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Sedimentology and tectonic history of the Eureka Sound and Beaufort formations, southern Ellesmere Island,… Riediger, Cynthia Louise 1985

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SEDIMENTOLOGY AND TECTONIC HISTORY OF THE EUREKA SOUND AND BEAUFORT FORMATIONS, SOUTHERN ELLESMERE ISLAND, ARCTIC, CANADA By CYNTHIA LOUISE RIEDIGER B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo, 1981 A THESIS IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of G e o l o g i c a l Sciences) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1985 ©Cynthi a Louise R i e d i g e r , 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 £3/81) i i ABSTRACT The Eureka Sound Formation i n the e a s t e r n Canadian A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o i s an Upper Cretaceous to Paleogene p r e - and syn-t e c t o n i c d e p o s i t that records the u p l i f t and segmentation of the E a r l y C a r b o niferous to T e r t i a r y Sverdrup B a s i n . S c a t t e r e d o u t l i e r s of the Eureka Sound Formation on south-ern Ellesmere I s l a n d r e s t unconformably on or are f a u l t e d a g a i n s t Devonian s t r a t a . In the v i c i n i t y of Vendom, S t e n k u l , Baumann and Sor F i o r d s , the Eureka Sound Formation a t t a i n s a maximum t h i c k n e s s of 480 m and comprises a sequence of nonmarine and b r a c k i s h water d e p o s i t s that ranges i n age from mid-Paleocene to Late Eocene. Eureka Sound s t r a t a which crop out along the shores of Stenkul F i o r d are d i v i d e d i n t o four l i t h o f a c i e s assemblages. The s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n i s composed mainly of two nonmarine assem-blages which a l t e r n a t e throughout the sequence. L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage I c o n s i s t s of fining-upward sandstones which a t t a i n t h i c k n e s s e s of 20 m and are i n t e r p r e t e d as f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s . L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage II comprises interbedded mudstones and c o a l i n seams up to 8 m t h i c k , and are i n t e r p r e t e d as f l o o d b a s i n d e p o s i t s of an a l l u v i a l p l a i n . Two marine l i t h o f a c i e s assemblages ( I I I , IV) are recognized l o c a l l y and c o n s t i t u t e a minor part of the s t r a t i g r a p h i c succes-s i o n . L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage III comprises the b a s a l s t r a t a i n the study area and c o n s i s t s of approximately 90 m of buff-wea-t h e r i n g mudstones and interbedded t h i n c o a l s which were d e p o s i t -ed i n b r a c k i s h l a g o o n a l , e s t u a r i n e and s a l t marsh environments. L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage IV occurs l o c a l l y i n the middle of the s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n and c o n s i s t s of up to 10m of white, w e l l s o r t e d quartz a r e n i t e s and minor mudstones, which are i n t e r -p r e t e d as d e p o s i t s of a b a r r i e r i s l a n d system. To the northeast of Stenkul F i o r d at Makinson I n l e t , out-l i e r s of the Eureka Sound Formation r e s t unconformably on P a l e o z o i c s t r a t a , and are i n turn o v e r l a i n with angular uncon-f o r m i t y by as much as 120 m of E a r l y Miocene fanglomerates of the Beaufort Formation. The ages of these sediments, i n conjunc-t i o n with ages r e p o r t e d from the Eureka Sound and Beaufort Formations i n other p a r t s of Ellesmere and A x e l Heiberg I s l a n d s , bracket the timing of the orogenic phase of the Eurekan orogeny i n the e a s t e r n A r c t i c as Late Eocene to Miocene. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i i INTRODUCTION 1 GENERAL STATEMENT 1 STUDY AREAS 3 L o c a t i o n 3 Access 5 PHYSIOGRAPHY 5 PREVIOUS WORK 6 PART I: STENKUL FIORD AREA 8 ABSTRACT 8 INTRODUCTION . . 10 REGIONAL SETTING 12 METHODS 16 F i e l d Work 16 A n a l y t i c a l Work 17 STRATIGRAPHY AND STRUCTURE 20 STENKUL FIORD 21 LITHOFACIES ASSEMBLAGE I 27 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 31 LITHOFACIES ASSEMBLAGE II 35 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 37 LITHOFACIES ASSEMBLAGE III 39 V I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 40 LITHOFACIES ASSEMBLAGE IV 41 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 42 VENDOM FIORD 43 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 49 BAUMANN FIORD 50 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 54 SOR FIORD 56 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 60 PETROGRAPHY, PALEOCURRENTS AND PROVENANCE 63 SANDSTONE PETROGRAPHY 63 Quartz 69 Chert 72 Feld s p a r 73 Sedimentary Rock Fragments 76 Igneous Rock Fragments 76 Metamorphic Rock Fragments 76 Mica 77 Granule And Pebble Composition 77 HEAVY MINERALS 77 PALEOCURRENT ANALYSIS 81 PROVENANCE 82 DIAGENESIS AND VITRINITE REFLECTANCE. . . 89 FOSSIL CONTENT AND AGE 92 PALYNOLOGY 92 PALEONTOLOGY 94 PALEOCLIMATE 100 DEPOSITIONAL HISTORY AND PALEOGEOGRAPHY 103 v i Late E a r l y (?) To Mid-Paleocene 103 Mid- To Late Paleocene 106 Late Paleocene 106 E a r l y To Late Eocene 107 Post-Eocene E r o s i o n 109 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 110 REFERENCES CITED ' . 112 PART I I : MAKINSON INLET AREA 127 ABSTRACT 127 INTRODUCTION 128 REGIONAL SETTING 129 STRATIGRAPHY 132 Eureka Sound Formation 132 Micaceous S i l t s t o n e - c a l c a r e o u s Sandstone L i t h o f a c i e s 132 Calcareous Mudstone-siltstone-sandstone L i t h o f a c i e s .138 Beaufort Formation 140 PALYNOLOGY 143 PRE-EARLY MIOCENE EROSION : 148 TECTONIC IMPLICATIONS 151 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 154 REFERENCES CITED 155 APPENDIX 160 v i i L I S T O F T A B L E S T A B L E I . P e t r o g r a p h i c d a t a , i n c l u d i n g g r a i n s i z e , r o u n d i n g s o r -t i n g , m o d a l a n a l y s e s a n d h e a v y m i n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n s o f r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e s a n d s t o n e s f r o m t h e E u r e k a S o u n d F o r m a t i o n . pp. 65-67 T A B L E I I . P a l e o c u r r e n t d a t a . p. 83 T A B L E I I I . V i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e r e s u l t s . p. 91 v i i i L I S T O F F I G U R E S F I G U R E 1 . I n d e x m a p t o t h e Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s s h o w i n g L a t e P h a n e r o z o i c t e c t o n i c a n d s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s a n d l o c a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a s . p . 2 F I G U R E 2 . O u t l i e r s o f T e r t i a r y E u r e k a S o u n d s e d i m e n t s o n s o u t h -e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d s h o w i n g l o c a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a s . p . 4 F I G U R E 3 . G e o l o g i c m a p s h o w i n g t h e l o c a t i o n s o f t h e V e n d o m , S t e n k u l , B a u m a n n a n d S o r F i o r d o u t l i e r s o f t h e E u r e k a S o u n d F o r m a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . P» I 3 F I G U R E 4 . S t r a t i g r a p h y o f t h e E u r e k a S o u n d F o r m a t i o n i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d o u t l i e r . p . 22 F I G U R E 5 . S t r a t i g r a p h i c c o r r e l a t i o n d i a g r a m I ( i n p o c k e t - ) Zo?c\*i Collect'6^ F I G U R E 6 . S t r a t i g r a p h i c c o r r e l a t i o n d i a g r a m I I ( i n •pW-ke-fe) F I G U R E 7 . S t r a t i g r a p h i c c o r r e l a t i o n d i a g r a m I I I ( i n - p o c k - e - t ) . F I G U R E 8 . E u r e k a S o u n d s t r a t a i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d o u t l i e r . p . 25 F I G U R E 9 . S e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s , L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e I , S t e n k u l F i o r d o u t l i e r . p - 29 F I G U R E 1 0 . S e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s , p l a n t f o s s i l s a n d s t r a t i -IX graphy, Stenkul F i o r d o u t l i e r . p. 32 FIGURE 11. Eureka Sound s t r a t a in the Vendom F i o r d o u t l i e r . p. 44 FIGURE 12. S t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n 26, Vendom F i o r d o u t l i e r . p. 46 FIGURE 13. S t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n 27, Vendom F i o r d o u t l i e r . p. 47 FIGURE 14. Eureka Sound s t r a t a in the Baumann F i o r d o u t l i e r . P. 51 FIGURE 15. S t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n 22, Baumann F i o r d o u t l i e r ( i n FIGURE 16. Eureka Sound s t r a t a in the Sor F i o r d o u t l i e r . p. 57 FIGURE 17. S t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n 24, Sor F i o r d o u t l i e r . p. 59 FIGURE 18. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of sandstones of the Eureka Sound Formation using McBride's (1963) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . p. 68 FIGURE 19. Thin s e c t i o n photomicrographs of sandstones, Eureka Sound Formation. P- 7 0 FIGURE 20. Thin s e c t i o n photomicrographs of sandstones, Eureka Sound Formation. P* 7^ FIGURE 21. Thin s e c t i o n photomicrographs of heavy m i n e r a l s , Eureka Sound Formation. p. 78 X FIGURE 22. F o s s i l remains, Eureka Sound Formation. p. 95 FIGURE 23. F o s s i l remains, Eureka Sound Formation. p. 98 FIGURE 24. Schematic paleogeographic maps. p. 104 FIGURE 25 . General g e o l o g i c map of the study area. p. 131 FIGURE 26. Angular unconformity north of Makinson I n l e t . p. 133 FIGURE 27. S t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n 16 through lowermost Eureka Sound s t r a t a exposed north of Makinson I n l e t . p. 135 FIGURE 28. S t r a t i g r a p h y and sedimentary s t r u c t u r e s of the Eureka Sound and Beaufort Formations north of Makinson I n l e t . p. 136 FIGURE 29. S t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n 17 ac r o s s the unconformity be-tween the Eureka Sound and Beaufort Formations north of Makinson I n l e t . p. 139 FIGURE 30. D e p o s i t i o n a l model of the Beaufort Formation north of Makinson I n l e t . p. 142 FIGURE 31. D i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t s of the Beaufort Formation (a to f) and spores and p o l l e n g r a i n s of the Eureka Sound Formation (g to n) north of Makinson I n l e t . p. 144 FIGURE 32. C o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t at Strathcona F i o r d ( B u s t i n , x i i n p r e p . ) , and v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e values f o r c o a l samples above and below the unconformity. p . 149 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l to my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r Dr. R. Marc B'ustin f o r d i r e c t i o n , a d v i c e , encouragement and unending p a t i e n c e throughout t h i s study. I would a l s o l i k e to thank Dr. Glenn Rouse f o r p r o v i d i n g the p a l y n o l o g i c a l work and p l a n t f o s s i l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and f o r guidance and advice on many as-pects of the t h e s i s . I am g r a t e f u l to Drs. W.C. Barnes and W.H. Mathews f o r c r i t i c a l l y reviewing the manuscript and o f f e r i n g many h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . I wish to thank Dr. L o r i s R u s s e l l of the Royal O n t a r i o Museum f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of f o s s i l samples, and a l s o Ms. L. L. Mathews f o r many h e l p f u l d i s c u s s i o n s of v e r t e b r a t e p a l e o n t o l o g y . Capable a s s i s t a n c e i n the f i e l d was pro v i d e d by Richard V i n c e n t , Lawrence Fabbro and E r i c Panchy, whose enthusiasm and good humour were much a p p r e c i a t e d . Many thanks go to the t e c h n i c a l s t a f f at U.B.C., e s p e c i a l l y to Ed Montgomery f o r h i s e x c e l l e n t photographic work and a s s i s t -ance with many of the l o g i s t i c a l d e t a i l s encountered d u r i n g the course of t h i s study. Thanks a l s o to Bryon Cranston f o r prepara-t i o n of sandstone and c o a l samples and Melanie S u l l i v a n and Gord Hodge f o r he l p with the d r a f t i n g . Petro-Canada p r o v i d e d l o g i s t i c support during the f i e l d work f o r which I am very g r a t e f u l . A d d i t i o n a l support f o r the re s e a r c h was provided by a postgraduate s c h o l a r s h i p from N.S.E.R.C. and an N.S.E.R.C. Grant, A 7 3 3 7 , to Dr. R.M. B u s t i n . 1 INTRODUCTION GENERAL STATEMENT The Eureka Sound and Beaufort Formations document the l a t e s t Cretaceous and T e r t i a r y d e p o s i t i o n a l and t e c t o n i c h i s t o r y of the e a s t e r n Canadian A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o . C l a s t i c sediments of the Eureka Sound Formation are widespread i n the A r c t i c I s l a n d s , and were d e p o s i t e d mainly i n p e r i c r a t o n i c or intermontane basins formed d u r i n g the Late Cretaceous to E a r l y T e r t i a r y Eurekan oro-geny ( M i a l l , 1979b; 1982). The Beaufort Formation postdates the major phase of T e r t i a r y orogenesis and crops out at s e v e r a l l o -c a l i t i e s i n the Canadian A r c t i c I s l a n d s and along the A r c t i c c o a s t a l p l a i n . Eureka Sound and Beaufort sediments comprise both nonmarine and marine s t r a t a ( M i a l l , 1979a,1979b, 1982; M i a l l et a l . , 1980; West et a l . , 1981; B u s t i n , 1977, 1982), and l o c a l l y a t t a i n t h i c k n e s s e s on the order of 3 300 m. The present study i n v e s t i g a t e s two occurrences of T e r t i a r y sediments which crop out on southern Ellesmere I s l a n d (Figure 1). The most a r e a l l y e x t e n s i v e occurrence of Eureka Sound s t r a t a on southern Ellesmere I s l a n d l i e s i n the v i c i n i t y of Stenkul F i o r d , and i s d e s c r i b e d i n the f i r s t p art of t h i s t h e s i s . At t h i s l o c a l i t y , the p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e s are to i n t e r p r e t the d e p o s i t i o n a l environment and d e p o s i t i o n a l h i s t o r y of these de-p o s i t s based on s t r a t i g r a p h i c , p e t r o g r a p h i c , heavy m i n e r a l , pa-l e o c u r r e n t and v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e analyses and f o s s i l con-te n t . 2 o 3 0 0 k m —I CANADA BASIN ROCKS | M C g | M e s o z o i c - C e n o z o i c i n g r a b e n s I A T | A r c t i c t e r r a c e I S B I S v e r d r u p B a s i n I I P | F r a n k l l n l a n t r o u g h - A r c t i c P l a t f o r m I p C I P r e c a m b r l a n S h i e l d x -ff-STRUCTURES ETC. n o r m a l f a u l t r e v e r s e f a u l t f o l d a r c h t e c t o n i c d i a p i r l i n e a m e n t FIGURE 1. Index map to the Queen Elizabeth Islands showing Late Phanerozoic tectonic and structural elements and locations of the study areas (modified from Balkwill and Bustin, 1980). 3 The second occurrence of T e r t i a r y s t r a t a s t u d i e d on south-ern Ellesme r e I s l a n d i n c l u d e s outcrops of Eureka Sound and Beaufort sediments which l i e s n o r t h of Makinson I n l e t , adjacent to the C e n t r a l Ellesme r e Ice Cap. An angular unconformity be-tween f o l d e d Eureka Sound s t r a t a and g e n t l y - d i p p i n g Beaufort s t r a t a i s d e s c r i b e d (see a l s o R i e d i g e r et a l . , 1984). The re-s u l t s of s t r a t i g r a p h i c , p a l y n o l o g i c , v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e and p e t r o g r a p h i c analyses p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the d e p o s i t -i o n a l h i s t o r y and provenance of these sediments, as w e l l as pro-v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l evidence f o r the chronology of the main com-p r e s s i o n a l phase of the Eurekan Orogeny and a l a t e r phase of r e l a t i v e u p l i f t of at l e a s t part of ea s t e r n Ellesmere I s l a n d . STUDY AREAS L o c a t i o n O u t l i e r s of the Eureka Sound and Beaufort Formations occur at s e v e r a l l o c a l i t i e s on southern Ellesmere I s l a n d (Figure 2). Most outcrops are p o o r l y exposed, p r e c l u d i n g d e t a i l e d systematic d e s c r i p t i o n . T e r t i a r y s t r a t a which c r o p out along the shores of Stenkul F i o r d and nor t h of Makinson I n l e t , however, are w e l l exposed, and were thus s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study. The only known occurrence of Beaufort s t r a t a on southern Ellesmere I s l a n d l i e s n o rth of Makinson I n l e t and i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s r e p o r t . FIGURE 2 . Outliers of Tertiary Eureka Sound sediments (stippled pattern) on southern Ellesmere island showing locations of the study areas. -p-5 Access T h i s study i s based on f i e l d work performed i n the summer months of 1983. The base camp was s i t u a t e d south of Okse Bay on the west coast of southern Ellesmere I s l a n d , and a f l y camp was e s t a b l i s h e d north of Makinson I n l e t . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n from Resolute Bay to the base camp was by de H a v i l l a n d Twin Ot t e r a i r c r a f t . Access to the study area was by A e r o s p a t i a l e A-Star h e l i c o p t e r . PHYSIOGRAPHY The study areas ( F i g u r e 2) l i e w i t h i n the "Southern P l a t e a u " physiographic d i v i s i o n of Roots (i_n F o r t i e r et a l . , 1963, pp. 266-271), and represents a t o t a l area of approximately 150 square k i l o m e t r e s . In the area south and east of Vendom F i o r d , the topography i s subdued. The stream v a l l e y s c u t t i n g through the p l a t e a u are sh o r t , and commonly have a br a i d e d f l o o d p l a i n (Roots, in F o r t i e r , et a l . , 1963, p. 269). Areas of tundra polygons or "patterned ground" occur l o c a l l y in l o w - l y i n g r e g i o n s . Evidence of s o l i f l u c t i o n , slumping and recent mud flows i s common on the moderately s l o p i n g h i l l s i d e s . North of Makinson I n l e t , Eureka Sound and Beaufort s t r a t a l i e between the C e n t r a l Ellesmere Ice Cap on the east and the mountainous areas of the " C e n t r a l Mountain B e l t " (physiographic d i v i s i o n ) on the west. The topography i s very rugged with steep c l i f f s r i s i n g v e r t i c a l l y from sea l e v e l to sharp, jagged peaks. 6 Streams fed by g l a c i a l r u n o f f have deeply i n c i s e d the s t r a t a , producing narrow, p r e c i p i t o u s stream v a l l e y s . Slumping of the v a l l e y w a l l s f r e q u e n t l y occurs, r e s u l t i n g i n e x c e l l e n t outcrop exposure. PREVIOUS WORK The Eureka Sound Group was i n i t i a l l y d e f i n e d by T r o e l s e n (1950, p. 78) f o r nonmarine, c o a l - b e a r i n g sediments on c e n t r a l Ellesmere I s l a n d , which he c o n s i d e r e d to be of Cenozoic age. I t was r e d e f i n e d as a formation by Tozer {in F o r t i e r et a l . , 1963, p. 92) who regarded outcrops of the Eureka Sound Formation on Fosheim P e n i n s u l a , adjacent to Eureka Sound, as t y p i c a l (Tozer, i n F o r t i e r et a l . , 1963, p. 93). The type s e c t i o n was designated by Souther (i_n F o r t i e r et a l . , 1963, p. 444) as approximately 2.5 km of i n t e r c a l a t e d sandstone, s i l t s t o n e , s h a l e , mudstone and c o a l on western Axel Heiberg I s l a n d . I t i s now known that the formation ranges from Late Cretaceous to Late Eocene ( J u t a r d and Plauchut, 1973; Doerenkamp et a l . , 1976; B u s t i n , 1977; Rouse, 1977; t h i s study) and although predominantly nonmarine in o r i g -i n , i t does c o n t a i n interbedded marine u n i t s (West et a l . , 1975; M i a l l , 1981). The Beaufort Formation was named by Tozer (1956) for p o s t -t e c t o n i c g r a v e l s and sands cropping out on P r i n c e P a t r i c k I s l a n d . Tozer and T h o r s t e i n s s o n (1964) l a t e r expanded the use of "Beaufort Formation" to i n c l u d e Upper T e r t i a r y or P l e i s t o c e n e c o a r s e - g r a i n e d c l a s t i c sediments of the A r c t i c c o a s t a l p l a i n . A Miocene- (?) e a r l y P l i o c e n e age has been r e p o r t e d i n s t u d i e s on Banks I s l a n d by H i l l s and F y l e s (1973) and H i l l s and others 7 (1974), and on Axel Heiberg I s l a n d by H i l l s and B u s t i n (1976) and B u s t i n (1982). An E a r l y Miocene age i s repo r t e d f o r Beaufort s t r a t a which occur n o r t h of Makinson I n l e t ( R i e d i g e r et a l . , 1984; " t h i s s t u d y ) . T e r t i a r y s t r a t a on southern E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d at Stenkul F i o r d were f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by Nathorst (1915) while a member of the Fram e x p e d i t i o n . M c G i l l (1974) d e s c r i b e d outcrops of the Eureka Sound Formation along the shores of Stenkul and Vendom F i o r d s . M i a l l (1981, 1984) noted the occurrence of o u t l i e r s of the Eureka Sound Formation i n the v i c i n i t y of Stenkul and Sor F i o r d s , which are i n c l u d e d as part of the Remus Basin ( B u s t i n , 1977). N o r r i s (i_n F o r t i e r et a l . , 1963, pp. 338-339) and O k u l i t c h (1982) r e p o r t e d an outcrop of the Eureka Sound Formation along the Meadow River east of Vendom F i o r d . O k u l i t c h (1982) a l s o noted Eureka Sound sediments to the east of T r o l l Bay and south of Sor F i o r d . Although the occurrence of Eureka Sound s t r a t a on southern E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d has been known f o r some time, these d e p o s i t s have r e c e i v e d no p r e v i o u s systematic study. S t r a t a of E a r l y Miocene age, h e r e i n a s s i g n e d to the Beaufort Formation, that occur n o r t h of Makinson I n l e t were r e p o r t e d by R i e d i g e r and others (1984) and are f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s study. 8 PART I: STENKUL.FIORD AREA ABSTRACT The Late Cretaceous to Paleogene Eureka Sound Formation in the E a s t e r n Canadian A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o i s a pre- and syn-tec-t o n i c d e p o s i t that records the u p l i f t and segmentation of the E a r l y C a r b o n i f e r o u s to T e r t i a r y Sverdrup B a s i n . On southern E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d , s c a t t e r e d o u t l i e r s of the Eureka Sound Formation r e s t unconformably on or are f a u l t e d a g a i n s t Devonian s t r a t a . In the v i c i n i t y of Stenkul F i o r d on southern Ellesmere I s l a n d , the Eureka. Sound Formation ranges i n age from mid-Paleocene to Late Eocene, has a maximum t h i c k n e s s of 480 metres and comprises a sequence of predominantly nonmarine sandstones, mudstones, c o a l and minor s i l t s t o n e s . O u t l i e r s of the Eureka Sound Formation occur along the shores of Vendom, Sten k u l , Baumann and Sor F i o r d s . These s t r a t a are i n t e r p r e t e d to include nonmarine a l l u v i a l p l a i n and l a c u s t r i n e and b r a c k i s h water l a -goonal, e s t u a r i n e and b a r r i e r bar d e p o s i t s . Four major l i t h o f a c i e s assemblages are recognized based on t h e i r s t r a t i g r a p h i c and s e d i m e n t o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Two b r a c k i s h water l i t h o f a c i e s assemblages occur l o c a l l y and c o n s t i -t u t e a minor p o r t i o n of the s t r a t i g r a p h i c s u c c e s s i o n . The f i r s t b r a c k i s h water l i t h o f a c i e s assemblage i s recognized at the base of the s e c t i o n and comprises a sequence of predominantly brown and grey mudstones, which weather a conspicuous buff to l i g h t cream c o l o u r , with interbedded t h i n c o a l seams. T h i s l i t h o f a c i e s assemblage i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a b r a c k i s h lagoonal or e s t u a r i n e 9 d e p o s i t . The second b r a c k i s h water l i t h o f a c i e s assemblage i s l e s s than 10 m t h i c k and occurs l o c a l l y i n the middle of the s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n . White, w e l l s o r t e d quartzose sandstones are the dominant l i t h o l o g y , with minor mudstones. These are i n -t e r p r e t e d as d e p o s i t s of a b a r r i e r i s l a n d system. Two nonmarine l i t h o f a c i e s assemblages are recognized and c o n s t i t u t e the bulk of the s t r a t i g r a p h i c s u c c e s s i o n : 1) a fining-upward sandstone l i t h o f a c i e s assemblage which has a sharp, e r o s i o n a l base and a t t a i n s a t h i c k n e s s of up to 20 metres; and 2) a coal-mudstorie l i t h o f a c i e s assemblage c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by c o a l seams up to 8 metres t h i c k and grey, commonly c a r -bonaceous mudstones. The c o a l seams are l a t e r a l l y continuous without major s p l i t s f o r d i s t a n c e s of gr e a t e r than a k i l o m e t r e . The nonmarine l i t h o f a c i e s assemblages a l t e r n a t e throughout the s t r a t i g r a p h i c sequence and are r e s p e c t i v e l y i n t e r p r e t e d as f l u -v i a l and f l o o d p l a i n d e p o s i t s of an a l l u v i a l p l a i n environment. Sandstone p e t r o g r a p h i c , heavy mineral and p a l e o c u r r e n t analyses i n d i c a t e that the Eureka Sound sediments were mainly d e r i v e d from Precambrian g r a n u l i t e grade metamorphic rocks of the Canadian S h i e l d to the east and south of the study area. 10 INTRODUCTION The Eureka Sound Formation i s a widespread sedimentary de-p o s i t i n the Canadian A r c t i c I s l a n d s , and comprises a sequence of i nterbedded mudstones, s i l t s t o n e s , sandstones and c o a l seams. The d e p o s i t s are predominantly nonmarine, although l o c a l l y some marine u n i t s occur. Eureka Sound s t r a t a have been i n t e r p r e t e d as d e p o s i t s of p e r i c r a t o n i c or intermontane basins formed d u r i n g the Late Cretaceous to T e r t i a r y Eurekan Orogeny ( B u s t i n , 1977; M i a l l , 1979b; 1981), and l o c a l l y a t t a i n t h i c k n e s s e s of 3.3 km. T h i s study of Eureka Sound s t r a t a on southern Ellesmere I s l a n d p r o v i d e s new in f o r m a t i o n on the nature and extent of T e r t i a r y sedimentation and tectonism i n the ea s t e r n Canadian A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o . The purpose of t h i s paper i s to document the d i s t r i b u t i o n , s t r a t i g r a p h y , s t r u c t u r e and age of the Eureka Sound Formation on southern Ellesmere I s l a n d and to o u t l i n e the Paleogene h i s t o r y of the a r e a . The Eureka Sound Group was the i n i t i a l name f o r interbedded nonmarine sandstones, s i l t s t o n e s , mudstones and c o a l of Late Cretaceous to T e r t i a r y age given by T r o e l s e n (1950, p. 78). The Eureka Sound was r e d e f i n e d as a formation by Tozer F o r t i e r et a l . , 1963, p. 92), who regarded outcrops of the Eureka Sound Formation on Fosheim P e n i n s u l a as t y p i c a l (Tozer in F o r t i e r et a l . , 1963, p. 93). It was co n s i d e r e d to be Late Cretaceous ( M a a s t r i c h t i a n and p o s s i b l y Campanian) to Middle Eocene i n age by T h o r s t e i n s s o n and Tozer (1970) and B u s t i n (1977), whereas 11 others ( J u t a r d and Plauchut, 1973; Doerenkamp et a l . , 1976; Rouse, 1977) considered the Eureka Sound Formation to be e n t i r e -l y T e r t i a r y . T e r t i a r y s t r a t a on southern Ellesmere I s l a n d have r e c e i v e d no p r e v i o u s systematic study. Nathorst (1915) was f i r s t to des-c r i b e T e r t i a r y d e p o s i t s around Stenkul F i o r d . M c G i l l (1974), M i a l l (1981, 1984) and O k u l i t c h (1982) mention the occurrence of Eureka Sound s t r a t a on southern Ellesmere I s l a n d but provide no d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the d e p o s i t s . 12 REGIONAL SETTING The r e g i o n a l geology of the Canadian A r c t i c I s l a n d s has been d e s c r i b e d by s e v e r a l authors ( T h o r s t e i n s s o n and Tozer, 1970; T r e t t i n et a l . , 1972; Drummond, 1973; T r e t t i n and B a l k w i l l , 1979) and w i l l only be b r i e f l y reviewed here. The Eureka Sound Formation i n the v i c i n i t y of Stenkul F i o r d on southern Ellesmere I s l a n d r e s t s unconformably on Devonian s t r a t a of the F r a n k l i n i a n g e o s y n c l i n e ( B a l k w i l l and B u s t i n , 1980; Embry and Klovan, 1976; F i g u r e 3). The F r a n k l i n i a n g e o s y n c l i n e c o n t a i n s Upper P r o t e r o z o i c to Upper Devonian carbo'nate and c l a s t i c sediments, which were de-p o s i t e d on g r a n i t e and g r a n u l i t e grade gneisses of the C h u r c h i l l Province of the Canadian S h i e l d ( F r i s c h et a l . , 1978). The E l l e s m e r i a n orogeny terminated F r a n k l i n i a n g e o s y n c l i n e d e p o s i -t i o n i n Middle Devonian to E a r l y Carboniferous time ( B a l k w i l l , 1978). The Sverdrup Basin was superposed with angular unconformity on f o l d e d , f a u l t e d and eroded F r a n k l i n i a n s t r a t a ( B a l k w i l l , 1978; T r e t t i n and B a l k w i l l , 1979), and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c a r -bonate, c l a s t i c and e v a p o r i t e s t r a t a with minor igneous i n t r u -s i o n s and b a s a l t flows ( B a l k w i l l , 1978). The s t r a t i g r a p h i c se-quence i s up to 13 km t h i c k and i s e s s e n t i a l l y concordant at the depocenter on western Axel Heiberg and Amund Ringnes I s l a n d s , whereas un c o n f o r m i t i e s are present along the margins of the ba s i n ( B a l k w i l l , 1978). Sedimentation occurred w i t h i n the Sverdrup Basin without any major, basin-wide t e c t o n i c i n t e r r u p -FIGURE 3. Geologic map showing the locations of the Vendom, Stenkul, Baumann and Sor Fiord outliers of the Eureka Sound Formation in the study area (geology modified from Kerr and Thorsteinsson, 1971 and McGill, 1974). 1 4 t i o n f r o m E a r l y C a r b o n i f e r o u s t o L a t e C r e t a c e o u s t i m e . S u b s i d e n c e a n d d e p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e S v e r d r u p B a s i n w a s i n t e r r u p t e d d u r i n g M a a s t r i c h t i a n t i m e b y t h e l a t e s t C r e t a c e o u s t o T e r t i a r y E u r e k a n o r o g e n y ( T h o r s t e i n s s o n a n d T o z e r , 1 9 7 0 ) . T h e E u r e k a n o r o g e n y c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p h a s e s o f t e c t o n i s m i n t h e A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o ( B a l k w i l l e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ; B a l k w i l l , 1 9 7 8 ; T r e t t i n a n d B a l k w i l l , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e f i r s t p h a s e o f t h e E u r e k a n o r o -g e n y w a s i n i t i a t e d i n t h e L a t e C r e t a c e o u s ( M a a s t r i c h t i a n ) w i t h t h e u p l i f t a n d e r o s i o n o f t h e n o r t h e r n r i m o f t h e S v e r d r u p B a s i n a n d t h e C o r n w a l l a n d P r i n c e s s M a r g a r e t A r c h e s ( B a l k w i l l , 1 9 7 8 ) . B y P a l e o c e n e t o E a r l y E o c e n e t i m e ( M i a l l , 1 9 8 1 ) , t h e S v e r d r u p B a s i n h a d b e e n s e g m e n t e d i n t o a t l e a s t s e v e n s u b - b a s i n s , e a c h w i t h d i f f e r e n t l o c a l s o u r c e t e r r a i n s a n d f a c i e s . S e q u e n c e s o f m a i n l y n o n m a r i n e c l a s t i c s e d i m e n t s u p t o 3 . 3 km t h i c k a c c u m u -l a t e d w i t h i n t h e b a s i n s w h i c h h a v e b e e n c o l l e c t i v e l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e E u r e k a S o u n d F o r m a t i o n ( M i a l l , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e s e c o n d , o r o g e n i c p h a s e o f t h e E u r e k a n o r o g e n y r e s u l t e d i n u p r i g h t t o o v e r t u r n e d f o l d s a n d r e v e r s e f a u l t s i n L a t e E o c e n e a n d o l d e r s t r a t a i n t h e e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s ( B a l k w i l l , 1 9 7 8 ; T r e t t i n a n d B a l k w i l l , 1 9 7 9 ; t h i s s t u d y ) . T h e f o l d s a n d f a u l t s o n s o u t h e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d g e n e r a l l y f a c e t o t h e s o u t h e a s t t o w a r d s a s a l i e n t o f P r e c a m b r i a n b a s e m e n t , a l t h o u g h i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f S t e n k u l F i o r d , f o l d s i n T e r t i a r y s t r a t a t r e n d n o r t h - n o r t h w e s t a n d a r e d e t a c h e d f r o m t h e u n d e r l y i n g D e v o n i a n s t r a t a ( O k u l i t c h , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e w e s t e r n c o a s t o f A x e l H e i b e r g I s l a n d h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r e d t h e w e s t e r n l i m i t o f c o m p r e s s i o n d u r i n g p h a s e t w o ( L a t e E o c e n e t o E a r l y M i o c e n e ) o f 15 the Eurekan orogeny ( B a l k w i l l and B u s t i n , 1980). The t h i r d and f i n a l phase of the Eurekan orogeny commenced in the E a r l y Miocene with rejuvenated u p l i f t and e r o s i o n of the northern rim of the Sverdrup B a s i n , the P r i n c e s s Margaret Arch and at l e a s t part of e a s t e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d . E r o s i o n a l out-l i e r s of coarse c l a s t i c sediments of Miocene- ( ? ) P l i o c e n e age on c e n t r a l Axel Heiberg I s l a n d ( B u s t i n , 1982) and of E a r l y Miocene age which occur on s o u t h - c e n t r a l Ellesmere I s l a n d ( R i e d i g e r et a l . , 1984; t h i s study) have been assigned to the Beaufort Formation. These d e p o s i t s are post-phase two compression i n the e a s t e r n Canadian A r c t i c I s l a n d s , and are i n d i c a t i v e of at l e a s t l o c a l , l a t e T e r t i a r y r e l a t i v e u p l i f t of both c e n t r a l Axel Heiberg and s o u t h - c e n t r a l E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d s . 16 METHODS F i e l d work T w e n t y - f o u r s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s were measured i n the s t u d y a r e a . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e c t i o n s were measured a l o n g t h e s h o r e s of S t e n k u l F i o r d where t h e b e s t e x p o s u r e s o c c u r r e d . In o t h e r a r e a s , E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a a r e p o o r l y e x p o s e d and c o n s e -q u e n t l y o n l y two s e c t i o n s were measured i n t h e Vendom F i o r d o u t -l i e r a nd one s e c t i o n was measured i n e a c h of t h e Baumann and Sor F i o r d o u t l i e r s ( F i g u r e 3). S t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s were m e a s u r e d i n d e t a i l u s i n g a 1.5 m e t r e J a c o b ' s s t a f f e q u i p p e d w i t h an i n c l i n o m e t e r . S t r a t i g r a p h i c c o r r e l a t i o n s were made i n t h e f i e l d . C o a l seams p r o v i d e d t h e most i d e n t i f i a b l e s t r a t i g r a p h i c m a r k e r s , and were e a s i l y t r a c e d l a t e r a l l y , p e r m i t t i n g a c c u r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n between s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s . The e x t e n t of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n was mapped, and b e d d i n g a t t i t u d e s and f a u l t t r a c e s were measured t o d e l i n e a t e t h e s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e map a r e a . S e v e r a l s a n d s t o n e o u t c r o p s c o n t a i n e d e x c e l l e n t s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s . A t t h e s e o u t c r o p s , t h e a t t i t u d e s of p l a n a r t a b u l a ' r , r i p p l e and t r o u g h c r o s s b e d s were measured t o d e t e r m i n e p a l e o c u r -r e n t f l o w d i r e c t i o n s . The v a r i o u s l i t h o l o g i c u n i t s i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e a were sample d f o r s u b s e q u e n t l a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s . The sand u n i t s were, 17 f o r t h e most part-, u n c o n s o l i d a t e d and were sampled u s i n g a s m a l l s h o v e l . The mud beds were a l s o p o o r l y i n d u r a t e d and were sampled i n t h e same manner. The c o a l seams were commonly t h e most r e s i s -t a n t u n i t s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . U n o x i d i z e d samples of c o a l f o r v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e were c o l l e c t e d from j u s t above t h e perma-f r o s t . P l a n t f r a g m e n t s , m o l l u s c s and t r a c e f o s s i l s a r e commonly p r e s e r v e d i n c o n c r e t i o n a r y beds and l e n s e s , and s e v e r a l samples were c o l l e c t e d f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . A f o s s i l t o o t h was a l s o c o l -l e c t e d from one l o c a l i t y . A n a l y t i c a l Work G r a i n s i z e , s o r t i n g and r o u n d n e s s were d e t e r m i n e d f o r e a c h s a n d s t o n e sample u s i n g a b i n o c u l a r m i c r o s c o p e . T h e s e p a r a m e t e r s were e s t i m a t e d u s i n g t h e r e f e r e n c e d i a g r a m s and p h o t o g r a p h s o f F o l k (1980, p. 2 3 ) , B e a r d and Weyl (1973) and Powers ( 1 9 5 3 ) . Modal a n a l y s e s were c o m p l e t e d f o r 29 s a n d s t o n e s a m p l e s . Of t h e s e , 4 were cemented and 25 were u n c o n s o l i d a t e d . The cemented s a n d s t o n e s were t h i n s e c t i o n e d u s i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e u n c o n s o l i d a t e d sand samples were p r e p a r e d f o r t h i n s e c t i o n a n a l y s i s by m o u n t i n g i n L a k e s i d e 70®, a cement w i t h t h e same r e f r a c t i v e i n d e x as Canada B a l s a m . The L a k e s i d e 70® compound was f i r s t s p r e a d on a g l a s s s l i d e and p l a c e d on a h o t p l a t e t o l o w e r t h e v i s c o s i t y . The u n c o n s o l i d a t e d s a n d was p o u r e d o n t o t h e h e a t e d cement and a l l o w e d t o s e t t l e o n t o th e g l a s s s l i d e . The s l i d e was t h e n removed from t h e h o t p l a t e t o c o o l and h a r d e n . The p r e p a r e d " s e c t i o n s " were t h e n g r o u n d t o t h e s t a n d a r d t h i n s e c t i o n t h i c k n e s s of 0.3 mm. F o r s i x o f t h e sand 18 samples s t u d i e d , t h e p r o c e d u r e o u t l i n e d above d i d n o t p r o v i d e s a t i s f a c t o r y t h i n s e c t i o n s f o r p e t r o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s . The a l t e r -n a t i v e t e c h n i q u e u s e d f o r t h e s e s i x samples i n v o l v e d m o u n t i n g t h e s a n d g r a i n s i n T r a n s o p t i c P o w d e r ® (a t r a n s p a r e n t p l a s t i c ) u s i n g a B u h l e r ® p n e u m a t i c h e a t p r e s s . The s o l i d s a n d and t r a n s -p a r e n t p l a s t i c p e l l e t was t h e n c u t a s a s t a n d a r d t h i n s e c t i o n , w i t h t h e p l a s t i c p r o v i d i n g an a r t i f i c i a l cement. In o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h a l k a l i and p l a g i o c l a s e f e l d s p a r from q u a r t z , a l l t h i n s e c t i o n s were s t a i n e d f o l l o w i n g t h e p r o c e -d u r e s o f B a i l e y and S t e v e n s (1960) w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t a maranth r e d dye r a t h e r t h a n p o t a s s i u m r h o d i z o n a t e was u s e d t o s t a i n t h e p l a g i o c l a s e f e l d s p a r . A l l t h i n s e c t i o n s were c o v e r e d s u b s e q u e n t t o s t a i n i n g . A minimum o f 300 p o i n t s were c o u n t e d f o r e a c h t h i n s e c t i o n of s a n d , a t a g r i d s p a c i n g o f 0.3 mm. C o u n t s were made of mono-c r y s t a l l i n e and p o l y c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z , p l a g i o c l a s e , p o t a s s i u m and p e r t h i t i c f e l d s p a r , p l u t o n i c , s e d i m e n t a r y and metamorphic r o c k f r a g m e n t s and m i s c e l l a n e o u s m i n e r a l g r a i n s w h i c h i n c l u d e d b i o t i t e , m u s c o v i t e , z i r c o n and o t h e r heavy m i n e r a l s . S e p a r a t i o n of t h e heavy m i n e r a l f r a c t i o n of t h e sands was a c c o m p l i s h e d u s i n g bromoform w h i c h has a d e n s i t y o f 2.89 g / c c . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e heavy m i n e r a l f r a c t i o n s t h u s o b t a i n e d was a c h i e v e d by p e t r o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s . T h i n s e c t i o n s were p r e p a r e d u s i n g one of t h e t e c h n i q u e s o u t l i n e d above f o r t h e u n c o n s o l i -d a t e d s a n d s a m p l e s . Mudstone samples were p r o c e s s e d f o r p a l y n o m o r p h s u s i n g a 19 s t a n d a r d t e c h n i q u e t h a t i n c l u d e s HC1, HF, HN0 3, a c e t o l y s i s , Z n B r 2 and s i e v i n g . A l i q u o t s of p a l y n o m o r p h s e d i m e n t were mounted on c o v e r s l i p s w i t h C e l l o s i z e ® and s e a l e d w i t h F l o - T e x x ® ( L e r n e r L a b o r a t o r i e s ) . T h i r t e e n c o a l s a m p l e s were c r u s h e d and d r y s i e v e d u s i n g a 60 mesh (0.25 mm) US S t a n d a r d s i e v e s i z e . The minus 60 mesh f r a c t i o n of t h e c r u s h e d c o a l s was mixed w i t h T r a n s o p t i c Powder and made i n t o p e l l e t s i n a h y d r a u l i c p r e s s e q u i p p e d w i t h a h e a t c o u p l e r . The p r e p a r e d p e l l e t s were t h e n p o l i s h e d . A L e i t z M.P.V. 2 ® r e f l e c t e d l i g h t m i c r o s c o p e was employed t o measure t h e mean maximum r e f l e c t i v i t y o f e a c h c o a l sample i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d by B u s t i n and o t h e r s ( 1 9 8 3 ) . 20 STRATIGRAPHY AND STRUCTURE S c a t t e r e d o u t l i e r s o f t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n c r o p out a l o n g t h e s h o r e s of Vendom, S t e n k u l , Baumann and Sor F i o r d s on s o u t h e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d . The b u l k of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y o f t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n on s o u t h e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d was o b t a i n e d from t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d o u t l i e r , where good, c o n -t i n u o u s o u t c r o p i s i n t e r r u p t e d by o n l y a few c r e e k v a l l e y s and c o v e r e d i n t e r v a l s . T h i s a r e a t h u s p r o v i d e s t h e b e s t o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e and d e s c r i b e f a c i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c h a n g e s . B e c a u s e o f p o o r o u t c r o p , o n l y one s e c t i o n c o u l d be measured i n e a c h o f t h e o u t l i e r s l y i n g a l o n g Baumann and Sor F i o r d s , and two s e c t i o n s were measured i n t h e o u t l i e r b o r d e r i n g Vendom F i o r d . A c o n t i n u o u s , 480 m t h i c k s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n o f t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n was measured i n t h e Baumann F i o r d o u t l i e r ( s e c -t i o n 22, F i g u r e 15) but c o n t a i n s many c o v e r e d i n t e r v a l s . The t o t a l c o m p o s i t e t h i c k n e s s of E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d o u t l i e r , w hich p r o v i d e s more c o n t i n u o u s o u t c r o p , i s e s t i -mated t o be on t h e o r d e r o f 450 m e t r e s . The E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y a r e a c o m p r i s e s a p r e d o m i n a n t l y nonmarine sequence of c l a s t i c s e d i m e n t s and c o a l , a l t h o u g h b r a c k i s h water d e p o s i t s o c c u r l o c a l l y . The E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d o u t l i e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r d i s -t i n c t l i t h o f a c i e s a s s e m b l a g e s , w h i c h were d e p o s i t e d i n d i f f e r e n t s e d i m e n t a r y e n v i r o n m e n t s . In t h e Vendom, Baumann and Sor F i o r d o u t l i e r s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of d e p o s i t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s a r e s u g -g e s t e d b a s e d on t h e o v e r a l l s t r a t i g r a p h y . 21 E u r e k a Sound o u t l i e r s on s o u t h e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d f o r t h e most p a r t l i e w i t h a n g u l a r u n c o n f o r m i t y on t h e D e v o n i a n B i r d F i o r d F o r m a t i o n or Okse Bay Group, but i n some c a s e s l i e i n f a u l t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e D e v o n i a n B l u e F i o r d and B i r d F i o r d F o r m a t i o n s and t h e Okse Bay Group ( M c G i l l , 1974; t h i s s t u d y , F i g u r e 3 ) . The s t r a t i g r a p h y and s t r u c t u r e i n e a c h of t h e f o u r o u t l i e r s o f t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n on s o u t h e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d a r e o u t l i n e d below, t o g e t h e r w i t h an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d e p o s i t -i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . STENKUL FIORD The E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n a t S t e n k u l F i o r d c r o p s o u t o v e r an a r e a o f a b o u t 20 s q u a r e k i l o m e t r e s ( F i g u r e 3 ) . The E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n commonly l i e s i n f a u l t c o n t a c t w i t h D e v o n i a n r o c k s . B o t h n o r m a l and t h r u s t f a u l t s between E u r e k a Sound and o l d e r r o c k s o c c u r ( M c G i l l , 1974). E l s e w h e r e , t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n l i e s w i t h a n g u l a r u n c o n f o r m i t y on t h e D e v o n i a n Okse Bay Group ( F i g u r e 3 ) . E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a a t S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e m a i n l y f l a t - l y i n g o r g e n t l y d i p p i n g and t h e s t r u c t u r e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by open f o l d s and m i n o r t h r u s t f a u l t s ( F i g u r e 3 ) . However, v e r y t i g h t f o l d s and t h r u s t f a u l t s o c c u r l o c a l l y i n t h e s o u t h w e s t c o r n e r of t h e s t u d y a r e a . These s t r u c t u r e s a f f e c t a s m a l l a r e a ( l e s s t h a n 5 s q u a r e k i l o m e t r e s ) , a p p e a r o n l y i n t h e upper p a r t o f t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c s u c c e s s i o n , and a r e d e t a c h e d from t h e u n d e r l y i n g 22 F I G U R E 4 . S t r a t i g r a p h y o f t h e E u r e k a S o u n d F o r m a t i o n i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d o u t l i e r A . G l a c i a l l y d e f o r m e d s t r a t a s o u t h o f S t e n k u l F i o r d . B . O u t c r o p s o n t h e s o u t h s h o r e o f . S t e n k u l F i o r d , s h o w i n g a l t e r -n a t i n g s e q u e n c e o f L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e I ( L F I ) a n d L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e I I ( L F I I ) . C . B a s a l s t r a t a o n t h e e a s t s h o r e o f S t e n k u l F i o r d , h e r e a s -s i g n e d t o L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e I I I . D . L o c a l o c c u r r e n c e o f L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e I V , s o u t h w e s t o f S t e n k u l F i o r d . 24 s t r a t a ( F i g u r e 4 A ) . O k u l i t c h (1982) a l s o o b s e r v e d t h e s e s t r u c -t u r e s , but o f f e r e d no e x p l a n a t i o n e x c e p t t h a t t h e y must be com-p r e s s i o n a l i n o r i g i n . The most p l a u s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s a r e a r e s u l t of i c e t h r u s t i n g , and d e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e b e d d i n g o c c u r r e d as g l a c i e r s a d v a n c e d o v e r t h e a r e a . Twenty s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s were measured and c o r r e l a t e d a t S t e n k u l F i o r d ( F i g u r e s 5, 6, and 7, i n p o c k e t ) . The o l d e s t beds of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n w h i c h c r o p o u t a t S t e n k u l F i o r d o c c u r a t t h e base of s e c t i o n 07 ( F i g u r e 5, i n p o c k e t , and F i g u r e 8 ) . The b a s a l c o n t a c t i s n o t e x p o s e d , b u t t h e E u r e k a Sound beds a r e p r o b a b l y r e s t i n g u n c o n f o r m a b l y on t h e D e v o n i a n Okse Bay F o r m a t i o n , as i s o b s e r v e d e l s e w h e r e . The o v e r a l l d i p of t h e s t r a t a i s t o t h e w e s t - s o u t h w e s t , and t h e beds l y i n g a l o n g t h e s o u t h s h o r e of S t e n k u l F i o r d t h u s c o n s t i t u t e t h e uppermost p a r t o f t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c s u c c e s s i o n a t S t e n k u l F i o r d . A t h i n ( l e s s t h a n 10 m), d i s c o n t i n u o u s v e n e e r of Q u a t e r n a r y (?) b o u l d e r t i l l c a p s t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e a . Two t h i c k , nonmarine l i t h o f a c i e s a s s e m b l a g e s a r e r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e a , w h i c h a l t e r n a t e t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t r a t -i g r a p h i c s u c c e s s i o n ( F i g u r e 4B); L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e I , c h a r -a c t e r i z e d by v e r y f i n e - t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d f i n i n g - u p w a r d s a n d -s t o n e u n i t s , and L i t h o f a c i e s A s semblage I I w h i c h c o n s i s t s p r e -d o m i n a n t l y o f i n t e r b e d d e d c o a l and d a r k g r e y t o b l a c k mudstone. Two b r a c k i s h water l i t h o f a c i e s a s s e m b l a g e s a r e r e c o g n i z e d l o c a l l y and r e p r e s e n t m a r i n e t r a n s g r e s s i o n s i n t o t h e s t u d y a r e a . L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e I I I ( F i g u r e 4 C ) , w h i c h o c c u r s a t t h e base o f t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c s u c c e s s i o n , i s a s equence o f p r e d o m i n a n t l y 25 FIGURE 8. E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d o u t l i e r A e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h (A-16685-47), s o u t h o f S t e n k u l F i o r d s howing t h e l o c a t i o n s of t h e measured s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s (eg.r— 4-21). G e o l o g y m o d i f i e d a f t e r M c G i l l ( 1 9 7 4 ) . Q - Q u a t e r n a r y g r a v e l s and a l l u v i u m Te - E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n Dob - Okse Bay Group T h i s a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h © 19-7-59 Her M a j e s t y t h e Queen i n R i g h t o f Canada, r e p r o d u c e d from t h e c o l l e c t i o n of t h e N a t i o n a l A i r P h o t o L i b r a r y w i t h p e r m i s s i o n o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s Canada. 2 6 27 brown and g r e y mudstones, w h i c h w e a t h e r a c o n s p i c u o u s b u f f t o l i g h t c r e am c o l o u r , and i n t e r b e d d e d t h i n c o a l seams. L i t h o f a c i e s A ssemblage IV c r o p s out i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e s e c t i o n ( F i g u r e 4D) and c o n s i s t s o f t h i n , p r e d o m i n a n t l y w h i t e , w e l l - s o r t e d q u a r t z a r e n i t e s w h i c h i n t e r t o n g u e w i t h m i n o r , p a r t l y c a l c a r e o u s mud-s t o n e s . A m a r i n e i n c u r s i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d l o c a l l y and i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a t h i n mudstone bed w h i c h c o n t a i n s a m a r i n e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t a s s e m b l a g e (G. Rouse, p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1984). LITHOFACIES ASSEMBLAGE I S a n d s t o n e i s t h e p r i m a r y l i t h o l o g y of l i t h o f a c i e s assem-b l a g e I and makes up more t h a n 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n a t S t e n k u l F i o r d . The a r k o s i c c o m p o s i t i o n and geometry of t h e s a n d s t o n e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h L i t h o f a c i e s A s semblage I from o t h e r l i t h o f a c i e s a s s e m b l a g e s . The s a n d s t o n e s o c c u r as en e c h e l o n m u l t i - s t o r i e d s e q u e n c e s and c o n -t a i n s e v e r a l t y p e s of c r o s s - b e d d i n g . The s a n d s t o n e s a r e m o d e r a t e l y t o w e l l s o r t e d and v a r y i n g r a i n s i z e f r o m v e r y f i n e t o g r a n u l e ( T a b l e I ) . They a r e p r e -d o m i n a n t l y g r e y t o brown and w e a t h e r l i g h t g r e y t o b u f f . The s a n d s t o n e s r a n g e i n t h i c k n e s s from 1 t o 25 m, a r e commonly a r -r a n g e d i n en e c h e l o n , m u l t i - s t o r i e d s e q u e n c e s and e x t e n d l a t e r -a l l y f o r d i s t a n c e s of 0.5 t o 1 km ( F i g u r e s 5, 6 and 7, i n p o c k e t ) . The s a n d s t o n e s a r e s u b a r k o s e s , l i t h i c s u b a r k o s e s , l i t h i c 28 a r k o s e s and a r k o s e s u s i n g M c B r i d e ' s (1963) s a n d s t o n e c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n ( F i g u r e 18). F o r t h e most p a r t , t h e s a n d s t o n e s a r e u n c o n s o -l i d a t e d , a l t h o u g h r a r e , t h i n ( l e s s t h a n 10 cm) s i d e r i t e cemented s a n d s t o n e l e n s e s o c c u r . The m i n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e s s e v e r a l q u a r t z t y p e s ( s t r a i g h t and u n d u l o s e e x t i n c t i o n , c o m p o s i t e g r a i n s , s t r e t c h e d metamorphic g r a i n s and c h e r t ) , p l a g i o c l a s e , p o t a s s i u m and p e r t h i t i c f e l d s p a r s , s e d i m e n t a r y , metamorphic and i g n e o u s r o c k f r a g m e n t s , m u s c o v i t e and b i o t i t e . C a r b o n a c e o u s p l a n t d e b r i s and i r o n s t o n e n o d u l e s and l e n s e s o c c u r w i t h i n t h e s a n d s t o n e s . The b a s a l c o n t a c t of t h e s a n d s t o n e s i s commonly e r o s i o n a l ( F i g u r e 9 A ) . L a g d e p o s i t s of v e r y c o a r s e - g r a i n e d sand c o n t a i n i n g p e b b l e s and c o b b l e s o f q u a r t z i t e , g n e i s s and g r a n i t e and r a r e c o a l s p a r ( F i g u r e 9B) g e n e r a l l y o c c u r i n . t h e c u t and f i l l s t r u c -t u r e s ( F i g u r e 9 C ) . T h e s e c o a r s e b a s a l d e p o s i t s r a n g e from a few c e n t i m e t r e s t o 40 cm t h i c k . C o n v o l u t e l a m i n a t i o n s up t o 1.5 m h i g h ( F i g u r e 9D), p l a n a r t a b u l a r , p l a n a r t a n g e n t i a l and t r o u g h c r o s s - b e d d i n g and r i p p l e c r o s s - l a m i n a t i o n a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e s a n d s t o n e s . P l a n a r t a b u l a r and p l a n a r t a n g e n t i a l c r o s s - b e d s e t s range from 5 t o 30 cm t h i c k ( F i g u r e 9 E ) . T r o u g h c r o s s - b e d s v a r y f r o m 5 t o 15 cm i n t h i c k n e s s ( F i g u r e 9 F ) , and s e t s of r i p p l e c r o s s - l a m i n a t i o n a r e f r o m 1 t o 5 cm t h i c k ( F i g u r e 10A). A t y p i c a l v e r t i c a l s equence o f s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n t h e s a n d s t o n e u n i t s i s shown on F i g u r e 10B. C o a r s e b a s a l l a g and s c o u r and f i l l d e p o s i t s and a s s o c i a t e d m e d i u m - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s w i t h p l a n a r c r o s s - b e d s e t s up t o 70 cm t h i c k and o c c u r i n t h e l o w e r p a r t of t h e o u t c r o p . F i n e - t o v e r y f i n e -29 FIGURE 9. S e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s , L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e I , S t e n k u l F i o r d o u t l i e r A. B a s a l e r o s i o n a l c o n t a c t of a s a n d s t o n e bed w i t h an u n d e r l y i n g c o a l seam. The s c a l e i s 15 cm l o n g . B. B a s a l l a g d e p o s i t s c o n t a i n i n g p e b b l e s , c o b b l e s and c o a l s p a r . The s c a l e i s 15 cm l o n g . C. Cut and f i l l s t r u c t u r e s . The s c a l e i s 15 cm l o n g . D. C o n v o l u t e l a m i n a t i o n s . The s t a f f i s 1.5 m h i g h . E. P l a n a r t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g . The s c a l e i s 15 cm l o n g . F. T r o u g h c r o s s - b e d d i n g . The s c a l e i s 15 cm l o n g . 31 g r a i n e d r i p p l e l a m i n a t e d s a n d s t o n e s i n t h e upper p a r t a r e c a p p e d by a t h i n , p l a n a r p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t e d s i l t s t o n e bed. S i l t s t o n e and mudstone beds a r e l o c a l l y i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h t h e s a n d s t o n e s . The t h i n - b e d d e d , p l a n a r p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t e d s i l t -s t o n e s a r e medium brown t o g r e y and weather a b u f f t o l i g h t brown c o l o u r . The s i l t s t o n e s a r e commonly a r g i l l a c e o u s a n d c o n -t a i n a bundant comminuted p l a n t d e b r i s . They r a n g e from l e s s t h a n 1 m t o 5 m i n t h i c k n e s s , and most commonly o c c u r a t t h e t o p of t h e s a n d s t o n e l i t h o f a c i e s . C o n t a c t s between t h e s i l t s t o n e s and a d j a c e n t s e d i m e n t s a r e m a i n l y g r a d a t i o n a l , e x c e p t a t a few l o c a -l i t i e s where t h e s i l t s t o n e s have been e r o d e d by an o v e r l y i n g s a n d s t o n e u n i t . The mudstones a r e u s u a l l y g r e y t o b l a c k i n c o l o u r w i t h no v i s i b l e l a m i n a t i o n and a r e v a r i a b l y s i l t y and c a r b o n a c e o u s . The mudstone beds a v e r a g e 1 t o 2 m i n t h i c k n e s s and u s u a l l y have a g r a d a t i o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e u n d e r l y i n g s i l t -s t o n e and s h a r p or e r o s i o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h o v e r l y i n g c o a l o r s a n d s t o n e r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage I c o m p r i s e s a sequence o f s e d i m e n -t a r y f a c i e s t h a t i s a r e s u l t o f d e p o s i t i o n i n m e a n d e r i n g c h a n -n e l s i n an a l l u v i a l p l a i n e n v i r o n m e n t . The c h a n n e l s a n d s t o n e s e x h i b i t s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s and an o v e r a l l f i n i n g - u p w a r d s e -q u e n c e w h i c h i s s i m i l a r t o t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c s u c c e s s i o n d e -s c r i b e d by W a l k e r and Cant (1980) f o r m e a n d e r i n g r i v e r s . I n p a r -t i c u l a r , t h e o u t c r o p s e c t i o n d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 10B i s a good example o f f e a t u r e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d e p o s i t i o n i n a meander l o o p 32 F I G U R E 1 0 . S e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s , p l a n t f o s s i l s a n d s t r a t i -g r a p h y , S t e n k u l F i o r d o u t l i e r . A . R i p p l e c r o s s - l a m i n a t i o n s . T h e s c a l e i s 15 c m l o n g . B . T y p i c a l v e r t i c a l s e q u e n c e o f s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n t h e s a n d s t o n e s o f L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e I . C . I n t e r b e d d e d m u d s t o n e s a n d c o a l s e a m s o f L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e I I ( L F I I ) . D . A m b e r o c c u r r i n g i n a n i r o n s t o n e c o n c r e t i o n . E . P e t r i f i e d t r e e s t u m p i n g r o w t h p o s i t i o n . S t a f f i s 1.5 m l o n g . F . R o o t m a r k i n r e s i s t a n t c a l c a r e o u s s a n d s t o n e b e d . T h e s c a l e i s 15 c m l o n g . 33 34 t h a t was abandoned by c h u t e c u t - o f f (Walker and C a n t , 1980). C o a r s e c h a n n e l l a g d e p o s i t s and medium- t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d p l a n a r c r o s s - b e d d e d c h a n n e l f i l l s a n d s t o n e s were d e p o s i t e d i n t h e a c t i v e c h a n n e l s , whereas f i n e r - g r a i n e d r i p p l e c r o s s - l a m i n a t e d and c o n v o l u t e l a m i n a t e d s a n d s t o n e s and p l a n a r p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t e d s i l t s t o n e s were formed h i g h e r on t h e p o i n t b a r o f t h e m e a n d e r i n g c h a n n e l . T h e s e d e p o s i t s r e s e m b l e p o i n t bar d e p o s i t s d e s c r i b e d by W a l k e r and Cant ( 1 9 8 0 ) , F l o r e s (1981) and Cant ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The sand-s t o n e c o m p o s i t i o n i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a r k o s i c , and i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a f l u v i a l c h a n n e l p o i n t bar i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The s a n d s t o n e s o f L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage I d i s p l a y s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w hich a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e of F l o r e s ' (1981) Type I s a n d s t o n e . The en e c h e l o n a r r a n g e m e n t of t h e s a n d s t o n e u n i t s i s a r e s u l t o f l a t e r a l s h i f t i n g of c h a n n e l s i n t o l o w - l y i n g a r e a s i n a d j a c e n t backswamps. H o m e and o t h e r s (1978) and Ferm and C a v a r o c (1968) d e s c r i b e a s i m i l a r g e o m e t r i c a r r a n g e m e n t of s a n d s t o n e u n i t s i n t h e A l l e g h e n y r o c k s of West V i r g i n i a . The o r g a n i c - r i c h s i l t s t o n e and mudstone beds w h i c h a r e a s -s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c h a n n e l s a n d s t o n e s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s e i t h e r d e p o s i t s o f abandoned c h a n n e l s due t o c h u t e o r neck c u t - o f f of t h e meander l o o p or as o v e r b a n k f i n e s on t o p of t h e p o i n t b a r . T h e s e r e s e m b l e d e p o s i t s r e s u l t i n g from c h a n n e l abandonment de-s c r i b e d by W a l k e r and Cant ( 1 9 8 0 ) . 35 LITHOFACIES ASSEMBLAGE II L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e II i s m o s t l y composed of i n t e r b e d d e d d a r k g r e y mudstone and t h i c k c o a l seams, w h i c h a r e t h e d i s t i n -g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s o f t h i s l i t h o f a c i e s a s s e m b l a g e . Mudstone com-p r i s e s up t o 30 p e r c e n t and c o a l a c c o u n t s f o r as much as 25 p e r -c e n t o f t h e T e r t i a r y s u c c e s s i o n a t S t e n k u l F i o r d . M i n o r amounts o f s a n d s t o n e , s i l t s t o n e and i r o n s t o n e a r e f o u n d i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e mudstone and c o a l and a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s l i t h o f a c i e s a s s e m b l a g e . The mudstones o c c u r i n u n i t s l o c a l l y as t h i c k as 20 m but r a r e l y e x c e e d i n g 10 m i n t h i c k n e s s . The mudstones a r e d a r k g r e y , d a r k brown o r b l a c k , and t h e y weather l i g h t g r e y . They a r e com-monly c a r b o n a c e o u s and c o n t a i n c o a l s t r i n g e r s and abundant o r -g a n i c d e b r i s . The mudstones a r e m a s s i v e and some a r e s i l t y . A m a r i n e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t a s s e m b l a g e was i d e n t i f i e d i n a t h i n mudstone u n i t t o w a r d s t h e t o p o f s e c t i o n 18 (sample 18-134, A p p e n d i x ) . C o a l seams v a r y i n t h i c k n e s s f r o m a few c e n t i m e t r e s t o 15 m ( F i g u r e 10C). C o a l seams ca n be t r a c e d l a t e r a l l y o v e r d i s t a n c e s o f g r e a t e r t h a n 1 km ( F i g u r e s 5, 6 and 7, i n p o c k e t ) . The c o a l i s o f l i g n i t e rank and v a r i e s f r o m m a i n l y b l o c k y , woody, t o u g h c o a l t o r a r e l a y e r s o f e s s e n t i a l l y u n c o a l i f i e d p l a n t d e b r i s c o n -s i s t i n g of l e a f and stem f r a g m e n t s . The c o a l i s g e n e r a l l y a r g i l -l a c e o u s and commonly o c c u r s as t h i n i n t e r b e d s w i t h i n and g r a d a -t i o n a l w i t h t h e c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstones. Amber, w h i c h i s common i n t h e c o a l seams, o c c u r s as s m a l l (1 t o 10 cm), s p h e r o i d a l t o 3 6 i r r e g u l a r l y shaped g l o b u l e s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t and i n c o n c e n -t r a t i o n s a l o n g b e d d i n g p l a n e s , and i n i r o n s t o n e c o n c r e t i o n s ( F i g u r e 1 0 D ) . The amber i s b r i t t l e and c r u m b l y , and v a r i e s i n c o l o u r from c l e a r l e m o n - y e l l o w t o t r a n s l u c e n t y e l l o w - o r a n g e . I r o n s t o n e c o n c r e t i o n s , p e t r i f i e d l o g s and t r e e stumps i n g r o w t h p o s i t i o n ( F i g u r e 1 0 E ) commonly o c c u r w i t h i n t h e c o a l seams, whereas c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstone, s i l t s t o n e and s a n d s t o n e o c c u r o n l y l o c a l l y as p a r t i n g s w i t h i n t h e c o a l seams. M i n o r amounts o f s i l t s t o n e and s a n d s t o n e o c c u r i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h t h e c o a l and mudstone. S i l t s t o n e and s a n d s t o n e beds a r e u s u a l l y l e s s t h a n a m etre but range up t o 5 m i n t h i c k n e s s . They most commonly o c c u r as s p l i t s w i t h i n t h e c o a l seams, but a r e a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m udstones. The s i l t s t o n e s a r e u s u a l l y brown, l o c a l l y a r g i l l a c e o u s and c a r b o n a c e o u s , w i t h f i n e p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n s and r i p p l e c r o s s - l a m i n a t i o n s . The s a n d s t o n e s a r e m o s t l y v e r y f i n e - t o f i n e - g r a i n e d but medium- t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d beds o c c u r . The c o a r s e r s a n d s t o n e s o f t e n have e r o s i o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e u n d e r l y i n g l i t h o l o g i e s . C a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s , m i c a f l a k e s and s i l t o c c u r i n many s a n d s t o n e s . P a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n and a s y m m e t r i c a l r i p p l e c r o s s - l a m i n a t i o n a r e r a r e l y o b s e r v e d i n t h e s a n d s t o n e u n i t s . I r o n s t o n e ( m a i n l y s i d e r i t e ) i s p r e s e n t as n o d u l e s i n a l l l i t h o l o g i e s a t S t e n k u l F i o r d . The i r o n s t o n e s a r e r e d d i s h brown and c o n t a i n a v a r i e t y o f o r g a n i c c o n s t i t u e n t s i n c l u d i n g l e a v e s , stems and b r a n c h e s o f p l a n t s and t r e e s , y e l l o w t o o r a n g e amber, p l a n t r o o t l e t s , t r a c e f o s s i l s and f r e s h w a t e r m o l l u s c s . 37 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n The s e d i m e n t a r y f a c i e s o f L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e II r e p r e -s e n t v e r t i c a l a c c r e t i o n d e p o s i t s i n backswamps o r f l o o d b a s i n s and on c h a n n e l l e v e e s i n an a l l u v i a l p l a i n e n v i r o n m e n t . The backswamp e n v i r o n m e n t s u p p o r t e d a b u n d a n t f r e s h w a t e r v e g e t a t i o n ( M e t a s e q u o i a ) w h i c h underwent l a t e r h u m i f i c a t i o n r e -s u l t i n g i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c o a l . L e a f f r a g m e n t s , amber and f r e s h w a t e r p e l e c y p o d s t h a t o c c u r a r e common i n backswamp d e p o s -i t s ( H o m e e t a l . , 1 9 78). The common o c c u r r e n c e o f l a r g e p e t r i -f i e d t r e e t r u n k s and t r e e stumps i n g r o w t h p o s i t i o n a r e e v i d e n c e o f a r b o r e a l v e g e t a t i o n on t h e a l l u v i a l p l a i n . C o a l seams v a r y i n t h i c k n e s s and l a t e r a l e x t e n t , and i n t h i c k n e s s and number o f mudstone, s i l t s t o n e and s a n d s t o n e s p l i t s . T h i c k , l a t e r a l l y e x t e n s i v e c o a l s were formed i n i s o l a t e d b r o a d backswamps, where p e a t f o r m a t i o n was r a r e l y i n t e r r u p t e d by i n f l u x o f c l a s t i c d e t r i t u s . E t h r i d g e and o t h e r s (1981) n o t e d t h a t t h i c k c o a l s i n t h e Powder R i v e r B a s i n were formed i n b e l t s p e r i p h e r a l t o m a j o r t r u n k s t r e a m s . They f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i c k c o a l f o r m a t i o n was f a v o u r e d by a m o i s t , s u b - t r o p i c a l c l i -mate and t h e l o c a t i o n o f g r o u n d w a t e r d i s c h a r g e z o n e s a l o n g t h e b a s i n a x i s . S i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s l i k e l y f a v o u r e d t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e t h i c k c o a l seams i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , w h i c h o c c u r i n t h e a x i s o f t h e Vendom S y n c l i n e , a t o p o g r a p h i c low formed d u r i n g t h e E l l e s m e r i a n o r o g e n y ( M c G i l , 1974). C l o s e r t o t h e a c t i v e c h a n n e l s , b r e a c h i n g o f t h e c h a n n e l l e v e e s and f l o o d i n g o f t h e backswamp a r e a s by c r e v a s s e s p l a y and 38 o v e r b a n k d e t r i t u s i n t e r r u p t e d p e a t f o r m a t i o n , a n d r e s u l t e d i n t h i n c o a l seams. E t h r i d g e and o t h e r s (1981) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i n seams d e v e l o p e d on s l i g h t l y b e t t e r d r a i n e d c r e v a s s e s p l a y p l a t -forms." E i t h e r o r b o t h of t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s may e x p l a i n t h e o c -c u r r e n c e of t h i n c o a l s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . L a t e r a l l y c o n t i n u o u s o r g a n i c - r i c h s i l t s t o n e s and mudstones i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h t h e c o a l seams t h a t were d e p o s i t e d from s u s p e n -s i o n d u r i n g and a f t e r f l o o d i n g o f t h e backswamp a r e a s . F i n e -g r a i n e d d e p o s i t s o c c u r s p a t i a l l y above and m a r g i n a l t o t h e c h a n -n e l d e p o s i t s o f L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e I , and r e s e m b l e c h a n n e l l e v e e - o v e r b a n k d e p o s i t s d e s c r i b e d by F l o r e s ( 1 9 8 1 ) . O c c a s i o n a l b r e a c h i n g of t h e c h a n n e l l e v e e s r e s u l t e d i n c r e -v a s s e s p l a y s w h i c h s p r e a d out o v e r t h e backswamp a r e a , e r o d i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g p e a t and d e p o s i t i n g s a n d , s i l t and c l a y . T h e s e d e p o s i t s r e s e m b l e c r e v a s s e s p l a y and d i s t a l s p l a y d e p o s i t s o f t h e u p p e r F o r t U n i o n F o r m a t i o n d e s c r i b e d by F l o r e s ( 1 9 8 1 ) . F i n e s e d i m e n t s were a l s o d e p o s i t e d from s u s p e n s i o n i n oxbow l a k e s w h i c h f o r m e d a s a r e s u l t of c h a n n e l abandonment. A m a r i n e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t a s s e m b l a g e d a t e d as L a t e Eocene (G. Rouse, p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1984) was i d e n t i f i e d from a t h i n mudstone bed n e a r t h e t o p o f t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c s u c -c e s s i o n and i s e v i d e n c e of a m a r i n e i n c u r s i o n i n t o t h e a r e a . I r o n s t o n e i s f o u n d i n a l l r o c k t y p e s i n t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n and e v e r y w h e r e e n c l o s e s o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s u c h a s p l a n t f r a g m e n t s , amber and f r e s h w a t e r p e l e c y p o d s . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e d e c a y o f t h e o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l c r e a t e d l o c a l r e d u c i n g a n d / o r 39 h i g h e r pH c o n d i t i o n s f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n of i r o n c a r -b o n a t e s . LITHOFACIES ASSEMBLAGE I I I L i t h o f a c i e s a s s e m b l a g e I I I c o m p r i s e s t h e o l d e s t s t r a t a i n t h e s t u d y a r e a and i s p r e s e n t o n l y on t h e e a s t s i d e of S t e n k u l F i o r d . I t a t t a i n s a maximum t h i c k n e s s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90 m a t t h e b a s e o f s e c t i o n 07 ( F i g u r e 5, i n p o c k e t ) . The dominant l i t h -o l o g i e s a r e brown mudstones w i t h t h i n , i n t e r b e d d e d c o a l seams a v e r a g i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 m i n t h i c k n e s s . S t r a t a o f L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e I I I weather a d i s t i n c t i v e p a l e c r e am t o b u f f c o l o u r , w h i c h e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h i s from o t h e r l i t h o f a c i e s assem-b l a g e s . The o c c u r r e n c e of c a l c a r e o u s s i l t s t o n e s and s a n d s t o n e s , t h e f i n e g r a i n s i z e of t h e s e d i m e n t s and t h e o c c u r r e n c e of t h i n , d i s c o n t i n u o u s c o a l seams a r e t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s of L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage I I I . M u dstones of L i t h o f a c i e s A s semblage I I I a r e medium brown t o l i g h t g r e y , weather a c o n s p i c u o u s b u f f t o p a l e cream c o l o u r ( F i g u r e 4 C ) , a r e commonly c a l c a r e o u s and r e s i s t a n t , and o f t e n c o n t a i n m a c e r a t e d c a r b o n a c e o u s p l a n t f r a g m e n t s . M a r i n e d i n o f l a -g e l l a t e c y s t s were r e c o v e r e d from mudstones w h i c h c r o p out a t t h e b a s e o f t h e s e c t i o n . The c o a l seams of L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage I I I a r e d i s c o n -t i n u o u s and a v e r a g e l e s s t h a n 1 m i n t h i c k n e s s . O n l y one seam i s g r e a t e r t h a n 2 m t h i c k . Most c o a l i s t o u g h and a r g i l l a c e o u s but a l s o o c c u r s as l a y e r s of u n c o a l i f i e d p l a n t m a t e r i a l . 40 R e s i s t a n t , w e l l - i n d u r a t e d c a l c a r e o u s s i l t s t o n e s and s a n d -s t o n e s , w h i c h r a r e l y c o n t a i n g l a u c o n i t e , o c c u r l o c a l l y as pods (up t o 7 m l o n g ) and beds ( g r e a t e r t h a n 20 m i n l a t e r a l e x t e n t ) . The c a l c a r e o u s s i l t s t o n e s a n d s a n d s t o n e s a r e l e s s t h a n 2 m t h i c k and a r e f o u n d i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h f i n e g r a i n e d s e d i m e n t s under-l y i n g s e v e r a l of t h e c o a l seams. The c a l c a r e o u s s i l t s t o n e s and s a n d s t o n e s a r e l i g h t g r e y , w e a t h e r l i g h t o r a n g e and a r e m a i n l y m a s s i v e , but f i n e p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n s and r i p p l e c r o s s - l a m i n a -t i o n s o c c u r i n t h e upper p a r t o f some u n i t s . C o n t a c t s w i t h a d j a -c e n t l i t h o l o g i e s a r e g r a d a t i o n a l t o s h a r p . Root marks up t o 30 cm l o n g ( F i g u r e 10F) and f r a g m e n t s of M e t a s e q u o i a a r e common. V e r y f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s and s i l t s t o n e s a r e m o s t l y un-c o n s o l i d a t e d , but f r i a b l e , c a l c i t e cemented a g g r e g a t e s of g r a i n s o c c u r . S a n d s t o n e s and s i l t s t o n e s a r e a r g i l l a c e o u s and c o n t a i n c a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s , r a r e g l a u c o n i t e and a few i r o n s t o n e c o n c r e -t i o n s . V e r y t h i n , p l a n a r p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n and r i p p l e c r o s s -l a m i n a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t and r a r e , t h i n (5 m) c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d s e q u e n c e s o c c u r t o w a r d t h e b a s e of t h e s e c t i o n . L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e I I I g r a d e s upward i n t o L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage II o v e r a d i s t a n c e of a b o u t 15 m. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n The s e d i m e n t a r y f a c i e s o f L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage I I I a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as b r a c k i s h w a t e r e s t u a r i n e and marsh d e p o s i t s and a r e f a c i e s e q u i v a l e n t of m a r i n e s t r a t a d e s c r i b e d by M i a l l (1981) and West and o t h e r s (1981) n e a r S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d on c e n t r a l 41 E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d . The f i n e g r a i n s i z e , abundance of c a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s and s m a l l s c a l e s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e s e d i -ments o f L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e I I I s u g g e s t a m i c r o t i d a l e n-v i r o n m e n t s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e s e n t t i d a l r e g i m e ( M i a l l , 1981). T h e s e s t r a t a must have a c c u m u l a t e d under low e n e r g y c o n d i t i o n s . T h i n , d i s c o n t i n u o u s c o a l s were formed from p e a t a c c u m u l a t i o n a l o n g t h e s h o r e s o f t h e e s t u a r y . K r a f t and o t h e r s (1979) de-s c r i b e d r e c e n t d e p o s i t s i n t h e D e l a w a r e e s t u a r y w h i c h a r e s i m i -l a r . R a r e c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d s e q u e n c e s a r e i n d i c a t i v e of f l o o d -t i d a l d e l t a d e p o s i t s w h i c h o c c u r a l o n g m i c r o t i d a l s h o r e l i n e s ( H a y e s , 1979; McCann, 1979). Washover f a n s on b a r r i e r b a r s a r e common i n a m i c r o t i d a l r egime (Hayes, 1979) and a few of t h e s a n d s t o n e u n i t s of L i t h o f a c i e s Assembage I I I may have formed t h i s way, however t h e s a n d s t o n e s a r e p o o r l y e x p o s e d and sedimen-t a r y and b i o g e n i c s t r u c t u r e s , w h i c h would p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t o r r e j e c t t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a r e n o t p r e s e r v e d . LITHOFACIES ASSEMBLAGE IV L i t h o f a c i e s A s semblage IV c r o p s o ut a t o n l y one l o c a l i t y on t h e s o u t h w e s t s h o r e o f S t e n k u l F i o r d , has a maximum t h i c k n e s s o f 10 m, and o c c u r s a s a d i s t i n c t i v e wedge-shaped body t h a t e x t e n d s a c r o s s t h e e x p o s e d f a c e f o r a d i s t a n c e o f a b o u t 1.5 km ( F i g u r e 4D, F i g u r e 6, i n p o c k e t ) . White t o l i g h t g r e y s a n d s t o n e s and m i n o r i n t e r b e d d e d l i g h t g r e y t o w h i t e , p a r t l y c a l c a r e o u s mud-s t o n e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s l i t h o f a c i e s a s s e m b l a g e w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h i t from o t h e r l i t h o f a c i e s a s s e m b l a g e s . 42 The b a s a l c o n t a c t w i t h an u n d e r l y i n g c o a l seam o f L i t h o f a c i e s A s semblage I I i s s h a r p o r e r o s i o n a l . The s a n d s t o n e s a r e m e d i u m - g r a i n e d q u a r t z a r e n i t e s ( F i g u r e 18) and t h e heavy m i n e r a l a s s e m b l a g e i s d o m i n a t e d by w e l l - r o u n d e d z i r c o n s . B e d d i n g i n t h e s a n d s t o n e s i s p o o r l y p r e s e r v e d and i s e i t h e r m a s s i v e or c o n s i s t s o f r a r e , u n i d i r e c t i o n a l p l a n a r t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d s . C a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s and t h i n c o a l y s t r i n g e r s a r e common. The f a c i e s change f r o m t h e s a n d s t o n e s t o t h e l i g h t g r e y t o w h i t e mudstones i s r e l a t i v e l y a b r u p t . The mudstones a r e l e s s t h a n 5 m t h i c k , a r e s l i g h t l y c a l c a r e o u s i n p a r t and c o n t a i n p l a n t f r a g m e n t s and i r o n s t o n e c o n c r e t i o n s . The mudstones a r e composed o f t h e c l a y m i n e r a l s k a o l i n i t e , i l l i t e and c h l o r i t e . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n The s t r a t a of L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage IV a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as d e p o s i t s o f a m a r i n e t r a n s g r e s s i o n and l a n d w a r d m i g r a t i o n o f a b a r r i e r i s l a n d s y s t e m . The c o n s p i c u o u s w h i t e s a n d s t o n e s r a r e l y e x h i b i t s e d i m e n t a r y o r b i o g e n i c s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r a p r e c i s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i r o r i g i n . M e d i u m - g r a i n e d q u a r t z a r e n i t e s o c c u r b o t h i n f l o o d - t i d a l d e l t a and washover f a n d e p o s i t s ( H o m e e t a l . , 1978). L a n d w a r d - o r i e n t e d p l a n a r t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d s and t h e o v e r a l l wedge-shaped s a n d body geometry a r e f e a t u r e s of modern f l o o d - t i d a l d e l t a s (Hubbard and B a r w i s , 1976). On t h e o t h e r hand, p l a n a r c r o s s - b e d s may i n f a c t r e p r e -s e n t d e l t a f o r e s e t s t r a t a i n a washover f a n where t h e f a n ex-t e n d s i n t o t h e l a g o o n ( R e i n s o n , 1979). R e i n s o n (1979) and Hayes 43 (1979) n o t e t h a t washover d e p o s i t s a r e e s p e c i a l l y common i n mi-c r o t i d a l r e g i o n s , whereas t i d a l d e l t a s a r e o f r e l a t i v e l y m i n o r s i g n i f i c a n c e (Hayes, 1979). The r e l a t i v e l y a b r u p t f a c i e s change from t h e c l e a n s a n d -s t o n e s o f t h e washover f a n / f l o o d - t i d a l d e l t a e n v i r o n m e n t t o mud-s t o n e s of t h e l a g o o n a l f a c i e s i s common i n t h e b a c k - b a r r i e r e n -v i r o n m e n t ( R e i n s o n , 1979). The mudstones r e p r e s e n t subaqueous l a g o o n a l d e p o s i t s s i t u a t e d l a n d w a r d o f and a d j a c e n t t o t h e b a r -r i e r . The b a r r i e r i s l a n d s y s t e m o f L i t h o f a c i e s A s semblage IV a t S t e n k u l F i o r d i s i n t e r p r e t e d t o have had a n o r t h w e s t - s o u t h e a s t t r e n d , w i t h an open m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t t o t h e s o u t h w e s t and a l a g o o n e n v i r o n m e n t t o t h e n o r t h e a s t . VENDOM FIORD An o u t l i e r of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n w h i c h c r o p s o u t a l o n g Vendom F i o r d c o v e r s an a r e a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 55 s q u a r e k i l o m e t r e s ( F i g u r e 3 ) . The s o u t h w e s t boundary o f t h i s a r e a i s marked by a n o r m a l f a u l t , w h i c h j u x t a p o s e s t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n a g a i n s t D e v o n i a n s t r a t a . The E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n t h i n s t o an e r o s i o n a l edge on t h e D e v o n i a n Okse Bay F o r m a t i o n a l o n g t h e e a s t e r n and n o r t h e r n b o u n d a r i e s of t h e Vendom F i o r d o u t l i e r ( F i g u r e 11). The t o p o g r a p h y i s subdued i n t h i s a r e a , w i t h few s t r e a m s e r o d i n g t h r o u g h t h e s t r a t a , c o n s e q u e n t l y o u t c r o p i s poor and o n l y two s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s , b o t h l e s s t h a n 90 m t h i c k , 44 V FIGURE 11. E u r e k a s t r a t a i n t h e Vendom F i o r d o u t l i e r . A e r i a l P h o t o g r a p h (A-16685-45) s o u t h o f Vendom F i o r d show-i n g t h e l o c a t i o n s of t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s ( e g . I j — 2 6 ) . G e o l o g y m o d i f i e d a f t e r M c G i l l ( 1 9 7 4 ) . Q - Q u a t e r n a r y g r a v e l s and a l l u v i u m Te - E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n Dob - Okse Bay G r o u p D b i - B i r d F i o r d F o r m a t i o n D b l - B l u e F i o r d F o r m a t i o n T h i s a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h © 1 9 - 7 - 5 9 Her M a j e s t y t h e Queen i n R i g h t of Canada, r e p r o d u c e d from t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l A i r P h o t o L i b r a r y w i t h p e r m i s s i o n o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s Canada. 45 46 metres 70 60 20 -10 r e l a t i v e grain s i z e Coal: amber, p e t r i f i e d wood, Mudstone: med grey. Coal. Mudstone: med grey. Coal. Mudstone: med grey. Coal: concretions. Mudstone: med-dk grey, rooted horizons, coal s t r i n g e r s . Sandstone: lt-med grey, f-mg, s i l t y , carb., concretions. Interbedded: Mudstone(70%): med-dk grey, carb., concretions, Sandstone(30%):med brown-It grey,vf-fg, s i l t y , micaceous, planar and wavy laminated. Interbedded: Coal(80%): arg., amber, mudstone s p l i t s . Mudstone(20%) :med grey-rblack,carb., s i l t y . Mudstone: dk grey. Sandstone: lt-med grey, f-cg, arg., carb., coal spar, planar tabular and planar tangential cross-beds, 10-30 cm sets, some trough cross-beds . Sandstone: It grey, mg, arg., coal spar; sample 26-204 FIGURE 12. Stratigraphic section 26, Vendom Fiord o u t l i e r . 47 Coal: some mudstone s p l i t s . Mudstone: med grey to med brown. Interbedded: Coal(60%). Mudstone(30%): med grey, carb., concretions. Sandstone(10%): med grey, vfg, t h i n bedded. Mudstone: med grey, carb. Coal. Sandstone: grey to brown, vf-mg, carb., planar tabular cross-beds, 5-15 cm sets. Coal. Sandstone: It brown, vfg, thi n bedded. Coal: amber, thi n mudstone s p l i t s . ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Mudstone: med grey, carb., thin to med bedded, Interbedded: Sandstone(50%): med grey, v f - f g , micaceous. Coal(50%): amber. Sandstone: med brown, vfg, micaceous, thin bedded. S i l t s t o n e : med brown. Interbedded: Mudstone(60%):med grey, carb. Coal(40%): amber. r e l a t i v e _ grain s i z e FIGURE 13. Stratigraphic section 27, Vendom Fiord o u t l i e r . 48 c o u l d be measured ( s e c t i o n s 26 and 27, F i g u r e s 12 and 13). Medium t o dark g r e y mudstones and m i n o r amounts of i n t e r -b edded d a r k brown s i l t s t o n e s a r e t h e dominant l i t h o l o g i e s w hich c r o p o u t a t s e c t i o n s 26 and 27. Mudstone beds r a n g e i n t h i c k n e s s f r o m 50 cm t o 15 m. The mudstones a p p e a r u n l a m i n a t e d , some a r e c a r b o n a c e o u s and a few c o n t a i n i r o n s t o n e n o d u l e s . C o a l seams v a r y f r o m 30 cm t o 2.7 m but a v e r a g e about 1 m i n t h i c k n e s s . Mudstone s p l i t s o c c u r w i t h i n t h e c o a l seams and a r e 15 cm t o 1 m t h i c k . The c o a l i s commonly a r g i l l a c e o u s , t o u g h and b l o c k y , and commonly c o n t a i n s amber, i r o n s t o n e c o n c r e t i o n s and p e t r i f i e d wood. Some l a y e r s o f u n c o a l i f i e d p l a n t d e b r i s a l s o o c c u r i n t h e c o a l seams. G r e y t o brown s a n d s t o n e s r a n g e from v e r y f i n e - t o c o a r s e -g r a i n e d . The t h i c k e s t s a n d s t o n e u n i t s (7 t o 12 m t h i c k ) have s h a r p o r e r o s i o n a l b a s a l c o n t a c t s , c o n t a i n c o a l s p a r and b a s a l l a g d e p o s i t s o f c o a r s e s a n d , and f i n e upwards. P l a n a r t a b u l a r and p l a n a r t a n g e n t i a l c r o s s - b e d s e t s a v e r a g i n g 15 cm i n t h i c k -n e s s and some t r o u g h c r o s s - b e d d i n g o c c u r . The s a n d s t o n e s c o n s i s t o f q u a r t z , f e l d s p a r , c h e r t and r a r e m i c a . P e t r o g r a p h i c d a t a from a s u b a r k o s e s a n d s t o n e sample ( F i g u r e 18) from s e c t i o n 26 a r e shown on T a b l e I . I r o n s t o n e c o n c r e t i o n s and c o a l y p l a n t d e b r i s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t . Of t h e t h i n n e r s a n d s t o n e u n i t s (50 cm t o 3 m) i n t h e s t r a t -i g r a p h i c s e q u e n c e , some c o a r s e n upward and e x h i b i t wavy t o p l a n a r p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n , w h i l e o t h e r s show no d e t e c t a b l e g r a i n s i z e v a r i a t i o n . 49 A t h i n (50 cm) o r a n g e - t o b u f f - w e a t h e r i n g , r e s i s t a n t do-l o m i t i c s i l t s t o n e w h i c h c o n t a i n s r o o t s t r u c t u r e s , l e a f i m p r i n t s and r i p p l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g o c c u r s t o w a r d s t h e t o p o f s e c t i o n 26. T h i s u n i t l i e s below a 30 cm t h i c k seam o f s a p r o p e l i c c o a l w h i c h f r a c t u r e s c o n c h o i d a l l y , i s l u s t r o u s , nonbanded, and has a brown s t r e a k . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n S t r a t a e x p o s e d i n t h e Vendom F i o r d o u t l i e r r e p r e s e n t a l l u v -i a l p l a i n d e p o s i t s , and d i s p l a y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r t o L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e s I and I I from S t e n k u l F i o r d w h i c h have p r e v i o u s l y been d e s c r i b e d . M u d s t o n e s w i t h i n t e r b e d d e d s i l t s t o n e s and a s s o c i a t e d c o a l seams w h i c h c o m p r i s e most of s e c t i o n s 26 and 27 were d e p o s i t e d by f l o o d w a t e r s w h i c h i n u n d a t e d t h e backswamps on t h e a l l u v i a l p l a i n s . S i m i l a r u n l a m i n a t e d mudstones c o n t a i n i n g comminuted p l a n t d e b r i s were d e s c r i b e d from t h e P o r t Hood F o r m a t i o n by G e r s i b a n d McCabe (1981) and i n t e r p r e t e d as f l o o d p l a i n d e p o s i t s . C o a l was d e p o s i t e d i n swampy a r e a s of t h e f l o o d p l a i n . The t h i c k , f i n i n g - u p w a r d s a n d s t o n e u n i t s have s a n d s t o n e c o m p o s i t i o n s and s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h a r e s i m i l a r t o Type I s a n d s t o n e s o f F l o r e s ( 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e s e s a n d s t o n e s a r e i n t e r -p r e t e d a s f l u v i a l c h a n n e l p o i n t b a r d e p o s i t s . T h i n n e r s a n d -s t o n e s , w h i c h l o c a l l y c o a r s e n upward, r e s e m b l e c r e v a s s e s p l a y s a n d s t o n e s d e s c r i b e d by G e r s i b and McCabe ( 1 9 8 1 ) . 50 D o l o m i t i c s i l t s t o n e o v e r l a i n by nonbedded s a p r o p e l i c c o a l i n d i c a t e s d e p o s i t i o n w i t h i n a s m a l l l a k e on t h e a l l u v i a l p l a i n . F l o r e s (1981) d e s c r i b e s g r a i n s u p p o r t e d , s i l t y l i m e s t o n e s i n t h e u pper F o r t U n i o n F o r m a t i o n w h i c h d i s p l a y s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s , and w h i c h he i n t e r p r e t s as h a v i n g formed from p r e c i p i t a -t i o n o f c a r b o n a t e s i n i n t e r c h a n n e l , f r e s h w a t e r e p h e m e r a l l a k e s . I t i s s u g g e s t e d h e r e t h a t t h e d o l o m i t i c s i l t s t o n e s formed i n a s i m i l a r manner, and were d o l o m i t i z e d d u r i n g e a r l y d i a g e n e s i s . F r i e n d and M o o d y - S t u a r t (1970) a l s o r e p o r t d o l o m i t i c r o c k s i n f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s o f t h e Wood Bay F o r m a t i o n . The o v e r l y i n g s a p r o -p e l i c c o a l a l s o i n d i c a t e s a l a k e e n v i r o n m e n t . T e i c h m u l l e r (1982) a t t r i b u t e s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s a p r o p e l i c c o a l s t o t h e d e p o s i t i o n of p l a n t d e t r i t u s , p l a n k t o n , s p o r e s and r e w o r k e d p e a t i n s m a l l swamp l a k e s . BAUMANN FIORD E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a c o v e r an a r e a of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45 s q u a r e k i l o m e t r e s b o r d e r i n g on t h e s o u t h w e s t s h o r e o f Baumann F i o r d ( F i g u r e 3 ) . The E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n l i e s u n c o n f o r m a b l y on D e v o n i a n Okse Bay s t r a t a , and i s f a u l t e d a g a i n s t t h e D e v o n i a n B l u e F i o r d and B i r d F i o r d F o r m a t i o n s t o t h e west and s o u t h w e s t . The E u r e k a Sound beds d i p a t a b o u t 10 d e g r e e s t o t h e w est. The o u t c r o p a r e a has low r e l i e f , but s p a r s e o u t c r o p o c c u r s a l o n g c r e e k s w h i c h c u t a c r o s s t h e p l a i n . The l o c a t i o n of s e c t i o n 22 ( F i g u r e 15, i n p o c k e t ) , was measured i n t h e a r e a s o u t h o f Baumann F i o r d and i s shown on F i g u r e 14. 51 FIGURE 14. E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a i n t h e Baumann F i o r d o u t l i e r A e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h (A-16723-27) s o u t h o f Baumann F i o r d show-i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f s e c t i o n 22. G e o l o g y m o d i f i e d a f t e r K e r r and T h o r s t e i n s s o n (1971) and M c G i l l ( 1 9 7 4 ) . Q - Q u a t e r n a r y g r a v e l s and a l l u v i u m Te - E u r e k a Sound F o r a m a t i o n Dob - Okse Bay Group T h i s a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h © 1 3 - 8 - 5 9 Her M a j e s t y t h e Queen i n R i g h t of Canada, r e p r o d u c e d from t h e N a t i o n a l A i r P h o t o L i b r a r y w i t h p e r m i s s i o n o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s Canada. 53 S a n d s t o n e and c o a l a r e t h e p r i m a r y l i t h o l o g i e s e x p o s e d s o u t h o f Baumann F i o r d . The s a n d s t o n e v a r i e s from brown t o l i g h t g r e y and bed t h i c k n e s s r a n g e s f r o m 2 t o 12m. C o n t a c t s w i t h a d -j a c e n t l i t h o l o g i e s a r e commonly c o v e r e d , but where e x p o s e d a r e s h a r p o r e r o s i o n a l i n n a t u r e . P e t r o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s o f t h r e e s amples from t h i s a r e a r e v e a l e d a range of s a n d s t o n e c o m p o s i -t i o n s ( T a b l e I ) , and a r e q u a r t z a r e n i t e , s u b l i t h a r e n i t e and l i t h i c s u b a r k o s e ( F i g u r e 18). The s a n d s t o n e s a r e o f two t y p e s , b a s e d on c o m p o s i t i o n , t e x t u r e and s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s . Type A s a n d s t o n e s a r e w h i t e w e a t h e r i n g , p r e d o m i n a n t l y f i n e -t o m e d i u m - g r a i n e d q u a r t z a r e n i t e s . The s a n d s t o n e s a r e c l e a n , w e l l r o u n d e d and w e l l s o r t e d and c o n t a i n some c a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s and r a r e g l a u c o n i t e . S e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s were not p r e -s e r v e d . Type B s a n d s t o n e s weather b u f f t o l i g h t g r e y , g e n e r a l l y f i n e upwards and g r a i n s i z e v a r i e s from v e r y f i n e t o v e r y c o a r s e . Many b a s a l l a g d e p o s i t s c o n t a i n g r a n u l e - s i z e g r a i n s and c o a l s p a r . S u b l i t h a r e n i t e and l i t h i c s u b a r k o s e a r e t y p i c a l Type B s a n d s t o n e c o m p o s i t i o n s . The s a n d s t o n e s a r e s i l t y , m o d e r a t e l y w e l l t o p o o r l y s o r t e d and a n g u l a r t o s u b r o u n d e d . Type B s a n d -s t o n e s c o n t a i n a bundant p l a n t f r a g m e n t s , f i n e l y d i v i d e d c a r b o n a -c e o u s d e b r i s and r a r e c o n c r e t i o n s . S e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s i n -c l u d e p l a n a r t a b u l a r and p l a n a r t a n g e n t i a l c r o s s - b e d d i n g , r i p p l e c r o s s - l a m i n a t i o n and c o n v o l u t e l a m i n a t i o n . Type A s a n d s t o n e s p r e d o m i n a t e t o w a r d s t h e b a s e o f t h e s e c -t i o n , whereas Type B s a n d s t o n e s a r e dominant i n t h e upper p a r t o f t h e s e c t i o n . 54 C o a l a c c o u n t s f o r a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a w h i c h c r o p o u t s o u t h of Baumann F i o r d . C o a l seams ra n g e i n t h i c k n - e s s f r o m 50 cm t o 5.7 m a n d o f t e n form i s o l a t e d r e s i s t a n t r i d g e s . The c o a l s a r e t o u g h a n d woody, o f t e n l u s t r o u s , commonly c o n t a i n amber and r a r e l y i n c l u d e m a c r o s c o p i c i r o n s u l p h i d e and i r o n s t o n e c o n c r e t i o n s . Mudstone s p l i t s w i t h i n t h e c o a l seams a r e r a r e . M u d s t o n e s and s i l t s t o n e s a r e r a r e l y e x p o s e d and a r e common-l y c o v e r e d by a h a r d , w h i t e c r u s t on t h e w e a t h e r e d s u r f a c e . M u dstones a r e m o s t l y medium t o d a r k g r e y and c a r b o n a c e o u s . S i l t s t o n e s a r e brown t o g r e y a n d a r e l o c a l l y s a n d y o r a r g i l l a -c e o u s . M i c a f l a k e s o c c u r i n a few o f t h e s i l t s t o n e s and many c o n t a i n c a r b o n a c e o u s p l a n t f r a g m e n t s . Mudstones and s i l t s t o n e s a r e l o c a l l y i n t e r b e d d e d . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n The E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n s o u t h of Baumann F i o r d c o m p r i s e s a s e q u e n c e o f m a r i n e and n o n m a r i n e s t r a t a . The i s o l a t e d o u t c r o p e x p o s u r e w i t h l o n g c o v e r e d i n t e r v a l s o b s c u r e l a t e r a l and v e r t i -c a l f a c i e s a s s o c i a t i o n s and make i t d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t de-p o s i t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . The c o m p o s i t i o n a l and t e x t u r a l m a t u r i t y o f t h e Type A s a n d -s t o n e s and t h e r a r e o c c u r r e n c e o f g l a u c o n i t e s u g g e s t s a m a r i n e o r i g i n . P o r r e n g a (1967) s t a t e s t h a t g l a u c o n i t e may be c o n s i d e r e d as a m a r i n e c l a y m i n e r a l , and t h a t moderate • t e m p e r a t u r e s f a v o u r 55 i t s f o r m a t i o n . Type A s a n d s t o n e s a t t h e ba s e o f s e c t i o n 22 a r e i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h s i l t s t o n e s , mudstones and c o a l . A b a s a l mud-s t o n e bed (sample 22-157, A p p e n d i x ) c o n t a i n s r a r e m a r i n e d i n o f -l a g e l l a t e c y s t s , w hich a l s o s u p p o r t s a m a r i n e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The f i n e - g r a i n e d s e d i m e n t s and t h i n c o a l s were l i k e l y f ormed i n l a g o o n a l b a c k - b a r r i e r e n v i r o n m e n t s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by H o m e and o t h e r s ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Type A s a n d s t o n e s may r e p r e s e n t b a r r i e r b a r o r s h a l l o w m a r i n e d e p o s i t s , but t h e a b s e n c e o f d i a g n o s t i c s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s p r e c l u d e s a more p r e c i s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The b a s a l s t r a t a a t s e c t i o n 22 a r e l a t e m i d - P a l e o c e n e i n age (G. Rouse, p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1984). T h e s e s t r a t a a r e l i k e l y c o r r e l a t i v e i n p a r t w i t h t h e b a s a l s t r a t a o f s e c t i o n 07 on t h e e a s t s h o r e of S t e n k u l F i o r d and w i t h t h e uppermost beds o f Member I I I o f West and o t h e r s (1981) a t S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d , w h i c h t h e y i n t e r p r e t as s h a l l o w m a r i n e and b r a c k i s h d e p o s i t s o f a l a r g e l a g o o n o r e s t u a r y . The r e m a i n d e r of t h e s e c t i o n i s d o m i n a t e d by Type 8 s a n d -s t o n e s and nonm a r i n e f i n e - g r a i n e d e l a s t i c s a nd c o a l , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a few Type A s a n d s t o n e u n i t s and m a r i n e mudstones a t t h e t o p o f t h e s e c t i o n . A 10 m t h i c k Type A s a n d s t o n e u n i t a t 240 m may be r e l a t e d t o t h e b a r r i e r i s l a n d s y s t e m w h i c h e x i s t e d d u r i n g d e p o s i t i o n of L i t h o f a c i e s A s semblage IV a t S t e n k u l F i o r d . Type B s a n d s t o n e s e x h i b i t many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p o i n t b a r d e p o s i t s i n a m e a n d e r i n g s t r e a m e n v i r o n m e n t , w h i c h have been d e s c r i b e d by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s ( F l o r e s , 1981; C a n t , 1980; W a l k e r and C a n t , 1980; and o t h e r s ) and a r e s i m i l a r t o s a n d s t o n e d e p o s -i t s of L i t h o f a c i e s A s semblage I i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d o u t l i e r 56 w h i c h have p r e v i o u s l y been d e s c r i b e d . Nonmarine c o a l s most commonly o c c u r i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h c a r -b o n a c e o u s s h a l e s and a r e o n l y r a r e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Type B s a n d s t o n e s . The n onmarine c o a l s r e p r e s e n t o r g a n i c a c c u m u l a t i o n s of t h e f l u v i a l backswamp e n v i r o n m e n t and a r e s i m i l a r t o c o a l s d e s c r i b e d by F l o r e s ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The m a j o r i t y of t h e c o a l seams o c c u r as i s o l a t e d r i d g e s . The d e p o s i t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s of t h e s e c o a l seams a r e d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t as a d j a c e n t s t r a t a a r e c o v e r e d and v e r t i c a l f a c i e s s e q u e n c e s c a n n o t be o b s e r v e d . I r o n s u l p h i d e c o n c r e t i o n s f o u n d i n a few of t h e i s o l a t e d c o a l s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s e c o a l s were formed from b r a c k i s h p e a t . The p r o c e s s of s u l p h a t e r e d u c t i o n i s f a c i l i -t a t e d by s u l p h a t e - r e d u c i n g b a c t e r i a w h i c h t h r i v e i n b r a c k i s h p e a t d e p o s i t s ( C a s a g r a n d e e t a l . , 1977; H o m e e t a l . , 1978). A mudstone bed c o n t a i n i n g a m a r i n e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t a s -semblage (sample 22-188, A p p e n d i x ) c r o p s out a t t h e t o p of t h e s e c t i o n and r e p r e s e n t s a t h i n , E a r l y t o e a r l y M i d d l e E ocene m a r i n e i n c u r s i o n . SOR FIORD So u t h w e s t of Sor F i o r d , an o u t l i e r of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n l i e s u n c o n f o r m a b l y on D e v o n i a n s t r a t a ( F i g u r e s 3 and 16), and c o v e r s an a r e a of 10 s q u a r e k i l o m e t r e s . O u t c r o p i s s p a r s e , and s e c t i o n 24 ( F i g u r e 17) w h i c h was measured i n t h i s a r e a c o n t a i n s many c o v e r e d i n t e r v a l s . 57 FIGURE 16. E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a i n t h e Sor F i o r d o u t l i e r A e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h (A-16780-73) s o u t h of Sor F i o r d , showing t h e l o c a t i o n o f s e c t i o n 24. G e o l o g y m o d i f i e d a f t e r K e r r and T h o r s t e i n s s o n (1971) and O k u l i t c h ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Q - Q u a t e r n a r y g r a v e l s and a l l u v i u m Te - E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n Dob - Okse Bay Group D b i - B i r d F i o r d F o r m a t i o n D b l - B l u e F i o r d F o r m a t i o n T h i s a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h © 1 7 - 8 - 5 9 Her M a j e s t y t h e Queen i n R i g h t of Canada, r e p r o d u c e d from t h e N a t i o n a l A i r P h o t o L i b r a r y w i t h p e r m i s s i o n o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s Canada. 59 metres \ \ \ \ \ \ \ v Sandstone: I t grey, mg, massive. 110 -100 90 -60 -50 40 -30 20 -10 _ Covered. Interbedded:Coal(50%) and Mudstone(50%):dk grey, carb. T" Mudstone: It grey. Covered: mudstone? Interbedded:Coal(70%) and Mudstone(30%) Mudstone: I t grey. Coal. Covered: mudstone? Coal: arg ., amber. Mudstone: greenish-grey, Coal: arg. Covered: mudstone? Coal: iron sulphide framboids. Sandstone: white, f-mg, med wavy laminated. Interbedded: Sandstone(95%): l t - d k grey, f-mg, carb., arg., massive. Coal(5%): amber. r e l a t i v e _^ grain s i z e FIGURE 17. Stratigraphic section 24, Sor Fiord o u t l i e r . 60 S a n d s t o n e s c o m p r i s e a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c s u c -c e s s i o n a t Sor F i o r d . The s a n d s t o n e s a r e medium- t o f i n e - g r a i n e d and r a n g e i n c o l o u r f r o m l i g h t t o d a r k g r e y . M i n e r a l o g i c a l com-p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e s q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r . The s a n d s t o n e s a r e com-monly s i l t y and c o n t a i n c a r b o n a c e o u s p l a n t d e b r i s , some t h i n c o a l y seams and r a r e , s p h e r i c a l i r o n s u l p h i d e c o n c r e t i o n s w hich o c c u r l o c a l l y a t t h e b a s e of t h e s e c t i o n . The o n l y s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e o b s e r v e d (as a r e s u l t o f p o o r e x p o s u r e ) , was r a r e wavy l a m i n a t i o n i n some of t h e s a n d s t o n e u n i t s a t t h e base of t h e s e c t i o n . C o a l seams ra n g e i n t h i c k n e s s f r o m 30 cm t o 4 m but a r e p o o r l y e x p o s e d and c o n t a i n many mudstone s p l i t s . Many c o a l seams c o n t a i n amber and i r o n s u l p h i d e f r a m b o i d s . A good e x p o s u r e o f t h e c o a l and mudstone o c c u r s i n a c r e e k n o r t h of t h e l i n e of s e c t i o n . H e r e , t h e c o a l s have an i r i d e s c e n t sheen and c o n s i s t of c o m p r e s s e d r e e d s and p l a n t m a t e r i a l . The mudstone c o n s i s t s o f f i n e l y i n t e r l a m i n a t e d l i g h t and d a r k g r e y , waxy l a y e r s w h i c h w e a t h e r an o r a n g e t o y e l l o w - b r o w n c o l o u r and commonly c o n t a i n c a r b o n i z e d p l a n t d e b r i s . The l a m i n a e r a n g e i n t h i c k n e s s f r o m 0.3 t o 1 cm and a r e l o c a l l y wavy. A l o n g s t r i k e , w e a t h e r e d o u t c r o p s of t h e mudstones have h a r d , r e s i s t a n t c r u s t s . L i g h t g r e y t o g r e e n i s h g r e y mudstones w i t h s i m i l a r w e a t h e r i n g s u r f a c e s o c c u r s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y above t h i s mudstone and c o a l s e q u e n c e . 61 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n S a n d s t o n e s w h i c h c r o p out a t t h e base of t h e s e c t i o n l a c k v i s i b l e s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s and a r e d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t . T h e i r s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e s a n d s t o n e s a r e f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s . The s a n d s t o n e s a r e o v e r l a i n by a s e quence o f mudstones and c o a l seams, t h e l o w e r p a r t of w h i c h c o r r e l a t e s w i t h a good e x p o s u r e i n a c r e e k n o r t h of t h e s e c t i o n . At t h i s l o c a l i t y , f i n e l y l a m i n a t e d mudstone and a s s o c i a t e d c o a l s w i t h a bundant r e e d and p l a n t f r a g m e n t s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as l a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t s . The mudstones show even and c o n t i n u o u s v a r v e - l i k e l a -minae w h i c h a r e s i m i l a r t o l a c u s t r i n e mudstones d e s c r i b e d by F o u c h and Dean ( 1 9 8 2 ) . I t i s t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e mud-s t o n e s w i t h t h e v a r v e - l i k e l a m i n a e were d e p o s i t e d t o w a r d s t h e c e n t e r of a f r e s h w a t e r l a k e . As p o i n t e d out by P i c a r d and H i g h (1981) i n many l a k e s , n e a r s h o r e c o a r s e e l a s t i c s a r e r e p l a c e d by d e nse g r o w t h s o f v e g e t a t i o n . T h i s e x p l a i n s t h e v e r t i c a l change from t h e mudstones t o t h e r e e d - b e a r i n g c o a l s w i t h no i n t e r v e n i n g c o a r s e c l a s t i c d e p o s i t . C o a l seams and mudstones w h i c h o v e r l i e t h e l a c u s t r i n e s e quence a r e p o o r l y e x p o s e d , b u t e x h i b i t s i m i l a r w e a t h e r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e r e f o r e a r e a l s o t e n t a t i v e l y i n t e r p r e t e d as l a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t s . A m e d i u m - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e bed a t t h e t o p of t h e e x p o s e d s e c t i o n d i s p l a y s no v i s i b l e s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s and a d j a c e n t l i t h o l o g i e s a r e c o v e r e d . B a s e d on it's t e x t u r a l i m m a t u r i t y and s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n above t h e l a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t s , t h i s s a n d -s t o n e bed i s t h o u g h t t o r e p r e s e n t a r e t u r n t o f l u v i a l c o n d i -t i o n s . 62 In summary, t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n a t Sor F i o r d com-p r i s e s p r e d o m i n a n t l y l a c u s t r i n e s t r a t a w h i c h a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e l a k e o c -c u r r e d on an a l l u v i a l p l a i n , and may have formed by c h a n n e l abandonment or by s u b s i d e n c e below t h e water t a b l e . No age was o b t a i n e d f o r E u r e k a Sound beds a t Sor F i o r d , and t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e s e s t r a t a t o o t h e r E u r e k a Sound o u t l i e r s on s o u t h e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d i s u n c e r t a i n . 63 PETROGRAPHY, PALEOCURRENTS AND PROVENANCE SANDSTONE PETROGRAPHY T w e n t y - n i n e s a n d s t o n e s were t h i n s e c t i o n e d , s t a i n e d and exa m i n e d by p e t r o g r a p h i c methods. S t a i n i n g was n o t e n t i r e l y s u c -c e s s f u l . F o r t h e most p a r t , p o t a s s i u m f e l d s p a r s d i d a c q u i r e a y e l l o w s t a i n f r o m t h e sodium c o b a l t i n i t r i t e ; however, p l a g i o -c l a s e f e l d s p a r g r a i n s were n o t i n a l l c a s e s s t a i n e d by amaranth r e d d y e . T h i s may have been due e i t h e r t o t h e f a c t t h a t p l a g i o -c l a s e s t a i n i n g d i d n o t i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w s t a i n i n g f o r K - f e l d -s p a r o r t h a t t h e dye was not f r e s h . T h i s i s not t h o u g h t t o p r e -s e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b l e m , as t h e amount o f p l a g i o c l a s e p r e s e n t was s m a l l and i n most c a s e s c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from q u a r t z by a l b i t e t w i n n i n g o r c l e a v a g e . In a d d i t i o n , p l a g i o c l a s e a c -q u i r e d a c l o u d y a p p e a r a n c e upon e t c h i n g w i t h h y d r o f l u o r i c a c i d (Deer e t a l . , 1966, p. 3 3 5 ) . S e v e r a l w o r k e r s have t h e o r i z e d on t h e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -c a n c e of t h e p o i n t c o u n t i n g method f o r s a n d s t o n e s and t h e use of modal a n a l y s i s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g p r o v e n a n c e (Van d e r P l a s and T o b i , 1965; I n g e r s o l l e t a l . , 1 9 8 4 ; and o t h e r s ) . The a p p l i c a b i l i -t y o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by t h e s e w o r k e r s t o t h i s s t u d y i s u n c e r t a i n , a s most samples i n t h e s t u d y a r e u n c o n s o l i d a t e d , and b o t h s a m p l i n g and sample p r e p a r a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s d e s t r o y e d t h e o r i g i n a l d e p o s i t i o n a l t e x t u r e o f t h e s a n d s t o n e s . S t a t i s t i c a l d a t a on u n c o n s o l i d a t e d samples i s not r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a -t u r e , and many s t u d i e s ( P o t t e r , 1978; I n g e r s o l l and S u c z e k , 1979; Mack, 1981) s i m p l y r e p o r t t h e number o f g r a i n s c o u n t e d p e r 64 t h i n s e c t i o n w i t h no i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e t e s t e d o r presumed s t a t i -s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e r e s u l t s . R e s u l t s o f t h e modal a n a l y s e s a r e r e p o r t e d on T a b l e I , t o -g e t h e r w i t h t h e g r a i n s i z e , s o r t i n g and r o u n d n e s s . The s a n d -s t o n e s a c c o r d i n g t o M c B r i d e ' s (1963) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( F i g u r e 18) a r e l i t h i c s u b a r k o s e s , s u b a r k o s e s , l i t h i c a r k o s e s , a r k o s e s , sub-l i t h a r e n i t e s , q u a r t z a r e n i t e s and f e l d s p a t h i c 1 i t h a r e n i t e s . The most abundant m i n e r a l s a r e q u a r t z and p l a g i o c l a s e , p o t a s s i u m and p e r t h i t i c f e l d s p a r s , w i t h l e s s e r amounts o f u n s t a b l e r o c k f r a g -ments ( g r a n i t e , g n e i s s , s a n d s t o n e , c a r b o n a t e , s h a l e ) and heavy m i n e r a l s . A l l s a m p l e s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one ( 1 1 - 7 6 ) , c o n -t a i n l e s s t h a n 25 p e r c e n t u n s t a b l e r o c k f r a g m e n t s . Sample 11-76 i s a v e r y c o a r s e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e t o g r a n u l e c o n g l o m e r a t e , and hence t h e r o c k f r a g m e n t s a r e n o t b r o k e n down i n t o t h e i r c o n s t i -t u e n t m i n e r a l s , s u c h as has o c c u r r e d i n t h e f i n e r - g r a i n e d s a n d -s t o n e s . The a v e r a g e c l a s t s i z e v a r i e s f r o m v e r y f i n e - t o v e r y c o a r s e - g r a i n e d , and t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e s a n d s t o n e s a r e f i n e - t o m e d i u m - g r a i n e d and m o d e r a t e l y w e l l t o w e l l s o r t e d . A few of t h e s a n d s t o n e s a r e d i s t i n c t l y b i m o d a l , a n d have a f i n e - g r a i n e d mode c o n s i s t i n g o f a n g u l a r g r a i n s and a c o a r s e - g r a i n e d mode c o m p r i -s i n g s u b r o u n d e d t o w e l l r o u n d e d g r a i n s . O t h e r s a n d s t o n e s show no d i s t i n c t b i m o d a l i t y , but a r e v e r y p o o r l y s o r t e d w i t h g r a i n s i z e r a n g i n g from c o a r s e o r v e r y c o a r s e t o v e r y f i n e or f i n e . G e n e r a l l y , t h e f i n e r - g r a i n e d f r a c t i o n s a r e a n g u l a r t o s u b a n g u l a r and t h e c o a r s e r g r a i n s i z e s a r e s u b r o u n d e d t o r o u n d e d . V e r y w e l l * r o u n d e d , m e d i u m - g r a i n e d q u a r t z c l a s t s o c c u r i n some s a n d s t o n e s TABLE I. Petrographic data including grain size, rounding, sorting, modal analyses and heavy mineral compositions of representative sandstones from the Eureka Sound Formation Key to .Table I The following abbreviations are used i n Table I Modal Analysis - D e t r i t a l c l a s t s Qm = monocrystalline quartz Qp = p o l y c r y s t a l l i n e quartz Qt = t o t a l quartz PI = plagioclase feldspar Ks = potassium feldspar Pt = p e r t h i t e feldsgar Ft = t o t a l f e l d s p a r " SR = sedimentary rock fragment PR = plutonic rock fragment MR = metamorphic rock fragments Lt = t o t a l l i t h i c fragments* Cement types Ca = carbonate S i = s i d e r i t e = not cemented Grain size vf = very f i n e f = f i n e m = medium c = coarse gran = granule Heavy minerals Location A l = a l l a n i t e B i = b i o t i t e Cz = c l i n o z o i s i t e Ep = epidote Ga = garnet Ky = kyanite Ms = muscovite Mt = magnetite Py = p y r i t e Rt = r u t i l e SI = s i l l i m a n i t e Sp = sphene St = s t a u r o l i t e Tm = tourmaline Zo = z o i s i t e Zr = zircon eg- section number ^SF-04-39^ o u t l i e r l o c a t i o n sample number SF = Stenkul Fiord o u t l i e r BF = Baumann Fiord o u t l i e r VF = Vendom f i o r d o u t l i e r Rounding rd = rounded ang = angular indicates percentage value used on McBride's (.1963) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n diagram ( underlined on Table I) TABLE I. Location Grain Sorting Roundness Cement Modal analysis - D e t r i t a l c l a s t s Heavy size type Qm Qp Qt P i Ks Pt Ft SR PR MR Lt minerals SF-02-12 vf-cg poor well rd- - 75 5 80 ' 3 6 4 1 2 5 2 0 7 Ga, Ms, B i , Zr, Ky, ang Ep, Zo, Rt SF-03-30 vf-cg poor well rd- - 53 12 65 4 6 13 23 3 8 t r 11 Ga, Zr, SI, Tm, Ep, sub ang Rt SF-04-39 vf-cg poor rd-sub rd - 45 8 53 6 9 14 29 6 12 tr I 8 . Ga, TJ t- B i , Zr, Tm, Ep, SF-04-41 mg well sub rd- - 55 12 67 4 5 12 21 4 8 tr 12 K t Ga, Ms, B i , Zr, Ky, sub ang Tm, Ep, Rt SF-04-42 eg well sub r d - - 46 12 58 4 7 12 23 10 7 2 19 Ga, Zr, SI, Tm, sub ang SF-05-48 vf-cg poor sub ang- - 58 10 68 0 23 0 23 tr 8 1 9 Ga, B i , Zr, SI, Ky, wel .1 rd Tm, Ep, Zo, Rt, Sp SF-07-50 v f - f g mod sub rd- Ca 79 1 80 0 tr 18 18 0 0 0 0 gl auconite well sub ang SF-06-51 v f - f g mod sub r d- Ca 77 0 77 0 2 0 2 21 0 0 _21_ Ms, Zr, Ep well sub ang SF-06-53 f-mg mod sub rd- - 56 13 69 2 6 15 23 3 4 1 8 Ga, Ms, Bi , Zr, Ky, well sub ang Tm, Ep, Zo SF-08-60 m-cg mod well rd- - 52 8 60 6 10 6 22 tr 18 0 18 Ga, B i , Zr, Ep well sub rd SF-08-62 mg well v. well rd - 62 3 65 14 11 2 27 2 6 t r 8 Ga, Zr, SI, Ky, Tm, -sub ang Ep, Al , St SF-07-69 f-mg mod sub r d- - 58 13 7_1_ 2 7 13 22 tr 6 t r T_ Ga, Ms, Zr, Ky, Tm, well ang Rt SF-10-71 mg well sub rd- - 80 6 86 2 3 6 11 1 2 0 3 Ga, B i , Zr, SI, Ky, ang Tm, Ep, Rt SF-11-75 vf-mg poor sub rd- - 50 9 59 3 14 12 29 2 10 0 12 Ga, B i , Zr, SI, Ky, ang Tm, Ep SF-11-76 veg- mod well rd- - 21 16 37 3 7 7 JL7_ 9 33 4 46 gran well sub ang Table I (continued) Location Grain Sorting Roundness Cement Modal analysis - D e t r i t a l c l a s t s Heavy size type Qm QP Qt PI Ks Pt Ft SR PR MR Lt minerals SF-•11- 78 vf-cg poor sub rd- - 67 3 70 9 7 10 25 t r 4 0 4 Ga, Zr, SI, Ky, Tm, ang Ep. Rt SF- 12-79 mg well sub rd- - 77 19 9>6 0 tr 0 t r 2 2 0 4 B i , Zr, Tm, Sp, Rt well rd SF- 13- 80 vf-cg poor sub rd- - 65 9 74. 6 2 11 11 t r 7 t r 7 Ga, B i , Zr, SI, Tm, sub ang Ep, Zo, Cz, Rt, St SF- 13- 81 f-mg mod sub rd- S i 47 12 59. 2 8 10 20 9 11 1 2_I B i well sub ang SF- 14-89 vf-cg poor sub r d- - 67 2 _69 8 15 5 28 t r 2 0 2 Ga, B i , Zr, Tm, A l , ang Rt SF- 15- 99 vf-cg poor sub r d- - 52 9 61_ 8 11 9 28 t r 11 t r U_ Ga, B i , Zr, Ep, Rt, ang Sp SF- 19- 140 mg well rd- sub - 54 11 65 3 7 8 JL8. 2 14 1 17_ Ga, B i , Zr, SI, Ky, ang Ep, A l SF- 20- 141 f-mg mod rd-sub - 55 4 59 1 4 23 28 0 13 t r 11 Ga, Zr, SI, Tm, Rt well rd SF- 20- 142 mg well rd-sub - 72 4 7_6 3 17 1 2A t r 3 0 3 Ga, B i , Zr, Ky, Tm, rd Ep, St, Sp, Rt SF- 03- 148 f-cg poor rd-ang S i 68 6 7_4 1 3 6 10 2 12 2 11 B i , Ep BF-22- 161 m-cg mod rd-sub _ 74 5 79 tr 5 2 1_ 2 11 1 11 B i , Ep well rd BF-22-•166 mg well rd - 89 9 98 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 Ga, rv Zr, Ky, St, Ep, BF-22- 187 vf-cg poor sub r d- - 51 9 J>9- 3 8 10 21_ 2 17 t r i i Ga, Ms, B i VF-26-•204 m-cg mod ang rd-sub - 75 5 80 3 4 8 1_5 1 3 1 _5 Ga, Ms, B i well ang 68 QUARTZ, QUARTZITE AND CHERT (Qt) 5 % ^ 5 % Quartz arenite-Subarkose 2 5 % / Sublitharenite • \ 2 5 % Lithic subarkose • \ v \ /V \ ^  \ Lithic Feldspathic \ \ arkose litharenite \ \ 10% FELDSPAR (Ft) 50% 10% ROCK FRAGMENTS (Rt) • Stenkul Fiord outlier A Baumann Fiord outlier A Vendom Fiord outlier FIGURE 18. Classification of sandstones of the Eureka Sound Formation using McBride's (1963) classification. 69 and a r e l i k e l y r e c y c l e d from p r e - e x i s t i n g s a n d s t o n e s i n t h e s o u r c e a r e a . S i l t - s i z e d f r a g m e n t s o f q u a r t z , f e l d s p a r , heavy m i n e r a l s and r a r e d o l o m i t e and c l a y m i n e r a l s o c c u r i n v a r y i n g amounts and c o m p r i s e t h e s a n d s t o n e m a t r i x . F r i a b l e a g g r e g a t e s of g r a i n s o c c u r i n some s a n d s t o n e s , w h i c h a r e p a r t l y c o n s o l i d a t e d by m a t r i x c l a y s and, r a r e l y cemented by s i d e r i t e o r c a l c i t e . S i d e r i t e o c c u r s as c o a t i n g s on t h e g r a i n s o r as d i s c r e t e g r a i n s i n some s a n d s t o n e s a m p l e s , i n d i c a t i n g p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n g c e -ment. C a l c i t e and r a r e l y s i d e r i t e cement ( F i g u r e 19A) o c c u r s as a c r y s t a l l i n e m o s a i c between t h e g r a i n s and e u h e d r a l c r y s t a l s a r e o b s e r v e d g r o w i n g i n t o t h e p o r e s p a c e s . Q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r g r a i n s a r e p a r t l y r e p l a c e d by c a l c i t e . The s a n d s t o n e s a r e , how-e v e r , m o s t l y u n c o n s o l i d a t e d and o r i g i n a l t e x t u r e s and g r a i n c o n -t a c t s a r e n o t p r e s e r v e d . G r a i n c o n t a c t s o b s e r v e d i n t h e c a l c i t e o r s i d e r i t e cemented s a n d s t o n e s were f l o a t i n g o r t a n g e n t i a l a c -c o r d i n g t o Adam's (1964) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Q u a r t z The most abundant m i n e r a l s p e c i e s i n t h e s a n d s t o n e s i s q u a r t z . ( T a b l e I ) . B o t h m o n o c r y s t a l l i n e and p o l y c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z g r a i n s a r e p r e s e n t and i n c l u d e s e v e r a l o f t h e q u a r t z t y p e s d e s c r i b e d by K r y n i n e ( 1 9 4 0 ) . M o n o c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z c o m p r i s e s t h e dominant q u a r t z t y p e i n a l l s a m p l e s . Most m o n o c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z g r a i n s have s t r a i g h t t o s l i g h t l y u n d u l o s e o r s e m i - c o m p o s i t e e x t i n c t i o n . M i c r o l i t e s 70 FIGURE 19. T h i n s e c t i o n p h o t o m i c r o g r a p h s of s a n d s t o n e s , E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n A. S i d e r i t e c emented s a n d s t o n e c o n t a i n i n g p e r t h i t e ( P t ) , mono-c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z (Qm) and s i d e r i t e cement ( S i ) . N i c o l s c r o s s e d . B. Z i r c o n ( Z r ) i n c l u s i o n i n m o n o c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z (Qm). C. Reworked q u a r t z o v e r g r o w t h on d e t r i t a l q u a r t z g r a i n . D. C h a l c e d o n y (Cd) i n a c h e r t g r a i n . N i c o l s c r o s s e d . E. M i c r o c l i n e g r a i n ( M i ) . N i c o l s c r o s s e d . 72 and v a c u o l e s o c c u r i n some of t h e m o n o c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z g r a i n s . The m i c r o l i t e s a r e p r i s m a t i c o r a c i c u l a r i n shape, and a r e l i k e l y z i r c o n ( F i g u r e 19B) and r u t i l e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Reworked q u a r t z o v e r g r o w t h s a r e v i s i b l e on some of t h e m o n o c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z g r a i n s ( F i g u r e 19C). A few q u a r t z g r a i n s have e u h e d r a l q u a r t z o v e r g r o w t h s w h i c h show no e v i d e n c e of r o u n -d i n g . P o l y c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z i s p r e s e n t i n a l l s a m p l e s . The number o f c r y s t a l u n i t s v i s i b l e p e r g r a i n i n t h i n s e c t i o n r a n g e s from 3 t o more t h a n 20 and i s p a r t l y d e p e n d e n t on g r a i n s i z e . R e c r y s t a l l i z e d metamorphic q u a r t z g r a i n s have s t r a i g h t g r a i n b o u n d a r i e s w h i c h commonly i n t e r s e c t a t a n g l e s o f 120 d e g r e e s . The q u a r t z g r a i n s have s t r a i g h t t o u n d u l o s e e x t i n c t i o n . S t r e t c h e d metamorphic q u a r t z g r a i n s w i t h smooth, c r e n u l a t e d and g r a n u l a t e d c r y s t a l b o u n d a r i e s and l a t t i c e p r e f e r r e d o r i e n t a t i o n a r e l e s s commonly o b s e r v e d t h a n o t h e r p o l y c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z t y p e s . C h e r t C h e r t g r a i n s commonly o c c u r i n t r a c e amounts i n t h e s a n d -s t o n e s . C h e r t g r a i n s a r e c o l o u r l e s s t o brown i n t h i n s e c t i o n and i n some samples c o n t a i n r a d i a t i n g f i b r e s of c h a l c e d o n y ( F i g u r e 19D) . 73 F e l d s p a r P l a g i o c l a s e , p o t a s s i u m and p e r t h i t i c f e l d s p a r s a r e p r e s e n t i n most samples ( T a b l e I ) . P o t a s s i u m f e l d s p a r i s u s u a l l y t h e most abundant f e l d s p a r , but p e r t h i t i c f e l d s p a r and p l a g i o c l a s e f e l d s p a r a r e l o c a l l y i m p o r t a n t . P o t a s s i u m f e l d s p a r i n c l u d e s o r t h o c l a s e and m i c r o c l i n e , and a c c o u n t s f o r up t o 22 p e r c e n t o f t h e framework c o m p o s i t i o n . Rare C a r l s b a d t w i n n i n g i s p r e s e n t i n o r t h o c l a s e , and m i c r o c l i n e shows t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c " t a r t a n " p a t t e r n ( F i g u r e 1 9 E ) . P l a g i o c l a s e i s most abundant i n t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n a t S t e n k u l F i o r d , and l o c a l l y c o n s t i t u t e s up t o 14 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l c l a s t s . A l b i t e t w i n n i n g i s u b i q u i -t o u s i n t h e p l a g i o c l a s e g r a i n s ( F i g u r e 1 9 F ) . S e r i c i t i z a t i o n and p o s s i b l y s a u s s u r i t i z a t i o n of t h e p l a g i o c l a s e g r a i n s i s common. F e l d s p a r g r a i n s showing m i c r o p e r t h i t i c ( F i g u r e 20A) and l e s s commonly a n t i p e r t h i t i c i n t e r g r o w t h o f p o t a s s i u m and p l a g i o -c l a s e f e l d s p a r s o c c u r i n t h e s a n d s t o n e s . P e r t h i t e t y p e s i n c l u d e s t r i n g l e t s , s t r i n g s , r o d s and beads ( A i l i n g , 1938). O r t h o c l a s e m i c r o p e r t h i t e c o n t a i n i n g e x s o l v e d a l b i t e i s t h e most commonly o c c u r r i n g p e r t h i t e c o m p o s i t i o n , a l t h o u g h m i c r o c l i n e m i c r o p e r -t h i t e i s p r e s e n t . A n t i p e r t h i t e r a r e l y o c c u r s and i s e a s i l y i d e n -t i f i e d by t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m i c r o c l i n e " p a t c h e s " i n a l b i t e ( F i g u r e 20B). S y m p l e c t i c i n t e r g r o w t h s of q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r a r e p r e s e n t i n some g r a i n s . M y r m e k i t e ( F i g u r e 20C), and l e s s commonly g r a -74 F I G U R E 2 0 . T h i n s e c t i o n p h o t o m i c r o g r a p h s o f s a n d s t o n e s , E u r e k a S o u n d F o r m a t i o n A . P l a g i o c l a s e ( P i ) a n d q u a r t z ( Q ) . N i c o l s c r o s s e d . B . . P e r t h i t e ( P t ) i n a p l u t o n i c r o c k f r a g m e n t . N i c o l s c r o s s e d . C . A n t i p e r t h i t e s h o w i n g m i c r o c l i n e ( M i ) a n d p l a g i o c l a s e ( P i ) . N i c o l s c r o s s e d . D . M y r m e k i t e ( M y ) a n d m i c r o c l i n e ( M i ) . N i c o l s c r o s s e d . E . P a r a g n e i s s g r a i n . N i c o l s c r o s s e d . F . C a t a c l a s i t e o r m y l o n i t e g r a i n . N i c o l s c r o s s e d . 75 76 p h i c q u a r t z - p o t a s s i u m f e l d s p a r i n t e r g r o w t h s a r e p r e s e n t . S e d i m e n t a r y Rock F r a g m e n t s S e d i m e n t a r y r o c k f r a g m e n t s c o m p r i s e o n l y a m i n o r component of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . S a n d s t o n e and c a r b o n a t e r o c k f r a g m e n t s a r e t h e most commonly o c c u r r i n g s e d i -m e n t a r y r o c k f r a g m e n t s . S i l t s t o n e and s h a l e f r a g m e n t s o c c u r r a r e l y . F r a g m e n t s o f s a n d s t o n e a r e composed o f q u a r t z g r a i n s w i t h s t r a i g h t g r a i n b o u n d a r i e s . Q u a r t z o v e r g r o w t h s a r e r a r e l y o b s e r v e d . S i l t s t o n e f r a g m e n t s a r e c o l o u r l e s s t o p a l e brown and s h a l e f r a g m e n t s a r e brown. C a r b o n a t e r o c k f r a g m e n t s a r e y e l l o w t o brown and have s p a r r y t o m i c r i t i c t e x t u r e s . I g n e o u s Rock F r a g m e n t s P l u t o n i c r o c k f r a g m e n t s a r e common and a r e g r a n i t i c i n com-p o s i t i o n . F r a g m e n t s w h i c h c o n t a i n q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r o r p o t a s -s i u m f e l d s p a r and p l a g i o c l a s e g r a i n s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e -g o r y ( F i g u r e 2 0 A ) . B i o t i t e i s r a r e i n t h e p l u t o n i c r o c k f r a g -ments, whereas c h l o r i t e and s e r i c i t e a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e p l u t o n i c r o c k f r a g m e n t s commonly o c c u r s . M e t a m o r p h i c Rock F r a g m e n t s M e t a m o r p h i c r o c k f r a g m e n t s a r e r a r e i n t h e s a n d s t o n e s . G r a i n s o f p a r a g n e i s s ( F i g u r e 20D), g r a n i t i c g n e i s s , s t r e t c h e d m e t a m o r p h i c q u a r t z and c a t a c l a s i t e or m y l o n i t e (Wise e t a l . , 77 1984) o c c u r i n t h e s a n d s t o n e s ( F i g u r e 2 0 E ) . P l u t o n i c r o c k f r a g -ments and q u a r t z o - f e l d s p a t h i c m etamorphic f r a g m e n t s w i t h g r a n o b -l a s t i c t e x t u r e a r e o f t e n i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e i n t h i n s e c t i o n . M i c a B i o t i t e , m u s c o v i t e and c h l o r i t e o c c u r i n t h e s a n d s t o n e s , but do n o t c o m p r i s e an a p p r e c i a b l e p e r c e n t a g e of t h e t o t a l c l a s t c o m p o s i t i o n . G r e e n , brown and r e d , t i t a n i u m - r i c h p l e o c h r o i c b i o -t i t e v a r i e t i e s o c c u r . B i o t i t e o c c u r s a s p l a t e s o r as l a t h s and i s l o c a l l y a l t e r e d t o c h l o r i t e . M u s c o v i t e i s c o l o u r l e s s and o c c u r s a s l a t h - s h a p e d g r a i n s o r a s f i n e - g r a i n e d s e r i c i t e . C h l o r i t e i s g r e e n and p l e o c h r o i c and o c c u r s . a s a r e p l a c e m e n t o f b i o t i t e . G r a n u l e and P e b b l e c o m p o s i t i o n G r a n u l e s and p e b b l e s from b a s a l l a g d e p o s i t s of t h e s a n d -s t o n e u n i t s i n c l u d e s h a l e , c h e r t , g r a n i t e , q u a r t z g n e i s s , q u a r t z i t e and m y l o n i t e . HEAVY MINERALS Heavy m i n e r a l a n a l y s e s were c o m p l e t e d f o r tw e n t y - o n e sam-p l e s , a l l o f w h i c h a r e from t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d o u t l i e r ( F i g u r e s 3 and 8 ) . Heavy m i n e r a l a n a l y s e s were n o t p e r f o r m e d on samples from Baumann F i o r d o r Vendom F i o r d , however, h e a v y m i n e r a l s i d e n t i f i e d from t h i n s e c t i o n s o f t h e s a n d s t o n e s a m p l e s a r e i n -78 FIGURE 21. T h i n s e c t i o n p h o t o m i c r o g r a p h s of heavy m i n e r a l s , E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n . A. Z i r c o n ( Z r ) , z i r c o n o v e r g r o w t h on r ounded brown d e t r i t a l z i r c o n g r a i n , t o u r m a l i n e (Tm), b i o t i t e ( B i ) and k y a n i t e (Ky) g r a i n s . B. G a r n e t g r a i n ( G a ) . C. K y a n i t e g r a i n ( K y ) . D. E u h e d r a l s i l l i m a n i t e g r a i n ( S I ) . E. F i b r o u s s i l l i m a n i t e g r a i n ( S I ) . 79 80 e l u d e d on T a b l e I . G r a i n mounts of t h e heavy m i n e r a l f r a c t i o n s were examined o p t i c a l l y and t h e r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d on T a b l e I . A few heavy m i n e r a l s p e c i e s c o u l d n o t be i d e n t i f i e d b e c a u s e t h e y were t o o f i n e - g r a i n e d or were not o r i e n t e d on t h e t h i n s e c t i o n s u c h t h a t d i a g n o s t i c o p t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d . Opaque m i n e r -a l s were n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The most common heavy m i n e r a l s a r e z i r c o n , t o u r m a l i n e , g a r n e t and r u t i l e . Z i r c o n i s f o u n d i n a l l samples from S t e n k u l F i o r d , and c o m p r i s e s a l m o s t t h e e n t i r e heavy m i n e r a l s u i t e i n sample 12-79. The c o l o u r v a r i e s f r o m c o l o u r l e s s t o y e l l o w w i t h some brown g r a i n s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e g r a i n s a r e w e l l rounded w i t h h i g h r e l i e f , and s p h e r i c i t y r a n g e s from m o d e r a t e t o extreme. A few s u b h e d r a l t o e u h e d r a l , s l i g h t l y r o u n d e d g r a i n s o c c u r . Z i r c o n s w i t h a b r a d e d o v e r g r o w t h s on a r o u n d e d , d e t r i t a l c o r e a r e r a r e l y o b s e r v e d . T o u r m a l i n e o c c u r s i n a l m o s t a l l samples f r o m S t e n k u l F i o r d and i s m a i n l y composed o f i n d i c o l i t e ; s c h o r l i t e and e l b a i t e r a r e l y o c c u r . T o u r m a l i n e r a n g e s i n shape from m o s t l y a n g u l a r , a n h e d r a l f r a g m e n t s , t o s u b h e d r a l , p r i s m a t i c g r a i n s . R u t i l e i s p r e s e n t i n most samples and u s u a l l y o c c u r s as v e r y w e l l r o u n d e d g r a i n s a l t h o u g h b r o k e n and a n g u l a r g r a i n s a r e l o c a l l y p r e s e n t . G a r n e t i s t h e most abundant heavy m i n e r a l i n a l l samples e x c e p t 12-79. The g a r n e t , which i s p r o b a b l y a l m a n d i n e , i s c o l o u r l e s s t o s l i g h t l y p i n k i n t h i n s e c t i o n , a n h e d r a l and a n g u l a r w i t h v e r y few w e l l r o u n d e d g r a i n s ( F i g u r e 2 0 F ) . S p h e r i c i t y i s m o d e r a t e . G a r n e t l o c a l l y c o n t a i n s a c i c u l a r i n c l u s i o n s o f a c o l o u r l e s s min-e r a l w i t h p a r a l l e l e x t i n c t i o n , l i k e l y s i l l i m a n i t e . 81 M i n e r a l s o f t h e e p i d o t e g r o u p a r e p r e s e n t i n moderate amounts a s v e r y f i n e s a n d t o s i l t - s i z e g r a i n s . E p i d o t e i s most abundant and o c c u r s a s s u b a n g u l a r t o w e l l r o u n d e d g r a i n s . Z o i s i t e a nd c l i n o z o i s i t e a r e l e s s common and o c c u r as subangu-l a r , s h o r t p r i s m a t i c c r y s t a l s t o w e l l r o u n d e d g r a i n s . K y a n i t e and s i l l i m a n i t e a r e v e r y common i n t h e heavy m i n e r -a l s u i t e s . K y a n i t e o c c u r s a s b r o a d , e l o n g a t e t a b u l a r p l a t e s ( F i g u r e 2 1 A ) . The g r a i n s a r e a l w a y s e u h e d r a l and o c c a s i o n a l l y show u n d u l o s e e x t i n c t i o n . S i l l i m a n i t e p r i n c i p a l l y o c c u r s a s v e r y a n g u l a r , s u b h e d r a l t o e u h e d r a l p r i s m a t i c c r y s t a l s ( F i g u r e 2 1 B ) . S i l l i m a n i t e r a r e l y , o c c u r s a s a f i b r o u s mat o f f i n e c r y s t a l l i n e m a t e r i a l ( F i g u r e 2 1 C). S t a u r o l i t e g r a i n s a r e v e r y a n g u l a r and a n h e d r a l i n shape, and e u h e d r a l sphene c r y s t a l s w i t h a c u t e rhombic c r y s t a l f o r m a r e p r e s e n t . L o n g , e u h e d r a l p r i s m a t i c c r y s t a l s o f a l l a n i t e a r e p r e -s e n t i n o n l y a few s a m p l e s . PALEOCURRENT ANALYSIS T h r e e t y p e s of c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d and measured i n t h e f i e l d f o r p a l e o c u r r e n t s t u d i e s ; p l a n a r t a b u l a r and t r o u g h c r o s s - b e d d i n g and r i p p l e c r o s s - l a m i n a t i o n . A t o t a l of 331 c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e s were measured a t 6 s i t e s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e p a l e o c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . They c o m p r i s e 128 l a r g e - s c a l e s t r u c t u r e s , m a i n l y p l a n a r c r o s s - b e d s - b u t a l s o t r o u g h 82 c r o s s - b e d s , and .203 s m a l l s c a l e s t r u c t u r e s . R a r e l y were more t h a n f i f t e e n s e t s of c r o s s - b e d s o b s e r v e d a t an o u t c r o p . The ma-j o r i t y o f t h e s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s measured f o r p a l e o c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n a r e r i p p l e c r o s s - l a m i n a t i o n s ( T a b l e I I ) . The p a l e o c u r r e n t v e c t o r mean and c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l were c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h l o c a l i t y ( T a b l e I I ; F i g u r e 24A-D). V e c t o r means were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e method o u t l i n e d by Cheeney (1983) b a s e d on a von M i s e s d i s t r i b u t i o n . A l l t h e d a t a were f o u n d t o be f r o m a von M i s e s d i s t r i b u t i o n a t t h e 95 p e r c e n t c o n -f i d e n c e l e v e l . The c a l c u l a t e d k ( c o n c e n t r a t i o n ) p a r a m e t e r ( T a b l e I I ) , w h i c h i s a n a l o g o u s t o t h e d i s p e r s i o n p a r a m e t e r s o f l i n e a r ^ d a t a , i n c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g p r e f e r r e d o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e d a t a , i n t h i s c a s e , p a l e o f l o w d i r e c t i o n s . PROVENANCE The p a r e n t l i t h o l o g i e s from w h i c h a s a n d s t o n e i s d e r i v e d may c o n t a i n a v e r y d i v e r s e and complex m i n e r a l o g y , however few h eavy m i n e r a l s s u r v i v e w e a t h e r i n g , t r a n s p o r t and d e p o s i t i o n ( B l a t t , e t a l . , 1972). The m i n e r a l o g i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f a s a n d -s t o n e i s m a i n l y a f u n c t i o n o f t h e s o u r c e r o c k ( s ) from w h i c h i t was d e r i v e d , and t h u s p r o v i d e s t h e most d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n on s a n d s t o n e p r o v e n a n c e . A wide v a r i e t y o f o t h e r p r o c e s s e s can have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of a s a n d s t o n e and n eed t o be c o n s i d e r e d when i n t e r p r e t i n g s a n d s t o n e p r o v e n a n c e . T h e s e p r o c e s s e s i n c l u d e c l i m a t e , r e l i e f and s e d i m e n t a r y e n v i r o n -ment, w h i c h d e t e r m i n e t h e d e g r e e of c h e m i c a l w e a t h e r i n g and me-c h a n i c a l a b r a s i o n t h a t t h e s a n d p a r t i c l e s a r e s u b j e c t e d t o TABLE I I . Paleocurrent Data Section Interval Sedimentary structure Total number Concentration Vector mean Confidence Interval number (metres) measurements of factor "K" (degrees) (in degrees) observations (95% l e v e l )  Ripple cross- Planar cross-lamination bedding 05 08 10 13 14 18 65 - 67 18 - 29 59 - 82 46 - 60 86 - 116 70 - 82 39 34 14 10 15 37 16 14 39 44 15 37 16 9.4 3.2 3.6 5.1 9.2 4.5 236 359 287 172 173 160 ± 1 0 ± 1 1 ± 1 0 ± 1 4 ± 6 + 14 CO 84 d u r i n g d e p o s i t i o n . S e l e c t i v e l o s s o f c e r t a i n m i n e r a l s p e c i e s a l s o o c c u r s a f t e r d e p o s i t i o n by i n t r a s t r a t a l s o l u t i o n . S e v e r a l m i n e r a l s p e c i e s and s u i t e s of m i n e r a l s a r e d i a g n o s t i c of s p e c i f -i c s o u r c e r o c k l i t h o l o g i e s and, when t h e y o c c u r , p r o v i d e s t r o n g e v i d e n c e f o r s a n d s t o n e p r o v e n a n c e . The s i z e and h a b i t of t h e c o n s t i t u e n t g r a i n s i n a s a n d s t o n e p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e c l u e s as t o t h e i r v a r i o u s o r i g i n s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n h i s t o r i e s . P a l e o c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n s a r e somewhat l e s s d i a g n o s t i c o f s a n d s t o n e p r o v e n a n c e , as t h e y c a n be q u i t e v a r i a b l e d e p e n d i n g on t h e d e g r e e o f s i n u o s i t y of t h e c h a n n e l and t h e t y p e of s e d i m e n -t a r y s t r u c t u r e s from w h i c h t h e measurements a r e o b t a i n e d ( M i a l l , 1974). S a n d s t o n e p e t r o g r a p h y , heavy m i n e r a l a n a l y s i s and p a l e o c u r -r e n t s t u d i e s of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n from t h e s t u d y a r e a s u g g e s t t h a t P r e c a m b r i a n g r a n i t e s and g r a n u l i t e f a c i e s meta-m o r p h i c r o c k s o f t h e C h u r c h i l l S t r u c t u r a l P r o v i n c e of t h e C a n a d i a n S h i e l d , w h i c h c r o p o u t t o t h e e a s t of t h e s t u d y a r e a , ( S t o c k w e l l , 1982; F r i s c h , 1983; F i g u r e 1) a r e t h e p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e r o c k s f o r most s a n d s t o n e s . P r e c a m b r i a n c r y s t a l l i n e r o c k s t o t h e s o u t h and P a l e o z o i c c l a s t i c and c a r b o n a t e r o c k s a d j a c e n t t o t h e s t u d y a r e a c o n t r i b u t e d a s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n of d e t r i t u s t o t h e s a n d s t o n e s . The a n g u l a r i t y of most g r a i n s , t h e a b s e n c e o f c o n g l o m e r a t e s a n d t h e common o c c u r r e n c e of m e c h a n i c a l l y u n s t a b l e g r a i n s s u g -g e s t t h a t t h e s a n d s t o n e s were d e p o s i t e d i n low t o moderate e n e r g y e n v i r o n m e n t s c l o s e t o a h i g h r e l i e f s o u r c e w h i c h was s u b -j e c t e d t o r a p i d e r o s i o n . The c l i m a t e was c o o l and wet i n t h e 85 P a l e o c e n e and became warmer i n t h e Eocene (Rouse, 1977), and t h u s d i d n o t have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e m i n e r a l o g y of t h e s a n d s t o n e s , a s s h o r t t r a n s p o r t d i s t a n c e s and r a p i d d e p o s i t i o n d i d n ot a l l o w s u f f i c i e n t t i m e f o r c h e m i c a l d e c o m p o s i t i o n . The p r e s e n c e of q u a r t z w i t h a c i c u l a r i n c l u s i o n s of r u t i l e and m i c r o c l i n e , m i c r o c l i n e p e r t h i t e , o r t h o c l a s e and o r t h o c l a s e m i c r o p e r t h i t e , w hich a r e t h e dominant a l k a l i f e l d s p a r s , i n d i c a t e a p l u t o n i c s o u r c e . The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h abundance o f p e r t h i t e , w h i c h i s v e r y e a s i l y decomposed and d i s i n t e g r a t e d , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e f e l d s p a r i s p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d from n e a r b y g r a n i t i c r o c k s r a t h e r t h a n o f r e c y c l e d o r i g i n , a s p e r t h i t e h as a low s u r v i v a l p o t e n t i a l ( B l a t t , 1982). A l b i t e t w i n n i n g i s a l w a y s e x h i b i t e d by p l a g i o c l a s e , w h i c h s u g g e s t s a g r a n i t i c p a r e n t r o c k ( B l a t t , 1982; P i t t m a n , 1970).. M y r m e k i t e and g r a p h i c i n t e r g r o w t h s of q u a r t z and p o t a s s i u m f e l d s p a r a r e e s p e c i a l l y common i n g r a n i t e s , and a r e o b s e r v e d i n s e v e r a l s a n d s t o n e s a m p l e s . G r a n i t e r o c k f r a g m e n t s a r e common i n t h e s a m p l e s , and o c c u r b o t h a s s a n d - s i z e g r a i n s and as g r a n u l e s and p e b b l e s i n b a s a l l a g d e p o s i t s i n t h e s a n d s t o n e s . The h e a v y m i n e r a l s sphene and a l l a n i t e a r e b o t h c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c m i n e r a l s of i g n e o u s r o c k s , a l t h o u g h sphene may a l s o o c c u r i n g n e i s s e s and s c h i s t s r i c h i n i r o n and magnesium m i n e r a l s . M e t a m o r p h i c r o c k s were a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e f o r E u r e k a Sound s a n d s t o n e s . Most o f t h e p o l y c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z g r a i n s and s t r a i n e d , m o n o c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z g r a i n s a r e l i k e l y of metamorph-i c o r i g i n , a l t h o u g h q u a r t z w i t h u n d u l o s e e x t i n c t i o n c a n a l s o 86 o c c u r i n p l u t o n i c r o c k s . B i o t i t e , m u s c o v i t e and c h l o r i t e a r e common i n t h e s a n d s t o n e s . The m i c a s a r e f o u n d i n v a r i o u s i g n e o u s and metamorphic r o c k s , but o c c u r most commonly i n p h y l l i t e s and s c h i s t s . The r e d , t i t a n i u m - r i c h b i o t i t e o b s e r v e d i n some samples i n d i c a t e s a h i g h g r a d e m e t a m o r p h i c s o u r c e t e r r a n e (Deer e t a l . , 1966). M e t a m o r p h i c r o c k f r a g m e n t s a r e more s u s c e p t i b l e t o wea-t h e r i n g w h i c h l i k e l y a c c o u n t s f o r t h e i r s m a l l e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n t h e s a n d s i z e f r a c t i o n . P a r a g n e i s s , g r a n i t i c g n e i s s , s c h i s -t o s e m etamorphic q u a r t z a n d c a t a c l a s i t e o r m y l o n i t e r o c k f r a g -ments r a r e l y o c c u r . G r a n u l e s and p e b b l e s of q u a r t z g n e i s s and m y l o n i t e a l s o o c c u r . Heavy m i n e r a l s d i a g n o s t i c o f a metamorphic p a r e n t r o c k a l s o o c c u r , i n c l u d i n g a l m a n d i n e g a r n e t , s i l l i m a n i t e , k y a n i t e , s t a u r o l i t e and m i n e r a l s o f t h e e p i d o t e g r o u p . W e l l r o u n d e d , m o n o c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z g r a i n s , g r a i n s w i t h r o u n d e d q u a r t z o v e r g r o w t h s and a few p o l y c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z g r a i n s w i t h s e d i m e n t a r y t e x t u r e s i n d i c a t e a s e d i m e n t a r y s o u r c e . E u h e d r a l q u a r t z o v e r g r o w t h s w h i c h do not show any r o u n d i n g o c c u r on some w e l l r o u n d e d q u a r t z g r a i n s and were p r o b a b l y formed i n  s i t u and n o t r e w o r k e d f r o m o l d e r s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s . The p r e s e n c e o f c h e r t i s i n d i c a t i v e o f an o l d e r s e d i m e n t a r y s o u r c e . The c h e r t may have been d e r i v e d from c h e r t n o d u l e s and beds i n o l d e r l i m e s t o n e s o r r e w o r k e d from o l d e r , c h e r t - b e a r i n g s a n d s t o n e s . B e c a u s e c a r b o n a t e i s e a s i l y removed by w e a t h e r i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , o f t e n t h e o n l y e v i d e n c e i n t h e s a n d s t o n e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c a r b o n a t e r o c k s i n t h e d r a i n a g e b a s i n i s c h e r t , d e r i v e d from c h e r t n o d u l e s o r c h e r t b eds. S e d i m e n t a r y r o c k f r a g -ments s u c h as s a n d s t o n e , s i l t s t o n e , s h a l e and c a r b o n a t e a r e s u s -87 c e p t i b l e t o a b r a s i o n , h e n c e t h e i r p r e s e n c e i n some samples i n d i -c a t e s f i r s t c y c l e o r i g i n and s h o r t t r a n s p o r t d i s t a n c e s p r i o r t o d e p o s i t i o n . W e l l r o u n d e d g r a i n s o f t h e s t a b l e m i n e r a l s z i r c o n , t o u r m a l i n e ( g r o u p ) , r u t i l e , and e p i d o t e ( g r o u p ) o c c u r most com-monly i n t h e heavy m i n e r a l s u i t e s of t h e s a n d s t o n e s and i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e d i m e n t s were a t l e a s t i n p a r t d e r i v e d from o l d e r s e d -i m e n t a r y r o c k s . P r e c a m b r i a n r o c k s l y i n g t o t h e e a s t o f t h e s t u d y were t h e m a j o r s o u r c e f o r t h e E u r e k a Sound s e d i m e n t s and a r e m a i n l y com-p r i s e d of m i g m a t i t i c g a r n e t - c o r d i e r i t e - s i l l i m a n i t e - b i o t i t e g n e i s s , a n a t e c t i c p e r a l u m i n o u s g r a n i t e and p y r o x e n e g n e i s s ( F r i s c h , 1983). The m i n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s a n d s t o n e s c l o s e -l y r e f l e c t s t h e m i n e r a l o g y o f t h e P r e c a m b r i a n S h i e l d r o c k s w i t h a few n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s . C o r d i e r i t e , g r e e n s p i n e l and o r t h o -p y r o x e n e a r e common c o n s t i t u e n t s of t h e g n e i s s e s and g r a n i t e s b u t a r e e i t h e r n o t p r e s e n t o r were not r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e s a n d -s t o n e s from t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n . C o r d i e r i t e i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h from q u a r t z i n t h i n s e c t i o n and o r t h o p y r o x e n e i s e a s i l y d e s t r o y e d d u r i n g s e d i m e n t t r a n s p o r t and i s t h e r e f o r e r a r e i n s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s . G r e e n s p i n e l i s opaque i n t h i n s e c t i o n and may o c c u r i n t h e sam p l e s b ut was n o t r e c o g n i z e d . S e d i m e n t a r y r o c k f r a g m e n t s and p o l y c y c l i c q u a r t z g r a i n s were u n d o u b t e d l y d e r i v e d from o l d e r c a r b o n a t e and c l a s t i c r o c k s w h i c h s u r r o u n d E u r e k a Sound o u t l i e r s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f S t e n k u l F i o r d ( F i g u r e 3 ) . S e d i m e n t a r y r o c k f r a g m e n t s have a low s u r v i v a l p o t e n t i a l i n t h e d e p o s i t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t and a r e t h e r e f o r e r a r e i n t h e s a n d s t o n e s . 88 In summary, most s a n d s t o n e s f r o m t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n a t S t e n k u l F i o r d were d e r i v e d f r o m P r e c a m b r i a n g r a n i t i c and metamorphic r o c k s of t h e C a n a d i a n S h i e l d w h i c h l i e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 km t o t h e e a s t and 100 km t o t h e s o u t h of t h e s t u d y a r e a . However, w e l l r o u n d e d q u a r t z o s e g r a i n s w i t h q u a r t z o v e r g r o w t h s , c h e r t and s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k f r a g m e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s a n d -s t o n e s were a t l e a s t p a r t l y d e r i v e d from Lower P a l e o z o i c c a r -b o n a t e and c l a s t i c s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s w h i c h were p r o b a b l y e x p o s e d i n t h e v i c i n i t y of S t e n k u l F i o r d a t v a r i o u s t i m e s d u r i n g d e p o s i -t i o n of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n . 89 DIAGENESIS AND VITRINITE REFLECTANCE S t r a t a o f the Eureka Sound Formation i n the v i c i n i t y of Vendom, St e n k u l , Baumann and Sor F i o r d s are not l i t h i f i e d , with the exception o f a few l o c a l i z e d zones that have been cemented by s i d e r i t e or c a l c i t e . The e s s e n t i a l l y u n c o n s o l i d a t e d aspect o f the sandstones o f the Eureka Sound Formation i s not unique to the study area. Elsewhere in the A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o , Eureka Sound and o l d e r sandstones commonly lack a p p r e c i a b l e cement ( B u s t i n , 1977; M i a l l , 1976; 19.79a). I t i s not c l e a r whether the lack o f cemen-t a t i o n i s a r e s u l t of decementation and d i s s o l u t i o n o f ^ p r e v i o u s -l y e x i s t i n g carbonate cement, or whether p e r v a s i v e cementation never o c c u r r e d i n the Eureka Sound Formation. Etched sur f a c e s of quartz g r a i n s r e s u l t i n g from replacement by carbonate and l a t e r carbonate d i s s o l u t i o n have been c i t e d as evidence of decementa-t i o n ( P e t t i J o h n , 1975). Etched quartz g r a i n s u r f a c e s are not observed i n the u n c o n s o l i d a t e d sandstones from Stenkul F i o r d . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s most u n l i k e l y that the sandstones o f the Eureka Sound Formation were ever cemented. L o c a l l y cemented sandstones and s i l t s t o n e s occur only towards the base of the s t r a t i g r a p h i c s u c c e s s i o n and were d e p o s i t e d i n b r a c k i s h water environments. Although rare euhedral quartz overgrowths occur on w e l l rounded g r a i n s and are c o n s i d e r e d to have formed i_n s i t u , quartz cementation does not occur even l o c a l l y in the sandstones. Coal rank s t u d i e s suggest that these sediments have not been b u r i e d deeply, probably l e s s than 800 m ( B u s t i n , i n p r e p . ) , which would 90 e x p l a i n t h e l a c k o f p r e s s u r e s o l u t i o n a t g r a i n b o u n d a r i e s . S i d e r i t e cemented s a n d s t o n e s o c c u r i n z o n e s c o n t a i n i n g h i g h amounts of o r g a n i c p l a n t m a t e r i a l . Decay of o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l by m i c r o - o r g a n i s m s u s e s oxygen, c r e a t i n g l o c a l a n a e r o b i c r e d u c i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s . Under r e d u c i n g c o n d i t i o n s , c a r b o n d i o x i d e and f e r -r o u s i r o n , p r o v i d e d by i r o n - b e a r i n g s i l i c a t e s , f o r m s i d e r i t e ( T e i c h m u l l e r , 1982). V i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e measurements o f t h e c o a l seams i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e a a l l o w i n f e r e n c e on t h e maximum d e p t h of sub-s i d e n c e o f t h e s e d i m e n t a r y p i l e and t h e s u b s e q u e n t amount o f u p l i f t and e r o s i o n , by r e l a t i n g t h e v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e v a l u e s t o a l o c a l l y d e r i v e d c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t . V i t r i n i t e r e f l e c -t a n c e v a l u e s . w e r e o b t a i n e d from s e v e n c o a l s a m p l e s from t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d o u t l i e r and f i v e c o a l s amples f r o m t h e Baumann F i o r d o u t l i e r . The r e s u l t s a r e shown on T a b l e I I I . The c o a l rank v a r i e s f r o m 0.15% Romax t o 0.3% Romax. R e l a t i n g t h e s e v a l u e s t o t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t d e r i v e d by B u s t i n ( i n p r e p . ) f o r E u r e k a Sound s e d i m e n t s a t S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d , l o c a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e -l y 150 km n o r t h o f S t e n k u l F i o r d , t h e maximum d e p t h o f b u r i a l i s on t h e o r d e r o f 800 m. The amount and r a t e of e r o s i o n i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e a a r e d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e p a p e r . TABLE I I I . V i t r i n i t e Reflectance Results Location Sample number Depth (m) % R max Standard deviation ° (95% le v e l ) Stenkul 18-136 35 0.15 0.02 Stenkul 18-133 50 0.20 0.02 Stenkul 18-132 82 0.20 0.02 Stenkul 14-147 38 0.24 0.03 Stenkul 04-149 23 0.23 0.02 Stenkul 04-155 80 0.29 0.02 Stenkul 07-55 180 0.30 0.03 Baumann 22-189 5 0.25 0.03 Baumann 22-186 103 0.21 0.03 Baumann 22-165 281 0.19 OiL 03 Baumann 22-164 329 0.24 0.03 Baumann 22-156 476 0.24 0.02 92 FOSSIL CONTENT AND AGE The E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f S t e n k u l F i o r d y i e l d e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of p a l y n o l g i c a l and p a l e o n t o l o g -i c a l d a t a . P a l y n o l o g y p r o v i d e s t h e most p r e c i s e t o o l f o r d e t e r -m i n i n g t h e a g e s of t h e s e s e d i m e n t s . Age d e t e r m i n a t i o n s b a s e d on p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e were not as p r e c i s e , b u t were c o n s i s -t e n t w i t h t h e ages o b t a i n e d u s i n g p a l y n o l o g y . B o t h p a l y n o l o g i c a l and p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l d a t a p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p a l e o c l i m a -t i c and p a l e o e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h e x i s t e d d u r i n g depo-s i t i o n o f t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . PALYNOLOGY S e l e c t e d samples were p r o c e s s e d t o o b t a i n p a l y n o m o r p h a s -semblages f o r d a t i n g p a r t s of t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s and t o p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e f o r p a l e o c l i m a t i c and p a l e o e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i -t i o n s . T h e s e were i d e n t i f i e d by D r . G.E. Rouse o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and r e l a t e d t o t h e p a l y n o z o n e s e s t a b l i s h e d by Rouse (1977) from t h e Remus C r e e k s e c t i o n of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n west o f E u r e k a w e a t h e r s t a t i o n on c e n t r a l E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d . The sample numbers and ages a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e . The r e -c o g n i z e d p a l y n o m o r p h s a r e l i s t e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x . 93 SAMPLE NUMBER AGE PALYNOZONE 83-18-134 83-22-188 83-22-157 83-23-178 83-07-58 83-07-54&56 L a t e Eocene E a r l y t o e a r l y M i d d l e Eocene L a t e M i d d l e t o e a r l y L a t e P a l e o c e n e L a t e P a l e o c e n e mid- P a l e o c e n e mid- P a l e o c e n e (Rouse, 1977) E-2 E-1 P-3 P-4 P-2 P-2 The p a l y n o m o r p h a s s e m b l a g e s a r e m a i n l y t e r r e s t r i a l , e x c e p t f o r . 1 8 - 1 3 4 and 22-188. These two s a m p l e s c o n t a i n s e v e r a l contem-p o r a r y d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t s as w e l l a s a v e r y d i v e r s e and w e l l p r e s e r v e d s p o r e p o l l e n a s s e m b l a g e , i n d i c a t i n g d e p o s i t i o n v e r y n e a r s h o r e , c l o s e t o w e l l d e v e l o p e d p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s . Of added i n t e r e s t i s t h e p r e s e n c e o f M a a s t r i c h t i a n -Campanian r e c y c l e d p a l y n o m o r p h s i n t h e o l d e s t s a m p l e s (07-54&56). Such r e c y c l e d Upper C r e t a c e o u s p a l y n o m o r p h s a r e w i d e s -p r e a d i n t h e l o w e r s e c t i o n s of t h e E u r e k a Sound and e q u i v a l e n t f o r m a t i o n s i n t h e A r c t i c (Rouse, 1977,p. 48; N o r r i s and M i a l l , 1984). P r i o r t o t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e y o u n g e s t c o n c l u s i v e l y d a t e d E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a seen i n o u t c r o p were o f M i d d l e Eocene age ( T h o r s t e i n s s o n and T o z e r , 1970; B u s t i n , 1977; Rouse, 1977). L a t e E o c e n e and O l i g o c e n e p a l y n o m o r p h a s s e m b l a g e s have been r e -94 c o g n i z e d i n some w e l l s i n t h e M a c k e n z i e D e l t a ( Rouse, 1977), however t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of a L a t e E o c e n e p a l y n o m o r p h a s s e m b l a g e a t S t e n k u l F i o r d i s t h e f i r s t known o c c u r r e n c e of Upper Eocene E u r e k a ' Sound s t r a t a i n o u t c r o p . PALEONTOLOGY S e v e r a l s p e c i m e n s o f f o s s i l p l a n t s and a n i m a l s ( b o t h v e r t e -b r a t e and i n v e r t e b r a t e ) were c o l l e c t e d from t h e E u r e k a Sound beds a t S t e n k u l F i o r d . I r o n s t o n e n o d u l e s and beds w h i c h o c c u r t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c sequence commonly c o n t a i n e d l e a f i m p r i n t s and molds and c a s t s of b r a n c h e s ( F i g u r e 23B) and r e p r o d u c t i v e p a r t s of t h e p a l e o f l o r a . L e a v e s and r e p r o d u c t i v e p a r t s c o l l e c t e d from t h e s t u d y a r e a were i d e n t i f i e d by D r . G.E. Rouse o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and a r e l i s t e d b e l o w . S e v e r a l p l a n t f o s s i l s a r e shown on F i g u r e s 22 and 23. Modern r e l a t i o n s a r e shown i n b r a c k e t s f o l l o w i n g e a c h name. LEAVES M e t a s e q u o i a o c c i d e n t a l i s (dawn redwood), F i g u r e 22A C r e d n a r i a s p e c t a b i l i s ( r e l a t i o n s unknown) P h y l l i t e s c f . d i s t u r b a n s ( r e l a t i o n s unknown), F i g u r e 22B c f . S a p i n d u s a f f i n u s ( s o a p b e r r y ) V i b u r n u m t i l i o i d e s (arrow-wood), F i g u r e 22C 95 F I G U R E 22. F o s s i l r e m a i n s , E u r e k a S o u n d F o r m a t i o n . A . M e t a s e q u o i a o c c i d e n t a l i s ( d a w n r e d w o o d ) . B . P h y l l i t e s c f . d i s t u r b a n s ( r e l a t i o n s u n k n o w n ) . C . V i b u r n u m t i l i o i d e s ( a r r o w - w o o d ) . D . N e l u m b i u m m o n t a n u m ( s a c r e d b e a n ) . E . U n i o n i d p e l e c y p o d c f . P l e s i e l l i p t i o p r i s c u s ( M e e k a n d H a y d e n ) . F . U n i d e n t i f i e d t r a c e f o s s i l s . 96 97 REPRODUCTIVE PARTS f e m a l e cone of M e t a s e q u o i a o c c i d e n t a l i s (dawn redwood), F i g u r e 23A Nelumbium montanum ( s a c r e d b e a n ) , F i g u r e 22D c o n i f e r male cone c f . s p r u c e c f . e n d o c a r p and s e e d of C a r y a ( h i c k o r y ) c f . f r u i t i n g head of L i q u i d a m b a r s p . (sweetgum) The n o d u l e s and beds o f i r o n s t o n e a l s o c o n t a i n e d f a u n a l r e m a i n s . I m p e r f e c t and e n t i r e s a m p l e s of u n i o n i d p e l e c y p o d s f r e -q u e n t l y o c c u r r e d as molds and c a s t s w i t h i n t h e c o n c r e t i o n a r y u n i t s ( F i g u r e 2 2 E ) . D r . L.S. R u s s e l l o f t h e R o y a l O n t a r i o Museum i d e n t i f i e d one of t h e s p e c i m e n s c o l l e c t e d a s c f . P l e s i e l l i p t i o  p r i s c u s (Meek and H a y d e n), w h i c h i s o f P a l e o c e n e a g e . U n i o n i d p e l e c y p o d s a r e f r e s h w a t e r c l a m s , and P l e s i e l l i p t i o p r i s c u s a t l e a s t a p p e a r e d t o have p r e f e r r e d a c t i v e s t r e a m c h a n n e l s t o q u i e t , s t a n d i n g water e n v i r o n m e n t s ( L . S . R u s s e l l , p e r s o n a l com-m u n i c a t i o n , 1984). U n i o n i d p e l e c y p o d s from o u t c r o p s of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n n e a r t h e head of S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d on E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d have p r e v i o u s l y been r e p o r t e d by Dawson and o t h e r s ( 1 9 7 6 ) . T r a c e f o s s i l s p r e s e r v e d i n an i r o n s t o n e c o n c r e t i o n a r e shown on F i g u r e 22F. The t r a c e f o s s i l s were r e c o v e r e d from non-m a r i n e beds on t h e e a s t s i d e of S t e n k u l F i o r d , but have not been i d e n t i f i e d . The d i s c o v e r y and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a f o s s i l t o o t h f r o m E u r e k a Sound beds on t h e e a s t s i d e of S t e n k u l F i o r d p r o v i d e s FIGURE 23. F o s s i l r e m a i n s , E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n Female cone o f M e t a s e q u o i a o c c i d e n t a l i s I r o n s t o n e c a s t of a b r a n c h . Lower l e f t c a n i n e t o o t h of C o r y p h o d o n , l a t e r a l v i e w s . 99 100 e v i d e n c e t h a t a v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a i n h a b i t e d t h i s a r e a . The t o o t h ( F i g u r e s 23C, D ) , i d e n t i f i e d by D r . L.S. R u s s e l l of t h e R o y a l O n t a r i o Museum, i s t h e l o w e r l e f t c a n i n e o f C o r y p h o d o n , a l a r g e h i p p o p o t a m u s - l i k e mammal m e a s u r i n g 2.5 m e t r e s from nose t o b a s e of t a i l ( K u r t e n , 1971). Coryphodon i s presumed t o have been m a i n l y a v e g e t a b l e f e e d e r , but was p r o b a b l y o m n i v o r o u s and n o t l i m i t e d t o any s p e c i f i c t y p e o f f o o d (Cope, 1884). A s s e m b l a g e s of t e r r e s t r i a l v e r t e b r a t e s , i n c l u d i n g r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s of Coryphodon have been r e c o v e r e d f r o m t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d on c e n t r a l E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d by West e t a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The f o s s i l t e t r a p o d s d e s c r i b e d by West e t a l . ( l 9 7 7 ) o c c u r i n two d i s c r e t e f a u n a l l e -v e l s . The v e r t e b r a t e a s s e m b l a g e o f t h e l o w e r l e v e l , w h ich i n -c l u d e s C o r y p h o d o n , s u g g e s t s a l a t e E a r l y E o c e n e age. The upper l e v e l c o n t a i n s a s m a l l e r a s s e m b l a g e and i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e ( o f M i d d l e Eocene age. PALEOCLIMATE The f o s s i l c o n t e n t o f t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y a r e a i s u s e f u l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g not o n l y t h e age of t h e s t r a t a , b u t a l s o t h e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h must have e x i s t e d d u r i n g d e p o s i t i o n . P a l y n o l o g y i s t h e most u s e f u l f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e p a l e o c l i m a t e o f a l l o f t h e f o s s i l s e x amined. F o s s i l l e a v e s and r e p r o d u c t i v e p a r t s , U n i o n i d p e l e c y p o d s and t h e f o s s i l t o o t h f r o m C o r y p h o d o n s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e p a l e o c l i m a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s * b a s e d 101 on p a l y n o l o g y . P a l y n o m o r p h a s s e m b l a g e s from t h e s t u d y a r e a have been r e -l a t e d t o t h e p a l y n o z o n e s c o n s t r u c t e d by Rouse (1977) i n a p r e -v i o u s s e c t i o n . The s i m i l a r i t y between t h e p a l y n o m o r p h a s s e m b l a g -es from t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y a r e a and t h e a s s e m b l a g e s from t h e Remus C r e e k s e c t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t s i m i l a r c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s must have p r e v a i l e d i n b o t h a r e a s d u r i n g t h e P a l e o g e n e . The E a r l y t o m i d - P a l e o c e n e was d o m i n a t e d by a c o o l and p r o b a b l y wet c l i m a t e a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t r i -p o r a t e s s u c h as P a r a a l n i p o l l e n i t e s c o n f u s u s and T r i p o r o p o l l e n i t e s m u l l e n s i s and b l a d d e r e d and t a x o d i a c e o u s c o n i -f e r p o l l e n (Rouse, 1977; t h i s s t u d y , A p p e n d i x ) . A marked warming d u r i n g mid- t o L a t e P a l e o c e n e i s i n d i c a t e d by an i n c r e a s e i n t r i c o l p o r a t e p o l l e n and t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f P i s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s  m a c r e g o r i i , p o s s i b l y r e l a t e d t o t h e genus T o u r n e f o r t i a , p r e s e n t -l y n a t i v e t o t h e s u b t r o p i c a l p a r t s of C e n t r a l A m e r i c a ( R o u s e , 1 9 7 7 ) . By E a r l y t o M i d d l e E o c e n e t i m e , t h e A r c t i c r e g i o n s were f a v o u r e d by a s u b t r o p i c a l t o warm t e m p e r a t e c l i m a t e , a s s u g -g e s t e d by t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f s p e c i e s s u c h as R h o i i p i t e s l a t u s and P i s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s (Rouse, 1977). W o l f e (1980) a l s o p r o p o s e d s i m i l a r c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s f o r P a l e o g e n e f l o r a s i n A l a s k a . An even s t r o n g e r l i n e of e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n comes from t h e r i c h l o w e r and h i g h e r v e r t e b r a t e r e c o r d o f t h e E a r l y - M i d d l e Eocene E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n on E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d (Dawson e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ; West, e t a l . , 1 9 7 7 ; E s t e s and H u t c h i s o n , 1 02 1980). E v i d e n c e from t h i s s t u d y t h a t C o r yphodon e x i s t e d i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f S t e n k u l F i o r d s u g g e s t s t h a t an abundant v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a may a l s o have e x i s t e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e a on s o u t h e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d i n E a r l y t o M i d d l e E o c e n e t i m e . Thus b o t h p a l y -n o l o g i c a l r e s u l t s and v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a l r e m a i n s i n d i c a t e a s u b -t r o p i c a l t o warm t e m p e r a t e c l i m a t e i n t h e A r c t i c d u r i n g E a r l y t o M i d d l e E o c e n e t i m e , and a l o w l a n d , c o a s t a l h a b i t a t w i t h e x t e n -s i v e b r o a d l e a v e d v e g e t a t i o n i n t h e E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d a r e a ( E s t e s and H u t c h i s o n , 1980). A major c l i m a t i c d e t e r i o r a t i o n o c c u r r e d a t t h e end o f t h e E o c e n e , and t h e v e g e t a t i o n i n t h e A l a s k a n r e g i o n c o m p r i s e d a m i x e d b r o a d l e a v e d d e c i d u o u s and c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t ( W o l f e , 1980). 103 DEPOSITIONAL HISTORY AND PALEOGEOGRAPHY E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a i n t h e v i c i n i t y of S t e n k u l , Vendom, Baumann and Sor F i o r d s were d e p o s i t e d u n c o n f o r m a b l y on D e v o n i a n and o l d e r s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s . The d e p o s i t i o n a l h i s t o r y o f t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n on s o u t h e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d c a n be d i -v i d e d i n t o two major t r a n s g r e s s i v e - r e g r e s s i v e c y c l e s , w i t h a t l e a s t two l o c a l m a r i n e i n c u r s i o n s t o w a r d t h e t o p o f t h e s t r a t i -g r a p h i c s e c t i o n . P a l y n o l o g i c a l d a t i n g of t h e s e d i m e n t s p r o v i d e s c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e t i m i n g of t h e s e e v e n t s , and p e r m i t s c o m p a r i -son w i t h p a l e o g e o g r a p h i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s p r o p o s e d by p r e v i o u s a u t h o r s ( B u s t i n , 1977; M i a l l , 1981). The f i r s t t r a n s g r e s s i v e - r e g r e s s i v e c y c l e l a s t e d f r o m l a t e E a r l y (?) P a l e o c e n e t o L a t e P a l e o c e n e . The s e c o n d c y c l e o c c u r r e d from L a t e P a l e o c e n e t o L a t e E o c e n e . S c h e m a t i c p a l e o g e o g r a p h i c maps ( F i g u r e s 24A-D) d e p i c t t h e p a l e o g e o g r a p h y and t e c t o n i c e l e -ments o f t h e e a s t e r n A r c t i c from l a t e E a r l y (?) P a l e o c e n e t o L a t e E o c e n e t i m e . L a t e E a r l y (?) t o mid- P a l e o c e n e The b a s a l s t r a t a i n t h e s t u d y a r e a c r o p o u t a t t h e base of s e c t i o n 07 and a r e of m i d - P a l e o c e n e age (G. Rouse, p e r s o n a l com-m u n i c a t i o n , 1984). L a t e m i d - P a l e o c e n e s t r a t a o c c u r a t t h e base o f s e c t i o n 22 s o u t h o f Baumann F i o r d . T hese s t r a t a a r e a t l e a s t i n p a r t c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s w i t h b r a c k i s h m a r i n e E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a w h i c h c r o p o u t n o r t h of M a k i n s o n I n l e t ( R i e d i g e r e t a l . , 1984) and w i t h t h e s h a l l o w m a r i n e and b r a c k i s h water s t r a t a o f Member 104 Late Paleocene Early to Late Eocene FIGURE 2 4 . S c h e m a t i c p a l e o g e o g r a p h i c m a p s [ ^ ] A l l u v i a l p l a i n d e p o s i t s fjj] M a r i n e d e p o s i t s ^ H i g h l a n d s o u r c e a r e a s — M e a s u r e d p a l e o c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n — I n f e r r e d p a l e o c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n F a c i e s c h a n g e S F B S t r a n d F i o r d B a s i n R B R e m u s B a s i n P M A P r i n c e s s M a r g a r e t A r c h P C S P r e c a m b i a n C a n a d i a n S h i e l d tin. 1977, ana Mia 105 I I I o f West and o t h e r s (1981; L i t h o f a c i e s Asemblage A of M i a l l , 1981) a t S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d . The uppermost beds o f Member I I I a t S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d a r e of m i d - P a l e o c e n e age (G. Rouse, p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1984). A c a l c i t e cemented s a n d s t o n e bed, w h i c h o c c u r s i n mid-P a l e o c e n e s t r a t a on t h e e a s t s h o r e of S t e n k u l F i o r d , c o n t a i n s a b undant r e w o r k e d d e t r i t a l q u a r t z g r a i n s and c a r b o n a t e f r a g m e n t s and i n d i c a t e s t h a t P a l e o z o i c s t r a t a w h i c h l i e n o r t h w e s t of t h e s t u d y a r e a were b e i n g e r o d e d a t t h a t t i m e . T h i s h i g h l a n d a r e a may have been u p l i f t e d n e a r t h e end of t h e E a r l y P a l e o c e n e , c o e v a l w i t h u p l i f t of a n c e s t r a l P r i n c e s s M a r g a r e t A r c h ( B u s t i n , 1982) . Lower P a l e o c e n e s t r a t a may o c c u r i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e a but a r e n o t e x p o s e d . M i a l l (1981) s u g g e s t e d a p r o t e c t e d m a r i n e embayment o r e s -t u a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t o f d e p o s i t i o n f o r t h e s t r a t a of L i t h o f a c i e s A s s e m b l a g e A i n t h e S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d a r e a . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s m a r i n e embayment o c c u p i e d a s h a l l o w v a l l e y i n t h e a x i s o f t h e Vendom s y n c l i n e , between P a l e o z o i c s t r a t a on t h e west and P r e c a m b r i a n c r y s t a l l i n e r o c k s on t h e e a s t , and e x t e n d e d s o u t h -ward f r o m V e s l e and S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d s t o s o u t h e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d a l o n g t h e a x i s o f t h e S c h e i s y n c l i n e d u r i n g l a t e E a r l y (?) t o m i d - P a l e o c e n e tim e ( F i g u r e 24A). The Vendom and S c h e i s y n c l i n e s were formed d u r i n g t h e E l l e s m e r i a n o r o g e n y ( M c G i l l , 1974), and a p p e a r t o have been t o p -o g r a p h i c lows w h i c h r e c e i v e d c l a s t i c s e d i m e n t s a t v a r i o u s t i m e s . F a r t h e r n o r t h , on F o s h e i m P e n i n s u l a , a l l u v i a l p l a i n and d e l t a i c s e d i m e n t a t i o n o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h i s t i m e ( B u s t i n , 1977). A c o o l 106 and wet c l i m a t e p r e v a i l e d on E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d d u r i n g E a r l y t o mid- P a l e o c e n e t i m e (Rouse, 1977). M i d - t o L a t e P a l e o c e n e From m i d d l e t o L a t e P a l e o c e n e t i m e , r e l a t i v e u p l i f t of P r e c a m b r i a n c r y s t a l l i n e r o c k s of t h e C a n a d i a n S h i e l d t o t h e e a s t of t h e s t u d y a r e a r e s u l t e d i n t h e s o u t h w e s t e r l y w i t h d r a w a l o f t h e m a r i n e embayment. F l u v i a l s a n d s t o n e s and e x t e n s i v e p e a t de-p o s i t s p r o g r a d e d o v e r mid- P a l e o c e n e b r a c k i s h water s t r a t a i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e a . P a l e o c u r r e n t d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a l l u v i a l p l a i n s e d i m e n t s were d e p o s i t e d by w e s t e r l y - f l o w i n g r i v e r s ( F i g u r e 24B) and s a n d s t o n e p e t r o g r a p h i c and heavy m i n e r a l a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t u p l i f t e d P r e c a m b r i a n r o c k s t o t h e e a s t were th e dominant s o u r c e l i t h o l o g i e s f o r t h e s a n d s t o n e s . An abundance o f f r e s h w a t e r p e l e c y p o d s a r e f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e of t h e nonmarine e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h e x i s t e d near S t e n k u l F i o r d a t t h i s t i m e . T h i c k , l a t e r a l l y e x t e n s i v e p e a t d e p o s i t s formed i n b a c k -swamps on t h e a l l u v i a l p l a i n and p a l y n o l o g i c a l d a t a (Rouse, 1977) i n d i c a t e a c l i m a t i c warming t r e n d from m i d d l e t o L a t e P a l e o c e n e . L a t e P a l e o c e n e D u r i n g L a t e P a l e o c e n e t i m e , a m a r i n e t r a n s g r e s s i o n r e s u l t e d i n t h e n o r t h w a r d m i g r a t i o n o f c o a s t a l m a r i n e f a c i e s o v e r m i d d l e t o L a t e P a l e o c e n e a l l u v i a l p l a i n s e d i m e n t s ( F i g u r e 2 4 C ) . L i t h o f a c i e s A s semblage IV a t S t e n k u l F i o r d and s t r a t a a t t h e base o f t h e s e c t i o n i n t h e Baumann F i o r d o u t l i e r c o m p r i s e l a -1 07 g o o n a l , marsh, f l o o d - t i d a l d e l t a and washover s h e e t sand d e p o s -i t s . A t S t e n k u l F i o r d , t h e p r o m i n e n t w h i t e s a n d s t o n e s of L i t h o f a c i e s A s semblage IV i n t e r f i n g e r w i t h l a g o o n a l and f i n e -g r a i n e d a l l u v i a l p l a i n d e p o s i t s t o t h e e a s t , and t h u s r e p r e s e n t t h e e a s t e r n e x t e n t o f t h e L a t e P a l e o c e n e m a r i n e t r a n s g r e s s i o n ( F i g u r e 2 4 C ) . E a r l y t o L a t e Eocene E a r l y t o L a t e E ocene nonmarine and m a r i n e s t r a t a a r e p r e -s e r v e d i n t h e S t e n k u l and Baumann F i o r d o u t l i e r s . E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a i n t h e Sor F i o r d o u t l i e r a r e p o s s i b l y o f s i m i l a r age b a s e d on l i t h o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y , but i n t h e a b s e n c e of p a l y n o -l o g i c a l age d a t e s , t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i s o n l y t e n t a t i v e . By E a r l y Eocene t i m e , t h e sea had r e t r e a t e d t o t h e s o u t h , p o s s i b l y as a r e s u l t of renewed u p l i f t t o t h e n o r t h and e a s t of t h e s t u d y a r e a . A l l u v i a l p l a i n f a c i e s p r o g r a d e d o v e r t h e a r e a , and p a l e o c u r r e n t d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p r e d o m i n a n t p a l e o f l o w d i r e c t i o n a t t h i s t i m e was m a i n l y from n o r t h t o s o u t h ( F i g u r e 24D). However, s a n d s t o n e p e t r o g r a p h y and heavy m i n e r a l a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t P r e c a m b r i a n r o c k s t o t h e e a s t p e r s i s t e d as t h e m a j o r s e d i m e n t s o u r c e . S u c h e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t a t l e a s t t h e s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n of t h e n o r t h - s o u t h v a l l e y i n t h e a x i s of t h e Vendom s y n c l i n e , w h i c h was f o r m e r l y o c c u p i e d by t h e l a t e E a r l y (?) t o m i d - P a l e o c e n e s h a l l o w m a r i n e embayment c o n t a i n e d a major t r u n k s t r e a m , p o s s i b l y s i m i l a r t o t h e S p i r i t R i v e r C h a n n e l e n v i -s i o n e d by McLean (1977) f o r d e p o s i t i o n o f t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s Cadomin F o r m a t i o n of t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n F o o t h i l l s , and by 108 E t h r i d g e and o t h e r s (1981) f o r t h e W a s a tch ( E o c e n e ) and upper F o r t U n i o n ( L a t e P a l e o c e n e ) F o r m a t i o n s i n t h e Powder R i v e r B a s i n , Wyoming. S t r e a m s and a l l u v i a l f a n s f l o w i n g westward from P r e c a m b r i a n S h i e l d s o u r c e r o c k s and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t e a s t w a r d from P a l e o z o i c s t r a t a , f e d t h e t r u n k s t r e a m ( F i g u r e 24D). The t r u n k s t r e a m f l o w e d s o u t h w a r d t h r o u g h t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e a , d e p o s i t i n g a l l u v i a l p l a i n s e d i m e n t s , and t h e n p r o b a b l y swung towar d s t h e west down t h e a x i s of t h e S c h e i S y n c l i n e ( F i g u r e 24D). An o u t l i e r of E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a west of Okse Bay on s o u t h w e s t e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d may have been d e p o s i t e d by t h i s w e s t e r l y - f l o w i n g f l u v i a l s y s t e m . A n o r t h e r l y p a l e o c u r r e n t d i r e c t i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m a wedge-shaped c h a n n e l s a n d s t o n e body w h i c h c r o p s out on t h e s o u t h s h o r e o f S t e n k u l F i o r d . T h i s s u g g e s t s i n t e r m i t t e n t u p l i f t o f P r e c a m b r i a n S h i e l d r o c k s s o u t h o f t h e s t u d y a r e a ( F i g u r e ? ) . Two m a r i n e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t a s s e m b l a g e s of E a r l y t o e a r l y M i d d l e E ocene and L a t e Eocene age o c c u r i n t h i n (50 cm) mudstone beds i n t h e Baumann F i o r d and S t e n k u l F i o r d o u t l i e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e were a t l e a s t two minor m a r i n e i n c u r s i o n s i n t o t h e s t u d y a r e a d u r i n g E ocene t i m e . From L a t e P a l e o c e n e u n t i l a t l e a s t M i d d l e Eocene t i m e , a l -l u v i a l p l a i n s e d i m e n t a t i o n p e r s i s t e d n o r t h o f t h e s t u d y a r e a , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d s e d i m e n t a t i o n i n t h e c e n t r a l r e g i o n o f t h e Remus B a s i n a t F o s h e i m P e n i n s u l a ( B u s t i n , 1977). F l u v i a l c o n d i -t i o n s e x i s t e d i n t h e S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d a r e a d u r i n g d e p o s i t i o n of Member IV o f West and o t h e r s (1981) i n E a r l y t o M i d d l e Eocene t i m e . 109 The c l i m a t e d u r i n g t h e Eocene was s u b t r o p i c a l t o warm tem-p e r a t e w h i c h s u p p o r t e d an abundant v e r t e b r a t e f a u n a (West e t a l . , T977; E s t e s and H u t c h i s o n , 1980; McKenna, 1980) and a d i -v e r s e v e g e t a t i o n , and was f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i c k p e a t d e p o s i t s a t F o s h e i m P e n i n s u l a , S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d and S t e n k u l F i o r d . P o s t - E o c e n e E r o s i o n The amount of e r o s i o n i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e a c a n be e s -t i m a t e d by r e l a t i n g v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e v a l u e s o b t a i n e d f r o m c o a l seams i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e a t o a l o c a l c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t . The maximum c o a l rank i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e a i s 0.3% Romax, and was o b t a i n e d from a c o a l seam a t t h e ba s e o f t h e s e c t i o n , w h i c h i s p r e s e n t l y o v e r l a i n by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 180 m of s e d i m e n t . R e l a t i n g t h i s v a l u e t o t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t d e r i v e d by B u s t i n ( i n p r e p . ) f o r E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a a t S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d , t h e maximum d e p t h o f b u r i a l of t h e s e d i m e n t s a t S t e n k u l F i o r d i s e s t i m a t e d t o be 800 m. The age of a mudstone bed l y i n g d i r e c t l y below t h i s c o a l seam was d e t e r m i n e d t o be m i d - P a l e o c e n e i n age. T h e r e f o r e , s o m e t h i n g on t h e o r d e r o f 620 m of s t r a t a were removed o v e r a p e r i o d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 m i l l i o n y e a r s , w h i c h t r a n s l a t e s i n t o an a v e r a g e d e n u d a t i o n r a t e o f ab o u t 10 m/Ma. 1 10 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n o c c u r s on s o u t h e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d a s o u t l i e r s a l o n g Vendom, S t e n k u l , Baumann and Sor F i o r d s . The s t r a t a a r e f l a t - l y i n g t o g e n t l y d i p p i n g and t h e s t r u c t u r e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b r o a d open f o l d s and minor t h r u s t f a u l t s . The t o t a l c o m p o s i t e t h i c k n e s s of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y a r e a i s e s t i m a t e d t o be 450 m. The s t r a t -i g r a p h i c s u c c e s s i o n c o m p r i s e s p r e d o m i n a n t l y n o n m a r i n e s t r a t a , b u t m a r i n e u n i t s o c c u r l o c a l l y . Two t r a n s g r e s s i v e - r e g r e s s i v e c y c l e s a r e r e c o g n i z e d . L a g o o n a l and back b a r r i e r d e p o s i t s o c c u r a t t h e base of t h e s e c -t i o n and a r e of l a t e E a r l y (?) P a l e o c e n e t o m i d - P a l e o c e n e age. A n c e s t r a l P r i n c e s s M a r g a r e t A r c h on A x e l H e i b e r g I s l a n d was a s t r o n g p o s i t i v e t e c t o n i c e l e m e n t a t t h i s t i m e and shed e l a s t i c s t o t h e s o u t h and s o u t h e a s t i n t o t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e a . U p l i f t o f c r y s t a l l i n e r o c k s of t h e C a n a d i a n S h i e l d t o t h e e a s t r e s u l t e d i n p r o g r a d a t i o n of a l l u v i a l p l a i n f a c i e s o v e r t h e b r a c k i s h water d e p o s i t s . T h i c k p e a t d e p o s i t s were formed on t h e a l l u v i a l p l a i n . A s e c o n d m a r i n e t r a n s g r e s s i o n o c c u r r e d i n L a t e P a l e o c e n e t i m e . A t h i n ( l e s s t h a n 10 m) se q u e n c e of q u a r t z o s e s a n d s t o n e s and w h i t e w e a t h e r i n g mudstones were d e p o s i t e d i n t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e a i n a back b a r r i e r e n v i r o n m e n t . R i v e r s f l o w i n g s o u t h -ward on an a l l u v i a l p l a i n p r o g r a d e d o v e r t h e b r a c k i s h water u n i t s d u r i n g Eocene t i m e . The P r e c a m b r i a n S h i e l d r o c k s t o t h e e a s t were t h e main s o u r c e r o c k s w h i c h s h e d c l a s t i c d e t r i t u s t o 111 t h e west i n t o a major t r u n k s t r e a m f l o w i n g down t h e ax e s o f t h e Vendom and S c h e i S y n c l i n e s . I n t e r m i t t e n t u p l i f t o f P r e c a m b r i a n S h i e l d r o c k s s o u t h o f S t e n k u l F i o r d r e s u l t e d i n s t r e a m s w h i c h f l o w e d n o r t h i n t o t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e a . The p r e s e n c e of m a r i n e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t a s s e m b l a g e s i n mudstone sa m p l e s from t h e S t e n k u l and Baumann F i o r d o u t l i e r s s u g g e s t s two m a r i n e i n c u r s i o n s i n t o t h e S t e n k u l F i o r d a r e a , i n E a r l y t o e a r l y M i d d l e and L a t e E o c e n e t i m e . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a L a t e E o c e n e m a r i n e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t a s s e m b l a g e a t S t e n k u l F i o r d r e p r e s e n t s t h e o n l y c o n c l u s i v e l y d a t e d o c c u r r e n c e o f L a t e E o c e n e s t r a t a of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n i n t h e C a n a d i a n A r c t i c I s l a n d s . V i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e v a l u e s , r e l a t e d t o a l o c a l c o a l i f i c a -t i o n g r a d i e n t , p r o v i d e d an e s t i m a t e of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 620 m o f s t r a t a t h a t have been removed s i n c e t h e end o f t h e P a l e o c e n e , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s an a v e r a g e d e n u d a t i o n r a t e of 10 m/Ma i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . 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T h o r s t e i n s s o n , R. and T o z e r , E.T., 1970, G e o l o g y o f t h e A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o ; I_n D o u g l a s , R.J.W., ed . , G e o l o g y and economic m i n e r a l s of Canada; G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada, Economic G e o l o g y R e p o r t No.1; pp. 548-590. T o z e r , E.T., 1956, G e o l o g i c a l r e c o n n a i s s a n c e , P r i n c e P a t r i c k , E g l i n t o n and W e s t e r n M e l v i l l e I s l a n d s , A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o , N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s ; G e o l . S u r v . Ca. P aper 55-5, 32 p. T o z e r , E.T. and T h o r s t e i n s s o n , R., 1964, W e s t e r n Queen E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s , A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o ; G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada, Memoir 332, 242 p. T r e t t i n , H.P. and B a l k w i l l , H.R., 1979, C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e t e c t o n i c h i s t o r y of t h e I n n u i t i a n P r o v i n c e , A r c t i c Canada; In P r i c e , R.A., c o o r d i n a t o r , Geodynamics Canada; C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f E a r t h S c i e n c e , v. 16, pp. 748-769. 125 T r e t t i n , H.P., F r i s c h , T.O., So b c z a k , L.W., Weber, J.R.,Law, L.K., D e l a u r i e r , I . , N i b l e t t , E.R. and Whitham, K., 1972, The I n n u i t i a n P r o v i n c e ; I_n P r i c e , R.A. and D o u g l a s , R.J.W., ed s . , V a r i a t i o n s i n t e c t o n i c s t y l e s i n Canada; G e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, S p e c i a l P a p e r 11, pp. 83-179. T r o e l s e n , J . C . , 1950, C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e g e o l o g y of n o r t h w e s t G r e e n l a n d , E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d and A x e l H e i b e r g I s l a n d ; M e d d e l e l s e r om G r o e n l a n d , B.D. 149, N r . 7. Van d e r P l a s , L. and T o b i , A.C., 1965, A c h a r t f o r j u d g i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f p o i n t c o u n t i n g r e s u l t s ; A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S c i e n c e , v . 263, pp. 87-90. W a l k e r , R.G. and C a n t , D., 1980, F a c i e s models 3. Sandy f l u v i a l s u s t e m s ; I_n W a l k e r , R.G., ed., F a c i e s m o d e l s ; G e o s c i e n c e Canada r e p r i n t s e r i e s 1; G e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, pp. 23-31 . West, R.M., Dawson, M.R., H u t c h i s o n , J.H. and Ramaekers, P., 1975, P a l e o n t o l o g i c e v i d e n c e of m a r i n e s e d i m e n t s i n t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n o f E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d , A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o , N.W.T., Canada; C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l of E a r t h S c i e n c e s , v. 12, pp. 574-579. West, R.M., Dawson, M.R. and H u t c h i s o n , J.H., 1977, F o s s i l s from t h e P a l e o g e n e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n , N.W.T., Canada: o c c u r r e n c e , c l i m a t i c and p a l e o g e o g r a p h i c i m p l i c a t i o n s ; I_n 126 P a l e o n t o l o g y and p l a t e t e c t o n i c s ; P r o c e e d i n g s of a sympo-sium, M i l w a u k e e P u b l i c Museum, S p e c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s i n b i o -l o g y and g e o l o g y , No. 2, pp. 77-93. West, R.M., Dawson, M.R., H i c k e y , L . J . and M i a l l , A.D., 1981, Upper C r e t a c e o u s and P a l e o g e n e s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s , e a s t e r n C a n a d i a n A r c t i c and r e l a t e d n o r t h A t l a n t i c a r e a s ; I_n K e r r , J.W. and F e r g u s o n , A . J . , e d s . , G e o l o g y o f t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c b o r d e r l a n d s ; C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y o f P e t r o l e u m G e o l o g i s t s , Memoir 7, pp. 279-298. W i s e , D.U., Dunn, D.E., E n g e l d e r , J . T . , G e i s e r , P.A., H a t c h e r , R.D., K i s h , S.A., Odom, A.L. and S c h a m e l , S., 1984, F a u l t -r e l a t e d r o c k s : s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t e r m i n o l o g y ; G e o l o g y , v. 12, pp. 391-394. W o l f e , J.A., 1980, T e r t i a r y c l i m a t e s and f l o r i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t h i g h l a t i t u d e s i n t h e n o r t h e r n h e m i s p h e r e ; P a l a e o g e o g r a p h y , P a l a e o c l i m a t o l o g y , P a l a e o e c o l o g y , v. 30, pp. 313-323. 1 27 PART I I . MAKINSON INLET AREA ABSTRACT D i s c o v e r y of a p o s t - o r o g e n i c c o a r s e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e and p e b b l e t o c o b b l e c o n g l o m e r a t e u n i t on s o u t h - c e n t r a l E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d p r o v i d e s i m p o r t a n t new e v i d e n c e f o r t h e c h r o n o l o g y of t h e E u r e k a n Orogeny i n t h e e a s t e r n A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o . P a l y n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e an E a r l y M i o c e n e age f o r t h e s e d e p o s i t s , w h i c h c r e s t w i t h marked a n g u l a r u n c o n f o r m i t y on m i d - P a l e o c e n e s t r a t a . In a d j a c e n t a r e a s , s t r a t a of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n a s young as L a t e E o c e n e a r e f o l d e d , t h e r e b y b r a c k e t i n g t h e major o r o g e n i c p hase of t h e E u r e k a n Orogeny on s o u t h e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d a s p o s t - L a t e E o c e n e t o p r e - E a r l y M i o c e n e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e o c c u r -r e n c e of t h e c o a r s e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e and c o n g l o m e r a t e d e p o s i t s i n d i c a t e s an E a r l y M i o c e n e phase of e p e i r o g e n i c r e l a t i v e u p l i f t of s o u t h e a s t e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d and p o s s i b l e c o e v a l t e c t o n i s m a l o n g t h e m a r g i n of B a f f i n Bay. The d i s c o v e r y and d a t i n g of t h e s e p o s t - o r o g e n i c d e p o s i t s p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l c h r o n o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e f o r t e c t o n i s m t h a t c o n s t r a i n s p a l e o g e o g r a p h i c and p a l e o - p l a t e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s of t h e e a s t e r n A r c t i c d u r i n g t h e T e r t i a r y . 1 28 INTRODUCTION The E u r e k a n Orogeny was named f o r l a t e s t C r e t a c e o u s and T e r t i a r y t e c t o n i c e v e n t s i n t h e Queen E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s by T h o r s t e i n s s o n and T o z e r ( 1 9 7 0 ) . S ubsequent s t u d i e s i n t h e e a s t e r n Queen E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s have d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t h r e e o r o g e n i c p h a s e s : 1) a L a t e C r e t a c e o u s t o E a r l y P a l e o c e n e phase of u p l i f t of i n t r a b a -s i n a r c h e s and S v e r d r u p Rim; 2) a L a t e E ocene t o M i o c e n e -( ? ) P l i o c e n e phase of c o m p r e s s i o n ; and 3) a l a t e r p hase of u p l i f t o f some a r c h e s ( B a l k w i l l e t a l . , 1975; B a l k w i l l , 1978; B a l k w i l l and B u s t i n , 1980; t h i s s t u d y ) . The c h r o n o l o g y o f t h e main com-p r e s s i o n a l phase (phase two) i s b a s e d on t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f f o l d e d and f a u l t e d L a t e Eocene s t r a t a of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n b u t t h e o n l y c o n c l u s i v e l y d a t e d p o s t - p h a s e two d e p o s -i t s a r e e r o s i o n a l o u t l i e r s of M i o c e n e - ( ? ) e a r l y P l i o c e n e age on c e n t r a l A x e l H e i b e r g I s l a n d ( B u s t i n , 1982) and E a r l y M i o c e n e age n o r t h of M a k i n s o n I n l e t ( R i e d i g e r e t a l . , 1984; t h i s s t u d y ) t h a t have been a s s i g n e d t o t h e B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n . The p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f an a n g u l a r u n c o n f o r m i t y and p o s t - p h a s e two d e p o s i t s on s o u t h -c e n t r a l E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d , n o r t h of M a k i n s o n I n l e t . T h e s e s t r a t a p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e f o r t h e c h r o n o l o g y o f phase two o f t h e E u r e k a n Orogeny and a l a t e r p hase of r e l a t i v e u p l i f t o f a t l e a s t p a r t o f e a s t e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d . 129 REGIONAL SETTING The r e g i o n a l g e o l o g y of t h e Queen E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s has been summarized by T o z e r and T h o r s t e i n s s o n ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Drummond (1973) and T r e t t i n and B a l k w i l l (1979; F i g u r e 1 ) . Basement i n t h e e a s t e r n Queen E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s c o n s i s t s o f g r a n u l i t e g r a d e g n e i s s e s o f t h e C h u r c h i l l P r o v i n c e o f t h e C a n a d i a n S h i e l d ( B a l k w i l l and B u s t i n , 1980). O v e r l y i n g basement i s t h e F r a n k l i n i a n s u c c e s s i o n composed of Upper P r o t e r o z o i c and Lower P a l e o z o i c s e d i m e n t s d e f o r m e d d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e D e v o n i a n t o E a r l y C a r b o n i f e r o u s E l l e s m e r i a n Orogeny ( T r e t t i n a nd B a l k w i l l , 1979). The S v e r d r u p B a s i n i s an e l o n g a t e p e r i c r a t o n i c d e p r e s s i o n of E a r l y C a r b o n i f e r o u s and you n g e r age d e v e l o p e d on d e f o r m e d F r a n k l i n i a n r o c k s . The S v e r d r u p b a s i n c o n t a i n s a maximum t h i c k -n e s s o f 13 km o f p r e d o m i n a n t l y c l a s t i c r o c k s i n t h e d e p o c e n t r e on w e s t e r n A x e l H e i b e r g and Amund R i n g n e s I s l a n d s and t h i n s t o -wards t h e m a r g i n s o f t h e b a s i n . D u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l phase o f t h e E u r e k a n O r o g e n y , commencing i n t h e L a t e C r e t a c e o u s , t h e S v e r d r u p B a s i n was segmented i n t o s e v e r a l s u b - b a s i n s by u p l i f t o f t h e C o r n w a l l and P r i n c e s s M a r g a r e t A r c h e s and t h e n o r t h e r n r i m of t h e S v e r d r u p B a s i n ( B a l k w i l l , 1978). W i t h i n t h e s e s u b - b a s i n s s e q u e n c e s of m a i n l y n o n - m a r i n e c l a s t i c s e d i m e n t s up t o 3.5 km t h i c k a c c u m u l a t e d , w h i c h c o l l e c t i v e l y have been a s s i g n e d t o t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n ( M i a l l , 1981). By P a l e o c e n e t o E a r l y E o c e n e t i m e , t h e Queen E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s had been segmented i n t o a t l e a s t s e v e n s u b - b a s i n s ( M i a l l , 1981) w i t h d i f f e r e n t l o c a l s o u r c e t e r r a i n s and f a c i e s . Phase two of t h e E u r e k a n Orogeny r e s u l t e d i n s h o r -130 t e n i n g o f L a t e Eocene and o l d e r s t r a t a by u p r i g h t t o o v e r t u r n e d f o l d s and r e v e r s e f a u l t s . The f o l d s and f a u l t s i n s o u t h e a s t e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d f a c e t o t h e s o u t h e a s t t o w a r d s a s a l i e n t of P r e c a m b r i a n basement whereas on c e n t r a l E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d f o l d s and f a u l t s f a c e t o t h e e a s t and on A x e l H e i b e r g I s l a n d t o t h e s o u t h w e s t o r n o r t h e a s t p a r a l l e l t o P r i n c e s s M a r g a r e t A r c h ( F i g u r e 1 ) . On n o r t h e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d t h e s t r u c t u r a l g r a i n t r e n d s n o r t h e a s t e r l y and some s t r u c t u r e s s u c h a s t h e Lake Hazen F a u l t were c l e a r l y a c t i v e i n p o s t - E o c e n e t i m e s , a l t h o u g h t h e t i m i n g has y e t t o be r e s o l v e d ( M i a l l , 1979). The w e s t e r n l i m i t of c o m p r e s s i o n has been c o n s i d e r e d t h e w e s t e r n c o a s t o f A x e l H e i b e r g I s l a n d ( B a l k w i l l and B u s t i n , 1980). The o n l y c o n c l u s i v e -l y d a t e d p o s t - p h a s e two d e p o s i t i n t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n Queen E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s i s an e r o s i o n a l o u t l i e r of M i o c e n e - ( ? ) P l i o c e n e age on c e n t r a l A x e l H e i b e r g I s l a n d a s s i g n e d t o t h e B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n ( B u s t i n , 1982; F i g u r e 2 5 ) . E l s e w h e r e , t h e B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n m a i n l y c r o p s out a l o n g t h e n o r t h w e s t A r c t i c C o a s t a l P l a i n . The s t u d y a r e a , l o c a t e d on s o u t h - c e n t r a l E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d ( F i g u r e s 1 and 2 5 ) , i s e a s t o f t h e p r e s e n t e a s t e r n m a r g i n of t h e S v e r d r u p B a s i n . H e r e, s t r a t a o f t h e F r a n k l i n i a n s u c c e s s i o n , e r o -s i o n a l o u t l i e r s of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n and y o u n g e r d e p o s -i t s c r o p o u t . The y o u n g e r d e p o s i t s , d a t e d h e r e as E a r l y M i o c e n e , a r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e g e n e r a l use o f B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n f o r Neogene s e d i m e n t s i n t h e C a n a d i a n A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o ( H i l l s and F y l e s , 1973; B u s t i n , 1982). I m m e d i a t e l y e a s t of t h e s t u d y a r e a , n u n a t a k s of o r t h o -p y r o x e n e g r a n i t e s and g r a n i t i c g n e i s s e s of t h e C h u r c h i l l 131 8 3 ° 0 0 ' 8 0 ° 0 0 ' 8 3 ° 0 0 ' 8 0 ° 0 0 ' Legend ' l i s ' Tertiary Eureka Sound Formation Lower Paleozoic dolomite, sandstone, siltstone, shale and conglomerate Precambrian crystalline basement FIGURE 25. General geologic map of the study area (geology in part modified from Frisch, 1983 and Okul i tch, 1982). 1 32 P r o v i n c e a r e e x p o s e d above t h e i c e c a p ( F r i s c h , 1983). STRATIGRAPHY O u t l i e r s of t h e E u r e k a Sound and B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n s c r o p o u t n o r t h o f M a k i n s o n I n l e t on s o u t h - c e n t r a l E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d . A t t h i s l o c a l i t y , c o a r s e - g r a i n e d e l a s t i c s , h e r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n , r e s t w i t h a n g u l a r u n c o n f o r m i t y on f o l d e d f i n e - g r a i n e d s e d i m e n t s o f t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n ( F i g u r e 26) . E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n The E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n i s d i v i s i b l e i n t o two l i t h o f a -c i e s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a : a) a lowermost m i c a c e o u s s i l t s t o n e - c a l -c a r e o u s s a n d s t o n e l i t h o f a c i e s , and 2) a c a l c a r e o u s mudstone-s i l t s t o n e - s a n d s t o n e l i t h o f a c i e s w h i c h o v e r l i e s i t . The c o n t a c t between t h e two l i t h o f a c i e s i s c o v e r e d a t t h i s l o c a l i t y . M i c a c e o u s s i l t s t o n e - c a l c a r e o u s s a n d s t o n e l i t h o f a c i e s The l o w e s t s t r a t a w h i c h c r o p o u t n o r t h o f M a k i n s o n I n l e t g e n e r a l l y c o a r s e n upward from m i c a c e o u s s i l t s t o n e s w i t h i n t e r -bedded c a l c a r e o u s s a n d s t o n e s t o v e r y f i n e - t o f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d -s t o n e s and minor amounts of mudstone and c o a l ( F i g u r e s 27 and 2 8 A ) . The m i c a c e o u s s i l t s t o n e s e x h i b i t f i n e p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n and c o n t a i n abundant p l a n t f r a g m e n t s and r a r e m a r i n e p e l e c y p o d s h e l l s . C a l c a r e o u s s a n d s t o n e s o c c u r as t h i n , r e s i s t a n t , w e l l -133 FIGURE 26. A n g u l a r u n c o n f o r m i t y n o r t h of M a k i n s o n I n l e t . C o a r s e - g r a i n e d c l a s t i c s e d i m e n t s of t h e E a r l y M i o c e n e B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n r e s t w i t h a n g u l a r u n c o n f o r m i t y on f o l d e d s t r a t a of t h e l a t e E a r l y . t o e a r l y m i d - P a l e o c e n e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n n o r t h of M a k i n s o n I n l e t . S t a r s i n d i c a t e l o c a t i o n s of s a m p l e s c o l l e c t e d f o r p a l y n o l o g i c a l and v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e a n a l y s e s . 135 S i l t s t o n e : dk brown, micaceous; 30 cm coal seam. Sandstone: med brown, s i l t y , micaceous, plant fragments, f i n e planar lamination. Interbedded: Coal(95%): woody. Mudstone(5%): plant fragments. Mudstone sample 16-105. Sandstone: dk brown, vfg, s i l t y , t h i n l y bedded, carb. debris; rare lenses of sandstone, vfg, c a l c , 5-15 cm thick, 5-15 m long. Interbedded: Siltstone(90%) : dk brown, micaceous, f i n e planar lamination. Sandstone(10%) : It grey, vfg, c a l c , plant frag-ments, f i n e planar lamination. Sandstone: It brown, fg, rare coal c l a s t s . Coal: woody mudstone s p l i t s . Coal sample 16-103. Interbedded: S i l t s t o n e ( 9 0 % ) : dk brown, micaceous, f i n e planar laminat ion. Sandstone(10%): It grey, vfg, c a l c . , plant f r a g -ments, f i n e planar lamination. Sandstone: med brown, fg, carb. debris, coal spar, convolute bedding. S i l t s t o n e : It brown, micaceous, carb. debris. Sandstone: med brown, vfg, micaceous. Interbedded: Sandstone(90%): dk brown, micaceous, f i n e planar laminat ion. Sandstone( 10%) : It grey, vfg, c a l c , plant f r a g -ments, pelecypod fragments, f i n e planar lamination. r e l a t ive grain s i z e FIGURE 27. Stratigraphic section 16 through lowermost Eureka Sound strata exposed north of Makinson I n l e t . 136 FIGURE 28. S t r a t i g r a p h y and s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s of t h e E u r e k a Sound and B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n s n o r t h of M a k i n s o n I n l e t . A. M i c a c e o u s s i l t s t o n e - c a l c a r e o u s s a n d s t o n e l i t h o f a c i e s of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n . B. R e c e s s i v e m i c a c e o u s s i l t s t o n e and r e s i s t a n t c a l c a r e o u s s a n d -s t o n e beds of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n . S h o v e l i s 1 m l o n g . C. A n g u l a r u n c o n f o r m i t y between th e c a l c a r e o u s mudstone-s i l t s t o n e - s a n d s t o n e l i t h o f a c i e s o f t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n and c o a r s e - g r a i n e d s e d i m e n t s of t h e B e a u f o r t Format i o n . D. S y m m e t r i c a l r i p p l e marks i n t i d a l f l a t d e p o s i t s of t h e c a l -c a r e o u s m u d s t o n e - s i l t s t o n e - s a n d s t o n e l i t h o f a c i e s . S c a l e i s 15 cm l o n g . E. F l a s e r b e d d i n g i n s e d i m e n t s of t h e c a l c a r e o u s mudstone-s i l t s t o n e - s a n d s t o n e l i t h o f a c i e s . S c a l e i s 15 cm l o n g . F. C o n g l o m e r a t e s and s a n d s t o n e s of t h e B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n . S t a f f i s 50 cm l o n g . 137 138 i n d u r a t e d beds i n t e r c a l a t e d w i t h t h e more r e c e s s i v e , p o o r l y - i n -d u r a t e d m i c a c e o u s s i l t s t o n e s ( F i g u r e 2 8 B ) . The v e r y f i n e - g r a i n e d c a l c a r e o u s s a n d s t o n e beds a r e g e n e r a l l y 5 t o 15 cm t h i c k , w i t h s h a r p upper and l o w e r c o n t a c t s , and r a r e l y show f i n e , p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n . V e r y f i n e - t o f i n e - g r a i n e d , medium t o d a r k brown s a n d s t o n e s become i n c r e a s i n g l y abundant t o w a r d s t h e t o p . o f th e e x p o s e d s e c t i o n , and a r e g e n e r a l l y s i l t y and m i c a c e o u s w i t h r a r e p l a n t f r a g m e n t s and t h i n d i s c o n t i n u o u s c o a l s t r i n g e r s up t o 15 cm t h i c k . M i n o r i n t e r b e d d e d mudstones c o n t a i n p l a n t f r a g m e n t s and l i g n i t i c , a r g i l l a c e o u s c o a l seams w h i c h p i n c h out l a t e r a l l y f r o m t h i c k n e s s e s o f up t o 1.5 m o v e r d i s t a n c e s o f a b o u t 50 t o 100 m. M udstones and c o a l seams a r e most common i n t h e upper p a r t o f t h e s e c t i o n . The l i t h o l o g y , s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s and o v e r a l l upward i n c r e a s e i n g r a i n s i z e s u g g e s t s a d i s t a l t o p r o x i m a l d e l t a f r o n t e n v i r o n m e n t of d e p o s i t i o n f o r t h e m i c a c e o u s s i l t s t o n e - c a l c a r e o u s s a n d s t o n e l i t h o f a c i e s . T h i n , d i s c o n t i n u o u s c o a l seams a r e i n t e r -p r e t e d as l o c a l a c c u m u l a t i o n s of t r a n s p o r t e d p l a n t d e b r i s . E q u i v a l e n t s t r a t a o c c u r f a r t h e r n o r t h i n t h e S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d a r e a and a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as d i s t a l d e l t a f r o n t d e p o s i t s by M i a l l ( 1 9 8 1 ) . C a l c a r e o u s m u d s t o n e - s i l t s t o n e - s a n d s t o n e l i t h o f a c i e s E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a w h i c h o v e r l i e t h e m i c a c e o u s s i l t s t o n e -c a l c a r e o u s s a n d s t o n e l i t h o f a c i e s a r e composed o f a sequence of f i n e l y i n t e r l a m i n a t e d c a l c a r e o u s mudstones, s i l t s t o n e s and s a n d -s t o n e s and r a r e , t h i n c o a l seams ( F i g u r e s 28C, 2 9 ) . The s e d i -139 metres 200 • 150 100 50 j r e l a t i v e g r a i n s i z e Interbedded: Conglomerate(50%) : c b l , c l a s t s avg 5-15cm, r a r e b o u l d e r s , g r a n i t e , q u a r t z i t e , garnet g n e i s s c l a s t s , c l a s t supported, f g - c g sandstone m a t r i x . Sandstone(50%): I t grey, v f - c g , s i l t y , carb d e b r i s , micaceous, r a r e r i p p l e l a m i n a t i o n , scour and f i l l ; r a r e conglomerate l e n s e s 1.3m t h i c k , 50m l o n g . Interbedded: S i l t s t o n e ( 6 0 % ) : micaceous, c a r b . Coal ( 4 0 % ) : 3-5cm s t r i n g e r s . Coal sample 17-128. Interbedded: Sandstone(55%) : I t g r e y - w h i t e , v f - m g , s i l t y , c a r b . d e b r i s , t r s o f t sed. d e f o r m a t i o n , p l a n a r p a r a l l e l and r i p p l e t r o u g h c r o s s - l a m i n a t i o n ; r a r e vcg sandstone l e n s e s ; r a r e c a l c . mudstone beds. Mudstone sample 17-126. Conglomerate(45%): p b l - c b l , c l a s t s avg 3-8 cm, g n e i s s , q u a r t z i t e , g r a n i t e , c h e r t c l a s t s , c l a s t to m a t r i x supported, m-cg sandstone m a t r i x , t r . c a l a c a r e o u s , scour and f i l l ; r a r e eg sandstones. S i l t s t o n e : med brown, micaceous, c o a l y d e b r i s . Conglomerate: p b l - c b l , c l a s t s avg 3-8 cm, q u a r t z i t e , g r a n i t e , c h e r t , mudstone c l a s t s , c l a s t supported, c-mg sandstone m a t r i x ; r a r e c a l c . mudstone beds. Mudstone sample 17-125. U N C 0 N F 0 R M I T Y ' W x - v Sandstone: I t g r e y - w h i t e , vf-mg, c l e a n , t r . c a l c , t r . c arb. d e b r i s , t r . c o n c r e t i o n s , p l a n a r to wavy l a m i n a t i o n , r i p p l e c r o s s - l a m i n a t i o n , r a r e p l a n a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g , scour and f i l l ; Coal sample 17—121. Interbedded: Sandstone(65%): I t g r e y - w h i t e , v f g , c l e a n , t r . carb. d e b r i s , t r . r o o t s , c a l c . , f i n e p l a n a r to wavy l a m i n a i o n , r i p p l e c r o s s - l a m i n a t i o n , symmetrical r i p p l e s . S i l t s t o n e ( 3 5 % ) : I t g r e y - b u f f , c a l c , c a r b . d e b r i s , marine pelecypod fragments, burrows, t r . i r o n s u l p h i d e c o n c r e t i o n s , f i n e p l a n a r l a m i n a t i o n ; Mudstone sample 17-117. Mudstone: I t grey, c a l c , burrows, symmetrical r i p p l e s . Interbedded:. Sandstone(85%): I t g r e y - w h i t e , v f g , c a l c , c a r b . d e b r i s , micaceous, pelecypod fragments, t r a i l s , S k o l i t h o s b u r r o w s , f i n e p l a n a r and r i p p l e c r o s s -l a m i n a t i o n , f l a s e r bedding, symmetrical r i p p l e s . Mudston'e( 15%) : I t g r e y - w h i t e , c a l c , c a r b . d e b r i s , f i n e p l a n a r l a m i n a t i o n . S i l t s t o n e : b u f f , f i n e p l a n a r l a m i n a t i o n . Sandstone: w h i t e , v f g , c l e a n , r a r e c o n c r e t i o n s , p l a n a r p a r a l l e l and p l a n a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g . FIGURE 29. S t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n 17 a c r o s s the u n c o n f o r m i t y between the Eureka Sound and B e a u f o r t f o r m a t i o n s n o r t h of Makinson I n l e t . 1 40 merits a r e l i g h t g r e y t o w h i t e , and commonly c o n t a i n s h a l l o w m a r i n e p e l e c y p o d s h e l l s , t r a i l s and S k o l i t h o s t r a c e f o s s i l s i n -d i c a t i n g a f a i r l y abundant m a r i n e f a u n a . S e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s i n c l u d e p l a n a r p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n , r i p p l e t r o u g h c r o s s - l a m i n a -t i o n , s y m m e t r i c a l r i p p l e s ( F i g u r e 28D) and f l a s e r b e d d i n g ( F i g u r e 2 8 E ) . C a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s , p l a n t f r a g m e n t s and t h i n c o a l l a m i n a e a r e common, whereas i r o n s u l p h i d e c o n c r e t i o n s a r e r a r e . The f i n e g r a i n s i z e , s m a l l s c a l e s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s and f a u n a l c o n t e n t i n d i c a t e d e p o s i t i o n under low e n e r g y , b r a c k i s h w a t e r c o n d i t i o n s , s u c h as i s f o u n d i n a l a r g e l a g o o n o r e s t u a r y . The o c c u r r e n c e of r a r e f l a s e r b e d d i n g , s y m m e t r i c a l r i p p l e s and m a r i n e p e l e c y p o d and t r a c e f o s s i l s s u g g e s t s a t i d a l f l a t e n -v i r o n m e n t ( R e i n s o n , 1979; Weimer e t a l . , 1982). T h i n c o a l s c o u l d have 'formed e i t h e r f r o m t r a n s p o r t e d m a t e r i a l o r f r o m p e a t d e p o s -i t s a l o n g t h e s h o r e s of t h e e s t u a r y . The s i m i l a r i t y of s t r a t a o f t h e c a l c a r e o u s m u d s t o n e - s i l t s o n e - s a n d s t o n e l i t h o f a c i e s t o s t r a t a e x p o s e d f a r t h e r n o r t h a t S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d ( M i a l l , 1981; West e t a l . , 1981) and t o t h e s o u t h a t S t e n k u l F i o r d ( t h i s s t u d y ) s u g -g e s t s t h a t t h e s e o u t l i e r s a r e e r o s i o n a l remnants o f a l a r g e s h a l l o w m a r i n e embayment w h i c h e x t e n d e d from s o u t h e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d t o V e s l e and S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d s d u r i n g l a t e E a r l y t o m i d -P a l e o c e n e t i m e ( F i g u r e 2 4A). B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n S t r a t a a s s i g n e d t o t h e B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n above t h e u n c o n -f o r m i t y a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p e b b l e t o c o b b l e c o n g l o m e r a t e s i n -t e r b e d d e d w i t h v e r y f i n e - t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s , m i n o r 141 s i l t s t o n e s and r a r e , t h i n c a l c a r e o u s mudstones and c o a l (Figures 28F, 29). The s t r a t a are p r e s e n t l y preserved only as e r o s i o n a l o u t l i e r s i n a narrow b e l t about one-half k i l o m e t r e wide and 5 km long, -north of Makinson I n l e t ( Figure 25). The cal c a r e o u s mud-stones c o n t a i n a nearshore mixed marine d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t / s p o r e and p o l l e n assemblage (see palynology s e c t i o n ) . The conglomerates are predominantly c l a s t - s u p p o r t e d with a poorly s o r t e d c o a r s e - to medium-grained sandstone matrix, and a t t a i n t h i c k n e s s e s of up to 15 m. The well-rounded c l a s t s are composed mainly of g r a n i t e , garnet gneiss and q u a r t z i t e , which suggests l o c a l d e r i v a t i o n from u p l i f t e d Phanerozoic and Precambrian rocks to the e a s t . At l e a s t four low angle (5° to 20°) in t r a f o r m a -t i o n a l angular u n c o n f o r m i t i e s e x i s t w i t h i n the sequence. The i n t r a f o r m a t i o n a l u n c o n f o r m i t i e s suggest p e r i o d i c r e l a t i v e u p l i f t to the west and e r o s i o n of the s t r a t a . Very f i n e - to coarse-grained sandstones are s i l t y , micaceous and c o n t a i n carbonaceous p l a n t d e b r i s . Sedimentary s t r u c t u r e s i n c l u d e scour and f i l l s t r u c t u r e s , r a r e r i p p l e c r o s s - l a m i n a t i o n and planar p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n . Coal occurs as t h i n , 5-15 cm seams which are com-p r i s e d of t r a n s p o r t e d woody m a t e r i a l . The presence of poorly to moderately w e l l s o r t e d conglomerates together with the occur-rence of a mixed nearshore marine d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t / s p o r e and p o l l e n assemblage suggests that Beaufort s t r a t a at t h i s l o c a l i t y represent p a r t of a f a n - d e l t a d e p o s i t that b u i l t out i n t o a marine embayment (Figure 3 0 ) . The o r i g i n of minor f o l d s i n the Beaufort Formation i s unknown. They may be e i t h e r t e c t o n i c or a r e s u l t of P l e i s t o c e n e i c e t h r u s t i n g . . t r a t a and Precambr ian crystalline basement Lower Paleozoic s t ra ta and r — S Beaufort Formation Eureka Sound Formation 143 PALYNOLOGY Samples 16-105 ( F i g u r e 27) and 17-117, 17-121, 17-125, and 1 7-126 ( F i g u r e 29) were c o l l e c t e d from t h e E u r e k a Sound and B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n s and were p r o c e s s e d f o r p a l y n o m o r p h s u s i n g s t a n d a r d t e c h n i q u e s . The p a l y n o m o r p h a s s e m b l a g e s r e p r e s e n t two d i s p a r a t e t i m e i n t e r v a l s o f t h e T e r t i a r y . The a s s e m b l a g e from t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n below t h e u n c o n f o r m i t y , c o n t a i n s m a i n l y t e r r e s t r i a l s p o r e s and p o l l e n . The o v e r a l l a s s e m b l a g e c o r r e s p o n d s most c l o s e l y t o t h o s e from t h e i n t e r v a l of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n i n t e r p r e t e d by Rouse (1977) as b e i n g l a t e E a r l y t o e a r l y m i d -P a l e o c e n e . The most d i a g n o s t i c s p e c i e s a r e l i s t e d below and a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e s 31g t o 3 l f , i n c l u s i v e . P a r a a l n i p o l l e n i t e s c o n f u s u s , ( F i g u r e 3 l g ) M o m i p i t e s r o t u n d u s , ( F i g u r e 31h) T r i p o r o p o l l e n i t e s m u l l e n s i s , ( F i g u r e 3 1 i ) M y r i c i p i t e s d u b i u s , ( F i g u r e 3 1 J ) C u p u l i f e r o i d a e p o l l e n i t e s l i b l a r e n s i s , ( F i g u r e 31k) F r a x i n o i p o l l e n i t e s v a r i a b i 1 i s , ( F i g u r e 311) R h o i i p i t e s p s e u d o c i n g u l u m , ( F i g u r e 31m) M u l t i c e l l a e s p o r i t e s -6, ( F i g u r e 31n) The o v e r a l l p a l y n o a s s e m b l a g e s u g g e s t s a r a t h e r c o o l tern-144 FIGURE 31. D i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t s of t h e B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n (a t o f ) and s p o r e s and p o l l e n g r a i n s of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n (g t o n) n o r t h o f M a k i n s o n I n l e t . B e a u f o r t Format i o n a- B a t i a c a s p h a e r a s p h a e r i c a ; b- B. m i c r o p a p i l l a t a ; c -P a r a l a c a n i e l l a i n d e n t a t a ; d- A p t e o d i n i u m -C ; e- D e f l a n d r e a  p h o s p h o r i t i c a ; f - L e p t o d i n i u m -3. E u r e k a Sound Format i o n g- P a r a a l n i p o l l e n i t e s c o n f u s u s ; h- Momites r o t u n d i s ; i -T r i p o r o p o l l e n i t e s m u l l e n s i s ; j - Myr i c i p i t e s d u b i u s ; k-C u p u l i f e r o i d a e p o l l e n i t e s l i b l a r e n s i s ; 1- F r a x i n o i p o l l e n i t e s  v a r i a b i l i s ; m- R h o i i p i t e s p s e u d o c inquiurn ; n-M u l t i c e l l a e s p o r i t e s -6. 145 146 p e r a t e and p r o b a b l y wet p a l e o c l i m a t e d u r i n g d e p o s i t i o n o f t h e l o w e r u n i t , a s p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d (Rouse, 1977) f o r t h e P-1 s t a g e o f t h e E u r e k a Sound i n t h e Remus C r e e k s e c t i o n t o t h e n o r t h on t h e F o s h e i m P e n i n s u l a . The a s s e m b l a g e from t h e B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n above t h e uncon-f o r m i t y a p p e a r s t o be E a r l y M i o c e n e , c o r r e l a t i n g most c l o s e l y w i t h E a r l y M i o c e n e a s s e m b l a g e s from o f f s h o r e A t l a n t i c s e d i m e n t s r e p o r t e d by S t o v e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) , o f f s h o r e L a b r a d o r ( B u j a k and W i l l i a m s , 1977), o f f s h o r e A f r i c a (Manum, 1976), and from t h e B e a u f o r t Sea (Rouse, u n p u b l i s h e d ) . The most d i a g n o s t i c p a -l y n o m o r p h s a r e t h e m a r i n e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t s l i s t e d below w h i c h a r e shown i n F i g u r e s 31a t o 3 1 f , i n c l u s i v e . B a t i a c a s p h a e r a s p h a e r i c a , ( F i g u r e 31a) B. m i c r o p a p i l l a t a , ( F i g u r e 31b) P a r a l a c a n i e l l a i n d e n t a t a , ( F i g u r e 31c) A p t e o d i n i u m -C, ( F i g u r e 31d) D e f l a n d r e a p h o s p h o r i t i c a , ( F i g u r e 3 l e ) L e p t o d i n i u m -3, ( F i g u r e 3 1 f ) Of t h e s e , B a t i a c a s p h a e r a s p h a e r i c a , P a r a l a c a n i e l l a  i n d e n t a t a , A p t e o d i n i u m -C and L e p t o d i n i u m -3 a p p e a r t o be l i m i t -ed t o t h e E a r l y M i o c e n e . D e f l a n d r e a p h o s p h o r i t i c a and B a t i a c a s p h a e r a m i c r o p a p i l l a t a r a n g e t h r o u g h t h e O l i g o c e n e , and d i s a p p e a r a t t h e end o f t h e E a r l y M i o c e n e . O t h e r d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s i n t h e a s s e m b l a g e i n c l u d e T h a l a s s i o p h o r a p e l a g i c a , T. c_f. 147 v e l l a t a , C y c l o p s i e l l a e l l i p t i c a and S e l e n o p e m p h i x n e p h r o i d e s . T e r r e s t r i a l p o l l e n admixed w i t h t h e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t s i n c l u d e b l a d d e r e d c o n i f e r p o l l e n of s p r u c e ( P i c e a ) and p i n e ( P i n u s ) , porate" g r a i n s o f t h e b i r c h f a m i l y ( A l d e r - A l n u s , h a z e l o r hop-hornbeam, C o r y l u s o r C a r p i n u s , and b i r c h - B e t u l a ) , sweet g a l e -M y r i c a , oak- Q u e r c u s , and sweet-gum ( L i q u i d a m b a r ) . The a d m i x t u r e o f t e r r e s t r i a l and m a r i n e p a l y n o m o r p h s i n d i c a t e s a d e p o s i t i o n a l s e t t i n g n o t t o o d i s t a n t from f o r e s t e d l a n d a r e a s . A l s o p r e s e n t i n r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e numbers a r e r e c y c l e d L a t e C r e t a c e o u s and P a l e o c e n e p a l y n o m o r p h s p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d from e r o -s i o n of s e d i m e n t s of t h e Kanguk and E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n s . 1 48 PRE-EARLY MIOCENE EROSION The amount of s e d i m e n t o f t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n r e -moved by e r o s i o n p r i o r t o d e p o s i t i o n of t h e B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n c a n be e s t i m a t e d u s i n g v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e measurements, by r e l a t i n g v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e v a l u e s on e i t h e r s i d e of t h e un-c o n f o r m a b l e s u r f a c e t o a l o c a l l y d e r i v e d c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t . The c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t a t S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d , l o c a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 km n o r t h o f t h e u n c o n f o r m i t y a t M a k i n s o n I n l e t , was d e r i v e d by B u s t i n ( i n p r e p . ) and i s r e p r o d u c e d on F i g u r e 32. C o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t s d e t e r m i n e d a t s e v e r a l l o c a -t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e e a s t e r n A r c t i c were f o u n d t o be v e r y s i m i -l a r t o t h e S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d g r a d i e n t ( B u s t i n , i n p r e p . ) , and t h u s i t i s assumed t h a t a s i m i l a r c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t e x i s t e d a t M a k i n s o n I n l e t . L o c a l v a r i a t i o n s i n v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e v a l u e s c a n be c a u s e d by i g n e o u s i n t r u s i o n s , e v a p o r i t e d i a p i r s , and major o v e r t h r u s t s ; however, none of t h e s e f e a t u r e s were ob-s e r v e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . The v i t r i n i t e r e f l e c t a n c e v a l u e s f o r E u r e k a Sound and B e a u f o r t s t r a t a a r e p l o t t e d on F i g u r e 32. The s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e p -a r a t i o n between samples 16-103 ( F i g u r e 27) and 17-121 ( F i g u r e s 26 and 29) c o u l d not be d e t e r m i n e d . Samples 17-121, from below t h e u n c o n f o r m i t y , and 17-128, from above t h e u n c o n f o r m i t y , a r e p r e s e n t l y s e p a r a t e d by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 m of s e d i m e n t ( F i g u r e 2 9 ) . I f t h e c o a l i f i c a t i o n g r a d i e n t a t M a k i n s o n I n l e t i s s i m i l a r t o t h e S t r a t h c o n a F i o r d g r a d i e n t , and i f no h i a t u s i n s e d i m e n t a -t i o n had o c c u r r e d between t h e d e p o s i t i o n of s a m p l e s 17-121 and 17-128, t h e n F i g u r e 32 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 550 m o f 149 l i , , ,—• . , 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.5 Ro (%) FIGURE 32. Coalification gradient at Strathcona Fiord (Bustin, in prep.), and vitrinite reflectance values for coal samples above and below the unconformity. 150 s e d i m e n t would have s e p a r a t e d t h e s e two s a m p l e s . T h e s e r e s u l t s t h u s s u g g e s t t h a t e r o s i o n o f t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n on t h e o r d e r o f 450 m o c c u r r e d p r i o r t o d e p o s i t i o n o f t h e B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n . The r a t e o f d e n u d a t i o n c a n be v e r y r o u g h l y e s t i m a t e d from t h e age of t h e s t r a t a and t h e amount of s e d i m e n t removed. Assu m i n g an e r o s i o n of 450 m between m i d - P a l e o c e n e and E a r l y M i o c e n e y i e l d s an a v e r a g e d e n u d a t i o n r a t e of 1,3 m/Ma. I f t h e e r o s i o n was p o s t - L a t e Eocene t o p r e - E a r l y M i o c e n e , t h e n t h e r a t e o f d e n u d a t i o n , and t h u s u p l i f t , would be on t h e o r d e r o f 30 m/Ma. 151 TECTONIC IMPLICATIONS The o c c u r r e n c e of Lower M i o c e n e s t r a t a u n c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r -l y i n g f o l d e d P a l e o c e n e s t r a t a n o r t h of M a k i n s o n I n l e t p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e f o r t h e c h r o n o l o g y of t e c t o n i s m i n t h i s p a r t of t h e A r c h i p e l a g o . The u n c o n f o r m i t y i n d i c a t e s a p e r i o d of p o s t -mid P a l e o c e n e t o p r e - E a r l y M i o c e n e f o l d i n g and e r o s i o n . To t h e s o u t h a t S t e n k u l F i o r d , E u r e k a Sound s t r a t a e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t a t M a k i n s o n I n l e t a r e c o n f o r m a b l y ( o r p a r a c o n f o r m a b l y ) o v e r l a i n by s t r a t a as young as L a t e E o c e n e . I t i s t h u s h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e t h a t t h e u n c o n f o r m i t y a t M a k i n s o n I n l e t r e p r e s e n t s a p o s t - L a t e E o c e n e t o p r e - E a r l y M i o c e n e phase of c o m p r e s s i o n . As s u c h , t h e c h r o n o l o g y o f c o m p r e s s i o n a l o r o g e n e s i s i n t h i s p a r t of t h e A r c h i p e l a g o i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t documented from c e n t r a l A x e l H e i b e r g I s l a n d by B a l k w i l l and o t h e r s (1975) and s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c h r o n o l o g y of o r o g e n e s i s (phase two) of t h e E u r e k a n Orogeny i s c o e v a l t h r o u g h o u t t h e e a s t e r n Queen E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s . The o c c u r r e n c e and c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e Lower M i o c e n e , c o n g -l o m e r a t i c f a n - d e l t a d e p o s i t s a t M a k i n s o n I n l e t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e P a l e o z o i c s t r a t a and t h e P r e c a m b r i a n S h i e l d t o t h e e a s t un-d erwent r e l a t i v e u p l i f t d u r i n g t h e E a r l y M i o c e n e . The f a n - d e l t a d e p o s i t s u n d o u b t e d l y a r e t h e e r o s i o n a l remnants o f a l a r g e r f a n -d e l t a - a l l u v i a l f a n complex, but t h e r e i s p r e s e n t l y no e v i d e n c e f o r t h e p r e - e r o s i o n a l e x t e n t of t h e d e p o s i t s o r of u p l i f t . No o t h e r c o n c l u s i v e l y d a t e d p o s t - L a t e E o c e n e s t r a t a a r e known from t h i s p a r t of t h e A r c h i p e l a g o a p a r t f r o m t h e M i o c e n e d e p o s i t s on A x e l H e i b e r g I s l a n d ( B u s t i n , 1982; F i g u r e 2 5 ) . O t h e r p o s s i b l e s y n - o r p o s t - t e c t o n i c ( p o s t - p h a s e two) d e p o s i t s a r e 0 1 i g o c e n e ( ? ) 152 d e p o s i t s a t Lake Hazen ( M i a l l , 1979; 1981) and c o n g l o m e r a t e s a t Y e l v e r t o n Bay, n o r t h e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d ( W i l s o n , 1976). The E u r e k a n o r o g e n i c e v e n t s i n t h e e a s t e r n Queen E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s have been c o n s i d e r e d t o have r e s u l t e d f r o m and t o be e v i d e n c e f o r T e r t i a r y p l a t e m o t i o n s i n t h e e a s t e r n A r c t i c (McWhae, 1981; K e r r , 1980; 1981a, b; P e i r c e , 1982, and o t h e r s ) . C e n t r a l t o t h e s e a rguments i s t h e o r i g i n o f B a f f i n Bay and t h e n a t u r e o f N a r e s S t r a i t . A l t h o u g h i t i s beyond t h e s c o p e of t h i s p a p e r t o add t o t h e l a r g e amount o f s p e c u l a t i o n on t h e p l a t e t e c t o n i c h i s t o r y of t h e a r e a , t h e c h r o n o l o g y of t e c t o n i s m does c o n s t r a i n some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . As i n i t i a l l y p o i n t e d o u t by B a l k w i l l ( 1 9 7 8 ) , c o m p r e s s i o n a l e v e n t s , of t h e E u r e k a n Orogeny a r e p o s t - M i d d l e Eocene t o E a r l y M i o c e n e , whereas B a f f i n B a y / L a b r a d o r Sea s p r e a d i n g i s s u p p o s e d t o have o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e L a t e P a l e o c e n e - E a r l y O l i g o c e n e . Thus t h e t i m i n g of E u r e k a n compres-s i o n d o e s not s u p p o r t t r a n s p r e s s i o n a l o n g N a r e s S t r a i t (Wegener t r a n s f o r m f a u l t ) a c c o m p a n y i n g s p r e a d i n g i n t h e L a b r a d o r Sea and B a f f i n Bay, i f s p r e a d i n g t o o k p l a c e between L a t e P a l e o c e n e and p r i o r t o E a r l y O l i g o c e n e a s has been p r o p o s e d (McWhae, 1981; S r i v a s t a v a e t a l . 1981). The s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t some o f t h e p r e -sumed o f f s e t a l o n g N a r e s S t r a i t was accommodated by f o l d i n g and f a u l t i n g i n t h e e a s t e r n Queen E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s i n r e s p o n s e t o r o t a t i o n o f G r e e n l a n d ( S r i v a s t a v a e t a l . , 1981) o r c o m p r e s s i o n n o r t h of a t r a n s f o r m p i v o t i n s o u t h e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d ( K e r r , 1981a,b) s i m i l a r l y i s n o t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t i m i n g of E u r e k a n c o m p r e s s i o n i f t h e t i m i n g o f sea f l o o r s p r e a d i n g i n L a b r a d o r Sea and B a f f i n Bay i s c o r r e c t . The c h r o n o l o g y of t h e E u r e k a n com-p r e s s i o n a l e v e n t on E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d a c t u a l l y c o r r e l a t e s b e t t e r 153 w i t h c e s s a t i o n of s p r e a d i n g i n L a b r a d o r Sea and ( ? ) B a f f i n Bay ( p o s t 36 Ma, anomaly 1 3 ) . I f phase two of t h e E u r e k a n O r o g e n y i s a r e s u l t o f s p r e a d i n g i n L a b r a d o r S e a - B a f f i n Bay t h e n e i t h e r t h e t i m i n g o f s p r e a d i n g i s i n e r r o r o r o n l y p o s t - L a t e E ocene t o E a r l y O l i g o c e n e s p r e a d i n g r e s u l t e d i n c o m p r e s s i o n i n t h e e a s t e r n Queen E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f r e l a t i v e u p l i f t i n t h e E a r l y M i o c e n e i n t h e s t u d y a r e a i s unknown. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t p a r t o f t h e p r e s e n t h i g h e l e v a t i o n o f t h e e a s t c o a s t o f E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d and p o s s i b -l y e a s t e r n Devon I s l a n d d a t e s f r o m M i o c e n e u p l i f t and c o e v a l t e c t o n i s m s h o u l d be s u s p e c t e d a l o n g t h e w e s t e r n m a r g i n o f B a f f i n Bay. The i n t e r v a l M i o c e n e t o P l i o c e n e was c o n s i d e r e d by K e r r (1981a, b) t o be t h e f i n a l phase o f p l a t e m o t i o n i n t h e C a n a d i a n A r c t i c when f a u l t s from t h e A t l a n t i c Ocean b r o k e t h r o u g h t o t h e A r c t i c Ocean. 1 54 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS D i s c o v e r y and d a t i n g of a p o s t - m i d P a l e o c e n e ( l i k e l y p o s t -L a t e E o c e n e ) t o p r e - E a r l y M i o c e n e a n g u l a r u n c o n f o r m i t y on s o u t h -c e n t r a l E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c h r o n o l o g y of t h e c o m p r e s s i v e p h a s e o f t h e E u r e k a n O r o g e n y e s t a b l i s h e d from c e n -t r a l A x e l H e i b e r g I s l a n d ( B a l k w i l l e t a l . , 1975) can be e x t e n d e d t o E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d and t h u s l i k e l y t o t h e e n t i r e e a s t e r n Queen E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s . The amount o f s t r a t a of t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n d e p o s i t e d and s u b s e q u e n t l y e r o d e d n e a r M a k i n s o n I n l e t i s e s t i m a t e d t o be a b o u t 450 m b a s e d on c o a l i f i c a t i o n l e v e l s . The Lower M i o c e n e c o n g l o m e r a t i c s u c c e s s i o n a t M a k i n s o n I n l e t , h e r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n , i s c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e -s e n t f a n - d e l t a d e p o s i t s t h a t p r o g r a d e d i n t o a s h a l l o w m a r i n e embayment ( F i g u r e 3 0 ) . The o c c u r r e n c e and p r o v e n a n c e of t h e c o n -g l o m e r a t i c s e q u e n c e p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e f o r a t l e a s t a l o c a l E a r l y M i o c e n e p h a s e o f r e l a t i v e u p l i f t o f t h e P r e c a m b r i a n s h i e l d o f e a s t e r n E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d . The e x t e n t and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e u p l i f t i s unknown b e c a u s e of t h e p r e s e n t r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Lower M i o c e n e s t r a t a . 155 REFERENCES CITED B a l k w i l l , H.R., 1978, E v o l u t i o n o f t h e S v e r d r u p B a s i n , A r c t i c C a nada; A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n of P e t r o l e u m G e o l o g i s t s , B u l l e t i n , v . 62, pp. 1004-1028. B a l k w i l l , H.R., B u s t i n , R.M. and H o p k i n s , W.S., J r . , 1975, E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n a t F l a t Sound, A x e l H e i b e r g I s l a n d , and c h r o n o l o g y of t h e E u r e k a n Orogeny; G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y of Canada, Paper 75-1B, pp. 205-207. B a l k w i l l , H.R. and B u s t i n , R.M., 1980, L a t e P h a n e r o z o i c s t r u c -t u r e s , C a n a d i a n A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o ; P a l a e o g e o g r a p h y , P a l a e o c l i m a t o l o g y , P a l a e o e c o l o g y , v. 30. Pp. 219-227. B u j a k , J . P . and W i l l i a m s , G.L., 1977, C e n o z o i c p a l y n o s t r a t i g r a -phy o f e a s t e r n Canada; A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n of S t r a t i g r a p h i c P a l y n o l o g i s t s , C o n t r i b u t i o n s e r i e s 5A, pp. 14-47. B u s t i n , R.M., 1982, B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n , E a s t e r n A x e l H e i b e r g I s l a n d , C a n a d i a n A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o ; B u l l e t i n o f C a n a d i a n P e t r o l e u m G e o l o g y , v. 30, pp. 140-149. Drummond, K . J . , 1973, C a n a d i a n A r c t i c I s l a n d s ; In M c C r o s s a n , R.G., e d . , F u t u r e p e t r o l e u m p r o v i n c e s o f Canada; C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y o f P e t r o l e u m G e o l o g i s t s , Memoir 1, pp. 443-472. F r i s c h , T., 1983, R e c o n n a i s s a n c e g e o l o g y o f t h e P r e c a m b r i a n 156 s h i e l d o f E l l e s m e r e , Devon and C o b u r g I s l a n d s , A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o : a p r e l i m i n a r y a c c o u n t ; G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada, P a p e r 82-10, 11 pp. H i l l s , L.V., and F y l e s , J.G., 1973, The B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n , C a n a d i a n A r c t i c I s l a n d s , Programs and A b s t r a c t s , Symposium on t h e G e o l o g y of t h e C a n a d i a n A r c t i c ; C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y of P e t r o l e u m G e o l o g i s t s - G e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, p. 1 1 . K e r r , J.W., 1977, C o r n w a l l i s F o l d B e l t and t h e mechanism o f basement u p l i f t ; C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l of E a r t h S c i e n c e , v . 14, pp. 1374-1401. K e r r , J.W., 1980, A p l a t e t e c t o n i c c o n t e s t i n A r c t i c Canada; In S t r a n g w a y , D.W., ed., The c o n t i n e n t a l c r u s t and i t s min-e r a l d e p o s i t s ; a symposium i n honour of J . Tuzo W i l s o n , T o r o n t o , 1979; G e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, S p e c i a l Paper 20, pp. 457-486. K e r r , J.W., 1981a, E v o l u t i o n of t h e C a n a d i a n A r c t i c I s l a n d s - a t r a n s i t i o n between t h e A t l a n t i c and A r c t i c Oceans; I_n N a i r n , A.E.M., C h u r k i n , M., J r . and S t e h l i , F.G., e d s . , The ocean b a s i n s and m a r g i n s , volume 5, The A r c t i c Ocean; Plenum P r e s s , New Y o r k , pp. 105-199. K e r r , J.W., 1981b, S t r e t c h i n g of t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n P l a t e by a now dormant A t l a n t i c s p r e a d i n g c e n t e r ; I_n K e r r , J.W. and 157 F e r g u s s o n , A . J . , e d s . , G e o l o g y of t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c b o r d e r -l a n d s ; C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y o f P e t r o l e u m G e o l o g i s t s , Memoir 7, pp. 245-278. Manum, S.B., 1976, D i n o c y s t s i n T e r t i a r y N o r w e g i a n - G r e e n l a n d sea s e d i m e n t s (deep s e a d r i l l i n g p r o j e c t l e g 3 8 ) , . w i t h o b s e r v a -t i o n s on p a l y n o m o r p h s and p a l y n o d e b r i s i n r e l a t i o n t o en-v i r o n m e n t ; I_n T a l w a n i , M., U d i n t s e v , G., e t a l . , e d s . , I n i t i a l r e p o r t s o f t h e deep s e a d r i l l i n g p r o j e c t , v.38, W a s h i n g t o n (U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ) , pp. 897-919. M i a l l , A.D., 1979, T e r t i a r y f l u v i a l s e d i m e n t s i n t h e Lake Hazen i n t e r m o n t a n e b a s i n , E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d , A r c t i c Canada; G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada, Paper 79-9, 25 pp. M i a l l , A.D., 1981, L a t e C r e t a c e o u s and P a l e o g e n e s e d i m e n t a t i o n and t e c t o n i c s i n t h e C a n a d i a n A r c t i c I s l a n d s ; lr\ M i a l l , A.D., ed., S e d i m e n t a t i o n and t e c t o n i c s i n a l l u v i a l b a s i n s ; G e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, S p e c i a l Paper 23, pp. 221-272. McWhae, J.R.H., 1981, S t r u c t u r e and s p r e a d i n g h i s t o r y o f t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n C a n a d i a n A r c t i c and r e l a t e d N o r t h A t l a n t i c a r e a s ; I_n K e r r , J.W. and F e r g u s s o n , A . J . , e d s . , G e o l o g y of t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c b o r d e r l a n d s ; C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y o f P e t r o l e u m G e o l o g i s t s , Memoir 7, pp. 299-332. O k u l i t c h , A.V., 1982, P r e l i m i n a r y s t r u c t u r e s e c t i o n s , s o u t h e r n ' 1 58 E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d , D i s t r i c t o f F r a n k l i n ; G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y of Canada, Paper 82-1A, pp. 55-62. P e i r c e , J.W., 1982, The e v o l u t i o n o f t h e N a r e s S t r a i t l i n e a m e n t and i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e E u r e k a n Orogeny; I_n Dawes, P.R. and K e r r , J.W., e d s . , N a r e s S t r a i t and t h e d r i f t of G r e e n l a n d : a c o n f l i c t i n p l a t e t e c t o n i c s , M e d d e l e l s e r om G r o e n l a n d , G e o s c i e n c e 8, pp. 237-252. R e i n s o n , G.E., 1979, F a c i e s M o d e l s 6. B a r r i e r i s l a n d s y s t e m s ; I_n W a l k e r , R.G., e d . , F a c i e s m o d e l s ; G e o s c i e n c e Canada R e p r i n t S e r i e s 1, pp. 57-74. Rouse, G.E., 1977,. P a l e o g e n e p a l y n o m o r p h r a n g e s i n w e s t e r n and n o r t h e r n Canada; A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n of S t r a t i g r a p h i c P a l y n o l o g i s t s , C o n t r i b u t i o n S e r i e s 5A, pp. 48-65. S r i v a s t a v a , S.P., F a l c o n e r , R.K.H. and MacLean, B., 1981 , L a b r a d o r Sea, D a v i s S t r a i t , B a f f i n Bay: g e o l o g y and geophy-s i c s - a r e v i e w ; I_n K e r r , J.W. and F e r g u s s o n , A . J . , e d s . , G e o l o g y o f t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c b o r d e r l a n d s ; C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y of P e t r o l e u m G e o l o g i s t s , Memoir 7, pp. 333-398. S t o v e r , L . E . , 1977, O l i g o c e n e and E a r l y M i o c e n e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s f r o m A t l a n t i c c o r e h o l e 5/5B, B l a k e P l a t e a u ; A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n of S t r a t i g r a p h i c P a l y n o l o g i s t s , C o n t r i b u t i o n S e r i e s 5A, pp. 66-89. 159 T h o r s t e i n s s o n , R. and T o z e r , E.T., 1970, G e o l o g y of t h e A r c t i c A r c h i p e l a g o ; I_n D o u g l a s , R.J.W., ed., G e o l o g y and economic m i n e r a l s o f Canada; G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y of Canada, Economic G e o l o g y R e p o r t No.1, pp. 548-590. T r e t t i n , H.P. and B a l k w i l l , H.R., 1979, C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e t e c t o n i c h i s t o r y of t h e I n n u i t i a n P r o v i n c e , A r c t i c Canada; In P r i c e , R.A., c o o r d i n a t o r , G e o d y n a m i c s Canada; C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f E a r t h S c i e n c e , v. 16, pp. 748-769. Weimer, R . J . , Howard, J.D. and L i n d s a y , D.R., 1982, T i d a l f l a t s and a s s o c i a t e d t i d a l c h a n n e l s ; I_n S c h o l l e , P. A. and S p e a r i n g , D., S a n d s t o n e d e p o s i t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s ; A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n of P e t r o l e u m G e o l o g i s t s , Memoir 31, pp. 191-245. West, R.M., Dawson, M.R., H i c k e y , L . J . and M i a l l , A.D., 1981, Upper C r e t a c e o u s and P a l e o g e n e s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s , e a s t e r n C a n a d i a n A r c t i c and r e l a t e d N o r t h A t l a n t i c a r e a s ; I_n K e r r , J.W., and F e r g u s o n , A . J . , e d s . , G e o l o g y o f t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c b o r d e r l a n d s ; C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y o f P e t r o l e u m G e o l o g i s t s , Memoir 7, pp. 279-298. W i l s o n , D.G., 1976, E u r e k a Sound and B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n s , Y e l v e r t o n Bay, E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d , D i s t r i c t o f F r a n k l i n ; G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada, P a p e r 76-1A, pp. 453-456. APPENDIX SAMPLE NUMBER: 07-54&56 PALYNOZONE: P-2 AGE: M i d d l e P a l e o c e n e L I S T OF SPECIES POLLEN P a r a a l n i p o l l e n i t e s c o n f u s u s  S e n i p i t e s d r u m h e l l e r e n s i s  T r i p o r o p o l l e n i t e s m u l l e n s i s  C a r p i n i p i t e s a n c i p i t e s  A r e c i p i t e s t e n u i e x i n o u s  P t e r o c a r y a s t e l l a t u s  B e t u l a c e o i p o l l e n i t e s i n f r e q u e n s  C a p r i f o l i i p i t e s - A L y c o p o d i u m r e t i c u l u m s p o r i t e s  A l n u s v e r u s DINOFLAGELLATE CYSTS A r e o l i q e r a s e n o n e n s i s  D e f l a n d r e a s p e c i o s a A p t e o d i n i u m 162 SAMPLE NUMBER: 07-58 PALYNOZONE: P-2 AGE: M i d d l e P a l e o c e n e L I S T OF SPECIES POLLEN P a r a a l n i p o l l e n i t e s c o n f u s u s  B e t u l a c e o i p o l l e n i t e s i n f r e q u e n s  P i n u s h a p l o x y l o n  P i c e a g r a n d i v e s c i p i t e s  S e q u o i a p o l l e n i t e s p o l y f o r m o s u s  C a r p i n i p i t e s a n c i p i t e s SAMPLE NUMBER: 23-178 PALYNOZONE: P-4 AGE: L a t e P a l e o c e n e L I S T OF SPECIES POLLEN S e q u o i a p o l l e n i t e s p o l y f o r m u s  T r i p o r o p o l l e n i t e s m u l l e n s i s  C e d r i p i t e s s p . A l n u s v e r u s P i s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s m a c q r e q o r i i  C u p u l i f e r o i p o l l e n i t e s - A SAMPLE NUMBER: 22-157 PALYNOZONE: P~3 AGE: l a t e m i d - t o e a r l y L a t e P a l e o c e n e L I S T OF SPECIES POLLEN T r i p o r o p o l l e n i t e s m u l l e n s i s  P a r a a l n i p o l l e n i t e s c o n f u s u s  A l n u s v e r u s B e t u l a c e o i p o l l e n i t e s i n f r e q u e n s  C u p u l i f e r o i p o l l e n i t e s - A M o m i p i t e s r o t u n d u s DINOFLAGELLATE CYSTS P a r a l a c a n i e l l a i n d e n t a t a FUNGAL SPORES P e s a v i s t a q l u e n s i s SAMPLE NUMBER: 18-188 PALYNOZONE: E-1 AGE: E a r l y - M i d d l e E o c e n e L I S T OF SPECIES POLLEN T i l i a v e s c i p i t e s  T e t r a c o l p o r o p o l l e n i t e s s p . A r e c i p i t e s c o l u m e l l u s  A r a l i a c e o i p o l l e n i t e s g r a n u l a t u s  E r i c i p i t e s r e d b l u f f e n s i s  H o r n i e l l a m o d i c a  P a r a a l n i p o l l e n i t e s - 2 J u s s i a e a t y p e V e r r u t r i c o l p o r i t e s c r u c i a t u s  C a r y a v i r i d i f l u m i n i p i t e s  C u p u l i f e r o i p o l l e n i t e s i n s l e y a n u s  P l a n e r a t h o m p s o n i a n a  S t r i a t o p o l l i s t e r a s m a e i  Rousea s p . M y r i c a - 2 166 T e t r a c o l p o r o p o l l e n i t e s meqadolium M i l f o r d i a minima T o r o i s p o r i s p o s t r e q u l a r i s S t r i a d i p o r i t e s s p . C i r c u l o s p o r i t e s s p . P e s a v i s t a q l u e n s i s P i s t i l l i p o l l e n i t e s m a c q r e q o r i i H o r n i e l l a - A T r i c o l p o r o p o l l e n i t e s - A R h o i i p i t e s l a t u s C a p r i f o l i i p i t e s t a n t a l u s DINOFLAGELLATE CYSTS B a 1 1 i s p h a e r i d i u r n s p . L e j e u n i a h y a l i n a  L e j e u n i a - 3 FUNGAL SPORES P l u r i c e l l a e s p o r i t e s s p . D i p o r i s p o r i t e s - A D i c e l l a e s p o r i t e s SAMPLE NUMBER: 18-134 PALYNOZONE: E-2 AGE: L a t e E ocene L I S T OF SPECIES POLLEN Osmunda h e t e r o p h y l l i t e s  T s u g a h e t e r o p h y l l i t e s c f . K e t e l e e r i a  F r a x i n o i p o l l e n i t e s medius  U l m i p o l l e n i t e s u n d u l o s i s  C a r y a v e r i p i t e s A r a l a c e o i p o l l e n i t e s q r a T i u l a t u s c f . G o t h a n i p o l l i s s p . L a e v i g a t o s p o r i t e s  P a r a a l n i p o l l e n i t e s c o n f u s u s  T r i p o r o p o l l e n i t e s m u l l e n s i s  S i l t a r i a s c a b r i e x t i n o u s  A r e c i p i t e s c o l u m e l l u s  C u p u l i f e r o i d a e p o l l e n i t e s l i b l a r e n s i s  P a r s o n i d i t e s c o n s p i c u u s T i l i a v e s c i p i t e s  C a p r i f o l i i p i t e s t a n t a l u s  L i l i a c i d i t e s t r i t u s  A r a l i a c e o i p o l l e n i t e s p r o f u n d u s DINOFLAGELLATE CYSTS L e j e u n i a c f . h y a l i n a  D e f l a n d r e a p h o s p h o r i t i c a C f . C h i r o p t e r i u m d i s p e r s u m  C l e i s t o s p h a e r i d i u m a f f . e c h i n o i d e s  A p t e o d i n i u m s p . S p i n i f e r i t e s sp. FUNGAL SPORES P l u r i c e l l a e s p o r i t e s P u n c t o d i p o r i t e s 

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