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Thermal maturation of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in the Rocky Mountain foothills and plains… England, Timothy David John 1984

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THERMAL MATURATION OF THE WESTERN CANADIAN SEDIMENTARY BASIN IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN FOOTHILLS AND PLAINS OF ALBERTA SOUTH OF THE RED DEER RIVER By TIMOTHY DAVID JOHN ENGLAND B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of G e o l o g i c a l Sciences We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1984 ©Timot h y D. J . England, 1984 '6 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.. *. * GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES Department of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956- Main. Mall. Vancouver,. Canada V6T 1Y3 OCTOBER 12 , 1984 i i ABSTRACT V i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e was measured f o r over 600 samples of c o a l and c o a l y p a r t i c l e s from J u r a s s i c to Paleocene s t r a t a i n the F o r e l a n d B a s i n of s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a , s o u t h of the Red Deer R i v e r , t o e s t a b l i s h a r e g i o n a l base of m a t u r i t y data f o r modeling t h e r m a l h i s t o r y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between random and maximum r e f l e c t a n c e f o r c o a l s i n the stu d y a r e a i s : %RoR = 0.938 x %RoMax + .00112. M a t u r i t y of c o a l i n s t r a t a of the same age g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e s from e a s t t o west a c r o s s the P l a i n s ; however, s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n m a t u r i t y i s apparent i n the P l a i n s , p o s s i b l y as a r e s u l t o f v a r y i n g g eothermal g r a d i e n t s . M a t u r i t y i n c r e a s e s from south to n o r t h i n the D i s t u r b e d B e l t i n the s t u d y a r e a . C o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s i n the a x i s o f the B a s i n are e x c e e d i n g l y low, a v e r a g i n g 0.07 l o g %RoR/km, a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f v e r y low p a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s r e s u l t i n g from r a p i d sediment d e p o s i t i o n i n the Paleogene. Time-averaged p a l e o - g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s f o r the deepest p a r t of the B a s i n range from 7.5 t o 15 deg. C./km based on measured c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s . The t h i c k n e s s of eroded T e r t i a r y s e c t i o n i n the a x i s of the B a s i n i s e s t i m a t e d to range from 5 t o 9 km w i t h an average v a l u e o f about 6 to 7 km. Time-temperature modeling u s i n g an i n t e g r a l form of the L o p a t i n e q u a t i o n shows t h a t f o r most of the J u r a - C r e t a c e o u s wedge, the l e v e l of m a t u r i t y r e q u i r e d f o r hydrocarbon g e n e r a t i o n was not a t t a i n e d u n t i l t he l a t e Eocene. Syn- to p o s t - o r o g e n i c m a t u r a t i o n o f s t r a t a i n the P l a i n s i s a r e s u l t of B a s i n l o a d i n g by o v e r t h r u s t s h e e t s o r molasse. In the D i s t u r b e d B e l t , a s i g n i f i c a n t component o f m a t u r a t i o n r e s u l t e d from o v e r t h r u s t i n g , as e v i d e n t from m a t u r i t y p r o f i l e s of deep w e l l s . A model d e s c r i b i n g the e f f e c t of o v e r t h r u s t i n g on m a t u r i t y of f o o t w a l l s t r a t a shows t h a t p a l e o - g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s i n the D i s t u r b e d B e l t have been low, l e s s than 20 deg. C./km, s i n c e J u r a s s i c , and t h a t t h r u s t sheet t h i c k n e s s was p r o b a b l y 5 km or l e s s i n the Wat e r t o n , Highwood R i v e r ( F o o t h i l l s ) , and Jumping Pound a r e a s , and g r e a t e r than 5 km i n the Highwood R i v e r ( F r o n t Ranges), and Bur n t Timber Creek a r e a s . TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LI S T OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENT INTRODUCTION THEORY T h e r m a l M a t u r i t y I n d i c e s T i m e - t e m p e r a t u r e M o d e l s V i t r i n i t e PREVIOUS WORK METHODS C o l l e c t i o n o f Samples D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f V i t r i n i t e R e f l e c t a n c e Random v e r s u s Maximum R e f l e c t a n c e T h e r m a l H i s t o r y M o d e l i n g RESULTS AND DISCUSSION R e f l e c t a n c e D a t a P l a i n s D a t a F o o t h i l l s D a t a P r o b l e m s U s i n g W e l l - c u t t i n g s H o s t Rock I n f l u e n c e S t r a t i g r a p h i c C o n s i d e r a t i o n s C o a l Rank V a r i a t i o n C o a l i f i c a t i o n G r a d i e n t s T i m e - t e m p e r a t u r e M o d e l i n g and G e o t h e r m a l G r a d i e n t s G e o t h e r m a l G r a d i e n t V a r i a t i o n s I m p o r t a n c e o f G r o u n d w a t e r Flow H y d r o c a r b o n M a t u r a t i o n T h i c k n e s s o f E r o d e d S e c t i o n A l t e r n a t i v e C a l c u l a t i o n o f T h i c k n e s s o f E r o d e d S e c t i o n G e o m o r p h o l o g i c e v i d e n c e f o r e r o s i o n D e n u d a t i o n and S e d i m e n t a t i o n Rate C o n s t r a i n t s O v e r t h r u s t i n g P r o b l e m s T h r u s t M o d e l i n g i i i Page i i v v i x 1 6 6 8 9 11 14 14 15 16 17 21 21 21 23 46 47 48 50 58 62 66 68 69 71 74 75 78 83 87 i v Page CONCLUSIONS 94 REFERENCES CITED 99 APPENDIX 109 L i s t of Wells Sampled 112 Well Sample Data Sheets 115 F i e l d Sample Data Sheets 158 V L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e I . T a b l e I I . T a b l e I I I . T a b l e IV. T a b l e V. T a b l e V I . T a b l e V I I . T a b l e V I I I . APPENDIX T a b l e IX. T a b l e X. Random r e f l e c t a n c e d a t a v e r s u s maximum r e f l e c t a n c e d a t a R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h d a t a f o r 28 w e l l s from t h e s t u d y a r e a C o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s from 28 w e l l s i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a %RoR f i e l d d a t a %RoR c o r e d a t a P a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t i m e - t e m p e r a t u r e m o d e l i n g D e n u d a t i o n r a t e s measured by s e d i m e n t s a m p l i n g S e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e s measured from C r e t a c e o u s and P a l e o c e n e s t r a t a w e l l p e n e t r a t i o n s i n t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h d a t a f o r 28 w e l l s from t h e s t u d y a r e a b a s e d on a l i n e a r c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t b e s t f i t Mean a n n u a l s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a ( E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, 1982) Page 18 25 26 27 29 66 80 81 110 111 V I F i g u r e 1. F i g u r e 2. F i g u r e 3. F i g u r e 4. F i g u r e 5. F i g u r e 6. F i g u r e 7. F i g u r e 8. F i g u r e 9. F i g u r e 10. F i g u r e 11. F i g u r e 12. F i g u r e 13. F i g u r e 14. F i g u r e 15. LIST OF FIGURES Index map showing t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a r e a Mean random v e r s u s mean maximum r e f l e c t a n c e R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o Sundance N a n t o n 6-32-15-29W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o Windpump 10-36-11-28W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o Sundance Muddy Lake 8-8-10-27W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o Sundance C l a r e s h o l m 6-16-12-27W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o Sundance Muddy Lake 10-24-10-27W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o Sundance Highwood 6-36-17-1W5 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o Sundance N a n t o n 8-4-16-29W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o Sundance C a y l e y 11-10-17-1W5 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r T e x a c o e t a l . Mazeppa 10-7-20-27W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r T e x a c o A l d e r s o n 10-4-16-10W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r T e x a c o E n c h a n t 6-6-13-15W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r T e x a c o L i t t l e Bow 8-32-14-18W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r G u l f Kim 2-18-8-25W4 Page 19 32 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 35 V I 1 F i g u r e 16. F i g u r e 17. F i g u r e 18. F i g u r e 19. F i g u r e 20. F i g u r e 21. F i g u r e 22. F i g u r e 23. F i g u r e 24. F i g u r e 25. F i g u r e 26. F i g u r e 27. F i g u r e 28. F i g u r e 29. F i g u r e 30. F i g u r e 31. F i g u r e 32. R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r G u l f P e i g a n 6-8-8-27W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r G u l f P e i g a n 3-27-6-28W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r G u l f e t a l . B l o o d 3-22-7-24W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r G u l f West B l o o d 3-32-7-24W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o Sundance N a n t o n 10-25-15-29W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o Connemara 8-14-16-27W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o Sundance O x l e y 8-3-13-28W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o O x l e y 6-11-14-29W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o P a r k l a n d 8-11-15-28W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o Sundance N a n t o n 6-2-16-29W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o Sundance C l a r e s h o l m 6-6-13-26W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r E s s o Sundance Lyndon 13-16-12-28W4 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r S h e l l Jumping Pound W. 13-4-26-6W5 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r S h e l l M i d d l e p a s s a-94-L 8 2 - G - l R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r S h e l l 42 W a t e r t o n 8-20-4-1W5 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r S h e l l W a t e r t o n 7-24-5-3W5 R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r S h e l l Home W a t e r t o n 6-3-6-3W5 Page 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 v i i i Page Fi g u r e 33. F i g u r e 34. Fi g u r e 35. F i g u r e 36. F i g u r e 37. Figu r e 38. Fi g u r e 39. Fi g u r e 40. Fi g u r e 41. Fig u r e 41A. Fig u r e 42. Fig u r e 43. Fi g u r e 44. F i g u r e 45. F i g u r e 46. Fi g u r e 47. Refl e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r S h e l l Home Sheep 8-30-18-3W5 41 Ref l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r S h e l l Getty S u l l i v a n 7-7-17-4W5 41 Ref l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r S h e l l 8 Panther R i v e r 7-8-29-10W5 42 Ref l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r S h e l l Hunter V a l l e y 11-32-28-8W5 42 Ref l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r c u t t i n g s and core samples from w e l l s i n townships 10 to 22 i n the a x i s of the Basin 43 Refl e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r c u t t i n g s samples from w e l l s i n townships 10 to 22 i n the a x i s of the Bas i n 44 Ref l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r c u t t i n g s samples from w e l l s i n townships 6 to 8 i n the a x i s of the Basin 45 R e l a t i v e ages of s t r a t a i n southern A l b e r t a 49 I s o r e f l e c t a n c e map of the su r f a c e of southern A l b e r t a P l a i n s 51 R e f l e c t a n c e data f o r the s u r f a c e of southern A l b e r t a D i s t u r b e d B e l t 52 Ref l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r M a n n v i l l e c o a l s (Hacquebard, 1977) 55 Ref l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r M a n n v i l l e c o a l s ( t h i s study) 56 Composite r e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r M a n n v i l l e c o a l s 57 C o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t map of southern A l b e r t a 59 Dependence of c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s on geothermal g r a d i e n t present during deep b u r i a l 63 Time-temperature model f o r Esso Sundance Muddy Lake 8-8-10-27W4 64 I X F i g u r e 48. Fi g u r e 49. Fi g u r e 50. Fi g u r e 51. Fi g u r e 52. Fi g u r e 53. F i g u r e 54. Time-temperature model f o r Esso Connemara 8-14-16-27W4 Time-temperature model f o r Texaco Alderson 10-44-16-10W4 Time-temperature model f o r S h e l l Middlepass a-94-L 82-G-l Map of the depth to the o i l window i n southern A l b e r t a The g e n e r a t i o n of higher temperatures i n f o o t w a l l s t r a t a as a r e s u l t of o v e r t h r u s t i n g Time-temperature model f o r o v e r t h r u s t s i m u l a t i o n Comparison of observed c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t to g r a d i e n t obtained from the o v e r t h r u s t s i m u l a t i o n Page 64 65 65 70 89 90 91 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT x I t i s w i t h a p p r e c i a t i o n and r e s p e c t t h a t t h e a u t h o r a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e m e n t o r s h i p o f Dr. R. M. B u s t i n from i n c e p t i o n t o c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s p r o j e c t . V a l u a b l e r e v i e w s o f t h e t h e s i s by t h e f o l l o w i n g s c i e n t i s t s a r e ack n o w l e d g e d w i t h a p p r e c i a t i o n : Dr. R. M. B u s t i n , Dr. W. C. B a r n e s , Dr. M. B a r n e s , and Dr. J . W. M u r r a y (Department o f G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) , and Dr. S. C r e a n e y ( E s s o R e s o u r c e s Canada L t d . ) . The a u t h o r a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e o f C. J . E n g l a n d i n c o l l e c t i n g f i e l d and l a b o r a t o r y s a m p l e s , B. B u t t e r w o r t h i n p e l l e t p r e p a r a t i o n , B. C r a n s t o n i n p e l l e t p o l i s h i n g , and M. E n g l a n d i n m i c r o c o m p u t e r programming. F i g u r e s were d r a f t e d by G. Hodge and M. S u l l i v a n . The a u t h o r a c k n o w l e d g e s w i t h a p p r e c i a t i o n t h e a c c e s s g r a n t e d t o c o l l e c t w e l l c u t t i n g s s a m p l e s a t i n d u s t r y l a b o r a t o r i e s by M. G i v e n ( S h e l l ) , D r. M. L e r a n d ( G u l f ) , Dr. S. C r e a n e y ( E s s o ) , and M. C o p p o l d (Texaco) . The f i n i t e e l e m e n t model f o r c o n d u c t i v e h e a t t r a n s p o r t was p r o v i d e d by Dr. J . L. S m i t h (Department o f G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) . The v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e and s u p p o r t from L. A. F a u l k n e r t h r o u g h o u t t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t i s ac k n o w l e d g e d w i t h s i n c e r e t h a n k s . T h i s p r o j e c t was s u p p o r t e d f i n a n c i a l l y by a U n i v e r s i t y R e s e a r c h G r a n t from I m p e r i a l O i l and NSERC g r a n t (67-7337) t o Dr. R. M. B u s t i n . 1 INTRODUCTION The b u r i a l h i s t o r y o f h y d r o c a r b o n s o u r c e r o c k s i s i m p o r t a n t i n e v a l u a t i n g the p e t r o l e u m p o t e n t i a l o f s e d i m e n t a r y b a s i n s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e t i m i n g o f h y d r o c a r b o n g e n e r a t i o n r e l a t i v e to t h e l a t e s t s t r u c t u r a l d e f o r m a t i o n o f s t r a t a i n t h e b a s i n , i s o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e . In t h e W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n S e d i m e n t a r y B a s i n , o r g a n i c m a t u r i t y d a t a s u g g e s t s t h a t h y d r o c a r b o n s were g e n e r a t e d and underwent m i g r a t i o n i n L a t e C r e t a c e o u s and T e r t i a r y (Deroo et. a l _ . , 1 9 7 7 ) , a l t h o u g h t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e t i m i n g f o r d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e r o c k s has n o t been r e s o l v e d . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s t h e s i s a r e to document t h e m a t u r a t i o n h i s t o r y i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n S e d i m e n t a r y B a s i n , i n o r d e r t o : a) d e t e r m i n e the a r e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l e v e l s o f o r g a n i c m a t u r i t y f o r J u r a s s i c and C r e t a c e o u s r o c k s ; b) d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f L a r a m i d e t h r u s t i n g on o r g a n i c m a t u r i t y ( i f a n y ) ; and c) c a l c u l a t e t h e r m a l h i s t o r y m o d e l s f o r t h e B a s i n . In o r d e r to model t h e b u r i a l h i s t o r y o f s t r a t a i n t h e B a s i n , a r e g i o n a l framework o f m a t u r i t y d a t a was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a s t r a t a , i n c o r p o r a t i n g f i e l d , c o r e , and w e l l - c u t t i n g s s a m p l e s . In s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a , J u r a s s i c t o P a l e o c e n e s t r a t a a r e p a r t o f a v a s t f o r e l a n d b a s i n t h a t e x t e n d s o v e r one m i l l i o n s q u a r e k i l o m e t r e s i n A l b e r t a and n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The p r e s e n t form o f t h e B a s i n r e f l e c t s i n p a r t 2 t h e d e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e w e s t e r n s i d e o f t h e B a s i n d u r i n g the L a r a m i d e o r o g e n y , and i n p a r t p o s t - o r o g e n i c u p l i f t and e r o s i o n o f m i l l i o n s o f c u b i c k i l o m e t r e s o f r o c k and s e d i m e n t , w h i c h now r e s t i n b a s i n s p e r i p h e r a l t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t a l m a r g i n s . H y d r o c a r b o n s g e n e r a t e d from f o r m a t i o n s d e e p l y b u r i e d d u r i n g t h e L a t e C r e t a c e o u s and E a r l y T e r t i a r y m i g r a t e d i n t o numerous P h a n e r o z o i c r e s e r v o i r s . The t i m i n g o f t h i s m i g r a t i o n was d e p e n d e n t on when the o r i g i n a l s o u r c e r o c k s a t t a i n e d the l e v e l o f m a t u r i t y r e q u i r e d f o r h y d r o c a r b o n g e n e r a t i o n . L e v e l s o f o r g a n i c m a t u r i t y f o r s t r a t a o c c u p y i n g the u n d i s t u r b e d p o r t i o n o f t h e A l b e r t a F o r e l a n d B a s i n i n t h e s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a P l a i n s have n o t been p r e v i o u s l y documented. M a t u r a t i o n d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e however, from s t u d i e s i n t h e F o o t h i l l s and C e n t r a l A l b e r t a P l a i n s ( H a c q u e b a r d and D o n a l d s o n , 1974; H a c q u e b a r d , 1977; K a r s t and W h i t e , 1980; K a l k r e u t h , 1982; K a l k r e u t h and McMechan, 1 9 8 4 ) . In t h i s s t u d y , v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e was used t o i n d i c a t e t h e d e g r e e o f t h e r m a l m a t u r i t y . The ease o f c o l l e c t i o n and measurement o f t h e v i t r i n i t e m a c e r a l , and i t s wide d i s p e r s a l i n many d i f f e r e n t l i t h o f a c i e s , a r e some o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r i t s p o p u l a r use i n a s s e s s i n g l e v e l s o f m a t u r i t y i n s e d i m e n t a r y s t r a t a i n b a s i n s a r o u n d t h e w o r l d ( B o s t i c k , 1 9 7 9 ) . The v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e method c a n be r e a d i l y a p p l i e d i n A l b e r t a b e c a u s e " c o a l y " p a r t i c l e s and c a r b o n a c e o u s m a t t e r a r e common i n P a l e o c e n e , C r e t a c e o u s and J u r a s s i c r o c k s , and ca n a l s o be f o u n d i n T r i a s s i c and Upper P a l e o z o i c r o c k s . 3 The f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s c o m p r i s e s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o p r e v i o u s r e f l e c t a n c e work i n t h e B a s i n , a d i s c u s s i o n o f b a c k g r o u n d t h e o r y on the use o f v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e as a m a t u r i t y i n d e x , a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f methods used i n t h e s t u d y , and t h e e m p i r i c a l d a t a . The s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e t h e s i s c o n s i s t s o f a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d a t a s e t w h i c h i n c l u d e s c a l c u l a t i o n s o f p a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s , t h i c k n e s s e s o f e r o d e d s e c t i o n , t h e r m a l h i s t o r y m o d e l s , and t i m i n g o f h y d r o c a r b o n m a t u r a t i o n ( t h e l e v e l o f m a t u r i t y o f t h e o r g a n i c m a t t e r i s a summation o f t h e e f f e c t s o f t e m p e r a t u r e and d u r a t i o n o f h e a t i n g , b e c a u s e m a t u r i t y i n c r e a s e i s n o n - r e t r o g r a d e ) . F i n a l l y , t h e r e f o l l o w s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e f f e c t o f t h r u s t i n g on t h e r m a l m a t u r i t y o f s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a F o o t h i l l s s t r a t a . The s t u d y a r e a e x t e n d s from t h e Red Deer R i v e r s o u t h t o t h e M o n t a n a - A l b e r t a b o r d e r , and from t h e S a s k a t c h e w a n - A l b e r t a b o r d e r west t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - A l b e r t a b o r d e r ( F i g u r e 1 ) . Over s i x - h u n d r e d s a m p l e s were c o l l e c t e d f o r v i t r i n i t e measurement i n 1983 f r o m o u t c r o p , c o r e ( a t t h e E n e r g y R e s o u r c e s C o n s e r v a t i o n B o a r d C o r e L a b o r a t o r y ) , and w e l l c u t t i n g s ( a t f o u r i n d u s t r y l a b o r a t o r i e s : E s s o , S h e l l , G u l f , T e x a c o ) . The m a j o r i t y o f s a m p l e s (75%) were c o l l e c t e d from C r e t a c e o u s r o c k , t h e r e m a i n d e r f r o m J u r a s s i c and p r e - J u r a s s i c s t r a t a . The f i e l d a r e a i s d i v i s i b l e i n t o t h e F o o t h i l l s and the P l a i n s . In t h e P l a i n s , t h e d a t a s e t c o n s i s t s o f 24 f i e l d , 91 c o r e , and 239 w e l l c u t t i n g s samples from 25 w e l l s . In 4 t h e F o o t h i l l s , t h e d a t a s e t c o n s i s t s o f 35 f i e l d , and 211 w e l l c u t t i n g s samples f r o m 9 w e l l s . INDEX MAP •! 140 w 1 10° W Figure 1. Index map showing the location of the study area i n southern Alberta. This study area i s divided into the Disturbed Belt and the Plains. 6 THEORY T h e r m a l M a t u r i t y I n d i c e s B a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e r m a l m a t u r i t y i n d i c e s i s a v a i l a b l e from many d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s o f w h i c h o n l y a s m a l l number a r e r e f e r r e d t o below. T h e r m a l m a t u r a t i o n s t u d i e s were i n i t i a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o u s i n g c o a l rank i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s l e v e l s o f o r g a n i c m a t u r i t y . S i n c e t h e n , t h e r m a l m a t u r a t i o n s t u d i e s have expanded i n s c o p e t o i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s s u c h as c o n o d o n t s , p o l l e n , s p o r e s , b i t u m e n , and s p e c i f i c m a c e r a l s o f c o a l ( S t a p l i n , 1 9 7 5 ) . I m p o r t a n t p u b l i c a t i o n s d e s c r i b i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r c h a n g e s t o t h e r m a l h i s t o r y s t u d i e s , and how t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n c a n be d i r e c t e d to o i l and gas e x p l o r a t i o n , i n c l u d e p a p e r s by K a r w e i l ( 1 9 5 6 ) , G u t j a h r ( 1 9 6 6 ) , S t a p l i n ( 1 9 6 9 ) , B o s t i c k ( 1 9 7 4 ) , T i s s o t e t a l . ( 1 9 7 4 ) , G r a y and B o u c o t ( 1 9 7 5 ) , S t a c h et. a_l. (1975, 1 9 8 2 ) , C a s s o u e t a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) , E p s t e i n e t a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) , Deroo e t a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) , B o s t i c k ( 1 9 7 9 ) , and B u s t i n e t a_l. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . A l t e r a t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r i n r e s p o n s e t o t e m p e r a t u r e c h a n g e s i s p r i m a r i l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e t y p e o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r . In g e n e r a l , as t e m p e r a t u r e p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n c r e a s e s , t h e r e i s a d a r k e n i n g i n t h e c o l o u r o f k e r o g e n ( i n t r a n s m i t t e d l i g h t ) due t o an i n c r e a s e i n t h e amount o f c a r b o n r e l a t i v e t o oxygen and h y d r o g e n . T e m p e r a t u r e d e p e n d e n t c h a n g e s o f v a r i o u s o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s have been 7 c o m p i l e d by Heroux e_t a_l. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be l i t t l e e v i d e n c e f o r o r g a n i c m a t t e r b e i n g a l t e r e d i n r e s p o n s e t o p r e s s u r e c h a n g e s e x c e p t a t v e r y low r a n k s (Hacquebard and D o n a l d s o n , 1970; B u s t i n , 1 9 8 3 ) . The p o p u l a r o p i n i o n o f a symposium on o r g a n i c a l t e r a t i o n was t h a t rank i s n o t a f f e c t e d by p r e s s u r e and t h a t l o c a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n c r e a s e , n o t p r e s s u r e , i s t h e r e a s o n f o r o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l b e i n g a l t e r e d i n s h e a r z o n e s ( B u r g e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) . In a d d i t i o n to t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l on o r g a n i c m a t u r a t i o n , t i m e i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t . F o r example, a r o c k t h a t s u s t a i n s a t e m p e r a t u r e o f 100 deg. C. f o r 10 Ma may a t t a i n t h e same m a t u r i t y as a r o c k t h a t has s u s t a i n e d a t e m p e r a t u r e o f 80 deg. C. f o r 20 Ma ( K a r w e i l , 1 9 5 6 ) . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e r o l e t h a t t i m e p l a y s i n t h e m a t u r a t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r has been documented by l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s ( E p s t e i n e_t a _ l . , 1 9 7 7 ) . C o a l g e o l o g i s t s have known s i n c e 1873 t h a t c o a l rank i n c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d e p t h o f b u r i a l - H i l t ' s Law ( H i l t , 1 8 7 3 ) . A g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n l e v e l o f o r g a n i c m a t u r i t y w i t h i n c r e a s e d d e p t h o f b u r i a l was r e c o g n i z e d by White ( 1 9 1 5 ) . S i n c e t h e n , a t t e m p t s have been made t o f i n d e a s i l y m e a s u r a b l e i n d i c e s o f m a t u r i t y t h a t w i l l a i d i n h y d r o c a r b o n and m e t a l s e x p l o r a t i o n ( S t a c h et. a _ l . , 1 9 8 2 ) . Of a l l t h e methods, v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e has p r o v e n t o be t h e most u s e f u l , d i r e c t , measurement o f l e v e l s o f m a t u r i t y f o r a wide v a r i e t y o f s e d i m e n t s and r o c k s . 8 Time-temperature Models Hydrocarbon maturation i s a product of paleotemperature and time, and can be s t u d i e d using v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e because c o a l i f i c a t i o n and hydrocarbon g e n e s i s both depend on time and temperature (Stach e_t aJ.., 1982). Karweil (1956) co n s i d e r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between rank, temperature, and d u r a t i o n of c o a l i f i c a t i o n . Since then, s e v e r a l authors have mathematically d e s c r i b e d the i n f l u e n c e of time and temperature on org a n i c maturation ( L o p a t i n , 1971; B o s t i c k , 1973; Hood and Castano, 1974; Buntebarth, 1979; Waples, 1980; M i d d l e t o n , 1982). Fundamental to these models i s the dependence of rate c o n s t a n t s on temperature, which was f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by Arrhenius i n 1889. Lopa t i n ' s (1971) model i s based on the ob s e r v a t i o n that thermal a l t e r a t i o n r e a c t i o n r a t e s double with every 10 deg. C. i n c r e a s e . L o p a t i n devised a Time Temperature Index (TTI) as the m a t u r i t y parameter. Waples (1980) c o r r e l a t e d L o p a t i n ' s method with other maturation parameters and developed an e a s i l y computed model that allows a p r e d i c t i o n of thermal m a t u r i t y to be made f o r any give n time-temperature c o n d i t i o n s . The TTI value c a l c u l a t e d can be converted to a v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e v a l u e . Other models c a l c u l a t e v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e d i r e c t l y (Buntebarth, 1979; M i d d l e t o n , 1982; B u s t i n , .1984). I f v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e values are known, then b a s i n development and maximum paleotemperatures can be c a l c u l a t e d 9 using time-temperature models. On the other hand, i f the process of b a s i n development i s w e l l understood, then r e f l e c t a n c e values can be p r e d i c t e d f o r ho r i z o n s w i t h i n a b a s i n . T h i s type of modeling has shed l i g h t on the timing c o m p l e x i t i e s of hydrocarbon g e n e s i s ( L o p a t i n , 1971; B o s t i c k , 1973; Waples, 1980). Recent time-temperature modeling p u b l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e Shibaoko and Bennet (1977), B o s t i c k et a l . (1978), Goff (1983), and Middleton and F a l v e y (1983). In Canada, time-temperature models have been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the A t l a n t i c Provinces (Hacquebard and Donaldson, 1970; Keen, 1983; I s s l e r , 1984), c e n t r a l A l b e r t a P l a i n s (Hacquebard, 1977), n o r t h e a s t e r n A r c t i c (Bustin e_t al_., 1977), Queen C h a r l o t t e B a s i n (Yorath and Hyndman, 1983), western A l b e r t a (Kalreuth and McMechan, 1984), and northern Bowser Basin ( B u s t i n , 1984). V i t r i n i t e Three groups of macerals are recognized i n the or g a n i c m a t e r i a l of c o a l : v i t r i n i t e , e x i n i t e ( l i p t i n i t e ) , and i n e r t i n i t e (Stach et. a_l • , 1975). V i t r i n i t e i s known to o r i g i n a t e from c e l l u l o s e , t annin and l i g n i n of c e l l w a l l s . The process i s a slow p r o g r e s s i v e o x i d a t i o n of the p l a n t m a t e r i a l to form humic a c i d s , which by l o s s of f u n c t i o n a l groups form humins. H u m i f i c a t i o n i s i n t u r n followed by g e l i f i c a t i o n to form huminite (Stach e_t a_l., 1982). L i g n i n s and humins are not "compounds" i n the usual sense, and h u m i f i c a t i o n and g e l i f i c a t i o n are not s i n g l e p r o c e s s e s t h a t can be d e s c r i b e d by a s i n g l e r a t e e q u a t i o n . Measurement of r e f l e c t a n c e of p o l i s h e d v i t r i n i t e g r a i n s under a microscope with a photometer p r o v i d e s a p r e c i s e means of d e t e r m i n i n g c o a l rank ( K o e t t e r , 1960; B o s t i c k , 1974). Immature woody m a t e r i a l , from a peat bed f o r example, has a random r e f l e c t a n c e measured i n o i l (RoR) of 0.15% (pers. comm. B u s t i n , 1984). T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d to be the zero m a t u r i t y r e f l e c t a n c e l e v e l f o r t h i s study. The r e f l e c t a n c e - r a n k c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s taken from McCartney and T e i c h m u e l l e r (1972): <0.50%RoR = Subbituminous c o a l 0.50-1.12%RoR = H i g h - v o l a t i l e bituminous c o a l 1.12-1.51%RoR = M e d i u m - v o l a t i l e bituminous c o a l 1.51-1.92%RoR = L o w - v o l a t i l e bituminous c o a l 1.92-2.50%RoR = S e m i - a n t h r a c i t e c o a l >2.50%RoR = A n t h r a c i t e c o a l A c c o r d i n g to B o s t i c k (1979, p. 17) , v i t r i n i t e g r a i n s c o n s t i t u t e i d e a l m a t e r i a l f o r maturation a n a l y s i s because: " i t 1) i s v i r g i n when d e p o s i t e d with the sediment, 2) matures r e g u l a r l y , 3) i s not s u b j e c t to r e t r o g r a d e a l t e r a t i o n , 4) r e s i s t s r e a c t i o n with a d j a c e n t f l u i d s and s o l i d s , 5) i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by p r e s s u r e , 6) occurs w i d e l y i n rocks of d i v e r s e l i t h o l o g y and f a c i e s , 7) i s d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from p r e - a l t e r e d and r e d e p o s i t e d m a t e r i a l , 8) can be analyzed s e p a r a t e l y , 9) p e r s i s t s through a broad range 11 o f c a t a g e n e s i s and metamorphism, and 10) has p r o p e r t i e s t h a t c a n be a n a l y z e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e a l t e r a t i o n r a n g e by a r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e t e c h n i q u e . " PREVIOUS WORK P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s on the l e v e l o f o r g a n i c m a t u r i t y i n t h e W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n S e d i m e n t a r y B a s i n have documented t h e g e n e r a l v a r i a t i o n i n r e f l e c t a n c e i n the P l a i n s and l o c a l v a r i a t i o n i n rank i n t h e F o o t h i l l s and F r o n t Ranges. The g e n e r a l c o a l rank d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s t h e B a s i n was n o t e d by L a t o u r and C h r i s m a s (1970) and S t e i n e r e t a_l. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . The c o a l rank s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e s from e a s t t o west t o w a r d s t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s ; l i g n i t e i s f o u n d i n S a s k a t c h e w a n , s u b - b i t u m i n o u s c o a l s a r e f o u n d i n e a s t e r n A l b e r t a , h i g h v o l a t i l e b i t u m i n o u s c o a l s a r e f o u n d i n w e s t e r n A l b e r t a i n t o t h e F o o t h i l l s , and m e d i u m - v o l a t i l e , l o w - v o l a t i l e and s e m i - a n t h r a c i t e c o a l s a r e f o u n d i n t h e F o o t h i l l s and F r o n t Ranges. H a c q u e b a r d and D o n a l d s o n (1974) d e s c r i b e d c o a l rank v a r i a t i o n o f K o o t e n a y c o a l s i n t h e D i s t u r b e d B e l t . T h e s e a u t h o r s o b s e r v e d an i n c r e a s e i n c o a l rank from e a s t t o west i n the Rocky M o u n t a i n and I n n e r F o o t h i l l s B e l t , w h i c h t h e y showed t o be i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r e - o r o g e n i c d e p t h o f b u r i a l and n o t t o be i n f l u e n c e d by L a r a m i d e o r o g e n e s i s . C o a l rank v a r i a t i o n i n A l b e r t a c o a l m ines i n t h e P l a i n s and F o o t h i l l s was documented by C a m p b e l l (1964, 1 9 6 6 ) . C a m p b e l l ' s d a t a s u p p o r t s a g e n e r a l e a s t - w e s t rank i n c r e a s e 12 with l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s i n both the F o o t h i l l s and P l a i n s . N o r r i s (1971) d e s c r i b e d s e m i - a n t h r a c i t e s from the Cascade Coal B a s i n , which are of a higher rank than s i m i l a r age c o a l s on s t r i k e to the south. Hacquebard (1975, 1977) d e s c r i b e d an i n c r e a s e of rank from east to west i n southern A l b e r t a f o r M a n n v i l l e Group c o a l s based on core samples from boreholes i n the c e n t r a l P l a i n s of A l b e r t a . Hacquebard a t t r i b u t e d the westward i n c r e a s e i n rank to i n c r e a s i n g depth of b u r i a l of the M a n n v i l l e during the T e r t i a r y . Pearson and G r i e v e (1979) have documented a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of post-orogenic c o a l i f i c a t i o n of Kootenay Group c o a l s i n the Crowsnest c o a l f i e l d of the F e r n i e B a s i n . These authors noted that the isorank l i n e s are not p a r a l l e l to the s t r a t a at M o r r i s s e y Ridge. K a r s t and White (1980) d e s c r i b e d f i r s t an i n c r e a s e and then a decrease i n c o a l rank of the Bluesky-Gething s t r a t a from northeast to southwest across the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin i n n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia. The authors a t t r i b u t e the observed v a r i a t i o n i n rank to the gradual westward i n c r e a s e i n depth of b u r i a l of the s t r a t a during the Upper Cretaceous and T e r t i a r y and then a decrease i n depth of b u r i a l west of the molasse depocentre. K a r s t and White (1980) a l s o noted the i m p l i c a t i o n f o r o i l p r e s e r v a t i o n west of an area p r e v i o u s l y thought to be gas-prone. L o c a l c o a l rank v a r i a t i o n i n the F o o t h i l l s and Front Ranges from southeastern to n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia has been f u r t h e r documented by Cameron and K a l k r e u t h (1982) and K a l k r e u t h (1982). B u s t i n (1983) 13 d e s c r i b e d the a b s e n c e o f h i g h l e v e l s o f m a t u r i t y a d j a c e n t to t h r u s t f a u l t s i n t h e S o u t h e r n Rocky M o u n t a i n s and F o o t h i l l s , and c o n c l u d e d t h a t l i t t l e o r no f r i c t i o n a l h e a t i n g r e s u l t e d from t h r u s t i n g d u r i n g t h e L a r a m i d e . K a l r e u t h and McMechan (1984) o u t l i n e d the t h e r m a l m a t u r a t i o n o f M i s s i s s i p p i a n t o Lower C r e t a c e o u s s t r a t a u s i n g c o a l rank i n t h e F o o t h i l l s and F r o n t Ranges o f w e s t - c e n t r a l A l b e r t a and s i m i l a r l y K a r s t and W h i t e (1980) f o u n d an i n c r e a s e and s u b s e q u e n t d e c r e a s e i n c o a l rank f r o m e a s t t o west i n M e s o z o i c c o a l b e a r i n g r o c k s . From p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d work, i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t i n any r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b u r i a l h i s t o r y o f t h e A l b e r t a B a s i n s e d i m e n t s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r t h e amount o f s e c t i o n t h a t has been e r o d e d d u r i n g t h e T e r t i a r y . S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t methods have been used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e amount o f e r o s i o n t h a t has t a k e n p l a c e . H a c q u e b a r d (1977) used m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f n e a r s u r f a c e c o a l s t o measure t h e amount o f e r o s i o n t h a t has t a k e n p l a c e on the A l b e r t a P l a i n s i n t h e C e n o z o i c . The Upper C r e t a c e o u s c o a l s d e c r e a s e f r om 35% e q u i l i b r i u m m o i s t u r e i n the e a s t e r n P l a i n s t o 2% i n the F r o n t Ranges ( S t e i n e r et. a _ l . , 1 9 7 2 ) . By c o m p a r i n g t h e s e e q u i l i b r i u m m o i s t u r e p e r c e n t a g e s to e q u i l i b r i u m m o i s t u r e v s . d e p t h g r a d i e n t s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r c o a l s from E u r o p e , H a c q u e b a r d d e t e r m i n e d t h a t f r o m e a s t t o west 900 t o 3000 m o f s t r a t a must have been removed s i n c e maximum b u r i a l o f t h e s e c o a l s . A n o t h e r e s t i m a t e o f t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e e r o d e d T e r t i a r y s e c t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d by N u r k o w s k i ( 1 9 8 4 ) . He had 14 n o t e d t h a t e q u i l i b r i u m m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t c o r r e l a t e s t o a d i f f e r e n t c o a l rank i n A l b e r t a t h a n i n E u r o p e . By a d j u s t i n g t h e rank d i v i s i o n s on H a c q u e b a r d ' s (1977) g r a p h o f o v e r b u r d e n v e r s u s e q u i l i b r i u m m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t , he d e r i v e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a l o r i f i c v a l u e and d e p t h o f b u r i a l f o r A l b e r t a c o a l s . By N u r k o w s k i ' s g r a p h t h e range o f t h i c k n e s s e s f o r the e r o d e d s e c t i o n i s 900 t o 1900 m. A s t u d y by Magara (1976) used a s h a l e c o m p a c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e s t i m a t e th e amount o f removed o v e r b u r d e n i n t h e H i n t o n a r e a , A l b e r t a . Magara c a l c u l a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a b o u t 1500 m o f m i s s i n g s e c t i o n u s i n g h i s method. METHODS C o l l e c t i o n o f Samples A t o t a l o f o v e r 600 o u t c r o p , c o r e and w e l l c u t t i n g s s a m p l e s were c o l l e c t e d from s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a . In the f i e l d , c l e a n v i t r a i n was sampled from c o a l seams. T h i s o f t e n r e q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e e x c a v a t i n g . Samples were o b t a i n e d f r o m c o a l p a r t i n g s , seams, and c o a l i f i e d b r a n c h e s i n c o r e a v a i l a b l e f o r e x a m i n a t i o n a t t h e E.R.C.B. c o r e l a b o r a t o r y . C o a l p a r t i c l e s were hand p i c k e d from c u t t i n g s s a m p l e s a t i n d u s t r y l a b o r a t o r i e s . S e v e r a l p r e c a u t i o n s were t a k e n to e n s u r e a v a l i d s e t o f s a m p l e s . In t h e f i e l d an e f f o r t was made to t a k e c l e a n , 15 u n o x i d i z e d s a m p l e s ; however, where c o a l seams were a b s e n t t h i s was n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e . C o a l y p a r t i c l e s sampled from s a n d s t o n e and c o n g l o m e r a t e o u t c r o p s a r e o f t e n more o x i d i z e d compared t o c o a l y p a r t i c l e s sampled from a d j a c e n t c o a l seams. T h i s i s a t t r i b u t e d m a i n l y t o t h e i r f i n e r p a r t i c l e s i z e . Most o f t h e c o r e s and w e l l - c u t t i n g s sampled f o r c o a l y p a r t i c l e s were t a k e n from w e l l s d r i l l e d s i n c e 1979 i n an a t t e m p t t o r e d u c e t h e c h a n c e s o f o b t a i n i n g o x i d i z e d s a m p l e s . The p r e s e n c e o f o x i d i z e d c o a l can g e n e r a l l y be r e c o g n i z e d m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y . O x i d i z e d c o a l c a n be r e c o g n i z e d by t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f d a r k r i n d s , m i c r o p o r e s , and m i c r o f i s s u r e s on v i t r i n i t e ( S t a c h e t a l . , 1975; B u s t i n , 1 9 8 0 ) . When m e a s u r i n g t h e r e f l e c t a n c e o f c o a l s a m p l e s , c a r e was t a k e n t o measure o n l y t h e c e n t r e s o f l a r g e r g r a i n s b e c a u s e o x i d a t i o n i s c e n t r i p e t a l . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f V i t r i n i t e R e f l e c t a n c e P e l l e t p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y was a s i m p l e a l t h o u g h v e r y e x p e n s i v e p r o c e d u r e . C o a l , o r o r g a n i c c o n c e n t r a t e , was g r o u n d by m o r t a r and p e s t l e f i n e enough t o p a s s t h r o u g h a 60 mesh s i e v e (U.S. S t a n d a r d , a p p r o x i m a t e l y -250 m i c r o m e t r e s ) . O r g a n i c c o n c e n t r a t e was d e r i v e d by p r e t r e a t m e n t o f c r u s h e d c a r b o n a c e o u s s h a l e o r s a n d s t o n e w i t h HCl t o remove c a r b o n a t e s and HF t o remove s i l i c a t e s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 c c o f t h e s i e v e d sample was mixed w i t h an e q u a l volume o f t h e r m o - p l a s t i c powder, p l a c e d a t t h e b o t t o m o f a s m a l l 16 h y d r a u l i c p i s t o n , and t h e n c o v e r e d w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 c c o f t h e r m o - p l a s t i c powder t o form t h e sample b a s e . The p i s t o n was c l o s e d , h e a t e d to 105 deg. C. under p r e s s u r e s up t o 30 MPa, t h e n c o o l e d t o 50 deg. C. b e f o r e r e m o v a l . The c o a l p e l l e t was t h e n p o l i s h e d f o r m i c r o s c o p y . C a r e was t a k e n t o p r o t e c t p o l i s h e d p e l l e t s from o x i d a t i o n by s t o r i n g them i n a d e s i c c a t o r e v a c u a t e d and f l u s h e d by h e l i u m . R e f l e c t e d l i g h t m i c r o s c o p y i s t h e s t a n d a r d method used f o r p e t r o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s o f c o a l . F o r t h i s s t u d y , random v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e ( p o l a r i z e r o u t ) was measured u s i n g a L e i t z MPV2 m i c r o s c o p e , w i t h t h e p h o t o m e t e r c a l i b r a t e d a g a i n s t a s t a n d a r d . The mean random r e f l e c t a n c e (%RoR) method, as o p p o s e d t o t h e mean maximum r e f l e c t a n c e (%RoMax) method ( f o r a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e methods, see T i n g ( 1 9 7 8 ) ) , has s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e s : 1) t h e method i s q u i c k e r inasmuch as r o t a t i o n o f t h e s t a g e i s n o t r e q u i r e d ; and 2) s m a l l e r p a r t i c l e s c a n be measured b e c a u s e a c c u r a t e s t a g e c e n t e r i n g i s n o t r e q u i r e d . F o r t h i s s t u d y o v e r 200 h o u r s o f m i c r o s c o p e t i m e were r e q u i r e d , whereas a t l e a s t 600 h o u r s would have been r e q u i r e d f o r %RoMax r e a d i n g s o f t h e same d a t a s e t . Mean random r e f l e c t a n c e was e s t a b l i s h e d by a v e r a g i n g f i f t y %RoR r e a d i n g s . Each sample d a t a s e t was s t o r e d and a n a l y z e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y on a m i c r o c o m p u t e r . H i s t o g r a m s o f ea c h d a t a s e t were made t o e v a l u a t e whether t h e d a t a was n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d . 17 Random versus Maximum R e f l e c t a n c e Both random and maximum r e f l e c t a n c e measurements i n o i l were made of twenty-two c o a l s , over the range of 0.42 to 1.82 %RoMax, i n order to e s t a b l i s h the c o r r e l a t i o n between %RoMax and %RoR i n the c o a l s t u d i e d (Table I, F i g u r e 2). A l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between %RoR and %RoMax and i s d e s c r i b e d by the f o l l o w i n g equation: (by l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n , r2=.997). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between %RoR and %RoMax has been documented by Davis (1978) and Ting (1978). Davis r e p o r t s t h a t i n general there i s a l a r g e r standard d e v i a t i o n f o r %RoR det e r m i n a t i o n s than f o r %RoMax, however t h i s short-coming i s more than o f f s e t by the time s a v i n g s . In t h i s study there was no apparent d i f f e r e n c e i n standard d e v i a t i o n s obtained when reading maximum or random r e f l e c t a n c e (Table I ) . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e t h e r m a l h i s t o r y o f s t r a t a was modeled u s i n g an i n t e g r a l form o f t h e L o p a t i n e q u a t i o n : %RoMax = (%RoR - 0.00112) / 0.938 Thermal H i s t o r y Modeling TTI o 18 R o R v s . R o H a > ; . D A T A **#********•#****#*•*****##****«*«••## SAHPLE# RoMAX DEV. Q RoR DEV. Q TE83-040 1.52 . 07 1.41 . 08 2 TE83-056 1.23 . 10 3 1.11 . 12 TES3-058 1.35 .08 1.23 . 09 TES3-066 1.59 .13 1.55 . 10 TEB3-095B 0.62 . 03 n 0.59 . 03 TE83-103 0.49 .03 3 0. 46 .04 3 TE83-112 1.82 .22 4 1.75 . 19 >^ TE83-543 0. 74 . 06 i 0.69 .05 3 TEB3-608 0.50 . 0 3 3 0. 48 . 03 •7 TE83-613 1.04 .06 " ? 0. 94 .09 4 TEB3-628 0. 64 . 03 1 0. 62 . 03 n TE83-631 0. 66 .05 0. 60 . 04 4 TE83-671 0. 42 .02 0.41 .02 4 TE33-673 0.48 .02 3 0.47 .02 3 TE83-676 0.94 . 07 2 0.88 .05 2 TE83-6S7 0.5B . 03 2 0.57 .02 TE33-699 0.95 . 12 •-> 2. 0. S3 .06 2 TE83-705 0.83 .05 0. 80 . 05 4 TE83-708 1.00 .05 0. 95 . 06 >^ TE83-712 0. 70 .04 0. 67 . 05 2 TE83-715 1. 14 .06 T 1. 07 .07 •=5 TE83-733 0. 75 .04 4 0.69 .04 4 Table I. Random ref l e c t a n c e data versus maximum reflec t a n c e data. Dev. i s standard deviation. Q i s a q u a l i t y r a t i n g of how well the data f i t s a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n (4=excellent f i t , 3=reasonable f i t , 2=poor f i t , l=no f i t ) . I 19 %RoR vs. %RoMax Correlation for Southern Alberta Coals 2.0 -1 0 .2 A .6 .8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 % RoMax Figure 2. Mean random versus mean maximum reflect a n c e describes a s t r a i g h t l i n e where: %RoR = A x %RoMax + B 20 where t e m p e r a t u r e (T) i s i n d e g . C. and t i m e (t) i s i n m i l l i o n s o f y e a r s ( M c K e n z i e , 1 9 8 1 ) . The e q u a t i o n was s o l v e d n u m e r i c a l l y by summing one d e g . C. o f t h e h o r i z o n s ' t h e r m a l h i s t o r y . C o n f i d e n c e i n t h e model depends f o r t h e most p a r t on how w e l l t h e b u r i a l h i s t o r y f o r a h o r i z o n i s known. The model i s c l o s e l y c o n s t r a i n e d i n t h e A l b e r t a B a s i n b e c a u s e b o t h t h e age and t h i c k n e s s o f s t r a t a a r e w e l l known. In o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s o f t h r u s t i n g on m a t u r a t i o n , v a r i a t i o n s w i t h t i m e o f t e m p e r a t u r e i n t h e f o o t w a l l and h a n g i n g w a l l o f a t h r u s t f a u l t were modeled u t i l i z i n g a f i n i t e e l e m e n t program b a s e d on a t r a n s i e n t s o l u t i o n t o the t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l a d v e c t i o n - d i s p e r s i o n e q u a t i o n (see S m i t h and Chapman, 19 8 3 ) . I n i t i a l l y a 5 km t h i c k t h r u s t s h e e t i m p l a c e d i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y a d j a c e n t to a 5 km " a u t o c h t h o n o u s " b l o c k was m o d e l e d , e a c h b l o c k h a v i n g t h e same g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t . The g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t v a r i a t i o n w i t h t i m e was m o n i t o r e d t h r o u g h s u c c e s s i v e t i m e - s t e p s u n t i l t e m p e r a t u r e e q u i l i b r i u m was r e a c h e d . The model c o n s i d e r s h e a t t r a n s f e r by c o n d u c t i o n o n l y ; no e f f e c t s o f g r o u n d w a t e r f l o w were c o n s i d e r e d . The m o d els assume basement h e a t f l o w s o f 23 and 46 mW/sq.m, a s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e o f 20 deg. C , and a t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y o f 2.50 W/m deg. C. f o r t h e s o l i d and 0.586 W/m deg. C. f o r t h e f l u i d . The t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y i s assumed t o v a r y w i t h d e p t h w i t h a p o r o s i t y d e c l i n e f r o m 20% a t t h e s u r f a c e t o 2% a t t h e b a s e . 21 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION R e f l e c t a n c e D a t a The mean o f f i f t y random r e f l e c t a n c e measurements (%RoR), t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ( D e v . ) , number o f r e a d i n g s (N), and s i m i l a r i t y t o a n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n (Q), a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l o f t h e o u t c r o p and c o r e d a t a i n t a b l e s IV and V. S i m i l a r s t a t i s t i c s f o r the w e l l - c u t t i n g s d a t a a r e f o u n d i n t h e a p p e n d i x . N i n e t y - f i v e p e r c e n t c o n f i d e n c e b a r s a r e marked f o r w e l l - c u t t i n g s d a t a i n the f i g u r e s . The 622 h i s t o g r a m s a r e a v a i l a b l e from t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s L i b r a r y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A summary o f t h e d a t a s e t f o l l o w s . P l a i n s D a t a O u t c r o p . S u r f a c e c o n t r o l i n t h e P l a i n s a r e a c o n s i s t s o f 23 o u t c r o p s a m p l e s from Campanian and M a a s t r i c h t i a n s t r a t a . The s a m p l e s a v e r a g e 0.51%RoR and range from 0.39 t o 0.60%RoR, i n c r e a s i n g from n o r t h e a s t t o s o u t h w e s t a c r o s s t h e B a s i n ( T a b l e I V ) . These d a t a , combined w i t h r e f l e c t a n c e v a l u e s o b t a i n e d from c o n v e r s i o n o f c a l o r i f i c v a l u e s from c o a l m ines ( C a m p b e l l , 1964) a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 41. C o r e . S u b s u r f a c e d a t a from t h e P l a i n s c o m p r i s e s 91 c o r e s a m p l e s . T h r e e c o r e samples from t h e F i s h S c a l e Zone, and 22 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e , l o w e r Upper C r e t a c e o u s s t r a t a , a v e r a g e 0.46%RoR and range f r o m 0.38 t o 0.50%RoR. N i n e c o r e samples from the upper p a r t o f t h e p r e s e r v e d Lower C r e t a c e o u s a v e r a g e 0.58%RoR and range f r o m 0.36 t o 0.75%RoR, i n c r e a s i n g t o w a r d s t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n . S i x t y c o r e samples from t h e M a n n v i l l e Group a v e r a g e 0.61%RoR and range from 0.40%RoR i n t h e n o r t h e a s t t o 0.95%RoR i n t h e s o u t h w e s t p a r t o f t h e B a s i n . S e v e n t e e n c o r e samples from J u r a s s i c r o c k a v e r a g e 0.79%RoR and range from 0.41 t o 1.13%RoR from e a s t t o west t o w a r d s t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n . A f u r t h e r 2 c o r e s a m p l e s from M i s s i s s i p p i a n r o c k y i e l d e d v a l u e s o f 0.95 and 1.60%RoR. The c o r e d a t a i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o f i g u r e 45, a map o f c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s i n t h e B a s i n . W e l l c u t t i n g s . T w e n t y - f i v e w e l l s were sampled i n the P l a i n s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f wh i c h were i n t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n . Two-hundred and t h i r t y - n i n e c u t t i n g s s a m p l e s were measured: 159 s a m p l e s from Upper C r e t a c e o u s and P a l e o c e n e r o c k s ; 74 s a m p l e s from Lower C r e t a c e o u s r o c k ; 5 s a m p l e s from J u r a s s i c r o c k ; and 1 sample from M i s s i s s i p p i a n r o c k . R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e s f o r t h e s e w e l l s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e s 3 t o 27. The c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s f o r the J u r a s s i c to P a l e o c e n e c l a s t i c wedge a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y low, r a n g i n g from 0.04 t o 0.18 log%RoR/km w i t h an a v e r a g e e q u a l t o 0.07 log%RoR/km f o r t h e 22 w e l l s sampled from t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n . C o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s a r e e x p r e s s e d as d i f f e r e n c e i n l o g r e f l e c t a n c e , % R o R , p e r km d e p t h , a f t e r S h i b a o k a and 23 B e n n e t t ( 1 9 7 7 ) . A l s o , c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d as p a r t o f t a b l e I I i n terms o f m/log%RoR (metres p e r l o g c y c l e % R o R ( e . g . 0.1% t o 1 . 0 % ) . F o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r d a t a a v a i l a b l e i n t h e B a s i n , t h e g r a d i e n t s have been p r e s e n t e d i n u n i t s o f %RoR/100 m i n t a b l e I I I . F o o t h i l l s D a t a O u t c r o p . In t h e F o o t h i l l s , 9 s a m p l e s from Campanian and M a a s t r i c h t i a n o u t c r o p s a v e r a g e 0.75%RoR and range f r o m 0.50 t o 0.81%RoR. E i g h t f i e l d s a m p l e s from Lower C r e t a c e o u s B l a i r m o r e G r o u p a v e r a g e 0.96%RoR and range f r o m 0.79 t o 1.07%RoR; and 17 s a m p l e s c o l l e c t e d from o u t c r o p a s s i g n e d t o J u r a s s i c K o o t e n a y Group a v e r a g e 1.21%RoR and range f r o m 0.72 to 1.99%RoR. A n o r t h w a r d i n c r e a s e i n the v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e i s a p p a r e n t from t h e s e d a t a ( T a b l e I V ) . F i g u r e 41A i n c o r p o r a t e s a l l t h e F o o t h i l l s s u r f a c e sample r e f l e c t a n c e d a t a d e r i v e d from t h i s s t u d y and v a l u e s from B u s t i n (1983) and Ha c q u e b a r d and D o n a l d s o n ( 1 9 7 4 ) . W e l l c u t t i n g s . S u b - s u r f a c e d a t a f o r the F o o t h i l l s c o n s i s t s o f 211 w e l l - c u t t i n g s samples f r o m 9 deep w e l l s - 36 s a m p l e s from Upper C r e t a c e o u s r o c k , 68 samples from Lower C r e t a c e o u s r o c k , 75 sam p l e s from J u r a s s i c r o c k and 32 samples from p r e - J u r a s s i c r o c k . An i n c r e a s e i n m a t u r i t y was o b s e r v e d from t h e w e l l - c u t t i n g s samples from t h e s o u t h e r n F o o t h i l l s w e l l s t o t h e n o r t h e r n F o o t h i l l s w e l l s i n t h e f i e l d a r e a : samples from Upper C r e t a c e o u s r o c k i n t h e s o u t h e r n w e l l s 24 ra n g e d from 0.56 t o 0.82%RoR and i n t h e n o r t h e r n w e l l s , 0.80 t o 1.57%RoR; c u t t i n g s samples from Lower C r e t a c e o u s r o c k r a n g e d from 0.68 t o 1.21%RoR and 0.70 t o 1.60%RoR f o r t h e s o u t h e r n and n o r t h e r n w e l l s r e s p e c t i v e l y ; J u r a s s i c r o c k c u t t i n g s s a m p l e s r a n g e d from 0.67 t o 1.21%RoR i n t h e s o u t h and 1.03 t o 1.91%RoR i n t h e n o r t h ; and p r e - J u r a s s i c r o c k c u t t i n g s s a m p l e s r a n g e d from 0.67 t o 1.73%RoR i n t h e s o u t h and 1.31 t o 2.06%RoR i n t h e n o r t h . R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e s f o r t h e s e w e l l s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e s 28 t o 36. C o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s h e r e a r e g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o r w e l l s p e n e t r a t i n g the a x i s o f t h e B a s i n ( T a b l e I I I ) . 25 R o R - D E P T H S T A T I S T I C S WELL LOCATION N -A B -C0RR. Ri . 15 RoF a-94-L 82-6 -1 5895 2636 . 87 .45 1751 13-4-26-6W5 21 3536 1907 .94 .54 1376 7-8-29-10W4 11 1102 565 .84 .51 399 6-32-15-29W4 9 8706 4421 .96 .51 3116 10-36-11-28W4 11 7781 3522 .93 .45 2355 8-8-10-27W4 16 7460 3474 .93 .46 2355 6-16-12-27W4 14 7977 3683 .67 .46 2487 10-24-10-27W4 14 10485 5526 .94 .53 3953 6-36-17-1W5 5 10404 5234 .92 . 50 3673 8-4-16-29W4 12 11456 5862 .86 .51 4144 11-10-17-1W5 10 12733 6696 . 74 .53 4786 10-25-15-291*14 13 14684 7930 .76 .54 5727 8-14-16-27W4 15 6367 3304 .93 .52 2349 8-3-13-28W4 9 6631 3097 .85 .47 2102 6-11-14-29W4 11 9514 4774 . 7 7 .50 3347 8-11-15-28W4 9 3940 1009 .90 . 26 418 6-2-16-29W4 11 10855 5685 .87 .52 4057 6 - 6 - i 3-26W4 9 6945 3610 .98 .52 2568 13-16-12-28W4 14 11714 5418 .62 .46 3661 10-7-20-27W4 11 8472 4433 T O . / i. .52 3162 10-4-16-10W4 4 10771 4260 .99 .40 2644 6-6-13-15W4 4187 1228 .97 .29 600 8-32-14-iaW4 4 9025 4056 .79 .45 2702 2-18-8-25W4 5 4209 600 .42 . 14 -31 6-8-8-27W4 9 13029 6089 .91 . 47 4135 3-27-6-28W4 c i j 14992 6465 .75 .43 4216 3-22-7-24W4 T 16875 8199 .82 .49 5667 3-32-7-24W4 3 11.000 5001 1.0 . 45 3352 *#*#«********##»***#**#**#***•••*•##*•«** Table I I . Reflectance-depth data f o r 28 wells from the study area. N=the number of %RoR data points. By l i n e a r regression, the data i s described by DEPTH = A(log(%RoRxl00))-B, with a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t = CORR. Rl=surface extrapolation of %RoR. 0.15 %RoR elevation i n metres A.S.L. to 0.15 %RoR by extrapolating the gradient. GG=geothermal gradient calculated from bottom hole temperature reading taken a f t e r t hours a f t e r c i r c u l a t i o n . **=B.H.T. from nearby wells. C O A L I F I C A T I O N G R A D I E N T S LOCATION m/1ogRoR 1oqRoR/kfl) %RoR/ a-94-L B2-G-1 10541 .095 .017 13-4-26-6W5 8968 . 112 .023 7-3-29-10W5 3707 .270 . 091 3-27-6-28W4 21684 . 046 .007 3-22-7-24W4 22534 .044 . 006 3-32-7-24W4 15447 . 065 . 009 2-18-8-25W4 5714 .175 .024 6-8-8-27W4 19013 .053 .008 8-8-10-27W4 12221 .082 .013 10-24-10-27W4 15998 . 062 . 010 10-36-11-2BW4 12501 . 080 .013 6-16-12-27W4 13365 . 075 .013 13-16-12-2SW4 16973 .059 . 008 6-6-13-15W4 4927 .203 .024 6-6-13-26W4 11295 . 088 .014 8-3-13-28W4 11596 . 086 .015 8-32-14-18W4 11536 . 087 .011 6-i 1-14-29W4 16288 .061 .010 8-11-15-28W4 7095 . 141 .025 10-25-15-29W4 22755 .044 .007 6-32-15-29W4 15636 .064 . 010 10-4-16-10W4 11203 .091 .009 S-14-16-27W4 10675 . 094 .016 6-2-16-29W4 17573 .057 . 009 8-4-16-29W4 18933 . 053 . 009 11-10-17-1W5 20513 . 049 . 008 6-36-17-1W5 17259 .058 .010 10-7-20-27W4 11711 .085 .012 Table I I I . C o a l i f i c a t i o n gradients from 28 wells i n southern Alberta. F I E L D R E F L E C T A N C E D A T A LOCATION SAMPLE* ! FH/GP LITHO. RoR DEV. N Q RANK 9- 18-24-6W5 TE83 -008 UBRZ COASH 77 .04 50 4 HVLB 8-36-14-22W4 TE83 -019 LEDH COAL 48 . 06 50 T SUBB 9-3-15-22W4 TE83 -020 LEDH COAL „ 46 . 05 50 2 SUBB 8-36-15-23W4 TE83 -021 LEDH COAL a 54 . 05 50 T HVLB 8- 14-17-17W4 TE83 -022F UJDR COAL a 47 . 03 50 2 SUBB _ 13-17-17W4 TE83 -023B UJDR COAL 52 .06 50 •"J J. HVLB 6- 14-29-23W4 TES3 -024 UHSC COAL 56 .05 55 O HVLB 23-29-21W4 TE83 -025 MHSC COAL 46 . 03 51 3 SUBB 9- 13-29-21W4 TE83 -026 MHSC COAL „ 48 . 04 51 4 SUBB 6- 1-29-20H4 TE83 -027 LHSC COAL B 49 .03 52 n SUBB 12 -14-28-19W4 TE83 -028 LHSC COAL i 39 .02 52 i- SUBB 11 -8-8-4W5 TE83 -030 KTNY COAL 72 .07 4 HVLB 8-3-8-4W5 TE83 -032 BLRH COAL 79 . 07 50 4 HVLB 15 -20-7-3W5 TES3 -033 LBLR COAL 1 .06 .05 50 ? HVLB 15-7-3W5 TE83 -034 BLRM CRBSS 88 .09 55 HVLB :l 1 -7-22-3W5 TE83 -038A BL YR COAL 77 . 03 53 2 HVLB 1-34-22-4W5 TE83 -039 BL YR COAL 58 .05 50 1 HVLB B- 15-22-6H5 TE83 -04 OA KTNY COAL 1 .41 .08 50 MVLB 8-23-21-5W5 TE83 -041 BLYR COAL 71 . 09 55 HVLB 16 -27-19-4W5 TES3 -046 BLYR COAL 81 . 06 50 n X. HVLB 12 -8-20-2W5 TE83 -049F BLYR COAL 67 . 06 50 HVLB 1-32-16-5W5 TE83 -055F BLRM CRBSH „ 95 .13 50 HVLB 4-33-16-5W5 TE83 -056A MSTM COAL 1 i. . 11 . 12 50 3 HVLB 1- 1-17-5W5 TE83 -058 KTNY COAL 1 .25 .07 50 7 MVLB 6- i6-7-4W5 TE83 -062 KTNY COAL 88 .05 50 4 HVLB 15 -31-6-3W5 TE83 -063 KTNY COAL 92 .06 50 *> +. HVLB 6-4-6-2W5 TES3 -064 KTNY COAL 72 . 05 50 3 HVLB 12 -29-18-7W5 TES3 -066 LUST COAL 1 .55 . 10 50 HVLB 5-21-16-5W5 TE83 -067 BLRM COAL 1 . 06 . 05 50 4 HVLB 7-26-14-5W5 TE83 -070 LBLR COASH „ 95 .06 51 3 HVLB 14 -17-12-4W5 TE83 -072F KTNY COASS 99 .04 57 HVLB 7-30-12-4W5 TE83 -073 KTNY COAL i . 62 .35 50 1 LVLB T _ 2-13-4W5 TE83 -075 KTNY COAL , 90 . 06 50 4 HVLB \^ — 2-13-4W5 TE83 -076F BLRM COAL i .07 .23 17 1 HVLB "7 — 35-I1-4W5 TE83 -077F KTNY COAL l . 02 . 07 50 3 HVLB ?- 14-11-4W5 TE83 -079 BLRM COACG „ 93 . 06 50 2 HVLB 4-8-11-3W5 TE83 -080 KTNY COAL i .05 .05 50 2 HVLB 16 -30-9-2W5 TE83 -088 BLYR COAL 50 .04 50 4 HVLB 14 -26-4-28W4 TE83 -095B BLYR COAL 59 . 03 50 HVLB 10 -30-6-5W5 TE83 -098 KTNY COAL i . 06 .04 50 T( HVLB *#**#*##**#**#*##***#****•*#***#*##***** Table IV. %RoR f i e l d data. (Caption continued on following page.) 28 F I E L D R E F L E C T A N C E D A T A LOCAT ION SAMPLES FH /GP L I T H Q . RoR DEV. N Q RANK 15 - 2 2 - 3 3 - 2 2 W 4 T E 8 3 - 100 UHSC COAL 55 . 0 5 55 3 HVLB 1- 9 - 3 1 - 2 1 W 4 T E 8 3 - 101 MHSC COAL 54 . 0 4 52 n JL HVLB 9 - 6 - 2 8 - 1 8 W 4 T E B 3 - 102 LHSC COAL 55 . 0 8 57 2 HVLB 1- 1 9 - 2 9 - 1 3 W 4 T E 8 3 - 103A LEDM COAL a 46 . 0 4 50 3 SUBB 4 - 3 3 - 2 0 - 1 1 W 4 T E 8 3 - 104 UJDR COAL 46 . 06 50 SUBB 16 - 1 0 - 1 3 - 9 W 4 T E 8 3 - 105U L JDR COASH 45 . 06 52 3 SUBB 16 - 1 0 - 1 3 - 9 W 4 T E 8 3 - 105L L JDR COASH a 51 . 07 54 2 HVLB 11 - 5 - 1 3 - 6 W 4 T E 8 3 - 1.06 MJDR COAL 49 . 0 4 54 2 SUBB 10 - 2 7 - 2 - 1 2 W 4 T E 8 3 - 109 A HJDR COAL 52 . 1 1 47 HVLB 6 - 3 5 - 2 - 1 2 W 4 T E 8 3 - H O MJDR COAL 49 . 0 5 54 3 SUBB 5 - 1 8 - 1 0 - 1 6 W 4 T E 8 3 - 112A JDTR BCOAL 1 . 7 5 . 19 50 L V L B 11 - 3 1 - 9 - 2 3 W 4 T E 8 3 - 115 LSTH COAL a 60 . 0 4 50 HVLB 1- 3 3 - 4 - 2 2 W 4 T E 8 3 - 116 LSTM CRBSH n 59 . 0 7 50 •!> HVLB 5 - 3 - 4 - 27W4 T E 8 3 - 117 L3TM COAL a 60 . 0 6 50 T HVLB 6 - 3 2 - 6 W 5 T E 8 3 - 124 UBRZ CRBSH , 59 . 04 50 "T HVLB 4 - 3 0 - 2 9 - 1 0 W 5 T E 8 3 - 132 KTNY COAL 1 , 5 i . 06 50 LVLB 4 - 2 4 - 7 W 5 T E 8 3 - 135 KTIMY CRBSH 1 . 79 . 21 50 n L V L B ~ _ 1 0 - 2 5 - 9 W 5 T E 8 3 - 139F EXSH CRBSH 1 . 5 6 . 0 4 3 1 L V L B 1- 2 9 - 2 4 - 1 0 W 5 T E 8 3 - 140 KTNY COAL 1 . 9 9 . 0 9 50 4 SEMA #*******#****•#••*#***#**##**##****#***^ Table IV (cont.). LITHO. = rock type where COASH = coaly shale, CRBSS = carbonaceous sandstone, COASS = coaly sandstone, COACG = coaly conglomerate, and BCOAL = burnt c o a l . FM/GP = Formation/Group names where UBRZ = Upper Brazeau, LEDM = Lower Edmonton, UJDR = Upper Judith River, MJDR = Middle Judith River, LJDR = Lower Jud i t h River, UHSC = Upper Horseshoe Canyon, MHSC = Middle Horseshoe Canyon, LHSC = Lower Horseshoe Canyon, BLYR = B e l l y River, BLRM = Blairmore, LBLR = Lower Blairmore, KTNY = Kooteney, MSTM = Mist Mountain, EXSH = Exshaw. SUBB = subbituminous. HVLB = high v o l a t i l e bituminous. LVLB = low v o l a t i l e bituminous. MVLB = medium v o l a t i l e bituminous. C O R E R E F L E C T A N C E D A T A LOCATION SAMPLES FM. DEPTH RoR DEV. N Q RANK 7-25-2-24W4 TE83 -501 MNVL 1358 .75 . 03 50 HVLB 2-1-21.W4 TE83' -505 SSPK 996 .51 . 02 50 ,jl HVLB 10 -2-1-16H4 TE83 -507 MNVL 723 . 75 . 03 50 HVLB s- 4-5-4W4 TEB3 -521 MNVL 1145 .46 .02 50 2 SUBB 6-26-4-18W4 TE83 c n £T BOW I 719 .52 .05 50 1 i. HVLB 6-20-5-5W4 TE83 -531 MNVL 1035 .54 .03 50 2 HVLB 5- 13-5-5W4 TE83 -540 MNVL 1170 .62 .06 50 1 HVLB 14 -33-6-13W4 TE83 -541B MNVL 925 C ~7 . J O .06 50 2 HVLB 7-24-6-17W4 TE83 -543 MNVL 953 .69 . 05 50 HVLB 14 -5-6-5W4 TE83 -547 MNVL 1057 .51 .05 50 3 HVLB 6-21-5-25W4 TES3 -549 MNVL 2051 . 66 .05 50 1 HVLB 11 -30-7-14W4 TE83 e r r J J J MNVL 954 .54 .04 21 1 HVLB 16 -1-7-14W4 TES3 -559 MNVL 915 .48 . 04 50 n X. SUBB 6-24-5-7W4 TE83 -566 MNVL 916 .44 .03 50 X. SUBB 11 -2-34-20W4 TE83 -570 VKNS 1219 .36 .06 50 2 SUBB 6-28-26-1W5 TE83 -585 ELKN 2507 1.60 .33 41 2 LVLB 5- 14-28-4W5 TE83 -588 VKNG 2640 . 67 .09 50 HVLB 6- 19-29-1W5 TE83 -593 VKNS 2124 . 75 . 10 50 2 HVLB 7_ 28-25-4W5 TE83 -595 RCCK 3036 1.13 . 24 50 1 MVLB 4-29-8-20W4 TE83 -603 BOWI 864 .62 . 06 50 3 HVLB 9-9-8-23W4 TE83 -607 JURA 1763 . 38 . 03 50 2 SUBB 8- ll-9-18W4 TE83 -608 MNVL 1020 . 46 .02 50 2 SUBB 14 -11-9-21W4 TES3 -610 BOWI 899 .55 .05 50 HVLB 5- 6-8-15W4 TE83 -612 MNVL 980 .53 .05 50 2 HVLB 6-29-8-26W4 TE83 -613 JURA 2401 .95 .06 50 HVLB 8- 1-10-11W4 TE83 -621 MNVL 912 .68 . 05 50 HVLB 16 -23-10-16W4 TE83 -626 MNVL 937 .62 .05 50 HVLB 14 -20-7-i 4^4 TE83 -628 MNVL 944 .57 . 03 50 1 i. HVLB 12 -35-10-16W4 TE83 -631 MNVL 950 .60 . 04 50 4 HVLB 7 -28-10-27W4 TE83 -666 SWFT 2481 .61 .04 50 ~) X. HVLB / — 28-10-27W4 TE83 -669 MNVL 2473 .95 .06 50 3 HVLB 16 -23-10-28W4 TE83 -671 SSPK 2365 .33 .02 50 2 SUBB 10 -4-11-16W4 TE83 -672 MNVL 971 .55 .04 50 HVLB 10 -4-11-16W4 TE83 -673 MNVL 986 .47 .02 50 SUBB 1-12-10-26W4 TES3 -674 EXSH t- \J x. t .95 . 04 50 r> i~ HVLB 8-8-10-27W4 TE83 -676 MNVL 2524 .88 .05 50 n AC HVLB 8-8-10-27W4 TE83 -677 MNVL 2544 . 80 .08 50 / \ HVLB n 2-11-16W4 TE83 -682 MNVL 961 . 66 .05 50 n *. HVLB 14 -35-10-16W4 TE83 -683 MNVL 949 . 51 . 03 50 7, HVLB 16 -14-11-13W4 TES3 -684 MNVL 891 .63 .04 50 2 HVLB Table V. %RoR core data. MNVL = Mannville, SSPK = Second White Speckled Shale, BOWI = Bow Island, VKNG = Viking, ELKN = Elkton, RCCK = Rock Creek, JURA = J u r a s s i c , SWFT = Swift, EXSH = Exshaw, FSCZ = F i s h Scale Zone. C O R E R E F L E C T A N C E D A T A LOCATION SAMPLE* FM. DEPTH R D R DEV. N Q RANK 31-11-12W4 TE83 -686 JURA 900 .41 .04 50 1 SUBB i i -18-9-16W4 TE83 -687 MNVL 975 .56 . 02 50 HVLB c r i J 32-11-12W4 TE83 -689 JURA 915 .46 .03 50 0 SUBB 6-2-11-16W4 TE83 -690 MNVL 964 .52 .03 50 HVLB 7_ 25-I0-17W4 TE83 -691 MNVL 943 .62 .04 50 •"} HVLB 7-25-10-17W4 TE83 -692 MNVL 949 . 60 .04 50 2 HVLB i - 31-11-13W4 TE83 -693 JURA 906 .57 . 05 50 £. HVLB 13 -16-12-28W4 TE83 -694 SWFT 2820 .63 .03 50 2 HVLB 13 -16-12-28W4 TE83 -695 SWFT 2823 . 69 .05 50 4 HVLB 6- 16-12-27W4 TE83 -696F MNVL 2364 . 69 .08 50 HVLB 6-24-14-27W4 TE83 -697 JURA 2157 .74 .09 79 HVLB 8- 11-11-27W4 TE83 -693 SWFT 2389 .75 . 05 50 i HVLB 6-16-12-27W4 TES3 -699 MNVL 2381 .83 . 06 50 JL HVLB 6- 16-12-27W4 TE83 -7 OOF MNVL 2412 .75 . 06 50 HVLB 4-29-15-20W4 TE83 -701 MNVL 1293 .64 . 05 50 7, HVLB 10 -15-15-22W4 TE83 -702 MNVL 1284 . 74 .09 50 HVLB 6-29-15-26W4 TE33 -703 SWFT 2047 .84 . 07 50 HVLB 4- i2-15-27W4 TE83 -704 JURA 2172 . 75 .05 50 1 HVLB 6-17-15-27W4 TE83 -705 MNVL 2457 .81 .04 50 HVLB 6-24-15-28W4 TE83 -706 MNVL 2451 . 76 .04 50 3 HVLB 12 -22-16-22W4 TE83 -707 MNVL 1428 .58 . 0 3 50 HVLB 8- 11-15-28W4 TE83 -708 JURA 2513 .95 .06 50 n i. HVLB 20-17-21W4 TE83 -709 MNVL 1352 . 63 . 03 50 7, HVLB 13 -14-17-2W5 TE33 -711 JURA 3102 . 73 . 03 50 n X. HVLB i -i 34-20-20W4 TE83 -712 MNVL 1327 .67 .05 50 •-\ s. HVLB n 33-21-2W5 TE83 -713 JURA 2768 1.12 . 07 50 4 HVLB 4- 17-20-28W4 TES3 -714 MNVL 2208 .55 . 06 50 2 HVLB 2-33-21-2W5 TE83 -715 JURA 2779 1.13 • o u 50 2 HVLB 6- 18-11-22W4 TE83 -717 BOWI 1171 .59 . 03 50 2 HVLB 8- 14-16-27W4 ' TE83 -718 JURA 2237 . 92 . 05 50 \J HVLB -1-13-18W4 TE83 -723 MNVL 1066 . 54 . 04 50 -Is HVLB 1-6-13-17W4 TE83 -726 MNVL 1033 .51 . 02 50 3 HVLB 16 -16-13-22W4 TE83 _ 7 T 7 MNVL 1435 .64 .04 50 7 HVLB 6-4-13-21W4 TE83 -728 MNVL 1359 .68 .06 50 2 HVLB 6-6-13-26W4 TE83 -729 MNVL 2148 .83 .05 50 4 HVLB 14 -19-18-19W4 TE83 -730 MNVL 1329 .47 .04 51 1 SUBB 14 -31-18-19014 TE83 -731 MNVL 1375 .62 . 03 50 2 HVLB 6-29-18-20W4 TE83 -733 MNVL 1389 .69 . 04 50 4 HVLB 10 -13-18-16W4 TE83 -734 MNVL 1087 .40 . 04 50 4 SUBB 6- 12-22-5W4 TES3 -735 MNVL 770 .45 .02 50 4 SUBB • • f t * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Table V (cont.). C O R E R E F L E C T A N C E D A T A LOCATION SAMPLES FM. DEPTH RoR DEV. N Q RANK 10-29-22 -171-14 TE83- 737 MNVL 1181 . 46 .05 50 SUBB 6-i 3-27- 14W4 TE83- 738 FSCZ 921 . 50 .04 50 HVLB 10-12-22 -1SW4 TE83- 739 MNVL 1158 • ij A. . 03 50 HVLB i1-9-22-25W4 TE83- 740 VKNG 1452 . 63 .04 50 4 HVLB 11-9-22- 25W4 TE83- 741 VKNG 1457 .56 .05 50 4 HVLB 10-2-26- 12W4 TE83- 743 MNVL 1024 . 60 .04 50 3 HVLB 16-31-26 -13W4 TES3- 744 MNVL 1110 .45 .04 50 . j SUBB 10-5-26- 18W4 TE83- 745 MNVL 1403 .59 .02 50 3 HVLB 6-10-26- 17W4 TE83- 746 MNVL 1259 .62 .04 50 HVLB 6-1-26-19W4 TE83- 747 MNVL. 1386 .59 .02 50 4 HVLB 6-25-26- 23W4 TE83- 748 MNVL 1504 .68 .05 50 3 HVLB Table V (cont.). REFLECTANCE 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 0 i I I I , I I I I I I I I I I 2 -a* r 2 = -PAKOWKI -I . J i Cavings /.( ESSO SUNDANCE NANTON 6-32-15-29W4 #209 Figure 3. REFLECTANCE 0.2 0.3 0.4 - < X I— a. m Q BEARPAW 0.6 0.3 1.0 J I 1.5 2.0 ESSO WINDPUMP 10-36-1 1-28W4 #212 Figure 4. REFLECTANCE REFLECTANCE -r 2 r-CL LU Q ESSO SUNDANCE MUDDY LAKE 8-8-10-27W4. #213 ESSO SUNDANCE CLARESH0LM 6-16-12-27W4 #21 Figure 5. Figure 6. Figures 3 to 27. Reflectance-depth p r o f i l e s f o r P l a i n s wells. Dots are cuttings sample points, squares are core sample points with 95% confidence l e v e l error bars. REFLECTANCE 0.2 0.3 0.4 - o 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 I . I I ' I • P A K O W K I 33 REFLECTANCE 0.2 E I r-O. ID O ESSO SUNDANCE MUDDY LAKE 10-24- 10-27W4 #21!i Figure 7. 0.3 0.4 _ J l _ 0.6 0.8 1.0 J I I I I I 1.5 2.0 r 2 = 92 - J U D I T H R I V E R Cavings ESSO SUNDANCE HIGHWOOD" 6-36-17 -1W5 #216 Figure 8. REFLECTANCE REFLECTANCE ESSO SUNDANCE NANTON 8-4-16-29W4 #217 Figure 9. a. Lit Q ESSO SUNDANCE CAYLEY 11-10-17-1W5 #218 Figure 10. 34 REFLECTANCE REFLECTANCE 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 TEXACO et al. MAZEPPA 10-7-20-27W4 #220 TEXACO ALDERSON 10-4-16-10W4- #221 Figure 11. Figure 12. REFLECTANCE REFLECTANCE 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 °-2 °-3 °-4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 TEXACO ENCHANT 6-6-13-15W4 #222 Figure 13. 35 REFLECTANCE 2 -3 -GULF K I M 2-18-8-25W4 #224 Figure 15. REFLECTANCE 0.6 GULF PEIGAN 6-8-8-27W4 #225 Figure 16. GULF PEIGAN 3-27-6-28W4 #226 Figure 17. 36 GULF WEST BLOOD 3-32-7-24W4 #228 Figure 19. ESSO SUNDANCE NANTON 10-25-1 5-29W4 #229 Figure 20. REFLECTANCE a Ui a ESSO CONNEMARA 3-14-16-27W4 #230 1 -I t -Q. L U a REFLECTANCE 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 -) I I L, I I l l I I I I I I Figure 21. ESSO SUNDANCE OXLEY 3-3-13-28W4 #23T Figure 22. 37 REFLECTANCE 1 -I r-Q. LU Q 3 - -• ESSO OXLEY 6-1 1-I4-29W4 #232 Figure 23. REFLECTANCE 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 I I I I I I E XL Q. LU Q ESSO PARKLAND 8-1 1 - 1 5-28W4 #233 Figure 24. REFLECTANCE 0.2 E CL LU Q - 2 0.3 0.4 I I 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 I I I I I I I I • B E A R P A W • P A K O W K I REFLECTANCE 0.2 2 -CL. LU Q 5 - B E A R P A W 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 _J I I I I I I I I . - P A K O W K I ESSO SUNDANCE NANTON 6-2-16-29W4' #234 Figure 25. ESSO SUNDANCE CLARESHOLM' 6-6-13-26W4 #235 Figure 26. R E F L E C T A N C E 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 X I-D_ LU Q 4 -E S S O S U N D A N C E L Y N D O N 1 3 - 1 6 - 1 2 - 2 8 W 4 # 2 3 6 Figure 27 . E X I— 0-LU Q R E F L E C T A N C E 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 I I I I I I I I I I I I S H E L L JUMPING P O U N D W. 1 3 - 4 - 2 6 - 6 W 5 #211 Figure 2 8 . Figures 28 to 36. Reflectance-depth p r o f i l e s for Disturbed Belt w e lls. Dashed l i n e s are f a u l t s . Solid l i n e s are formation contacts. R E F L E C T A N C E 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 J L _ J I I I I l I l I £ I \— £L LU Q SHELL MIDDLEPASS a-94-L 82-G-1 #200 Figure 29. R E F L E C T A N C E 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 _ l I _ ! I I I I I I I I I l I I Pe — \ - K A J « J K K K K • J M M 0 SHELL 42 WATERTON 8-20-4-1W5 #201 Figure 30. REFLECTANCE 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 J I I J I I I I I I I I E x H Q_ LU Q FAULTED ZONE M 6 SHELL WATERTON 7-24-5-3W5 #202 Figure 31. E 1 X \— D-LU Q 5-REFLECTANCE 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 _] I I I I I I I I I I I I I ILEL LK M M M M O : J : M SHELL HOME WATERTON 6-3-6-3W5 #203 Figure 32. REFLECTANCE 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 _J _ _ J I I L_J I I I I I I I I 2 -E XL I 0_ UJ Q 3 -UK LK UK LK M 5- AUTOCHTHONOUS SHELL HOME SHEEP 8-30-18-3W5 #204 Figure 33. REFLECTANCE 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 _ J I I I I I I I I I I I I I UK LK M MISSISSIPPIAN M M M M SHELL GETTY SULLIVAN 7-7-17-4W5 #205 Figure 34. REFLECTANCE 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 6 _ i SHELL 8 PANTHER RIVER 7-8-29-10W5 #206 Figure 35. REFLECTANCE 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 _ J I I I I J I I I I I I I I  UK UK LK LK M LK M SHELL HUNTER VALLEY 1 1-32-28-8W5 #207 Figure 36. 0.2 R E F L E C T A N C E 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 £ — J D E P T H = - 1 0 6 8 9 x I o g i Q ( % R o R x 100) + 1 7 8 7 6 Figure 37. Cuttings and core samples %RoR versus depth data for wells i n townships 10 to 22 i n the axis of the basin. The o i l window i s 1200 to 4400 m for the Jurassic to Paleocene wedge. Figure 38. A l l cuttings samples %RoR versus depth data f o r wells i n townships 10 to 22 i n the axis of the basin. 45 R E F L E C T A N C E 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 D E P T H = - 1 7 9 2 1 x l o g 1 0 ( % R o R x 100) + 2 9 9 2 8 Figure 39. Cuttings samples %RoR versus depth data for wells i n townships 6 to 8 i n the axis of the basin. Rocks s u f f i c i e n t l y mature to generate hydrocarbons are not reached u n t i l 2070 m. P r o b l e m s U s i n g W e l l - c u t t i n g s 46 O n l y a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f a l l t h e w e l l s d r i l l e d i n t h e B a s i n were c o r e d . In t h e s e w e l l s most o f t h e c o r e was t a k e n from a s i n g l e h o r i z o n . F o r r e f l e c t a n c e s t u d i e s t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e f o r sam p l e s i s w e l l c u t t i n g s . Samples may be o b t a i n e d f o r most o f t h e w e l l below t h e s h a l l o w e s t sample p o i n t , and from a v a r i e t y o f h o s t r o c k s . Two p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s u s i n g w e l l c u t t i n g s must be c o n s i d e r e d . F i r s t , h e a t i n g o f t h e w e l l c u t t i n g s by f r i c t i o n c a u s e d by t h e b i t d u r i n g d r i l l i n g o r by t h e d r i l l i n g f l u i d s , o r h e a t i n g d u r i n g d r y i n g o f t h e c u t t i n g s a t t h e s u r f a c e , a l l o f w h i c h may i n c r e a s e t h e r e f l e c t a n c e o f t h e sample. In g e n e r a l however, t h e s e h e a t i n g e v e n t s a r e o f s u c h s h o r t d u r a t i o n o r t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s i n v o l v e d low enough t h a t t h e y a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . The s e c o n d p r o b l e m i s c o r r e l a t i o n o f w e l l c u t t i n g s t o p r o p e r d e p t h . Many o f t h e c o a l y p a r t i c l e s s a mpled from w e l l c u t t i n g s c an be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h c o a l r e s p o n s e s on g e o p h y s i c a l l o g s r u n on t h e w e l l , b u t some o f the s m a l l seams and p a r t i n g s t h a t y i e l d e d c a r b o n a c e o u s c u t t i n g s a r e t h i n n e r t h a n t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e w e l l l o g s ( f o r t h i s s t u d y , t h e a c t u a l d e p t h s w r i t t e n on t h e w e l l c u t t i n g s sample v i a l s were used w i t h o u t any a d j u s t m e n t o f the d e p t h s t o g e o p h y s i c a l l o g s r u n ) . I n h e r e n t t h e n i s t h e p r o b l e m c a u s e d by c a v i n g s as i s e v i d e n t f o r example i n w e l l s 209 and 235 ( F i g u r e s 3 and 2 7 ) , where s p a l l i n g o f r o c k h i g h e r up i n t h e h o l e h as c o n t a m i n a t e d c u t t i n g s s a m p l e s from 47 g r e a t e r d e p t h s . The e f f e c t o f t h e l a t t e r phenomenon i s t h a t when t h e s e s a m p l e s a r e measured t h e y r e s u l t i n a b normal v a l u e s ( a l w a y s l o w e r i n t h e P l a i n s ) . C a v i n g s were i d e n t i f i e d where p o s s i b l e by t h e i r g e n e r a l l y l a r g e r s i z e , r o u n d e d e d g e s , and sometimes d i f f e r e n t r o c k t y p e compared t o t h e b u l k o f t h e c u t t i n g s s a mple. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e u n i f o r m c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s o b t a i n e d ' f o r most o f t h e w e l l s a t t e s t t o few c a v i n g s p r o b l e m s f o r t h e w e l l s s a m p l e d . Where p o s s i b l e , c o r e s a m p l e s were t a k e n from the same w e l l sampled f o r c u t t i n g s i n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e p o s s i b l e c a v i n g s p r o b l e m s . H o s t Rock I n f l u e n c e Rock t y p e has l i t t l e , i f any, i n f l u e n c e on c o a l i f i c a t i o n l e v e l s . E m p i r i c a l measurements ( B o s t i c k and F o s t e r , 1975, as c i t e d by K a l k r e u t h , 1982) have s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e f l e c t a n c e s o f c o a l y m a t e r i a l i n s a n d s t o n e s may be up t o 30% l o w e r t h a n c o a l f r o m a s s o c i a t e d seams. G i v e n t h a t c o a l has a t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y t h r e e t o t h i r t e e n t i m e s l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f s a n d s t o n e ( K a p p e l m e y e r and H a e n e l , 1974, p. 5 4 ) , i t i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t h a t f o r a g i v e n h e a t f l u x , c o a l y m a t e r i a l i n t h e open s y s t e m ( p e r m e a b l e s a n d s t o n e ) would e x p e r i e n c e l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e t h a n t h e c o a l i n t h e c l o s e d s y s t e m (the seam). However, c o a l s o f t e n a r e good a q u i f e r s b e c a u s e o f f r a c t u r e p o r o s i t y . A f t e r t h e e q u i l i b r a t i n g e f f e c t o f m i l l i o n s o f y e a r s t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y a r e p r o b a b l y not s i g n i f i c a n t . In a 48 s e c t i o n composed o f t h i n s a n d s t o n e s and s i l t y s h a l e s as i n t h e C r e t a c e o u s r o c k s o f A l b e r t a , t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y c o n t r a s t s c a n n o t have a f f e c t e d r a n k . S t r a t i g r a p h i c C o n s i d e r a t i o n s The ages o f t h e r o c k s t h a t were s t u d i e d a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 40. The o l d e s t r o c k s b e l o n g t o t h e J u r a s s i c K o o t e n a y and F e r n i e G r o u p s w h i c h r e s t u n c o n f o r m a b l y on P a l e o z o i c c a r b o n a t e s i n most o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . In t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n P l a i n s , t h e J u r a s s i c u n i t s have been r e d u c e d i n t h i c k n e s s as a r e s u l t o f an e r o s i o n a l e v e n t r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e P r e - C r e t a c e o u s u n c o n f o r m i t y (135 t o 117 Ma) and a r e a b s e n t o v e r t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . O v e r l y i n g the J u r a s s i c r o c k s a r e s t r a t a a s s i g n e d t o the M a n n v i l l e G r oup. The b a s e o f t h e M a n n v i l l e Group i s e s t i m a t e d t o be no o l d e r t h a n L a t e B a r r e m i a n , and most o f t h e Group i s a s s i g n e d t o t h e A l b i a n s t a g e , 113 t o 97.5 Ma, by S i n g h ( 1 9 6 4 ) . The upper p a r t o f t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s i n c l u d e s t h e Bow I s l a n d and V i k i n g s t r a t a . I n t h e P l a i n s , t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s - U p p e r C r e t a c e o u s b o u n d a r y i s a t a l e v e l j u s t below t h e F i s h S c a l e Zone (E.R.C.B., 1 9 7 8 ) . The b o u n d a r y u n c o n f o r m i t y may be a m i n o r one compared t o t h e o t h e r u n c o n f o r m i t i e s n o t e d i n f i g u r e 40. In t h e F o o t h i l l s and M o u n t a i n s , t h e C r o w s n e s t V o l c a n i c s , where p r e s e n t , l i e s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y a t o r n e a r t h e Lower to Upper C r e t a c e o u s b o u n d a r y . AGES OF STRATA IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA FOOTHILLS r r o rr LLI CL CL Z> WAPIABI CARDIUM BLACKSTONE PLAINS • AGE(Ma) CROWSNEST ALBERTA GROUP MILK RIVER COLORADO SHALE CARDIUM BLACKSTONE SECOND WHITE SPECKS FISH SCALE ZONE Figure 40. Relative ages of s t r a t a i n southern Alberta. Sources: Norris (1964), Singh (1964), Mellon (1967), Carrigy (1971), Gordy ££. al. (1977), E.R.C.B. (1978), and Walker (1982). 50 Lower Upper C r e t a c e o u s s t r a t a a r e a s e r i e s o f f i n i n g upwards, p r e d o m i n a n t l y s i l t y - s h a l e u n i t s t h a t range i n age from 100 t o 74 Ma. The f i r s t s e d i m e n t s o f t h e B e l l y R i v e r - P a s k a p o o a s s e m b l a g e f l o o d e d i n t o t h e B a s i n a t a b o u t 74 Ma ( W a l k e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . M o l a s s e d e p o s i t i o n p r o b a b l y c o n t i n u e d w e l l i n t o t h e Eocene a l t h o u g h t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c y c l e c h a nged from p a r a l i c and d e l t a i c t o a l l u v i a l p l a i n and a l l u v i a l f a n . E n o r m o u s l y t h i c k a l l u v i a l P a l e o g e n e d e p o s i t s a r e now a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y removed from where t h e y were d e p o s i t e d ; o n l y a few v e s t i g e s a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e form o f q u a r t z i t e c o n g l o m e r a t e s r e s t i n g on y o u n g e r p e n e p l a i n s s u c h as a t C y p r e s s H i l l s . The pre-Neogene u n c o n f o r m i t y r e p r e s e n t s e r o s i o n on a m a s s i v e s c a l e , l i k e l y s i m i l a r t o c u r r e n t e r o s i o n t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e H i m a l a y a s (up t o 1 mm/yr). The s e d i m e n t d e r i v e d from t h e Eocene e v e n t i n A l b e r t a now r e s t s i n b a s i n s m a r g i n a l to t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a c o n t i n e n t s u c h as t h e Lower T e r t i a r y d e p o s i t s under t h e B e a u f o r t Sea (5 km), Hudson S t r a i t , and s i m i l a r d e p o s i t s i n the G u l f o f M e x i c o (5 t o 15 km) . C o a l Rank V a r i a t i o n L o c a l rank v a r i a t i o n and p a l e o - g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a B a s i n a r e becoming a p p a r e n t as more c o a l rank d a t a becomes a v a i l a b l e ( F i g u r e 41, 4 1 A ) . The p a t t e r n i s n o t a s i m p l e one. In g e n e r a l the 52° FIELD REFLECTANCE DATA (%RoR) A FIELD SAMPLE • FROM PUBLISHED COAL DATA • FROM WELL GRADIENT s ISOREFLECTANCE CONTOURS y — INFERRED ISOREFLECTANCE CONTOURS M2 L E G E N D MAP UNIT PA Ml C4 C3 C2 Cl UK LK PZ STAGE Oligocene Paleocene Maastrichtian Campanian PERIOD/EPOCH Upper Cretaceous in the Disturbed Belt Lower Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic Paleozoic and Older — 51 Figure 41. Isoreflectance map of surface of southern Alberta P l a i n s . 52« 116a F I E L D R E F L E C T A N C E D A T A (%RoR) A P U B L I S H E D D A T A • F I E L D S A M P L E • F R O M W E L L G R A D I E N T M2 L E G E N D MAP UNIT PA M1 C4 C3 C2 C1 UK LK PZ STAGE Oligocene Paleocene Maastrichtian Campanian PERIOD / EPOCH AGE (Ma) Upper Cretaceous in the Disturbed Belt Lower Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic Paleozoic and Older h 3 0 60 64 65 70 72 74 78 - 8 0 -•65 -100 135 7$' 0.96 - 1.00\A \\ 1.00 - 1.07jO)\ 50km 114° Figure 41A. %RoR data for southern Alberta Disturbed B e l t . r e f l e c t a n c e o f s u r f a c e c o a l s i n c r e a s e s from .35 t o .60%RoR a c r o s s t h e P l a i n s i n A l b e r t a g e n e r a l l y i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e age o f t h e r o c k . I s o r e f l e c t a n c e c o n t o u r s a r e g e n e r a l l y p a r a l l e l t o t h e s t r i k e o f t h e Upper C r e t a c e o u s u n i t s . In t h e s o u t h e a s t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a t h e c o n t o u r s b r o a d e n a r o u n d t h e S w e e t g r a s s A r c h . To t h e west t h e i s o r e f l e c t a n c e c o n t o u r s p a c i n g i s l e s s , m i r r o r i n g t h e more s t e e p l y d i p p i n g C r e t a c e o u s u n i t s . In t h e n o r t h w e s t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a , t h e i s o r e f l e c t a n c e c o n t o u r s d e f l e c t t o t h e e a s t o f t h e s t r i k e o f t h e D i s t u r b e d B e l t . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y a combined e f f e c t o f : a) t h e change i n t h e s t r i k e o f t h e B a s i n from s o u t h e a s t - n o r t h w e s t j u s t s o u t h o f C a l g a r y t o s l i g h t l y e a s t o f n o r t h - s o u t h , n o r t h o f C a l g a r y , and; b) t h e i n t e r p r e t e d p r e s e n c e o f a p a l e o - h e a t f l o w h i g h from Canmore t o C a l g a r y . The F o o t h i l l s d a t a a l s o c o n f i r m s a g e n e r a l n o r t h w e s t w a r d i n c r e a s e i n rank i n r e s p o n s e t o i n t e r p r e t e d i n c r e a s e d p a l e o - h e a t f l o w i n the Canmore - C a l g a r y r e g i o n . The s u r f a c e c o a l r e f l e c t a n c e v a l u e s i n t h e d e e p e s t p a r t o f t h e B a s i n a r e l o w e r t h a n e x p e c t e d c o n s i d e r i n g the l a r g e amount o f s e d i m e n t l o a d i n g o f t h o s e r o c k s i n t h e P a l e o g e n e . T h i s i s w h o l l y a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e e x t r e m e l y low p a l e o - g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s t h e r e as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . S t e i n e r et. a_l. (1972) p r e s e n t e d a r e g i o n a l map o f g r o s s c a l o r i f i c v a l u e s o f c o a l from a n a l y s e s i n C a m p b e l l ' s (1964, 1966) c a t a l o g u e s o f A l b e r t a c o a l m i n e s . D e v i a t i o n from a s i m p l e p a t t e r n o f i s o c a l o r i f i c c o n t o u r s p a r a l l e l t o t h e s t r i k e o f t h e B a s i n a r e a p p a r e n t on t h i s map: a l a r g e 54 r e e n t r a n t i n the 10,000 B T U / l b c o n t o u r a t 50 deg. N., 113 d e g . W.; a w i d e n i n g o f i s o c a l o r i f i c c o n t o u r s o v e r t h e S w e e t g r a s s A r c h ; and a marked l a t e r a l i n c r e a s e i n c a l o r i f i c v a l u e a l o n g t h e s t r i k e o f t h e D i s t u r b e d B e l t from C r o w s n e s t P a s s a r e a t o t h e c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h e A l b e r t a D i s t u r b e d B e l t . The Canmore a r e a has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d as a p a l e o - t h e r m a l h o t s p o t w i t h t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f s e m i - a n t h r a c i t e s ( N o r r i s , 1971) i n t h e M i s t M o u n t a i n F o r m a t i o n . One way t o examine c o a l rank v a r i a t i o n i n t h e B a s i n i s t o g r a p h r e f l e c t a n c e d a t a v e r s u s p r e s e n t d e p t h f o r c o a l s o f t h e same age. Upper M a n n v i l l e c o a l rank i s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e c e n t r a l A l b e r t a P l a i n s ( H a c q u e b a r d , 1975, 1 9 7 7 ) . In f i g u r e 42 H a c q u e b a r d ' s d a t a i s p l o t t e d u s i n g a l o g s c a l e f o r t h e m a t u r a t i o n p a r a m e t e r a x i s . The e q u a t i o n t h a t b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s : d e p t h = 5068 (log%RoMax x 100) - 7698 m (by f i r s t - o r d e r l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n , r2=-.972). The r e l a t i o n s h i p d e s c r i b e s a s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n t h e rank o f t h e M a n n v i l l e F o r m a t i o n f r o m e a s t t o west a c r o s s t h e B a s i n w h i c h c a n be a t t r i b u t e d to an i n c r e a s e i n d e p t h o f b u r i a l . M a n n v i l l e c o a l r e f l e c t a n c e measurements o b t a i n e d from c o r e s a m p l e s f o r t h i s s t u d y a r e shown i n f i g u r e 43. They i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e f l e c t a n c e o f t h e c o a l f o u n d i n t h e M a n n v i l l e v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y o v e r t h e B a s i n . T h i s i s o d e p t h rank v a r i a t i o n i s a t t r i b u t e d t o v a r y i n g d e p t h s o f b u r i a l as 55 R E F L E C T A N C E 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 D E P T H = 5 0 6 8 x log 1 Q ( % R o M a x * x 100) - 7 6 9 8 Figure 42. Mannville coal %RoR versus depth data from Hacquebard (1977). A l l data from core samples. 56 -REFLECTANCE 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 '018 1.0 1.5 2.0 4 J 1 D E P T H = - 4 3 1 0 x l o g l 0 ( % R o R x 100) + 6 3 0 3 Figure 43. Basin wide Mannville coal %RoR versus depth data. A l l data from core samples. 57 R E F L E C T A N C E 0.2 -0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 D E P T H = - 4 7 7 9 x l o g 1 Q ( % R o R x 100 ) + 7 1 0 4 Figure 44. Mannville coal %RoR versus depth data: 34 core samples from Hacquebard (1977) and 60 core samples from t h i s study. 58 p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d and v a r y i n g g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . A c o m p o s i t e g r a p h o f b o t h s e t s o f M a n n v i l l e d a t a i s p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 44. Hacquebard's%RoMax d a t a was c o n v e r t e d to%RoR v a l u e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p : d e p t h = -4779 x l o g l 0 (%RoR x 100) + 7104 m i s a g e n e r a l e x p r e s s i o n o f l a t e r a l M a n n v i l l e c o a l rank change i n t h e B a s i n . However, i t s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t a c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t t h a t c o u l d be compared w i t h t h a t o b t a i n e d from s a m p l i n g a s e c t i o n o r a b o r e h o l e (see M a j o r o w i c z and J e s s o p ( 1 9 8 1 ) ) . C o a l i f i c a t i o n G r a d i e n t s C o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s f o r w e l l s i n the a x i s o f t h e s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a B a s i n a r e e x t r e m e l y low (0.07 log%RoR/km) as compared t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d f o r s e c t i o n s i n t h e F o o t h i l l s and F r o n t Ranges o f s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a w h i c h a r e 6 t o 17 t i m e s h i g h e r ( H a c q u e b a r d and D o n a l d s o n , 1974) (see T a b l e I I I ) . A map o f c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s i s p r e s e n t e d as f i g u r e 45. The d a t a base f o r the P l a i n s i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e d a t a from t h i s s t u d y , and a l s o d a t a from C a m p b e l l ( 1 9 6 4 ) , H a c q u e b a r d ( 1 9 7 7 ) , and B u s t i n ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The g r a d i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d from r e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e s o f 28 w e l l s , and a l s o from c o r e sample t o s u r f a c e sample r e f l e c t a n c e 52" 116° COALIFICATION GRADIENTS A WELL GRADIENT %RoR • FROM CORE-SURFACE C.I. .05 log %RoR/km |M2 L E G E N D MAP UNIT PA M1 C4 C3 C2 C1 UK LK PZ STAGE AGE (Ma) Oligocene Paleocene Maastrichtian Campanian P E R I O D / E P O C H Upper Cretaceous in the Disturbed Belt Lower Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic Paleozoic and Older 30 60 64 65 70 72 74 78 -80-j 65-| 100 135 Figure 45. Map of c o a l i f i c a t i o n gradients i n southern Alberta. cn p a i r s . A g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n g r a d i e n t i s o b s e r v e d t o t h e w est, n o r t h , and e a s t o f t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n . E x t r e m e l y low c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s e x i s t i n t h e d e e p e s t p a r t o f t h e B a s i n . T h i s i s most l i k e l y a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f e xtreme r a t e s o f s e d i m e n t a t i o n t h e r e i n t h e P a l e o g e n e . The g r a d i e n t s i n c r e a s e t o t h e n o r t h i n d i c a t i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e C a n m o r e - C a l g a r y " p a l e o - h o t s p o t " . C o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s i n c r e a s e i n t h e D i s t u r b e d B e l t p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e o f h i g h e r g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s d u r i n g t i m e o f maximum b u r i a l ( M a j o r o w i c z and J e s s o p , 1981; H i t c h o n , 1 9 8 4 ) . C o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s i n c r e a s e o v e r the S w e e t g r a s s A r c h and a r e a s e a s t o f t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f t h i n n e r P a l e o g e n e d e p o s i t s ( t e m p e r a t u r e e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h t h e u n d e r l y i n g s e c t i o n r e a c h e d more r a p i d l y ) , and p o s s i b l y a l s o from the e f f e c t o f h e a t c a r r i e d by g r o u n d w a t e r moving from t h e d e e p e r p a r t s o f t h e B a s i n ( M a j o r o w i c z and J e s s o p , 1981; H i t c h o n , 1 9 8 4 ) . The c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t map has a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e p r e s e n t day g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t map (AAPG, 1976) w h i c h i s r e p r o d u c e d f o r s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a by H i t c h o n (1984, f i g u r e 6 b ) . The low g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t a n o m a l i e s a t P o r c u p i n e H i l l s , W i n t e r i n g H i l l s , t o t h e n o r t h e a s t o f M i l k R i v e r R i d g e , and a t o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s , a r e a l l r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s . H i g h g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t a n o m a l i e s between Canmore t o C a l g a r y , o v e r th e S w e e t g r a s s A r c h , and a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e Bow and Oldman R i v e r s a r e a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t d a t a . The one 61 t o one c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f p r e s e n t g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t a n o m a l i e s t o t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t map s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t p a t t e r n d u r i n g t h e t i m e o f m a j o r c o a l i f i c a t i o n was v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o b s e r v e d t o d a y . Maps o f d e p t h t o any r e f l e c t a n c e l e v e l i n the J u r a s s i c t o P a l e o c e n e s t r a t a i n t h e P l a i n s , may be d e r i v e d from t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t map as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . The d e p t h - r e f l e c t a n c e p a t t e r n o b s e r v e d i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a i s t h e G i p p s l a n d - t y p e o f S h i b a o k a and B e n n e t t ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The G i p p s l a n d - t y p e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e l a t i v e l y low r e f l e c t a n c e g r a d i e n t (0.08 t o 0.15 log%Ro/km) w h i c h S h i b a o k a and B e n n e t a t t r i b u t e t o v e r y r a p i d s u b s i d e n c e and s e d i m e n t a t i o n s i n c e e a r l y T e r t i a r y o r C r e t a c e o u s t i m e s i n t h e G i p p s l a n d B a s i n , A u s t r a l i a . S i m i l a r l y low c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s o f 0.002%Ro/100 m have been r e p o r t e d from t h e Los A n g e l e s and V e n t u r a B a s i n s by B o s t i c k e_t a_l. (1978) . S e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e s t h e r e have been as h i g h as 1.82 mm/yr (1.82 km/Ma) i n t h e l a s t 3 Ma. In A l b e r t a t h e r e has e v i d e n t l y been e x t r e m e l y r a p i d s e d i m e n t a t i o n and s u b s i d e n c e from 74 Ma to c a . 44 Ma as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . The low c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s o b s e r v e d s u p p o r t t h i s . E l s e w h e r e i n t h e F o o t h i l l s and F r o n t Ranges c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s c a l c u l a t e d by H a c q u e b a r d and D o n a l d s o n (1974) v a r y f r o m 0.07 t o 0.20%RoMax/100 m. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e a u t h o r s , b e c a u s e t h e d e p t h o f b u r i a l has n o t been s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r t h e a r e a s s t u d i e d , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s i s p r i m a r i l y a r e s u l t 62 o f d i f f e r e n t p a l e o - g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s . C o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s o f 0.02%RoMax/100 m have been r e p o r t e d f o r J u r a - C r e t a c e o u s r o c k s i n t h e Rocky C r e e k a r e a o f n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( K a l k r e u t h , 1 9 8 2 ) , whereas g r a d i e n t s o f 0.07 t o 0.17%RoMax/100 m o c c u r i n J u r a s s i c and Lower C r e t a c e o u s s t r a t a i n t h e F o o t h i l l s and F r o n t Ranges n o r t h o f Grande Cache, A l b e r t a ( K a l k r e u t h and McMechan, 1 9 8 4 ) . T i m e - t e m p e r a t u r e M o d e l i n g and G e o t h e r m a l G r a d i e n t s T i m e - t e m p e r a t u r e m o d e l s , b a s e d on t h e L o p a t i n e q u a t i o n , f o r t h e s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a B a s i n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e s 47 t o 50. I t i s p o s s i b l e , u s i n g a t i m e - t e m p e r a t u r e m o d e l , t o c a l c u l a t e t h e t i m e a v e r a g e d p a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t t h a t had t o e x i s t d u r i n g a r o c k ' s c o a l i f i c a t i o n h i s t o r y . F o r t h e J u r a s s i c to P a l e o c e n e s e c t i o n i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a , c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s a r e d i r e c t l y a r e s u l t o f t h e p a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t i n e f f e c t d u r i n g c o a l i f i c a t i o n . The c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e amount o f b u r i a l . The m a g n i t u d e o f t h e r e f l e c t a n c e e s t a b l i s h e d , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s g o v e r n e d by t h e d e p t h o f b u r i a l and t h e r e s i d i n g g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t . The i n d e p e n d e n c e o f c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t t o amount o f b u r i a l i s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n f i g u r e 46. G r a d i e n t s have been c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e b u r i a l h i s t o r y f o r E s s o Sundance Muddy Lake 8-8-10-27W4 ( F i g u r e 4 7 ) . Note t h a t f o r t h e same 63 R E F L E C T A N C E 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0° C/100m 2.0° C/100m 1.0° C/100m MEASURED Figure 46. Dependence of c o a l i f i c a t i o n gradient on geothermal gradient present during deep b u r i a l . The amount of b u r i a l does not change the c o a l i f i c a t i o n gradient. 64 LU cr TIME (Ma) '150 100 ! I I I I I I I I W I L L O W C R E E K J U D I T H R I V E R B A S E V L O W E R M A N N V I L L E ^  Calcu lated 'Measured Willow Creek 0.49%RoR 0.50%RoR Judith R iver -Base 0.67%RoR 0.67%RoR Fish S c a l e B a s e 0.76%RoR 0.76%RoR .Lower Mannville 0.84%RoR O.SI'itRoR 50 I l_ >01L WINDOW Figure 47. Esso Sundance Muddy Lake w e l l . Note that the Lower Mannville did not enter the o i l window u n t i l deep Paleogene b u r i a l . •8-8-10-27W4 #213 - UJ rr I-< rr JUDITH R L O W E R M A N N V I L L E P a s k a p o o Judith River Base Lower Mannville Ca lcu lated Measured 0.51%RoR 0.54%RoR 0.72%RoR 0.70%RoR 0.88%RoR 0.87%RoR Figure 48. Esso Connemara w e l l . Note that the Lower Mannville did not enter the o i l window u n t i l deep Paleogene b u r i a l . 8-14-16-27W4 #230 Figures 47 to 50. Time-temperature models. A l l models include decreasing surface temperature and increasing geothermal gradient since the Oligocene. 6 5 150 J L _ TIME (Ma) .100 J I I I I JUDITH RIVER • FISH SCALE BASE LOWER MANNVILLE N Judith River Fish Sca le .Zone Lower Mannville Calculated Measured 0.39%RoR 0.40%RoR 0.47%RoR 0.46%RoR 0.48%RoR 0.48%RoR Figure 49. Texaco Alderson w e l l . These s t r a t a have never entered the o i l window. 10-4-16-10W4 #221 66 g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t , t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s f o r d i f f e r e n t d e p t h s o f b u r i a l a r e e q u a l . Such a p r i n c i p l e may be a p p l i e d to o b s e r v e d g r a d i e n t s i n o r d e r t o c a l c u l a t e p a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s . C o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s c a l c u l a t e d by t h e t i m e - t e m p e r a t u r e m o d e l i n g method u s i n g d i f f e r e n t g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s a r e compared t o t h e o b s e r v e d g r a d i e n t u n t i l g r a d i e n t s match. The p a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t t h e n i s t h e g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t used i n t h e model t h a t g e n e r a t e d t h e c a l c u l a t e d l i n e ( c u r v e f i t t i n g ) . T i m e - a v e r a g e d p a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s , c a l c u l a t e d i n t h e above manner f o r a number o f w e l l s , a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e V I . W e l l No. P a l e o g e o t h e r m a l P r e s e n t Day G r a d i e n t G e o t h e r m a l G r a d i e n t (deg. C./100 m) From W e l l R e g i o n a l 200 1.4 1.70 <2.2 213 1.24 2.02 <1.8 221 1.3 3.16 <2.5 230 1.42 2.38 <2.2 T a b l e V I . P a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s c a l c u l a t e d from t i m e - t e m p e r a t u r e m o d e l i n g . R e g i o n a l g r a d i e n t s a r e from t h e A.A.P.G. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . G e o t h e r m a l G r a d i e n t V a r i a t i o n s P a l e o - g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s i n c r e a s e , i n a manner 67 s i m i l a r t o t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s ( F i g u r e 4 5 ) , from the a x i s o f t h e B a s i n t o t h e e a s t , t o t h e n o r t h and t o t h e we s t . The l o w e s t p a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s c a l c u l a t e d a r e 7.5 deg. C./km, whereas t h e h i g h e s t a r e 30 deg. C./km. The p a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s v a r y as much as p r e s e n t day g r a d i e n t s do. The p r e s e n t day g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t range i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a i s 11 t o 40 deg. C./km f o r the extr e m e v a l u e s , and on t h e a v e r a g e r a n g e s between 18 t o 36 deg. C./km (AAPG, 1 9 7 6 ) . The s o u t h e r n m o s t p o r t i o n o f t h e a x i s o f th e B a s i n i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a low g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t anomaly, w i t h g r a d i e n t s l e s s t h a n 15 deg. C./km, w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e v e r y low p a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s measured t h e r e i n t h i s s t u d y . H i t c h o n (1984) b e l i e v e s t h i s p r e s e n t day anomaly t o be t h e r e s u l t o f m e t e o r i c water r e c h a r g e o v e r a r e g i o n e x t e n d i n g f r o m P o r c u p i n e H i l l s t o t h e M i l k R i v e r R i d g e t o t h e S w e e t g r a s s H i l l s . The low p a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s were p r o b a b l y c a u s e d by t h e same phenomenon. O t h e r r e a s o n s f o r g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s v a r y i n g from one a r e a to a n o t h e r a r e b e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n basement h e a t f l o w , t h e t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t i e s o f t h e r o c k s , and h e a t f l o w from n e a r b y i n t r u s i o n s (Ammosov, 1 9 7 9 ) . R e g i o n a l basement h e a t f l o w d a t a a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a ( M a j o r o w i c z and J e s s o p , 1981) so i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f basement h e a t f l o w v a r i a t i o n to g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t v a r i a t i o n . A s i d e from p r o x i m i t y t o i n t r u s i o n s , however, t h e l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s i n h e a t f l o w i n a r e a s o f t h e same 68 g e o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r a r e p r i m a r i l y due t o d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t i e s o f t h e r o c k t y p e s ; t h e l o w e r t h e t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y , t h e h i g h e r the t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t (Kappelmeyer and H a e n e l , 1 9 7 4 ) . F o r t h e J u r a - C r e t a c e o u s s t r a t a , however, g r o s s t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y d i f f e r e n c e s a r e s m a l l . T h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y c o n t r a s t s , t h e r e f o r e , a r e n o t e x p e c t e d t o have g e n e r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t o r m a t u r i t y v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e J u r a - C r e t a c e o u s wedge. I m p o r t a n c e o f G r o u n d w a t e r Flow R e c e n t s t u d i e s by M a j o r o w i c z and J e s s o p ( 1 9 8 1 ) , H i t c h o n ( 1 9 8 4 ) , and N u r k o w s k i ( 1 9 8 4 ) , have documented t h a t h e a t c a r r i e d by moving g r o u n d w a t e r has had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon the o r g a n i c m a t u r a t i o n o f s t r a t a i n t h e W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n S e d i m e n t a r y B a s i n . The c u r r e n t g r o u n d w a t e r f l o w r e g i m e - downward movement o f w a t e r i n the r e c h a r g e a r e a s i n t h e m o u n t a i n s , l a t e r a l f l o w t h r o u g h t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f t h e B a s i n , and upward f l o w i n t h e d i s c h a r g e a r e a s a t t h e B a s i n edge i n t h e e a s t - has been i n e f f e c t s i n c e a t l e a s t E o c ene t i m e . P r i o r t o t h e L a r a m i d e o r o g e n y however, t h e f l o w r e g i m e was p r o b a b l y r e v e r s e d ( M a j o r o w i c z and J e s s o p , 1981; H i t c h o n , 1 9 8 4 ) . Upward g r o u n d w a t e r f l o w i n the P a l e o z o i c r o c k s and downward f l o w i n t h e y o u n g e r s t r a t a a p p e a r s t o be t h e a g e n t t h a t c o n t r o l s t h e p r e s e n t h e a t f l o w p a t t e r n i n t h e B a s i n ( M a j o r o w i c z and J e s s o p , 1 9 8 1 ) . 69 Long range h y d r o c a r b o n m i g r a t i o n i n t h e B a s i n (Deroo e_t a l . , 1977) i s p r o b a b l y a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e c u r r e n t h y d r o d y n a m i c s b e c a u s e f o r a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e B a s i n t h e t h r e s h o l d t e m p e r a t u r e to g e n e r a t e h y d r o c a r b o n s was n o t r e a c h e d u n t i l e a r l y T e r t i a r y t i m e as d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . L o c a l p e r t u r b a t i o n s f r o m t h e r e g i o n a l g r o u n d w a t e r f l o w regime have been c a u s e d by h i g h a r e a s (Peace R i v e r A r c h , S w e e t g r a s s A r c h ) w h i c h a c t as l o c a l r e c h a r g e a r e a s t h e r e b y d e c r e a s i n g t h e g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t ( H i t c h o n , 1 9 8 4 ) , o r where f a u l t p l a n e s a r e a c t i v e as c o n d u i t s w h i c h b r i n g h e a t e d w a t e r t o t h e s u r f a c e t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g the l o c a l g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t (Lam e t a l . , 1 9 8 2 ) . H y d r o c a r b o n M a t u r a t i o n F o r t h e J u r a - C r e t a c e o u s s e c t i o n i n t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t the t h r e s h o l d t e m p e r a t u r e f o r h y d r o c a r b o n g e n e r a t i o n was n o t a t t a i n e d u n t i l t h e Eocene ( F i g u r e s 47, 4 8 ) . The e f f e c t o f a v e r y low p a l e o - g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t d u r i n g c o a l i f i c a t i o n has been t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a low c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t . One o f t h e e f f e c t s o f a low c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t i s t h e g r e a t t h i c k n e s s o f s t r a t a t h a t now l i e s i n t h e o i l window. The l e v e l o f m a t u r i t y o f t h e J u r a - C r e t a c e o u s wedge i n th e P l a i n s p a r t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a i s g e n e r a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f age; m a t u r i t y i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e d e p t h o f b u r i a l d u r i n g the P a l e o g e n e . The r e g i o n a l m a t u r i t y p a t t e r n i s i l l u s t r a t e d 5 2 ' DEPTH TO THE OIL WINDOW (%RoR •• 0.81) A CONTROL POINTS / ISODEPTH CONT.JRS IN KM 116" M 2 LEGEND M A P UNIT P A M l C 4 C 3 C 2 C l UK L K PZ S T A G E O l i g o c e n e P a l e o c e n e M a a s t r i c h t i a n C a m p a n l a n PERIOD / EPOCH U p p e r C r e t a c e o u s In the D i s t u r b e d B e l t L o w e r C r e t a c e o u s , J u r a s s i c and T r i a s s i c P a l e o z o i c a n d O l d e r Figure 51. Depth to the o i l window. 71 w i t h a map o f d e p t h t o t h e o i l window ( F i g u r e 5 1 ) . The map was c o n s t r u c t e d by o v e r l a y i n g t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t and s u r f a c e i s o r e f l e c t a n c e maps and c a l c u l a t i n g the d e p t h a t w h i c h %RoR = 0.61 (%RoMax = . 6 5 ) , t h e l o w e r l i m i t o f t h e o i l window (Waples, 1 9 8 0 ) . From e a s t t o west a c r o s s t h e s t u d y a r e a a t a b o u t 50.5 deg. N. l a t i t u d e , t h e d e p t h t o t h e o i l window d e c r e a s e s from 2 km i n t h e e a s t t o 1 t o 2 km i n t h e c e n t r a l a r e a , t o l e s s t h a n 1 km i n t h e deep B a s i n , to s u r f a c e l e v e l i n t h e D i s t u r b e d B e l t . However, r e g i o n s t o t h e n o r t h and s o u t h do n o t f o l l o w t h i s p a t t e r n . T h e r e i s an a r e a i n t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n i n t h e s o u t h w e s t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a where t h e o i l window i s a t d e p t h s o v e r 2 km. T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o a p r e s e n t day t h i c k e r T e r t i a r y f i l l ( a l s o i n t e r p r e t e d t h i c k e r e r o d e d T e r t i a r y s e c t i o n ) and a s s o c i a t e d l o w e r p a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s . A l s o , i n t h e s o u t h - c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a r e a t h e r e i s a marked d e c r e a s e i n d e p t h t o the o i l window w h i c h i s i n t e r p r e t e d t o be a r e s u l t o f h i g h e r p a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s o v e r t h e S w e e t g r a s s A r c h i n t h i s a r e a ( F i g u r e 4 5 ) . T h i c k n e s s o f E r o d e d S e c t i o n U s i n g a r e f l e c t a n c e v e r s u s d e p t h g r a p h , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i r e c t l y c a l c u l a t e t h e t h i c k n e s s o f e r o d e d s e c t i o n by e x t r a p o l a t i n g t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t above t h e p r e s e n t s u r f a c e t o 0.15%RoR, t h e z e r o m a t u r i t y l e v e l . The i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e 0.15%RoR l i n e w i t h t h e g r a d i e n t o c c u r s 72 a t a h e i g h t above t h e p r e s e n t s u r f a c e w h i c h i s e q u a l t o the t h i c k n e s s o f removed s e c t i o n , a s s u m i n g a u n i f o r m c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t . The 0.15%RoR p o s i t i o n c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e I I f o r a l l t h e w e l l s from t h e P l a i n s and t h r e e w e l l s from t h e D i s t u r b e d B e l t . The range i n t h i c k n e s s o f removed o v e r b u r d e n i s 5.9 t o 12.9 km by l o g - l i n e a r e x t r a p o l a t i o n f o r 91% o f t h e w e l l s sampled i n t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n . The a v e r a g e t h i c k n e s s i s 8.7 km. T h e r e i s , however, s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n t h e g r a d i e n t s o b t a i n e d from c l o s e l y s p a c e d w e l l s . An i n d i v i d u a l 0.15%RoR e x t r a p o l a t i o n may v a r y f r o m t h e a v e r a g e f o r t h e w e l l s i n t h e same t o w n s h i p by up t o 16%. To smooth o u t some o f t h e i n h e r e n t v a r i a t i o n , and s c a t t e r due t o s m a l l d a t a s e t s , a l l t h e c u t t i n g s and c o r e r e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h d a t a was p l o t t e d on f i g u r e s 37 and 39. The a v e r a g e g r a d i e n t o b t a i n e d f o r w e l l s i n T o w n s h i p s 10 t o 20 i n t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n i s 0.094 log%RoR/km f o r N=192, and r2=0.71. U s i n g the l o g - l i n e a r 0.15%RoR e x t r a p o l a t i o n , an a v e r a g e o f 5.3 km o f removed s e c t i o n i s c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h i s p a r t o f t h e B a s i n . F o r t h e w e l l s i n t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n i n T o w n s h i p s 6 t o 8, t h e a v e r a g e g r a d i e n t i s 0.056 log%RoR/km, and the z e r o m a t u r i t y e x t r a p o l a t i o n i s 8.85 km (N=25, r 2 = . 7 3 ) . F o r t h e l a r g e r d a t a s e t , t h e c u t t i n g s d a t a a l o n e were p l o t t e d i n f i g u r e 38 f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h f i g u r e 37. A r e s u l t o f o n l y u s i n g c u t t i n g s d a t a i s t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f a l o w e r a v e r a g e c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t . The e f f e c t may be a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t t o c a v i n g o f some s a m p l e s . 73 O t h e r s t u d i e s i n the B a s i n , as d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , have p r e d i c t e d a much t h i n n e r e r o d e d T e r t i a r y s e c t i o n . T h i s d i s p a r i t y i s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t f o r m e r s t u d i e s o n l y modeled b u r i a l h i s t o r y b a s e d on l a t e r a l rank v a r i a t i o n i n r o c k s o f t h e same age r a t h e r t h a n v e r t i c a l v a r i a t i o n i n r o c k s o f d i f f e r e n t age. When a s e q u e n c e o f r o c k s i s c o n s i d e r e d , however, as i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e t h e r m a l model i s c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t u s e d , b e c a u s e t h e t h e r m a l model a p p l i e d t o the upper p a r t o f t h e s e c t i o n a l s o a f f e c t s t h e l o w e r s e c t i o n . V e r t i c a l l y measured c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s from b o r e h o l e s were n o t used by o t h e r a u t h o r s i n t h e i r c a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h i c k n e s s e s o f removed s e c t i o n i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a P l a i n s . The m a s s i v e amounts o f e r o d e d s t r a t a documented by t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t a model o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e A l b e r t a F o r e l a n d B a s i n b a s e d on v i s c o - e l a s t i c f l e x u r e o f t h e l i t h o s p h e r e p r o p o s e d by Beaumont ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Beaumont's b e s t f i t t i n g model p r o p o s e s 7 km o f l o a d i n g f o r t h e c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h e B a s i n d u r i n g the P a l e o g e n e , w e l l w i t h i n t h e ra n g e o f P a l e o g e n e s e d i m e n t t h i c k n e s s e s d e t e r m i n e d h e r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , Beaumont et. a l . (1982) b e l i e v e t h a t s u f f i c i e n t t i m e has e l a p s e d p o s t - o r o g e n i c a l l y f o r up t o 10 km o f e r o s i o n f o r t h e C e n o z o i c as p r o p o s e d by t h e m o d e l . 74 A l t e r n a t i v e C a l c u l a t i o n o f T h i c k n e s s o f E r o d e d S e c t i o n I f t h e P a l e o g e n e s e d i m e n t s were d e p o s i t e d v e r y q u i c k l y and t h e i r r e s i d e n c e t i m e once d e p o s i t e d v e r y s h o r t , t h e y may n e v e r have a t t a i n e d a t h e r m a l e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h t h e basement h e a t f l u x . The T e r t i a r y c l a s t i c wedge i n t h e B e a u f o r t , f o r example, i s t h o u g h t t o be a n o n - t h e r m a l l y e q u i l i b r a t e d wedge: measured c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s e x h i b i t l i t t l e i n c r e a s e ( l i n e a r ) i n m a t u r i t y w i t h d e p t h ( p a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s i n t h e B e a u f o r t T e r t i a r y wedge a r e e s t i m a t e d t o be as low as 1 deg. C./100 m ) ( p e r s . comm., S. C r e a n e y , 1 9 8 4 ) . R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e s f o r some w e l l s i n t h e A r c t i c e x h i b i t t h i s n o n - e x p o n e n t i a l i n c r e a s e o f m a t u r i t y w i t h d e p t h a t r e f l e c t a n c e s l e s s t h a n 0.35%RoMax ( B u s t i n e_t a_l. 1977, F i g . 3; p e r s . comm. B u s t i n , 1 9 8 4 ) . A r e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h p r o f i l e f o r s e d i m e n t s l e s s t h a n 2 Ma i n a w e l l i n t h e Los A n g e l e s B a s i n a l s o shows t h i s n o n - e x p o n e n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n r e f l e c t a n c e a t v e r y low rank ( B o s t i c k et. a l . , 1978, F i g . 6 ) . In t h i s s t u d y , t h e t h i c k n e s s o f e r o d e d s e c t i o n has been c a l c u l a t e d w i t h t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e measured l o g - l i n e a r c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t i n t h e p r e s e r v e d s e c t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t i n the e r o d e d s e c t i o n . I f t h e s t r a t a n e v e r r e a c h e d t h e r m a l e q u i l i b r i u m , t h e n t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s f a l s e . In t h i s c a s e , a s s u m i n g a l i n e a r c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t below 0.35%RoR, may more c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e t h e g r a d i e n t i n the e r o d e d s e c t i o n . E s t i m a t e s o f e r o d e d P a l e o g e n e s e c t i o n , a s s u m i n g an 75 e x p o n e n t i a l c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t a t g r e a t e r t h a n 0.35%RoR and a l i n e a r g r a d i e n t below 0.35% RoR, a r e a b o u t 26% l o w e r t h a n t h o s e p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e I I . G e o m o r p h o l o g i c e v i d e n c e f o r e r o s i o n F i v e t o n i n e k i l o m e t r e s o f removed s e c t i o n from th e d e e p e s t p a r t o f t h e s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a B a s i n as p r e d i c t e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r t h a n p r e v i o u s l y s u g g e s t e d . The amount o f removed s e c t i o n p r e d i c t e d i s , however, c o n s i s t e n t w i t h T e r t i a r y g e o m o r p h o l o g y . In s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a and n o r t h e a s t e r n Montana, t h e r e a r e numerous g e n t l y d i p p i n g e l e v a t e d s u r f a c e s i n t e r p r e t e d to be remnant p e n e p l a i n s ( C o l l i e r and Thorn, 1918; M a c k e n z i e , 1922; A l d e n , 1924; W i l l i a m s , 1929; W a r r e n , 1 9 3 9 ) . These p l a t e a u s i n some a r e a s a r e c a p p e d by s h e e t s o f q u a r t z i t e p e b b l e t o b o u l d e r c o n g l o m e r a t e s , whose o r i g i n i s t h o u g h t t o l i e i n t h e B e l t / P u r c e l l r o c k s o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s ( A l d e n , 1 9 24). In A l b e r t a , examples o f t h e s e p e n e p l a i n s a r e the C y p r e s s H i l l s , C r a w f o r d P l a t e a u , Radnor P l a t e a u , C o c h r a n e P l a t e a u , Hand H i l l s and M i l k R i v e r R i d g e (Warren, 1 9 3 9 ) . The C y p r e s s H i l l s s u r f a c e , o v e r 130 km l o n g and 600 m above t h e s u r r o u n d i n g p l a i n s , i s p e r h a p s t h e b e s t known. The r e s i s t a n t c a p p i n g c o n g l o m e r a t e h e r e i s O l i g o c e n e , as d a t e d by numerous v e r t e b r a t e f o s s i l b o nes, and c o n t a i n s q u a r t z i t e b o u l d e r s g r e a t e r t h a n 20 cm i n d i a m e t e r ( M a c k e n z i e , 1922) . T h i s d e p o s i t i s d i r e c t e v i d e n c e o f a m a j o r e r o s i o n e v e n t i n 76 L a t e E o cene o r E a r l y O l i g o c e n e a t t h e l a t e s t . T h e r e a r e no d e p o s i t s o f Eocene age i n t h e A l b e r t a P l a i n s b u t i n c e n t r a l S a s k a t c h e w a n , t h e S w i f t C u r r e n t c o n g l o m e r a t e i s o f Eocene age (Warren, 1 9 3 9 ) . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h e r e f o r e f o r L a t e Eocene u p l i f t and e r o s i o n . O t h e r p e n e p l a i n s o f M i o c e n e - E a r l y P l i o c e n e ( F l a x v i l l e G r a v e l ) , L a t e P l i o c e n e - E a r l y P l e i s t o c e n e , P l e i s t o c e n e , and R e c e n t ages e x i s t ( C o l l i e r and Thorn, 1918; A l d e n , 1 9 2 4 ) , w h i c h a t t e s t t o c y c l i c u p l i f t and e r o s i o n . I f i t i s assumed t h a t the p e n e p l a i n s u r f a c e s r e p r e s e n t t h e f i n a l p hase o f an e r o s i v e e v e n t w h i c h b e v e l e d t h e t o p o g r a p h i c s u r f a c e down to an e r o s i o n a l b a s e l i n e , t h e n t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e s u c c e s s i v e e v e n t s may be e s t i m a t e d by p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n e l e v a t i o n o f t h e p e n e p l a i n s . C o l l i e r and Thorn ( 1 9 1 8 ) , u s i n g t h e e l e v a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e between the e a s t end o f t h e C y p r e s s H i l l s and t h e F l a x v i l l e s u r f a c e , a t t r i b u t e 180 m o f e r o s i o n t o t h e F l a x v i l l e e v e n t ( O l i g o c e n e to M i o c e n e - E a r l y P l i o c e n e ) , c a . 180 m o f e r o s i o n f r o m M i o c e n e - E a r l y P l i o c e n e t o the L a t e P l i o c e n e - E a r l y P l e i s t o c e n e e v e n t ; and c a . 90 m f o r t h e L a t e P l i o c e n e - E a r l y P l e i s t o c e n e t o R e c e n t e v e n t . I n t o t a l t h e n s i n c e t h e O l i g o c e n e , t h e r e has been c a . 460 m o f e r o s i o n a t t h e e a s t end o f t h e C y p r e s s H i l l s . T h i s e s t i m a t e i n c r e a s e s by 30 t o 40% a t t h e west end o f t h e C y p r e s s H i l l s , where t h e C y p r e s s p e n e p l a i n i s a t i t s maximum h e i g h t above t h e p r e s e n t s u r f a c e : 600 t o 750 m o f r e l i e f (Lawson, 1 9 2 5 ) . The o r i g i n o f t h e r i v e r t h a t s u p p l i e d t h e c o b b l e s o f t h e C y p r e s s H i l l s c o n g l o m e r a t e l a y a t l e a s t 240 km t o t h e west. 77 A l d e n (1924) showed t h a t , by e x t r a p o l a t i n g t h e C y p r e s s H i l l s p e n e p l a i n t o t h e w e s t , u s i n g a minimum r i v e r g r a d i e n t , t h e s u r f a c e would o v e r t o p a l l but t h e h i g h e s t o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s . The e x t r a p o l a t e d p e n e p l a i n would be o v e r 1500 m above t h e B e l l y R i v e r i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a ( A l d e n , 1 9 2 4 ) . The amount o f e r o s i o n s i n c e O l i g o c e n e i n t h e e a s t and west t h e r e f o r e has been d i f f e r e n t i a l : 450 m a t 370 km from t h e m o u n t a i n s , 600 t o 750 m a t 240 km from t h e m o u n t a i n s and 1500 m n e a r t h e m o u n t a i n s . Lawson (1925) c o n t e n d s t h a t , due t o i s o s t a t i c r e a d j u s t m e n t , t h e e r o s i o n i n t h e west would have been g r e a t e r t h a n A l d e n ' s e s t i m a t e . U s i n g A l d e n ' s r i v e r g r a d i e n t e s t a b l i s h e d 30 km west o f C y p r e s s H i l l s , Lawson s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e has been 770 m o f removed r o c k and t h a t 510 m o f t h i s e r o s i o n c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o i s o s t a t i c u p l i f t ; i n o t h e r words, t h e o r i g i n a l C y p r e s s p l a i n was 512 m below where i t i s e x t r a p o l a t e d t o t o d a y . Lawson s t a t e s t h a t s i n c e the c o m p e n s a t i n g r o c k l a y e r i s l i g h t e r i n t h e m o u n t a i n s t h a n i n t h e p l a i n s , t h e r e has been more u p l i f t i n the m o u n t a i n s t h a n A l d e n e s t i m a t e d . L a w s o n 1 s a p p r o x i m a t i o n i s 2770 m o f e r o d e d r o c k i n t h e m o u n t a i n s p r o p e r s i n c e O l i g o c e n e . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t s i n c e O l i g o c e n e t i m e , from e a s t t o west 450 m t o 1500 m o f s t r a t a have been removed from the P l a i n s . In t h e m o u n t a i n s t h e r e may have been up t o 3 km removed. Near t h e m o u n t a i n s t h e n , 20 t o 30% o f t h e e s t i m a t e d t h i c k n e s s o f e r o d e d s e c t i o n c a n be accommodated by e r o s i o n f r o m O l i g o c e n e to p r e s e n t . 78 The a v e r a g e r a t e o f d e n u d a t i o n t h e n , s i n c e O l i g o c e n e t i m e , f o r e a s t C y p r e s s H i l l s i s .015 mm/yr, f o r t h e a r e a n e a r the M o u n t a i n s .050 mm/yr and i n t h e M o u n t a i n s p e r h a p s o v e r 0.100 mm/yr. T h e s e r a t e s compare w e l l w i t h measured e r o s i o n r a t e s (by s e d i m e n t s a m p l i n g ) o f .001 t o .025 mm/yr f o r s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a r i v e r b a s i n s (McPherson, 1974), .011 t o .025 mm/yr f o r c e n t r a l A l b e r t a B a s i n ( H o l l i n g s h e a d e_t a l . , 1973) , .003 t o .040 mm/yr f o r t h e n o r t h e r n and c e n t r a l P r a i r i e s , and .050 t o .120 mm/yr f o r t h e M a c k e n z i e R i v e r ( S l a y m a k e r , 1 9 7 2 ) . In t h e M o u n t a i n s however, r e c o r d e d r e g i o n a l d e n u d a t i o n r a t e s c a n be much h i g h e r . R a t e s a r e g r e a t e r t h a n 1.00 mm/yr f o r t h e G r e a t e r H i m a l a y a and Ka r a k o r a m , g r e a t e r t h a n .60 mm/yr f o r t h e A l a s k a n m o u n t a i n s and E u r o p e a n A l p s ( H e w i t t , 1972) b a s e d on s e d i m e n t s a m p l i n g , and r a t e s a r e between 0.4 t o 1.0 mm/yr f o r the A l p s b a s e d on g e o c h r o n o l o g i c and h e a t f l o w d a t a ( C l a r k and J a e g e r , 1 9 6 9 ) . A mean a n n u a l d e n u d a t i o n r a t e f o r t h e C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a i s s u g g e s t e d t o be .060 t o .075 mm/yr (S l a y m a k e r and M c P h e r s o n , 19 7 7 ) , a l t h o u g h l o c a l r a t e s f o r a r e a s t h a t have r e c e n t l y been i n t e n s e l y g l a c i a t e d a r e as h i g h as .500 mm/yr (Young, 1974) . D e n u d a t i o n and S e d i m e n t a t i o n R a t e C o n s t r a i n t s The s p a n o f t i m e between t h e end o f t h e P a l e o c e n e and th e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e O l i g o c e n e , when the e p i s o d e o f deep b u r i a l and u p l i f t o c c u r r e d , i s 30 Ma. T h e r e a r e 60 Ma 79 s a n d s t o n e s p r e s e r v e d i n the a x i s o f t h e B a s i n , and 30 Ma c o n g l o m e r a t e s p r e s e r v e d on remnant p e n e p l a i n s t o t h e e a s t . U p l i f t i n t h e Omineca C r y s t a l l i n e B e l t by 48 Ma has been documented by G a b r i e l s e (1975). In t h e F l a t h e a d R i v e r R e g i o n , t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e Eocene to O l i g o c e n e K i s h e n e h n F o r m a t i o n ( N o r r i s and B a l l y , 1972) p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e f o r u p l i f t and e r o s i o n b e g i n n i n g as e a r l y as 53 Ma. U s i n g 15 Ma as t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e d u r i n g w h i c h t h e m i s s i n g E ocene s e c t i o n was e r o d e d and p r e s e n t day e r o s i o n r a t e s f o r m o u n t a i n o u s t e r r a i n , e s t i m a t e s o f i t s p r o b a b l e t h i c k n e s s may be made ( T a b l e V I I ) . A r a n g e o f between 0.75 and 15 km t h i c k n e s s f o r t h e m i s s i n g Eocene s e c t i o n i s a c c e p t a b l e u s i n g d e n u d a t i o n r a t e s . The c o n v e r s e q u e s t i o n i s how much s t r a t a c o u l d be d e p o s i t e d i n the 15 Ma between L a t e P a l e o c e n e and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f u p l i f t ? Minimum s e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e s may be e s t i m a t e d f o r t h e p r e s e r v e d s t r a t a n e a r the a x i s o f t h e B a s i n ( T a b l e V I I I ) . F o r w e l l s i n t h e N a n t o n - C l a r e s h o l m -F t . M c C l e o d a r e a , i n t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n , minimum s e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e s f o r t h e B e l l y R i v e r - P a s k a p o o a s s e m b l a g e ( W a l k e r , 1982) range from .12 t o .15 mm/yr b a s e d on a 14 Ma d u r a t i o n o f s e d i m e n t a t i o n . T h e s e a r e minimum r a t e s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o t c o r r e c t e d f o r c o m p a c t i o n , and t h e age o f t h e y o u n g e s t s t r a t a may be s l i g h t l y o l d e r t h a n 60 Ma. U s i n g a ra n g e o f c o m p a c t i o n c o r r e c t i o n s o f 30 t o 50%, t h e s e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e was p r o b a b l y between .16 t o .22 mm/yr. U s i n g t h i s r a n g e o f s e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e s , t h e t h i c k n e s s o f 80 t h e m i s s i n g uncompacted P a l e o g e n e s e c t i o n r a n g e d between 2400 and 3300 m. E r o s i o n A r e a R e c o r d e d C a l c u l a t e d R a t e ' t h i c k n e s s o v e r (mm/yr) 15 Ma. (m) 1.0 G r e a t e r H i m a l a y a and 15,000 K a r a k o r a n ( H e w i t t , 1972) .60 A l a s k a n M o u n t a i n s and 9,000 E u r o p e a n A l p s ( H e w i t t , 1972) .50 G l a c i e r i z e d C o r d i l l e r a 7,500 (Young, 1974) .10 O l i g o c e n e to P r e s e n t r a t e f o r 1,500 t h e M o u n t a i n s ( t h i s s t u d y ) .07 C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a 1,050 a v e r a g e r a t e ( S l a y m a k e r and M c P h e r s o n , 1977) .05 Near M o u n t a i n r a t e - 0 1 i g o c e n e 750 t o p r e s e n t ( t h i s s t u d y ) T a b l e V I I . D e n u d a t i o n r a t e s measured by s e d i m e n t s a m p l i n g . E s t i m a t e s o f t h e amount o f e r o s i o n t h a t c o u l d t a k e p l a c e i n 15 Ma, u s i n g t h e s e r a t e s , a r e p r e s e n t e d i n column t h r e e . In summary, f o r t h e main a x i s o f t h e B a s i n i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a t h e m i s s i n g Eocene s e c t i o n i s e s t i m a t e d to be .75 t o 15 km t h i c k u s i n g d e n u d a t i o n r a t e s (modern and O l i g o c e n e t o p r e s e n t ) and 2.4 t o 3.3 km u s i n g s e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e s c a l c u l a t e d by u s i n g t h e p r e s e r v e d r o c k r e c o r d . The t h i c k n e s s o f e r o d e d s e c t i o n o f O l i g o c e n e to p r e s e n t age i s 1.5 km f o r t h e same a r e a d e c r e a s i n g to .45 km a t t h e e a s t end o f C y p r e s s H i l l s . The t h i c k n e s s o f t h e e r o d e d T e r t i a r y S E D I M E N T A T I O N R A T E S B e l l y R i v e r L o w e r - U p p e r L o w e r - P a s k a p o o C r s t a c e o u E C r e t a c e o u s WELL LOCATION H(ffl) dS H<m) dS H(ffl) dS 6 - 3 6 - 1 7 - 1 W 5 1714 . 1 2 2 688 . 0 2 6 325 . 0 1 9 i I - 1 0 - 1 7 - 1 W 5 1927 . 138 669 . 026 3 4 6 . 020 B - 4 - 1 6 - 2 9 W 4 18B9 . 135 669 . 0 2 6 337 . 0 2 0 6 - 3 2 - 1 5 - 2 9 W 4 2 0 7 2 . 1 4 8 680 . 0 2 6 339 . 0 2 0 3 - 2 7 - 6 - 2 8 W 4 2 1 2 5 . 1 5 2 651 . 0 2 5 453 . 0 2 7 6 - U - 1 4 - 2 9 W 4 2 0 8 0 . 148 675 . 0 2 6 330 . 0 1 9 *****•*******«*•****#**«**#**#***#*•*####*•**#«*«* Table VIII. Sedimentation rates measured from Cretaceous and Paleocene s t r a t a well penetrations i n the axis of the Basin. H = thickness of section, dS = average sedimentation rate (mm/yr) estimated by d i v i d i n g H by the di f f e r e n c e i n age between the top and bottom of the section 82 s e c t i o n t h e n may l i e between 2.3 t o 16.5 km u s i n g d e n u d a t i o n r a t e s , o r 3.9 t o 4.8 km u s i n g s e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e s . From the above a r g u m e n t s , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t g i v e n 30 Ma, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e p o s i t and s u b s e q u e n t l y e r o d e t h e t h i c k n e s s o f removed s e c t i o n c a l c u l a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y b a s e d on c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s . From the r a n g e o f 5.9 t o 8.8 km c a l c u l a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y f o r t h e t h i c k n e s s o f e r o d e d s e c t i o n f o r t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n , an a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f p a l e o - s e d i m e n t a t i o n and p a l e o - e r o s i o n r a t e s c a n be made f o r t h e P a l e o g e n e . S u b t r a c t i n g 1.5 km from th e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e e r o d e d s e c t i o n f o r e r o s i o n t h a t has t a k e n p l a c e s i n c e t h e O l i g o c e n e , 4.4 to 7.3 km i s t h e range o f t h i c k n e s s o f s e c t i o n t h a t must have been d e p o s i t e d and e r o d e d between 60 Ma and 30 Ma. T h e r e f o r e s e d i m e n t a t i o n and e r o s i o n r a t e s f o r t h i s s p a n o f t i m e l i e s i n a r a n g e between 0.3 and 0.5 mm/yr. T h i s r a t e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w i c e t h e r a t e c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e B e l l y R i v e r - P a s k a p o o a s s e m b l a g e as d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . The above c a l c u l a t i o n o f P a l e o g e n e s e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e assumes t h a t a l l t h e l o a d i n g i s due t o m o l a s s e o u t b u i l d i n g f r o m t h e m o u n t a i n s . I t c a n be a r g u e d t h a t some o f t h e l o a d i n g i n a r e a s p r e s e n t l y a d j a c e n t to t h e D i s t u r b e d B e l t was due t o o v e r t h r u s t i n g . How f a r t h e h i g h - l e v e l t h r u s t s h e e t s e x t e n d e d e a s t o f t h e i r p r e s e n t e a s t e r n m o s t p o s i t i o n i s unknown. I f t h r u s t s h e e t s e x t e n d e d e a s t o f t h e e a s t e r n l i m i t o f t h e D i s t u r b e d B e l t , t h e n n o t o n l y has t h e t h r u s t s h e e t b u t a l s o t h e s o l e f a u l t has s i n c e been removed by 83 e r o s i o n . O v e r t h r u s t i n g P r o b l e m s The arguments f o r and a g a i n s t s t r a t a i n t h e F o o t h i l l s and M o u n t a i n s h a v i n g a t t a i n e d a h i g h e r m a t u r i t y as a r e s u l t o f o v e r t h r u s t i n g have been o u t l i n e d by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s . I t has been shown t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e t e m p e r a t u r e i n c r e a s e i n t h e f o o t w a l l s t r a t a c a n be e f f e c t e d by a h o t o v e r t h r u s t s h e e t (Oxburgh and T u r c o t t e , 1974; A n g e v i n e and T u r c o t t e , 1 9 8 3). A l s o , f i e l d d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f c l a y m i n e r a l a s s e m b l a g e s i n d i c a t i v e o f i n c r e a s e d m a t u r i t y i n s t r a t a b u r i e d b e n e a t h t h r u s t p l a t e s i n n o r t h e r n Montana D i s t u r b e d B e l t has been p r e s e n t e d by Hoffman and Hower ( 1 9 7 9 ) . P e a r s o n and G r i e v e (1979) document p o s t - t h r u s t i n g m a t u r a t i o n i n the F e r n i e B a s i n . C o n v e r s e l y , H a c q u e b a r d and D o n a l d s o n (1974) showed t h a t L a r a m i d e o v e r t h r u s t i n g had l i t t l e m a t u r i n g e f f e c t on f o o t w a l l s t r a t a i n t h e s o u t h e r n Rocky M o u n t a i n s and F o o t h i l l s o f A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A c c o r d i n g to t h e s e a u t h o r s c o a l rank o f t h e M i s t M o u n t a i n and B e l l y R i v e r s t r a t a i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e p r e - o r o g e n i c d e p t h o f b u r i a l o f t h e s t r a t a . In t h e e a s t h a l f o f t h e F e r n i e map-area, a v a i l a b l e s u r f a c e d a t a shows o n l y t h r e e a r e a s where the r e f l e c t a n c e o f c o a l s o f t h e same age s t r a t a a c t u a l l y i n c r e a s e s i n rank a t t h e more e a s t e r n t h r u s t e x p o s u r e s . A l s o , B u s t i n (1983) has documented t h a t f o r the s o u t h e r n Rocky M o u n t a i n s , no g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e r m a l 84 m a t u r i t y c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o h e a t i n g c a u s e d by f r i c t i o n d u r i n g o v e r t h r u s t i n g . B u s t i n measured t h e v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e o f s a m p l e s a d j a c e n t to t h r u s t f a u l t s and c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e v a l u e s o b t a i n e d a r e i n t h e r a n g e e x p e c t e d as a r e s u l t o f b u r i a l metamorphism. Data from t h i s t h e s i s c l e a r l y shows t h a t deep b u r i a l o f s t r a t a o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the P a l e o g e n e . The t i m e - t e m p e r a t u r e m o d e ls d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t f o r t h e J u r a - C r e t a c e o u s wedge i n t h e P l a i n s , s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s o f o r g a n i c m a t u r i t y were n o t a t t a i n e d u n t i l p o s t - L a r a m i d e deep b u r i a l t o o k p l a c e . I t c a n a l s o be shown t h a t t h e l e v e l o f m a t u r i t y o f D e v o n i a n s t r a t a i n t h e P l a i n s ( e a s t o f t h e Deep B a s i n ) r e c o r d s o n l y a s i n g l e deep b u r i a l e v e n t . In o t h e r words, i f t h e D e v o n i a n s t r a t a were b u r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e f o r e t h e P a l e o g e n e e v e n t , t h e i r c u r r e n t l e v e l o f m a t u r i t y s h o u l d be much h i g h e r t h a n i t i s . T h e r e f o r e , o r g a n i c m a t u r a t i o n o f s t r a t a i n t h e P l a i n s i s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y s y n - t o p o s t - o r o g e n i c . In t h e F o o t h i l l s and F r o n t Ranges o f t h e s o u t h e r n Rocky M o u n t a i n s , however, t h e J u r a s s i c s t r a t a a r e p r o g r e s s i v e l y more mature t o t h e w e s t , s e e m i n g l y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r p r e - L a r a m i d e d e p t h o f b u r i a l ( H acquebard and D o n a l d s o n , 1974, and t h i s s t u d y ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f p r e - o r p o s t - o r o g e n i c h e a t i n g f o r s t r a t a i n t h e D i s t u r b e d B e l t t h r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e m a t u r i t y p r o f i l e s from deep w e l l s . I f t h e l e v e l o f o r g a n i c m a t u r i t y was a t t a i n e d b e f o r e t h r u s t i n g t h e n p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e e p e r r e p e a t s o f t h e same age 85 o f s t r a t a s h o u l d be p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s mature b e c a u s e h a n g i n g w a l l s t r a t a whose p r e - t h r u s t i n g p o s i t i o n was t o t h e west were more d e e p l y b u r i e d . I f on the o t h e r hand m a t u r a t i o n was a t t a i n e d as a r e s u l t o f o v e r t h r u s t i n g , i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s o f m a t u r i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o n o n - o v e r t h r u s t e d s t r a t a o f t h e same age m i g h t be e x p e c t e d i n p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e e p e r r e p e a t s e c t i o n s . In S h e l l 42 W a t e r t o n t h e r e a r e s i x r e p e a t e d s e c t i o n s o f J u r a s s i c s t r a t a . The f i r s t , s e c o n d , t h i r d and f i f t h r e p e t i t i o n s show a v e r y s l i g h t i n c r e a s e f r o m 0.78 t o 0.81%RoR, however the s i x t h r e p e a t 1000 m d e e p e r d i s p l a y s an i n c r e a s e t o 0.91 t o 1.03%RoR. A l s o , t h e upper B l a i r m o r e s e c t i o n i n c r e a s e s from 0.70%RoR i n t h e f i r s t r e p e a t to 0.85 to .92%RoR i n t h e f i f t h r e p e a t . I f t h e p r e m i s e i s a c c e p t e d t h a t r o c k s o f t h e h a n g i n g w a l l were o r i g i n a l l y f u r t h e r t o t h e west and a t a g r e a t e r d e p t h o f b u r i a l t h a n r o c k s o f t h e same age i n t h e f o o t w a l l , t h e n t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e f o r p o s t - o r o g e n i c h e a t i n g i n t h i s w e l l . The J u r a s s i c s e c t i o n r e p e t i t i o n s i n S h e l l W a t e r t o n 7-24 a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e an i n c r e a s e i n m a t u r i t y w i t h d e p t h . However, t h e sample from t h e t h i r d r e p e a t i s o f poor q u a l i t y , and the sample from the f i f t h r e p e a t i s p r o b a b l y an Exshaw c a v i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s does n o t i n c r e a s e i n l e v e l o f m a t u r i t y when r e p e a t e d . In S h e l l Home W a t e r t o n 6-3, t h e J u r a s s i c r e p e t i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y d e c r e a s e i n l e v e l o f m a t u r i t y w i t h d e p t h . The F e r n i e s a m p l e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d e p t h a r e 1.06, 0.93 t o 1.02, 0.79, 0.87, and 86 0.67%RoR. In the S h e l l M i d d l e p a s s w e l l , t h e r e f l e c t a n c e d a t a q u a l i t y i s p o o r below 3370 m; however, no samp l e s o f i n c r e a s e d m a t u r i t y were measured below t h e f i r s t M i s s i s s i p p i a n r e p e t i t i o n . In S h e l l Home Sheep 8-30 t h e Upper C r e t a c e o u s i n c r e a s e s f r o m 1.10-1.13, t o 1.20-1.21, t o 1.31-1.35%RoR t h r o u g h t h r e e r e p e t i t i o n s . The K o o t e n a y s a m p l e s i n c r e a s e from 1.03-1.12 t o 1.16%RoR. The Lower C r e t a c e o u s s a m p l e s i n c r e a s e f r o m 0.94 t o 0.70 t o 1.46%RoR i n the f i r s t r e p e a t . Below t h i s , however. Lower C r e t a c e o u s and F e r n i e d a t a show no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n . T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n m a t u r i t y t h r o u g h s i x J u r a s s i c r e p e t i t i o n s i n t h e S h e l l G e t t y S u l l i v a n W e l l . F o r each o f t h e r e p e a t s e c t i o n s t h e J u r a s s i c r a n g e s r e s p e c t i v e l y 1.46-1.63, 1.52-1.59, 1.62-1.63, 1.53-1.62, 1.52-1.74, and 1.69-1.73%RoR. In t h e S h e l l H u n t e r V a l l e y w e l l t h e r e i s no a p p r e c i a b l e i n c r e a s e i n m a t u r i t y w i t h d e p t h f o r t h e J u r a s s i c , Lower and Upper C r e t a c e o u s r e p e t i t i o n s . The Lower C r e t a c e o u s r a n g e s f r o m 1.21-1.44%RoR a t 1643-1984 m, 1.23-1.46%RoR a t 1984-2318 m, and 1.38-1.55%RoR a t 4062-4280 m. In t h e S h e l l 8 P a n t h e r R i v e r w e l l t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n m a t u r i t y a t d e p t h f o r t h e J u r a s s i c r e p e t i t i o n s . In summary, o u t o f t h e 8 w e l l s , i n c r e a s e d m a t u r i t y i n p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e e p e r s t r a t a o f t h e same age o c c u r s i n t h r e e w e l l s : S h e l l 42 W a t e r t o n , S h e l l W a t e r t o n 7-24, and S h e l l Home Sheep 8-30. F u r t h e r m o r e S h e l l H u n t e r V a l l e y , S h e l l 8 P a n t h e r R i v e r , and S h e l l G e t t y S u l l i v a n e x h i b i t a g e n e r a l l y 87 equal l e v e l of m a t u r i t y through p r o g r e s s i v e l y deeper f a u l t r e p e t i t i o n s . For the s e w e l l s , s i g n i f i c a n t m a t u r i t y i n c r e a s e as a r e s u l t of o v e r t h r u s t i n g must have o c c u r r e d because the deeper s t r a t a were l e s s d e e p l y b u r i e d p r e - t h r u s t i n g . Only two w e l l s , S h e l l M i d d l e p a s s and S h e l l Home Waterton 6-3, d i s p l a y d e c r e a s i n g m a t u r i t y w i t h p r o g r e s s i v e l y deeper f a u l t r e p e a t s . T h i s does not argue a g a i n s t p o s t - o r o g e n i c m a t u r a t i o n but p o s t - o r o g e n i c m a t u r a t i o n ( i f any) i n t h e s e l o c a t i o n s was not s u f f i c i e n t to o v e r p r i n t the p r e - o r o g e n i c l e v e l s o f m a t u r i t y . T h r u s t M o d e l i n g To d e t e r m i n e the e f f e c t of o v e r t h r u s t i n g on the m a t u r a t i o n of f o o t w a l l s t r a t a , a model was d e s i g n e d to s i m u l a t e o v e r t h r u s t i n g . I n i t i a l l y a 5 km b l o c k i s i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y emplaced on 5 km of autochthonous s t r a t a , the two b l o c k s are a l l o w e d to reach t h e r m a l e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h basement heat f l u x , and then the a l l o c h t h o n o u s b l o c k i s r a p i d l y removed to s i m u l a t e r a p i d u p l i f t and c o n c o m i t a n t e r o s i o n . The f i r s t case was modeled a t a geot h e r m a l g r a d i e n t of 2.0 deg. C./100m, and the second case at 4.0 deg. C./100m. A f i n i t e - e l e m e n t program based on a t r a n s i e n t s o l u t i o n to the t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l a d v e c t i o n - d i s p e r s i o n e q u a t i o n (Smith and Chapman, 1983) , c o n s i d e r i n g heat t r a n s f e r by c o n d u c t i o n o n l y , c a l c u l a t e d the temperature changes a f t e r the t h r u s t i n g event (the o u t p u t of 88 t h e program p r o v i d e d a d e t a i l e d t h e r m a l h i s t o r y f o r b o t h h a n g i n g w a l l and f o o t w a l l s t r a t a a f t e r t h e s i m u l a t e d o v e r t h r u s t i n g e v e n t ) . P r o g r e s s i v e l y h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e g e n e r a t e d i n t h e f o o t w a l l s t r a t a as a r e s u l t o f d o u b l i n g t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e s u r f a c e t o basement s e c t i o n and c o n d u c t i o n o f h e a t f r om t h e h a n g i n g w a l l by t h e f o o t w a l l s t r a t a ( F i g u r e 52) . The t e m p e r a t u r e s g e n e r a t e d i n the f o o t w a l l s t r a t a by o v e r t h r u s t i n g a b l o c k w i t h a g r a d i e n t o f 40 deg. C./km were as h i g h as 358 deg. C , whereas i n t h e 20 deg. C./km model t h e y were as h i g h as 189 deg. C./km. The t e m p e r a t u r e h i s t o r y p r o v i d e d by t h e o v e r t h r u s t i n g model was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a c o m p l e t e t i m e - t e m p e r a t u r e h i s t o r y model u s i n g t h e TTI method ( F i g u r e 5 3 ) . The model i s b a s e d on d a t a f o r ages and t h i c k n e s s e s o f s t r a t a i n t h e S h e l l M i d d l e p a s s w e l l . The f o o t w a l l s t r a t a span a s e q u e n c e from b a s a l B l a i r m o r e t o B e l l y R i v e r , and t h e b a s a l h a n g i n g w a l l r o c k i s b a s a l B l a i r m o r e . Normal s e d i m e n t a t i o n b u r i a l o c c u r s f r o m 121 Ma u n t i l 65 Ma. A m i n o r u p l i f t o c c u r s between 65 and 60 Ma. A t 60 Ma t h e e n t i r e s e c t i o n i s o v e r t h r u s t . In t h e f i r s t m i l l i o n y e a r s , t e m p e r a t u r e s r a p i d l y a d j u s t t o t h e new c o n d i t i o n s : t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e h a n g i n g w a l l r o c k c h a n g e s f r o m 114 to"66 deg. C.; and t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e y o u n g e s t f o o t w a l l r o c k ( c l o s e s t t o t h e t h r u s t ) c h a n g e s f r o m 20 t o 72 deg. C . E q u i l i b r i u m i s a t t a i n e d by 40 Ma, when the e n t i r e s e c t i o n i s u p l i f t e d a t a r a t e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e m o d e ls d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e P l a i n s . 89 Figure 52. Generation of higher temperatures i n footwall s t r a t a as a r e s u l t of overthrusting at t=0. At t=20.5 Ma, temperature equilibrium i s attained. 90 TIME (Ma) 100 O 60 o UJ CC 80 100 -120 140 -160 180 A A B a C c D 0 H H P R E - T H R U S T I N G P O S T -T H R U S T I N Q Hangingwal l S t r a t a : H = +0.31km Footwa l l S t r a t a : Belly River A = - 0 . 3 1 k m Wap iab i B = - 0 . 9 4 k m Upper Bla i rmore C = - 1 . 5 6 k m B a s a l Bla i rmore D = - 2 . 1 9 k m 0.79 0.78 0.97 1.19 1.44 * Depths refer to distance from thrust fault. Figure 53. Time-temperature model for overthrust simulation. 91 R E F L E C T A N C E 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.0 S H E L L M I D D L E P A S S a - 9 4 - L 8 2 - G - 1 # 2 0 0 Figure 54. Comparison of observed c o a l i f i c a t i o n gradient to gradient obtained from overthrust simulation. 92 The c a l c u l a t e d r e s u l t s a r e compared t o t h e measured r e s u l t s i n f i g u r e 54. The measured c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t i s l e s s s t e e p l y d i p p i n g t h a n the c a l c u l a t e d g r a d i e n t i n terms o f %RoR i n c r e a s e w i t h d e p t h . T h i s means t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t d u r i n g c o a l i f i c a t i o n was l e s s t h a n 2.0 deg. C./100 m, t h e g r a d i e n t used i n t h e model. The g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t i n e f f e c t d u r i n g c o a l i f i c a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d t o be 1.4 deg. C./100 m f o r t h e same s t r a t a from the S h e l l M i d d l e p a s s w e l l , modeled on t h e b a s i s o f normal s e d i m e n t a t i o n b u r i a l ( F i g u r e 5 0 ) . I t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s i n c e t h e J u r a s s i c has a l w a y s been l e s s t h a n 2.0 d e g . C./100 m and more l i k e l y 1.4 d e g . C./100 m. I f t h e g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t was h i g h e r a t any t i m e s i n c e t h e J u r a s s i c i t must have e x i s t e d o n l y f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . The c a l c u l a t e d f o o t w a l l c o a l i f i c a t i o n l e v e l i s a l s o s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e measured l e v e l . I f t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n was l a r g e l y g e n e r a t e d by h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e s as a r e s u l t o f o v e r t h r u s t i n g , t h e n t h e t h r u s t e d s h e e t was e i t h e r t h i n n e r t h a n 5 km or had a g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t l e s s t h a n 2.0 deg. C./100 m, p r o b a b l y n e a r 1.4 d e g . C./100 m. The 4.0 d e g . C./100 m model, n o t d e t a i l e d h e r e , c a l c u l a t e d l e v e l s o f m a t u r a t i o n r a n g i n g f r o m 3.0 t o 7.0%RoR f o r t h e B e l l y R i v e r t o B a s a l B l a i r m o r e f o o t w a l l s t r a t a . Nowhere i n t h e s t u d y a r e a i s t h e r e e v i d e n c e o f l e v e l s o f m a t u r a t i o n t h i s h i g h i n any o f t h e J u r a s s i c t o P a l e o c e n e r o c k s . C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e c a l c u l a t e d c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t 93 f r o m the o v e r t h r u s t model ( F i g u r e 54) t o t h e o t h e r l o c a l F o o t h i l l s w e l l s y i e l d s t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , i f i t i s assumed t h a t t h r u s t p l a t e s a t t a i n e d t h e r m a l e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h t h e f o o t w a l l s t r a t a . Of t h e W a t e r t o n a r e a w e l l s , t h r e e w e l l s ( M i d d l e p a s s , 42 W a t e r t o n , and 7-24 W a t e r t o n ) have c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s and l e v e l s o f m a t u r i t y l e s s t h a n t h o s e i n the o v e r t h r u s t model; t h e r e f o r e , h a n g i n g w a l l g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s were l e s s t h a n 2.0 deg. C./100 m and t h i c k n e s s e s o f t h e o v e r t h r u s t s h e e t s were l e s s t h a n 5 km. F o r 6-3 W a t e r t o n , t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t i s s t e e p e r a t the t o p and t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n l e v e l i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n t h e o v e r t h r u s t m o d e l . T h e r e f o r e t h e h a n g i n g w a l l g r a d i e n t i s assumed t o have been s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r t h a n 2.0 deg. C./100 m and t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e o v e r t h r u s t s h e e t t o have been a b o u t 5 km. U s i n g t h e same p r i n c i p l e s as a b o v e , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s c a n be drawn from c o m p a r i n g t h e o v e r t h r u s t model to t h e o t h e r F o o t h i l l s w e l l s t o the n o r t h : a) S h e l l Home Sheep: a p a l e o g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n 2.0 deg. C./100 m; 5 km t h r u s t i s r e a s o n a b l e ; b) S h e l l G e t t y S u l l i v a n : s l i g h t l y h i g h e r h a n g i n g w a l l g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t ; much t h i c k e r t h r u s t s h e e t ; c) S h e l l Jumping Pound West: s l i g h t l y l o w e r h a n g i n g w a l l g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t (<2.0 deg. C./100 m); 5 km t h r u s t s h e e t ; d) S h e l l H u n t e r V a l l e y : h a n g i n g w a l l g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t o f 2.0 deg. C./100 m; s l i g h t l y t h i c k e r t h r u s t s h e e t ; and e) S h e l l 8 P a n t h e r R i v e r : much h i g h e r h a n g i n g w a l l g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t ; s l i g h t l y t h i c k e r t h r u s t s h e e t . 94 CONCLUSIONS 1) Random v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e i s a r e l i a b l e method o f a s s e s s i n g l e v e l s o f m a t u r i t y t o s e d i m e n t a r y s t r a t a . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a s t e r t h a n t h e maximum r e f l e c t a n c e method. In t h i s s t u d y , 22 s a m p l e s were examined o v e r the range o f 0.15 t o 2%RoR u s i n g random and maximum r e f l e c t a n c e methods. No o b v i o u s i n c r e a s e was o b s e r v e d i n the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e mean o f 50 r a n d o m - r e f l e c t a n c e measurements v e r s u s t h e mean o f 50 m a x i m u m - r e f l e c t a n c e measurements. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between random and maximum r e f l e c t a n c e f o r c o a l s i n t h e A l b e r t a B a s i n i s : %RoR= (.938 x %RoMax) + .00112 f o r r2=.997, N=22. 2) An i n c r e a s e i n l e v e l o f o r g a n i c m a t u r i t y i s o b s e r v e d from s o u t h t o n o r t h i n t h e D i s t u r b e d B e l t i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . Maximum r e c o r d e d r e f l e c t a n c e s i n the s o u t h were 0.82, 1.21, 1.45, and 1.73%RoR f o r Upper C r e t a c e o u s , Lower C r e t a c e o u s , J u r a s s i c , and p r e - J u r a s s i c r o c k r e s p e c t i v e l y ; i n t h e n o r t h , maximum r e c o r d e d r e f l e c t a n c e s were 1.57, 1.60, 1.91, and 2.06%RoR r e s p e c t i v e l y . S u r f a c e i s o r e f l e c t a n c e c o n t o u r s i n t h e P l a i n s s u p p o r t t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s . 3) L e v e l s o f o r g a n i c m a t u r i t y i n s t r a t a o f t h e same age d i s p l a y a f i r s t - o r d e r v a r i a t i o n i n m a t u r i t y f r o m e a s t t o west a c r o s s t h e B a s i n i n A l b e r t a . L a t e r a l m a t u r i t y i n c r e a s e i n t h e M a n n v i l l e Group c a n be e x p r e s s e d by t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p : l o g l 0 %RoR x 100 = ( d e p t h - 7104 m)/ -4779 m However, s i g n i f i c a n t s e c o n d - o r d e r v a r i a t i o n i n l e v e l s o f m a t u r i t y i s a p p a r e n t i n t h e B a s i n , p o s s i b l y as a r e s u l t o f v a r y i n g g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s a n d / o r r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h e a t by g r o u n d w a t e r f l o w . 4) C o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s i n t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a a r e e x c e e d i n g l y low, a v e r a g i n g 0.07 l o g %RoR/km. These g r a d i e n t s a r e a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f v e r y low p a l e o - g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m r a p i d s e d i m e n t d e p o s i t i o n i n t h e P a l e o g e n e . C o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s i n c r e a s e i n a d j a c e n t r e g i o n s t o t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f h i g h e r p a l e o - g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s o r r e d u c e d P a l e o g e n e s e d i m e n t l o a d i n g i n t h e s e a r e a s . 5) The pre-Neogene u n c o n f o r m i t y r e p r e s e n t s e r o s i o n on a m a s s i v e s c a l e , l i k e l y s i m i l a r t o c u r r e n t e r o s i o n (up t o 1 mm/yr) i n t h e H i m a l a y a s . In t h e a x i s o f t h e B a s i n , t h e t h i c k n e s s o f e r o d e d T e r t i a r y s e c t i o n , a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s measured a p p l y t o the e r o d e d s e c t i o n , i s e s t i m a t e d t o range f r o m 5 t o 9 km, w i t h an a v e r a g e v a l u e o f a b o u t 6 t o 7 km. P a l e o g e n e s e d i m e n t a t i o n and e r o s i o n r a t e s a r e e s t i m a t e d to l i e between 0.3 and 0.5 mm/yr, w e l l w i t h i n known r a n g e s o f s e d i m e n t a t i o n and e r o s i o n r a t e s . The amount o f P a l e o g e n e e r o s i o n s u p p o r t s t h e amount p r e d i c t e d by t h e b e s t f i t t i n g model o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e F o r e l a n d B a s i n b a s e d on v i s c o - e l a s t i c f l e x u r e o f t h e l i t h o s p h e r e due t o t h r u s t s h e e t and m o l a s s e l o a d i n g (Beaumont, 1 9 8 1 ) . I f t h e m i s s i n g s e c t i o n d i d n o t r e a c h t h e r m a l e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h t h e p r e s e r v e d s e c t i o n , t h e t h i c k n e s s o f e r o d e d s e c t i o n may be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 26% t o o h i g h . 6) T i m e - a v e r a g e d p a l e o - g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s f o r t h e d e e p e s t p a r t o f t h e B a s i n range f r o m 7.5 t o 15 deg. C./km b a s e d on measured c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s . The p a l e o - g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s i n c r e a s e t o 25 d e g . C./km a d j a c e n t t o t h e Deep B a s i n i n s o u t h e r n A l b e r t a . C o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s a r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e amount o f b u r i a l , and w h o l l y d e p e n d e n t on the e x i s t i n g g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t d u r i n g t h e t i m e i n w h i c h t h e s t r a t a were c o a l i f i e d , i n t h i s c a s e d u r i n g P a l e o g e n e deep b u r i a l . 7) T i m e - t e m p e r a t u r e m o d e l i n g i n the B a s i n shows t h a t f o r most o f t h e J u r a - C r e t a c e o u s wedge, t h e l e v e l o f m a t u r i t y r e q u i r e d f o r h y d r o c a r b o n g e n e r a t i o n was n o t a t t a i n e d u n t i l t h e d e e p e s t b u r i a l d u r i n g t h e l a t e E o c e n e . I f p r e - J u r a s s i c s t r a t a were b u r i e d t o any s i g n i f i c a n t d e p t h p r i o r to deep P a l e o g e n e b u r i a l , t h e n t h e i r l e v e l s o f m a t u r i t y s h o u l d be 97 m u c h h i g h e r t h a n t h e y a r e . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s a r g u e d t h a t t h e P a l e o g e n e e v e n t w a s t h e o n l y d e e p b u r i a l e v e n t t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e B a s i n . 8 ) T h e m a t u r a t i o n o f s t r a t a i n t h e P l a i n s i s a r e s u l t o f B a s i n l o a d i n g b y o v e r t h r u s t s h e e t s o r m o l a s s e ; t h a t i s , a l m o s t e n t i r e l y s y n - t o p o s t - o r o g e n i c . I n t h e D i s t u r b e d B e l t , t h e e f f e c t o f r e l i c t m a t u r a t i o n i s a p p a r e n t i n J u r a s s i c c o a l s . H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e m a t u r a t i o n l e v e l s o f s u c c e s s i v e l y d e e p e r f a u l t r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e s a m e s t r a t a g e n e r a l l y d o n o t d e c r e a s e , a n d i n m a n y c a s e s i n c r e a s e , a s i g n i f i c a n t c o m p o n e n t o f m a t u r a t i o n m u s t h a v e b e e n i n d u c e d b y o v e r t h r u s t i n g . 9) A f i n i t e e l e m e n t m o d e l f o r c o n d u c t i v e h e a t t r a n s p o r t c a l c u l a t e d t h e c h a n g e o f t e m p e r a t u r e w i t h t i m e f o r f o o t w a l l a n d h a n g i n g w a l l s t r a t a i n a s i m u l a t i o n o f o v e r t h r u s t i n g . T h e t h e r m a l h i s t o r y w a s r e q u i r e d t o m o d e l t h e e f f e c t o n t h e m a t u r a t i o n o f f o o t w a l l s t r a t a o f i n c r e a s e d t e m p e r a t u r e s a s a r e s u l t o f o v e r t h r u s t i n g . T h e s i m u l a t i o n a s s u m e s t h a t a n e q u i l i b r i u m g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t i s e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e t w o b l o c k s o f s t r a t a . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e m o d e l i n d i c a t e t h a t g e o t h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s i n t h e F r o n t R a n g e s a n d F o o t h i l l s , b a s e d o n t h e a r e a s e x a m i n e d , h a v e b e e n l o w s i n c e t h e J u r a s s i c . O n l y t w o o f t h e d e e p F o o t h i l l s w e l l s e x a m i n e d e x h i b i t c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s t h a t i m p l y g r a d i e n t s g r e a t e r t h a n 2.0 d e g . C./100 m d u r i n g c o a l i f i c a t i o n . I f a l l t h e 98 c o a l i f i c a t i o n i n t h e h a n g i n g w a l l s t r a t a was a r e s u l t o f h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e s g e n e r a t e d by o v e r t h r u s t i n g , t h e n t h r u s t s h e e t t h i c k n e s s e s must have been 5 km o r l e s s i n t h e W a t e r t o n a r e a , i n t h e S h e l l Home Sheep 8-30 a r e a (Highwood R i v e r i n the F o o t h i l l s ) , and i n t h e Jumping Pound West a r e a ; s h e e t t h i c k n e s s was much g r e a t e r i n t h e S h e l l G e t t y S u l l i v a n a r e a (Highwood R i v e r i n t h e F r o n t R a n g e s ) , and s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r i n t h e S h e l l H u n t e r V a l l e y and S h e l l 8 P a n t h e r R i v e r a r e a ( B u r n t Timber C r e e k a r e a ) . 99 REFERENCES CITED A l d e n , W. 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R., 1984, C o a l q u a l i t y , c o a l rank v a r i a t i o n and i t s r e l a t i o n to r e c o n s t r u c t e d o v e r b u r d e n , Upper C r e t a c e o u s and T e r t i a r y P l a i n s c o a l s , A l b e r t a , Canada: A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f P e t r o l e u m G e o l o g i s t s B u l l e t i n , v . 68, no. 3, p. 285-295. Oxburgh, E. R., and D. L. T u r c o t t e , 1974, T h e r m a l g r a d i e n t s and r e g i o n a l metamorphism i n o v e r t h r u s t t e r r a i n s w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e a s t e r n A l p s : S c h w e i z e r M i n e r a l o g i s c h e und P e t r o g r a p i s c h e M i t t e i l u n g e n , v. 54, p. 641-662. P e a r s o n , D. E., and D. A. G r i e v e , 1979, C r o w s n e s t c o a l f i e l d : i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , G e o l o g i c a l F i e l d w o r k , 1978, Paper 1979-1, p. 61-65. S i n g h , C , 1964, M i c r o f l o r a o f t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s M a n n v i l l e G r o u p , e a s t - c e n t r a l A l b e r t a : R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f A l b e r t a , B u l l e t i n 15, 238 p. S h i b a o k a , M., and A. J . R. B e n n e t t , 1977, P a t t e r n s o f d i a g e n e s i s i n some A u s t r a l i a n s e d i m e n t a r y b a s i n s : A u s t r a l i a n P e t r o l e u m E x p l o r a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l 17, v . 17, p. 58-63. S l a y m a k e r , H. 0., 1972, S e d i m e n t y i e l d and s e d i m e n t c o n t r o l i n t h e C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a : i n S l a y m a k e r , 0., and H. J . M c P h e r s o n ( e d s . ) , M o u n t a i n Geomorphology: G e o m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s i n the C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s , no. 14, p. 235-245. S l a y m a k e r , 0. and H. J . 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( e d . ) , A n a l y t i c a l Methods f o r C o a l and C o a l P r o d u c t s , A c a d e m i c P r e s s , New Y o r k , v . 1, p. 3-26. T i s s o t , B., D u r a n d , B., E s p i t a l i e , J . , and A. Combaz, 1974, I n f l u e n c e o f n a t u r e and d i a g e n e s i s o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n o f p e t r o l e u m : A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f P e t r o l e u m G e o l o g i s t s B u l l e t i n , v. 58, p. 499-506. van K r e v e l e n , D. W., and J . S c h u y e r , 1957, C o a l s c i e n c e , a s p e c t s o f c o a l c o n s t i t u t i o n : E l s e v i e r , New Y o r k , 352 p., ( p a r t i c u l a r l y T a b l e 1 on p. 2 6 ) . W a l k e r , R. G., 1982, C l a s t i c u n i t s o f t h e F r o n t Ranges, F o o t h i l l s and P l a i n s i n t h e a r e a between F i e l d , B. C. and D r u m h e l l e r , A l b e r t a : F i e l d G u i d e b o o k , E x c u r s i o n 21A, E l e v e n t h C o n g r e s s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S e d i m e n t o l o g i s t s , 160 p . W a p l e s , D. W., 1980, Time and T e m p e r a t u r e i n P e t r o l e u m F o r m a t i o n : A p p l i c a t i o n o f L o p a t i n ' s Method t o P e t r o l e u m E x p l o r a t i o n : A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f P e t r o l e u m G e o l o g i s t s B u l l e t i n , v. 64, no. 6, p. 916-926. W a r r e n , P. S., 1939, The F l a x v i l l e P l a i n i n A l b e r t a : R o y a l C a n a d i a n I n s t i t u t e T r a n s a c t i o n s , v. 22, p t . 2, p. 341-349. 108 W h i t e , D., 1915, Some r e l a t i o n s i n o r i g i n between c o a l and p e t r o l e u m ; W a s h i n g t o n A c a d e m i c S c i e n t i f i c J o u r n a l , v. 5, p. 189-212. W i l l i a m s , M. Y., 1929, The p h y s i o g r a p h y o f t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n P l a i n s o f Canada: T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y o f Canada, 3 r d . s e r i e s , v . 23, s e c t . 4, p. 61-79. Y o r a t h , C. J . , and R. D. Hyndman, 1983, S u b s i d e n c e and t h e r m a l h i s t o r y o f Queen C h a r l o t t e B a s i n : C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f E a r t h S c i e n c e , v . 20, p. 135-159. Young, A., 1974, The r a t e o f s l o p e r e t r e a t : i n Brown, E. H., and R. S. W a t e r s ( e d s ) , P r o g r e s s i n G e o m o r p h o l o g y , p. 65-78. 109 APPENDIX R o R — D E P T H S T A T I S T I C S WELL LOCATION N -A B - C 0 R R . R i . 1 5 RoR GG. t a - 9 4 - L 8 2 - 6 - 1 X. 10541 17900 . 8 7 5 5 0 2 1. 70 1 5 . 0** 1 3 - 4 - 2 6 - 6 W 5 21 8 9 6 8 16234 . 94 . 65 5 6 8 7 1. 74 7 . 0 7 - 8 - 2 9 - 1 0 W 5 11 3 7 0 7 6 9 5 8 . 8 5 . 7 5 2 5 9 8 1. 69 9 . 0** 6 - 3 2 - 1 5 - 2 9 W 4 9 15636 2 7 1 9 0 . 9 6 . 5 5 8 8 0 0 1 0 - 3 6 - 1 1 - 2 8 W 4 11 12501 2 1 1 2 0 . 9 3 . 4 9 6 4 1 8 1. 68 7 / . 1 8 - 8 - 1 0 - 2 7 W 4 16 12221 2 0 7 6 0 . 95 . 5 0 6 3 8 7 2 . 02 1 2 . 5 6 - 1 6 - 1 2 - 2 7 W 4 14 13365 2 2 7 3 4 . 70 . 50 7016 i . 86 9 . cr J 1 0 - 2 4 - 1 0 - 2 7 W 4 14 15998 2 7 6 8 9 . 9 4 . 5 4 8 8 7 5 i . 86 7 . 0 6 - 3 6 - 1 7 - 1 W 5 5 1 7 2 5 9 2 9 7 8 9 . 9 2 . 5 3 9 4 9 0 i . 96 1. 5 8 - 4 - 1 6 - 2 9 W 4 12 1 8 9 3 3 3 2 7 6 6 . 87 . 5 4 1 0 4 9 9 2 . 07 9 . 1 jl. II-10-17-1W5 10 2 0 5 1 3 35621 . 74 . 5 4 11495 i . 83 8 . 0 1 0 - 2 5 - 1 5 - 2 9 W 4 13 O <-> -7 ET ET 3 9 6 3 2 . 76 . 5 5 12871 1. 94 "7 } w 0 8 - 1 4 - 1 6 - 2 7 W 4 15 1 0 6 7 5 18506 . 9 3 . 5 4 5951 2 . 38 7 . 0 8 - 3 - 1 3 - 2 8 W 4 9 1 1 5 9 6 19833 . 8 5 . 5 1 6 1 9 5 n 10 1 2 . 0 6 - 1 1 - 1 4 - 2 9 W 4 11 16288 2 8 1 6 6 . 76 . 5 4 9 0 0 9 i . 89 9 . 5 8 - 1 1 - 1 5 - 2 8 W 4 9 7 0 9 5 11323 . 9 2 . 3 9 2 9 7 6 2 . 11 7 . 3 6 - 2 - 1 6 - 2 9 W 4 11 1 7 5 7 3 3 0 5 0 4 . 8 7 . 5 4 9 8 3 6 2 . 13 1 0 . 0 6 - 6 - 1 3 - 2 6 W 4 9 1 1 2 9 5 19557 . 9 7 . 5 4 6 2 7 3 1. 78 — 1 3 - 1 6 - 1 2 - 2 8 W 4 14 1 6 9 7 3 2 3 5 6 8 . 6 2 . 4 8 8 6 0 6 1. 80 1 0 . 2 1 0 - 7 - 2 0 - 2 7 W 4 11 11711 2 0 1 7 0 . 7 1 . 5 3 6 3 9 6 2 . 14 4 . 5 1 0 - 4 - 1 6 - 1 0 W 4 4 1 1 2 0 3 17923 . 9 9 . 4 0 4 7 4 7 3 . 16 6 . 0 6 -6 -13 -1 .5W4 4 9 2 7 7 5 0 5 . 98 . 33 1710 2 . 94 -8 - 3 2 - 1 4 - 1 8 W 4 4 11536 19168 . 7 9 . 4 6 5 6 0 0 i i.. 76 -2 - 1 B - 8 - 2 5 W 4 5 7 1 4 8 2 3 4 . 4 2 . 2 8 1513 1. 85 1 2 . 0 6 - 8 - 8 - 2 7 W 4 9 1 9 0 1 3 3 2 0 7 2 . 9 1 . 4 9 9711 i . 98 1 2 . 0 3 - 2 7 - 6 - 2 8 W 4 5 2 1 6 8 4 3 6 0 3 7 . 75 . 4 6 1 0 5 3 3 l . 92 1 4 . 5 3 - 2 2 - 7 - 2 4 W 4 2 2 5 3 4 3 8 1 4 6 . 82 . 4 9 1 1 6 4 5 2 . 00 5 . 5 3 - 3 2 - 7 - 2 4 W 4 15447 2 5 8 6 9 1.0 . 4 7 7 7 0 2 3 . 03 1 2 . 5 T a b l e I X . R e f l e c t a n c e - d e p t h d a t a f o r 28 w e l l s f r o m t h e s t u d y a r e a b a s e d o n a l i n e a r c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t b e s t f i t . S U R F A C E T E M P E R A T U R E »#*******************##*****•*****#******* LOCATION MEAN ANNUAL SURFACE TEMP.(C) A n t h r a c i t e 2.9 Banf f 2.5 Beaver Mines 4.0 Brooks 3.7 C a l g a r y 3.6 Ci aresholm 5.0 C o a l d a l e 5.2 Coleman 3.2 Cowley 3.9 Dr unthel 1 er 3.6 Elbow R.S. 1.4 Highwood R.S. 1.9 L e t h b r i dge 5.3 Manyberr i es 4.1 Taber 5.2 *#****#**#**********#*#****#***#*******#** Table X. Mean annual surface temperatures i n southern Alberta (Environment Canada, 1982). W e l l s sampled f r o m E s s o R e s o u r c e s Canada L t d . E s s o Sundance N a n t o n 6-32-15-29W4 (209) E s s o Windpump 10-36-11-28W4 (215) E s s o Sundance Muddy Lake 8-8-10-27W4 (213) E s s o Sundance C l a r e s h o l m 6-16-12-27W4 (214) E s s o Sundance Muddy Lake 10-24-10-27W4 (215) E s s o Sundance Highwood 6-36-17-1W5 (216) E s s o Sundance Nanton 8-4-16-29W4 (217) E s s o Sundance C a y l e y 11-10-17-1W5 (218) E s s o Sundance N a n t o n 10-25-15-29W4 (229) E s s o Connemara 8-14-16-27W4 (230) E s s o Sundance O x l e y 8-3-13-28W4 (231) E s s o O x l e y 6-11-14-29W4 (232) E s s o P a r k l a n d 8-11-15-28W4 (233) E s s o Sundance N a n t o n 6-2-16-29W4 (234) E s s o Sundance C l a r e s h o l m 6-6-13-26W4 (235) E s s o Sundance Lyndon 13-16-12-28W4 (236) 113 W e l l sampled f r o m T e x a c o Canada R e s o u r c e s I n c . T e x a c o et al. Mazeppa 10-7-20-27W4 (220) T e x a c o 6-6-13-15W4 (222) Te x a c o A l d e r s o n 10-4-16-10W4 (221) Te x a c o L i t t l e Bow 8-32-14-18W4 (223) W e l l s s a m p l e d f r o m S h e l l Canada R e s o u r c e s I n c . S h e l l M i d d l e p a s s b-94-L 8 2 - G - l (200) S h e l l 42 W a t e r t o n 8-20-4-1W5 (201) S h e l l W a t e r t o n 7-24-5-3W5 (202) S h e l l Home W a t e r t o n 6-3-S-3W5 (203) S h e l l Home Sheep 8-30-18-3W5 (204) S h e l l G e t t y S u l l i v a n 7-7-17-4W5 (205) S h e l l 8 P a n t h e r R i v e r 7-8-29-10W5 (206) S h e l l H u n t e r V a l l e y 11-32-28-8W5 (207) S h e l l 19 U n i t Jumpingpound West 13-4-26-6W5 (211) 114 W e l l s s a m p l e d f r o m G u l f Canada R e s o u r c e s I n c . G u l f Kim 2-18-8-25W4 (224) G u l f P e i g a n 6-8-8-27W4 (225) G u l f P e i g a n 3-27-6-28W4 (226) G u l f e t a l _ . B l o o d 3-22-7-24W4 (227) G u l f West B l o o d 3-32-7-24W4 (228) 115 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: S h e l l M i d d l e p a s s b-94-L LOCATION: a-94-L 8 2 - G - l SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE! DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-200 -03A 0740 ROR=0. 56 50 .05 3 TE83-200 -04A 0765 ROR=0. 58 50 . 06 2 TE83-200 -05 0865 ROR=0. 61 46 .12 2 TE83-200 -06 0980 ROR=0. 59 20 . 07 1 TE83-200 -07 1060 ROR=0. 66 50 .11 2 TE83-200 -08 1150 ROR=0. 71 15 .13 1 TE83-200 -09 1280 ROR=0. 70 23 .16 2 TE83-200 -10 1345 ROR=0. 66 21 .16 1 TE83-200 -11 1455 ROR=0. 71 20 .12 2 TE83-200 -12 1555 ROR=0. 69 17 .15 2 TE83-200 -13F 1640 ROR=0. 70 22 .11 2 TE83-200 -14 1755 ROR=0. 73 14 .12 1 TE83-200 -15 1840 ROR=0. 74 50 .11 3 TE83-200 -17R 2230 ROR=0. 75 44 . 09 2 TE83-200 -19F 2480 ROR=0. 86 50 .07 4 TE83-200 -20F 2525 ROR=0. 93 50 .07 1 TE83-200 -21R 2545 ROR=0. 95 50 .08 3 TE83-200 -22 2605 ROR=l. 00 38 . 05 2 TE83-200 -23 2665 ROR=0. 95 50 .09 3 TE83-200 -24 2765 ROR=0. 97 51 .08 2 TE83-200 -25 2825 ROR=0. 96 29 .'09 2 TE83-200 -26F 2990 ROR=0. 97 50 . 07 2 TE83-200 -27 3110 ROR=0. 96 25 .08 2 TE83-200 -29 3370 ROR=l. 05 9 .07 2 TE83-200 -30 3445 ROR=0. 94 5 .12 1 TE83-200 -31R 3545 ROR=0. 67 8 . 09 1 TE83-200 -32R 3735 ROR=0. 96 9 .10 1 TE83-200 -34 4305 ROR=0. 68 15 . 10 1 TE83-200 -36R 4570 ROR=0. 76 4 .08 1 TE83-200 -37 4735 ROR=0. 96 8 . 06 1 TE83-200 -38 4840 ROR=0. 90 4 .11 1 TE83-200 -39R 5015 ROR=0. 84 6 .16 2 TE83-200 -40 5220 ROR=0. 99 50 .10 2 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1623 Lew i s T h r u s t 0326 B e l l y R i v e r 0326 W a p i a b i 0768 C a r d i u m 1464 B l a c k s t o n e 1621 C r o w s n e s t V o l c a n i c s 1660 B l a i r m o r e 1752 Cadomin 2427 116 K o o t e n a y 2462 P a s s a g e Beds 2537 F e r n i e S h a l e 2605 T r i a s s i c 2705 P e r m i a n 2751 E t h e r i n g t o n 2813 Mt. Head 2901 L i v i n g s t o n e 3111 f / J u r a s s i c 3275 f / M i s s i s s i p p i a n 3453 f / J u r a s s i c 3483 P e r m i a n 3543 f / J u r a s s i c 3557 P e r m i a n 3580 E t h e r i n g t o n 3608 Mt. Head 3688 L i v i n g s t o n e 3878 f / E t h e r i n g t o n 4080 Mt. Head 4151 f / J u r a s s i c 4258 P e r m i a n 4295 E t h e r i n g t o n 4318 f / J u r a s s i c 4378 P e r m i a n 4456 E t h e r i n g t o n 4475 Mt. Head 4566 L i v i n g s t o n e 4734 B a n f f 4989 f / P e r m i a n 5029 E t h e r i n g t o n 5088 Mt. Head 5175 f / E t h e r i n g t o n 5225 Mt. Head 5275 T.D. 5416 SOURCE: S h e l l Canada R e s o u r c e s L t d . 117 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: S h e l l 42 W a t e r t o n 8-20-4-1 LOCATION: 8-20-4-1W5 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-201 -02 0625 ROR=0. 70 9 .16 1 TE83-201 -03 0910 ROR=0. 78 50 .10 3 TE83-201 -04 1010 ROR=0. 79 50 .13 1 TE83-201 -05 1110 ROR=0. 78 29 .17 2 TE83-201 -07 1315 ROR=0. 80 36 .08 3 TE83-201 -08 1410 ROR=0. 75 50 .10 1 TE83-201 -09 1560 ROR=0. 71 50 .07 3 TE83-201 -10R 1705 ROR=0. 77 52 .10 3 TE83-201 -11 1810 ROR=0. 81 50 .07 4 TE83-201 -12 2040 ROR=0. 83 50 .13 2 TE83-201 -13 2265 ROR=0. 68 50 .09 2 TE83-201 -14 2325 ROR=0. 92 50 .07 3 TE83-201 -15 2465 ROR=0. 85 50 .11 2 TE83-201 -16 2680 ROR=0. 86 50 .04 4 TE83-201 -17 2790 ROR=0. 91 50 .12 2 TE83-201 -18 2805 ROR=0. 99 50 .09 3 TE83-201 -19 2915 ROR=0. 93 50 .11 3 TE83-201 -20 3025 ROR=0. 90 50 .14 2 TE83-201 -21 3190 ROR=0. 96 17 .14 1 TE83-201 -22 3325 ROR=l. 03 47 . 11 3 TE83-201 -23 3890 ROR=l. 36 38 .17 1 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1687.2 P r e c a m b r i a n 0001 f / B e l l y R i v e r 0100 W a p i a b i 0360.2 C a r d i u m 0466 B l a c k s t o n e 0506.8 B l a i r m o r e 0600 D a l h o u s i e 0808 J u r a s s i c 0832.5 K o o t e n a y 0832.5 P a s s a g e Beds 0983 f/Lower B l a i r m o r e 1048 D a l h o u s i e 1063 K o o t e n a y 1074 P a s s a g e Beds 1191 f / K o o t e n a y 1248 P a s s a g e Beds 1251.6 f / B l a i r m o r e 1306 Lower B l a i r m o r e 1380 D a l h o u s i e 1454 K o o t e n a y 1474 118 f / B l a i r m o r e 1493 Lower B l a i r m o r e 1687 D a l h o u s i e 1760.4 K o o t e n a y 1799 f / W a p i a b i 1814 C a r d i u m 2086 B l a c k s t o n e 2126.5 C r o w s n e s t V o l c a n i c s 2312.6 B l a i rmore 2318 f / B l a i rmore 2625.5 Lower B l a i r m o r e 2679.7 D a l h o u s i e 2727.7 K o o t e n a y 2736.6 P a s s a g e Beds 2810 M i s s i s s i p p i a n 3329.5 Mt. Head 3329.5 L i v i n g s t o n e 3382.3 f / L i v i n g s t o n e 3593.6 B a n f f 3861.3 Exshaw 3888 Wabamun 3891.6 f/Exshaw 3938.7 Wabamun 3940.5 C a l m a r 4196 S o u t h e s k 4224.8 I r e t o n 4242.6 T.D. 4376 SOURCE: S h e l l Canada R e s o u r c e s L t d . 119 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: S h e l l W a t e r t o n 7-24-5-3 LOCATION: 7-24-5-3W5 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE! DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-202 -01 0570 ROR=0. 80 46 .13 2 TE83-202 -02 0960 ROR=0. 82 17 . 09 1 TE83-202 -04 1520 ROR=0. 84 7 .07 1 TE83-202 -05 1640 ROR=0. 87 18 .09 2 TE83-202 -06 1760 ROR=0. 86 23 .11 1 TE83-202 -07 1850-1860 ROR=l. 02 13 .17 2 TE83-202 -08 1950 ROR=0. 98 50 .07 2 TE83-202 -09 2100 ROR=l. 05 50 .06 3 TE83-202 -10 2190 ROR=l. 01 50 .07 3 TE83-202 -11 2310 ROR=l. 01 50 ' . 09 2 TE83-202 -12 2440 ROR=l. 04 35 . 22 1 TE83-202 -13 2470 ROR=l. 21 12 .20 1 TE83-202' -14 3080 ROR=l. 18 5 .08 1 TE83-202' -16 3795 ROR=l. 73 51 .29 3 TE83-202 -17 3900 ROR=l. 70 6 .23 2 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1515.5 B e l l y R i v e r 0015 W a p i a b i 0360 C a r d i u m 1117 B l a c k s t o n e 1158 Lower C r e t a c e o u s 1251 C r o w s n e s t V o l c a n i c s 1251 B l a i r m o r e 1378 Lower B l a i r m o r e 1801 Cadomin 19.17 J u r a s s i c 1936 K o o t e n a y 1936 P a s s a g e Beds 1978 F e r n i e 2016 f / B l a i r m o r e 2117 Pa s s a g e Beds 2310 F e r n i e 2344 Mt. Head 2472 f / M t . Head 2485 Lower Mt. Head 2566 L i v i n g s t o n e 2653 f/Lower Mt. Head 2677 f/ M t . Head 2713 f/Mt. Head 2779 f/ M t . Head 2841 Lower Mt. Head 2896 f / M t . Head 2947 120 Lower Mt. Head 2955 f/Mt. Head 2997 Lower Mt. Head 3006 f/Mt. Head 3041 Lower Mt. Head 3062 f / F e r n i e 3070 Mt. Head 3096 Lower Mt. Head 3152 L i v i n g s t o n e 3227 B a n f f 3620 Exshaw 3730 P a l l i s e r 3739 f/Exshaw 3787 P a l l i s e r 3800 f / F e r n i e 3819 f/Mt. Head 3821 f / F e r n i e 3835 T.D. 3910 SOURCE: S h e l l Canada R e s o u r c e s L t d . 121 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: S h e l l Home W a t e r t o n 6-3-6-3 LOCATION: 6-3-6-3W5 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-203 -01 0545 ROR=0. 68 54 .11 2 TE83-203 -02 0665 ROR=0. 70 54 .07 3 TE83-203 -03 0755 ROR=0. 87 50 .07 4 TE83-203 -04 0895 ROR=0. 90 55 . 11 3 TE83-203 -05 1050 ROR=0. 97 50 .09 3 TE83-203 -06 1150 ROR=l. 06 55 .18 1 TE83-203 -07 1240 ROR=0. 93 10 .10 1 TE83-203 -08 1345 ROR=l. 00 58 .09 3 TE83-203 -09 1390 ROR=l. 04 50 .06 4 TE83-203 -10 1465 ROR=l. 02 54 .15 2 TE83-203 -11 1560 ROR=0. 79 50 .11 3 TE83-203 -12 1625 ROR=0. 83 13 .11 2 TE83-203 -13 1695 ROR=0. 87 11 .08 1 TE83-203 -15 1810 ROR=l. 21 40 . 17 3 TE83-203 -16 1985 ROR=l. 21 11 .25 1 TE83-203 -17 2660 ROR=l. 56 17 .14 2 TE83-203 -20 3790 ROR=0. 67 10 .10 1 TE83-203 -21 4515 ROR=l. 51 50 . 19 4 TE83-203 -22 4545 ROR=l. 56 51 .28 4 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1352.8 K o o t e n a y 0450 f / B l a i r m o r e 0505 K o o t e n a y 0755 f / B l a i r m o r e 0792 Cadomin 0978 K o o t e n a y 0993 P a s s a g e Beds 1077 F e r n i e 1113 f / F e r n i e 1228 f / K o o t e n a y 1336 Pa s s a g e Beds 1392 F e r n i e 1443 f / P a s s a g e Beds 1542 F e r n i e 1554 Rock C r e e k 1725 T r i a s s i c 1814 P e r m i a n 1817 E t h e r i n g t o n 1817 Mt. Head 1834 f / E t h e r i n g t o n 1878 Mt. Head 1900 Lower Mt. Head 1945 f/Lower Mt. Head 2008 L i v i n g s t o n e 2030 f / L i v i n g s t o n e 2092 f / L i v i n g s t o n e 2263 B a n f f 2561 f/M t . Head 2675 Lower Mt. Head 2772 L i v i n g s t o n e 2848 B a n f f 3230 Exshaw 3335 P a l l i s e r 3340 C a l m a r 3550 N i sku 3561 I r e t o n 3596 D u v e r n a y 3599 f / F e r n i e 3751 Mt. Head 3822 Lower Mt. Head 3926 L i v i n g s t o n e 4007 B a n f f 4436 Exshaw 4556 P a l l i s e r 4560 f / P a l l i s e r 4670 Ca l m a r 4817 N i s k u 4824 I r e t o n 4850 D u v e r n a y 4852 T.D. 4993 SOURCE: S h e l l Canada R e s o u r c e s L t d . 123 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: S h e l l Home Sheep 8-30-18-3 LOCATION: 8-30-18-3W5 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE! DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-204 -01 0425 ROR=l. 10 52 .14 3 TE83-204 -02 0525 ROR=l. 13 42 .16 3 TE83-204 -03 0665-0675 ROR=0. 94 55 .14 2 TE83-204 -05 0870 ROR=l. 20 46 . 22 2 TE83-204 -06 0965 ROR=l. 21 50 .21 2 TE83-204 -07 1035 ROR=l. 13 50 . 23 2 TE83-204 -08 1080 ROR=l. 46 49 .16 3 TE83-204 -10 1175 ROR=0. 70 10 .06 2 TE83-204 -09 1220 ROR=l. 19 51 .21 2 TE83-204 -11 1480 ROR=l. 35 51 .30 2 TE83-204 -12 1500 ROR=0. 84 50 .06 4 TE83-204 -13 1675 ROR=0. 82 12 .05 2 TE83-204 -14 1750 ROR=0. 93 23 .09 1 TE83-204 -15 1860 ROR=l. 07 50 .08 2 TE83-204 -18 1960 ROR=l. 03 50 .07 2 TE83-204 -19 1990 ROR=l. 12 50 . 07 1 TE83-204 -20 2040 ROR=l. 11 50 .10 3 TE83-204 -21 2085 ROR=l. 30 20 . 26 3 TE83-204 -22 2665 ROR=l. 11 52 .16 2 TE83-204 -23 2715 ROR=l. 31 38 . 28 2 TE83-204 -25 2860 ROR=l. 35 52 .23 3 TE83-204 -27 3060 ROR=l. 33 51 .22 2 TE83-204 -28 3150 ROR=l. 33 51 . 22 1 TE83-204 -29 3535 ROR=l. 16 50 .07 4 TE83-204 -30 3610 ROR=l. 22 52 .21 2 TE83-204 -32 4175 ROR=l. 33 50 . 23 1 TE83-204 -33 4825 ROR=l. 38 6 .18 1 TE83-204 -34 4875 ROR=l. 35 27 . 16 2 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1367.9 B l a c k s t o n e 0025 G r i t 0627 B l a i r m o r e 0650 f / B l a c k s t o n e 0767 G r i t 1050 B l a i r m o r e 1068 f / B l a i r m o r e 1512 Cadomin 1653 f / B l a i r m o r e 1672 Cadomin 1703 K o o t e n a y 1717 f / B l a i r m o r e 1718 Cadomin 1817 K o o t e n a y 1846 P a s s a g e Beds 2016 F e r n i e 2058 M i s s i s s i p p i a n 2107 Mt. Head 2132 L i v i n g s t o n e 2252 P e k i s k o 2407 B a n f f 2595 f / W a p i a b i 2672 C a r d i u m 2718 B l a c k s t o n e 2825 G r i t 3152 B l a i r m o r e 3165 f / B l a i rmore 3326 Cadomin 3485 K o o t e n a y 3512 P a s s a g e Beds 3547 F e r n i e 3584 Mt. Head 3633 T u r n e r V a l l e y 3673 P e k i s k o 3856 B a n f f 3986 Exshaw 4167 P a l l i s e r 4174 C a l m a r 4415 N i s k u 4421 I r e t o n 4473 B e a v e r h i l l Lake 4714 A u t o c h t h o n o u s 4771 M i d d l e C a m b r i a n 4771 E l d o n 4907 T.D. 4993 SOURCE: S h e l l Canada R e s o u r c e s L t d . 125 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: S h e l l G e t t y S u l l i v a n 7-7-17-4 LOCATION: 7-7-17-4W5 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE! DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-205 -01F 0470 ROR=l. 46 50 .07 4 TE83-205 -02F 0520 ROR=l. 48 50 .09 3 TE83-205 -03 0565 ROR=l. 51 50 .09 3 TE83-205 -04 0620 ROR=l. 57 50 . 11 3 TE83-205 -05 0665 ROR=l. 57 50 .06 4 TE83-205 -06 0735 ROR=l. 60 54 .18 2 TE83-205 -07F 0885 ROR=l. 63 50 .14 2 TE83-205 -08F 1015 ROR=l. 55 50 . 12 2 TE83-205 -09 1100 ROR=l. 46 54 .21 2 TE83-205 -10F 1190 ROR=l. 62 64 .15 3 TE83-205 -11F 1260 ROR=l. 60 77 .15 2 TE83-205 -12 1665 ROR=l. 59 50 .08 3 TE83-205 -13F 1715 ROR=l. 52 22 .16 2 TE83-205 -14 1815 ROR=l. 63 52 .19 3 TE83-205 -15F 1870 ROR=l. 62 35 .13 3 TE83-205 -16 1915 ROR=l. 53 35 .18 3 TE83-205 -17 1950 ROR=l. 62 35 .22 2 TE83-205' -18F 2580 ROR=l. 59 23 . 22 1 TE83-205 -19 2635 ROR=l. 52 48 .29 1 TE83-205--20 2670 ROR=l. 60 55 . 22 3 TE83-205' -21F 2715 ROR=l. 74 38 .26 2 TE83-205--22 3630 ROR=l. 73 52 .25 2 TE83-205 -23 3670 ROR=l. 69 13 .18 2 TE83-205' -24 3710 ROR=l. 70 17 .21 2 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1697 C a r d i u m 0324.3 B l a c k s t o n e 0347.2 f a u l t 0385 B l a i r m o r e 0667 Cadomin 0796 K o o t e n a y 0830 P a s s a g e Beds 1063 F e r n i e 1130 Rock C r e e k 1222 Mt. Head 1263 L i v i n g s t o n e 1407 Shunda 1577 f / K o o t e n a y 1657 P a s s a g e Beds 1672 F e r n i e 1698 f / K o o t e n a y 1730 P a s s a g e Beds 1754 126 F e r n i e 1801 Rock Cre e k 1897 f / F e r n i e 1907 Rock Cre e k 1918 Mt. Head 1953 L i v i n g s t o n e 2045 P e k i s k o 2223 B a n f f 2292 Exshaw 2581 f / B a n f f 2592 f / K o o t e n a y 2624 P a s s a g e Beds 2629 F e r n i e 2667 Rock Cre e k 2705 Mt. Head 2725 L i v i n g s t o n e 2831 P e k i s k o 3012 f / P e k i s k o 3152 B a n f f 3238 f/Mt. Head 3485 L i v i n g s t o n e 3577 f / F e r n i e 3622 Rock C r e e k 3690 Mt. Head 3711 L i v i n g s t o n e 3793 P e k i s k o 3963 B a n f f 4046 f/Mt. Head 4148 L i v i n g s t o n e 4207 T.D. 4350 SOURCE: S h e l l Canada R e s o u r c e s L t d . 127 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: S h e l l 8 P a n t h e r R i v e r 7-8-29-10 LOCATION: 7-8-29-10W5 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-206 -01 0580 ROR=l. 15 55 .16 3 TE83-206 -02 0695 ROR=l. 26 55 . 10 3 TE83-206 -03A 0805 ROR=l. 30 50 .13 4 TE83-206 -04 0875 ROR=l. 22 54 .13 3 TE83-206 -05 0995 ROR=l. 27 50 .09 3 TE83-206 -06 1100 ROR=l. 70 50 .12 2 TE83-206 -07 1175 ROR=l. 71 50 .14 2 TE83-206 -08 1240 ROR=l. 70 50 . 12 3 TE83-206 -09 1305 ROR=l. 74 50 .12 1 TE83-206 -10 1405 ROR=l. 59 50 .10 4 TE83-206 -11 1600 ROR=l. 67 50 .31 2 TE83-206 -12 2300 ROR=l. 91 16 .13 3 TE83-206 -13 2405 ROR=l. 68 60 .18 3 TE83-206 -14 2525 ROR=l. 73 54 .16 1 TE83-206 -15 2715 ROR=l. 78 56 .16 1 TE83-206 -16 2840 ROR=l. 69 14 .27 1 TE83-206 -17 3450 ROR=l. 73 5 .29 1 TE83-206 -18 4650 ROR=2. 06 50 .22 2 TE83-206 -19 4945 ROR=l. 68 54 .17 4 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1846.1 D a l h o u s i e 0974 K o o t e n a y 0994 P a s s a g e Beds 1313 Rock C r e e k 1587 Nordegg 1610 Mt. Head 1725 U. T u r n e r V a l l e y 1817 Memramcook 1910 P e k i s k o 1997 B a n f f 2076 f / K o o t e n a y 2272 P a s s a g e Beds 2373 F e r n i e 2400 Rock C r e e k 2844 Nor d e g g 2856 T r i a s s i c 2889 Mt. Head 2912 U. T u r n e r V a l l e y 2991 M. T u r n e r V a l l e y 3015 L. T u r n e r V a l l e y 3030 Memramcook 3110 P e k i s k o 3176 B a n f f 3240 Exshaw 3427 Wabamun 3456 C a l m a r 3715 I r e t o n 3757 C o n t a c t R a p i d s 3911 Ca m b r i a n 4175 E l d o n 4306 f/Rock C r e e k 4725 No r d e g g 4745 f/Cadomin 4813 Rock Cr e e k 4911 Mt. Head 4950 P e k i s k o 5134 B a n f f 5230 T.D. 5315 SOURCE: S h e l l Canada R e s o u r c e s L t d . 129 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: S h e l l Hunter V a l l e y 11-32-28-8 LOCATION: 11-32-28-8W5 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-207 -03 0730 ROR=l. 44 50 .14 2 TE83-207 -04 0780 ROR=l. 47 50 .07 3 TE83-207 -05 0890 ROR=l. 57 50 .08 4 TE83-207 -06 0905 ROR=l. 57 62 .13 2 TE83-207 -07 1080 ROR=l. 25 52 .28 3 TE83-207 -08 1185 ROR=l. 38 26 . 20 2 TE83-207 -09 1275 ROR=l. 26 54 .24 3 TE83-207 -10 1375 ROR=l. 39 51 .21 3 TE83-207 -11 1585 ROR=l. 52 44 .20 2 TE83-207 -12 1665 ROR=l. 38 50 . 19 3 TE83-207 -13 1765 ROR=l. 44 50 . 21 3 TE83-207 -14 1880 ROR=l. 21 56 . 12 3 TE83-207 -15 2050 ROR=l. 30 50 .14 4 TE83-207 -16 2150 ROR=l. 23 56 . 10 2 TE83-207 -17 2330 ROR=l. 46 50 .24 2 TE83-207 -18 2230 ROR=l. 31 - 58 .11 3 TE83-207 -19 2350 ROR=l. 42 56 .12 3 TE83-207 -20 2440 ROR=l. 48 54 .13 2 TE83-207 -21 2550 ROR=l. 34 55 .23 2 TE83-207 -22 2590 ROR=l. 55 51 . 22 2 TE83-207 -23 3125 ROR=l. 31 50 . 26 1 TE83-207 -24 3680 ROR=l. 64 37 .21 1 TE33-207 -25 4070 ROR=l. 38 14 .21 1 TE83-207 -26 4125 ROR=l. 48 11 . 24 1 TE83-207 -28 4250 ROR=l. 55 53 .19 2 TE83-207 -29 4330 ROR=l. 54 52 . 21 2 TE83-207 -30 4540 ROR=l. 58 54 . 21 3 TE83-207 -31 4840 ROR=l. 46 7 .24 1 TE83-207 -32 5395 ROR=l. 86 10 .18 1 TE83-207 -34 5600 ROR=l. 50 9 . 17 2 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1738.8 Wapiabi 0911 Cardium 1125 f/Cardium 1244 B l a c k s t o n e 1308 B l a i r m o r e 1643 Lower B l a i r m o r e 1887 f / B l a i r m o r e 1984 Lower B l a i r m o r e 2053 Cadomin 2290 Kootenay 2318 Passage Beds 2473 F e r n i e 2519 Rock Cr e e k 2549 Nordegg 2567 Mt. Head 2594 Wileman 2612 T u r n e r V a l l e y 2627 Shunda 2740 P e k i s k o 2822 B a n f f 2896 Exshaw 3110 P a l l i s e r 3118 G r a m i n i a 3349 C a l m a r 3381 N i s k u 3390 I r e t o n 3436 Peechee 3446 C a i r n 3498 B e a v e r h i l l Lake 3666 Y a h a t i n d a 3751 Cambr i an 3772 f / C a m b r i a n 3865 f/Lower B l a i r m o r e 4062. Cadomin 4260 P a s s a g e Beds 4280 F e r n i e 4286 Rock Cr e e k 4310 No rdegg 4327 T u r n e r V a l l e y 4355 Shunda 4479 P e k i sko 4515 B a n f f 4662 Exshaw 4896 P a l l i s e r 4910 f / B a n f f 4929 Exshaw 4970 P a l l i s e r 4982 f / P a l l i s e r 5108 G r a m i n i a 5259 C a l m a r 5297 N i s k u 5310 I r e t o n 5365 Mount Hawk 5421 B e a v e r h i l l Lake 5606 T.D. 5620 SOURCE: S h e l l Canada R e s o u r c e s L t d . WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET 131 NAME: S h e l l 19 U n i t Jumping Pound West 13-4-26-6 LOCATION: 13-4-26-6W5 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE! DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-211 -01 0435 ROR=0. 88 8 .10 1 TE83-211 -03 0660 ROR=0. 80 51 .07 2 TE83-211 -05 0895 ROR=0. 86 53 .06 2 TE83-211 -0 6 0950 ROR=0. 94 56 . 12 3 TE83-211 -07 1090 ROR=0. 84 53 .13 2 TE83-211 -09 1275 ROR=0. 85 56 . 09 3 TE83-211 -10 1375 ROR=l. 00 55 .09 2 TE83-211 -12 1575 ROR=0. 93 57 . 09 2 TE83-211 -13 1680 ROR=0. 82 30 .09 2 TE83-211 -14 1720 ROR=0. 89 54 .10 4 TE83-211 -19 2360 ROR=l. 19 55 .11 3 TE83-211 -20 2430 ROR=l. 14 56 .07 3 TE83-211 -21 2470 ROR=l. 22 56 .12 2 TE83-211 -22 2575 ROR=l. 25 60 .13 3 TE83-211 -23 2660 ROR=l. 28 52 .12 2 TE83-211 -24 2865 ROR=l. 28 57 . 13 3 TE83-211 -25 2905 ROR=l. 41 56 . 22 1 TE83-211 -26 3010 ROR=l. 40 54 .19 3 TE83-211 -27R 3100 ROR=l. 40 44 .23 2 TE83-211 -28R 3180 ROR=l. 47 23 .24 2 TE83-211 -29R 3260 ROR=l. 48 42 .25 2 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1199.1 C a r d i u m 1107 B l a c k s t o n e 1578 B l a i r m o r e 2165 K o o t e n a y 3062 P a s s a g e Beds 3153 Nordegg 3235 T u r n e r V a l l e y 3261.3 Shunda 3352 P e k i s k o 3385 f / P e k i s k o 3486 B a n f f 3513.8 f / T u r n e r V a l l e y 3561 Shunda 3591.7 P e k i s k o 3621 T.D. 3700 SOURCE: S h e l l Canada R e s o u r c e s L t d . 132 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: E s s o Sundance N a n t o n 6-32-15-29 LOCATION: 6-32-15-29W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-209 -01 1605 ROR=0. 72 60 .06 3 TE83-209 -02 1720 ROR=0. 69 56 .06 4 TE83-209 -03 1755-1765 ROR=0. 74 59 .04 3 TE83-209 -04 1875 ROR=0. 71 55 . 09 3 TE83-209 -0 5R 1970 ROR=0. 73 51 .08 2 TE83-209 -06 2060 ROR=0. 73 56 .07 2 TE83-209 -07 2110 ROR=0. 68 55 .09 3 TE83-209 -08 2190 ROR=0. 72 56 .08 3 TE83-209 -09 2310 ROR=0. 71 54 .09 4 TE83-209 -10 2410 ROR=0. 71 54 .06 4 TE83-209 -11 2515 ROR=0. 69 58 .06 2 TE83-209 -12 2625 ROR=0. 69 52 .11 2 TE83-209 -13 2755 ROR=0. 74 56 .06 2 TE83-209 -14R 2765 ROR=0. 72 50 . 05 2 TE83-209 -15R 2875 ROR=0. 71 50 .06 2 TE83-209 -16 2950 ROR=0. 84 56 .10 2 TE83-209 -17R 3025 ROR=0. 87 51 .12 1 TE83-209 -18 3140 ROR=0. 85 51 .15 2 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1267.4 Bearpaw 1552 J u d i t h R i v e r 1728 Pakowki 2072 M i l k R i v e r 2103 C o l o r a d o 2212.5 C a r d i u m 2470 B l a c k s t o n e 2486.5 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 2618 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 2752 M a n n v i l l e 2824 O s t r a c o d 3052 J u r a s s i c 3091 L i v i n g s t o n e 3159.5 T.D. 3202 133 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: E s s o Windpump 10-36-11-28 LOCATION: 10-36-11-28W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE! DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-212 -01 1160 ROR=0.60 52 .02 4 TE83-212 -02R 1250 ROR=0.63 52 .05 3 TE83-212 -03 1380 ROR=0.63 54 .05 3 TE83-212 -04 1490 ROR=0.65 53 .08 3 TE83-212 -05 1590 ROR=0.68 54 .09 3 TE83-212 -06R 1665 ROR=0.70 52 .05 3 TE83-212 -09R 2170 ROR=0.70 29 .06 2 TE83-212 -10R 2270 ROR=0.69 51 .07 2 TE83-212 -11 2380-2390 ROR=0.76 58 .06 2 TE83-212 -12R 2455 ROR=0.76 51 .07 2 TE83-212 -13 2575 ROR=0.80 60 .12 3 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1014.2 Bearpaw 1067 J u d i t h R i v e r 1300 Pakowki 1595 M i l k R i v e r 1620 C o l o r a d o 1754 C a r d i u m 1978 B l a c k s t o n e 2000 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 2121 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 2243 M a n n v i l l e 2315 O s t r a c o d 2548 J u r a s s i c 2558 L i v i n g s t o n e 2671 E l k t o n 2746 B a n f f 2826 Exshaw 3081 Wabamun 3083 T.D. 3215 134 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: E s s o Sundance Muddy Lake 8-8-10-27 LOCATION: 8-8-10-27W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-213-02 0650 ROR=0. 58 53 .09 1 TE83-213-03 0790 ROR=0. 58 22 .09 2 TE83-213-04F 0900 ROR=0. 58 54 .07 3 TE83-213-05R 1005 ROR=0. 63 52 .06 4 TE83-213-06 1090 ROR=0. 62 54 .06 2 TE83-213-07 1265 ROR=0. 64 55 .06 4 TE83-213-08 1395 ROR=0. 66 57 .06 4 TE83-213-09 1495 ROR=0. 69 54 .07 4 TE83-213-10 1560 ROR=0. 66 61 .09 3 TE83-213-11 1660 ROR=0. 70 54 .07 3 TE83-213-12R 2165 ROR=0. 70 34 .07 2 TE83-213-13R 2305- 2315 ROR=0. 74 33 .07 1 TE83-213-14R 2470 ROR=0. 75 51 .06 1 TE83-213-15R 2580 ROR=0. 77 53 .07 2 SAMPLE TYPE: C o r e TE83-676 2524. 5 ROR=0. 88 50 .05 2 TE83-677 2543. 5 ROR=0. 80 50 .08 3 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 0998.5 Bearpaw 1013 J u d i t h R i v e r 1280 Pakowki 1585 M i l k R i v e r 1615 C o l o r a d o 1746 C a r d i u m 1972 B l a c k s t o n e 1998 Second White S p e c k l e d S h a l e 2117 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 2216 M a n n v i l l e 2324 O s t r a c o d 2564 J u r a s s i c 2576 L i v i n g s t o n e 2691 T.D. 2722 135 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: E s s o Sundance C l a r e s h o l m 6-16-12-27 LOCATION: 6-16-12-27W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-214-01R 0655 ROR=0. 60 36 .06 2 TE83-214-02R 0840 ROR=0. 61 52 .07 2 TE83-214-03 0855 ROR=0. 66 58 .06 4 TE83-214-04 1100 ROR=0. 70 56 .07 3 TE83-214-06 1425 ROR=0. 65 56 .06 4 TE83-214-07 1510 ROR=0. 65 53 .07 4 TE83-214-08 2100- 2105 ROR=0. 69 56 .07 4 TE83-214-09R 2190 ROR=0. 66 16 .09 1 TE83-214-10R 2235- 2240 ROR=0. 71 58 .08 1 TE83-214-11 2385 ROR=0. 69 43 .09 3 TE83-214-12 2395 ROR=0. 69 54 .07 3 SAMPLE TYPE: C o r e TE83-696F 2363. 6 ROR=0. 69 50 . 08 3 TE83-699 2381. 1 ROR=0. 83 50 .06 2 TE83-700F 2412. 5 ROR=0. 75 50 .06 3 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1012.6 Bearpaw 0982 J u d i t h R i v e r 1147 Pakowki 1435 M i l k R i v e r 1461 C o l o r a d o 1585 C a r d i u m 1808 B l a c k s t o n e 1828 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 1950 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 2050 M a n n v i l l e 2142 O s t r a c o d 2370 J u r a s s i c 2380 Rock C r e e k 2470 M i s s i s s i p p i a n 2481 T.D. 2585 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET 136 NAME: E s s o Sundance Muddy Lake 10-24-10-27 LOCATION: 10-24-10-27W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-215-01 0575-0580 ROR=0. 59 55 .07 2 TE83-215-02 0715 ROR=0. 58 51 .04 4 TE83-215-03 0755 ROR=0. 61 55 .06 2 TE83-215-04 0810 ROR=0. 60 53 .05 2 TE83-215-05 0910 ROR=0. 65 54 .09 2 TE83-215-06R 1035-1040 ROR=0. 64 52 .07 3 TE83-215-07 1205 ROR=0. 64 54 .06 2 TE83-215-08 1360 ROR=0. 63 54 .06 3 TE83-215-09 1450 ROR=0. 69 54 .06 2 TE83-215-10 2010 ROR=0. 73 59 . 08 3 TE83-215-11 2115 ROR=0. 70 51 .06 2 TE83-215-12 2215 ROR=0. 72 54 .07 3 TE83-215-13 2250 ROR=0. 76 54 .07 3 TE83-215-14R 2320 ROR=0. 72 50 .06 2 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 0994 .4 Bearpaw 0795 J u d i t h R i v e r 1055 Pakowki 1362 M i l k R i v e r 1393 C o l o r a d o 1520 C a r d ium 1739 B I a c k s t o n e 1759 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 1882 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 1978 M a n n v i l l e 2082 O s t r a c o d 2308 J u r a s s i c 2320 L i v i n g s t o n e 2420 T.D. 2455 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: E s s o Sundance Highwood 6-36-17-1 LOCATION: 6-36-17-1W5 137 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* TE83-216-01 TE83-216-02 TE83-216-03 TE83-216-04F TE83-216-05 TE83-216-06 TE83-216-07R DEPTHS(m) 1605 1695 2405-2410 2470-2475 2555 2605 2675-2680 REFLECTANCE N 52 ROR=0.67 ROR=0.67 ROR=0.72 ROR=0.65 ROR=0.77 ROR=0.73 ROR=0.68 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB J u d i t h R i v e r Pakowk i M i l k R i v e r C o l o r a d o C a r d i u m B l a c k s t o n e Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e Base o f F i s h S c a l e s M a n n v i l l e O s t r a c o d J u r a s s i c L i v i n g s t o n e T.D. 53 53 95 56 54 22 S .07 .07 .13 . 07 .06 .10 .03 1150.6 1357 1714 1748 1840 2112 2133 2264 2402 2470 2671 2727 2775 2860 Q 3 2 2 4 3 3 2 138 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: E s s o Sundance N a n t o n 8-4-16-29 LOCATION: 8-4-16-29W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE! DEPTHS(m) 1 REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83 -217 -01 1450 ROR=0. 66 54 .06 2 TE83 -217 -02 1560 ROR=0. 68 54 .07 3 TE83 -217 -03 1655 ROR=0. 67 60 .07 4 TE83 -217 -04 1790-1800 ROR=0. 68 54 .09 2 TE83 -217 -05 1875 ROR=0. 66 54 .07 3 TE83 -217 -0 6R 1990-1995 ROR=0. 70 52 .06 1 TE83 -217 -10 2555-2560 ROR=0. 69 56 . 04 2 TE83 -217 -11 2610-2615 ROR=0. 71 52 .07 3 TE83 -217 -12 2680-2685 ROR=0. 75 55 .08 2 TE83 -217 -13 2730-2740 ROR=0. 77 54 .10 3 TE83 -217 -14 2850 ROR=0. 77 55 .11 3 TE83 -217 -15R 2930-2935 ROR=0. 74 50 . 09 1 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1177.2 Bearpaw 1372 J u d i t h R i v e r 1550 Pakowki 1889 M i l k R i v e r 1917 C a r d i u m 2281 B l a c k s t o n e 2296 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 2427 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 2558 M a n n v i l l e 2635 O s t r a c o d 2846 J u r a s s i c 2895 Rock C r e e k 2942 L i v i n g s t o n e 2956 T.D. 2979 139 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: E s s o Sundance C a y l e y 11-10-17-1 LOCATION: 11-10-17-1W5 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) ] REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-218 -01 1360 ROR=0. 66 55 .06 4 TE83-218 -02 1480 ROR=0. 66 55 . 08 3 TE83-218 -03 1575 ROR=0. 68 57 .08 4 TE83-218 -04 1690-1695 ROR=0. 70 50 .06 2 TE83-218 -05 1790-1795 ROR=0. 66 60 .07 2 TE83-218 -06 1930 ROR=0. 66 56 .08 2 TE83-218 -12 2625 ROR=0. 67 51 .06 3 TE83-218 -13 2660-2670 ROR=0. 71 52 .10 2 TE83-218 -14 2760 ROR=0. 75 51 .08 2 TE83-218 -15 2890-2895 ROR=0. 74 53 .10 2 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1147.7 Bearpaw 1370 J u d i t h R i v e r 1541 Pakowki 1927 M i l k R i v e r 1962 C o l o r a d o 2058 C a r d i u m 2318 B l a c k s t o n e 2339 Second White S p e c k l e d S h a l e 2470 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 2596 M a n n v i l l e 2675 O s t r a c o d 2887 J u r a s s i c 2942 Rock Cr e e k 2988 M i s s i s s i p p i a n 2999 T.D. 3085 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET 140 NAME: Texaco e t al. Mazeppa 10-7-20-27 LOCATION: 10-7-20-27W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) 1 REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83 -220 -01R 0274 -0283 ROR=0. 61 50 .09 1 TE83 -220 -03R 0329 -0338 ROR=0. 56 16 .05 2 TE83 -220 -13R 0640 -0649 ROR=0. 61 50 .07 2 TE83 -220 -14 0668 -0677 ROR=0. 63 56 .06 3 TE83 -220 -16 0732 -0741 ROR=0. 61 54 .07 2 TE83 -220 -17 0759 -0768 ROR=0. 61 55 .07 2 TE83 -220 -18 0796 -0805 ROR=0. 59 53 .03 4 TE83 -220 -20R 0860 -0869 ROR=0. 61 50 .05 3 TE83 -220 -22 0924 -0933 ROR=0. 62 56 .07 3 TE83 -220 -27 1088' -1098 ROR=0. 64 56 .05 3 TE83 -220 -30 1226 -1235 ROR=0. 65 54 .06 3 FORMATION TOPS(m) K.B. Bearpaw J u d i t h R i v e r M i l k R i v e r C o l o r a d o Cardium B l a c k s t o n e Second White S p e c k l e d S h a l e Base o f F i s h S c a l e s M a n n v i l l e O s t r a c o d M i s s i s s i p p i a n Shunda P e k i s k o B a n f f Exshaw Wabamun T.D. 1068.6 0670 0875 1254 1344 1587.4 1607.5 1683 1802.3 1887 2121 2142.1 2200.7 2222.6 2387 2500 2511.2 2627.4 141 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: T e x a c o A l d e r s o n 10-4-16-10 LOCATION: 10-4-16-10W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-221-01 0184 ROR=0.42 60 . 12 2 TE83-221-02 0337 ROR=0.42 52 . 05 2 TE83-221-06R 0825 ROR=0.47 50 . 05 2 TE83-221-07 1001.5 ROR=0.49 55 . 06 2 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 0776. 3 Lea Park 0246. 6 M i l k R i v e r 0301. 8 C o l o r a d o 0389. 8 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 0626. 4 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 0703. 2 Bow I s l a n d 0760. 8 M a n n v i l l e 0862. 6 S u n b u r s t 0981. 5 M i s s i s s i p p i a n 0993. 9 T.D. 1002. 8 142 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: T e x a c o E n c h a n t 6-6-13-15 LOCATION: 6-6-13-15W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-222-01 0811-0814 ROR=0.49 54 . 06 2 TE83-222-02 0930 ROR=0.51 54 . 07 3 TE83-222-03 0980 ROR=0.53 54 . 06 2 FORMATION TOPS (m)' KB 0790. 8 Lea Park 0204 M i l k R i v e r 0238 C o l o r a d o 0341 Second White S p e c k l e d S h a l e 0608. 5 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 0674 M a n n v i l l e 0844 T.D. 0979 143 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: T e x a c o L i t t l e Bow 8-32-14-18 LOCATION: 8-32-14-18W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-223-01 0777.5 ROR=0.54 54 . 08 4 TE83-223-02 0900 ROR=0.56 51 . 05 3 TE83-223-03R 1017.5 ROR=0.55 51 . 05 2 TE83-223-04 1117.5 ROR=0.57 54 . 07 3 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 0805. 4 Pakowki 0335 M i l k R i v e r 0353. 7 C o l o r a d o 0447 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 0724 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 0809. 1 V i k i n g 0832. 4 M a n n v i l l e 0960. 8 O s t r a c o d 1090 L i v i n g s t o n e 1104 T.D. 1129 144 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: G u l f Kim 2-18-8-25 LOCATION: 2-18-8-25W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-224-01 1700 ROR=0. 60 54 . 09 2 TE83-224-02 1800-1805 ROR=0. 62 54 . 08 2 TE83-224-03 1900 ROR=0. 57 53 . 09 2 TE83-224-05 2105 ROR=0. 63 54 . 08 3 TE83-224-07R 2288 ROR=0. 62 50 . 06 4 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1013. 2 Bearpaw 0675 J u d i t h R i v e r 0912. 5 Pakowki 1240. 5 M i l k R i v e r 1265 C o l o r a d o 1376 C a r d i u m 1616 B l a c k s t o n e 1635 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 1755. 5 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 1848. 5 M a n n v i l l e 1967. 5 R i e r d o n 2186. 5 L i v i n g s t o n e 2294 B a n f f 2471 Exshaw 2664 Wabamun 2665 A r c s 2806 G r o t t o 2826. 5 Pechee 2843 T.D. 2867 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: G u l f P e i g a n 6-8-8-27 LOCATION: 6-8-8-27W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s 145 SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-225-02R 1355 ROR=0. 57 50 . 09 3 TE83-225-04R 1525 ROR=0. 62 51 . 08 3 TE83-225-06 1735 ROR=0. 59 53 . 06 2 TE83-225-08R 1950 ROR=0. 61 50 . 07 2 TE83-225-13 2475 ROR=0. 67 54 . 08 3 TE83-225-14 2550 ROR=0. 65 55 . 07 2 TE83-225-15 2695 ROR=0. 70 59 . 09 3 TE83-225-16R 2775 ROR=0. 67 51 . 06 3 TE83-225-19 3320 ROR=0. 69 51 . 05 2 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 0999. 9 Bearpaw 1121 J u d i t h R i v e r 1358 Pakowki 1752 M i l k R i v e r 1783 C o l o r a d o 1922 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 2313 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 2394. 6 M a n n v i l l e 2527 O s t r a c o d 2737 J u r a s s i c 2788 L i v i n g s t o n e 2935 B a n f f 3150 Exshaw 3318 Wabamun 3323 A r c s 3463 G r o t t o 3475 Peechee 3498 T.D. 3595 146 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: G u l f P e i g a n 3-27-6-28 LOCATION: 3-27-6-28W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-226-01 2600-2610 ROR=0.61 56 . 07 2 TE83-226-02 2765-2770 ROR=0.62 53 . 09 3 TE83-226-03 2885-2890 ROR=0.62 53 . 08 3 TE83-226-04R 2975 ROR=0.64 50 . 07 3 TE83-226-06 3215 ROR=0.63 43 . 09 3 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1145. 4 Bearpaw 1520 J u d i t h R i v e r 1731 Pakowki 2125 M i l k R i v e r 2148 C o l o r a d o 2305 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 2696 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 2776 M a n n v i l l e 2912 O s t r a c o d 3125 R i e r d o n 3229 Mount Head 3350 L i v i n g s t o n e 3394 B a n f f 3560 Exshaw 3756 Wabamun 3758 A r c s 3932. 5 G r o t t o 3960 T.D. 3977 147 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: G u l f e t a l . B l o o d 3-22-7-24 LOCATION: 3-22-7-24W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-227-01 1420 ROR=0.57 53 . 09 2 TE83-227-03 1620 ROR=0.59 52 . 06 2 TE83-227-06 1895 ROR=0.59 53 . 06 3 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1017 Bearpaw 0404 J u d i t h R i v e r 0620 Pakowki 0968 M i l k R i v e r 0996 Second White S p e c k l e d S h a l e 1468 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 1553 M a n n v i l l e 1680 O s t r a c o d 1897 R i e r d o n 1930 M i s s i s s i p p i a n 2008. 5 B a n f f 2174 Exshaw 2363 Wabamun 2364 A r c s 2509. 5 G r o t t o 2531. 5 Peechee 2545. 5 T.D. 2575 148 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: G u l f West B l o o d 3-32-7-24 LOCATION: 3-32-7-24W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-228-02 1600 ROR=0.60 57 . 07 2 TE83-228-03 1705 ROR=0.61 59 . 10 2 TE83-228-04 1820 ROR=0.62 56 . 12 2 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 0964. 6 J u d i t h R i v e r 0597 Pakowki 0968 M i l k R i v e r 0988 C o l o r a d o 1162 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 1470 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 1558. 5 M a n n v i l l e 1678 O s t r a c o d 1901 R i e r d o n 1920 M i s s i s s i p p i a n 2007 B a n f f 2176 Exshaw 2376 Wabamun 2378 A r c s 2508 T.D. 2524. 4 149 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: E s s o Sundance Nanton 10-25-15-29 LOCATION: 10-25-15-29W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) 1 REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-229 -01 1130 ROR=0. 62 54 .07 2 TE83-229 -02 1140 ROR=0. 64 54 .05 2 TE83-229 -03 1240 ROR=0. 64 55 .06 3 TE83-229 -04R 1370 ROR=0. 64 56 . 08 2 TE83-229 -05 1380 ROR=0. 65 54 .08 2 TE83-229 -06R 1455 ROR=0. 63 50 .07 2 TE83-229 -10R 1580 ROR=0. 66 52 .06 2 TE83-229 -11 1710 ROR=0. 69 55 . 08 3 TE83-229 -12 1805 ROR=0. 67 54 .07 4 TE83-229 -18 2470-•2475 ROR=0. 69 54 .09 3 TE83-229 -19R 2570-•2575 ROR=0. 65 51 .06 3 TE83-229 -20 2630- 2635 ROR=0. 73 52 .08 3 TE83-229 -21 2700-•2705 ROR=0. 69 60 .08 2 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1102.3 Bearpaw 1180 J u d i t h R i v e r 1377 Pakowki 1714 M i l k R i v e r 1743.5 C o l o r a d o 1858 C a r d i u m 2115 B l a c k s t o n e 2136 Second White S p e c k l e d S h a l e 2263 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 2402 M a n n v i l l e 2480 O s t r a c o d 2697 J u r a s s i c 2733 Rock Cr e e k 2787 M i s s i s s i p p i a n 2800 T.D. 2827 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET 150 NAME: E s s o Connemara 8-14-16-27 LOCATION: 8-14-16-27W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-230-01 0385-•0395 ROR=0. 58 38 .06 3 TE83-230-02R 0450 ROR=0. 59 55 .06 2 TE83-230-03 0600 ROR=0. 60 60 .08 3 TE83-230-04 0685 ROR=0. 67 53 . 06 3 TE83-230-05 0740 ROR=0. 68 54 .06 3 TE83-230-06 0745 ROR=0. 70 52 .06 2 TE83-230-07 0775 ROR=0. 66 56 . 04 3 TE83-230-08 0975 ROR=0. 67 56 .07 2 TE83-230-09R 1085 ROR=0. 64 42 .02 2 TE83-230-10 1160- 1170 ROR=0. 68 56 . 06 3 TE83-230-11 1270 ROR=0. 71 56 .07 2 TE83-230-17R 1970- 1975 ROR=0. 79 52 .09 3 TE83-230-18R 2080-•2090 ROR=0. 79 54 .07 3 TE83-230-19 2180 ROR=0. 83 56 . 10 3 SAMPLE TYPE: C o r e TE83-718 2236. 9 ROR=0. 92 50 . 05 3 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1023.4 Bearpaw 0800 J u d i t h R i v e r 0987 Pakowki 1296 M i l k R i v e r 1328 C o l o r a d o 1424 C a r d i u m 1693 B l a c k s t o n e 1709 Second White S p e c k l e d S h a l e 1780 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 1918 M a n n v i l l e 1986 O s t r a c o d 2190 J u r a s s i c 2219 L i v i n g s t o n e 2269 T.D. 2827 151 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: E s s o Sundance O x l e y 8-3-13-28 LOCATION: 8-3-13-28W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-231 -1 1025 ROR=0.68 54 .06 2 TE83-231 -2R 1105 ROR=0.68 54 .05 2 TE83-231 -3 1200 ROR=0.68 57 .06 3 TE83-231 -4 1300 ROR=0.69 56 . 06 3 TE83-231 -5R 1460 ROR=0.65 40 .09 2 TE83-231 -7 1625 ROR=0.69 54 .06 3 TE83-231 -8R 1700 ROR=0.66 52 .08 3 TE83-231 -16 2465 ROR=0.78 54 .06 4 TE83-231 -18 2625 ROR=0.88 38 .15 1 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1057.9 Bearpaw 1135 J u d i t h R i v e r 1293 Pakowki 1638 M i l k R i v e r 1666 C o l o r a d o 1787 C a r d i u m 2018 B l a c k s t o n e 2036 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 2158 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 2278 M a n n v i l l e 2345 O s t r a c o d 2573.5 J u r a s s i c 2608 M i s s i s s i p p i a n 2693.5 T.D. 2735 152 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: E s s o O x l e y 6-11-14-29 LOCATION: 6-11-14-29W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-232 -01 1505 ROR=0.71 54 .06 2 TE83-232 -02 1560 ROR=0.73 54 .07 2 TE83-232 -03 1675 ROR=0.67 56 .07 3 TE83-232 -04 1775 ROR=0.68 52 .07 2 TE83-232 -05 1880 ROR=0.72 54 .09 2 TE83-232 -06 1980 ROR=0.69 54 .09 3 TE83-232 -07R 2085 ROR=0.70 52 .07 4 TE83-232 -08R 2140 ROR=0.73 52 .08 3 TE83-232 -0 9R 2310 ROR=0.73 53 .06 2 TE83-232 -15 3025 ROR=0.75 54 .11 3 TE83-232 -16 3095 ROR=0.83 56 .10 3 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1328.2 Bearpaw 1549 J u d i t h R i v e r 1730 Pakowki 2080 M i l k R i v e r 2108 C o l o r a d o 2231 C a r d i u m 2475 B l a c k s t o n e 2495 Second White S p e c k l e d S h a l e 2618 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 2755 M a n n v i l l e 2819 O s t r a c o d 3045 J u r a s s i c 3085 M i s s i s s i p p i a n 3173 T.D. 3264.9 153 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: E s s o P a r k l a n d 8-11-15-28 LOCATION: 8-11-15-28W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-233-02R 1250 ROR=0.65 50 .07 2 TE83-233-03R 1335 ROR=0.63 51 .06 3 TE83-233-04 1430 ROR=0.62 51 .07 2 TE83-233-05 1550 ROR=0.65 51 .07 2 TE83-233-06 1675 ROR=0.67 52 .07 3 TE83-233-09R 1960 ROR=0.74 51 .09 3 TE83-233-12R 2215 ROR=0.72 58 .08 2 TE83-233-14R 2400 ROR=0.82 52 .08 2 SAMPLE TYPE: C o r e TE83-708 2513.2 ROR=0.96 50 . 06 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1105.6 Bearpaw 1026 J u d i t h R i v e r 1200 Pakowki 1568 M i l k R i v e r 1595 C o l o r a d o 1711 C a r d i u m 1938 B l a c k s t o n e 1954 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 2075 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 2206 M a n n v i l l e 2275 O s t r a c o d 2492 J u r a s s i c 2513 M i s s i s s i p p i a n 2578 T.D. 2650 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: E s s o Sundance N a n t o n 6-2-16-29 LOCATION: 6-2-16-29W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s 154 SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-234-01 1425 ROR=0. 68 52 . 07 3 TE83-234-02R 1455 ROR=0. 66 52 . 07 3 TE83-234-03 1525 ROR=0. 67 56 . 07 3 TE83-234-04 1620 ROR=0. 69 54 . 07 2 TE83-234-05 1755 ROR=0. 66 63 . 07 3 TE83-234-06 1850 ROR=0. 71 54 . 07 2 TE83-234-07R 1970 ROR=0. 70 51 . 07 3 TE83-234-08R 2045 ROR=0. 71 52 . 07 3 TE83-234-10R 2230 ROR=0. 71 52 . 06 2 TE83-234-11R 2355 ROR=0. 72 52 . 04 4 TE83-234-12 2495 ROR=0. 76 57 . 09 3 FORMATION TOPS KB 1106. 6 Bearpaw 1250 J u d i t h R i v e r 1435 Pakowki 1766 M i l k R i v e r 1798 C o l o r a d o 1908. 5 C a r d i u m 2154 B l a c k s t o n e 2169 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 2299 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 2432 M a n n v i l l e 2519 O s t r a c o d 2719. 5 J u r a s s i c 2762 Rock Cr e e k 2809 L i v i n g s t o n e 2819 T.D. 2900 155 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: E s s o Sundance C l a r e s h o l m 6-6-13-26 LOCATION: 6-6-13-26W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-235-01 0425 ROR = 0. 59 52 . 08 4 TE83-235-03 0600 ROR =0. 61 55 . 07 3 TE83-235-04 0700 ROR = 0. 64 54 . 05 2 TE83-235-05 0810 ROR =0. 65 54 . 09 3 TE83-235-06 0915 ROR = 0. 62 54 . 05 3 TE83-235-07 1030 ROR: =0. 66 54 . 07 2 TE83-235-08R 1125 ROR = 0. 69 51 . 06 3 TE83-235-09 1220 ROR =0. 68 52 . 08 3 TE83-235-10 1305 ROR = 0. 64 53 . 08 3 TE83-235-11 1400 ROR =0. 65 59 . 07 1 TE83-235-12R 1510 ROR = 0. 67 51 . 07 3 TE83-235-13R 1625 ROR =0. 66 51 . 06 2 TE83-235-14 1730 ROR = 0. 64 55 . 06 3 TE83-235-15R 1870 ROR =0. 72 50 . 06 3 TE83-235-16R 1940 ROR = 0. 75 52 . 08 3 TE83-235-17 2035 ROR: =0. 72 55 . 12 3 TE83-235-18R 2180 ROR: = 0. 73 51 . 07 3 SAMPLE TYPE: C o r e TE83-729 2148.5 ROR: =0. 83 50 . 05 4 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1029 Bearpaw 0755 J u d i t h R i v e r 0960 Pakowki 1242 M i l k R i v e r 1272 C o l o r a d o 1398 C a r d i u m 1610 B l a c k s t o n e 1636 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 1750 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 1875 Mannv i 1 l e 1948 O s t r a c o d 2166 J u r a s s i c 2187 Rock C r e e k 2254 L i v i n g s t o n e 2259 T.D. 2300 156 WELL SAMPLE DATA SHEET NAME: E s s o Sundance Lyndon 13-16-12-28 LOCATION: 13-16-12-28W4 SAMPLE TYPE: C u t t i n g s SAMPLE* DEPTHS(m) REFLECTANCE N S Q TE83-236-08 1080 ROR=0. 60 54 .05 3 TE83-236-09R 1255 ROR=0. 66 50 .05 4 TE83-236-10R 1280 ROR=0. 61 50 .05 2 TE83-236-11 1415 ROR=0. 58 53 .07 1 TE83-236-12R 1490 ROR=0. 64 51 .06 2 TE83-236-13R 1630 ROR=0. 61 50 .07 3 TE83-236-15 1845 ROR=0. 58 51 .06 2 TE83-236-17 2060 ROR=0. 63 55 . 08 3 TE83-236-18 2155 ROR=0. 65 55 .08 3 TE83-236-22 2560 ROR=0. 65 63 .07 3 TE83-236-23R 2602 ROR=0. 64 50 .08 2 TE83-236-28R 2910 ROR=0. 68 52 .09 2 SAMPLE TYPE: C o r e TE83-694 2820.5 ROR=0. 63 50 .03 2 TE83-695 2828 ROR=0. 69 50 .05 4 FORMATION TOPS(m) KB 1142.3 Bearpaw 1342 J u d i t h R i v e r 1484 Pakowki 1831 M i l k R i v e r 1858 C o l o r a d o 1988 C a r d i u m 2219 B l a c k s t o n e 2238 Second W h i t e S p e c k l e d S h a l e 2365 Base o f F i s h S c a l e s 2475 M a n n v i l l e 2562 O s t r a c o d 2792 J u r a s s i c 2812 M i s s i s s i p p i a n 2912 T.D. 2943 FIELD SAMPLE DATA SHEET 157 Sample*: TE83-008 L o c a t i o n : 9-18-24-5W5 Map s h e e t : C a l g a r y L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : S i b b a l d F l a t r o a d , 600 m e a s t o f Bateman C r e e k . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l y s h a l e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : a p p r o x i m a t e l y a t the c o n t a c t o f t h e upper and l o w e r p a r t o f t h e B r a z e a u Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.77 Sample*: TE83-019 L o c a t i o n : 8-36-14-22W4 Map s h e e t : G l e i c h e n L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : s o u t h s i d e o f T r a v e r s R e s e r v o i r on west s i d e o f c o u l e e below o l d mine. L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : l o w e r p a r t o f t h e Edmonton Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.48 Sample*: TE83-020 L o c a t i o n : 9-3-15-22W4 Map s h e e t : G l e i c h e n L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : i n L i t t l e Bow p r o v i n c i a l p a r k , 0.7 km west o f t h e pumphouse a l o n g the l a k e s h o r e . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : l o w e r p a r t o f t h e Edmonton Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.46 Sample*: TE83-021 L o c a t i o n : 8-36-15-23W4 Map s h e e t : G l e i c h e n L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : sample o b t a i n e d from l o c a l f a r m e r ' s basement, s u p p o s e d l y f r o m F o n t a n a ' s Long C o u l e e M i n e . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : l o w e r p a r t o f t h e Edmonton Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.54 FIELD SAMPLE DATA SHEET 158 Sample*: TE83-022F L o c a t i o n : 8-14-17-17W4 Map s h e e t : G l e i c h e n L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : s u r f a c e sample from c o a l dump a t Bow C i t y c o a l mine. L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : upper p a r t o f t h e J u d i t h R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.47 Sample*: TE83-023B L o c a t i o n : 3-13-17-17W4 Map s h e e t : G l e i c h e n L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : l o w e r c o a l seam i n t h e s o u t h r i v e r bank o f t h e Bow R i v e r , 1 km west o f t h e b r i d g e a t Bow C i t y . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : upper p a r t o f t h e J u d i t h R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.52 Sample!: TE83-024 L o c a t i o n : 6-14-29-23W4 Map s h e e t : D r u m h e l l e r L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : sample from C a r b o n seam (!11) from Mr. A. F o x ' s mine (!53 o f C a m p b e l l (1964)) i n the town o f C a r b o n . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : upper p a r t o f t h e H o r s e s h o e Canyon Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.56 Sample!: TE83-025 L o c a t i o n : 3-23-29-21W4 Map s h e e t : D r u m h e l l e r L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : sample from upper seam !8 i n K n e e h i l l s C r e e k s e c t i o n , on n o r t h s i d e o f c r e e k 500 m west o f w h i t e b r i d g e . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : m i d d l e p a r t o f t h e H o r s e s h o e Canyon Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.46 FIELD SAMPLE DATA SHEET 159 Sample*: TE83-026 L o c a t i o n : 9-13-29-21W4 Map sheet: Drumheller L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : 1.6 km east of K n e e h i l l s Creek s e c t i o n , probably seam #7 on south s i d e of road. L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : middle p a r t of the Horseshoe Canyon Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.48 Sample*: TE83-027 L o c a t i o n : 6-1-29-20W4 Map sheet: Drumheller L o c e t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : sample from outcrop of seam #4 south of the school i n east Drumheller. L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : lower p a r t of the Horseshoe Canyon Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.49 Sample*: TE83-028 L o c a t i o n : 12-14-28-19W4 Map sheet: Drumheller L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : sample from seam #1 outcrop, east s i d e of Highway #849, 0.6 km north of Highway #10, east of Cambria Red Deer River C r o s s i n g . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : lower p a r t of the Horseshoe Canyon Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.39 Sample#: TE83-030 L o c a t i o n : 11-8-8-4W5 Map sheet: F e r n i e L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : Highway #3 road cut on west o u t s k i r t s of Coleman. L i t h o t y p e : weathered c o a l u n d e r l y i n g sandstone S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : Kootenay Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.72 FIELD SAMPLE DATA SHEET 160 Sample*: TE83-032 L o c a t i o n : 8-3-8-4W5 Map s h e e t : F e r n i e L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : o u t c r o p on road c u t on new segment o f Highway #3 through B l a i r m o r e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 400 m upstream from o l d b r i d g e NNW o f town. L i t h o t y p e : c o a l i n cross-bedded s a n d s t o n e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : B l a i r m o r e Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.79 Sample*: TE83-033 L o c a t i o n : 15-20-7-3W5 Map s h e e t : F e r n i e L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : road c u t on n o r t h s i d e of Highway #3, n o r t h o f bend i n Crowsnest R i v e r . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : base o f B l a i r m o r e Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=1.06 Sample*: TE83-034 L o c a t i o n : 3-15-7-3W5 Map s h e e t : F e r n i e L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : sample taken from r o a d c u t on n o r t h s i d e of Highway #3. L i t h o t y p e : carbonaceous sandstone. S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : B l a i r m o r e Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.88 Sample*: TE83-038A L o c a t i o n : 11-7-22-3W5 Map s h e e t : K a n a n a s k i s Lakes L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : o u t c r o p on n o r t h s i d e of F i s h Creek, 100 m downstream from b r i d g e . L i t h o t y p e : t h i n c o a l seam, weathered, i n f a u l t zone S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : B e l l y R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.77 FIELD SAMPLE DATA SHEET 161 Sample*: TE83-039 L o c a t i o n : 1-34-22-4W5 Map s h e e t : K a n a n a s k i s L a k e s L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : Highway #922 r o a d c u t , s o u t h s i d e , west s i d e o f P r i d d i s C r e e k v a l l e y L i t h o t y p e : c o a l seam > 0.6 m t h i c k S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : B e l l y R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.58 Sample*: TE83-040 L o c a t i o n : 8-15-22-6W5 Map s h e e t : K a n a n a s k i s L a k e s L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : o u t c r o p on west s i d e o f r o a d e a s t o f Elbow F a l l s by 1.9 km. L i t h o t y p e : s h e a r e d c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : K o o t e n a y Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=1.41 RoMax=1.52 Sample*: TE83-041 L o c a t i o n : 8-23-21-5W5 Map s h e e t : K a n a n a s k i s L a k e s L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : r o a d c u t on n o r t h s i d e o f M c C l e a n C r e e k - Q u i r k C r e e k r o a d , 400 m west o f c a m p s i t e on Q u i r k C r e e k . L i t h o t y p e : w e a t h e r e d c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : p r o b a b l y B e l l y R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.71 Sample*: TE83-046 L o c a t i o n : 16-27-19-4W5 Map s h e e t : K a n a n a s k i s L a k e s L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : r o a d c u t on n o r t h s i d e o f Highway #546, i m m e d i a t e l y west o f P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t g a t e . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : B e l l y R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.81 FIELD SAMPLE DATA SHEET 162 Sample*: TE83-049F L o c a t i o n : 12-8-20-2W5 Map s h e e t : K a n a n a s k i s L a k e s L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : o u t c r o p on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f Highway #7 between T u r n e r V a l l e y and B l a c k Diamond. L i t h o t y p e : c o a l seam > 0.5 m t h i c k S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : B e l l y R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.67 Sample*: TE83-055F L o c a t i o n : 1-32-16-5W5 Map s h e e t : K a n a n a s k i s L a k e s L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : r o a d c u t on n o r t h s i d e o f Highway #541, 400 m e a s t o f #941/#541 j u n c t i o n . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l y s h a l e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : B l a i r m o r e Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.94 Sample*: TE83-056A L o c a t i o n : 4-33-16-5W5 Map sheet: Kananaskis Lakes L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : road cut on north s i d e of Highway #541, 900 m east of #941/#541 j u n c t i o n . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : base of Mist Mountain Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : R o R = l . l l RoMax=1.23 Sample*: TE83-058 L o c a t i o n : 1-1-17-5W5 Map s h e e t : K a n a n a s k i s L a k e s L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : r o a d c u t on n o r t h s i d e o f Highway #541. L i t h o t y p e : c o a l from a t h i c k seam. S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : K o o t e n a y Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=1.25 FIELD SAMPLE DATA SHEET 163 Sample*: TE83-062 L o c a t i o n : 6-16-7-4W5 Map s h e e t : F e r n i e . • L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : r o a d c u t on t h e e a s t s i d e o f s e c o n d a r y r o a d on e a s t s i d e o f W i l l o u g h b y R i d g e o v e r t h e Coleman F a u l t . L i t h o t y p e : w e a t h e r e d c o a l seam. S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : K o o t e n a y Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.88 Sample*: TE83-063 L o c a t i o n : 15-31-6-3W5 Map sheet: F e r n i e . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : outcrop at entrance to Adanac Mine on Byron Creek road. L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : Kootenay Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.92 Sample*: TE83-064 L o c a t i o n : 6-4-6-2W5 Map s h e e t : F e r n i e . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : c r e e k c u t on n o r t h s i d e o f Highway #774, 1.5 km west o f B e a v e r m i n e s . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : K o o t e n a y Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.72 Sample*: TE83-066A L o c a t i o n : 12-29-18-7W5 Map s h e e t : K a n a n a s k i s L a k e s L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : h i l l e a s t o f Highway #940 2 km s o u t h o f Highwood P a s s . M i s t M o u n t a i n s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n o f G i b s o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l from a r e c e s s i v e seam. S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : 30 m from t h e base o f t h e M i s t M o u n t a i n Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=1.55 RoMax=1.59 FIELD SAMPLE DATA SHEET 164 Sample*: TE83-067 L o c a t i o n : 5-21-16-5W5 Map s h e e t : K a n a n a s k i s Lakes. L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : r i v e r c u t a t i n t e r s e c t i o n o f B a r i l Creek and Highway #940, northwest s i d e . L i t h o t y p e : t h i n weathered c o a l seam or l e n s e s . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : B l a i r m o r e Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=1.06 Sample#: TE83-070 L o c a t i o n : 7-26-14-5W5 Map s h e e t : K a n a n a s k i s Lakes. L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : road c ut on Highway #940. L i t h o t y p e : c o a l y s h a l e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : base of B l a i r m o r e Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.95 Sample*: TE83-072F L o c a t i o n : 14-17-12-4W5 Map s h e e t : F e r n i e . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : road c u t on n o r t h s i d e of Oldman R i v e r r o a d . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l y l e n s e s i n sandst o n e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : Kootenay Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.99 Sample*: TE83-073 L o c a t i o n : 7-30-12-4W5 Map s h e e t : F e r n i e . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : s m a l l o u t c r o p on n o r t h s i d e of Oldman R i v e r r o a d . L i t h o t y p e : weathered c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : Kootenay Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=1.62 FIELD SAMPLE DATA SHEET 165 Sample*: TE83-075 L o c a t i o n : 3-2-13-4W5 Map s h e e t : F e r n i e . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : r o a d c u t on e a s t s i d e o f Oldman R i v e r r o a d i m m e d i a t e l y n o r t h o f a c a t t l e g u a r d . L i t h o t y p e : w e a t h e r e d c o a l seam. S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : K o o t e n a y Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.90 Sample*: TE83-076F L o c a t i o n : 3-2-13-4W5 Map s h e e t : F e r n i e . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : r i v e r c u t s o u t h o f Oldman R i v e r r o a d , i m m e d i a t e l y below Oldman R i v e r F a l l s . L i t h o t y p e : s h e a r e d c o a l l e n s e s . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : a p p r o x i m a t e l y a t t h e c o n t a c t between t h e K o o t e n a y and B l a i r m o r e Gps. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=1.07 Sample*: TE83-077F L o c a t i o n : 3-35-11-4W5 Map s h e e t : F e r n i e . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : r i v e r c u t on s o u t h s i d e o f Oldman R i v e r west o f c a m p s i t e . L i t h o t y p e : t h i c k c o a l seam. S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : K o o t e n a y Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=1.02 Sample*: TE83-079 L o c a t i o n : 2-14-11-4W5 Map s h e e t : F e r n i e . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : r o a d c u t on n o r t h s i d e o f D u t c h C r e e k . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l l e n s e s i n c o n g l o m e r a t e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : B l a i r m o r e Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.93 FIELD SAMPLE DATA SHEET 166 Sample*: TE83-080 L o c a t i o n : 4-8-11-3W5 Map s h e e t : F e r n i e . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : new r o a d c u t on west s i d e o f Highway #940, 1.4 km n o r t h o f L i v i n g s t o n e Ranger S t a t i o n . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : K o o t e n a y Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=1.05 Sample*: TE83-088 L o c a t i o n : 16-30-9-2W5 Map s h e e t : F e r n i e . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : r o a d c u t e a s t o f Todd C r e e k by 2.5 km. L i t h o t y p e : t h i n c o a l seams. S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : B e l l y R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.50 Sample*: TE83-095B L o c a t i o n : 14-26-4-28W4 Map s h e e t : L e t h b r i d g e . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : c l i f f - f o r m i n g o u t c r o p s below W a t e r t o n R e s e r v o i r on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e r i v e r . L i t h o t y p e : t h i n c o a l seams i n banded s h a l e s . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : p o s s i b l y B e l l y R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.59 Sample*: TE83-098 L o c a t i o n : a-4-B 82-G/10 Map s h e e t : F e r n i e . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : mine t a i l i n g s o f C o r b i n C o a l M i n e . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l r u b b l e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : K o o t e n a y Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=1.06 FIELD SAMPLE DATA SHEET 167 Sample*: TE83-100 L o c a t i o n : 15-22-33-22W4 Map s h e e t : D r u m h e l l e r L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : sample from seam #12 from Tolman B r i d g e s e c t i o n (73-37 o f G i b s o n (1977)) on n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f b r i d g e . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : uppermost p a r t o f H o r s e s h o e Canyon Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.55 Sample#: TE83-101 L o c a t i o n : 1-9-31-21W4 Map s h e e t : D r u m h e l l e r L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : sample from M o r r i n B r i d g e s e c t i o n (73-30 o f G i b s o n (1977)) 1.6 km s o u t h o f Highway #27 on s o u t h s i d e o f r o a d . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : m i d d l e p a r t o f H o r s e s h o e Canyon Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.54 Sample*: TE83-102 L o c a t i o n : 9-6-28-18W4 Map s h e e t : D r u m h e l l e r L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : o u t c r o p o f w e a t h e r e d seam #2, 1 km west o f L e h i g h . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : l o w e r p a r t o f H o r s e s h o e Canyon Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.55 Sample*: TE83-103A L o c a t i o n : 1-19-29-13W4 Map s h e e t : Oyen L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : Sample from M a n a l t a ' s Montgomery mine e a s t o f Highway #36 by 7.3 km. L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : l o w e r p a r t o f t h e Edmonton Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.46 RoMax=0.49 FIELD SAMPLE DATA SHEET 168 Sample*: TE83-104 L o c a t i o n : 4-33-20-11W4 Map sheet: Medicine Hat L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : sample from carbonaceous zone i n cho c o l a t e brown weathering sandstone outcrop 100 m south of the southern perimeter of Dinosaur P r o v i n c i a l Park. L i t h o t y p e : c o a l y s h a l e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : upper p a r t of the J u d i t h R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.46 Sample*: TE83-105U L o c a t i o n : 16-10-13-9W4 Map Sheet: Medicine Hat L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : sample from an upper carbonaceous zone i n upper p a r t of north bank of South Saskatchewan R i v e r 17 km south of S u f f i e l d . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l y s h a l e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : lower p a r t of the J u d i t h River Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.45 Sample*: TE83-105L L o c a t i o n : 16-10-13-9W4 Map sheet: Medicine Hat L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : sample from a lower carbonaceous zone i n upper p a r t of north bank of South Saskatchewan R i v e r 17 km south of S u f f i e l d . L i t h o t y p e : sulphurous c o a l y s h a l e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : lower p a r t of the J u d i t h R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.51 Sample*: TE83-106 L o c a t i o n : 11-5-13-6W4 Map sheet: Medicine Hat L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : sample from lower part of steep slope on north s i d e of South Saskatchewan R i v e r south of R e d c l i f f . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l from shaley seam. S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : middle p a r t of the J u d i t h R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.49 FIELD SAMPLE DATA SHEET 169 Sample*: TE83-109A L o c a t i o n : 10-27-2-12W4 Map s h e e t : F o r e m o s t L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : f r o m e x p o s u r e o f c o a l a t L u c k y S t r i k e Mine p i t . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : m i d d l e p a r t o f t h e J u d i t h R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.52 Sample*: TE83-110 L o c a t i o n : 6-35-2-12W4 Map s h e e t : F o r e m o s t L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : sample from e x p o s u r e a t K i p p e n Mine p i t . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : m i d d l e p a r t o f J u d i t h R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.49 Sample*: TE83-112A L o c a t i o n : 5-18-10-16W4 Map s h e e t : L e t h b r i d g e L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : sample from o u t c r o p on s o u t h s i d e o f Highway #864, 0.7 km n o r t h o f b r i d g e o v e r t h e Oldman R i v e r n o r t h o f T a b e r . L i t h o t y p e : d i s t i n c t l y b u r n t c o a l o u t c r o p . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : J u d i t h R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=1.75 RoMax=1.82 Sample*: TE83-115 L o c a t i o n : 11-31-9-23W4 Map s h e e t : L e t h b r i d g e L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : o u t c r o p on s o u t h bank o f t h e Oldman R i v e r ( u n i t 6 on p. 45 o f L e r a n d ( 1 9 8 3 ) ) . L i t h o t y p e : t h i n c o a l f r a g m e n t s i n s i l t y s a n d s t o n e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : b a s a l S t . Mary R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.60 FIELD SAMPLE DATA SHEET 170 Sample*: TE83-116 L o c a t i o n : 1-33-4-22W4 Map s h e e t : L e t h b r i d g e L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : c a r b o n a c e o u s zone i n upper p a r t o f t h e west c l i f f o f J e n s e n R e s e r v o i r (p. 23 o f L e r a n d ( 1 9 8 3 ) ) . L i t h o t y p e : c a r b o n a c e o u s s h a l e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : b a s a l S t . Mary R i v e r Fm. d i r e c t l y o v e r l y i n g B l o o d R e s e r v e Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.59 Sample*: TE83-117 L o c a t i o n : 5-3-4-27W4 Map s h e e t : L e t h b r i d g e L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : o u t c r o p o f c o a l a t t o p o f u n i t 12 (p. 51 o f L e r a n d (1983)) on e a s t bank o f t h e B e l l y R i v e r a t M e r r i l l r a n c h . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : a t base o f S t . Mary R i v e r Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.60 Sample*: TE83-124 L o c a t i o n : 3-6-32-6-5W5 Map s h e e t : C a l g a r y . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : r o a d c u t on n o r t h s i d e o f Highway # , 23 km west o f Su n d r e on n o r t h s i d e o f Red Deer R i v e r . L i t h o t y p e : c a r b o n a c e o u s s h a l e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : upper p a r t o f t h e B r a z e a u Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=0.59 Sample*: TE83-132 L o c a t i o n : 4-30-29-10W5 Map s h e e t : C a l g a r y . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : r i v e r c u t on s o u t h s i d e o f N o r t h B u r n t T i m b e r C r e e k a t P a n t h e r c u l m i n a t i o n . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : K o o t e n a y Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=1.51 FIELD SAMPLE DATA SHEET 171 Sample*: TE83-135 L o c a t i o n : 2-4-24-7W5 Map s h e e t : K a n a n a s k i s L a k e s . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : r o a d c u t n o r t h o f Jumpingpound C r e e k , 6.3 km s o u t h o f S i b b a l d F l a t s b r i d g e . L i t h o t y p e : c a r b o n a c e o u s s h a l e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : K o o t e n a y Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=1.79 Sample*: TE83-139F L o c a t i o n : 2-10-25-9W5 Map s h e e t : C a l g a r y . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : t y p e s e c t i o n o f t h e Exshaw Fm. on J u r a C r e e k . L i t h o t y p e : c a r b o n a c e o u s s h a l e . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : Exshaw Fm. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=1.56 Sample*: TE83-140 L o c a t i o n : 1-29-24-10W5 Map s h e e t : C a l g a r y . . L o c a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n : o l d t a i l i n g s p i l e from abandoned c o a l mine e a s t o f Canmore on s o u t h s i d e o f Bow R i v e r . L i t h o t y p e : c o a l . S t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n : K o o t e n a y Gp. R e f l e c t a n c e : RoR=1.99 

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