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Antimony Smitheringale, William Vickers 1925

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ANTIMONY  by  William  Vickers  AThesissubmitted  Smitheringale  for the Degree of  MASTER OF APPLIED  SCIENCE  in the Department of  GEOLOGY  The University of British  April 1925  Columbia.  1  ANTIMONY by William Vickers Smitheringale  A T h e s i s submitted f o r t h e Degree of MASTER OH1 APPLIED SCIENCE  l a the Department of GEOLOGY  The University of British Columbia APRIL,  1925  ANTIMONY  Page  I. INTRODUCTION  .  II. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . .'•  2  III, HISTORICAL SKETCH  3  IV, SOURCES OF ANTIMONY  4  V. CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OF ANTIMONY VI, USES OF ANTIMONY  1  3  ...  6  1. Alloys  ..........  2. Artificial Chemical Compounds . . , . .  7 8  3. Uaea of Antimony in their Relative Importance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Substitutes, ,  9 10  VII. METALLURGY OF ANTIMONY  U  1. Mechanical Concentration 2. Smelting  .......  11  .........  12  (a) Ores Containing more than 40% Stibnite 12 (b) Ores Containing less than 40% stibnite 13 (o) Refining . ,  U  3. Eleotrolitio Recovery  15  VIII. MARKETING OF ANTIMONY IX. GEOLOGY OF ANTIMONY  15 ..,  1?  1. Natural Compounds . 2, Ore a of Antimony  ,.  ,  (a) Those used for Reoorery of Antimony  19 20 20  (b) Those mineu for Valuable Associated Minerals  22  IX. GEOLOGY Of AHTIMOHY. ( o o n t i n u e d )  3 . Associated M i n e r a l s . ,  22  4 . Oxidation of Antimony Ores.  .  ,  23  5 . Ooourrenoe and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Antimony Deposits in the Various C o u n t r i e s . (a  China.  (*  27  . . . . . . . . . . .  28  France.  . . . . . . . . . .  29  (c  Mexico.  ,  31  (a  Austria-Hungary and Bohemia,  33  (•  Australia.  . , . , , , , , ,  3*  (*  Germany.  , . . . . . . . , ,  5*  (g  Russia.  . . . .  57  <*  Norway. . . , . . . . , . .  37  (i  Portugal  37  o  Spain  (k  Italy  (i  Serbia.  . . . . . . . . . .  38  (m  Asia Minor and Turkey. . . .  40  (n  Algeria. , ,  , .  41  (o  South Africa.  . . . . . . .  42  (P  Hew Zealand  , . ,,  43  (Q  Borneo  , . . . . .  . ,  37 57  46 . , .  46  .  47  (r  Japan  (a  Peru. ,  (t  Bolivia  47  United States. . . . . . . .  47  (*  Page IX. QfiOLOGY OF AflTIMOST. (oontinued). 5 . Oocurrenoe and D i s t r i b u t i o n oi Antimony Deposits in the Various Countries, (oontinued). (r)  Alaska  58  (w)  Canada  ^2  6 . Rocks with whioh Antimony Ores are Aasooiated. . (a)  Igneous.  . . .  f  . . . . .  .  73 73  (b) gffeot of Wall Rook on Deposition. . . 7* 7. Classifioation of Antimony Deposits.  74  (a) Geologioal Conditions under whioh Antimony ooours (b) Proposed Classifioation  MAP.  74 7*>  8. Age of Antimony Deposits.  78  9. Bibliography  80  ASTIMOHY. I. IJJTBODUCTIO*. The present thesis was written at the University of British Columbia, in the Department of Geology, under the direction of Dean  R. W. Brock.  The writer is indebted to  Dr. W. L. Uglow, Professor of Mineralogy, The University of British Columbia, for helpful suggestion and criticisms in regard to the subject matter in this report. The first part of the thesis is a brief outline of the sources, properties and uses of antimony and the methods of extracting antimony from its ores. This is not complete in every detail, but is intended to give the reader a general conception of antimony in the commercial world. A brief summary of the economics of antimony is included.  While this  deals onlv' with the outstanding points, it may be of some use in comparing antimony with other metals ontthe commercial market. The latter part treats with the 'Geology of Antimony* . The information oontained in this  thesis, is of  necessity derived from the reports of others.  In summarizing  and arranging this subject matter the writer has attempted to bring out the important facts contained in the reports and has give only sufficient detail to illustrate the various points. The reader is referred to the bibliography if he should require further details of any of the reports contained herein.  2. II. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. Prior to the war Great Britain was the chief smelter of antimony ores, hut slnoe then the Chinese and Japanese have obtained control of the American market.  China is the  largest antimony producer! capable of supplying the world demand, while America and Great Britain are the ohief consumers. Stibnite is the principal ore of antimony although its oxidation products, cervantite, kermeaite, valentinite, stibiconlte and native antimony may also he of importance. These oxides may al30 he derived from other antimony minerals as jamesonlte. Workable antimony ores occur in Mexico, California, Nevada, Canada, Alaska, Japan, China, Borneo, Australia. New Zealand, South Africa* Asia Minor, Algiers* Italy, Sardinia, Corsica, Prance, Spain and Portugal, Stibnite and other antimony minerals may occur in association with gold, silver* lead* etc., and in such eases the associated metal may be of more importance and the deposit worked for such rather than for the antimony. Antimony minerals are deposited from rising thermal alkaline solutions, originating in an igneous magma. They have a wide range of temperature distribution, being found in oontaot metamorphlo deposits and in those now forming at the surface from hot spring waters. The deposits of economic isiportanee for their antimony content are believed to have been formed principally at intermediate temperatures. Antimony minerals are genetically associated with  3. Igneous rooks of the granite, monzonite or diorite groups and are, perhaps, somewhat more abundant with the more aoidio t y p e s . I I I . HISTORICAL SKETCH. Stibnite has been known sinoe very early times, e s p e c i a l l y in the Eastern countries, where women have used i t for many oenturles to darken t h e i r eyebrows and eyelashes and to add lustre to the e y e s .  Reference i s made to i t in the Old Testament,  and the Arabs called I t "Kohl".  The Greek Dioscorides refers to  I t as +rrts,ri »'; Pliny as "Stibium"? Geber aa "Antimoniura" and the German writes i t as "Speisaglana".  The derivation of the  word antimony i s not knows. Antimony, as an element, was f i r s t isolated in 14c0 (1) A.D., by Basil Valentine. In I556 A.D., Agrioola desoribes s t r c r a l methods of assaying for antimony, and for the reoovery of the metal from i t s ores. Following I t s i s o l a t i o n in 14&0 A.D., antimony was extensively used as a medicinal agent, but as such i t became so badly abused that in I566 the Parisian Government prohibited i t s use in medicines. as type metal.  Agrioola mentions i t s use in a l l o y s such  Sinoe Agrioola's time the demand for antimony  has increased in proportion as new properties and uses of the metal have been discovered. from 18«7 - 1911 the average world production of antimony metal per year* from i t s ores, was s l i g h t l y in excess of 10,000 metric tons with an average price of 7 . 5 / per pound.  (1)  De Be Metallioa.  4. Prom 1911 - 1914 the production inoreased from 15,000 t o 22,000 metric tons per year with the p r i c e remaining a t 7,5^ per pound. During the war the production increased tremendously, reaching a maximum of 82,000 metric tons in 1916.  Prom then u n t i l 1920  the output gradually decreased to 20,000 metric tons per y e a r . Since then the antimony ores have supplied, on an average, about 17,000 metric tons y e a r l y . The p r i c e of antimony since 1914 t o the p r e s e n t has been very e r a t i c .  I t reached i t s maximum of 32^ per pound in  1915 and then declined t o 8^f per pound in I919.  Sinoe then  the monthly p r i c e has been very u n s t a b l e , f l u c t u a t i n g a great d e a l between 5 / to 19^ per pound. The above d a t a do not include the amount of antimony which la recovered from hard lead and scrap, which amounts t o 5,600 metric tons annually in the U.S.A. IV. SOURCES OP AHTIMOHT. Besides being e x t r a c t e d from i t s o r e s , antimony i s derived, to a considerable e x t e n t , from antimonial l e a d , a biproduot from smelting s i l v e r - l e a d ores containing some antimony.  I t i s also recovered from sorap dross and other waste  m a t e r i a l s , and to a s l i g h t extent from some copper o r e s . (1) V, CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OP AKTIMOHY. 1, Antimony is a silver white, crystalline, brittle metal with a white lustre.  Its specifio gravity is 6.7 - b.86,  hardness 3 - 3.5 and it melts at 432° 0 and bolls between 1090° and 1600°C. (1) Dictionary Applied Chem.  Thorpe. Vol.1, p.280.  3. 2, I t expands on s o l i d i f y i n g from a m e l t . 2 . Antimony oomhinea r e a d i l y with raetala suoh aa t i n , oopper, zinc and lead, and imparts t o i t a alloys^ (a) hardness (h) makes them more re slatant to acid and alkaline solutions. This is important in chemical worka, pump manufacture and water pipes, (o) The property of expanding on solidification from a melt. This ia important in castings and type manufacture. 4. Quite stable in air at ordinary temperatures, hut when heated in air or oxygen to a red heat, it hurna to the trioxide Sh 7 0 3 with the production of denae white fumes, 5. Burns in chlorine, especially If powdered. 6. Decomposes steam at red heat. 7. Dissolves in all warm, oonoentrated strong acids as nitric sulphuric and hydrochloric; dilute hydrochloric and sulphuric adds do not affect antimony hut nitric acid reacts with it under all conditions forming the various oxides; hydrochloric and sulphuric acids form the chloride and sulphate respectively.  It is soluble in alkaline solutions.  8. Coef. of expansion .64 x 10  per degree P.  9. Tensile strength of oast antimony about 1,000 lbs. per sq. in. 10. Comparatively a poor conductor of hear and eleotrioity.  1 1 . Diamagnetio.  6. 12. Marked thermo electric properties and used in manufacture of thermopiles. 13. Poisonous. Acts very similar to arsenic in this respect, 14. Included in the same family as phosphorus, nitrogen, arsenic and bismuth, VI. USES OF ASTIMOHT. "The peace time uses  (1) of antimony are many, hut  only a few require large quantities of the metal. ... its field of uses, however, exclusive of abnormal war demand, is widening and the consumption is increasing." The unalloyed metallic metal has a few Industrial uses, such aa in the manufacture of pigments, and in producing a metallic finish on pottery. The chief use of antimony, however, is in alloy with other metals,  w  "The antimony oxides  are used chiefly for making  white enamel and glass, the oxides and sulphides aa coloring agents and pigments, and the sulphides in vulcanizing rubber. The oxide is used also in proportions up to lk% in the manufacture of litharge... It is used in making oollodial products employed in medicine and surgery, in tanning, in the preparation of oosmetlos, for the protection of plants and for the Impregnation of wood fabrics.'* (1) Mineral Resources, U.S.&.S., part 1, p.284, 1?23. (2) Mineral Resources, U.S.G.S., part 1, p.284, I923,  7.  1. Alloys of Antimony. Antimony alloys with most of the heavy and the alkaline metals.  It generally increases the hardness, b r i t t l e -  nesa and f u s i b i l i t y of the metals with whloh i t alloys, and Imparts to them the valuable property of expanding on solid i f i oation.  The a l l o y s of gold, s i l v e r and lead have a greater  density than t h e i r mean constituents, while those of iron, t i n and s l a t are of l e s s density than t h e i r mean c o n s t i t u e n t s . (1) Alloys with Lead. (a) Type metal.  This Is e s s e n t i a l l y an a l l o y  of lead and antimony with sometimes minor amounts of t i n , bismuth or copper. (b) Hard Lead composed of varying amounts of lead and antimony I s used in manufacture of load pumps, pipes and valves where they must r e s i s t acid and alkaline s o l u t i o n s . (o) Antimonial Lead,  i s used a great deal in  storage b a t t e r i e s . Alloys with Tin. (a) Britannia metal. Essentially tin and antimony with minor amount of copper.  Increasing th<%  antimony increases the hardness, raises the melting point and reduoes the maleabillty of the alloy. It Is used in oastings, domestic utensils and as a base  (1) Dictionary of Applied Chem. Thorpe Vol.1.  8. for electroplating; i t i s harder than pewter and i s replacing that a l l o y . (b) Bearing or Antifriction Metal.  The better  grades contain antimony, t i n and copper in Tarying proportions.  These alloys are soft, malleable, and  are capable of standing r e l a t i v e l y high temperatures without fusing. Alloys with Copper. Frequently added to copper and brass to int e n s i f y their c o l o r .  These compounds are harder,  f i n e r in texture and take a b e t t e r p o l i s h than brass or copperv and for t h i s reason are often used in copper mirrors and r e f l e c t o r s . Alleys with z i n c . forms c r y s t a l l i n e compounds differing widely in composition bat retaining the same form.  They  decompose water rapidly at boiling temperature and giro a possible source of pure hydrogen. Alloys with Aluminium. These a l l o y s expand on solidifying* are hard and f a i r l y malleable and are unaltered by air or water at ordinary temperatures; they are also l i g h t . (1) P. A r t i f i c i a l Chemical Compounds. Antimony unites d i r e c t l y with the halogen group  (1) Dictionary of Applied Chera. Thorpe V o l . 1 .  9. with the evolution of heat and l i g h t ; with hydrogen giving SbH3 ( s t i b i n e ) a o o l o r l e a a , poisonous gas with an Offensive smell; and a l s o with araenio and phosphorus. Antimony Trisulphlde Sb^ S3 , Used to some extent in the r e f i n i n g of gold from s i l v e r and copper.  I t i s also used in the p r e -  p a r a t i o n of s a f e t y matches, percussion-caps, pyrotechny and v e t e r i n a r y surgery. Antimony Pentasulphlde Sb^, S^ , Used in the vulcanizing of rubber, and as a yellow c o l o r i n a r t p a i n t i n g s , g l a s s and ceramic industries. Antimony t r i c h l o r i d e So G l 3 , Used as a c a u s t i c in medicines; in the manu f a c t u r e of T a r t a r Emetic, and in bronzing gun barrels« Antlmoncous Oxide Sb4 Q 6 , Used for phanaaoetieal purposes; p r e p a r a t i o n of Tartar emetic and as a s u b s t i t u t e for white l e a d , T a r t a r Emetic; A Potassium Antemonium T a r t a r a t e Used i n medicines and pomades and as a mordant in dying. (1) 3 , Uses of Antimony in t h e i r Helatlve Importance, 1, Babbit metal, 2, Hard lead including p i p e s , e t c .  (1) Eng. * Mln. Journ. Press Sept,27y24.  10, 3. Soft metal alloys and aolder. 4. Type and Type metal. 5. Vulcanizing rubber and rubber goods. 6. shrapnel and other bullets. 7. Speoial bearing and Antifriotion metals. 8. Battery Plates. 9. Enamel on Metal ware, 10, Cable coverings, 11, Chemicals, paints and pigments, 12, Brass including bronze. 13, Britannia metal, 14, Collapsible Tubes, 15, Foil. 16, Useo" in Pyrotechnics as a f i l l e r , 1 7 , Used in manufacture of t h e r m o p i l e s , I B . tJsefi as a poison and in t h i s r e s p e c t a c t s very much l i k e a r s e n i c . The above i s for the war years of 1917 and 1918,  If  a census of today were made t h e r e would be a decrease in t h e demand for shrapnel and other b u l l e t s , and an increase in i t s use for hard l e a d , b a t t e r y p l a t e s , rubber industry* cable coverings, e t c . 4, Substitutes,  (1)  "There are a number of other metals or materials which will harden lead and therefore oan be used as  (1) Mineral Resources, Part 1, p.286, 1923.  substitutes  11. for antimony in lead a l l o y s , hut antimony i 3 cheaper than most of the s u b s t i t u t e s , and as the antimony d e p o s i t s of the world are abundant in proportion to the consumption of the ore, the course of i n d u s t r y seems more l i k e l y t o develop new uses for antimony." "Of the ten or more known s u b s t i t u t e s for antimony, the best found in reoent years i s a combination of oaloium and barium  The prooess i s e l e c t r o l y t i c , and calcium-barium-lead  a l l o y s are now made on an extensive s c a l e . "  Other s u b s t i t u t e s  for antimony are barium and bismuth; for the antimony exides, t i n oxldt and other white oxides may be used in p a i n t s and p i g ments; pure lead sulphide and iron sulphide may be used as s u b s t i t u t e s for antiaony sulphide in primers of s h e l l s and c a r tridges. V I I . SffiTALLUHGY OP AHTIHOIX. 1. 1'echanioal Concentration. The ore of antimony, u s u a l l y s t i b n i t e , may be e i t h e r reduoed d i r e c t l y or f i r s t subjected t o meohanioal con(1) o e n t r a t i o n . The concentration of s t i b n i t e i s very d i f f i c u l t because s t i b n i t e i s extremely f r i a b l e and slimes very b a d l y . i s impossible t o save these slimes by any known g r a v i t a t i o n a l process.  The best recovery of antimony l a obtained by employ-  ing a f l o a t a t i o n p r o o e s s ,  (1) Lake George Antimony Ores and t h e i r c o n c e n t r a t i o n , Parsons, O.M.Journ. Vol,45, October 5/24, p . 9 8 4 ,  C.S.  It  12. 2. Smelting. In the d i r e c t method, m e t a l l i c antimony and i t s compounds are nearly always extracted from the ores by (1) dry methods. According to t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y for the several methods of treatment* the ores f a l l i n t o two c l a s s e s ; sulphide ores containing more than 4Q% s t i b n i t e ; and sulphide ores cont a i n i n g l e s s than 40% s t i b n i t e and oxide ores of a l l grades. This l a t t e r c l a s s includes l i q u i d a t i o n r e s i d u e s and flue deposits. ( a ) Ores Containing more than 40% S t i b n i t e . If the ores contain more than 90% of the sulphide* no preliminary treatment i s neoessary, but i f t h e i r content ia lower than t h i s they are f i r s t put through a p r o cess of  w  l i q u a t i o n " in which the sulphide i s melted and allowed  to run away from the gangue.  The temperature of l i q u a t i o n  must be c a r e f u l l y regulated, as too high a temperature causes excessive loss by v o l a t i l i z a t i o n , and too low a temperature r e s u l t s in a low recovery of the s u l p h i d e . In the English method the ore i s ground to the size of hazel nuts or smaller and then subjected t o two processes before r e f i n i n g .  The f i r s t process ia c a r r i e d on in  c r u c i b l e s in r e v e r b e r a t o r y furnaoes.  Each c r u c i b l e holds 42$  ore* 1&# iron scrap* 4$ s a l t and Xf alag from "doubling". This charge i s kept in a s t a t e of fuaion for t*o or three hours, at the end of which time the antimony i s removed from beneath  (1) Dictionary of Applied Ohera, Thorpe Vol, 1,  13. the s l a g and poured i n t o moulds.  This product i s known as  " s i n g l e s " and contains about J\% Sb. The second process i s c a r r i e d on in similar c r u c i b l e s and furnaoes as above.  The charge t o each crucible i s 84$  broken s i n g l e s , 7-8f liquated sulphide and 4# s a l t .  The whole  i s kept in a s t a t e of fusion for lfc hours; the completion of the operation being determined by the nature of the s l a g .  The  s l a g i s removed by l a d l e s and the product i s run into moulds and l a t e r r e f i n e d .  This product i s known as "bowl metal", or  " • t a r bowls". The l o s s e s in the English p r o c e s s , by v o l a t i l i z a t i o n are small, ranging from 2% t o 5%. (b) Ores Containing l e s s than 40^ S t i b n i t e . The ores of t h i s type are roasted e i t h e r t o the non v o l a t i l e t e t r o x i d e or the v o l a t i l e t r i o x i d e , or are subjected t o one of the d i r e c t reduction p r o c e s s e s ,  A process  t h a t la becoming ftuite popular and which has marked advantage i s the " V o l a t i l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s " , in which there i s continuous r o a s t i n g oi' the ore to the t r i o x i d e ( S b 2 0 5 ) , The oxidation to the t r i o x i d e takes place at about 400° 0 with the c a r e f u l l y regulated amount of a i r .  Any  one of the modern fume condensing systems may be employed t o condense the fumes, according as i t . is thought to be best s u i t e d t o the purpose. With s u i t a b l e condensing apparatus t h i s process has marked advantages, e s p e c i a l l y with poor o r e s .  I t may be  noted t h a t any arsenio i s separated as the more v o l a t i l e t r i -  14. oxide and any gold or silver ia left in the residue and may he extracted later.  There is no loss of antimony and the fuel  consumption is low. For the volatilisation prooeas the ideal ore i3 (1) from 15% to 25% Sb. Ores above 40% antimony are liquatedas well aa volatilize^  The liquated sulphide forma an oxysulphlde  with the trioxide, whiah is known as antimony glass, which oauses fritting in the lower part of the furnaoe.  If ores of  over 50% Sb are used, then 30% - 50% excess coke is required to volatilize all the atlbnite. (2) (0) Refining.  The unrefined antimony contains sulphur, i r o n , a r s e n i c and sometimes copper and lead; the sulphur and i r o n being most p l e n t i f u l , 2-10% and 0-5% r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The other  i m p u r i t i e s seldom exceed 1,5% combined. All these i m p u r i t i e s , except l e a d , may be r e moved by slagging with oxidizing, sulphurizing and c h l o r i n a t i n g agents.  Glauber s a l t and charcoal remove copper and iron as  sulphides and arsenic as sodium a r a e n i t e . eliminates the sulphur.  Antimony oxysulphlde  Chlorides as s a l t and o a r n a l l i t e must  be used with caution aa great l o s s by v o l a t i l i z a t i o n may occur. Pure antimony, on s o l i d i f y i n g has a b e a u t i f u l fern leaf or »*starrt on the s u r f a c e ,  The q u a l i t y of the ingot  may be determined by the length and form of t h i s s t a r , as re l a -  (1) O.Y. Wang. T r a n s . Am. I n s t , of Win. Met. Bng. Vol.60 p . 5 . (2) Dictionary of applied Chem. Thorpe V o l . l , p,27&.  t i v e l y small p r o p o r t i o n s of impurities w i l l prevent the metal from s t a r r i n g .  Through t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y , the trade terra " s t a r  antimony" has a r i s e n for  good q u a l i t y of antimony.  3 , E l e c t r o l i t i o Recovery, E l e o t r o l i t i o recovery from a solution of the Bulphide in sodium sulphide as an e l e o t r o l i t e has been proposed by the Germans, but the process has not appeared on a commercial a o a l e , (1) Mr, W. A, Burr  claims t h a t by crushing an-  timony ore t o 8 mesh, and then leaohing with a s o l u t i o n cont a i n i n g 7% sodium hydroxide and 2% sodium c h l o r i d e , an economical recovery i s obtained.  The antimony i s p r e c i p i t a t e d  from t h i s s o l u t i o n on s t e e l e l e c t r o d e s by u s i n g a c u r r e n t dens i t y of 8-9 amp, per s s . f t . at Z\ - 2$ v o l t s .  The p r e c i p i t a t e  assayed 99.94% Sb. V I I I . MARKETIHO Off AHTIKOHY. "Practically  (2)  a l l of the refined metal known in the  trade as r e g u l u s , consumed in the United S t a t e s i s imported from Ohina through the Port of Hew York,  The importer s e l l s  the metal e i t h e r d i r e c t t o consuming i n t e r e s t s or t o d e a l e r s . The u s u a l l y minimum import l o t i s 25 gross t o n s , " "The p r i n c i p a l market i s n a t u r a l l y in Hew York, and the out of town buyers purchase e i t h e r through t h e i r Hew York offices or s a l e s agent* or employ the services of b r o k e r s , t o (1) Eng. & Min. Journ. Vol. 104, 1917. P.789, (2) H.K.Masters,  Eng, * Min, Journ. Sept,27,1924,  1*. whom the s e l l e r then allows a brokerage of -f of 1% The p r i n c i p a l i n d u s t r i e s using antimony produots as raw materi a l s a r e . . . . . . i n Northwestern U. S.  Very l i t t l e i s used west  of the M i s s i s s i p p i . . . . a l t h o u g h there i s a small consumption on the P a c i f i c C o a s t . . . w i t h d i s t r i b u t i n g c e n t r e s at San Francisco and S e a t t l e . . . . The demand for antimony i s not a seasonal one, although. . . t h e market i s u s u a l l y more aotive in winter sn d e a r l y s p r i n g , and again in the f a l l . , . . " The world's average peace time consumption i s e s t i mated at 22,000 metric tons from ore produced, of which the United S t a t e s uses 10,000.  Besides t h i s , the United s t a t e s  consumes 2,100 tons of antimony contained in the antimonlal lead ores of domestio smelting, and 3#500 tons of antimony recovered from a l l o y s , scrap, dross and waste m a t e r i a l s . The s p e c i f i c a t i o n s for the regulus are not c r i t i c a l , being, "that i t s h a l l contain a Minimum of 99% Sb, as l i t t l e arsenic as p o s s i b l e , and be uniform in q u a l i t y . metal i s imported no samples are taken,  When the  I t i s sold simply  as prime Sb 99^ pure, and Invariably contains the guaranteed percentage."  If pure antimony i s needed for s p e c i f i c purposes,  the buyer must analyze h i s shipment and then remove the harmful Ingredients himself, "The average prioe of antimony metal in Hew York for the l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s , ending I9I4 was 7,50^ pef l b , for Cookson's brand, ( E n g l i s h ) .  Since t h a t year the Chinese metal  has dominated the United Ftatea market, and t h e average prioe  17. for the ordinary metal, 99^ pure, has been:cents per l"b.  cents per l b ,  1915  30.28  I920 ——  8.48  1916  25.37  1921  4,96  1917  20.6?  1922 ——  5.47  1918  I.2.58  1923  7.90  1919  8.19  1924  12.70  The accompanying graph shows the production of antimony from i t s ores, from I897 - 1923, and the corresponding p r i c e of antimony per lb.., Bew York.  90,000  -  80,000  \  70,000 , SO. 000 '  to '  \  \ !1 \  , idi  P50000  trt iali  \  1  _—\  \ \  40,000 230,000  / '\ n'c f  20,000 10.000  i  -  *  -- "- -"•<  1697  1900  -„  7  1  /  //  __ h" 1905  \.  \  I  --;-  |  1910  35 o JO 2  \ \  \. N  1915  World proJoett.H of *afr**o*f. JB37-/93S. on f V ' > « V ^ recoverable content of m:nt***»*y ore,, ft/no,*/\Hojforrrf\i.  \ \  1920  .-•  IS * 10 %  1923 i'scj  on a  {**&- ' [/>**+'• . './V.***  The ah ore f i g u r e s and graph show the effeot of the war time demand on the metal antimony.  The g r e a t l y i n f l a t e d  p r i c e atimulated production the world over, and a3 the supply gradually met the demand there was a corresponding drop in  18. prioe.  The sudden drops in 1918, 1?19 and 1921 were oauaed  by the cessation of h o s t i l i t i e s whioh r e s u l t e d in a loso of a buying market.  A f u r t h e r slump in p r i c e was caused by sev-  e r a l of the b e l l i g e r e n t c o u n t r i e s dumping t h e i r excess shrapnel s u p p l i e s on the market for t h e i r antimonial c o n t e n t .  The grad-  u a l r i s e in prioe ainoe 1921 i n d i c a t e s a corresponding depletion of sorap supply, and a growing peace time demand f o r the m e t a l . Boring 1«24 the prioe fluctuated a great d e a l , varying from 8.25^ p s r l b , to 19,^0^ per IV, In considering the p r i c e of antimony two t h i n g s should be kept in mind, (a) China i s the ohief produoer of antimony, (b) China has a s i l v e r standard eurrenoy. As the Chinese produoer i s paid in s i l v e r , then the prioe of Antimony w i l l vary with the gold value of s i l v e r .  Other  t h i n g s being equal, a r i s e in the value of s i l v e r w i l l be accompanied by a corresponding r i s e in the p r i c e of antimony and v i s a versa. The p r i n c i p a l foreign market for antimony ore i s Great B r i t a i n which draws i t s supply p r i n c i p a l l y from China, Mexico and B o l i v i a ,  The standard ore i s & i b n i t e , the prioe of  whioh v a r i e s with the percentage of contained antimony, and the harmful i m p u r i t i e s p r e s e n t . percentagesas low as 50% Sb  If the ore i s of good q u a l i t y ,  are s a l e a b l e .  The sulphide i s  p r e f e r a b l e , but oxides are also bought at a s l i g h t d i s c o u n t . There i s no fixed r a t i o between the p r i c e of antimony as ore and t h a t of market r e g u l u s , the f i n a l prioe usually being a  1*. mutual agreement "between the buyer and s e l l e r .  The usual paroe%  offer ia at l e a s t f i f t y tons* IX. GEOLOGY OF AHTIMOflY. 1 . n a t u r a l Compounds. In n a t u r e , antimony i s found both in the native s t a t e and i n combination with oxygen, sulphur, a r s e n i c , l e a d , oopper, s i l v e r and other elements.  There i s a considerable  v a r i e t y and number of these compounds.  The following l i s t  contains the more common and important n a t u r a l compounds of antimony: Hative Antimony . . . . . .  sb  Stibiooaite  2 sb 0^, H^O  Cervantite , »  Sb* 0*  Senarmontite . . . . . . . .  Sb 2 0 3  Valentlnite  . .. . . , , . . Sb^O,  Bindheimite  . . . . . . . .  Pb^Sb^Q^aq  Zermesite . . . . . . . . . .  2 Sb^.Sb^O,  Stibiotantalate  (SbO^ (Ta Sb)^ 0^  Antimonates  . . . . . .  . . . . . . . .  stibnite  . Sb^S,  Hetastlbnite  Sb2 s^  Tetrahsdrite  , . Qtt^sbjS,  Pyrargyrite  Ag3Sb s,  Stephanite « . . .  Ag^Sb S.,  Polybasite  Ag,Sb S„  Dysoraslte . . . . . . . . .  Ag3Sb  Bournonite . . . . . . . .  H> Ou SB S 5  Jamesonite . . . . . . .  Pb^ Sb, Sa.  Famatinite . . . . . . .  Cu6 Sb^ S^  Boulangerite  ......  Wolfsbergite  ......  Allemontite  ......  Sb As 3  2. Ores of Antimony.  (a) Those used for Recovery of Antimony, The most Important ore of antimony i s s t i b n i t e (SbjS 3 7l,4£ Sb ) . S t i b n i t a c r y s t a l l i z e s in the orthorhombio system and i s commonly found in r a d i a t i n g groups) of p r i s m a t i c , acioular or bladed c r y s t a l s v e r t i c a l l y s t r i a t e d . These c r y s t a l s sometimes e x h i b i t a step l i k e appearance on the face b(010) due to shearing of the c r y s t a l . u l a r forms are also common.  Massive and gran*  S t i b n i t e has cleavage p a r a l l e l to  b(010) l u s t r e m e t a l l i c - highly resplendent on fresh cleavage or c r y s t a l f a c e s .  These soon take on a lead grey c o l o r , and  in t i n e t a r n i s h to a b l a c k i s h t o n e ; sometimes t o i r e d e s c e n c e . Streak, lead greyj hardness 2; s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y 4 . $ 2 - 4 , 6 2 , s l i g h t l y s e o t i l e , subconcoidal f r a c t u r e .  Fuses e a s i l y in  candle flame. Metastibnite i s an orange red, amorphous form of Sb,? B3 , which i s formed in calcareous s i n t e r s derived from thermal springs as at Yellowstone n a t i o n a l Park. The oxides o e r v a n t i t e . senarmontite, v a l e n t e n i t e , kermesite and s t i b i o o n i t e , i f occurring in s u f f i c i e n t eoonomio  21. quantities, are mined by themselves.  They often occur in  association with s t i b n i t e and in suoh oases are mined along with the sulphide ore, Bative antimony ooours in several places, as in Bfew Brunswick; Kern County, Calif.; Sala, Sweden; Allemont and Dauphine, France; Sarawak, Borneo.  It i s believed that in a l l  oases, native antimony i s an oxidation produet.  It ooours  f i n e l y or coarsely granular, oompact, or In lamillar p l a t e s ; associated with the oxides as v a l e n t i n i t e . kermesite, e t c . , and the original s t i b n i t e ; sometimes found in association with s i l v e t ores.  Distinctive c r y s t a l s are rarely met with; these are  rhombohedral; perfect basal oleavage; sometimes twinned on rhombohedral plane e(110); Hardness 3-3.5; specific gravity  b >5-M2. These oxidised minerals may be derived from either the oxidation of stibnite* or from the alteration of suoh minerals as jamesonite or other sulphur antimony minerals. Objectionable impurities in ores, used for the recovery of antimony are lead, oopper, arsenio, zino and bismuth. These impurities are penalized as follows:Lead up to 0 .3% f r e t ; over 0.3 to 1,5% fy per 0.1%.  Some buyers stipulate that lead should not exceed 0,3%. Arsenio up to 0.1% free; over 0.1% to 0.5% $1.80  per 0.1% or part. Copper carries the same p e n a l t i e s as arsenio; some buyers stipulate that there shall be no oopper in the ore, Zino and bismuth are very objectionable impurities in the ore  22. and should not be present in more than a traoe.  If present In  an amount up to 0.5% they are subjeot to heavy penalties, (b) Those Mined for Valuable Associate Minerals. Gold is often found in association with stibnite.  In suoh instances it may be more economical to mine  and smelt the ore for the recovery of the associate mineral rather than for the antimony content. Kxamples of auoh are found in Alaska, tukon Territory, Hova Scotia, Nevada, Mexico, Hew Zealand and alsewhere,  stibnite is often in association  with olnnabar and such deposits may be worked solely for the meroury and not for the Sb, Besides the association of valuable minerals with stibnite, suoh antimony compounds aa pyrargyrite, atephanite polybaaite, jameaonlte, tetrahedrite, etc., are mined primarily for their silver, lead or copper content rather than for the antimony value. These may occur in association with minor amounts of stibnite and are also found in association with argentiferous galena, j$. Associated Minerals. Stibnite is found in a3sooiation with other primary and secondary antimony minerals. The primary antimony minerals are associated with pyrite, galena, sphalerite, ohalcopyrite, biamuthenite, araenopyrite, pyrrhotite, aoheellte, molybdenite, tin, cobaltite, gold, a live r> cinnabar, realgar, orpiment, etc. The common gangue mineral is quarts which usually predominates and may occur massive, with stibnite disseminated through it, or else it may occur as idiomorphio  23. crystals in a segregated mass of stibnlte.  Calotte, barite,  gypsum, slderite, tourmaline, contaot silioate minerals and fluorite may also be present in minor amounts or may oonstitute the main gangue mineral with quarta entirely absent or in minor amounts, 4. Oxidation of Antimony Ores. Stibnlte deoomposes and forms the oxidation products, valentinite, aenarmontite, oervantite, xermesite, stibioonite and native antimony.  These may at times entirely  replaoe the original stibnlte. as in Algeria, Mexioo, and Borneo,  These same oxides may be obtained by the weathering  of other antimony sulphide minerals as jamesonite, tetrahedrite, bournonite, etc.  If lead is present during the process of 4  oxidation, the aqueous lead-antimony oxide "bindheimite" may be formed. .Thile the oxides of antimony are common, i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n by supergene underground waters i s l i m i t e d .  It  I s , howerer, s l i g h t l y soluable in these underground s o l u t i o n s , as i s shown by the removal of antimony compounds from the gossan capping of d e p o s i t s , which lower down contain antimony minerals.  Traces of antimony are found in mine waters wa ion  have peroulated through antimony compounds.  Lindgren mentions (1) secondary s t i b n l t e in the n a t i o n a l D i s t r i o t , Nevada. He also s t a t e s t h a t s t i b n l t e i s being deposited from the hot spring  (1)  U.S.G.S. 601, 1«15.  a*. CO waters (80* 0) in Yellowstone National Park.  I  (2)  "W. H. Maloalm  claims that s t i b n l t e i s being deposited at the present time in the West Gore Mine* Hova Sootia. and alao a "red sulphide" perhaps kermesite (Sb^S^O) i s said to be forming, both probably from alkaline waters."  0, DoIter and others  hare shown experi-  mentally that s t i b n i t e ia soluble in pure water at 80"0 and will reoryatalliae again aa s t i b n l t e from the same s o l u t i o n s . ia important in the natural process, but i t la not f i n a l .  This These  experiments also showed that while s t i b n i t e reacts only very slowly in neutral and acid solutions i t ia one of the most actire minerals in alkaline solutions; i t s a c t i v i t y being exceeded only by that of orpiment when solutions of alkaline carbonates or hydroxides were used,  such solutions w u l d be  capable of transporting the dissolved antimony long distances from i t s original source.  It i s probable that where antimony  compounds have been dissolved and transported, the process has been carried out through the agenoies of alkaline s o l u t i o n s . Antimony forms the sulphate 3 ^ ( 3 0 ^ ) ^ .  Stibnite  ia very slowly attacked by sulphuric acid, even in the presence of ferric sulphate, with the formation of the sulphate Sb^ (SO.,), which, however, i s unstable in water and i s unknown in ore (4) deposits. "This tendency of the antimony sulphate to hydro* lyze and form insoluble oxides prevents i t s extensive migration 1) Tr.Am.Inst.MinJSng. Vol.36, 1906. Llndgren, "Mineral Deposits", 1919, p. 900. (3) Olarka, U,3,G»S. 095»P.»?3. W,H,Emmons,U.S.G.S.625-1917, (4) W.H.Emmons, U.S.G.S, 625, 1917, p. 409.  fti  25.  V.  i n wealky aoid or n e u t r a l sulphate s o l u t i o n s .  Hydrochloric acid  r e a d i l y d i s s o l v e s the sulphide hut an oxidizing agent* l i k e f e r r i o s a l t , w i l l p r e c i p i t a t e antimony oxide. soluble oarbonate.  There i s no  Thus the chemical r e l a t i o n s , as well as  geological occurrences, Indioate t h a t the metal i s not highly mobile in the acid s o l u t i o n s of s u p e r f i c i a l weathering zones."  h"'  Aooording t o Shurmann»s s e r i e s antimony sulphide would be expected t o replace various other sulphides but no examples of t h i s have so f a r been found. I t was p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d t h a t s t i b n i t e was readi l y soluble i n s o l u t i o n s of a l k a l i n e carbonates or hydroxides, (1) "With these s o l u t i o n s i t forms double s a l t s l i k e Ua^s. Sb^S5» which r e a d i l y p r e c i p i t a t e s i l v e r and copper from t h e i r s o l u tions.  Thus probably are formed the sulphantimonates, p y r a r -  g y r l t e and stephanite and other secondary m i n e r a l s . " "in the (ft) following t a b l e the more important antimony s u l p h o s a l t s of s i l v e r are put in the f i r s t column and the a r s e n i c s u l p h o s a l t s in the second,  Tetrahedrite and t e n n a n t j t e are included for  they are commonly a r g e n t i f e r o u s . Pyrargyrite  3Ag^S. Sb^S3  Proust i t e  5Ag^S. As\,S 3  Tetrahedrite  40u^S. MfcS,  Tennantite  4Gu^S. At^S*  Stephanite  5Ag^3, S b ^  h •  Polybasite  9Ag^Si Sb^ Q9  Pearoeite  ?Ag,,S. AS ? S 3 1  (1) W,H%Immons, U*S.Q,S. 625, 191? P . 4 0 « r (2) W.H.gmmons, U,S t G,S, B u l l , 425, 1*17, p , 2 6 2 .  26. "The minerals of the first column are, as a rale. much more abundant and they are of more common occurrence than the corresponding minerals of the second column. .... If the antimony sulphosalts, where secondary, have been deposited mainly as test results of reactions of silver-bearing sulphate waters on atibnite, it would appear that araenio minerals are leas common than antimony minerals or else that they are leas rapidly replaced under the conditions that exist in veins. But arsenic la as abundant in ore deposits as antimony and is much more readily dissolved in acid solutions. These relations and many others suggest that the complex antimony and araenio sulphosalts of silver are formed in an alkaline environment.  In such an en-  vironment antimony and arsenic sulphides are very readily dis(1) solved. L. G. Ravics has shown that pyrargyrite is about 1/10 aa soluble In alkaline solutions as proustlte and therefore could be more readily precipitated from diluted solutions." These complex silver antimony sulphosalts are formed in and (2) below the zone where argentite forms. H. C. Cooke has shown that powdered atibnite (-80 mesh) when soaked in a silver sulphate solution, 1/30 H, for 36 days contained 1,3% of silver. The nature of the silver minerals was not stated, (3) "Dyscrasite i s r e a l l y an a l l o y of s i l v e r and antimony of varying composition; i t has formed important ore at  (1) L , 0 . Ravioz, Experiments in the enrichment of s i l v e r o r e s . Bo.8eol.Vol.10, 1915. P.378-384. (2) H.O.Oook,Secondary enrichment of s i l v e r o r e s , Journ.Oeol. Tol.Sl W 3 , P.1-2?. ( J ) Llndgren, "Mineral D e p o s i t s . " 1*19. P . 3 8 4 ,  2?. Broken H i l l and Ghanarcillo and i s also known from Cobalt. 5 . Occurrence and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Antimony in the Various Countries, S t i b n i t e , the chief ore of antimony, i s commonl y d i s t r i b u t e d in mineral veins throughout the world, but only i n r e l a t i v e l y few l o o a l i t i e s i s i t of s u f f i c i e n t t o be considered as an ore of antimony.  concentration  In many instances  s t i b n i t e i s associated with gold, s i l v e r , copper and lead, and l a aueh ease3 the ore i s t r e a t e d for the recovery of these metals and not for i t s antimony c o n t e n t . Besides occurring as the sulphide " s t i b n i t e " antimony i s p r e s e n t in many compounds, such as p y r a r g y r i t e , Jamesonite, t e t r a h e d r i t e , s t e p h a n i t e , e t c .  These are a l s o  oommonly found and are u s u a l l y mined p r i m a r i l y for the valuable associated mineral and not for antimony, "The percentages of the w o r l d ' s production  (1)  of antimony in I 9 I 3 by c o u n t r i e s was; China franoe  ....  Mexico A u s t r i a Hungary . , Australia (Victoria)  55%  Algeria  1%  21%  Asia Minor , ,  10%  Italy  1%  8%  Serbia  1%  ,  1%  4.2%  Since 1914, bo% of the world's supply has come from China.  "During 1922 . . . China supplied 90% of a l l the ore  ( 1 ) Mineral Resources, U.S.G.S. I923, p a r t 1, p , 2 9 2 .  TABLE 1. (Approximate recoverable metal content of ore produced, exclusive of antimonial lead ores," Country  1917  1918  1919  1920  1921  1922  al4 471  £23  45  464 4  490 8  <v  ' 312  1923  EORTH AMERICAt United state3 .. SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina b .,., Bolivia a ..... Pe ru a ........ EUROPE;  87  a7  2647  3279  310  45  650  360  10288  3010  433  155 • • • •  C<0 2354 •»•..  Italy *.....,••.  406 689 148 723  1329 »'••;•'  (0)  404 22 (c)  Yugoslavia ASIA: China a 284^0 15597 India,British .. frl Indo-China ..... a800 (0) I606 Japan ......... 95 Tuxaciy(Asla Minor) f400 f400 AFRICA: / Axgeria a ....... 4550 2218 Rhodesia. Southern Union of South Afriea ... OOEAHIA: AustraliaBew South Wales Victoria .......  . •. •  27 105 30  50 484 7  00  282 7  185 • • • • •  C«)  .».. •  . •  38 Czechoslovakia . France ,  •*•••  3  1 153  384  998 1130 1276 46 P 6b 93 • • • » • 10 187 76 (0)  (0)  W  656  62 (c) 437  * 'ia M  271 25 151  139 100  (0)  7721 13001 14658 13858 e 14500 2 1 ..... ..... * #,'•' • • (0) (e) (*) 1 • • « » • ..... (0) f40O f400 f400 f400 f4O0 723 1000 ,XV 579 500 (g) (g) (g) (g) 2 ..... •. •.. •« •. • 3 ....  m  232  38  10  150  143 509  70 491  1045  330  81 40b  50 141  < • « i •  t)05  • • •. •  421  a- Exports. b Railway shipments. A l a r g e p a r t of the shipments reported are probably of Bolivian origin and there fore may duplioate in p a r t the Quantities shown for B o l i v i a . 0 Data not a v a i l a b l e , d Inoluded under Austria ana Hungary. 9 Calculated from estimates in Mining Industry, vol.32.p#46,1923. f Estimated, g I * s s than 1 t o n . The estimated recoverable metal content of ores exported was as follows: 1919,169 kilograms; 1920,178 kilograms} 1921.74 kilograms; I922, I90 kilograms.  - 28 -  .  ill  mined in the "world and in 1923 China's o u t p u t . . . was about 80$ of the w o r l d ' s production". U;  "The w o r l d ' s present capacity for producing antimony  i' ;  far exceeds the normal demands.  Bew deposits of antimony I j;  a r e being found from time to time". Table I shows £he w o r l d ' s p r o m o t i o n for the years  ;|  1917-1923 as f a r as reasonably approximate data are a v a i l a b l e . (a)  jj  China:  Although the antimony deposits of China are the l a r g e s t i n the world t h e r e i s comparatively very l i t t l e d e t a i l e d  jj  \i geological information a v a i l a b l e .  The d e p o s i t s occur in  many p l a c e s throughout c e n t r a l and southern China 1 , but 90$  |(  of the production comes from the province of Hunan in a zone extending from Yl-ycoig southerwest through An-hua, Hsin-hua  !vi  and Bae-ehing.  Another zone, f u r t h e r south, extends from Chu-  kiang i n northern Kwantung through Kwangsi and Kweeohow to  . ... ft!  Wenshan and Ani in e a s t e r n Yunnan. 2 The d e p o s i t s of Hunan occur i n a Paleozoic s e r i e s of  •j  r.  q u a r t z i t e s , shales and limestones (mentioned in t h e i r s t r a t i g r a p h i o a l sequence) o v e r l a i n by Mesozoic s t r a t a .  These  rooks have been folded, r e s u l t i n g i n the formation of a n t i c l i n e s , s y n c l i n e s , domes, sheared zones and f a u l t s .  1.  China Year Book, 1923, P. 124, U.S.G.S. Atlas of Commercial S e a l . 1921, Bart 1, P. 63. C. D. Hubbard, Am. Joun. So, S e r i e s 5 , Vol. 4. 2. B u l l . Geol. Survey, China Bo 3 , Oct. 1921, P. 1 - 26.  {!  - 28a The ore occurs principally in the quartzite along the sheared and breociated zones and in the domes along the axis of the anticlines.  In these latter instances the overlying  impervious shale has played an important part in trapping the solutions  and thus forming important ore bodies.  The Ore is chiefly stibnite.  This is usually well  crystallized and is found in segregated masses of varying size.  The breceiated zones are characterized by fine vein-  lets, veins and irregular lenses of almost pure stibnite; a small amount is also disseminated through the quartzite. There are few other minerals present; Cinnabar is found in association with the stibnite in some areas, and occasion ally a small amount of pyrlte ia also present.  The gangue  Is quartz whieh is generally massive but druses, lined with quartz crystals, are frequently found. At the surface the stibnite has been oxidized; the oxides present are not definitely known but probably include eervantlfce, senarmontlte  and stibioonite.  These are fre-  quently feundss pseudonorpas after stibnite but seldom have any well orystalllzed form of their own. The geological age and genesis of these ores are not definitely known, but tentatively it is suggested that they are genettoally associated with the intrusion of Tertiary granites.  -28  At Shin Chow  1)-  in the proTince of Kwangtung s t l b n l t e  ooc-ars near the contact of steeply dipping PaleoEOio shales and limestones.  The ore Is disseminated through the lime-  stone, and probably represents a metasomatio replacement deposit.  The only gangue present i s o a l o l t e ; small amounts  of pyrite are sometimes disseminated i n the limestone along aide of the s t l b n l t e .  Surface oxidation of the deposit has  resulted In the formation of various antimony oxides. Most of the antimony ores are treated In China, prodbolng either crude antimony or regains.  Since very  l i t t l e antimony Is used In China p r a c t i c a l l y the whole output i s exported, ohlefly to Japan and America.  In  1913 China supplied 53?& of the world's production and at present Is contributing over 60£ of the t o t a l world output.  1.  S. D. Hubbard.  The Am. Mineralogist Tol.7 # 8, Aug. 19S2  - 29 -  (b)  ?ranoe.  The antimony production of France, amounting to about 21# of tbe world's t o t a l in 1913, i s absorbed ohiefly by borne Industries.  Deposits of antimony ooour in tbe departments  of Mayene, Cantal, A l l l e r , Haute Loire, Haute Vienna, Bambonnais, Sauvigny, Alsace, Brittany and tbe Island of Corsica. Tbe deposits generally ooour in fissure Teins cutting granites, granite gneisses and soblBts, s l a t e s and graywacVes and are g e n e t i c a l l y associated with granitic intrusives. Tbe Ye in f i l l i n g is composed c h i e f l y of quarts, with some o a l o i t e and barite  and s t i b n l t e which i s e i t h e r disseminated  through the quarts or i s found in segregated bodies of almost pure sulphide.  These segregations vary in width  from fraotlona of an inch to three f e e t or more and are Irregular lens shaped bodies separated by zones of barren quarts or quarts through which varying amounts of s t i b n l t e are disseminated.  Deposition probably occurred under i n t e r -  mediate and low temperature conditions.  Native antimony  occurs at Allemont and Dauphene. The largest producer la Hayenne  northwestern Trance,  where the s t i b n l t e Is associated with auriferous quarts and pyrite.  In the Camtral Plateau the antimony deposits  of freyoenet occur in fissure veins cutting Archaean gneisses and s c h i s t s .  1.  There are several antimony bearing veins  U.S.G.8. World Atlas of Commercial Geology 1921.  30.  some of which, contain complex antimony, lead and argentiferous (1) o r e s . "The antimony ore l a very pure sulphide s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d near the surface t o white and yellow oxide.  The veins are e i t h e r  f i l l e d with country rock or . . . compact b l u i s h quartz spangled with fine needles of s t i b n i t e when the r e i n i s poor and d i s appearing almost e n t i r e l y when t h e r e i n become a r i c h e r . "  The  a s s o c i a t e d minerals are small amounts of p y r l t e , pink and white o a l o i t e and t r a c e s of s p h a l e r i t e .  The s t i b n i t e l a n e i t h e r a u r i -  ferous nor a r g e n t i f e r o u s , In Montignat  (2)  A l l i e r , s t i b n i t e v e i n l e t s of  extreme i r r e g u l a r i t y are found in a g r a n u l i t e dyke c u t t i n g g r a n i t e gneiaa. At Mercoeur,  (3)  Haute Loire, the Bissade lode  '•may be followed for a length of 250O m. . . . with a width of 30-60 cm. of aolld s t i b n i t e accompanied by a l i t t l e q u a r t z , plaoes the lode breaks up i n t o several v e i n s .  in  The separation  from the gneiss l a f a i r l y sharp, though veins and n e s t s are oooaaionally found beyond the w a l l s , "  At Valadou s t i b n i t e occurs  in a f i s s u r e vein c u t t i n g old a l a t e s .  The ore la found in i r r e g -  u l a r shoots, separated from each other by barren a r e a s . a l t e r a t i o n of the wall rook has occurred. a t Malbose, Ardeohe,  Ho  E r r a t i c depoaita occur  They are quartz s t i b n i t e lodes with some  o a l o i t e and b a r i t e .  (1) A b s t . , Tr ana .Fed. I n s t , of Min.Eng. V o l . 6 , l & ? > ? 4 , P . 5 7 9 . (2) Abat,, Trans .Fed. I n s t , of Min.Bng, Vol,24,1902,p,6«2, (3) Trusoott Ore Deposits Vol,2,1914 p . 782.  (i) In the Island of Corsica  "the antimony  oocurs as stibnite In veins cutting through hornblende and serloite schists .,. The gangue Is quartzose in oharaoter ... The rein Is generally richest near the foot wall, which is always hotter marked ... than the hanging wall."  The associated  minerals are pyrite, sphalerite, bournonite, some cinnabar and oaloite. (<*) Mexico.  Mexico produces 10^ of the w o r l d ' s antimony and ships i t s product c h i e f l y to the United S t a t e a or to England, The d e p o s i t s occur in the s t a t e s of Sonora, San Luis Potosi aid (2) Queretaro, There are two types of deposit which serve as an ore of antimony. 1 . Quarts s t i b n i t e v e i n s , with galena and zIns blende as associated minerals, occurring In hornblende and pyroxene a n d e s i t e s , 2 , Veins oocurring in limestones and s l a t e s , and containing c e r v e n t i t e , s t i b l o o n i t e and v a l e n t i n i t e ; these oxides changing t o sulphides in depth.  Such veins are  very i r r e g u l a r , The d e p o s i t s of £1 A l t a r , Sonora,  (3)  are  considered as oxidized metasomatio replacements in Carboniferous l i m e s t o n e s .  The deposit at present c o n s i s t s of almost  1) Abst,Trans .Fed. Inst Jlin.Eng.Vol,15,1897 ,p ,54Q. 2) Aquitera-Trans.Am,Inst,Mln.Bng.Vol.32,1902,p,507. 3) D,D,Cairnes,j0urn,O,M,Inst,191O,p,3O8: E.T.Gox.Tr.Am,Journ Sc,l880,Vol.20,p.421i E.Halse.Trans.Fed.Inst.Min.Eng. Vol. 18*4, p.290-294.  32. pure atibioonlte between irregular walls of limestone. The Impurities are oerargyrite and quartz, the latter increasing with depth as the atibioonlte decreases. Stibnite commonly occur3 with galena and Is frequently found in association with cinnabar in irregular fractures and replacements in limestone.  Instances of the  latter are found in San Lula Potosi where atlbnite occurs in association with liringotonite, kermeslte, baroenite and a ••all amount of cinnabar in a matrix of gypsum,  stibnite is  not Infrequently found in slifer reins and accompanies argentiferous tetrahedrite. At Triunfo and San Antonio, stibnite la in association with jameaonite, berthierite, galena, pyrite, sphalerite and tetrahedrite, which hare beoome oxidized near the surface to antimony oxide and bindheimite. The same asao(1) elation occurs in Sonora. At zimapan, jamesonite occurs In a typical contact metamorphio deposit in limestone, (2) "The tin occurrences in iiexioo differ from the uaual type in so far as they are not found in connection with granite but with rhyolite .... The mineral association is, however, the same aa with normal granite.  The deposits occur  more particularly ... in Durango and ... in Jalisco .,. along joint planes and fault fissures In rhyolite and rhyolite tuff. They oarry kaolin, quartz, ohaloedony. opal and felspar together with speoularite, fluorlte, topaz, durangite and more rarely  (1) Lindgren and Whitehead Bc.Geol.Vol.9. 19U. P.435. (2) Trusoott, Ore deposits. Vol. 1, 1914, p.447.  33. wolframite and bismuth o r e .  . . . It i s worthy t o remark t h a t the  t i n won from these d e p o s i t s contains a s t r i k i n g amount of antimony." The antimony deposits of Mexico ooour e i t h e r as f i s s u r e veins or as replacements in limestones and are genet i c a l l y associated with igneous rooks of andealtio or more acid character,.  Their mode of deposition ranges from oontaot meta-  morphio to low temperature near surface c o n d i t i o n s , (d) Austria-Hungary and Bohemia. During I 9 I 3 Austria-Hungary produced B% of the world's antimony o r e s .  The d e p o s i t s occur in northern Hungary and  i u the Reohnitz mountains.  In the former l o c a l i t y t h e r e are large  r e s e r v e s of auriferous s t i b n i t e ore of f a i r l y low grade, but the production i s s t e a d y .  In the Reohnitz mountains "The veins  ...  out c r y s t a l l i n e s c h i s t s . . . and are e s p e c i a l l y r i c h when the count r y rock i s a e h l o r i t i c or g r a p h i t i c s c h i s t .  The vein f i l l i n g  c o n s i s t s of q u a r t z , o a l o i t e and s t i b n i t e » with s t l b i o o n l t e and p y r l t e . . . . The g r a p h i t i c s c h i s t s along side the lode, for a d i s tance of 3 t o 4 metres from the vein w a l l s , are r i c h l y impregnated with s t i b n i t e , t o g e t h e r with p y r i t e and c i n n a b a r . , . . . " Other veins of s t i b n i t e with gangues of quartz and carbonates, with small amounts of ^amesonita, b e r t h i e r l t e , blende and auriferous p y r i t e , oocur between Aranyidka and Rosenau," (1) In Bohemia, "at Prioov . . . k e r s a n t i t e dykes, ocourrlng in the g r a n i t e , are accompanied by veins of hornstone, rich in s t i b n i t e  The s t i b n i t e i s non auriferous . . . and  (1) Beck. "Hature of Ore Deposits" - 1909, p , 33&.  has been oxidized to stibiconite for a depth of $9 ft. .., Similar deposits occur at Pannau. ..... These occur in mioa schists and amphibolite near the granite of that locality."  Trusoott  describes these occurrences in much the same manner and adds that (1) "other reins in the district form a network the character of the vein material being very similar to that of the country rock." The S chonberg-Me Is ohau deposits, 55 km soath of Prague* are associated with kersantite dykes which out the granite of that area. They are auriferous quartz-atibnite lodes, remarkable for their gold content which can frequently be seen with the naked eye, The gold content is too erratic to warrant mining on its account alone, (e) Australia,  In I 9 I 5 A u s t r a l i a was producing 4% of the world*s antimony.  The chief centre of production i s the Ooster-  f i e l d * Bendigo d i s t r i c t , V i c t o r i a .  Other areas cf minor produc-  t i v e importance are at Broken H i l l and Hillgrave d i s t r i c t s Hew South Wales, and also i n s i g n i f i c a n t showings in Queensland. Although the Victorian f i e l d i s the most important, the w r i t e r could not obtain any d e t a i l e d r e p o r t on t h i s .  Such r e p o r t s as  were obtainable s t a t e d t h a t in the Oosterfleld d i s t r i c t , V i c t o r i a , (2) s t i b n i t e occurred in veins associated with gold, Mr. G.Smith gives a d e t a i l e d d e s p r l p t i o n of the Broken H i l l a r e a , (?) Antimony occurs in the Console Mine, Broken Truaoott "Ore Deposits" Vol,2,l9U, p.279. Ore Deposits Console Hine,Broken Hill Auat, Trans,Am,Inst.Min, $ Kng,Vol.26-I896,p.69. (3) Same as reference No. 2 #  35. Hill diatriot, Hew South Walea, The country rock conaists of gneiasea and aohiata of pre Cambrian age, The deposits occur in well defined and peraiatent fiaaurea cutting the gneiasea and aohiata at large anglea to the plane a of aohistoaity. At the aurfaoe the main fiaaure dipa about 20° but lower it flattens out and then steepens almost to vertical. The ore ia confined to areaa of amphibolite sohlst» and the pay ahoota occur at the interaeotion of small cross veins with the main fiaaure, The primary minerals of the main vein are calotte and aiderite aa gangue and stromeyerlte (Ag.Cu)£s dyaoraaite (Ag3Sb) and tetrahedrite. The croaa veins conaiat of pyrite and sine blende in a quartz gangue. A amall vein of oobaltite is uaually found in association with the main fiaaure. Heavy oxidation haa occurred resulting in the oxidation of the minerals to a depth of 1?Q feet or more* The gangue mineral oaloite haa been leached out and deposited as a aludge lower down.  The aiderite haa been oxidized to  llmonite ana this forma the main gangue mineral within the oxidized zone. The metallic minerals have altered to oervantite and oerargyrite and have suffered little transportation. The foregoing antimony deposit a have been described in the order in which their respective countries supply the world's demand for antimony,  In the following dla-  course the antimony deposits of the various countries are arranged in a geographical association and sequence and not In the order of their productive importance. Some may produce up  3.6.  to 1% or raor; of the world's t o t a l antimony output, while others are non produoers.  This i s not due e n t i r e l y to auoh depoaita  being of too poor a quality to be oonsidered aa ores of antimony, but to a r t i f i c i a l modi float ions as the high cost of labor and unfavorable phyaioal conditions. (f), Germany. "At Bohmadorf  W  and Wolfgolgen . . . are  quarts veins carrying s t i b n i t e with minor amounts of zino blende, plumose s t i b n i t e , pyrophillite and iron epar." At Brack, on the Ahr, s t i b n i t e l a found in fissure veins, and to some extent as impregnation along the bedding planes of Paleozoic greywaoke slates*  The minerals present are quarts, s i d e r i t e , dolomite,  pyrite and s t i b n i t e . Antimony ores ooour at Uentrop  (2)  as bedded  deposits in folded contorted and faulted limestones along the limbs of an a n t i o l i n e .  The ore i s Stibnite and "forms sheets  and rods extending outward nearly to the limiting surface of the strata, or ooours interspaced with the rook in small p a r t i cles".  At Suttlar the s t i b n i t e ooours as nests in s i l i c e o u s  shales and black clays associated with sandstones.  The epig-  enetio nature of these two deposits i s shown by the association of f a c t s . "An interesting deposit i s that at the Joat-  ( 1 ) Book "Hature of Ore Deposits," 190?, p . 3>6. (2) " • » « " " P . 520, also Trusoott "Ore Deposits" Yol. 2 , 1 ? U . p.1188,784. World Atlas of Commercial Geol. U.S.G.S. 1?21.  Christian  Mine ... in the Hartz, where a lode,, something more  than 1 metre wide ,., oonsists of priamatio stibnite, together with federerz and lead stibnite; while ziendererz, boulangerite . and wolfsbergite are leas common ,... The gangue consists of atrontianlte, calcite, barite. selenite and fluorlte." (g) R u s s i a . (2) There i s a deposit of antimony  and l e a d -  ant iraony o r e s i n the Ural region and a l s o i n the Amur p r o v i n c e ,  ,  Siberia.. (h) Korway, i  A deposit of antimony is known at Svenningdal*  :;.-,!  Horwey,; (i) Portugal.  V  S t i b n i t e d e p o s i t s occur in P o r t u g a l a t Oporto, Casa Branca, Alooutira and San Pedro da Oova, some of vfc ioh are auriferous.  There i s a small antimony production at Oporto, (J) Spain.  [\f,  m |  Stibnite deposits are known in many parts of  ; f•  Spain, but under normal conditions there is no production. (k) Italy. The antimony d e p o s i t s of I t a l y occur i n  .].;" ;j ,  Southern Sardina, Piedmont, Tuscany ana Sicily.  The pre war  output was small and came entirely from Southern Sardinia, During the war Tuscany and Sicily also produoed,  (5)  In Sardinia at Su suergiu,  antimony occurs  (1) Trusoott "Ore Deposits'1. Vol.2,1916, p. 779. (2) World Atlas of Commercial Oeol. U.S.G.S. 1?21. (3) Trusoott "Ore Deposits", Vol.2,1916,p.783.  Ill  38. in graphitic schists and oalo-phyllite3, of presumably Silurian age.  The stibnite occurs in lenticular masses, associated with (1) pyrite and soheelite in a oaloite gangue. In Piedmont stibnite ia associated with Jamesonite, tetrahedrite and pyrite in quarts TelBB striking parallel to the aohlstoaity of the enclosing rooks. , Antimony ia found in Tuscany at pereta, San Martino and Monte Anioata, M A noteworthy deposit of antimony occurs (2) at Pereta, South Tuscany ... It oonsists of a mass of crushed white quartz" cutting Tertiary sediments of Eocene and Miocene age,  "The stibnite occurs in the quartz aa stringers and pockets  ... associated with sulphur ... The sulphur bearing quartz ia occasionally seen coated with a crust of stibnite, whioh in turn ia studded with small crystals and aggregates of sulphur.w  The  cinnabar-antimony deposits of San Martino and Monte Amiata are genetically connected with Quaternary  voloanism.  The antimony deposits of Italy vary from deep aeated contaot metamorphio or high temperature reins to near aurfaoe depoaition associated with volcanism and sulfotario action. An example of the first condition is shown by the association of stibnite with soheelite in Sardinia, while the occurrence of cinnabar and free sulphur in Tuscany ia representative of the latter mode of depoaition, (1) Serbia,  1} World n Atlas of Commercial Oeol, U.S.G.S, 1921. 2} Beok, Hature of Ore Deposits" 1909, p . 3 3 7 . y) Origin of Cinnabar-Antimony deposits,Tuscany,Abat,Fed, I n s t , of Min.Eng.,Vol.l9.1899-P.484.  In Serbia antimony deposits occur in the diatriots of Kostalnik, Zajassa and Allohar. The geology of the Kostainik district oonalats of laminated wsA Triaasio limestones, oonformably overlain by soft olay slates and In part by elastic! greywacke slates. These rooks were folded and then intruded by biotite-trachytes as dykes, sheets and stocks, and perhaps covered by effusive flows of the same rook.  "The antimony 4e-  (1) posits are intimately connected with these igneous rocks," The deposits occur in three forma - (1) As stringers of quartz, e a l e i t e and stibnite in the altered trachyte; (2) As fissure vein deposits in the s l a t e s ; (5) as replacement deposits in limestone along the slate limestone or trachyte limestone contact. The vein material consists chiefly of quartz and stibnite with i t s oxidation products. minerals occur.  Bo other metallic  In type 2 the fissure i s s l i g h t l y over three  f t e t thick and oonalats of hanging and foot wall stringers with, transverse veinlets between the two through the vein f i l l i n g . The foot wall i s always the richest, while the hanging i s almost barren.  In type 3 the vein matter i s fine granular quartz with  intergrown s t i b n i t e .  The hanging wall, formed either by slate  or trachyte, i s regular, whereas the foot wall, while generally following the s t r a t i f l o a t i o n , i s often irregular, showing unequal replacement of the limestone, >  (1) Beck. Hature of Ore Deposits. 1?09, p.-578-581,  40, "It is probable that the occurrence at  Allohar  (1)  in Macedonia . , ia of tnetasomatic o r i g i n .  The  hanging wall of t h i s deposit c o n s i s t s of mica s c h i s t , the foot wall of dolomites and limestone.  The ore occurs in s t r i n g e r s  or lenses without gangue , t o g e t h e r with arsenic o r e s .  The  width of solid ore may at times be as much a3 1.50 m,, while the occurrence has been proved for a length of 4 k i l o m e t e r s . Hear the deposit the dolomite has been formation of sulphur and s e l e n i t e ,  highly a l t e r e d under  A. p o r t i o n of the ore con-  s i s t s of r e a l g a r and orpiment," The antimony mineral present i s not s t a t e d . The r e a l g a r and orpiment may be of primary d e p o s i t i o n , in mhieh case the presence of free sulphur suggests close a s s o c i a t i o n with volcanic a o t i v i t y .  The r e a l g a r and orpiment might also be  secondary as oxidation products of "arsenic ores" and in the same way the sulphur could be produced by the oxidation of a (2). sulphide mineral and the reduction of calcium sulphate . (m) Asia Minor and Turkey. Antimony d e p o s i t s occur p r e t t y well d i s t r i b u t e d throughout Asia Minor  (30  i n Brussa, Smyrna and siwas.  In Smyrna the d e p o s i t s are worked at the Rozsdan, Aiden, Seramos and Kordelio Mines* Murat  Dagh.  The most important producing d i s t r i c t i s  The d e p o s i t s are s t i b n i t e occurring in f i s s u r e  1) Truscott,"Ore Deposits" Vol.2.191&tP*784, 2) Aguilera-Trans,Am,mst.Min.JSng.Vol.32,l?02,p,508. 3 ; Eng. * Min.Journ.Vol.84,1907tP>88. Trusoott."Ore Deposits" Vol„2,p,783; World Atlas of Commercial Geol.U.S.O.S. 1?21.  41. r e i n s with quartz gangue and p y r l t e .  At Karahissar,  argentiferous  lead antimony ores ooour. (n) A l g e r i a . (1) The antimony d e p o s i t s of Algeria DJebel-Hamimat ana s i d i - R g h e i s s .  Occur at  They are found in s t e e p l y dipping  limestones and s l a t y marls, c h i e f l y along the limestone-marl cont a c t , and to some extent disseminated in the s h a l e s .  The ore i s  e i t h e r s o l i d c r y s t a l l i n e or disseminated and occurs as i r r e g u l a r masses in the limestone roughly p a r a l l e l t o the bedding planes but not confined t o any d e f i n i t e horizon. The ore at p r e s e n t c o n s i s t s in p a r t of a compact white antimony oxide and in p a r t of c r y s t a l l i n e aenarmontite in a s s o c i a t i o n with oxidized zinc ore with some galena and cinnabar. Small amounts of the o r i g i n a l s t i b n i t e s t i l l remain.  There are no  gangue m i n e r a l s , but fragments of limestone, encrusted with o r e , are often found. These d e p o s i t s represent metaaomatio r e p l a c e ments in l i m e s t o n e s .  The o r i g i n a l ore was s t i b n i t e in a s s o c i a t i o n  with s p h a l e r i t e , galena and c i n n a b a r .  The s t i b n i t e and s p h a l e r i t e  hare been subsequently oxidized t o the present antimony and zino oxides, while the galena and cinnabar have remained.  The tendera-  t u r e of o r i g i n a l deposition probably varied from intermediate to low temperature, (1) Beck "Kature of Ore Deposits'* 1909, p . 5 2 1 ; T r u s o o t t , "Ore Deposits'* V o l , 2 , l ? l 6 , p . l l 8 9 .  42-. (o) South Africa. In South Africa antimony deposits ooour at Gravelotte, Marohlson Range, Transvaal, along the Transvaal Swaziland border, and in Southern Rhodesia. (1) At Grave lot te  the oountry rook consists  of sohists intruded by granite. Along the Murohison range diorite and baaalt have intruded the sohists* apparently parallel to their planes of aohiatosity.  Younger dyke rooks also ooour.  The association of the older diorltio dykes points to their genetio relation to the ore. The antimony bearing deposits are quarts veins with an abundance of gold bearing stibnite, vyhlch in places la oxidized.  The veins oooupy irregular fissures varying  from 1 to 10 ft. In width. In 1?17 the Rhodeaian Munition* and Resources (2) Committee reported that stibnite in Rhodesia occurred aa two types, (1) "The sporadic gold b e a r i n g type c h a r a c t e r i z e d by I t s sporadic d i s t r i b u t i o n in quartz veins and s o h i a t b o d i e s . fhla l a of granular t e x t u r e and forma s t r i n g e r s , patches and l a r g e pockets* or i t may be disseminated through a sohiat body l a t h e form of minute c r y s t a l s .  In the l a s t mentioned instance  the mineral i s the double sulphide of lead and antimony,"  (1) S t e w a r t , Trans,Fed.Inst,Min,Eng.Vol, 17, I8?8,p .402-403. ( 2 ) Sng. & Min. Journ« V o l . l 0 4 , l ? 1 7 . p . 4 7 I .  43. (2) "The type which forms d e f i n i t e v e i n s sometimes free of quartz , .  The veins are of coarse s t i b n i t e which  weathers t o a pale yellow ochre," (p.) Hew Zealand, Although antimony ooours in a number of localities throughout New Sealant this country has not been in the producing antimony market sinoe 1910. Deposits of stibnite are found in Oentral and Western Otaga; Endeavor Inlet, North Westland; Reefton and Westport, Nelson; Collingwood; Queen Charlotte Sound, Malborough; and Hauraki, Auckland*  (1) At Oarrlck Range,  Western Otaga the  country reck I s flaky mica s c h i s t p a s s i n g i n t o a p h y l l i t e .  She  deposit occurring i a a shear zone, v a r i e s from a t r u e quarts r e i n through a l l stages t o a vein b r e c c i a cemented by quartz; the fragments of which show various degrees of a l t e r a t i o n .  The  sheared zone v a r i e a in width from 2 t o 4 f e e t and may be f i l l e d e n t i r e l y with q u a r t z , or the quartz may occur as small veins along both walla or one wall only.  The wall rock and quartz are  both slickenaided showing t h a t secondary movement has occurred after mineralization. and s i l v e r v a l u e s .  The ore i s s t i b n i t e with associated gold  Near the surface the s t i b n i t e has been  oxidized t o c e r v a n t i t e .  The age of these deposits i s younger  than l a t e Paleozoic and older than Pliocene, outcrops in the v i c i n i t y . (1) P a r k s , I , Z . G , S . l u l l # 5 , 1908, p«6*.  No igneous rook  44.  At Endeavor I n l e t  (1)  the country rook i s  aubmetamorphoaed sandstone with interbedded s l a t e s ,  The de-  p o s i t s ooour along the slickenaided hanging wall of s l a t e bands and ooincide  to the s t r i k e and dip of the s t r a t a .  The ore i s  s t i b n i t e i n a quartz gangue, and i s found in i r r e g u l a r lenses and pockets varying in width from a few inches t o one foot or more.  A vein of s t i b n i t e c r o s s e s an adjacent stream and c o n s i -  derable a l l u v i a l s t i b n i t e has been recovered a short distance below the v e i n . (2) In Horth Westland,  the antimony of the  district occurs as stibnite in a quartz vein traversing argil* lites and greywaokes. Considerable gold is associated with the stibnite and the deposit may be of more importance for its gold values than its antimony content. At Queen Charlotte Sound*  Malborough,  auriferous stibnite is found in a fine grained greenish schistose rock. The chief mineral is stibnite with minor amounts of quartz disseminated through the ore.  "With the antimony ore  are found loose blocks of olivine* with chronium ore, oompact hornblende rock and a white and jrreen chert," In the Hauraki district,  Auckland, the  country rook in association with the antimony deposits consists of volcanic breccias and flow rooks of Tertiary age. The  (X) (2) (3) (4)  Parke, H.Z.G.S. ,1888-89, P > 0 , a l s o p . 3 3 . Bull.l3,H.2.G.S.,l9U.P,83. 0.J.Binns,Trans.fed.Inst.Min.Eng.Vol.4,1892-93, p . 5 9 . O.Praser, N.Z.G.S., Bull #10, 1910.  *5. d e p o s i t s ooour along f a u l t planes and shear zones whioh have a tendency to follow the oontaot of the breooias and a n d e s i t i o flows.  At Una H i l l the deposits are replacement veins e n t i r e l y  within the andesite whioh has been subjected t o decided propyl i t i o action along the walls of the v e i n s . The s t i b n i t e ooours in a quartz gangue in a s s o c i a t i o n with p y r i t e , ohaloopyrite, zinc blende, p y r a r g y r i t e and gold,  The ores are mined for t h e i r gold content, the s t i b -  Bite being accessory. The veins occur in T e r t i a r y volcanic rooks so t h a t t h e i r age i s younger than these e x t r u s i v e s .  Ho d e f i n i t e  statement i s made as to the origin of the m i n e r a l s , but from the context of the r e p o r t i t would seem t h a t the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n was g e n e t i c a l l y associated with the i n t r u s i o n of a n d e s i t i o dykes. From the above d e s c r i p t i o n i t i s hard t o draw any d e f i n i t e conclusions aa to the temperature of deposition of the antimony d e p o s i t s of Hew Zealand,  In the Eauraki d i s t r i c t ,  more d e t a i l e d information i s given and t h i s p o i n t s t o mineral deposition from hot ascending s o l u t i o n s under near surface oon* ditions.  Lindgren s t a t e s , under "Replacements at Intermediate (1) Temperatures; r t "In d e p o s i t s which have been formed bv hot  waters near the aurfaoe where the rocks are permeable, the i n c i p i e n t a l t e r a t i o n of igneous rocks i s often widespread with a l t e r a t i o n of the femio minerals to c h l o r i t e , o a l o i t e or epidote (propylitization)".  (1) i i n d g r e n . "Mineral Deposits" 1?19. p . 4 7 8 .  46. This i s one of the most common types of a l t e r a t i o n following explosive igneous a c t i v i t y and e f f e c t s "mainly a n d e s i t e s and (1) "basalts* more r a r e l y r h y a l i t e s " . In d e s c r i b i n g the gold quart* veins in a n d e s i t e s of Transylvania, Hungary, Sohumaoher considers t h a t the p r o p y l i t i z a t i o n was d i s t i n c t l y e a r l i e r than the veins and independent of them, Lindgren d e s c r i b e s the3e deposits of Hauraki (2) under "gold-quartz veins in a n d e s i t e s " and says, "Park states t h a t the veins do not oontinue i n t o the underlying J u r a s s i c shale and they are thus limited t o the thickness of the lava flows i n which they occur. . . . The p r i n c i p a l ore mineral i s gold alloyed with 30%-40£ s i l v e r , but some p y r i t e , o h a l c o ^ y r l t e , zinc blende, galena, s t i b n l t e and p y r a r g y r i t e a l s o occur." (q) Borneo. During the war old mines were reopened and are was shipped to England. The deposits occur on the north end of the island in Sarawak, and consists of quartz veins containing stibnlte whioh has been oxidised to native antimony and various antimony ozides, (r) Japan.  Very l i t t l e antimony ore i s mined in Japan. The antimony exports of t h i s country i s due chiefly t o the exp l o i t a t i o n of the Chinese d e p o s i t s .  E i t h e r ore or crude antimony  i a Imported from the Chinese mines and then refined and exported as r e g u l u s . —  *  *  «  *  «  M  mm  HH  (1) Uhdgren "Mineral Deposits" 1?1?, p , 4 ? 8 . (2) » H « w p.508.  4  ?v  The antimony deposits of Japan occur along the southern bend of Japan, especially along the outer border. These are quartz stibnite deposits which are found in Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments near their contact with quartz porphyry intrusions or within the intrusion itself.  Occasionally the de-  posits are found in crystalline 3ohiats, as on the island of Shikoku, and also in Tertiary rocks. (s) Peru,  The antimony mines of Peru were dormant from 1907 u n t i l 1915 when they were reopened and high grade ore was shipped to Japan.  (1) The d e p o s i t s occur in t h e department of Puno,  Southern Peru where the s t i b n i t e i s found in replacement deposita in l i m e s t o n e s . Antimony occurs abundantly a l l over the province (2) of Gajatambo and i s i n v a r i a b l y associated with s i l v e r . The a t t b n i t * i s found in f i s s u r e r e i n s associated with p y r i t e , t e t r a a e d r i t e , bournoalte, panabase and l e s s commonly with and a t e p h s n i t e .  pyrargyrite  The copper antimony sulphide faraatenita  (30%S, Sb^S^) occurs a t Oerro de Paaoa. ( t ) Bolivia. Many small high grade d e p o s i t s of s t i b n i t e ooour in the southern p a r t of the Potosi department.  The ores  are minod and shipped to England, (u) United 3 t a t e s , Although United S t a t e s l a one of the l a r g e s t antimony consumers, there i s no home production of antimony o r e . -.  m.  «•  «»  —  —  m  m  m*  1) U.S.S.S, World Atlas of Commercial Geol,. 1?21. 2} Abat.Fed.Inat,Min.Eng,Vol.25 f l902 t p.776jalso Vol.36 t 1908,p,76<>«  TABIE  2.  Antimony imported into the United States in 1919-1923* (General imports) Antimony m e t a l  Antimony ore Country  Short tons  Antimony content Pounds Pounds  1919 .......  Canada Chile 0 China d . , . , , , England . . . * „ . Hongkong d . . . India(British) Japan d . . . , , . Mexico . . . . . . . Panama , » . . , . . Peru ' " • . . . . . 1920 Bolivia 9 Canada ,, Chile 0 . , China d . , England . . France . , . Hongkong d Japan d . . Panama . . . 1921 Bolivia 0 Chile 0 . . China d . . England . . Germany . , Hongkong d Japan d . ,  47 455  $10 6,312 23,?36  • .* • • • «  • • • . a  2,308,880  F167.764  7,847',840 90,048 68,320 224,000 2,953.994 757.076  459.613 8,803 3.949 10,976 159.091 60,571  ,-.1 1 H 8JM6JUM.  , t 1.1,1,1,111  49.527 14,250,158  870,767  493  • • • *.»*  -J!  219,048 1,200  879  727,462  388 1^2 162 420  335,061 19.457 152,27© 450,293  1  • « •  4fc>7 75 1 •  •  315^1 10,200  •  1,709  80.293 1,363,441  45 49  46,600 54,401  U9  95.106  lulf L I ,  213  196,107  Value  Value  28 49,624 302,326 4,5X0  297 2  0  11,332 99  • •••»•'•  •  • « • • « •  $22,941 225,272 |19,111 2,179 11,963 14*185 21»564i§51 1,218,802 14,638 125.539 • • • • • 10,605 706 *tis& 44,909 4,556 2,325.303 177,816 3,856 JUAJJMUi 11 t i t t t t 1. 70,285 2 4 , 9 4 7 . 1 2 1 1,475.276 ssssss sssssss 2.450 3.334 672,501 20,53o!o79 14,586 302,457 45 • • « • • 5.898 10*027 320.750 697,121 11,682 21,153,331  TABIE 2. Antimony imported into the United states in 1919-1923*Continued.  Antimony ore Country  Short tons  Antimony content Pounds  1922 • Canada . . . . . China d . . . . England . . , , France . . . . . Germany . . . . Hongkong d , Netherlands 1?25 Australia ... Belgium .... Bolivia 0 »., Canada ...... Chile c .....  China d . . . i . England g 4 i i Prance , , i *. * Germany g . *. Hongkong d , , Italy . . . . . . . Japan d . . . . , Mexico . . . . . . Straits Settlements  Antimony metal b  Pounds  Yalue  8.960  364 562,181 3.335 4  Value  16,976,726  45,474 22 515  «»•»*» * * . . . *  >,!*,» «»•  AAJMUML  115,864 • * ««»  <*) •  »  «  •  «  ,«,,»..t, J, «•«.,  4.901 3*937  1,169,784  25,644  1.340 Ul.026 1,800  102 1,020  *  906  ».*.*  (  )  5l?.?13  •  600,293  . * •«  . . . . . .  •«  8*211 JUUUUULM.  2,094,095  44,721  ?»8l?  55.740  2,420 3.848  13.185!§9$ 1,410,198  558,771 99.927  . . • • » . . »  . . .  •'«'« •  750,555 4o  »lj,  *  17,745,845  73.762  • • '« • •  (*)  30.531  38*715  176!5^8  65  b2?,424 84,744  56,000 56,000 15,626,928  44,953  3.385 9 2,074 2,682  718,069  0 Imports credited t o Chile originated mainly in B o l i v i a . d Hearly a l l the imports of antimony ore and metal from Hongkong and Japan are of Chinese o r i g i n . Some of the m a t e r i a l credited t o other c o u n t r i e s i s p o s s i b l y a l s o of Chinese o r i g i n , having been transshipped in a foreign p o r t , t Ho ore was imported in I922. £ The Department of Commerce does not give the f i g u r e s for imports of antimony ore in 1923. g JBngl&nd and Germany are the only c o u n t r i e s from which imports of both ore rt ana metal were received.The t o t a l imports from England w 1,411,538 pounds of antimony metal,value2 at f100,029; and those Germany were 752,355 pounds, valued at $45,859.  48. This oountry draws its main supply of antimony from China in the form of regulus; and to some extent as crude antimony and ora from China, Mexico and other countries. Table 2.  gives the  imports of antimony to United states from the various countries during the post war years of 1919 - 1923, Besides this the United States consumes 2100 tona of antimony contained in the antimonial lead and silver ores of domestic smelting, and 3500 tons of antimony recovered from alloys, scrap, dross and waste materials, The principal districts in which antimony occurs are Nevada, California, Alaska, Arkansas, Utah, Idaho and Washington. Arkansas, The antimony deposits of Arkansas are found chiefly in the Servier County. Several reports have been written  (2) on these d e p o s i t s , and the a v a i l a b l e r e p o r t s s t a t e  t h a t the  antimony ooours as s t i b n i t e in quartz v e i n s , in asaooiation with z i n k e n i t e , jamesonite, galena, orplment, biamuthenlte, p y r i t e , and minute amounts of c h a l c o p y r i t e .  Oxidation has taken place to a  depth of JO f e e t or more with the formation of o e r v a n t i t e and blndheimite. In h i s r e p o r t on the antimony d e p o s i t s of Northern Servier County, E.H.Shriver  (3)  s t a t e s t h a t they ooour in  1) Mineral Hesouroes at U.S. I923 Part 1 p,288-289, 2) 0,P f Williams - Trans.Am,Inst.Min.Eng.Vol,13 I875.P.I5O. C.E.Wait * » H « « 1879-80 p . 4 2 , (3) S f H,ShTiver Min. 4 So. Press Vol.114 W 7 P.?20,  49. folded Carboniferous sandstones and a r g i l l a c e o u s shales metamorphosed to s l a t e s .  "The s t i b n l t e ore was formed by the r e p l a c e -  ment of the shales and s l a t e s . . . .  The fine grained  sandstone  proved impervious to the hot waters and aoted as an impounding dam,.,,.  The ore bearing rock i s shale or s l a t e , r a r e l y , i f ever  the sandstone.  The hanging wall i s decomposed s l a t e in a l l c a s e s ,  and the foot wall i s a fine grained sandstone upon which the s o l u t i o n s flowed," Some of the veins show banded s t r u c t u r e .  The  vein f i l l i n g i s quartz and a t i b n i t e both being deposited simultaneously.  "The ore i s cemented t o the foot wall and v a r i e s from  a t h i n s t r e a k t o 50 Inches in width while the f u l l lode i s from 2 feet t o 5 f e e t In width," She ore Is a t i b n i t e which has been oxidized. Bear the s u r f a c e , t o o e r v a n t i t e . o r y s t a l l l n e or compact.  The s t i b n i t e i s e i t h e r coarse  Jamesonlte was also found l a one p l a c e .  Prom the d e s c r i p t i o n of the d e p o s i t s and the diagrams accompanying the above r e p o r t i t seems more l i k e l y t h a t the overlying shales aoted as a dam and the s o l u t i o n s peroulated along the shale-sandstone oontaot, r e p l a c i n g the l a t t e r . (1) In 15>£2 O.P.Mitchell  d e s c r i b e s the depo-  s i t s of Servier County as vein f i l l i n g s in f a u l t zones In s t e e p l y dipping Paleozoic s h a l e s and sandstones.  The mineralized  zones vary in width from a few inches t o 4. feet or more and c l o s e l y follow the s t r i k e and dip of the sediments. (1) Sng. ft Mia, J o u m , Vol, 114 - 1922.  The wall  50. rooks are slightly replaced, but the veins are banded and the ore occurs in lenses and pookets. While stibnlte occasionally occurs in segregated masses it is usually found to be disseminated through the gangue which is chiefly quartz with some oalcite and occasional fragments of shale and sandstone. Mitohell believes the ore to be genetically related to igneous dykes found in the vicinity. Other reports have been written of the  (2)  a> antimony d e p o s i t s in Arkansas by F.L.Hess, (?) (4) y.D.Dunnlngton,  and B.Comstock,  J.O.Branner,  but these were not a v a i l a b l e ^  California. San Benito County. Antimony, i n a s s o c i a t i o n with cinnabar, occurs a t Antimony H i l l i n the B.E. corner of the San Benito County California.  (5)  The rocks are sandstones at the e a s t e r n foot of  the mountain* and serpentine on the western slope near the Burarait, The minerals occur In s l a t e s and are found both on the e a s t e r n and western s l o p e s .  The gangue i s quartzose and contains the s t i b n l t e  and cinnabar; the d e p o s i t s on the e a s t have more cinnabar and l e s s s t i b n l t e than those on the west. l e r n County. Four miles south of Hot Springs, £rsklne Greek  '1) '2} '3) U) ,5)  f.L.Hess.U.S.O.S. B u l l . MOD 1907. J.O.Branner Annual Hep.Ark.Ceol.Survey Vol.1,1888,p,1^6. F.D.Dunnington Am.Aaan.for Adv. of So.^2&, I 8 7 8 , p . l 8 l . B.Comstook Annual Hep.St.Geo.Ark,1888,Vol.1,p.ljb and 2lfe, E.B.Preston Calif,St,Kin.Bur l l l891-92.p.371.  ];': ...' \  In Kern County,  Antimony occurs in q u a r t z i t e associated with  a p o r p h y r i t l o rock.  Native antimony oocurs in nodule a varying  i n weight from 1 ounce t o 300 pounds and i s coated with white oxide and o l a y .  Associate veins carry s t i b n i t e .  Bo associated  minerals are mentioned with the native antimony or s t i b n i t e , Monterey Oounty, S t i b n i t e occurs in Monterey County Los Borros Gold Mines.  (2)  at the  The veins are quartz near the oontaots  of s l a t e s and s e r p e n t i n e . Calaveras County. Antimony ore was discovered on Esperanza Greek, Calaveras County,California.  (3)  South Dakota. The ores of the Kaitland p r o p e r t i e s occur Immediately above the Cambrian q u a r t z i t e s .  Only the oxidized  ores have bsen t r e a t e d , in a cyanide p r o c e s s , and these yield p y r i t e and p y r r h o t l t e in about equal amounts along with some a r s e n i c , copper, t r a c e s of antimony and t e l l u r i u m and considerable q u a n t i t i e s of bismuth. Utah. (4) Antimony occurs in Iron County, Utah,  (1) (2) nj (4)  W.L.Watts,Calif,St.Min.Bur.l891-?2, p , * 3 7 . w K.B.Preston, H " " " . M p*26l, Mining and S c i e n t i f i c Press Vol,114, I9I7 p . 3 1 2 . Kemp, Ore Deposits of U.S. & Can. 190&,p.411, F.L.Hsss, U.S.G.S. Bull 340D I907, P . 2 3 3 . W.P.Blake, Rep, on Antimony Dep. of S.Utah 1881. D.B.Hantley, "On Utah" U.S.10th Oensua Vol.13.P.4^3.  Disseminations of atibnitei, following the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , are found in sandstones, and conglomerates. pieoes of a t i b n i t e have been found,  Very large individual  Kruptive rooks overly the  sandstone and Blake thinks t h a t the ores have c r y s t a l l i z e d from descending s o l u t i o n s o r i g i n a t i n g in the eruptive rooks,  Lindgren  draws an analogy between these d e p o s i t s and those now forming a t Steamboat Springs, Nevada, whioh w i l l be described l a t e r , Nevada, Antimony occurs in Nevada in the National and Arabia d i s t r i c t s and a t Steamboat Springs, The National Mining D i s t r i c t en the Santa Kosa Eange.  (2)  I s located  The southern and l a r g e r p a r t of t h i s  range l a made up of h i g h l y folded clay s l a t e s ,  calcareous s l a t e s  and limestones t r e n d i n g n o r t h , p a r a l l e l t o the range.  The north  or n o r t h e a s t e r n s e c t i o n ia overlain by volcanic e r u p t i v e s such a s b a s a l t i c flows, b r e c c i a , l a t i t e s , t r a c h y t e s and r h y o l i t e s . There are two p r i n c i p a l c l a s s e s of mineral deposits?  1 , "Sold and s i l v e r bearing veins that occur in or  near the T e r t i a r y volcanic .rooks and t h a t are of T e r t i a r y or in p a r t of Quaternary a g e . " 2,  "Gold and s i l v e r bearing veins t h a t occur .in the  sedimentary rooks and in the p08t~Triasaic granular rooks i n t r u ding i n t o the sediments and that, are probably of l a t e Meaozoie age," She old Meaozoio mineralization ia generally in quartz veins  1} Lindgren, Tran.Am.Inst.Mln.Eng. Yol.36, 1906, p.27. 2) Lindgren, U.S.G.S, Bull, bol, 1915.  (1)  53. although rarely they are replacement deposits In limestones and lime shale. These veins carry both gold and silver but no antimony minerals. Tertiary Mineralization: In the northern section of the Santa Hosa Range the sediments are covered hy volcanio extrusives consisting of basalts, latites, -trachytes and rhyolites. The basalts are the most common; the rhyolite was extruded near the close of the volcanio period and is consequently high in the series, but is also covered with basalts. This rhyolite flow is the important rook in the district as the mineralization is due to the effect of ephemeral springs related to the rhyolite. The veins of the national District are distinctly later than any other rooks and are of the narrow fissure types. They trend northerly and have a steep dip either to the east or west. The wall rock has been subjected to prophylitie alteration, producing some pyrite, oaloite, a little serioite and adularia, and chlorite. This alteration is not extended ower wide areas. The veins vary in width from 1 to 5 feet. They oonsiat of sheared rook and hive a well defined foot wall. Seams of quartz occur along the foot, hanging or intermediate walls* This quartz is aynanetrieally banded, fine grained and vuggy; crystals of quartz line the vugs.  "This fine grained symmetri-  cally banded quartz with open vugs together with the scarcity of pyrite, the consistency of stibnite ana the presence of cinnabar, in one instance, point otrnngly to near surface deposition,"  The mineral deposition took place from hot thermal ascending solutions. The characteristic mineral is stibnite which occurs in varying amounts in all veins. The stibnite may be fibrous and oonfined to the margins of the quartz or it may be in the center of the vein.  It also.occurs as fibrous  well crystallized aggregates in the quartz or as acicular orystals encrusting the quartz crystals in the vugs. Associated minerals are ehalcopyrite, pyritet arsenopyrite, zinc blende, galena, silver and gold; cinnabar was noted in one instance. These minerals occur as fine grains along the margin of the veins.  It was  noted that when the stibnite was relatively high the gold and silver values were low, whereas, if the stibnite was scarce the gold and silver values were somewhat higher. The gangue is predominantly quartz either at a massive fine grained variety or crystallized in vugs. Bo oalolte, barite or fluorlte are found as vein filling. Secondary Minerals: Secondary sulphides such as maroasite, stibnite, realgar and orpiment oocur below the present water level.  The predominant secondary sulphide is maroasite and It,  found in varying quantities everywhere. The secondary stibnite occurs either as flat bundles of acicular crystals in the Joints and fissures or as capillary coatings on the quartz crystals in  (i) the vugs, Lindgren  states that due to the predominance of  maroasite these secondary sulphides were most likely produced by (X) TJ.S.G.S, Bull. *0l, 1?15» P**5.  cold ascending s o l u t i o n s r i s i n g along the vein long a f t e r t h e i r formation.  Healgar and orpiment are most l i k e l y the r e s u l t of  the oxidation of a r s e n o p y r l t e . earthly material.  The s t i b n i t e o x i d i z e r  t o a yellow  Ho secondary gangue minerals oocur. Although these deposits may have been formed  under near surface conditions t h e i r temperature of deposition could a t l l l he in the intermediate or even high temperature zone. An example of high temperature d e p o s i t s formed near the surface i s  w  given by the t i n d e p o s i t s of Mexico as described by T r u s o o t t . (2) lindgren s t a t e s t h a t physical conditions d i f f e r i n g s l i g h t l y from those at the a c t u a l surface w i l l e v i d e n t l y produce crystal-* l l M l minerals of normal h a b i t and form.  PropyUtiaatioia i s the  r e s u l t of rook a l t e r a t i o n by asoending thermal waters of i n t e r mediate temperatures.  Considering these f a c t s and t h e associated  minerals i t appears reasonable t o conclude t h a t the s t i b n i t e was deposited at intermediate t e m p e r a t u r e s . \r}\ i  The Antimonail S i l v e r - l e a d Veiaa of the Arabia B i s t r i c t , Mevadat The p r e v a i l i n g rock of the Arabia D i s t r i c t  (5)  i • " ' - !  i s granodiorite which contains many black and i r r e g u l a r masses of thoroughly metamorphosed sedimentary rock,  The granodiorite  c o n s i s t s of q u a r t z , feldspar and b i o t i t e of which the feldspar and  j  b i o t i t e have beoorae a e r l c i t i a e d and gives the whole mass the appearance of an a p a l i t e .  The sediments are c h i e f l y metamorphosed shales  1) Trusoott, HOre Deposits* Vol.If 1?14. p . 4 4 7 . '2} Lindgren, Trans.Am.Inst.Min.Sng.Vol. Jfe, l^Qb, p , 2 7 . ! J ) A.Knoff, U.S.fc'.S. B u l l . i>60 H.'., 1918.  Suk.  ( h o r n f e l a ) ; overlying a l l are r h y o l i t e s probably of Miocene or Pliocene age. The ore bodies are fiasure veins in the grano d i o r l t e a and h o r n f e l a .  The f i s s u r e s are r e g u l a r and have de-  f i n i t e walls in the granodiorite but upon e n t e r i n g a large body of hornfela they fray out and form narrow s t r i n g e r s .  The r i o h e r  veins are f i l l e d with solid ore but the leaner ones are made up of ore and coarse milfcwhlte quartz which oontaina inclusions of tourmaline. The ore as now found c o n s i s t s of a r g e n t i f e r ous blndheimite (hydrous antimonate of lead) with associated plumbojas^jsite (basic sulphate of lead and f e r r i c i r o n ) scorodlte (hydrous f e r r i c a r s e n a t e ) c e r i u s i t e , gypsum and q u a r t z .  The  blndheimite i s of two v a r i e t i e s ; one a deep yellowish brown amorphous v a r i e t y of high b r i l l i a n t p i t c h y l u s t r e , and the o t h e r . a yellowish compact e a r t h y v a r i e t y showing divergent columnar s t r u c t u r e which l a a paeudomorph a f t e r i t s o r i g i n a l mineral. This deposit i s an exceedingly highly oxidized one.  Remnants of the primary minerals are oooaalonally found  and oonalst of fibrous jameaonite araenopyrlte and a l i t t l e ohaloepyrite.  The oxidation of the Jamesonite haa r e s u l t e d in the  formation of the blndheimite, oevrusite end plumbojaroaite while the araenopyrlte has been oxidised to s c o r o d l t e .  The o x i d i s a t i o n  of these o r i g i n a l sulphides would most l i k e l y produce aulphurlo acid whloh would dissolve the s i l v e r and c a r r y i t down.  This.  would be p r e c i p i t a t e d by the primary sulphides lower down, and r e s u l t in a zone of secondarily enriched s i l v e r .  Antimony and  57. arsenlo are only s l i g h t l y soluble and would not be moved.  There  would, however, be an i l l i m i n a t i o n of sulphur. The paragenesis of jaraesonite shows t h a t i t i s common in high temperature ore deposits as shown by i t s oocurrenoe in a contact metamorphic deposit at Zlmapan, Mexico, and In t i n bearing veins in B o l i v i a ,  The association of tourma-  l i n e In t h i s deposit s u b s t a n t i a t e s thiB evidence. Xnoff i s inclined t o place the age of the granodiorite I n t r u s i o n in the a a r l y Gretaoeous.  "The r h y o l i t e i s  f a r younger in age than the ore d e p o s i t s and in plaoes caps grano(1) d i o r i t e and the enclosed masses of h o r n f e l s . " He p l a c e s the age of these r h y o l i t e s i n the Miocene or P l i o c e n e . Steamboat Springs, Hevada: The waters of Steamboat s p r i n g s  (2)  Issue from  a f i s s u r e in granodiorite and are at a temperature of about 8o°C. On analysis they give f e r r i c oxide, antimonious and arsenious sulphide, mercuric an3 oupric sulphide, lead, gold and s i l v e r . At the base of a b a s a l t i c c l i f f nearby, the waters have deposited a large amount of 3 i l i o i o u s and oalcarious s i n t e r stained red by the red m e t a s t i b n i t e which has a nonmetalHo l u s t r e . A few feet from the r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n a shaft was sunk JO f e e t .  The f i r s t 25 feet are through s i n t e r a f t e r  which there e x i s t s a loose sandy gravel composed of well washed pebbles of granite and a n d e s i t e .  These gravels contain so much  (1) A.Knoff, U.S.G.S, B u l l . bfcOH, p . 24?. ( 2 ) Ilndgren, Trans.Am.Inst,Min, Bng, Vol.56, IfOb,  p,27.  58. hot water that operations were stopped. An examination of the gravel showed that nearly every pebble had adhering to it small shiny prisms and particles of metallio lustre. These proved to be prisms of atibnite , bent and otherwise combined in radiating groups but generally without terminations.  In the cracks and joints of the larger granite  cobbles bunches of stibnite crystals  occur. "With the exoeption  of olaatic magnetite the only other metallio mineral found in the gravel is pyrite which forms loose or intergrowing crystals of octohedral form sometimes combined with the cube," "I believe it absolutely certain that the stibnite and pyrite have been deposited by the hot waters which permeate the gravel,*  On previous examination of the same locality,  *$he absence of ordinary minerals of metallio lustre indicated, in a way, a missing link in the chain of evidence to proove the deposition of ores from hot ascending water*; and this link is now supplied by the observations recorded above. .,, Physical conditions differing very slightly from those at the actual surface will evidently produce crystallized minerals of normal habit and form. (v) Alaska. There are some sixty-seven known occurrences of antimony in Alaska the Aleutian I s l a n d s .  d i s t r i b u t e d between s o u t h e a s t e r n Alaska and The main d e p o s i t s are found in the Fairbanks  D i s t r i c t and the Seward P e n i n s u l a .  (1)  A,H.Brooks,U.S.G,S.  B u l l , 6 * 9 , 1916; a l s o U.S.G.S.Bull.662,1918.  59. Geology, The a t i b n i t e of Alaska I s generally found In sedimentary rooks varying in age from lower Cambrian t o tipper Cretaceous and d i f f e r i n g widely In t h e i r l i t h o l o g l c a l c h a r a c t e r s . The a t i b n i t e i s also found in g n e i s s e s , s o h l s t s and in the i n t r u sive rooks themselves, although in the l a t t e r case the veins are small and not continuous.  The d e p o s i t s , however, are generally  found in the Intruded country rook, not f a r from the igneous contact,  With the p o s s i b l e exception of the galena s t i b n i t e type  t h e r e are no contaot raetamorphorio d e p o s i t s .  The s t i b n i t e always  ooours in a lose a s s o c i a t i o n with granular acidic i n t r u s i v e rooks belonging t o the quarts d i o r i t e or raonzonite groupa or t o the p o r p h y r i t i o phaaea of these t y p e s .  These i n t r u s i o n s are e i t h e r dykes  or stooks and have produced but l i t t l e metamorphisra in the enclosing rocks. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Ore Deposits. (A) S i l i c e o u s gold bearing s t i b n i t e d e p o s i t s (B) S t i b n i t e cinnabar d e p o s i t s , (0) S t i b n i t e galena d e p o s i t s . S i l i c e o u s gold bearing s t i b n i t e d e p o s i t s . These may be e i t h e r f i s s u r e veins or shear zone deposits.  Ho d e f i n i t e l i n e of demarcation can be made as the for-  mer often grade into the l a t t e r .  Some shear zones show great  per-  s i s t e n c y , are well defined and are t r a c e a b l e for aeveral thousand feet. The deposits vary in width from 2 t o 5 f e e t , but are much wider in the shear zone t y p e .  They are i r r e g u l a r  6o. along their strike, pinching and swelling frequently. The richer ore occurs in shoots or kidneys especially in the wider parts of the lode where it often extends from wall to wall.  Small reins  of lower grade ore oonnects these shoots. Rich lenses, irregularly distributed also occur. The stibnite in the richer ores is usually fins granular hut confused aggregates of acioular crystals also occur. These two types are often mixed. Besides the stibnite there may be varying amounts of galena, pyfite, arsenopyrite and small amounts of gold, grains of whloh ore sometimes imbedded in the stibnite. Quartz forms the chief gangue mineral. This oocurs as fine granular vitreous grains, many with crystal terminations, scattered through the ore. A milky quartz with associated feldspars also oocurs but such represents old quartz veins which have been reopened and granulated with a subsequent introduction of stibnite.  The vitreous quarts is typical of antimony ores. Some  of the sulphides and maybe part of the gold belong to an early period of mineralisation, Stibnite - Oinnabar Deposits. These deposits occur both in veins and in mineralised shear zones; the valuable minerals occurring in shoots and kidneys oonneoted by small stringers. Banding is often well marked* and vugs, lined with quartz crystals, are common.  In some  oases the oinnabar is the primary mineral with the stibnite introduced later; in other deposits the oinnabar and stibnite are contemporaneous. The stibnite is in bladed crystals, columnar aggregates and, less oommon, in granular masses, Eyrite, as an accessory  61.. mineral, i s very scarce and some gold i s common to a l l such deposits.  Quartz i s the only gangue mineral present and i s  v i t r e o u s and often idiomorphic.  The percentage of, quarts i s  higher than in the quartz gold h e a r i n g d e p o s i t s . Prom information at hand these deposits are associated with the same i n t r u s i v e rocks as the auriferous quartz s t i b n i t e d e p o s i t s hut were formed at a shallower depth than the former* often near the surface, a genesis common to cinnabar deposits. S t i b n i t e - Galena Deposits* These d e p o s i t s appear t o he replacements of c r y s t a l l i n e limestone, hut i t i s not c e r t a i n whether the s t i b n i t e was contemporaneous with the galena, or belongs to a l a t e r epoch Of m i n e r a l i s a t i o n . An occurrence of s t i b n i t e in a s s o c i a t i o n with f l u o r l t e , in a rook now composed of s c a p o l i t e , i s recorded l a the i o s t Elver Basin of Seward P e n i n s u l a . V e r t i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n and Oxidation of the Ores. Prom outcrops of v e i n s , extending over 1000 f e e t in e l e v a t i o n , no change in m i n e r a l i z a t i o n was observed.  Thus  there i s l i t t l e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t changes w i l l occur s u f f i c i e n t l y close t o the surface t o effect the value of the antimony d e p o s i t s . As a r u l e the antimony d e p o s i t s of Alaska show very l i t t l e oxidation.  This i s due t o two primary f a c t o r s :  ( a ) The ground covering the d e p o s i t s I s , In most e a s e s , permanently frozen, (b) Comparatively recent g l a c i a t l o n has r e -  moved any previously existing oxidized zone, Age of Mineralization,, The accumulative evidence favors Tertiary mineralization of stibnite. Where the mineralization is definitely known to be Mcsozoio, there is no stibnite, with one exception in southern Alaska where stibnite is recorded as a minor accessory mineral. All stibnite deposits, the age of which could be definitely established, belong to the Tertiary epoch of mineralization.  In those deposits of doubtful age  the probabilities favor the Tertiary epoch rather than the Mesozoio. fwo instances are known where stibnite occurs in placers.  In the Tolovana district a placer on  Lillian Creek contains magnetite, ilmenite. piootite, limonite, cinnabar, soheellte, zircon, pyrite, stibnite and barlte, in the order of their importance, The character of the concentrates shows that they have travelled only a short distanoe, In the Kantishna district a placer contains gold, quartz, ga* lena, stibnite and black sand. The source of the minerals are the quartz veins outcropping on the ridges bordering the bas in. (w) Canada, Antimony, as a commercial mineral in Canada, i s somewhat r a r e .  The only mines v/hich have pr oduoed any  tonnage of the metal are a t V/est Gore, Hantz County, Uova Scotia^ and lake George, York County, Sew Brunswick.  ( 1 ) U.S,G.S.  B u l l . 662-1918.  Besides these  occurrences, antimony la also found In various other l o c a l i t i e s l a Canada as In Southern Quebec, at Sault S t e , Marie, In B r i t l a h Columbia and in the Yukon T e r r i t o r y . flora S c o t i a , Several veins of auriferous s t l b n l t e oocur (1) l a the gold bearing s e r i e s of W«3t Gore, Hante County, The d e p o s i t s are nearly v e r t i o a l f i s s u r e v e i n s , the r e i n f i l l i n g b e i n g composed of s l a t e * c a l c i t e and quartz out by l a t e r quartz stringers,  The ore generally follows the hanging wall of the  f i s s u r e , which i s clean o u t ; the foot wall i s i r r e g u l a r and i n d i s t i n c t , ,The ore i s often s o l i d s t l b n l t e , or s t l b n i t e and q u a r t z , varying in width from a few inches t o seven f e e t .  The  associated minerals are p y r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e , galena and gold,  A  varying amount of gold i s always p r e s e n t and i s most p l e n t i f u l where s t l b n l t e predominates, except where cut by c r o s s veins of quartz the mala lead has no free gold. Sew Brunswick, "Native antimony and s t l b n i t e occur at Lake George, in the parwish of Prince "ffilliam, York County, Hew (2) Brunswick, , , , The antimony ore occurs in quartz veins c u t t i n g s l a t e s and q u a r t z l t e s in the neighborhood of i n t r u s i v e masses of g r a n i t e and d i a b a s e .  The native antimony i s confined l a r g e l y or  s o l e l y t o the upper p o r t i o n s of the v e i n s . "  1} G.A.Young, G.S.C. #108$, 1909, P.51-52. M G.A.Young, G.S.O. » p . 5 2 : also H.W.Bills, G.S.G. #98*. 1907. P.9Z. C.S.Parsons, Can.Min.Journ.Vol.4^, 1?24, p . 9 8 4 .  [ 2)  64.  (1) Qt. ? . Kuna  describes the native antimony  as oocurring at depths down to 100 to 150 f e e t ,  i t occurs in  pockets and lenses some of which contain upwards of one ton of native antimony in association with s t i b n i t e , valentinite and kermesite.  The native antimony i s either fine grained and oom-  paot, coarsely granular or in radiating masses of crystalline plates*  In reference t o these l a t t e r he says "The radiations  stem to have massed about a common centre, as i f the mineral had cooled or c r y s t a l l i s e d slowly from without," The s t i b n i t e occurs either as massive* fine or very coarse c r y s t a l l i n e aggregates in a quartz gangue.  The  v a l e n t i n i t e i s found in layers between the native antimony and i s massivei granular or in radiating aggregates of c r y s t a l s .  The  kermesite occurs as small t u f t s of c r y s t a l s in c a v i t i e s in the s t i b n i t e and native antimony, and also along the fracture planes of the l a t t e r mineral, Lindgren and W. E. Smraons regard native a n t i mony as probably i f not invariably a secondary mineral derived from the oxidation of s t i b n i t e or other sulphide minerals of antimony. In t h i s deposit the occurrence of the native antimony in the oxidised zone and in close association with valentinite and kermesite i s in keeping with t h i s theory.  Other instances where native anti-  mony occurs in oxidised ores of antimony are in Southern Quebec. Algeria. Kern County, California and Borneo, (1) (M.Kuns. Am.Journ, of s o . Vol.30,1885. P.275-277.  *5. Quebec. The only occurrence of antimony In %uebeo la (1) at South Ham, Beauoe County. The d1striot la underlain by Paleozoic strata resting on the Pre-Cambrian complex.  The Paleo-  zolo rooks have been folded, faulted and subjected to severe regional metamorphlara and are now represented by ahales, limestones and sandstones together with a o h l s t s , s l a t e s and quartzites. In the v i c i n i t y of the antimony occurrences the s c h i s t s and alatea have been Intruded by diabase dykes, part of which are now altered to serpentine.  These dykes are probably of lower Devonian age,  maybe l a t e r , and are genetically connected with the s t i b n l t e mineralisation. This deposit i s a contact deposit, the ore* occurring mainly in the s c h i s t s along t h e i r contact with the i n trusive dlabaae and serpentine.  "Ho d i s t i n c t veins of any con-  siderable width could be found in the present state of the work* Ings, but the principal amount of ore seems to be In flakes along the cleavage planes of the s c h i s t s .  The proportion of the ore  becomes greater as the contact i s approaohefi ,M  The ore i s native  antimony with subordinate amounts of s t l b n i t e , kermesite and val» entinlte, Stlbnit. e occurs in the chlorite s c h i s t s at Sault ste . Marie ,  (2)  British Columbia, Antimony minerals are found rather widely  1) J.A.Dresser, G.S.O. s . 1*09, p.1*7. 2) J J i e r r i t , Trans.Fed. Inat.ttin.Bng. Tol. 10, 1895. P,2?2.  66. d i s t r i b u t e d throughout B r i t i s h Columbia,  occurrences are noted  In the d i s t r i c t s of t a l e , Slooan, Karaloops, L i l l o o e t , Chiloo and Tatlayoko Lakes, Skeena Hirer, Portland Ganal and At 1 in Lake , S t i b n i t e i s found at several p o i n t s in the Yale d i s t r i c t and i s often in a s s o c i a t i o n with s i l v e r o r e s . At the Alps-Alturus and Blue Lake claims in  the Slooan May area  CD  s t i b n i t e I s found i n Oarbonlferous rooks.  The m i n e r a l i z a t i o n ia g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o the Kelson g r a n i t e of J u r a s s i c a g e . Karaloops. On Copper Creek,  (2)  Kamloops Lake, s t i b n i t e  i a found i s a cinnabar deposit which occurs in T e r t i a r y volcanic rooks.  The cinnabar i s e i t h e r disseminated through the rock or  i s concentrated in i r r e g u l a r veins of quartz and c a l o i t e .  Barrow  stibnite.  seams of molybdenite and a l i t t l e * o c c u r in some p a r t s of the de* posit. Bridge River Map Area. So far as known the antimony deposits of the Bridge Hlver Map Area  (5)  are found only In the Cache Creek Series  and are confined to a narrow belt along the western limb of the Bridge Blver anticline, They are closely related to the intrusion of dioritic porphyry dykes and occur in shear zones which either border or are In these dykes. The porphyry in contact with  (1) M.S'.Bancroft, G.S.C.S 1917 B. p,40.  (Z) Min. A M e t . I n d u s t r i e s of Canada, 1907-1908, p . 9 5 . (3) A.M.Bateman Q.S.C. S 1912, p.20&. O.W.Drysdale 9 . 3 . 0 . S 19*5. P . 84. W.S.McCann G.S.C. M.1^0, 1922, p . 7 5 .  &7.  the d e p o s i t s i s a l t e r e d to o a l o i t e , s e r i o l t e and h a l l o y s i t e . The ore o oris 1st a of I r r e g u l a r shaped lenses of massive, coarsely columnar s t l b n i t e in a quartz gangue. Gene r a l l y s t l b n i t e I s the only mineral present but sometimes galena and zinc blende are found in a s s o c i a t i o n with I t .  The ore de-  p o s i t i o n was contemporaneous with or s l i g h t l y l a t e r than the i n t r u s i o n of the d l o r i t e porphyry dykes.  These dykes are post  lower Cretaceous In age and are t e n t a t i v e l y placed In the o l i g o oene p e r i o d .  CD F.W.Olarke  says t h a t  w  high temperatures,  the chemical a c t i v i t y of water and mechanical s t r e s s e s a l l work t o g e t h e r t o b r i n g about the formation of serfoite,"  Since the  s e r i o l t e occurs only in contact with the ore d e p o s i t s these must have been depositee at high temperatures.  There i s the p o s s i -  b i l i t y t h a t the s e r i c i t i z a t l o n occurred before the deposition of t r « t but the time i n t e r v a l , i f any, was very s h o r t , as Btated i n the preceding paragraph. Chlloo & Tatlayoko l a k e s . A few small seams of s t l b n i t e in a s s o c i a t i o n (2) with g r a n i t i c dykes occur on the west side of Chiloo lake about five miles south of Hemiah V a l l e y . Antimony occurs In the s t e e p l y dipping and highly metamorphosed T r i a s s i c sediments at the south end of Tatlayoko l a k e .  There are two veins varying in width from a few  inohes t o 4 f e e t or more.  The upper vein s t r i k e s S 10 W, and dips  ( 1 ) f#W,0larke U.S.G.S. B u l l . 695, 1920, p , 5 9 * . (2) A,M,Bateman, O.S.O. S, 1?12, p . 1 8 6 , {$) Examined by the w r i t e r . •  N t E,, while the lower vein strikes approximately H 40. wV and haa a varying dip to the H.E.  The vein filling consists chiefly of  quartz and auriferous stibnite and in places a few scattered fragments of the wall rock.  In one instance coarse crystal termin-  ations of quartz were found.  On close examination of the gangue  it is seen that the.quartz is frequently orystallized in elongated crystals approximately at right angles to the vein wall. These facts associated with a noticeable handing of the veins, strongly suggest deposition in open fissures. The wall rock, adjacent to the vein, has been altered to a soft yellowish green rook through which fine crystals of pyrite and araenopyrite are disseminated.  The banding is due to the distribution of the  metallic minerals pyrite, araenopyrite, sphalerite and stibnite through the quartz gangue. The pyrite, sphalerite and arsenopyrite are found chiefly along the walls of the vein, but where the vein la narrow the araenopyrite may extend as fine aoicular crystals from wall to wall.  The atibnite occurs in the inter-  crystal spaces of the quartz and as segregated masaes near the centre of the vein. There is some disseminated ore in which the minerals are more or less evenly spaced, but slight banding is also noticeable. The stibnite is either maaalve, or la found in radiating masaes of coarsely bladed ory3tala. While some occurs disseminated through the quartz, the ma$ or part la found in veins of almost pure sulphide, which vary In width from 2 or 5 inches to Ifc feet ox more. The deposit Is genetically associated with the Intrusion of araonzonitestock In the close vicinity. The presenoe  of araenopyrlte and the association of evidence Indicates deposition at Intermediate or relatively high temperature a, Portland Canal Diatriot, Stlhnlte Is reported In one or two instanoes la the Portland Canal Diatriot.  In one deposit it is  aa3oolated  with tetrahedrlte, galena and ohaloopyrite. Skeena River Diatriot. The Skeena River Diatriot is underlain by the laielton Group, the Skeena ooal bearing series and the Buckley Bruptivea.  These latter rooks intrude the two former series.  "The Intrusive granitio masses of the Buckley Eruptives have everywhere played an Important part in the deposition of ore (1) bodies." These eruptive rocks are provisionally placed In the Tertiary but may be older, but they cannot be older than Lover Cretaoeoua as the Skeena Series of that age la out by them. The atibnite occurs 5 miles from Hazelton between Sixmile and Fourmile Creeks.  "The ore is developed along  the oontaot of the seaimentarles and the granite; the hanging wall is highly metamorphosed sandstone and the footwall la granite. On the foot wall the ore oonsista of white quartz with small quantities of disseminated galena, while on the hanging wall the mineralisation is muoh heavier, there being 18 inches to 2 feet of almost solid sulphides of antimony, lead, arsenic, silver and copper and a little white quarts gangue; there is also a little free tulphur." (1) W.W.Leaoh. G.S.O.  S 1?09,  vM.  70. Other than stlbnite and galena, no definite sulphides are mentioned.  This Information ia too vague to draw  any reasonable oonoluslona aa to the temperature of formation of the deposit. Atlln Dlstrlot. Stlbnite occurs 10 mile a north of Golden date  Taku *TTQ, in nearly flat lying, fine textured ahalea of  the Laberg Series (Jura-Ore taoeous).  The vein varies in width  from 3 to 5 feet and is, in general, conformable with the bedding planes of the shales. There are in addition a number of veinlets, within 6 feet of the upper wall of the main Tela, which vary la width from a fraction to 2 or 3 Inches. The vein material Is either quarts or alternating bands of quarts and shales; the latter, at times, oooupying as much as one half the vein. The quarts is usually heavily mineralised with stlbnite and a little galena. At the Engineer Mine,  (2)  10 miles south of  Golden Gate, D.D.Oairnes r e p o r t s native antimony in a s s o c i a t i o n with n a t i v e gold, t e l l u r i d e s , p y r i t e and limonlte in a quarts gangue.  Ho other antimony minerals are mentioned.  The d e p o s i t  i s of importance for I t s gold v a l u e s . Taken T e r r i t o r y , In the Tukon T e r r i t o r y s t l b n i t e occurs in the Wheaton River, a h i t e h e r s e and Oonrad mining d i s t r i c t s ,  ( 1 ) D.D.Oairnes, G.8.O.. It.37. W 3 . P . l l * . ( 2 ) D.D.Oairnes, G.S.C., 3 1*10. P . 3 7 .  71. The antimony of the Wheaton  (1)  d i s t r i c t occurs  in a more or l e a s l o c a l i s e d area, f& miles long by lk miles wide, extending from the c r e s t of Ghiefton H i l l eastward to the eastern l i m i t of Carbon H i l l .  The g r e a t e r number of d e p o s i t s are found  on the Western 3lope of Carbon H i l l , The rocks of the d i s t r i c t , in which the dep o s i t s occur, are the J u r a s s i c Coast Range granodiorite and the overlying l a t e Oretaoeous or e a r l y T e r t i a r y voleanice c o n s i s t i n g of a n d e s i t i o dykes, s t o c k s , s h e e t s , flows, t u f f s and b r e c c i a s , The d e p o s i t s are fissure veins occurring in both the granodiorite and the e a r l y T e r t i a r y volcanicsj the most p e r s i s t e n t f i s s u r e s being in the g r a n i t i c rock.  They vary from  2 laches t o 6 f e e t , the b e t t e r d e p o s i t s averaging 1 to 3 f«et 1% width with very l i t t l e a l t e r a t i o n of the wall rook.  The vein  f i l l i n g i s mainly quartz with minor amounts of b a r i t e and c a l o l t e although in p l a c e s i t i s c h i e f l y s t i b n i t e with which there maybe associated minor amounts of s p h a l e r i t e and jamesonite* The quartz i s often massive with no c r y s t a l form but i t  frequent-  l y occurs in large c r y s t a l s p o i n t i n g toward the centre and forming t y p i c a l comb s t r u c t u r e .  The b a r i t e and o a l o i t e are g r a n u l a r ,  Layers of gouge from 1/8 inch t o 1/4 inoh t h i n k are found on both walls of the vein, but there are no fragments of the wall rook in the v e i n . The m e t a l l i c minerals are s t i b n i t e ,  Jamesonitei  grey copper, argentiferous galena, s p h a l e r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e .  (1) D.D.Cairnes, 0 , 3 . 0 .  M. 3 1 , p . 1 1 3 .  72, The s t l b n i t e occurs e i t h e r as columnar r a d i a t i n g c r y s t a l s or p u r e l y granular, with a l l v a r i a t i o n s between the two.  Sphaler-  i t e and Jamesonite are commonly associated with the s t l b n i t e while the galena i s disseminated through the gangue.  The grey  copper i s in s c a t t e r e d grains associated with the s t i b n i t e and galena, but some veins c o n s i s t e n t i r e l y of quartz» galena and grey copper.  The ores high in antimony may be low in s i l v e r and  v l a a - v e r s a , but high values of both occur in the same p l a c e . Although the s i l v e r i s more commonly associated with the galena the stibnite i s also silver bearing. The oxidation of the ores i s very l i m i t e d , The oxide minerals are s t i b i o o n i t e , lead carbonate and m a l a c h i t e . There l a l i t t l e or no secondary enrichment. The presence of comb quartz in the centre of some v e i n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t deposition may have taken place in open f i s s u r e s but at intermediate temperatures, a s shown by the associated minerals. In h i s r e p o r t on the same d i s t r i c t in 1915» (1) D.D.Cairnes  says "The veins a l l occupy f i s s u r e s in the contain-  ing rooks which are for the most p a r t the Coast Eange g r a n l t i o Intruaives,  Occasional v e i n s , however, are found in the Mesozoio  a n d e s i t i c rooks which are older than the Ooast Range i n t r u s i v e s . " The r e s t of t h i s r e p o r t agrees with h i s previous work, but in t h i s he appears t o d i f f e r , 'ihitehorse District,  (1) D,D,Oairnes,W. 3 1?15. P.46,  73. The vftiitehorse Copper Belt  (1)  is charaoter-  ized by oontaot metamorphlo deposits in limestone at and near the contact of a granite intrusive. The deposits are found in both the limestone and the granite, which has been highly altered in these deposits, The constituent minerals are typical of oontaot deposits; the more common are; magnetite, hematite, bornite, ohaloopyrite, garnet, epidote, augite, scapolite, tremolite, aotin elite, quartz and calcite,  The less common metallic minerals are  tetrahedrite, chalcooite, molybdenite, araenopyrite, galena, atibnite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, zinc blende and rarely free gold, (Jonrad District, (2) The ores of Windy Arm  occur in the Windy  Arm Series consisting of volcanic rooks, both intrusive and extrusive which oat and lie upon the Ooast Range Batholith of Jurassic age. The ores ooour in true fissure veins filled with quarts. The stibnite is associated with arsenopyrite and pyrite* Jameaonlte is found in association with galena, arsenopyrite. ohal eopyrite and pyrite, 6, Rooks with which Antimony Ores are Associated, (a) Igneous, Antimony ores are commonly associated with Igneous rocks of intermediate acidity such as diorites, quarts diorites, monsonites and quartz monzonites; they are also genetioally related to granites. These rocks may be either plutonio. hypabbysal or extrusive. The mineral deposition may ooour either  [  1) R.G.MoConnell. S.S.O. Z) D.D.Oairnes. G.S.C.  1050, 190?, P.20-J2. S - 1908.  74. in the igneous rook itself, along its intrusive contacts* or within the intruded rooks at varying diatanoes from the igneous contact* (b) Effect of Wall Hook on Deposition. The chemical composition of the wall rook has little or no effect upon the deposition of antimony ores, but their physical properties influence the structure of the veins. The exceptions are the metasomatic replacement deposits in limestone . 7. Classification of Antimony Deposits. (a) Geological Conditions under i&lch Antimony scours. In considering the geological conditions under which antimony occurs, it should be kept in mind that the association of minerals found in any vein, may not be of contemporaneous deposition, but may represent a sequence in deposition or even distinot epochs of mineralization. Such sequences and breaks in mineralization might result in marked differences of temperature at which the various minerals were deposited. Thus stibnite might be associated with typical high temperature minerals, yet it may have been deposited under intermediate or even low temperature conditions and visa versa, in many of the reports contained in this thesis no mention was made of any sequence or break in the mineralization so that any e lass i float ion of antimony deposits, based on these reports, must be accepted with the reservation that the mineral association, found in the deposits, has been formed contempora-  75. neou3ly or if a sequence or break in mineralization occurred, it waa of auoh a character as not to alter the conditions of temperature to any large degree. In disoussing the temperatures of deposition the conditions of pressure, existing at such a time, must alao be considered.  Pressure is of importance only when the mineral sol-  utions contain volatile constituents or gases which render them the natural solvents of any contained minerals.  In this oase a  alight decrease in pressure might be of vital importance in allowing auoh constituents to escape which would result in the deposition of the otherwise soluable minerals. Pressure is naturally of groat importance in veins formed above 565"C as this is the oritioal temperature of water, but relatively few antimony deposits are formed at auoh temperatures. The natural solvent of antimony is an alkaline solution. The above evidence strongly suggests that pressure is of minor importance in the deposition of antimony ores. Suoh a conclusion is substantiated by the formation of stibnite at Steamboat Springs, Nevada, where this mineral is being deposited in gravels >0 feet below the present surface. Lindgren draws an analogy, in formation, between the Steamboat Spring deposit and that found in a conglomerate in Iron Qounty, Utah. From this it is the writer's opinion that the important factors governing the deposition of antimony minerals are changes in temperature and alkalinity of the solutions carrying the antimony.  In this It must not be assume" that the deposition  is confined to any one particular zone of temperature, because stibnite and other antimony minerals occur In both contact meta-  •16.;  morphio and low temperature d e p o s i t s , but the evidence suggests t h a t the important commercial d e p o s i t s have been formed a t i n t e r mediate temperatures or s l i g h t l y lower, ( b ) Proposed C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A, Contact Metamorphio Deposits, B. High Temperature Vein Deposits, 0. Intermediate Temperature Deposits, (1) Metasomatio Replacements. (8) Fissure or Shear Zone Deposits, 3J» low Temperature Deposits, E, Sulfotario Deposits, A, Contact Metamorphio Depositsi So far as known the contact metamorphio deposits in which antimony minerals occur, are few in number. The only definite occurrence is at Simapan, Mexico, where Jamesonite is found in association with contact metamorphio minerals. In the Whitehorse district, British Columbia, atibnite occurs with contact metamorphio minerals. Other uncertain occurrences are to be found in Sardinia, Alaska, Skeena district, British Columbia, and South Ham, Quebec, B, High Temperature D e p o s i t s . few typically high temperature minerals oocur in association with antimony minerals. Such minerals as tin, soheelite, pyrrhotite and tourmaline are, however, found in antimony bearing deposits in Mexico, Sardinia, Alaska and the Arabia District, Hevada, respectively.  Of these deposits that in Sardinia is the  77. only one mined for i t a antimony c o n t e n t .  The depoait i n the  Arabia D i s t r i c t , Hevada, oonaiata of highly oxidized a r g e n t i f e r ous Jamesonite. 0, Intermediate Temperature Depoait3, (1) llndgren s t a t e 3 t h a t in t h i a type of depoait, "The a e t a l a contained are p r i n c i p a l l y gold and s i l v e r , often with large amounts of oopper, lead and z i n o .  In the deep-seated de-  p o s i t s molybdenum, bismuth tungsten and arsenic are not uncommon a s s o c i a t e s ; we find the same metals here* though they are much l e s s prominent; in addition there i s also much antimony and l a plasms t e l l u r i u m .  The ore minerals are sulphides, a r s e n i d e s ,  sulphantlmonidea and sulpharaenides.  P y r i t e , ohaloopyrite, a r -  s e n o p y r i t e , galena, zino blende,, t e t r a h e d r i t e . t e n n a n t i t e and n a t i v e gold are the most common and on the whole there i s not mush Variety and complexity. . . . The m e t a l l i o minerals develop both in the f i l l i n g and In the a l t e r e d oountry rook, but in the f i s s u r e veins proper i t i s common t o find the v a l u a b l t ores mainly in the f i l l e d  spaces.  The dominating gangue mineral i s q u a r t z ,  bat carbonates are a l s o common, such as o a l o i t e , dolomite, and a n k e r l t e , more r a r e l y s l d e r l t e ; f l u o r i t e and b a r i t e are occasiona l l y of importance, ohaloedony and opal are r a r e l y found," It i s the w r i t e r ' s b e l i e f t h a t a large majority of the d e p o s i t s described in the foregoing pages would come under t h i s classification.  (1)  Lindgren - Mineral Deposits, 1?19. P . 5 * 7 .  78. D. Low Temperature Deposits. Deposits of t h i s type are somewhat oommon and are often a s s o c i a t e d with oinnabar, t h i s l a t t e r mineral being of more importance than the antimony compounds.  Such deposits are found in  Germany, France, Mexico, United S t a t e s and Alaska. B. S u l f o t a r i c D e p o s i t s . An example of t h i s type of deposit i s given in Pereta, south Tuscany. Attention should be c a l l e d to the formation of s t i b n i t e a t Steamboat S p r i n g s .  Here t h i s mineral i s forming from hot spring  waters which permeate gravels 30 feet below the s u r f a c e .  It is  in a olas3 by i t s e l f and might be c l a s s i f i e d under "Deposits formed from Hot Spring Waters, at or near the s u r f a c e . "  An ana-  logy between t h i s deposit and one in Iron County, Utah, I s drawn by Llndgren. S t i b n i t e i s also found in p l a c e r s in Alaska and Hew Zealand,  I t accompanies t y p i c a l p l a c e r minerals as g a r n e t , mag-  n i t i t e , gold, e t c . , but such p l a c e r s are formed a t short d i s t a n ces from the souroe of the s t i b n i t e , 8, Age of Antimony Deposits. Antimony d e p o s i t s have been formed during many p e r i o d s throughout geologloal t i m e .  Moat of the d e p o s i t s border-  ing the A t l a n t i c appear t o have developed p r i o r to the Carboniferous p e r i o d .  Important exceptions are d e p o s i t s in Tuscany  which are associated with Quaternary volcanism.  The antimony  d e p o s i t s bordering the P a c i f i c ooean have a large range in geol o g i c a l time, but a great many have been formed since Cretaceous  79. time.  The antimony depoaita of Alaska, B r i t i s h Ooluiribia and  Herada are mainly of T e r t i a r y age. oocur in Hew Zealand.  Deposits of similar age  This T e r t i a r y antimony mineralization ia  mainly connected with vuloanism and deposition has ocourred at varying depths hut at temperatures ranging from high temperatures to sulfotario deposition.  80. 9. Bibliography. Agrioola,  De Ke Me t a l l i c a .  I556.  A g u i l e r a , J . G . G e o l , D i s t r i b u t i o n of M i n e r a l D e p o s i t s i n Mexico, T r a n s . Am.Inst.Min.Eng, V o l . 3 2 , 1902, p . 5 0 7 . Ashley, G.H, P r o o . A m . P h i l o s , Soo, V o l . 36, I 8 9 7 . P.30&. Askwith, W,R. West Gore Antimony D e p o s i t s , Min.Soc, of U . S . 1 9 0 1 , Aubury, I . E . " S t r u c t u r a l and I n d u s t r i a l M a t e r i a l s of C a l i f , " C a l i f . S t a t e Min.Bur.  B u l l . 3 8 , 13» 19Q&, p . 3 7 8 .  B a n c r o f t , M.F, Southern Larde&u, Sloean D i s t r i c t , B . C . G,S.C. B a i l e y , L.W.  S 1917 B . p , 4 0 .  D i s c o v e r y of s t i b n i t e I n U.B.  Am, J o u r n . S c . Vol.35» I 8 6 3 , p . 1 5 0 . Balnard» R , L . Antimony Mining i n t h e Coeur d ' Alene D i s t r i c t . I d a h o . Min. World, V o l , 4 4 , I 9 U , p . 3 5 1 - 3 5 3 . Bastin, E#S,  Antimony i n 1 9 1 6 . U . S . G . S . M i n . R e s . 191&.P.723.  Bateman, A»M, 1 , E x p l o r a t i o n between L i l l o o e t and Chilco Lake. 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