Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The geology and structure of the West Kootenay composite batholith Jackson, Gerald Christopher Arden 1926

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


831-ubc_1926_a7_j2_g3.pdf [ 13.92MB ]
JSON: 831-1.0052890.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0052890-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0052890-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0052890-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0052890-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0052890-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0052890-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

U.B.C.  LIBRARY  i  CAT. WO. LM±£L£LL&b Jvfo ACC NO. THE  VIST  SSOLOCT  AND  Of  THE  KOOfSHAT  V  J  ^ '*".  S  COMPOSITE  BATHOLITH.  Gomld Christopher Arden Jackson  A Thesis euhndtted tot the Dsgree ©f MASTSB OF APPLIED SCI&SCE in the Department of GBOLOCT.  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia April, 1926.  J  IHS  8B0100I  AH D .•^—•! •  OF mimm  SSI  XOOfSSAI  STRUCTURE  '..-HI  f HI Wmm Hi «• •——•.'  CO S P O S I T S  C O I I S I I  BATHOLITH.  S.  CHAPT5B 1. FB,f  imwmmion*Statenent  1 1 2 2  adgeraents Location and Area CHAPTER 11, w+fimmmiim-mui**  4 4 6  Regional Local  CHAPTER 111* gESSRAL SaSLOgY. Seneral Statement Pre-Carooniferous Record Priest River terrane Pttrcell Series Summit aeries Ainsworth s e r i e s Duncan s e r i e s Carboniferous Record Pead d'Orellla group Grand Forks schist Sutherland s c h i s t Anarchist s e r i e s Koch R i l l group Franklin group Mount Roberts formation Attested s e r i e s Slocan s e r i e s Cache Creek s e r i e s Gloucester formation L i t t l e Sheep Creek limestone  7 7 8 6 10 21 24 28 28 28 30 32 33 34 3© 37 38 39 41 42  43  ii CHAFES ail  eta. Bags. 44 44 46 48 50 51 52 55 62 64 65 65 69 71 72 73 74 78 79 82  Kesozolc Record Phoenix volcaaics Bossland volcanics Wallace group Bali series Kilford series Jurasside Pre-Batholithic intrusives *» Batholithic Intrusives " Fest-3atholithie intrusives Little Sheep Creek sediments Tertiary Secord Laramide B&tholithle intrusives Settle River forest ion Curry Creek series Lake & Sophie Mountain conglomerates Beaver Mountain sediments tertiary volcanlcs Beaver ISecntaln *»olcanios Oligoeene intrusives Miocene hatholithic intrusives  CHAPTER IT  GEOLOGICAL HISTORY. Introductory Statement Pre-Car'bonirerous History Carsoniferous History k'eeozoic History t o t h e Jurasaido Revolution The Jurasside Revolution Cretaceous History t e thQ J^ramide Revolution The Larsmide Revolution Oligoeene History Miocene History Pliocene and Quaternary History  '  87 87 67 90 92 93 94 95 96 97 98  CHAPfW; y THE W3ST KOOggHAT COEffOSITE BATHOLITH. General Stateneni " Methods of Intrusion Lithological Character of Intrusives Origin of the present Elevation of the Selkirk Bangs and of the intrusion of Tertiary bathollths  100 100 100 102 104  Ill CHAFER VI  Stannary and Conclusions  106  ILLUSTRATIOSS. Map Ho.l  Topographic nap of Region  In pocket  ms »o,2  Geological nap and Section of Region  In pocket  Plate 1 .  Correlations within West Kootenay Batholithic Area  8  Ttt^ftqr sap*  3  Figaro 1  APPHCDIX* OMMPWMealMMk  Bibliography.  Separate as Card Index*  THE  GEOLOGY  AND  O F T WEST  I O 0 H F H  S T O C M E E  HS  COMPOSITE  B i H O L I I H , \\  C H A P T E R 1. IS TB 0 H  C T I 0 B.  General Statement —  —  •  •  ii  Mi — — —  • .1. • • — •  mm  The area discussed in the following paper embraces one of the most geologically interesting: and economically important portions of British Columbia. This paper Is an attempt by the writer to prepare an account of the general geology and structure of the .est Kootenay batholithic ana.  It is an outcome of the study of the literature dealing with  the geology of the region, the information being drawn largely from the publications of the Geological Survey of Canada. It has not been the intention to trace in detail the development i  of the present knowledge of the geology, but rather to describe briefly, and in order of age, the various formations found within the area, and, from a study of the evidence thus collected, to draw up a correlation table to illustrate the probable relations of the different formations to one another* Following this an outline has been given of the writer's conoeption of the geological history of the area from the time of earliest recorded deposition to the present.  The data upon which this history  is based has been drawn from the accounts by various authors of the sequence of events which have taken place, both locally within the area, and over the surrounding regions.  2  Finally certain aspects of the intrusion  and structure of the  composite batholith itself are discussed, and tentative deductions are drawn* The economic geology lias merely been touched upon, the writer having confined his studies chiefly to the general, structural, and historical aspects.  The ere bodies and their relationship to the batholith are  being dealt with in detail by Mr. Price in another paper. i  Acknowledgments. The writer Is greatly indebted to Sean B.W,Brock and Professor S.J.Schofield, of the Department of Geology, University of British Columbia, for their kind and helpful assistance, guidance, and advice, freely given at all stages of the preparation of this thesis. Acknowledgment is also due to Mr- P.Price for his courtesy in furnishing tike writer with information regarding the attitude of many Of the formations.  Location and Area. The area dealt with in this paper lies in southeastern British Columbia and embraces approximately 15,300 square miles.  As may be  seen on the accompanying map, the northern boundary is an east-west lias passing through the town of Arrowhead, at the head of the Upper Arrow Lake.  It is bordered on the sooth by the International  3 Boundary line at the 49th parallel of latitude*  Its eastern and  western borders are respectively the 116° and 119° parallels of longitude* It should he noted that certain Lower Palaeozoic rocks in the vicinity of Lake Windermere, near the northeast herder of the sheet, have seen Intentionally omitted from the descriptive matter, as they are not considered te hear any relation to the proolenu  Fig, 1.  f  Index Map, shewing location of area dealt with in this paper.  4  CHAPTER  11.  TOPOGRAPHY.  Regional The Geographic Board of Canada1 has divided the Canadian Cordillera into three main belts, namely the Eastern, Central and lestera. The Eastern and Western belts which are characterised by pronounced Alpine topography, are separated from one another by the Central Belt, which, in contrast, is in the general form of a plateau of touch lever relief, though locally assuming a mountainous character. The Western Belt has been subdivided into the Bacific System, including the Coast Bangs, and into the Insular System, that of the islands along the coast of British Columbia and southern Alaska,  The  chief topographical feature of this belt is the Coast Bangs batholith, a p e a t mass of granitic rocks, trending northwest and terminating in the south near the 49th parallel of latitude. The Central Belt in southern British Columbia is represented by the Interior Plateaus*  This plateau region conforms to the Cordilleran  trend of north-westerly and south-easterly direction.  In British  Columbia it extends from the International Boundary to about the 56th parallel of latitude, and is about 600 miles long by 100 miles wide. It is characterised by a rolling upland topography, into which are carved deep valleys. 1*  The plateau owes its present form primarily  Nomenclature of the mountains of Western Canada, 1918.  I  5 to the uplift and dissection of an ancient peneplain*  Its northern  boundary consists of an irregular group of ranges at the 56th parallel, extending from the Rocky Mountains to the Coast Bangs.  In the south  it terminates against the Okanagan, Skagit, and Hosameen Range, and the Midway Mountains.  It is bounded on the east by the mountain ranges of  the Columbian System, and on the vest by those of the Pacific System. She Eastern Belt of the Canadian Cordillera consists of, from east to vest, the Rocky Mountains, Selkirk, and Columbia Systems, three first rank -valleys separate these ranges. These valleys are as follows :« (1)  Rooky Mountain Trench, separating the Selkirk from the  Rooky Mountain System.  This remarkable structural depression, ex-  tending in British Columbia frost the International Boundary to the Yukon, is occupied by turn by the Columbia, Canoe, Feasor, Parsnip, Malay and Bwhika rivers. (2)  Purcell Trench, lying between the Purcell Bange (the  eastern division of the Selkirk Range) and the Selkirk Range proper. It is chiefly occupied by the Kootenay lake, and also by the north flowing Kootonay River, and the south flowing Duncan River.  To the  north it Joins the Purcell Trench near Golden. (3)  The third of the first rank valleys is occupied by  the south flowing Columbia River, whoso widened portions form the Arrow lakes.  This valley joins the Rocky Mountain. Trench at about  the 52nd parallel of latitude, and lies between the Selkirk Bange on the oast and the Columbia Range on the west.  6 local.  The area embraced by this paper includes the southern portions of the Purcell, Selkirk and Columbia Banges# and the south-eastern extremity of the Interior Plateau* The dominating topographic feature is that of the granitic batholith, which, from the point of its maximum elevation of some 9,000 feet, in the Mountains, slopes off in all directions. Three main valleys, hairing a general northerly trend* form intermontaine depressions.  These are the Becky Mountain Trench, the Pureell  Trench, and the Columbia Valley.  Between the last two a smaller  trough is occupied by the Sioean lake. One great transverse valley extends from Proctor to Castlegar, its eastern portion forming the Vest Arm of Kootemy lake,, and its western, the Kootenay Hiver.  It thus connects the drainage systems of the  Pureell end Columbia mileys. The higher peaks are devoid of vegetation, and present a rocky serrated appearance. "Salley head cirques and sasins are common throughout the mountains, these cirques "being generally occupied by snail and clear lakes  of  great beauty. Below the timber line the topography becomes more subdued, the mountain flanks appearing as long wooded foot hills.  Talus slopes  extending fanwlse downward mark bare patches devoid of timber* the valley bottoms small fertile areas of alluvial soil support thriving agricultural communities.  In  7 CHAP T E E GEN E H AL HSCSIFTIOS  OF  111  GEOLOGY FOEEATIOSS.  General Statement She geology Of the area consists, in brief, of a series of sedimentary and igneua rooks, generally highly metamorphosed and deformed, and ranging in age from Pre-Cambrian to Lower Mesozoic. Into these have Been intruded granitic batholiths of Upper Jura•sle and Eocene age* Overlying portions of this older complex axe a aeries of Lover Tertiary sediments and volcanie extrusives.  These are eat by a number  of monsonitic and seyenitlc batholiths and stocks, ranging in age from late Ollgocene t o Miocene.  Capping portions of a l l the elder rocks  i s an irregular covering of glacial t i l l and recent alluvial deposits* The precise correlation of the different formations has been rendered extremely difficult owing to the scarcity of reliable f o s s i l i fertnifl horizons, and to the profound degree of aetamorphism which the rooks have undergone.  nevertheless, a certain lithological and  structural similarity has frequently been found to be common to various sets of formations, and this has led the writer to offer a tentative correlation table*  This table i s a combination of facts and proba-  b i l i t i e s , and carries a heavy burden of hypothesis, which, however, i s unavoidable when dealing with a district where most of the sedimentary  8 formations cannot he closely dated "by fossils.  It should be borne in  mind that the genera \ succession of the formations has been stated with probably more certainty than their correlation with the recognised geological systems*  It is the belief of the writer, however, that the  table is of value; in illustrating the probable relationship to one another of various rock formations occurring in widely separated districts, and in the dating of the various formations in the light of the evidence obtained from the most recent and detailed field work.  Pre Carboniferous BecorcU  ggjgH River Terrane. The Priest River terrane is a term given by Daly1 to  I^stribution.  a series of highly mstanorpkosed sediments along the International Boundary, between Xootenay Lake and Irene Mountain.  From the Boundar.  Line the rocks of the terrane extend northwest for a distance of about 10 miles, when they are cut off by the intrusion of the Bayonne Batholith*  litholoffy.  The rocks making up this metamorphic complex consist of a  variety of sediments which are now metamorphosed into mica, schists, quartsites, sericite quarts-schists, chlorite schists, dolomites, and phyllites.  Amphibolltes, representing metamorpoheed intruslves,  form a very small proportion of the rock types.  1.  Daly, R.A.,  Hsm. 38  Daly has divided  Geol. Burv. Can. p.258.  9  the aeries lithologically into seven Belt A being the youngest.  baits* naming them from A to G,  The aeries ia„ as yet, entirely unfossll-  iferous.  Structure.  The structure is very complex, out in general is one of  north south striking beds, dipping vertically or steeply eastward the total thickness of the aeries being at least 18,000 feet. faulting has played a miner part.  Block  The intrusion of the Bayonne and  Rylcest batholiths has profoundly metamorphosed the schists of the Priest River terrane near the contaeta. with the development of large foila of biotite and muscoTite.  The beds become progressively younger  from east to vast*  Age and Correlation.  Daly, in his study of the geology along the  International Boundary, dated the rocks of the Priest River terrane as Pre Beltian tArchaen)> and stated that a great unconformity existed between the youngest member of the Priest River terrane and the base (Irene conglomerates) of the SummitSeries.  According to Sehofield ,  the Priest River terrane la not Archaen in age, but Beltian, and represents the hydrothennally metamorphosed extension of members of the Purcell Series to the east of the Purcell Trench. are believed to represent the Kitchener;  1.  Sehofield, S.J.  Belts A, B, and C  D and B, the Crest on;  Personal communication.  and  10 F & G the Aldridge formation, all of the Purcell series of Beltian age. Brysdale, la 1916, reached the same conclusion as did Schofield regarding the Beltian age of the Iriest Hiver terrane.  The Pareell Series. General Statement and Distribution. III I — 1 — l l  •  I llll  I  •l—llllll  •!!•  •  »l  ! ! ! • •  •  .1  • • • M i l l  •  -  •  !•  •  ^  II • ! ! m  The Purcell series  2  consists of  Illli II  a group of non-fossilIferous rocks of Pre Cambrian (Beltian) age, and is  made up of a great thickness of fine grained quartzites, argill-  aceous quartsites, argillites and limestones*  That they were pro-  bably deposited under shallow water conditions in a slowly sinking has in, the Bosky Mountain gcosyncline, is shown by the presence of ripple marks and mud cracks at various horizons.  Casts of salt crystals indicate  that during at least part of the time of deposition, semi arid conditions prevailed.  South of the International Boundary, rocks of the  Purcell series are found In Idaho and Montana;  the northern limit, how-  ever, has act been determined, due to lack of geological exploration, $0 the east the series passes inconf ornably beneath Upper Palaeozoic formations of the Rocky Mountains.  To the west the metamorphosed  equivalents of the Purcell series are probably represented by the 3 Priest River, and the lower part of the Suranit series, of Daly*  1*  Drysdale, C.W.  Sunnw Sept.  Geol. Survey. Can. 1916, p.61  2. 3.  Schofield, S.J, Kern. 76, Geol. Survey. Can, 1915. Daly, R.A. Mem, 38, Geol. Survey. Can., 1912.  11. Contemporaneous with these ancient sediments are flows of highly altered basalt (Purcell lava], and injected and differentiated sills, varying in composition from hypersthene gabhro to very acid granite* All the formations of the series are conformable with one another. $he following is Schofield'a geological column of the Purcell series in the Cranbrook map area*  Erosion Surface* Pre Cambrian  Gateway  2,000  Purcell lata  300  Siyeh  4,000  Kitchener  4,500  Creston  5,000  Aldrldge  8,000  Base unexposed  Llthology. A summary of the lithology Of the members of the Purcell series in the Cranbrook area Is as follows: (a) Aldrldge formation.  The Aldrldge formation is composed of  a series consisting chiefly of argillaceous quartsites, together with purer quartzites and arglllites.  Hie argillaceous quartsites which  represent about three quarters of the whole formation, consist of rather fine grained rocks, dark grey on fresh fracture.  Owing to a  rather high contact of iron oxide, these outcrops weather to a rusty brown colour, this being one of the best criteria for field deter-* mination.  The series occurs in beds of an average of one foot in  12 thickness. On a branch of the Goat River, the Aldridge formation includes several beds of conglomerates, made up of waterworn pebbles, varying in size up to two Inches in diameter, and consisting of black slates, gray quartzites, and an altered volcanic rock. On Mark Creek, six inches of grey talcose limestone is exposed. Ketamerphisra has been slight, and where the formation has been intruded by granite stocks of the Kelson b&tholith, a narrow aureole of knotted, schists has frequently developed. In the west the rocks are of a distinctly coarser type, Including, mm they do, many beds of conglomerate, while in the east the rocks are all fine grained argillaceous quartzite, with eons argillaceous limestones, and no conglomerates have been observed. The Aldridge formation isof considerable economic Importance, because of the occurrence of silver-lead-zinc deposits, such as those •i  Of the Sullivan and St. Bugene mines. (b)  Creston Formation.  Overlying conformably the Aldridge  and having a 500-foot thick transition zone, is the Creston formation, consisting of a succession of greyish argillaceous quartzites, intermediate in character between the dark rusty weathering rocks of the Aldridge and the calcareous thin bedded rocks of th tions.  Kitchener forma-  The series is made up of argillaceous quartzites and purer  quartzites and argillites, in beds of approximately one foot in thickness*  The predominating rock in the series Is the purer quartzite,  weathering grey.  13 As In the ease of the Aldridge,metamorphism has been very slight, though the intrusion of granitic stocks has caused a similar development of knots of carbonaceous material. From vest to east the texture becomes progressively finer, as does that of the Aldridge formation* {«)  Kitchener formation*  The Kitchener formation is character-  lsed by Its comparatively high lime content*  The rocks consist essen-  tially of calcareous and argillaceous quartzites, quartzites, and limestones, the whole weathering yellowiah brown to grey*  A peculiar  weathering structure la characteristic of the argillaceous limestones where unusual depressions are formed, - those on the surface parallel to the bedding planes being linear and about one quarter of an inch wide and half an Inch deep, while those on surface, perpendicular to the bedding, are irregular and occasionally vermicular in form.  These  depressions are probably caused by differential weathering of the purer calcareous phases. The formation is soafenable with the underlying Creston, and grades into it through a 500 ft. transition acne.  14 (ft) Siyeh Formation.  The Siyeh formation raay be divided into  an upper and lower division, each approximately 2,000 feet thick. The lower is composed chiefly of thin bedded mod cracked, green and purple metargillites.  Black metargillites, weathering to a rusty  Drown,colour are alee present*  North of Upper Moyie Lake and near  the base of the Siyeh formation a 200 ft. thick bed of massive conglomerate outcrops.  The constituent pehbles of this conglomerate are  varied and Include greenish grey argillaceous quartzites, "brownish red sandstones, white ojiartKites, and greatly altered amygdaloldal and non-amygdaloid&l basalt.  Their origin is uncertain, particularly in  regard to the basalt, as no elder volcanic rocks have been found in place in the aeries*  Overlying this interesting conglomerate is a  chocolate brown sandstone, made up of grains of the same material as that of the conglomerate. The upper division of the Siyeh consists first of 1000 ft. of thin bedded and massive, siliceous, concretionary limestones, grey when freshly fractnred, and weathering to grey and buff*  Succeeding  these are thin beds of purple and green mud-cracked metargillites and flows of basalts. The Siyeh formation overlies conformably the Kitchener, with a 300 ft. thick transitional zone.  The top of the Siyeh is placed at  the base of the purcell lave with which it Is In conformable contact.  15. (e)  Puree 11 Laya.  The lithology of these flows is very varied.  The rock consists mainly of a highly altered porphyritie or amygdolidal basalt*  The porphyritie basalt is characterised by the presence of  large labradorite phenocrysts in a groundmasa ef decomposed hornblende and labradorite.  The colour is greyish green, the phenocrysts making  up a great part ef the rock.  The amygdaloidal basalt, on the other  hand* is of a dark green to black colour, weathering dark rusty brown, the filling of the amygdules being chiefly quarts and occasionally hematite. another.  The porphyritie and amygdaloidal basalts grade into one The base of the flow resembles very  strongly a volcanic  bieccia, though it nay possibly be a flow b/eecia.  It is composed  ef angular and sub-angular fragments of the two types of basalt described above. (f)  Gateway formation,  is the gateway formation.  Overlying conformably the Powell lata The base consists of a fine grained grit  composed chiefly of pebbles from the Pareell lava, together with a small proportion of quartzite.  Upon these are thin alternating beds  of conglomerates & silicons limestone. The limestone, which is concretionary, weathers a buff colour. With the limestones are found some dolomites, with which are interbanded purple shales and grey sandstones*  Capping these are narrow  beds of sandy argillitee, weathering greyish brown and containing numerous easts of salt crystals.  The presence of these easts is a  characteristic peculiar to the Gateway formation.  With these sandy  ^•i^^-T^^w-^r^r- - vf-- - T ^ ^ ^ ^ r  16 argillites are interbands of quartsites and heavy buff weathering sandstone. The Gateway formation is in sharp contrast, both lithologically and in its general appearance, with the Siyeh formation, shewing that changing conditions of deposition took place during the interm} of tiise occupied "by the extrusion of the Puroell lava. (gj  The Purcell Sills.  The lithelogy of the Purcell sills  serves as an excellent illustration of gravitational differentiation. Three main reek types are represented, grading through intermediate forms into one another.  (These are in ascending order of acidity  {1} Gabbro, (2) Quartz-diorite, or Transition Hock, and (3) Granite. A brief description of the lithology of these three rock types is as  fellow** (1) Gaporo.  In its most basic form this rock is a hypers-  thene gabbro of dark gray colour and granite texture*  The essential  constituent minerals are labradorite and pyroxene, the labrodorite occurring in lath-shaped individuals* The following is an analysis by M.F.Connor of the hypersthene gabbro:  SiOp ..50.36  I&iO ...0.20  'HgO ...0.05  TiOg ...0.90  ^ 0 ...3.67  HgO ...0,71  A120S*.13.6S  CaO ..11.80  Pg0R...0.07  Peg03*.*2.22  Hag0...2.S4  99.98  FeO ....8.38  K g 0 ...0.75  S.G.  2*970  17  Acid differentiates are frequently found in the interior of the basic sills, in the form Of a granitic phase consisting of long needles of hornblende in a ground mass of micropegnatite.  Associated with  the more baaio sills are snail irregular aplitic dykea, passing into quart a veins and representing extrerae differentiation of the g&bbro  (2) Quarta~dlorlte, or fteanaition Rock*  !Ehia rook, which  represents the transition phase between the granite and the gabbro, is of a light greyiah-green colour, and isaoroscopically is seen to contain quarts, feldspar, hornblende, and blotlte*  The following  analysis is given by Daly1  SiO £  52*63  HajjO  1*41  fisE  0*62  KgO  2*29  S  2°  0*12  u2o3  16.76  Fe203  2.86  HgO-  1*17  Peo  10*74  Ws  0,33  mo  0*38  oo2  0*10  Hep  4*33  S,G*  2*954  CaO  6*17  (3) Granite*  By gradual stages, involving a decrease  in hornblende and an increase in quarts and micropegsatite, the quarts diorite passes into a grancphyre.  1*  Ihe position of the granophyre in  Daly, R.A* Festschrift suet Blebsigsten Geburtstage, von H.Resenbuah, 1906, p.217.  18 the sills is at, or very near, the upper contact, in contrast with that of the gabbro which by gravitational differentiation is found near the basal contacts*  There is no direct relation between the  thickness of the granite and that of the sills, and many of the narrower sills are predominately granite, while certain other sills of considerably greater thickness are of entirely basic composition. The following analysis of the granophyre is given by Daly1 SjOg  71,69  CaO  1.66  V§  0.59  Na 2 0  2.48  13.29  KgO  2.57  **z°z  0.63  V.  0.14  FeO  4.23  HgO  1.31  MnO  0.09  *&5  0.07  SfcO  1.28  °°Z  0.13  (B3  100.16 S.G.  2.773  Stratification according to density is of a striking nature, and found is of two kinds. Those/nearer the International Boundary line appear to have an upper and lower zone of gabbro, while an intermediate zone the centre of the sili" - consists of a more granitic phase, the transition being gradual.  1*  Daly, R.A., Am. Jour* Sei., 4th ser., vol. 20, 1905. p. 193.  19 The second type, which i« v e i l represented at St. Liary Lake, consists of an upper granitic tone, passing transitlonallj into a lover one of gabbro. structure of the Puroell series.  The Poreell aeries, to tfce east  Of the luroell Trench, i s characterised by a. otructuml oor^ploxity folds and faults are numsrous.  The regional folding i s that of north  and south trending anticlines and aynclines.  With certain exceptions  the folds ars gentle } and are the result of compression from an east and vest direction. A later period of tension oaused normal faulting in a north east •satin vest systeaj  t h i s took place probably during the Jurassic period  Of bathollthlo intrusion, The last great period of faulting, when the Cranbrook fault developed, i s believed to base occurred during the Burly Tertiary (IarlBide) t i e * . Ignsus aetiTity in Middle Beltian tine resulted In the injection of the Poreell s i l l s into the lover asssbsrs of the series, particularly these of the Aldridge.  This vaa aocsxapanisd by the outpouring of  the Puroell lasa at the close of the siyeh.  Dxis l a w has prosed to  be a valuable horlscm marker for field correlation purposes. age and Correlation.  The Puroell series was originally described  by Dawson* In 1685, who considered i t to be of Casfcrian age.  Fourteen  years later MeBsoy? in a further eaawfnation of the series, reached 1* Dawson, O.K. AasvBspt., 8. BoSvoy, J . , Sum. Bspt.  Ceol. 3ur. Can., 1885, p. 1483 Oeol. Sur. Gan., 1895, p.87A  20 the sane conclusion regarding the age as did Dawson. i 2  As a result of later and more detailed examination, Schofield> placed the series entirely in the Pre Cambrian.  The dating of the  series depends upon stratlgraphical& lithological evidence, the rocks being, as far as is known, unfossiliferous.  The evidence for a Pre-  Cambrian age is, briefly, as follows: In 1921 shales containing Olenellus fauna were found in the Vicinity of Cranbrook.  Underlying these was a basal conglomerate  {Cranbrook conglomerate} which rested in distinct unconformity upon the siyeh formation.  At Slko, B.C., another section shewed the  Cranbrook conglomerates (Lower Cambrian) lying disconformably upon the Roosville formation*  The Roosville is the upper member of the  Purcell series in the Rocky Koontains, and is separated from the top of the Gateway formation by 500 feet of reck  belonging to the  Phillips formation. It is therefore evident that the whole Purcell series is PreCambrian in age. Within the nap area the Purcell series may be correlated with the whole of Daly's Priest River terrene, and with Daly's Irene conglomerates and volcanics at the International Boundary to the west of Kootenay Lake.  1.  Schofield, S.J.,  Mem 76, Ceol. Sur. Can., 1915, p.41  2.  Schofield, S.J., 1922.  Bill. 35, Geo!. Ser. No.42, Geol. Sur. Can.,  21 Sxnanit Series* The Summit Series occurs as a belt of rocks of about  Distribution..  18 miles in width at the International Boundary, and lying about midway between the Columbia and Kootenay Hivers.  From the Inter-  national Boundary it tapers rapidly to its northern extremity at a point about 10 miles south of Proctor.  Lithology.  The series is composed of a great thickness of unfossili-  ferous metaiaorphical sediments, now represented by quart sites, phyllites and conglomerates, together with an important horizon of lava flows.  The fallowing is Daly's table of formations of the  Summit aeries, as exposed along the International Boundary Belt:  Thickness in feet Top, erosion surface  Formation  Dominant rocks.  Lonestar  2,000  Phyllite and quartsite.  Beehive  7,000  Quarts!te  Ripple  1,650  Quartsite  Dewdney  £,000  Quartsite with conglomerate  wolf  2,900  Siliceous g r i t , sandstone and conglomerate.  Soak  5,500  Quartsite, phyllite, and conglomerate  Irene Voleanics  6,000  Effusive greenstones.  Irene Conglomerates  5,000  Conglomerate  32,050 Base, unconformity with Priest River terrane.  22  Structure.  The members cf the aeries have a general north-south  strike with nearly vertical dipa,^oloeely conform in attitude po the flanking Frieet River terrane on the east, and to the ?end d'Orielle group on the west*  large granitic stocks from the Kelson batholith  oat the series in various places, the elongation of these intrusives being, on the whole, parallel to the general trend of the formation. Ape and Correlation.  Ota the West Kootenay Map Sheet, the Summit  series has been napped as Cambrian to Silurian , and correlated with Dawson's Lower Selkirk Series of the Northern Selkirk Mountains. Daly definitely assigned a l l of the Summit series below the Tolf formation to the Beltlan, the Solt formation being considered to be either Beltlan or Cambrian in age, while the Dewdney, Elpple, Beehive, and Lone star formations were tentatively referred to the Cambrian. The Irene conglomerates, the basal member of the summit series, were oonsidered by Daly to be the base of the Beltlan in Canada. According to Drysdale1 t h i s i s not the ease.  Re concludes that  "Ike Irene conglomerate i s not oonsidered to be the base of the Belt terrane in Canada, but simply the base of a younger series than the Purcell, of probably Lower Cambrian age.  It may prove to be the  western equivalent of the Bow River and siyeh'?) conglomerates, east of the axis of uplift." 2 Schofleld considers the Irene conglomerate and Irene volcanics *»—MS—W»——«»1—•—•«••^mm••  '•  HI I — H P — T  1*  Drysdale, C.W.  2.  Schofleld, S.J.  • !• I •  — M..M . ! • >  •!  II » ! • ! • '1 ^ • 1 1 — ^ ^ — • — ! ! •  • • • • » • »l Hill  I H»l • I Mil m<  Sum. Sept., Geol. Sur. Can., 1916, p.61. Personal oommunloatlon.  I  I —  •!• •  23  to be the western equivalents of the Siyeh formation and Purcell lava respectively, of Beltian age, and has suggested the following tentative correlation of the Summit series with the Purcell series to the east of the Purcell Trench.  Division  Period  Sutooit Series  Purcell Series.  Lone Star Beehive Hippie  Palaeosoic  Dewdney  (pre Carboniferous Lover  wolf  Cambrian  Monk  Cranbrook conglomerates  Irene Yolcanics  Purcell lava  Irene Conglomerates  Siyeh  Beltian  There appears to be no doubt that the lower part of the Submit series i s Beltian in age.  In regard t o the upper part, i t has been  found impossible to assign i t to any definite age.  It i s conformably  overlain by the Pend d 1 Oreille group {Carboniferous to Pre Carboniferous)*  The whole series has been cut by Jurassic intrusives, and  has been upturned by the crustal movements which took place at the close of the Jurassic.  In the writer*s opinion i t i s very probable  indeed that the XS^BT part of the Sumait series represents the southern extension of the Ainsworth series on tbe west shore of Kootenay Lake.  24 In the interest8 of simplicity the Summit series is, in this paper, divided broadly into an upper or Pre Carboniferous division, and a lover, or Beltian division*  The dividing line being considered to  be marked by the contact of the Monk and Wolf formations*  Alnsworth Series, Distribution.  The term Ainsworth aeries was first used by Schofield1  in reference to a group of metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks lying conformably beneath the Slocan series, and exposed along the vest shore of Kootenay Lake.  The base is not known, while the top  tee bean placed arbitarily at a transitional and conforsable contact with the base of the massive Silver Hoard limestone, the lowest member of the Slocan series* To the north the Ainsworth series extends *» beyond the area dealt with in this paper*  The series has been traced southward to  the West Arm of Kootenay Lake, near Balfour, but it is probably represented still further south by the younger members of the Summit series. The eastern boundary is marked by a line running approximately northward from Crawford Say,on the east shore of Kootenay Lake, into the Lardeau district, where it follows the Duncan Valley. The western boundary is in general coincident with the eastern boundary of the Slocan series, which has been traced to the west of Kootenay lake and up the Trout Lake Valley. 1*  Schofield, S.J.,  Mem* 17, Seel. Surv. Can*, 1920.  25 She stratigraphical column of the Ainsworth series in the Ainsworth map ares is as follows:  Formation  Thickness in feet.  Josephine formation  3,000.  Ainsworth formation  600.  Princess formation  1,250.  Sarly Bird formation  2,300.  Point Woodbury  1,800.  formation  Base unexposed.  Lithology.  6,250.  The rooks composing the series consist of alternating  schists, quartzites and limestones*  All formations are conformable  with one another, and the whole series has an average dip of about 35° to the west. (a)  Pointffpodfruryformation.  This Reformation which is well  exposed at Point Woodbury, eight miles south of Kaslo, is composed of rusty weathering micaceous quart sites and garnet iferous mica schists, and is intruded by gne issic granite and pegmatite dykes, which closely follow the bedding planes. lb) Early Bird formation.  The rocks of the Serly Bird formation  consist typically of massive thick bedded blue'grey limestones, separated by thin layers of mica schist. The limestone has proved to be very resistant to erosion, and along the lake shore forms abrupt cliffs. and weather8 to a rusty brown colour.  it is rough to the touch  26 (e) Princeaa formation.  The Princess formation is made up of  glittering mica schists, frequently garnetiferous, and interbeds of micaceous quartzites.  The lithology of the formation is very similar  to that of the Point Woodbury formation.  The outcrop of the quartzites  are generally stained with "brown Iron oxide, while the schists weather to a brown micaceous earth* (d) Ainsworth formation*  The predominating rock of this forma-  tion is a greyish-white massive limestone. some white marble make up the remainder.  Slack shaly members and The gradation from the  Princess formation below is transitional. (e) Josephine format Ion.  The Josephine formation embraces a  succession of mica schists at the base, succeeded by thin bedded quartsites and green hornblende schists, interbedded with long lenses of limestone*  Capping these are staurolite schists*  The hornblende schists probably represent metamorphosed basic volcanic ash beds and are of great economic importance, because of toe occurrence of the Highland and Florence ore bodies at the base of their lower contact with the associated quartzites. The upper member of the Josephine is a black coloured rusty weathering andalusite schist, containing numerous knots of highly altered and sheared andalusite and staurolite crystals. Structure. a  The general strike of toe series is north and south, with  north-westerly trend in the Lardeau district. The average dip of the rocks is from 30° to 50° to the west,  27  though locally the dip may "be much steeper*  In general the planes of  sphistosity are coincident with the bedding* The t o t a l thickness has not "been determined* but i t i s undoubtedly very great.  In the Ainsworth d i s t r i c t alone i t i s , according fco  Sohofield, 6260 feet* hut there i s , in addition, the far greater thickness Beneath and to the east of Kootenay lake* Kie series has been intruded by several stocks of Kelson granod i o r i t e and a l s o by numerous dykes of pegmatite, originating either from t h e Kelson granodiorite f or from unroofed bodies of Yalhalla granite. Age sad correlation,  a e upper member of the Ainsworth series  underlies conformably rocks of the Slocan series of Peimsylvanlan age. On the east side of Kootenay Lake the Aineworth series includes rocks originally sapped on the West Kootenay nap-sheet a s Sfauseap,  The  base of t h i s series was found i n 19141 to overlie conformbly the Seltian rocks of the Purcell s e r i e s .  Hie conclusion i s , therefore,  that the series Is not older than Beltian and not younger than carboniferous.  In a l l probability i t I s of early Palaeozoic age.  The Aineworth s e r i e s aay be tentatively correlated v i t h the schists of the Sumit s e r i e s , occurring between the l e s t Arm of Kootenay Lake, and the International Boundary.  1.  Schofield, S , J . ,  Geol. Sur. Can.,  Sman. Rept., 1914, p.156.  28  Duncan Series. Distribution.  The Duncan series occupies a belt about s i x miles in  width on the west slope of the Duncan River Tfolley.  It i s bounded  on the east by the Duncan River, on the north by stoclce of grano&iorite beyond the nap-area, and on the south by the head of Duncan Lake* Llthology.  The rooks of the series consist almost entirely of grey  quartsites of a very uniform character. Structure.  The general structure Is that of a north-west and  south--east striking, closely-folded, antic line.  On i t s western flank  the series i s faulted against the l i n e dyke3" » a limestone member of the 3locan series. Age and ecrralation.  The age of the Duncan aeries i s very doubtful.  It i s considered by Bancroft to be Pre-Carboniferoua, and probably lalaeosoio, though possibly Pre Cambrian*  The series i s entirely  unfosailiferous.  Carboniferous Record, fend d* Oreille Group. Distribution.  The Fend d»Oreille group la British Columbia occupies  a wide area at the International 3oundary, extending from a few miles to the west of the Columbia River, to a point near Lost Mountain. 1.  Bancroft, M.P.,  Personal communication.  29  northward the exposure tapers five miles east of Kelson*  rapidly t o i t s northern boundary, about On the east tee group Is flanked by the  upper member of the Susmit s e r i e s , and en the west by the great area of Rossland volcanics. Lithology.  The rooks of the Pend d'Oreille group consist of a  variety of highly metamorphosed carbonaceous p h y l l i t e s , quart z i t e s , amphlbolites, m e t a r g i l l i t e s , and metamorphosed tuffa, together with lenses of crystalline limestone.  The group has been Intruded by  large outliers of the Kelson granodiorite bat hoi i t h, near the contacts of which the sedimentary members of the group have been metamorphosed to andaluslts and mica a g i s t s . Structure,  The structure of the group i s that of a north-south s t r i k -  ing homooline.  Dips are very steep, most of the beds lying In a  nearly vertical position*  Owing to the degree of nietamorphism t o  which the group has subjected l i t t l e information regarding the detailed structtire i s known*  $he group i s a t l e a s t $»eQO feet thicks and over-  l i e s , conformably, the Summit s e r i e s . Age and correlation.  Ho f o s s i l s have yet been found in the rocks of  the fend d'Oreille group, and so no definite decision regarding the age can he reached.  She limestone members, however, closely resemble  fossil-bearing calcareous beds of the Mount Roberta formation af Rossland, fifteen miles to the west*  The limestone members of the  group have also been correlated by Daly with Dawson' s Cache Creek 1.  Daly, R.A., Mem* 36, Geol. Sur. Can., 1912.  30  formation in the ^mloop's district*, the upper members of which contain fossils of Pennsylvania^ age, while the lower members may he sanewhat eider than the Carboniferous,  it la very possible that the  Fend d* Oreille group nay also be correlated with many of the hi^ily metamorphosed reeks in the Boundary district, and, in the vicinity of as suggested by Bancroft2, with members of the Slocan  Grand Works,  series, which lie on the earns trend te the north. 15ie Pend d'Oreille group is considered tentatively to be of Carboniferous age, its lower members, however, say quite possibly  Grand forks schists. » i l i w » 1 » > w — ^ •«•»• ni i'iMMijii urn w w w v i »  Distribution.  1  Bm Grand Forks schists cover an area of about thirty  sijaare miles in the vicinity of the town of Grand Forks, near the International Boundary*  l?hay are bounded en the east by the Cascade  batholith, end an the north sad west by reeks of the Pheonix volcanics and the Attwood series.  Bjeir distribution on the American side of  the Boundary line i s not known. Lithology.  'Ota Grand Forks schists are a complex compound of a  series of highly altered extrusives ef a basic nature, together with intrusives of the gabhro-diorite type, and possibly some sedimentary  1* Dawson, G.K., 2* Bancroft, M.F.,  Bull.  Geol. See. Am, Vol. 12, 1901, p.70  Summ, Sept., Geol. Sur. Can., 1912, p.293.  31 argillaceous rocks; lenses of crystalline limestone are also present. The whole has "been so thoroughly recryetallized that i t s original composition i s often w r y doubtful.  According t o Daly,. "These have  been metamorphosed t o ever-rarying phases of amphibolite, fine-grained orthoclase hearing hornblende schist, hornblende-epidote-plagioclase schist, a c t i n o l i t e s c h i s t , and b i o t i t e diorite gneiss*  Along with  these, thick lenses or pods of white crystalline limestone are i n t e r bedded*  The limestone i s , as yet* unfoeailiferous, bat resembles the  Carboniferous limestone occurring about Sossland". Structure*  Owing to the intensive setamorphisEi, very l i t t l e d e t a i l  of the structure I s known.  fhe metamorphisra i s probably largely due  to the intrusion of the underlying Cascade bat hoi i t h of Jurassic age* Age and correlation. - m » wM»»«—p» 1T.lirM linn r i i 1,11 II n  This complex i s entirely unfossiliferous, but ii  the limestone members resemble, lithegically, the Carboniferous limestone of Rossland.  fhe series has been intruded by the Cascade batho-  11th sad tike Smelter Stock, both Jurassic in age. The dating of the Grand Forks schists is very uncertain, but in the interests of simplicity they are here referred to the Carboniferous end cerrelated rather doubtfully with the Mount Roberts formation of Rossland, with the Pend d,Oreille group, and with certain other schistose formations along the International Boundary.  1.  Daly, B.A., Beta* S8» Geoi. Baser* Can., 1912, p.379.  32 Sutherland S c h i s t s . Il ll l  •  Distribution.  |  m l  | Hi l  I  She Sutherland schistose complex occupies the great part  of the east shore of Christina Lake*  It is bounded on the north and  south by members of the Sossland volcanic group, and on the east by the Coryell batholith. Lithollgy. She oldest rocks of the complex consist of highly crystallised schists of sedimentary origin, and include gametiferous schist, phyllite, biotite-epidote schist* andalusite-biotite schist, and actonilitebiotlte schist*  With these are interbedded a few large lenses of  light grey to white marble, and some brecciated greenish quartzite. A few basic intrusive rocks occur In irregular band*  Structure.  The structure of the complex appears to be utterly confused,  no regularity being found in the attitude of either the bedding or planes of schistosity.  Besides the intrusion of the Coryell batho-  lith, the complex has been out by the somewhat earlier, and more basic bodies of Fife and laker gabbro.  Age and correlation. members*  Ho fossils have yet been found in the sedimentary  Daljr mentions that the quartzite and limestone resembles  the Carboniferous quartaite add crinoidal limestone of Little Sheep Creek.and the more staple phases of the Fend d*Oreille group. complex is cut by gebbros of Lower Jurassic (?) age*  The  It seems  probable that the Sutherland schists and the Grand Forks schists are  1.  Daly, E.A., Kern. SB., Ceol. Sur. Can., 1912, p.321.  33 very closely related, and of about the same age*  !Phe Sutherland  schists are here tentatively referred to the Qarbottiferous.  Anarchist Series* Distribution.  In ^fche laap area the Anarchist series occupies about  9 similes near the south vest corner of the sheet, ten M i e s vest of Kldway.  To the vest of the sheet* however, It is eaqaosed over a con-  siderably larger area-. extending nearly to Osoyoos Lake & mking up the rocks of tie Anarchist Plateau.  Llthology. The recks of the Anarchist series consist of a group of highly metamorphosed sediments, damiaently quartzite and phyllitic slates; with these are lesser amounts of greenstones, and a few isolated pods of limestone*  Wa gjaartsltss, which are very herd, are  of a grey to green colour, and, where badly sheared, are extremely fissile.  'The colour of the phylllte is generally dark @e*y, hut  varies through greenish and bluish tints.  Greenstone vhieh occurs  in massive to schistose hands probably represents both intrusive and extrusive basic rocks* the limestone which is low in liagnesia, is of a light bluish-grey colour, and occurs in pods up to 200 ft. In thickness*  Structure*  Hie series is highly metamorphosed, and little of the  original structure remains*  l&e aaetaaorphism is believed to be of  dynamic rather than of igneous origin1^  1,  Daly, E*A*, Una. 58. Ceo£» Sur. Gan^, 1912. pp. 391-392.  04 «  Age and correlation, ffe would be expected from the degree of metamorphiaa, no fossils have yet been discovered in the Anarchist series. D&ly1* however, refers this series to the Carboniferous, on lithologieal and structural evidence, and correlate* them with the Carboniferous of Rossland as follows: "Shis oldest group (Anarchist scries) is almost certainly the sane as that which crops out at Intervals between the Columbian River and Midway, and, in the Rossland district, sears obscure fossils referred to Carboniferous species.n Daly also correlates the Anarchist series, lithologically,wi1& sistilar but fossiliferous rooks of definitely Carboniferous age, in the Skagit range, near Chilliwack.  The Anarchist series are, there-  fore, very psoeably Carboniferous In age;  Knob Rill Group. Kistripntlon*  1ne Knob Hill group occurs as snail scattered out-  crops, averaging about 1 square mile in sise, in the vicinity at Phoenix.  On the Boundary Creek sheet they have been mapped as por-  phyrite tuffs, conglomerates, and ash bed* of Palaeosoic age,  Lithology*  The group forms a complex of highly altered rooks, chiefly  of igneous origin*  The predominant rock types are cherts, tuffs and  porphyrltesj with these are breccias and a few lense like masses of limestone and argillite.  The general colour is dark greenish grey  to dark grey, weathering to a somewhat lighter tone. 1»  Daly, S.A,  Mem. S€, Geol. Soxv €an»,  1912, p.422.  36  Structure*  In t h e Phoenix a r e a , t h e group,appoars t o he i n t h e form  of a n o r t h and south t r e n d i n g ayncline* t h e thickness being a t l e a s t 1*200 f t *  Stee contact with t h e overlying Attwood s e r i e s I s a con-  formable one.  The rocks a r e massive* and doe t o t h e absence of bedd-  ing and handing, a s a t i s f a c t o r y s t r a t i g r a p h i c sequence carxiot  he  worked o a t . Age and c o r r e l a t i o n .  So unoonf artaity was fotmd between t h e rocks  of the Knob S i l l grata? and those of t h e overlying Attwood s e r i e s of Carboniferous a g e ,  Le Roy 1 has assigned t h e Enob H i l l group t o t h e  Balaeoaeic, hut s t a t e s t h a t t h e y a r e probably hut l i t t l e e l d e r than t h e Attwood s e r i e s .  l b s w r i t e r , i n t h e i n t e r e s t * of s i m p l i c i t y , has  p r o v i s i o n a l l y assigned them t o t h e Carboniferous.  Franklin Group Bjetrihutloa.  5he Franklin group has been mapped i n d e t a i l i n t h e  Franklin aap a r e a by Brysdale 2 , where i t outcrops over a t o t a l area of about 8 square m i l e s , i n t h e v i c i n i t y of T?enderloin, F r a n k l i n , and McKinley Mountains.  On t h e Hfest Kootenay Reconnaissance s h e e t , t h s  Franklin group has been mapped,with o t h e r and younger formations, under t h e general legend of Roesland v o l c a n i c s .  1,  Le Hoy, O.E.,  Mem. 2 1 , Geol. Sur. Can., 1912, p . 1 9 .  2.  Srysdale, C.W., Geology of the Franklin Mining Camp, British Columbia Mem. 56, Geol. Sur* Can., 1915.  36 Llthology.  lbs term Franklin group embraces a complex of metaiaotephic  rocks of both igneous and sedimentary origin*  3&ey consist of altered  tuffs and greenstones, cherty qpaartsitesyand silicifled  argillites.  The argillites, which form the oldest members of the group, contain obscure plant remains.  Structure.  Owing to the massive c aracter of the formations, the  large proportion of eruptive material and the extent to which the members of the group have been ohloritised and silicif ied, the original structure has been greatly obscured*  She argillites and quart zites,  however, appear to have a general strike ranging from north to northwest, with dips from 350 to 60° toward the west and south-west.  Joint-  ing Is veil developed, but ochistosity appears to be absent.  Age .and correlation.  Lithologloally, the rooks of the Franklin group  resemble the tuffs, greenstones and argillites of the Knob Rill group at fhoeaix1, of Upper JuleeoBoic, probably Carboniferous age*  Further-  more*, the Franklin group resembles, somewhat, the Boston Bar series, occurring south of the Kamloops nap sheet, and described by Dawson . Dawson correlated the Boston Bar group provisionally with the Cache Creek series* of Carboniferous, and, in part, possibly Pre Carboniferous age*  a e Boston Bar series, however, contains schists, which are  absent in the Franklin group*  The Franklin group underlies conformably  and intimately the Gloucester formation of Carboniferous age* and will Itself be referred tentatively to the Carboniferous* v — •  I 1  1* 2.  111 II  l l l l '  | !)•—»——*,.  I-II. I ,  _ -•••••I  » I , I M ,  •• •• **•..**•*•  •*W-I..PI»  ••!•  ••••••II  m II id, I 1*111 •  H IIIWII  I «"  • ••  •• • • • • I I 1 I W III  i  »^l|l  ••'••!» !•*•*  Laley, O.F., The Geology & Ore Deposits of Phoenix, Boundary district, B.C. Geol. Bur. Can*, Sea. 21, 1912, p«30 Report on Kamloops Map sheet* Ann. Bept. Geol* Sur. Can* vii, :t.B 1896, p.446.  37 Hount Ho Pert s formation. Distribution.  The rocks comprising the Mount Roberts formation have  been napped in detail on the geological sheet of the Rossland I'lning 1 Camp. They occur in north-south trending "bands chiefly on the slopes of Little Sheep Creek Valley, two miles to the west of Uossland, while smaller exposures lie about one mile to the north and to the south of the town*  Llthology.  The Mount Roberts formation consists largely of slates,  generally highly silicified, in part carboniferous, and in part arenaceous and calcareous. the formation*  Bstamorphesed tuff beds are also included in  In the less altered exposures, such as those lying  in the vicinity of Little Sheep Creek, near the west border of the Rossland map sheet, the slates are considerably softer than the more silicified and lighter coloured varieties eastward on Red and Monte Christo Mountains.  In the calcareous beds on the eastern slope of 2 O.K.Mountain, Drysdale, in 1906, found fossils of Carboniferous age.  Structure.  The Mount Roberts formation has a general north-eouth  strike, with local variations, and a dip of fron 10° to 60° to the west*  The thickness is at least 1,200 feet.  faulting along east  and west planes is common, especially in the west, and flexures are shewn along the contacts with the younger augite porphyrite.  In  some parts the strata are cross bedded.  1. 2.  Brock, R.W. & Young, C.A. Rossland Mining Camp, 3.C., Map 50.1004, Geol. Sur. Can* 1909* Drjsdale. C.W., Geology & Ore Deposits of Rossland, B.C., Mem. 77, Geol. Sur. Can., 1915, p.199*  38  Due t o l a t e r and i n t e n s i v e  featholithic  i n t r u s i o n and t o mountain  building f o r c e s , EStamorphism of t h e fox-oat ion has "been very considerable, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a r e a s where t h e bedding l i e s perpendicular t o t h e s u r face of t h e b a t h o l i t h i o c o n t a c t . Age and c o r r e l a t i o n .  The discovery of f o s s i l s by Brock on O.E.Koun-  t a i n proves t h e Kount Eoberts fonaation t o be of Carboniferous a g e . f e r n a t i o n i s c o r r e l a t e d by Drys&ale  'J!he  with t h e Knob R i l l and Brooklyn  formations a t Phoenix , and Dawson? Cache Creek group, i n the Kamloops district3.  To the e a s t i t i s probably represented by a t l e a s t p a r t  of t h e Pend d ' O r e i l l e group* Attwood S e r i e s . Distribution.  J&» Attwood s e r i e s occurs in t h e Boundary d i s t r i c t  and occupies an a r e a of about f i f t e e n square m i l e s .  fhe chief exposure  extends from a point one m i l e south of Deadwood, i n a s o u t h - e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary, w i t h an average width of two miles. Other smaller c i t e , ops l i e between Smelter Lake and Deadwood. 4 On t h e Boundary Croak sheet t h e s e r i e s has been sapped by Brock under t h e term "Palmeoeoic a r g i l l i t e s and a l t e r e d a r g i l l i t e s " . m*m*mm+m*mm*mimmmmmm*mmmi***mm*»  n i n i ' ^ • i i i i p w u m f c w i wiiii^mwia IIIMIIII>NI>H»  i  w m  In the iafte*  » • >•• •• ••.••^•ml  •"'•'•'""  1.  Drysdale, C.W., Geol. & Ore Deposits of Hoesland, B.C. liam. 77, Geol. Sur. Can., 1915, p.25  £•  Leroy, O.H», Geol. & Ore Deposits of Phoenix, B.C., Hem. 21, *912, p.30-34.  5. Dawson, G.JS., Seport on Area of Kamloops nap sheet, Ann* :ept., v.vii, Geol. Sur* Can., 1894, p.37B. 4*  Brock, B.W., Map No, 828, Gaol* Sur. Can., 1905.  59 saps of Daly* and LeFojr, the name Attwood has been given, after Attwood Kountain, which i s largely made up of these rocks. Lithology.  The series consists of a r g i l l i t e s , limestones, tuffa, and  quart s i t e s , a l l more or less metamorphosed.  In the Phoenix area, Lefloy  has subdivided the series into an upper and lover formation.  The upper,  which has been named the Bawhide formation, i s composed entirely of grey to black carbonaceous a r g i l l i t e s , while the lower, the Brooklyn formation, consists chiefly of limestone and i t s contact metamorphosed.equinelent e, together with some a r g i l l i t e s and tuffs. Structure.  The eeries has been considerably metamorphosed and jointing  end faulting i s a prominent feature.  Hto information regarding the  thickness I s available. Age and correlation.  The Attwood eeries has been provisionally corre-  lated by Daley and Lefioy with the Carboniferous eeries in the Roealand Mountains.  It probably represents the remnants of a once oontinous  Carboniferous formation, which originally extended over much of Southern British Colombia.  Slooan Series. Distribution.  As may be seen on the accompanying map, the sloean series  occupies a wide area between the Upper Arrow Lake and Duncan River.  1* Daly, H.A., t*  Bern. 38, Map Bo* 85 A, Gael. Sur. Can. 1912.  Leloy, U B , , Gaol. & Ore Deposits of Phoenix, Boundary district, B.C., Xceu 21, Geol. Sur. Can., 1912.  40  To the south the series occurs as a long, narrow belt, extending from Easlo to Coffee Creek, and bordered on the east "by the Kelson granodiorite batholith, and on the vest by the Alnsworth series*  Lithology.  The Slocan series consists of slates, argillaceous quart-  zites, and limestones, with intermediate gr&dation&l types.  The  liiaestones are the predominating rocks in the eastern part of the series.  At Ainswertfe, Sehofield 1 has subdivided that portion of the Slocan series occurring there,into the following formation.  Slocan Series  Structure,  Skyline format i o n . . . . . 1% inly a r g i l l i t e s , some a r g i l l a ceous liiaestones (in places fo#si2JJtee»a*1 Silver Beard . . . . . . . . Limestones, a r g i l l i t e s formation  The slocan series has a raaximnm thickness of 15,000 feet  and overlies conformably the Ainsworth series t o the e a s t .  The rocks  dip an an Average of about 30° t o 41° t o the west and south-vest. Between Trout Lake and the Upper Arrow Lake, the Slocan series has been intruded by a batholith of Valhalla granite* and somewhat further south by the Saslo schists* Age and correlation,  carboniferous f o s s i l s have been discovered in  various horizons of the Slocan s e r i e s , leaving l i t t l e doubt that the series i s Carboniferous in age.  1,  Schofield, S.J.,  Mem. 117,  Geol. Sur. Can., 1920, p.15.  41 The Sloean series may be correlated with some certainty with the Cache Creek fomatien, and probably with the Mount Roberts formation, and part of the Fend d*Oreille group.  Cache Creek formation. Distribution.  The Cache Creek formation occurs near the north west  corner of the map area in two exposures.  The larger of these, occupy-  ing abet* one hundred aijuare miles, is in the vicinity of Ilonashee and Eureka Mountains, while the other and smaller area, ten miles to the eastward, underlies Shite miley and Camels liump Mountain.  Cut-  side of the sheet, to the north-west, in the vicinity of Shuswap Lake and elsewhere, the format ion occupies a considerably greater area.  Littaplogy«  The Cache Creek formation, as named and described by  Dawson1, consists of an upper, or Mateble Canyon, limestone formation, and a lower division, composed of dark argillites, greywackes, and 'i  ojoertsites, together with altered volcanic rooks, originally diabase end amphibolite. Structure* The Cache Creek formation, in the map area. Is characterised by lack of definite stratigraphic sequence, and has been considerably disturbed by later orogenic movements.  1, Dawson, G.St. Report on the area of the Eaaloops Map Sheet, 3.C. Ann. Sept. Gaol. Sur. Can*, 1894. p.3 B, Also British Colombia Shuswap Sheet* Map H0«604, Geol. Sur. Can., 1894,  42 Age and correlation*  The upper member of the Cache Creek eeriee h&e  been found to contain Fusilina, and certain other fossils of Carboniferous age*  According to Dawson, the whole series is probably Carboni-  ferous, but there Is a possibility that the lover members nay be somewhat older*  for the purpose of this paper, however, the entire series  is considered to be Carboniferous in age, and cay be tentatively correlated with many formations of similar age to the east and south, including the Slooan series, the Pend d*Oreille group, and the Franklin group. Gloucester Formation* Bletrlbutloa. The Gloucester formation ooours is the area covered by the Franklin map sheet (Map no.STa) la three distinct bands, exposed ever a total area of about four miles, chiefly in the talleys occupied by Franklin and Gloucester Creeks.  Its extension beyond that area  severed by the nap sheet is not believed to be great*  Soonomically  the formation Is Important, as with It are closely associated the content wstnojuiiTi Ui ores of the Camp* Llthology*  Llthologieally, the Gloucester formation oonaists of  a light grey marble, characterised by small dark glistening crystals of oaloite, oval or rourd in shape, and scattered through a finer ground mass.  She limestone exposed opposite the mouth of L&Klnley  Creek, contains district crlnoidal remains, as well as those of an obeoure fossil reeesjbling Fuelllna.  45 Structure*  The formation has a general north and sooth trend, with  steep dips to the vest,  The thickness is not sore than 300 feet. It  overlies conformably and with iaterbedded lenses, the Franklin group*  Age and correlation*  'The Gloucester limestone has been correlated  by Drysdale ^ t h the upper member Pfcurble Canyon limeateae) of the Cache Creek* series.  This correlation is "based chiefly on the simi-  larity of the fossil reraains, those from the Gloucester formation, however, being very poorly preserved; and also upon the litholo^ical similarity of the two limestones*  Drysctele farther correlates the  Gloucester formation with the Attwood series in the Boundary district, which Daly refers to the Carboniferous of aosslaad.  Ihe Gloucester  formation is out by cupolas of the Upper Jurassic Ifelson granodiorite, an& lies beneath the early Tertiary rocks of the Eettle Biver formation* There seen* little doubt that the Gloucester formation is Carboniferous in age »  Little Sheep Creek Limestone. Distribution*  these beds are exposed over a snail area on Little  Sheep Creek* five miles south of Hossland.  They are of importance  because they contain recognisable fossils in a terrane where such are rare*  1*  Drysdale* C.W. Geology of the Franklin lining Camp. B.C. Ksm. 56* Geol. Sur. Can.. 1915* pp.51-53.  44 Lithology.  The "beds co sist of hlue-grey to T/hite limestone much  brecciated and highly crystallised.  Lenses of chert and qrarts, to-  gether with true quartz veins are also present.  Poorly preserved  crinoid stems vers found hy Daly1 in the limestone, ishile McCOnnel, during the napping of the frail sheet, found in the limestone "blocks of an overlying volcanic breccia, a species of Londsdalia, of Carboniferous age*  Structure,  The general structure is very obscure, strikes, where ob-  served, ranging from H.650 1 to &»8Q° E., with dips of about 60° to the north.  The beds are overlain by hreccia of the Hossland volcanics,  in which are found blocks of the underlying Little Sheep Creek limestone.  Age,  The Little Sheep Greek limestone has been referred tentatively  by Daly to the Carboniferous.  It may he correlated with some degree  of certainty with the Mount Roberts formation of Carboniferous age.  Mesoaoic Record. Ihoenix Volcanics* Distribution.  The Phoenix volcanic group extends over a considerable  area in the Boundary district, from Smelter Lake to west of the town of Greenwood, and occupies nearly one half of the area covered by  1.  Daly, R.A.,  Mem* 38. Geol, Sur. Can., 1912. p.320.  45 the Boundary Creek sheet1.  It is cut by granltie stocks and interrupted  by patches of older metamorphosed sediments*  Llthology.  The group* "consists of green tuffs and volcanic con-  glomerates and breccias, fine ash and mud beds, flows of green porphyrlte, and probably some interbeddad limestone and argillites".  The  greater part of the volcanic breccia consists of pebbles and boulders of porphyrlte material, together with those of limestone argillite Jasper and chert*  The limestone fragments are believed to have been  derived from the underlying Attwood formations.  Structure.  The structure of the group is extremely obscure, so great  has been the metamorphism due to igneous intrusions;and little inforaation is amilable regarding the stratigraphic arrangement of the different beds and flews*  The porphyrlte appears to be a little later  than most of the pryoclastics.  Age and correlation.  Daly3 considers the group to range from Carboni-  ferous to Triassic, probably the latter, and correlates them with certain of the Rossland volcanics.  The presence of blocks of the  Carboniferous Attwood limestone in the tuffs and agglomerates would certainly point to an age not older than Upper Carboniferous, also the — ••• i r • r ~  i u r n in  i n w n . . _ j  .11  11  .JI 1 1  1 .1...11 .1 _j 111  - 1 -  -  -  •  ' "  ~  1.  Brock, R.W., Boundary Creek Mining district, Hap. Ho.828, Geol. Sur. Can. 1905.  2.  Brock* B.W., Ann. Hept. Geol. Sur. Can., 1902,, p.97.  g%  Daly, R.A.,  Mem, 36, Geol. Sur. Can., 1912, p.385.  4C Phoanix voloanle rooks aro lass ciiM#lsd and shaarad thoss of th* Attsood forsatlon.  Iha voloanioa ara cut by tbs casoads bat hoi Hh  and tha aaaltar stook, both of Juraaalo aga.  "Sim group la, tharefora,  provisionally rafarrad to tha Trlaaslo.  Baaaland Valoaalo grgga, Ptatrlbutloau  Ilia tarn Boo aland volaaales *as originally uaad by  Brack and aoCannal to daaarlba a larga ara* of aaaslaa and braoelatsd soloanlo rooks of Carbcnlfarous and Maaoaolo aga«  Thasa rooks ara  aaiafly da-valapnd la a broad Irragular salt la tha Rcsaland l*a«ntains, fra* Christina Laka t o aalawu (1) Borth of Grand Forks;  Othar and asallar araaa ara foundi-  (2) In tha Franklin aramj  (3) at Daar  Hunt an tha Lovar Arrow Lak*i and (4) on 311 oar Mountain, twenty alias vast «f tha hand of Slaoaa laka.  It anat ha raaasjharad that  raault of latar and nora datallad sapping, haaa locally rsnnasd, aa  llthalagj.  fha asssland roloanlos, as originally daaorihad by Brook,  ooaslst of asajita porphyrlts, augita and hernblanda andatltss, f i n s . trains* dlahaaaa, axajita porphyrlta, asjsjtassratsa, tuffs, and ash  1* «tsj% Kootanaj imp Shast«  Qaal. 3ur. can.,  1904.  47 rocks, with some bands of slate and limestone.  In the Bossland^ and  Imir2 Camps the group is represented by augite porphyrite, agglomerate, and tuffs.  In the Bossland Bountains, near the International Boundary,  3 Daly found the Bossland volcanic rocks to consist of a great variety of latites, with subordinate amcaaats of andesites and basalts. Structure* As a result of the severe orogenic stresses and contact I  I  I H i " ,  ii-  >iii  net&morphism of intruding batholiths, the beds are generally upturned and have complicated structures. The latitic phase of the lavas appears to have been least affected by aetamorphisau  Bo infcreation regarding the thickness of  the group is available. Age and correlation.  She Bossland volcanic group is provisionally  placed by Drysdale In the Triasaic.  Daly states that it is certain  that the volcanics were erupted during at least two different periods. The eldest lavas, ash beds, and agglomerates, are believed to be contew5poraneous with, or to have followed closely, the deposition of the Carboniferous rocks of the Wvmt Roberts formation.  The augite por-  phyrites resemble, is many respects, the reeks of the Nicola group, Kamloops district4 cf Triassic age. mmmm^mwrn i i i w f i n i m i-' i i w o » > n  *mmm**Mmmm*mmmm+*m*mt  m  At paterson, 3.G. a younger  m**mm *****  mtmmmwmmmm«-• — • w w w  »m • •»•«• •••••• ,t,mmm, • •••••• • » n - n  1* Drysdale, C.W., Wm» 77., Gael* Sur. Can,, 1915 p. 200 2. Drysdale, C#W., Mem. 94*, Geol. Sur. Can., 1917 p.29 3. Daly, H,A., Mam. 38, Geol. Sur. Can., 1912 p.324. 4. Drysdale* C.W., Sana. Kept., Geol. Sur. Can., 1912 p.133  ••  48  member of the Sossland volcanic group was found by Daly t o enclose a metamorphosed stele containing plant remains*  From an examination  of these f o s s i l plants, Penhallow* definitely dated that horizon as Lever Cretaceous (Kootenay) age. Until the various members of the Sossland volcanics as a whole have been mapped in more d e t a i l , i t seems best t o follow Brysdale's plaa s f referring the whele group, proTislon&lly, t o the f r i a e s i c . I t seems evident then that the Sossland volcanic group i s of a t l e a s t two different ages.  The older members include the augite  porphyrite, agglomerate and t u f f s , and a r e probably Upper Carboniferous t o f r i a s s t e in age, v&ile t h e younger and more massive l a t i t e s and associated rocks a r e referred t o the Cretaceous.  In the absence  of more detailed mapping, I t has been found impossible t o make a satisfifcetory separation of the two groups* i: 'I  l a l l a c e Group. Distribution,  Within the map area the l a l l a c e group occurs a s irregu-  l a r patches, about eight miles t o the east and north-east of Beaverdell i& the vicinity of Kloof and Mcsher ridges.  The extension of the  group eastward i s not known.  1.  l e a . 77, Geol. Ssr* Can*,  1915. pp.203-211.  49 Lithology.  The W&llace group includes a complex of metamorphosed  volcanic roclca, with subordinate sediments, schists, and coarse-grained intrusive a.  The volcanic rocks consist chiefly of dark-grey, rusty  weathering augite andeaitea, occasionally porphyritic.  The sedi-  mentary members include white limestone, fine-grained grey to reddish hornfele, and dense reddish grey to black tuffs.  'She schists are  green to greyish in colour, and are thinly foliated*  Cutting the  other rocks of the groups are coarse-grained dykes of oaxonite and olivine gabbro, which have, In places, altered to schists. Structure*  The total thickness of the group is net known* the base  i l i n n i'li' u i i in i  being unexposed.  The madaast  thickness of the beds of tuff has been  eetisjkted to be 1*100 f«et, while that of the limestone to be 200 feet. The oldest rocks are the limestones and hornfels.  The whole group  has been metamorphosed by erogenic forces, and by the later intrusions of the lest Kettle aid Beaverdell batholithB, and consequently little of the detailed structure reaains. Age and correlation.  He fossils have yet been discovered in the  rocks of the Wallace group*  According to Heinecke , the members of  this group may belong to three different geological periods. The limestones and ease of the schists are considered to be the eldest reeks and are correlated with the lower part of the Rossland volcanica, the Sutherland schists, and the Attwood and Anarchist series, all of Carboniferous age* •••'••'••••»M»»*»*«»»»»«»*»«»***l'*>*B^«^»»»M*"'  1*  The middle division includes the andesitic flows ""HI  l*»**3*»»»»»»»****»*»»»»»»*»*»*»*»»***»«*»»<»*»*»*^^  Beinecke, L., Bam* 89, Geol. Sur* Can., 1915 p.41.  60 and tuffs, and the coarse-grained basic intrusives; these are correlated with the upper part of the Rossland volcanic group, and the Phoenix group, of Mesozoic age. The youngest members of the Wallace group are the dykes and sills of diorite porphyries, which nay be related to the West Kettle Jurassic batholith. The Wallace group, as a whole, has been referred by Reineeke broadly to the Kesoaoic.  Hall Series. :Djstributlon».,. The Sill series occupies about eight sq.. miles in a narrow north-south treading belt on the ridge about the vest bank of ttm Salmon Hirer, north of Ymir» Its northern extension has not been traced beyond the limit of the "Emir map sheet1; to the south it tapers and is finally cut off by a momsenits ohonolith at a paint two miles south-west of the torn of Imir*  Lithology»  The recks of the Ball series consist of continental  deposits of coarse to fine arkosic conglomerates, made up of pebbles of quartsite, greenstones, argillites, quart agra ins and feldspaltic material.  With these conglomerates are intercede of reddish sand-  stone and carbonaceous shale*  Structure*  The maximum thickness of the series is about 8,000 feet,  the members having a general north-south strike* and dipping steeply  1.  Drysdale, C.W,, Bap Ho. 175 A., Geol* Sur. Can*, 1916.  51 to the west*  The whole series has apparently oeen infolded with  contemporaneous volcanic rocks of the Rosaland group. Age and correlation.  The Hall series, which is unfossiliferous, has  been provisionally referred by Brysdale  to the Triassic, and correlated  with Dawson's Nicola series in the Kamloops district. The reeks are fresher and less altered than those of the Carboniferous Pend d*Or*ille group found in the vieinity.  They resemble,  liihologioally, the Nicola foesilifarous eeries of Trias a ic age, grading Into Jurassic,' and finally they have been intruded by granodiorite and nonsonite stocks of Juraesic age*  taiford Serlea. ...•...•in m • .mi i a.. inn Distribution, This series occupies a narrow holt in the Slocan MI-IWIWMM  HI  I In  —  and Lardeau areas, near t&lford Peak. •i  Llthology.  The Kilfors series, which resembles closely in its  lithological character the Slocan series, is composed of argillaceous quartsites and limestones.  The <partaites are commonly flinty and  of a dull grey to purple colour* Structure.  The series occurs a s a syncline along the Blue nidge,  and is bounded on the east by the Ainsworth series, and on ike west by the Slocan eeries and the belt of Kaslo schists. •  1.  »  1 I «• •'•!! • I  I  • —  III. II  .1  .  Brysdale, C.W., Sea. 94.  . ,11  „l  •  I  , , . . i i , .  Gael. Sur. Can., 1917, p.29.  52 Age and correlation.  The Milford aeries has been placed in the  Jurassic, on the has is of Belmenite fossils found at the heads of Davis and Cooper Creeks.  Ho other Jurassic sediments are known to  occur within the area*  Juraaside Pre-batholithle Intrusive s. Pistrihotion,  The pre-*batholithic intrueives include the following  phases:-* (1) Kaslo schists, in the Slocan and Lardeau districts. i&)  iArdeau diahese schists, Lardeau district*  i$\  Baker and Fife gabhros, on east shore of Christina Lake.  (4) Morlts porphyrite tongues, Hossland Camp* (&) Pyroxenite dykes, Eossland district and Bnir Camp. Llthslogyv These intrusives, which are forerunners of the rnain 'Jelson gmnoaiorite batholiths, are characterised hy a comparatively basic composition.  This supports the theory that each of the great hatho-  liths la preceded and followed hy basic differentiates, the sain batholithic Intrusive representing the most generally acidic phase of the cycle. She following is a very hrief awmnary of the lithology of each of the intrusives t&hulated above s ^  &gjfi S ^ ^ S *  A  variety of oasis igneous material,  including intrusive breccia, serpentine, porphyrite (augite and hornblende) oiorite and gabbro.  53  [Z) Lardeau itetabase Schist.  Erey to greenish igneous rocks  with inter lands of sedimentary material. (3) Baker & ffife Gabbros*  Una Baker gabhro i s a greenish-  black hypidiomorphic rock composed of b i o t i t e , diallage, and basic l&bradorite. $he Fife gabbrc, which has the setae general colour and structure a s that of the Baker intrusive, i s composed of bytownit e and two biailicates. H) Hoasland M e r i t s Porphyrite.  5f*e diorite perphyrites  consist of light grey to greenish-black porphyrltie rocks, composed of slender prisms of dark  hornelende and pyroaene, together with l a t h -  It  lJjbe feldspars, the whole lying In a fine greyish crystalline ground mass* ffi) Pjroxenite Dykeftt,  lite pyroxenite, which has a very  limited distribution, i s of a dark greyish black colour* with a hackly fracture, and i s composed of crystals of augite, the crystal faces being generally curved. Structure* una • • ••• i n » n  The si«e of these intrusivee ranges from extreraely large  i — II«  bodies, such as the Kaslo schist, which resembles in form a single immense dyke, or a number of closely parallel dykes; through the small stocks and chonoliths of the Baker and Fife gabbrosi down to the very limited dyke-like exposure of the pyroxenite.  Tins d i o r i t e  porphyrite tongues take the form of a dyke and border phase of the Kelson granodiorite.  54 The Kaslo 3Chist and the Lardeau diabase schist have conformed rather closely to the attitude of the intruded Slocan series, the remainder of the intrusives tinder consideration appear to he largely cross cutting.  All of these igneous rocks, with the possible ex-  ception of the pyroxenite, shew evidence of later erogenic forces, the Kaslo and lardeau schists being particularly sheared and mashed. Age and correlation.  The pre-Jurasside batholithic intrusives are  considered to he a l l of Jurassic age, and slightly elder than the Kelson grssadiorite batholith whose intrusion took place during the Upper Jurassic*  They represent the first evidences of plutonic activity  connected with the Jurasside revolution, which resulted In the building Of the Selkirk and Purcell Banges. The evidence bearing upon the age of the Individual intrusives any be swsnarised as follows:Concerning the Basle schists Bancroft  states that "This Slocan  batholith of basic nags* was intruded considerably in advance of the West Kootenay or Helson batholith . . . . "  It has been found cutting  the KUford series (Jurassic) and Is i t s e l f cut by apophyses of Nelson granodiorite to the Lardeau district. The Lardeau schists have been placed by Bancroft2 as Post-Carboniferous and Pre-Bslson granite, and are considered by Schofield" to 1* Bancroft, K.P.,  Sana. Kept., Qeol. Sur. Can., 1919 p.4.3 B.  2* Bancroft, K*P.,  Simnu Rapt., Geol. Sur* Can., 1916 p.35 3.  3*  Sohofield, S.J., Personal eonmmloatlon.  55 bear a similar relationship to the Selaon granite, as does the nearby Kaalo schist. The Baker & Fife gabbros are placed by Daly, tentatively, in the Schofield1 considers them to be an earlier differentiate  Cretaceous.  from the Nelson granodiorite. The diorite porphyrite at Eossland cuts the Bossland volcanica {Triaesic) and is intruded by the monaonite, which is slightly older than the Nelson granodiorite.  It is considered to represent a border  and dyke facies of the granodiorite .  Jurasside aatholithio Intrusiwss, Metribntlon.  im i* sh«m en the accompanying sap, the Juraoside  batholithie intrusives have a very wide distribution, and form about three-quarters of the igneous rocks eonpealng the West Eootenay composite battel ith. The reeks, on the whole, have a very constant mineralogical composition, and are typically represented by granodlorites.  The intru-  sion took place during the Jurasside revolution* The bathelithic intrusives includes the following minor phases i (1) Trail batholith (2)  -  (Trail and Eossland)  Cascade batholith, of sheared granodiorite (near Grand Forks)  (3) Bykest batholith (Qa International Boundary, west of Puree11 Trench)  1* Sclofield, S . J . , 2«  Personal cosmunioation.  Dryadale, C*W«. Ilea. 77, Seal. Sur, Can.,  1915. p.SIS.  56 (4)  Bayonne batfcollth  (10 a l i a s north-wast of Ryfcert batholith)  (5)  Osoyoos batholith  (south-west corner of map sheet}  (6)  \Test Kettle batholith  (7i  ^louaoiiite stocks and chonolith.3 Camp, and south of Franklin)  {8}  Smelter stock  (3)  Bunker H i l l and Lost Creek stocks  (Beaverdell Camp)  (Grand Forks)  (10)  Midway granodlorlt© stock  (11)  Gneissic granite  (12)  Bast Kootenay stocks.  Llthology.  (Rossland Stouatains, Ymlr  (south' of Salno )  (Midway)  (Mnsworth)  The typical rock known a s the Kelson granodlorite has  been referred t o "by Brock a s follows:  *The Selson g r a n i t e , which has  been carefully studied, i s a sort of & granite representative of the monsonite group ef recks, intermediate between the a l k a l i and limesoda s e r i e s of rocks, and about on the Boundary between granite and dlorite". The Kelson granodiorite i s t y p i c a l l y of a l i g h t grey colour, and shews large phenocrysts of pink feldspar (Orthoclase).  In texture  i t -varies from fine t o extremely coarse-grained* and i s occasionally porphyritic.  It i s generally uncrushed, though, in certain l o c a l i t i e s  (Cascade b a t h o l i t h ) , i t may be greatly sheared abd resemble a mica schist.  The monaonite in the Rossland Gamp and elsewhere represents  a f a d e s of the same intrusion.  1*  Brock, H»««» Ann* Hept», Gael* Sar» Can.,  1902-1903.  p.lOU.  57 The following are analyses of some of the various intrusives:  5  6  1  2  3  4  sio 2  66.46  70.78  60.27  66.43  fi02  &,27  0,20  0.63  0,20  0.40  0.70  2°3  15.34  15.72  17.17  15,80  15.74  16.51  *2° 3  1,68  0.36  2,36  1,06  2.29  2.79  1*83  1,61  3,67  1.85  £*% ^MTX  5.20  0,30  0.14  0.10  0.10  0,10  Al  F  F*0 MnO  64,80 ,  54.43  %0  1.11  0.46  2,45  1,46  2.09  3.55  CaO  3.43  1,92  6,49  4.08  §.20  7,06  SrO  Tr.  0.04  0,02  BaO  0.01  0,04  0,09  3.S0.  Ha 2 0  4.86  3.48  2.92  3.47  3,55  KgO  4.58  5.23  3,25  2,51  2,17  HgO  0.29  0.35  0,38  0.58  1,40  P  0,08  0.26  0.20  0,7  2°5  C0  1.25  0.10 0.23  S  Sp. Gr»  4.36  0.20  2  Total  :  99,93  100.41  100,01  99.72  2*654  2.785  2.708  100.18  100,04  (1) Kelson Granadiorite, Kokanee Mountain, Collector R.¥,Brock, Analyst Dr. Bittrich. Collector S.A.Daly Analyst lUF.Connor, (2) RykeSt hatholith H E.A,2aly w K.F.Connor. (3) Bayonne hatholith " E.A.Daly " M.F.Connor, (4) Osoyoos hatholith n M . L.Eelnecke K.F,Connor, (5) Vest Kettle hatholith n E*1, Brock H E» F.Connor. (6) Monsonite {Rossland)  58 St roc tore.  The granodiorlte occurs predominately as batholitlwand  stocks and intrudes rocks ranging in age from Beltian to Carboniferous. It forms the core of the West Kootenay composite batholith.  On the  whole the rook is comparatively uncruahed, out in places has yielded to later crustal stresses by mashing with the production of a gneissic i  and shistose structure.  Hear its roof rocks it has, in places,  yielded "by brecciation and shearing, resulting in mineralisation along the shear zones. Shatter zones at the contact of the intrusive and its country rock are a common feature, and are particularly veil developed near Trail and on Bluebell Mountain, east of Blonde^.  Within these zones a  progressive gradation is found, from the plutonic rock, through a sone tftxcharacterised by a network of apophyses cutting the sediments, to the unlntruded country rock* The most noticeable feature, however* on a broad scale, is the manner In which the regional strike of the sedimentary roof and wall rocks sweeps in parallel arrangement around the Intrusive contact. This is particularly noticeable along the eastern, northern, and northwestern borders of the batholith. The inference to be drawn from the structural phenomena is tbat the magma entered under great pressure, ceasing displacement of the surrounding rocks, and that intrusion took place, not only by stoping and assimilation, as evidenced by shatter zones and unoriented iPof pendents, but also by some form of laccolithic displacement.  This  feature, which is also characteristic of the Valhalla Eocene batholith.  59 will be discussed nsore fully in a later chapter,  ami correlation*  Ehe Kelson granodiorite is believed to have been  intruded contemporaneously -with the Jurassic period of mountain building, akd to be of Upper Jurassic age* The youngest fossiliferons rocks cut by the Melson granodiorite are those of the Kount Roberts and Slocan formations, of Carboniferous •age*.  Sehof ield1, from a study of the sedimentation of the Jtocky Mountains to the east, obtained further evidence regarding the Jurassic age of the granodiorite and of the contemporary age of the erogenic disturbance which formed the Purcell and Selkirk Mountain Bauges* Sclofield's evidence and conclusions on this question are as follows:  liable Shewing Character of Sediments Period  Tertiary  Formation  Lithological character  Fasfcapoo  Freshwater  Sandstones  Edmonton  Brackish & freshwater Marine  Sandstcnes and shales Shales  Bearpaw Upper Cretaceous  Condition of deposition  Belly River Series Brackish  Sandstones and shales Shales  Colorado  Murine  Upper Blairmore  Sub a e r i a l  1* Schofield, S.J.,  Sandstones, conglomerates (granite and chert pebbles} (Continued)  Hem, 117. Geo!* Sur. Can., 1920, p.12-23  60 fable Shewing Character of Sediments  (ctd)  Formation  Condition of deposition  Llthological character  Lower Blairmore  Sub aerial  Shales and conglomerates (quartzite and chert pebbles.  Kootenay  Sub aerial  Sandstones and shales coal shales  Fernie shales  Karine  Shales  Devonian and Carboniferous  Marine  Limestones and quartsites  Lower BalaeozoJ e  Marine  Limestones and quartsites  Continental  Vainly quartsites and argillaceous quartzltes  Period  Lower Cretaceous  Upper Jurassic  Disconformlty Pre Carboniferous Purcell series (Beltian) Oalton aeries  I  "It will be ween fran the above table that conglomerates are first found in great amount at the base of the Blairmore formation.  The  pebble* in conglomerates consist of quartsites and chert derived from the quartsites of Beltian rooks, which make up the great part of the Selkirk Bangs.  Svidently, in Lower Blairmore times, the Selkirk Range  was approaching the maximum of elevation and was undergoing rapid erosion*  She Upper Blairmore formation also consists of conglomerates  and sandstones, but in them, in addition to pebbles of quartiite and chert, pebble* of granite occur for the first time and in great  61 "abundance.  The presence of the granite pebbles at this horizon is  interpreted to mean that the Selkirk Bangs was unroofed during Upper Blainaore times, and that the leison granite,which forms the cere of the Selkirk Bangs in Southern British Cokumbia, was exposed to rapid erosion Bance It is established that the first Intrusion of granodiorite into the Selkirk Bangs took place before the deposition of the Upper Creta.oeous.  His superposition of the narine Feral* shales upon the marine  Devono-Carboniferous limestones suggests that the period ef stability which prevailed throughout British Columbia until the Triassic was interrupted during the Upper Jurassic.  Tim Selkirk Mountains re-  ceived their initial form probably at the close of the Jurassic, or in early Xootaney tines.  If mountain building and orogenic movements  are contemporaneous, it may be concluded that the first intrusion of granodiorite in the Selkirk Bangs commenced towards the d o s e of the Jurassic  and .continued until the mountain building reached its  maximum in Kootenay time" The monsonite, occurring as stocks and chonoliths in the Bossland Camp and elsewhere in the Bossland and Kelson Bangs, is considered by Brock  to have closely preceded the main batholithic intrusion of  Nelson granodiorite.  1.  Brock, B»W.  Personal coBsajfticatioiu  62 Jurasal&e Post Batholithic Intrusives. Distribution*  Included wider this heading arethe lamprophyrie and  complementary apllte dykes of the Sast Kootenay, Ainaworth, Slocan, and Lardeau districts; the lamprophyrie dykes of Hossland/ the hornblende andeslte porphyry dykes of Beaverdell Camp; and the dunites of the Bossland Meuntains.  All of the occurrences are too snail to plot to  the scale of the accompanying map.  Llthology.  With the exception of a minor proportion ef aplitic types  the intrusiY»8 are of a distinctly basic nature.  She basic dykes of  the Kootenay, Ainsworth, Slocan and lardeau regions are ceoraonly composed of earaptonlte, weathering dark greyish brown; panied by aplitic dykes of similar habit*  these are accom-  She Bossland lamprophyrea  include mLnettee, kersantites, vogesites, spessartites# and odonites. The hornblende andeslte porphyries of the Bearerdell Gamp are composed of phenocyrsts of lath-shaped hornbleade, and of feldspar, in a dark fine-grained ground mass. The Hossland Mountain dunite is characterised by the absence of associated chromite, otherwise it is a very typical representative of the dunite group of reeks,  Alteration of the dunite to serpentine  has been common.  Structure* • • • ' • • i—>«nw»m 'in  The intrusives are. as far as is known, all very small,  —  and take the form of dykes; in t h i s they differ from the pre-bathol i t h i c intrusives, many of which are very large Indeed*  In general  they are found to cut both the older sedimentary recks and the  63 batholith Itself.  Age and correlation*  The Jurassic post batholithic intru3Ives,^-under-  stood to represent the final phase of igneous intrusion associated with the cooling stages of the Melson granodlorite oathollth, were Injected in latetipperJurassic or early Cretaceous times* 33*e oaniptonlte and similar basic dykes are considered by Bancroft1 to have been intruded slightly later than the complementary aplite 2 dykes*  In the Ainsworth area , the camptonite dykes out the Slocan  (Carboniferous) sediments and carry inclusions of Kelson granite, of tipper Jurassic age.  They ere plaoed by Sehofield, tentatively, as very  late Jurassio or early Cretaceous, and as being probably associated vith the earlier cooling stages of the iielson granodlorite batholith, the later cooling stages of which resulted in the formation of the ore bodies. "The Rossland lamprophyric dykes followed the intrusion of the granodlorite and monsonite3. The hornblende andesite porphyries of Beaverdell camp out the Vest Settle batholith (which has been correlated with the Kelson granodlorite), and from their position with reference to the West Kettle 4 batholith are considered by Reinecke to be related to it* 1.  Bancroft, &.F.,  Sum* Hspt., Ceol. 3ur. Can*. 1919*  p.46B  2.  Sehofield, S.J.,  3*  Drysdale, C.W.,  4.  Reinecke, L. Mem. 79, Geol* Sur. Can., 1915, p.43-44.  UesvLlT, Gaol. 3ur. Can*. 1920. p.24 item. 77, Geol. Sur. Can., 1915, p.30.  64 Shore has been some doubt regarding the precise age of the dunite bodies.  Daljr- has mapped them tentatively as Cretaceous, and mentions  that a small dunite dyke cuts a stock of the Cascade batholith of Upper Jurassic age*  Schotfield2 is of the opinion that the dunite is associated  In age and origin with various other Jurasside post-batholithic intrusives, and this view has been adopted by the writer* These basic intrusives in general(represent the fulfillment of the hypothesis that great periods of granitic batholithic invasion are opened and closed by a minor injection of more basic differentiation* This point will be discussed more fully in a later chapter*  Little Sheep Creek Sediments. Diatrioution*  The rooks In quest ion occupy an area of about one-  half square mile, on Little Sheep Creek, at the point where it crosses the International Boundary, south of Rossland*  Like the older forma*  tioa, aoout one mile up stream, the area of these stratified recks is comparatively Insignificant, out the fact that the beds contain recognisable fossilB makes them of some importance for correlation purposes*  Lithology.  The reeks consist of black and red argillite, with whieh  are interbedded grey sandstone and angular conglomerate.  Layers of  black quartsite sandstone, carrying sulphides,are also found* The shaly members were found to contain poorly preserved fossil  1*  Daly, B.A., Mem. 38.  Geol. Sur. Can., 1912*  2.  5c ofield, S.J. Personal communication*  p*375.  ferns, possibly Upper lalaeozpic In age* Structure.  The beds are at least 600 feet thick, and the structure of  the series seems to be that of a broken and mashed anticline plunging to the north.  Exposures are very poor, and the whole series is so  crumpled that a proper interpretation is difficult* Age and correlation. The fragments of fossil ferns were examined by Penhallow, who -tentatively correlated the series with the Lower Cretaceous strata or- the laaayten River.  Daly1 refers the series to the  Lower Cretaceous (?) possibly Eooene, and it is to the Lower Cretaceous that the series are provisionally referred in this paper*  Tertiary Record* Lftrsmtde Batholithic Intruslves* Distribution.  The Laramide batholith occupies a very extensive area  within the map sheet* and makes up nearly one quarter- of the igneous rocks forming the West Kootenay batholith*  It has been mapped under  the general legend of Valhalla granite, of which it is largely composed* As will be seen on the accompanying map, the chief occurrence a are to the west of the Lower Arrow Lake, and in the Lardeau; to the east of the Upper Arrow Lake 2 .  Other stock-like masses of considerable  1*  Daly, R.A., Mem* 38. Geol. Sur. Can*, 1912.  8*  Brock, R.W.  Personal communication.  p.323.  66 eise occur within the Seleon granodiorite i t s e l f , between the Lower Arrow lake and Kootenay lake, and also in the vicinity of Christina Lake*  In the Bea-rordell Camp, on the western border of the cap, the  Valhalla granite i s represented by the Beaverdell batholith of Reineeke1. Llthology.  The Valhalla granite, named after the Valhalla isountains,  where i t i s typically developed, has been examined by Brock and described by bin in the explanatory notes accompanying the West Kootenay Map S heet ( as follows: "This i s a medium-grained, li^ht-coloured, very quartsose granite. Wie feldspars are orthoclase, microcline and plageoclase {albite to andesine). common.  Hlcrogranitift intsrgrowthe of quarts and feldspar are Green biotite and hobnblende are the coloured const ittients.  Apatite, titan!te, orthite, sireon, and iron ore are common. Gladstone Mountain i t i s a typical granodiorite.  Near  Esse a column of  basis feldspar often forms the core of a hornblendie prism. pegmatite and odenite dykes accompany i t s intrusion.  Aplite,  It i s elder  than the Rossland alkali-granitic reeks, but newer than the ether plutonics.  It has largely escaped mineralization."  fbs Beaverdell batholith i s composed typically of a medium, evengrained, white quarts monzonite.,  Its texture varies from a f ine-  grained holocrystalline rock facies, to a coarsely perphyritic rock, Ml  II  l  l  1*  Reineeke, L . ,  2.  Brock, E.W.,  •.  Kern. 79,  •  ' ••»•  l  •'  Geol. Sur. Can., 1915.  Map Sheet Bo.792, Geol. Sur. Can., 1904.  ill .  • l  67 having large phenoeryst3 of pink orthoclase. The following two analyses of the Beaverdell quartz monsonite have been made by Mr. 12.P. Connor, of the Department of Kines.  (A) repre-  sents an analysis made upon a specimen of the porphyritle variety, while (B) representB an  sio2  Al^> 3 Pe 2 os Peo  m.mfm'mi iwWWWM i » n  (A)  analysis of the fine-grain roof type.  cao  1 1 — • F ^ w f c — 1 m , — i i — n •" • • i • • • ••!»—•—*• i n i  70*20 15,40  1.00  1.02 -  (B)  Fgo  60.16 15.92  1*54  0.92  0.60  BagO i— ^ M ^ M -  K^O  H2O  HI , i ^ . ^ i » • • ••mn». P» II  2,4x0  ?IO2 •••  • «••  ••!••••*••»  £.00  4.58  4.67  0.30  0.25  0.03  0.64  5.06  5,97  0.60  0.20  0.06  100.05 0.33  - 100,40  Structure. •  —  »  IT li inn  With the exception of the Lardeau batholith, which cats  1  the Slocan series of sedimentary rooks, the Valhalla granite chiefly occurs as an intrusive body within the Kelson granodiorite. Sis general elongation of the various trasses of Yalhalla granite is to the west of north, and conforms closely to the Cordeller&n trend. In the Lardeau district the strike of the Slocan series swings round parallel to the contact of the great intrusion of Yalhalla granite. ®iis suggests strongly that, as in the case of the older Selson granodiorite, displacement of the surrounding rocks has resulted from the great outward pressure of the batholithle magma at the time of intrusion. Age and correlation,  fhe 'Valhalla granite is considered to he Eocene  in age, and to have accompanied the great crustal disturbances occurring during the Laramide revolution at the close of the Mesosoie.  68 Ihsre Is, however, no direct fossil iferous evidence to definitely assign this granite *o any one partic-alar age.  It has been ohserved  to have ©at the Kelson gmnodlorlte bodies, and is, on the whole, less crushed.  The Valhalla granite has been eat by the Miocene pulaskite  and is therefore Pre-Miooene.  Bie great lithological difference between  the highly siliceous Valhalla granite, on the one hand, and the pulaskite on the other, suggests that a considerable period of time must have seperated these two intrusions to allow such narked variation in the composition of the abyssal magma to have taken place*  Elsewhere  throughout the world the crustal disturbances of the Laramide revolution have been accompanied or closely followed by "batholithic intrusion, and so it seems very probable then, that the intrusion of the Valhalla granite was associated with the crustal folding and uplift of the laramide revolution. The Beaverdell quart-monaonite batholith which is considered by Brock1 to be a phase of the Valhalla granite; has been placed in the 2 Eocene by Reinecke, who associates the batholith with the crustal disturbances of the Laramide revolution.  1.  Break, H.W.,  Personal communication.  2.  Beinecke, L.  mm,  79, Geol. Sur« Can., 1915, p.52  69 Bottle Hirer Foroatlon. Plot rl but lon»  Iho Kettle River f o m a t i o a within  in the 3oundr.ry an/1 Franklin d l r t r l c t e .  the cap a m occuro  In the loundary dirt r i o t , v l a r e  i t has boon «appod and deecribed by Lofioy* and Laljr  9  tho f o n a t l o n io  found fee loo In ted pmtchoo in tho r i c i n i t y of Phoenix and rld«ay.  It  lo probable that snny unnappod areas occur eleeet.ere in tho Boundary dirtriot. Llthology.  In gonoral tho Kettle Biver formation oonoloto of contlnen-  t a l dopooito of conglonernU foldaprthlc eandrtone, ohale, ar*Koelc srlte.^omtorUld acidic t u f f e .  In tho Boundary d i r t r l e t tho formtlon  aloo includee thin ooane of l i g n i t e c o a l . tho tuffaceoua beds nay bo a beenW  Locally, ao a t Phoonia,  Plant renalno of l a r l f Tertiary  a^e hare boon found In tho tot t i e Hi for formtlon at  hoenix end  near Udeey. Structure*  rho thicknees of tho depoalto mxos considerably.  In  tho Franklin dlotriot tho omzliaaa thioknooo lo MO foot. In tho Boundary d l o t r i o t , tho thickness of tho f o r m t l o n , ao £l«en by Daly, io £100 f o o t . The following lo Dnly'o Motion:  lo  Dryedele, C * .  2.  LeBoy, Oil*  oV Oaly 9 R.A.  Uoa. 66, Cool* 3ur. Can. , 1916. i »  l i t Ooolo M » Cnrw, 1911  Ben. 38, Cool. Sur. Can., 1912.  70  •Top, conformable contact with overlying Kictaay lavas. 10CO  feet  Fosailiferous, grey, feldspathlc sandstones with interheds of shale  900  feet  Coarse conglomerate.  200  feet  Coarse arkose-breccia (a local deposit)  2100  feet  Base, tmccnfonnable contact with underlying Anarehist s e r i e s , and with pre-Tertiary plutonic intruslves." Faulting has, in general, been very alight, but the beds a r e gently fold^£s« Agg and earre3atioa»  The Kettle River formation i s Oligocene in age.  The age was determined, by Penhallow1 as the result of h i s examination of fossil plants collected by Daly from the Settle River formation, west of Midway.  The Settle River formation has ttsm correlated with  Dawson's Coldwater group in the Kamloops area.  I t i s possible that the  Beaver fountain sediments of the Rossland Mountains may be a remnant of the Kettle River beds t o the e a s t , the lithological similarity of the formations, and the association of contemporary vuleaaiam i s significant.  1.  Penhallow, D*p. A Beport en t h e dossil Plants from the International Boundary Survey for 1905-1905, collected by R.A.Ualy. Trans, Roy, See* Can,, Third s e r i e s . Vol. 1, 1907, P.SX8-827.  71 Parry Creek Series, Pistrlout ion.  In the sap area the Curjry Creek series occupies a  small patch of at least one square mile on H o o f Eidge, eight miles east of Beaverdell..  Lithology.  I5xe series consists Of a great thickness of conglomerates  overlain "by fine-grained white tuffs,  Interbedded with the conglomer-  ates are arkosic sandstones and volcanic "breccia.  The conglomerates  are composed of granitic pebbles from the West Kettle and Beaverdell bathellths, those from the West Settle batholith being the more abundant.  A lease of tuff in the conglomerate was found to contain a  single fossil plant.  Structure,  The aeries,which is made up of 2,500 feet of conglomerate,  overlain by 200 feet of tuff, lies unconformably upon a weathered surface of the Wallace group.  She beds strike north and south, and dip  at low angles to the east.  Euulting with a down-throw of 500 feet  has been observed.  Age and correlation.  The single fossil plant found in the series was  referred "broadly to the Tertiary.  According to Beinecke1 the Curry  Creek aeries corresponds closely in its lithology and character to the fossiliferous Kettle Biver foraaation at Phoenix.  It differs from it,  however, by the presence' of tuffs, which are absent in the Kettle Biver formation to the south,  1. Beinecke, L.,  Mem. 79, Gaol. Sur. Can., 1915. p.56.  72 Reinecke has placed the Curry Creek series in the Oligocene, and has correlated it with the Kettle River formation.  Lake and Sophie fountain. Conglomerates* Distribution.  In the Roaaland Mountains, and near the International  Boundary, four patches of Tertiary conglomerates have seen examined. The first of these lies one mile south-west of Lake Mountain, and covers about one-third of a square mile; another *ae, crowns the summit of Sophie Scrantain, and has an area of slightly more than one wquare mile?  while the third and fourth bodies, of much smaller size, outcrop  at Konument 172 and 169 respectively, on the Boundary line*  Ltfchelegy.  The conglomerate at all exposures is composed of rounded  to angular pebbles, ranging in sine up to one foot in diameter.  They  include pebbles of greenish-grey quart site, vein quarts, phyllite, and slate.  Pebbles of the neighbouring Boaaland volcanics are also to be  found in all the conglomerates, with the exception of those of Lake Mountain, where they are absent,  The cement in all eases appears to  be of a sandy nature, often ferruginous.  The Spohie Mountain con-  glomerate is alone foasiliferous, a bed of sandy shale being found to contain poorly preserved Dicotyledonous leaves.  Structure.  The attitude of the beds is very variable.  The thick-  ness as shewn at Lake Mountain is at least 300 feet, while that at Monument 172 is about 200 feet. much brecciated.  The formations, on the whole, are  Proceeding westward, the conglomerates at the  vorlouo outcrop* bee e f t finer la  op of  mmU»  m of aurlal, lAt  f o i i U U M M f r o . the  00*7 profcnblj of T e r t U r j e«e, ponciblj 1 • l » o lndlento ft freeh enter origin  of the oedlrrnt e«  l M » been depotlted ftt v l d e l r different t l n * e , ihUj 1 e d tho hjrpotheei* thot the/ nepreoont do pool t lcm by HHtlooflft) nnnii*«o>J Strom** flaring e e e t w r d fro* the ftitft of • a t e of tho Selkirk n v « e .  D M U * » tounteln  intruded by on ftpephvOii of the, 2fc*pyftr4 (»iooeo») tee oor^lonemtea hrvro, therefore, boom pr oTlolonmllj f b i i l l hy DbAjr t o the Lower Tort lory.  Tor ttountoln 5edinent». Diotrlbotlon*  The honour Ueer.tnln todlA«nts • f tho  in in, flftoen n l l e e ftmot of Boftft  U  oonelet of Mock  ehnlee end thin <*o1o*Bftj  |ft  4  fton^loTOto  Iftlgr, R«4«,  of people* of eroAlte,  iem. 36, Cool. *^r. Cftn.# l f l f t , ft»*a  74 slate outcrops over a snail area near Champion station.  The shale  and sandstone members contain fossil plant stem/loaves, which are, unfortunately, of no diagnostic -value*  Structure.  The group la at least 1000 feet thick, tha beds striking  east and vest and dipping at lov angles to the. south*  A great deal  of aaulting has taken place.  Age and correlation.  The Beaver fountain sediments, like the con-  temporaneous Beaver Mountain voloanics, have been assigned by Balyl to the Tertiary.  The general character of the deposit is similar to  the Socene{?) fossiliferous beds at Little Sheep Creek, and in some respects to the Kettle Elver formation in the Boundary district*  Tertiary Voloanics. Distribution.  Under the term Tertiary Voloanics are included the  Midway volcanics of the Boundary district and Franklin Camp, the Hippie Mountain series of the Beavsrdell area, and the Tertiary volcanics of the Vest Kootenay and shuswap map sheets*  These patches  of volcanic rock represent Isolated erosion remnants of the eastern border of the great l a m flow which extends over much of the Interior Plateau of British Columbia, end forms the traps of the Columbia Lava Plain of the States of Washington , Idaho and Montana.  1.  Daly. H.A.,  Mem* 38, Geol. Sur. Can., 1912, p.3S3.  75 Lithology»  *Jhe Tertiary volcanlcs eonsist of sub-aerial flows of  acid and basic lavas and associated pyroclastics*  In general the  earlier extrusions were of an acidic nature, while those following became progressively more basic in composition.  This gradation is  well illustrated by a study of the occurrence at the Franklin Camp , where the oldest flow is a rhyolite and the last expression of volcanism Is represented by alkalic basalt*  Within the Boundary Belt Daly2  has described nine different types of lava, and mentions the occurrence of several horisons of agglomerates and tuffs*  These lavas  vary from an analcitic lava to an olivine basalt, and are accompanied by basic dykes and sheets*  &t* Nipple Mountain series, in the  vicinity of Beaverdell, consisting of unaltered lava flews and dykes (olivine basalts, blot it e andesites and dacitee), have been considered by Reinecke to correspond to the middle port of Saly*s Midway volcanic group.  Structure*  The lava flows in general have conformed to the structure  of the Tertiary sediments, -upon which they were laid down*  They  appear to have flowed into the valleys and lowlands existing during Oligoeene and early Kioeene times, and, as may be seen on the accompanying map, the flow remnants lie chiefly towards the western border, where the topography tends to become lees mountainous as it grades Into the Interior Plateau*  It is a rejaarkable thing that erosion has  spared any remnants at all in the mountainous structure of the Selkirk Bange. 1* 2*  Drysd&le, C.W., Ham,. 56, Gael. Bur* Can., 1915. p.85 laly, S.A» Mem. 38, Seol. Star. Can. 1912, p.596.  76 Ago and correlation*  Regarding the :?ertinry volcanics napped on the  'est Xcotenay si;eot, arock 1 s t a t e s that! n'3& s e r i e s i s no doubt identical with the tertiary volcanic rocks of liiooene age of the anloope and Sbuowap nap sheets* and to similar rocks of the Gkanagnn and Jouadary Crook districted** Preferring %0 the l a t e r and more detailed mapping e f s c a l i e r areas, the v r i t e r hae collector tho following evidence beoria/* upon the age of the various occurrences. (1)  A* Kideajgi t*%« Eidany volcanics ovorlie conforrr.bly tho  f o l l l l i f c r o u o Kettle Hivor formtion (Oligocone). (2)  In the Denverdoll Cans? the '"ipple l.ountain lavas correspond  petrographically v i t h the lowest lavas described by Daly a t I lawny, which vary from o l i v i n e basalt to trachyte.  Helnecko consequently  places the nipple Bsuntala l a v a s t e n t a t i v e l y in tho Cllgoeeno, or, I f the;- are unoonformblo with t h e mnderlying Curry Creek series (Oligooono), a point upon which he io doubtful, l a the Miocene, (3)  The volcanic  different ages.  flowe a t Franklin Cam ere of, a t l e a s t , two  The older of these consists of rhyolite and t u f f s ,  and i s contemporaneous with tho underlying Kettle River formation of Oligooojie age.  The eeoond and l a t e r floe? of trachytes, traohytlo  bn salt, and b a s a l t s , with associated t u f f s , which have been nonod the I-'idaay volcanic group, (after similar flows in the v i c i n i t y of l!itoay) i s believed t o bo associated with tie* intrusion ef the nonsonito (Oligocone ?} stocks.  Biia l a t e r flow is correlated Xty  77 Drysdale with Dawsons period of Miocene vulcaniam in the Kamloops1 district* The following ia Dawson*s provisional scheme for the Tertiary volcania rock and associated sediments, in the Eamloops district:  Later Miocene  Earlier Miocene  Oligooene  Upper volcanic groups {maximum thickness) Tranquille beds {maxtauui thickness) Lover volcanic group (maximum thickness apart from centre of eruption) Coldwater group at Ifcrt Creek .  5,100 feet 1,000  n  S.3Q0 « SfQOO « 14,400 feet  Dryadale, as mentioned shove, has corrlated his younger flow with the whole of Dawson's Tertiary volcanice of both earlier and later Kiocene age*  It appears to the writer that the later Franklin  flew should he correlated, not with the whole of Dawson»g Tertiary •olcanica, out only with his Upper volcanic group, and that the earlier rhyolite flow he correlated with Daweon*a lower volcanic group* The evidence for this proposed correlation depends upon (1) the & C t that both at Franklin and in the &*mloors district there have been flows of two distinct ages, and (2) the earlier flow in both districts is contemporaneous with known Oligowene sediments*  The  absence, in the Franklin Camp, of the equivalent of the intervening  1*  Dawson, G#M* Bept* on E/aaleops ISap Sheet, Ann. Eept*, Geol. Sar* Can** 1894, p.71B*  ?8 SSranquille beds does not, necessarily, weaken the evidence submitted above. Betrographieally, however, Daws on ^volcanic group, consisting chiefly of angitss porphyrias and agglomerates, differs in a narked degree from the rhyolitea of the Franklin Camp, though it ia possible that extrusions of similar age might vary greatly in composition from place to place.  On the other hand, Dawson's Upper volcanic group is  petrographically similar to the later Franklin, flow, both being composed of basalts and trachytes* It is the writer's tentative conclusion, then, that the 'Tertiary volcanics are of at least two different ages (1) an earlier extrusion &t Lower Meeene, possibly Oligocene age, connected with the Laramide revolution, and {Z\ a later extrusion of probably Middle or Upper Miocene age, genetically related to the Hossland alkali syenite batholith,  Beaver Mountain Volcanics. .**Wi***Mm*m* Wi'.K i 'iiiim^HWKuwnwaa^iMM i • w  Distribution* * !• >•> ii mm, m  • 'n. mil  rtilii*  Ihe Beaver Mountain volcanics are situated on Beaver  ************  Mountain, about fifteen miles east of Hossland. of about thirty square miles.  They occupy an area  The group has been mapped and described  by Brock and MeConnell* oh the West Kootenay sheet, and later by Baljr ***** - ^ • i j i niiwmwim*m*m *** m a — i m*w*m i " i  '  mmmmmm ******* * ******** ***** * » ' • > * " • *********** •m^**m**^mm$***** <* ••»•• am********************-*—  1.  Brock, B*¥«, & KeConnell* B.G», West Kootenay sheet, Geol» Sur* Can. , 1904.  Zm  Daly, R.A., Mem. 38, Geel* Sur, Can., 1912, p.3B2.  79 Mtholegy*  The volcanics are composed of flows and pyroclaetics.  The flows a r e made up of auglte andeaite and olivine free basalt, chiefly of the former.  The pyroclaatics represent the same lavas in a  breccteted condition, together with subordinate amounts of black ahale, s l a t e , grey sandstone, marble and quart site*  with t h i s group are  associated contemporaneous fresh-water sediment a (Beaver Mountain sediments.) Structure.  The group has been profoundly disturbed, but i s rarely  schistose, and the rocks, as a whole, are considerably fresher than these of the underlying Rossland volcanics.  The thickness of the  pyroclasties i s , a t leaety 1,000 feet^ the beds being upturned and dips vary a l l the way -up to 90°. jjgg and correlation.  She group has been described by Brock as being  comparatively recent, and dated as Post-Cretaceous, while Daly has mapped them as Tertiary, but mentions the p o s s i b i l i t y of them being Hesoaolc in age*  They w i l l here be considered t o be of Middle to  Tipper t e r t i a r y age, possibly Kiocene, and correlated tentatively, with the Midway volcanic group, of which they a r e very probably a remnant.  Ollgocene Intrusive** Bistrleutlon.  The Qligoeeae intrusive rocks include the small  porphyritic monsonite stock of Bossland Camp; the Salmon Blver mon •onite (porphyritic) stock near ISnir, the monsonite stocks of the  eo Franklin Campi and the monzcnite porphyry and s m l l dykes of aiagite porphyrlte and olivine 'basalt of the Boundary district* Mthology.  5he intrusive rocks referred to the Oligocene period are  mainly porphyritic raonzonitea. fypically, the porphyritic monzonltes of Rossiand and Tmir d i s t r i c t s are Of a greenish-grey t o grey-black colour, with u,tout phenocryets of pyroxene and M o t i t e in a ground mass of dense feldapatic material.  The Franklin occurrence ia somewhat darker in  o d o u r , and non-porphyritic. The Boundary d i s t r i c t porphyritic raonzonlte differs from the ahove types in that the phenocryets are of light-grey feldspar, with a dense ground mass of the same composition. She olivine haaalt of the Boundary d i s t r i c t ia a porphyritic dyke rock, dark-grey in colour, with phenocryets of plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine, i n a dense ground nass.  The augite porphyrite,which has  a similar hahit, consists of phenocrysts of alack pyroxene, in a finer ground mass of feldspar and oiotite* Structure*  111 the intrusives of this age are comparatively small,  and assume the form of stocks and dykes. The rooks are, on the whole, d i s t i n c t l y fresher and less fcrecelated than any of the elder intrueives*  I t i s possible that  some of the stocks of porphyritic raonzonite may represent old volcanic necks, a s pointed out hy Drysdale in h i s description of the Rossiand 1* Brysdale, C.W., Mem* 77 # Geol. Spr* Can., 1915 p*S3»v  81 1 a»d "Sals? MasurffasB©©*  '21*9 Salem S i w r stock a t M r , which has a  sharply deXinM ptalasklte core, particularly s ^ ^ e s t a m ancient volcanic pipe. Age and aerralatioru  aaly*" M s referred the .'aliseen r&ver jaonsenit e  stocks t o tave Poat-T&eene (mooes©?}',,, end eessldcrs thep t o oe corro3 lated with cupola stocks of the Cornell hatholitb. arysdale , how* ever, tmm papovi^lenally referred a l l the aalaaon r&ver and BessXaa& porphyrltic isonaonite© t o the Oligecene early crastal raoveraents, and the writer has adopted t h i s viewpoint*  -The Fssaafcltn isonscnlte  tmts the cai^oaono Kettle Stiver fona&tien and i s cnt ^ the yossagor Tiooeae intrusive3. l a the Booadary d i s t r i c t L©3oy* has placed a l l h i s i?erti&ry iatrweiwe, tentatively* i s the : ioeeiia.  9MQT  occur la the follow-  ing order, eomeselag with tha oldest - ollviae b a s a l t , samite, por~ phyrite, laooscnlto porphyry, asd paLaafclte porphyry* Sleeahero within the laap area the porphyritic esonsealtes have swrfcod the tipper limit of the Oligeeene i&troeiws, and so the sjriter has vary tentatively correlated the Booodary d i s t r i c t taonaonitea with these of Basala3&* ifelr as*& Jmtaclia*  1,  arysdale, (?«¥•* Boa* 94, s e a l , Sur» Qaa» 19X7 ft p . 39  £» 3aly, 2.iU,  Earn* 38, Gaol, Ser* Can., 1912, p.Si?»  3» Seyedalc, €!*«•» 4^  i f t h i s i s correct» i t  LeRoy, O.E.,  ISaa* 94, G*el« Soar* Can«, 1917, p ^ 0 *  Mem. 2 1 , Geol. Sur. Can., 1912, p . 2 9 .  82 follows that the olivine basalt and augite porphyrite,?iiiich are still older than the monaonite porphyry, but cut the Qligocene volcanic rocks, must also be Oligocene in age* It seents., however, that the division "between the Oligocene and Miocene plutonic rocks is more or less arMtary, and the Question of the dating of these intrusives still remains open, hut the intrusives described above very probably represent the earlier stages of plutonic activity connected with the Oligocene and Miocene revolution*  Miocene Intrusives. »  (  I •  I I - II ,11.1 I — . 1  Sjetolfrution*  if 1 1 1 , .  IT. in  ..I  3be Miocene intrusives, which have been mapped en the  West Kectenay eheet a s Rossland a l k a l i syenite* cover a very considerable area, as nay be 99ma. en the enclosed map, and represent the l a s t period of batholith invasion within the Kootenays. Included voder the general terra of Miocene intrusives are the following rock formations: (1} torn Coryell batholith, Sheppard granite | and laBjprophyre dykes of Rossland Camp and d i s t r i c t , including Yrair Camp. \Z\ Pulaskite porphyry, shonkinlte pyroxsnite and augite syenite of Franklin Camp. (S) Pulaskite porphyry of the Boundary district* (4) All ether intrusives raapped on the West Koetenay map sheet a s Rossland a l k a l i syenite* Llfchology*  lltoe dominant rook type i s that of a hornblende syenite  *Mwe«ei»w4BuMi  {pulaskite} . as represented by the Coryell bathelltn, between Christina  83  Lake and Rossland, the typical Bossland a l k a l i syenite of the West Kootenay sheet;  and the core of the Salmon Rive? stock of Ymir.  In i t s mere porphyritic phases i t occurs a s the pulaskite porphyry of the Boundary d i s t r i c t , and the porphyritic syenite of Franklin and of aoesland* In colour  the rock i s reddish t o pale pink, the predominating  minerals being glassy pink and greyish feldspar. Another very important and s l i g h t l y ycranger rock type i s the granite porphyry (Sheppard granite of Daly).  I t occurs a s large  stocks t o the south and south-east of Hossland, and a s dykes in Eoaeland and "Bair Camps, ^jjplesally, the Sheppard granite i s a medium grey rock, containi n g tabular feldspar and rounded quarts, phenocryats, with arall flakes of b i o t i t e , the whole embedded in a fine-grained bluish-green ground nEkos* Sfce following are analyses of typical specimens of A, Coryell 1 2 s y e n i t e , and B, Sheppard granite . B A B A , B 0.03  68*69  77,09  KgO  1.30  0.12  0.54  0,05  CaO  1.99  0.63  17,23  13,04  SrO  Hone  HgO above 110° C Pg0 5 0.11  **2°3  1.51  0.82  BaO  None  CQg  fr.  FeO  a. 02  0.26  fla 2 0  5.50  3.11  CI  Tr.  KnO  T*.  Tr#  *2<>  6.74  4.50  30^  Br,  99.83 1, Drysdale, C.W., Mam. 77. Geol, Sur. Can., 1915, p.239. 2. Daly, K.A., Hem. 38, Geol. Sur. Can., 1912, p.355.  0.07 0.10  99.82  84 The remaining rock types, which are relatively unimportant as regards areal distribution, take the form of azaill chonoliths, dykes and sills;  they include the shonkinite pyroxenite and augite syen-  ite of Franklin Camp, and the lamprophyre dykes of Rossland and the West Kootenay district generally. The ahonkonite pyroxenite, which is a black differentiate from the augite syenite, eonsists of large augite pleriocrysts in a ground mass of pyroxene and feldspar*  The augite syenite is a medium grey,  feldspathic rook, of trachytlc structure, due to the arrangement of tabular orthoclase crystals. The youngest intrusives of all, the lamprophyre dykes , include "fourchites, camptonites, monehiquitea, and mica lamprophyres". Structure.  These intrusives vary in size and form from batholith -  like oodles to dykes* and ef fresh appearance* delleran trend,  The larger nnsses in particular are unerushed They are elongated parallel to the Cor-  of north-west to south-east folding.  msta^orphlsm by the batholith has been considerable.  Contact 2 Daly notes  that around the borders of the Coryell batholith the traps of the lossland volcanics have been converted into various schistose types, whose planes of echistosity are wrapped in peripheral arrangement around the batholith, over an exomorphic zone up to 600 jards in width. 1.  Brock, B.W.,  2.  Daly, R*A.,  Explanatory notes of West Kootemy map sheet, 1904. Kent. 38, Geol. Sur. Can.,  1912, p.362.  Agg aad oarrolation^  Cta the l e s t Koetamy sheet the nosslsad allts.ll  granitic rocks haw been napped a s i?erti&ry in age. ISba Coryell batholitfc {pnlaskiteS lias been referred by ??cConnell, ^*oek» and Saly t o the t e r t i a r y , and, from I t s generally uncyuofcod s t a t e , i s believed to be later than the laraiaide revolttfhion, and to J a w qecojapanied the Cli£©eene and L"ioeene c m e t a l diatrurb&neas. At Hair, the p&lasklte occurs as the core of the 3aliaon Elver porphyrltl© isoneonite stock of Cligocene age, and i s considered by Srysdale to be younger than the isoaaonlte*  At Franklin and Phoenix  Gang* dykes ©f pulaskite porphyry cat the recks of the Kettle l i t e r f ermtion and the Siesay Tolcnntc flow*, both of cl%eeene age* I t has been observed that the Sheppard granite cuts the lake fountain conglomerate f Lover S e r t i a t y ) ; a l e e the pulaskite In the Hossland Bcuntaina, and i s , therefore, younger than both of these formations* BM» basic dykes a r e mentioned l a the Sag?lamtery Betes to toe "est Kcotenay tm$ sheet a s being yesnger *han a l l toe other reek types grasped tinder toe term "toesland a l k a l i - g r a n i t i c rocks".  arysdale  mentions that in toe Bessland Gas© the basic dykes cut a l l the veins a;-A reek formation In the Kstoes* r  B& Miocene intrusive®, particularly thoao of the polaakite  and Sheppard granite type, are considered t o represent the sain bathollth connected with the r'iecene and l a t e Gligocene period of erustal disturbances.  Stellar batholithic invasion took place a t  86  thia time, farther to the vest, when the Similkameen and Chilliwack granodlorite batholiths were intruded. The basic dykes which followed the batholith represent the final and basic phase of this last cycle of plutonic activity within the area.  Glacial, Interglacial, and Recent Deposit3. Inasmuch as this paper deals primarily with a study of the "bedrock geology, the superficial deposits will only he referred to very briefly here.  Distribution.  These formations chiefly occur in the valley basins  and lowlands generally, where they are accumulating or, as in the case •f the older deposits, have been protected from erosion.  Lltbology,  1 3 M deposits include (1} {facial till, consisting of  boulder clay gravels and large erratics, lying as a thin aantle over large areas;  [Z)  Interglacial deposits, chiefly fine stratified  elite, sands, and gravels, often containing plant remains? Recent alluvial deposits and soil.  (3)  87  CHAPTER GEOLOGICAL  1?, HISTORY.  Introductory Statement The data for the preparation of the following geological history has been obtained from a study of the history of the surrounding region, as well as that of the immediate area.  The field evidence, as re-  corded by the rooks, i s , in many parts, very poor indeed, especially i s this so in regard to the records of the earlier periods*  Fossill-  iferous horisons are rare, and intenseraetamorphismhas obscured much of the original structure.  Added to this i s the fact that a great  proportion of the reeks are of igneus origin.  However, from an  examination of the field evidence, and a study of the geological histories included in the various memoirs relating to the area and surrounding regions, a general conception has been Obtained regarding the sequence of the most important geological events, and ft summary of t h i s forms the following account*  Pre-Carooniferous History* (a) Beltian*  The earliest record within the map area i s one  of Beltian sedimentation, when, in a moderately shallow continental sea, the Aldridge quartaite formation was laid down.  Deposition  during the entire Beltian took place in a slowly sinking geesynelinal basin.  Ehi* basin of sedimentation, which has been traced in a  .}  88  north-westerly direction to Alaska, had, as its western shoreline daring Beltian times, the old land of Cascadia.  2his eastern shore  line of Cascadia extended in a north-westerly direction from a line approximately throat the Arrow Lakes into northern British Columbia, and marked the "border of a great land mass stretching westward to beyond the present British Columbia coast line.  The products of  erosion from the uplands of Cascadia supplied the material for the sediments of the Purcell series* During the Creston epoch the sea became shallower, mud flats made their appearance, the sediments became somewhat more siliceous, and local contemporaneous erosion took place.  fhis was followed by  deeper water conditions with the deposition of calcareous material during the Kitchener epoch.  Again the sea receded, exposing -mat  mod flats, which by their mud-cracked surface indicate an arid climate during Siyah times. Alternations of deep and shallow water sedimentation continued throughout the remainder of the Slysh epoch.  Hear shore conditions  of deposition close to the old shore line of Cascadia are shewn by the coarse Irene conglomerates of siyah age in what is now the Kelson Bangs.  An interruption of the steady process of Beltian sedimentation  took $IM& at the close of the Siyah, with the outflow of Purcell l a m and Irene rolcanics.  1*  Schofield* S.J., frans. Boy* Soc. Can,, Vol* 17, 3rd Ser. 1923, P.S3  89 This period of vuleanism was accompanied by the injection of the Pureell sills, chiefly into the consolidated members of the Aldridge formation. Following the period of vuleanism, sedimentation in the synclinal basin resulted in the deposition of the Gateway formation composed of siliceous argillites.  The presence of abundant oasts of salt crystals,  together with ripple narks and mud cracks indicate sedimentation in a •hallow, strongly saline, sea, under arid climatic conditions. The recks laid down during the last period of Beltian sedimentation within the map area have been renewed by erosion, but in the Bocky fountains to the east they are represented by the Phillips and Roosvllle formations of suncracked and ripple marked argillites.  (b) Lower Cambrian.  Poring the lower Cambrian, deposition of  rather coarse siliceous material appears te have taken place, when the phyllites, quartzites, and conglomerates of the Wolf and Monk formations of the tummlt series are believed to have been laid down. Sear Cranbrook, just te the east of the sheet, the Cranbrook con- glomerates were deposited unconformably upon the rocks of the Siyah formation* and on the Roosvill« formation at Bam Creek and Elko.  te) Palaeozoic (Mid Cambrian to Devonian)  Very little is  definitely known regarding the geological history of the region over this great period of time, Soring the early Palaeosoic times the eastern shore line of Cascadia had receded slowly westward, until, by the early Silurian  90 it lay somewhat to the west of a lias through Ttoncouver and Qoeon Charlotte Islands*  Irom Cascadia eastward to the Laurentian High-  landsa shallow and continxous sea extended, and in this basin more or less continous  sedimentation took place during Palaeozoic and  early Eesosoic times1 Into a portion of this marine synclinal has in were deposited silts, ©lays, limestones, sands and gnvrals, later to he metamorphosed into the metargillitee, schists, marbles, quartzitea and conglomerates Of the Ainsworth, Duncan, and Upper Summit series. Alternations of deep and shallow water conditions during deposition are indicated by the varying tewture of the sedimente, while the absence of unconformities point to a long period of crustal stability.  Carboniferous History*  The Carboniferous period was one of steady deposition of great thicknesses of sedimentary rooks throughout British Columbia, Yukon and Alaska* and represents* perhaps, the greatest period of submergence to which British Columbia has been subjected*  The sea Which cowered  practically the whole map area was probably warm and shallow, and in it primitive fauna abounded. •-•Wifcr.WiiHniK.Mni  1*  in. mtmmmmmmmm W w  Low areas of marshy land were exposed  tenminiimiwnii  n.iwm  tm  mi u • • * • • » • i P u n w i j n • • » . • • — * • * • » •  »———•»» ..u «—•• • • — •  Schofield, S*J*, Trans* Boy, Soc. Can*, Vol* 17, 3rd Sex*, 1923, p.94.  91 from time to time as a result of minor retrogressions of the sea during the lover Carboniferous, as shewn by plant remains in the argillites of the Franklin group. Staring the earlier period of sedimentation coarse textured arenaceous and argillaceous material was laid down, and later, as deeper water conditions prevailed, the more calcareous natter was deposited. F  The rocks laid down during the Carboniferous period of sedimentation  include the fend d*Oreille schists and limestones of the Nelson Range; the Ainsworth, Slooan, and Cache Creek formations of the Slocan, Ainsworth, Iardeau and Shuswap lake districts; the Mount Roberts formation and Sutherland schists ef the Ross land Mountains; the Franklin and Gloucester formations of the franklin Gampi and the Anarchist series, Attweod formation and Grand Forks schists ef the Bounaary district* Toward the close ef the Period some crustal unrest commenced, corresponding in a lesser degree to the great disturbances of the Appalachian revolution in the east..  Uplift and minor folding ele-  c t e d portions of the area above the sea, as in the Rossland mountains; and the elder recks were deformed and in part metamorphosed.  'Shis  was probably accompanied by acme minor volcanic activity, when the oldest lavas and tafia of the Rossland and allied volcanoes flowed upon the newly exposed land*  It was not, however, until the  Meeosoio that vulcanlsm reached its maximum.  92 Meaoaolc History t o the Jurasaide Bevolution. Tfoe e a r l i e r Mesosoic history i s characterised by a higher r e l i e f of the region and the consequent vigorous erosion of the newly uplifted land surface.  She main and moat striking feature, however, was extensive  and repeated outpourings of basaltic lam, accompanied by the intrusion of numerous snail s i l l s and dykes, and the ejection of great quantities of volcanic ash.  I t was during t h i s period that the great part of the  Rossland and Phoenix voleanics, and the Wallace group of Baaverdell, were formed, together with the injection of the augite porphyrite s i l l s and dykes* Intervals of quiescence prevailed between the outbursts of volcanic a c t i v i t y and continental deposits of gravels, sands and nods were l a i d down*  Semnants of these inter-volcanic periods of sedimentation are  represented by the Ball s e r i e s , near Ymir; portions of the Wallace group of BeavsrdsU;& snail interbody of sediments in the Roasland aarantates. Soring the Jurassic and prior t o the Jurasside revolution an area of marine sedtoentation must have existed i n t h e north, a t l e a s t to a limited extent, where the Belmenite bearing sediments of argillaceous quart s i t e and limestone of the Kilford s e r i e s , in the Sloean and Lardeau d i s t r i c t s , were l a i d down.  93 The Juraaslde Revolution.  In British Columbia generally, during the Upper Jurassic, the rocks of the great basin of sedimentation, stretching from Cascadia (west of what is now the lacific Coast); eastward to beyond the present site of the Becky Mountains, became folded and uplifted into the great mountain chains of the iRhcouver Island  - Queen Charlotte  Island Bangs, the Coast Bangs* and the Selkirk Bangs.  This folding  was accompanied by the intrusion of the Coast Bangs batholith, and the primary lest Kootenay batholith. burning to the geological history immediately within the map area; the Upper Jurassic period was characterised by great structural changes sod plutonic activity.  The period of vulcanism had practically sub-  sided* and the original Selkirk Bangs was slowly raised Into major folds whose axial planes trended in a general northerly to northwesterly direction. Into this son* of crustal weakness the great batholith of Kelson granodiorite advanced slowly upward.  Preceding the main batholithic  body were a number of minor intrusives of basic differentiates, which are now represented in more or less metamorphosed states, by the Faslo and Lardeau schists, the Baker and Fife gabbros, and the diorite porphyrite and pyroxenite of the Bossland Mountains. Following these, the main batholithic intrusion of granodiorite worked its way upward by a combination of stoping, absorption, and displacement of the Invaded rock, and crystallised beneath a considerable  94 thickness of roof rocks* bathelith  Bering the earlier cooling stages of the  lAmprophyr© dykes, the products of & late basic differentia-  tion, were intruded into the invaded rock,  23se final or pneunatolltie  stage of cooling resulted in the mineralisation of fissures and the formation of a large number of important ore oodles* It was largely daring the Juras3ids revolution that the older sediments and volcanies are believed to have "been tilted and folded into their present e tfcitudee , and their metamorphism is considered to have resulted from a combination of the mountain building forces and t&e thermal metamorphism of the widerlying b&thollth.  Cretaceous History to the Laramide Revolution, -Ml HI III IM IT  -  I l il  II l »  T  I..mi  III  11,111  Mil-ill.i  ,i •  IP.  II.  .... I  15*8 Cretaceous opened with rapid erosion of the newly formed Selkirk and Pureel! ranges, the resulting sediments being deposited chiefly in the Cretaceous geosyncline, which extended over the present site of the Rooky Mountains and Great Plains. She granitic batholith was partially unroofed, and the area reduced to a peneplain out of which projected monodanocks, which, at the present time, form the higher peaks such as Kskanee Mountain* Snail basins of fresh water deposition existed locally, of which the little Sheep Creek sediments in the Hossland fountains are a rem2 nant. Ifte climate Was subtropical, but cooling toward the close. 1. Schofield, S,fl. Personal communication. 2» Drysdale, C*W* Mem* §o, Geol. Sur* Can*, 1915 p. 147.  95 Soring the Upper Cretaceous crustal movements commenced which culminated in the Laramide revolution.  The Larejalde Revolution.  The Laramide Revolution extending from the close of the Cretaceous into Eocene times affected the region by uplift with contemporary deforation and batholithlc intrusion. The Cordillera as a whole was profoundly influenced by or0genic movements*  To tits west of the map area the southern portion of the  Interior Plateau was uplifted and its surface carved into deep valleys by erosion, while to the east, folding and uplift of the geosyncline coaBor&eed, too Hooky Mountains portion was warped into folds and broken by overthrust faults, and the Qroat Plains were raised out of the sea. Within the amp area many important changes took place.  Vertical  uplift caused the rejuvenation of the streams and deep valleys were cut into the peneplain*  Deformation and weakening of the crust paved  the way for large seals Igneus activity, and into these sones of strain the Valhalla granite batholith was intruded.  To the west the  Beaverdell batholith represents a granodiorite phase of the same intrusion* Towards the elose of Eocene times the climate was probably cool and humid, as shown by the sediments at the base of the Kettle River  96 formation at Franklin, which contain striated and facetted boulders and "beds of light coloured leached sediments.  Ollgoeane History,  The Oligocera period opened with erosion of the uplands vide spread deposition ef gravels, sands and mude in extensive fresh eater lakes*  fhe sediments in these eld lake beds make up the rocks of  the Kettle Biter formation, which now occupy isolated patches throughout the southern and western portions oftiesnap area.  These lakes  had * still wider distribution to the west, when*they flooded the broad valleys of the Interior Plateau, and deposited, with nany other formations, the Coldwater group ef the Eamloops district. $he climate daring this ttoe was probably mild, and supported luxuriant vegetation, as shewn by the numerous beds of lignite and subtropical fossil plants in the Settle Biter formation at Midway* The presence of tuffs interbedded with these sediments indicate that intermittently the air was laden with volcanic ash, as a result ef the preliminary and explosive stages of the great period of vulcanism to follow. the period closed with erogenic movements and the intrusion of porphyritio monaonite stocks, some of which may possibly represent the cooled magmas in the deeper sones of old volcanic pipes; and  97  so during this time^the earliest l a m s of the Midway volcanic group cay have been extruded*  Kiooene History.  The early Miocene was a period of wide-spread volcanic activity, during which time the area was in part covered by a considerable thickBess of la-re. flews, referred to locally as the Midway Volcanic Group, and generally as the Tertiary ¥olcanics»  These flows form merely a  part of tie great volcanic extrusion which covered large areas of the Interior Plateaus of British Columbia, and formed the rocks of the Columbia l a m Plain to the south* Towards the close of this period of vulcanism, crusted deformation took place accompanied by large scale batholithic invasion of pulaskite and pulaskite porphyry, When the Coryell batholithand the Eossland alkalis-syenite bodies ware intruded*  These were preceded by more  easier dykes of shonkinite pyroxenite and allied types* At this time the vein fissures originally formed during the Jurasaide revolution were fractured, and the second main period of mineralisation took plaee as a result of the alkaline mineralising solution given off from the pulaskite intrusives.  ifeny of the  1 important gold deposits, including those of Rossland, were formed at this time* m,mmm,»mu*m i , M M tmrnm^mmmmmmm mm •'  1.  * * •« i ***• m * ** i mmmm—**mw  M « » > ^ W « I W I W < « » W W J H I W I i»nii"»w n . i n ^ n  Drysdale, G*w* Kern. 77, Geol. Sur. Can., 1915, p.34B.  —  '••  """"*'"  98 Following the period of laatholithlo intrusion and mineralisation was the intrusion of the Sheppard granite porphyry stocks and dykes, representing, probably, a later differentiation of more siliceous magna from the main intrusive body of syenetlc composition. The final stages of igneus activity within the area are represented by lasiprophyre dykes, which are believed to have followed very closely the intrusion of the Sheppard granite. The Miocene closed with a long period of crusted stability, daring which vigorous erosion took place, removing much of the sediment and volcanic tertiary rocks*  Pliocene and Qpaternary History,  Soring Plioeone and early Pleistocene times a general regional upwaapSng of the late Tertiary erosion surface took place, thus rejuvineting the drainage which resulted in the carving of deep gorges In the eld upland surface* Hie Quaternary period wee marked by a general refrigeration and glaciation*  Isolated ice caps are found,in the area to the present  oay, one of these being the rather extensive Xokanee Glacier.  The  Pliocene valleys were smoothed and modified by the scouring action of the advancing ice cap.  At least one, possibly more, interglaclal  periods took place, with the deposition of alluvial silts.  Plant  fossils found in the St. Mary silts, near Cranbrook, indicate very  99 mild climatic conditions daring the first retreat of the ice. Following the final glacial period stream erosion became active, and dissection of the alluvial gravels, sands, and silt s took place with the formation of river terraces.  Is the lowlands soil accumu-  lated from the action of frost, rain, and humus.  100  C H A P f BE IBS  WEST  V.  K00TSBAY  C 0 E P 0 3 I T E  BATHOLITH. General Statement. This chapter i s devoted t o a t h e o r e t i c a l consideration of c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s of the b a t h o l l t h and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the Intruded c r u s t .  From t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , hypotheses have "been  t e n t a t i v e l y advanced t o attempt t o explain t h e cause of some of the phenomena noted.  Methods of I n t r u s i o n . I t i a t h e w r i t e r * a b e l i e f t h a t t h e West Kootenay b a t h o l i t h s reached t h e i r present p o s i t i o n within the e a r t h ' s c r u s t by a combination of the t h r e e following methods of i n t r u s i o n : (a) By atoplng and abyssal assimilation. (b) By marginal assimilation. (c) By displacement of the intruded rocks. (a) Stoping Method and Abyssal Assimilation.  Excellent examples  of magnetic atoping are to be found at the batholithie contacts throughout the area.  The shatter-zone at the contact of the Trail bathollth  is, however, a particularly fine exmple of this method of intrusion. There two concentric belts of mixed rocks lie between the main bathollth  101 and the encircling and unintruded Eossland voleanics.  The outer and  wider of these consists of the volcanic rooks intruded by countless intersecting apophyses, originating from the batholith, forming a network of dykes.  The inner belt is composed largely of the granitic in-  truding rock in which are wmoliths from the invaded rock. belts are graditional into one another.  These two  This example furnishes a good  illustration of arrested stoping during the last cooling stages of the batholith. The blocks of intruded rock thus rifted off sank into the main body Of viscous magma and became assimilated in the deeper and hotter sones .  (b) Marginal Assimilation Method.  Marginal assimilation of  the wall rooks as an aid to magmatic advance has been an important factor.  It has been noted, particularly in regard to the pulaskite  in the Boundary district, that in the contact sene there Is a rapid transition over a short linear distance from a zone of a dyke network to one characterised by isolated and rounded xenoliths of the intruded rock.  This would Indicate that fusion and assimilation of the wall  rocks took place on a large scale both near the intrusive contact as well as at abyssal depths. (e)  Displacement of the Intruded Rocks.  The arrangement of  the general strikes and dips around the north, east and south-east borders of the West Kootenay batholith furnish strong presumptive evidence to support this method of intrusion.  102 As is shewn on the geological maps accompanying this paper, the regional strike of the intruded formations follow in broad sweeping curves round the batholithic contact. This structural feature suggests very strongly that the batholith entered under sufficient pressure to displace the surrounding rocks from their original attitude prior to the intrusion, and is proof that batholiths say not he necessarily entirely cross-cutting in their relationship to the intruded rocks. That the batholith entered -under a vary considerable pressure seems evident from the fact that in the West Kootenay district the granitic mass la found en Kokanee Peak at an elemtion of ever 9,000 feet above the present sea level.  In addition, there is the far greater pressure  required to raise this mass from the zone of flowage or asthenosphere, which Ilea 60 to 75 miles beneath the surface of the earth's crust. Tha deformation of the surrounding rocks by the plutonic mass may have been greatly facilitated by the fact that during batholithic advance the mountain building forces were still active, and the stress required to cause laccolithic displacement by the magma may have been furnished, in part, by a component of those same orogenic forces.  Llthologloal Character of Intrusives. A vary striking feature of the batholithic intrusives of the West rootenay ia the manner in which each of the perioda of batholithic Invasion, with the possible exception of that of the Laramide^ has  10S been preceded and followed by minor intru3ives of a sore basic nature, fhis feature la particularly well Illustrated by a study of the plutoaio rocks related to the Jurasaide and 01 igocene-Miocene revolutions. The generalised sequence  of the Jurasaide intrusives In the West  Kootenay batholitliic province nay be stated as follows, comnencing with the youngest:  Lamprophyre dykes  ( camptonite, etc)  Aplitic dykes. Jurassic  Nelson granodiorite  -  batholith.  Gabbros, altered basalts and dunites as chonoliths and dykes The sequence of the Oligocene-Mioceae intrusives is as followss  Laaprophyre dykes Aplitic dykes Meeeae Granite porphyry, stocks and dykes Pulaskite  batholiths and stocks.  Porphyritic monzonite Oligooene  Augite porphyrite Olivine basalt  stocks.  dykes and sills  dykes  Further to the West, In. the Skagit Bangs, near Chilllwack, the same general sequence has been recorded by Daly as follows s  1.  Daly, R.A.  l&sm. 3 6 .  Geol. Sur. C a n . ,  1912,  p.552.  104 Poet Miocene  Diabase dykes  Camptonite and syenite porphyry dykes Syenite porphyry (?) dykes (?) Miocene  Konzonite  stock  Chill Iwack granodiorite bathollth Sleese dionite  stock  Skagit Joarzbureite intrusivea Oligocene Dunite and gabbro dykes  In general, therefore, it appears that periods of large scale Plutonic activity are opened by the intrusion of smller basic bodies and closed by that of acid and basic complementary dykes. Ho instance has been recorded within the area of any batholithio intrusion having been iisaediately preceded by lencocratic dykes.  Origin of the Present Elevation of the Selkirk a&nge and of the Intrusion of Tertiary Bathollths.  The hypothesis is here advanced that the Selkirk Eountains owe the greater part of their present elevation to post-folding, vertical uplift, which took place during the Larajuide and Oligooene-Miocene revolution; and further, thattikeaxis of maximum uplift was coineldest with the zone of Tertiary batholithio intrusion within the Selkirk Bangs*  105 I t will be recalled that the Selkirk Hang© was f i r s t aountaInb u i l t daring the Upper Jurassic, and that during the Cretaceous t h i s newly-built range was peneplained nearly to base level. This l i l i e s that the Selkirk Bangs, a t the close of the Cretaceous, was reduced t o a plain whose mean elevation was very l i t t l e above sea level.  How then i s i t that the old Cretaceous peneplain  of the Selkirk Bangs i s now found at an average elevation of some 6,000 feet?  ifee solution may, in p a r t , he found in the structure  across the Selkirk, Bocfcy Mountains, and the Great Plains. At the western end of t h i s section l i e s the Selkirk Bangs, whose average summit level i s a t approximately 6,000 feet elevation. atsteard the section passes through the Rcjky ^^oustaiTs r i t h a mean stramit elevation of approximately 8,000 f e e t .  Sear the eastern  end of the section, however, t h e elevations 'become less arad less as th* foothills of Alherta are crossed and the Greet Plains reached, u n t i l a t Winnipeg, the land o l e m t l e n i s only about 800 feet above sea level. Schofield x in m recent paper has put forward the hypothesis that the Bookies Cwe t h e i r present maeamm elevation of approximately 8,000 feet to a combination of **5Q0 feet due to folding, and 3,500 feet t o l a t e r vertical uplift*  This i s shewn by the fact t h a t the  land elevation of the foothills in the vicinity of Calgary, east of the Rooky Mountains, i s approximately a*50Q fest, t h i s elevation  Jt. S : K. \ i<\c( , IS- -J. ,  S c ^ \ , 3 o e • <?a.\*. 1 s t ;  p  9ee>  w  p> \o\  106 having taken place since the Cretaceous, a s indicated by the presence of marine sediments near Calgary, of Cretaceous age.  Hence only the  remaining 4,500 feet can he attributed t o elevation by folding, the balance being due t o subsequent v e r t i c a l u p l i f t . Extending t h i s principle to include the Selkirk Bange to the west, the following data may be tabulated: laean ale ration of Cretaceous peneplain of Selkirk Bange . . . . . . . . . .  6,000 foet  Mean summit e l e v a t i o n of Bocky Mountains 8,000 f e e t Elevation of Bocky vertical u p l i f t . Novation of Great (vertical uplift  Mountains, due t o . . . . « Plains a t Winnipeg o n l y ) . . . . . . . .  3,500 f e e t 800 feet  If there points be plotted t o s c a l e with proportionate horizontal distances £ i t w i l l be found that the points representing 8,000 feet elevation of the Selkirk, 3,500 f e e t elevation in the Bookies, and 800 f e e t elevation a t Winnipeg, l i e very nearly on a straight l i n e , , t h i s l i n e having an eastward slope* Disregarding the e f f e c t s of subsequent erosion, t h i s suggests that t i l t i n g of the eatth'a crust has taken place on a vast s c a l e , the  w  hinge w about which t h i s t i l t i n g took place lying along a l i n e  somewhat t o the west of Winnipeg, possibly nearer Begins., and the point of maximum u p l i f t being i n the v i c i n i t y of the Selkirk Bange. west o f the Selklrks the Post-Cretaceous surface slopes off towards the west and north-west, as the Interior Plateau i s reached, indicating that some regional t i l t i n g of the old Cretaceous land  1&7 surface has taken place from the Selkirk Bangs toward the west. This feature again supports the hypothesis that the line of maximum elevation of Post-Cretaceous folding is coincident with the axis of the Selkirk Range. It should be noted here, however, that a great part of the difference of elevation "between the Cretaceous rocks at Calgary and those at Winnipeg is due to erosion*  Nevertheless, there is little  doubt that at least part of this difference of elevation is also due to Post-Cretaceous f ilting.  In the Interior Plateaus and the  western flank of the Selkirk Bangs, the persistance of outcrops of the Lower Tertiary sediments and volcanic flows indicates that subsequent erosion cannot alone have been responsible for the general westerly slop* of the Cretaceous peneplain* Assuming then, that the evidence submitted above is correct, it would appear that a long gentle flexure of the earth's crust has taken place during Post-Cretaceous times, this flexure extending from a point west of Okamgan Lake, to 4 point west of Winnipeg. The line of maximum elevation, and therefore of maximum tension, appears to be coincident with the present Selkirk Range.  This might  furnish an explanation for the comparative localisation of the northwest and south-east trending bathollthe of Eocene Valhalla granite, and Miocene pulaskite, which have evidently entered a relatively narrow sons of crustal weakness.  108  CHAPIEB SPMKABI  AND  VI. C 0 H C li P 8 I 0 I S.  •The following r e s u l t s have been obtained from the Investigations described in t h i s paper s(1} A description has been given of the essential details of a l l the important rock f ornations occurring within the area.  The  descriptions, particularly of these of the sedimentary rocks, have been necessarily very brief, due to the large number to be described. I t i s believed, however, t h a t the more important facts of each have been brought out.  I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s work will be of some  material value in presenting* for the f i r s t time, l a a single paper a general conception of a l l the important rock types t o be found within the region. [Z) A map and section has been constructed on a scale of 7.89 miles t o the inch.  I t i s a compilation of a number of individual  maps and descriptions of portions of the region, the information being drawn chiefly from the publications of the Geological Survey Of Canada. (5)  A general correlation table has been prepared, based upon  the l e s u l t s of the numerous geologists who have worked within the area dealt with in. t h i s papers  Several new correlations have beea  made depending upon the probable relationships apparent from a  109 consideration of the area as a vshole. (4)  5he geological history of the area has been outlined, end  the more Important events have been described in some d e t a i l .  For  the preparation of t h i s history the writer has availed himself of the data given in those publications dealing not only with the area i t s e l f , but a l s o of these dealing with the wider and more general considerat i o n of the Cordillera a s a whole* (5)  Several important features of the batholiths have been  presented, and the following conclusions have been reached: (a)  Ifcs methods of intrusion by which the bathollthic m s s  has reached i t s present position within the earth*s crust are believed t o be three-fold, namely, by a toping and abyssal assimilation; by marginal assimilation;  and by displacement of the intruded rocks*  Ealy, in h i s recent work on "Igneous Rocks and t h e i r origin'* 1 considers that a l l batholiths are entirely cross-cutting in t h e i r relationship t o the intruded rocks.  The evidence within the %et  Kootenay bathollthic area, however, points very s t r o n ^ y to a most decided displacement of the wall and roof rocks resulting from magmat i c pressure*  This i s indicated by the manner in which the regional  strike of the sedimentary rocks closely parallels the contacts of the batholith. The smaller bodies, such a s stocks, on the other hand, are  1.  Daly, R.A.  "Igneous Bocks and t h e i r Origin", 1914.  110  d i s t i n c t l y cross-catting.  I t i s the writer*s belief that in order  t o displace the sedimentary rocks from t h e i r normal a t t i t u d e , the intrusive body must be batholithio in rank, and further, that bathol i t h s , during the early stages of advance, are nearly entirely crosscutting* I b i s becomes more evident when i t i s remembered that the stocks of the Xootenay d i s t r i c t are r e a l l y batholithio cupolas, the forerunner of the main batholith, and t h a t they do not present a sufficiently large surfaoe to have any appreciable thrusting effect •pen the intruded rooks.  It-sir action cay be likened to t h a t of a  giant punch, the batholith to that of a wedge. in alternative explanation nay be t h a t the advancing cupolas entered the original and perhaps comparatively narrow sens of weakness, where assimilation and sfcoping of the crust was able t o keep pace with nagflatle advance*  Later, as the main batholith followed,  i t i s possible that i t s margins extended beyond the original sone of weakness, and consequently reagmatic advance by stoping and assimilation was retarded* due to the less fractured nature of the strata* Increasing pressure would then be b u i l t up to bear upon the wall rocks, sufficient t o result in the deformation of the bedding planes to a position approaching parallelism t o the surfaoe of Intrusion. Tha above considerations a r e , however, e n t i r e l y theoretical, and are merely put forward a s a possible solution to the problem. (b)  I t has been pointed out that the West Kootenai batho-  Ill  l i t h e have, in conmon with similar intrusives elsewhere, a basic pre-batholithlc phase followed 07 an acid and basic post-hatholithic phase.  Several instances were given, the most typical example being  that of the Jurasside batholithic cycle* (e)  From a consideration of the structure extending from  the Interior Plateaus to the eastern border of the Great Plains, the conclusion has been drawn that the Selkirk Bange owes practically i t s entire elemtion to vertical uplift following Cretaceous peneplanation. lbs axis of uplift and therefore of flexure i s conceived t e be coindident with the axis Of the Selkirk Bange, and i t s position i s thought to explain the localisation of the Valhalla granite batholithe In this eoajparatively narrow eone along the Cordilleran trend.  


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items