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Bedrock geochemistry of porphry copper deposits, Highland Valley, British Columbia 1974

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BEDROCK GEOCHEMISTRY OF PORPHYRY COPPER DEPOSITS, HIGHLAND VALLEY, BRITISH COLUMBIA " M06ES AYODELE DELESON OLADE Sc., (Hons.), University of Ibadan, Nigeria, 1969 M. Sc., University of Alberta, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT DF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in the department of GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES We accept this thesis as conforming to the required starncjard The University of British Columbia October 197^ In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shal make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shal not be alowed without my written permission. Department of CJ£VLJOC-,ICA-L. SaBr^CES The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8. Canada Date 7^ N|ov/. 19 7 f i a ABSTRACT The f e a s i b i l i t y of u t i l i z i n g bedrock and mineral geo- chemistry i n the exploration for porphyry copper deposits has been investigated i n the Highland Valley copper d i s t r i c t . More than 1500 bedrock samples collected from the vic i n i t y of the Valley Copper, Bethlehem-JA, Lornex, Highmont and Skeena deposits together with 60 fresh unmineralized samples covering the Guichon Creek bath- o l i t h (Northcote, 1968) were analyzed for more than 20 elements using total and partial digestion. An efficacious sulphide-selective technique, not used previously in bedrock geochemistry was developed during this investigation. Chemical variations in fresh rocks of the Guichon Creek batholith are consistent with a model of fractional crystallization of a calc-alkaline d i o r i t i c magma, Cu, l i k e other femic elements (Zn, Mn, V, Ti, Ni, Co, Fe, Mg), generally decreases with increasing magmatic fractionation. This geochemical pattern i s commonly char- acteristic of unmineralized intrusions suggesting that ore metals were not derived by differentiation of a Cu-rich Guichon Creek magma as proposed by previous workers, Results of isotopic studies (Field et a l . , 1973) are however, consistent with a model of derivation of ore metals from a subcrustal source, most probably subducted oceanic crust or upper mantle. Detailed bedrock geochemistry around mineralization reveals that S and Cu show the highest geochemical contrast, with halos extending up to 0.5km from mineralized zones. Of these two elements, ib S shows the more consistent pattern. Dispersions of the l i t h o - phile elements (Rb, Sr f Ba, K, Ca, Na) are controlled "by type and intensity of wall-rock alteration, with halos extending slightly beyond ore zones but within the alteration envelope. Distribution of the femic elements (Zn, Mn, V, T i , Ni, Co, Fe, Mg) i s controlled principally by primary lithology, although minor hydrothermal redistribution i s apparent. Hg defines a broad anomaly at Bethlehem-JA but i s absent at Valley Copper. B anomalies are well developed at Lornex and Highmont but less prominent at Valley Copper and Bethlehem-JA. Results of factor analysis are consistent with subjective interpretations of metal associations and ore-forming processes, Mineral geochemistry indicates that biotite, magnetite and quartz-feldspar phases from mineralized samples are enriched in Cu but depleted i n Ni, Zn, Mn, Co and Mg, relative to background samples. Better geochemical contrast i s obtained with whole-rock than mineral analysis, consequently the use of mineral phases offers no advantages for exploration in the Highland Valley, In exploration for porphyry copper deposits of the Highland Valley type, S, Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba, K, Na, B and Hg in bedrock can be useful i n delineating intensely altered and mineralized zones. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i LIST OF TABLES i x LIST OF FIGURES (Volume l ) x i i i LIST OF FIGURES (Volume 11) • x v i i i LIST OF PLATES x x i i i V Y V 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER ONE: 1 INTRODUCTION 2 GENERAL STATEMENT 2 LOCATION AND ACCESS .1..' 3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY 3 BEDROCK GEOCHEMISTRY IN MINERAL EXPLORATION - PREVIOUS WORK 5 (a) Regional Geochemical Patterns 5 Cb) Hydrothermal Dispersion Patterns 7 (c) Mineral Geochemical Patterns 9 CHAPTER TWO: 12 GEOLOGIC SETTING OF GUICHON CREEK BATHOLITH 12 I: GUICHON CREEK BATHOLITH 13 REGIONAL SETTING 13 PETROLOGY AND STRUCTURE 1̂ ECONOMIC MINERALIZATION 19 i i i Page I I j HIGHLAND VALLEY 21 INTRODUCTION 21 GEOLOGY OF MINERAL DEPOSITS 21 (a} Bethlehem-JA 21 (b) Valley Copper 25 (c) Lornex and Skeena 27 (d) Highmont . 30 CHAPTER THREE: 35 WALL-ROCK ALTERATION 35 INTRODUCTION 36 (a) General Statement % (b) Methods of Study and Terminology 36 BETHLEHEM-JA 38 (a) Main Stage Pervasive Alteration 41 Potassic Alteration 41 A r g i l l i c Alteration 42 Propylitic Alteration 43 (b) Late Stage Alteration 44 Zeolites 44 Epidote 46 (c) Sulphide Zoning 46 VALLEY COPPER 49 (a) Pervasive A r g i l l i c Alteration 49 (b) Vein Alteration 51 (i) Early Phase Veining 51 Barren Quartz Veins 52 Quartz-Potash Feldspar Veins 52 ( i i ) Main Phase Veining 52 Quartz-Sericite Veins 52 Potash Feldspar Alteration 53 ( i i i ) Late Phase Veining 54 (c) Sulphide Zoning 54 i v Page LORNEX 56 (a) Early Stage Pervasive Alteration 56 Propylitic 59 Propy-Argillic Zone 59 A r g i l l i c Zone 60 (b) Main Stage Alteration 6 l Quartz-Sericite Alteration •' 61 Potash-Feldspar Veining 62 Gypsum Veining 62 (c) Sulphide Zoning 63 SKEENA 63 HIGHMONT ' ' •-' 63 (a) Pervasive Alteration 66 Propylitic Alteration 66 Propy-Argillic Alteration 66 A r g i l l i c Alteration 69 (b) Vein Alteration 70 Quartz-Sericite Alteration 70 Quartz-Potash Feldspar Veining Quartz-Tourmaline-Biotite Alteration 70 Gypsum Veining 70 (c) Sulphide Zoning 71 FACTORS CONTROLLING WALL-ROCK ALTERATION 71 (a) Host. Rock Composition 71 (b) Intensity of Faulting and Fracturing 74 (c) Composition of Mineralizing Solutions 75 (d) Structural Levels of Ore Formation 76 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 77 CHAPTER FOURi . 8 0 SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES 80 SAMPLE COLLECTION 81 (a) Outcrop Sampling 81 (b) Drill-Core Sampling 83 SAMPLE PREPARATION 84 V Page (a) Crushing and Grinding 84 (b) Mineral Separation 84 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES. 85 (a) Emission Spectrography 86 (b) X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry 86 Major Elements 86 Minor Elements 89 (c) Ion-Selective Electrodes 89 Total-Extractable Halogens 89 Water-Extractable Halogens 91 (d) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry 91 H F - H C I O K - H N O^. Digestion 93 HNÔ -HCIÔ  Digestion 99 Pre-Analytical Treatment for Hg Determination 99 (i) Sulphide Selective Decompositions 99 Aqua Regia 99 H?0?-Ascorbic Acid 100 KC103-HC1 100 POTASSIUM CHLORATE-HYDROCHLORIC ACIDs A SULPHIDE SELECTIVE LEACH FOR BEDROCK GEOCHEMISTRY 102 (a) Introduction 102 Cb) Analytical Procedure 102 (c) Experimental Work and Results 102 (d) Discussion 106 (e) Applications to Geochemical Exploration 111 (f) Conclusions CHAPTER FIVEj 114 REGIONAL GEOCHEMISTRY 114 INTRODUCTION 115 RESULTS 115 (a) Major Elements 115 (b) Trace Elements 122 (i) Introduction 122 (ii) Distribution of Copper 124 ( i i i ) Distribution of S, Rb, Sr, Cl and F 126 DISCUSSION 140 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 145 vi Page CHAPTER SIX: 147 METAL DISPERSION IN BEDROCK AROUND MINERALIZATION 14-7 INTRODUCTION 148 DATA HANDLING 148 RESULTS 150 BETHLEHEM-JA . 150 (a) Geochemical Patterns Related to Primary Lithology 150 (b) Geochemical Patterns Related to Hydrothermal Alteration 157 (c) Geochemical Patterns Related to Mineralization l 6 l (i) Distribution of Ore Elements l 6 l (ii) Distribution of Pathfinder Elements 163 (d) R-mode Factor Analysis 166 (e) General Discussion and Summary 171 VALLEY COPPER 173 (a^ Geochemical Patterns Related to Hydrothermal Alteration 179 (b) Geochemical Patterns Related to Mineralization 182 (i) Ore Elements 182 (ii) Pathfinder Elements . 186 (c) R-mode Factor Analysis 186 (d) General Discussion and Summary 191 LORNEX 193 (a) Geochemical Patterns Related to Litholoty 197 (b) Geochemical Patterns Related to Hydrothermal Alteration 200 (c) Geochemical Patterns Related to Lornex Fault 202 (d) Geochemical Patterns Related to Mineralization 206 (e) R-mode Factor Analysis 209 (i) Surface samples 209 (ii) Subsurface samples 215 (f) General Discussion and Summary 216 HIGHM0NT 220 (a) Geochemical Patterns Related to Lithology 220 (b) Geochemical Patterns Related to Hydrothermal Alteration 225 (c) Geochemical, Patterns Related to Mineralization 225 (d) R-mode Factor Analysis 229 SKEENA 235 Distribution of Cu, Zn, Mn, CaO, Fe20~, KgO 235 v i i Page DISCUSSION 240 Applications to Mineral Exploration 247 CONCLUSIONS 251 CHAPTER SEVEN: 253 MICRO-GEOCHEMICAL DISPERSION IN MINERALS 253 INTRODUCTION 254 METHODS OF STUDY 255 RESULTS 259 (a) Biotite 259 (b) Magnetite 26l (c) Quartz-Feldspar 263 DISCUSSION 263 (a) Form of Trace Elements i n Mineral Phases 265 (b) Chemical Variations Related to Modal Composition 269 (c) Variations Related to Chemical Composition of Mineral Phases Biotites 275 (d) Chemical Variations Related to Mineralization 279 ( i ) Biotites 279 ( i i ) Magnetites 281 ( i i i ) Quartz-Feldspar -283 GEOCHEMICAL CONTRAST . 285 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ' 287 CHAPTER EIGHT: , 289 ORE-FORMING PROCESSES AT HIGHLAND VALLEY 289 INTRODUCTION 290 (a) General Statement 290 (b) Ore Genetic Models for Porphyry Copper Deposits 290 ORIGIN OF GUICHON CREEK BATHOLITH AND SOURCE OF METALS 292 v i i i Page (a) Provenance of Guichon Creek Magma and Associated Metals 292 (b) Level of Emplacement and Volatile Pressures 297 NATURE OF ALTERATION-MINERALIZATION PROCESSES 300 (a) Mineral Stability Fields 300 (b) Bedrock Geochemical Evidence 301 DISCUSSION 301 CONCLUSIONS 310 CHAPTER NINE: 311 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 312 :(<a) Regional Geochemistry 312 Cb) Detailed Bedrock Geochemistry . 313 (c) Mineral Geochemistry 315 (d^ Sulphide Selective Digestion 316 Ce) Ore-forming Processes at Highland Valley 318 (f) Applications of Bedrock Geochemistry i n Exploration 318 REFERENCES 322 APPENDIX A 337 B 3^9 C 361 D 378 VOLUME II Maps depicting metal distribution patterns at Bethlehem-JAt Valley Copper, Lornex, Highmont and Skeena, ix LIST OF TABLES - . .! Table . Page I Units and Phases of the Guichon Creek batholith. 15 II Size production, capacity, grade and ore mineralogy of mineral deposits, Guichon Creek batholith 20 III Summary of sampling and chemical analysis 82 IV Spectrographic equipment and standard operating c o n d i t i o n s 8 7 V Spectral lines and precision at the 95% confidence level of emission spectrographic analysis 88 VI Operating conditions for Philips 1010 X-ray spectrometer 90a VII Equipment and stock reagents i n ion-selective electrode 90b analysis VIII Comparison of fluorine and chlorine contents of U.S.G.S. standard rocks 92 IX Operating conditions for Techtron AA-U spectrophotometer 94 X Operating conditions for the Perkin Elmer 303 spectro- photometer 95 XI Operating conditions for the Jarrell-Ash 82-270 spectro- photometer 96 XII Analytical precision of HF/HCL0^/HN0„ digestion at the 95% confidence level estimated from paired samples 97 XIII Comparison of trace and major element contents of U.S.G.S. standard rocks 98 XIV Effect of composition of standards on atomic absorption 101 XV Comparison of leaches on ultramafic standard UM1, UM2 and UM4 105 XVI Effect of amount of KCL0~ added on release of copper with KCLO^-HCl leach 108 XVII Effect of grinding on release of copper and zinc with KCIO^-HCI leach 109 XVIII Comparison of analytical results obtained from KC10-- HC1 digests using atomic absorption and colorimetry 112 X Page XIX Means, ranges and mean normative composition of intrusive units, Guichon Creek batholith 117 XX Means and ranges' of trace elements i n rocks of Guichon Creek batholith 123 XXI Abundances of sulphur, rubidium and strontium i n rocks of Guichon Creek batholith 128 XXII Abundances of mercury in rocks of Guichon Creek batholith 129 XXIII Abundances of chlorine and fluorine i n rocks of Guichon Creek batholith 135 XXIV Means and ranges of trace elements at : Bethlehem-JA.,-..:. - , ::: - . 151 XXV Means and ranges of some metal concentrations in principal lithologic units, Bethlehem-JA 2800 Level 154 XXVI Correlation matrix of trace and major element contents, Bethlehem-JA 2800 Level 156 XXVII Chemical variations associated with types of alteration, Bethlehem-JA 2800 Level 158 XXVIII Relationships among copper, potassium and potential pathfinder elements, Bethlehem-JA 2800 Level 167 XXIX Element associations of different factor models, trace and major element content of rocks, Bethlehem-JA, 2800 Level 168 XXX R-mode Varimax Factor Matrix,. Bethlehem-JA 2800 Level 169 XXXI Comparison of mean icontent and geochemical contrast i n background and anomalous samples, Bethlehem-JA 2800 Level 172 XXXII Means, deviations and ranges of trace and major elements of Valley Copper 176 XXXIII Chemical variations associated with types of alteration, Valley Copper 36OO Level 180 XXXIV Correlation coefficients, Valley Copper 36OO Level 187 XXXV Element associations of different factor models, Valley Copper 36OO Level 188 x i Page XXXVI Varimax Factor Matrix, Valley. Copper 3 6 O O Level 189 XXXVII ComparisonsCof mean element content in background and mineralized samples,.Valley Copper 3 6 O O Level 1 9 2 XXXVIII Means and ranges of trace and major elements, Lornex property 1 9 6 XXXIX Means and ranges of metal concentrations i n lithologic units, Lornex Surface 1 9 8 XL Means and ranges of element abundances associated with alteration types, Lornex Subsurface 2 0 1 XLI Metal concentrations along the Lornex Fault 204 XLII Correlation coefficients,•.'Lornex Subsurface 2 1 0 XLIII R-mode Varimax Factor Matrix, Lornex Surface 2 1 1 XLIV Metal associations of different factor models, Lornex . Subsurface 2 1 2 XLV Correlation Coefficients, Lornex Subsurface 2 1 3 XLVI R-mode Varimax Factor Matrix, Lornex Subsurface 214 XLVII Comparison of variability i n copper contents of back- ground and mineralized samples, Lornex 2 1 8 XLVTII Comparison of metal contents and contrast i n background and mineralized areas, Lornex property 2 1 9 XLIX Means and ranges of trace and major elements at Highmont 2 2 3 L Means and ranges of metal concentrations i n lithologic units, Highmont Surface 224 LI Metal concentrations associated with types of alteration, Highmont property 2 2 6 L I l Correlation matrix, Highmont Subsurface 2 3 0 LIII Metal associations of different factor models, Highmont Subsurface 2 3 1 LIV Varimax Factor Matrix, Highmont Subsurface 2 3 2 x i i Page LV Comparison of variability i n copper contents of background and mineralized samples, Highmont 236 LVI Comparison between metal concentrations i n background and mineralized zones, Highmont 237 LVII Comparison of relative contrast and extent of halos at Highland Valley deposits 248 LVIII Trace element and modal content of whole rock samples 258 LIX Trace and major element contents of minerals 260 LX Student T test of background and anomalous samples 262 LXI KCIO^-HCI extractable metal in mineral phases 264 LXII Correlation matrix for modal analysis and trace element content of rocks and minerals 276 LXIII Comparison of geochemical contrast in whole rock and mineral separates 286 LXIV Rb, Sr, Rb/Sr, K/Rb, and S r 8 ? / S r 8 6 abundances of some Cordilleran intrusions 296 x i i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1s Location of study area 4 2: Geology of Guichon Creek batholith 16 3: Simplified modal variations i n rocks of the Guichon Creek batholith 18 4: Generalized geology of Highland Valley 22 5: General geology of Bethlehem-JA, 2800 Level 24 6: General geology of Valley Copper 26 ?: Generalized geology of Lornex and Skeena Mines 28 8: Simplified geology across a section at Lornex mine 29 9: Simplified geology of Highmont property 31 10: Simplified geology across a section at Highmont 33 11: Generalized alteration map, Bethlehem-JA, 2800 Level 39 12: Generalized alteration across a section of Bethlehem-JA 40 13: Distribution of zeolite alteration at Bethlehem-JA 45 14: Generalized sulphide zoning at Bethlehem-JA 47 15: Generalized vertical distribution of sulphides at Bethlehem-JA 48 16: Generalized alteration map, Valley Copper 3600 Level 50 17: Generalized alteration map, Lornex 4900 Level 57 18: Generalized alteration i n a section across Highmont 58 19: Sulphide distribution at Lornex mine 64 20: Wall-rock alteration map, Skeena mine 65 21: Generalized alteration map, Highmont property 67 22: Generalized alteration map i n a section across Highmont 68 xiv FIGURE Page 23a: Mineral zoning and copper grade at Highmont property 72 23b: Distribution of MoSg i n relation to mineral zoning at Highmont 73 24s Comparison of % of total metal extracted by partial 104 extraction techniques 25: Relationship between the amount of metal extracted _'il07 and time of grinding 26: Location of samples used i n regional study, Guichon Creek batholith 116 27: Variation diagrams i n Guichon Creek rocks showing major element concentrations versus Larsen dif f e r - entiation index 119 28: AFM variation diagram for rocks of Guichon Creek batholith 120 29: ' CaO-Na?0-K?0 variations for rocks of Guichon Creek batholith 121 30a: Distribution of Copper i n relation to Larsen differentiation index 125 30b: Regional distribution of aqua regia extractable copper i n rocks of Guichon Creek batholith 125 31: Relationship between Copper and Iron in rocks of Guichon Creek batholith 127 32: Relationship between rubidium and potassium i n rocks of Guichon Creek batholith 131 32b: Plots of K/Rb versus K i n rocks of Guichon Creek batholith 132 33s Plots of K/Rb and Ca/Sr versus Larsen differentia- tion index 133 . 34: Variation diagrams in Guichon Creek rocks showing trace element A« concentrations plotted against LDI 137 35: Relationship between Iron and Zinc i n rocks of Guichon Creek batholith 138 XV FIGURE Page 3 6 : Relationship between Iron and Manganese i n rocks of the Guichon batholith 139 3 7 a : Variation of Nickel '.with Iron i n rocks of Guichon Creek batholith 141 3 7 b : Variation of Nickel with Magnesium i n Guichon Creek batholith 141 3 8 a : Relationship between Cobalt and Iron in Guichon Creek batholith 142 3 8 b : Relationship between Cobalt and Magnesium i n Guichon Creek rocks 142 39s Relationship between Zinc and Magnesium contents of rocks, Bethlehem-JA 2800 Level 155 40: Flot;of Rubidium versus Potassium, Bethlehem-JA 160 2800 Level 41: Plot of Strontium versus Calcium, Bethlehem-JA 2800 Level 1 6 0 42: Log probability plot"of Copper at Bethlehem-JA 162 43: Relationship between total and water-extractable Chlorine in rocks, Bethlehem-JA, 2800 Level 165 4 4 a ; Schematic diagram showing extent and relative intensity of primary halos, Bethlehem-JA 2800 Level 174 44b: S6hematic diagram showing distribution of factor scores, Bethlehem-JA 2800 Level 175 4 5 : Log probability plot of Copper at Valley Copper 1 8 3 46: "Relationship between Copper and Potassium at Valley Copper 3600 Level 185 4 7 a : Schematic diagram showing extent and relative intensity of primary halos, Valley Copper 36OO Level 1 9 4 4 7 b : Schematic diagram showing distribution of factor scores, Valley Copper 36OO Level 1 9 5 48: Plot of Barium versus Potassium in background samples, Lornex Surface I99 4 9 : Manganese versus Iron i n unmineralized samples, Lornex Surface I 9 9 xvi FIGURE Page 50: Relationship between Mercury and Zinc along Lornex Fault 205 51: Log probability plot of Copper at Lornex 20? 52: Schematic diagram showing extent and relative intensity of primary halos, Lornex Subsurface 221 53s Schematic diagram showing distribution of factor scores, Lornex Subsurface 222 5̂ : Log probability plot of Copper at Highmont 227 55* Schematic diagram showing extent and relative intensity of primary halos, Highmont Subsurface 239 56: Schematic diagram showing distribution of factor 238 scores, Highmont Subsurface 57: Location of rock and mineral samples, Highland Valley 256 58: Proportions of total Copper and Zinc extracted from biotites by KCLO^-HCl digestion 266 59' Proportions of total Copper and Zinc extracted from magnetites by KCLO^-HCl digestion 267 60: Proportions of total Copper and Zinc extracted from quartz-feldspar phases by KCLO^-HCl digestion 268 6l: Relationship between whole-rock copper and modal proportions of biotite 270 62: Relationship between modal and Copper contents of biotites 271 63: Plot of modal biotite versus Copper from biotite i n whole rock 272 64: Relationship between whole-rock Copper and percent accessory minerals in rocks 273 65: Covariance of Copper and modal K-feldspar in-whole rocks 274 66: Plot of modal biotite versus Zinc from biotite i n whole rocks ' 277 67: Copper versus Iron i n biotites 278 xvii FIGURE Page 68s Copper versus Magnesium i n biotites 278 69s. Relationship between total Copper i n whole rocks and biotites 280 70s Relationship between Copper contents of whole rocks and magnetites 282 71: Relationship between Copper contents of whole rocks and quartz-feldspar fractions 284 72: Plot of Potassium versus Rubidium and K/Rb ratios / i n rocks of Guichon Creek batholith 293 73* Plot of Rubidium versus Strontium i n rocks of Guichon Creek batholith 294 74: Plot of normative Ab-Or-Qz proportions for the Guichon Creek samples compared with boundary curves and minima at 2, 4, 7 and 10 kb P„ _ 298 H20 75s Gain and loss of principal rock constituents through alteration and mineralization, Valley Copper 302 76: Model for chemical and mineral zoning and evolution of ore-forming fluids 307 77: Location of samples, Bethlehem-JA Suboutcrop Level 338 78: Location of samples, Bethlehem-JA 2800 Level 341 79: Location of samples, Bethlehem-JA 2400 Level 346 80: Location of samples, Valley Copper Suboutcrop Level 350 81: Location of samples, Valley Copper 36OO Level 353 82: Location of samples, Valley Copper, 3300 Level ( 358 83: Location of samples, Lornex Surface (in poefeet-)Comb** 352 84: Location of dr i l l - c o r e samples, Lornex mine 369 85: Location of samples, Highmont Surface (in $oek-ek) Cohi^379 86: Location of dr i l l - c o r e samples, Highmont property 392 LIST OF FIGURES VOLUME II (Maps depicting trace and major element dispersions around mineralization) Bethlehem-JA (2800 Level except where indicated) FIGURE Al Zinc A2 Manganese A3 Titanium A4 Vanadium A5 Magnesia A6 S i l i c a A7 Potash A8 Rubidium A9 Barium A10 Calcium A l l Strontium A12a Rubidium/Strontium A12b Barium/Strontium A13 Soda Al4 Iron A15 Copper (Suboutcrop Level) A16 Copper (2800 Level) A17 Copper (2400 Level) A18 Sulphide Copper A 1 9 Sulphide Iron A20 Molybdenum FIGURE A21 Sulphur A22 Mercury A23 Boron A24 Chlorine A25 Water-extractable chlorine A26 Fluorine A2? Water-extractable Fluorine A28 Factor R-l A29 Factor R-2 A30 Factor R-3 A31 Factor R-4 VALLEY COPPER (36OO Level except where indicated) FIGURE A32 Zinc A33 Manganese A34 Manganese (3300 Level) A35 Strontium A36a Barium A36b Barium/Strontium A37 Magnesia A38 Iron A40 Calcium Aki Soda Ak2 Rubidium A43 Potash Akk Rubidium/Strontium A45 S i l i c a FIGURE A46 Copper (Suboutcrop) A47 Copper (3600) A48 Copper (3300) Akg Sulphide Copper A50 Sulphide Iron A51 Molybdenium A52 Sulphur A53 Boron A54 Chlorine A55 Fluorine A56 Factor R-l A57 Factor R-2 A58 Factor R-3 A59 Factor R-4 Lornex (Subsurface, except where indicated) A60 Zinc *A60b Zinc (Surface) A6l Iron *A6lb Iron (Surface) A62 Manganese *A62b Manganese (Surface) A63a Strontium A63b Calcium A64 Sodium A65a Barium A65b Potash FIGURE A66 Silver A67 Lead A68 Cadmium *A69 Copper (surface) A70 Copper ATI Molybdenum *A71b Boron (surface) A72 Factor R-l . A73 Factor R-2 A74 Factor R-3 A75 Factor R-4 'Subsurface except where : A?6 Zinc A77 Manganese A78 Iron A79 Soda *A80 Copper (surface) A81 Copper A82 Molybdenum *A83 Boron (surface) A84 Boron - A85 Factor R-l A86 Factor R-2 A87 Factor R-3 A88 Factor R-4 XXII FIGURE A89 Factor R-5 Skeena FIGURE A90 Copper, Zinc,. Manganese A91 Calcium, Iron, Potash * 'Eft $uToes:'in- Special C o l l e c t i o n s Gxtome-t x x i i i LIST OF PLATES PLATE Page 1; Conglomeration of (?) secondary perthitic K-feldspar in Bethlehem quartz diorite of the potassic zone, Bethlehem-JA 78 2: Sericite alteration of plagioclase and a l k a l i feldspars in potassic zone of Bethlehem-JA '' " 7 8 3: Coarse-grained sheaves of interlocking chlorite in the propylitic zone of Bethlehem-JA 7 8 4: Medium- to coarse-grained crystal, of epidote (vein- f i l l i n g material) i n the propylitic zone of Bethlehem-JA 7 8 5: Pervasive sericite (+ minor kaolinite) and quartz remnants i n the a r g i l l i c zone of Valley Copper deposit 7 8 6: Alteration of coarse biotite grains to fibrous sericite i n the a r g i l l i c zone of Valley Copper deposit 78 7: Very coarse grained sericite (vein material) i n the phyllic zone of Valley Copper deposit 7 9 8: Fine-grained epidote partially replacing a biotite grain i n propylitized rock of Lornex mine 79 9: Fine to medium-grained sericite and kaolinite in the a r g i l l i c zone of Lornex mine 79 10: Quartz and chlorite replacements of a biotite grain in the; propylitic zone of Highmont deposit 79 11: Weak a r g i l l i z a t i o n of plagioclase (with minor carbonate) at Highmont property 79 12: Radiating tourmaline crystals (schorl) i n a breccia matrix at Highmont 79 13 s Disseminated?s.ulphide grains (mainly bornite with minor chalcopyrite) i n mineralized samples at Highmont (reflected light) 288 14: Bornite inclusions i n chloritized biotite (a) trans- mitted light (b) reflected light 288 15: Opaque grains (sulphide) occurring at the margins of a chloritized biotite (transmitted light) 288 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research project formed part of the applied geo- chemistry research programme being undertaken at the Geological Sciences Centre, U.B.C., under the direction of Dr. W.K. Fletcher, to whom the writer i s grateful for suggesting, actively supervising and channeling generous funds for the thesis. Grateful acknowledgement i s made to A. Dhillon, D. Marshall, and M. Waskett-Myers for analyzing many, of the samples. Able assistance was provided i n the f i e l d by P. Marcello and M. Waskett- Myers . I wish to thank members of the mining industry - notably Bethlehem Mining Corporation, Canex Placer, Cominco, Highmont Mining Corporation, Lornex Mining Corporation, and Quintana Minerals Exploration for providing access to their properties and for financial and material assistance. Specifically, I wish to mention, R.F. Anderson and P.P. Tsaparas (Bethlehem Mining Corporation), J.M. Allen and M. Osatenko (Cominco), A. Reed (Highmont Mining Corporation), M. Skopos, G. Walden and G, Smith (Lornex Mining Corporation), and W.J. McMillan (B.C. Dept.of Mines). I am thankful to Drs. A.J, Sinclair, A, Soregaroli, K.C. McTaggart, W.J. McMillan and T. Brown for constructive criticism of earlier drafts of the thesis. I am indebted to my colleagues, Messrs, P. Doyle, S. Hoffman and R. Lett for useful discussions of geochemical and s t a t i s t i c a l problems. Financial support for the project was provided partly by the National Research Council of Canada (PRAI Grant # P-7303) and NRC Grant 67-7714 awarded to Dr. K. Fletcher. During this investigation, I benefited from various fellowships for which I am grateful. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 2 GENERAL STATEMENT Bedrock geochemistry, as a tool i n detailed mineral explor- ation, i s s t i l l i n an experimental stage (Hawkes and Webb, 1962; Boyle, 1967) . According to Boyle and Garrett (1970), research on the nature and extent of primary halos around specific types of mineral deposits i s required'to establish bedrock geochemistry as a practical exploration technique. Porphyry-type deposits are major sources of copper and molybdenum i n the Canadian Cordillera and other parts of the world. Compared with other types of deposits, such as massive sulphides (Shikawa et a l . , 1962, 1974; Sakrison, 1971; Nairis, 1971; Pant- azis and Govett, 1973; Goodfellow, 1974; Thurlow, 1974) or vein- type mineralization (Boyle, I96I, I965, I968; Bolter and Al-Shaieb, 1971; Ineson, I969, 1970; Dass et a l . , 1973; Bailey and McCormick, 1974), relatively less research work has been undertaken or published on lithogeochemic'al halos around porphyry-type deposits (see Coope, 1973). However, notable exceptions are the recent studies of Theodore and Nash (1973) on trace element; dispersion around the Copper Canyon deposits, Oyarzun et a l . (1974) on primary halos of Rb and Sr around Chilean prophyry copper deposits, Warren et a l . (1974) on Ba and Sr dispersion i n wallrocks of the Island Copper deposit i n B.C., and Gunton and Nichol (1974), The porphyry copper-molybdenum deposits of the Guichon 3 Creek batholith (Valley Copper, Bethlehem-JA, Lornex and Highmont) were chosen for this investigation by virtue of their economic significance and the availability of previous studies of geology and geochemistry by Northcote (1969) and Brabec (1970) respectively. Their location in an easily accessible area of southern British Columbia (Fig. l) and the relative abundance of outcrops and d r i l l cores, were further advantages. LOCATION AND ACCESS The Highland Valley district is located in the central part of the Guichon Creek batholith, approximately 250 miles north- east of Vancouver, B.C. (Fig. l ) . Main access to the area is pro- vided by a 28 mile,'paved secondary road from the town of Ashcroft, and from the east, through Logan Lake, a small mining town recently developed by Lornex Mining Corporation. As a result of intensive mining and exploration activities, the entire Highland Valley district is easily accessible by numerous un paved roads and trails. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY Objectives of this study are toj (1) determine the nature, extent and factors controlling epig- enetic dispersion of major and trace elements ln wall rocks surround- ing porphyry copper-molybdenum deposits. (2) determine relationships between distribution of Cu and potential pathfinders, such as Hg, Gl, F, B, and Rb and Sr. 4 FIGURE 1: Location of Study Area 5 (3) investigate, and if appropriate, develop partial extr- action techniques as a means of selectively extracting sulphide Cu, and thereby improving geochemical contrast between anomalous and background areas* (4) assess the value of chemical analysis of constituent min- erals, rather than whole rocks, in improving contrast between anomalous and background environments* , BEDROCK GEOCHEMISTRY IN MINERAL EXPLORATION - PREVIOUS WORK Use of bedrock geochemistry as an exploration tool grew largely from the work of A.E. Fersman and his colleagues in the U.S.S.R. in the early part of this century. Since their pioneer work, considerable research and refinement of the technique have been undertaken in the U.S.S.R. and other parts of the world. Boyle and Garrett (1970), Sakrison (1971) and Coope (1973) have recently reviewed the status of lithogeochemistry in mineral exploration. The following review of relevant literature emphasises the results of studies on exploration for porphyry copper deposits. The review is subdivided into three sections» (l) regional geochemical surveys; (2) detailed chemical and mlneralogical patterns around ore deposits; and (3) micro-dispersion of trace metals ln mineral phases* (a) Regional Geochemical Patterns Various types of mineral deposits, including porphyry coppers, are believed to be genetically related to their host rocks 6 (Krauskopf, 1967)• Consequently, numerous bedrock geochemistry studies have been focussed on differentiating barren from potentially ore-bearing lntrusives. Goldschlmdt (195*0 assembled a vast amount of data on trace element abundances in crustal rocks, and devised 'rules' that govern their behaviour in silicate melts. A critical review of this subject is presented by Burns and Fyfe (1967). Empirical data on systematic variations of trace elements during magmatic differentiation have been presented by Wager and Mitchell (1951) and Wager and Brotm (1967) for the Skaergaard intru- sion, and other differentiated igneous suites (Cornwall and Rose, 1957! McDougall and Lovering, 1963). Warren and Delavault (i960) found that aqua-regia-extr- actable Cu in plutons containing porphyry Cu deposits (including Guichon Creek batholith) was appreciably higher than in barren lntrusives of similar composition. Brabec and White (1971) investigated the distribution of aqua-regia-extractable Cu and Zn in more than J00 fresh samples from the Guichon Creek batholith* Their results indicate a general decrease in Cu and Zn from the outer margins to the central zone where rock phases containing the main porphyry Cu deposits are impoverished in Cu. They concluded that, a relatively high Cu content of an intrusive phase is not necessarily indicative of its superior ore potential. Kesler et al* (1973)» using ion-selective electrodes, 7 evaluated the possible use of water-leachable Cl and F in 'finger- printing* intrusions that are potentially ore-bearing. Their sampling included two porphyry-copper-bearing intrusives, plutonic bodies with associated contact deposits and other barren intrusions in the Caribbean and Central America. The results, which are a measure of the abundance and concentration of fluid Inclusions and other water-soluble rock constituents, do not indicate there is any simple relation between abundance of Cl and the occurrence of mineralization. However, average F values are higher in mineralized than unmineralized Intrusion. Rabinovich et al. (1958) and Tauson et al. (1970) reported that the Mo contents of intrusives that carry Mo mineralization in the U.S.S.R. are not higher than those of barren plutons of similar composition. (b) Hydrothermal Dispersion Patterns Metasomatism of ore and associated metals into country rock during metallization is instrumental in the development of hydro- thermal dispersion patterns in wall rocks of mineral deposits. Hawkes and Webb (1962) and Bradshaw et al. (1970) have discussed the factors controlling epigenetic dispersion patterns. Theodore and Nash (1973) studied the distribution of 20 trace elements in wall rocks surrounding the Copper Canyon porphyry copper deposits. The orebodies are localized within metasedimentary rocks intruded by a relatively barren granodiorite stock. They 8 found that concentrations of Cut Mo and other trace elements were higher in the barren intrusion than in the mineralized metasediments. Thus they oonclude that a geochemical anomaly of Cu in bedrock does not necessarily coincide with Cu ore at Copper Canyon, Armbrust (1971) and Oyarzun et a l . (197*0 found that Rb is enriched and Sr depleted in central zones of intense potassic alteration and mineralization at several Chilean porphyry Cu deposits. Warren et a l . (1974) reported that Ba and Sr values are depleted in ore zones of the Island Copper deposit in British Columbia. Davis and Guilbert (1973)i investigating radio-element (K, U, Th) distribution in several porphyry-type deposits in south- west U.S.A. found that in mineralized plutons, enhanced K and U levels are centrally located and spatially associated with intense potassic alteration and mineralization. Thus, they conclude that radiometric measurements of K and U are viable tools in the search for porphyry-type deposits. Gunton and Nichol (1972*-) studied the distribution of 18 major, minor and trace elements in volcanic and plutonic rocks associated with the Ingerbelle and Copper Mountain Cu deposits. On a reconnaissance basis, they found that increased contents of P, Rb and Sr and to a lesser extent Na and K in volcanic rocks adjacent to the ore-bearing Copper Mountain stock. On a local scale, a broad zone of Na enrichment is associated with intense alteration at Inger- belle deposit as opposed to localized zones of K enrichment in the Copper Mountain deposits. 9 Mineralogical zoning patterns around porphyry Cu deposits have been investigated by numerous workers, notably, Lowell and Guilbert (1970), Rose (1970), Nielsen (1968) and Carson and Jambor (1974). Hausen and Kerr (1971) employed X-ray diffraction methods in outlining distribution of alteration minerals in porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in Arizona, Montana and Washington. They conclude that alteration patterns correlate with the distribution of Cu and Mo, and permit the projection of previously unknown mineralization. (c) Mineral Geochemical Patterns The trace element contents of various mineral phases have been utilized in the exploration of porphyry Cu deposits. The basis for these applications is that constituent minerals might better reflect the presence of mineralization or give better geochemical contrast than whole rocks. Parry and Nackowski (1963) found that Cu contents of biotites from Intrusions in porphyry Cu areas tended to be relatively high. Similar conclusions were reached by Putman and Burnham (1963) and Graybeal (1973) in their studies of Cu contents in biotites and hornblendes of plutonic rocks in Arizona. In the Sierrita and Santa Rita Mountains of southern Arizona, rocks from Intrusions that are genetically associated with Cu deposits- contain as much as 300 p.p.m., whereas biotites separated from these rocks contain as much as ~L% Cu. Lovering et a l . (1970)* therefore conclude that Cu anomalies in biotite provide a more reliable guide to Cu mineralization than 10 do whole rocks. Al-Hashimi and Brownlow (1970) reported relatively high Cu contents in biotites from mineralized Boulder batholith 7. This enrichment is attributed to the presence of epigenetic sulphide in- clusions. However, the authors conclude that because of the erratic distribution of Cu in biotites, bedrock provides a better and more consistent guide to mineralization. Parry (1972) found no clear distinction between the Cl content of biotites and their occurrence in mineralized or barren plutons, except that biotites with less than 0,2% (31 came from plutons with l i t t l e or no Cu mineralization. Hamil and Nackowski (1971) investigated magnetites from several lntrusives in Utah and Nevada, and found that low abundances of Ti and Zn in magnetite correlate with major porphyry Cu mineral- ization. Theobald and Thompson (1962) noted that magnetite from rocks presumably associated with Cu mineralization at Butte, Montana are relatively impoverished in Zn. In contrast, high con- centrations of Cu and Zn were reported by de Grys (1970) in magnetite from lntrusives associated with porphyry Cu mineralization. Stanley (1964) found that the Cu contents of wall rocks in the Granduc deposit in B.C. were not related to the proportion of magnetite. Huff (1971) found no significant/Cu anomalies in magnetites derived from lntru- sives associated with Cu mineralization ln the Lone Star district in Arizona. 11 In conclusion, various workers have obtained different results using similar techniques* This emphasizes the need for studies to be carried out in different environments. Lines of further productive research involve the use of minor and trace elements, such as Rb, Sr, and Ba, and volatlles in delineating zones associated with hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in porphyry copper deposits. CHAPTER TWO GEOLOGIC SETTING OF GUICHON CREEK BATHOLITH 13 I. GUICHON CREEK BATHOLITH REGIONAL SETTING The Guichon Creek batholith is a concentrically zoned, granitoid pluton, elongated slightly west of north, underlying an area of approximately 480 square miles. It intrudes sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Permian Cache Creek and Upper Triassic Nicola Groups, within a tectonic setting that is considered either eugeosynclinal (Danner and Nestall, 1971) or as an oceanic-island arc couple (Dercourt, 1972? Monger et a l . , 1972). The batholith is overlain unconformably by Middle Jurassic to Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and bounded on the west and east by faults of regional extent (Carr, 1962). The age of the batholith has been determined precisely by stratigraphic and geochronometric methods. Forty-five K-Ar (Folinsbee^et a l . , 1965! Baadsgaard et a l . , 1961; Leech et al. , 1964; Wanless et a l . , 1965s 1968; Dirom, 1965; Northcote, 1969; Blanchflower, 1971; Jones et a l . , 1972) and two Rb-Sr (Chrismas et a l . , 1969) age determinations on rocks from the batholith indicate that the various igneous phases are, within limits of analytical error, 200 m.y. old. However, geoglogic evidence presented by Northcote (1969) suggests that the zoned pluton is progressively younger from the border inward. Rocks of the batholith have not undergone any significant metamorphlsm since emplacement. 14 PETROLOGY AND STRUCTURE Petrology of the Guichon Creek batholith has been des- cribed by numerous workers, notably White et al . , (1957)» Carr (1966), Northcote (1969), McMillan (1972) and Hylands (1972). The batholith Is composed of nine igneous phases delineated by variations in texture (Table I and Fig. 2). These phases, which vary ln compos- ition from diorite to quartz monzonite are grouped into units on modal similarities and contact relations (Hylands, 1972). Border Unit forms the outer zone of the batholith, and is composed of hybrid, highly variable to uniformly fine-grained diorite that is commonly enriched in mafic minerals. Highland Valley Unit, which comprises the Guichon and Chataway Phases, forms a complete ring within the Border Unit (Fig. 2). Medium-grained Guichon quartz diorite is characterized by anhedral quartz grains and unevenly distributed clusters of mafic minerals. Average modal composition is estimated by Northcote (1969) as follows: plugioclase (An^-j^g) constitutes 50%$ orthoclase 1Q£, quartz 16$, biotite and hornblende 17%» pyroxene and accessory minerals % • The equigranular Chataway granodiorite is character- ized by evenly distributed equant grains of hornblende and biotite which both constitute 12% of the mode (McMillan, 1972). Intermediate Unit lies between the Highland Valley Unit and the core of the batholith. It is composed of the Bethlehem and Skeena granodiorites and Witches Brook and Bethlehem Porphyry dykes. The Bethlehem and Skeena granodiorites are characterized by randomly T A B L E I J Units and phases of the Guichon Creek batholith (Modified after, Northcote, 1969i Hylands, 1972; McMillan,.1972). U N I T S PHASES ROCK TYPES Core Intermediate Highland Valley Border Gnawed Mountain Bethsaida Bethlehem Porphyry Witches Brook Skeena Bethlehem Chataway Guichon Hybrid MODS OF EMPLACEMENT RELATIVE AGE dacite to quartz latite porphyry granodiorite to quartz monzonite lat i t e , dacite, quartz diorite, microgranite granodiorite to quartz monzonite . quartz diorite to granodiorite quartz diorite to granodiorite quartz diorite to granodiorite quartz diorite to granodiorite diorite to quartz diorite dyke youngest epizonal-plutonic dyke dyke epi-mesozonal-plutonic mesozonal-plutonic ' mesozonal-plutonic mesozonal-plutonic mesozonal-plutonic oldest 16 FIGURE Geology of Guichon Creek batholith (Modified after McMillan, 1972) 17 distributed, coarse, poikilitic hornblende crystals, set in a matrix of fine- to medium- grained felsic minerals. However, the Skeena differs from the Bethlehem granodiorite in possessing coarse- grained, subhedral quartz phenocrysts and interstitial, ragged micro-perthite. An estimated modal composition is: plagioclase k%% orthoclase 10%, quartz 23$, and mafic minerals 8% (Northcote, 1969). Rocks of the Witches Brook and Bethlehem Porphyry Phases occur as dykes and small stocks with varying mineralogy and texture (Table I ) . Gore Unit comprises the Bethsaida and Gnawed Mountain Phases. The Bethsaida granodiorite to quartz monzonite is coarse- grained, commonly porphyritlc and consists of subhedral phenocrysts of quartz (16 - k%), plagioclase (38 - 57%), interstitial micro- perthite (5 - l¥>) and coarse biotite "books" (3-7%) (Northcote, 1969)» Rocks of the Gnawed Mountain Phase occur mainly as porphyry dykes with varying texture; plagioclase and quartz phenocrysts are set in an aplitic groundmass. Mafic minerals, mainly biotite, constitute less than % of the mode. Variations in mineralogical composition within the con- stituent rock units of the batholith are depicted in Fig. 3* Horn- blende, anorthite content of plagioclase, accessory minerals and biotite decrease, whereas quartz content increases from the border to core of the pluton. Pyroxene Is not found in rocks younger than the Highland Valley Unit. K-feldspar shows no systematic variations throughout the batholith. Textural change is manifested by increasing FIGURE 3: Simplified modal variations in rocks of the Guichon Creek Batholith (Data partly from Northcote, 1969); *Highly variable composition. 19 grain size toward the core. Specific gravity of rocks also decreases inwards (Northcote, 1969). Structurally, the batholith is a semi-concordant dome dipping steeply on a l l sides, (Northcote, 1969). Geophysical evidence (Ager et a l . , 1973) suggests that, at greater depths, the batholith is a flattened funnel-shaped struciurefeslightly tilted to the west. Structural features within the batholith include minor and major faults, prominent among which are the 16 km long, north- trending Lornex Fault and the west-northwest trending Highland Valley Fault (McMillan, 1972). Other local structural elements with a predominant northerly trend, include lineaments, fractures, breccia pipes and dyke swarms. These probably a l l result from stress patterns imposed by the underlying basement (Bergey et a l . , 1971) or pressure from the intruding magma. ECONOMIC MINERALIZATION The Guichon Creek batholith is host to several large pro- ducing and pre-producing porphyry copper deposits. Lornex, Bethle- hem-Hues t is and Bethlehem-Jersey mines are presently ln production; Valley Copper, Highmont, Trojan (South Seas), Bethlehem-Iona, Bethle- hem-JA and Alwin are in advanced stages of production planning, whereas East Jersey and Skeena have been mined out. Aggregate tonnage of these deposits exceeds 1.8 billion tons of material grading approximately 0.4% Cu equivalent (Table II). Other prospects and showings abound in the Highland Valley district. Although Craigmont, TABL3. II: Size, production capacity, grade and ore mineralogy of mineral deposits, Guichon Creek batholith (Data from Canadian Mines Handbook, 1 9 ? 1 - 1 9 7 2 , and Northern Miner Press) Tonnage X 1 0 ° Production tons/day Grade of % Cu Bethlehem - East Jersey 3 1.14 . Bethlehem - Jersey 30 1 6 , 0 0 0 0 . 6 0 Bethlehem - Kuestis 2 6 O.65 Bethlehem - Iona 1 0 . 2 0.53 Bethlehem - Lake Zone 1 9 0 0.48. Valley Copper 1 0 0 0 0.48 Lornex 2 9 3 3 8 , 0 0 0 0 . - 4 3 Highmont* 1 5 0 0 . 2 8 Bethlehem-JA 300 0 . 4 5 Krain 35-5 0 . 3 7 Trojan (South Seas) 1 7 . 4 0 . 7 5 Alwin 1.2 2 . 3 1 Skeena 0.15 3 . 5 0 Craigmont •14.6 5 , 6 0 0 1 . 7 2 MoS„ Pri n c i p a l Ore Minerals 0.01.5 0.017 bornite bornite, chakopyrite bcrnite, chalcopyrite chalcopyrite, bcrnite bornite, chalcopyrite chalcopyrite, bornite, molybdenite chalcopyrite, bornite, molybdenite chalcopyrite, bornite, molybdenite chalcopyrite (bornite) chalcopyrite (bornite) bornite ' chalcopyrite chalcopyrite * Highmont comprises two major deposits. o 21 a producing mine located immediately south of the batholith, is a pyrometasomatic deposit, i t is regarded as genetically related to Guichon Greek batholith (Chrismas et al. , 1969; A.J. Sinclair, oral communication)• Most of the orebodiescare localized within intense zones of shattering and brecciation, usually along or near contacts between intrusive units or in the vicinity of porphyry dyke swarms and breccia pipes. Principal ore minerals are bornite, chalcopyrite and molybdenite which occur as fracture fillings, either within quartz and quartz-carbonate veins or clay/sericite gangue, and as disseminations within altered host rocks. II. HIGHLAND VALLEY INTRODUCTION The following discussion of geology at Highland Valley is based solely on the work of McMillan (1971. 1972, 1973; oral communications) and private company reports. However, these sources have been corroborated by field observations while collecting rock samples and petrographic examination >of relevant thin sections• General geology of the Highland Valley and location of deposits are shown in Fig, k, GEOLOGY OF MINERAL DEPOSITS (a) Bethlehem-JA The recently discovered Bethlehem-JA deposit contains estimated reserves of more than 30° million tons of 0A% Cu. The 22 TERTIARY K\N Volcanic flow rocks 1 C 1 Clastic sedimentary rocks GUICHON CREEK BATHOLITH I BSl Bethsaida and Gnawed Mountain phases | S I Skeena phase I BQl Bethlehem phase with quartz eyes Figure 4 GENERALIZED GEOLOGY OF HIGHLAND VALEY 'LEGEND (After McMillan, 1973) I BL l Bethlehem phase I G I Guichon phase \jM_j Porphyry dykes Breccia bodies c J Outline of orebody • Fault-proven, inferred 23 orebody is approximately 900 by 400 m, with its long axis striking east-west. It is localized along the contact between quartz diorite of the Guichon Phase and granodiorite of the younger Bethlehem Phase, within and north of a small quartz latite porphyry dyke (Fig. 5). In thin section, the porphyry consists of phenocrysts of plagioclase, K-feldspar and quartz, set in a fine-grained groundmass. Results of modal analysis (1000 counts) of three samples are as follows» plagioclase (42 - 47%), orthoclase (18 - 23%), quartz (25 - 28%) and biotite (2 - 3%). Except for higher content of quartz adjacent to the porphyry, rocks of the Bethlehem and Guichon Phase are not different in composition from those described by Northcote (1969). Structurally, the deposit is characterized mainly by north and northwest-trending faults and fractures. Most prominent of these faults is the northwest-trending 'JA* or 'Brook* Fault (Figs. 4 and 5). , Economic mineralization is most intense along the shattered contact between the Guichon and Bethlehem Phases, although approximately two-thirds of the orebody l i e within the latter. Principal ore minerals are chalcopyrite, bornite and molybdenite which occur as veins, veinlets (1 - 5 mm wide), fracture coatings and disseminations. Pyrite and specularite are the only other metallic minerals•  25 (b) Valley Copper Valley Copper orebody has a roughly elliptical plan of approximately 1000 by 1300 m, with the long axis striking north- westerly (Allen and Richardson, 1970), It contains more than 1 billion tons of 0.48$ Cu, The deposit is situated entirely within porphyritic granodiorite to quartz monzonite of the Bethsaida Phase (McMillan, 1972) (Fig, 6), Local textural and mineralogical variants include mafic patches enriched in biotite and magnetite, and con- spicuously porphyritic zones with aplitic matrix. Other volume- trically insignificant rock types include small pre- and post— ore felsite and lamprophyre dykes. Jones et a l . (1972) obtained a K-Ar age of 132 m.y. on a post-ore lamprophyre dyke. Structurally, the deposit lies west of the Lornex Fault, near its junction with the west-trending Lake and Highland Valley Faults (Fig. 6). Carr (1967) considers the Valley Copper and Lornex deposits as segments of the same orebody that were offset by post- ore movement on the Lornex Fault. According to McMillan (1971), two dominant fault systems are evident in the underground working; one striking south-southeast with* steep northeasterly dips, and one sub-horizontal set. Ore-grade mineralization is localized within zones of intense shattering and brecciation. Bornite, chalcopyrite and molybdenite are the principal ore minerals. Pyrite , sphalerite and hematite are relatively uncommon, but up to 2fo specular hematite S a m p l e locat ion FIGURE 6: General geology of Valley Copper (After McMillan, 1971 . 1973). 27 occurs within the deposit (Allen and Richardson, 1970). (c) Lornex and Skeena Lornex ore deposit is 500 x 1300 m with an elliptical outline in which the long axis is oriented north-westerly. Currently in production, its ore reserves exceed 300 million tons of about 0.43% '..Cu and 0.014% MoSg. The orebody lies mainly within the Skeena granodiorite adjacent to a contact with Bethsaida quartz monzonite (Fig. 7). Skeena granodiorite is medium to coarse grained and com- posed of anhedral quartz, plagioclase (An^Q.^), coarse poikilitic hornblende, biotite and interstitial perthitic orthoclase. Modal proportions as estimated from eight samples are? plagioclase (58 - 65%), orthoclase (5 - 14%), quartz (18 - 25%), biotite (3 - 6%), hornblende (2-5%) and accessories (1 - 2 % ) . Bethsaida granodiorite is characterized by coarse-grained subhedral quartz phenocrysts (23 - 30%), plagioclase (54 - 65%), interstitial orthoclase (6 - 15%), coarse biotite (2 - 7%), horn- blende (3%) and accessory minerals (3%). Near the southern end of the deposit, a quartz-plagioclase porphyry of the Gnawed Mountain Phase intrudes the Skeena granodiorite (Fig. 7). The porphyry is composed of large crowded phenocrysts of anhedral quartz and plag- ioclase, set in an aplitlc groundmass. Other minor rock types include small aplite and felsite dykes. Subsurface geology of a section across the orebody is presented in Fig. 8. 28 + + + [ Quartz porphyry S Fault v. 2~ 0 r e b o c | y j...j Bethsaida granodiorite | S | Skeena granodiorite £3? Ultimate pit outline Contact 2000ft 250 500m FIGURE 7: Generalized geology of Lornex and Skeena mines (After Lornex mining staf f ) . FIGURE 8: Simplified geology across a section at Lornex mine (P = Quartz porphyry:, B = Bethsaida granodiorite; S = Skeena granodiorite). 30 Structurally, the Lornex orebody is bounded on the west by the Lornex Fault dipping west at 80 - 85°. Faults are numerous within the orebody (Fig. 7)» and exhibit three main trends, north, east and northwest} a l l with moderate to steep dips. Several of these faults are characterized by wide zones of gouge and breccia. Ore-grade mineralization occurs within intensely brecciated zones and along contacts between rock phases. The porphyry dyke is only weakly mineralized. Principal ore minerals are chalcopyrite, bornite and molybdenite, although minor amounts of chalcocite, pyrite and covellite have been reported (McMillan, 1972). Main modes of occurrence are; as fracture fillings, in quartz-carbonate veins up to 10 cm wide, and disseminations in altered host rock. Molybdenite tends to occur separately, in quartz veinlets and "moly-slips" on fault planes. The Skeena Mine is a vein-type deposit in a porphyry copper environment. It is localized along a major, north-trending, 50 m-wide shear zone within rocks of the Skeena Phase (Fig. 7). Ore minerals Include chalcopyrite, pyrite and malachite in quartz- carbonate veins, (d) Highmont The Highmont deposits comprise five low-grade mineralized zones lying on either side of a porphyry dyke, of the Gnawed Mountain Phase (Fig. 9). The zones have maximum dimensions of 360 to 1100 m and are oriented sub-parallel to the west-northwest trending dyke. Grade of mineralization is approximately 0.3% Cu and 0.015% MoSg fpk] Breccia 1V1 Quartz porphyry . Porphyritic. granodiorite |;'>\'| Bethsaida granodiorite s~l Skeena granodiorite A CJ) Generalized Pit out] x l ine and Ore zone Geologic boundary 2000 ft FIGURE 9: Simplified geology of Highmont Property (After Bergey et a l . 1971) i—1 32 (Table I). Estimated reserves are in the range of 150 million tons. The Highmont property is underlain primarily by quartz diorite to granodiorite of the Skeena Phase (Fig. 4). The contact with the Bethsaldagranodiorite crosses the westernmost part and a 120 m wide composite dyke extends 3 km eastward from this contact across the property (McMillan, 1972)J(Fig. 9). The dyke consists of porphyritic granodiorite which is cut by irregular porphyry bodies and local offshoots which extend as dykes Into the surrounding Skeena quartz diorite. Modal analysis of four samples of the porphyritic granodiorite Indicates a variable composition as followst anhedral quartz phenocrysts ( 20 - 28%), subhedral plag- ioclase (52 - 60%), orthoclase (4 -lift), coarse biotite (5-9%) and accessory minerals (1 - 2%). The quartz porphyry is similar in mineralogy to that described at Lornex. Breccia zones within the dyke are composed of angular and rounded fragments of Skeena quartz diorite and porphyry, set in an autoclastic matrix of finely comminuted rock and mineral fragments and tourmaline (schorl). Several of the fragments were veined by quartz prior to brecciation. Skeena and Bethsaida Phases are similar.to those described for Lornex. Other rock types within the property include aplite and lamprophyre dykes. Subsurface geology across a section of the property is presented ln Fig, 10. Structurally, the Highmont deposits are characterized by numerous north-northwest, north and north-northeast trending faults (Bergey et a l . , 1971) (Fig. 9). 33 o Generalized ore outline Vertical Scale 0 I O O ft 30m Horizontal Scale 0 I^NJ^oou 0 244m FIGURE TO; Simplified geology across a section at Highmont (P=Quartz porphyry; S=Skeena granodiorite. See Fig. for l ine of section) 34 Copper-molybdenum mineralization occurs within a l l rock types, north and south of the main dyke. (Fig. 9). Principal ore minerals are chalcopyrite, bornite and molybdenite. Pyrite and specular!te are the other metallic minerals. Ore minerals occur as veins and fracture fillings, within quartz and clay gangue (Bergey et a l . , 1971)* Sulphide disseminations also occur within altered host rock near fractures. CHAPTER THREE WALL-ROCK ALTERATION 36 INTRODUCTION (a) General Statement Hydrothermal alteration and sulphide zoning in wall rocks associated with ore deposits are closely-related products of ore- forming and metasomatic processes. (Rose, 1970; Lowell and Guilbert, 1970). Because the formation of metasomatic minerals generally Involves enrichment, depletion or redistribution of elements in wall rocks, an adequate understanding of their nature and dis- tribution is intrinsic to proper Interpretation and understanding of local epigenetic dispersion halos around orebodles. In porphyry copper environments, alteration zones are normally broader than the mineralization, and thus constitute larger targets for ore search, using mineralogical and chemical methods. (b) Methods of Study and Terminology Approximately 1500 samples collected from outcrops and d r i l l cores for the purpose of geochemical analyses were utilized in mapping of alteration and sulphide distribution patterns. Emphasis was placed on large-scale patterns, as contrasted to alteration around individual veins (Rose, 1970). Mineralogical, textural and other megascopic physical properties of a l l samples were recorded in the field, and approximately 200 of these were examined by X-ray diffraction. X-ray analysis of fine-grained clay minerals without the use of D.T.A. ( Differential Thermal 37 Analysis) or heat treatment facilities allows only an approximate identification. However, this apparent drawback is compensated by the large number of samples that can be analyzed per unit time. The terms, sericite, kaolinite and montmorillonite refer respectively, to the presence of a 1 0 A mica group mineral, a 7 A kaolinite group O O mineral and a 1 4 A montmorillonite-type mineral. 7 A kaolinite and 0 o 7A chlorite peaks were resolved by scanning at low speeds of 1 29/min or less, using Cu K«£radiation, Kaolinite occurs at 7 , 1 6 A * ( 1 2 . 3 ° 2 9 ) and chlorite at 7 » 0 8 A ( 1 2 . 5 ° 2 6 ) , Preliminary experiments on quantitative determination of modal content using X-ray diffraction produced unsatisfactory results. This is attributed to the problem of preferred orientationjin layered silicates resulting in poor reproducibility (Bristol, 1968, 1972). More than 1 0 0 thin sections of fresh and altered rocks were examined for relationships between primary and secondary (alteration) minerals. Many d r i l l holes that were not sampled were also logged for their alteration mineralogy. The terminology presently used in the geologic literature for describing alteration minerals is in a state of flux (Fountain, 1 9 7 2 ) , To avoid confusion, the terms used in the following dis- cussion are here defined on the basis of mineral assemblages (modified after Lowell and Gullbert, 1 9 7 0 ; Carson and Jambor, 1 9 7 4 ) , propylitic s chlorite-epidote-calcite-albite-(adularia) propyargillic: chlorite-sericite-montmorillonite-epidote (kaolinite) argillicj kaolin!te-sericite-montmorillonite-(chlorite, quartz) 38 phyllic: quartz-sericite-pyrite with less than % kaolinite or K-feldspar potassict secondary K-feldspar-sericite-biotite (anhydrite, chlorite) The term pervasive alteration is used here only for alteration which is evenly disseminated through,the rock and shows no apparent relationship to veins or fractures (Fountain, 1972). Vein alteration is used here only for alteration which displays an obvious relation to veins or fractures. Deuteric alteration effects which are not directly related to hydrothermal processes are not described in this presentation. Northcote (1969) has shown that deuteric alteration which involves minor chloritization of maf;ic minerals and saussuritization, is widespread within the batholith. A l l alteration processes are considered as hypogene. Supergene alteration effects are either absent or negligible. BETHLEHEM-JA Guilbert and Lowell (1974) have briefly described the hydrothermal alteration patterns at Bethlehem-JA. They recognize three types of silicate alteration} potassic (K-feldspar-sericite- phlogopite-biotite-chlorite), phyllic (quartz-sericite-chlorite) and propylitic (chlorite-epidote-carbonates). McMillan (1973) mapped potassic alteration at the centre of the property, coinciding with the porphyry dyke, and epidote-zeolite alteration at the periphery. In this study, two stages of alteration are recognized, VO FIGURE 11: Generalized alteration map, Bethlehem-JA, 2800 Level 125m 4J)0ft Argi11ic /j :.Intense Propylitic | j | Weak Propylit ic | | Potassic I (with chlorite) | j Potassic II FIGURE 12: Generalized alteration across a section of Bethlehem-JA (see Fig.11 for l ine of sectic 41 each stage comprising one or more types of alteration that are considered to be products of temporally related metasomatic processes. The two stages are; - an early main stage of pervasive alteration associated with the major episode of Bethlehem-JA mineral- ization, and a later, 0lesser stage of zeolite alteration and epidote veining. (a) Main Stage Pervasive Alteration Main stage alteration comprises three main types; potassic, argillic and propylitic. Potassic Alterationi Potassic alteration is confined to the porphyry dyke and adjacent rocks of the Bethlehem Phase (Figs.*, 11 and 12). The characteristic mineral assemblage is sericite-K- feldspar-blotite. At the outer margins of the potassic zone, chlorite appears and gradually increases in abundance outward. The exact nature of K-feldspar - whether i t is secondary or primary - is not certain (K.G. McTaggart, oral comm.). Diag- nostic textural evidence, such as complete replacement of plagio- clase grains is not apparent. K-feldspar occurs mainly as inter- s t i t i a l grains, similar to that of primary K-feldspar in fresh Bethlehem rocks. However, the following lines of evidence might support a secondary origin for most of the K-feldspar (A. Soregaroli, oral communication). Firstly, the Bethlehem rocks in the potassic zone contain 20 - 26% K-feldspar (modal analysis of 4 samples) compared to a1 mean modal value of 10% and a range of 5 - 15% in 42 fresh rocks (Northcote, 1969)• Secondly, K-feldspar occurs in clusters, commonly forming rims around plagioclase but not obviously replacing them (Plate l ) . Thirdly, the K-feldspar is domlnantly perthite or microcline compared with the dominant micro- perthite in fresh rocks (Westermann, 1970). Furthermore, twinning of K-feldspar is common in the potassic zone but rare in fresh Bethlehem rocks (Westermann, 1970). Sericite occurs as fine-grained replacements of plagio- clase feldspar and mafic minerals (Plate ••?'). Fine-grained, colour- less to slightly pleochroic biotite (phlogopite) occurs as individual flakes within the groundmass. It is sparse and erratic in distri- bution, generally constituting less than % of the rock. Towards the outer part and bottom of the zone (Fig. 12) chlorite occurs as a replacement of mafic minerals, and in association with sericite and K-feldspar, constitutes5 - 1C$ of the rock. Argillic Alteration! - This type of alteration, which occurs within the northwest portion of the property, is not concentrically arranged around the potassic zone (Fig. 11). There is a close association between; ;zones of intense shearing within Bethlehem rocks and the distribution of argillic alteration. The characteristic mineral assemblage is sericite-kaolinite-montmorillonlte with minor chlorite, carbonate and epidote. On the basis of this mineral association, as determined by X-̂ ray diffraction, and the absence of abundant pyrite and secondary quartz, this zone is considered argillic and not phyllic as proposed by Guilbert and Lowell (1974). 43 Megascopically, in rocks of the argillic zone, plagio- close feldspars are chalky green and soft. In thin section, sericite is seen to be evenly distributed throughout the rock as a microscopic fine-grained replacement of feldspars. Fine-grained sheared quartz occurs as remnants. In zones of intense deformation, the original texture of the rock is destroyed. However, in zones of moderate argillic alteration, the crystal outline and twinning of plagioclase feldspars are discernible. Kaolinite occurs as very fine-grained dust in plagioclase feldspar. Montmorillonite and kaolinite were only positively identified by X-ray diffraction technique. In the transitional zone between propylitic and argillic zones, chlorite and epidote are associated with clay minerals. Propylitic Alterations Propylitic alteration is most wide- spread within the property, especially in rocks of the Guichon Phase. The propylitic zone is classified into two subzones on the basis of intensity of alteration (Fig. 11). The characteristic mineral assemblage is chlorite-epidote-carbonates-zeolite. In the intense propylitic zone, altered rocks are totally impregnated with coarse radiating chlorite sheaves ranging in size from 1-3 mm. In thin section, intensely altered rocks contain 40-80% chlorite which occurs as replacements of rock constituents and as inclusions within plagioclase feldspar (Plate 3). Epidote also replaces plagioclase grains• In weakly to moderately altered rocks, mafic minerals are partly or wholly replaced by chlorite, and plagioclase is dusted 44 with epidote and minor sericite. Chlorite, epidote and carbonate also occur as veinlets within this zone. Quartz and alkali feld- spars are apparently fresh. The propylitic zone grades outwards into either fresh rock or into rocks in which regional deuteric alteration is evident. (b) Late Stage Alteration Zeolitest Within the JA deposit, zeolites occur abundantly as veins, seams, and replacement minerals. General distribution patterns suggest no close spatial association between zeolite alteration effects and the main stage alteration and metallization processes. Cross-cutting relationships suggest that zeolite formation was probably post-mineralization, and related to the waning stage of hydrothermal activity. Such prolific development of zeolites is commonly characteristic of hot spring activity. Although zeolites are ubiquitous within the property, they are most abundant towards the outer margins of the deposit (Fig, 13). Minerals constituting the zeolite assemblage are leonhardite, heulandite, stilbite and chabazite. Leonhardite is the most common, and occurs as thick seams of pinkish-white soft material that ranges in width from less than 1 to 10 cm. Commonly, i t is pervasively developed, replacing primary and secondary minerals. Stilbite is next in abundance, and occurs as thin films ofjsalmon-pink colour, occupying fractures. Chabazite rarely occurs as small, colourless, euhedral crystals f i l l i n g vugs, and commonly associated with calcite and leonhardite. These zeolites are seldom spatially associated 0 244m " . . (Geology, ofter Bethlehem Mining S t o f f ) FIGURE 13: D i s t r ibut ion of zeo l i te a l terat ion at Bethlehem-JA 46 with sulphides, which further attests to their post-mineralization origin, Epidote» Veins of very coarse epidote ranging in width from 1 - 10 cm generally cross-cut earlier alteration „ (Plate 4), which suggest post-mineralization emplacement (W.J. McMillan, pers, comm.). Sulphide Zoning Spatial distribution of metallic minerals is shown in Fig. 14 and Fig, 15, Generally, chalcopyrite is the dominant sulphide mineral within the orebody, with an average ratio of 5*1 chalcopyrite to bornite (Guilbert and Lowell, 1974)$ and even in the bornite zone, bornite rarely exceeds chalcopyrite. The bornite is centrally located and coincides with the relatively low grade porphyry dyke and potassic alteration, an association characteristic of many porphyry copper deposits (Lowell and Guilbert, 1970), Quartz- molybdenite veinlets are also wide-spread within this zone, (Fig, 14), The chalcopyrite zone, which is the most extensive, is characterized by chalcopyrite - pyrite - molybdenite, with sparse bornite. This zone passes outwards into the pyrite zone in which pyrite constitutes less than 2% of the mode. Vertical zoning is generally defined by a decrease in chalcopyrite and increase in pyrite with depth (Fig. 15), 0 244m (Geology, after Bethlehem Mining Staff) FIGURE 14: Generalized sulphide zoning at Bethlehem-JA, 2800 Level 125 m 400f t FIGURE 15: Generalized vertical distribution of sulphides at Bethlehem-JA 49 VALLEY COPPER Hydrothermal alteration and sulphide distribution patterns at Valley Copper deposit have been well described by Allen and Richardson (1970), McMillan (1971, 1972), and briefly by Guilbert and Lowell (1974). Results of the present study confirm earlier findings, although a few modifications are suggested. Two main stages of alteration characterize the Valley Copper deposit - an early stage of pervasive argillic alteration, on which a later stage of vein alteration has been superimposed. Vein alteration can also be classified into three substages, in accordance with the sequence of emplacementj a relatively early phase of barren quartz and quartz-potash feldspar veining: a main phase of quartz-sericite and sericite veining, and a late phase of gypsum and relatively yoang quartz veining. Pervasive argillic alteration is associated with only minor disseminated mineralization, whereas quartz-sericite veining Is intimately associated with the ore-forming stage* (a) Pervasive Argillic Alteration Pervasive argillic alteration occurs throughout and for a short distance beyond the ore-body (Fig. 16), and probably represents a product of "ground preparation" prior to the main stage of alteration and metallization. Propylitic alteration is rare, probably due to the leucocratic nature of the host rocks. Intensity of argil l i c alteration generally increases FIGURE 16: Generalized alteration map, Valley, Copper 3600 Level (Modified after McMillan, 1971) 51 from west to east and is accompanied by a slight change in mineralogy. Where argillic alteration is weak to moderate, the plagioclase feldspar is white, relatively hard, and partially replaced by sericite, kaolinite and carbonate. Microscopically, sericite occurs as microcrystalline grains which rarely exceed 1mm (Plate 5)» Kaolinite occurs mainly*as 'dust* in the plagioclase feldspar. As estimated from X-1ray diffractograms, kaolinite con- stitutes about 20-50$ of the mode. Quartz and potash feldspar are commonly unaltered, whereas biotite is replaced by sericite and mlnor:chlorite. Where argillic alteration is intense, especially in the eastern sector of the orebody adjacent to the Lornex Fault, Kaolinite content decreases to about 10 - 15$, and sericite is relatively coarser. The plagioclase feldspars are chalky in various shades of white and green and completely replaced by fine-aggregates of sericite, carbonate and kaolinite. Primary K-feldspar and biotite are in many instances completely altered to sericite (Plate 6). Quartz occurs as remnants, commonly containing numerous fractures f i l l e d with sericite. Montmorillonite is relatively uncommon, and has only been identified in a few samples from the outer margins of the argillic zone. Minor albite persistently accompanies weak to moderate argillic alteration in many samples. (b) Vein Alteration (i) Early Phase Veining The early phase of vein alteration at Valley Copper is 52 characterized by a centrally-located stockwork of barren quartz veins and quartz veins with potash feldspar selvages. Barren Quartz Veinst As shown in Figure 16, these veins occupy a low-grade stockwork zone in the southeast of the deposit. They consist predominantly of barren jrjoarse-grained quartz varying in width from 1 mm to 5 cm, and commonly containing minute pods of sericite and/or K-feldspar. Quartz-Potash Feldspar Veins» At the northeast part of the barren quartz zone, K-feldspar envelopes around quartz veins are very common. The pink potash feldspar selvages range in width from less than 1 to 10 mm and pass outward into weakly argillized rock. Like the quartz veins which they border, the potash feldspar envelopes are generally barren, although a few contain chalcopyrite and minor molybdenite (McMillan, 1971). ( i i ) Main Phase Veining This phase of alteration is characterized by quartz- sericite and sericite veins formed during the main ore-forming stage. Bornite and chalcopyrite occur predominantly as veins and pods in association with quartz or as disseminated intergrowths with sericite. Quartz-Serlcite Veinst Quartz-sericite and sericite veins occur almost throughout the ore zone, but are developed most intensely in a zone nested upon the central quartz-rich zone (Fig. 16) , Quartz-sericite veins vary from quartz veins with coarse-grained 53 sericite envelopes varying in width from 1mm to 5 cm, to vuggy quartz-sericite zones with hair-line or no apparent central quartz vein, to quartz veins containing only a few pods of sericite (McMillan, 1971). These veins generally pass outwards into argillized rocks or potash-feldspar selvages. Where many veins coalesce, pervasive sericite zones commonly develop, up to several metres wide. Microscopically, vein sericite relatively is very coarse grained, usually forming rosettes 1 to 5 mm long and 0.5 to 3 mm wide of vein-filling and replacement material (Plate 7). Euhedral to subhedral crystals of quartz which are commonly fractured and f i l l e d with fine-grained sericite, intergrow with very coarse sericite (Plate 8). Most of the sulphide minerals are intimately associated with the quartz-sericite veins. Minor secondary biotite accompanies sericite alteration. Potash Feldspar Alterationt Potash feldspar generally occurs as envelopes around quartz-sericite veins, passing outwards into argillized rock. Locally the host rock is flooded with pervasive salmon-pink K-feldspar (McMillan, 1971). Generalized distribution of potash feldspar alteration is shown in Figure 16. It is strongly developed along the western margins of the quartz-sericite zone, where i t also extends into the zone of pervasive argillic alteration. In thin section, subhedral potash feldspar (mainly micro- cline) ranges ln size between 1 and 5 mm, and occurs as vein f i l l i n g or replacements of plagioclase and in association with 54 coarsely crystalline s e r i c i t e . The presence of K-feldspar envelopes around sericite and in equilibrium with kaolite is contrary to the s t a b i l i t y f i e l d relationships established for these minerals by Hemley and Jones :(4964). A similar anomalous relationship has been documented by Fournier (1967) at Ely, Nevada, and attributed to a resurgence of abnormally high s i l i c a a c t i v i t i e s of ore-forming f l u i d s . ( i i i ) Late Phase Veining Late phase veining comprises gypsum veins and relatively young quartz veins which cut quartz-sericite veins. The nature and distribution of gypsum veins are not clear although they occur abundantly at depth, below the so-called 'gypsum lin e ' (McMillan, 1971). They crosscut a l l the ear l i e r veins and are associated with minor anhydrite. (c) Sulphide Zoning McMillan (1971) has investigated the distribution of chalcopyrite-bomite ratios within the Valley Copper deposit. The generalized distribution map (Fig. 16b) shows that the low-grade, quartz-rich core i s characterized by chalcopyrite - sparse bornite - molydenite, passing outwards into bornite-chalcopyrite - low pyrite, and f i n a l l y to chalcopyrite - sparse bornite - minor pyrite at the outer part of the deposit. Pyrite, which generally constitutes less than 3$ of sulphide content within the orebody, forms a halo around the northern part of the deposit. Minor hematite occurs 16b: Generalized sulphide zoning, Valley Copper 3600 Level (Modified after McMillan, 1971) 56 throughout the orebody. LORNEX Wall-rock alteration patterns at Lornex are similar to those of Valley Copper except for the^extensive development of propylitic and propy-argillic assemblages, which are partly attributable to wall rock at Lornex (Skeena granodiorite) contain- ing up to 15% mafic content; a readily available source of Mg and Fe needed for the formation of propylitic minerals. Also, the well-developed vein alteration effects at Valley Copper are only moderately developed at Lornex, although wide gouge zones with quartz-sericite alteration are prominent. Fipkie (1972) studied the alteration patterns in samples across the orebody and his findings are generally consistent with the results of this study. Two stages of alteration are present at Lornex; - an early stage of well-developed pervasive argillic and propylitic alteration, on which has been superimposed a main stage of intense, structurally controlled quartz-sericite alteration, K-feldspar and gypsum veining. Fig. 17 is a generalized composite map of alter- ation at Lornex, based upon observations in the open-pit and studies of drill-core samples. Generalized alteration patterns in a section across the orebody are presented in Fig. 18, (a) Early Stage Pervasive Alteration Three main alteration zones characterize the early stage POTASSIC HH Ser.- K-fsp-qtz. ARGILLIC r$=ĵ  Ser - kaol-qtz. PHYLLIC H i Qtz-ser-(kaol.) PROPY-ARGILLIC h-vW-J Ser-chl-montm. PROPYLITIC ^3 Chi-ser-epid. Outer l imit of weak alteration. \ Skeeno 2000 ft 50,0 m FIGURE 17: Generalized alteration map, Lornex 4900 Level. Propylit ic alteration Propy-Argill ic alteration Argi11ic alteration Approximate alteration boundary Quartz-sericite alteration K-felspar-sericite veining Gypsum veining o v- 400 ft 122m FIGURE 18: Generalized alteration, Lornex subsurface (see Fig. 8 for l ine of^section and geology) 59 hydrothermal ac t iv i ty ; propyl i t ic , propy-argi l l ic (mixed pro- p y l i t i c and a r g i l l i c ) and a r g i l l i c . Compared to early stage al ter- ation at Valley Copper, that of Lornex is apparently associated with more sulphide mineralization, probably as a result of numerous microfractures superimposed on the ear l i e r phase of hydrothermal ac t iv i ty . Propyl i t ic Zonet This zone occurs along the outer margins of the orebody, generally extending from the 5°00 l eve l bench (1972 levels) to the surface (Fig . 17 and 18). The dominant propyl i t ic mineral assemblage i s epidote^chloriteTcarbonate.- • Minor' s e r i c i t e , montmorillonite and zeolites are present within this zone. In hand specimen, rocks of this zone are various shades of green, as a result of the high epidote and chlorite content. In zones of intense propyl i t ic a l terat ion, epidote occurs as medium- grained masses replacing plagioclase, biot i te and hornblende grains (Plate 8). Biotite i s generally altered to chlor i te , leucoxene and quartz. K-feldspar and quartz remain unaltered. Further east, away from the orebody (Fig. 17), propyl i t ic alteration i s less intense and plagioclase -feldspars remain re lat ively fresh although preferential replacement of calc ic cores by fine-grained ser ic i te i s common. Local ly, carbonates (calc i te , s iderite) are present. Pyrite, hematite and minor chalcopyrite are the predominant metallic minerals i n this zone. Propy-Argil l ic Zone: This zone, which represents a transit ion between the 60 propylitic and argillic zones, is characterized "by significant increase in montmorillonite and sericite and a general decrease in epidote, although chlorite is s t i l l widespread. Plagioclase feld- spar is commonly replaced by sericite, montmorillonite and allophane. Mafic minerals are altered to sericite, chlorite and epidote. Inter- layered sericite-chlorite-montmorillonite is locally present. Associated metallization represented by chalcopyrite and minor bornite is low grade except where later fracture-filled mineralization is superimposed. Argillic Zonet Pervasive argillic alteration is most widespread within the orebody and coincides with the major zone of mineralization.. Intense fracturing and faulting within this zone have caused the development of extensive areas with quartz-sericite alteration; consequently i t is often difficult to differentiate between argillic and phyllic alteration within the orebody. South of the Lornex Pit (Fig. 1?) argillic alteration is well-developed within an area presently considered as protore (Discovery Zone; Carr, 1967). Megascopically, the argillized rocks are creamy-white and fragile, as a result of the pervasive fracturing and shearing. They are characterized by chalky-white to waxy green feldspars. The intensity of argillic alteration progressively increases from the east to west, and this is accompanied by progressive destruction of plagioclase, and lastly potash feldspar. In areas of moderate to weak argillic alteration, the plagioclase feldspars are partly 61 altered to kaolinite, montmorillonite and waxy-green sericite (Plate 9). Crystal outlines and twinning are generally preserved. Mafic minerals breakdown into sericite, minor chlorite and leuco- xene or quartz. Wherever argillic alteration is intense, the plagioclase feldspars are completely replaced by fine- to medium- grained sericite, quartz and kaolinite with sericite the dominant mineral. With increasing alteration intensity towards the west near the Lornex Fault (Fig, 17 and Fig. 18), the alkali feldspars also are completely altered to sericite and kaolinite. Only primary quartz with sericite in fractures remain. Mafic minerals are also converted to sericite, rutlie and leucoxene. The metallic minerals associated with argillized rocks are ore-grade bornite and chal- copyrite, as disseminates or fracture f i l l i n g s . (b) Main Stage Alteration The distribution of main stage alteration products is controlled by structural features which probably developed after the early stage alteration processes. Main stage alteration is classified into quartz-sericite and K-feldspar types. Quartz-Serlcite Alteration! This type of alteration occurs as envelopes around sulphide-bearing veins and within fault-gouge zones which range from less than 1 to 100 m in width. Distribution of some of the zones with intense quartz-sericite alteration is shown in Figures 17 and 18. These zones cross-cut earlier types of pervasive alteration, and show a dominant northerly trend coin- 62 ciding with the strike of faults and fractures. Where quartz- sericite alteration is intense and extensive, primary textures of the rocks are completely destroyed. A l l plagioclase feldspars are converted to sericite, carbonate and quartz. However, kaolinite and minor chlorite may survive as relicts of the earlier pervasive alteration. Commonly, alkali feldspars are partially or completed replaced by sericite and quartz. Mafic minerals also are altered to sericite. In DDH 8 (Fig. 18), muscovite;co- exists with sericite and quartz. A few gouge zones contain dark green talc. Pyrite is a common sulphide in association with quartz and sericite. Ore-grade chalcopyrite and lesserijamount of bornite predominatetwithin the ore-bearing veins and gouges. Potash feldspar Veiningt Potash feldspar veins with argillic or quartz-sericite selvages occur abundantly in two areas of the ore- body; one near the centre of the deposit within and" north of the quartz porphyry dyke (Fig. 1?), and at depth adjacent to the Lornex Fault (Fig. 18). In the latter the K-feldspar veins occur above and within a (?) porphyry dyke (Fig. 8). The veins and envelopes consist of perthite and microcline within pervasively argillized rock. Cross-cutting relationships suggest that the phase of K- feldspar veining is relatively younger than pervasive argi l l i c alteration. Gypsum Velnlngi As at Valley Copper, the nature of gypsum veining and its relationship to other forms of alteration is not evident. Figure 18 shows that i t is generally encountered in deep 63 boreholes, cross cutting quartz-sericite and potassic alteration. Occurrence of anhydrite has not been reported. Sulphide Zoning Staff geologists at the Lornex Mine have established that a core, in which bornite exceeds chalcopyrite, is enveloped by a zone in which chalcopyrite exceeds bornite (Fig. 19). A pyrite halo, characterized by sparsely disseminated pyrite, coin- cides with the outer part of the deposit and zones of propylitic and propy-argillic alteration. SKEENA A drill-hole that cuts through the Skeena quartz lode was examined for hydrothermal alteration patterns. As shows in Figure 20, argillic alteration increases in intensity towards the lode. The characteristic mineral assemblage is sericite-kaolinite- montrimollonite. Potash feldspar is relatively unaltered. Chlorite occurs at the outer fringes of the drill-hole. The main sulphide minerals are pyrite and chalcopyrite in quartz-carbonate veins. HIGHMONT Compared to other major porphyry copper deposits ln the Highland Valley, the intensity of hydrothermal alteration at High- mont is relatively weak, although alteration zoning is moderately well-developed• Hydrothermal alteration affects are classified into two stages; an early pervasive alteration (argillic and propylitic) L N Bornite zone (Bn > 50%) FIGURE 1.9.: Sulphide distribution at Lornex mine (After Lornex mining staff)  66 and a later phase of vein alteration (K-feldspar and quartz- sericite). Tourmaline-biotite with minor sericite alteration is confined to breccia pipes and their immediate surroundings. (a) Pervasive Alteration Pervasive alteration effects are classified into pro- pylitic, propy-argillic and argillic types. Propylitic Alteration! Propylitic alteration is confined mainly to the outer margins of the Nos. 1 and 2 ore zones and the areas surrounding the other small deposits south of the main dyke (Fig. 21). Relatively weak propylitic alteration is characterized by the mineral assemblage chlorite-carbonate-epidote-zeolite. Plagioclase feldspars are generally fresh except for selective partial replace- ment of calcic cores by carbonate. Biotite is altered to chlorite and quartz (Plate 10). Epidote occurs commonly as veinlets rather than replacements of plagioclase feldspar. Quartz and alkali feld- spars are relatively unaltered. Pyrite and lesser chalcopyrite are disseminated within the altered rocks. Propy-Argillic Alterations This type of alteration is most closely associated with sulphide mineralization. The characteristic mineral assemblage is a sericite-chlorite-montmorillonite-carbonate. Veins of epidote, and albite replacements of plagioclase are also common within this zone. Figs. 21 and 22 show the distribution of propy-argillic alteration, north and south of the argillic alteration zone. It is FIGURE 2 1 : Generalized alteration map, Highmont property. 69-108 FIGURE 22 generalized.alteration map, Highmont subsurface? CSee F i g 21 for line of section) ON CO 69 most prominent in the No. 2 Ore zone (Fig. 21 ) but also occurs in the small deposits in the south-western part of the property. Plagioclase feldspar in intensely altered rocks is partly or completely replaced by sericite and carbonate, preserving only the crystal outlines. Calcite occurs as replacement of primary minerals, and as veinlets. Mafic minerals (generally) are replaced by sericite, leucoxene and chlorite. Alkali feldspars are commonly dusted with sericite, whereas quartz remains fresh. Epidote replaces plagioclase feldspar and hornblende, but is most common as veins. The principal sulphide mineral is chalcopyrite with minor bornite and disseminated pyrite. Argillic Alteration i The argillic zone is centred upon the quartz porphyry dyke (Figs. 21 and 2 2 ) , forming an annulus around zones with potassic, tourmaline and quartz-sericite alteration. This distribution pattern reflects the influence of wall-rock composition upon alteration type. The characteristic mineral assemblage is kaolinite-montmorillonite-serlclte-(carbonate). Where argillic alteration is well-developed, the plagioclase feld- spars are completely replaced by fine-grained kaolinite, sericite and minor montmorillonite (Plate 1 1 ) . Carbonate occurs as replace- ment patches and veins within plagioclase feldspar. Under con- ditions of weak to moderate argillic alteration, alternate crystal zones within plagioclase feldspar are selectively replaced by kao- linite, thus accentuating the crystal zoning. Alkali feldspars generally remain fresh although commonly they are dusted with 7 0 sericite and kaolinite. Mafic minerals break down to sericite and leucoxene. (b) Vein Alteration Quartz-Sericite Alteration} Quartz-sulphide veins with potash feldspar envelopes are common within the zone of argillic alter- ation, in association with the main porphyry dyke (Fig. 22). Figure 21 shows a small potassic zone within the porphyry dyke and southeast of the No, 1 ore zone, In which extensive, K-feldspar/ aplite veining locally grade into pervasive alteration. Tourmaline also occurs in association with some of the quartz-potash feldspar veins which often contain chalcopyrite. Quartz-Tourmaline-Biotite Alteration! Tourmaline (schorl) is associated with breccia pipes and surrounding rocks. The breccia zones are spatially and genetically related to the quartz porphyry dyke (Carr, 1966). Tourmaline occurs as elongated and radiating crystals cementing the breccia fragments and as disseminations within the surrounding porphyry (Plate 12). The breccias are also s i l i c i f i e d as a result of the introduction of anhedral secondary quartz into the matrix. Plagioclase feldspars are commonly dusted with sericite. Sparse, fine-grained secondary biotite is associated with tourmaline impregnation. Quartz-sulphide veins also contain disseminated tourmaline. Gypsum Veining; Gypsum veins have been encountered in a few* drill-holes, especially Hole 69-108, although the nature of their 71 distribution and relationship to other forms of alteration are not clear. They are generally associated with zones of intense argillic alteration. Sulphide Zoning Zonal distribution of metallic sulphides is summarized in Figure 23 • The data were obtained mainly from company f i l e s . In the two major ore bodies mineral zoning is parallel to the dyke. East of the No. 1 ore zone and immediately north of the dyke, the author observed that the predominant sulphide is chalcopyrite, and thus a chalcopyrite zone is suggested (Fig. 23a). Generally, in a zone north of and parallel to the dyke bornite and chalcopyrite occur in roughly equal amounts; this zone grades outwards to one of chal- copyrite, sparse pyrite and rare bornite, and finally to a pyritic zone in which pyrite locally amounts to 1 percent of the rock (Bergey et a l . , 1971), The MoS2 zone is slightly displaced south of the Cu zone in Nos. 1 and 2 ore zones (Fig. 23b). FACTORS CONTROLLING WALL-ROCK ALTERATION Host rock composition, structural features and chemistry of mineralizing solutions influence the nature and intensity of wall-rock alteration in Highland Valley. (a) Host Rock Composition The effects of host rock lithology on alteration are apparent in a l l the Highland Valley deposits. Propylitic alteration 800ft 9 ?44m Higher-grade Copper JN^ Ore-grade Copper _ / * Mineral zone boundary Ultimate pit boundary FIGURE 23a: Mineral zoning and copper grade at Highmont property (Data from company f i l e s , Highmont Mining Corporation) Ore-grade M0S2 Higher-grade M0S2 Mineral zone boundary Ultimate pit boundary FIGURE 23b: Distribution of M0S2 in relation to mineral zoning at Highmont (Data from company f i l e s , Highmont Mining Corporation) 74 i s rare at Valley Copper partly because of the more leucocratic composition of the host rock (Bethsaida granodiorite). A similar reasoning applies to the rarity of propylitic alteration within porphyry dykes at Highmont and Lornex. In these leucocratic rocks adequate Mg and Fe were not available for formation of abundant chlorite. Hence, sericite, kaolinite and carbonate are the dominant alteration products. Hydrothermal addition of K + and SiOg, probably from deep-seated sources led to extensive development of quartz, sericite and K-feldspar, At Bethlehem-JA, potassic alteration i s associated with the f e l s i c porphyry and adjacent Bethlehem Phase. In contrast, propylitic alteration i s most intense i n the more mafic rocks of the Guichon Phase. A r g i l l i c alteration i s best developed i n leucocratic Bethsaida rocks immediately east of the Lornex Fault at Lornex mine and within the main porphyry dyke at Highmont, In contrast, rocks of the Skeena phase are commonly associated with pro- p y l i t i c and propy-argillic alteration. (b) Intensity of Faulting and Fracturing Wherever intense faulting and fracturing are developed, the general tendency i s towards quartz-sericite alteration and 75 veining. This relationship is reflected in a l l the deposits. At Valley Copper, zones with intense fracturing and crackle brecciation are flooded with quartz-sericite veins. Gouge zones at Lornex and Highmont are commonly characterized by quartz-sericite alteration. At Bethlehem-JA, argillic alteration is closely associated with zones of intense shearing. From the foregoing, i t is apparent that zones of struct- ural weakness permit an easy infiltration of hydrothermal solutions. Consequently, development of extensive hydrolitic base leaching is associated with formation of sericite, kaolinite and quartz. These also are the most preferred sites for ore deposition. (c) Composition of Mineralizing Solutions Chemical and physical properties of ore-forming fluids influence alteration patterns. As mineralizing fluids migrate from centres of mineralization, they cool and react with wall rocks. These processes culminate in changes in pH, Eh, sulfur fugacity, temperature and pressure of the solutions. These changes partly account for the zoning and decreasing intensity of alteration from the centre to periphery of the deposits. At Valley Copper, where there is only one type of host rock, alteration patterns: grade In- wards from weak to moderate argillic at the outer margins, to intense phyllic and potassic alteration at the core. At Lornex, and Highmont, weak propylitic alteration at the periphery grades inwards into propy-argillic and finally into argillic alteration. 76 (d) Structural Levels of Ore Formation Although the porphyry copper deposits of the Highland Valley are generally considered as products of relatively deep- seated hydrothermal processes (Guilbert and Lowell, 197^; Brown, 1969), W.J. McMillan (oral communication) has suggested that the deposits were formed at different structural levels. For example, the Highmont and Jersey deposits which are spatially associated with "breccia pipes (Carr, 1966) are considered to have formed at structurally higher levels in the crust than neighbouring deposits. The deposits can be arranged ln the following sequence, from those formed at relatively deep to shallow structural levels; Valley Copper, Lornex, Bethlehem-JA, Highmont and Jersey. This sequence corresponds roughly with decreasing intensity of wall-rock altera- tion, ore size and grade. Carr (1966) suggested that the breccia zones at the Jersey and Highmont deposits were formed when volatile pressures exceeded lithostatic pressure, culminating in the escape of volatiles. Thus, the relatively weak alteration and ore size of these deposits might partly be attributed to the inability of volatile solutions to react intensely with host rocks. In contrast, ore deposits formed at deeper structural levels show evidence of intensive and extensive reaction of volatile solutions with wall rocks. From the foregoing discussion, i t is apparent that variations in wallfyrock alteration can be partly attributed to the nature of ore emplacement, which might consequently influence the nature and extent of geochemical 77 halos associated with these deposits. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS (1) Except at Valley Copper where propylitic alteration is rare, mineral deposits of the Highland Valley are characterized by zonal distribution of alteration patterns} propylitic at the periphery, grading inwards into pervasive argillic and/or phyllic alteration. Potassic alteration is generally centrally located, in association with porphyry dykes. Structural features dominantly control the distribution;<of quartz-sericite alteration, (2) Except at Jersey deposit (White et al . , 1957), biotite is not an important mineral in potassic zones of Highland Valley porphyry/ copper'deposits, (3) Economic mineralization is most commonly associated with zones of intense argillic (or propy-argillic) and quartz-sericite alteration, whereas potassic and propylitic zones are relatively devoid of mineralization. (4) Intensity of wall-rock alteration correlates with- grade and size of mineralization. (5) Although the inability to quantify alteration patterns, and the fine-grained mineralogy characteristic of alteration zones are major limitations, large-scale mapping of wall-rock alteration can be useful ln delineating zones most suitable for detailed exploration. PLATE 1: Conglomeration of (?) secondary perthitic K-feldspar in Bethlehem quartz diorite of the potassic zone, Bethlehem-JA, PLATE 2: Sericite alteration of plagioclase and a l k a l i feldspars i n potassic zone of Bethlehem-JA. (s = sericite) PLATE 3s Course-grained sheaves of interlocking chlorite i n the propylitic zone of Bethlehem-JA. PLATE k: Medium- to coarse-grained cryste3sof epidote ( v e i n - f i l l i n g materal) i n the propylitic zone of Bethlehem-JA. PLATE 5: Pervasive sericite ( + minor kaolinite) and quartz remnants i n the a r g i l l i c zone of Valley Copper deposit. PLATE 6: Alteration of coarse biotite grains to fibrous sericite i n the a r g i l l i c zone of Valley Copper deposit. (A l l plates crossed nicols) 78 b PLATE 7 s Very coarse-grained sericite (vein material) i n the phyllic zone of Valley Copper deposit. PLATE 8: Fine-grained epidote partially replacing a biotite grain in propylitized rock of Lornex mine. PLATE 9 ' Fine to medium-grained sericite and kaolinite i n the a r g i l l i c zone of Lornex mine. PLATE 10: Quartz and chlorite replacements of a biotite grain in the propylitic zone of Highmont deposit. PLATE 11: Weak ar g i l l i z a t i o n of plagioclase (with minor carbonate) at Highmont property. PLATE 12: Radiating tourmaline crystals (schort) i n a breccia matrix at Highmont. (All plates crossed nicols) 79 b 'CHAPTER FOUR SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES 81 SAMPLE COLLECTION During May to August 1972 and June 1973» approximately 1800 bedrock samples (excluding duplicates) were collected from the Highland Valley district. Table III summarizes the number and nature of samples. (a) Outcrop Sampling Sampling of outcrops was undertaken at Highmont, Lornex, Skeena and Bethlehem properties. Sample locations are presented in the Appendix. Outcrops at Highmont, although not abundant, are uniformly distributed, and samples were collected from most of them. At Lornex, outcrops are plentiful and relatively fresh, west of Lornex Fault, whereas to the east, open-pit development, construction and dumps have obliterated many. Thus, the topmost part of d r i l l cores (suboutcrops) were used to supplement outcrop samples. Al l samples comprise k to 5 Kg of half fist-sized rock 2 chips collected over a surface area of about 10m . Weathered surfaces were removed, and fresh chips placed in heavy-duty plastic bags. Most of the outcrop samples were collected beyond zones of visible mineralization and were apparently unaltered. Subsequent thin section examination however, reveals that sericite "dusting. " of plagioclase is widespread. This can be attributed to regional deuteric alteration that is ubiquitous in rocks of the batholith (Northcote, 1969). For comparison, limonite-rich samples (oxidized 82 TABLE III: . Summary-of sampling and chemical analysis. Property Type of Sample Ko, of Samples Analytical techniques* Highmont Lornex Skeena Bethlehem (JA Zone) (Others) Valley Copper Outcrop Fresh rock Limonite-rich rock D r i l l Core TOTAL Outcrop D r i l l Core TOTAL Outcrop D r i l l Core TOTAL Suboutcrop 2800 Level 2400 Level Outcrop D r i l l Core TOTAL Suboutcrop 3600 Level 3300 Level TOTAL 192 28 550 760 90 425 "515" 20 40 ~60~ 58 • 5^ 48 106 120 386 61 59 41 161 AAT, ES, AAM AAT.ES XRFT, AAM, AAT, FAA, ES AAT, ES, AAM AAT, ES, AAM AAT, ES, AAM AAT, ES, AAM AAT, ES AAT, AAM, FAA, XRFM, XRFT, ISE AAT, ES AAT, AAM, E3 AAT, AAM, ES AAT, ES AAT, AAM, FAA, XRFM, XRFT, ISS AAT, ES * XRFT - X-ray fluorescence - Rb, Sr, S, Zr XRFM - X-ray fluorescence - SiO„, P?0,, Al-C.,, Ti0 2 AAT - Atomic absorption - Cu, Zn, Jap, Ag, NI, Co, Pb, Cd AAM - Atomic absorption - MgO, CaO, FegO-, KgO FAA - Flameless atomic absorption - Hg ES - Emission spectropgraphy - B, V, Sr, Mo, Ti, 3a, Sr, Ga ISE - Ion-selective electrodes - Cl, F 83 zone) were collected from several localities along with fresh bedrock at Highmont. In more than 20 localities, duplicate samples were collected for evaluating sampling error (Garrett, 1969). (b) Drill-Gore Sampling Drill-core chip samples were collected at intervals of 3m (10ft) in sections across Highmont, Valley Copper, Lornex, Skeena and Bethlehem properties. Each sample comprises several 5 cm long chips collected over a distance of 3m around the sampling point. No discrimination was made between fresh and altered samples. Valley Copper and Bethlehem-JA are buried almost completely beneath glacial and alluvial overburden. A modified sampling pattern, in which samples were collected from several evenly-spaced d r i l l holes at constant elevations or "levels", was employed. In each deposit three levels were sampled} a "Suboutcrop Level" which represents the topmost part of d r i l l holes beneath the oxidation zone, and two other levels, each designated by its elevation above sea level. Duplicate samples were collected in approximately k0/0 of the drill-holes, using sample locations 3m above the original sampling point. At Valley Copper and Bethlehem-JA, samples were obtained within and as far from the orebody as available d r i l l holes permit. It is believed that the number of drill-holes in background areas is adequate for purposes of this study. Megascopic features of a l l samples were recorded in the field, including rock type, mineralogy, alteration, visible mineral- ization and fracturing. Locations of drill-core samples at the 84 various mining properties are presented in the Appendix. SAMPLE PREPARATION (a) Crushing and Grinding Chip samples were fed into a Bico "Chipmunk" jaw crusher. Crushed material was then pulverized to less than 2mm in a ceramic rotary grinder. After splitting, approximately 50g were further ground to minus 100 mesh in a high speed ceramic ball mill. To estimate sample homogeneity, replicates of the fine rock powder were obtained by grinding separately three additional splits of every fiftieth pulverized sample. Material remaining from the ceramic grinder was reserved for mineral separation studies. A piece of every rock sample was also preserved for reference. (b) Mineral Separation Mineral separation was performed on the minus 35 plus 120 mesh fractions of samples obtained by sieving the pulverized material from the ceramic grinder. Each sample weighed approximately 1kg, Samples were washed by transfering portions into large beakers f i l l e d with tap water, and stirred thoroughly with a rubber-tipped heavy glass rod. The material was allowed to settle for a minute and the supernatant liquid decanted. This operation was repeated a dozen times. Samples were then washed with distilled water and dried in an oven at 110°C. Magnetite, iron fillings and other mineral grains with magnetite inclusions were removed with a hand magnet before passing the material through a Frantz isodynamic 85 separator using a forward slope of 20° and side slope of 15°. In this way i t was possible to obtain a preliminary separation of biotite and hornblende from quartz and feldspar. Additional purification was achieved using heavy liquids - bromoform or tetrabromoethane (S.G.=2.9) and methylene iodide (S.G.=3,3). A conical 500-1000 ml separating funnel was half- f i l l e d with bromoform, and small portions of samples were carefully added through a filtration funnel. The liquid was swirled within the separatory funnel from time to time for about an hour in order to obtain complete separation of light and heavy fractions. The heavy fraction was then released and filtered through a No, 1 or 41 Whatman f i l t e r paper. Mineral fractions were washed with acetone and dried in air or under a lamp, Biotite was separated from hornblende using methylene iodide in a smaller 5°-100 ml separating funnel. However, hornblende content of most samples was small, and adequate separates were obtained only from two samples. Better than 95% purity was attained by handpicking remaining impurities, such as zircon and apatite, under a binocular microscope. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Rock samples were analyzed by emission spectrography, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, flame and flameless atomic absorp- tion spectrophotometry and ion-selective electrodes. Elements determined by the above procedures are summarized in Table III. Routinely, a blank, a sample of UBC standard rock, and a duplicate 86 were included in every batch of 2k analyzed samples. (a) Emission Spectrography Semi-quantitative procedures for spectrographic analysis are described by Doyle (1972) and Hoffman (1972). A powdered rock sample, mixed l s l with graphite containing 100 p.p.m. indium as internal standard, was loaded into a graphite cup electrode, sealed with sugar solution, and excited by a 12 ampere DC arc for 20 seconds. Spectra were recorded on spectrographic plates and element concen- trations estimated visually by comparison with master plates of known concentration. Operating conditions are summarized in Table IV, after Doyle (1972). Analytical precision estimated from replicate analysis of UBC standard rock (Stanton, 1966) is presented in Table V. (b) X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry Major Elements! 0.28g powdered sample was mixed thoroughly with 1.5g flux containing lithium tetraborate, lithium carbonate and lanthanum oxide (Norrish and Hutton, 1969). The mixture was fused for approximately 20 minutes in a graphite crucible at 1150°C and the melt then rapidly poured onto an aluminum-coated plate where i t solidified to give a glass bead. The bead was pulverized in a Spex ball mill for 15 minutes, the powder bound with a few drops of polyvinal alcohol (FVA), and then compressed into a pellet, backed by a mixture of l s l boric acid and bakelite. A load of 20,000 lbs was used in pellet compaction. The resulting sample is a pellet approximately 3cm in diameter and 5 mm thick. 87 TABLE IVi Spectrographic equipment and standard operating conditions. Spectrograph Hilga-Watts Automatic Quartz Spectrograph Source Electromatic products (ARL), Model P6KS, Type 2R4? Arc/Spark stand Spex Industries #9010 Microdensitometer ARL Spectroline Scanner #2200 Anode Graphite, National L 3 7 0 9 S P K Cathode Graphite, National L38O3AGKS 3-step neutral f i l t e r Spex Industries #1090; % , 2QS and 100/S trans- mittance Neutral f i l t e r Spex Industries #9022; 20jb transmittance Emulsion Spectrum analysis #1 Wavelength range 2775 to 4800 angstroms Kask 17 mm S l i t width 15 microns Arc current 12 amperes Arc gap ;6mm Exposure time 30seconds Plate processing Developer Kodak D-19 at 23°C Plate processing Stopbath Kodak 30 seconds Plate processing Fixer Kodak 5 minutes Plate processing "5 minutes 88 TABLE V: Spectral lines and *precision at the 95% confidence level of emission spectrographic analysis (24 analyses of UBC standard rock) Element Spectral Lines Mean Value Precision (Angstroms) (ppm) - % B 2497.73 n.d - Sr 4607.33 711 42 Ti 3372.80 1281 66 V 3185.40 36 Mo 3170.35 n.d - Ba 4554.04 590 39 Ga 2943.64 18 33 Sn 2839.90 n.d - n.d = below detection l i m i t * After Stanton (1966) 89 Minor Elements! 3g of minus 100 mesh powder was "bound with a few drops of PVA, and then pelletized, using the procedures > described earlier. Analytical determinations were made using a Philips PW 1010 spectrometer. Operating conditions are summarized in Table VI. Calibration curves were obtained from U.S.G.S. standard rocks G-2, GSP-1, AGV-1, BCR-1 and W-l. Recommended values for these standards were obtained from Flanagan (1973)• Analytical precision for major elements is better than - 8$ at the 95% confidence level. For Rb, Sr and S, precision at the 95$ confidence level is - 2$, - 1$ and - 15$ respectively, based on data from 18 paired samples (Garrett, 1969). (c) Ion-Selective Electrodes Total Extractable Halogens! The analytical procedure is slightly modified from that of Haynes and Clark (1972). 0.25g sample was mixed with lg 2si sodium carbonate—potassium .nitrate in a 40 ml nickel crucible; fused at 900°C for 20 min and then cooled for 10 min. 20 ml of boiling water were added, and the crucible covered and left overnight. Contents of the crucible were stirred to detatch the adhering cake, and then washed into a 100 ml volumetric flask. Pre- liminary experiments indicated that there was no difference between results obtained from filtered and unfiltered solutions, Unfiltered sample solutions were therefore diluted to 100 ml with de-ionized water after addition of 1,5 ml concentrated nitric acid. TABLE VIi Operating conditions f o r P h i l i p s PW 1010 X-ray spechometer X-Ray Tube.. Element Target kV mA Peak (20) 1<-G (20) F.T. ( s e c ; XTAL CTff. CTRY(KV) X-RP i'HLV PHW Atten. ' Collim. S10 2 . Cr 50 30 • ' 78.11 - 20 EDDT F.P. 4.64 Vac. 200 450 2 Coarse A1 20 3 Cr 50 30 112.7 - • 10 EDDT F.P. 4.64 Vac. 180 300 2 Coarse P2°5 ZT 50 30 58.8 . - 20 EDDT F.P, .̂55 ' Vac. 250 300 2 Coarse Sr 50 30 20.36 - 10 EDDT F.P. 4.55 Vac. 200 450 2 Fine •' Meo Cr 50 30 14.50 - 100 RAP F.P. 4.85 Vac. 250 400 2 Coarse CaO c r 40 20 113.3 - 10 LIF F.P. . ' -̂35 Vac. 150 500 2 Fine T102 CT 40 20 86.14 - 10 LI? F.P. 4.25 Vac. 180 300 2 Fine Fe 20 3 Cr 40 20 57.49 - 10 LIF F.P. 4.25 . Vac. 300 350 2 Fine Hb W> 50 30 26.53 40 LIF Soint. 2.675 A i r 270 400 5 Fine 25.90 3r Mo 50 30 25.09 40 LIF Solnt. 2.675 A i r 270 . 400 5 Fine S Cr 44 30 45.20 - 44.20 40 EDDT F.P. 4.60 Vac. 100 200 3 Coarse Zr • f f 50 30 22.51 - 10 LIF S c i n t . 2.675 A i r 250 600 •5 Coarse Explanation of Abbreviations. F.P - Flow Proportional Counter B-G - Background position Scint. - S c i n t i l l a t i o n Counter F.T - Fixed Counting -Time CTRV - Counter Voltage flTA:. - Analyzing Crystal X-RP - X-ray Fath EDDT- Eth;, lene-Diamine-d-Tartrat.-! Vac. Vacuum U P - Lit:-iur. Fluoride ?KLV - Pulse Height i e v s l Voltage HA? - Rubidium Acid Ph'.lialate PHW - Pulse Height '..'irdow CTR - C o v t e r (X-ray detector) Atten. - Attenuation Collim - Collimator o CD 90b TABLE VII:. Equipment and stock reagents in ion-selective' electrode analysis Equipment Orion 407 meter or equivalent Orion 94-17 chloride electrode or equivalent Orion 94-02 double junction reference electrode Orion 94-09 fluoride electrode Orion sleeve-type reference electrode (for F) Orion 90-00-01, 90-00-02, 90-00-03 reference electrode f i l l i n g solutions 40 ml capacity nickel crucibles and lids Magnetic stirrer and teflon stirring rods Stock Reagents Fluoride buffer solution: dissolve 59g sodium citrate dehydrate and 20g potassium nitrate in water and dilute to 1 l i t e r . Fluoride standard (lOOOHg/ml): dissolve 1. 105g sodium fluoride in water and dilute to 500 ml. Chloride standard (10,000 Hg/ml): dissolve 16.48 g sodium chloride in water and dilute to 500 ml. Flux: thoroughly mix 2:1 sodium carbonate*potassium nitrate 91 In determination of fluorine, 10 ml sodium citrate were added to an equal volume of sample solution in a 50 nil plastic beaker. The solution was stirred for 5 min with a small magnetic stirrer at medium speed, fluoride and reference electrodes inserted, and a millivolt (mV) reading (expanded scale) was taken with an Orion 407 meter. The millivolt reading was compared to similar readings from a series of standards containing appropriate concen- trations of fluorine (0,1, 0,5 and 1,0 p.p.m.) in a similar sodium citrate matrix (Haynes and Clark, 1972). For determination of chlorine, chloride and reference electrodes were inserted in the same sample solution, and readings obtained using the "known addition" method (Orion Research, 1970). Operating conditions, equipment, and reagents are summarized in Table VII* Results obtained by these procedures for U.S.G.S. standard rocks GSP-1 and AGV-1 are compared with recommended values (Flanagan, 1973) in Table VIII. Water-Extractable Halogenst The analytical procedure is des- cribed in detail by Van Loon et a l . (1973)• l g sample was weighed into a 50 ml plastic beaker, and 5 ml de-ionized water added. The solution was stirred for 2-3 min, the electrodes inserted and a millivolt reading taken after allowing a response time-interval of an additional 20 sec. Millivolt readings were compared to similar readings from a series of standards. (d) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry Techtron AA-4 and Perkin Elmer 303 spectrophotometers were 92 TABLE VIII: Comparison of f l u o r i n e and chlorine contents of U.S.G.S. standard rocks. Sample No. F (p.p. This Study m.) C l (p.p.m.) Recommended F (p.p.m.) Values* C l (p.p.m. GSP-1 3000 384 3200 300 2860 384 3260 312 2900 320 AGV-1 660 272 435 110 580 269 600 258 * A f t e r Flanagan (1973) 93 utilized in major and trace element determinations, except for Hg which was determined by a flameless procedure on a Jarrell-Ash 82-270. Operating conditions for the three instruments are summarized in Tables IX, X and XI. HF - HClOjj - HNÔ  Digestion: Total decomposition was accomplished in two ways: a rapid "teflon tube" and a routine "teflon dish" procedure. In the former, working solutions were prepared by decomposing O.lg of minus 100 mesh powder in 1 ml hydrofluoric acid and 1 ml nitric-perchloric acid mixture using teflon test tubes. Acid - digestions were evaporated to dryness at 200°C on a sandbath and residues redissolved in 1 ml hydrochloric acid. Sample solutions were made up to 10 ml with 1.5M HC1 and analyzed for Cu and Zn. 1 ml was diluted to 10 ml with distilled water and analyzed for Ca, K, v Na and Fe, To suppress molecular and ionization interferences, lanthanum and cesium solutions were added to both sample solutions and standards. Analytical precision at the 95$ confidence level is summarized in Table XII. In the routine "teflon dish" procedure, 0.5g samples were taken to dryness with 10 ml hydrofluoric acid and 5 ml 3*2 nitric: perchloric acid mixture in teflon dishes. Residues were leached with v 5 ml 6M hydrochloric acid and made up to volume in a 25 ml volumetric flask. As shown in Table XII, analytical precision is better than that obtained with the rapid procedure. Accuracy of the total digestion is evaluated by duplicate analysis of U.S.G.S. standard rocks (Table XIII). TABLE IX: Operating conditions for techtron AA-4 spectrophotometer Element Current Wavelength S l i t width (mA) (A) (A) Cu 3 3247.5 1.7 Zn 6 2138.6 3.3 Fe 5 3719.9 0.8 Mn 10 2794.8 3.3 Mg 4 2852.I 1.7 Na 5 5890.0 3.3 Ca 10 4226.7 0.8 K 10 5889.9 6.6 /Flame height 2.3 (arbitrary units) Acetylene flow gauge 2.5 (arbitrary units) Air pressure 20 p.s.i. TABLE X: Operating conditions for the Perkin Elmer 303 spectrophotometer Cu Pb Zn Ni Co Fe Mn Cd Ag Ca .Na Sl i t 4 4 5 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 Scale 1 2 1 ' 1. 1 1 1" 1 10 1 • 1 1 Damping 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 Current (mA) 14 "14 14 20 20 20 15 :-5 5 20 20 20 Wavelength (A) 3248 2175 2146 • 2324 2407 3719 2800 2283 328O 3853 2125 2956 Range UV UV UV UV uv. UV UV UV uv VIS VIS VIS H0 Lamp - + - + + - - + + - - F i l t e r — _ _ _ - • - - - + -- Not required + Required Flame height 2.3 (arbitrary units) rain air pressure 3° p.s.i. Auxiliary air pressure 4 p.s.i. Acetylene pressure 4 flow units Meter response 2 96 #TABLE XIs Operating conditions f o r the J a r r e l l - A s h 82-270 spectrophotometer. Hg Determination Lamp current Gain Mode Scale expansion Damping Wavelength (A) C e l l dimensions length diameter S l i t Chart speed Mainostat Pump speed 5 mA 3 Absorbance 300 2 2550.0 21 cm 3 cm 15 V 2 inches/minute 5 97 1 TABLE XII: *Analytical precision of H F /HG I O ^ /HN O^ digestion at the 95% confidence level estimated from paired samples. Element Teflon tube procedure Precision ( + %) Teflon dish procedure Precision ( + %) 70 samples 10 samples Cu 20 8 Zn 15 Fe 21 10 Ca 18 2 Na20 9 2 KjO 19 3 MgO - 1 (-) Data not available * After Garrett (1969) 98 TABLE XIII: Comparison of trace and major element contents of U.S.G.S, standard rocks. Recommended Values This Study (mean of 2 values) G-2 GSP-1 AGV-1 G-2 GSP-1 AGV-1 Metal content (p.p .m.) Cu 12 33 60 13 37 63 Zn 85 98 84 82 96 85 Mn 260 331 763 182 209 560 Ni 5 13 19 9* 5* 11* Co 6 6 14 7* 8* 17* Metal content (wt. CaO 1.94 2.02 4.90 1.98 2.18 4.86 MgO 0.76 0.96 1.53 0.77 0.99 1.53 Fe as Fe20^ 2.65 4.33 6.76 2.65 4.30 6.20 Na20 4.07 2.80 4.26 4.07 2.95 4.25 4.51 5.53 2.89 4.14 4.99 2.89 *Values obtained with background correction (R^ lamp) on Perkin Elmer 303 instrument. **Flanagan (1973) 99 HNO^ - HCIO^ Digestion: 0»5g samples were digested with 10 ml 4 t l n i t r i c iperchlor ic acid mixture in 100 ml beakers. Samples were refluxed for an hour at low heat and then evaporated to dryness. Residues were taken up i n 5 ml 6M hydrochloric acid and diluted to 20 ml with d i s t i l l e d water i n calibrated test tubes. Pr ior to instrumental analysis, sample solutions were allowed to settle over- night and the clear supernatant solution decanted. Analytical pre- c i s ion at the 95% confidence leve l for Cu, Zn and Mn i s - 25%» - 16% and - Jl% respectively. Pre-analytical treatment for Hg Determinationt The analyt ical procedure i s s l i ght ly modified from that of Jonasson et a l . (1973). 0.5g sample was weighed into a test tube and 10 ml concentrated n i t r i c acid added. The sample was allowed to stand for 10 min, and 30 ml deionized water added. The solution was then heated i n a water bath at 90°C for 2 hr, with occasional swir l ing. After cooling to room temperature, 10 ml of 5% w/v stannous chloride i n concentrated hydrochloric acid were added and the solution aerated. Evolved Hg was determined by comparison with s imilar ly treated standards. Analytical precision at the 95% confidence leve l i n 12 replicates of 4. UBC standard rock, with a mean value of 38 p .p .b . , i s - 42%. ( i ) Sulphide Selective Decompositions Aqua Regiat O.lg samples were digested to dryness with 5 ml aqua regia (3«1 hydrochloric :nitr ic acids) i n 100 ml beakers at 130° - 10°C. Residues were leached with 2 ml d i s t i l l e d water and 2 ml hydrochloric ac id , transferred to a 10 ml volumetric flask and made 100 up to the mark with distilled water. HgOg - Ascorbic Acid: This procedure is described in detail by Lynch (1971)• 0.2g samples were weighed into test tubes calibrated at 10 ml. 7 ml HgOg- ascorbic acid mixture were added and samples allowed to stand approximately 18 hr (overnight) with occasional mixing. Sample solutions were diluted to 10 ml with de-ionized water, mixed and centrifuged for 5 min to obtain clear supernatant solutions. Working solutions were analyzed using standards made up in HgOg - ascorbic acid. KGlCu - HC1: 0.2g of minus 100 mesh samples were weighed into test tubes (22 x 175mm) and an approximately equal weight of potassium chlorate added, followed by 2 ml concentrated hydrochloric acid. After standing for 30 min the solution was diluted to 10 ml with distilled water, mixed and then centrifuged to obtain a clear supernatant solution. Standard solutions, initial l y prepared in potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid were found to deteriorate within three days, hence, standards were subsequently prepared in 1.5M HG1, after experiments indicated that matrix effects between standards do not significantly affect absorption (Table XTV"). Analytical precision for this procedure i s estimated as - 7$ at the 95$ con- fidence level, on the basis of six replicate analysis of UBC standard rock containing 17 p.p.m. leachable Cu. This efficacious technique has not been used previously in bedrock geochemistry. Hence, a detailed description of experi- TABLE XIVs Effect of composition of standards on atomic absorption. ug/ml Percent Absorption Cu 1,5 MHC1 KGLOo-MHCl HpO^-Asc. 0.5 4.14 4.52 5.27 1.0 8.20 8.64 IO.36 2.0 15.40 16.40 19.02 4.0 28.40 29.80 34.64 102 mental results are presented i n the following section. •POTASSIUM CHLORATE - HYDROCHLORIC ACID: A SULPHIDE SELECTIVE LEACH FOR BEDROCK GEOCHEMISTRY (a) Introduction Geochemical contrast between mineralized and unmineral- ized bedrock can often be enhanced by use of sulphide selective leaches. Digestion with aqua regia (Stanton, 1966) or hydrogen peroxide - ascorbic acid (Lynch, 1971) has been used f o r this purpose, but a potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid leach described by Dolezal et_al.(1968), has not been evaluated i n this context. As part of this research programme, an analytical procedure u t i l - izing potassium chlorate and concentrated hydrochloric acid was developed under the supervision of Dr. K. Fletcher. Data obtained by using this method i s compared to data obtained with other par t i a l extraction techniques - nitric-perchloric, aqua regia, and hydrogen peroxide-ascorbic acid. (b) Analytical Procedure (as described earlier) (c) Experimental Work and Results A series of twenty-six granodiorite samples containing copper contents ranging from 5 to 10,000 ppm and zinc ranging from 18 to 50 PPm were analyzed for Cu, Zn, Mn using two cold leaches; * Extract from a paper of same t i t l e : Olade and Fletcher (1974), Journal of Geochemical Exploration, v. 3, (in press). 1 0 3 two hot acid extractions, and "total" digestion with HF-HNÔ - HCIÔ . Results presented in Figures 24A to 2kD show consistent differences in relative release of copper and zinc with a l l leaches except HNÔ -HCIÔ . This is particularly striking with KCIÔ -HCI which liberates up to 100$ Cu^1, compared to a maximum of 28$ Zn.. On the average the ratio of Cus Zn increases in the it X X ' order KCIÔ -HCI > HgOg- Asc. > aqua regia > HNÔ  - HCIO^. Results obtained with HNÔ -HCIÔ  are, however, erratic. Another obvious relationship is the well-defined trend for Cux to increase with CUj.,. to 95-100$ when Cut is greater than 700 p.p.m. The same trend is apparent in data obtained with HgOg - Asc. and aqua regia. However, the minimum value of Cux increases from about 20$ of Cu^ with KG10̂ -HC1 to a corresponding value of 70$ with aqua regia. As would be expected this trend is accompanied by a decrease in the value for which Cu becomes approximately equal to Cut (i.e. Gux equals 95-100$ Cu^). With the HgOg-Asc. leach, Cu :Cu. declines in samples containing more than 1000 ppm X X CUj. to a minimum of about 30$ • To further evaluate the efficiency of the KCIÔ -HCI pro- cedure, G.S.C. ultramafic standards UM1, UM2 and UM4 were analyzed. Table XV compares this data with results reported by Cameron (1972) "̂ The following abbreviations are used throughout: Mê  - total metal content; Me - metal leached with KC10~-HC1; Ĥ Op - Asc; aqua regia or HNO* - HCIÔ . 104 lOOr 80k a ui i -o < I - X Ui UJ o U . O Ul OC 60f- UJ Q. lOOr 4 0 h A. KCIOj-HCI S<b ° 8 o 0 8 B. HgOg-Asc. °8 °°o o o °orf> o o o o 100 C. Aqua regia o • o o o o o o o OS D. HN03-HCI04 1000 TOTAL COPPER CONTENT (ppm) Copper • Zinc o FIGURE 24: Comparison of % of total metal extracted by partial extraction techniques. 105 TABLE XV: Comparison of leaches on ultramafic standards UM1, UM2 and UM4. Metal content (ppm) Method UM UM2 UM4 I* 3896 951 594 Cu II 4147 946 538 i l l W .095 r/o I 8013 2590 1945 Ni II 8337 2901 1915 I I I 0.96$ 0.39$ 0.25$ I. 236 120 76 Co I I 288 120 66 I I I 362 178 108 Zn I 35 14 18 III 97 32 63 * I KClCvj-HCl leach, mean of two determinations II H202-Asc., data from Cameron (1972) I I I Total metal, data from Cameron (1972) 106 for HgOg - AsCt extractable metal. Values are generally within 10% of those reported. However, for UM2 and UM4 results are con- sistently high. In view of the promising results obtained on the grano- diorite and ultramafic samples, additional experiments were under- taken to evaluate the influence of several experimental parameters on extraction with KClO^-HCl. Neither the extraction period (Fig. 25) nor the amount of KCIÔ  used (Table XVl) has an appreciable effect on liberation of copper. Furthermore, for copper the reaction with both mineral- alized and unmineralized samples appears to be complete within 5 minutes. In contrast, for zinc there is a gradual release with reaction time. Experiments with pure sil i c a sand indicate; that the observed trend is not attributable to contamination from the tungsten carbide ball mill during grinding. Influence of grain size was evaluated by grinding two -80 + 100 mesh samples for 30 min in a tungsten carbide ball mill. Copper and zinc were then leached from portions of both the original and ground material (Table XVIl). Results show no significant effect for Cux whereas there is a marked increase in Znx after grinding. (d) Discussion According to Dolezal et a l . (1968) addition of potassium chlorate to hydrochloric acid facilitates dissolution of many sulphides - arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, cinnabar, molybdenite and pyrite are specifically mentioned by their reaction in statu METAL EXTRACTED (ppm) CD cz 73 ro cn CP o ro o _ i . ro 3 —• ro Oi o -•• -h o ua (/> -s 3 - a Q. _ i . cr 3 ro CO r+ • S ro fD r+ 3 " ro a> 3 o s= 3 ro m 3 C x c+ -s OJ O r+ ro O - 0) 3 D - o o o o o \ A <5> O @ N O 5 ° <~ "D O TJ m 33 OO C P \ \ \ © ZOT 108 TABLE XVI: Effect of amount of KGIO^ added on release of copper with KG10„-HC1 leach. g KC10 3 added^ Copper released (ppm)* #47 #32 HOI only 7.2 734 •Ig 25.4 2038 •2g 25.0 2022 •5g 26.0 1802 * #47 #32 Total copper content 2-9.3 PP^ Total copper content 2059 ppm TABLE XVII: Effect of grinding on release of copper and zinc with KC10o-HCl leach. Metal released (ppm) Treatment _ „. Copper Zxnc Unground (-80 + 100 mesh) 25.6 7.2 Ground* 24.5 16.8 Total 29.3 30.5 Unground (-80 + 100 mesh) 2012 5.8 Ground 1936 14.2 Total 2059 33.2 * Ground for 30 minutes in a tungsten carbide-J: ball mill 110 nascendi. In contrast, most silicates are only weakly attacked by cold hydrochloric acid. Consequently, KCIÔ -HCI should be sulphide selective and discriminate against metal held in silicate lattice of fresh igneous rock. Experimental studies on magnetite separates suggest that KCIÔ -HCI does not remove appreciable zinc from magnetite. It is extremely difficult to assess the efficiency of a sulphide selective leach since there is no simple, independent method of estimating silicate versus sulphide metal. In this study, criteria based on the geochemical behaviour of copper and zinc are used to compare selectivity of the leaches. Copper, a strongly chalcophile element is generally believed to be present largely as sulphide inclusions even in unmineralized bedrock (Putman, 1972? Graybeal, 1973). Putman (1973) for example, calculates an upper limit of 5 PPm for 'silicate* copper in biotites of granitic rocks. In contrast, zinc, which is less strongly chalcophile, probably occurs predominantly within silicate lattices of unmineralized samples. On this basis i t seems reasonable'to suppose that: (i) an efficientlcopper sulphide selective attack will give a high Cu : Zn ratio in samples unmineralized with respect to zinc. (ii) Cu :Cu. will increase with Cu. as copper sulphide X T « content increases, until in strongly mineralized samples Cux equals Cut within the limits of analytical error. I l l Evaluated against these criteria the KCIO^-HCI, HgOg- Asc, and aqua regia leaches, a l l appear to be selective (Figs. 24A to 24C). However, the Cu sZn ratio is greatest with KC1CL- X X HG1 and at a minimum with aqua regia. Also Cu tCu. for samples with low copper content is lowest with KC10.J-HC1 and at a maximum with aqua regia.' On this basis KC10̂ -HC1 is least damaging to silicates and most selective leach for sulphide copper. (e) Applications to Geochemical Exploration From a practical standpoint, KClO^-HCl appears to have several advantages over other sulphide selective leaches (i) for porphyry copper mineralization, the method appears to be more sulphide selective than either HgOg-Asc. or aqua regia; ( i i ) hot concentrated acids are not involved; and ( i i i ) the procedure is extremely rapid and simple, and hence suited to routine application. Furthermore, the KCIÔ -HCI procedure could also be utilized in the field. Determinations can be made by either colorimetry (Stanton, 1966) or by copper ion electrode. Results obtained by colorimetry in 26 granodiorite samples compare favourably with atomic absorption results (Table XVIIl). However, further studies on the action of KCIÔ -HCI on a wider range of sulphides (spalerite, molybdenite etc.) and host rocks (volcanics, ultramafics, etc.) are required before its general use can be recommended. (f) Conclusions A KClO^-HCl leach is shown to be sulphide-selective and TABLE XVIIIi Comparison of analytical results obtained from KCIÔ - HC1 digests using atomic absorption and colorimetry (Stanton, 1966) Sample No. Cu (ppm) in KC1CL-HC1 Leaches Atomic Absorption Colorimetric 2 5° 50 7 2772 3000 10 2 * <c50 19 470 600 22 351 500 28 647 700 29 2754 2400 30 8 * ^50 ' 31 4281 5000 34 !2 * 50 • 35 1545 1100 36 23 * <50 50 1775 1500 61 883 1050 114 150 l o o 115 572 600 118 263 400 119 1598 1250 173 26 * <$0 176 33 * <50 178 125 746 2 * < 5 0 757 151 100 776 544 450 ate #2 49 50 •Lowest detection limit is 50 ppm 113 to have advantages over other procedures i n estimating sulphide copper content of granodiorites. On three ultramafic standards, cobalt, copper and n i c k e l values are within 10% of r e s u l t s obtained using an ascorbic acid-hydrogen peroxide leach. CHAPTER FIVE . REGIONAL GEOCHEMISTRY 115 INTRODUCTION Identification of lithogeochemical halos in igneous environments is dependent on a broad understanding of the chemistry and evolution of magmas, and the nature of primary processes which give rise to genetically related metal concentra- tions . Brabec (1970) and Brabec and White (1971) have invest- igated distribution of major and trace elements in fresh rocks and minerals from the Guichon Creek batholith. Their findings suggest that metallization processes which gave rise to porphyry copper deposits are closely related to petrochemical evolution of the pluton. To further the understanding of relationships between major and trace elements and to provide adequate background geochemical data, .60 fresh rock samples (Fig. 26) collected and described by Northcote (1968) and Brabec (1970), and supplemented by samples from the author's collections were analyzed for selected major elements. In addition, results of 20 major element analyses compiled by Brabec (1970) are included in the plots of chemical variation diagrams. RESULTS (a) Major Elements Results of major element analyses are presented together with normative composition in Table XIX, and as functions of the Larsen Differentiation Index (ID I = l/3Si02 + KgO - CaO + MgO + 116 Ni col a Group Hybrid Phase Guichon Phase Chataway Phase Bethlehem and Skeena Phases Witches Brook and Bethlehem Porphyry Phases Bethsaida and Gnawed Mountain Phases L N 2ml 0 6 f 112. :IGURE 26: Location of samples used in regional study, Guichon Creek bathol i th (After Brabec, 1970; Northcote, 1968) 117 TABLE XIX: Means, ranges and mean normative composition . of-intrusive, unj^sy. Guichon Creek batholith '(Values i n wt. %) riTKl.-H£M PCSKf.'Sr BETHSAIDA NICOLA WITCHES Leucocratl-: Fcrpryrltlc Porphyry VOLCANJCS HVBR'O oyici'.oN CliATAVAY SESEliA bSOOK. 15) (C) (6) (1'-) (5) (6; (e; (ft; (5) ( » (3) (4) 56.12 6C.02 (2.2ft 64.37 66.0ft 6:.zi 65.23 66.00 74.32 63.79 70.87 73.14 sio 2 JO.1*0 -68.32 •,9.23-61.24 57.cO-6ft.20 61.46-67.4f 65.J1-65.&- 67.3B-69.5v 63.03-77.56 £3.24-68.34 69.J1-77.K 61-70.ci 63.27-72.55 72.61-74.32 A i 2 0 3 16.08 16.91 17.00 16.37 16.6? 15.21 15.54 15.85 13.72 15.92 14.22 lft.ftl 11J.50-10.1H . J.03-17.Cr 16.24-1774 15.15-17.52 15.11-17.6? 14.46-16.16 11.56-16.50 14.57-16.:2 11.0-16.10 14.S1-17.02 12.76-lJ. 39 13.26-15.0] w47 >;.4i i.uft ft.oft i .3 i 2.^~ 3.03 4.18 1.39 1.91 2.ft9 1.17. 3.51 - 11.20 5.5S-?."f ft.ft9-6.63 3.25-5.80 3.11-3.72 2.E0-3.4? 1.26-3.85 3.41-4.6= 0.4J- 1.3 1.54-2.30 1.43-3.01 0.95-1.55 6.73 5.78 5.15 ft.26 ft. 05 3.84 307 3.55 2.01 2.83 3.51 2.12 CaO 3.36-10.e* ••(.95-6.60 ft.37-6.10 64-5.27 3.07-5.21 3.73-3.91 0.35-4.02 3.20-4.53 0.35-4.52 2.15-2.98 2.67-4.12 1.78-2.54 M q O ft. 89 3.16 2.31 1.89 1.31 1.02 1.36 1.43 0.41 q.54 0.6« 0.3ft 1.17-9.59' 2.20-3.82 l.oft-3.28 1.30-2.30 1.10-1.63 0.6O-I.53 0.60-1.78 0.92-1.88 0.12-0.87 0.40r0.82 0.57-1.03 0.23-0.46 3 . 3 9 3.61 ft. 06 ft.29 ft.52 ft.78 3.87 4.73 4.17 4̂ 33 ft.78 ft.74 Na20 2.20-4.22 3.40-4.21 3.83-4.58 3.06-4.95 3.85-4.89 ft.3S-5.15 3.37-4.15 4.72-4.92 3.37-4.72 4.33-5.31 ft.76-ft.85 ft.52-ft.85 0.62 l . -A i.yv 1.-2 i.83 1.73. 2.19 2.56 3.15 1.96 1.81 2.08 K,0 0.20-1.32 0.97-2.30 3.99-2.6ft 1.52-2.89 1.32-2.40 I.30-I.S£ 1.63-3.29 1.77-3-41 0.21-3.68 1.80-2.29 1.74-1.87 1.07-2.2ft TIC, 0.60 0.7ft O.65 0.1(9 0.37 0.35 0.39 ' 0.42 0.29 0.27 0.29 0.20 0.53-1.3* 0.64-0.80 0.511-0.72 O.ftO-0.62 0.30-0.41 0.22-0.41 0.2E-0.46 0.34-0.49 0.18-0.43 0.22-0.39 0,24-0.31 0,18-0.22 3 C 0.15 C.16 0.17 0.16 0.1ft 0.14 0.11 0.1ft 0.12 0.13 0.12' 0.12 2 5 0.1ft-0.17 O.lft-0.22 O.lft-0.22 O.lft-0.22 0.13-0.14 0.13-0.15 O.W-0.15 0.14-0.15 0.04-0. IJ 0.03-0.1ft 0.12-0.13 0.11-0.13 AAnO 0.15 0.11 0.C8 0.07 .0.07 0.05 0.05 ' 0.02 0.02 . 0.06 0.15 0.04 0.07-0.19 0.03-0.1ft 0.06-0.10 0.06-0.07 0.06-0.07 O.Oft-0.05 0.02-O.C6 0.02-0.03 0.01-0.03 O.Cft-O.07 0.03-.0.06 O.O3-O.O5 C.I.P.". noma Quart? 12 .45 15.38 16.63 21.65 2 2 . 6 9 24.94 2 9 . 3 7 19.34 33.49 28.88 23.60 33.41 Orthoclase 5 . 0 C 1 0 . 3 0 11.96 11.67 11 .00 10.36 13.08 15.33 18.71 10.69 10.80 .12.51 AlMte 29.57 31.32 3 4 . 9 4 36.6ft 3 8 . 3 9 40.96 33.C9 ftO.56 35.45 ' 41.74 40.84 40.81 Ancrthlte 27.0ft 2 5 . 3 5 2 2 . 6 6 2 0 . 6 7 19.50 16.78 15.17 14.64 . 9.24 13.48 12.11 9.91 ^Pyroxene 18.0ft 12.22 9.31 4.8ft 3 . 7 9 ? . 6 l ft.36 6 .23 I .03 1.73 5 . 0 0 1 .03 Kagnetite 5 . 9 9 3 . 8 3 2 . 6 3 3.05 2 . 6 7 2 . 3 6 2 .02 2 . 7 9 . 0.92 1.41 1.82 0.86 Tlnenlte 1.57 1.43 1.26 0.96 0.27 0.67 0.75 0.61 0.55 0.52 O.56 0.39 Apatite C 3 7 0 . 3 9 0.41 0.39 0 . 3 4 0.3ft 0.3ft 0.3ft 0.29 0.32 0.29 0 . 2 9 Corrundur; _ 1.02 - 0.08 1.25 _ o.eo Rutlle 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 0.01 0 . 0 1 - _ 0 . 0 1 Vtematlte - - _ •Total Fe as F e ^ »?e0 calculated by using TcOfre^ ration ln 2ft samples (Brabec, 1970). 1 2 Arithmetic Beans 'Total normative ortho- and cllnc-pyroxenes. 'calculated by cor.puter program (::0!i.v.) provided by A..'. Sinclair. 118 Fe as FeO ) in Fig. 27. As shown in Table XIX, abundances of most major elements vary in accordance with relative ages of the rock units as deduced from contact relationships by Northcote (1969)• Thus the intrusive units generally become more felsic from the relatively oldest to the youngest. Rocks of the Witches Brook and Chataway Phases show the greatest variations in element values. Chemical variation diagrams (Fig. 27) show that SiCv, and NagO concentrations increase with LDI, whereas MgO, CaO total Fe as FSgO-j, Ti0 2, AlgO^ and PgÔ  show a concomitant decrease. 1C,0 shows no appreciable change with LDI, except for dyke rocks of the Witches Brook and Bethlehem Porphyry Phases which exhibit con- siderable enrichment. Furthermore, excluding the aforementioned K-rich rocks, concentrations of KgO in the remainder of the bath- olith range from 0.21 - 2.89% with a mean value of 1.85%. These values are low compared to the average value of J.0k% quoted by Turekian and Wedepohl (1961) for high-Ca granites. A lack of enrichment in KjO values in the relatively younger units of the batholith is reflected in the near constant average modal propor- tions of K-feldspar, and decreasing values pf modal biotite with decreasing age and increasing differentiation (Northcote, 1969). On an AFM diagram (Fig. 28), enrichment in total alkalis relative to MgO and CaO is evident. This trend is similar to those found in typical calc-alkaline volcanic-plutonic complexes (Nock- olds and Allen, 1953). However, on the CaO-NagO-KpO variation diagram (Fig. 29)» two trends are present. The f i r s t , manifested by dyke rocks of the Witches Brook and Bethlehem Porphyry Phases, 119 0.8 T i 0 2 o.4 A A A A ° O CaO TiO, o bo - & o CaO + + ++ MgO 2\ | A *A A . A AA O Fe 2 0 3 K20. Na20 A1 2 0 3 S i0 2 A A A A ° A A Q n. • £ MgO o a 9 + O O- - A 0 ° 8* 3 • Total Fe as F e 2 0 3 + + + a + ? A ° ° A ? °" A A O i * • • e a • K2Q Na 2 0 o 8' • - \ A ° A A ° A A £ §£> A l 2 0 3 0 ^S^v 0  + ++_ +a MM S i 0 2 A^AAoAAA> °O o 9 10 15 20 a a a B 25 [1/3 S i 0 2 + K 20] - [CaO + MgO + FeO] FIGURE 27- Variat ion diagrams in Guichon Creek rocks showing major element concentrations (wt.*) versus Larsen d i f f e ren t i a t i on index (For legend, see Fig. 28) LEGEND A Nicola Volcanic Rocks (sFeasFeo) • Hybrid Phase FIGURE 28: AFM var iat ion diagram for rocks of Guichon Creek batho l i th . KoO Na,o Nicola Volcanic Rocks Hybrid Phase Guichon and Chataway Phases Bethlehem Phase Witches Brook Phase Bethsaida and Gnawed Mountain Phases FIGURE 29: CaO-NaoO-I^O variat ions for rocks of Guichon Creek bathol ith CaO 122 shows enrichment in K^Q relative to GaO and NagO (normal calc- alkaline trend), whereas the other trend is toward Na20 enrich- ment. According to Larsen and Poldervaart (1961) and Taubeneck (1967)» the latter trend is commonly characteristic of petro- chemical differentiation in rocks of trondhjemitic affinity. In both the AFM and CaO-NagO-KgO variation diagrams, 5 analyses of Nicola volcanic rocks plot along the same "liquid line of descent" (Nockolds and Allen, 1953) as rocks of the Guichon Creek batholith (Figs. 28 and 29). (b) Trace Elements (i) Introduction Abundance data for selected trace elements are summarized in Table XX. These results provide data on background values for elements of speciric interest, and also corroborate major element trends. Trace elements of especial interest are; (l) Cu, S and Mo ore metals} (2) potential pathfinders, Hg, (Hawkes and Webb, 1962} Friedrich, 1971), B (Boyle, 1971), Rb (Armbrust et a l . , 1971) Sr, Ba (Warren et al . , 1974), Cl, F (Kesler et a l , , 1973) and Ag} and (3) elements related to primary lithologies, Zn, Ni, Co, V and Mn, Brabec (1970) studied background trace-element content of rocks within the batholith, and his data will be referred to wherever appropriate. However, i t should be noted that the majority of Brabec's (op. cit.) data were obtained by sulphide-selective aqua regia digestion rather than total extraction employed in this study. Mo, Ag and Pb are generally below detection limit whereas TABLE XX: *Keans and Ranges of Trace Elements in rocks of Guichon Creek Batholith. NICOLA VGLCAKICS HYBRID . GUICHOI: CHATAVAY BETHLEHEM SKEENA WITCHES BROOK BETHLEHEM PORPHYRY• 3ETHSAIDA GNAWED MOUNTAIN 1 ALL GUICHON SAMPLES w (5) CO (7) (6) (5) (7) (7) (6) (7) (54) 24 4 - 52 51 12-1143 67 30-95 45 16-240 33 11-195 26 9-45 47 10-88 43 22-127 19 4-135 8 3-15 39 **Cu 15 57 65 43 32 - 42 - 10 _ 43 •'•Zn 92 39-141 74 68-81 60 47-76 45 37-72 39 33-46 33 22V35 30 17-41 19 10-31 29 15-37 28 2-33 40 -••*Zn 36 31 27 25 19 - 17 - 22 _ 27 ••Kl 40 4-134 33 15-44 27 16-38 20 9-32 12 6̂ 24 8 6-10 10 6-14 7 4 - 9 5 5 - 6 5 3 - 6 14 lCo . 14 5-25 13 II-35 12 11-13 11 8-15 8 6 - 9 8 6-10 6 5-9 5 2-7 5 3 - 7 5 4 - 7 8 2 K 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ^ b 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 he 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 23 14 10 - 15 5 15 5-20 5 5 5 5 5 5 8 5-10 5 •-Ba 2 V 200 100-400 150 20-200 500 400-600 83 50-100 300 200-500 50 40-60 500 300-600 39 20-50 560 500-800 34 30-40 550 500-600 26 20-40 600 500-600 40 30-50 25 10-40 520 500-700 15 10-20 15 10-20 504 45 HF-HCIÔ -HKÔ  total digestion ^Emission epectrography * Geometric mean ** Aqua regia extractable metal (3rabec, 1970) 124 Ba and B do not show significant variations and results of Hg are extremely erratic (Table XXII). Consequently, results for these elements are not discussed further. (i i ) Distribution of Copper With the exception of rocks from the Witches Brook and Bethlehem Porphyry Phases, mean Cu contents generally decrease from the relatively older units at the outer margins to relatively younger at the core (Table XX1). Brabec and White (1970) reported a similar distribution for aqua-regia-extractable Cu in 300 samples from the batholith (Table XX and Fig. 30b). A plot of Cu values versus LDI shows a considerable scatter, although a trend towards decreasing Cu as LDI increases is evident (Fig. 30a). Geochemical behaviour of Cu in silicate melts during magmatic differentiation is not well understood (Al-Hashimi and Brownlow, 1970). Wager and Mitchell (1951) in their classical study of Skaergaard intrusion, found that during the early and main phases of magmatic differentiation, Cu contents of the constituent minerals and whole rock increased, whereas after 90% solidification (Wager and Brown, 1967)» m°st minerals were suddenly depleted in Cu. Simultaneously, whole-rock S showed a sharp increase, although whole-rock Cu did not change appreciably. The redistribution of Cu and increase in S were attributed to a separation of an immiscible sulphide phase which occurred near the end of the frac- tionation process. Similar, though less extensive studies on other lntrusives tend to confirm the pattern observed for the Skaergaard ! 1000- IOOH 10' r =-0.51 + 10 15 20 LDI (Larsen D i f ferent ia t ion Index) 25 FIGURE 30a: FIGURE 30b: D i s t r ibut ion of Copper in re la t ion to Larsen d i f f e ren t i a t i on index (Legend as for Fig. 29) Regional d i s t r i bu t i on of aqua regia extractable Copper in rocks of Guichon Creek bathol i th (After Brabec and White, 1971) 126 rocks (Cornwall and Rose. 1967$ McDougall and Lovering, 1963). In the Guichon Creek batholith, the tendency for Cu to decrease generally with increasing fractionation parallels the behaviour of Fe and Mg (Fig. jk)',;,v A plot of Cu versus Fe shows a significant but relatively weak correlation (r = 0.4l)(Fig,. 31), This ^ .fr .f.„fr suggests that Cu (0.72A) may to some extent substitute for Fe (0.74A) in silicates and oxides. However, from theoretical con- siderations, Ringwood (1955) has concluded that due to differences in electronegativities, Cu would form weaker bonds than Fe , resulting in a concentration of Cu in residual melts. Curtis (1964) pointed out that crystal-field effects could result in the exclusion of Cu from crystal structures in preference for Fe. Cu is strongly chalcophile, and generally combines with S to form sulphide grains. These commonly occur as inclusions in silicates or may even concentrate as ore deposits. Results of sulphide- selective, partial extraction techniques further support the dom- inant sulphide mode of occurrence of Cu (Olade and Fletcher, 1974). On this basis Zlobin et a l . (1967) have concluded that the positive correlations between Cu and Fe reflects only similarity in geo- chemical behaviour rather than ionic substition. ( i i i ) Distribution of S, Rb, Sr, Cl and F S content of 38 unmineralized samples is presented in Table XXI. Average S content in the various intrusive units are not appreciably different, although the porphyritic rocks of the youngest Gnawed Mountain Phase are relatively enriched in S. Mean 127 100(M * r = 0.411 *n = 40 Cu '9P1 (p.p.m.) ++ + + + I* • A 0 • B + of *d* •a ° Total Fe as % Fe 2 0 3 FIGURE 31: Relationship between Copper and Iron in rocks of Guichon Creek batho l i th . (Legend as for Fig. 29) *(excluding Witches Brook and Bethlehem Porphyry Phases) TABLE XXIi Abundances of oulphur, rubidium and s t r o n t i u m l n rocks of Guichon Greek B a t h o l i t h . •Sample Rock Unit • Sulphur ?.ubld'i\un ' Ljtronlium Kumber ( l n ppm) ( i n ppm) . ( l n ppm) 0-6319 • : : i c o u 346 35 264 0-63221 382 37 282 0-63224 530. 36. ' 201 1-6352 • HYBRID 310 82 255 1-6470 354 18 566 1-6494 475 51 582 21-63140 CHATAVAY 444 5' 784 21-63206 282 37 727 21-64117 340 70 • 681 21-64151 609 52 73^ 21-6456 293 • -74 692 22-6479 GUICHON 363 52 746 22-64132 340 . 24 597 22-6920 621 42 750 22-6333 341 48 710 22-6341 ' d.n.a. 76 . 719* 22-64141 395 4 1000 22-64201 298 51 756 22-63243 373 .67 696 22-64161 553 71 609 4-64186 1 BETHLEHEM 38O 80 603 4-6467 440 82 581. 4-6461 500 18 857 4-63101 459 42 . 892 41-63184 SKEENA - 300 52 625 41-63214 413 26 680 41-72185 291 36 655 5-64105 WITCHES ' 312 132 420 5-6430 BROOK 333 103 • 562 51-721453 BETHLEHEM 555 82 249 51-721365 PORPHYRY 247 86 368 51-721367 524 85' 331 51-721370 d.n.a. 46 733 51-721358 376 4 865 6-6463 3STHSAIDA 272 35 528 6-72750 371 35 599. P- 72 111 GNAWED 751 35 .591 f-72115 :-:OIT.;TAI:; 377 36 635 8-721 475 32 612 S-7215 273 33 567 •Sample number (After.-Northcote, i y 6 0 | and ifrabec, 1970 d.n.n. Dntn lio t A v a i l n b l o fluorescence nrmlv3lc. 129 TABLE XXIIi ** Abundaces of mercury in rocks of Guichon Creek batholith * Sample Rock Unit Mercury Number (in p.p^b.) 0-6319 liicola 100 0- 6319 4 1- 6925 ' 4 1-63186 4 1-63167 . 4 21-6346 Chataway 4 21-63140 no 21-64151 120 21- 63202 35 22- 6333 Guichon 55 22-6341 • 1 1 2 22-64132 4 22-64201 85 4- 64132 Bethlehem 5 4~.6IJ.62 155 41-72185 Skeena 5 41-63184 71 5- 6430 Witches Brook 4 5-6912 4 5- 64120 4 51-721340 Bethlehem 5 51-721353 Porphyry 20 51-721358 5 51-721370 6 6- 63237 Bethsaida 80 6-6463 6 5 . 6-63128 270 8-721 Gnawed Mountain , 10 8-72111 1 0 8-72115 1 0 8-72105 5 * Sample numbers (after Korthcote 1968; and Brabec, 1970) ** Flaraeless atomic absorption analyses 130 value for a l l Guichon rocks is 390 ppm which Is similar to the value of 300 ppm cited as the world average for S in intermediate igneous rocks (Turekian and Wedepohl, 1961). Rb concentrations in 39 samples range from 4 to 132 ppm (Table XXI) and average 38 ppm. Compared with the average value of 110 p.p.m. for intermediate igneous rocks, the Guichon Creek batho- l i t h is impoverished in Rb, However, values are comparable to those obtained for the Sierra Nevada batholith (Kistler et al , , 1971) and the Coast Mountain intrusions (Culbert, 1972), When rock units within the batholith are compared, surprisingly there is no consis- tent difference in mean values although the K-rich rocks of the Witches Brook Phase are relatively enriched in Rb, Geochemical behaviour of Rb is influenced by the abundance of K (Nockolds and Allen, 1953? Goldschimdt, 1954) for which Rb substitutes in alkali feldspars and micas (Heier and Adams, 1964), A plot of K^O versus Rb shows a strong positive correlation (r = 0.77; Fig. 32a). Thus, absence of appreciable variations in Rb levels is closely related to a similar behaviour by K (Fig. .27);;-,. However, a pre- liminary plot of K-,0 against K/Rb ratios show a negative slope (r = -0,41) which suggests enrichment of Rb relative to KgO in rocks with high KgO values (Fig, 32b), although rocks with high K levels are not the most differentiated. The K/Rb ratio is generally considered as a reliable index of differentiation in most igneous rock suites (Taubeneck, 1965). However, for the Guichon Creek batholith, K/Rb ratios show no consistent patterns when plotted against LDI (Fig. 33). This is J 1 1 1 ' 1 .:• K2O % 2 3 FIGURE 32: Relationship between rubidium and potassium in rocks of Guichon Creek bathol i th. 132 IOOOH T HBethsaida Phase •• Witches Brook Phase D Bethlehem Phase 9 Guichon and Chataway Phases A Hybrid Phase 8001- \ n = 32 r = -0.41 K/Rb 600 h 400 h 200V a \ . \ ® • • A FIGURE 32b: Plots of K/Rb vs K i n rocks of Guichon Creek batho l i th . 150 O 100h Ca/Sr r = -0.68 n = 33 501> 0 - IOOOL o <* 800r- r = -0.06 n = 33 6001- K/Rb 4301- •• • 200l> I 10 FIGURE 33 © 15 i _ 20 i 25 LDI (Larsen D i f fe rent ia t ion Index) Plots of K/Rb and Ca/Sr versus Larsen d i f fe rent i a t i on index. H 1 1 3 4 attributed to the relatively low and near uniform concentrations of both elements in the Intrusive units. Sr concentrations range from 249 to 1000 p.p.m. and average 686 p.p.m. These values are high relative to the average of 440 p.p.m. cited by Turekian and Wedepohl (196l) for high-Ca granitic rocks. As shown in Table XXIV, mean Sr values are slightly lower in the more felsic rocks. During magmatic processes, Sr tends to substitute for Ca and K in feldspars. Thus, the apparent decrease of mean Sr concentrations with increasing differentiation might reflect a corresponding decrease in Ca levels. A plot of Ca/Sr ratios against LDI indicates a decrease with increasing differentiation (Fig. 33). This relationship suggests that Sr is enriched relative to Ca in more felsic rocks. Abundance of Cl and F in 12 samples are tabulated in Table XXIII. Cl content is highest in the more mafic Hybrid and Guichon Phases, and values generally decrease in the more felsic rocks. F concentrations range from 108 to 38Q p.p.m. with an erratic distribution. Compared to the world average of 130 p.p.m. Cl and 520 p.p.m. ' F (Turekian and Wedepohl, 1961; Kuroda and Sandell, 1953) for intermediate rocks, results indicate that the Guichon Creek batholith is relatively enriched in Cl but impover- ished in F. Kuroda and Sandell (1953) and Allmann and Kortnig (1972) suggest that the halogen content of igneous rocks may be related to regional tectonic and crustal features, such as island arcs. TABLE XXIII: Abundances of *chlorine and *fluorine in rocks of Guichon Creek batholith Intrusive Sample Chlorine 1 Fluorine Unit Number (p.p.m.) (p.p.m.) Hybrid 1-6470 880 380 Guichon 22-6432 544 380 22-6341 465 284 Bethlehem 4-6462 240 108 4-63184 280 140 Skeena 41-72185 100 240 Witches Brook 5-721370 128 256 Bethsaida 6-6463 132 176 6-64631 132 180 6-72750 80 208 Gnawed 8-7215 92 172 Mountain 8-72111 120 224 * Ion-selective electrode analyses 136 (iv) Distribution of Zn. Mn, Ni, Co and V Zn values generally decrease from more than 80 p.p.m. in the Hybrid Phase to less than |o p.p.m. in the relatively younger Bethsaida and Gnawed Mountain Phases. A similar d i s t r i - bution was reported by Brabec and White (1971) for aqua regia- extractable Zn (Table XX). Although a plot of Zn versus LDI shows considerable scatter, two trends with no genetic significance are evident (Fig. 34). The f i r s t which i s considered "spurious", has a relatively steep slope and Includes rocks of the Hybrid, Witches Brook and Bethlehem Porphyry Phases. The second trend considered "normal" joins rocks oft/the other phases. The "spurious" trend i s attributed to extensive contamination of the Hybrid Phase by relatively Zn-rich Nicola rocks, and strong depletion of Zn in the K-rich dyke rocks of the Witches Brook and Bethlehem Porphyry Phases. During magmatic processes, Zn generally substitutes f o r Fe i n sili c a t e s and oxides because of similarity i n ionic pro- perties. A plot of Zn versus'Fe shows a strong positive correlation (Fig, 35)• Comparable results have been reported for other granitic rocks (Haack, 1969; Blaxland, 1971). Results of partial extraction techniques also indicate that Zn, unlike Cu, i s principally associated with the s i l i c a t e fraction (Brabec, 1971J Foster, 1973? Olade and Fletcher, 1974). Mn distribution shows the same trends as Zn. Values generally decrease with increasing differentiation (Table XIX and Fig, 34). Fig. 36 demonstrates the covariance of Mn and Fe. This 137 A Hybrid Phase o Guichon Phase 9 Chataway Phase a Bethlehem and Bethlehem Porphyry Phases a Witches Brook Phase • Bethsaida and Gnawed Mountain Phases Larsen D i f ferent ia t ion Index FIGURE 34: Variation diagrams in Guichon Creek rocks showing trace element concentrations plotted against LDI 138 100 50H 40 30 Zn (p.p.m.) 20 id—-XL * r = 0.89 *n = 40 8 + 0 a + + B a A A A • 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Fe as in percent ^^2^3 FIGURE 35: Relationship between Iron and Zinc in rocks of Guichon Creek bathol i th (52 samples) *(excluding Witches Brook and Bethlehem Porphyry Phases) (Legend as for Fig. 29) 139 80CH 50CH + + Q + + + a o 200- 0 A • A A • A *r = 0.33 '•*n = 40 Mn (p.p.m.)| B 100H B 5 0 4 ' 1 1 1 '. —I I I L 1 2 .3 4 5 6 7 8 Fe as % Fe203 FIGURE 36: Relationship between Iron and Manganese in rocks of the Guichon Creek batholith (52 samples) *(excluding Witches Brook and Bethlehem Porphyry Phases) (Legend as for Fig. 29) 140 relationship i s consistent with Mn"*-1" (ionic size 0.80A) substit- uting for Fe (ionic size 0,74A) in femic s i l i c a t e s . Mean values for Ni, Co and V for constituent rock units of the batholith are summarized in Table XX. Plots of these elements against LDI indicate a general decrease with increasing magmatlc differentiation (Fig. 34). A significant positive correlation between Ni and Co and Fe and Mg (Fig. 37 and 38) i s consistent with Ni sund Co substituting for Fe and Mg i n ferro- magnesian s i l i c a t e s . DISCUSSION Petrochemical trends suggest that the zonal and compos- itio n a l variations exhibited by rocks of Guichon Creek batholith conform with a model of fractional crystallization of a magma of intermediate composition by progressive fractionation of plagioclase of intermediate composition, hornblende and biotite. Plagioclase fractionation generally depletes the Ca content of derivative fluids, whereas biotite and hornblende fractionation tends to enrich Si and a l k a l i content and deplete Fe, Mg and Ti levels of derivative fluids (Peto, 1973; Smith, 1974). The most striking aspect of the petrochemical evolution of the batholith i s the absence of K^O enrichment i n the most differentiated and relatively youngest rocks - the Bethsaida and Gnawed Mountain Phases. Low values of KgO and lack of enrichment with increasing differentiation suggest either that the pluton i s not highly differentiated or that the parental magma i s 141 40' 51 Ni (p.p.m.) 0 • • + + + + E + + + (3 + • + A' A * r = 0.78 *n = 40 8 2 4 6 Fe as % Fe203 FIGURE 37a: Variat ion of Nickel with Iron in rocks of Guichon Creek bathol i th (Legend as for Fig. 29) 40 K H Ni (p.p.m.) • • El ca s + ++ ++ n- • A A • * r = 0.73 *n = 40 2 3 % MaO FIGURE 37b: Variat ion of Nickel with Magnesium in Guichon Creek bathol i th (*excludina wit^u Brook and Bethlehem Porphyry PhasSs W ! t ( % s 142 50 104 Co (p.p.m.) e n ® ® °a as ® 0 A i 6A A + i LB + + 8 § HQ s + + + a + 0.84 *n = 40 FIGURE 38a: Fe as % ?e2®3 Relationship between Cobalt and Iron in Guichon rocks (*excluding Witches Brook and Bethlehem porphyry phases). Legend as for Fig. 29. 401 10 Co (p.p.m.) • + • + + + + 0 9 B 9 O A © 9 A 0 0 • 0 + + + 0 0.83 *n = 40 0 % MgO FIGURE 38b: Relationship between Cobalt and Magnesium in Guichon rocks (*excluding witches Brook and Bethlehem Porphyry Phases) (Legend as for Fig. 29) 143 relatively K-poor (Taubeneck, 196?). The latter is probably the case because petrographic evidence (Northcote, 1969) and petrochemical variation diagrams (Figs. 27 and 34) support magmatic differentiation. Absence of appreciable variations in Rb and K/Rb with increasing differentiation might be related to similar behaviour by KgO. Furthermore, the tendency for NagO concentrations to increase with Increasing differentiation (trondhjemitic trend) is commonly characteristic of K-poor magmas (Larsen and Poldervaart, 1961; Taubeneck, I965). Petrochemical evidence suggests that the K-rich dyke rocks of the Witches Brook Phase and some of the Bethlehem porphy- ries are either not cogenetic with the remainder of the batholith or might be related to local *high-level' phenomena during evol- ution of the batholith (Northcote, 1969). Trace element distribution in igneous rocks is generally controlled by abundance of major elements and the ability of the trace elements to enter appropriate crystal lattices. Trace elements capable of entering the structures of rock-forming minerals are removed from the magma, and thus eliminated from any further possibility of concentration into ore deposits (Levinson, 1974; p. 50)• The behaviour of Cu suggests that Cu does not readily enter into crystal lattices of femic silicates. Because of its strongly chalcophile nature, Cu fractionates into the residual melt to combine with S (Wager and Mitchell, 1951). With increasing differ- entiation and volatile content, and an adequate supply of S, copper 144 sulphides might concentrate as ore deposits i f the magma i s Cu- rich. The spatial and temporal association between porphyry Cu deposits and the most differentiated and relatively youngest in - trusive units in the batholith may be relevant i n this context. Thus, according to Brabec and White (1971), the low Cu content of the most differentiated rocks of the Bethsaida Phase might be equated with the presence of epigentic Cu deposits. However, the tendency for Cu to decrease with increasing differentiation parallels that of the femic elements (Zn, Ni, Co, Mn and ?), and i s most char- acteristic of Cu-poor magmas (Sheraton and Black, 1973)* However, i t i s not clear whether the role of the batholith is" one of structural control rather than a source of metals (Noble, 1970). These aspects of ore genesis are discussed further in Chapter 8. Zn, Ni, Co, Mn and V are less chalcophile than Cu and more readily enter lattices of ferromagnesian minerals. Consequently they are removed from the magma during differentiation. Low abundances of Mo, Pb and Ag in rocks of the batholith reflect the i n i t i a l con- centrations i n the magma. However, for Mo, magmatic differentiation resulted i n concentration in the residual melt which formed M0S2 deposits. Hg, B, Cl and F are enriched i n volatile fractions of residual melts and subsequently are concentrated i n zones of mineral- ization as hydrothermal minerals or in f l u i d inclusions. From the foregoing, i t i s concluded that petrochemical trends could be useful i n identifying rocks that are most di f f e r - entiated and capable of being associated genetically with ore deposits. In the Guichon Creek batholith, the most differentiated 145 rocks may be identified easily by concentric zone relations and petrologic criteria. However, as Peto (1973) has shown, many plutons, for example, the Simllkameen and Iron Mask batholiths in British Columbia are not concentrically zoned and petrological criteria might not be very useful in determining the differentiation sequence and oogenesis of the intrusive units. In this situation petrochemical studies could be useful in reconnaissance exploration. Furthermore, the close relationship between trace element levels and magmatic differentiation emphasises the need to assign for exploration purposes, different threshold and background levels to each intrusive phase . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS (1) Major element variations are consistent with a model of fractional crystallization of a calc-alkaline dioritic magma by progressive fractionation of plagioclase, biotite and hornblende. By this process, derivative fluids were enriched ln Si and Na and depleted in Ca, Fe, Mg and Ti. (2) Dyke rocks of the Witches Brook Phase differ considerably in major and trace element contents, and might represent either a product of local *high-level' crystallization or otherwise not cogenetic with other intrusive units of the batholith. (3) The relatively low and near uniform K concentrations and the trondhjemitic trend exhibited by rocks of the batholith is suggestive of a K-deficient magma. 146 (4) Variations i n Mn, Zn, Ni, Co and V are intimately associated with degree of fractionation. Strong positive correlations with Fe and Mg indicate partitioning of these elements into s i l i c a t e fractions during magmatic (evolution. ( 5 ) Cu content generally decreases from the relatively oldest to youngest and most differentiated units. This pattern of variation parallels those of other 'femic* elements, reflecting normal differentiation trends which i s most characteristic of un- mineralized intrusions. This suggests that the Guichon Creek magma was not particularly r i c h i n Cu, as this should be reflected by increasing Cu contents with increasing differentiation. (6) Close relationships between metal values and degree of fractionation emphasize- the need for assigning different back- ground values to each intrusive unit during geochemical exploration, (?) Petrochemical variation diagrams can be useful i n ident- ify i n g intrusive units that are most differentiated and capable of being genetically and spatially associated with mineral deposits. "CHAPTER SIX 'METAL DISPERSION IN BEDROCK AROUND MINERALIZATION 148 INTRODUCTION This section of the study reports on the nature, extent and applications of epigenetic dispersion patterns around Cu mineralization i n the Highland Valley. Four major porphyry-type deposits (Bethlehem-JA, Valley Copper, Lornex and Highmont) and a small vein (Skeena) were investigated. More than 1300 samples collected from background and mineralized areas were analyzed for approximately 25 trace and majorelements. Sample locations and plans are presented i n the Appendix. At Valley Copper and Bethlehem- JA, analyses were obtained from samples collected from three levels. Except where metal contents are obviously different for the three levels, results are only presented f o r one level to avoid duplication. At Lornex and Highmont, geochemical data are presented for surface and drillcore samples, whereas at Skeena only results from d r i l l cores are documented. Geochemical patterns are examined in relation to primary lithology, hydrothermal alteration and mineralization, using major element data as indices where applicable. Except at Lornex, Pb, Ag, Ni, Cd, Sn, W and Bi levels are generally below th e i r detection limits and are therefore not discussed further, DATA HANDLING A l l analytical data were computer-coded and histograms for a l l elements were prepared using a computer program (GHIST) provided by Dr, W.K. Fletcher. Means, standard deviations and other 149 statistical parameters are obtained with the histograms. Cumulative probability plots were prepared for most elements using a computer program (PROB) provided by Dr. A.J. Sinclair. The nature of fre- quency distribution patterns for a l l elements was determined from probability plots and verified by the Chi-square test for normality. Preliminary "Calcomp" plots of element distribution were prepared by computer. Using transparent overlays, geochemical maps were prepared by manual contouring where smooth trends are evident. However, i f metal distribution is erratic, discrete symbols are used. The choice of contour intervals was based on probability plots as described by Sinclair (1974). A l l geochemical maps were transfered from overlays to base maps. Relationships among metal distributions were examined by factor analysis. R-mode factor analysis uses a measure of simil- arity among a l l pairs of variables to extract linear combinations which are termed "factors", of some or a l l of these variables. Standard programs (FAN) available at the Computing Centre, UBC were used to carry out the R-mode analysis. Prior to analysis, a l l metal distributions were standardized (X =0; s = l ) to prevent bias arising from variations of concentration ranges for elements, in estimating factor loadings. Q-mode analysis was also used, but results were similar to those of R-mode, and are therefore not discussed. : 150 RESULTS BETHLEHEM-JA Means, standard deviations and ranges of metal concen- trations are recorded in Tables XXIV and XXV'., and Figs. Al - A27. Because of similarity in distribution patterns, only results for the 2800 level are discussed. (a) Geochemical Patterns Related to Primary Lithology Rocks of the Guichon = Phase in the eastern part of the property are characterized by enhanced levels of Zn, Mn, Ti, V and Co compared to the more felsic rocks of the Bethlehem Phase in the west. Lowest concentrations are encountered in rocks of the JA porphyry in the central portion of the property (Figs. Al - A4). Table XXV compares the means and ranges of these elements in the lithologic units. A student t-test suggests that the Guichon Phase is significantly different from the Bethlehem Phase in Zn, Ti, V, Co and MgO at the .05 confidence level. Variations in Zn, Mn, V, Ti and Co are strongly controlled by obvious variations in the amounts of ferro-magnesian minerals present in the rock units. This is reflected in the distribution of MgO and Fe20^ (Figs. A5 and A14) which are highest in the Guichon Phase and lowest in the felsic porphyry. In contrast SiOg levels are relatively enriched in the porphyry (Fig. A6). Because of similarity in ionic properties,.Zn, V, Ti, Mn, and Co generally substitute for Mg and Fe in crystal lattices (Goldschimdt, 1954). A plot of Zn 151 TABLE XXIV; Means, d eviations and ranges of trace elements at Bethlehem J-A (Values i n ppm except where indicated) Elements BETHLEHEM JA Number of samples A n a l y t i c a l Technique (58) Sub out- crop l e v e l (54) 2800 l e v e l (48) 2400 l e v e l Cu AA 1164 3.7 316-4289 1070 3.7 290-3950 1296 3.4 386-4349 Sulphide Cu 3* Fe Sulphide AA AA 1234 4.1 305-4977 0.62 0.45 0.17-1.07 Mo ES 3 4.9 0.7-16 5 5.4 0.8-24 6 6.3 1-40 Ag AA 0.12 2.2 0.05-0.26 0.12 2.1 .05-0.24 0.11 1.7 0.06-0.19 Zn AA 19 1.7 11-32 18 1.6 11-29 16 1.6 10-25 Mn AA 150 1.6 96-244 157 1.6 98-250 135 1.6 82-222 TABLE XXIV: (cont.) BETHLEHEM JA Number0 of samples (58) A n a l y t i c a l Sub out- (54) (48) Elements Technique crop" l e v e l 2800 l e v e l 2400 l e v e l 1Co AA 7 7 6 1.6 1.7 1.8 4- 11 4.-12 3-10 V ES 40 41 38 1.5 1.5 1.7 ' 26-62 27-61 22-67 T i ES 1159 1144 1086 1.6 1.8 1.6 738-1820 747-1752 660-1788 * S XRF 0.39 4.2 0.09-1.65 Hg AA 7 4.8 1.4-34 B ES 10 9 10 1.9 2.0 1.7 5- 19 5-19 5-19 C l ISE 254 1.6 156-414 H 20-Ex. ISE 6 Cl , 2.1 3-13 F ISE 216 1.8 118-395 153 TABLE XXIV: (cont.) BETHLEHEM JA Number of samples Elements (58) A n a l y t i c a l Sub out- (54) (48) Technique crop l e v e l 2800 l e v e l 2400 l e v e l H„0-Ex F ISE 7 1.5 5-11 Rb Sr Ba SRF XRF ES 493 1.4 358-679 50 1.4 36-71 579 1.6 371-902 490 1.3 371-645 442 1.5 289-67* CaO AA 2.82 0.86 1.96-3.68 MgO 2* Total Fe as Fe203 2* Na20 2* K 20 Si02 AA AA AA AA XRF 1.40 0.62 0.78-2.03 3.31 1.19 2.12-4.50 4.27 1.39 2.88-5. 67 1.91 0.97 0.94-2.88 62.34 3.40 58.94-65.74 1 HNO3-HCIO4 digestion 2 Total d i g e s t i o n 3 KCIO3-HCI dig e s t i o n 4 Geometric Means except where indicated R=Range = Mean + 1 standard deviation * Values i n weight percent * Arithmetic mean ** Values i n parts per b i l l i o n AA Atomic Absorption ES Emission Spectropgraphy XRF X-ray fluorescence ISE Ion-selective electrodes XXVt Keans and. ^ranges of some metal 'concentrations in 15̂ principal lithologic units, Bethlehem JA 2800 level. Guichon Phase Bethlehem Phase Porphyry Ho. of samples •(2*) (25) (5) 1* CaO 3.12 2.78 1.51 ' (2.43 - 3.83) (1.96 - 3.59) (0.79 - 2 .23) 1* HgO 1.91 1.11 • 0.89 . 1* F e 2 ° 3 (1.52 - 2.30) (0.?l - i.5i) (0.28 - 2 .06) 4.26 2.84 1.72 (3.30 - 5 .23) (2.01 - 3 .68) (0.99 - 2.43) 1* Ka20 4.42 4.25 3.69 (2.94 - 5 .89) (3.02 - 5.48) (1.46 - 5 .93) 1* 1.80 1.81 3.31 (1.20 - 2.40) (0.76 - 2.85) (2.19 - 4.42) i Si0 2 61.32 62.38 67.40 (58.79 - 63.84) (59.59 - 65 .I6) (60.46 - 74.34) Ti 1426 IO32 769 (1052 - 1933) (663 - 1604) (551 - 1073) 1** Zn 24 9 (17 - 33) (11 - 25) (4 - 17) i ** tin 183 145 123 (123 - 273) (90 - 235) (70 - 218) 53 37 26 (42 - 67) (25 - 53) (15 - 4 4 ) ' 500 484 474 (382 - 655) (357 - 655) (423 - 529) 1*# Go 9 6 2 (5 - 15) ( 3 - 1 2 ) ( 1 - 4 ) 'Atomic absorption; Emission spectrography; ^X-ray fluore; I'fean - 1 standard deviation; * Arithmetic mean and values in wt, ,S ** Geometric mean and values ln. p.p. 155 60Y 40[ 20[ Zn (p.p.m.) 10F m r ='0.8 n = 54 V V 9 © ® 0 B « Guichon v Bethlehem a Porphyry 1 2 Wt % MgO FIGURE 39: Relationship between Zinc and Magnesium contents of rocks, Bethlehem JA 2800 Level 156 TABLE XXVIi Correlation natrlx of trace and major element content*, Bcthlehom-JA, 2300 level. Cu Zn Hn B . Cu .9995* Zn -.1730'* 1.00060 .70569 .99950. • Tl V Ko • • Ba Kn -.08821 3 • .17534 -.08741 .26099 1.00312 • Ti -.02395 .37407 .23664 .00294 ' 1.00266 V .06393 .59796 .38553 -.01200 .73945 1.00072 . Ho .24779 -.42504 -.21650 .41546. .02325 '' -.12000 .99786 • 3a .28497 .17725 .20064 .08678 . -.02377 .21502' -.26073 .99987 Rb .39669 -.25715- -.17821 - .40102 -.27188 -.26620 .30357 .25576 Sr ' -.31809 .49496 .14047 -.44377 .30441 , .39906 • -.38328 -.13303 3102 -.02448 -.46823 -.37635 -.06268 -.21723 -.57306 .12143 - .3 366 Sulphur .37856 — .10216 -.22540 .16 06 '.03114 .14723 .28063 .19499 Hg .19603 -.41770 -.37295 -.00698 -.41813 -.43877 .11914 .09174 a .11912 -.11408 -.20008 .00269 • -.08649 .00461 . .03507 . .21814 .02946 .33724 .24848 .14132 ' .15053 .30901 .00509 .09509 Cab -.28405 .49951 .37657 -.27521 .37868 .61439, -.22675 . .01624 MgO • -.27303 .81286 .57275 -.17222 . .50752 .72904 -.37592 .10495 -.10600 .69187 .40099 -.05521 .46693 • .68195 -.38210 ,27928 )-a20 -.55648 .28908 .22334 ' -.25600 '. -.02849 ' .03967 -?33053 -.17246 K2° .42838 -.38177 -.16425 .33321 -.33699 -.38265 .22188 .32358 Sulphur . "•' Hg Cl F GaO Rb Sr sio 2 • Rb .99331 Sr -.74479 1.00016 Si0 2 .01898 - .10320 1.00041 Sulphur .34663 -.36924 -.25455 .99840 Hg .43567 -.515S7 .06094 ' .35545 .'. .9.9S70 Cl .16246 .00430 -.16746 .15457 .27078 .99890 F -.01779 . .07752 -.35036 .10521 -.13684 . .O8307 .99993 C-aO -.64840 .57978 -.50424 -.18517 • -.37364 -.O6558 .05099 1.00125 • -.24205 .45685 -.51692 -.13165 -.40320 .OCO63 ' .22631 .56958 F e 2 ° 3 • 1 -.10108 .24190 -.54686 .30893' -.16539 -.04919 .12946 .49933 NajO -.39741 .54661 -.08889 -.44937 . -.23561 -.13174 -.03265 • .24064 K,0 .86388 -.86842 .08008 .31937 .51824 .07468 -.07319 -.68327 KeO Fe 20 3 Ka20 K2° KgO •1.00028 Fe 20 3 • .70812 1.00032 .33373 -.01334 .99929 '-.16304 -.4988O ,09960 157 versus MgO (Fig, 39) shows a strong positive correlation (r = 0.81), Relationships among MgO and F e ^ and Ti, V, Mn, Go and Zn are shown in Table XXVI, All the aforementioned trace elements show consistently weaker correlations with Fe20^ than MgO. This relatively weak relationships are attributed to the modes of occurence of Fe, not only ln silicates but also in sulphides (pyrite, chalcopyrite and bornite). Compared with other trace elements, Mn shows a relatively weaker correlation with MgO and Fe20^. This is attributed to partial hydrothermal redistribution within the ore zone (Fig. A2). Compared with regional data, rocks of the Guichon and Bethlehem Phases within the property are obviously depleted in Zn and Mn. (b) Geochemical Patterns Related to Hydrothermal Alteration Hydrothermal alteration effects at Bethlehem-JA are associated with enrichment in KgO, Rb and Ba and to varying extent, depletion of CaO, NagO, Fe, Sr and Mn. Results in relation to types of alteration are summarized in Table XVII, KgO levels generally increase from values less than l*3?o at the outer margins of the property, to values exceeding 3.7% at the core, within and north of the porphyry dyke (Fig, A7). Rb content follows K-.0, increasing from less than 40 p.p.m. at the periphery, to more than 140 p.p.m. at the core (Fig, A8). An east- west trending belt of enhanced K^O and Rb contents coincide with the zone of pervasive potassic alteration (Sericite-K-feldspar). TABLE XXVIIl "Cher.lcal v a r l a t l o n o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h types o f a l t e r a t i o n , Bothlehora-JA, 2800 l e v e l Unaltered P r o p y l i t i c A r c J l l l e P o t a s s i c Bethlehem Phase . Zone Zone Zone Ho. of r.a-.plea (9) (16) (10) (6) Metal Content (p.p.m.) Cu 233 1084 1466 1926 (11 - 195) (386 - 3044) (471 - 455?) . (323 - 12217) Zn 319 25 16 10 (16 - 22) (1? - 38) (11 - 22) (4 - 24) Mn 2442 205 130 133 (364 - 542) (147 - 287) (97 - 176) (54 - 324) B 5 8 10 14 (5 - 15) (4 - 24) (5 - 39) T l 1250 1345 1041 748 (1000 - 1500) (977 - 1851) (916 - 1184) (429 - 1308) V 50 50 40 25 (40 - 60) (39 - 65) (33 - 49) (11 - 56) Ko 2 4 9 10 (1 - 13) (3 - 32) (1 - 90) Ba 56O 508 487 562 (500 - 800) (398 - 649) (381 - 621) • (322 - 980) Rb 43 41 47 81 (34 -. 80) (38 - 65) (35 - 63) (54 - 121) Sr ' 693 686 617 235 (580 - 829) (570 - 828) (528 - 721) . (I l l - 500) *s 0.15 0.59" " . O.37 (0.05 - 0.54) (0.24 - 1.45 (0.07 - 1.99) **Hg . 4 8 41 ( 2 - 9 ) ( 1 - 4 4 ) (8-214) F . 2 4 6 268 165 (161 - 375) (169 - 426) (75 - 366) Cl 278 260 231 (196 - 394) (171 - 458) (81 - I859) K e t a l Content (wt. :i) ?e 20j 3.35 4.09 2.90 1.86 (3.11 - 3.72) (3.08 - 5.09) . (2.02 - 3.79) (0.69 - 3.88) HgO 1.31 1.97 1.19 0.74 (1.10 - 1.63) (1.51 - 2.42) (0.81 - I.56) (0.17 - I.65) CaO 4.05 3.17 2.63 1.48 (3.07-5.21) (2.51-3.82) (1.63-3.83) (0.64-2.32) NajO 4.52 . 4.42 3.92 2.91 (3.86 - 4.90) (3.37 - 5.48) (2.74 - 5.11) (1.78 - 4.05) KjO 1.63 1.77 . 1.&2 3.64 (1.32 - 2.40) (1.17 - 2.37) (1.10 - 2.14) (2.28 - 5.39) SIC, 66.04 61.05 62.17 65. 03. (65.30 - 66.84).- (58.42 - 63.69) (60.88 - 63.47) (57.65 - 72.50) Values presented as eoomotric moans and ranpos, except f o r major olemonts. *Valuos In wt.-; 21-F-HC10,1 d l R o n t t o n ( T c t a l ) Values l n p.p.b. -"Aqun-roplii dlper.tlon (~:abec, 1970J 159 Ba, to some extent follows 1̂ 0, although the zone of enrichment is confined to a narrow central sector of the orebody (Fig. A9). GaO, Sr and NagO values show trends that are the reverse of IC>0 and Rb distribution. Enhanced levels occur at the periphery of the property and decrease progressively inwards (Figs. A10, A l l and A13). Lowest concentrations occur at the centre of the property coinciding in part with the porphyry dyke and in part with zone of intense potassic alteration and metallization. Distribution of Rb/Sr and Ba/Sr ratios are similar to those of Rb and Ba respectively, in that ratios increase progressively from the outer margins to the core (Figs. A12a and A12b). ^2°3 2 1 1 1 ( 1 a r e t o s o m e e x t e n t depleted within the ore zone reflecting leaching of these elements during formation of potassic and argillic alteration zones (Figs. A14 and A2). Distribution of anomalous Rb, Ba and Sr is strongly influenced by the type and intensity of wall-rock alteration as reflected by abundances of KgO and GaO respectively (Figs. 40 and 41). High Rb and Ba levels are associated with a zone enriched in K-feldspar and sericite (Fig, 11), whereas at the outer margins, where propylitic minerals are dominant, Rb and, to a lesser extent, Ba levels are relatively low. This relationship is amply demon- strated by the strong positive correlation between K^O and Rb (r = 0,86) (Fig, 40), and a relatively weaker but significant correlation between K^O and Ba (r = 0,33). These correlations are consistent with the tendency for Rb and, to a lesser extent, Ba to substitute for K in lattices of alkali feldspars. The relationship 160 1 5 0 Rb (p.p.m.) iool 5 0 2 0 ' r = 0.86 n = 54 * 8 o I 2 3 4 s A K20 (wt %) 5 6 FIGURE 40: Plot ^ R u b i d i u m versus Potassium.Bethlehem JA, Sr , s o o (P.p.m.) r = 0.58 n = 54 e © _ 0 9 9 9 9 9 CaO (wt %) % : ] FIGURE .41: Plot of Strontium versus Calcium, Bethlehem JA 2800' i lveT 161 between Sr and CaO (r = 0,58) is also consistent with their geochemical affinity. (c) geochemical Patterns Related to Mineralization (i) Distribution of Ore Elements (Cu, Fe, Mo, S) Copper. Cumulative log probability plot of Cu in 160 samples indicates the presence of two populations (Fig. 42); a lower population (B) representing 1% of the data, and an upper pop- ulation (A) comprising 87% • Mean values for populations B and A are 126 and 1410 p.p.m. respectively. Compared with the regional data of Brabec (1970)» populations A and B are both 'high-copper' population. Spatial distribution of population B is very erratic, whereas population A is confined to a broad inner zone of the property. The significance of population B is not certain, whereas population A represents 'ore'. Despite the erratic distribution of Cu, values exceeding 2000 p.p.m. are confined mainly to the ore zone at the 2800 and 2400 levels (Figs. Al6 and Al?). At the Suboutcrop level, effects of oxidation and enrichment might account for the scattered occurrence of anomalous values outside the ore zone (Fig. A15). As anticipated,: sulphide-held Cu (KC10̂ -HC1 extraction) shows a similar distribution as HNO-j-HClÔ  extractable Cu (Fig. A18). Sulphide-held Fei Enhanced values of sulphide-held Fe ( > 0.75%) are confined to an elongated belt extending from the eastern periphery of the property to the central part of the orebody (Fig.  163 A19). This corresponds to the area where pyrite and chal- copyrite are most abundant. A comparison with the distribution map of total Fe20^ (Fig. Alk) isolates the lithological variability which results in high Fe contents in Guichon rocks to the east of the mineralization. Molybdenum: Mo dispersion is erratic. Enhanced levels ( > 100 p.p.m.) occur at the southern fringe of the orebody, coinciding with the low-grade core on the porphyry dyke (Fig. A20). Elsewhere, values are generally less than 10 p.p.m. Distribution of Mo is consistent with metal zoning patterns ln which molybdenite is con- fined to the central zone (Fig. Ik), The erratic behaviour of Mo is attributed to its mode of occurrence as molybdenite within tiny quartz veinlets. Sulphur: S distribution generally increases from less than 0,1% at the periphery to more than k% in the ore zone (Fig. A2l). Regional background content is less than 0,0k%, Maximum concen- trations are attained in the orebody along the Bethlehem-Guichon contact. This coincides with the distributioni;.of sulphide-held Fe. Since chalcopyrite contains more S than bornite, the distribution of high S values is consistent with sulphide zoning patterns des- cribed in Chapter 3 (Fig. Ik), S shows significant correlations with Cu (r = 0.38), Fe (r = 0.31) and Mo (r = 0.28) (ii ) Distribution of Pathfinder Elements (Hg, B, Cl, F) Hg distribution defines a broad zone of anomalous values 164 (> 40 p.p.b.) at the centre of the property coinciding in part, with the zone of mineralization and intense potassic alteration. The periphery of the property is characterized "by background con- centrations, generally less than 10 p.p.b, (Fig. A22). B dispersion is extremely erratic, although 2 samples with values exceeding 40 p.p.m. occur at the fringes of the ore zone (Fig. A23). There appears to be a subtle effect of rock composition on B content in that most of the high values ( > 19 p.p.m.) occur in rocks of Guichon Phase in the eastern part of the property. Gl abundance ranges from 32 to 640 p.p.m. and average 256 p.p.m, (Table XXIV). Values progressively increase from less than 200 p.p.m. at the periphery to more than 500 p.p.m. at the centre of the property (Fig. A24). An east-west-trending belt of anomalous Cl (>400 p.p.m.̂  generally coincides with the orebody. Distribution of water-leachable Cl differs in that enhanced values ( > 1 3 p.p.m,) are only well developed along the southern half of the ore zone (Fig. A25). Since Cl occurs predominantly as chloride in fluid inclusions, i t is most logical to presume that enhanced Cl levels in the ore zone are associated with abundant fluid inclusions. Compared with regional data, Cl appears to be depleted in Guichon rocks at the eastern periphery of the deposit. Water-leachable Cl shows a relatively weak but significant positive correlation with total Cl (r = 0.45) (Fig, 4 3 ) . Anomalous F levels (> 395 p.p.m.) are confined to two small areas within the centre and western extremity of the orebody (Fig. A 2 6 ) , With the exception of the two anomalies, values 165 30h ® ® r = 0.45 n = .54 © © © cu <t! +-> ( J <D S_ +J X L U I o CM ® e @ © © © e © © i i _ - J 10 100 1000 Total Cl (p.p.m.) FIGURE 43: Relationship between tota l and water-extractable Chlorine in rocks, Bethlehem-Ja 2800 Level 166 exceeding 216 p.p.m. occur predominantly in Guichon Phase rocks. Distribution of water-extractable F is very erratic (Fig. A27) and shows no obvious correlation with total F (r = -0.l8). Relationships between Cu and potential pathfinder elements are summarized in Table XXVIII. No obvious correlation is apparent between Cu and Hg, B, Gl or F. However, there is positive relation- ship between KgO and Hg, B and Cu. Rb, Ba and Sr, which are also pathfinders, show only weak correlation with Cu, but are strongly correlated with KgO. The lack of correlation between Cu and volatile elements is probably related to the erratic distribution of Cu sulphides in fracture-fillings and as disseminations. In contrast, KgO is associated with pervasive development of potassic minerals within and beyond the ore zone. In view of the close spatial and temporal relationships between potassic alteration and metallization, a correlation between K^O and pathfinder elements also reflects an association with mineralization, albeit indirect. ( d) R-mode Factor Analysis Results of R-mode analysis of 20 variables in 54 samples from the 2800 level are summarized in Tables XXLX and XXX and / Figs. A28 to A 3 1 . Element associations characteristic of 3-, 4-, and 5- factor models are tabulated in Table XXIX. These models account for 58, 66 and ?2% of total data variance respectively. Apart from the discrete 'Cl factor', the 5-factor model is not appreciably different from the 4-factor model. On the basis of geology, mineralization and hydrothermal effects, a 4-factor model is considered adequate. Although variability in F and Cl data is largely unaccounted for (Table XXX). TABLE XXVIIls Relationships among copper, potassium and potential pathfinder.elements, Bethlehem JA, 2800 level Variables Correlation Coefficient (r) Hg - Cu 0.20 B - Cu 0.18 Cl - Cu 0.12 F - Cu 0.03 Rb - Cu 0.40 Sr - Cu -0.32 Ba - Cu 0.29 Cu - K 0.43 Hg - K 0.52 B - K 0.33 Rb - K 0.86 Sr - K -0.87 Ba - K 0.32 significant at .05 confidence level significant at .01 confidence, level TABLE XXIX: Element associations.of different factor models, trace and major element content of rocks, Bethlehem-JA, 2600,level Factor Model Factor vs vs V Fe Mg Zn Ca T i S i Mo 3 Rb Cu S K Na Sr K Ba Hg .Rb vs vs vs vs Zn Mg V Mn Ba Si K Rb Ca T i Cl Hg B Cu S Mo Ka vs vs Fe Zn Mg V Kn Si X Rb Hg Sr Ca Ti B Mo F Cu S Na Cl 169 TABLE XXX: In-•mode Varimax Factor Matrix, Bethlehem JA, 2800 level. variable Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Commun- a l i t v Cu -0.0412 0.3199 0.1362 -0.5751 0.4533 Zn -0.8112 -0.1915 -0.1542 0.3207 0.8213 Mn -0.6654 -0.0833 -0.4923 0.3032 0.7839 B -0.1044 0.4590 -0.5621 -0.3503 0.6603 Ti -0.4841 -0/5056 -0.2039 - 0,6612 0.6621 V -0.7925 -0.4330 -0.0400 -0.2541 0.8817 Mo 0.3255 . 0.0593 -0.3324 -0.6837 0.6874 Ba -0.4788 ©.4340 0.3423 " O.O263 0.5354 Rb 0.0332 0.8246 0.0443 -0.305^ 0.7764 Sr -0.2084 -0.7886 0.0604 0.3798 0.8132 Si 0.7482 0.004-7 -0.1765 0.0729 0.5964 S -0.1932 0.2084- 0.3576 -0.6619 0.6468 Hg 0.2773 0.4932 0.5318 -0.1244 0.6184 Cl -0.0461 0.0764 O.5438 -0.1496 O.326O F -0.4052 0.0255 -0.1739 -0.1213 0.2098 Ca -0.5021 -0.6447 -O.O505 0.1432 0.6908 Mg -0.7964 -0.3Q02 -0.0621 0.2688 0.8005 Fe -0.8287 -0.1375 0.1722 -0.0161 0.7355 Na -0.0445 -O.3096 -0.1168 0.7108 0.6168 K 0.1172 0.8916 0.0878 -O.2655 0.8873 Eigenvalue as % 36 30 13 21 170 (i) Factor 1 (Fe, Zn, Mg, V, Mn vs Si) This factor simply reflects lithology. High scores are associated with rocks of the Guichon Phase in the eastern portion of the property. In contrast, the more f e l s i c rocks of the Bethlehem Phase and *JA Porphyry' are characterized by lower scores (Fig. A28). ( i i ) Factor 2 (K, Rb, vs Sr, Ca, Ti) This factor which associates K and Rb reflects potassic alteration. High scores characterize the central part of the property where intense and pervasive potassic alteration i s pre- valent (Fig. A29). In contrast low factor scores occur at the periphery where propylitic and a r g i l l i c alteration are dominant. ( i i i ) Factor 3 (Cl, Hg vs B) This factor mainly reflects the effects of mineralization and lithology on volatile elements. Highest scores are found i n a broad centralszone coinciding with the orebody (Fig. A30). In contrast low factor scores occur in Guichon rocks i n the eastern part of the deposit, where B values are relatively high. (iv) Factor k (Cu, S, Mo vs Na) The association of chalcophile elements, Cu and Mo with S suggests an 'ore factor*. High scores are associated with the ore',zone where Na i s obviously depleted. Low scores are generally confined to the unmineralized periphery of the property (Fig. A31). 171 (e) General Discussion and Summary Results indicate that variations in the 'femic group' of elements (Mg, Zn, Mn, V, Ti, Go) are related to differences in content of ferromagnesian minerals in the lithologic units. Highest values are encountered in the more mafic rocks of Guichon Phase. In contrast lower values and high Si are associated with the felsic porphyry and Bethlehem rocks. Fe distribution is explicable in terms of lithology, hydrothermal alteration and epigenetic introduction as sulphides. K, Rb and Ba are enhanced in the zone of potassic alteration, whereas Ca, Na and Sr are depleted. These relationships reflect the geochemical affinity of these elements in magmatic and hydrothermal processes. Anomalous values of* Cu, S, Hg and Cl occur in a broad central zone coinciding with the orebody. Results of factor analysis and subjective inter- pretation are consistent. Geochemical contrast between regional background and anomalous environments is summarized in Table XXXI. Regional background represents fresh samples collected by Northcote (1968). Local background comprises a suite of samples from the periphery of the deposit, including the Bethlehem and Guichon Phases. It is evident that most of the ore and potential pathfinder elements show appreciable contrast. However, Cu, S and Hg show the best contrast between anomalous and local background concentrations. Contrast between anomalous and local background is higher for Cu and lower for S in Bethlehem than Guichon rocks reflecting the high back- TABLE XXXI: Comparison of mean element content and geochemical contrast in background and anomalous samples, Bethlehem-JA, 2800 level. Regional Regional 'Local Back- Mineralized Contrast Contrast Contrast SSZf ^C+^°rd. gX°Ued(^\ Z°ne ( A 1\ (Guichon) (Bethlehem) (Local Back-(Guichon) (Bethlehem) rock units) rock units) i 1 d j No. of samples (4) (6) . (14 ) (15) Ko * * 4 p.p.b. 16 p.p.b. F sr C u 6 ? 33 38? 2168 32 66 5-6 2 2 5 11 5 5 2.2 373 448 860 5552 15 1 2 6 , 5 4 B 5" 5 7 12 2.4 2' k 1 , 7 Cl * ' .* 200 313 1 , 6 178 235 - • - 1.3 Rb 50 43 41 . 56 1.1 i ' 3 ^ 935 693 672 448 **2.1 * * 1 > 5 Ba 300 56O 421 545 1.8 **1«°2 1 ' 3 Zn 27 19 24 15 * * l , t \ ** l - 3 ' f 1 * 6 Kn 422 372 201 ' 152 **2.8 ' ' **1-8,5 * * 1 , 3 1 • ? Geometric means; values in p.p.m. ' ''Contrast = Anomalous/Background •Regional data inadequate ••Negative contrast. 173 ground content of Cu and low S in Guichon rocks. Distribution of both Cu and S are however erratic (coefficient of variation, Cu = 1 . 2 2 , and S = 1.17) reflecting their modes of occurrence, as fracture-fillings and veins. Figs. 44a and 44b are schematic diagrams showing the extent of geochemical dispersion of trace elements and distribution of factor scores. Compared with regional background concentrations only Cu and S anomalies extend beyond the sampled area and the alteration aureole for at least 0,5km from the orebody. Anomalous values for other elements (Hg, Rb, Sr, Ba and Cl) are confined mainly to the orebody, or occur within the alteration envelope (Fig. 4 4 a ) . Distribution of positive scores of Factor 4 (Cu, S, Mo vs Na) i s almost as extensive as that of anomalous Cu and S, whereas positive scores of Factor 2 (K, Rb vs Ca, Ti) and Factor 3 (Hg, Cl vs B) are confined to the mineralized zone(Fig. 4 4 b ) . VALLEY COPPER Means, standard deviations and ranges of element con- centrations i n the Suboutcrop, 3^00 and 3300 levels are recorded in Table XXXII and Figs. A33- to A55« However, because of similarity i n metal distribution at the three levels, only data for the 36OO level are discussed. At Valley Copper, there i s only one major host rock - Bethsaida granodiorite. Although variations in modal proportions of rock constituents can slightly influence metal con- centrations, this parameter cannot be documented mineralogically or by major element analysis because of alteration effects. Hence, sw .Limit of sampling Limit of sampling NE Regional Background (Bethlehem) 372 ppm• I9ppm 693ppm• 560 ppm 43ppm 2 7 0 0 p p m 2ppmf 4 4 8 p p m 3 3 p p m 1 Mn 55 ppm 2 2 0 0 0 ppm Regional Background (Guichon) 1422 ppm •|27ppm 1935ppm | S—vl^Opprn^^ | | Rb V ] | / - OS08 ppm 1 1 I60ppm / \ i | I lOppb 1 Hg | ^ \ _ | 300 ppm 50 ppm -3800 ppm •2 ppm •373ppm 67ppm j Propy- 1 litic Potassic i Propylitic | : 1 i 1 1 B 1 B + r + + +\ B ORE G j G G G Porphyry . ZONE G G G > + + ^ S C A L E i - • 1 B B 200m FIGURE 4 4 a : Schematic diagram showing extent and relative intensity of primary halos, Bethlehem - JA , 2 8 0 0 Level (^Regional data inadequate) FIGURE 44b: Schematic diagram showing d i s t r i bu t i on of factor scores, Bethlehem-JA 2800 Level  176 "TABLE XXXII; Elements Means, deviations and ranges of trace and major elements at V a l l e y Copper (Values i n ppm except where indicated) VALLEY COPPER :r. . Number of samples A n a l y t i c a l Technique . (61) Suboutcrop l e v e l • (59) 3600 l e v e l (41) 3300 l e v e l Cu AA 2115 3.5 607-7370 1936 3.7 526-7120 1482 4.7 314-6996 Sulphide Cu AA 2194 3.6 619-7773 3* Fe Sulphide AA 0.54 0.17 0.36-0.72 Mo ES 4 5.2 0.87-23 5 4.9 0.93-23 3 4.3 0.78-15 Ag AA 0.18 2.9 0.06-0.54 0.21 3.1 0.07-0.68 0.23 1.7 0.07-0.77 "Zn AA 18 1.5 12-28 19 2.3 8-45 15 1.8 8-27 Mn AA .224 1.6 139-362 223 1.8 130-384 225 1.4 164-309 Co AA 177 TABLE XXXII: (cont.) Elements Analytical Technique VALLEY COPPER Number of samples (61) Suboutcrop level (59) 3600 level (41) 3300 level ES 28 1.3 21-38 29 1.4 21-41 29 1.4 21-41 Ti ES 948 1.5 613-1467 976 1.4 690-1377 910 1.5 619-1337 XRF 0.45 2.61 0.17-1.16 A* Hg AA 2.4 2.9 0.83-7.16 ES 8 1.7 5-14 8 1.7 4-13 7 1.6 4-11 Cl ISE (GM) 240 1.4 173-333 H20-Ex. Cl ISE 2.3 1.8 1.3-4.3 ISE 1.392 1.4 272-564 H20-Ex. F ISE 5.2 1.5 3.5-7.7 Rb XRF 59 1.2 48-73 178 TABLE XXXII; (cont.) Elements A n a l y t i c a l Technique (61) Suboutcrop l e v e l . VALLEY COPPER Number of samples (59) 3600 l e v e l (41) .3300 l e v e l Sr XRF 562 •1.8 304-1044 Ba 2* CaO 2*. MgO Es AA AA 568 . 1.3 433-745 545 , 1.2 436-681 1.95 0.80 1.14-2.75 0.42 0.11 0.31-0.53 584 1.4 425-803 Total Fe as AA * F e 2 ° 3 2* Na 20 2* K 20 AA AA 1.83 0.52 1.32-2.35 2.78 1.19 1.60-3.96 2.78 0.71 . 2.07-2.50 SiO- XRF 67.01 4.14 62.87-71.15 1 2 3 4 * ." * HNO3-HCIO4 d i g e s t i o n T o t a l d i g e s t i o n KCIO3-HCI dige s t i o n Geometric Means except where indicated Values i n weight percent Arithmetic Mean Values i n parts per b i l l i o n . AA = Atomic Absorption ES = Emission Spectrography XRF = X-Ray Fluorescence ISE = Ion-selective electrodes R = Range (Mean + standard deviation) 1 7 9 geochemical dispersion i s discussed only i n relation to hydro- thermal alteration and mineralization. (a) Geochemical Patterns Related to Hydrothermal Alteration Variations in trace and major element contents are influenced "by intensity and types of alteration; weak to moderate a r g i l l i c at the periphery; intense potassic/phyllic at the centre and northwest, and s i l i c l f i c a t i o n at the southeastern sector of the property (see Fig. 16), Metal concentrations i n relation to alteration types are summarized i n Table XXXIII, ( i ) Zn, Mn, Sr, Ba, MgO, F e 2 0 y CaO and Na20 decrease pro- gressively from the outer margins where a r g i l l i c alteration (sericite-kaolinite) i s dominant, to the central zone of intense phyllic alteration (Figs. A32 - A4l). The rate of metal depletion i s highest for Mn, Sr, Na20 and CaO (Table XXXIIl). Mn distribution at the 3300 level i s generally more uniform than at the 3&00 level (Figs. A33 and A 3 ^ ) . This corresponds to a decrease i n intensity of hydrothermal alteration as the base of the orebody i s approached. Although Ba and Sr both decrease from the periphery to core of the deposit, Ba/sr ratios increase in the same direction (Fig, A36b); 'that i s , the rate of Sr depletion Is higher than that of Ba. The similarity in geochemical behaviour of Zn, Mn, MgO, Fe 20^, Sr, CaO and Na20 at Valley Copper i s demonstrated by their significant positive correlations (Table XXXIV). ( i i ) In contrast to the above elements, Rb and KjO levels increase respectively from less than 51 P»P»m. and 1,8% at the 180 TABLE XXXIII: Chemical variations associated with types of alteration, Valley Copper 36OO level Unaltered vBe.thsai'da-, Phase A r g i l l i c Zone Phyllic Zone Potassic Zone Quartz-rich Zone No. of Samples (6) (11) (12) (10) (?) Metal Content (p. p.m.) Cu 219 506 3869 2379 1444 (4 - 135) (64 - 1000) (2300 - 6506) (877 - 6452) (597 - 3494) Zn 322 26 16 20 15 (11 - 32) (7 - 101) (7 - 37) (15 - 26) (10 - 23) Mn 2362 333 176 252 173 (290 - 420) (218 - 508) (78 - 397) (160 - 398) (132 - 229) B 5 9 8 6 7 (4 - 19) (5 - 13) (4 - 9) (4 - 12) Ti 600 893 1015 1009 1178 (400 - 700) (703 - 1136) (685 - 1504) (681 - 1495) (827 - 1677) V 15 24 31 34 24 (10 - 20) (17 - 33) (21 - 44) (24 - 50) (17 - 33) Mo 2 6 7 5 5 (1 - 29) (1 - 33) (2 - 13) (2 - 12) Ba 520 556 481 564 535 (500 - 700) (470 - 659) (389 - 594) (447 - 711) (446 - 541) Rb 35 57 69 61 45 (33 - 37) (45 - 71) (62 - 75) (46 - 76) (39 - 52) Sr 588 641 396 617 529 (550 - 627) (418 - 980) (161 - 969) (391 - 975) (420 - 665) (Cont. next page) 181 (Table XXXIII Contd) *s 0.03 0.12 0.35 0.23 (0.13 (0.27 - 0.37) (0.04 - O.38) (0.18 - 0.68) (0.08 - 0.69) (0.08 - 0.21) **Hg - 3 3 2 2 (1 - 8) (1 - 8) (1 - 4) (1 - 4) F - 301 428 384 347 (219 - 415) (334 - 547) (257 - 573) (236 - 510) Cl - 264 312 223 245 (207 - 335) (233 - 418) (186 - 276) (174 _ 344) Metal Content (wt. %) Fe 2 0 3 1.91 1.70 1.82 2.20 1.19 (1.34 - 2.30) (1.32 - 2.07) (1.28 - 2.35) (1.73 - 2.67) (0.92 - 1.46) MgO 0.54 0.42 0.39 0.50 0.34 (0.40 - 0.82) (0.30 - 0.53) (0.28 - 0.51) (O.36 - O.65) (0.28 - 0.41) CaO 2.83 2.66 2.08 I.85 1.66 (2.16 - 2.98) (I.67 - 3.64) (1.34 - 2.81) (1.39 - 2.30) (1.15 - 2.16) Na20 4.85 3.03 2.07 2.62 3.16 (4.55 - 5.31) (1.24 - 4.82) (1.34 - 2.81) (1.95 - .04) (2.69 - 3.62) K2° 1.90 2.44 3.26 3.05 2.08 (1.80 - 2.29) (1.61 - 3.27) (2.63 - 3.89) (2.12 - 4.23) (1.66 - 2.51) sio2 69.79 65.83 67.29 66.68 71.55 (68.61-70.88) (62.98-68.68) (62.51-72.09) (63.82-69.53) (69.29-73.81) * Values i n wt. % ** Values in p.p.b. 1 / + Means and ranges (mean -1 standard deviation) 2HF-HC10^ digestion JAqua regia digestion (Brabec, 1970) 182 outer margins of the property, to values exceeding 71 p.p.m. and 3*2% respectively at the central zone of intense phy l l i c / potassic a lterat ion (Fig, A42 and A43). Rb/Sr ratios follow closely Rb distr ibut ion, although the anomalous zone i s s l ight ly displaced eastwards ref lect ing Sr dispersion (Fig. A44). Depend- ence of Rb concentrations on K abundance i s demonstrated by a positive correlation (r = 0.64). ( i i i ) Although enhanced S i0 2 values (>66%) occur in a broad central zone of the property, maximum values (>70%) are associated with the zone of s i l i c i f i c a t i o n (barren quartz veins) towards the southeast of the deposit (Fig. A45). This zone i s also characterized by s l ight ly lower Sr, MgO, Fe 20^, Na 20, KgO and Rb than background areas (Table XXXIIl). (b) Geochemical Patterns Related to Mineralization ( i ) Ore Elements (Cu, Fe, Mo, s) Goppert (Figs. A46 - A48) A cumulative log probability plot of Cu in 161 samples (Fig. 45) shows that Cu distr ibution comprises two populations, A and B, in the proportion of 93 and 7% respectively; separated by a threshold value of 400 p.p.m. Mean values for populations A and B are 31̂ 2 and 25 p.p.m. respectively. Popula- t ion B corresponds to loca l background, and i s s imilar to the "low- copper" population obtained by Brabec (1970) f o r regional data. Its distr ibution though not symmetric, i s confined to the periphery of the deposit. Population A corresponds to mineralization, and  184 i s confined to the central mineralized zone (Figs. A46 - A4S). As; expected, sulphide Cu as determined by KCIO^-HCI digestion i s similar-in distribution to "total" (HNO^-HGIO^) Cu (Fig. A49). Relationship between Cu and quartz-sericite alteration i s demon- strated by positive correlation between Cu and K^O (Fig. 46), Sulphide-held Fe; Abundance of sulphide Fe i s generally low (< 0,9%), reflecting the low content of sulphide-held Fe i n bornite (Cu^-FeS^) compared to high content i n chalcopyrite (CuFeSg) at Bethelehem-JA. Values exceeding 0,5% are confined to a linear belt i n the northwest where pyrite and chalcopyrite are relatively abundant (Fig. A50). Within the ore zone, values are generally less than 0,3%, Molybdenum8 Although Mo distribution i s erratic, enhanced values (>23 p.p.m.) are confined principally to the borders of the Cu- r l ch zone (Fig. A51). This distribution suggests metal zoning that has not been disclosed by previous mineralogical studies. Sulphur: Anomalous levels of S (> 1$) occur in the northwest and eastern parts of the property, where chalcopyrite and pyrite are more abundant (Fig. A52), and coincide with enhanced levels of sulphide-held Fe. (See Fig. A50). The central part of the orebody, in which bornite predominates, i s associated with relatively lower S values (<3$). Thus, i n general, distribution of S i s consistent with sulphide zoning patterns described in Chapter 3 (Fig. 16b). 185 100001- r = 0.52 n = 61 • ••• • • • • •• • • IOOOH © Cu p.p.m.) 100K 'Or 1 2 3 4 .5 FIGURE 46: Relationship between Copper and Potassium at Valley Copper 3600 Level 186 ( i i ) Pathfinder Elements (Hg, B, Cl, F) Hg values range from 1 to 52 p.p.b. and average 3 p.p.b. Only 6 out of 6l values exceed 7 p.p.b. (mean + 1 standard deviation), and no trends are apparent. B dispersion i s erratic, although values exceeding 11 p.p.m. are generally confined to the outer margins of the ore zone espec- i a l l y on the northwestern fringe (Fig. A53). Cl levels do not show appreciable variations with most values lying in the range of 200 to 330 p.p.m. However, the few erratic values exceeding 330 p.p.m. are confined mainly to the ore- body (Fig. A54). Concentrations of water-extractable Cl range from 1-11 p.p.m. and average 2 p.p.m. High F values ( > 564 p.p.m.) occur principally in the area immediately northwest of the ore zone (Fig. A55)» Elsewhere F levels are less than 400 p.p.m. Water- soluble F ranges from 2 to 11 p.p.m. and average 5 P»P#m. No trends are evident and no obvious relationship exists between water-leachable F and total F, although a weak but significant positive correlation is apparent between water-extractable Cl and total Cl (r = 0.32). (c) R-mode Factor Analysis Results of R-mode analysis of 17 variables in 61 samples from the 36OO level are summarized in Tables XXXV and XXXVI and Figs. A56 and A59» Element associations of 3-» and 5- factor models are compared i n Table XXXV, These models account for 52, 61 and 66% of total data variability respectively. In view of known TABLE XXXIVi Correlation Coefficients, Valley Copper 36OO Level (61 samples) Cu Zn Kn Ti Cu 1.00111 Zn -.09361 1.00026 Kn -.39456 .33735 1.00040 Ti .01792 .15575 -.01470 1.00237 K0 • BA RB SR Ko .24672 .05675 -.10567 .12393 .99541 Ba •.1W2 .12542 .143,69 -.03094 -.04652 .99903 Rb .37740 .12089 .12647 .12232 .11787 -.27221 .99827 ' Sr -.26812 -.13824 .22664 -.19647 -.01470 .03285 -.29744 1.00064 310 2 . .09192 -.22783 -.70357 ' -.01000 .02269 -.20817 -i34770 -.22679 Sulphur .31459 -.01634 .00612 -.13831 .27055 -.04437 .26239 .13736 CL .16146 -.03333 • -.21862 .00140 -.06280 -.13436 -.03408 -.27440 Fluorine .23018 .09253 .09167 .11768 .11324 -.13848- .22627 .00918 Cad -.38200 .19159 .77431 . -.04650 .06439 .13281 .07514 .29501 i'EC -.13108 .43593 '.44522 .09750 -.00056 .19606 .11181 .20753 F E2°3 .13123 .42963 .46563 .04807 .17619 .12471 .31695 .13936 ;.-a2o -.42909 -.00011 •. .08370 . -.22651 -.17826 .23922 -.60460 .31261 .51606 .19298 -.08456 .04022 .09952 -.18691 .63246 -.08751 s i u 2 Sulphur CL F 510 2 1.00083 Sulphur -.28130 1.00061 CL . .24300 .-.19320 .99923 Fluorine -.13977 .37444 -.29287 .99867 CAO KCO FE 20 3 CAO -.6061*6 • .20511 -.32643 .14866 .99892 MgO -.38657 • .-5547 -.22062 . .20122 .28790 .99969 F e 2°3 -.59311 .31720 ' -.31070 .36293 .25726 .6856I .99975 llajO -.00597 -.13923 -.09350 . -.21901 -.03647 .07204 .05967 .99807 K 2 ° -.13096 .32400 -.04018 .33291 -.14842 .18374 .31122 • -.59373 CO T A 3 L S XXXVi Element associations of d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r models, Valley . Copper 36OO l e v e l . FACTOR MODEL FACTOR 3 > 5 " fin Ca Ca Fe Mn Kn Ca Sr vs 1 vs Kg . Zn S i vs S i Cu S i Cu Cu S K . S Cu Rb K F vs 2 F Fe " K vs C l Sr K Rb S Rb K F 3 vs Sr Na vs Ha Sr vs C l Zn • • Mg Mg Fe Fe Zn 5 Ko T i 189 TABLE XXXVI: Varimax Factor Matrix, Valley Copper, 36OO Level Variable FACTOR 1 FACTOR 2 FACTOR 3 FACTOR 4 COMMUNALITY Cu -0.4396 0.6129 0.3939 -0.0249 0.7247 Zn 0.1376 -0.0433 0.0731 0.7799 O.6344 Mn 0.8817 -0 ?0974 -O.O3O8 0.2886 0.8712 Ti -0.1100 -0.0979 0.2767 0.35̂ 9 0.2242 Mo -0.1179 0.4091 0.0798 0.0432 0.1895 Ba 0.0521 -0.0201 -0.4616 0.3409 0.3324 Rb 0.2005 0.2619 0.8052 0.1306 0.7742 Sr 0.4066 0.2640 -O.5078 -0.2458 0.5532 Si -0.7828 -0.2050 -0.0799 -0.2546 0.7261 S 0.1814 0.7053 0.1172 -0.1401 0.5637 Cl -0.2723 -0.5516 0.2?13 -0.0357 0.4533 F 0.1025 0.6063 0.1730 0.1132 0.4208 Ca 0.8951 0.300 -0.0395 0.0028 0.8035 Mg 0.3378 0.2216 -0.1445 0.7045 0.6804 Fe O.366I 0.5153 -0.0237 O.6328 0.8006 Na 0.0186 -0.1440 -0.8426 0.0523 0.7337 K -0.0686 0.4855 0.6273 0.1965 0.6726 Eigenvalue i n % 30 24 26 20 190 geologic and raineralogic evidence, a k- factor model i s considered appropriate, although i t does not account for a large proportion of the variance in Mo, Ti and Ba (Table XXXVI). (i ) Factor 1 (Ca, Mn, Sr vs S i , Cu) This factor reflects a r g i l l i c alteration. High factor scores coincide with the outer margins of the property which are relatively unmineralized and characterized by weak to moderate pervasive a r g i l l i c alteration. In contrast, low scores occur in the central zone of intense quartz-sericite alteration and metallization (Fig. A 5 6 ) . ( i i ) Factor 2 (S, Cu, F, Fe, K vs Cl) Association of Cu and S suggests an "ore factor". However, high factor scores are concentrated along a curved belt immediately north and northwest, and on the fringes of the orebody, where a chal- copyrite/pyrite zone i n conjunction with K-feldspar alteration i s dominant (see Figs. 16, A50 and A52). Low scores are found in the centre of the orebody where bornite i s the dominant sulphide, and in the barren quartz zone to the southeast (A57). ( i i i ) Factor 3 (Rh, K ys Na, Sr) This factor reflects potassic alteration. High scores are confined to the central and northwest parts of the deposit (Fig. A58). In contrast, low scores occur at the outer margins especially i n the west, and i n the southeast where barren quartz veins are conspicuously developed. 191 (iv) Factor 4 (Zn, Mg, Fe) The significance of this factor which associates the femic elements (Zn, Mg, Fe) i s not well understood. High scores occur along a linear belt Immediately north and within the ore zone, whereas low scores are confined to the centre and southeast. Dis- tribution of this factor closely follows that of Zn (Fig. A32). However, i t s association with Mg and Fe most probably reflects the distribution of secondary biotite which i s known to occur i n the northern fringes of the orebody, although i t s detailed distribution has not been documented. (d) General Discussion and Summary Results indicate that Zn, Mn, Sr, Ba, Mg, Fe, Ca and Na generally decrease from the outer margins to core of intense alteration and metallization. In contrast, Rb and K are enriched in the central zone of potassic/phyllic alteration. Enhanced Si and impoverished Sr, Ba, Mg, Fe, Na, K and Rb are characteristic of the s i l i c i f i e d zone in the southeast. The apparent depletion of 'femic' and lithophile elements i n zones of intense phyllic and a r g i l l i c alteration i s attributed to the breakdown of biotite and plagioclase into sericite and kaolinite. The base elements are leached and transferred to the outer margins of the deposits by outward-migrating solutions. Maximum levels of Cu are associated with the central zone of intense mineralization, whereas high S and sulphide-selective Fe are confined to the northwest rim of the deposit where pyrite and 1 9 2 TABLE XXXVIIs Comparison of mean element content i n background and mineralized samples , Valley Copper 36OO level. No. of Samples Regional Background (Bethsaida) ( 9 ) Local Background (Bethsaida) ( 1 0 ) Mineralized Zone ( 1 2 ) 3 .̂ ©ntrast. (Regional) -^'Contrast (Local) Cu 1 9 2 6 5 4 5 8 0 241 1 7 Mo 2 7 9 4 . 5 1 . 3 S 3 2 2 8 3 0 2 9 3 0 9 3 . 5 Hg * 3 p.p.b. 3 p.p.o.,? - 1 B 5 9 7 1 . 4 * * 1 . 3 Cl 2 6 5 288 - 1.1 F * 3 1 0 4 1 3 - 1 . 3 Rb 3 5 5 4 6 6 1 . 9 1 . 3 Sr 5 8 8 642 4 6 2 * * 1 .3 * * 1 . 4 Ba 5 2 0 5 5 6 5 1 4 * * 1 . 0 * * 1 .1 Zn 2 2 2 1 14 * * 1 . 6 * * 1 . 5 Mn 3 6 2 3 3 7 1 5 5 * * 2 . 3 * * 2 . 1 %o 1 . 9 0 2 . 2 9 3 . 0 9 1 . 6 1 . 3 2Na 2 0 4 . 3 5 3 . 2 8 2 . 0 3 * * 2 . 1 * * 1 . 6 2CaO 2 . 8 3 2 . 4 7 1.42 * * 2 . 0 * * 1 . 7 2 F e 2 0 3 1 . 9 1 1 . 6 8 I . 8 5 * * 1 . 0 1 . 0 * Regional data inadequate ** Negative contrast 1 Geometric means and values i n p.p.m. except where indicated. 2 Arithmetic means and values i n wt. %, ^ Contrast = Anomalous/Background 193 chalcopyrite are most abundant. Contrary to expectations, Hg and Cl do not show anomalous patterns at Valley Copper. B and F are generally erratic, although high values occur within the ore zone. Results of factor analysis are consistent with subjective inter- pretations of metal associations i n relation to geologic processes. Geochemical contrast between background and anomalous samples i s summarized i n Table XXXVII, Regional background com- prises fresh Bethsaida samples collected by Northcote (1968), Local background consists of samples at the periphery of the deposit:. Relative to regional and local background, Cu and S show the best contrast, whereas B and Hg show no contrast. Relatively pronounced negative contrast i s shown by Sr, Na and Ca, and positive contrast for Rb and K, Although, both Cu and S are generally erratic, Cu shows a greater variation as reflected by their coefficients of variation, (Cu = 1,12; S = 0,7?). Compared with regional back- ground data, i t i s apparent that halos of Cu and S extend beyond the sample area and at least 0,5 km from the ore zone on a l l sides; and also extend beyond the alteration aureole. In contrast the halos of the other elements are of limited extent (Fig, 47a). Negative scores of Factors 1 (Ca, Mn, Sr vs S i , Cu), 2 (S, Cr, F, Fe, K vs Cl) and positive scores of Factor 3 (RD, K vs Na, Sr) extend beyond the ore zone and as far as the periphery of the alter- ation envelope (Fig, 47b) LORNEX Results for surface and drill-core samples are presented WEST | Limit of sampling Sulfide Fe Limit of sampling Hg 8990ppm EAST Regional Background 362 ppm 22 ppm 588 ppm 520 ppm 35ppm 1800 ppm 2ppm •322ppm !l9ppm Argill ic Phyllic Argillic Bethsaida Phase SCALE i 1 0 200m ORE ZONE Bethsaida Phase FIGURE 47a •. Schematic diagram showing extent and relative intensity of primary halos, Valley Copper 3600 Level (* Regional data inadequate) E Factor 4 I—* FIGURE 47b: Schematic diagram showing d i s t r i bu t i on of factor scores, Valley'Copper, 3600 l e v e l . 196 TA3LE XXXVIII: *Means and ranges of trace and major elements, Lornex property. Surface Samples Subsurface Samples A l l Samples No. of samples (103) (85) (188) Metal Content (p.p.m) . • Cu l& 978 ' 180 (i± _ ^56) (75 - 12655) (10- 3200) Zn 23 35 27 (lit-- 36) (12 - 105) (12 - 64) Kn 240 260 249 (160 - 359) (91 - 742) (116 - .534) B - 8 16 10 (4 - 16) (8 -'31) (5-24) . Sr 573 . 458 518 (39̂  - 835) (283 - 742) (333 - 806) Ti 780 1138 925 (473 - 1284) (783 - 1653) (570 - 1501) V 28 33 31 (18 - 43) (18-59) (19 - 49) Mo 3 9 3 (1-8) (2-51) (1 - 19) Ba 461 420 443 (307 - 694) (244 - 722) (275 - 711) Metal Content (wt. %) , Fe2°3 I.85 I.85 .1.85 (1.16 - 2.54) (0.74 - 2.96) (0.95 - 2.75) CaO 2.99 2.27 2.66 (2.29 - 3.69) (0.90 - 3.64) (I.65 - 3.73) Nâ O 3.71 - 2.49 3.16 (2.98 - 4.44) (1.38 - 3.6O) (2.06 - 4.26) 1.47 1.95 1.68 (0.92 - 2.01) . (1.34 - 2.55) (1.06 - 2.31) * Geometric means, except for major elements. 197 in Figs. A57 to A?l and Table XXXVIII. Apparently, half of the surface samples are fresh and unmineralized, whereas'the remainder (51 samples) are weakly altered samples collected from the peri- phery of the Lornex orebody and from the sub-economic deposit (Discovery Zone) south of the main orebody (see Appendix). The latter group of samples are designated "mineralized surface" samples, in contrast to mineralized subsurface (drill-core) samples. B, Sr, T i , V, Mo and Ba were determined by semi-quantitative;.emission spectrography; Cu, Zn, Mn, Ag, Pb, Ca, Cd and Ni by atomic absorp- tion (HNÔ  - HCIO^ digestion); and Ca, Fe, Na and K by atomic absorption analysis of HF - HCIO^ digests, using the 'rapid teflon tube* procedure. Sample locations and plans are presented i n the Appendix. (a) Geochemical Patterns Related to Lithology Variations i n T i , V, F e ^ , CaO, Ba, Na20 and KgO in unmineralized surface samples at Lornex are principally related to variations i n abundance of ferromagnesian minerals and feldspars. Rocks of the Skeena Phase i n the eastern part of the property are enhanced i n T i , V, F e ^ and CaO (Table XXXIX), which reflects the greater abundance of femic minerals and the more calcic plagioclase composition. Ln contrast, rocks of the Bethsaida Phase are char- acterized by higher concentrations of Na20, KgO and Ba. A plot of Ba versus K^O shows a strong positive relationship (Fig. 48). However, surprisingly, Mn shows a negative correlation with Fe 20y (Fig. 49). This relationship i s attributed to the abnormally high 198 TABLE XXXIX: *Keans and ** ranges of metal concentrations in Lithologic units, Lomex Surface (unmineralized). Skeena Phase Bethsaida Phase No. of samples (19) (33) Ketal content (p.p.m.) Cu 13 14 (3 - 60) (3 - 58) Zn 20 20. (15 - 26) (16 - 25) Mn 172 266 : (132 - 226) (213 " 330) Sr 597 606 (466 - 764) (466 - 788} Ti 728 533 (512 - 1036) (318 - 820) V 33 17 (26 - 42) (13 - 23) Ba 428 510 (290 - 632) (365 - 712) Metal content (wt. %) F E2°3 2.12 1.47 (1.46 - 2.77) (1.31 - 1.64) CaO 3.50 2.68 (2.97 - 4.02) ( 2.20 - 3.15) M a 2 a 3.70 4.05 (3.34 - 4.05) (3.75 - 4.35) h° 1.13 1.42 (0.55 - 2.29) (0.82 -1.82) * Geometric means, except for major elements + * Mean - standard deviation. 199 500H r n -0.42 51 Mn (PPm) V V V V W o VV V vv W V V s lOOh 50L Fe as % f e 2 0 3 FIGURE 49: Manganese versus Iron in unmineralized samples, Lornex Surface. 1000 500 Ba (ppm) 100 50 V V V 0.63 51 v V v v v © 3 ® @ Skeena Phase v Bethsaida Phase K20 % FIGURE 48: Plot of Barium versus Potassium in background samples, Lornex Surface. (*several samples plot at the same point) 200 concentrations of Mn i n biotite of Bethsaida Phase (Chapter 7, Table LIX). A student t-test suggests that, at the ,05 confidence level, significant difference exists between fresh Skeena and Beth- saida Phases i n Mn, T i , V, Ba, F e ^ , CaO and Na20, but no signif- icant difference i n Cu, Zn, Mo, Sr and KgO. Metal concentrations in fresh Skeena and Bethsaida within Lornex property do not d i f f e r appreciably from regional data. (b) Geochemical Patterns Related to Hydrothermal Alteration Effects of hydrothermal alteration are most evident in drill-core samples which penetrate the ore zone, and to a lesser extent in mineralized surface samples. Table XL shows the concen- trations of trace and major elements in relation to alteration types. Zn, Mn and FegO^ levels i n surface samples are relatively enriched i n the propylitic zone at the periphery of the deposit relative to background Skeena rocks to the east (Figs.A60ib, A6lb & A62b) in pocket). The enhanced trace-element values are attributed to substitution for Fe in chlorite, epidote pyrite and siderite.that are relatively abundant i n this zone. In contrast to the above distribution, the Discovery Zone lying south of the main orebody is characterized by lower values because of the f e l s i c composition of the porphyry host rock and a r g i l l i c alteration. The relation- ships between Zn and Mn, and FegO^ are demonstrated by positive correlations. (Zn and FegO^, r = 0.52? Mn and FegO^, r = 0.48), Ba, Sr and KgO do not show systematic variations related to alter- ation i n surface samples. 201 TABLE XL: *Means and **ranges of element abundances associated with alteration types, Lornex Subsurface. Unaltered Propylitic Propy-Argillic Ar g i l l i c Phyllic Skeena Phase Zone Zone Zone Zone Mo. of samples (6) (15) (15) (20) (8) Ketal content (p.p.m.) Cu 1 26 999 2754 3501 752 (9-45) (245 - 4065) (1462 - 5186) (2250 - 5448) (54 - 10314) Zn. 2 19 40 38 22 23 (22 - 35) (17 - 92) (26 - 56) (12 - 40) (12 - 32) Kn 1 312 275 201 229 218 (250 - 340) (166 - 453) (135 - 298) (116 - 451) (104 - 436) B - 5 10 14 17 30 (5 - 20) (7 - 28) (10 - 30) (19 - 48) Sr 653 490 432 520 252 (625 - 680) • (298 - 807) (299 - 625) (300 - 900) (180 - 353) . Ti 1000 978 1275 1473 944 (900 - 1200) (734 - 1303) (917 - 1772) (1053 - 2060) (595 - 1496) V .35 32 36 44 14 (30 - 40) (26 - 38) (25 - 52) (35 - 56) (3 - 62) Ko 2 5 8 14 10 (1 - 21) (3 - 22) (35 - 56) (3 - 32) Ba 550 528 485 317 371 (500 - 600) (38I - 732) (324 - 727) (234 - 585) (267 - 515) Metal .content (wt. Fe 20 3 2.98 3.09 1.83 1.49 1.68 (2.80 - 3.47) 2.57 - 3.61 (1.31 - 2.34) (1.14 - 1.85) (I.03 - 2.34) CaO 3.84 2.48 I.69 2.60 1.06 (3.73 - 3.91) (1.97 - 2.98) (0.81 - 2.56) (0.83 - 4.37) (0.53 - 1.60) NagO 4.78 2.80 2.83 2.56 I.30 (4.38 -- 5.19) (1.89 - 3.71) (2.21 - 3.46) (1.65 - 3.46) (0.1 - 2.60) \ ° 1.73 1.79 2.05 1.93 3.52 (1.30 - 1.96) (1.41 - 2.18) (I.36 - 2.74) U;34'- 2.51) (2.76 - 4.26) ^ * Geometric means, except for major elements ** Mean i 1 standard deviation HF-HC10^ digestion: ckqy& regia digestion (Brabec, 1970) 202 In subsurface samples, Zn and FegO^ values decrease west- wards from the eastern border of the orebody, and lowest values are attained i n the zone of intense a r g i l l i c , phyllic and potassic alteration close to the Lomex Fault (Figs. A60 and A6l). Mn shows a sl i g h t l y different distribution. Lowest values are encountered i n a central zone (Holes 8 , 9 and 1 0 ) where a r g i l l i c alteration i s prevalent (Fig. A62). Sr distribution closely follows those of CaO and NagO i n that highest values ( > 600 p.p.m, Sr, >k% CaO and > 2.8)5 Na 2 0) are confined to Hole 10 where gypsum and quartz-carbonate-sulphide veins are relatively abundant. Lowest values of these elements are con- fined to the eastern periphery of the deposit and immediately east of Lornex Fault (Figs, A63a, A63b and A64), Ba distribution i s similar to that of K^O (Figs. A65a and A 6 5 b ) . Maximum values ( > 8 0 0 p.p.m. Ba and >2.6)S K^O) occur immediately east of Lornex Fault where K-feldspar veins are abundant, and i n Holes 8 and 9 where sericite with muscovite i s common. (c) Geochemical Patterns Related to Lornex Fault The north-trending Lornex Fault transects the Lornex property and extends for more than 16 km across the Guichon Greek batholith. Gouge zones associated with the fault are up to 1 0 0 m wide, adjacent to the Lornex orebody. Gouge samples collected from the fault were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and results indicate that the dominant minerals are quartz and sericite. X-ray patterns suggest, but do not confirm, the presence of sphalerite. 203 There i s no evidence of secondary coatings of Fe and/or Mn oxides. Anomalous trace and major element patterns are associated with gouge samples from the Lornex Fault adjacent to the Lornex orebody (Table XLl). Many elements that are not abundant within the orebody are relatively enriched along the faul t . Thus Zn values in excess of 1000 p.p.m. are common, In contrast to values of less than 30 p.p.m. immediately west of the fault (Fig. A 6 0 ) . Mn, Ag, Pb, Gd, Hg and CaO, and to a lesser extent Mo, are enriched i n the fault gouge (Figs. A6l, A66, A67, A68, A71 and A63). In contrast, Cu, Ni, Co and FegO^ do not show such enrichment. Fig. 50 shows that Hg closely follows Zn, probably i n sphalerite. Samples collected from the fault gouge about 500m north of the orebody do not show anomalous metal concentrations, suggesting that the anomaly might be directly related to the Lornex orebody. The Lornex Fault adjacent to Lornex orebody i s unique in the Highland Valley for associated anomalous metal concentrations. This fault i s a major crustal feature i n the area (Ager et a l . , 1973) and i t s influence on the localization of the Lornex and Valley Copper deposits can not be over-emphasized. Structural evidence (McMillan, 1971) suggests pre- and post- mineralization movements occurred along the fault. The present locations of the two deposits have been attributed to post-mineralization l e f t - l a t e r a l movement on the fault (Carr, 1967). This contention i s to some extent supported by the sharp truncation of geochemical anomalies by the fault in the Lornex property. Lack of Cu enrichment along the fault, suggests 204 TABLE XLI: Metal concentrations along the Lornex Fault. Background Samples Lornex Fault Samples (15) (10) Means Banges Means Ranges Metal content (p.p.m.) *Hg 6 4 -12 145 26 - 784 Zn 20 17 - 23 449 121 - I656 Ag .01 - 0.24 0.16 - 0.35 Ni 2 1 - 3 1 - Fb 1 - 167 57 - 490 Go 1 1 - 2 1 - Gd 1 1 1 2-36 Mn 373 243 - 573 5022 I858 - 13573 Cu 12 8 -15 27 14 - 52 B 9 4 - 18 38 22 - 63 Sr 606 438 - 838 270 174 _ 417 Ti 809 583 - 1123 794 512 - 1229 V 24 18 - 32 6 2-24 Mo 2 1 - 2 10 4-24 Ba 682 395 - 1176 324 230 - 458 Metal content (wt. %) F e2°3 1.41 1.27 - 1.56 1.36 0.94 - 1.79 CaO 2.11 1.59 - 2.63 3.87 2.85 - 4.62 Na20 3.32 2.15 - 4.50 0.72 0.5 - 1.93 K.0 1.51 1.27 - 1.75 2.48 1.87 - 3.09 * Values i n p.p.h. 1 Samples immediately west of fault 205 1000 100 10 n = 41 r = 0.89 • • OO o 0 - a $8o o„ . a a o o o • Fault Samples O Samples west of fau l t • Samples east of f au l t • •• 10 , , 100 1000 10000 Zn (ppm) FIGURE 50: Relationship between Mercury and Zinc along Lornex Fault. 206 that anomalous metal values are not due to post-mineralization movement and crushing of sulphides within the fault zone. Because of appreciable vertical movement on the fault, the present surface represents a deeply-eroded level. On this basis, metal concentrations might represent? ( l ) a leakage halo, suggesting that the fault served as a pathway for upward migrating solutions? or (2) super- gene concentrations by downward migrating surface waters. The la t t e r i s less l i k e l y since acid groundwaters should also have concentrated Cu and Fe as commonly characteristic of supergene enrichment i n porphyry copper deposits i n southwest U.S.A. Consequently, the anomaly along the Lornex Fault i s believed to represent a leakage halo as defined by Hawkes and Webb (1962). ( d) Geochemical Patterns Related to Mineralization Coppert Cumulative probability plot of Cu i n 188 samples shows a characteristic curved pattern suggestive of a mixture of two lognormal populations A and B in proportion of 60 and k0% respectively (Fig. 51). The value separating the two populations i s estimated as 75 p.p.m. The lower population (B) with a mean value of 6 p.p.m. represents background surface samples, especially rocks of the Beth- saida Phase. The upper population, with a mean value of 1750 p.p.m. corresponds to mineralized subsurface and surface samples. The lower and upper populations correspond to the low-copper and high- copper populations of Brabec*s (1970) regional data. Cu content of surface samples east of Lornex deposit increases from less than 21 p.p.m. i n background Skeena to enhanced Probabilty (cum.%) FIGURE 51: Log probab i l i ty plot of Copper at Lornex. 208 values ranging from 80 to 2000 p.p.m. at the periphery of the ore- body (Fig. A69 in pocket). Near the Skeena Cu vein, values are generally background (3-24 p.p.m.) In contrast,, to the above dis- tribution, Bethsaida Phase rocks west of the Lornex Fault are char- acterized by low Cu values (< 21 p.p.m.). In subsurface samples, Cu abundance increases from less than 100 p.p.m. at the periphery of mineralization i n the east, to values exceeding 5000 p.p.m. in the ore zone close to the Lornex Fault (Fig. A70). Molybdenum; Except for a few erratic values exceeding 20 p.p.m. within the ore zone, Mo in surface samples i s below detection l i m i t (< 2 p.p.m,). In subsurface samples, high values (>100 p.p.m.) are encountered in Hole 10. Elsewhere, values are generally less than 10 p.p.m, (Fig, A71a). Mo shows significant positive correl- ations with Cu(r = 0.40) and Fe (r = 0,41), reflecting their close association within the ore zone. Other Elements; (Ti, V, B): Enhanced Ti ( > 2000 p.p.m.) and V (>50 p.p.m.) levels, relative to background values of less than 1000 and 30 p.p.m. respectively, are characteristic of the ore zone i n Holes 12, 10 and 9» A significant correlation between V and Ti (r = 0,45) demonstrates their covariance. However, no overall sign- ificant relationship exists between Ti and F e ^ ^ r = 0.09), and only a weak one between V and FegO^ ( r = O.37). Nevertheless the pos- i t i v e relationships between Cu and V (r = 0.49) and Cu and Ti (r - 6.38) are significant. Enhanced levels of Ti and V are believed to be related to the occurrence of epigenetic magnetite whose occurrence 209 has been reported by McMillan (1972), although i t s detailed dis- tribution has not been documented. B content in' surface samples east of the deposit generally increases westwards from values less than 5 p.p.m. to more than 50 p.p.m. at the periphery of the orebody (Fig. A71b, i n pocket). Maximum value (400 p.p.m.) occur i n two samples of quartz porphyry in the Discovery Zone. In drill-core samples, values ranging from 20 to 100 p.p.m. are common within the mineralized zone i n Holes 12 and 10. (e) R-mode Factor Analysis Factor analysis was applied separately to 13 elements i n 103 surface and 85 subsurface samples. A 3-factor model that accounts for 66)S of to t a l data v a r i a b i l i t y was chosen for surface samples because of the apparent simplicity of metal distribution. Results are tabulated in Tables XLII and XLIII. Factor maps are not provided for surface samples. Element associations of 3-» and 5- factor models for subsurface samples are recorded i n Table XLIV. A 4-factor model that accounts for 71% of tot a l data variance was chosen, Correlation coefficients and varimax factors matrix are recorded i n Tables XLV and XLVI. ( i ) Surface Samples Metal associations of each factor are summarized as follows: Factor 1: B, Mo, Cu vs Na, Sr TABLE XLIIt Correlation coefficients, Lornex Surface (103 samples) Zn Mn Zn . 1.00008 Mn .35471 1.00171 Cu .26211 .31128 B -.14621 .33697 Sr .24075 -.37264 Ti .19533 .11540 V .34466 .0138I Ho .01445 .22111 Ba .12628 .14195 CAO .43088 -.11792 F e2°3 .14722 -.11821 Nag0 .06946 -.40059 ' .07878 .35875 BA CAO BA .99603 CAO •35643 1.00233 Fe 20 3 -.14378 .51422 Na20 -.01745 .10442 £,0 .57224 .27595 Cu B Sr .99973 .53366 .99982 -.47431 -.57135 .99751 .28962 .34636 .00363 .27183 .20152 .03148 .62600 .61041 -.37531 -.05715 -.23472 - .04336 -.08345 -.27365 .27002 -.29023 -.12725 .22473 - .58741 ' - .52696 .75398 .31445 .23395 -.57951 FEgO^ NAgO • KgO .99848 .13803 . 1.00018 - .06428 -.51759 I.OOO35 Ti V Ko 1.00082 .65622 . .99727 •34175 .27803 I..OOO36 -.09*422 - .06181 ' - . 2 7 2 9 6 .24147 .45437 - .24150 .11613 •.365OI - .23653 -.28978 - .29302 - .54069 .18253 .20167 .15968 211 TABLE XLIII: R-mode Varimax Factor Matrix, Lornex Surface (3-Factor Model) Variable FACTOR 1 FACTOR 2 FACTOR 3 Communal!ty Zn -0.0216 0-0.5992 0.2122 0.4045 Mn 0.4425 0.0024 0.4201 0.3723 Cu 0.7752 -0.1043 0.1119 0.6243 B 0.8225 0.0530 . - 0 . 1 0 8 9 0.6911 Sr -0.7081 -0.3253 - 0 . 3 8 2 6 0.7540 Ti . 0.4454 -O.6347 -0 .1378 O.6203 V 0.3296 - 0 . 8 2 1 7 - 0 . 0 7 3 6 0.7893 Mo 0.8097 -O.O387 - 0 . 2 0 3 7 0.6986 Ba - 0 . 2 2 8 9 -O.O369 O.85I8 0.7793 Ca -0.2963 - 0 . 7 6 8 5 0.3463 0.7984 Fe • -0.2641 -0.6003 - 0 . 1 3 2 4 0.4477 Na -0.8097 0.0070 - 0 . 2 8 9 7 0.7396 K 0.3775 -0.1292 0.8117 0.8181 Eigenvalue i n % 46 30 24 212 TABLE XLIV: Metal Associations of Different Factor Models, Lornex Subsurface. Factor Model FACTOR 3 4 •>5 Na Na K Sr Sr B 1 vs vs vs K K Na B . B Sr V V V Ti Ti Ti 2 Cu Cu Cu vs vs vs i . Mn Mn Mn i I Zn Zn Zn • I Mo Mo Fe Fe Ba 3 vs vs vs mm— Ba Ba Mo k Ca Ca Zn Zn 5 Fe TABLE XLVi Correlation Coefficients, Lornex Subsurface (85 samples) Zn Mn Cu B Zn .99907 Mn .43083 1.00010 Cu -.06213. -.44652 .99993 SR TI V M0 B .12799 .11402 .24503 1.00088 ; Sr -.03205 ; .06261 -.20071 -.47660 1.00165 Ti -.31363 -.32695 .38287 .09894 .01410 1.00187 V -.50424 -.49967 .48870 -.19051 .24054 .45421 1.00243 Mo -.07721 -.22820 •.39740. • .25080 -.I327I .10279 .29072 ' 1.00121 Ba -.12483 .04726 -.31713 -.35403 .03305 .03526 .OO856 -.56400 CAO .43728 -.23708 .25943 -.00753 -.13207 -.02426 -.00144 .06868 F E 2 ° 3 -.19019 . .14063 .04045 -.12355 .46190 -.08887 .37263 .40641 Ka20 -.25491 -.16913 '  -.23802 -.60573 .56869 .03610 .28580 . -.22924 KgO .18976 .15909 .20910 .40040 -.47570 .03681 " -.10949 -.04096 B a C A O F e2°3 N a2° KgO B A 1.00232 -.02891 -25315 .24555 .23106 CAO 1.00067 -.18439 -.17574 .14711 FE 20 3 1.00019 .17867 -.18223 Na20 .99979 -.59371 .99879 214 TABLE XLVI: R-mode Varimax Factor Matrix, Lornex Subsurface (4 - factor Model) FACTOR 1 FACTOR 2 FACTOR 3 FACTOR 4 Communality Zn -0.1371 -0.5809 0.0648 -0.6531 0.7870 Mn -0.1064 -0.8011 0.0108 0.2244 0.7035 Cu -0.2335 0.6542 0.3712 -0.2838 0.7267 B -0.7672 -0.0570 0.3228 0.0830 0.7029 Sr 0.8066 -0.0714 0.1061 6.0935 0.6757 Ti -0.1161 0.6882 -O.O636 0.1419 0.5112 V 0.2823 0.7897 0.2051 0.1411 0.7653 Mo 40.1281 0.2587 0.8063 -0.0295 0.7341 Ba 0.0933 0.0494 -O.836I 0.1193 0.7244 Ca -0.0539 0.1246 -0.0019 -0.9023 O.8327 Fe 0.4039 -0.0256 0.6373 0.3217 0.6734 Na 0.8324 0.1397 -0.2215 0.1296 0.7783 K -0.7388 0.0006 -0.1799 -0.0509 0.5809 Eigenvalue i n % 31 29 23 17 215 Factor 2: V, Ca, T i , Fe, Zn Factor 3 s Ba, K Factor 1 i s an 'ore association', Most pronounced scores coincide with the subeconomic deposit (Discovery Zone) lying south of the Lornex orebody. Low factor scores coincide with fresh Bethsaida rocks west of Lornex Fault. Factor 2 reflects lithology and propylitic alteration. High scores are associated with rocks of Skeena Phase east of Lornex deposit, with maximum values in the propylitic zone marginal to the orebody. In contrast, the more f e l s i c Bethsaida rocks west of the Lornex Fault, and a r g i l l i z e d quartz porphyry i n the Discovery Zone are associated with low scores. Factor 3 reflects degree of K-feldspar destruction i n host rocks. High scores are confined to fresh Bethsaida and Skeena rocks to the west and east of the Lornex orebody respectively. In contrast, low scores are associated with the Discovery Zone and the periphery of the main orebody where K-feldspar has been destroyed, by propylitic and a r g i l l i c alteration. ( i i ) Subsurface Samples Element associations for the 4 factors are summarized as follows: Factor 1: Na, Sr vs K, B Factor 2: V, T i , Cu ys Mn, Zn Factor 3s Mo, Fe vs Ba Factor 4: Ca, Zn 216 Factor 1 reflects hydrothermal alteration. High factor scores occur at the periphery of the orebody in Hole 51 (Fig. A72). Low scores are associated with the central zone and ground adjacent to the Lornex Fault where intense potassic and phyllic alteration are prevalent. Factor 2: Distribution of this factor i s almost the reverse of Factor 1. I t reflects Cu mineralization (Cu sulphides in association with magnetite). High scores are confined to a broad central zone of intense metallization and alteration. Low scores occur at the ^periphery of the deposit (Fig. A 7 3 ) . Factor 3 reflects Mo mineralization. Most pronounced scores occur in Holes 10 and 8 where Mo mineralization i s most intense (Fig. A74). Low scores are associated with Bethsaida rocks and potassic alteration immediately east of the Lornex Fault. Factor 4: High scores of this factor occur along the Lornex Fault and periphery of the orebody i n Hole 51• low scores coincide with the area immediately east of the fault (Fig. A75)» This factor mainly reflects metal enrichment along the Lornex Fault. (f) General Discussion and Summary Background concentrations of V, T i , CaO and FegO^ are higher i n rocks of the Skeena Phase i n the eastern part of the property than i n fresh Bethsaida rocks west of Lornex Fault* This i s consistent with the higher modal content of ferromagnesian iidnerals i n rocks of the Skeena Phase. However, Mn i s relatively higher i n rocks of Bethsaida Phase reflecting the abnormally high Mn content 217 of biotites i n the Bethsaida Phase (Chapter 7» Table Lix). Hydrothermal effects are associated with extensive leaching of Zn, Mn, Fe, Na, Sr and Ba i n the central zone of intense a r g i l l i c alteration. This i s attributed to complete breakdown of ferro- magnesian minerals and plagioclase to sericite and kaolinite. In contrast, the peripheral propylitic zone with abundant chlorite, epidote and pyrite i s relatively enhanced i n Zn, Fe and Mn. Anomalous concentrations of K and Ba are associated with potassic alteration immediately east of the Lornex Fault. The sharp truncation of geo- chemical anomalies by the Lornex Fault i s consistent with geologic evidence which suggests post-mineralization movement along the fault. Compared to adjacent lithologies, gouge along the Lornex Fault i s enriched i n Zn, Mn, Hg, Pb, Ag and CaO but show no enhancement<in Cu, Fe, Co and Ni. Epigenetic metallization i s associated with pronounced anomalies of Cu, Mo, B, Ti and V. Relatively high Ti and V reflect magnetite within the ore zone. Variability i n Cu values i s examined in Table XLVII.Coefficients of variation, i n local background samples are higher than i n mineralized samples. This i s attributed to the more uniform distribution of fractures i n ore zones than areas peripheral to mineralization, Geochemical contrast between background and mineralized environments i s summarized i n Table XLVIII, Cu and Mo show best contrast. In the eastern part of the property Cu and B halos extend at least 1000m from the orebody, but are sharply truncated in the west by the Lornex Fault, Dispersion of the other elements does 218 TABLE XLVII: Comparison of var i a b i l i t y i n copper contents of background and mineralized samples, Lornex. Drill-hole # No, of Log. mean Log. std. ^Coefficient samples deviation of variation Background samples Hole 49 69 1.025 0.707 0.69 Hole 51 67 2.746 0.539 0.20 Mineralized Samples Hole 12 72 3.482 O.313 0.08 Hole 8 78 3.549 0.234 0.06 Hole 10 94 3.556 0.175 0.05; Hole 9 49 3.451 0.317 0.09 *Coefficient of variation = standard deviation/mean 219 TABLE XLVIII; Comparison of metal contents and contrast i n background and mineralized areas, Lornex property (Values in p.p.m. except where indicated.) ^Regional background (Skeena) Local background (Skeena) Mineralized Zone Contrast (regional) Contrast (local) i. of samples (6) (51) (60) Cu 26 149 2180 84 14 Zn 19 33 29 1.5 1.5 Mn 312 253 193 *1.6 *1. Mo 2 5 13 6.5 2.6 B 5 11 18 3.6 1.6 Ti 1000 1022 1237 1.2 1.2 V 35 35 40 1.1 1.1 Sr 653 5̂ 5 433 *1.5 *1.3 . Ba 550 445 383 *1.4 *1.2 %o 1.73 1.47 1.88 1.1 1.3 2Na 20 4.78 3.29 2.10 *2.3 *1.6 Geometric means except for major elements. 2 Arithmetic means and values in wt. %, ^Fresh samples of Skeena Phase collected by Northcote (1968). 4 Samples at the periphery of the deposit. Negative contrast. 220 not extend beyond the periphery of the ore zone (Fig. 52). In surface samples, positive scores of Factor 1 (B, MO, CU vs Na, Sr) are as extensive as the halos of Cu and B. Because of sampling limitations, positive factor scores in subsurface samples are con- fined to the alteration envelope (Fig. 53). HIGHMONT Results of trace and major element analyses i n surface and drill-core samples axe summarized i n Table XLIX and Figs. A76 to A86. Surface samples comprise outcrop samples from background areas and suboutcrop samples from the No. 2 Ore Zone (West Pit) and the periphery of the main orebody (No. 1 Ore Zone or East P i t ) . Sub- surface samples were collected from a cross-section which includes background and mineralized zones. Sample locations and plans are presented in the Appendix. Analytical techniques are the same as described for Lornex. (a) Geochemical Patterns Related to Lithology Rocks of the Skeena Phase within Highmont are characterized by higher Zn, Mn, T i , V, FegO^, KgO and CaO and lower Na and Sr relative to the more f e l s i c rocks of the Bethsaida Phase and Gnawed Mountain Porphyry (Table L). A Student t-test suggests that these differences are only significant for T i , V and FegO^ at the .05 confidence level. The relatively higher levels of the 'femic' elements are attributed to the relatively higher modal proportions of ferromagnesian minerals in Skeena rocks. Compared with the Beth- saida Phase, the Gnawed Mountain Porphyry i s characterized by lower -Limit of sampling 650 ppm Limit of sampling. 200 ppm 200ppm Sr 960 ppb Zn I2ppm Regional background • 550 ppm '653 ppm •312 ppm 76ppm I9ppm 15 ppm • 2 ppm J I •26ppm 1 1 1 Phyllic Argi l lie P r o p y - A r g i l l i c Propylitic B Bethsaida Phase X B B S ORE S S ZONE S Skeena Phase S C A L E 400m FIGURE 52: Schematic diagram showing extent and relative intensity of primary halos, Lornex subsurface. (* Regional data inadequate) FIGURE 53: Schematic diagram showing distribution of factor scores, Lornex Subsurface. 1 2 TABLE XLIX: "Means and ranges of trace and major elements at Highmont. Surface Samples Subsurface Samples A l l Samples No. of samples (188) (95) (283) Ketal content (p.p.m.) Cu 108 111 109 (19 - 634) (15 - '809) (19 - 676) Zn 18 19 18 . (11- 30) (15 - 26) (11 - 30) M n 176 230 178 (116 - 268) (152 - 349) (117 - 272) B 12 10 12 (4 - 35) (5-24) (4 .- 37) Sr 761 620 - 768 (504 - 1148) (450 - 855) e+94 - 1194) Ti 1464 999 1482 (1000 - 2143) (659 - 1513) (1010 - 2174) V 38 33 35 (26 - 55) (25-44) (26 - 52) M o 2 4 3 (1 -7) (1 - 11) (1 - 8) Ba 642 500 627 (405 - 1015) (281 - 887). (391 - 1007) Metal content (wt. %) Fe 2 0 3 1.92 2.04 1.93 (1.25 - 2.59) (1.53 - 2.55) (1.31 - 2.56) CaO 2.69 3.12 2.83 (2.05 - 3.33) (1.62 - 4.63) (1.79 - 3.87) Ka 2 0 3.71 3.82 3.75 (3.21-4.21) (3.20-4.44) (3.17-4.34) KgO 1.34 107 1.35 (0.82 - 1.86) (0.89 - 1.84) (0.82 - I.83) ^"Geometric means except 2 + Mean - 1 standard deviation; 224 L: Means and ranges of metal concentrations i n l i t h o l o g i c u n i t s , Highmont surface (fresh and weakly mineralized samples). Values i n p.p.m. except where ind i c a t e d ) . Skeena Phase Bethsaida Phase Porphyry No. of samples (103) (21) (46) Cu *103 *65 *120 (18 - 586) (13 - 322) (17 - 850) Zn 20 17 14 (12 - 33) (11 - 27) (3 - 30) Kn 195 186 142 (131 - 290) (122 - 284) (91 - 222) B 10 9 21 (4 - 22) (4 - 20) (4 - 98) Sr 774 778 798 (512 - 116?) (556 - 1088) (526 - 1210 Ti 1644 1174 1326 (1203 - 2246) (790 - 1743) (863 - 2038) V 42 34 32 (32 - 55) (23 - 50) (20 - 52) *Mo *2 *2 *1 ( 1 - 8 ) (1 - 13) (1 - 3 ) Ba 666 554 654 (448 - 990)' (332 - 926) (362 -941) S ° 3 2.14 1.71 1.20 (1.67 - 2.60) (1.07 - 2.36) (0.68 - 2.11) 1CaO 2.86 2,77 2.04 (2.35 - 3-38) (2.18 - 3.34) (1.40 - 2.96) 3.59 3.70 3.96 (3.17 - 4.01) (3.09 - 4.30) (3.41 - 4.58) 1K 20 1.37 1.15 0.94 . (1.02 - 1.72) (0.37 - 1.92) (0.42 - 2.10) •Geometric means except whore indicated. '''Arithmetic means, and values in wt, %, 2Kean - 1 standard d e v i a t i o n . 225 GaO, KgO, Fe 20^, Zn, Mn and higher T i , B, Ba and Na20. Except for B, Mn and Ti these differences are not significant at the .05 confidences level. Metal concentrations in fresh Skeena and Beth- saida rocks within Highmont property do not d i f f e r appreciably from regional data. (b) Geochemical Patterns Related to Hydrothermal Alteration Hydrothermal alteration i s most pronounced in drill-core samples. Table U LIfi shows metal concentrations i n relation to alteration types. Enhanced Zn (>25 p.p.m.) and Mn (>250 p.p.m.) concentrations occur i n a central zone which includes the Nos. 1 and 4 Ore Zones in both sides and within the central porphyry dyke (Figs. A 7 6 and A 7 7 ) . Low values occur at depth in the dyke (Hole 69-108), and Hole 69-126 which transects a small quartz porphyry north of the ore zone. A significant positive correlation between Mn and Zn (r = 0,64) demonstrates the similarity i n their distribution, Fe 20^ and Na20 are relatively depleted i n the central dyke (Hole 69-108) and the quartz porphyry (Hole 69-126), In contrast, high values are associated with the ore zone where propy-argillic alteration (chlorite-serlcite-albite-epidote) i s associated with pyrite and other sulphides (Figs. A78 and A79). GaO and KgO show no consistent trends related to alteration. Sr values are depleted within the ore zone. (c) Geochemical Patterns Related to Mineralization Copper: Cumulative log probability plot of Cu values i n 283 samples shows two populations, A and B, i n the proportion of 80 and 20$ TABLE L I i *Ketal concentrations associated with types of a l t e r a t i o n , Highmont property. , ' " ' " P r o p y l i t i c P r o p y - A r g i l l i c A r g i l l i c Skeena Phase Zone Zone Zone No. of samples (6) . , (22) (12) ; IH!- " '. ~ ~ ~ Metal content (p.p.m.) _ Cu Fe„0. CaO Na20 2.98 2.14 ~ * 2 6 299 742 125 (9 - 45). , (93 - 967) (193 - 2847) ' (28 - 545) Zn 2 19 24 21 18 (22 - 35) - (16 - 30) (16 - 27) (12 - 28) Mn •'•312 309 232 297 (250 - 340) (242 - 395) (188 - 286) (202 - 438) B 5 . 2 2 18 17 ( 7 - 3 2 ) (4 - 65) (8 - 36) Sr 653 615 558 508 (625 - 680) . (409 - 923) (407 -763) . (364 - 709) T i • 1000 1280 1062 1041 (900 - 1200) (871 - 1881) 685 - 1 (585 - 1850) V 35 35 38 27 (30 - 40) (28 - 42) (31 - 47) (15 - 48) Mo 2 7 7 3 (2 - 23) (2 - 26) ( 1 - 5) Ba 550 442 550 518 (500 - 600) (200 - 976) (317 - 955) (263 - 1019) Metal content (wt. %) 2.94 1-89 2W3 (2.80 - 3.47) (1.79 - 2.49) (2.39 - 3.88) (1.18 - 2.59) 3.84 3.25 3.23 2.84 (3.73 - 3.91) (0.44 - 6.06) (2.17 - 4.09) (1.98 - 3.07) 4.78 3.61 3.95 3.45 ( 4 . 3 8 - 5 . 1 9 ) ( 3 . 0 2 - 4 . 6 0 ) (2.69 - 4.80) (3.26-4.04) KgO 1.73 1.49 1.46 1.32 (1.30 - 1.96) (0.87 - 2.11) (1.00 - 1.92) (1.09 - 1.59) •Means and ranges (range - mean -+ 1 standard deviation) •••HF-HCIÔ  d i g e s t i o n 2Aqua regia d i g e s t i o n (Brabec, 197°) Probability (cum.%) FIGURE 53: Log probab i l i t y plot of Copper at Highmont. 228 respectively (Fig. 5*0 • The value separating the two populations i s 18 p.p.m. Population B, with a mean value of 7 p.p.m., represents background samples comprising surface and drill-core samples. Population A, with a mean of 224 p.p.m., corresponds to anomalous samples. Cu distribution in surface samples i s erratic because of the numerous Cu showings in the region, especially south of the porphyry dyke. In this area, enhanced Cu levels (>250 p.p.m.) are dominant (Fig. A80). In contrast background concentrations (<18 p.p.m.) occur north and northeast of the major orebodies (Nos. 1 and 2 ore zones). As the mineralized zones are approached from the north, Cu levels increase to a range of 100 to 400 p.p.m. In subsurface samples, local background Cu content (<35 p.p.m.) is associated with peripheral d r i l l holes (69-122 and 70- 270) and most of the central porphyry dyke. Anomalous values are encountered immediately north and south of the dyke, defining Nos. 1 and 4 Ore Zones respectively (Fig. A8l). Molybdenum} Mo concentration i s generally below the detection li m i t (<2 p.p.m.) in surface samples. In the subsurface, low values (<5 p.p.m.) occur in marginal holes (Holes 70-270, 69-122 and 69- 126) and within parts of the porphyry dyke (Hole 69-108). Enhanced levels (>8 p.p.m.) are associated with mineralized zones, north and south of the porphyry dyke (Fig. A82). Correlation between Mo and Cu (r = O.58) i n subsurface samples reflects overall similarity in their distribution. 229 Boront Anomalous B in surface samples (10-2000 p.p.m.) occurs dominantly within the NW-SE trending porphyry dyke and associated breccia pipes (Fig, A83). At the periphery of the main orebody, enhanced B levels (10-80 p.p.m.) are common. Elsewhere, B content is less than 5 P.p.m. In subsurface samples, B concentrations are less than 20 p.p.m. in marginal holes (Hole 70 - 270, 69-122 and 69-126). High values ( > 5 ° p.p.m.) are encountered i n the porphyry dyke (69-108) and adjoining mineralized zones (Fig. A84). High B levels i n surface and subsurface samples are attributed to the presence of tourmaline (schorl). Alth6ugh B shows no significant relationship with Cu (r = 0.19), there i s a weak but significant positive correlation between B and Mo in subsurface samples (r = O.38). (d) R-mode Factor Analysis R-mode analysis was applied to 13 variables i n 95 sub- surface samples at Highmont. Results are presented i n Tables LII to LIV and Figs. A85 to A89. Element associations of 3-» 4 - and 5- factor models are summarized in Table L. These models explain 52, 63 and 72$ of data va r i a b i l i t y respectively. A 5-factor model is consistent with known geologic and mineralogic data. Element associations characteristic of each factor are as follows: Factor 1: Cu, Mo, B Factor 2: Zn, Mn, Ca TABLE L I I i C o r r e l a t i o n matrix, Highmont Subsurface Zn Mn Cu B Zn - .99839 Mn .63934 I.OOO76 Cu .32258 .25570 1.00089 Sr T i V Mo B .18425 .39096 .41295 .99687 ' Sr .00252 - -.28141 -.13930 . -.21331 .99967 T i . .15578 .35187 .13500 .15009 .12885 .99850 V .24638 .19431 .07990 ' .09190 .31157 .58066 .99872 Mo .11170 .26642 .56574 .38321 -.15268 .30713 .19683 . .99748. Ba -.08272 -.03955 -.04567 . -.06424 .I6583 .. '.26564 .35218 .12646 CAO .44874 .; .36177 ..08738 - .19354 • .15449 ' .17598 .30918 .04597 Fe 0 -.08629 .08882 -.11244 .03956 • -.01755 .13698 • .05503 -.10649 Na20 '.17580 -.13934 -.08547 -.20041 .00978 -.32062 -.18991 -.26631 • -.12524 .06171 .11443 -.01578 -.22561 .17159 .15564 .26620 . Ba CAO F e2°3 Na20 Ba 1.00174 . CAO .20101 .99917 ' Fe 20 3 -.10591 .10270 .99972 Na 20 -.06622 -.02028 -.27265 .99974 .39181 .15626 -.25672 -.25141 1.00081 231 TABLE LIII: Metal associations of different factor models, Highmont Subsurface. FACTOR ANALYSIS FACTOR 3 5 Cu Mo Cu B Cu Mo 1 Mo Mn vs B vs Sr B Sr Ca Zn Zn Zn Ca Mn IJ 2 V Mn Mn Ca Ba Ba K K K Ba Ti V 3 V vs Na Na Sr vs Ti V Ti Fe 5 Na 232 TABLE LIV: Varimax Factor Matrix, Highmont Subsurface. FACTOR 1 FACTOR 2 FACTOR 3 FACTOR 4 FACTOR 5 Communality Zn 0.2093 -0.8300 - O . I 8 3 8 - 0 . 0 9 8 0 0.2392 O.8332 Mn 0 . 3 0 4 8 -0.7913 0.0141 0.1797 -0.2097 0.7955 Cu 0.8367 -0.1241 -0.0410 -O.OO56 0.1372 0.7327 B 0.6265 - 0 . 2 5 8 0 -0.1140 0.1335 - 0 . 2 1 2 8 0.5352 Sr -0.1852 0 . 1 1 2 8 -0.1595 - 0 . 8 4 5 2 0.1135 0.7997 Ti 0.2672 -0.2565 0.2730 - 0 . 4 7 7 5 -O.445O 0.6377 V 0 . 1 3 4 8 -0.3104 O . 2 8 3 8 - 0 . 6 8 9 2 -0.2150 0.73.67 Mo 0 . 8 2 2 7 O.OO58 0.2395 -0.0555 - 0 . 0 8 7 1 0.7448 Ba -O.O838 -0.0392 0.7106 -0.3572 0 . 0 2 2 1 0.6415 Ca -O.O786 -0.7296 0.1887 - O . I 9 7 4 -0.1382 0.6145 Fe -0.2093 -0.0962 -0.3241 -0.0024 -O.7635 0.7411 Na - 0 . 2 4 8 7 -0.1302 -0.2313 0 . 0 3 8 9 -0.7442 0.6876 K 0.1208 -0.0090 0 . 8 8 3 2 0 . 1 8 1 9 -0.0188 O.8282 Eigenvalue in % 23 23 19 1 8 17 233 Factor 3i K, Ba Factor 4» Sr, V, Ti Factor 5» Fe, Na Factor 1 i s an ore association. Most pronounced scores are associated with mineralized zones on both sides of the central porphyry dyke (Fig. A85). Minimum factor scores are confined to marginal holes (Hole ?0-270 and 69-122). Factor 2: The significance of this factor i s not well under- stood. Its distribution i s similar to that of Zn and Mn, in that high values are confined to a broad central zone encompassing the porphyry dyke and adjacent mineralized zones. Low factor scores are confined to peripheral holes (Fig. A86). Factor 3 reflects the distribution of potassic minerals. High scores are associated with the central porphyry*dyke containing relatively abundant K-feldspar veins and a r g i l l i c alteration in which sericite i s a dominant mineral. Low scores occur within the ore zone and fresh Skeena rocks at the periphery (Fig. A87). Factor 4 broadly reflects lithology. High scores are associated with Skeena rocks north and south of the central dyke. In contrast low scores characterize the central porphyry dyke (Hole 69-108) and the small f e l s i t e dyke in Hole 69-126 (Fig. A88). Factor 5 corresponds with intense propylitic alteration. High scores occur within the ore zone where propylitic minerals (chlorite- sericite-albite) are associated with pyrite and other sulphides. 234 Low factor scores are associated with areas outside the ore zone where rocks are either fresh or affected by a r g i l l i c and potassic alteration (Fig. A89). General Discussion and Summary Concentrations of Zn, T i , V and ^2°J are-higher i n fresh Skeena rocks relative to the more f e l s i c rocks of the Bethsaida and Gnawed Mountain Porphyry Phases. This i s attributed to greater abundance of ferromagnesian silicates i n Skeena rocks. Hydrothermal effects within the propylitic zone i s relatively weak, and associated with subtle changes i n metal concen- trations relative to fresh rocks. A r g i l l i c alteration i s associated generally with leaching of Mn, Zn, Fe, Ca, Na, Sr and Ba. This i s attributed to the breakdown of plagioclase and ferromagnesian minerals to kaolinite and sericite. Furthermore, the close spatial association between a r g i l l i c alteration and the quartz porphyry partly accounts for the lower concentrations of 'femic' elements within the a r g i l l i c zone. In the mineralized zone where propy-argillic alteration i s dominant, concentrations of Ba, Zn, Sr, T i , V, Ca and K are higher than those of the a r g i l l i c zone but lower than those of the propylitic zone. This reflects the: intermediate nature of the propy-argillic zone. Nevertheless, Fe and Na are higher i n this zone relative to the propylitic and a r g i l l i c zones. This i s consistent with the higher albite and pyrite contents. Anomalous concentrations of Cu, Mo and B are associated with the mineralized zones. This i s related to the occurrence of 235 sulphides i n association with tourmaline. Cu in local background samples i s more erratic than in mineralized zones where fracturing and intensity of epigenetic metallization i s more uniformly dis- tributed (Table LV). Geochemical contrast between background and anomalous samples i s presented in Table LVI. Gu,Mo and B show the best contrast. However, halos of Cu and B are generally the most extensive (Fig. 55), exceeding 200m i n the north and 50° m in the south. Distribution of positive scores of a l l factors are confined to the mineralized zones and the alteration envelope on both sides of the main porphyry dyke (Fig. 56). SKEENA Results of analysis of samples from a d r i l l hole which transects one of the main quartz lodes at the Skeena Cu deposit are presented i n Figs. A90 and A91. Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, B, Sr, Mo, V, Ti and Ba and NagO show no appreciable trends and are not discussed further. Distribution of Cu, Zn, Mn, CaO, Fe„0,, K,0 In the hanging wall, background contents of Cu, Zn and Mn are generally less than 20 p.p.m. for Cu and Zn, and 3°0 p.p.m. for Mn. Within 20m of the quartz lode, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations rise sharply (Fig. A90). However, the intensely altered wall rock (sericite-quartz-kaolinite) closest to the vein shows relatively lower values, defining an aureole of metal depletion. 236 TABLE LVs Comparison of var i a b i l i t y i n copper contents of background and mineralized samples, Highmont. D.D.H. No. of Log. mean Log. std. * Coefficient # samples deviation of variation Local Background Samples 70 - 270 86 1.100 0.624 O.57 69 - 126 45 1.865 0.776 0.42 69 - 114 57 2.089 0.620 0.30 69 - 108 59 2.246 0.606 0.27 Anomalous Samples 69 - 120 50 2.735 O.303 0.11 68-22 12 2.695 0.286 0.10 68 - 68 26 3.245 O.56I 0.17 -^Coefficient of variation = standard deviation/mean 23? TABLE L V I J Comparison between *metal concentrations in background and mineralized zones, Highmont. Regional Local of samples background (Skeena) (6) background (Skeena) (3D Mineralized Zone (33) Contrast (regional) Contrast (local) Cu 26 24 369 14 15 Zn 19 18 22 1.1 1.2 Mn 312 200 274 1.4 **1.4 Mo 2 2 6 3 .3 B 5 6 17 3.4 3 V 35 36 36 1.0 1.0 Ti 1000 983 1106 1.1 1.1 Ba 550 586 482 **1.1 **1.2 Sr 653 676 55? **1.2 **1.2 3Fe203 2.98 2.02 2.25 **1.3 1.1 3Na_0 4.78 3.76 3.86 1.2 1.0 ^resh Skeena rocks collected by Northcote (1968), 2 Samples from the periphery of the deposit. •^Arithmetic means and values in wt. %* * Geometric means except where indicated. Negative contrast. sw NE Limit of sampling 170 ppm Oppm 80ppm Limit of sampling 30 ppm 50 ppm Regional Background (Skeena) 653 ppm •,3l2ppm I9ppm •5ppm •2ppm 26ppm Propyl i t ic Argi l l ic P ropy - Argil l ic Propylitic s s S k e e n a Phase s No.4 ZONE ĵ v Porphyry + + + + + Nal ZONE S Skeena Phase s SCALE 200m FIGURE 55: Schematic diagram showing extent and relative intensity of primary halos, Highmont Subsurface. 239a FIGURE 56: Schematic diagram showing the d i s t r i bu t i on of factor scores, Highmont Subsurface sw -Limit of sampling Factor 5 -ve Factor 4 i-ve Sr,Ti,V Factor 3 i-ve Factor 2 +ve Factor I Zn.Mn.Ca Propylitic Limit of sampling. Zn,Mn,Co Argillic Propy- Argillic Propylitic NE Skeena Phase 200m ro CD 240 In the footwall, geochemical halos for trace elements do not decay to background levels but remain consistently higher than values in the hanging wall. This i s attributed to greater abundance of fractures and veins in the footwall. The apparent depletion of trace metals in wall rock adjacent to the.lode i s attributed to leaching during hydrothermal and metallization processes. Major element concentrations (CaO, Fe20^, and K^O) in the hanging wall decrease as the profile enters the alteration envelope (Fig. A9l). Highest values are encountered within the ore vein reflecting abundance of pyrite, carbonate, and sericite. In the footwall, values decrease away from the lode, and at a distance of 10m become lower than levels in the hanging wall. Towards the bottom of the d r i l l hole, values again increase, defining another zone similar to that surrounding the main lode. DISCUSSION This section compares and contrasts the nature of metal dispersion i n the various deposits, and discusses the factors responsible for the observed differences, and applications of the geochemical patterns to mineral exploration. Results of primary metal dispersion around prophyry-type deposits at Highland Valley indicate that variations in the abundance of 'femic group' of elements (Fe, Mg, T i , V, Zn, Mn, Co) are con- trolled dominantly by primary lithologies. This relationship i s attributed to the strong geochemical coherence of the trace elements with Fe and Mg, Because of similarity i n ionic properties, these 24l elements tend to substitute for Fe and Mg i n crystal lattices of ferromagnesian minerals (Goldschimdt,'1954). Except at Bethlehem- JA where Zn and Mn are impoverished, concentrations of these elements are similar to those obtained i n regional samples. Thus, the host rocks surrounding the deposits are not peculiar i n 'femic' metal concentrations relative to rocks of similar composition within the batholith. Despite the dominant control of lithology on the dis- tribution of the 'femic' elements, minor redistribution by hydrothermal processes i s apparent at these deposits i n which a major host rock i s dominant. Thus at Valley Copper, Zn, Mn, Fe and Mg are obviously depleted i n central zones of intense alteration relative to the periphery of the deposit. At Lornex, Zn, Mn and Fe are enhanced i n the peripheral propylitic zone relative to adjoining fresh Skeena rocks. At Bethlehem-JA this effect has been masked by the apparent coincidence of propylitic alteration with the more mafic rocks of Guichon Phase. Hydrothermal mobilization of the femic elements i s attributed to the breakdown of ferromagnesian minerals into se r i c i t e , epidote or chlorite. Where sericite i s the dominant alteration mineral such as at Valley Copper, the femic elements are depleted whereas i n propylitic zones with chlorite and/or epidote they are enriched or remain unchanged i n concentration, for example, Lornex and Bethlehem-JA. The lithophile elements (Rb, Sr, Ba), i n association with K, Na and Ca, are most susceptible to metasomatic changes during metallization and hydrothermal processes. Results of factor analysis 242 have consistently associated Na and Sr which are most commonly impoverished wherever alteration i s intense. Unlike K, Rb and Ba, these elements are not tied to visible alteration minerals, and thus constitute sensitive indicators of metasomatftc processes. Ba dispersion patterns are not consistent i n the deposits examined i n this study. At Valley Copper, values decrease from the outer margins to the core of intense alteration. In contrast, at Bethlehem-JA, higher values are encountered within the ore zone. At Lornex, values generally decrease from the periphery to the core of intense a r g i l l i c alteration, although enhanced values are en- countered within the potassic zone. The inconsistent behaviour of Ba i s related to i t s geochemical a f f i n i t y with K-feldspar, which i s a common mineral i n alteration zones of porphyry-type deposits. Nevertheless, the lack of overall correlation between K and Ba, suggests that Ba distribution, outside the potassic zone, i s not controlled by K concentrations. At Bethlehem-JA, Valley Copper and a large portion of Lornex orebody, Ba/Sr ratios consistently increase from less than 1 i-n background areas to more than 1. i n mineralized zones. Where Ba and Sr both decrease, the greater depletion of Sr than Ba i s attributed to greater solubility of Sr relative to Ba i n thermal solutions (Tooker, 1963). The only exception to the above distribution pattern i s where gypsum or carbonate veins are locally abundant, as i n the bottom of Hole 10 at Lornex. Thus, the use of Ba/Sr ratios produce more consistent and reliable patterns that are devoid of obvious mineralogical control than either Ba or Sr alone. 243 Rb consistently follows K at Bethlehem-JA and Valley Copper. Enhanced levels of both elements are associated with zones of intense potassic and phyllic alteration where K-feldspar and sericite are dominant. This covariant relationship i s attributed to similarity i n ionic properties and geochemical behaviour during magmatic and hydrothermal processes (Nockolds and Allen, 1953 • Heier and Adams, 1964). The source of enhanced values of Rb i s uncertain. However, two possibilities are suggested, ( l ) Wall rock metasomatism might result i n bilateral exchange of material between centres of hydrothermal activity and outlying host rocks. (2) Hydro- thermal fluids contribute Rb directly from deep-seated sources. Magmatic differentiation commonly culminates in the enrichment of Rb in residual fluids that might ultimately become hydrothermal solutions (Holland, 1972). Guilbert and Lowell (1974) among others have suggested that K-feldspar i n potassic zones of prophyry copper deposits could be related to deep-seated, late-magmatic crystallization which accounts for i t s early paragenesis in the sequence of secondary mineral formation. If this supposition i s correct, the association between K and Rb may suggest a magmatic-hydrothermal source for the latter. In general, depletion of major and trace elements espec- i a l l y Zn, Mn, Sr and Na in zones of intense metasomatism i s con- sistent with the model of mass flow of acidic hydrothermal solutions through grain boundaries, pores and other discontinuities i n rocks. This culminates at the metasomatic leaching of base elements and 244 deposition at the 'outer front' as reaction with wall rock neutralizes the solutions (Korzhinskli, 1968), Consequently, negative anomalies are most commonly characteristic of primary dispersion of femic and lithophile elements. Distribution of Cu and Mo are erratic in a l l the deposits. This i s attributed to sampling problems associated with their irregular mode of occurrence mainly as fracture-fillings and veinlets. Relative abundance of Cu i s influenced by bornite to chalcopyrite ratios. Higher Cu levels are encountered at Valley Copper where bornite i s dominant, whereas abundant chalcopyrite at Bethelehem-JA i s reflected in relatively lower Cu values. Mo and Cu distribution also reflects metal zoning patterns at Valley Copper and Bethlehem-:JA;- Mo i n both cases i s peripheral to Cu. Distribution of sulphide-held Cu as determined by KCIO^- HC1 digestion i s similar to that of total Cu because most of the Cu occurs as sulphides. In contrast, sulphide Fe isolates the effect of lithology from mineralization, and delineates zones with most abundant pyrite and/or chalcopyrite, or pyrite halos at Valley Copper and Bethlehem-JA. S shows pronounced anomalies and more consistent patterns than Cu or Mo. This i s attributed to the fact that S not only occurs in Cu or Mo sulphides but also in Fe sulphides (pyrite) which smoothens i t s dispersion patterns. Relative abundance of S i s also influenced by bornite; : chalcopyrite content as reflected by results at Valley Copper and Bethlehem-JA. Pronounced anomalies of S i n bedrock around porphyry Cu deposits have'important implications for,the use of f?02 245 gas in prospecting for these deposits. Rouse and Stevens (1971) have found SOg anomalies in s o i l gas and a i r over the Highland Valley deposits. Most pronounced S0 2 anomalies occurred at Lornex, and a lesser one at Valley Copper, possibly reflecting the lower bornite:chalcopyrite ratios at Lornex. Geochemical behaviour of potential pathfinder elements (Hg, B, Cl, F) i s not consistent. Hg defines a broad anomaly at Bethlehem-JA but no such pattern i s apparent at Valley Copper. Gott and McCarthy (1966), i n a study of the porphyry Cu deposit near Ely, Nevada, found that Hg was enriched in rocks around the ore deposits and depleted in the central ore-bearing intrusive rocks. This distribution pattern was attributed to the higher temperature prevailing i n the centre of the ore deposit which caused volatile Hg to move outward, forming a halo around the deposit. Brown (1967) reported Hg anomalies i n soils over porphyry Mo deposits in the Canadian Cordillera. McCarthy (1973) noted that Robbins (1972) and the staff of U.S. Geological Survey, working independently, found no significant anomalies of Hg i n a i r around porphyry Cu deposits in Arizona. Similar results were obtained by \McNerney and Buseck (1973). It i s apparent from these citations that the behaviour of Hg i n porphyry-type deposits i s not consistent, as typified by results obtained at Highland Valley. Low Hg levels at Valley Copper and enhanced concentrations at JA might be attributed to one or more of the following: (l) higher temperature of ore formation at Valley Copper caused the volatization and loss of Hg, Relative high temp- 246 eratures at Valley Copper are suggested by f l u i d inclusion studies giving temperature over 350°C (Field et a l . , 1973) and up to 500°C by sulphur isotope geothermometry (j.Briskey, oral comm.). At Bethlehem-JA, no geothermometrlc evidence i s presently available, but the abundance of zeolites within the deposit i s remniscent of low-temperature 'hot-spring' - type activity (Meyer and Hemley, 1967); (2) Loss or escape from fine-grained clay (Kaolinite) and sericite alteration minerals at Valley Copper compared to i t s retention in coarser and more structured alteration minerals (K- feldspar, chlorite, epidote) at Bethlehem-JA. Total Cl defines a moderate anomaly at Bethlehem-JA but is erratic and low at Valley Copper. This behaviour i s contrary to expectations, as the size and grade of mineralization at Valley Copper and greater abundance of quartz-sericite veins should be accompanied by greater abundance of f l u i d inclusions. Nevertheless, the low Cl concentrations at Valley Copper, might be due to vol- atization and loss as described above for Hg, or low s a l i n i t y of f l u i d inclusions. F distribution at Valley Copper and JA i s erratic, which may be related to the erratic occurrence of epigenetic f l u o r i t e . There i s no significant correlation, however, between F and Cu. HjO - extractable Cl and F show even more erratic distribution and no obvious relationship with mineralization, Kesler et a l (1973) also found no apparent correlation between contents of H20 - leachable Cl and F and the ore-bearing potential of intrusive rocks. B dispersion, though erratic, shows consistent relationship with mineralization. This i s most obvious at Lornex and Highmont, 247 although high B concentrations i n the l a t t e r are associated with tourmaline. From the foregoing discussion of primary dispersion at Highland Valley, i t i s evident that the closely-related processes of hydrothermal alteration and metallization have introduced major changes in metal abundances around porphyry-type deposits. Hydro- thermal effects involving the formation of potassic minerals (sericite > K-feldspar) and associated metal redistributions and additions show consistent association with mineralization. Because of the fine- grained mineralogy of alteration zones, the intimate relationship between metallization and metasomatic effects has important implications for application of bedrock geochemistry to the search for porphyry- type deposits at Highland Valley and other areas. Applications to Mineral Exploration Applications of regional geochemical data to exploration have been examined i n Chapter 5. Here, detailed lithogeochemical surveys are discussed. Table LVII summarizes geochemical contrast and relative extent of halos at the various deposits. One of the principal objectives of detailed lithogeo- chemical surveys i n prospecting i s to delineate mineralized zones that are most suitable for further detailed exploration or mine development. On the basis of geochemical results obtained i n this study, the following observations are relevant to prospecting for porphyry-type deposits in the Guichon Creek batholith and other 248 TABLE LVIIt Comparison of relative contrast and extent of halos at Highland Valley deposits. Bethlehem - JA Valley Copper Lornex Highmont Contrast Extent Contrast Extent of ^Contrast Extent of cContrast Extent of halos Halos Halos of Halos Cu 66 3 241 3 84 3 14 3 Mo 5 1 5 1 7 1 S 12 3 9 3 - - - - Hg - 2 - 0 - - - - B 2 1 1 0 4 3 3 3 Cl - 1 1 0 - - - - F - 1 1 0 - - - Rb 1 2 1 2 - - - - Sr *2 2 * l 2 *2 2 * l 2 Ba *1 2 *1 2 *1 2 * l 1 Zn *1 0 *2 2 2 2 l 1 Mn *2 0 *2 2 *2 2 1 1 Ti - 0 - - 1 1 * l 0 V 0 1 1 l 0 Extent of halos 0 = Nonexistent 1 = Narrowj confined to ore zone 2 = Extensive; within alteration aureole 3 = Very Extensive; beyond alteration aureole ^Negative contrast - Not applicable p Contrast i n relation to regional background 249 similar calc-alkaline intrusions, using bedrock, residual soils and glacial overburden close to i t s source. (1) S shows the most consistent and probably the broadest halos, extending at least 0.5 km from the ore zones at Valley Copper and Bethlehem-JA. Pronounced S anomalies i n bedrock suggests that SCv, in s o i l gas or a i r can be useful in delineating mineralized zones at Highland Valley. (2) Cu shows an extensive halo and high contrast, but i t s distribution i s erratic. Its erratic behaviour i s attributed to mode of occurrence principally as fracture-fillings and veinlets. Consequently, a large number of samples i s required to overcome the sampling problem and to establish reliable anomalies. (3) Distribution of sulphide-held Fe using KC10^-HC1 attack can be ut i l i z e d in delineating pyrite halos peripheral to porphyry- type deposits (e.g. JA and Valley Copper). KClCy-HCl-extractable Cu corresponds to Cu held i n sulphides, and hence constitutes a technique of improving geochemical contrast between background and mineralized environments. (4) In view of the close spatial and temporal relationships between alteration involving potassic minerals (sericite, K-feldspar) and Cu mineralization in the majority of porphyry-type deposits in 250 North America (Guilbert and Lowell, 1973), the distribution of Rb, Sr, Ba or K, Ca, Na can be useful in outlining zones of most intense hydrothermal activity and metallization. Sr and Na have the greatest potential i n this regard, because they are not tied to specific alteration minerals as are Rb, K and Ba. Moreover, the use of these llthophile elements has obvious advantages over mineralogical techniques because of the fine-grained texture of most alteration minerals. (5) The use of element ratios, such as Ba/Sr and Rb/Sr, has obvious advantages i n eliminating irregularities in metal d i s t r i - bution that might be attributed to mineralogical control or analytical/ sampling errors. Ba/Sr ratios exceeding 1 and Rb/Sr ratios more than 0.1 broadly define mineralized zones in the Highland Valley, independent of rock and alteration types. (6) Although no Hg anomaly occurs at Valley Copper, a pro- nounced and broad one i s associated with Bethlehem-JA. Thus Hg i n bedrock, soils and s o i l gas and a i r might be useful in delineating orebodies similar to JA. (7) B constitutes a potential pathfinder for deposits associated with breccia pipes and quartz porphyries as at Highmont and Lornex. (8) Cl and F, either as total or water-extractable, show no consistent relationship with mineralization. Moreover, contrast 2 5 1 between background and mineralized areas i s very weak. Con- sequently, the use of halogens in bedrock, s o i l or a i r probably has no potential for exploration i n the Highland Valley. (9) In the absence or scarcity of outcrops, suboutcrop samples collected by d r i l l i n g below overburden can be uti l i z e d for bedrock geochemical studies, especially i n heavily drift-covered areas. (10) Factor analysis constitutes a potent tool i n analyzing relationships among elements in multi-element geochemical studies. In this study i t has proved useful in isolating element associations related to distinct processes, such as hydrothermal alteration or mineralization. Furthermore, results of factor analysis have been consistent with subjective interpretations and known geologic and mineralogic evidence. CONCLUSIONS In a l l the porphyry copper deposits examined in this study similar geochemical patterns apply. Variations i n contents of •femic* elements (Zn, Mn, T i , V, Fe, Mg) are related principally to primary lithologies, although effects of hydrothermal redistribution are apparent. The lithophile elements Sr, Ba, Na and Ca are sen- sitive indicators of hydrothermal processes. These elements are consistently depleted i n zones of intense a r g i l l i c and phyllic alter- ation, and metallization, whereas K and Rb, not appreciably depleted 252 in these zones, are enriched in potassic and phyllic zones which are, i n some deposits, associated with mineralization. Cu and S show the most extensive anomalies and highest contrast. Hence, they are useful i n delineating mineralized zones. Hg and B constitute useful pathfinders for some porphyry copper deposits such as JA, lornex and Highmont. On the "basis of pronounced S and Hg anomalies in bedrock, S0£ and Hg in s o i l gas and a i r can be useful i n rapid or reconnaissance exploration for porphyry type deposits i n the Guichon Greek batholith. CHAPTER SEVEN MICRO-GEOCHEMICAL DISPERSION IN MINERALS 254 INTRODUCTION In recent years, numerous workers have investigated the use of trace element contents of mineral phases, especially b i o t i t e , in geochemical exploration (see Levinson, 1974, pp. 336-341). How- ever, the emphasis of the majority of these studies has been to use metal contents of minerals i n differentiating barren from potentially ore-bearing intrusions (Parry and Nackowski, 1963; Putman and Burnham, 1963; Al-Hashimi and Brownlow, 1970; Blaxland, 1971). Relatively few workers have assessed application of mineral geo- chemistry to either defining primary halos around orebodies, or i n enhancing geochemical contrast between background and mineralized environments. Lovering et a l . (1970), investigating Cu content of biotite in a large ore-bearing stock at Slerrita Mountains, Arizona, found that Cu concentrations increased from a few p.p.m. in the northern part to as much as "L% near Cu deposits at the southern end. Corresponding Cu content of bedrock showed only a subtle increase from 5 to 300 p.p.m. The authors concluded that trace element content of biotite i s a more sensitive and extensive indicator of mineralization. Darling (1971) reported that the concentrations of Cu and other trace elements in biotite increased as the Pine Creek W-Mo-Cu orebody i s approached, although he did not present corres- ponding data for whole rocks. Bradshaw and Stoyel (1968) invest- igated trace element variations in biotites and feldspars from granitic wall rocks of ore veins in southwest England. Their results 255 indicate that trace element contents of mineral phases showed similar, "but less well-defined anomalies than whole rock data. Trace element contents of magnetites have also been investigated as a guide to mineralization (see Levinson, 1974). High concentrations of Cu and Zn were reported by de Grys (1970) in magnetites from intrusions associated with porphyry Cu mineral- ization. In contrast, Theobald and Thompson (1962) noted that magnetites from rocks presumably associated with Cu mineralization at Butte, Montana were relatively impoverished in Zn. Hamil and Nackowski (1971) reported high abundances of Ti and Zn in magnetites associated with major Pb-Zn mineralization, and low values with major Cu deposits. Stanley (1964) found no correlation between Cu content and modal proportion of magnetite in whole rocks from the Granduc Cu deposit. Objectives of the present investigation are twofold; ( l ) to examine the nature of micro-dispersion of trace elements i n minerals from background and mineralized environments; and (2) to determine i f geochemical contrast between background and anomalous samples can be enhanced by chemical analysis of mineral fractions, u t i l i z i n g total and partial extraction techniques. METHODS OF STUDY A suite of 26 granodiorites was selected from outcrop samples obtained from Highmont and Lornex properties (Fig. 57). Samples were separated into 3 groups on the basis of Cu content and proximity to mineralization. 10 samples containing less than 256 N BT « SK LORNEX / BL BLj Bethlehem Phase [si<3 Skeena Phase Bethsaida Phase Gnawed Mountain Phase BT K3Mi BL Litholog ic boundary ~~» Fault © Orebodies • Background sample • Weakly anomalous sample • Strongly anomalous sample BT GM • \ '73 BT I 1 Ikm FIGURE 57: Location of rock and mineral samDles, Hiahland Vallev (Map a f te r McMillan, 1973) 257 100 p.p.m. whole-rock Cu are considered as "background"; 7 samples with Cu values ranging from 100 to 600 p.p.m. are termed "weakly anomalous; and the remaining 9 samples with Cu values ranging from 601 to 5000 p.p.m.. are designated "strongly anomalous". Fourteen of the samples are equigranular rocks of the Skeena Phase, and the remainder are porphyritic rocks of the Bethsaida and Gnawed Mountain Phases. Biotite, quartz-feldspar and magnetite fractions were separated by methods described in Chapter 4. Preliminary petro- graphic examination indicated that the majority of samples contained l i t t l e or no hornblende (Table LVIIl), nevertheless hornblende was removed as an impurity. On the basis of chemical analysis, a l l mineral fractions are considered more than 90$ pure. However, the K content of biotites suggest a varying degree of chloritization, especially in "anomalous" samples. No obvious relationship exists between K content of biotites and concentrations of trace elements (Table LIX). This i s consistent with the observations of Putman and Burnham (1963) and Graybeal (1973) that chloritization of biotite does not appreciably affect trace element content. Original samples were examined microscopically, and modal data obtained for 21 (Table LVIIl). However, 4 samples were too altered to obtain reliable modal analysis, and were replaced by other samples with similar Cu levels, for which modal and chemical data were available. Plagioclase feldspars i n anomalous samples are weakly to moderately sericitized, although crystal form and twinning can s t i l l be observed. Biotites are generally fresh, although a few 258 TABLE L V I I I i Trace Element and Modal Content of Whole Rock Samples Modal Composition ( v o l , ya)** SAMPLE Trace Elements (ppm) Horn- K-feld- Plagio- HUMBEB Cu Zn Kn Biotiteblende spar clase Quartz Accessories GM 2 56 30 254 GM 10 11 31 250 SK 30 14 20 279 6.24 0.43 15.92 58.28 18.28 0.81 SK 34 27 43' 493 2.90 4.56 5.61 63.77 21.52 1.64 sx 36 34 30 345 3.40 1.1 14.8 55.43 25.00 0.03 BT 173 33 18 241 3.90 1.0 10.41 55.93 27.90 0.90 BT 176 51 31 353 7.55 0.06 6.70 57.13 25.82 2.14 BT 746 6 35 404 6.70 0.0 15.47 54.27 23.24 0.28 BT 748 • 18 36 445 3.36 0.44 6.83 65.60 22.72 1.03 BT 751 14 28 382 1.84 0.0 5.84 64.02 27.05 O.83 SK 19 542 42 366 2.05 4.28 3.21 68.13 21.19 1.14 SK 22 441 38 292 4.40 2.55 4.4 58.94 25.68 1.26 GM 114 185 18 132 3.02 0.0 3.02 66.12 24.45 0.37 GM 118 327 31 304 5.90 0.0 5.90 62.00 19.12 0.93 SK 178 147 37 383 0.75 1.89 0.75 66.38 25.28 0.47 BT 757 155 20 345 6.00 0.0 6.00 69.00 15.67 5.21 SK 776 539 24 214 3.23 0.0 3.23 62.95 22.-05 0.35 SK 7 2821 38 342 6.70 0.10 O.83 67.78 22.50 2.08 *SK 28 609 27 • 352 3K 29 2784 25 193. . 6.44 0.01 7.20 65.81 20.27 0.81 *SK 31 4689 35 - j l l ' *SK 35 1400 37 3̂ 9 SK 50 182 8 22 284 3.19 0.0 1.39 62.52 31.66 1.39 SK 61 823 24 347 3.66 5.11 7.78 57.34 20.88 0.18 GM 115 609 34 234 12.10 0.0 6.30 53-86 28.75 0.74 GM 119 1748 23 196 5.93 1.25 5-93 52.41 33.86 0.98 SK = Skeena Phase; BT = Bethsaida Phase; GM Gnawed Mountain Phase (-) Data not av a i l a b l e *Altered sample. ^Tota l d i g e s t i o n **!-:ore than 1000 point counts per sample 259 are partly chloritized or sericitized. Sulphide inclusions occur within and around the margins of many,of the biotites, including those with background Cu content. Examination of polished-thin sections show that pyrite, bornite and chalcopyrite are the : dominant sulphides (Plate 13). In "anomalous" samples, K-feldspar i s altered to varying extent, and d i f f i c u l t to identify. Vein quartz in some of the mineralized samples contains i n t e r s t i t i a l opaque inclusions which may be sulphides or oxides. Modal ratio of quartz to feldspar in most samples i s approximately 1:3* In the following data presentation and discussion, "anomalous" and "background" samples refer to anomalous and back- ground bedrock samples and their mineral fractions. RESULTS Results of chemical analysis of whole rock, biotite, quartz- feldspar and magnetite fractions for total Cu, Zn, Mn, Go and Ni and sulphide-held Cu, Zn and Mn are presented in Tables LVIII to LX. Appropriate correlation diagrams and coefficients are shown in Figs. 58 to 71 and Table LXI. Cu concentrations in bedrock range from 6 to 4689 p.p.m. Geometric means for background and a l l anomalous samples are 21 and 745 p.p.m. respectively (Table LVIIl). (a) Biotite Trace element contents of biotites are tabulated in Table LXIX. Cu values range from 44 to 5617 p.p.m., and average 98 p.p.m. for background and 1624 p.p:«>m. for anomalous samples. Background mean value for Cu i s similar to the mean value of 113 p.p.m. obtained TABLE LIXi Trace and major element contents of minerals. Biotite - - - 4* Magnetite Quartz-Feldspar Cu Zn r'Jl Co Ni Fe 20 3 K/jU Cu Zn '—m- T A I Co Cu Zn K2° CaC Background Samples ^2 123 275 2322 64 3 6 MO 52 . 182 1515 35 75 SZ30 2 7 9 3617 69 <*5 sz 34 4 9 4 5 5 4960 7 2 3 1 3/. 3 6 149 172 1 9 3 * 42 39 =T 173 110 187 1*31*6 1*2 27 2T 17b 164 277 3695 7 0 5 1 3** 31 H 746 105 9 0 2 8771* 67 17 748 3 9 9 3 1 11225 59 ST 751 2 2 6 565 6866 57 33 ' :-'e&n 9 8 31*9 4195 ' 5 6 40 Veakly Anomalous Samples 3X 19 E13 365 31*03 62 1*0 SX 22 1.71* 390 1*388 65 1*7 sx 111* 673 21*8 1*1*07 25 sic 118 711 216 2161* 55 31* SK 178 . 1*83 259 2H81* 1*7 38 5" SK 757 2644 299 31*17 60 SK 776 1760 312 3171 76 32 Hean 883 292 3250 58 37 Strongly Anomalous Samples sx 7 531 1*21 5821 5<* 21 sx 28 2 * 5 326 2898 1*2 34 SX 29 2876 326 5256 1*6 12 sx 31 5617 29^ 3296 <»9 31 SK 35 5310 i e i 2038 1*5 1*1* SK 5" 2736 198 1953 53 29 SK 61 1858 209 2798 53 21* CK 115 2510 315 321*6 i*3 17 CK 119 3022 288 31*10 1*7 23 Ke&n 251*9 275 320a 1*9 21* (yfcan (All^ Ar.ocaloun y 288 3227 52 29 15.57 12.26 1.66 153 no 12.25 12.72 2.31 35 13.70 13.91 2.10 1*3 i i * . 01 7.07 1.1*2 66 1*7 14.10 13.15 3.62 71 58 06 W.60 . 12.36 ...25 _ 87 67 15-51* 15.1*8 15.32 7.59 15-00 IO.05 16.78 13.63 12-5^ 15.20 16.01 8.55 1*.20 3.05 1.81 2.1*3 4 . 3 6 2.55 832 220 81*6 110 110 93 390 251 ' 5M* 567 629 51*51 305 175 122 21*5 421*6 576 1*01 94 36 122 20 30 1*9 65 48 1*1* 44 1*3 22 1*8 60 118 39 108 46 88 »5 68 • 40 (n-7) 64 y* 64 38 61 34 1*3 37 56 38 55 49 38 59 9* 40 (n - 9) 55 24 73 26 68 36 73 36 51 41 1*8 29 39 37 67 36 64 37 59 33 57 36 66 16 18 16 62 135 33 12 24 IS . 29 406 5 1 3 142 4S6 2 9 127 318 210 2420 IO56 2365 3465 2195 384 662 793 1637 1440 619 22 32 16 21 29 26 13 8 15 8 17 34 21 20 26 16 11 12 19 26 20 22 28 29 18 22 23 21 23 0.74 0. 63 1.66 1.48 1.70 1. f3 1.73 1.56 1.73 1.54 1.66 1.43 2.0? 1.32 1.7S 1.45 I.65 l.'S 1.96 1.70 1.29 i.r-4 1.56 1.43 1 . 4 7 1.42 4.59 2.53 5.50 i . S ; 4.47 3-27 4.20 3.15 3.79 ' 2.75 3.45 2.45 4.17 3.07 4.59 2.37 4.52 2.;5 4.70 2.43 4.00 2.?i 4.42 3.27 4.67 i.fo 3.52 2.74 4.50 2.66 4.75 2.73 4.29 2.57 3-25 1.85 4.J2 l .«6 4.49 2.04 4.04 2.25 3.12 2.17 4.34 3.13 4.12 3.15 4.67 2.17 4.44 2.24 ON o 261 by Brabec (1970) for fresh biotites in the Guichon Creek batholith, and to the average values of 75 and 90 p.p.m. cited by Putman and Burnham (1963) and Parry and Nackowski (1963) for unmineralized biotites from Arizona and Basin and Range province respectively. Cu contents of biotites from anomalous samples are considerably higher than those from background samples (Table LXIX). Lovering et a l . (1970) reported Cu values as high as 1% in biotites from mineralized rocks i n Arizona. Similar high Cu values have been documented by Al-Hashimi and Brownlow (1970) and Graybeal (1973)• Levels of Co, Mn, Ni and Zn are consistently lower in anomalous than background samples. However, the Student's t-test indicates that difference i s only significant for Ni at the .05 confidence level. (Table LX). (b) Magnetite Average Cu concentrations in magnetites from background and anomalous samples are 67 and 401 p.p.m. respectively. Cu values exceeding 4000 p.p.m. occur in two samples (Table LIX). Brabec (1970) obtained a mean Cu value of 398 p.p.m. for magnetites from the whole batholith. This mean value i s conspicuously high, perhaps indicating that magnetites from the relatively older and more mafic rock phases contain high Cu values comparable to those found i n gabbros and ultramafics (Wager and Mitchell, 1951)• Differences i n analytical techniques might also account for the discrepancy. Lyakhovich (1959) reported mean Cu values of 5 to 80 p.p.m. in magnetites from unmineralized intrusives in the U.S.S.R. 262 TABLE LXs Student's T test of background and anomalous samples. Background vs Anomalous T - Value D.F WrCu vs. WrCu 9.26* 24 WrZn vs. WrZn 1.62 20 WrMn vs. WrMn 1.85 19 BtCu vs. BtCu 9.25* 24 BtZn vs. BtZn 1.01 11 BtMn vs. Bt Mn 1.15 12 BtGo vs. Bt Go 0.94 24 BtNi vs. BtNi 2.07* 24 FQCu vs. FQCu 6.64* 24 FQZn vs. FQZn 1.32 24 MgCu vs. MgCu 5.34* 20 MgZn vs. MgZn 1.13 11 MgCo vs. MgCo 1.08 24 Wr = Whole rock; Bt = Biotite; Mg = Magnetite; FQ = Quartz- feldspar; D.F. = Degree of freedom * Significant at the .05 confidence level. 10 samples 16 samples 263 Al-Hashimi (1969) noted that Cu levels i n magnetites from the Boulder batholith range from less than 1 to 230 p.p.m. and average 40 p.p.m. Magnetites, are regarded as efficient concentrators of Zn (Theobald et a l . , 1962; de Grys, 1970). However, Zn content of magnetites examined in this study ranges from 30 to 122 p.p.m. Levels of Zn and Co are consistently lower i n anomalous than background samples, although a Student's t-test suggests the difference i s not significant at the .05 confidence level. (c) Quartz-Feldspar Cu concentrations i n quartz-feldspar fractions range from 12 to 3465 p.p.m. and average 29 and 619 p.p.m. for background and anomalous samples respectively. Mean Cu content of background samples i s similar to mean values of 25 and 50 p.p.m. reported by Brabec (1970) and Bradshaw and Stoyel (1968) respectively. Average abundances of Zn in background and mineralized samples are not sign- i f i c a n t l y different (Table LX). DISCUSSION Putman and Burnham (1963) and Putman (1972) have shown that variations in bulk chemical composition (major and trace elements) between samples from a plutonic body have three main sources: ( l ) variations i n modal composition of the rock, with or without changes in mineralogy; (2) variations i n chemical composition of constituent minerals; and (3) variations related to endogenous processes, for example, hydrothermal alteration, mineralization, weathering or 264 TABLE LXIi KC10,-HC1 extractable metal in mineral phases. (Values in p.p.m.) Cu Biotite i-'agnetite Quartz-Feldspar - Zn Mn Cu Zn Cu Zn Background Samples (n = 10) GM 2 116 36 419 53 6 57 4 GM 10 32 27 305 - - 11 6 SK 30 26 28 313 15 3 6 3 SK 34 22 42 311 46 3 8 6 SK 36 147 23 185 . 31 4 23 6 BT 173 112 21 ' 839 30 4 106 8 BT 176 143 45 743 46 4 22 8 3T 746 79 191 2471' 29 4 7. 5 BT 748 69 161 2532 41 4 20 8 BT 751 214 62 546 42 4 12 ' 5 VJeakly Anomalous Samples (n = 7) SK 19 820 50 566 519 15 382 8 SK 22 468 65 767 139 3 386 3 SK 114 683 62 1257 641 9 107 6 SK 118 638 31 249 62 5 456 7 SK 178 384 35 268 92 5 15 6 SK 757 2297 66 856 113 13 78 5 SK 776 1557 36 233 167 6 287 3 Strongly Anomalous Samples (n = 9) SK 7 459 43 512 921 5 1714 3 SK 28 2671 70 674 388 5 696 7 SK 29 2995 67 1174 676 10 1868 • 4 SK 31 5093 58 1573 1061 6 3253 6 SK 35 5022 24 255 251 3 1139 8 SK 50 2391 40 320 142 4 355 4 SK 61 2199 18 390 61 7 610 4 GM il5 2583 53 • 839 179 5 737 6 GM 119 2938 29 681 674 4 1392 7 265 metamorphism. Composition of mineral phases i s discussed in relation to these factors. (a) Form of Trace Elements in Mineral Phases The form of trace elements in mineral phases was examined by sulphide-selective KCIO^-HCI digestion. Results are presented in Table LXI and Figs. 58 to 60. In background biotite samples with less than 100 p.p.m. Cu, the proportion of Cu extracted ranges from 40 to 80$. In contrast, more than 80$ of tot a l Cu i s extracted from background samples containing more than 100 p.p.m. Cu, and a l l anomalous samples with Cu values ranging from 384 to 5093 p.p.m. (Fig. 58). In magnetites, considerable overlap i s evident in the proportion of Cu extracted from background (34 - 75%) and anomalous (20 - 100%) samples (Fig. 59). On the other hand, the proportions of Zn extracted from biotites and magnetites, and Mn from biotites (Table LXl) are generally less than J0% i n both background and anomalous samples (Figs. 58 and 59 and Table LXl). In quartz-feldspar phases, the proportion of Cu extracted in background samples range from 33 5° 84>2. In anomalous samples, proportion of Cu extracted increases from 60% at 100 p.p.m. total Cu to more than 95% at 500 p.p.m. (Fig. 60). This i s followed by a decline in % extraction at more than 1000 p.p.m. total Cu. The extraction of Zn in anomalous quartz-feldspar samples i s generally less than 35%» whereas i n background samples a considerable scatter i s apparent, with extraction ranging from 18 to 62% of total Zn. However, the 4 samples with more than k0% extraction are very low 266 Cu Zn © n Anomalous D Background o o • o • ® ° o • © • • • m • • ' • 10 100 1000 10000 Total Cu (ppm) FIGURE 58: Proportions of to ta l Copper and Zinc extracted from b io t i te s by KCIC^-HCI d igest ion. 26? Cu Zn • 8 ANOMALOUS o • BACKGROUND lOOh • • «e 80 o +j 60 o <o s- +-> X 40 20 o°o # « oo o o • • q - , n «a" 10 100 1000 10000 T o t a l Cu (ppm) FIGURE 59: P r o p o r t i o n s o f t o t a l C o p p e r and Z i n c e x t r a c t e d f r o m m a g n e t i t e s by KC103-HCT d i g e s t i o n . 268 Zn • Anomalous O Background lOOr- o o • o • ® • o o • o • • o • • • • l_J mm • • II B H • • • a • — i ~ 1000 10000 10 100 Total Cu (ppm) FIGURE 60: Proportions of tota l Copper and Zinc extracted from quartz-feldspar phases by KC103-HC1 digest ion. 269 in total Zn (8-15 p.p.m.), consequently the high % extraction i s attributed to poor analytical precision at low concentrations. Results of sulphide-selective leach suggest that Cu occurs dominantly as sulphides in mineral phases from anomalous samples. Some background samples also contain appreciable sulphide-held Cu. In contrast Zn i n a l l mineral phases and Mn i n biotites occur mainly in non-sulphide form, presumably in substitution for Fe and Mg in crystal lattices. (b) Chemical Variations Related to Modal Composition Although there are no significant correlations between abundance of biotite and either whole-rock or biotite Cu (Fig. 61 and 62), the amount of Cu contributed by biotite to whole-rock samples increases with increasing modal biotite (Fig. 63). This positive relationship i s strongest for biotites from mineralized samples, and reflects the occurrence of epigenetic Cu, mostly as sulphide inclusions. A plot of whole-rock Cu versus modal proportion of accessory minerals (mainly opaque) exhibits no significant corre- lation for a l l samples, although a rather weak (r = 0.53) positive correlation exists between whole-rock Cu i n background samples and modal accessory minerals (Fig. 64). Fig. 65 shows that the amount of K-feldspar generally decreases with increasing Cu content of whole rocks. This reflects increasing intensity of hydrothermal alteration of K-feldspar to sericite in mineralized samples. Whole-rock Zn shows no obvious correlation with biotite 2?0 A l l Samples r = 0.21 n = 21 Anomalous samples r = 0.30 n = 13 Background samples r = -0.07 n = 8 IOOOCH loocH Whole-Rock Cu IOOH + Strongly Anomalous Samples n Weakly Anomalous Samples ^Background Samples • © © 2 4 6 8 io 12 Modal B i o t i t e % FIGURE 61: Relationship between whole-rock copper and modal proportions of b i o t i t e . 271 10000 g; 10001 4-> o "~ 100 o 10 • a A Strongly Anomalous • Weakly Anomalous « Background r = 0.22 n = 21 4 6 8 Modal B i o t i t e % 10 12 FIGURE 62: Relationship between modal and Copper contents of b i o t i t e . 272 C L C L A l l samples r Anomalous samples r Background samples r 0.51 0.75 0.60 A a n = 21 n = 13 n = 8 Strongly anomalous Weakly anomalous Background I ' +-> rt3 S- +-> c: cu u c: o o u o cn cu o •nool cu +-> •(-> o •r— CQ o s- q- 10 o o • Q • CU o A A • • Modaf B i o t i t e f 12 FIGURE 63: Plot of modal b i o t i t e vers is Copper from b i o t i t e in whole rock 273 4- ' Strongly Anomalous • Weakly Anomalous 9 Background A l l Samples r = 0.24 n = 21 Anomalous Samples r = 0.17 n = 13 ,000°-f Background Samples r = 0.53 n = 8 1OO0' Q. CL 3 100-1 O o o I a> o sz 10- • • • + + + • • • 0 1 2 3 4 5 Modal Accessory Minerals % FIGURE 64: Relationship between whole-rock Copper and percent accessory minerals in rocks. 274 10000 1000 100 10 r = -0.55 n = 21 • • D A Strongly Anomalous • Weakly Anomalous • Background 0 4 8 12 16 20 Modal K-feldspar % FIGURE 65: Covariance of Copper and modal K-feldspar in whole rocks. 275 in a l l samples (Table LXIl), although a relatively weak positive correlation i s apparent between whole-rock Zn and combined modal biotite and hornblende in anomalous samples. Nevertheless, the amount of Zn contributed to whole-rock samples by biotite increases with increasing modal biotite (Fig, 66). (c) Variations Related to Ghemcial Composition of Mineral Phases 13 biotites were analyzed for Mg and Fe, and 26 quartz- feldspar fractions for Ca, Na and K (Table LIX). However, results for quartz-feldspar do not show any consistent relationships with trace elements, and consequently are not discussed further. Biotites Putman and Burnham (1963) have shown that major element composition of biotites can influence trace element content. Gray- beal (1973) found no obvious correlation between Cu and major elements in biotite, although he obtained a weak positive correlation between Zn and Fe in biotite. Biotites from mineralized samples are characterized by relatively high Fe and low Mg levels (Figs. 67 and 68). This reflects either the contribution of Fe from sulphide inclusions or suggest that hydrothermal processes during ore formation involved depletion of Mg and addition of Fe to biotites, probably derived from magnetite. Plots of Cu content against Fe and Mg show positive and weak negative relationships between Cu and Fe and Cu and Mg (Figs. 67 and 68) respectively. Zn and Co values generally increase with increasing Mg contents of biotites (r = 0.50 and 0,60 respectively). 276 TABLE LXIIi Correlation fatrlx for medial analysis and trace olercent content of rocks and minerals - significant Correlations at i05 confidence level-. Variable W?CU WPZN BTCU BTZN WRCU 1.0000 VfRZi; -0.1158 1.0000 BTCU 0.8521 -0.2954 1.0000 BTZN -0.3948 0.5217 -O.35I8 1.0000 ET 0.2121 0.0760 0.2210 0.0520 BT + HBD 0.1999 0.3248 0.1230 -0.0332 ACCESS 0.2389 0.0127 0.1478 -0.U35 K-FS? -0.5468 -O.I972 • -0.3982 -0.0614 AU samples n =?| 1.0000 0.7527' 0.0019 0.0829 1.0000 O.3690 -0.0006 K-F3P 1.0000 -0.3O48 1.0000 Anomalous Samples 13 Variable WRCU WRZN BTCU ETZi! 3T 3T + HBD WRCU 1.0000 WRZN 0.0814 1.0000 BTCU O.38O8 -O.5584 1.0000 BTZN 0.2189 0.4658 -0.2235 1.0000 BT 0.3027 0.2218 O.3676 O.3766 1.0000 3T + HBD 0.1491 0.4671 O.I762 0.2549 0.7566 . 1.0000 ACCESS 0.1748 -0.0253 0.0730 -0.2611 -0.0705 0.3453 K-FSP -0.4214 -0.1895 0.1186 -O.2629 -0.0275 -0.0349 1.0000 -0.1072 K-FSP 1.0000 Background Samples Variable WRCU WRZN BTCU BTZN BT BT + h33 ACCESS K-FSP WRCU 1.0000 -0.1036 0.1696 -0.6992 -0.0724 0.12SO 0.5273 -0.3942 VSZN 1.0000 -0.0169 0.5989 -0.1325 0.1723 0.2075 -0.392S BTCU 1.0000 -0.0603 -0.1462 -O.555O -0.1113 -0.2293 BTZN BT BT + HBD ACCESS K-FSP 1.0000 -0.0697 -O.I387 -0.0002 -0.2613 1.0000 0.7280 0.2123 0.4392 1.0000 0.4212 0.2238 1.0000 -0.71S6 1.0000 277 A l l samples Anomalous samples Background samples r = 0.73 n = 21 r = 0.88 n = 13 r = 0.56 n = 8 E Q. D. A Strongly Anomalous • Weakly Anomalous • Background o o s- OJ 40r 4-> O • Q o s- 4- 10 s-4-> CU o c o u cu •a o o o • 4 6 Modal B i o t i t e % 10 12 FIGURE 66: Plot of modal b i o t i t e versus Zinc from b i o t i t e in whole rocks. 278 10000 1000 Q. CD +-> O -Q 100 10 • l i lted -0.59 • D Q 10 12 14 MgO in B i o t i t e (wt %) 16 FIGURE 68: Copper versus. Magnesium in b io t i te s r = 0.50 n = 13 • • • Anomalous * Background 13 14 15 16 17 Fe as Fe 2 0 3 i n B i o t i t e (wt %) FIGURE 67: Copper versus Iron in b io t i te s 279 This relationship i s consistent with the ionic substitution of these elements for Mg i n biotite l a t t i c e s . Lack of correlation between Zn and Go, and Fe probably reflects the presence of epig- enetic Fe as sulphide inclusions. (d) Chemical Variations Related to Mineralization Variations in trace element chemistry of minerals, i f directly related to mineralization may be useful in geochemical exploration. In the anomalous samples examined i n this study, a l l mineral phases are enriched in Cu which i s principally present as sulphide inclusions (Figs. 69, 70 and 71; Table LIX). This i s suggestive of an endogenous process producing a "blanket" enhancement effect on a l l rock constituents. (i) Biotites Biotites commonly are enriched i n Cu which occurs dominantly as minute sulphide inclusions. Numerous workers (Lovering et a l . , 1970; Putman and Bumham, 1963 j Al-Hashimi and Brownlow, 1970) have demonstrated that igneous biotites tend to have low Cu contents unless hydrothermal alteration and/or mineralization are associated with their host rock. This contention i s supported by results of sulphide-selective leach (Fig. 58) and the strong positive correlation between whole-rock Cu and biotite Cu (Fig. 69). Petrographic evidence, which i s consistent with chemical results, indicates that Cu occurs partly as small inclusions of bornite and chalcopyrite in biotite, and also along margins of ragged grains of femic minerals (Plates 14 and 15). 280 4- Highly Anomalous Samples • Weakly Anomalous Samples m Bakcground Samples r = 0.88 n = 26 1 0 0 0 0 H + + 1000- • • 100- : • C L C L O) -(-> +-> o 10H 0 10 100 1000 ' 10000 Cu in whole-rock (ppm) FIGURE 69: Relationship between tota l Copper in whole-rocks and b io t i te s 281 The consistent tendency for lower Ni, Co, Zn, Mg and Mn levels in anomalous than background samples cam be explained by leaching of these elements during hydrothermal and mineralization processes. This relationship corroborates f i e l d and bedrock geo- chemical evidence (Chapter 6) in which the aforementioned elements are leached from central zones of intense hydrothermal activity and concentrated at the outer margins of mineralized zones. ( i i ) Magnetites Magnetites from anomalous samples are characterized by enhanced Cu values relative to background samples (Fig. 70). Similar results have been reported by de Grys (1970) for magnetites associated with Cu-bearing intrusions i n Ecuador. In mineralized environments, magnetite may occur in two formss (l) as accessory primary magnet- it e ; and (2) as epigenetic magnetite, intimately associated with sulphide phases. Hewett (1972) undertook a mineralographic study of ore samples from Highland Valley porphyry Cu deposits. His results suggest that epigenetic magnetite i s present in a l l the deposits, and that i t i s usually the f i r s t mineral in the paragenetic sequence of ore formation. Several of the photomicrographs presented by Hewett (1972) show inclusions of bornite i n epigenetic magnetite. In this study no attempt was made to separate the two types of magnetite and the enhanced Cu content of magnetites from anomalous samples might simply reflect the epigenetic component as indicated by the results of sulphide-selective digestion (Fig. 59). 282 100 0 0 IOOOH 100 ' IOH + Highly Anomalous Samples o Weakly Anomalous samples Background samples r = 0.78 n = 26 • • + + t + • , o 10 100 1000 1 0 0 0 0 Cu in Whole Rock (ppm) FIGURE 70: Relationship between Copper contents of whole rocks and magnetites. 283 Levels of Zn and Co are consistently lower in anomalous than background samples. This i s suggestive of leaching of these elements from magnetite during hydrothermal alteration. ( i i i ) Quartz-Feldspar Anomalous Cu and relatively low Zn values are characteristic of quartz-feldspar fractions from mineralized samples (Table LIX). As demonstrated earlier, enhanced Cu values are not due to contam- ination by biotite or magnetite. The strong positive correlation between Cu in whole rock and quartz-feldspar fractions reflects the high modal proportions (more than 80$) of these minerals in whole rocks (Fig. 71). Several workers (Azzaria, 1963; Bradshaw, 1967; 3radshaw :and Stoyel, 19685Rabinovich and Badalov, 1968) have shown that quartz and feldspars in fresh granites contain appreciable Cu, although i t s mode of occurrence i s not well understood. It may substitute for Fe and Mg, which commonly occur as impurities i n feldspars of unmineralized igneous rocks (Wager and Mitchell, 1951)i cr occur directly as an impurity i n quartz (Cutitta et a l . , i960). Results of sulphide selective leach suggest that Cu in anomalous samples principally occurs in sulphide form, mainly as inclusions i n sericitized plagioclase and K-feldspar f Primary quartz probably contains l i t t l e or no Cu, although hydro- thermal quartz veinlets commonly carry opaque inclusions which may be sulphides. • t • • n • • 284 • Background samples Weakly anomalous samples . j . Strongly anomalous samples r = 0.94 n = 26 • + • • • + + + !0 100 1000 10000 Cu in Whole Rock (ppm) FIGURE 71: Relationship between Copper contents of whole rocks and quartz-feldspar f ract ions . 285 (iv) Nature of Mineralizing and Hydrothermal Processes From the foregoing discussion, i t i s apparent that hydro- thermal processes have produced pervasive enhancement i n Cu content of most mineral constituents i n mineralized rocks. This i s i n accordance with the model of mass flow of ore-forming solutions through grain boundaries, pores and other discontinuities in rocks (Korzhinskii, 1968). The overall effect of these processes i s enrichment of Cu i n most rock constituents. Results of mineral analysis further suggest that hydrothermal processes involve leaching of Ni, Zn, Mn, Co and Mg from femic minerals. This represents the incipient stage of large-scale metasomatic leaching documented i n the analysis of whole rocks (Chapter 6), which culminates in the destruction of femic silicates and subsequent formation of hydro- thermal alteration minerals. The leached metals are ultimately deposited at the periphery of mineralized zones by outward migrating solutions. These processes are further discussed i n relation to genesis of mineralization in Chapter 8. GEOCHEMICAL CONTRAST Average geochemical contrast for Cu between background and anomalous samples i n whole rock and mineral fractions i s summarized in Table LXIII. KCIO^-HCI digestion gives the best contrast in whole-rock analysis. Compared to whole-rock samples, a l l mineral phases give lower geochemical contrast for total and partial extr- actable Cu. Geochemical contrast in biotite i s higher than that of quartz-feldspar, and contrast in both mineral phases considerably 286 TABLE LXIII: Comparison of geochemical contrast in whole rock and mineral separates (26 samples). HF-HClCv-HNO Total Cu (p.p.m.) KC10--HC1 Ext. Ĥ O Cu (p.p.m.) Cu - Asc. Ext. (p.p.m.) Aqua Regia Ext. Cu (p.p.m.) W<0--HC10̂ Ext. Cu (p.p.m) (a) WHOLE ROCK R 6 - 4585 2 - 4281 3 - 1435 4 - 4963 4 - 4040 °«B • 21 11 14 19 16 Threshold 90 7 85 107 86- GM, A 745 697 568 . 721 618 Av. Contrast 8.3 9.8 (b) BIOTITE 6.7 6.7 7.2 R 44 - 5617 26 - 5092 18-4253 34 - 4305 GMB 92 82 67 99 Threshold 295 324 309 351 GM 1624 1535 1483 1675 Av. Contrast 5.5 4.8 (c) QUARTZ-. FELDSPAR • 4.8 4.8 R 12 - 3465 12 - 2605 7 - 1570 11 - 3292 - G K 3 29 21 18 24 Threshold 146 103 101 127 G KA 619 434 419 527 Av. Contrast 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.2 (d) MAGNETITE R 14 - 1061 35 - 5451 GMB 35 67 Threshold 101 198 GM. A 176 401 Av. Contrast 1.7 2.0 R = Complete range GM ig = Geometric mean; background, anomalous Threshold = GM„ + 2 Standard Deviation Av. Contrast = GM./threshold a A 287 exceed that of magnetite. In view of greater contrast obtained with whole-rock analysis, and d i f f i c u l t y of preparing mineral separates, their use appears to offer :no advantages for mineral exploration in the Highland Valley. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS (1) Cu contents of biotite, magnetite and quartz-feldspar fractions strongly correlate with whole-rock. This reflects the pervasive effect of epigenetic mineralization processes. Results of sulphide-selective leach suggest that significant amounts of Cu are present as sulphides in a l l mineral phases, from both anomalous and some background samples. (2) With the exception of K-feldspar, modal proportions of minerals i n whole rocks show no consistent relationship with trace- element contents. The inverse relationship between K-feldspar and whole-rock Cu_reflects the increasing destruction of K-feldspar as intensity of mineralization increases. (3) Levels of Mg, Ni, Zn, Mn and Co in biotites and Zn and Co in magnetites . are consistently lower in anomalous than background samples. This i s consistent with incipient leaching of these elements during hydrothermal processes. (4) Greater contrast was obtained with whole-rock than mineral analysis. Consequently, the use of mineral separates offers no advantages for mineral exploration in the Highland Valley. 288a PLATE 13 : Disseminated sulphide grains (mainly "bornite with minor chalcopyrite) in mineralized samples at Highmont (reflected l i g h t ) . PLATE Ik: Bornite inclusions i n chloritized biotite (a) trans- mitted light (b) reflected l i g h t . PLATE 15: Opaque grains .(sulphide) occuring at the margins of a chloritized biotite (transmitted l i g h t ) . 2 8 8 fc CHAPTER EIGHT ORE-FORMING PROCESSES AT HIGHLAND VALLEY 290 INTRODUCTION (a) General Statement In recent years numerous genetic models have been pro- posed for porphyry copper deposits (Burnham, 1967; Meyer and Hemley, 1967; Fournier, 1967i Nielsen, 1968; Lowell and Guilbert, 1970; White, I968; Philips, 1973). Most of these models have not benefited from results of detailed bedrock geochemistry, which in conjunction with experimental studies are crucial to the under- standing of chemical aspects of ore-forming processes in porphyry coppers. The purpose of this portion of the study i s to discuss ore-forming processes at Highland Valley in relation to lithogeo- chemical and isotopic data. Some suggestions on the physical aspects of ore genesis are speculative, and more definite conclusions must await results of extensive f l u i d inclusion studies underway at the University of Alberta (R.D. Morton, pers. comm.) (b) Ore Genetic Models for Porphyry Copper Deposits Various genetic models have been presented for porphyry copper deposits. A l l these models recognize the importance of mag- matism in hydrothermal processes, and the main differences are i n the depth of intrusion, the timing of hydrothermal processes and source of mineralizing fluids (Lowell and Guilbert, 1970). In the orthomagmatic models (Burnham, 1967; Nielsen, 1968) an aqueous-rich volatile phase i s released from the magma when internal 291 vapour pressure associated with saturation exceeds lithostatic pressure, or when the intrusive system i s subjected to external stresses. Within this model, two different sources of ore metals have been advocated. Nielsen (1968) among others, suggests that metals were derived by differentiation of Cu-rich magma. In contrast, Noble (1970) and S i l l i t o e (1972) advocate a deep-seated source for ore metals, and consider the role of igneous intrusion i n mineralization to be merely one of structural control rather than a source of ore metals. At the other end of the ore genetic 'spec- trum' to the orthomagmatic models, White (1968) postulates an almost completely external source of mineralizing fluids - connate and/or meteoric hydrothermal solutions subject to convective pro- cesses by heat generated by subjacent intrusions. In this model, the pluton plays a passive role in mineralizing processes. Various lines of evidence suggest that close relationships between mineralization at Highland Valley and evolution of the Guichon Greek batholith (Northcote, 1969; Brabec and White, 1971). Firstly," most of the major porphyry copper deposits are spatially associated with the younger and most differentiated rock units of the batholith - Bethsaida and Bethlehem Phases. Secondly,isotopic age determinations indicate temporal relationship between magmatism and hydrothermal processes. Results of K-Ar age determinations on hydrothermal sericites and biotites (Blanchflower, 1972; Jones et a l . , 1972; Dirom, 1965) indicate that, within limits of analytical error, mineralization and emplacement of the batholith are contemporaneous. 292 Despite the close spatial and temporal relationships between mineralization and evolution of Guichon Creek batholith, i t i s not clear whether the role of the pluton i n mineralization i s one of structural control or as a direct source of metals. ORIGIN OF GUICHON CREEK BATHOLITH AND SOURCE OF METALS One of the important tenents of the orthomagmatic model i s that ore-forming fluids are by-products of magmas of the associated intrusion. If this supposition i s correct, then the origin of Guichon Creek batholith i s pertinent to ore genesis at Highland Valley. Relevant geochemical and isotopic data are reviewed in the following section. (a) Provenance of Guichon Creek Magma and Associated Metals Numerous workers have shown that K/Rb and Rb/Sr ratios set important constraints on the source materials of igneous masses (Hurley, I 9 6 8 ; Culbert, 1972). Results of regional geochemistry indicate that K/Rb ratios i n rocks of the Guichon Creek batholith are relatively high (mean = 358) and largely outside the l i m i t considered normal for continental plutonic rocks (Fig. 72). Furthermore, the Rb/Sr ratios are low and primitive, plotting in the region of basalts and andesites (Fig. 73). The mean Rb/Sr ratio of 0.05 i s one-fifth the value cited for s i a l i c crust (0.25; Faure and Hurley, I 9 6 3 ) . Thus the copious Sr i n the 8 7 86 batholith i s changing i t s Sr '/Sr ratio (by radioactive decay of Rb ') by only .001 every 500 m.y. This reflects i t s primitive nature. Compared with other Mesozoic plutons i n the Intermontane 50 Hot 500' Rb ( — iv FIGURE 72: ̂ ^u^^5^^^r **• - c™* s 294 • Guichon rocks ^ .Average S ierra Nevada g ran i t i c rock Sr (ppm) FIGURE 73: Plot of Rubidium versus Strontium in rocks of Guichon Creek bathol i th (Generalized geochemical relat ionships of Rb and Sr in certain types of rocks are shown for comparison; a f te r Hedge, 1966) 295 Belt (Table LXIV), the Guichon Greek batholith i s relatively impoverished i n Rb and K, and characterized by higher K/Rb and lower Rb/Sr ratios. However, values obtained for the Guichon Greek batholith are similar to those reported by Gulbert (1972) for the Coast Mountains batholith of the Coast Mountains Belt. The relatively high K/Rb and low Rb/Sr ratios in rocks of Guichon Creek batholith are not due to mineral fractionation, but reflect derivation from a subcrustal source region depleted in alkalis and enriched in Sr, most probably from subducted oceanic crust or upper mantle. This interpretation i s consistent with the primitive i n i t i a l Sr isotopic ratio ( S r 8 7 / S r 8 6 = 0.7037) reported by Chrismas et a l . , (1969) Monger et a l . (1972) and Dercourt (1972) have presented tectonic models for the evolution of the Canadian Cordillera which suggest that the Intermontane Belt, comprising extensive andesitic volcanic rocks and calc-alkaline plutons (including the Guichon Creek batholith), was the site of an ancient island arc generated by sub- duction of oceanic crust of the Pacific Plate beneath continental crust of the overriding North American Plate during the Mesozoic. In accordance with this model, the relatively early Mesozoic age of the Guichon Creek batholith - the oldest-dated Mesozoic pluton i n the Canadian Cordillera - and i t s low K>Q content (mean = 1,85$) suggest derivation of the batholith from relatively shallow depths from the subduction zone (calculated as <130 km; Hatherton and Dickinson, 1969) close to the Triassic trench. In this context, the low alkalis i n the batholith, high K/Rb and low Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with derivation from hydrated oceanic crust of probably TABLE LXIV, •Means and ranges of Rb, Sr, Rb/Sr, K/Rb and S r 8 ? / S r 8 6 ratios in some Mesozoic Cordilleran intrusions. Intrusions Simllkameen batholith Hogem batholith Kelson batholith White Creek batholith Bayonne batholith Vemon batholith Coast Mountains batholith Guichon Creek batholith Rb (p.p.m.) Sr (p.p.m.) Rb/Si K/Rb Sr 8?/Sr 8 6 Age (m.y.) 95 (52 - 152) 80 (55 - 118) 265 (196 - .,357) 33 (* - 150) 35 (3 - 132) 390 0.151 250 (11*7 - 639) (0.081 - 1.01) (1?2 - 309) 730 0.100 430 (468 - 1520) (0.041-0.125) (322 - 502) 0.175 (O.O56.- 0.483) 804 0.412 (435 - 1118) (0.108-1.655) 0.7060 (0.7029-0.7091) I83 170' 171 - 49 0.7069 °-7250 ^ m (O.7076-O.7397; 0.7081 (0.7072-0.7090) ' 1 1 8 ' 1 1 0 0.7064 0.246 (0.115 - O.357) 1.42 (0.108-2.84) • 725 0.046 (25 - 795) (0.11 - 0.60) (225 - 628) (0.7031-0.7050) 686 O.05 358 (249-1000) (0.004 - 0.321) (132 - IO30) 0.7037 373 0.7038 55 140, 84 200 - 5 •Modified after Peto (1974) 297 amphibolite composition (Jakes and White, 1970). Furthermore, results of sulphur isotopes i n hydrothermal sulphides and sulphates, and deuterium and oxygen isotopes i n hydrothermal sericites and kaolinites (Field et a l . , 1973! Jones et a l , 1972? Sheppard et a l . , 1969) suggest a subcrustal source for mineralizing solutions and associated metals. (b) Level of Emplacement and Volatile Pressures Northcote (19̂ 9) has presented geologic evidence which suggests that the older intrusive units within the batholith were emplaced under mesozonal conditions, whereas the younger units, that are spatially associated with mineralization, were emplaced at relatively shallower levels i n the crust (epizone). Westermann (1970), investigating the crystallization history of the batholith, found that in the older rock units, plagioclase crystallized earlier than quartz, whereas i n the younger Bethlehem-Skeena and Bethsaida Phases, quartz was f i r s t to crystallize. Moreover, the quartz grains i n the younger and more differentiated units are commonly fractured and occur dominantly as phenocrysts. According to Westermann (1970)$ these textural and mineralogical features are suggestive of increasing volatile pressures within the magma. A rough estimate of volatile pressures during c r y s t a l l i z - ation of the most differentiated and youngest unit (Bethsaida Phase) can be obtained by projecting normative compositions into the exper- imental system Ab-Or-Qz-HgO (Fig. 7*0. A l l five samples of Beth- saida rocks plot i n a restricted area close to the isobaric thermal trough for water vapour pressures around 6 to 7Kb. On the basis of Witches Brook Phase Bethsaida Phase Average Norms i Hybrid 21 'Chataway Guichon Bethlehem Skeena Witches Brook Bethsaida Bethlehem Porphyry Gnawed Mountain FIGURE 74: Plot of normative Ab-Or-Qz proportions for the Guichon Creek . samples compared with boundary curves and minima at 2,4,7 and 10 Kb P H Q (von Platen and Hol ler , 1966) Ab/An r a t i o = 2.9 ro oo 299 textural and f i e l d evidence Northcote (1969) has suggested that the Bethsaida Phase crystallized at relatively shallow depth (epizone), thus implying, at most 6 to 8km df cover which would produce a load pressure of about 2kb. If these estimates are correct, then the volatile pressures existing during emplacement of the Bethsaida Phase may be estimated as k to 5kb. Burnham (196?) has suggested that the maximum content of HgO in a granodiorite magma i s about 6 wt. %, most of which i s exsolved ('boiled off') between 10km and 3km depths. However at shallower depths, volatile pressures in excess of load pressure and tensile strength of the confining rocks may result in the development of shear fractures and micro-brecciation of cover rocks, permitting escape of 'fecund' aqueous solutions to form ore deposits. The porphyritic texture and fractured quartz phenoczysts in rocks of Bethsaida Phase (Westermann, 1970), and the presence of breccia pipes, are consistent with increasing volatile pressures during magmatic differentiation, However, no textures indicative of retro- grade boiling h&vle so far been documented, probably because of the d i f f i c u l t y of differentiating them from similar hydrothermal features (Philips, 1973). From the foregoing discussion, i t i s evident that magmatic evolution of the batholith created the suitable structural and chemical environment for localization of mineralization within the batholith. 300 NATURE OF ALTERATION-MINERALIZATION PROCESSES Extensive wall-rock alteration, that is so characteristic of porphyry copper deposits, constitutes the most visible evidence of interaction between host rocks and hydrothermal solutions. Meyer and Hemley (196?) among others, have demonstrated the close temporal and genetic relationships between sulphide deposition and wall-rock alteration at porphyry copper deposits. (a) Mineral Stability Fields Mineralogy of alteration assemblages at Highland Valley deposits provides evidence of the composition of mineralizing fl u i d s . A l l the deposits of the Highland Valley contain sericite alteration either in association with kaolinite, quartz or K-feldspar. Argillization and sericitization of wall rocks require slight to moderate acidity (pH<6) whereas abundant K-feldspar suggests pH exceeding 7 (Barnes and Czamanske, 196?). Cross-cutting vein relation- ships suggest that K-feldspar with.or without quartz is generally early in the paragenetic sequence, and followed by sericite and a r g i l l i c veins or selvages. This sequence suggests increasing acidity of hydrothermal fluids with increasing evolution. However, at Valley Copper, K-feldspar envelopes occur around sericite veins and in equilibrium with kaolinite. This relationship, which i s contrary to the s t a b i l i t y - f i e l d relationships established for these minerals by Hemley and Jones (1964), i s attributed to a resurgence of abnormally high s i l i c a a c t i v i t i e s in ore-forming fluids shifting the mineral s t a b i l i t y f i e l d to higher pH levels. 301 (b) Bedrock Geochemical Evidence Results of bedrock and mineral geochemistry (Chapters 6 and 7) suggest that widespread chemical changes in wall rock are intimately associated with mineralization and hydrothermal alter- ation. Each deposit i s characterized by central mineralized zones in which metasomatic activity i s most intense. In zones of intense a r g i l l i c and phyllic alteration at Valley Copper, Lornex and Highmont, the base elements Ca, Na, Sr, Ba, Zn, Mn, Mg and Fe are depleted, whereas in potassic zones at the JA, Lornex and Valley Copper deposits K, Rb and Ba are relatively enriched. Calculations of chemical gain and loss of principal rock constitutents through alteration and mineralization at Valley Copper (Fi . 75)» suggest that i n quartz-sericite and potassic zones, Ca, Mg, Fe, Na and Al are removed and K, Si and S added (for method of calculation, see Gresens, I967). The obvious depletion of base cations in mineralized and altered zones i s attributed to the break down of ferromagnesian minerals and plagioclase to sericite and kaolinite. Incipient stages of the above process are demonstrated by results of mineral analysis. Zn, Mn, Mg and.'Go levels i n biotites and magnetites are consistently lower i n mineralized and altered than in fresh samples. Cu and S concentrations, though erratic, are highest i n zones of intense alteration and metallization, de- creasing outwards to back round levels in fresh unmineralized host rocks. DISCUSSION The following modes of origin have been proposed for porphyry copper deposits, hence are relevant to the genesis of the 200 S o o o "> <fi a- O 100 20CH Si Al Fe Mg 21 Ca Na FIGURE 75: [ | Argillic (kaolinite + sericite icalcite) U l Phyllic (quartz + sericite ± K-feldspar) fTT|j Potassic Gain and loss of pr inc ipa l rock constituents through a l terat ion and minera l i za t i on . Valley Copper 3600 l e v e l . o !\3 303 Highland Valley deposits. ( i ) Extraction of ore metals either by leaching of wall rocks by convecting meteoric waters as proposed by White (1968), or by deuteric alteration as proposed by Putman (1972). ( i i ) Derivation of ore metals by assimilation of country rocks (Schau, 1970). ( i i i ) Concentration of ore metals by differentiation of a Cu-rich magma (Brabec and White, 1971. Nielsen, 1968; Burnham, 1967; Graybeal, 1973). / F (iv) Derivation of ore metals by partial melting of sub- ducted oceanic crust, and subsequent transportation to crustal levels, as an independent phase within calc-alkaline magmas ( S i l l i t o e , 1972; Mitchell and Garson, 1972; Wright and McCurry, 1973; Noble, 1970). On the basis of variations of Cu contents in the Guichon Creek batholith, Brabec and White (1971) postulated that the Highland Valley deposits were derived by differentiation of a Cu-rich magma. In contrast, Schau (1970) has suggested that Cu i n the batholith was derived by assimilation of Nicola volcanic rocks. A l l the alter- natives are now considered in light of regional, detailed bedrock and mineral geochemistry, and isotopic data. The f i r s t hypothesis i s least l i k e l y because results of detailed bedrock geochemistry around mineralized zones indicate that no zone of Cu and/or S depletion surrounds the orebodies at the level 304 of sampling, although the remote possibility that these elements could be extracted from channelways at greater depths i s not ruled out. Moreover, results of mineral geochemistry suggest no obvious leaching of Cu from biotites, although such leaching of Zn, Mn, Ni, Co and other 'femic' elements i s apparent i n bedrock and minerals. The second hypothesis has been proposed by Schau (1970) who postulated that ore metals were derived by assimilation of Nicola volcanic rocks. Brabec and White (1971) have crit i c i z e d this hypothesis by demonstrating that the Hybrid Phase, the most contam- inated unit within the batholith, i s not significantly higher i n Cu than uncontaminated rocks of the Guichon and Chataway Phases. Brabec (1970) further suggests that the relatively high Cu levels in the batholith would require selective assimilation of this metal from a large volume of country rocks. Field evidence do not support a large-scale contamination of the batholith beyond the outer margins (Northcote, I969). Available geochemical data are not consistent with the third hypothesis proposed by Brabec and White (1971)» since (i) Cu in association with Zn, Mn, Ti , V, Ni, Co, Fe and Mg generally decrease^ with increasing fractionation or f e l s i c composition of intrusive units. This geochemical pattern simply reflects normal differentiation trends observed i n unmineralized intrusions. Sheraton and Black (1973)» investigating trace element geochemistry of granitic intrusions unmineralized with respect to Cu, found that Cu concentrations decreased from more than 40 p.p.m. in granodiorite to less than 5 p.p.m. in more differentiated granites. In contrast, 305 studies on intrusions that are known to have generated immiscible sulphide- phases such as the Skaergaard (Wager and Brown, 1967)» and mineralized Laramide intrusions in Arizona (Graybeal, 1973)» Cu contents of bedrock and mineral constituents generally increase with differentiation u n t i l Gu separates from the melt as .ian immiscible sulphide phase. Graybeal (1973)» investigating the partitioning of Cu between co-existing biotite and hornblende found that, under equilibrium conditions, higher concentration of Cu within the magma was reflected by higher concentrations in the mineral phases. In the Guichon Creek batholith, results of Cu determinations i n biotites and hornblendes (Brabec, 1970) suggest no appreciable variations throughout the batholith. From the foregoing discussions i t i s apparent that geochemical data do not support the hypothesis that ore metals at Highland Valley were derived by differentiation of a Cu-rich Guichon Creek magma. On the contrary, i t i s argued that the Guichon Creek magma became increasingly impoverished in Cu as a result of differentiation. The fourth hypothesis, which regards mineralization as an independent by-product of magma generation rather than a direct result of differentiation processes, i s consistent with geochemical data and in line with contemporary ideas of plate tectonics and ore genesis. Nevertheless, i t must be emphasized that differentiation processes within a magma, provide the right chemical and physical environment for localization of ore metals. High K/Rb and Sr values and low Rb, K, Rb/Sr and Sr isotopic ratios are consistent with derivation of Guichon Creek magma 306 from a deep-seated source, most probably subducted oceanic crust or upper mantle. Results of sulphur, oxygen and deuterium isotopes suggest a similar deep-seated source for mineralizing solutions and ore metals. Because of the temporal and spatial relationships between mineralization and magmatism, i t i s logical to presume that ore metals at the Highland Valley deposits were derived from a metal-rich portion of the subducted oceanic crust from which the Guichon Greek magma was generated. S i l l i t o e (1972) has demonstrated that there i s enough Cu in oceanic basalts to generate metals i n ore deposits. The ore metals derived from partial melting of sub- ducted oceanic crust probably occur in a sulphide phase independent of the magma. Thus the role of the magma i s believed to be one of structural control i n channeling ore metals to crustal levels (Noble, 1970). Nevertheless, differentiation of the magma provided volatiles and structural openings, such as fractures, breccia zones, dyke swarms that f a c i l i t a t e d the extraction of metals from the system and concentration as ore deposits. Fig. 76 shows a comprehensive model that explains the evolution of the ore-forming fluids at the hydrothermal stage. The close spatial relationship between porphyry dykes or dyke swarms and ore deposits at Highland Valley, suggests that porphyries served as high-level structural 'outlets' for mineralizing solutions. The presence of saline f l u i d inclusions i n quartz veins at Valley Copper Lornex and Highmont (R.B. Morton, pers. comm.) and enhanced values of B, F, Cl and S in ore zones suggest that the mineralizing fluids contained HC1, Ĥ BÔ , HF, HgS, HgSÔ  and other volatile elements. EVOLUTIONARY PATH OF FLUIDS C H E M I C A L Z O N I N G SULPHIDE Z O N I N G Bornite <rt7777T////////// Pyrite • Chalcopyrite ALTE R A T I O N Z O N I N G <3333>Tourm. <CS33>- <XS> Qtz. «fTro>K-FiP, - r r m r r -VTV,\\W Montm. ALTERATION TYPE Pot. |Arg. Ser Propylitic \ CUT Mo, K H2S, etc FIGURE 76: Model for chemical and mineral zoning and evolution of ore forming f l u i d s . 308 Late stage differentiation products, such as K", Si0 2, RbT and Na^ were probably present. Extensive a r g i l l i c and sericite alteration found around the deposits require that ore solutions be slightly to moderately acidic, and contain abundant H+, probably derived from dissociated HgO and HgS present in the juvenile fluids, or by ad- mixture with convecting meteoric waters generated by heat from the porphyry dykes or stocks. Helgeson (1970) has presented thermodynamic data which demonstrate that a l l equilibria in hydrothermal systems can be represented in terms of the ratio of activities of cations in the aqueous phase to that of the hydrogen ion. Changes in base cation/ H + a c t i v i t i e s as ore-forming fluids transgress the alteration zones are portrayed in Fig. 76. The evolutionary paths, designated 1, 2 and 3 in the diagram, represent different degrees of equilibration between ore fluids and wall rock. Formation of an early potassic zone (K-feldspar - quartz - sericite;, that i s commonly centred on porphyry dykes, requires a high base cation (K +, Na +)/H + activity ratio which could result from i n i t i a l composition of mineralizing fluids (inherited from the magma) or less probably be derived at depths by H + consuming and base cation-releasing equilibrium reactions. As the ore fluids rise and spread outwards they undergo adiabatic expansion, and in conjunction with reaction with wall rocks and/or mixing with meteoric waters, cool, causing dissociation of the most acidic components. This dissociation provides most of the abundant H + required for hydrolitic base leaching within the quartz-sericite and a r g i l l i c zones, under acidic conditions. The 309 base cations (Mg"*"**, Ga + +, Fe"*-1", Na +, Sr"4-1", Ba +, Zn**, Mn + +), released by leaching, are taken into the f l u i d and transfered to the outlying metasomatic front (Korzhinskii, 1968), as the solutions are cooled and neutralized. Changes i n base cation/H + activity ratios are generally accompanied by changes in pH and sulphur fugacity (Meyer and Hemley, 1967) which ultimately control sulphide deposition and zoning patterns. This accounts for the close association between sericite and a r g i l l i c alteration, which require H + consumption in their formation and sulphide mineralization,as amply demonstrated at Valley Copper, Lornex, Highmont and i n parts of Bethlehem-JA. From the foregoing discussion, i t i s apparent that regional, detailed bedrock and mineral geochemistry,and isotopic and tectonic evidence are consistent with the mode of origin proposed for the Guichon Creek batholith. Assuming the genetic model correct, i t has far reaching implications in reconnaissance exploration for Cu deposits i n calc-alkaline intrusions of the Intermontane Belt. F i r s t l y , the apparent negative correlation between Cu contents and ore potential of the Guichon Greek batholith suggests that ore-bearing intrusions w i l l probably not be enriched in Cu. Thus the suggestion by Warren and Delavault, (i960) that high Cu contents of intrusions reflect ore potential might not be generally applicable. Secondly, i f ore metals i n the Guichon Creek batholith were derived from sub- ducted oceanic crust as an independent by-product of magma generation, i t i s most plausible that other calc-alkaline plutonic and volcanic rocks of similar age as the Guichon Creek batholith might originate 310 from the same metal-rich portion of subducted oceanic crust. Such calc-alkaline intrusive and extrusive rocks within the Inter- montane Belt can be identified by; ( l ) Their ages (Late Triassic - Early Jurassic); (2) their low Rb, Rb/Sr and high K/Rb ratios; and (3) their 10,0 content which should reflect the relatively shallow depth of magma generation. Using the Guichon Creek batholith as a 'reference index', calc-alkaline intrusive and extrusive rocks ..which meet the above c r i t e r i a might have considerable potential for porphyry Cu and/or massive sulphide deposits. CONCLUSIONS Regional, detailed bedrock and mineral geochemistry of the Guichon Creek batholith and associated mineralization i s con- sistent with the hypothesis that ore metals did not arise as a direct result of differentiation processes within a Cu-rich magma, but rather as an independent by-product of magma generation from sub- ducted oceanic crust of probably amphibolite composition. Neverthe- less, chemical and mineral fractionation within the Guichon Greek magma led to the development of increased volatile contents and pressures that provided suitable chemical and structural environments for localization of ore deposits. Consequently not a l l ore-bearing plutons need be enriched in Cu. CHAPTER NINE S U M M A R Y . A N D CONCLUSIONS 312 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS More than 1500 bedrock and mineral samples collected-"from the v i c i n i t y of four major porphyry copper deposits in the Highland Valley together with 60 fresh regional samples (Northcote, r. 1968) were analyzed for more than 20 major, trace and potential pathfinder elements by total and partial extraction techniques. Results and conclusions are summarized as follows: (a) Regional Geochemistry (1) Major element variations in rocks of the batholith suggest fractional crystallization of a calc-alkaline d i o r i t i c magma by progressive fractionation of plagioclase, biotite and hornblende. By this process, derivative fluids were enriched in Si and Na, and depleted in Ca, Fe, Mg and Ti. Ca-Na-K variation diagram indicates two trends of differentiation; normal calc-alkaline trend associated with K enrichment in dyke rocks of the Witches Brook Phase, and a trondjhemitic trend associated with Na enrichment in the remainder of the batholith. (2) In general, the batholith is relatively impoverished in KgO and Rb (mean values 1.85% 10,0; 35 p.p.m. Rb), and charac- terized by high K/Rb and low Rb/Sr ratios. These results are con- sistent with primitive i n i t i a l S r 8 7 / S r 8 6 ratio (0.7037; Chrismas et a l . , 1969) suggesting derivation of the magma from the upper mantle or subducted oceanic crust, in accordance with plate tectonic models. 313 (3) Variations in Mn, Zn, Ni, Go and V are intimately associated with degree of fractionation. These elements were pro- ressively depleted in the Guichon Greek magma with increasing magmatic differentiation. Strong positive correlations with Fe and Mg suggest partitioning of these femic trace elements into s i l i c a t e fractions during magmatic evolution. (4) In accordance with results obtained by Brabec (1970), Cu concentrations decrease progressively from the relatively older and more mafic, to relatively younger and more f e l s i c units. Minimum concentrations are encountered in the Bethsaida and Gnawed Mountain Phases that are spatially associated with Cu mineralization. The apparent tendency for Cu to decrease with increasing d i f f e r - entiation i s commonly characteristic of unmineralized intrusions, and suggests that the Guichon Creek magma was probably not the direct source of metals concentrated by differentiation. This i s in disagreement with the model proposed by Brabec (1970) and Brabec and White (1971), rather, i t seems differentiation depleted the magma of metals. (b) Detailed Bedrock Geochemistry (5) Variations i n concentrations of the 'femic group' of metals (Zn, Mn, Ti, V, Fe and M ) around mineralization are con- trolled principally by primary lithologies. This i s consistent with the geochemical a f f i n i t y between these trace elements and Fe and Mg. However, i t i s apparent that in deposits where there i s only one major host rock, such as at Valley Copper and Lornex, 314 Zn, Mn, Fe and Mg are leached in zones of intense a r g i l l i c and phyllic alteration. This i s attributed to the complete breakdown of ferromagnesian minerals to sericite and kaolinite. In contrast, propylitic zones with abundant chlorite, epidote, pyrite and car- bonate are generally associated with enhanced values of femic metals• (6) The lithophile elements Sr, Ba, Ca and Na are consis- tently depleted in zones of intense hydrothermal activity, especially where i t s character i s phyllic or a r g i l l i c . In con- trast, Rb, K and less commonly Ba are enriched in zones of K- feldspar and sericite alteration. Rb/Sr and Ba/Sr ratios show consistent patterns related to alteration and mineralization, (7) Cu and S, though erratic, show the highest contrast) and halos extending at least 0.5km from the «ore zones, and beyond visible alteration envelopes. Of these two elements, S seems to be less erratic than Cu as demonstrated by relatively lower co- efficients of variation. Furthermore, dispersion trends for S are more consistent and smoother, partly because S occurs not only as Cu sulphides but also i n pyrite which i s most commonly dissemin- ated at the periphery of porphyry-type deposits. (8) Hg dispersion i s not consistent at Highland Valley} a broad and pronounced halo i s associated with Bethlehem-JA but i s absent at Valley Copper. This behaviour i s attributed to either higher temperature of ore formation or the clay and sericite 315 composition of alteration minerals at Valley Copper, which resulted in the loss or escape of volatile Hg. (9) B anomalies are well developed at lornex and Highmont, partly as a result of the spatial association of mineralization with tourmaline-bearing breccia pipes and porphyry dykes. Never- theless, i t i s apparentxthat ore-forming solutions at Highmont and Lornex cbnt&B.ned relatively abundant B. At Valley Copper and JA, B anomalies are less prominent. (10) The halogens (Cl, F), either as to t a l or water-extract- able, are low in'poncehtrations and do not show consistent relation- ship with hydrothermal alteration and/or mineralization. The absence of relationship between halogens and mineralization i s most obvious at Valley Copper, and might suggest loss of halogens by volatization. This i s consistent with results reported by Kesler et a l . (1972) suggesting no relationship between halogen content of intrusions and their Cu bearing potential. (c) Mineral Geochemistry (11) Cu contents of biotite, magnetite and quartz-feldspar fractions strongly correlate with whole-rock Cu in background and anomalous samples. Results of sulphide-selective leach are con- sistent with the principal mode of occurrence of Cu as sulphide inclusions in a l l mineral phases of both anomalous and some back- round samples. (12) Levels of Mg, Ni, Zn, Mn and Co in biotites, and Zn 316 and Go in magnetites are generally lower i n mineralized than back- ground samples. This i s consistent with incipient leaching of these elements during hydrothermal alteration. (d) Sulphide Selective Digestion (13) An efficacious sulphide-selective leach (KG10^-HGl), not used previously in bedrock geochemistry, was developed during this study. (14) Experimental results demonstrate that KClCy-HCl leach appears to be more sulphide selective for Cu than procedures such as HgCvj-Ascorbic acid and aqua regia digestion. Furthermore, hot concentrated acids are not involved, and the procedure i s extremely rapid and simple and hence suited to routine application both i n the f i e l d and laboratory. (15) KCIO^-HCI digestion gives a better geochemical contrast for Cu in bedrock, than either aqua regia, HgOg-Asc, or total digestion. (16) As expected, distribution of sulphide-held Cu using KC10^-HC1 digestion at Valley Copper and JA i s similar to that of to t a l Cu because of the dominant occurrence of Cu as sulphide veins and disseminations. However, sulphide-held Fe delineates pyrite halos surrounding these deposits. • (e) Ore-forming Processes at Highland Valley. (l?) In view of established spatial and temporal relation- 317 ships between mineralization at Highland Valley and the evolution of the Guichon Greek magma, a modified orthomagmatic model i s proposed for ore genesis at Highland Valley. (18) Results of K, Rb and Sr determinations indicate relatively low abundances of these elements in fresh rocks of Guichon Greek batholith compared with other Mesozoic granitic rocks in the Canadian Cordillera. K/Rb ratios are relatively high, and largely outside the limits considered normal for crustal plutonic masses of grantic composition. Rb/Sr ratios are\ ?low, and similar to values reported for t h o l e i i t i c and 'primitive' calc- alkaline rocks of ancient island arcs. These results are consis- tent with low Sr isotopic ratios reported by Chrismas et a l . (1969), and suggest derivation of the batholith from a subcrustal source, most probably from subducted oceanic crust or upper mantle. (19) A deep-seated source of the Guichon Creek magma has far-reaching implications for ore genesis. Various lines of isotopic evidence suggest derivation of sulphur and associated ore metals from a subcrustal source similar to that of the batholith, which i s considered as a metal-rich portion of the subducted oceanic crust. Distribution of Cu in the batholith i s similar to that of other femic elements, in that i t differs from trends observed in intrusions that are reported to have produced immiscible sulphide phases, such as Skaergaard ( Wager and Brown, 1967)» ari<i Laramide porphyritic intrusions of Arizona (Graybeal, 1973). Consequently, i t i s suggssted that the role of Guichon Creek magma 318 i n mineralization i s merely one of structural control rather than a direct source of metals. However, differentiation of Guichon Greek magma provided adequate volatiles and structural 'traps' that led to the extraction of metals from the 'system'. (20) Close spatial relationships between mineralization and prophyry dykes or stocks suggest.that porphyries provided 'high-level' structural outlets for mineralizing solutions which subsequently reacted with wall rocks to produce the alteration and chemical patterns characteristic of porphyry-type deposits in the Highland Valley. (21) The extensive leaching of 'base elements' (Ca, Na, Sr Ba) i n zones of phyllic and a r g i l l i c alteration i s consistent with decreasing base cation/H + ratios during the intense 'wave' of acidic processes associated with formation of H + consuming minerals such as sericite and kaolinite. The leached elements are concentrated at the outer margins of the metasomatic front (Korzhinskii, 1968) as solutions migrate outwards and are neut- ralized by reaction with wall rocks. (f) Applications of Bedrock Geochemistry in Exploration Results of this study suggest that bedrock geochemistry can be very useful for reconnaissance and detailed mineral explor- ation in the Guichon Creek batholith and similar calc-alkaline intrusions in the Canadian Cordillera. 319 (22) Assuming that the Guichon Creek magma and associated ore metals were derived from a metal-rich portion of subducted oceanic crust, the following c r i t e r i a can be useful in reconnais- sance exploration for Cordilleran intrusive and extrusive rocks generated from the same source region as the Guichon Creek batholith and with potential for porphyry coppers and/or massive sulphides, (i) Late Triassic to Early Jurassic age;' ( i i ) low K, Rb and Rb/Sr values, and'high.K/Rb ratios; and ( i i i ) location i n the Inter- montane Belt of southern Canadian Cordillera. (23) In view of the supposed role of magmatic differentiation in providing suitable chemical and structural environments for ore localization, petrochemical variation diagrams.can be useful ln identifying intrusive units that.are most fractionated and capable of being spatially associated with mineralization. (24) The close relationships between metal values and degree of fractionation in the Guichon Creek batholith suggest the need for assigning different background values to each intrusive phase and soils derived from them, during geochemical exploration programmes . (25) 'For ^detailed exploration around porphyry copper pros- pects or deposits, Cu and S, because they show high contrast and extensive halos, constitute tools for delineating mineralized zones. S, however shows the more consistent or less erratic dispersion patterns. Pronounced S anomalies in bedrock suggest that SCv, in s o i l gas or a i r can be useful in outlining mineralized zones at 320 Highland Valley. The intensity of such halos might be affected \ by b o r n i t e c h a l c o p y r i t e ratio; where this ratio i s high (reflecting higher ore grade), intensity of gas anomalies w i l l be diminished. (26) Sulphide-held Gu shows a greater contrast than total Gu where a large number of fresh background samples are included in sampling programmes. Sulphide-held Fe as determined by KC10^-HC1 w i l l be useful in outlining pyrite halos that most commonly envelope prophyry coppers. (27) In view of the close association between alteration and mineralization at porphyry coppers, the distribution of lithophile elements Rb, Sr and Ba, and/or K, Ca and Na, constitutes a reliable tool in delineating zones of intense alteration and mineralization. They are easily determined by routine analysis and their distribution more readily quantified than fine rained mineralo;gy characteristic of alteration zones. Furthermore, the use of ratios (e.g. Ba/Sr Rb/Sr) offer added advantages, in that i t eliminates the influence of erratic data or local mineralogical control on metal distribution. At High- land Valley, Rb/Sr and Ba/Sr ratios exceeding 0.1 and 1 respectively delineate mineralized zones. (28) Volatile elements have a limited application to exploration in the Highland Valley. Hg in bedrock, s o i l gas or a i r can be useful i n detecting orebodies. similar to the Bethlehem-JA deposit. B i s most useful i n exploring for deposits associated with 321 breccia pipes and quartz porphyries. Because of the absence of pronounced Gl and F anomalies at the Highland Valley deposits, halogens in bedrock or as gaseous indicators have no exploration potential i n the Highland Valley. (29) Factor analysis constitutes a potent tool i n deci- phering the inter-relationships of metal distributions in multi- element geochemical studies. 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Geologya Rudnyh Mestorozdhenii, No. 1, pp. 45- 56 (in Russian). 336 APPENDICES 337 APPENDIX A Bethlehem-JA (Sample locations and Analytical Results) ^5 0 244m (Geology, after Bethlehem Mining Staff) FIGURE 77: Location of samples, Bethlehem-JA Suboutcrop l e v e l . 339 BETHLEHEM-JA SUBOUTCROP LEVEL ATOMIC ABSORPTION ANALYSIS (HN03-HCLC4 DIGESTION) (VALUES IN PPM) 1 1 U " J SAMP. t LOC.COORD CU ZN BN AG NI PB 119 200 600 1692 .837 15.914 131.765 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 152 550 450 1775.473 14.713 10 1. 506 0 . 0 C O 0.0 155 600 500 6535 .980 22.217 196.577 1.092 4 . 295 0 .0 157 650 450 6220 .469 61.356 254 .251 0 . 0 19.172 0 . 0 160 600 400 19547.449 19.620 357.867 5.567 0 .0 0 . 0 162 450 450 5117 .715 11.450 99 .178 . 0 . 0 0.0 0 .0 164 750 450 1166.666 56.146 476 .038 0 .0 12.911 0 . 0 166 500 500 328 .860 . 12.060 1 14.8R? n n -> "«•- - - 169 700 400 6725 . 1 17 28 951 2 0 s ' ^ n n 3 * 2 1 5 ° ' ° 172 500 400 3973 .669 t ' ^t'tfa °*° 0 . 0 174 550 350 5311 .582 4 557 2 0 v l l l °n'°n ° ' ° 176 650 350 103.444 11 « « \ ?•? 0 . 0 i/ D D 3 U « o .  .883 130.648 0 . 0 0 .0 . 178 700 500 118.827 19.086 140.775 0 .0 4 .236 0 . 0 181 400 500 2754.736 13.202 123.633 0 .0 0.0 0 . 0 183 450 350 3510.393 23.316 126.070 0.0 2.926 0 . 0 184 400 400 700 .666 5 .103 39.525 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 186 350 450 361.314 12.586 101.003 0 . 0 0 .0 0 .0 188 700 300 4953 .898 23.316 189 .032 0 . 0 5.221 0 .0 190 800 300 605 .170 23.117 169.087 0 .0 3.777 0 . 0 193 800 400 1077.945 12.301 85 . 228 0 .0 C O 0 . 0 196 750 350 5036 .199 14.596 136.469 0.0 6 .045 0 . 0 199 750 250 1419.913 33.305 213 .640 0 .0 8 .262 0 .0 201 650 250 2403 .555 25.278 224 .554 0 .0 5.781 0 . 0 203 550 550 1128.453 11.216 129.731 0 . 0 C O 0 .0 206 450 550 3210.041 9.996 68 .462 0 .0 3 .253 0 . 0 209 350 550 2762 .178 10.977 77.26 1 0 . 0 0.0 0 . 0 212 700 200 664 .644 36.836 347 .539 0.0 12.878 0 .0 214 800 200 1280.636 31 .923 249 .638 0 .0 7.698 0 .0 216 550 650 1527.321 16.479 N 94 .433 0 .0 C O 0 . 0 217 400 600 8908 .797 16.508 105.800 0 . 0 C O 0 .0 220 300 600 326.573 16.143 103.098 0 .0 0 . 0 0 . 0 223 300 500 1947.921 12.017 103.098 0 .0 0 . 0 0 . 0 226 600 600 135.017 18.414 120.747 0 .0 0 .0 0 . 0 229 650 550 4013 .349 15.285 134.628 0 .0 4 .893 0 .0 232 750 550 877 . 136 18.377 111.820 C O 9 .693 C O 234 850 350 732.641 48 .547 338 .685 0 . 0 7 .698 C O 237 850 250 191.453 49.668 283 .006 0 .0 5 .485 0 . 0 240 350 650 723 .205 21.971 147.257 0 . 0 9 .860 0 . 0 243 250 650 1795.757 17.557 129.120 0.0 0 .0 0 . 0 245 250 550 2988 .712 14.370 124.546 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 248 500 300 223.611 17.931 153.149 0 .0 0 .0 0 . 0 250 600 300 3851 .349 15.644 122. 417 0 . 0 C O 0 .0 252 850 450 213.480 19.680 185.846 0 .0 6 .045 0 . 0 253 800 500 205.794 19.286 190.626 0 . 0 5.221 C O 256 500 600 4657 .453 22.459 224 .882 C O C O 0 . 259 250 450 237 .677 28.608 236 .709 C O C O 0 .0 261 900 200 1580.017 19.313 173.265 0 . 0 0.0 263 850 150 493 .235 46 .022 252 .838 0 .0 0 .0 265 750 150 2444 .422 35.302 269 .409 0 .0 0 .0 267 200 500 2733.765 21.815 201 .566 0 . 0 0 .0 269 450 650 613 .838 15.757 56.919 0 . 0 0 .0 270 950 250 359 .223 28.406 232 .058 0 . 0 C O 272 150 550 175. 158 15.688 143.645 C O 0 .0 275 50 375 1125.930 16.056 124.503 0 . 0 C O 277 050 525 1059.831 16.787 98 .787 0 .0 0.0 279 965 75 69.01 1 22.381 172. 363 0 . 0 C O 281 650 75 224 .076 26.152 171.160 0 .0 0 .0 283 350 225 2086 .849 33.876 212 .065 0 . 0 C O 340 BETHLEHEM-JA SUBOUTCBOP LEVEL SPECTROGRAPHS ANALYSIS SAMP, 149 152 155 157 160 162 164 166 169 172 174 176 178 181 183 184 186 188 190 193 196 199 201 203 206 209 212 214 216 217 220 223 226 229 232 234 237 240 243 245 248 250 252 253 256 259 261 263 265 267 269 270 272 275 277 279 281 283 (VALUES IS PPM) B SR 0 700 20 500 15 700 15 500 30 100 60 400 20 500 0 700 10 800 0 300 60 100 20 400 15 800 10 800 0 500 0 200 0 700 0 600 0 600 10 500 01000 10 800 20 800 101000 10 600 01000 201000 101000 01000 0 700 01000 10 800 30 800 30 600 101000 20 700 10 700 10 800 0 700 0 700 10 700 10 400 10 900 15 700 15 600 0 600 15 800 01000 0 800 20 400 10 800 10 800 20 600 0 600 0 600 101000 0 500 0 800 T I 600 1500 1000 2001 500 2000 2001 700 2001 700 1000 500 1000 800 1000 500 500 700 1000 1000 2000 1000 800 2000 1000 1000 2001 1500 700 1000 1000 800 1000 2000 1500 1500 1000 2001 1000 1000 600 2001 2000 1000 2000 1000 1500 2001 2000 1000 2001 2001 1000 1500 700 2000 2000 900 IN 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 V MO BA BIGA SH 30 40 50 80 30 50 80 30 100 30 20 15 50 30 30 10 20 40 40 30 50 50 40 30 20 30 70 60 30 30 40 38 50 50 50 50 50 40 40 50 30 40 60 30 60 30 70 80 50 40 60 60 40 50 30 60 50 30 0 600 4 500 0 400 30 300 1500 150 500 100 200 0 500 10 600 0 500 400 400 10 500 0 500 10 400 0 600 40 300 0 500 500 500 600 500 0 500 20 500 20 500 50 500 10 300 0 500 15 600 15 500 01000 0 600 0 600 0 700 5 0 15 400 0 600 0 500 0 600 8 400 0 500 15 400 0 300 15 500 0 500 0 500 101500 10 400 0 500 0 500 0 400 0 400 0 400 0 400 0 500 15 500 0 600 0 500 0 400 0 400 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 020 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 020 10 in i 0 800ft — [ r r T T - " - - ^ ! ^ " " " " " " " | 0 244m (Geology, after Bethlehem Mining Staff) FIGURE 78: Location of samples, Bethlehem-JA 2800 l e v e l . 342 BETHLEHEM-JA 2800 LEVEL ATOMIC ABSORPTION ANALYSIS (HN03- (VALUES IN PPM) . # LOC.COORD CU ZN 150 200 600 985.699 13.329 153 550 450 3339.367 14.642 156 600 500 3313.963 13.023 158 650 450 4460.469 19.526 160 6 00 400 19547.449 19.620 162 450 450 5117.715 11.450 165 750 450 890.089 27.557 167 500 500 899.189 8.601 170 700 400 2056.387 36.377 172 500 400 3973.669 6.517 174 550 350 5311.582 4.557 176 650 350 103.444 11.883 179 700 500 566.357 18.218 181 400 500 2754.736 13.202 184 400 400 700.666 5.103 186 350 450 361.314 12.586 188 700 300 4953.898 23.316 191 800 300 936.281 22.508 194 800 400 231.847 20.156 197 750 350 9212.871 14.104 199 750 250 1419.913 33.305 201 650 250 2403.555 25.278 204 550 550 129.453 14.497 207 450 550- 674.802 9.840 210 350 550 2038.765 12.058 212 700 200 664.644 36.836 214 800 200 1280.636 31.923 218 400 600 3144.409 19.812 221 300 600 2096.329 15.378 224 300 500 6248.395 13.312 227 600 600 252.816 22.280 230 650 550 356.683 20.580 233 750 550 23.622 18.490 235 850 350 1583.558 28.416 238 850 250 2670.732 31.670 241 350 650 1914.531 16.699 244 250 650 :563.530 17.766 246 250 550 2096.329 16.890 248 500 300 223.611 17.931 250 600 300 3851.349 15.644 254 800 500 397.143 33.225 257 500 600 1738.952 19.703 259 250 450 237.677 28.608 261 900 200 1580.017 19.313 263 850 150 493.235 46.022 266 750 150 573.549 27.937 267 200 500 2733.765 21.815 271 950 250 645.205 25.695 273 150 550 309.216 18.107 2 75 50 375 1125.930 16.056 277 050 525 1059.831 16.787 279 965 75 69.011 22.38i 281 650 75 224.076 26.152 283 350 225 2086.849 33.876 HCL04 DIGESTION) MN . AG NI PB 94.863 0.0 0.0 0.0 108.180 0.0 0.0 0.0 65.304 0.0 0.0 0.0 129.051 0.0 6.154 0.0 357.867 5. 567 0.0 0.0 99.178 0.0 0.0 0.0 188.107 0.0 6.776 0.0 77.717 0.0 2.600 0.0 275.696 0.0 0.0 0.0 54.929 0.0 0.0 0. 2C0.474 4. 606 0.0 0.0 130.648 0.0 0.0 0.0 92.498 0.0 6.870 0.0 123.633 0.0 0.0 0.0 39.525 0.0 0.0 0.0 101.003 0.0 0.0 0.0 189.032 0.0 5.221 0.0 220.309 0.0 0.0 0.0 161.565 0.0 13.114 0.0 107.302 0.0 8.861 0.0 213.64C 0.0 8.262 0.0 224.554 0.0 5.781 0.0 139.235 0.0 0.0 0.0 134.475 0.0 0.0 0.0 187.438 0.0 0.0 0.0 347.589 0.0 12.878 0.0 249.638 0.0 7.698 0.0 130.648 0.0 0.0 0.0 102.200 0.0 0.0 0.0 131.260 0.0 3.417 0.0 222.593 0.0 10.528 0.0 185.846 0.0 4.893 0.0 179.815 0.0 6.705 0.0 196.064 0.0 5.551 0.0 264.706 0.0 5.057 0.0 102.499 0.0 0.0 0.0 347.232 0.0 0.0 0.0 180.132 0.0 0.0 0.0 153.149 0.0 0.0 0.0 122.417 0.0 0.0 0.0 401.691 0.0 4.728 0.0 224.882 0.0 0.0 0.0 236.709 0.0 0.0 0.0 173.265 0.0 0.0 -252.838 0. 0 0.0 176.883 0.0 0.0 201.566 0.0 0.0 159.787 0.0 0.0 124.503 0.0 0.0 124.503 0.0 0.0 98.787 0.0 0.0 172.363 0.0 0.0 171.160 0.0 0.0 212.065 0.0 0.0 343 B E T H L E H E M - J A 2800 LEVEL ATOMIC ABSORPTION ANALYSIS (TOTAL DIGESTION) (VALUES I N WEIGHT %) SAMP. CAO MGO 150 0 0 3 . 0 5 5 1 . 1 2 6 153 0 0 3 . 0 1 2 0 . 9 6 8 156 0 0 2 . 4 4 4 0 . 9 9 1 1.58 0 0 3 . 1 5 5 1 . 6 5 5 160 0 0 1 . 5 3 5 0 . 8 2 2 162 0 0 1 .748 0 . 9 2 3 165 0 0 2 . 7 4 2 1 . 8 8 0 167 0 0 5 . 4 7 1 0 . 8 5 5 170 0 0 3 . 1 2 6 2 . 5 4 4 172 0 0 1 . 0 3 7 0 . 3 4 9 174 0 0 1 . 2 0 8 0 . 191 176 0 0 1 . 2 0 8 0 . 3 8 3 179 0 0 1 . 8 3 3 1 .362 181 0 0 2 . 2 8 8 0 . 889 184 0 0 0 . 7 8 2 0 . 1 4 6 186 0 0 2 . 4 5 8 0 . 7 2 0 188 0 0 2 . 9 8 4 1 . 7 4 5 191 0 0 2 . 8 4 2 1 . 6 8 8 194 0 0 2 . 5 8 6 2 . 6 4 5 197 0 0 2 . 0 3 2 1. 576 199 0 0 3 . 6 5 2 2 . 0 0 4 201 0 0 2 . 8 4 2 1 . 4 1 3 2 0 4 0 0 2 . 8 1 4 1 .114 207 0 0 2 . 8 1 4 0 . 8 8 9 210 0 0 2 . 6 0 0 0 . 9 2 3 212 0 0 3 . 1 9 7 2 . 2 8 5 214 0 0 3 . 4 8 1 2 . 4 2 0 218 0 0 2 . 3 8 7 0 . 6 8 7 221 0 0 2 . 3 7 3 1 . 0 1 3 224 0 0 2 . 1 7 4 1 . 0 0 2 2 2 7 0 0 4 . 2 0 6 2 . 3 3 0 2 3 0 0 0 2 . 9 9 8 1 . 6 1 0 233 0 0 2 . 9 4 1 1 .745 235 0 0 2 . 3 0 2 1 . 9 3 6 2 3 8 0 0 3 . 2 2 6 2 . 0 2 6 241 0 0 2 . 7 9 9 1 . 2 8 3 244 0 0 3 . 7 3 7 1 . 2 1 6 246 0 0 2 . 7 5 7 1 . 3 8 5 248 0 0 3 . 1 6 9 1 . 2 0 4 2 5 0 0 0 2 . 2 3 1 0 . 9 2 3 254 0 0 3 . 1 8 3 2 . 0 8 2 257 0 0 3 . 0 1 2 1 . 2 2 7 259 0 0 3 . 4 2 5 1 . 193 261 0 0 4 . 7 1 8 1 . 9 4 7 263 0 0 4 . 0 5 0 2 . 701 266 0 0 2 . 9 2 7 1 . 8 9 1 267 0 0 3 . 140 1 . 2 4 9 271 0 0 3 . 0 6 9 1. 981 273 0 0 2 . 1 6 0 1 . 2 4 9 275 0 0 3 . 2 9 7 0 . 8 7 8 277 0 0 2 . 7 5 7 1 .272 2 79 0 0 3 . 7 6 6 1 . 9 3 6 281 0 0 3 . 6 9 4 2 . 184 283 0 0 2 . 7 5 7 1 . 0 9 2 F E 2 0 3 3 . 3 1 0 2 . 2 0 7 6 . 5 1 7 3 . 4 4 1 3 . 9 3 1 2 . 2 7 6 4 . 4 9 7 2 . 2 7 6 4 . 9 6 6 1 . 8 2 8 0 . 8 9 7 1 . 5 1 7 4 . 0 0 0 1 . 9 7 9 0 . 8 6 2 2 . 1 8 6 3 . 5 2 4 3 . 4 4 8 2 . 6 2 1 2 . 6 0 0 4 . 3 4 5 3 . 6 6 2 2 . 9 3 1 2 . 6 0 0 2 . 4 0 0 4 . 2 1 4 4 . 5 2 4 1 . 8 6 2 2 . 5 8 6 1 . 8 6 2 3 . 7 6 6 3 . 5 7 9 3 . 138 5 . 7 2 4 4 . 3 1 7 3 . 0 7 6 3 . 3 4 5 3 . 193 2 . 9 7 2 1 .517 3 . 5 8 6 2 . 9 7 9 3 . 0 9 7 5 . 5 8 6 5 . 3 1 7 3 . 5 0 3 3 . 3 8 6 4 . 4 6 9 3 . 0 0 0 3 . 3 7 9 3 . 2 7 6 4 . 6 76 4 . 8 2 8 3 . 2 4 1 NA20 3 . 7 3 3 3 . 9 6 8 1 . 1 7 8 3 . 776 2 . 0 3 0 2 . 6 0 2 3 . 8 2 4 2 . 165 3 . 896 3 . 0 5 4 1. 130 4 . 0 8 9 2 . 7 1 8 6 . 4 9 4 3 . 2 7 6 6 . 9 7 5 4 . 0 4 0 4 . 0 8 9 6 . 4 9 4 3 . 7 5 7 4 . 0 4 0 3 . 3 4 3 6 . 0 1 3 4 . 6 1 8 3 . 5 3 5 5 . 5 3 2 6 . 013 3 . 5 3 5 3 . 9 9 2 3 . 896 7 . 4 5 6 5 . 7 7 2 6 . 4 9 4 3 . 0 8 8 4 . 0 8 9 4 . 570 3 . 992 5 . 7 7 2 3 . 968 3 . 8 2 4 6 . 2 5 3 5 . 0 5 1 3 . 5 5 9 3 . 9 9 2 3 . 8 4 8 4 . 0 6 4 3 . 4 6 3 3 . 8 4 8 6 . 2 5 3 3 . 9 4 4 5 . 2 9 1 6 . 4 9 4 3 . 752 4 . 0 8 9 K 2 0 1 . 4 4 1 1 . 5 2 5 2 . 6 5 5 1 . 2 0 5 6 . 1 2 1 2 . 9 6 6 2 . 1 4 7 0 . 6 3 1 1 . 3 6 5 4 . 0 0 2 4 . 2 7 5 3 . 1 5 4 2 . 4 9 5 1 . 2 7 1 4 . 0 9 6 1 . 7 6 1 1 . 8 3 6 1 . 1 7 7 1 . 7 8 9 3 . 3 9 0 2 . 0 4 3 1 . 6 2 0 1 . 3 1 8 0 . 7 7 2 1 . 7 8 9 1 . 3 6 5 1 . 7 6 1 1 . 7 4 2 1 . 5 5 4 1 . 8 3 6 1 . 3 6 5 1 . 3 3 7 1 . 1 9 6 2 . 6 1 8 1 . 6 0 1 1 . 3 3 7 1 . 6 2 0 1 . 4 6 0 0 . 9 8 9 1 . 9 3 0 1 . 1 9 6 1 . 3 8 4 1 . 2 2 4 1 .761 1 . 9 8 7 1 . 3 6 5 2 . 2 1 3 1 . 9 3 0 1 . 9 4 0 1 . 5 0 7 1 . 7 4 2 1 . 2 9 0 1 . 5 1 6 1 . 7 2 3 344 B E T H L E H E M - J A 2 8 0 0 L E V E L S P E C T R O G R A P H S A N A L Y S I S ( V A L U E S I N PPM) S A M P . # 1 5 0 1 5 3 1 5 6 1 5 8 1 6 0 1 6 2 1 6 5 1 6 7 1 7 0 172 1 7 4 1 7 6 1 7 9 181 184 1 8 6 1 8 8 191 194 1 9 7 1 9 9 • 2 0 1 2 0 4 2 0 7 2 1 0 2 1 2 2 1 4 2 1 8 2 2 1 2 2 4 2 2 7 2 3 0 2 3 3 2 3 5 2 3 8 2 4 1 2 4 4 2 4 6 2 4 8 2 5 0 2 5 4 2 5 7 2 5 9 2 6 1 2 6 3 2 6 6 2 6 7 2 7 1 2 7 3 2 7 5 2 7 7 2 7 9 2 8 1 2 8 3 B SR 0 7 0 0 0 7 0 0 10 5 0 0 10 7 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 6 0 4 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 6 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 6 0 1 0 0 . 2 0 4 0 0 2 0 5 0 0 10. 8 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 6 0 0 10 6 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 4 0 0 10 8 0 0 20 8 0 0 6 0 0 8 0 0 4 0 8 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 6 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 . 2 0 5 0 0 15 7 0 0 1 5 1 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 15 7 0 0 1 5 5 0 0 10 7 0 0 10 4 0 0 10 6 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 6 0 0 15 8 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 ; 0 6 0 0 2 0 6 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 6 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 8 0 0 T I I N V MO BA 1 5 0 0 5 0 50 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 50 15 5 0 0 2 0 0 1 5 0 60 5 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 50 6 4 0 0 5 0 0 50 30 1 5 0 0 2 0 0 0 5 0 50 1 5 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 50 40 0 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 50 2 0 7 0 0 2 0 0 0 50 100 0 7 0 0 7 0 0 5 0 30 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 50 20 4 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 50 15 10 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 40 7 5 0 0 8 0 0 5 0 3 0 10 4 0 0 5 0 0 50 10 4 0 3 0 0 5 0 0 50 2 0 0 5 0 0 7 0 0 50 40 5 5 0 0 1 5 0 0 50 4 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 50 50 0 5 0 0 - 1 5 0 0 50 50 3 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 50 50 2 0 5 0 0 8 0 0 50 4 0 5 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 30 0 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 3 0 0 5 0 0 1 5 0 0 50 40 2 0 5 0 0 2 0 0 1 50 70 15 5 0 0 1 5 0 0 50 60 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 50 4 0 8 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 30 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 50 50 2 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 . 50 50 5 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 0 5 0 5 0 0 4 0 0 1 5 0 0 5 0 50 20 3 0 0 1 5 0 0 50 6 0 0 8 0 0 1 5 0 0 50 50 0 5 0 0 2 0 0 0 5 0 4 0 10 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 50 50 10 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 4 0 2 0 3 0 0 6 0 0 5 0 30 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 5 0 4 0 15 5 0 0 1 5 0 0 50 40 0 4 0 0 1 5 0 0 50 4 0 0 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 50 30 10 4 0 0 1 5 0 0 5 0 70 0 5 0 0 2 0 0 1 50 80 0 5 0 0 2 0 0 0 50 50 8 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 . 40 0 4 0 0 1 5 0 0 5 0 5 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 50 30 0 6 0 0 1 5 0 0 5 0 5 0 15 5 0 0 7 0 0 50 30 0 6 0 0 2 0 0 0 50 6 0 0 5 0 0 2 0 0 0 50 50 0 4 0 0 9 0 0 5 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 15 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 020 020 BETHLEHEM-JA 2800 LEVEL 1148 6. 3 10. 280 4. 0 8. 240 22. 4.7 336 20. 3.2 412 3. 5.6 296 16. 10.1 396 19. 6.2 156 5. 6 7. 328 19. 6.3 128 3. 30. 64 2. 7 10. 6. 10. (VALUES I N PPM EXCEPT FOR HG (PPB) AND SI02 6 S (WT.S) ) SAMP. # RB SR RB/SR S I 0 2 S HG CL F HEXCL HEX- 150 40 639 10863.44 .21 15 384 153 47 688 6862.38 .76 13 496 156 70 339 20658.77 6.6 100 352 158 38 658 5862.47 2.22 98 608 160 141 100 141052.89 2.74 128 368 162 90 392 23062.33 1.0 38 640 165 58 620 9460.64 .23 60 480 167 28 653 4361.04 .25 35 432 170 40 762 5260.97 .82 27 384 172 84 242 34768.34 .56 84 168 174 85 115 .73973.88 .60 53 32 176 76 372 20469.76 .02 2 179 70 476 14763.42 1.77 1 200 116 5.1 9. 181 37 751 4964.82 .42 1 240 140 2.8 184 91 216 42164.62 .17 176 384 72 4.0 , v . 186 58 829 7067.04 .05 190 320 128 20. 7.4 188 53 755 7063.13 .50 1 352 280 34.3 5. 191 39 860 4563.25 .09 1 480 284 14.0 6. 194 55 536 10357.60 .12 6 512 296 4.2 7.1 197 86 662 13061.68 1.17 7 368 256 3.8 5. 199 45 803 5660.21 .27 9 256 240 5.7 5.8 201 74 576 12860.99 .24 12 352 288 4.6 6.5 204 34 735 4664.05 .21 6 280 260 12. 3. 207 27 932 2963.65 .11 5 340 256 4.4 12. 210 61 586 10460.42 .50 5 4 16 180 16.2 10. 212 42 756 5657.86 .1 7 160 360 .3.6 12.0 214 55 892 6258.41 .21 5 368 256 3.6 6.0 218 57 520 11060.95 1.57 17 172 472 16.0 3.5 221. 43 805 5362.94 .82 1 180 388 3. 8 5. 224 56 627 8962.87 .56 1 168 372 4.1 7.2 227 56 511 11056.62 1.34 12 196 192 6. 8.5 230 37 730 4963.14 .22 1 188 452 7. 11. 233 45 546 8261.07 .01 1 196 460 3.8 11.1 235 66 488 13563.82 .91 8 220 204 8. 8.5 238 43 639 6761.4 .24 7 196 360 5. 8.4 241 37 746 5064.17 .56 7 200 92 7.6 9. 244 32 600 5358.15 .1 8 180 260 2.8 7.0 246 43 559 7762.94 .33 10 196 252 11.0 12. 24" 33 691 4861.53 .66 15 156 336 3. 6.6 250 48 553 8764.63 .22 1 168 360 11.0 9. 254 39 677 5863.81 .01 4 212 76 4.7 11.0 257 36 780 4662.86 .51 1 216 44 3.6 4.4 259 32 654 5062.84 .19 22 224 172 14.0 6.2 261 51 663 7755.94 .37 1 260 208 6.8 8.6 263 45 725 6259.06 .07 7 182 344 3.3 9.2 271 56 643 8764.54 .12 2 216 120 5.6 8.5 273 56 717 7864.36 .04 5 176 272 3.8 9.0 275 37 739 5062.82 .14 8 180 324 1.7 6.2 277 48 769 6264.79 .03 1 228 40 4.3 7.4 279 37 883 4260.18 .01 1 224 68 1.6 5.6 281 47 562 8461.54 .02 1 240 384 15.0 4.9 283 44 768 8766.05 .19 1 184 256 4.6 6.2 0 800ft 0 244m (Geology, after Bethlehem Mining Staff) FIGURE 79: Location of samples, Bethlehem-JA 2400 level . 347 BETHLEHEM-JA 2400 LEVEL ATOMIC ABSORPTION ANALYSIS (HN03-HCL04 OIGESTION) (VALUES IN PPM) u LOC.COORD CU ZN 151 200 600 727 .165 24.427 154 550 450 5400.781 15.506 159 650 450 5057 .133 24.74<t 163 450 450 4675.551 16.710 168 500 500 2976.465 14.756 171 700 400 2307.012 15.914 173 500 400 6850.141 6.002 175 550 350 6172.984 7.253 177 6 50 350 212.518 9.595 180 700 500 169.646 15.565 182 400 500 3372.431 18.263 185 400 400 1133.037 . 8.626 187 350 450 148.990 10.583 189 700 300 4923.797 20.313 192 800 300 4282 .523 24 .389 195 800 400 845 .344 19.117 198 750 350 1928.842 26.797 200 750 250 3546.295 24.644 202 650 250 1663.475 19.147 205 550 550 8 2 6 . 2 0 0 11.163 208 450 550 1302.155 8.651 211 350 550 1165.238 12.627 213 700 200 963 .617 7.253 215 800 200 2236.109 32.649 219 400 600 3742 .283 14.146 222 300 600 1850.313 13.133 225 300 500 4144 .883 9.428 228 600 600 191.930 24 .440 231 650 550 9 3 0 . 6 2 7 21.008 236 850 350 894.822 36 .687 239 850 250 2357.317 30.938 242 350 650 1243.653 17.403 247 250 550 3505.272 12.804 249 500 300 194.792 23.616 251 600 300 3726.749 18.597 255 800 500 70 .516 23.816 258 500 600 2091 .526 17.393 260 250 450 398.575 19.147 262 900 200 902 .378 22.889 264 350 150 2352.045 9. 822 268 200 500 1300.885 10.550 274 150 550 3162.533 27.866 276 50 375 961 .462 23.257 278 50 525 193.880 13.298 280 965 75 345.656 27.480 282 650 75 5 8 4 . 9 3 7 8.301 284 350 225 142.139 7 .634 MN AG NI PB 173.045 0. 0 0. 0 0 .0 113.540 0 . 0 0. 0 0 .0 204 .737 0. 0 7. 088 0 .0 15.362 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 101.506 0 . 0 1. 374 0 .0 127.696 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 182.486 1. 162 0. 0 0 .0 92.945 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 83 .159 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 117.562 0. 0 18. 862 0 .0 90 .269 0 . 0 3. 253 0 .0 143.241 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 114.537 0 . 0 0. 0 0 .0 183.304 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 199.272 0 . 0 6. 870 0 .0 164 .380 0 . 0 8. 728 0 .0 190.946 0 . 0 6. 210 0 .0 196.705 0 . 0 8 . 628 0 .0 115.141 0 . 0 0. 0 0 .0 86 .117 0 . 0 0. 0 0 .0 72.561 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 94 .135 0 . 0 Oi 0 0 .0 135.702 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 258 .323 0 . 0 9 . 027 0 .0 82 .272 0 . 0 0. 0 0 .0 116.957 0 . 0 0. 0 0 .0 139.543 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 218 .679 0. 0 9. 310 0 .0 160.783 0 . 0 6. 210 0 . 0 400 .762 0 . 0 8. 861 0 .0 213.153 0 . 0 5. 057 0 .0 123.026 0 . 0 0. 0 0 . 0 131.872 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 248.972 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 182.668 0 . 0 0. 0 0 . 0 197.186 0 . 0 4 . 728 0 . 135.855 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 .0 135.855 0 . 0 0. 0 0 .0 158.595 0 . 0 0 . 0 90 .278 0 . 0 0 . 0 86 .749 0 . 0 0. 0 221 .243 0 . 0 0 . 0 212.995 0. 0 0 . 0 9 2 . 9 6 7 0 . 0 0. .0 195.428 0 . 0 0 . 0 84 .496 0 . 0 0 . 0 9 0 . 4 1 9 0. 0 0. 0 348 BETHLEHEM-JA 2400 LEVEL SPECTROGRAPHS ANALYSIS (VALUES IN PPM) SAMP. # B SR 151 0 700 154 0 800 159 0 600 163 10 600 168 0 800 171 101000 173 50 400 175 30 200 177 10 400 180 201500 182 0 800 185 10 200 187 10 700 189 10 500 192 01000 195 0 700 198 01000 200 15 700 202 0 700 205 10 800 208 101500 211 01500 213 50 200 215 151000 219 20 400 222 50 500 225 20 500 228 15 800 231 101000 236 20 800 239 01000 242 0 700 247 20 900 249 10 400 251 10 400 255 0 700 258 0 800 260 01000 262 01000 264 151000 268 0 800 274 15 600 276 0 700 278 0 600 280 101200 282 10 150 284 15 200 T I IN - V BO BA BIGA SN 700 50 30 0 700 020 0 800 50 30 8 600 020 0 1000 50 60 10 500 020 0 700 50 30 1001000 020 0 1000 50 40 0 600 020 0 2000 50 40 300 400 020 0 1000 50 50 200 400 020 0 800 50 20 200 500 020 0 600 50 20 0 500 020 0 1500 50 500 0 100 020 0 700 50 30 10 600 020 0 600 50 30 0 400 020 0 600 50 30 0 400 020 0 1000 50 40 50 200 020 0 1000 50 50 7 600 020 0 2000 50 60 0 500 020 0 2000 50 50 10 500 020 0 2000 50 40 0 200 020 0 1000 50 30 0 600 020 0 1000 50 30 15 500 020 0 1000 50 40 01000 020 0 2000 50 50 0 500 020 0 1000 50 20 50 400 020 0 800 50 40 0 500 020 0 1500 50 50 40 500 020 0 1500 50 40 800 500 020 0 200 50 30 20 500 020 0 2000 50 50 0 400 020 0 1500 50 50 0 500 020 0 2001 50 70 30 100 020 0 2001 - 50 70 30 400 020 0 500 50 30 10 400 020 0 2001 50 50 20 400 020 0 1000 50 30 8 400 020 0 600 50 20 0 500 020 0 800 50 30 4 400 020 0 1000 50 30 0 500 020 0 1500 50 40 8 500 020 0 2001 50 50 0 500 020 0 2000 50 60 8 500 020 0 1500 50 40 8 600 020 0 1500 50 50 10 400 020 0 1000 50 30 15 500 020 0 1000 . 50 30 5 500 020 0 2000 50 50 0 500 020 0 700 50 10 0 300 020 0 600 50 10 5 300 020 5 349 APPENDIX B Valley Copper (Sample locations and analytical results) Bethsaida granodiorite | P 1 Leucocratic porphyry Y _ j Ultimate Pit Outline (0-3%Cu) Ore body Fault 98 82J 6 0 7<? «5 13 140 158 LU o Z 1 Z V no 35 I2«» 800 ft (Geology after Allen and Richardson, I970) 244m FIGURE 80: Location of samples, Valley Copper Suboutcrop Level 351 VALLEY COPPER SUBOUTCROP LEVEL ATOMIC ABSORPTION ANALYSIS (UN03- (VALUES IN PPM) # LOC .COORD CU ZN 1 375 212 5404.191 41.337 4 285 218 3568.929 12.443 6 375 131 3424.768 11.441 8 333 175 829.821 17.405 11 415 175 1529.498 26.601 14 290 131 2122.148 16.004 17 250 257 3117.681 20.009 19 333 95 1389.874 17.981 21 375 260 5564.070 10.356 24 251 95 2214.659 14.606 26 415 135 2022.325 27.067 29 250 217 7350.621 26.359 32 375 95 1765.783 18.693 35 375 50 699.095 24.536 37 420 225 6522.184 19.101 40 333 134 4804.105 37.709 43 290 175 5099.324 15.416 46 333 217 4478.520 14.227 49 330 260 4792.617 14.575 52 290 257 2447.569 11.570 55 292 95 2004.448 21.236 58 415 95 1347.661 16.976 60 100 180 54.337 26.230 61 225 220 2724.894 9.919 63 375 175 6646.320 12.663 66 210 135 1542.012 11.153 68 207 260 2147.808 17.437 71. 2 37. 2.60, 226.1,. 0 61. 17..756 74 228 255 3862.698 5.785 75 236 211 2767.040 20.729 77 375 1 15 2158.081 35.899 79 174 268 359.896 34.630 82 50 212 11.278 24.788 85 175 215 45.865 28.012 88 84 260 151.450 24.860 93 174 156 1247.331 18.812 95 255 140 3631.027 10.780 98 225 195 2154.846 16.724 101 402 160 7406.465 24.393 104 250 175 1019.937 14.428 106 265 230 4173.414 14.971 108 255 265 4311.160 21.889 110 334 51 3036.520 14.642 1 13 390 193 2370.130 25.393 1 16 270 280 1714.048 24.393 118 435 152 7005.930 14.300 121 350 237 5195.066 18.781 124 305 275 1898.817 24.444 126 432 105 2986.460 3.732 129 4 27 55 538.624 11.248 132 345 2 82 2219.927 14.957 135 327 315 3415.737 22.86 1 138 4 50 194 3723.940 23.799 140 4 50 235 6903.949 33.801 143 362 310 6627.395 15.101 145 280 290 2336.121 23.900 147 327 296 3124.426 23.395 292 475 130 6159.180 16.632 295 415 50 10941.070 21.301 298 290 52 1537.919 25.041 300 2 92 310 2062.914 27.928 UCL04 DIGESTION) MN AG NI PB 493.321 1.308 1.003 0.0 202.550 0. 844 0.617 0.0 278.611 0.0 0.0 0.0 161.065 0.0 0.0 0.0 203.739 0.452 0.0 0.0 201.362 1.060 0.0 0.0 213.672 0.0 0.0 0.0 74.271 0.0 0.0 0.0 53.770 1.329 0.0 0.0 964.061 0.0 0.0 0.0 235.323 0.0 0.0 0.0 288.146 2.699 0.0 0.0 166.877 0.0 0.0 0.0 158.746 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 268.717 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 120.346 0.0 0.0 0.0 154.502 1.208 0.0 0.0 81.282 0.080 0.0 0 . 0 73.167 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 300.241 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 311.999 0.0 0.0 0.0 147.196 0.0 0.0 0.0 286.069 0.0 0.0 0.0 151.037 0.603 0.0 0.0 161.453 1.270 0.0 0.0 138.009 0.0 0.0 0.0 370.903 0.0 0.0 0.0 282.751.. 1.518 0.0 0 . 0 132.292 0.0 0.0 0.0 200.571 0.0 0.0 0.0 238.150 0.0 0.0 0.0 348.179 0.0 0.0 0.0 264.405 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 356.369 0.0 0.0 0.0 197.015 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 183.187 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 292.916 1. 179 0.0 0 . 0 207.586 0.0 0.0 0.0 233.459 0.658 0.0 0.0 235.272 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 242.545' 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 249.119 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 237.086 0.0 0.0 0.0 223.706 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 337.980 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 279.424 0.0 0.0 0.0 138.911 0.0 0.0 0.0 213.656 0.0 0.0 0.0 391.586 0. 536 0.0 0.0 306.907 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 137.547 0.0 0.0 0.0 285.031 • 0.0 0.0 0.0 272.721 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 357.867 0.901 0.0 0.0 291.788 4. 944 0.0 0.0 266.047 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 308.047 0.0 0.0 0.0 323.104 0.0 0 . 0 192.675 0.0 0.0 359.518 0.0 0.0 385.779 0.0 0 .0 352 VALLEY COPPER SUBOUTCROP LEVEL SPECTROGRAPHS ANALYSIS (VALUES IN PPH) SAMP. # B SR T I IN V BO BA BIGA SS 1 15 150 1000 50 50 10 500 020 0 1* 10 200 1500 50 30 10 400 020 0 6 101500 2000 50 30 10 500 020 0 8 0 500 600 50 20 0 500 020 0 11 0 500 500 50 20 0 700 020 0 14 10 400 1000 50 30 0 800 020 0 17 10 400 - 1000 50 40 5 700 020 0 19 0 600 700 50 20 01000 020 0 21 0 300 1000 50 30 5 600 020 0 24 15 300 1500 50 40 10 500 020 0 26 0 500 2000 50 30 0 700 020 0 29 15 200 2000 50 40 15 500 020 0 32 10 500 1000 50 20 0 500 020 0 35 0 800 700 50 20 0 500 020 0 37 0 300 800 50 40 4 600 020 0 40 0 300 1000 50 30 0 700 020 0 43 0 300 . 500 50 20 0 500 020 0 46 0 300 500 50 20 10 500 020 0 49 10 400 . 1000 50 30 20 500 020 0 52 20 400 1000 50 50 0 500 020 0 55 10 200 1000 50 30 0 400 020 0 58 0 700 1500 50 20 01000 020 0 60 0 700 800 50 20 0 600 020 0 61 20 400 800 50 30 5 600 020 0 63 15 300 1000 50 40 60 500 020 0 66 0 300 800 50 15 100 500 020 0 68 20 300 2001 50 30 80 600 020 0 71 10 400 800 50 20 400 500 020 0 74 20 300 1500 50 30 20 800 020 0 75 -10 500 800 50 30 0 800 020 0 77 0 500 1500 50 30 01000 020 0 79 0 700 500 50 20 4 700 020 0 82 0 800 500 50 20 0 700 020 0 85 0 500 1000 50 20 0 800 020 0 88 0 500 700 50 20 0 500 020 0 93 10 500 700 50 20 3 0 500 020 0 95 10 400 800 50 30 4 500 020 0 98 0 500 700 50 20 0 800 020 0 101 0 400 2001 50 50 40 600 020 0 104 0 400 500 - 50 20 0 500 020 0 106 0 400 1000 50 40 0 500 020 0 108 0 500 1000 50 30 0 700 020 0 110 20 300 1500 50 30 0 600 020 0 113 0 500 1000 50 40 0 600 020 0 116 15 400 500 50 20 5 500 020 0 118 10 300 2000 50 40 0 500 020 0 121 10 200 500 50 30 5 500 020 0 124 10 500 500 50 20 0 500 020 0 126 20 200 2001 50 30 40 200 020 0 129 20 300 1000 50 30 0 400 020 0 132 0 400 700 - 50 30 10 500 020 0 135 0 400 2000 50 40 8 600 020 0 138 01500 1000 50 40 8 500 020 0 140 0 400 800 50 30 150 500 020 0 143 151000 600 50 30 100 400 020 0 145 0 500 700 50 30 6 700 020 0 147 0 400 700 50 30 0 600 020 0 292 10 500 1000 50 30 15 400 020 0 295 10 400 1000 50 40 30 600 020 0 298 20 400 1000 50 30 201000 020 0 300 0 500 2000 50 30 10 500 020 0 [ 1 Bethsaida granodiorite | P | Leucocratic porphyry «' j Ultimate Pit Outline (o-3%Cu)i £E> Ore body vw* Fault 8<1 S3 '8o 86 \ \ 213 \ r-( X I LU ^ ^ 3fc I30 (Geology after Allen and Richardson, I970) 800 ft si 244m FIGURE 81: Location of samples, Valley Copper 3600 Level. 354 VALLEY COPPER 3600 LEVEL ATOMIC ABSORPTION ANALYSIS (HN03- (VALUES IN PPM) . # LOC.COORD CU ZN 2 375 212 4795.492 16.992 5 285 218 4168.574 5. 393 7 375 131 2442.377 15.632 9 333 175 3934.639 4.336 12 415 175 4179.773 14.303 15 290 131 8915.070 17.008 18 250 257 8672.949 15.232 20 333 95 4879.008 5.995 22 375 260 3160.536 22.837 25 251 95 1454.594 16.379 27 415 135 3016.187 23.451 30 250 217 2250.734 19.959 33 375 95 3533.437 8.477 36 375 50 1780.947 20.209 38 420 225 6159.813 13.403 U l 333 134 1574.561 15.833 44 290 175 4672.180 16.473 47 333 217 3176.616 10.639 50 330 260 3533.487 17.532 53 290 257 3929.087 17.804 56 2 92 95 6374.113 13.313 59 415 95 454.177 20.864 62 225 220 2952.335 10.427 64 375 175 4095.922 25.981 67 210 135 435.083 19.545 69 207 260 2656.572 17.724 72 237 260 4297.684 18.693 76 236 211 956.369 10.639 78 375 115 2489.233 13.671 80 174 268 112.783 24.232 83 50 212 81.165 17.024 86 175 215 67.711 28.875 89 84 260 10.955 31.594 91 100 180 926.470 3.886 94 174 156 1145.979 30.955 96 255 140 449.402 24.138 99 225 195 2856.325 19.840 102 402 160 3900.533 126.356 105 250 175 4551.625 11.221 107 265 230 4783.902 16.016 109 255 265 1532.364 10.581 111 334 51 6951.875 1031.626 114 390 193 5727.238 11.369 117 270 280 409.435 35.459 119 435 152 4157.574 22.595 122 350 237 3061.598 148.565 125 305 275 4183.988 15.826 127 432 105 3879.675 9.530 130 427 55 396.049 9.987 133 345 282 3682.602 17.849 136 327 315 2774.952 16.683 138 450 194 3723.940 23.799 141 450 235 958.333 93.349 143 362 310 6627.395 15.101 146 280 290 2394.440 22.299 293 475 130 3801.205 34.554 296 415 50 306.953 1.9.425 299 290 52 1702.081 19.254 301 292 310 897.856 27.341 HCL04 DIGESTION) MN AG HI PB 340.455 1, . 194 0.0 C O 217.663 0, .852 0.0 C O 147. 196 0, .0 0.0 0.0 32.784 0, .592 0.0 0.0 231.696 0, , 428 0.0 C O 141.065 1. ,654 0.0 0.0 20 1. 757 0. , 847 0.0 C O 145.086 0. .656 0.0 C O 201.757 0. , 509 0.0 C O 131.531 0, ,0 0.0 C O 162.807 0. ,080 0.0 C O 203.739 0. ,0 0.0 0.0 193.859 0. ,0 C O C O 226.069 0. ,0 C O 0.0 120.912 0. 375 C O 0.0 108.478 0. 0 0.0 C O 156.816 0. 0 C O C O 99.117 • 0. 0 C O 0.0 128.111 0. 107 C O C O 167.266 0. 0 C O 0.0 144.51 1 0. 0 C O C O 171.151 0. 0 C O C O 153.346 0. 0 C O C O 88.692 2. 291 0.0 0.0 335.325 0. 0 C O C O 471.050 0. 0 C O 0.0 248.686 0. 0 C O 0.0 212.876 0. 0 0.0 C O 112.991 0. 0 C O C O 282.336 0. 0 C O 0.0 609.589 0. 0 C O C O 298.569 0. 0 C O 0.0 430.566 0. 450 C O C O 527.682 0. 0 C O 0.0 246.925 0. 0 C O C O 244.004 1. 057 0.0 0.0 262.720 0. 637 C O C O 156.575 1. 528 C O 0.0 124.652 0. 0 C O C O 202.960 0. 0 C O 0.0 423.182 0. 0 C O 0.0 322.942 0. 0 C O 5.730 155.022 3. 034 C O C O 452.094 0. 0 C O C O 273.836 0. 502 C O C O 263.459 0. 0 0.0 0.0 238.540 0. 0 C O C O 282.412 1. 318 C O 0.0 246.925 0. 936 C O 0.0 352.383 0. 0 C O 0.0 206.161 0. 849 C O C O 272.721 0. 0 0.0 C O 609.424 0. 0 C O 0.0 291.788 4. 944 C O 0.0 61 1.269 0. 0 C O 0.0 499.842 0. 0 C O 296.892 0. 0 C O 174.170 0. 0 0.0 420.536 0. 0 C O 355 VALLEY COPPER 3600 LEVEL ATOMIC ABSORPTION ANALYSIS (TOTAL DIGESTION) (VALUES IN WEIGHT %) SAMP, t CAO MGO 2 0 0 1.066 0. 383 5 " 0 0 2.202 0.428 7 0 0 1.336 0.371 9 0 0 0.469 0.248 12 0 0 1.634 0.428 15 0 0 1.307 0,371 18 0 0 1.591 0.462 20 0 0 1.563 0. 304 22 0 0 1.805 0.675 25 0 0 1.052 0.428 27 0 0 1.734 0.473 30 0 0 1.890 0.405 33 0 0 1.620 0.270 36 0 0 1.876 0.315 38 0 0 1.151 0.304 <n 0 0 0.767 0.332 un 0 0 1.023 0.371 47 0 0 1.037 0.281 50 0 0 0.668 0.562 53 0 0 1.606 0.416 56 0 0 1.350 0.439 59 0 0 1.947 0.371 62 0 0 2.032 0.315 64 0 0 0.554 0.295 67 0 0 2.202 0.360 69 0 0 3.638 0.409 72 0 0 1.847 0.4 39 76 0 0 1.876 0.464 78 0 0 1.321 0.405 80 0 0 2.629 0.360 83 0 0 4.419 0.585 86 0 0 2.188 0.270 89 0 0' 2.657 0.518 91 0 0 2.316 0.392 94 0 0 2. 103 0.462 96 0 0 1.847 0.422 99 0 0 1.918 0.411 102 0 0 1.137 0.360 105 0 0 1.137 0. 360 107 0 0 2.245 0.377 109 0 0 2.771 0.428 111 0 0 2.018 0.563 114 0 0 0.952 0. 326 117 0 0 2.629 0.822 . 1 19 0 0 2.018 0.529 122 0 0 2.501 0.490 125 0 0 1.705 0.540 127 0 0 2.984 0.433 • 130 0 0 2.359 0.280 133 0 0 2.018 0.360 136 0 0 3. 169 0.473 138 0 0 2.700 0.546 141 0 0 2.771 0.552 143 0 0 3.979 0.231 146 0 0 2.487 0.523 293 0 0 2.998 0.439 296 0 0 2.416 0.371 299 0 0 1.8.05 0.473 301 0 0 1.762 0.585 FE203 NA20 1.655 1 .-914 1.655 1.352 1.241 3.175 1.103 2.237 2.207 2.165 1.793 1.539 2.207 2.357 1.310 2.405 2.407 3.415 1.517 4.906 1.724 3.535 1.586 3.127 1.241 2.492 1.028 3.583 1.862 2.453 0.897 3.583 1.724 2.386 1.379 2.116 1.931 2.646 2.207 2.049 1.793 1.861 1.103 3.175 1.517 2.958 1.483 0.322 1.793 3.896 1.862 2.973 2.414 2.391 2.345 3.511 1.172 2.694 1.586 4.906 1.103 0.202 1.862 4.570 1.862 4.570 1.931 3.896 1.207 0.890 1.931 4.666 2.207 3.131 1.517 2.621 1.517 2.621 1.828 1.756 2.138 1.914 2.483 1.318 1.793 1.669 3.310 3.824 2.276 2.742 2.483 2. 405 2.345 1.785 1.897 1.299 1.103 2.573 1.793 4.089 2.345 3.040 2.669 2.650 2.834 2.453 1.483 1.231 2.359 3.415 2.586 2.650 1.207 3.088 1.724 6.975 2.690 3.656 K20 3.955 3.343 2.401 3.719 3.249 3.013 2.872 2.354 2.646 2.024 2.363 2.345 2.599 2.213 2.024 1.648 3.183 3.861 3.531 2.693 3.154 1.460 2.401 2.806 2.213 1.911 3.305 2.175 2.589 1.761 2.335 2. 147 1.864 2.024 3.908 1.742 3. 154 3.644 3.644 3.089 3.390 4.218 3.004 2.260 3.296 3.625 3.719 3.089 1.902 1.911 3.041 4.218 2.806 2.448 3.220 3.315 2.637 1.648 3.060 356 V ALLEY COPPER 3600 LEVEL SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS (VALUES IN PPH) SAMP. # B SR TI IN V HO BA BIGA SN 2 0 300 1000 50 20 0 400 020 0 5 102001 1000 50 50 0 400 020 0 7 0 400 2000 50 20 20 500 020 0 9 0 300 1000 50 20 40 400 020 0 12 15 300 1000 50 30 0 600 020 0 15 10 600 1000 50 40 0 800 020 0 18 101000 1000 50 40 0 500 020 0 20 0 200 800 50 30 0 400 020 0 22 0 500 700 50 20 5 500 020 0 25 0 600 800 50 15 20 500 020 0 27 0 500 1500 50 30 15 500 020 0 30 10 500 2000 50 30 0 500 020 0 33 10 500 1000 50 40 0 400 020 0 36 0 500 700 50 20 0 700 020 0 38 0 300 500 50 20 50 500 020 0 41 0 400 1000 50 15 4 500 020 0 nn 0 500 1000 50 40 10 500 020 0 47 0 300 600 50 20 0 400 020 0 50 0 400 1000 50 40 0 500 020 0 53 10 500 2000 50 50 0 500 020 0 56 10 400 1000 50 40 0 500 020 0 59 0 800 1500 50 20 5 600 020 0 62 20 400 800 50 20 15 600 020 0 64 20 150 2000 50 50 100 500 020 0 67 10 400 900 50 20 5 600 020 0 69 0 400 1500 - 50 30 40 600 020 0 72 01500 1000 50 30 200 500 020 0 76 15 400 800 50 30 5 800 020 0 78 0 500 700 50 20 0 800 020 0 80 0 600 800 50 20 0 500 020 0 83 60 500 1000 50 30 0 500 020 0 86 0 700 1000 50 20 0 700 020 0 89 01500 700 50 20 0 600 020 0 91 10 700 800 50 20 0 500 020 0 94 0 600 1000 50 20 30 600 020 0 96 0 800 1000 50 30 0 500 020 0 99 102001 1000 50 30 5 600 020 0 102 10 300 600 50 20 0 500 020 0 105 0 800 800 50 30 0 500 020 0 107 0 900 1000 50 30 0 600 020 0 109 15 400 1000 50 30 20 700 020 0 111 15 300 1000 50 50 0 700 020 0 114 10 400 800 50 30 20 500 020 0 117 01000 1000 50 30 10 600 020 0 119 01500 500 50 30 4 0 600 020 0 122 10 200 1000 50 30 20 400 020 0 125 0 300 2000 50 40 30 500 020 0 127 20 800 1000 50 30 151000 020 0 130 20 400 1000 50 30 0 600 020 0 133 10 300 700 50 40 4 500 020 0 136 01000 1000 50 50 15 600 020 0 138 01500 1000 50 40 8 500 020 0 141 10 400 2001 50 30 40 500 020 0 143 151000 600 50 30 100 400 020 0 146 0 500 800 50 40 0 700 020 0 293 0 600 700 50 30 5 400 020 0 296 10 500 1000 50 30 0 400 020' 0 299 01000 700 50 20 101000 020 0 301 20 500 2001 50 50 20 800 020 0 357 VALLEY COPPER 3600 LEVEL (VALUES IN PPM EXCEPT FOR HG (PPE) AND SI02 6 S (HT.*) ) SAMP. • RB SR 2 73 328 5 69 2223 7 47 501 9 67 369 12 65 269 15 62 72 18 69 883 20 61 483 22 59 625 25 50 729 27 45 581 30 59 496 33 50 443 36 53 580 38 62 334 11 44 496 nu 70 681 47 72 342 50 82 440 53 71 627 56 61 346 59 34 800 62 63 495 64 76 161 67 52 54 9 69 64 432 72 72 1680 75 52 585 78 41 542 80 43 839 83 87 464 86 62 715 89 45 1460 91 52 675 94 49 741 96 39 103 1 99 55 2402 105 58 883 107 65 871 109 82 462 111 77 278 114 55 272 1 17 48 908 1 19 59 1471 122 78 199 125 76 279 127 60 900 130 48 393 133 75 276 136 61 893 138 70 1386 ' 141 70 377 143 59 759 146 71 624 293 61 681 296 58 681 299 36 765 301 70 423 3B/SR SI02 S HG CL F 22267.37 .27 1 490 409 3166.8 .31 1 256 440 9372.8 .21 1 220 616 18173.94 .46 2 312 460 24164.23 .47 5 228 406 86166.17 .39 1 344 4 12 7865.69 .84 1 220 288 12666.71 .23 1 2 32 694 9466.96 . 17 6 240 304 6968.93 .12 7 260 348 7771.39 . 13 1 196 240 11967.44 . 12 2 190 540 1 1370.80 .21 1 220 436 9167.93 . 17 10 224 212 18668.33 .27 10 364 480 8975.44 . 10 1 320 324 10371.47 .26 1 296 408 2175.06 .32 1 480 436 18669.69 .12 1 276 328 11365.92 .30 1 224 312 17668.28 .28 7 172 236 4271.41 .05 3 460 292 12765.96 .38 5 280 306 47270.43 .40 22 396 360 9565.44 .06 6 316 236 14862.26 . 36 5 220 348 4364.89 1.17 46 222 318 8965.55 .47 1 320 272 7674.61 .33 2 225 528 5165.00 .02 1 220 152 18663. 17 .03 7 280 376 8765.46 .04 1 296 312 3166.68 .09 1 270 264 7763.57 . 16 1 1 320 3 36 6668.15 . 17 7 376 220 3865.95 .04 4 340 328 2364.23 .28 12 141 600 6671.47 .23 4 68 408 7566.72 .20 1 232 600 17761.76 .20 1 208 285 27763.72 .28 1 264 408 20274.62 .57 'i 216 404 5368.51 .04 2 204 700 4062.77 .20 7 196 448 39269.75 .36 26 220 660 27267.25 .36 7 192 564 6761.18 . 10 1 175 452 12271.09 . 11 1 168. 472 27163. 15 .44 1 212 252 6860.88 2.63 1 200 700 5159.07 1.89 1 210 653 18660. 12 .33 5 212 624 7871.74 1.07 1 152 460 11362.01 .99 1 181 725 9057.98 .24 1 176 604 8566.36 . 18 6 326 270 4769.89 . 16 1 200 265 16562.48 .18 5 176 700 10.7 2.3 2.2 4. 2 4.7 2.2 1. 7. 3. 7, 3 2, 2. ,5 ,2 . 1 .0 .0 . 6 ,2 2.0 3. 2 2.7 6.3 5.6 7. 1 5.4 5.6 1.8 1.2 5.3 2.3 7.2 1.4 1.8 1.9 1.0 2.0 1.4 3.6 1.0 1.1 2.4 1.0 '1.3 1.0 2.5 1.8 1.3 11.0 10.0 9.0 5.2 10.5 10.3 7.3 8. 1 9.8 6.2 6.0 7.0 5.1 6.2 2.5 4.6 5.6 6.3 2 5 4 3 5.4 2.7 6.0 6.8 8.2 7.8 5.3 4.3 4.1 5.0 6.5 6.4 7.4 5.2 4.8 4.3 4. 1 4. 1 3.9 4.8 6.2 3.5 3.6 6. 5. 5.8 5.2 1.5 1.8 4.0 3.5 3.7 4.2 4.5 4.6 6.0 I ] Bethsaida granodiorite ( P 1 Leucocratic porphyry « '__! Ultimate Pit Outline (o-3%Cu) 62> Ore body Fault 84 <?2 8' 81 3t>2. 137 144 A N \ \ 2% \ ^ - ^ V _ _ _ _ _ — 0 12./ 800 ft (Geology after Allen and Richardson, 1970) 244 m FIGURE 82: Location of samples, Val ley Copper 3300 Level 359 VALLEY COPPER 3300 LEVEL ATOMIC ABSORPTION ANALYSIS (HN03-HCL04 DIGESTION) (VALUES IN PPM ) » LOC. COORD cu IH MN AG ' NI PB 3 375 212 5257.129 14.454 185.996 0.901 1.505 0.0 10 333 275 2819.834 11.874 172.318 0.294 0.0 0.0 13 415 175 3940.172 20.948 205.323 0.683 0.0 0.0 16 290 131 3807.497 16. .191 132.673 0.0 0.0 0.0 23 375 260 1046.838 17.580 180.903 0.844 0.0 0.0 28 415 135 5842.004 5.315 192.677 0. 616 0.0 0.0 31 250 217 4154.602 24. 143 190.316 0.0 0.0 0.0 34 375 95 225.977 11.039 232.502 0.0 0.0 0.0 39 420 225 3101.618 18.255 207.705 0.0 0.0 0.0 42 333 134 665.327 8.641 227.675 0.0 0.0 0.0 45 290 175 4646.469 25.673 231.696 0.267 0.0 0.0 48 333 217 7605.289 14.682 109.230 0.987 0.0 0.0 51 330 260 3489.944 4.953 311.578 1.208 CO 0.0 54 290 257 4068.029 17.756 182.274 0.0 0.0 0.0 57 292 95 3354.378 20.009 163.389 0.281 0.0 0.0 65 375 175 1029.696 19.512 151.037 0.214 0.0 0.0 70 285 218 6708.621 12.958 115.626 0.0 0.0 0.0 73 237 210 102.970 25.132 268.305 0.0 0.0 0.0 81 174 268 150.950 30.639 289.601 0.0 C O 0.0 84 50 212 16.046 24.411 238.150 0.0 0.0 0.0 87 175 215 1138.918 67.2L8 325.108 0.0 0.0 0.0 90 84 260 27.477 25.620 323.710 0.0 C O 0.0 92 100 180 52.227 25.620 293.294 1.277 0.0 0.0 97 255 140 406.281 3. 080 256.823 0.0 0.0 0 .0 100 225 195 3564.146 18.797 292.916 0.0 0.0 0.0 103 402 160 2653.940 10.621 200.119 0.0 0.0 C O 112 334 51 1568.299 13.078 445.023 0.0 0.0 0 .0 115 390 143 3538.494 15.260 191.277 0.797 0.0 0.0 120 435 152 2111.572 13.078 151.237 0.0 0.0 0.0 123 350 237 8984.219 12.815 166.782 1.562 0.0 0.0 128 432 105 1335.231 17.127 262.535 5.943 0.0 0.0 131 427 55 3172.235 8.755 • 375.628 0.0 0.0 0.0 134 345 282 2321.562 13.162 170.258 C O 0.0 0.0 137 327 315 5557.781 9. 147 242.545 1.092 0.0 0.0 139 450 194 9635.844 8.767 261.982 4.588 C O 0.0 142 450 235 2589.996 22.620 265.677 0.0 0.0 0.0 144 362 310 953.776 6.308 311.090 0.0 0.0 0.0 148 327 296 382.764 24.189 248.387 0.0 - 0.0 0.0 294 475 130 2704.168 37.064 233.475 0.0 0.0 297 415 50 1584.689 4.759 322.936 0.0 0.0 302 292 310 949.996 27.271 349.847 0.0 0.0 360 VALLEY COPPER 3300 LEVEL SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS (VALUES IN PPM) SAMP. # B SR 3 0 500 10 0 600 13 10 400 16 0 400 23 10 700 28 10 300 31 02001 34 0 500 39 0 400 42 0 300 45 0 500 48 0 400 51 10 500 54 0 500 57 0 700 65 0 400 70 0 400 73 01000 81 10 700 84 10 800 87 10 400 90 10 700 92 0 600 97 . 1 0 700 100 0 400 103 0 400 112 15 400 115 102001 120 01000 123 10 400 128 0 500 131 20 400 134 0 500 137 0 700 139 10 100 142 0 500 144 20 400 148 . 0 600 294 0 400 297 20 400 302 0 800 TI IN V MO BA BIGA SN 1000 50 30 0 500 020 0 1000 50 30 4 500 020 0 2000 50 30 10 600 020 0 1000 50 30 30 700 020 0 500 50 30 01000 020 0 800 50 40 0 500 020 0 500 50 20 0 500 020 0 1000 50 20 0 400 020 0 1000 50 40 30 400 020 0 700 50 20 0 600 020 0 1000 50 40 10 500 020 0 800 50 40 0 500 020 0 500 50 30 0 500 020 0 1000 50 30 0 500 020 0 1000 50 40 5 800 020 0 1000 50 20 0 600 020 0 1500 50 40 15 600 020 0 1500 50 30 0 900 020 0 1500 50 30 3 600 020 0 500 50 15 0 700 02C 0 700 50 10 5 300 015 0 800 50 20 0 500 020 0 1000 50 30 0 500 020 0 1000 50 20 3 400 020 0 800 50 30 0 500 020 0 1000 50 30 0 600 020 0 700 50 30 0 500 020 0 1000 • 50 40 300 700 020 0 500 50 30 20 500 020 7 500 50 40 0 500 020 0 500 50 30 20 800 020 0 1000 50 40 0 600 020 0 1500 50 30 20 600 020 0 1000 50 50 5 500 020 0 1500 50 50 8 500 020 0 1500 50 30 15 500 020 0 1000 50 40 6 500 020 0 600 50 20 15 800 020 0 700 50 20 01000 020 0 1000 50 30 02000 020 0 2000 50 40 30 700 020 0 APPENDIX C Lornex (Sample locations and analytical results) FIGURE 83 Location ' iof samples. Lornex Surface (in pocket) 363 LORNEX SURFACE SAMPLES ATOMIC ABSORPTION (TOTAL DIGESTION -RAPID TEFLGN TUBE PROCEDURE) (VALUES IN PPM FOR TRACE ELEMENTS AND WT. % FCR MAJOR ELEMENTS) SAMP. H LOC.COORD CU ZN FE203 CAO NA20 K20 72LS 72705540393 16 28 1.9 3.3 3.9 1.4 72LS 72805440393 13 35 2.1 3.3 4.0 1.3 72LS 72905550370 26 25 3.4 3.6 4.0 1.3 72LS 73005360414 11 24 2.0 3.4 3.5 1.6 72LS 73105310424 414 41 2.1 3.0 3.7 1.4 72LS 73203100465 31 27 1.6 2.4 4.1 1.5 72LS 73302970468 6 19 1.3 2.5 4.3 .5 72LS 73403010456 30 25 1.4 2.4 4.3 1.4 72LS 7350294 0450 7 28 1.2 2.4 3.8 1.5 72LS 73602830461 4 17 1.3 3.0 4.3 .1 72LS 73702750459 7 28 1.5 2.5 3.9 1.6 72LS 73802730452 8 30 .1.8 2.7 4.2 2.2 72LS 73902670442 18 25 1.4 2.4 4.2 1.8 72LS 74002620435 2 35 1.4 2.5 4. 1 1.3 72LS 74102770425 5 39 1.3 2.7 4.5 1.5 72LS 74203100455 3 17 2.0 4.1 4.8 .3 72LS 74303110426 189 29 1.7 2.8 4.4 1.2 72LS 74403100435 48 36 1.4 2.4 3.7 1.7 72LS 74502570423 4 34 1.3 2.4 4.0 1.4 72LS 74602550407 4 33 1.5 2.5 3.7 1.4 72LS 74702170464 27 32 1.6 2.6 4.0 1.5 72LS 74803050 44 15 34 1.5 2.4 3.8 1.6 72LS 74903130478 32 26 1.5 2.4 4.0 1.5 72LS 75002920481 120 27 1.4 2.4 3.9 1.5 72LS 75102800495 15 30 1.4 2.8 4. 1 1.5 72LS 75202600 95 6 28 1.4 2.6 4.2 1.6 72LS 75302900600 3 15 1.3 3.0 4.2 .2 72LS 75403020580 4 19 1.6 4.0 4.7 .7 72LS 75502330606 8 24 1.7 4.0 4.1 1.5 72LS 75602210612 76 22 1.3 2.5 3.8 1.4 72LS 75701920630 120 22 1.5 2.2 3.8 1.5 72LS 75801870614 69 26 1.4 2.4 3.8 1.7 72LS 75901920582 14 26 1.4 2.8 4.2 .3 72LS 76001900560 423 28 1.5 2.4 4.1 1.6 72LS 76101820521 68 24 1.5 2.5 3.8 1.6 72LS 76202220545 80 27 1.5 2.4" 3.7 1.6 72LS 76302520 56 2 26 1.5 2.6 3.7 1.4 72LS 76402610 40 6 23 1.5 2.6 3.5 1.5 72LS 76506270618 5 38 1.8 3.3 3.6 1.3 72LS 76606170575 9 40 1.9 3. 1 3.3 1.5 •72 LS 76706160567 . 29 35 1.8 3.0 3.3 1.5 72LS 76806120 56 10 36 2.0 3.2 3.9 1.6 72LS 76906280584 15 27 1.9 2.5 4.1 1.7 72LS 77006660572 11 26 2.7 4.2 3.9 2.2 72LS 77106460577 12 27 2. 1 3.9 4.0 1.5 72LS 77207030486 135 50 4.0 4.8 2.8 1.7 72LS 77306830 92 6 34 1.2 4.2 4.1 .4 72LS 77406960527 4 18 2. 1 3.7 3.8 1.0 72LS 77506790544 8 33 1.3 3.2 3.5 .5 72LS 77606620552 538 24 1.8 3.7 3.2 1.6 SAMP, k LOC.COORD 72LS 77706250595 72LS 77805170567 72LS 77905020 47 72LS 78005000365 72LS 78104310507 72LS 78204960322 72LS 78304680295 72LS 78404570215 72LS 78504660219 72LS 78604800305 72LS 78704520209 72LS 78804990300 72LS 78905120365 72LS 79004150385 72LS 79104720428 72LS 79204580487 72LS 79305110330 72LS 79404400486 72LS 79503940463 72LS 79604850385 72LS 79704830447 72LS 79804460245 72LS 79905150348 72LS 80004170364 72LS 80103530483 72LS 80205020385 72LS 80304210 48 72LS 80503990212 72LS 80604540 45 72LS 80704010528 72LS 80804150214 72LS 80904200527 72LS 81004980272 72LS 81103970549 72LS 81204910298 72LS 81306450519 72LS 81506060525 72LS 81606200493 72LS 81706540490 72LS 81804600464 72LS 81904920423 72LS 82004750465 72LS 82106530560 72LS 82206000560 72LS 82306010550 72LS 82405730550 72LS 82505520535 72LS 82605400499 72LS 82705400468 72LS 82804330348 72LS 82906300590 72HS 88402950316 72HS 88902860362 CU ZN 14 42 7 31 66 31 372 57 265 45 1520 37 1290 22 546 20 2100 31 2900 19 1400 17 3260 46 510 47 228 22 67 43 128 210 760 85 1530 55 5000 55 1130 41 136 52 580 18 18 41 1470 28 11 16 254 39 3500 14 45 33 5500 33 6000 82 330 15 105 53 2020 20 166 43 4360 28 35 24 33 50 18 25 13 27 1220 99 1060 60 93 99 97 38 13 31 7 28 18 27 11 37 178 24 7 33 600 23 20 22 10 27 20 . 24 FE203 CAO 2.3 3.6 1.8 3.4 1.3 3.5 1.4 3.2 2.3 2.9 1.0 2.8 .8 2.5 1.2 3.0 1.3 4 .3 .6 2.5 1.6 2.1 .8 2.6 2.6 3.6 0 .9 2.4 2.5 3.3 3.3 5.4 3.0 2.5 2.5 2 .9 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.7 2.9 3.2 .6 2.5 l . l 4 . 7 1.9 1.6 2.2 3.5 2.8 3.3 1.2 2.3 1.5 2.2 1.7 2.4 2.7 2. 6 1.0 1.9 2.8 3.0 0.6 2.4 2.3 2.4 0 .8 2.1 2.6 3. 8 2.8 3.4 2.5 3.4 2.7 3.6 2.4 2.5 2.8 2.8 3. 1 3. 7 3.6 3.9 2.5 3.2 2.1 2.7 2.6 3.7 2.5 3.5 2.4 3.0 2.4 3.0 1.0 2.2 2.6 5.0 2.2 3.0 1.6 2.4 NA20 K20 3.8 1.3 3.8 1.0 4 .4 .5 4 .3 .8 3.5 1.6 3.9 .5 2.7 1.0 1.4 2.4 .5 3.7 3.0 .8 2.2 1.8 3.3 .8 4 .0 1.9 2. 1 1.9 4.1 2.1 3.8 1.6 4 . 0 1.3 4 .2 1.6 2.8 1.9 3 .7 2.0 3.8 1.7 4 .0 1.9 4 . 9 .5 3.5 2.3 4 . 3 1.5 3.7 2.2 1.8 2.1 4 .3 1.7 1.1 2.7 1.5 1.8 3.7 1.2 3.9 1.5 2.8 .8 3 .7 2.0 3.7 1.0 4.1 .4 4 . 0 1.9 4 .3 1.3 4 .3 1.8 3.7 1.8 3.7 1.6 4 . 0 1.3 3.8 1.6 3.9 1.5 3.8 1.6 3.8 1.5 4.1 1.6 2.9 1.9 4 . 0 1.4 3.2 1.7 3 .7 2.2 4 .4 1.5 3.8 1.3 365 LORNEX SURFACE SAMPLES ATOMIC ABSORPTION ANALYSIS (VALUES IN PPM) (HNC3-HCL04 DIGESTION) SAMP. « LOC.COORD AG NI 727 0 0 0.0 0.0 728 0 0 0.0 2.474 7 29 0 0 0.0 2.474 730 0 0 0.0 1. 237 731 0 0 0.0 1. 237 732 0 0 0.0 0.0 733 0 0 0.0 0.0 7 3* 0 0 0.0 0.0 735 0 0 0.0 0.0 736 0 0 0.0 1.237 737 0 0 0.0 0.0 738 0 0 2.500 0.0 739 0 0 0.0 0.0 740 0 0 0.0 0.0 741 0 0 0.0 0.0 742 0 0 0.0 0.0 743 0 0 0.0 0. 0 744 0 0 0.0 0.0 745 0 0 0.0 0.0 746 0 0 0.0 0.0 747 0 0 0.0 2.474 748 0 0 0.0 0.0 749 0 0 0.0 0.0 750 0 0 0.0 0.0 751 0 0 0.0 0.0 752 0 0 0.0 0.0 753 0 0 0.0 2.000 754 0 0 0.0 0.0 755 0 0 0.0 1.000 756 0 0 0.0 2.000 757 0 0 0.0 4.000 758 0 0 0.0 2.000 759 0 0 0.0 1.000 760 0 0 0.0 2.000 761 0 0 0.0 2.000 762 0 0 0.0 1.000 763 0 0 0.0 I. 000 764 0 0 0.0 2.000 765 0 0 0.0 2.000 766 0 0 0.0 3.000 767 0 0 0.0 3.000 768 0 0 0.0 4. 000 769 0 • 0 0.0 3.000 770 0 0 0.0 3. 000 771 0 0 0.0 3.000 772 0 0 0.0 12.000 773 0 0 0.500 2.000 774 0 0 0.0 3.000 775 0 0 0.0 2.000 776 0 0 0.0 3.000 777 0 0 0.0 4.000 ZN 15.926 22.222 20.741 11.852 29.259 20.741 14.074 20.370 22.963 12.222 20.741 21.431 18.148 24.444 25.926 12.963 16.667 24.444 26.296 26.667 22.963 29.630 20.741 24.074 20.000 22.593 13.333 15. 190 19.409 17.215 16.878 19.916 21.097 21.941 18.565 19.409 21.941 19.409 24.473 24.135 23.629 23.797 19.072 14.852 17.722 25.148 26.667 10.127 25.316 16.878 25.316 PB 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.667 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.667 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 . 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.500 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CO 1.000 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.000 2.000 3.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 2.000 1.000 0.0 0.0 1.000 0.0 3.000 2.000 2.000 2.000 1.000 2.000 2.000 9.000 2.000 1.000 0.0 2.000 3.000 CO 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.264 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.264 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.055 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.264 0.0 0.0 0.264 0.0 0.0 0.396 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.472 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 MN 182.753 238.004 216.754 110.502 276.255 318.755 216.754 340.006 327.255 212.504 293. 255 284. 755 263.504 331.505 344.256 238.004 242.254 318.755 344.256 340.006 310.255 382.506 340.006 340.006 284.755 297. 505 164.849 187.475 226.263 223.030 203.636 216.566 210.101 239.192 219.798 223.030 261. 818 223.030 168.081 187. 475 197.172 197.172 138. 990 164. 849 155.152 171.313 219. 798 90.505 190.707 126.061 155. 152 CU 5.976 6.375 15.538 5.578 501.992 8.765 3.984 29.482 7.171 3.984 7.5 70 3.187 20.319 3.586 3.187 3.586 167.331 40.637 3.984 3.984 28.685 15.139 33.068 117.530 11.952 5. 179 1.724 3.103 6.207 70.690 117.241 65.517 10.345 379.310 71.724 74.138 2.414 3.793 3. 793 6.207 24.138 6.897 15.517 11.034 12.069 110.345 4.483 3. 103 3.448 475.862 8.966 366 778 0 0 0.0 2.000 20 .253 779 0 0 0.0 1.000 23 .629 780 0 0 0.0 2.000 4 2 . 1 9 4 781 0 0 0.0 3.000 30 .380 782 0 0 0.0 1.000 30 .717 783 0 0 0.0 0 .0 20 .422 784 0 0 0.0 2.000 14.346 785 0 0 0 .250 2.000 17 .722 786 0 0 0.0 1.000 24 .473 787 0 0 0.0 o .o 13 .502 788 0 0 0.0 3.000 40 .506 789 0 0 0.0 4.000 3 8 . 8 1 9 790 0 0 0.0 2.000 11.814 791 0 0 0.0 4.000 29 .536 792 0 0 0.0 3.000 160.338 793 0 0 0.0 3.000 6 0 . 7 6 0 794 0 0 0.0 2. 000 3 7 . 131 795 0 0 1.000 2.000 40 .506 7 96 0 0 0.0 2. 000 32 .068 797 0 0 0.0 . 3.000 38 .819 798 0 0 0.0 0 .0 8 .439 799 0 0 0.0 0.0 3 5 . 1 7 7 800 0 0 0.0 3. 333 28 .936 801 0 0 0 .0 3.333 13 .050 802 0 0 0.0 0 .0 32 .340 803 0 0 0 .667 . 3. 333 7.943 805 0 0 0 .0 0 .0 22 .695 806 0 0 1.000 0.0 23 .262 807 0 0 0 .667 0 .0 56 .738 808 0 0 0 .0 5.000 8.624 809 0 0 0.0 0 .0 39 .716 810 0 0 0.0 5.000 16.454 811 0 0 0.0 0.0 ' 36 .312 812 0 0 0 .667 3. 333; 22 .695 813 0 0 0.0 0.0 17.021 815 0 0 0.0 0.0 • 34 .610 816 0 0 0.0 3.333 17.021 817 0 0 0.0 1.667 15 .319 818 0 0 0 .667 3.333 81 .702 819 0 0 0 .667 5.000 5 1 . 0 6 4 820 0 0 0.0 0.0 96 .454 821 0 0 0.0 3.333 30 .638 8 22 0 0 0 .0 0 .0 20 .426 823 0 0 0.0 3.333 18.156 824 0 0 0.0 3. 333 17.021 825 0 0 0.0 5.000 20 .426 826 0 0 0.0 1.667 15 .319 827 0 0 0.0 3.333 20 .993 828 0 0 0.0 1.667 9 .645 829 0 0 0.0 1.667 18.156 884 0 0 0.0 0.0 18.462 889 0 0 0.0 3.333 2 3 . 4 9 6 1 0 . 0 2.000 0 .0 203 .636 8.276 0 . 0 0.0 . 0 .0 242 .424 72.414 5.000 0 .0 0 .094 239.192 344.828 0 . 0 3.000 o . c 232 .727 251.724 2. 500 0 .0 0 . 0 245.657 1344.828 0 . 0 0 .0 0.0 248 .889 1137.932 0 . 0 2 .000 0 . 0 969. 697 500.000 0 . 0 1.000 0 . 0 1131.313 2000.000 0 . 0 0 .0 0 .0 193.940 2586.208 0 . 0 0 .0 0 .0 184.243 1275.863 5.000 1.000 0 . 0 226. 263 3103.449 2.500 3.000 0 .0 397.576 465.517 0 . 0 0 .0 0 . 0 581.818 241.379 0 . 0 2 .000 0 .0 239. 192 63. 793 5.000 2 .000 0 .189 387 .879 125.862 2.500 2.000 0 . 0 268.282 603.448 0 . 0 3.000 0 . 0 142.222 1258.621 0 . 0 2 .000 0 .0 213.333 . 4 1 3 7 . 9 3 0 0 . 0 1.000 0 .0 265 .050 982 .759 0 .0 2 .000 0 . 0 297.374 120.690 0 . 0 0 .0 0 . 0 229.495 458.621, 0 . 0 0 .0 0 . 0 337 .349 7.921 0 . 0 0.0 0 . 0 245.783 1309.978 0 . 0 0 .0 0 . 0 134.940 2 .437 0 . 0 1.250 0 .0 236 .145 213.252 0 . 0 0 .0 0 . 0 337. 349 2924.601 0 . 0 2 .500 0 . 0 255 .422 15.842 0 . 0 0 .0 0 . 0 269 .879 4874.332 0 . 0 2.500 0 . 0 771.084 5178.977 6 .667 0 .0 0 . 0 130.121 280.274 0 . 0 3 .750 0 . 0 212.048 97 .487 3.333 0 .0 0 .0 269.879 1645.088 0 . 0 0 .0 0 . 0 265 .060 152.323 0 . 0 0 .0 0 . 0 149.398 3716.680 0 . 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 154.217 12.186 0 . 0 2 .500 0 . 0 216 .867 12.186 0 . 0 3.750 0 .0 163.855 7.312 0 . 0 2 .500 0 . 0 134.940 3.046 0 . 0 2 .500 0 . 0 361.446 974.867 6 .667 1.250 0 . 0 380 .723 883.473 0 . 0 2 .500 0 .469 506 .024 79.208 6 .667 0 . 0 0 . 0 375.903 79.208 0 . 0 1.250 0 . 0 192.771 3.656 0 . 0 1.250 0 .0 168.675 3.656 0 . 0 1.250 0 .0 183.133 3.046 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 178.313 5.484 0 . 0 1.250 0 .0 163.855 170.602 0 .0 2 .500 0 .0 149.398 1.828 0 . 0 0 . 0 0*0 255 .422 456.969 0 . 0 1.250 0 . 0 168.675 21.935 0 . 0 0 .0 0 .0 216 .446 3 .279 0 . 0 1.250 0.0 263 .130 8.743 LORNEX SURFACE SAMPLES SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS SAMP. # 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 7 5 0 - 2 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 (VALUES IN PPM) B SR TI 500 500 20 500 1000 600 1000 500 500 500 500 500 800 600 200 500 400 700 800 1000 1000 600 900 700 1000 700 800 800 800 800 500 1000 800 800 500 500 1000 500 200 600 700 600 300 600 500 600 900 600 600 600 400 500 500 1000 500 800 600 500 150 400 200 400 300 400 1000 900 600 500 500 500 600 500 600 500 500 500 500 500 700 500 700 500 500 700 600 500 700 500 800 600 500 500 800 1000 2000 800 1000 700 1000 500 700 IN 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 V MO BA BIGA SN 30 40 40 30 20 20 15 15 20 20 20 20 30 30 20 20 20 30 15 20 15 15 20 20 20 20 15 20 10 10 15 20 15 10 10 15 15 15 40 30 30 30 30 40 30 50 40 40 30 20 500 400 500 500 500 500 200 500 800 400 600 500 1000 600 1000 5C0 500 600 600 600 500 400 500 500 500 400 200 500 800 500 500 600 400 500 500 600 400 500 500 5C0 500 500 500 600 600 400 150 400 150 500 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20200 20 20 20 20 20 20 15 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 CO V O • a O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 03 ' • < I O O O O O O O O O O O ( _ > O O O O O O O O C J O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O a O O O O O O O O O O O O O O C 0 O O U O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O C 3 O Q O i n ^ r \ J r O s O r \ i r \ j i n ^ r o i n r \ i i n i n i n i n i n i n i n ^ c c r \ j r \ ) 0 ^ c o ^ i n \ O i n X <M rvi rt rt r\j r o r\j o r v j ^ - o rt i n IM in -J > o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o ^ ^ ^ N f ^ ^ m ^ i n ^ i N ^ i n m - r ^ t r o ^ i n ^ ^ r r s j r n r o ^ m s f r x j i n i n c s j i n ~ ^ ™ ^ i n i n i n i n i n 1 n l n i n i n i n < > i n 1 n i n i n i n . n i n ^ i n l n , n 1 n ^ rt i\J rt - 1 *"' rt (M M —I ( \ J ( M M rt rtrtrtrtlNlrtrtrtrt _ i rt rt ^ ' f o i n r t i n r t r t i n _1 g o o m o o o r-> ,-. ~ _ v v r - u - o o o  rt m ^ ^ o CM o m o in (VJ o a z r - < r» •Si r~ FIGURE 84: Location of d r i l l core samples, Lornex mine (every 10th sample) LORNEX ORILL-CORE SAMPLES ' 370 ATOMIC ABSORPTION (TOTAL DIGESTION -RAPID TEFLON TUBE PROCEDURE) ( VALUES IN PPM FOR TRACE ELEMENTS AND WT. % FOR MAJOR ELEMENTS) DRILL-HOLE 51 SAMP . # LOC.COORD CU ZN FE203 CAO NA20 K20 72LZ 89114200660 51 29 1.7 3.6 3.9 1.5 72LZ 89214200655 268 40 2. 1 2.8 3.7 1.2 72LZ 89314200650 200 58 2.2 3.7 3.6 2.1 72LZ 894 14200645 106 49 2. 1 2.8 3.5 1. 3 72LZ 895 14200640 308 35 2.2 3.3 3.5 1.6 72LZ 89614200635 131 35 2.2 3.0 3. 5 1.4 72LZ 89714200630 1080 35 1 .8 4.9 3.4 .9 72LZ 89814200625 561 52 1.9 3.5 3.5 1.3 72LZ 89914200620 4310 33 1. 7 1.9 2.0 2.4 72LZ 90014200615 2690 46 1.7 3. 1 2.7 1.6 72LZ 90114200610 621 42 1.3 3.2 3.2 .9 72LZ 90214200605 487 46 1. 8 3.0 3.3 . 8 72LZ 90314200600 560 34 1.2 5. 1 .3 3.3 72LZ 90414200595 1510 31 1.2 4.9 .3 3.2 72LZ 90514200590 4030 10 1.2 1.3 . 1 .8 72 LZ 90614200585 751 34 1. 1 2.7 3.4 1.0 72LZ 90714200580 431 44 2.8 3.6 3.5 1.9 72LZ 90814200575 880 57 2.3 2.5 3.4 1.5 72LZ 90914200570 67 35 1.9 2.9 3.7 1.7 72LZ 91014200565 201 38 2.3 3.0 3.6 1.7 72LZ 91114200560 125 41 3.2 4.0 3.6 1.6 72LZ 91214200555 237 52 2.0 2.2 1.6 1.2 72LZ 91314200550 1400 79 2.4 2.4 3.0 .3 72LZ 91414200545 312 37 2. 2 3.3 2.4 2.1 72LZ 9 1514200540 1870 41 2. 3 2.0 3.2 1.8 72LZ 91614200535 507 34 1.2 1.3 3.0 2.3 72LZ 91714200530 1450 34 1. 1 1. 1 2.8 2.7 72LZ 91814200525 940 37 1.2 1.5 3.2 2.4 72LZ 91914200520 557 26 1.3 1.9 3.3 2.0 72LZ 92014200515 48 33 1.4 2.9 3.8 2.0 72LZ 92114200510 2400 51 1.7 2.2 3.3 1.2 72LZ 92214200505 194 42 2.0 3.2 3.6 1.0 72LZ 92314200500 232 36 2.5 3.3 3.5 1.6 72LZ 92414200495 230 43 2. 1 3. 1 3.4 1 .8 72LZ 92514200490 930 47 2.5 2.9 3.3 2.3 72LZ 92614200485 . 158 51 2.2 3.0 3.3 1.6 72LZ 92714200480 212 33 2.3 2.7 3.4 1.7 72LZ 92814200475 179 38 2. 1 2.9 3.2 1.6 72LZ 92914200470 261 40 2.8 2.2 3.4 1.7 72LZ 93014200465 1620 49 2.2 2. 1 3.0 1.7 72LZ 93114200460 1880 51 2.4 2.2 3.2 1 .8 72LZ 93214200455 521 45 2.2 2.5 3.2 1.5 72LZ 93314200440 423 67 2.0 2.2 3.2 1.7 72LZ 93414200435 1540 46 2. 1 2. 5 3.1 1 .8 72LZ 93514200430 2640 58 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.0 72LZ 93614200425 1250 48 2.4 2.7 3.0 1 .8 72LZ 93714200420 759 56 2.5 2.3 3.2 1.9 72LZ 93814200415 744 41 2.6 2.8 3.3 1.9 72LZ 93914200410 1400 80 2.3 2.7 2.9 1 .8 72LZ 94014200405 3250 89 2.7 2.5 2.9 1.9 72LZ 94114200400 2670 69 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.3 72LZ 94214200395 820. 40 2.2 2.6 3.3 1.2 72LZ 94314200390 578 52 2.4 2.5 3.0 1.6 72LZ 94414200385 281 68 2. 3 3.0 3.2 1.6 72LZ 94514200380 2130 64 1.5 2.1 2.6 2.0 72LZ 94614200375 42 81 2. 1 3.0 3.6 1.5 72LZ 94714200355 93 32 2. 0 3. 1 3.4 1.6 72LZ 94814200350 21 40 2.0 3.3 3.6 1.5 72LZ 94914200345 860 43 1. 8 2.4 3 . 8 1.2 72LZ 95014200340 570 44 2. 1 2.9 3. 7 1.6 72LZ 95114200335 2550 39 2.0 2.5 2.5 1.9 72LZ 95314200325 2700 54 2.4 2.4 3.5 1.6 72LZ 95414200320 820 44 2.0 2.7 3. 7 1.3 72LZ 95514200315 880 49 2.2 3.2 3.5 1.2 72LZ 95614200310 850 36 3.0 2.6 2.6 1.9 72LZ 95714200305 254 32 2. 1 3.2 2. 7 1.7 72LZ 95814200300 7000 29 2.8 1.2 .3 2.9 DRILL-HOLE 49 SAMP. , # LOC.COORD cu 72LZ 95902050573 22 72LZ 96002080569 9 72 LZ 96102100565 8 72LZ 96202130560 11 72LZ 96302150556 7 72LZ 96402180552 8 72LZ 96502200547 7 72LZ 96602230543 5 72LZ 96702250539 9 72LZ 96802280535 1 72LZ 96902300530 2 72LZ 97002330526 2 72 LZ 97102360522 4 72LZ 97202390517 3 72LZ 97302410513 2 72LZ 97402440509 4 72LZ 97502470504 2 72LZ 95214200330 305 72LZ 97602490500 5 72LZ 97702520496 1 72LZ 97802540492 2 72LZ 97902570488 1 72LZ 98002600483 4 72LZ 98102620479 1 72LZ 98202640475 2 72LZ 98302670470 3 72LZ 98402700466 3 72LZ 98502720462 2 72LZ 98602750459 3 72LZ 98702780455 6 72LZ 98802800449 3 72LZ 98902820445 6 72LZ 99002850440 8 72LZ 99102880436 6 72LZ 99202900432 7 72LZ 99302930428 9 72LZ 99402950424 6 72LZ 99502980419 20 72LZ 99603000415 13 72LZ 99703030411 6 72LZ 99803050407 6 72LZ 99903080403 5 72LZ100003110398 13 72LZ100103140394 16 72LZ100203160389 3 72LZ100303190385 5 72LZ100403210381 16 72LZ100503240376 13 72LZ100603260372 7 72LZ100703280368 28 72LZ100803310363 65 72LZ 100903340359 89 72LZ101003370355 56 72LZ101103390351 64 72LZ101203420347 54 72LZ101303440342 33 72LZ101403470338 47 72LZ101503500333 29 72LZ101603520329 57 72LZ101703550325 34 72LZ101803580320 72 72LZ101903600316 47 72LZ102003630312 21 72LZ102103650308 19 72LZ102203670304 15 72LZ102303700300 58 72LZ102403730295 73 72LZ102503750291 6440 72LZ102603780287 1260 ZN FE203 CAO NA20 K20 27 1.4 2.7 4.4 1.6 23 1. 1 2.2 3.9 1.8 25 1.3 2.1 3.9 1.6 29 1.4 2. 1 4.0 1.5 24 1. 2 2.2 3.9 1.6 19 1.0 1.6 4.0 1.3 16 .9 2.3 4. 1 .9 28 1.6 1.8 4.0 1.3 19 1.3 1.8 3.6 1.5 24 1.2 2.8 3.5 1.9 36 1.5 1. 5 3. 1 1.2 19 1.2 2.2 3.9 1.4 23 1.4 1.3 . 2.0 1.6 25 1.2 2.1 3.3 1.5 27 1.2 2.5 3.2 1.5 22 1.3 1.8 2.6 1.8 74 3. 2 2.0 3.3 2.2 36 2.2 3.1 3.7 1.4 30 1.4 1.8 1.0 1.5 19 1.3 1.7 .4 .5 12 .5 1. 1 .3 .4 29 1.6 3.0 1.8 1.3 29 1.3 2.4 3.6 1.6 19 1.2 2. 1 3.8 1.3 23 1.3 2.3 3.8 1.5 28 1.4 2.6 4.0 1.6 22 1.2 2.3 3.9 1.5 25 1.2 2.5 3.8 1.6 29 1.2 2.0 3.6 1.9 27 1.3 2.3 4.1 1.4 24 I. 3 2.6 3.8 1.4 22 1.5 2.5 4.1 1.6 21 1.4 2.9 4.2 1.6 25 1.5 2.7 4. 1 1.6 50 1.5 2.2 3.3 1.6 57 1.3 2.5 3.9 1.2 23 1.8 3. 1 4.4 1.5 54 1.7 3.3 3.7 1.6 26 1.6 2.9 3.7 1.5 36 1.6 2.2 3.9 1.2 26 1.3 2.4 4.1 1.3 79 1.5 2.5 3.8 1.3 62 2.3 2.3 2.9 1.4 83 1.5 2.4 2.4 1.3 22 1.3 2.3 4.3 1.1 53 1.5 2.2 3.9 1.3 63 1.6 2.5 3.3 1.6 19 1.4 2.2 3.8 1.3 20 1.5 2.6 3.0 2.1 420 1. 1 2.1 .2 2.9 930 1.0 2.3 .3 3.0 1230 1.4 .7 .2 2.7 1230 1.2 .9 .2 2.8 990 1.0 .9 .1 3.0 890 1. 1 1.1 .2 2.7 820 1.0 1.2 .3 2.8 820 1.1 1.6 .2 2.5 450 .9 1.5 .1 2.3 1090 1.1 1.2 .2 2.9 900 1.1 .9 .1 2.7 1210 1. 1 .7 . 1 2.8 1220 1.3 1.1 .2 2.8 370 .9 1.4 .1 3.0 360 .9 1.2 .1 2.8 1070 1.2 1.8 .2 2.7 1230 1.1 1.4 .2 2.9 1070 1.6 1.3 .2 2.7 35 •1.3 1.2 1.1 2.3 20 1.2 1.4 3.5 2.0 DRILL-HOLE 9 SAMP. # LOC.COORD CU 72LZ1O2712330650 3250 72LZ102812300645 1900 72LZ102912270641 5370 72LZ103012240637 6490 72LZ103112210633 3250 72LZ103212180629 1770 72LZ103312150625 3800 72LZ103412130620 6550 72LZ103512100616 3940 72LZ103612070612 1390 72LZ103712040608 710 72LZ103812010604 2400 72LZ103911980600 1200 721Z104011950595 1520 72LZ104U1920591 644 72LZ104211900587 4490 72LZ104311870583 3140 72LZ104411840579 7510 72LZ104511810575 1900 72LZ104611790571 1900 72LZ104711760567 6570 72LZ104811740563 3660 72LZ104911710559 4220 72LZ105011680554 6470 72LZ105111650550 3420 72LZ105211620546 3550 72LZ105311600542 5270 72LZ1054U570538 6020 72LZ105511540534 2540 72LZ105611510530 4110 72LZ105711490526 2500 72LZ105811460522 3170 72LZ105911430518 3810 72LZ106011400514 2340 72LZ106111370510 6570 72LZ106211340505 2670 72LZ106311310500 6530 72LZ106411280496 6560 72LZ106510780422 6570 72LZ106610750417 3960 72LZ106710730413 3520 72LZ106810700409 6560 72LZ106910670405 1810 72LZI07010640400 1070 72LZ107110610396 383 72LZ107210590392 720 72LZ107310560388 850 72LZ107410530383 2000 72LZ107510500379 1280 ZN FE203 CAO NA20 K20 52 1.2 2.0 2.1 2.1 44 2. 1 2.7 3.4 2.3 67 2.5 3.6 1.6 1.9 60 2. 8 2.4 2.2 2.5 45 2.4 2.4 2.9 2.1 44 2.1 2.1 3.4 1.9 46 2.2 2.3 2.6 2.0 13 2. 3 .3 .3 3.3 28 2.0 .6 1.4 2.5 43 2.0 1.6 2.5 1.6 26 1.4 1.0 3.5 1.2 33 2.3 1.3 1.8 1.7 40 2.4 2.0 3.2 1.7 34 2. 1 2.6 2.7 2.1 48 2.3 2.7 3.2 1.6 50 2.0 1.2 1.2 2.2 36 2.3 1.6 3.2 1.8 46 2.4 1.0 2.2 1.8 52 2.2 1.7 2.9 1.6 58 2.1 1.7 3.2 1.8 38 2.3 1.0 .5 2.6 36 1.8 .6 1.3 3.4 40 2.1 2.3 2.7 1.9 50 1.9 1.4 1.3 2.7 34 1.3 .4 .9 4.2 56 1.3 .9 2.2 2.6 26 1. 3 1.0 2.6 3.1 29 1.7 1.5 2.7 3.6 30 1.3 1.1 3.0 3.9 29 1.4 1.2 3.1 2.5 40 1.7 1.2 3.2 3.1 45 2.1 1.7 3.0 2.5 53 2.5 1.4 3.3 2.3 27 1.7 0.8 3. 1 - 3.2 43 2.9 0.8 1.3 5.4 61 2.4 1.2 2.9 2.7 69 2.4 1.9 1.8 2.8 92 2.6 0.8 1.5 2.9 82 2.3 0.9 2.9 1.5 46 1.5 1.2 3.3 1. 5 55 2.7 1.2 2.1 1.9 86 5.3 1.0 .9 5.9 36 2.2 0.8 3. 1 2.3 44 1.2 1.4 3.7 1.4 43 2.2 1.9 3.4 1.5 49 1.9 1. 1 3.5 2.5 58 2.2 I.1 3.4 2.2 56 1.7 1.4 2.8 1.9 40 2.0 1.4 3.5 2.1 DRILL-HOLE 10 SAMP. H LOC.COORD 72LZ107608220539 72LZ107708210534 72LZ l0780a200529 72LZ10790SIH0524 72LZ10S008 160519 72LZ108108150515 72LZ108208140510 72LZ 108308130505 72LZ108408110501 72LZ108508100496 72LZ108608080491 72LZ10H708070487 72LZ108808050482 72LZ108908040477 72LZ109008030472 72LZ109108010467 72LZ109208000463 72LZ109307980458 72LZ109407970453 72LZ109507950448 72LZ109607940444 72LZ109707930439 72LZ109807910434 72LZ109907900429 72LZ110007880424 72LZ110107860419 72LZ110207850415 72LZ110307840410 72LZ110407830405 72LZ110507810400 72LZ110607800395 72LZ110707780390 72LZ110807760385 72LZ110907750381 72LZ111007740377 72LZ111107730372 72LZ111207710367 72LZU1307690362 72LZU1407650347 72LZ111507630343 72LZ111607600334 72LZ111707590329 72LZ111807570324 72LZ111907560320 72LZ112007550315 72LZ112107540310 72LZ112207520305 72LZ112307500300 72LZ112407490295 72LZ112507470291 72LZ112607460286 72LZ112707450281 72LZ112807440277 72LZ112907420272 72LZ113007400267 72LZ113107390262 72LZ113207380257 72LZ113307360252 72LZ113407350248 72LZ113507330244 72LZU3607310239 72LZ113707300234 72LZ113807290229 72LZ113907280224 72LZ114007260220 72LZ114107250215 72LZ114207230210 72LZ114307220205 72LZ114407200200 72LZ114507190195 72LZ114607170190 72LZ114707160186 72LZU4807150181 72LZ114907130176 72LZ115007120171 72LZ115107100167 72LZ115207090162 72LZ115307070157 72LZ115407050153 72LZ115507040147 72LZU5607030143 72LZ115707020138 72LZ115807000134 72LZ115906980129 72LZ116006970124 72LZU6106960119 72LZU6206950U5 72LZ116306930110 72LZU6406910105 72LZ116506900100 72LZ116606H90095 72LZU6706870090 72LZ116806850085 72LZ116906H30080 CU 3340 4980 1510 1630 2060 3460 3480 3000 3540 2390 1900 4190 2040 6450 2430 4520 3180 3450 3870 3700 1840 3020 2940 3660 1270 9600 2890 4000 2250 3500 2690 4040 4600 3050 3550 3200 4120 2260 3800 4700 3400 4180 4000 4360 2990 2930 3800 8600 2970 3080 3690 2990 4900 3300 5000 2320 4400 3690 4160 4000 4000 3590 5500 10200 4000 13200 4000 2860 3600 15800 2840 2950 3120 3600 5600 5300 3330 5000 3120 3800 4300 3650 3680 5700 3800 3830 3900 2920 3230 4120 2790 1660 2980 3620 ZN 39 66 45 49 69 48 42 47 64 45 28 41 53 39 46 36 46 21 30 32 30 33 39 46 32 32 35 62 40 60 49 50 42 29 39 45 53 44 32 180 48 49 32 27 44 50 44 41 38 44 45 44 25 39 43 35 FE203 1.2 41 39 57 33 35 51 170 160 49 21 42 25 29 34 45 48 28 41 19 32 37 60 38 31 38 34 31 27 33 36 26 27 41 4200 23 38 27 64 1.6 1.8 1.3 I. 3 1.2 .7 1. 5 1.5 1.3 1.0 l . l 1.2 .8 2. 1 1.1 1.4 1. 5 .8 .4 . 5 .5 . 1 .5 .6 .5 . 3 .4 .0 ,8 .3 3 8 0 0 5 2 1 6 2 4 1.7 2.2 2.1 1.3 1.6 1.8 2.0 1.5 1 1 I 2 2 2, 2 1. 1.7 3.3 1.3 1.5 1.7 2. 1 1.7 1.3 1.1 1.8 1.6 1.3 1.7 1.4 1.4 1.7 I. 4 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.7 10.6 1.4 1.0 1.1 2. 2 CAO 1.0 1.0 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.4 .9 1.3 I. 0 .9 .9 1.2 .8 1.8 • 1.2 1.9 . 5 3.7 2.0 1.9 2.4 3. 3 1. 5 2.0 2.6 2.2 2.9 2.4 1.9 1.8 2.5 2.8 1.5 1.9 3.2 1.7 3.0 3.8 3. 1 1.6 3.0 1.7 2.6 2.4 2.9 2.5 5. 1 .2 .1 9 I 5 0 3 4 9 0 4 3 5 4, 4, 9, 6, 3. 3. 5. 8.1 8. 8 5.4 6.4 3.7 2. 7 4.4 4.3 4.3 3.7 3.5 4.0 5.1 3.6 4.2 6.0 3. 5 3.3 4.9 NA2U 3.1 1.9 3.4 3.3 3.0 2.5 2.9 3.2 2. 9 3.1 4.2 3.0 3.7 2.4 3.5 2.3 1.9 1.1 2.4 1.0 4.1 3.4 4.0 3.6 4.0 .9 3.0 3.4 3.9 2.9 3.3 3.6 3.4 3.0 3.6 3.6 3.0 4. 1 2.8 2.5 3. 1 .9 .5 .3 .2 .3 ,4 ,9 5 0 4 3 8 5 9 3.9 3.0 2.3 2.5 1.1 1. 3. 1. 2. 1. 3.2 3.6 2.4 2.0 3.1 3.2 1.7 1.9 .4 3.7 3.6 2.5 3.5 2.4 3.3 3.7 6.0 4.9 2.6 4.0 .3 ». 7 3.2 1.2 4.0 K20 3.6 2.3 1.5 1.3 1.8 1.5 2.0 1.5 2.5 1.7 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.8 3.5 3.0 2.0 1.2 0 3 3 5 1 .9 .8 2.2 1.7 1.2 .9 1.9 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.1 2.5 1.7 1.6 2.2 1.3 1.8 1.4 1.2 1.1 2.8 1.0 .8 1.2 1.0 3.0 .8 1.8 1.7 2. 1 2.0 1.9 2.7 2.6 1.7 2.5 2.4 1.8 2.4 1.5 1.3 1.8 1.3 l . 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DRILL-HOLE 8 SAMP. * LOC.COORD 72LZ117010790646 72LZ1 17110770642 72LZ11721O740638 72LZ1 17310710634 72LZU7410680630 72LZ117510650625 72LZ1 17610630621 72LZ117710600617 72LZ117810570612 72LZ117910550608 72LZ118010520604 72LZ U8110490600 72LZ118210470596 72LZ118310440592 72LZ118410410588 72LZ118510380584 72LZ118610350580 72LZ118710330576 72LZ118810300572 72LZ118910280568 72LZ119010250564 72LZI19110200559 72LZ119210190555 72LZ119310160550 72LZ119410130546 72LZ119510100542 72LZ119610080538 72LZ119710050534 72LZU9810020530 72LZ119909990526 72LZ120009970522 72LZ120L09940518 72LZ120209910514 72LZ120309880510 72LZ120409350505 72LZ120509B30500 72LZ120609800496 72LZ120709780492 72LZ120809750488 72LZ120909720484 72LZ121009690480 72LZ121109660476 72LZ121209630472 72LZ121309600468 72LZ121409580464 72LZ121509550460 72LZ121609520455 72LZ121709500451 72LZ121809470447 72LZ121909440443 72LZ122009410438 72LZ122109390434 72LZ122209360430 72LZ122309330426 72LZ122409300422 72LZ122509270418 72LZ122609250414 72LZ122709220410 72LZ122809190405 72LZ122909160401 72LZ123009130397 721Z123109100393 72LZ123209080389 72LZ123309050385 72LZ123409020380 72LZ123508990376 72LZ123608960372 72LZ123708940368 72LZ123808910364 72LZ123908890360 72LZ124008860356 72LZ124108830352 72LZ124208800348 72LZ124308780343 72LZ124408750339 72LZ124508720335 72LZ124608690331 72LZ124708670327 CU ZN 2380 36 8400 27 2130 24 13000 26 3500 22 6300 49 5700 59 2670 57 3600 49 3870 39 4070 55 5900 75 4150 57 2080 57 2240 49 2920 48 4130 28 3250 51 2500 44 3260 39 1880 46 4020 52 550 51 3260 52 2610 35 1320 42 2830 24 18000 24 .4100 19 4440 18 3860 21 4400 22 5700 30 4600 33 10500 21 5600 24 13700 28 2340 72 7000 55 2380 53 3500 45 2070 45 6500 92 1670 61 2570 40 1940 58 4340 62 3350 62 2100 46 10100 97 2170 56 3350 38 3980 62 4600 76 2760 32 5400 42 4600 22 2770 42 2600 35 3580 36 4900 65 3070 44 4500 49 3250 54 3850 73 1630 46 4300 53 3640 50 3030 53 3890 48 406C 46 3220 62 2030 56 2400 53 2470 47 2450 47 4800 64 2570 43 FE203 CAO 1.3 1.3 1.9 .8 1.6 .5 1.6 .5 1.8 .6 2.3 2.5 3.0 I. 3 2.4 1.7 2.6 2.2 1.3 1.8 1.7 1.4 2.7 2.0 2.3 2.0 2.1 3.2 1.7 3.0 2.8 1.6 1.3 1.5 2. 8 2.6 2.6 2. 3 2.4 2.6 2.8 3. 1 2.0 1.6 1.9 3.5 2. 0 1.5 1.8 1.5 2.3 .8 2.5 2.1 2.6 .1 1.3 .2 1.5 .4 1.0 .4 1.0 .1 1.4 2.2 1.2 0.3 2.7 .4 1.4 .2 2.0 1.2 1.8 2.4 2.0 1.0 2. 1 1.5 2.0 l . l 2.1 2.1 2.2 1.7 1.8 2.3 2.1 1.6 1.9 1.5 1.5 2.5 2. 1 2.7 •1.6 2. 1 2.2 .8 1.7 1.3 1.8 1.6 1.5 4.9 1.5 3.5 .8 3.4 1. 4 3. 8 1.0 4.4 .8 3.6 1.3 2.9 1. 1 3. 5 1.7 2.6 1.9 3.3 1.4 3.1 2.1 3.3 2.3 3.3 1.3 3.3 1.6 2.5 1.9 3.3 1.4 2.9 U l 2.5 1.2 3.9 1.6 3.7 1.2 4.3 1.4 4.1 1.4 3.8 1.1 3.1 1.4 2.8 NA20 K20 3.4 1.7 1.5 2.3 1. 9 2.4 2.0 2. 5 2.9 2.5 2.6 1.9 3.0 2.0 3.7 1.6 3. 1 1.8 3.2 1.2 3.0 1.8 3.2 1.8 4.2 2.1 3.3 1.9 3. 8 1.3 1.9 2. 5 3.1 1.6 3.2 1.9 3.1 2.0 3.1 1.7 3.3 1.7 3.4 1.9 3.6 1.2 3.4 1.4 2.5 2.1 3.8 1.6 2.9 1.8 .3 3.0 1.3 2.4 2.0 1.9 2.2 1.6 0.3 2.9 .3 5.0 .2 3.0 . 3 3.8 .7 3.6 .9 1.9 3.5 1.1 2.1 3.5 2.9 2.0 2.5 1.9 2.7 2.0 2.6 1.5 3.4 1.2 3.2 1.6 3.5 1.4 3. 1 l . l 2.8 1.7 3.0 1.7 1.3 3.0 3.3 1.7 1.8 1.7 3.0 1.4 3.1 1.6 3.2 1.1 3.0 1.2 2.7 1.2 3.5 .7 2.7 1.3 2.3 1.4 3.1 1.3 2.3 1.9 2. 1 1.3 3.1 .9 2.9 . 1.9 3.3 1. 1 3.0 1.3 2.8 1.2 3.2 1.1 3.0 .9 2.8 1.2 2.8 1 . 1 3.0 .9 2.9 1.1 2.9 1.2 3.2 .7 3.0 .7 3.0 .9 DRILL-HOLE.12 SAMP. U LOC.COORD CU 72LZ124005530523 1180 72LZ124905500518 1900 72LZ125005480514 10100 72LZ125105450510 2390 72LZ 125205430505 810 72LZ125305400501 1590 72LZ125405380497 9000 72LZ125505350493 4500 72LZ125605330488 2870 72LZ125705300484 1920 72LZ 125e05270480 3760 72LZ 125905250476 3070 72LZ126005220472 4600 72LZ126105200468 5200 72LZ126205180463 1930 72LZ126305150459 1820 72LZ126405120455 2340 72LZ126505100450 3500 72LZ126605070446 3690 72LZ126705050442 4460 72LZ126805020438 6100 72LZ126904990434 5800 72LZ127004960430 1540 72LZ127104940425 2480 72LZ127204910420 1000 72LZ127304890416 6000 72LZ127404860412 5100 72LZ1275O484O408 3480 72LZ127604810404 2470 72LZ127704790400 1330 72LZ127804760396 1550 72LZ127904740391 3890 72LZ128004710386 6700 72LZ128104680382 2140 72LZ128204650378 3410 72LZ128304630373 4700 72LZ128404610369 2670 72LZ128504580365 2960 72LZ128604550361 2470 72LZ128704530357 2500 72LZ128804500353 3810 72LZ128904470348 1100 72LZ129004450344 1500 72LZ129104430340 5200 72LZ129204400335 5400 72LZ129304370331 2440 72LZ129404340327 2560 72LZ129504320323 6000 72LZ129604300319 6600 72LZ129704270315 4260 72LZ129804250310 8300 72LZ129904220306 6200 72LZ130004200302 3410 72LZ130104170297 9800 72LZ130204140293 13300 72LZ130304110289 10100 72LZ130404090285 3550 72LZ130504060280 2310 72LZ130604040276 350 72LZ130704010272 351 72LZ130803990268 4180 72LZ130903960264 1750 72LZ131003940259 2230 72LZ131103910255 1700 72LZ131203890250 6050 72LZ131303860246 2080 72LZ131403840242 1150 72LZ131503810238 1370 72LZ131603780234 3250 72LZ131703750230 . 2730 72LZ131603730225 4370 72LZ131903700220 8200 IH FE203 CAO NA20 K20 36 1.8 3.4 1.2 2.2 42 1.8 2.4 2.5 1.8 46 2.9 5.4 . 7 2.6 32 1.6 2.5 2.7 1.8 36 2.0 4.6 3.7 1.3 32 1.7 2.8 2. 1 1.3 32 2.7 1.4 .2 3.0 28 1.9 4.5 2.5 1.7 30 2.8 4. 1 2.8 1.4 28 1.2 2.2 2.9 l . l 25 2.0 4.5 2.9 1.0 36 1.9 2.7 1.9 2.3 31 2.8 2.5 2.3 3.2 33 2.0 1.4 1.8 2.4 31 1.6 1.0 1.8 1.9 32 1.5 1.6 2.8 1.4 28 1.2 1.7 2.6 1.2 36 1.9 2.2 2.6 1.5 34 2.1 2.6 2.5 2.4 36 2.0 3.7 2.4 1.3 30 1.9 2.6 1.9 2.2 43 1.4 1.2 2.3 1.7 18 1.1 2.9 3.1 1.6 21 1. 1 1.6 2. 1 2 . 1 32 1.2 1.3 2.4 1.4 35 1.8 .9 1.1 4.9 32 1.6 1.9 1.8 2.8 32 1.5 2.2 1.6 3.4 32 1.5 2.6 2.6 1.9 33 1.4 3.6 2.8 3.4 27 1.2 2.4 2.9 1.4 32 1.8 2.4 2.4 2.3 30 1.7 2.4 2.4 2.3 29 1.4 1.8 2.6 1.5 36 1.6 2.6 1.8 2.5 29 1.5 2.8 .4 3.4 25 1.2 3.8 .3 3.3 28 1.3 4.2 .6 4.1 41 1. 7 4.3 1.6 2.5 29 1.7 4.9 .6 3.7 25 1.7 4.3 .5 3. 1 27 1.8 3.4 2.3 2.3 29 1.7 2.4 2.9 1.4 27 1.3 2.2 .3 2.5 43 1.6 2.4 .8 2.2 30 1.5 1.9 2.6 2.0 27 1.3 2.0 2.6 2.0 30 1.6 2.2 2.5 2.3 33 1.7 l . l 1.5 2.8 22 1.5 2.5 2.3 2.2 42 2. 1 1.8 2.2 3.4 28 1.4 2.1 2. 3 2.7 34 2.0 2.3 2.3 2. 1 58 2.3 2. 1 1.7 2.4 52 1.6 1.7 1.0 2.n 41 1.2 .8 .6 2.1 31 2.0 3.0 2.4 2.0 23 1.4 2.5 2.3 1.7 26 2. 1 3-3 3.6 1.5 31 1.9 4.3 3.2 1.9 31 2.5 3.5 2.7- 2.2 28 1.4 2.3 3.4 2.1 25 2. 1 4.8 3. 1 2.0 22 1.4 3.2 3.3 2.5 30 3.7 3.9 2.2 3.2 18 .8 .8 2.5 1.8 42 1.8 3.5 1.9 2.3 41 2.4 3.6 2.6 2.1 17 1.3 2.5 1.6 2.8 38 2.9. 4.6 3.5 2.5 28 2.5 3.9 1.6 2.0 25 4.0 3.9 2.3 1.9 LORNEX D R I L L - C O R E SAMPLE'., 376 ATOMIC AUSOSPT ILm A N A L Y S I S (HN IJ3 -HCL04 D I G E S T I U N I ( EVERY F I F T H S A " ( ' L E - ALL IJRILL H U L L S ) (VALUES IN PPM) SAMP. » LO; • COORD AG NI 7.N PB CO CO 894 0 0 o.o . 3.333 36.364 0.0 1.250 0.0 899 0 0 o.o 3. 333 22.378 0.0 2.500 0.0 900 0 0 0.0 1.667 41.399 0.0 1. 250 0.0 905 0 0 0.0 1.667 6.378 6.845 3.750 0.0 910 0 0 0.0 1.667 33.566 0.0 1.250 0.0 915 0 0 0.0 0.0 34.685 0.0 0.0 0.0 920 0 0 0.0 0.0 " 20.699 0.0 3.750 0.0 925 0 0 0.0 3.333 363.636 0.0 0.0 0.0 930 0 0 0.0 3.333 45.874 0.0 1.250 0.0 935 0 0 0.0 0.0 53.706 0.0 . 3.750 0.0 940 0 0 0.0 3. 333 76.004 0.0 2.500 0.0 945 0 0 0.0 3. 333 60.420 0.0 1.250 0.0 950 0 0 0.0 1.667 48.112 0.0 2.500 0.0 951 0 0 0.0 5.000 31.329 0.0 3.750 0.0 956 0 0 0.0 3.333 30.769 0.0 1.250 0.0 961 0 0 o.c 0.0 19.580 0.0 1.250 0.0 966 0 0 0.0 0.0 18.462 0.0 0.0 0.0 971 0 0 0.0 • 3.333 19.580 0.0 0.0 0.0 976 0 0 0.0 0.0 27.413 0.0 0.0 0.0 981 0 0 0.0 0.0 16.224 0.0 0.0 0.0 986 0 0 0.0 0.0 17.902 0.0 0.0 0.0 991 0 0 0.0 0.0 21.259 0.0 0.0 0.0 996 0 0 0.0 3. 333 20.140 0.0 0.0 0.0 1000 0 0 : 0.133 0.0 49.231 82.139 0.0 0.0 1002 0 0 0.0 . 0.0 18.462 0.0 3.750 0.0 1007 0 0 0.199 0.0 369.231 92.406 0.0 8.197 1012 0 0 0.332 0.0 928.671 71.872 0.0 19.126 1017 0 0 0.332 0.0 951.049 273.797 0.0 20.219 1022 0 0 0.266 0.0 1118.881 889.840 0.0 25.137 1027 0 0 0.0 3.333 44.755 0.0 0.0 0.0 1032 0 0 0.0 0.0 42.517 0.0 1.250 0.0 1037 0 0 0.0 0.0 19.021 0.0 1.250 0.0 1043 0 0 0.0 1.667 31.888 0.0 0.0 0.0 1048 0 0 0.0 o.'o 23.496 0.0 2.500 0.0 1052 0 0 0.0 0.0 55.944 0.0 0.0 0.0 1057 0 0 0.0 0.0 35.804 0.0 0.0 0.0 1062 0 0 ,0.0 3. 333 59.301 0.0 2.500 0.0 1067 0 0 0.0 3.333 39.161 0.0 2.500 0.0 1072 0 0 o.o 3.333 40.280 0.0 1.250 0.0 1077 0 0 0.199 3.333 54.825 0.0 0.0 0.0 1082 0 0 0.0 0.0 36.923 0.0 0.0 0.0 1087 0 0 0.0 1.667 32.448 0.0 0.0 0.0 1092 0 0 0. 133 0.0 36.923 0.0 0.0 0.0 1097 0 0 0.0 0.0 21.818 0.0 0.0 0.0 1101 0 0 0.199 0.0 16.783 o.o 0.0 0.0 1106 0 0 0.0 0.0 42.517 0.0 0.0 0.0 1111 0 0 0.0 0.0 34.685 0.0 0.0 0.0 1116 0 0 0.133 0.0 4.364 0.0 0.0 0.0 1121 0 0 0.0 0. 0 34.126 0.0 0.0 0.0 1126 0 0 0.066 0.0 37.48 3 0.0 0.0 0.0 1131 0 0 0.066 0.0 30.210 6.845 2.500 0.0 1136 0 0 0.266 3.333 29.650 10.267 1.250 0.0 1141 0 0 0.465 3.333 13.427 3.422 0.0 0.0 1146 0 0 0.0 1.667 38.601 0.0 2.500 0.0 1150 0 0 0.266 3. 333 7.385 3.422 0.0 0.0 1155 0 0 0.066 0. 0 25.734 6.845 0.0 0.0 1160 0 0 0.133 0.0 27.972 6.845 0.0 0.0 1 165 0 0 2.855 6.667 4475.523 13.690 0.0 92.896 1170 0 0 0.0 0.0 34.126 3.422 6.250 0.0 1175 0 0 0.332 0.0 31.329 0.0 0.0 0.0 1180 0 0 0.0 1.667 49.231 0.0 0.0 0.0 1185 0 0 0.0 3.333 31.888 0.0 2.500 0.0 1190 0 0 0.0 3. 333 38.042 0.0 1.250 0.0 1195 0 0 0.0 0.0 29.091 0.0 2.500 0.0 1200 0 0 0.133 0.0 7.832 0.0 0.0 0.0 1204 0 0 0.598 3.333 11.189 0.0 0.0 0.0 1209 0 0 0.0 0.0 43.636 0.0 0.0 0.0 1214 0 0 0.0 0.0 . 22.378 0.0 0.0 0.0 1219 0 0 0.531 0.0 89.510 3.422 0.0 5.464 1224 0 0 0.0 0.0 20.699 3.422 2.500 3.279 1229 0 0 0.0 1.667 22.378 6.845 0.0 2.732 1234 0 0 0.332 0.0 82.797 3.422 0.0 2.732 1239 0 0 0.133 1.667 46.993 0.0 0.0 0.0 1244 0 0 0.0 0.0 48. 112 0.0 0.0 0.0 1249 0 0 0.0 0.0 27.413 3.422 0.0 0.0 1254 0 0 0.266 3.333 22.378 6.845 0.0 0.0 1259 0 0 0.0 0.0 21.818 0.0 1.250 0.0 1264 0 0 0.0 0.0 19.021 0.0 0.0 0.0 1269 0 0 0.0 1 .66 7 27.413 10.267 0.0 0.0 1274 0 0 0.066 0.0 18.462 0.0 0.0 0.0 1279 0 0 0.0 0.0 19.580 0.0 0.0 0.0 1284 0 0 0.133 3.333 5.035 6. B45 0.0 3.825 1289 0 0 0.0 0.0 16.783 3.422 1.250 2.732 1294 0 0 0.199 0.0 22.378 0.0 0.0 0.0 1299 0 0 0.531 0.0 21.259 0.0 0.0 0.0 MN 271.618 190. 982 280.106 72. 149 216. 446 331.034 169.761 241.910 292.833 466.844 254.642 415.915 594.165 348.010 420.159 233.422 339.522 288.594 386. 207 246.154 271.618 530. 504 891. 247 1188.329 331.034 2716.179 12307.695 9973.477 8063.664 305.570 212.202 118.833 280.106 237. 666 114.589 174.005 386. 207 157.029 199.470 93.369 169. 761 157.029 97.613 161.273 135. 809 233.422 169. 761 174. 005 250.398 224.934 195.226 318.302 216.446 241.910 289.594 161. 273 199.470 42.440 157. 029 106.101 207.958 488. 063 212.202 250.398 12.308 16.127 288.594 80.637 55.172 229.178 267. 374 318. 302 301.326 275.862 174.005 233.422 263.130 46.684 216.446 445.623 280.106 976.128 785.146 420.159 339.522 CU 95.628 3770.490 2404.371 4808.742 218.579 1803.280 38.793 792.350 1420.766 2459.017 2841.530 2021.858 508.197 2404.371 792.350 2.732 2.136 1 .639 2.186 2.186 1.639 1.639 8. 743 13.115 1.093 22.951 65.574 40.984 16.940 3114.756 1803.280 683.060 3005.464 3825.138 3551.914 2513.662 2622.951 3278.690 737.705 4808.742 2622.951 4316.938 3387.979 2896.175 10109.289 2841.530 4098.359 3770.490 3005.464 3825.138 2185.793 4808.742 15847.000 2732.240 6994.535 4316.938 4371.582 40983.617 2732.240 7377.051 4535.516 2896.175 1857.924 1256.831 4098.359 10655.742 2021.858 2459.017 10382.516 2622.951 3661.201 3825.138 3879.781 2568.306 1912.569 9289.617 2950.821 2568.306 5737.703 5519.121 3879.781 3005.464 1256.831 2732.240 6448.086 LORNEX DRILL-CORE SAMPLES SPECTROGRAPH IC ANALYSIS I EVERY FIFTH SAMPLE - ALL DRILL HOLES) (VALUES IN PPM) SAMP. * B SR 894 700 899 15 400 900 20 500 905 15 100 910 800 915 20 400 920 600 925 700 930 .600 935 600 940 700 945 20 500 950 20 600 951 20 400 956 20 400 961 600 966 20 500 971 20 600 976 201200 981 600 986 600 991 10 700 996 400 1000 15 400 1002 500 1007 50 400 1012 50 150 1017 40 200 1022 50 300 1027 20 300 1032 10 500 1037 20 300 1043 15 400 1048 50 200 1052 40 300 1057 10 500 1062 20 400 1067 20 500 1072 10 500 1077 50 400 1082 20 400 1087 30 400 1092 60 300 1097 15 500 1101 20 200 1106 10 600 1121 202001 1126 20 700 1131 151500 1136 30 600 1141 20 300 1146 20 600 1150 50 400 1155 15 500 1160 10 500 1165 20 300 1170 400 1175 20 300 1180 500 1185 30 200 1190 600 1195 20 400 1200- . 30 300 1204 40 1209 20 400 1214 2 0 300 1219 15 200 1224 20 800 1229 20 500 1234 10 .800 1239 10 800 1244 101000 1249 20 600 1254 40 200 1259 20 400 1264 15 600 1269 15 500 1274 15 500 1279 15 800 1284 50 200 1289 20 400 1294 10 600 1299 500 TI IN V MO BA BIGA 1500 50 40 600 20 1000 50 30 600 20 1000 50 40 30 200 20 700 40 20 200 5 700 50 30 600 20 2000 50 40 5 500 20 1000 50 30 800 20 1000 50 30 700 20 1000 50 30 600 20 1000 50 30 5 600 20 1000 50 40 5 600 20 700 50 30 500 20 700 50 30 500 20 1000 50 30 50 500 20 1000 50 30 400 20 600 50 20 800 20 500 50 20 300 20 800 50 20 500 20 1000 50 20 600 20 1000 50 30 700 20 1500 50 40 2000 20 800 50 30 900 20 800 60 30 600 20 1500 60 30 40 500 20 800 50 20 600 20 1000 80 15 15 400 20 700 300 5 300 20 600 100 5 300 10 500 200 1 5 200 20 1000 50 50 700 20 1000 50 .50 10 800 20 1500 50 20 500 20 1500 50 30 50 600 20 1000 50 30 5 400 20 1000 50 20 500 20 1500 50 40 5 600 20 1000 50 50 500 20 2000 50 50 30 300 20 1000 50 20 10 500 20 1000 50 40 15 600 20 2000 50 40 5 500 20 2000 50 40 5 300 20 2000 50 40 400 150 20 1000 50 40 200 200 20 1000 50 50 20 200 20 1000 50 50 20 150 20 2001 50 50 40 150 20 1000 50 40 10 300 20 1000 50 1002001 150 20 800 -50 60 500 150 20 1C00 50 50 200 500 20 1000 50 50 30 300 20 1500 50 50 10 500 20 800 50 50 700 200 20 1000 50 50 500 200 20 800 50 20 50 150 15 900 50 30 10 600 20 1500 50 40 20 500 20 2000 50 40 10 500 20 1500 50 30 3 500 20 1000 50 40 5 500 20 1000 50 30 4 500 20 1000 50 30 40 400 20 2000 50 50 30 500 20 1000 50 30 500 20 1500 50 40 10 400 20 1000 50 50 40 500 20 800 50 40 200 20 2000 50 50 500 20 700 50 50 8 800 20 1500 50 50 20 150 20 1500 50 50 10 150 20 2000 50 30 5 500 20 2000 50 40 ; 200 700 20 2000 50 . 40 4 400 20 2000 50 30 400 20 1500 50 40 600 20 1500 50 40 600 20 2001 50 50 10 800 20 1000 50 40 15 300 20 2000 50 50 20 500 20 1000 50 40 800 20 1000 50 50 700 20 APPENDIX D Highmont (Sample locations and analytical results) FIGURE 85 Location of samples, Highmont Surface (in pocket) 380 HIGHMONT SURFACE SAMPLES ATOMIC ABSORPTION (TOTAL DIGESTION -RAPID TEFLON TUBE PROCEDURE) (VALUES IN PPM FOR TRACE ELEMENTS AND WT. % FOR MAJOR ELEMENTS) SAMP. # LOC.COORD CU ZN FE203 CAO NA20 K20 72HS 114290488 1190 75 1.2 2.0 4.1 1.9 72HS 221430474 23 35 1.0 1.5 3.9 1.7 72HS 310370745 397 48 2.2 1.9 2.9 2.0 72HS 505471127 340 36 4.2 3. 1 2. 7 1.7 72HS 610790467 1050 40 1.6 2.4 3.9 .6 72HS 710750508 2660 34 2.1 2.4 3.3 1.4 72HS 810840548 383 35 1.5 2.0 3.6 1.9 72HS 911150513 8 29 1.0 1.6 3.9 1.4 72HS 1011610490 4 29 1.6 1.8 5.0 .5 72HS 1111680515 47 43 3.2 2.5 4.0 .2 72HS 1212110484 2 26 1.1 1.8 5.0 .5 72HS 1312040368 85 48 3.2 3.5 3.2 1.7 72HS 1412170411 17 37 2.1 2.5 3.2 1.3 72HS 1512200422 407 26 .9 1.8 3.8 1.7 72HS 1612690443 8 21 .9 1.9 4.2 .5 72HS 1712840425 8 27 1.0 1.7 4.0 2.0 72HS 1812750402 9 29 1.5 2.2 4.3 1.2 72HS 1913800477 499 38 1.9 2.3 3.0 1.5 72HS 2013400482 120 36 2.9 2.0 4.3 1.0 72HS 2113410434 48 33 1.8 2.6 4.3 .9 72HS 2213800590 427 35 2.4 2.7 2.9 2.0 72HS 2313800633 97 48 3.9 3.2 3.1 1.9 72HS 2413150507 13 34 2.2 2. 1 3.8 1.2 72HS 2513200505 350 37 2.2 2.7 3.3 1.3 72HS 2614110447 27 28 1.3 1.3 4.6 0.8 72HS 2710400530 9 20 2.3 2.4 2.9 1.6 72HS 2810490588 520 22 0.8 1.8 4.0 1.6 72HS 2910270587 2700 24 .8 1.9 3.9 1.9 72HS 3010230555 3820 19 2.0 2. 8 3.5 1.5 72HS 3110500484 4260 31 1.8 2.0 3.2 1.4 72HS 3209750385 2410 28 2.1 2.2 3.2 2.4 72HS 3310490452 0007 20 2.6 2.5 3.6 1.2 72HS 3410150468 18 37 1.5 3.0 3.3 1.4 72HS 3510300543 1250 34 2.8 2.6 3.4 2.1 72HS 3608550455 28 30 2.6 3.2 3.6 1.6 72HS 3709360430 100 34 2.5 2.7 3.6 1.9 72HS 3808800487 70 28 2.6 2.6 3.4 2.0 72HS 3909340515 250 30 2.2 2. 8 3.8 1.4 72HS 4008960467 107 28 2.2 2.3 3.3 1.7 72HS 4106C01124 72 30 2.4 2.9 3.9 1.4 72HS 4202250467 4 15 1.4 3.2 4.0 .1 72HS 4310940844 426 26 2.2 3.2 3.5 1.3 72HS 4406751108 166 26 2.3 3.3 3.5 1.3 72HS 4507C00982 141 24 2.5 2.6 3.2 1.5 72HS 4610950807 213 25 2.3 3.3 3.8 1.6 72HS 4704660370 98 30 2.5 3.9 3.9 1.4 72HS 4808700796 40100 61 2.9 4.3 1.4 .6 72HS 4905531101 310 14 1.7 3.1 3.4 1.2 72HS 5005281008 1820 24 2.7 3.8 . 3.3 1.3 72HS 5107051130 255 21 2.5 3.4 3.5 1.4 SAMP . # LOC.COORD 72HS 5207530959 72HS 5311480876 72HS 5406200999 72HS 5506751157 72HS 5605720999 72HS 5704050537 72HS 5809320923 72HS 5909240958 72HS 6008000977 72HS 6103700545 72HS 6205490549 72HS 6305500260 72HS 6406100550 72HS 6506210770 72HS 6606321040 7 2HS 6704121103 72HS 6802660696 72HS 6902300832 72HS 7004360684 72HS 7104100605 72HS 7205390683 72HS 7301500744 72HS 7406360684 72HS 7508380555 72HS 7608520560 72HS 770705 0499 72HS 7808230525 72HS 7908420648 72HS 8008650642 72HS 8108570660 72HS 8208660617 72HS 8307900573 72HS 8407680578 72HS 8508050645 72HS 8608290664 72HS 870757 0666 72HS 8807250645 72HS 8906900635 72HS 9007660612 72HS 9108040694 72HS 9207950710 72HS 9308660683 72HS 9408410682 72HS 9508320699 72HS 9608340710 72HS 9708420734 72HS 9808430721 72HS 9908550745 72HS 10008630770 72HS 10108720737 72HS 10209130732 72HS 10307680744 72HS 10407830740 72HS 10507880754 72HS 1060795C764 72HS 10707990781 72HS 10809250690 CU ZN FE2C 36 33 2.6 1930 20 1.4 49 20 2.5 111 26 2.4 114 21 2.1 225 24 1. 3 134 32 2.5 39 25 2.2 80 23 2.3 830 27 2.5 165 35 2.0 14 23 2.3 44 20 2. 1 510 30 2.6 141 25 2.3 196 32 2.5 750 28 2.0 1760 26 1.8 464 46 2.1 168 26 2.6 110 30 2.6 64 19 1.5 1330 29 2.2 164 33 2.0 205 40 2.6 22 28 2.2 93 40 2.2 80 29 2.1 273 22 .7 190 21 .6 275 41 2.1 670 27 1.9 37 42 2.5 277 29 2.0 32 23 2.3 15 29 2. 1 571 25 2.4 137 32 2.7 12 30 2.4 9 20 2.3 110 32 1.9 16 36 2.1 24 35 1.8 150 22 1.9 71 34 1.4 99 29 1.4 115 21 .7 212 21 1.1 101 20 1.0 205 21 0.6 280 19 0.5 16 16 1.0 71 21 1. 1 17 32 1.8 8 13 .4 8 15 .4 2100 13 3.2 CAO NA2C K20 3.7 3.5 1.6 2.4 3.7 1.2 3. 1 3.4 1.5 3. 2 3.8 1.4 3.1 4. 1 1.2 2.8 3.8 0.9 2. 9 3.5 1.5 3.4 3.5 l . l 2.8 3.4 1.5 3.5 3.3 1.3 3.4 3.5 2.0 2.9 4. 1 1.2 2. 9 3.4 1.6 3.8 3.7 1.9 3.3 3.7 1.5 2.8 3.9 1.9 3.3 3.7 1.6 2.4 3.6 2.2 2.5 3.2 1.7 3.2 3.9 1.7 3.4 3.9 2.0 2.9 3.7 l . l 2.5 3.3 1.5 2.6 3.2 1.6 3. 3 4.2 1.9 3. 1 3.9 1.7 3.4 3.8 1.3 3.1 4.0 1.2 2.4 4.2 .6 1.8 4.5 .4 2.8 3.6 1.3 2.8 3.3 1.7 3.8 3.7 1.5 3.2 3.5 1.3 3. 3 3.6 1.5 3.3 3.6 1.4 2.7 3.8 1.4 3. 1 3.8 1.5 3.0 3.8 1.8 3.8 4.4 1.5 2. 8 3.8 1.5 3.3 3.8 l . l 2.7 4.0 1.4 2.4 4.3 .4 2.8 3.8 1.4 2.1 4.3 .6 2. 4 4.5 .2 2.3 4.5 . 3 2.1 4.5 .8 1.3 4.4 1.2 1.6 4.3 .5 1.7 4.3 1.2 2.0 4.3 1.6 3.2 3.9 1.4 2.8 4.9 .2 1.8 5.0 .4 .4 2.0 .2 SAMP . # LOC.COORD CU 72HS 10909630717 2 74 72HS 11010000684 1000 72HS 11110640612 707 72HS 11210650629 1307 72HS 11310930649 524 72HS 11410270648 152 72HS 11511440615 473 72HS 1161156C588 292 72HS 11712100598 2690 72HS 11812990669 249 72HS 11911870617 1510 72HS 12012130643 556 72HS 12112470724 43 72HS 12213190791 447 72HS 12307960755 244 72HS 12411650671 47 72HS 12508700796 3370 72HS 12607710663 125 72HS 12707220715 590 72HS 12810910875 158 72HS 12904820734 3520 72HS 13004400735 1240 72HS 13107750694 801 72HS 13407480771 481 72HS 13505630835 51 72HS 13707400573 267 72HS 13804780635 37 72HS 13908881087 6 72HS 14009560919 672 72HS 14108001012 290 72HS 14206490917 344 72HS 14305760679 221 72HS 14406770737 21 72HS 14507350530 21 72HS 14605070709 121 72HS 14704801038 167 72HS 14804621100 347 72HS 14908450795 191 72HS 15004620761 294 72HS 15109341024 4 72HS 15206990950 233 72HS 15304901150 2 72 72HS 15410370915 314 72HS 15502050527 2920 72HS 15601480552 14 72HS 15701630550 51 72HS 15802130500 7 72HS 15901850575 3 72HS 16001750600 41 72HS 16105271082 146 72HS 16204931075 32 72HS 16306960874 153 72HS 16501980575 89 72HS 16605761030 320 72HS 16702120780 217 72HS 16801600813 121 72HS 1690213 0814 210 ZN FF.203 CAO NA20 K20 18 .5 2.3 3.9 .4 21. . 7 1.9 3.9 1.0 24 1.0 1.9 3.8 1.6 30 .8 1.8 3.8 1.7 32 .9 1.9 4.1 1.3 31 .6 1.6 3.8 2.1 32 .9 1.5 3.8 1.2 32 . e 2.0 4.0 1.6 28 1.3 2.6 3.5 1.4 23 1.8 1.9 4.0 1.2 26 .6 1.7 4.1 1.4 27 1.5 1.8 3.3 1.5 32 1.7 2.2 3.4 1.5 47 3.4 5.3 5.9 1.1 22 1.7 3. 1 3.9 .5 29 1.5 2.3 3.5 .9 26 1.9 2.5 3.6 1.6 33 2. 1 2.9 3.7 1.2 27 2.2 3.1 3.7 l . l 34 2.3 2.9 3.4 1.2 16 1.0 1.4 .9 2.5 34 1.1 3.1 3.1 2.0 37 2.5 3.0 3.5 1.9 28 1.3 2. 7 3.4 1.3 20 1.4 3.0 4.0 .5 24 2.0 3.1 3.7 1.7 26 2. 1 3. 0 3.4 1.5 23 2.2 3.2 3.8 1.0 26 2.2 2.4 3.7 1.4 24 1.9 3.0 3.9 1.3 27 1.9 2.2 3.5 1.2 21 2.1 3.3 3.6 1.3 21 1.9 2.9 3.7 1.4 24 2.0 3.1 2.6 1.3 21 1.7 3.0 4.0 .6 26 1.8 3.3 3.6 .8 25 2.0 2.8 3.4 1.7 26 1.7 3.0 4.2 .5 22 1.5 3.4 3.8 .9 28 2.2 3.7 3.7 1.3 27 2.1 3.0 3.8 1.1 25 1.6 3. 1 3.9 1.8 29 2.6 3.8 3.6 1.1 68 1.3 2.3 1.7 2.7 22 1.3 3.2 4.0 .5 24 1.4 3.2 4.6 .3 15 .9 3.3 4.0 .1 18 1.3 3.9 3.7 .2 37 1.1 2.3 4.7 .2 37 2.1 3.2 3.6 .6 26 2.0 2.7 3.7 1.1 29 2.1 3.5 3.8 1.1 18 1.2 2.3 4.5 .5 31 2.3 3. 1 3.4 1.0 24 2.5 2.8 3.5 1.3 19 1.2 1.7 3.3 2.0 22 2.2 2.6 3.6 1.7 SAMP. « LOC.COORD 72HS 17002330733 72HS 17101350740 72HS 1720139C670 72HS 17301140664 72HS 17401551002 72HS 17510250305 72HS 17611500290 72HS 17712360252 72HS 17810250381 72HS 17909620608 72HS 18009500578 72HS 18109251250 72HS 18209C01212 72HS 18309441208 72HS 18409511220 72HS 18509921162 72HS 18608351275 72HS 18708001230 72HS 38608100690 72HS 33012450925 72HS 33113250924 72HS 33213420898 72HS 33313880925 72HS 4450868C830 72HS 47308950934 72HS 61208940874 72HS 66704901101 72HS 66810410832 72HS 66910400780 72HS 67007450690 72HS 67108600945 72HS 67308950934 72HS 67509430785 72HS 68909900934 72HS 88001160844 73HS 51216500505 73HS 51316200590 73HS 51416400650 73HS 51715500800 73HS 5181650C820 73HS51915800700 73HS 52015500940 73HS 52112501050 CU Z.N FE20 68 21 1.6 23 18 1.3 12 24 1.4 24 20 1.5 22 17 .7 37 27 2.2 40 29 2. 1 231 28 2.1 108 34 2.2 304 14 1.2 338 33 2.0 4 27 2.2 9 30 2.2 4 37 2.0 5 19 2.1 7 25 2.1 5 24 2.2 4 25 1.8 132 22 2.5 18 27 2.3 64 21 2.7 14 27 2.5 17 21 2.6 950 26 2.4 179 31 3.2 2160 26 1.8 169 22 1.6 980 29 2.1 364 32 2.4 860 31 1.2 205 27 1.9 629 27 1.5 438 29 2.0 870 29 1.9 374 16 1.9 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.3 CAO NA20 K20 2.4 3. 6 1.6 2.4 4.2 .3 1.9 4.2 .4 2. 3 3.6 .4 2.1 4.2 .4 2.4 3.5 1.5 2.5 3.3 1.5 2.5 3.5 1.3 2.2 3.4 1.5 . 8 4.1 2.1 2.0 3.1 1.6 2.6 3.8 1.2 2. 7 3.7 1.4 2.8 3.6 1.3 2.9 3.7 1.4 3. 0 3.6 1.3 2.8 3.4 1.5 2.6 3.9 .9 3. 1 3.7 1.2 2.9 3.8 1.7 3.2 3.6 1.6 2.9 3.9 1.7 3.2 3.7 2.1 3.7 3.5 1.3 3. 8 4.2 1.2 2.0 4.3 1.2 1.6 3.7 2.0 2.5 3.6 1.6 3. 1 3.9 1.8 4.2 2.2 1.5 2.7 4.2 1.6 3.6 3.4 1.5 2.7 4.0 l.C 2.9 3.9 1.4 2.7 3.9 2.6 3.0 3.1 1.9 2.8 3.4 2.0 2.8 3.6 1.9 3.0 3.6 1.9 2.9 3.7 2.0 2.9 3.7 1.8 3.0 3.3 1.7 2.9 3.6 1.9 384 HIGHMONT SURFACE SAMPLES ATOMIC ABSORPTION ANALYSIS (HN03-HCL04 DIGESTION) (VALUES IN PPM ) LOC -COORD AG NI 1 0 0 0.0 2.000 2 0 0 0.0 6.000 3 0 0 0 .0 8.000 5 0 0 0 .0 6. 000 6 0 0 0 .0 10.000 7 0 0 0 .0 4.000 8 0 0 0.0 6.000 9 0 0 0 .0 2.000 10 0 0 0 .0 10.000 11 0 0 0.0 6.000 12 0 0 0.0 4.000 13 0 0 0 .0 8.000 14 0 0 0 .0 4.000 15 0 0 0 .0 0.0 16 0 0 0 .0 4.000 17 0 0 0 .0 0.0 18 0 0 0 .0 4.000 19 0 0 0 .0 8.000 20 0 0 0.0 10.000 21 0 0 0.0 2.000 22 0 0 0 .0 2.000 23 0 0 0.0 13.000 24 0 0 0.0 6.000 25 0 0 0 .0 8.000 26 0 0 0 .0 6.000 27 0 0 0 .0 2.000 28 0 0 0.0 0.0 29 0 0 0.0 0 .0 30 0 0 0 .0 0. 0 31 0 0 1.500 6.000 32 0 0 0 .0 2.000 33 0 0 0.0 4.000 34 0 0 0.0 2.000 35 0 0 0 . 0 2.000 36 0 0 0.0 0.0 37 0 0 0.0 0.0 38 0 0 0 .0 0.0 39 0 0 0 .0 6.000 40 0 0 0 .0 0.0 41 0 0 0 .0 8.000 42 0 0 0.0 6. 000 43 0 0 0 .0 .10 .000 44 0 0 0 .0 6.000 , 45 0 0 0 .0 4.000 46 0 0 0.0 8.000 47 0 0 0 .0 6.000 48 0 0 10.500 10.000 49 0 0 0 .0 4.000 50 0 0 0.0 8.000 51 0 0 0 .0 2.000 ZN 87 .500 18 .750 53 .125 40 .625 40 .625 3 1 . 2 5 0 2 5 . 0 0 0 2 5 . 0 0 0 31 .250 53 .125 . 2 5 . 0 0 0 21 .875 3 1 . 2 5 0 12 .500 1 8 . 7 5 0 18 .750 21 .875 40.625 40 .625 46 .875 28 .125 37 .500 31 .250 37 .500 31 .250 18 .750 15.625 12 .500 15.625 31 .250 21 .875 18 .750 28 .125 28 .125 25 .000 20 .125 21 .875 2 5 . 0 0 0 2 5 . 0 0 0 65 .625 6 .250 2 5 . 0 0 0 21 .875 9 .375 18 .750 28 .125 6 8 . 7 5 0 150 .000 18 .750 6 .250 PB 110.000 5.000 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 15 ,000 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 10 .000 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 10 .000 70 .000 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 CO 0.0 0 .0 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 C O 0 .0 6 .667 0 .0 10 .000 0.0 C O 0.0 C O 6 .667 0.0 C O C O C O 0.0 C O C O 3.333 6.667 C O C O C O 6.667 C O 0 .0 C O C O 3 .333 C O C O C O C O C O C O 6.667 C O C O C O c c C O 6 .667 C O C O c c C O CD 0.179 C O C O C O C O 0.357 C O C O C O 0.179 C O 0 .357 0 .357 C O C O C O C O C O C O C O 0.357 0 .179 C O C O 0 .0 0 .0 C O 0 .179 .0 .0 .0 .357 .0 0 .0 0.0 0.0 0 .0 C O C O 6.071 C O C O C O C O 0.0 0 .0 C O o.*o C O 0