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Antimony Smitheringale, William Vickers 1925-07-03

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ANTIMONY by William Vickers Smitheringale A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in the Department of GEOLOGY The University of British Columbia. April 1925 1 ANTIMONY by William Vickers Smitheringale A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OH1 APPLIED SCIENCE la the Department of GEOLOGY The University of British Columbia APRIL, 1925 ANTIMONY Page I. INTRODUCTION . 1 II. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . .'• 2 III, HISTORICAL SKETCH 3 IV, SOURCES OF ANTIMONY 4 V. CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OF ANTIMONY 3 VI, USES OF ANTIMONY . . . 6 1. Alloys .......... 7 2. Artificial Chemical Compounds . . , . . 8 3. Uaea of Antimony in their Relative Importance. .............. 9 4. Substitutes, , 10 VII. METALLURGY OF ANTIMONY U 1. Mechanical Concentration ....... 11 2. Smelting ......... 12 (a) Ores Containing more than 40% Stibnite 12 (b) Ores Containing less than 40% stibnite 13 (o) Refining . , U 3. Eleotrolitio Recovery 15 VIII. MARKETING OF ANTIMONY 1IX. GEOLOGY OF ANTIMONY . . , 1? 1. Natural Compounds . , . 19 2, Ore a of Antimony , 20 (a) Those used for Reoorery of Antimony 20 (b) Those mineu for Valuable Associated Minerals 22 IX. GEOLOGY Of AHTIMOHY. (oontinued) 3. Associated Minerals. , 4. Oxidation of Antimony Ores. . , 5. Ooourrenoe and Distribution of Antimony Deposits in the Various Countries. (a (* (c (a (• (* (g <* (i o (k (i (m (n (o (P (Q (r (a (t (* China. ........... France. .......... Mexico. , Austria-Hungary and Bohemia, Australia. .,.,,,,,, Germany. ,.......,, Russia. , . . ... .... Norway. . . , . . . . , . . Portugal Spain . , Italy Serbia. .......... Asia Minor and Turkey. . . . Algeria. , ,  . South Africa. ....... Hew Zealand , . , , Borneo Japan . , . Peru. , . Bolivia United States. ....... 22 23 27 28 29 31 33 3* 5* 57 37 37 37 57 38 40 41 42 43 46 46 47 47 47 Page IX. QfiOLOGY OF AflTIMOST. (oontinued). 5. Oocurrenoe and Distribution oi Antimony Deposits in the Various Countries, (oontinued). (r) Alaska 58 (w) Canada ^2 6. Rocks with whioh Antimony Ores are Aasooiated. . 73 (a) Igneous. ... f ..... . 73 (b) gffeot of Wall Rook on Deposition. . . 7* 7. Classifioation of Antimony Deposits. 74 (a) Geologioal Conditions under whioh Antimony ooours 74 (b) Proposed Classifioation 7*> 8. Age of Antimony Deposits. 78 9. Bibliography 80 MAP. ASTIMOHY. I. IJJTBODUCTIO*. The present thesis was written at the University of British Columbia, in the Department of Geology, under the direction of Dean R. W. Brock. The writer is indebted to Dr. W. L. Uglow, Professor of Mineralogy, The University of British Columbia, for helpful suggestion and criticisms in regard to the subject matter in this report. The first part of the thesis is a brief outline of the sources, properties and uses of antimony and the methods of extracting antimony from its ores. This is not complete in every detail, but is intended to give the reader a general conception of antimony in the commercial world. A brief sum mary of the economics of antimony is included. While this deals onlv' with the outstanding points, it may be of some use in comparing antimony with other metals ontthe commercial market. The latter part treats with the 'Geology of Anti mony* . The information oontained in this thesis, is of necessity derived from the reports of others. In summarizing and arranging this subject matter the writer has attempted to bring out the important facts contained in the reports and has give only sufficient detail to illustrate the various points. The reader is referred to the bibliography if he should require further details of any of the reports contained herein. 2. II. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. Prior to the war Great Britain was the chief smelter of antimony ores, hut slnoe then the Chinese and Japan ese have obtained control of the American market. China is the largest antimony producer! capable of supplying the world demand, while America and Great Britain are the ohief consumers. Stibnite is the principal ore of antimony although its oxidation products, cervantite, kermeaite, valentinite, stibiconlte and native antimony may also he of importance. These oxides may al30 he derived from other antimony minerals as jame-sonlte. Workable antimony ores occur in Mexico, California, Nevada, Canada, Alaska, Japan, China, Borneo, Australia. New Zealand, South Africa* Asia Minor, Algiers* Italy, Sardinia, Corsica, Prance, Spain and Portugal, Stibnite and other antimony minerals may occur in association with gold, silver* lead* etc., and in such eases the associated metal may be of more importance and the deposit worked for such rather than for the antimony. Antimony minerals are deposited from rising thermal alkaline solutions, originating in an igneous magma. They have a wide range of temperature distribution, being found in oontaot metamorphlo deposits and in those now forming at the surface from hot spring waters. The deposits of economic isiportanee for their antimony content are believed to have been formed principally at intermediate temperatures. Antimony minerals are genetically associated with 3. Igneous rooks of the granite, monzonite or diorite groups and are, perhaps, somewhat more abundant with the more aoidio types. III. HISTORICAL SKETCH. Stibnite has been known sinoe very early times, es pecially in the Eastern countries, where women have used it for many oenturles to darken their eyebrows and eyelashes and to add lustre to the eyes. Reference is made to it in the Old Testament, and the Arabs called It "Kohl". The Greek Dioscorides refers to It as +rrts,ri »'; Pliny as "Stibium"? Geber aa "Antimoniura" and the German writes it as "Speisaglana". The derivation of the word antimony is not knows. Antimony, as an element, was first isolated in 14c0 (1) A.D., by Basil Valentine. In I556 A.D., Agrioola desoribes strcral methods of assaying for antimony, and for the reoovery of the metal from its ores. Following Its isolation in 14&0 A.D., antimony was extensively used as a medicinal agent, but as such it became so badly abused that in I566 the Parisian Government prohibited its use in medicines. Agrioola mentions its use in alloys such as type metal. Sinoe Agrioola's time the demand for antimony has increased in proportion as new properties and uses of the metal have been discovered. from 18«7 - 1911 the average world production of antimony metal per year* from its ores, was slightly in excess of 10,000 metric tons with an average price of 7.5/ per pound. (1) De Be Metallioa. 4. Prom 1911 - 1914 the production inoreased from 15,000 to 22,000 metric tons per year with the price remaining at 7,5^ per pound. During the war the production increased tremendously, reaching a maximum of 82,000 metric tons in 1916. Prom then until 1920 the output gradually decreased to 20,000 metric tons per year. Since then the antimony ores have supplied, on an average, about 17,000 metric tons yearly. The price of antimony since 1914 to the present has been very eratic. It reached its maximum of 32^ per pound in 1915 and then declined to 8^f per pound in I919. Sinoe then the monthly price has been very unstable, fluctuating a great deal between 5/ to 19^ per pound. The above data do not include the amount of antimony which la recovered from hard lead and scrap, which amounts to 5,600 metric tons annually in the U.S.A. IV. SOURCES OP AHTIMOHT. Besides being extracted from its ores, antimony is derived, to a considerable extent, from antimonial lead, a biproduot from smelting silver-lead ores containing some an timony. It is also recovered from sorap dross and other waste materials, and to a slight extent from some copper ores. (1) V, CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OP AKTIMOHY. 1, Antimony is a silver white, crystalline, brittle metal with a white lustre. Its specifio gravity is 6.7 - b.86, hardness 3 - 3.5 and it melts at 432° 0 and bolls between 1090° and 1600°C. (1) Dictionary Applied Chem. Thorpe. Vol.1, p.280. 3. 2, It expands on solidifying from a melt. 2. Antimony oomhinea readily with raetala suoh aa tin, oopper, zinc and lead, and imparts to ita alloys^ (a) hardness (h) makes them more re slatant to acid and alka line solutions. This is important in chem ical worka, pump manufacture and water pipes, (o) The property of expanding on solidification from a melt. This ia important in castings and type manufacture. 4. Quite stable in air at ordinary temperatures, hut when heated in air or oxygen to a red heat, it hurna to the trioxide Sh703 with the production of denae white fumes, 5. Burns in chlorine, especially If powdered. 6. Decomposes steam at red heat. 7. Dissolves in all warm, oonoentrated strong acids as nitric sulphuric and hydrochloric; dilute hydrochloric and sulphuric adds do not affect antimony hut nitric acid reacts with it under all conditions forming the various oxides; hy drochloric and sulphuric acids form the chloride and sulphate respectively. It is soluble in alkaline solutions. 8. Coef. of expansion .64 x 10 per degree P. 9. Tensile strength of oast antimony about 1,000 lbs. per sq. in. 10. Comparatively a poor conductor of hear and eleotri-oity. 11. Diamagnetio. 6. 12. Marked thermo electric properties and used in man ufacture of thermopiles. 13. Poisonous. Acts very similar to arsenic in this respect, 14. Included in the same family as phosphorus, nitrogen, arsenic and bismuth, VI. USES OF ASTIMOHT. (1) "The peace time uses of antimony are many, hut only a few require large quantities of the metal. ... its field of uses, however, exclusive of abnormal war demand, is widening and the consumption is increasing." The unalloyed metallic metal has a few Industrial uses, such aa in the manufacture of pigments, and in producing a metallic finish on pottery. The chief use of antimony, how ever, is in alloy with other metals, w "The antimony oxides are used chiefly for making white enamel and glass, the oxides and sulphides aa coloring agents and pigments, and the sulphides in vulcanizing rubber. The oxide is used also in proportions up to lk% in the manufac ture of litharge... It is used in making oollodial products employed in medicine and surgery, in tanning, in the prepara tion of oosmetlos, for the protection of plants and for the Impregnation of wood fabrics.'* (1) Mineral Resources, U.S.&.S., part 1, p.284, 1?23. (2) Mineral Resources, U.S.G.S., part 1, p.284, I923, 7. 1. Alloys of Antimony. Antimony alloys with most of the heavy and the alkaline metals. It generally increases the hardness, brittle-nesa and fusibility of the metals with whloh it alloys, and Im parts to them the valuable property of expanding on solid if i-oation. The alloys of gold, silver and lead have a greater density than their mean constituents, while those of iron, tin and slat are of less density than their mean constituents. (1) Alloys with Lead. (a) Type metal. This Is essentially an alloy of lead and antimony with sometimes minor amounts of tin, bismuth or copper. (b) Hard Lead composed of varying amounts of lead and antimony Is used in manufacture of load pumps, pipes and valves where they must resist acid and alkaline solutions. (o) Antimonial Lead, is used a great deal in storage batteries. Alloys with Tin. (a) Britannia metal. Essentially tin and antimony with minor amount of copper. Increasing th<% antimony increases the hardness, raises the melting point and reduoes the maleabillty of the alloy. It Is used in oastings, domestic utensils and as a base (1) Dictionary of Applied Chem. Thorpe Vol.1. 8. for electroplating; it is harder than pewter and is replacing that alloy. (b) Bearing or Antifriction Metal. The better grades contain antimony, tin and copper in Tarying proportions. These alloys are soft, malleable, and are capable of standing relatively high temperatures without fusing. Alloys with Copper. Frequently added to copper and brass to in tensify their color. These compounds are harder, finer in texture and take a better polish than brass or copperv and for this reason are often used in copper mirrors and reflectors. Alleys with zinc. forms crystalline compounds differing widely in composition bat retaining the same form. They decompose water rapidly at boiling temperature and giro a possible source of pure hydrogen. Alloys with Aluminium. These alloys expand on solidifying* are hard and fairly malleable and are unaltered by air or water at ordinary temperatures; they are also light. (1) P. Artificial Chemical Compounds. Antimony unites directly with the halogen group (1) Dictionary of Applied Chera. Thorpe Vol.1. 9. with the evolution of heat and light; with hydrogen giving SbH3 (stibine) a oolorleaa, poisonous gas with an Offensive smell; and also with araenio and phosphorus. Antimony Trisulphlde Sb^ S3 , Used to some extent in the refining of gold from silver and copper. It is also used in the pre paration of safety matches, percussion-caps, pyro-techny and veterinary surgery. Antimony Pentasulphlde Sb^, S^ , Used in the vulcanizing of rubber, and as a yellow color in art paintings, glass and ceramic industries. Antimony trichloride So Gl3, Used as a caustic in medicines; in the man ufacture of Tartar Emetic, and in bronzing gun barrels« Antlmoncous Oxide Sb4 Q6, Used for phanaaoetieal purposes; preparation of Tartar emetic and as a substitute for white lead, Tartar Emetic; A Potassium Antemonium Tartarate Used in medicines and pomades and as a mor dant in dying. (1) 3, Uses of Antimony in their Helatlve Importance, 1, Babbit metal, 2, Hard lead including pipes, etc. (1) Eng. * Mln. Journ. Press Sept,27y24. 10, 3. Soft metal alloys and aolder. 4. Type and Type metal. 5. Vulcanizing rubber and rubber goods. 6. shrapnel and other bullets. 7. Speoial bearing and Antifriotion metals. 8. Battery Plates. 9. Enamel on Metal ware, 10, Cable coverings, 11, Chemicals, paints and pigments, 12, Brass including bronze. 13, Britannia metal, 14, Collapsible Tubes, 15, Foil. 16, Useo" in Pyrotechnics as a filler, 17, Used in manufacture of thermopiles, IB. tJsefi as a poison and in this respect acts very much like arsenic. The above is for the war years of 1917 and 1918, If a census of today were made there would be a decrease in the demand for shrapnel and other bullets, and an increase in its use for hard lead, battery plates, rubber industry* cable cover ings, etc. (1) 4, Substitutes, "There are a number of other metals or materials which will harden lead and therefore oan be used as substitutes (1) Mineral Resources, Part 1, p.286, 1923. 11. for antimony in lead alloys, hut antimony i3 cheaper than most of the substitutes, and as the antimony deposits of the world are abundant in proportion to the consumption of the ore, the course of industry seems more likely to develop new uses for antimony." "Of the ten or more known substitutes for antimony, the best found in reoent years is a combination of oaloium and barium The prooess is electrolytic, and calcium-barium-lead alloys are now made on an extensive scale." Other substitutes for antimony are barium and bismuth; for the antimony exides, tin oxldt and other white oxides may be used in paints and pig ments; pure lead sulphide and iron sulphide may be used as substitutes for antiaony sulphide in primers of shells and car tridges. VII. SffiTALLUHGY OP AHTIHOIX. 1. 1'echanioal Concentration. The ore of antimony, usually stibnite, may be either reduoed directly or first subjected to meohanioal con-(1) oentration. The concentration of stibnite is very difficult because stibnite is extremely friable and slimes very badly. It is impossible to save these slimes by any known gravitational process. The best recovery of antimony la obtained by employ ing a floatation prooess, (1) Lake George Antimony Ores and their concentration, C.S. Parsons, O.M.Journ. Vol,45, October 5/24, p.984, 12. 2. Smelting. In the direct method, metallic antimony and its compounds are nearly always extracted from the ores by (1) dry methods. According to their suitability for the several methods of treatment* the ores fall into two classes; sulphide ores containing more than 4Q% stibnite; and sulphide ores con taining less than 40% stibnite and oxide ores of all grades. This latter class includes liquidation residues and flue de posits. (a) Ores Containing more than 40% Stibnite. If the ores contain more than 90% of the sulphide* no preliminary treatment is neoessary, but if their content ia lower than this they are first put through a pro cess of wliquation" in which the sulphide is melted and allowed to run away from the gangue. The temperature of liquation must be carefully regulated, as too high a temperature causes excessive loss by volatilization, and too low a temperature results in a low recovery of the sulphide. In the English method the ore is ground to the size of hazel nuts or smaller and then subjected to two processes before refining. The first process ia carried on in crucibles in reverberatory furnaoes. Each crucible holds 42$ ore* 1&# iron scrap* 4$ salt and Xf alag from "doubling". This charge is kept in a state of fuaion for t*o or three hours, at the end of which time the antimony is removed from beneath (1) Dictionary of Applied Ohera, Thorpe Vol, 1, 13. the slag and poured into moulds. This product is known as "singles" and contains about J\% Sb. The second process is carried on in similar crucibles and furnaoes as above. The charge to each crucible is 84$ broken singles, 7-8f liquated sulphide and 4# salt. The whole is kept in a state of fusion for lfc hours; the completion of the operation being determined by the nature of the slag. The slag is removed by ladles and the product is run into moulds and later refined. This product is known as "bowl metal", or "•tar bowls". The losses in the English process, by volatilization are small, ranging from 2% to 5%. (b) Ores Containing less than 40^ Stibnite. The ores of this type are roasted either to the non volatile tetroxide or the volatile trioxide, or are sub jected to one of the direct reduction processes, A process that la becoming ftuite popular and which has marked advantage is the "Volatilization process", in which there is continuous roasting oi' the ore to the trioxide (Sb205), The oxidation to the trioxide takes place at about 400° 0 with the carefully regulated amount of air. Any one of the modern fume condensing systems may be employed to condense the fumes, according as it. is thought to be best suited to the purpose. With suitable condensing apparatus this process has marked advantages, especially with poor ores. It may be noted that any arsenio is separated as the more volatile tri-14. oxide and any gold or silver ia left in the residue and may he extracted later. There is no loss of antimony and the fuel consumption is low. For the volatilisation prooeas the ideal ore i3 (1) from 15% to 25% Sb. Ores above 40% antimony are liquatedas well aa volatilize^ The liquated sulphide forma an oxysulphlde with the trioxide, whiah is known as antimony glass, which oauses fritting in the lower part of the furnaoe. If ores of over 50% Sb are used, then 30% - 50% excess coke is required to volatilize all the atlbnite. (2) (0) Refining. The unrefined antimony contains sulphur, iron, arsenic and sometimes copper and lead; the sulphur and iron being most plentiful, 2-10% and 0-5% respectively. The other impurities seldom exceed 1,5% combined. All these impurities, except lead, may be re moved by slagging with oxidizing, sulphurizing and chlorinating agents. Glauber salt and charcoal remove copper and iron as sulphides and arsenic as sodium araenite. Antimony oxysulphlde eliminates the sulphur. Chlorides as salt and oarnallite must be used with caution aa great loss by volatilization may occur. Pure antimony, on solidifying has a beautiful fern leaf or »*starrt on the surface, The quality of the ingot may be determined by the length and form of this star, as re la-(1) O.Y. Wang. Trans. Am. Inst, of Win. Met. Bng. Vol.60 p. 5. (2) Dictionary of applied Chem. Thorpe Vol.l, p,27&. tively small proportions of impurities will prevent the metal from starring. Through this peculiarity, the trade terra "star antimony" has arisen for good quality of antimony. 3, Electrolitio Recovery, Eleotrolitio recovery from a solution of the Bulphide in sodium sulphide as an eleotrolite has been proposed by the Germans, but the process has not appeared on a com mercial aoale, (1) Mr, W. A, Burr claims that by crushing an timony ore to 8 mesh, and then leaohing with a solution con taining 7% sodium hydroxide and 2% sodium chloride, an economical recovery is obtained. The antimony is precipitated from this solution on steel electrodes by using a current den sity of 8-9 amp, per ss.ft. at Z\ - 2$ volts. The precipitate assayed 99.94% Sb. VIII. MARKETIHO Off AHTIKOHY. (2) "Practically all of the refined metal known in the trade as regulus, consumed in the United States is imported from Ohina through the Port of Hew York, The importer sells the metal either direct to consuming interests or to dealers. The usually minimum import lot is 25 gross tons," "The principal market is naturally in Hew York, and the out of town buyers purchase either through their Hew York offices or sales agent* or employ the services of brokers, to (1) Eng. & Min. Journ. Vol. 104, 1917. P.789, (2) H.K.Masters, Eng, * Min, Journ. Sept,27,1924, 1*. whom the seller then allows a brokerage of -f of 1% The principal industries using antimony produots as raw mater ials are......in Northwestern U. S. Very little is used west of the Mississippi....although there is a small consumption on the Pacific Coast...with distributing centres at San Francisco and Seattle. ... The demand for antimony is not a seasonal one, although. ..the market is usually more aotive in winter sn d early spring, and again in the fall.,.." The world's average peace time consumption is esti mated at 22,000 metric tons from ore produced, of which the United States uses 10,000. Besides this, the United states consumes 2,100 tons of antimony contained in the antimonlal lead ores of domestio smelting, and 3#500 tons of antimony recovered from alloys, scrap, dross and waste materials. The specifications for the regulus are not critical, being, "that it shall contain a Minimum of 99% Sb, as little arsenic as possible, and be uniform in quality. When the metal is imported no samples are taken, It is sold simply as prime Sb 99^ pure, and Invariably contains the guaranteed percentage." If pure antimony is needed for specific purposes, the buyer must analyze his shipment and then remove the harm-ful Ingredients himself, "The average prioe of antimony metal in Hew York for the last thirty years, ending I9I4 was 7,50^ pef lb, for Cookson's brand, (English). Since that year the Chinese metal has dominated the United Ftatea market, and the average prioe 17. for the ordinary metal, 99^ pure, has been:-cents per l"b. 1915 30.28 1916 25.37 1917 20.6? 1918 I.2.58 1919 8.19 cents per lb, I920 —— 8.48 1921 4,96 1922 —— 5.47 1923 7.90 1924 12.70 The accompanying graph shows the production of antimony from its ores, from I897 - 1923, and the corres ponding price of antimony per lb.., Bew York. 90,000 80,000 70,000 , SO. 000 to ' P50000 40,000 230,000 20,000 10.000 1697 1900 ' -- "- -"•< n'c -„ f-__ h7" * / / , 1 --;-| idi trt -iali _— / ' i / I 1 ! 1 \ \ \ \ \ \. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \. \ \ N .-• 1905 35 o JO 2 IS * 10 % 1910 1915 1920 1923 World proJoett.H of *afr**o*f. JB37-/93S. i'scj on fV'>«V^ recoverable content of m:nt***»*y ore,, on a ft/no,*/\Hojforrrf\i. {**&- ' [/>**+'• . './V.*** The ah ore figures and graph show the effeot of the war time demand on the metal antimony. The greatly inflated price atimulated production the world over, and a3 the supply gradually met the demand there was a corresponding drop in 18. prioe. The sudden drops in 1918, 1?19 and 1921 were oauaed by the cessation of hostilities whioh resulted in a loso of a buying market. A further slump in price was caused by sev eral of the belligerent countries dumping their excess shrapnel supplies on the market for their antimonial content. The grad ual rise in prioe ainoe 1921 indicates a corresponding depletion of sorap supply, and a growing peace time demand for the metal. Boring 1«24 the prioe fluctuated a great deal, varying from 8.25^ psr lb, to 19,^0^ per IV, In considering the price of antimony two things should be kept in mind, (a) China is the ohief produoer of antimony, (b) China has a silver standard eurrenoy. As the Chinese produoer is paid in silver, then the prioe of Antimony will vary with the gold value of silver. Other things being equal, a rise in the value of silver will be accom panied by a corresponding rise in the price of antimony and visa versa. The principal foreign market for antimony ore is Great Britain which draws its supply principally from China, Mexico and Bolivia, The standard ore is&ibnite, the prioe of whioh varies with the percentage of contained antimony, and the harmful impurities present. If the ore is of good quality, percentagesas low as 50% Sb are saleable. The sulphide is preferable, but oxides are also bought at a slight discount. There is no fixed ratio between the price of antimony as ore and that of market regulus, the final prioe usually being a 1*. mutual agreement "between the buyer and seller. The usual paroe% offer ia at least fifty tons* IX. GEOLOGY OF AHTIMOflY. 1. natural Compounds. In nature, antimony is found both in the native state and in combination with oxygen, sulphur, arsenic, lead, oopper, silver and other elements. There is a considerable variety and number of these compounds. The following list contains the more common and important natural compounds of antimony: Hative Antimony ...... sb Stibiooaite 2 sb 0^, H^O Cervantite , » Sb* 0* Senarmontite ........ Sb203 Valentlnite . .. . . , , . . Sb^O, Bindheimite ........ Pb^Sb^Q^aq Zermesite . ......... 2 Sb^.Sb^O, Stibiotantalate ...... (SbO^ (Ta Sb)^ 0^ Antimonates ........ stibnite . Sb^S, Hetastlbnite Sb2 s^ Tetrahsdrite , . Qtt^sbjS, Pyrargyrite Ag3Sb s, Stephanite «... Ag^Sb S., Polybasite Ag,Sb S„ Dysoraslte ......... Ag3Sb Bournonite ........ H> Ou SB S5 Jamesonite ....... Pb^ Sb, Sa. Famatinite ....... Cu6 Sb^ S^ Boulangerite ...... Wolfsbergite ...... Allemontite ...... Sb As3 2. Ores of Antimony. (a) Those used for Recovery of Antimony, The most Important ore of antimony is stibnite (SbjS37l,4£ Sb ). Stibnita crystallizes in the orthorhombio system and is commonly found in radiating groups) of prismatic, acioular or bladed crystals vertically striated. These crystals sometimes exhibit a step like appearance on the face b(010) due to shearing of the crystal. Massive and gran* ular forms are also common. Stibnite has cleavage parallel to b(010) lustre metallic - highly resplendent on fresh cleavage or crystal faces. These soon take on a lead grey color, and in tine tarnish to a blackish tone; sometimes to iredescence. Streak, lead greyj hardness 2; specific gravity 4.$2-4,62, slightly seotile, subconcoidal fracture. Fuses easily in candle flame. Metastibnite is an orange red, amorphous form of Sb,? B3 , which is formed in calcareous sinters derived from thermal springs as at Yellowstone national Park. The oxides oervantite. senarmontite, valentenite, kermesite and stibioonite, if occurring in sufficient eoonomio 21. quantities, are mined by themselves. They often occur in association with stibnite and in suoh oases are mined along with the sulphide ore, Bative antimony ooours in several places, as in Bfew Brunswick; Kern County, Calif.; Sala, Sweden; Allemont and Dauphine, France; Sarawak, Borneo. It is believed that in all oases, native antimony is an oxidation produet. It ooours finely or coarsely granular, oompact, or In lamillar plates; associated with the oxides as valentinite. kermesite, etc., and the original stibnite; sometimes found in association with silvet ores. Distinctive crystals are rarely met with; these are rhombohedral; perfect basal oleavage; sometimes twinned on rhombohedral plane e(110); Hardness 3-3.5; specific gravity b >5-M2. These oxidised minerals may be derived from either the oxidation of stibnite* or from the alteration of suoh minerals as jamesonite or other sulphur antimony minerals. Objectionable impurities in ores, used for the recovery of antimony are lead, oopper, arsenio, zino and bismuth. These impurities are penalized as follows:-Lead up to 0 .3% fret; over 0.3 to 1,5% fy per 0.1%. Some buyers stipulate that lead should not exceed 0,3%. Arsenio up to 0.1% free; over 0.1% to 0.5% $1.80 per 0.1% or part. Copper carries the same penalties as arsenio; some buyers stipulate that there shall be no oopper in the ore, Zino and bismuth are very objectionable impurities in the ore 22. and should not be present in more than a traoe. If present In an amount up to 0.5% they are subjeot to heavy penalties, (b) Those Mined for Valuable Associate Minerals. Gold is often found in association with stibnite. In suoh instances it may be more economical to mine and smelt the ore for the recovery of the associate mineral rather than for the antimony content. Kxamples of auoh are found in Alaska, tukon Territory, Hova Scotia, Nevada, Mexico, Hew Zealand and alsewhere, stibnite is often in association with olnnabar and such deposits may be worked solely for the meroury and not for the Sb, Besides the association of valuable minerals with stibnite, suoh antimony compounds aa pyrargyrite, atephanite polybaaite, jameaonlte, tetrahedrite, etc., are mined primarily for their silver, lead or copper content rather than for the antimony value. These may occur in association with minor amounts of stibnite and are also found in association with argentiferous galena, j$. Associated Minerals. Stibnite is found in a3sooiation with other primary and secondary antimony minerals. The primary antimony minerals are associated with pyrite, galena, sphalerite, ohalcopyrite, biamuthenite, araenopyrite, pyrrhotite, aoheellte, molybdenite, tin, cobaltite, gold, a live r> cinnabar, realgar, orpiment, etc. The common gangue mineral is quarts which usually predominates and may occur massive, with stibnite disseminated through it, or else it may occur as idiomorphio 23. crystals in a segregated mass of stibnlte. Calotte, barite, gypsum, slderite, tourmaline, contaot silioate minerals and fluorite may also be present in minor amounts or may oonstitute the main gangue mineral with quarta entirely absent or in minor amounts, 4. Oxidation of Antimony Ores. Stibnlte deoomposes and forms the oxidation products, valentinite, aenarmontite, oervantite, xermesite, stibioonite and native antimony. These may at times entirely replaoe the original stibnlte. as in Algeria, Mexioo, and Borneo, These same oxides may be obtained by the weathering of other antimony sulphide minerals as jamesonite, tetrahedrite, bournonite, etc. If lead is present during the process of 4 oxidation, the aqueous lead-antimony oxide "bindheimite" may be formed. .Thile the oxides of antimony are common, its transportation by supergene underground waters is limited. It Is, howerer, slightly soluable in these underground solutions, as is shown by the removal of antimony compounds from the gossan capping of deposits, which lower down contain antimony minerals. Traces of antimony are found in mine waters wa ion have peroulated through antimony compounds. Lindgren mentions (1) secondary stibnlte in the national Distriot, Nevada. He also states that stibnlte is being deposited from the hot spring (1) U.S.G.S. 601, 1«15. a*. CO I (2) waters (80* 0) in Yellowstone National Park. "W. H. Maloalm claims that stibnlte is being deposited at the present time in the West Gore Mine* Hova Sootia. and alao a "red sulphide" perhaps kermesite (Sb^S^O) is said to be forming, both probably from alkaline waters." 0, DoIter and others hare shown experi mentally that stibnite ia soluble in pure water at 80"0 and will reoryatalliae again aa stibnlte from the same solutions. This ia important in the natural process, but it la not final. These experiments also showed that while stibnite reacts only very slowly in neutral and acid solutions it ia one of the most actire minerals in alkaline solutions; its activity being ex ceeded only by that of orpiment when solutions of alkaline carbonates or hydroxides were used, such solutions wuld be capable of transporting the dissolved antimony long distances from its original source. It is probable that where antimony compounds have been dissolved and transported, the process has been carried out through the agenoies of alkaline solutions. Antimony forms the sulphate 3^(30^)^. Stibnite ia very slowly attacked by sulphuric acid, even in the presence of ferric sulphate, with the formation of the sulphate Sb^ (SO.,), which, however, is unstable in water and is unknown in ore (4) deposits. "This tendency of the antimony sulphate to hydro* lyze and form insoluble oxides prevents its extensive migration fti 1) Tr.Am.Inst.MinJSng. Vol.36, 1906. Llndgren, "Mineral Deposits", 1919, p. 900. (3) Olarka, U,3,G»S. 095»P.»?3. W,H,Emmons,U.S.G.S.625-1917, (4) W.H.Emmons, U.S.G.S, 625, 1917, p. 409. 25. in wealky aoid or neutral sulphate solutions. Hydrochloric acid readily dissolves the sulphide hut an oxidizing agent* like ferrio salt, will precipitate antimony oxide. There is no soluble oarbonate. Thus the chemical relations, as well as geological occurrences, Indioate that the metal is not highly mobile in the acid solutions of superficial weathering zones." Aooording to Shurmann»s series antimony sulphide would be ex pected to replace various other sulphides but no examples of this have so far been found. It was previously stated that stibnite was read ily soluble in solutions of alkaline carbonates or hydroxides, (1) "With these solutions it forms double salts like Ua^s. Sb^S5» which readily precipitate silver and copper from their solu tions. Thus probably are formed the sulphantimonates, pyrar-gyrlte and stephanite and other secondary minerals." "in the (ft) following table the more important antimony sulphosalts of silver are put in the first column and the arsenic sulphosalts in the second, Tetrahedrite and tennantjte are included for they are commonly argentiferous. V. (1) W,H%Immons, U*S.Q,S. 625, 191? P.40«r (2) W.H.gmmons, U,StG,S, Bull, 425, 1*17, p,262. h"' Pyrargyrite Tetrahedrite Stephanite Polybasite 3Ag^S. 40u^S. 5Ag^3, 9Ag^Si Sb^S3 MfcS, Sb^ Sb^ Q9 Proust ite Tennantite Pearoeite 5Ag^S. As\,S3 4Gu^S. At^S* h • ?Ag,,S. AS?S3 1 26. "The minerals of the first column are, as a rale. much more abundant and they are of more common occurrence than the corresponding minerals of the second column. .... If the antimony sulphosalts, where secondary, have been deposited main ly as test results of reactions of silver-bearing sulphate waters on atibnite, it would appear that araenio minerals are leas com mon than antimony minerals or else that they are leas rapidly replaced under the conditions that exist in veins. But arsenic la as abundant in ore deposits as antimony and is much more read ily dissolved in acid solutions. These relations and many others suggest that the complex antimony and araenio sulphosalts of silver are formed in an alkaline environment. In such an en vironment antimony and arsenic sulphides are very readily dis-(1) solved. L. G. Ravics has shown that pyrargyrite is about 1/10 aa soluble In alkaline solutions as proustlte and therefore could be more readily precipitated from diluted solutions." These complex silver antimony sulphosalts are formed in and (2) below the zone where argentite forms. H. C. Cooke has shown that powdered atibnite (-80 mesh) when soaked in a silver sulphate solution, 1/30 H, for 36 days contained 1,3% of silver. The nature of the silver minerals was not stated, (3) "Dyscrasite is really an alloy of silver and antimony of varying composition; it has formed important ore at (1) L,0. Ravioz, Experiments in the enrichment of silver ores. Bo.8eol.Vol.10, 1915. P.378-384. (2) H.O.Oook,Secondary enrichment of silver ores, Journ.Oeol. Tol.Sl W3, P.1-2?. (J) Llndgren, "Mineral Deposits." 1*19. P.384, 2?. Broken Hill and Ghanarcillo and is also known from Cobalt. 5. Occurrence and Distribution of Antimony in the Various Countries, Stibnite, the chief ore of antimony, is common ly distributed in mineral veins throughout the world, but only in relatively few looalities is it of sufficient concentration to be considered as an ore of antimony. In many instances stibnite is associated with gold, silver, copper and lead, and la aueh ease3 the ore is treated for the recovery of these metals and not for its antimony content. Besides occurring as the sulphide "stibnite" antimony is present in many compounds, such as pyrargyrite, Jamesonite, tetrahedrite, stephanite, etc. These are also oommonly found and are usually mined primarily for the valuable associated mineral and not for antimony, (1) "The percentages of the world's production of antimony in I9I3 by countries was; China 55% Algeria 1% franoe .... 21% Asia Minor ,, , 1% Mexico 10% Italy 1% Austria Hungary ., 8% Serbia 1% Australia (Victoria) 4.2% Since 1914, bo% of the world's supply has come from China. "During 1922 ... China supplied 90% of all the ore (1) Mineral Resources, U.S.G.S. I923, part 1, p,292. TABLE 1. (Approximate recoverable metal content of ore produced, exclusive of antimonial lead ores," Country EORTH AMERICAt United state3 .. SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina b .,., Bolivia a ..... Pe ru a ........ EUROPE; Czechoslovakia . France , Italy *.....,••. Yugoslavia ASIA: China a India,British .. Indo-China ..... Japan ......... Tuxaciy(Asla Minor) AFRICA: Axgeria a ....... Rhodesia. Southern Union of South Afriea ... OOEAHIA: Australia-Bew South Wales Victoria ....... 1917 87 2647 310 650 10288 433 38 2354 •»•.. 406 689 148 723 284^0 frl a800 I606 f400 / 4550 3 232 150 1045 1918 a7 3279 45 360 3010 155 • • • • C<0 1329 »'••;•' (0) 404 22 (c) 15597 (0) 95 f400 2218 3 38 143 509 1919 al4 471 . •. • 27 105 30 1 153 998 P 6b 10 (0) 7721 2 (e) 1 f400 723 (g) .... 10 70 491 1920 £23 50 484 7 330 1130 46 93 187 (0) 13001 (*) • •«»• f400 1000 (g) 2 81 40b 1921 45 00 282 7 . • 384 1276 • • •»• 76 W 14658 1 (0) ..... f400 ,XV (g) ..... 50 141 1922 464 4 <v 185 • • • • • 139 100 656 * 'ia M 13858 ..... ..... (0) f4O0 579 (g) •. •.. < • « i • t)05 1923 • * • • • 490 8 C«) ' 312 .».. • 62 (c) 437 (0) 271 25 151 e 14500 * #,'•' • • m f40O 500 • « • . • • • •. • 421 a- Exports. b Railway shipments. A large part of the shipments reported are probably of Bolivian origin and there fore may duplioate in part the Quantities shown for Bolivia. 0 Data not available, d Inoluded under Austria ana Hungary. 9 Calculated from estimates in Mining Industry, vol.32.p#46,1923. f Estimated, g I*ss than 1 ton. The estimated recoverable metal content of ores exported was as follows: 1919,169 kilograms; 1920,178 kilograms} 1921.74 kilograms; I922, I90 kilograms. - 28 - . ill mined in the "world and in 1923 China's output... was about 80$ of the world's production". "The world's present capacity for producing antimony U; i' ; far exceeds the normal demands. Bew deposits of antimony I j; are being found from time to time". Table I shows £he world's promotion for the years ;| 1917-1923 as far as reasonably approximate data are available. jj (a) China: Although the antimony deposits of China are the largest in the world there is comparatively very little detailed jj \i geological information available. The deposits occur in many places throughout central and southern China1, but 90$ |( of the production comes from the province of Hunan in a !vi ft! •j r. zone extending from Yl-ycoig southerwest through An-hua, Hsin-hua and Bae-ehing. Another zone, further south, extends from Chu-kiang in northern Kwantung through Kwangsi and Kweeohow to . ... Wenshan and Ani in eastern Yunnan. 2 The deposits of Hunan occur in a Paleozoic series of quartzites, shales and limestones (mentioned in their stratigraphioal sequence) overlain by Mesozoic strata. These rooks have been folded, resulting in the formation of anti- {! clines, synclines, domes, sheared zones and faults. 1. China Year Book, 1923, P. 124, U.S.G.S. Atlas of Commercial Seal. 1921, Bart 1, P. 63. C. D. Hubbard, Am. Joun. So, Series 5, Vol. 4. 2. Bull. Geol. Survey, China Bo 3, Oct. 1921, P. 1 - 26. - 28a -The ore occurs principally in the quartzite along the sheared and breociated zones and in the domes along the axis of the anticlines. In these latter instances the overlying impervious shale has played an important part in trapping the solutions and thus forming important ore bodies. The Ore is chiefly stibnite. This is usually well crystallized and is found in segregated masses of varying size. The breceiated zones are characterized by fine vein-lets, veins and irregular lenses of almost pure stibnite; a small amount is also disseminated through the quartzite. There are few other minerals present; Cinnabar is found in association with the stibnite in some areas, and occasion ally a small amount of pyrlte ia also present. The gangue Is quartz whieh is generally massive but druses, lined with quartz crystals, are frequently found. At the surface the stibnite has been oxidized; the oxides present are not definitely known but probably include eervantlfce, senarmontlte and stibioonite. These are fre quently feundss pseudonorpas after stibnite but seldom have any well orystalllzed form of their own. The geological age and genesis of these ores are not definitely known, but tentatively it is suggested that they are genettoally associated with the intrusion of Tertiary granites. -28 1)-At Shin Chow in the proTince of Kwangtung stlbnlte ooc-ars near the contact of steeply dipping PaleoEOio shales and limestones. The ore Is disseminated through the lime stone, and probably represents a metasomatio replacement deposit. The only gangue present is oalolte; small amounts of pyrite are sometimes disseminated in the limestone along aide of the stlbnlte. Surface oxidation of the deposit has resulted In the formation of various antimony oxides. Most of the antimony ores are treated In China, prodbolng either crude antimony or regains. Since very little antimony Is used In China practically the whole output is exported, ohlefly to Japan and America. In 1913 China supplied 53?& of the world's production and at present Is contributing over 60£ of the total world output. 1. S. D. Hubbard. The Am. Mineralogist Tol.7 # 8, Aug. 19S2 - 29 -(b) ?ranoe. The antimony production of France, amounting to about 21# of tbe world's total in 1913, is absorbed ohiefly by borne Industries. Deposits of antimony ooour in tbe departments of Mayene, Cantal, Alller, Haute Loire, Haute Vienna, Bambonnais, Sauvigny, Alsace, Brittany and tbe Island of Corsica. Tbe deposits generally ooour in fissure Teins cutting granites, granite gneisses and soblBts, slates and graywacVes and are genetically associated with granitic intrusives. Tbe Ye in filling is composed chiefly of quarts, with some oaloite and barite and stibnlte which is either disseminated through the quarts or is found in segregated bodies of almost pure sulphide. These segregations vary in width from fraotlona of an inch to three feet or more and are Irregular lens shaped bodies separated by zones of barren quarts or quarts through which varying amounts of stibnlte are disseminated. Deposition probably occurred under inter mediate and low temperature conditions. Native antimony occurs at Allemont and Dauphene. The largest producer la Hayenne northwestern Trance, where the stibnlte Is associated with auriferous quarts and pyrite. In the Camtral Plateau the antimony deposits of freyoenet occur in fissure veins cutting Archaean gneisses and schists. There are several antimony bearing veins 1. U.S.G.8. World Atlas of Commercial Geology 1921. 30. some of which, contain complex antimony, lead and argentiferous (1) ores. "The antimony ore la very pure sulphide slightly altered near the surface to white and yellow oxide. The veins are either filled with country rock or ... compact bluish quartz spangled with fine needles of stibnite when the rein is poor and dis appearing almost entirely when the rein become a richer." The associated minerals are small amounts of pyrlte, pink and white oaloite and traces of sphalerite. The stibnite la neither auri ferous nor argentiferous, (2) In Montignat Allier, stibnite veinlets of extreme irregularity are found in a granulite dyke cutting granite gneiaa. (3) At Mercoeur, Haute Loire, the Bissade lode '•may be followed for a length of 250O m. ... with a width of 30-60 cm. of aolld stibnite accompanied by a little quartz, in plaoes the lode breaks up into several veins. The separation from the gneiss la fairly sharp, though veins and nests are oooaaionally found beyond the walls," At Valadou stibnite occurs in a fissure vein cutting old alates. The ore la found in irreg ular shoots, separated from each other by barren areas. Ho alteration of the wall rook has occurred. Erratic depoaita occur at Malbose, Ardeohe, They are quartz stibnite lodes with some oaloite and barite. (1) Abst., Tr ana .Fed. Inst, of Min.Eng. Vol.6,l&?>?4, P.579. (2) Abat,, Trans .Fed. Inst, of Min.Bng, Vol,24,1902,p,6«2, (3) Trusoott Ore Deposits Vol,2,1914 p. 782. (i) In the Island of Corsica "the antimony oocurs as stibnite In veins cutting through hornblende and serloite schists .,. The gangue Is quartzose in oharaoter ... The rein Is generally richest near the foot wall, which is always hotter marked ... than the hanging wall." The associated minerals are pyrite, sphalerite, bournonite, some cinnabar and oaloite. (<*) Mexico. Mexico produces 10^ of the world's antimony and ships its product chiefly to the United Statea or to England, The deposits occur in the states of Sonora, San Luis Potosi aid (2) Queretaro, There are two types of deposit which serve as an ore of antimony. 1. Quarts stibnite veins, with galena and zIns blende as associated minerals, occurring In hornblende and pyroxene andesites, 2, Veins oocurring in limestones and slates, and containing cerventite, stibloonite and valentinite; these oxides changing to sulphides in depth. Such veins are very irregular, (3) The deposits of £1 Altar, Sonora, are considered as oxidized metasomatio replacements in Carboni ferous limestones. The deposit at present consists of almost 1) Abst,Trans .Fed. Inst Jlin.Eng.Vol,15,1897 ,p ,54Q. 2) Aquitera-Trans.Am,Inst,Mln.Bng.Vol.32,1902,p,507. 3) D,D,Cairnes,j0urn,O,M,Inst,191O,p,3O8: E.T.Gox.Tr.Am,Journ Sc,l880,Vol.20,p.421i E.Halse.Trans.Fed.Inst.Min.Eng. Vol. 18*4, p.290-294. 32. pure atibioonlte between irregular walls of limestone. The Impurities are oerargyrite and quartz, the latter increasing with depth as the atibioonlte decreases. Stibnite commonly occur3 with galena and Is frequently found in association with cinnabar in irregular fractures and replacements in limestone. Instances of the latter are found in San Lula Potosi where atlbnite occurs in association with liringotonite, kermeslte, baroenite and a ••all amount of cinnabar in a matrix of gypsum, stibnite is not Infrequently found in slifer reins and accompanies argen tiferous tetrahedrite. At Triunfo and San Antonio, stibnite la in association with jameaonite, berthierite, galena, pyrite, sphalerite and tetrahedrite, which hare beoome oxidized near the surface to antimony oxide and bindheimite. The same asao-(1) elation occurs in Sonora. At zimapan, jamesonite occurs In a typical contact metamorphio deposit in limestone, (2) "The tin occurrences in iiexioo differ from the uaual type in so far as they are not found in connection with granite but with rhyolite .... The mineral association is, however, the same aa with normal granite. The deposits occur more particularly ... in Durango and ... in Jalisco .,. along joint planes and fault fissures In rhyolite and rhyolite tuff. They oarry kaolin, quartz, ohaloedony. opal and felspar together with speoularite, fluorlte, topaz, durangite and more rarely (1) Lindgren and Whitehead Bc.Geol.Vol.9. 19U. P.435. (2) Trusoott, Ore deposits. Vol. 1, 1914, p.447. 33. wolframite and bismuth ore. ... It is worthy to remark that the tin won from these deposits contains a striking amount of antimony." The antimony deposits of Mexico ooour either as fissure veins or as replacements in limestones and are gene tically associated with igneous rooks of andealtio or more acid character,. Their mode of deposition ranges from oontaot meta-morphio to low temperature near surface conditions, (d) Austria-Hungary and Bohemia. During I9I3 Austria-Hungary produced B% of the world's antimony ores. The deposits occur in northern Hungary and iu the Reohnitz mountains. In the former locality there are large reserves of auriferous stibnite ore of fairly low grade, but the production is steady. In the Reohnitz mountains "The veins ... out crystalline schists ... and are especially rich when the coun try rock is a ehloritic or graphitic schist. The vein filling consists of quartz, oaloite and stibnite» with stlbioonlte and pyrlte .... The graphitic schists along side the lode, for a dis tance of 3 to 4 metres from the vein walls, are richly impregnated with stibnite, together with pyrite and cinnabar.,..." Other veins of stibnite with gangues of quartz and carbonates, with small amounts of ^amesonita, berthierlte, blende and auriferous pyrite, oocur between Aranyidka and Rosenau," (1) In Bohemia, "at Prioov ... kersantite dykes, ocourrlng in the granite, are accompanied by veins of hornstone, rich in stibnite The stibnite is non auriferous ... and (1) Beck. "Hature of Ore Deposits" - 1909, p, 33&. has been oxidized to stibiconite for a depth of $9 ft. .., Similar deposits occur at Pannau. ..... These occur in mioa schists and amphibolite near the granite of that locality." Trusoott describes these occurrences in much the same manner and adds that (1) "other reins in the district form a network the character of the vein material being very similar to that of the country rock." The S chonberg-Me Is ohau deposits, 55 km soath of Prague* are associated with kersantite dykes which out the granite of that area. They are auriferous quartz-atibnite lodes, remarkable for their gold content which can frequently be seen with the naked eye, The gold content is too erratic to warrant mining on its account alone, (e) Australia, In I9I5 Australia was producing 4% of the world*s antimony. The chief centre of production is the Ooster-field* Bendigo district, Victoria. Other areas cf minor produc tive importance are at Broken Hill and Hillgrave districts Hew South Wales, and also insignificant showings in Queensland. Although the Victorian field is the most important, the writer could not obtain any detailed report on this. Such reports as were obtainable stated that in the Oosterfleld district, Victoria, (2) stibnite occurred in veins associated with gold, Mr. G.Smith gives a detailed desprlption of the Broken Hill area, (?) Antimony occurs in the Console Mine, Broken $ Truaoott "Ore Deposits" Vol,2,l9U, p.279. Ore Deposits Console Hine,Broken Hill Auat, Trans,Am,Inst.Min, Kng,Vol.26-I896,p.69. (3) Same as reference No. 2# 35. Hill diatriot, Hew South Walea, The country rock conaists of gneiasea and aohiata of pre Cambrian age, The deposits occur in well defined and peraiatent fiaaurea cutting the gneiasea and aohiata at large anglea to the plane a of aohistoaity. At the aurfaoe the main fiaaure dipa about 20° but lower it flattens out and then steepens almost to vertical. The ore ia confined to areaa of amphibolite sohlst» and the pay ahoota occur at the interaeotion of small cross veins with the main fiaaure, The primary minerals of the main vein are calotte and aiderite aa gangue and stromeyerlte (Ag.Cu)£s dyaoraaite (Ag3Sb) and tetrahedrite. The croaa veins conaiat of pyrite and sine blende in a quartz gangue. A amall vein of oobaltite is uaually found in association with the main fiaaure. Heavy oxidation haa occurred resulting in the oxidation of the minerals to a depth of 1?Q feet or more* The gangue mineral oaloite haa been leached out and deposited as a aludge lower down. The aiderite haa been oxidized to llmonite ana this forma the main gangue mineral within the oxidized zone. The metallic minerals have altered to oervantite and oerargyrite and have suffered little transportation. The foregoing antimony deposit a have been described in the order in which their respective countries supply the world's demand for antimony, In the following dla-course the antimony deposits of the various countries are arranged in a geographical association and sequence and not In the order of their productive importance. Some may produce up 3.6. to 1% or raor; of the world's total antimony output, while others are non produoers. This is not due entirely to auoh depoaita being of too poor a quality to be oonsidered aa ores of antimony, but to artificial modi float ions as the high cost of labor and unfavorable phyaioal conditions. (f), Germany. W "At Bohmadorf and Wolfgolgen ... are quarts veins carrying stibnite with minor amounts of zino blende, plumose stibnite, pyrophillite and iron epar." At Brack, on the Ahr, stibnite la found in fissure veins, and to some extent as impregnation along the bedding planes of Paleozoic greywaoke slates* The minerals present are quarts, siderite, dolomite, pyrite and stibnite. (2) Antimony ores ooour at Uentrop as bedded deposits in folded contorted and faulted limestones along the limbs of an antioline. The ore is Stibnite and "forms sheets and rods extending outward nearly to the limiting surface of the strata, or ooours interspaced with the rook in small parti cles". At Suttlar the stibnite ooours as nests in siliceous shales and black clays associated with sandstones. The epig-enetio nature of these two deposits is shown by the association of facts. "An interesting deposit is that at the Joat-(1) Book "Hature of Ore Deposits," 190?, p. 3>6. (2) " • » « " "P. 520, also Trusoott "Ore Deposits" Yol. 2,1?U. p.1188,784. World Atlas of Commercial Geol. U.S.G.S. 1?21. Christian Mine ... in the Hartz, where a lode,, something more than 1 metre wide ,., oonsists of priamatio stibnite, together with federerz and lead stibnite; while ziendererz, boulangerite . and wolfsbergite are leas common ,... The gangue consists of atrontianlte, calcite, barite. selenite and fluorlte." (g) Russia. (2) There is a deposit of antimony and lead-ant iraony ores in the Ural region and also in the Amur province, , Siberia.. (h) Korway, i A deposit of antimony is known at Svenningdal* :;.-,! Horwey,; (i) Portugal. V Stibnite deposits occur in Portugal at Oporto, Casa Branca, Alooutira and San Pedro da Oova, some of vfc ioh are [\f, m auriferous. There is a small antimony production at Oporto, (J) Spain. | ; f • Stibnite deposits are known in many parts of Spain, but under normal conditions there is no production. (k) Italy. The antimony deposits of Italy occur in .].;" ;j , Southern Sardina, Piedmont, Tuscany ana Sicily. The pre war output was small and came entirely from Southern Sardinia, During the war Tuscany and Sicily also produoed, (5) In Sardinia at Su suergiu, antimony occurs (1) Trusoott "Ore Deposits'1. Vol.2,1916, p. 779. (2) World Atlas of Commercial Oeol. U.S.G.S. 1?21. (3) Trusoott "Ore Deposits", Vol.2,1916,p.783. Ill 38. in graphitic schists and oalo-phyllite3, of presumably Silurian age. The stibnite occurs in lenticular masses, associated with (1) pyrite and soheelite in a oaloite gangue. In Piedmont stibnite ia associated with Jamesonite, tetrahedrite and pyrite in quarts TelBB striking parallel to the aohlstoaity of the enclosing rooks. , Antimony ia found in Tuscany at pereta, San Martino and Monte Anioata, MA noteworthy deposit of antimony occurs (2) at Pereta, South Tuscany ... It oonsists of a mass of crushed white quartz" cutting Tertiary sediments of Eocene and Miocene age, "The stibnite occurs in the quartz aa stringers and pockets ... associated with sulphur ... The sulphur bearing quartz ia occasionally seen coated with a crust of stibnite, whioh in turn ia studded with small crystals and aggregates of sulphur.w The cinnabar-antimony deposits of San Martino and Monte Amiata are genetically connected with Quaternary voloanism. The antimony deposits of Italy vary from deep aeated contaot metamorphio or high temperature reins to near aurfaoe depoaition associated with volcanism and sulfotario action. An example of the first condition is shown by the association of stibnite with soheelite in Sardinia, while the occurrence of cinnabar and free sulphur in Tuscany ia representative of the latter mode of depoaition, (1) Serbia, 1} World Atlas of Commercial Oeol, U.S.G.S, 1921. 2} Beok,nHature of Ore Deposits" 1909, p.337. y) Origin of Cinnabar-Antimony deposits,Tuscany,Abat,Fed, Inst, of Min.Eng.,Vol.l9.1899-P.484. In Serbia antimony deposits occur in the diatriots of Kostalnik, Zajassa and Allohar. The geology of the Kostainik district oonalats of laminated wsA Triaasio limestones, oonformably overlain by soft olay slates and In part by elastic! greywacke slates. These rooks were folded and then intruded by biotite-trachytes as dykes, sheets and stocks, and perhaps covered by effusive flows of the same rook. "The antimony 4e-(1) posits are intimately connected with these igneous rocks," The deposits occur in three forma - (1) As stringers of quartz, ealeite and stibnite in the altered trachyte; (2) As fissure vein deposits in the slates; (5) as replacement deposits in limestone along the slate limestone or trachyte limestone contact. The vein material consists chiefly of quartz and stibnite with its oxidation products. Bo other metallic minerals occur. In type 2 the fissure is slightly over three ftet thick and oonalats of hanging and foot wall stringers with, transverse veinlets between the two through the vein filling. The foot wall is always the richest, while the hanging is almost barren. In type 3 the vein matter is fine granular quartz with intergrown stibnite. The hanging wall, formed either by slate or trachyte, is regular, whereas the foot wall, while generally following the stratifloation, is often irregular, showing unequal replacement of the limestone, > (1) Beck. Hature of Ore Deposits. 1?09, p.-578-581, 40, "It is probable that the occurrence at (1) Allohar in Macedonia ., ia of tnetasomatic origin. The hanging wall of this deposit consists of mica schist, the foot wall of dolomites and limestone. The ore occurs in stringers or lenses without gangue , together with arsenic ores. The width of solid ore may at times be as much a3 1.50 m,, while the occurrence has been proved for a length of 4 kilometers. Hear the deposit the dolomite has been highly altered under formation of sulphur and selenite, A. portion of the ore con sists of realgar and orpiment," The antimony mineral present is not stated. The realgar and orpiment may be of primary deposition, in mhieh case the presence of free sulphur suggests close association with volcanic aotivity. The realgar and orpiment might also be secondary as oxidation products of "arsenic ores" and in the same way the sulphur could be produced by the oxidation of a (2). sulphide mineral and the reduction of calcium sulphate . (m) Asia Minor and Turkey. Antimony deposits occur pretty well dis-(30 tributed throughout Asia Minor in Brussa, Smyrna and siwas. In Smyrna the deposits are worked at the Rozsdan, Aiden, Seramos and Kordelio Mines* The most important producing district is Murat Dagh. The deposits are stibnite occurring in fissure 1) Truscott,"Ore Deposits" Vol.2.191&tP*784, 2) Aguilera-Trans,Am,mst.Min.JSng.Vol.32,l?02,p,508. 3; Eng. * Min.Journ.Vol.84,1907tP>88. Trusoott."Ore Deposits" Vol„2,p,783; World Atlas of Commercial Geol.U.S.O.S. 1?21. 41. reins with quartz gangue and pyrlte. At Karahissar, argentiferous lead antimony ores ooour. (n) Algeria. (1) The antimony deposits of Algeria Occur at DJebel-Hamimat ana sidi-Rgheiss. They are found in steeply dipping limestones and slaty marls, chiefly along the limestone-marl con tact, and to some extent disseminated in the shales. The ore is either solid crystalline or disseminated and occurs as irregular masses in the limestone roughly parallel to the bedding planes but not confined to any definite horizon. The ore at present consists in part of a compact white antimony oxide and in part of crystalline aenarmontite in association with oxidized zinc ore with some galena and cinnabar. Small amounts of the original stibnite still remain. There are no gangue minerals, but fragments of limestone, encrusted with ore, are often found. These deposits represent metaaomatio replace ments in limestones. The original ore was stibnite in association with sphalerite, galena and cinnabar. The stibnite and sphalerite hare been subsequently oxidized to the present antimony and zino oxides, while the galena and cinnabar have remained. The tendera-ture of original deposition probably varied from intermediate to low temperature, (1) Beck "Kature of Ore Deposits'* 1909, p.521; Trusoott, "Ore Deposits'* Vol,2,l?l6,p.ll89. 42-. (o) South Africa. In South Africa antimony deposits ooour at Gravelotte, Marohlson Range, Transvaal, along the Transvaal Swaziland border, and in Southern Rhodesia. (1) At Grave lot te the oountry rook consists of sohists intruded by granite. Along the Murohison range diorite and baaalt have intruded the sohists* apparently parallel to their planes of aohiatosity. Younger dyke rooks also ooour. The association of the older diorltio dykes points to their genetio relation to the ore. The antimony bearing deposits are quarts veins with an abundance of gold bearing stibnite, vyhlch in places la oxidized. The veins oooupy irregular fissures varying from 1 to 10 ft. In width. In 1?17 the Rhodeaian Munition* and Resources (2) Committee reported that stibnite in Rhodesia occurred aa two types, (1) "The sporadic gold bearing type characterized by Its sporadic distribution in quartz veins and sohiat bodies. fhla la of granular texture and forma stringers, patches and large pockets* or it may be disseminated through a sohiat body la the form of minute crystals. In the last mentioned instance the mineral is the double sulphide of lead and antimony," (1) Stewart, Trans,Fed.Inst,Min,Eng.Vol, 17, I8?8,p .402-403. (2) Sng. & Min. Journ« Vol.l04,l?17. p. 47I. 43. (2) "The type which forms definite veins sometimes free of quartz ,. The veins are of coarse stibnite which weathers to a pale yellow ochre," (p.) Hew Zealand, Although antimony ooours in a number of localities throughout New Sealant this country has not been in the producing antimony market sinoe 1910. Deposits of stib nite are found in Oentral and Western Otaga; Endeavor Inlet, North Westland; Reefton and Westport, Nelson; Collingwood; Queen Charlotte Sound, Malborough; and Hauraki, Auckland* (1) At Oarrlck Range, Western Otaga the country reck Is flaky mica schist passing into a phyllite. She deposit occurring ia a shear zone, varies from a true quarts rein through all stages to a vein breccia cemented by quartz; the fragments of which show various degrees of alteration. The sheared zone variea in width from 2 to 4 feet and may be filled entirely with quartz, or the quartz may occur as small veins along both walla or one wall only. The wall rock and quartz are both slickenaided showing that secondary movement has occurred after mineralization. The ore is stibnite with associated gold and silver values. Near the surface the stibnite has been oxidized to cervantite. The age of these deposits is younger than late Paleozoic and older than Pliocene, No igneous rook outcrops in the vicinity. (1) Parks, I,Z.G,S. lull #5, 1908, p«6*. 44. (1) At Endeavor Inlet the country rook is aubmetamorphoaed sandstone with interbedded slates, The de posits ooour along the slickenaided hanging wall of slate bands and ooincide to the strike and dip of the strata. The ore is stibnite in a quartz gangue, and is found in irregular lenses and pockets varying in width from a few inches to one foot or more. A vein of stibnite crosses an adjacent stream and consi derable alluvial stibnite has been recovered a short distance below the vein. (2) In Horth Westland, the antimony of the district occurs as stibnite in a quartz vein traversing argil* lites and greywaokes. Considerable gold is associated with the stibnite and the deposit may be of more importance for its gold values than its antimony content. At Queen Charlotte Sound* Malborough, auriferous stibnite is found in a fine grained greenish schis tose rock. The chief mineral is stibnite with minor amounts of quartz disseminated through the ore. "With the antimony ore are found loose blocks of olivine* with chronium ore, oompact hornblende rock and a white and jrreen chert," In the Hauraki district, Auckland, the country rook in association with the antimony deposits consists of volcanic breccias and flow rooks of Tertiary age. The (X) Parke, H.Z.G.S. ,1888-89, P>0, also p.33. (2) Bull.l3,H.2.G.S.,l9U.P,83. (3) 0.J.Binns,Trans.fed.Inst.Min.Eng.Vol.4,1892-93, p.59. (4) O.Praser, N.Z.G.S., Bull #10, 1910. *5. deposits ooour along fault planes and shear zones whioh have a tendency to follow the oontaot of the breooias and andesitio flows. At Una Hill the deposits are replacement veins entirely within the andesite whioh has been subjected to decided propy-litio action along the walls of the veins. The stibnite ooours in a quartz gangue in association with pyrite, ohaloopyrite, zinc blende, pyrargyrite and gold, The ores are mined for their gold content, the stib-Bite being accessory. The veins occur in Tertiary volcanic rooks so that their age is younger than these extrusives. Ho definite statement is made as to the origin of the minerals, but from the context of the report it would seem that the mineralization was genetically associated with the intrusion of andesitio dykes. From the above description it is hard to draw any definite conclusions aa to the temperature of deposition of the antimony deposits of Hew Zealand, In the Eauraki district, more detailed information is given and this points to mineral deposition from hot ascending solutions under near surface oon* ditions. Lindgren states, under "Replacements at Intermediate (1) Temperatures;rt "In deposits which have been formed bv hot waters near the aurfaoe where the rocks are permeable, the inci pient alteration of igneous rocks is often widespread with alter ation of the femio minerals to chlorite, oaloite or epidote (propylitization)". (1) iindgren. "Mineral Deposits" 1?19. p.478. 46. This is one of the most common types of alteration following explosive igneous activity and effects "mainly andesites and (1) "basalts* more rarely rhyalites". In describing the gold quart* veins in andesites of Transylvania, Hungary, Sohumaoher considers that the propylitization was distinctly earlier than the veins and independent of them, Lindgren describes the3e deposits of Hauraki (2) under "gold-quartz veins in andesites" and says, "Park states that the veins do not oontinue into the underlying Jurassic shale and they are thus limited to the thickness of the lava flows in which they occur. ... The principal ore mineral is gold alloyed with 30%-40£ silver, but some pyrite, ohalco^yrlte, zinc blende, galena, stibnlte and pyrargyrite also occur." (q) Borneo. During the war old mines were reopened and are was shipped to England. The deposits occur on the north end of the island in Sarawak, and consists of quartz veins containing stibnlte whioh has been oxidised to native antimony and various antimony ozides, (r) Japan. Very little antimony ore is mined in Japan. The antimony exports of this country is due chiefly to the ex ploitation of the Chinese deposits. Either ore or crude antimony ia Imported from the Chinese mines and then refined and exported as regulus. — * * « * « M mm HH (1) Uhdgren "Mineral Deposits" 1?1?, p,4?8. (2) » H « w p.508. 4?v The antimony deposits of Japan occur along the southern bend of Japan, especially along the outer border. These are quartz stibnite deposits which are found in Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments near their contact with quartz porphyry in trusions or within the intrusion itself. Occasionally the de posits are found in crystalline 3ohiats, as on the island of Shikoku, and also in Tertiary rocks. (s) Peru, The antimony mines of Peru were dormant from 1907 until 1915 when they were reopened and high grade ore was (1) shipped to Japan. The deposits occur in the department of Puno, Southern Peru where the stibnite is found in replacement deposita in limestones. Antimony occurs abundantly all over the province (2) of Gajatambo and is invariably associated with silver. The attbnit* is found in fissure reins associated with pyrite, tetra-aedrite, bournoalte, panabase and less commonly with pyrargyrite and atephsnite. The copper antimony sulphide faraatenita (30%S, Sb^S^) occurs at Oerro de Paaoa. (t) Bolivia. Many small high grade deposits of stibnite ooour in the southern part of the Potosi department. The ores are minod and shipped to England, (u) United 3tates, Although United States la one of the largest antimony consumers, there is no home production of antimony ore. -. m. «• «» — — m m m* 1) U.S.S.S, World Atlas of Commercial Geol,. 1?21. 2} Abat.Fed.Inat,Min.Eng,Vol.25fl902tp.776jalso Vol.36t1908,p,76<>« TABIE 2. Antimony imported into the United States in 1919-1923* (General imports) Antimony ore Country Short tons Antimony content Pounds Value Antimony metal 0 Pounds Value 1919 Canada ....... Chile 0 China d .,.,,, England ...*„. Hongkong d ... India(British) Japan d ...,,. Mexico ....... Panama ,»..,.. Peru ' " •..... 1920 Bolivia 9 Canada ,, Chile 0 ., China d ., England .. France .,. Hongkong d Japan d .. Panama ... Bolivia 0 Chile 0 .. China d .. England .. Germany ., Hongkong d Japan d ., 1921 47 455 297 2 -J! 879 388 1^2 162 420 1 •«• 4fc>7 75 1 • • • 1,709 45 49 U9 lulf LI, 213 28 49,624 302,326 • .* • • •« 4,5X0 • • • *.»* 219,048 1,200 $10 6,312 23,?36 • • • . a 493 11,332 99 727,462 49.527 335,061 19.457 152,27© 450,293 315^1 10,200 80.293 $22,941 2,179 11,963 14*185 • • • • • 10,605 4,556 3,856 1,363,441 70,285 46,600 54,401 95.106 2.450 3.334 • •«• • 5.898 196,107 11,682 2,308,880 7,847',840 90,048 68,320 224,000 2,953.994 757.076 ,-.1 1 H 8JM6JUM. 14,250,158 225,272 21»564i§51 125.539 706 *tis& 2,325.303 11 tit ttt 1. 24,947.121 ssssss sssssss 20,53o!o79 302,457 45 320.750 21,153,331 F167.764 • •••»•'• 459.613 8,803 3.949 10,976 159.091 60,571 • •«••«• , t 1.1,1,1,111 870,767 |19,111 1,218,802 14,638 44,909 177,816 JUAJJMUi 1,475.276 672,501 14,586 10*027 697,121 TABIE 2. Antimony imported into the United states in 1919-1923*Continued. Country Short tons Antimony ore Antimony content Pounds Value Antimony metal b Pounds Yalue 1922 • Canada ..... China d .... England ..,, France ..... Germany .... Hongkong d , Netherlands >,!*,» «»• «»•»*» **...* AAJMUML ,«,,»..t, J, «•«., 8.960 16,976,726 45,474 22 515 b2?,424 84,744 17,745,845 1?25 Australia ... Belgium .... Bolivia 0 »., Canada ...... Chile c ..... China d ...i. England g 4ii Prance ,, i *. * Germany g . *. Hongkong d ,, Italy ....... Japan d ...., Mexico ...... Straits Settlements • * « « » <*) •»«•«* • • '« • • (*) ».*.* »lj, 115,864 176!5^8 1,169,784 1.340 Ul.026 1,800 5l?.?13 4.901 3*937 25,644 102 1,020 906 . * •« •« 8*211 JUUUUULM. 38*715 . . • • » . . » 55.740 13.185!§9$ 1,410,198 ... •'«'« • 750,555 73.762 4o 56,000 56,000 (*)• 2,094,095 44,721 15,626,928 364 562,181 3.335 4 65 30.531 ?»8l? 600,293 ...... 2,420 3.848 558,771 99.927 44,953 3.385 9 2,074 2,682 718,069 0 Imports credited to Chile originated mainly in Bolivia. d Hearly all the imports of antimony ore and metal from Hongkong and Japan are of Chinese origin. Some of the material credited to other countries is possibly also of Chinese origin, having been transshipped in a foreign port, t Ho ore was imported in I922. £ The Department of Commerce does not give the figures for imports of antimony ore in 1923. g JBngl&nd and Germany are the only countries from which imports of both orertana metal were received.The total imports from England w 1,411,538 pounds of antimony metal,value2 at f100,029; and those Germany were 752,355 pounds, valued at $45,859. 48. This oountry draws its main supply of antimony from China in the form of regulus; and to some extent as crude antimony and ora from China, Mexico and other countries. Table 2. gives the imports of antimony to United states from the various countries during the post war years of 1919 - 1923, Besides this the United States consumes 2100 tona of antimony contained in the antimonial lead and silver ores of domestic smelting, and 3500 tons of antimony recovered from alloys, scrap, dross and waste materials, The principal districts in which antimony occurs are Nevada, California, Alaska, Arkansas, Utah, Idaho and Washington. Arkansas, The antimony deposits of Arkansas are found chiefly in the Servier County. Several reports have been written (2) on these deposits, and the available reports state that the antimony ooours as stibnite in quartz veins, in asaooiation with zinkenite, jamesonite, galena, orplment, biamuthenlte, pyrite, and minute amounts of chalcopyrite. Oxidation has taken place to a depth of JO feet or more with the formation of oervantite and blndheimite. In his report on the antimony deposits of (3) Northern Servier County, E.H.Shriver states that they ooour in 1) Mineral Hesouroes at U.S. I923 Part 1 p,288-289, 2) 0,PfWilliams - Trans.Am,Inst.Min.Eng.Vol,13 I875.P.I5O. C.E.Wait * » H « « 1879-80 p.42, (3) SfH,ShTiver Min. 4 So. Press Vol.114 W7 P.?20, 49. folded Carboniferous sandstones and argillaceous shales metamor phosed to slates. "The stibnlte ore was formed by the replace ment of the shales and slates .... The fine grained sandstone proved impervious to the hot waters and aoted as an impounding dam,.,,. The ore bearing rock is shale or slate, rarely, if ever the sandstone. The hanging wall is decomposed slate in all cases, and the foot wall is a fine grained sandstone upon which the solutions flowed," Some of the veins show banded structure. The vein filling is quartz and atibnite both being deposited simul taneously. "The ore is cemented to the foot wall and varies from a thin streak to 50 Inches in width while the full lode is from 2 feet to 5 feet In width," She ore Is atibnite which has been oxidized. Bear the surface, to oervantite. The stibnite is either coarse orystalllne or compact. Jamesonlte was also found la one place. Prom the description of the deposits and the diagrams accompanying the above report it seems more likely that the overlying shales aoted as a dam and the solutions peroulated along the shale-sandstone oontaot, replacing the latter. (1) In 15>£2 O.P.Mitchell describes the depo sits of Servier County as vein fillings in fault zones In steep ly dipping Paleozoic shales and sandstones. The mineralized zones vary in width from a few inches to 4. feet or more and closely follow the strike and dip of the sediments. The wall (1) Sng. ft Mia, Joum, Vol, 114 - 1922. 50. rooks are slightly replaced, but the veins are banded and the ore occurs in lenses and pookets. While stibnlte occasionally occurs in segregated masses it is usually found to be dissemin ated through the gangue which is chiefly quartz with some oalcite and occasional fragments of shale and sandstone. Mitohell be lieves the ore to be genetically related to igneous dykes found in the vicinity. Other reports have been written of the a> (2) antimony deposits in Arkansas by F.L.Hess, J.O.Branner, (?) (4) y.D.Dunnlngton, and B.Comstock, but these were not available^ California. San Benito County. Antimony, in association with cinnabar, occurs at Antimony Hill in the B.E. corner of the San Benito County (5) California. The rocks are sandstones at the eastern foot of the mountain* and serpentine on the western slope near the Burarait, The minerals occur In slates and are found both on the eastern and western slopes. The gangue is quartzose and contains the stibnlte and cinnabar; the deposits on the east have more cinnabar and less stibnlte than those on the west. lern County. Four miles south of Hot Springs, £rsklne Greek '1) f.L.Hess.U.S.O.S. Bull. MOD 1907. '2} J.O.Branner Annual Hep.Ark.Ceol.Survey Vol.1,1888,p,1^6. '3) F.D.Dunnington Am.Aaan.for Adv. of So.^2&, I878,p.l8l. U) B.Comstook Annual Hep.St.Geo.Ark,1888,Vol.1,p.ljb and 2lfe, ,5) E.B.Preston Calif,St,Kin.Burlll891-92.p.371. ];': ...' \ In Kern County, Antimony occurs in quartzite associated with a porphyritlo rock. Native antimony oocurs in nodule a varying in weight from 1 ounce to 300 pounds and is coated with white oxide and olay. Associate veins carry stibnite. Bo associated minerals are mentioned with the native antimony or stibnite, Monterey Oounty, (2) Stibnite occurs in Monterey County at the Los Borros Gold Mines. The veins are quartz near the oontaots of slates and serpentine. Calaveras County. Antimony ore was discovered on Esperanza (3) Greek, Calaveras County,California. South Dakota. The ores of the Kaitland properties occur Immediately above the Cambrian quartzites. Only the oxidized ores have bsen treated, in a cyanide process, and these yield pyrite and pyrrhotlte in about equal amounts along with some arsenic, copper, traces of antimony and tellurium and consider able quantities of bismuth. Utah. (4) Antimony occurs in Iron County, Utah, (1) W.L.Watts,Calif,St.Min.Bur.l891-?2, p,*37. (2) K.B.Preston, H " w " " . M p*26l, nj Mining and Scientific Press Vol,114, I9I7 p.312. (4) Kemp, Ore Deposits of U.S. & Can. 190&,p.411, F.L.Hsss, U.S.G.S. Bull 340D I907, P.233. W.P.Blake, Rep, on Antimony Dep. of S.Utah 1881. D.B.Hantley, "On Utah" U.S.10th Oensua Vol.13.P.4^3. Disseminations of atibnitei, following the stratification, are found in sandstones, and conglomerates. Very large individual pieoes of atibnite have been found, Kruptive rooks overly the sandstone and Blake thinks that the ores have crystallized from (1) descending solutions originating in the eruptive rooks, Lindgren draws an analogy between these deposits and those now forming at Steamboat Springs, Nevada, whioh will be described later, Nevada, Antimony occurs in Nevada in the National and Arabia districts and at Steamboat Springs, (2) The National Mining District Is located en the Santa Kosa Eange. The southern and larger part of this range la made up of highly folded clay slates, calcareous slates and limestones trending north, parallel to the range. The north or northeastern section ia overlain by volcanic eruptives such as basaltic flows, breccia, latites, trachytes and rhyolites. There are two principal classes of mineral deposits? 1, "Sold and silver bearing veins that occur in or near the Tertiary volcanic .rooks and that are of Tertiary or in part of Quaternary age." 2, "Gold and silver bearing veins that occur .in the sedimentary rooks and in the p08t~Triasaic granular rooks intru ding into the sediments and that, are probably of late Meaozoie age," She old Meaozoio mineralization ia generally in quartz veins 1} Lindgren, Tran.Am.Inst.Mln.Eng. Yol.36, 1906, p.27. 2) Lindgren, U.S.G.S, Bull, bol, 1915. 53. although rarely they are replacement deposits In limestones and lime shale. These veins carry both gold and silver but no anti mony minerals. Tertiary Mineralization: In the northern section of the Santa Hosa Range the sediments are covered hy volcanio extrusives consisting of basalts, latites, -trachytes and rhyolites. The basalts are the most common; the rhyolite was extruded near the close of the vol canio period and is consequently high in the series, but is also covered with basalts. This rhyolite flow is the important rook in the district as the mineralization is due to the effect of ephemeral springs related to the rhyolite. The veins of the national District are dis tinctly later than any other rooks and are of the narrow fissure types. They trend northerly and have a steep dip either to the east or west. The wall rock has been subjected to prophylitie alteration, producing some pyrite, oaloite, a little serioite and adularia, and chlorite. This alteration is not extended ower wide areas. The veins vary in width from 1 to 5 feet. They oonsiat of sheared rook and hive a well defined foot wall. Seams of quartz occur along the foot, hanging or intermediate walls* This quartz is aynanetrieally banded, fine grained and vuggy; crystals of quartz line the vugs. "This fine grained symmetri cally banded quartz with open vugs together with the scarcity of pyrite, the consistency of stibnite ana the presence of cinnabar, in one instance, point otrnngly to near surface deposition," The mineral deposition took place from hot thermal ascending solutions. The characteristic mineral is stibnite which occurs in varying amounts in all veins. The stibnite may be fibrous and oonfined to the margins of the quartz or it may be in the center of the vein. It also.occurs as fibrous well crystallized aggregates in the quartz or as acicular orys-tals encrusting the quartz crystals in the vugs. Associated min erals are ehalcopyrite, pyritet arsenopyrite, zinc blende, galena, silver and gold; cinnabar was noted in one instance. These min erals occur as fine grains along the margin of the veins. It was noted that when the stibnite was relatively high the gold and silver values were low, whereas, if the stibnite was scarce the gold and silver values were somewhat higher. The gangue is predominantly quartz either at a massive fine grained variety or crystallized in vugs. Bo oalolte, barite or fluorlte are found as vein filling. Secondary Minerals: Secondary sulphides such as maroasite, stibnite, realgar and orpiment oocur below the present water level. The predominant secondary sulphide is maroasite and It, found in varying quantities everywhere. The secondary stibnite occurs either as flat bundles of acicular crystals in the Joints and fissures or as capillary coatings on the quartz crystals in (i) the vugs, Lindgren states that due to the predominance of maroasite these secondary sulphides were most likely produced by (X) TJ.S.G.S, Bull. *0l, 1?15» P**5. cold ascending solutions rising along the vein long after their formation. Healgar and orpiment are most likely the result of the oxidation of arsenopyrlte. The stibnite oxidizer to a yellow earthly material. Ho secondary gangue minerals oocur. Although these deposits may have been formed under near surface conditions their temperature of deposition could atlll he in the intermediate or even high temperature zone. An example of high temperature deposits formed near the surface is w given by the tin deposits of Mexico as described by Trusoott. (2) lindgren states that physical conditions differing slightly from those at the actual surface will evidently produce crystal-* llMl minerals of normal habit and form. PropyUtiaatioia is the result of rook alteration by asoending thermal waters of inter mediate temperatures. Considering these facts and the associated minerals it appears reasonable to conclude that the stibnite was deposited at intermediate temperatures. The Antimonail Silver-lead Veiaa of the \r}\ i Arabia Bistrict, Mevadat (5) i The prevailing rock of the Arabia District •"'-! is granodiorite which contains many black and irregular masses of thoroughly metamorphosed sedimentary rock, The granodiorite consists of quartz, feldspar and biotite of which the feldspar and j biotite have beoorae aerlcitiaed and gives the whole mass the appear ance of an apalite. The sediments are chiefly metamorphosed shales 1) Trusoott, HOre Deposits* Vol.If 1?14. p.447. '2} Lindgren, Trans.Am.Inst.Min.Sng.Vol. Jfe, l^Qb, p,27. !J) A.Knoff, U.S.fc'.S. Bull. i>60 H.'., 1918. Suk. (hornfela); overlying all are rhyolites probably of Miocene or Pliocene age. The ore bodies are fiasure veins in the gran-odiorltea and hornfela. The fissures are regular and have de finite walls in the granodiorite but upon entering a large body of hornfela they fray out and form narrow stringers. The rioher veins are filled with solid ore but the leaner ones are made up of ore and coarse milfcwhlte quartz which oontaina inclusions of tourmaline. The ore as now found consists of argentifer ous blndheimite (hydrous antimonate of lead) with associated plumbojas^jsite (basic sulphate of lead and ferric iron) scorodlte (hydrous ferric arsenate) ceriusite , gypsum and quartz. The blndheimite is of two varieties; one a deep yellowish brown amorphous variety of high brilliant pitchy lustre, and the other. a yellowish compact earthy variety showing divergent columnar structure which la a paeudomorph after its original mineral. This deposit is an exceedingly highly oxidized one. Remnants of the primary minerals are oooaalonally found and oonalst of fibrous jameaonite araenopyrlte and a little ohal-oepyrite. The oxidation of the Jamesonite haa resulted in the formation of the blndheimite, oevrusite end plumbojaroaite while the araenopyrlte has been oxidised to scorodlte. The oxidisation of these original sulphides would most likely produce aulphurlo acid whloh would dissolve the silver and carry it down. This. would be precipitated by the primary sulphides lower down, and result in a zone of secondarily enriched silver. Antimony and 57. arsenlo are only slightly soluble and would not be moved. There would, however, be an illimination of sulphur. The paragenesis of jaraesonite shows that it is common in high temperature ore deposits as shown by its oocurrenoe in a contact metamorphic deposit at Zlmapan, Mexico, and In tin bearing veins in Bolivia, The association of tourma line In this deposit substantiates thiB evidence. Xnoff is inclined to place the age of the granodiorite Intrusion in the aarly Gretaoeous. "The rhyolite is far younger in age than the ore deposits and in plaoes caps grano-(1) diorite and the enclosed masses of hornfels." He places the age of these rhyolites in the Miocene or Pliocene. Steamboat Springs, Hevada: (2) The waters of Steamboat springs Issue from a fissure in granodiorite and are at a temperature of about 8o°C. On analysis they give ferric oxide, antimonious and arsenious sulphide, mercuric an3 oupric sulphide, lead, gold and silver. At the base of a basaltic cliff nearby, the waters have deposited a large amount of 3ilioious and oalcarious sinter stained red by the red metastibnite which has a nonmetalHo lustre. A few feet from the railroad station a shaft was sunk JO feet. The first 25 feet are through sinter after which there exists a loose sandy gravel composed of well washed pebbles of granite and andesite. These gravels contain so much (1) A.Knoff, U.S.G.S, Bull. bfcOH, p. 24?. (2) Ilndgren, Trans.Am.Inst,Min, Bng, Vol.56, IfOb, p,27. 58. hot water that operations were stopped. An examination of the gravel showed that nearly every pebble had adhering to it small shiny prisms and particles of metallio lustre. These proved to be prisms of atibnite , bent and otherwise combined in radiating groups but generally without terminations. In the cracks and joints of the larger granite cobbles bunches of stibnite crystals occur. "With the exoeption of olaatic magnetite the only other metallio mineral found in the gravel is pyrite which forms loose or intergrowing crystals of octo-hedral form sometimes combined with the cube," "I believe it absolutely certain that the stibnite and pyrite have been deposited by the hot waters which permeate the gravel,* On previous examination of the same locality, *$he absence of ordinary minerals of metallio lustre indicated, in a way, a missing link in the chain of evidence to proove the depo sition of ores from hot ascending water*; and this link is now supplied by the observations recorded above. .,, Physical conditions differing very slightly from those at the actual surface will evi dently produce crystallized minerals of normal habit and form. (v) Alaska. There are some sixty-seven known occurrences of antimony in Alaska distributed between southeastern Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The main deposits are found in the Fairbanks District and the Seward Peninsula. (1) A,H.Brooks,U.S.G,S. Bull,6*9, 1916; also U.S.G.S.Bull.662,1918. 59. Geology, The atibnite of Alaska Is generally found In sedimentary rooks varying in age from lower Cambrian to tipper Cretaceous and differing widely In their lithologlcal characters. The atibnite is also found in gneisses, sohlsts and in the intru sive rooks themselves, although in the latter case the veins are small and not continuous. The deposits, however, are generally found in the Intruded country rook, not far from the igneous contact, With the possible exception of the galena stibnite type there are no contaot raetamorphorio deposits. The stibnite always ooours in a lose association with granular acidic intrusive rooks belonging to the quarts diorite or raonzonite groupa or to the por-phyritio phaaea of these types. These intrusions are either dykes or stooks and have produced but little metamorphisra in the enclo sing rocks. Classification of Ore Deposits. (A) Siliceous gold bearing stibnite deposits (B) Stibnite cinnabar deposits, (0) Stibnite galena deposits. Siliceous gold bearing stibnite deposits. These may be either fissure veins or shear zone deposits. Ho definite line of demarcation can be made as the for mer often grade into the latter. Some shear zones show great per sistency, are well defined and are traceable for aeveral thousand feet. The deposits vary in width from 2 to 5 feet, but are much wider in the shear zone type. They are irregular 6o. along their strike, pinching and swelling frequently. The richer ore occurs in shoots or kidneys especially in the wider parts of the lode where it often extends from wall to wall. Small reins of lower grade ore oonnects these shoots. Rich lenses, irregular ly distributed also occur. The stibnite in the richer ores is usually fins granular hut confused aggregates of acioular crystals also occur. These two types are often mixed. Besides the stibnite there may be varying amounts of galena, pyfite, arsenopyrite and small amounts of gold, grains of whloh ore sometimes imbedded in the stibnite. Quartz forms the chief gangue mineral. This oocurs as fine granular vitreous grains, many with crystal terminations, scattered through the ore. A milky quartz with associated feld spars also oocurs but such represents old quartz veins which have been reopened and granulated with a subsequent introduction of stibnite. The vitreous quarts is typical of antimony ores. Some of the sulphides and maybe part of the gold belong to an early period of mineralisation, Stibnite - Oinnabar Deposits. These deposits occur both in veins and in min eralised shear zones; the valuable minerals occurring in shoots and kidneys oonneoted by small stringers. Banding is often well marked* and vugs, lined with quartz crystals, are common. In some oases the oinnabar is the primary mineral with the stibnite intro duced later; in other deposits the oinnabar and stibnite are con temporaneous. The stibnite is in bladed crystals, columnar aggre gates and, less oommon, in granular masses, Eyrite, as an accessory 61.. mineral, is very scarce and some gold is common to all such deposits. Quartz is the only gangue mineral present and is vitreous and often idiomorphic. The percentage of, quarts is higher than in the quartz gold hearing deposits. Prom information at hand these deposits are associated with the same intrusive rocks as the auriferous quartz stibnite deposits hut were formed at a shallower depth than the former* often near the surface, a genesis common to cinnabar de posits. Stibnite - Galena Deposits* These deposits appear to he replacements of crystalline limestone, hut it is not certain whether the stibnite was contemporaneous with the galena, or belongs to a later epoch Of mineralisation. An occurrence of stibnite in association with fluorlte, in a rook now composed of scapolite, is recorded la the iost Elver Basin of Seward Peninsula. Vertical Distribution and Oxidation of the Ores. Prom outcrops of veins, extending over 1000 feet in elevation, no change in mineralization was observed. Thus there is little probability that changes will occur sufficiently close to the surface to effect the value of the antimony deposits. As a rule the antimony deposits of Alaska show very little oxidation. This is due to two primary factors: (a) The ground covering the deposits Is, In most eases, permanently frozen, (b) Comparatively recent glaciatlon has re-moved any previously existing oxidized zone, Age of Mineralization,, The accumulative evidence favors Tertiary mineralization of stibnite. Where the mineralization is de finitely known to be Mcsozoio, there is no stibnite, with one exception in southern Alaska where stibnite is recorded as a minor accessory mineral. All stibnite deposits, the age of which could be definitely established, belong to the Tertiary epoch of mineralization. In those deposits of doubtful age the probabilities favor the Tertiary epoch rather than the Mesozoio. fwo instances are known where stibnite occurs in placers. In the Tolovana district a placer on Lillian Creek contains magnetite, ilmenite. piootite, limonite, cinnabar, soheellte, zircon, pyrite, stibnite and barlte, in the order of their importance, The character of the concen trates shows that they have travelled only a short distanoe, In the Kantishna district a placer contains gold, quartz, ga* lena, stibnite and black sand. The source of the minerals are the quartz veins outcropping on the ridges bordering the bas in. (w) Canada, Antimony, as a commercial mineral in Can ada, is somewhat rare. The only mines v/hich have pr oduoed any tonnage of the metal are at V/est Gore, Hantz County, Uova Scotia^ and lake George, York County, Sew Brunswick. Besides these (1) U.S,G.S. Bull. 662-1918. occurrences, antimony la also found In various other localities la Canada as In Southern Quebec, at Sault Ste, Marie, In Britlah Columbia and in the Yukon Territory. flora Scotia, Several veins of auriferous stlbnlte oocur (1) la the gold bearing series of W«3t Gore, Hante County, The deposits are nearly vertioal fissure veins, the rein filling being composed of slate* calcite and quartz out by later quartz stringers, The ore generally follows the hanging wall of the fissure, which is clean out; the foot wall is irregular and in distinct, ,The ore is often solid stlbnlte, or stlbnite and quartz, varying in width from a few inches to seven feet. The associated minerals are pyrite, arsenopyrite, galena and gold, A varying amount of gold is always present and is most plentiful where stlbnlte predominates, except where cut by cross veins of quartz the mala lead has no free gold. Sew Brunswick, "Native antimony and stlbnite occur at Lake George, in the parwish of Prince "ffilliam, York County, Hew (2) Brunswick, ,,, The antimony ore occurs in quartz veins cutting slates and quartzltes in the neighborhood of intrusive masses of granite and diabase. The native antimony is confined largely or solely to the upper portions of the veins." 1} G.A.Young, G.S.C. #108$, 1909, P.51-52. 2) G.A.Young, G.S.O. » M p.52: also H.W.Bills, G.S.G. #98*. 1907. P.9Z. C.S.Parsons, Can.Min.Journ.Vol.4^, 1?24, p.984. [ 64. (1) Qt. ?. Kuna describes the native antimony as oocurring at depths down to 100 to 150 feet, it occurs in pockets and lenses some of which contain upwards of one ton of native antimony in association with stibnite, valentinite and kermesite. The native antimony is either fine grained and oom-paot, coarsely granular or in radiating masses of crystalline plates* In reference to these latter he says "The radiations stem to have massed about a common centre, as if the mineral had cooled or crystallised slowly from without," The stibnite occurs either as massive* fine or very coarse crystalline aggregates in a quartz gangue. The valentinite is found in layers between the native antimony and is massivei granular or in radiating aggregates of crystals. The kermesite occurs as small tufts of crystals in cavities in the stibnite and native antimony, and also along the fracture planes of the latter mineral, Lindgren and W. E. Smraons regard native anti mony as probably if not invariably a secondary mineral derived from the oxidation of stibnite or other sulphide minerals of antimony. In this deposit the occurrence of the native antimony in the oxi dised zone and in close association with valentinite and kermesite is in keeping with this theory. Other instances where native anti mony occurs in oxidised ores of antimony are in Southern Quebec. Algeria. Kern County, California and Borneo, (1) (M.Kuns. Am.Journ, of so. Vol.30,1885. P.275-277. *5. Quebec. The only occurrence of antimony In %uebeo la (1) at South Ham, Beauoe County. The d1striot la underlain by Paleozoic strata resting on the Pre-Cambrian complex. The Paleo-zolo rooks have been folded, faulted and subjected to severe regional metamorphlara and are now represented by ahales, lime stones and sandstones together with aohlsts, slates and quartzites. In the vicinity of the antimony occurrences the schists and alatea have been Intruded by diabase dykes, part of which are now altered to serpentine. These dykes are probably of lower Devonian age, maybe later, and are genetically connected with the stibnlte min eralisation. This deposit is a contact deposit, the ore* occurring mainly in the schists along their contact with the in trusive dlabaae and serpentine. "Ho distinct veins of any con siderable width could be found in the present state of the work* Ings, but the principal amount of ore seems to be In flakes along the cleavage planes of the schists. The proportion of the ore becomes greater as the contact is approaohefi ,M The ore is native antimony with subordinate amounts of stlbnite, kermesite and val» entinlte, Stlbnit. e occurs in the chlorite schists at (2) Sault ste . Marie , British Columbia, Antimony minerals are found rather widely 1) J.A.Dresser, G.S.O. s. 1*09, p.1*7. 2) JJierrit, Trans.Fed. Inat.ttin.Bng. Tol. 10, 1895. P,2?2. 66. distributed throughout British Columbia, occurrences are noted In the districts of tale, Slooan, Karaloops, Lillooet, Chiloo and Tatlayoko Lakes, Skeena Hirer, Portland Ganal and At 1 in Lake , Stibnite is found at several points in the Yale district and is often in association with silver ores. At the Alps-Alturus and Blue Lake claims in CD the Slooan May area stibnite Is found in Oarbonlferous rooks. The mineralization ia genetically related to the Kelson granite of Jurassic age. Karaloops. (2) On Copper Creek, Kamloops Lake, stibnite ia found is a cinnabar deposit which occurs in Tertiary volcanic rooks. The cinnabar is either disseminated through the rock or is concentrated in irregular veins of quartz and caloite. Barrow stibnite. seams of molybdenite and a little*occur in some parts of the de* posit. Bridge River Map Area. So far as known the antimony deposits of the (5) Bridge Hlver Map Area are found only In the Cache Creek Series and are confined to a narrow belt along the western limb of the Bridge Blver anticline, They are closely related to the intru sion of dioritic porphyry dykes and occur in shear zones which either border or are In these dykes. The porphyry in contact with (1) M.S'.Bancroft, G.S.C.S 1917 B. p,40. (Z) Min. A Met.Industries of Canada, 1907-1908, p.95. (3) A.M.Bateman Q.S.C. S 1912, p.20&. O.W.Drysdale 9.3.0. S 19*5. P. 84. W.S.McCann G.S.C. M.1^0, 1922, p.75. &7. the deposits is altered to oaloite, seriolte and halloysite. The ore o oris 1st a of Irregular shaped lenses of massive, coarsely columnar stlbnite in a quartz gangue. Gen erally stlbnite Is the only mineral present but sometimes galena and zinc blende are found in association with It. The ore de position was contemporaneous with or slightly later than the in trusion of the dlorite porphyry dykes. These dykes are post lower Cretaceous In age and are tentatively placed In the oligo-oene period. CD F.W.Olarke says that whigh temperatures, the chemical activity of water and mechanical stresses all work together to bring about the formation of serfoite," Since the seriolte occurs only in contact with the ore deposits these must have been depositee at high temperatures. There is the possi bility that the sericitizatlon occurred before the deposition of tr«t but the time interval, if any, was very short, as Btated in the preceding paragraph. Chlloo & Tatlayoko lakes. A few small seams of stlbnite in association (2) with granitic dykes occur on the west side of Chiloo lake about five miles south of Hemiah Valley. Antimony occurs In the steeply dipping and highly metamorphosed Triassic sediments at the south end of Tat-layoko lake. There are two veins varying in width from a few inohes to 4 feet or more. The upper vein strikes S 10 W, and dips (1) f#W,0larke U.S.G.S. Bull. 695, 1920, p,59*. (2) A,M,Bateman, O.S.O. S, 1?12, p.186, {$) Examined by the writer. • NtE,, while the lower vein strikes approximately H 40. wV and haa a varying dip to the H.E. The vein filling consists chiefly of quartz and auriferous stibnite and in places a few scattered frag ments of the wall rock. In one instance coarse crystal termin ations of quartz were found. On close examination of the gangue it is seen that the.quartz is frequently orystallized in elonga ted crystals approximately at right angles to the vein wall. These facts associated with a noticeable handing of the veins, strongly suggest deposition in open fissures. The wall rock, ad jacent to the vein, has been altered to a soft yellowish green rook through which fine crystals of pyrite and araenopyrite are disseminated. The banding is due to the distribution of the metallic minerals pyrite, araenopyrite, sphalerite and stibnite through the quartz gangue. The pyrite, sphalerite and arseno-pyrite are found chiefly along the walls of the vein, but where the vein la narrow the araenopyrite may extend as fine aoicular crystals from wall to wall. The atibnite occurs in the inter-crystal spaces of the quartz and as segregated masaes near the centre of the vein. There is some disseminated ore in which the minerals are more or less evenly spaced, but slight banding is also noticeable. The stibnite is either maaalve, or la found in radiating masaes of coarsely bladed ory3tala. While some occurs disseminated through the quartz, the ma$ or part la found in veins of almost pure sulphide, which vary In width from 2 or 5 inches to Ifc feet ox more. The deposit Is genetically associated with the Intrusion of a raonzonite stock In the close vicinity. The presenoe of araenopyrlte and the association of evidence Indicates de position at Intermediate or relatively high temperature a, Portland Canal Diatriot, Stlhnlte Is reported In one or two instanoes la the Portland Canal Diatriot. In one deposit it is aa3oolated with tetrahedrlte, galena and ohaloopyrite. Skeena River Diatriot. The Skeena River Diatriot is underlain by the laielton Group, the Skeena ooal bearing series and the Buckley Bruptivea. These latter rooks intrude the two former series. "The Intrusive granitio masses of the Buckley Eruptives have everywhere played an Important part in the deposition of ore (1) bodies." These eruptive rocks are provisionally placed In the Tertiary but may be older, but they cannot be older than Lover Cretaoeoua as the Skeena Series of that age la out by them. The atibnite occurs 5 miles from Hazelton between Sixmile and Fourmile Creeks. "The ore is developed along the oontaot of the seaimentarles and the granite; the hanging wall is highly metamorphosed sandstone and the footwall la granite. On the foot wall the ore oonsista of white quartz with small quantities of disseminated galena, while on the hanging wall the mineralisation is muoh heavier, there being 18 inches to 2 feet of almost solid sulphides of antimony, lead, arsenic, silver and copper and a little white quarts gangue; there is also a little free tulphur." (1) W.W.Leaoh. G.S.O. S 1?09, vM. 70. Other than stlbnite and galena, no definite sulphides are mentioned. This Information ia too vague to draw any reasonable oonoluslona aa to the temperature of formation of the deposit. Atlln Dlstrlot. Stlbnite occurs 10 mile a north of Golden date Taku *TTQ, in nearly flat lying, fine textured ahalea of the Laberg Series (Jura-Ore taoeous). The vein varies in width from 3 to 5 feet and is, in general, conformable with the bedding planes of the shales. There are in addition a number of veinlets, within 6 feet of the upper wall of the main Tela, which vary la width from a fraction to 2 or 3 Inches. The vein material Is either quarts or alternating bands of quarts and shales; the latter, at times, oooupying as much as one half the vein. The quarts is usually heavily mineralised with stlbnite and a little galena. (2) At the Engineer Mine, 10 miles south of Golden Gate, D.D.Oairnes reports native antimony in association with native gold, tellurides, pyrite and limonlte in a quarts gangue. Ho other antimony minerals are mentioned. The deposit is of importance for Its gold values. Taken Territory, In the Tukon Territory stlbnite occurs in the Wheaton River, ahiteherse and Oonrad mining districts, (1) D.D.Oairnes, G.8.O.. It.37. W3. P.ll*. (2) D.D.Oairnes, G.S.C., 3 1*10. P.37. 71. (1) The antimony of the Wheaton district occurs in a more or leas localised area, f& miles long by lk miles wide, extending from the crest of Ghiefton Hill eastward to the eastern limit of Carbon Hill. The greater number of deposits are found on the Western 3lope of Carbon Hill, The rocks of the district, in which the de posits occur, are the Jurassic Coast Range granodiorite and the overlying late Oretaoeous or early Tertiary voleanice consisting of andesitio dykes, stocks, sheets, flows, tuffs and breccias, The deposits are fissure veins occurring in both the granodiorite and the early Tertiary volcanicsj the most persistent fissures being in the granitic rock. They vary from 2 laches to 6 feet, the better deposits averaging 1 to 3 f«et 1% width with very little alteration of the wall rook. The vein filling is mainly quartz with minor amounts of barite and cal-olte although in places it is chiefly stibnite with which there maybe associated minor amounts of sphalerite and jamesonite* The quartz is often massive with no crystal form but it frequent ly occurs in large crystals pointing toward the centre and form ing typical comb structure. The barite and oaloite are granular, Layers of gouge from 1/8 inch to 1/4 inoh think are found on both walls of the vein, but there are no fragments of the wall rook in the vein. The metallic minerals are stibnite, Jamesonitei grey copper, argentiferous galena, sphalerite and arsenopyrite. (1) D.D.Cairnes, 0,3.0. M. 31, p.113. 72, The stlbnite occurs either as columnar radiating crystals or purely granular, with all variations between the two. Sphaler ite and Jamesonite are commonly associated with the stlbnite while the galena is disseminated through the gangue. The grey copper is in scattered grains associated with the stibnite and galena, but some veins consist entirely of quartz» galena and grey copper. The ores high in antimony may be low in silver and vlaa-versa, but high values of both occur in the same place. Although the silver is more commonly associated with the galena the stibnite is also silver bearing. The oxidation of the ores is very limited, The oxide minerals are stibioonite, lead carbonate and malachite. There la little or no secondary enrichment. The presence of comb quartz in the centre of some veins indicates that deposition may have taken place in open fissures but at intermediate temperatures, as shown by the associated minerals. In his report on the same district in 1915» (1) D.D.Cairnes says "The veins all occupy fissures in the contain ing rooks which are for the most part the Coast Eange granltio Intruaives, Occasional veins, however, are found in the Mesozoio andesitic rooks which are older than the Ooast Range intrusives." The rest of this report agrees with his previous work, but in this he appears to differ, 'ihitehorse District, (1) D,D,Oairnes,W. 3 1?15. P.46, 73. (1) The vftiitehorse Copper Belt is charaoter-ized by oontaot metamorphlo deposits in limestone at and near the contact of a granite intrusive. The deposits are found in both the limestone and the granite, which has been highly altered in these deposits, The constituent minerals are typical of oontaot deposits; the more common are; magnetite, hematite, bornite, ohaloopyrite, garnet, epidote, augite, scapolite, tremolite, aotin elite, quartz and calcite, The less common metallic minerals are tetrahedrite, chalcooite, molybdenite, araenopyrite, galena, atib-nite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, zinc blende and rarely free gold, (Jonrad District, (2) The ores of Windy Arm occur in the Windy Arm Series consisting of volcanic rooks, both intrusive and ex trusive which oat and lie upon the Ooast Range Batholith of Ju rassic age. The ores ooour in true fissure veins filled with quarts. The stibnite is associated with arsenopyrite and pyrite* Jameaonlte is found in association with galena, arsenopyrite. ohal eopyrite and pyrite, 6, Rooks with which Antimony Ores are Associated, (a) Igneous, Antimony ores are commonly associated with Igneous rocks of intermediate acidity such as diorites, quarts diorites, monsonites and quartz monzonites; they are also geneti-oally related to granites. These rocks may be either plutonio. hypabbysal or extrusive. The mineral deposition may ooour either 1) R.G.MoConnell. S.S.O. 1050, 190?, P.20-J2. Z) D.D.Oairnes. G.S.C. S - 1908. [ 74. in the igneous rook itself, along its intrusive contacts* or within the intruded rooks at varying diatanoes from the igneous contact* (b) Effect of Wall Hook on Deposition. The chemical composition of the wall rook has little or no effect upon the deposition of antimony ores, but their physical properties influence the structure of the veins. The exceptions are the metasomatic replacement deposits in lime stone . 7. Classification of Antimony Deposits. (a) Geological Conditions under i&lch Antimony scours. In considering the geological conditions under which antimony occurs, it should be kept in mind that the associa tion of minerals found in any vein, may not be of contemporaneous deposition, but may represent a sequence in deposition or even distinot epochs of mineralization. Such sequences and breaks in mineralization might result in marked differences of temperature at which the various minerals were deposited. Thus stibnite might be associated with typical high temperature minerals, yet it may have been deposited under intermediate or even low temperature conditions and visa versa, in many of the reports contained in this thesis no mention was made of any sequence or break in the mineralization so that any e lass i float ion of antimony deposits, based on these reports, must be accepted with the reservation that the mineral association, found in the deposits, has been formed contempora-75. neou3ly or if a sequence or break in mineralization occurred, it waa of auoh a character as not to alter the conditions of tempera ture to any large degree. In disoussing the temperatures of deposition the conditions of pressure, existing at such a time, must alao be considered. Pressure is of importance only when the mineral sol utions contain volatile constituents or gases which render them the natural solvents of any contained minerals. In this oase a alight decrease in pressure might be of vital importance in allow ing auoh constituents to escape which would result in the deposi tion of the otherwise soluable minerals. Pressure is naturally of groat importance in veins formed above 565"C as this is the oritioal temperature of water, but relatively few antimony deposits are formed at auoh temperatures. The natural solvent of antimony is an alkaline solution. The above evidence strongly suggests that pressure is of minor importance in the deposition of antimony ores. Suoh a conclusion is substantiated by the for mation of stibnite at Steamboat Springs, Nevada, where this min eral is being deposited in gravels >0 feet below the present sur face. Lindgren draws an analogy, in formation, between the Steam boat Spring deposit and that found in a conglomerate in Iron Qounty, Utah. From this it is the writer's opinion that the im portant factors governing the deposition of antimony minerals are changes in temperature and alkalinity of the solutions carrying the antimony. In this It must not be assume" that the deposition is confined to any one particular zone of temperature, because stibnite and other antimony minerals occur In both contact meta-•16.; morphio and low temperature deposits, but the evidence suggests that the important commercial deposits have been formed at inter mediate temperatures or slightly lower, (b) Proposed Classification. A, Contact Metamorphio Deposits, B. High Temperature Vein Deposits, 0. Intermediate Temperature Deposits, (1) Metasomatio Replacements. (8) Fissure or Shear Zone Deposits, 3J» low Temperature Deposits, E, Sulfotario Deposits, A, Contact Metamorphio Depositsi So far as known the contact metamorphio deposits in which antimony minerals occur, are few in number. The only defi nite occurrence is at Simapan, Mexico, where Jamesonite is found in association with contact metamorphio minerals. In the White-horse district, British Columbia, atibnite occurs with contact metamorphio minerals. Other uncertain occurrences are to be found in Sardinia, Alaska, Skeena district, British Columbia, and South Ham, Quebec, B, High Temperature Deposits. few typically high temperature minerals oocur in asso ciation with antimony minerals. Such minerals as tin, soheelite, pyrrhotite and tourmaline are, however, found in antimony bearing deposits in Mexico, Sardinia, Alaska and the Arabia District, Hevada, respectively. Of these deposits that in Sardinia is the 77. only one mined for ita antimony content. The depoait in the Arabia District, Hevada, oonaiata of highly oxidized argentifer ous Jamesonite. 0, Intermediate Temperature Depoait3, (1) llndgren state3 that in thia type of depoait, "The aetala contained are principally gold and silver, often with large amounts of oopper, lead and zino. In the deep-seated de posits molybdenum, bismuth tungsten and arsenic are not uncom mon associates; we find the same metals here* though they are much less prominent; in addition there is also much antimony and la plasms tellurium. The ore minerals are sulphides, arsenides, sulphantlmonidea and sulpharaenides. Pyrite, ohaloopyrite, ar-senopyrite, galena, zino blende,, tetrahedrite. tennantite and native gold are the most common and on the whole there is not mush Variety and complexity. ... The metallio minerals develop both in the filling and In the altered oountry rook, but in the fissure veins proper it is common to find the valuablt ores main ly in the filled spaces. The dominating gangue mineral is quartz, bat carbonates are also common, such as oaloite, dolomite, and ankerlte, more rarely slderlte; fluorite and barite are occasion ally of importance, ohaloedony and opal are rarely found," It is the writer's belief that a large majority of the deposits described in the foregoing pages would come under this classification. (1) Lindgren - Mineral Deposits, 1?19. P.5*7. 78. D. Low Temperature Deposits. Deposits of this type are somewhat oommon and are often associated with oinnabar, this latter mineral being of more im portance than the antimony compounds. Such deposits are found in Germany, France, Mexico, United States and Alaska. B. Sulfotaric Deposits. An example of this type of deposit is given in Pereta, south Tuscany. Attention should be called to the formation of stibnite at Steamboat Springs. Here this mineral is forming from hot spring waters which permeate gravels 30 feet below the surface. It is in a olas3 by itself and might be classified under "Deposits formed from Hot Spring Waters, at or near the surface." An ana logy between this deposit and one in Iron County, Utah, Is drawn by Llndgren. Stibnite is also found in placers in Alaska and Hew Zealand, It accompanies typical placer minerals as garnet, mag-nitite, gold, etc., but such placers are formed at short distan ces from the souroe of the stibnite, 8, Age of Antimony Deposits. Antimony deposits have been formed during many periods throughout geologloal time. Moat of the deposits border ing the Atlantic appear to have developed prior to the Carbon iferous period. Important exceptions are deposits in Tuscany which are associated with Quaternary volcanism. The antimony deposits bordering the Pacific ooean have a large range in geo logical time, but a great many have been formed since Cretaceous 79. time. The antimony depoaita of Alaska, British Ooluiribia and Herada are mainly of Tertiary age. Deposits of similar age oocur in Hew Zealand. This Tertiary antimony mineralization ia mainly connected with vuloanism and deposition has ocourred at varying depths hut at temperatures ranging from high tempera tures to sulfotario deposition. 80. 9. Bibliography. Agrioola, De Ke Me tallica. I556. Aguilera, J.G. Geol, Distribution of Mineral Deposits in Mexico, Trans. Am.Inst.Min.Eng, Vol. 32, 1902, p.507. Ashley, G.H, Proo. Am.Philos, Soo, Vol. 36, I897. P.30&. Askwith, W,R. West Gore Antimony Deposits, Min.Soc, of U.S. 1901, Aubury, I.E. "Structural and Industrial Materials of Calif," Calif.State Min.Bur. Bull. 38, 13» 19Q&, p.378. Bancroft, M.F, Southern Larde&u, Sloean District,B.C. G,S.C. S 1917 B. p,40. Bailey, L.W. Discovery of stibnite In U.B. Am, Journ.Sc. Vol.35» I863, p.150. Balnard» R,L. Antimony Mining in the Coeur d' Alene District. Idaho. Min. World, Vol,44, I9U, p.351-353. Bastin, E#S, Antimony in 1916. U.S.G.S.Min.Res. 191&.P.723. 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NO. 101 180 165 150 135 20 135 150 165 WO ...<" °roduciab Centres . 1 Occurrences. leo LONGITUDE 165 WESTOF; 150GRH-NWIC1I 135 120 105 90 60 45 30 15 30 45 aj 75 90 105 120 135 150 M5 H3 180 WEST Ford«»u»einGeoBT«phy.'Hat(*>,CiviCj, Exottornici, etc. Prepared by J. Paul Goodc. Publiahcd by The Univenity of Chicago Pre*. Chicago, IB. Copyright 1918. by the Univenity of Chicago 

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