded  sandstone  laminae i n  conglomerates are  s a n d s t o n e b e d s , o r as  32).  sand-  o c c u r i n some b e d s ,  i n the upper p a r t s of  the measured s e c t i o n .  i n the  i s composed of  to medium-grained, grey  i n others.  south-  (Figure  i n a t h i n t o medium-bedded  t h i c k e r u n i t s w i t h m i n o r sandy and  upper p o r t i o n of pebbly lenses  rocks  out  miles  west f o r k s of Wolf R i v e r  Faint cross-laminations  I t occurs  t h i s d i v i s i o n crop  o f E l P i v e t o M o u n t a i n , 2.5  argillite,  developed graded t e x t u r e s  b e d s , and  of  exposed s e c t i o n of p r e - l i m e s t o n e  c o n g l o m e r a t e s and  greenish  face  j u n c t i o n o f t h e m a i n and  sandstone i s of  poorly  exposures of r o c k s  the  found  s i n g l e b e d s up  to  as  79  6 feet thick. and  I n o n e t h i c k b e d maximum p e b b l e  argillite  s l i v e r s up t o one f o o t l o n g a r e p r e s e n t  Scattered outcrops  of s i m i l a r conglomerates,  composed o f w e l l - r o u n d e d mum  dimension  laminated  of l i g h t  t o subangular  t o dark  grey,  c l a s t i c r o c k s , a r e found  The  s i z e reaches  at i t s top.  i n which the clasts are  fragments,  up t o 6 i n c h e s  maxi-  f i n e - g r a i n e d massive o r t h i n l y  to the northeast.  exposed t h i c k n e s s o f these  s e d i m e n t s i s 365 f e e t .  was n o t s e e n a n d t h e i n t e r v a l a b o v e i s a l s o c o v e r e d . most e x p o s u r e s o f t h e c l a s t i c  2 inches,  The b a s e  Between t h e upper-  sediments and t h e l o w e s t  limestone  exposure  above, i s an i n t e r v a l presumed t o be u n d e r l a i n l a r g e l y by c l a s t i c n o n calcareous In cribed these  rocks, the calculated  addition to the limited  a b o v e , two t r a v e r s e s o v e r r o c k s w e r e made.  Phillips  Creek  which Marble on  t h i c k n e s s o f w h i c h i s 350 f e e t . section of pre-limestone  covered  the lower  ( F i g u r e 3 3 ) , and t h e s o u t h e a s t  Phillips  reaches  The o t h e r t r a v e r s e c r o s s e d t h e s e Peak  Creek-Marble Peak t r a v e r s e encountered  g r e e n i s h t u f f s and f i n e b r e c c i a s m a i n l y . s e c t i o n , zones o f thin-bedded,  Peak.  (Figure 34). massive  p a l e g r e e n , b u f f , and m a r o o n - w e a t h e r i n g  The s e c t i o n t e r m i n a t e s  i n the massive  a t t h e t o p a g a i n s t a mass o f medium-  grained b a s a l t i c i n t r u s i v e rock, below the limestone flat  rocks  I n t h e upper p o r t i o n o f the  c l a s t i c r o c k s up t o 10 f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s a r e i n t e r c a l a t e d sequence.  of  f l a n k o f the mountain of  t h e e a s t f l a n k o f t h e same m o u n t a i n , e a s t o f M a r b l e The  des-  considerably greater thicknesses of  One o f t h e s e  Peak i s t h e summit.  rocks  exposures o f the  r i d g e t o p ( b e t w e e n 4,500 a n d 5,000 f e e t e l e v a t i o n ) s o u t h o f M a r b l e The c o n t a c t i s p r o b a b l y  Lower D i v i s i o n trending  fault.  f a u l t e d , w i t h the upper p a r t of the  s u c c e s s i o n m i s s i n g on t h e s o u t h  side of the e a s t e r l y  F i g u r e 33. P h i l l i p s Creek v a l l e y , v i e w e d s o u t h f r o m M a r b l e Peak. l e y i n c i s e d i n r o c k s o f Lower D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group.  F i g u r e 34. L i g h t - w e a t h e r i n g l i m e s t o n e s o f B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n on west s i d e B u t t l e L a k e , below M a r b l e Peak. View west from l a k e .  Val-  80  The  s e c t i o n on t h e e a s t  Peak c o n t a i n s  face of the mountain r i s i n g  s c a t t e r e d exposures o f t h e upper p a r t o f t h e Lower  sion.  At lake l e v e l ,  clastic  sedimentary  coarse  rocks  to fine tuffs  are v i s i b l e .  b a s e o f a medium t o c o a r s e  dioritic  2,190 f e e t , m a s s i v e g r e e n t u f f s  2,630 f e e t ,  t h i n l y bedded rocks  exposures.  The l o w e r  tuffaceous  Between  l a k e l e v e l and t h e  i n t r u s i v e body,  at elevation  and f i n e b r e c c i a s a r e dominant (see  form the m a j o r i t y of the s c a t t e r e d  The l a t t e r ,  interbedded  i f they  the sequence o f thin-bedded this  green-  r o c k s , b u t f r o m 2,950 u p w a r d s , s a n d y t e x t u r e d r o c k s o f  extend  w i t h black a r g i l l a c e o u s rocks up t o t h e b a s e o f t h e o v e r l y i n g  l i m e s t o n e s , h a v e a t h i c k n e s s o f a b o u t 1,000 f e e t .  at  a t about  p a r t o f t h i s bedded sequence appears t o be  the greywacke type, t h i n l y are seen.  Divi-  and banded t o l a m i n a t e d  F i g u r e 3 5 ) . Above the t o p o f t h e i n t r u s i v e , w h i c h occurs  ish  to Marble  locality,  and t h e l i m e s t o n e s  between  i s covered  and has n o t been seen e l s e w h e r e i n t h e a r e a .  Gunning suggested upper calcareous  c l a s t i c rocks  The c o n t a c t  unit.  beds o f l i m e s t o n e ,  lower  the presence of limestone below the prominent,  He s t a t e d ( 1 9 3 1 , p . 6 0 A ) :  "At l e a s t  two o t h e r  i n t h e P a l e o z o i c s e c t i o n , a r e e x p o s e d on t h e  w e s t s i d e o f B u t t l e L a k e , one on t h e b a y j u s t n o r t h o f t h e mouth o f Phillips Creek"  C r e e k , and t h e second on t h e f i r s t  (Marblerock The  first  point south  o f "Marble  Creek). mentioned limestone,  on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f P h i l l i p s  Creek, has been examined by t h e w r i t e r . Gunning has n o t been found.  The r i s e  The s e c o n d o n e m e n t i o n e d b y  of lake l e v e l since the construc-  t i o n o f t h e dam t o t h e n o r t h o n C a m p b e l l R i v e r h a s p r o b a b l y Gunning's  exposure.  covered  F i g u r e 35. T u f f s and b r e c c i a s o f L o w e r D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r Group; l a k e l e v e l exposure, west s i d e B u t t l e Lake, 2 m i l e s n o r t h of P h i l l i p s Creek,  F i g u r e 36. View southwest across Azure Lake. L i g h t - w e a t h e r i n g L a k e F o r m a t i o n s p l i t and o v e r l a i n by d a r k b a s i c i n t r u s i o n s .  Buttle  81  The  Phillips  Creek exposures are of coarse  light  grey  t o maroon i n c o l o u r .  plish  f i n e - g r a i n e d non-calcareous  addition to c r i n o i d a l c o r a l s , and  r a m o s e and  a r e f a u l t e d , and stratigraphic to  be  limestone,  T h e y g r a d e downwards i n t o r e d a n d clastic  r o c k s and  d e b r i s , the limestones f e n e s t r a t e bryozoans.  a t t i t u d e s are v a r i a b l e .  The  tuffs,  pur-  conglomerates.  In  c o n t a i n t a b u l a t e and These l a k e shore structural  s u c c e s s i o n have not been r e s o l v e d .  o v e r l a i n t o the n o r t h by  crinoidal  The  rugose  exposures  pattern  and  limestones  f i n e - g r a i n e d sedimentary  appear  rocks  and b r e c c i a s . It low  i s thus  p o s s i b l e that these  i n the P a l e o z o i c s u c c e s s i o n .  p o s s i b l e t h a t they crops  of the l a t t e r  exposures represent a  limestone  Because of f a u l t i n g , i t a l s o appears  c o u l d r e p r e s e n t p a r t of the Upper D i v i s i o n . unit  occur  1.5  m i l e s s o u t h e a s t , on  Out-  the east  shore  of the l a k e . On  the b a s i s of the present  resolved. section  I f the P h i l l i p s Creek limestone exposures are lower  than  Formation), the  i n f o r m a t i o n the problem cannot  the main limestone they are bodies  exposures of the area  of l e n s i n g h a b i t not  be  i n the  (Buttle Lake  evident elsewhere  in  area.  Upper As  Division  e x p l a i n e d p r e v i o u s l y , the Upper D i v i s i o n r o c k s c o n s i s t  principally  of l i m e s t o n e .  l i m e s t o n e s , and calcareous  An  incompletely-known  unit overlies  the  c o n s i s t s o f a n unknown t h i c k n e s s o f f i n e - g r a i n e d n o n -  clastic  rocks.  F i g u r e 3 7 . V i e w s o u t h w e s t up M a r b l e r o c k C r e e k t o w a r d A z u r e L a k e . Sect i o n o f B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n m e a s u r e d up b a s e o f c l i f f s a t l o w e r r i g h t . Dark w e a t h e r i n g r o c k s above a r e v o l c a n i c f l o w s o f Vancouver Group.  F i g u r e 38. Mt. G o l d e n H i n d e . V i e w s o u t h w e s t . L i m e s t o n e s o f B u t t l e Lake F o r m a t i o n above r i g h t c e n t r e ; Vancouver Group above, Lower D i v i s i o n r o c k s below.  82  B u t t l e Lake As  Formation  t h e limestone formation near t h e upper p a r t o f the S i c k e r  Group i s t h e most c l e a r l y d e f i n a b l e u n i t , and t h e most u s e f u l a t p r e sent f o r mapping purposes, proposed which  f o ri t .  t h e name B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n  T h e name comes f r o m t h e name o f t h e l a r g e l a k e n e a r  t h e most s p e c t a c u l a r e x p o s u r e s  o f t h e f o r m a t i o n a r e f o u n d , and  the t y p e s e c t i o n i s d e s i g n a t e d as t h e "Azure 36), mentioned The  i s herein  Lake"  section  ( F i g u r e s 6,  b e l o w , and d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n t h e A p p e n d i x .  f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s m a i n l y o f medium-to c o a r s e - g r a i n e d ,  grey limestone.  Nodules  and i r r e g u l a r t h i n bands o f l i g h t  light  and dark  grey  c h e r t and s i l i c i f i e d  l i m e s t o n e o c c u r i n zones between t h i c k - b e d d e d and  massive  A t the type s e c t i o n , a t h i n b a s a l sandstone  it  limestones.  has n o t been seen elsewhere.  dark grey t o b l a c k , r i c h l y  I n t h e same s e c t i o n ,  fossiliferous,  dolomitic  occurs;  a t h i c k bed o f  limestone i s pre-  sent i n t h e upper p a r t o f t h e f o r m a t i o n (see F i g u r e 6 ) . The  lower c o n t a c t o f t h e f o r m a t i o n has been seen o n l y a t t h e  type s e c t i o n , where i t i s a s h a r p l y d e f i n e d , g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g s u r f a c e . The  b a s a l sandstone  i s immediately u n d e r l a i n by coarse t u f f s  c i a s o f t h e Lower D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r  Group.  At t h e type s e c t i o n a t h i c k , b a s i c , s i l l - l i k e  intrusion  ates t h e uppermost l i m e s t o n e o f t h e B u t t l e Lake F o r m a t i o n l y i n g thin-bedded,  fine-grained non-calcareous  s i m i l a r rocks l i e d i r e c t l y formable  clastic  from  rocks.  over t h e B u t t l e Lake Formation, w i t h  separoverElsewhere, con-  attitudes. At the type s e c t i o n ,  ness.  and b r e c -  t h e f o r m a t i o n m e a s u r e s 1,050 f e e t i n t h i c k -  Other measurements i n t h e B u t t l e Lake a r e a g i v e t h i c k n e s s e s o f  83  800 t o 900 f e e t .  V i s u a l estimates f o r smaller exposures i n the B u t t l e  Lake and B e d w e l l R i v e r a r e a by o t h e r a u t h o r s (Gunning, 1931; S a r g e n t , 1941)  s u g g e s t t h i n n e r s e c t i o n s , some a s t h i n  as 100 f e e t b e i n g  cited  ( G u n n i n g , 1 9 3 1 , p. 6 1 A ) . Sill-like  intrusions  of dark green to b l a c k b a s i c  crystalline  r o c k s a r e common i n s e c t i o n s o f t h e B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n i n t h e v i c inity  o f M a r b l e r o c k Creek, Azure Lake  and M a r b l e Peak.  In this  part  o f t h e a r e a , one i n t r u s i v e b o d y o c c u r s i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e l i m e s t o n e section,  splitting  the formation into  two p a r t s .  The known d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f o r m a t i o n i s shown o n F i g u r e The B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n i s w e l l e x p o s e d Peak  i n the areas around  (Figure 3 4 ) , along t h e northwest s i d e o f M a r b l e r o c k Creek  ure 3 7 ) , surrounding "Azure Lake" t e n d i n g s o u t h from Mt. M c B r i d e . R e i d t o Golden Hinde  (Fig-  ( F i g u r e 3 6 ) , and on t h e r i d g e e x O t h e r e x p o s u r e s o c c u r f r o m Mt. Con  u r e 3 2 ) , and main f o r k s o f Wolf R i v e r .  east side of P r i c e  Marble  (Figure 3 8 ) , i n the r i d g e s f l a n k i n g the west  t h a t l i m e s t o n e s exposed Creek  the w r i t e r has examined  Gunning  and a l o n g t h e  t o t h e s o u t h p r o b a b l y b e l o n g t o t h e same above.  (Fig-  ( 1 9 3 1 , p. 60A) c o n s i d e r s  on t h e e a s t s i d e o f B u t t l e Lake  a t i o n as t h e e x p o s u r e s m e n t i o n e d  5.  form-  On t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e l a k e  o n l y t h e l a k e - l e v e l e x p o s u r e s , f r o m w h i c h no  d i a g n o s t i c f o s s i l s were o b t a i n e d and no s t r a t i g r a p h i c  relationships  c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d .  Azure Lake A complete  section  s e c t i o n o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n  i s exposed  i n the area  F i g u r e 39. B u t t l e Lake F o r m a t i o n southwest of Azure Lake, View n o r t h e a s t a c r o s s measured A z u r e Lake s e c t i o n . Dark r o c k s c a p p i n g h i l l a r e basic intrusive.  F i g u r e 40.  View n o r t h e a s t from Azure Lake  r i d g e on e a s t s i d e o f A z u r e L a k e ,  section to limestone  capped  southwest of a s m a l l lake Marblerock Creek.  a t t h e headwaters  The b a s e  o f the west branch o f  o f t h e s e c t i o n measured  ( t h e "Azure  Lake"  s e c t i o n , F i g u r e 6) i s i n a l o w s a d d l e b e t w e e n two k n o l l s o n a n e a s t west  t r e n d i n g r i d g e , 0.7 m i l e s s o u t h o f t h e w e s t e n d o f " A z u r e  The b a s a l s a n d s t o n e a n d l o w e r l i m e s t o n e o f t h e D i v i s i o n on t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f t h e w e s t e r n k n o l l , posed  o f dark green, medium-grained  contact with to t h e base  the limestone.  are exposed  t h e t o p o f w h i c h i s com-  crystalline  Exposures  Lake".  rock i n i n t r u s i v e  of the i n t r u s i v e  extend  westward  o f a n o r t h - s o u t h t r e n d i n g r i d g e , on t h e w e s t e r n s l o p e s o f  w h i c h t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e l i m e s t o n e was m e a s u r e d .  The t o p o f t h e  l i m e s t o n e o c c u r s n e a r t h e c r e s t o f t h i s w e s t e r n r i d g e , 1.2 m i l e s s o u t h west  o f "Azure Lake".  The l i m e s t o n e i s o v e r l a i n h e r e b y a  b a s i c i n t r u s i v e s e v e r a l hundreds  of feet i n thickness  sill-like,  (Figure 39).  Above t h e i n t r u s i v e a few t e n s o f f e e t o f v a r i c o l o u r e d ,  thin-bedded  fine-grained c l a s t i c rocks (tuffs or tuffaceous siltstones)  a r e exposed  at the crest of the r i d g e . The  rocks below  t h e b a s a l s a n d s t o n e o f t h e s e c t i o n a r e medium  t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d , g r e e n and maroon c o l o u r - m o t t l e d t u f f s which rocks.  locally  and b r e c c i a s ,  grade i n t o t h i n l y bedded, p a l e t o dark green  tuffaceous  T h e s e a r e u n d e r l a i n b y c o a r s e b r e c c i a s o f d a r k g r e e n , medium  t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d , p o r p h y r i t i c r o c k , bounded on t h e e a s t by a f a u l t c o n t a c t w i t h a l i m e s t o n e - i g n e o u s complex. The  basal  t o medium-grained  10 f e e t o f t h e A z u r e L a k e s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f f i n e greywacke, which i s h i g h l y  Unnamed, b u t h e r e i n r e f e r r e d  t o as " A z u r e  c a l c a r e o u s i n the upper  Lake".  F i g u r e 4 1 . B a s a l s a n d s t o n e ( U n i t 1) o f B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n , A z u r e Lake s e c t i o n . C o n t a c t w i t h c o a r s e t u f f s and b r e c c i a s o f Lower D i v i s i o n , S i c k e r G r o u p , i s b e n e a t h hammer. V i e w t o n o r t h t o w a r d A z u r e Lake. T h i s i s L o c a l i t y 61-34-3F, f r o m w h i c h abundant b r a c h i o p o d s , m o l l u s c s , b r y o z o a n s , a n d some f u s u l i n i d s a n d p l a n t f r a g m e n t s w e r e collected.  few  feet (Figure 41).  The s a n d s t o n e i s t h i n - t o medium-bedded, w i t h  vague i n d i c a t i o n s o f g e n t l y i n c l i n e d contact inches in  cross-stratification.  i s sharp and g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g .  Thin pebbly  The  l e n s e s , a few  i n maximum t h i c k n e s s , a n d s e v e r a l f e e t i n maximum l e n g t h ,  the lower  part of the unit.  angular, varying i n size a b o u t 5 mm.  Pebbles are well-rounded  f r o m 3 mm.  t o 10 mm.,  w i t h t h e average  cherty  f i n e - g r a i n e d , impure l i m e s t o n e . these  rocks and  fragments.  Above t h e b a s a l sandstone, a covered  arates  being  T h e y a r e c o m p o s e d o f f i n e - g r a i n e d p o r p h y r i t i c a n d amygda-  and w h i t e  grey,  occur  to sharply  l o i d a l volcanic rocks, light-coloured, fine-grained c l a s t i c grey  lower  interval  i s o v e r l a i n by  A 50 f o o t c o v e r e d  beds f r o m t h e main l i m e s t o n e  interval  s e c t i o n above.  The  sep-  lower  p o r t i o n o f t h e main limestone  section i s light-grey, coarsely  and  t o the top of the s e c t i o n , with theex-  thick-bedded.  Above t h i s  c e p t i o n o f o n e 60 f o o t i n t e r v a l , forms t h e dominant l i t h o l o g y , limestone. occupied  coarse-grained,  interbedded  the  to black  cherty, dolomitic  The l o w e s t ,  limestone.  o f the Azure Lake  sec-  a b o u t 20 f e e t t h i c k , i s 4 2 0 f e e t a b o v e t h e b a s e o f  section; the other  occurs  40 f e e t a b o v e t h i s ,  o c c u p y a d i s t a n c e o f 750 f e e t p e r p e n d i c u l a r  was  cherty  The i n t e r v a l f r o m 660 f e e t t o 720 f e e t a b o v e t h e b a s e i s  by a dark-grey  limestone.  limestone  with finer grained,  Two b a s i c i n t r u s i o n s c u t t h e l i m e s t o n e s tion.  crinoidal  crinoidal  and i s c a l c u l a t e d t o  to the bedding i n the  The t h i n n e r o f t h e t w o i n t r u s i v e b o d i e s ,  traced  laterally,  f o u n d t o p i n c h o u t t o t h e n o r t h , and c o a l e s c e w i t h t h e u p p e r ,  t h i c k e r body w i t h i n a few hundreds o f f e e t t o t h e south. intrusive  contact  thus i s i n t e r f i n g e r e d w i t h the limestone  The  lower  i n this  F i g u r e 42. Panoramic view (at 245 degrees to 340 degrees from s o u t h e a s t s i d e of l a k e ) of exposures of B u t t l e Lake Formation on northwest s i d e of Azure Lake. Dark-weathering r o c k s between l i g h t c o l o u r e d l i m e s t o n e u n i t s , and immediately above upper l i m e s t o n e c l i f f s , a r e b a s i c i n t r u s i v e s . Rugged c l i f f s a t top a r e v o l c a n i c r o c k s of Vancouver Group, r i s i n g to peak of Mt. M c B r i d e . Several transv e r s e f a u l t s d i s r u p t the s e c t i o n i n the c e n t r a l a r e a shown, and the n o r t h e a s t e r n end of the s e c t i o n (extreme r i g h t ) t e r m i n a t e s a g a i n s t such a f a u l t .  locality.  The  i n t r u s i v e i s dark green, f i n e to medium-grained c r y s t a l -  l i n e rock, s i m i l a r to River  diabase i n t r u s i o n s  of  the  belt. Between the  uppermost l i m e s t o n e of  a sill-like  ridge,  but  conspicuous, columnar j o i n t i n g i s present  o v e r l a i n , on  grained to  colour not  l i n e of  section  purple.  o f 0.9  tacts  the  have changed.  graphs i n d i c a t e  immediate area of  of  the  the  the  the  F i g u r e 43).  section  of  of  It is  thin-bedded in  this unit  intrusives)  from  the feet.  measured extends o v e r a  horizontal  s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n of middle of  the  inspection  the  limestone of  available  section.  The  a e r i a l photo-  c a n n o t be  d a t a ; i t i s the w r i t e r ' s  s t r a t i g r a p h i c measurements are  not  seriously effected  Marblerock Creek From a n o r t h w e s t e r l y t r e n d i n g M a r b l e r o c k C r e e k a b o u t 1.2  e f f e c t of p o s s i b l e  i n t r u s i v e contacts  con-  section  major f a u l t displacements have o c c u r r e d i n  the  has  t r a n s v e r s e f a u l t s of unknown d i s -  section  l i n e of  of  developed,  u p p e r m o s t l i m e s t o n e , i s 1,050  F i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s and  s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n of  evaluated with  the  i n t r u s i o n i n the  t h a t no  top  area.  o v e r w h i c h the  sill-like  the  poorly  upper l i m i t  (excluding  crosses several  miles,  a small  The  B u t t l e Lake  In addition,  (see  and  c l a s t i c non-calcareous rocks varying  and  top  section  intrusive with  r i d g e , by  measured t h i c k n e s s  distance of  the  aphanitic,  sandstone to the  placement.  in  of  been examined i n the  basal  may  crest  from green to red  The  The  the  body of b a s i c  the  the  fine  H o m e Lake-Cameron  the  shifts fully  opinion  that  by  changes.  such  the  section  f a u l t (Figure  m i l e s southwest of  45),  which  i t s mouth, to  crosses  "Azure Lake"  F i g u r e 44. C o n t a c t between b a s i c i n t r u s i v e (above) and l o w e r l i m e s t o n e of B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n , s o u t h e a s t o f M a r b l e Peak. Note s t e p p i n g upwards of c o n t a c t t o n o r t h ( r i g h t ) .  87  l i m e s t o n e o f t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e P a l e o z o i c i s e x p o s e d on t h e n o r t h west s i d e of the creek. section i s split trusive  into  ( F i g u r e s 46,  As  at the "Azure Lake" s e c t i o n , the  an u p p e r and  lower p a r t by  limestone  a sill-like  basic i n -  47).  A measurement of the exposed p o r t i o n o f the l i m e s t o n e u n i t o b t a i n e d b e t w e e n a p o i n t on f r o m i t s m o u t h , and mouth o f t h e c r e e k .  the northwest  t h e l o w e r o f two The  s i d e of the creek,  s m a l l l a k e s , 2.2  miles  base of the u n i t i s not exposed.  1.6  o f t h e m e a s u r e d s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f medium t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d limestone with i r r e g u l a r l y ures  48,  49).  A covered  s p a c e d z o n e s o f c h e r t b a n d s and  r o c k s o f the Vancouver Group the u p p e r end The one  fault  of the  gests  observed  ( s e e F i g u r e 50)  i n the s e c t i o n measured. of dark,  i n the  that the limestone  s i d e t h a n on  The  separates  feet.  occurrence  cherty, fossiliferous  on  At the  least south-  limestones  which  lower p a r t of the b l o c k to the n o r t h e a s t formation i s r e l a t i v e l y  the n o r t h e a s t .  l o w e r on  F i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s and  the  sug-  southwest  i n s p e c t i o n of i s not  aerial  large.  o b s e r v a t i o n s show t h a t t h e b a s i c i n t r u s i v e o f t h e s e c t i o n c u t s  s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y upwards t o the n o r t h - e a s t bedding. repetition and  (Fig-  above the s m a l l l a k e a t  photographs i n d i c a t e , however, t h a t the displacement Field  nodules  of brown-weathering v o l c a n i c  t h i c k n e s s o f l i m e s t o n e m e a s u r e d h e r e i s 858  occurs  majority  section.  west s i d e of the f a u l t were not  cliffs  the  crinoidal  i n t e r v a l of s e v e r a l hundreds of f e e t  the uppermost l i m e s t o n e from steep  miles  from The  was  Because of these c a u s e d by  two  factors,  stratigraphic  shift  at a small angle  ( f a u l t i n g and  to  the  p o s s i b l e minor  i n the i n t r u s i v e  contacts)  the l a c k of exposure of the base of the l i m e s t o n e f o r m a t i o n ,  an  F i g u r e 4 5 . V i e w w e s t up M a r b l e r o c k C r e e k f r o m B u t t l e L a k e . Light-colo u r e d l i m e s t o n e s o f B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n , s p l i t by s i l l - l i k e b a s i c i n t r u s i o n , on n o r t h bank t o l e f t , u p p e r c l i f f s o f v o l c a n i c r o c k s o f Vancouver Group. I n r i g h t h a l f of p i c t u r e , exposures v i s i b l e are a l l of V a n c o u v e r Group, i n b l o c k s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h a t a t l e f t by a n o r t h trending fault.  F i g u r e 4 6 . V i e w n o r t h e a s t , f r o m p o i n t a b o u t two m i l e s s o u t h w e s t o f m o u t h o f M a r b l e r o c k C r e e k , a c r o s s f a u l t shown i n F i g . 4 5 . B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n and b a s i c i n t r u s i v e t o l e f t , V a n c o u v e r Group t o r i g h t .  F i g u r e 47. Upper c o n t a c t o f b a s i c i n t r u s i o n and l i m e s t o n e o f u p p e r p a r t of B u t t l e Lake Formation; n o r t h s i d e Marblerock Creek, 2 m i l e s southwest of mouth. Note l i m e s t o n e i n c l u s i o n i n i n t r u s i v e .  F i g u r e 48. C h e r t y l i m e s t o n e of B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n , j u s t above c o n t a c t shown i n F i g . 4 7 . View n o r t h e a s t toward B u t t l e L a k e .  con-  F i g u r e 49. S i l i c e o u s nodules i n limestone of B u t t l e Lake Formation, b e l o w m e d i a l i n t r u s i v e , n o r t h bank of M a r b l e r o c k C r e e k , b e l o w l o c a l i t y of F i g u r e s 47, 48.  F i g u r e 50. T a l u s b l o c k of p i l l o w b a s a l t from Vancouver Group; n o r t h of Marblerock Creek.  side  88  accurate  c a l c u l a t i o n of the true thickness of the formation i s not  possible  from the Marblerock  Creek measurements.  o r d e r o f a b o u t 800 t o 900 f e e t seems r e a s o n a b l e  An e s t i m a t e  i n the  to the w r i t e r .  West F o r k W o l f R i v e r s e c t i o n L i m e s t o n e o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r Group i s exposed on  the northwest  to  the confluence  eto Mountain  s i d e o f t h e w e s t f o r k o f W o l f R i v e r f r o m M t . Con R e i d o f two s m a l l e r t r i b u t a r i e s  (Figure 32).  Partial  south-southeast  of E l Piv-  sections of the limestone  and a d j a c -  ent r o c k s were o b t a i n e d f r o m e x p o s u r e s i n a g u l l y on t h e s o u t h e a s t  face  o f E l P i v e t o , 2.5 m i l e s s o u t h w e s t o f t h e j u n c t i o n o f t h e m a i n a n d w e s t f o r k s o f W o l f R i v e r , and a l o n g t h e n o r t h e r n 1.5 m i l e s s o u t h - s o u t h e a s t On t h e s o u t h e a s t  t r i b u t a r y of the west f o r k ,  of E l P i v e t o peak. f a c e o f E l P i v e t o , a t a n e l e v a t i o n o f 2,425  f e e t , a small limestone exposure i n the northeast side of a g u l l y i s taken  as t h e b a s e o f t h e l i m e s t o n e  cliff  e x p o s u r e s o f t h e l i m e s t o n e , o f w h i c h 600 f e e t was m e a s u r e d , com-  mence. ible  The m e a s u r e d i n t e r v a l  at the time The  in  colour.  formation.  i s o v e r l a i n b y more l i m e s t o n e , i n a c c e s s -  of measuring, estimated  limestone i s fine  A t 2,500 f e e t , t h e m a i n  t o b e 100 f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s .  t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d , medium t o l i g h t  Thin b l a c k chert nodules  and l e n s e s a r e p r o m i n e n t i n c l o s e l y  s p a c e d z o n e s i n t h e l o w e r p a r t , b u t become l e s s common t o w a r d of the measured  a recessive unit,  v e g e t a t i o n i s v i s i b l e , w i t h an e s t i m a t e d  weathering  the top  section.  Above t h e l i m e s t o n e c l i f f s , and  grey  v o l c a n i c rocks  above.  Talus  covered w i t h  talus  1,000 f e e t o f b r o w n -  from these  rocks  c o n s i s t s of  89  basaltic pillow The hillside  t o the s o u t h , c r o s s i n g the west f o r k of Wolf R i v e r at the  thin-bedded,  tributaries.  On  the t r i b u t a r y  fine-grained, sandy-textured  stream.  r o c k s and  To  rocks are v i s i b l e  light-weathering clastic detail.  black  The  rocks.  of p i l l o w - l a v a s  indicate  northern  90  the  rock.  a t an e l e v a t i o n o f a b o u t 2,330 I n the stream bed,  o c c u p i e d by  talus  blocks  r o c k s o c c u r above t h e m a s s i v e  that this  recessive interval  thin-bedded,  ba-  section i s very s i m i l a r to that to the n o r t h e a s t .  above t h e l i m e s t o n e s o f the g u l l y  the thin-bedded  sedimentary  section  r o c k s s e e n on  the  tributary. The  area thus tic  About  not examined i n  o v e r l y i n g the l i m e s t o n e s e c t i o n measured i n the g u l l y  i s probably  argillite  i n the west bank of  to 5 f e e t t h i c k of  seen,  t h a t such  I t i s thus apparent  covered  the n o r t h ,  succession.  T h i s s u c c e s s i o n was  uppermost exposures  f e e t , were of massive b a s a l t i c  The  con-  the n o r t h , t h e y are o v e r l a i n by m a s s i v e f i n e - g r a i n e d b a s a l -  r o c k s , w i t h i n t e r c a l a t e d z o n e s up  salts .  f l o w i n g from  the l i m e s t o n e i n a p p a r e n t l y conformable  f e e t of the non-calcareous  tic  of the Vancouver Group.  l i m e s t o n e u n i t o f t h e s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e r a k e s down t h e  f l u e n c e o f two  overlie  lavas typical  exposed, upper p a r t of the P a l e o z o i c s u c c e s s i o n i n t h i s  comprises  r o c k s and  conglomerate  feet of limestone. calcareous  a b o u t 700  The  age  f e e t of f i n e - g r a i n e d non-calcareous  at the base,  o v e r l a i n by  approximately  clas800  of the o v e r l y i n g s e c t i o n of thin-bedded  c l a s t i c rocks i s not  non-  known.  Fauna Bryozoans from  the upper, limestone formation of the P a l e o z o i c  s e q u e n c e , c o l l e c t e d b y G u n n i n g , w e r e i d e n t i f i e d b y F r i t z who  states  ( i n Gunning, t h e one  1931,  p. 5 9 A ) :  to correlate this  fauna w i t h  r e c o r d e d by Dr. B a s s l e r f r o m t h e I s l a n d o f T i m o r i n t h e E a s t  Indies which  i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be  Brachiopods who  " I propose  of Permian  age".  from Gunning's c o l l e c t i o n s were s u b m i t t e d t o  " s t a t e d , as h i s b e s t g u e s s on t h e m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e ,  s p i r i f e r s may  b e l o n g i n an h o r i z o n h i g h up  that  Girty,  the  i n the Pennsylvanian, t h i s  b e i n g a t l e a s t more p r o b a b l e t h a n t h a t t h e h o r i z o n i s P e r m i a n "  (Gunning,  ibid.) . When F r i t z  (1932) l a t e r d e s c r i b e d the b r y o z o a n s ,  that the resemblance "leaves l i t t l e Vancouver  cussed i n l a t e r  Island  d o u b t as t o t h e s i m i l a r i t y  Island"  Fossils  of the Vancouver  she  concluded  fauna to that from  i n age  Timor  o f t h e d e p o s i t s on  (p. 93).  c o l l e c t e d by  t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r a r e d e s c r i b e d and  sections of t h i s  account.  Of p a r t i c u l a r  the p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n are the b r a c h i o p o d s  interest for  from the B u t t l e Lake a r e a ,  found i n the l i m e s t o n e s of the B u t t l e Lake F o r m a t i o n o f the Upper sion,  S i c k e r Group.  t o the brachiopods a r e a s , and  They i n d i c a t e of Permian  l i m e s t o n e s , and  earlier  As  d e s c r i b e d faunas  suggest E a r l y , r a t h e r than Late  Divi-  affinity American  i s shown i n t h e  c o n c l u s i o n of a Permian  Faunal  p.  close faunal  d e p o s i t s of s e v e r a l o t h e r North  r e p o r t , the newly  Lake a r e a support F r i t z '  1941,  a relatively  o f more d i s t a n t r e g i o n s s u c h as R u s s i a .  l a t e r sections of t h i s  dis-  of the age  Buttle  f o r the  Permian.  lists  Bedwell River area - various l o c a l i t i e s , 19, f i g . 1 ) :  from limestone (Sargent,  91  Zaphrentis sp. Cyathophyllum sp. Syringopora sp. M i c h e l i n i a sp. P r o d u c t u s s p . - P. v i s h n u - t y p e Orthotetes sp, R e t i c u l a r i a sp. S p i r i f e r s p . - S_. m u s a k h e y l e n s i s - t y p e S p i r i f e r s p . - a b o u t S_. r a j a h S a l t e r D i e l a s m a s p . - a b o u t D. p r o b l e m a t i c u m Waagen  B u t t l e Lake area L o c a l i t y "around t h e headwaters of M a r b l e C r e e k " (Gunning, 1939, p. 5 9 A ) . "from a t h i c k upper l a y e r of c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e l y i n g i n a s e r i e s of l e n t i c u l a r , carbonaceous beds. These beds a r e l o c a t e d between t h e h e a d w a t e r s o f t h e n o r t h f o r k o f P h i l l i p s C r e e k and M a r b l e C r e e k ..." ( F r i t z , 1 9 3 2 , p. 9 3 ) : Stenopora p r o l i f i c a Nicklesopora? porifera Streblascopora pulchra Clausotrypa spinosa Fenestella basleonsis Fenestella parviuscula Fenestella cf. pulchradorsalis Polypora consanguinea P o l y p o r a Vancouverensis Polypora elongata P o l y p o r a megastoma Polypora sykesi ?Thamniscus u n i l a t e r a l i s P r o t o r e t e p o r a c f . haimeana Acanthocladia Penniretepora grandis Gonocladia intermedia  (N.B. - Some o f t h e generic designations of F r i t z ' l i s t have been changed t o agree w i t h B a s s l e r ' s (1953) concepts)  L o c a l i t y 61-20F - Dark g r e y t o b l a c k , c h e r t y l i m e s t o n e , above n o r t h e a s t end o f s m a l l l a k e , 2 m i l e s u p s t r e a m f r o m mouth o f M a r b l e r o c k C r e e k ; e l e v a t i o n a b o u t 3,000 f e e t : Ramose a n d f e n e s t r a t e b r y o z o a n s In talus - Orthotetid brachiopod S p i r i f e r i d brachiopod L o c a l i t y 6 1 - 3 3 - 1 0 F - L i m e s t o n e on r i d g e 0.45 m i l e s e a s t o f s o u t h w e s t e n d o f " A z u r e L a k e " ; e l e v a t i o n a b o u t 3,875 f e e t : S p i r i f e r spp. ? B r a c h y t h y r i n a c f . B, u f e n s i s P t e r o s p i r i f e r ? sp. Productid brachiopods  92 L o c a l i t y 6Z-34-3F - B a s a l s a n d s t o n e , B u t t l e "Azure Lake" s e c t i o n (Unit 1 ) :  Lake  Formation,  Krotovia? sp. B N e p , s p i r i f e,r sp . J P t e r o s p i r i f e r ? sp. I n g e l a r e 1.1a? s p . A. I n g e l a r e 1 1 a ? s p . B. Ingelarella. sp. C Squamularia? sp. S p i r i f e r i n a ? sp. R h y n c h o p o r a n. s p . O r t h o t i c h i a ? sp. Derbyia? sp. Nuculana sp. Chaenomya? s p . Schizodus sp. A v i c u l o p e c t e n ? sp. Gastropods . Stenopora p r o l i f i c a R h a b d o m e s p n sp... Clausotrypa spinosa Fusulinid Rugose, s o l i t a r y c o r a l s I n a d d i t i o n t o the a n i m a l f o s s i l s l i s t e d above, c a r b o n i z e d p l a n t f r a g m e n t s and u n d e t e r m i n e d c a l c a r e o u s a l g a e a r e p r e s e n t a t t h i s l o c a l i t y . L o c a l i t y 61-34-5 - " A z u r e L a k e " s e c t i o n , l i m e s t o n e , 80 f e e t a b o v e b a s e o f f o r m a t i o n ( U n i t Tetrataxis  Buttle 5):  Lake  Formation,  sp.  L o c a l i t y 61-34-7 - " A z u r e L a k e " s e c t i o n , B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n , l i m e s t o n e , 135 f e e t a b o v e b a s e o f f o r m a t i o n ( U n i t 6 ) : Fusulinid. L o c a l i t y 61—35-5F — " A z u r e L a k e " s e c t i o n , B u t t l e Lake P o r m a t i o n , d a r k g r e y t o b l a c k , d o l o m i t i c l i m e s t o n e , 690 t o 7 2 0 f e e t a b o v e b a s e o f formation (Unit 11): Horridonia s p B . Antiquitonia sulcata Echinoconchus inexpectatus K o c h i p r o d u c t u s n. sp. K r o t o y i a ? , s p . A. Muirwoodia? sp. N e o s p i r i f e r ? n . sp . B r a c h y t h y r i n a c f . B. u f e n s i s H u s t e d i a meekana  93  C l e i o t h y r i d i n a sp. L a e v i c a m e r a n. sp. Cladochonus sp. Stenopora p r o l i f i c a Streblascopora pulchra Nicklespora? porifera F e n e s t e l l a c f . F. p a r v i u s c u l a F e n e s t e l l a sp. P o l y p o r a c f . P. c o n s a n g u i n e a P o l y p o r a c f . P. s y k e s i P r o t o r e t e p o r a c f . P. h a i m e a n a Acanthocladia multipora Penniretepora grandis G o n i o c l a d i a c f . G. i n t e r m e d i a  Locality l i m e s t o n e , upper (Unit 21):  61-35-13F - "Azure L a k e " s e c t i o n , B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n , 75 f e e t o f f o r m a t i o n , 975 t o 1,050 f e e t a b o v e b a s e  S p i r i f e r e l l a saranae Productid brachiopods  0.5  L o c a l i t y 6 1 - 6 1 A - 7 F - 8 F - L i m e s t o n e e x p o s u r e s on f l a t r i d g e t o p , m i l e s s o u t h o f M a r b l e Peak; upper p a r t of B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n . S p i r i f e r e l l a saranae " S p i r i f e r " sp. H o r r i d o n i a s p . A. Productid brachiopods  L o c a l i t y 6 3 - 6 5 - 1 F - L i m e s t o n e , 0.25 Creek, at lake l e v e l .  m i l e s n o r t h of  Phillips  M i c h e l i n i a s p . A. ? S o l i t a r y rugose c o r a l s Ramose a n d f e n e s t r a t e b r y o z o a n s L o c a l i t y 63-68A-108CF - L i m e s t o n e , on e a s t s i d e o f W o l f R i v e r , s o u t h o f M t . M c B r i d e , a b o u t 1.2 m i l e s w e s t o f s o u t h w e s t end o f " A z u r e L a k e " ; u p p e r p a r t o f B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n , e l e v a t i o n a b o u t 5,100 f e e t . Spiriferid  with short hinge  line.  STRUCTURE R e l i a b l e a t t i t u d e s are r a r e l y o b t a i n a b l e i n the non-calcareous, lower p a r t of the P a l e o z o i c sequence.  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n and a t t i t u d e s  F i g u r e 51. Syncline i n B u t t l e Lake Formation, 3 miles south-southwest o f Mt. M c B r i d e . Dark-weathering r o c k s of Lower D i v i s i o n i n r i g h t h a l f o f p i c t u r e , s e p a r a t e d f r o m l i m e s t o n e by n o r t h - t r e n d i n g f a u l t . View southwest from a i r .  F i g u r e 52. T r a n s v e r s e f a u l t ( a b o u t e a s t - w e s t ) , s o u t h end o f s y n c l i n e shown i n F i g . 5 1 . N o t e s m a l l r e m n a n t o f l i m e s t o n e on f o o t w a l l ( l e f t c e n t r e ) and a p o p h y s i s o f i n t r u s i o n i n l i m e s t o n e ( l o w e r r i g h t ) . V i e w west from a i r .  94  of the p e r s i s t e n t limestone  u n i t o f the upper p a r t of t h e s e c t i o n s i n  the B u t t l e Lake a r e a , however, p r o v i d e pattern of the b e l t .  evidence of the major  I n t h i s p a r t o f the b e l t , Gunning  structural  ( 1 9 3 1 , p . 61A)  states: "The r o c k s a r e f o l d e d i n t o a b r o a d a n t i c l i n e p i t c h ing t o the north. Within t h i s major s t r u c t u r e t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t two m i n o r s y n c l i n a l f o l d s . One of t h e s e . i s . b e a u t i f u l l y e x p o s e d on t h e d i v i d e b e tween P h i l l i p s and t h e south f o r k o f Wolf Creek; the second i s l e s s d e f i n i t e and l i e s f a r t h e r e a s t . The a x i s o f t h e m a j o r s t r u c t u r e t r e n d s a l m o s t due north. A l l t h e f o l d s a r e open, t h e w e s t e r l y limb o f t h e a n t i c l i n e d i p p i n g f r o m 20. d e g r e e s t o 30 d e g r e e s w e s t a n d t h e e a s t e r l y l i m b , on P r i c e C r e e k , at lower angles t o the e a s t . The m i n o r s y n c l i n a l f o l d s a r e g e n t l e f l e x u r e s and.the f l a t d i p s imparted t o the limestone account f o r the extensive e x p o s u r e s o f t h a t r o c k w h i c h c o v e r t h e summits b e tween P h i l l i p s and M a r b l e c r e e k s " . Strikes gent  and d i p s  i n the southern  (1941) t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  portion of the belt  suggested t o Sar-  of a major f o l d plunging  to the south; the  o n l y m i n o r f o l d mapped h a s a n o r t h w e s t e r l y Faults The  of the rocks.  variable rocks.  the  As G u n n i n g  i n both s t r i k e  area,  to the  and m a g n i t u d e o f t h e i r e f f e c t on t h e a d j a c e n t  o f t h e same s t r i k e  w i t h younger v o l c a n i c rocks ure  areas.  ( 1 9 3 1 , p. 6 1 A ) , m e n t i o n s , t h e y a r e  p a r t o f the B u t t l e Lake area.  several faults  River  are transverse or oblique  Gunning found s e v e r a l major, n o r t h - w e s t e r l y  the southern  trace.  i n t h e B u t t l e L a k e and B e d w e l l  m a j o r i t y of the observed f a u l t s  strike  in  are ubiquitous  trending axial  on t h e n o r t h e a s t  4 5 ) . Numerous m i n o r f a u l t s  striking  shear  I n the northern  part of  cut o f f the Paleozoic sides of the breaks  d i s r u p t the limestone  zones  rocks, (Fig-  u n i t o f the upper  p a r t of the sequence, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the whole r e g i o n has been broken into innumerable small f a u l t blocks  ( F i g u r e s 5, 4 2 , 5 2 , 5 3 ) . A  similar  F i g u r e 5 3 . View north-northwest of Marble Peak. B a s i c i n t r u s i v e i n f o r e g r o u n d , o v e r l a i n by upper l i m e s t o n e of B u t t l e Lake Formation i n mid-distance. V o l c a n i c rocks of Vancouver Group i n steep c l i f f s above. Limestone i n f a u l t c o n t a c t w i t h Vancouver Group i n southwest spur of Marble Peak (above l e f t c e n t r e ) . Mt. McBride i n l e f t background.  95  structural  p a t t e r n i s found i n the southern p a r t of the b e l t ,  c a t e d b y S a r g e n t ' s map major f a u l t s trend.  and d i s c u s s i o n  of Sargent's  as  ( 1 9 4 1 , f i g . 1; p. 2 5 - 2 8 ) .  indiThe  a r e a a p p e a r t o be o f n o r t h w e s t - s o u t h e a s t  96 CORRELATION  REGIONAL CORRELATIONS, VANCOUVER ISLAND Rocks of the t h r e e P a l e o z o i c b e l t s , s e c t i o n s of t h i s account, quence, gross  as d i s c u s s e d i n  are g e n e r a l l y s i m i l a r  l i t h o l o g y , and  faunal content.  to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t these  rocks  s h o u l d be  i n stratigraphic  belt  ( C l a p p , 1909,  F y l e s , 1955).  lead  i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the  same  graphic aspects  The  of t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n have been d i s c u s s e d i n the  preced-  i n F i g u r e 54.  r e l a t i o n s between the three P a l e o z o i c b e l t s are  As than  t h e f a u n a s o f t h e two  preservation, a s t a t i s t i c a l C o m p a r e d w i t h 52  b e l t and  12  northern  some w i l l  with  and  are l e s s  I n t e r i o r b e l t , mainly  because of  poor  faunas i s not  pos-  genera recognized  genera i n the China  well-known  i n the B u t t l e  Creek-Saltspring  of  these b e i n g  classifiable  probably  be  f o u n d t o be  to s p e c i f i c  found i n the  lev-  southern  comparable to forms i n  the  belt. From Table  b e l t has  belts  t h e many p r e s e n t l y u n i d e n t i f i e d f o s s i l s  belts,  5,  cor-  g e n e r a i n t h e H o r n e L a k e - C a m e r o n R i v e r b e l t h a v e so f a r b e e n  i d e n t i f i e d , w i t h o n l y a few  two  southern  s p e c i e s o f 42  I n t e r i o r b e l t , o n l y 18  Of  shown i n T a b l e  comparison of the t o t a l  Lake-Big  el.  Faunal  below.  t h a t of the B u t t l e L a k e - B i g  sible.  Sicker strati-  a r e shown d i a g r a m m a t i c a l l y  lithologic  the  and  i n g s e c t i o n s , and  are discussed  defined i n  D i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the  Group are r e c o g n i z a b l e i n a l l t h r e e b e l t s .  se-  These s i m i l a r i t i e s  s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t , namely the S i c k e r Group, o r i g i n a l l y southern  previous  5,  i t c a n be  among t h e i d e n t i f i e d  the fauna  concluded  fossils  that the China  2 s p e c i e s and  Creek-Saltspring  8 g e n e r a i n common  o f t h e Horne Lake-Cameron R i v e r b e l t and  t h e same n u m b e r s  Pillow lavas  Dolomitic limestone  Limestone  Limestone  impure  Limestone  and  Clastic  chert  sedimentary  Thin-bedded tod  AAA A A  rocks  massive  tuffaceous  rocks  Tuffs  breccias  and  1000 feet Thin-bedded cherty  Sandstone  Figure  54  Correction  diagram,  Sicker  Group,  Vancouver Island,  highly  generalized.  tuffs  97  China CreekSaltspring belt  Specific  B u t t l e LakeBig Interior belt  comparisons  C l a d o c h o n u s sp. M i c h e l i n i a sp. A Streblascopora pulchra Goniocladia intermedia Penniretepora grandis H o r r i d o n i a s p . A. Squamularia sp. S p i r i f e r e l l a saranae  Generic  Home LakeCameron R i v e r belt  X X X? Genus  X X X X X X X  Genus X  X X X X X X X  comparisons  Tetrataxis Schwagerina? Pseudofusulinella? Rhabdomeson Sulcoretepora Muirwoodia? Hustedia Schizophoria Antiquitonia  X X X X X X X? X? X?  X X X?  X X? X  X X? X  X X X  TABLE 5 Faunal land.  correlations Only f o s s i l s  between t h e t h r e e P a l e o z o i c b e l t s of Vancouver I s r e p r e s e n t e d i n two o r more b e l t s a r e s h o w n .  98  o f s p e c i e s a n d g e n e r a i n common w i t h t h e B u t t l e L a k e - B i g The  belt.  H o m e L a k e - C a m e r o n R i v e r b e l t h a s 6 s p e c i e s a n d 7 g e n e r a i n common  with the Buttle Lake-Big contiguous,  Interior belt.  as e x p l a i n e d i n an e a r l i e r  t r e a t e d as a s i n g l e f a u n a l u n i t , 11  Interior  T h e two s o u t h e r n b e l t s may b e section.  I f , t h e r e f o r e , they a r e  t h e y may b e s a i d  t o have 7 s p e c i e s and  g e n e r a i n common w i t h t h e n o r t h e r n , B u t t l e L a k e - B i g  B y u s i n g some o f t h e q u e s t i o n a b l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , be r a i s e d  Interior  these  figures  belt. could  slightly.  Thus, f a u n a l s i m i l a r i t y e r n b e l t may b e e x p r e s s e d t i o n s from the former,  o f t h e two s o u t h e r n b e l t s  to the north-  b y s a y i n g t h a t o f t h e 13 s p e c i f i c  7 are also present  identifica-  i n the northern belt.  (1947, p. 672) s t a t e s t h a t " t h e b e s t s i m p l e measure o f taxonomic  Simpson resem-  b l a n c e " i s g i v e n b y u s i n g t h e f o r m u l a C x 1 0 0 w h e r e N i s t h e number o f N t a x o n o m i c u n i t s i n t h e s m a l l e r o f two f a u n a s , units  common t o t h e two f a u n a s .  above a r e u t i l i z e d is  the r e s u l t .  faunas  dicate  I f the f i g u r e s f o rthe comparison  i n t h e f o r m u l a , an i n d e x o f f a u n a l s i m i l a r i t y  C a l c u l a t i o n s made i n t h e same way f o r P e r m i a n  of Greenland  i n s u l a , from l i s t s yield  given i n Harker  and T h o r s t e i n s s o n  that these  areas  Harker  show " c l o s e f a u n a l  stratigraphic  given  o f 54  brachiopod  and S p i t z b e r g e n as compared t o t h a t o f G r i n n e l l  i n d i c e s o f 57 a n d 4 2 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The  a n d C i s t h e number o f  Pen-  (1960, p. 16-17)  and T h o r s t e i n s s o n i n -  relationships".  c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d o n F i g u r e 54 show t h a t  t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r Group c o n s i s t s o f t h e B u t t l e L a k e Format i o n and a l o c a l l y  developed,  grained, non-calcareous belt.  relatively  clastic  thin overlying unit of fine-  rocks i n the B u t t l e Lake-Big  Interior  T h e u p p e r , c l a s t i c u n i t o f t h e n o r t h e r n b e l t may p o s s i b l y b e l o n g  to t h e o v e r l y i n g T r i a s s i c Vancouver Group.  However, i f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n  99  suggested in  i n F i g u r e 54 i s v a l i d ,  t h e two s o u t h e r n b e l t s  Lake Formation. southern b e l t s  t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r  i s probably a facies  Group  equivalent of the Buttle  T h e name " B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n "  i s n o t extended  a t the present time f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons.  tothe  The l i m e -  s t o n e s o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r Group a r e p r o b a b l y o f l e n s like sil  form,  thus making d e t a i l e d l i t h o l o g i c a l  z o n a t i o n has n o t been developed  relations  on a d e t a i l e d  c o r r e l a t i o n s hazardous.  t o the p o i n t a t which  s c a l e c a n be attempted.  Finally,  Fos-  firm faunal cort h e upper boun-  d a r y o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n i s p r o b a b l y an u n c o n f o r m i t y , t h e a n g u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p of which has  to stratigraphic horizons within the underlying rocks  n o t been determined.  to r e s t r i c t  I t i s thus considered a d v i s a b l e f o r the present  t h e name B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n  t o rocks o f the type  area.  INTER-REGIONAL CORRELATIONS  Correlation with central C a r b o n i f e r o u s and Permian  Oregon  formations near  t h e c e n t r e o f Oregon,  15 M i l e s s o u t h e a s t o f P a u l i n a , h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d b y M e r r i a m iaume  (1943).  The Permian  Coyote Butte Formation  and B e r t h -  of this area contains  a l a r g e fauna o f f u s u l i n i d s , c o r a l s and b r a c h i o p o d s . Two s p e c i e s o f P s e u d o f u s u l i n e l l a , t w o s p e c i e s o f and  five  et a l . , mation. tified  Schwagerina  s p e c i e s o f P a r a f u s u l i n a were i d e n t i f i e d by Henbest 1 9 6 0 , p. 1780-1781) i n c o l l e c t i o n s Schwagerina  from  the Coyote B u t t e F o r -  and P s e u d o f u s u l i n e l l a have been t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n -  i n t h e f a u n a o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r T h r e e o f t h e 60 s p e c i e s o f 39 g e n e r a  d e s c r i b e d by Cooper  ( i n Dunbar,  Group.  of Coyote Butte  brachiopods  (1957) o c c u r a l s o i n t h e V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d f a u n a s , i n  100 which  25 b r a c h i o p o d s p e c i e s o f 22 genera, h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d .  The  s p e c i e s common t o t h e f a u n a s a r e : Antiquitonia. sulcata. Bchinoconchus inexpectatus K o c h i p r o d u c t u s c f . K. p o r r e c t u s (= K o c h i p r o d u c t u s Four a d d i t i o n a l s p e c i e s o f the Vancouver able, and three a r e p o s s i b l y  related,  n.sp.)  I s l a n d b r a c h i o p o d s a r e compar-  t o c e n t r a l Oregon s p e c i e s .  These  are; * C l e i o t h y r i d i n a sp Horridonia sp. A Krotovia? sp. A Squamularia sp  ? ? ? ?  Rhynchopora n. s p . S p i r i f e r e l l a saranae Muirwoodia? sp. Considering the geographic and  s.l.  ?? ?? ??  C. g e r a . r d i P l e u r o h o r r i d o n i a ? e l o n g at a, K. a f f . K. b a r e n z i S. r o s t r a t a :  R. magna S. d r a s c h e i M. t r a n s v e r s a  s e p a r a t i o n (400 m i l e s ) ,  t h e i n c o m p l e t e knowledge of t h e Vancouver  facies  Island  differences,  faunas, t h e f a u n a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h u s i n d i c a t e d between t h e two r e g i o n s a r e r e l a t i v e l y If  t h e t e n s i m i l a r and p o s s i b l y comparable  Simpson's index of f a u n a l s i m i l a r i t y ,  close.  species are used t o d e r i v e  a n index o f 40 i s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e  brachiopods.  Correlation  w i t h the Ca.che Creek Group  Large areas of mainland B r i t i s h Columbia,  f r o m Dease L a k e i n t h e  n o r t h t o t h e C h i l l i w a c k area, i n t h e s o u t h a r e u n d e r l a i n b y s e d i m e n t a r y and v o l c a n i c equivalents The  r o c k s o f t h e Cache C r e e k G r o u p o r p r o b a b l e (Armstrong,  fauna,s o f t h i s u p p e r  scribed.  Faunal l i s t s  1949, p. 50;  stratigraphic  G.S.C. Map 932A, 2 n d E d . ,  P a l e o z o i c sequence  1962).  of rocks are l a r g e l y  f r o m many l o c a l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e ,  unde*  b u t i n most  * I n t h i s a n d s u c c e e d i n g l i s t s o f compared s p e c i e s t h e Vancouver I s l a n d f o s s i l s a r e l i s t e d on t h e l e f t .  101  cases only  t e n t a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s have been attempted.  incomplete information, faunas  include  comparable Sicker are  seven  species  to species  listed  the Cache  such  Creek  o f b r a c h i o p o d s a n d one b r y o z o a n  species  f o u n d i n the f a u n a o f the Upper D i v i s i o n o f  Group o f Vancouver  Island.  These p a i r s of comparable  the  species  below:  Spiriferella  s a r a n a e , J o n e s , 1959 pp. 4 3 , 47 S p i r i f e r rajah? S p i r i f e r e l l a r a j a h , Jones 1959, pp. 43-47 1 N e o s p i r i f e r n. sp. S p i r i f e r cameratus, Kerr 1 9 2 6 , p. 81 1 S. a f f . j u r a s e n e s i s , K e r r , Schizophoria sp. 1 9 4 8 , P. 84 1 R h y n c h o p o r a . n.sp. R. c f . R. n i k i t i n i , K e r r , 1 9 4 8 , p. 84 1 R. c f . R. n i k i t i n i , J o n e s , 1959, pp. 43-47 1 S. a f f . S. r o s t r a t a , K e r r , Squamularia sp. 1 9 4 8 , p. 84 1 Productus c f . u r a l i c u s , A i t k e n , Antiquitonia sulcata 1 9 5 9 , p. 31 1 Fenestella basleoensis F. c f . F. b a s l e o e n s i s , J o n e s , 1959, p. 43-47 c i t a t i o n s a f t e r the l i s t e d Cache Creek s p e c i e s r e f e r t o the a u t h o r s  The of  i t has been c o n c l u d e d t h a t  From  saranae s . l .  the p u b l i c a t i o n s ; The  linids also  Vancouver  S.  t h e f o s s i l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s a r e by H a r k e r Island  faunas  of the genera Schwagerina  o c c u r i n t h e Cache Creek  contain  ( P i t c h e r , 1960  both of  among  the Upper D i v i s i o n of the S i c k e r  least part  of the Cache Creek  indicates  Group i s c o r r e l a t a b l e w i t h  at  Alaska  rocks occur i n several  i n g the Alexander Archipelago.  which  Group.  Correlation with Upper P a l e o z o i c  fusu-  others).  Thus, e v i d e n c e f r o m b o t h b r a c h i o p o d s and f u s u l i n i d s that  Kindle.  tentatively identified  and P s e u d o f u s u l i n e l l a ,  Group  and  Faunal l i s t s  parts  of Alaska,  from several  includ-  Permian  areas  102 ( B u d d i n g t o n and C h a p i n , 1929; 1908;  Moffitt,  1938, 1954;  Wright  M e r t i e , 1 9 3 0 ) i n d i c a t e a. l a r g e f a u n a , f o r w h i c h  are a v a i l a b l e .  From t h e s e f a u n a l l i s t s ,  s p e c i e s of b r a c h i o p o d s a r e d i r e c t l y  i t appears  comparable  few  pairs are l i s t e d  or s i m i l a r  ?  K o c h i p r o d u c t u s n. s p . Horridonia. sp. A  ?  Horr idonia, sp. B  ?  inexpectatus  Antiquitonia. sulcata Muirwoodia? sp. S p i r i f e r e l l a , saranae N e o s p i r i f e r n. s p . P t e r o s p i r i f e r ? sp. B r a c h y t h y r i n a . c f B.  ? ? s . 1. ? ? ufensis  Cleiothyridina, sp. R h y n c h o p o r a , n. S p .  ?  H u s t e d i a . meeka,na  14  to species Island.  These  below.  l a e v i camera, n. s p .  Schinoconchus  descriptions  that at least  from the Upper D i v i s i o n of the S i c k e r Group of Vancouver comparable  and Wright,  C a m a r o p h o r i a , a f f . C. p e n t a m e r o i d e s , 2*. P r o d u c t u s p o r r e c t u s , 1,2,4,5. P r o d u c t u s a f f . o r c f . P. t i m a n i c u ' s , 1,2,4,5. P. a f f . o r c f . h o r r i d u s , 1,3,4) P r o d u c t u s a f f . o r c f . P. f a s c i a t u s , 1,2,3,4,5. P r o d u c t u s i n f l a t u s , 2. P r o d u c t u s a f f . o r c f . P. mammatus, 1,2,3,4. S. a f f . S. s a r a n a e , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 . S p i r i f e r c a m e r a t u s , 1,2,3,4. cf . or a.ff. S p i r i f e r a f f . S- a l a t u s , 1,2,5 S p i r i f e r a.ff . o r c f . S. u f e n s i s , 1,2,4. C. c f . C- p e c t i n i f e r a , 4. R. a f f . o r c f . R. n i k i t i n i , 1,2,3,4,5.." H. c f . o r a . f f . H. meekana, 2,3.  A r e l a t i v e l y h i g h f a u n a l s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e two r e g i o n s ( i n d e x o f 5 6 ) is  suggested.  known, t h i s similarity tionable,  Until  s u c h t i m e a s t h e A l a s k a n f a u n a s a r e more  r e l a t i o n s h i p ca,nnot be f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , of t h e two faunas  and t h e sequences  but the g e n e r a l  i s , i n the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r , are correlatable  on t h e i r  of the f o s s i l i f e r o u s  *The n u m b e r s i n d i c a t e t h e s o u r c e o f t h e l i s t e d and W r i g h t , 1908; 2 = B u d d i n g t o n a n d C h a p i n , 4 = M o f f i t t , 1938; 5 = M o f f i t t , 1954.  unques-  fauna,l c o n t e n t .  The m a j o r i t y o f s p e c i e s l i s t e d a b o v e i s p r e s e n t i n t h e P e r m i a n A l e x a n d e r A r c h i p e l a g o , where l i t h o l o g i e s  adequately  of the sequence  species: 1 = Wright 1929; 3 = M e r t i e , 1930;  103  are  similar  t o those of Vancouver  Island,  700 m i l e s t o t h e s o u t h .  C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the Yukon The P e r m o - C a r b o n i f e r o u s  succession of eastern Alaska i s corre-  l a t e d w i t h a sequence of s i m i l a r b; 1962b, c) .  At least  age i n t h e n o r t h e r n Y u k o n  (Nelson, 1961a,  7 of the s p e c i e s from the A l a s k a Permian  listed  above a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e T a h k a n d i t F o r m a t i o n o f t h e E a g l e D i s t r i c t , the Alaska-Yukon  border.  The Y u k o n P e r m o - C a r b o n i f e r o u s  near  succession i s  composed o f t h e M i s s i s s i p p i a n C a l i c o B l u f f F o r m a t i o n , t h e P e n n s y l v a n i a n ? Lower Limestone  u n i t , Middle Recessive unit  d i t F o r m a t i o n o f L e o n a r d i a n age. fully  described or l i s t e d .  specific of  comparisons  may  The f a u n a s  N e o s p i r i f e r n. s p . Horridonia sp. A  ? ?  Horridonia sp. B  ?  Muirwoodia? sp. M i c h e l i n i a sp. B  1 1  the Yukon, S p i r i f e r e l l a  saranae  the other l i s t e d f o s s i l s  The t e n t a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  I s l a n d beds,  S_. s a r a n a e , N e l s o n , 1 9 6 1 a , b . " S p i r i f e r " c f . S_. u f e n s i s , N e l s o n , 1961b. N. s p . , N e l s o n , 1 9 6 1 a , b . Pieurohorridonia scoresbyensis N e l s o n , 1961b. H o r r i d o n i a from Lower L i m e s t o n e , N e l s o n , 1962b. M. t r a n s v e r s a , N e l s o n , 1 9 6 1 b . M. h a r k e r i , N e l s o n , 1 9 6 2 c .  i s found only i n the Tahkandit  Forma-  unit, with  occurs i n both formations. i n t h e Upper D i v i s i o n of the S i c k e r ,  found a l s o i n the Yukon T a h k a n d i t , t o g e t h e r w i t h  the occurrence of S p i r i f e r e l l a ver  Island.  a r e from the Lower Limestone  the e x c e p t i o n of N e o s p i r i f e r which  t h e genus S c h w a g e r i n a ,  the f o l l o w i n g  be made b e t w e e n t h e Y u k o n f a u n a s a n d t h e f a u n a s  the Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r Group o f Vancouver  tion;  of  of these r o c k s have n o t been  From the p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n ,  S p i r i f e r e l l a saranae s . l . B r a c h t h y r i n a c f . b. u f e n s i s  In  (Wolcampian?) and t h e Tahkan-  saranae  i n b o t h t h e T a h k a n d i t and V a n c o u -  s u g g e s t a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e two u n i t s .  The e v i -  104 dence from of seven  Permian  index f o s s i l s  i s s u p p o r t e d by the  presence  s p e c i e s of brachiopods from the Alaskan Tahkandit which  comparable The  t h e s e two  to Vancouver  Island fossils  (see p r e c e d i n g l i s t ;  a p p a r e n t l y g r e a t e r number o f s p e c i e s s i m i l a r  i n the Lower Limestone  t h e Yukon b e d s , and  c o r a l s ) have been f u l l y  t o S i c k e r Group  described.  o n l y a few of t h e s e  In addition,  p . 4 ) , and h a v e b e e n t r e a t e d as s i n g l e a s s e m b l a g e  If  S t e l c k , in N e l s o n , 1 9 6 1 a , p. 4; t h e c o m b i n e d known f a u n a s  1930).  fossils result  O n l y 17 s p e c i e s a r e (tabulate  the faunas of the  f o s s i l i f e r o u s Yukon f o r m a t i o n s are " g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d "  W a r r e n and  Mertie  u n i t m u s t be r e g a r d e d f o r t h e p r e s e n t as a  of the i n c o m p l e t e knowledge of the Yukon f a u n a s . a t p r e s e n t known f r o m  are  two  ( N e l s o n , 1961a,  (the "Russian fauna",  1 9 6 1 b , p.  31).  of the Lower Limestone  and  Tahkandit  a r e compared w i t h t h a t of the Upper D i v i s i o n o f the S i c k e r , a Simpson i n d e x o f 41 may  be  s e p a r a t e d b y 1,000 ity.  For  m i l e s t h i s appears  close  1  I t i s thus concluded  similar reliable tion  d e r i v e d from the c o m p a r a b l e s p e c i e s .  than t o the Lower  a relatively  t h a t the Vancouver  to the Permo-Carboniferous index f o s s i l s  t o be  faunas  two  I s l a n d faunas are  units  similargenerally  of the Yukon, b u t t h a t the most  suggest a c l o s e r a f f i n i t y  t o the Tahkandit  forma-  Limestone.  Correlation with Grinnell Peninsula Two Grinnell The  h i g h l y f o s s i l i f e r o u s Permian  the  P e n i n s u l a of Devon I s l a n d i n the C a n a d i a n A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o .  o l d e r , B e l c h e r Channel  Formation, mainly limestone, contains a  of f u s u l i n i d s ,  c o r a l s and b r a c h i o p o d s .  of g l a u c o n i t i c  sandstones  oids  f o r m a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t on  The y o u n g e r A s s i s t a n c e F o r m a t i o n  c o n t a i n s a b u n d a n t b r a c h i o p o d s and  ( H a r k e r and T h o r s t e i n s s o n , 1 9 6 0 ) .  fauna  a f e w ammon-  105  In  the fauna  o f the Belcher Channel Formation  k e r and T h o r s t e i n s s o n , in  two b r a c h i o p o d s  d e s c r i b e d by Har-  a r e comparable t o species  t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r Group o f Vancouver I s l a n d .  ferella  saranae i s present  Island i s similar of the f u s u l i n i d  i n both  to Derbyia  faunas.  Spiri-  sp. from Vancouver  sp. of the Belcher Channel.  Three  species  genus S c h w a g e r i n a a n d o n e o f P s e u d o f u s u l i n e l l a h a v e a l s o  been d e s c r i b e d from t h e B e l c h e r Channel. tively  Derbyia?  found  identified  T h e s e two g e n e r a a r e t e n t a -  i n t h e S i c k e r Group f a u n a ,  but specific  comparisons are  not y e t p o s s i b l e . H a r k e r a n d T h o r s t e i n s s o n h a v e d e s c r i b e d 24 s p e c i e s o f b r a c h i o pods f r o m t h e A s s i s t a n c e F o r m a t i o n . identical Group.  or similar  Seven o f these r e p r e s e n t  species  t o s p e c i e s f o u n d i n t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r  These a r e l i s t e d b e l o w on t h e r i g h t , o p p o s i t e  t h e comparable Van-  couver I s l a n d s p e c i e s . Spiriferella  saranae  S.  Antiquitonia sulcata Muirwoodia? sp. Rhyncihopora :n. s p . P t e r o s p i r i f e r ? sp. Neospirifer h . sp. Kochiproductus n. sp. The  faunas thus  Paleozoic  ? ? ? ? ? ?  saranae  D i c t y o c l o s t u s c f . D. n e o i n f l a t u s M u i r w o o d i a mammatus R. c f . R. n i k i t i n i P t e r o s p i r i f e r c f . P. a l a t u s S p i r i f e r striato-paradoxus K. f r e b o l d i  s u g g e s t some d e g r e e o f c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e U p p e r  formations  of G r i n n e l l  P e n i n s u l a and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , w h i c h  a r e a b o u t 2,000 m i l e s a p a r t ; a S i m p s o n i n d e x o f 20 i s o b t a i n e d u s i n g t h e combined faunas o f B e l c h e r  Channel and A s s i s t a n c e F o r m a t i o n s ;  B e l c h e r Channel a l o n e , and A s s i s t a n c e a l o n e ,  f o r the  t h e f i g u r e s a r e 11 a n d 26  respectively, reflecting  t h e dominance o f b r a c h i o p o d s  Formation.  from f o r a m i n i f e r a , (see above) however,  The e v i d e n c e  that the c l o s e s t a f f i n i t i e s D i v i s i o n of the S i c k e r .  i n the Assistance suggests  a r e between t h e B e l c h e r Channel and Upper  106  Correlations with other A r c t i c regions Faunal s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Permian of G r i n n e l l  Peninsula  a n d G r e e n l a n d a r e l i s t e d b y H a r k e r a n d T h o r s t e i n s s o n ( 1 9 6 0 , p. 1 6 ) . addition to f i v e  s p e c i e s o f t h i s l i s t w h i c h a r e p r o b a b l y common t o b o t h  the  Grinnell  the  Upper D i v i s i o n o f the S i c k e r Group a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n the  P e n i n s u l a and V a n c o u v e r  beds o f G r e e n l a n d by d i r e c t l y Antiquitonia sulcata H o r r i d o n i a sp. A  ? ? ?  H u s t e d i a meekana C l e i o t h y r i d i n a sp. S p i r i f e r e l l a saranae S p i r i f e r i n a ? sp. Nuculana sp. Chaenomya? s p . Schizodus sp.  ? ? ? ? ? ? 1  It  In  I s l a n d , the f o l l o w i n g species  comparable  or s i m i l a r  of  Permian  forms.  D i c t y c l o s t u s n e o i n f l a t u s , D u n b a r , 1962 S o w e r b i n a g r a n u l i f e r a , D u n b a r , 1962 PIeurohorridonia scoresbyensis, D u n b a r , 1955 H. s p . , D u n b a r , 1955 C. p e c t i n i f e r a , D u n b a r , 1955 S_? s p . u n d e t . , D u n b a r , 1955 S_. m u l t i p l i c a t a , D u n b a r , 1955 N. s p e l u n c a r i a , N e w e l l , 1955 A l l p r i s m a e l e g a n s , N e w e l l , 1955 S. o b s c u r u s , N e w e l l , 1955  i s t h u s a p p a r e n t t h a t a t l e a s t 14 o f t h e V a n c o u v e r  s p e c i e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by s i m i l a r  Island  species i n the Greenland Permian  fau-  nas . S i m i l a r l y , H a r k e r and T h o r s t e i n s s o n s c o m p a r i s o n of t h e G r i n n e l l 1  P e n i n s u l a faunas w i t h those of Novaya Zemlya comparable  to Vancouver  Island fossils.  ductus f a s c i a t u s , N e o s p i r i f e r u f e n s i s and R h y n c o p o r a  the Vancouver The  t h i s l i s t may  cameratus, K r o t o v i a b a r e n z i ,  species  be a d d e d P r o Brachythyrina  g e i n i t z i a n a , w h i c h o c c u r i n the Novaya Zemlya  mian faunas d e s c r i b e d by M i l o r a d o v i c h in  To  includes several  I s l a n d Permian  ( 1 9 3 5 ) , and a r e s i m i l a r  to  faunas of S p i t z b e r g e n Permian f o r m a t i o n s have been  compared  ( 1 9 5 5 , p . 57)  t o t h o s e o f G r e e n l a n d , and by H a r k e r and  steinsson  ( 1 9 6 0 , p. 16)  to those of the G r i n n e l l  that r e l a t i v e l y  species  faunas.  by Dunbar  sult  Per-  Thor-  Peninsula, w i t h the r e -  l a r g e numbers o f s p e c i e s a r e s u g g e s t e d as b e i n g  com-  107  mon t o t h e t h r e e a r e a s .  Stepanov  (1937) i l l u s t r a t e s N e o s p i r i f e r c o n d o r ,  C l e i o t h y r i d i n a r o y s s i a n a , M u i r w o o d i a mammatus a n d R h y n c o p o r a from Spitzbergen, a l l of which are s i m i l a r  nikitini  t o species from Vancouver  Island,  Correlations with As  Russia  c a n b e s e e n i n t h e names g i v e n  t o many o f t h e f o s s i l s o f t h e  P e r m i a n l o c a l i t i e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , a n d d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l s e c t i o n on s y s t e m a t i c been i d e n t i f i e d and on  p a l e o n t o l o g y , many o f t h e b r a c h i o p o d  o r compared w i t h R u s s i a n  e s p e c i a l l y w i t h those t h e U r a l s and Timan.  fauna  s p e c i e s Rhynchcpora n i k i t i n i ,  stricted  species, (1902)  saranae,  by almost i d e n t i c a l  of Vancouver I s l a n d .  or s i m i l a r  Tschernyschew s 1  Camerophoria pentameroides, Hustedia i n S p i r i f e r u f e n s i s , Productus  ductus p o r r e c t u s and Productus forms.  Permo-Carboniferous  A t l e a s t 13 o f t h e 213 s p e c i e s l i s t e d b y T s c h -  species i n the brachiopod  parable  s p e c i e s have  d e s c r i b e d i n Tschernychew's monograph  e r n y s c h e w ( p . 352-360) a r e r e p r e s e n t e d  dica, Spiriferella  i n the  timanicus  fasciatus,  Pro-  a r e among t h e m o s t c l o s e l y  Of t h e s e , H . i n d i c a , S . s a r a n a e , a n d P . p o r r e c t u s  com-  are r e -  t o Permian beds. The  bryozoan fauna  of Vancouver I s l a n d i s a l s o l i n k e d  P a l e o z o i c f a u n a s o f R u s s i a b y common o r s i m i l a r  species.  t o Upper  Among  these  a r e F e n e s t e l l a b a s l e o e n s i s and F. p a r v i u s c u l a ( E l i a s and C o n d r a , 1957, p.  78, p. 1 0 8 ) .  Correlation with Three s p e c i e s o f pelecypods, of bryozoa  present  Australia one t a b u l a t e c o r a l , a n d f o u r  species  i n t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r Group a r e r e p r e -  108  sented  i n the Permian faunas  or s i m i l a r  species.  The  of W e s t e r n A u s t r a l i a by  almost  identical  c l o s e s t comparisons l i n k S t r e b l a s c o p o r a  pul-  c h r a and F e n e s t e l l a p a r v i u s c u l a o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d w i t h S_. m a r m i o n e n s i s and F .  h o r o l o g i a r e s p e c t i v e l y of the western  ( C r o c k f o r d , 1944a; The  three Vancouver I s l a n d species t e n t a t i v e l y assigned  i n few  places other  than E a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a , (see Campbell,  C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h southwestern Despite  United  fossils,  the faunas  a d j o i n i n g r e g i o n s of southern  s e m b l a n c e s do n o t  a p p e a r t o be  Island  (Kochiproductus, n.sp.),  and  N e o s p i r i f e r huecoensis  multipora).  of  of the  Permian  United States.  While  the r e -  as c l o s e as t h o s e w i t h n o r t h e r n  are " H o r r i d o n i a " texana  c f . F.  simi-  faunas,  to the  American  specimens  Other Texas s p e c i e s which resemble Vancouver  sis  b r y o z o a n s F.  341).  those  i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e few  on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . fossils  p.  be-  of the Upper D i v i s i o n  s p e c i e s , H u s t e d i a meekana a p p e a r s i d e n t i c a l  s p e c i e s from the l i m i t e d found  1959,  not  States  the S i c k e r Group c o n t a i n s e v e r a l s p e c i e s r e s e m b l i n g  a t l e a s t one  and h a s  the  has  the predominance of s p e c i e s c l o s e l y comparable or  to A r c t i c or Russian  o f T e x a s and  to  i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t the genus  f o r e been r e c o g n i z e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a  lar  faunas  1957).  genus I n g e l a r e l l a a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y been found  Australian  Productus  (N. n.  sp.)  (H. sp.A hessensis  ), Buxtonia  victorioen-  (Antiquitonia  among t h e b r a c h i o p o d s ,  sulcata), and  p a r v i u s c u l a and A c a n t h o c l a d i a g u a d a l u p e n s i s ?  the (A.  USSR  GRINNELL PENINSULA  Stages  NORTHERN YUKON  CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA  VANCOUVER ISLAND  THT  WESTERN  CENTRAL OREGON  WASHINGTON  WEST  TEXAS Series  ? 1? a> c o  Tatarian  Ochoan  a> E ?--  U J  a. or o. o. 3  A  m  .c 2  ! I  1 »  Kazanian  ?—  Kami an  3 C  o> a o Q  Ufimian  Capitan Guadalupian /  Word  -r-?n Kungurian — Svalbardian  Cache Creek  Assistance Formation  Group - A ?  Coyote Z <  or Belcher Channel Formation ?  a: UJ  o Sakmarian  _ l ? J- J-7 J__  Tahkandit Formation  Artinskian  Fig. 5 5  CARBONIFEROUS  a.  3  Middle  Upper Division  CD  Recessive  X T Lwr. Limestone  Butte Formation  Unit UPPER  Leonardian  |3? w  k?rr?rf rtt ?  ? _ Lowr. Div.  Black Mountain Formation  Wolfcampian  ( Danner 1957 unpub)  ?^?  PENNSYLVANIAN  Correlation of Permian formations of Cordilleran and Arctic regions. In part after Harker and Thorsteinsson (I960), Dutro (1961), Dunbar et al (I960), Danner (1957,1962). Dutro's alternative ages of formations containing "Arctic Permian fauna" shown by diagonal shading.  109  AGE OF THE S I C K E R GROUP FAUNA The  a g e r a n g e s o f many o f t h e f o s s i l s  the S i c k e r Group and t h e c l o s e l y n o t w e l l known.  forms mentioned  above, a r e  Some e x t e n d f r o m U p p e r C a r b o n i f e r o u s t o P e r m i a n , b u t  several are entirely restricted the Lower Permian i c a n sequences  comparable  o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f  t o t h e Permian, and almost e n t i r e l y t o  ( i n t h e R u s s i a n s e n s e , a n d t h a t p r o p o s e d f o r t h e Amer-  by Cohee, 1960, p. 1 5 7 9 ) .  Among t h e s e i n d e x f o s s i l s a r e  the genera K o c h i p r o d u c t u s , M u i r w o o d i a , I n g e l a r e l l a and S t r e b l a s c o p o r a , and t h e s p e c i e s H u s t e d i a meekana, S p i r i f e r e l l a t i o n of these o r c l o s e l y comparable  fossils  s t r o n g l y suggests Lower Permian age. the f u s u l i n i d s Schwagerina age  and L e o n a r d i a n  Oregon.  and P s e u d o f u s u l i n e l l a t e n d t o c o n f i r m confined  this  to the Wolf-  series. I s l a n d f a u n a have marked  sim-  The C o y o t e B u t t e h a s b e e n d a t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f f u s u l i n i d s a s and L e o n a r d i a n .  s p e c i e s comparable  Group,  beds  t o c e r t a i n species from t h e Coyote B u t t e Formation o f c e n t r a l  Wolfcampian eral  Island  The t e n t a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f  The b r a c h i o p o d s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r ilarities  The a s s o c i a -  i n t h e Vancouver  d e t e r m i n a t i o n , f o r these genera a r e l a r g e l y  campian  saranae.  The G r i n n e l l  P e n i n s u l a fauna has a l s o  t o forms from t h e Upper D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r  and h a s been p a r t i a l l y  dated from f u s u l i n i d  evidence.  H a r k e r and  T h o r s t e i n s s o n r e g a r d the o l d e r f u s u l i n i d - b e a r i n g B e l c h e r Channel t i o n as b e i n g Wolfcamp-Leonardian mation i s Leonard-Wordian  i n age.  The y o u n g e r  Forma-  Assistance For-  ( m a i n l y K u n g u r i a n , o r S v a l b a r d i a n i n t h e Rus-  s i a n t e r m i n o l o g y ) on t h e b a s i s o f i t s s t r a t i g r a p h i c tionship  sev-  t o beds w i t h s i m i l a r b r a c h i o p o d f a u n a s  p o s i t i o n and r e l a -  (the " A r c t i c  Permian  f a u n a " , H a r k e r a n d T h o r s t e i n s s o n , 1 9 5 8 , p. 1 5 7 7 ; 1 9 6 0 , p. 1 5 ) . However, the age o f t h e A r c t i c  Permian fauna i s n o t y e t f i r m l y  established.  110  Dunbar  ( 1 9 5 5 , p . 52) w o u l d  L a t e Permian 226)  (Zechstein).  t h a t t h e age  date beds i n G r e e n l a n d b e a r i n g t h i s I t has been s u g g e s t e d by D u t r o  of the A r c t i c  Permian  fauna  ( 1 9 6 1 , p.  i s equivalent to  the Kamian ( L i k h a r e v , 1 9 5 9 ) , o r K a z a n i a n and U f i m i a n ( e a r l y L a t e  elements  d e t e r m i n a t i o n s of the Yukon sequence  of the A r c t i c  er Limestone u n i t I t may  Permian  are v a l i d ,  Permian) certain  f a u n a a r e common i n t h e P e n n s y l v a n i a n Low-  ( s e e d i s c u s s i o n above and N e l s o n , 1 9 6 1 a ; 1961b; 1962b,c  w e l l be t h a t t h e A r c t i c  fauna i s diachronic, w i t h  d i f f e r i n g ages i n d i f f e r e n t ' p l a c e s w i t h i n i t s w i d e  distributional  That  the resemblance  i t i s not e n t i r e l y  a facies  f a u n a i s shown b y  tween t h e f a u n a s of s u c h p r e d o m i n a n t l y l i m e s t o n e u n i t s s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r and of G r i n n e l l The  the predominantly arenaceous  slightly realm. be-  as t h e U p p e r  Divi-  Assistance Formation  Peninsula. c o n c l u s i o n d r a w n f r o m t h e a b o v e d i s c u s s i o n s o f age  r e l a t i o n are that the c l o s e s t  general s i m i l a r i t i e s  l a n d fauna are to faunas of E a r l y Permian m a r i a n - A r t i n s k i a n ) a g e , and able index f o s s i l s and  C-  fauna l i e s between t h o s e ages  s u g g e s t e d by H a r k e r and T h o r s t e i n s s o n and Dunbar, and  I f N e l s o n ' s age  as  t h e same age  i n the fauna.  As  of the Vancouver  (Wolfcampian-Leonardian; i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e most  not uniform or well-known,  the presence of o l d e r or younger  the sequence  c o n s i d e r e d as a p o s s i b i l i t y .  t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p s  be  corIsSakreli-  the study of the fauna i s incomplete  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the f o s s i l s w i t h i n the s t r a t i g r a p h i c  must s t i l l  and  of c e r t a i n f o s s i l s  The  column i s beds w i t h i n distribu-  o f t h e " R u s s i a n " and  "Arctic  P e r m i a n " f a u n a s i n C o r d i l l e r a n , A r c t i c a n d R u s s i a n r e g i o n s a r e shown i n T a b l e 6.  The  d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e age  i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 55.  of these faunas  are  VI  0 (L),  species present;  CO  CBJ:  :  x  0 0 0 0 0 X 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 X G  Fenestella basleoensis Fenestella parviuscula Goniocladia intermedia P o l y p o r a megastoma Antiquitonia sulcata Cleiothyridina gerardi Echinoconchus inexpectatus Horridonia sp. A Horridonia sp. B H u s t e d i a c f . H. m e e k a n a Kochiproductus n. sp. K r o t o v i a ? s p . A. Laevicamera n. s p . N e o s p i r i f e r ? n. sp. Rhynchpporar.n. sp. B r a c h y t h y r i n a c f . B. u f e n s i s S p i r i f e r e l l a saranae Squamularia r o s t r a t a Tetrataxis Parafusulina alaskensis Parafusulina? calx Parafusulina gracilis Parafusulina? turgida Pseudofusulinella montis Pseudofusulinella occidentalis Schubertella kingi Schwagerina  LEGEND:  NWW  G X(il)  0 0 0 X  0 X  X?  X X  X 0  0 X  A  G G X G X X? X? X X G X X X X X G  G X  X? X?  X?  G X X? X? X X G  X  X? X  X X  X 0 G  0  G G G G  G G G G G G 0 G  G(U)  G G  0 0 0 0 0  0(iL)  0$)  Gci)  species;  "Arctic" Permian Fauna GP Be Ass  G  0(L)  X - comparable  "Russian" Fauna Y LLs T  X - a l s o i n upper C a r b o n i f e r o u s ;  G  0 G  NWR  0(L) X(L) X 0(UC) X(L) 0(L) X(L) X?(L) X?(L) X(L) X(L) X(L) X(L) X(L) X X(L) 0(L) 0(L) G? X(L) G(L) G(L) G(L) G? G? G G(L)  genus p r e s e n t ; s p e c i e s n o t compared.  ( U ) , (UC) - L o w e r P e r m i a n , U p p e r P e r m i a n , U p p e r C a r b o n i f e r o u s u i c c u r r e n c e .  COLUMN HEADINGS:  V I - Vancouver  I s l a n d , B u t t l e Lake Formation.  NWv£ - N o r t h w e s t W a s h i n g t o n , B l a c k M o u n t a i n F o r m a t i o n ( W o l f -  camp?). CO - C e n t r a l O r e g o n , C o y o t e B u t t e FormatB.on ( W o l f c a m p - L e o n a r d ) . CBC - C e n t r a l B.C., C a c h e C r e e k Group ( P e n n s y l v a n i a n ? and P e r m i a n ) . P e r m i a n . Y - Yukon and A l a s k a b o r d e r , Permo-CarboniferAlaska jj- T a h k a n d i t F o r m a t i o n ( L e o n a r d ? ) . GP - G r i n n e l l P e n i n ous; L L s - Lower Limestone ( P e n n s y l v a n i a n ? ) , s u l a , Permian; Be - B e l c h e r C h a n n e l F o r m a t i o n ( W o l f c a m p - L o w e r L e o n a r d ) ; A s s - A s s i s t a n c e F o r m a t i o n (Upper L e o n a r d ) . NWR Northwestern Russia: Perr,nian. SOURCES:  A i t k e n , 1 9 5 9 , A r m s t r o n g , 1949. B r a n s o n 1948, B u d c l i n g t o n and C h a p i n , 1929. C o o p e r , 1957; Danner, 1957. D u n b a r , 1 9 4 6 . D u n b a r e t a l . , 1 9 6 0 . D u t r o , 1 9 6 1 , jl E l i a s a n d C o n d r a , 1 9 5 7 . F r i t z , 1 9 3 2 , 1 9 4 6 . H a r k e r a n d T h o r s t e i n s s o n , 1 9 6 0 . J o n e s , 1 9 4 9 , L o r d , 1 9 4 8 ; M e r t i e , 1 9 3 0 , M o f f i t t , 1 9 3 8 , 1 9 5 4 . N e l s o n , 1 9 6 1 a , b: 1962. P i t c h e r , 1960. S a r y c h e v a and S o k a l s k a y a , U952. T r e t t i n , 1961. Tschernyschew, 1902. W r i g h t and W r i g h t , 1908.  TABLE 6 D i s t r i b u t i o n of c e r t a i n key f o s s i l s  i n C o r d i l l e r s 4, A r c t i c a n d R u s s i a n r e g i o n s .  112  BIOGEOGRAPHY The of  fossil  concept  of biogeographic realms  i n paleogeographic studies  assemblages h a s p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n h i s t o r i c a l  geology.  A l t h o u g h modern i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f f a c i e s , e c o l o g i c a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l , m i g r a t i o n and d i s p e r s a l geographic  and oceanographic  interpretations,  Because of t h e i r cial and  f a c t o r s have m o d i f i e d e a r l i e r  the realm concept  still  significance i n relation  i n t e r v a l s and t o assessment o f t h e hypotheses p o l a r wandering,  Runcorn, 1962; B u l l a r d , Schuchert mian.  Four  Tethyan  of continental system  drift have  1964).  (1935) d e f i n e d seven m a r i n e  f a u n a l realms  of the Per-  o f t h e s e were r e g a r d e d as "warm-water" r e a l m s , o f w h i c h t h e  ample o f w h i c h  The r e m a i n i n g t h r e e , a t y p i c a l e x -  i s the Eastern A u s t r a l i a n realm  "cold-water" realms  the A r c t i c  to late Paleozoic gla-  ( S c h u c h e r t , 1928, 1935; S t e h l i , 1957;  (realm I) i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  The  i s valid.  b i o g e o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s of t h e Permian  been g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n  ( V I ) , were d e s c r i b e d as  ( S c h u c h e r t , 1 9 3 5 , p . 4, f i g . 1 ) .  American  Cordilleran realm  a n d warm w a t e r s  (III) , i n which  cold waters  from t h e P a c i f i c and t h e Mexican  ed f o r a t i m e i n t h e M i d d l e P e r m i a n "  the cold  eastern Ala-  s k a a n d t h e Y u k o n ) a n d t h e warm T e x a n p r o v i n c e ( I l l b , t h e s o u t h e r n region).  The c o l d - w a t e r S i b e r o - A l a s k a n r e a l m  from  region "unit-  ( p . 4 ) , was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o  Alaskan province ( I l i a , i n c l u d i n g p a r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia,  illeran  bio-  Cord-  (VII, northern S i -  b e r i a a n d w e s t e r n A l a s k a ) was c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e A l a s k a n p r o v i n c e o f t h e C o r d i l l e r a n r e a l m , perhaps chain. pears  From Schuchert's  through northwestern A l a s k a or the A l e u t i a n  p a l e o g e o g r a p h i c map  t h a t t h e A l a s k a n p r o v i n c e was c o n n e c t e d  pelago, Greenland,  (1935, f i g . 1 ) , i t a l s o apthrough  the A r c t i c  Archi-  S p i t s b e r g e n (Svalbard) and Novaya Zemlya w i t h t h e  113  Uralo-Germanic third map  realm  (V, p r o b a b l y a l s o w i t h a " c o o l - w a t e r f a u n a " ) .  cold-water r e a l m , the E a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a n , appears  t o i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e o t h e r two;  realms  seem t o be  of the Tethyan  Schuchert's  i t s only connections with other  i n the Western A u s t r a l i a n p r o v i n c e  r e a l m , w h e r e t h e warm- and  more o r l e s s m i x e d "  from  The  ( l b ) , an  cold-water faunas  outpost  "became  (p. 4 ) .  Schuchert's work thus suggests  a circumpolar d i s t r i b u t i o n  of  n o r t h e r n f a u n a s , w i t h some e x t e n s i o n s t o t h e s o u t h b u t more o r l e s s tinct  from a group of warm-water, e q u a t o r i a l  faunas  and  from a  dis-  southern  cold-water fauna i n E a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a . L a t e r workers t a t i o n of Permian  present evidence  biogeography.  concluded: f o r Texas Permian  Newell  i n support of a s i m i l a r  interpre-  (1957, p. 4 0 7 ) , f o r i n s t a n c e ,  fossils:  "The m a r i n e f a u n a s a r e m o s t s i m i l a r t o c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s f a u n a s at low l a t i t u d e s i n the E a s t e r n Hemisphere ( T e t h y s ) . T h i s i s probably a r e s u l t of c i r c u m e q u a t o r i a l c o n d i t i o n s . " He  further  states  (p. 426):  "On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e P e r m i a n f a u n a s o f n o r t h e r n E u r o p e and the A r c t i c I s l a n d s form q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t , b o r e a l f a c i e s . ....Lack of w e l l - d e f i n e d l a t i t u d i n a l z o n a t i o n i n the b o r e a l faunas of h i g h l a t i t u d e s . . . . s u g g e s t s p r e v a i l i n g m i l d c l i m a t e s well into Arctic regions." Harker  and T h o r s t e i n s s o n (1960,  Permian  fauna" which  Permian  faunal realm.  They a l s o p o s t u l a t e d "a f a i r l y and w e s t e r n  fig.  genera  of  been s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l by Gobbett  restricted boreal distribution 1) i s now  f r e e marine  Early con-  Cordilleran regions.  of the most d i s t i n c t i v e of the b r a c h i o p o d  b o r e a l f a u n a , H o r r i d o n i a , has The  "Arctic  t h e y r e g a r d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a w i d e s p r e a d  n e c t i o n " between A r c t i c One  p. 19) h a v e d e s c r i b e d an  i n d i c a t e d , Gobbett  m o d i f i e d by Yukon o c c u r r e n c e s  ( 1 9 6 1 , p.  this (1961) . 46;  ( N e l s o n , 1 9 6 1 b ; 1962)  and  114 Vancouver I s l a n d occurrences  d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e s e n t work.  D e s p i t e t h e s e i n d i c a t i o n s o f d i s t i n c t i v e b o r e a l and faunas, c e r t a i n elements  of the American  equatorial  C o r d i l l e r a n r e a l m , and  the  A l a s k a n p r o v i n c e i n p a r t i c u l a r , p r e s e n t e v i d e n c e o f more c o m p l e x , at  present confusing, r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Wheeler 1959)  Anderson  ( 1 9 4 2 ) , Thompson, W h e e l e r a n d D a n n e r  have p o i n t e d out the Tethyan  with  ( 1 9 5 0 ) and D a n n e r  affinities  the northwestern C o r d i l l e r a n r e g i o n .  ( 1 9 4 1 ) , Thompson  e q u a t o r i a l r e g i o n s i s a l s o s u g g e s t e d by  and (1957,  of the f u s u l i n i d  Connection  and  faunas  of the A l a s k a n  of  province  the bryozoan' evidence  (Fritz,  1932). The  present study also suggests  graphic r e l a t i o n s h i p s Alaskan province. similar  The  bryozoans  are s i m i l a r  the Tethyan  fauna  Early  to f o s s i l s  t o an E a s t -  C e r t a i n pelecypods  ( i . e . l a n d masses, u p l i f t s )  assemblages.  1958;  For  1963).  and  of  Pseudoschwagerina  as a n  controls (1963,  fusulinid  ( L o c h m a n - B a l k and p. 45)  suggests  environments  explana-  Wilson,  t h a t the  assemblage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  the contemporaneous  of  Pseudofusulinella-  assemblage of the n o r t h w e s t e r n C o r d i l l e r a n were to d i f f e r e n t  relied  M o r e r e c e n t s t u d i e s t e n d t o empha-  i n s t a n c e , Ross  the s o u t h e r n C o r d i l l e r a n r e g i o n and  separated".  apparently related  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of f o s s i l biogeographic realms  of environmental  restricted  genus c h a r -  of the Western A u s t r a l i a n o u t p o s t  s i z e the importance  Schwagerina  one  ( s e e s e c t i o n on s y s t e m a t i c p a l e o n t o l o g y ) .  t i o n of the d i s t i n c t i v e  E a r l y Permian  one  of the " c o l d - w a t e r " fauna.  h e a v i l y on p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s  Ross,  times i n Schuchert's  fauna", include at least  o f t h e T e x a n p r o v i n c e , and  Australian fossil  Permian  biogeo-  V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d b r a c h i o p o d s , t h o u g h as a w h o l e  to the " A r c t i c Permian  acteristic ern  existed i n Early  t h a t faunas w i t h mixed  "largely  r a t h e r than being g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  115 Among s t u d i e s o f b i o g e o g r a p h i c e v i d e n c e i n e v a l u a t i o n s the hypotheses of c o n t i n e n t a l d r i f t  and p o l a r w a n d e r i n g , t h e P e r -  mian d a t a p r e s e n t e d by S t e h l i  (1957) a r e of s i g n i f i c a n c e  sent work.  of s e v e r a l  The  distributions  studied marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s p l o t t e d on w o r l d maps. sult:  groups of  ( b r a c h i o p o d s and f u s u l i n i d s )  were  p a t t e r n s of d i s t r i b u t i o n s were the r e distributions  t o low and m i d d l e l a t i t u d e s , p a r a l l e l  The n o r t h b o u n d a r y  to the pre-  intensively-  one, a g e n e r a l , w o r l d - w i d e p a t t e r n ; and s e c o n d ,  in a belt limited tor.  Two  of  to the  equa-  of the low-middle l a t i t u d i n a l b e l t i s sug-  g e s t e d as b e i n g a n a l a g o u s t o t h e m o d e r n f a u n a l b r e a k p a r a l l e l 15 d e g r e e s C e n t i g r a d e w i n t e r i s o t h e r m .  The  l a t t e r may  to the  a l s o be  cor-  r e l a t e d w i t h a prominent p h y s i c o - c h e m i c a l boundary. The roborate  present data from Vancouver  I s l a n d Permian faunas  Newell's s u g g e s t i o n of l a c k of l a t i t u d i n a l  boreal regions.  However, t h i s does n o t s i g n i f y  movements o f t h e c o n t i n e n t s , o r p o l a r w a n d e r i n g . of the " A r c t i c latitudinal  zonation i n the  l a c k of The  cor-  relative  distribution  P e r m i a n f a u n a " , as p r e s e n t l y u n d e r s t o o d , has  t h e same  s p r e a d ( a b o u t 40 d e g r e e s ) on p r e s e n t w o r l d maps as i t h a s  on r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s b a s e d on p a l e o m a g n e t i c d a t a f o r t h e P e r m i a n . latter  (van H i l t e n ,  1962, f i g .  8; R u n c o r n , 1 9 6 2 , f i g .  25)  interpret  t h e d a t a as b e i n g c o n s i s t e n t w i t h b o t h p o l a r w a n d e r i n g and drift  since the Permian.  f a u n a " does n o t appear  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the " A r c t i c  to coincide closely with S t e h l i s  p r e t a t i o n s , as h i s m a j o r latitude,  The  1  continental Permian  (1957)  f a u n a l b r e a k o c c u r s a t a b o u t 55 d e g r e e s  i n the m i d d l e of the range of " A r c t i c  Permian fauna".  15 d e g r e e s o u t h w a r d e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s b o u n d a r y , p e r h a p s m a j o r o c e a n c u r r e n t s , seems t o t h e w r i t e r  The  effected  t o be a p o s s i b i l i t y a t  internorth A by least.  116  I n summary, t h e n , information  on  the  i t i s the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n  composition  and  distribution  mian fauna" i s i n c o n c l u s i v e w i t h r e s p e c t o f P e r m i a n b i o g e o g r a p h y and continental d r i f t . of the northern field  The  that the  of the  "Arctic  study.  Per-  to d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  to the hypotheses of p o l a r wandering  relatively  i n c o m p l e t e s t a t u s of f a u n a l  C o r d i l l e r a n r e g i o n does, however, suggest a  for further  present  and  studies  fruitful  117  ENVIRONMENT OF  DEPOSITION  Evidence from which to i n t e r p r e t environments of of  the  Sicker  p e c t s of  Group has  the  rocks,  not  s u c h as  as y e t  been f u l l y  their detailed  compiled.  deposition Certain  p e t r o g r a p h y and  as-  their  g e o c h e m i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , r e m a i n t o be  investigated.  o b s e r v a t i o n s made p r i o r t o and  d u r i n g the  p r e s e n t s t u d y s u g g e s t some  tentative  to environmental  conclusions relevant  PETROGRAPHIC AND The volcanic and  origin.  p o s i t i o n are  and  local  Pyroclastic breccias,  grade i n t o or  Sicker  and  feldspathic  Group i s  of  tuffs com-  interfinger with  thin-bedded tuffaceous greywackes,  gross c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  of  sequences  greywacke-argillite  thesis) .  generalized  f l o w s and  t h i s succession suggest  upper p a r t  c o a r s e n i n g to the Group i n the  For  n o r t h and  p.  i n the  instance, west of  Cowichan Lake a r e a .  immediately below the  The  and  the  18;  Fyles the  grey-  f i g . 2.  of  c l a s t i c r o c k s of  o c c u r r e n c e of  the  this local  the  coarse  Sicker breccias  Upper D i v i s i o n i n  A z u r e L a k e s e c t i o n may  toward a c o a r s e n i n g of  Figure 9  ( i b i d . ) notes a  the  lower  bedded to m a s s i v e  succession modify  c a l c a r e o u s r o c k s of  West H o m e L a k e s e c t i o n trend  ( F y l e s , 1955,  Lateral variations  sequence.  the  c o a r s e p y r o c l a s t i c r o c k s i n the  t h i n - b e d d e d f i n e p y r o c l a s t i c s and  wackes i n the  similar  cherty  the  or a m y g d a l o i d a l f l o w s of b a s a l t i c or a n d e s i t i c  dominance of v o l c a n i c  this  the Lower D i v i s i o n of  conglomerates. The  h a l f and  of  intercalated with,  of m a s s i v e to  analysis.  STRATIGRAPHIC EVIDENCE  majority  porphyritic  However,  clastic  indicate  r o c k s to the  the a  west.  118  The  rocks  ably overlie pebbly  o f the Upper D i v i s i o n of t h e S i c k e r Group c o n f o r m -  those  of  the Lower D i v i s i o n i n most p l a c e s .  sandstone of the A z u r e L a k e s e c t i o n of the Upper  ( F i g u r e s 6,  41)  The  probably  limestone-bearing  geneous l i t h o l o g i c a l l y calcareous  overlies  and  The  as  siliceous  calcareous  a local  The  Division  disconformity.  Upper D i v i s i o n ,  though not  as  suite includes c a l c i l u t i t e s , and  crystalline  calcarenites, cal-  limestones.  types have not been c l o s e l y  but  of the s e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e s the  p r e l i m i n a r y examination  grained c r i n o i d a l  the Home Lake a r e a .  the thin-bedded In  rocks  S i m i l a r rocks  limestone-chert  terms of F o l k ' s  limestone  and  c r i n o i d a l b i o m i c r i t e and  but  subordinate  two  distinct  t y p e s , one  i n t o c l a s s e s I and  area.  biomicrudite).  b i o m i c r u d i t e s form  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the carbonate  and  Impure  distinctive  Division. rocks  are  o f w h i c h i s common i n a l l t h r e e b e l t s  of  of  the  to  the  or  black,  Creek-Saltspring belt. The  micro-  the  I I (crinoidal biosparite  S i c k e r Group, i n c o n t r a s t to the other which i s r e s t r i c t e d China  area  classification,  p o r t i o n s of the s e c t i o n s of the Upper  S i l i c e o u s rocks  dominance  form smaller lenses w i t h i n  fall  ( t u f f a c e o u s ? ) b r y o z o a n b i o m i c r i t e s and  pro-  determined,  sequence of the Cowichan  ( 1 9 5 9 , 1962)  The  i n the B u t t l e Lake  m a j o r i t y of the r o c k s b i o s p a r u d i t e , and  of  rocks.  p o r t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l rock  and  hetero-  the Lower D i v i s i o n , c o n t a i n s a v a r i e t y  c i r u d i t e s , dolomitic limestones  o f medium t o c o a r s e  basal  first,  ubiquitous  type  to c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e s i l i c a  irregular  of c h e r t i s w h i t e , which occurs  l a y e r s i n the limestones  grey  i n nodules,  ( F i g u r e s 29,  48,  49).  lenses In  119  t h i n - s e c t i o n s , a l l stages t u r e s c a n be s e e n . short v e r t i c a l sion,  This  intervals;  the cherty  These c h e r t s  synclinal Bissell,  cherts  i n the total  s e c t i o n s o f t h e Upper i n certain portions  i n aggregate perhaps only  parts  Diviof the  t o s h e l f and miogeo-  of the C o r d i l l e r a n region (see  1959, p i s . I I , V ) . The  s e c o n d mode o f c h e r t o c c u r r e n c e ,  apparently  t h e C h i n a C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t , was o r i g i n a l l y (1955, p. 16; p i . V I I I ) . with  tex-  5 per cent of the  show r e m a r k a b l e s i m i l a r i t y  of other  limestone  t y p e o f c h e r t f o r m s up t o 50 p e r c e n t o f  zones a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d  sequence, comprising rock.  of replacement of o r i g i n a l  confined to  described  by F y l e s  I t i s found i n thin-bedded, graded  g r e y , f i n e - g r a i n e d , commonly s i l i c e o u s  limestone  L a m i n a e composed a l m o s t e n t i r e l y o f s i l i c e o u s f o u n d i n some t h i n - s e c t i o n s o f t h i s Saltspring b e l t , chert-limestone dant than t h e thicker-bedded,  (Figures  16,1 8 ) .  sponge s p i c u l e s a r e  sequence.  I n the China  sequences such as t h i s  coarser  sequences  crinoidal  Creek-  a r e more abun-  limestones  (Figure 6 ) .  EVIDENCE FROM SEDIMENTARY AND OTHER STRUCTURES Sedimentary rocks t h i n , graded u n i t s  o f t h e Lower D i v i s i o n i n c l u d e sequences o f  ( F i g u r e 2 7 ) . T u f f s and g r e y w a c k e - a r g i l l i t e i n t e r -  v a l s d i s p l a y , i n a d d i t i o n t o g r a d e d b e d d i n g , some d i s r u p t e d f e a t u r e s , minor l o c a l  d i s c o n f o r m i t i e s , and l a m i n a t e d  bedding  units with  obscure  cross-stratification. Rare p i l l o w s t r u c t u r e s and s c o r i a c e o u s of the  the presence of v o l c a n i c flows amygdaloidal rocks  basalts are evidence  i n t h e Lower D i v i s i o n .  of t h e Cowichan Lake area  (similar  Most of to volcanic  120  rocks i n other b e l t s ) a r e considered by F y l e s  ( 1 9 5 5 , p. 1 3 ) t o b e  flows. I n Upper D i v i s i o n r o c k s , graded b e d d i n g sequences has a l r e a d y been mentioned.  i n chert-limestone  Isolated  i n s t a n c e s o f graded  t e x t u r e i n i n d i v i d u a l beds o f coarse c a l c a r e n i t e and c a l c i r u d i t e have a l s o been observed.  Crudely  observed  rocks a t Home Lake  i n conglomeratic  c r o s s - s t r a t i f i e d beds have been ( F i g u r e 27) .  EVIDENCE FROM F O S S I L S The  only f o s s i l s  Division areradiolaria sils  found  have been d e s c r i b e d by F y l e s  The  s p i r i f e r i d brachiopods,  crinoids represented mainly  posures  The 1959,  o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n a r e p r o d u c t i d  ramose and f e n e s t r a t e b r y o z o a n s , a n d be d i s a r t i c u l a t e d  d e b r i s forms t h e dominant "allochem"  l o c a l i t y , Home Lake, a r t i c u l a t e d  out  is  One  t o the bedding a r e found  The m o s t s t r i k i n g  the spiriferid-productid  limestones.  (Folk, A t one  stem segments i n one b e d a r e planes  (Figure 30).  as s c a t t e r e d fragmentary  t h e l i m e s t o n e s , a n d more r a r e l y ,  sequence.  plates.  i n most o f t h e l i m e s t o n e e x -  1962) component o f most o f t h e c l a s t i c  Brachiopods  skeletal  Division.  crinoidal  oriented parallel  fos-  (1955, p. 1 5 ; p i . V I I ) f r o m c h e r t y  groups i s r e p r e s e n t e d  o f t h e Upper  Possible radiolarian  area.  m o s t common f o s s i l s  o r more o f t h e s e  i n t h e r o c k s o f the Lower  from Home Lake.  t u f f s of t h e Cowichan Lake  and  t o date  through-  i n coquinoid layers w i t h i n the  example o f t h e l a t t e r coquinas  shells  locally  type of occurrence  present  i na dolomitic  limestone u n i t i n t h e upper p a r t o f t h e Azure Lake s e c t i o n (see  121  Figure  6).  The p r e s e r v a t i o n  brushes of long slender  i s another notable  4, 5.  Plate I I , Figures  intact  of s p i r i -  f e a t u r e of t h i s bed ( P l a t e I , Figures  3,  1, 2, 3 ) .  mode o f o c c u r r e n c e o f b r y o z o a n s i s i n p a r t s i m i l a r t o  that of the brachiopods;  t h e two g r o u p s commonly a r e f o u n d i n t h e  same b e d , w i t h one o r t h e o t h e r in  with  s p i n e s , and of a r t i c u l a t e d v a l v e s  ferids  The  i n t h i s bed o f p r o d u c t i d s  t h e more i m p u r e c a r b o n a t e s ,  showing l o c a l  dominance.  e s p e c i a l l y i n the basal  However,  portion of  the Upper D i v i s i o n , f e n e s t r a t e b r y o z o a n s appear t o t h e c h a r a c t e r istic  fossils,  occurrence, in  commonly f o r m i n g  coquinoid  layers.  l a r g e fragments of d e l i c a t e fronds  the bedding planes;  I n t h i s mode o f  are preserved,  none h a s been f o u n d i n growth p o s i t i o n .  A few c o r a l s have been f o u n d i n t h e Upper D i v i s i o n . tend of  aligned  They  t o o c c u r most f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e impure c a r b o n a t e s n e a r t h e base  the u n i t .  small  The c o l l e c t i o n s i n c l u d e b o t h s o l i t a r y h o r n c o r a l s a n d  colonies of tabulate The  collections  bulk  forms.  of t h e gastropods and pelecypods o f t h e w r i t e r ' s  come f r o m t h e b a s a l  sandstone o f t h e B u t t l e Lake Forma-  t i o n , where they a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h faunule  (Rhynchopor.a, i n g e l a r e l l i d s ?  linids,  ostracods,  and p l a n t  Except f o r a few basal mainly  a distinctive and s m a l l  brachiopod  s p i r i f e r i d s ) , fusu-  remains.  complete, s i l i c i f i e d  f u s u l i n i d s i n the  sandstone o f the B u t t l e Lake Formation, f o r a m i n i f e r s occur as fragmentary f o s s i l s  D i v i s i o n of the Sicker  Group.  i n clastic  limestones  o f t h e Upper  122  DISCUSSION The v o l c a n i c - s e d i m e n t a r y the  p a r t s of the sequence  The  toward l e s s a c t i v i t y  i n this region.  the rock s u c c e s s i o n are the d i r e c t  detrital  o r c h e m i c a l , ('greywacke,  thin,  graded u n i t s  turbed s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  Paleozoic period  the i n t e n s i t y o f w h i c h waxed  •Waned, w i t h a g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y  of  of the Lower D i v i s i o n  S i c k e r G r o u p i s t h e r e c o r d o f an u p p e r  m a i n l y submarine v o l c a n i c i t y ,  ger  complex  The  and  sedimentary  younportions  indirect,  c h e r t ) products of v o l c a n i c  of p a r t s of the sequence, p l a n e s and  of  i n the  ( p y r o c l a s t i c ) or  scarcity  of  action.  the l a r g e l y u n d i s -  of s t r u c t u r e s formed  s t r o n g ' c u r r e n t a c t i o n , and t h e l a c k o f f o s s i l s  other than a  by  few  r a d i o l a r i a n r e m a i n s a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f p r e d o m i n a n t l y q u i e t - w a t e r deposition  (i.e. The  f o r e may of  below  environment  be c l a s s i f i e d  w a t e r was  o r g a n i s m s ; and  perhaps  as " p e l a g i c " .  critical  The  bathyal  there-  T h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t or a b y s s a l ) .  Depth  f o r the accumulation of p e l a g i c  " p e l a g i c " s e d i m e n t s may  o r on c o n t i n e n t a l  81, 91).  of d e p o s i t i o n of the Lower D i v i s i o n  excessive (e.g.  i s not i n i t s e l f  sea  wave-base).  depth  of water siliceous  f o r m i n e n c l o s e d arms o f  s h e l v e s o r b o r d e r l a n d s ( R i e d e l , 1959,  term " b a s i n a l " s u i t e f o r t h i s assemblage  p.  the 80,  of rocks i s  a more a p t name. The  c a r b o n a t e d e p o s i t s of t h e Upper D i v i s i o n of the  Group r e p r e s e n t an e n v i r o n m e n t m a r k e d l y d i f f e r e n t cussed above.  Compared t o modern m a r i n e  by Rodgers  dis-  carbonate sediments, lime-  s t o n e s o f t h e S i c k e r Group appear most s i m i l a r classified  from that  Sicker  to those  sediments  ( 1 9 5 7 , p. 3) as " l i m e - s a n d s a n d muds o f  t a i n of the c o n t i n e n t a l  shelves".  cer-  T h e y show no r e s e m b l a n c e , i n t h e  123  w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , t o the o t h e r major  c l a s s e s of carbonate  - t h o s e o f t h e deep s e a s and o f o r g a n i c r e e f The  light  complexes.  c o l o u r and g e n e r a l l a c k o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r i n t h e s e  l i m e s t o n e s a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f an o x i d i z i n g e n v i r o n m e n t ( G i n s b u r g , 1957,  deposits  p. 8 9 ) .  The  a n d pH n e a r  7.5  c l a s t i c n a t u r e o f much o f t h e c a r b o n a t e  r o c k , t h e c o a r s e n e s s o f much o f t h e c r i n o i d a l c u r r e n t s s t r o n g enough t o produce  d e b r i s , and e v i d e n c e o f  c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and  ate lenses, are a l s o i n d i c a t i v e of a r e l a t i v e l y  conglomer-  shallow marine  en-  vironment . The  fossil  shallow water  assemblages  environments.  cases i d e n t i c a l  of t h e Upper D i v i s i o n a l s o  Similar  assemblages,  c o n t a i n i n g i n some  g e n e r a and s p e c i e s , a r e f o u n d i n e a s t e r n C o r d i l l e r a n  and o t h e r a r e a s i n t e r p r e t e d as s h e l f o r m i o g e o s y n c l i n a l ( N e l s o n , 1961a,b; 1962.  deposits  M c G u g a n , 1 9 6 3 , McGugan and R a p s o n ,  H a r k e r and T h o r s t e i n s s o n , 1960. Rocks  suggest  W i l s o n and L a n g e n h e i m ,  petrographically similar  t o t h o s e of the  1963.  1962) . crinoidal  c a r b o n a t e s o f t h e U p p e r D i v i s i o n o c c u r i n many o t h e r u p p e r P a l e o z o i c d e p o s i t s , and h a v e a l s o b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g o f s h a l l o w water o r i g i n The  ( S t a u f f e r , 1962; C a r o z z i and Soderman, 1 9 6 2 ) . precise limits  l i m e s t o n e s were o r i g i n a l l y p. 112)  of the depths a t which such  crinoidal  d e p o s i t e d c a n n o t be d e f i n e d .  Hyman  (1955,  n o t e s t h a t modern s t a l k e d c r i n o i d s a r e found m o s t l y between  600 a n d 1 5 , 0 0 0 f e e t , b u t " i n a f e w r e s t r i c t e d s h a l l o w water around  50 m e t e r s " .  suggest that c r i n o i d a l  p l a c e s may  C a r o z z i a n d S o d e r m a n ( 1 9 6 2 , p.  " b i o a c c u m u l a t e d " l i m e s t o n e s formed  depressions of the sea bottom".  ascend  into 412)  " i n shallow  These a u t h o r s p o i n t o u t , i n a d d i t i o n ,  124  that the establishment  of a c r i n o i d  appears t o r e q u i r e an "undisturbed where r e w o r k i n g  and s e d i m e n t a t i o n  population  (colony o r garden)  s u b s t r a t u m " b e l o w wave b a s e , a r e a t a minimum.  Such c o n d i t i o n s  c o u l d o b t a i n e i t h e r i n deep w a t e r s o r i n s h e l t e r e d w a t e r b o d i e s moderate t o s h a l l o w Despite sent  locally  graphic  depths.  t h e evidence o f c u r r e n t a c t i o n mentioned above,  i n p a r t s o f t h e s e c t i o n s o f t h e Upper D i v i s i o n ,  pre-  petro-  evidence and t h e s t a t e o f p r e s e r v a t i o n of c e r t a i n f o s s i l  assemblages precludes  the inference of lengthy  or vigorous  p o r t a t i o n of the allochems of the m a j o r i t y of c l a s t i c  trans-  limestones.  C r i n o i d p l a t e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , appear f r e s h and unabraded, w i t h surface sculpture preserved.  Fine-grained  no  represent  coarse  allochems,  probably  seas,  such deposits  tudes  (Newell  lithified  lime-muds  unlikely  I n present  day  a r e f o r m e d i n s h a l l o w , warm w a t e r a t l o w l a t i -  a n d R i g b y , 1 9 5 7 , p . 3 1 , among o t h e r s ) .  S t r i k i n g evidence supporting a contention deposition obtained  forat least  that quiet water  part of the sedimentation  period  of t h e Upper D i v i s i o n c a r b o n a t e s i s g i v e n by t h e b r a c h i o p o d the Azure Lake s e c t i o n i n which w e l l - p r e s e r v e d d u c t i d s p i n e s , and l a r g e a r t i c u l a t e d Petrographic, a shallow  fine  l i m e s t o n e s , w i t h few o r  to have accumulated i n s t r o n g l y a g i t a t e d waters.  bed i n  long, slender pro-  spiriferid  p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l and o t h e r  s h e l l s a r e found. data  thus p o i n t t o  d e p o s i t i o n a l s i t e w h i c h was i n t e r m i t t e n t l y a g i t a t e d b y  marine currents.  An e s t i m a t e  of moving calcareous  of the magnitude o f c u r r e n t s  allochems of rocks  similar  t o those  capable  of the  U p p e r D i v i s i o n o f t h e S i c k e r G r o u p h a s b e e n made b y S t a u f f e r p.  of  384, 386). This  author  calculated that t i d a l  (1962,  currents of % to  125  2 knots  (similar  suffice  to transport limestone p a r t i c l e s  Hjulstrom's  t o t h o s e now  t h e Bahama b a n k s ) w o u l d o f 1 t o 10 mm.  i s a p p l i c a b l e to p a r t i c l e s  detrital  c o m p o s e d o f them a r e o f l e s s  particle  ( C a r o z z i and  diameter.  to water of  Because echinoderm p l a t e s are porous c a l c i t e  p. 5 0 ) , p a r t i c l e s age  on  (1939) c u r v e r e l a t i n g p a r t i c l e s i z e  used i n t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n , density.  observed  velocities, average  (Hyman,  1955,  d e n s i t y than the  Soderman, 1962,  p. 4 1 2 ) .  aver-  Thus,  c u r r e n t s o f Bahaman m a g n i t u d e , o r n o t much g r e a t e r , c o n c e i v a b l y could  transport crinoidal  the Upper D i v i s i o n The Group  limestones  (20 t o 25  distinctive facies  siliceous  of the Upper D i v i s i o n  limestone)  suggests  c u r r e n c e w i t h i n t h e same r e g i o n o f d i f f e r e n t and n o t  strikingly  (thin-bedded  one.  contemporaneous  environments  s u c c e s s i v e d o m i n a n c e o f one  different  of the S i c k e r  l i m e s t o n e , . w i t h s m a l l t o l a r g e l e n s e s o f medium  coarse-grained crinoidal  position,  in  mm.).  t y p i c a l of the China C r e e k - S a l t s p r i n g b e l t  c h e r t and to  d e b r i s o f t h e maximum s i z e o b s e r v e d  regimen  of  over  I f a shallow-water, bank-type  oc-  deanother,  accumula-  t i o n o f t h e c o a r s e c a l c a r e o u s l e n s e s i s a s s u m e d , a s seems c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the evidence  f o r the l a r g e r  the other P a l e o z o i c b e l t s ,  bodies  of a s i m i l a r  the thin-bedded  siliceous  character i n parts of  the  sequence would then r e p r e s e n t i n t e r - b a n k , q u i e t - w a t e r d e p o s i t s . The  siliceous  attempt  c o n t e n t o f t h e s e b e d s r e m a i n s t o be  e x p l a i n e d ; an  a t e x p l a i n i n g t h i s phenomenon i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e  paragraphs  on t h e s u b j e c t o f s i l i c i f i c a t i o n  following  of the S i c k e r Group  r o c k s as a w h o l e . The  prominence of s i l i c e o u s  sequences of the C o r d i l l e r a n  sediments  r e g i o n has  i n upper P a l e o z o i c  b e e n t h e c a u s e o f comment  126 by  many a u t h o r s  ( e . g . W h i t e , 1959,  B i s s e l l concluded the  silica  being  weathering, materials,  that  volcanic activity, and  siliceous  tinous s i l i c a  by  canic a c t i v i t y abnormally sible  p.  or d i a g e n e t i c  16,  sea water "can  17)  take  i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the  place  p r e c i p i t a t i o n of only l o c a l l y ,  of s i l i c a " . nodular  of s i l i c e o u s  The  a l t e r a t i o n of the  skeletons  mechanisms a r e :  adsorption process  silica-bearing apparently  p.  lacking, p.  91).  product w h i c h he  20,  34).  Dapples  i s not  ( 1 9 5 9 , p. 4 9 ,  of d i a g e n e s i s as  Although  silica  cent,  and  re-  t o sediments i n  Bien, Contois  early diagenetic f i g . 8) c o n c l u d e s  formed during  an  intermediate  siliceous  s p i c u l e s are present the  solutions;  matter;  a n d Thoma.s,  I n modern c a r b o n a t e d e p o s i t s , s i l i c i f i c a t i o n  so t h i s p r o c e s s  regards  organisms.  solutions (post-diagenetic).  would add per  pos-  accumula-  a d s o r p t i o n on s u s p e n d e d  saturated i n t e r s t i t i a l  o n l y s m a l l amounts (maximum o f 4.5 1959,  vol-  cherts f a r from v o l c a n i c  t i o n and  introduced  gela-  In summarizing the  mechanisms o t h e r t h a n  p l a c e m e n t by  as  geo-  where  centres", Krauskopf p o s t u l a t e s three  d i a g e n e t i c a l t e r a t i o n by  such  sea. o r n e a r s h o r e s u p p l i e s s o l u t i o n s w i t h  o r i g i n s of "bedded c h e r t s and  three  deposit,  of p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s  that primary  high concentrations  The  151).  h a l m y r o l y s i s of submarine v o l c a n i c  concluded  under the  1959,  organisms.  ( 1 9 5 9 , p.  of s i l i c a ,  Bissell,  i s a syngenetic  d e r i v e d from a v a r i e t y  Kra,uskopf chemistry  chert  p. 7 0 .  stage  grade of  sediments w i t h  i n c e r t a i n beds of the  C o w i c h a n L a k e a r e a , most o f t h e  c o n t a i n no v i s i b l e  the  that chert  of e a r l y  1957, " i s a,  burial",  diagenesis. laminae r i c h inter-bank  siliceous  remnants of o r i g i n a l l y  (Ginsburg,  is  i n sponge  sequence  s t r a t a , of the  of  region  s i l i c e o u s organisms.  It  127  is and  t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e d by t h e w r i t e r t h a t most o f t h e c h e r t y n o d u l e s o f t h e S i c k e r Group a r e t h e p r o d u c t o f  diagenesis. in  A possible exception  c l u s i v e evidence of syngenetic volcanic activity  of the region  ( 1 9 5 5 , p. 15) p r e s e n t s  or diagenetic o r i g i n . during  The  d e p o s i t i o n of t h i s  may-have p e r i o d i c a l l y y i e l d e d s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h t i o n s t o have p r o v i d e d  intermediate  i s the occurrence of cherty  the Lower D i v i s i o n , f o r w h i c h F y l e s  silica  conditions f o r primary s i l i c a  strata  tuffs con-  intense sequence  concentraprecipitation.  128  CONCLUSIONS . The the rocks  w r i t e r ' s c o n c l u s i o n s as t o environments of d e p o s i t i o n f o r  o f t h e S i c k e r Group a r e as f o l l o w s : 1)  represents  The v o l c a n i c - s e d i m e n t a r y  The d e p o s i t i o n a l b a s i n was p r o b a b l y  of which decreased  sidence. of t h i s  w i t h time  i n cherty  The m a j o r i t y o f c h e r t p r o b a b l y The c a r b o n a t e  time.  A general  was p r o d u c e d  and c a r b o n a t e - c h e r t  D i v i s i o n mark t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  sediments  sequences o f t h e Upper  shoaling, with the formation  o f some i s l a n d s  Extensive bryozoan  e s t a b l i s h e d o n muddy b o t t o m s , a c t e d a s s e d i m e n t - t r a p p i n g subsequent s t a b i l i z e d  ensued.  debris i n bank-type bodies  The s h o a l w a t e r s ,  and b i o c h e m i c a l  invertebrates.  Accumulation  of  temperatures and s a l i n -  p r e c i p i t a t i o n of calcium carbonate,  c e n t r e s must a t t h i s  region.  The  organic a c t i v i t y , resulted i n physico-  d e p o s i t i o n o f l i m e muds i n c e r t a i n a r e a s . volcanic  mats.  of small t o l a r g e dimensions  with their higher  and accompanying p r o l i f i c  chemical  communities,  patches of bottom-sediment enabled c o l o n i z a t i o n  communities of c r i n o i d s and other  crionoidal  diagenetically.  of a markedly d i f f e r e n t regimen i n l a t e  w i t h i n the former b a s i n , i s i n d i c a t e d .  ities,  sub-  sequence as a v a i l a b l e , i n t h e form o f v o l c a n i c and o r g a n i c  2)  Sicker  during the period of basin  Abundant source m a t e r i a l f o r t h e s i l i c a  products.  the  bounded  t h e west by a v o l c a n i c l a n d or v o l c a n i c a r c h i p e l a g o , the t e c t o n i c  activity  by  Division  d e p o s i t i o n i n m o d e r a t e l y deep w a t e r s o f a b a s i n o r g u l f on  the c o n t i n e n t a l b o r d e r l a n d . on  complex o f t h e Lower  and t h e  E x t e n s i v e l a n d areas and  time have been few or far-removed  from  129  3)  Interbank a r e a s , e x t e n s i v e i n the south, r a r e i n the n o r t h ,  were the s i t e s i n depths  of d e p o s i t i o n of f i n e - g r a i n e d , mainly b i o g e n i c  b e l o w wave b a s e .  The  disseminated organic matter,  d a r k c o l o u r s , and  particles  p r e s e r v a t i o n of  finely  i n d i c a t e dominant r e d u c i n g c o n d i t i o n s dur-  i n g d e p o s i t i o n and d i a g e n e s i s . 4)  The  f o r m a t i o n of c h e r t i n both  the carbonate  lenses  and  bedded c a r b o n a t e - c h e r t sequences i s c o n s i d e r e d t o have been m a i n l y genetic . episodes  The  c h e r t f o r m a t i o n w o u l d have p r o b a b l y been enhanced  of slow subsidence  and/or slow accumulation  dia-  by  of sediment,  per-  m i t t i n g maximum c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f s i l i c a b e l o w t h e s e d i m e n t - w a t e r  inter-  face. 5)  The  r e g i o n a l p a t t e r n f o r Permian d e p o s i t i o n i n t h i s  of the C o r d i l l e r a m o d i f i e d from  White,  1959,  tectonic a c t i v i t y , p.  70,  of B i s s e l l  (Wolfcampian  71).  The  this  time  t o t i m e by d e p o s i t i o n o f  clastic varieties".  The  a s p e c t s of Permian  p. 1 7 5 ,  176)  who  paradox  (see  sedimentation  sediments  s t a t e d t h a t Lower of the F r a s e r B e l t  of s h e l f carbonates, mostly shallow-water,  those of the s t a b l e to moderately  " s h e l f " type sediments similar  "are  of  the  to  u n s t a b l e areas b o r d e r i n g the c r a t o n ,  t o r e p r e s e n t o n l y t r a n s i t o r y phases w i t h i n  major t r o u g h - l i k e accumulations  Permian  biostromal to  p a r t of the C o r d i l l e r a , although l i t h o l o g i c a l l y  appear to the w r i t e r  In a region  o p i n i o n , e n t i r e l y c o m p a t i b l e , however, w i t h  (1959,  entirely  i s n o t an u n e x p e c t e d  overall  to lower Leonardian)  composed a l m o s t  western  from  t o t h o s e o f t h e s h e l f and m i o g e o s y n c l i n e .  are n o t , i n the w r i t e r ' s the views  i n d i c a t i v e of e u g e o s y n c l i n a l c o n d i t i o n s ,  p l a c e t o p l a c e and  materials similar of v a r i a b l e  i s thus  part  of the  eugeosyncline.  the  130  SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY* Phylum  PROTOZOA  S u b p h y l u m SARCODINA C l a s s RHIZOPODA O r d e r FORAMINIFERA  The p a u c i t y , a n d p o o r s t a t e o f p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e f o s s i l s b e longing t o this fications  group  i n t h e S i c k e r Group have p r e v e n t e d f i r m  o f t h e specimens. The m o s t common o f t h e f e w f o r a m i n i f e r s  genus T e t r a t a x i s . morphology  found belong t o t h e  A t l e a s t two s p e c i e s appear t o be p r e s e n t .  has n o t been determined.  rocks of a l lthree P a l e o z o i c b e l t s , of t h i s  identi-  The g e n u s o c c u r s i n U p p e r  Detailed Division  as i s n o t e d i n p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s  report. Fragmentary o r p o o r l y o r i e n t e d s e c t i o n s o f a f u s u l i n i n i d  have been found i n t h i n s e c t i o n s  f r o m t h e H o m e L a k e and Cowichan  In determinable features, these f o s s i l s Skinner  (personal communication  (among o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s ) . collections  i sillustrated  genus areas.  resemble t h e form i d e n t i f i e d by  t o Danner,  1 9 6 2 ) as P s e u d o f u s u l i n e l l a  A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e specimen from t h e w r i t e r ' s  i n P l a t e V, F i g u r e s 4, 5.  d e t e r m i n e d genus o c c u r s i n t h e b a s a l  A d i f f e r e n t , un-  sandstone o f t h e Azure Lake  section  (Plate IV,Figure 6 ) . A s c h w a g e r i n i d has been i d e n t i f i e d Lake and Cowichan  areas.  t h e genus S c h w a g e r i n a .  These  Three  fossils  specimens  i n thin sections  are tentatively  from Home  assigned t o  a r e shown i n P l a t e V, F i g u r e s  1-3.  *Fossils  described are i n the Paleontology  Geology Department, The  prefix  University  of B r i t i s h  "UBC" i s u s e d i n c i t i n g  their  collection, C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. c a t a l o g u e numbers.  131  O r d e r RADIOLARIA  One in  thin section,  the Home Lake  area  contains r a d i o l a r i a n  erically  or s p e c i f i c a l l y  in Plate  V, F i g u r e s  8,  f r o m the upper p a r t o f the Lower  identified. 9.  These  Division  f o s s i l s , n o t as y e t fossils  are  gen-  illustrated  132  P h y l u m BRACHIOPODA C l a s s ARTICULATA Superfamily Family Subfamily  PRODUCTACEA Waagen  1883  DICTYOCLOSTIDAE S t e h l i  1954  HORRIDONIINAE M u i r - W o o d and Genus HORRIDONIA Chao  Current authors  entirely  resolved.  expanded i n 1928, p.  292-293) and  Chao's o r i g i n a l by few  p.  compatible;  The  original  62)  Gobbett  has  1928,  p.  1927  d e f i n i t i o n by Chao ( 1 9 2 7 , p.  b e e n emended b y M u i r - W o o d and  d e f i n i t i o n i s as f o l l o w s  stout hollow  fold,  slightly  spines".  different  c e r t a i n fundamental problems r e -  ( 1 9 6 1 , p. 4 3 ) , w h o s e v i e w s do n o t  s t r o n g m e d i a n s i n u s and but very  1960  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e genus H o r r i d o n i a by  are not  m a i n t o be  Cooper  I t was  ( 1 9 2 9 , p.  24):  24;  Cooper  (1960,  coincide. "Characterized  c o n v e x b r a c h i a l v a l v e and emended as f o l l o w s  a  (Chao,  62): "Forms b e l o n g i n g t o t h i s s u b s e c t i o n / o f P r o d u c t u s _/ s u c h as P r . h o r r i d u s , P r . t i m a n i c u s T s c h e r n . e t c . , p o s s e s s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o u t l i n e of t y p i c a l Productus, but without e i t h e r p l i c a e or wrinkles. The m e d i a n s i n u s a n d f o l d a r e r a t h e r p r o n o u n c e d and t h e s u r f a c e i s marked o n l y by i r r e g u l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d , s t r o n g and e r e c t s p i n e s . Some i n d e f i n i t e p l i c a e a r e s o m e t i m e s p r e s e n t , i n d i c a t i n g o c c a s i o n a l s u r v i v a l of the p l i c a e making impulse". The  taxonomic h i s t o r y of the  and  Cooper  The  e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u r r e n t p o i n t s o f v i e w may  as  follows.  (1960) and  Gobbett  Muir-Wood and  (1961),  genus i s w e l l c o v e r e d so w i l l  n o t be  Cooper would exclude  w h i c h do n o t b e a r c a r d i n a l s p i n e s  by  repeated be  Muir-Wood here.  summarized  from H o r r i d o n i a  on b o t h p e d i c l e and  forms  brachial valves.  133  This  procedure i s f o l l o w e d because these  genosyntypes and  the  having in  (Productus  h o r r i d u s S o w e r b y , and  genolectotype  ( P . h o r r i d u s Sow;  c a r d i n a l spines  on b o t h v a l v e s .  s u c h a way  as  pedicle valve.  to preclude He  the  what c o n s t i t u t e s the  L e V e n e , 1929)  G o b b e t t i n t e r p r e t s P.  presence of c a r d i n a l spines  Neither  timanicus on  the  only  a l s o those which  of these  two  synonymous t h e  opinions  forms possess  as  to  original  but w i l l  not  Cooper's d e f i n i t i o n of H o r r i d o n i a thus  genus S o w e r b i n a F r e d e r i c k s , 1 9 2 8 ,  includes  ( g e n o t y p e P.  timani-  a c c o m m o d a t e S o w e r b i n a F r e d e r i c k s emend. D u n b a r timanicus  i n the  same way  as G o b b e t t  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of  cardinal  ( 1 9 6 2 , p.  spines  o n l y on  t o a new  definitions  of  Sowerbina.  Nelson  belonging  1955,  does.  the o t h e r hand, G o b b e t t ' s c o n c e p t of H o r r i d o n i a embraces b o t h  these  as  d e f i n i t i o n , w h i c h does n o t m e n t i o n c a r d i n a l s p i n e s .  f o r D u n b a r i n t e r p r e t e d P. On  original  Stuckenberg)  genus H o r r i d o n i a c o n f l i c t s w i t h Chao's  Muir-Wood and  cus)  timanicus  S c h u c h e r t and  on b o t h v a l v e s , b u t  only b r a c h i a l cardinal spines.  as  P.  i n t e r p r e t the  therefore includes w i t h i n H o r r i d o n i a not  which have c a r d i n a l s p i n e s  generic  authors  197)  describes  " h o r r i d o n i d " brachiopods  the p e d i c l e v a l v e ; these  genus.  They c e r t a i n l y  of H o r r i d o n i a proposed by  do n o t  he  regards  f i t into  as  the  e i t h e r Muir-Wood and  with  possibly emended  Cooper or  by  Gobbett. The question  problem of d e f i n i n g H o r r i d o n i a s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  o f w h e t h e r t o make t h e  i s thus  d e f i n i t i o n broad or narrow.  The  a  pre-  sent w r i t e r ' s opinion i s that Gobbett's broad d e f i n i t i o n i s p r e f e r a b l e , because of original  the u n r e s o l v a b l e  illustrations  o f P.  c o n f l i c t i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of timanicus  (see G o b b e t t , 1961,  Stuckenberg's p. 4 8 ) .  It  134  may  a l s o be  species  d e s i r a b l e t o e x p a n d i t f u r t h e r t o i n c l u d e s u c h f o r m s as  d e s c r i b e d by N e l s o n ,  w h i c h b e a r no  Gobbett i n t o  of  the v a l i d  the  (Stuckenberg),  two The  spines  species  The of  this  present  s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s as  the  t a x o n o m i s t must r e l y  follows.  on  of  internal  preserved,  l a c k of  e f f e c t s o f e n v i r o n m e n t on  specific  or lower.  On  of H o r r i d o n i a .  genetic  Cooper  the genus  exter-  t h a t such f e a t u r e s  only f o r discriminations at  other hand, i n t e r n a l  this  rugae). the  features  of H o r r i d o n i a , are remarkably s i m i l a r ;  s t r o n g evidence of d i r e c t , Muir-Wood and  the  used rela-  d i a g n o s t i c o n l y of the  f e a t u r e s and  such  of  as  g i v e n l e s s emphasis i n taxonomy; v a r i a t i o n s i n  species  with  taxonomy  or p u s t u l e s ,  s c u l p t u r e are not  features which are  utilized  species  species  approach to the  minute c r i n k l i n g s  of the s u r f a c e  p e r h a p s be  G o b b e t t ' s two  t h a t a new  by  1L_ t i m a n i c a  Hence, i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of f o s s i l s  pattern should level  have been grouped  Adequate p r e s e r v a t i o n of  n a l morphology of the p r o d u c t i d s , i t i s f e l t be  Chao's  the forms mentioned above, i s a  S e c o n d l y , because of the probable  should  conflict with  h o r r i d a (Sowerby) and  conservative  s p i n e s , and  (e.g., shape, s u l c u s , c o s t a e ,  spines  species  to the p e d i c l e v a l v e .  i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g b e t w e e n some o f  g r o u p on w h i c h d e t a i l s  to  genus, i s r e q u i r e d f o r Nelson's forms  a r e as  t i v e l y r a r e phenomenon.  would not  w r i t e r considers  main reasons f o r t h i s  group of f o s s i l s  described,  identical  of H o r r i d o n i a  o l d s p e c i e s H.  restricted  otherwise  t o be  genus.  H o r r i d o n i a , r a t h e r t h a n a new cardinal  are  Such a c o u r s e  d e f i n i t i o n of the All  even s p e c i e s , y e t  c a r d i n a l spines but  i n c l u d e d under H o r r i d o n i a . original  and  the  spine the of  this  is  affinity.  ( 1 9 6 0 , p.  293)  recognize  They i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e  no  geographic  United  States  distribution  135  of the  genus i s known t o i n c l u d e E u r o p e , B r i t a i n , R u s s i a , A s i a ,  Arctic, trates and  the  questionably,  Australia.  geographic range of  the A r c t i c .  tions. H.  and,  His  two  species  H o r r i d o n i a h o r r i d a , he  t i m a n i c a , on  species  the  (p. 42).  As  for their  illusRussia  shown t o h a v e d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u -  suggests,  i s a E u r o p e a n and  considers  t o be  a Russian  s t r a t i g r a p h i c occurrence,  (Zechstein)  form  British  (p. 4 6 ) ,  and  H.  (p.  50).  The  presence of  the  species  described  American C o r d i l l e r a n r e g i o n , combined w i t h i n the Yukon r e p o r t e d genus i s n o t and  as  t h a t s u g g e s t e d by  to  to upper  North  o c c u r r e n c e s of the  by N e l s o n , shows t h a t t h e  r e s t r i c t e d as  Arctic  i n contrast  below, from the  the  genus  geographic range of G o b b e t t and  species;  horrida is  t i m a n i c a , which i s s t a t e d to range from upper Carboniferous  Permian  by  the  Muir-Wood  Cooper. The  by  ( 1 9 6 1 , F i g . 1)  genus i n E u r o p e , B r i t a i n ,  are  o t h e r h a n d , he  r e g a r d e d as an u p p e r P e r m i a n H.  the  Gobbett  the  s t r a t i g r a p h i c sequence of s p e c i e s  G o b b e t t , s u g g e s t s t h a t H.  h o r r i d a may  be  of H o r r i d o n i a ,  derived  A s s u m i n g t h a t G o b b e t t ' s s t a t e m e n t s a r e v a l i d , an toward greater  P l a t e IV, Figures 1963  Horridonia  Description; sulcus  s p . A,  2,  3,  postulated.  Beak s m a l l , p o i n t e d .  4.  12.  s t r o n g l y convex, w i t h  f r o m umbo t o a n t e r i o r m a r g i n .  curved over hinge l i n e .  be  trend  A  YOLE, p i . I I , F i g s . 11,  Ventral valve  extending  1,  timanica.  evolutionary  d e v e l o p m e n t o f c a r d i n a l s p i n e s may  HORRIDONIA s p .  f r o m H.  postulated  long, narrow  Umbo l a r g e , Venter gently  prominent  inflated, tapering,  136  widening anteriorly. icles  convex; f u l l  t h a n one  third  Umbonal s l o p e s  lateral  F a i n t , coarse,  to hinge l i n e . bases v i s i b l e  other  extent not v i s i b l e .  plications  on  along  Internal  f l a n k s and  venter  s h a l l o w l y c o n c a v e i n one  e x a m i n e d by means o f s e r i a l tor ridge, characteristic  The  s t r u c t u r e o f one  s e c t i o n i n g and  of the  shell  appearing  material, with  the s h e l l  structures.  UBC Nos. 20200 20201 20202 20204  (in  genus  a thin  (Gobbett,  i s thick.  anterior No  spine  1961,  p.  The 43)  the  adduc-  i s wide,  top and  Its microstructure,  the l o n g axes of  (Figure  observed;  specimen were  section.  l a m e l l a r e l e m e n t s and  steep  evident  coarse f i b r o u s -  " f i b r e s " perpendicular  to  56).  mm.):  Length Straight  Length Curved  Width  Width Hinge Line  55+ 47? 42+ 49  100+ 90+ 70+ 80+  45+ 40 42 45  40+ 35+ 40+ 36+  Material: crystallized  pus-  seen.  shell  sections, includes faint  Measurements  to  s m a l l remnant  s t r o n g l y e l e v a t e d above the v a l v e f l o o r , w i t h almost f l a t  i n the  Shell  c a r d i n a l margin.  f e a t u r e s and  sides.  Aur-  H i n g e s l i g h t l y more  S p a r s e , s c a t t e r e d s p i n e b a s e s ? on v e n t e r .  f e a t u r e s of b r a c h i a l v a l v e  subparallel  steep.  e x f o l i a t e d ; remnants f i n e l y p i t t e d  low  Brachial valve no  f l a n k s of venter  d i s t a n c e from p o s t e r i o r to a n t e r i o r extremity.  surface almost completely tulose.  and  A l l of  Ratios W/LC  LS/LC  35 30 30?  1:1.2 1:1.1 1:1.0 1:1.1  1:2.5 1:2.25 1:1.7 1:1.8  1:1.8 1:1.9 1:1.7 1:1.6  -  the measured specimens  s h e l l s , freed from a matrix  Other specimens i n c o l l e c t i o n s enough f o r measurements.  W/LS  Height  are p a r t i a l l y  of coarse,  crinoidal  from v a r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s  are not  relimestone. complete  137  Discussion: show l i t t l e shells.  The  specimens from w h i c h the above d e s c r i p t i o n i s d e r i v e d  o r none o f t h e s u r f a c e  The  species  the d e s c r i b e d  c a n n o t , t h e r e f o r e , be  species  show t h a t t h e s p e c i e s elongata pi.  7C,  s c u l p t u r e and  of H o r r i d o n i a .  c e r t a i n l y placed  The  visible  figs.  30-33).  above.  H.  Taxas, though s i m i l a r  is slightly  Disregarding  1-10;  p i . 12,  Similarly,  scoresbyensis  s p e c i e s by N e l s o n  figs.  1-13,  17-19; N e l s o n ,  figs.  6-7)  C e r t a i n specimens assigned  may  by  and  timanica  2,  internal  9,  10,  (Gobbett,  p i . 28, from by  p i . 4,  the b a s i s figs,  A. are  of  l b , c,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Vancouver I s l a n d  i n Gobbett's i l l u s t r a t i o n s  north-  Dunbar  (Stuckenberg)  on  figs.  2b,  13).  are perhaps the most c r i t i c a l  adductor r i d g e of t h i s  1961,  the  p i . 11,  compared t o H o r r i d o n i a sp.  G o b b e t t t o H.  p e d i c l e v a l v e morphology alone  The  35,  illustrated  c l o s e l y comparable to the Vancouver I s l a n d species  1,  p. 8 9 ,  1 9 6 1 b , p.  Upper  of  specimens of Sowerbina g r a n u l i f e r a (Toula)  be  figs.  85-86,  very  Dunbar f r o m t h e  (Dunbar, 1955,  ( 1 9 6 2 , p.  c , p i . 5,  p.  forms f r o m the Upper P e n n s y l v a n i a n ?  described  p i . 1,  ( K i n g , 1931,  c a r d i n a l s p i n e p a t t e r n s , H o r r i d o n i a sp. A  east Greenland Lower Permian r o c k s 6,  one  c).  P e r m i a n ? o f G r e e n l a n d , and to t h i s  than the  in longi-  c l o s e l y resembles PIeurohorridonia  Yukon a s s i g n e d  37-38,  i n s i z e , a p p e a r s t o be m o r e t r i a n g u l a r  figs.  b,  p.  (Word) o f  pi.  9-10).  Pleurohorridonia?  Permian  o u t l i n e than the Vancouver I s l a n d s p e c i e s  figs.  to  smaller  texana K i n g , from the " M i d d l e "  tudinal  25a,  of  f e a t u r e s , however,  i s i n external features similar  Cooper's species  the  i n any  C o o p e r , f r o m the L o w e r P e r m i a n of Oregon ( C o o p e r , 1957,  described  21,  ornamentation of  f o r d i a g n o s t i c purposes.  o f H.  species  timanica  ( p i . 5, f i g s .  i s more p r o n o u n c e d , and  species  As  c a n be  1,  2),  the  more h i g h l y  seen  138  elevated  t h a n t h a t o f H. h o r r i d a  ( p i . 5, f i g . 7 ) . N e l s o n  (1963,  pers.  comm.) h a s i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a d d u c t o r r i d g e i n s p e c i mens o f H o r r i d o n i a vanian Permian  from t h e Yukon.  He s u g g e s t s t h a t h i s M i d d l e  specimens a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a subdued rounded adductor (Leonardian) specimens have a s t r o n g l y e l e v a t e d ,  adductor ridge with  steep  sides;  specimens of H o r r i d o n i a  are h i g h , and f l a t has  profile.  t o g e n t l y concave i n t r a n s v e r s e  this being  topped  I n the Vancouver  s p . A, t h e s i d e s o f t h e a d d u c t o r  a l s o noted the presence of coarse  shells,  flat  profile.  f i b r o u s s t r u c t u r e i n t h e Yukon  more p r o m i n e n t i n t h e P e n n s y l v a n i a n  specimens.  In  ridge,  s p . A r e s e m b l e s H. t i m a n i c a , a n d L o w e r P e r m i a n s p e c i e s  genus f r o m t h e Y u k o n . istics  ridge  Nelson  summary, i t c a n b e s t a t e d t h a t i n d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a d d u c t o r Horridonia  ridge.  t h e s i d e s o f t h e r i d g e o f some s p e c i -  mens become s t r o n g l y c o n c a v e i n t r a n s v e r s e Island  Pennsyl-  intermediate  In shell  s t r u c t u r e i t appears t o have  between those o f Pennsylvanian  of the  character-  and Permian  species  of t h e Yukon. Although p r e c i s e comparisons w i t h of H o r r i d o n i a  previously defined  species  c a n n o t b e made b e c a u s e o f p o o r p r e s e r v a t i o n , o r l a c k o f  detailed information  on i n t e r n a l  f e a t u r e s , the Vancouver I s l a n d  species,  ( H o r r i d o n i a s p . A ) may e v e n t u a l l y b e f o u n d t o b e c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h o n e of  t h e s p e c i e s mentioned above.  Until  specimens i n which t h e p r e s e r v a -  t i o n i s adequate f o r p r e c i s e comparison a r e a v a i l a b l e , the w r i t e r f e r s ,to d e s i g n a t e Horridonia  as above.  I t should  s p . A m i g h t a l s o b e l o n g t o a new  Occurrence: limestone  the species  Most o f the specimens a s s i g n e d  talus at Locality  61-24-TF, n o r t h  f r a g m e n t a r y s p e c i m e n was o b t a i n e d  pre-  be k e p t i n mind  that  species. to Horridonia  sp. A a r e from  s i d e o f Horne Lake.  from the B u t t l e Lake area,  One  Locality  62-61A-8F, i n t h e upper h a l f o f t h e B u t t l e Lake F o r m a t i o n , south of  139  Marble  Peak. J . T. D u t r o  Horridonia? insula,  comm. t o W. R. D a n n e r )  i n a c o l l e c t i o n from limestones  east end o f Cowichan Lake.  examination  Figure  (1962, p e r s .  56.  identified  o f t h e B a l d M o u n t a i n pen-  The s p e c i m e n i s n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r  s o n o c o m p a r i s o n s c a n b e made.  Gross Spec, ridge shows types  s e c t i o n s , p e d i c l e v a l v e , H o r r i d o n i a sp-A UBC 2 0 2 0 3 , P r o m i n e n t , ..steep-sided a d d u c t o r s h o w n i n both, s e c t i o n s . R i g h t , h a n d s e c t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n jof c o a r s e f i b r o u s a n d f i n e l a m i n a r o f s h e l l structure. XI. .,  HORRIDONIA s p . B Plate IV,  Description:  Figure 5  Medium-sized, transverse  i n shape.  convex.  Umbo s t r o n g l y t a p e r i n g , c u r v e d  visible,  probably  small and p o i n t e d .  i n g c l o s e t o beak. the l a t e r a l margins. punctate  Pedicle valve  over hinge l i n e .  Narrow, shallow  Valve  where e x f o l i a t e d .  Beak n o t  sulcus,  A u r i c l e s prominent, convex, extending  originat-  w e l l out from  s u r f a c e smooth, b u t appears c o a r s e l y Coarse spines  strongly  pseudo-  s e t i n s i n g l e row c l o s e t o  140  hinge  line  and  on a u r i c l e s , e x t e n d i n g  s c a t t e r e d over v e n t e r ; the  one  p o s s i b l y extends l a t e r a l l y  Few  spines  straight  from  auricles. B r a c h i a l v a l v e and  Measurements: 37 mm.?,  tips;  interior  M e a s u r e m e n t s on  Width, hinge  s p i n e s a r e 1.5  mm.  line  t h e one  - 60 mm,,  s e v e r a l have l e n g t h s of over  incomplete,  and  Discussion:  The  specimen a v a i l a b l e are:  Width, mid-length  25  show t h a t i t i s d i s t i n c t l y  s p i n e p a t t e r n s c a n n o t be  and  20096) i s  different  narrower hinge  1-3).  pi.  12,  for  t h e V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d s p e c i e s , an  Horridonid fossils  As  Dunbar  s p . B.  As  land f o s s i l  preserved,  appears to d i f f e r  is  possible.  not  pre-  revealed  The  s h a p e o f H.  line  i s evident.  exact  The  assigned  p i . 11,  on  sp.;A.is  to  f i g . 1;  c o m p a r i s o n c a n n o t be  and  to t h a t of  known  made.  ( 1 9 6 2 , p i . 1, f i g s , a-c)  the p e d i c l e v a l v e s i m i l a r  Nelson  limestone.  spines are preserved  (Dunbar, 1955,  by N e l s o n  t h e b r a c h i a l v a l v e and i s not  crushed,  the f e a t u r e s of the b r a c h i a l v a l v e are not  illustrated  s p i n e d i s t r i b u t i o n on  the  f r o m H o r r i d o n i a s p . A.  H o r r i d o n i a s p . B r e s e m b l e s some o f t h e f o s s i l s Pleurohorridonia scoresbyensis  toward  However, enough f e a t u r e s a r e  c o m p a r e d b e c a u s e no  a relatively  The  s p e c i m e n a v a i l a b l e makes  t h e a v a i l a b l e s p e c i m e n s o f H o r r i d o n i a s p . A.  figs.  - 45 mm.  i n black, fine-grained dolomitic  impossible.  Length  mm.  p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e one  cise identification  more e l o n g a t e  seen.  o n l y s p e c i m e n a v a i l a b l e (UBC  contained  The  f e a t u r e s not  thick at t h e i r bases, with gentle taper  Material:  to  posterolaterally.  show  Horridonia  s u r f a c e t e x t u r e of the Vancouver I s the Yukon s p e c i e s i l l u s t r a t e d  i n shape, a c l o s e r comparison of the  C e r t a i n resemblances to f o s s i l s  assigned  by  two  species  to Horridonia  141  horrida are  (Sowerby) by Gobbett  a l s o d i s p l a y e d by H o r r i d o n i a As w i t h H o r r i d o n i a  certainty Until is  ( 1 9 6 1 , p i . 3, f i g s , l a , 6; p i . 5, f i g . 7)  t o any d e s c r i b e d  s p , B.  s p . A, t h i s  Horridonia.  species  cannot be assigned  I t may r e p r e s e n t  a new  a d d i t i o n a l material with better preservation of c r i t i c a l  a v a i l a b l e , i t i s considered  Horridonia  with  species. features  d e s i r a b l e t o r e f e r t o t h e f o s s i l as  s p . B.  Occurrence:  The s p e c i m e n was o b t a i n e d  Lake Formation  (Unit 11),  at Locality  from t h e upper p a r t o f t h e B u t t l e 61-35-5F, a t t h e type s e c t i o n ( s e e  Figure 6 ) ,  Subfamily Genus  The tus  genus D i c t y o c l o s -  ( 1 9 3 0 , p . 1 0 3 ) h a s b e e n emended s e v e r a l t i m e s ,  sensu s t r i c t o  B r i t i s h and R u s s i a n 1960,  ANTIQUITONIA M i l o r a d o v i c h 1945  d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e common d i c t y o c l o s t i d  Muir-Wood  clostus  DICTYOCLOSTINAE S t e h l i 1 9 5 4  p . 269) .  i s apparently  now r e p r e s e n t e d  Lower C a r b o n i f e r o u s  One o f t h e s p e c i e s  species  Dictyo-  o n l y by European,  (Muir-Wood and C o o p e r ,  groups separated  from D i c t y o c l o s t u s  s e n s u l a t o i s now r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e genus A n t i q u i t o n i a M i l o r a d o v i c h (1945, p. 4 9 6 ) .  Externally the l a t t e r  sence o f a row o f s p i n e s  o n t h e f l a n k s , commonly s e t o n a r o u n d e d  (Muir-Wood a n d C o o p e r , 1960, p. 2 7 0 ) . d u c t i d s , should of  species  is  a difficult  the spine  i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e pre-  A s i s t h e c a s e w i t h many p r o -  p a t t e r n n o t be v i s i b l e ,  the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  o f A n t i q u i t o n i a from those of r e l a t e d d i c t y o c l o s t i d  genera  problem.  Most o f t h e d e s c r i b e d Carboniferous  ridge  horizons  species  o f A n t i q u i t o n i a a r e from Lower  of Europe, A s i a , A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a .  A few  142  P e n n s y l v a n i a n and Permian s p e c i e s or c i t e d .  from N o r t h America have been  Whether t h i s apparent p a u c i t y  is a result of a lack of well-preserved t i v e o f poor r e p r e s e n t a t i o n sently  of North American  described  occurrences  specimens, or i s t r u l y  o f t h e genus o n t h i s c o n t i n e n t  indica-  i s not pre-  known.  ANTIQUITONIA SULCATA C o o p e r Plate  ?1902  71962 1963  Description;  90  7, 8, 9.  P r o d u c t u s i n f l a t u s McChesney. TSCHERNYSCHEW, p . 6 1 2 , p i . 2 8 , f i g s . 1-6. P r o d u c t u s h e s s e n s i s K I N G , p . 6 8 , p i . 1 1 , f i g s . 3-6. A n t i q u i t o n i a s u l c a t a COOPER, p . 3 5 , p i . 5 C , f i g s . 1 8 - 2 2 . D i c t y o c l o s t u s c f . D. n e o i n f l a t u s L i c h a r e w . HARKER a n d THORSTEINSSON, p . 5 5 , p i . 1 7 , f i g s . 1-2. Dictyoclostus neoinflatus Licharew. DUNBAR, p . 1 7 , p i . 1 , f i g s . 8-9. Antiquitonia sulcata C o o p e r , YOLE, p i . I I , f i g . 18.  ?193l 1957 71960  vex  I I , Figures  umbo.  Subquadrate i n o u t l i n e , p e d i c l e v a l v e  Roundly geniculated  one-third  of length  with  slightly  from beak,  d e g r e e s o r m o r e ; u m b o n a l a n g l e a b o u t 90 d e g r e e s ; l a t e r a l  s t e e p ; beak n o t v i s i b l e , originates  lateral  i n anterior  rounded bottom, g e n t l y  deep n e a r a n t e r i o r m a r g i n . full  costate;-  several  Sulcus end o f  of length;  slightly  convex;  i n umbonal  region.  3 t o 5 c o s t a e i n 5 mm.  a t mid-length;  spaces, crossed by f i n e ,  No b i f u r c a t i o n o r i n t e r c a l a t i o n o f c o s t a e  costal pairs unite i n the sulcus,  flat  15 mm. w i d e , 3 mm.  Auricles  Surface r e t i c u l a t e  costae rounded, wider than i n t e r v e n i n g verse l i r a e .  one-third  convex s i d e s ;  Flanks steep.  extent n o t seen.  Remainder o f v a l v e  slopes  r e a c h e s maximum d e p t h a t a n t e r i o r  geniculation, narrowing s l i g h t l y to s h a l l o w l y  through  probably p r o j e c t i n g over hinge l i n e .  at geniculation,  con-  trans-  visible;  r e d u c i n g numbers o f c o s t a e  143  i n a n t e r i o r l y narrowed p o r t i o n .  About  10 s t o u t s p i n e s a r o u n d  and a c r o s s a n t e r i o r h a l f o f v a l v e , i n s l i g h t l y a s y m m e t r i c S p i n e s n e a r a u r i c l e s a r r a n g e d on o b s c u r e c o n c e n t r i c f o l d B r a c h i a l v a l v e , and i n t e r i o r  Measurements  pattern. or wrinkle.  f e a t u r e s , n o t seen.  ( i n mm.):  Length Straight  UCB Nos.  auricles  20054 20053  Length Curved  40+ 35+  Width  Width Hinge Line  45? 43?  43+ 43?  58+ 63+  Material:  T h e two p a r t i a l  Height 21? 25?  p e d i c l e v a l v e s on w h i c h t h e above  d e s c r i p t i o n i s based occur i n dark d o l o m i t i c limestone.  One o t h e r  f r a g m e n t o f a p e d i c l e v a l v e , on w h i c h no s i g n i f i c a n t measurements were possible, i s present i n the c o l l e c t i o n .  Discussion:  Cooper  d i d n o t m e n t i o n s p i n e s on t h e v e n t e r o f h i s s p e c i -  mens f r o m t h e l o w e r P e r m i a n o f O r e g o n .  The s p e c i m e n s  I s l a n d agree i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s w i t h Cooper's  from  Vancouver  d e f i n i t i o n of the species.  H a r k e r ( i n H a r k e r a n d T h o r s t e i n s s o n , 1 9 6 0 , p. 5 5 ) , d e s c r i b e d and i l l u s t r a t e d under  specimens  McChesney.  forms a s s i g n e d by o t h e r a u t h o r s t o P r o d u c t u s  The l a t t e r  tonia Miloradovich  is  Peninsula  t h e name o f D i c t y o c l o s t u s c f . D. n e o i n f l a t u s T s c h e r n y s c h e w a n d  certain Arctic  pi.  f r o m t h e Lower Permian o f G r i n n e l l  17, f i g s .  two s p e c i e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e genus  (1945, p. 4 9 6 ) .  Harker's i l l u s t r a t i o n s  1-2) s u g g e s t t h a t h i s D i c t y o c l o s t u s c f . D.  conspecific with  the Vancouver  t o n i a s u l c a t a Cooper.  Specimens  G r e e n l a n d , i l l u s t r a t e d by Dunbar  inflatus Antiqui(1960,  neoinflatus  I s l a n d and Oregon s p e c i e s  Antiqui-  from the lower Permian of n o r t h e a s t (1962, p i . 1, f i g s .  8 - 9 ) , and r e f e r r e d  144  t o a s D i c t y o c l o s t u s n e o i n f l a t u s L i c h a r e w , may a l s o b e c o n s p e c i f l c A. s u l c a t a .  Tschernyschew's  ductus u r a l i c u s  1  (1902, p i . 3 3 , f i g .  with  1) f i g u r e s o f P r o -  indicate a similar, but larger, species.  Illustrations  of "Productus i n f l a t u s McChesney" by Tschernyschew  (1902, p i . 28, f i g s .  1-6)  comparable  indicate that this Russian species i s closely  quitonia  sulcata.  Occurrence; horizon  to Anti-  A n t i q u i t o n i a s u l c a t a was c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e f o s s i l i f e r o u s  ( U n i t 11) a b o u t 350 f e e t b e l o w  B u t t l e Lake Formation, L o c a l i t y Tschern. from t h e Cowichan long to this  the top of the type  61-35-5F.  section  " P r o d u c t u s " c f . P. u r a l i c u s  L a k e a r e a ( F y l e s , 1 9 5 5 , p . 19) may a l s o b e -  species.  F a m i l y ECRTNOCONCHIDAE S t e h l i 1 9 5 4 S u b f a m i l y ECHINOCONCHINAE S t e h l i 1 9 5 4 Genus ECHINOCONCHUS W e l l e r 1 9 1 4 s e n s u  The  d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e genus E c h i n o c o n c h u s h a s been  by Muir-Wood and Cooper boniferous forms. Permian  species  restricted  (1960, p. 243) so a s t o i n c l u d e o n l y Lower C a r -  New g e n e r a h a v e b e e n e r e c t e d f o r P e n n s y l v a n i a n a n d  (Muir-Wood and Cooper,  i n e x p e c t a t u s Cooper, c r i b e d below, d i f f e r s  specimens  1 9 6 0 , p. 2 4 3 - 2 4 8 ) .  of which from Vancouver  Echinoconchus  I s l a n d a r e des-  f r o m E c h i n c o n c h u s as r e d e f i n e d b y Muir-Wood and  Cooper.  The s p i n e p a t t e r n and l a t e r a l  auricles,  a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Vancouver  w h i c h do n o t a g r e e w i t h in  lato  r i d g e s which extend around t h e I s l a n d and Oregon  those of Echinoconchus.  species  E. i n e x p e c t a t u s d i f f e r s  t h e same f e a t u r e s , a n d i n h a v i n g a l e s s m a s s i v e c a r d i n a l p r o c e s s ,  f r o m Muir-Wood and Cooper's  genus B a t h y m o n i a  ( i b i d . , p. 2 4 4 ) .  From  145  their Calliprotonia of the l a t e r a l  ( i b i d . , p. 246) i t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e e x t e n s i o n  ridges to the cardinal  e x t r e m i t i e s , where sharp,  angular  deflection of the ridges occurs.  The o n l y o t h e r e c h i n o c o n c h i d  species  known t o t h e w r i t e r a n d d i s p l a y i n g  this  oconchus p e l l i c e u s C h r o n i c  e t a l , 1 9 5 3 , p. 8 5 , p i . 1 5 , f i g s . 1 - 3 ) ,  from t h e Lower Permian  (Newell  type of l a t e r a l  (Wolfcamp) o f P e r u .  The l a t t e r  q u e s t i o n a b l y a s s i g n e d by Muir-Wood and Cooper to  s p e c i e s was  ( o p . c i t . , p. 247-248)  Calliprotonia. The  E.  ridge i s Echin-  present w r i t e r  concludes  t h a t E. i n e x p e c t a t u s Cooper and  p e l l i c e u s C h r o n i c may r e p r e s e n t a new g e n u s .  time as f u r t h e r work on t h e e c h i n o c o n c h i d s  However, u n t i l  has c l a r i f i e d  such  the status of  Muir-Wood and Cooper's taxonomic r e v i s i o n o f E n c h i n o c o n c h u s , i t i s considered p r e f e r a b l e to assign these  two s p e c i e s t o E c h i n o c o n c h u s  sensu  lato.  ECHINOCONCHUS INEXPECTATUS C o o p e r P l a t e I I , F i g u r e s 11, 12, 13.  ?1902 1957 1963  Productus f a s c i a t u s Kutorga. TSCHERNYSCHEW, 1 9 0 2 , p . 6 3 1 , p i . 2 4 , f i g s . 5-6; T e x t f i g s . 7 2 - 7 4 . E c h i n o c o n c h u s i n e x p e c t a t u s COOPER, p . 4 8 , p i . 8 C , f i g s . 1 3 - 2 6 . E c h i n o c o n c h u s i n e x p e c t a t u s C o o p e r , YOLE, p i . I I , f i g . 1 7 .  Description;  Shell  thin;  transverse to elongate  cavo-convex.  Greatest width anterior  oval i n outline;  to mid-length;  hinge  line  con-  about  two-thirds of width. P e d i c l e v a l v e moderately  convex; g r e a t e s t c o n v e x i t y i n umbonal  region.  Umbo l a r g e , w i t h s t e e p f l a n k s .  slightly  t o s t r o n g l y over  hinge  line.  Beak s m a l l and p o i n t e d , Surface  curved  sculpture of broad,  146  concentric  bands, w i t h  i n w i d t h on v e n t e r , rows o f f i n e ,  short, steep,  anterior slopes.  narrowing l a t e r a l l y .  c l o s e l y spaced, p r o s t r a t e  B a n d s 3 t o 5 mm.  Each band w i t h spines;  spines  three  o r more  more o r l e s s  quincunxially arranged i n p o s t e r i o r parts  o f bands, f i n e r  r e g u l a r l y arranged i n a n t e r i o r portions.  S p i n e s up t o 0.15 mm. a t  b a s e , 3 mm. ridges.  long,  slightly  fine,  transverse  I n t e r i o r n o t seen. Brachial valve  and  t a p e r i n g , ornamented w i t h  a n d more i r -  a n t e r i o r margins.  angular a u r i c l e s . concentric slender,  Cardinal  Sculpture  b a n d s up t o 2 mm.  trilobed  extremities  length.  i n w i d t h on v i s c e r a l  disc.  Prominent l a t e r a l  tri-  with  Interior with  Median septum narrow,  adjacent t o c a r d i n a l process,  lateral  flattened into small,  and ornament as i n p e d i c l e v a l v e ,  c a r d i n a l process.  at l e a s t h a l f valve buttresses  gently concave, except f o r s h o r t , steep  extending  ridges, thickened  and extending along  into  hinge  border t o c a r d i n a l e x t r e m i t i e s , thence a n t e r i o r l y t o about m i d - l e n g t h .  Measurements  Length (Pedicle)  Specimen UBC UBC UBC UBC UBC UBC UBC  ( i n mm.);  20039 20040 20041 20042 20043 20037 20044  USNM 1 2 5 5 5 1 USNM 1 2 5 3 5 7 USNM 1 2 5 3 5 9  25 26  to severely  20 21 22 22+ 23  -  25+ 35 30 21?  -  Width  15?  32+30+ 30+ 35+ 30? 32 29?  21.8 20.9 20.5  . 30.4 25.5 26  -  27.8 25  Material:  Length (Brachial)  Width Hinge Line  Aurii (d.  23 20 20 20 18  120 123 119  20?  -  -  -  121  -  _  _  -  118 124  17  (Holotype)  Most of t h e specimens a r e incomplete and a r e s l i g h t l y  crushed i n t h e bedding planes of dark d o l o m i t i c  Measurements o f three  limestone.  o f Cooper's Oregon specimens a r e added f o r  147  comparison.  Discussion:  The e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d s p e c i m e n s  are almost i d e n t i c a l  t o Cooper's f o s s i l s from Oregon; t h e i n t e r n a l , f e a -  t u r e s o f t h e Oregon specimens were n o t d e s c r i b e d . cription of t h i s  g i v e n a b o v e , t h e r e f o r e , emend C o o p e r ' s o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n species. Cooper  to be v e r y E.  P a r t s o f t h e des-  (1957, p. 49) c o n s i d e r e d E c h i n o c o n c h u s  similar  t o the European, Russian, A r c t i c  inexpectatus  and A s i a n  species,  f a s c i a t u s ( K u t o r g a ) , f r o m w h i c h i t was t h o u g h t t o d i f f e r o n l y i n  dimensions and shape.  The s i m i l a r i t i e s i n e x t e r n a l a p p e a r a n c e between  t h e two s p e c i e s a r e a p p a r e n t i n c o m p a r i s o n s o f E . i n e x p e c t a t u s illustrations  o f E. f a s c i a t u s by Tschernyschew  almost i d e n t i c a l 21,  exterior  characteristics,  and i n L i c h a r e w ,  f i g s . 7 a-c) and Sarycheva and S o k o l s k a y a ,  Occurrence:  On V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d t h i s  o n l y i n U n i t 11 o f t h e t y p e  (1902), which  with  suggest 1939 ( p i .  1952 ( p i . 1 8 , f i g . 1 2 2 ) .  s p e c i e s has so f a r been found  s e c t i o n of the B u t t l e Lake  Formation.  F a m i l y BUXTONIIDAE M u i r - W o o d a n d C o o p e r 1 9 6 0 Subfamily  BUXTONIINAE M u i r - W o o d a n d C o o p e r 1 9 6 0 Genus KOCHIPRODUCTUS D u n b a r 1 9 5 5  This  genus was p r o p o s e d b y D u n b a r  the preoccupied Frederick's  (1955, p. 107) t o r e p l a c e  name T s c h e r n y s c h e w i e l l a F r e d e r i c k s  generotype, Productus  by Dunbar i n f a v o u r  porrectus Kutorga  (1924, p. 2 0 ) . 1 8 4 4 , was d i s c a r d e d  o f h i s s p e c i e s K. p l e x i c o s t a t u s . A c c o r d i n g t o  Muir-Wood and latter  Cooper  authors  (19.60, p.  tus peruvianus  K.  P.  longus  d ' O r b i g n y 1842, Meek 1 8 7 7 ,  plexicostatus.  H a r k e r and  Thorsteinsson  has  p o r r e c t u s , and  of  genus t o i n c l u d e P r o d u c -  saranaeana F r e d e r i c k s  K.  p l e x i c o s t a t u s were d i s c u s s e d  ( 1 9 6 0 , p.  59)  and  by  p l a c e d i n synonymy w i t h  occur  i n beds of q u e s t i o n a b l e M i d d l e peruvianus  i n Permian s t r a t a .  Pennsylvanian  by N e w e l l  P l a t e I , F i g u r e s 1, 2,  Kochiproductus  Diagnosis;  n.  sp.  age  in  e t a l ( 1 9 5 3 , p.  One Peru  83).  sp.  3, 4,  YOLE, p i . I , f i g s .  Large Kochiproductus,  brushes of a u r i c u l a r  5,  4,  6,  7,  8.  5.  subquadrate i n o u t l i n e , w i t h  s p i n e s on p e d i c l e v a l v e a n d  large  s i m p l e , non-anastom-  costae.  Description:  P e d i c l e v a l v e moderately convex, g r e a t e s t c o n v e x i t y i n  umbonal r e g i o n . widening  Greatest width  anteriorly.  over hinge  line.  beyond hinge shell  Dunbar's  p r o d u c t i d s p e c i e s , i n c l u d i n g some  KOCHIPRODUCTUS n .  osing  1933,  the s p e c i e s m e n t i o n e d above, r e f e r r a b l e t o Muir-Wood  b e e n r e p o r t e d f o r K.  1963  generotype.  i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e g e n e r o t y p e and  Cooper's r e d e f i n e d Kochiproductus,  occurrence  p o r r e c t u s as  the  (Stepanow).  All and  Buxtonia  Certain Arctic  as P.  freboldi  change i s i n v a l i d ;  Cooper i n t e r p r e t e d the  identified  K.  this  t h e r e f o r e r e i n s t a t e d P.  Muir-Wood and  and  260),  line.  along hinge  Umbo b r o a d ,  Beak s m a l l and Sulcus  l e n g t h from beak.  broad,  line.  Tapering  w i t h moderately steep  venter,  slopes;  pointed, p r o j e c t i n g short  curved  distance  s h a l l o w , o r i g i n a t i n g about o n e - t h i r d  Auricles triangular, slightly  convex,  small  149  in relation about f i v e  to overall costae  shell  i n 10 mm.  size.  Surface  a t mid-length.  coarsely costate, Costae pinch  with  and s w e l l  under the i n f l u e n c e o f weakly developed, c o n c e n t r i c rugae, r e s u l t i n g i n r e t i c u l a t i o n o n t h e umbo, a n d i n t e r r u p t e d c o s t a e visible Short,  b i f u r c a t i o n or anastomosing of costae erect spines  15  t o 20 s p i n e s  culminating  and near a n t e r i o r margin. i n a spectacular  i n each brush,  with  long, directed p o s t e r o l a t e r a l ^ . over s h e l l  surface.  t e r i o r borders; auricles. mens.  not  rectangular  disc;  between costae  d i s c , developing  steep,  i n outline.  striations  Flat  to slightly  concave r i m around l a t e r a l  strongly recurved.  i n g almost t o a u r i c l e s .  UBC 2 0 0 0 2 UBC 2 0 0 0 1  and an-  i n a n t e r i o r h a l f o f some s p e c i -  i n t o low wrinkles  marking  Rugae m o s t p r o m i n e n t o n v i s on a u r i c l e s .  Few s h o r t ,  I n i n t e r i o r , narrow, l o w median septum extends  Large, trilobed  Specimen  and rugae.  to one-third of valve  Measurements  auricle;  up t o 35 mm.  Whole s u r f a c e r e t i c u l a t e , w i t h rounded d e p r e s s i o n s  one-half  spines  p o s t e r o l a t e r a l borders f l a t t e n out i n t o t r i a n g u l a r  scattered spines.  end.  spines  Very f i n e concentric  A broad, g e n t l e median f o l d  interspaces ceral  Longer  b r u s h on each  individual  costae;  I n t e r i o r n o t seen.  Brachial valve concave i n v i s c e r a l  No  a n t e r i o r t o umbo.  s c a t t e r e d over v a l v e , u s u a l l y a t nodes on  e s p e c i a l l y numerous i n s u l c u s near hinge l i n e ,  anteriorly.  length; small antron  c a r d i n a l process,  near p o s t e r i o r  with well-developed  shaft;  L a t e r a l ridges moderately developed, No m u s c l e a r e a s o r b r a c h i a l r i d g e s  extendseen.  ( i n mm.): Length Straight  Length Curved  60+ 63+  83+  Width 65 85  Width Hinge Line  Length (Brachial)  70  50  150  Length Straight  Specimen UBC 20006 UBC 2 0 0 0 3 UBC 2 0 0 0 5 UBC 20008  Length Curved  Width Hinge Line  Width  Length (Brachial)  70+  60? 100? 77  50+  72  Material:  All  o f t h e specimens  a r e c r u s h e d and f l a t t e n e d  t o some d e g r e e , a n d o c c u r i n d o l o m i t i c l i m e s t o n e .  Other fragmentary  specimens a r e p r e s e n t , b u t s i g n i f i c a n t measurements on t h e s e were n o t possible.  Discussion:  The s p e c i e s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e a p p e a r s t o h a v e c l o s e a f -  f i n i t i e s with  the fragmentary f o s s i l  d e s c r i b e d by Cooper  pi.  4B, f i g -  7 ) , from t h e Lower Permian o f Oregon.  his  s p e c i e s t o K o c h i p r o d u c t u s c f K. p o r r e c t u s  t i o n on t h e Oregon specimen  ( 1 9 5 7 , p. 4 7 ,  Cooper  (Kutorga).  i s too incomplete f o r certain  referred The i n f o r m a comparison,  b u t i t seems p r o b a b l e t h a t i t a n d t h e V a n c o u v e r  I s l a n d specimens  c r i b e d above a r e c o n s p e c i f i c .  illustrations  pi.  55, f i g .  1; p i . 5 6 , f i g .  Tschernyschew s 1  4; t e x t f i g s .  (1902,  75-77) o f R u s s i a n s p e c i -  mens a s s i g n e d t o K. p o r r e c t u s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y a r e r e m a r k a b l y lar  i nvisible  The  a n t e r i o r f r i n g e o n some o f T s c h e r n y s c h e w ' s  median  septum  des-  f e a t u r e s t o Kochiproductus n. sp. o f Vancouver  simi-  Island.  specimens, the shorter  o f t h e b r a c h i a l v a l v e , and apparent l a c k o f t h e promin-  ent brush of a u r i c u l a r  s p i n e s , a r e c h a r a c t e r s b y w h i c h t h e two s p e c i e s  appear t o d i f f e r . Another s i m i l a r p. 8 0 , p i . 1 9 , f i g s . Word) . Texas  form i s B u x t o n i a v i c t o r i o e n s i s K i n g (1931,  1-4) f r o m t h e m i d d l e P e r m i a n o f T e x a s  N o t enough o f t h e s p i n e p a t t e r n and i n t e r n a l species are available  t o make c l o s e r  (Leonard-  details  comparisons.  of the  151  I f Kochiproductus as by H a r k e r and  freboldi  Thorsteinsson  t a i n forms p r e v i o u s l y a s s i g n e d d e s c r i b e d above and  (I960,.p. t o K.  able suggest that t h i s  of  porrectus  i s not  the case.  K.  t o K.  f r e b o l d i and  porrectus  The  freboldi. avail-  K. p l e x i c o present  (Kutorga).  s p e c i e s w h i c h i t most c l o s e l y  a r e n o t w e l l enough d e f i n e d w i t h r e s p e c t  Occurrence:  belong  species  present w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t the Vancouver I s l a n d  s h o u l d b e named as new.  t o be  (Kutorga), the  an a s t o m o s i n g c o s t a e , n o t  t h e V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d s p e c i e s o r K.  details  to include cer-  the l a t t e r w h i c h the w r i t e r has  s t a t u s Dunbar a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  The  5 9 ) , s u c h as  C o o p e r ' s O r e g o n s p e c i m e n may  However, the i l l u s t r a t i o n s  in  (Stepanow) i s i n t e r p r e t e d b r o a d l y ,  precisely  The  species  resembles  t o s p i n e p a t t e r n and  internal  compared.  specimens i d e n t i f i e d from Vancouver I s l a n d a l l occur  i n dark d o l o m i t i c limestone  o f U n i t 11  the top of the B u t t l e Lake Formation  approximately  350  a t the type s e c t i o n .  f e e t below  152  Family  OVERTONIIDAE M u i r - W o o d a n d C o o p e r 1 9 6 0  Subfamily  OVERTONIINAE M u i r - W o o d a n d C o o p e r 1 9 6 0 Genus KROTOVIA F r e d e r i c k s  The to this  two s p e c i m e n s d e s c r i b e d  genus o n t h e b a s i s  ornament.  latter  below a r e t e n t a t i v e l y assigned  size,  shape and p e d i c l e  valve  I n a l l of these f e a t u r e s , the specimens appear t o agree  with Fredericks' Cooper's  of t h e i r  1928  (1928, p. 779-780) d e f i n i t i o n . , and Muir-Wood and  ( 1 9 6 0 , p . 188) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e g e n u s .  authors  (ibid.,)  " t h e genus i s s t i l l  According  to the  i m p e r f e c t l y known".  The  specimens a v a i l a b l e from Vancouver I s l a n d a r e i n c o m p l e t e and p o o r l y preserved,  preventing  more p r e c i s e  identification.  KROTOVIA? s p . A Plate I , Figure  Description: equal  Pedicle valve  to greatest width.  small, s u b c i r c u l a r i n o u t l i n e , hinge  Moderately convex.  hanging the hinge l i n e .  Small,  a n g l e a b o u t 90 d e g r e e s .  Surface  apparently  irregular  or subdued c o s t a e .  Measurements: o f 9, w i d t h  Discussion:  9  pattern.  Narrow swollen  triangular flat?  umbo,  over-  auricles; auricular  ornament o f s h o r t , e r e c t s p i n e s , i n  A n t e r i o r marked by l o w , elongate  pustules  Other f e a t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g b r a c h i a l v a l v e , n o t seen.  The o n e p e d i c l e v a l v e  o f 10 mm.  a v a i l a b l e (UBC 2 0 0 6 5 ) h a s a  I t i s preserved  The v i s i b l e  features  i n dolomitic,fine-grained  of t h i s  shell  are similar  b a r e n z i , from t h e Lower Permian of Novaya Zemlya, d e s c r i b e d vich  line  ( 1 9 3 5 , p. 1 3 9 , p i . 5, f i g . 1 2 ) .  I t i s slightly  smaller  length limestone.  to Krotovia by  Milorado-  than the  153  Lower Permian f o s s i l pi.  IOC, f i g s .  Occurrence: in Unit  from c e n t r a l Oregon, d e s c r i b e d  1 2 - 1 7 ) a s K r o t o v i a a f f . K. b a r e n z i  by Cooper  ( 1 9 5 7 , p. 3.2,  (Miloradovich).  T h e s i n g l e s p e c i m e n a v a i l a b l e comes f r o m L o c a l i t y  61-35-5F,  11 o f t h e B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n .  KROTOVIA? s p . B Plate I I I , Figure  Description:  Pedicle valve  s m a l l , s t r o n g l y convex, b u t n o t g e n i c u l a t e d .  .Complete o u t l i n e n o t seen, but probably venter,  non-sulcate.  15  elongate  oval.  C a r d i n a l e x t r e m i t i e s n o t seen.  Swollen, Surface  smooth,  except f o r few, f i n e ,  scattered, circular  to oval pustular spine  Measurements:  7 f mm.,  on t h e o n l y  Preserved  Length  i n fine grained  Discussion:  This  fossil,  9 mm.  calcareous  although  a p p e a r s t o be o f d i s t i n c t l y n u m e r o u s a n d more w i d e l y  width  bases.  s p e c i m e n , UBC  sandstone of L o c a l i t y  20094.  61-34-5F.  o f t h e same s i z e a s K r o t o v i a ?  d i f f e r e n t shape, and t h e s p i n e s  spaced.  tapering  s p . A,  are less  T h e c l o s e s t c o m p a r a b l e f o r m known t o  t h e w r i t e r i s t h a t r e f e r r e d b y T s c h e r n y s c h e w ( 1 9 0 2 , p. 6 1 6 , p i . 2 9 , fig.  3; p i . 6 3 , f i g . 9)  within  Schellwien  (included  t h e g e n u s K r o t o v i a b y M u i r - W o o d a n d C o o p e r , 1 9 6 0 , p. 1 8 8 ) .  nyschew s Russian 1  proportions, for  to Productus c u r v i r o s t r i s  species  a p p e a r s t o be s l i g h t l y  shape and ornament.  l a r g e r , b u t has  Tscher-  similar  The a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l i s i n s u f f i c i e n t  complete i d e n t i f i c a t i o n or d e s c r i p t i o n .  Occurrence:  The p a r t i a l p e d i c l e v a l v e  61-34-3F, i n t h e b a s a l of the type s e c t i o n .  sandstone  described  above i s from  ( U n i t 1) o f t h e B u t t l e L a k e  Locality  Formation  154  F a m i l y LINOPRODUCTIDAE S t e h l i Subfamily  P A U C I S P I N I F E R I N A E M u i r - W o o d and G e n u s MUIRWOODIA L i c h a r e w  This  Cooper  with distinctive  symmetrically arranged  internal features  1960  1947  l i n o p r o d u c t i d g e n u s i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by  s t r o n g g e n i c u l a t i o n , and  As  1954  i t s marked s u l c u s ,  halteroid  spines,  ( M u i r - W o o d a n d C o o p e r , 1960,  i s t h e c a s e i n many p r o d u c t i d g e n e r a , t h e s p i n e s a r e r a r e l y  but  the d i s t i n c t i v e  spine bases. not  The  s p i n e p a t t e r n can  tures v i s i b l e , however, i t i s v e r y s p e c i e s of Muirwoodia.  322).  preserved, the  exfoliated,  t o show t h e s p i n e b a s e s .  with  In other  fea-  c l o s e l y comparable to s e v e r a l described  I t i s assigned  additional material i s obtained  p.  s o m e t i m e s be a s c e r t a i n e d f r o m  specimen d e s c r i b e d below i s p a r t i a l l y  enough o f the s h e l l r e m a i n i n g  together  tentatively  t o t h e genus  to corroborate or r e f u t e the  until  identifi-  cation.  MUIRWOODIA?  sp.  Plate I, Figure  Description: line.  Partial  Greatest width  c u l a t i o n and  trail  anterior  to beak.  1960,  14)  steep,  pedicle valve only.  p.  along hinge  not  preserved.  Surface  onto s l i g h t l y  O t h e r f e a t u r e s , and  Measurements:  Width  Probably Venter  subrectangular  moderately convex,  Prominent narrow s u l c u s ,  capillate,  n u m b e r i n g a b o u t 30  extending  line.  10  capillae  i n 10 mm.  convex, t r i a n g u l a r b r a c h i a l v a l v e , not  ( f r o m h a l f - w i d t h ) 32 mm.  geni-  originating  (see Muir-Wood and  Umbonal s l o p e s  out-  Cooper,  moderately  auricles. seen.  L e n g t h 174  mm.,  on  single  155  specimen a v a i l a b l e (UBC  Discussion:  20046), a p e d i c l e v a l v e .  T h i s s p e c i e s has s u p e r f i c i a l resemblances  t r a n s v e r s a Cooper  (1957, p. 39, p i . 5A,  figs.  to Muirwoodia  1-13), and to Muirwoodia  mammatus ( K e y s e r l i n g ) , d e s c r i b e d by Stepanow (1937, p. 177, p i . 2, 5-7)  from S p i t z b e r g e n , by Tschernyschew  f i g s . 4-6) 1-5)  figs.  from R u s s i a (1902, p. 631, p i . 35,  and by Harker and T h o r s t e i n s s o n (1960, p. 58, p i . 16,  figs.  from G r i n n e l l P e n i n s u l a , and to Muirwoodia g r e e n l a n d i c a Dunbar  (1955, p. 103, p i . 16, f i g s . a r e v e r y s i m i l a r , and may slightly  1-18), from Greenland.  A l l of these s p e c i e s  belong to one s p e c i e s group.  i n v i s i b l e f e a t u r e s from the Vancouver  They  differ  I s l a n d Muirwoodia?  sp.  o n l y i n dimensions and c o a r s e n e s s of ornamentation.  Occurrence :  The s i n g l e specimen i s from U n i t  11 o f the Azure Lake  section  of the B u t t l e Lake F o r m a t i o n .  S u p e r f a m i l y SPIRIFERACEA Waagen 1883 F a m i l y SPIRIFERIDAE K i n g  1846  Genus NEOSPIRIFER F r e d e r i c k s  Discussion:  1919  N e o s p i r i f e r i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from S p i r i f e r Sowerby  1818  i n h a v i n g s t r o n g l y f a s c i c u l a t e , r a t h e r than simple c o s t a e .  However,  a c c o r d i n g to Dunbar (1955, p. 131), "the d i s t i n c t i o n i s not  clear-cut,  for  related  i n _S_. s t r i a t u s  ( M a r t i n ) (type s p e c i e s of S p i r i f e r ) , and  species, costae o c c a s i o n a l l y s p l i t and a moderate beaks".  i n t o t h r e e i n s t e a d of two  degree of f a s c i c u l a t i o n  branches  i s commonly v i s i b l e near the  W i t h i n o t h e r s p i r i f e r i d genera, and even s p e c i e s ,  fasciculation  of the c o s t a e appears to be a v a r i a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Dunbar's s i o n of S p i r i f e r e l l a k e i l h a v i i  (von Buch) (Dunbar,  i b i d . , p.  discus-  139)  156  illustrates  t h i s problem; w i t h i n  non-fasciculate  and 1  shells  i s not  a reliable  Each of  cardinal  extremities  tal  ( 1 9 5 2 , p.  132)  are  also  I n t e r n a l l y , they d i s p l a y the i n t e r p r e t e d by  340,  s u c h a u t h o r s as  N e o s p i r i f e r ? n.  the  relatively  of about twelve v o l u t i o n s  Description:  striato-  shape of  the  R.  E.  King  this  specimens whose alate.  f a s c i c u l a t e cos-  generic  characteristics  S a r y c h e v a and  ( 1 9 3 1 , p.  Sokol-  115),  and  text f i g . 43).  Large, transverse,  f a s c i c u l a t i o n of  show t h a t  between  occur.  Spirifer  below have p a r t i a l l y  Plate I I , Figures  Diagnosis:  on  at l e a s t , include  NEOSPIRIFER n.  1963  and  costation  e i t h e r r o u n d e d - o b t u s e o r a c u t e and  190-191; f i g . 166),  ( 1 9 5 4 , p.  a l l gradations  for specific differentiationin  species,  specimens d e s c r i b e d  o f N e o s p i r i f e r as  Stehli  p.  criterion  t h e s e two  ornamentation.  skaya  S_. k e i l h a v i i  (Dunbar, i b i d . ,  group.  The  species,  c l e a r l y f a s c i c u l a t e types of  D u n b a r s r e m a r k s on paradoxus Toula  this  1,  2,  sp. 3,  4,  5,  6  s p . YOLE, p i . I I , f i g s .  15,  mucronate N e o s p i r i f e r , w i t h coarse costae,  i n each  and  bearing  16  incomplete a  spiralium  coil.  S h e l l , l a r g e , impunctate, wider than long, w i t h  h i n g e l i n e , m u c r o n a t e c a r d i n a l e x t r e m i t i e s , and  greatest  straight  width at  hinge  line. Pedicle valve bonal region. strongly  moderately convex, greatest  Beak s h a r p l y  concave i n t e r a r e a .  pointed,  strongly  Interarea  convexity  incurved  over  flattens laterally  in  um-  wide, from  delthy-  157  r i u m , and  i s marked by  transverse striations.  a n g u l a r , o p e n i n a l l s p e c i m e n s on w h i c h  Delthyrium large,  i t was  observed.  s u l c u s o r i g i n a t e s a t b e a k , w h e r e i t i s n a r r o w and more s h a l l o w a n t e r i o r l y . ciculate,  i n bundles  and  o f t h r e e , t h e m e d i a n one  mid-length. similar  laterally;  deep; b r o a d e r  near  s i z e t o t h o s e on f l a n k s .  callous  umbo, b e c o m i n g o b s c u r e  Internally, strong dental  spreads  anteriorly  and  laterally  of the s h e l l  p l a t e s seen;  prominent,  volutions  Internally  cardinal  i n each  apparently similar  s h e l l m a r g i n t h i c k e n e d and  process  occurs.  slight-  border  to t h a t of beak,  produced  no  the  costae  into  Small a p i c a l  below notothyrium,  S p i r a l i u m of at l e a s t  on  calwhich  twelve  coil.  (in  Specimen  Length Straight  20013 20028  Thick  triangular;  narrow d e n t a l socket grooves  low p l a t f o r m i m m e d i a t e l y  Measurements  UBC UBC  Beak s m a l l ,  wide,  s t r o n g , converging socket p l a t e s below notothyrium.  a low f i b r o u s  plates,  callous thinned i n  N a r r o w r o u n d e d f o l d , n e a r l y smooth n e a r  lous, merging i n t o  of  to cover a l a r g e por-  interior;  Notothyrium  Surface ornamentation  pedicle valve.  at  plates.  i n c u r v e d over narrow i n t e r a r e a .  anteriorly.  an-  o f c o s t a e i n 10 mm.  B r a c h i a l v a l v e l e s s convex than p e d i c l e .  notothyrium.  the  c a v i t y , c o n v e r g i n g a n t e r i o r l y and v e n t r a l l y .  median area below d e n t a l  chilidial  fas-  of the t r i a d b e i n g  three to f i v e bundles  t i o n of the p o s t e r i o r h a l f  ly  and  I n s u l c u s , f i v e or s i x costae a t a n t e r i o r margin,  bounding d e l t h y r i a l apical  Prominent  Surface c o s t a t e ; c o s t a e rounded, weakly  l a r g e s t ; f a s c i c u l a t i o n most obvious teriorly,  tri-  mm.):  20+ -  Length Curved 53? -  Length Sub-Hinge Line 20 -  Width 72 77  Thickness  -  158  Measurements  (in  Specimen UBC UBC UBC UBC UBC UBC UBC UBC UBC UBC UBC  mm.):  Length Straight  Length Curved  30+ 38 50 30?  45? 60 60 35?  35+ 29+ 40 60 38 50+  55?  20027 20024 20015 20022 20025 20021 20023 20026 20014 20017 20018  -  Material: most are  The  p e a r s t o be  -  -  75 85+  -  A l l specimens l i s t e d preservation  Thickness _  84 84 55+ 84 60+ 55+ 74 70+ 80 64 80+  21 22 26  -  -  -  -  -  29 45 28? 36?  .  are  from d o l o m i t i c  i s otherwise f a i r  27+  _  to  N o r t h A m e r i c a n form most s i m i l a r to t h i s  Spirifer  2-3).  Width  29 29  -  incomplete, but  Discussion:  Length Sub-Hinge Line  (Neospirifer) huecoensis King,  38,  figs.  The  Texas s p e c i e s  differs  its  l e s s a l a t e s h a p e , l e s s p r o n o u n c e d umbo and  limestone;  good.  species  ( 1 9 3 1 , p.  116,  f r o m N e o s p i r i f e r n. b e a k , and  appi.  sp.  shorter  in  dental  plates. Neospirifer iferous n.  sp.  species  condor  ( d ' O r b i g n y ) , a P e r m i a n and  of widespread d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  i n i t s more p r o n o u n c e d f o l d  and  differs  sulcus,  number o f v o l u t i o n s  i n the  surface  sculpture  i n N e w e l l e t a l , 1953,  1 0 - 1 2 ; R.  E.  K i n g , 1930,  p.  113,  s p i r a l i a , and  p i . 35,  figs.  t h e L o w e r P e r m i a n o f S p i t z b e r g e n , a s s i g n e d by 179,  p i . 7,  f i g . 3)  t o N e o s p i r i f e r n.  to N e o s p i r i f e r  Neospirifer dental  in slightly p.  plates,  different  60,  p i . 10,  A  specimen  8-10).  S t e p a n o w ( 1 9 3 7 , p.  condor, i s e x t e r n a l l y very  figs. from 141,  similar  sp.  Similarities Neospirifer  from  i n shorter  greater  (Chronic,  Permo-Carbon-  cameratus  t o c e r t a i n s p e c i m e n s a s s i g n e d by (Morton) are  also  evident;  authors  examples are  in  to  159  Miloradovich,  1935 ( p . 1 2 8 , p i . 4, f i g s .  ( p . 5 3 1 , p i . 5, f i g s . fig.  6).  7 0 8 ) , a n d T s c h e r n y s c h e w , 1902  1-9; p i . 6, f i g . 8; p i . 1 1 , f i g s .  2-4; p i . 4 0 ,  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s o f N. c a m e r a t u s f r o m P e r m i a n h o r i z o n s a r e ,  however, open t o q u e s t i o n ; Morton's species previously  ( s e e B r a n s o n , 1948, p. 4 2 6 ) . C e r t a i n A r c t i c  referred  of S p i r i f e r steinsson,  many s u c h a s s i g n m e n t s h a v e b e e n r e m o v e d  to t h i s species  striato-paradoxus  have been i n c l u d e d  T o u l a by Harker  1 9 6 0 , p. 6 7 , p i . 1 9 , f i g s .  the Vancouver I s l a n d N e o s p i r i f e r  i n a d d i t i o n , each s p i r a l i u m c o i l i n contrast  more a l a t e  o f N e o s p i r i f e r n. s p . bears  t o t h e much l a r g e r number p r e s e n t  (Dunbar, 1955, p. 1 3 1 ) .  The internal with  species  shape, fewer and stronger  l i n g of costae  the w r i t e r  to believe  that  by i t s  c o s t a e , and l e s s pronounced bund5, 6 ) .  c i t e d above, and t h e l a c k o f d e s c r i p t i o n s  d e t a i l s o f many o f t h e s u p e r f i c i a l l y  the present uncertain  cameratus  i s easily distinguished  ( c f . Shimer and Shrock, 1944, p i . 125, f i g s . differences  less  and l a c k o f growth  From t y p i c a l N o r t h American forms o f N e o s p i r i f e r (Morton), t h e Vancouver I s l a n d  species,  n. s p . d i f f e r s i n h a v i n g c o a r s e r ,  varices;  striato-paradoxus  i n t h e synonymy  1-7). From t h e l a t t e r  bundled c o s t a e , fewer costae i n s u l c u s ,  in Spirifer  forms  ( i n H a r k e r and Thor-  strongly  about twelve v o l u t i o n s ,  from  status  of  s i m i l a r f o r m s , combined  o f some o f t h e named s p e c i e s  the Vancouver I s l a n d  species  lead  described  above  s h o u l d b e r e g a r d e d a s new.  Occurrence:  N e o s p i r i f e r n. s p . o c c u r s i n U n i t  Formation l o c a t i o n a t the type s e c t i o n .  11 o f t h e B u t t l e  Lake  S u p e r f i c i a l l y s i m i l a r forms  h a v e a l s o b e e n r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e same f o r m a t i o n a t L o c a l i t y 6 1 - 3 3 - 1 0 F , on  the ridge  east of Azure Lake.  160  NEOSPIRIFER s p . Plate I I I , Figure  11  1963 N e o s p i r i f e r s p . Y O L E , p i . I , f i g . 9  I n t e r n a l molds t i o n of a b r a c h i a l valve belonging  o f one p e d i c l e v a l v e (UBC  to N e o s p i r i f e r were found i n the b a s a l  costate, with The  the costae prominently sulcus  20070) and a p o r -  20071) o f a s m a l l b r a c h i o p o d p r o b a b l y  B u t t l e Lake Formation ( L o c a l i t y 61-34-3F).  halves.  (UBC  sandstone of the  The  shells are  f a s c i c u l a t e i n the a n t e r i o r  and f o l d a r e n a r r o w ; b o t h appear  costate, but preservation  i s inadequate f o r f u l l  t o be  adequate (UBC  W i d t h - 26 mm.  comparison w i t h  other  20070) a p p e a r s i d e n t i c a l  Not enough m a t e r i a l material.  weakly  description.  s u r e m e n t s made on t h e more o r l e s s c o m p l e t e p e d i c l e v a l v e L e n g t h - 13 mm.,  strongly  Mea-  are:  i s present f o r  However, the p e d i c l e  i n e x t e r n a l appearance  valve  to a f o s s i l  from  t h e Lower P e r m i a n o f Novaya Z e m l y a , r e f e r r e d by M i l o r a d o v i c h  (1935,  p. 1 5 0 , p i . 6, f i g s .  small  37-38) t o S p i r i f e r  specimen, r e f e r r e d by Tschernyschew Morton's land  fossils.  placed son,  species  also  shows d i s t i n c t  Tschernyschew  1  cameratus Morton.  ( 1 9 0 2 , p i . 5, f i g s . similarity  1, 2) t o  to the Vancouver I s -  s "S_. c a m e r a t u s " h a s , h o w e v e r ,  i n synonymy w i t h N e o s p i r i f e r p o s t s t r i a t u s ( N i k i t i n )  1948,  since  been  (see Bran-  p. 4 3 0 ) .  Genus BRACHYTHYRINA F r e d e r i c k s BRACHYTHYRINA c f . B. UFENSIS  One (UBC  A  partial  20056), from Unit  pedicle valve  1929  (Tschernyschew)  of a l a r g e , broad r i b b e d  spiriferid  11 i n t h e t y p e s e c t i o n o f t h e B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a -  161  t i o n resembles Brachythyrina u f e n s i s tures.  The f o s s i l measures  (Tschernyschew) i n v i s i b l e  o v e r 45 mm.  l o n g , o v e r 44 mm. w i d e ;  s h a l l o w s u l c u s w i t h m e d i a l f u r r o w i s bounded subdued  costae.  are v i s i b l e .  on t h e f l a n k s by b r o a d ,  T h e c l o s e s t c o m p a r i s o n t h a t c a n b e made i s w i t h t h e (1902) f i g .  1  3, p i . 3 9 .  Closely  c o m p a r a b l e e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a l s o shown b y a f o s s i l  pi.  Z e m l y a a s s i g n e d t o B. u f e n s i s b y M i l o r a d o v i c h  6, f i g .  fig.  a  R e m n a n t s o f a b r o a d s p i r a l i u m w i t h many v o l u t i o n s  specimen f i g u r e d i n Tschernyschew s  Novaya  fea-  3 6 ) . From t h e f o s s i l  2 ) ,under  the Vancouver  s p . , c f . S_. u f e n s i s  I s l a n d specimen d i f f e r s  also at Locality  fossils,  61-33-10F,  ( 1 9 3 5 , p. 1 5 0 ,  i l l u s t r a t e d by N e l s o n (1961b, p i . 28,  t h e name " S p i r i f e r "  Somewhat s i m i l a r  from  i n having a less  Tschernyschew, e l e v a t e d umbo.  though l e s s w e l l - p r e s e r v e d , occur  i n the B u t t l e Lake Formation, east of Azure  Lake.  Genus S P I R I F E R E L L A  T s c h e r n y s c h e w 1902  Recent d i s c u s s i o n s of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s the problems o f s p e c i f i c  distinctions  and H a r k e r and T h o r s t e i n s s o n it  a r e g i v e n i n Dunbar  (1960, p. 7 0 ) .  i s apparent that the A r c t i c  species of this  genus, and  ( 1 9 5 5 , p. 142)  From these a u t h o r s ' genus  work,  c a n n o t be e a s i l y  d i s t i n g u i s h e d , e s p e c i a l l y when o n l y e x t e r n a l f e a t u r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e for  study.  Harker and T h o r s t e i n s s o n  (ibid.,  c o n c l u s i o n s , b a s e d on specimens f r o m G r i n n e l l "By into  selecting  p . 71) s u m m a r i z e  P e n i n s u l a , as f o l l o w s :  t h e more e x t r e m e f o r m s i t i s f a i r l y  two g r o u p s ;  one group i n c l u d e s  angular s u l c u s and f a i r l y  easy t o s e p a r a t e them  t h e more e l o n g a t e s h e l l s  simple r i b s ,  their  with  t h e o t h e r group comprises t h e  more t r a n s v e r s e s h e l l s w i t h more complex r i b p a t t e r n .  These  two groups  162  correspond  r e s p e c t i v e l y w i t h S_. s a r a n a e s e n s u l a t o a n d S_. k e i l h a v i i  sensu l a t o o f E i n o r 1939, p. 126-154. forms and i t i s probable ing  intermediate  t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be a c o m p l e t e l y  s e r i e s i f m o r e m a t e r i a l was The  T h e r e a r e some  intergrad-  available".  species represented  i n the w r i t e r ' s collections  Vancouver I s l a n d i s h e r e i n r e f e r r e d t o S p i r i f e r e l l a  from  saranae sensu  lato,  f o l l o w i n g t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f H a r k e r and T h o r s t e i n s s o n .  S P I R I F E R E L L A SARANAE  (de V e r n e u i l ) s e n s u  lato  P l a t e I I I , F i g u r e s 1, 2, 3, 4.  1902  Spiriferina ( S p i r i f e r e l l a ) s a r a n a e (de V e r n e u i l ) . TSCHERNYSCHEW, p i . 1 2 , f i g . 4: p i . 4 0 , f i g . 5; t e x t f i g s . 4 1 - 4 6 . 71955 S p i r i f e r e l l a ? s p . u n d e t . DUNBAR, p i . 2 7 , f i g s . 1 5 - 1 6 . 1960 S p i r i f e r e l l a s a r a n a e ( d e V e r n e u i l ) s . l . HARKER a n d THORSTEINSSON, p. 7 1 , p i . 2 2 , f i g s . 1-8; p i . 2 3 , f i g s . 3, 4, 8. ? 1 9 6 1 b S p i r i f e r e l l a s a r a n a e ( d e V e r n e u i l ) . NELSON, p i . 2 9 , f i g s . 1-3. 71962 S p i r i f e r e l l a d r a s c h e i ( T o u l a ) . DUNBAR, p. 3, p i . 2, f i g s . 1-14. 1963 S p i r i f e r e l l a c f . S_. s a r a n a e ( d e V e r n e u i l ) . Y O L E , p i . 1, f i g s . 6, 7.  Description:  S h e l l s medium t o l a r g e s i z e d ,  region, longer  than wide  suggests  widths  equal  (incomplete  i n apical  p r e s e r v a t i o n o f some s p e c i m e n s  or greater than  s t r a i g h t , but not completely  thick, especially  preserved  length).  Hinge l i n e  apparently  i n the Vancouver I s l a n d s p e c i -  mens . V e n t r a l v a l v e moderately convex. about o n e - t h i r d of s h e l l  l e n g t h , concave.  Interarea high,  D e l t h y r i u m n o t seen.  minent s u l c u s , narrow, steep-sided, w i t h narrow f l a t bottom near beak; anteriorly;  height  or s l i g h t l y  becomes b r o a d and s h a l l o w , w i t h l e s s  s i d e s smooth o r marked by f a i n t ,  steep  f i n e costae.  Proarched  sides, Five,  163  possibly  s i x , s t r o n g c o s t a e on e a c h f l a n k ,  b e i n g the most prominent. terior  shell  filling.  Other f e a t u r e s not  (in  Specimen UBC UBC UBC UBC UBC UBC  field  apical  visible.  seen.  Length Curved  Width  38+ 36+ 30+ 51+ 37+ 33+  57+ 49+ 45+ 48+  40? 42 42 42? 25+ 26+  The  specimens  c o n s i s t of p a r t i a l  i n a l l c a s e s , p o o r l y p r e s e r v e d by p a r t i a l  shell  thick  Length Straight  Material:  of  In-  mm.):  20068 20069 20154 20155 20157 20156  crinoidal  sulcus  d e p r e s s i o n , s u r r o u n d e d by  growth, a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the extremely t h i c k  B r a c h i a l valve not  Measurements  the  f a s c i c u l a t i o n of costae e v i d e n t .  shows s m a l l m e d i a n m u s c l e  secondary? shell  No  t h e two b o u n d i n g  limestone.  The  pedicle  silicification  p r e s e r v a t i o n does n o t p e r m i t  s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s , and d e t a i l  valves  i n coarse observation  o f t h e c o s t a t i o n may  be  partially  obscured.  Discussion:  W h i l e i n shape  ella keilhavii  similar  to  p i . 2 6 , f i g s . 1-11;  p i . 27, f i g s .  Dunbar i l l u s t r a t e s a S p i r i f e r e l l a ?  sp. undet  27, f i g s . 15-16), from the Permian of S p i t s b e r g e n , w h i c h  resembles the Vancouver originally  Spirifer-  I s l a n d specimens.  The  (1916, p i . 11, f i g s . 3 a - c ) .  The  s u l c u s and  costal  and  i n the  (ibid., closely  Spitzbergen form  a s s i g n e d t o S_. k e i l h a v i i b y T s c h e r n y s c h e w  (1955,  1-14),  f r o m i t i n h a v i n g a d e e p e r , more a n g u l a r s u l c u s , and  simple costae. pi.  appear  ( v o n B u c h ) , as d e s c r i b e d a n d i l l u s t r a t e d b y D u n b a r  p . 1 3 9 , p i . 2 5 , f i g s . 1-9; they d i f f e r  the specimens  was  Stepanow  t y p e shown on  the  164  Vancouver  Island  s p e c i m e n s , seem t o a g r e e b e s t w i t h H a r k e r a n d  s t e i n s s o n s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of S p i r i f e r e l l a  saranae, mentioned  1  generic discussion. degree of c o s t a l  Because  of the apparent v a r i a t i o n s  f a s c i c u l a t i o n p r e s e n t i n t h e genus and  s p e c i e s , the assignment of the Vancouver sensu l a t o ,  seems m o s t s u i t a b l e u n t i l  d e f i n i t i o n of the  1 9 6 1 b , p. 1 2 9 , f i g s .  described t o S_.  saranae  clarified  the  saranae from the Permian of the Yukon ( N e l s o n ,  1 - 3 ) , and S p i r i f e r e l l a  Permian of n o r t h e a s t Greenland although not i d e n t i c a l  (Dunbar,  to the Vancouver  draschei  1962,  (Toula) from  p. 8, p i . 2, f i g s .  Island  s p e c i m e n s , may  I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s e two f o r m s  the 12-14),  conceiv-  w i t h i n t h e b r o a d d e f i n i t i o n o f S_. s a r a n a e a c c e p t e d b y  and T h o r s t e i n s s o n ( 1 9 6 0 ) . ficient  and  species,  Spiriferella  ably f a l l  i n the  i n shape  I s l a n d specimens  f u r t h e r work has  Thor-  Harker  i s not  suf-  t o make a c c u r a t e c o m p a r i s o n s .  Occurrence:  Two  are  from the upper  the  type s e c t i o n .  of the Vancouver  Island  s p e c i m e n s , UBC  20068, 20069,  75 f e e t o f t h e B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n , U n i t 21 The  remainder a r e from the upper  f o r m a t i o n , s o u t h e a s t of M a r b l e Peak, L o c a l i t i e s  of  p a r t o f t h e same  61-61A-7F a n d  8F.  165  Genus P T E R O S P I R I F E R D u n b a r  PTEROSPIRIFER?  Description;  F r o m two  poorly  preserved  description i s a l l that i s possible. w i t h a prominent n o n - p l i c a t e cae  o c c u r on  each s i d e of the  f o l d b e i n g most c l e a r l y p a r t of the area  shell.  specimen  and  a medial,  the  defined.  (UBC  hinge l i n e  subangular  i s the  s h e l l s a p p e a r t o be  (in  i s preserved  on  apical  muscle f i e l d , the  beak.  the  In  callosity, are  visible.  specimens a v a i l a b l e ;  mm.);  S p e c i m e n UBC  Width  v a l v e , the  30 52  20095 i s an  i n t e r n a l m o l d , and  former o c c u r r i n g i n the b a s a l  the B u t t l e Lake F o r m a t i o n , the l a t t e r  i n coarse  UBC  sandstone  crinoidal  lime-  same u n i t .  Discussion:  within  widest  12+ 12+  20167 a s i l i c i f i e d  c a t i o n of  extensive  Length  Material:  the  impunctate.  20095 20167  stone of  to  pli-  concave, s u b p a r a l l e l - s i d e d i n t e r -  strongly impressed, elongate  Specimen  of  The  t o 12  f o u r or f i v e nearest  2 0 0 5 9 ) , r e m n a n t s o f an  surface micro-structure  Measurements  UBC UBC  the  partial  s h e l l s are wide, a l a t e ,  a r c h e s more s t r o n g l y under t h e s m a l l , i n c o n s p i c u o u s  one  No  brachial valves, a  A b o u t 10  fold,  A slightly  sp.  The  fold.  1955  this  The  l a c k of complete f o s s i l s prevents  species;  i t s general  certain identifi-  resemblance to species  Dunbar's genus P t e r o s p i r i f e r w a r r a n t o n l y  included  t e n t a t i v e assignment  166  t o t h a t genus.  The v i s i b l e  P. c f . P. a l a t u s  (Schlotheim),  ( 1 9 6 0 , p. 6 8 , p i . 2 0 , f i g s . as  illustrated  f e a t u r e s i n d i c a t e c l o s e resemblance t o d e s c r i b e d by Harker and  13-14).  F r o m P. a l a t u s  and d e s c r i b e d by Dunbar  19-25), the Vancouver I s l a n d f o s s i l s  Thorsteinsson  (Schlotheim),  (1955, p. 129, p i . 22, f i g s .  differ  i n their  l a c k of a median  g r o o v e on t h e f o l d .  Occurrence:  S p e c i m e n UBC 20095 was f o u n d i n U n i t 1, i n t h e b a s a l  sandstone o f t h e B u t t l e Lake Formation type fossil,  section.  The  other  UBC 2 0 1 6 7 , was c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e same  formation  at Locality  61-33-10F, e a s t o f A z u r e L a k e .  Subfamily  Campbell erected genera w i t h  I N G E L A R E L L I N A E C a m p b e l l 1959  this  subfamily  to include three  e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d t o those  M a r t i n i o p s i s Waagen 1 8 8 3 .  His diagnosis  spiriferid  o f t h e genus  (1959, p. 332) i s as f o l l o w s :  " S p i r i f e r i d a e of very v a r i a b l e s i z e ; hinge l i n e v a r i a b l e i n l e n g t h b u t always l e s s than t h e maximum w i d t h o f t h e s h e l l ; c a r d i n a l e x t r e m i t i e s r o u n d e d ; f o l d a n d s u l c u s p r e s e n t o r a b s e n t ; comm i s s u r e r e c t i m a r g i n a t e t o p a r a s u l c a t e and s u l c i p l i c a t e ; c a r d i n a l a r e a s i n v a r i a b l y p r e s e n t on each v a l v e ; d e l t h y r i u m p a r t l y o b s t r u c t e d by n a r r o w d e n t a l r i d g e s ; l a t e r a l s l o p e s smooth o r b e a r i n g up t o s i x d e e p r o u n d e d p l i c a t i o n s ; s h e l l s u b s t a n c e i n two l a y e r s -- a v e r y t h i n ' e p i d e r m o i d a l ' l a y e r and a t h i c k i n n e r f i b r o u s l a y e r ; outer l a y e r b e a r i n g s h a l l o w p i t s o f v a r i a b l e shape; t e e t h s u p p o r t e d on w e l l - d e v e l o p e d d e n t a l l a m e l l a e ; ventral adminicula diverge at v a r i a b l e angles; d o r s a l adminicula range i n l e n g t h from o n e - t h i r d the l e n g t h o f t h e v a l v e t o a b s e n t ; c r u r a l p l a t e s s t r o n g ; s p i r e s w i t h about twelve t o t w e n t y - f i v e v o l u t i o n s ; no j u g u m p r e s e n t " . The  three  genera comprising  Waagen 1 8 8 3 , N o t o s p i r i f e r H a r r i n g t o n  the subfamily  are Martiniopsis  1955 and I n g e l a r e l l a  Campbell  167  1959;  t h e y a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d on  o f f o l d and and  the b a s i s of:  presence or  s u l c u s ; presence or absence of d o r s a l a d m i n i c u l a ;  arrangement of s u r f a c e  Type s p e c i e s : 4a-c;  I n g e l a r e l l a angulata  p i . 57,  figs.  shape  pits.  Genus I N G E L A R E L L A C a m p b e l l  figs.  absence  4-6).  1959  C a m p b e l l 1959  Generic  (p. 345,  p i . 56,  diagnosis:  " S h e l l s s m a l l t o l a r g e i n s i z e ; f o l d and s i n u s p r e s e n t , b u t v a r i a b l y d e v e l o p e d , and e a c h w i t h o r w i t h o u t a median f u r r o w ; l a t e r a l s l o p e s smooth or e x h i b i t i n g v a r y i n g degrees of p l i c a t i o n ; p e d i c l e umbo u s u a l l y h i g h ; h i n g e a b o u t t w o - t h i r d s t h e maximum w i d t h o f t h e v a l v e ; s h e l l f o r m e d o f two l a y e r s , the outer u s u a l l y b e i n g of the order of 1/25 mm. t h i c k , and c a r r y i n g a s e r i e s o f f i n e s e m i - q u i n c u n c i a l l y disposed short l i n e a r depress i o n s ; d e n t a l l a m e l l a e and v e n t r a l a d m i n i c u l a present, the l a t t e r never l y i n g completely l a t e r a l to the f o l d s b o r d e r i n g the s i n u s ; sockets l o n g ; c r u r a l p l a t e s and d o r s a l a d m i n i c u l a a l w a y s d e v e l o p e d ; d e s c e n d i n g l a m e l l a r o b u s t , and s p i r e s d i r e c t e d postero-laterally". The  fossils  d e s c r i b e d below have a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  I n g e l a r e l l a , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f some o f t h e i n t e r n a l s u c h as  the s p i r a l i a , which are not  specimens.  Although  Australian  genus c a n  i s obtained, referred fig. New  4)  strong evidence be  According  T a s m a n i a and  p r e s e n t a t i v e of the  phologically  fossils  to Campbell  into  three  Campbell's  preserved  material  only tentatively ( 1 9 5 9 , p.  question only i n Eastern  be  341-342, Australia,  A possible re-  i n the S a l t Range, P a k i s t a n .  t e n t a t i v e l y assigned  divisible  the Vancouver I s l a n d  A r g e n t i n a , i n Permian beds.  genus o c c u r s  features,  for their affinity with  the Vancouver I s l a n d specimens can  t h e genus o c c u r s w i t h o u t  The  on  c i t e d , u n t i l more c o m p l e t e l y  to I n g e l a r e l l a .  Zealand,  preserved  of  t o I n g e l a r e l l a , a r e mor-  groups, which are here t r e a t e d  as  168  "species". pressed bell's  They a l l o c c u r  by  t h e m may  (1959, p.  i n t h e same b e d ,  a c t u a l l y be  344)  i n a d d i t i o n , the  culae  a p p e a r t o be  cribed.  size  development of p l i c a e .  of the  significantly  There are not  surface p i t s different  three  medium g r a i n e d this  i s not  many a r e  sandstone.  to strong  as  i n these and  Campvaria-  differ-  same f e a t u r e s ,  l e n g t h of three  admini-  forms  The  fossils  They o c c u r  des-  statistical  Provisionally,  "species".  incomplete.  therefore, are a l l  i n a fine  to  Thus t h e e v i d e n c e o n h a n d s u g g e s t s  a life-assemblage;  been s u b j e c t e d  main  enough specimens a v a i l a b l e t o use  groups are d e s c r i b e d  s i n g l e v a l v e s , and  The  i n the  measures f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e of the v a r i a b l e s . the  character.  f o r i n s t a n c e , shows g r e a t  ences between the groups d e s c r i b e d below are but  the v a r i a t i o n s ex-  of i n t r a s p e c i f i c  I_. a n g u l a t a ,  t i o n s i n shape, s i z e and  and  though the  abrasion,  they  s h e l l s have o b v i o u s l y  have p r o b a b l y  been  that not  transported  p r i o r to d e p o s i t i o n .  INGELARELLA? s p . Plate I I I , Figures  Description: verse  13-14.  P l a t e V,  Medium t o l a r g e i n s i z e , b i c o n v e x ,  oval i n  width.  Figure  Cardinal extremities obtuse.  thin-shelled, trans-  slightly  A n t e r i o r commissure p a r a s u l c a t e .  from l a t e r a l  elevated  concave i n o u t l i n e , umbonal  s u l c u s , extends i n t o broadly s l o p e s by  l e s s than maxi-  Umbo m o d e r a t e l y  lateral  obtuse.  slopes  Hinge l i n e  above h i n g e l i n e ,  flat-bottomed  16.  outline.  P e d i c l e v a l v e moderately convex. mum  A.  prominent troughs.  Shallow,  angle almost  rounded tongue, s e t o f f L a t e r a l slopes  each have  169  6 t o 7 l o w , rounded ence l a t e r a l l y adminicula extending  from sulcus.  Few f a i n t ,  c o n c e n t r i c rugae.  s l i g h t l y m o r e t h a n 1/3 o f s h e l l posteriorly.  Shell  arrangement  i n c u r v e d beak.  10 o c c u r i n 1 mm.  Prominent, steep-sided  fold,  plicae,  b e i n g most prominent on each s i d e .  Growth  etc.)  about width;  Small,  pointed,  g e n t l y convex  adminicula,  slightly  on summit.  the 3 closest to the f o l d v a r i c e s or rugae  d e v e l o p e d , b e i n g most numerous and c l o s e l y  umbo.  pits  of valve  transverse oval i n outline.  slopes w i t h 5 t o 6 rounded  Dorsal  pitted;  probably  semi-quincuncial.  Brachial valve  larly  Ventral  l e n g t h f r o m umbo,  surface f i n e l y  average l e n g t h , and about  Lateral  d i m i n i s h i n g i n promin-  ( C a m p b e l l , 1 9 5 9 , p. 3 3 6 ) c o n s i s t o f l o n g , s u b p a r a l l e l p l a t e s ,  converging 0.4 mm.  to subangular p l i c a t i o n s ,  spaced  irregu-  anteriorly.  d i v e r g i n g , e x t e n d 1/3 o f v a l v e l e n g t h  from  A s h o r t m e d i a n s e p t u m (myophragm? o f C a m p b e l l , 1 9 6 1 , p . 1 7 2 , extends l e s s than h a l f of l e n g t h o f muscle  f i e l d between ad-  minicula.  Measurements  ( i n mm.):  Specimen UBC 2 0 0 7 5 UBC 2 0 0 7 7 UBC 2 0 0 8 3  Length (p.v.) (b.v.) (b.v.)  Material: valve  30 27 23+  40 34 32+?  (UBC 2 0 0 7 5 ) , a n i n t e r n a l m o l d  t h e o n l y specimens  34? 22  12 8  -  -  0.4-0.6  o f an almost complete  of a p a r t i a l  pedicle  b r a c h i a l v a l v e (UBC  They a r e p r e s e r v e d  crushed.  Length Surface Pits _  of a partial brachial valve  available.  sandstone; a l l are p a r t i a l l y  Length Adminicula  -  An i n t e r n a l mold  20077) and an e x t e r n a l mold are  Width  Width Hinge Line  (UBC 2 0 0 8 3 )  i n calcareous  170  Discussion:  The  m a t e r i a l and  preservation  of the specimens i s not  quate f o r p r e c i s e comparisons w i t h p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d ever, g e n e r a l  comparisons w i t h some of Campbell's A u s t r a l i a n  are p o s s i b l e .  The  most c l o s e l y comparable s p e c i e s  l a t a Campbell (1959, p. 345,  p i . 56,  f i g s . 4a-c;  The  species  includes  s i z e range of the l a t t e r  from Vancouver I s l a n d . sp. A.  In a l l o t h e r  How-  fossils  i s I n g e l a r e l l a angu-  p i . 57,  figs.  that of the  1-5).  specimens  discernible features, Ingelarella?  agrees w i t h Campbell's s p e c i e s , except f o r the g r e a t e r number of  plications  i n the Vancouver I s l a n d specimens.  I n g e l a r e l l a ? sp. A.  f e r s from_I. denmeadi Campbell (1961, p. 171, being  species.  ade-  smaller,  t h i n n e r s h e l l e d , and  p i . 23,  figs.  dif-  7-12)  in  i n h a v i n g a l e s s prominent f o l d  and  s u l c u s ; p l i c a t i o n s appear to be more numerous on the Vancouver I s l a n d specimens.  The  only other  I n g e l a r e l l a ? sp. A. pi.  6,  f i g . 33)  i s one  described  r e f e r r e d to by M i l o r a d o v i c h  as Meekella? sp.  s t r i a t o - c o s t a t a Cox.  The  f o s s i l with strong  i n d e t . , and  Vancouver I s l a n d specimens (UBC  geographic s e p a r a t i o n  t h a t a new  Occurrence:  s p e c i e s may  M.  Miloradovich of  the  inadequate p r e s e r v a t i o n  f o r the e r e c t i o n of a new  d i f f e r e n c e s between I n g e l a r e l l a ? sp. A. and  to  136,  20077).  the Vancouver I s l a n d m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e a t the present insufficient  by  i n appearance to one  Because of the s m a l l amount and  sidered  to  (1935, p.  compared by him  s i n g l e i l l u s t r a t i o n provided  shows a b r a c h i a l v a l v e , almost i d e n t i c a l  similarity  from the  and  species.  time, i t i s conThe  observable  previously described  localities  of the  of  latter,  species,  suggest  be n e c e s s a r y to accommodate i t .  A l l specimens are from U n i t  1, the b a s a l sandstone of  B u t t l e Lake Formation, Azure Lake s e c t i o n .  the  171  INGELARELLA? sp. B  Description:  Medium to l a r g e i n s i z e , subpentameral o u t l i n e .  P e d i c l e v a l v e moderately convex, w i t h g r e a t e s t c o n v e x i t y i n umbonal r e g i o n .  Umbo r a i s e d h i g h  hinge l i n e ; l a t e r a l s l o p e s s l i g h t l y obtuse. sulcate.  (about  1/3 of v a l v e length)  s l i g h t l y concave i n o u t l i n e , umbonal  A n t e r i o r commissure u n i p l i c a t e t o v e r y f a i n t l y  V e r y shallow,  almost i m p e r c e p t i b l e s u l c u s becomes  i s present.  angle para-  evident  about 1/3 o f d i s t a n c e from umbo to a n t e r i o r margin; a m e d i a l , groove o r trough  above  broad  The l a t e r a l slopes a r e n o n - p l i c a t e , or  marked by extremely subdued, low, rounded p l i c a t i o n s , v i s i b l e  only  near the l a t e r a l and a n t e r i o r margins, and numbering about 6 on each side of sulcus.  Few, f a i n t  rugae.  V e n t r a l adminicula  slightly  than 1/3 o f v a l v e l e n g t h , s l i g h t l y d i v e r g i n g a n t e r i o r l y . f a c e f i n e l y p i t t e d ; average l e n g t h of p i t s 1 mm. width, arrangement  0.6 mm.,  Shell  less sur-  w i t h about 10 i n  semiquincuncial.  No b r a c h i a l v a l v e s  seen.  Measurements ( i n mm.):  Specimen UBC UBC  20078 (p.v.) 20076 (p.v.)  Material: 20078), t h e o t h e r are preserved  Discussion:  Length  Width  Width Hinge Line  29 26  36 32  32? 30?  Length Adminicula  -  Length Surface Pits 0.5-0.7  -  7  The two specimens a r e molds, one e x t e r n a l (UBC i n t e r n a l ; both a r e incomplete  pedicle valves.  They  i n f i n e - g r a i n e d sandstone.  This species d i f f e r s  from I n g e l a r e l l a ? sp. A i n h a v i n g  a h i g h l y e l e v a t e d umbo, i n t h e l a c k o f , or very f a i n t  development o f ,  p l i c a t i o n s on t h e l a t e r a l s l o p e s , and i n t h e longer s u r f a c e p i t s .  It  172  bears c e r t a i n resemblances to smooth-shelled bell,  and  ( 1 9 6 0 , p. and_I. 138,  the  t o s m a l l e r s p e c i m e n s o f t h e s p e c i e s _I_. m a n t u a n e n s i s 1118,  p i . 137,  figs.  i n g e l a r e n s i s (Campbell,  f i g . 4).  l a r g e r on  forms o f _ I . a n g u l a t a  The  p.  p.  185,  1115,  latter  p i . 24,  p i . 135,  species  are  surface pits  of  these  s p e c i m e n s o f 1^. a n g u l a t a  two  Campbell  figs.  figs.  1-3;  adminicula;  fall  within  s i z e r a n g e o f t h e V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d s p e c i m e n s a r e o f more r o u n d e d (when t h e s e  show much g r e a t e r d i v e r g e n c e  adminicula.  As Ingelarella  w i t h the other s p . B c a n n o t be  of  the  species  pi.  s p e c i e s have  w h i c h do  l i n e , have l e s s numerous p l i c a t i o n s  1-2)  considerably  h a v e more s t r o n g l y d i v e r g e n t  d e n s i t y of the  been d e s c r i b e d .  1961,  1960,  However, b o t h of the  t h e a v e r a g e , and  s i z e and  2-3;  Camp-  are developed),  t e n t a t i v e l y assigned  not the  outand  to t h i s  genus,  p r e c i s e l y c o m p a r e d , o r named, w i t h t h e i n -  adequate m a t e r i a l at present  available.  phologically  w i t h g r e a t e r numbers o f t h e s p e c i m e n s , i t  is  f r o m _ I . ? s p . A;  It is clearly distinct  p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t a g r a d a t i o n a l s e r i e s i n c l u d i n g these  s p e c i e s w o u l d be  Occurrence:  mor-  two  recognisable.  A l l of the a v a i l a b l e specimens are  from L o c a l i t y  i n t h e b a s a l s a n d s t o n e ( U n i t 1) o f t h e B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n ,  61-34-3F, Azure Lake  section.  INGELARELLA? s p . Plate I I I , Figure  C 12.  Four specimens of s m a l l e r dimensions than the s c r i b e d above a r e sible  grouped together  t h a t some o r a l l o f t h e s e  the above d e s c r i b e d  species.  may  h e r e as a s e p a r a t e represent  two  taxon.  species  de-  I t i s pos-  j u v e n i l e f o r m s o f one  of  173  Description: anterior  Small,  subcircular i n o u t l i n e , biconvex,  commissure. P e d i c l e v a l v e moderately convex.  slopes  straight i noutline, fairly  flattened rowed. 4-5  triangular auricles.  Umbo h i g h , w i t h  steep, extending  Shallow  adminicula  gular, oblique Dental  lamellae  of commissure.  hinge l i n e , with l a t e r a l obtuse.  spaced rugae.  plicae, Ventral  l e n g t h , s u b p a r a l l e l i n umInterarea, high,  Delthyrium  g e n t l y convex.  wide,  slopes  Umbo s l i g h t l y  trian-  triangular.  Low, g e n t l y convex f o l d e v i d e n t  p l i c a t e , w i t h f o u r o r more p l i c a t i o n s Surface  elevated  g e n t l y concave i n o u t l i n e . i nanterior  of v a l v e l e n g t h w i t h broad, shallow median furrow. faintly  faint  fur-  well-developed.  Brachial valve  angles  Few i r r e g u l a r l y  convergent a n t e r i o r l y .  t o plane  to small,  sulcus, p o s s i b l y medianly  l o n g , a b o u t 1/3 t o 1/2 o f s h e l l  region, slightly  lateral  laterally  L a t e r a l s l o p e s n o n p l i c a t e , o r marked by v e r y  on each s i d e o f s u l c u s .  bonal  with uniplicate  over  Cardinal two-thirds  L a t e r a l slopes  very  on each s i d e .  p i t s r e l a t i v e l y l o n g , m o s t o v e r 0.5 mm.,  and spaced  a b o u t 1 0 i n 1 mm. o f w i d t h .  Measurements  ( i n mm.):  Length  Specimen UBC UBC UBC UBC  20079 20080 20082 20081  (b.v.) (p.v.) (p.v.) (p.v.)  Material: and  Width  20 19+  24  22  26?  Width Hinge Line 20? 24 25?  Length Adminicula 6 12  0.5-0.9  The s p e c i m e n s a r e a l l m o l d s , t h r e e b e i n g  o n e (UBC 2 0 0 8 2 ) a n e x t e r n a l m o l d , o f p a r t i a l  are preserved  Length Surface Pits  i n sandstone.  internal  single valves.  They  174 Discussion:  T h i s s p e c i e s may  (1959j p i . 56^ resembles.  be r e f e r r a b l e t o I . a n g u l a t a  f i g s . 2a-c, 4 a - c ) , the s m a l l e r specimens of w h i c h i t  The p l i c a t i o n of Campbell's specimens i s c o a r s e r than t h a t  e v i d e n t on I.? sp. C.  The  s u r f a c e p i t s of  measured and r e c o r d e d by Campbell. p r e c i s e l y i d e n t i f y or d e f i n e 1^?  Occurrence:  Campbell  The  a n g u l a t a have not been  Not enough m a t e r i a l i s a v a i l a b l e t o  sp. C a t the p r e s e n t  specimens d e s c r i b e d occur^  t o g e t h e r w i t h the o t h e r i n -  g e l a r e l l i n i d s ? and s p e c i e s o f Rhynchopora, Squamularia, other f o s s i l s ^ the B u t t l e Lake  time.  p e l e c y p o d s and  i n the b a s a l sandstone ( U n i t 1) of the type s e c t i o n of Formation.  175  Subfamily  PHRICODOTHYRINAE C a s t e r  Genus SQUAMULARIA G e m m e l l a r o  SQUAMULARIA?  c f . S.  Squamularia  Description:  Brachial?  oval i n outline. angle  rostrata  slightly  obtuse;  (Kutorga).  umbo s l i g h t l y  9 7 9  Material: are  with as  the  Superficial similarity  seen.  lamellae.  Sur-  Spine  molds  8  dimensions,  single valves. last  first  limestone.  poorly  the  pre-  are p o s s i b l e .  p r o p o r t i o n s of the specimens  i m m a t u r e p o r t i o n s o f b r a c h i a l v a l v e s o f _S. r o s t r a t a p i . 10F,  two  i s shown b y  W i t h the few,  precise determinations  shape and  The  i n tuffaceous?  to s e v e r a l species  d e s c r i b e d above.  f i g u r e d b y C o o p e r ( 1 9 5 7 , p. 5 9 ,  closely  beak n o t  Umbonal  8  sandstone, the  s p e c i m e n s a v a i l a b l e , no The  fold.  Width Hinge Line  Poorly preserved  Vancouver I s l a n d f o s s i l s served  No  transverse  type.  10+8 11  i n calcareous  Discussion:  long,  f i g . 20.  mm.):  20089 20090 20091  listed  f r i n g e s on  Brachial valve? Length Width  Specimen UBC UBC UBC  (in  than  inflated;  specimen suggest d o u b l e - b a r r e l e d  Measurements  YOLE, p i . 2,  to moderately convex.  face strongly lamellose, with spine o f one  16.  valves only; wider  Gently  1899  sp.  Plate I I I , Figure  1963  1939  f i g s . 36-42).  c o m p a r a b l e t o s m a l l e r s p e c i m e n s o f t h e same s p e c i e s  agree  (Kutorga)  They a l s o  are  illustrated  176  by Tschernyschew (1902, p. 575, p i . 20, f i g s .  14-18).  Kutorga's o r i g -  i n a l specimens, shown i n Tschernyschew ( i b i d . , p i . 15, f i g s . 4-5) a r e larger  than t h e specimens under d i s c u s s i o n .  A somewhat s i m i l a r  _S_. l i n e a t a M a r t i n , shown by Tschernyschew ( i b i d . , p i . 20, f i g s . is also  larger  than Squamularia? sp. and has a d i s t i n c t l y  species, 9-13),  different  shape.  Occurrence: Buttle  Two specimens a r e from U n i t 1 o f the type s e c t i o n  Lake F o r m a t i o n .  Locality  61-Z4-TF-8.  The o t h e r i s from limestone t a l u s  o f the  a t H o m e Lake,  177  S u p e r f a m i l y PUNCTOSPIRACEA C o o p e r F a m i l y RHYNCHOSPIRINIDAE S c h u c h e r t  and  S u b f a m i l y R E T Z I I N A E Waagen Genus HUSTEDIA H a l l a n d  1944 teVene  1929  1893  Clarke  1893  H u s t e d i a meekana. ( S h u m a r d ) Plate  I I , Figure  10.  ?19©2 H u s t e d i a i n d i c a ( W a a g e n ) . TSCHERNYSCHEW, p . 5 1 2 , p i . 47, f i g . 12 1909 H u s t e d i a m e e k a n a ( S h u m a r d ) . GIRTY, p.394, p i . 14, f i g s . 2 2 - 2 6 a ; p i . 2 1 , f i g s . 5~8a;" p i . 24, f i g s . 14, 1 4 a ; p i . 29, f i g . 8; pi. f i g s . . . 16-1.7 . 1931 H u s t e d i a meekana, ( S h u m a r d ) . KING, p. 126, p i . 42, f i g s . 3 4 - 3 9 . 1938 H u s t e d i a meekana .(Shumard). McKEE, p. 255, p i . 4 8 , f i g s . 8-9. 1944 H u s t e d i a c f . H. meekana ( S h u m a r d ) . CLOUD, i n K i n g e t a l . , p. 64, p i . 18, f i g s . 9-11. 1953 H u s t e d i a meekana, ( S h u m a r d ) . COOPER, i n C o o p e r et_ a _ l . , p. 65, p i . 20D, f i g s . 1 6 - 2 4 . 71953 H u s t e d i a . m e r i d i o n a l i s CHRONIC, i n N e w e l l e_t a l . , p. 105, p i . 17, f i g s . 10-17. ? 1 9 5 5 H u s t e d i a s p . D u n b a r , p. 160, p i . 32, f i g . 1 1 . 1963 H u s t e d i a c f . H. meekana ( S h u m a r d ) . YOLE, p i . 1, f i g . 8  Description;  Medium^sized f o r the genus;  width  a n t e r i o r t o the m i d - l e n g t h .  slightly  Pedicle c o r r u g a t e d , by pair  toward  w i t h troughs apical,  moderately  8 t o 10 c o a r s e , a n t e r i o r l y  of p l i c a t i o n s  lower  valve rostrate,  lower  lateral  borders;  High  s m a l l p o i n t e d beak;  Plications pairs;  seven,  similar  coarse;  convex;  shell strongly  plications;  median  remainder p r o g r e s s i v e l y  narrowly and  structure.  rounded t o  shape .  Pedicle  subangula. opening  interarea.  B r a c h i a l valve subcircular, convex;  size  greate  shell  flaring  plications  o v a l shape,  Punctate  than adjoining pair,  b e t w e e n them o f s i m i l a r  subcircular .  elongate  slightly  wider  than long, gently  s h o r t , narrow, i n f l a t e d ,  median t h r e e s l i g h t l y  i n other respects t o those  i n c u r v e d umbo.  higher than a d j o i n i n g  of p e d i c l e v a l v e .  178  I n t e r i o r s not seen.  M e a s u r e m e n t s ( i n mm.):  UBC UBC UBC  Length Brachial Valve  Length Straight  Specimens  6 10 7.5  20058 20059 20060  Material:  Width 5 9 7  4  Three p a r t i a l  shells,  i n dolomitic  limestone of  the B u t t l e Lake Formation.  Discussion:  Species referable  t o H_. m e e k a n a , a s d e f i n e d b y Shumard  a n d emended b y G i r t y o c c u r i n P e r m i a n r o c k s o f many a r e a s o f t h e w e s t ern U n i t e d S t a t e s , M e x i c o , South A m e r i c a , A l a s k a and A r c t i c Because  o f some c o n f u s i o n a r i s i n g  f r o m Shumard's o r i g i n a l  regions.  description  (see G i r t y ,  1 9 0 9 , p. 3 9 4 ) , some a u t h o r s h a v e a s s i g n e d s i m i l a r  new s p e c i e s  ( e . g . , C h r o n i c , 1 9 5 3 , p. 1 0 8 ) .  gested that Jl.  Occurrence:  indica  (ibid.,  p. 3 9 1 ) s u g -  (Waagen) m i g h t be c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h H.  The t h r e e specimens  l i s t e d above a r e from U n i t  type s e c t i o n of t h e B u t t l e Lake Formation. probably referable to this 60-H-2, H o r n e L a k e .  Girty  A fragmentary  species occurs i n c o l l e c t i o n s  forms t o  meekana.  11 i n t h e  specimen from  Locality  179  Family  SPIRIFERINIDAE Davidson  Genus SPIRIFERINA d'Orbigny 1847  SPIRIFERINA?  Description:  From two  1884  sensu l a t o  sp.  p a r t i a l v a l v e s , the f o l l o w i n g incomplete  mation i s d e r i v e d .  S m a l l , t r a n s v e r s e s h e l l s , with no p l i c a e on  and  each w i t h  sulcus.  Flanks  not w e l l p r e s e r v e d , must be v e r y  d e f i n i t e p u n c t a t i o n not  Length  20158 20159  Discussion:  1955,  The  Two  8 12  incomplete  p. 147;  The  S t e h l i , 1954,  valves  from c a l c a r e o u s  spiriferids  further c l a r i f i c a t i o n  p. 344-346; Campbell, 1959,  sandstone.  (see Dunbar,  p. 351-363;  p. 511-514). specimens r e f e r r e d to above cannot be d e f i n i t e l y  assigned  a genus, because of the poor p r e s e r v a t i o n and s m a l l number of s p e c i -  mens f o r study.  They a r e t e n t a t i v e l y a s s i g n e d  b a s i s of e x t e r n a l s i m i l a r i t i e s genus.  One  p i . 29,  figs.  G i r t y , as d e s c r i b e d by King  to S p i r i f e r i n a , on  the  to c e r t a i n d e s c r i b e d s p e c i e s of t h a t  of the l a t t e r , _S. m u l t i p l i c a t a was  (1955, p. 147,  was  punctae  Brachial valve Pedicle valve  s t a t u s of the v a r i o u s genera o f punctate  a matter f o r d i s c u s s i o n and  Branson, 1948,  to  seen; i f p r e s e n t ,  Width  5 6>  Material:  still  Shell structure  mm.):  Specimen  is  fold  fine.  Measurements ( i n  UBC UBC  f i v e subangular p l i c a e .  infor-  1-9).  d e s c r i b e d by Dunbar  Another s i m i l a r s p e c i e s i s _S_.  (1931, p. 122,  compared to _S_. m u l t i p l i c a t a (Sowerby) .  p i . 42, f i g s .  1-6),  hilli  which  Girty's original description  180  of  S_. h i l l i  ( 1 9 0 8 , p. 3 7 9 ,  gate form w i t h  Occurrence:  p i . 30, f i g s .  fewer l a t e r a l  1 5 , 15a~b) s u g g e s t a m o r e e l o n -  plicae.  Specimens have been found o n l y  i n the b a s a l  sandstone  ( U n i t 1) o f t h e B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n , a t t h e t y p e s e c t i o n .  181  Superfamily  ROSTROSPIRACEA S c h u c h e r t a n d L e v e n e Family  ATHYRIDAE P h i l l i p s  1841  Genus C L E I O T H Y R I D I N A Buckman  CLEIOTHYRIDINA  Description: interior vex,  P a r t s of both v a l v e s  f i l l e d w i t h coarse  probably  thicker  No  sulcus evident.  region not  t o 1 mm.  No  apart.  Measurements:  I n the  width  18+  mm.,  o f l e n g t h f r o m umbo.  Discussion:  slightly greatest hinge  lamellose, with  B r a c h i a l valve evenly  c o n v e x , umbonal  Surface i n one  s c u l p t u r e as i n p e d i c l e  part, spines  extending  up  to  seen.  t h i c k n e s s 11 mm.; The  bicon-  Surface  s i n g l e s p e c i m e n a v a i l a b l e , UBC  20067,  length  g r e a t e s t t h i c k n e s s about  specimen i s incomplete,  dolomitic limestone  tion, Locality  and  is in  1/3  fine  of the upper p a r t of the B u t t l e L a k e Forma-  61-35-5F.  In a l l v i s i b l e  thyridina  gerardi  ( 1 9 5 7 , p.  61,  ( 1 9 0 2 , p.  512,  slightly  valve  with  lamellae.  Other f e a t u r e s not  grained  Pedicle  interarea.  appreciably inflated.  f r o m a n t e r i o r edge o f  shell,  Umbo c l o s e l y o v e r h a n g i n g t h e  valve, with spiny fringes v i s i b l e  22 mm.,  crushed  Medium s i z e d , s u b e q u a l l y  oval i n outline.  i n umbonal r e g i o n .  l a m e l l a e 1/2  2 mm.  sp.  than b r a c h i a l , g e n t l y to moderately convex, w i t h  convexity line.  transverse  1906  of a s l i g h t l y  calcite.  1929  ( D i e n e r ) , as  p i . HE, p i . 43,  larger.  features, this described  figs.  2 8 - 3 1 ) ; and  figs.  1-2);  specimen agrees w i t h  Cleio-  f r o m c e n t r a l O r e g o n by  Cooper  f r o m R u s s i a by  Tschernyschew  the Vancouver I s l a n d specimen i s  Another c l o s e l y comparable species  i s C.  pectinifera  182  (Sowerby) as i n t e r p r e t e d b y Dunbar and T s c h e r n y s c h e w of  slightly  above.  (1955, p. 1 2 6 , p i . 2 2 , f i g s .  (1902, p. 5 1 1 , p i . 4 3 , f i g s .  more r o s t r a t e f o r m , and s m a l l e r  C e r t a i n specimens assigned  4 - 6 ) . The l a t t e r a r e  than t h e specimen  t o C. r o y s s i a n a  described  ( K e y s e r l i n g ) by  some a u t h o r s ( F r e d e r i c k s , 1 9 3 4 , p p . 2 2 - 2 3 , p i . 4, f i g s . fig.  9-18),  1 6 - 1 7 , p i . 5,  1 1 ; S t e p a n o w , 1 9 3 7 , p . 1 8 1 , p i . 9, f i g . 8) a l s o a p p e a r s i m i l a r t o  the Vancouver I s l a n d specimen; t h e m a j o r i t y Keyserling's  species  o f forms i d e n t i f i e d  with  ( e . g . , T s c h e r n y s c h e w , 1902, p. 518, p i . 4 3 , f i g s .  1 1 - 1 2 ) a r e o f much d i f f e r e n t s h a p e t h a n C l e j o t h y r i d i n a s p . , h o w e v e r , A species  (C_. c f C. s u b e x p a n s a  steinsson  (1960, p. 73, p i . 24, f i g s .  is  about twice  Occurrence:  (Waagen)) d e s c r i b e d  by H a r k e r and Thor-  1-2), from G r i n n e l l Peninsula,  the s i z e of the Vancouver I s l a n d  species.  The s i n g l e s p e c i m e n a v a i l a b l e i s f r o m U n i t 11 o f t h e A z u r e  Lake s e c t i o n of the B u t t l e Lake Formation.  183  S u p e r f a m i l y CAMAROPHORIACEA G r a b a u F a m i l y CAMAROPHORIIDAE Waagen Genus LAEVICAMERA G r a b a u  The  genus was  p r o p o s e d by Grabau  1936 1883  1934  t o i n c l u d e " s m o o t h cama-  r o p h o r i d a e u s u a l l y w i t h a t u n i n g f o r k t y p e o f s p o n d y l i u m " ( 1 9 3 6 , p. 8 7 ) . S a r y c h e v a and  S o k o l s k a y a ( 1 9 5 2 , p. 170)  genus o f C a m a r o p h o r i a ,  and  t r e a t e d L a e v i c a m e r a as a  i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the sub-genus those  w h i c h h a d a s m o o t h s u r f a c e , w i t h no r a d i a l  ribbing.  the "camarophorium",  f e a t u r e s of Camarophoria ( 1 9 3 6 , p. 5 8 - 6 1 , has  internal  fig.  2).  The  Vancouver  features almost i d e n t i c a l  p h o r i a by t h e l a t t e r  Island  was  cruralium-like  i n the b r a c h i a l v a l v e .  a r e a l s o d e s c r i b e d and  forms  Camarophoria  d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g a w e l l - d e v e l o p e d s p o n d y l i u m , and a structure,  sub-  The  internal  i l l u s t r a t e d by L i c h a r e w fossil  described  below  t o t h o s e a s c r i b e d t o Camaro-  author, but appears  to d i f f e r  i n minor  f r o m L a e v i c a m e r a a s d e s c r i b e d by S a r y c h e v a a n d S o k o l s k a y a .  details The  genus  has been r e p o r t e d f r o m P e r m o - C a r b o n i f e r o u s and P e r m i a n r o c k s o f R u s s i a , and  from the Permian of C h i n a , Novaya Zemlya  1948, may  p. 381) .  Faunal l i s t s  and A f g h a n i s t a n ( B r a n s o n ,  s u g g e s t t h a t f o r m s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e genus  a l s o occur i n C o r d i l l e r a n regions of North America.  LAEVICAMERA n . P l a t e I I I , F i g u r e s 5, 6,  1963 L a e v i c a m e r a n. s p .  Diagnosis:  Y O L E , p i . 2, f i g s .  sp. 7, 8,  i n anterior half  10.  13-14.  L a r g e , smooth, b i c o n v e x , t r i a n g u l a r  rounded-triangular fold  9,  i n outline.  of b r a c h i a l v a l v e ; shallow  sulcus i n a n t e r i o r h a l f of p e d i c l e v a l v e , geniculated i n t o tongue.  Prominent  prominent  184  Description: Apical  angle  Large,  impunctate s h e l l ,  a b o u t 90 d e g r e e s .  triangular i n outline.  Uniplicate anterior  Biconvex.  border.  P e d i c l e v a l v e convex i n umbonal r e g i o n , b l u n t beak c u r v e d b r a c h i a l umbo. concave, w i t h gular  tongue.  extending  Pre-umbonal r e g i o n f l a t ; a n t e r i o r h a l f of v a l v e shallow  sulcus  Surface  two-thirds  turning sharply into broad,  p e r f e c t l y smooth.  of valve  over most o f t h e d i s t a n c e .  over  shallowly  rounded-trian-  I n t e r i o r has l o n g median septum,  length, supporting  a V-shaped  Small, stout teeth a t corners  spondylium  of delthyrium.  B r a c h i a l v a l v e moderately convex, t h i c k e r than p e d i c l e v a l v e , w i t h b r o a d p o o r l y d e f i n e d umbo. in  anterior half of s h e l l ,  der.  Broad, steep, rounded-triangular  occupying  about t w o - t h i r d s  Median septum extends a t l e a s t h a l f o f i n t e r i o r  supports  intercamarophorial  of  t h e camarophorium, j o i n i n g  plate  (Licharew,  plate i n the c a r d i n a l region. occurs  of a n t e r i o r borshell  a camarophorium ( K o z l o w s k i , 1929, p. 1 3 1 ; L i c h a r e w ,  An  i b i d . , ) occurs  i t to a flat  or s l i g h t l y  l e n g t h , and 1 9 3 6 , p . 56).  i n t h e upper  probably  bifid,  as a roughened p r o j e c t i o n i n t h e p o s t e r i o r p a r t o f t h e h i n g e Prominent dental sockets  plate.  Shell  surface  a t the l a t e r a l margins of the hinge  smooth.  Immature s p e c i m e n s more r o u n d e d i n o u t l i n e , w i t h convex  lat-  margins.  Measurements Specimen UBC UBC UBC UBC  part  concave hinge  A small c a r d i n a l process,  plate.  eral  fold  ( i n mm.): Length  Width  40+ 35 28+ 25+  39+ 50 28+ 43  20061 20062 20063 20064  Material:  Thickness  27 22  A l l o f t h e specimens a r e from t h e d o l o m i t i c l i m e -  185  stone of the B u t t l e Lake Formation, L o c a l i t y was s e r i a l l y Figure  sectioned  resemblance  pi.  o f w h i c h a r e shown i n  t o Laevicamera n. sp. i s t h e R u s s i a n s p e c i e s L.  (Tschernyschew).  pentamer-  ( T s c h e r n y s c h e w , 1902, p. 510, p i . 2 2 , f i g .  1;  1-3; S a r y c h e v a a n d S o k o l s k a y a , 1 9 5 2 , p . 1 7 2 , p i . 4 8 ,  2 6 8 ; B r a n s o n , 1 9 4 8 , p. 3 8 0 ) .  A fragmentary specimen  P e r m i a n o f C h i n a was a s s i g n e d t o t h i s pi.  specimen  The o n l y s p e c i e s known t o t h e w r i t e r a n d w h i c h b e a r s a n y  23, f i g s .  fig.  (UBC 2 0 0 6 4 ) , t h e r e s u l t s  One  57.  Discussion:  oides  61-35-5F.  s p e c i e s by Grabau  from the  ( 1 9 3 6 , p. 6 8 ,  10, f i g . 2 ) . Laevicamera n. sp. d i f f e r s  a less  e l o n g a t e shape and l e s s  from L. pentameroides i n h a v i n g  s h a r p l y d e f i n e d , s h o r t e r f o l d , and i n  t h e l a c k o f a p r o m i n e n t median groove on t h e tongue o f t h e p e d i c l e valve. is new  T h e v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n L . p e n t a m e r o i d e s i s n o t known.  considered preferable  to regard  the Vancouver  Island  Hence i t  f o s s i l s as a  species.  Occurrence:  A l l o f the specimens  B u t t l e Lake Formation type  a v a i l a b l e a r e f r o m U n i t 11 o f t h e  section.  187 S u p e r f a m i l y PJiYNCHOlPORACEA M o o r e 1 9 5 2 Family  RHYNCHOPORIDAB. M u i r - W o o d 1 9 5 5  Genus RHYNCHOPORA K i n g 1865 RHYNCHOPORA n . s p . Plate I I I , Figures  17, 1 8 .  1963 R h y n c h o p o r a c f . R. magna. C o o p e r , YOLE, p i . 2, f i g . 1 9 . Diagnosis:  Medium s i z e d , s u b p e n t a g o n a l shape, w i d e r t h a n l o n g ,  4 t o 5 p l i c a e i n s u l c u s , 5 t o 6 on f o l d , rounded t o  width  S h e l l o f medium s i z e  a b o u t 0.7 t o 0 . 8 5 .  fold,  Umbonal a n g l e  of shell  margin;  about  mid-length.  Strongly plicate,  S h e l l surface  coarsely  plicae  punctate.  valve g e n t l y t o moderately convex.  i n c u r v e d over hinge half  width  Length/  a b o u t 17 p l i c a e w i t h 4 o r 5 i n s u l c u s , 4 o r 6  5 or 6 on f l a n k s . Pedicle  flated.  Greatest  thickness a n t e r i o r t o middle.  rounded t o subangular; on  f o r t h e genus, subpentagona,l i n  s u b c i r c u l a r t o rounded t r i a n g u l a r i n l a t e r a l p r o f i l e .  ratio  Greatest  plicae  subangular.  Description; outline,  5 t o 6 on f l a n k s ;  with  slightly  line.  obtuse.  Sulcus  extends d o r s a l l y i n t o  Beak s m a l l , p o i n t e d ,  shallow,  l e n g t h , widens forward  Umbo s l i g h t l y i n -  evident  slightly  only i nanterior  t o o c c u p y a.bout h a l f o f a n t e r i o r  f l a t t e n e d tongue.  s l i g h t l y diverging dental lamellae, reaching  Interior with  almost t o  long  mid-length.  B r a c h i a l v a l v e g e n t l y c o n v e x i n p o s t e r i o r 2/3 o f l e n g t h , s t r o n g l y convex a n t e r i o r l y . obscure. evident and  Umbonal angle  Umbo a l m o s t  imperceptibly inflated.  90 d e g r e e s t o s l i g h t l y  obtuse.  Pold  Beak  becomes  o n l y i n a n t e r i o r ha,lf o f s h e l l , where c e n t r a l p l i c a e a r e s t r o n g e r  more e l e v a t e d t h a n f l a n k i n g r i b s ;  a t 2/3 o f s h e l l  l e n g t h f r o m beak,  fold  s h a r p l y g e n i c u l a t e d t o meet t o n g u e .  median  Interior with long,  septum, r e a c h i n g about t o m i d - l e n g t h .  Apical  thin  structures not  seen.  Measurements  ( i n mm.):  Specimen UBC UBC UBC UBC  Length  20084 ( b . v . ) 20085 20086 ( p . v . ) 20087  Width  11 11 12 12  Material:  All  17 11 14 16  degrees.  9+  of the specimens a r e molds, preserved i n the  b a s a l sandstone of the B u t t l e Lake Formation. various  Thickness  Most are crushed to  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s p e c i m e n s on w h i c h  measurements  were p o s s i b l e , s e v e r a l fragmentary v a l v e s a r e p r e s e n t i n the  collec-  tion.  Discussion:  T h i s s p e c i e s d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be i d e n t i c a l  those described  species f o r which adequate d e s c r i p t i o n s  tions are available  to the w r i t e r .  The  T s c h e r n y s c h e w as i l l u s t r a t e d by Stepanow  pi.  13)  f r o m S p i t s b e r g e n , a n d R.  f i g u r e d by M i l o r a d o v i c h I s l a n d s , Novaya  Zemlya.  s p e c i e s have n o t been a v a i l a b l e p. 116)  geinitziana  ( 1 9 3 5 , p. 1 3 4 , p i . 5, f i g . The o r i g i n a l  or  illustra-  c l o s e s t comparable forms are  R. n i k i t i n i 9, f i g .  t o any o f  descriptions  to the w r i t e r .  ( 1 9 3 7 , p.  182,  (de V e r n e u i l )  7) f r o m B a r e n t s of the l a t t e r  However, Dunbar  i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of a Greenland s p e c i e s , s t a t e s  two (1955,  t h a t de V e r -  n e u i l ' s a n d T s c h e r n y s c h e w s s p e c i e s c a n b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d on t h e b a s i s 1  of  plical  shape;  the former has a n g u l a r r i b s ,  The V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and o t h e r s w i t h  the l a t t e r rounded  s p e c i m e n s i n c l u d e some w i t h b r o a d l y r o u n d e d  subangular p l i c a e .  A c c o r d i n g t o D u n b a r , R.  ribs. plicae,  nikitini  189 is  a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by m e d i a l  plicae.  This  specimens, but ( 1 9 6 0 , p. their to  f e a t u r e was  o n o t h e r s was  species  not  i s s m a l l e r , but  R h y n c h o p o r a n.  1-10;  verse  i n outline,  figs.  and has  number i n s i l c u s a n d variabilis  plica.e s i m i l a r  w i t h 3 t o 5 on t h e The  a greater on  Thorsteinsson  c f . R.  nikitini;  closely  comparable  f o l d ) t h a n R h y n c h o p o r a . n.  A  p i . 3,  cha.ra.cter t o t h o s e of Russian  sp.  figs.  13-14)  o f Rhynchopora, n.  specimens of  a p p e a r s t o be  sp.;  Stuckenberg's only  12 t o  13,  sulcus.  Russian  of t h e i r  s p e c i e s R.  nikitini  and  intra.specific v a r i a b i l i t y i n t e r n a l f e a t u r e s t o be  R.  variabilis.  of e i t h e r of c e r t a i n tha,t  d e s c r i b e d above i s c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h e i t h e r o f them.  tion,  certain features differing  these  two  forms are  Occurrence:  smaller  V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d s p e c i e s t h u s a p p e a r s t o have c l o s e s t  s p e c i e s , nor  s e e n on t h e  preferable that the  species, while  p i . 9A,  number o f p l i c a e ( t o t a l number,  t o t a l number o f r i b s  e n o u g h i s known o f t h e  considered  Island  magna,, i s l a r g e r , l e s s t r a n s "  S t u c k e n b e r g ( 1 8 9 8 , p. 342,  f o l d and  resemblances to the  species  R.  apparently  1 8 - 3 1 ) , as R.  i n number a n d  s p e c i e s however, the  these  H a r k e r and  illustration,  otherwise  i n Tschernyschew's i l l u s t r a t i o n s  Not  evident.  of the Vancouver  the  sp.  p i . 10D,  s p e c i e s , R.  o r two  O r e g o n s p e c i e s d e s c r i b e d by C o o p e r ( 1 9 5 7 , p. 54,  figs.  ha,s  n o t e d o n one  63-64) d e s c r i b e , w i t h o u t  The  and  g r o o v e s on t h e a n t e r i o r p o r t i o n s o f  p o i n t i n g out  The  Vancouver I s l a n d specimens. latter  s h o u l d be  been r e c o g n i z e d  section.  addi-  described characteristics  d e s c r i b e d as a,  only i n Unit  of  It is  i t s c l o s e resemblance to the Russian  s p e c i e s has  B u t t l e Lake F o r m a t i o n type  from the  In  the  1 of  new forms.  the  190  Superfamily  DALMANELLACEA  Family  S c h u c h e r t a n d C o o p e r 1932  SCHIZOPHORIIDAE S c h u c h e r t 1929  Genus SCHIZOPHORIA K i n g  1850  SCHIZOPHORIA s p . P l a t e V, F i g u r e Description:  Small  equally biconvex. Both valves  17.  t o medium s i z e d , s u b p e n t a m e r a l i n o u t l i n e , s u b Hinge l i n e  s h o r t , l e s s than h a l f s h e l l  c o s t e l l a t e w i t h 15 t o 16 c o s t e l l a e i n 5 mm.  at  Growth l a m e l l a e few i n p o s t e r i o r h a l f , numerous, c l o s e l y a n t e r i o r and l a t e r a l  in  larger shells.  Sulcus  near  to gently  Beak s m a l l , a c u t e ,  broad, shallow, poorly defined, evident  erect only  P r o m i n e n t i n t e r a r e a , 1/4 t o 1/5 a s h i g h a s w i d e ,  i n c l i n e d a t 40 t o 60 d e g r e e s t o l i n e rium, wide, t r i a n g u l a r , w i t h acute verging hinge teeth.  spaced  g e n t l y convex i n p o s t e r i o r h a l f , f l a t  convex i n a n t e r i o r h a l f o f l a r g e r s h e l l s . sub-erect.  mid-valve.  margins.  Pedicle valve  to  width.  of l a t e r a l  delthyrial  commissure,  angle.  Delthy-  Prominent d i -  Low r i d g e a r o u n d p o s t e r o - l a t e r a l b o r d e r s  of  m u s c l e f i e l d , may h a v e b e e n j o i n e d t o t h i n d e n t a l l a m e l l a e , ( n o t p r e served  i n a v a i l a b l e specimens).  extends about h a l f of s h e l l  Muscle f i e l d  impressed i n valve  length from hinge l i n e ,  floor,  and d i v i d e d by a  r e l a t i v e l y broad, g e n t l y rounded median r i d g e ; r i d g e i s h i g h e s t  pos-  teriorly. Brachial valve v e x i t y i n umbonal r e g i o n .  gently t o moderately convex, greatest Beak s m a l l , i n c o n s p i c u o u s .  con-  Interarea  191  prominent, almost co-planar but  w i t h commissure.  I n t e r n a l d e t a i l s not seen,  i n t e r n a l m o l d o f one s p e c i m e n s u g g e s t s l o w m e d i a n r i d g e i n m u s c l e  field.  Measurements  ( i n mm.):  Specimen UBC UBC UBC UBC UBC UBC  Length  Width  21 11+ 13 13 14 12  22 15 12 11+ 12+ 11  20185 20180 20181 20183 20183 20184  Material: coarse c r i n o i d a l  Discussion:  The  Island tions; The  pedicle  5-8;  p.v. 5+ 4+ 4+  p.v. p.v.  and o c c u r i n  species  c l o s e l y resembles  ( 1 9 0 2 , p. 5 9 1 , p i . 2 7 , f i g s .  text f i g . 61).  The  13-15;  s i z e range of the Vancouver  specimens exceeds t h a t i n d i c a t e d by T s c h e r n y s c h e w ' s however,  valve  limestone.  In observed features, t h i s  60, f i g s .  4+ 6+  specimens a r e a l l s i l i c i f i e d ,  S_. j u r e s a n e n s i s T s c h e r n y s c h e w pi.  Thickness  other  characteristics  species  o f S_. show s i m i l a r  illustra-  or greater  s i z e range.  o f t h e i n s i d e o f t h e b r a c h i a l v a l v e c a n n o t b e com-  pared e x a c t l y to Tschernyschew's s p e c i e s , because of the  limitations  of the Vancouver I s l a n d m a t e r i a l . A n o t h e r o f T s c h e r n y s c h e w ' s P e r m i a n s p e c i e s , S_. ( i b i d . , p. 5 9 3 , p i . 6 3 , f i g s . other  7-8;  supracarbonica,  t e x t f i g . 6 2 ) , though s i m i l a r i n  f e a t u r e s t o the Vancouver I s l a n d s p e c i e s , has a b u n d l e d a r r a n g e -  ment o f c o s t e l l a e , n o t s e e n on S c h i z o p h o r i a  sp.  From b o t h of these s p e c i e s , the Vancouver I s l a n d forms  differ  i n a t e n d e n c y f o r t h e s m a l l e r f o r m s t o be m o r e e l o n g a t e i n s h a p e ; t h e transverse  s h a p e i s more a c c e n t u a t e d i n t h e l a r g e r s p e c i m e n s .  192  Species w i t h c e r t a i n resemblances recorded from Pennsylvanian l o c a l i t i e s . pi.  27, f i g s .  1-8)  ing  The  S_. t e x a n a G i r t y  been  ( 1 9 2 7 , p.  432,  has been f o u n d i n Lower P e n n s y l v a n i a n l o c a l i t i e s  T e x a s , Idaho and Nevada 9-19) .  t o S_. s p . h a v e a l s o  Vancouver  ( L a n e , N.G., Island  1963,  p. 3 7 9 - 3 9 2 , p i . 4 3 ,  species d i f f e r s  figs.  f r o m S_. t e x a n a i n h a v -  u s u a l l y a more p e n t a g o n a l s h a p e , a n d i n t h e b r o a d e r , n o n - t a p e r i n g  median r i d g e i n the p e d i c l e v a l v e . r a t h e r t h a n t r a n s v e r s e , shape 1, p . 383)  No  tendency toward e l o n g a t e ,  i s s u g g e s t e d by L a n e ' s  of the dimensions of h i s specimens.  graph  (text  fig.  A. M i d d l e P e n n s y l -  v a n i a n s p e c i e s , S_. r e s u p i n o i d e s ( C o x ) , d e s c r i b e d b y B. 0. L a n e  (1962,  p. 8 9 8 , p i . 1 2 5 , f i g s .  17-19) f r o m t h e A t o k a n beds o f N e v a d a , i s l a r -  ger  I s l a n d S c h i z o p h o r i a s p . and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  than the Vancouver  a l o n g , narrow median septum i n the p e d i c l e  Occurrence: Home Lake.  valve.  T h i s s p e c i e s has been found o n l y a t L o c a l i t y  60-H-2,  by  193  Genus ORTHOTICHIA H a l l  and  ORTHOTICHIA  From i n s o l u b l e r e s i d u e s area, L o c a l i t y  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f O r t h o t i c h i a was  shell  evident  figs.  7-12).  only v a l i d America;  King's  0.  p. 4 5 ,  synonymy o f 0. It  whether the  High,  considered  kozlowskii species p i . 1,  The diverg-  figs.  are  more e l o n g a t e  Stehli  outline  ( 1 9 5 4 , p.  Girty's species  293,  p i . 17,  t o be in  the  North  f r o m the Lower Permian of  1 4 - 1 5 ) was  r e l e g a t e d by  Stehli  Texas to  hueconiana.  c a n n o t be  determined from the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e  s i n g l e specimen from Vancouver I s l a n d f a l l s w i t h i n hueconiana.  I t may  ORTHOTICHIA?  In collections  tics  pedicle  slender, s l i g h t l y  of O r t h o t i c h i a from Permian l o c a l i t i e s  r a n g e o f v a r i a t i o n o f 0.  U n i t 1 of  silicified  shell.  d e s c r i b e d by  l a t t e r author  species  ( K i n g , 1931, the  The  ( G i r t y ) as  generic  t r a c e of a s u l c u s .  s p e c i m e n i s o f s m a l l e r s i z e and  huec oniana  The  the  t r i a n g u l a r - s h a p e d median septum  i n the a n t e r i o r p o r t i o n of the The  t h a n 0.  a thin,  20186) w i t h  recovered.  costellate.  i n g d e n t a l l a m e l l a e , and  from the Horne L a k e  (UBC  o v a l i n o u t l i n e w i t h no  surface i s f i n e l y  1894  sp.  of l i m e s t o n e  60-H-2, a s i n g l e s p e c i m e n  valve i s elongate  Clarke  obtained  represent  a new  the species.  sp.  from the B u t t l e Lake  Formation,  the Azure Lake s e c t i o n , a s i n g l e specimen w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s -  suggesting  medium s i z e ,  those  of O r t h o t i c h i a i s present.  transverse  The  shell  oval i n o u t l i n e , with hinge l i n e  i s of  narrower  194  t h a n maximum w i d t h .  The  pedicle valve i s s l i g h t l y  steeply inclined, flattened interarea. d e n t a l l a m e l l a e descend to the  floor  Beak n o t  convex, w i t h  preserved.  of the v a l v e from  Thin  strong,  diverging dental plates.  A n a r r o w , low median septum i s v i s i b l e  the p o s t e r i o r p a r t of the  shell.  The umbo n o t  brachial valve  seen.  i s of moderate c o n v e x i t y .  Well-developed,  diverging crural  Shell  s t r u c t u r e not  L e n g t h 23 mm., l i n e a b o u t 16 The  and  costellae in 5  mm.  discernible.  32 mm.,  t h i c k n e s s a b o u t 13 mm.,  hinge  mm. m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e permits  assignment; r e f e r r a l f e a t u r e s and  width  Beak  in  lamellae.  E x t e r i o r m u l t i c o s t e l l a t e , w i t h a b o u t 15 anteriorly.  a  only a t e n t a t i v e generic  t o O r t h o t i c h i a i s b a s e d on  the presence of a median septum.  the  general e x t e r i o r  195  Superfamily Family  ORTHOTETACEA W i l l i a m s 1953  SCHUCHERTELLIDAE  Stehli  1954  Genus DERBYIA Waagen 1894  DERBYIA? s p .  An  i n t e r n a l mold of a s i n g l e , incomplete  20093), questionably belonging sandstone  to this  30 mm.  and the w i d t h  type  section.  a b o u t 38 mm.  of a t h i n median septum i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e muscle f i e l d The  shell  i n 5 mm.  (UBC  g e n u s , was f o u n d i n t h e b a s a l  ( U n i t 1) o f t h e B u t t l e L a k e F o r m a t i o n  length i s approximately  pe