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The nature of carbonate alteration in basalt at Erickson Gold Mine, Cassiar, north-central British… Sketchley, Dale Albert 1986

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THE NATURE OF CARBONATE ALTERATION IN BASALT AT ERICKSON GOLD MINE, CASSIAR, NORTH-CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA by DALE ALBERT SKETCHLEY B.Sc., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conf-ermine to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF March © Dale A. BRITISH COLUMBIA 1986 S k e t c h l e y 9a In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of G e o l o g i c a l Sciences The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 19, 1986  F r o n t i s p i e c e . E n t r a n c e to E r i c k s o n G o l d M i n e s L t d . ' s C a s s i a r o p e r a t i o n s . The 1210, 1280 and 1350 p o r t a l s a r e v i s i b l e i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d . - i i -ABSTRACT T h e E r i c k s o n m i n e i s w i t h i n t h e McDame l o d e g o l d camp, a p r o x i m a t e l y 12 km s o u t h e a s t o f C a s s i a r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The m i n e i s i n m a f i c v o l c a n i c , u l t r a m a f i c a n d s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s o f t h e U p p e r P a l e o z o i c t o L o w e r M e s o z o i c S y l v e s t e r A l l o c h t h o n . G o l d - s i l v e r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o c c u r s i n w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s t h a t a r e m o s t l y w i t h i n m a f i c v o l c a n i c r o c k s . K - A r d a t e s f r o m s e r i c i t e i n g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s i n d i c a t e t h a t m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n t h e E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s a t a b o u t 130 Ma. T h u s , t h e s e v e i n s p r e d a t e t h e m i d - C r e t a c e o u s C a s s i a r b a t h o l i t h a n d L o w e r C r e t a c e o u s and E a r l y T e r t i a r y p l u t o n s i n t h e i m m e d i a t e a r e a . H o w e v e r , t h e E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s d a t e p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t s a t h e r m a l e v e n t , p r e c u r s o r t o e m p l a c e m e n t o f t h e C a s s i a r b a t h o l i t h , w h i c h may h a v e c a u s e d c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h e m e t e o r i c f l u i d s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e v e i n s . R o c k s w i t h i n t h e E r i c k s o n m i n e w e r e a f f e c t e d by f o u r t y p e s o f a l t e r a t i o n : s y n v o l c a n i c h y d r o t h e r m a 1 , r e g i o n a l m e t a m o r p h i c , e p i g e n e t i c h y d r o t h e r m a l a n d c o n t a c t m e t a m o r p h i c . The m o s t common t y p e i s e p i g e n e t i c c a r b o n a t i z a t i o n o f b a s a l t , w h i c h o c c u r s a s w e 1 1 - d e v e l o p e d e n v e l o p e s a r o u n d g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s a n d c a r b o n v e i n s . D o l o m i t e v e i n s a r e s u r r o u n d e d by s i m i l a r c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s ; t h e s e v e i n s p o s t d a t e w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s a n d c a r b o n v e i n s . D i s s e m i n a t e d a n d f r a c t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d c a r b o n may be p r e s e n t a r o u n d w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s a n d c a r b o n v e i n s . An i d e a l i z e d m o d e l o f c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s i s p r e s e n t e d b a s e d on f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d m i n e r a l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . - i i i -Rocks w i t h i n carbonate a l t e r a t i o n envelopes are composed of a n k e r i t e , s i d e r i t e , dolomi t e , q u a r t z , s e r i c i t e , k a o l i n i t e , p y r i t e , carbon and minor t i t a n i u m o x i d e s . A g e n e r a l i z e d model of minera l spec ies d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout the envelopes around white quartz v e i n s , carbon ve ins and dolomite ve ins was a l so deve loped . Mass balance c a l c u l a t i o n s , us ing Gresens ' (1967) metasomatic e q u a t i o n , i n d i c a t e the f o l l o w i n g c o m p o s i t i o n a l changes around a g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g white quartz v e i n : gain of K 0 and SiO ; l o s s 2 2 of Na 0, Fe 0 and MgO; lo s s of CaO from the outer p o r t i o n of the 2 2 3 envelope and gain in the i n n e r . Loss on i g n i t i o n and the a l t e r a t i o n minera l assemblage i n d i c a t e gain of at l e a s t CO , H 0 2 2 and S . Geochemistry of carbonate a l t e r a t i o n envelopes was i n v e s t i g a t e d us ing an aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n with mul t i - e l ement i n d u c t i v e l y coupled plasma (ICP) analyses and g o l d - s i l v e r f i r e as says . The ICP analyses were compared to X-ray f l u o r e s c e n c e (XRF) analyses to determine the range of e x t r a c t i o n and to a s s i s t in i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The comparison i n d i c a t e s that i f there i s s trong enrichment in carbonate a l t e r a t i o n envelopes surrounding g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g white quartz v e i n s , the ICP analyses w i l l show these p a t t e r n s w e l l . Strong enrichment i n potass ium, bar ium, boron and a r s e n i c , and sporad ic enrichment in g o l d , s i l v e r , copper , l e a d , z i n c and antimony occur in c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t around g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g white quartz v e i n s . - i v-TABLE OF CONTENTS page T i t l e Page i F r o n t i s p i e c e i i A b s t r a c t i i i T a b l e of C o n t e n t s v L i s t of F i g u r e s i x L i s t of P l a t e s x i L i s t of T a b l e s x i i Acknowledgements x i i i CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 LOCATION AND HISTORY 1 1.2 PURPOSE AND SCOPE 3 1 .3 METHODOLOGY 4 CHAPTER 2. GEOLOGICAL SETTING 2.1 REGIONAL GEOLOGY 6 2.2 MINES ITE GEOLOGY 9 2.2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 9 2.2.2 M a f i c V o l c a n i c , U l t r a m a f i c and S e d i m e n t a r y Rocks of the Lower Assemblage 9 2.2.3 S e d i m e n t a r y Rocks of the Upper Assemblage 15 2.2.4 D i a b a s e and Lamprophyre Dykes 16 2.3 STRUCTURE 17 CHAPTER 3. VEINS 3.1 INTRODUCTION 19 3 . 2 QUARTZ VEINS 19 3.3 CARBON VEINS 29 -v-3.4 DOLOMITE VEINS 35 3.5 CALCITE VEINS 35 CHAPTER 4 . AGE OF GOLD-SILVER MINERALIZATION 4.1 INTRODUCTION 38 4.2 SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS 40 4.3 DISCUSSION 42 CHAPTER 5. ROCK ALTERATION 5.1 INTRODUCTION 44 5.2 SYNVOLCANIC HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION 44 5.3 REGIONAL METAMORPHIC ALTERATION 47 5.4 EPIGENETIC HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION 48 5.4.1 C a r b o n a t i z a t i o n of B a s a l t 48 5.4.2 S i l i c i f i c a t i o n of B a s a l t 49 5.4.3 A r g i l l i z a t i o n of B a s a l t 49 5.4.4 A l t e r a t i o n of U l t r a m a f i c Rocks 49 5.4.5 S i l i c i f i c a t i o n of C h e r t and S i l i c e o u s A r g i l l i t e 51 5.4.6 A r g i l l i z a t i o n of D i a b a s e and Lamprophyre Dykes. 52 5.5 CONTACT METAMORPHIC ALTERATION 52 CHAPTER 6. CARBONATE ALTERATION ENVELOPES 6.1 INTRODUCTION 54 6.2 NONCARBONATIZED BASALT 59 6.3 ALTERATION ZONES 64 6.3.1 Zone 2 C - 0 u t e r C a r b o n a t e 64 6.3.2 Zone 2 B - I n t e r m e d i a t e C a r b o n a t e 66 6.3.3 Zone 2A-Inner C a r b o n a t e 69 - v i -6.3.4 Zone I B - O u t e r Carbon 74 6.3.5 Zone l A - I n n e r Carbon 76 6.4 FRACTURE-CONTROLLED CARBON 77 6.5 DISCUSSION 77 CHAPTER 7. CARBONATE AND MAJOR ELEMENT METASOMATISM 7 . 1 INTRODUCTION 81 7.2 MASS BALANCE CALCULATIONS 81 7.2.1 P r o c e d u r e s 81 7 .2.2 R e s u l t s 84 7.2.3 D i s c u s s i o n 90 7.3 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 92 7.4 ALTERATION PROCESSES 94 CHAPTER 8. GEOCHEMISTRY OF CARBONATE ALTERATION ENVELOPES 8.1 INTRODUCTION 96 8.2 SAMPLING AND ANALYSES 96 8.3 QUALITY OF DATA 99 8.4 ICP - XRF COMPARISON 103 8.5 STATISTICS 107 8.6 APPLICABILITY TO EXPLORATION 107 8.7 DISCUSSION 114 CHAPTER 9. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 9 .1 CONCLUSIONS . 116 9.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 118 9.2.1 E x p l o r a t i o n G u i d e l i n e s . 118 9.2.2 A d d i t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . . 119 - v i i -REFERENCES . 121 APPENDICES 130 A. SAMPLE DESCRIPTIONS FOR K-Ar DATING 131 B. ANALYTICAL DATA 133 C. SUMMARY OF ANALYTICAL METHODS. 227 D. SUMMARY OF SAMPLE LOCATIONS AND ROCK TYPES 231 E. DUPLICATE - ORIGINAL SAMPLE CORRELATION 24 2 F. SUMMARY OF MASS BALANCE CALCULATIONS 24 5 G. ICP - XRF COMPARISON 24 7 H. STATISTICS 262 I . EXAMPLE DIAMOND DRILL LOG 267 J . CHEMICAL STAINING METHODS 26 9 - v i i i -LIST OF FIGURES 1. L o c a t i o n of the E r i c k s o n mine 2 2. G e o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g of the E r i c k s o n mine 7 3. G e n e r a l i z e d g e o l o g i c a l map of the C a s s i a r area 8 4. G e n e r a l i z e d g e o l o g i c a l map of the area surrounding the E r i c k s o n mine 10 5. G e n e r a l i z e d g e o l o g i c a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the E r i c k s o n mine 12 I ^ C o l l e c t ^ 6. Composite plan map of the E r i c k s o n mine main l e v e l s ('pee^ ee't) 7. Jensen C a t i o n P l o t of S y l v e s t e r Group mafic v o l c a n i c rocks 13 8. Composite plan map of the E r i c k s o n mine main l e v e l s with l o c a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e of major veins 21 9. G e o l o g i c a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the Jennie v e i n 23 10. G e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of carbon veins to the A l i s o n v e i n and the w a l l rock i n 28-17 d r i f t 30 11 . Histogram of K-Ar model ages 39 12. Sketches i l l u s t r a t i n g a l t e r a t i o n types 45 13. C r o s s - s e c t i o n of an i d e a l i z e d carbonate a l t e r a t i o n envelope c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of white quartz v e i n s , carbon ve i n s and McDame dolomite v e i n 58 14. G e n e r a l i z e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of mineral s p e c i e s throughout carbonate a l t e r a t i o n envelopes around white quartz veins and carbon veins 60 15. G e n e r a l i z e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of mineral s p e c i e s throughout carbonate a l t e r a t i o n envelope around McDame dolomite v e i n 61 16. Schematic i l l u s t r a t i o n of f r a c t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d carbon 78 17. Compos ition-volume diagrams f o r s i x c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t samples 85 18. Volume f a c t o r s and changes f o r s i x c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t samples and one noncarbonatized b a s a l t sample 86 19. Loss on i g n i t i o n (LOI) f o r s i x c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t samples and one noncarbonatized b a s a l t sample 88 - i x -20. L o s s and g a i n o f major o x i d e s i n s i x c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t s a m p l e s 89 21. S c h e m a t i c i l l u s t r a t i o n o f c a r b o n a t e metasomatism o f b a s a l t 91 22. F l o w d i a g r a m f o r g e o c h e m i s t r y s t u d y o f c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n a t E r i c k s o n mine 97 23. ICP a n a l y s e s w i t h an aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n p l o t t e d a g a i n s t XRF a n a l y s e s f o r b a r i u m , c a l c i u m and z i n c 104 24. Dendrogram showing g r o u p i n g o f e l e m e n t s i n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t 108 25. P r o b a b i l i t y g r a p h s f o r 106 p o t a s s i u m and 106 b a r i u m v a l u e s f r o m c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t 110 26. P r o b a b i l i t y g r a p h s f o r 106 b o r o n and 106 s i l v e r v a l u e s from c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t 112 27. P r o b a b i l i t y g r a p h f o r 106 a r s e n i c v a l u e s f r o m c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t 113 28. A n a l y t i c a l p r o f i l e s f o r c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e J e n n i e w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n 115 -x-L I S T OF PLATES 1. O u t c r o p of b a s a l t w i t h w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n and c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e 24 2. C l o s e - u p view of c o n t a c t between w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n and c a r b o n v e i n 25 3. U n d e r g r o u n d e x p o s u r e of t h e A l i s o n v e i n 27 4. C l o s e - u p view of c a r b o n - r i c h l a y e r s , A l i s o n v e i n 28 5. U n d e r g r o u n d e x p o s u r e of a c a r b o n v e i n 31 6. C l o s e - u p view of c o n t a c t between c a r b o n v e i n and c a r b o n - r i c h c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t 32 7. P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h of c a r b o n v e i n 34 8. U n d e r g r o u n d e x p o s u r e of a p o r t i o n of the McDame d o l o m i t e v e i n 36 9. U n d e r g r o u n d e x p o s u r e of a p o r t i o n of a c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e 55 10. U n d e r g r o u n d e x p o s u r e of c a r b o n - r i c h c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . . 56 11. P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h of n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t 63 12. P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h of f i n e - g r a i n e d c a r b o n a t e r e p l a c i n g p l a g i o c l a s e 65 13. U n d e r g r o u n d e x p o s u r e of c a r b o n a t i z e d p i l l o w e d b a s a l t 67 14. P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h of c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t 68 15. C l o s e - u p view of c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t w i t h d i s s e m i n a t e d c o a r s e - g r a i n e d e u h e d r a l p y r i t e c r y s t a l s 71 16. C l o s e - u p view of e m e r a l d - g r e e n p o r p h y r o b l a s t - l i k e a g g r e g a t e s 7 2 17. P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h of e m e r a l d - g r e e n p o r p h y r o b l a s t - l i k e a g g r e g a t e 73 18. C l o s e - u p view of p i s t a c h i o - g r e e n m o t t l i n g 75 19. C l o s e - u p view of f r a c t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d c a r b o n 78 - x i -LIST OF TABLES I . Rock t y p e s , l i t h o l o g i e s and o c c u r r e n c e 11 I I . V e i n t y p e , m i n e r a l o g y and a s s o c i a t e d a l t e r a t i o n 20 I I I . A n a l y t i c a l d a t a and K-Ar d a t e s f o r s e r i c i t e i n g o l d -s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s 41 IV. A l t e r a t i o n m i n e r a l a s s e m b l a g e s 46 V. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c a r b o n a t e s p e c i e s 57 V I . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i d e a l a l t e r a t i o n z o n i n g 62 V I I . Summary of d a t a q u a l i t y (ICP a n a l y s e s and LOI) 100 V I I I . Summary of d a t a q u a l i t y (XRF a n a l y s e s ) 101 IX. Summary of d a t a q u a l i t y ( f i r e a s s a y s ) 101 X. Summary of c o m p a r i s o n of ICP a n a l y s e s w i t h an aqua d i g e s t i o n to XRF a n a l y s e s 105 - x i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s p r o j e c t was recommended by Rick S o m e r v i l l e , E x p l o r a t i o n Manager and C h i e f G e o l o g i s t of E r i c k s o n Gold Mines L t d . , North Vancouver, B.C. He gave me the o p p o r t u n i t y to pursue i t and prov i d e d many h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . The l o g i s t i c a l and f i n a n c i a l support by E r i c k s o n Gold Mines L t d . , and f i n a n c i a l support from the N a t u r a l Science and E n g i n e e r i n g Research C o u n c i l are g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. I am t h a n k f u l to Dr. A.J. S i n c l a i r f o r s u p e r v i s i n g t h e s i s work, p r o v i d i n g d i s c u s s i o n s and reviewing the t e x t . Dr. C.I. Godwin provided i n v a l u a b l e advice and e d i t e d the t e x t . Dr. R.L. Armstrong reviewed the chapter on d a t i n g ; Dr. K. F l e t c h e r the chapter on geochemistry. Cooperation of the E r i c k s o n mine s t a f f , e s p e c i a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s with R i c h a r d Basnett, Susan Walker, Matt B a l l , A l f Stewart and E r i c D u s s e l l are a p p r e c i a t e d . E x t e n s i v e a s s i s t a n c e i n o b t a i n i n g computer output was pro v i d e d by Gary Giroux, John Harrop and Asger Bentzen. Ed Montgomery, Bryon Cranston, Gordon Hodge and other s t a f f members at the Department of G e o l o g i c a l Sciences are thanked f o r t h e i r t e c h n i c a l support. The h e l p f u l nature of many f e l l o w students i s a p p r e c i a t e d . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l to Z l a t a Rebic f o r moral support and a s s i s t a n c e i n improving the c l a r i t y of the t e x t . - x i i i -CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 LOCATION AND HISTORY The E r i c k s o n mine i s 12 k i l o m e t r e s southeast of C a s s i a r , o B r i t i s h Columbia ( F i g . 1; map sheet 104P/4; l o n g i t u d e 129 37'W; o l a t i t u d e 59 13'N). The mine i s one of s e v e r a l g o l d producers i n the McDame lode g o l d camp. The McDame camp, which covers approximately 150 square km, was f i r s t known f o r i t s p l a c e r g o l d p r o d u c t i o n . About 70,000 ounces of go l d (2.40 m i l l i o n grams) were recovered; most of i t during the l a t e 1800's. S e v e r a l o p e r a t i o n s s t i l l c o n tinue today. The l a r g e s t nugget of go l d ever recovered i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 72 ounces (2,469 grams), came from t h i s camp. E x p l o r a t i o n f o r lode g o l d d e p o s i t s became s i g n i f i c a n t only a f t e r the d i s c o v e r y of f r e e gold i n quartz i n the 1930's. During the next f o r t y y e a r s , only s p o r a d i c p r o d u c t i o n was achieved from a few small d e p o s i t s . In the 1970's, advanced e x p l o r a t i o n and development was performed by s e v e r a l companies. The f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l lode gold mining o p e r a t i o n was th a t of the Agnes and Jennie Mining Co. and Nu-Energy Development Corp., l a t e r merged i n t o E r i c k s o n Gold Mines L t d . , and c u r r e n t l y known as T o t a l E r i c k s o n Resources L t d . of North Vancouver, B.C. Produ c t i o n commenced i n l a t e 1978 on the Jennie v e i n . An i n i t i a l m i l l i n g c a p a c i t y of 100 tons per day was i n c r e a s e d to 300 tons per day i n 1984. M i l l heads have averaged 0.43 ounces of g o l d per ton (14.7 grams/tonne) and 0.39 ounces of s i l v e r per ton (13.4 grams/tonne). -1 -F i g u r e 1 . L o c a t i o n of the E r i c k s o n mine, n o r t h - c e n t r a l B . C - 2 -T o t a l p r o d u c t i o n to the end of 1985 was 149,082 ounces of g o l d (5.11 m i l l i o n grams) and 119,429 ounces of s i l v e r (4.09 m i l l i o n grams) from 370,818 t o n s (337,107 t o n n e s ) . G o l d r e c o v e r y has been 93%; s i l v e r 83%. The m i l l was s h u t down i n l a t e 1985 f o r r e n o v a t i o n s and was d e s t r o y e d by f i r e i n e a r l y 1986, p r i o r to r e s u m i n g o p e r a t i o n . A new m i l l i s p l a n n e d on an a d j a c e n t s i t e . O t h e r companies t h a t have c o n d u c t e d a d v a nced s u r f a c e and u n d e r g r o u n d d evelopment a r e T a u r u s R e s o u r c e s L t d . , T a b l e M o u n t a i n Mines L t d . , P l a z a R e s o u r c e s L t d . and Cusac I n d u s t r i e s L t d . , a l l of V a n c o u v e r , B.C. E r i c k s o n G o l d Mines L t d . t o o k o v e r P l a z a R e s o u r c e s L t d . , g a i n e d c o n t r o l of T a b l e M o u n t a i n Mines L t d . and o p t i o n e d Cusac I n d u s t r i e s L t d . i n 1984. T a u r u s R e s o u r c e s L t d . was o p e r a t i n g a t the end of 1985. 1.2 PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF STUDY G o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s i n t h e McDame g o l d camp a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s i n m a f i c v o l c a n i c r o c k s . A s t u d y of c a r b o n a t i z e d m a f i c v o l c a n i c r o c k s at the E r i c k s o n mine was c o n d u c t e d to i n v e s t i g a t e the n a t u r e of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n , and to d e v e l o p e x p l o r a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s f o r g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s u s i n g m i n e r a l o g i c a l and g e o c h e m i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n . A l l t y p e s of v e i n s and a l t e r a t i o n s were documented to d e t e r m i n e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . E a r l y f i e l d w o r k i n d i c a t e d t h a t s e r i c i t e - r i c h samples c o u l d be o b t a i n e d to d e t e r m i n e the age of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n ; -3-c o n s e q u e n t l y , a s a m p l i n g program was u n d e r t a k e n f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . 1.3 METHODOLOGY F i e l d work was p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g 1983 and 1984 w h i l e the a u t h o r was employed by E r i c k s o n G o l d Mines L t d . The a u t h o r g a i n e d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the g e o l o g y of the E r i c k s o n mine and s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a t h r o u g h diamond d r i l l c o r e l o g g i n g , u n d e r g r o u n d mapping and s u r f a c e mapping, p r o s p e c t i n g and s a m p l i n g . I n i t i a l l y t he s t u d y was d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s d o c u m e n t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l l v e i n and a l t e r a t i o n t y p e s i n t h e mine, but s u b s e q u e n t l y f o c u s e d on c a r b o n a t i z e d m a f i c v o l c a n i c r o c k s s p a t i a l l y r e l a t e d to g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . T h i s d e t a i l e d s t u d y began w i t h the development of an i d e a l z o n i n g model based on m e g a s c o p i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s . A d e t a i l e d s y s t e m a t i c s a m p l i n g program was u n d e r t a k e n to p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r b.oth m i n e r a l o g i c a l and g e o c h e m i c a l s t u d i e s of the a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s . Mass b a l a n c e c a l c u l a t i o n s u s i n g G r e s e n s ' (1967) m e t a s o m a t i c e q u a t i o n were done to e s t i m a t e l o s s e s and g a i n s of major o x i d e s d u r i n g c a r b o n a t e metasomatism. These r e s u l t s a s s i s t e d i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g c h e m i c a l r e a c t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s by which metasomatism took p l a c e , and the g e o c h e m i s t r y of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s . L a s t l y , the g e o c h e m i s t r y was i n v e s t i g a t e d u s i n g an aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n w i t h i n d u c t i v e l y c o u p l e d plasma ( I C P ) a n a l y s e s , X-ray f l u o r e s c e n c e (XRF) a n a l y s e s and g o l d - s i l v e r f i r e a s s a y s . The ICP a n a l y s e s were compared to -4-XRF a n a l y s e s to d e t e r m i n e t h e r a n g e of e x t r a c t i o n and t o a s s i s t i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . - 5 -CHAPTER 2. GEOLOGICAL SETTING 2 .1 REGIONAL GEOLOGY The E r i c k s o n mine i s i n the S y l v e s t e r A l l o c h t h o n , an a c c r e t e d Late P a l e o z o i c to E a r l y Mesozoic oceanic t e r r a n e ( F i g . 2). The a l l o c h t h o n was emplaced onto autochthonous rocks of the North American miogeocline a f t e r the T r i a s s i c and p r i o r to the mid-Cretaceous; l a t e r i t was i n t r u d e d by mid- to Late Cretaceous quartz monzonite of the C a s s i a r Complex (Tempelman-Kluit, 1979; G a b r i e l s e and Mansy, 1 980 ; Gordey e t a_l. , 1 982; Harms, 1984, 1985A and 1985B; M.J. Orchard and K.M. Dawson, w r i t t e n communication, 1986). The geology of the c e n t r a l p a r t of the a l l o c h t h o n , the u n d e r l y i n g autochthonous rocks and quartz monzonite i n t r u s i o n s was reviewed f i r s t by G a b r i e l s e (1963). L a t e r work by Diakow and Panteleyev (1981), Panteleyev and Diakow (1 982) and Gordey e_t a_l. (1 982) i n v o l v e d s i m i l a r rocks i n the v i c i n i t y of the E r i c k s o n mine. A g e n e r a l i z e d g e o l o g i c a l map of the C a s s i a r area i s presented i n F i g u r e 3. Autochthonous rocks of the North American miogeocline i n c l u d e a conformable s h e l f assemblage of Precambrian to Late P a l e o z o i c sedimentary rocks. The S y l v e s t e r A l l o c h t h o n c o n s i s t s of v o l c a n i c , sedimentary and u l t r a m a f i c rocks of the M i s s i s s i p p i a n to T r i a s s i c S y l v e s t e r Group. -6-13»* 12«*W SO' \+ + * Jj M i d - t o lat© C r e t a c e o u s q u a r t z m o n z o n i t e [•'.'•• ;.!| L a t e P a l e o z o i c a n d M e s o z o i c C a c h e C r e e k G r o u p - 5 8 * N L a t e P a l e o z o i c a n d M e s o z o i c - A l l o c h t h o n o u s |: :•;•:] L a t e P a l e o z o i c a n d e a r l y M e s o z o i c S y l v e s t e r A l l o c h t h o n Iffjfj P r e c a m b r i a n a n d P a l e o z o i c - A u t o c h t h o n o u s F i g u r e 2. G e o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g of the E r i c k s o n mine ( m o d i f i e d from Gordey et. a l j . 1982) . - 7 -F i g u r e 3. G e n e r a l i z e d g e o l o g i c a l map of the C a s s i a r a r e a , n o r t h -- c e n t r a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( a f t e r G a b r i e l s e , 1963 and P a n t e l e y e v , 1980) . -8-2.2 MINESITE GEOLOGY 2.2 .1 I n t r o d u c t i o n In the v i c i n i t y of E r i c k s o n mine ( F i g . 4 ) , the S y l v e s t e r A l l o c h t h o n i s composed of two d i s c r e t e f a u l t - b o u n d e d a s s e m b l a g e s , a lower and upper (Gordey e_t a_l_. , 1982). The lower assemblage c o n s i s t s of m a f i c v o l c a n i c , u l t r a m a f i c and s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s ; the upper of s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s . Both a s s e m b l a g e s a r e i n t r u d e d by p o s t - v e i n m a f i c d y k e s . Q u a r t z v e i n s t h a t c o n t a i n the ore b o d i e s at the E r i c k s o n mine a r e i n the upper p a r t of the low e r a s s e m b l a g e . A summary of r o c k t y p e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I . A g e n e r a l i z e d c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the mine i l l u s t r a t i n g the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the most common r o c k t y p e s and major v e i n s i s i n F i g u r e 5. B r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s of r o c k t y p e s a r e p r o v i d e d below. L o c a t i o n s r e f e r r e d to i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e keyed i n F i g u r e 6. 2.2 .2 M a f i c V o l c a n i c , U l t r a m a f i c and S e d i m e n t a r y Rocks of th e Lower Assemblage M a f i c v o l c a n i c r o c k s of t h e lower a s s e m b l a g e f a l l w i t h i n the t h o l e i i t i c b a s a l t f i e l d of the J e n s e n C a t i o n P l o t f o r s u b a l k a l i c v o l c a n i c r o c k s ( J e n s e n , 1976; F i g . 7 ) . B a s a l t c o m p r i s e s about s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of the r o c k s i n the mine. M a s s i v e , rounded and c l i f f - f o r m i n g s u r f a c e e x p o s u r e s a r e d a r k g r e e n to b l a c k . B a s a l t i s m o s t l y m a s s i v e or p i l l o w e d ; l e s s commonly p i l l o w b r e c c i a s were o b s e r v e d . Some b a s a l t i s s h e a r e d e x t e n s i v e l y as i n d i c a t e d by c a t a c l a s t i c t e x t u r e s . C o n s t i t u e n t m i n e r a l s of b a s a l t -9-LEGEND Upper sedimentary assemblage Lower volcanic, ultramafic, sedimentary assemblage Dyke 12104 Erickson mine main levels 2 4 Portal, adit or open pit • Trenching *• Road 1 2 Kilometres F i g u r e 4. G e n e r a l i z e d g e o l o g i c a l map of the a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g the E r i c k s o n mine. See F i g u r e 5 f o r c r o s s - s e c t i o n A-A'. Mine work-i n g s ; 1 = Cusac I n d u s t r i e s mine, 2 = T a b l e Mtn. mine, 3 to 8 = V o l l a u g v e i n open p i t s , 9 = T r o u t l i n e mine, 10 and 11 = Newcoast S i l v e r a d i t s . A d apted from E r i c k s o n G o l d Mines L t d . ' s map I E , 1982. -10-TABLE I Rock t y p e s , l i t h o l o g i e s and o c c u r r e n c e ROCK TYPE LITHOLOGY OCCURRENCE U P P E R dyke s e d i m e n t a r y A. d i a b a s e B. b i o t i t e l a m p r o p h y r e A. s h a l e , a r g i l l i t e , s i l t s t o n e , wacke c r o s s c u t s a l l r o c k s i n upper and lower a s s e m b l a g e s ; e a s t - w e s t t r e n d i n g , v e r t i c a l and up t o 15 m e t r e s t h i c k ; f r e q u e n t l y p a r a l l e l s v e i n s c o m p r i s e s a l l o f upper a s s e m b l a g e i n v i c i n i t y o f mine L 0 W E R A S S E M B L A G E m a f i c v o l c a n i c u l t r a m a f i c s e d i m e n t a r y A. B. C. A. B. C. A. m a s s i v e b a s a l t p i l l o w e d b a s a l t p i l l o w b r e c c i a b a s a l t s e r p e n t i n e t a l c - b r e u n e r i t e q u a r t z - b r e u n e r i t e - f u c h s i t e b l a c k t o g r e y r i b b o n c h e r t , s i l i c e o u s a r g i l l i t e , s h a l e B. p a l e g r e e n t o b u f f r i b b o n c h e r t , s h a l e C. m a s s i v e w h i t e , p a l e - g r e e n , b u f f and r e d c h e r t +_ mag-n e t i t e ( e x h a l i t e ) forms m a j o r i t y o f lo w e r a s s e m b l a g e w i t h i n t h e mine; b r e c c i a s uncommon and l o c a l i z e d s i l l - l i k e b o d i e s h u n d r e d s o f m e t r e s l o n g and l e s s t h a n f i v e m e t r e s t h i c k i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h b a s a l t ; e x h a l i t e i s o b s e r v e d o n l y e a s t o f t h e t h e 21-03 d r i f t 0 1= 80 1 6 0 2 4 0 m e t r e s co CD £ < > UJ m 1 3 9 0 L E V E L D i a b a s e o r l a m p r o p h y r e d y k e Q u a r t z o r d o l o m i t e v e i n S h a l e , a r g i l l i t e , s i l t s t o n e , w a c k e VV V v v v S e r p e n t i n i t e , t a l c - q u a r t z -c a r b o n a t e r o c k B a s a l t ; m i n o r c h e r t , a r g i l l i t e , s h a l e , s e r p e n t i n i t e & t a l c - q u a r t z - c a r b o n a t e r o c k 1 2 8 0 L E V E L ' v ' ' V V v v v 1 [ v v v v v v v v v 1 'VJt v v v v v v v v v v ' v v w J ' v v / v v v v v v v v v v v v v v " ' r / v 1 2 1 0 L E V E L ' v / v v * v v f v v v v v v v v V v v v v v v v v V v v • v v v v#v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v w ' v v v v ^ v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v ' v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v ' ALISON JENNIE MAURA McDAME GOLDIE DE VINE D E A S E BEAR A' F i g u r e 5. G e n e r a l i z e d g e o l o g i c a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the E r i c k s o n mine. R e f e r t o F i g u r e 4 f o r l o c a t i o n of c r o s s - s e c t i o n . Adapted from E r i c k s o n G o l d M i n e s L t d . ' s c r o s s - s e c t i o n s Maura 512, J e n n i e 108 and Bear 500, 1984. FeO + F e 2 0 3 + T i 0 2 A l 2 0 3 M g O F i g u r e 7. A: Jensen C a t i o n P l o t ( J e n s e n , 1976). B: M a f i c v o l c a n i c r o c k s of the S y l v e s t e r Group f a l l w i t h i n the t h o l e i i t i c b a s a l t f i e l d . A n a l y s e s a r e t a b u l a t e d i n A p p e n d i x A (A = 80-88-JH-6; B = 80-88-JH-7; C = 82-212-MF-5; D = 82-212-MF-6; E = 83-257-DF-8: F = 83-257-DF-9). i n c l u d e p l a g i o c l a s e w i t h l e s s e r c h l o r i t e , a c t i n o l i t e and e p i d o t e . M i n o r amounts of a u g i t e , c a l c i t e and t i t a n i u m o x i d e s a r e p r e s e n t a l s o . Most v e i n s o c c u r w i t h i n t h i s r o c k t y p e . About t e n p e r c e n t of the r o c k s i n E r i c k s o n mine a r e u l t r a m a f i c r o c k s composed of v a r y i n g amounts of s e r p e n t i n e , t a l c , b r e u n e r i t e , q u a r t z and f u c h s i t e . The s e r p e n t i n e and t a l c - r i c h r o c k s a r e r e c e s s i v e w e a t h e r i n g ; t h e b r e u n e r i t e and q u a r t z - r i c h r o c k s commonly form l o w - r o u n d e d knobs. A l l t y p e s weather to v a r y i n g shades of brown and g r e e n . B r e u n e r i t e - r i c h r o c k s i n p a r t i c u l a r weather orange-brown. A l t e r e d u l t r a m a f i c r o c k s o c c u r as s i l l - l i k e b o d i e s h u n d r e d s of m e t r e s l o n g and l e s s than f i v e m e t r e s t h i c k , a l t h o u g h t h i c k n e s s e s of up to s i x t y m e t r e s were n o t e d l o c a l l y . W i t h i n the mine, u l t r a m a f i c r o c k s o c c u r at the c o n t a c t between the upper and lower a s s e m b l a g e s and w i t h i n t h e b a s a l t between the 1,250 m and 1,350 m e l e v a t i o n s . They a r e exposed on the 1280, 1350 and 1390 l e v e l s ( F i g . 5 ) . In the v i c i n i t y of the mine u l t r a m a f i c r o c k s a l s o o c c u r as s m a l l d i s c o n t i n u o u s b o d i e s . The o c c u r r e n c e of u l t r a m a f i c b o d i e s w i t h i n s h e a r e d r o c k s s u g g e s t s t h a t t e c t o n i c emplacement i s l i k e l y . The p r o t o l i t h s of a l t e r e d u l t r a m a f i c r o c k s were not o b s e r v e d i n the mine a r e a , a l t h o u g h a c c o r d i n g to G a b r i e l s e (1963) p e r i d o t i t e , d u n i t e and p y r o x e n i t e o c c u r t h r o u g h o u t the S y l v e s t e r A l l o c h t h o n . S e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s of the lower a s semblage o c c u r as beds w i t h i n the b a s a l t ; they form about twenty p e r c e n t of the r o c k s i n t h e mine. These r o c k s a r e composed of r i b b o n c h e r t , s i l i c e o u s a r g i l l i t e , s h a l e and r a r e m a g n e t i t e - r i c h s i l i c e o u s e x h a l i t e . Surface exposures are grey, b u f f and pale-green. Pale-green to buff r i b b o n c h e r t and shale occur throughout the mine; grey to black r i b b o n c h e r t , s i l i c e o u s a r g i l l i t e , a r g i l l i t e and shale are well-exposed i n the f o o t w a l l of the A l i s o n v e i n on the 1210 and 1280 l e v e l s ( F i g . 5). The e x h a l i t e was noted only i n d r i l l holes 50 metres east of the 21-05 d r i f t ( F i g . 6) at the 1,180 m e l e v a t i o n . Cherty and s i l i c e o u s sedimentary rocks are composed of i n t e r l o c k i n g s i l i c a g r a i n s with minor c l a y , c h l o r i t e and carbon. Disseminated carbonate, p y r i t e and t i t a n i u m oxides are present l o c a l l y . A r g i l l a c e o u s sedimentary rocks are composed of quartz and c l a y with some c h l o r i t e , carbon, carbonate, p y r i t e and ti t a n i u m o x i d e s . E x h a l i t e c o n s i s t s of white, pale-green, buff and red ch e r t that c o n t a i n s abundant magnetite l o c a l l y . The magnetite occurs i n the lower p o r t i o n as d i s s e m i n a t i o n s , wispy l a y e r s and la m i n a t i o n s . Carbonatized c h e r t fragments occur i n the laminated magnetite. 2.2.3 Sedimentary Rocks of the Upper Assemblage Sedimentary rocks of the upper assemblage are composed of black shale and a r g i l l i t e , brown to black s i l t s t o n e and wacke and minor b l a c k limestone. Black shale and a r g i l l i t e are l o c a l l y c a r b o n - r i c h . R i p p l e marks and cross-bedding were observed i n some s i l t s t o n e and wacke beds. Sedimentary rocks of the upper -15-assemblage form small c l i f f s and rounded h i l l s with dark grey to brown t a l u s on top of Table Mountain ( F i g . 4). 2.2.4 Diabase and Lamprophyre Dykes Diabase and b i o t i t e lamprophyre dykes are the youngest rocks observed i n the mine; they form approximately f i v e percent of a l l r o c k s . S i m i l a r b i o t i t e lamprophyre dykes s i x km south of E r i c k s o n mine were dated at 110^4 Ma (A. Panteleyev, p e r s o n a l communication, 1985). Surface exposures weather brown and are f r i a b l e . The dykes are e a s t e r l y t r e n d i n g , v e r t i c a l and up to f i f t e e n metres t h i c k . Good exposures were observed i n the main 1210 and 1280 l e v e l s ( F i g . 5). A s i n g l e diabase s i l l , one to three metres t h i c k , t r e n d i n g n o r t h - n o r t h e a s t l y and d i p p i n g moderately to the west, occurs i n the 21-10 d r i f t ( F i g . 6 ) . Diabase dykes are f i n e to medium g r a i n e d , massive, speckled l i g h t - g r e y , dark-green to black and have c h i l l e d margins. Amygdules up to one-half centimetre i n diameter are l o c a l l y common near the margins. Diabase i s o p h i t i c and composed of p l a g i o c l a s e and augite with t r a c e amounts of t i t a n i u m oxides, a p a t i t e , p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e . Minor b i o t i t e , c h l o r i t e , a n k e r i t e and s e r i c i t e are present l o c a l l y . B i o t i t e lamprophyre dykes are f i n e to medium gr a i n e d , massive dark-brown to dark-green and have c h i l l e d margins. Some x e n o l i t h s of g r a n i t i c rock were observed i n one l o c a l i t y on the east f l a n k of Table Mountain. B i o t i t e lamprophyre dykes are -1 6-composed of c o a r s e - g r a i n e d b i o t i t e i n a groundmass of b i o t i t e and p l a g i o c l a s e with t r a c e amounts of a p a t i t e , t i t a n i u m oxides and magnetite. C h l o r i t e , carbonate, s e r i c i t e and epidote were noted l o c a l l y . 2.3 STRUCTURE The s t r u c t u r e of the S y l v e s t e r A l l o c h t h o n was reviewed by Gordey e t a l . (1982) and Harms (1984 and 1985). T h e i r work i n d i c a t e s that the -allochthon i s a m i l d l y deformed, f l a t , i m b r i c a t e d sheet preserved i n a broad s y n c l i n o r i u m . According to Harms (1984), the a l l o c h t h o n i s composed of "a stack of s t r u c t u r a l l y i n t e r l e a v e d fault-bounded s l i c e s of an order of magnitude s m a l l e r than the ter r a n e i t s e l f . . . . each s l i c e may c o n s i s t of one l i t h o l o g y . . . o r a few r e l a t e d or repeated l i t h o l o g i e s " . In the v i c i n i t y of the E r i c k s o n mine, two d i s c r e t e fault-bounded assemblages, an upper and a lower, are observed (Gordey et a l , 1982). Within each of these shear zones are l o c a l l y common. Two, p o s s i b l y t h r e e , f o l d i n g events are rec o g n i z e d i n the v i c i n i t y of the E r i c k s o n mine (Panteleyev and Diakow, 1982). The mine i s w i t h i n a l o c a l l y developed, shallow, northwesterly t r e n d i n g s y n c l i n a l b a s i n (R. S o m e r v i l l e , p e r s o n a l communication, 1986) s i t u a t e d i n north to n o r t h e a s t e r l y shallow to moderate d i p p i n g r o c k s . The Jen n i e , Maura, A l i s o n and C a i t l i n v eins are on the southern limb of the b a s i n ; the McDame, Dease, Devine, Bear and G o l d i e are on the nor t h e r n limb ( F i g . 5). F a u l t s are common throughout the E r i c k s o n mine and i t s v i c i n i t y . N o r t h e r l y t r e n d i n g steep l a t e r a l f a u l t s , some with o f f s e t s of over 500 metres, predominate ( F i g . 4). E a s t e r l y t r e n d i n g steep normal f a u l t s with s m a l l e r o f f s e t s are l e s s common. E a s t e r l y t o n o r t h e a s t e r l y t r e n d i n g , steep to shallow d i p p i n g f a u l t s t h a t c o n t r o l the major v e i n s were a l s o noted. -1 8-CHAPTER 3. VEINS 3.1 INTRODUCTION G o l d - s i l v e r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n a t the E r i c k s o n mine o c c u r s i n c l e a r q u a r t z w i t h i n w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s were summarized by Mandy (1935 and 1937), Diakow and P a n t e l e y e v (1981) and P a n t e l e y e v and Diakow (1982). In a d d i t i o n , G r a n t ( 1 9 8 1 ) , F j e t l a n d ( 1 9 8 2 ) , Hooper (1984) and D u s s e l l (1986) examined the m i n e r a l o g y of w h i t e and c l e a r q u a r t z v e i n s . White q u a r t z and c l e a r q u a r t z v e i n s , c a r b o n v e i n s , d o l o m i t e v e i n s , p y r i t e - v e i n s , w h i t e c a l c i t e and c l e a r c a l c i t e v e i n s were o b s e r v e d i n the E r i c k s o n mine and a r e d e s c r i b e d below. A summary of v e i n m i n e r a l o g y and a s s o c i a t e d a l t e r a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n T a b l e I I . The l o c a t i o n s of major v e i n s i n the E r i c k s o n mine a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e s 5 and 8. 3.2 QUARTZ VEINS White q u a r t z v e i n s are the most common typ e t h r o u g h o u t the E r i c k s o n mine. Most o c c u r i n b a s a l t but a few a r e i n u l t r a m a f i c and s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s . W i t h i n b a s a l t , most w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s t r e n d e a s t e r l y to n o r t h e a s t e r l y and have s t e e p to moderate n o r t h e r n or s o u t h e r n d i p s . Most v e i n s a r e u n i f o r m i n w i d t h , r a n g i n g from a few c e n t i m e t r e s to over s i x m e t r e s , but some p i n c h and s w e l l or -19-V e i n t y p e , TABLE m i n e r a l o g y and I I a s s o c i a t e d a l t e r a t i o n TYPE MINERALOGY a HOSTS ALTERATION w h i t e q u a r t z w h i t e m a c r o c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z , a n k e r i t e + c a r b o n +_ p y r i t e +_ s p h a l e r i t e ;+ s e r i c i t e +_ c l a y +_ t i t a n i u m o x i d e s b a s a l t , c h e r t , a r g i l l i t e , s h a l e , s e r p e n t i n i t e c a r b o n a t i z a t i o n s i l i c i f i c a t i o n c l e a r q u a r t z ( t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s ) c l e a r m i c r o c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z + c a r b o n a t e +_ p y r i t e +_ s p h a l e r i t e +_ t e t r a h e d r i t e +_ c h a l c o p y r i t e + g o l d _+ g a l e n a +_ a r s e n o p y r i t e +_ carbon w h i t e q u a r t z , d o l o m i t e , b a s a l t c a r b o n a t i z a t i o n s i l i c i f i c a t i o n c a r b o n c a r b o n , white q u a r t z , a n k e r i t e , +_ p y r i t e b a s a l t c a r b o n a t i z a t i o n d o l o m i t e d o l o m i t e , c l e a r q u a r t z +_ f i n e - g r a i n e d p y r i t e b a s a l t c a r b o n a t i z a t i o n p y r i t e f i n e - g r a i n e d p y r i t e b a s a l t , l a y e r e d d o l o m i t e c a r b o n a t i z a t i o n w h i t e c a l c i t e w h i t e c a l c i t e + c l e a r q u a r t z b a s a l t , d i a b a s e and l a m p r o p h y r e dykes a r g i l l i z a t i o n c l e a r c a l c i t e c l e a r c a l c i t e b a s a l t a. Opaque m i n e r a l o g y f o r w h i t e q u a r t z and c l e a r q u a r t z i s from D u s s e l l ( 1 9 8 6 ) . m e t r e s F i g u r e 8. C o m p o s i t e p l a n map o f t h e E r i c k s o n m i n e m a i n l e v e l s w i t h l o c a t i o n s a n d a t t i t u d e o f m a j o r v e i n s . S e e F i g u r e s 4 a n d 5 f o r d e t a i l s o f c r o s s - s e c t i o n A-A' . - 2 1 -s p l i t . L a r g e v e i n s may p e r s i s t f o r h u n d r e d s o f m e t r e s a l o n g s t r i k e and t h e n t e r m i n a t e by p i n c h i n g o r h o r s e t a i l i n g ; downdip, t h e e x t e n t has n o t y e t been d e t e r m i n e d . A moderate t o s t e e p westward p l u n g e was n o t e d i n t h e v e i n s and o r e s h o o t s , and s l i c k e n s i d e s a l o n g t h e m a r g i n s o f v e i n s . En e c h e l o n t e n s i o n g a s h v e i n s were n o t e d i n t h e h a n g i n g w a l l and f o o t w a l l o f l a r g e v e i n s . One o f t h e major v e i n s i n t h e mine, J e n n i e v e i n , i s c y m o i d b e c a u s e o f d e f l e c t i o n a t t h e v o l c a n i c - s e d i m e n t a r y c o n t a c t of t h e upper and l o w e r a s s e m b l a g e s ( F i g . 9 ) . C a r b o n a t i z a t i o n o f b a s a l t , o c c u r r i n g as w e l l - d e v e l o p e d e n v e l o p e s a r o u n d w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s , i s t h e most common t y p e o f a l t e r a t i o n ( P l a t e 1). S i l i c i f i c a t i o n o f b a s a l t , a l t h o u g h uncommon, i s n o t e w o r t h y . S i l i c i f i c a t i o n a l s o o c c u r s a r o u n d q u a r t z v e i n s i n s i l i c e o u s s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s . An a l t e r a t i o n a s s e m b l a g e o f t a l c , b r e u n e r i t e , q u a r t z and f u c h s i t e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s i n u l t r a m a f i c r o c k s . White q u a r t z v e i n s a r e composed o f w h i t e m a c r o c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z w i t h m i n o r a n k e r i t e , c l o t s o f w h i t e t o p a l e - g r e e n s e r i c i t e and w h i t e c l a y . I n c l u s i o n s o f a l t e r e d w a l l r o c k a r e l o c a l l y common. An i r r e g u l a r n e twork o f l i m o n i t i c f r a c t u r e s i s a l s o l o c a l l y common. F r a c t u r i n g , b r e c c i a t i o n and f l o o d i n g o f t h e w h i t e q u a r t z by c l e a r m i c r o c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z i m p a r t a w h i t e and g r e y m o t t l e d t e x t u r e . I n a d d i t i o n , c l e a r q u a r t z v e i n s l e s s t h a n one cm t h i c k , w i t h m i n o r c a r b o n a t e and r a r e c a r b o n , c r o s s c u t w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s ( P l a t e 2 ) . A l i s o n , Maura, and p a r t s o f J e n n i e v e i n c o n t a i n c a r b o n - r i c h l a y e r s composed o f c l a y , a n k e r i t e , q u a r t z , c a r b o n , p y r i t e and -22-" U 0 I J D 9 S - S S 0 J D J O U O T I B O O T ^ Jl O J g a a n S x j 0 3 a a l a y ' y 8 6 I 'ZIS G i n E H u o T q o a s - s s o j o T B O T ^ J S A s ( • p q q s a u x ^ p^og u o s ^ o x a g U I O J I pa^dBpy * a d B q s pxouiAo aqq g^ofj -utaA a p u a f aqq j o u o x q o a s - s s o J O x ^ T ^ o i o a g "6 a m S i j 8 0 0 1 0 9 2 1 1 3 A 3 ! 0921 . -O O C l -1 3 A 3 1 O S C l -1 3 A 3 ! 0 6 6 1 0 0 * l 0 9 * 1 0 9 2 1 - ooei i C M I - 0 9 E I - oon 09*1 N ooi N OS P l a t e 1. Outcrop of b a s a l t with white quar tz ve in and carbonate a l t e r a t i o n enve lope , in road cut on Highway 37 near entrance to mine. Note c h a r a c t e r i s t i c orange-brown weathering of c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . - 2 4 -s c a l e i n mm P l a t e 2. C l o s e - u p view of contact between white quartz ve in (Wh Qtz) and carbon ve in (Cbn V n ) . Sketch i n t e r p r e t i n g p l a t e i s in the i n s e t i n lower l e f t corner of F i g u r e 10. Note b r e c c i a t i o n and f l o o d i n g of the white q u a r t z by c l e a r q u a r t z (Bx) , l a y e r e d and b r e c c i a t e d nature of carbon v e i n , l a t e c r o s s - c u t t i n g c l e a r q u a r t z - c a r b o n a t e - c a r b o n ve ins ( C l Q t z - C b n t - C b n Vn) and o f f s e t c o n t a c t s . - 2 5 -i r o n - t i t a n i u m o x i d e s ( P l a t e s 3 and 4 ) . The c a r b o n - r i c h l a y e r s g e n e r a l l y p a r a l l e l v e i n m a r g i n s and may e x t e n d f o r s e v e r a l m e t r e s a l o n g s t r i k e . They v a r y from t h i n l a y e r s , l o c a l l y w i t h s t y l o l i t i c f orm, to l a y e r s and l e n s e s up to s e v e r a l c e n t i m e t r e s t h i c k . White q u a r t z c o n t a i n s o n l y minor p y r i t e and s p h a l e r i t e . T h ree g e n e r a t i o n s of c l e a r q u a r t z o c c u r i n the mine. Most of t h e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g of p y r i t e , t e t r a h e d r i t e , s p a l e r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and g o l d , o c c u r s i n the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n of c l e a r q u a r t z w i t h i n w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . G a l e n a and a r s e n o p y r i t e a r e r a r e . Second g e n e r a t i o n c l e a r q u a r t z c o n t a i n s o n l y minor p y r i t e ; the t h i r d a p p e a r s b a r r e n ( D u s s e l l , 1986). P a r a g e n e t i c s t u d i e s by G r a n t ( 1 9 8 1 ) , F j e t l a n d ( 1 9 8 2 ) , Hooper (1984) and D u s s e l l (1986) i n d i c a t e the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l sequence of d e p o s i t i o n : a r s e n o p y r i t e , p y r i t e , g a l e n a , s p h a l e r i t e , t e t r a h e d r i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e . They f o u n d g o l d as i n c l u s i o n s and f r a c t u r e f i l l i n g s r e p l a c i n g p y r i t e , and l e s s commonly s p h a l e r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and t e t r a h e d r i t e . Measurement of h o m o g e n i z a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e s by Hooper (1984) i n p r i m a r y f l u i d i n c l u s i o n s i n c l e a r q u a r t z w i t h i n w h i t e q u a r t z o o v e i n s , gave a mean t e m p e r a t u r e of 278 +_10 C. A c c o r d i n g to Hooper (1984) " P a n t e l e y e v o b t a i n e d s i m i l a r h o m o g e n i z a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e s ...from a s u i t e of samples t h r o u g h o u t the E r i c k s o n G o l d Camp.... o o which r e s u l t e d i n a mean h o m o g e n i z a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e of 264 +71 C" . o A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e h o m o g e n i z a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e of 285 C was s e l e c t e d by D u s s e l l (1986) from measurements on p r i m a r y f l u i d i n c l u s i o n s i n the f i r s t and se c o n d g e n e r a t i o n s of c l e a r q u a r t z . Based on an -26-P l a t e 3. Underground exposure of the A l i s o n v e i n , 21-20 d r i f t ( F i g . 6). Note b lack c a r b o n - r i c h l a y e r s (near hammer). - 2 7 -s c a l e i n cm P l a t e 4. C l o s e - u p view of c a r b o n - r i c h l a y e r s ( C b n - r i c h L a y ) , A l i s o n ve in (Qtz = q u a r t z ) . Note v a r y i n g t h i c k n e s s of l a y e r s and s t y l o l i t i c forms i n t h i n n e r examples. T e t r a h e d r i t e (Tt ) and p y r i t e (Py) are a l so p r e s e n t . -28-a r b i t r a r i l y assumed l o a d p r e s s u r e of 625 atms, D u s s e l l d e t e r m i n e d o t h a t the t e m p e r a t u r e of e n t r a p m e n t would have been 350 C. G o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s o c c u r t h r o u g h o u t the McDame g o l d camp. South of t h e E r i c k s o n mine, v e i n s o c c u r a l o n g and near the c o n t a c t of the upper and lower a s s e m b l a g e s ( F i g . 4 ) . N o r t h of the E r i c k s o n mine, they o c c u r i n m a f i c v o l c a n i c r o c k s as a s e r i e s of e a s t e r l y to n o r t h e a s t e r l y t r e n d i n g v e i n s t h a t i n c l u d e the T a u r u s mine ( F i g . 3 ) . 3.3 CARBON VEINS Carbon v e i n s were o b s e r v e d o n l y i n b a s a l t n e x t t o w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s c o n t a i n i n g c a r b o n - r i c h l a y e r s . They a r e l o c a l l y common a d j a c e n t to the m a r g i n s of the A l i s o n v e i n , and l e s s so the Maura v e i n . The best-known e x p o s u r e i s n e x t to the marg i n of the A l i s o n v e i n , where the c a r b o n v e i n i s up to s e v e r a l m e t r e s t h i c k and can be t r a c e d f o r at l e a s t t e n metres a l o n g s t r i k e ( F i g 10; P l a t e 5 ) . Carbon v e i n s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c a r b o n - r i c h c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . C o n t a c t s of the v e i n s w i t h b a s a l t a r e s h a r p ( P l a t e s 5 and 6 ) . Carbon v e i n s a r e s h e a r e d commonly a l o n g c o n t a c t s w i t h w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s as i n d i c a t e d by w e l l - d e v e l o p e d s l i c k e n s i d e s and f r i a b i l i t y . C o n t a c t s between c a r b o n v e i n s and w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s a r e s h a r p and o f f s e t l o c a l l y by l a t e c l e a r q u a r t z -c a r b o n a t e - c a r b o n v e i n s . The c r o s s c u t t i n g v e i n s w i t h i n c a r b o n v e i n s m o s t l y o c c u r as b r e c c i a zones or open s p a c e s w i t h c l e a r -29-Vein quartz with carbon rich layers Vein carbon with quartz IYV^ Carbon altered basalt B A C K O F D R I F T . . . . . . W Y v ^ , V V V V V V V V V V V Y V V V W N Z ! W W W W W * W V V Y W V V V V W v v y v V S / V V V V V V V V ; ' ! * ' / Y W W V Y Y W W V W V V ? / V V V W i r f S ivvvyvvvvvvvvvvvvv/Vvvy^ tyvvvvvvvvv Y w v wvv v: ^ W * V ^ S # Y : * " " r V V V .vvvvvv /vy w v v w ( V V V V V 1 \vvvj Late clear quartz-carbonate-carbon veins 5:w f y : W V V fv vy V V V : V . fvvv.vvv;V.;v; • vvvvvv: w;v.: ... 'vyvvwwvv. / V Y V V Y V W V V V V / V V Y V W W W Y V /:V.:&vl;S^^ ^^.:.y.,/^y.Y::V.:y«.W.::V.:W _ ' W V Y V V V V V V W V i**!vj^w W V : vTv-? v v v yvv w w v Wia^^^^vv ¥:v.*:v; > • * Y V>£5* V V.v v;-V V v j & £ & f v y W v W ' v vVytv v Y v y vj^Siw Y V V V V V • |v Vvv&^:-&fv v v W V " jprvvvvvvv F»?'»?'>iJ^ *v;v:v v v w v ' W V Y V V V V W V < V V W V V W V , . ' V V V V W „ / W Y V V V V V V : W 0 ' V v v v y v v w 1 ' i _L 2 F L O O R O F D R I F T m e t r e s ' F i g u r e 10. G e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of c a r b o n v e i n s t o the A l i s o n v e i n and the w a l l r o c k i n 28-17 d r i f t ( F i g . 6 ) . The c o n t a c t between w h i t e q u a r t z and c a r b o n v e i n s , w i t h c r o s s -c u t t i n g c l e a r q u a r t z - c a r b o n a t e - c a r b o n v e i n s , i n the i n s e t i n the lower l e f t c o r n e r i s a l s o shown i n P l a t e 2. The c r o s s - c u t t i n g n a t u r e of the c a r b o n v e i n i n the lower r i g h t c o r n e r of the di a g r a m i s a l s o shown i n P l a t e 5. A c l o s e - u p view of c o n t a c t between a c a r b o n v e i n and c a r b o n - r i c h c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t i s shown i n P l a t e 6. P l a t e 5. Underground exposure of a carbon ve in w i t h i n c a r b o n - r i c h c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t , in the f o o t w a l l of the A l i s o n v e i n , 28-17 d r i f t ( F i g . 6 ) . Note the sharp c o n t a c t s . A c l o s e - u p view of the lower contac t i s shown in P l a t e 6. Sketch i n t e r p r e t i n g p l a t e i s in F i g u r e 10. - 3 1 -s c a l e i n cm P l a t e 6. C l o s e - u p view of contac t (arrows) between carbon ve in (Cbn Vn) and c a r b o n - r i c h c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t ( C b n - r i c h Cbnt B a s ) . Note white q u a r t z ve in w i t h i n carbon v e i n . -32 -drusy quartz ( P l a t e 2). Carbon v e i n s are bl a c k , f i n e to c o a r s e - g r a i n e d and massive; however, l o c a l l a y e r i n g due to g r a i n s i z e was noted p a r a l l e l to conta c t s ( P l a t e 2). White quartz i s l o c a l l y common as blebs and s t r i n g e r s w i t h i n the carbon v e i n s ( P l a t e 6). Carbon v e i n s are composed of 50 to 90 percent carbon, 15 to 45 percent q u a r t z , up to 5 percent a n k e r i t e and t r a c e s of p y r i t e . A weak d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n o b t a i n e d f o r the carbon i n d i c a t e s a po o r l y c r y s t a l l i n e s t r u c t u r e . M i c r o s c o p i c a l l y , carbon v e i n s resemble a b r e c c i a composed of d i s c r e t e angular fragments of carbon, up to 1.0 mm, i n a matrix of g r a n u l a r quartz and a n k e r i t e ( P l a t e 7). Disseminations and f r a c t u r e f i l l i n g s of f i n e - g r a i n e d anhedral p y r i t e were observed l o c a l l y w i t h i n carbon fragments. Fragments are matrix-supported and up to 1.0 mm a p a r t . Small i r r e g u l a r l y - s h a p e d voids are l o c a l l y common w i t h i n the matrix. G e o l o g i c a l age r e l a t i o n s h i p s between carbon v e i n s and white quartz veins are complex. Carbon veins and quartz s t r i n g e r s w i t h i n them p a r a l l e l major white quartz v e i n s . C a r b o n - r i c h l a y e r s w i t h i n major white quartz veins a l s o p a r a l l e l c ontacts of these v e i n s . Some carbon v e i n s c r o s s c u t white quartz s t r i n g e r s i n b a s a l t . In some carbonate a l t e r a t i o n envelopes, f r a c t u r e -- c o n t r o l l e d carbon c r o s s c u t s emerald-green p o r p h y r o b l a s t - l i k e aggregates. -33-r e f l e c t e d l i g h t p l a n e p o l a r i z e d 0.025mm P l a t e 7. Photomicrograph of carbon v e i n . Note angular fragments of carbon (Cbn) in matr ix of quar tz and a n k e r i t e ( Q t z - A n k ) . I r r e g u l a r dark areas are v o i d s ( V d ) . -34 -3.5 DOLOMITE VEINS Dolomite v e i n s postdate white quartz veins and are only l o c a l l y common i n the E r i c k s o n mine. Dolomite veins trend e a s t e r l y to n o r t h e a s t e r l y , are s t e e p l y d i p p i n g and l e s s than h a l f a metre t h i c k . However, w i t h i n and near the 21-06 and 21-11 d r i f t s ( F i g . 6), the McDame dolomite v e i n a t t a i n s a t h i c k n e s s of 10 metres and p e r s i s t s f o r 160 metres along s t r i k e . Dolomite v e i n s are composed of white to creamy dolomite with minor c l e a r quartz and f i n e - g r a i n e d p y r i t e . C o l l o f o r m and t h i n wavy banded t e x t u r e s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of dolomite v e i n s . These te x t u r e s are d i s r u p t e d by f r a c t u r e s and b r e c c i a zones f i l l e d with dolomite, c l e a r quartz or p y r i t e ( P l a t e 8). Well-developed carbonate a l t e r a t i o n envelopes surround dolomite veins i n b a s a l t . C l e a r quartz v e i n s with a s s o c i a t e d c a r b o n a t i z a t i o n and s i l i c i f i c a t i o n , and p y r i t e veins with a s s o c i a t e d c a r b o n a t i z a t i o n were observed r a r e l y i n b a s a l t around McDame v e i n . 3.5 CALCITE VEINS White c a l c i t e v eins up to 10 cm t h i c k , n e a r l y v e r t i c a l and e a s t e r l y t r e n d i n g , are l o c a l l y common throughout the E r i c k s o n mine. A r g i l l i z a t i o n of b a s a l t and dykes i s a s s o c i a t e d with these v e i n s . White c a l c i t e v e i n s are composed of c a l c i t e t h a t c o n t a i n s some c l e a r q u a r t z . -35-P l a t e 8. Underground exposure of a p o r t i o n of the McDame dolomite v e i n , 1210 c r o s s c u t near 21-06 d r i f t ( F i g . 6 ) . The f o o t w a l l contac t i s v i s i b l e on the l e f t s ide of the photograph (banding to b r e c c i a ) . Note c o l l o f o r m and t h i n wavy banded t e x t u r e s and b r e c c i a t e d areas wi th c l e a r quartz matr ix w i t h i n ve in ( r i g h t s ide of the photograph) - 3 6 -Uncommon vuggy c l e a r c a l c i t e v e i n s , l e s s t h an 5 cm t h i c k , o c c u r i n b a s a l t t h r o u g h o u t the E r i c k s o n mine. A l t e r a t i o n was not a p p a r e n t around t h e s e v e i n s . - 3 7 -CHAPTER 4. AGE OF GOLD-SILVER MINERALIZATION 4.1 INTRODUCTION G o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g white quartz v e i n s i n the C a s s i a r area g e n e r a l l y have been c o n s i d e r e d by workers i n the area to be r e l a t e d to nearby mid- to Late Cretaceous and E a r l y T e r t i a r y p l u t o n s . K-Ar dates range from 89 to 109 Ma f o r the C a s s i a r b a t h o l i t h (Baadsgard et a l . , 1961; Lowdon, 1961; Wanless e t a l . , 1970, 1972 and 1978; A. Panteleyev, p e r s o n a l communication, 1985), 69.3 to 76.5 Ma f o r - t h e C a s s i a r stock and r e l a t e d i n t r u s i o n s ( C h r i s t o p h e r , 1972; Panteleyev, 1980; Cooke and Godwin, 1984; A. Panteleyev, p e r s o n a l communication, 1985) and 48.8 to 51.4 Ma f o r the Mt. Reed and Mt. Haskin s t o c k s ( C h r i s t o p h e r , 1972). L o c a t i o n of these plutons are i n F i g u r e 3. The C a s s i a r b a t h o l i t h was dated a l s o by a Rb-Sr whole rock i s o c h r o n with a model age of 111 Ma (R.L. Armstrong, pe r s o n a l communication, 1985). An E a r l y Cretaceous age f o r the g o l d - s i l v e r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n was f i r s t i n d i c a t e d by Panteleyev and Diakow (1982) who obtained a s i n g l e K-Ar date of 131 +_5 Ma f o r a sample of white mica from a t o u r m a l i n e - b e a r i n g a u r i f e r o u s quartz v e i n i n the Snowy Creek area ( F i g . 3). Data f o r the the C a s s i a r area are summarized i n Figure 11 . A l l model ages l i s t e d are d e r i v e d using decay constants recommended by S t e i g e r and Jager (1977). Geology of the C a s s i a r area i s summarized i n F i g u r e 3. Gold-s i l v e r - b e a r i n g white quartz v e i n s of the area are w i t h i n Upper P a l e o z o i c and Lower Mesozoic v o l c a n i c , sedimentary and u l t r a m a f i c -38--Si-c r t T Ul 3" H -H- ro 00 3 C OO n i-( 03 ro r t cn cn •—• to H - i—• 03 . CL i-l ro o 03 cn H-ro cn 0) r t o • o o 00 3 I-I Cn CO 03 r t ro 3 0) ro 3 o r t r t r h cn ro X •-I r t 1 to > r> t-h i-l o O 3 >-l 3 3 O ro cn a . 3 ro c u ro i— 1 ro o p . H - 03 t+> 00 H - ro n cn an | - i t-ti r t ro o 0) i-h I-I H - ro 00 oo ro ro i-i 3 03 O 3 ca ro H-3 cn r t c u H -o o C H 3 03; I-I oo Cu o ro 03 o r t TT - ro cn cn i—> <o c Cu Cfl ro 7T • Cu to t i O a r> 03 SC r t ro 03 cn 3 Cu s: ro •£> C ro 03 t-l n r t 03 N 1—• n < c ro 03 3 rt cn ro CU H -3 NUMBER OF AGES o — 4 - + 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 D -D < T3 03 03 3 a> 3 CD -i ro a> o to •< o «< CD 7? ro < < >—* en O 7T ~ o o 5 I 2 g -1 3 3 -1 o "D -1 m ° 5 O to ro N ® < CD — . < 3 P- 4 4 2 0 ~ 9 w 3. w N c a < CD ^ a" CO ° 3 O —. TT ~ CD o o o 7? CA I > > H m co o > CO CO > > 3D m > cn cn cn cn 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 jn: 4 1 ' 4 :n: :n: 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 00 _ cn cn O cn ro I CO _ l _ I cn _L_ 03 I "Nl Mt. Reed and Mt. Haskins stocks 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 J 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 \ 4 4 4 4 + 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 + 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 / - S + + + + + 4 1 ' + + + + 4 4 + + + Cassiar stock and related intrusions Cass iar batho l i th ve in and dyke .0. c -^  N < to 3' r o c k s of the S y l v e s t e r Group ( G a b r i e l s e , 1963; Wanless e t a l . , 1966; Gordey e t a l . , 1982; Harms, 1984 and 1985; M.J. Orchard and K.M. Dawson, w r i t t e n communication, 1986). I s o t o p i c d a t i n g of the g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g white quartz veins had been hampered because of the d i f f i c u l t y i n l o c a t i n g adequate amounts of s e r i c i t e i n the v e i n s . However, while sampling s y s t e m a t i c a l l y f o r a w a l l rock a l t e r a t i o n study dur i n g the f i e l d seasons of 1983 and 1984, the author found l o c a l l y abundant s e r i c i t e i n g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g white quartz v e i n s and a l t e r e d w a l l rock. Some of these s e r i c i t e occurrences were sampled f o r K-Ar d a t i n g to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of the 131 Ma model age o btained by Panteleyev and Diakow (1982) and to compare the age of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n with e s t a b l i s h e d igneous events. 4.2 SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS Rock samples with s e r i c i t e were c o l l e c t e d from more than f i f t e e n s i t e s . A l l s i t e s are i n and near e i t h e r the E r i c k s o n mine or the Taurus mine ( F i g . 3). Weathered samples and those that may not be r e l a t e d to g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g white quartz veins were r e j e c t e d f o r d a t i n g . The four samples from g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g white quartz veins that were s e l e c t e d f o r K-Ar d a t i n g are d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix A; markedly green f u c h s i t i c s e r i c i t e was n o t ^ i n c l u d e d . A n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s and model ages are i n Table I I I . Ages from Table I I I are compared to previous work i n the area i n F i g u r e 11 . -40-TABLE I I I A n a l y t i c a l d a t a and K-Ar d a t e s f o r s e r i c i t e i n g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s , C a s s i a r a r e a , n o r t h - c e n t r a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Samples a r e l o c a t e d i n F i g u r e 3 and d e s c r i b e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x . Sample No. L o c a t i o n %K+q b A r ( r a d ) id A r ( t o t a l ) A r ( r a d ) ( 1 0 ~ 5 c m 3 S T P / g ) D a t e ( M a ) d T i m e 6 83-146 s e r i c i t e E r i c k s o n mine L a t . 59°13'40" Lo n g . 129°40"15" 8 .36+0 .02 0.968 4.114 122+4 E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s 83-188 s e r i c i t e E r i c k s o n mine L a t . 59°13'20" Lo n g . 129°40'15" 8. .31+0 .03 0.951 4 . 248 12 7+4 E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s 83-250 s e r i c i t e E r i c k s o n mine L a t . 59°13'20" Lo n g . 129°40'15" 2 , .86+0 .04 0 .916 1 . 282 112+4 E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s 83-316 s e r i c i t e T a u r u s mine L a t . 59°16'40" L o n g . 1 29°A1 '50" 6, . 72+0 .07 0.954 3.716 137+5 Ear 1 y C r e t a c e o u s 8 0 A P 1 6 0 f s e r i c i t e Snowy C r e e k L a t . 59°17'00" L o n g . 129°40'00" 8 . 58+0 .06 0 .849 4 . 541 131+5 Ear 1 y C r e t a c e o u s a. A l l a n a l y s e s were done i n t h e G e o c h r o n o l o g y L a b o r a t o r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , U.B.C M i n e r a l s e p a r a t e s and p o t a s s i u m a n a l y s e s were by K. S c o t t ; A r g on a n a l y s e s were by J . H a r a k a l . b. One h a l f r a n g e of d i f f e r e n c e between d u p l i c a t e a n a l y s e s . c ' ^ A r ( r a d ) i s r a d i o g e n i c . _ J Q _^ d. C o n s t a n t s used i n c a l c u l a t i o n s ( S t e i g e r and J a g e r , 1 9 7 7 ) : O\e = 0.581x10 y e a r , \ g = 4 . 9 6 0 x l 0 - 1 0 y e a r - 1 , ^°K/K=1.167x10'^ atom r a t i o . D a t e s have e s t i m a t e d one s i g m a e r r o r s . e . Time d e s i g n a t i o n i s a f t e r A r m s t r o n g ( 1 9 7 8 ) . £. Data from P a n t e l e y e v and Diakow ( 1 9 8 2 ) . 4.3 DISCUSSION K-Ar model ages f o r g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g white quartz veins range from 112 to 137 Ma (Table I I I ) . However, four of the f i v e model ages c l u s t e r and y i e l d a mean date of 129+_4 Ma ( F i g . 11). Two d i f f e r e n t events a t 129 Ma, and a t 112 Ma, are i n d i c a t e d and examined below. The mean age of fou r samples from the g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g white quartz v e i n s of 129+_4 Ma c o i n c i d e s with a magmatic l u l l t h a t e x i s t e d i n the Canadian C o r d i l l e r a at th a t time (Armstrong, 1986). Thus, no evidence e x i s t s t h a t r e l a t e s the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n at C a s s i a r to a known magmatic event. The o l d e s t K-Ar date obtained f o r the C a s s i a r b a t h o l i t h i s 109+_5 Ma (Wanless e t a l . , 1978); the Rb-Sr whole rock age i s 111 Ma. The youngest probable age f o r the m i n e r a l i z i n g event i s 122 Ma. Th e r e f o r e , the g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g white quartz v e i n s predate the C a s s i a r b a t h o l i t h by a t l e a s t 11 Ma. Th i s suggests that the heat source f o r c i r c u l a t i n g f l u i d s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the g o l d - s i l v e r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n might have been an event t h a t was a thermal p r e c u r s o r to the emplacement of the C a s s i a r b a t h o l i t h . A l t e r n a t i v e l y the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n may be r e l a t e d to emplacement of the S y l v e s t e r A l l o c h t h o n . Based on i s o t o p i c evidence, N e s b i t t et a l . (1986) proposed t h a t the veins "formed from deep c i r c u l a t i o n of meteoric water i n major f a u l t zones". The 11 2jf4 Ma date (Appendix A: sample 83-250) i s reasonably excluded from the age of g o l d - s i l v e r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n because i t s model age c o i n c i d e s with the igneous event of the C a s s i a r -42-b a t h o l i t h suggesting r e s e t t i n g or a l t e r a t i o n of the sample; an anomalously low potassium content (Table I) c o i n c i d e n t l y makes the sample suspect. B i o t i t e lamprophyre dykes from s i x km south of the E r i c k s o n mine were dated at 1 10+_4 Ma (A. Panteleyev pe r s o n a l communication, 1985). S i m i l a r dykes i n the E r i c k s o n mine may have t h e r m a l l y r e s e t the s e r i c i t e at 112 Ma. -43-CHAPTER 5. ROCK ALTERATION 5.1 INTRODUCTION A l t e r a t i o n at the E r i c k s o n mine i s of fou r main types: s y n v o l c a n i c hydrothermal, r e g i o n a l metamorphic, e p i g e n e t i c hydrothermal and cont a c t metamorphic. A l t e r a t i o n types are i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 12, summarized i n Table IV and d e s c r i b e d i n d i v i d u a l l y below. 5.2 SYNVOLCANIC HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION Synvolcanic hydrothermal a l t e r a t i o n w i t h i n the E r i c k s o n mine was noted only 50 m east of the 21-05 d r i f t , at 1,180 m e l e v a t i o n . The a l t e r a t i o n occurs w i t h i n b a s a l t immediately u n d e r l y i n g magnetite-bearing s i l i c e o u s e x h a l i t e , and extends up to 35 metres below the e x h a l i t e - b a s a l t c o n t a c t . B a s a l t t h a t has undergone s y n v o l c a n i c hydrothermal a l t e r a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an anastomosing p a t t e r n of n e a r l y - v e r t i c a l h a i r l i n e f r a c t u r e s , three to f i v e cm apar t , f i l l e d with c h l o r i t e and c a l c i t e . The f r a c t u r e s are surrounded by up to one cm wide selvages of e p i d o t i z e d rock. I f f r a c t u r e s are absent and p i l l o w i n t e r s t i c e s common, b a s a l t i s e p i d o t i z e d p e r v a s i v e l y and c r o s s c u t by i r r e g u l a r v e i n l e t s of epidote and c a l c i t e . Hematite commonly occurs with c h l o r i t i z e d a u g i t e phenocrysts and along f r a c t u r e s i n e p i d o t i z e d r o c k s . C h l o r i t e and minor c a l c i t e , q u a r t z , e p i d o t e , -44-1. SYNVOLCANIC HYDROTHERMAL v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v V vv vv W W v vv vv v w w w w vv vv V VV VV V W Rare-discordant/ stratabound 2. REGIONAL METAMORPHIC Ubiquitous-pervasive 3. EPIGENETIC HYDROTHERMAL 4. CONTACT METAMORPHIC Very common discordant V V VVV V V V V VV V w w w v/.v-W W W V:St: v v w v v v v v v •y v W W fV&v w w Uncommon-discordant LEGEND r — » | Exhalite V V w | W W Volcanics Sediments Altered rock Ultramafics F i g u r e 12. S k e t c h e s i l l u s t r a t i n g a l t e r a t i o n t y p e s a t the E r i c k s o n mine . - 4 5 -TABLE IV A l t e r a t i o n mineral assemblages c l a s s i f i e d according to a l t e r a t i o n type (Fi g . 12) and host lithology * HOST BASALT PE3UDOTTTE, OUNTTE RIBBON CHERT, DIABASE AND * AND PYRDXENTTE ARGILLITE AND LAMPROPHYRE TYPE * SHALE DYKES SYNVOLCANIC HYDRGTHERMAL REGIONAL METAMORPHIC EPIGENETIC HYDROTHERMAL plagioclase, epidote, c h l o r i t e , c a l c i t e , Ti-oxide, hematite + + quartz +_ py r i t e +_ magnetite + chalco-pyrite plagioclase, chlor-i t e , a c t i n o l i t e , epidote, augite, c a l c i t e , Ti-oxide, +_ pyrite +_ hematite +_ magnetite +_ quartz CARBONATIZATION ankerite, s i d e r i t e , quartz, s e r i c i t e , Ti-oxide +_ k a o l i n i t e dolomite +_ pyrite +_ carbon +_ arseno-py r i t e +_ plagioclase SrLICIFICATION quartz, ankerite, s i d e r i t e , s e r i c i t e Ti-oxide +_ pyrite, carbon serpentine +_ t a l c , +_ chromite +_ mag-netite +_ pyrrhotite CARBONATIZATION breunerite +_ t a l c +_ quartz +_ fuchsite +_ chromite +_ pyrite +_ chalcopyrite +_ pyrrhotite +_ carbon quartz, clay +_ chlor-i t e +_ carbon +_ carb-onate +_ py r i t e + T i -oxides SILICIFICATION (chert and s i l -iceous a r g i l l i t e ) quartz +_ clay +_ c h l o r i t e +_ carb-onate +_ py r i t e +_ Ti-oxides +_ arsenopyrite ARGILLIZATION ARGILLIZATION CONTACT METAMORPHIC montmorillonite, c h l o r i t e , c a l c i t e , quartz, plagioclase k a o l i n i t e , pyrite, ankerite, Ti-oxides a c t i n o l i t e , epidote, plagioclae, carbon-ate, c h l o r i t e , quartz, pyrite, T i -oxides + andradite k a o l i n i t e , ank-e r i t e , s i d e r i t e , quartz, pyrite, Ti-oxides, apatite quartz, clay, carb-onate +_ py r i t e + T i -oxides p y r i t e and h e m a t i t e , and uncommon m a g n e t i t e and c h a l c o p y r i t e were n o t e d i n p i l l o w i n t e r s t i c e s . S y n v o l c a n i c h y d r o t h e r m a l a l t e r a t i o n a t the E r i c k s o n mine may be more e x t e n s i v e t h an r e c o g n i z e d b e cause i t i s n o t e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a s i m i l a r m i n e r a l a s s e m b l a g e d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g r e g i o n a l metamorphism. 5.3 REGIONAL METAMORPHIC ALTERATION R e g i o n a l metamorphism a t the E r i c k s o n mine i s of upper g r e e n s c h i s t f a c i e s as i n d i c a t e d by the m i n e r a l a s s e m b l a g e of a l b i t e , c h l o r i t e , e p i d o t e , a c t i n o l i t e and c a l c i t e d e v e l o p e d i n b a s a l t ( G a b r i e l s e , 1963). S h e a r i n g i s common i n the r o c k s ; f o l i a t i o n a b s e n t . U l t r a m a f i c r o c k s i n t h e E r i c k s o n mine, o r i g i n a l l y p e r i d o t i t e , d u n i t e and p y r o x e n i t e ( G a b r i e l s e , 1963), are e x t e n s i v e l y a l t e r e d to s e r p e n t i n i t e . S e r p e n t i n i z a t i o n i s r e l a t e d to r e g i o n a l metamorphism or p o s s i b l y o t h e r h y d r a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . E f f e c t s of r e g i o n a l metamorphism a r e l e s s p r o n o u n c e d i n s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s . R e c r y s t a 1 1 i z a t i o n i s l o c a l l y common i n s i l i c e o u s r o c k s . A weak f o l i a t i o n i s p r e s e n t i n some r o c k s . - 4 7 -5.4 EPIGENETIC HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION 5.4.1 C a r b o n a t i z a t i o n i n B a s a l t P e r v a s i v e c a r b o n a t i z a t i o n of b a s a l t o c c u r s as w e l l - d e v e l o p e d e n v e l o p e s around w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s , c a r b o n v e i n s and d o l o m i t e v e i n s . Most c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s e x t e n d l e s s than f i f t e e n m e t r e s from v e i n m a r g i n s , a l t h o u g h some may be up to f o r t y m e t r e s wide. C a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t i s a b u f f to p a l e g r e y , f i n e - g r a i n e d r o c k composed of v a r y i n g amounts of a n k e r i t e , s i d e r i t e , d o l o m i t e , ' q u a r t z , s e r i c i t e and k a o l i n i t e w i t h minor p y r i t e and t i t a n i u m o x i d e s . P e r v a s i v e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d c a r b o n o c c u r s i n c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s around c a r b o n v e i n s and some w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e w i t h c a r b o n - r i c h l a y e r s . C a r b o n o c c u r s r a r e l y i n the o u t e r p a r t of the c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s and n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . F r a c t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d c a r b o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i r r e g u l a r network of b l a c k h a i r l i n e f r a c t u r e s t h a t i m p a r t a " c r a c k l e d " t e x t u r e to the r o c k s . F i n e - g r a i n e d c a r b o n o c c u r s i n and ar o u n d f r a c t u r e s t h a t a r e most common i n t h e i n n e r p o r t i o n of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s . However, some f r a c t u r e s e x t e n d i n t o the o u t e r p o r t i o n of the e n v e l o p e and i n t o n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . -48-5.4.2 S i l i c i f i c a t i o n of Basalt S i l i c i f i c a t i o n of b a s a l t i s r e s t r i c t e d to carbonate a l t e r a t i o n envelopes surrounding white quartz v e i n s . F l a t zones of s i l i c i f i c a t i o n occur above the Maura and Bear veins (R. S o m e r v i l l e , personal communication, 1986). Quartz occurs as v e i n l e t s and as blebs mixed with f i n e - g r a i n e d q u a r t z , carbonate and s e r i c i t e . C a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t r a r e l y c o n t a i n s small b r e c c i a zones with c l a s t s almost t o t a l l y r e p l a c e d by q u a r t z . 5.4.3 A r g i l l i z a t i o n of Basalt A r g i l l i z a t i o n of b a s a l t occurs as envelopes, up to one metre wide, around l o c a l l y common white c a l c i t e v e i n s . A r g i l l i z a t i o n was a l s o noted adjacent to f a u l t s and f r a c t u r e s where white c a l c i t e v e i n s were not apparent. A r g i l l i z e d b a s a l t i s a pale-green, f r i a b l e rock composed of f i n e - g r a i n e d m o n t m o r i l l o n i t e and c h l o r i t e with minor c a l c i t e , q u a r t z , p l a g i o c l a s e , k a o l i n i t e , p y r i t e , a n k e r i t e and t i t a n i u m o x i d e s . A r g i l l i z e d b a s a l t s w e l l s up to s e v e r a l times i t s o r i g i n a l volume when exposed to moisture. 5 .4 .4 A l t e r a t i o n of Ultramafic Rocks U l t r a m a f i c rocks i n the E r i c k s o n mine are a l t e r e d to s e r p e n t i n e , t a l c , b r e u n e r i t e , quartz and f u c h s i t e ; such rocks are -49-known as l i s t w a n i t e s (Boyle, 1979). S e r p e n t i n i t e , the most common rock type, i s probably r e l a t e d t o r e g i o n a l metamorphism of d u n i t e , p e r i d o t i t e and p y r o x e n i t e . E p i g e n e t i c hydrothermal a l t e r a t i o n of s e r p e n t i n i t e near white quartz v e i n s produced t a l c - b r e u n e r i t e and q u a r t z - b r e u n e r i t e - f u c h s i t e - b e a r i n g rocks. F u c h s i t i c a l t e r a t i o n adjacent to white quartz v e i n s grades i n t o t a l c o s e r o c k s , and then to s e r p e n t i n i t e p r o g r e s s i v e l y away from v e i n s . T h i s zoning was observed at the end of the 28-03 d r i f t and along the 28-07 d r i f t ( F i g . 6). D u s s e l l (1986) examined t h i s zoning i n d e t a i l . S e r p e n t i n i t e i s a dark green to black rock composed of s e r p e n t i n e and minor amounts of t a l c , chromite, magnetite and p y r r h o t i t e . In the 28-03 d r i f t ( F i g . 6), s m a l l c l a s t s of e p i d o t i z e d b a s a l t were observed i n s e r p e n t i n i t e . Shears and sinuous s l i c k e n s i d e s s u b p a r a l l e l to c o n t a c t s are abundant. Ta l c o s e a l t e r a t i o n may occur along c o n t a c t s and s l i c k e n s i d e d s u r f a c e s . Small t a l c v e i n l e t s are present l o c a l l y . T a l c - b r e u n e r i t e - b e a r i n g rocks are creamy, grey, brown, medium gr a i n e d and massive to w e l l - l a y e r e d . L a y e r i n g i s due to v a r i a t i o n i n mineralogy, g r a i n s i z e and c o l o u r . These rocks are composed of t a l c and b r e u n e r i t e . Minor quartz may be present. Disseminated chromite may be present imparting a speckled appearance to the rock. Although uncommon, carbon may be present a l s o . Q u a r t z - b r e u n e r i t e - f u c h s i t e - b e a r i n g rocks are l e s s abundant than t a l c - b r e u n e r i t e - b e a r i n g r o c k s . Q u a r t z - b r e u n e r i t e - f u c h s i t e -bearing rocks are massive to w e l l - l a y e r e d , mottled emerald-green -50-to cream, g r e y and brown. L a y e r i n g i s due to v a r i a t i o n i n m i n e r a l o g y , g r a i n s i z e and c o l o u r . These r o c k s a r e composed of v a r y i n g amounts of q u a r t z and b r e u n e r i t e w i t h minor f u c h s i t e and t r a c e amounts of c h r o m i t e . A l t h o u g h uncommon, c a r b o n may be p r e s e n t a l s o . L e s s commonly, some r o c k s a r e composed of c l e a r q u a r t z , and l e s s e r b r e u n e r i t e , p y r i t e and f u c h s i t e w i t h t r a c e s of c h r o m i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e and p y r r h o t i t e . 5 . 4 . 5 S i l i c i f i c a t i o n o f C h e r t and S i l i c e o u s A r g i l l i t e S i l i c i f i c a t i o n of c h e r t and s i l i c e o u s a r g i l l i t e was o b s e r v e d a r ound q u a r t z v e i n s i n d r i l l h o l e s between the 21-03 and 21-09 d r i f t s ( F i g . 5 ) . T h i s type of a l t e r a t i o n i s marked by c o l o u r changes, r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n and o b l i t e r a t i o n of " c r a c k l e d " t e x t u r e , b e d d i n g and c a r b o n a t e c o n c r e t i o n s . S i l i c i f i c a t i o n i s p a t c h e y or p e r v a s i v e and may e x t e n d up to s e v e r a l metres from t h e v e i n s . In d r i l l h o l e 82-222, 15 m e t r e s e a s t of t h e 21-03 d r i f t ( F i g . 6, Appendix D), 30 m e t r e s of r o c k w i t h abundant s i l i c i f i c a t i o n was i n t e r s e c t e d . S i l i c i f i c a t i o n of c h e r t and s i l i c e o u s a r g i l l i t e i m p a r t s a m o t t l e d w h i t e to p a l e - g r e y c o l o u r to the r o c k s . In r a r e c a s e s t h e s e r o c k s have c a r b o n - r i c h s t y l o l i t e s . S i l i c i f i e d r o c k s a r e composed d o m i n a n t l y of i n t e r l o c k i n g c o a r s e - g r a i n e d q u a r t z . M i n o r c l a y , c h l o r i t e , c a r b o n a t e , p y r i t e , t i t a n i u m - o x i d e s and a r s e n o p y r i t e a r e p r e s e n t l o c a l l y . -51-5.4.6 A r g i l l i z a t i o n o f D i a b a s e and Lamprophyre Dykes A r g i l l i z a t i o n of d i a b a s e was o b s e r v e d i n the main 1210 and 1280 c r o s s c u t s ( F i g . 6 ) . I t forms w e l l - d e v e l o p e d e n v e l o p e s up to s e v e r a l m e t r e s wide around w h i t e c a l c i t e v e i n s . A r g i l l i z a t i o n was n o t e d a l s o a r ound f r a c t u r e s p a r a l l e l to t h e m a r g i n s of d i a b a s e d y k e s . Only minor a r g i l l i z a t i o n of l a m p r o p h y r e dykes was no t e d . A r g i l l i z e d d i a b a s e i s composed of k a o l i n i t e , a n k e r i t e , s i d e r i t e and q u a r t z w i t h t r a c e amounts of t i t a n i u m o x i d e s and a p a t i t e . D i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e i s p r e s e n t i n v a r i a b l e amounts; s h e e t - l i k e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were o b s e r v e d p a r a l l e l to some dyke m a r g i n s . 5.5 CONTACT METAMORPHIC ALTERATION C o n t a c t metamorphic a l t e r a t i o n was o b s e r v e d o n l y i n b a s a l t and r i b b o n c h e r t . A l t e r a t i o n of b a s a l t was n o t e d around d i a b a s e dykes i n t e r s e c t e d i n d r i l l h o l e s near the main 1210 c r o s s c u t ( F i g . 6 ) . A l t e r e d b a s a l t i s an a p h a n i t i c , m a s s i v e , dark p u r p l e - b r o w n r o c k composed of f i n e g r a i n e d a c t i n o l i t e , e p i d o t e and p l a g i o c l a s e w i t h minor amounts of c a r b o n a t e , c h l o r i t e , q u a r t z , p y r i t e and t i t a n i u m o x i d e s . I r r e g u l a r f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d w i t h e p i d o t e , a n d r a d i t e , c a r b o n a t e and c h l o r i t e a r e common l o c a l l y . C o n t a c t metamorphic a l t e r a t i o n of r i b b o n c h e r t was o b s e r v e d -52-o n l y a d j a c e n t to a d i a b a s e s i l l i n the 21-10 d r i f t ( F i g . 6 ) . D a r k - g r e y to b l a c k r i b b o n c h e r t i s a l t e r e d to a b u f f to p a l e -g r e y r o c k , w hich e x t e n d s f o r up to s e v e r a l m e t r e s from the c o n t a c t . A l t e r e d r i b b o n c h e r t i s composed of q u a r t z - r i c h and c l a y - r i c h l a y e r s w i t h l e s s e r c a r b o n a t e ; t r a c e s of p y r i t e and t i t a n i u m o x i d e s may be p r e s e n t . - 5 3 -CHAPTER 6. CARBONATE ALTERATION ENVELOPES 6.1 INTRODUCTION W e l l - d e v e l o p e d c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s o c c u r around w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s ( P l a t e s 1 and 9 ) , c a r b o n v e i n s and d o l o m i t e v e i n s . P e r v a s i v e d i s s e m i n a t e d c a r b o n i s p r e s e n t a d j a c e n t to c a r b o n v e i n s ( P l a t e s 5 and 6) and some w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s ( P l a t e 10) i n c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s . F r a c t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d c a r b o n i s a l s o p r e s e n t i n t h e c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t ( P l a t e 10) and uncommonly i n nonear b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . F i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s , c h e m i c a l s t a i n i n g , a p e t r o g r a p h i c m i c r o s c o p e , a s c a n n i n g e l e c t r o n m i c r o s c o p e - e n e r g y d i s p e r s i v e s p e c t r o m e t e r (SEM-EDS), and an X - r a y d i f f r a c t o m e t e r (XRD) were used to examine t h e m i n e r a l o g y of t h e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s . Four s p e c i e s of c a r b o n a t e were i d e n t i f i e d : c a l c i t e , s i d e r i t e , a n k e r i t e and d o l o m i t e . Methods used to i d e n t i f y c a r b o n a t e m i n e r a l s a r e summarized i n T a b l e V. An i d e a l i z e d model of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s ( F i g . 13) was d e v e l o p e d based on the f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s and m i n e r a l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . An i d e a l e n v e l o p e i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e z o n e s : 2C - o u t e r c a r b o n a t e , 2B - i n t e r m e d i a t e c a r b o n a t e , 2A -i n n e r c a r b o n a t e , IB - o u t e r c a r b o n and IA - i n n e r c a r b o n . I d e a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n s of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s s u r r o u n d i n g s p e c i f i c v e i n s a r e shown i n the model ( F i g . 1 3 ) . A g e n e r a l i z e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of m i n e r a l s p e c i e s t h r o u g h o u t the e n v e l o p e s a round w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s and c a r b o n v e i n s i s -54-P l a t e 9. Underground exposure of a p o r t i o n of a carbonate a l t e r a t i o n enve lope , 21-03 d r i f t ( F i g . 6 ) . Note zoning w i t h i n envelope and g r a d a t i o n a l and sharp contac t s between zones . - 5 5 -P l a t e 10. Underground e x p o s u r e of c a r b o n - r i c h c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t ( C b n - r i c h Cbnt Bas) s u r r o u n d i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n ( Q t z Vn), 28-01 d r i f t ( F i g . 6 ) . Note the p r e s e n c e of f r a c t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d c a r b o n ( F r t - c o n Cbn) w i t h i n the c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t (Cbnt B a s ) . -56-TABLE V I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of carbonate s p e c i e s CHARACTERISTIC CALCITE SIDERITE ANKERITE DOLOMITE weathering c o l o r e f f e r v e s e n c e with hot d i l u t e HCL chemical s t a i n c ( a l i z a r i n red and NAOH) b s t r u c t u r e (XRD) r e l a t i v e composition (SEM-EDS) C grey strong red d i s t i n c t peak (20 = 29.43) Ca> >Fe,Mg bu f f to orange-brown weak brown d i s t i n c t peak (20 = 32.08) Fe> >Ca,Mg buff to orange-brown weak purple grey to buff weak none c o i n c i d i n g peaks (20 = 30.84) Ca>Fe>Mg Ca>Mg>Fe a. See Appendix H f o r a summary of chemical s t a i n i n g techniques. b. XRD: P h i l l i p s X-ray d i f f r a c t o m e t e r - model PW 1060/65 F i l t e r = Cu K ; S l i t s = 1° Kv = 40; Ma = a20 Sample p r e p a r a t i o n = acetone smear c. SEM: Semco - model nanolab 7 EDS: Kevex - model 7000 -57-McDAME BEAR CAITLIN DEVINE DEASE GOLDIE JENNIE MAURA ALISON I i 2 B I J2c£ H—CARBON - H - VEIN — 0 - 5 m CARBONATE R e l a t i v e t h i c k n e s s : 0 - 1 5 m V V V V V V V V V N V V V V V V V V V \ V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v , v v v v v v v v v \ v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v BASALT / / ^ Disseminated coarse grained euhedral pyrite = | Sporadic emerald-green porphyroblast-like aggregates Carbon-rich layers F i g u r e 13. C r o s s - s e c t i o n of i d e a l i z e d c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s , c a r b o n v e i n s and McDame d o l o m i t e v e i n . C a r b o n v e i n s and c a r b o n - r i c h zones t h a t a r e not always p r e s e n t are d e p i c t e d by t r i a n g u l a r a r e a s . I d e a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n s of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s s u r r o u n d i n g s p e c i f i c v e i n s a r e shown. Zones a r e : IA = i n n e r c a r b o n , IB = o u t e r c a r b o n , 2A = i n n e r c a r b o n a t e , 2B = i n t e r m e d i a t e c a r b o n a t e , 2C = o u t e r c a r b o n a t e . i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 14. A s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the McDame d o l o m i t e v e i n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 15. D e s c r i p t i o n s of n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t and c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n zones a r e p r e s e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . A summary i s p r o v i d e d i n T a b l e V I . 6.2 NONCARBONATIZED BASALT N o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t i s m a s s i v e to p i l l o w e d , a p h a n i t i c to medium g r a i n e d , p a l e t o d a r k - g r e e n , and w e a t h e r s d a r k - g r e e n to b l a c k . E x t e n s i v e s h e a r i n g i s l o c a l l y common. B a s a l t i s composed of f i n e p l a g i o c l a s e and l e s s e r c h l o r i t e w i t h minor c a l c i t e , e p i d o t e and t i t a n i u m o x i d e s ( P l a t e 1 1 ) . C h l o r i t e a l s o f i l l s s m a l l , d i s c o n t i n u o u s , i r r e g u l a r f r a c t u r e s . E p i d o t e and c a l c i t e a r e common l o c a l l y as i r r e g u l a r v e i n l e t s and g r a n u l a r c l o t s . F i b r o u s a c t i n o l i t e o c c u r s as i s o l a t e d p a t c h e s . P h e n o c r y s t s of p l a g i o c l a s e and p a r t i a l l y c h l o r i t i z e d a u g i t e o c c u r l o c a l l y . A c r o s s - c u t t i n g network of b l a c k h a i r l i n e f r a c t u r e s i s p r e s e n t near some c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s , i m p a r t i n g a " c r a c k l e d " t e x t u r e to t h e r o c k . P i l l o w e d b a s a l t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by w e l l - f o r m e d p i l l o w s up to one metre i n d i a m e t e r . C o r e s a r e f i n e g r a i n e d and may c o n t a i n a u g i t e and p l a g i o c l a s e p h e n o c r y s t s . R a d i a l f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d w i t h c h l o r i t e a r e common i n s e l v a g e s . I n t e r s t i c e s a r e f i l l e d w i t h c h l o r i t e and minor c a l c i t e , q u a r t z , e p i d o t e and p y r i t e ; h e m a t i t e and m a g n e t i t e a r e r a r e . P i l l o w b r e c c i a s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by -59--09-cr ro Ti 3 H-< 0 0 ro c M i-l ro O ro cn -3 ro ro h—• 3 cn rt • CO i-t K o H - c ro Cu 3 3 ri- a. ro s-en 03 3" i—1 r-h H- H-i-l rt N O ro ro 3 Q. X 3 rt c a. 3" CB ro cn rt rt > N i-i i—1 H-H- < cr cn ro c o H- rt 3 3 H -cn O < 3 ro o> H - 3 O 3 a. t-h H- n 3 3 H -i-i 3 cr ro H- o i-i 0 0 3 03 c i—1 < ro ro cn -o 3 ro U 3 cn n • H -< ro ro cn »-i > ro M rt 1—1 D* c i-i cn CB o ro c a- rt o o • ro 3" rj O 03 c rt rt H -O n 3 03 I-i N cr O o 3 3 ro 03 cn rt ro 03 03 ro i - 1 rt 03 ro cn i-i cn 03 c rt 3 H -ro o a. 3 A p p r o x i m a t e C u m u l a t i v e V o l u m e P e r c e n t rt O F i g u r e 15. G e n e r a l i z e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of m i n e r a l s p e c i e s t h r o u g h o u t c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e around McDame d o l o m i t e v e i n . Widths f o r the McDame v e i n i n F i g u r e 13 were u s e d . TABLE VI t o C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i d e a l a l t e r a t i o n zoning r e l a t e d white quar tz v e i n s , carbon ve ins and McDame do lomite v e i n ZONE THICKNESS(M) OCCURRENCE COLOUR MINERALOGY n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t - h o s t p a l e t o d a r k g r e e n p l a g i o c l a s e , c h l o r i t e , a c t i n o l i t e , e p i d o t e , a u g i t e , c a l c i t e , t i t a n i u m o x i d e s +_ p y r i t e +_ q u a r t z Hh h e m a t i t e + m a g n e t i t e 2C o u t e r c a r b o n a t e <1 v e r y common p a l e g r e e n t o b u f f a n d p a l e g r e y p l a g i o c l a s e , c h l o r i t e , a n k e r i t e , s i d e r i t e , q u a r t z , s e r i c i t e , t i t a n i u m o x i d e s + k a o l i n i t e + d o l o m i t e + p y r i t e + c a r b o n _+ c a l c i t e +_ e p i d o t e +_ a u g i t e + a c t i n o l i t e 2B i n t e r m e d i a t e c a r b o n a t e <10 v e r y common b u f f t o p a l e g r e y a n k e r i t e , s i d e r i t e , q u a r t z , s e r i c i t e , t i t a n i u m o x i d e s + k a o l i n i t e + d o l o m i t e 4^  p y r i t e _+ c a r b o n 2A i n n e r c a r b o n a t e <4 common b u f f t o p a l e g r e y w i t h m i n o r g r e e n m o t t l i n g a n k e r i t e , q u a r t z , s e r i c i t e , p y r i t e , t i t a n i u m o x i d e s 4_ s i d e r i t e 4_ c a r b o n +_ a r s e n o p y r i t e +_ p l a g i o c l s e IB o u t e r c a r b o n <1 uncommon b u f f t o b l a c k a n k e r i t e , q u a r t z , s e r i c i t e , p y r i t e , t i t a n i u m o x i d e s , c a r b o n +_ s i d e r i t e +_ a r s e n o p y r i t e IA i n n e r c a r b o n <3 uncommon b l a c k a n k e r i t e , q u a r t z , s e r i c i t e , p y r i t e , t i t a n i u m o x i d e s , c a r b o n +_ s i d e r i t e ' a r s e n o p y r i t e t r a n s m i t t e d l i g h t crossed n i c o l s P l a t e 11. P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h of n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t (sample 83-257-DF-9, Appendix D). Note m a t r i x i s composed of p l a g i o c l a s e ( P I ) w i t h l e s s e r a u g i t e ( A u g ) , a c t i n o l i t e ( A c t ) and c h l o r i t e ( C h i ) . A c h l o r i t e f i l l e d f r a c t u r e i s v i s i b l e i n upper l e f t c o r n e r . - 6 3 -f i n e - g r a i n e d , s u b a n g u l a r f r a g m e n t s i n a c h l o r i t i c m a t r i x , w e r e a l s o n o t e d . 6.3 ALTERATION ZONES 6.3.1 Zone 2C-0uter Carbonate T h e o u t e r c a r b o n a t e z o n e m a r k s a t r a n s i t i o n f r o m n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d t o c o m p l e t e l y c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . R o c k s i n t h i s z o n e a r e m a s s i v e , f i n e t o m e d i u m - g r a i n e d , p a l e - g r e e n t o b u f f a n d p a l e - g r e y ; t h e y w e a t h e r b u f f t o o r a n g e - b r o w n . P i l l o w s , p h e n o c r y s t s a n d p r e - e x i s t i n g s h e a r i n g a r e r e c o g n i z a b l e i n t h e o u t e r z o n e . P r e f e r e n t i a l r e p l a c e m e n t o c c u r s a l o n g s h e a r s a n d a r o u n d p i l l o w s e l v a g e s . R a r e q u a r t z a n d c a r b o n a t e v e i n l e t s c r o s s c u t t h e r o c k s . D a r k g r e e n t o b l a c k h a i r l i n e f r a c t u r e s i m p a r t a " c r a c k l e d " t e x t u r e t o t h e r o c k s l o c a l l y . T h e o u t e r c a r b o n a t e z o n e i s g e n e r a l l y c o m p o s e d o f p l a g i o c l a s e , c h l o r i t e , a c t i n o l i t e , e p i d o t e a n d a u g i t e , a l l p a r t i a l l y a l t e r e d t o a n k e r i t e , s i d e r i t e , q u a r t z a n d s e r i c i t e ( P l a t e 12) . A n k e r i t e i s t h e d o m i n a n t c a r b o n a t e s p e c i e s . S e r i c i t e o c c u r s i n t h e o u t e r z o n e o f e n v e l o p e s s u r r o u n d i n g o n l y w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . P y r i t e a n d t i t a n i u m o x i d e s a r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e g r o u n d m a s s . C a r b o n o c c u r s i n some f r a c t u r e s . K a o l i n i t e , d o l o m i t e , a n d c a l c i t e may be p r e s e n t a l s o . K a o l i n i t e o c c u r s i n t h e o u t e r z o n e o f some e n v e l o p e s s u r r o u n d i n g w h i t e -64-plane p o l a r i z e d l i g h t crossed n i c o l s P l a t e 12. Photomicrograph of f i n e - g r a i n e d carbonate (Cbnt) r e p l a c i n g p l a g i o c l a s e (PI) i n outer carbonate zone (sample 83-257-DF-7 , Appendix C ) . Note c r o s s -c u t t i n g c o a r s e - g r a i n e d carbonate ve in (Cbnt V n ) . - 6 5 -q u a r t z v e i n s , and i s a l w a y s p r e s e n t i n e n v e l o p e s s u r r o u n d i n g d o l o m i t e v e i n s . D o l o m i t e o c c u r s o n l y around d o l o m i t e v e i n s . The o u t e r c a r b o n a t e zone i s g e n e r a l l y l e s s t h a n one metre wide, but can be w i d e r i f abundant s t r i n g e r v e i n s a r e p r e s e n t . T h i s zone i s p r e s e n t i n most a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s . I t i s a b s e n t i f c o m p l e t e l y c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t e x t e n d s to an impermeable r o c k . 6.3.2 Zone 2B-Intermediate Carbonate The i n t e r m e d i a t e c a r b o n a t e zone i s marked by c o m p l e t e c a r b o n a t i z a t i o n of b a s a l t . Rocks i n t h i s zone a r e f i n e to medium-g r a i n e d , b u f f t o p a l e - g r e y and weather o r a n g e - b r o w n . P i l l o w s ( P l a t e 13), p h e n o c r y s t s and p r e - e x i s t i n g s h e a r i n g a r e r e c o g n i z a b l e i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e zone. D i s c o n t i n u o u s w h i t e a n k e r i t e - q u a r t z v e i n l e t s a r e l o c a l l y common i n t h e i n n e r p o r t i o n of the zone around d o l o m i t e v e i n s . Q u a r t z v e i n l e t s may a l s o c r o s s c u t the r o c k . A " c r a c k l e d " t e x t u r e of b l a c k h a i r l i n e f r a c t u r e s i s p r e s e n t l o c a l l y . Rocks i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e c a r b o n a t e zone a r e composed of f i n e - g r a i n e d , g e n e r a l l y l e s s than 0.1 mm, c a r b o n a t e , q u a r t z , s e r i c i t e , k a o l i n i t e and minor t i t a n i u m o x i d e s . However, c a r b o n a t e - r i c h a g g r e g a t e s , up to two mm i n d i a m e t e r , may be p r e s e n t ( P l a t e 1 4 ) . These a g g r e g a t e s o c c u r s i n g l y or. i n c o a l e s c i n g c l u s t e r s and a r e g e n e r a l l y o p t i c a l l y c o n t i n u o u s . Some r o c k s a r e composed a l m o s t e n t i r e l y of t h e s e a g g r e g a t e s . P l a g i o c l a s e p h e n o c r y s t s a r e c o m p l e t e l y a l t e r e d to q u a r t z and -66-P l a t e 13. Underground exposure of c a r b o n a t i z e d p i l l o w e d b a s a l t , 28-01 d r i f t ( F i g . 6 ) . Note complete p r e s e r v a t i o n of p i l l o w s t r u c t u r e s . - 6 7 -t r a n s m i t t e d l i g h t p a r t i a l l y c r o s s e d n i c o l s 0 . 1 0 mm P l a t e 14. P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h of c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t (sample 82-212-MF-3, Appendix D). Note o p t i c a l l y c o n t i n u o u s c o a r s e c a r b o n a t e a g g r e g a t e s (Cbnt Agg; v a r y i n g shades of w h i t e , p i n k , g r e e n , y e l l o w , orange and brown) i n f i n e g r a i n e d m a t r i x of c a r b o n a t e , q u a r t z and k a o l i n i t e ( C b n t - Q t z - K l t ; p a l e g r e y - b r o w n ) . -68-s e r i c i t e w i t h minor c a r b o n a t e . S h e a r e d b a s a l t , a p p e a r s c r u d e l y l a y e r e d m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y due to v a r i a t i o n s i n g r a i n s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n . In the i n t e r m e d i a t e c a r b o n a t e zone, c a r b o n a t e i s p r i n c i p a l l y a n k e r i t e w i t h s u b o r d i n a t e s i d e r i t e . S i d e r i t e c o n t e n t i s h i g h e s t i n t h e o u t e r p o r t i o n of the i n t e r m e d i a t e zone and d e c r e a s e s t owards v e i n s . D o l o m i t e o c c u r s i n e n v e l o p e s a r o u n d d o l o m i t e v e i n s . S e r i c i t e o c c u r s o n l y i n e n v e l o p e s around w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . K a o l i n i t e i s p r e s e n t i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e zone i n e n v e l o p e s a r o u n d d o l o m i t e v e i n s ; i t a l s o o c c u r s i n the o u t e r p o r t i o n of the i n t e r m e d i a t e zone around some w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . Carbon a l s o may be p r e s e n t a round w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . M i n o r p y r i t e o c c u r s i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e c a r b o n a t e z one. However, some r o c k s c o n t a i n up to f i v e p e r c e n t f i n e - g r a i n e d d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e . P y r i t e a l s o o c c u r s as c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r o u n d h a i r l i n e f r a c t u r e s and as i r r e g u l a r f r a c t u r e f i l l i n g s up to t h r e e mm w i d e . In b r e c c i a t e d vuggy r o c k s near McDame v e i n , some p y r i t e o c c u r s around c a r b o n a t e a l t e r e d c l a s t s and i n the m a t r i x of c l e a r q u a r t z . The i n t e r m e d i a t e c a r b o n a t e zone i s p r e s e n t i n most c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y l e s s than 10 m wide, u n l e s s abundant s t r i n g e r v e i n s a r e p r e s e n t . 6.3.3 Zone 2A - I n n e r C a r b o n a t e B a s a l t i n the i n n e r c a r b o n a t e zone i s c o m p l e t e l y c a r b o n a t i z e d - 6 9 -as i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e z one. A l t h o u g h the i n n e r zone's c o l o u r , t e x t u r e and m i n e r a l o g y a r e s i m i l a r to the i n t e r m e d i a t e zone, i t can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by f e a t u r e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of o n l y the i n n e r z o ne. These f e a t u r e s a r e : c o a r s e - g r a i n e d e u h e d r a l p y r i t e c r y s t a l s , s p o r a d i c e m e r a l d - g r e e n p o r p h y r o b l a s t - l i k e a g g r e g a t e s and uncommon p i s t a c h i o - g r e e n and p a l e - g r e e n m o t t l i n g . C o a r s e - g r a i n e d p y r i t o h e d r o n s and l e s s commonly cubes of p y r i t e o c c u r t h r o u g h o u t t h e i n n e r c a r b o n a t e z o n e . M i c r o s c o p i c a l l y , p y r i t e c r y s t a l s e x h i b i t a w e l l - d e v e l o p e d s i e v e t e x t u r e w i t h up to 15 p e r c e n t i n c l u s i o n s of c a r b o n a t e , q u a r t z and s e r i c i t e . V o i d s f i l l e d w i t h q u a r t z and c a r b o n a t e a r e p r e s e n t a r ound some p y r i t e c r y s t a l s . P y r i t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n c r e a s e s up to f i v e p e r c e n t toward w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s ; c r y s t a l s i z e a l s o i n c r e a s e s up to f i v e mm i n d i a m e t e r ( P l a t e 1 5 ) . Rocks w i t h h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of p y r i t e c o n t a i n up t o 0.2 ounces of g o l d per t o n ( s i x g r a m s / t o n n e ) . E m e r a l d - g r e e n p o r p h y r o b l a s t - l i k e a g g r e g a t e s o c c u r s p o r a d i c a l l y a d j a c e n t to w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . They a r e o p t i c a l l y c o n t i n u o u s , r o u n d e d to a n g u l a r , l e s s than one cm i n d i a m e t e r , and o c c u r s i n g l y or i n c l u s t e r s ( P l a t e 1 6); some a r e r h o m b o h e d r a l ( P l a t e 1 7 ) . SEM-EDS work shows t h a t t h e s e a g g r e g a t e s a r e composed of a n k e r i t e , q u a r t z and s e r i c i t e w i t h minor s i d e r i t e , f u c h s i t e and t i t a n i u m o x i d e s . G r a i n s w i t h i n t h e s e a g g r e g a t e s a r e g e n e r a l l y l e s s t h an 0.02 mm. The e m e r a l d - g r e e n c o l o u r a p p e a r s to be due to d i s s e m i n a t e d f u c h s i t e . P i s t a c h i o - g r e e n and p a l e - g r e e n m o t t l i n g o c c u r i n the i n n e r c a r b o n a t e zone a d j a c e n t to some w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . The m o t t l i n g -70-P l a t e 15. C lose -up view of c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t with d i s seminated c o a r s e - g r a i n e d euhedra l p y r i t e c r y s t a l s adjacent to q u a r t z ve in and in i n c l u d e d w a l l rock fragments . Note p y r i t e c r y s t a l s decrease in s i z e and amount away from vein (Taurus mine, 3400 l e v e l , F i g . 3 ) . - 7 1 -P l a t e 16. C lose -up view of emerald-green p o r p h y r o b l a s t -- l i k e aggregates ( P o r p h - l i k e Agg) of a n k e r i t e , q u a r t z , s e r i c i t e and minor s i d e r i t e , f u c h s i t e and t i t a n i u m oxides (sample 83-322, Appendix D ) . Note c o a r s e - g r a i n e d euhedra l p y r i t e and c r o s s - c u t t i n g quar tz v e i n s . - 7 2 -P l a t e 17. P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h of e m e r a l d - g r e e n p o r p h y r o -b l a s t - l i k e a g g r e g a t e ( P o r p h - l i k e Agg) of a n k e r i t e , q u a r t z , s e r i c i t e , and minor s i d e r i t e , f u c h s i t e and t i t a n i u m o x i d e s . M a t r i x i s c a r b o n a t e , q u a r t z and s e r i c i t e ( C b n t - Q t z - S e r ) . Note r h o m b o h e d r a l shape. -73-i s r e l a t e d to aggregates of carbonate, up to 0.5 mm, with jagged to s t r a i g h t edges, t h a t occur as i s o l a t e d or p a r t l y - c o n n e c t e d c l u s t e r s up to f i v e mm i n diameter. An u n i d e n t i f i e d f i n e - g r a i n e d opaque mineral i s disseminated throughout the aggregates. A green c o l o u r pervades these aggregates imparting a mottled appearance ( P l a t e 18). Other d i f f e r e n c e s between the intermediate and inner zones i n c l u d e an i n c r e a s e i n quartz content i n the inner zone. Quartz occurs as i r r e g u l a r blebs and v e i n l e t s t h a t are most abundant c l o s e to white quartz v e i n s . Minor s i d e r i t e may be present throughout the inner carbonate zone. Minor p l a g i o c l a s e was i d e n t i f i e d i n a few samples adjacent to white quartz v e i n s . Rare a r s e n o p y r i t e a l s o occurs adjacent to some white quartz v e i n s . K a o l i n i t e i s absent. The inner carbonate zone i s up to four metres wide but may be narrower i f c a r b o n - r i c h zones are present. The inner carbonate zone occurs around white quartz v e i n s but i s absent around dolomite v e i n s . 6 . 3 . 4 Zone 1B-Outer Carbon The outer carbon zone marks the t r a n s i t i o n from c a r b o n a t i z e d to c a r b o n - r i c h c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . The t r a n s i t i o n i s g r a d a t i o n a l with c o l o u r changes from buff to b l a c k . The zone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by appearance of disseminated carbon which makes up to s e v e r a l percent of the rock. Carbon o c c u r r i n g i n and around -74-P l a t e 18. C l o s e - u p view of p i s t a c h i o - g r e e n m o t t l i n g (sample 83-327, Appendix D). Note the f r a c t u r e -- c o n t r o l l e d c a r b o n . -75-h a i r l i n e f r a c t u r e s i m p a r t s a " c r a c k l e d " t e x t u r e t o some r o c k s . C a r b o n - r i c h r o c k s a r e f i n e t o medium-grained and massive. They ar e composed o f a n k e r i t e , q u a r t z , s e r i c i t e , p y r i t e , t i t a n i u m o x i d e s and c a r b o n . S i d e r i t e and a r s e n o p y r i t e a r e l e s s abundant. C o a r s e - e u h e d r a l p y r i t e c r y s t a l s o c c u r throughout the zone and a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d near w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s and carbon v e i n s . The o u t e r carbon zone o c c u r s i n en v e l o p e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h carbon v e i n s and some w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s w i t h i n 1 0 0 metres of c a r b o n - r i c h s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s i n the s o u t h e r n p a r t of the mine. I t i s uncommon i n the r e s t of t h e mine. The o u t e r carbon zone i s up t o one metre wide, a l t h o u g h i t may be absent i f the i n n e r carbon zone abuts an impermeable r o c k . I t i s a l s o absent around d o l o m i t e v e i n s . 6 . 3 . 5 Zone 1A-Inner Carbon The i n n e r carbon zone i s s i m i l a r t o the o u t e r carbon zone except f o r a marked i n c r e a s e i n carbon c o n t e n t i n the i n n e r zone. Carbonate a l t e r a t i o n i s no l o n g e r r e c o g n i z a b l e m e g a s c o p i c a l l y because carbon i m p a r t s a b l a c k c o l o r t o the r o c k o b s c u r i n g m i n e r a l o g y and t e x t u r e s . The i n n e r carbon zone o c c u r s around carbon v e i n s and some wh i t e q u a r t z v e i n s c l o s e t o c a r b o n - r i c h s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s i n the s o u t h e r n p a r t of the mine. I t i s g e n e r a l l y l e s s than t h r e e metres wide. - 7 6 -6.4 FRACTURE-CONTROLLED CARBON F r a c t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d c a r b o n , commonly c a l l e d " c r a c k l e d " t e x t u r e a t the E r i c k s o n mine, o c c u r s as an i r r e g u l a r network of h a i r l i n e f r a c t u r e s f i l l e d w i t h f i n e - g r a i n e d c a r b o n . D i s s e m i n a t e d carbon o c c u r s i n r o c k a d j a c e n t t o f r a c t u r e s . An i n c r e a s e i n w i d t h of the c a r b o n - r i c h r o c k around f r a c t u r e s i s c o i n c i d e n t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g f r a c t u r e d e n s i t y . Some f r a c t u r e s a r e o r i e n t e d d i v i d i n g the r o c k i n t o e l o n g a t e domains. I n a r e a s of i n t e n s e f r a c t u r i n g , t h e r o c k s resemble a b r e c c i a ( P l a t e 19; F i g . 16). F r a c t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d carbon o c c u r s a d j a c e n t t o v e i n s , f r a c t u r e zones and f a u l t s i n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t and l e s s so i n c h e r t , a l t e r e d u l t r a m a f i c r o c k s and n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . I n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t f r a c t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d c a r b o n i s most p r e v a l e n t a d j a c e n t t o w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s and carbon v e i n s . F r a c t u r e -c o n t r o l l e d c a r b o n a l s o o c c u r s i n the v i c i n i t y of c a r b o n - r i c h s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s a d j a c e n t t o the c o n t a c t between the upper and lower assemblages. 6.5 DISCUSSION Zoning p a t t e r n s w i t h i n c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e nvelopes around v e i n s a r e r e l a t i v e l y u n i f o r m t h r o u g h o u t t h e mine. However, zones v a r y i n w i d t h and m i n e r a l o g y , and s p e c i f i c zones may be a b s e n t . Most a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s extend l e s s than 15 metres from v e i n m argins, a l t h o u g h some a r e up t o 40 metres wide. Envelopes P l a t e 19. C l o s e - u p view of f r a c t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d c a r b o n . See F i g . 16 for e x p l a n a t i o n . B locks are about 2.5 cm a c r o s s . Spotted t e x t u r e in block on l e f t s i d e of photo i s c o a r s e -gra ined p y r i t e . • I N C R E A S I N G F R A C T U R E D E N S I T Y F i g u r e 16. Schematic i l l u s t r a t i o n of f r a c t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d carbon . Note f r a c t u r e width i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g f r a c t u r e dens i ty u n t i l rock resembles a b r e c c i a . -78-around veins are g e n e r a l l y symmetrical; however i n some, width i n the hanging w a l l i s up to twice that i n the f o o t w a l l . Hanging w a l l and f o o t w a l l widths of envelopes are g e n e r a l l y two to s i x times t h a t of the a s s o c i a t e d v e i n . Although carbonate a l t e r a t i o n envelopes are a s s o c i a t e d with white quartz v e i n s , and l e s s commonly dolomite v e i n s and carbon v e i n s , such veins were not noted i n some envelopes. Carbonate a l t e r a t i o n zones surround white quartz v e i n s , dolomite v e i n s and carbon v e i n s ; carbon zones surround carbon v e i n s and some white quartz v e i n s . In g e n e r a l , g o l d - s i l v e r -b e a r i n g white quartz veins are surrounded by a l l three carbonate a l t e r a t i o n zones; carbon zones may or may not be present. Dolomite veins are surrounded only by the i n t e r m e d i a t e and outer carbonate zones. T h e r e f o r e , the presence of the inner carbonate zone can be used to i d e n t i f y carbonate a l t e r a t i o n envelopes a s s o c i a t e d with p o t e n t i a l l y g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g white quartz v e i n s . The presence of carbon zones does not appear to have any bea r i n g on the go l d content of a white quartz v e i n . However, l o c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of gold may be a s s o c i a t e d with carbon. Rocks i n carbonate a l t e r a t i o n envelopes are composed of approximately 45 percent carbonate, 25 per cent q u a r t z , 25 percent s e r i c i t e and/or k a o l i n i t e , and minor t i t a n i u m oxides ( F i g s . 14 and 15). P y r i t e makes up to f i v e percent of the inner carbonate zone. Carbon zones c o n t a i n up to f i v e percent carbon. Carbonate minerals i n the a l t e r a t i o n envelopes are a n k e r i t e , s i d e r i t e and dolomite. A n k e r i t e occurs throughout the envelopes; -79-s i d e r i t e i s most common i n t h e o u t e r p o r t i o n . D o l o m i t e o c c u r s o n l y i n e n v e l o p e s s u r r o u n d i n g d o l o m i t e v e i n s . K a o l i n i t e o c c u r s t h r o u g h o u t e n v e l o p e s s u r r o u n d i n g d o l o m i t e v e i n s and o n l y i n the o u t e r p o r t i o n of e n v e l o p e s s u r r o u n d i n g some w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . S e r i c i t e o c c u r s t h r o u g h o u t e n v e l o p e s s u r r o u n d i n g o n l y w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . The a b s e n c e of d o l o m i t e and k a o l i n i t e , and p r e s e n c e of s e r i c i t e i n the i n n e r p o r t i o n of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s can be used to i d e n t i f y e n v e l o p e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o t e n t i a l l y g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . -80-CHAPTER 7. CARBONATE AND MAJOR ELEMENT METASOMATISM 7.1 INTRODUCTION A l t e r a t i o n s t u d i e s b e n e f i t from e s t i m a t e s of l o s s e s and g a i n s of c h e m i c a l components, and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c h e m i c a l r e a c t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s by which metasomatism took p l a c e . E s t i m a t e s of l o s s e s and g a i n s a r e made by c o m p a r i n g c h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s of p a r e n t and p r o d u c t r o c k u s i n g a v a r i e t y of c o m p u t a t i o n a l methods, each w i t h i t s own c o n s t r a i n t s . A common f a c t o r t h a t e x i s t s i n each method i s an a t t e m p t to d e f i n e a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the p a r e n t r o c k t h a t r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h o u t metasomatism. In c o n t r a s t , the m e t a s o m a t i c e q u a t i o n d e r i v e d by G r e s e n s (1967) i s a p p l i c a b l e to a l l c o n d i t i o n s of metasomatism; i t i s used h e r e to d e t e r m i n e l o s s e s and g a i n s d u r i n g c a r b o n a t e metasomatism. 7.2 MASS BALANCE CALCULATIONS 7.2.1 Procedure The f u n d a m e n t a l e q u a t i o n d e r i v e d by G r e s e n s (1967) f o r mass b a l a n c e c a l c u l a t i o n s i s : -81-XN = » [ F v X B<V P A > " V where X = l o s s or g a i n ( i n grams) of component N to pr o d u c e r o c k B N from r o c k A. a = i n i t i a l q u a n t i t y of r o c k A (commonly d e s i g n a t e d as 100 grams so t h a t X i s e x p r e s s e d i n w e i g h t p e r c e n t ) . N F = volume f a c t o r (volume r a t i o of p r o d u c t to p a r e n t v r o c k ) . X and X = we i g h t f r a c t i o n of component N i n p a r e n t r o c k A B (A) and p r o d u c t r o c k ( B ) . I f a = 100 grams, then X and X a r e i n we i g h t p e r c e n t . A B P and P = s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of p a r e n t r o c k (A) and p r o d u c t A B r o c k ( B ) . Thus, to c a l c u l a t e c h e m i c a l l o s s e s and g a i n s u s i n g G r e s e n s ' (1967) e q u a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g a r e r e q u i r e d : 1) q u a n t i t a t i v e c h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s f o r p a r e n t and p r o d u c t r o c k s (X and X ) , A B 2) s p e c i f i c g r a v i t i e s f o r p a r e n t and p r o d u c t r o c k s (P and A P ), and B 3) an e s t i m a t e of the volume change of the r o c k mass d u r i n g metasomatism ( F ). V -82-A l t e r n a t i v e l y , one may c a l c u l a t e the volume change i f l o s s e s or g a i n s can be e s t i m a t e d . A p p l i c a t i o n of G r e s e n s ' (1967) e q u a t i o n f o r v a r y i n g volume f a c t o r s e n a b l e s c a l c u l a t i o n of l o s s e s and g a i n s , which can be used to c o n s t r u c t a c o m p o s i t i o n - v o l u m e d i a g r a m f o r a l l p o s s i b l e examples of mass exchange. C o m p o s i t i o n - v o l u m e d i a g r a m s can then be examined f o r component i m m o b i l i t y w h i t h i s i n d i c a t e d by c l u s t e r i n g a t z e r o c h e m i c a l t r a n s f e r . Volume f a c t o r s f o r each sample are c a l c u l a t e d a ssuming z e r o c h e m i c a l t r a n s f e r f o r i mmobile components, and s o l v i n g G r e s e n s ' (1967) e q u a t i o n . C l u s t e r i n g of volume f a c t o r s c a l c u l a t e d i n t h i s manner p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r e s t i m a t i n g the volume change d u r i n g metasomatism. Volume change c o n s t r a i n t s a r e then a p p l i e d to e s t i m a t e component l o s s e s and g a i n s by i n s p e c t i o n of the c o m p o s i t i o n - v o l u m e d i a g r a m s or by c a l c u l a t i o n u s i n g G r e s e n s ' (1967) e q u a t i o n . P a r e n t r o c k i n the E r i c k s o n mine example i s n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . P r o d u c t r o c k i s c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t from the a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s u r r o u n d i n g the g o l d - s i 1 v e r - b e a r i n g J e n n i e w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n . I n d i v i d u a l samples of p a r e n t and p r o d u c t r o c k a r e c o n t i n u o u s s e c t i o n s of s p l i t BQ diamond d r i l l c o r e , 0.4 to 1.6 metres l o n g , from d r i l l h o l e 80-88 ( F i g . 6, A p pendix D). Each segment a n a l y z e d r e p r e s e n t s m e g a s c o p i c a l l y u n i f o r m r o c k . C h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d by X-ray f l u o r e s c e n c e (XRF) at the Department of O c e a n o g r a p h y, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d f o r a l l major o x i d e s and Ba, Sr, Rb, Z r , Y, Nb, Cu, Pb, Zn, C r , N i , Co, V and Mo. L o s s e s on o o i g n i t i o n ( LOI) at 550 C and 1,000 C were d e t e r m i n e d by Vangeochem -83-Lab L i m i t e d of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e J o l l y b a l a n c e . N o r t h V a n c o u v e r . S p e c i f i c s p e c i m e n s were o b t a i n e d by A l l a n a l y s e s a r e t a b u l a t e d g r a v i t y measurements of the a u t h o r u s i n g a i n A p p endix B. 7.2.2 R e s u l t s A s e r i e s of c o m p o s i t i o n - v o l u m e d i a g r a m s f o r s i x c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t samples a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a n c e to the v e i n i n F i g u r e 17. These d i a g r a m s d e p i c t w e i g h t p e r c e n t changes as a f u n c t i o n of volume f a c t o r . C o m p o s i t i o n - v o l u m e d i a g r a m s i n d i c a t e i m m o b i l i t y f o r A l 0 and T i O . These components and Zr a r e 2 3 2 e m p e r i c a l l y known to be r e l a t i v e l y i m m o b i l e . F i g u r e 18A d e p i c t s volume f a c t o r s o b t a i n e d by a s s u m i n g i m m o b i l i t y of A l 0 , T i O and 2 3 2 Zr and a p p l y i n g G r e s e n s ' (1967) e q u a t i o n . In g e n e r a l , the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t e d V ( A l 0 ) F 2 3 V ( T i O ) F 2 V ( Z r ) F V ( A l 0 ) I 2 3 V ( T i O ) I 2 V ( Z r ) I However, the above e q u i v a l e n c e does not h o l d i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t to the v e i n i m p l y i n g the b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n of element i m m o b i l i t y i s not w e l 1 - a p r o x i m a t e d t h e r e . An a v e r a g e volume f a c t o r f o r the t h r e e c o n s t r a i n i n g components f o r each of the s i x samples i s shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 18A. These a v e r a g e volume f a c t o r s are -84-W E I G H T % C H A N G E V 2 - Volume change with constant A l 20 3, T i 0 2 and Zr V, " Constant volume VF/V, - Final volume/Initial volume F i g u r e 17. C o m p o s i t i o n - v o l u m e d i a g r a m s f o r s i x c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t samples p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a n c e to the v e i n (1 to 6 ) . Weight p e r c e n t changes as a f u n c t i o n of volume f a c t o r s a r e i n d i c a t e d f o r the c o n v e r s i o n of p a r e n t t o p r o d u c t r o c k . Note sample 3 c o n t a i n s a q u a r t z v e i n l e t t h a t i s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e s 18, 19 and 20. Volume f a c t o r used i n l o s s and g a i n c a l c u l a t i o n s i s V»; i t s d e r i v a t i o n i s summarized i n F i g u r e 18 and Appendix F. Assumed p a r e n t r o c k i s sample 80-88-JH-7. P r o d u c t r o c k s 1 to 6 are samples 8 0 - 8 8 - J H - l to 6. A n a l y s e s a r e i n Appendix B; sample l o c a t i o n s i n Appendix D. -85-2 . 0 -u. > o r -O < LL 111 ID _J o > 1.5 -1 .0 -S a m p l e n u m b e r — 3 — 1 — 4 — 5 —1{ A l 2 0 3 T i 0 2 Z r A v e r a g e C O N S T R A I N I N G C O M P O N E N T S 1 2 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 -S 9 0 H Z 8 0 -6 0 LU 5 0 O > 4 0 -3 0 -2 0 -1 0 -0 -- 1 0 -S a m p l e 1 1 • 2 <3 n u m b e r B . 3 4 5 i — r 7 8 D I S T A N C E T O VEIN (m) | = Location of quartz veinlet V = Vein B = Noncarbonatized basalt F i g u r e 18. Volume f a c t o r s and changes f o r s i x c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t samples (1 to 6) and one n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t sample ( 7 ) . A: Volume f a c t o r s f o r c o n s t r a i n i n g components and an a v e r a g e used i n l o s s and g a i n c a l c u l a t i o n s . B: Volume p e r c e n t change u s i n g a v e r a g e volume f a c t o r from A. Volume change f o r sample 3 i s anomalous due to the p r e s e n c e of a q u a r t z v e i n l e t . C a l c u l a t i o n of volume f a c t o r s and changes a r e summarized i n Appendix F. used to e s t i m a t e component l o s s e s and g a i n s from c o m p o s i t i o n -volume d i a g r a m s or by c a l c u l a t i o n . Volume p e r c e n t changes t h a t c o r r e s p o n d to a v e r a g e volume f a c t o r s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 18B. Volume changes a c r o s s the c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e i n c r e a s e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y from near z e r o a t the o u t e r m a r g i n of t h e e n v e l o p e to 30 p e r c e n t a d j a c e n t to t h e v e i n . An e x c e p t i o n to t h i s i s a volume change of 70 p e r c e n t w h i c h c o i n c i d e s w i t h a q u a r t z v e i n l e t . Changes i n v o l a t i l e c o n t e n t d u r i n g c a r b o n a t e metasomatism, e x p r e s s e d as l o s s on i g n i t i o n ( LOI) i n w e i g h t p e r c e n t , are i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 19. L o s s e s and g a i n s of major o x i d e s d u r i n g c a r b o n a t e metasomatism, e x p r e s s e d as w e i g h t p e r c e n t of the p a r e n t r o c k , a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e s 20A to 20H. A c o m p i l a t i o n of t h e s e changes a l o n g w i t h volume f a c t o r s and s p e c i f i c g r a v i t i e s used i n c a l c u l a t i o n s i s i n A p p e n d i x F. The major c h e m i c a l changes t h a t took p l a c e d u r i n g t h e d evelopment of a c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e i n b a s a l t a r e : 1. v o l a t i l e s i n c r e a s e p r o g r e s s i v e l y toward the v e i n , 2. K 0 i s added t h r o u g h o u t but i s most p r o n o u n c e d near the v e i n , 2 3. Na 0 i s d e p l e t e d t h r o u g h o u t , 2 4. SiO i n c r e a s e s i n most a r e a s , p a r t i c u l a r l y where a q u a r t z v e i n 2 i s p r e s e n t , 5. CaO i s d e p l e t e d i n the o u t e r p o r t i o n and added to the i n n e r p o r t i o n , 6. MgO and Fe 0 a r e d e p l e t e d t h r o u g h o u t e x c e p t where a q u a r t z 2 3 v e i n l e t i s p r e s e n t ( d e p l e t i o n i s g r e a t e r i n the o u t e r -87-24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 \ L o c a t i o n of quar tz ve in let S a m p l e 1 1 > 2 ' 3 number 1 — I — I — I — I — T 0 1 2 3 4 5 T " 7 8 D I S T A N C E T O V E I N (m) F i g u r e 19. Loss on i g n i t i o n (LOI) f o r s i x c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t samples ( 1 to 6) and one noncarbonatized b a s a l t sample (7) expressed as weight percent of rock (V = v e i n ; B = noncarbon-a t i z e d b a s a l t ) . Samples 1 to 7 correspond to 80-88-JH-1 to 7. LOI determinations are i n Appendix B; sample l o c a t i o n s i n Appendix D. -88-0 1 2 3 4 5 8 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 9 7 DISTANCE TO VEIN (m) F i g u r e 20. L o s s e s and g a i n s of major o x i d e s i n s i x c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t s a m p l e s , e x p r e s s e d as w e i g h t p e r c e n t of n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t sample (assumed p a r e n t r o c k ) . Based on volume change c o n s t r a i n t s . L o s s and g a i n c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e summarized i n A p p e n d i x F. -89-p o r t i o n ) , and 7. A l 0 and T i O i n c r e a s e t h r o u g h o u t ( c h a n g e s a r e minor e x c e p t 2 3 2 a d j a c e n t to the v e i n ) . 7.2.3 D i s c u s s i o n R e s u l t s from mass b a l a n c e c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n s . V a r i a t i o n s i n m i n e r a l o g y a r e a f u n c t i o n of h o s t r o c k c o m p o s i t i o n and l o s s e s and g a i n s of components. M i n e r a l s n o t e d i n the c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t a r e : a n k e r i t e , s i d e r i t e , q u a r t z , s e r i c i t e , k a o l i n i t e , t i t a n i u m o x i d e s and p y r i t e . The p r e s e n c e of c a r b o n a t e s , h y d r o u s aluminum s i l i c a t e s and p y r i t e i m p l i e s t h a t the v o l a t i l e s i n c l u d e a t l e a s t CO , H 0 and S. An i n c r e a s e i n 2 2 v o l a t i l e c o n t e n t c o r r e s p o n d s to a volume i n c r e a s e . C a r b o n a t e c o m p o s i t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d by a v a i l a b i l i t y of c a l c i u m , i r o n and magnesium. A n k e r i t e i s g e n e r a l l y the dominant c a r b o n a t e m i n e r a l t h r o u g h o u t a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s . A n e t l o s s of CaO r e l a t i v e to Fe 0 i n the o u t e r p o r t i o n o f t h e e n v e l o p e s 2 3 e x p l a i n s why s i d e r i t e i s abundant o n l y near the l i m i t of metasomatism. A l 0 of the p a r e n t r o c k i s a c c o u n t e d f o r by 2 3 . s e r i c i t e and k a o l i n i t e i n c a r b o n a t i z e d r o c k s . S e r i c i t e formed where g a i n of K 0 o c c u r r e d ; o t h e r w i s e k a o l i n i t e d e v e l o p e d . 2 S o d i u m - r i c h m i n e r a l s do not o c c u r because of marked d e p l e t i o n of Na 0. A d d i t i o n of SiO e x p l a i n s the p r e s e n c e of some q u a r t z i n 2 2 c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . O t h e r s o u r c e s of S i O a r e h y d r o l y s i s , 2 c a r b o n a t i o n and h y d r a t i o n of s i l i c a t e s d u r i n g c a r b o n a t e metasomatism ( F i g . 2 1 ) . T i O o c c u r s i n t i t a n i u m o x i d e s i n the 2 - 9 0 -nvsva A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A / . A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A \ A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A I 3 0 ! S + S9JBU0qJBQ ( 6 ^ «9-j = z00 + '*0) '9d 'BQ) E N + E O ! S + S9iB0 | | !S I V A jBpuoo9S = + M + O S H + S 9 ; B O M ! S I V AjBtuud A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A _ A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A I p a r e n t and p r o d u c t r o c k s . The o c c u r r e n c e of p y r i t e i n d i c a t e s a d d i t i o n of s u l p h u r . 7.3 CHEMICAL REACTIONS D e c o m p o s i t i o n of the b a s a l t i c m i n e r a l a s s e m b l a g e and f o r m a t i o n of c a r b o n a t e , s e r i c i t e and q u a r t z d u r i n g c a r b o n a t e metasomatism t a k e s p l a c e by h y d r o l y s i s , c a r b o n a t i o n and h y d r a t i o n . These r e a c t i o n s i n v o l v e an i n t r o d u c t i o n of CO , H 0 2 2 and K, and a d e p l e t i o n of Na. S u l p h u r i z a t i o n o c c u r s a d j a c e n t to v e i n s . S e r i c i t e forms by h y d r o l y t i c d e c o m p o s i t i o n of p l a g i o c l a s e i n + the p r e s e n c e of K as shown by the r e a c t i o n (Hemley and J o n e s , 1964): p l a g i o c l a s e 3 N a 2 C a A l 4 S i g 0 2 4 + 8 H + + 4 K + = s e r i c i t e q u a r t z 4 K A l 3 S i 3 0 1 Q ( 0 H ) 2 + 1 2 S i 0 2 + 6 N a + + 3 C a + + (1) + I f K i s not p r e s e n t , k a o l i n i t e forms as shown by t h e r e a c t i o n (Hemley and J o n e s , 1964): p l a g i o c l a s e N a 2 C a A l 4 S i g 0 2 4 + 4H + + 2H 20 = k a o l i n i t e q u a r t z 2 A l 2 S i 2 0 5 ( 0 H ) A + 4 S i 0 2 + 2Na + + C a + + (2) A l a t e r a d d i t i o n of K to a r o c k c o n t a i n i n g k a o l i n i t e may + p r o d u c e s e r i c i t e as d e m o n s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g r e a c t i o n -92-(Hemley and J o n e s , 1964): k a o l i n i t e s e r i c i t e 3 A l 2 S i 2 0 5 ( 0 H ) 4 + 2K + = 2 K A l 3 S i 3 0 1 0 ( 0 H ) 2 + 3H 20 + 2 H + (3) S t u d i e s by H a r t e and Graham (1975) on b a s a l t i c r o c k s w i t h m i n e r a l o g y s i m i l a r to t h o s e a t the E r i c k s o n mine i n d i c a t e t h a t the f o l l o w i n g c a r b o n a t i o n and h y d r a t i o n r e a c t i o n s a r e a p p l i c a b l e : a c t i n o l i t e ' e p i d o t e ' 3 C a 2 ( M g , F e ) 5 S i g 0 2 2 ( 0 H ) 2 + 2 C a 2 A l 3 S i ^ 2 ( O H ) + 10C0 2 + 8H 20 = c h l o r i t e c a l c i t e q u a r t z 3 ( M g , F e ) 5 A l 2 S i 3 0 1 0 ( 0 H ) g + 10CaC0 3 + 2 1 S i 0 2 (4) and a c t i n o l i t e ' e p i d o t e ' 1 9 C a 2 ( M g , F e ) 5 S i g 0 2 2 ( 0 H ) 2 + 6 C a 2 A l 3 S i ^ 2 ( O H ) + 100C0 2 + 14H 20 = c h l o r i t e a n k e r i t e q u a r t z 9 ( M g , F e ) 5 A l 2 S i 3 0 1 0 ( 0 H ) g + 5 0 C a ( M g , F e ) ( C 0 3 ) 2 + 1 4 3 S i 0 2 (5) and c h l o r i t e c a l c i t e 3 ( M g , F e ) 5 A l 2 S i 3 0 1 0 ( 0 H ) g + 19CaC0 3 + 11C0 2 = a n k e r i t e ' e p i d o t e ' q u a r t z 1 5 C a ( M g , F e ) ( C 0 3 ) 2 + 2 C a 2 A l 3 S i ' 3 0 1 2 ( 0 H ) + 3 S i 0 2 + 11H 20 (6) and a c t i n o l i t e c a l c i t e C a 2 ( M g , F e ) 5 S i g 0 2 2 ( O H ) 2 + 3 C a C 0 3 + 7 C 0 2 = a n k e r i t e q u a r t z 5 C a ( M g , F e ) ( C 0 3 ) 2 + 8 S i 0 2 +H 20 (7) C a r b o n a t i o n of c a l c i u m , i r o n and magnesium aluminum s i l i c a t e s may r e s u l t i n the f o r m a t i o n of s e r i c i t e as w e l l as c a r b o n a t e m i n e r a l s . The f o l l o w i n g r e a c t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e s t h i s ( K e r r i c h and F y f e , 1981): -93-aluminous c h l o r i t e e p idote 3 ( M g / F e ) 4 A l 2 S i 2 O 1 0 ( O H ) 8 + G C a ^ l ^ i ^ Q (OH) + 6 S i 0 2 + 24C0 2 + 10K + = s e r i c i t e a n k e r i t e 1 0 K A l 3 S i 3 O 1 0 ( O H ) 2 + 12Ca(Mg,Fe)(C0 3) 2 + 10H + (8) A schematic i l l u s t r a t i o n of carbonate metasomatism and g e n e r a l i z e d major r e a c t i o n s at E r i c k s o n mine are shown i n F i g u r e 21 . S u l p h u r i z a t i o n i s manifested by the formation of p y r i t e concomitent with d e s t r u c t i o n of i r o n s i l i c a t e m i n e r a l s . A g e n e r a l i z e d r e a c t i o n i s (Boyle, 1979): F e - s i l i c a t e s + S = p y r i t e + SiO (9) 2 T h i s process i s important because of the a s s o c i a t i o n of gold with p y r i t e i n the i n n e r p o r t i o n s of carbonate a l t e r a t i o n envelopes. 7.3 ALTERATION PROCESSES During w a l l rock a l t e r a t i o n , mass t r a n s f e r takes place by d i f f u s i o n and i n f i l t r a t i o n . In d i f f u s i o n metasomatism, chemical components move by d i f f u s i o n through a s t a t i o n a r y pore s o l u t i o n ; i n i n f i l t r a t i o n metasomatism, the components are t r a n s p o r t e d by a stream of aqueous s o l u t i o n s p e r c o l a t i n g through pores i n the rocks ( K o r z h i n s k i i , 1970). I n f i l t r a t i o n i s the dominant process i f mass t r a n s f e r i s i n one d i r e c t i o n over l a r g e d i s t a n c e s . However, i f mass t r a n s f e r i s i n more than one d i r e c t i o n , then -94-d i f f u s i o n , not i n f i l t r a t i o n i s the dominant process (Hofmann, 1972). Mass balance c a l c u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e a d d i t i o n and d e p l e t i o n of major elements throughout the carbonate a l t e r a t i o n envelopes around Jennie v e i n . T h i s i m p l i e s mass t r a n s f e r i n more than one d i r e c t i o n suggesting t h a t d i f f u s i o n was more important than i n f i l t r a t i o n . However, d i f f u s i o n i s not an e f f i c i e n t process of mass t r a n s f e r over l a r g e d i s t a n c e s . I t i s more l i k e l y t h a t most f l u i d moved by i n f i l t r a t i o n along f r a c t u r e s or l a r g e pores to a p o i n t near the r e p l a c i n g f r o n t . Replacement then took place by d i f f u s i o n . -95-CHAPTER 8. GEOCHEMISTRY OF CARBONATE ALTERATION ENVELOPES 8.1 INTRODUCTION A s t u d y of g e o c h e m i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s s u r r o u n d i n g g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s was c o n d u c t e d u s i n g i n d u c t i v e l y c o u p l e d plasma ( I C P ) a n a l y s e s w i t h an aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n . ICP a n a l y s e s were used b e c a u s e t h e y a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e and g i v e m u l t i - e l e m e n t r e s u l t s . The ICP a n a l y s e s were compared to XRF a n a l y s e s to d e t e r m i n e t h e r a n g e of e x t r a c t i o n d u r i n g aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n to a s s i s t i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . P r o c e d u r e s used a r e summarized i n F i g u r e 22 and d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . 8.2 SAMPLING AND ANALYSES A l l diamond d r i l l c o r e s a t E r i c k s o n mine were examined and seven i n t e r s e c t i o n s of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s were s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s g e o c h e m i c a l s t u d y . S i x i n t e r s e c t i o n s e n c l o s e w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s ( A p p e n d i x D: DDH's 77-44, 80-84, 80-88, 82-222, 82-247 and 83-257); one a d o l o m i t e v e i n ( A p p e n d i x D: DDH 8 2 - 2 1 2 ) . Each i n t e r s e c t i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o 0.3 to 1.6 metre i n t e r v a l s of m e g a s c o p i c a l l y u n i f o r m r o c k . Each i n t e r v a l was s p l i t p a r a l l e l to the c o r e a x i s and then s a m p l e d . In t o t a l , 106 samples of c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t and 26 of n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t were o b t a i n e d . In a d d i t i o n , 34 p u l v e r i z e d samples of v e i n s were -96-S e l e c t i o n o f A l t e r a t i o n E n v e l o p e C r o s s - s e c t i o n s I S a m p l i n g (including logging) I S a m p l e P r e p a r a t i o n (including rep l i ca tes) I C h e m i c a l A n a l y s e s I C P , X R F , F A I C o m p u t e r F i l e (DDH data , sample locat ion , chemica l results , sample type) C o m p u t e r P l o t s I P r e c i s i o n I C P - X R F C o m p a r i s o n 14 15 1 I C P - F A A n a l y s e s of C a r b o n a t e A l t e r e d S a m p l e s 11 10 H i s t o g r a m s P r o b a b i l i t y P l o t s I X2 T e s t 12 13 I C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x I D e n d r o g r a m I n t e r p r e t a t i o n I C o n c l u s i o n s F i g u r e 22. Flow d i a g r a m f o r g e o c h e m i c a l s t u d y of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n a t E r i c k s o n mine. -97-r e t r i e v e d f r o m th e E r i c k s o n mine l a b o r a t o r y . o o L o s s e s on i g n i t i o n ( L O I ) a t 550 C and 1000 C were d e t e r m i n e d f o r b a s a l t u s i n g 0.5 gram p u l v e r i z e d s a m p l e s . The o r e s i d u e s of t h e 1000 C i g n i t i o n were d i g e s t e d w i t h t h r e e ml of o 3:1:3 HCL to HN0 t o H 0 a t 90 C f o r one h o u r , and t h e n d i l u t e d 3 2 t o t e n ml w i t h d i s t i l l e d water and a n a l y z e d f o r 30 e l e m e n t s u s i n g a J a r r e l l - Ash 0.75 meter g r a t i n g ICAP i n s t r u m e n t . A l l ICP a n a l y s e s a r e e x p r e s s e d as a p r o p o r t i o n of t h e i n i t i a l sample w e i g h t . Samples of v e i n s were a l s o a n a l y z e d f o r 30 e l e m e n t s by ICP. E l e m e n t s d e t e r m i n e d by ICP a r e : A l , T i , Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K, P, Au, Ag, As, Sb, Ba, B, S r , Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, C r , N i , Co, V, W, Mo, U, Th, L a , and B i . S i n c e g o l d e x t r a c t e d by aqua r e g i a i s below the t h r e e ppm ICP d e t e c t i o n l i m i t , g o l d and s i l v e r were d e t e r m i n e d by f i r e a s s a y i n g . S i x t e e n samples of c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t and s i x of n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t were a n a l y z e d by XRF f o r the f o l l o w i n g : SiO , A l 0 , T i O , Fe 0 , MnO, MgO, CaO, Na 0, 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 K 0, P 0 , Ba, S r , Rb, Z r , Y, Nb, Cu, Pb, Zn, C r , N i , Co, V and 2 2 5 Mo . LOI and ICP a n a l y s e s p e r f o r m e d by Vangeochem Lab L i m i t e d , N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ; f i r e a s s a y s by E r i c k s o n G o l d Mines L t d . , C a s s i a r . XRF a n a l y s e s were done at the Department of O c e a n o g r a p h y , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s and p r o f i l e p l o t s f o r e ach i n t e r s e c t i o n a r e i n Appendix B. A summary of a n a l y t i c a l methods i s i n A p p e n d i x C. Sample l o c a t i o n s and r o c k t y p e s a r e i n A p p e n d i x D. -98-8.3 QUALITY OF DATA Ten samples of w a l l r o c k f r o m diamond d r i l l c o r e , each f r a g m e n t e d t o a p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e cm c h i p s , were s p l i t to o b t a i n d u p l i c a t e s . LOI and ICP a n a l y s e s w i t h an aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n were p e r f o r m e d on o r i g i n a l - d u p l i c a t e p a i r s to d e t e r m i n e the combined s a m p l i n g , sample p r e p a r a t i o n and a n a l y t i c a l e r r o r s . An a d d i t i o n a l t w e l v e d u p l i c a t e s of w a l l r o c k were o b t a i n e d by s p l i t t i n g p u l v e r i z e d samples of diamond d r i l l c o r e to d e t e r m i n e the combined sample p r e p a r a t i o n and a n a l y t i c a l e r r o r f o r g o l d -s i l v e r f i r e a s s a y s . The combined sample p r e p a r a t i o n and a n a l y t i c a l e r r o r s f o r XRF a n a l y s e s were d e t e r m i n e d f o r s e v e n d u p l i c a t e s of w a l l r o c k , o b t a i n e d by s p l i t t i n g p u l v e r i z e d samples of diamond d r i l l c o r e . E r r o r s were d e t e r m i n e d f o r each element i n two s t e p s . The mean c o n c e n t r a t i o n of each o r i g i n a l - d u p l i c a t e p a i r was compared g r a p h i c a l l y to the a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e of p a i r s (Thompson and Howarth, 1978). O u t l i e r s and v a l u e s o c c u r r i n g a t the l a b o r a t o r y d e t e c t i o n l i m i t were removed and mean r e l a t i v e e r r o r s were d e t e r m i n e d f o r s p e c i f i c c o n c e n t r a t i o n r a n g e s . R e s u l t s a r e summarized i n T a b l e s V I I , V I I I and IX. In g e n e r a l , the t o t a l mean r e l a t i v e e r r o r s f o r LOI and ICP a n a l y s e s w i t h aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n range from s i x to twenty-two p e r c e n t . T o t a l mean r e l a t i v e e r r o r s of f o r t y p e r c e n t f o r l e a d , s i l v e r and t i t a n i u m , and t h i r t y - f i v e f o r cadmium ( T a b l e V I I ) o c c u r p r o b a b l y because most v a l u e s f o r t h e s e e l e m e n t s a r e nea r l a b o r a t o r y d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s . B a r i u m , p o t a s s i u m and a r s e n i c have -99-TABLE VII Summary of Data Quality: Combined Sampling, Sample Preparation and A n a l y t i c a l Errors for LOI and ICP Analyses with an Aqua Digestion ELEMENT DETECTION DUPLICATE X 3 £T S/X° CONCENTRATION LIMIT PAIRS (%) RANGE Al 0.01 % 10 2.86 0.28 10 1.90 4.30 T i 0.01 % 10 0.04 0.01 25 0.02 - 0.10 Fe 0.01 % 10 3.21 1.31 10 1.60 - 3.90 Mn 1.0 ppm 10 559.75 73.33 13 280.00 - 840.00 Mg 0.01 % 10 1.07 0.17 16 0.40 - 2.10 Ca 0.01 % 10 3.36 0.37 11 1.50 - 5.30 Na 0.01 % 7 0.18 0.03 17 0.10 - 0.25 K 0.01 % 5 0.04 0.007 18 0.02 — 0.10 K 0.01 % 2 1.33 0.35 26 0.35 - 2.25 P A 0.01 % 8 0.03 0.004 13 0.02 - 0.06 Au d 3.0 ppm 10 Ag 0.1 ppm 10 1.04 0.42 40 0.50 - 3.70 As 3.0 ppm 5 8.30 6.36 77 3.00 - 22.00 As. 3.0 ppm 4 229.63 51.80 23 62.00 - 395.00 Sb d 3.0 ppm 10 Ba 1.0 ppm 5 68.50 8.34 12 34.00 - 109.00 Ba 1.0 ppm 3 403.00 64.52 41 187.00 - 871.00 B 3.0 ppm 10 26.55 4.03 15 7.00 - 59.00 Sr 1.0 ppm 10 95.35 18.74 20 23.00 - 168.00 Cu 1.0 ppm 9 33.05 4.64 14 19.00 — 64.00 Pb 1.0 ppm 10 5.60 2.26 40 2.00 - 13.00 Zn 1.0 ppm 10 28.00 4.95 18 16.00 - 45.00 Cd 1.0 ppm 9 3.83 1.34 35 2.00 - 8.00 Cr 1.0 ppm 9 75.83 11.08 15 39.00 - 121.00 Ni 1.0 ppm 10 23.50 4.38 19 12.00 - 43.00 Co 1.0 ppm 10 10.25 1.77 17 5.00 - 17.00 v d 3.0 ppm 10 133.85 8.27 6 97.00 - 188.00 W d 3.0 ppm 10 Mo U d 1.0 ppm 10 3.0 ppm 10 T h d 3.0 ppm 10 La. 3.0 ppm 10 B i d 3.0 ppm 10 LOI 0.01 % 19 6.23 1.37 22 1.00 - 12.80 a. X_ = Mean of o r i g i n a l - duplicate samples. b. S_ = Mean standard deviation of o r i g i n a l - duplicate p a i r s . c. S/X = Tot a l mean r e l a t i v e e r r o r . d. Errors not calculated as most values are close to or below laboratory detection l i m i t s . - 1 0 0 -TABLE VIII Summary of Data Q u a l i t y : Combined Sample Preparation and A n a l y t i c a l E r r o r s f o r XRF analyses ELEMENT DETECTION DUPLICATE X 3 S* CONCENTRATION LIMIT PAIRS (%) RANGE Si02 0.64 % 6 45.39 0.74 2 38.84 57.78 A1203 0.54 % 6 10.54 0.06 <1 5.90 - 12.08 Ti02 0.02 % 6 1 .32 0.01 <1 0.71 - 1 .87 Fe203 0.02 % 6 10.17 0.11 1 6.43 — 13.40 MnO 0.02 % 6 0.16 0.002 2 0.12 - 0.18 MgO 0.10 % 6 5.63 0.06 1 3.64 - 7.28 CaO 0.05 % 6 9.79 0.06 <1 7.97 - 11 .21 Na20 0.03 % 6 0.73 0.01 1 0.06 - 2.34 K20 0.05 % 6 1 .57 0.03 2 0.05 - 3.20 P205 0.03 % 6 0.10 0.001 1 0.02 - 0.15 Ba 38 ppm 5 348.44 7.65 2 151 .55 - 668.18 Sr 10 ppm 6 155.44 1.70 1 121.09 - 208.66 Rb 8 ppm 6 93.12 2.19 2 16.44 - 188.26 Zr 8 ppm 6 89.20 1 .50 2 54.66 - 122.36 V 13 ppm 6 359.06 359.06 2 233.44 - 474.95 Y 10 ppm 6 30.30 30.30 3 19.54 - 37.76 Nb 9 ppm 6 15.20 0.50 15 1 .26 - 5.66 Cu 25 ppm 6 63.73 2.41 4 24.41 - 100.47 Pb 19 ppm 6 6.16 0.64 10 3.07 - 11 .90 Zn 14 ppm 6 93.33 5.76 6 59.80 - 131 .22 Cr 11 ppm 7 200.50 8.32 4 106.99 - 349.87 Ni 20 ppm 6 53.09 1 .72 3 24.74 - 75.73 Co 39 ppm 6 36.32 1 .92 5 25.31 - 50.23 Mo 7 ppm 7 1 .92 0.48 25 0.62 3.07 TABLE IX Summary of Data Qua l i t y : Combined Sample Preparation and A n a l y t i c a l Errors f o r F i r e Assays ELEMENT DETECTION DUPLICATE X 3 s* S/X0 COONERATION LIMIT PAIRS (%) RANGE Au 0.020 o/t 3 0.067 0.016 23 0.032 0.094 Ag 0.020 o/t 8 0.105 0.038 36 0.04 0.24 a. X = Mean of o r i g i n a l - dup l i c a t e samples. b. S =_Mean standard d e v i a t i o n of o r i g i n a l - duplicate p a i r s . c. S/X = Mean r e l a t i v e e r r o r . -101-t o t a l mean r e l a t i v e e r r o r s f o r two c o n c e n t r a t i o n r a n g e s . H i g h e r e r r o r s f o r ba r i u m and p o t a s s i u m o c c u r f o r h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n r a n g e s where t h e r e i s e n r i c h m e n t , whereas f o r a r s e n i c a h i g h e r e r r o r o c c u r s a t a low e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n range c l o s e to t h e l a b o r a t o r y d e t e c t i o n l i m i t . E r r o r s c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d f o r g o l d , a n t i m o n y , t u n g s t e n , molybdenum, u r a n i u m , t h o r i u m , lanthanum and b i s m u t h as most v a l u e s a r e c l o s e t o or below the l a b o r a t o r y d e t e c t i o n l i m i t . The mean r e l a t i v e e r r o r of t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t f o r g o l d i s based on o n l y t h r e e samples because the o t h e r n i n e a r e c l o s e to or below t h e l a b o r a t o r y d e t e c t i o n l i m i t . S i l v e r f i r e a s s a y s have a mean r e l a t i v e e r r o r of t h i r t y - s i x p e r c e n t based on e i g h t s a m p l e s . The h i g h e r r o r s f o r g o l d and s i l v e r a r e p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d to a nugget e f f e c t . The m e a n ' r e l a t i v e e r r o r s f o r major e l e m e n t s a n a l y z e d by XRF a r e l e s s t h an two p e r c e n t ; f o r most minor e l e m e n t s they a r e l e s s t h a n seven p e r c e n t . E r r o r s f o r n i o b i u m , l e a d and molybdenum a r e g r e a t e r b ecause most v a l u e s a r e near d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s . C o m p a r i s o n of o r i g i n a l - d u p l i c a t e r e s u l t s f o r ICP a n a l y s e s w i t h an aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r most e l e m e n t s r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of r e s u l t s by r e s a m p l i n g i s a d e q u a t e f o r the p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y . -102-8.4 ICP - XRF COMPARISON ICP a n a l y s e s were compared t o XRF a n a l y s e s f o r 22 s a m p l e s , u s i n g s c a t t e r p l o t s , to d e t e r m i n e the r a n g e of e x t r a c t i o n d u r i n g d i g e s t i o n by aqua r e g i a . P r i o r to p l o t t i n g , XRF a n a l y s e s f o r o x i d e s were c o n v e r t e d to c a t i o n w e i g h t p e r c e n t . The f o l l o w i n g e l e m e n t s were used i n t h i s c o m p a r i s o n : A l , T i , Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K, P, Ba, S r , Cu, Zn, C r , N i , Co and V. S c a t t e r p l o t s f o r b a r i u m , c a l c i u m , and z i n c a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e 23; the r e m a i n i n g s c a t t e r p l o t s a r e i n Appendix G. ICP a n a l y s e s were r e g r e s s e d on XRF a n a l y s e s and a l e a s t s q u a r e s l i n e t h a t p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e o r i g i n was f i t t e d to t h e d a t a . The l i n e and i t s e q u a t i o n a r e i n c l u d e d on t h e s c a t t e r p l o t s . A l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e ICP - XRF e l e m e n t p a i r s i s a l s o i n c l u d e d . The s l o p e of the r e g r e s s i o n l i n e i s an e s t i m a t e of the a v e r a g e amount of an element e x t r a c t e d d u r i n g aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n . A summary of a v e r a g e e x t r a c t i o n l e v e l s , e x t r a c t i o n r a n g e s and l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e X. A l l s c a t t e r p l o t s were examined f o r o b v i o u s d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s i n XRF and ICP a n a l y s e s . XRF a n a l y s e s g e n e r a l l y show two c l u s t e r s of d a t a ; one f o r c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t and one f o r n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . C o n c e n t r a t i o n s of most e l e m e n t s i n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t a r e g e n e r a l l y l e s s t h a n or e q u a l to t h o s e i n n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . T h i s i s due to an a p p a r e n t d e p l e t i o n c a u s e d by an i n c r e a s e i n volume or by a t r u e d e p l e t i o n . Examples of a p p a r e n t d e p l e t i o n f o r c a l c i u m and z i n c a r e shown i n F i g u r e -103-Regression Summary 2 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 1000 X R F B a ( p p m ) Regress ion Summary R e g r e s s i o n Summary X R F Z n ( p p m ) F i g u r e 23. a g a i n s t XRF dashed (X = ICP a n a l y s e s w i t h an aqua t o t a l a n a l y s e s f o r Ba, Ca n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t : A= r e g i a d i g e s t i o n p l o t t e d and Zn. R e g r e s s i o n l i n e i s • c a r b o n a t e a l t e r e d b a s a l t ) . - 1 0 4 -TABLE X Summary o f C o m p a r i s o n o f ICP A n a l y s e s w i t h an aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n t o XRF a n a l y s e s ELEMENT LINEAR CORRELATION COEFFICIENT AVERAGE EXTRACTION LEVEL (%) EXTRACTION RANGE FOR NONCARBONATIZED BASALT (%) EXTRACTION RANGE FOR CARBONATIZED BASALT (%) A l 0.77 44 35-60 35-60 T i 0.56 4 3-6 1 -8 Fe 0.65 30 25-35 1 7-50 Mn 0.43 29 1 5-30 1 5-50 Mg -0.10 26 1 0-20 1 0-65 Ca 0 .60 46 30-45 30-65 Na 0.78 1 5 1 0-40 50 K 0 .90 28 t r t r - 4 0 P 0.84 60 50-85 35-80 Ba 0.93 46 30-50 20-65 Sr 0.97 59 50-60 60-65 Cu 0.45 35 30-40 20-65 Zn 0.43 32 25-30 30-60 C r 0.57 24 20-30 1 0-35 N i 0.59 29 20-35 1 0-60 Co 0.18 22 1 5-25 7-40 V 0 .82 35 25-40 25-45 a. n = 22 ( c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t = 16; n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t = 6 ) . b. A v e r a g e e x t r a c t i o n l e v e l (%) = ( r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s l o p e x 1 0 0 ) . c. Amount o f e x t r a c t i o n (%) = [ ( ( I C P a n a l y s i s ) / ( X R F a n a l y s i s ) ) x 1 0 0 ] . 23. C o n c e n t r a t i o n s of ba r i u m and p o t a s s i u m i n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t a r e g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e i n n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t b ecause of s t r o n g e n r i c h m e n t i n t h e s e e l e m e n t s . An example f o r ba r i u m i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 23. Element c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d e t e r m i n e d by ICP a n a l y s e s a r e much lower than t h o s e • d e t e r m i n e d by XRF a n a l y s e s b e c a u s e of p a r t i a l d i g e s t i o n by aqua r e g i a . E x t r a c t i o n r a n g e s f o r aluminum, t i t a n i u m , p h o s p h o r o u s , s t r o n t i u m , chromium, and vanadium ( T a b l e X) a r e s i m i l a r f o r c a r b o n a t i z e d and n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . The e x t r a c t i o n of t i t a n i u m i s p a r t i c u l a r l y low due to the r e f r a c t o r y n a t u r e of t i t a n i u m o x i d e s . B e t t e r e x t r a c t i o n of e l e m e n t s i n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t r e l a t i v e to n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t may mask d e p l e t i o n n o t e d i n XRF a n a l y s e s or i n d i c a t e e n r i c h m e n t . Examples f o r z i n c and c a l c i u m a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e 23. B e t t e r e x t r a c t i o n of the major c a r b o n a t e f o r m i n g e l e m e n t s c a l c i u m , magnesium and manganese ( T a b l e X) i n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e . T h i s i s a l s o n o t e d to a l e s s e r e x t e n t f o r i r o n , c o p p e r , z i n c , c o b a l t and n i c k e l ( T a b l e X ) . T h e r e f o r e , ICP a n a l y s e s w i t h an aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n s h o u l d be used w i t h c a u t i o n f o r weakly e n r i c h e d e l e m e n t s because b e t t e r e x t r a c t i o n i n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t may g i v e a m i s l e a d i n g e n r i c h m e n t p a t t e r n . However, i f t h e r e i s s t r o n g e n r i c h m e n t or d e p l e t i o n as i n p o t a s s i u m , b a r i u m and sodium, t h e n ICP a n a l y s e s w i t h an aqua r e g i a - d i g e s t i o n w i l l show t h e s e p a t t e r n s w e l l . -106-8.5 STATISTICS A s t a t i s t i c a l s t u d y was p e r f o r m e d f o r c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t u s i n g the r e s u l t s of ICP a n a l y s e s w i t h an aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n . S i n c e g o l d e x t r a c t e d by aqua r e g i a i s below th e 3 ppm ICP d e t e c t i o n l i m i t , f i r e a s s a y s f o r g o l d and s i l v e r were u s e d . A c h i s q u a r e t e s t showed t h a t most e l e m e n t s have a p p r o x i m a t i o n s of l o g n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s ; a few a r e n e a r l y n o r m a l ( N i , Co, Mn, Fe, V, Ca, A l ) . A p p r o p r i a t e d a t a were l o g - t r a n s f o r m e d and a m a t r i x of l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s was g e n e r a t e d f o r 26 e l e m e n t s ( A p p e n d i x H). E l e m e n t s were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s ; two w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l i n t r a c o r r e l a t i o n and one w i t h o u t . L i m i t e d c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between g r o u p s . C o r r e l a t i o n measures f o r the f i r s t two g r o u p s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n a dendrogram ( F i g . 2 4 ) . Group 1 e l e m e n t s (K, Ba, B, S r , A l , Zn, Pb, Na, Cu, Au, As) a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e n r i c h m e n t or d e p l e t i o n i n c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s . Group 2 e l e m e n t s ( C r , N i , Mn, Mg, Ca, F e , Co) may be r e d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h e n r i c h m e n t a d j a c e n t t o v e i n s and d e p l e t i o n i n the o u t e r p o r t i o n ot the e n v e l o p e s . Group 3 e l e m e n t s ( A g , B i , Sb, U, V, W, T i , Cd) a r e m o s t l y n e a r or below d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s . Some are e n r i c h e d l o c a l l y i n a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s ; the r e m a i n i n g e l e m e n t s l a c k d i s c e r n a b l e p a t t e r n s . 8.6 APPLICABILITY TO EXPLORATION D i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s f o r a l l e l e m e n t s were examined f o r -107-Group 2 Group 1 1.0 J • l - " f i I i [• [• f I f f [ f | i 1 j F e ; M g ! N i j A s j C u j P b j A l j B j B a C o C a M n C r A u N a Z n S r K F i g u r e 24. Dendrogram showing g r o u p i n g of e l e m e n t s i n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . C o r r e l a t i o n measures were d e t e r m i n e d from a m a t r i x of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( A p p e n d i x H) based on ICP a n a l y s e s w i t h an aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n and g o l d - s i l v e r f i r e a s s a y s of 106 c a r b o n a t i z e d samples ( A p p e n d i x B ) . e n r i c h m e n t i n c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s s u r r o u n d i n g g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . P o t a s s i u m , b a r i u m , b o r o n and a r s e n i c a r e s t r o n g l y e n r i c h e d . S i l v e r , c o p p e r , l e a d , z i n c and antimony a r e u s e f u l b ecause of t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h g o l d i n w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . S i l v e r ICP a n a l y s e s show some e n r i c h m e n t a d j a c e n t to v e i n s i n a few c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s ; however, s i l v e r f i r e a s s a y s a r e e r r a t i c . Copper e n r i c h m e n t o c c u r s a d j a c e n t t o w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s i n most e n v e l o p e s ; l e a d , z i n c and antimony i n o n l y a few. G o l d f i r e a s s a y s a l s o show some e n r i c h m e n t a d j a c e n t t o g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . T h r e s h o l d s f o r p o t a s s i u m , b a r i u m , b o r o n , a r s e n i c and s i l v e r i n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t were d e t e r m i n e d from p r o b a b i l i t y g r a p h s ( S i n c l a i r , 1976). T h r e s h o l d s were ch o s e n a t the 2nd and/or 9 8 t h c u m u l a t i v e p e r c e n t i l e s of p a r t i t i o n e d p o p u l a t i o n s t o i s o l a t e b a c k g r o u n d from e n r i c h e d v a l u e s . T h r e s h o l d s f o r c o p p e r , l e a d , z i n c , g o l d and antimony i n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t were c h o s e n s u b j e c t i v e l y by e x a m i n a t i o n of h i s t o g r a m s and el e m e n t p r o f i l e p l o t s . P o t a s s i u m d a t a o c c u r i n t h r e e p o p u l a t i o n s ( F i g . 2 5 ) . The upper p o p u l a t i o n (A) c o r r e s p o n d s to e n r i c h m e n t a d j a c e n t to v e i n s ; the i n t e r m e d i a t e (B) to e n r i c h m e n t away from v e i n s ; the l o w e s t (C) to b a c k g r o u n d i n the o u t e r p o r t i o n of e n v e l o p e s . The e n r i c h e d p o p u l a t i o n s f o r p o t a s s i u m a r e r e l a t e d to the p r e s e n c e of s e r i c i t e , whereas the ba c k g r o u n d i s r e l a t e d to k a o l i n i t e . A t h r e s h o l d of 0.03 p e r c e n t s e p a r a t e s the e n r i c h e d v a l u e s from b a c k g r o u n d v a l u e s ( A p p e n d i x H ) . Ba r i u m , boron and s i l v e r d a t a o c c u r i n two p o p u l a t i o n s ( F i g s . -109-10 - i n - 106 Thresholds 0 .700 % 0 .540 % 0 .030 % SO 60 C U M U L A T I V E P E R C E N T E a A: 5 1 % m e a n : 337 p p m m e a n + S^: 6 4 0 p p m m e a n - 177 p p m B: 4 9 % m e a n : 51 p p m m e a n + S^: 83 p p m m e a n - S,_: 31 p p m n - 106 Thresholds A A + B B 140 ppm 90 ppm —r-10 — r 20 ~1 1 1 1 30 40 50 60 70 80 C U M U L A T I V E P E R C E N T I 98 F i g u r e 25. P r o b a b i l i t y graphs f o r 106 p o t a s s i u m v a l u e s and 106 b a r i u m v a l u e s from c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . O r i g i n a l d a t a are p l o t t e d as b l a c k d o t s ; open diamonds a r e e s t i m a t e d p a r t i t i o n i n g p o i n t s ; b l a c k t r i a n g l e s are check p o i n t s o b t a i n e d by i d e a l c o m b i n a t i o n of p a r t i t i o n e d p o p u l a t i o n s . I n f l e c t i o n p o i n t s are shown by s m a l l a r r o w s . E s t i m a t e d t h r e s h o l d s are e x p l a i n e d i n Appendix H. 25 and 26). The upper p o p u l a t i o n (A) corresponds to s t r o n g enrichment near v e i n s ; the lower to background. The e n r i c h e d p o p u l a t i o n f o r barium i s r e l a t e d to the presence of s e r i c i t e , whereas the background i s r e l a t e d t o the presence of k a o l i n i t e . The e n r i c h e d p o p u l a t i o n f o r boron i s probably r e l a t e d to tourmaline which was observed i n the v i c i n i t y of the mine. The e n r i c h e d p o p u l a t i o n f o r s i l v e r i s probably r e l a t e d to s u l p h i d e s . Thresholds of 140 ppm f o r barium, 40 ppm f o r boron and 2.5 ppm f o r s i l v e r separate most of the e n r i c h e d values from a l l of the background values (Appendix H). Thresholds of 90 ppm f o r barium, 20 ppm f o r boron and 1.5 ppm f o r s i l v e r separate most of the background values from a l l of the e n r i c h e d v a l u e s (Appendix H). A r s e n i c data occur i n four p o p u l a t i o n s ( F i g . 27). The two upper p o p u l a t i o n s (A and B) correspond to enrichment adjacent to v e i n s ; the i n t e r m e d i a t e (C) to enrichment away from v e i n s ; the lowest (D) to background i n the outer p o r t i o n of envelopes. P o p u l a t i o n A i s r e l a t e d to the presence of a r s e n o p y r i t e , whereas p o p u l a t i o n B i s r e l a t e d to the presence of p y r i t e . P o p u l a t i o n C appears to be due to enrichment where p y r i t e i s not abundant. A t h r e s h o l d of 15 ppm separates e n r i c h e d values from background values (Appendix H). Only one p o p u l a t i o n can be i d e n t i f i e d f o r each of copper, l e a d and z i n c . Thresholds were set at 30 ppm f o r copper, 10 ppm f o r l e a d and 40 ppm f o r z i n c to separate e n r i c h e d values from most background v a l u e s . Most g o l d and antimony values were below d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s . Thresholds were s e t at 0.03 o z / t f o r g o l d and 4 ppm f o r antimony -111 -F i g u r e 26. P r o b a b i l i t y graphs f o r 106 boron v a l u e s and 106 s i l v e r v a l u e s from c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . O r i g i n a l d a t a a r e p l o t t e d as b l a c k d o t s ; open diamonds a r e e s t i m a t e d p a r t i t i o n i n g p o i n t s ; b l a c k t r i a n g l e s a r e check p o i n t s o b t a i n e d by c o m b i n a t i o n of p a r t i t i o n e d p o p u l a t i o n s . I n f l e c t i o n p o i n t s a r e shown by s m a l l a r r o w s . E s t i m a t e d t h r e s h o l d s a r e e x p l a i n e d i n Appendix H. 1 1 — I — I 1 1 — I — I — I 1 — I — I 1 I 2 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 98 CUMULATIVE PERCENT F i g u r e 27. P r o b a b i l i t y g r aph f o r 106 a r s e n i c v a l u e s from c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . O r i g i n a l d a t a a r e p l o t t e d as b l a c k d o t s ; open diamonds a r e e s t i m a t e d p a r t i t i o n i n g p o i n t s ; b l a c k t r i a n g l e s a r e check p o i n t s o b t a i n e d by c o m b i n a t i o n of p a r t i t i o n e d p o p u l a t i o n s . I n f l e c t i o n p o i n t i s shown by s m a l l a r r o w . E s t i m a t e d t h r e s h o l d s a r e e x p l a i n e d i n Appendix H. -113-to s e p a r a t e e n r i c h e d v a l u e s from b a c k g r o u n d v a l u e s . A n a l y t i c a l p r o f i l e s and t h r e s h o l d s f o r t h e g o l d - s i l v e r -b e a r i n g J e n n i e w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 28. E n r i c h m e n t i n p o t a s s i u m , b a r i u m , boron and a r s e n i c c h a r a c t e r i z e s the c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e v e i n . E n r i c h m e n t i n g o l d and c o p p e r i n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t a d j a c e n t t o the v e i n c o r r e l a t e s w i t h t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e i n t h e v e i n . E l e v a t e d a ntimony v a l u e s o c c u r i n and a d j a c e n t to the s t r i n g e r v e i n i n t h e p r o f i l e p l o t . 8.7 DISCUSSION E n r i c h m e n t i n p o t a s s i u m , b a r i u m , boron and a r s e n i c r e f l e c t s g e o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e an i n h e r e n t p a r t of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n i n b a s a l t s u r r o u n d i n g g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s a t E r i c k s o n mine. In c o n t r a s t , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be no e n r i c h m e n t i n p o t a s s i u m , b a r i u m and b o r o n , and o n l y s p o r a d i c e n r i c h m e n t i n a r s e n i c i n c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s s u r r o u n d i n g d o l o m i t e v e i n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , s t r o n g e n r i c h m e n t i n p o t a s s i u m , b a r i u m , boron and a r s e n i c i s i n d i c a t i v e of a c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e t h a t c o n t a i n s a p o t e n t i a l l y g o l d - s i l v e r -b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n . E n r i c h m e n t i n g o l d , s i l v e r , c o p p e r , l e a d , z i n c and antimony i n a d d i t i o n t o p o t a s s i u m , b a r i u m , boron and a r s e n i c s u g g e s t s t h a t an a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s u r r o u n d s a g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n t h a t c o n t a i n s p y r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , t e t r a h e d r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e and g a l e n a . -114-K (%) Ba (ppm) B (ppm) As (ppm) F i g u r e 28. A n a l y t i c a l p r o f i l e s f o r carbonate a l t e r a t i o n envelope surrounding the Jennie white v e i n . L o c a t i o n of noncarbonatized b a s a l t (B), zones of c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t (2A,2B and 2C) and white quartz veins (V: JV = Jennie v e i n ; V = s t r i n g e r vein) are i n d i c a t e d . Gold p r o f i l e i s from f i r e assays, the remainder from ICP analyses with an aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n (Appendix B). Scale on l e f t shows sample i n t e r v a l s i n metres. Values are p l o t t e d i n the middle of each sample i n t e r v a l . Thresholds (T) separate e n r i c h e d values from most background v a l u e s . -11 5-CHAPTER 9. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 9.1 CONCLUSIONS T h i s s t u d y has r e v e a l e d much about t h e n a t u r e of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s d e v e l o p e d i n b a s a l t a r o u n d g o l d - s i l v e r -b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s , c a r b o n v e i n s and d o l o m i t e v e i n s a t the E r i c k s o n mine. K-Ar d a t e s from s e r i c i t e i n g o l d - s i l v e r -b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s i n d i c a t e t h a t m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n the E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s a t about 130 Ma. Thus, t h e s e v e i n s p r e d a t e t h e m i d - C r e t a c e o u s C a s s i a r b a t h o l i t h and L a t e C r e t a c e o u s and E a r l y T e r t i a r y p l u t o n s i n the immediate a r e a . However, t h e E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s d a t e p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t s a t h e r m a l e v e n t , p r e c u r s o r to emplacement of t h e C a s s i a r b a t h o l i t h , w h i c h may have c a u s e d c i r c u l a t i o n of t h e m e t e o r i c f l u i d s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the v e i n s . C a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t a r ound w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s and c a r b o n v e i n s i s composed of a n k e r i t e , s i d e r i t e , q u a r t z , s e r i c i t e , p y r i t e and t i t a n i u m o x i d e s ; k a o l i n i t e may be p r e s e n t i n t h e o u t e r p o r t i o n of the e n v e l o p e s . D i s s e m i n a t e d c a r b o n o c c u r s i n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t a d j a c e n t to c a r b o n v e i n s and some w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . F r a c t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d c a r b o n i s common i n the c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t , but r a r e i n n o n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . C a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t around d o l o m i t e v e i n s i s composed of a n k e r i t e , s i d e r i t e , d o l o m i t e , q u a r t z , k a o l i n i t e , p y r i t e and t i t a n i u m o x i d e s . An i d e a l c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e c o n s i s t s of f i v e -116-z o n e s : o u t e r c a r b o n a t e , i n t e r m e d i a t e c a r b o n a t e , i n n e r c a r b o n a t e , o u t e r c a r b o n and i n n e r c a r b o n . Most c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s around w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s l a c k the c a r b o n z o n e s . The i n n e r c a r b o n a t e zone and the c a r b o n z o n e s a r e a b s e n t a r o u n d d o l o m i t e v e i n s . The ab s e n c e of d o l o m i t e and k a o l i n i t e , and the p r e s e n c e of s e r i c i t e i n the i n n e r p o r t i o n of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s p r o v i d e s a means of i d e n t i f y i n g e n v e l o p e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o t e n t i a l l y g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g white- q u a r t z v e i n s . Mass b a l a n c e c a l c u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e the f o l l o w i n g c o m p o s i t i o n a l changes a r o u n d a g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n d u r i n g c a r b o n a t e metasomatism: g a i n of K 0 and S i O ; l o s s of 2 2 Na 0, Fe 0 and MgO; and l o s s of CaO from t h e o u t e r p o r t i o n of 2 2 3 the e n v e l o p e and g a i n i n the i n n e r . L o s s on i g n i t i o n and t h e a l t e r a t i o n a s s e m b l a g e i n d i c a t e g a i n of CO , H 0 and S. 2 2 Co m p a r i s o n of ICP a n a l y s e s w i t h an aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n t o XRF a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i f t h e r e i s s t r o n g e n r i c h m e n t i n c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s s u r r o u n d i n g g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s , the ICP a n a l y s e s w i l l show t h e s e p a t t e r n s w e l l . S t r o n g e n r i c h m e n t i n p o t a s s i u m , b a r i u m , boron and a r s e n i c i s i n d i c a t i v e of a c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e t h a t c o n t a i n s a p o t e n t i a l l y g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n . E n r i c h m e n t i n p o t a s s i u m , b a r i u m and bo r o n i s a b s e n t around d o l o m i t e v e i n s ; e n r i c h m e n t i n a r s e n i c s p o r a d i c . E n r i c h m e n t i n g o l d , s i l v e r , c o p p e r , l e a d , z i n c and a n t i m o n y , i n a d d i t i o n to p o t a s s i u m , b a r i u m , boron and a r s e n i c , s u g g e s t s t h a t an a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s u r r o u n d s a g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n t h a t c o n t a i n s - 1 1 7 -p y r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , t e t r a h e d r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , a r s e n o p y r i t e and g a l e n a . 9.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 9.2.1 E x p l o r a t i o n G u i d e l i n e s A s y s t e m a t i c e x a m i n a t i o n of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s f o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d i c a t i v e of g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s may be' u n d e r t a k e n by u s i n g t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y . Assuming t h a t diamond d r i l l c o r e i s b e i n g examined, the f o l l o w i n g s t e p s a r e recommended: 1. Log c o r e and s u b d i v i d e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e i n t o z o n e s . 2. I f a v e i n i s not i n t e r s e c t e d i n t h e c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e , the p r e s e n c e of t h e i n n e r c a r b o n a t e zone i n d i c a t e s t h a t a p o t e n t i a l l y g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n o c c u r s w i t h i n the e n v e l o p e . S t a i n i n g ( A p p e n d i x J ) of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p e c i m e n s of t h e i n n e r p o r t i o n of the e n v e l o p e f o r d o l o m i t e and a n k e r i t e i s u s e f u l . P r e s e n c e of d o l o m i t e i n d i c a t e s a d o l o m i t e v e i n . The a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e c o n t a i n s a p o t e n t i a l l y g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n i f d o l o m i t e i s ab se nt . 3. S u b d i v i d e the a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e i n t o i n t e r v a l s of m e g a s c o p i c a l l y s i m i l a r r o c k . I n c r e a s e sample d e n s i t y i n t h e i n n e r p o r t i o n of t h e e n v e l o p e where most e n r i c h m e n t o c c u r s . ( S u g g e s t e d s a m p l i n g i n t e r v a l s a r e 0.5 m f o r t h e i n n e r -118-c a r b o n a t e zone and 1.0 m f o r the i n t e r m e d i a t e and o u t e r c a r b o n a t e z o n e s . ) A . A n a l y z e a l l samples f o r g o l d and s i l v e r by f i r e a s s a y i n g and f o r p o t a s s i u m , b a r i u m , b o r o n , a r s e n i c , s i l v e r , c o p p e r , l e a d , z i n c and a n timony by ICP f o l l o w i n g an aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n ( A p p e n d i x B ) . 5. P l o t r e s u l t s on g r a p h s s i m i l a r to t h o s e i n F i g u r e 28 and compare to t h r e s h o l d s . E n r i c h m e n t i n p o t a s s i u m , b a r i u m , boron and a r s e n i c i n d i c a t e s t h a t a p o t e n t i a l l y g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n i s p r e s e n t . E n r i c h m e n t i n g o l d , s i l v e r , c o p p e r , l e a d , z i n c and a n timony i n d i c a t e s t h a t m i n e r a l s c o n t a i n i n g t h e s e e l e m e n t s a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e v e i n . 6. I f a g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n i s p r e s e n t ( s a m p l e s a r e anomalous i n p o t a s s i u m , b a r i u m , boron and a r s e n i c ) , p l o t a l l g o l d , s i l v e r , c o p p e r , l e a d , z i n c and antimony a n a l y s e s from c a r b o n a t i z e d r o c k s s u r r o u n d i n g the v e i n on a l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n . D r i l l t a r g e t s a r e d e f i n e d by c l u s t e r i n g of anomalous s a m p l e s , which may i n d i c a t e an o r e s h o o t . 9.2.2 A d d i t i o n a l R e s e a r c h T h i s s t u d y has o u t l i n e d the m i n e r a l o g i c a l and g e o c h e m i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s s u r r o u n d i n g g o l d - s i l v e r - b e a r i n g w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n s . More d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s a r e r e q u i r e d to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of e lement e n r i c h m e n t l e v e l s i n c a r b o n a t e a l t e r a t i o n e n v e l o p e s to o r e s h o o t s . Most -119-t r a c e e l e m e n t e n r i c h m e n t o c c u r s a d j a c e n t t o v e i n s i n c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t w i t h abundant p y r i t e . 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S a s k a t o o n , S a s k a t c h e w a n , September 9, 1985, pp. 11-12. S t a n t o n , R.L., 1972. Ore p e t r o l o g y . M c G r a w - H i l l , New Y o r k , 713 p. S t e i g e r , R.H., and Ja'ger, E., 1977. Subcommision on g e o c h r o n o l o g y c o n v e n t i o n on the use of decay c o n s t a n t s i n geo- and c o s m o c h r o n o l o g y . E a r t h and P l a n e t a r y S c i e n c e L e t t e r s , v. 36, pp. 359-362. T e m p e l m a n - K l u i t , D.J., 1979. T r a n s p o r t e d c a t a c l a s i t e , o p h i o l i t e and g r a n o d i o r i t e i n Yukon - e v i d e n c e of a r c - c o n t i n e n t c o l l i s i o n G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y of Canada, Paper 79-14, 27 p. Thompson, M., and Howarth, R.J., 1978. A new a p p r o a c h to the e s t i m a t i o n of a n a l y t i c a l p r e c i s i o n . J o u r n a l of G e o c h e m i c a l E x p l o r a t i o n , v. 9, pp.23-30. T i l l , R. 1974. 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G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y of Canada, Paper 71-2, pp. 21- 22 and 30. W a n l e s s , R.K., S t e v e n s , R.D., L a c h a n c e , G.R., and D e l a b i o , R.N., 1978. Age d e t e r m i n a t i o n s and g e o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , K-Ar i s o t o p i c a g e s , r e p o r t 13. G e l o g i c a l S u r v e y of Canada, Paper 78-2, p. 19. Whitmore, D.R.E., B e r r y , L.G., and Hawley, J . E . , 1946. Chrome m i c a s . The A m e r i c a n M i n e r a l o g i s t , v. 31, no. 1 and 2, pp. 1-21. W i l l i a m s , H., T u r n e r , F . J . , and G i l b e r t , C M . , 1982. P e t r o g r a p h y : an i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h e s t u d y of r o c k s i n t h i n s e c t i o n s . W.H. Freeman and Company, San F r a n s i s c o , 626 p. W i n c h e l l , A.N., 1911. A t h e o r y f o r the o r i g i n of g r a p h i t e as e x e m p l i f i e d i n the g r a p h i t e d e p o s i t near D i l l o n , Montana. Economic G e o l o g y , v. 6, pp. 218-230. -129-APPENDICES A. SAMPLE DESCRIPTIONS FOR K-Ar DATING B. ANALYTICAL DATA C. SUMMARY OF ANALYTICAL METHODS D. SUMMARY OF SAMPLE LOCATIONS AND ROCK TYPES E. DUPLICATE - ORIGINAL SAMPLE CORRELATION F. SUMMARY OF MASS BALANCE CALCULATIONS G. ICP - XRF COMPARISON H. STATISTICS I . EXAMPLE DIAMOND DRILL LOG J . CHEMICAL STAINING METHODS - 1 3 0 -A. SAMPLE DESCRIPTIONS FOR K-AR DATING -131-SAMPLE DESCRIPTIONS Sample 83-146 i s a s e r i c i t e s e p a r a t e from a r o c k c o n s i s t i n g m o s t l y of c o a r s e g r a i n e d w h i t e q u a r t z and l e s s e r p a l e g r e e n s e r i c i t e ( 18%) t h a t o c c u r s as s c a t t e r e d f i n e f l a k e s or i n c l u s t e r s . C l u s t e r s a r e composed of u n o r i e n t e d t o r a d i a t i n g s e r i c i t e w i t h minor a n k e r i t e and q u a r t z . M i n o r f i n e t o medium g r a i n e d p y r i t e ( 1 % ) and a n k e r i t e ( 1 % ) a r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e q u a r t z . Sample i s from a q u a r t z s t r i n g e r v e i n i n t h e h a n g i n g w a l l of t h e A l i s o n v e i n , on upper w a l l and back of t h e 28-17 d r i f t E r i c k s o n mine ( F i g . 3 ) . Sample 83-188 i s a s e r i c i t e s e p a r a t e from a r o c k c o n s i s t i n g m o s t l y of c o a r s e g r a i n e d w h i t e q u a r t z w i t h minor s c a t t e r e d c a r b o n a t e a l t e r e d w a l l r o c k f r a g m e n t s ( 8 % ) , w h i t e s e r i c i t e ( 2 % ) and t r a c e s of a n k e r i t e and p y r i t e . S e r i c i t e o c c u r s as c l u s t e r s of f i n e f l a k e s t h a t a r e u n o r i e n t e d to r a d i a t i n g . Sample i s from a q u a r t z v e i n i n the f o o t w a l l of J e n n i e v e i n , i n t e r s e c t e d i n DDH 83-283 a t 191.1 m e t r e s , E r i c k s o n mine ( F i g . 3 ) . Sample 83-250 i s a s e r i c i t e s e p a r a t e from a r o c k c o n s i s t i n g m o s t l y of c o a r s e t o f i n e g r a i n e d w h i t e q u a r t z and f i n e g r a i n e d a n k e r i t e i n t e r m i x e d i n v a r y i n g amounts. Both v e i n . m i n e r a l s a r e h i g h l y f r a c t u r e d and d i r t y l o o k i n g under p l a n e p o l a r i z e d l i g h t . M i n o r w h i t e s e r i c i t e ( 2 % ) o c c u r s as c l u s t e r s of f i n e f l a k e s w i t h i n a n k e r i t e and l e s s so q u a r t z . Rare p y r i t e o c c u r s as s c a t t e r e d g r a i n s . C a r b o n - r i c h w i s p s a r e l o c a l l y common. L i m o n i t e s t a i n i n g o c c u r s a r o u n d some p y r i t e and c a r b o n - r i c h w i s p s . Sample i s from a q u a r t z - c a r b o n a t e v e i n near t h e C a i t l i n v e i n , i n t e r s e c t e d i n DDH 83-333, a t 36.2 m e t r e s E r i c k s o n mine ( F i g . 3 ) . Sample 83-316 i s a s e r i c i t e s e p a r a t e from a l o o s e a g g r e g a t e of w h i t e s e r i c i t e f l a k e s w i t h minor q u a r t z ( 1 % ) and r a r e a n k e r i t e as s c a t t e r e d g r a i n s . I t was o b t a i n e d from a narrow l e n s e o f s e r i c i t e on t h e m a r g i n of a w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n exposed on the back of the 34-34 c r o s s c u t , 3400 l e v e l , near the 48 d r i f t E, T a u r u s mine ( F i g . 3 ) . -132-B. ANALYTICAL DATA B . l XRF A n a l y s e s B.2 LOI B.3 ICP A n a l y s e s B.4 G o l d - S i l v e r F i r e A s s a y s B.5 A n a l y t i c a l P r o f i l e s -133-B . l XRF A n a l y s e s - 13^-TABLE B-1 Abundance of major and s e l e c t e d t r a c e elements f o r DDH 80-88 (Appendix D) (major elements i n weight percent, minor elements i n ppm) ELEMENT 80-88 80-88 80-88 80-88 80-88 80-88 80-88 -JH-1 -JH-2 -JH-3 -JH-4 -JH-5 -JH-6 -JH-7 Si02 38.84 39.55 41 .82 48.19 52 .60 46 .81 47 .90 A1203 11 .40 1 2.07 1 0.02 15.15 13.43 13.52 14.14 Ti02 1 .00 1 .02 0.86 1 . 40 1 .27 1 .24 1 .32 Fe203 8.69 8.93 8.97 10 .61 10.38 10.87 11 .33 MnO 0.15 0.15 0.18 0.16 0.19 0.17 0.16 MgO 5.87 5.60 5.98 5.58 5.83 7.14 7.31 CaO 11 .21 10.40 10.43 6.23 4.36 11.19 10.40 Na20 0.30 0 .28 0.10 0.01 0.01 1 .40 2.11 K20 2.78 3.12 2.25 0.17 0.58 0.13 0.11 P205 0.12 0.07 0.07 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 LOI a 1 7 .28 1 5 .22 1 3 .70 7.60 7.44 4.14 2.96 TOTAL 97.64 96 .41 94 .38 95.20 96.19 96 .71 97 .84 Ba 547.61 668.18 595.51 110.29 312.08 69.98 43 .72 Sr 167.55 1 51 .59 131.84 35.52 29.87 113.19 139.39 Rb 170.69 184.60 139.83 12.57 36 .57 6.07 4 .01 Zr 73.89 70.75 64 .92 88.68 81 .41 83.06 87 .58 V 307.04 322.55 293.02 390.78 390.94 323.51 323.05 Y 26.87 25.92 26 .34 24.40 32.67 26.05 30 .01 Nb 3.20 2.30 2.05 3.39 1 .59 2.18 1 .82 Cu 77.14 61 .73 57.16 87.06 89.23 85.16 82.10 Pb 0.14 3.93 1 .92 3.24 4.99 8.03 3.76 Zn 72.50 69.51 72.51 101.53 101 .69 95.63 104 .51 Cr 225.30 246.79 254.24 329.46 293.93 266.79 278.03 Ni 73.26 75.73 76.36 120.32 115.26 124.77 114.52 Co 36.83 38.08 40.44 53.55 55.30 44.19 45.18 Mo 1 .61 1 .62 1.12 1 .03 2.34 1 .64 0.03 a. LOI = T o t a l l o s s on i g n i t i o n at 550° C and 1000° C. b. Analyses done at the Department of Oceanography, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. T A B L E B-2 Abundance of major and se l e c t e d trace elements for DDH 82-212 (Appendix D). (major elements i n weight percent, minor elements i n ppm) ELEMENT 82-: 212 82- 212 82-: 212 82-: 212 82-: 212 82- 212 -MF--1 -MF -2 -MF -3 -MF -4 -MF--5 -MF -6 S102 59 . 35 61 . 52 59 .47 56 .29 44 .66 44 .36 A1203 9 . 14 9 .64 8 . 72 10 .68 13 .64 12 .02 Ti02 1 .13 1 . 30 0 .99 1 . 52 1 .91 1 . 77 Fe203 5 .56 4 . 20 7 . 59 9 .91 13 .84 13 34 MnO 0 .09 0 . 10 0 .11 0 .16 0 .17 0 . 18 MgO 4 .36 4 . 13 3 . 53 2 . 75 6 . 70 7 . 28 CaO 6 . 58 6 . 22 5 .86 3 . 33 7 .62 8 .81 Na20 0 .07 0 .09 0 .07 0 .24 1 .04 1 . 27 K20 0 .48 0 .40 0 .44 0 .40 0 .27 0 . 27 P205 0 .05 0 .07 0 .05 0 . 11 0 .14 0 . 14 LOI a 10 . 24 8 .24 9 .94 10 . 54 5 .98 7 .82 TOTAL 97 .05 95 .91 96 . 77 96 .03 95 .97 97 . 19 Ba 31 2 . 38 292 .66 213 .46 238 . 12 147 .41 104 51 Sr 52 .43 52 41 51 4 4 64 .56 175 . 27 140 . 56 Rb 27 .61 22 .61 21 . 32 26 .79 41 . 19 31 . 78 Zr 73 .32 84 .69 66 . 44 102 .15 125 77 115 01 V 240 .03 296 •SI 253 . 17 400 . 52 419 .59 410 . 64 Y 27 .07 31 60 24 . 24 36 . 58 34 .95 35 .20 Nb 2 . 29 2 .71 1 .51 3 .00 3 .88 4 .36 Cu 121 .36 73 . 22 46 .07 64 . 76 93 .97 100 .47 Pb 4 .84 2 . 37 7 . 28 3 . 52 1 .85 3 .07 Zn 92 .56 101 . P4 98 .84 111 . 76 146 . 37 131 . 22 Cr 147 .17 189 . 31 189 .91 185 . 16 165 .53 158 . 10 Ni 36 .45 38 .87 39 81 45 .15 75 . 21 67 .41 Co 31 .96 43 . 26 34 .02 36 .79 48 .00 50 . 23 Mo 1 . 70 1 . 65 1 . 01 2 . 13 1 .18 2 . 33 a LOI = To t a l l o s s on i g n i t i o n at 550° C and 1000° C. b. Analyses done at the Department of Oceanography, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia TABLE B-3 Abundance of major and selected trace elements for DDH 83-257 (Appendix D). (major elements in weight percent, trace elements in ppm) ELEMENT 83-: 257 83-: 257 83-: 257 83- 257 83-: 257 83- 257 83- 257 83- 257 83- 257 -DF -1 -DF--2 -DF -3 -DF -4 -DF -5 -DF -6 -DF -7 -DF -8 -DF -9 Si02 92 . 76 45 .92 57 78 47 .67 48 .66 48 .30 46 . 18 46 .05 48 . 10 A1203 2 . 52 8 .59 5 .83 10 . 52 10 .94 9 .63 10 . 38 12 .24 12 . 78 T102 0 .17 0 .99 0 . 73 1 .22 1 .61 1 .53 1 .56 1 .87 1 .94 Fe203 1 . 34 8 .06 6 .68 8 . 35 9 .44 10 .10 10 - 79 13 . 28 13 .96 MnO 0 .04 0 . 17 0 . 16 0 . 15 0 .13 0 . 1 2 0 . 15 0 . 18 0 . 16 MgO 1 . 51 5 .34 5 . 27 4 .49 3 .71 3 . 72 5 .14 6 . 25 7 .08 CaO 2 . 25 11 .19 11 .17 9 .06 7 .44 7 .99 8 .45 9 .39 8 . 74 Na20 0 .11 0 . 11 0 .08 0 .10 0 .08 0 . 14 0 . 36 2 .31 2 .85 K20 0 .36 1 . 54 1 .02 1 .91 2 .04 2 . 13 1 .48 0 .05 0 .03 P205 0 .00 0 .04 0 .03 0 .07 0 . 10 0 . 11 0 . 11 0 . 15 0 .15 LOI a 3 .96 18 .84 17 .92 16 28 16 .03 16 . 16 16 . 74 7 .80 4 .20 TOTAL 105 .02 100 . 39 101 .67 99 .82 100 . 23 99 .93 101 .34 99 . 57 99 .99 Ba 151 .55 585 . 27 366 .91 723 . 30 855 .72 977 . 58 573 .83 77 .69 14 . 19 Sr 20 . 51 200 . 58 208 .66 119 .19 102 .87 121 .09 101 . 50 154 . 22 129 .61 Rb 18 .59 76 .60 48 .19 97 .05 104 .00 106 .38 72 . 12 4 .31 1 . 50 Zr 28 .76 68 .87 55 . 38 79 .90 103 .88 98 .83 99 . 14 1 22 .36 124 .25 V 49 . 72 323 . 38 233 . 44 358 .69 443 .25 398 .09 412 . 77 474 .95 420 .61 Y 3 . 57 22 . 38 19 .54 30 .91 38 .79 33 . 74 34 .81 37 . 76 41 .92 Nb 0 .84 3 . 19 1 . 26 3 . 35 3 .95 4 .19 3 .43 4 .88 4 . 50 Cu 27 .73 35 .01 17 .69 49 .96 66 .15 59 .64 51 .98 64 .39 64 .97 Pb 5 .00 3 . 33 5 . 26 3 . 38 3 .75 10 .57 0 . 18 7 . 50 3 .04 Zn 129 .91 38 .52 33 . 29 35 . 39 76 .67 59 .80 63 .91 116 .65 112 .47 Cr 328 .05 160 . 74 193 .86 167 .62 137 .46 112 . 72 130 .02 106 .99 98 .82 Ni 13 . 38 37 . 55 24 . 74 41 . 77 45 .66 31 .04 42 .37 51 .49 59 . 26 Co 6 .24 36 . 21 25 .31 36 .90 41 .07 31 23 36 . 45 43 .10 42 .29 Mo 1 .88 0 .92 1 .71 0 .97 0 .28 1 .84 0 . 57 2 . 13 1 .56 a. LOI = Total loss on i g n i t i o n at 550° C and 1000° C. b . Analyses done at the Department of Oceanography, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia. TABLE B-4 Abundance of major and selected trace elements for duplicate analyses for DDH's 80-88, 82-212 & 83-257 (Appendices D & E). (major elements In weight percent; minor elements in ppm) ELEMENT 80-88 80-88 82-212 83-257 83-257 83-257 83-257 -JH-1A -JH-2A -MF-6A -DF-1A -DF-3A -DF-6A -DF-8A Si02 38 . 95 40. .04 44 32 92 . 85 52 . 34 48 . 24 45 . 93 A1203 11 . 46 12 . 06 12 .08 2 . 55 5. 90 9 . 76 12 . 06 Ti02 1 . 01 1 . 04 1 . 75 0. .16 0. 71 1 . 52 1 . 87 Fe203 8 . 46 8. .97 13 .40 1 . . 37 6. 43 10. 34 13 . 40 MnO 0 . 15 0. .15 0 . 18 0. .04 0. 18 0. 12 0. 18 MgO 5 83 5, .61 7 . 16 1 . 50 5. 26 3 . 64 6 . 04 CaO 11 . 21 10 . 14 8 . 74 2 . 25 11 . 07 7 . 97 9. 41 Na20 0 . 28 0 . 29 1 . 27 0, . 11 0. 06 0 . 13 2 . 34 K20 2 . 81 3. .20 0 . 20 0. .36 1 . 02 2 . 11 0. 07 P205 0 . 11 0 , .07 0 . 14 0. .01 0. 02 0 . 11 ' 0. 15 L 0 I a 17 . 28 15 , . 22 7 .82 3 . 96 17 . 92 16. 16 7 . 80 TOTAL 97. 55 96 . 69 97 .06 105 , .16 100 . 91 100 . 10 99 . 25 Ba 550 . 46 64 9. .09 93 .82 155. . 54 395 . 06 964 . 14 72 . 76 Sr 160 . 48 151 . 79 138 .69 20. . 30 198 . 46 122 . 20 150 . 05 Rb 162 . 04 188 , .26 33 .27 16. . 44 48 . 71 108 . 50 1 . 60 Zr 73 . 02 71 . 65 116 .67 30. . 18 54 . 66 101 . 64 116. 56 V 312 . 73 309 . 44 40 7 .88 45 . 95 252 . 10 408 . 84 471 . 01 Y 28 . 07 27 . 46 34 . 74 1 . 98 20 . 72 35 . 60 37 . 64 Nb 2 . 21 1 . . 74 5 .66 1 , 85 2. 12 2 . 67 5 . 23 Cu 74 . 26 62 . 51 96 .69 24 . 41 14 . 51 60 . 38 55 . 44 Pb 1 . 73 5 . 11 4 .13 4 . 35 6 . 03 11 . 90 7 . 03 Zn 66. 36 71 . 00 126 .14 115. .97 29. 62 63 . 16 97 . 79 Cr 236 . 30 24 5. .58 149 .83 349. .87 222 . 44 123 . 18 108. 01 Ni 69 . 63 74 . , 14 62 .46 14 . 40 26. 89 30 . 57 49 . 67 Co 33. 45 37 . 51 46 .62 5. .94 26. 60 26. 93 39. 91 Mo 2 . 33 1 . ,87 2 .00 3 . ,07 2 . 20 1 . 61 0 . 62 a. LOI = Total loss on i g n i t i o n at 550° C and 1000° C. b. Analyses done at the Department of Oceanography, The Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. B.2 L O I -139-VflNGEODO LAB LIMITED 1521 Paaberton Avenue North Vancouver B.C. V7P 2S3 (6W) 986-5211 Telex: 04-352578 PREPARED FOR NOTES HR. DALE 5KETCHLEY nd = none detected — = not analysed i s = insuff ic ient saaole REPORT NIMBER: 8A-B1-814 JOB NUKBER: 84017 PAGE 1 OF 6 SAMPLE 4 %LOl at 54)'t %L0l az iooo'c 77-44-JF-l 77-44-JF-2 77-44-JF-3 77-A4-JF-4 77-44-JF-5 7.48 7.72 1 9 4.24 4.4 21.94 9.02 8.76 6.96 7.46 77-44-JF-6 77-44-JF-7 77-44-JH-l 77-44-JH-2 77-44-JH-3 5.32 3.88 7.52 10.32 12.2 8.06 2.94 11.38 10.4 13.1 77-44-JH-4 77-44-JH-5 77-44-JH-6 77-44-JH-7 77-44-JH-B 15.% 14.94 11.94 5.18 4.18 5.42 7.22 10.44 8.02 5.36 77-44-JH-9 77-44-JH-19 80-84-JC-1 80-84-JF-l 80-84-JF-2 4.3 3.18 3.98 6.32 6.58 3,84 3.3 15.62 11.42 13.64 80-84-JF-3 38-84-JF-4 30-84-JF-5 90-84-JF-5 30-84-JF-7 6.43 3.56 13.08 8.% 13.64 12.12 9.4 30-84-JF-8 80-84-JF-9 30-84-JH-1 30-84-JH-2 80-84-JH-3 4. % 3.28 6.9 5. % 7.06 5.56 1.1 9.82 11.3 10.78 30-84-JH-4 80-84-JH-5 30-88-JF-i 30-88-JF-2 80-88-JF-3 4.14 2.78 7.7 8.36 .34 .46 9.43 8.22 1.06 30-88-JF-4 80-38-JF-5 80-88-JF-6 30-88-JF-7 11.58 9.86 9.54 9.14 3.5 3.'94 4.98 2.68 • 1 4 1 -VRNGEOCHEM LAB UNITED 1521 Penberton Avenue North Vancouver B.C. V7P 2S3 (684) 986-5211 Telex: 04-352578 PREPARED FOR NOTES . DALE SKETCHLEY nd = none detected — = not analysed is = insufficient saiiDle REPORT NUMBER: 84-01-014 JOB NUMBER: 84*17 PAGE 2 OF & SAMPLE # 80-88-JF-8 8&-88-JF-9 80-88-JH-l 80-88-JH-2 88-88-JH-3 A. 68 2.8 5.56 5.88 6.68 1 1.94 11.72 9.34 7.02 80-88-JH-4 80-88-JH-5 80-88-JH-6 80-88-JH-7 82-212-MF-l 7.18 7.1 3.28 2.32 6.16 .42 .34 .86 .64 4.08 82-212-MF-2 82-212-MF-3 82-212-MF-4 32-212-*F-5 82-212-MF-6 6.24 6.74 8.34 4.6 4.76 3.2 2.3' 1.38 3.06 82-212-MH-l 82-212-MH-2 82-212-MH-3 82-212-MH-4 82-212-WH-5 6.56 7.22 9.12 8.8 1? 13.04 11.1 3.74 5.2 32-212-MK-5 32-212-MH-7 32-212-MB-3 32-212-MH-9 82-212-MH-10 9.76 9.98 3.7 3.4 2.76 6.% 5.63 .73 .52 .43 32-222-BD-l 32-222-BD-2 32-222-BD-3 32-222-BD-4 32-222-BD-5 3.52 4.98 5.76 7.56 3.03 3.9 7.44 7.22 6.46 .34 32-222-BD-6 32-222-BD-7 32-222-BD-8 32-222-3D-9 32-222-BD-10 1.73 1.8 L.S8 .33 .64 3.24 .82 1.44 C . J .68 32-222-BD-il 32-222-BD-12 82-222-BD-13 S2-222-BD-14 1.13 4.25 2.56 .42 1.12 12.35 3.12 .23 •\k2-VflNGEOCHEH LAB LIMITED 1521 Pesber ton Avenue North Vancouver B.C. V7P 2S3 (6W) 986-5211 Telex: 04-352578 REPORT NUMBER: 84-01-814 JOB NUMBER: 84017 STOLE I %LCL % L C L 82-222-BC-15 2.86 1.26 82-222-BD-J6 1.84 1.36 82-222-BD-17 3.7 .58 82-222-BD-1B 3.28 .48 82-222-BD-19 .86 .52 82-222-BD-31 1.36 .96 82-222-BD-32 3.88 1.3 82-222-BD-33 4.88 2.04 82-222-BD-35 9.04 5.58 82-222-BD-36 9.94 3.06 82-222-BD-37 9.3 5.56 82-222-BD-38 3.16 10.98 82-222-BD-39 10.28 6.54 82-222-BD-40 11.2 5.06 82-222-8D-41 10.86 .3 82-222-BD-42 9.04 4.74 32-222-BD-44 6.54 5.98 82-222-BD-45 7 8.68 82-222-BD-46 7.68 3.62 32-222-BD-47 9.64 4.16 82-222-BD-48 10.64 4.56 82-222-3D-49 10.7 5.7 32-222-BD-50 9.32 7.86 82-222-SD-51 10.06 7.82 32-222-BD-52 10.38 32-222-BD-53 3 .7 4.32 82-222-BD-54 12.04 3.04 82-222-BD-55 11.36 3.5 82-222-BD-57 7.38 3.7 82-222-BD-58 8.4 4.24 32-222-BD-59 5.72 2.46 32-222-BD-60 6.64 2.3 82-222-BB-61 9.76 2.54 82-228-BS-16 3.14 .28 32-228-BS-17 3 .9 .62 82-228-BS-18 3.6 .58 82-228-BS-19 3.52 1.15 32-228-BS-20 6.48 .32 PREPARED FOR: MR. DALE SKETCHLEY NOTES: nd = none detected : — = not analysed : i s = insuff ic ient sasmle PAGE 3 OF VANEEOCHEM LAB LIMITED 1521 Pesberton Avenue North Vancouver B.C. V7P 2S3 (684) 986-5211 Telex: 84-352578 PREPARED FOR NOTES MR. DALE SKETCHLEY nd = none detected — = not analysed is = insuff ic ient sawle REPORT NUMBER: 64-01-814 JOB NUMBER: 84017 PAGE 4 OF 6 SAMPLE I %LCl at SSd'c %LCl utfav'c 82-228-BS-22 9.14 1.3 82-228-BS-23 7.34 4.7 82-228-BS-24 .98 .42 82-228-BS-25 2.28 .7 82-22B-BS-26 2.48 .62 82-228-BS-27 1.82 .24 82-228-8S-28 2.34 .98 82-228-BS-29 2.9 1.38 82-228-SS-30 5.64 1.08 82-228-BS-31 9.5 3.28 82-228-BS-32 7.36 i 82-228-BS-33 12.06 4.38 32-228-BS-34 11.66 4.64 82-228-BS-35 7.42 7.56 B2-22B-BS-36 6.52 5.25 82-228-BS-37 7.46 5.22 82-228-BS-38 2.58 3.8 82-228-BS-39 2.66 4.42 S2-228-BS-40 3.3 11.16 82-228-BS-4! 3.12 3.36 52-228-BS-42 2.53 17.04 62-247-FW-l 5.64 13.46 82-247-FW-2 11.52 82-247-FW-3 5.36 12.42 82-247-FW-4 5.86 13.9 82-247-FW-5 5.52 6.14 82-247-FW-6 5.28 4.88 82-247-FW-7 5.34 4.2 82-247-F*-9 5.38 12.42 82-247-FW-9 6.54 8.36 82-247-HW-l 5.48 15.48 32-247-KW-2 3.5 10.5* B2-247-HW-3 4.35 5.08 82-247-HW-4 5.3 9.4 32-247-HW-5 6.14 8.3 82-247-HW-6 5.74 15.32 82-247-HW-7 7.52 7.92 82-247-HW-8 6.24 6 82-247-HW-9 5.52 7.35 VflNGEOCHEM LAB LIMITED 1521 Peaberton Avenue North Vancouver B.C. V7P 2S3 (684) 986-5211 Telex: 84-352578 PREPARED FOR NOTES MR. DALE SKETCHLEY nd = none detected — = not analysed is = insuff ic ient saoole REPORT NUMBER: 84-81-014 JOB NUMBER: 84817 PA6E 5 OF 6 SAMPLE # „ , %LOl % i o i acsso'c dliccv'c 82-247-HW-18 8 4.92 82-247-HW-ll 7.1 4.26 82-247-HW-12 5.4 4.88 82- 247-HW-13 5.28 6.86 83- 0 8 1 - F M 62.58 1.52 83-881-FD-2 83-881-FD-3 83-881-FD-4 83-881-FD-5 83-881-FD-6 5.86 12.44 B> 06 8« 68 7.8 12.78 7.64 10.9 5.46 5.16 83-881-FD-7 83-881-FD-8 83-881-FD-9 83-881-FD-18 83-881-FD-11 2.94 3.84 2.44 1.66 2.9 5.74 3.66 .5 4.3 1.58 83-881-FD-12 83-881-DF-13 83-881-DF-14 83-081-HD-l 83-881-HD-2 3.88 1.4 9.52 7.96 2.56 3.94 77.3 .44 49.58 1. 14 83-801-HD-3 83-881-HD-4 33-881-HD-5 83-881-HD-6 83-881-HD-7 3.02 1.34 2.44 1.42 3.18 2.6 1.3 1.06 .88 .78 83-257-DF-l 83-257-DF-2 83-257-DF-3 83-257-DF-4 83-257-DF-5 1.88 2.08 6.78 12.06 5.88 12.04 6.22 10.06 7.02 9.06 83-257-DF-5 83-257-DF-7 83-257-DF-8 83-257-DF-9 83-257-DH-l 6.25 9.9 7.94 8.6 4.1 3.7 2.54 1.66 4.02 3.42 83-257-DH-2 83-257-DH-3 83-257-DH-4 83-257-DH-5 9.% 4.84 9.15 7.84 12.82 *.54 11.36 7.1 - 1 4 5 -VANGEODEM LAB LIMITED 1521 Pwberton Avenue North Vancouver B.C. V7P 2S3 (684) 966-5211 Telex: 84-352578 REPORT NUMBER: 84-81-814 JOB NUMBER: 64817 PREPARED FOR NOTES MR. DALE SKETCH-EY nd = none detected — = not analysed i s = insuf f ic ient sawle PAGE 6 OF 6 SAMPLE # %LCL ex tcce '<: 83-257-DH-6 83-257-DH-7 B3-257-DH-8 83-257-DH-9 8.88 9.84 8.2 8.18 11.9 9.52 9.56 2.46 - 1 4 6 -B.3 ICP A n a l y s e s -147-D A L E A S K E T C H L E Y P R O J E C T # S O L U T I O N F R O M V A N G E O C H E M J D P 4t 8 4 - 0 1 7 F I L E 4t B 4 - 0 2 2 4 P A 1 3 E SAFIPtf 1 No Cu n In AO Ki Co No F i A i U All lb ppi ppt pp« ppi ppi ppi ppi ppi I ppi W i ppi ppi 80-B8-JF-8 J 21 2 45 3.7 21 7 305 1.42 8 II NO B0-B9-JF-* 2 25 4 13 .5 22 4 324 1.57 5 10 Ml B0-B8-JH-I 1 44 5 39 .9 30 II 550 2.38 133 5 ND 80-88-JH-2 2 43 4 44 .7 33 II 502 2.30 104 ND B0-88-JH-J 2 • 24 7 34 .6 24 B 454 1.77 145 14 RO 80-B8-JH-4 3 II 4 8 2.7 14 4 243 1.23 4 5 ND 80-88-JH-5 2 12 8 9 .0 14 4 301 I.2B 3 9 ND B0-88-JH-4 2 25 3 28 1.8 37 8 293 1.74 4 ND 80-88-JN-7 ! 24 I 32 1.1 32 8 302 1.89 2 12 ND B2-2I2-HF-1 38 ' 30 1.3 14 9 203 .70 149 ND 82-2I2-NF-2 2 20 5 32 .9 13 10 195 .40 80 9 ND 82-2I2-W-3 J 15 4 37 1.9 23 9 294 1.07 342 ND 82-2I2-NF-4 3 14 1 24 5.8 15 4 330 1.35 44 2 ND 82-2I2-KF-5 1 24 1 40 2.5 20 9 329 2.29 13 4 ND B2-2I2-NF-4 1 !7 55 5.8 24 12 505 3.21 10 • NO 82-2I2-KH-I | 50 1 40 .5 22 8 740 3.92 893 ND 82-212-HH-2 1 41 37 1.2 23 10 454 2.34 249 2 ND B2-212-KH-3 2 20 3 32 1.4 20 8 404 1.34 155 2 ND B2-212-KH-4 1 21 7 29 1 .4 21 7 314 1.20 95 4 ND 82-2I2-IH-5 1 23 ? 13 1.0 14 4 444 1.15 58 ND SID 20 171 44 90 4 . 4 422 12 404 3.25 8 ND B2-21J-IW-6 2 25 22 2.1 24 8 709 1.01 2451 2 ND B2-2I2-KH-7 1 25 9 21 5.0 27 11 771 1.48 289 2 ND 82-212-IW-B 2 13 2 10 .7 17 5 354 1.74 55 4 ND 82-2I2-IH-9 2 30 4 43 2.0 43 10 341 2.55 1' 2 ND 82-2I2-IW-10 2 24 | 23 . 4 37 7 242 1.74 10 9 ND 82-222-BD-l 3 24 7 28 3.3 24 B 3B7 1.90 4 2 ND B2-222-BD-2 1 4B 9 42 .9 32 17 554 2.97 39 12 ND i 82-222-BD-3 1 53 7 35 .B 43 18 747 3.75 43 12 ND i 82-222-BB-l 1 4! ' 43 3.5 40 15 841 3.44 105 7 ND 2 S2-222-8D-5 1 34 3 22 .8 10 2 1073 1.42 3494 17 ND 2 B2-222-BD-4 2 25 3 35 .3 15 2 744 1.41 789 2 ND 2 82-222-BB-7 1 27 2 35 • .3 11 1 477 1.19 44 2 NO 2 B2-222-BD-8 1 78 4 38 7.2 14 2 834 1.85 130 3 ND 2 B2-222-8D-9 1 4 3 II .2 10 1 I7B .93 230 ' ND 82-222-BJ-10 4 2 12 .1 7 1 148 .37 84 4 ND 2 B2-222-B0-II 1 6 4 15 .3 9 1 74? .70 192 9 ND 2 82-222-8B-I2 1 13 35 1.4 42 15 2735 2.87 254 2 ND 2 B2-222-BD-IJ 1 14 6 12 . 4 23 4 444 1.44 813 3 2 2 B2-222-BD-14 2 4 1 25 .2 9 1 429 .41 107 • 2 3 2 STD A - l 1 31 38 185 .3 35 II 1029 2.81 10 2 NO 2 Sr Co Sb Bi V CJ P L i Cr ho 8 l I i 8 Al Na I ppi ppi ppi ppi PP" 1 » PP« ppi 1 ppi I m 1 I I 33 5 2 3 124 2.40 .02 2 57 .44 34 .03 14 2.33 .24 .01 54 3 2 3 121 2.38 .02 2 50 .40 20 .03 14 1.19 .13 .01 102 13 2 2 94 2.94 .02 2 74 1.14 390 .05 40 3.55 .11 .94 92 13 2 2 81 2.14 .01 2 74 .98 424 .04 35 3.50 .09 1.08 72 5 10 7 40 2.24 .01 2 45 1.02 304 .03 19 2.47 .04 .49 21 4 2 2 IBS 2.83 .02 2 44 .39 44 .02 14 2.84 .02 .03 17 4 2 2 128 2.00 .02 2 33 .37 41 .02 19 2.40 .02 .03 54 5 2 2 99 2.44 .02 2 48 .39 l» .02 22 2.95 .24 .01 75 4 2 2 82 2.32 .02 2 50 .40 15 .02 20 3.05 .22 .01 29 5 7 2 99 2.B3 .01 2 31 1.23 40 .01 19 2.33 .03 .02 30 « 5 2 112 2.43 .01 2 34 1.08 S3 .01 14 2.34 .03 .02 31 5 9 2 104 2.59 .01 2 44 1.04 51 .02 15 2.23 .03 .02 38 11 2 17 120 1.51 .02 2 27 .35 49 .03 20 2.05 .07 .02 100 4 3 2 140 2.59 .03 2 41 .44 54 .04 40 3.22 .29 .01 B2 7 7 3 142 2.44 .03 2 50 .74 42 .05 59 3.01 .27 .01 70 10 9 2 7B 3.14 .01 2 78 1.45 258 .08 22 1.99 .07 .40 7? 9 3 2 103 4.44 .01 2 81 1.78 341 .08 40 2.74 .09 .45 43 5 5 4 121 3.19 .02 2 85 .82 75 .02 20 3.43 .04 .04 44 4 4 90 2.44 .01 2 74 .44 78 .01 23 2.81 .07 .03 20 4 2 137 2.28 .02 2 47 .43 42 .02 14 2.90 .02 .03 23 I 10 2 45 1.41 .08 5 57 .54 49 .04 24 .84 .04 .21 31 7 24 2 153 3.51 .02 2 64 1.14 64 .03 19 3.33 .04 .03 23 U 7 4 174 2.92 .02 2 103 .93 52 .04 IB 3.11 .01 .03 25 7 3 2 192 2.42 .02 2 43 .54 49 .03 11 2.49 .01 .02 I4B 7 2 151 4.12 .01 2 121 .47 40 .04 13 4.27 .24 •01 40 , 34 2 114 1.98 .01 2 B4 .41 42 .03 7 2.39 .22 .01 54 2 2 144 3.30 .02 2 72 .98 60 .03 12 2.04 .19 .01 43 4 2 2 122 2.50 .02 2 87 1.48 283 .02 25 1.52 .15 .03 49 9 2 2 112 2.75 .02 2 94 2.24 43B .02 34 2.02 .22 .11 77 8 " 7 i 113 2.52 .02 2 101 2.24 950 .02 34 2.50 .19 .52 35 10 2 14 30 2.19 .01 2 54 .25 W .01 8 .20 .01 .01 15 9 2 33 1.27 .02 2 B2 .21 38 .01 12 .21 .01 .01 10 5 2 2 JO .37 .01 2 74 .19 37 .01 10 .24 .01 .01 25 5 19 2 57 .48 .05 4 45 .37 IB7 .01 7 .73 .02 .04 10 3 2 3 20 .28 .01 2 81 .09 21 .01 7 .13 .01 .01 9 J 2 2 12 .22 .02 2 92 .07 13 .01 9 .0? .01 .01 24 4 4 4 20 .45 .03 2 133 .20 3B .01 9 .18 .01 .02 187 13 2 2 132 3.23 .04 2 144 1.33 1543 .04 34 4.13 .05 1.73 34 3 2 2 53 .44 .07 4 79 .12 117 .01 8 .53 .01 .05 4 2 7 2 8 .19 .01 2 I4B .07 12 .01 7 .07 .01 .01 34 1 2 2 57 .40 .09 8 75 .49 272 .09 9 2.05 .02 .21 D A L E A S K E T C H L E Y P R O J E C T # S O L U T I O N F R O M V A N G E O C H E M J O B # 8 4 - 0 1 7 F I L E # 8 4 - 0 2 2 4 P A G E SAMPLE 1 Do Cu P» lo Aa Mi Co Fe As U Au Iti PP* PP* pp* pp* pp* PP* PP* PP* I PP* PP* PP* PP* B2-222-BD-15 1 38 7 19 .2 20 2 3743 4.42 152 3 KD B2-222-SD-14 2 10 4 II .1 27 1 4470 3.14 335 2 ND 82-222-BO-i; 1 10 7 8 .3 14 1 428 4.13 33B 2 2 B2-222-BB-IB 2 3 3 3 .2 9 1 140 2.44 444 2 ND B2-222-B0-I9 1 3 4 2 .2 II 1 252 1.19 310 2 ND 82-222-80-31 2 17 34 7 .1 25 1 I3B0 2.10 442 2 ND B2-222-BB-32 2 72 4 22 .4 14 3 520 1.59 104 2 ND B2-222-BS-S3 2 83 12 30 l . t 19 7 2B9 1.43 67 2 ND B2-222-B0-35 1 29 8 44 1.7 21 9 1339 1.91 118! 2 ND 82-222-BD-34 1 20 7 14 1.5 21 ' 737 2.98 23 2 NO 82-222-80-37 1 45 8 33 .9 24 15 1004 4.34 41 2 ND 82-222-BD-3B 1 54 12 38 .4 25 14 1045 4.29 31 2 ND a2-222-8D-3'» 1 37 5 35 1.3 25 15 942 4.12 375 2 ND 82-I22-BB-40 2 32 10 52 1.0 29 18 1005 4.25 97 2 ND 82-222-80-41 1 44 7 38 .9 24 14 971 4.03 152 2 ND 82-222-BD-42 1 78 9 42 1.0 34 973 3.44 337 2 4 B2-222-6D-44 1 48 4 31 .9 24 13 597 2.87 322 t ND 82-272-BD-45 1 59 10 38 .8 30 IB 748 3.75 258 10 ND 82-222-6D-44 1 88 4 27 1.0 23 14 B14 2.99 399 2 ND 82-222-BD-47 t 30 5 37 1.1 24 12 855 3.22 114 ND SIB 19 141 43 90 2.9 441 12 400 3.24 IB 3 ND B2-222-BD-48 1 4! 7 31 .8 32 14 722 3.34 118 2 ND B2-222-BD-49 1 38 II 34 2.4 35 14 735 3.43 74 2 ND 82-222-BB-50 1 35 8 32 I.I 31 14 811 3.44 72 2 ND B2-222-BB-5! 1 51 4 41 1.3 47 19 884 4.57 79 2 ND 82-222-80-52 1 44 5 28 1.3 34 M 771 2.79 395 2 ND B2-222-BB-53 1 40 4 14 .4 23 570 1.88 193 4 ND B2-222-BD-54 1 39 9 28 1.2 37 14 1148 3.77 178 3 ND 82-222-IB-55 1 42 8 34 • B 44 17 944 3.44 145 ND 92-222-86-57 1 28 4 22 .7 19 ' 485 2.78 9 2 ND 82-22J-60-5B 1 30 T 31 .8 23 ,2 490 3.49 85 2 ND B2-222-BD-59 1 35 7 34 .8 28 13 553 3.40 7 2 ND 82-222-BD-40 I 2? 5 34 .5 27 12 542 3.35 15 ND B2-222-B0-4I 1 17 5 15 1.2 13 7 409 2.32 4 2 ND 82-228-6S-I4 1 17 1 7 .5 12 2 92 .43 II 2 ND B2-228-8S-I7 I 27 4 17 .4 14 2 247 1.48 II 2 ND 82-228-BS-lfl 1 58 2 9 .4 14 2 148 1.07 9 2 ND B2-22B-»S-I9 1 102 5 28 .4 24 4 305 1.71 54 2 ND B2-22B-BS-20 1 218 15 28 .4 30 4 403 2.99 14 2 ND B2-228-BS-2I 1 85 2 24 .2 18 3 345 1.74 12 2 ND SIB A - l 1 30 39 ISO .3 34 10 1001 2.79 9 2 ND 2 Sr M Sb t i V Ci P L< Cr Ng B i I i B Al Ni I PP* PP* pp* PP* PP* I I PP* PP* I PP* Z PP* 2 1 X 5 4 59 .18 .01 2 109 .12 29 .01 8 .14 .01 .01 9 5 . 33 .33 .02 2 155 .08 14 .01 9 .07 .01 .01 3 1 73 .07 .02 2 129 .03 7 .01 7 .07 .01 .01 4 1 41 .07 .01 2 134 .02 7 .01 9 .05 .01 .01 4 2 20 .14 .01 2 137 .05 7 .01 10 .03 .01 .01 8 3 29 .19 .01 2 143 .10 17 .01 9 .05 .01 .01 35 2 48 .71 . .04 2 70 .43 512 .01 30 .55 . 0 ! .04 24 2 84 1.25 .02 3 47 .72 452 .01 24 .90 .01 .08 44 2 95 3.42 .01 2 Bl 2.7B 3B4 .02 30 2.30 .01 .13 45 3 154 4.00 .03 2 71 1.43 234 .02 21 2.8/ .02 .03 120 4 133 4.19 .03 2 49 2.41 B4B .02 55 2.99 .03 .44 134 5 133 4.13 .02 2 49 2.58 847 .02 5B 3.13 .05 .34 97 5 140 3.35 .03 2 44 2. IB 829 .02 50 3.10 .05 .90 119 4 137 4.14 .04 2 43 2.21 551 .02 45 3.38 .07 1.2B 121 3 141 4.17 .04 2 41 2.29 573 .02 48 3.3B .05 1.21 141 3 IIS 4.44 .02 2 72 2.43 341 .02 44 3.06 .07 1.15 138 4 90 2.25 .02 2 49 .93 934 .07 3? 3.19 .07 1.03 151 4 134 2.40 .01 2 45 1.47 1093 .10 45 3.99 .ID 1.94 189 5 130 3.01 .01 2 54 1.43 509 .07 42 3.59 . i : 1.75 199 3 120 4.53 .02 2 94 2.23 430 .02 70 3.2! .04 1.25 25 1 43 1.40 .10 4 58 .59 40 .03 23 .B5 .03 .23 137 3 128 4.25 .02 2 88 2.18 991 .02 74 3.77 .04 1.42 108 4 122 4.25 .02 2 88 2.17 749 .02 72 3.41 . 0 ' 1.15 115 3 127 5.21 .02 2 93 2.44 444 .02 75 3.56 .0= 1.23 92 4 134 4.19 .02 2 100 2.54 954 .02 90 4.47 .0= 2.12 148 5 2 2 136 3.52 .01 2 114 1.47 871 .08 59 4.19 .10 2.24 i24 ; 3 2 75 1.94 .01 2 138 1.05 440 .04 34 2.71 .05 1.0? 103 3 2 2 139 3.44 .02 2 101 2.23 721 .02 82 3.75 .04 1.43 128 ; 2 2 144 3.B4 .01 2 100 2.17 855 .02 94 4.12 . 0 " 1.90 71 2 2 147 3.82 .03 2 37 1.00 53 .03 31 2.89 .20 .02 72 i 3 2 144 3.41 .03 2 52 1.42 113 .02 53 2.63 .13 .04 154 2 2 184 2.95 .04 2 48 .87 24 .05 33 2.52 .21 .01 100 2 2 2 183 3.20 .04 2 44 1.17 38 .04 15 2.30 .19 .01 72 2 2 2 204 4.31 .04 2 30 .B7 37 .03 IS 3.42 .22 .01 14 2 2 51 .34 .01 2 12 .17 40 .01 14 .31 . o : . o : 41 1 2 2 58 .BS .13 3 41 .44 410 .01 34 .71 .01 .04 IS - 2 2 58 .33 .01 2 19 .35 95 .01 15 .28 .01 .o; 24 3 3 2 42 .48 .02 2 52 .47 844 .01 30 .44 .01 .07 21 3 5 2 79 .48 .05 2 49 .87 BO! .01 24 .42 . o ; .Ot 24 1 2 2 43 .57 .03 2 45 .49 559 .01 20 .44 .01 .03 34 2 2 57 .59 .10 8 75 .70 274 .08 9 2.09 .02 .21 DALE A SKETCH!. EY PROJECT # SOL IJTIDN FROM VANGEOCHEM JOB tl 84-017 FILE # 84 -0224 PAG SAMPLE 1 No Cu Pb In AQ Ni Co Nn Ft A< U Au Ih Sr Cd Sb Bi V Cl P Li Cr No Bi Ii 8 Al Ni K N ppi ppi p p i ppi ppi ppi ppi ppi I ppi ppi ppi ppi ppi ppi p p i ppi p p i I I ppi ppi I p p i I p p i 1 J I p p i B2-22B-BS-22 1 93 5 32 .4 2B 7 1309 3.53 35 ND 2 80 2 2 2 91 1.37 .01 7 42 1.05 1580 .01 41 1.47 .02 .13 2 B2-22B-BS-2J 1 102 4 34 .5 24 5 2745 4.85 34 ND 2 224 4 2 2 ' 85 6.11 .01 97 1.08 855 .01 51 1.20 .01 .06 2 82-228-IS-24 1 3 2 4 .2 11 1 287 .45 9 ND 2 13 1 2 2 15 .34 .01 2 92 .09 89 .01 10 .06 .01 .01 2 82-228-BS-25 1 7 4 14 .1 15 1 794 2.74 17 ND 2 14 2 2 2 22 .54 .01 2 104 .14 97 .01 II .11 .01 .01 2 82-228-85-21 2 15 2 10 .2 17 1 B19 4.27 15 ND 2 31 2 2 2 24 .93 .01 2 94 .10 21 .01 9 .09 .01 .01 2 B2-228-8S-27 1 B 9 .1 23 1 44B 3.75 14 ND 2 14 3 2 2 21 .64 .01 2 IDS .12 16 .01 8 .07 .01 .01 2 82-22B-BS-2B 2 3B 1 7 .2 20 1 740 3.22 23 ND 2 41 2 4 2 25 1.54 " .01 2 95 .15 19 .01 B .07 .01 .01 2 82-228-DS-29 1 19 1 B .2 23 2 847 3.83 91 NO 2 17 3 21 2 31 1.34 .01 2 95 .18 21 .01 4 .08 .01 .01 2 82-228-85-30 3 23 5 24 .1 31 3 2042 4.4B 49 ND 2 5 2 22 2 48 .53 .03 2 96 .31 16 .01 8 .15 .01 .01 2 B2-22B-8S-31 3 II 4 49 .5 47 7 1914 8.45 80 ND 2 14 ' 3 2 194 .79 .15 3 15 .74 160 .01 6 .35 .01 .01 2 82-228-BS-32 3 17 ( 32 .4 29 3 2421 5.80 20 ND 2 8 3 15 2 142 .89 .02 2 109 .45 20 .01 6 .21 .01 .01 2 82-228-BS-33 1 23 4 38 .8 44 14 1351 3.51 119 ND 2 32 2 30 2 157 3.47 .03 2 130 1.36 107 .01 11 2.77 .01 .02 2 82-228-6S-3« 1 II 3 25 . .7 35 10 1707 3.55 103 ND 2 3B 2 19 2 150 3.71 .02 132 1.35 109 .01 13 2.88 .01 .02 2 82-228-SS-35 1 19 4 15 .4 23 7 1301 2.97 27 ND 2 40 2 13 2 105 4.63 .01 2 84 1.71 65 .02 II 2.49 .01 .02 2 B2-229-BS-J6 1 13 3 12 2.4 14 5 100 1.88 5 ND 2 24 1 * 2 133 3.57 .02 72 .80 70 .02 10 2.36 .01 .02 2 82-228-65-37 1 14 15 .7 21 7 778 2.45 3 NO 2 39 2 2 2 140 3.65 .02 2 81 .74 97 .02 13 2.66 .,: .02 82-22B-IS-38 1 31 4 14 .7 18 5 474 2.24 5 ND 2 113 2 2 2 113 3.77 .02 2 90 .70 224 .05 21 2.53 .20 .03 2 82-228-85-39 1 20 4 IB .5 22 4 554 2.59 10 ND 2 140 1 2 2 107 4.73 .02 2 96 .85 109 .05 24 2.83 .18 .03 2 82-22B-6S-4P 1 117 5 27 .5 44 10 B40 2.71 9 ND 2 113 2 2 2 75 8.64 .01 2 31 1.28 274 .04 16 2.27 .12 .01 2 82-229-6S-41 1 7 7 IB .5 18 4 499 2.92 4 ND 2 145 1 2 2 137 3.60 .03 2 BO .63 58 .04 17 2.77 _ |C .03 2 SID 20 142 <2 92 3.0 427 12 401 3.27 14 ND 2 25 1 8 2 42 1.58 .08 j 59 .57 55 .03 24 .81 .03 .21 B2-22B-BS-42 1 104 33 . 4 23 B 1183 2.79 4 ND 2 8B 3 2 2 51 12.59 .01 2 56 1.38 334 .06 10 1.77 .04 .02 2 82-247-FN-l I 38 130 3.2 28 13 779 3.22 217 ND 2 130 3 2 2 125 4.B5 .04 2 73 2.07 353 .02 74 3.13 .08 1.27 B2-247-FN-2 1 55 17 3B 2.2 28 14 747 3.59 234 ND 2 123 3 8 2 135 4.35 .02 2 76 2.25 423 .01 81 3.63 .08 1.49 2 82-247-FN-3 1 47 15 40 1.2 29 14 815 3.54 224 ND 2 143 4 2 2 118 5.17 .01 2 93 2.24 399 .02 76 3.32 .0? 1.17 2 B2-247-FN-4 I 41 10 33 1.5 29 13 814 3.41 84 ND 2 59 4 2 2 123 5.59 .02 2 87 2.11 432 .02 75 3.44 .Ot 1.16 2 82-247-FN-5 1 14 1 9 .5 17 7 549 2.19 . 4 ND 2 14 1 2 2 158 2.47 .03 2 65 1.06 29 .01 16 1.57 .01 .03 2 B2-24WN-6 1 18 4 7 .7 15 5 444 2.01 8 ND 2 19 I 4 2 140 2.12 .03 2 61 .97 24 .01 13 1.50 .01 .02 82-247-FN-7 1 14 1 4 . 4 12 4 395 1.45 7 ND 2 IB 1 2 2 153 1.83 .03 2 54 .83 16 .01 12 1.36 .02 .02 2 B2-247-FH-8 1 34 1 23 .7 30 1  474 2.88 42 ND 2 43 2 4 2 105 4.60 .02 2 85 2.01 87 .02 44 2.66 .15 .10 2 82-247-FN-9 1 34 3 18 .8 24 10 495 3.04 17 ND 2 3B 1 2 2 132 4.20 .02 2 94 1.86 31 .02 25 2.5? .08 .03 2 B2-247-HN-I 1 57 4 29 1.3 14 9 540 2.44 42 ND 2 72 2 2 2 109 3.80 .03 2 30 1.59 151 .02 4? 2.01 .04 .77 2 82-24/-IM-2 1 139 4 34 I.I 24 13 794 3.77 44 ND 2 71 2 4 2 174 4.07 .04 2 52 1.75 123 .03 32 2.88 .06 .17 82-24'-H«-3 1 14 4 22 .4 18 8 552 2.48 34 NO 2 48 4 2 2 97 2.45 .02 2 102 1.05 78 .02 25 1.63 .04 .0? 2 82-247-HN-4 1 34 • 7 31 .9 22 12 992 3.97 44 ND 2 4D ' 2 2 157 4.63 .03 2 48 1.82 70 .03 31 2.56 .04 .07 2 82-247-HN-5 | 27 5 28 .4 21 12 B37 3.88 31 ND 2 4B 3 3 2 168 4.23 .04 2 46 1.74 83 .02 25 2.57 .03 .05 2 82-247-KN-4 1 19 7 44 .4 18 10 932 3.43 32 ND 2 120 4 2 2 140 4.41 .02 2 41 2.10 157 .02 36 2.23 .04 .14 B2-247-HN-7 1 37 25 .4 21 14 774 3.47 17 ND 2 48 3 2 2 176 3.99 .03 2 37 1.57 66 .02 20 2.42 .02 .02 2 82-247-HK-B 1 25 3 14 .4 14 II 480 3.10 41 2 ND 2 31 2 4 2 211 2.75 .03 2 35 1.17 34 .02 11 1.90 .02 .01 2 82-247-HK-9 ' 19 5 19 .8 14 9 452 3.04 43 2 ND 2 54 3 2 2 177 3.45 .03 2 34 1.41 61 .02 22 2.10 .03 .02 2 SID A-l 1 30 39 184 .3 35 10 1021 2.84 9 2 ND 2 37 1 2 2 57 .40 .09 B 75 .70 275 .09 8 2.02 .01 .20 1 D A L E A S K E T C H L E Y P R O J E C T 44 S O L U T I O N F R O M V A N G E O C H E M J O B 4t 8 4 - 0 1 7 F I L E » 8 4 - 0 2 2 4 P A G E SAMPLE 1 Ho Cu Pb Zn Ao Hi Co Ho F i At U Au l b ppi ppi ppi ppi ppi ppi ppi ppi I ppi ppi ppi ppi 82-247-HN-IO 1 22 II 24 . 8 IB 10 648 3.21 24 j n 82-247-HH-l1 1 15 5 14 1.0 13 8 475 2.47 5 2 m B2-247-HN-I2 1 13 10 11 . 9 12 6 329 1.91 3 2 ND B2-247-HN-I3 1 IB 7 l i . 8 13 7 481 2.40 6 2 ND 83-OOI-FD-l 10 1 3 1.0 IB 1 39 .15 B2 ND 83-0OI-F8-2 2 53 7 21 1.2 25 11 637 2.24 319 s 3 83-001-F0-3 1 « 6 39 I.I 22 14 667 3.59 126 k ND 83-0OI-FD-4 1 125 6 37 1.0 22 17 577 3.65 265 7 ND 83-OO1-F0-5 1 43 3 25 .7 30 II 725 2.96 84 2 ND 83-001-F0-4 1 34 5 37 .6 24 12 630 3.5B 6 ND 83-OOI-FD-7 i 27 2 19 .6 20 7 3B3 2.64 3 2 ND B3-O0I-FO-8 3 19 9 20 .6 12 B 280 2.27 3 2 ND 83-001-F0-9 2 23 10 27 . 6 27 8 562 2.38 4 2 ND 83-001-FO-10 1 30 2 7 . 3 6 1 129 .69 14 2 ND 83-OOI-FD-ll 1 ' 9 1 34 . 3 IS 4 525 1.56 55 2 ND 83-0OI-FO-I2 I 44 IB .2 16 2 3451 3.85 145 j ND 83-OOI-OF-I3 1 32 24 . 8 23 13 798 3.88 32 2 ND B3-0OI-DF-I4 2 31 4 16 . 5 18 6 448 1.91 3 2 ND 83-001-HO-1 1 5 9 1 .4 6 1 12 .08 16 2 ND 83-OOI-HD-2 2 17 1 6 1.4 39 1 85 .50 12 2 ND SID 20 1(5 45 91 2.7 63B 12 592 3.25 14 2 ND 83-001-HD-3 1 14 3 II . 3 12 5 251 1.15 3 2 ND B3-OOI-HD-4 1 19 3 19 . 6 IS 6 29i 2.28 2 4 ND B3-O0I-H0-5 1 27 9 23 . 5 18 8 40B 3.02 2 2 NO 83-001 -m-i 1 13 3 13 .7 14 6 195 1.62 8 ' ND 83-001-HD-7 | IS 12 19 .4 18 7 I5B 1.38 29 2 NO 63-257-0F-I 3 10 3 49 .4 6 1 120 .45 61 2 ND 83-257-0F-2 ' 1 16 12 18 .6 19 14 828 2.83 305 2 ND 83-257-0F-3 1 7 13 22 1.6 15 10 885 2.76 310 2 ND 83-257-DF-4 1 27 1 12 .6 16 11 653 2.29 469 2 ND 83-257-1F-5 1 40 ; 30 1.1 IB 13 615 2.55 633 j ND 83-257-Df-t 1 34 13 33 1.4 13 9 441 2.03 265 ND 63-257-0F-7 1 n 25 1.3 16 10 577 2.68 379 2 ND 83-257-DF-6 I 25 12 32 1.5 16 11 491 3.25 10 2 NO 83-257-0F-? 1 25 27 . 6 16 10 367 2.88 22 3 ND 83-257-DH-l 1 30 7 12 .7 17 14 139 1.56 447 2 ND 83-257-0H-2 1 48 5 30 .7 25 17 565 4.13 59 2 ND 83-257-0H-3 1 50 5 29 .8 22 14 675 3.70 87 2 ND B3-257-DH-4 1 34 7 34 I .I 20 13 762 3.37 98 2 ND 83-257-0H-5 1 2 i 3 29 .7 21 13 813 4.04 88 2 ND S70 A - l 1 30 39 182 . 3 37 11 1012 2.83 10 2 ND 2 Sr Cd Sb Bi V Ca P La Cr No l a I i 8 Al Na K ppi ppi ppi ppi ppi Z Z ppi ppi Z ppi Z ppi Z Z Z 49 3 5 2 208 2.71 .04 2 39 1.19 6B .03 IS 2.08 . 0 2 .03 27 3 2 2 . 235 2.58 .04 2 27 1.00 46 .04 14 2.08 . 0 2 .02 29 2 2 2 226 3.17 .04 2 29 . 6 5 44 .04 13 2.17 . 0 2 .02 40 2 2 2 216 4.74 .04 2 40 .84 34 .04 12 2.70 . 0 9 .01 8 2 1 2 363 .22 .01 2 21 .05 14 .01 B .18 .01 .02 140 2 2 129 2.41 .01 2 93 1.28 335 .05 51 3.49 .13 1.80 8? ! 2 2 127 2.26 .02 2 56 1.23 389 .04 38 ?.«4 .04 .90 97 2 147 2.47 .04 2 41 1.02 481 .10 46 3.63 .13 1.38 64 ] 2 112 4.49 .02 2 90 2.08 76 .02 45 2.79 .17 .08 86 2 2 179 3.54 .05 2 . 49 .98 40 .06 10 2.52 .19 .01 166 : 2 154 4.51 .02 2 93 .76 53 .04 15 4 . « .16 .01 60 ? 2 2 156 1.80 .06 3 15 .46 II .04 7 1.91 .15 .01 115 ; 2 102 5.27 .02 2 68 1.07 102 .04 18 2.9l .21 .03 16 3 2 32 .42 .01 2 9 .21 71 .01 14 .31 .01 .02 34 1 2 2 63 .75 .02 2 54 .58 510 .01 20 .82 . 0 3 .08 4 2 2 52 .15 .01 2 81 .14 27 .01 6 .19 .01 .01 S3 J 2 188 3.64 .04 2 50 1.64 61 .03 16 2.53 .02 .04 105 2 2 97 3.32 .02 2 78 .81 IB? .04 18 2.02 .17 .02 3 2 63 .11 .01 2 4 .01 6 .01 i .14 .01 .01 9 ; 2 2 205 .44 .01 2 54 .08 23 .01 6 .56 . 0 3 .02 23 12 2 44 1.52 .10 5 55 .55 53 .03 25 .79 . 0 3 .21 32 2 2 64 .64 .02 2 20 .26 44 .02 10 .87 .12 .03 109 2 2 82 1.74 .03 2 31 .35 40 .02 II 2.04 .21 .04 151 : 2 2 151 2.71 .04 2 38 .59 35 .04 6 2.47 .25 .03 62 2 3 74 2.04 .05 6 44 .29 71 .03 7 2 .5! .19 .04 64 2 52 1.66 .05 6 52 .29 23 .03 2 1.97 .12 .02 13 3 2 24 .90 .01 2 104 .44 35 .01 19 .50 .02 .03 127 3 3 2 113 5.03 .01 7 51 1.98 226 .02 36 2.22 .04 .24 140 2 2 105 5.36 .01 2 63 2.05 195 .02 33 1.80 . 0 3 .23 74 2 2 2 12? 3.73 .01 2 50 1.39 311 .02 42 2.38 . 0 3 .24 68 2 2 153 2.94 .03 2 13 1.08 322 .03 40 2 . " ; .04 .24 81 4 5 101 2.38 .03 39 .69 512 .05 3° 2.99 .04 .34 61 2 151 3.09 .04 2 39 1.27 226 .03 34 2.36 .12 .10 92 2 2 2 191 2.94 .06 2 28 .78 32 .04 5 2.52 .16 .01 75 4 2 2 174 2.07 .06 3 22 .58 15 .05 8 2.31 .19 .01 14 2 2 136 .69 .01 2 48 .42 148 .01 19 .64 .01 .11 23 4 2 142 1.60 .03 2 59 1.36 165 .02 30 1.44 . 0 2 .17 47 4 2 2 164 3.42 .04 2 62 1.43 177 .03 31 2.53 . 0 3 .23 29 4 2 IB6 2.37 .04 2 57 1.02 61 .02 14 2.40 .02 .04 59 3 2 2 158 2.70 .03 2 50 1.57 117 .02 23 2.39 . 0 3 .13 37 2 2 57 .59 .10 8 75 .69 273 .08 9 2.01 . 0 2 .20 D A L E A S K E T C H L E Y P R O J E C T *t S O L U T I O N F R O M V A N G E O C H E M J O B # B 4 - O I 7 F I L E 41 8 4 - 0 2 2 4 P A G E « t> 5AHPIE 1 Ho to n In Ao l i to Hn Fe As U Ao Ih opi ppi ppi ppi ppi ppi ppi ppi I ppi ppi ppi ppi 83-257-IIH-6 1 73 8 41 1.0 25 IS B2I 4.61 95 4 NO 2 83-257-DH-7 1 27 6 28 1.0 19 12 8H 4.23 22 7 NO 2 B3-257-0H-8 1 30 7 48 1.5 20 13 920 4.32 36 2 Nt 2 83-257-DH-9 1 24 2 18 .8 12 13 (53 3.04 17 2 NO 2 578 A-l 1 30 3' 180 .3 34 10 995 2.81 11 2 Nt 2 Sr U Sb Bi V Ci P L i Cr No Bi I i 1 Al Ni [ M ppi ppi ppi ppi ppi I t ppi ppi z ppi I ppi I t ! ppi 88 4 2 2 166 3.68 .03 2 68 1.83 394 .04 55 3.50 .07 .68 2 48 3 2 2 . 180 3.96 .05 2 48 1.67 38 .03 21 2.56 .04 .04 2 68 4 2 2 182 4.92 .05 2 53 1.83 134 .04 28 3.41 .05 .05 2 IB 2 2 2 236 1.33 .06 2 21 .62 52 .05 9 1.80 .01 .01 7 36 I 2 2 56 .61 .10 8 76 .69 279 .08 9 2.11 .02 .20 2 D A L E S K E T C H L E Y S O L U T I O N F R O M V A N G E O C H E M J O B tt S 4 - ^ 7 ~ F I L E It S 4 - 2 o r 4 P A G E nm.ii na cu n I N «s N I co U H re A S U A U T H S R C D S B B I V C A P U C R ns B A n B A L N A K * ppn P P M P P B P P M P P B P P B F P B P F B : P P N P P B P P H P P B P P B P P B PTPI P P B P P B : : P P B P P B : P P B Z P P B Z : : P P H £ 2 4 2 4 I 7 o T . 2 I B B 539 4 . 1 1 705 5 N D 2 43 I 8 2 B 1 . 9 7 .01 2 114 . 9 5 I B . 0 1 2 . 0 8 . 0 1 . 0 4 2 I B.4 G o l d - S i l v e r F i r e A s s a y s -156-O A T S A M P L E D E R I C K S O N G O L D 1 D A I L Y A S S A Y M I N I N G C O R P . R E P O R T O A T A t S A V E D J u n e 2 4 , 1 9 8 4 D A Y S A M P L E O E R I C K S O N G O L D M I N I N G C O R P . D A I L Y A S S A Y R F P f l B T D A Y A S S A Y E D J u n e 2 1 - 2 4 , 1 9 8 4 S A M P L E N O . L O C A T I O N C A P S A u « i / t w i A ( t i / i w T A K E N B Y S A M P L E N O . L O C A T I O N C A R S A u 0 ! / t « l A s o i A M T A K E N B T 7 7 - 4 4 - J F - l . 0 5 0 . 1 2 7 7 - 4 4 - J H - l t r . 1 8 7 7 - 4 4 - J F - 2 t r . 0 6 7 7 - 4 4 - J H - 2 t r . 0 8 7 7 - 4 4 - J F - 3 t r . 4 2 7 7 - 4 4 - J H - 3 t r . 0 4 7 7 - 4 4 - J F - 4 . 0 4 8 . 0 2 7 7 - 4 4 - J H - 4 t r . 0 6 7 7 - 4 4 - J F - 5 . 0 2 2 . 1 6 7 7 - 4 4 - J H - 5 t r . 1 2 7 7 - 4 4 - J F - 6 . 0 2 0 . 0 4 7 7 - 4 4 - J H - 6 . 0 2 8 . 0 4 7 7 - 4 4 - J F - 7 v 0 2 8 . 1 2 7 7 - 4 4 - J H - 7 t r . 0 2 7 7 - 4 4 - J H - 8 t r . 0 2 7 7 - 4 4 - J H - 9 t r . 0 4 7 7 - 4 4 - J H - 1 0 t r . 1 0 OAY SAMPLEO ERICKSON GOLD 1 DAILY ASSAY MINING CORP. REPORT OAY ASSAYED J u n e 2 4 - 2 6 , 1984 OAY SAMPLEO ERICKSON GOLD MINING CORP. DAILY ASSAY RFPORT DAY ASSAVEO J u n e 2 6 , 1984 SAMPLE NO. LOCATION CARS Au oi/ton As 01/too TAKEN • Y SAMPLE NO. LOCATION CARS Au ot/run AS CIA— TAKEN • V B 0 - 8 4 - J C - 1 t r . 0 2 8 0 - 8 4 - J H - l t r . 0 2 8 0 - 8 4 - J F - l t r . 0 2 8 0 - 8 4 - J H - 2 . 0 5 0 . 0 8 8 0 - 8 4 - J F - 2 t r . 0 2 8 0 - 8 4 - J H - 3 . 0 3 4 . 1 6 8 0 - 8 4 - J F - 3 . 0 6 0 . 0 8 8 0 - 8 4 - J H - 4 . 0 3 0 . 8 4 8 0 - 8 4 - J F - 4 t r . 0 6 8 0 - 8 4 - J H - 5 t r . 1 2 8 0 - 8 4 - J F - 5 .104 . 0 8 8 0 - 8 4 - J F - 6 .074 . 0 2 8 0 - 8 4 - J F - 7 t r . 08 8 0 - 8 4 - J F - 8 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 8 0 - 8 4 - J F - 9 . 0 2 2 . 0 6 OAT SAMPLEO ERICKSON GOLD 1 DAILY ASSAY MINING CORP. Ju REPORT OAY ASSATED ne 25 4. 26, 1984 OAV SAMPLEO ERICKSON GOLD MINING CORP. OAT ASSAYED June 25 4 26, 1984 DAILY ASSAY REPORT SAMPLE NO. LOCATION CARS Au oi/tan As o«/1o« TAKEN • T SAMPLE NO. LOCATION CARS An «l/f«a As *lA*m TAKEN •V 80-88-JF-1 .052 .38 80-88-JH-1 .072 .04 80-88-JF-2 .020 .08 80-88-JH-2 .048 .10 80-88-JF-3 .020 .04 80-88-JH-3 .040 .10 80-88-JF-4 tr .08 80-88-JH-4 .026 .14 80-88-JF-5 tr .12 80-88-JH-5 tr .14 80-88-JF-6 .022 .06 80-88-JH-6 tr .20 80-88-JF-7 tr .10 80-88-JH-7 tr .04 80-88-JF-8 tr .08 80-88-JF-9 tr .14 DAY SAMPLED ERICKSON GOLO 1 DAILY ASSAY MINING CORP. REPORT DAY ASSAYED June 24, 1984 OAY SAMPLEO ERICKSON GOLD MINING CORP. DAILY ASSAY RFPOBT DAY ASSAYED June 25, 1984 SAMPLE NO. LOCATION CANS Au 01/too As oi/ton TAKEN • Y SAMPLE NO. LOCATION CARS Au at/ton AS MAM TAKEN •Y 82-212-MF-l tr .14 82-212-m-l .026 .10 82-212-MF-2 tr .08 82-212-hM-2 .022 .14 B2-212-MF-3 tr .08 82-212-MH-3 tr .06 82-212-MF-4 tr .06 82-212-MH-4 .020 .02 82-212-HF-5 tr .10 82-212-MH-5 tr .08 82-212-HF-6 tr .08 82-212-MH-6 tr .10 82-212-1*1-7 tr .12 82-212-MH-8 .020 .06 82-212-MH-9 .020 .06 82-2I2-MH-10 tr .02 OAY SAMPLED ERICKSON GOLD 1 DAILY ASSAY MINING CORP. j REPORT J DAY ASSAYED u n e 2 8 , 1 9 8 4 u l y 5 & 1 1 , 1 9 8 4 OAY SAMPLEO ERICKSON GOLD MINING CORP. DAY ASSAYED J u n e 2 8 , 1 9 8 4 DAILY ASSAY REPORT J u l y 5 & , 9 W SAMPLE N O . LOCATION CANS A u e i / t e n A s o i / l o a T A K E N • Y SAMPLE N O . LOCATION CANS A u o i / f M As a i / I M TAKEN • Y 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - l . 0 2 4 . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 1 7 . 1 6 4 . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 2 . 0 2 4 . 0 4 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B O - 1 8 . 1 1 2 . 0 4 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 3 . 0 2 8 . 0 6 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 1 9 . 0 7 8 . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 4 t r . 1 0 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 5 . 0 5 2 . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 3 1 . 0 4 4 . 0 4 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 6 t r . 0 6 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 3 2 . 0 2 2 . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 7 . 0 4 6 . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 3 3 t r . 0 2 B 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 8 . 0 2 4 . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 3 4 s a m e a s B 8 0 6 3 t r . 0 3 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 9 . 0 3 8 . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 3 5 t r . 1 4 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 1 0 . 0 2 8 . 0 6 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 3 6 t r . 0 8 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - ) 1 . 0 3 8 . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 3 7 t r . 0 6 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 1 2 . 0 2 8 . 0 6 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 3 8 t r . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 1 3 . 1 3 8 . 1 0 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 3 9 t r . 0 8 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 1 4 t r . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B O - 4 0 t r . 0 8 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 1 5 l . 0 5 6 . 0 2 B 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 4 1 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 1 6 . 0 5 8 . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 4 2 . 2 4 6 . 0 8 O A V S A M P L E O ERICKSON GOLD MINING CORP. J u n e DAILY ASSAY REPORT J u l y O A V A S S A Y E D 2 8 , 1984 5 4 1 1 , 1984 O A V S A M P L E O ERICKSON GOLD MINING CORP. D A Y A S S A Y E D J u n e 2 8 , 1984 DAILY ASSAY REPORT J u l y 5 s 1 9 8 4 S A M P L E N O . L O C A T I O N C A R S Au oi/ton AS oi /to* T A K E N • Y S A M P L E N O . L O C A T I O N C A R S Au OS/ton As ei /too T A K E N • V 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 4 3 same a s B 8 0 6 4 . 122 . 0 5 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 5 9 t r . 0 8 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 4 4 . 0 4 4 . 0 1 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 6 0 t r . 0 8 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 4 5 . 0 3 0 . 1 5 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 6 1 t r . 1 0 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 4 6 . 0 7 6 .04 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 4 7 t r . 1 8 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 4 8 t r . 0 6 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 4 9 t r . 0 8 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 5 0 t r . 0 8 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 5 1 . 0 9 8 . 0 4 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 5 2 . 0 5 8 . 2 0 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 5 3 . 0 2 6 . 1 0 B 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 5 4 t r . 0 6 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 5 S t r . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 5 6 same a s B 8 0 6 8 . 4 1 0 . 1 2 B 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 5 7 t r . 0 4 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 5 8 c r . 1 2 OAV SAMPLED ERICKSON GOLD MINING CORP. DAILY ASSAY REPORT OAV ASSAYED J u n e 2 6 - 2 8 , 1984 OAY SAMPLED ERICKSON GOLD MINING CORP. OAILY ASSAY REPORT DAY ASSAYED J u n e 2 6 - 2 8 , 1 9 8 4 SAMPLE NO. LOCATION CANS Au at/tan As oi Aa* TAKEN BY SAMPLE NO. LOCATION CARS Au oi/fm AS U/IH TAKEN •V 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 1 6 t r . 0 8 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 3 2 tr . 1 2 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 1 7 t r . 0 6 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 3 3 tr . 0 4 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 1 8 t r . 0 4 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 3 4 tr . 1 6 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 1 9 tr . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 3 5 tr . 1 4 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 2 0 t r . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 3 6 tr . 2 4 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 2 I t r . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 3 7 tr . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 2 2 t r . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 3 8 tr . 0 6 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 2 3 t r . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 3 9 tr . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 2 4 t r . 0 8 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B 8 - 4 0 tr . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 2 5 t r . 0 8 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 4 1 tr . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 2 6 t r . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 4 2 tr . 0 2 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 2 7 t r . 0 4 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 2 8 t r . 0 6 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 2 9 t r . 1 2 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 3 0 t r . 0 4 8 2 - 2 2 8 - B S - 3 1 t r . 0 2 O A V S A M P L E D ERICKSON GOLD 1 DAILY ASSAY MINING CORP. REPORT OAV A S S A Y E D June 7 & 8, 1984 O A Y S A M P L E D ERICKSON GOLD MINING CORP. O A Y A S S A Y E D OA.LY ASS AY BFPnBT J" n e 7 & 1 9 8 4 S A M P L E NO. L O C A T I O N C A N S Au oi/lon As ai/toti T A K E N B Y S A M P L E NO. L O C A T I O N C A N S Au ot/ton As oi/ton T A K E N • Y 82-247-FW-l .032 .02 82-247-HW-l tr .06 82-247-FW-2 .040 .14 82-247-HW-2 tr .14 82-247-FW-3 .032 .02 82-247-HW-3 tr .02 82-247-FW-4 tr .02 82-247-HW-4 .032 .10 82-247-FW-5 .024 .04 82-247-HW-5 tr .02 82-247-FW-6 tr .04 82-247-HW-6 tr .02 82-247-FU-7 tr .08 82-247-HU-7 tr .02 82-247-FW-8 tr .02 82-247-HW-8 tr .04 82-247-FW-9 tr .10 82-247-HW-9 tr .02 82-247-HU-10 tr .02 82-247-HW-ll tr .06 82-247-HW-12 tr .04 82-247-HW-13 .026 .04 O A Y S A M P L E D ERICKSON GOLD MINING CORP. D A Y A S S A Y E D DAILY ASSAY REPORT J u n e 8 6 2'-28' 1 9 8 4 O A Y S A M P L E D ERICKSON GOLD MINING CORP. DAILY ASSAY REPORT D A Y A S S A Y E D June 8 t 25, 1984 J u l y 5 & 11, 1984 S A M P L E N O . L O C A T I O N C A R S Au ei/ton As oi/to* T A K E N • Y S A M P L E N O . L O C A T I O N C A R S AM oi/ton As oi /too T A K E * • V 83-001-FD-l .020 .28 83-001-HD-l .058 .12 B3-001-FD-2 .090 .08 83-O01-HD-2 .054 .11 83-001-FD-3 t r .02 83-001-HD-3 t r .02 83-001-FD-4 .048 .06 83-001-HD-4 t r .08 83-001-FD-5 t r .02 83-001-HD-5 t r .02 83-001-FU-6 t r .02 83-001-HD-6 t r .02 83-001-FD-7 t r .02 83-001-HD-7 t r .02 83-001-FD-8 t r .02 83-001-FD-9 t r .06 83-001-FD-10 t r .06 83-001-FD-l1 t r .04 83-001-FD-l2 .072 .28 83-001-FD-13 .020 .08 83-001-FD-14 t r .08 O A Y S A M P L E D E R I C K S O N G O L D M I N I N G C O R P . June D A I L Y A S S A Y R E P O R T J u l y O A Y A S S A Y E O 26, 1984 5 t. 11, 1984 O A Y S A M P L E D E R I C K S O N G O L D M I N I N G C O R P . D A I L Y A S S A Y R E P O R T O A V A S S A Y E O from DDM logs S A M P L E N O . L O C A T I O N C A R S A u o t / f a n A S o i / t o a T A K E N S Y S A M P L E NO. L O C A T I O N C A R S A u a s / t o n A s 0 1 / t o n T A K E N • V 77-44-JH-l repeat t r .22 A4608 t r t r 77-44-JF-2 repeat .034 . 10 A4609 t r t r 77-44-JH-3 repeat t r .12 A4610 t r t r 80-B4-JF-1 repeat .020 .12 A4611 t r t r B0-84-JF-4 repeat .028 .06 A4612 t r t r 80-88-JF-l repeat .032 .28 A4613 t r t r 82-212-1M-7 repeat t r .02 A4614 t r t r 82-222-BD-42 repeat .466 .24 A4 615 t r t r 82-222-BD-46 repeat .090 .06 A4616 t r t r 82-222-BD-51 repeat t r .06 A4617 .036 .06 82-222-BD-52 repeat .094 . 12 A4618 1.802 .23 82-228-BS-36 repeat .024 .10 A4619 t r t r 82-247-HW-10 repeat t r .04 A4 620 .020 .08 83-001-FD-l repeat .044 .10 A4716 .064 .11 83-257-DF-8 repeat t r .08 A4717 t r t r B8063 t r .03 OAV SAMPLED ERICKSON GOLD 1 DAILY ASSAY MINING CORP. REPORT OAV ASSAVEO June 7. 1984 OAV SAMPLEO ERICKSON GOLO MINING CORP. DAILY ASSAY HFPOBT OAV ASSAVIO June 7, 1984 SAMPLE NO. LOCATION CANS Au oi/fon As oi/toa TAKEN • V SAMPLE NO. LOCATION CANS Au ot/twi As •t/tua TAKEN •V 83-257-DF-l tr .02 83-257-DH-l .028 .08 83-257-DF-2 tr .02 83-257-DH-2 tr .02 83-257-DF-3 .034 .02 63-257-DH-3 tr .02 83-257-DF-4 tr .04 83-257-LH-4 tr .02 83-257-DF-5 .024 .02 83-257-DH-5 tr .06 83-257-DF-6 tr .06 83-257-DH-6 tr .08 83-257-DF-7 tr .02 83-257-DH-7 tr .04 83-257-DF-8 tr 1.38 83-257-DH-8 tr .04 83-257-DF-9 tr .14 83-257-DH-9 tr .02 O A V S A M P L E O ERICKSON GOLD MINING CORP. O A V A S S A Y E D O A V S A M P L E O ERICKSON GOLD MINING CORP. O A V A S S A Y E D DAILY ASSAY REPORT from DDI1 logs DAILY ASSAY REPORT from DDH lo g s S A M P L E N O . L O C A T I O N C A N S A u o > / t o n As o i / t o n T A K E N • Y S A M P L E N O . L O C A T I O N C A N S A u o t / t o n As o i / t o n T A K E N • V B8064 .122 .05 C5618 .064 .11 n l s s . pulp B8068 .410 .12 miss, pulp E2618 .025 .04 B8762 t r t r E2619 t r .06 B8763 t r t r E2620 t r .06 BB764 t r t r E2621 t r .09 B8767 t r t r E2622 t r .03 B8768 t r t r E2623 t r .08 BS769 t r .03 E2624 .034 .08 B8770 t r t r 65029 t r .10 miss, pulp B8771 t r .02 B9064 repeat .177 .04 BB757 t r .09 miss. pulp EB064 repeat .050 .02 • 88 7 58 t r .06 miss, pulp B8064 repeat .080 .04 B8759 t r .10 miss, pulp B3068 repeat .466 .11 B8760 t r .09 miss, pulp C5616 repeat .064 .04 C5616 .161 .12 C5617 repeat .040 .06 C5617 .013 .08 C5618 repeat t r .03 miss, pulp B.5 A n a l y t i c a l P r o f i l e s - a l l f i r e a s s a y s r e c o r d e d as t r a c e a r e r e c o d e d as 0.02. o / t f o r p r o f i l e p l o t t i n g . - a b b r e v i a t i o n s : B = B a s a l t 2C = O u t e r C a r b o n a t e Zone 2B = I n t e r m e d i a t e C a r b o n a t e Zone 2A = I n n e r C a r b o n a t e Zone IB = O u t e r C arbon Zone IA = I n n e r Carbon Zone V = V e i n C = C h e r t S = S i l i c i f i e d C h e r t and S i l i c e o u s A r g i l l i t e - 1 6 9 -CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES D D H - 7 7 - 4 4 N O R T H I N G - 4 2 7 8 . 0 0 E A S T I N G - 1 7 7 6 . 5 0 A l ( X ) T i ( JS ) F e (%) 0 6.00 0 0.12 0 8 00 7 7 . 4 J MAJOR ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES E L E V A T I O N - 1 4 1 8 . 0 0 A Z I M U T H - 1 8 0 . 0 D I P - - 6 8 . 0 L E N G T H - 8 3 . 2 7 M n ( p p m ) M g (%) C o (%) N o (%) 0 O00 00 0 6.00 O 16.00 O 0.60 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES DDH - 77-44 NORTHING - 4278.00 EASTING - 1776.50 K (%) P (55) LOI (%) O I 60 0 0 08 O 25 00 MAJOR/TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES AND FA ELEVATION - 1418.00 AZIMUTH - 180.0 DIP - -68.0 LENGTH - 83.27 Au (o/t) Ag (o/t) Ag (ppm) O 0 . 2 0 O 0 . 2 0 0 6 . 0 0 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES DDH - 77-44 NORTHING - 4278.00 EASTING - 1776.50 ELEVATION - 1418.00 AZIMUTH - 180.0 DIP - -68.0 LENGTH - 83.27 As (ppm) Sb (ppm) Bo (ppm) B (ppm) Sr (ppm) 0 1200.00 0 24.00 0 600.00 0 80.00 0 200.00 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES DDH - 7 7 - 4 4 NORTHING - 4 2 7 8 . 0 0 EASTING - 1 7 7 6 . 5 0 E L E V A T I O N - 1 4 1 8 . 0 0 AZIMUTH - 1 8 0 . 0 DIP - - 6 8 . 0 L E N G T H - 8 3 . 2 7 V ( p p m ) W ( p p m ) Mo ( p p m ) U ( p p m ) T h ( p p m ) L o ( p p m ) B l ( p p m ) 0 200.00 0 12.00 0 8.00 0 16.00 0 4.00 0 8.00 0 16.00 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES MAJOR/TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES AND FA D D H - 8 0 - 8 4 N O R T H I N G - 4 3 9 9 . 8 7 E A S T I N G - 1 5 2 2 . 2 2 E L E V A T I O N - 1 3 9 9 . 1 1 A Z I M U T H - 2 0 1 . 8 D I P - - 4 7 . 9 L E N G T H - 1 4 4 . 5 0 K (%) P (%) L O I {%) A u ( o / t ) A g ( o / t ) A g ( p p m ) 0 1.60 0 0.08 0 25.00 0 0.20 0 0.20 0 6.00 1 2 7 . 4 J f CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES 80-84 NORTHING — 4399.87 EASTING - 1522.22 ELEVATION — 1399.11 AZIMUTH - 201.8 As (ppm) o _J L Sb (ppm) 1200.00 o Bo (ppm) 24 oo J I B (ppm) 600.00 0 Sr (ppm) 60.00 0 200.00 J I CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES 80-84 NORTHING — 4399.87 EASTING - 1522.22 ELEVATION - 1399.11 AZIMUTH — 201 .8 DIP-Cu (ppm) o _1 L Pb (ppm) 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 J I J I 1_ Zn (ppm) J L Cd (ppm) 1 6 0 . 0 0 o 28 00 J I Cr (ppm) o J L Ni (ppm) ISO.oo o 60 on J I 47.9 LENGTH Co (ppm) J I CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES DDH - 8 0 - 8 4 NORTHING - 4399.87 EASTING - 1522 22 ELEVATION - 1399.11 AZIMUTH - 201.8 DIP - - 4 7 . 9 LENGTH - 144.50 V (ppm) W (ppm) Mo (ppm) U (ppm) Th (ppm) Lo (ppm) Bi (ppm) 0 200.00 0 12.00 0 8.00 0 16.00 0 4.00 0 8.00 0 16 00 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES DDH - 8 0 - 8 8 NORTHING - 4401.54 EASTING - 1702.28 Al (55) Ti (%) Fe (55) 0 6 00 0 0.12 0 8.00 MAJOR ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES ELEVATION - 1276.50 AZIMUTH - 197.9 DIP - - 4 8 Mn (ppm) Mg (%) Co (55) O 4000.00 0 6.00 0 16.00 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES MAJOR/TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES AND FA 8 0 - 8 8 NORTHING - 4401.54 EASTING - 1702.28 ELEVATION - 1276.50 AZIMUTH — 197.9 D I P - - 4 8 . 7 LENGTH - 135.90 K (%) P (%) LOI (%) Au (o/t) Ag (o/t) Ag (ppm) CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES D D H - 8 0 - 8 8 N O R T H I N G - 4 4 0 1 . 5 4 E A S T I N G - 1 7 0 2 . 2 8 E L E V A T I O N - 1 2 7 6 . 5 0 . A Z I M U T H - 1 9 7 . 9 D I P - - 4 8 . 7 L E N G T H - 1 3 5 . 9 0 A s ( p p m ) S b ( p p m ) B a ( p p m ) B ( p p m ) S r ( p p m ) O 1200.00 0 26.00 O 600.00 0 80.00 O 200.00 5 1 . 6 7 3 . 2 J CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES DDH - 8 0 - 8 8 NORTHING - 4401.54 EASTING - 1702.28 Cu (ppm) Pb (ppm) Zn (ppm) 0 100.00 0 dO.OO 0 160.00 TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES ELEVATION - 1276.50 AZIMUTH - 197.9 DIP - - 4 8 . Cd (ppm) Cr (ppm) Ni (ppm) O 20.00 0 160.00 0 60.00 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES D D H - 8 0 - 8 8 N O R T H I N G - 4 4 0 1 . 5 4 E A S T I N G - 1 7 0 2 . 2 8 E L E V A T I O N - 1 2 7 6 . 5 0 A Z I M U T H - 1 9 7 . 9 D I P - - 4 8 . 7 L E N G T H - 1 3 5 . 9 0 V ( p p m ) W ( p p m ) M o ( p p m ) U ( p p m ) T h ( p p m ) L o ( p p m ) B i ( p p m ) 0 200 00 0 12 0 0 0 8 00 0 16.00 0 4.00 0 8.00 0 16 00 C A R B O N A T E A L T E R A T I O N A N A L Y T I C A L P R O F I L E S T R A C E E L E M E N T I C P A N A L Y S E S DDH - 82-212 NORTHING - 4576.40 EASTING -1860.94 ELEVATION - 1203.09 AZIMUTH - 169.3 DIP - -7.0 LENGTH - 97.84 As (ppm) Sb (ppm) Bo (ppm) B (ppm) Sr (ppm) O 1200.00 O 24.00 0 (DO.00 0 SO.00 0 200.00 C A R B O N A T E A L T E R A T I O N A N A L Y T I C A L P R O F I L E S T R A C E E L E M E N T ICP A N A L Y S E S DDH - 8 2 - 2 1 2 NORTHING - 4 5 7 6 . 4 0 EASTING - 1 8 6 0 . 9 4 E L E V A T I O N - 1 2 0 3 . 0 9 AZIMUTH - 1 6 9 . 3 DIP - - 7 . 0 L E N G T H - 9 7 . 8 4 C u ( p p m ) P b ( p p m ) Z n ( p p m ) C d ( p p m ) C r ( p p m ) Ni ( p p m ) C o ( p p m ) 0 100.OO O 4) .00 O 160.00 0 26.00 O 180.00 0 60.00 0 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES 8 2 - 2 1 2 NORTHING - 4 5 7 6 . 4 0 EASTING - 1 8 6 0 . 9 4 E L E V A T I O N - 1 2 0 3 . 0 9 AZIMUTH - 1 6 9 . 3 DIP - - 7 . 0 L E N G T H - 9 7 . 8 4 V ( p p m ) W ( p p m ) Mo ( p p m ) U ( p p m ) T h ( p p m ) L o ( p p m ) 8 i ( p p m ) 67.3 95.9 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES MAJOR ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES 8 2 - 2 2 2 NORTHING - 4 5 8 5 . 4 7 EASTING - 1 8 9 1 . 7 1 ELEVATION - 1 2 7 2 . 1 0 AZIMUTH - 2 7 . 7 DIP - - 5 6 . 8 L E N G T H - 1 2 8 . 9 3 A l ( X ) Ti (55) F e ( X ) Mn ( p p m ) Mg ( X ) C o ( X ) No ( X ) V / X ' . . ~~ MAMA H Mi 42.0 6 0 . 4 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES D D H - 8 2 - 2 2 2 N O R T H I N G - 4 5 8 5 . 4 7 E A S T I N G - 1 8 9 1 . 7 1 A s ( p p m ) S b ( p p m ) B o ( p p m ) 0 IMO.OS 0 24.00 o eoo.oo 6 0 . 4 TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES E L E V A T I O N - 1 2 7 2 . 1 0 A Z I M U T H - 2 7 . 7 D I P - - 5 6 . 8 L E N G T H - 1 2 8 . 9 3 B ( p p m ) S r ( p p m ) O 00.00 0 200.00 C A R B O N A T E A L T E R A T I O N A N A L Y T I C A L P R O F I L E S T R A C E E L E M E N T I C P A N A L Y S E S CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES MAJOR ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES C A R B O N A T E A L T E R A T I O N A N A L Y T I C A L P R O F I L E S T R A C E E L E M E N T I C P A N A L Y S E S C A R B O N A T E A L T E R A T I O N A N A L Y T I C A L P R O F I L E S T R A C E E L E M E N T I C P A N A L Y S E S CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES MAJOR/TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES AND FA DDH - 8 2 - 2 2 8 NORTHING - 4544.32 EASTING - 1 9 4 1 . 0 6 ELEVATION - 1299.97 AZIMUTH - 328.8 DIP - - 6 2 . 5 LENGTH - 214.88 K (J?) P (55) LOI (55) Au (o/t) Ag (o/t) Ag (ppm) 0 1.60 0 0.08 0 25.00 0 0.20 0 0.20 0 6.00 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES D D H - 8 2 - 2 2 8 N O R T H I N G - 4 5 4 4 . 3 2 E A S T I N G - 1 9 4 1 0 6 E L E V A T I O N - 1 2 9 9 . 9 7 A Z I M U T H - 3 2 8 . 8 D I P - - 6 2 . 5 L E N G T H - 2 1 4 . 8 8 A s ( p p m ) S b ( p p m ) B o ( p p m ) B ( p p m ) S r ( p p m ) 0 1200.00 0 24 00 0 600 00 0 BO.00 0 200.00 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES D D H - 8 2 - 2 2 8 N O R T H I N G - 4 5 4 4 . 3 2 E A S T I N G - 1 9 4 1 0 6 E L E V A T I O N - 1 2 9 9 . 9 7 A Z I M U T H - 3 2 8 . 8 D I P - - 6 2 . 5 L E N G T H - 2 1 4 . 8 8 C u ( p p m ) P b ( p p m ) Z n ( p p m ) C d ( p p m ) C r ( p p m ) N i ( p p m ) C o ( p p m ) 20.00 .1 I C A R B O N A T E A L T E R A T I O N A N A L Y T I C A L P R O F I L E S T R A C E E L E M E N T I C P A N A L Y S E S 8 2 - 2 4 7 NORTHING - 4255.82 EASTING -1740.89 ELEVATION - 1 4 4 7 . 2 7 AZIMUTH - 1 6 8 . 3 DIP - - 5 7 . 3 LENGTH - 2 4 5 . 9 7 As ( p p m ) Sb ( p p m ) Bo ( p p m ) B ( p p m ) Sr ( p p m ) C A R B O N A T E A L T E R A T I O N A N A L Y T I C A L P R O F I L E S D D H - 8 2 - 2 4 7 N O R T H I N G - 4 2 5 5 . 8 2 E A S T I N G - 1 7 4 0 . 8 9 C u ( p p m ) P b ( p p m ) Z n ( p p m ) O 100 00 0 « 00 0 160 00 T R A C E E L E M E N T I C P A N A L Y S E S E L E V A T I O N - 1447.27 A Z I M U T H - 168.3 D I P C d ( p p m ) C r ( p p m ) N i ( p p m ) 0 38.00 0 180.00 0 -57.3 L E N G T H - 245.97 C o ( p p m ) 60.00 0 20.06 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES DDH - 8 3 - 2 5 7 NORTHING - 4524.82 EASTING - 1 8 5 6 . 9 5 K (55) P (%) LOI (%) O 1.60 0 0.08 0 25.00 135.7 J MAJOR/TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES AND FA ELEVATION - 1205.56 AZIMUTH - 320 .4 DIP - - 2 7 . 1 LENGTH - 136.25 Au (o/t) Ag (o/t) Ag (ppm) 0 0.2O 0 0.20 0 6.00 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES 8 3 - 2 5 7 N O R T H I N G - 4524.82 E A S T I N G - 1 8 5 6 . 9 5 E L E V A T I O N - 1 2 0 5 . 5 6 A Z I M U T H - 3 2 0 . 4 A s ( p p m ) S b ( p p m ) B a ( p p m ) B ( p p m ) S r ( p p m ) 0 1200.00 0 21 no 0 000.00 0 80.00 0 200.00 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i I I I I L I I I I CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES D D H - 8 3 - 2 5 7 N O R T H I N G - 4 5 2 4 . 8 2 E A S T I N G - 1 8 5 5 . 9 5 E L E V A T I O N - 1 2 0 5 . 5 6 A Z I M U T H - 3 2 0 . 4 D I P - - 2 7 . 1 L E N G T H - 1 3 6 . 2 5 C u ( p p m ) P b ( p p m ) Z n ( p p m ) C d ( p p m ) C r ( p p m ) N i ( p p m ) C o ( p p m ) 0 100.00 0 « . M 0 160.00 0 28.00 0 180.00 0 60.00 0 20.00 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES DDH - 8 3 - 2 5 7 NORTHING - 4524.82 EASTING - 1 8 5 6 . 9 5 V (ppm) W (ppm) Mo (ppm) O 200.00 0 12.00 0 8.00 TRACE ELEMENT ICP ANALYSES ELEVATION - 1205.56 AZIMUTH - 320 .4 DIP U (ppm) , Th (ppm) Lo (ppm) 0 16.00 0 4.00 o - 2 7 . 1 LENGTH - 136.25 Bi (ppm) 8.00 0 16.00 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES MAJOR ELEMENT XRF ANALYSES 8 0 - 8 8 N O R T H I N G — 4 4 0 1 . 5 4 E A S T I N G - 1 7 0 2 . 2 8 E L E V A T I O N - 1 2 7 6 . 5 0 A Z I M U T H — 1 9 7 9 D I P - - 4 8 . 7 L E N G T H — 1 3 5 . 9 0 S i 0 2 (%) A I 2 0 3 (%) T i 0 2 (%) F e 2 0 3 (%) M n O (%) ) M g O (%) 0 80 00 0 16.00 O 2 00 O 16.00 O 0 20 0 8.00 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES MAJOR ELEMENT XRF ANALYSES DDH - 80-88 NORTHING - 4401.54 EASTING - 1702.28 ELEVATION - 1276.50 AZIMUTH - 197.9 DIP - -48.7 LENGTH - 135.90 CoO (%) Na20 {%) K20 (%) P205 (%) LOI (%) 0 12.00 0 4.00 O 4.00 O 0.16 0 24.00 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES DDH - 80-88 NORTHING - 4401.54 EASTING - 1702.28 Bo (PPM) Sr (PPM) Rb (PPM) 0 1000 00 0 OT 00 O 180 00 TRACE ELEMENT XRF ANALYSES ELEVATION - 1276.50 AZIMUTH - 197.9 DIP - -48 Zr (PPM) V (PPM) Y (PPM) O 140.00 O 5O0.00 O 40.00 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES MAJOR ELEMENT XRF ANALYSES D D H - 8 2 - 2 1 2 N O R T H I N G - 4 5 7 6 . 4 0 E A S T I N G - 1 8 6 0 . 9 4 E L E V A T I O N - 1 2 0 3 . 0 9 A Z I M U T H - 1 6 9 . 3 D I P - - 7 . 0 L E N G T H - 9 7 . 8 4 S i 0 2 (%) A I 2 0 3 (%) T i 0 2 (%) F e 2 0 3 (%) M n O (%) ) M g O (%) O 80.00 O 18 00 0 2 00 0 16.00 0 0.20 0 6.00 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES MAJOR ELEMENT XRF ANALYSES D D H - 8 2 - 2 1 2 N O R T H I N G - 4 5 7 6 . 4 0 E A S T I N G - 1 8 6 0 . 9 4 E L E V A T I O N - 1 2 0 3 . 0 9 A Z I M U T H - 1 6 9 . 3 D I P - - 7 . 0 L E N G T H - 9 7 . 8 4 C o O (%) N o 2 0 (%) K 2 0 (%) P 2 0 5 (%) L O I (%) O 12.00 O 4.00 0 4.00 O 0.16 O 24 .00 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES MAJOR ELEMENT XRF ANALYSES 8 3 - 2 5 7 N O R T H I N G — 4 5 2 4 . 8 2 E A S T I N G - 1 8 5 6 9 5 E L E V A T I O N - 1 2 0 5 . 5 6 A Z I M U T H - 3 2 0 . 4 D I P C o O (55) N o 2 0 (%) K 2 0 (55) P 2 0 5 (55) L O I (55) 0 12.00 0 4.00 O 4.00 O 0.16 O 24.00 1 i i i i I i i i i I i i i i I i i i I 4 I I I 1 CARBONATE ALTERATION ANALYTICAL PROFILES TRACE ELEMENT XRF ANALYSES D D H - 8 3 - 2 5 7 N O R T H I N G - 4 5 2 4 . 8 2 E A S T I N G . - 1 8 5 6 . 9 5 E L E V A T I O N - 1 2 0 5 . 5 6 A Z I M U T H - 3 2 0 . 4 D I P - - 2 7 . 1 L E N G T H - 1 3 6 . 2 5 B o ( P P M ) S r ( P P M ) R b ( P P M ) Z r ( P P M ) V ( P P M ) Y ( P P M ) N b ( P P M ) O 1000.00 0 200.00 0 180 00 O 140 00 0 500.00 0 40.00 O 6 00 C. SUMMARY OF ANALYTICAL METHODS C . l Sample P r e p a r a t i o n C.2 XRF A n a l y s e s C.3 LOI C.4 ICP A n a l y s e s C . 5 F i r e A s s a y s -227-C.1 Sample Preparation Samples were crushed by jaw crusher and p u l v e r i z e d to -100 mesh or f i n e r by a d i s c m i l l p u l v e r i z e r . C.2 XRF Analyses Major element-oxide analyses were performed on fused g l a s s d i s c s whereas minor element analyses were performed on pressed powder p e l l e t s . Fused g l a s s d i s c s were prepared by f u s i n g 0.4000 a g of p u l v e r i z e d sample and 3.600 g of S p e c t r o f l u x 105 , i n a o platinum c r u c i b l e at 1100 C f o r 30 minutes. The sample was cooled and weight l o s t d u r i n g f u s i o n made up with S p e c t r o f l u x b 100 . The sample was then remelted, mixed and poured i n t o a mold. Pressed powder p e l l e t s were prepared by mixing 3.0 g of p u l v e r i z e d sample with three drops of b i n d i n g agent. T h i s mixture was compressed by hand, i n a s t a i n l e s s s t e e l mold u n t i l i t bound together forming a p e l l e t . The p e l l e t was covered with b o r i c a c i d and compressed i n a 10,000 kg h y d r a u l i c press f o r one minute. Analyses were performed by a P h i l i p s PW 1400 X-Ray Spectrometer equipped with a 72 p o s i t i o n automatic sample changer. a. S p e c t r o f l u x 100 i s composed of 100% d i l i t h i u m t e t r a b o r a t e . b. S p e c t r o f l u x 105 i s composed of 47% d i l i t h i u m t e t r a b o r a t e , 36.3% l i t h i u m carbonate and 16.3% lanthanum ( I I I ) oxide. -228-C .3 LOI o A 0.5 g p u l v e r i z e d sample was i g n i t e d at 550 C f o r 30 minutes, c o o l e d and then weighed (LOI 1). The r e s i d u e s of the o f i r s t i g n i t i o n were r e i g n i t e d at 1000 C f o r 30 minutes, cooled and then reweighed (LOI 2). The weight l o s t d u r i n g i g n i t i o n was expressed as a percentage of the i n i t i a l weight. C .4 ICP Analyses o A 0.5 g p u l v e r i z e d sample, or the r e s i d u e s of the 1000 C i g n i t i o n , were d i g e s t e d with 3 ml of 3:1:3 HCl to HNO to H 0,at o 3 2 90 C f o r one hour and then d i l u t e d to 10 ml with d i s t i l l e d water. Analyses were performed by using a J a r r e l l - A s h 0.75 meter g r a t i n g ICAP instrument. C .5 F i r e Assays A one-half assay ton (14.583 g) of p u l v e r i z e d sample was p l a c e d i n a c r u c i b l e with one scoop of standard f l u x , one-half tsp f l o u r , one i n q u a r t z and one tsp of borax cover. The mixture o was fused a t 1060 C f o r 45 minutes, cooled and g l a s s removed from the l e a d button. The l e a d button was p l a c e d on a preheated o cupel and l e f t f o r 30 minutes at 970 C. A f t e r c u p e l l a t i o n the r e s u l t i n g g o l d - s i l v e r bead was hammered f l a t and weighed. I f under 2.79 mg an a p p r o p r i a t e amount of i n q u a r t z was added and the bead r e c u p e l l e d . I t was then placed i n d i l u t e d (16%) n i t r i c a c i d -229-f o r 30 m i n u t e s to remove s i l v e r . The r e s u l t i n g g o l d bead was r i n s e d t w i c e w i t h d e i o n i z e d w a t e r , a n n e a l e d to remove t a r n i s h and w e i g h e d . T w i c e t h e w e i g h t i s e q u i v i l e n t t o t h e amount of g o l d i n t r o y ounces per s h o r t t o n . The f i r s t w e i g h t minus added i n q u a r t z and the g o l d bead, a l l d o u b l e d , i s e q i v i l e n t t o t h e amount of s i l v e r i n t r o y ounces per s h o r t t o n . -230-D. SUMMARY OF SAMPLE LOCATIONS AND ROCK TYPES - s e e F i g u r e 6 to l o c a t e DDH c o l l a r s - a b b r e v i a t i o n s : B = B a s a l t 2C = O u t e r C a r b o n a t e Zone 2B = I n t e r m e d i a t e C a r b o n a t e Zone 2A = I n n e r C a r b o n a t e Zone IB = O u t e r Carbon Zone IA = I n n e r Carbon Zone V = V e i n C = C h e r t S = S i l i c i f i e d C h e r t and S i l i c e o u s A r g i l l i t e -231-DDH 77-44 ( J e n n i e w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n ) NORTHING = 4278.00N EASTING = 1776.50E ELEVATION = 1418.00M AZIMUTH = 180.00° DIP = - 6 8 . 3 2 ° LENGTH = 83.27M SAMPLE NUMBER FROM TO TYPE 77-44-JH-10 60.05 61 .05 B 77-44-JH-9 61 .05 62 .45 B 77-44-JH-8 62 .45 64 .25 2C 77-44-JH-7 64 .25 65 .35 2B 77-44-JH-6 65 .35 66.25 2B 77-44-JH-5 66.25 67 .15 2B 77-44-JH-4 67 .15 68 .05 2B 77-44-JH-3 68 .05 68.75 2B 77-44-JH-2 68.75 69 .45 2B 7 7 - 4 4 - J H - l 69.45 70.15 2B 65029 70.15 70 .40 V 7 7 - 4 4 - J F - l 70.40 71 .40 2B 77-44-JF-2 71 .40 72 .40 2B 77-44-JF-3 72 .40 73.40 2B 77-44-JF-4 73 .40 74 .40 B 77-44-JF-5 74 .40 75 .40 B 77-44-JF-6 75 .40 76 .40 2B 77-44-JF-7 76 .40 77 .40 C - 2 3 2 -DDH 80-84 ( J e n n i e w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n ) NORTHING = 4399.88N EASTING = 1522 . 22E ELEVATION = 1399 . AZIMUTH = 201.84° DIP = -47 .96° LENGTH = 144 .50M SAMPLE NUMBER FROM TO TYP: 80-84-JH-5 113 .40 114.40 B 80-84-JH-4 114 .40 115 .40 B 80-84-JH-3 115.40 116 .10 2A A4608 116.10 116.30 V 80-84-JH-2 116 .30 117 .00 2A 8 0 - 8 4 - J H - l 117 .00 117 .70 2A A4611 117 .70 118 .30 V 8 0 - 8 4 - J C - l 118 .30 118 .60 2A A4612 118 .60 118 .90 V A4613 118.90 119 .40 V A4614 119.40 119.80 V 8 0 - 8 4 - J F - l 119 .80 120.70 2B 80-84-JF-2 120.70 121 .60 2B A4615 121.60 121 .70 V 80-84-JF-3 121 .70 122 . 70 2A A4616 122.70 122 .80 V 80-84-JF-4 122.80 123.60 2B A4617 123 .60 123 .80 V A4618 123 .80 124 .00 V 80-84-JF-5 124 .00 124.40 2A A4619 124 .40 124 .50 V 80-8-4-JF-6 124 .50 124.80 2A A4620 124.80 124.95 V 80-84-JF-7 124 .95 125 .60 2B 80-84-JF-8 125 .60 126 .50 B 80-84-JF-9 126 .50 127 .40 B -233-DDH 8 0 - 8 8 ( J e n n i e w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n ) NORTHING = 4401 .54N EASTING = 1702.29E ELEVATION = 1276.50M AZIMUTH = 197 .91° DIP = -48 .73° LENGTH = 135 .90M SAMPLE NUMBER FROM TO TYPE 80-88-JH-7 51 .60 52 .60 B 80-88-JH-6 52 .60 53 .60 B 80-88-JH-5 53 .60 55 .20 2C 80-88-JH-4 55.20 56 .70 2C 80-88-JH-3 56 .70 57 .10 2A 80-88-JH-2 57 .10 57 .90 2A 8 0 - 8 8 - J H - l 57 .90 58.70 2A A4716 58 .70 59.70 V 8 0 - 8 8 - J F - l 59 .70 60 .10 2A 80-88-JF-2 60 .10 61 .10 2A • 80-88-JF-3 61 .10 62 .60 2B 80-88-JF-4 62 .60 64.10 2B 80-88-JF-5 64.10 65 .50 2B A4717 65 .50 65 .65 V 80-88-JF-6 65 .65 67 .95 2B 80-88-JF-7 67 .95 70 .15 2B 80-88-JF-8 70.15 71 .75 B 80-88-JF-9 71.75 73 .25 B -23A-DDH 82-212 (McDame d o l o m i t e v e i n ) NORTHING = 4576.40N EASTING = 1860.95E ELEVATION = 1203 J AZIMUTH = 169.30° DIP = -7 .09° LENGTH = 97 .84M SAMPLE NUMBER FROM TO TYP: 82-212-MF-6 67 .30 67 .80 B 82-212-MF-5 67 .80 68 .80 B 82-212-MF-4 68.80 69 .80 2B 82-212-MF-3 69 .80 70 .80 2B 82-212-MF-2 70.80 71 .30 2B 82-212-MF-l 71 .30 71 .50 2B B8757 71 .50 72 .50 V B8758 72 .50 73 .50 V B8759 73 .50 74 .50 V B8760 74 .50 75 .30 V B8767 75 .30 76 .30 V B8768 76 .30 77 .40 V B8769 77 .40 79 .30 V B8770 79 .30 81 .00 V B8771 81 .00 82 .60 V B8762 82 .60 - 84 .10 V B8763 84 .10 85 .50 V B8764 85 .50 86.60 V 82-212-MH-l 86 .60 86 .90 2B 82-212-MH-2 86 .90 87 .90 2B 82-212-MH-3 87 .90 88 .90 2B 82-212-MH-4 88.90 89 .90 2B 82-212-MH-5 89 .90 90.90 2B 82-212-MH-6 90.90 91.90 2B 82-212-MH-7 91 .90 92 .90 2B 82-212-MH-8 92 .90 93 .90 2B 82-212-MH-9 93 .90 94 .90 B 82-212-MH-10 94 .90 95 .90 B -235-DDH 82-222 ( c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t and zone of s i l i c i f i e d c h e r t ) NORTHING = 4585.48N EASTING = 1891.72E ELEVATION = 1272 . 11M AZIMUTH = 0 2 7 . 7 3 ° DIP = - 5 6 . 8 3 ° LENGTH = 128.93M SAMPLE NUMBER FROM TO TYPE 82-222-BD-l 42 .00 43.20 B 82-222-BD-2 43 .20 44.40 2B 82-222-BD-3 44 .40 45 .60 2B 82-222-BD-4 45.60 46 .80 2B 82-222-BD-5 46 .80 47 .90 S 82-222-BD-6 47 .90 49 .00 S 82-222-BD-7 49 .00 50 .00 c 82-222-BD-8 50 .00 51 .00 c 82-222-BD-9 51 .00 51 .70 s 82-222-BD-10 51 .70 52 .70 s 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - l l 52 .70 53 .40 s 82-222-BD-12 53.40 54 .20 2A 82-222-BD-13 54 . 20 55 .00 S 82-222-BD-14 55 .00 55 .60 V 82-222-BD-15 55 .60 57 .20 S 82-222-BD-16 57 .20 58 .00 S 82-222-BD-17 58.00 58 .50 S 82-222-BD-18 58 .50 59 .40 s 82-222-BD-19 59.40 60.40 V -236-DDH 82-222 ( D e v i n e w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n ) NORTHING = 4585.48N EASTING = 1891.72E ELEVATION = 1272.11M AZIMUTH = 0 2 7 . 7 3 ° DIP = - 5 6 . 8 3 ° LENGTH = 128.93M SAMPLE NUMBER FROM TO TYPE 82-222-BD-31 73.60 75.40 S 82-222-BD-32 75.40 78.10 C 82-222-BD-33 78.10 80.90 C 82-222-BD-34(B8063) 80.90 81.10 V 82-222-BD-35 81.10 81.80 2B 82-222-BD-36 81.80 84.00 B 82-222-BD-37 84.00 85.00 2B 82-222-BD-38 85.00 86.00 2B 82-222-BD-39 ' 86.00 87.00 2B 82-222-BD-40 87.00 88.00 2B 82-222-BD-41 88.00 89.00 2A 82-222-BD-42 89.00 89.70 2A 82-222-BD-43(B8064) 89.70 91.50 V 82-222-BD-44 91.50 92.50 2A 82-222-BD-45 92.50 93.50 2A 82-222-BD-46 93.50 94.50 2A 82-222-BD-47 94.50 95.50 2A 82-222-BD-48 95.50 96.50 2A 82-222-BD-49 96.50 97.50 2B 82-222-BD-50 97.50 98.50 2B 82-222-BD-51 98.50 99.20 2B 82-222-BD-52 99.20 100.20 2A 82-222-BD-53 100.20 101.20 2A 82-222-BD-54 101.20 102.20 2B 82-222-BD-55 102.20 103.30 2B 82-222-BD-56(B8068) 103.30 103.40 V 82-222-BD-57 103.40 104.20 2B 82-222-BD-58 104.20 105.20 B 82-222-BD-59 105.20 106.20 B 82-222-BD-60 106.20 107.20 B 82-222-BD-61 107.20 108.20 B -237-DDH 8 2 - 2 2 8 ( z o n e of c h e r t , e x h a l i t e and b a s a l t ) NORTHING = 4544.33N EASTING = 1941 .06E ELEVATION = 1299 .' AZIMUTH = 328 .86° DIP = -62 .50° LENGTH = 214 .88M SAMPLE NUMBER FROM TO TYP: 82-228-BS-16 126 .00 127 .10 c 82-228-BS-17 127 .10 128.00 c 82-228-BS-18 128.00 129 .20 c 82-228-BS-19 129 .20 130.40 c 62-228-BS-20 130.40 131 .30 C 82-228-BS-21 131 .30 131.90 c 82-228-BS-22 131.90 132.50 c 82-228-BS-23 132 .50 133 .20 s 82-228-BS-24 133 .20 133.80 s 82-228-BS-25 133.80 134 .50 s 82-228-BS-26 134 .50 135.00 c 82-228-BS-27 135.00 135 .50 c 82-228-BS-28 135 .50 135 .80 c 82-228-BS-29 135 .80 136 .50 c 82-228-BS-30 136 .50 137.00 C 82-228-BS-31 137.00 137 .30 c 82-228-BS-32 137 .30 137 .50 c 82-228-BS-33 137 .50 137 .90 2C 82-228-BS-34 137.90 138 .40 2C 82-228-BS-35 138 .40 138.90 B 82-228-BS-36 138 .90 139 .40 B 82-228-BS-37 139 .40 139.90 B 82-228-BS-38 139 .90 140 .80 B 82-228-BS-39 140 .80 141.70 B 82-228-BS-40 141 .70 142.10 B 82-228-BS-41 142 .10 142 .60 B 82-228-BS-42 142.60 143 .10 B - 2 3 8 -DDH 82-247 ( A l i s o n w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n ) NORTHING = 4255.82N EASTING = 1740 . 89E ELEVATION = 1447 .: AZIMUTH = 168.33° DIP = -57 .38° LENGTH = 245 .97M SAMPLE NUMBER FROM TO TYP: 82-247-HW-13 232 .80 233 .30 B 82-247-HW-12 233 .30 233 .80 B 82-247-HW-ll 233 .80 234.30 2B 82-247-HW-lO 234 .30 234.80 2B 82-247-HW-9 234.80 235.30 2B 82-247-HW-8 235 .30 235.80 2B 82-247-HW-7 235.80 236 .30 IB 82-247-HW-6 236 .30 236.80 IB 82-247-HW-5 236.80 237 .30 IB 82-247-HW-4 237.30 237.80 IB 82-247-HW-3 237.80 237.90 V 82-247-HW-2 237.90 238.30 IB 82-247-HW-l 238.30 238 .70 IB C5616 238 .70 -239 .20 V C5617 239.20 240 .20 V C5618 240.20 240.50 V 82-247-FW-l 249 .50 240 .90 IB 82-247-FW-2 240 .90 241 .40 IB 82-247-FW-3 241.40 241 .90 IB 82-247-FW-4 241 .90 242.40 2B 82-247-FW-5 242.40 242 .90 2B 82-247-FW-6 242 .90 243 .40 2B 82-247-FW-7 243.40 243 .90 2B 82-247-FW-8 243.90 244 .80 2B 82-247-FW-9 244 .80 245 .70 2B - 2 3 9 -DDH 83-257 ( D e v i n e ? w h i t e q u a r t z v e i n ) NORTHING = 4524.82N EASTING = 1856 .95E ELEVATION = 1205. AZIMUTH = 3 2 0 . 4 3 ° DIP = -27 .12° LENGTH = 136 .25 SAMPLE NUMBER FROM TO TYP: 83-257-DH-9 111.50 112 .50 2C 83-257-DH-8 112 .50 112 .75 2B 83-257-DH-7 112 .75 113 .75 2C 83-257-DH-6 113.75 115 .25 2A 83-257-DH-5 115.25 116.25 2B 83-257-DH-4 116.25 117 .25 2B 83-257-DH-3 117 .25 118.25 2B 83-257-DH-2 118 .25 119.25 2B 83-257-DH-l 119.25 119.50 IB E2618 119 .50 121 .30 V E2619 121.30 121.80 V E2620 121 .80 122.80 V E2621 122.80 124.00 V E2622 124.00 125.00 V E2623 125 .00 126.00 V E2624 126 .00 126 .50 V 83-257-DF-l 126 .50 127.50 IA 83-257-DF-2 127 .50 128 .80 IA 83-257-DF-3 128 .80 129 .30 IB 83-257-DF-4 129.30 130.30 2A 83-257-DF-5 130 .30 131 .30 2A 83-257-DF-6 131.30 132 . 30 2A 83-257-DF-7 132 .30 133 .70 2C 83-257-DF-8 133 .70 134.70 B 83-257-DF-9 134.70 135 .70 B -2k0-ADDITIONAL DIAMOND DRILL HOLE INFORMATION DDH 83-283 (Sample 83-188: s e r i c i t e a t 191.IM) NORTHING = 4355.82N EASTING = 1618.53 ELEVATION = 1279 . 23M AZIMUTH = 175.37° DIP = 12.20° DDH 83-296 (Sample 83-327: p i s t a c h i o g r e e n m o t t l i n g a t 33.5M) NORTHING = 4331.34N EASTING = 1569.54E ELEVATION = 1279.84M AZIMUTH = 3 3 9 . 4 0 ° DIP = - 3 4 . 8 2 ° DDH 83-311 (Sample 83-322: e m e r a l d - g r e e n p o r p h y r o b l a s t - l i k e a g g r e g a t e s a t 200M) NORTHING = 4517.88N EASTING = 2051.64E ELEVATION = 1335.26M AZIMUTH = 3 3 4 . 9 9 ° DIP = 6 0 . 4 3 ° DDH 83-333 (Sample 83-250: s e r i c i t e a t 36.2M) NORTHING = 4011.90N EASTING = 2045.02E ELEVATION = 1500.00M AZIMUTH = 142.70° DIP = - 4 4 . 7 7 ° -241-E. DUPLICATE - ORIGINAL SAMPLE LOCATION -242-ICP/LOI/FA D u p l i c a t e Samples ICP/LOI/FA O r i g i n a l Sampl ( s a m p l e s s p l i t b e f o r e p u l v e r i z i n g ) 83-001-FD-l 83-001-HD-l 83-001-FD-2 82-222-BD-22 83-001-FD-3 83-257-DH-6 83-001-FD-4 80-88-JF-3 83-001-FD-5 82-247-FW-8 83-001-FD-6 80-88-JF-8 83-001-FD-7 82-212-MH-9 83-001-FD-8 83-257-DF-9 83-001-FD-9 82-228-BS-39 83-001-FD-10 82-228-BS-16 8 3 - 0 0 1 - F D - l l 82-222-BD-32 83-001-FD-12 82-222-BD-15 83-001-FD-13 82-247-HW-5 83-001-FD-14 82-228-BS-38 XRF D u p l i c a t e XRF O r i g i n a l ( s a m p l e s s p l i t a f t e r p u l v e r i z i n g ) 80-88-JH-1A 8 0 - 8 8 - J H - l 80-88-JH-2A 80-88-JH-2 82-212-MF-6A 82-212-MF-6 83-257-DF-1A 83-257-DF-l 83-257-DF-3A 83-257-DF-3 83-257-DF-6A 83-257-DF-6 83-257-DF-8A 83-257-DF-8 ICP D u p l i c a t e ( s a m p l e s s p l i t a A4608B A4615B B8063B B8763B B8770B B2622B ICP o r i g i n a l er p u l v e r i z i n g ) A4608A A4615A B8063A B8763A B8770A B2622A -243-FA D u p l i c a t e FA O r i g i n a l ( s a m p l e s s p l i t a f t e r p u l v e r i z i n g ) 7 7 - 4 4 - J F - 2 ( r e p e a t ) 7 7 - 4 4 - J H - l ( r e p e a t ) 7 7 - 4 4 - J H - 3 ( r e p e a t ) 8 0 - 8 4 - J F - l ( r e p e a t ) 8 0 - 8 4 - J F - 4 ( r e p e a t ) 8 0 - 8 8 - J F - l ( r e p e a t ) 8 2-212-MH-7(repeat) 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 4 2 ( r e p e a t ) 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 4 6 ( r e p e a t ) 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 5 1 ( r e p e a t ) 8 2 - 2 2 2 - B D - 5 2 ( r e p e a t ) 82- 247-HW-10(repeat) 83- 0 0 1 - F D - l ( r e p e a t ) 77-44-JF-2 7 7 - 4 4 - J H - l 77-44-JH-3 8 0 - 8 4 - J F - l 80-84-JF-4 8 0 - 8 8 - J F - l 82-212-MH-7 82-222-BD-42 82-222-BD-46 82-222-BD-51 82-222-BD-52 82- 247-HW-lO 83- 257-DF-8 -244-F. SUMMARY OF MASS BALANCE CALCULATIONS -245-TABLE F-1 Compositional changes f o r the trans f o r m a t i o n of noncarbonatized b a s a l t to carb o n a t i z e d b a s a l t . Based on volume change c o n s t r a i n t s ( F i g . 18A). R e s u l t s are i n weight percent of parent rock (assumed parent rock i s 80-88-JH-7). Absolute changes i n parentheses are in c l u d e d to show the e f f e c t s of volume changes. Volume f a c t o r s (F ) and s p e c i f i c g r a v i t i e s used i n c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d . S p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of assumed parent rock i s 2.95. Chemical analyses are contained i n Appendix B, Table B-1. PARAMETER 80-88 80-88 80-88 80-88 80-88 80-88 -JH-1 -JH-2 -JH-3 -JH-4 -JH-5 -JH-6 SI02 O.50 . 0 .75 12 .17 -1 .90 7 .82 1 .76 (-9.06 ) (-8 .35) (-6 .08) (0 .29) (4 .70) ( -1 .09) A1203 0 .07 0 .71 0 .25 0 .32 0 .09 0 .20 (-2.24) (-4 .1.2 ) (-4 .12) (1 .01 ) ( -0 .71 ) ( -0 .62) Ti02 0.64 -0 .07 -0 .08 0 .02 0 .03 -0 .01 (-0.32) (-0 .46) (-0 .46) (0 .08) ( -0 .05) ( -0 .08) Fe203 0.50 -0 .35 1 .56 -1 .20 -0 .33 0 .20 (-2.64) (-2 .36) (-2 .36) (-0 .72) ( -0 .95) ( -0 .46) MgO 0.01 -0 .42 1 .28 -1 .98 -1 .13 0 .26 (-1.33) (-1 .71 ) (-1 .33) (-1 .73) ( -1 .48) ( -0 .17) CaO 3.57 2 .15 4 .58 -4 .45 -5 .78 1 .47 (0.03) (-0 .20) (-0 .03) (-4 .17) ( -6 .04) (0 • 79) Na20 -1 .74 -1 .75 -1 .97 -2 .10 -2 .10 -0 .62 (-1 .81) (-1 .83 ) (-2 .01 ) (-2 .10) ( -2 .10) ( -0 .71 ) K20 3.35 3 .73 3 .12 0 .06 0 .50 0 .03 (2.14) (3 .01 ) (2 .14) (0 .06) (0 .47) (0 .02) V o l a t i l e s (14.32) (12 .26 ) (10 .74) (4 .64) (4 .48) (1 .18) Fv(Al203) 1 .28 1 .17 1 .66 1 .09 1 .06 1 .03 Fv(Ti02) 1 .34 1 .29 1 .81 1 110 1 .05 1 .04 F (Zr) 1 .23 1 .24 1 .59 1 .15 1 .09 1 .03 F (average) 1 .29 1 .23 1 .69 1 . 11 1 .07 1 .04 S Y G . 2.92 2 .95 2 .59 2 .53 2 .93 3 .02 . ICP - XRF COMPARISON a b b r e v i a t i o n s : X = noncarbonatized b a s a l t A = c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t -247-REGRESSION SUMMARY ICP = .0000 + .4387 XRF Corre.e-tlon Coefficient = .76783 . 0 2 .0 4 . 0 6 . 0 6 . 0 1 0 . 0 XRF BL I % 1 A l t e r e d Sc U n a l t e r e d B a s a l + -248-REGRESSION SUMMARY ICP = .0000 + .0364 XRF Correle-tlon Coefficient = .56095 • 6 .9 1.2 i.s XRF T I [ % ] A l t e r e d & U n a l t e r e d B a s a l + - 2 4 9 -REGRESSION SUMMARY ICP = .0000 + .2971 XRF Correle-tlon Coefficient = .65483 ' * 2 . 0 4 . 0 6 . 0 8 . 0 1 0 . 0 XRF FE t % 1 filtered 8c U n a l t e r e d B a s a l t -250-REGRESSION SUMMARY ICP = .0000 + .2885 XRF Correlotion Coefficient * .43468 4 0 0 . 0 8 0 0 . 0 1200 .0 1600 .0 XRF MN [ p p m ] A H e r e d & U n a l t e r e d B a s a l t - 2 5 1 -REGRESSION SUMMARY ICP = .0000 + .2607 XRF XRF MG [ % 1 filtered Sc U n a l t e r e d B a s a l t REGRESSION SUMMARY ICP * .0000 + .1498 XRF Correlation Coefficient = .78120 •» .5 1.1 1.5 2.B 2.5 XRF Nfl [ % ] A l t e r e d Sc U n a l t e r e d B a s a l t -253-REGRESSION SUMMARY ICP = .0000 + .2816 XRF Correlo-tlon Coefficient « .90047 . 0 . 6 1 .2 1.8 2.4 3.8 XRF K I % ] A l t e r e d & U n a l t e r e d B a s a l t -254-REGRESSION SUMMARY ICP = .0000 + .5965 XRF Correlation Coefficient = .83751 -255-REGRESSION SUMMARY ICP = .0000 + .5929 XRF Correlation Coefficient = .97172 . 0 0 4 5 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 135 .00 180 .00 2 2 5 . 0 0 XRF SR [ppm 1 A l t e r e d 8< U n a l t e r e d B a s a l t -256-REGRESSION SUMMARY ICP = .0000 + .3466 XRF 125 .00 _ 1 0 0 . 0 0 J £ a a ZD LJ Q_ LJ Correlation Coefficient = .45469 N = 125 .00 XRF CU [ppm ] A l t e r e d & U n a l t e r e d B a s a l t -257-REGRESSION SUMMARY ICP = .00013 + .2437 XRF Correlo-Mon Coefficient = .57169 .00 70.00 140.00 210.00 280.00 3S0.00 XRF CR [ppm ] filtered 8c U n a l t e r e d B a s a l t -258-REGRESSION SUMMARY ICP = .0000 + .2855 XRF Correlation Coefficient = .59717 .00 25.00 50.00 75.00 100.00 125.00 XRF NI [ppm 1 A l t e r e d & U n a l t e r e d B a s a l t -259-REGRESSION SUMMARY ICP = .0000 + .2200 XRF Correlation Coefficient = .17985 60.03 _ N = 4 8 . 0 0 J £ a a o L J Q_ L J 3 6 . 0 0 J 2 4 . 0 0 J 1 2 . 0 0 J . 0 0 12 .00 2 4 . 0 0 3 6 . 0 0 4 8 . 0 0 XRF CO [ppm 1 6 0 . 0 0 F i l t e r e d & U n a l t e r e d B a s a l t •260-REGRESSION SUMMARY ICP = .0000 + .3518 XRF Correlation Coefficient = .81849 x . 0 0 S 0 . 0 0 180 .00 2 7 0 . 0 0 3 6 0 . 0 0 4 5 0 . 0 0 XRF V [ppm 1 A l t e r e d & U n a l t e r e d B a s a l t - 2 6 1 -H. STATISTICS -262-T A B L E H-1 ERICKSON GOLD KINE CARBONATE ALTERED BASALT S I MPI E£ STATISTICS Element Unit n Mean Median Standard Lowest Highest Ccef. Deviat ion Value Value of Var. CU ppu 106 35. 7 34. 0 19. 9 7.0 139.0 . 56 PB' ppm 106 7.5 7.0 4. 5 1.0 33.0 .60 ZN ppu 126 35. 1 33.0 17. 3 6.0 130.0 . 49 AG o i / t 106 . 1 . 1 . 1 .0 . 4 . 89 NI ppa 106 £B. 5 £ 4 . 5 17. 3 1£.0 144. 0 .61 CO ppn 106 1£.£ 13.0 3.6 4.0 £ £ . 0 . £9 1 MN PPM 106 736.5 716.5 3£5 .£ 139.0 £735.0 . 44 1 FE X 106 3. 1 3 .£ 1. 1 .6 5.4 . 34 1 AS ppu 106 ££3 . 1 95.0 395.6 4.0 £512.0 1. 77 1 U ppn 106 3. 3 £ . 0 £ . 6 £ . 0 14.0 . 79 1 All oz/t 106 . 0 . 0 .0 . 0 .£ . 93 TH ppn 106 £ . 0 £ . 0 . 0 £ . 0 £ . 0 . ca 1 SR PPM 106 83.5 69. 0 50. 7 14.0 £03 .0 .61 CD ppn 106 5.9 4.0 5. a 1.0 £ 8 . 0 . 99 SB PPM 106 3.9 £ . 0 5.0 £ . 0 30.0 1. £9 BI PPn 106 £ . 5 £. 0 £ . 6 £ . 0 £ 0 . 0 1.03 1 V ppn 106 137.2 137.0 3£ .6 60.0 £ 3 6 . 0 .£4 ( CA X 106 3.6 3.4 1. 3 .7 8.3 .36 P X 106 . 0 . 0 . 0 .0 . 1 .56 LA ppa 106 £. 1 £ . 0 . 7 £ . 0 9.0 . 33 CR ppn 106 71.5 65.0 3£. 1 £ 1 . 0 £45 .0 .45 MG X 106 1.7 1. 4 1. 1 . 4 6.2 .61 1 BA ppn 106 309. 1 £ 0 9 . 5 299.5 16.0 1563.0- .97 TI X 106 . 0 . 0 . 0 .0 .£ . 95 1 8 ppn 106 37.6 3£. 0 £ 1 . 4 9.0 98.0 .57 1 AL X 106 £ . 9 £ . 8 .8 .6 4.9 . £9 1 NA X 106 . 1 . 1 . 1 .0 .6 1.08 1 K X 106 . 5 .£ .6 . 0 £.£ 1. 19 1 U ppn 106 3.0 £ . 0 £ . 0 £ . 0 13.0 . 67 NOTE - C o e f f i c i e n t of V a r i a t i o n « Standard Deviation / Mean ERICKSON BOLD MINE CARBONATE ALTERED BASALT SIMPLE STATISTICS l_OG (Basa 10 > T r~ a\ in «-forums* ci 1 Element Unit n Mean Median Standard LoMeat Highest Coef. Deviation Value Value of Var. 1 CU ppu 106 1 . 4 9 £ £ 1.3315 .2334 .8431 2. 1430 . 16 1 PB PPM 106 .7989 .8431 .2844 .0808 1.3183 .36 1 ZN PP" 106 1.4940 1.3183 .2223 .7782 8.1139 . 13 1 AG oz/t 106 -1.8792 -1.2218 .3304 -1.6990 - .3768 - . 2 6 1 NI ppn 106 1.4081 1.3891 . 1833 1.0792 2.1384 . 13 1 CO ppn 106 1.0643 1.1139 . 1464 .6021 1.3424 . 14 1 MN ppn 106 2.8289 2.8332 . 1894 2. 1430 3. 4370 .07 1 FE X 106 .4347 .3072 . 1893 - .2218 .7308 .42 1 AS ppn 106 1.9989 1.9777 .3613 .6021 3.4000 .28 1 U PPn 106 .4359 .3010 .2411 .3010 1.1461 .33 1 AU -oz/t 106 -1.6009 -1.6990 . 1973 -1.6990 -.6091 - . 18 TH ppn 106 .3010 .3010 . 0000 .3010 .3010 .00 i SR PPM 106 1.8319 1.8388 .8937 1. 1461 2.3073 . 16 I CD PPM 106 .6137 .6021 .3390 .0000 1.4472 .38 1 SB PPM 106 .4492 .3010 .2806 .3010 1.4771 .62 1 BI PPM 106 .3436 .3010 . 1698 . 3010 1.3010 .49 1 V ppn 106 £ . 1247 2.1367 . 1080 1. 7782 2. 3729 .03 1 CA X 106 .3236 .3293 . 1649 - . 1612 .9212 .31 1 P X 106 -1.6380 -1.6990 .2421 -2.0000 -1.0000 - . 13 1 LA ppn 106 .3072 .3010 .0634 .3010 .9342 .81 1 CR ppn 106 1.8134 1.8129 . 1842 1.3222 2.3892 . 10 1 MG X 106 . 1732 . 1384 .2381 - . 4339 .7931 1.36 1 BA ppn 106 £ . 2 6 3 2 2.3212 . V7"41 1.2041 3. 1940 .81 1 TI X 106 -1.6122 -1.6990 .2918 -2.0000 -.7212 - . 18 1 B ppn 106 1.3030 1.3032 .2323 .9342 1.9912 . 17 1 AL X 106 .4377 .4323 . 1380 ' - . 1938 .6928 .32 1 NA X 106 -1.3071 -1.3010 . 3344 . -2.0000 - .2076 - . 2 7 1 K X 106 -.7706 -.7371 .7421 -2.0000 .3302 - . 9 6 1 M PPn 106 .4163 .3010 .2024 .3010 1.1139 .49 NOTE - C o e f f i c i e n t of V a r i a t i o n - Standard Dev ia t ion / Mean TABLE H - 2 flatrii of Linear Corre lat ion Coef f ic ients for Carbonate Altered Basalt SlflF ELEIFEOT la I I Sr H I ID Pb Ha C. Aa As Cr Mi fa rk) Ca I 111 t: 0. .9133 8 0. .7728 0.B356 Sr 0. .6066 0.8041 0.7953 Al 0. 6326 0.6727 0.5947 0.5947 In 0, .5251 0.4859 0.5374 0.6143 0.4363 Pb 0. 5167 0.4659 0.5328 0.5474 0.3150 0.5360 Na 0. .4071 0.3809 0.5080 0.5706 0.2945 0.5410 0.2945 Cu' 0. .4672 0.4B05 0.4Z65 0.3674 0.3208 0.4449 0.1970 0.3826 Au 0. .4178 0.4773 0.2679 0.JI04 0.4172 O.2079 0.1778 0.2055 As 0. 1844 0.4390 0.31B5 0.3005 0.3756 0.3114 0.1035 0.0IB7 0.3227 0.2535 0.2711 Cr 0.2728 0.2405 0.2BII 0.2925 0.2179 0.2376 0.1662 0.2393 0, ,1517 0.1073 0, .2331 Hi 0.4261 0.4070 0.4826 0.4797 0.4162 0.5648 0.369B 0.3561 0. 3206 0.2672 0. 2316 0. 7082 fin 0.3602 0.2811 0.3425 0.4550 0.2294 0.3327 0.2514 0.0371 0. .0070 -0.0088 0, .1781 0, .4624 0. 4631 B, 0.3963 0.3995 0.6666 0.6073 0.1305 0.5371 0.4561 0.3997 0. 2341 0.0167 0. 0504 0. 4131 0. 5760 0. ,5544 Ca 0.2923 0.3102 0.5794 0.5523 0.2705 0.4150 0.3616 0.3256 0. 0518 -0.0520 0, .0216 0. ,2BB3 0. 3444 0. .4761 0. 7218 Fe 0.3506 0.3486 0.5775 0.4769 0.1398 0.5262 0.4115 0.3157 0. 3645 0.0462 -0. .1001 0. 2270 0. 5049 0. 5499 0. 7509 0.4539 Co 0.5547 0.4925 0.3423 0.5768 0.2538 0.6047 0.5132 0.3656 0. 5207 0.2731 0, .194B 0, .2915 0. ,6100 0. .4876 0. 6502 0.3204 0.7575 »9 0.0579 0.0775 -0.07B7 0.0025 0.0916 -0.0612 -0.I56B -0.0135 0. 0970 0.1764 0. 1697 0. 1937 0. 05B7 -0. 0215 -0. 5595 -0.2128 -0.1870 -0.0B49 BI -0.0556 -0.0641 0.0107 -0.0265 -0.0224 0.1579 -0.0350 0.1091 0. 0473 -0.0132 0. ,0516 -0. 06B5 -0. ,0712 -0. ,0664 -0. 1100 -0.0430 -0.0435 -0.0377 -0.0032 Sb -0.2B69 -0.3379 -O.4200 -0.3770 -0.0990 -0.1259 -0.3104 0.4272 -0. 1376 -0.1555 0. ,1964 0. ,I2B4 -0. .0450 0, .0501 -0. 2382 -0.1797 -0.3606 -0.2912 0.2507 -0.0473 V -0.4246 -0.4477 -0.3141 -0.3653 -0.IB22 -0.2971 -0.1278 -0.3467 -0. 1562 -0.2446 -0. 4052 -0. 2831 -0. 1785 0. OB05 -0. 0816 -0.0320 0.2318 0.0345 -0.2559 -0.0430 -0.0582 (1 -0.1094 0.1281 -0.2735 -0.7347 -0.21II -0.1510 -0.1230 -0.06BI -0. 0492 0.0481 -0. .0512 -0. 0128 -0. ,1113 -0, .3121 -0. ,2356 -0.4313 -0.2858 -0.2115 0.2136 -0.0B60 0.1704 -0.3IB9 II 0.2571 0.2614 -0.0522 0.0995 0.2436 -0.1323 -0.0365 -0.1025 0. 1212 0.3637 0. 2445 -0. 1041 0. ,0909 0. 2312 -0. 3678 -0.4114 -0.1599 -0.0591 0.14B3 -0.1164 -0.0511 0.0368 11 0.3850 0.3B05 0.0798 0.279B 0.(961 0.1B62 0.1364 0.1896 0. 2464 0.4I7B 0. .1844 -0. 1968 0. .0711 -0. .0712 -0. 2515 -0.1789 -0.0203 0.0036 0.0283 0.0173 -0.2222 0.0353 Cd 0.2847 0.2779 0.0260 0.1093 0.4750 0.3316 0.1922 0.1129 0. 1191 0.3104 o. 3005 -0.1470 0. ,0312 -0. 1311 -0. 3294 -0.2046 -0.1659 -0.2912 0.0642 0.2075 0.0329 0.2371 0.1530 0.0004 0.5929 0.0789 0.7875 0.6144 1. n » 106 lo r a l l c oe f f i c i e n t s 2. ii.05,1051=.178 3. Data MI th loqnorDal d i s t r i b u t i o n MIS logtransforaed TABLE H-3 E s t i m a t e d t h r e s h o l d s f o r p o t a s s i u m ICP a n a l y s e s w i t h aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n f o r c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t ( s e e F i g . 25 f o r p r o b a b i l i t y g r a p h ) . THRESHOLD3 T H R E S H 0 L D PRINCIPAL CONTENT PERCENT OF NUMBER OF CRITERIA OF RANGE TOTAL DATA SAMPLES A 28 30 2nd/B 0.700 % A + B 4 4 98th/A 0.540 % B 37 39 2nd/C & 0.030 % 98th/D C 31 33 TABLE H - 4 E s t i m a t e d t h r e s h o l d s f o r b a r i u m ICP A n a l y s e s w i t h aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n f o r c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t ( s e e F i g . 25 f o r p r o b a b i l i t y g r a p h ) . THRESHOLD3 T H R E S H 0 L D S PRINCIPAL CONTENT PERCENT OF NUMBER OF CRITERIA OF RANGE TOTAL DATA SAMPLES A 48 51 2nd/B 140 ppm A + B 14 15 98th/A 90 ppm B 38 40 TABLE H-5 E s t i m a t e d t h r e s h o l d s f o r boron ICP a n a l y s e s w i t h aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n f o r c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t ( s e e F i g . 26 f o r p r o b a b i l i t y g r a p h ) . THRESHOLD3 THRESHOLDS PRINCIPAL CONTENT PERCENT OF NUMBER OF CRITERIA OF RANGE TOTAL DATA SAMPLES A 30 32 2nd/B 40 ppm A + B 44 47 98th/A 19 ppm B 26 27 a. P e r c e n t i l e and p o p u l a t i o n a t which t h e s h o l d c h o s e n -265-TABLE H-6 E s t i m a t e d t h r e s h o l d s f o r s i l v e r ICP A n a l y s e s w i t h aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n f o r c a r b o n a t i z e d B a s a l t ( s e e F i g . 26 f o r p r o b a b i l i t y g r a p h ) . THRESHOLD8 THRESHOLDS PRINCIPAL CONTENT PERCENT OF NUMBER OF CRITERIA OF RANGE TOTAL DATA SAMPLES A 2nd B 2.5 ppm A + B 20 74 98th A 1.5 ppm B 70 74 TABLE H-7 E s t i m a t e d t h r e s h o l d s f o r a r s e n i c ICP a n a l y s e s w i t h aqua r e g i a d i g e s t i o n f o r c a r b o n a t i z e d b a s a l t ( s e e F i g . 27 f o r p r o b a b i l i t y g r a p h ) . THRESHOLD* THRESHOLDS PRINCIPAL CONTENT PERCENT OF NUMBER OF CRITERIA OF RANGE TOTAL DATA SAMPLES 2nd/B 430 ppm 2nd/C & 175 ppm 98th/A 98th/B 110 ppm 2nd/D & 15 ppm 98th/C A 7 7 A + B 21 22 B + C 10 11 C 54 57 D 8 9 a. P e r c e n t i l e and p o p u l a t i o n a t which t h e s h o l d c h o s e n -266-I . EXAMPLE DIAMOND DRILL LOG -267-mac _ 9 0 or Ul 5 PROJECT: EXAMPLE DfAMOND DRILL LOG GEOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION 5.0 I Overburden 5.0 - 98.Oj Basalt 5.0 - 90.0 : unaltered ( d e s c r i p t i o n ) 9 0 . 0 - 9 8 . 0 : carbonate a l t e r e d ( 9 0 . 0 - 9 6 . 0 : carbonate zones) ( d e s c r i p t i o n ) (96.0 - 9 8 . 0 : carbon zones) (descri pt ion) I I I I _ J 0 0 1 10 200 9 8 . 0 - Q u a r t z v e i n 1 0 0 . 0 1 ( d e s c r i p t i o n ) 1 0 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 B a s a l t 1 0 0 . 0 - 1 0 8 . 0 : c a r b o n a t e a l t e r e d ! ( 1 0 0 . 0 - 1 0 1 . 0 : c a r b o n z o n e s ) ( d e s c r i p t i o n ) ( 1 0 1 . 0 - 1 0 8 . 0 : c a r b o n a t e z o n e s ) ( d e s c r i p t i o n ) 1 0 8 . 0 - 2 0 0 . 0 *N0TE* u n a 1 t e r e d EOH  - f o r c a r b o n a t e z o n e s t h e t h r e e c o l -u m n s r e f e r t o t h e o u t e r , i n t e r m e d -i a t e a n d i n n e r z o n e s - f o r c a r b o n z o n e s t h e f i r s t t w o c o l -umns r e f e r t o t h e o u t e r a n d i n n e r c a r b o n z o n e s ; t h e t h i r d c o l u m n may b e i g n o r e d o r u s e d f o r c a r b o n v e i n s - i n t e n s i t y o f f r a c t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d c a r b o n i s n o t e d i n s t r u c t u r e HOLE No, -268-J . CHEMICAL STAINING METHODS - 2 6 9 -r e f . M i n e r a l S t a i n i n g T e s t s , C o l o r a d o S c h o o l of M i n e s , M i n e r a l I n d u s t r i e s B u l l e t i n , V o l . 3, No. 12, pp. 2-4. W.P. R e i d , 1969 CHEMICAL REAGENTS D i l u t e h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d Add 8-10 m i l l i l i t e r s of c o n c e n t r a t e d HC1 t o 100 m i l l i l i t e r s of d e m i n e r a l i z e d w a t e r . A l i z a r i n Red S ( s o d i u m a l i z a r i n s u l f o n a t e ) S o l u t i o n D i s s o l v e 0.1 gram of a l i z a r i n r e d S i n 100 m i l l i l i t e r s o f 0.2% HCL . P r e p a r e the HC1 s o l u t i o n by d i l u t i n g 2 m i l l i l i t e r s of c o n c e n t r a t e d HC1 w i t h 1000 m i l l i l i t e r s of d e m i n e r a l i z e d w a t e r . 5% Sodium H y d r o x i d e S o l u t i o n D i s s o l v e 5 grams o f sodium h y d r o x i d e i n 95 m i l l i l i t e r s o f d e m i n e r a l i z e d w a t e r . 30% Sodium H y d r o x i d e S o l u t i o n D i s s o l v e 30 grams of sodium h y d r o x i d e i n 70 m i l l i l i t e r s of d e m i n e r a l i z e d water . -270-PROCEDURE 1. E t c h t h e m a t e r i a l t o be s t a i n e d i n d i l u t e HCL. I f the spe c i m e n e f f e r v e s c e s b r i s k l y i n t h e c o l d s o l u t i o n , a l l o w i t to r e a c t f o r about 3 m i n u t e s . A r a g o n i t e (CaCO ), c a l c i t e (CaCO ), 3 3 and w i t h e r i t e (BaCO ) r e a c t i n t h i s manner. A n k e r i t e 3 [Ca(Fe,Mg,Mn)(CO ) ], c e r u s s i t e (PbCO ), r h o d o c h r o s i t e (MnCO ), 3 2 3 3 s m i t h s o n i t e (ZnCO ), and s t r o n t i a n i t e (SrCO ) a r e p o o r l y r e a c t i v e 3 3 w i t h c o l d a c i d . D o l o m i t e [CaMg(CO ) ] , m a g n e s i t e (MgCO ) and 3 2 3 s i d e r i t e (FeCO ) a r e i n e r t i n c o l d s o l u t i o n s . E t c h n o n r e a c t i v e 3 sp e c i m e n s w i t h h o t d i l u t e HCL f o r 30 s e c o n d s p r i o r t o s t a i n i n g . 2. Cover the e t c h e d s u r f a c e w i t h c o l d a l i z a r i n r e d S s o l u t i o n and a l l o w i t to r e a c t f o r about 5 m i n u t e s . Pour o f f t h e s o l u t i o n and wash t h e e t c h e d s u r f a c e c a r e f u l l y by d e c a n t a t i o n . C a l c i t e , w i t h e r i t e , h i g h magnesium c a l c i t e and a r a g o n i t e s t a i n a deep r e d . A n k e r i t e and f e r r o a n d o l o m i t e , s t r o n t i a n i t e and c e r u s s i t e a r e s t a i n e d p u r p l e , w h i l e a n h y d r i t e (CaSO ), s i d e r i t e , d o l o m i t e , 4 r h o d o c h r o s i t e , m a g n e s i t e , s m i t h s o n i t e and gypsum (CaSO *2H 0) do 4 2 not s t a i n a t a l l . 3. Repeat s t e p 2 t e s t u s i n g e q u a l volumes of t h e a l i z a r i n r e d S and 30% sodium h y d r o x i d e s o l u t i o n s . B o i l f o r 5 m i n u t e s . The m i n e r a l s t h a t were p r e v i o u s l y u n s t a i n e d by t h e a l i z a r i n r e d S s o l u t i o n w i l l a l l be s t a i n e d e x c e p t f o r a n h y d r i t e , w h i c h r e m a i n s u n a l t e r e d . S i d e r i t e i s s t a i n e d a dark brown t o b l a c k . D o l o m i t e , r h o d o c h r o s i t e , m a g n e s i t e , gypsum and s m i t h s o n i t e s t a i n p u r p l e . -271-4. To f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d o l o m i t e , r h o d o c h r o s i t e , m a g n e s i t e , gypsum and s m i t h s o n i t e , b o i l t h e m a t e r i a l i n a s o l u t i o n made of e q u a l volumes of a l i z a r i n r e d S and 5% sodium h y d r o x i d e s o l u t i o n s . D o l o m i t e and r h o d o c h r o s i t e r e m a i n u n s t a i n e d w h i l e m a g n e s i t e , gypsum and s m i t h s o n i t e s t a i n p u r p l e . 5. The a n k e r i t e and f e r r o a n d o l o m i t e , c e r u s s i t e and s t r o n t i a n i t e t h a t s t a i n e d p u r p l e i n the a l i z a r i n r e d S s o l u t i o n become s t a i n e d d a r k p u r p l e , d a r k red-brown and u n s t a i n e d r e s p e c t i v e l y when b o i l e d f o r 5 minute-s i n t h e a l i z a r i n r e d S and 30% sodium h y d r o x i d e s o l u t i o n s . -272-

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