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Mesozoic stratigraphy and paleontology of the west side of Harrison Lake, southwestern British Columbia Arthur, Andrew John 1987

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MESOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY AND Px\LEONTOLOGY OF THE WEST SIDE OF HARRISON L A K E , SOUTHWESTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA by ANDREW JOHN ARTHUR A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DECEMBER, 1987 ® ANDREW JOHN ARTHUR, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e December 22nd. 1987 DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT A well preserved, fossiliferous Middle Triassic to Early Cretaceous section lies on the west side of Harrison Lake in the southern Coast Mountains. The study of this area involves a re-evaluation of the stratigraphic nomenclature first described by Crickmay (1925, 1930a) together with a lithologic description of the units and age determinations based on collected, identified and described fossils by the writer. Discussions on the biostratigraphy, paleogeography, regional correlations and structure of the thesis area and an overview of the regional tectonics of southwestern British Columbia and northwestern Washington, help to better understand the relation of this Mesozoic section to other rock assemblages in this geologically complex region. The oldest unit, the Middle Triassic Camp Cove Formation, comprises conglomeratic sandstone, siltstone and minor volcanic rock. Unconformable7 overlying this unit is the Toarcian to Early(?) Bajocian Harrison Lake Formation, divided into four distinct members by the writer, Celia Cove Member (basal conglomerate), West Road Member (siltstone, shale), Weaver Lake Member (flows, pyroclastic rocks, minor sediments) and Echo Island Member (interbedded tuff, siltstone, sandstone). Thickness of this formation is estimated at 3000 m. A hiatus probably is present between this unit and overlying shale, siltstone and sandstone of the Early Callovian Mysterious Creek Formation which is 700 m thick. Conformably above this are 230 m of sandstone and volcaniclastic rock of the Early Oxfordian Billhook Creek Formation. Late Jurassic fluvial conglomerate, sandstone and siltstone of the Kent Formation, perhaps 1000 m thick south of Harrison River, unconformably(?) overlies the last two units mentioned. Berriasian to Valanginian conglomerate and sandstone, 218 m thick, of the Peninsula Formation overlies the Billhook Creek Formation with slight angular unconformity. ii The Peninsula Formation is conformably overlain by tuffaceous sandstone, volcanic conglomerate, crystal tuff and flows of the Valanginian to Middle Albian Brokenback Hill Formation which is several km thick. Nine Jurassic ammonite genera are identified and described in this report. Triassic radiolaria and conpdonts and Cretaceous ammonites and bivalves are also present in the section. The most significant structure in the thesis area is the post-Albian to pre-Late Eocene Harrison Fault which strikes north-northwest through Harrison Lake, separating the Mesozoic section along the west side from the northern extension of the Cascade Metamorphic Core on the east side of the lake. A strong sub-horizontal stretching lineation within the fault zone may indicate right-lateral strike-slip movement. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vii 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 GEOLOGICAL SETTING 1 1.1.1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1.2 REGIONAL GEOLOGY AND METAMORPHISM 3 1.1.3 LOCAL STUCTURE 7 1.2 PREVIOUS WORK .'. 8 2 LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY 10 2.1 CAMP. COVE FORMATION 10 2.2 HARRISON L A K E FORMATION 13 2.2.1 Celia Cove Member 14 2.2.2 West Road Member 17 2.2.3 Weaver Lake Member 18 2.2.4 Echo Island Member 22 2.3 MYSTERIOUS CREEK FORMATION 25 2.4 B ILLHOOK CREEK FORMATION 29 2.5 K E N T FORMATION 34 2.6 PEN INSULA FORMATION 37 2.7 BROKENBACK H ILL FORMATION '. 41 2.8 IGNEOUS ROCKS 45 3 BIOSTRATIGRAPHY 47 3.1 INTRODUCTION '. 47 3.2 TRIASSIC 47 3.3 JURASSIC - TOARCIAN TO A A L E N I A N 51 3.4 JURASSIC - CALLOV IAN 60 3.5 JURASSIC - OXFORDIAN 66 3.6 CRETACEOUS - BERRIASIAN TO VALANG IN IAN 71 3.7 CRETACEOUS - VALANG IN IAN TO ALB IAN 78 4 CORRELATIONS AND TECTONICS 83 4.1 REGIONAL CORRELATIONS 83 4.2 REGIONAL TECTONICS 87 5 SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY 92 5.1 INTRODUCTION 92 5.2 MEASUREMENTS AND ABBREVIATIONS 92 5.3 SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS 93 Superfamily EODEROCERATACEAE SPATH, 1929 .93 Family DACTYLIOCERATIDAE HYATT, 1867 93 Genus Dactylioceras HYATT, 1867 93 Dactylioceras sp 94 Superfamily HILDOCERATACEAE HYATT, 1867 94 Family HILDOCERATIDAE HYATT, 1867 94 Subfamily HARPOCERATINAE NEUMAYR, 1875 94 Genus Harpoceras WAAGEN, 1869 94 Harpoceras sp 95 iv Subfamily GRAMMOCERATINAE BUCKMAN, 1905 96 Genus Dumortieria HAUG, 1885 96 Dumortieria cf. levesquei D ORBIGNY 97 Dumortieria cf. insignismilis (BRAUNS) 100 Family PHYMATOCERATIDAE HYATT, 1867 ....102 Subfamily PHYMATOCERATINAE HYATT, 1867 102 Genus Phymatoceras HYATT, 1867 102 Phymatoceras sp 102 Family HAMMATOCERATIDAE BUCKMAN, 1887 103 Subfamily HAMMATOCERATINAE BUCKMAN, 1887 103 Genus Erycitoides WESTERMANN, 1964 103 Erycitoides ? sp 104 Superfamily STEPHANOCERATACEAE NEUMAYR, 1875 105 Family SPHAEROCERATIDAE BUCKMAN, 1920 105 Subfamily EURYCEPHALATINAE THIERRY, 1976 105 Genus Lilloettia CRICKMAY, 1930 105 Lilloettia lilloetensis CRICKMAY 106 Lilloettia stantoni IMLAY 107 Lilloettia sp 109 Family CARDIOCERATIDAE SIEMIRADZKI, 1891 110 Subfamily CADOCERATINAE HYATT, 1900 110 Genus Cadoceras FISCHER, 1882 110 Subgenus Cadoceras sensu stricto ....110 Cadoceras comma IMLAY 110 Cadoceras sp '. 113 Cadoceras cf. catostoma POMPECKJ 114 Subgenus Paracadoceras CRICKMAY 115 Cadoceras (Paracadoceras) cf. tonniense IMLAY 115 Genus Pseudocadoceras BUCKMAN, 1918 117 Pseudocadoceras grewingki POMPECKJ 118 Subfamily CARDIOCERATINAE SIEMIRADZKI, 1891 120 Genus Cardioceras NEUMAYR and UHLIG, 1881 120 Subgenus Scarburgiceras BUCKMAN, 1924 121 Cardioceras (Scarburgiceras) martini REESIDE 121 Subgenus Cardioceras ARKELL, 1946 123 Cardioceras (Cardioceras) hyatti REESIDE 123 Cardioceras (Cardioceras) lillooeten.se REESIDE 126 Cardioceras sp 128 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 129 BIBLIOGRAPHY 131 APPENDIX 1 140 APPENDIX 2 • 1 4 2 APPENDIX 3 • 1 4 4 v L I S T O F F I G U R E S A N D P L A T E S 1. Location map 2 2. Geographic map of Harrison Lake area . 4 3. Geological map of west half of Hope map-area 6 4. Geology and structure of thesis area in pocket 5. Schematic stratigraphic column of thesis area 11 6. Fossil localities in thesis area in pocket 7. Columnar jointing in flows of the Weaver Lake Member 20 8. Anticline in sediments of the Echo Island Member 20 9. Photomicrograph of Mysterious Creek Formation sandstone 27 10. Volcaniclastic rock of the Billhook Creek Formation .27 11. Photomicrograph of Billhook Creek Formation volcaniclastic rock 31 12. Mysterious Creek-Billhook Creek formation contact 31 13. Measured stratigraphic sections 33 14. Basal conglomerate of Peninsula Formation 38 15. Photograph of Jurassic-Cretaceous unconformity 38 16. Belemnite coquina in sandstone of Penisula Formation 42 17. Volcanic conglomerate of Brokenback Hill Formation 42 18. Fossil locality table 48 19. Scanning electron micrograph of microfossils from Camp Cove Formation ... 49 20. Scanning electron micrograph of microfossils from chert clasts of Celia Cove Member . 52 21. Scanning electron micrograph of crinoid ossicles and bryozoa from limestone clasts of Celia Cove Member 54 22. Photomicroraph of fusulinids from limestone clasts of Celia Cove Member .. 57 23. Early Callovian faunal successions 61 24. Early Oxfordian faunal successions 67 25. Oxfordian paleobiogeographic map 70 26. Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous zonation 72 27. Cretaceous ammonite specimen 80 28. Correlation chart of Mesozoic sections in British Columbia in pocket 29. Physiographic and geologic belts of the Canadian Cordillera 88 30. Graphical plots of Dumortieria data 99 31. Ammonite descriptors in database 145 Plate 1 Dactylioceras sp., Harpoceras sp., Dumortieria cf. levesquei, D. cf. insignisimilis 165 Plate 2 Phymatoceras sp., Erycitoides ? sp., Lilloettia lilloetensis, L. stantoni, Lilloettia sp 167 Plate 3 Cadoceras comma, Cadoceras sp., C. c f . catostoma, C. (Paracadoceras) cf. tonniense 169 Plate 4 Pseudocadoceras grewingki, Cardioceras (Scarburgiceras) martini, C. (Cardioceras) hyatti, C. (C.) lillooetense, Cardioceras sp 171 vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Completion of this thesis is due, in large part, to the financial support, guidance and helpful suggestions of my thesis advisor Dr. P. L. Smith. Dr. H. W. Tipper and Dr. J. W. H. Monger of the Geological Survey of Canada provided guidance with respect to tectonics, correlations and biostratigraphy. Dr. W. C. Barnes of the University of British Columbia was also on my committee and I am grateful to all four members for their reviews of the manuscript, patience and sense of humor. The Survey supplied logistical field support for three months in 1985. Thanks go to Dave Handel, Steve Irwin and Mary McLean who all supplied valuable assistance in the field and to Jennifer O'Brien for many informative discussions. A great deal of thanks must go to Dr. J. A. Jeletzky for his study of Cretaceous faunas from the field area, Dr. M. J. Orchard for his identification of Triassic conodonts, Mrs. E. S. Carter for her identification of Triassic radiolaria and Dr. W. R. Danner for help with the fusulinids. Dr. P. Read helped with the identification of metamorphic minerals in thin section and Mr. G. Hodge drafted figure 28. Family, friends and my fiancee Tammea Archibald have supplied unending moral support to me and for this I am grateful. Finally, I would like to dedicate this thesis to the memory of my grandmother Mrs. E. J. Anson, who gave me so much of her time. vn 1 INTRODUCTION The area under study lies west of Harrison Lake, a 55 km long and 1 to 7 km wide lake in southwest British Columbia, about 100 km east of Vancouver (Fig. 1), and includes Echo Island, Long Island and Cascade Peninsula (Fig. 2). Chehalis River Valley forms the western limit of the study area, where the contact with igneous rocks of the Coast Plutonic Complex occurs. The area extends from south of Harrison River around Mt. Woodside (Fig. 2) north to Doctor's Point. The lake is fed at the north end by the Lillooet River and by numerous creeks which cascade down the steep valley walls; it is drained by the Harrison River (Fig. 2) at the southwest end. Access to the area is from the Morris Lake road and the Forest Service road along the west side of the lake. The turn off to these roads from Highway 7 is at Harrison Mills, about 1 km north of the Harrison River bridge. Study of the shoreline geology was by boat. 1 . 1 GEOLOGICAL SETTING 1 . 1 . 1 INTRODUCTION The study area lies in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia. North and west of the area, mainly Cretaceous and Tertiary granodiorite, quartz diorite and diorite of the Coast Plutonic Complex predominate, although locally metamorphosed roof pendants of Lower Cretaceous Gambier, Fire Lake and Harrison Lake strata are relatively common, making up to 20% of the rock (Roddick, 1965). The region contains several rock assemblages that differ in lithology and metamorphic grade (Fig. 3). The stratigraphic section under study 1 Figure 1: Location of study area in Br i t i sh Columbia. INTRODUCTION / 3 along the west shore of Harrison Lake is the most complete and well preserved Mesozoic section within the southern Coast Mountains. 1.1.2 REGIONAL GEOLOGY AND METAMORPHISM The Harrison Lake assemblage on the west side of Harrison Lake is separated from the Triassic (?) Slollicum assemblage (Fig. 3) to the east by the Harrison Fault which runs through the neck of Cascade Peninsula, along the western edge of Long Island and continues north following the lake (Fig. 4, in map pocket). The Slollicum assemblage is composed of schistose, basic to intermediate flows and volcaniclastic rocks interbedded with dark grey to black pelites and local conglomerates (Monger, 1986). The metamorphic grade of the Slollicum rocks increases eastward from greenschist facies along the shore of Harrison Lake to garnet and biotite facies and together with the other metamorphosed assemblages (Breakenridge, Cogburn, Settler) east of Harrison Lake (Fig. 3), probabty represent the northern extension of the high grade metamorphic core of the Cascade Belt in Washington (Monger, 1986; Brown, 1987). In comparison, rocks of the Harrison Lake assemblage are typically subgreenschist grade (prehnite to pumpellyite) and penetrative deformation is noted only near the Harrison Fault. Beaty (1974) noted laumontite, montmorillonite, prehnite, pumpellyite and epidote among other metamorphic minerals commonly occurring in amygdules and veinlets in volcanic rocks of the Harrison Lake Formation. Hydrothermal alteration related to faulting is common within this unit. Higher in the section the high pressure, low temperature metamorphic mineral INTRODUCTION / 4 Figure 2: Geographic map of area around Harr i son Lake. INTRODUCTION / 5 lawsonite was noted in sandstone of the Billhook Creek Formation (Brandon, personal communication). This high pressure mineral is also present in the Chilliwack Group and Cultus Formation to the south and is widely distributed in the western Cascades and San Juan Islands of Washington State (Monger, 1966; Beaty, 1974; Brown, 1987). Prehnite and pumpellyite are present in most thin sections of Early Cretaceous Peninsula and Brokenback Hill strata. South of Fraser River is the Chilliwack-Cultus assemblage (Fig. 3). A sliver of Chilliwack Group is also exposed at the southeast end of Harrison Lake on Bear Mountain (Fig. 2) (Crickmay, 1930a) where mid-Carboniferous conodonts have been extracted from a crinoidal limestone (Monger, 1986). The Pehnsylvanian to Permian Chilliwack Group (Monger, 1970) consists of pelite, sandstone, limestone, basic volcanic and pyroclastic rock and minor chert. Rocks of the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic Cultus Formation include pelite, sandstone and rare flows (Monger, 1970). The Chilliwack-Cultus assemblage has undergone two phases of deformation. The First produced major thrust faults and related tight northeast trending folds which are overturned to the northeast (Monger, 1970). The second phase of deformation formed the common northeasterly plunge of the earlier folds and produced chevron folds and reverse faults, which trend northwest. Metamorphic grade of the Chilliwack-Cultus assemblage, like the Harrison assemblage, is typically subgreenschist. INTRODUCTION / 6 amphibolite greenschist bCh-Cu: T T subgreenschist BREAKENRIDGE CHILLIWACK -CULTUS P-J = C o = COGBURN ?P-J M D a A / :HL V V V V V V V V P.1 V V IV V V V V V \mTg: T —T—r ,mKg, + + DARRINGTON HARRISON LAKE T.-K SETTLER X SLOLLICUM T? CHILLIWACK BATHOLITH SPUZZUM BATHOLITH 49° 1 1 H~^r -T ~ T I I I 1 1 'LLLlS? 122 0 KM 25 Figure 3: Geological map of west half of the Hope map-sheet (92H) (from Monger, 1986). INTRODUCTION / 7 1.1.3 LOCAL STUCTURE The Mesozoic section west of Harrison Lake is notable for simple structure and low metamorphic grade compared with rock assemblages of surrounding areas. The study area and the northern extension of the Cascade Metamorphic Core east of the lake are separated by the Harrison Fault, the largest single structure recognized in this area (Fig. 4). Other structures appear to be geometrically related to this fault. A broad northeast plunging anticline and syncline (Fig. 4) in the central part of the map area involves beds as young as Early Cretaceous and these folds may be concurrent with and related to the post-Albian, pre-Eocene Harrison Fault (Arthur, 1986). In places, small east-dipping thrust faults offset these folded beds (Fig. 4) by perhaps 10 to 20 m. Minor northwest-striking faults which splay off the main Harrison Fault are present between Cascade Peninsula and Echo Island as well as Long Island and Hale Creek and may offset units by 2 km or more (Fig. 4). The near vertical, normal Sakwi Creek and Camp Cove faults west of Camp Cove, strike northwest and rocks between them represent the oldest rocks in the study area, exposed by block faulting (Fig. 4). The Camp Cove Fault cuts off the northwest limb of the anticline involving Camp Cove Formation and the lower section of the Harrison Lake Formation. Cleavage is well developed in a 1 to 2 km wide zone on the northwest shore of Harrison Lake, most of Long Island, the neck of Cascade Peninsula and the eastern shore of Cascade Bay, strikes about N340° and dips consistently to the east about 50° to 70° (Monger, 1986). No linear fabric is noted in this zone but immediately east of it a second zone as much as 1 km wide has very strongly developed stretching lineations. Conglomerate clasts and bivalve shells (Buchia) have been highly elongated in this zone (Crickmay, 1962; Lowes, 1972; INTRODUCTION / 8 Monger, 1986) and lineations plunge mainly 10° to 30° towards N340°. This strong subhorizontal stretching lineation in the Cretaceous rocks may indicate strike-slip movement along the Harrison Fault (Monger, 1986). 1.2 PREVIOUS WORK The geology around Harrison Lake was first mentioned in the Geological Survey of Canada's Director's Report for 1888 (Selwyn, 1888). It stated that older Cretaceous rocks were extensively developed in the area. The following year Whiteaves (1889) confirmed this, identifying Cretaceous Buchia (then Aucella) from several collections made in 1882 (see Crickmay, 1925 for more details). Work was started in 1896 on the Providence Group of mining claims along the west shore of Harrison Lake, about 5 km southeast of Doctor's Point and a small amount of ore was shipped; the mine proved to be unsuccessful (see Ray et al., 1985 for a more detailed discussion). The first detailed work on the geology of the Harrison Lake area was by Colin Crickmay for his Ph.D. thesis at Stanford University (Crickmay, 1925). This pioneering work resulted in the compilation of a geological map and report in which he described the stratigraphy and lithology of the rocks and erected formational names, most of which are still used. His study of the paleontology of rocks around Harrison Lake resulted in the description of many new species and several new genera (Lilloettia, Homolsomites). Crickmay provided the first interpretations of the paleogeography of the region and his studies led to recognition of two major unconformities. The area west of Harrison Lake received little attention between 1930 and 1960. Cairnes (1944) compiled a geologic map of the Hope area and Hans Frebold of the Geological Survey of Canada collected fossils from several localities INTRODUCTION / 9 in the Harrison Lake Formation during the summers of 1957 and 1958. Interest in the area was renewed after 1960, especially in the southwest part between Chehalis River and Harrison Lake where hydrothermal alteration and vein development is common (Thompson, 1972; Pearson, 1973). Monger (1970) re-compiled the geology of the west half of the Hope map-area and Brookfield (1973) discussed the Lower Oxfordian sediments around Harrison Lake and their implications with respect to the tectonic history of the area. The present study was done in conjunction with re-mapping of the Hope map-area by J. W. H. Monger of the Geological Survey of Canada and field work in the thesis area was undertaken during the summer of 1985 while working for the Geological Survey of Canada. 2 LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY Mesozoic strata of the Harrison Lake area range in age from Middle Triassic to Middle Albian (Arthur, 1986) and a schematic stratigraphic column is illustrated in figure 5. Fossil control from both micro- and macrofossils is relatively good. The oldest unit is the Middle Triassic Camp Cove Formation. Lying unconformably above is the thick Harrison Lake Formation, which is divided into four lithological members in this report: Celia Cove Member (conglomerate), West Road Member (shale, siltstone), Weaver Lake Member (volcanic flows, p } T O c l a s t i c rock) and Echo Island Member (tuff, siltstone and volcanic derived sandstone). Stratigraphically above the Echo Island Member is Middle Jurassic siltstone and shale of Mysterious Creek Formation which is overlain in turn by Late Jurassic sandstone and volcaniclastic rock of Billhook Creek Formation. A marked unconformity separates this formation from the Early Cretaceous conglomerate and sandstone of Peninsula Formation. Conformably above Peninsula Formation are volcanic conglomerates, crystal tuffs, tuffaceous sandstones and flows of the Brokenback Hill Formation. South of Harrison River, conglomerate, sandstone and pelite of the Late Jurassic Kent Formation outcrops. 2.1 CAMP COVE FORMATION Name and Stratotype: This formation was first described as the Camp Cove Series by Crickmay (1925). The type area lies between the Forest Service road and the lakeshore about 3 km south of Camp Cove, 49° 20' 50"N., 121° 49' 53"W. 10 L I T H O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 11 z o r-< •2. tr O L L 111 < -I z o to cr. cr < i BROKENBACK HILL FM PENINSULA FM BILLHOOK CREEK FM MYSTERIOUS CREEK FM ECHO ISLAND MEMBER WEAVER LAKE MEMBER WEST ROAD MEMBER CELIA COVE MEMBER CAMP COVE FM ° 7 v^ V V V v V v v v \ M • v v v v v v ' v v v • v v v v v v v v v A A 'X'A'A A A'A' A .Q/)AflflAM/)i v v v v v v v v v v r<r*.>; v"v v v ' v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v x y v M. Albian U. Valanginian L. Valanginian L. Berriasian L. Oxfordian L. Callovian L. Bajocian? Bajocian? Aalenian? Aalenian U. Toarcian M. Toarcian Toarcian? Pliensbachian? Ladinian m o m H > O m O c CO c > CO CO o > CO CO o v-v-v W W W V V v v v KEY Shale/Argillite Sandstone Volcaniclastic Rock/Tuff Crystal Tuff Volcanic Flow Conglomerate Volcanic Conglomerate Unconformity Figure 5: Schematic stratigraphic column of thesis area showing lithology and ages. general LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 12 Distribution: The formation is exposed along the shore from Camp Cove south to a point about 1 km north of Celia Cove and in roadcuts to the west (Fig. 4, in map pocket). Bedding attitude is variable but generally strikes to the southeast and dips 20° to 40° southwest. To the north the unit is faulted out by the Camp Cove normal fault (Fig. 4). The base of the formation is not exposed. Crickmay (1925) reported Triassic faunas (Juvavites, Atractites cf. elegans SMITH) from a locality along the east shore of Long Island 6 km south of the northernmost point, but he did not figure the specimens in his thesis. The sediments at this locality, being found within the Harrison Fault Zone, have a well developed cleavage and could belong to the Camp Cove Formation or possibly the Triassic(?) Slollicum assemblage east of the lake (Fig. 3). Lithology: Rock types include andesitic or basaltic(?) volcanic flows, siliceous siltstone and medium to coarse grained sandstone. The flow rocks are found at the base of the exposed section in Camp Cove. They are dark grey, and calcite filled vesicles and veins are common. The siliceous siltstone is grey to black and finely bedded (2-3 cm thick beds). Sandstones are generally green or grey, fine to medium grained and may contain volcanogenic sandstone beds with abundant plagioclase grains. Along the lakeshore are conglomeratic sandstones bearing pebbles up to 0.5 cm of indurated siltstone, mudstone and possibly volcanic flow rock. The sandstones are usually medium to thick bedded but interbedded siltstone and sandstone with fine laminae show convolute bedding at several localities. The sedimentary rocks are more abundant than volcanic rocks and the total thickness exposed is estimated at 300 m. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 13 Age: Radiolaria and conodonts extracted from the siliceous siltstone indicate a Middle Triassic (possibly Ladinian) age for Camp Cove Formation. Only a single fossil locality was found. Locality: 9 (see Chap. 3; App. 1). Depositional Environment: Little can be said as to the depositional environment of the Camp Cove Formation. Radiolaria in the siliceous siltstone (locality 9) indicate deposition in marine waters, but water depth is indeterminate. Radiolaria of the family Spumellaria are abundant but nassellarians, which are considered deeper marine, are notably absent, suggesting deposition on the inner shelf. Convolute bedding may have formed due to disturbance of sediments by wave action, seismic activity or dewatering and perhaps the sediments represent turbidity deposits; the conglomeratic sandstones representing proximal deposits and interbedded, commonly convolute bedded siltstones and fine grained sandstones more distal deposits. 2.2 HARRISON L A K E FORMATION Crickmay (1925) first named and described this formation, placing it in the Porphyrite Series together with the Echo Island and Mysterious Creek formations. He described the type section along the west shore of Harrison Lake from Camp Cove north to Walian Creek (then Eagle Creek). Total thickness was 2816 m (9240 ft) of pyroclastic rocks, tuffs, flows, agglomerates and siltstones, although Crickmay (1925) stated that all sections measured were cut by small faults. He indicated a probable Middle Jurassic age for the formation based on the few fossil fragments found. More recent work (Thompson, 1972; Pearson, 1973) and the discovery of LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 14 better preserved fossils (Frebold in the late 1950's; Brookfield, 1973) resulted in a better understanding of its age and stratigraphic succession. In the present study the formation is being divided into four members. The Celia Cove Member represents a basal conglomerate conformably overlain by siltstone and shale of the West Road Member. The volcanic member of Harrison Lake Formation, now named the Weaver Lake Member, lies conformably above. Next in succession are interbedded tuffs, siltstones, volcanogenic sandstones and rare flows of the Echo Island Member which represent the final stages of Middle Jurassic volcanism. 2.2.1 Celia Cove Member Name and Stratotype: Celia Cove Member is first described in this report and is named after a small cove lying 1 km south of the shoreline outcrop of the member, southwest of Echo Island. The type area lies about 2.5 km south of Camp Cove, 100 m along a turn-off from the Forest Service road, 49° 20' 44"N., 121° 49' 52"W. Distribution: Outcrops of the Celia Cove Member are found mainly in roadcuts and along the lakeshore. South of Camp Cove the unit is fairly well exposed and the conglomerate can readily be traced. Outcrop west of Camp Cove is sporadic. The conglomerate at localities 8 and 10 (Fig. 6, in map pocket) can be correlated with the conglomerate outcropping along the shoreline to the south (Fig. 4). The member is faulted out to the north by the Camp Cove Fault, a normal fault with the north side downthrown. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 15 Lithology: The member consists mainly of clast supported conglomerate, which has a medium to coarse grained calcareous sandy matrix of poorly sorted feldspar, quartz and lithic grains (Arthur, 1986). The unit is usually massively bedded but rare lenses of medium to coarse grained sandstone are noted. Clasts weather out easily, are fairly well rounded, up to 25 cm in diameter, and consist predominantly of volcanic flow rock, chert and limestone. The volcanic clasts are mainly green aphanitic andesite and average 13 cm in diameter. The limestone clasts are light to dark grey and generally smaller, averaging 7 cm in diameter. Along the lakeshore they are well preserved in outcrop but in moss and tree covered outcrops the limestone clasts are very weathered removing much or all of the carbonate. The chert clasts are pale green and usualty only 1 to 3 cm in diameter, rarely reaching 6 cm. Both the limestone clasts and the chert clasts contain fossils. Total thickness is 30 to 50 m. Lower Contact: The Jurassic Celia Cove Member lies unconformably on the Middle Triassic Camp Cove Formation with little or no angular discordance. A marked unconformity or hiatus usually exists at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in British Columbia as it does in much of the world. This unconformity in the Harrison Lake region possibly extends from the Middle Triassic to Middle Toarcian. Age: The Celia Cove Member conformably underlies the Toarcian West Road Member (Fig. 5). Fossils have not been recovered from its matrix, but the age could be as young as Middle Toarcian or as old as Middle Triassic; most LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 16 probably Toarcian or Pliensbachian as conglomerate grades upwards into Middle Toarcian shales. Localities: 8, 10 (see Chap. 3; App. 1). Depositional Environment: Sedimentary structures are lacking in this unit and the matrix has not yielded any fossils. The poor sorting of both the matrix and clasts and the members position beneath anoxic marine shales and siltstones may suggest an environment of depostion in a submarine channel. Conglomerate Clasts: The fossiliferous clasts of the conglomerate are good environmental indicators of their original site of deposition. The Middle Triassic pale green chert clasts represent a radiolaria ooze with sponge spicules and rare conodonts typical of ocean floor sediments. Both nassellarians and spumellarians are present and no argillaceous material is noted. The environment of deposition was thus deep marine; perhaps abyssal slope or plains. The Early Permian limestone clasts are rich in fossils that indicate a warm, shallow marine reefal setting (corals, fusulinids, bryozoans, crinoid ossicles). The environments of deposition of these fossiliferous clasts are in marked contrast to that of the Celia Cove Member and underlying Camp Cove Formation, suggesting provenance from a different assemblage (see Chap. 4). LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 17 2.2.2 West Road Member Name and Stratotype: The West Road Member is named for the British Columbia Forest Service road running along the west side of Harrison Lake. The type area lies along this road 3 km south of Camp Cove, 49° 20' 37"N., 121° 49' 52"W. Distribution: The member outcrops from just north of Celia Cove northwest to the Camp Cove Fault beyond which it is faulted out (Fig. 4). It is best exposed along the Forest Service road. Siltstones and shales predominate in the lower part of the section. Higher in the section, exposure is poor; shale seems to predominate but sandstone beds are found locally. Lithology: The West Road Member consists mainty of calcareous siltstone, shale and local sandstone beds. The rocks are commonly fractured; pyrite and calcite veins are frequently found. Siltstone beds are variable in thickness and usually well indurated. Thin bedded sequences (1 to 5 cm) consist of alternating light and dark grey beds. More massive beds are generally light grey, up to 15 cm thick and have a blocky to sub-conchoidal fracture pattern. Shales are light grey to brown, rarely calcareous, friable and commonly part along laminae less than 1 cm apart. Manganese(?) staining is common in the shales and both shales and siltstones have abundant disseminated pyrite cubes. Sandstone is fine to medium grained, volcanogenic, generally green in colour and may contain disseminated pyrite. Outcrops are generally massively bedded and found locally in the upper part of the section. Thickness of this member is estimated at 150 to 200 m. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 18 Lower Contact: The contact between the Celia Cove Member and West Road Member is poorly exposed in the type area but the underlying conglomerate appears to grade conformably into siltstone and shale. Age: Ammonites found locally throughout the member indicate a Middle Toarcian to mid-Aalenian age. Localities: 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 (see Chap. 3; App. 1). Depositional Environment: The upward gradational change from possible deltaic conglomerates to probable quiet marine waters may have been the result of transgression in the Toarcian. Crinoid debris found in the lower part of the section may have been broken up and transported to the site of deposition as only individual ossicles are noted. The presence of ammonites, disseminated pyrite and rare fish skeletons (locality 7) may indicate an offshore setting in oxygen minimum marine waters; preservation of fish skeletons usually requires a very low energy, low oxygen environment. The local sandstone beds near the top of the member may indicate submarine channels or a shallowing of marine waters prior to onset of the mid-Jurassic volcanic episode. 2.2.3 Weaver Lake Member Name and Stratotype: Crickmay (1925) described and measured 2816 m of predominantly volcanic rock along the western shore of Harrison Lake between Camp Cove and Walian Creek (Fig. 2) as the type section of the Harrison Lake Formation. The LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 19 formation is here being divided into four members by the writer and Crickmay's section is now considered the type section of the Weaver Lake Member. Distribution: The Weaver Lake Member is a volcanic sequence covering an area stretching 20 km north from Harrison River almost to Hale Creek and 10 km west to Chehalis River (Fig. 4). It also outcrops over much of Mount Woodside immediately south of Harrison River and on the northern half of Echo Island (Fig. 4). Exposure is excellent in roadcuts between Mount Downing and Walian Creek but the internal stratigraphy of the member is uncertain due to lack of continuous outcrop, discontinuous units, poor bedding and the presence of numerous small faults and fractures with much hydrothermal alteration. Crickmay (1925) measured a 2816 m section and Thompson (1972) stated the thickness was at least that of maximum topographic relief, which is 1372 m. The actual thickness of the Weaver Lake Member is probably between these two extremes and is estimated at 2000 m. Lithology: The member is lithologically varied but acidic to intermediate volcanic flows and pyroclastic rocks are most common (Monger, 1970). Flows include dacite, light grey to tan (on fresh surface) rhyolite and dark green, locally amygdaloidal, plagioclase andesite porphyry. They are generally thick, massive and may be columnar jointed (Fig. 7). Well developed flow banding in a grey rhyolite can be seen on the northern shore of Camp Cove. Pyroclastic rocks exceed flow rocks in abundance as stated by Monger (1970) and include lapilli tuff, volcanic breccia and volcanic conglomerate. Also noted were crystal lithic tuff, crystal tuff L I T H O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 20 Figure 8: Anticline on east shore of Echo Island folding sediments of the Echo Island Member. Fold axis is plunging 24° towards 116°. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 21 and minor sandstone and shale beds. Pearson (1973) recorded the presence of water-laid tuffs with load casts and convolute laminae, pillowed andesites and pillow breccias. Intrusive feldspar porphyry dykes commonly cut across strata, are columnar jointed and usually shallowly dipping. Thompson (1972) used refractive index determinations of fused glass beads from 196 volcanic rocks samples to determine rock compositions of the Weaver Lake Member. A histogram plot of his data (Thompson, 1972, fig. 7) is skewed towards the rhyolite-dacite composition field, illustrating the high degree of acid volcanism. He also selected 6 representative samples for complete silicate analysis which showed a positive correlation with the calc-alkaline Cascade trend on a chemical variation diagram (Thompson, 1972, fig. 8; Church, 1973, App. B). Lower Contact: The contact with the underlying West Road Member is placed where the sediments end and the volcanic rocks begin. No unconformity was noted although a hiatus can not be ruled out. It is best exposed near locality 3 (Fig. 6) where andesitic flows rest on mid-Aalenian shales. Age: Crickmay (1925, p. 34) collected Middle Jurassic belemnites from sandstones on the shoreline several hundred metres south of Celia Cove. Few fossils have been found since; a belemnite collected from locality 4 and belemnites and bivalves collected by D. E. Pearson of the British Columbia Department of Mines cannot date the member accurately. Its base may lie in the Aalenian and it may be as young as Early Bajocian (see Mysterious Creek Formation - Lower LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 22 Contact). Localities: 4, 11 (see Chap. 3; App. 1). Depositional Environment: Rocks of the Weaver Lake Member may have been deposited in a volcanic island arc setting based on chemistry which indicates a calc-alkaline Cascade trend. The presence of water-laid tuffs, pillowed andesites and pillowed breccias indicate submarine volcanism. Isolated localities of marine fossils (bivalves, belemnites) in shales and sandstones also indicate marine conditions. The rare columnar joints present in some flows (Fig. 7) suggest sub-aerial volcanism occurred as well; possibly on emergent volcanic islands. 2.2.4 Echo Island Member Name and Stratotype: The type section first described and named by Crickmay (1925) is found on the southeastern tip of Echo Island, after which the unit is named. It is closely related to the Weaver Lake Member in that the contact is gradational and the member simply represents the final stages of the Middle Jurassic volcanic episode. For this reason the unit has been redescribed as the Echo Island Member of the Harrison Lake Formation (Arthur, 1986) instead of the Echo Island Formation, 49° 20' 40"N., 121° 46' 24"W. Distribution: The Echo Island Member is found on the southeast corner of Echo Island, the north and south shore of Harrison River west of Sakwi Creek Fault and east and north of Mount McRae (Fig. 4). Crickmay (1925) measured 355 m LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 23 (1166 ft) of stratified tuff, argillite and sandstone at the type section on Echo Island but the top of the section is absent there. On the south shore of Harrison River Crickmay measured a 365 m (1199 ft) section which included the top of the unit. He concluded there was perhaps 122 m (400 ft) of section missing between the top of the Echo Island section and the base of the Harrison River section and from this he computed a total thickness of 843 m (2769 ft). The actual thickness missing between these two sections can not definitely be ascertained, but Crickmay's estimate is probably close. The thickness of this member is variable. It is not seen in outcrop along the west shore of Harrison Lake, although this may be partially due to faulting. East of Mount McRae the thickness increases dramatically, perhaps up to 1000 m. An average thickness is estimated at 750 m. L i t h o l o g y : Characteristically this member is well stratified and consists mainly of interbedded tuff, siltstone and sandstone. The siltstone is dark grey to black and the tuff is usually light grey with individual beds averaging about 2.5 cm in thickness, giving a banded pattern to the outcrop. The sandstones are volcanogenic, light grey or green, and fine to medium grained with beds to 25 cm thick. Graded bedding, load casts and soft sediment deformation structures are locally present. Rare beds of grey to green, massive volcaniclastic rock are found, especially in the type section. Volcanic flows have not been seen in the Echo Island Member along Harrison River or on Echo Island (Crickmay, 1925) but southeast and north of Mount McRae several plagioclase porphyry flows up to 10 m thick are found within the interbedded tuff, sandstone and shale. The flows are green, resembling the green andesitic flows of the Weaver Lake Member, and LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 24 have plagioclase phenocrysts up to 5 mm long. Folding is common and clearly visible in the member due to its well bedded nature. Broad open folds are found east of Mount McRae and a more tightly folded anticline was noted on the east shore of Echo Island (Fig. 8). This folding may be due to a period of minor local deformation following deposition of this unit and prior to deposition of the Earty Callovian Mysterious Creek Formation as similar folds are not noted in Callovian or younger deposits. Lower Contact: The lower contact is well exposed near the southern tip of Echo Island at the type section. The contact is conformable (Crickmay, 1925, p. 34) with well bedded tuff, sandstone and shale resting on massive flows and tuffs of the Weaver Lake Member. Age: Echo Island Member has yielded belemnites and trigoniid bivalves which are long ranging and cannot date the unit precisely. The member is as old as Aalenian (Weaver Lake Member) and as young as Early Callovian (Mysterious Creek Formation). For reasons discussed later (see Mysterious Creek Formation -Lower Contact) its age is believed to be Early(?) Bajocian. Depositional Environment: The presence of tuff, siltstone and volcanogenic sandstone and the decrease in volcanic flows compared with the Weaver Lake Member marks the waning and cessation of Middle Jurassic volcanism in the area. The well developed stratification of the sediments probably resulted from successive episodes LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 25 of volcanic activity which laid down a bed of ash, followed by marine sedimentation. The conformity in thickness of beds suggests that volcanism was occurring at regular intervals although actual flow rocks are rare. Trigoniid bivalves, typical of shallow marine waters, and belemnites are found locally in the member, suggesting a probable nearshore marine setting. Soft sediment deformational structures probably resulted from disturbance of the slope sediments by volcanic or seismic activity. 2.3 MYSTERIOUS C R E E K FORMATION Name and Stratotype: Crickmay (1925) first described this formation and named it after Mysterious Creek, which has since been renamed Mystery Creek on more recent maps. The type area, 2 km west of the mouth of Hale Creek and northwest to Mystery Creek Valley, has many isolated outcrops, 49° 30' 20"N., 121° 55' 30"W. Distribution: The main exposure of Mysterious Creek Formation lies in the type area described previously. The formation outcrops along the southern shore of Harrison River where it underlies the Kent Formation and probably a small thickness of Billhook Creek Formation (Crickmay, 1962). On the southeast shore of Harrison Lake, 3.5 km northeast of Harrison Hot Springs (Fig. 2), are metamorphosed and deformed siltstones that are doubtfully assigned to Mysterious Creek Formation. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 26 Lithology: The Mysterious Creek Formation is composed of dark grey to black shale and siltstone and fine grained green to grey sandstone. Along much of Hale Creek the shale and siltstone is sheared by faulting and intruded by dacitic(?) dykes. Calcite veins and fault gouge are common in the valley 2 to 3 km west of the creek mouth. In the Mystery Creek valley the shale is thinly bedded to laminated and often manganese stained. Siltstones are in beds 10 to 30 cm thick which are commonly fractured and disseminated pyrite is noted. The fine grained sandstone may be tuffaceous and is generally near the top of the formation (e.g. localities 18, 19, 21, 26, 41) and in the area southwest of locality 26 (section 1) (Fig. 6). It is usually medium to thick bedded (0.2 to 2.0 m) and non-calcareous. A thin section of tuffaceous sandstone from 400 m east of locality 18 contains abundant volcanic glass shards (Fig. 9). Because of their sharp outline, it is believed that the shards are not reworked, suggesting Early Callovian volcanic activity in the region. However, it is possible that the shards are secondary, having been eroded from the underlying Harrison Lake Formation and quickly redeposited. Thickness of the Mysterious Creek Formation is about 700 m. Lower Contact: The contact between the older Echo Island Member of Harrison Lake Formation and the Mysterious Creek Formation has not been seen or reported previously. East and north of Mount McRae (Fig. 4), small scale folding of rocks in the Echo Island Member is common but in the stratigraphically higher Callovian Mysterious Creek Formation no similar small scale folding is seen and the beds consistently dip to the north and northeast. This and the lack of LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 27 Figure 9: Glass shards in tuffaceous sandstone of the Mysterious Creek Formation indicating possible Early Callovian volcanic activity. Thin section taken in plane polarized light. Magnification x42. Figure 10: Characteristic volcaniclastic rock of the Billhook Creek Formation which forms much of the section west of Long Island. Clasts are sub-angular, plagioclase-rich, set in a fine grained commonly calcite replaced matrix and average 1 cm diameter. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 28 Bathonian fossils in collections from this area and the general absence of Upper Bajocian and Bathonian rocks throughout British Columbia (Frebold and Tipper, 1967, p. 8; 1970, p. 12; Tipper, personal communication, 1985; Fig. 28, in map pocket) suggest a possible hiatus between the Harrison Lake Formation (Echo Island Member) and the overlying Mysterious Creek Formation from Late(?) Bajocian to Late Bathonian time. Age: Ammonites are abundant in the formation and indicate an Early Callovian age (Macrocephalus Zone of Europe). They are placed by the writer in Callomon's (1984) Fauna B8 for North America. Bivalves and belemnites are also present. Localities: 17, 18, 19, 21, 26, 29, 30, 35, 36, 38, 41 (see Chap. 3; App. 1). Depositional Environment: Taylor (1982) proposed a series of paleocommunities based on the relative abundance of several environmentally controlled faunas, including ammonites, bivalves, brachiopods and belemnites. These paleocommunities are depth related and Taylor (1982) proposed the term Composite Assemblage to describe these faunal associations. His studies centre on the Snowshoe Formation of the Suplee-Izee area, Oregon but the model works equally well with other sequences in the eugeosyncline of the western Cordillera, the epeiric sea of the Western Interior Region and other Jurassic sequences worldwide. Localities 17 and 17A (Fig. 6) of the Mysterious Creek Formation contain an abundance of ammonites in grey to black, rarely laminated, non-calcareous shale and siltstone. Shallow marine bivalves are absent but a LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 29 large, thin shelled pectinid bivalve was found. The inferred environment is offshore marine in waters perhaps 100 m deep. This is approximately equivalent to Taylor's Composite Assemblage D; probably D(2) as belemnites are extremely rare. About 2 km to the northwest at section 1 (locality 26, Fig. 6) are fine grained sandstones which are age equivalent to the sediments at localities 17 and 17 A, based on ammonites collected (see Chapter 3). Trigoniid bivalves and belemnites are most common. Ammonites are present locally and rare brachiopods were noted. This fauna, especially the trigoniids, and the sediments they are preserved in suggest shallow marine waters (less than 50 m) equivalent to Taylor's Composite Assemblage B. Localities 18, 19, 21 and 41 may belong to this assemblage but fossils are rare at these localities. The differing composite assemblages of age equivalent localities suggest rapid facies changes occurred within the Mysterious Creek Formation. 2.4 BILLHOOK C R E E K FORMATION Name and Stratotype: This formation was named by Crickmay (1930b), although he described no type section. It is well exposed 3 km southwest of the mouth of Mystery Creek on a small hill. Section 2 (Fig. 13), which was measured by the writer, crosses the southeast side of this hill along a roadcut and is here designated the type section, 49° 30' 27"N. , 121° 54' 56"W. Distribution: Originally, Crickmay (1925, p. 42) included rocks of the present Billhook LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 30 Creek Formation west of Long Island with the Kent Formation; the two sequences are at about the same stratigraphic level but are lithologically dissimilar. He later divided the two sequences into separate formations (Crickmay, 1930b, 1962), calling the tuffaceous sequence west of Long Island the Billhook Formation, and stated that a sliver of this formation may be present between Mysterious Creek Formation and Kent Formation south of Harrison River (Crickmay, 1962, p. 4). The Billhook Creek Formation also outcrops along the western shore of Cascade Peninsula. Lithology: In this formation volcaniclastic rocks predominate, are light to dark green on fresh surface (Fig. 10) and weather to a reddish brown colour. Beds are usually thick, massive and commonly separated by thin to medium bedded volcanogenic sandstones. Clasts are angular, less than 3 cm in diameter and composed entirely of plagioclase-rich volcanic material. Plagioclase crystals are acicular to equant, are supported in a fine grained groundmass and rare clasts contain abundant spherulites (Fig. 11). The surrounding matrix is probably ash, with common calcite alteration. Lesser amounts of chlorite and epidote are present and the high pressure, low temperature metamorphic mineral lawsonite was noted by Mark Brandon (personal communication) but was not seen by the writer in the three thin sections cut. Quartz filled microfractures are noted in thin section. At the type section (Locality 34, fig. 6) 215 m of section was measured; total thickness of the formation is slightly greater, perhaps 230 m. The volcanogenic sandstone interbeds are fine to medium grained, thin to medium bedded, green to dark grey and rarely contain fossils. Crossbedding was noted at one localitj' (Brookfield, 1973, p. 1688) but this was not seen by the L I T H O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 31 Figure 11: Photomicrograph in cross polarized light of Billhook Creek Formation volcaniclastic rock showing spherulite-bearing clasts in a partially calcite replaced matrix. Magnification x42. Figure 12: Gradational contact between siltstones and sandstones of Mysterious Creek Formation and volcaniclastic rock of Billhook Creek Formation. Photograph taken at section 1. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 32 writer. An offshore facies of the Billhook Creek Formation consisting of dark grey, non-calcareous to slightly calcareous shale and tuffaceous siltstone is present on the western shore of Cascade Peninsula (Fig. 4). Lower Contact: The contact between Mysterious Creek Formation and Billhook Creek Formation is upwardly gradational, with siltstone and green sandstone in the upper part of Mysterious Creek Formation clearly grade into volcaniclastic rocks of Billhook Creek Formation (Fig. 12) in section 1 (Fig. 13). Age: Ammonites from two localities (15 and 20) indicate an Early Oxfordian age (Cordatum Zone of Europe) for the Billhook Creek Formation. Localities: 15, 16, 20, 26, 34 (see Chap. 3; App. 1). Depositional Environment: West of Long Island, sediments of the Billhook Creek Formation were probably deposited in shallow marine and fluvial environments. Carbonized wood debris is abundant in the sandstones and several beds contain carbonized logs. Belemnites are present in some sandstone beds but ammonites - were found only at locality 20 (Fig. 6), associated with bivalves (including the shallow water bivalve Pinna) and belemnites in a medium grained sandstone. On the west side of Cascade Peninsula (locality 15) the shale, siltstone and the faunas they contain indicate a deeper water facies equivalent of the sandstones and volcaniclastic strata west of Long Island. Locality 20 contains mainly bivalves, including Pinna. The approximate SECTION 1 LOCALITY 26 307.1 m SECTION 2 LOCALITY 34 241.1 m SECTION 3 LOCALITY 43 269.7 m c o CO E o u_ OJ CD o O O o CO '4= CD O r v • < * COVERED _OUTCROP PARTI Y ' \ \ t C-149640 \ \ \ \ \ CD CD o O o m \ • C-149639 • C-118557 * 4-l it-". ' Brokenback HIM Formation Scale 1:2000 LITHOLOGIC KEY S3 ARGILLITE Buchia COQUINA CRYSTAL TUFF GRANITE CONGLOMERATE SANDSTONE/SILTSTONE • VOLCANICLASTIC ROCK £| VOLCANIC CONGLOMERATE Figure 13: Measured stratigraphic sections for the Mysterious Creek, Billhook Creek and Peninsula formations. Locations for these sections and information on the fossil localities can be found by referring to figure 5 and Appendix 1. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 34 parallel orientation of the less common belemnites in float blocks and the fragmented remains of ammonites suggest moderate wave action in shallow marine waters. Locality 20 fits best into Taylor's (1982) Composite Assemblage B. At locality 15, which is roughly time equivalent with locality 20 based on ammonite species, ammonites are the most common fauna, although they are low in diversity. Thin shelled bivalves, including Oxytoma are also abundant (see Brookfield, 1973, p. 1689). This locality is tentatively placed by the writer into Composite Assemblage D(2) (Taylor, 1982). Brookfield (1973) states that the faunas present at locality 15 tend to indicate a relatively deep shelf environment. The close proximity of localities 15 and 20, which differ in depositional environment, indicate rapid facies changes, possibly near volcanic islands. 2.5 KENT FORMATION Name and Stratotype: South of Harrison River, 1.5 km west of the peak of Mount Agassiz (Fig. 2) in roadcuts are well exposed outcrops of the Kent Formation which was named by Crickmay (1925) after the municipality of Kent, 49° 16' 34"N. , 121° 50' 29"W. Distribution: The Kent Formation is presently restricted to Mount Agassiz where Crickmay (1925) measured 932 m of strata and to the west side of the westernmost hill 2 km to the south in the Fraser floodplain. He also described Kent Formation west of Long Island and on Cascade Peninsula but the former belongs to the Billhook Creek Formation (Crickmay, 1930b) and the latter has been included here in the Peninsula Formation. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 35 Lithology: The Kent Formation is mainly clast supported conglomerate. Clasts are rounded to sub-rounded, poorly sorted, ranging from less than 1 cm up to 8 cm in diameter and include indurated black shale, chert, interbedded tuffs and volcanic flow rock. The volcanic clasts resemble rock types of the Weaver Lake Member of Harrison Lake Formation in lithology and colour. Interbedded tuff clasts could be derived from the Echo Island Member and indurated shale clasts from the Mysterious Creek Formation, but this can not be proven. Granitic clasts are absent. Interbeds of siltstone and sandstone are common in the conglomerate. The siltstone is dark grey, locally contains plant remains and commonly shows a fairly well developed cleavage. Sandstones are medium grained, commonly massive or contain conglomerate beds up to 15 cm thick. The sediments become hornfelsed east of Mount Agassiz near the granite pluton, an apophysis of the Chilliwack Batholith (Fig. 4). Thickness is estimated at about 1000 m. Lower Contact: The basal contact is not well exposed but its location was crossed on the north slope of Mount Agassiz. Conglomerate of the Kent Formation was noted at one locality and 200 m to the north, shales and siltstones of the Mysterious Creek Formation outcrop. Crickmay (1962) noted a thin outcropping of the Billhook Creek Formation between Mysterious Creek and Kent formations on Mount Agassiz, but this was not seen by the writer. About 2 km south of Mount Agassiz highly deformed and mineralized shale and siltstone outcrops on the flanks of two hills. The name Agassiz Prairie Formation was assigned to these sediments by Crickmay (1925). He described them as conformably overlying the Kent Formation on the west side of the LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 36 westernmost hill and found a single crushed ammonite of probable Late Jurassic age (Crickmay, 1925, p. 46). Brookfield (1973) found that in fact the sediments are beneath the Kent Formation based on a fauna collected by him which includes Lilloettia sp. If the shales and siltstones overlie the Kent Formation they would be better described as a member of the Kent Formation as little is known of their stratigraphy or exact age. If they are stratigraphically beneath the conglomerate, they almost certainly belong to the Mysterious Creek Formation (Brookfield, 1973). Age: The lack of granitic clasts may indicate that the formation is older than the Early Cretaceous Peninsula Formation which contains abundant granitic material. The Kent Formation may be as old as Early Oxfordian and as young as Early Berriasian. Brookfield (1973) concluded, and the writer agrees, that the age was between Early Oxfordian and Tithonian. Depositional Environment: Clasts show a vague orientation, suggesting imbrication but this is not certain. The poor sorting and close spacing of the clasts may suggest braided stream deposits, as Brookfield (1973) suggested. Plant remains are noted in the black siltstones and no marine fossils were found in the formation; the depositional environment was possibly fluvial and perhaps deltaic. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 37 2.6 PENINSULA FORMATION Name and Stratotype: The Peninsula Formation was named by Crickmay (1925) after Cascade Peninsula on which it outcrops. It also outcrops west of Long Island where he measured the type section which is situated near the lakeshore south of Brokenback Hill. A better exposed section (section 3, Fig. 13) described in this report, outcrops along a roadcut 3 km due west of the mouth of Mystery Creek, 49° 28' 54"N., 121° 51' 50"W. Distribution: The formation outcrops along' the western side of Cascade Peninsula and from 500 m north of Hale Creek northwest to Chehalis Valley. Crickmay (1925) measured 384 m (1260 ft) of sandstone at the type section near the lakeshore north of Hale Creek. The section measured by the writer at locality 43 (Fig. 6) is 218 m thick (Fig. 13), displays a more complete section of the basal conglomerate and fossil control is better than in the type section. Lithology: The Peninsula Formation is composed of a basal conglomerate which grades upward into sandstone. Clasts of the conglomerate are predominantly granite (Fig. 14), with lesser volcanic clasts and rare sedimentary (shale, siltstone, sandstone) clasts. The conglomerate is usually clast supported. Clasts locally range to 50 cm in diameter and are set in a medium to coarse grained sandstone matrix. Higher in the section medium and coarse grained sandstone is richly fossiliferous and has thin (5 to 10 cm) interbedded conglomerate beds. It is light grey to green, calcareous and usually in beds 10 to 20 cm thick. The Figure 15: Jurassic-Cretaceous unconformity on southwest shore of Cascade Peninsula where cleaved siltstones of the Billhook Creek Format ion underlie the Peninsula Formation comprised of calcareous siltstones and sandstones which lack this cleavage and contain granite and limestone clasts. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 39 light grey sandstone has a "salt and pepper" appearance due to the presence of plagioclase, quartz and hornblende grains. Some sandstone found in the upper part of the section is green due to alteration of tuffaceous grains. As stated earlier, clasts of the basal conglomerate are up to 50 cm in diameter, but such clasts have been found only in the Chehalis Valley. At locality 43 clasts are at most 20 to 30 cm in diameter, averaging 10 cm. This decrease in clast size continues to the type section near the lakeshore where matrix supported granitic clasts 2 to 3 cm in diameter and chert pebble lenses were noted. This marked decrease in clast size indicates provenance from the west for the granitic material (Arthur, 1986). A thin section of medium grained sandstone from the Peninsula Formation contains quartz (40%), hornblende (30%), plagioclase (10%) and mica (5%) grains. Volcanic rock fragments are present, making up about 15% of the grains, are plagioclase-rich and commonly chloritized. Grains are sub-angular to sub-rounded, poorly sorted, and are set in a fine matrix which forms about 10% of the rock. Chlorite is the main cement. Shell fragments are noted in the thin section as are rare high relief grains which may be sphene(?). The rock is an immature first order sandstone which was deposited close to its source, as shown by its grain composition and sub-angular, poorly sorted texture. It may have been deposited in a marine fan delta type environment and rapidly covered, as little reworking occurred. Lower Contact: The contact between the Billhook Creek and Peninsula formations is an unconformity spanning the interval from Early Oxfordian to Early Berriasian. The LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 40 angular discordance is small; at locality 43 it is only 2° to 5 ° . This unconformity is important because it marks a time of significant uplift and erosion whereby plutons within the Coast Mountains were unroofed to supply granitic material to the Early Berriasian basal conglomerate of the Peninsula Formation (Arthur, 1986). During this uplift in Late Jurassic time, conglomerates of the Kent Formation, which lack granitic clasts, were deposited. Crickmay (1931, p. 46) thought the conglomerate of the Kent Formation represented a period of orogenic deformation in the region which he called the Agassiz Orogeny. Brookfield (1973, p. 1691) believed the conglomerate simply indicated uplift and not necessarily orogenic deformation. However, on the southwest shore of Cascade Peninsula, sediments of the Billhook Creek Formation have a well developed cleavage (Fig. 15) whereas the overlying Peninsula Formation, which is lithologically similar, lacks this cleavage; this may be due to compositional differences. The same relationship was noted by Monger (personal communication) along the northwest shore of Cascade Peninsula. This cleavage in the Oxfordian Billhook Creek Formation and its probable absence in the Berriasian Peninsula Formation may indicate that an intense deformation did occur during the hiatus between deposition of the two formations. This lends some credibility to Crickmay's (1931) Agassiz Orogeny, although the orogenic event may have been relatively minor. The uplift during this time interval is comparable to the inferred Late Oxfordian to Early Kimmeridgian uplift of the Taseko Lakes region situated to the north (Jeletzky and Tipper, 1968; Brookfield, 1973). Age: The Peninsula Formation has yielded abundant Buchia of Early Berriasian LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 41 to Early Valanginian age (Buchia okensis to lower Buchia pacifica zones). Localities: 14, 22, 24?, 25, 27, 28, 31, 32, 33, 37, 39, 40, 42, 43 (see Chap. 3; App. 1). Depositional Environment: Sediments of the Peninsula Formation in the Chehalis Valley were deposited in a probable non-marine environment where 50 cm clasts are found in conglomerates and fossils are lacking, to a shallow marine environment on Cascade Peninsula. Coarse conglomerate is present west of Harrison Lake but clast size decreases eastward as does the thickness of the basal conglomerate. In the area immediately west and south of Brokenback Hill, sediments of the formation were probably deposited in a beach environment. Wood debris is common as is the shallow marine bivalve Buchia which form coquinas up to 9 m thick. Belemnites are abundant but coquinas such as the one Figured (Fig. 16) were found only in float blocks, making data collection for current direction impossible. The sandstone is usually well sorted and medium to coarse grained, also indicating a probable shallow marine environment. Green tuffaceous sandstone becomes common near the top of the section, marking the initiation of the second major volcanic episode (Brokenback Hill Formation) in the region (Arthur, 1986). 2.7 B R O K E N B A C K HI L L FORMATION Name and Stratotype: The Brokenback Hill Formation was named after Brokenback Hill by Crickmay (1925). The type section is situated immediately south of Long Island Bay on Long Island and along the west shore of Harrison Lake below L I T H O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 42 Figure 17: Volcanic conglomerate of Brokenback Hill Formation containing clast of dacitic(?) volcanic flow 2 m across. Photograph taken just north of Kirkland Creek headwaters. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 43 Brokenback Hill. Exposure is good in roadcuts around the headwaters of Twenty Mile and Kirkland Creeks, 49° 28' 48"N., 121° 50' 32"W. Distribution: The formation covers a broad area (Fig. 4) along the eastern shore of Cascade Peninsula, the southwest side of Long Island, Brokenback Hill and the area north to Doctor's Point and 6 to 8 km west to the contact with the Coast Plutonic Complex. Stratigraphic correlations and thickness measurements are difficult due to the lack of continuous outcrops and bedding, especially in the upper part of the section. Faults are common and the section may be repeated. Some stratigraphic control for the lower part of the section is possible using fossils collected from the tuffaceous sandstone. This is discussed in chapter 3. Lithology: Rock types are variable within the Brokenback Hill Formation. The lower part of the section around Twent3' Mile Creek is comprised mainl}' of green crystal tuff, volcanic conglomerate and tuffaceous sandstone. The conglomerate is usually matrix supported and clasts range in size from boulders as much as 1 m diameter along the shore east of Brokenback Hill and up to 2 m in diameter (Fig. 17) on the ridge just north of the headwaters of Kirkland Creek; average clast size is about 15 cm. The tuffaceous sandstone is fossiliferous, dark to light grey in colour and moderately well bedded. Minor sandstone and siltstone beds were noted in the lower part of the section. Higher in the section, toward Doctor's Point, volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks predominate. Also present are siliceous graded siltstones and siliceous black shales. The volcanic rocks are both porphyritic and non-porphyritic, generally LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 44 highly altered andesite to dacite (Ra3r et al., 1985). No chemistry has been done on these rocks to date. The volcaniclastic rocks include siliceous crystal lithic tuffs, volcanic breccias and possible water-lain tuffs. Fossils are rare in the upper part of the section. The total thickness is difficult to estimate but is probably several thousand metres. A thin section of an andesite flow near the mouth of Kirkland Creek contains both prehnite and pumpellyite as well as chlorite, epidote and zoisite (P. Read, personal communication). The pumpellyite is commonly found within plagioclase grains. Crystal tuff from the shoreline southeast of Brokenback Hill contains blebs of prehnite about 5 cm in diameter which form a bumpy pattern on the weathered surface. Lower Contact: The contact between the Brokenback Hill and Peninsula formations is conformable. It is best exposed at the top of section 3 (Fig. 13), where Buchia-rich tuffaceous sandstone of the Peninsula Formation rapidly grades upwards into green crystal tuff and volcanic conglomerate of Brokenback Hill Formation. Age: Ammonites and bivalves collected from the formation indicate an age range from Late Valanginian to Middle Albian (Buchia crassicollis to Cleoniceras (Grycia?) perezianum zones). Localities: 12, 13, 23, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55 (see Chap. 3; App. 1). LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 45 Depositional Environment: Buchia are prevalent in the lowermost part of the section, being found in crystal tuff and tuffaceous sandstone overlying the Peninsula Formation. Rare ammonites are found here as well (locality 12, Fig. 18). Higher in the section Inoceramus and belemnites are common and ammonites are found locally (Fig. 18). This may suggest deeper marine conditions as Inoceramus typically lived in quiet water settings on soft substrate. Many of these bivalves reached large sizes, presumably to prevent sinking into the substrate, and a specimen from locality 46 measured 35 cm. Tuff beds are commonly undisturbed in this part of the section suggesting little wave action, but ripple marks were noted at one locality together with a feeding trace. The large size of the clasts in the volcanic conglomerate may indicate proximity to a volcanic edifice, although flows are not noted in the lower part of the formation. The upper part of the section consists mainly of volcanic and pyroclastic rock which may have been deposited in an island arc setting; chemistry of the volcanic rocks is lacking to substantiate this. A single ammonite has been found in intercalated sediments indicating marine conditions. 2.8 IGNEOUS ROCKS West of Chehalis Lake and the Mesozoic section under study • are mid-Jurassic to Tertiary plutons of the Coast Plutonic Complex. Several small igneous bodies, part of the Coast Plutonic Complex, are exposed within the Weaver Lake Member near Mount Keenan (Fig. 4). A sample from one of these, collected by Monger in 1985 from north of Hemlock Valley, has yielded a date of 160±2 Ma (P. van der Heyden, University of British Columbia, personal communication). This date is coeval with the volcaniclastic rocks of Billhook Creek LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY / 46 Formation. These early Late Jurassic plutons may have been unroofed by earliest Cretaceous time to supply granitic material to the basal conglomerate of the Peninsula Formation. Andesitic feeder dykes to the Weaver Lake Member are commonly noted along the lakeshore, cutting across the Camp Cove Formation and one dyke slightly displaces the Camp Cove Formation-Celia Cove Member contact west of Echo Island along the Forest Service road. Feldspar porphyry bodies on the east side of Mount Keenan and along parts of the Hemlock Valley road have well developed columnar jointing; Pearson (1973) considers these to be dykes. To the north, igneous rock has intruded into Mysterious Creek Formation along a probable fault where the Forest Service road crosses Hale Creek. The Doctor's Point pluton on the northwest shore of Harrison Lake has a preliminary date (K/Ar: biotite) of 25 Ma by J. Harakal (Ray et al., 1985). This is contemporaneous with the Chilliwack Batholith southeast of Harrison Lake (Fig. 3) and a probable extension of the Chilliwack Batholith cuts across the Harrison River just west of Harrison Hot Springs (Fig. 4). 3 BIOSTRATIGRAPHY 3.1 INTRODUCTION The Mesozoic section along the west side of Harrison Lake has yielded a diverse fauna (see Appendix 1 for locality data). Fossil localities, the relevant formations and the contained fauna are shown in figure 18. The oldest fossils in the study area are in Early Permian clasts from conglomerate of the Early Jurassic Celia Cove Member. The oldest formation is the Camp Cove Formation of Middle Triassic age based on radiolaria and conodonts. Early, Middle and Late Jurassic ammonites have been collected from the overlying Harrison Lake, Mysterious Creek and Billhook Creek formations respectively and Early Cretaceous bivalves and ammonites were recovered from the Peninsula and Brokenback Hill formations. 3.2 TRIASSIC Abundant radiolaria and rare conodonts were extracted by the writer from siliceous siltstones collected at locality 9. The samples yielded the radiolaria genera Emiluvia ? sp. and Tripocyclia ? sp. (Fig. 19) indicating a Middle Triassic age (E. S. Carter, written communication, Report No. 86-8-(ESQ). The few conodont species were identified as Neogondolella cf. N. constricta (MOSHER and CLARK) (Fig. 19) which indicate a Middle Triassic age (M. J. Orchard, Geological Survey of Canada, personal communication). Two samples from different localities were processed for microfossils but none were found and no macrofossils were found within this unit. 47 5 S Harrison Lake Formation Mysterious Creek Formation Billhook Creek Formation Peninsula Formation 8 B 10 2 3 5 e 7 4 11 1 17 18 19 21 28 29 30 35 38 38 41 15 18 2<i 34 14 22 23 24 25 27 28 31 32 33 37 39 40 42 43 12 13 44 45 48 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 • DactyllocaraM • Harpocaras • Dumortlarla cf. lavasqual • • 0. cf. tfisffffifcmfflg • Phymatocaras sp. • Erycltoldaa sp. \ • Lllloattla lllloatanala • L. atantonl • Lllloattla sp. • • Cadocaraa comma • C. cf. catoatoma • C. (ParacadoearaaJ cf. tonnlanaa • • • • • • Cadocaraa sp. • • • Paaudocadocaraa grawlngkl • Cardlocaraa (Scarburglcaraa] martini • • C (Cardlocaraa) hyattl • C. (C.) Illlooatanaa • • • Cardlocaraa sp. • • • • • Buchia okanala s. str. • B. uncltoldaa s. lato • • • • • • var. apaaakanaoldaa • • • • • • • • • • var. acutlatrlata • • • var. catamorpha • 8. tolmatachowl • var. amarlcana • • B. pacltlca • • B. craaalcollla var. aollda • B. kayaarllngl var. glgaa • • • Buchia ap. • Homolaomltaa quatalnoanala • rt (Wallala) cf. packardl • Ammonocaratltaa sp. • Craorncaraa (Qrycta?) parailanum • Prauromya • • • htocaramua • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Brvatve • Belemnlta • • • • • • Ammonite • • Conodont • • Radiolaria Brokenback Hill Formation Figure 18: Locality chart by formation showing faunas found at each locality. BIOSTRATIGRAPHY / 49 Figure 19: Spumellarians (a, b) and a conodont specimen (c, d) extracted from siliceous siltstone of the Camp Cove Formation, a. Tripocyclia ? sp. b. Emiluvia ? sp. c. Neogondolella cf. N. constricta - view of basal cavity, d. same conodont specimen with view showing platform and denticles. Specimens indicate a Middle Triassic age. BIOSTRATIGRAPHY / 51 3.3 JURASSIC - TOARCIAN TO AALENIAN At present, there is no ammonite zonation for the Toarcian of the North American Cordillera but a study of Canadian Toarcian ammonites by Giselle Jakobs has begun at the University of British Columbia. The European zonal scheme for the Toarcian is discussed by Dean et al. (1961). Conglomerate of the Celia Cove Member of Harrison Lake Formation lies conformably beneath Middle Toarcian ammonites and above Triassic rocks. Its age can not be stated with certainty, but for reasons discussed in Chapter 2 it is thought to be Toarcian or Pliensbachian. Fossils have not been found in the matrix, but the chert and limestone clasts yielded several fossil groups at locality 8. The chert clasts contain abundant sponge spicules and poorly preserved radiolaria (Fig. 20) which were studied by Carter (written communication). A Middle to early Late Triassic (Ladinian - Early Carnian) age was suggested based on the presence of Pseudostylosphaera aff. compacta (NAKASEKO and NISHIMURA), Paraoertlispongus ? sp., Triassocampe sp. B? (YAO, MATSUOKA and NAKATANI) and Tripocyclia cf. acanthus DEWEVER., Rare conodonts were extracted from the chert clasts and were identified as Neohindeodella sp. (Fig. 20) indicating a Middle to Late Triassic age (Orchard, personal communication). The weathered limestone clasts contain abundant external molds of crinoid ossicles and bryozoans (Fig. 21) together with rare fusulinids (Fig. 22) and brachiopods (Arthur, 1986; Monger, 1986). The clasts were impregnated with resin (see Appendix 2) to produce external casts of the crinoid ossicles and bryozoans which could then be photographed. The detail of the specimens is excellent considering they are resin casts. The bryozoa in figure 21a belongs to the Order Cryptostomata (Family Fenestellidae) which ranged from the Ordovician to Permian, with their acme in the Devonian and Mississippian. The specimen in B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 52 Figure 20: Spumellarians (a, c), a nassellarian (b) and a conodont (d) extracted from chert clasts of the Celia Cove Member, a. Tripocyclia cf. acanthus b. Triassocampe sp. B. c. Paraoertlispongus ? sp. d. Neohindeodella sp. Specimens indicate a Middle to Late Triassic age. 53 BIOSTRATIGRAPHY / 54 Figure 21: Bryozoans (a, b) and crinoid ossicles (c, d) are reworked fossils from limestone clasts of the Celia Cove Member. Natural weathering removed all carbonate from the clast leaving external molds of the fossils. Clasts were impregnated with resin (see Appendix 2) to produce external casts. 5 5 BIOSTRATIGRAPHY / 56 figure 21b is unusual and tentatively described as a bryozoan(?). Pores should be present but their absence may simply be due to lack of preservation. The specimen has vague simmilarities to genera such as Taenipora (Devonian), but does not belong to this genus. Thin sections of fusulinid-bearing clasts (Fig. 22) were studied by the writer and by W. R. Danner of the University of British Columbia. The fusulinids most closely resemble Parafusulina of Early Permian age. In the West Road Member of the Harrison Lake Formation at locality 7, about 10 m stratigraphically above the contact with the Celia Cove Member the Toarcian ammonite genera Dactylioceras, Harpoceras and Phymatoceras were collected. In Europe Dactylioceras ranges from the Tenuicostatum to Bifrons Zone, Harpoceras ranges from the Falcifer to Bifrons Zone and Phymatoceras ranges from the Bifrons to the Variabilis Zone (Dean et al., 1961; Donovan et al., 1980). Identification to species level is not possible due to their poor preservation in the calcareous siltstone, but the association of genera clearly indicates the locality is Middle Toarcian, approximately equivalent to the Bifrons Zone. Immediately beneath this locality are less indurated grey calcareous shales and siltstones containing molds of star-shaped crinoid ossicles. Rocks of the same lithology containing star-shaped crinoid ossicles are found at locality 6 to the south and on the roadcut 800 m northwest of locality 10 (Fig. 6). These star-shaped crinoid ossicles are very characteristic of the Jurassic (Nelson, 1979, p. 506) and belong to the genus Pentacrinus. In Alaska, they are highly characteristic of the Lower Jurassic and this seems to be true for the Harrison Lake area, as they were not found in younger strata. This bed containing the crinoid ossicles represents the base of the West Road Member, conformably overlying conglomerate of the Celia Cove Member. BIOSTRATIGRAPHY / 57 Figure 22: Fusulinids probably of the genus Parafusulina sp. from a limestone clast of the Celia Cove Member, indicating an Early Permian age for the clasts. Photograph taken under plane polarized light to show structure of silicfied fusulinids. Magnification x5.6. BIOSTRATIGRAPHY / 58 At locality 5 the Late Toarcian ammonites Dumortieria cf. levesquei (D'ORBIGNY) and Dumortieria cf. insignisimilis (BRAUNS) were collected from folded and intruded brown to grey siltstones and shales. Rare, small, thin-shelled pectinid bivalves are associated with the ammonites. A single very poorly preserved ammonite resembling Dumortieria was found at locality 2 associated with belemnites. Between localities 2 and 5 on the northeast slope of a mountain, belemnites, pectinid bivalves and a single ammonite specimen were found at locality 3 at the top of the West Road Member. The ammonite is not well preserved but most closely resembles Erycitoides ? sp. of probable mid-Aalenian age. Belemnites from locality 4 of the Weaver Lake Member only indicate an age of post-Early Toarcian to mid-Early Cretaceous. At locality 11 in the Weaver Lake Member, pectinid bivalves and belemnites were collected by D. E. Pearson of the British Columbia Department of Mines (Pearson, 1973) but their age cannot be determined with certainty. Fossils younger than Aalenian have not been recovered from the Harrison Lake Formation, but the great thickness of section (most of the Weaver Lake Member and all of the Echo Island Member) lying above these fossil localities and below the Early Callovian Mysterious Creek Formation suggest a significant time span during which these strata were deposited. The age of the Harrison Lake Formation therefore ranges from Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian? and Toarcian) to Middle Jurassic (Earty? Bajocian). Correlations and Paleobiogeography: The limestone clasts from the Celia Cove Member contain Early Permian fusulinids and bryozoans that are commonly found together in rocks of the Chilliwack Group which outcrops mainly south of the Fraser River (Monger, B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 59 1986). The Chilliwack Group is also exposed on Bear Mountain 3 km east of Harrison Hot Springs (Crickmay, 1930a). The provenance of clasts from the Celia Cove Member will be discussed further in Chapter 4. Middle Toarcian rocks are widely distributed in British Columbia, including the Queen Charlotte Islands (Cameron and Tipper, 1985) and the Rocky Mountains (Frebold, 1957; 1976; Hall, 1987). Recently, Toarcian rocks bearing Dactylioceras have been found in the Spatsizi area (Smith et al., 1984; Thomson, 1985; Thomson et al., 1986) and unpublished occurrences are known in many areas of central and northern British Columbia and the southern Yukon (Tipper, personal communication). The first report of Toarcian ammonites in the Harrison Lake area was by Brookfield (1973) who recorded Dactylioceras supposedly in the Camp Cove Formation. It is now known that the Camp Cove Formation is Triassic in age and the calcareous siltstones in which Brookfield found Dactylioceras are presumably part of the Harrison Lake Formation (locality 7 of the West Road Member). The presence of Harpoceras and Phymatoceras in the Harrison Lake area is recorded for the first time in this report. Higher in the West Road Member section, Upper Toarcian Dumortieria species were recovered from locality 5 (Fig. 6). In Europe Dumortieria ranges from the Levesquei Subzone to the Moorei- Subzone of the Upper Toarcian (Dean et al., 1961; Donovan et al., 1980). Frebold collected specimens of this genus from the Harrison Lake area but he mis-identified them as the Lower Bajocian genus Fontannesia (see Monger, 1970; Brookfield, 1973). Late Toarcian beds are widely distributed from Oregon to Alaska (Imlay, 1968; Frebold and Tipper, 1970) but the genus Dumortieria has only been recorded from a few localities in the Western Cordillera; Oregon (Imlay, 1968; Smith, 1976), Queen Charlotte B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 60 Islands (Cameron and Tipper, 1985), Spatsizi (Thomson et al., 1986), Hazelton area (Tipper and Richards, 1976), Yukon (Cockfield and Bell, 1926, p. 21) and Harrison Lake (this report). The age of the West Road Member ranges from Middle Toarcian (locality 7) to mid-Aalenian (locality 3). The underlying Celia Cove Member is probably Early Toarcian and Pliensbachian(?) and the overlying Weaver Lake and Echo Island members are younger than mid-Aalenian and older than Early Callovian (overlying Mysterious Creek Formation); probably Aalenian to Early? Bajocian (see Chap. 2). 3.4 JURASSIC - C A L L O V I A N Callomon (1984) has proposed a biostratigraphic zonation for the post-Lower Bajocian Jurassic ammonites of northern and western North America (Fig. 23). The Harrison Lake area belongs in Callomon's Region B - North American Cordillera. The oldest Callovian locality in the Harrison Lake area is found in the Mysterious Creek Formation about 1 km west of the mouth of Hale Creek at locality 17A (Fig. 6). At this locality Lilloettia lilloetensis was collected from steeply dipping sheared siltstone. Locality 35 and section 1 (locality 26) yielded specimens assigned to L. lilloetensis. Locality 17A belongs in the Cadoceras comma Fauna B8 (Fig. 23) of Callomon (1984) which is approximately equivalent to Imlay's (1975) Cadoceras catostoma zone now abandoned for reasons discussed by Callomon (1984, p. 159). Fauna B8 is further divided into sub-faunas and locality 17A is assigned by the writer to the Lilloettia lilloetensis Fauna B8(c) of Callomon (1984, p. 161). About 10 m stratigraphically above locality 17 A, still within the Mysterious Creek Formation, is locality 17 yielding a large collection of BIOSTRATIGRAPHY / 61 EUROPE LU I a a Kosmoceras jason < > o -J _] < o Sigakxxras calloviense + Cadoceras stMilaeve Macrocephalites macrocepnakts CL LU Cadoceras elatmae Paracadoceras breve + Keppkrites keppleri ! REGION B-CORDILLERA U.S-B.C. S.ALASKA B9 Stenocadoceras stenoJoboide 1 Lilbettia iB8g 1 stantoni 1 |B8f i KeppleritBS abnjptus IB8e Cadoceras wosnessenskii B8d Lilloettia tipped B8C Lilloettia lilloetensis B8b Paracadoceras tormiense B8a Keppierites loganianus Figure 23: Early Callovian faunal successions for the Cordillera Region together with equivalent European faunal successions (modified from Callomon, 1984). B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 62 fragmented or complete ammonite specimens and rare bivalve shells. Fragments of Cadoceras macroconchs are most abundant, but identification to species level is impossible. Five fairly complete specimens of Cadoceras comma IMLAY have been collected from this locality and two specimens described as Cadoceras (Paracadoceras) cf. tonniense IMLAY. Some twenty specimens of Pseudocadoceras grewingki POMPECKJ were collected; their smaller size resulted in better preservation. Locality 17 can be referred to Callomon's (1984) Cadoceras comma Fauna B8 and is placed in the Cadoceras wosnessenskii Fauna B8(e) (Fig. 23). Also placed in this Fauna B8(e) by Callomon (1984) are the species C. catostoma POMPECKJ, C. glabrum IMLAY and C. comma IMLAY. The three species at locality 17 (C. comma, P. grewingki, C. (P.) tonniense) occur together in localities within the lower part of the Chinitna Formation, Alaska (Imlay, 1953b; 1975), but stratigraphic uncertainties reach their peak during the time period of the C. comma Fauna B8 assemblage (Callomon, 1984). Overlapping age ranges for many of the species is common and Fauna B8 is divided into subfaunas based on the relative abundances of particular species. For example, C. (P.) tonniense is generally most common in Fauna B8(b) (Fig. 23), but it can range through other faunal assemblages such as Fauna B8(e) (locality 17). Callomon (1984, p. 161) states that these two faunas (B8(b) and B8(e)) are very similar and the time-gap between the two must have been very short. Pseudocadoceras grewingki, which occurs at localities 17 and 30, is not discussed with respect to its zonal affinity by Imlay (1975) or Callomon (1984). The similar species Pseudocadoceras petelini POMPECKJ, however, is placed in the Cadoceras (Stenocadoceras) stenoloboide Fauna B9 (Fig. 23) by Callomon (1984) B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 63 which is equivalent to the C. (S.) stenoloboide zone of Imlay (1975). The age of Fauna B9 appears to be Middle Callovian, although definite proof is lacking (Callomon, 1984, p. 162). P. grewingki and P. petelini are found together at localities within the Shelikof Formation, Alaska (Imlay, 1953b; 1975) and possibly the Taseko Lakes region of British Columbia (Frebold and Tipper, 1967) implying that P. grewingki may belong to Fauna B9. P. grewingki is associated with C. comma of Fauna B8(e), which is middle Lower Callovian, and P. petelini of Fauna B9, which is Middle Callovian. Therefore, P. grewingki may well range through the time period between Fauna B8 and Fauna B9 (Fig. 23). Another possiblity is that Fauna B9 is somewhat older; perhaps upper Early Callovian. About 10 to 15 m stratigraphically above locality 17 is locality 18 (Fig. 6) which yielded 10 poorly preserved Cadoceras fragments, one bivalve and several belemnites. One ammonite specimen resembles Cadoceras catostoma belonging to the C. wosnessenskii Fauna B8(e) of Callomon (1984). Locality 18 is therefore assigned to the same faunal assemblage as locality 17. South of Harrison River at locality 1, two specimens of Lilloettia stantoni IMLAY were collected. Imlay (1975, p. 7) placed all species of Lilloettia into his Cadoceras catostoma zone (Callomon's (1984) Fauna B8 assemblage) except for L. stantoni. Callomon (1984, p. 162) feels there is consistent evidence of a higher Lilloettia assemblage that differs from his older L. lilloetensis Fauna B8(c). This higher assemblage is- described by Callomon (1984) as the Lilloettia stantoni Fauna B8(g) and placed at the top of the C. comma Fauna B8 assemblage (Fig. 23). It is therefore younger than the other Callovian localities west of Harrison Lake, but is still Lower Callovian (Macrocephalus Zone of Europe). BIOSTRATIGRAPHY / 64 Correlations and Paleobiogeography: The Early Callovian ammonite succession from the Mysterious Creek Formation west of Harrison Lake bears marked similarities with other locations along the Northeast Pacific coast. Such localities include southern Alaska (Imlay, 1953b; 1975), southwestern British Columbia (Frebold and Tipper, 1967), Oregon (Imlay, 1964) and California (Imlay, 1961). Alaska is by far the richest area faunally with taxa of both the Boreal (Cadoceras, C. (Paracadoceras), C. (Stenocadoceras), Pseudocadoceras, Kepplerites) and East Pacific (Lilloettia, Xenocephalites) realms along its southern coast. The Harrison Lake area yields fewer Lower Callovian ammonite species than southern Alaska, but all species found in the Mysterious Creek Formation are present in Alaska (Chinitna Formation) and the taxa from Mysterious Creek Formation also represent both the Boreal and East Pacific realms. Successions from Mexico lack any Boreal taxa but contain the East Pacific Realm genera Lilloettia and Xenocephalites (Callomon, 1984). The Western Interior Region was the site of Early Callovian regression (Callomon, 1984) and faunas from this region once described as Early Callovian (Imlay, 1953a), are now considered to be Bathonian (Callomon, 1984). The Arctic Region yields few Lower Callovian ammonites and those present bear few similarities to faunas from the Cordilleran Region (Imlay, 1953b), but major features of the ammonite fauna from the Arctic Region are almost identical with those from East Greenland (Callomon, 1984) suggesting deposition in the same broad Arctic Basin. The western Cordillera contains Late Paleozoic and Triassic sections which are stratigraphically distinct. These terranes are believed to have developed separately and were then transported from their place of origin by transcurrent B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 65 faults related to subduction and accreted to the craton. Many terranes have been postulated for the Cordilleran Region (Coney et al., 1980; Monger et al., 1982) but the four main terranes are Wrangellia, Peninsular, Stikinia and Quesnellia. Ideas on transport distance and time of docking for these terranes are quite varied (Davis et al., 1978; Monger, 1984; Irving et al., 1985) and remain open to discussion. Recent work by Mortimer (1986) on the structure and stratigraphy of Quesnellia and Stikinia suggest a completely separate spatial evolution for these two terranes during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic time with an intervening ocean basin (Cache Creek Terrane) at least 900 km wide. Recently collected Middle Jurassic radiolaria from the Cache Creek Terrane (Cordey et al., 1987) indicate that oceanic sediments were still being deposited in the Jurassic, so closure of this basin may have been post-Middle Jurassic. The position of Quesnellia by Middle Jurassic time may have been near or at its present position relative to the Omineca Crystalline Belt as Toarcian and Bajocian sediments within this terrane contain detrital white micas (Tipper, 1984), suggesting deposition near a metamorphic source (i.e. the developing Omineca Crystalline Belt to the east). It is also probable that the Quesnellia Terrane was a positive feature by Bathonian time as no deposits of a younger Jurassic age (excluding a single occurrence of Lower Callovian conglomeratic sediments (Tipper, personal communication)) are recorded (Taylor et al., 1984, figs. 11-20). The figures of Taylor et al. (1984), Jurassic faunal distributions by stage, demonstrate that Wrangellia, Peninsular and Stikinia contain Jurassic ammonites younger than Callovian, unlike the Quesnellia Terrane. Paleomagnetic data (Packer and Stone, 1974; Hillhouse, 1977; Monger and Irving, 1980; Irving et al., 1985) and paleontological data (Tozer, 1970; Tipper, 1981; 1984; Taylor BIOSTRATIGRAPHY / 66 et al., 1984; Smith and Tipper, 1986) suggest possible northward movements of these terranes from a region near present day Oregon and California since the Early Mesozoic. The Early Callovian Boreal faunas on Peninsular, Wrangellia and Stikinia suggest that these terranes could not have come from much further south than Oregon because the Callovian Boreal-Tethyan boundary occurs about this latitude on the craton. This could equally imply that the terranes have not been displaced from their present position, but Early Callovian faunas from Alaska contain rare specimens of possible Tethyan affinity (e.g. Reineckeia) together with abundant Boreal faunas. This would suggest that the Peninsular terrane, although still in Boreal latitudes, was closer to the Boreal-Tethyan boundary in Callovian time and may have moved somewhat northward. 3.5 JURASSIC - OXFORDIAN An ammonite zonation for the Oxfordian of North America was erected by Callomon (1984) and correlates well with faunas of the Harrison Lake area (Fig. 24). There are three Oxfordian fossil localities in the Billhook Creek Formation (Fig. 18) and only two (localities 15 and 20) contain identifiable specimens. Locality 15, which is situated on the southwest shore of Cascade Peninsula (Fig. 4), 3'ielded mainly ammonites (Cardioceras) and several bivalve specimens including an Oxytoma sp. Brookfield (1973) recovered mainly Cardioceras and Oxytoma from this locality and rare Lingula sp., Entolium sp., Grammatodon sp., Astarte sp., Buchia ? sp. and ?Phylloceras sp. The ammonite Phylloceras was also found at this locality by Crickmay (1930a). Cardioceras (Scarburgiceras) martini REESIDE is the dominant ammonite species from locality 15 and is placed in Callomon's (1984) Cardioceras martini Fauna B12 of the Cordilleran Region (Fig. 24). This Fauna B12 is "close to if not identical with" the C. < Q cr O LL X o or UJ EUROPE Cardioceras cordatum C. costicardia C bukowskii C. praecordatum C. scarburgense WESTERN INTERIOR A14b C distans A14a Chyatti A13C C. mathiaspeakense A 13b C mountjoyi A13a A12 C cordiforme CORDILLERA U.S-B.C. S. ALASKA B11b C praecordatum B11ac. B13 C spintfenm B12 C martin Figure 24: Early Oxfordian faunal successions for the Western Interior and Cordillera regions together with equivalent European faunal subzones (modified from Callomon, 1984). B O rx H H o > 13 n BIOSTRATIGRAPHY / 68 reesidei Fauna A13(a) of the Western Interior Region (Callomon (1984). Locality 15 which is assigned to Fauna B12 (Fig. 24) is therefore Lower Oxfordian in age (Bukowskii Subzone). Associated with C. (S.) martini at locality 15 are two specimens of Cardioceras (Cardioceras) hyatti REESIDE. Although rare at this locality C. (C.) hyatti is common at locality 20 west of Long Island (Fig. 6). Callomon (1984, p. 156) places C. (C.) hyatti into his Cardioceras distans Fauna A14 of the Western Interior Region which is further divided into the C. hyatti Fauna A14(a) and C. distans Fauna Al4(b) (Fig. 24). Fauna Al4(a) lies in the Lower Oxfordian Cordatum Zone of Europe; Costicardia Subzone. It appears to be roughly equivalent to Callomon's (1984) Cardioceras spiniferum Fauna B13 of the Cordilleran Region which is found in the upper Bukowskii to lower Costicardia subzones (Fig. 24). Also present at locality 20 are abundant shallow marine bivalves (includng Pinna), belemnites and Cardioceras (Cardioceras) lillooetense REESIDE. This ammonite species belongs in the C. spiniferum Fauna B13 and its presence with C. (C.) hyatti implies an age for locality 20 in the Lower Oxfordian Cordatum Zone and probably the lower Costicardia Subzone (Fig. 24). The ammonites present at the two localities show that locality 15 (Bukowskii Subzone) is slightly older than locality 20 (lower Costicardia Subzone). The two specimens of C. (C.) hyatti collected from locality 15 may roughly mark the first appearance of this species suggesting that locality 15 may lie in the upper part of the Bukowskii Subzone. Correlations and Paleobiogeography: Cardioceratids spread southwards from the Boreal Realm (Hallam, 1978, B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 69 p. 29) as marine waters transgressed once again into the Western Interior Region in Late Callovian and Early Oxfordian time. Their migration southwards, presumably to occupy ecologic niches abandoned by other ammonite families due to the preceding Callovian regression (Hallam, 1978), led to faunal similarities between the Cordilleran and the Western Interior regions by Early Oxfordian (Imlay, 1982). The genus Cardioceras is common in both regions and although some species and genera are confined to one region, many are found in both (Imlay, 1964; 1981; 1982). The Early Oxfordian ammonites of the Western Interior Region lived in a shallow sea extending as far inland as Wyoming and parts of adjoining states (Imlay, 1947; 1982) and possibly included Colorado and northern New Mexico (Hallam, 1975). This shallow sea was called the Logan Sea by Schuchert (1923) (now called the Sundance Sea) and it was believed to be separated from the open ocean to the west by mountains which joined the craton to the south (Schuchert, 1923). This bordering landmass to the west was -called "Jurozephyria" by Crickmay (1931) and is termed the Mesocordilleran Geanticline by Armstrong and Ward (in prep.). It extended from southeastern Arizona through Nevada and western Idaho and along the Omineca Crystalline Belt in British Columbia. Armstrong and Ward (in prep.) state that the Sundance Sea was connected only to the Arctic Ocean while Frebold et al. (1959, p. 13-16) believed that rather than one coherent landmass separating the Sundance Sea from the Pacific geosyncline, there were a series of volcanic island belts (see Frebold, 1957, p. 39-41 for reasons). Neither hypothesis can be proven but the faunal similarities suggest that a marine connection did exist between the two regions in Early Oxfordian time. Faunal similarities and differences between the two regions indicate possible physical and climatic barriers were in effect. The Earty Oxfordian of southern Alaska, Bowser Basin and Harrison Lake contain BIOSTRATIGRAPHY / 70 Figure 25: Paleobiogeographic map of western North America for Oxfordian time (modified from Taylor et al., 1984). B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 71 Phylloceras (Fig. 25) together with the other ammonite forms, but this genus is notably absent in the Western Interior Region (Imlay, 1982). The presence of Phylloceras in an area probably indicates access to the open ocean (Callomon, 1984; Taylor et al., 1984, p. 125) and its absence in the shallow epeiric and shelf seas (Imlay, 1953b) of the Western Interior Region is therefore due to a physical barrier. There are two ammonite genera (Poculisphinctes and Prososphinctes) from the Western Interior Region (South Dakota and Montana; Imlay, 1982, p. 40, 41) that are distinctly of Tethyan origin (Fig. 25) suggesting that there may have been a marine connection between the Western Interior Region and present day Mexico. A climatic barrier was almost certainly in effect between these two regions as Boreal faunas are not found around Mexico and Tethyan faunas are rare in the Western Interior Region. It is also possible that the Tethyan forms accessed the Western Interior Region through a seaway farther north, possibly near Oregon as Oxfordian marine rocks are present in the northeast corner of the state (Fig. 25), and simply were not preserved in the stratigraphic record of this region. 3.6 C R E T A C E O U S - B E R R I A S I A N T O V A L A N G I N I A N Faunas of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous of Canada have been exhaustivelj' studied by Jeletzky (1965; 1984) who described a zonal scheme for western and Arctic Canada (Jeletzky, 1984, fig. 10) and a simplified version of this is shown in figure 26. Samples of Cretaceous fossils from both Peninsula and Brokenback Hill formations were collected and sent to Dr. J. A. Jeletzky for identification. The names and ages for Cretaceous aged fossils discussed in this report have been obtained from Jeletzky's unpublished Report Km-l-1986-JAJ, BIOSTRATIGRAPHY / 72 97.5 Desmoceras (Pseudohuligella) dawsoni .BIAN Cleoniceras (Grycia?) perezianum _ l < -Brewericeras hulenense Brewericeras (Leconteites) lecontei subsp. whiteavesi ACEOUS APTIAN UNZONED 113 RET 3EMIAN UNZONED 119 O CC < m >- Simbirskites cf. broadi 124 iRL < UNZONED iRL > cc Inoceramus colonicus UJ 111 1- Simbirskites (Hollisites) lucasi & Speetoniceras cf. agnessense < Homolsomites (Wellsia) packardi Homo/somites (Wellsia) oregonensis Z < Buchia crassicollis s. str. 131 O VALAN Buchia pacifica . z < Buchia tolmatschowi s. lato 138 CO < oc Buchia uncitoides s. lato cc 111 00 Buchia okensis s. str. o CO Buchia terebratuloides s. lato 144 CO < z Buchia fischeriana s. lato cc O Q- Buchia piochii s. str. LATE . TITH (in Buchia cf. blanfordiana Figure 26: Canadian zonation for the Late Jurass ic and E a r l y Cretaceous (modified from Imlay, 1960; Je letzky and Tipper, 1968; Jeletzky, 1984). B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 73 unless otherwise stated. A period of uplift, erosion and probable deformation, Crickmay's Agassiz Orogeny (1931) followed deposition of the Early Oxfordian Billhook Creek Formation. It was during this time in the Late Jurassic that the Kent Formation was probably deposited. Uplift led to the erosion of plutons, which supplied granitic material to the Peninsula Formation. The basal conglomerate of this formation has not been dated, but immediately above are sandstones replete with Buchia. Section 3 (locality 43 on fig. 6) shows a complete section of the Peninsula Formation (Fig. 13) and four fossil samples were studied by Jeletzky. The lowest in the section (C-117406) yielded exclusively Buchia uncitoides s. lato (PAVLOW) var. acutistriata CRICKMAY from a massive coquina. Its age is Middle Berriasian Stratigraphically above C-117406 is C-117407 (Fig. 13) with Buchia okensis s. str. (PAVLOW) and rare B. uncitoides assigned to the upper part of the Buchia okensis Zone (Fig. 26), Lower Berriasian (Jeletzky, 1965; 1984). Locality C-117408 of section 3 is 37 m stratigraphically above C-117407 (Fig. 13) and contains B. okensis (normal and giant forms are common), and B. uncitoides; including B. uncitoides var. spasskensoides CRICKMAY and B. uncitoides var. acutistriata. These faunas indicate an age in the uppermost part of the B. okensis Zone (Lower Berriasian) which is consistent with its recorded stratigraphic position slightly above C-117407 (Jeletzky, written communication). The highest collection of Buchia made at section 3 was from C-117409. This locality is dominated by large forms of B. uncitoides var. spasskensoides. Rare forms of B. uncitoides var. acutistriata and B. okensis were also noted. The fauna represents the lower part of the Buchia uncitoides Zone of Middle Berriasian age (Fig. 26). B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 74 The Middle Berriasian age for C-117406 presents a problem because faunas of Lower Berriasian age (C-117407, C-117408) overlie it. There is no evidence for faulting or overturning of this section. The most probable reason for the discrepancy in age for C-117406 is an error in collecting. Ages based on Buchia are obtained by comparing the relative abundances of particular species and it is possible that this collection did not give a representative view of the Buchia population at this locality. The remainder of the localities along section 3 appear to conform well to the zonal scheme of Jeletzky (1965; 1984). Buchia faunas from isolated localities within the Peninsula Formation were also collected (Fig. 18). Localities 32 and 40 yielded Buchia of Lower Berriasian (B. okensis Zone) age. Locality 40 yielded Buchia of the same species as that from C-117408 in section 3 and was probably derived from the same bed (Jeletzky, written communication). B. okensis, a large pectinid (Mclearnia (=Boreionectes)? sp.) and an indeterminate true belemnite were collected from locality 32. Faunas of Middle Berriasian age [B. uncitoides Zone) were collected from localities: 14, 22, 25, 27, 31, 33, 37 and 39. The first two localities (14 and 22) are equivalent to C-117409 (lower B. uncitoides Zone) and contain the same three Buchia species as C-117409. Locality 22 yielded a solitary specimen of Buchia keyserlingi (LAHUSEN) var. visiginensis (SOKOLOV) and the belemnite Cylindroteuthis (Artctoteuthis) cf. baculus (CRICKMAY). The other localities are younger than 14 and 22 but are still within the B. uncitoides Zone. All contain abundant specimens of B. uncitoides var. acutistriata and collections from localities 27 and 39 are exclusively this species. Localities 31 and 33 also yielded B. uncitoides var. spasskensoides. The genus Buchia uncitoides var. catamorpha (CRICKMAY) was found in large numbers at locality 25 and rare specimens BIOSTRATIGRAPHY / 75 were recovered from localities 33 and 37. The youngest fossils found in the Peninsula Formation were collected from beneath a powerline tower, 350 m southwest of the fire lookout on Brokenback Hill at locality 28 (Fig. 6). Two collections were made at this locality about 3 m apart stratigraphically. C-118588 yielded Buchia tolmatschowi (SOKOLOV), B. tolmatschowi var. americana (SOKOLOV) and early forms of Buchia pacifica JELETZKY. This collection was placed in the topmost part of the Buchia tolmatschowi Zone (Fig. 26) which is situated in the uppermost Berriasian (Jeletzky, 1965; 1984). The collection from the overlying locality C-118587 contains predominately B. pacifica and less commonly B. tolmatschowi var. americana. Jeletzky placed this fauna into the basal part of the. Buchia pacifica Zone of Early Valanginian age. B. pacifica has not been recorded from the Peninsula Formation or Brokenback Hill Formation previously, but it is found to the west in the correlative Fire Lake Group (Jeletzky, written communication). In Long Island Bay along the west shore of Long Island, strongly deformed Buchia shells were collected from locality 23. Jeletzky identified them as either B. tolmatschowi, B. pacifica or Buchia crassicollis (KEYSERLING). The age can accordingly range from late Berriasian to late Valanginian. The rocks along the southwest side of Long Island including locality 23, have been assigned to Brokenback Hill Formation by the writer. Locality 24, located on a small island in Long Island Bay, yielded stronglj' deformed Buchia from a phyllite. Unlike locality 23, several specimens could be assigned to B. pacifica. This locality is therefore assigned to some part of the B. pacifica Zone (Early Valanginian). Correlations and Paleobiogeography: The bivalve Buchia is a widespread genus found over much of B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 76 northwestern North America and Russia (see Jeletzky, 1984) and is confined to the Boreal Realm. Berriasian Buchia faunas of the Taseko Lakes, western Vancouver Island and Harrison Lake areas are the same (Jeletzky, 1984) and faunal similarities exist between the Harrison Lake area and the Nooksack area, Washington (Jeletzky, 1965). The Harrison Lake section lacks faunas of the late Upper Jurassic Buchia zones (Fig. 26), probably as a result of erosion prior to deposition of the Peninsula Formation or a period of non-deposition spanning most of Late Jurassic time in the Harrison Lake region. The B. okensis Zone is the oldest Cretaceous zone in the Harrison Lake area and is dominated by the species B. okensis. This genus is facies tolerant (Jeletzky, 1965; 1984, p. 204) and is widely distributed in Russia, East Greenland, the Sverdrup Basin of Arctic Canada, western British Columbia, Washington and rarely in northwest California. Crickmay's Buchia descriptions (1925; 1930a) were re-examined by Jeletzky (1965) who feels that "Aucella" canadiana CRICKMAY and "Aucella" cascadensis CRICKMAY are conspecific with B. okensis; "A" canadiana is merely an extreme morphological variant of B. okensis and is essentially a North American geographical subspecies (Jeletzky, 1984). The overlying zone in the Harrison Lake section is rich with B. uncitoides after which the zone is named. B. uncitoides is more restricted in distribution than B. okensis, being found in parts of Russia, Richardson Mountains in Yukon, southwest British Columbia and California. Its abundance in California compared with the scarcity of B. okensis from this area is believed to be caused by the gradual southward increase in water temperature of the Berriasian Pacific Slope seas of North America (Jeletzky, 1984, p. 209). Faunas of the B. uncitoides Zone have also been found in metamorphosed rocks of the Fire Lake B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 77 Group northwest of Harrison Lake which more precisely delimits the western margin of the Tyaughton Trough in that area (Roddick, 1965, p. 41, 42; Jeletzky, 1984, p. 211). Crickmay's (1925; 1930a) three species of Buchia ("A." acutistriata, "A." catamorpha, "A." spasskensoides) are considered to be variants of B. uncitoides by Jeletzky (1965). They are all found in the Harrison Lake area, although B. uncitoides var. acutistriata is the most common. The youngest rocks of the Peninsula Formation are found at locality 28 and represent the upper B. tolmatschowi Zone and lower B. pacifica Zone. The B. tolmatschowi Zone is restricted to southwest British Columbia and California, probably because of paleozoogeographical reasons (Jeletzky, 1965, p. 36). The overlying B. pacifica Zone (Early Valanginian), however, is widespread in the western Cordilleran belt from Alaska to California. Areas in the Canadian Cordillera where the B. pacifica Zone is represented include: west coast of Vancouver Island, Lillooet area, Bridge River area, Harrison Lake area, Manning Park area, Caribou area and southwestern Yukon and it is doubtfully represented in the Nooksack area of Washington (Jeletzky, 1965, p. 44). Locality 24 was also tentatively placed in the B. pacifica Zone by Jeletzky (written communication). The rocks of this locality are highly deformed and it can only be said that they belong to the Peninsula or Brokenback Hill formations. If the rocks do in fact belong to the Peninsula Formation, then they have been thrust up over Brokenback Hill Formation which lies along the southwest shore of Long Island (Fig. 4). If they belong to Brokenback Hill Formation the contact between Peninsula Formation and Brokenback Hill Formation must lie within the B. pacifica Zone. BIOSTRATIGRAPHY / 78 3.7 CRETACEOUS • V A L A N G I N I A N TO A L B I A N Zonal schemes for Cordilleran faunas of this age have been proposed by Imlay (1960) and Jeletzky and Tipper (1968) and their zones have been incorporated into figure 26 in a simplified version. The oldest locality within the Brokenback Hill Formation (excluding the possible locality 24) occurs on the southeast shore of Cascade Peninsula at localities 12 and 13. Locality 13 yielded Buchia crassicollis (KEYSERLING) var. solida (LAHUSEN). This species is abundant in collections from locality 12, together with rare Buchia keyserlingi (LAHUSEN) var. gigas (CRICKMAY), Pleuromya cf. uniformis (SOWERBY) and Pleuromya ex gr. uralensis (D'ORBIGNY). The ammonite Homolsomites quatsinoensis (WHITEAVES) is found at locality 12. Faunas at localities 12 and 13 are Upper Valanginian, lower part of the Buchia crassicollis Zone (Fig. 26). Fossil localities within Brokenback Hill Formation along the west side of Harrison Lake are rare and isolated. Inoceramus paraketzovi EFIMOVA subsp. latus POCHIALAINEN and TEREKHOVA was recovered from locality 44 and Inoceramus paraketzovi cf. subsp. acutus POCHIALAINEN and TEREKHOVA from locality 46. This species was recently described from northeastern Siberia, where they are confined to Late Hauterivian rocks, but range into Early Hauterivian rocks in the Taseko Lakes area (Jeletzky, written communication). Therfore, these two localities can only be dated as of a general Hauterivian age. At locality 47 two specimens of Homolsomites (Wellsia) cf. packardi IMLAY were collected. Jeletzky believes these belong to some part of the Homolsomites packardi Zone of Early Hauterivian age (Fig. 26). A single ammonite specimen from locally derived float at locality 55 near Doctor's Point was submitted by G. E. Ray of the British Columbia Department of Mines to H. W. Tipper of the Geological Survey of Canada for identification. B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 79 It was identified as Cleoniceras (Grycia?) perezianum (WHITEAVES) of Middle Albian age by Tipper (personal communication) and confirmed by Jeletzky (Report No. Km-ll-1985-JAJ). The only other locality in Brokenback Hill Formation which yielded identifiable fossils is locality 49 where an ammonite identified by the writer as Ammonoceratites sp. was found (Fig. 27). It closely resembles the specimen figured in McLearn (1972, pi. 1, fig. 5) from the Queen Charlotte Islands which was associated with a Middle Albian fauna; Arkell et al. (1957) prefer an Upper Aptian to Cenomanian age for Ammonoceratites. The remaining localities not discussed yet (45, 48, 50-54) yielded belemnites or ammonites too poorly preserved for identification. Correlations and Paleobiogeography: The B. crassicollis Zone is widespread in the western Cordillera and B. crassicollis s. str. is the youngest Buchia species known from this region (Jeletzky, 1965), except for the undocumented record of Buchia teutoburgensis (WEERTH) from the presumably Hauterivian beds of the Harrison Lake area (Crickmay, 1930a, p. 49; 1962, p. 9). On the west coast of Vancouver Island the B. crassicollis Zone is unknown as the section ends in the B. pacifica Zone, but in Quatsino Sound rocks of the B. crassicollis Zone transgressively overlap Middle Jurassic intrusive rocks (Jeletzky, 1965, p. 65, fig. 4). This zone is the oldest Cretaceous zone known from the San Juan Islands (Spieden Island) and Homolsomites quatsinoensis is found in both areas. In the Harrison Lake and Nooksack areas the B. crassicollis Zone is present and overlies older Buchia zones in apparent conformity (Jeletzky, 1965). To the north, isolated localities belonging in the B. crassicollis Zone are known from other parts of British Columbia, southwestern Yukon and Alaska (Jeletzky, B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 80 Figure 27: Cretaceous ammonite from locality 49 identified as Ammonoceratites sp. which can range from the Upper Aptian to Cenomanian. B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 81 1965). In California a possible hiatus existed during the B. crassicollis Zone, although the uppermost Suc/iia-bearing beds could reach into the basal part of this zone. The Hauterivian Inoceramus paraketzovi from localities 44 and 46 are not common in the western Cordillera but they are known from the Taseko Lakes area as stated earlier. Inoceramus species similar to /. paraketzovi have also been found west of Harrison Lake in the Fire Lake Group (Jeletzky, written communication). The Early Hauterivian Homolsomites packardi Zone, which locality 47 belongs in, was first described from Oregon (Imlay, 1960, p. 176). This zone and the next older Homolsomites (Wellsia) oregonensis Zone are little known in British Columbia and to date have only been found in the Taseko Lakes (Jeletzky and Tipper, 1968), Quatsino Sound (Jeletzky, 1976), Mount Waddington (Tipper, 1969) and now Harrison Lake areas. The discovery of Cleoniceras (Grycia?) perezianum at locality 55 is paleogeographically and stratigraphically important. Rocks of the Gambier Group were previously thought to be restricted to the poorly understood mid-Cretceous Gambier Basin (see Jeletzky, 1977a). The C. (G.) perezianum Zone is the only Albian zone known from the Georgia Basin. It is also present in the Queen Charlotte Islands, the Tyaughton Trough and Bowser Basin (Jeletzky, 1977a, fig. 2). The presence of the C. (G.?) perezianum at Harrison Lake therefore documents for the first time, the eastward extension into this area of marine rocks correlative with the Gambier Group (Ray et al., 1985; Jeletzky, Report No. Km-ll-1985-JAJ). The age of the presumably stratigraphically older Ammonoceratites sp. from locality 49 cannot be determined with certainty. It could be as old as Late Aptian but is probably Albian as it occurs for the first time in the Queen B I O S T R A T I G R A P H Y / 82 Charlotte Islands in the Middle Albian C. (G.) perezianum Zone (McLearn, 1972, p. 17). The wide extent of the C. (G.) perezianum Zone in western British Columbia indicates a strong mid-Albian transgression over the region (Jeletzky, 1977a, p. 112). Marine sediments continued to be deposited in the Tyaughton-Methow Trough until the end of the Albian and at some point in the Turonian it became an elevated source area (Jeletzky, 1977b). This marked the end of marine sedimentation in the Harrison Lake area which was situated along the western margin of the Tyaughton Trough adjacent to the now elevated Coast Plutonic Complex. 4 CORRELATIONS AND TECTONICS 4.1 REGIONAL CORRELATIONS Camp Cove Formation: Monger (1970) tentatively correlated this formation in part with Late Triassic to Early Jurassic siltstones, shales and volcanic arenites (Misch, 1966; Monger, 1986) of the Cultus Formation lying to the south. The new Middle Triassic age for the Camp Cove Formation makes this correlation less certain but it may be equivalent to an as yet undated older section of the Cultus Formation or a younger part of the Chilliwack Group, removed by erosion in the Chilliwack Valley. The formation is roughly age equivalent to basalt and turbidite flows (siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate) of the Triassic Cadwallader Group (Rusmore, 1985), lying 180 km to the north-northwest; Monger (1986) speculatively correlated the Slollicum assemblage (Fig. 3) east of Harrison Lake with the Cadwallader Group based on general lithological similarities. To the east in the Coquihalla area, the Lower to Middle(?) Triassic Spider Peak Formation, composed of greenstone, gabbro plus minor tuff, siltstone and sandstone, outcrops locally along the Hozameen Fault (O'Brien, 1986) and is age equivalent with the Camp Cove Formation. These two formations, on the basis of age, can be correlated in part with Permian to Middle Jurassic chert, siltstone, basalt, ultramafics and minor carbonates of the Bridge River-Hozameen assemblage which is believed to represent oceanic crust and overlying sediments. Clasts in the Celia Cove Member of Harrison Lake Formation: Provenance of the Early Permian limestone clasts is probably the 83 CORRELATIONS AND TECTONICS / 84 Pennsylvanian to Permian Chilliwack Group as faunas in the clasts (Parafusulina, bryozoans, crinoid ossicles, corals, brachiopods) are forms commonly found together in rocks of the Chilliwack Group (Monger, 1966). Presence of these clasts in the Celia Cove Member suggest a stratigraphic linkage existed between the Harrison assemblage and Chilliwack-Cultus assemblage by Early Toarcian time (Monger, 1986). Provenance of the pale green chert clasts of Middle Triassic age based on radiolaria and conodonts is difficult to determine. The Bridge River Group lying to the east represented an ocean basin until the Middle Jurassic as indicated by radiolaria of this age recovered from chert. It is unlikely that this unit could be the source for the chert clasts because it was not uplifted until mid-Cretaceous time (Coates, 1974). Pale green chert (silicified tuff) of Permian age is known from the Chilliwack Group (Monger, 1966) and perhaps undated beds as young as Triassic are present or were present prior to erosion (?) of this unit. Another possible source for the chert is the Elbow Lake Formation of Washington with Permian to Jurassic ribbon chert and tholeiitic basalt of oceanic affinity (Brown, 1987). As the Early Permian limestone clasts are possibly derived from the Chilliwack Group to the south, it seems probable that the chert clasts likewise have a provenance to the south, possibly the Chilliwack Group or Elbow Lake Formation. Harrison Lake Formation: A regional unconformity at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary is present over much of British Columbia (Frebold and Tipper, 1970) including the Coquihalla area (Anderson, 1976; O'Brien, 1986) and Harrison Lake area (Fig. 28, in map pocket). In the Taseko Lakes area, the Tyaughton Group is as young as CORRELATIONS AND TECTONICS / 85 uppermost Triassic, but no fossils of Early Jurassic (Lower Hettangian) age have been found in the overlying unnamed unit (Tipper, personal communication). This suggests a hiatus at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in this area. The flysch-like sediments of the Cultus Formation (Misch, 1966; Monger, 1966) contain Late Triassic (Norian) and Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian) fossils, but a continuous section across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary can not be concluded from this. The same argument is true for oceanic sediments of the Bridge River and Hozameen groups which contain Middle Norian and Pliensbachian radiolaria (Potter, 1983). The West Road Member is lithologically similar and age equivalent to Toarcian shales of the unnamed unit above the Tyaughton Group, Taseko Lakes area (Fig. 28). It can possibly be correlated in part with Upper Toarcian shales of the Ladner Group, Manning Park area. The overlying flows, tuffs, pyroclastic rocks and minor sediments of the Weaver Lake and Echo Island members has marked lithologic similarities to age equivalent andesite to dacite flows, breccias and intercalated sediments of the Wells Creek volcanics in Washington (Danner, 1960; Misch, 1966). They are also age equivalent to Toarcian(?) to Lower Bajocian (O'Brien, 1986) tuffaceous sediments, breccias and andesitic flows of the Dewdney Creek Formation lying along the east side of the Tyaughton-Methow Trough in the Coquihalla area and between these two units are oceanic sediments of the Bridge River and Hozameen Groups. Mysterious Creek and Billhook Creek formations: Between the Harrison Lake and Mysterious Creek formations is a probable unconformity (see Chap. 2) spanning Late Bajocian and Bathonian time (Fig. 28) which is regionally extensive (Frebold and Tipper, 1970). The Early Callovian Mysterious Creek Formation is lithologically similar to siltstones and CORRELATIONS AND TECTONICS / 86 shales in the basal part of the Relay Mountain Group, Taseko Lakes and other units of the same age are shown in figure 28. The Early Oxfordian volcaniclastic rocks and sandstones of the Billhook Creek Formation are age equivalent to siltstones and shales of the Relay Mountain Group but volcanic material of this age is uncommon in British Columbia. The Oxfordian Netalzul volcanics are known in the Smithers area (Tipper and Richards, 1976) and Late Jurassic tuff beds are present in the Mount Waddington area (Tipper, 1969). Peninsula and Brokenback Hill formations: A third regional unconformity separates Billhook Creek and Peninsula formations in the Harrison Lake area spanning the Jura-Cretaceous boundary (Fig. 28). It is during this hiatus that the Agassiz Orogeny (Crickmay, 1931), discussed in Chapter 2, occurred which disrupted older units in the area. The Peninsula Formation and lower section of the Brokenback Hill Formation have been correlated based on Buchia zones (Jeletzky, 1965) with Early Cretaceous rocks on Vancouver Island and part of the Fire Lake, Relay Mountain and Nooksack groups (Fig. 28). The volcanic section of the Brokenback Hill Formation is lithologically similar to and age equivalent with the Gambier Group to the west (Ray et al., 1985). Minor volcanic rocks are also known in the Fire Lake Group (Roddick, 1965). At the base of the Gambier Group and the Peninsula Formation are basal conglomerates rich with granitic clasts and the implications of this will be discussed in the next section. CORRELATIONS AND TECTONICS / 87 4.2 REGIONAL TECTONICS The Canadian Cordillera can be divided into five structurally and physiographically distinct belts (Monger and Price, 1979). Three belts (Insular, Intermontane, Foreland) consist of unmetamorphosed and low grade metamorphic rocks (Fig. 29). Separating these three belts are higher grade metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Coast Belt, in which the Harrison Lake assemblage is situated, and Omineca Belt which are described by Monger et al. (1982) as major regional tectonic welts related to collision. The accretionary history of these belts and the terranes within them are discussed further by Monger and Price (1979), Coney et al. (1980), Monger et al. (1982) and Monger (1984). The western margin of North America was a passive continental margin from latest Precambrian through much of Paleozoic time (Coney et al., 1980). In latest Triassic to Middle Jurassic the western boundary of the North American Plate changed to a convergent and transform regime. The Agassiz Orogeny (Crickmay, 1931) and the Shuksan metamorphic event in Washington (Brown, 1987) occurred in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous prior to Middle Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Engebretson et al., 1985) high-angle North American-Farallon plate convergence which may have resulted in northward translation of terranes (volcanic arcs and oceanic sediment and crust) from the south; perhaps outboard of Oregon(?). Late Cretaceous emplacement of these terranes into their present position along the continental margin (Peninsular, Wrangellia, Stikinia, Northwest Cascades System) is the result of oblique or transform motion between North America and the Farallon or Kula plate (Engebretson et al., 1985; Brown, 1987). The base of the Mesozoic section west of Harrison Lake is represented by the Middle Triassic Camp Cove Formation. A conservative paleogeographic CORRELATIONS AND TECTONICS / 88 141°W. Figure 29: Physiographic and geologic belts of the Canadian Cordillera (modified from DNAG, Vol. 4, Chap. 2). CORRELATIONS AND TECTONICS / 89 reconstruction is that this unit formed the western margin of a wide Triassic ocean basin represented by the Bridge River-Hozameen assemblage and the Spider Peak Formation formed the eastern margin. This site would later become the locus of the Tj'aughton-Methow Trough in the Jurassic. The high grade metamorphic rocks between Harrison Lake and Fraser River represent the northern extension of the Cascade Metamorphic Core (Monger, 1986; Brown, 1987) and are perhaps the metamorphosed equivalents of this basin's basement (Cogburn assemblage = Bridge River-Hozameen) and overlying sediments (Settler Schist = Ladner and Spider Peak groups) of the Tyaughton-Methow Trough. A probable Middle Jurassic (Aalenian to Early Bajocian) volcanic arc along the western margin of this basin may be represented by the Wells Creek volcanics (Washington), Weaver Lake Member and speculatively the Bowen Island Group(?) (Georgia Strait). A possible age equivalent arc may have been situated along the eastern margin of this basin as suggested by the presence of volcanic rocks of the Dewdney Creek Formation. How these arcs formed is not known, but one possibility would be both western and eastern subduction of the oceanic crust (Bridge River-Hozameen assemblage) followed by final closure of the basin perhaps in a way similar to that shown by Monger (1984, fig. 8). A regionally extensive hiatus above the rocks of these volcanic arcs, spans Late Bajocian and Bathonian time (Frebold and Tipper, 1970). This is about the same time as the initial opening of the North Atlantic Ocean and the hiatus may reflect a change in motions of the North American Plate relative to plates flooring the Pacific Ocean (Monger and Price, 1979). Sedimentation following this hiatus began again in Callovian to Oxfordian time (Fig. 28) but was discontinuous over much of the region. Unconformities spanning the Jura-Cretaceous boundary are common but in the Relay Mountain CORRELATIONS AND TECTONICS / 90 area (Fig. 28), the section is uninterrupted across this boundary (Jeletzky and Tipper, 1968) because of its location in the axial part of the Tyaughton Trough. A continuous Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous section may also be present in the Nooksack Group, Washington (Fig. 28). Local uplift and erosion during this hiatus unroofed plutons that may have been associated with the Middle Jurassic volcanic arc along the western margin of the basin. These plutons were the source for granitic material found in the basal conglomerates of the Gambier Group and Peninsula Formation which were situated on the west and east side of the developing Coast Plutonic Complex. Volcanic activity resumed along this western arc in the Early Cretaceous as shown by the presence of flows and pyroclastic rocks in the Gambier Group (Hauterivian to Barremian) (Roddick, 1965) and Brokenback Hill Formation (Late Valanginian to Middle Albian). The Albian marked the last marine transgression over much of the region and faunas of this age are recorded from isolated localities throughout the Tyaughton-Methow Trough and the Georgia Basin (Gambier Group) (see Chap. 3). Marine sedimentation continued in the Tyaughton-Methow Trough through Albian time with sources from both the west and east (Coates, 1974), but by the end of this stage the trough ceased to exsist as a marine basin (Jeletzky, 1977b) due to infilling, uplift and regression. Mid-Cretaceous non-marine sediments (e.g. Pasayten Group) overlie Albian Jackass Mountain Group in the eastern part of the basin and are probably eqivalent to the Virginian Ridge and Winthrop formations in the Methow Trough, Washington (Trexler, 1985). Source for these sediments was from the east (Spences Bridge volcanic arc) and the west (uplifted Bridge River and Hozameen groups (Coates, 1974)). Sedimentation ended in the Harrison Lake area in Middle Albian time due to uplift of the Coast Plutonic Complex. This is possibly related to the final CORRELATIONS AND TECTONICS / 91 amalgamation of Wrangellia to the North American plate in the Late Cretaceous. The rocks of the Tyaughton-Methow Trough from Harrison Lake to the Coquihalla area were subsequently disrupted by transpressional faulting along the Harrison, Ross Lake, Hozameen and Pasayten faults in post-Albian to pre-Late Eocene time (Monger, 1986). This was followed by transtensional faulting along the Fraser River-Straight Creek fault system in Late Eocene time, which disrupted the earlier structures (Monger, 1986). 5 SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY 5.1 INTRODUCTION The classification of the Jurassic ammonites in this study follows that of Donovan et al. (1980) with the exception of Erycitoides which is kept as a separate genus in this report (Westermann, 1964; Poulton and Tipper, in prep.). Donovan et al. (1980) include it as a synonym of Podagrosiceras. 5.2 MEASUREMENTS AND ABBREVIATIONS All ammonite measurements are in millimetres. Abbreviations used are from Smith (1986) and are as follows: * = type species c. - circa D = shell diameter at which the following measurements were made UD = umbilical diameter U = UD/D x 100 WH = whorl height WW = whorl width WHD = WH/D x 100 PRHW = primary ribs per half whorl SRHW = secondary ribs per half whorl 92 SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 93 5.3 SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS Class CEPHALOPODA CUVIER, 1797 Order AMMONOIDEA ZITTEL, 1884 Suborder AMMONITINA HYATT, 1889 Superfamily EODEROCERATACEAE SPATH, 1929 Family DACTYLIOCERATIDAE HYATT, 1867 Genus Dactylioceras HYATT, 1867 Type Species: Ammonites communis SOWERBY, 1815 by subsequent designation. Remarks: The genus is evolute with bifurcating, usually straight ribs that pass over the venter rectiradiately or with a gentle forward inclination. Synonyms: Arcidactylites BUCKMAN, 1926; Anguidactylites BUCKMAN, 1926; Xeinodactylites BUCKMAN, 1926; Vermidactylites BUCKMAN, 1926; Toxodactylites BUCKMAN, 1926; Microdactylites BUCKMAN, 1926; Leptodactylites BUCKMAN, 1926; Peridactylites BUCKMAN, 1926; Athlodactylites BUCKMAN, 1927; Koinodactylites BUCKMAN, 1927; Nomodactylites BUCKMAN, 1927; Curvidactylites BUCKMAN, 1927; Parvidactylites BUCKMAN, 1927; Simplidactylites BUCKMAN, 1927; Rakusites GUEX, 1971; Eodactylites SCHMIDT-EFFING, 1972. Age and Distribution: The genus Dactylioceras is a pandemic form found over much of Europe, North Africa, Persia, Japan, Indonesia, New Zealand, Arctic Islands, Alaska, western Canada and northwestern United States. It is Early to Middle Toarcian in age (Tenuicostatum to Bifrons zones of Europe) and may be as old as Late Pliensbachian (Spinatum Zone) (Donovan et al., 1980). SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 94 Dactylioceras sp. Plate 1, Figure 1, 2. Material: Five poorly preserved specimens in a dark grey calcareous siltstone. Description: Evolute; ribs are rectiradiate, straight and begin about the umbilical wall. Some primaries bifurcate in upper flank region but poor preservation makes this difficult to see. There are about 23 ribs per half whorl at a diameter of 34 mm. Discussion: The specimens are very poorly preserved making species designation impossible. Occurrence: Dactylioceras sp. is found in the West Road Member of the Harrison Lake Formation at locality 7 associated with Harpoceras sp. and Phymatoceras sp. In British Columbia the genus Dactylioceras is also found in the Fernie Group (Frebold, 1976), Queen Charlotte Islands (Cameron and Tipper, 1985) and the Spatsizi area (Thomson et al., 1986). Age: Middle Toarcian. Superfamily H I L D O C E R A T A C E A E HYATT, 1867 Family HILDOCERATIDAE HYATT, 1867 Subfamily H A R P O C E R A T I N A E NEUMAYR, 1875 Genus Harpoceras WAAGEN, 1869 SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 95 Type Species: Ammonites falcifer SOWERBY, 1820 by subsequent designation (Arkell et al., 1957). Remarks: Midvolute; flanks flat to gently convex. Sharp umbilical shoulder and venter, which is unicarinate. Falcoid ribs, which become stronger on upper part of flank. Synonyms: Harpoceratoides BUCKMAN, 1909; Maconiceras BUCKMAN, 1926; Glyptarpites BUCKMAN, 1927; Tardarpoceras BUCKMAN, 1927; Phaularpites BUCKMAN, 1928; Falcifericeras BREISTROFFER, 1949; Kolymoceras DAGIS, 1970. Age and Distribution: Harpoceras is a widespread form found in Europe, North Africa, Japan, Indonesia, western Canada, Chile and Argentina. It ranges from the European Falcifer Zone to Bifrons Zone of the Lower Toarcian. Harpoceras sp. Plate 1, Figure 3-5. Material: About 18 specimens poorly preserved as molds in a dark grey calcareous siltstone. Description: Fairly involute; shell expands rapidly. Strong falcoid ribs begin at umbilical wall;, at mid-flank primaries bifurcate. Intercalated secondaries are common. Ribs are moderately spaced. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 96 Discussion: Poorly preserved nature of the specimens does not allow an assignment to species level. Occurrence: Found associated with Dactylioceras sp. and Phymatoceras sp. at locality 7 in the West Road Member of Harrison Lake Formation. Age: Middle Toarcian. Subfamily G RAMMOCERATINAE BUCKMAN, 1905 Genus Dumortieria HAUG, 1885 Type Species: Ammonites levesquei D'ORBIGNY, 1844 by subsequent designation (Buckman, 1890). Remarks: Fairty evolute genus with nearly straight rectiradiate ribbing, which commonly projects onto the venter from the ventrolateral shoulder. The similar genus Catulloceras GEMMELLARO and its synonym Dactylogammites BUCKMAN have been regarded as a synonym of Dumortieria by several workers (Donovan, 1958; Setti, 1968), but Arkell et al. (1957) and the more recent work of Donovan et al. (1980, p. 141) regard Catulloceras as a separate genus. Synonyms: Phenakoceras MAUBEUGE, 1949; Phenakocerites MAUBEUGE, 1950. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 97 Age and Distribution: The pandemic genus Dumortieria is found in many parts of the world including; Europe, North Africa, Persia, Indochina, Borneo, western North America and Argentina. It ranges in age from the Levesquei Subzone to the Moorei Subzone of the Levesquei Zone of the Upper Toarcian (Donovan et al., 1980). Dumortieria cf. levesquei D'ORBIGNY Plate 1, Figure 6-10. cf. * 1842 Ammonites levesquei D'ORBIGNY, p. 230, pi. 60. cf. 1925 Dumortieria levesquei D'ORBIGNY; ERNST, p. 48, pi. 3, fig. 4-9; pi. 4, fig. 13; pi. 8, fig. 12. cf. 1961 Dumortieria levesquei D'ORBIGNY; DEAN ET AL., p. 488, pi. 73, fig. 5. cf. 1968 Dumortieria cf. levesquei D'ORBIGNY; SETTI, p. 324, pi. 30, fig. 2. Material: Seven secondarily compressed but identifiable specimens and about 25 poorly preserved specimens found in a brown, non-calcareous shale and calcareous siltstone. Measurements: SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 98 SPECIMEN C-118594-1 C-118594-2 C-118594-3 C-118594-4 C-118594-5 D UD 27.3 8.9 27.7 c.10.0 15.4 5.6 19.5 8.2 12.7 4.2 U WH 32.6 10.9 36.1 c.10.0 36.4 5.9 42.1 6.6 33.1 5.0 WHD PRHW 39.9 21 36.1 21 38.3 14 33.8 18 39.4 14 Description: Midvolute coiling. Ribs are fairly sharp, rectiradiate and begin on the umbilical wall. In smaller specimens and inner whorls of larger ones, the ribs are straight and rectiradiate until the upper flank where they flex adorally. In the later whorls of larger specimens, however, the ribs are more gently curved, beginning on the mid or upper flank. Number of ribs per half whorl increases with increasing size (Fig. 30). Ribs end on the venter just before the low keel which is poorly preserved in specimen C-118594-2 (PI. 1, Fig. 7). Discussion: The specimens of D. cf. levesquei collected from locality 5 west of Harrison Lake are all small in size when compared with other figured specimens. • They most closely resemble two specimens of D. levesquei figured by Ernst (1925, pi. 3, fig. 7, 8) (Fig. 30). D. cf. levesquei differs from D. cf. insignisimilis by being more densely ribbed and being slightly less evolute. Occurrence: D. cf. levesquei is associated with D. cf. insignisimilis at locality 5. It is not recorded from western Canada previously, but similar species (D. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 99 I tr 20-15-10-45^ 40-30 25-2 ORNAMENTATION 6 A • © . ' " ' • A A A A — r -4 — i — 30 i » i i i i 6 8 10 12 14 16 UD VOLUTION © D. cf. Insignlsimllis A this report D. Insignlsimllis . Smith. 1076 A PI.1, FiQ.17. D. cf. Isvesquel • this report D. levesquel Ernst, 1925 O Pl.O. Flg.7. © PI.9, Fig.8. • I 35 i 40 i 45 —i— 50 U Figure 30: Ornamentation and volution plots for data from D. cf. insignisimilis and D. cf. levesquei plus data f rom other sources. SYSTEMATIC P ALEONTOLOGY / 100 insignisimilis, D. raricostata, D. exacta) are found in Oregon (Smith, 1976). Age: Late Toarcian (Levesquei Zone - Levesquei to Moorei subzones of Europe). Dumortieria cf. insignisimilis (BRAUNS) Plate 1, Figure 11-15. cf. 1925 Dumortieria insignisimilis BRAUNS; ERNST, p. 56, pi. 9, fig. 1-3. cf. 1967 Dumortieria insignisimilis (BRAUNS); GECZY, p. 144, pi. 31, fig. 6. cf. ? 1967 Dumortieria insignisimilis new subspecies; GECZY, p. 145, pi. 32, fig. 5. cf. 1976 Dumortieria insignisimilis (BRAUNS); SMITH, p. 81, pi. 1, fig. 17. Material: Seven moderately preserved specimens and about 20 poorly preserved specimens found in a brown, non-calcareous shale and calcareous siltstone. Measurements: S P E C I M E N D UD U WH WHD PRHW C-143283-1 23.8 9.5 39.9 7.5 31.6 15 C-118594-7 37.7 e.15.8 46.9 11.2 29.7 15 C-118594-8 28.4 13.4 47.2 8.7 30.6 15 C-118594-9 33.0 11.5 34.8 11.0 33.3 c.15 C-118594-12 23.0 9.5 41.3 6.3 27.4 14 SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 101 Description: Shell is fairly evolute. A poorly preserved low keel can be seen on some of the specimens. Rectiradiate ribs begin on the umbilical wall and are straight until the upper flank, where they flex adorally. The ribs taper and fade as they cross the ventro-lateral shoulder. Ribs are fairly distant, averaging about 14 ribs per half whorl at a diameter of 20 mm. On larger specimens (PI. 1, Fig. 14, 15) ribs become more distant and less sharp, suggesting that maturity was reached at fairly small diameters. Discussion: The specimens are very similar in ribbing and volution to D. insignisimilis especially in the inner whorls. The more distant ribbing on the outer whorls of the two larger specimens mentioned earlier differs from other large figured specimens. This may simply be a variation in ribbing within this sample population. D. cf. insignisimilis has fewer, straighter ribs than D. cf. levesquei and is slighty more evolute (Fig. 30). Occurrence: Found with D. cf. levesquei in the West Road Member at locality 5. The locality j'ields predominately ammonites with rare bivalves (two in this collection). A specimen that resembles D. cf. insignisimilis but is too poorly preserved for positive identification, was collected from locality 2 where it is associated with belemnites. Age: Late Toarcian (Levesquei Zone - Levesquei to Moorei subzones of Europe). SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 102 Family PHYMATOCERATIDAE HYATT, 1867 Subfamily PHYMATOCERATINAE HYATT, 1867 Genus Phymatoceras HYATT, 1867 Type Species: Phymatoceras robustum HYATT, 1867 (young of Ammonites tirolensis DUMORTIER, 1874, non HAUER). Remarks: Evolute; planulate whorl shape with flat to carinate-bisulcate venter. Ribs are sigmoidal and commonly branch out in twos and threes from tubercles on the umbilical edge. Synonyms: Pelecoceras HYATT, 1867; Chartronia BUCKMAN, 1898; Denckmannia BUCKMAN, 1898; Picenia FOSSA-MANCINI, 1919; Loryella BREISTROFFER, 1949; ?Haugiella GABILLY, 1974; Rarenoidia VENTURI, 1975. Age and Distribution: Phymatoceras ranges from the Toarcian Bifrons Zone to Variabilis Zone of Europe (Donovan et al., 1980). It is found in Europe, North Africa, Anatolia, Japan, southern Alaska, British Columbia and Chile. Phymatoceras sp. Plate 2, Figure 1. Material: One poorly preserved specimen in grey calcareous siltstone. Description: Evolute; ribs are sigmoidal, become thicker away from the umbilical SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 103 shoulder and are moderately dense. Some tubercles can be seen near the umbilical shoulder but the specimen is too poorly preserved for better identification. Occurrence: Found at locality 7 with Dactylioceras sp. and Harpoceras sp. in the West Road Member. Phymatoceras is also found in the Spatsizi Group (Thomson et al., 1986), Queen Charlotte Islands (Cameron and Tipper, 1985) and in South America where it ranges from the Chilensis Zone to the Lower Tenuicostatum Zone of Hillebrandt (1987). Age: Middle Toarcian. Family H A M M A T O C E R A T I D A E BUCKMAN, 1887 Subfamily H A M M A T O C E R A T I N A E BUCKMAN, 1887 Genus Ei-ycitoides WESTERMANN, 1964a Type Species: Ammonites (Lillia) howelli WHITE, 1889 by subsequent designation (Westermann, 1964a). Remarks: Evolute; planulate; whorl section rounded to subrectangular. Keel present; lateral spines or tubercles may be present. Long primary ribs and more or less projecting secondaries. Septal suture as in Hammatoceras. Erycitoides is included as a synonym of Podagrosiceras MAUBEUGE and LAMBERT by Donovan et al. (1980) but is kept as a separate genus in this SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 104 report. Podagrosiceras lacks a keel, has alternating ribs on the venter and suture patterns of the two genera differ (Westermann, 1964b; Poulton and Tipper, in prep.). Age and Distribution: Lower part of Upper Aalenian (Murchisonae to Concavum zones of Europe). Found in Alaska, Yukon, western British Columbia and eastern Russia. Part of the Boreal Realm (Bering Province) of Taylor et al. (1984). Erycitoides ? sp. Plate 2, Figure 2. Material: One very poorly preserved specimen in brown shale. Description: Evolute; umbilical wall steep and may be undercut. Flanks broad and gently convex; poorly preserved keel noted. Ribs begin on umbilical wall, are prorsiradiate until the lower flank and then curve becoming rectiradiate. No tubercles are noted but this ma3' be due to the specimens poor preservation. Discussion: The specimen resmbles Erycitoides profundus WESTERMANN in ribbing, volution and its umbilical shoulder but this correlation is tentative (see Westermann, 1964a, pi. 59, fig. 2). Occurrence: Found at locality 3 with abundant pectinid bivalves and rare belemnites. This locality lies in the uppermost part of the West Road Member. Age: Early Late Aalenian. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 105 Superfamily S T E P H A N O C E R A T A C E A E NEUMAYR, 1875 Family S P H A E R O C E R A T I D A E BUCKMAN, 1920 Subfamily E U R Y C E P H A L A T I N A E THIERRY, 1976 Genus Lilloettia CRICKMAY, 1930 Type Species: Lilloettia lilloetensis CRICKMAY, 1930 (p. 62, pi. 18, fig. 1, 2) by original designation. Remarks: The type species L. lilloetensis was collected from the Billhook Creek valley at the 3100 foot level (Crickmay, 1925) west of Harrison Lake. The genus is involute. Inner whorls are finely to moderately ribbed, but on later whorls, ribbing begins to fade and mature whorls are smooth. The genus Lilloettia has been synonymized with Arctocephalites (Spath, 1933, p. 878) and been placed as a subgenus within Macrocephalites (Arkell, 1956, p. 541) and Eurycephalites (Westermann, 1981). It has been considered to range from the Middle Bathonian (Westermann, 1981) to Middle Callovian (Imlaj', 1953b; Frebold and Tipper, 1967), but a recent reassessment by Callomon (1984) indicates that assignment to the early Lower Callovian is a more reasonable interpretation of the -data based on regional faunal associations from Alaska to Oregon. Age and Distribution: Lilloettia has been found in Alaska, western British Columbia, the Canadian Rocky Mountains and Oregon. It is characteristic of the East Pacific Realm (Taylor et al., 1984) and is early Lower Callovian (Callomon, 1984). SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 106 Lilloettia lilloetensis CRICKMAY Plate 2, Figure 3-5 * 1930a Lilloettia lilloetensis CRICKMAY, p. 62, pi. 18, Fig. 1-4. 1953b Lilloettia lilloetensis CRICKMAY; IMLAY, p. 77, pi. 30, Fig. 1, 2, 4, 8. 1967 Lilloettia lilloetensis CRICKMAY; FREBOLD and TIPPER, p. 11, pi. 1, Fig. 7, 8; pi. 3, Fig. 3. Material: Three internal molds from sheared siltstone (locality 17 A) and two poorly preserved external molds (localities 26 and 35) from Fine grained sandstone. Measurements: S PECIMEN D UD U WH PRHW SRHW C-149641-1 51.4 c.4.2 81.7 26.5 11 27 Description: Umbilicus very narrow; umbilical wall smooth and moderately steep. Flanks gently convex; venter is plain and inflated. Ribs are faint on umbilical shoulder and rectiradiate. They become stronger on lower flank and flex prorsiradiately. About mid-flank or slightly above, the primary ribs bifurcate; very few remain single to the venter. Intercalated' secondaries are common and begin around the furcation points. Ribs pass over the venter, where they flex gently prorsiradiately. Suture line is not preserved. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 107 Discussion: There are similarities in ribbing between L. lilloetensis and L. mertonyarwoodi CRICKMAY. Callomon (1984, p. 161) suggests that these two species plus L. buckmani CRICKMAY may simply "represent no more than the partial range of variability of a single biospecific assemblage." Occurrence: L. lilloetensis has been found in Alaska (Imlay, 1953b), Taseko Lakes region (Frebold and Tipper, 1967) and the Harrison Lake area where it was first described (Crickmay, 1930a). The specimens were collected from locality 17A, which lies about 10 to 15 metres stratigraphically beneath locality 17 where Cadoceras comma and Pseudocadoceras grewingki were collected. The latter locality belongs in Callomon's Fauna B8(e). L. lilloetensis belongs to Callomon's Fauna B8(c) which is slightly older than Fauna B8(e). Therefore, these localities agree well with the faunal assemblage zones of Callomon (1984). Single poorly preserved specimens assigned to L. lilloetensis were also collected from section 1 and locality 35 (Fig. 6). Age: Early Callovian (Macrocephalus Zone of Europe) - Fauna B8(c) of Callomon (1984). Lilloettia stantoni IMLAY Plate 2, Figure 6, 7 1953b Lilloettia stantoni IMLAY, p. 77, pi. 29, fig. 1-5, 9, 10. 1964 Lilloettia cf. L. stantoni IMLAY; IMLAY, p. D14, pi. 2, fig. 13, 16. 1981 Lilloettia stantoni IMLAY; IMLAY, p. 18, pi. 1, fig. 20-26. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 108 Material: Two specimens preserved as internal molds in dark grey siltstone; one has been compressed in the plane of coiling. Measurements: S P E C I M E N D UD U WH PRHW SRHW C-118600-2 40.8 3.6 8.8 21.5. 9 17 Description: Umbilicus ver}' narrow; steep low umbilical wall. Flanks gently convex. Ribs sinuous; beginning just below umbilical shoulder, they gently incline rursiradiately until the middle of the lower flank at which point they curve forward becoming prorsiradiate. Primaries bifurcate in mid-flank area; the secondaries bend slightly posteriorly and continue over the plain venter. Primaries are strong and triangular in section; secondaries do not fade but become narrower and more angular in section than primaries. Only two of the secondary ribs are not well attached at a furcation point. Suture line can not be seen. Discussion: L. lilloetensis CRICKMAY and L. mertonyarwoodi CRICKMAY are more finely ribbed than L. stantoni. L. buckmani CRICKMAY has thicker more numerous ribs than L. stantoni and a stouter whorl section. Occurrence: Lilloettia stantoni was collected from locality 1 (Crickmay's locality 8, 1930) on the south shore of Harrison River from the Mysterious Creek Formation. It has also been found in the Middle third of Chinitna Formation and Lower Member of Shelikof Formation, Alaska (Imlay, 1953b) and from the SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 109 Lonesome Formation in Oregon (Imlay, 1964). Age: Early Callovian (Macrocephalus Zone of Europe) - Fauna B8(g) of Callomon (1984). Lilloettia sp. Plate 2, Figure 8 Material: Single fragment found in float showing venter and part of flank. Description: Umbilicus not seen on specimen but it was probably very narrow. Whorl is higher than wide; ellipsoidal in shape and venter is slightly inflated. Primary ribs incline prorsiradiately and bifurcate about mid-flank but one primary remains single to the venter and is flanked by an interecalated secondary rib. From furcation point, ribs flex slightly posteriorly and thicken somewhat as the3' cross over the venter; they are separated by interspaces of similar width. Discussion: The specimen (C-118577-1; PL 2, Fig. 8) most closely resembles L. lilloetensis CRICKMAY, but lack of the umbilicus makes positive identification difficult. Ribbing is also similar to L. mertonyarwoodi CRICKMAY. Occurrence: Collected at the 2800 feet level in the Billhook Creek valley from locality 36. Age: Early Callovian. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 110 Family CARDIOCERATIDAE SIEMIRADZKI, 1891 Subfamily CADOCERATINAE HYATT, 1900 Genus Cadoceras FISCHER, 1882 Type Species: Ammonites sublaevis SOWERBY, 1814 by subsequent designation (Spath, 1932). Remarks: Inner and middle whorls well ribbed, becoming smooth on later whorls. Tubercles are sometimes present. Diagnostic characteristic of this genus is a sharp umbilical shoulder on mature whorls. Synonyms: Catacephalites BUCKMAN, 1932; Bryocadoceras MELEDINA, 1977. Age and Distribution: Cadoceras is common over much of northern and central Europe, Russia, Arctic Islands and localities along the western edge of North America from southern Alaska to California. The genus is characteristic of the Boreal Realm (Taylor et al., 1984) and ranges in age from Late Bathonian to Early Callovian. Subgenus Cadoceras sensu stricto Cadoceras comma IMLAY Plate 3, Figure 1-5 SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 111 * 1953b Cadoceras comma IMLAY, p. 83, pi. 35, fig. 1-8; pi. 36, fig. 1-5. Material: Seven specimens from two localities; four represent mature growth stage. Measurements: S P E C I M E N D UD U WH WHD PRHW C-118586-1 73.9 29.1 39.4 25.7 34.8 c.15 C-118586-2 45.8 13.4 29.2 18.9 41.3 14 C-118586-3 24.0 6.0 25.0 9.7 40.4 c.1'2 Description: Immature specimens have an ovate whorl shape; adult whorls are coronate and shell is globose. Umbilicus narrow and deep; wall steep and high especially on outer whorls. Umbilical shoulder curved on inner whorls and angular in adult stages. Flanks gently curve on inner whorls to an inflated, plain venter; flanks on outer whorls indistinguishable from convex venter. Ribs are strong and fairly distant (13 primary ribs per half whorl) on inner and intermediate whorls. They begin on umbilical wall and pass prorsiradiately onto the lower flank where they bifurcate into strong secondaries which flex . slightly back and pass over the venter. Changes in ribbing occur during growth. Furcation points become indistinct and some intercalary ribs begin to appear; the venter and then flanks become smooth (some striae can be seen) leaving only coarse umbilical swellings across the umbilical shoulder. Striae divide SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 112 out from these swellings. The suture line is not preserved in any of the specimens. Discussion: Imlay (1953b) states that "this species is characterized by its globose, coronate form, by coarse ribbing that passes into striae on the last two whorls and by the persistence of comma-shaped swellings on the umbilical edge." Cadoceras comma resembles C. glabrum IMLAY, but is less evolute, remains ribbed longer and retains the strong comma-shaped swellings on its mature whorls. C. barnstoni MEEK is similar in form to C. comma but ribs, although weaker, still occur on adult whorls and the umbilical wall is more steep (see Frebold, 1964). There are also marked similarities between C. comma from Harrison Lake and C. cf. elatmae NIKITIN figured in Schlegelmilch (1985, pi. 41, fig. 12). A zonal scheme set up by Imlay (1975) placed C. comma into his "Cadoceras catostoma" zone which is Lower Callovian. This zone has been abandoned and replaced by the Cadoceras comma Fauna B8 assemblage for reasons discussed by Callomon (1984, p. 159). Its age, however, remains Lower Callovian. The species C. comma is placed in Callomon's (1984) C. wosnessenskii Fauna B8(e). Occurrence: C. comma is found at locality 17 associated with C. (P.) cf. tonniense and Pseudocadoceras grewingki POMPECKJ and at locality 41. C. comma is also found in the Chinitna and Shelikof formations, Alaska (Imlay, 1953b). Age: Early Callovian (Macrocephalus Zone of Europe) - Fauna B8(e) of Callomon (1984). SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 113 Cadoceras sp. Plate 3, Figure 6 Material: Single specimen at locality 26 preserved in a fine grained sandstone. Measurements: SPECIMEN D UD U WH WW PRHW C-118557-2 23.5 7.3 31.1 8.3 11.2 15 Description: Mid-volute; whorl shape ovate. Flanks very slightly convex and venter is rounded. Umbilicus moderately deep and wall is steep. Ribs begin on umbilical wall, are prorsiradiate until the umbilical shoulder where they curve becoming rursiradiate and continue onto the flanks. They commonly bifurcate about mid-flank and continue simply over the venter. Discussion: This specimen is an immature Cadoceras sp. as shown by the ovate whorl shape and curved umbilical shoulder. Adult forms have a very angular umbilical shoulder, coronate whorl shape and commonly are smooth on outer whorls. Occurrence: Found at locality 26 (section 1) associated with Pseudocadoceras grewingki, Lilloettia lilloetensis and trigoniid bivalves. Age: Early Callovian. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 114 Cadoceras cf. catostoma POMPECKJ Plate 3, Figure 7 1925 Cadoceras catostoma POMPECKJ; CRICKMAY, P. 107. 1953b Cadoceras catostoma POMPECKJ; IMLAY, p. 82, pi. 34, fig. 1-14. Material: One immature specimen from grey to black shale. Measurements: S PECIMEN D UD U WH WW PRHW C-118554-1 39.9 13.3 33.3 15.5 16.7 13 Description: Mid-volute; umbilicus moderately deep with step-like whorls on this specimen. Umbilical wall low and steep on inner whorls; becomes much higher before end of last whorl then lowers again. Slightly ovate whorl shape; wider than high on last whorl. Ribs begin low on umbilical wall and project rectiradiately or gently rursiradiately towards umbilical shoulder at which point they curve anteriorly and become prorsiradiate. Just below mid-flank the primaries may bifurcate, however, some primaries remain single. Intercalated ribs are present and begin about mid-flank. Ribs continue up flanks and cross over venter where they arch gently forward. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 115 Discussion: No large specimens of Cadoceras catostoma were found at Harrison Lake, but this specimen (PI. 3, Fig. 7) closely resembles figured specimens in Imlay (1953b, pi. 34, fig. 2, 3, 6, 9, 10). C. catostoma is placed in the C. wasnessenskii Fauna B8(e) of Callomon (1984) and its age is Lower Callovian. Crickmay (1925; 1930a) discussed C. catostoma and stated its presence at Harrison Lake, but he did not figure the specimen. Occurrence: Locality 18 from which C. cf. catostoma was collected is found several tens of metres stratigraphically above locality 17 from which C. comma IMLAY and Pseudocadoceras grewingki POMPECKJ were collected. These species are found together (Imlay, 1953b) in the lower two thirds of the Chinitna Formation, Alaska and in the lower member of the Shelikof Formation, Alaska. Age: Early Callovian (Macrocephalus Zone of Europe) - Fauna B8(e) of Callomon (1984). Subgenus Paracadoceras CRICKMAY Cadoceras (Paracadoceras) cf. tonniense IMLAY Plate 3, Figure 8-10. * 1953b Cadoceras (Paracadoceras) tonniense IMLAY, p. 88, pi. 43, fig. 9-11, 13. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 116 Material: Three specimens from a calcareous siltstone; one shows a cross sectional view. Measurements: SPECIMEN D UD U WH WW PRHW C-l 18586-5 70.0 16.6 23.7 24.1 c.35.1 c.14 C-l18586-6 66.8 14.8 22.2 29.6 35.3 13 C-118586-7 31.7 9.4 29.6 13.3 15.5 „ Description: Whor l shape ellipsoidal to shell diameters of approximately 40 mm, becoming more rounded on later whorls. Whor l width widest at umbil ical shoulder. Umbil icus deep and moderately narrow; wal l low and gently inclined on inner whorls, becoming steeper and higher on later whorls. Umbi l ica l shoulder strongly curved; flanks gently curve onto an arched venter on inner whorls or a rounded venter on outer whorls. Ribs begin part way down umbilical wal l . They project straight up and flex anteriorly at umbil ical shoulder onto the flanks. Ribs are gently prorsiradiate across flanks; at mid-flank primaries bifurcate although some remain single; intercalated secondaries are present. Ribs continue up flanks and cross over venter on inner whorls but begin to fade on venter and flanks of last whorl leaving only swellings on umbil ical shoulder. Suture line can not be traced. Discussion: The specimen most closely resembles Cadoceras (Paracadoceras) tonniense although the whorl shape appears to be slightly more rounded than in SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 117 Imlay's diagram (Imlay, 1953b, pi. 43, fig. 11). It differs from C. (P.) multiforme IMLAY, which has a wider, deeper umbilicus, sharper umbilical shoulder and a broader whorl shape. Occurrence: C. (P.) cf. tonniense is found at locality 17 in the Mysterious Creek Formation. Associated faunas at this locality include C. comma IMLAY and Pseudocadoceras grewingki POMPECKJ. These three species are also found together in the lower part of Chinitna Formation, Alaska (Imlay, 1953b) although not from the same localities. Locality 17 is placed into Fauna B8(e) of Callomon (1984) based on the presence of C. comma. C. (P.) tonniense may range from Callomon's (1984) Fauna B8(b) through to Fauna B8(e) although it is most common in the older Fauna B8(b). Age: Early Callovian (Macrocephalus Zone of Europe) - Fauna B8(e) of Callomon (1984). Genus Pseudocadoceras BUCKMAN, 1918 Type Species: Pseudocadoceras boreale BUCKMAN, 1918 by original designation. Remarks: Moderately involute; shell compressed at all stages. Ribs are sharp and present on all whorls. Differs from Cadoceras and Paracadoceras by being less evolute and having a less rounded whorl shape. Secondary ribs project more strongly forward on Pseudocadoceras. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 118 Synonyms: Novocadoceras SAZONOV, 1965. Age and Distribution: Pseudocadoceras is found in northern Europe, southern Alaska, southwestern British Columbia, Oregon and Californa. Its age ranges from Lower to Middle Callovian. Pseudocadoceras grewingki POMPECKJ Plate 4, Figure 1-6 1953b Pseudocadoceras grewingki POMPECKJ; IMLAY, p. 93, pi. 49, fig. 1-12. 1961 Pseudocadoceras grewingki POMPECKJ; IMLAY, p. D21, pi. 2, fig. 1-8, 11-13. 1961 Pseudocadoceras cf. P. grewingki POMPECKJ; IMLAY, p. D21, pi. 2, fig. 22. 1967 Pseudocadoceras grewingki POMPECKJ; FREBOLD AND TIPPER, p. 15, pi. 2, fig. 5, 6. 1981 Pseudocadoceras grewingki POMPECKJ; IMLAY, p. 20, pi. 2, fig. 3-8. Material: Twenty or more fragments and complete specimens preserved in a calcareous siltstone. Many specimens have been distorted to some degree in the plane of coiling. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 119 Measurements: SPECIMEN D UD U WH PRHW SRHW C-118586-8 41.2 11.1 26.9 16.5 17 13 C-l18586-9 15.6 4.1 26.3 7.0 17 ~ C-118586-10 c.45.0 c.11.7 26.0 c.19.1 16 13 C-118586-11 35.1 12.1 34.5 12.8 15 11 C-118586-25 20.9 7.1 34.0 8.0 16 10 Description: Shell is midvolute. Whorl shape ellipsoidal, being slightly higher than wide; widest on lower to mid-flank. Umbilicus fairly shallow and moderately wide. Umbilical wall low and moderately steep on inner whorls; becomes higher and more steep on outer whorls. Flanks are slightly convex and round onto a plain venter. Flattening in plane of coiling has distorted the whorl shapes of some specimens and exaggerated umbilical depths. Ribs begin about the middle of umbilical wall inclining rursiradiately. At umbilical shoulder they flex prorsiradiately onto flanks. About mid-flank, some primaries bifurcate; this occurs more frequently on the outer whorls. Some secondaries are only loosely attached at a furcation point; still others remain unattached. These unattached secondaries usually separate two non-bifurcating primary ribs. At ventro-lateral shoulder, ribs thicken slightly and project onto venter. Ribs are fine and closely spaced on inner whorls, becoming stronger, sharper and more widely spaced on outer whorls. Suture' can not be seen on any of the specimens. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 120 Discussion: Pseudocadoceras petelini POMPECKJ is similar to P. grewingki but has a flatter whorl shape, finer ribs and a more narrow umbilicus (see Imlay, 1953b, pi. 48, 49). P. grewingki and Cadoceras comma are both found at locality 17 and a single specimen of P. grewingki was recovered from locality 30. The two species are also found together in Chinitna Formation (Imlay, 1953b) at U.S.G.S. Mesozoic localities 2921, 3028, 3029, 21344, 21348, 22432, 22435 and 22452 and from isolated localities in the Shelikof Formation, Alaska. P. grewingki is also known from the Taseko Lakes region of British Columbia (Frebold and Tipper, 1967), Oregon (Imlay, 1981) and California (Imlay, 1961). Age: Early Callovian (Macrocephalus Zone of Europe) - possibly Fauna B8(e) of Callomon (1984). Subfamily C A RDIOCERATINAE SIEMIRADZKI, 1891 Genus Cardioceras NEUMAYR and UHLIG, 1881 Type Species: Ammonites cordatus SOWERBY, 1813 by subsequent designation (Buckman, 1920). Remarks: Cardioceras has a keeled venter. Whorl shape is moderaterly compressed. Ribs are well differentiated and scondaries strongly project anteriorly onto venter. The genus is further divided into several sub-genera. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 121 Synonyms: Chalcedoniceras BUCKMAN, 1922; Anacardioceras BUCKMAN, 1923; Miticardioceras BUCKMAN, 1923; Paracardioceras BUCKMAN, 1925; Galecardioceras BUCKMAN, 1926. Age and Distribution: Cardioceras is found in Europe, Russia, northern Siberia and localites between Alaska and Utah along the western margin of North America. The genus is restricted to the Boreal Realm and ranges from the Lower to Upper Oxfordian. Subgenus Scarburgiceras BUCKMAN, 1924 Cardioceras (Scarburgiceras) martini REESIDE Plate 4, Figure 7-12 1919 Cardioceras martini REESIDE, p. 27, pi. 9, Fig. 5-8. 1930a Anacardioceras perrini CRICKMAY, p. 58, pi. 17, Fig. 1-3. 1938 Cardioceras (Anacardioceras) martini REESIDE; MAIRE, p. 65, pi. 9, fig. 7, 8. 1964 Cardioceras (Scarburgiceras) martini REESIDE; IMLAY, p. D15, pi. 2, fig. 1-5. 1975 Cardioceras (Scarburgiceras) martini REESIDE; FREBOLD and TIPPER, p. 152, pi. 2, fig. 8-10. 1981 Cardioceras (Scarburgiceras) martini REESIDE; IMLAY, p. 33, pi. 10, fig. 12-22. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 122 Material: More than 25 specimens and fragments preserved as interna] and external molds in dark grey calcareous shale and siltstone. Measurements: S P E C I M E N D UD U WH PRHW SRHW C-118570-5 23.6 6.8 28.8 10.6 14 --C-118570-7 27.2 8.4 30.9 11.8 14 17 C-118570-8 46.5 11.8 25.4 20.1 15 14 C-118570-12 24.8 7.3 29.4 10.0 16 . . . Description: Umbilicus fairly narrow; wall low, moderately steep. Flanks very gently curving (almost flat); ventro-lateral shoulder curves onto a keeled venter which is fairly high and serrated. Whorls are moderately expanding and whorl shape is lanceolate. Ribs begin on umbilical wall inclining gently rursiradiately to umbilical shoulder where they curve slightly to become rectiradiate. They are moderately sharp but low; at mid-flank most primaries bifurcate, especially on the more immature whorls. The more posterior of the bifurcating ribs commonly arches back forming a sickle-like shape as it crosses the upper half of the flank. The anterior rib is usually straighter but may flex somewhat. At ventro-lateral shoulder the ribs curve sharply anteriorly onto venter; some secondaries may again fork on venter (C-118570-18, PI. 4, Fig. 12). Ribs cross over keel forming an anteriorly pointing chevron pattern when looking down on the venter. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 123 Discussion: Cardioceras (Scarburgiceras) martini resembles the European species C. (S.) praecordatum DOUVILLE but is less evolute and usually has fewer, coarser ribs (some C. praecordatum figured in Maire (1938, pi. 6) are coarser ribbed varieties). It also closely resembles the somewhat problematic species C. (S.) reesidei MAIRE (see Maire, 1938, p. 61, pi. 7, fig. 5, 6; Imlay, 1982, p. 36, pi. 16, fig. 1-8) but C. (S.) martini appears to be slightly less evolute. The two species would perhaps be better described under the single species C. (S.) martini REESIDE. Occurrence: C. (S.) martini is found on the southwest shore of Cascade Peninsula at locality 15. It is the dominant species at this locality, but two specimens of C. (C.) hyatti REESIDE and a single Cardioceras sp. were also collected. C. (C.) martini has also been collected from the Taseko Lakes region, British Columbia (Frebold and Tipper, 1967) and from southern Alaska (Reeside, 1919). The species is also found in France (Maire, 1938). Age: Early Oxfordian (Bukowskii Subzone of Europe) - Fauna B12 of Callomon (1984). Subgenus Cardioceras ARKELL, 1946 Cardioceras (Cardioceras) hyatti REESIDE Plate 4, Figure 13-17 * 1919 Cardioceras hyatti REESIDE, p. 26, pi. 15, fig. 1-4. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 124 1938 Cardioceras (Anacardioceras) hyatti REESIDE; MAIRE, p. 75, pi. 13, fig. 2. 1981 Cardioceras (Cardioceras) hyatti REESIDE; IMLAY, p. 32, pi. 9, fig. 6. 1982 Cardioceras (Cardioceras) hyatti REESIDE; IMLAY, p. 31, pi. 15, fig. 1-14. Material: Eight specimens from two localities (15 and 20) preserved as internal and external molds in siltstone and sandstone. Measurements: S P E C I M E N D UD U WH WHD PRHW C-118598-1 41.3 10.6 25.7 17.5 42.4 12 C-118598-6 18.7 6.3 33.7 8.2 43.9 13 C-118570-1 28.2 8.1 28.7 11.7 41.5 12 C-118570-2 35.0 c.10.2 29.1 c.17.0 48.6 13 Description: Umbilicus poorly preserved in all specimens but is fairly narrow; umbilical wall low and steep. Flanks flat; curved ventro-lateral shoulder and a sharp, high keel. Whorl shape is ogival with the addition of a keel. Ribs are moderately distant and begin on umbilical wall. They are rectiradiate until the umbilical shoulder where they curve onto the flanks becoming prorsiradiate. The ribs are sharp, strong and fairly straight on the SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 125 lower flank. In mid-flank area the ribs become higher; an elongated node-like projection becomes prominent on some primary ribs. This persists until the furcation point where ribs become lower but still remain fairly sharp. Some ribs bifurcate, but many remain single and are separated by one or two intercalary ribs. On the upper flank, ribs begin to curve more strongly forward; at ventro-lateral shoulder ribs project strongly forward onto venter and cross over keel forming an anteriorly pointing chevron pattern when looking down onto the venter. No suture line is preserved. Discussion: A ll specimens of C. (C.) hyatti collected from the Harrison Lake area are immature forms; the largest specimen being 41.3 mm in diameter. C. (C.) hyatti is similar in form to C. (S.) wyomingense REESIDE but is slightly less evolute and has fewer, sharper and straighter ribs. Also, the furcation points start slightly higher on the flanks of C. (C.) hyatti. A specimen figured as C. cordiforme MEEK and HAYDEN in Reeside (1919, pi. 7, fig. 5, 6) was assigned to C. praecordatum DOUVILLE by Maire (1938). Imlay (1982, p. 33) considers the same figured specimen in Reeside (1919, pi. 7, fig. 5, 6) to be an immature form of C. (C.) hyatti. The writer feels Imlay's assignment is better as the pattern of secondary ribs more closly resembles C. (C.) hyatti. Occurrence: Cardioceras (Cardioceras) hyatti has not been reported from Harrison Lake area previously. It is associated with C. (C.) lillooetense at locality 20 in the Billhook Creek Formation. Also at this locality are abundant bivalves, including Pinna. At locality 15 two specimens of C. (C.) hyatti were found associated with many specimens of Cardioceras (Scarburgiceras) martini. C. (C.) hyatti has also been collected from France, Utah, Wyoming, South Dakota and SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 126 Montana. It is placed in Callomon's (1984) Fauna A 14(a) of the Western Interior region, which is roughly equivalent to Fauna B13 of his Cordilleran region (Callomon, 1984, p. 155). Age: Early Oxfordian (Costicardia Subzone of Europe) - Fauna A14(a) (equivalent to Fauna B13) of Callomon (1984). Cardioceras (Cardioceras) lillooetense REESIDE Plate 4, Figure 18-20 1919 Cardioceras lillooetense REESIDE; p. 27, pi. 17, fig. 20-23 1975 Cardioceras (Cardioceras) cf. C. (C.) lillooetense REESIDE; FREBOLD and TIPPER, p. 150, pi. 2, fig. 5. 1981 Cardioceras (Cardioceras) lillooetense REESIDE; IMLAY, p. 32, pi. 9, fig. 1-5. 1981 Cardioceras (Cardioceras) cf. C. (C.) lillooetense REESIDE; IMLAY, p. 32, pi. 9, fig. 7-21. Material: Three specimens preserved as internal and external molds in a medium to coarse grained green calcareous sandstone. Measurements: S P E C I M E N D UD U WH PRHW SRHW C-118598-8 27.3 8.9 32.6 9.7 9 16 SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY / 127 C-118598-9 30.2 9.4 31.1 11.0 9 14 C-118598-10 29.1 7.6 26.1 12.9 9 14 Description: Specimen midvolute, suture line not preserved; umbilical wall fairly low and steep. Umbilical shoulder round; flanks are gently convex and curve over ventro-lateral shoulder onto a keeled venter. Shell compressed; whorl shape difficult to distinguish, perhaps lanceolate but with a sharper ventro-lateral shoulder. Ribs are distant; primaries begin part way up umbilical wall. They are rectiradiate to slightly rursiradiate until the umbilical shoulder where they knee sharply forward to become prorsiradiate. Ribs are fairly high and sharp; they continue straight to slightly flexed until just above mid-flank where the primaries end in an elongated node. Most bifurcate although a few may continue single onto venter. Intercalated secondaries are common; the secondary ribs remain fairly strong although not quite as high as the primaries. At ventro-lateral shoulder ribs curve sharply anteriorly then climb over the sharp keel giving it a serated or chevron-like appearence. Discussion: Cardioceras (Cardioceras) lillooetense was originally described from Cardt'oceras-bearing beds at the head of Big Creek, Lillooet, British Columbia (Reeside, 1919, p. 27). It is characterized by its distant primaries, which are high and sharp, and elongated nodes found at furcation points. C. (C.) lillooetense was tentatively placed in C. spiniferum Fauna B13 by Callomon (1984, p. 163) and its occurrence at locality 20 with C. (C.) hyatti seems to support this view. SYSTEMATIC P A L E O N T O L O G Y / 128 Occurrence: C. (C.) lillooetense is found in the Billhook Creek Formation along the Harrison Lake shore, west of Long Island (locality 20). It has also been found near Smithers and Lillooet, British Columbia. Age: Early Oxfordian (Costicardia Subzone of Europe) - Fauna B13 of Callomon (1984). Cardioceras sp. Plate 4, Figure, 21. Material: One incomplete specimen preserved as an external mold in calcareous shale and siltstone. Description: Moderately evolute; vertical umbilical wall. Ribs begin on umbilical wall and incline anteriorly at umbilical shoulder. Ventral area not preserved. Ribs fairly distant and broad, becoming even more so on later whorls. Discussion: The specimen resembles C. (C.) distans WHITEFIELD (see Imlay, 1982, pi. 17) in ribbing and by having a vertical umbilical wall. Occurrence: Found with Cardioceras (Scarburgiceras) martini and two specimens of Cardioceras (Cardioceras) hyatti at locality 15 on Cascade Peninsula. Age: Early Oxfordian (Bukowskii Subzone of Europe) - based on associated fauna. 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The rocks along the west shore of Harrison Lake represent one of, if not the most complete and well preserved Mesozoic sections in the Coast Mountains. The emphasis of this study was to update and determine the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, age, nomenclature and possible environmental setting of the rocks on the west side of Harrison Lake and to re-map the study area which has not been regionally mapped since Crickmay (1925). Regional correlations with other rock units are sugggested and possible paleogeographic settings discussed. The oldest rock unit in this section is the Camp Cove Formation which has now been accurately dated as Middle Triassic based on both radiolaria and conodonts. A regionally extensive unconformity separates this formation from the overlying Harrison Lake Formation of Pliensbachian(?) and Toarcian to Early(?) Bajocian age. This formation has been divided into four members and includes Crickmay's (1925) previously described Echo Island Formation. The four members are the Celia Cove Member (Pliensbachian(?) to Early Toarcian), West Road Member (Middle Toarcian to mid-Aalenian), and the Weaver Lake and Echo Island members (Aalenian to Early(?) Bajocian). A probable Late Bajocian to Bathonian hiatus, which is regionally extensive, separates the Harrison Lake Formation from the Early Callovian Mysterious Creek Formation and the conformably overlying Early Oxfordian Billhook Creek Formation. Locally, the Late Jurassic Kent Formation overlies the Mysterious Creek Formation and probably the Billhook Creek Formation. A third regionally extensive unconformity separates the Billhook Creek Formation from the Early Berriasian to Early Valanginian Peninsula Formation and the conformably overlying Late Valanginian to Middle Albian Brokenback Hill Formation. 129 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS / 130 All these formations yielded fossils, predominately ammonites and bivalves. Nine ammonite genera of Jurassic age were identified by the writer and many specimens could be identified to specific level despite the generally poor preservation. Currently there is no zonation for Toarcian faunas of North America, but Callomon (1984) has proposed faunal assemblage zones for some Middle and Late Jurassic stages and the Early Callovian and Early Oxfordian faunas of the Harrison Lake area correlate well with the faunal assemblages for his Cordillera Region (fig. 23 and 24). These faunas in the Mysterious Creek and Billhook Creek formations are very similar to faunas to the north and south in the Cordillera Region, including southern Alaska, north-central British Columbia (Bowser Basin), Oregon and California. The Early Cretaceous Peninsula and Brokenback Hill formations contain faunas very similar to faunas in the correlative Gambier and Fire Lake groups and together these units represent an overlap assemblage which links Wrangellia to Jurassic and older rocks of the Harrison Lake assemblage by Early Cretaceous time. 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On some Cretaceous fossils from British Columbia, the Northwest Territories and Manitoba. Geological Survey of Canada, Contributions to Canadian paleontology, V. 1, Part 2, No. 4. ZAPASNIK,' H. T. AND JOHNSTON, P. A. 1984. Replication in plastic of three-dimensional fossils preserved in indurated clastic sedimentary rocks. Science, V. 224, pp. 1425-1427. A P P E N D I X 1 LOCALITY DATA See figure 6 (in map pocket) for position of localities in thesis area. LOCALITY# G.S.C.# NOTEBOOK# 1 C-118600 MVA(F)85-329 2 C-118596 MVA(F)85-19 3 C-118592 MVA(F)85-289 4 C-117411 MVA(F)85-2 5 C-118594 MVA(F)85-307 6 C-118552 MVA(F)85-16A 7 C-118595 MVA(F)85-308 8 C-117704 MVA(F)85-330A 9 C-117703 MVA(F)85-292 10 — MVA 87-2 11 C-81986 MVA 87-4 12 C-118599 MVA(F)85-328 C-117401 13 C-118568 MVA(F)85-148 14 C-118569 MVA(F)85-150 15 C-118570 MVA(F)85-151 16 C-118579 MVA(F)85-226 17 C-l18586 MVA(F)85-255 17A C-149641 MVA(F)85-11A 18 C-118554 MVA(F)85-24 19 C-118555 MVA(F)85-25 COMMENTS Lilloettia; locality 8 of Crickmay (1930a). Belemnites and poorly preserved Dumortieria. Bivalves and a single Erycitoides. Belemnite. Dumortieria. Star-shaped crinoid ossicles and Gryphea. Dactylioceras, Phymatoceras, Harpoceras, fish skeletons. Conodonts and radiolaria from chert clasts of Celia Cove Member. Conodonts and radiolaria from siliceous siltstone of Camp Cove Formation. Locality in Celia Cove Member with fossiliferous clasts but none collected. Belemnites and bivalves collected by D. Pearson of the B.C.D.M. Homolsomites and Buchia; Crickmay's locality 41. Buchia. Buchia. Cardioceras and bivalves; Crickmay's locality 24 and Brookfield's (1973) locality 2. Cardioceras. Cadoceras, (Paracadoceras), Pseudocadoceras, bivalves. Lilloettia collected by D. Reddy and G. Kulla of U.B.C. Cadoceras, bivalves. Immature cadoceratids. 140 / 141 20 C-118598 MVA(F)85-327 Cardioceras, belemnites and bivalves. 21 C-118556 MVA(F)85-26 Belemnite and bivalve. 22 C-118553 MVA(F)85-14 Buchia. 23 C-118566 MVA(F)85-139 Deformed Buchia. 24 C-118567 MVA(F)85-142 Strongly deformed Buchia. 25 C-118558 MVA(F)85-61 Buchia. 26 C-118557 MVA(F)85-34 Cadoceras, Pseudocadoceras, C-149639 MVA(F)85-260 Lilloettia and trigoniid C-149640 MVA(F)85-262 bivalves from section 1. 27 C-118565 MVA(F)85-115 Buchia. 28 C-118587 MVA(F)85-276 Buchia. C-118588 MVA(F)85-276A 29 C-118580 MVA(F)85-230 Ammonites. 30 C-118560 MVA(F)85-68 Pseudocadoceras, belemnites. 31 C-118590 MVA(F)85-278 Buchia. 32 C-118559 MVA(F)85-64 Buchia. 33 C-118589 MVA(F)85-277 Buchia. 34 . . . — Section 2, no fossils found. 35 C-118581 MVA(F)85-232 Cadoceras, Lilloettia. 36 C-118577 MVA(F)85-197 Lilloettia, belemnites. 37 C-118593 MVA(F)85-306 Buchia. 38 C-118582 MVA(F)85-233 Bivalve. 39 C-118591 MVA(F)85-286 Buchia. 40 C-118563 MVA(F)85-95 Buchia. 41 C-118562 MVA(F)85-94 Cadoceras. 42 C-118578 MVA(F)85-202 Buchia collected near section 3. 43 C-117406 MVA(F)85-311 Buchia from section 3. C-117407 MVA(F)85-312 C-117408 MVA(F)85-313 C-117409 MVA(F)85-314 44 C-118575 MVA(F)85-173 Inoceramus. 45 C-149642 MVA(F)85-171 Ammonite fragment. 46 C-118573 MVA(F)85-170 Inoceramus. 47 C-118572 MVA(F)85-165 Homolsomites. 49 C-118576 MVA(F)85-182 Ammonoceratites, belemnites. 51 C-118584 MVA(F)85-248 Belemnite. 52 C-118583 MVA(F)85-247 Ammonites, belemnites. 53 C-XXXXXX MVA(F)85-326 Cretaceous ammonite sent to Jeletzky. 54 C-118585 MVA(F)85-252 Ammonite, bivalve. 55 C-117252 — Cleoniceras submitted to H. Tipper by G. Ray of the B.C.D.M. APPENDIX 2 Resin casts from external molds of fossils 1. Samples are first immersed in 25% HC1 to insure that all carbonates are removed. If carbonates are abundant in sample, then once effervescence has stopped, the process can be continued with new acid in a vacuum chamber until reaction does not continue. 2. Sample is then bathed in running water overnight. 3. Acetone is added. If sample is fairly non-porous, this can be done in a vacuum chamber. 4. Acetone is decanted off then sample is placed in an oven at 130°C. for 12 hours. It is now ready to be impregnated with resin. 5. The sample is heated to about 40°C. then placed in. a wax paper cup. 6. This is placed in a vacuum chamber and then subjected to 15 psi. 7. The resin, which must have a low viscosity, slow rate of polymerization and be resistant to HF, is then slowly added down the inside of the cup so as to prevent air pockets and help to push air from the porous sample. The sample must be completely covered with resin (allow for absorption into rock). 8. Keep the sample at 15 psi for 5 minutes then slowly bring back to atmospheric pressure. If sample is not very porous, this step can be repeated. 9. Place cup containing sample in a fume-hood at room temperature and allow resin to polymerize. Hardening occurs within an hour, but for best results leave the sample overnight. 10. Tear away the wax paper cup and saw sample so a large portion of the sample will be exposed. 11. Cut block is then immersed in 40% HF, which attacks matrix but not the resin replaced fossils. Fossil replicas may fall out themselves or can be gently plucked out with a pick. 12. Wash well through #80 and #200 mesh screen then allow to dry. Keep residue well spread out or it sticks together on drying. 13. . Observe under binocular microscope and pick out good specimens using tweezers or 000 size brush For Scanning Electron Microscope 1. Stubs are painted with Max Factor red nail polish. 2. Specimens placed on dried nail polish coated stub and oriented in view desired. 142 / 143 3. Place stub in petri dish with a small cloth soaked in acetone for 20 seconds or until specimens adhere to now sticky nail polish. 4. Remove from petri dish and allow nail polish to dry. 5. Coat specimens with carbon in carbon coating machine. If desired, this can be followed with a gold coat. 6. Observe and photograph with Scanning Electron Microscope. Samples used in this study were weathered limestone clasts from the basal conglomerate of Harrison Lake Formation (Celia Cove Member). All carbonates had already been removed by natural processes. The method used is similar to that explained in Zapasnik and Johnston (1984) but there are several changes including the resin used here. Mr. Jim Peters of Industrial Formulators of Canada Ltd., Burnaby (294-6315) was most helpful in discussing and supplying the resin best suited for this purpose. It is resin No. 115 and it is mixed in a 10:3 ratio with 23 Hardener just prior to use. His idea of heating the rock to about body temperature aided in the resins ability to permeate more deeply into the rock. The resin polymerizes well at room temperature and does not need heat to speed this process up. Several samples were placed in the oven at low heat to aid in the polymerization process and they reacted exothermically. This ruined the samples and left an unpleasant smell in the lab. A P P E N D I X 3 This appendix contains print-outs of data entered into the ammonite database described by Smith (1986). Each block of data represents a single ammonite specimen and the blocks appear in the same order as the specimens found on plates 1 to 4. There are 94 ammonite descriptors divided into six categories (Fig. 31) and a detailed discussion of each descriptor is given by Smith (1986). 144 1 SUBORDER 2 SUPERFAMILY 3 FAMILY 4 SUBFAMILY 5 GENUS 6 SUBGENUS Taxonomy 7 QUALIFIER 8 SPECIES 9 SUB8PECIES 10 TAXAUTHYEAR 1 1 REFAUTHYEAR 12 SYNONYMY Quantitative M o r p h o l o g y 13 20 27 DMAX WHD BISPACE 14 DPHRAG 2 1 WW 28 CHW 15 22 29 D WWD SF 16 UD 23 WWWH 30 APPROX 17 U 18 24 PRHW 26 EXP 19 WH SRHW 26 THW 3 1 VOLUTION 32 WHORL SHAPE 33 EXPANSION 34 UWALL 35 UWALLHT 36 UWALLANG 37 USHOULD 38 FLANKS 39 VENTER 40 VENTPROF Qualitative 41 KEEL 42 SULCI 43 PRIBD 44 PTREND 45 PFORM Morphology 46 PPROF 47 FURC 48 FURCPOS 49 SRIBD 50 STRENO 51 SFORM 52 SPROF 53 TUBERC 54 UNITUBPOS 55 CONSTRO 56 CTRENO 57 CF0RM 58 APERTURE 69 SUTURE 60 ONTOGENY 61 STAGE 62 SUBSTAGE 63 EURZONE 64 EURSUBZONE 65 ZONE StradKcaphy 66 SUBZONE 67 HORIZON 68 FORMATION 69 MEMBER 70 LITHOLOGY 7 1 DATUM 72 RELDATUM 73 SITU 74 ASSOCSPEC locality and Catalogue Information 75 81 86 COUNTRY SECTNO REPOSITORY 76 82 87 PROVINCE LOCNO TYPE 77 LONG 83 OTHERNO 88 COLLECTORYR 78 LAT 79 Q 84 SUBLOCNO 89 GENERALOC 80 SECTNAME 85 SUPERLOCNO 90 SPECNO 91 REMARKS 1 Miscellaneous 92 REMARKS2 93 REMARKS3 94 REMARKS4 Figure 31: Categories and descriptors of database AMMON (from Smith, 1986). Cn / 146 A M M O N I T I N A SP. ARTHUR 1 9 8 7 EODE DACT ARTHl 30CERATACEAE r-LIOCERAS JR 1 9 8 7 DACTYLIOCERATIDAE DACTYLIOCERAS SP. 4 3 . 2 t I EVOLUTE SLOW DENSE RECTIRADIATE TOARCIAN MIDDLE BIFRONS HARRISON LAKE EX WEST ROAD 3 CALC.SILTSTONE-C A N A D A G.S.C. B.C. MVA 8 5 - 3 0 8 \H.4§5i 7 ARTHUR 1 9 8 5 49.2634 KiW HARRISON LAKE C - 1 1 8 5 9 5 - 7 P l a t e 1 , F I g u r e 1 . Very p o o r l y p r e s e r v e d sp eelmen. AMMONITINA SP. ARTHUR 1 9 8 7 EODEROCERATACEAE DACTYLIOCERAS ARTHUR 1 9 8 7 DACTYLIOCERATIDAE DACTYLIOCERAS SP. 4 5 . 6 I I EVOLUTE SLOW DENSE RECTIRADIATE T O A R C I A N MIDDLE BIFRONS HARRISON LAKE EX WEST ROAD 3 CALC.SILTSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. M V A 8 5 - 3 0 8 i 2 i . 4 9 5 2 7 ARTHUR 1 9 8 5 49.2034 N W HARRISON LAKE C - 1 1 8 5 9 5 - 4 P l a t e 1 , F i g u r e 2. Very p o o r l y p r e s e r v e d sp ec1men. AMMONITINA HARPOCERATINAE SP . ARTHUR 1 9 8 7 HILDOCERATACEAE HARPOCERAS ARTHUR 1 9 8 7 HILDOCERATIDAE HARPOCERAS SP. 6 3 . 5 4 7 . 4 6 3 . 5 1 0 . 7 J 1 6 . 8 | 3 0 . 1 INVOLUTE RAPID DENSE T O A R C I A N MIDDLE BIFRONS HARRISON LAKE EX WEST ROAD 1 5 C A L C . S I L T S T O N E CANADA G.S.C. B.C. M V A 8 5 - 3 0 8 1 2 1 . 4 9 5 2 7 ARTHUR 1 9 8 5 4 9 . 2 0 3 4 N W HARRISON LAKE C - 1 1 8 5 9 5 - 2 P l a t e 1 , F I g u r e 3 . / 147 AMMONITINA HARPOCERATINAE SP. ARTHUR 1987 HILDOCERATACEAE HARPOCERAS ARTHUR 1987 HILDOCERATIDAE HARPOCERAS SP . 33. 1 I I INVOLUTE RAPID DENSE TOARCIAN MIDDLE BIFRONS HARRISON LAKE EX WEST ROAD 15 CALC.SILTSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-308 121.4952 7 ARTHUR 1985 49.2034 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118595-3 PI a t e 1, F1gure 4. AMMONITINA HARPOCERATINAE SP . ARTHUR 1987 HILDOCERATACEAE HARPOCERAS ARTHUR 1987 HARPOCERAS SP. - ' - " • I I INVOLUTE RAPID DENSE 3S4CP5CR6 TOARCIAN MIDDLE BIFRONS HARRISON LAKE EX WEST ROAD 15 CALC.SILTSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-308 121.4952 7 ARTHUR 1985 49.2034 NW HARRISON LAKE C-1 18595-1 P l a t e 1, F i g u r e 5. AMMONITINA GRAMMOCERATINAE CF . D'ORBIGNY 1842 EODEROCERATACEAE DUMORTIERIA LEVESQUEI ARTHUR 1987 HILDOCERATIDAE D. CF . LEVESQUEI 27 . 3 39.9 27.3 8.9 132.6 |21 j 10.5 MIDVOLUTE LOW ANGULAR ANGULAR MODERATE DENSE GPRORSIRADIATE 1R4CP7 TOARCIAN UPPER LEVESQUEI HARRISON LAKE EX WEST ROAD 27 SHALE. SILTST. CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-307 121 .5013 5 ARTHUR 1985 49.2001 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118594-1 P l a t e 1, F1gure .6. / 148 AMMONITINA GRAMMOCERATINAE CF. D'ORBIGNY 1842 EODEROCERATACEAE DUMORTIERIA LEVESOUEI ARTHUR 1987 HlLDocEPATIPAt: " D. CF. LEVESOUEI 27.7 36. 1 27 .7 10.0 36 .1 |21 UD WH | 10.0 MIDVOLUTE LOW ANGULAR ANGULAR MODERATE DENSE GPRORSIRADIATE 1R4CP7 TOARCIAN UPPER LEVESOUEI HARRISON LAKE EX WEST ROAD 27 SHALE. SILTST. CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-307 121.5013 5 ARTHUR 1985 48.2001 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118594-2 P l a t e 1, F1gure 7. AMMONITINA GRAMMOCERATINAE CF. D'ORBIGNY 1842 EODEROCERATACEAE DUMORTIERIA LEVESOUEI ARTHUR 1987 HILDOCERATIDAE D. CF. LEVESOUEI 15.4 38.3 15.4 5.6 136.4 |14 | 5.9 MIDVOLUTE LOW ANGULAR ANGULAR MODERATE DENSE GPRORSIRADIATE 1R4CP7 TOARCIAN UPPER LEVESOUEI HARRISON LAKE EX WEST ROAD 27 SHALE, SILTST. CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-307 121.5613 5 ARTHUR 1985 49.2001 NW HARRISON LAKE C-1 18594-3 P l a t e 1. F i g u r e 8. R1b number I n c r e a s e s w i t t s i z e ; fewer r i b s on th1 5 Immature specimen. AMMONITINA GRAMMOCERATINAE CF . D'ORBIGNY 1842 EODEROCERATACEAE DUMORTIERIA LEVESOUEI ARTHUR 1987 HILDOCERATIDAE D. CF. LEVESOUEI 19.5 33.8 19.5 8.2 42.1 |18 | 6.6 MIDVOLUTE LOW ANGULAR ANGULAR MODERATE DENSE GPRORSIRADIATE 1R4CP7 TtTSRCIAN UPPER LEVESOUEI HARRISON LAKE EX WEST ROAD 27 SHALE, SILTST. CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-307 121 .5013 5 ARTHUR 1985 49.2001 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118594-4 P l a t e 1, F ( g u r e 9. / 149 AMMONITINA GRAMMOCERATINAE CF . D'ORBIGNY 1842 EODEROCERATACEAE DUMORTIERIA LEVESQUEI ARTHUR 1987 HILDOCERATIDAE D. CF. LEVESQUEI 12.7 39 .4 12.7 4.2 133.1 |14 | 5.6 MIDVOLUTE LOW ANGULAR ANGULAR MODERATE DENSE GPRORSIRADIATE 1R4CP7 TOARCIAN UPPER LEVESQUEI HARRISON LAKE EX WEST ROAD 27 SHALE, SILTST. CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-307 121.5013 5 ARTHUR 1985 49.2001 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118594-5 P l a t e 1, F i g u r e 10. R1b number i n c r e a s e s w i t h s i z e ; fewer r i b s on t h i s immature specimen. AMMONITINA GRAMMOCERATINAE CF . (BRAUNS) EODEROCERATACEAE DUMORTIERIA INSIGNISIMILIS ARTHUR 1987 HILDOCERATIDAE D. CF. INSIGNISIMILIS 23.8 31.5 23.8 9.5 139.9 1 15 MIDVOLUTE LOW ANGULAR ANGULAR MODERATE DENSE RECTIRADIATE 1S5KP7 TOARCIAN UPPER LEVESQUEI HARRISON LAKE EX WEST ROAD 22 SHALE, SILTST. CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-307 121 .4952 5 ARTHUR 1985 49.2634 WW HARRISON LAKE C- 143283-1 P l a t e 1, F i g u r e 11 . S l i g h t l y more e v o l u t e an d has fewer r i b s than D. c f . l e v e s q u e i . AMMONITIN GRAMMOCER CF . (BRAUNS) A ATINAE EODEROCERATACEAE DUMORTIERIA INSIGNISIMILIS ARTHUR 1987 HILDOCERATIDAE D. CF. INSIGNISIMILIS 28.4 30.6 28 .4 13.4 147.2 1 15 j 5.7' • MIDVOLUTE LOW ANGULAR ANGULAR MODERATE DENSE RECTIRADIATE 1S5KP7 TOARCIAN UPPER LEVESQUEI HARRISON LAKE EX WEST ROAD 22 SHALE, SILTST. CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-307 121.5013 5 ARTHUR 1985 49.2001 . NW HARRISON LAKE C-1 18594-8 P l a t e 1, F i g u r e 12. S l i g h t l y more e v o l u t e and has fewer r i b s than D. c f . l e v e s q u e i . / 150 AMMONITINA GRAMMOCERATINAE CF. (BRAUNS) EODEROCERATACEAE DUMORTIERIA INSIGNISIMILIS ARTHUR 1987 HILDOCERATIDAE m D. CF. INSIGNISIMILIS 33.0 33.3 33.0 11.5 134.8 |15 PRHW | 11 .0 MIDVOLUTE LOW ANGULAR ANGULAR MODERATE DENSE RECTIRADIATE 1S5KP7 TOARCIAN UPPER LEVESQUEI HARRISON LAKE EX WEST ROAD 22 SHALE, SILTST. CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-307 12<.$6\5 5 ARTHUR 1985 49.200,' KiW HARRISON LAKE C-1 18594-9 P l a t e 1, F i g u r e 13. S l i g h t l y more e v o l u t e and has fewer r i b s than 0. c f . l e v e s q u e i . AMMONITINA GRAMMOCERATINAE CF. (BRAUNS) EODEROCERATACEAE DUMORTIERIA INSIGNISIMILIS ARTHUR 1987 HILDOCERATIDAE D. CF. INSIGNISIMILIS I I MIDVOLUTE LOW ANGULAR ANGULAR MODERATE DENSE RECTIRADIATE 1S5KP7 T O A R C I A N UPPER LEVESQUEI HARRISON LAKE IN WEST ROAD 22 SHALE, SILTST. CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-307 121.5013 5 ARTHUR 1985 49.2001 NW HARRISON LAKE C-1 18594- 10 P l a t e 1, F i g u r e 14. S l i g h t l y more e v o l u t e an< Outer whorl not complete 3 has fewer r i b s than D. < , so no measurements made : f . 1evesque i . AMMONITINA GRAMMOCERATINAE CF . (BRAUNS) EODEK DUMOR INSIC ARTHL OCERATACEAE TIERIA .NISIMILIS R 1987 HILDOCERATIDAE D. CF. INSIGNISIMILIS I 1 MIDVOLUTE LOW ANGULAR ANGULAR MODERATE DENSE RECTIRADIATE 1S5KP7 TOARCIAN UPPER LEVESQUEI HARRISON LAKE EX WEST ROAD 22 SHALE, SILTST. CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-307 121 .5013 5 ARTHUR 1985 49.2001 NW HARRISON 1 AKF C-118594-11 P l a t e 1, F i g u r e 15. S l i g h t l y more e v o l u t e and has fewer r i b s than D. c f . l e v e s q u e i . O uter whorl not complete, so no measurements made. / 151 AMMONITIN/ PHYMATOCEf SP. ARTHUR 19f k IATINAE 7 EODEI PHYMV ARTHl JOCERATACEAE ITOCERAS R 1987 PHYMATOCERATIDAE PHYMATOCERAS SP. 53 .9 27.3 53 .9 25.4 J47.1 UD WH | 14.7 EVOLUTE INFLATED B l SLOW DENSE MIDFLANK GRURSIRADIATE" DENSE 1P3KR5CP7 TOARCIAN MIDDLE BIFRONS HARRISON LAKE EX WEST ROAD CALC.SILTSTONE C A N A D A G . S . C . B . C . MVA 85-308 1 2 1 . 4 9 5 2 7 ARTHUR 1985 4 9 . 2 0 3 4 N W HARRISON LAKE C-118595-6 P l a t e 2, F i g u r e 1. AMMONITINA HAMMATOCERATINAE ? ARTHUR 1987 EODEROCERATACEAE ERYCITOIDES ARTHUR 1987 HAMMATOCERATIDAE ERYCITOIDES 7 SP. I I EVOLUTE VERTICAL 5 CONVEX MODERATE CONVEX DENSE FLAT RECTIRADIATE LOW 1P3CS7 AALENIAN UPPER CONCAVUM HARRISON LAKE IN WEST ROAD E.HOWELLI SHALE CANADA G . S . C . B .C. MVA 85-289 121 .4925 3 ARTHUR 1985 49.1948 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118592-1 P l a t e 2, F i g u r e 2. Spec imen p o o r l y p r e s e r v e 3. AMMONITINA EURCEPHALA CRICKMAY 1 TINAE 930 STEPHANOCERATACEAE L ILLOETTIA L ILLOETENSIS ARTHUR 1987 5PHAER0CERATIDAE L. LILLOETENSIS 61 .0 51 .6 S 1 .4 4.2 18 1 . 7 UD j 26.5 INVOLUTE STEEP CONVEX ELLIPSOID ROUNDED B l CONVEX RAPID CONVEX DENSE MIDFLANK FLAT PLAIN GPRORSIRADIATE DENSE LOW INFLATED 2S3CP7 GPRORSIRAD I ATI CALLOVIAN LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK EX 2 FAUNA B8(C) SILTSTONE CANADA G . S .C . B.C. MVA 85-11A 121.5308 17A REDDY 1986 49.2837 NW HARRISON LAKE C-149641-1 P l a t e 2, F i g u r e 3. Spec imen d o n a t e d by Doug Reddy of U.B .C. / 152 EURCEPHALATINAE CRICKMAY 1930 STEPHANOCERATACEAE LILLOETTIA LILLOETENSIS ARTHUR 1987 5PHAERoCERATlDAE L. LILLOETENSIS I I INVOLUTE CONVEX ELLIPSOID BI CONVEX CONVEX DENSE MIDFLANK PLAIN GPRORSIRADIATE DENSE INFLATED GPRORSIRADIATE CALLOVIAN LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK EX 2 FAUNA B8(C) SILTSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-11A \H .53(58 17A KULA 1986 49.2837 N W HARRISON LAKE C-149641-2 P l a t e 2, F i g u r e 4. Specimen donated by Greg K u l a of U.B.C. AMMONITINA EURCEPHALATINAE CRICKMAY 1930 STEPHANOCERATACEAE LILLOETTIA LILLOETENSIS ARTHUR 1987 SPHAEROCERATIOAE L. LILLOETENSIS 1 I INVOLUTE CONVEX ELLIPSOID BI CONVEX CONVEX DENSE MIDFLANK PLAIN GPRORSIRADIATE DENSE INFLATED GPRORSIRADIATE C A L L O V I A N LOWER M A C R O C E P H A L U S " MYSTERIOUS CK IN FAUNA B8tC> F-G SANDSTONE C A N A D A 1 G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-34 \1\.5435 26 ARTHUR 1985 49.2937 N W HARRISON LAKE C-1 18557-1 P l a t e 2, F i g u r e 5. Specimen from s e c t i o n 1. AMMONITINA EURCEPHALATINAE IMLAY 1953 STEPHANOCERATACEAE LILLOETTIA STANTONI ARTHUR 1987 SPHAEROCERATIDAE L. STANTONI I I INVOLUTE BI RAPID DISTANT MIDFLANK CALLOVIAN LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK EX FAUNA B8(G) SILTSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-329 121.5042 1 ARTHUR 1985 49.1748 NW HARRISON LAKE :-118600-1 P l a t e 2. F I g u r e 6. Specimen f l a t t e n e d . / 153 A M M O N I T I N A E U R C E P H A L J I M L A Y 1 9 5 : iTINAE 1 S T E P H A N O C E R A T A C E A E L I L L O E T T I A S T A N T O N I A R T H U R 1 9 8 7 S P H A E R O C E R A T I D A E L . S T A N T O N I 4 0 . 8 5 2 . 7 4 0 . 8 3 . 6 1 8 . 8 | 9 U D [ 2 1 . 5 1 7 I I N V O L U T E S T E E P A N G U L A R R O U N D E D B I R A P I D C O N V E X D I S T A N T M I D F L A N K F L A T G P R O R S I R A D I A T E D I S T A N T L O W 2 S 3 K P 4 C 7 C A L L O V I A N L O W E R M A C R O C E P H A L U S M Y S T E R I O U S C K I N F A U N A B 8 ( C ) S I L T S T O N E C A N A D A G . S . C . B . C . M V A 8 5 - 3 2 9 ii 1.5642 1 A R T H U R 1 9 8 5 •49.H48 MW H A R R I S O N L A K E C - 1 1 8 6 0 0 - 2 P l a t e 2 . F i g u r e 7 . A M M O N I T I N A E U R C E P H A L A T I N A E S P . A R T H U R 1 9 8 7 S T E P H A N O C E R A T A C E A E L I L L O E T T I A A R T H U R 1 9 8 7 S P H A E R O C E R A T I D A E L I L L O E T T I A S P . I I I N V O L U T E A N G U L A R E L L I P S O I D A L B I C O N V E X D E N S E M I D F L A N K P L A I N G P R O R S I R A D I A T E D E N S E I N F L A T E D C A L L O V I A N L O W E R M A C R O C E P H A L U S M Y S T E R I O U S C K I N S I L T S T O N E C A N A D A G . S . C . B . C . M V A 8 5 - 1 9 7 1 2 1 . 5 8 2 6 3 6 A R T H U R 1 9 8 5 4 9 . 3 0 5 3 N W H A R R I S O N L A K E C - 1 1 8 5 7 7 - 1 P l a t e 2 , F i g u r e 8 . Near Crickmay's t y p e Iocs » H t y f o r L . l i l l o e t e n s i s A M M O N I T I N A C A D 0 C E R A T 1 S S I M L A Y 1 9 5 : k N A E S T E P H C A D O C C O M M / ARTHL 1 A N 0 C E R A T A C E A E : E R A S k J R 1 9 8 7 C A R D I O C E R A T I D A E C A D O C E R A S C . C O M M A 7 3 . 9 3 4 . 8 4 7 . 3 7 3 . 9 G 4 . 0 2 9 . 1 1 3 9 . 4 1 8 4 . 0 1 1 5 P R H W j 2 5 . 7 M I D V O L U T E S T E E P C O R O N A T E A N G U L A R M O D E R A T E I N F L A T E D D I S T A N T B U L L A T E F L A T P L A I N U S H O U L D E R H I G H I N F L A T E D Y E S C A L L O V I A N L O W E R M A C R O C E P H A L U S M Y S T E R I O U S C K I N 2 F A U N A B 8 ( E ) S I L T S T O N E C A N A D A G . S . C . B . C . M V A 3 5 - 2 5 5 1 2 1 . 5 3 0 7 1 7 A R T H U R 1 9 8 5 4 9 . 2 8 3 7 N W H A R R I S O N L A K E C - 1 1 8 5 8 6 - 1 P l a t e 3 . F i g u r e 1 . Genus v a r i e s t h rough ontogeny. Inner whorls of t h i s specimen not wel1 p r e s e r v e d . / 154 A M M O N I T I N A C A D O C E R A T I N A E SS IMLAY 1 9 5 3 STEPHANOCERATACEAE C A D O C E R A S C O M M A ARTHUR 1 9 8 7 CARDIOCERATIDAE CADOCERAS C. COMMA 4 5 . 8 4 1 . 3 4 5 . 8 1 3 . 4 1 2 9 . 2 1 8 . 9 MIDVOLUTE STEEP INFLATED ROUNDED ROUNDED B l MODERATE INFLATED DISTANT MIDFLANK FLAT PLAIN GPRORSIRADIATE HIGH INFLATED 1 S 2 C P 5 C S 7 RECTIRADIATE CALLOVIAN LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK IN 2 FAUNA B 8 ( E ) SILTSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 8 5 - 2 5 5 1 2 1 . 5 3 0 7 1 7 ARTHUR 1 9 8 5 4 9 . 2 8 3 7 NW HARRISON LAKE C - 1 1 8 5 8 6 - 2 P l a t e 3 , F i g u r e 2 . Genus v a r i e s t h rough ontc Not a l l p r i m a r y r i b s b l f u igeny. i r c a t e . A M M O N I T I N A CADOCERATINAE SS IMLAY 1 9 5 3 S T E P H CADOC COMMA ARTHL A N O C E R A T A C E A E ERAS • R 1 9 8 7 CARDIOCERATIDAE CADOCERAS C. COMMA 2 4 . 0 4 0 . 4 1 2 . 8 2 4 . 0 5 3 . 3 6 . 0 [ 2 5 . 0 1 3 2 . 0 112 PRHW r 7 MIDVOLUTE STEEP INFLATED ROUNDED ROUNDED B l MODERATE INFLATED DENSE MIDFLANK FLAT PLAIN GPRORSIRADIATE DENSE HIGH INFLATED 1 S 2 C P 5 C S 7 RECTIRADIATE CALLOVIAN LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK IN 2 FAUNA B 8 ( E ) SILTSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 8 5 - 2 5 5 1 2 1 . 5 3 0 7 1 7 ARTHUR 1 9 8 5 4 9 . 2 8 3 7 NW HARRISON LAKE C - 1 1 8 5 8 6 - 3 P l a t e 3 . F i g u r e 3 . Genus v a r i e s t h rough ont< Immature specimen of C . < sgeny. :oimna. AMMONITIN CADOCERAT SS IMLAY 1 9 5 \ INAE S T E P CADOI COMM A R T H H A N O C E R A T A C E A E : E R A S * JR 1 9 8 7 CARDIOCERATIDAE CADOCERAS C. COMMA I I MIDVOLUTE STEEP CORONATE ANGULAR MODERATE D I S T A N T BULLATE FLAT PLAIN USHOULDER HIGH INFLATED CALLOVIAN LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK IN FAUNA B 8 ( E ) F-G SANDSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 8 5 - 9 4 1 2 1 . 5 5 4 5 4 1 ARTHUR 1 9 8 5 4 9 . 3 1 1 3 NW HARRISON LAKE C - 1 1 8 5 6 2 - 1 P l a t e 3 , F i g u r e 4 . Genus v a r i e s through ontogeny. Specimen s l i g h t l y deformed. / 155 CADOCERATINAE S S IMLAY 1953 § T E P H A N O C E R A T A 4 E A E C A D O C E R A S COMMA ARTHUR 1987 C A R D I O C E R A T I D A E CADOCERAS C. COMMA I I M I D V O L U T E STEEP ANGULAR INFLATED DISTANT 8ULLATE FLAT USHOULDER HIGH C A L L O V I A N L O W E R M A C R O C E P H A L U S MYSTERIOUS CK IN F A U N A 8 8 ( E ) F-G S A N D S T O N E CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-94 121 .5545 41 ARTHUR 1985 49.3113 NW HARRISON LAKE C-11S562-2 P l a t e 3, F i g u r e 5. Genus v a r i e s t h rough ont< S t r i a e p r e s e n t on mature sgeny. whorl. AMMONITINA CADOCERATINAE SP. ARTHUR 1987 STEPHANOCERATACEAE CADOCERAS ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE CADOCERAS CADOCERAS SP. 2 3 . 5 11.2 23.5 7.3 |3 1 . 1 |15 |8.3 MIDVOLUTE STEEP INFLATED ROUNDED ROUNDED B l MODERATE CONVEX DENSE MIDFLANK FLAT PLAIN GPRORSIRADIATE DENSE HIGH INFLATED 1S2CP5CS7 GPRORSIRADIATE CALLOVIAN LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK IN F-G SANDSTONE C A N A D A G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-94 121.5435 41 ARTHUR 1985 49.2937 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118557-2 P l a t e 3, F i g u r e 6. Immature Cadoceras s p e c i n len; may be C. comma. AMMONITINA CADOCERATINAE CF . POMPECKJ STEPHANOCERATACEAE CADOCERAS CATOSTOMA ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE CADOCERAS C. CF. CATOSTOMA 38.8 1 6 . 7 39.9 41.9 13.3 B3.3 1 0 7 . 7 |13 PRHW J 1 5 . 5 MIDVOLUTE STEEP ANGULAR ROUNDED ROUNDED B l MODERATE CONVEX DISTANT MIDFLANK FLAT PLAIN GPRORSIRADIATE DISTANT HIGH INFLATED 1S2CP7 GPRORSIRADIATE CALLOVIAN LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK EX FAUNA B8(E) SILTSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-24 121.5327 18 ARTHUR 1985 49.2847 NW HARRISON LAKE C-1 18554 -1 P l a t e 3, F i g u r e 7. / 156 A M M O N I T I N A CADOCERATI CF . IMLAY 1953 N A E STEPHANOCERATACEAE CADOCERAS TONNIENSE ARTHUR 1 9 8 7 S A R B T O C E R A T I B A E • P A R A C A D O C E R A S C . ( P . ) C F . T O N N I E N S E 70.0 34 .4 35. 1 70.0 50. 1 16.6 123.7 145.6 (1 a WW P R H W |24.1 MIDVOLUTE S T E E P INFLATED ROUNDED ROUNDED BI MODERATE CONVEX DISTANT MIDFLANK F L A T PLAIN GPRORSIRADIATE DISTANT HIGH INFLATED 1S2CP4CS7 RECTIRADIATE CALLOVIAN L O W E R MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK IN F A U N A B8(E) SILTSTONE C A N A D A G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-255 1 2 1 . 5 3 0 7 1 7 ARTHUR 1 9 8 5 ' 4 9 . 2 8 3 7 KIW HARRISON L A K E C-1 1 8 5 8 6 - 5 P l a t e 3, F i g u r e 8. Fauna B8(e) based on a s s b e l o n g s i n Fauna B 8 ( b ) . s c i a t e d fauna. C . ( P . ) t o n n i e n s e a c t u a l l y AMMONITINA CADOCERAT INAE CF . IMLAY 1 9 5 3 STEPHANOCERATACEAE CADOCERAS TONNIENSE ARTHUR 1 9 8 7 CARDIOCERATIDAE P A R A C A D O C E R A S C. ( P . ) CF. TONNIENSE e e . a 44 . 3 35.3 66.8 52.8 14.8 (22.2 119.3 113 J 2 9 . 6 MIDVOLUTE S T E E P INFLATED ROUNDED ROUNDED BI MODERATE CONVEX DISTANT MIDFLANK FLAT P L A I N GPRORSIRADIATE DISTANT HIGH INFLATED 1 S 2 C P 4 C S 7 RECTIRADIATE C T T T L O V I A N LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK IN F A U N A B8(E) SILTSTONE C A N A D A G.S.C. B . C . MVA 85-255 121 . 5 3 0 7 1 7 ARTHUR 1 9 8 5 4 9 . 2 8 3 7 N W HARRISON L A K E C- 1 1 8 5 8 6 - 6 P l a t e 3, F i g u r e 9. Fauna B8(e) based on assc b e l o n g s 1n Fauna 8 8 ( b ) . j c i a t e d fauna. C . ( P . ) tor in i e n s e a c t u a l l y AMMONITINA CADOCERATINAE CF . IMLAY 1 9 5 3 STEPHANOCERATACEAE CADOCERAS TONNIENSE ARTHUR 1 9 8 7 CARDIOCERATIDAE PARACADOCERAS C. (P.) CF. TONNIENSE 31.7 41.9 15.5 3 1 . 7 48.9 9.4 129.6 116.5 | 11 3 . 3 MIDVOLUTE S T E E P ROUNDED ROUNDED MODERATE CONVEX F L A T PLAIN HIGH INFLATED CALLOVIAN LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK IN F A U N A B8(E) SILTSTONE C A N A D A G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-255 121 . 5 3 0 7 17 ARTHUR 1 9 8 5 4 9 . 2 8 3 7 N W HARRISON LAKE C- 1 1 8 5 8 6 - 7 P l a t e 3. F l a u r e 1 0 . Fauna B8(e) based on a s s o c i a t e d f auna. C . ( P . ) t o n n i e n s e a c t u a l l y b e l o n g s i n Fauna B 8 ( b ) . C r o s s s e c t i o n a l view of t h i s specimen. / 157 AMMONITINA CADOCERATINAE POMPECKJ STEPHANOCERATACEAE PSEUDOCADOCERAS GREWINGKI ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE P. GREWINGKI 41 .2 40.0 41.2 11.1 I26.9 116.5 13 | MIDVOLUTE STEEP INFLATED ROUNDED ROUNDED B l MODERATE CONVEX DENSE MIDFLANK FLAT PLAIN GPRORSIRADIATE DENSE LOW INFLATED 1S2CP7 GPRORSIRADIATE CALLOVIAN LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK IN 16 FAUNA SILTSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-255 121.5307 17 ARTHUR 1985 49.2837 NW HARRISON LAKE C-1 18586-8 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 1. Specimen somewhat deforms AMMONITINA CADOCERATINAE POMPECKJ STEPr PSEUD GREWI ARTHU ANOCERATACEAE OCADOCERAS NGKI R 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE P. GREWINGKI 45.0 42.4 45 .0 11.7 126.0 |16 119 . 1 13 I MIDVOLUTE STEEP INFLATED ROUNDED ROUNDED B l MODERATE CONVEX DENSE MIDFLANK FLAT PLAIN GPRORSIRADIATE DENSE LOW INFLATED 1S2CP7 GPRORSIRADIATE CALLOVIAN LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK IN 16 FAUNA B8(E) SILTSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-255 121 .5307. 17 ARTHUR 1985 49.2837 NW HARRISON LAKE C- 1 18586-10 P l a t e 4. F i g u r e 2. Specimen somewhat deforme Id. AMMONITINA CADOCERATINAE POMPECKJ STEPH PSEUD GREWI ARTHU ANOCERATACEAE OCAOOCERAS NGKI R 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE P. GREWINGKI 34 . 1 34 . 1 U I MIDVOLUTE INFLATED B l CONVEX DENSE MIDFLANK PLAIN GPRORSIRADIATE DENSE INFLATED 1S2CP7 GPRORSIRADIATE CALLOVIAN LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK EX FAUNA B8(EJ SILTSTONE "CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-68 12 1.5532 30 ARTHUR 1985 49.3028 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118560-1 P l a t e 4. F i g u r e 3. U m b i l i c a l a r e a not p r e s e r v e d . / 158 [AMMONITINA CADOCERATINAE POMPECKJ STEPHANOCERATACEAE PSEUDOCADOCERAS GREWINGKI ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE " P. GREWINGKI I I MIDVOLUTE STEEP INFLATED ROUNDED ROUNDED BI MODERATE CONVEX DENSE MIDFLANK FLAT PLAIN GPRORSIRADIATE DENSE LOW INFLATED 1S2CP7 GPRORSIRADIATE CALLOVIAN 1 LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK IN FAUNA EJ8( t J SILTSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-234 121 .5435 26 ARTHUR 1985 49.2337 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118557 3 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 4. Specimen from s e c t i o n 1. AMMONITINA CADOCERATINAE POMPECKJ STEPHANOCERATACEAE PSEUDOCADOCERAS GREWINGKI ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE P. GREWINGKI 23.5 44 .9 15.6 4.1 126 . 3 |7 .0 MIDVOLUTE STEEP INFLATED ROUNDED ROUNDED BI MODERATE CONVEX DENSE MIDFLANK FLAT PLAIN GPRORSIRADIATE DENSE LOW INFLATED 1S2CP7 GPRORSIRADIATE CALLOVIAN LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK IN 16 FAUNA B8(E ) SILTSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-255 iii .5367 17 ARTHUR 1985 49.2837 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118586-9 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 5. AMMONITINA CADOCERATINAE POMPECKJ STEPHANOCERATACEAE PSEUDOCADOCERAS GREWINGKI ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE P. GREWINGKI 24 . 1 38 . 3 B . 3 20.9 39.7 7.1 134.0 103.8 |16 DMAX |8 .0 10 | MIDVOLUTE STEEP INFLATED ROUNDED ROUNDED BI MODERATE CONVEX DENSE MIDFLANK FLAT PLAIN GPRORSIRADIATE DENSE LOW INFLATED 1S2CP7 GPRORSIRADIATE CALLOVIAN LOWER MACROCEPHALUS MYSTERIOUS CK IN 16 FAUNA B8(E) SILTSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-255 121.5307 17 ARTHUR 1985 49.2837 NW HARRISON LAKE C-1 18586-25 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 6. / 159 AMMONITINA STEPHANOCERATACEAE CARDIOCERATIDAE CARDIOCERATINAE CARDIOCERAS SCARBURGICERAS MARTINI REESIDE .1919 ARTHUR 1987 C. (S.) MARTINI 23.3 23.3 6.5 127.9 9.6 41.2 | WH MIDVOLUTE MODERATE FLAT LOW STEEP ROUNDED CONVEX CARINATE ANGULAR 6 DENSE RECTIRADIATE 1R2CS6AP7 INFLATED B l MIDFLANK DENSE PRORSIRADIATE OXFORDIAN LOWER CORDATUM BUKOWSKII FAUNA B12 BILLHOOK CK SHALE. SILTST. IN 20 CANADA B.C. 121.4655 49.2243 NW MVA 85-151 15 G.S.C. ARTHUR 1985 HARRISON LAKE C-118570-4 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 7. AMMONITINA STEPHANOCERATACEAE CARDIOCERATIDAE CARDIOCERATINAE CARDIOCERAS SCARBURGICERAS MARTINI REESIDE 1919 ARTHUR 1987 C. (S.) MARTINI 23.6 23.6 6.8 123.8 10.6 44 .9 |14 MIDVOLUTE MODERATE FLAT LOW STEEP ROUNDED CONVEX CARINATE ANGULAR 6 DENSE RECTIRADIATE 1R2CS6AP7 INFLATED B l MIDFLANK DENSE PRORSIRADIATE OXFORDIAN LOWER CORDATUM BUKOWSKII FAUNA 612 BILLHOOK CK SHALE, SILTST. IN 20 CANADA B.C. 121.4655 49.2243 NW MVA 85-151 15 G.S.C. ARTHUR 1985 HARRISON LAKE C-118570-5 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 8. AMMONITINA STEPHANOCERATACEAE CARDIOCERATIDAE CARDIOCERATINAE CARDIOCERAS SCARBURGICERAS MARTINI REESIDE 1< 319 ARTHUR 1987 C. (S.) MARTINI 27.2 27.2 8.4 130.9 11.8 43.4 |14 MIDVOLUTE MODERATE FLAT LOW STEEP ROUNDED CONVEX CARINATE ANGULAR 6 DENSE RECTIRADIATE 1R2CS6AP7 INFLATED B l MIDFLANK DENSE PRORSIRADIATE OXFORDIAN LOWER CORDATUM BUKOWSKli FAUNA B12 BILLHOOK CK SHALE, SILTST. IN 20 CANADA B.C. 121.4655 49.2243 NW MVA 85-151 15 G.S.C. ARTHUR 1985 HARRISON LAKE C-118570-7 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 9. / 160 AMMONITINA CARDIOCERATINAE REESIDE 1919 STEPHANOCERATACEAE CARDIOCERAS MARTINI ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE SCARBURGICERAS C. (S.) MARTINI 51.1 43.2 46.5 11.8 125.4 115 WH |20. 1 14 | MIDVOLUTE STEEP 6 INFLATED ROUNDED B l MODERATE CONVEX DENSE MIDFLANK FLAT CARINATE RECTIRADIATE DENSE LOW ANGULAR 1R2CS6AP7 PRORSIRADI ATE OXFORDIAN LOWER CORDATUM BILLHOOK CK EX BUKOWSKII 20 FAUNA B12 SHALE. SILTST. CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-151 121.4655 15 ARTHUR 1985 49.2243 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118570-8 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 10. AMMONITINA CARDIOCERATINAE REESIDE 1919 STEPHANOCERATACEAE CARDIOCERAS MARTINI ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE SCARBURGICERAS C. (S.) MARTINI 18 . 2 38.5 18 . 2 6.6 136.3 |14 r MIDVOLUTE STEEP 6 INFLATED ROUNDED B l MODERATE CONVEX DENSE MIDFLANK FLAT CARINATE RECTIRADIATE DENSE LOW ANGULAR 1R2CS6AP7 PRORSIRADIATE OXFORDIAN LOWER CORDATUM BILLHOOK CK IN BUKOWSKII 20 FAUNA B12 SHALE. SILTST. CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-151 121 .4655 15 ARTHUR 1985 49.2243 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118570-15 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 11. AMMONITINA CARDIOCERA REESIDE 19 TINAE 19 STEPHANOCERATACEAE CARDIOCERAS MARTINI ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE SCARBURGICERAS C . (S.) MARTINI I I 6 LANCEOLATE CARINATE ANGULAR PRORSIRADI ATE OXFORDIAN LOWER CORDATUM BILLHOOK CK EX BUKOWSKII 20 FAUNA B12 SHALE, SILTST. CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-151 121.4655 15 ARTHUR 1985 49.2243 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118570-18 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 12. / 161 AMMONITINA CARDIOCERATINAE REESIDE 1919 STEPHANOCERATACEAE CARDIOCERAS HYATTI ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE CARDIOCERAS C. (C.) HYATTI • 42.4 41 .3 10.G 125.7 |12 | 17.5 MIDVOLUTE STEEP 6 ANGULAR ROUNDED BI ANGULAR MODERATE FLAT DISTANT UPPERFLANK BULLATE FLAT CARINATE GPRORSIRADIATE DENSE MIDFLANK LOW ANGULAR 1S2KP6KP7 PR0RSIRAD1 ATE OXFORDIAN LOWER CORDATUM BILLHOOK CK IN COSTICARDIA 4 FAUNA A 14(A) SANDSTONE C A N A D A G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-327 121.5141 20 ARTHUR 1985 49.2850 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118598-1 P l a t e 4. F i g u r e 13. AMMONITINA CARDIOCERATINAE REESIDE 1919 STEPHANOCERATACEAE CARDIOCERAS HYATTI ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE CARDIOCERAS C. (C. ) HYATTI I I MIDVOLUTE STEEP ANGULAR ROUNDED BI CONVEX DISTANT UPPERFLANK BULLATE FLAT GPRORSIRADIATE DENSE MIDFLANK LOW 1S2KP4CS5CP7 PRORSIRADIATE OXFORDIAN LOWER CORDATUM BILLHOOK CK IN COSTICARDIA 4 FAUNA A14(A) SANDSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-327 121.5141 20 ARTHUR 1985 49.2850 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118598-7 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 14. Fragment of a w h o r l . AMMONITINA CARDIOCERA REESIDE 19 TINAE 19 STEPHANOCERATACEAE CARDIOCERAS HYATTI ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE CARDIOCERAS C . (C . ) HYATTI I I MIDVOLUTE STEEP ANGULAR BI ANGULAR FLAT DISTANT UPPERFLANK BULLATE FLAT CARINATE GPRORSIRADIATE SENSE MIDFLANK LOW PRORSIRADIATE OXFORDIAN LOWER CORDATUM BILLHOOK CK EX COSTICARDIA 4 FAUNA A14(A) SANDSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-327 121.5141 20 ARTHUR 1985 49.2850 NW HARRISON LAKE C- 1 18598-5 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 15. Fragment of a w h o r l . / 162 AMMONITINA CAROIOCERATINAE REESIDE 1919 STEPHANOCERATACEAE CARDIOCERAS HYATTI ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAL CARDIOCERAS C. (C.) HYATTI 1 I MIDVOLUTE STEEP 6 ANGULAR ROUNDED BI ANGULAR FLAT DISTANT UPPERFLANK BULLATE FLAT CARINATE GPRORSIRADIATE DENSE MIDFLANK LOW ANGULAR 1S2KP6KP7 PRORSIRADI A T E OXFORDIAN LOWER CORDATUM BILLHOOK CK EX COSTICARDIA 4 FAUNA A 1 4 ( A ) SANDSTONE CANADA B.C. MVA 85-327 121.5141 20 ARTHUR 1985 49.2850 NW HARRISON LAKE C- 1 18598-4 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 1 6 . Fragment of a w h o r l . AMMONITINA C'ARDIOCERATINAE RFFSIDF 1919 STEPH CARD! HYAT1 ARTHL iANOCERATACEAE OCERAS I R 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE CARDIOCERAS C. (C.) HYATTI 35 .0 47.4 35.0 10.2 (29.1 113 11 WH J 1 6 . 6 MIDVOLUTE 6 ANGULAR BI ANGULAR MODERATE FLAT DISTANT UPPERFLANK BULLATE CARINATE GPRORSIRADIATE DENSE MIDFLANK 1S2KP6KP7 PRORSIRADIATE OXFORDIAN LOWER CORDATUM BILLHOOK CK IN COSTICARDIA 1 FAUNA A14(A) SHALE. SILTST. CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-151 121.4655 15 ARTHUR 1985 49.2243 NW HARRISON LAKE C-1 18570-2 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 17. AMMONITINA CARDIOCER/ REESIDE IS I kTINAE 19 STEPh CARD! LI LLC ARTHl 1AN0CERATACEAE OCERAS JOETENSE JR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE CARDIOCERAS C. (C.) LILLOOETENSE 27 . 3 35.5 27.3 8.9 132.6 |9 9.7 16 | MIDVOLUTE STEEP 6 ANGULAR ROUNDED BI ANGULAR MODERATE FLAT DISTANT UPPERFLANK BULLATE FLAT CARINATE GPRORSIRADIATE DISTANT MIDFLANK LOW ANGULAR 1S2KP6AP7 PRORSIRADIATE OXFORDIAN LOWER CORDATUM BILLHOOK CK IN COSTICARDIA 2 FAUNA B13 SANDSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-327 121.5141 20 ARTHUR 1985 49.2850 NW HARRISON LAKE C-1 18598-8 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 18. / 163 mmrrm C A R D I O C E R A T I N A E REESIDE 1919 STEPHANOCERATACEAE CARDIOCERAS LILLOOETENSE ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE CARDIOCERAS C. (C.) LILLOOETENSE 30.2 36.4 30.2 9.4 131.1 |9 111.0 14 J MIDVOLUTE STEEP 6 ANGULAR OGIVAL ROUNDED B l ANGULAR MODERATE FLAT DISTANT UPPERFLANK BULLATE FLAT CARINATE GPRORSIRADIATE DISTANT MIDFLANK LOW ANGULAR 1S2KP6AP7 PRORSIRADI ATE OXFORDIAN LOWER CORDATUM BILLHOOK CK EX COSTICARDIA 2 FAUNA B13 SANDSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-327 121 .5i4l 20 ARTHUR 1985 49.2850 NW HARRISON LAKE C-1 18598-9 H i a t e 4, F i g u r e 19. AMMONITINA CARDIOCERATINAE REESIDE 1919 STEPHANOCERATACEAE CARDIOCERAS LILLOOETENSE ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCEHA1IDAE CARDIOCERAS C. (C.) LILLOOETENSE 29. 1 44 . 3 29. 1 7.6 26.1 I9 112.9 14 I MIDVOLUTE STEEP 6 ANGULAR ROUNDED B l ANGULAR MODERATE FLAT DISTANT UPPERFLANK BULLATE FLAT CARINATE GPRORSIRADIATE DISTANT MIDFLANK LOW ANGULAR 1S2KP6AP7 PRORSIRADIATE OXFORDIAN 'LOWER CORDATUM BILLHOOK CK IN COS I 1 C A K U 1 A 2 rAUNA U1J SANDSTONE CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-327 121,5141 20 ARTHUR 1985 4a.^usO NW HARRISON LAKE C-1 18598-10 P l a t e 4, F i g u r e 20. AMMONITIN CARDIOCER SP. ARTHUR 19 & 4TINAE 37 STEPHANOCERATACEAE CARDIOCERAS ARTHUR 1987 CARDIOCERATIDAE CARDIOCERAS SP. I I MIDVOLUTE STEEP INFLATED ROUNDED DISTANT FLAT GPRORSIRADIATE LOW OXFORDIAN LOWER BILLHOOK CK EX SHALE, SILTST. CANADA G.S.C. B.C. MVA 85-151 121.4655 15 ARTHUR 1985 49.2243 NW HARRISON LAKE C-118570-3 P1 a t e 4, F i g u r e 2 1 . / 164 EXPLANATION OF PLATE 1 [All figures natural size] Fig. 1, 2. Dactylioceras sp. (p. 94) 1. C-l 18595-7; Internal mold from locality 7. 2. C-l 18595-4; Internal mold from locality 7. Fig. 3-5. Harpoceras sp. (p. 95) 3. C-l 18595-2; Internal mold from locality 7. 4. C-l 18595-4; Internal mold from locality 7. 5. C-l 18595-1; Internal mold from locality 7. Fig. 6-10. Dumortieria cf levesquei D'ORBIGNY (p. 97) 6. C-118594-1; Latex cast of external mold from locality 5. 7. C-l 18594-2; Internal mold from locality 5. 8. C-118594-3; Latex cast of external mold from locality 5. 9. C-l 18594-4; Latex cast of external mold from locality 5. 10. C-118594-5; Latex cast of external mold from locality 5. Fig. 11-15. Dumortieria cf. insignisimilis (BRAUNS) (p. 100) 11. C-143283-1; Latex cast of external mold from locality 5. 12. C-118594-8; Latex cast of external mold from locality 5. 13. C-118594-9; Latex cast of external mold from locality 5. 14. C-118594-10; Latex cast of external mold from locality 5. 15. C-118594-11; Latex cast of external mold from locality 5. 1 6 5 PLATE 1 / 166 EXPLANATION OF PLATE 2 [All figures natural size] Fig. 1. Phymatoceras sp. (p. 102) C-l 18595-6; Latex cast of external mold from locality 7. Fig. 2. Erycitoides ? sp. (p. 104) 2a. C-l 18592-1; External mold showing keel from locality 7. 2b. Internal mold of same specimen showing some sutures. Fig. 3-5. Lilloettia lilloetensis CRICKMAY (p. 106) 3a, b. C-149641-1; Internal mold from locality 17A. 4a, b. C-l49641-2; Internal mold from locality 17A. 5. C-118557-1; Latex cast of external mold from locality 26 (section 1). Fig. 6, 7. Lilloettia stantoni IMLAY (p. 107) 6. C-118600-1; Internal mold from locality 1. 7. C-l 18600-2; Internal mold from locality 1. Fig. 8. Lilloettia sp. (p. 109) C-118577-1; Internal mold from locality 36. 167 PLATE 2 / 168 EXPLANATION OF PLATE 3 [All figures natural size] Fig. 1-5. Cadoceras comma IMLAY (p. 110) l a , b, c. C-118586-1; Internal mold from locality 17. 2. C-118586-2; Internal mold from locality 17. 3a, b. C-118586-3; Latex cast of external mold from locality 17. 4. C-118562-1; Internal mold from locality 41. 5. C-118562-2; Latex cast of external mold from locality 41. Fig. 6. Cadoceras sp. (p. 113) 6a, b. C-118557-2; Latex cast of external mold from locality 26 (section 1). Fig. 7. Cadoceras cf. catostoma POMPECKJ (p. 114) C-118554-1; Internal mold from locality 18. Fig. 8-10. Cadoceras (Paracadoceras) cf. tonniense IMLAY (p. 115) 8a, b. C-118586-5; Internal mold from locality 17. 9. C-118586-6; Internal mold from locality 17. 10. C-118586-7; Cross-sectional view from locality 17. 1 6 9 PLATE 3 / 170 EXPLANATION OF PLATE 4 [All figures natural size] Fig. 1-6. Pseudocadoceras grewingki POMPECKJ (p. 118) 1. C-118586-8; Internal mold from locality 17. 2. C-118586-10; Internal mold from locality 17. 3. C-118560-1; Latex cast of external mold from locality 30. 4a, b. C-118557-3; Latex cast of external mold from locality 26 (section 1). 5a, b. C-118586-25; Internal mold from locality 17. 6a, b. C-118586-25; Internal mold from locality 17. Fig. 7-12. Cardioceras (Scarburgiceras) martini REESIDE (p. 121) 7. C-118570-4; Latex cast of external mold from locality 15. 8. C-118570-5; Latex cast of external mold from locality 15. 9. C-118570-7; Latex cast of external mold from locality 15. 10. C-118570-8; Latex cast of external mold from locality 15. 11. C-118570-15; Latex cast of external mold from locality 15. 12. C-118570-18; Internal mold from locality 15. Fig. 13-17. Cardioceras (Cardioceras) hyatti REESIDE (p. 123) 13. C-118598-1; Internal mold from locality 20. 14. C-118598-7; Internal mold from locality 20. 15. C-118598-5; Internal mold from locality 20. 16. C-118598-4; Internal mold from locality 20. 17. C-118570-2; Latex cast of external mold from locality 15. Fig. 18-20. Cardioceras (Cardioceras) lillooetense REESIDE (p. 126) 18. C-118598-8; Latex cast of external mold from locality 20. 19a, b. C-118598-9; Internal mold from locality 20. 20. C-118598-10; Internal mold from locality 20. Fig. 21. Cardioceras sp. (p. 128) C-118570-3; Latex cast of external mold from locality 15. 171 PLATE 4 

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