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Antimony 1925

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ANTIMONY by William Vickers Smitheringale A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in the Department of GEOLOGY The University of British Columbia. April 1925 1 ANTIMONY by William Vickers Smitheringale A Thesis submitted f o r the Degree of MASTER OH1 APPLIED SCIENCE l a the Department of GEOLOGY The University of British Columbia APRIL, 1925 ANTIMONY Page I. INTRODUCTION . 1 II. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . .'• 2 III, HISTORICAL SKETCH 3 IV, SOURCES OF ANTIMONY 4 V. CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OF ANTIMONY 3 VI, USES OF ANTIMONY . . . 6 1. Alloys . . . . . . . . . . 7 2. Artificial Chemical Compounds . . , . . 8 3. Uaea of Antimony in their Relative Importance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. Substitutes, , 10 VII. METALLURGY OF ANTIMONY U 1. Mechanical Concentration . . . . . . . 11 2. Smelting . . . . . . . . . 12 (a) Ores Containing more than 40% Stibnite 12 (b) Ores Containing less than 40% stibnite 13 (o) Refining . , U 3. Eleotrolitio Recovery 15 VIII. MARKETING OF ANTIMONY 15 IX. GEOLOGY OF ANTIMONY . . , 1? 1. Natural Compounds . , . 19 2, Ore a of Antimony , 20 (a) Those used for Reoorery of Antimony 20 (b) Those mineu for Valuable Associated Minerals 22 IX. GEOLOGY Of AHTIMOHY. (oon t inued) 3 . Associated Minerals . , 4 . Oxidation of Antimony Ores. . , 5 . Ooourrenoe and Dis t r ibu t ion of Antimony Deposits in the Various Countr ies . (a (* (c (a ( • ( * (g < * ( i o (k ( i (m (n (o (P (Q ( r (a ( t (* China. . . . . . . . . . . . France. . . . . . . . . . . Mexico. , Austria-Hungary and Bohemia, A u s t r a l i a . . , . , , , , , , Germany. , . . . . . . . , , Russia . , . . . . . . . . . Norway. . . , . . . . , . . Portugal Spain . , I t a l y Serbia . . . . . . . . . . . Asia Minor and Turkey. . . . Alger ia . , , , . South Africa. . . . . . . . Hew Zealand , . , , Borneo Japan . , . Peru. , . Bolivia United States. . . . . . . . 22 23 27 28 29 31 33 3* 5* 57 37 37 37 57 38 40 41 42 43 46 46 47 47 47 Page IX. QfiOLOGY OF AflTIMOST. (oontinued). 5 . Oocurrenoe and Dis t r ibu t ion oi Antimony Deposits in the Various Countr ies , (oontinued). ( r ) Alaska 58 (w) Canada ^2 6 . Rocks with whioh Antimony Ores are Aasooiated. . 73 (a) Igneous. . . .  f . . . . . . 73 (b) gffeot of Wall Rook on Deposition. . . 7* 7. Classifioation of Antimony Deposits. 74 (a) Geologioal Conditions under whioh Antimony ooours 74 (b) Proposed Classifioation 7*> 8. Age of Antimony Deposits. 78 9. Bibliography 80 MAP. ASTIMOHY. I. IJJTBODUCTIO*. The present thesis was written at the University of British Columbia, in the Department of Geology, under the direction of Dean R. W. Brock. The writer is indebted to Dr. W. L. Uglow, Professor of Mineralogy, The University of British Columbia, for helpful suggestion and criticisms in regard to the subject matter in this report. The first part of the thesis is a brief outline of the sources, properties and uses of antimony and the methods of extracting antimony from its ores. This is not complete in every detail, but is intended to give the reader a general conception of antimony in the commercial world. A brief sum- mary of the economics of antimony is included. While this deals onlv' with the outstanding points, it may be of some use in comparing antimony with other metals ontthe commercial market. The latter part treats with the 'Geology of Anti- mony* . The information oontained in this thesis, is of necessity derived from the reports of others. In summarizing and arranging this subject matter the writer has attempted to bring out the important facts contained in the reports and has give only sufficient detail to illustrate the various points. The reader is referred to the bibliography if he should require further details of any of the reports contained herein. 2. II. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. Prior to the war Great Britain was the chief smelter of antimony ores, hut slnoe then the Chinese and Japan- ese have obtained control of the American market. China is the largest antimony producer! capable of supplying the world demand, while America and Great Britain are the ohief consumers. Stibnite is the principal ore of antimony although its oxidation products, cervantite, kermeaite, valentinite, stibiconlte and native antimony may also he of importance. These oxides may al30 he derived from other antimony minerals as jame- sonlte. Workable antimony ores occur in Mexico, California, Nevada, Canada, Alaska, Japan, China, Borneo, Australia. New Zealand, South Africa* Asia Minor, Algiers* Italy, Sardinia, Corsica, Prance, Spain and Portugal, Stibnite and other antimony minerals may occur in association with gold, silver* lead* etc., and in such eases the associated metal may be of more importance and the deposit worked for such rather than for the antimony. Antimony minerals are deposited from rising thermal alkaline solutions, originating in an igneous magma. They have a wide range of temperature distribution, being found in oontaot metamorphlo deposits and in those now forming at the surface from hot spring waters. The deposits of economic isiportanee for their antimony content are believed to have been formed principally at intermediate temperatures. Antimony minerals are genetically associated with 3 . Igneous rooks of the granite, monzonite or diorite groups and are, perhaps, somewhat more abundant with the more aoidio types . I I I . HISTORICAL SKETCH. Stibnite has been known sinoe very early times, e s - pec ia l ly in the Eastern countries, where women have used i t for many oenturles to darken their eyebrows and eyelashes and to add lustre to the eyes . Reference i s made to i t in the Old Testament, and the Arabs called I t "Kohl". The Greek Dioscorides refers to I t as +rrts,ri »'; Pliny as "Stibium"? Geber aa "Antimoniura" and the German writes i t as "Speisaglana". The derivation of the word antimony i s not knows. Antimony, as an element, was f i r s t isolated in 14c0 (1) A.D., by Basi l Valentine. In I556 A.D., Agrioola desoribes s trcral methods of assaying for antimony, and for the reoovery of the metal from i t s ores. Following I t s i so lat ion in 14&0 A.D., antimony was extensively used as a medicinal agent, but as such i t became so badly abused that in I566 the Parisian Government prohibited i t s use in medicines. Agrioola mentions i t s use in al loys such as type metal. Sinoe Agrioola's time the demand for antimony has increased in proportion as new properties and uses of the metal have been discovered. from 18«7 - 1911 the average world production of antimony metal per year* from i t s ores, was s l i g h t l y in excess of 10,000 metric tons with an average price of 7 .5 / per pound. (1) De Be Metallioa. 4 . Prom 1911 - 1914 the production inoreased from 15,000 to 22,000 metric tons per year with the pr ice remaining a t 7,5^ per pound. During the war the production increased tremendously, reaching a maximum of 82,000 metric tons in 1916. Prom then u n t i l 1920 the output gradually decreased to 20,000 metric tons per year . Since then the antimony ores have supplied, on an average, about 17,000 metric tons y e a r l y . The pr ice of antimony since 1914 t o the present has been very e r a t i c . I t reached i t s maximum of 32^ per pound in 1915 and then declined to 8̂ f per pound in I919. Sinoe then the monthly pr ice has been very uns tab le , f luc tua t ing a great deal between 5 / to 19^ per pound. The above data do not include the amount of antimony which la recovered from hard lead and scrap, which amounts to 5,600 metric tons annually in the U.S.A. IV. SOURCES OP AHTIMOHT. Besides being ext rac ted from i t s o res , antimony i s der ived, to a considerable ex ten t , from antimonial lead, a biproduot from smelting s i l ve r - l ead ores containing some an- timony. I t i s a lso recovered from sorap dross and other waste ma te r i a l s , and to a s l i gh t extent from some copper o res . (1) V, CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OP AKTIMOHY. 1, Antimony is a silver white, crystalline, brittle metal with a white lustre. Its specifio gravity is 6.7 - b.86, hardness 3 - 3.5 and it melts at 432° 0 and bolls between 1090° and 1600°C. (1) Dictionary Applied Chem. Thorpe. Vol.1, p.280. 3. 2, I t expands on so l id i fy ing from a mel t . 2 . Antimony oomhinea r ead i ly with raetala suoh aa t i n , oopper, zinc and lead, and imparts to i t a alloys^ (a) hardness (h) makes them more re slatant to acid and alka- line solutions. This is important in chem- ical worka, pump manufacture and water pipes, (o) The property of expanding on solidification from a melt. This ia important in castings and type manufacture. 4. Quite stable in air at ordinary temperatures, hut when heated in air or oxygen to a red heat, it hurna to the trioxide Sh703 with the production of denae white fumes, 5. Burns in chlorine, especially If powdered. 6. Decomposes steam at red heat. 7. Dissolves in all warm, oonoentrated strong acids as nitric sulphuric and hydrochloric; dilute hydrochloric and sulphuric adds do not affect antimony hut nitric acid reacts with it under all conditions forming the various oxides; hy- drochloric and sulphuric acids form the chloride and sulphate respectively. It is soluble in alkaline solutions. 8. Coef. of expansion .64 x 10 per degree P. 9. Tensile strength of oast antimony about 1,000 lbs. per sq. in. 10. Comparatively a poor conductor of hear and eleotri- oity. 1 1 . Diamagnetio. 6. 12. Marked thermo electric properties and used in man- ufacture of thermopiles. 13. Poisonous. Acts very similar to arsenic in this respect, 14. Included in the same family as phosphorus, nitrogen, arsenic and bismuth, VI. USES OF ASTIMOHT. (1) "The peace time uses of antimony are many, hut only a few require large quantities of the metal. ... its field of uses, however, exclusive of abnormal war demand, is widening and the consumption is increasing." The unalloyed metallic metal has a few Industrial uses, such aa in the manufacture of pigments, and in producing a metallic finish on pottery. The chief use of antimony, how- ever, is in alloy with other metals, w "The antimony oxides are used chiefly for making white enamel and glass, the oxides and sulphides aa coloring agents and pigments, and the sulphides in vulcanizing rubber. The oxide is used also in proportions up to lk% in the manufac- ture of litharge... It is used in making oollodial products employed in medicine and surgery, in tanning, in the prepara- tion of oosmetlos, for the protection of plants and for the Impregnation of wood fabrics.'* (1) Mineral Resources, U.S.&.S., part 1, p.284, 1?23. (2) Mineral Resources, U.S.G.S., part 1, p.284, I923, 7. 1. Alloys of Antimony. Antimony al loys with most of the heavy and the alkaline metals. It generally increases the hardness, b r i t t l e - nesa and f u s i b i l i t y of the metals with whloh i t alloys, and Im- parts to them the valuable property of expanding on solid i f i - oation. The al loys of gold, s i l v e r and lead have a greater density than the ir mean constituents, while those of iron, t i n and s l a t are of l e s s density than the ir mean const i tuents . (1) Alloys with Lead. (a) Type metal. This Is e s sent ia l ly an al loy of lead and antimony with sometimes minor amounts of t i n , bismuth or copper. (b) Hard Lead composed of varying amounts of lead and antimony I s used in manufacture of load pumps, pipes and valves where they must r e s i s t acid and alkaline so lut ions . (o) Antimonial Lead, i s used a great deal in storage bat ter i e s . Alloys with Tin. (a) Britannia metal. Essentially tin and antimony with minor amount of copper. Increasing th<% antimony increases the hardness, raises the melting point and reduoes the maleabillty of the alloy. It Is used in oastings, domestic utensils and as a base (1) Dictionary of Applied Chem. Thorpe Vol.1. 8. for electroplating; i t i s harder than pewter and i s replacing that a l loy . (b) Bearing or Antifriction Metal. The better grades contain antimony, t i n and copper in Tarying proportions. These alloys are soft , malleable, and are capable of standing re la t ive ly high temperatures without fusing. Alloys with Copper. Frequently added to copper and brass to in- tens i fy their co lor . These compounds are harder, f iner in texture and take a better pol ish than brass or copperv and for t h i s reason are often used in copper mirrors and re f l ec tors . Alleys with z inc. forms crysta l l ine compounds differing widely in composition bat retaining the same form. They decompose water rapidly at boi l ing temperature and giro a possible source of pure hydrogen. Alloys with Aluminium. These al loys expand on solidifying* are hard and fa ir ly malleable and are unaltered by air or water at ordinary temperatures; they are also l i g h t . (1) P. Ar t i f i c ia l Chemical Compounds. Antimony unites direct ly with the halogen group (1) Dictionary of Applied Chera. Thorpe Vol .1 . 9. with the evolution of heat and l i g h t ; with hydrogen giving SbH3 ( s t i b i n e ) a oolor leaa , poisonous gas with an Offensive smell; and a lso with araenio and phosphorus. Antimony Trisulphlde Sb^ S3 , Used to some extent in the re f in ing of gold from s i l v e r and copper. I t i s a lso used in the p re - pa ra t ion of safe ty matches, percussion-caps, pyro- techny and ve te r ina ry surgery. Antimony Pentasulphlde Sb̂ , S^ , Used in the vulcanizing of rubber, and as a yellow color in a r t p a i n t i n g s , g lass and ceramic i n d u s t r i e s . Antimony t r i c h l o r i d e So Gl 3 , Used as a caus t i c in medicines; in the man- ufacture of Tar ta r Emetic, and in bronzing gun bar re l s« Antlmoncous Oxide Sb4 Q6, Used for phanaaoetieal purposes; p repara t ion of Tartar emetic and as a subs t i t u t e for white lead , Tar ta r Emetic; A Potassium Antemonium Tar tara te Used in medicines and pomades and as a mor- dant in dying. (1) 3 , Uses of Antimony in t h e i r Helatlve Importance, 1, Babbit metal , 2 , Hard lead including p ipes , e t c . (1) Eng. * Mln. Journ. Press Sept,27y24. 10, 3. Soft metal alloys and aolder. 4. Type and Type metal. 5. Vulcanizing rubber and rubber goods. 6. shrapnel and other bullets. 7. Speoial bearing and Antifriotion metals. 8. Battery Plates. 9. Enamel on Metal ware, 10, Cable coverings, 11, Chemicals, paints and pigments, 12, Brass including bronze. 13, Britannia metal, 14, Collapsible Tubes, 15, Foil. 16, Useo" in Pyrotechnics as a f i l l e r , 17, Used in manufacture of thermopi les , IB. tJsefi as a poison and in t h i s respect ac t s very much l ike a r s e n i c . The above i s for the war years of 1917 and 1918, If a census of today were made there would be a decrease in the demand for shrapnel and other b u l l e t s , and an increase in i t s use for hard l ead , b a t t e r y p l a t e s , rubber industry* cable cover- ings , e t c . (1) 4, Substitutes, "There are a number of other metals or materials which will harden lead and therefore oan be used as substitutes (1) Mineral Resources, Part 1, p.286, 1923. 1 1 . for antimony in lead a l l o y s , hut antimony i3 cheaper than most of the s u b s t i t u t e s , and as the antimony deposi ts of the world are abundant in proport ion to the consumption of the ore, the course of industry seems more l i k e l y to develop new uses for antimony." "Of the ten or more known subs t i t u t e s for antimony, the best found in reoent years i s a combination of oaloium and barium The prooess i s e l e c t r o l y t i c , and calcium-barium-lead a l loys are now made on an extensive s c a l e . " Other s u b s t i t u t e s for antimony are barium and bismuth; for the antimony exides , t i n oxldt and other white oxides may be used in pa in t s and p ig - ments; pure lead sulphide and iron sulphide may be used as s u b s t i t u t e s for antiaony sulphide in primers of she l l s and ca r - t r i d g e s . VII . SffiTALLUHGY OP AHTIHOIX. 1. 1'echanioal Concentration. The ore of antimony, usual ly s t i b n i t e , may be e i t h e r reduoed d i r e c t l y or f i r s t subjected to meohanioal con- (1) oen t ra t ion . The concentrat ion of s t i b n i t e i s very d i f f i c u l t because s t i b n i t e i s extremely f r i ab le and slimes very badly . I t i s impossible to save these slimes by any known g rav i t a t i ona l p roces s . The best recovery of antimony l a obtained by employ- ing a f loa ta t ion prooess , (1) Lake George Antimony Ores and t h e i r concentra t ion, C.S. Parsons, O.M.Journ. Vol,45, October 5/24, p .984 , 12. 2. Smelting. In the d i r e c t method, metal l ic antimony and i t s compounds are nearly always extracted from the ores by (1) dry methods. According to t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y for the several methods of treatment* the ores f a l l in to two c l a s s e s ; sulphide ores containing more than 4Q% s t i b n i t e ; and sulphide ores con- t a in ing l e s s than 40% s t i b n i t e and oxide ores of a l l grades. This l a t t e r c l a s s includes l iqu ida t ion res idues and flue de- p o s i t s . ( a ) Ores Containing more than 40% S t i b n i t e . If the ores contain more than 90% of the sulphide* no prel iminary treatment i s neoessary, but i f t h e i r content ia lower than t h i s they are f i r s t put through a p ro - cess of w l iqua t ion" in which the sulphide i s melted and allowed to run away from the gangue. The temperature of l iqua t ion must be carefu l ly regulated, as too high a temperature causes excessive loss by v o l a t i l i z a t i o n , and too low a temperature r e s u l t s in a low recovery of the sulphide . In the English method the ore i s ground to the size of hazel nuts or smaller and then subjected to two processes before r e f i n i n g . The f i r s t process ia ca r r i ed on in c ruc ib les in reverbera tory furnaoes. Each crucible holds 42$ ore* 1&# iron scrap* 4$ s a l t and Xf a lag from "doubling". This charge i s kept in a s t a t e of fuaion for t*o or three hours, a t the end of which time the antimony i s removed from beneath (1) Dictionary of Applied Ohera, Thorpe Vol, 1, 1 3 . the s lag and poured in to moulds. This product i s known as "s ing les" and contains about J\% Sb. The second process i s ca r r ied on in s imilar c ruc ib les and furnaoes as above. The charge to each crucible i s 84$ broken s ing le s , 7-8f l iquated sulphide and 4# s a l t . The whole i s kept in a s t a te of fusion for lfc hours; the completion of the operation being determined by the nature of the s l a g . The s lag i s removed by lad les and the product i s run into moulds and l a t e r re f ined . This product i s known as "bowl metal", or " • t a r bowls". The losses in the English process , by v o l a t i l i z a t i o n are small, ranging from 2% to 5%. (b) Ores Containing l e s s than 40^ S t i b n i t e . The ores of t h i s type are roasted e i t h e r t o the non v o l a t i l e te t roxide or the v o l a t i l e t r i o x i d e , or are sub- jected to one of the d i rec t reduction processes , A process that la becoming ftuite popular and which has marked advantage i s the "Vola t i l i za t ion process" , in which there i s continuous roas t ing oi' the ore to the t r iox ide (Sb 2 0 5 ) , The oxidation to the t r iox ide takes place a t about 400° 0 with the careful ly regulated amount of a i r . Any one of the modern fume condensing systems may be employed to condense the fumes, according as i t . is thought to be best sui ted to the purpose. With sui table condensing apparatus t h i s process has marked advantages, e spec ia l ly with poor o r e s . I t may be noted tha t any arsenio i s separated as the more v o l a t i l e t r i - 14. oxide and any gold or silver ia left in the residue and may he extracted later. There is no loss of antimony and the fuel consumption is low. For the volatilisation prooeas the ideal ore i3 (1) from 15% to 25% Sb. Ores above 40% antimony are liquatedas well aa volatilize^ The liquated sulphide forma an oxysulphlde with the trioxide, whiah is known as antimony glass, which oauses fritting in the lower part of the furnaoe. If ores of over 50% Sb are used, then 30% - 50% excess coke is required to volatilize all the atlbnite. (2) (0) Refining. The unrefined antimony contains sulphur, i ron , a rsenic and sometimes copper and lead; the sulphur and i ron being most p l e n t i f u l , 2-10% and 0-5% re spec t ive ly . The other impur i t ies seldom exceed 1,5% combined. All these impur i t i e s , except lead, may be r e - moved by slagging with oxidizing, sulphurizing and ch lo r ina t ing agents . Glauber s a l t and charcoal remove copper and iron as sulphides and arsenic as sodium a r a e n i t e . Antimony oxysulphlde el iminates the sulphur. Chlorides as s a l t and o a r n a l l i t e must be used with caution aa great loss by v o l a t i l i z a t i o n may occur. Pure antimony, on sol id i fy ing has a beaut i fu l fern leaf or »*starrt on the sur face , The qua l i ty of the ingot may be determined by the length and form of t h i s s t a r , as re l a - (1) O.Y. Wang. Trans . Am. I n s t , of Win. Met. Bng. Vol.60 p . 5 . (2) Dictionary of applied Chem. Thorpe V o l . l , p,27&. t i v e l y small proport ions of impuri t ies wi l l prevent the metal from s t a r r i n g . Through t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y , the t rade terra " s t a r antimony" has a r i sen for good qua l i ty of antimony. 3 , E l e c t r o l i t i o Recovery, E l e o t r o l i t i o recovery from a solut ion of the Bulphide in sodium sulphide as an e l e o t r o l i t e has been proposed by the Germans, but the process has not appeared on a com- mercial aoa le , (1) Mr, W. A, Burr claims tha t by crushing an- timony ore t o 8 mesh, and then leaohing with a solut ion con- t a i n i n g 7% sodium hydroxide and 2% sodium ch lor ide , an economical recovery i s obtained. The antimony i s p rec ip i t a t ed from t h i s solut ion on s t e e l e lec t rodes by using a current den- s i t y of 8-9 amp, per s s . f t . at Z\ - 2$ v o l t s . The p r e c i p i t a t e assayed 99.94% Sb. V I I I . MARKETIHO Off AHTIKOHY. (2) "P rac t i ca l l y a l l of the refined metal known in the t rade as regulus , consumed in the United S ta tes i s imported from Ohina through the Port of Hew York, The importer s e l l s the metal e i t he r d i r e c t to consuming i n t e r e s t s or to d e a l e r s . The usua l ly minimum import l o t i s 25 gross t o n s , " "The p r inc ipa l market i s na tu r a l l y in Hew York, and the out of town buyers purchase e i t h e r through t h e i r Hew York offices or sa l e s agent* or employ the services of brokers , t o (1) Eng. & Min. Journ. Vol. 104, 1917. P.789, (2) H.K.Masters, Eng, * Min, Journ. Sept,27,1924, 1*. whom the s e l l e r then allows a brokerage of -f of 1% The p r i n c i p a l indus t r i es using antimony produots as raw mater- i a l s a r e . . . . . . i n Northwestern U. S. Very l i t t l e i s used west of the Mis s i s s ipp i . . . . a l t hough there i s a small consumption on the Pac i f ic Coas t . . .wi th d i s t r i b u t i n g cent res at San Francisco and S e a t t l e . . . . The demand for antimony i s not a seasonal one, al though. . . t he market i s usual ly more aotive in winter sn d ear ly spr ing, and again in the f a l l . , . . " The world 's average peace time consumption i s e s t i - mated at 22,000 metric tons from ore produced, of which the United Sta tes uses 10,000. Besides t h i s , the United s t a t e s consumes 2,100 tons of antimony contained in the antimonlal lead ores of domestio smelting, and 3#500 tons of antimony recovered from a l loys , scrap, dross and waste m a t e r i a l s . The spec i f ica t ions for the regulus are not c r i t i c a l , being, " that i t sha l l contain a Minimum of 99% Sb, as l i t t l e arsenic as pos s ib l e , and be uniform in q u a l i t y . When the metal i s imported no samples are taken, I t i s sold simply as prime Sb 99^ pure, and Invariably contains the guaranteed percentage ." If pure antimony i s needed for spec i f ic purposes, the buyer must analyze h i s shipment and then remove the harm- ful Ingredients himself, "The average prioe of antimony metal in Hew York for the l a s t t h i r t y years , ending I9I4 was 7,50^ pef l b , for Cookson's brand, (Engl ish) . Since t h a t year the Chinese metal has dominated the United Ftatea market, and the average prioe 17. for the ordinary metal, 99^ pure, has been:- cents per l"b. 1915 30.28 1916 25.37 1917 20.6? 1918 I.2.58 1919 8.19 cents per l b , I920 —— 8.48 1921 4,96 1922 —— 5.47 1923 7.90 1924 12.70 The accompanying graph shows the production of antimony from i t s ores , from I897 - 1923, and the corres- ponding pr ice of antimony per lb . . , Bew York. 90,000 80,000 70,000 , SO. 000 to ' P 5 0 0 0 0 40,000 230 ,000 20,000 10.000 1697 1900 ' -- "- - " • < n'c - „ f - __ h7" * / / , 1 - - ; -| idi trt - iali _— / ' i / I 1 ! 1 \ \ \ \ \ \. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \. \ \ N .-• 1905 35 o JO 2 IS * 10 % 1910 1915 1920 1923 World proJoett.H of *afr**o*f. JB37-/93S. i'scj on f V ' > « V ^ recoverable content of m:nt***»*y ore,, on a ft/no,*/\Hojforrrf\i. {**&- ' [/>**+'• . './V.*** The ah ore f igures and graph show the effeot of the war time demand on the metal antimony. The g rea t ly inf la ted pr ice atimulated production the world over, and a3 the supply gradually met the demand there was a corresponding drop in 18. p r i o e . The sudden drops in 1918, 1?19 and 1921 were oauaed by the cessat ion of h o s t i l i t i e s whioh resu l ted in a loso of a buying market. A fur ther slump in pr ice was caused by sev- e ra l of the be l l ige ren t countr ies dumping the i r excess shrapnel suppl ies on the market for t h e i r antimonial content . The grad- u a l r i s e in prioe ainoe 1921 indica tes a corresponding deplet ion of sorap supply, and a growing peace time demand for the metal . Boring 1«24 the pr ioe fluctuated a great dea l , varying from 8.25^ psr l b , to 19,^0^ per IV, In considering the pr ice of antimony two th ings should be kept in mind, (a) China i s the ohief produoer of antimony, (b) China has a s i l v e r standard eurrenoy. As the Chinese produoer i s paid in s i l v e r , then the pr ioe of Antimony wi l l vary with the gold value of s i l v e r . Other things being equal, a r i s e in the value of s i lve r w i l l be accom- panied by a corresponding r i s e in the pr ice of antimony and v i sa ve r sa . The p r inc ipa l foreign market for antimony ore i s Great Br i t a in which draws i t s supply p r i n c i p a l l y from China, Mexico and Bol iv ia , The standard ore i s & i b n i t e , the prioe of whioh va r i e s with the percentage of contained antimony, and the harmful impuri t ies p r e sen t . I f the ore i s of good qua l i t y , percentagesas low as 50% Sb are s a l e a b l e . The sulphide i s p re fe rab le , but oxides are also bought at a s l i gh t d iscount . There i s no fixed r a t i o between the pr ice of antimony as ore and tha t of market regulus , the f ina l prioe usual ly being a 1*. mutual agreement "between the buyer and s e l l e r . The usual paroe% offer ia a t l e a s t f i f t y tons* IX. GEOLOGY OF AHTIMOflY. 1 . na tu ra l Compounds. In na tu re , antimony i s found both in the nat ive s t a t e and in combination with oxygen, sulphur, a r sen ic , lead , oopper, s i l v e r and other elements. There i s a considerable va r i e ty and number of these compounds. The following l i s t contains the more common and important n a t u r a l compounds of antimony: Hative Antimony . . . . . . sb S t ib iooa i te 2 sb 0^, H^O Cervantite , » Sb* 0* Senarmontite . . . . . . . . Sb203 Valent ln i te . . . . . , , . . Sb^O, Bindheimite . . . . . . . . Pb^Sb^Q^aq Zermesite . . . . . . . . . . 2 S b ^ . S b ^ O , Stibiotantalate . . . . . . (SbO^ (Ta Sb)^ 0^ Antimonates . . . . . . . . stibnite . Sb^S, Hetastlbnite Sb2 ŝ Tetrahsdrite , . Qtt̂ sbjS, Pyrargyr i te Ag3Sb s , Stephanite « . . . Ag^Sb S., Polybasite Ag,Sb S„ Dysoraslte . . . . . . . . . Ag3Sb Bournonite . . . . . . . . H> Ou SB S5 Jamesonite . . . . . . . Pb^ Sb, Sa. Famatinite . . . . . . . Cu6 Sb^ Ŝ Boulangerite . . . . . . Wolfsbergite . . . . . . Allemontite . . . . . . Sb As3 2. Ores of Antimony. (a) Those used for Recovery of Antimony, The most Important ore of antimony i s s t i b n i t e (SbjS37l,4£ Sb ) . S t ibni ta c r y s t a l l i z e s in the orthorhombio system and i s commonly found in r a d i a t i n g groups) of p r i smat ic , acioular or bladed c r y s t a l s v e r t i c a l l y s t r i a t e d . These c r y s t a l s sometimes exhibi t a step l ike appearance on the face b(010) due to shearing of the c r y s t a l . Massive and gran* u l a r forms are also common. S t ibn i te has cleavage p a r a l l e l to b(010) l u s t r e meta l l ic - highly resplendent on fresh cleavage or c r y s t a l f aces . These soon take on a lead grey color , and in t i ne t a r n i s h to a b lackish tone; sometimes t o i redescence. Streak, lead greyj hardness 2; specif ic grav i ty 4 .$2-4 ,62 , s l i g h t l y s e o t i l e , subconcoidal f r a c t u r e . Fuses e a s i l y in candle flame. Metast ibni te i s an orange red, amorphous form of Sb,? B3 , which i s formed in calcareous s i n t e r s derived from thermal springs as a t Yellowstone na t ional Park. The oxides o e r v a n t i t e . senarmontite, v a l e n t e n i t e , kermesite and s t i b i o o n i t e , i f occurring in su f f i c ien t eoonomio 21. quantit ies , are mined by themselves. They often occur in association with st ibnite and in suoh oases are mined along with the sulphide ore, Bative antimony ooours in several places , as in Bfew Brunswick; Kern County, Calif .; Sala, Sweden; Allemont and Dauphine, France; Sarawak, Borneo. It i s believed that in a l l oases, native antimony i s an oxidation produet. It ooours f inely or coarsely granular, oompact, or In lamillar p la tes ; associated with the oxides as va lent in i te . kermesite, e t c . , and the original s t ibni te ; sometimes found in association with s i l v e t ores. Distinctive crystals are rarely met with; these are rhombohedral; perfect basal oleavage; sometimes twinned on rhombohedral plane e(110); Hardness 3-3.5; specif ic gravity b > 5 - M 2 . These oxidised minerals may be derived from either the oxidation of st ibnite* or from the alteration of suoh minerals as jamesonite or other sulphur antimony minerals. Objectionable impurities in ores, used for the recovery of antimony are lead, oopper, arsenio, zino and bismuth. These impurities are penalized as fol lows:- Lead up to 0 .3% fret ; over 0.3 to 1,5% fy per 0.1%. Some buyers stipulate that lead should not exceed 0,3%. Arsenio up to 0.1% free; over 0.1% to 0.5% $1.80 per 0.1% or part. Copper carries the same penalt ies as arsenio; some buyers st ipulate that there shall be no oopper in the ore, Zino and bismuth are very objectionable impurities in the ore 22. and should not be present in more than a traoe. If present In an amount up to 0.5% they are subjeot to heavy penalties, (b) Those Mined for Valuable Associate Minerals. Gold is often found in association with stibnite. In suoh instances it may be more economical to mine and smelt the ore for the recovery of the associate mineral rather than for the antimony content. Kxamples of auoh are found in Alaska, tukon Territory, Hova Scotia, Nevada, Mexico, Hew Zealand and alsewhere, stibnite is often in association with olnnabar and such deposits may be worked solely for the meroury and not for the Sb, Besides the association of valuable minerals with stibnite, suoh antimony compounds aa pyrargyrite, atephanite polybaaite, jameaonlte, tetrahedrite, etc., are mined primarily for their silver, lead or copper content rather than for the antimony value. These may occur in association with minor amounts of stibnite and are also found in association with argentiferous galena, j$. Associated Minerals. Stibnite is found in a3sooiation with other primary and secondary antimony minerals. The primary antimony minerals are associated with pyrite, galena, sphalerite, ohalcopyrite, biamuthenite, araenopyrite, pyrrhotite, aoheellte, molybdenite, tin, cobaltite, gold, a live r> cinnabar, realgar, orpiment, etc. The common gangue mineral is quarts which usually predominates and may occur massive, with stibnite disseminated through it, or else it may occur as idiomorphio 23. crystals in a segregated mass of stibnlte. Calotte, barite, gypsum, slderite, tourmaline, contaot silioate minerals and fluorite may also be present in minor amounts or may oonstitute the main gangue mineral with quarta entirely absent or in minor amounts, 4. Oxidation of Antimony Ores. Stibnlte deoomposes and forms the oxidation products, valentinite, aenarmontite, oervantite, xermesite, stibioonite and native antimony. These may at times entirely replaoe the original stibnlte. as in Algeria, Mexioo, and Borneo, These same oxides may be obtained by the weathering of other antimony sulphide minerals as jamesonite, tetrahedrite, bournonite, etc. If lead is present during the process of 4 oxidat ion, the aqueous lead-antimony oxide "bindheimite" may be formed. .Thile the oxides of antimony are common, i t s t r anspor ta t ion by supergene underground waters i s l im i t ed . I t I s , howerer, s l i g h t l y soluable in these underground so lu t ions , as i s shown by the removal of antimony compounds from the gossan capping of depos i t s , which lower down contain antimony minera l s . Traces of antimony are found in mine waters wa ion have peroulated through antimony compounds. Lindgren mentions (1) secondary s t i b n l t e in the na t iona l D i s t r i o t , Nevada. He also s t a t e s tha t s t i b n l t e i s being deposited from the hot spring (1) U.S.G.S. 601, 1«15. a*. CO I (2) waters (80* 0) in Yellowstone National Park. "W. H. Maloalm claims that s t ibnlte i s being deposited at the present time in the West Gore Mine* Hova Sootia. and alao a "red sulphide" perhaps kermesite (Sb^S^O) i s said to be forming, both probably from alkaline waters." 0, DoIter and others hare shown experi- mentally that s t ibnite ia soluble in pure water at 80"0 and will reoryatall iae again aa s t ibnl te from the same solut ions . This ia important in the natural process, but i t la not f i n a l . These experiments also showed that while s t ibnite reacts only very slowly in neutral and acid solutions i t ia one of the most actire minerals in alkaline solutions; i t s ac t iv i ty being ex- ceeded only by that of orpiment when solutions of alkaline carbonates or hydroxides were used, such solutions wuld be capable of transporting the dissolved antimony long distances from i t s original source. It i s probable that where antimony compounds have been dissolved and transported, the process has been carried out through the agenoies of alkaline so lut ions . Antimony forms the sulphate 3^(30^)^. Stibnite ia very slowly attacked by sulphuric acid, even in the presence of ferric sulphate, with the formation of the sulphate Sb̂  (SO.,), which, however, i s unstable in water and i s unknown in ore (4) deposits . "This tendency of the antimony sulphate to hydro* lyze and form insoluble oxides prevents i t s extensive migration fti 1) Tr.Am.Inst.MinJSng. Vol.36, 1906. Llndgren, "Mineral Deposits", 1919, p. 900. (3) Olarka, U,3,G»S. 095»P.»?3. W,H,Emmons,U.S.G.S.625-1917, (4) W.H.Emmons, U.S.G.S, 625, 1917, p. 409. 25. in wealky aoid or neu t ra l sulphate s o l u t i o n s . Hydrochloric acid r ead i ly d issolves the sulphide hut an oxidizing agent* l ike f e r r io s a l t , w i l l p r e c i p i t a t e antimony oxide. There i s no soluble oarbonate. Thus the chemical r e l a t i o n s , as well as geological occurrences, Indioate t h a t the metal i s not highly mobile in the acid solut ions of supe r f i c i a l weathering zones." Aooording to Shurmann»s s e r i e s antimony sulphide would be ex- pected t o replace various other sulphides but no examples of t h i s have so fa r been found. I t was previously s ta ted t h a t s t i b n i t e was read- i l y soluble in so lu t ions of a lka l ine carbonates or hydroxides, (1) "With these so lu t ions i t forms double s a l t s l i k e Ua^s. Sb^S5» which r ead i ly p r e c i p i t a t e s i l v e r and copper from t h e i r solu- t i o n s . Thus probably are formed the sulphantimonates, pyra r - gyr l te and stephanite and other secondary minera ls ." "in the (ft) following tab le the more important antimony sulphosal t s of s i l v e r are put in the f i r s t column and the arsenic su lphosal t s in the second, Tetrahedri te and tennant j te are included for they are commonly a rgen t i f e rous . V. (1) W,H%Immons, U*S.Q,S. 625, 191? P .40« r (2) W.H.gmmons, U,S tG,S, Bul l , 425, 1*17, p ,262 . h"' Pyrargyrite Tetrahedrite Stephanite Polybasi te 3Ag^S. 40u^S. 5Ag^3, 9Ag^Si Sb^S3 MfcS, S b ^ Sb^ Q9 Proust i t e Tennantite Pearoeite 5Ag^S. As\,S3 4Gu^S. At^S* h • ?Ag,,S. AS?S3 1 26. "The minerals of the first column are, as a rale. much more abundant and they are of more common occurrence than the corresponding minerals of the second column. .... If the antimony sulphosalts, where secondary, have been deposited main- ly as test results of reactions of silver-bearing sulphate waters on atibnite, it would appear that araenio minerals are leas com- mon than antimony minerals or else that they are leas rapidly replaced under the conditions that exist in veins. But arsenic la as abundant in ore deposits as antimony and is much more read- ily dissolved in acid solutions. These relations and many others suggest that the complex antimony and araenio sulphosalts of silver are formed in an alkaline environment. In such an en- vironment antimony and arsenic sulphides are very readily dis- (1) solved. L. G. Ravics has shown that pyrargyrite is about 1/10 aa soluble In alkaline solutions as proustlte and therefore could be more readily precipitated from diluted solutions." These complex silver antimony sulphosalts are formed in and (2) below the zone where argentite forms. H. C. Cooke has shown that powdered atibnite (-80 mesh) when soaked in a silver sulphate solution, 1/30 H, for 36 days contained 1,3% of silver. The nature of the silver minerals was not stated, (3) "Dyscrasite i s r e a l l y an a l loy of s i l v e r and antimony of varying composition; i t has formed important ore at (1) L,0 . Ravioz, Experiments in the enrichment of s i l v e r ores . Bo.8eol.Vol.10, 1915. P.378-384. (2) H.O.Oook,Secondary enrichment of s i l v e r o res , Journ.Oeol. Tol .Sl W 3 , P .1 -2? . ( J ) Llndgren, "Mineral Deposi ts ." 1*19. P.384, 2?. Broken H i l l and Ghanarcillo and i s a lso known from Cobalt. 5 . Occurrence and Dis t r ibu t ion of Antimony in the Various Countr ies , S t i b n i t e , the chief ore of antimony, i s common- ly d i s t r i b u t e d in mineral veins throughout the world, but only in r e l a t i v e l y few l o o a l i t i e s i s i t of suf f ic ien t concentrat ion to be considered as an ore of antimony. In many instances s t i b n i t e i s associated with gold, s i l v e r , copper and lead, and la aueh ease3 the ore i s t r ea ted for the recovery of these metals and not for i t s antimony conten t . Besides occurring as the sulphide " s t i b n i t e " antimony i s present in many compounds, such as py ra rgy r i t e , Jamesonite, t e t r a h e d r i t e , s tephani te , e t c . These are a lso oommonly found and are usua l ly mined pr imar i ly for the valuable associated mineral and not for antimony, (1) "The percentages of the wor ld ' s production of antimony in I9I3 by countr ies was; China 55% Algeria 1% franoe . . . . 21% Asia Minor , , , 1% Mexico 10% I t a l y 1% Austr ia Hungary . , 8% Serbia 1% Aus t ra l i a (Vic tor ia) 4.2% Since 1914, bo% of the world 's supply has come from China. "During 1922 . . . China supplied 90% of a l l the ore (1) Mineral Resources, U.S.G.S. I923, par t 1, p ,292 . TABLE 1. (Approximate recoverable metal content of ore produced, exclusive of antimonial lead ores," Country EORTH AMERICAt United state3 .. SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina b .,., Bolivia a ..... Pe ru a ........ EUROPE; Czechoslovakia . France , Italy *.....,••. Yugoslavia ASIA: China a India,British .. Indo-China ..... Japan ......... Tuxaciy(Asla Minor) AFRICA: Axgeria a ....... Rhodesia. Southern Union of South Afriea ... OOEAHIA: Australia- Bew South Wales Victoria ....... 1917 87 2647 310 650 10288 433 38 2354 • » • . . 406 689 148 723 284^0 frl a800 I606 f400 / 4550 3 232 150 1045 1918 a7 3279 45 360 3010 155 • • • • C<0 1329 »'••;•' (0) 404 22 (c) 15597 (0) 95 f400 2218 3 38 143 509 1919 al4 471 . •. • 27 105 30 1 153 998 P 6b 10 (0) 7721 2 (e) 1 f400 723 (g) .... 10 70 491 1920 £23 50 484 7 330 1130 46 93 187 (0) 13001 (*) • • « » • f400 1000 (g) 2 81 40b 1921 45 00 282 7 . • 384 1276 • • • » • 76 W 14658 1 (0) ..... f400 , XV (g) ..... 50 141 1922 464 4 <v 185 • • • • • 139 100 656 * 'ia M 13858 . . . . . . . . . . ( 0 ) f4O0 579 (g) •. •.. < • « i • t)05 1923 • * • • • 490 8 C«) ' 312 . » . . • 62 (c) 437 (0) 271 25 151 e 14500 * #,'•' • • m f40O 500 • « • . • • • •. • 421 a- Exports . b Railway shipments. A large p a r t of the shipments reported are probably of Bolivian origin and there fore may duplioate in pa r t the Quanti t ies shown for Bol iv ia . 0 Data not ava i l ab le , d Inoluded under Austria ana Hungary. 9 Calculated from est imates in Mining Industry, vol .32.p#46,1923. f Estimated, g I*ss than 1 ton . The estimated recoverable metal content of ores exported was as follows: 1919,169 kilograms; 1920,178 kilograms} 1921.74 kilograms; I922, I90 kilograms. - 28 - . i l l mined in the "world and in 1923 China's o u t p u t . . . was about 80$ of the wor ld ' s production". "The world ' s present capacity for producing antimony U; i ' ; far exceeds the normal demands. Bew deposi ts of antimony I j ; are being found from time to t ime". Table I shows £he wor ld ' s p romot ion for the years ;| 1917-1923 as f a r as reasonably approximate data are ava i l ab le . jj (a) China: Although the antimony deposits of China are the l a r g e s t in the world there i s comparatively very l i t t l e de ta i l ed jj \i geological information a v a i l a b l e . The deposi ts occur in many places throughout cen t ra l and southern China1 , but 90$ |( of the production comes from the province of Hunan in a !vi ft! •j r. zone extending from Yl-ycoig southerwest through An-hua, Hsin-hua and Bae-ehing. Another zone, fur ther south, extends from Chu- kiang i n northern Kwantung through Kwangsi and Kweeohow to . ... Wenshan and Ani in eas te rn Yunnan. 2 The deposi ts of Hunan occur in a Paleozoic s e r i e s of q u a r t z i t e s , shales and limestones (mentioned in t h e i r s t r a t ig raph ioa l sequence) over la in by Mesozoic s t r a t a . These rooks have been folded, r e s u l t i n g in the formation of a n t i - {! c l i n e s , syncl ines , domes, sheared zones and f a u l t s . 1. China Year Book, 1923, P. 124, U.S.G.S. Atlas of Commercial Seal . 1921, Bart 1, P. 63. C. D. Hubbard, Am. Joun. So, Ser ies 5 , Vol. 4 . 2. Bul l . Geol. Survey, China Bo 3 , Oct. 1921, P. 1 - 26. - 28a - The ore occurs principally in the quartzite along the sheared and breociated zones and in the domes along the axis of the anticlines. In these latter instances the overlying impervious shale has played an important part in trapping the solutions and thus forming important ore bodies. The Ore is chiefly stibnite. This is usually well crystallized and is found in segregated masses of varying size. The breceiated zones are characterized by fine vein- lets, veins and irregular lenses of almost pure stibnite; a small amount is also disseminated through the quartzite. There are few other minerals present; Cinnabar is found in association with the stibnite in some areas, and occasion ally a small amount of pyrlte ia also present. The gangue Is quartz whieh is generally massive but druses, lined with quartz crystals, are frequently found. At the surface the stibnite has been oxidized; the oxides present are not definitely known but probably include eervantlfce, senarmontlte and stibioonite. These are fre- quently feundss pseudonorpas after stibnite but seldom have any well orystalllzed form of their own. The geological age and genesis of these ores are not definitely known, but tentatively it is suggested that they are genettoally associated with the intrusion of Tertiary granites. - 2 8 1 ) - At Shin Chow in the proTince of Kwangtung st lbnlte ooc-ars near the contact of steeply dipping PaleoEOio shales and limestones. The ore Is disseminated through the lime- stone, and probably represents a metasomatio replacement deposit. The only gangue present i s oa lo l te ; small amounts of pyrite are sometimes disseminated in the limestone along aide of the s t lbn l te . Surface oxidation of the deposit has resulted In the formation of various antimony oxides. Most of the antimony ores are treated In China, prodbolng either crude antimony or regains. Since very l i t t l e antimony Is used In China practical ly the whole output i s exported, ohlefly to Japan and America. In 1913 China supplied 53?& of the world's production and at present Is contributing over 60£ of the to ta l world output. 1. S. D. Hubbard. The Am. Mineralogist Tol.7 # 8, Aug. 19S2 - 29 - (b) ?ranoe. The antimony production of France, amounting to about 21# of tbe world's t o t a l in 1913, i s absorbed ohiefly by borne Industries. Deposits of antimony ooour in tbe departments of Mayene, Cantal, A l l l er , Haute Loire, Haute Vienna, Bambonnais, Sauvigny, Alsace, Brittany and tbe Island of Corsica. Tbe deposits generally ooour in f issure Teins cutting granites, granite gneisses and soblBts, s la tes and graywacVes and are genetical ly associated with granitic intrusives . Tbe Ye in f i l l i n g is composed chief ly of quarts, with some oalo i te and barite and s t i b n l t e which i s e i ther disseminated through the quarts or i s found in segregated bodies of almost pure sulphide. These segregations vary in width from fraotlona of an inch to three fee t or more and are Irregular lens shaped bodies separated by zones of barren quarts or quarts through which varying amounts of s t ibnl te are disseminated. Deposition probably occurred under inter- mediate and low temperature conditions. Native antimony occurs at Allemont and Dauphene. The largest producer la Hayenne northwestern Trance, where the s t ibnl te Is associated with auriferous quarts and pyrite . In the Camtral Plateau the antimony deposits of freyoenet occur in fissure veins cutt ing Archaean gneisses and sch is t s . There are several antimony bearing veins 1. U.S.G.8. World Atlas of Commercial Geology 1921. 30. some of which, contain complex antimony, lead and argent i ferous (1) o r e s . "The antimony ore la very pure sulphide s l i g h t l y a l t e red near the surface to white and yellow oxide. The veins are e i t h e r f i l l e d with country rock or . . . compact b lu ish quartz spangled with fine needles of s t i b n i t e when the r e i n i s poor and d i s - appearing almost e n t i r e l y when the r e i n become a r i c h e r . " The associa ted minerals are small amounts of p y r l t e , pink and white oa lo i t e and t r aces of s p h a l e r i t e . The s t i b n i t e la ne i ther a u r i - ferous nor a rgen t i fe rous , (2) In Montignat A l l i e r , s t i b n i t e ve in l e t s of extreme i r r e g u l a r i t y are found in a granul i te dyke cu t t i ng grani te gneiaa. (3) At Mercoeur, Haute Loire , the Bissade lode '•may be followed for a length of 250O m. . . . with a width of 30-60 cm. of aolld s t i b n i t e accompanied by a l i t t l e quar tz , in plaoes the lode breaks up in to several v e i n s . The separat ion from the gneiss l a f a i r l y sharp, though veins and nes ts are oooaaionally found beyond the w a l l s , " At Valadou s t i b n i t e occurs in a f i ssure vein cu t t i ng old a l a t e s . The ore la found in i r r e g - u l a r shoots , separated from each other by barren a r ea s . Ho a l t e r a t i o n of the wall rook has occurred. E r r a t i c depoaita occur a t Malbose, Ardeohe, They are quartz s t i b n i t e lodes with some oa lo i te and b a r i t e . (1) Abst . , Tr ana .Fed. I n s t , of Min.Eng. Vol .6 , l&?>?4 , P.579. (2) Abat, , Trans .Fed. I n s t , of Min.Bng, Vol,24,1902,p,6«2, (3) Trusoott Ore Deposits Vol,2,1914 p . 782. ( i ) In the Island of Corsica "the antimony oocurs as stibnite In veins cutting through hornblende and serloite schists .,. The gangue Is quartzose in oharaoter ... The rein Is generally richest near the foot wall, which is always hotter marked ... than the hanging wall." The associated minerals are pyrite, sphalerite, bournonite, some cinnabar and oaloite. (<*) Mexico. Mexico produces 10^ of the world ' s antimony and ships i t s product chief ly to the United Sta tea or to England, The depos i t s occur in the s t a t e s of Sonora, San Luis Potosi aid (2) Queretaro, There are two types of deposit which serve as an ore of antimony. 1 . Quarts s t i b n i t e ve ins , with galena and zIns blende as associated minerals , occurring In hornblende and pyroxene andes i tes , 2 , Veins oocurring in limestones and s l a t e s , and containing ce rven t i t e , s t i b loon i t e and v a l e n t i n i t e ; these oxides changing t o sulphides in depth. Such veins are very i r r e g u l a r , (3) The deposi t s of £1 Al ta r , Sonora, are considered as oxidized metasomatio replacements in Carboni- ferous l imestones . The deposi t a t present cons i s t s of almost 1) Abst,Trans .Fed. Inst Jlin.Eng.Vol,15,1897 ,p ,54Q. 2) Aquitera-Trans.Am,Inst,Mln.Bng.Vol.32,1902,p,507. 3) D,D,Cairnes,j0urn,O,M,Inst,191O,p,3O8: E.T.Gox.Tr.Am,Journ Sc,l880,Vol.20,p.421i E.Halse.Trans.Fed.Inst .Min.Eng. Vol. 18*4, p.290-294. 32. pure atibioonlte between irregular walls of limestone. The Impurities are oerargyrite and quartz, the latter increasing with depth as the atibioonlte decreases. Stibnite commonly occur3 with galena and Is frequently found in association with cinnabar in irregular fractures and replacements in limestone. Instances of the latter are found in San Lula Potosi where atlbnite occurs in association with liringotonite, kermeslte, baroenite and a ••all amount of cinnabar in a matrix of gypsum, stibnite is not Infrequently found in slifer reins and accompanies argen- tiferous tetrahedrite. At Triunfo and San Antonio, stibnite la in association with jameaonite, berthierite, galena, pyrite, sphalerite and tetrahedrite, which hare beoome oxidized near the surface to antimony oxide and bindheimite. The same asao- (1) elation occurs in Sonora. At zimapan, jamesonite occurs In a typical contact metamorphio deposit in limestone, (2) "The tin occurrences in iiexioo differ from the uaual type in so far as they are not found in connection with granite but with rhyolite .... The mineral association is, however, the same aa with normal granite. The deposits occur more particularly ... in Durango and ... in Jalisco .,. along joint planes and fault fissures In rhyolite and rhyolite tuff. They oarry kaolin, quartz, ohaloedony. opal and felspar together with speoularite, fluorlte, topaz, durangite and more rarely (1) Lindgren and Whitehead Bc.Geol.Vol.9. 19U. P.435. (2) Trusoott, Ore deposits. Vol. 1, 1914, p.447. 33 . wolframite and bismuth ore . . . . I t i s worthy t o remark t h a t the t i n won from these deposi ts contains a s t r i k i n g amount of antimony." The antimony deposi ts of Mexico ooour e i t h e r as f i ssure veins or as replacements in limestones and are gene- t i c a l l y associated with igneous rooks of andeal t io or more acid charac ter , . Their mode of deposi t ion ranges from oontaot meta- morphio to low temperature near surface condi t ions , (d) Austria-Hungary and Bohemia. During I9I3 Austria-Hungary produced B% of the world 's antimony o r e s . The deposi ts occur in northern Hungary and iu the Reohnitz mountains. In the former l o c a l i t y there are large reserves of auriferous s t i b n i t e ore of f a i r l y low grade, but the production i s s teady. In the Reohnitz mountains "The veins . . . out c r y s t a l l i n e s c h i s t s . . . and are e spec ia l ly r i ch when the coun- t r y rock i s a e h l o r i t i c or graphi t ic s c h i s t . The vein f i l l i n g cons i s t s of quar tz , oa lo i t e and s t ibn i te» with s t l b ioon l t e and p y r l t e . . . . The graphi t ic s c h i s t s along side the lode, for a d i s - tance of 3 t o 4 metres from the vein wa l l s , are r i ch ly impregnated with s t i b n i t e , together with pyr i t e and c i n n a b a r . , . . . " Other veins of s t i b n i t e with gangues of quartz and carbonates, with small amounts of ^amesonita, b e r t h i e r l t e , blende and auriferous p y r i t e , oocur between Aranyidka and Rosenau," (1) In Bohemia, "at Prioov . . . ke r san t i t e dykes, ocourrlng in the g ran i t e , are accompanied by veins of hornstone, r i c h in s t i b n i t e The s t i b n i t e i s non auriferous . . . and (1) Beck. "Hature of Ore Deposits" - 1909, p , 33&. has been oxidized to stibiconite for a depth of $9 ft. .., Similar deposits occur at Pannau. ..... These occur in mioa schists and amphibolite near the granite of that locality." Trusoott describes these occurrences in much the same manner and adds that (1) "other reins in the district form a network the character of the vein material being very similar to that of the country rock." The S chonberg-Me Is ohau deposits, 55 km soath of Prague* are associated with kersantite dykes which out the granite of that area. They are auriferous quartz-atibnite lodes, remarkable for their gold content which can frequently be seen with the naked eye, The gold content is too erratic to warrant mining on its account alone, (e) Australia, In I9I5 Aus t ra l ia was producing 4% of the world*s antimony. The chief centre of production i s the Ooster- f ie ld* Bendigo d i s t r i c t , V ic to r i a . Other areas cf minor produc- t ive importance are at Broken Hi l l and Hillgrave d i s t r i c t s Hew South Wales, and also ins ign i f i can t showings in Queensland. Although the Victorian f ie ld i s the most important, the wr i t e r could not obtain any de ta i led report on t h i s . Such repor t s as were obtainable s ta ted tha t in the Oosterfleld d i s t r i c t , Vic tor ia , (2) s t i b n i t e occurred in veins associated with gold, Mr. G.Smith gives a de ta i l ed despr lpt ion of the Broken H i l l a rea , ( ? ) Antimony occurs in the Console Mine, Broken $ Truaoott "Ore Deposits" Vol,2,l9U, p.279. Ore Deposits Console Hine,Broken Hill Auat, Trans,Am,Inst.Min, Kng,Vol.26-I896,p.69. (3) Same as reference No. 2# 35. Hill diatriot, Hew South Walea, The country rock conaists of gneiasea and aohiata of pre Cambrian age, The deposits occur in well defined and peraiatent fiaaurea cutting the gneiasea and aohiata at large anglea to the plane a of aohistoaity. At the aurfaoe the main fiaaure dipa about 20° but lower it flattens out and then steepens almost to vertical. The ore ia confined to areaa of amphibolite sohlst» and the pay ahoota occur at the interaeotion of small cross veins with the main fiaaure, The primary minerals of the main vein are calotte and aiderite aa gangue and stromeyerlte (Ag.Cu)£s dyaoraaite (Ag3Sb) and tetrahedrite. The croaa veins conaiat of pyrite and sine blende in a quartz gangue. A amall vein of oobaltite is uaually found in association with the main fiaaure. Heavy oxidation haa occurred resulting in the oxidation of the minerals to a depth of 1?Q feet or more* The gangue mineral oaloite haa been leached out and deposited as a aludge lower down. The aiderite haa been oxidized to llmonite ana this forma the main gangue mineral within the oxidized zone. The metallic minerals have altered to oervantite and oerargyrite and have suffered little transportation. The foregoing antimony deposit a have been described in the order in which their respective countries supply the world's demand for antimony, In the following dla- course the antimony deposits of the various countries are arranged in a geographical association and sequence and not In the order of their productive importance. Some may produce up 3.6. to 1% or raor; of the world's total antimony output, while others are non produoers. This i s not due ent ire ly to auoh depoaita being of too poor a quality to be oonsidered aa ores of antimony, but to a r t i f i c i a l modi float ions as the high cost of labor and unfavorable phyaioal conditions. (f), Germany. W "At Bohmadorf and Wolfgolgen . . . are quarts veins carrying st ibnite with minor amounts of zino blende, plumose s t ibn i t e , pyrophil l ite and iron epar." At Brack, on the Ahr, s t ibnite la found in fissure veins, and to some extent as impregnation along the bedding planes of Paleozoic greywaoke s la tes* The minerals present are quarts, s ider i t e , dolomite, pyrite and s t i b n i t e . (2) Antimony ores ooour at Uentrop as bedded deposits in folded contorted and faulted limestones along the limbs of an ant io l ine . The ore i s Stibnite and "forms sheets and rods extending outward nearly to the l imiting surface of the strata, or ooours interspaced with the rook in small part i - c l e s" . At Suttlar the st ibnite ooours as nests in s i l i ceous shales and black clays associated with sandstones. The epig- enetio nature of these two deposits i s shown by the association of f a c t s . "An interest ing deposit i s that at the Joat- (1) Book "Hature of Ore Deposits," 190?, p . 3>6. (2) " • » « " " P . 520, also Trusoott "Ore Deposits" Yol. 2 ,1?U. p.1188,784. World Atlas of Commercial Geol. U.S.G.S. 1?21. Christian Mine ... in the Hartz, where a lode,, something more than 1 metre wide ,., oonsists of priamatio stibnite, together with federerz and lead stibnite; while ziendererz, boulangerite . and wolfsbergite are leas common ,... The gangue consists of atrontianlte, calcite, barite. selenite and fluorlte." (g) Russia . (2) There i s a deposit of antimony and lead- ant iraony ores in the Ural region and a lso in the Amur province, , S i b e r i a . . (h) Korway, i A deposit of antimony is known at Svenningdal* :;.-,! Horwey,; (i) Portugal. V St ibn i te depos i t s occur in Portugal a t Oporto, Casa Branca, Alooutira and San Pedro da Oova, some of vfc ioh are [\f, m aur i f e rous . There i s a small antimony production at Oporto, (J) Spain. | ; f • Stibnite deposits are known in many parts of Spain, but under normal conditions there is no production. (k) Italy. The antimony deposi ts of I t a l y occur in .].;" ;j , Southern Sardina, Piedmont, Tuscany ana Sicily. The pre war output was small and came entirely from Southern Sardinia, During the war Tuscany and Sicily also produoed, (5) In Sardinia at Su suergiu, antimony occurs (1) Trusoott "Ore Deposits'1. Vol.2,1916, p. 779. (2) World Atlas of Commercial Oeol. U.S.G.S. 1?21. (3) Trusoott "Ore Deposits", Vol.2,1916,p.783. Ill 38. in graphitic schists and oalo-phyllite3, of presumably Silurian age. The stibnite occurs in lenticular masses, associated with (1) pyrite and soheelite in a oaloite gangue. In Piedmont stibnite ia associated with Jamesonite, tetrahedrite and pyrite in quarts TelBB striking parallel to the aohlstoaity of the enclosing rooks. , Antimony ia found in Tuscany at pereta, San Martino and Monte Anioata, MA noteworthy deposit of antimony occurs (2) at Pereta, South Tuscany ... It oonsists of a mass of crushed white quartz" cutting Tertiary sediments of Eocene and Miocene age, "The stibnite occurs in the quartz aa stringers and pockets ... associated with sulphur ... The sulphur bearing quartz ia occasionally seen coated with a crust of stibnite, whioh in turn ia studded with small crystals and aggregates of sulphur.w The cinnabar-antimony deposits of San Martino and Monte Amiata are genetically connected with Quaternary voloanism. The antimony deposits of Italy vary from deep aeated contaot metamorphio or high temperature reins to near aurfaoe depoaition associated with volcanism and sulfotario action. An example of the first condition is shown by the association of stibnite with soheelite in Sardinia, while the occurrence of cinnabar and free sulphur in Tuscany ia representative of the latter mode of depoaition, (1) Serbia, 1} World Atlas of Commercial Oeol, U.S.G.S, 1921. 2} Beok,nHature of Ore Deposits" 1909, p .337 . y) Origin of Cinnabar-Antimony deposits,Tuscany,Abat,Fed, I n s t , of Min.Eng.,Vol.l9.1899-P.484. In Serbia antimony deposits occur in the diatriots of Kostalnik, Zajassa and Allohar. The geology of the Kostainik district oonalats of laminated wsA Triaasio limestones, oonformably overlain by soft olay slates and In part by elastic! greywacke slates. These rooks were folded and then intruded by biotite-trachytes as dykes, sheets and stocks, and perhaps covered by effusive flows of the same rook. "The antimony 4e- (1) posi ts are intimately connected with these igneous rocks," The deposits occur in three forma - (1) As str ingers of quartz, ea le i te and s t ibni te in the altered trachyte; (2) As fissure vein deposits in the s la tes ; (5) as replacement deposits in limestone along the slate limestone or trachyte limestone contact. The vein material consists chiefly of quartz and s t ibni te with i t s oxidation products. Bo other metallic minerals occur. In type 2 the fissure i s s l ight ly over three f te t thick and oonalats of hanging and foot wall s tr ingers with, transverse veinlets between the two through the vein f i l l i n g . The foot wall i s always the r ichest , while the hanging i s almost barren. In type 3 the vein matter i s fine granular quartz with intergrown s t i bn i t e . The hanging wall, formed either by slate or trachyte, i s regular, whereas the foot wall, while generally following the s t ra t i f loa t ion , i s often irregular, showing unequal replacement of the limestone, > (1) Beck. Hature of Ore Deposits. 1?09, p.-578-581, 40, "It is probable that the occurrence at (1) Allohar in Macedonia . , ia of tnetasomatic o r i g in . The hanging wall of t h i s deposit cons i s t s of mica s c h i s t , the foot wall of dolomites and l imestone. The ore occurs in s t r i nge r s or lenses without gangue , together with arsenic o res . The width of sol id ore may at times be as much a3 1.50 m,, while the occurrence has been proved for a length of 4 k i lometers . Hear the deposit the dolomite has been highly a l t e red under formation of sulphur and s e l e n i t e , A. por t ion of the ore con- s i s t s of rea lgar and orpiment," The antimony mineral present i s not s t a t e d . The rea lgar and orpiment may be of primary deposi t ion, in mhieh case the presence of free sulphur suggests close assoc ia t ion with volcanic a o t i v i t y . The rea lgar and orpiment might also be secondary as oxidation products of "arsenic ores" and in the same way the sulphur could be produced by the oxidation of a ( 2 ) . sulphide mineral and the reduction of calcium sulphate . (m) Asia Minor and Turkey. Antimony depos i t s occur p r e t t y well d i s - (30 t r i bu t ed throughout Asia Minor in Brussa, Smyrna and siwas. In Smyrna the depos i t s are worked at the Rozsdan, Aiden, Seramos and Kordelio Mines* The most important producing d i s t r i c t i s Murat Dagh. The depos i t s are s t i b n i t e occurring in f i s sure 1) Truscott,"Ore Deposits" Vol.2.191&tP*784, 2) Aguilera-Trans,Am,mst.Min.JSng.Vol.32,l?02,p,508. 3 ; Eng. * Min.Journ.Vol.84,1907tP>88. Trusoott."Ore Deposits" Vol„2,p,783; World Atlas of Commercial Geol.U.S.O.S. 1?21. 4 1 . r e i n s with quartz gangue and p y r l t e . At Karahissar , argent iferous lead antimony ores ooour. (n) Alger ia . (1) The antimony deposi ts of Algeria Occur at DJebel-Hamimat ana s id i -Rghe i ss . They are found in s teeply dipping limestones and s l a t y marls , ch ief ly along the limestone-marl con- t a c t , and to some extent disseminated in the sha l e s . The ore i s e i the r so l id c r y s t a l l i n e or disseminated and occurs as i r r egu l a r masses in the limestone roughly p a r a l l e l t o the bedding planes but not confined to any de f in i t e horizon. The ore at present cons i s t s in pa r t of a compact white antimony oxide and in p a r t of c rys t a l l i ne aenarmontite in assoc ia t ion with oxidized zinc ore with some galena and cinnabar. Small amounts of the o r ig ina l s t i b n i t e s t i l l remain. There are no gangue minera ls , but fragments of l imestone, encrusted with ore , are often found. These deposi t s represent metaaomatio rep lace- ments in l imestones . The o r ig ina l ore was s t i b n i t e in associa t ion with s p h a l e r i t e , galena and cinnabar . The s t i b n i t e and spha le r i t e hare been subsequently oxidized to the present antimony and zino oxides, while the galena and cinnabar have remained. The tendera- ture of o r ig ina l deposi t ion probably varied from intermediate to low temperature, (1) Beck "Kature of Ore Deposits'* 1909, p .521 ; Trusoot t , "Ore Deposits'* V o l , 2 , l ? l 6 , p . l l 8 9 . 42-. (o) South Africa. In South Africa antimony deposits ooour at Gravelotte, Marohlson Range, Transvaal, along the Transvaal Swaziland border, and in Southern Rhodesia. (1) At Grave lot te the oountry rook consists of sohists intruded by granite. Along the Murohison range diorite and baaalt have intruded the sohists* apparently parallel to their planes of aohiatosity. Younger dyke rooks also ooour. The association of the older diorltio dykes points to their genetio relation to the ore. The antimony bearing deposits are quarts veins with an abundance of gold bearing stibnite, vyhlch in places la oxidized. The veins oooupy irregular fissures varying from 1 to 10 ft. In width. In 1?17 the Rhodeaian Munition* and Resources (2) Committee reported that stibnite in Rhodesia occurred aa two types, (1) "The sporadic gold bearing type character ized by I t s sporadic d i s t r i b u t i o n in quartz veins and sohiat bodies . fhla la of granular texture and forma s t r i n g e r s , patches and large pockets* or i t may be disseminated through a sohiat body l a the form of minute c r y s t a l s . In the l a s t mentioned instance the mineral i s the double sulphide of lead and antimony," (1) Stewart , Trans,Fed.Inst,Min,Eng.Vol, 17, I8?8,p .402-403. (2) Sng. & Min. Journ« Vol . l04 , l?17 . p . 47 I . 4 3 . (2) "The type which forms def in i te ve ins sometimes free of quartz , . The veins are of coarse s t i b n i t e which weathers to a pale yellow ochre," (p.) Hew Zealand, Although antimony ooours in a number of localities throughout New Sealant this country has not been in the producing antimony market sinoe 1910. Deposits of stib- nite are found in Oentral and Western Otaga; Endeavor Inlet, North Westland; Reefton and Westport, Nelson; Collingwood; Queen Charlotte Sound, Malborough; and Hauraki, Auckland* (1) At Oarrlck Range, Western Otaga the country reck I s flaky mica sch is t pass ing in to a p h y l l i t e . She deposi t occurring i a a shear zone, va r i e s from a t rue quarts re in through a l l s tages t o a vein brecc ia cemented by quartz ; the fragments of which show various degrees of a l t e r a t i o n . The sheared zone var iea in width from 2 to 4 feet and may be f i l l e d e n t i r e l y with quar tz , or the quartz may occur as small veins along both walla or one wall only. The wall rock and quartz are both sl ickenaided showing tha t secondary movement has occurred a f te r minera l iza t ion . The ore i s s t i bn i t e with associated gold and s i l v e r va lues . Near the surface the s t i b n i t e has been oxidized to c e r v a n t i t e . The age of these deposi ts i s younger than l a t e Paleozoic and older than Pliocene, No igneous rook outcrops in the v i c i n i t y . (1) Parks , I ,Z .G,S . l u l l #5 , 1908, p«6*. 4 4 . (1) At Endeavor In le t the country rook i s aubmetamorphoaed sandstone with interbedded s l a t e s , The de- p o s i t s ooour along the slickenaided hanging wall of s l a te bands and ooincide to the s t r ike and dip of the s t r a t a . The ore i s s t i b n i t e in a quartz gangue, and i s found in i r r egu l a r lenses and pockets varying in width from a few inches t o one foot or more. A vein of s t i b n i t e crosses an adjacent stream and consi- derable a l l u v i a l s t i b n i t e has been recovered a short distance below the ve in . (2) In Horth Westland, the antimony of the district occurs as stibnite in a quartz vein traversing argil* lites and greywaokes. Considerable gold is associated with the stibnite and the deposit may be of more importance for its gold values than its antimony content. At Queen Charlotte Sound* Malborough, auriferous stibnite is found in a fine grained greenish schis- tose rock. The chief mineral is stibnite with minor amounts of quartz disseminated through the ore. "With the antimony ore are found loose blocks of olivine* with chronium ore, oompact hornblende rock and a white and jrreen chert," In the Hauraki district, Auckland, the country rook in association with the antimony deposits consists of volcanic breccias and flow rooks of Tertiary age. The (X) Parke, H.Z.G.S. ,1888-89, P > 0 , a l so p . 3 3 . (2) B u l l . l 3 , H . 2 . G . S . , l 9 U . P , 8 3 . (3) 0.J .Binns,Trans.fed.Inst .Min.Eng.Vol.4,1892-93, p .59 . (4) O.Praser, N.Z.G.S., Bull #10, 1910. *5. depos i t s ooour along f au l t planes and shear zones whioh have a tendency to follow the oontaot of the breooias and andesi t io flows. At Una Hi l l the deposits are replacement veins en t i r e ly within the andesite whioh has been subjected to decided propy- l i t i o act ion along the walls of the ve ins . The s t i b n i t e ooours in a quartz gangue in associa t ion with p y r i t e , ohaloopyri te , zinc blende, pyrargyr i te and gold, The ores are mined for t h e i r gold content , the s t i b - Bite being accessory. The veins occur in Ter t ia ry volcanic rooks so t ha t t h e i r age i s younger than these ex t ru s ive s . Ho def in i t e statement i s made as to the origin of the minerals , but from the context of the repor t i t would seem tha t the mineral izat ion was gene t i ca l l y associated with the in t rus ion of andes i t io dykes. From the above descr ip t ion i t i s hard to draw any de f in i t e conclusions aa to the temperature of deposi t ion of the antimony deposi ts of Hew Zealand, In the Eauraki d i s t r i c t , more de ta i l ed information i s given and t h i s points t o mineral deposi t ion from hot ascending solut ions under near surface oon* d i t i o n s . Lindgren s t a t e s , under "Replacements at Intermediate (1) Temperatures; r t "In deposi ts which have been formed bv hot waters near the aurfaoe where the rocks are permeable, the i n c i - p i en t a l t e r a t i o n of igneous rocks i s often widespread with a l t e r - a t ion of the femio minerals to c h l o r i t e , oa lo i te or epidote ( p r o p y l i t i z a t i o n ) " . (1) i indgren . "Mineral Deposits" 1?19. p .478 . 46. This i s one of the most common types of a l t e r a t i o n following explosive igneous a c t i v i t y and e f f ec t s "mainly andesi tes and (1) "basalts* more r a r e l y r h y a l i t e s " . In descr ibing the gold quart* veins in andesi tes of Transylvania, Hungary, Sohumaoher considers t h a t the p ropy l i t i z a t i on was d i s t i n c t l y e a r l i e r than the veins and independent of them, Lindgren descr ibes the3e deposits of Hauraki (2) under "gold-quartz veins in andes i tes" and says, "Park s t a t e s t ha t the veins do not oontinue in to the underlying Jurass ic shale and they are thus l imited to the thickness of the lava flows in which they occur. . . . The p r inc ipa l ore mineral i s gold alloyed with 30%-40£ s i l v e r , but some p y r i t e , ohalco^yr l te , zinc blende, galena, s t i bn l t e and pyrargyr i te a lso occur." (q) Borneo. During the war old mines were reopened and are was shipped to England. The deposits occur on the north end of the island in Sarawak, and consists of quartz veins containing stibnlte whioh has been oxidised to native antimony and various antimony ozides, (r) Japan. Very l i t t l e antimony ore i s mined in Japan. The antimony exports of t h i s country i s due chief ly to the ex- p l o i t a t i o n of the Chinese d e p o s i t s . Ei ther ore or crude antimony ia Imported from the Chinese mines and then refined and exported as regu lus . — * * « * « M mm HH (1) Uhdgren "Mineral Deposits" 1?1?, p , 4 ? 8 . (2) » H « w p .508 . 4?v The antimony deposits of Japan occur along the southern bend of Japan, especially along the outer border. These are quartz stibnite deposits which are found in Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments near their contact with quartz porphyry in- trusions or within the intrusion itself. Occasionally the de- posits are found in crystalline 3ohiats, as on the island of Shikoku, and also in Tertiary rocks. (s) Peru, The antimony mines of Peru were dormant from 1907 u n t i l 1915 when they were reopened and high grade ore was (1) shipped to Japan. The deposi ts occur in the department of Puno, Southern Peru where the s t i b n i t e i s found in replacement deposi ta in l imestones . Antimony occurs abundantly a l l over the province (2) of Gajatambo and i s invar iably associated with s i l v e r . The a t t b n i t * i s found in f i ssure r e i n s associated with p y r i t e , t e t r a - a e d r i t e , bournoalte , panabase and l e s s commonly with pyrargyr i te and a t ephsn i t e . The copper antimony sulphide faraatenita (30%S, Sb^S^) occurs a t Oerro de Paaoa. ( t ) Bo l iv ia . Many small high grade deposi ts of s t i b n i t e ooour in the southern p a r t of the Potosi department. The ores are minod and shipped to England, (u) United 3 t a t e s , Although United S ta tes la one of the la rges t antimony consumers, there i s no home production of antimony o re . - . m. «• «» — — m m m* 1) U.S.S.S, World Atlas of Commercial Geol, . 1?21. 2} Abat.Fed.Inat,Min.Eng,Vol.25 f l902 tp.776jalso Vol.36t1908,p,76<>« TABIE 2. Antimony imported into the United States in 1919-1923* (General imports) Antimony ore Country Short tons Antimony content Pounds Value Antimony meta l 0 Pounds Value 1919 Canada . . . . . . . Chile 0 China d . , . , , , England . . . * „ . Hongkong d . . . I n d i a ( B r i t i s h ) Japan d . . . , , . Mexico . . . . . . . Panama , » . . , . . Peru ' " • . . . . . 1920 B o l i v i a 9 Canada , , Chile 0 . , China d . , England . . France . , . Hongkong d Japan d . . Panama . . . B o l i v i a 0 Chi le 0 . . China d . . England . . Germany . , Hongkong d Japan d . , 1921 47 455 297 2 -J! 879 388 1^2 162 420 1 • « • 4fc>7 7 5 1 • • • 1,709 45 49 U9 lulf L I , 213 28 49,624 302,326 • .* • • • « 4,5X0 • • • *.»* 219,048 1,200 $10 6,312 23,?36 • • • . a 493 11,332 99 727,462 49.527 335,061 19.457 152,27© 450,293 3 1 5 ^ 1 10,200 80.293 $22,941 2,179 11,963 14*185 • • • • • 10,605 4,556 3,856 1,363,441 70,285 46,600 54,401 95.106 2.450 3.334 • • « • • 5.898 196,107 11,682 2,308,880 7,847',840 90,048 68,320 224,000 2,953.994 757.076 ,-.1 1 H 8JM6JUM. 14,250,158 225,272 21»564i§51 125.539 706 *tis& 2,325.303 11 t i t t t t 1. 24,947.121 ssssss sssssss 20,53o!o79 302,457 45 320.750 21,153,331 F167.764 • • • • » • ' • 459.613 8,803 3.949 10,976 159.091 60,571 • • « • • « • , t 1.1,1,1,111 870,767 | 1 9 , 1 1 1 1,218,802 14,638 44,909 177,816 JUAJJMUi 1,475.276 672,501 14,586 10*027 697,121 TABIE 2. Antimony imported into the United states in 1919-1923*Continued. Country Short tons Antimony ore Antimony content Pounds Value Antimony metal b Pounds Yalue 1922 • Canada . . . . . China d . . . . England . . , , France . . . . . Germany . . . . Hongkong d , Netherlands >,!*,» «»• « » • » * » * * . . . * AAJMUML ,«,,»..t, J, «•«., 8.960 16,976,726 45,474 22 515 b2?,424 84,744 17,745,845 1?25 Australia ... Belgium .... Bolivia 0 »., Canada ...... Chile c ..... China d . . . i . England g  4 i i Prance , , i *. * Germany g . *. Hongkong d , , I t a l y . . . . . . . Japan d . . . . , Mexico . . . . . . S t r a i t s Sett lements • * « « » < * ) • » « • « * • • '« • • ( * ) ».*.* » l j , 115,864 176!5^8 1,169,784 1.340 U l . 0 2 6 1,800 5l? .?13 4.901 3*937 25,644 102 1,020 906 . * • « • « 8*211 JUUUUULM. 38*715 . . • • » . . » 55.740 13.185!§9$ 1,410,198 . . . • '«'« • 750,555 73.762 4o 56,000 56,000 ( * ) • 2,094,095 44,721 15,626,928 364 562,181 3.335 4 65 30.531 ?»8l? 600,293 . . . . . . 2,420 3.848 558,771 99.927 44,953 3.385 9 2,074 2,682 718,069 0 Imports credi ted to Chile originated mainly in Bol iv ia . d Hearly a l l the imports of antimony ore and metal from Hongkong and Japan are of Chinese o r ig in . Some of the mater ia l credited to other countr ies i s poss ibly a l so of Chinese or ig in , having been transshipped in a foreign p o r t , t Ho ore was imported in I922. £ The Department of Commerce does not give the f igures for imports of antimony ore in 1923. g JBngl&nd and Germany are the only countr ies from which imports of both orertana metal were received.The t o t a l imports from England w 1,411,538 pounds of antimony metal,value2 at f100,029; and those Germany were 752,355 pounds, valued at $45,859. 48. This oountry draws its main supply of antimony from China in the form of regulus; and to some extent as crude antimony and ora from China, Mexico and other countries. Table 2. gives the imports of antimony to United states from the various countries during the post war years of 1919 - 1923, Besides this the United States consumes 2100 tona of antimony contained in the antimonial lead and silver ores of domestic smelting, and 3500 tons of antimony recovered from alloys, scrap, dross and waste materials, The principal districts in which antimony occurs are Nevada, California, Alaska, Arkansas, Utah, Idaho and Washington. Arkansas, The antimony deposits of Arkansas are found chiefly in the Servier County. Several reports have been written (2) on these depos i t s , and the avai lable repor t s s t a t e that the antimony ooours as s t i b n i t e in quartz ve ins , in asaooiat ion with z inkeni te , jamesonite, galena, orplment, biamuthenlte, p y r i t e , and minute amounts of cha lcopyr i t e . Oxidation has taken place to a depth of JO fee t or more with the formation of oervant i te and blndheimite . In h i s repor t on the antimony deposi ts of (3) Northern Servier County, E.H.Shriver s t a t e s tha t they ooour in 1) Mineral Hesouroes at U.S. I923 Part 1 p,288-289, 2) 0,P fWilliams - Trans.Am,Inst.Min.Eng.Vol,13 I875.P.I5O. C.E.Wait * » H « « 1879-80 p . 4 2 , (3) SfH,ShTiver Min. 4 So. Press Vol.114 W 7 P.?20, 49 . folded Carboniferous sandstones and argi l laceous shales metamor- phosed to s l a t e s . "The s t i b n l t e ore was formed by the rep lace- ment of the shales and s l a t e s . . . . The fine grained sandstone proved impervious to the hot waters and aoted as an impounding d a m , . , , . The ore bearing rock i s shale or s l a t e , r a r e ly , i f ever the sandstone. The hanging wall i s decomposed s l a t e in a l l cases , and the foot wall i s a fine grained sandstone upon which the so lu t ions flowed," Some of the veins show banded s t r u c t u r e . The vein f i l l i n g i s quartz and a t ibn i t e both being deposited simul- taneously . "The ore i s cemented to the foot wall and var ies from a t h i n s t reak t o 50 Inches in width while the f u l l lode i s from 2 feet to 5 fee t In width," She ore Is a t i bn i t e which has been oxidized. Bear the sur face , t o o e r v a n t i t e . The s t i b n i t e i s e i t h e r coarse o r y s t a l l l n e or compact. Jamesonlte was also found l a one p l a c e . Prom the descr ip t ion of the deposi t s and the diagrams accompanying the above repor t i t seems more l i k e l y tha t the overlying shales aoted as a dam and the so lu t ions peroulated along the shale-sandstone oontaot, replacing the l a t t e r . (1) In 15>£2 O.P.Mitchell descr ibes the depo- s i t s of Servier County as vein f i l l i n g s in fau l t zones In s teep- ly dipping Paleozoic shales and sandstones. The mineralized zones vary in width from a few inches t o 4. feet or more and c lose ly follow the s t r i ke and dip of the sediments. The wall (1) Sng. ft Mia, Joum, Vol, 114 - 1922. 50. rooks are slightly replaced, but the veins are banded and the ore occurs in lenses and pookets. While stibnlte occasionally occurs in segregated masses it is usually found to be dissemin- ated through the gangue which is chiefly quartz with some oalcite and occasional fragments of shale and sandstone. Mitohell be- lieves the ore to be genetically related to igneous dykes found in the vicinity. Other reports have been written of the a> (2) antimony deposi ts in Arkansas by F.L.Hess, J.O.Branner, (?) (4) y.D.Dunnlngton, and B.Comstock, but these were not ava i lab le^ Ca l i fo rn ia . San Benito County. Antimony, in associa t ion with cinnabar, occurs a t Antimony Hi l l in the B.E. corner of the San Benito County (5) Cal i fo rn ia . The rocks are sandstones a t the eas tern foot of the mountain* and serpentine on the western slope near the Burarait, The minerals occur In s l a t e s and are found both on the eas tern and western s lopes . The gangue i s quartzose and contains the s t i b n l t e and cinnabar; the deposi t s on the eas t have more cinnabar and l e s s s t i b n l t e than those on the west. l e r n County. Four miles south of Hot Springs, £rsklne Greek '1) f .L.Hess.U.S.O.S. Bu l l . MOD 1907. '2} J.O.Branner Annual Hep.Ark.Ceol.Survey Vol.1,1888,p,1^6. '3) F.D.Dunnington Am.Aaan.for Adv. of So.^2&, I 8 7 8 , p . l 8 l . U) B.Comstook Annual Hep.St.Geo.Ark,1888,Vol.1,p.ljb and 2lfe, ,5) E.B.Preston Cal i f ,St ,Kin.Bur l l l891-92.p.371. ];': ...' \ In Kern County, Antimony occurs in quar tz i te associated with a porphyr i t lo rock. Native antimony oocurs in nodule a varying in weight from 1 ounce to 300 pounds and i s coated with white oxide and o lay . Associate veins carry s t i b n i t e . Bo associated minerals are mentioned with the nat ive antimony or s t i b n i t e , Monterey Oounty, (2) S t ibn i te occurs in Monterey County at the Los Borros Gold Mines. The veins are quartz near the oontaots of s l a t e s and se rpen t ine . Calaveras County. Antimony ore was discovered on Esperanza (3) Greek, Calaveras County,California. South Dakota. The ores of the Kaitland p rope r t i e s occur Immediately above the Cambrian q u a r t z i t e s . Only the oxidized ores have bsen t r e a t e d , in a cyanide process , and these yield p y r i t e and py r rho t l t e in about equal amounts along with some a r sen ic , copper, t r a c e s of antimony and te l lur ium and consider- able quan t i t i e s of bismuth. Utah. (4) Antimony occurs in Iron County, Utah, (1) W.L.Watts,Calif,St.Min.Bur.l891-?2, p ,*37 . (2) K.B.Preston, H " w " " . M p*26l , n j Mining and Sc ien t i f i c Press Vol,114, I9I7 p .312 . (4) Kemp, Ore Deposits of U.S. & Can. 190&,p.411, F.L.Hsss, U.S.G.S. Bull 340D I907, P .233. W.P.Blake, Rep, on Antimony Dep. of S.Utah 1881. D.B.Hantley, "On Utah" U.S.10th Oensua Vol .13.P.4^3. Disseminations of a t ibni te i , following the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , are found in sandstones, and conglomerates. Very large individual pieoes of a t i bn i t e have been found, Kruptive rooks overly the sandstone and Blake thinks tha t the ores have c rys ta l l i zed from (1) descending solu t ions o r ig ina t ing in the eruptive rooks, Lindgren draws an analogy between these deposi ts and those now forming a t Steamboat Springs, Nevada, whioh wi l l be described l a t e r , Nevada, Antimony occurs in Nevada in the National and Arabia d i s t r i c t s and a t Steamboat Springs, (2) The National Mining D i s t r i c t Is located en the Santa Kosa Eange. The southern and la rger pa r t of t h i s range l a made up of h ighly folded clay s l a t e s , calcareous s l a t e s and limestones t rending nor th , p a r a l l e l t o the range. The north or nor theas tern sect ion ia overlain by volcanic erupt ives such as b a s a l t i c flows, brecc ia , l a t i t e s , t rachytes and r h y o l i t e s . There are two p r inc ipa l c l a s ses of mineral deposits? 1 , "Sold and s i l v e r bearing veins that occur in or near the Ter t i a ry volcanic .rooks and tha t are of Ter t i a ry or in p a r t of Quaternary age." 2, "Gold and s i l v e r bearing veins t h a t occur .in the sedimentary rooks and in the p08t~Triasaic granular rooks i n t r u - ding in to the sediments and that, are probably of l a t e Meaozoie age," She old Meaozoio mineralization ia generally in quartz veins 1} Lindgren, Tran.Am.Inst.Mln.Eng. Yol.36, 1906, p.27. 2) Lindgren, U.S.G.S, Bull, bol, 1915. 53. although rarely they are replacement deposits In limestones and lime shale. These veins carry both gold and silver but no anti- mony minerals. Tertiary Mineralization: In the northern section of the Santa Hosa Range the sediments are covered hy volcanio extrusives consisting of basalts, latites, -trachytes and rhyolites. The basalts are the most common; the rhyolite was extruded near the close of the vol- canio period and is consequently high in the series, but is also covered with basalts. This rhyolite flow is the important rook in the district as the mineralization is due to the effect of ephemeral springs related to the rhyolite. The veins of the national District are dis- tinctly later than any other rooks and are of the narrow fissure types. They trend northerly and have a steep dip either to the east or west. The wall rock has been subjected to prophylitie alteration, producing some pyrite, oaloite, a little serioite and adularia, and chlorite. This alteration is not extended ower wide areas. The veins vary in width from 1 to 5 feet. They oonsiat of sheared rook and hive a well defined foot wall. Seams of quartz occur along the foot, hanging or intermediate walls* This quartz is aynanetrieally banded, fine grained and vuggy; crystals of quartz line the vugs. "This fine grained symmetri- cally banded quartz with open vugs together with the scarcity of pyrite, the consistency of stibnite ana the presence of cinnabar, in one instance, point otrnngly to near surface deposition," The mineral deposition took place from hot thermal ascending solutions. The characteristic mineral is stibnite which occurs in varying amounts in all veins. The stibnite may be fibrous and oonfined to the margins of the quartz or it may be in the center of the vein. It also.occurs as fibrous well crystallized aggregates in the quartz or as acicular orys- tals encrusting the quartz crystals in the vugs. Associated min- erals are ehalcopyrite, pyritet arsenopyrite, zinc blende, galena, silver and gold; cinnabar was noted in one instance. These min- erals occur as fine grains along the margin of the veins. It was noted that when the stibnite was relatively high the gold and silver values were low, whereas, if the stibnite was scarce the gold and silver values were somewhat higher. The gangue is predominantly quartz either at a massive fine grained variety or crystallized in vugs. Bo oalolte, barite or fluorlte are found as vein filling. Secondary Minerals: Secondary sulphides such as maroasite, stibnite, realgar and orpiment oocur below the present water level. The predominant secondary sulphide is maroasite and It, found in varying quantities everywhere. The secondary stibnite occurs either as flat bundles of acicular crystals in the Joints and fissures or as capillary coatings on the quartz crystals in (i) the vugs, Lindgren states that due to the predominance of maroasite these secondary sulphides were most likely produced by (X) TJ.S.G.S, Bull. *0l, 1?15» P**5. cold ascending so lu t ions r i s i n g along the vein long a f t e r t h e i r formation. Healgar and orpiment are most l i k e l y the r e s u l t of the oxidation of a r senopyr l te . The s t i b n i t e oxidizer t o a yellow e a r t h l y ma te r i a l . Ho secondary gangue minerals oocur. Although these deposits may have been formed under near surface condit ions t h e i r temperature of deposit ion could a t l l l he in the intermediate or even high temperature zone. An example of high temperature deposi t s formed near the surface i s w given by the t i n deposi ts of Mexico as described by Trusoot t . (2) l indgren s t a t e s tha t physical condit ions d i f fe r ing s l i g h t l y from those a t the ac tual surface w i l l evident ly produce crystal-* l l M l minerals of normal habi t and form. PropyUtiaatioia i s the r e s u l t of rook a l t e r a t i o n by asoending thermal waters of i n t e r - mediate temperatures . Considering these fac ts and the associated minerals i t appears reasonable to conclude tha t the s t i bn i t e was deposited at intermediate temperatures . The Antimonail S i lver - lead Veiaa of the \r}\ i Arabia B i s t r i c t , Mevadat (5) i The p reva i l ing rock of the Arabia D i s t r i c t • " ' - ! i s granodiori te which contains many black and i r r egu la r masses of thoroughly metamorphosed sedimentary rock, The granodiori te cons i s t s of quar tz , feldspar and b i o t i t e of which the feldspar and j b i o t i t e have beoorae a e r l c i t i a e d and gives the whole mass the appear- ance of an a p a l i t e . The sediments are ch ie f ly metamorphosed shales 1) Trusoott , HOre Deposits* Vol.If 1?14. p .447 . '2} Lindgren, Trans.Am.Inst.Min.Sng.Vol. Jfe, l^Qb, p , 2 7 . ! J ) A.Knoff, U.S.fc'.S. Bu l l . i>60 H.'., 1918. Suk. (hornfe la ) ; overlying a l l are rhyo l i t e s probably of Miocene or Pliocene age. The ore bodies are f iasure veins in the gran- odior l tea and hornfe la . The f i s su res are regular and have de- f i n i t e wal ls in the granodiori te but upon enter ing a large body of hornfela they fray out and form narrow s t r i n g e r s . The r ioher veins are f i l l e d with sol id ore but the leaner ones are made up of ore and coarse milfcwhlte quartz which oontaina inclusions of tourmaline. The ore as now found cons is t s of a rgen t i fe r - ous blndheimite (hydrous antimonate of lead) with associated plumbojas^jsite (basic sulphate of lead and f e r r i c i ron) scorodlte (hydrous f e r r i c arsenate) ce r iu s i t e , gypsum and qua r t z . The blndheimite i s of two v a r i e t i e s ; one a deep yellowish brown amorphous va r i e ty of high b r i l l i a n t pi tchy l u s t r e , and the o ther . a yellowish compact ear thy v a r i e t y showing divergent columnar s t ruc ture which la a paeudomorph af ter i t s o r i g ina l mineral . This deposit i s an exceedingly highly oxidized one. Remnants of the primary minerals are oooaalonally found and oonalst of f ibrous jameaonite araenopyrlte and a l i t t l e ohal- oepy r i t e . The oxidation of the Jamesonite haa resul ted in the formation of the blndheimite, oevrusi te end plumbojaroaite while the araenopyrlte has been oxidised to scorod l te . The oxidisa t ion of these o r ig ina l sulphides would most l i ke ly produce aulphurlo acid whloh would dissolve the s i l v e r and carry i t down. This. would be p rec ip i t a t ed by the primary sulphides lower down, and r e s u l t in a zone of secondari ly enriched s i l v e r . Antimony and 57. arsenlo are only s l i g h t l y soluble and would not be moved. There would, however, be an i l l imina t ion of sulphur. The paragenesis of jaraesonite shows tha t i t i s common in high temperature ore deposi ts as shown by i t s oocurrenoe in a contact metamorphic deposit at Zlmapan, Mexico, and In t i n bear ing veins in Bol iv ia , The associat ion of tourma- l i n e In t h i s deposit subs tan t ia tes thiB evidence. Xnoff i s inclined to place the age of the granodior i te Intrusion in the aar ly Gretaoeous. "The rhyo l i t e i s f a r younger in age than the ore deposi ts and in plaoes caps grano- (1) d i o r i t e and the enclosed masses of horn fe l s . " He places the age of these rhyo l i t e s in the Miocene or Pl iocene. Steamboat Springs, Hevada: (2) The waters of Steamboat spr ings Issue from a f i ssure in granodiori te and are at a temperature of about 8o°C. On analysis they give f e r r i c oxide, antimonious and arsenious sulphide, mercuric an3 oupric sulphide, lead, gold and s i l v e r . At the base of a basa l t i c c l i f f nearby, the waters have deposited a large amount of 3 i l io ious and oalcar ious s i n t e r stained red by the red metast ibni te which has a nonmetalHo l u s t r e . A few feet from the ra i l road s t a t ion a shaft was sunk JO f e e t . The f i r s t 25 feet are through s i n t e r a f te r which there e x i s t s a loose sandy gravel composed of well washed pebbles of grani te and andes i t e . These gravels contain so much (1) A.Knoff, U.S.G.S, B u l l . bfcOH, p . 24?. (2) I lndgren, Trans.Am.Inst,Min, Bng, Vol.56, IfOb, p , 2 7 . 58. hot water that operations were stopped. An examination of the gravel showed that nearly every pebble had adhering to it small shiny prisms and particles of metallio lustre. These proved to be prisms of atibnite , bent and otherwise combined in radiating groups but generally without terminations. In the cracks and joints of the larger granite cobbles bunches of stibnite crystals occur. "With the exoeption of olaatic magnetite the only other metallio mineral found in the gravel is pyrite which forms loose or intergrowing crystals of octo- hedral form sometimes combined with the cube," "I believe it absolutely certain that the stibnite and pyrite have been deposited by the hot waters which permeate the gravel,* On previous examination of the same locality, *$he absence of ordinary minerals of metallio lustre indicated, in a way, a missing link in the chain of evidence to proove the depo- sition of ores from hot ascending water*; and this link is now supplied by the observations recorded above. .,, Physical conditions differing very slightly from those at the actual surface will evi- dently produce crystallized minerals of normal habit and form. (v) Alaska. There are some sixty-seven known occurrences of antimony in Alaska d i s t r i bu t ed between southeastern Alaska and the Aleutian I s l ands . The main deposi ts are found in the Fairbanks D i s t r i c t and the Seward Peninsula. (1) A,H.Brooks,U.S.G,S. Bull ,6*9, 1916; also U.S.G.S.Bull.662,1918. 59. Geology, The a t ibn i t e of Alaska Is generally found In sedimentary rooks varying in age from lower Cambrian to tipper Cretaceous and d i f fe r ing widely In t h e i r l i t ho log lca l cha rac te r s . The a t i b n i t e i s also found in gneisses , soh l s t s and in the i n t r u - sive rooks themselves, although in the l a t t e r case the veins are small and not continuous. The depos i t s , however, are general ly found in the Intruded country rook, not far from the igneous con tac t , With the possible exception of the galena s t i bn i t e type there are no contaot raetamorphorio depos i t s . The s t i b n i t e always ooours in a lose assoc ia t ion with granular acidic in t rus ive rooks belonging to the quarts d i o r i t e or raonzonite groupa or to the por- phyr i t i o phaaea of these t ypes . These in t rus ions are e i t h e r dykes or stooks and have produced but l i t t l e metamorphisra in the enclo- s ing rocks . C lass i f i ca t ion of Ore Deposi ts . (A) Si l iceous gold bearing s t i b n i t e deposi ts (B) S t ibn i te cinnabar depos i t s , (0) S t ibni te galena depos i t s . S i l iceous gold bearing s t i bn i t e depos i t s . These may be e i t h e r f i ssure veins or shear zone d e p o s i t s . Ho def in i te l ine of demarcation can be made as the for- mer often grade into the l a t t e r . Some shear zones show great per- s i s t ency , are well defined and are t raceable for aeveral thousand f e e t . The deposi ts vary in width from 2 to 5 fee t , but are much wider in the shear zone type . They are i r r e g u l a r 6o. along their strike, pinching and swelling frequently. The richer ore occurs in shoots or kidneys especially in the wider parts of the lode where it often extends from wall to wall. Small reins of lower grade ore oonnects these shoots. Rich lenses, irregular- ly distributed also occur. The stibnite in the richer ores is usually fins granular hut confused aggregates of acioular crystals also occur. These two types are often mixed. Besides the stibnite there may be varying amounts of galena, pyfite, arsenopyrite and small amounts of gold, grains of whloh ore sometimes imbedded in the stibnite. Quartz forms the chief gangue mineral. This oocurs as fine granular vitreous grains, many with crystal terminations, scattered through the ore. A milky quartz with associated feld- spars also oocurs but such represents old quartz veins which have been reopened and granulated with a subsequent introduction of stibnite. The vitreous quarts is typical of antimony ores. Some of the sulphides and maybe part of the gold belong to an early period of mineralisation, Stibnite - Oinnabar Deposits. These deposits occur both in veins and in min- eralised shear zones; the valuable minerals occurring in shoots and kidneys oonneoted by small stringers. Banding is often well marked* and vugs, lined with quartz crystals, are common. In some oases the oinnabar is the primary mineral with the stibnite intro- duced later; in other deposits the oinnabar and stibnite are con- temporaneous. The stibnite is in bladed crystals, columnar aggre- gates and, less oommon, in granular masses, Eyrite, as an accessory 61.. mineral , i s very scarce and some gold i s common to a l l such d e p o s i t s . Quartz i s the only gangue mineral present and i s v i t r eous and often idiomorphic. The percentage of, quarts i s higher than in the quartz gold hear ing depos i t s . Prom information at hand these deposi ts are associated with the same in t rus ive rocks as the auriferous quartz s t i b n i t e depos i t s hut were formed at a shallower depth than the former* often near the surface, a genesis common to cinnabar de- p o s i t s . S t ibn i t e - Galena Deposits* These depos i t s appear to he replacements of c r y s t a l l i n e l imestone, hut i t i s not ce r t a in whether the s t i b n i t e was contemporaneous with the galena, or belongs to a l a t e r epoch Of mine ra l i sa t ion . An occurrence of s t i b n i t e in associa t ion with f l u o r l t e , in a rook now composed of s capo l i t e , i s recorded l a the i o s t Elver Basin of Seward Peninsula . Ver t i ca l Dis t r ibu t ion and Oxidation of the Ores. Prom outcrops of ve ins , extending over 1000 fee t in e leva t ion , no change in mineral izat ion was observed. Thus there i s l i t t l e p robab i l i ty tha t changes w i l l occur su f f i c i en t ly close to the surface to effect the value of the antimony d e p o s i t s . As a rule the antimony deposi ts of Alaska show very l i t t l e oxidat ion. This i s due to two primary f ac to r s : (a) The ground covering the deposi t s I s , In most eases , permanently frozen, (b) Comparatively recent g lac ia t lon has r e - moved any previously existing oxidized zone, Age of Mineralization,, The accumulative evidence favors Tertiary mineralization of stibnite. Where the mineralization is de- finitely known to be Mcsozoio, there is no stibnite, with one exception in southern Alaska where stibnite is recorded as a minor accessory mineral. All stibnite deposits, the age of which could be definitely established, belong to the Tertiary epoch of mineralization. In those deposits of doubtful age the probabilities favor the Tertiary epoch rather than the Mesozoio. fwo instances are known where stibnite occurs in placers. In the Tolovana district a placer on Lillian Creek contains magnetite, ilmenite. piootite, limonite, cinnabar, soheellte, zircon, pyrite, stibnite and barlte, in the order of their importance, The character of the concen- trates shows that they have travelled only a short distanoe, In the Kantishna district a placer contains gold, quartz, ga* lena, stibnite and black sand. The source of the minerals are the quartz veins outcropping on the ridges bordering the bas in. (w) Canada, Antimony, as a commercial mineral in Can- ada, i s somewhat r a r e . The only mines v/hich have pr oduoed any tonnage of the metal are a t V/est Gore, Hantz County, Uova Scotia^ and lake George, York County, Sew Brunswick. Besides these (1) U.S,G.S. Bul l . 662-1918. occurrences, antimony la also found In various other l o c a l i t i e s l a Canada as In Southern Quebec, at Sault S t e , Marie, In Br i t l ah Columbia and in the Yukon T e r r i t o r y . flora Scot ia , Several veins of auriferous s t l b n l t e oocur (1) l a the gold bearing s e r i e s of W«3t Gore, Hante County, The deposi ts are nearly v e r t i o a l f i ssure ve ins , the r e i n f i l l i n g being composed of s la te* ca l c i t e and quartz out by l a t e r quartz s t r i n g e r s , The ore general ly follows the hanging wall of the f i s s u r e , which i s clean out ; the foot wall i s i r r e g u l a r and in- d i s t i n c t , ,The ore i s often so l id s t l b n l t e , or s t l b n i t e and quar tz , varying in width from a few inches t o seven f e e t . The associated minerals are p y r i t e , a rsenopyr i te , galena and gold, A varying amount of gold i s always present and i s most p l e n t i f u l where s t l b n l t e predominates, except where cut by cross veins of quartz the mala lead has no free gold. Sew Brunswick, "Native antimony and s t l b n i t e occur a t Lake George, in the parwish of Prince "ffilliam, York County, Hew (2) Brunswick, , , , The antimony ore occurs in quartz veins cu t t i ng s l a t e s and qua r t z l t e s in the neighborhood of in t rus ive masses of grani te and d iabase . The native antimony i s confined l a rge ly or so le ly to the upper por t ions of the ve in s . " 1} G.A.Young, G.S.C. #108$, 1909, P.51-52. 2) G.A.Young, G.S.O. » M p .52 : also H.W.Bills, G.S.G. #98*. 1907. P.9Z. C.S.Parsons, Can.Min.Journ.Vol.4^, 1?24, p .984 . [ 64. (1) Qt. ? . Kuna describes the native antimony as oocurring at depths down to 100 to 150 f e e t , i t occurs in pockets and lenses some of which contain upwards of one ton of native antimony in association with st ibnite , valentinite and kermesite. The native antimony i s either fine grained and oom- paot, coarsely granular or in radiating masses of crystal l ine plates* In reference to these l a t t er he says "The radiations stem to have massed about a common centre, as i f the mineral had cooled or crysta l l i sed slowly from without," The st ibnite occurs either as massive* fine or very coarse crystal l ine aggregates in a quartz gangue. The valent ini te i s found in layers between the native antimony and i s massivei granular or in radiating aggregates of c r y s t a l s . The kermesite occurs as small tuf ts of crystals in cav i t i e s in the s t ibni te and native antimony, and also along the fracture planes of the la t t er mineral, Lindgren and W. E. Smraons regard native ant i - mony as probably i f not invariably a secondary mineral derived from the oxidation of st ibnite or other sulphide minerals of antimony. In t h i s deposit the occurrence of the native antimony in the oxi- dised zone and in close association with valentinite and kermesite i s in keeping with th i s theory. Other instances where native anti- mony occurs in oxidised ores of antimony are in Southern Quebec. Algeria. Kern County, California and Borneo, (1) (M.Kuns. Am.Journ, of s o . Vol.30,1885. P.275-277. *5. Quebec. The only occurrence of antimony In %uebeo la (1) at South Ham, Beauoe County. The d1striot la underlain by Paleozoic strata rest ing on the Pre-Cambrian complex. The Paleo- zolo rooks have been folded, faulted and subjected to severe regional metamorphlara and are now represented by ahales, lime- stones and sandstones together with aohlsts , s la tes and quartzites . In the v i c i n i t y of the antimony occurrences the schis ts and alatea have been Intruded by diabase dykes, part of which are now altered to serpentine. These dykes are probably of lower Devonian age, maybe la ter , and are genetically connected with the st ibnlte min- era l i sa t ion . This deposit i s a contact deposit , the ore* occurring mainly in the schis t s along the ir contact with the in - trusive dlabaae and serpentine. "Ho d i s t inc t veins of any con- siderable width could be found in the present state of the work* Ings, but the principal amount of ore seems to be In flakes along the cleavage planes of the s c h i s t s . The proportion of the ore becomes greater as the contact i s approaohefi ,M The ore i s native antimony with subordinate amounts of s t lbn i te , kermesite and val» e n t i n l t e , Stlbnit. e occurs in the chlorite schis t s at (2) Sault ste . Marie , British Columbia, Antimony minerals are found rather widely 1) J.A.Dresser, G.S.O. s . 1*09, p.1*7. 2) JJ ierr i t , Trans.Fed. Inat.ttin.Bng. Tol . 10, 1895. P,2?2. 66. d i s t r i bu t ed throughout Br i t i sh Columbia, occurrences are noted In the d i s t r i c t s of t a l e , Slooan, Karaloops, L i l l ooe t , Chiloo and Tatlayoko Lakes, Skeena Hirer , Portland Ganal and At 1 in Lake , S t ibn i t e i s found at several po in t s in the Yale d i s t r i c t and i s often in associa t ion with s i l v e r ores . At the Alps-Alturus and Blue Lake claims in CD the Slooan May area s t i b n i t e I s found in Oarbonlferous rooks. The mineral iza t ion ia gene t ica l ly re la ted t o the Kelson grani te of Jurass ic age. Karaloops. (2) On Copper Creek, Kamloops Lake, s t i bn i t e ia found i s a cinnabar deposi t which occurs in Te r t i a ry volcanic rooks. The cinnabar i s e i t h e r disseminated through the rock or i s concentrated in i r r egu la r veins of quartz and c a l o i t e . Barrow stibnite. seams of molybdenite and a l i t t l e * o c c u r in some p a r t s of the de* p o s i t . Bridge River Map Area. So far as known the antimony deposits of the (5) Bridge Hlver Map Area are found only In the Cache Creek Series and are confined to a narrow belt along the western limb of the Bridge Blver anticline, They are closely related to the intru- sion of dioritic porphyry dykes and occur in shear zones which either border or are In these dykes. The porphyry in contact with (1) M.S'.Bancroft, G.S.C.S 1917 B. p,40. (Z) Min. A Met . Industr ies of Canada, 1907-1908, p . 9 5 . (3) A.M.Bateman Q.S.C. S 1912, p.20&. O.W.Drysdale 9 .3 .0 . S 19*5. P . 84. W.S.McCann G.S.C. M.1^0, 1922, p . 7 5 . &7. the depos i t s i s a l tered to o a l o i t e , s e r i o l t e and h a l l o y s i t e . The ore o oris 1st a of I r regu la r shaped lenses of massive, coarsely columnar s t l b n i t e in a quartz gangue. Gen- e r a l l y s t l b n i t e I s the only mineral present but sometimes galena and zinc blende are found in associa t ion with I t . The ore de- pos i t i on was contemporaneous with or s l i g h t l y l a t e r than the in - t ru s ion of the d l o r i t e porphyry dykes. These dykes are post lower Cretaceous In age and are t e n t a t i v e l y placed In the o l igo- oene pe r iod . CD F.W.Olarke says t ha t whigh temperatures, the chemical a c t i v i t y of water and mechanical s t r e s s e s a l l work together to b r ing about the formation of serfoite," Since the s e r i o l t e occurs only in contact with the ore deposi ts these must have been depositee at high temperatures . There i s the p o s s i - b i l i t y tha t the s e r i c i t i z a t l o n occurred before the deposi t ion of t r«t but the time i n t e r v a l , i f any, was very shor t , as Btated in the preceding paragraph. Chlloo & Tatlayoko l a k e s . A few small seams of s t l b n i t e in assoc ia t ion (2) with g r a n i t i c dykes occur on the west side of Chiloo lake about f ive miles south of Hemiah Val ley . Antimony occurs In the s teeply dipping and highly metamorphosed Tr iass ic sediments at the south end of Tat- layoko l a k e . There are two veins varying in width from a few inohes to 4 fee t or more. The upper vein s t r i k e s S 10 W, and dips (1) f#W,0larke U.S.G.S. B u l l . 695, 1920, p ,59* . (2) A,M,Bateman, O.S.O. S, 1?12, p .186, {$) Examined by the w r i t e r . • NtE,, while the lower vein strikes approximately H 40. wV and haa a varying dip to the H.E. The vein filling consists chiefly of quartz and auriferous stibnite and in places a few scattered frag- ments of the wall rock. In one instance coarse crystal termin- ations of quartz were found. On close examination of the gangue it is seen that the.quartz is frequently orystallized in elonga- ted crystals approximately at right angles to the vein wall. These facts associated with a noticeable handing of the veins, strongly suggest deposition in open fissures. The wall rock, ad- jacent to the vein, has been altered to a soft yellowish green rook through which fine crystals of pyrite and araenopyrite are disseminated. The banding is due to the distribution of the metallic minerals pyrite, araenopyrite, sphalerite and stibnite through the quartz gangue. The pyrite, sphalerite and arseno- pyrite are found chiefly along the walls of the vein, but where the vein la narrow the araenopyrite may extend as fine aoicular crystals from wall to wall. The atibnite occurs in the inter- crystal spaces of the quartz and as segregated masaes near the centre of the vein. There is some disseminated ore in which the minerals are more or less evenly spaced, but slight banding is also noticeable. The stibnite is either maaalve, or la found in radiating masaes of coarsely bladed ory3tala. While some occurs disseminated through the quartz, the ma$ or part la found in veins of almost pure sulphide, which vary In width from 2 or 5 inches to Ifc feet ox more. The deposit Is genetically associated with the Intrusion of a raonzonite stock In the close vicinity. The presenoe of araenopyrlte and the association of evidence Indicates de- position at Intermediate or relatively high temperature a, Portland Canal Diatriot, Stlhnlte Is reported In one or two instanoes la the Portland Canal Diatriot. In one deposit it is aa3oolated with tetrahedrlte, galena and ohaloopyrite. Skeena River Diatriot. The Skeena River Diatriot is underlain by the laielton Group, the Skeena ooal bearing series and the Buckley Bruptivea. These latter rooks intrude the two former series. "The Intrusive granitio masses of the Buckley Eruptives have everywhere played an Important part in the deposition of ore (1) bodies." These eruptive rocks are provisionally placed In the Tertiary but may be older, but they cannot be older than Lover Cretaoeoua as the Skeena Series of that age la out by them. The atibnite occurs 5 miles from Hazelton between Sixmile and Fourmile Creeks. "The ore is developed along the oontaot of the seaimentarles and the granite; the hanging wall is highly metamorphosed sandstone and the footwall la granite. On the foot wall the ore oonsista of white quartz with small quantities of disseminated galena, while on the hanging wall the mineralisation is muoh heavier, there being 18 inches to 2 feet of almost solid sulphides of antimony, lead, arsenic, silver and copper and a little white quarts gangue; there is also a little free tulphur." (1) W.W.Leaoh. G.S.O. S 1?09, vM. 70. Other than stlbnite and galena, no definite sulphides are mentioned. This Information ia too vague to draw any reasonable oonoluslona aa to the temperature of formation of the deposit. Atlln Dlstrlot. Stlbnite occurs 10 mile a north of Golden date Taku *TTQ, in nearly flat lying, fine textured ahalea of the Laberg Series (Jura-Ore taoeous). The vein varies in width from 3 to 5 feet and is, in general, conformable with the bedding planes of the shales. There are in addition a number of veinlets, within 6 feet of the upper wall of the main Tela, which vary la width from a fraction to 2 or 3 Inches. The vein material Is either quarts or alternating bands of quarts and shales; the latter, at times, oooupying as much as one half the vein. The quarts is usually heavily mineralised with stlbnite and a little galena. (2) At the Engineer Mine, 10 miles south of Golden Gate, D.D.Oairnes repor t s native antimony in associa t ion with native gold, t e l l u r i d e s , py r i t e and limonlte in a quarts gangue. Ho other antimony minerals are mentioned. The deposit i s of importance for I t s gold va lues . Taken T e r r i t o r y , In the Tukon Terr i tory s t l b n i t e occurs in the Wheaton River, ahi teherse and Oonrad mining d i s t r i c t s , (1) D.D.Oairnes, G.8.O.. It .37. W 3 . P . l l * . (2) D.D.Oairnes, G.S.C., 3 1*10. P .37 . 7 1 . (1) The antimony of the Wheaton d i s t r i c t occurs in a more or leas loca l i sed area, f& miles long by lk miles wide, extending from the cres t of Ghiefton Hi l l eastward to the eastern l i m i t of Carbon H i l l . The greater number of deposi ts are found on the Western 3lope of Carbon H i l l , The rocks of the d i s t r i c t , in which the de- p o s i t s occur, are the Jurass ic Coast Range granodiori te and the overlying l a t e Oretaoeous or ea r ly Ter t ia ry voleanice cons is t ing of andes i t io dykes, s tocks , shee t s , flows, tu f f s and b recc i a s , The deposi ts are f issure veins occurring in both the granodiori te and the ear ly Ter t iary volcanicsj the most p e r s i s t e n t f i s su re s being in the g r an i t i c rock. They vary from 2 laches to 6 f e e t , the b e t t e r deposi ts averaging 1 to 3 f«et 1% width with very l i t t l e a l t e r a t i o n of the wall rook. The vein f i l l i n g i s mainly quartz with minor amounts of b a r i t e and c a l - o l t e although in p laces i t i s ch ie f ly s t i b n i t e with which there maybe associated minor amounts of spha le r i t e and jamesonite* The quartz i s often massive with no c r y s t a l form but i t frequent- ly occurs in large c r y s t a l s poin t ing toward the centre and form- ing t yp i ca l comb s t r u c t u r e . The b a r i t e and oa lo i te are granular , Layers of gouge from 1/8 inch to 1/4 inoh think are found on both walls of the vein, but there are no fragments of the wall rook in the ve in . The meta l l ic minerals are s t i b n i t e , Jamesonitei grey copper, argent iferous galena, spha le r i te and a r senopyr i t e . (1) D.D.Cairnes, 0 , 3 . 0 . M. 31 , p . 1 1 3 . 72, The s t l b n i t e occurs e i t h e r as columnar r ad i a t i ng c rys t a l s or purely granular , with a l l va r i a t ions between the two. Sphaler- i t e and Jamesonite are commonly associated with the s t l bn i t e while the galena i s disseminated through the gangue. The grey copper i s in scat tered grains associated with the s t i b n i t e and galena, but some veins consis t en t i r e ly of quartz» galena and grey copper. The ores high in antimony may be low in s i l ve r and v laa -versa , but high values of both occur in the same p l a c e . Although the s i l v e r i s more commonly associated with the galena the s t i b n i t e i s a lso s i l v e r bear ing . The oxidation of the ores i s very l imi ted , The oxide minerals are s t i b i o o n i t e , lead carbonate and malachi te . There l a l i t t l e or no secondary enrichment. The presence of comb quartz in the centre of some veins ind ica tes tha t deposit ion may have taken place in open f i s su res but a t intermediate temperatures, as shown by the associated minera ls . In h i s report on the same d i s t r i c t in 1915» (1) D.D.Cairnes says "The veins a l l occupy f i s su res in the contain- ing rooks which are for the most pa r t the Coast Eange g ran l t io I n t r u a i v e s , Occasional ve ins , however, are found in the Mesozoio andes i t i c rooks which are older than the Ooast Range i n t r u s i v e s . " The r e s t of t h i s report agrees with h i s previous work, but in t h i s he appears t o d i f f e r , 'ihitehorse District, (1) D,D,Oairnes,W. 3 1?15. P.46, 73. (1) The vftiitehorse Copper Belt is charaoter- ized by oontaot metamorphlo deposits in limestone at and near the contact of a granite intrusive. The deposits are found in both the limestone and the granite, which has been highly altered in these deposits, The constituent minerals are typical of oontaot deposits; the more common are; magnetite, hematite, bornite, ohaloopyrite, garnet, epidote, augite, scapolite, tremolite, aotin elite, quartz and calcite, The less common metallic minerals are tetrahedrite, chalcooite, molybdenite, araenopyrite, galena, atib- nite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, zinc blende and rarely free gold, (Jonrad District, (2) The ores of Windy Arm occur in the Windy Arm Series consisting of volcanic rooks, both intrusive and ex- trusive which oat and lie upon the Ooast Range Batholith of Ju- rassic age. The ores ooour in true fissure veins filled with quarts. The stibnite is associated with arsenopyrite and pyrite* Jameaonlte is found in association with galena, arsenopyrite. ohal eopyrite and pyrite, 6, Rooks with which Antimony Ores are Associated, (a) Igneous, Antimony ores are commonly associated with Igneous rocks of intermediate acidity such as diorites, quarts diorites, monsonites and quartz monzonites; they are also geneti- oally related to granites. These rocks may be either plutonio. hypabbysal or extrusive. The mineral deposition may ooour either 1) R.G.MoConnell. S.S.O. 1050, 190?, P.20-J2. Z) D.D.Oairnes. G.S.C. S - 1908. [ 74. in the igneous rook itself, along its intrusive contacts* or within the intruded rooks at varying diatanoes from the igneous contact* (b) Effect of Wall Hook on Deposition. The chemical composition of the wall rook has little or no effect upon the deposition of antimony ores, but their physical properties influence the structure of the veins. The exceptions are the metasomatic replacement deposits in lime- stone . 7. Classification of Antimony Deposits. (a) Geological Conditions under i&lch Antimony scours. In considering the geological conditions under which antimony occurs, it should be kept in mind that the associa- tion of minerals found in any vein, may not be of contemporaneous deposition, but may represent a sequence in deposition or even distinot epochs of mineralization. Such sequences and breaks in mineralization might result in marked differences of temperature at which the various minerals were deposited. Thus stibnite might be associated with typical high temperature minerals, yet it may have been deposited under intermediate or even low temperature conditions and visa versa, in many of the reports contained in this thesis no mention was made of any sequence or break in the mineralization so that any e lass i float ion of antimony deposits, based on these reports, must be accepted with the reservation that the mineral association, found in the deposits, has been formed contempora- 75. neou3ly or if a sequence or break in mineralization occurred, it waa of auoh a character as not to alter the conditions of tempera- ture to any large degree. In disoussing the temperatures of deposition the conditions of pressure, existing at such a time, must alao be considered. Pressure is of importance only when the mineral sol- utions contain volatile constituents or gases which render them the natural solvents of any contained minerals. In this oase a alight decrease in pressure might be of vital importance in allow- ing auoh constituents to escape which would result in the deposi- tion of the otherwise soluable minerals. Pressure is naturally of groat importance in veins formed above 565"C as this is the oritioal temperature of water, but relatively few antimony deposits are formed at auoh temperatures. The natural solvent of antimony is an alkaline solution. The above evidence strongly suggests that pressure is of minor importance in the deposition of antimony ores. Suoh a conclusion is substantiated by the for- mation of stibnite at Steamboat Springs, Nevada, where this min- eral is being deposited in gravels >0 feet below the present sur- face. Lindgren draws an analogy, in formation, between the Steam- boat Spring deposit and that found in a conglomerate in Iron Qounty, Utah. From this it is the writer's opinion that the im- portant factors governing the deposition of antimony minerals are changes in temperature and alkalinity of the solutions carrying the antimony. In this It must not be assume" that the deposition is confined to any one particular zone of temperature, because stibnite and other antimony minerals occur In both contact meta- •16.; morphio and low temperature depos i t s , but the evidence suggests tha t the important commercial deposi ts have been formed a t i n t e r - mediate temperatures or s l i g h t l y lower, (b) Proposed C la s s i f i c a t i on . A, Contact Metamorphio Deposits, B. High Temperature Vein Deposits, 0. Intermediate Temperature Deposits, (1) Metasomatio Replacements. (8) Fissure or Shear Zone Deposits, 3J» low Temperature Deposits, E, Sulfotario Deposits, A, Contact Metamorphio Depositsi So far as known the contact metamorphio deposits in which antimony minerals occur, are few in number. The only defi- nite occurrence is at Simapan, Mexico, where Jamesonite is found in association with contact metamorphio minerals. In the White- horse district, British Columbia, atibnite occurs with contact metamorphio minerals. Other uncertain occurrences are to be found in Sardinia, Alaska, Skeena district, British Columbia, and South Ham, Quebec, B, High Temperature Deposi ts . few typically high temperature minerals oocur in asso- ciation with antimony minerals. Such minerals as tin, soheelite, pyrrhotite and tourmaline are, however, found in antimony bearing deposits in Mexico, Sardinia, Alaska and the Arabia District, Hevada, respectively. Of these deposits that in Sardinia is the 77. only one mined for i t a antimony content . The depoait in the Arabia D i s t r i c t , Hevada, oonaiata of highly oxidized a rgen t i f e r - ous Jamesonite. 0, Intermediate Temperature Depoait3, (1) l lndgren s t a t e3 tha t in t h i a type of depoai t , "The a e t a l a contained are p r i n c i p a l l y gold and s i l v e r , often with large amounts of oopper, lead and z ino. In the deep-seated de- p o s i t s molybdenum, bismuth tungsten and arsenic are not uncom- mon a s soc i a t e s ; we find the same metals here* though they are much l e s s prominent; in addi t ion there i s a lso much antimony and l a plasms t e l l u r i um. The ore minerals are sulphides, a rsen ides , sulphantlmonidea and sulpharaenides . P y r i t e , ohaloopyri te , a r - senopyr i te , galena, zino blende,, t e t r a h e d r i t e . t ennant i t e and nat ive gold are the most common and on the whole there i s not mush Variety and complexity. . . . The metal l io minerals develop both in the f i l l i n g and In the a l t e red oountry rook, but in the f i s sure veins proper i t i s common to find the va luabl t ores main- ly in the f i l l e d spaces. The dominating gangue mineral i s quar tz , bat carbonates are a lso common, such as o a l o i t e , dolomite, and anke r l t e , more r a r e ly s l d e r l t e ; f l uo r i t e and b a r i t e are occasion- a l l y of importance, ohaloedony and opal are r a r e ly found," I t i s the w r i t e r ' s be l i e f that a large majority of the depos i t s described in the foregoing pages would come under t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . (1) Lindgren - Mineral Deposits, 1?19. P .5*7. 78. D. Low Temperature Deposi ts . Deposits of t h i s type are somewhat oommon and are often associated with oinnabar, t h i s l a t t e r mineral being of more im- portance than the antimony compounds. Such deposi ts are found in Germany, France, Mexico, United S ta t e s and Alaska. B. Sul fo tar ic Deposi ts . An example of t h i s type of deposit i s given in Pereta, south Tuscany. Attent ion should be cal led to the formation of s t i b n i t e a t Steamboat Spr ings . Here t h i s mineral i s forming from hot spring waters which permeate gravels 30 feet below the surface . I t i s in a olas3 by i t s e l f and might be c l a s s i f i ed under "Deposits formed from Hot Spring Waters, at or near the surface." An ana- logy between t h i s deposi t and one in Iron County, Utah, I s drawn by Llndgren. S t ibn i te i s also found in p lacers in Alaska and Hew Zealand, I t accompanies t yp ica l p lacer minerals as garnet , mag- n i t i t e , gold, e t c . , but such p lacers are formed a t short d i s t an - ces from the souroe of the s t i b n i t e , 8, Age of Antimony Deposits . Antimony depos i t s have been formed during many per iods throughout geologloal t ime. Moat of the deposi ts border- ing the At lan t ic appear t o have developed p r i o r to the Carbon- iferous pe r iod . Important exceptions are deposi ts in Tuscany which are associated with Quaternary volcanism. The antimony deposi t s bordering the Pacif ic ooean have a large range in geo- log ica l t ime, but a great many have been formed since Cretaceous 79. t ime . The antimony depoaita of Alaska, Br i t i sh Ooluiribia and Herada are mainly of Ter t ia ry age. Deposits of s imilar age oocur in Hew Zealand. This Te r t i a ry antimony mineral izat ion ia mainly connected with vuloanism and deposit ion has ocourred at varying depths hut at temperatures ranging from high tempera- tu re s to su l fo ta r io depos i t ion . 80 . 9 . B i b l i o g r a p h y . Agr ioo l a , De Ke Me t a l l i c a . I 556 . A g u i l e r a , J .G . Geo l , D i s t r i b u t i o n of Mineral Depos i t s in Mexico, T r a n s . Am.Inst .Min.Eng, V o l . 32, 1902, p . 5 0 7 . Ashley, G.H, P roo . 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GOODE'S SERIES OF BASE MAPS AND GRAPHS. THE WORLD ON MERCATOR'S PROJECTION. NO. 101 180 165 150 135 20 135 150 165 WO . . . < " °roduciab Centres . 1 Occurrences. leo LONGITUDE 165 WESTOF; 150GRH-NWIC1I 135 120 105 90 60 45 30 15 30 45 a j 75 90 105 120 135 150 M 5 H 3 180 WEST Ford«»u»einGeoBT«phy.'Hat(*>,CiviCj, Exottornici, etc. Prepared by J. Paul Goodc. Publiahcd by The Univenity of Chicago Pre*. Chicago, IB. Copyright 1918. by the Univenity of Chicago


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