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Sedimentology and tectonic history of the Eureka Sound and Beaufort formations, southern Ellesmere Island,… Riediger, Cynthia Louise 1985

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SEDIMENTOLOGY AND TECTONIC HISTORY OF THE EUREKA SOUND AND BEAUFORT FORMATIONS,  SOUTHERN ELLESMERE  ARCTIC,  ISLAND,  CANADA  By CYNTHIA B.Sc,  LOUISE RIEDIGER  The U n i v e r s i t y  of W a t e r l o o ,  1981  A THESIS IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE (Department  We a c c e p t to  of G e o l o g i c a l  this  thesis  the r e q u i r e d  as  STUDIES Sciences)  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April ©Cynthia  1985  Louise  R i e d i g e r , 1985  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head o f  department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  £3/81)  written  ii  ABSTRACT  The  Eureka  Archipelago tectonic Early  Sound F o r m a t i o n  i s an Upper C r e t a c e o u s t o P a l e o g e n e  deposit  that  r e c o r d s the u p l i f t  C a r b o n i f e r o u s to T e r t i a r y Scattered  outliers  ern E l l e s m e r e I s l a n d against  Devonian  Baumann and  rest  strata.  Sor F i o r d s ,  b r a c k i s h water  Paleocene  to Late  Eureka  m and  deposits  which  are d i v i d e d  stratigraphic  section alternate  I consists  into  locally  and  are  south-  faulted  of Vendom, S t e n k u l ,  i n age  of  from  a  nonmarine  mid-  constitute  lithofacies  the sequence.  interpreted  assemblages. nonmarine  and  as  are  The  assem-  Lithofacies  fluvial  attain  deposits.  i n t e r b e d d e d mudstones  assemblages  a minor  s i o n . L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage consists  t h e r i n g mudstones and  four  interpreted  as  and  floodbasin  plain.  lithofacies  t h e s t u d y a r e a and  on or a r e  on  c r o p o u t a l o n g t h e s h o r e s of  II c o m p r i s e s  o f an a l l u v i a l  marine  Basin.  of f i n i n g - u p w a r d s a n d s t o n e s w h i c h  i n seams up t o 8 m t h i c k ,  Two  of t h e  Sound F o r m a t i o n a t t a i n s  ranges  throughout  L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage  deposits  syn-  segmentation  i s composed m a i n l y of two  t h i c k n e s s e s o f 20 m and  coal  p r e - and  c o m p r i s e s a sequence  that  Arctic  Eocene.  Stenkul Fiord  Assemblage  unconformably  the Eureka  Canadian  Sound F o r m a t i o n  In t h e v i c i n i t y  Sound s t r a t a  b l a g e s which  and  Sverdrup  of t h e E u r e k a  maximum t h i c k n e s s of 480 and  i n the e a s t e r n  part  ( I I I , IV) a r e r e c o g n i z e d  of the s t r a t i g r a p h i c  III comprises  the b a s a l  of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90 m o f  interbedded thin  c o a l s which  succes-  strata  in  buff-wea-  were  deposit-  ed  i n b r a c k i s h l a g o o n a l , e s t u a r i n e and  L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage stratigraphic  section  IV o c c u r s and  q u a r t z a r e n i t e s and  preted  as d e p o s i t s of a b a r r i e r  To liers  the  of t h e E u r e k a  Paleozoic formity the  strata,  by  of  bracket the  the  i n the middle  up  island  Stenkul F i o r d  Sound F o r m a t i o n  to  10m  rest  120  m of E a r l y M i o c e n e ages of t h e s e the Eureka  eastern A r c t i c  as L a t e  Inlet,  with angular  well  Sound and  p h a s e of  in  uncon-  Eocene t o M i o c e n e .  of  conjunc-  Beaufort  Axel Heiberg the  out-  on  fanglomerates  sediments,  i n o t h e r p a r t s of E l l e s m e r e and the o r o g e n i c  the  inter-  unconformably  as much as  t i m i n g of  of w h i t e ,  at Makinson  in turn overlain  The  of  system.  are  Formation.  environments.  minor mudstones, w h i c h a r e  w i t h a g e s r e p o r t e d from  Formations  of  marsh  and  Beaufort  tion  in  northeast  locally  consists  sorted  salt  Eurekan  Islands, orogeny  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  L I S T OF TABLES  v i i  L I S T OF FIGURES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xii  INTRODUCTION GENERAL  1  STATEMENT  1  STUDY AREAS  3  Location  3  Access  5  PHYSIOGRAPHY  5  PREVIOUS WORK  6  PART I : STENKUL FIORD AREA  8  ABSTRACT  8  INTRODUCTION  ..  10  REGIONAL SETTING  12  METHODS  16  Field  Work  Analytical  16 Work  STRATIGRAPHY AND  17  STRUCTURE  20  STENKUL FIORD LITHOFACIES ASSEMBLAGE  21 I  Interpretation  31  LITHOFACIES ASSEMBLAGE I I Interpretation LITHOFACIES ASSEMBLAGE  27  35 37  III  39  V  Interpretation  40  LITHOFACIES ASSEMBLAGE IV Interpretation  42  VENDOM FIORD  43  Interpretation  49  BAUMANN FIORD  50  Interpretation  54  SOR FIORD  56  Interpretation PETROGRAPHY, SANDSTONE  41  60  PALEOCURRENTS AND PROVENANCE  63  PETROGRAPHY  63  Quartz  69  Chert  72  Feldspar  73  S e d i m e n t a r y Rock F r a g m e n t s  76  I g n e o u s Rock Fragments  76  Metamorphic  76  Rock F r a g m e n t s  Mica Granule  77 And P e b b l e  Composition  77  HEAVY MINERALS  77  PALEOCURRENT ANALYSIS  81  PROVENANCE  82  DIAGENESIS AND V I T R I N I T E FOSSIL  REFLECTANCE. . .  CONTENT AND AGE  89 92  PALYNOLOGY  92  PALEONTOLOGY  94  PALEOCLIMATE  100  DEPOSITIONAL HISTORY AND PALEOGEOGRAPHY  103  vi  Late E a r l y  ( ? ) To M i d - P a l e o c e n e  103  Mid-  To L a t e P a l e o c e n e  106  Late  Paleocene  106  Early  To L a t e Eocene  Post-Eocene  107  Erosion  109  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES CITED  110 '  .  112  PART I I : MAKINSON INLET AREA  127  ABSTRACT  127  INTRODUCTION  128  REGIONAL  129  SETTING  STRATIGRAPHY  132  Eureka  132  Sound F o r m a t i o n  Micaceous  Siltstone-calcareous  Sandstone  Lithofacies  132  C a l c a r e o u s M u d s t o n e - s i l t s t o n e - s a n d s t o n e L i t h o f a c i e s .138 Beaufort  Formation  140  PALYNOLOGY PRE-EARLY MIOCENE  143 EROSION  :  148  TECTONIC IMPLICATIONS  151  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  154  REFERENCES CITED  155  APPENDIX  160  vi i  LIST  TABLE  I.  ting,  Petrographic modal  presentative  data,  analyses  and  sandstones  OF  TABLES  including heavy from  grain  mineral  the  Eureka  size,  rounding  compositions Sound  of  sorre-  Formation.  pp. 65-67 TABLE  II.  Paleocurrent  data.  p. 83 TABLE  III.  V i t r i n i t e  reflectance  results.  p. 91  vi i i  LIST  FIGURE  1.  Index  Phanerozoic of  FIGURE ern  the  2.  map  to  the  tectonic  study  OF  FIGURES  Queen  and  Elizabeth  structural  Islands  elements  showing  and  Late  locations  areas.  Outliers  Ellesmere  of  p.  Tertiary  Island  Eureka  showing  Sound  locations  sediments of  the  on  study  2  southareas. p.  FIGURE  3.  Geologic  Stenkul,  Baumann  Formation  FIGURE  4.  5.  in  the  Fiord  showing  and  Sor  study  Stratigraphy  Stenkul  FIGURE  map  of  the  locations  Fiord  outliers  of of  the the  Vendom, Eureka  Sound  area.  the  Eureka  Sound  Formation  in  correlation  diagram  I  (in  P»  I  p.  22  3  the  outlier.  Strat igraphic  4  pocket-)  Zo?c\*i Collect' ^ 6  FIGURE  6.  Stratigraphic  correlation  diagram  II  FIGURE  7.  Stratigraphic  correlation  diagram  III  FIGURE  8.  Eureka  Sound  strata  in  FIGURE 9. S e d i m e n t a r y structures, Stenkul Fiord outlier.  FIGURE  10.  Sedimentary  structures,  the  Stenkul  Lithofacies  plant  (in  •pW-ke-fe)  ( i n -pock-e-t) .  Fiord  outlier.  Assemblage  fossils  and  I,  p.  25  p-  29  strati-  IX  graphy,  FIGURE  Stenkul  11. E u r e k a  Fiord  Sound  outlier.  strata  p. 32  i n t h e Vendom F i o r d  outlier. p. 44  FIGURE  12. S t r a t i g r a p h i c  section  26, Vendom F i o r d  outlier. p. 46  FIGURE  13. S t r a t i g r a p h i c  section  27, Vendom F i o r d  outlier. p. 47  FIGURE  14. E u r e k a  Sound  FIGURE  15. S t r a t i g r a p h i c  FIGURE  16. E u r e k a  Sound  strata  i n t h e Baumann F i o r d  section  strata  22, Baumann F i o r d  i n the Sor F i o r d  outlier. P. 51 outlier (in  outlier. p. 57  FIGURE  17. S t r a t i g r a p h i c  section  24, S o r F i o r d  outlier. p. 59  FIGURE  18. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s a n d s t o n e s  Formation  using McBride's  (1963)  of the Eureka  Sound  classification. p. 68  FIGURE  19. Thin  section  photomicrographs  of s a n d s t o n e s ,  Eureka  Sound F o r m a t i o n .  FIGURE 20. T h i n  section  P-  photomicrographs  of s a n d s t o n e s ,  Eureka  section  0  Eureka  Sound F o r m a t i o n .  FIGURE 21. T h i n  7  P* ^ 7  photomicrographs  Sound F o r m a t i o n .  o f heavy  minerals, p. 78  X  FIGURE 22. F o s s i l  remains,  Eureka  Sound  Formation. p. 95  FIGURE 23. F o s s i l  remains,  Eureka  Sound  Formation. p. 98  FIGURE 24. S c h e m a t i c  p a l e o g e o g r a p h i c maps. p. 104  FIGURE 25 . G e n e r a l g e o l o g i c  map  of t h e s t u d y a r e a . p. 131  FIGURE 26. A n g u l a r u n c o n f o r m i t y n o r t h o f M a k i n s o n  Inlet. p. 133  FIGURE 27. S t r a t i g r a p h i c Sound  strata  section  exposed  16 t h r o u g h  n o r t h of Makinson  lowermost  Eureka  Inlet. p. 135  FIGURE 28. S t r a t i g r a p h y  and s e d i m e n t a r y  Sound a n d B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n s  structures  of the Eureka  n o r t h of Makinson  Inlet. p. 136  FIGURE 29. S t r a t i g r a p h i c tween t h e E u r e k a Makinson  section  17 a c r o s s t h e u n c o n f o r m i t y be-  Sound and B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n s  n o r t h of  Inlet. p. 139  FIGURE 30. D e p o s i t i o n a l Makinson  model  of t h e B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n  n o r t h of  Inlet. p. 142  FIGURE 31. D i n o f l a g e l l a t e  cysts  f ) and s p o r e s and p o l l e n Formation  of the B e a u f o r t F o r m a t i o n  grains  of the Eureka  (g t o n) n o r t h o f M a k i n s o n  (a t o  Sound  Inlet. p. 144  FIGURE 32. C o a l i f i c a t i o n  gradient  at Strathcona F i o r d  (Bustin,  xi  in  p r e p . ) , and v i t r i n i t e  above and below  the  reflectance  values  for coal  samples  unconformity. p.  149  xii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I am e s p e c i a l l y Marc  grateful  B'ustin f o r d i r e c t i o n ,  patience  throughout  this  t o my t h e s i s  s u p e r v i s o r D r . R.  a d v i c e , encouragement and u n e n d i n g  study.  I would a l s o l i k e  t o thank D r .  G l e n n Rouse f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e p a l y n o l o g i c a l work and p l a n t fossil pects  identification, of the t h e s i s .  I am g r a t e f u l  Mathews f o r c r i t i c a l l y many h e l p f u l  and f o r guidance  reviewing  t o D r s . W.C.  the manuscript  on many a s -  B a r n e s and W.H. and o f f e r i n g  suggestions.  I w i s h t o thank D r . L o r i s Museum  and a d v i c e  for identification  Mathews f o r many h e l p f u l  R u s s e l l of the Royal  of f o s s i l  s a m p l e s , and a l s o Ms. L . L .  d i s c u s s i o n s of v e r t e b r a t e  Capable a s s i s t a n c e i n the f i e l d Lawrence F a b b r o and E r i c  Ontario  was p r o v i d e d  paleontology.  by R i c h a r d  Panchy, whose e n t h u s i a s m  Vincent,  and good  humour were much a p p r e c i a t e d . Many t h a n k s go t o t h e t e c h n i c a l t o E d Montgomery  tion  of t h i s  study.  details  T h a n k s a l s o t o Bryon C r a n s t o n  during the f o r prepara-  Sullivan  and G o r d  the d r a f t i n g .  Petro-Canada p r o v i d e d f o r w h i c h I am v e r y  r e s e a r c h was p r o v i d e d N.S.E.R.C.  especially  work and a s s i s t -  encountered  o f s a n d s t o n e and c o a l samples and M e l a n i e  Hodge f o r h e l p w i t h  work  a t U.B.C.,  f o r h i s e x c e l l e n t photographic  a n c e w i t h many o f t h e l o g i s t i c a l course  staff  logistic  grateful.  support  during  the f i e l d  A d d i t i o n a l support  by a p o s t g r a d u a t e  and an N.S.E.R.C. G r a n t ,  f o r the  s c h o l a r s h i p from  A7337,  t o D r . R.M.  Bustin.  1  INTRODUCTION  GENERAL  The latest of  Eureka  Sound and B e a u f o r t  Cretaceous  and T e r t i a r y  the e a s t e r n Canadian A r c t i c  the Eureka and  STATEMENT  Sound F o r m a t i o n  were d e p o s i t e d m a i n l y  depositional  (Miall,  1979b;  are widespread  calities coastal  plain.  Eureka  n o n m a r i n e and m a r i n e s t r a t a al.,  and c r o p s  (Miall,  t h i c k n e s s e s on t h e o r d e r  The  present  study  on  southern  Fiord, this  Ellesmere  investigates  Island lies  the p r i n c i p a l  environment  posits  on s t r a t i g r a p h i c ,  leocurrent tent .  and v i t r i n i t e  Eurekan  oro-  postdates the  the A r c t i c both  1982; M i a l l e t  1977, 1982), and  locally  two o c c u r r e n c e s Ellesmere  of T e r t i a r y  Island (Figure  of Eureka  i n the v i c i n i t y p a r t of t h i s  Sound  strata  of Stenkul t h e s i s . At  o b j e c t i v e s are t o i n t e r p r e t the  depositional based  basins  sediments comprise  1979a,1979b,  extensive occurrence  and i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f i r s t  locality,  Islands,  o f 3 300 m.  s e d i m e n t s w h i c h c r o p o u t on s o u t h e r n 1 ) . The most a r e a l l y  sediments of  out a t s e v e r a l l o -  I s l a n d s and a l o n g  1980; West e t a l . , 1981; B u s t i n ,  attain  Tertiary  Formation  Sound a n d B e a u f o r t  history  or intermontane  to Early  orogenesis  i n the Canadian A r c t i c  and t e c t o n i c  i n the A r c t i c  in pericratonic  1982). The B e a u f o r t  major phase of T e r t i a r y  document t h e  Archipelago. Clastic  formed d u r i n g t h e L a t e C r e t a c e o u s geny  Formations  and d e p o s i t i o n a l  history  of these de-  p e t r o g r a p h i c , heavy m i n e r a l , p a -  reflectance  a n a l y s e s and f o s s i l  con-  2  o  300 km —I  C A N A D A BASIN  STRUCTURES ETC.  ROCKS |MCg|  Mesozoic-Cenozoic  I AT|  Arctic  in g r a b e n s  normal  terrace  I S BI  Sverdrup  I IP |  Frankllnlan  Basin  I pCI  Precambrlan  trough-Arctic Shield  fault  reverse  fault  fold Platform  arch x -ff-  tectonic  diapir  lineament  FIGURE 1. Index map to the Queen Elizabeth Islands showing Late Phanerozoic tectonic and structural elements and locations of the study areas (modified from Balkwill and Bustin, 1980).  3  The ern  Ellesmere  Beaufort to  second o c c u r r e n c e  Island includes outcrops  sediments which  the C e n t r a l Ellesmere  tween  f o l d e d Eureka  strata sults  i s described  ional  history  viding  relative  north  strata  s t u d i e d on  of E u r e k a  of Makinson  I c e Cap. An a n g u l a r  Sound and Inlet,  adjacent  unconformity  and g e n t l y - d i p p i n g  palynologic, vitrinite  provide  information  and p r o v e n a n c e o f t h e s e  be-  Beaufort  evidence  r e f l e c t a n c e and  regarding  sediments,  f o r the chronology  of a t l e a s t  the d e p o s i t -  as w e l l as p r o -  o f t h e main com-  p h a s e o f t h e E u r e k a n O r o g e n y and a l a t e r  uplift  south-  ( s e e a l s o R i e d i g e r e t a l . , 1984). The r e -  analyses  additional  pressional  lies  Sound s t r a t a  of s t r a t i g r a p h i c ,  petrographic  of T e r t i a r y  phase of  part of eastern Ellesmere  Island.  STUDY AREAS  Location Outliers at  of the Eureka  several localities  Most  outcrops  description. Stenkul  Fiord  on s o u t h e r n  are poorly Tertiary  Sound and B e a u f o r t  which c r o p out a l o n g  of Makinson  Inlet,  e x p o s e d , a n d were t h u s  selected for this  occurrence  strata  of Beaufort  n o r t h of Makinson  Inlet  Island  on s o u t h e r n  and i s d e s c r i b e d  occur  (Figure 2).  exposed, p r e c l u d i n g d e t a i l e d  strata  and n o r t h  Ellesmere  Formations  systematic  the shores of  however, a r e w e l l  study.  The o n l y  Ellesmere in this  known  Island  report.  lies  FIGURE 2 .  O u t l i e r s of T e r t i a r y Eureka Sound sediments ( s t i p p l e d p a t t e r n ) on southern l o c a t i o n s of the study a r e a s .  Ellesmere i s l a n d  showing -p-  5  Access This  study  i s based  on f i e l d  work p e r f o r m e d  months o f 1983. The b a s e camp was s i t u a t e d t h e west c o a s t o f s o u t h e r n established Resolute  Ellesmere  n o r t h of M a k i n s o n  Inlet.  i n t h e summer  south  Island,  o f Okse Bay on  and a f l y camp was  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n from  Bay t o t h e b a s e camp was by de H a v i l l a n d  aircraft.  Access  t o the study  Twin O t t e r  a r e a was by A e r o s p a t i a l e A - S t a r  helicopter.  PHYSIOGRAPHY The  study areas  ( F i g u r e 2) l i e w i t h i n t h e " S o u t h e r n  Plateau" physiographic d i v i s i o n 1963, 150  square  s o u t h and e a s t o f Vendom F i o r d , valleys  cutting  e t a l . , 1963, p . 2 6 9 ) . A r e a s  "patterned  ground" occur  solifluction,  moderately North lie  area of approximately  through  and commonly have a b r a i d e d f l o o d p l a i n  Fortier,  et a l . ,  kilometres.  s u b d u e d . The s t r e a m  short,  of  (i_n F o r t i e r  pp. 266-271), and r e p r e s e n t s a t o t a l  In t h e a r e a is  of Roots  slumping  sloping  locally  the  topography  the plateau are ( R o o t s , in  of tundra  polygons or  in low-lying regions.  and r e c e n t mud  flows  Evidence  i s common on t h e  hillsides.  of Makinson  Inlet,  Eureka  Sound and B e a u f o r t  strata  between t h e C e n t r a l E l l e s m e r e I c e Cap on t h e e a s t and t h e  m o u n t a i n o u s a r e a s of t h e " C e n t r a l M o u n t a i n division) cliffs  on t h e west. The t o p o g r a p h y  rising  vertically  from  Belt"  i s very  sea l e v e l  (physiographic  rugged  to sharp,  with  jagged  steep peaks.  6  S t r e a m s f e d by producing valley  glacial  r u n o f f have d e e p l y  narrow, p r e c i p i t o u s s t r e a m  walls frequently occurs,  incised  valleys.  resulting  the  strata,  Slumping  of  the  in e x c e l l e n t outcrop  exposure. PREVIOUS WORK  The  Eureka  Sound G r o u p was  (1950, p.  78)  Ellesmere  I s l a n d , w h i c h he  was p.  who  considered  a formation  regarded  outcrops  by  Tozer  of  the  to Eureka  in Fortier  e t a l . , 1963,  9 3 ) . The  by  (i_n F o r t i e r  2.5  km  coal  of  on  Plauchut,  1973;  this  from L a t e  t o be {in  study)  and  Fortier  type p.  444)  siltstone,  Cretaceous  interbedded  age.  et a l . ,  typical  s e c t i o n was as  1963,  designated  approximately  Eocene  Bustin,  marine u n i t s  on  (Tozer,  known t h a t  to Late  predominantly  It  s h a l e , mudstone  I s l a n d . I t i s now  although  central  of C e n o z o i c  Sound, a s  Doerenkamp e t a l . , 1976;  i t does c o n t a i n  Miall,  sandstone,  western Axel Heiberg ranges  in,  p.  e t a l . , 1963,  intercalated  formation  1977;  Troelsen  E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n  Fosheim P e n i n s u l a , adjacent  Souther  d e f i n e d by  f o r n o n m a r i n e , c o a l - b e a r i n g s e d i m e n t s on  r e d e f i n e d as 92)  initially  and  the  (Jutard  1977;  and  Rouse,  nonmarine  in  orig-  (West e t a l . ,  1975;  1981).  The tectonic  Beaufort  g r a v e l s and  I s l a n d . Tozer "Beaufort  and  Banks I s l a n d by  to  out  Tozer on  (1964) l a t e r  s e d i m e n t s of  and  Fyles  has  expanded t h e use  the A r c t i c been  (1956) f o r p o s t -  Prince Patrick  i n c l u d e Upper T e r t i a r y  P l i o c e n e age  Hills  named by  sands c r o p p i n g  clastic  (?) e a r l y  was  Thorsteinsson  Formation"  coarse-grained Miocene-  Formation  or P l e i s t o c e n e coastal plain.  reported  (1973) and  of  Hills  A  i n s t u d i e s on and  others  7  (1974), and  a n d on A x e l H e i b e r g  Bustin  strata  (1982).  which occur  1984; " t h i s  the  on s o u t h e r n  Inlet  (Riediger et a l . ,  Ellesmere  Island at Stenkul  d e s c r i b e d by N a t h o r s t  Sound F o r m a t i o n (1981,  along  (1915) w h i l e  a member of  Okulitch Formation  (i_n F o r t i e r  the occurrence  i n the v i c i n i t y  and Vendom  of o u t l i e r s of  of Stenkul  and S o r  along  t h e Meadow Eureka  River  of the Eureka  east  of S o r F i o r d .  Although  the occurrence  of Eureka  to the east  Sound s t r a t a  I s l a n d has been known f o r some t i m e ,  have r e c e i v e d no p r e v i o u s  systematic  Miocene age, h e r e i n a s s i g n e d n o r t h of Makinson  Inlet  Sound  o f Vendom F i o r d . O k u l i t c h  Sound s e d i m e n t s  and s o u t h  Ellesmere  (Bustin,  e t a l . , 1963, pp. 338-339) and  (1982) r e p o r t e d an o u t c r o p  (1982) a l s o n o t e d  others  of Stenkul  of the  w h i c h a r e i n c l u d e d a s p a r t o f t h e Remus B a s i n  1977). N o r r i s  occur  the shores  1984) n o t e d  E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n  Fiords,  (1976)  f o r Beaufort  Fram e x p e d i t i o n . M c G i l l (1974) d e s c r i b e d o u t c r o p s  Fiords. Miall  Bay  M i o c e n e age i s r e p o r t e d  n o r t h of Makinson  strata  were f i r s t  Eureka  the  An E a r l y  and B u s t i n  study).  Tertiary Fiord  I s l a n d by H i l l s  study.  to the Beaufort  these  of T r o l l  on  southern  deposits  S t r a t a of E a r l y Formation,  that  were r e p o r t e d by R i e d i g e r and  (1984) and a r e f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d  in this  study.  8  PART I : STENKUL.FIORD AREA  ABSTRACT  The  Late Cretaceous t o Paleogene  the E a s t e r n Canadian that  Arctic  deposit  Early  Carboniferous to T e r t i a r y Island,  Formation  rest  records the u p l i f t  scattered  outliers  unconformably  Island,  t h e Eureka. Sound F o r m a t i o n  a sequence  nonmarine a l l u v i a l  their  major  water  t u t e a minor brackish of and  the s e c t i o n  assemblage  Devonian  nonmarine  metres  sandstones,  of the Eureka  strata  are interpreted and b r a c k i s h  to include water l a -  bar d e p o s i t s .  assemblages  a r e r e c o g n i z e d b a s e d on  and s e d i m e n t o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  lithofacies  assemblages  occur  of the s t r a t i g r a p h i c  lithofacies  assemblage  and c o m p r i s e s  g r e y mudstones, which  cream c o l o u r ,  against  i n age from m i d -  Outliers  and l a c u s t r i n e  lithofacies  portion  water  ranges  siltstones.  These  plain  stratigraphic  brackish  Sound  on s o u t h e r n E l l e s m e r e  of predominantly  e s t u a r i n e and b a r r i e r  Four  southern  o c c u r a l o n g t h e s h o r e s o f Vendom, S t e n k u l ,  Baumann a n d Sor F i o r d s .  goonal,  of the  h a s a maximum t h i c k n e s s o f 480  m u d s t o n e s , c o a l and minor Sound F o r m a t i o n  of the Eureka  of S t e n k u l F i o r d  t o L a t e Eocene,  comprises  B a s i n . On  on o r a r e f a u l t e d  In t h e v i c i n i t y  and  and s e g m e n t a t i o n  Sverdrup  strata.  Paleocene  Sound F o r m a t i o n i n  A r c h i p e l a g o i s a p r e - and s y n - t e c -  tonic  Ellesmere  Eureka  and c o n s t i -  s u c c e s s i o n . The  first  i s r e c o g n i z e d a t t h e base  a sequence  of predominantly  weather a c o n s p i c u o u s b u f f  with interbedded t h i n  i s interpreted  locally  Two  coal  as a b r a c k i s h  seams. T h i s  brown  to light lithofacies  l a g o o n a l or e s t u a r i n e  9  d e p o s i t . The less  than  s e c o n d b r a c k i s h water  10 m t h i c k  stratigraphic  and  s e c t i o n . White,  a r e t h e dominant  lithology,  t e r p r e t e d as d e p o s i t s  Two  nonmarine  constitute  ized  bonaceous without The  major  nonmarine  stratigraphic vial  and  of a b a r r i e r  of t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c  splits  The  coal  derived  succession:  lithofacies  indicate  that  assemblage  charactercar-  seams a r e l a t e r a l l y c o n t i n u o u s of g r e a t e r  of an a l l u v i a l  heavy m i n e r a l  t h e E u r e k a Sound  from P r e c a m b r i a n g r a n u l i t e  the Canadian S h i e l d  w h i c h has a  than a  assemblages a l t e r n a t e  deposits  1) a  and g r e y , commonly  s e q u e n c e and a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y  floodplain  and  a t h i c k n e s s of up t o 20  for distances  lithofacies  These are i n -  system.  assemblage  seams up t o 8 m e t r e s t h i c k  Sandstone p e t r o g r a p h i c , analyses  island  sandstones  assemblages are r e c o g n i z e d  base and a t t a i n s  mudstones.  i n t h e m i d d l e of t h e  w i t h minor mudstones.  2) a c o a l - m u d s t o r i e  by c o a l  assemblage i s  sorted quartzose  sandstone l i t h o f a c i e s  sharp, e r o s i o n a l m e t r e s ; and  locally  well  lithofacies  the bulk  fining-upward  occurs  lithofacies  to the east  and  kilometre.  throughout the  interpreted plain  and  as  flu-  environment.  paleocurrent  s e d i m e n t s were m a i n l y  g r a d e metamorphic  r o c k s of  s o u t h of t h e s t u d y a r e a .  10  INTRODUCTION  The posit of  Eureka  Sound F o r m a t i o n  i n the Canadian  Arctic  i n t e r b e d d e d mudstones,  The  Islands,  siltstones,  d e p o s i t s are predominantly  marine  u n i t s occur. Eureka  deposits  of p e r i c r a t o n i c  the L a t e Cretaceous Miall, This  1979b;  1981),  new  s e d i m e n t a r y de-  and c o m p r i s e s sandstones  a  sequence  and c o a l  seams.  nonmarine, a l t h o u g h l o c a l l y  Sound s t r a t a  have been  or intermontane  to Tertiary  study of Eureka  provides  i s a widespread  Eurekan  and l o c a l l y Sound s t r a t a  attain  i n t e r p r e t e d as  b a s i n s formed Orogeny  some  during  (Bustin,  1977;  t h i c k n e s s e s o f 3.3  on s o u t h e r n E l l e s m e r e  km.  Island  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f T e r t i a r y  sedimentation  and t e c t o n i s m i n t h e e a s t e r n C a n a d i a n  Arctic  Archipelago. The  purpose  stratigraphy, southern of  structure  paper  i s t o document  and age o f t h e E u r e k a  Ellesmere Island  and t o o u t l i n e  the d i s t r i b u t i o n , Sound F o r m a t i o n on  the Paleogene  history  the area. The  Eureka  nonmarine Cretaceous Eureka et  of t h i s  Sound G r o u p was t h e i n i t i a l  sandstones,  siltstones,  to Tertiary  a l . , 1963, p. 9 2 ) , who  al.,  on F o s h e i m  mudstones and c o a l  age g i v e n by T r o e l s e n (1950,  Sound was r e d e f i n e d  Formation  name f o r i n t e r b e d d e d  Fortier  r e g a r d e d o u t c r o p s of t h e E u r e k a  P e n i n s u l a as t y p i c a l  and p o s s i b l y  by T h o r s t e i n s s o n and T o z e r  p. 7 8 ) . The  a s a f o r m a t i o n by T o z e r  Sound  ( T o z e r in F o r t i e r e t  1963, p. 9 3 ) . I t was c o n s i d e r e d t o be L a t e  (Maastrichtian  of Late  Cretaceous  Campanian) t o M i d d l e Eocene (1970) and B u s t i n  (1977),  i n age  whereas  11  others  ( J u t a r d and  Rouse,  1977)  ly  considered  1973;  Doerenkamp e t a l . ,  t h e E u r e k a Sound F o r m a t i o n  1976;  t o be  entire-  Tertiary. Tertiary  no  Plauchut,  previous  strata  systematic  cribe  Tertiary  Miall  (1981,  Eureka  Sound  detailed  on  southern study.  Ellesmere  Nathorst  d e p o s i t s around Stenkul  1984)  and  strata  description  on of  I s l a n d have r e c e i v e d  (1915) was Fiord.  O k u l i t c h (1982) m e n t i o n southern the  Ellesmere  deposits.  first  McGill the  to  des-  (1974),  occurrence  I s l a n d but  provide  of no  12  REGIONAL SETTING  The  r e g i o n a l geology  of the Canadian A r c t i c  been d e s c r i b e d by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s 1970;  Trettin  Balkwill, The on  Eureka  southern  strata 1980;  only  be b r i e f l y  Sound F o r m a t i o n  Ellesmere  1973; T r e t t i n and  Island rests  Embry a n d K l o v a n ,  posited  of Stenkul  carbo'nate  of the Canadian  Ellesmerian  (Balkwill  and B u s t i n ,  c o n t a i n s Upper P r o t e r o z o i c t o  and c l a s t i c  Shield  orogeny t e r m i n a t e d  i n Middle  Devonian  Fiord  u n c o n f o r m a b l y on D e v o n i a n  sediments,  w h i c h were de-  on g r a n i t e and g r a n u l i t e g r a d e g n e i s s e s  Province  here.  1976; F i g u r e 3 ) .  Franklinian geosyncline  Upper D e v o n i a n  reviewed  i n the v i c i n i t y  of the F r a n k l i n i a n g e o s y n c l i n e  The  tion  ( T h o r s t e i n s s o n and T o z e r ,  e t a l . , 1972; Drummond,  1979) and w i l l  I s l a n d s has  of the C h u r c h i l l  ( F r i s c h e t a l . , 1978). The Franklinian geosyncline  to Early  Carboniferous  time  deposi-  (Balkwill,  1978). The on  Sverdrup  Basin  was s u p e r p o s e d  f o l d e d , f a u l t e d and eroded  1978;  Trettin  and B a l k w i l l ,  bonate, c l a s t i c  quence  depocenter  on w e s t e r n A x e l  whereas u n c o n f o r m i t i e s basin  (Balkwill,  Sverdrup  Basin  (Balkwill,  w i t h minor  and i s e s s e n t i a l l y Heiberg  are present  igneous  intru-  1978). The s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e concordant  at the  and Amund R i n g n e s I s l a n d s , along  1978). S e d i m e n t a t i o n  without  unconformity  1979), a n d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c a r -  (Balkwill,  i s up t o 13 km t h i c k  angular  Franklinian strata  and e v a p o r i t e s t r a t a  s i o n s and b a s a l t f l o w s  with  the margins of the  occurred  any m a j o r , b a s i n - w i d e  within the  tectonic interrup-  FIGURE 3. Geologic map showing the locations of the Vendom, Stenkul, Baumann and Sor Fiord outliers of the Eureka Sound Formation in the study area (geology modified from Kerr and T h o r s t e i n s s o n , 1971 and McGill, 1974).  14  tion  from  Early  Carboniferous  Subsidence  and  to  deposition  during Maastrichtian  to  Eurekan  Eurekan the  orogeny  Arctic  Trettin geny  u p l i f t  and  the  with  within  Eureka  Eocene  local  overturned  generally  face  to  basement,  although  have  phase  Trettin  faults  the  southeast the  on  the  and  d u r i n g phase  two  (Balkwill,  Basin  1978).  Sverdrup each  Sequences  km t h i c k  Eurekan  of  of  accumuassigned  of  orogeny  faults  the  in  Queen  Balkwill,  towards  to  a  Late  1979;  salient  Island of  Precambrian  Fiord,  and  detached  1982).  Eocene  The  the to  Eocene  this  Stenkul are  resulted  Elizabeth  Ellesmere  considered  (Late  Sverdrup  collectively  southern  (Okulitch, been  oro-  with  sub-basins,  3.3  reverse  north-northwest  has  1978;  Eurekan  the  in  1981).  part  v i c i n i t y  strata  Island  and  eastern  and  trend  of  the  facies.  to  been  the  1981),  seven  and  up  (Miall,  folds  1978;  Devonian  Heiberg  the  in  least  terrains  which  orogenic  folds  at  (Miall,  sediments  Formation  The  compression  source  basins  study).  Axel  into  clastic  in  time  of  The  tectonism  (Maastrichtian)  Early  (Balkwill,  of  Cretaceous  of  1970).  Balkwill, of  Arches  strata  underlying  phase  Margaret  segmented  strata  first  1975;  Princess  Islands  Tertiary  a l . ,  was  Cretaceous  Tozer,  phases  and  second,  older  et  The  and  three  Basin  latest  rim  the  to  into  Late  of  the  northern  Sound  upright  the  by  time.  Sverdrup  the  nonmarine  The  and  been  different  lated  in  to  time  (Balkwill 1979).  in  the  (Thorsteinsson  divided  erosion  Cornwall  had  mainly  the  and  Paleocene  Basin  be  Balkwill,  initiated  the  By  can  Archipelago  and  was  orogeny  Cretaceous  within  interrupted Tertiary  Late  folds from  western  western  Early  in the  coast  limit  Miocene)  of of  15  the  Eurekan orogeny The  in  the  at  liers  al.,  rim  least  of  final  Axel  phase of  of  this  Island  local, Heiberg  (Bustin,  uplift  the  orogeny and  Princess  are  1982)  south-central  and  uplift  Ellesmere  erosion  of  Margaret  are of  of  Island to  two  Arch out-  the  Early  on  Miocene  (Riediger  et  Beaufort  compression  i n d i c a t i v e of a t both c e n t r a l  Islands.  the  ( ? ) P l i o c e n e age  and  Ellesmere  post-phase  Islands,  commenced  Island. Erosional  s t u d y ) have been a s s i g n e d  late Tertiary relative and  Eurekan  Ellesmere  south-central  Canadian A r c t i c  1980).  s e d i m e n t s of M i o c e n e -  F o r m a t i o n . These d e p o s i t s eastern  the  rejuvenated  eastern  clastic  on  Bustin,  Sverdrup Basin,  Heiberg  which occur 1984;  the  part  of c o a r s e  central age  and  E a r l y Miocene with  northern and  third  ( B a l k w i l l and  Axel  in  the  least  16  METHODS  Field  work  Twenty-four study  area.  shores  majority  of Stenkul  other  areas,  quently lier  The  stratigraphic  Eureka  only  two  a n d one  Fiord  Fiord  Jacob's  correlations most  strata  were  measured  measured  occurred.  exposed  and  i n t h e Vendom  i n each  the  In  conse-  Fiord  o f t h e Baumann  out-  and Sor  3).  equipped  made  i n the  measured along  exposures  are poorly  s e c t i o n s were  staff  identifiable  laterally,  the best  s e c t i o n s were  Stratigraphic metre  Sound  (Figure  measured  o f t h e s e c t i o n s were where  s e c t i o n was  outliers  s e c t i o n s were  measured  with  an  i n the f i e l d .  stratigraphic  permitting accurate  in detail  inclinometer. Coal  markers,  seams  a  1.5  Stratigraphic  provided  and were  correlation  using  easily  between  the traced  stratigraphic  sections.  The bedding the  extent  a t t i t u d e s and  structural  Several structures. ripple rent  and  flow  The sampled  of the Eureka fault  relationships  sandstone At  these  trough  Sound  traces  outcrops,  crossbeds  were  within  outcrops  Formation  was  mapped,  measured t o d e l i n e a t e  t h e map  contained  area.  excellent  sedimentary  the a t t i t u d e s of p l a n a r  were  and  measured to determine  tabula'r, paleocur-  directions.  various  lithologic  f o r subsequent  units  i n the Stenkul  laboratory analysis.  The  Fiord sand  area  units  were were,  17  for  the  most  shovel. in  the  tant  The  mud  vitrinite  in  the  Plant  study  from  one  size, sample  Modal  p.  lenses, A  fossil  sampled  coal  are  resisfor  the  perma-  commonly  several  tooth  small  most  above  and  binocular  microscope.  the  reference  diagrams  Beard  analyses  4 were  sandstones  majority  for  thin  were  cemented  were  The  of  thin the  same  was  hot  plate  lower  to  onto  the  slide.  The  harden. thin  Weyl  completed  and  25  were  sectioned  first the  heated slide The  section  spread  for  was  as on  29  sand  samples  also  col-  for  each  allowed  prepared  sandstone  slide  cement  then  Powers  removed  of  The  from  0.3  mm.  For  cemented  prepared  70®, The  and  the  Of  techniques.  cement  Lakeside on  sand onto  hot  then  a  placed  settle  " s e c t i o n s " were  thickness  samples.  unconsolidated to  of  (1953).  were  Balsam.  glass  parameters  photographs  in Lakeside  The  was  and  samples  viscosity. and  These  conventional  Canada a  determined  unconsolidated.  mounting  index  were  (1973) and  using  unconsolidated  refractive  compound  roundness  and  s e c t i o n a n a l y s i s by  70®  standard  and  of  fossils  a  23),  and  trace  using  (1980,  cool  beds  and  and  Folk  glass  molluscs  just  a  were  the  samples  from  using  and  commonly  sorting  using  poured  indurated  Unoxidized  collected  sampled  locality.  estimated  the  poorly  identification.  were  with  were  Work  Grain sandstone  for  and  seams were  area.  in concretionary  Analytical  these,  also  coal  fragments,  collected  lected  were  r e f l e c t a n c e were  preserved were  beds  same m a n n e r . T h e  units  frost.  part-, u n c o n s o l i d a t e d  s i x of  was the  plate  ground the  a  to to  the  sand  18  samples  studied,  satisfactory native the  using  grains  plastic  In  order  quartz,  dures  stain  in Transoptic  pellet  Powder®  heat  was t h e n  press.  a l l thin  sections  (a t r a n s p a r e n t  plastic)  The s o l i d  and t r a n s -  than  to  o f 300 p o i n t s  at a grid  crystalline  with  spacing  were  the exception rhodizonate  that  was u s e d t o  s e c t i o n s were  counted  o f 0.3 mm.  and m i s c e l l a n e o u s  muscovite,  Separation  zircon  f o r each  Counts  quartz,  bromoform  o f t h e heavy  by p e t r o g r a p h i c  mineral  and other  of t h e heavy  using  Identification achieved  following the proce-  covered  mineral which  using  one o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s  dated  sand  grains  heavy  fractions  which  potassium  included  of t h e sands  was  o f 2.89 g / c c .  thus  obtained  s e c t i o n s were  o u t l i n e d above  o f mono-  minerals.  fraction  Thin  made  section  and metamorphic  has a d e n s i t y  mineral  analysis.  were  thin  plagioclase,  f e l d s p a r , p l u t o n i c , sedimentary  fragments  accomplished  section,  cement.  stained  potassium  and p o l y c r y s t a l l i n e  perthitic  biotite,  thin  staining.  minimum  sand,  sand  and p l a g i o c l a s e f e l d s p a r  were  (1960)  alter-  mounting  c u t as a standard  alkali  The  involved  p r o v i d i n g an a r t i f i c i a l  to distinguish  d i d not provide  analysis.  s i x samples  the p l a g i o c l a s e feldspar. A l l thin  A  rock  f o r these  r e d dye r a t h e r  subsequent  and  o u t l i n e d above  f o r petrographic  of B a i l e y and Stevens  amaranth  of  used  the p l a s t i c  from  sections  a Buhler® pneumatic  parent with  thin  technique  sand  the procedure  was  prepared  f o r the unconsoli-  samples.  Mudstone  samples  were  processed  f o r palynomorphs  using  a  19  standard ZnBr on  2  technique  that  and s i e v i n g .  cover  slips  i n c l u d e s HC1, HF, H N 0 ,  Aliquots  with  acetolysis,  3  of palynomorph  Cellosize®  sediment  and sealed with  were  mounted  Flo-Texx®  (Lerner  Laboratories).  Thirteen 60  mesh  coal  ( 0 . 2 5 mm)  samples US  Standard  fraction  of the crushed  and  into  made  coupler. 2®  maximum  pellets  The p r e p a r e d  reflected  light  outlined  crushed  sieve  in a hydraulic pellets  o f each  were  and d r y s i e v e d using  size.  c o a l s was m i x e d  microscope  reflectivity  procedures  were  The minus  with  press  then  sample  by B u s t i n a n d o t h e r s  Powder  with  polished. A Leitz  was e m p l o y e d coal  60 m e s h  Transoptic  equipped  t o measure  i n accordance (1983).  a  a  heat M.P.V.  t h e mean with the  20  STRATIGRAPHY  Scattered along  the shores  southern study was  outliers  from  tinuous  outcrop  covered  intervals.  to  observe  Because each  Sound  This  area  thick  outlier,  mated  t o be o n t h e o r d e r  Sound  Baumann  provides  many  Sound  environments. interpretations  opportunity changes.  Vendom  i n the study  outlier  i n the  outcrop,  outlier which  area  A  (secThe  Stenkul i s esti-  into  deposited Baumann  coal,  four  Sound dis-  in different  and Sor  of d e p o s i t i o n a l environments stratigraphy.  and  a  The Eureka  i s divided  were  comprises  sediments  locally.  I n t h e Vendom,  on t h e o v e r a l l  Fiord.  intervals.  strata  occur  assemblages,  and  be m e a s u r e d i n  Fiord  covered  deposits Fiord  valleys  metres.  Formation  i n the Stenkul  con-  s e c t i o n of the Eureka  more c o n t i n u o u s  o f 450  good,  and  bordering  i n t h e Baumann  of Eureka  Island  a n d S o r F i o r d s , a n d two  b r a c k i s h water  based  where  the best  of c l a s t i c  lithofacies  outliers,  provides  for this  Ellesmere  few c r e e k  sequence  sedimentary  gested  thickness which  a  nonmarine  Formation tinct  southern  outlier,  stratigraphic  15) b u t c o n t a i n s  Fiord  although  on  i n the o u t l i e r  composite  predominantly  of the information  one s e c t i o n c o u l d  along  crop out  a n d S o r F i o r d s on  only  lying  total  Eureka  Baumann  characteristics  was m e a s u r e d  22, F i g u r e  The  thus  Formation  facies  outcrop,  480 m  Formation  Fiord  Sound  i s i n t e r r u p t e d by o n l y  were measured  continuous,  Formation  the Stenkul  of the o u t l i e r s  sections  tion  Sound  and d e s c r i b e  of poor  Stenkul,  I s l a n d . The bulk  of the Eureka  obtained  STRUCTURE  of the Eureka  o f Vendom,  Ellesmere  AND  Fiord  a r e sug-  21  Eureka most  part  Sound  l i e with  Fiord  Formation  fault  contact  Formations Figure  angular  or  Okse  with  and  on  the  the  southern  unconformity  Bay  Group,  Devonian  Okse  the  Bay  s t r a t i g r a p h y and  Eureka  outlined ional  Group  Sound  below,  area  Sound  Eureka of  Sound  about  Both rocks  20  with  normal occur  lies  Bay  (Figure  Group  Eureka gently  Sound  dipping  and  minor  folds  and  thrust  study  square  square  and  and  (McGill,  Bird  1974;  of  the  Bird  l i e in Fiord  this  the  southern  an  interpretation  study,  four  Ellesmere of  outliers  Island the  are  deposit-  area.  lies  thrust  at  in  Stenkul  angular  Fiord  (Figure  fault  faults  1974).  between  with  the the  out  The  over  Eureka  Devonian  Eureka  Elsewhere, on  crops  3).  contact  unconformity  Sound  Eureka  and  Sound  Devonian  Okse  3).  strata and  the  thrust  Stenkul  Fiord  occur  (Figure  3).  locally  in  structures affect  succession,  are  mainly  flat-lying  s t r u c t u r e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  faults  faults These  at  k i l o m e t r e s ) , appear  stratigraphic  FIORD  kilometres  (McGill,  with  folds  5  cases  on  Formation  commonly  Formation  the  Fiord  for  Devonian  some  s t r u c t u r e i n each  Formation  together  Formation  rocks.  or  in  the  Island  environments.  The  older  on  but  Blue  STENKUL  an  Ellesmere  3).  The of  outliers  and  only are  i n the  However, the  a  southwest  small upper  detached  very  from  area part the  open tight corner  (less of  of  than  the  underlying  22 FIGURE  4.  Stratigraphy  A.  Glacially  B.  Outcrops nating  the  sequence  Lithofacies  C.  Basal  strata  signed  D.  Local  to  Stenkul  strata  south  south of  shore  the  Fiord.  of  II  east  Sound  (LF  shore  of  Stenkul  in  the  Fiord.  Fiord,  Assemblage  I  showing (LF  I)  alter-  and  II).  of  Assemblage  Lithofacies  Formation  outlier  of. S t e n k u l  Lithofacies  Lithofacies  occurrence  Eureka  Fiord  Assemblage  on  the  Stenkul  deformed  on  of  Stenkul  Fiord,  here  as-  III.  Assemblage  IV,  southwest  of  24  strata  ( F i g u r e 4A).  tures,  but  offered  pressional these of  bedding  Stenkul of  Fiord  Sound  the  Formation, i s to shore  the  than caps  Two the  10 the  by  units,  dominantly  locally  of  Lithofacies  Sound  Fiord  area,  i s not  to  Fiord  interbedded  represent  which  the  at  and  dark  II  the  Devonian  The  is a  lying the  sequence  thin boulder  Fiord  area.  are  recognized the  fining-upward  which  along  A  Assemblage  to  black  char-  sandpre-  mudstone.  recognized  the  occurs of  strat-  I,  consists  are  of  (?)  throughout  which  dip  uppermost  Fiord.  transgressions into  succession,  overall  Stenkul  grey  and  on  assemblages  ( F i g u r e 4C),  Stenkul  Eureka  beds  Lithofacies  Assemblage  at  oldest  the  assemblages  coarse-grained  The  Quaternary  i n the  alternate  correlated  but  Stenkul of  i s that  in pocket,  constitute  veneer  lithofacies  III  and  lithofacies  coal  out  elsewhere.  Formation  marine  Assemblage  crop  com-  area.  and  ( F i g u r e 5,  thus  be  deformation  the  in pocket).  exposed,  succession  Lithofacies  over  unconformably  ( F i g u r e 4B);  fine-  stratigraphic  07  must  and  measured  which  section  discontinuous  b r a c k i s h water and  7,  struc-  interpretation  advanced  and  i s observed  nonmarine  and  6,  these  they  ice thrusting,  west-southwest,  Eureka  very  of  resting  Stenkul  succession  acterized  the  m),  plausible  Formation  stratigraphic  Stenkul  Two  the  that  s e c t i o n s were  of  observed  except  glaciers  contact  as  of  thick,  igraphic  of  base  the  probably  of  stone  at  are  south  in  Sound  beds  the  t i l l  Eureka  basal  strata  as  ( F i g u r e s 5,  The  the  (less  result  8).  Bay  part  a  most  stratigraphic  occur  Figure  Okse  The  occurred  Fiord  (1982) a l s o  explanation  s t r u c t u r e s are  the  beds  no  in origin.  Twenty at  Okulitch  study at  the  area. base  predominantly  25  FIGURE  8.  Aerial showing  the  Eureka  photograph locations  (eg.r—4-21).  Q  Dob  of  aerial  Canada,  Photo  - Eureka - Okse  strata  Bay  reproduced  i n the  (A-16685-47), of  modified  gravels  after  and  Stenkul Fiord  south  the measured  Sound  photograph  Library  Canada.  Geology  - Quaternary  Te  This  Sound  of  Stenkul  stratigraphic McGill  outlier  Fiord  sections  (1974).  alluvium  Formation  Group  © from  19-7-59 the  Her  Majesty  collection  w i t h p e r m i s s i o n of  Energy,  of  the the  Mines  Queen  in Right  National  and  Air  Resources  26  27  brown  and  grey  light  cream  Assemblage and  c o l o u r , and IV  consists  arenites  mudstones,  crops of  which  weather  interbedded  out  thin,  which  i n the  thin  middle  predominantly  intertongue  with  a  conspicuous coal  of  minor,  seams.  the  white,  buff  Lithofacies  section  (Figure  well-sorted  partly  to  4D)  quartz  calcareous  mud-  stones.  A by  a  cyst  marine  thin  incursion  mudstone  assemblage  LITHOFACIES  I and  Formation of  the  up  grain  sandstones from  very  dominantly  grey  to  sandstones  range  ranged ally  i n en  I  from  of  percent  represented  dinoflagellate 1984).  lithofacies of  the  other  which  assem-  Eureka  arkosic composition  Sound  and  geometry  distinguish  lithofacies  multi-storied  moderately  brown  to  granule  (Table  and  weather  light  from  1 to  multi-storied 0.5  well  to  in thickness  f o r d i s t a n c e s of  marine  is  assemblages.  sequences  and  con-  to  1 km  25  sorted  and  I ) . They grey m,  sequences  ( F i g u r e s 5,  to  vary are  buff.  preThe  are  commonly  and  extend  6  and  7,  in  ar-  later-  in  pocket).  The  sandstones  The  cross-bedding.  fine  echelon,  40  The  echelon  are  size  and  communication,  characteristics  en of  a  lithology  than  Fiord.  are  as  personal  primary  Assemblage occur  contains  locally  I  more  Stenkul  several types  The  which  Rouse,  i s the  sandstones  Lithofacies  tain  (G.  makes  at  sandstones  bed  ASSEMBLAGE  Sandstone blage  i s recognized  are  subarkoses,  lithic  subarkoses,  lithic  28  arkoses tion  and  arkoses  (Figure  lidated,  lenses  types  grains,  igneous  rock  The and  perthitic  and  (1963)  part,  (less  undulose  muscovite  sandstone  sandstones 10  cm)  are  unconso-  siderite  cemented  includes  extinction,  composite  and  chert),  sedimentary, and  nodules  classifica-  composition  grains  feldspars,  ironstone  the  than  mineral  metamorphic  fragments,  debris  most  thin  occur.  (straight  and  McBride's  the  rare,  stretched  potassium  plant  For  although  sandstone quartz  18).  using  lenses  plagioclase, metamorphic  biotite.  and  several  and  Carbonaceous occur  within  the  sandstones.  The  basal  (Figure  9A).  pebbles  and  coal  spar  tures  Lag  (Figure  (Figure  9C).  to  of  the  deposits  cobbles  centimetres high  contact  40  of  9B)  very  generally coarse  thick.  i s commonly  coarse-grained  quartzite,  These cm  of  sandstones  gneiss  and  cross-bedding  and  ripple  cross-lamination  sets  range  vary  from  ripple  A within lag  5  to  5  to  30  cm  15  cm  in  thickness  thick  are  typical  sequence  the  in  sandstone  scour  sandstones  vertical  and  with  the  units  f i l l  planar  lower  part  from  (Figure  the  a  are  1 to  of  9E).  and  thick  Figure  associated up  outcrop.  and  Trough  sedimentary  sets  to  to  70  Fine-  rare  1.5  few m  trough  characteristic  9F),  5 cm  on  up  tangential  (Figure  and  cross-bed  from  range  tangential  planar  i s shown  deposits  of  planar  and  cross-lamination  and  occur  from  tabular  struc-  and  laminations  tabular,  Planar  f i l l  deposits  planar  sandstones.  cut  basal  9D),  containing and  in.the  (Figure  the  sand  granite  occur  Convolute  erosional  of  cross-bed cross-beds  sets  of  (Figure  10A).  structures  10B.  Coarse  basal  medium-grained cm to  thick very  and  fine-  29 FIGURE  9.  Sedimentary  structures, Lithofacies  Stenkul  A.  Basal  erosional contact  coal  B.  seam.  Basal  The  The  scale  lag deposits  scale  of a  C.  Cut and  D.  Convolute  E.  Planar  tabular  F.  Trough  cross-bedding.  bed w i t h  an  underlying  long.  pebbles,  cobbles  and c o a l  long.  s t r u c t u r e s . The  laminations.  The  The  scale  staff  cross-bedding.  I,  outlier  sandstone  i s 15 cm  containing  i s 15 cm  f i l l  Fiord  Assemblage  i s 1.5  The  scale  i s 15 cm  scale  i s 15 cm  m  long.  high.  i s 15 cm  long.  long.  spar.  31  grained by  a  ripple  thin,  laminated  planar parallel  Siltstone the  brown tain  are  colour.  The  abundant to  5 m  the  sandstone  adjacent lities  colour  comminuted  the  no  carbonaceous. usually  stone  and  are  have  are  beds  gradational  or  been  usually  erosional  are  to  at  con-  less  the  at  an  2 m the  than  top  a  of and  few  loca-  overlying  to black  variably  contact with  and  siltstones  by  grey  silt-  light  from  except  1 to  contacts with  buff  the  with  laminated  occur  eroded  average  bed.  range  between  capped  interbedded  a  They  commonly  l a m i n a t i o n and  mudstone a  have  are  argillaceous  gradational,  mudstones  visible The  most  mainly  weather  debris.  part  parallel  commonly  Contacts  siltstones The  sharp  sandstone  and  locally  planar and  upper  siltstone  are  are  plant  lithofacies.  unit.  with  grey  siltstones  sediments  sandstone  to  in thickness,  where  beds  thin-bedded,  brown  i n the  laminated  mudstone  The  medium  1 m  and  and  sandstones.  stones  sandstones  in  silty  and  in thickness underlying  overlying  coal  siltor  respectively.  Interpretation  Lithofacies  Assemblage  tary  facies  is a  nels  i n an  exhibit quence  alluvial  sedimentary which  scribed ticular, example  that  by  the of  result  plain  and  outcrop  features  of  to  Cant  the  which  and  an  The  sequence  channel  overall  indicate  sedimen-  sandstones  succession  in Figure  deposition  chan-  fining-upward  f o r meandering  depicted  of  i n meandering  stratigraphic  (1980)  section  a  deposition  environment.  structures  is similar  Walker  I comprises  rivers. 10B  is a  se-  deIn  par-  good  i n a meander  loop  32 FIGURE  10.  Sedimentary  structures,  graphy,  A.  Ripple  B.  Typical the  C.  cross-laminations.  vertical  sandstones  Interbedded  Assemblage  II  occurring  E.  P e t r i f i e d  tree  F.  Root  in  cm  long.  in  of  and  fossils  is  15  sedimentary  coal  and  s t r a t i -  o u t l i e r .  scale  Lithofacies  (LF  Amber  mark  of  Fiord  The  sequence  mudstones  D.  15  Stenkul  plant  cm  structures  Assemblage  seams  of  long.  within  I.  Lithofacies  II).  an  stump  resistant  ironstone  in  growth  concretion.  position.  calcareous  Staff  sandstone  is  bed.  1.5 m l o n g .  The  scale  is  33  34  that  was  Coarse  abandoned  channel  cross-bedded active and  channel  convolute  channel. Walker stone with  These Cant  formed  is a  result  areas  in adjacent  Cavaroc  sandstone  The  with  deposits  of  the  meander  These  scribed  of  by  on  point  l o o p or  as  Home  and  Cant  of  Cant  those  of  and  similar  laminated  the  meandering  (1982).  and  is  The  by  sand-  consistent  and  due  of  Flores' of  others  of  are  to  West  from  top  of  channel  sandstone  (1978)  low-lying and  Ferm  arrangement  of  Virginia.  beds  or  several  (1981)  into  which  interpreted  chute on  the  channels  mudstone  fines  (1980).  I display  geometric  rocks  sandstones  overbank  the  deposits described  Assemblage to  deposits resulting  Walker  and  shifting  channels  bar  arrangement  Allegheny  channel  in  interpretation.  echelon  siltstone  1980).  parallel  bar  arkosic,  similar  a  planar  point  Lithofacies  describe  deposited  point  (1981)  Cant,  ripple cross-laminated  and  the  bar  backswamps.  i n the  the  Flores  lateral  abandoned  resemble  higher  and  to coarse-grained planar  were  finer-grained  en  organic-rich  sociated  sandstones  are  The  (1968)  units  of  which  units  and  medium-  i s predominantly  sandstones  sandstone.  (Walker  sandstones  (1980),  channel  characteristics I  cut-off  d e p o s i t s resemble  fluvial  The  Type  whereas  composition a  f i l l  laminated  were  and  chute  l a g d e p o s i t s and  channels,  siltstones  by  neck the  as  are  as-  either  cut-off point  abandonment  of  bar. de-  35  LITHOFACIES  ASSEMBLAGE  Lithofacies dark  grey  guishing prises cent of  features  of  to  the  30  the  and of  II  thick  this  percent  Tertiary  sandstone,  with  Assemblage  mudstone  up  II  coal  and  coal  succession  and  composed  seams,  which  of  are  l i t h o f a c i e s assemblage.  s i l t s t o n e and  mudstone  i s mostly  coal  accounts at  Stenkul  ironstone and  for  are  are  as  included  in  the  distin-  Mudstone much a s  Fiord. found  interbedded  Minor  in  com-  25  per-  amounts  association  this lithofacies  assemblage.  The rarely dark  mudstones  exceeding  brown  or  10  m  black,  monly  carbonaceous  ganic  debris.  marine  occur  The  in  and  unit  units  they  mudstones cyst the  The  weather  contain  towards  locally  thickness.  and  dinoflagellate  mudstone  in  coal  are  mudstones  light  massive  of  thick  grey.  stringers  assemblage top  as  and  was  and  as  20  are  m  dark  They  18  from  few  grey,  are  com-  abundant  some a r e  (sample  or-  silty.  i d e n t i f i e d in a  section  but  A  thin  18-134,  Appendix).  Coal (Figure  10C).  of  greater  is  of  coal  seams  Coal  than  lignite to  rare  sisting  of  laceous  and  vary  the  in  coal  seams,  be  a  traced  5,  varies  laterally  6 and  from  centimetres  7,  mainly  in  fragments.  occurs  carbonaceous occurs  as  as  thin  The  blocky,  small  coal  (1  to  within  cm),  which  15  m  distances The  woody,  plant  Amber, 10  to  coal tough  debris  is generally  interbeds  mudstones.  over  pocket).  essentially uncoalified  stem  commonly  with  the  of  and  can  (Figures  and  layers  tional  thickness  seams  1 km  rank  leaf  in  and is  conargil-  gradacommon  spheroidal  to  36  irregularly trations  along 10D).  (Figure colour  from  Ironstone  whereas  bedding The  Minor the  usually  amounts  coal less  and  commonly  also  associated  mostly  fine-  occur.  with  the  flakes  asymmetrical  the  sandstone  a  mudstones.  to  the The  lithologies. i n many  ripple  5 m  in  growth  seams, occur  with  The  to  They  are  usually  fine  parallel are  coarse-grained  debris,  Parallel are  are  erosional  Carbonaceous  sandstones.  but  sandstones  have  are  thickness.  siltstones  often  beds  seams,  medium-  cross-lamination  in  interbedded  sandstone  coal  cross-laminations.  sandstones  coal  occur  carbonaceous,  but  stumps  contacts  mica  lamination  r a r e l y observed  in  units.  Ironstone  contain  up  within  fine-grained  occur  and  and  range  in  seams.  S i l t s t o n e and  splits  coarser  silt  at  sandstone  ripple  The  lithologies  and  but  varies  sandstone  siltstone  the  to  and  concen-  yellow-orange.  the  coal  as  underlying  and  siltstone  a r g i l l a c e o u s and  and  within  in  and  tree  the  metre  with  laminations  beds  a  occur  locally  very  of  and  within  mudstone.  than  most  brown,  partings  logs  and  concretions  crumbly,  translucent  occur  mudstone,  ironstone  and  to  petrified  throughout  in  is brittle  commonly  carbonaceous as  and  lemon-yellow  10E)  (Figure  scattered  planes,  amber  clear  locally  with  globules  concretions,  position  only  shaped  (mainly  siderite)  Stenkul  Fiord.  variety  stems  and  branches  plant  rootlets,  of  trace  of  The  organic  plants fossils  and and  i s present  as  ironstones  are  constituents trees,  yellow  freshwater  nodules  in a l l  reddish  including to  orange  molluscs.  brown leaves, amber,  37  Interpretation  The sent and  sedimentary  vertical on  accretion  channel  The  sulting  levees  backswamp  vegetation  facies  its  et  (Home  of  tree  and  seams  splits. broad  Thick,  of  thick  coals  in  thick  formation  and  basin  of  the  axis.  thick the  Vendom  Closer levees  location  coal  Ellesmerian  and  was  favoured  Syncline, a  the  flooding  a  of  the  depos-  large  petri-  are  evidence  formed  were  further  favoured which  low  and  in  sandstone  others  moist,  area,  extent,  rarely  discharge  topographic  (McGil,  active  study  was  They by  of  and  were  Basin  groundwater  in the  i n backswamp  lateral  and  conditions likely  seams  orogeny  to  of  streams.  and  plain.  coals  River  amber  position  siltstone  Ethridge  freshwater  humification re-  occurrence  formation  Powder  trunk  Similar  common  alluvial  repre-  floodbasins  fragments,  i n growth  extensive peat  the  major  are  common  the  detritus.  to  mate  occur  mudstone,  where  peripheral coal  of  laterally  clastic  later  i n t h i c k n e s s and  number  backswamps,  influx that  and  vary  underwent Leaf  II  environment.  abundant  stumps  on  plain  or  supported  coal.  The  tree  arboreal vegetation  thickness  the  that  a l . , 1978).  trunks  Coal  of  Assemblage  i n backswamps  alluvial  which  formation  pelecypods  fied  i n an  environment  freshwater  Lithofacies  deposits  (Metasequoia)  i n the  of  in  isolated  i n t e r r u p t e d by  (1981)  noted  formed  in  suggested  belts that  sub-tropical zones the  the  formation  occur  formed  along  c l i -  i n the  during  of  axis  the  1974).  channels,  breaching  backswamp a r e a s  by  of  the  channel  crevasse  splay  and  38  overbank thin  detritus  coal  seams.  seams d e v e l o p e d forms."  Either  currence  of  on  sion  and  grained nel  resemble  Union  sediments  were  also  Eocene  (G.  from  thin  a  cession  as  marine  fragments, the  decay  and  splay  of  bed  everywhere  the  and  Flores  the  and  and  near of  a  silt  distal  cyst  the  encloses  freshwater  the  chan-  channel  in  cre-  eroding  clay.  These  d e p o s i t s of  Flores  (1981).  i n oxbow  Fine  lakes  abandonment.  top  of  dated  1984) the  types  was  as  Late  identified  stratigraphic  incursion  into  in the  It  created local  the  suc-  area.  Eureka  organic material  pelecypods.  organic material  to  area,  splay  assemblage  i n a l l rock  suspen-  Fine-  resulted  and  suspension  marine  from  (1981).  levees  d e s c r i b e d by  channel  oc-  mudstones  resemble  backswamp  sand,  from  plat-  the  areas.  marginal  I, and  p e r s o n a l communication,  i s found  amber  over  thin  splay  and  deposited  backswamp  channel  depositing  deposited  i s evidence  of  out  Formation  result  mudstone  and  the above  the  that  explain  siltstones  were  Assemblage  dinoflagellate  Ironstone Formation  a  Rouse,  and  of  in  area.  that  spatially  crevasse  Fort  formed  study  flooding  of  suggested  s u g g e s t i o n s may  seams  spread  upper  A  coal  resulted  drained crevasse  organic-rich  breaching  u n d e r l y i n g peat  which  these  (1981)  d e p o s i t s d e s c r i b e d by  s p l a y s which  deposits  better  Lithofacies  Occasional  the  the  formation,and  others  i n the  d e p o s i t s occur  levee-overbank  the  coals  after  d e p o s i t s of  vasse  of  continuous  with  during  slightly  both  thin  interbedded  peat  E t h r i d g e and  or  Laterally  interrupted  such  Sound as  i s probable reducing  plant that  and/or  39  higher  pH  conditions  facilitating  the  p r e c i p i t a t i o n of  iron  car-  bonates .  LITHOFACIES  ASSEMBLAGE  Lithofacies the  study  Fiord. the  area  It  base  ologies  III  fine  The  size coal  Mudstones grey,  of  4C),  contain  macerated  gellate  cysts  base  The  of  are  the  and  greater  than  occurs  of  from  east  side  The  Strata  pale  cream  other  90  coal  of to  lith-  Lithofacies buff  colour, assem-  sandstones,  occurrence  distinguishing  at  seams  lithofacies  the  m  dominant  interbedded  in  Stenkul  approximately  pocket).  and  strata of  s i l t s t o n e s and  sediments the  oldest  of  thin,  features  of  medium  brown  III.  Assemblage  conspicuous  commonly  buff  calcareous  carbonaceous recovered  plant  from  III  to  and  are  pale  cream  colour  r e s i s t a n t , and  fragments.  mudstones  Marine  which  to  crop  often dinoflaout  at  section.  seams  average 2 m as  a  the  thin,  calcareous  are  the  thickness.  this  Lithofacies  were  coal  tinuous  seams  weather  (Figure  in  in  distinctive  the  Assemblage  5,  with  1 m  of  of  on  thickness  mudstones  a  comprises  only  (Figure  weather  grain  Lithofacies  also  07  occurrence  discontinuous  the  maximum  easily distinguishes  blages.  light  a  brown  III  i s present  approximately  Assemblage  the  and  section  are  averaging  which  assemblage  attains of  III  of  Lithofacies  less  thick.  layers  of  than Most  Assemblage  III  1 m  in  thickness.  coal  is  tough  uncoalified plant  and  are  Only  disconone  seam  argillaceous  material.  is  but  40  Resistant, stones,  which  rarely contain  (up  to  The  calcareous  and  are  lying  7 m  long)  found  sandstones  tions cent cm  occur  of  the  fine in  (Figure  Very  Sandstones  carbonaceous tions.  10F)  but  Very  lamination  are  sequences  occur  Assemblage  III  a  of  distance  of  siltstones rare  present toward grades  rare,  the  base  upward  15  of  less  than  and  ripple  are  the  m)  under-  with  marks  up  are  are  adja-  to  30  common.  mostly of  un-  grains  contain  ironstone  and  and  mainly  aggregates  few  thick  cross-lamina-  Contacts  Root  lamination (5  2 m  siltstones  a r g i l l a c e o u s and a  pods  extent).  sediments  siltstones  and  sand-  as  lateral  Metasequoia  thin  into  and  cemented  are  of  in  orange  sharp.  glauconite  and  are  units.  and  parallel  m  and  locally  calcareous  some  calcite  occur 20  light  to  siltstones  grained  laminations  sandstones  planar  about  The  fragments  friable, and  fine  weather  part  and  debris, thin,  with  gradational  fine-grained  consolidated, occur.  are  than  sandstones  seams.  grey,  upper  glauconite,  and  parallel  the  calcareous  (greater  coal  light  lithologies  long  beds  siltstones  are  but  and  in association  several  massive,  well-indurated  ripple  concrecross-  coarsening-upward  section. Lithofacies  L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage  II  over  m.  Interpretation  The  sedimentary  interpreted  as  f a c i e s of  brackish  are  facies equivalent  and  West  and  others  of  water  L i t h o f a c i e s Assemblage estuarine  marine  (1981)  near  and  marsh  III  are  deposits  and  strata described  by  Miall  Strathcona  on  central  Fiord  (1981)  41  Ellesmere  The  Island.  fine  grain  size,  small  scale  ments  of L i t h o f a c i e s  vironment  abundance  sedimentary structures  similar  Assemblage  These  strata  Thin,  discontinuous  along  the shores of the estuary.  scribed lar.  recent  Rare  tidal  common  accumulated  coals  deposits  deposits  were  under  formed  in a microtidal units  along  of L i t h o f a c i e s  peat accumulation  and others estuary  I I I may  way, h o w e v e r  the sandstones are poorly  tary  and biogenic  structures,  or reject  LITHOFACIES  10  southwest m,  across 4D,  minor stones  Assemblage  face  bars are  few o f t h e have  provide  formed  and  sedimen-  evidence to  are not preserved.  light  grey  are characteristics i t from  White  other  grey  to white, partly lithofacies  lithofacies  body  of about  to light  of t h i s  one l o c a l i t y  h a s a maximum  wedge-shaped  for a distance  in pocket).  interbedded  distinguish  flood-  shorelines  exposed  out a t only  Fiord,  as a d i s t i n c t i v e  the exposed 6,  IV c r o p s  shore of Stenkul  and occurs  Figure  interpretation,  of  ASSEMBLAGE I V  Lithofacies the  this  would  are simi-  on b a r r i e r  this  support  which  1979) a n d a  Assembage  which  (1979) d e -  microtidal fans  (Hayes,  1981).  conditions.  are indicative  Washover  regime  the sedi-  (Miall,  low e n e r g y  from  Kraft  occur  1979).  characterize  regime  i n the Delaware  which  1979; McCann,  sandstone  tidal  coarsening-upward sequences  delta  (Hayes,  have  which  I I I suggest a m i c r o t i d a l en-  to the present  must  of carbonaceous d e b r i s and  on  thickness of that  1.5 km  extends (Figure  sandstones and calcareous assemblage  assemblages.  mudwhich  42  The  basal  Lithofacies are  Assemblage  medium-grained  mineral in  contact  consists  of rare,  Carbonaceous  The white than  mudstones 5 m thick,  plant  fragments  composed  II i s sharp  i s dominated i s poorly  or e r o s i o n a l . (Figure  The  from  stringers  the sandstones  are slightly  zircons.  minerals  kaolinite,  massive  or  a r e common.  t o the light  calcareous i n part concretions.  Bedding  cross-beds.  a b r u p t . The mudstones  and i r o n s t o n e  sandstones  18) a n d t h e h e a v y  planar tabular  coaly  is relatively  of the clay  seam o f  p r e s e r v e d and i s e i t h e r  and t h i n  change  coal  by w e l l - r o u n d e d  unidirectional  debris  facies  an u n d e r l y i n g  quartz arenites  assemblage  the sandstones  with  and  grey to  are less contain  The mudstones a r e  illite  and  chlorite.  Interpretation  The  strata  deposits  of L i t h o f a c i e s  of a marine  barrier  island  exhibit  sedimentary  for  a precise  quartz  deposits  features 1976). sent tends  occur  delta into  both  and the o v e r a l l  the other foreset  strata  the lagoon  which  Medium-grained  delta  deltas  sand  p l a n a r c r o s s - b e d s may  (Reinson,  and washover f a n  1979).  planar  body  (Hubbard  i n a washover  rarely  are necessary  Landward-oriented  wedge-shaped  as  migration of a  sandstones  origin.  in flood-tidal  flood-tidal hand,  white  structures  of their  e t a l . , 1978).  o f modern  On  or biogenic  IV a r e i n t e r p r e t e d  and landward  The c o n s p i c u o u s  interpretation  (Home  cross-beds  transgression  system.  arenites  Assemblage  geometry  are  and Barwis, i n fact  f a n where Reinson  tabular  repre-  the f a n ex-  (1979)  and Hayes  43  (1979)  note  crotidal  that  washover  regions,  significance  The  deposits  whereas  (Hayes,  relatively  tidal  are especially  deltas  abrupt  facies  change  o f t h e washover  fan/flood-tidal  stones  of the lagoonal  facies  lagoonal  (Reinson, deposits  are of r e l a t i v e l y  i nmiminor  1979).  stones  vironment  common  1979).  from  delta  i s common  landward  sand-  environment  t o mud-  i n the back-barrier en-  The mudstones  situated  the clean  represent  subaqueous  of and a d j a c e n t t o the bar-  rier.  The Stenkul  barrier Fiord  island  system  i s interpreted  trend,  with  an open  lagoon  environment  marine  of Lithofacies  t o have  along  outlier  Vendom  kilometres marked  of the Eureka  Fiord  fault,  along  the eastern  eroding only  which  Devonian  t o an e r o s i o n a l  The  Sound  Formation  edge  which  crops out  o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 55  3 ) . The southwest  thins  outlier  and a  FIORD  c o v e r s an a r e a  (Figure  against  t o the southwest  to the northeast.  by a n o r m a l  Formation  IV a t  had a northwest-southeast  environment  VENDOM  An  Assemblage  boundary  of t h i s  juxtaposes the Eureka  strata.  The Eureka  on t h e D e v o n i a n  and n o r t h e r n b o u n d a r i e s  Sound  Okse  square area i s Sound  Formation  Bay F o r m a t i o n  o f t h e Vendom  Fiord  (Figure 11).  topography through  i s subdued  the strata,  two s t r a t i g r a p h i c  in this  area,  with  consequently outcrop  sections,  both  less  than  few  streams  i s poor and 90 m  thick,  V  44  ing  FIGURE  11.  Aerial  Photograph  the  Geology  locations  of  gravels  - Eureka  Sound  and  Bay  Dbi  - Bird  Fiord  Formation  Dbl  - Blue  Fiord  Formation  Library  with  outlier.  o f Vendom  sections  Fiord  (eg. I  show-  j — 26).  alluvium  Formation  - Okse  reproduced  south  Fiord  (1974).  Dob  photograph  Vendom  stratigraphic  Q  aerial  Canada.  the  - Quaternary  in the  (A-16685-45)  McGill  Canada,  Photo  of  strata  modified after  Te  This  Eureka  Group  ©19-7-59 from  the  Her  Majesty  collection  p e r m i s s i o n of  Energy,  of  the the  Mines  Queen  in Right  National  and  Air  Resources  45  46  metres  C o a l : amber, p e t r i f i e d Mudstone: med grey. Coal.  wood,  Mudstone: med  grey.  70  Coal. Mudstone: med  grey.  60  Coal: concretions. Mudstone: med-dk grey, r o o t e d h o r i z o n s , c o a l stringers.  Sandstone: lt-med concretions.  grey,  f-mg, s i l t y ,  carb.,  Interbedded: Mudstone(70%): med-dk grey, c a r b . , c o n c r e t i o n s , Sandstone(30%):med brown-It g r e y , v f - f g , s i l t y , micaceous, p l a n a r and wavy l a m i n a t e d .  Interbedded: C o a l ( 8 0 % ) : a r g . , amber, mudstone s p l i t s . Mudstone(20%) :med grey-rblack,carb., s i l t y . Mudstone: dk grey. 20 -  10  relative grain size FIGURE 12. S t r a t i g r a p h i c  Sandstone: lt-med grey, f - c g , a r g . , c a r b . , c o a l spar, p l a n a r t a b u l a r and p l a n a r t a n g e n t i a l cross-beds, 10-30 cm s e t s , some trough c r o s s beds . Sandstone: I t grey, mg, a r g . , c o a l spar; sample 26-204  s e c t i o n 26, Vendom F i o r d  outlier.  47  C o a l : some mudstone s p l i t s . Mudstone: med grey to med brown. Interbedded: Coal(60%). Mudstone(30%): med grey, c a r b . , c o n c r e t i o n s . Sandstone(10%): med grey, v f g , t h i n bedded. Mudstone: med grey, c a r b . Coal. Sandstone: grey to brown, vf-mg, c a r b . , p l a n a r t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d s , 5-15 cm s e t s .  Coal. Sandstone: I t brown, v f g , t h i n bedded. C o a l : amber, t h i n mudstone ^^^^^^  splits.  Mudstone: med grey, carb., t h i n to med bedded, Interbedded: Sandstone(50%): med grey, v f - f g , micaceous. C o a l ( 5 0 % ) : amber. Sandstone: med brown, v f g , micaceous, t h i n bedded. S i l t s t o n e : med brown. Interbedded: Mudstone(60%):med grey, c a r b . C o a l ( 4 0 % ) : amber.  relative _ grain size  FIGURE 13. S t r a t i g r a p h i c  section  27, Vendom F i o r d  outlier.  48  could  be  measured  Medium bedded  to  dark  crop  out  from  50  carbonaceous  in  15  15  cm  and  blocky,  and  petrified in  m.  26  to  a  few  1 m  the  Grey  commonly  wood. Some  deposits  and  planar  a  brown  are  also  Of  planar grain  to  coal  coarse  m  but  within  amber,  range  in  average  the  coal  which  thickness some  are  about seams  1  m  and  a r g i l l a c e o u s , tough  ironstone  uncoalified  range  contacts,  sand,  and  and  sample  Ironstone  from  units  very  (7  to  contain  fine sets  cross-bedding  sandstone I.  inter-  nodules.  i s commonly  l a y e r s of  sandstones  trough  Table  2.7  occur  contains  feldspar, chert  concretions  plant  debris  also  fine-  12  m  coal  upwards.  rare  mica.  (Figure  18)  concretions  The  coarse-  thick) spar  15  cm  and  basal  tabular in  thick-  sandstones  Petrographic from  have  and  Planar  averaging  occur.  to  section  coaly  consist  data 26  plant  from  are debris  present.  the  igraphic  of  some  subarkose on  cm  of  unlaminated,  ironstone  tangential cross-bed  quartz,  shown  30  13).  lithologies  beds  appear  and  amounts  dominant  Mudstone  t h i c k e s t sandstone  lag  the  12  seams.  erosional basal  of  are 27.  The  sharp  and  minor  splits  The  ness  and  from  grained. or  mudstones  mudstones  thick.  coal  to  Figures  contain  Mudstone  and  27,  and  The  seams v a r y  are  and  siltstones  and  thickness.  occur  grey  sections to  Coal  dark  brown  at cm  ( s e c t i o n s 26  thinner  sequence,  parallel size  sandstone  units  some c o a r s e n  lamination,  variation.  (50  upward  while  cm and  others  to  3  m)  i n the  exhibit  show  no  wavy  strat-  to  detectable  49  A  thin  lomitic and  cm)  siltstone  ripple  This  (50  unit  which  below  a  to  buff-weathering,  contains  cross-bedding lies  fractures  orange-  occurs 30  conchoidally,  cm  root  structures,  towards  thick  seam  is lustrous,  resistant  the  top  of  leaf  of  imprints  section  sapropelic  nonbanded,  do-  and  26.  coal  has  which  a  brown  streak.  Interpretation  Strata ial  plain  exposed  deposits,  Lithofacies previously  by  been  which  plant  Coal  Type  were  The  thick,  stones,  in  from  outlier  Stenkul  siltstones  sections the  represent  Fiord  from  26  the  and  alluvto  which  have  associated  coal  27  Port  of  were  on  containing  interpreted areas  and  backswamps  mudstones  swampy  Hood as  the  the  floodplain  have  sedimentary  structures  which  are  as  channel  fluvial  locally  described  (1981).  point  coarsen by  Gersib  bar  These  and  resemble  McCabe  deposits.  sandstone similar  sandstones  deposits.  upward,  by  floodplain.  units  Flores  alluvial  Formation  sandstone  and  deposited  comminuted  fining-upward  of  sandstones  of  and  sandstones  which  Fiord  characteristics similar  II  inundated  (1981)  deposited  preted  most  described  was  I  I and  unlaminated  McCabe  compositions  display  interbedded  which  Similar  and  Vendom  described.  comprise  debris  Gersib  and  with  floodwaters  plains.  the  Assemblages  Mudstones seams  in  are  Thinner crevasse  (1981).  to inter-  sandsplay  50  Dolomitic indicates Flores  deposition  (1981)  upper  Fort  tics,  and  tion It  of  is  Union which  Friend  and  fluvial pelic  attributes plant  swamp  and  that were  also the  of  which  the  the  indicates formation  a  Bay lake  of  silty  plain.  limestones  formed  in  from p r e c i p i t a ephemeral  early  lakes.  The  environment. coals  and  in  rocks  in  overlying  sapro-  Teichmuller to  the  reworked  a  diagenesis.  dolomitic  Formation.  the  characteris-  s i l t s t o n e s formed  report  spores  alluvial  similar  during  sapropelic  coal  the  freshwater  also  sapropelic  (1982)  deposition  peat  in  small  lakes.  square Fiord  The  having  dolomitic  (1970) Wood  on  display  dolomitized  d e t r i t u s , plankton,  Eureka  Sound  kilometres (Figure  Devonian  Blue  lake  supported,  BAUMANN  on  nonbedded  interchannel,  Moody-Stuart  deposits  coal  in  by  small  i n t e r p r e t s as  here  manner,  a  grain  Formation he  suggested  overlain  within  describes  carbonates  similar  of  siltstone  Fiord Eureka  outcrop creeks  3).  Okse and  s t r a t a cover  an  bordering  the  southwest  shore  Sound  Formation  lies  faulted  against  The Bay  Bird  Sound  FIORD  on  Eureka  s t r a t a , and Fiord  beds  dip  area  is  Formations at  about  has  low  which  cut  across  the  plain.  pocket),  was  measured  (Figure  15,  in  Baumann  Fiord  and  relief,  i s shown  but  on  to  10  area  of  the  west  degrees  sparse The  Figure  approximately  to  outcrop location  in 14.  the  area  of  45  Baumann  unconformably the  Devonian  and  southwest.  the  west.  occurs of  along  section  south  The  of  22  51  FIGURE  14. E u r e k a  Aerial ing  photograph  the location  Thorsteinsson  Q  Dob  of  aerial  strata  (1971)  - Eureka - Okse  gravels  Sound  photograph  south  22. G e o l o g y  and M c G i l l  Bay  i n t h e Baumann  (A-16723-27)  of section  - Quaternary  Te  This  Sound  Fiord  o f Baumann  modified  outlier  Fiord  show-  after  Kerr and  t h e Queen  in Right  (1974).  and  alluvium  Foramation  Group  ©13-8-59  Canada,  reproduced  from  permission  of Energy,  Mines  Her M a j e s t y  the National  A i r Photo  and Resources  Canada.  Library  with  53  Sandstone south grey  o f Baumann  sharp  lithologies  tions  from  this  (Table  lithic based  area  rounded  debris  a  and w e l l  and rare  range  arenite,  sorted  glauconite.  Contacts  with  ad-  three  composi-  s u b l i t h a r e n i t e and a r e o f two  types,  structures.  predominantly  The s a n d s t o n e s  Sedimentary  light  of  of sandstone  weathering,  and c o n t a i n  to  exposed are  analysis  and sedimentary  arenites.  exposed  brown  b u t where  18). The s a n d s t o n e s  are white  quartz  from  2 to 12m.  Petrographic  texture  sandstones  lithologies  varies  covered,  revealed  (Figure  medium-grained  well  from  i n nature.  on c o m p o s i t i o n ,  A  ranges  I ) , and a r e quartz  subarkose  Type  The s a n d s t o n e  a r e commonly  or e r o s i o n a l  samples  are the primary  Fiord.  and bed t h i c k n e s s  jacent  to  and c o a l  some  fine-  are clean,  carbonaceous  structures  were  not  pre-  served.  Type fine  upwards  coarse. coal B  B sandstones  basal  sorted  contain debris  and rare  clude  planar  tabular  cross-lamination  tion, of  to light from  contain  A  and planar  and convolute  Type  the section.  generally to  very  granule-size  finely  Sedimentary  grains  are typical  are s i l t y ,  tangential  and Type  moderately  Type  B  divided  sandcarbona-  structures i n -  cross-bedding,  ripple  lamination.  predominate  B sandstones  fine  to subrounded.  fragments,  concretions.  sandstones  whereas  plant  very  grey,  subarkose  The s a n d s t o n e s  and angular  abundant  ceous  Type  varies  lag deposits  compositions.  to poorly  stones  size  buff  S u b l i t h a r e n i t e and l i t h i c  sandstone  well  and g r a i n  Many  spar.  weather  towards  the base  a r e dominant  of the  i n t h e upper  secpart  54  Coal which  accounts  crop  thickn-ess  out from  ridges.  The  contain  amber  ironstone  for a  large  percentage  south  of  Baumann  50  to  5.7  cm  coals  are  and  m  tough  rarely  concretions.  Fiord.  and  and  include  Mudstone  Coal  often  woody,  of  Eureka seams  form often  macroscopic splits  Sound  range  isolated  within  in  resistant  lustrous, iron  strata  commonly  sulphide  the  coal  and  seams  are  rare.  Mudstones ly  covered  Mudstones  by are  Siltstones ceous.  Mica  contain are  and a  siltstones  hard,  mostly  are  to  to grey  occur  carbonaceous  locally  crust  medium  brown  flakes  white  are  plant  exposed  on  weathered  dark  and  in a  rarely the grey  are  few  and  locally  of  the  fragments.  and  are  common-  surface.  carbonaceous. sandy  or  siltstones  Mudstones  argilla-  and  and  many  siltstones  interbedded.  Interpretation  The a  Eureka  sequence  exposure cal  with  facies  positional  The stones origin. as  a  of  Sound  marine long  Formation and  nonmarine  covered  associations  and  the  rare  Porrenga  marine  Baumann  strata.  intervals make  of  The  obscure  Fiord  comprises  isolated  outcrop  lateral  i t d i f f i c u l t to  and  verti-  interpret  de-  environments.  c o m p o s i t i o n a l and  and  south  clay  textural  occurrence of  (1967)  states  m i n e r a l , and  glauconite  that that  m a t u r i t y of  the  Type  suggests  glauconite  may  a  A  sand-  marine  be c o n s i d e r e d  moderate •temperatures  favour  55  its  formation.  interbedded stone  cysts,  fine-grained  lagoonal Home bar  or shallow  The  (G. Rouse,  of  Member  which  stones  also  strata  of a  during  deposits  Fiord  as shallow  likely  formed i n  represent of  by  barrier  diagnostic  interpretation.  These  strata  and with  marine  dinof-  mid-Paleocene i n  1984).  (1981)  marine  interpretation.  precise  the basal  mud-  t o those described  22 a r e l a t e  and others  strata are  of section  t h e uppermost  at Strathcona and b r a c k i s h  07  beds  Fiord,  deposits of  estuary.  of the s e c t i o n fine-grained  few T y p e  be r e l a t e d  deposition  Type  with  22 a r e  A basal  rare  were  similar  communication,  i s dominated elastics  A sandstone  the top of the section. m may  coals  a more  at section  shore of Stenkul  remainder  contains  but the absence  precludes  i n part  interpret  and c o a l .  A s a n d s t o n e s may  deposits,  personal  of section  supports a marine  environments  marine  and nonmarine  exception  Appendix)  (1978). Type  lagoon or  The  mudstones  sediments and t h i n  I I I o f West  they  large  240  which  correlative  the east  at  22-157,  structures  basal  on  a  siltstones,  and o t h e r s  likely  A sandstones a t the base  back-barrier  sedimentary  age  with  bed (sample  lagellate The  Type  A  10 m t h i c k  to the barrier  of L i t h o f a c i e s  B sandstones exhibit i n a meandering  units  and c o a l , and marine  Type  island  by s e v e r a l  authors  and  Cant,  1980; and o t h e r s )  its  of L i t h o f a c i e s  (Flores,  Assemblage  sand-  with the mudstones  which  unit  which  Fiord.  of point bar have  been  1980; W a l k e r  to sandstone  I i n the Stenkul  at  existed  IV a t S t e n k u l  1981; C a n t ,  and a r e s i m i l a r  8  sandstone  characteristics  stream environment,  described  A  system  Assemblage  many  by Type  Fiord  depos-  outlier  56  which  have  previously  Nonmarine bonaceous  shales  sandstones. of  the  The  to  by  most  and  are  only  backswamp  Flores  described.  commonly  nonmarine  majority  i n t e r p r e t as  coals  few  from  of  the  coal  seams  by  semblage  marine  and  area  organic  and  are  car-  Type  B  accumulations  similar  to  coals  The  Iron  a  of  as  coal  sulphate  a l . , 1977;  a  marine  Appendix)  crops  thin,  Early  SOR  FIORD  to  ridges. difficult  vertical  concretions  these  b a c t e r i a which et  and  sulphide that  isolated seams a r e  covered  suggest  containing  represents  these are  process  22-188,  occur  coals  Home  et  in  at  and  of  lies  an  section  contains  F i o r d , an  unconformably  covers and  Sor  area 24  of  on  10  (Figure  many c o v e r e d  outlier  facili-  brackish  a l . , 1978).  the  cyst  top  early Middle  Devonian  square 17)  the  Eureka  strata  kilometres.  which  intervals.  of  was  in  formed  is  dinoflagellate out  found  were  reduction  thrive  facies  of  asthe  Eocene  incursion.  Formation  sparse,  bed  (sample  Southwest  16),  coals  (Casagrande  mudstone  section  strata  sulphate-reducing  deposits  A  peat.  of  observed.  isolated  brackish  tated peat  the  represent  with  with  (1981).  of  be  interbedded  associated  environment  adjacent  cannot  occur  rarely  d e p o s i t i o n a l environments  sequences a  The  fluvial  described  The  coals  been  Sound  (Figures Outcrop  measured  in  3  and  is this  57  FIGURE  16.  Aerial the  of  Thorsteinsson  of  (1971)  - Eureka  strata  24.  and  Okulitch  gravels  Sound  and  Dbi  -  Bird  Fiord  Formation  Dbl  - Blue  Fiord  Formation  permission  modified  Sor  outlier  Fiord,  after  Kerr  showing and  alluvium  Group  ©17-8-59  reproduced  from  of  Mines  Energy,  of  Fiord  Formation  Bay  Canada,  Sor  (1982).  - Okse  photograph  south  Geology  Dob  aerial  i n the  (A-16780-73)  section  - Quaternary  Te  This  Sound  photograph  location  Q  Eureka  the and  Her  Majesty  National  the  A i r Photo  Resources  Canada.  Queen  in Right  Library  with  59 metres \ \ \ \ \ \ \ v  110  massive.  -  100 T" 90  Sandstone: I t grey, mg,  -  Covered. Interbedded:Coal(50%) carb. Mudstone: I t grey.  and Mudstone(50%):dk grey,  Covered: mudstone? Interbedded:Coal(70%) Mudstone: I t grey. Coal. Covered:  and  Mudstone(30%)  mudstone?  60 -  C o a l : a r g ., amber.  50  Mudstone: g r e e n i s h - g r e y , 40 Coal: arg. Covered: mudstone? 30 Coal:  i r o n s u l p h i d e framboids.  Sandstone: white,  f-mg,  med  wavy laminated.  20 -  10 _  Interbedded: Sandstone(95%): l t - d k grey, f-mg, a r g . , massive. C o a l ( 5 % ) : amber.  r e l a t i v e _^ grain size FIGURE 17. S t r a t i g r a p h i c  section  24, Sor F i o r d o u t l i e r .  carb.,  60  Sandstones cession and  at  range  position  Sor in  comprise Fiord.  colour  includes  The  and  contain  coaly  seams  and  rare,  occur  locally  structure  the  observed  lamination  in  light  quartz  silty  large  and  to  (as  a  of  dark  the  grey. The  sandstone  debris,  fine-grained  only  exposure), at  com-  are  some  com-  thin  concretions  The  units  suc-  Mineralogical  sulphide  poor  to  sandstones  section.  r e s u l t of  stratigraphic  medium-  plant  iron  the  the  are  carbonaceous  base  of  feldspar.  spherical  some o f  part  sandstones  from  monly  at  a  the  which  sedimentary was  rare  base  wavy  of  the  but  are  section.  Coal poorly  exposed  contain  A  amber  good  north  of  sheen  and  mudstone waxy  seams  and and  iron  the  consist  of  compressed  consists  of  finely  which  contain  weather  outcrops  grey  to  occur  to  1 cm  of  the  greenish  and  Here,  to  splits.  mudstone the  reeds  orange plant  and  coals  and  4 m Many  to  are  coal  The  with this  a  seams  creek  iridescent  material. and  grey,  colour  and  range  Along  in  strike,  resistant  similar  The  dark  laminae  wavy.  hard,  in  an  yellow-brown  have  s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y above  have  light  locally  mudstones  occurs  plant  debris.  mudstones  grey  cm  interlaminated  an  carbonized  0.3  30  framboids.  coal  section.  weathered  sequence.  sulphide  of  from  many m u d s t o n e  of  from  surfaces  thickness  line  thickness  Light  in  contain  exposure  the  layers  commonly  range  crusts.  weathering  mudstone  and  coal  61  Interpretation  Sandstones visible Their  sedimentary  crop  deposits.  mudstones a  and  good  locality, abundant  and  The  minae  which  Fouch  and  plant  mudstones  are  Dean  similar (1982).  stones  with  the  center  of  freshwater  (1981)  i n many  dense  growths the  coarse the  a  of  clastic  lacustrine  weathering  A  as  section  lithologies  stratigraphic stone tions.  bed  to It  even  laminae  lake.  As  sequence  are  seams  is  thought  to  sequence correlates  by  as  lacustrine  the  towards  are  and  but  no  by mudthe High by  change  intervening  which  overlie  exhibit  also  la-  replaced  vertical  with  are  with  that  mudstones  therefore  coals  Picard  the  exposed,  this  described  elastics  coals  At  similar  tentatively  deposits.  visible  position  and  poorly  sandstone  covered.  out  explains  reed-bearing  of  deposited  pointed  This  a  varve-like  suggested  were  coarse  are  associated  l a c u s t r i n e mudstones is therefore  interpret.  section.  continuous  lacustrine  are  and  the  lack  sandstones  which  and  Coal  no  of  of  show  deposit.  displays  part  by  interpreted  the  medium-grained  these  overlain  section to  are  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  interpreted  the  difficult that  north  nearshore  to  of  fragments  vegetation.  mudstones  are  mudstone  varve-like  lakes,  are  lower  creek  laminated  base  suggests  the  in a  the  and  sandstones  seams,  exposure  reed  at  structures  The  coal  finely  deposits.  from  out  stratigraphic position  fluvial  with  which  at  sedimentary  Based  above  bed  on  the  represent  the  top  of  structures  it's t e x t u r a l  the and  return  to  adjacent  immaturity  lacustrine deposits, a  exposed  fluvial  this  and sand-  condi-  62  In prises  summary,  predominantly  fluvial curred  on a n a l l u v i a l  No  o r by  a g e was  lacustrine  outliers  plain,  subsidence  obtained  stratigraphic  Sound  Sound  deposits. Therefore,  abandonment  the  the Eureka  on  Formation  strata  i t i s suggested a n d may below  relationship  have  Sound  of these  Ellesmere  that  with  the lake ocby  channel  table.  beds  strata  Island  com-  are associated  formed  the water  f o r Eureka  southern  which  a t Sor F i o r d  a t Sor F i o r d , to other  and  Eureka  i s uncertain.  63  PETROGRAPHY,  P A L E O C U R R E N T S AND  SANDSTONE  Twenty-nine  sandstones  examined  by p e t r o g r a p h i c  cessful.  F o r t h e most  yellow clase red  stain  from  feldspar  dye. This  clase  may  staining  were  have  been  quired (Deer  twinning  a cloudy  appearance  workers  of the point  modal  analysis  Tobi,  1965; I n g e r s o l l  upon  uncertain,  a s most  sampling  original  have  stained  amaranth  that  staining  a  plagio-  by  plagio-  for K-feld-  i s not thought  to pre-  of plagioclase  be d i s t i n g u i s h e d  from  present quartz  In a d d i t i o n ,  plagioclase ac-  etching  hydrofluoric  counting  with  samples  and sample  on u n c o n s o l i d a t e d a n d many  1979;  Mack,  studies  f o r sandstones  provenance  acid  workers  i n the study  preparation  (Potter, report  and the use of  The  to this  and  applicabilistudy i s  are unconsolidated,  techniques  i s not reported 1978; I n g e r s o l l t h e number  and  destroyed the  of the sandstones.  samples  signifi-  (Van d e r P l a s  and o t h e r s ) .  by t h e s e  texture  1981) s i m p l y  on t h e s t a t i s t i c a l  method  et al.,1984;  obtained  depositional  ture,  theorized  for interpreting  of the r e s u l t s  data  could  or cleavage.  cance  both  however,  to the fact  a s t h e amount  cases  d i d acquire  suc-  e t a l . , 1966, p . 3 3 5 ) .  Several  ty  due e i t h e r  and  was n o t e n t i r e l y  cobaltinitrite;  This  and i n most  stained  feldspars  t h e d y e was n o t f r e s h .  a s i g n i f i c a n t problem,  albite  potassium  follow  sent  by  Staining  d i d not immediately  or that  small  sectioned,  not i n a l l cases  spar  was  thin  methods.  t h e sodium  grains  PETROGRAPHY  were  part,  PROVENANCE  Statistical  i n the  litera-  and Suczek,  of grains  counted per  64  thin  section  stical  with  significance  Results with  stones  according  lithic  indication of the  o f t h e modal  gether  are  no  the grain  most  minerals  perthitic ments  with  gneiss,  minerals.  A l lsamples,  tain  than  is  less  a very  the rock  tuent  minerals,  with  25 p e r c e n t  classification  lithic  amounts  arkoses,  unstable  sub-  o f one  down  The  potassium rock  shale)  to granule  as has o c c u r r e d  18)  arkoses,  and  frag-  and heavy  (11-76),  fragments.  are not broken  sand-  1itharenites.  carbonate,  rock  I, t o -  (Figure  of unstable  the exception  sandstone  fragments such  lesser  The  and p l a g i o c l a s e ,  sandstone,  coarse-grained  hence  (1963)  are quartz  on T a b l e  and roundness.  a r e n i t e s and f e l d s p a t h i c  feldspars,  (granite,  are reported  sorting  subarkoses,  quartz  abundant  analyses  to McBride's  litharenites,  stati-  results.  size,  subarkoses,  of t h e t e s t e d or presumed  con-  Sample  11-76  conglomerate, into  their  and  consti-  i n the finer-grained  sand-  stones .  The  average  coarse-grained, medium-grained  clast  size  and the m a j o r i t y and moderately  sandstones  are distinctly  consisting  of angular  sing  subrounded  distinct ranging  Generally, and  coarse  * rounded,  well  rounded  fine-  to well  or very  sizes  medium-grained  coarse  and have  poorly  a  occur  to  few o f t h e  f i n e - g r a i n e d mode mode  compri-  sandstones  fine  or  are angular  a r e subrounded clasts  are fine-  sorted with  to very  fractions  quartz  to very  sorted. A  g r a i n s . Other  but a r e very  grain  very  of the sandstones  bimodal,  the finer-grained  the coarser  from  g r a i n s and a c o a r s e - g r a i n e d  to well  bimodality, from  varies  grain  size  fine. to  t o rounded. i n some  show no  subangular Very  well  sandstones  TABLE I . P e t r o g r a p h i c data i n c l u d i n g g r a i n s i z e , rounding, sorting, modal a n a l y s e s and heavy m i n e r a l compositions of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sandstones from t h e Eureka Sound Formation  Key The  f o l l o w i n g a b b r e v i a t i o n s a r e used  Modal A n a l y s i s - D e t r i t a l Qm Qp Qt PI Ks Pt Ft SR PR MR Lt  = = = = = = = = = = =  = allanite = biotite = clinozoisite = epidote = = = = = = = = = = = =  clasts  m o n o c r y s t a l l i n e quartz polycrystalline quartz t o t a l quartz plagioclase feldspar potassium f e l d s p a r perthite feldsgar total feldspar" sedimentary r o c k fragment p l u t o n i c r o c k fragment metamorphic rock fragments t o t a l l i t h i c fragments*  Heavy m i n e r a l s Al Bi Cz Ep Ga Ky Ms Mt Py Rt SI Sp St Tm Zo Zr  to .Table I  garnet kyanite muscovite magnetite pyrite rutile sillimanite sphene staurolite tourmaline zoisite zircon  i n Table I Cement types Ca = carbonate Si = siderite = not cemented Grain vf = f = m = c = gran  size very f i n e fine medium coarse = granule  Location section number ^SF-04-39^ sample outlier location number eg-  SF = S t e n k u l F i o r d o u t l i e r BF = Baumann F i o r d o u t l i e r VF = Vendom f i o r d o u t l i e r  Rounding rd = rounded ang = a n g u l a r  i n d i c a t e s percentage v a l u e used on McBride's (.1963) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n diagram ( u n d e r l i n e d on T a b l e I)  TABLE I . Location  Grain size  Sorting  SF-02-12  vf-cg  poor  SF-03-30  vf-cg  poor  SF-04-39  vf-cg  poor  SF-04-41  mg  well  SF-04-42  eg  well  SF-05-48  vf-cg  poor  SF-07-50  vf-fg  SF-06-51  vf-fg  SF-06-53  f-mg  SF-08-60  m-cg  SF-08-62  mg  mod well mod well mod well mod well well  SF-07-69  f-mg  SF-10-71  mg  mod well well  SF-11-75  vf-mg  poor  SF-11-76  veggran  mod well  Roundness  well rdang well rdsub ang rd-sub rd sub r d sub ang sub r d sub ang sub angwel .1 r d sub r d sub ang sub r d sub ang sub r d sub ang well r d sub r d v. w e l l r d -sub ang sub r d ang sub r d ang sub r d ang well r d sub ang  Cement type  Qm  Modal a n a l y s i s - D e t r i t a l c l a s t s Qp Qt P i Ks Pt Ft SR PR MR  -  75  5  80  '3  6  4  12  5  2  0  7  -  53  12  65  4  6  13  23  3  8  tr  11  -  45  8  53  6  9  14  29  6  12  tr  I .  55  12  67  4  5  12  21  4  8  tr  12  -  46  12  58  4  7  12  23  10  7  2  19  -  58  10  68  0  23  0  23  tr  8  1  9  Ca  79  1  80  0  tr  18  18  0  0  0  0  Ca  77  0  77  0  2  0  2  21  0  0  _21_  -  56  13  69  2  6  15  23  3  4  1  8  -  52  8  60  6  10  6  22  tr  18  0  18  -  62  3  65  14  11  2  27  2  6  tr  8  -  58  13  7_1_  2  7  13  22  6  tr  -  80  6  86  2  3  6  11  1  2  0  -  50  9  59  3  14  12  29  2  10  0  -  21  16  37  3  7  7  JL7_  9  33  4  tr  Heavy minerals  Lt  8  Ga, Ep, Ga, Rt Ga,  Ms, B i , Z r , Ky, Zo, Rt Z r , SI, Tm, Ep, B i , Z r , Tm, Ep,  TJ tKt  Ga, Ms, B i , Z r , Ky, Tm, Ep, Rt Ga, Z r , SI, Tm, Ga, B i , Z r , SI, Ky, Tm, Ep, Zo, Rt, Sp gl a u c o n i t e Ms, Z r , Ep Ga, Ms, B i , Z r , Ky, Tm, Ep, Zo Ga, B i , Z r , Ep  Ga, Ep, T_ Ga, Rt Ga, 3 Tm, 12 Ga, Tm, 46  Z r , SI, Ky, Tm, Al , St Ms, Z r , Ky, Tm, B i , Z r , SI, Ky, Ep, Rt B i , Z r , SI, Ky, Ep  Table I (continued) Location  Grain size  Sorting  Roundness  Cement type  Qm  QP  Modal a n a l y s i s - D e t r i t a l c l a s t s Ks Pt Ft SR PR MR PI Qt  -  67  3  70  9  7  10  25  tr  4  0  4  -  77  19  9>6  0  tr  0  tr  2  2  0  4  -  65  9  74.  6  2  11  11  7  tr  7  Si  47  12  59.  2  8  10  20  9  11  1  2_I  -  67  2  _69  8  15  5  28  tr  2  0  2  -  52  9  61_  8  11  9  28  tr  11  tr  -  54  11  65  3  7  8  JL8.  2  14  -  55  4  59  1  4  23  28  0  13  tr  -  72  4  7_6  3  17  1  2A  tr  3  0  Si  68  6  7_4  1  3  6  10  2  12  2  11  Ga, B i , Zr, Ky, Tm, Ep, St, Sp, Rt B i , Ep  5  2  1_  2  11  1  11  B i , Ep  SF- 19- 140  mg  well  SF- 20- 141  f-mg  SF- 20- 142  mg  mod well well  SF- 03- 148  f-cg  poor  sub r d ang sub r d well rd sub r d sub ang sub r d sub ang sub r d ang sub r d ang r d - sub ang rd-sub rd rd-sub rd rd-ang  BF- 22- 161  m-cg  74  5  79  mg  rd-sub rd rd  _  BF- 22-•166  mod well well  -  89  9  98  1  1  0  2  0  0  0  BF- 22- 187  vf-cg  poor  sub r d -  -  51  9  J>9-  3  8  10  21_  2  17  tr  VF- 26-•204  m-cg  mod well  ang rd-sub ang  -  75  5  80  3  4  8  1_5  1  3  SF-•11- 78 SF- 12- 79  vf-cg mg  poor well  SF- 13- 80  vf-cg  poor  SF- 13- 81  f-mg  SF- 14-89  vf-cg  mod well poor  SF- 15- 99  vf-cg  poor  tr  tr  1  1  Heavy minerals  Lt  U_  17_  11 3  0 i i _5  Ga, Zr, SI, Ky, Tm, Ep. Rt B i , Zr, Tm, Sp, Rt Ga, B i , Zr, SI, Tm, Ep, Zo, Cz, Rt, St Bi Ga, Rt Ga, Sp Ga, Ep, Ga,  Bi,  Zr, Tm, A l ,  Bi,  Zr, Ep, Rt,  B i , Zr, SI, Ky, Al Zr, SI, Tm, Rt  Ga, Zr, Ky, St, Ep, rv Ga, Ms, B i Ga, Ms, B i  68  QUARTZ, QUARTZITE AND CHERT (Qt) 5%^5%  Quartz areniteSubarkose  Sublitharenite  25%/  •\25% Lithic subarkose  • \\v^\\  /V  Lithic arkose  10% FELDSPAR (Ft)  Feldspathic litharenite  50%  \  \ \  \  10% ROCK FRAGMENTS (Rt)  •  Stenkul Fiord outlier  A Baumann Fiord outlier A Vendom Fiord outlier  FIGURE 18. Classification of sandstones of the Eureka Sound Formation using McBride's (1963) classification.  69  and  are likely  source  r e c y c l e d from  rare  comprise occur  clays  some  a  occurs  and r a r e l y mosaic growing  are partly  i n the  siderite  cording  siderite  t o Adam's  or  calcite.  or as d i s c r e t e  (Figure  spaces.  19A) o c c u r s  Quartz  crystals  a r e , how-  t e x t u r e s and g r a i n observed  floating  as  and f e l d s p a r  The s a n d s t o n e s  contacts were  grains  previously existing ce-  and o r i g i n a l  sandstones  amounts and  of g r a i n s  the g r a i n s and euhedral  Grain  (1964)  minerals  c o n s o l i d a t e d by  siderite  by c a l c i t e .  unconsolidated  cemented  aggregates  cement  the pore  replaced  are not preserved.  by  heavy  in varying  are partly  indicating  into  tacts  occur  on t h e g r a i n s  between  mostly  feldspar,  Friable  cemented  samples,  ever,  or  which  as c o a t i n g s  sandstone  Calcite  grains  matrix.  and, r a r e l y  observed  minerals  sandstones,  crystalline  are  of quartz,  and c l a y  the sandstone  Siderite  ment.  fragments  dolomite  i n some  matrix  in  sandstones  area.  Silt-sized and  pre-existing  con-  i n the c a l c i t e  or tangential ac-  classification.  Quartz  The quartz. quartz types  most  abundant  (Table  I ) . Both  mineral  in  a l l samples.  to  slightly  and i n c l u d e  by K r y n i n e  Monocrystalline Most  undulose  i n the sandstones  m o n o c r y s t a l l i n e and  grains are present described  species  quartz  is  polycrystalline  several of the quartz  (1940).  comprises  the dominant  monocrystalline quartz or semi-composite  quartz  g r a i n s have  extinction.  type  straight  Microlites  70 FIGURE  19. T h i n  section  photomicrographs Sound  A.  S i d e r i t e cemented crystalline  (Qm)  sandstones,  containing  and  siderite  perthite cement  ( P t ) , mono-  ( S i ) . Nicols  crossed.  B.  Zircon  (Zr) i n c l u s i o n  C.  Reworked  D.  Chalcedony  (Cd)  E.  Microcline  grain  quartz  Eureka  Formation  sandstone  quartz  of  in monocrystalline  overgrowth  on  in a chert  grain.  (Mi). Nicols  detrital  quartz  Nicols  crossed.  quartz  (Qm).  grain.  crossed.  72  and  vacuoles  The  microlites  likely  occur  zircon  Reworked  euhedral  of the m o n o c r y s t a l l i n e quartz  are p r i s m a t i c or a c i c u l a r (Figure  quartz  monocrystalline have  i n some  19B) a n d r u t i l e ,  overgrowths  quartz  quartz  grains  i n shape,  overgrowths  on  19C). A  which  and a r e  respectively.  are visible  (Figure  grains.  show  some  of the  few q u a r t z  no e v i d e n c e  grains of  roun-  ding .  Polycrystalline number from  of c r y s t a l  3 t o more  units  than  Recrystallized  quartz  metamorphic  which  The  g r a i n s have  quartz  Stretched  are  less  commonly  metamorphic  granulated  visible  20 a n d  boundaries  crystal  commonly  i s present  quartz  boundaries  dependent  at angles  to undulose  grains  with  and l a t t i c e  than  in thin  g r a i n s have  intersect  quartz  observed  per grain  i s partly  straight  i n a l l samples.  other  on  The  section grain  straight of  120  ranges  size. grain  degrees.  extinction.  smooth,  c r e n u l a t e d and  preferred  orientation  polycrystalline  quartz  types.  Chert  Chert  g r a i n s commonly  stones.  Chert  in  samples  some  19D) .  occur  i n t r a c e amounts  grains are colourless contain  radiating  t o brown  fibres  i n the  in thin  sand-  section  of chalcedony  and  (Figure  73  Feldspar  Plagioclase, in  most  most  samples  abundant  feldspar  are  potassium  (Table  Potassium for  Carlsbad  twinning  the  up  to  Eureka to  tous  Sound 14  in  the  possibly  less  includes  percent  i s present  Formation  at  the  plagioclase  microperthite occurring thite  is present.  tified (Figure  by  the  in rods  containing  perthite  the  plagioclase  in  the  Fiord,  upper and  plagioclase  sandstones.  and  beads  exsolved  composition, Antiperthite  although rarely  part  of  shows  the  constitutes  twinning  grains  potassium  Perthite  is  is  most  microcline and  "patches"  is  ubiquiand  common.  20A)  and  and  types  1938). the  occurs  characteristic microcline  microcline  (Figure  (Ailing,  albite  Rare  Sericitization  microperthitic  the  composition.  locally  19F).  of  and  19E).  Albite  intergrowth  microcline,  and  (Figure  (Figure  the  showing  framework  clasts.  grains  antiperthitic  strings,  and  and  orthoclase,  pattern  total  commonly  stringlets,  the  Stenkul  grains  occur  of in  s a u s s u r i t i z a t i o n of  feldspars  present  is usually  feldspar  orthoclase  abundant  Feldspar  clase  plagioinclude  Orthoclase commonly microper-  is easily in  iden-  albite  20B).  Symplectic in  22  of  are  important.  i s most  percent  feldspars  feldspar  perthitic  characteristic "tartan"  Plagioclase  up  but  feldspar  accounts  perthitic  I ) . Potassium  feldspar, locally  and  some g r a i n s .  intergrowths Myrmekite  of  quartz  (Figure  20C),  and and  feldspar less  are  present  commonly  gra-  74 FIGURE  20.  Thin  section  photomicrographs Sound  A.  Plagioclase  B. . P e r t h i t e  C.  (Pi)  (Pt)  Antiperthite  Nicols  and  in  a  of  sandstones,  Formation  quartz  (Q).  Nicols  plutonic  rock  fragment.  showing  microcline  (Mi)  crossed.  and  Nicols  crossed.  plagioclase  crossed.  D.  Myrmekite  E.  Paragneiss  F.  Cataclasite  (My)  and  grain.  or  microcline  Nicols  mylonite  Eureka  (Mi).  Nicols  crossed.  crossed.  grain.  Nicols  crossed.  (Pi).  75  76  phic  quartz-potassium  Sedimentary  Rock  the  Eureka  carbonate  rock  Sound  rock  rock  rarely.  Fragments  shale to  Igneous  Rock  are  the  sandstone  brown.  rock  to  f e l d s p a r and  gory  (Figure 20A).  which  are  plagioclase Biotite  i s rare  and  fragments  commonly  occurs.  Rock  Metamorphic  sedi-  fragments  occur  of  grains  quartz  to  are  pale  fragments  rarely  brown are  and  yellow  and  i n the  sericite  and  are  granitic  i n com-  f e l d s p a r or  included  in this  plutonic  alteration  potas-  of  rock the  cate-  fragplutonic  Fragments  rock  paragneiss  metamorphic  common  g r a i n s are  chlorite  of  occurring  and  textures.  contain quartz  whereas  Grains  rock  component  Sandstone  overgrowths  colourless  micritic  fragments  Fragments  Metamorphic  composed  Carbonate  minor  area.  shale  Quartz  are  a  commonly  and  are  only  study  most  Siltstone  sparry  sium  rock  present.  Fragments  Plutonic  ments,  i n the  fragments  are  have  comprise  boundaries.  Siltstone  and  position.  of  grain  fragments  brown  Formation  fragments.  straight  observed.  fragments  fragments  mentary  with  are  Fragments  Sedimentary of  feldspar intergrowths  quartz  fragments (Figure  and  are  20D),  cataclasite  rare  in  granitic or  the  sandstones.  gneiss,  mylonite  (Wise  stretched et a l . ,  77  1984)  occur  ments  and q u a r t z o - f e l d s p a t h i c metamorphic  lastic  i n the sandstones  texture  are often  (Figure  20E). P l u t o n i c rock  indistinguishable  fragments in thin  with  fraggranob-  section.  Mica  Biotite, but  do n o t c o m p r i s e  composition. tite is  muscovite  locally  occurs  brown  occur.  altered  i s green  i n the  Biotite  occurs  clast  pleochroic  as p l a t e s or as laths  Muscovite  grains or as  sandstones,  of the t o t a l  and r e d , t i t a n i u m - r i c h  to chlorite.  as lath-shaped  Chlorite  occur  an a p p r e c i a b l e p e r c e n t a g e  Green,  varieties  and c h l o r i t e  i s colourless  fine-grained  and p l e o c h r o i c and  bio-  and  and  sericite.  a  replacement  of  biotite.  Granule  and Pebble  Granules stone  units  quartzite  composition  and pebbles  include  and  from  shale, chert,  ples, and from  lag deposits  granite, quartz  analyses  were  a l l of which  a r e from  the Stenkul  Baumann  identified  gneiss,  MINERALS  mineral  8 ) . Heavy  of the sand-  mylonite.  HEAVY  Heavy  basal  mineral Fiord  from  analyses  o r Vendom  thin  completed  were  Fiord,  f o r twenty-one  Fiord  outlier  not performed however,  heavy  s e c t i o n s of the sandstone  on  sam-  (Figures 3 samples  minerals  samples  are  i n -  78  FIGURE  21.  Thin  section Eureka  A.  Zircon  (Zr),  zircon  zircon  grain,  photomicrographs Sound  on  (Tm),  grains.  B.  Garnet  grain  C.  Kyanite  D.  Euhedral  E.  Fibrous  grain  (Ga).  (Ky).  sillimanite  sillimanite  grain  grain  heavy  minerals,  Formation.  overgrowth  tourmaline  of  (SI).  (SI).  rounded  biotite  brown  (Bi)  and  detrital kyanite  (Ky)  79  80  eluded  on  Table  Grain optically mineral  mounts and  of  the  the  diagnostic  or  were  optical  minerals  are  zircon,  varies  from  majority  of  sphericity euhedral,  a  Tourmaline and  i s mainly  rarely  occur.  anhedral present  Tourmaline  fragments, i n most  Garnet  i s the  12-79. The  most  pink  few  rounded  with  detrital  core  and and  which  grains  contains  angular  occurs  mineral  colour The and  subhedral  abraded  Stenkul  Fiord  elbaite  mostly  angular,  well  locally  angular  of  is  rounded  present. except  is colourless  Sphericity  inclusions  likely  very  i n a l l samples  and  to  observed.  and  almandine,  anhedral  (Figure 20F).  extinction,  as  grains are  i s probably  acicular  almost  relief,  from  from  is  prismatic grains. Rutile  usually  section,  heavy  grains.  few  schorlite  i n shape  heavy  The  rarely  a l l samples  miner-  Zircon  Zircons with are  that  Opaque  high A  too  such  common  brown  heavy  were  comprises  with  occur.  ranges  few  section  12-79.  extreme.  indicolite;  I. A  rutile.  and  some  rounded to  examined  they  most  and  grains  abundant  in thin  parallel  well  subhedral,  broken  garnet,  locally  to  samples  slightly well  of  The  Fiord,  with  i n almost  composed  although  eral  rounded,  thin  were  determined.  garnet  yellow  rounded  be  Table  because  i n sample  moderate  occurs  grains  Garnet  from  slightly on  suite  to  on  the  study.  Stenkul  grains are  ranges  overgrowths  in this  mineral  colourless the  o r i e n t e d on  from  fractions  identified  tourmaline,  i n a l l samples heavy  presented  properties could  considered  entire  are be  not  not  the  mineral  not  were  found  heavy  results  species could  fine-grained  als  I.  a  with  to  very  i s moderate. colourless  sillimanite.  min-  81  Minerals amounts  as very  abundant Zoisite lar,  suites.  (Figure  occurs  extinction.  subhedral  Sillimanite  Three  in  a  euhedral few  types  common  subangu-  grains.  i n t h e heavy  miner-  a r e always  euhedral  and  Sillimanite  as a  occasionally  principally  prismatic crystals fibrous  occurs  as  very  (Figure 21B).  mat o f f i n e  crystalline  angular  with  acute  rhombic  prismatic crystals  i n shape,  crystal  of a l l a n i t e  form a r e are pre-  ANALYSIS  of c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n f o rpaleocurrent and r i p p l e  o f 331 c u r r e n t  t o determine  large-scale  and anhedral  samples.  cross-bedding  total  order  rounded  as  tabular plates  crystals  i n the field  trough  A  and occur  elongate  PALEOCURRENT  and  grains.  as broad,  grains are very  sphene  Long,  i n only  measured  rounded  i s most  (Figure 21C).  euhedral  present.  common  are very  i n moderate  grains. Epidote  to well  to well  to euhedral  rarely, occurs  Staurolite  sent  are less  and s i l l i m a n i t e  Kyanite  are present  to silt-size  prismatic crystals  undulose  material  group  as subangular  2 1 A ) . The g r a i n s  angular,  and  sand  and c l i n o z o i s i t e  short  show  fine  and occurs  Kyanite al  of the epidote  mainly  identified  studies; planar  and  tabular  cross-lamination.  s t r u c t u r e s were  paleocurrent  structures,  were  measured  directions.  planar  They  cross-beds-but  at 6  sites  comprise also  128  trough  82  cross-beds, than  a n d .203  fifteen  jority  sets  small  of  the  sedimentary  direction  are  ripple  vector  for  means  calculated using  (1983) found  based to  fidence II),  be  a  from  level.  which  ^data,  on  in this  the  case,  to  The  ma-  II).  interval  24A-D).  A l l the at  more  paleocurrent  o u t l i n e d by  the  (concentration)  were  Vector  Cheeney data  95  were  percent  parameter  d i s p e r s i o n parameters  increasing preferred paleoflow  for  II; Figure  distribution  the  were  outcrop.  confidence  method  calculated k  with  an  (Table  distribution.  Mises  i s analogous  and  (Table  Mises  von  The  increases  data,  a  mean  locality  von  at  s t r u c t u r e s measured  calculated were  observed  cross-laminations  paleocurrent each  structures. Rarely  cross-beds  of  The  scale  of  con(Table  linear  o r i e n t a t i o n of  the  directions.  PROVENANCE  The may  contain  heavy  stone was  a  et  lithologies  very  minerals  (Blatt,  on  parent  survive  derived, sandstone a  need  to  a  and  These  processes  ment,  which  chanical  when  include  determine  abrasion  A  effect  considered  that  complex  of  the  the  sandstone  mineralogy,  transport  wide on  source  the  the  most  variety  and  is  however  degree sand  other  relief of  of  particles  are  a  sand-  which  a  i t  information  sandstone  can and  provenance.  sedimentary  chemical  few  processes  sandstone and  of  from  diagnostic of  derived  deposition  rock(s)  composition  interpreting  climate,  the  a  mineralogical composition  provides  provenance.  significant be  The  function thus  and  which  weathering,  a l . , 1972).  i s mainly  have  diverse  from  weathering subjected  environand to  me-  TABLE I I . P a l e o c u r r e n t  Section number  Interval (metres)  Data  Sedimentary s t r u c t u r e measurements  T o t a l number of observations  Concentration f a c t o r "K"  Vector mean (degrees)  Confidence I n t e r v a l ( i n degrees) (95% l e v e l )  14  9.4  236  ±  1 0  39  3.2  359  ±  1 1  10  44  3.6  287  ±  1 0  14  R i p p l e c r o s s - Planar c r o s s lamination bedding  14  05  65 - 67  08  18 - 29  39  10  59 - 82  34  13  46 - 60  15  15  5.1  172  ±  14  86 - 116  37  37  9.2  173  ±  18  70 - 82  16  16  4.5  160  + 14  6  CO  84  during also  deposition.  occurs  mineral ic  after  evidence  rock for  constituent  sandstone grains  tary  of  of  sinuosity  structures  from  minerals  and,  when  are  they  The  are  they  mineral  be  and  Several of  specif-  provide habit  strong  of  the  valuable clues  as  to  histories.  somewhat  can  solution.  occur,  provide  species  diagnostic  size  transportation  directions as  certain  intrastratal  sandstone  and  provenance,  degree  by  of  provenance.  in a  various origins  sandstone the  suites  lithologies  Paleocurrent  loss  deposition  s p e c i e s and  source  their  Selective  less  quite  of  the  channel  and  which  the  measurements  diagnostic  of  variable  depending  the  of  type  are  on  sedimen-  obtained  (Miall,  1974).  Sandstone rent  studies  of  suggest  that  morphic  rocks  Canadian  petrography, the  Precambrian of  the  Shield,  (Stockwell,  Eureka  rocks  f o r most  to  the  south  and  to  the  study  area  to  the  gest  Formation and  1983;  to  the  Figure  sandstones.  east 1)  of  are  and  and  the  paleocur-  study  facies  Province  Precambrian  Paleozoic clastic a  from  granulite  Structural  out  contributed  analysis  the the  of  area  metathe  study  area,  principal  crystalline  carbonate  rocks  s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n of  rocks  adjacent detritus  sandstones.  The the  mineral  granites  crop  Frisch,  source  and  Sound  Churchill  which  1982;  heavy  angularity common  that  the  of  most  occurrence sandstones  energy  environments  jected  to  rapid  close  erosion.  grains,  of  The  absence  mechanically  were to  the  deposited a  high  unstable  i n low  relief  c l i m a t e was  of  to  source  cool  and  conglomerates grains  sug-  moderate which wet  in  was the  sub-  85  Paleocene thus  a n d became  d i d n o t have  sandstones, did  The and  presence  which that  which  with  acicular  decomposed  than  (Blatt,  plagioclase, Pittman,  rock  deposits  istic  heavy  minerals  gneisses  strained, origin,  and s c h i s t s  rocks Most  perthite,  nearby  indicates granitic  has a  low  i s always  parent  rock  intergrowths  common  a r e common  rocks  survival  e x h i b i t e d by (Blatt,  1982;  of quartz and  i n g r a n i t e s , and a r e  i n t h e samples, and pebbles  and a l l a n i t e  rocks,  rich  were  although  in iron  also  and occur  in basal  a  a r e both  sphene  significant  quartz  with  also  quartz  extinction  occur  minerals.  source  grains are likely undulose  character-  may  and magnesium  of the polycrystalline  monocrystalline quartz although  of  indicate  samples.  sphene  of igneous  sandstones.  rutile  sandstones.  minerals  Metamorphic Sound  twinning  g r a i n s and as granules  i n the  of  feldspars,  abundance  as p e r t h i t e  and graphic  fragments  inclusions  from  a granitic  i n s e v e r a l sandstone  as sand-size  The  suggests  high  feldspar are especially  Granite both  which  decomposition.  alkali  derived  Albite  1970).. M y r m e k i t e  potassium observed  1982).  deposition  and d i s i n t e g r a t e d ,  of recycled o r i g i n ,  of the  o r t h o c l a s e and o r t h o c l a s e  a r e t h e dominant  The r e l a t i v e l y  easily  1977), and  on t h e m i n e r a l o g y  f o r chemical  the feldspar i s probably  potential  ic  of q u a r t z  source.  i s very  rather  in  time  microcline, microcline perthite,  plutonic  lag  effect  (Rouse,  t r a n s p o r t d i s t a n c e s and r a p i d  sufficient  microperthite, a  i n t h e Eocene  a significant  as short  not allow  warmer  f o r Eureka g r a i n s and  o f metamorphcan also  86  occur  in plutonic  common and  i n the  The  indicates 1966).  the  tose  red, high  which sand  rarely  mylonite parent  also  rock  kyanite,  rounded grains  some  situ  beds  and  well  rounded  The  presence The  in older  sandstones.  of  from  Because  the  existence  ments  such  as  or  chert  nodules  sandstone,  derived  frag-  quartz  gneiss  and  a  metamorphic  garnet,  sillimanite,  group.  grains, grains  a  were  of  source.  rounding  probably  formed  occur in  rocks.  an  from  older  chert  sedimentary  nodules  and  older, chert-bearing  removed  evidence  i n the  any  with  quartz  sedimentary  show  from  is easily  rocks or  not  schis-  rock  sedimentary  only  gneiss,  polycrystalline  and  reworked  the  carbonate  do  wea-  concentrations  epidote  indicate  et a l . ,  mylonite  of  indicative  been  carbonate  transportation, often  from  the  few  grains  is  have  and  derived  or  and  samples  s u s c e p t i b l e to  almandine  which  older  chert  may  a  (Deer  d i a g n o s t i c of  of  textures  limestones  of  and  i n some  granitic  pebbles  minerals  quartz  reworked  chert  and  igneous  in phyllites  smaller  cataclasite  including  overgrowths  not  their  are  in various  terrane  more  monocrystalline quartz  sedimentary  quartz  are  chlorite  observed  source  minerals  overgrowths  and  source.  Heavy  occur,  rounded,  and  found  biotite  for  and  commonly  Paragneiss,  Granules  occur.  quartz  Euhedral  quartz  also  with  accounts  are  most  fragments  fraction.  staurolite  Well  occur  metamorphic  rock  occur.  muscovite  micas  titanium-rich  likely  size  The  but  grade  metamorphic  ments  on  rocks,  Metamorphic  thering in  a  Biotite,  sandstones.  metamorphic  schists.  rocks.  in  by the  drainage  weathering sandstone  basin  chert  beds.  Sedimentary  siltstone,  shale  and  for  is chert, rock  carbonate  are  fragsus-  87  ceptible cates  to abrasion,  first  cycle  deposition.  Well  tourmaline monly that  rocks  1983).  reflects  pyroxene  lying  to  in  from  of the sandstones i n part  derived  from  to  zircon, most  and  of the study  sediments  granite  com-  indicate  older  sed-  were t h e  and a r e mainly  and pyroxene  of the Precambrian Cordierite,  from  Sound  quartz  rocks.  rock  undoubtedly  derived  which  surround Eureka  Fiord  (Figure  in thin  spinel  not recognized  fragments from  section  transport  spinel  b u t was  Sound  green  Shield  i n the depositional  rock  granites  i n the sandis difficult  i n thin  section  rare and  recognized.  quartz  grains  c a r b o n a t e and c l a s t i c  outliers  3). Sedimentary  ortho-  and i s t h e r e f o r e  and p o l y c y c l i c  older  with  and orthopyroxene i s  i s opaque  not  close-  rocks  and  Formation. C o r d i e r i t e  sediment  Green  i n the samples  the sandstones.  com-  gneiss  of the g n e i s s e s and  n o t p r e s e n t o r were  Sedimentary  potential  Sound  constituents  destroyed during  occur  were  minerals occur  indi-  prior  The m i n e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s a n d s t o n e s  the Eureka  sedimentary  may  distances  (group)  to the east  peraluminous  a r e common  distinguish  easily  samples  garnet-cordierite-sillimanite-biotite  the mineralogy  are either  stones  in  at least  few n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s .  but  transport  and e p i d o t e  f o r the Eureka  anatectic  (Frisch,  a  were  i n some  of the stable  mineral suites  of migmatitic  gneiss,  presence  rocks.  source  prised  grains  (group), r u t i l e ,  the sediments  major  their  and short  rounded  Precambrian  ly  origin  i n the heavy  imentary  hence  in the v i c i n i t y  fragments  environment  have  a  rocks  of Stenkul low  survival  and a r e t h e r e f o r e  rare  88  In at  summary,  most  sandstones  Stenkul Fiord  were  derived  metamorphic 70  km  to  the  However, chert  r o c k s of east  well  and  rounded  sedimentary  stones  were  bonate  and  in  vicinity  the  tion  of  and  the  at  least  clastic of  Eureka  the  from  from  Canadian  100  km  to  the  Precambrian Shield  the  rock  fragments  partly  derived  at  Formation.  the  indicate from  study  that  Lower  various  Formation and  l i e approximately  with quartz  rocks which  Stenkul Fiord Sound  of  Sound  granitic  which  south  quartzose grains  sedimentary  Eureka  were  area.  overgrowths, the  sand-  Paleozoic probably  times  during  carexposed deposi-  89  DIAGENESIS AND  of  Strata  the Eureka  VITRINITE  Sound F o r m a t i o n  Vendom, S t e n k u l ,  Baumann and  the e x c e p t i o n o f  a few  by  siderite  The  or  Elsewhere  Miall,  1976;  tation  is a result  never  and  Although rounded  with  cemented  of  study a r e a .  Sound and (Bustin,  whether and  the sandstones  1977;  the lack  dissolution  older  of  cemen-  of^previous-  from  Sound F o r m a t i o n . E t c h e d s u r f a c e s replacement  by c a r b o n a t e and  as e v i d e n c e of  Etched quartz grain  unlikely  occur only  towards  t h e base  rare  a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o have o c c u r even  rank  that  suggest  probably less  locally  m  later  decementaa r e not  of t h e water  the  Eureka  sandstones  stratigraphic  environments.  o c c u r on  formed  well  i_n s i t u ,  quartz  i n the s a n d s t o n e s . C o a l  these sediments  t h a n 800  of  cemented  euhedral q u a r t z overgrowths  of  Stenkul F i o r d .  the sandstones  were d e p o s i t e d i n b r a c k i s h  g r a i n s and  studies  that  surfaces  from  were e v e r c e m e n t e d . L o c a l l y  c e m e n t a t i o n d o e s not  deeply,  have been  cement  have been c i t e d  1975).  i t i s most  siltstones  succession  lithified,  to the  i n the u n c o n s o l i d a t e d sandstones  Sound F o r m a t i o n and  appreciable  I t i s not c l e a r  resulting  (PettiJohn,  Therefore,  of  c a r b o n a t e cement, o r whether p e r v a s i v e c e m e n t a t i o n  grains  observed  unique  of d e c e m e n t a t i o n  carbonate d i s s o l u t i o n tion  that  A r c h i p e l a g o , Eureka  lack  19.79a).  i s not  o c c u r r e d i n the Eureka  quartz  zones  a r e not  unconsolidated aspect o f  i n the A r c t i c  existing  Fiords  localized  Sound F o r m a t i o n  s a n d s t o n e s commonly  ly  Sor  i n the v i c i n i t y  calcite.  essentially  the Eureka  REFLECTANCE  (Bustin,  have not  been  in prep.),  buried  which  would  90  explain  the lack  Siderite amounts  cemented  sandstones  of organic plant  micro-organisms environments. rous  of pressure solution  iron,  uses  Under  reflectance  Stenkul  Fiord  sidence  of the sedimentary  tance  Fiord  from  carbon  pile  the v i t r i n i t e  o b t a i n e d from and f i v e  seven coal  coal  a r e shown  derived  fer-  from  and rate  area  are discussed  in a later  values  reflec-  from t h e  t h e Baumann  these  located  the order  The amount  sub-  rank  values to  ( i nprep.) f o r  on  o f 8 0 0 m.  of  I I I . The c o a l  Relating  by B u s t i n  i n the  amount o f  Vitrinite  on T a b l e  at Strathcona Fiord,  seams  reflectance  samples  samples  t o 0 . 3 % Romax.  gradient  sediments  gradient.  t h e maximum  paper.  and  siderite  depth  and the subsequent  150 km n o r t h o f S t e n k u l F i o r d ,  Fiord  form  of the coal  ly  Stenkul  dioxide  o n t h e maximum  coalification  0 . 1 5 % Romax  Sound  inference  The r e s u l t s  coalification  Eureka  by  anaerobic reducing  silicates,  measurements  by r e l a t i n g  outlier  outlier.  varies the  allow  derived  values.were  Stenkul Fiord  area  and e r o s i o n ,  a locally  high  of organic material  local  reducing conditions,  containing  1982).  Vitrinite  to  creating  boundaries.  i n zones  Decay  p r o v i d e d by i r o n - b e a r i n g  (Teichmuller,  uplift  occur  material.  oxygen,  at grain  depth  approximateof b u r i a l i s  of erosion section  i nthe  of the  TABLE I I I . V i t r i n i t e R e f l e c t a n c e R e s u l t s  Location  Sample number  Depth (m)  % R max °  Standard d e v i a t i o n (95% l e v e l )  Stenkul  18-136  35  0.15  0.02  Stenkul  18-133  50  0.20  0.02  Stenkul  18-132  82  0.20  0.02  Stenkul  14-147  38  0.24  0.03  Stenkul  04-149  23  0.23  0.02  Stenkul  04-155  80  0.29  0.02  Stenkul  07-55  180  0.30  0.03  Baumann  22-189  5  0.25  0.03  Baumann  22-186  103  0.21  0.03  Baumann  22-165  281  0.19  OiL 03  Baumann  22-164  329  0.24  0.03  Baumann  22-156  476  0.24  0.02  92  FOSSIL  The yielded ical  Eureka  Formation  a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount  data.  mining  Sound  C O N T E N T AND  Palynology  i n the v i c i n i t y  of p a l y n o l g i c a l  provides  t h e most  the ages  of these  sediments.  paleontological  evidence  were  tent  with  the ages  obtained  and  paleontological  tic  and paleoenvironmental  sition  data  of the Eureka  using  of Stenkul  Fiord  and p a l e o n t o l o g -  precise  tool  for deter-  Age d e t e r m i n a t i o n s  not as p r e c i s e ,  provide  Sound  AGE  b u t were  palynology.  Both  based  on  consis-  palynological  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p a l e o c l i m a -  c o n d i t i o n s which Formation  existed  i n the study  during  depo-  area.  PALYNOLOGY  Selected semblages provide tions.  samples  for dating parts  evidence These  of  British  by  Rouse  Island. cognized  from  t h e Remus  The sample  numbers  palynomorphs  section  station  and ages  are listed  s e c t i o n s and t o condi-  of the U n i v e r s i t y  to the palynozones  Creek  weather  palynomorph a s -  and paleoenvironmental  by D r . G.E. Rouse  and r e l a t e d  of Eureka  to obtain  of the s t r a t i g r a p h i c  identified  Columbia,  west  processed  for paleoclimatic  were  (1977)  Formation  were  established  of the Eureka  on c e n t r a l  are presented  i n the Appendix.  Sound  Ellesmere  here.  The r e -  93  SAMPLE  NUMBER  AGE  PALYNOZONE (Rouse,  83-18-134  Late  Eocene  83-22-188  Early  to  Middle Late  83-22-157  E-2  early  E-1  Eocene  Middle to  early  1977)  P-3  Late  Paleocene 83-23-178  Late  Paleocene  P-4  83-07-58  mid-  Paleocene  P-2  83-07-54&56  mid-  Paleocene  P-2  The  palynomorph  for.18-134 porary  and 22-188.  dinoflagellate  preserved near  spore pollen  shore,  Of  54&56).  close  added  Campanian  pread  assemblages  Such  formations  two s a m p l e s as w e l l  assemblage,  contain  as a very indicating  developed plant  Upper  sections  in the Arctic  except  several  diverse  contem-  and  deposition  well very  communities.  i s the presence of Maastrichtian  palynomorphs  recycled  i n the lower  cysts  to well  interest  recycled  These  are mainly t e r r e s t r i a l ,  i n the oldest  -  samples (07-  Cretaceous palynomorphs  are wides-  of the Eureka  equivalent  (Rouse,  1977,p.  Sound  and  48; N o r r i s  and  Miall,  1984).  Prior dated age Late  to this  Eureka  Sound  (Thorsteinsson Eocene  investigation, strata  seen  and Tozer,  and Oligocene  the youngest  i n outcrop  were  1970; B u s t i n ,  palynomorph  conclusively of Middle  1977; R o u s e ,  assemblages  have  Eocene 1977).  been r e -  94  cognized however at  in  some w e l l s  the  Stenkul  in  recognition Fiord  Eureka' Sound  i s the  strata  in  the  of  a  Mackenzie Late  first  Delta  Eocene  known  (Rouse,  palynomorph  occurrence  of  1977), assemblage  Upper  Eocene  outcrop.  PALEONTOLOGY  Several brate beds  and at  specimens  invertebrate)  Stenkul  Ironstone stratigraphic molds of the  the  and  are  nodules  casts  University  of  fossils  shown  in  plants  collected  and  animals  from  the  (both  Eureka  verte-  Sound  Fiord.  and  sequence  area  fossil  were  of  branches  were  and  brackets  on  occur  contained 23B)  by and  Figures  following  Dr.  and  G.E.  are 22  each  throughout  leaf  reproductive  Columbia  shown  which  (Figure  identified  British are  beds  commonly  p a l e o f l o r a . Leaves  study  plant  of  imprints  and  reproductive  parts  parts  collected  Rouse  of  listed and  the  23.  below. Modern  from  the Several relations  name.  LEAVES Metasequoia  o c c i d e n t a l i s (dawn  Crednaria  spectabilis  Phyllites  cf.  redwood),  (relations  disturbans  Figure  unknown)  (relations  unknown),  22B cf.  Sapindus  Viburnum  affinus  tilioides  (soapberry)  (arrow-wood),  22A  Figure  22C  Figure  95 FIGURE  22.  Fossil  A.  Metasequoia  B.  Phyllites  C.  Viburnum t i l i o i d e s  D.  Nelumbium montanum  E.  Unionid  remains,  occidentalis  cf.  (dawn  disturbans  pelecypod  Unidentified  trace  Sound  Formation.  redwood).  (relations  unknown).  (arrow-wood).  (sacred  cf.  bean).  P l e s i e l l i p t i o  Hayden).  F.  Eureka  fossils.  priscus  (Meek  and  96  97  REPRODUCTIVE  PARTS  female  cone  Figure  23A  Nelumbium conifer  of  Liquidambar  beds  of  ironstone  Imperfect occurred  one  (Meek  others  to  of  Dr.  L.S.  casts  water  clams,  preferred  have  of  of  and  the  previously  contained  unionid the  the  pelecypods  Royal  as  cf.  stream  (L.S.  Ontario  been  Plesielliptio age.  Unionid  priscus  channels  outcrops  Strathcona  reported  fre-  Museum  by  of  at  to  Russell, personal  from of  faunal  concretionary  Paleocene  active  head  (sweetgum)  Plesielliptio  pelecypods  near  also  i s of  environments  Formation  sp.  collected  which  Unionid  22D  (hickory)  within  Russell  specimens  have  Carya  samples  and  freshwater  Island  com-  the  Fiord Dawson  on and  (1976).  Trace on  marine  molds  Hayden),  1984).  Sound  seed  entire  the  and  standing  Ellesmere  as  of  are  munication,  and  22E).  appeared  shown  and  Figure  redwood),  spruce  head  pelecypods  Eureka  cf.  fruiting  nodules  priscus  cone  bean),  cf.  identified  quiet,  male  (sacred  and  (Figure  least  montanum  o c c i d e n t a l i s (dawn  endocarp  remains.  units  Metasequoia  cf.  The  quently  of  fossils  Figure  beds  on  preserved  22F. the  The  east  i n an  trace side  ironstone  fossils  of  were  Stenkul  concretion recovered  Fiord,  but  are  from  have  non-  not  identified.  The Eureka  discovery  Sound  beds  and on  identification  the  east  side  of  of  a  fossil  Stenkul  tooth  Fiord  from  provides  been  FIGURE  Female  cone  Ironstone  Lower  23.  left  of  cast  Fossil  remains,  Metasequoia  of  canine  a  Eureka  Sound  Formation  occidentalis  branch.  tooth  of  Coryphodon,  lateral  views.  99  100  evidence  that  a  (Figures  23C,  D),  Ontario  vertebrate  Museum,  identified  i s the  hippopotamus-like of  tail  mainly  (Kurten, a  limited  1971).  tatives  of  have  i n the v i c i n i t y  Ellesmere  Island  described  by  vels.  vertebrate  The  cludes level  by  Middle  Eocene  a  of  West  been of  2.5  this  of  probably  suggests a  late  and  large  to  base  been and  not  represen-  the Eureka on  tetrapods  discrete level,  Eocene  Sound  central  fossil  lower  Early  assemblage  including  Fiord  i n two  the  nose  t o have  from  e t a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The occur  a  1884).  vertebrates,  of  from  tooth  the Royal  omnivorous  (Cope,  recovered  of  The  Coryphodon,  i s presumed  food  area.  Russell  metres  Strathcona  assemblage  smaller  L.S.  canine  was  et al.(l977)  Coryphodon, contains  but  type  Formation  West  left  terrestrial  Coryphodon  Dr.  measuring  feeder,  of  inhabited  Coryphodon  specific  Assemblages  by  lower  mammal  vegetable t o any  fauna  faunal l e which i n -  age.  i s considered  The  upper  to  be of (  age.  PALEOCLIMATE  The study  fossil  area  strata, during  content  i s useful  but  also  of  the Eureka  for determining  the c l i m a t i c  Sound not  conditions  Formation i n the  only  t h e age  which  must  of  have  the existed  deposition.  Palynology  i s t h e most  paleoclimate  of  reproductive  parts,  Coryphodon  a l l of  the  Unionid  substantiate  useful fossils  for interpretation examined.  p e l e c y p o d s and  the p a l e o c l i m a t i c  Fossil  the  of  the  leaves  fossil  tooth  and from  interpretations* based  101  on  palynology.  Palynomorph  assemblages  lated  to the palynozones  vious  section.  es  from  climatic  from  Sound  must  Creek  have  area  by Rouse  between  Formation  t h e Remus  conditions  the study  constructed  The s i m i l a r i t y  the Eureka  assemblages  from  have  (1977)  been r e i n a pre-  the palynomorph  i n the study  section  prevailed  assemblag-  area  suggests i n both  and the  that  areas  similar during the  Paleogene.  The  Early  probably porates  t o mid-Paleocene  wet c l i m a t e such  pollen  during  native  by t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f  Appendix).  i s indicated  and the appearance  possibly  and tri-  confusus and  study,  Paleocene  pollen  by a c o o l  and b l a d d e r e d and t a x o d i a c e o u s  1977; t h i s  mid- t o Late  tricolporate  ly  mullensis  (Rouse,  macregorii,  as i n d i c a t e d  as P a r a a l n i p o l l e n i t e s  Triporopollenites fer  was d o m i n a t e d  related  to the subtropical  by an  of  warming  increase i n  Pistillipollenites  t o t h e genus parts  A marked  coni-  Tournefortia,  of C e n t r a l  present-  America  (Rouse,1977).  By  Early  favoured gested  to Middle  by a s u b t r o p i c a l  similar  comes  time,  t o warm  climatic  (Dawson  Eocene  et al.,1976;  lower Eureka West,  such  Wolfe  climate,  (1980) a l s o  to support  floras this  and higher v e r t e b r a t e Sound  Formation  et al.,1977;  r e g i o n s were as  as R h o i i p i t e s  f o r Paleogene  of evidence  the rich  Early-Middle  1977).  conditions  stronger line from  (Rouse,  the Arctic  temperate  by t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f s p e c i e s  Pistillipollenites  even  Eocene  sugl a t u s and  proposed  i n A l a s k a . An  interpretation record  on E l l e s m e r e  of the Island  E s t e s and Hutchison,  1 02  1980).  Evidence  vicinity fauna  of  may  from  Stenkul  also  have  Ellesmere  Island  nological  results  tropical Middle sive and  to  broad  A  major  Eocene, mixed 1980).  and  broad  and  suggests  Coryphodon  that  in the  a  an  study  to Middle  climate  Eocene  lowland,  on  time.  remains  coastal  existed  abundant  area  i n the  v e g e t a t i o n in the  Arctic  the  vertebrate  southern Thus  both  indicate  a  palysub-  during Early  habitat  Ellesmere  in  with  Island  deterioration  v e g e t a t i o n i n the  leaved deciduous  and  occurred at  Alaskan  the  area  end  of  region comprised  coniferous forest  to  exten(Estes  1980).  climatic the  that  vertebrate faunal  temperate  leaved  study  existed  and  time,  Hutchison,  Fiord  in Early  warm  Eocene  this  (Wolfe,  the a  103  Eureka Baumann and  Sound into  least  two  graphic  i n the v i c i n i t y  strata  local  with  authors  on  first  southern  Palynological  paleogeographic  The  deposited  incursions  on t h e t i m i n g  (Bustin,  PALEOGEOGRAPHY  of Stenkul,  unconformably  Ellesmere  toward  Island  events,  interpretations  proposed  to Late  Paleocene.  to Late  Eocene.  depict  the paleogeography  of the eastern  Arctic  from  Early  The section  section  in  part  which and  with  (?) to mid-  stratiprovides compari-  previous  Early  from  cycle  late  occurred  paleogeographic and t e c t o n i c  (?) Paleocene  ele-  to  strata  Paleocene  i n the study  1984). 22  Late  south  out north  the shallow  area age  mid-Paleocene  o f Baumann  contemporaneous  crop  Schematic  late  07 a n d a r e o f m i d - P a l e o c e n e  of  with at  time.  basal  munication,  by  lasted  The s e c o n d  ( F i g u r e s 24A-D)  Late  c a n be d i -  1981).  maps  Eocene  of the  and permits  Late  Late  Devonian  the top of the  from  ments  history  transgressive-regressive cycle  Paleocene  on  d a t i n g of the sediments  of these  1977; M i a l l ,  (?) Paleocene  Vendom,  transgressive-regressive cycles,  marine  section.  AND  r o c k s . The d e p o s i t i o n a l  Formation  two m a j o r  constraints  Early  Sound  sedimentary  vided  son  HISTORY  a n d S o r F i o r d s were  older  Eureka  DEPOSITIONAL  with  Fiord.  Inlet  out a t t h e base of  (G. Rouse,  strata These  b r a c k i s h marine  of Makinson marine  crop  occur strata Eureka  personal  com-  a t t h e base are at Sound  least strata  ( R i e d i g e r e t a l . , 1984)  and b r a c k i s h water  strata  of  Member  104  Late Paleocene  FIGURE 2 4 . S c h e m a t i c paleogeographic maps  Early to Late Eocene  [^]  Alluvial plain  fjj]  Marine  deposits  ^  Highland source  —  Measured paleocurrent  —  Inferred paleocurrent  Facies  deposits areas direction  direction  change  SFB  Strand Fiord  RB  Remus  Basin  Basin  tin. 1977, ana Mia  PMA  Princess Margaret  Arch  PCS  Precambian Canadian  Shield  105  III  of  1981)  West at  and  Strathcona  Strathcona  Fiord  communication,  A  others  calcite  reworked  may  on  coeval  were  been  with  the  being  of  Paleocene  area  not  Miall tuarine  this the  marine Vendom  from  the  Vesle  and  (?)  mid-Paleocene  Farther  the  Vendom  Ellesmerian ographic  at  of  north,  sedimentation  Stenkul  grains  and  which  end  may  a  Miall,  Rouse,  III  at  personal  in  Fiord,  mid-  contains  carbonate  fragments  l i e northwest  time. of  occurs  the  This  of  highland  Early  the  area  Paleocene, Arch  (Bustin,  occur  in the  Stenkul  protected  marine  embayment  deposition  Strathcona occupied  and  which on  rocks  of time  Schei  the  for  Fiord a  on  the  (Figure  strata  to  Fiord  received  clastic  and  Peninsula, this  or  Lithofacies  i s suggested i n the  on  and  the  that  axis  west  extended  southern  es-  of  and  south-  Ellesmere late  Early  24A).  s y n c l i n e s were  during  of  syncline during  1974),  occurred  It  valley  east,  Fiords  Schei  strata  area.  shallow  (McGill,  Fosheim  the  Paleozoic  Strathcona  axis  orogeny  lows  of  that  the  strata  crystalline  along  The  near  which  strata  s y n c l i n e , between  Island to  (G.  of  Member  a n c e s t r a l Princess Margaret  embayment  Precambrian ward  in  quartz  suggested  environment A  age  of  A  exposed.  (1981)  Assemblage  beds  bed,  shore  eroded  uplifted  uplift  are  east  Paleozoic  1982) . L o w e r but  Asemblage  uppermost  sandstone  detrital  indicates that  have  The  mid-Paleocene  cemented  abundant  area  of  Lithofacies  1984).  strata  study  Fiord.  are  Paleocene  and  (1981;  formed  during  the  appear  to  have  sediments  at  various  alluvial  time  plain  (Bustin,  and  1977).  been  top-  times.  deltaic A  cool  106  and  wet  climate  mid-  Paleocene  Mid-  to Late  From  the  the  marine  the  area  to Late  plain  (Figure  rocks  over  mid-  sediments 24B)  and  were  dominant  source  abundance  of  nonmarine  environment  Early  to  indicate  alluvial a  Canadian  sandstones  Paleocene  were  and  the  are  existed  dein  the  heavy  from  mineral  the  evidence  Stenkul Fiord  deposits  trend  that  east  sandstones.  palynological  warming  of  strata  rocks to  further  near  east  westerly-flowing  f o r the  e x t e n s i v e peat  climatic  water  indicates  Precambrian  and  to  of  e x t e n s i v e peat  p e t r o g r a p h i c and  lithologies  plain  uplift  Shield  brackish  d e p o s i t e d by  uplifted  which  laterally  the  relative  southwesterly withdrawal  freshwater pelecypods  Thick,  1977)  the  sandstone  that  swamps o n  time,  area. Paleocurrent data  indicate  time.  of  i n the  Fluvial  analyses the  during  1977).  Paleocene  resulted  embayment.  Stenkul Fiord  rivers  Ellesmere Island  (Rouse,  crystalline  prograded  alluvial  on  Paleocene  study  posits  time  middle  Precambrian of  prevailed  formed data  middle  An of  at in  the this  back-  (Rouse, to  Late  Paleocene.  Late  Paleocene  During in  the  to  Late  Late  northward Paleocene  Paleocene  m i g r a t i o n of alluvial  Lithofacies  Assemblage  base  section  of  the  time,  IV  i n the  marine  coastal  plain at  a  transgression  marine  sediments  Stenkul Fiord  Baumann  Fiord  facies  (Figure and  over  middle  24C).  strata  outlier  resulted  at  the  comprise l a -  1 07  goonal,  marsh,  its.  Stenkul  At  Lithofacies grained the  Fiord,  alluvial  (Figure  of  Late  Early  to  Late  Stenkul  strata  i n the  Sor  on  logical  white  the  sheet  sand  sandstones  with  lagoonal  east,  Paleocene  as  a  and  marine  paleocurrent  indicate  that  sediment  southern  data  depos-  of  and  thus  fine-  represent  transgression  source.  (?)  mid-  which  Paleocene  McLean  Formation  that  to  formerly  shallow similar  the  to  palyno-  and  east  the  north over  the  predominant  north  to  heavy  east  south  in the by  embayment Spirit the  analyses as  at  of  late  contained  River Lower  Foothills,  the  least  axis  the  area,  (Figure  mineral  that  of  paleoflow  persisted  occupied  Mountain  of  to  f o r d e p o s i t i o n of Rocky  age  south,  valley  the  similar  tentative.  suggests  marine  Sound  the  and  evidence  pre-  r e t r e a t e d to  the  the  are  Eureka  absence  prograded  from  north-south  (1977) of  facies  rocks  was  possibly  uplift  mainly  Such  the  i s only  petrography  Precambrian  syncline,  by  plain  was  sandstone  Vendom  stream,  renewed  of  i n the  had  strata  outliers.  possibly  but  sea  indicates  time  p o r t i o n of  the  marine  Fiord  correlation  Alluvial  this  However,  this  and  are  similarity,  of  area.  at  outlier  result  and  direction  Baumann  time,  study  Cadomin  to  nonmarine  Eocene  the  sioned  Late  and  Fiord  dates,  Early  possibly  trunk  deposits the  lithological age  By  to  prominent interfinger  Eocene  i n the  major  washover  Eocene  served  24D).  and  24C).  to  based  IV  plain  extent  delta  the  Assemblage  eastern  Early  flood-tidal  the  the Early a  major  Channel  envi-  Cretaceous and  by  108  Ethridge Fort  and  Union  Basin,  (Late  Wyoming.  Precambrian from  others  trunk  stream  depositing towards 24D).  An  Streams  strata,  flowed  west  southwestern  of  of  Two  channel  marine  mudstone  beds  with  Late  plain  Basin  tions  existed IV  of  Late  Baumann suggests the  Paleocene  at  rapid  i n the West  and  River  f l o w i n g westward  to  lesser  a  stream the and  the  have  extent  Stenkul then  Fiord  probably  Syncline  west been  of  from  eastward  ( F i g u r e 24D).  Schei  strata  body  The area,  swung  (Figure  Okse  Bay  deposited  of  cyst  study  until  and there  Strathcona others  on  by  this  on  (Figure  of  Fiord  were  at  Middle  i n the  area  of  1977).  to  cm)  minor  time.  time,  a l -  area,  region  Fluvial  during  in Early  two  study  central  to  outliers  Eocene the  of  (50  least  Eocene  south  ?).  Early  Stenkul  a  the  uplift  in thin  north  Fiord  from  occur  (Bustin,  (1981)  out  area  during  least  persisted  Peninsula  study  age  area  at  crops  assemblages  Eocene  that  obtained  intermittent  the  Fiord  was  which  suggests  sedimentation  Fosheim  Powder  upper  fans  direction  south  sedimentation  Remus  time.  which  and  system.  This  and  i n the  relatively  Member  Sound  dinoflagellate  incursions into  From  of  (Eocene)  i n the  through  sandstone  rocks  Eocene  respectively,  luvial  trunk  I s l a n d may  Fiord.  Shield  Middle  marine  the  axis  Eureka  fluvial  Stenkul  Precambrian  early  and,  northerly paleocurrent  wedge-shaped shore  rocks  sediments,  the  Ellesmere  westerly-flowing  A  plain  Wasatch  alluvial  southward  down  outlier  fed  the  Formations  and  source  alluvial  the  for  Paleocene)  Shield  Paleozoic  (1981)  of  condi-  deposition  Middle  the  Eocene  of  109  The perate al.,  climate  which  T977;  verse peat  during  supported  Estes  was  an abundant  and Hutchison,  vegetation, deposits  the Eocene  a n d was  at Fosheim  s u b t r o p i c a l t o warm  vertebrate  fauna  1980; McKenna,  favourable Peninsula,  tem-  (West e t  1980) a n d a d i -  t o the development Strathcona  Fiord  of  and  thick  Stenkul  Fiord.  Post-Eocene  The timated coal  amount  of e r o s i o n  by r e l a t i n g  seams  gradient. 0.3%  Erosion  section,  T h e maximum  Relating this  Strathcona  Fiord,  at  Fiord  bed  lying  strata  years, 10  which  m/Ma.  i s estimated  removed  this  over  translates into  a coal  seam  depth  Sound  of b u r i a l  t o b e 8 0 0 m. coal  seam  obtained  Fiord  area i s  a t the base  of the  180 m o f  gradient  strata at of the sediments  The age o f a  mudstone t o be  on t h e o r d e r  of approximately  an a v e r a g e  from  coalification  was d e t e r m i n e d  something  a period  c a n be e s -  by a p p r o x i m a t e l y  f o r Eureka  t h e maximum  area  to the c o a l i f i c a t i o n  i n age. Therefore,  were  to a local  i n the Stenkul  overlain  value  below  area  from  ( i nprep.)  directly  mid-Paleocene of  rank  i s presently  by B u s t i n  Stenkul  coal  Fiord  reflectance values  Fiord  a n d was o b t a i n e d  which  sediment. derived  vitrinite  i n the Stenkul  Romax,  i n the Stenkul  denudation  60  rate  o f 620 m million of about  1 10  SUMMARY  The Island  Eureka  as o u t l i e r s  Fiords.  faults.  Formation igraphic  Two  and back  Ancestral strong  Early  tectonic  and  white  Fiord ward units east  thin  area  the Stenkul  of t h e Canadian plain  Shield  facies  marine  transgression  occurred  than  i n a back  Eocene  t h e main  10 m)  sequence  mudstones barrier  were  time.  The P r e c a m b r i a n rocks  which  was  a  elastics  area.  Uplift resulted  the b r a c k i s h water  on t h e a l l u v i a l  environment. over  age.  to the east  i n Late  deposited  prograded  source  and shed  of q u a r t z o s e  plain  of the sec-  Island  Fiord  over  formed  on an a l l u v i a l  were  into  d e p o s i t s were  (less  strata,  t o mid-Paleocene  peat  weathering  during  a t t h e base  time  p r o g r a d a t i o n of a l l u v i a l  A  strat-  are recognized.  at this  in  time.  The  nonmarine  element  crystalline  second  thrust  Sound  450 m.  Heiberg  of  A  t o be  on A x e l  and southeast  Thick  and minor  Arch  the south  deposits.  cycles  (?) Paleocene  to  rocks  folds  predominantly  deposits occur  P r i n c e s s Margaret  positive  and Sor  locally.  barrier  and a r e of l a t e  open  i s estimated  transgressive-regressive  Lagoonal tion  area  occur  Baumann  Ellesmere  t h i c k n e s s of the Eureka  succession comprises units  southern  t o g e n t l y d i p p i n g and the  by b r o a d  composite  on  Stenkul,  are flat-lying  i n the study  marine  occurs  Vendom,  i s characterized  The t o t a l  CONCLUSIONS  Formation  along  The s t r a t a  structure  but  Sound  AND  plain.  Paleocene sandstones  i n the Stenkul  Rivers  flowing  south-  t h e b r a c k i s h water  shed  Shield  rocks  clastic  to the  detritus  to  111  the  west  into  a major  Vendom  and Schei  Shield  rocks  south  flowed  north  into  The  presence  Synclines.  Fiord  area.  of marine  Stenkul  Fiord  of  Eocene  Late  Canadian  tion  from  the Stenkul  and Late  marine  represents strata  Arctic  dinoflagellate  dinoflagellate the only  gradient,  provided  have  which  represents  study  area.  The ported  a  climate lush  cyst  Precambrian  Sound  which  assemblages i n  Fiord  The  of the  outliers  Fiord  area,  in  identification  assemblage a t  Formation  occurrence i n the  Islands.  reflectance values,  that  time.  of  c o n c l u s i v e l y dated  of the Eureka  Vitrinite  strata  cyst  the Stenkul  Eocene  the axes  i n streams  a n d Baumann  incursions into  Middle  Eocene  Intermittent uplift  the Stenkul  two m a r i n e  a Late  down  resulted  suggests  of  flowing  Fiord  samples  to early  stream  of Stenkul  mudstone  Early  trunk  been  an e s t i m a t e  removed  an a v e r a g e  during  flora  ilar  to that  al.,  1977; M c K e n n a ,  since  the Eocene  from  local  the end of t h e  was  rate  of  an abundant  620 m o f Paleocene,  and Hutchison,  i n the  and  vertebrate Fiord  coalifica-  10 m/Ma  subtropical,  the Strathcona  1980; E s t e s  to a  of a p p r o x i m a t e l y  denudation  and l i k e l y  reported  related  area 1980).  sup-  fauna  sim-  (West e t  11 2  REFERENCES  A d a m s , W.L.,  1964,  Diagenetic  Pe'nnsylvanian, Association pp.  Ailing, v.  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MAKINSON  INLET  AREA  ABSTRACT  Discovery  of a post-orogenic  pebble  to cobble  Island  provides  conglomerate important  Eurekan  Orogeny  studies  indicate  unit  new  on  Arctic  Miocene  sandstone  south-central  evidence  i n the eastern an E a r l y  coarse-grained  and  Ellesmere  f o r the chronology  of the  Archipelago. Palynological  age f o r these  deposits,  which  c  rest  with  marked  In  adjacent  as  Late  phase  Eocene  The provide  Orogeny  Ellesmere of B a f f i n  discovery additional  eastern  Miocene  on s o u t h e r n  sandstone phase  as  t h e major  Ellesmere  orogenic  the  and conglomerate  of e p e i r o g e n i c  young  I s l a n d as  Furthermore,  occurdeposits  relative  uplift  tectonism  Bay. of these  post-orogenic  c h r o n o l o g i c a l evidence  during  strata.  Formation  I s l a n d and p o s s i b l e c o e v a l  and d a t i n g  paleogeographic Arctic  Sound  bracketing  to p r e - E a r l y Miocene.  an E a r l y  constrains the  thereby  of t h e c o a r s e - g r a i n e d  the margin  on m i d - P a l e o c e n e  of the Eureka  are folded,  southeastern  along  unconformity  strata  of t h e Eurekan  indicates of  areas,  Eocene  post-Late rence  angular  and p a l e o - p l a t e the Tertiary.  deposits  f o r tectonism  that  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s of  1 28  INTRODUCTION  The  Eurekan  tectonic and  events  Tozer  Late  sin  Cretaceous  arches  some  and  pressional  but the only  north have  Axel  of Makinson been  The  purpose  angular  Ellesmere  provide  additional  Eurekan  least  part  i s based  (Bustin,  evidence and a  of eastern Ellesmere  Balkwill com-  of  two  depos-  P l i o c e n e a g e on  e t a l . , 1984; t h i s  Miocene study)  age that  Formation.  i s to describe the occurrence two d e p o s i t s o n  of Makinson  Inlet.  f o r the chronology  later  uplift  Sound  1982) a n d E a r l y  and post-phase north  of  o f t h e main  post-phase  of Miocene-(?) e a r l y  study  Island,  to Miocene-  of the Eureka  dated  1)  intraba-  on t h e o c c u r r e n c e  strata  to the Beaufort  Orogeny  Eocene  of  1978;  (Riediger  Tertiary  phases:  e t a l . , 1975; B a l k w i l l ,  Island  unconformity  of u p l i f t  a n d 3) a  conclusively  of t h i s  central  the  2) a L a t e  Eocene  Inlet  assigned  phase  orogenic  phase  outliers  Heiberg  three  later  two)  Late  and  I s l a n d s by T h o r s t e i n s s o n  s t u d y ) . The c h r o n o l o g y  (phase  are erosional  central  an  1980; t h i s  Cretaceous  i n t h e e a s t e r n Queen  Paleocene  Rim;  (Balkwill  phase  studies  of compression;  and f a u l t e d  Formation its  to Early  phase  arches  for latest  differentiated  and Sverdrup  Bustin,  folded  named  Subsequent  I s l a n d s have  (?)Pliocene of  was  i n t h e Queen E l i z a b e t h  (1970).  Elizabeth a  Orogeny  phase  Island.  south-  These  of phase  of r e l a t i v e  of  uplift  strata two o f of at  129  REGIONAL  The been  summarized  (1973) the  r e g i o n a l geology  eastern  gneisses  Queen  Franklinian Paleozoic  sediments  Sverdrup  ness on  western  rocks.  Axel  deformed  and younger  basin  a n d Amund  the Sverdrup  clastic  which  collectively  Formation Queen  (Miall,  by u p l i f t  Within  facies.  (Miall, Phase  Basin  on  of  deformed  a maximum  i n the  thick-  depocentre  and t h i n s t o -  these  sub-basins  have  assigned  1981).  By P a l e o c e n e had been  1981) w i t h  two o f t h e E u r e k a n  sequences  to Early  Orogeny  of  mainly  Sound  Eocene  into  local  Basin  accumulated,  t o the Eureka  different  into  and P r i n c e s s  km t h i c k  segmented  commencing  segmented  r i m of the Sverdrup  u p t o 3.5  been  Orogeny,  was  of the Cornwall  sediments  Elizabeth Islands  sub-basins  depression  Islands  of the Eurekan  and the northern  non-marine  1979).  of the basin.  Cretaceous,  1978).  to Early  and B a l k w i l l ,  rocks  Ringnes  the Late  (Balkwill,  i sthe  Devonian  contains  clastic  phase  Arches  the Middle  age developed  The Sverdrup  Shield  P r o t e r o z o i c a n d Lower  pericratonic  the i n i t i a l  Margaret  basement  (Trettin  During  sub-basins  1 ) . Basement i n  of the Canadian  during  Orogeny  Drummond  c o n s i s t s of g r a n u l i t e grade  of Upper  i s an e l o n g a t e  Heiberg  the margins  several  and  composed  (1970),  Figure  Overlying  o f 13 km o f p r e d o m i n a n t l y  wards  in  Basin  Province  1980).  Ellesmerian  Carboniferous  Franklinian  (1979;  Elizabeth Islands  succession  Carboniferous  Early  and B a l k w i l l  and B u s t i n ,  E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s has  and T h o r s t e i n s s o n  of the C h u r c h i l l  (Balkwill  The  o f t h e Queen  by T o z e r  and T r e t t i n  SETTING  time,  at least  source resulted  the  seven  terrains i n shor-  130  tening folds  of  Late  and  reverse  Ellesmere  Island  Precambrian and  faults  southwest (Figure trends Fault  were  to  to  to  compression Island  dated  on  has  central  (Bustin,  Formation  mainly  on  towards  a  salient  parallel  to  Princess Margaret  Ellesmere some  I s l a n d the  (Miall,  considered and  Bustin,  deposit  i n the  1982;  Island assigned  Figure  out  of  25).  along  the  the  grain  Lake  although  The  of  only  Hazen the  western  coast  The  folds  Arch  the  northeastern  erosional outlier  Heiberg  as  western  1980).  Island  Island to  times,  1979).  the  of  structural  s t r u c t u r e s such  in post-Eocene  overturned  southeastern  Heiberg  resolved  crops  in  Axel  i s an  Formation  southeast  faults  to  on  two  Axel  and  upright  and  east  (Balkwill  Islands  by  Ellesmere  been  post-phase  folds  the  active be  strata  central  northern  yet  The  whereas  the  clearly  has  Elizabeth age  face  northeast  1 ) . On  Heiberg ly  or  older  faults.  basement face  and  n o r t h e a s t e r l y and  timing of  Eocene  limit Axel  conclusiveQueen  Miocene-(?)Pliocene to  Elsewhere, northwest  the  Beaufort  the  Beaufort  Arctic  Coastal  Plain.  The  study  area,  (Figures  1 and  25),  Sverdrup  Basin.  sional  outliers  its  crop  are  assigned  general  use  Canadian 1982).  out.  of  Arctic  of  of  strata  the  g r a n i t e s and  the  of  Formation dated  Formation  (Hills the  granitic  eastern  Island  margin  of  Franklinian succession,  Sound  Formation  Archipelago east  present  deposits,  Beaufort  Beaufort  south-central Ellesmere the  of  Eureka  younger  the  Immediately  pyroxene  i s east  Here,  The to  l o c a t e d on  in  here  study  Fyles,  area,  gneisses  of  as  keeping  f o r Neogene and  and  younger Early with  nunataks the  ero-  depos-  Miocene, the  sediments 1973;  the  in  the  Bustin, of  ortho-  Churchill  131  83°00'  83°00'  80°00'  Legend  80°00'  Tertiary Eureka Sound Formation Lower Paleozoic dolomite, sandstone, siltstone, shale and conglomerate ' l i s '  Precambrian crystalline basement  FIGURE 2 5 . General geologic map of the study area (geology in part modified from Frisch, 1983 and Okulitch, 1 9 8 2 ) .  1 32  Province  are  exposed  above  the  i c e cap  (Frisch,  1983).  STRATIGRAPHY  Outliers out At  north this  of  of  the  Makinson  locality,  Beaufort  Sound  Inlet  on  and  Beaufort  rest  sediments  with  of  angular  the  Formations  south-central Ellesmere  coarse-grained elastics,  Formation,  fine-grained  Eureka  Eureka  here  Island.  assigned  unconformity Sound  crop  on  Formation  to  the  folded (Figure  26) .  Eureka  Sound  The cies  Eureka  in the  careous  Formation  Sound  study  area:  sandstone  the  Micaceous  The  two  lowest  strata  coarsen  calcareous  stones  and  and  minor  amounts  from  micaceous  Calcareous  of  a  overlies  to  very  mudstone  occur  this  fine-  of  to  coal  fine  and as  siltstone-calmudstone-  i t . The  contact  locality.  Makinson  siltstones  and  lithofa-  lithofacies  north  exhibit  fragments  sandstones  at  sandstone  out  two  calcareous  micaceous  siltstones plant  2)  which  crop  sandstones  c o n t a i n abundant  shells.  and  into  micaceous  i s covered  which  upward  is divisible  lowermost  lithofacies  lithofacies  bedded  The  a  siltstone-calcareous  generally  28A).  a)  lithofacies,  siltstone-sandstone between  Formation  with  inter-  fine-grained ( F i g u r e s 27  parallel  rare marine  thin,  Inlet  sandand  lamination pelecypod  resistant,  well-  133 FIGURE  26.  Angular  Coarse-grained Beaufort strata  Formation  of  Formation samples  the  late  north  of  collected  analyses.  unconformity  clastic rest  with  north  sediments angular  early  Makinson  Inlet.  of  of  the  Makinson  Early  unconformity  mid-Paleocene  for palynological  Stars and  Inlet.  Miocene on  Eureka  indicate vitrinite  folded Sound  locations  of  reflectance  135  S i l t s t o n e : dk brown, micaceous; 30 cm c o a l seam. Sandstone: med brown, s i l t y , micaceous, p l a n t fragments, f i n e p l a n a r l a m i n a t i o n .  Interbedded: C o a l ( 9 5 % ) : woody. Mudstone(5%): p l a n t fragments. Mudstone sample 16-105. Sandstone: dk brown, v f g , s i l t y , t h i n l y bedded, carb. d e b r i s ; r a r e l e n s e s of sandstone, v f g , c a l c , 5-15 cm t h i c k , 5-15 m l o n g .  Interbedded: S i l t s t o n e ( 9 0 % ) : dk brown, micaceous, f i n e p l a n a r lamination. Sandstone(10%) : I t grey, v f g , c a l c , p l a n t f r a g ments, f i n e p l a n a r l a m i n a t i o n . Sandstone: I t brown, f g , r a r e c o a l c l a s t s . C o a l : woody mudstone s p l i t s . Coal sample 16-103. Interbedded: S i l t s t o n e ( 9 0 % ) : dk brown, micaceous, f i n e p l a n a r laminat i o n . Sandstone(10%): I t grey, v f g , c a l c . , p l a n t f r a g ments, f i n e p l a n a r l a m i n a t i o n . Sandstone: med brown, f g , c a r b . d e b r i s , c o a l spar, c o n v o l u t e bedding. S i l t s t o n e : I t brown, micaceous, c a r b . d e b r i s . Sandstone: med brown, v f g , micaceous. Interbedded: Sandstone(90%): dk brown, micaceous, f i n e p l a n a r laminat i o n . Sandstone( 10%) : I t grey, v f g , c a l c , p l a n t f r a g ments, pelecypod fragments, f i n e p l a n a r lamination.  relat ive grain size  FIGURE 27. S t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n 16 through lowermost Eureka Sound s t r a t a exposed n o r t h of Makinson I n l e t .  136  FIGURE  28.  Sound  A.  Stratigraphy  and  and  Formations  Micaceous Eureka  B.  Beaufort  Sound  beds  structures  north  siltstone-calcareous  of  of  Makinson  sandstone  the  Eureka  Inlet.  lithofacies  of  the  Formation.  Recessive micaceous stone  sedimentary  of  the  siltstone Eureka  and  Sound  resistant  Formation.  calcareous Shovel  is  sand-  1 m  long.  C.  Angular  unconformity  siltstone-sandstone Formation  and  between  the  c a l c a r e o u s mudstone-  lithofacies  of  the  coarse-grained sediments  Eureka  Sound  of  Beaufort  the  Format i o n .  D.  Symmetrical careous 15  E.  cm  Flaser  ripple  marks  50  d e p o s i t s of lithofacies.  the  cal-  Scale  is  long.  bedding  Conglomerates is  flat  mudstone-siltstone-sandstone  i n sediments  siltstone-sandstone  F.  in t i d a l  cm  and  long.  of  the  lithofacies.  sandstones  of  calcareous Scale  the  is  15  Beaufort  mudstonecm  long.  Formation.  Staff  137  138  indurated durated  beds  micaceous  calcareous sharp  intercalated  and Very  sandstones  become  plant cm  fragments  and from 100 part  lignitic,  and  m. of  the  The  are  of  up  and  grain  environment  of  size  1.5  m  over are  cm  show  and  coal  thick,  fine, to  dark  the  brown  top.of  plant  pinch  distances common  up  rare  to  15  fragments laterally  about  in  the  with  out  of  with  parallel  micaceous  contain  most  fine-grained  stringers  seams w h i c h  seams  local  are  for  Thin,  occur  interpreted  a  and  to  the  of  50  to  upper  distal  in  coal  delta  seams a r e  plant  the  delta  upward front  siltstone-calcareous  transported north  overall  proximal  micaceous  discontinuous  farther as  distal  the  accumulations  strata  structures  suggests  deposition  preted  and  to  mudstones  15  towards  silty  poorly-in-  very  medium  discontinuous  coal  to  rarely  abundant  sedimentary  lithofacies.  area  and  The  5  fine-grained,  coal  sandstone  Equivalent  generally  recessive,  section.  in  as  28B).  generally  thin  lithology,  increase  to  argillaceous  Mudstones  (Figure  are  interbedded  thicknesses  more  increasingly  and  Minor  the  contacts,  fine-  section,  thick.  beds  lower  lamination.  exposed  siltstones  sandstone  upper  with  debris.  Strathcona  front  inter-  deposits  Fiord by  Miall  (1981).  Calcareous  Eureka calcareous  mudstone-siltstone-sandstone  Sound  strata  sandstone  which  overlie  l i t h o f a c i e s are  lithofacies  the  micaceous  composed  finely  interlaminated  calcareous  mudstones,  stones  and  coal  (Figures  rare,  thin  seams  of  a  siltstone-  sequence  s i l t s t o n e s and  28C,  29).  The  of sand-  sedi-  139 Interbedded: C o n g l o m e r a t e ( 5 0 % ) : c b l , c l a s t s avg 5-15cm, r a r e boulders, g r a n i t e , q u a r t z i t e , garnet gneiss c l a s t s , c l a s t supported, fg-cg sandstone m a t r i x . Sandstone(50%): I t grey, v f - c g , s i l t y , carb d e b r i s , m i c a c e o u s , r a r e r i p p l e l a m i n a t i o n , s c o u r and f i l l ; r a r e c o n g l o m e r a t e l e n s e s 1.3m t h i c k , 50m long. Interbedded: S i l t s t o n e ( 6 0 % ) : micaceous, carb. Coal ( 4 0 % ) : 3-5cm s t r i n g e r s . C o a l sample 17-128. Interbedded: Sandstone(55%) : I t grey-white, v f - m g , s i l t y , carb. d e b r i s , t r s o f t sed. d e f o r m a t i o n , p l a n a r p a r a l l e l and r i p p l e t r o u g h c r o s s - l a m i n a t i o n ; r a r e v c g s a n d s t o n e l e n s e s ; r a r e c a l c . mudstone b e d s . Mudstone sample 17-126. C o n g l o m e r a t e ( 4 5 % ) : p b l - c b l , c l a s t s avg 3-8 cm, gneiss, quartzite, granite, chert c l a s t s , c l a s t to m a t r i x s u p p o r t e d , m-cg s a n d s t o n e m a t r i x , t r . c a l a c a r e o u s , s c o u r and f i l l ; r a r e eg s a n d s t o n e s .  metres  200 •  150  100  j  50  relative grain size  S i l t s t o n e : med brown, m i c a c e o u s , c o a l y d e b r i s . C o n g l o m e r a t e : p b l - c b l , c l a s t s avg 3-8 cm, q u a r t z i t e , g r a n i t e , c h e r t , mudstone c l a s t s , c l a s t s u p p o r t e d , c-mg s a n d s t o n e m a t r i x ; r a r e c a l c . mudstone b e d s . Mudstone sample 17-125. U N C 0 N F 0 R M I T Y 'Wx-v S a n d s t o n e : I t g r e y - w h i t e , vf-mg, c l e a n , t r . c a l c , t r . c a r b . d e b r i s , t r . c o n c r e t i o n s , p l a n a r t o wavy lamination, r i p p l e cross-lamination, rare planar c r o s s - b e d d i n g , s c o u r and f i l l ; C o a l sample 17—121. Interbedded: Sandstone(65%): I t grey-white, v f g , c l e a n , t r . carb. d e b r i s , t r . r o o t s , c a l c . , f i n e planar to wavy l a m i n a i o n , r i p p l e c r o s s - l a m i n a t i o n , symmetrical r i p p l e s . Siltstone(35%) : I t grey-buff, c a l c , carb. debris, marine pelecypod fragments, burrows, t r . i r o n sulphide concretions, f i n e planar lamination; Mudstone sample 17-117. Mudstone: I t g r e y , c a l c , b u r r o w s , s y m m e t r i c a l ripples. Interbedded:. Sandstone(85%): I t grey-white, v f g , c a l c , carb. d e b r i s , micaceous, pelecypod fragments, t r a i l s , S k o l i t h o s b u r r o w s , f i n e p l a n a r and r i p p l e c r o s s l a m i n a t i o n , f l a s e r bedding, symmetrical r i p p l e s . Mudston'e( 15%) : I t g r e y - w h i t e , c a l c , c a r b . d e b r i s , f i n e planar lamination. S i l t s t o n e : buff, fine planar lamination. Sandstone: w h i t e , v f g , c l e a n , r a r e c o n c r e t i o n s , p l a n a r p a r a l l e l and p l a n a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g .  FIGURE 29. S t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n 17 a c r o s s t h e u n c o n f o r m i t y between t h e E u r e k a Sound and B e a u f o r t f o r m a t i o n s n o r t h o f M a k i n s o n I n l e t .  1 40  merits a r e l i g h t marine  pelecypod  dicating include tion,  grey  a  shells,  fairly  planar  to white, trails  abundant  parallel  symmetrical  ripples  laminae  a r e common,  faunal water The  content  occurrence  marine  have  such  'formed  either  iron  from  under in a  bedding,  fossils  large  suggests  gests  that  shallow Island  these  marine to Vesle  Paleocene  Beaufort  time  which  and S t r a t h c o n a (Figure  extended Fiords  or estuary.  flat  or from  from  during  peat  could depos-  of s t r a t a to  of a  of  strata  study)  southern late  en-  1981; West  (this  remnants  and  coals  lithofacies  Fiord  are erosional  brackish  Thin  (Miall,  and  et  sug-  large Ellesmere  Early  to mid-  24A).  Formation  Strata formity  embayment  at Stenkul  rare.  ripples  similarity  Fiord  coal  structures  tidal  e t a l . , 1982).  at Strathcona  outliers  and t h i n  lagoon  a  transported material  to the south  bedding  symmetrical  calcareous mudstone-siltsone-sandstone  1981) a n d  structures  low e n e r g y ,  the  al.,  flaser  sedimentary  of t h e e s t u a r y . The  north  fossils i n -  cross-lamina-  fragments  along  farther  trough  and  its  exposed  trace  sulphide concretions are  i s found  flaser  shallow  Sedimentary  plant  scale  1979; Weimer  the shores  28D)  deposition  and t r a c e  (Reinson,  fauna.  debris,  small  as  of rare  pelecypod  vironment  size,  indicate  conditions,  marine  whereas  grain  and S k o l i t h o s  (Figure  28E). Carbonaceous  fine  contain  lamination, ripple  (Figure  The  a n d commonly  assigned  to the Beaufort  are characterized  terbedded  with  very  fine-  by p e b b l e  Formation to cobble  above  the  uncon-  conglomerates  to coarse-grained sandstones,  i n -  minor  141  siltstones 28F,  and r a r e , t h i n  calcareous  2 9 ) . The s t r a t a a r e p r e s e n t l y  outliers  i n a narrow b e l t  l o n g , -north  of Makinson  stones c o n t a i n cyst/spore  mudstones a n d c o a l  preserved  about one-half  Inlet  (Figure  only  kilometre  t o medium-grained  (see palynology  tional  At l e a s t  angular  four  t o t h e west a n d e r o s i o n grained  Phanerozoic  exist  unconformities  d e b r i s . Sedimentary  cross-  lamination.  Coal  occurs  as t h i n ,  of transported  moderately w e l l  sorted  within  structures  ripple  suggests  and P r e c a m b r i a n  rocks  t h e s e q u e n c e . The  periodic relative fine-  include  lamination  uplift  to coarse-  m i c a c e o u s and c o n t a i n  rare  prised  a r e composed  (5° t o 2 0 ° ) i n t r a f o r m a -  suggest  structures,  a poorly  and a t t a i n  clasts  of t h e s t r a t a . Very  sandstones are s i l t y ,  with  and q u a r t z i t e , w h i c h  low a n g l e  unconformities  intraformational  plant  gneiss  d e r i v a t i o n from u p l i f t e d  to the e a s t .  mud-  s e c t i o n ) . The  sandstone matrix,  o f up t o 15 m. The w e l l - r o u n d e d  mainly of g r a n i t e , garnet local  wide and 5 km  2 5 ) . The c a l c a r e o u s  conglomerates are predominantly c l a s t - s u p p o r t e d  thicknesses  as e r o s i o n a l  a n e a r s h o r e mixed m a r i n e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e  and p o l l e n a s s e m b l a g e  sorted coarse-  (Figures  scour  carbonaceous and  and p l a n a r  fill  parallel  5-15 cm seams w h i c h a r e com-  woody m a t e r i a l . The p r e s e n c e o f p o o r l y t o conglomerates together  with  the occur-  rence of a mixed n e a r s h o r e marine d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t / s p o r e pollen  assemblage  represent  part  result  Beaufort  of a f a n - d e l t a d e p o s i t  m a r i n e embayment Beaufort  suggests that  (Figure  Formation  that  3 0 ) . The o r i g i n  i s unknown. They may  of P l e i s t o c e n e  ice thrusting.  strata at this built  of m i n o r  and  locality  out i n t o a f o l d s i n the  be e i t h e r t e c t o n i c o r a  . and P r e c a m b r i a n crystalline b a s e m e n t L o w e r P a l e o z o i c s t r a t a and r t  r  a  t  a  —  Eureka Sound Beaufort Formation  Formation  S  143  PALYNOLOGY  Samples 17-126  16-105  (Figure  Beaufort  27)  collected  and  palynomorph  intervals  of  Formation  below  and  the  were  17-117,  17-121,  17-125,  from  the  Eureka  processed  for  palynomorphs  to  the  Paleocene. illustrated  those by The in  assemblages  Tertiary.  pollen.  interpreted  The  Momipites  Rouse  the  Sound  and  and using  Triporopollenites  to  (Figure  dubius,  Fraxinoipollenites  Mult i c e l l a e s p o r i tes  Early  are  Sound  terrestrial most  Sound to  listed  Formation  early below  midand  are  inclusive.  (Figure  3lg)  31i)  31J)  liblarensis,  variabi1is,  -6,  late  (Figure  (Figure  pseudocingulum,  Eureka  mainly  Eureka  time  31h)  mullensis,  Cupuliferoidaepollenites  overall  3lf,  the  corresponds  the  species  confusus,  rotundus,  Rhoiipites  being  diagnostic 31g  of  disparate  from  assemblage  as  two  contains  interval  (1977)  Figures  Myricipites  assemblage  overall  from  most  The  represent  unconformity,  Paraalnipollenites  The  and  techniques.  The  closely  were  Formations  standard  spores  29)  (Figure  (Figure  (Figure  (Figure  palynoassemblage  (Figure  31k)  311)  31m)  31n)  suggests  a  rather  cool  tern-  144 FIGURE f)  and  31.  Dinoflagellate  spores  and  pollen to  Beaufort  a-  Paralacaniella phosphoritica  g-  grains  north  of  of of  the  Beaufort  the  Eureka  Makinson  Formation  Sound  (a  to  Formation  (g  Inlet.  Format ion  Batiacasphaera  Eureka  n)  cysts  Sound  sphaerica  indentata ;  f-  ; d-  Leptodinium  B.  micropapillata  Apteodinium  -C  ; e-  ;  c-  Deflandrea  -3.  Format ion  Paraalnipollenites  Triporopollenites  confusus  mullensi s  Cupuliferoidaepollenites var i a b i l i s  ; b-  ; m-  -6.  Momites  j - Myr i c i p i t e s  liblarensis  Rhoi i p i t e s  Multicellaesporites  ;  ; h-  ;  1-  pseudoc inquiurn  rotundis dubius  ; i ;  k-  Fraxinoipollenites ;  n-  145  146  perate  and probably  wet p a l e o c l i m a t e  lower  unit,  stage  of the Eureka  north  on t h e F o s h e i m  The formity with  as previously  appears  Early  Miocene  by S t o v e r  Williams,  1977),  which  from  (1977),  offshore  Of  these,  indentata, ed  Batiacasphaera disappear in  to the  -C,  Formation  above  c o r r e l a t i n g most  t h e unconclosely  offshore  Labrador  (Bujak and  (Manum,  1976),  The most  sediments  and from the  diagnostic pa-  dinoflagellate cysts  listed  below  31a t o 3 1 f , i n c l u s i v e .  (Figure  (Figure  indentata,  (Figure  31a)  31b)  (Figure  31c)  31d)  phosphoritica,  (Figure 3le)  -3, ( F i g u r e 3 1 f )  Batiacasphaera  Apteodinium  to the Early  section  Atlantic  sphaerica,  Paralacaniella  Leptodinium  Creek  offshore  unpublished).  micropapillata,  Deflandrea  1 9 7 7 ) f o r t h e P-1  from  Africa  i n Figures  Apteodinium  Miocene,  assemblages  Batiacasphaera  B.  the Beaufort  a r e the marine  a r e shown  of the  Peninsula.  Sea (Rouse,  lynomorphs  deposition  (Rouse,  i n t h e Remus  t o be E a r l y  reported  Beaufort  indicated  Sound  assemblage  during  sphaerica,  -C a n d L e p t o d i n i u m  Miocene.  Deflandrea  micropapillata  range  a t t h e end o f t h e E a r l y  t h e assemblage  Paralacaniella  include  -3 a p p e a r  phosphoritica through  Miocene.  Thalassiophora  t o be  limit-  and  the Oligocene,  and  Other d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s  pelagica,  T. c_f.  147  vellata,  Cyclopsiella  Terrestrial bladdered  pollen  conifer  porate" g r a i n s of hornbeam, Myrica, of  not  Also Cretaceous sion  of  the or  Quercus,  terrestrial  setting  admixed pollen  Corylus  oak-  too  and  and  sediments  of  the  Selenopemphix  the  dinoflagellate  family  (Picea)  and  birch-  and  hazel  or  The  hopgale-  admixture  depositional  areas.  probably  Eureka  a  include  (Pinus),  B e t u l a ) , sweet  l a r g e numbers  palynomorphs  cysts  pine  indicates  forested land  Kanguk  nephroides.  (Liquidambar).  palynomorphs  from  and  (Alder- Alnus,  sweet-gum  relatively  Paleocene  and  spruce  Carpinus,  marine  in  with  of  birch  distant  present and  elliptica  are  recycled  derived  Sound  Late  from  Formations.  ero-  1 48  PRE-EARLY MIOCENE  The moved can  amount  by  be  of  sediment  prior  to  estimated  using  vitrinite  vitrinite  conformable  The  to  a  coalification 100  km  derived  Figure  32.  Coalification  thus at  the  can  major  served  26  and  the  study  strata between  29)  29).  If  the  tion  had  17-128,  occurred then  similar  igneous  p l o t t e d on  not  be  and  16-103  of  Fiord,  and  were  at  at  found  located  Makinson  several  to  be  in prep.),  these  on loca-  very  simiand  gradient  existed  reflectance  intrusions, evaporite of  un-  gradient.  i s reproduced  (Bustin,  none  by  the  coalification  coalification  by  diapirs,  features  from  gradient  gradient, the  for  Eureka  32.  The  (Figure  27)  were  ob-  above 100 at and  deposition  illustrates  that  of  and  (Figures  from  below  unconformity,  of  Makinson i f no  17-121  17-121,  the m  Sound  s t r a t i g r a p h i c sep-  and  Samples  approximately  between 32  Figure  determined.  17-128,  Fiord  Figure  Formation  side  v a r i a t i o n s in v i t r i n i t e  coalification  Strathcona  either  determined  reflectance values  separated  the  ( i n prep.)  however,  samples  could  on  unconformity  gradient  by  re-  area.  are  unconformity,  presently  to  the  vitrinite  Beaufort aration  caused  the  Fiord  Local  Formation  Beaufort  Strathcona  Arctic  overthrusts;  in  The  be  at  gradients  a  the  derived  eastern  that  Inlet.  of  Bustin  the  i t i s assumed  values and  by  Strathcona  Makinson  of  Sound  r e f l e c t a n c e measurements,  locally  north  was  to  deposition  gradient  Inlet,  throughout  Eureka  reflectance values  surface  approximately  lar  the  erosion  relating  tions  of  EROSION  sediment Inlet  hiatus samples  approximately  (Figure  is  in  are  similar  sedimenta-  17-121 550  and m  of  149  l i  0.1  ,  ,  0.15 0.2  ,—•  0.3  .  ,  0.5  Ro (%) FIGURE 32. Coalification gradient at Strathcona Fiord (Bustin, in prep.), and vitrinite reflectance values for coal samples above and below the unconformity.  150  sediment thus  would  suggest  order  of  have  that  450  m  separated  e r o s i o n of  these the  occurred prior  to  two  Eureka  samples. Sound  deposition  These  results  Formation  of  the  on  the  Beaufort  Formation.  The the  age  Assuming  rate of an  the  yields  erosion  was  strata  and  an  450  average  can  the m  and  thus  be  very  amount between  denudation  p o s t - L a t e Eocene  denudation,  m/Ma.  denudation  e r o s i o n of  Miocene  of  of  to  uplift,  of  roughly sediment  rate  be  of  and  1,3 m/Ma.  Miocene, on  the  from  removed.  mid-Paleocene  pre-Early would  estimated  Early If  then  order  of  the the 30  rate  151  TECTONIC  The lying  occurrence  folded  additional of  the  mid  evidence  at  Stenkul  Makinson  by  strata the  Eocene  Late at  of  chronology  of  orogenesis  occurrence  lomeratic  derwent  the  other  and  uplift  undoubtedly  delta-alluvial  fan  and  are  the  the  this  part  of  Axel  Heiberg  syn-  or  the  (Bustin,  post-tectonic  overlain suggestive post-Late  As  such,  the  documented  from  central  (1975)  two)  of  there  of  and the  suggests Eurekan  the  Miocene,  Lower  Inlet  indicates  Shield  to  Miocene.  remnants  the The  of  a  Eocene from  1982;  Figure  strata  the  are  Other  deposits are  congthat  east  un-  fan-delta fan-  evidence  uplift.  Miocene  25).  that  larger  i s p r e s e n t l y no of  Axel  Orogeny  Islands.  d e p o s i t s or  two)  the  Elizabeth  apart  (post-phase  that  of  Early  the  highly  the  part  Makinson  post-Late  Archipelago  Island  of  e r o s i o n . To  equivalent to  part post-  in this  erosional but  provides  p e r i o d of  compression.  Queen  the  over-  in this  represents a  Precambrian  during  a  and  i s thus  others  composition  complex,  dated  that  eastern  pre-erosional extent  conclusively  of  (phase  deposits at  strata  relative  deposits  and  fan-delta  Paleozoic  the  It  orogenesis  with  tectonism  strata  Inlet  phase  Balkwill  throughout  of  Inlet  (or paraconformably)  Makinson  is consistent  Makinson  folding  Eocene.  compressional  unconformably  indicates  Sound  conformably  by  The  for  as  Eureka  Island  coeval  the  young  of  chronology  p r e - E a r l y Miocene  Archipelago  is  are  strata  unconformity  Fiord,  unconformity  chronology  the  f o r the  north  p r e - E a r l y Miocene  Inlet  as  to  Heiberg  to  Miocene  strata  A r c h i p e l a g o . The  at  that  Lower  Paleocene  Paleocene  south  of  IMPLICATIONS  known  No from  deposits  on  possible 01igocene(?)  152  deposits  a t Lake  Yelverton  The  Hazen  Bay, n o r t h e r n  Eurekan  Islands  have  been  (McWhae,  1981; K e r r ,  nature paper  t o these  Balkwill  history some  Although  does  Baffin  to Early  i s supposed  b; P e i r c e ,  Queen E l i z a b e t h  from  a n d t o be Arctic  1982, a n d o t h e r s ) .  of B a f f i n  i t i s beyond  fault)  Bay and t h e  t h e scope  of  Srivastava  Oligocene  along  i n the eastern  rotation  of Greenland  1981a,b)  transform  similarly  compression Baffin  pressional  Queen  this  pivot  was  Late  proposed  the Late compres-  Strait  (Wegener  that  some  Elizabeth Islands  Ellesmere  i s not consistent with  The c h r o n o l o g y  1981;  by f o l d i n g i n response  and to  compression  Island of  (Kerr, Eurekan  i n Labrador  of the Eurekan  Island actually  and  of the pre-  the timing  spreading  Sea and  Paleocene  (McWhae,  accommodated  of sea f l o o r  Orogeny a r e  i n the Labrador  between  i n southern  on E l l e s m e r e  o u t by  of Eurekan Nares  does  Bay/Labrador  ( S r i v a s t a v a e t a l . , 1981) o r  i s correct.  event  place  Strait  i f the timing Bay  spreading  Baffin  during  the timing  The s u g g e s t i o n s  Nares  faulting  of a  whereas  occurred  a s has been  e t a l . 1981).  offset  Thus  took  pointed  events, of the Eurekan  Miocene,  accompanying  of tectonism  initially  transpression along  Bay, i f s p r e a d i n g to Early  As  t o have  Oligocene.  not support  transform  and  1976).  i n the eastern  the chronology  compressional  Paleocene-Early  north  resulted  i s the o r i g i n  of the area,  Eocene  spreading  sumed  t o have  interpretations.  (1978),  post-Middle  prior  i n the eastern  1980; 1981a,  Strait.  (Wilson,  t o a d d t o t h e l a r g e amount o f s p e c u l a t i o n on t h e p l a t e  constrain  sion  Island  p l a t e motions  arguments  of Nares  tectonic  Sea  events  considered  for Tertiary  1979; 1981) a n d c o n g l o m e r a t e s a t  Ellesmere  orogenic  evidence  Central  (Miall,  Sea  com-  correlates better  153  with  c e s s a t i o n of spreading  (post a  36 Ma,  result  timing  anomaly  13). I f phase  of spreading  of spreading  i n Labrador  i s in error  Early  Oligocene  Queen  Elizabeth Islands.  The the high ly  area  i s unknown.  tectonism The  (1981a,  Devon should  when  Arctic  Ocean.  of Ellesmere  be  along  Miocene  faults  from  Miocene  phase  was  Ocean  to  Miocene i n  of the  present  I s l a n d and  possib-  uplift  and  broke  coeval  margin  considered  of p l a t e motion  the A t l a n t i c  Eocene  the  i n the eastern  part  the western  to Pliocene  either  i n the Early that  Bay  Orogeny i s  then  post-Late  uplift  It is likely  suspected  Bay  i n compression  from  b) t o be t h e f i n a l  Arctic  or only  resulted  coast  (?)Baffin  two o f t h e E u r e k a n  Island dates  interval  Sea and  Sea-Baffin  of r e l a t i v e  e l e v a t i o n of the east  eastern  Bay.  spreading  significance  study  i n Labrador  of  by  Baffin  Kerr  i n the Canadian through  t o the  1 54  Discovery Late  Eocene)  central  to  to  Axel  phase  Heiberg  Ellesmere  AND  d a t i n g of  a  pre-Early  Ellesmere  compressive tral  and  SUMMARY  Eurekan  the  Island and  Formation  d e p o s i t e d and  The  Lower  be  Miocene  here  assigned  sent  fan-delta  embayment  to  450  Beaufort  30).  The  provides  phase  eastern  Ellesmere  Island.  The  i s unknown  because  of  of  Lower  Miocene  relative  strata.  the  of  on  succession at  prograded  evidence of  extent  and  present  the cen-  extended Queen  Sound  Makinson  Inlet  levels.  Makinson  a  shallow  provenance  for at  and  of  Inlet,  i s considered to  into  the  south-  eastern  Eureka  near  on  be  coalification  Formation,  the  the  post-  from  can  entire  eroded  based  uplift  chronology  established  the  strata  occurrence  Miocene  uplift  m  conglomeratic  sequence of  of  (likely  unconformity  a l . , 1975)  to  subsequently  about  the  et  likely  amount  deposits that  (Figure  glomeratic  The  that  Orogeny  (Balkwill thus  Paleocene  angular  of  Island  to  Miocene indicates  Islands.  estimated  post-mid  Island  Elizabeth  is  CONCLUSIONS  least  Precambrian  the  local shield  significance restricted  marine of  a  repre-  of  conEarly of  the  distribution  155  REFERENCES  Balkwill,  H.R.,  Canada;  and  v.  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Howard,  D.,  H.R.,  the  Geology  548-590.  coordinator,  associated  R.M.,  of  Earth  1970,  R.J.W., e d . ,  pp.  Balkwill,  R.A.,  of  E.T.,  Geological  No.1,  history  Spearing,  West,  Canada;  and  Price,  Tozer,  I_n D o u g l a s ,  Report  tectonic In  and  pp.  Franklin; 453-456.  APPENDIX  SAMPLE NUMBER:  07-54&56  PALYNOZONE:  P-2  AGE:  Middle  Paleocene  LIST  OF  SPECIES  POLLEN  Paraalnipollenites  Senipites  confusus  drumhellerensis  Triporopollenites  Carpinipites  mullensis  ancipites  Arecipites  tenuiexinous  Pterocarya  stellatus  Betulaceoipollenites  Caprifoliipites  Lycopodium  Alnus  - A  ret iculumsporites  verus  DINOFLAGELLATE  Areoliqera  Deflandrea  infrequens  CYSTS  senonensis  speciosa  Apteodinium  162  SAMPLE  NUMBER:  07-58  PALYNOZONE:  P-2  AGE:  Middle  Paleocene  LIST  OF  SPECIES  POLLEN  Paraalnipollenites  confusus  Betulaceoipollenites  Pinus  Picea  infrequens  haploxylon  grandivescipites  Sequoiapollenites  Carpinipites  polyformosus  ancipites  SAMPLE  NUMBER:  PALYNOZONE: AGE:  Late  LIST  OF  23-178  P-4  Paleocene  SPECIES  POLLEN  Sequoiapollenites  Triporopollenites  Cedripites  Alnus  polyformus  mullensis  sp.  verus  Pistillipollenites  macqreqorii  Cupuliferoipollenites  - A  SAMPLE  NUMBER:  PALYNOZONE: AGE:  late  LIST  OF  22-157  P~3  mid- to early  Late  Paleocene  SPECIES  POLLEN  Triporopollenites  mullensis  Paraalnipollenites  Alnus  confusus  verus  Betulaceoipollenites  Cupuliferoipollenites  Momipites  DINOFLAGELLATE  CYSTS  indentata  SPORES  Pesavis  - A  rotundus  Paralacaniella  FUNGAL  infrequens  taqluensis  SAMPLE  NUMBER:  PALYNOZONE:  18-188  E-1  AGE:  Early-Middle  LIST  OF  Eocene  SPECIES  POLLEN  Tilia  vescipites  Tetracolporopollenites  Arecipites  columellus  Araliaceoipollenites  Ericipites  modica  Paraalnipollenites  -  2  type  Verrutricolporites  Carya  granulatus  redbluffensis  Horniella  Jussiaea  sp.  cruciatus  viridifluminipites  Cupuliferoipollenites  Planera  insleyanus  thompsoniana  Striatopollis  Rousea  sp.  Myrica  -  2  terasmaei  166  Tetracolporopollenites  Milfordia  minima  Toroisporis  postreqularis  Striadiporites  sp.  Circulosporites  Pesavis  sp.  taqluensis  Pistillipollenites  Horniella  macqreqori i  - A  Tricolporopollenites  Rhoiipites  - A  latus  Caprifoliipites  DINOFLAGELLATE  meqadolium  tantalus  CYSTS  Ba11isphaeridiurn sp.  Lejeunia  Lejeunia  FUNGAL  hyalina  - 3  SPORES  Pluricellaesporites  Diporisporites  - A  sp.  Dicellaesporites  S A M P L E NUMBER: PALYNOZONE: AGE:  Late  LIST  OF  18-134  E-2  Eocene  SPECIES  POLLEN  Osmunda  Tsuga  cf.  heterophyllites  heterophyllites  Keteleeria  Fraxinoipollenites  Ulmipollenites  Carya  medius  undulosis  veripites  Aralaceoi pollen ites  cf.  Gothanipollis  qraTiulatus  sp.  Laevigatosporites  Paraalnipollenites  Triporopollenites  Siltaria  confusus  mullensis  scabriextinous  Arecipites  columellus  Cupuliferoidaepollenites  Parsonidites  conspicuus  liblarensis  Tilia  vescipites  Caprifoliipites  Liliacidites  tantalus  tritus  Araliaceoipollenites  DINOFLAGELLATE  Lejeunia  CYSTS  c f .  Deflandrea  Cf.  hyalina  phosphoritica  Chiropterium  dispersum  Cleistosphaeridium  Apteodinium  Spiniferites  FUNGAL  profundus  sp.  sp.  SPORES  Pluricellaesporites  Punctodiporites  aff.  echinoides  


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