Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Palynologic zonation and correlation of the Peace River coalfield, northeastern British Columbia 1987

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1987_A6_7 B72.pdf
UBC_1987_A6_7 B72.pdf [ 8.39MB ]
UBC_1987_A6_7 B72.pdf
Metadata
JSON: 1.0052785.json
JSON-LD: 1.0052785+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0052785.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0052785+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0052785+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0052785+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0052785.ris

Full Text

PALYNOLOGIC ZONATION AND CORRELATION OF THE PEACE RIVER COALFIELD, NORTHEASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA By JANE CATHERINE BROATCH B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1987 (C) Jane C a t h e r i n e B r o a t c h , 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date October. 14. 1987 i i ABSTRACT The s t r a t a o f t h e Peace R i v e r c o a l f i e l d , i n t h e F o o t h i l l s o f n o r t h e a s t e n B r i t i s h Columbia, formed i n a t e c t o n i c a l l y a c t i v e r e g i o n near t h e w e s t e r n margin o f t h e c r a t o n . The complex p a t t e r n o f i n t e r t o n g u i n g marine and non-marine s t r a t a which r e s u l t e d was s u b s e q u e n t l y deformed by f o l d i n g and t h r u s t i n g , making i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c o r r e l a - t i o n e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . The p r e s e n t p a l y n o l o g i c s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n i n an attempt t o r e s o l v e some o f t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c problems, where s e d i m e n t o l o g i c a l and g e o p h y s i c a l methods have f a i l e d . The p r i m a r y aim o f t h e s t u d y i s t o g e n e r a t e a composite p a l y n o - l o g i c s e c t i o n t h a t can be used t o zone, c o r r e l a t e and d a t e the c o a l - b e a r i n g s t r a t a i n t h e s o u t h e r n h a l f o f t h e c o a l - f i e l d . E l e v e n d r i l l h o l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g n e a r l y 3000 meters o f s e c t i o n from t h e G e t h i n g , Moosebar and Gates f o r m a t i o n s were sampled a t 15 meter i n t e r v a l s . The 199 samples examined f o r palynomorphs y i e l d e d a t o t a l assemblage c o n t a i n i n g 232 p o l l e n and spore s p e c i e s , 96 d i n o f l a g e l l a t e and a c r i t a r c h s p e c i e s and 22 a l g a l c y s t and f u n g a l spore s p e c i e s . 256 of the 350 s p e c i e s a r e r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e w i t h i n the s e c t i o n , and have been used t o zone and c o r r e l a t e t h e s t r a t a . Open mari n e , r e s t r i c t e d marine and non-marine h o r i z o n s are i d e n t i f i e d on t h e b a s i s o f type and r e l a t i v e abundance of palynomorphs. C o n t a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e examined and i i i c l a r i f i e d , t h e p a l y n o l o g i c s e c t i o n i s compared w i t h l i t h o - l o g i c i n f o r m a t i o n , and a g e o l o g i c age i s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the r o c k s . The G e t h i n g F o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a t h i n b a s a l marine u n i t , o v e r l a i n by a t h i c k non-marine s u c c e s s i o n c h a r a c - t e r i z e d by poor p r e s e r v a t i o n o f palynomorphs, and two c l e a r l y d e f i n e d marine tongues which o c c u r i n t h e n o r t h e r n and upper h a l f o f t h e f o r m a t i o n . The marine u n i t a t t h e base o f t h e u n i t d e f i n e s the Gething-Cadomin c o n t a c t . The marine tongues near t h e t o p o f t h e f o r m a t i o n a r e p a l y n o - l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from t h e o v e r l y i n g marine s t r a t a o f t h e Moosebar F o r m a t i o n , and r e p r e s e n t a unique t r a n s g r e s s i v e phase. The lower h a l f o f t h e Moosebar F o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f marine s h a l e s , w i t h an abundant and d i v e r s e assemblage o f d i n o c y s t s and a c r i t a r c h s , r e p r e s e n t i n g open marine con- d i t i o n s f o r most of t h i s phase o f d e p o s i t i o n . The upper h a l f o f t h e f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y b a r r e n , c o a rsening-upward sequence which i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h energy (non-marine) r e g r e s s i v e phase. The Gates F o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a complex p a t t e r n o f i n t e r t o n g u i n g marine and non-marine s t r a t a . The lower h a l f of t h e Gates i s open marine i n t h e r e g i o n o f Bullmoose Mt., and i n t e r t o n g u i n g marine and non-marine i n t h e r e g i o n from W o l v e r i n e R i v e r t o Monkman Pass. I n the s o u t h e a s t , the t e r r e s t r i a l s t r a t a o c c u r s between two r e s t i c t e d marine zones which a r e c o n t i n u o u s w i t h the open marine s t r a t a t o i v the n o r t h w e s t . The r e s t r i c t e d marine u n i t which u n d e r l i e s the t e r r e s t r i a l s t r a t a , has been p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d i n whole o r i n p a r t as t h e 'Torrens Member', and i s c o n s i d e r e d here t o be p a r t o f t h e Gates F o r m a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f p a l y n o l o g i c e v i d e n c e . The b a s a l marine/non-marine u n i t i s o v e r l a i n by a m i d d l e t e r r e s t r i a l and m i d d l e marine u n i t , and an upper t e r r e s t r i a l and upper marine u n i t . The e n t i r e G e t h i n g t h r o u g h Gates s e c t i o n i s m i d d l e A l b i a n t o e a r l y l a t e A l b i a n i n age, based on the f i r s t appearance o f e a r l y angiosperm monocolpate and t r i c o l p a t e g r a i n s . V TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE i ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS V LIST OF FIGURES v i i LIST OF PLATES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x INTRODUCTION 1 PREVIOUS WORK 6 S t r a t i g r a p h y 6 P a l e o n t o l o g y 7 P a l y n o l o g y 7 PALEOGEOGRAPHY 8 ; STRATIGRAPHY 10 Cadomin F o r m a t i o n 12 G e t h i n g F o r m a t i o n 14 Moosebar F o r m a t i o n 16 Gates F o r m a t i o n 18 METHODS 20 Sampling . 20 P r o c e s s i n g 25 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f S p e c i e s 27 Data M a n i p u l a t i o n 28 Photography 29 RESULTS 30 Sample Content 30 Z o n a t i o n & C o r r e l a t i o n 32 v i G e t h i n g F o r m a t i o n 40 Moosebar F o r m a t i o n 43 Gates F o r m a t i o n 47 Age D e t e r m i n a t i o n 56 SUMMARY... 57 CONCLUSIONS 62 REFERENCES . 63 PLATES • 68 APPENDIX I • 86 APPENDIX I I 93 v i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Map showing location of study area (shaded) in B.C. F o o t h i l l s 2 Figure 2: Stratigraphic Nomenclature of the Peace River C o a l f i e l d 5 Figure 3: Lower Cretaceous Time Scale 9 Figure 4: Text-Figures 1 & 2 of Williams & Stelck (1975) 11 Figure 5: Detailed map of study area showing locations of d r i l l hole and surface sections 21 Figure 6: NW-SE cross section showing d r i l l hole d i s t r i b u t i o n 23 Figure 7: NW-SE palynologic cross section containing J^~C0ff^^-, d r i l l hole data ia-p©e-k-et Figure 8: Generalized bio s t r a t i g r a p h i c zonation of the Peace River c o a l f i e l d 33 Figure 9: NW-SE palynologic cross section 39 Figure 10: Li t h o l o g i c c o r r e l a t i o n with palynologic cross section (modified a f t e r Carmichael, 1983).... 45 Figure 11: Data for DDH BPM-2 i n - pook-ot Figure 12: Data for DDH BP-29 -i-n—poek-et Figure 13: Data for DDH QWD-7403 & QBD-7402 ift-poeket Figure 14: Data for DDH MDD-7808, MDD-7804 & MDD-7821 «-peeket Figure 15: Data for DDH BWD-76-4 & BD-7802 tn-p©eket Figure 16: Data for DDH BXD-76-7 & BD-76-1 ^-i-n—pocket v i i i LIST OF PLATES P l a t e 1 : GETHING FORMATION 69 P l a t e 2: MOOSEBAR FORMATION 71 P l a t e 3: MOOSEBAR & GATES FORMATIONS 73 P l a t e 4: GATES FORMATION - B a s a l Marine/Non-Marine U n i t . 75 P l a t e 5: GATES FORMATION - M i d d l e T e r r e s t r i a l U n i t 77 P l a t e 6: GATES FORMATION - M i d d l e Marine U n i t 79 P l a t e 7: GATES FORMATION - Upper T e r r e s t r i a l U n i t 81 P l a t e 8: GATES FORMATION - Upper T e r r e s t r i a l & Upper Marine U n i t s 83 P l a t e 9: GATES FORMATION - Upper Marine U n i t 85 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f Energy, Mines & P e t r o l e u m Resources f o r t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . I am p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e b t e d t o Dr. W.J. M c M i l l a n , w i t h o u t whose s u p p o r t t h i s p r o j e c t would not have been p o s s i b l e . I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o thank Dr. Glenn Rouse, who p r o v i d e d h i s s u p p o r t and e x p e r t i s e , and who remained e n t h u s i a s t i c and p a t i e n t beyond a l l r e a s o n a b l e e x p e c t a t i o n s . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o him f o r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a t t e n d t h e Western Canada C o a l G e o s c i e n c e Forum i n 1982 and 1986. A d d i t i o n a l t h a n k s t o M. S u l l i v a n , who a s s i s t e d w i t h t h e - d r a f t i n g , F.C. MacKay, f o r h e r h e l p i n t h e darkroom, and E. Montgomery, who p r i n t e d t h e f i n a l p l a t e s . Thanks a r e a l s o due t o J.E. deSequera f o r t h e use o f h i s computer, and h i s p a t i e n t a s s i s t a n c e . F i n a l l y , my l o v e and thanks t o my husband, D a v i d G i l l i s f o r h i s s u p p o r t and t o l e r a n c e . 1 INTRODUCTION B r i t i s h Columbia's Peace R i v e r c o a l f i e l d l i e s i n t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n F o o t h i l l s midway between Dawson Creek and P r i n c e George. I t t r e n d s from Saxon R i d g e , near t h e B.C. - A l b e r t a b o r d e r , n o r t h w e s t t o Carbon Creek f o r a s t r i k e l e n g t h o f 250 km ( F i g . 1 ) . The s t r a t a o f t h e c o a l f i e l d formed a l o n g t h e southwest margin o f t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s C l e a r w a t e r Sea d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f major t e c t o n i s m c e n t r e d j u s t west o f t h e c r a t o n . S u c c e s s i v e t r a n s g r e s s i o n s from t h e n o r t h - n o r t h w e s t have r e s u l t e d i n a complex p a t t e r n o f i n t e r t o n g u i n g m a r i n e , m a r g i n a l marine and c o a l - b e a r i n g t e r r e s t r i a l r o c k s . The Laramide Orogeny, from L a t e C r e t a c e o u s t o O l i g o c e n e t i m e , compressed t h e s t r a t a i n a s e r i e s o f n o r t h w e s t - s o u t h e a s t t r e n d i n g f o l d s and t h r u s t s . Subsequent e r o s i o n has exposed economic c o a l d e p o s i t s i n p r o g r e s s i v e l y younger r o c k s from n o r t h t o s o u t h . C o a l was f i r s t r e p o r t e d i n t h e Peace R i v e r a r e a i n t h e 1800's by e a r l y e x p l o r e r s . I n t h e e a r l y 1900's g e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were i n i t i a t e d by t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y o f Mines f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t s o f g o l d and p e t r o l e u m , b u t e x t e n s i v e e x p l o r a t i o n f o r mine a b l e c o a l d i d not b e g i n u n t i l t h e l a t e 1960*s and e a r l y 1970's ( S t o t t , 1968). S u r f a c e mapping and d r i l l programs c a r r i e d o u t by more th a n a dozen companies have e s t a b l i s h e d c o k i n g and t h e r m a l c o a l r e s o u r c e s i n exc e s s of 8 b i l l i o n tonnes ( C a r m i c h a e l , 1983) and r e s e r v e s o f s e v e r a l hundred m i l l i o n tonnes ( S c h i l l e r e t a l , 1983). 2 F i g u r e 1 Map showing l o c a t i o n of study area (shaded) i n B.C. F o o t h i l l s . 3 Although much work has been done, and the general stratigraphy i s f a i r l y well understood, controversies s t i l l e xist i n int e r p r e t a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n of the s t r a t a . This i s r e f l e c t e d i n the two sets of nomenclature s t i l l i n use within the c o a l f i e l d (Fig. 2 ) , and the recent surge of newly proposed d i v i s i o n s of the established units (Duff & G i l c h r i s t , 1981; McLean, 1982; Carmichael, 1983). The d i f f i c u l t i e s of interpretation and co r r e l a t i o n are largely the r e s u l t of two factors; the rapidl y changing facies and a paucity of well preserved and/or s t r a t i g r a p h i - c a l l y useful f o s s i l s . Facies changes within the c o a l f i e l d have resulted i n gradational or intertonguing relationships at several contact boundaries causing inconsistent d i v i s i o n of the strata from one region to another. L i t h o l o g i c a l l y consistent and e a s i l y recognizable s t r a t i g r a p h i c horizons are rare, t h i n and usually i d e n t i f i a b l e only on geophysical logs (eg. tonsteins, bentonite l a y e r s ) . To date f o s s i l information has been of l i t t l e value i n a s s i s t i n g recog- n i t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n of the s t r a t a . Within the c o a l f i e l d paleontological studies have been limited i n scope, and s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y useful, well preserved f o s s i l s are rare. Information regarding the ranges of those that can be used is not yet complete enough to allow r e l i a b l e dating and cor r e l a t i o n of the rocks with outlying areas. The present palynological study was undertaken i n the summer of 1981 with the support of the B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. The primary objec- 4 t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e s t a b l i s h a compos i t e b i o s t r a t - i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n based on b o t h t h e t e r r e s t r i a l p o l l e n and s p o r e s , and t h e marine d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t s from t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s c o a l - b e a r i n g s t r a t a i n t h e s o u t h e r n h a l f o f t h e c o a l f i e l d . The c o m p o s i t e s e c t i o n i s t h e n used t o d e t e r m i n e whether b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c z o n a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e , and how i t r e l a t e s t o known and proposed r o c k s t r a t i g r a p h i c d i v i s i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n s used t o e s t a b l i s h t h e c o m p o s i t e s e c t i o n a r e c o r r e l a t e d a c r o s s t h e s t u d y a r e a , and marine and non- marine f a c i e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n t h e f o r m a t i o n s . The r o c k s o f t h e Peace R i v e r c o a l f i e l d a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d t o a s t u d y o f t h i s t y p e f o r a number o f r e a s o n s : t h e - e v o l u t i o n o f b o t h l a n d p l a n t s and d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s d u r i n g E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s t i m e was r a p i d , w i t h t h e appearance o f f l o w e r i n g p l a n t s (angiosperms) o c c u r i n g toward t h e end o f t h i s p e r i o d ( S i n g h , 1975; Hughes e t a l ; 1979). T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n a d i v e r s i t y o f s p e c i e s w i t h r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t r a n g e s . Futhermore, t h e presence o f humic c o a l s i n t h e r e g i o n has p r o v i d e d c o n d i t i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a r i c h p o l l e n and spore assemblage. Palynomorphs a r e composed o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l ( s p o r o p o l l e n i n ) r e s i s t a n t t o d e s t r u c t i o n o r a l t e r a t i o n e x c e p t under c o n d i t i o n s o f s e v e r e ( b u r i a l ) t e m p e r a t u r e o r a b r a s i o n . P o l l e n and s p o r e s a r e , i n g e n e r a l , u b i q u i t o u s i n many f i n e - g r a i n e d t e r r e s t r i a l and n e a r s h o r e r o c k s r e g a r d l e s s o f environment. I n a d d i t i o n , marine and t e r r e s t r i a l palynomorphs a r e u s u a l l y mixed i n 5 nearshore f a d e s , p r o v i d i n g the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o r r e l a t i o n between the two. HUGHES STOTT DUFF & GILCHRIST McLEAN & WALL 1 967 1 978 NW 1 981 SE 1 981 Hulcross Fm Hulcross Fm Hulcross Fm M n n n f a i n o O O E b Upper S i l t y Mb - Park Fm ̂ " V ^ JO HN  Gates Fm JO HN  Gates Fm N H 0 I te s Gates . Marine ^ S a n ? y T o n g u e ' ^ ? ' C o a ^ -bearing ^ Mb e b Grande Cache Mb CO CO EH CO EH CO o Cr k Torrens Mb EH EH M Torrens Mb CE O « Moosebar « o Moosebar CH « (0 J3 Spieker Mb E CE O b b o b d) Mudstone Mb w a: 0 > ^ :T A<  Fm Fm CO 0 0 Lower <5i 1 t-v U R M O ; u r-i Moosebar Mb LO WE R CR E s Mb \ UR M O ; s LO WE R CR E ER  G P Gething Fm HE AD  G P Gething Fm iE AD  G P Chamberlain Mb Gething Fm Gladstone Fm M •J W co < Dresser Fm ;! B U L  Cadomin Fm 11  B U L : Cadomin Fm Cadomin Fm u Brenot Fm ;! B U L  11  B U L : Minnes Fm Minnes Fm Nikanassin Fm F i g u r e 2 - S t r a t i g r a p h i c Nomenclature o f the Peace R i v e r C o a l f i e l d 6 PREVIOUS WORK S t r a t i g r a p h y - The f i r s t d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s o f t h e s t r a t i - graphy i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Peace R i v e r d i s t r i c t were i n i t i a t e d by t h e G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada i n 1917 f o l l o w - i n g r e p o r t s by e a r l y e x p l o r e r s and f u r t r a d e r s o f g o l d , p e t r o l e u m , and c o a l i n t h e a r e a . Much o f t h e work was c a r r i e d o u t by F.H. McLearn(1921, 1923, 1940) who c o n t i n u e d h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s s t r a t a i n t o t h e 1950's. When t h e A l b e r t a Study Group p u b l i s h e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s u b s u r f a c e g e o l o g y ( A l t a . Study Group, 1954) t h e groundwork was l a i d f o r a l l subsequent s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n v e s - t i g a t i o n s . I n o n going s t u d i e s , D.F. S t o t t (1962, 1968, 1973, 1974, 1975 & 1981) has proposed and r e v i s e d t h e nomen- c l a t u r e c u r r e n t l y i n use t h r o u g h o u t most o f t h e c o a l f i e l d . C o n c u r r e n t work by J.E. Hughes (1964, 1967) has a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s t r a t i g r a p h y , and p r o v i d e s a w o r k a b l e l o c a l n o menclature f o r t h e Peace and P i n e V a l l e y s . More r e c e n t l y Duff and G i l c h r i s t (1981) have proposed a d e t a i l e d d i v i s i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e s t r a t a based on g e o p h y s i c a l d a t a from t h e numerous h o l e s d r i l l e d d u r i n g c o a l and gas e x p l o r a t i o n . Other s t u d i e s have c o n c e n t r a t e d on s p e c i f i c f o r m a t i o n s and t h e i r g e o l o g i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . McLean (1977) examined the s t r a t i g r a p h y , s e d i m e n t o l o g y and t e c t o n i c i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e Cadomin F o r m a t i o n . L e c k i e ( 1 981), L e c k i e and Walker (1982), and C a r m i c h a e l (1983) have i n t e r - p r e t e d t h e d e p o s i t i o n a l environments o f t h e Moosebar and 7 Gates F o r m a t i o n s based on d e t a i l e d s e d i m e n t o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . T a y l o r and Walker (1984) c a r r i e d o u t a s i m i l a r s t u d y o f t h e d e p o s i t i o n a l e nvironments and paleogeography o f t h e Moosebar F o r m a t i o n and e q u i v a l e n t s t r a t a . P a l e o n t o l o g y - L o c a l p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s aimed a t d a t i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g t h e r o c k s w i t h o u t l y i n g a r e a s have been c a r r i e d o u t by a number o f i n v e s t i g a t o r s . McLearn i n c l u d e d f a u n a l s t u d i e s i n much o f h i s s t r a t i g r a p h i c work and i n s e p a r a t e works (McLearn; 1931, 1948) and prompted f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n by S t e r n b e r g (1932) o f t h e d i n o s a u r t r a c k s i n Peace R i v e r Canyon. B e l l (1956) d i d an e x t e n s i v e s t u d y o f the m e g a f l o r a from t h e s e and o t h e r Lower C r e t a c e o u s r o c k s i n w e s t e r n Canada. Chamney ( r e p o r t e d i n S t o t t , 1968) and S t e l c k , e t a l (1956) i d e n t i f i e d f o r a m i n i f e r a from t h e marine Moosebar F o r m a t i o n , and S t e l c k i d e n t i f i e d marine macrofauna r e t r i e v e d from c o r e by Duff and G i l c h r i s t ( 1 9 8 1). P a l y n o l o g y - The c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s s e c t i o n i n t h e n o r t h e a s t c o a l f i e l d w i t h s i m i l a r aged r o c k s i n t h e A r c t i c and w e s t e r n I n t e r i o r o f Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s has been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d (see P a l e o g e o g r a p h y ) . P a l y n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f t h e P l a i n s r e g i o n o f Canada have been c a r r i e d o ut by Pocock (1962,1976), S i n g h (1964, 1971, 1975), N o r r i s (1967, 1982), Steeves & W i l k i n s (1967), B r i d e a u x (1971), P l a y f o r d ( 1 9 71), N o r r i s , e t a l (1975), N o r r i s , e t a l (1976) and Burden (1984). South o f t h e Canadian b o r d e r work has been done by Hedlund & N o r r i s 8 (1-968), and P a d e n - P h i l l i p s & F e l i x (1971). Contemporaneous r o c k s from A r c t i c Canada have been examined by Manum & Cookson ( 1 9 6 4 ) , McGregor (1965), B r i d e a u x & M c l n t y r e (1975), B r i d e a u x & F i s h e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , and Pocock (1976). PALEOGEOGRAPHY A c c o r d i n g t o W i l l i a m s and S t e l c k (1975) t h e d e p o s i t s o f the Peace R i v e r c o a l f i e l d formed a l o n g t h e w e s t e r n margin o f t h e Rocky Mountain F o r e l a n d B a s i n . The s t r a t a r e p r e s e n t p a r t o f t h e J u r a s s i c - C r e t a c e o u s c l a s t i c wedge shed e a s t w a r d onto t h e e r a t o n d u r i n g a major o r o g e n i c phase i n t h e C o r d i l l e r a n o f t e r r a i n a c c r e t i o n and a r c magmatism a s s o c i - a t e d w i t h s u b d u c t i o n . D u r i n g L a t e J u r a s s i c t i m e t h e c r a t o n was emergent. With a r i s i n g C o r d i l l e r a t o t h e west, t h e i n t e r i o r remained con n e c t e d t o t h e P a c i f i c Ocean t h r o u g h embayments which re a c h e d as f a r i n l a n d an t h e B.C. - A l b e r t a b o r d e r ( W i l l i a m s & S t e l c k , 1975). A l a r g e f l u v i a l system d r a i n i n g much o f the c e n t r a l and w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s f l o w e d n o r t h and northwestward near t h e c o n t i n e n t a l margin and d r a i n e d i n t o t h e P a c i f i c , p r o b a b l y t h r o u g h t h e Peace R i v e r Embayment ( T e x t - f i g . 1 o f W i l l i a m s & S t e l c k , 1975: r e p r o d u c e d i n F i g . 4 ) . Upper J u r a s s i c d e p o s i t s o f mixed marine and t e r r e s t r i a l o r i g i n a r e found i n t h e N i k i n a s s i n and Minnes F o r m a t i o n s o f t h i s r e g i o n . U p l i f t t o t h e west may have caused temporary down- warping i n t h e f o r e l a n d b a s i n d u r i n g Neocomian (Lower 9 Cretaceous) time (Fig. 3) r e s u l t i n g i n a gradient change i n the f l u v i a l system. Rapid erosion occurred and marine waters began to transgress into the lowlands. The con- nection to the P a c i f i c remained open u n t i l l ate Neocomian time, and possibly as la t e as Early Aptian (Williams & Stelck, 1975) but was cut of f when u p l i f t caused rapid deposition of e l a s t i c s eastward onto the craton, which may have choked the f l u v i a l system and diverted i t northward to drain into the A r c t i c region. w D O W u < EH W PH U « w o 2 < H s o u o w 2 ALBIAN APTIAN BARREMIAN HAUTERIVIAN VALANGINIAN BERRIASIAN 100 MY 118 MY 141 MY Figure 3 - Lower Cretaceous Time Scale 1 0 By A p t i a n t i m e ( F i g . 3) t h e C o r d i l l e r a had become t h e main s o u r c e o f e l a s t i c s which were b e i n g reworked by t h e r i v e r s . Rocks o f t h e B u l l h e a d Group ( F i g . 2) were l i k e l y l a i d down d u r i n g t h i s phase o f a g g r a d a t i o n . E u s t a t i c changes i n sea l e v e l r e s u l t e d i n f l o o d i n g o f t h e c o n t i n e n t a l margins and t h e l o w l a n d s o f t h e f l u v i a l systems i n t h e n o r t h e r n A r c t i c and a l o n g t h e G u l f o f Mexico i n t h e s o u t h . I n l a t e E a r l y A l b i a n t h e t r a n s g r e s s i o n from t h e n o r t h had p r o g r e s s e d i n t o A l b e r t a ( T e x t f i g . 2, W i l l i a m s & S t e l c k , 1975: r e p r o d u c e d i n F i g . 4) as f a r s o u t h as C a l g a r y (McLean & W a l l , 1981). A r e g r e s s i v e phase f o l l o w e d i n M i d d l e A l b i a n t i me d e p o s i t i n g t h e r o c k s o f t h e Lower F o r t S t . John Group ( F i g . 2) i n t h e Peace R i v e r a r e a . By e a r l y L a t e A l b i a n , t h e ; b o r e a l sea had c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e no r t h w a r d t r a n s g r e s s i n g Tethyan Sea o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h e G u l f o f M e x i c o , marking t h e end o f a major d e p o s i t i o n a l c y c l e ( K o o t e n a y - B l a i r m o r e ) . The c o n t i n u o u s seaway t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e c r a t o n became c u t o f f by a r e g r e s s i v e phase i n l a t e L a t e A l b i a n t i m e l e a v i n g a l a r g e l a n d l o c k e d i n l a n d sea (Mowry Sea) o c c u p y i n g much o f t h e n o r t h e r n i n t e r i o r a t t h e c l o s e o f the Lower C r e t a c e o u s ( W i l l i a m s & S t e l c k , 1975). STRATIGRAPHY A l t h o u g h c o n s i d e r a b l e work has been done toward under- s t a n d i n g t h e s t r a t i g r a p h y and d e p o s i t i o n a l h i s t o r y o f t h e c o a l f i e l d s t r a t a , a number o f problems s t i l l e x i s t . The . sediments were l a i d down i n a t e c t o n i c a l l y a c t i v e r e g i o n 11 F i g u r e 4 12 which resulted i n f l u c t u a t i n g marine and non-marine conditions. Facies grade into one another both l a t e r a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y , and several formations change character along the length of the c o a l f i e l d . Correlating the s t r a t a , even over short distances, and establishing consistent c r i t e r i a for i d e n t i f y i n g contact boundaries i s often d i f f i c u l t . In addition, entire formations or parts of formations l a i d down under s i m i l a r conditions are s i m i l a r i n character, making them d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y i n i s o l a t e d outcrop occurrences, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the absence of marker horizons and well preserved macrofossils. Subsequent fold i n g and thrusting has altered the already complex pattern of facies d i s t r i b u t i o n and further obscured the l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The generalized stratigraphy of the c o a l f i e l d i s summarized i n Figure 2 . A b r i e f description of the rock units i s followed by a discussion intended to provide i n - sight into the problems s p e c i f i c to the area and into the interpretation of the r e s u l t s . Cadomin Formation - The Cadomin Formation of the Bullhead Group (Fig. 2) i s a r e s i s t a n t conglomerate consisting of dominantly chert and quartzite pebble to cobble-size c l a s t s i n a clean sandy matrix. Locally i t may vary to a pebbly sandstone or contain t h i n beds of mudstone, s i l t s t o n e and coal, most commonly near i t s l i m i t s of deposition. It i s ' generally thick-bedded to massive, and was deposited as a 13 wedge up t o 200 meters t h i c k a l o n g i t s w e s t e r n edge i n t h e Rocky Mountain F o o t h i l l s , t a p e r i n g t o a few meters l e s s t h a n 100 km t o t h e e a s t (McLean, 1977). I t e x t e n d s from t h e P i n e R i v e r V a l l e y i n n o r t h e a s t e r n B.C. t o s o u t h w e s t e r n Montana. The Cadomin l i e s u n conformably on L a t e J u r a s s i c t o E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s r o c k s w i t h i n t h e c o a l f i e l d , but o v e r l a p s p r o g r e s - s i v e l y o l d e r r o c k s t o t h e e a s t and n o r t h . The a n g u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e u n d e r l y i n g r o c k s i s not always ap p a r e n t l o c a l l y , b u t has been e s t a b l i s h e d on a r e g i o n a l s c a l e ( S t o t t , 1973). The c o n g l o m e r a t e i s g e n e r a l l y thought t o have been l a i d down as a s e r i e s o f c o a l e s c i n g a l l u v i a l f a n s w i t h an a s s o c i - a t e d f l u v i a l i n f l u e n c e . The m a t e r i a l was d e r i v e d d o m i n a n t l y : from t h e west d u r i n g u p l i f t i n L a t e J u r a s s i c t i m e , w i t h t h e n o r t h w e s t - s o u t h e a s t t r e n d i n g Fox Creek escarpment t o t h e e a s t a c t i n g as a minor secondary s o u r c e , and marking t h e e a s t e r n l i m i t o f Cadomin d e p o s i t i o n (McLean, 1977). The t h i n c o a l s t r i n g e r s w i t h i n t h e f o r m a t i o n a r e o f no economic i m p o r t a n c e , but o i l and gas have been r e p o r t e d i n t h e Cadomin s o u t h e a s t o f t h e Peace R i v e r C o a l f i e l d i n t h e A l b e r t a F o o t h i l l s . D i s c u s s i o n - A l t h o u g h t h e a n g u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the Cadomin con g l o m e r a t e w i t h t h e u n d e r l y i n g r o c k s has been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e amount o f time r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e h i a t u s i s s t i l l a m a t t e r o f c o n t r o v e r s y . S t o t t (1968, 1973) c o n s i d e r s t h e gap t o encompass most o f Neocomian t i m e ( F i g . 3) based on e x t e n s i v e mapping t h r o u g h o u t t h e f o o t h i l l s , whereas 14 Hughes (1964, 1967) c o n s i d e r s the unconformity t o be of l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the Pine V a l l e y r e g i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the c h a r a c t e r of the Cadomin changes c o n s i d e r a b l y from conglomerate i n the south to pebbly sandstones interbedded with f i n e e l a s t i c s and c o a l i n the n o r t h . As a r e s u l t , the u n i t has been mapped i n p a r t as the Dresser Formation of the C r a s s i e r Group (Hughes, 1964 & 1967), terminology which i s c u r r e n t l y used by the c o a l l i c e n c e h o l d e r s n o r t h of the Pine R i v e r . S u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l f o r a p a l y n o l o g i c study of the Cadomin i s s c a r c e and consequently, few c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn about the age of the formation or i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the o v e r l y i n g and u n d e r l y i n g r o c k s . However, a d d i t i o n a l p a l y n o l o g i c work on the Gething, Cadomin and Minnes f o r - mations t o the n o r t h of the present study area i s c u r r e n t l y being done by the author and w i l l l i k e l y r e s o l v e these problems. Gething Formation - The Gething Formation of the B u l l h e a d Group ( F i g . 2) c o n s i s t s of a c y c l i c a l c o a l - b e a r i n g sequence of thin-bedded, f i n e - g r a i n e d sandstones, s i l t s t o n e s , and mudstones. T h i c k to thin-bedded conglomerates and conglom- e r a t i c sandstones occur o c c a s i o n a l l y near the top of the formation, but more o f t e n near the base, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n more southern exposures. In the n o r t h e r n h a l f of the study area, the c o a l - b e a r i n g sequence i s d i v i d e d i n t o an upper and lower u n i t by a t h i c k s u c c e s s i o n of f i n e - g r a i n e d sandstone, which grades southward i n t o interbedded marine 15 mudstones and s i l t s t o n e s . The marine i n t e r b e d s have been t r a c e d as f a r south as Q u i n t e t t e Mountain (Duff & G i l c h r i s t , 1981) where they appear t o p i n c h out. The Gething has been mapped by S t o t t (1973) from the B e l c o u r t Mountain r e g i o n northwest to Prophet R i v e r . L i k e the Cadomin conglomerate u n d e r l y i n g i t , i t forms a wedge with i t s t h i c k e s t s e c t i o n s toward the western edge of the f o o t h i l l s . I t reaches a maximum t h i c k n e s s of 550 meters i n the Pine V a l l e y (Duff & G i l c h r i s t , 1981) and t h i n s eastward and northward. D e p o s i t i o n of the formation l i k e l y o c c u r r e d i n a f l u v i a l - d e l t a i c s e t t i n g , e l a s t i c s d e r i v e d from a l l u v i a l f a n d e p o s i t i o n t o the west were reworked along a n o r t h - f l o w i n g r i v e r system near the margin of a t r a n s g r e s s i n g A r c t i c sea ( S t o t t , 1973). Coal occurs throughout the e n t i r e extent of the Gething Formation, but i n most r e g i o n s the seams are numerous, t h i n , and e i t h e r d i s c o n t i n u o u s or d i f f i c u l t t o c o r r e l a t e . At present, the three o r f o u r mineable seams occur i n the upper p a r t of the f o r m a t i o n between Q u i n t e t t e Mountain and Sukunka R i v e r , j u s t above the marine s t r a t a . D i s c u s s i o n - Where t h i c k conglomerates occur near the base of the Gething Formation, the c o n t a c t with the u n d e r l y i n g Cadomin conglomerate becomes l a r g e l y a r b i t r a r y ( S t o t t , 1973). Duff & G i l c h r i s t (1981) note t h a t the Cadomin conglomerate e x h i b i t s a c l e a n matrix on g e o p h y s i c a l l o g s , but w i t h i n the c o a l f i e l d the conglomerates are r a r e l y 16 d r i l l e d o r s u b j e c t e d to g e o p h y s i c a l e v a l u a t i o n . As a consequence o f the d i s c o n t i n u o u s nature of the Gething con- glomerates, d r i l l h o l e s which terminate a t the f i r s t t h i c k conglomerate are o f t e n the s u b j e c t of debate as t o whether or not they have pen e t r a t e d the Cadomin Formation (eg. BPM- 2). The p a l y n o l o g i c data from t h i s study p r o v i d e a r e l i a b l e means of i d e n t i f y i n g the Cadomin - Gething c o n t a c t . U n t i l work by Duff & G i l c h r i s t (1981), no d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s had been done on the extent of the marine i n f l u e n c e i n the Gething Formation. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n by them of a major marine tongue near the top of the f o r m a t i o n , and the g e n e r a l absence i n the c o a l f i e l d of the Bluesky Formation, which marks the c o n t a c t between the Gething and Moosebar Forma- t i o n s and t h e i r e q u i v a l e n t s on the P l a i n s , has r a i s e d new questions about the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the c o n t a c t between the two f o r m a t i o n s . The p a l y n o l o g i c data c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e s the marine component of the Gething and r e s o l v e s any q u e s t i o n s about the nature of the Gething-Moosebar c o n t a c t . Moosebar Formation - The Moosebar Formation of the F o r t St. John Group ( F i g . 3) i s a c o a r s e n i n g upward marine sequence c o n s i s t i n g of f i n e , dark grey s h a l e s which grade to t h i n interbedded mudstones, s i l t s t o n e s and f i n e - g r a i n sandstones, or a t some l o c a t i o n s , t o a dominantly w e l l s o r t e d , f i n e - g r a i n sandstone u n i t . At most l o c a t i o n s i t s base i s marked by a pebble l a y e r and g l a u c o n i t i c mudstone bed, which t h i n s n o t i c e a b l y t o the west and i s almost absent i n the c o a l - f i e l d . In the p a s t , f i e l d workers have mapped the Moosebar 1 7 Formation as b a s a l marine s h a l e s and an o v e r l y i n g t r a n s i t i o n u n i t ; r e c e n t l y formal member names (see F i g . 2) have been proposed f o r the l i t h o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t u n i t s (Duff & G i l c h r i s t , 1981; McLean, 1982). The formation i s r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t l i t h o l o g i c a l l y throughout i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n , from nor t h of the Pine R i v e r , southeast i n t o w e s t - c e n t r a l A l b e r t a . I t i s t h i c k e s t i n the n o r t h e r n f o o t h i l l s and t h i n s to the n o r t h e a s t and southeast onto the P l a i n s . McLean and Wall (1981) note a prominent t h i n n i n g i n the Mount B e l c o u r t to Smokey R i v e r a r e a , which they a t t r i b u t e t o a topographic high r e s u l t i n g from u n u s u a l l y t h i c k d e p o s i t s of sediments d u r i n g Gadomin and Gething time. The Moosebar Formation r e p r e s e n t s the western and southwestern extent of the Clearwater Sea. The marine sh a l e s r e p r e s e n t shallow s h e l f c o n d i t i o n s f o l l o w i n g a major t r a n s g r e s s i o n from the n o r t h , with the c o a r s e r e l a s t i c s marking the r e g r e s s i v e phase (McLean & W a l l , 1981). A l - though the f o r m a t i o n i s not of economic s i g n i f i c a n c e , s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t rocks to the n o r t h e a s t ( W i l r i c h Member of the S p i r i t R i v e r Formation) are a t a r g e t f o r n a t u r a l gas e x p l o r a t i o n . D i s c u s s i o n - In the past the c o n t a c t of the Moosebar Formation w i t h the o v e r l y i n g Gates was d e f i n e d as "the base of the f i r s t t h i c k and r e l a t i v e l y continuous s u c c e s s i o n of f i n e - g r a i n e d sandstone" ( S t o t t , 1968). T h i s s u c c e s s i o n occurs a t d i f f e r e n t h o r i z o n s throughout the c o a l f i e l d and • " r e s u l t s i n a h i g h l y i r r e g u l a r c o n t a c t on S t o t t ' s r e g i o n a l 18 c r o s s s e c t i o n s " ( L e c k i e , 1981). More r e c e n t l y workers have r e c o g n i z e d mappable d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the Moosebar Formation but have not s u c c e s s f u l l y r e d e f i n e d the c o n t a c t . Duff & G i l c h r i s t (1981) have proposed an i n f o r m a l 'marine member' f o r the s h a l e beds and formal Torrens and Spieker members f o r the ' t r a n s i t i o n ' u n i t . McLean (1982) has a l s o proposed a Torrens Member w i t h i n s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t rocks i n the A l b e r t a F o o t h i l l s . He equates i t t o b a s a l Gates on l i t h o l o g i c grounds, although i t encompasses Duff & G i l c h r i s t s ' Torrens Member and p a r t o f the Spieker Member of the Moosebar Formation i n the c o a l f i e l d . A l l o f the newly proposed members l i e below the p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d Moosebar- Gates c o n t a c t , and r e c o g n i z e the marine o r i g i n and r e s i s t a n t - nature o f the Torrens Member r e l a t i v e t o the u n d e r l y i n g and o v e r l y i n g u n i t s . The present study i n d i c a t e s t h a t the Moosebar - Gates c o n t a c t i s p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t , and l i e s a t the base of a r e s i s t a n t , l i t h o l o g i c a l l y p e r s i s t e n t marine sandstone. Gates Formation - The Gates Formation of the F o r t S t . John Group ( F i g . 2) c o n s i s t s o f interbedded sandstones, s i l t - stones and mudstones. Minor conglomerates, and numerous c o a l seams ranging i n t h i c k n e s s up t o 10 meters are d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the for m a t i o n . In more no r t h e r n exposures t h e r e i s a pronounced marine i n f l u e n c e which, p r i o r t o t h i s study, had been t r a c e d southward t o the v i c i n i t y o f Q u i n t e t t e Mountain (Duff & G i l c h r i s t , 1981; Carmichael, 1983). 19 The Gates i s r e c o g n i z e d as a f o r m a t i o n from j u s t n o r t h of Peace R i v e r , where i t occurs l a r g e l y as e r o s i o n a l rem- nants, to the B.C. - A l b e r t a border i n the southeast. In the A l b e r t a F o o t h i l l s i t i s reduced to member s t a t u s i n the Malcolm Creek Formation (McLean, 1982). The s t r a t a were de p o s i t e d i n a f l o o d p l a i n environment t h a t was o c c a s i o n a l l y inundated by marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n s from the n o r t h . S e v e r a l t h i c k seams of mineable c o a l occur i n the lower h a l f of the u n i t from Sukunka R i v e r southeast along the r e g i o n a l s t r i k e i n t o the A l b e r t a F o o t h i l l s . Numerous t h i n seams are d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the remainder of the f o r - mation but these are not economic t o mine a t p r e s e n t , except where t h i c k e n e d by l o c a l s t r u c t u r e . N a t u r a l gas occurs i n the s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t Upper W i l r i c h and F a h l e r members of the S p i r i t R i v e r Formation immediately n o r t h e a s t of the c o a l f i e l d . D i s c u s s i o n - Although e x t e n s i v e and d e t a i l e d work has been c a r r i e d out on the Gates Formation, t h e r e has been con- s i d e r a b l e u n c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g the extent of the marine i n f l u e n c e . The number of t r a n s g r e s s i v e d e p o s i t s represented i s of some importance, s i n c e i t i s known t o i n f l u e n c e the occurrence and d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the r e g i o n between Bullmoose and Q u i n t e t t e Mountains. Duff & G i l c h r i s t (1981) have i d e n t i f i e d one major marine tongue, Carmichael (1983) r e c o g n i z e s two major and s e v e r a l minor t r a n s g r e s s i o n s , and L e c k i e & Walker (1982) suggest t h a t a t l e a s t f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t i n c u r s i o n s have o c c u r r e d a t Mount 20 Spieker. The palynologic data indicate that the marine influence i s more extensive than previously thought. METHODS In the late 1970's and early 1980's, renewed inter e s t in coal led to the signing of a 15 year contract by two northeast license holders to s e l l thermal and coking coal to the Japanese. It also provided the opportunity for a number of s t r a t i g r a p h i c studies (see Previous Work) which would improve in t e r p r e t a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n of s t r a t a , and hence f a c i l i t a t e mine planning and reserve estimates. As previously mentioned, the age and depositional setting of the rocks make the Peace River c o a l f i e l d well suited to a palynological study. The economic importance of these and s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y equivalent gas-bearing rocks to the northeast, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of d r i l l core material provide additional incentive for conducting a study i n t h i s area. Sampling - 13 d r i l l holes and 7 surface sections were selected for sampling (Figure 5). The d r i l l hole sections are pieced together to get the best representative Lower Cretaceous section from 7 locations; Belcourt-Secus Mt., Triad Creek, Monkman Pass, Quintette Mt., Wolverine Rv., Bullmoose Mt., and Mt. Merrick-Sukunka North (Figure 6). Surface sections compliment, rather than complete, d r i l l hole sections, since results from surface samples were F i g u r e 5 - D e t a i l e d map of study area showing l o c a t i o n s of d r i l l hole and s u r f a c e s e c t i o n s 22 expected t o be l e s s r e l i a b l e than core samples (see d i s c u s s i o n o f 'Surface Samples'in t h i s s e c t i o n ) . I n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n o f a l l s e c t i o n s was based p r i m a r i l y on 2 c r i t e r i a : the upper and lower c o n t a c t s o f the form a t i o n ( s ) being sampled had to be i n t e r s e c t e d by the s e c t i o n ; and the s e c t i o n had to be u n f a u l t e d . The f i r s t c r i t e r i o n ensures t h a t the e n t i r e f o r m a t i o n i s sampled, with the upper and lower c o n t a c t s p r o v i d i n g s t r a t i g r a p h i c c o n t r o l f o r c o r r e l a t i o n . In many cases sampling of the o v e r l y i n g and/or u n d e r l y i n g f o r m a t i o n was p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r t o determine the accuracy o f the c o n t a c t p o s i t i o n and the nature o f the c o n t a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p . The second c r i t e r i o n prevents r e p e t e t i v e sampling of a s e c t i o n , and hence c o n f u s i o n over exact p o s i t i o n w i t h i n a f o r m a t i o n . Adhering to the c r i t e r i a r e s u l t e d i n 'gaps' i n sampling i n some areas (see F i g . 6 ) . In p a r t i c u l a r the Wolverine - Q u i n t e t t e r e g i o n , although e x t e n s i v e l y d r i l l e d , f a i l e d t o y i e l d complete, u n f a u l t e d s e c t i o n s f o r most of the d e s i r e d f o r m a t i o n s . O c c a s i o n a l l y , inadequate i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g l o c a t i o n and/or content o f a d r i l l h o l e prevented sampling of what might otherwise have been a s u i t a b l e s e c t i o n . S urface s e c t i o n s were s e l e c t e d a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n with company g e o l o g i s t s , s i n c e a v a i l a b l e maps were not d e t a i l e d enough t o i n d i c a t e s m a l l l o c a l f a u l t s i n a s e c t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l samples c o n s i s t e d of approximately 600-800 grams of the c l e a n e s t mudstone a v a i l a b l e a t or near the d e s i r e d sample i n t e r v a l . The most d e s i r e a b l e sample i s f r e e Mt Merrick I -Sukunka Bullmoose Mt Wolverine Rv Quintette Mt Monkman Pass Triad Crk- Antler Rdg Belcourt- Secus Mt SE MINNES FM •Scale: Horizontal- 1.5 cm = 10 km Vertical- 1 mm = 10m l i t h o l o g i c contact (based on d r i l l hole data) *-" l i t h o l o g i c contact (based on average thicknesses) unconformity DATUM: Gething/Moosebar contact F i g u r e 6 - NW-SE c r o s s s e c t i o n showing d r i l l hole d i s t r i b u t i o n 24 of 'contaminants' such as s i l t , p y r i t e , c o a l or o t h e r carbonaceous m a t e r i a l . When these components cannot be avoided a t the sampling stage, t a k i n g s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l a l l o w s them t o be excluded from the sample p r i o r t o d i s s o l u t i o n o f the rock i n a c i d . Core Samples - 238 core samples were taken; 199 are used i n t h i s study, i n c l u d i n g 1 Cadomin sample, 70 Gething samples, 35 Moosebar samples (24 marine & 11 t r a n s i t i o n ) , 91 Gates samples and 1 H u l c r o s s sample. The 39 unused samples are from the Minnes Formation and w i l l be r e p o r t e d on i n a separate study. The samples were taken a t 15 meter i n t e r v a l s (on average) and r e p r e s e n t approximately 2990 meters o f s e c t i o n . There are a number of advantages to the use of core samples over s u r f a c e samples; core i s e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e and p r o v i d e s continuous exposure of rock; c o n t a c t s are more a c c u r a t e l y p i n p o i n t e d ; sample i n t e r v a l s are c o n s i s t e n t and depths are e a s i l y checked a g a i n s t core markers; and samples are u n a l t e r e d by weathering. The o n l y problems a r i s i n g from core sampling, as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, were d i f f i c u l t y o b t a i n i n g complete u n f a u l t e d formations which c o n t a i n both upper and lower c o n t a c t s , and a l a c k of e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on d r i l l h o l e l o c a t i o n and content (a c o n d i t i o n which has been subsequently remedied with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the B.C. M i n i s t r y of Mines' computerized Coal F i l e ) . S urface Samples - Of the 89 s u r f a c e samples taken, 10 were s e l e c t e d f o r p r o c e s s i n g based on r e s u l t s from adjacent 25 core sections. Surface samples were taken primarily to determine the usefulness of surface material r e l a t i v e to •fresh' or unweathered core material. Surface sections i n t h i s region are most often steeply dipping and deeply weathered. In addition, the mudstone i s recessive and usually poorly exposed. As a r e s u l t , surface samples were taken at 30 meter i n t e r v a l s and often required the use of an auger to obtain suitable material. Although i t i s easier to obtain a complete Cadomin through Gates section at one location i f the selection c r i t e r i a are met, access to sections i s not always possible since many of these are best exposed on very steep slopes and c l i f f faces. Processing - Samples were processed using standard palyn- o l o g i c a l procedures (Kummel & Raup; 1965); the rock was crushed to pea-gravel s i z e , placed i n HC1 for several hours to dissolve carbonate; then i n HF acid overnight to dissolve s i l i c a t e s ; clay was removed through s e t t l i n g and sieving. Any residual mineral matter (eg. CaF c r y s t a l s , undissolved s i l i c a , glauconite, pyrite) was removed by heavy l i q u i d separation i n zinc bromide. N i t r i c acid and acetolysis solution were applied to samples containing excessive coaly or c e l l u l o s i c material respectively; an oxidizing reagent (eg. Schultz's solution, household bleach) was used to lighten dark palynomorphs. Processed samples were stained with safranine dye, and 1 or 2 drops were dried onto a coverslip i n C e l l o s i z e ; the coverslip was inverted onto a 26 g l a s s s l i d e and secured with a mounting medium (eg. Gelva, F l o - t e x x ) . During p r o c e s s i n g s e v e r a l problems were encountered which r e q u i r e d m o d i f i c a t i o n of some procedures i n order t o enhance r e c o v e r y of the palynomorphs. S i n c e the s m a l l e r (12-20 urn) angiosperm p o l l e n make t h e i r f i r s t appearance i n l a t e Lower Cretaceous r o c k s , p a r t i c u l a r c a r e was taken not to l o s e these d u r i n g removal of the c l a y . S e t t l i n g of the sample a f t e r r i n s i n g was allowed to continue a few minutes longer than u s u a l r e s u l t i n g i n a h i g h e r than normal c l a y content i n the r e s i d u e . T h i s m a t e r i a l was removed by drawing i t through a 10-15 urn PVC mesh with the a i d of a s u c t i o n pump. A number of samples were found to c o n t a i n ' f l a k e s ' o f ash. L a r g er fragments c o u l d be removed by t r a p p i n g them i n a 270 urn s i e v e but s m a l l e r fragments r e q u i r e d treatment i n heavy l i q u i d . The ash had a s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r than most o r g a n i c matter, but l e s s than m i n e r a l matter removed through s e t t l i n g i n ZnBr 2 w i t h a S.G. g r e a t e r than 2.2. The ash fragments were found t o s e t t l e out of the r e s i d u e i n ZnBr 2 w i t h a S # G > between 1.7 and 1.9. Another substance, o c c u r r i n g i n approximately 1/3 of the samples, which f a i l e d t o separate from the d e s i r e d o r g a n i c r e s i d u e was a b i t u m i n o u s - l o o k i n g substance i d e n t i f i e d o n l y as 'wax'. I t f i r s t appeared as a dark substance f l o a t i n g i n the t e s t tube a f t e r s i e v i n g . However, s e p a r a t i o n from the other o r g a n i c s was not complete, as 27 abundant d i s c r e t e p a r t i c l e s were found i n the r e s i d u e . Removal o f the 'wax' was achieved by r i n s i n g with f u l l s t r e n g t h HC1 (S.G. approximately 1.16) which allowed the remainder o f the 'wax' to f l o a t . For the f i r s t 60 samples processed the standard procedure o f making 3 mounts (coarse, medium & f i n e f r a c t i o n s ) was adhered t o . When i t became apparent t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o l o u r (thermal a l t e r a t i o n ) between the d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t s and t h i n - w a l l e d spores, and the t h i c k - w a l l e d spores was cau s i n g u n d e r - o x i d a t i o n o r o v e r - o x i d a t i o n of samples, and hence a l o s s of s p e c i e s , a change was made i n the mounting procedure. S l i d e s were made f o r each sample at v a r i o u s stages o f b l e a c h i n g , i n c l u d i n g a TAI mount p r i o r to any l i g h t e n i n g o f the o r g a n i c s . Because of improved c o n c e n t r a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of the palynomorphs a f t e r the m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made, the f i r s t 60 samples were r e p r o - cessed. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Species - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the p a l y - nomorphs was c a r r i e d out on a L e i t z Orthoplan microscope with i n t e r f e r e n c e c o n t r a s t . S l i d e s were scanned i n a syst e m a t i c g r i d u s i n g 10X, 12X or 15X o c u l a r s and a 25 power l e n s e . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out under o i l immersion u s i n g a 100 power l e n s e , g i v i n g a m a g n i f i c a t i o n o f 1000- 1500X. Appendix I I c o n t a i n s a complete l i s t of r e f e r e n c e s used to i d e n t i f y the Lower Cretaceous palynomorphs. 28 Data M a n i p u l a t i o n - The number o f samples t a k e n and t h e u n e x p e c t e d l y l a r g e number o f palynomorphs r e c o v e r e d make use of c o n v e n t i o n a l r a n k i n g methods (Shaw, 1964; Hay, 1972) p r o h i b i t i v e . I n s t e a d , r a n k i n g o f t h e s p e c i e s was a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f p l o t s and d iagrams. To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s the s p e c i e s l i s t was o r d e r e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y and a number a s s i g n e d t o each s p e c i e s (Appendix I I ) . From t h e o r i g i n a l d a t a t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f each s p e c i e s i n a f o r m a t i o n was n o t e d , t h u s i d e n t i f y i n g t h e u b i q u i t o u s palynomorphs, and f o r m i n g a rough z o n a t i o n based on t h e r e s t r i c t e d ranges o f t h e r e m a i n i n g s p e c i e s . Ranking of t h e s p e c i e s l i s t ( o r d e r i n g t h e s p e c i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r e a r l i e s t o c c u r r e n c e ) was a c h i e v e d by drawing a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l p l o t o f t h e d r i l l h o l e l o c a t i o n s and sample depths ( F i g . 7, i n p o c k e t ) . A l l n o n - u b i q u i t o u s s p e c i e s a r e p l o t t e d by sample, and t h e p r e s ence o f u b i q u i - tous d i n o c y s t s and a c r i t a r c h s i s n o t e d . C o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e d r i l l h o l e s r e l i e s on t y p e and abundance o f palynomorphs ( t o t a l a s s e m b l a g e ) , and t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s from one d r i l l h o l e t o t h e n e x t . F i n a l l y , r a n k i n g o f t h e s p e c i e s l i s t was p o s s i b l e by n o t i n g t h e e a r l i e s t o r l o w e s t o c c u r r e n c e o f each s p e c i e s i n t h e s e c t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s r a n k i n g have been used t o g e n e r a t e F i g u r e 8,and t o o r d e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l d r i l l h o l e p l o t s ( F i g s . 11-16, i n p o c k e t ) . The ranked l i s t used i n F i g u r e 8 d i f f e r s from t h a t used i n F i g u r e s 11-16, i n t h a t s p e c i e s t h a t o c c u r 29 as a s i n g l e specimen have been o m i t t e d from t h e G e n e r a l i z e d Z o n a t i o n p l o t u n l e s s t h e s p e c i e s appears t o be p r e v i o u s l y u n d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . These s p e c i e s a r e i n d i c a t e d on t h e l i s t by s i n g l e quotes ('). R e l a t i v e abundance o f each s p e c i e s i s denoted on F i g u r e s 11-16 as f o l l o w s ; s i n g l e o c c u r r e n c e - open c i r c l e (0), 2-5 specimens - h a l f c i r c l e (3), more t h a n 5 specimens - f u l l c i r c l e (•). The i n f o r m a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r - m i n i n g which s p e c i e s a r e r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r s f o r z o n a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n . F i g u r e s 11-16 a l s o i n c l u d e a p l o t o f TAI v a l u e s and t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f ash and 'wax'. Photography - Photographs f o r p l a t e s were t a k e n w i t h an Orthomat-W a u t o m a t i c m i c r o s c o p e camera on Kodak PAN 2415 b l a c k and w h i t e f i l m (ASA 5 0 ) . N e g a t i v e s and p r i n t s were devel o p e d u s i n g s t a n d a r d darkroom t e c h n i q u e s . Note: c o l o u r s l i d e s f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n were t a k e n on F u j i 50 c o l o u r s l i d e f i l m (ASA 50) u s i n g an 80A ( b l u e ) f i l t e r o v e r the t u n g s t e n l i g h t s o u r c e . The s l i d e f i l m was shot a t ASA 12 t o compensate f o r l o n g exposure t i m e s . The s l i d e s were dev e l o p e d by a commercial l a b . 30 RESULTS The o v e r a l l palynomorph assemblage o b t a i n e d from the Gething through Gates s u c c e s s i o n i s r i c h and v a r i e d . The abundance and d i v e r s i t y o f s p e c i e s has allowed r e c o g n i t i o n of numerous, p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t zones w i t h i n the s e c t i o n , most of which can be c o r r e l a t e d throughout the l e n g t h of the study a r e a . The types of palynomorphs present, and the r e l a t i v e abundance of each p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o d e p o s i t i o n a l environments and f a c i e s changes i n each zone. The fo r m a t i o n of c o a l appears t o e x h i b i t a degree of c o n s i s t e n c y with r e s p e c t t o the environments r e c o g n i z e d . In a d d i t i o n , the palynomorphs p r o v i d e a means of d a t i n g the form a t i o n s . Sample Content Of the 197 core samples used f o r t h i s study, 163 sam- p l e s (83%) c o n t a i n indigenous palynomorphs and 34 samples (17%) are barren or c o n t a i n palynomorphs c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e c y c l e d . A t o t a l o f 350 s p e c i e s has been i d e n t i f i e d , i n c l u d i n g 232 p o l l e n and spore s p e c i e s , 96 d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t and a c r i t a r c h s p e c i e s , and 22 a l g a l c y s t and f u n g a l spore s p e c i e s (Appendix I I ) . Of the 89 s u r f a c e samples c o l l e c t e d , 10 were s e l e c t e d f o r p r o c e s s i n g based on t h e i r p r o x i m i t y to core samples known t o have, a r i c h palynomorph assemblage. Palynomorphs are present i n a l l 10 samples, and abundant, r e l a t i v e l y w e l l preserved specimens occur i n 7 of them. Although the assem- 31 blages do not exhibit the abundance and/or d i v e r s i t y of those found i n corresponding core samples, they do indicate that surface samples can be of value when used i n an area where the palynologic section i s already established, or to supplement core r e s u l t s . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s were not done for surface samples since i t was f e l t that the time invested would not r e s u l t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution to the data already obtained from core samples. Recycled palynomorphs are present i n varying amounts i n a large number of samples and have been excluded from the r e s u l t s . Although often d i f f i c u l t to recognize, i n t h i s study recyclants have been i d e n t i f i e d as those specimens which exhibit a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher TAI value, and/or greater corrosion (chemical degredation) or p i t t i n g (abrasion) of the wall r e l a t i v e to s i m i l a r types of palyn- omorphs i n the sample. TAI values, determined for each sample based on c u t i c l e colour, are plotted on Figures A-G. Although most values f a l l within the 2.25-2.50 range, several readings went as high as 3.0, and a few f e l l below 2.0. Most of the higher values occur i n the Gething Formation but none of the anomalous readings shows any consistent association with other observable factors (eg. palynomorph type, proximity to facies boundaries or coal, mineralization, presence of ash or 'wax'). I t i s suspected that, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a c i d i c environments where most peats form, TAI values are affected by conditions during deposition and early diagenesis i e . 32 t h a t some a l t e r a t i o n may take p l a c e due t o chemical a c t i v i t y p r i o r t o thermal a l t e r a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with b u r i a l (see Manum e t a l f 1976). The occurrence of v o l c a n i c ash i n 19 of the core samples, and a waxy bituminous substance i n 63 of the core samples i s p l o t t e d a l s o on F i g u r e s A-G. The v o l c a n i c ash produced an EDS p r o f i l e s i m i l a r t o an a n d e s i t e / b a s a l t standard. The 'wax' occurs l a r g e l y i n zones i n t e r p r e t e d as marine, and j u s t over h a l f of the n o t a b l e occurrences of p y r i t e (8 of 13) are i n c o n j u c t i o n with the 'wax1. However, i t i s not e x c l u s i v e t o marine u n i t s , nor does i t e x h i b i t any a s s o c i a t i o n with anomalously high (or low) occurrences of any p a r t i c u l a r palynomorph type (the reader i s r e f e r r e d t o an a r t i c l e by Adams & Bonnett (1969) on the Bute I n l e t Wax). Although i t i s not w i t h i n the scope of t h i s study to d e t e r - mine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these substances, the data are p r o v i d e d f o r o t h e r s working i n t h i s a rea, or i n s i m i l a r d e p o s i t i o n a l s e t t i n g s , who may f i n d the i n f o r m a t i o n of v a l u e . Zonation and C o r r e l a t i o n The e d i t e d data, when p l o t t e d on a c r o s s s e c t i o n , r e - v e a l a p a t t e r n of f r e q u e n t inundations from the n o r t h by a shallow sea over c o a s t a l lowlands to the south ( F i g s . 7 & 9). S i x major and f o u r minor t r a n s g r e s s i o n s are i d e n t i f i e d i n the Gething through Gates s e c t i o n . A l l of the major t r a n s g r e s s i o n s , as w e l l as the i n t e r v e n i n g non-marine BIOSTRATIGRAPH IC ZONATION SPORES & POLLEN G E T H I N G FP1 M O O S E B A R F M w v p> 3 tr i-3 i (u 3 : ui • H-rt O a G A T E S F M w 2 PJ 0 in 3 Pi 1 M a Rl X 1 PI H- 1 3 H- rt) 3 (0 ' ID ii s ni a cn a rt !-• i-i m PI 3 36 Rl h>- I-I a 3 M (0 fl> IB i-l i-i a a T3 r r fl) h 1 Pi X G 8i XI i-l 'O P- ID 3 i-l (D 15 A n t u l s p o r i t e s d i s t a v e r r u c o s u s 21 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s d e n t i m a r g i n a t u s 39 c f A u r i t u l i n a s p o r i t e s d e l t a f o r m i s 83 C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s c f t e r s u s 165 F o r a m i n i s p o r i s w o n t h a g g i e n s i s 199 I s c h y o s p o r i t e s 'sp. A' 205 L a e v i g a t o s p o r i t e s g r a c i l i s 213 L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s c a p e r a t u s 221 L y c o p o d i u m s p o r i t e s e m i n u l u s 252 O r n a m e n t i f e r a b a c u l a t a 351 C o o k s o n i t e s 'sp. A' 230 M a t o n i s p o r i t e s c o o k s o n i 323 T i g r i s p o r i t e s s c u r r a n d u s 157 D l s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s 'sp. B 1 311 S e s t r o s p o r i t e s • i r r e g u l a r u s 276 P o d o c a r p i d i t e s e l l i p t i c u s 227 L y c o p o d i u m s p o r i t e s s p . B 333 T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s t r i o r e t i c u l o s u s 3 A c a n t h o t r i l e t e s l e v i d e n s i s 53 C a l l i a l a s p o r i t e s t r l l o b a t u s 232 M a t o n i s p o r i t e s 'sp. A' 331 T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s p u r v e r u l e n t u s 166 F o v e o s p o r i t e s c a n a l i s 87 C i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s d i s t a v e r r u c o s u s 104 C o n t i g n i s p o r i t e s c o o k s o n i i 106 C o n t i g n i s p o r i t e s m u l t i m u r a t u s 280 P o d o c a r p i d i t e s p o t o m a c e n s i s 325 'Spore s p . A 1 ( n o v . g e n . ) 336 U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s pannuceus 18 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s b i l a t e r a l i s 168 F o v e o t r i l e t e s s u b t r i a n g u l a r i s 322 T i g r i s p o r i t e s r e t i c u l a t u s 329 T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s m a r y l a n d e n s i s 148 D i c t y o p h y l l i d i t e s e q u i e x i n o u s 212 L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s c a n a l l c u l a t u s 122 C y a t h i d i t e s r a f a e l i 74 C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s e x i l i o i d e s 121 C y a t h i d i t e s p u n c t a t u s 160 D l s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s 'sp. A' 29 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s u n i c u s 113 C o s t a t o p e r f o r o s p o r i t e s f o v e o l a t u s 260 P e r i n o p o l l e n i t e s e l a t o i d e s 350 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s t r i c o r n i t a t u s 114 C o u p e r i s p o r i t e s complexus 152 D i c t y o t o s p o r i t e s s p e c i o s u s 20 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s d e n t i m a r g i n a t u s 151 D i c t y o t o s p o r i t e s complex 214 L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s c i r n i i d i t e s 52 C a l l i a l a s p o r i t e s segmentatus 65 C e r a t o s p o r i t e s c f m o r r i n i c o l u s 85 C i b o t i u m s p o r a j u r i e n s i s 100 C o n c a v i s s i m i s p o r i t e s m i n o r 109 C o o k s o n i t e s v a r i a b i l i s 144 D e n s o i s p o r i t e s m i c r o r u g u l a t u s 200 J a n u a s p o r i t e s s p i n i f e r u s 281 P s l l a t r i c o l p i t e s p a r v u l u s 284 P o l y c i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s 'sp. A' 345 V i t r e i s p o r i t e s p a l l i d u s 346 K l u k l s p o r i t e s p s e u d o r e t i c u l a t u s 12 A l i s p o r i t e s s i m i l i s 49 B i r e t i s p o r i t e s s p e c t a b i l i s 338 U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s u n d u l a p o l u s 223 L y c o p o d i u m s p o r i t e s m a r g i n a t u s 327 T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s a p i v e r r u c a t u s 77 C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s i m b r i c a t u s 266 P h y l l o c l a d i d i t e s i n c h o a t u s 2 A b i e t i n e a e p o l l e n i t e s s p . 161 E u c o m m i i d i t e s t r o e d s s o n i i 149 D i c t y o p h y l l i d i t e s p e c t i n a t a e f o r m i s 163 F o r a m i n i s p o r i s a s y m m e t r i c u s 204 K u y l i s p o r i t e s l u n a r i s 211 L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s a s p e r a t u s 25 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s p s c h e k h a e n s i s 202 K l u k i s p o r i t e s a r e o l a t u s 274 P o d o c a r p i d i t e s b l f o r m i s 304 S c h i z o s p o r i s g r a n d i s 233 M a t o n i s p o r i t e s c f e x c a v a t u s 269 P i n u s p o l l e n i t e s 296 R e t i c u l i s p o r i t e s e l o n g a t u s 335 U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s f o s s u l a t u s 339 V e r r u c o s l s p o r i t e s a s y m m e t r i c u s 349 P i c e a p o l l e n i t e s 90 C l a s s o p o l l i s c h a t e a u n o v i 131 C y c a d o p i d e s c a r p e n t i e r i 239 P o d o c a r p i d i t e s o r n a t u s 307 S c h i z o s p o r i s r u g u l a t u s 343 V i t r e i s p o r i t e s c f c r a i g i i 347 S p h e r i p o l l e n i t e s s c a b r a t u s 70 C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s a n n u l a t u a 93 C l a v a t i p o l l e n i t e s c o u p e r i i 95 C l a v a t i p o l l e n i t e s m i n u t u s 108 C o o k s o n i t e s r e t i c u l a t u s 112 C o p t o s p o r a s t r i a t a 174 G i n k g o c y c a d o p h y t u s s p . 197 I n a p e r t u r o p o l l e n i t e s d u b i u s 234 P o d o c a r p i d i t e s naumovai 243 M u r o s p o r a t r u n c a t a 302 S c h i z o s p o r i s s p . 344 C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s p o t o m a c e n s i s 348 R e t i c u l i s p o r i t e s s e m i r e t i c u l a t u s ' v a r . A' DINOFLAGELLATE CYSTS & ACRITARCHS 156 D i p l o t e s t a a n g l i c a 235 M i c h r y s t r i d i u m s t e l l a t u m 255 P a l a e o p e r l d i n i u m c r e t a c e u m 290 P t e r o d i n i u m s p . A 178 G o n y a u l a c y s t a a r c h e o p y l e Type B 69 C h y t r o e i s p h a e r i d i a c f p o c o c k i 31 A p t e o d i n i u m g r a n d e 132 C y c l o n e p h e l i u m p a u c i s p i n u m 180 G o n y a u l a c y s t a c r e t a c e a 247 O l i g o s p h a e r i d i u m anthophorum 248 O l i g o s p h a e r i d i u m complex 310 S c r i n i o d i n i u m campanula 183 G o n y a u l a c y s t a o r t h o c e r a s 38 A s c o t o m o c y s t i s maxima 54 C a l l a i o s p h a e r i d i a c f r e t i c u l a t a 170 Fromea amphora 179 G o n y a u l a c y s t a c f c a s s i d a t a 181 G o n y a u l a c y s t a c f episoma 186 H y s t r i c h o k o l p o m a 'sp. A' 201 c f K a l y p t e a monoceras 286 P r o l i x o s p h a e r i d i u m c f m i x t i s p i n o s u m 34 A p t e o d i n i u m maculatum > 44 B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m s p . A W 67 C h l a m y d o p h o r e l l a n y e i 1 98 C l e i s t o s p h a e r i d i u m m u l t i s p i n o s u m 128 C y c l o n e p h e l i u m d i s t l n c t u m 188 S p i n i f e r i t e s c i n g u l a t u s 192 S p i n i f e r i t e s ramosa v a r . m u l t i b r e v i s 245 O d o n t o c h i t i n a o p e r c u l a t a 249 O l i g o s p h a e r i d i u m d i a s t e m a 251 O l i g o s p h a e r i d i u m p u l c h e r r i m u m 43 B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m f i m b r i a t u m 45 B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m s p . B 208 L e c a n i e l l a f o v e a t a 241 M u d e r o n g i a t e t r a c a n t h a 155 D i n o p t e r y g i u m c l a d o i d e s 196 H y s t r i c h o s p h a e r i d i u m s t e l l a t u m 316 T a n y o s p h a e r i d i u m s p . B 96 C l e i s t o s p h a e r i d i u m d i v e r s i s p i n o s u m 97 C l e i s t o s p h a e r i d i u m g r a n u l a t u m 134 C y m a t i o s p h a e r a p a c h y t h e c a 137 S u b t i l i s p h a e r a p e r l u c i d a 145 D i c o n o d i n i u m c f a r c t i c u m 173 G a r d o d i n i u m e i s e n a c k i 187 H y s t r i c h o k o l p o m a f e r o x 195 H y s t r i c h o s p h a e r i d i u m c o o k s o n i 257 P a r e o d i n l a c f a p h e l i a 129 C y c l o n e p h e l i u m d i s t i n c t u m v a r . b r e v i s p i n a t u m 36 A p t e o d i n i u m s p . 60 C a n n i n g i a r e t i c u l a t a 154 d i n o s p . A (nov. sp.) 256 P a l a e o p e r i d l n i u m s p . ALGAL CYSTS f. FUNGAL SPORES 171 f u n g a l body 'Type M' 268 P h r a g m o t h y r i t e s 'Form D 1 292 P t e r o s p e r m e l l a a u s t r a l i e n s i s 254 Palambages Form A 309 S c o l e c o s p o r i t e s 172 f u n g a l c o l o n y ( B u r d e n '84) 263 P h r a g m o t h y r i t e s 'Form A' 319 T a s m a n l t e s t a r d u s 116 C r a s s o s p h a e r a s p . A 169 F r a c t i s p o r o n i t e s s p . 264 P h r a g m o t h y r i t e s 'Form B' 317 T a s m a n i t e s n e w t o n i 272 P l u r i c e l l a e s p o r i t e s p s i l a t u s 294 P t e r o s p e r m e l l a s p . B 318 T a s m a n i t e s s u e v i c u s F i g u r e 8 - G e n e r a l i z e d Peace R i v e r b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c z o n a t i o n of the c o a l f i e l d CO CO 34 d e p o s i t s o f the r e g r e s s i v e phases, can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a unique palynomorph assemblage ( F i g . 8 ) . Although a s i n g l e non-ubiquitous s p e c i e s r a r e l y occurs throughout a p a r t i c u l a r zone, each zone can s t i l l be r e c o g n i z e d on the b a s i s of palynomorph type, abundance and d i v e r s i t y . T h i s a l l o w s a l l but a few p a l y n o l o g i c zones to be c o r r e l a t e d the e n t i r e l e n g t h of the study a r e a . The remaining zones can be t r a c e d t o f a c i e s e q u i v a l e n t s . The z o n a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n are i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e s 7 & 9, and F i g u r e 8 summarizes the palynomorphs t h a t charac- t e r i z e each zone. Of the 350 s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study, 94 are u b i q u i t o u s (Appendix I I ) . The remaining 256 s p e c i e s , made up o f 150 p o l l e n and spore s p e c i e s , 85 d i n o c y s t and a c r i t a r c h s p e c i e s and 21 a l g a l c y s t and f u n g a l spore s p e c i e s , are r e s t r i c t e d i n o c c u r r e n c e . F i g u r e 7 shows the l o c a t i o n of the d r i l l h o l e s used i n t h i s study, t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n the s e c t i o n and the p o s i t i o n o f the samples taken from each. The Gething- Moosebar l i t h o l o g i c c o n t a c t , as determined by company g e o l o g i s t s from core and g e o p h y s i c a l l o g s , has been used as the datum s i n c e t h e r e i s g e n e r a l l y good agreement on i t s p o s i t i o n . L i t h o l o g i c c o n t a c t s ( s o l i d l i n e s ) are p l a c e d a c c o r d i n g t o company d r i l l h o l e data o r , where u n a v a i l a b l e , by average t h i c k n e s s (dashed l i n e s ) based on measured sec- t i o n s and/or nearby d r i l l h o l e i n f o r m a t i o n ( S t o t t , 1968 & 1973; Duff & G i l c h r i s t , 1981; Carmichael, 1983). 35 Sample numbers are p l o t t e d to the l e f t of the d r i l l h o l e s and non-ubiquitous s p e c i e s are p l o t t e d on the r i g h t (Note: t h i s i s r e v e r s e d where space between ad j a c e n t d r i l l h o l es i s l i m i t e d ) . Type of palynomorph i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by; an absence of parentheses f o r p o l l e n and spores, square parentheses f o r d i n o c y s t s and a c r i t a r c h s , and curved paren- theses f o r a l g a l c y s t s and f u n g a l spores. The presence and r e l a t i v e abundance of u b i q u i t o u s d i n o c y s t s and a c r i t a r c h s i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t o a s s i s t i n the r e c o g n i t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n of marine s t r a t a . The occurrence of c o a l , as s i n g l e o r mutiple seams exceeding 0.5 meters i n t h i c k n e s s , i s p l o t t e d where g e o p h y s i c a l or s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e . The p a l y n o l o g i c c o n t a c t s ( d o t t e d l i n e s ) separate marine from non-marine s t r a t a based on the presence or absence of marine d i n o c y s t and a c r i t a r c h s p e c i e s . Although spores and p o l l e n are not uncommon i n marine s t r a t a , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s t r i c t e d marine (or near shore) f a c i e s , d i n o c y s t s and a c r i t a r c h s are absent from t e r r e s t r i a l s t r a t a with the e x c e p t i o n o f o c c a s i o n a l f l o o d or storm d e p o s i t e d specimens. In a d d i t i o n t o r e c o g n i z a b l e marine and non-marine ( t e r r e s - t r i a l ) p a l y n o l o g i c zones, there are p a r t s of the s e c t i o n i n which the samples c o n t a i n o n l y r a r e u b i q u i t o u s s p e c i e s and abundant r e c y c l a n t s , or no palynomorphs whatsoever. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these 'barren' samples i s c o n s i s t e n t enough to a l l o w them to be r e c o g n i z e d as d i s t i n c t p a l y n o l o g i c u n i t s . 36 Two types of marine zones, open marine and r e s t r i c t e d marine, are i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study based on the typ e ( s ) o f palynomorph(s) pr e s e n t , and the r e l a t i v e abundance and d i v e r s i t y o f each. Open marine s t r a t a are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an abundant and d i v e r s e d i n o c y s t / a c r i t a r c h assemblage and an absence of p o l l e n and spores, a l g a l c y s t s and f u n g a l spores. R e s t r i c t e d marine s t r a t a c o n t a i n a l l types of palynomorphs i n r e l a t i v e abundances t h a t r e f l e c t p r o x i m i t y t o open marine or t e r r e s t r i a l environments. T e r r e s t r i a l s t r a t a are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an absence of d i n o c y s t s and a c r i t a r c h s (except as q u a l i f i e d e a r l i e r ) , and the presence of v a r i a b l e q u a n t i t i e s of p o l l e n and spores, p l u s o r minus a l g a l and f u n g a l d e b r i s . Barren zones, c o n s i d e r e d here t o be predominantly non-marine, are charac- t e r i z e d by an absence of d i a g n o s t i c s p e c i e s and/or the presence of a l a r g e number of r e c y c l e d specimens, or by a t o t a l absence of palynomorphs. I t should be emphasized here t h a t the p a l y n o l o g i c zones, as determined by the d e n s i t y of sampling used i n t h i s study, i d e n t i f y the p r e v a i l i n g d e p o s i t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e . Marine zones may c o n t a i n non-marine s t r a t a and v i c e v e r s a . The marine/non-marine u n i t s have been determined s o l e l y on the b a s i s o f p a l y n o l o g i c evidence. Placement of a p a l y n o l o g i c boundary i s somewhat a r b i t r a r y depending on the d i s t a n c e between samples i n a v e r t i c a l s e c t i o n . Occasion- a l l y , c o a l w i l l p e r s i s t along, o r c l o s e t o , p a l y n o l o g i c h o r i z o n s and a boundary w i l l be p l a c e d t o emphasize probable 37 concurrent episodes of c o a l development without compromising p a l y n o l o g i c d a t a . Comparison o f the p a l y n o l o g i c s e c t i o n w i t h the l i t h o - l o g i c s e c t i o n r e v e a l s a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n between p a l y n o l o g i c boundaries and l i t h o l o g i c breaks. Many of the l i t h o l o g i c u n i t s o f Duff & G i l c h r i s t (1981), determined l a r g e l y on g e o p h y s i c a l and p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l evidence, are confirmed and r e f i n e d by t h i s study. A s e d i m e n t o l o g i c a l study of the Moosebar-Gates s e c t i o n from Wolverine R i v e r to Secus Mt. by Carmichael (1983) r e s u l t e d i n d e t a i l e d l i t h o l o g s of a number of d r i l l h o l e s , i n c l u d i n g 3 sampled f o r t h i s study. Comparison of s e v e r a l of these l i t h o l o g s with the p a l y n o l o g i c s e c t i o n ( F i g . 10) r e v e a l s t h a t p a l y n o l o g i c boundaries f r e q u e n t l y c o i n c i d e with l i t h o l o g i c breaks. In many i n s t a n c e s agreement between the two i s maintained through f a c i e s changes where coarse and f i n e , or c o a l - b e a r i n g and n o n - c o a l - b e a r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s are s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y r e v e r s e d , making l i t h o l o g i c c o r r e l a t i o n extremely d i f f i c u l t . C a r m i c h a e l 1 s work has been r e l i e d on e x t e n s i v e l y t o d e s c r i b e the l i t h o l o g i c changes, both v e r t i c a l and l a t e r a l , t h a t occur i n the p a l y n o l o g i c s e c t i o n i n order t o p r o v i d e a f a m i l i a r p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e f o r others working i n the a r e a . F i g u r e 8 i s a p l o t of s p e c i e s ranges based on the z o n a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n F i g u r e 7. The s p e c i e s l i s t i n c l u d e s a l l non-ubiquitous s p e c i e s which occur more than once i n a sample and/or i n more than one sample. S i n g l e specimens 38 ( l i s t e d i n Appendix II) are omitted from F i g u r e 8 s i n c e they are not c o n s i d e r e d r e l i a b l e f o r z o n a t i o n , although they are i n c l u d e d on F i g u r e 7. The e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s are s i n g l e specimens o f any s p e c i e s not found i n the l i t e r a t u r e and presumed t o be new. D e s c r i p t i o n s of new s p e c i e s are being prepared by the author f o r f u t u r e p u b l i c a t i o n . The diagram shows the t o t a l s p e c i e s assemblage which c h a r a c t e r i z e s each u n i t as w e l l as the s p e c i e s unique to the zone. S o l i d l i n e s i n d i c a t e the presence of a s p e c i e s i n a u n i t ; d o t t e d l i n e s i n d i c a t e the l i k e l y occurrence of a s p e c i e s i n a zone based on the range e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s study. Di n o c y s t and a c r i t a r c h s p e c i e s are not presumed to occur i n non-marine u n i t s . A l g a l and f u n g a l m a t e r i a l , d e s p i t e the r e s t r i c t e d ranges shown, are not r e l i e d on h e a v i l y f o r z o n a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l reasons: i n i t i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s of palynomorphs, done on the Gething samples, c o n c e n t r a t e d on p o l l e n , spores and d i n o c y s t s p e c i e s and may have r e s u l t e d i n f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e a l g a l and f u n g a l m a t e r i a l ; a l g a l c y s t s and f u n g a l spores commonly are not r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e and; the g e o l o g i c a l s i g - n i f i c a n c e ( i e . range, d e p o s i t i o n a l environment) of most s p e c i e s i s not w e l l documented. They are i n c l u d e d i n the z o n a t i o n and i l l u s t r a t e d i n the p l a t e s i n order to h e l p r e c t i f y t h i s o mission. The number of s p e c i e s , t o t a l and r e s t r i c t e d , r e p o r t e d i n the t e x t f o r each zone i s taken from F i g u r e 8. As more p a l y n o l o g i c work i s done the z o n a t i o n can be r e f i n e d to 3 9 SUKUNKA NORTH BPM-2 BULLMOOSE MT WOLVERINE 1 RV QUINTETTE NT MONKMAN PASS MDD-780B- MDD-7821 MDD-7804 | ANTLER RIDGE -TRIAD CREEK BD-7802 BWD-76-4 | BELCOURT MT SECUS MT BD-76-1 BXD-76-7 SE Is. L . . GATES FM Basal Marine (open) tr... ••—: I - - — I I. I" Gethingl Marine Tongue i I. GATES EM Middle Marine Middle T e r r e s t r i a l GATES FM Basal Marine HULCROSS FM ( r e s t r i c t e d ) i MOOSEBAR FM Tra n s i t i o n Unit (Torrens Mb) MOOSEBAR FM Marine Upper T e r r e s t r i a l Middle T e r r e s t r i a l GATES FM Basal Non-marine GATES FM 8asal Marine- —- — MOOSEBAR FM Gething Marine Tongue GETHING FM T e r r e s t r i a l Gething Non-marine GATES FM Upper Marine Middle Marine Basal Marine ( r e s t r i c t e d ) (Torrens Mb) T r a n s i t i o n Unit 1 MOOSEBAR FM Marine - 1 GETHING FM T e r r e s t r i a l ! Gething Non-marine datum r | 1 | i • 1 ; 1 MINNES FM p a l y n o l o g i c c o n t a c t .. l i t h o l o g i c c o n t act (based on d r i l l hole data) — — — l i t h o l o g i c c o n t act (based on average th i c k n e s s e s ) v w v w ^ . unconformity m c o a l seam (> 0.5 meters) . SCALE: H o r i z o n t a l : 0.5 cm = 2 km V e r t i c a l : 0.5 cm = 20 m I F i g u r e 9 - NW-SE p a l y n o l o g i c c r o s s s e c t i o n DATUM: Gething/Moosebar contact | / 40 i n c l u d e some o f t h e 50 p o l l e n and spore s p e c i e s and 35 d i n o c y s t / a c r i t a r c h s p e c i e s which o c c u r as s i n g l e , specimens, and whose ranges have not been d e t e r m i n e d . F i g u r e 9 summarizes t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on F i g u r e 7. S i x major marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n s , d e f i n e d here as marine s t r a t a which can be c o r r e l a t e d t h e e n t i r e l e n g t h o f t h e st u d y a r e a , and f o u r minor marine i n c u r s i o n s have been i d e n t i f i e d . Major t r a n s g r e s s i o n s o c c u r a t t h e base o f t h e G e t h i n g F o r m a t i o n , i n t h e lower h a l f o f t h e Moosebar F o r m a t i o n , a t the base and t h e t o p o f t h e b a s a l Gates marine/non-marine u n i t , i n t h e upper m i d d l e G a t e s , and a t t h e t o p o f t h e Gates F o r m a t i o n . Two marine tongues a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e upper h a l f o f t h e G e t h i n g , and a n o t h e r two o c c u r i n t h e b a s a l Gates marine/non-marine u n i t , a l l i n t h e n o r t h w e s t h a l f o f the s t u d y a r e a . The i n t e r v e n i n g non-marine s t r a t a , r e p r e s e n t i n g marine r e g r e s s i o n s , o c c u r ; i n t h e G e t h i n g F o r m a t i o n above t h e b a s a l marine u n i t and below t h e marine tongues; i n t h e B a s a l Gates marine/non-marine u n i t i n t h e s o u t h e a s t h a l f o f t h e st u d y a r e a . Two more a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e upper h a l f o f t h e Gates F o r m a t i o n . B a r r e n zones a r e i d e n t i f i e d above t h e marine tongues i n t h e G e t h i n g , and i n t h e upper h a l f o f t h e Moosebar F o r m a t i o n . G e t h i n g F o r m a t i o n - The marine u n i t a t t h e base o f t h e G e t h i n g F o r m a t i o n i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 meters t h i c k from Sukunka t o Monkman Pass . S o u t h e a s t o f Monkman i t s p l i t s i n t o an upper and lower tongue. The upper tongue t h i n s 41 r a p i d l y and may be absent southeast of Secus Mt.. The lower tongue maintains a t h i c k n e s s of 20-30 meters, but evidence suggests t h a t i t s p l i t s a g a i n i n the v i c i n i t y of Secus Mt., and t h a t both tongues p e r s i s t beyond the l i m i t s of the study a r e a . The u n i t c o n t a i n s both marine and non-marine palynomorphs i n d i c a t i n g a r e s t r i c t e d marine environment, with the t e r r e s t r i a l i n f l u e n c e n o t a b l y s t r o n g e r i n the southeast ( F i g . 7 ) . There are f o u r spore s p e c i e s ( C l a v a t i p o l l e n i t e s c o u p e r i i , C. minutus, Cooksonites r e t i c u l a t u s , P o d o c a r p i d i t e s naumovai) and one d i n o c y s t s p e c i e s ('dino sp. A') e x c l u s i v e t o the Gething b a s a l marine u n i t . Although Dave Gibson ( p e r s . comm.) found evidence of the marine i n f l u e n c e a t the bottom of QWD-7403, the r e appears to be no l i t h o l o g i c or g e o p h y s i c a l means of con- s i s t e n t l y r e c o g n i z i n g the b a s a l marine u n i t other than i t s s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n immediately above the Cadomin For- mation. Outside the study area, and i n r e g i o n s where the Cadomin/Gething c o n t a c t i s i n doubt, p a l e o n t o l o g i c ( p a r t i c u l a r l y p a l y n o l o g i c ) work may p r o v i d e the o n l y evidence of i t s presence. The Gething s t r a t a which l i e between the b a s a l marine u n i t and the lower marine tongue ( f i g . 9) are c o n s i d e r e d to be t e r r e s t r i a l , d e s p i t e poor recovery of palynomorphs. Only a s i n g l e spore s p e c i e s ( R e t i c u l i s p o r i t e s s e m i r e t i c u l a t u s ) , of the 12 present i n the Gething Formation ( F i g . 8 ) , i s c o n f i n e d t o the non-marine zone. The u n i t c o n t a i n s numerous 42 u b i q u i t o u s s p e c i e s and r e c y c l a n t s , although many of the samples are bar r e n . The poor p r e s e r v a t i o n and p e r v a s i v e r e c y c l i n g are c o n s i s t e n t with the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by S t o t t (1973) of d e p o s i t i o n i n t o the f l u c t u a t i n g , moderate to high energy c o n d i t i o n s o f an a l l u v i a l - d e l t a i c environment. The upper h a l f of the Gething Formation north of Q u i n t e t t e c o n t a i n s two marine tongues. The lower tongue i s approximately 30-35 meters t h i c k between Sukunka North and Bullmoose Mt., and t h i n s to l e s s than 10 meters a t Monkman Pass. P a l y n o l o g i c evidence suggests t h a t i t extends as f a r south as the A n t l e r R i d g e / T r i a d Creek r e g i o n . The upper marine tongue i s a l s o approximately 35 meters t h i c k a t Sukunka North but t h i n s r a p i d l y and d i s a p p e a r s j u s t south of the Wolverine s e c t i o n . Of the 12 spore s p e c i e s and 4 d i n o c y s t s p e c i e s found i n the Gething, 2 spore (Coptospora s t r i a t a , C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s potomacensis) and 2 d i n o c y s t s p e c i e s (Apteodinium sp., P a l a e o p e r i d i n i u m sp.) are r e s t r i c t e d t o these marine zones. No attempt was made to d i s t i n g u i s h the upper and lower tongues p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y , s i n c e there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t data to do t h i s r e l i a b l y . The marine i n f l u e n c e i n the upper h a l f of the Gething Formation has been i d e n t i f i e d by Duff & G i l c h r i s t (1981) using g e o p h y s i c a l (and p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l ) evidence. Duff & G i l c h r i s t d e s c r i b e t h e i r Gething Marine Tongue as "... s e v e r a l c o a r s e n i n g upward sequences t h a t a p p a r e n t l y rep- r e s e n t a r a p i d t r a n s g r e s s i v e c y c l e and a somewhat slower r e g r e s s i v e c y c l e . " (p. 12). " ( I t ) may a l s o extend up i n the 43 s e c t i o n t o i n c l u d e the next c o a r s e n i n g upward sequence." and "... would extend up t o j u s t below the Chamberlain seam...". The upper marine tongue i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study does indeed l i e j u s t below the Chamberlain seam, sugges t i n g t h a t the c o a r s e n i n g upward c y c l e s which Duff & G i l c h r i s t i d e n t i f y as probable marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n s are e q u i v a l e n t t o the marine tongues i d e n t i f i e d p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y . The i n t e r v e n i n g 'slower r e g r e s s i v e c y c l e ' i s , p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y , a b a r r e n zone except f o r a few u b i q u i t o u s spore s p e c i e s i n the extreme northwest. The s t r a t a which o v e r l i e the marine tongues are a l s o b arren of palynomorphs. T h i s zone, r e f e r r e d t o by Duff and G i l c h r i s t as the Chamberlain Member, i s an important c o a l - b e a r i n g u n i t of l i m i t e d l a t e r a l e x t e n t . Approximately 25 meters t h i c k a t Bullmoose Mt., i t t h i n s r a p i d l y t o the southeast, d i s a p p e a r i n g between Wolverine R i v e r and Q u i n t e t t e Mt.. Duff and G i l c h r i s t i n d i c a t e t h a t the c o a l zone a l s o t h i n s i n a n o r t h w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n , cut o f f by marine s t r a t a . At present no p a l y n o l o g i c data are a v a i l a b l e f o r the r e g i o n n o r t h of Bullmoose Mountain. The b a r r e n s t r a t a i n the upper p a r t of the Gething Formation do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the u n d e r l y i n g t e r r e s t r i a l s t r a t a and are presumed to have been d e p o s i t e d under s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s . Moosebar Formation - The base of the Moosebar Formation i s i d e n t i f i e d p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y by the f i r s t major i n f l u x o f marine s p e c i e s ( F i g . 7). A lower marine zone c o n t a i n i n g 27 d i n o c y s t and a c r i t a r c h s p e c i e s and 30 spore s p e c i e s ( F i g 8), 44 and an upper ' T r a n s i t i o n U n i t ' completely b a r r e n o f palyno- morphs make up the Moosebar Formation. The marine u n i t v a r i e s i n t h i c k n e s s from 100 meters i n the northwest t o 70 meters i n the southeast and i s charac- t e r i z e d p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y by 9 d i n o c y s t / a c r i t a r c h s p e c i e s and 5 spore s p e c i e s ( F i g . 8 ) . Although i t i s dominated by marine s p e c i e s throughout most of the study area, i n d i c a t i n g open marine c o n d i t i o n s , t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n t e r r e s t r i a l palynomorphs i n the Mt. B e l c o u r t - Secus Mt. r e g i o n , s u g g e s t i n g p r o x i m i t y t o a t e r r e s t r i a l source. In a d d i t i o n , t h r e e of the d r i l l h o l e s c o n t a i n a s i n g l e b a r r e n sample i n the middle of the marine sequence, and a f o u r t h h o l e c o n t a i n s a sample with o n l y a few spores, i n d i c a t i n g a r e g r e s s i v e or emergent phase a t t h i s l e v e l ( F i g . 7 ) . L i t h o l o g i c a l l y , the Moosebar marine u n i t c o n s i s t s of 2 or 3 coarsening-upward c y c l e s of f i n e t o s i l t y b l a c k s h a l e s ( L e c k i e , 1981; Carmichael, 1983). At most l o c a t i o n s the top of the second coarsening-upward c y c l e corresponds t o the r e g r e s s i o n i d e n t i f i e d p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y ( F i g . 10). Although the p a l y n o l o g i c boundary between the Moosebar and Gething formations i s f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t with the l i t h o - l o g i c c o n t a c t i n the southern h a l f of the study area, i t l i e s above the Gething/Moosebar c o n t a c t i n the no r t h e r n h a l f . T h i s may be due i n p a r t to the presence o f marine s t r a t a so c l o s e t o the top of the Gething, and to the di s c o n t i n u o u s nature of the 'Chamberlain Member' and the c o a l w i t h i n i t , making the l i t h o l o g i c c o n t a c t somewhat SUKUNKA NORTH BULLMOOSE MT WOLVERINE RV NW OMO rrovr/oi Compo.lt. McConfc.y Road Cu t QUINTETTE MT QBD 721» MONKMAN PASS ANTLER RIDGE -TRIAD CREEK MOD 7 » I 4 / 7 » 1 8 Compottt. «DD 7811/7008 Compo.it. SBO 76-3 BELCOURT MT 80D 78-01 SECTS MT SCALE: Horizontal: 0.5 cm = 2 km V e r t i c a l : 0.5 cm = 20 m Note: Lithologs do not n(»cp« arn„ i - of - o s L s e c t i o n " n r ^ y ^ y " U n e from the palynologic s e c t i o n ! S l l g h t l y l n thickness F i g u r e 10 - L i t h o l o g i c c o r r e l a U n n 4*.u 46 d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e a c c u r a t e l y . S p e c u l a t i o n by Duff and G i l c h r i s t (1981) t h a t t h e i r Gething Marine Tongue c o r r e l a t e s t o the Moosebar marine n o r t h of Bullmoose Mt. i s not supported by p a l y n o l o g i c evidence. Of the 32 zoneable marine s p e c i e s i n the two formations, o n l y a s i n g l e d i n o c y s t s p e c i e s was found t o be common t o both ( F i g . 8). The ' T r a n s i t i o n U n i t ' l y i n g above the marine sh a l e s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a t o t a l absence of palynomorphs. The u n i t t h i n s from 40 meters i n the northwest t o 30 meters i n the southeast. L i t h o l o g i c a l l y i t i s r e c o g n i z e d by the i n t r o - d u c t i o n of bedded s i l t s t o n e s and sandstones i n t o the dark s h a l e s , but the amount of coarse m a t e r i a l i s h i g h l y v a r i a b l e a c r o s s the s e c t i o n . A comparison of the p a l y n o l o g i c s e c t i o n with l i t h o l o g s ( F i g . 10) d e s c r i b e d by Carmichael (1983), i n d i c a t e s t h a t between Wolverine Rv. and Q u i n t e t t e Mt. i n the northwest, and south of the A n t l e r R i d g e / T r i a d Crk. s e c t i o n , the T r a n s i t i o n U n i t c o n s i s t s of thick-bedded s i l t s t o n e s and sandstones o v e r l a i n by t h i n i n t e r b e d s of sandstone, s i l t s t o n e and s h a l e . In the i n t e r v e n i n g r e g i o n the u n i t c o n s i s t s o n l y of thin-bedded sandstone, s i l t s t o n e and s h a l e . T h i n c o a l s are o c c a s i o n a l l y present near the top. At Mt. S p i e k e r i n the northwest, L e c k i e (1981) de- s c r i b e s a s e c t i o n s i m i l a r t o the W o l v e r i n e / Q u i n t e t t e s e c t i o n , which he d i v i d e s l i t h o l o g i c a l l y between the t h i c k - bedded coarse m a t e r i a l and the o v e r l y i n g f i n e r sediments, p l a c i n g the former at the top of one coarsening-upward c y c l e and the l a t t e r a t the base of a second c y c l e . Outside of 47 h i s s t u d y a r e a t h i s d i v i s i o n i n t o c o a r s e n i n g upward c y c l e s i s not always a p p a r e n t , and would l i k e l y r e s u l t i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t s t r a t i g r a p h i c h o r i z o n s . The ' S p i e k e r Member' o f Duff & G i l c h r i s t (1981) " i n c l u d e s a l l s t r a t a between t h e mudstone member and t h e c l e a n w e l l - s o r t e d sandstone o f t h e upper T o r r e n s member." and i s e q u i v a l e n t t o the T r a n s i t i o n U n i t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e t o p few meters , c o n s i d e r e d here t o be p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y p a r t o f t h e o v e r l y i n g u n i t ( T o r r e n s Mb). T h i s i s e x p l a i n e d more f u l l y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . Gates F o r m a t i o n - The base o f t h e Gates F o r m a t i o n , as i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , o c c u r s as an i n f l u x o f marine palynomorphs above t h e b a r r e n ' T r a n s i t i o n U n i t ' . The Gates ' c o n t a i n s 3 major, p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t marine u n i t s : a b a s a l marine u n i t which i s d i v i d e d i n t o an upper and lower zone by a non-marine wedge, a m i d d l e marine u n i t , and an upper marine u n i t which marks t h e t o p o f t h e f o r m a t i o n . Non-marine s t r a t a a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e b a s a l Gates u n i t , i m m e d i a t e l y above t h e b a s a l marine/non-marine u n i t and between t h e m i d d l e and upper marine u n i t s ( F i g . 9 ) . The b a s a l Gates u n i t i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y open marine i n the n o r t h w e s t , r a p i d l y g i v i n g way t o a complex p a t t e r n o f i n t e r t o n g u i n g marine and non-marine s t r a t a and, f u r t h e r s o u t h e a s t , t o upper and lower r e s t r i c t e d marine tongues, s e p a r a t e d by 60 meters (on average) of non-marine s t r a t a . The zone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by 29 d i n o c y s t and a c r i t a r c h 48 s p e c i e s , 7 o f which a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o t h i s u n i t , and 41 spore s p e c i e s , 9 o f which a r e r e s t r i c t e d ( F i g . 8 ) . At Bullmoose Mt. i n t h e n o r t h w e s t , open marine c o n d i t i o n s a r e i n d i c a t e d by a 100 meter t h i c k s u c c e s s i o n c o n t a i n i n g an abundant and d i v e r s e d i n o c y s t / a c r i t a r c h assemblage. A few non-marine s p e c i e s near t h e m i d d l e and. top o f t h e s u c c e s s i o n ( F i g . 7) i n d i c a t e o c c a s i o n a l r e - g r e s s i o n . Four o f t h e lower Gates 7 d i n o c y s t s p e c i e s (54,179,181,286) appear t o be e x c l u s i v e l y open ma r i n e . Between Bullmoose and Q u i n t e t t e Mts. p a l y n o l o g i c d a t a ar e l a c k i n g . A somewhat s i m p l i f i e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r t o n g u i n g o f marine and non-marine s t r a t a ( F i g . 7) i s based on a northward p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n from Q u i n t e t t e Mt. and Monkman P a s s , and on comparison w i t h l i t h o l o g s from C a r m i c h a e l 1 s s t u d y ( F i g . 1 0 ) . The d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t r e s t r i c t e d marine c o n d i t i o n s p e r s i s t t h r o u g h - out t h e s t u d y a r e a a t t h e base and t o p o f t h e Gates b a s a l marine/non-marine u n i t , and t h a t a t l e a s t 2 minor marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n s p e n e t r a t e as f a r s o u t h as Monkman P a s s . South o f Monkman Pass a t h i c k s u c c e s s i o n o f non-marine s t r a t a l i e s between t h e upper and lower r e s t r i c t e d marine zones. The lower r e s t r i c t e d marine zone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y by an assemblage o f d i n o c y s t s , s p o r e s , a l g a l c y s t s and f u n g a l m a t e r i a l . Of t h e 7 d i n o c y s t s r e s t r i c t e d t o the Gates marine/non-marine u n i t , 2 (Fromea amphora. 49 Hystrochokolpoma 'sp. A') a r e found e x c l u s i v e l y i n t h i s l o w er marine zone. C a r m i c h a e l ' s d r i l l h o l e l i t h o l o g s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s zone c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y o f r e s i s t a n t , t h i c k - b e d d e d sand- t o n e , c o n t a i n i n g t h i n i n t e r b e d s o f conglomerate i n t h e s o u t h e a s t , becoming f i n e r i n t h e n o r t h w e s t ( F i g . 1 0 ) . L i t h o l o g i c and p a l y n o l o g i c d a t a show t h a t t h e zone v a r i e s o n l y s l i g h t l y i n t h i c k n e s s from 25 t o 30 meters a c r o s s most of t h e s e c t i o n , p o s s i b l y r e a c h i n g a minimum t h i c k n e s s o f 20 meters i n t h e n o r t h w e s t p a r t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . T h i s l ower marine zone has been mapped i n whole o r i n p a r t as t h e T o r r e n s Member by a number o f o t h e r w o r k e r s . C a r m i c h a e l (1983) a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e s t h e sandstone i n most of h i s d r i l l h o l e s , but o c c a s i o n a l l y c o r r e l a t e s i t w i t h t h i c k non-marine sandstones of t h e u n d e r l y i n g ' T r a n s i t i o n U n i t ' . The " c l e a n , w e l l - s o r t e d sands" mapped by Duff & G i l c h r i s t ( 1 9 8 1 ) , u s i n g g e o p h y s i c a l l o g s , a r e h i g h l y v a r i a b l e i n t h i c k n e s s ( from 5 t o 20 m e t e r s ) , and c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e t o p o f t h e marine sandstones i d e n t i f i e d p a l y n o l o g i - c a l l y . A c l o s e r l o o k a t t h e g e o p h y s i c a l l o g s i n d i c a t e s a s l i g h t c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d c y c l e j u s t below t h e s e ' c l e a n sands'. At most l o c a t i o n s t h e combined t h i c k n e s s o f t h e c o a r s e n i n g upward c y c l e and the c l e a n sands t h a t o v e r l i e i t ranges from 25 t o 30 meters. L e c k i e (1981) i d e n t i f i e s t h i s sandstone u n i t a t Mt. S p i e k e r a t t h e t o p o f h i s 1Torrens/Sukunka Member'. He d e s c r i b e s an "amalgamated sandstone" which i s "20 t o 30 m t h i c k and o c c u r s as a 50 c o n t i n u o u s body, w i t h o c c a s i o n a l t h i c k c o n g l o m e r a t i c l e n s e s , a c r o s s t h e whole o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . Conglomerate l e n s e s e x c l u d e d , t h e r e i s an o v e r a l l upward i n c r e a s e i n g r a i n s i z e from v e r y f i n e , o r f i n e g r a i n e d t o medium g r a i n e d sand- s t o n e . " (p. 2 2 ) . R e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e T o r r e n s Member i n t h e f i e l d has r e s u l t e d i n much c o n f u s i o n and l i k e l y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o do so. As C a r m i c h a e l p o i n t s o u t "C o a l companies w o r k i n g i n t h e F o o t h i l l s o f n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia g e n e r a l l y r e f e r t o t h e f i r s t t h i c k sandstone i n t e r v a l beneath t h e lowermost economic c o a l seam as t h e T o r r e n s Member." (p. 1 4 ) . C o a l i s p r e s e n t i m m e d i a t e l y above t h e T o r r e n s Member o n l y i n t h e r e g i o n s o u t h o f Q u i n t e t t e , where t h e sandstone i s o v e r l a i n by t h i c k non-marine d e p o s i t s . N o r t h o f Q u i n t e t t e Mt. t h e c o a l o c c u r s above a s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y h i g h e r marine sand- s t o n e , which marks t h e f i r s t minor t r a n s g r e s s i o n i n t o t h e Monkman a r e a ( F i g . 1 0 ) . The marine sandstones o f t h e T o r r e n s Member a r e c o n s i d e r e d by some workers t o mark t h e t o p o f t h e Moosebar F o r m a t i o n (Duff & G i l c h r i s t , 1981; L e c k i e , 1981), w h i l e o t h e r s c o n s i d e r i t t o be e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e b a s a l Gates F o r m a t i o n (McLean, 1982; C a r m i c h a e l , 1983). P a l y n o l o g i c e v i d e n c e s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e T o r r e n s Member as b a s a l Gates. A l t h o u g h a d i s t i n c t , r e s t r i c t e d marine u n i t i n the s o u t h e a s t , i t i s p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y i n s e p a r a b l e from t h e open marine s t r a t a o f t h e b a s a l Gates i n t h e n o r t h w e s t . I n a d d i t i o n , none o f t h e 8 marine s p e c i e s 51 found i n the Torrens Member ( F i g . 7) are r e s t r i c t e d ex- c l u s i v e l y t o the Torrens Member and Moosebar marine s h a l e s . The two u n i t s , i n f a c t , are separated by the p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y b a r r e n ' T r a n s i t i o n U n i t ' ( F i g . 8 ) . Above the Torrens Member i n the northwest h a l f of the study area i s a th i c k e n e d s u c c e s s i o n of i n t e r t o n g u i n g marine and non-marine s t r a t a . Although p a l y n o l o g i c data are l a c k i n g between Bullmoose and Q u i n t e t t e Mts., the con- s i s t e n c y o f the data a t Q u i n t e t t e and Monkman Pass al l o w s reasonable e x t r a p o l a t i o n i n t o t h i s r e g i o n ( F i g . 7 ) . A marine r e g r e s s i o n l y i n g immediately above the Torrens Member over much of the study area stopped s h o r t o f Bullmoose Mt., and was f o l l o w e d by a minor t r a n s g r e s s i o n i n t o the Monkman Pass r e g i o n . Carmichael (1983) i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h i s t r a n s g r e s s i o n i n p a r t , as the ' S h e r i f f Member' but none of the d r i l l h o les used i n h i s study penetrate deep enough t o al l o w him to a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y the base of the t r a n s - g r e s s i o n , and f a c i e s changes prevent him from t r a c i n g i t south o f Q u i n t e t t e Mt. A second r e g r e s s i o n probably reached Bullmoose Mt. i n the northwest, as evidenced by the presence of s e v e r a l non-marine s p e c i e s i n the middle o f the open marine sequence. The t r a n s g r e s s i o n o v e r l y i n g t h i s can a l s o be t r a c e d southward t o Monkman Pass. A t h i r d r e g r e s s i o n shown j u s t n o r t h of Q u i n t e t t e Mt. i s l o c a t e d p r i m a r i l y on the b a s i s of abundant spores, r e l a t i v e t o d i n o c y s t s , and a p e r s i s t e n t c o a l h o r i z o n ( F i g . 10) a t t h i s p o s i t i o n i n the s e c t i o n . 52 D e t a i l e d s e d i m e n t o l o g i c work by C a r m i c h a e l (1981) i n t h e r e g i o n from Secus Mt. t o W o l v e r i n e R i v e r , and by L e c k i e (1981) between W o l v e r i n e R i v e r and Bullmoose Mt., p r o v i d e e x c e l l e n t l i t h o l o g i c e v i d e n c e f o r a c c u r a t e l y l o c a t i n g t h e t r a n s g r e s s i o n s and r e g r e s s i o n s n o r t h o f Q u i n t e t t e Mt. C o a l h o r i z o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r ( F i g . 10) a r e s t r o n g l y d e v e l o p e d a t the base and/or t o p o f non-marine s t r a t a where t h e t r a n s i t i o n w i t h marine s t r a t a o c c u r s , and can be used t o t r a c e t h e t r a n s g r e s s i o n s and r e g r e s s i o n s i d e n t i f i e d p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y . A l t h o u g h L e c k i e r e c o g n i z e s a r e g r e s s i v e phase i m m e d i a t e l y o v e r l y i n g h i s 'Torrens/Sukunka Member' a t Mt. S p i e k e r , and two more t r a n s g r e s s i v e / r e g r e s s i v e c y c l e s i n the o v e r l y i n g b a s a l Gates ( h i s C y c l e 3 ) , i t would be unwise t o equate t h e s e r e g r e s s i o n s t o t h e t h r e e found i n t h i s s t u d y . The l a r g e number o f c o a l h o r i z o n s i n t h e b a s a l Gates F o r m a t i o n between W o l v e r i n e R i v e r and Q u i n t e t t e Mt ( F i g . 10) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i n t e r t o n g u i n g o f marine and non-marine s t r a t a i s more complex t h a n can r e a s o n a b l y be e x t r a p o l a t e d from p r e s e n t p a l y n o l o g i c and l i t h o l o g i c i n f o r m a t i o n . The t o p o f t h e b a s a l Gates u n i t i s marked by a second major t r a n s g r e s s i o n ( t h e upper r e s t r i c t e d marine zone on F i g . 9 ) . A 40 meter t h i c k sequence of r e s t r i c t e d marine s t r a t a , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by near e q u a l numbers o f marine and non-marine s p e c i e s , can be t r a c e d southward t o Secus Mt. and beyond th e s t u d y a r e a . Two o f t h e 7 b a s a l Gates d i n o c y s t s p e c i e s ( A s c o t o m o c y s t i s maxima, c f K a l y p t e a monoceras), and 8 o f t h e 9 spore s p e c i e s ( C a l l i a l a s p o r i t e s segmentatus, 53 Cerratosporites cf morrinicolus, Cibotiumspora j u r i e n s i s , Concavissimisporites minor, Cooksonites v a r i a b i l i s , Densoisporites microrugulatus, Januasporites spi n i f e r u s, Polycingulatisporites 'sp. A') are r e s t r i c t e d to the upper marine unit. The upper r e s t r i c t e d marine unit and the open marine strata to the northwest correspond to the Gates Marine Tongue of Duff & G i l c h r i s t (1981). The non-marine component of the basal Gates marine/non- marine unit l i e s immediately above the Torrens Member. It i s 30 meters thick i n the southeast, increasing to 90 meters at Monkman Pass where i t f i r s t begins to i n t e r f i n g e r with marine s t r a t a . The unit contains only 1 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c spore species ( P s i l a t r i c o l p i t e s parvulus) and i s a major coal-bearing succession. It corresponds approximately to the Sandy Coal-bearing Unit of Duff & G i l c h r i s t (1981), which they trace as far northwest as Sukunka River using geophysical logs. Palynological evidence indicates that a l l strata i n the lower Gates from Bullmoose Mt. northwest are predominantly marine. The Gates middle t e r r e s t r i a l unit l i e s above the basal marine/non-marine unit and contains 17 spore species, 4 of which are exclusive to t h i s zone (Fig. 8). It consists of 80 meters of strata at Belcourt Mt. i n the southeast, but thins rapidly to 20 meters at Monkman Pass. It appears to maintain t h i s thickness to the northwest l i m i t of the study 54 a r e a , a l t h o u g h i t may p i n c h o u t o r i n t e r f i n g e r w i t h marine s t r a t a i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Bullmoose Mt.. L i t h o l o g i c a l l y t h e u n i t may be r e c o g n i z e d a t most l o c a t i o n s by an i n f l u x o f c o a r s e m a t e r i a l ( F i g . 10) above the f i n e r , c o a l - b e a r i n g sediments o f t h e r e s t r i c t e d marine zone a t t h e t o p o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g b a s a l Gates u n i t . However, s o u t h o f t h e A n t l e r R i d g e / T r i a d Creek s e c t i o n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p appears t o be r e v e r s e d ; t h e u n d e r l y i n g r e s t r i c t e d marine tongue i s c o a r s e r and c o n t a i n s t h i c k c o n g l o m e r a t e s , whereas t h e t h i c k e n e d t e r r e s t r i a l s t r a t a become f i n e r - g r a i n e d and c o a l - b e a r i n g ( F i g . 1 0 ) . A t h i n , r e s t r i c t e d marine u n i t o v e r l i e s t h e m i d d l e non-marine u n i t . I t i s i d e n t i f i e d p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y by t h e presence o f a few z o n e a b l e , and numerous u b i q u i t o u s marine s p e c i e s , i n a t h i n zone between two d i s t i n c t l y non-marine zones. Of t h e 25 non-marine and 4 marine s p e c i e s p r e s e n t , o n l y 3 spores and a s i n g l e d i n o c y s t s p e c i e s a r e e x c l u s i v e t o t h i s u n i t ( F i g . 8 ) . I t t h i n s from 30 meters i n t h e nor t h w e s t t o 10 meters i n t h e s o u t h e a s t . The m i d d l e marine u n i t i s dominated by sa n d s t o n e , but becomes c o a l - b e a r i n g i n t h e Monkman Pass r e g i o n . C a r m i c h a e l (1983) i d e n t i f i e s t h i s , and t h e c o a r s e non-marine s t r a t a o f the u n d e r l y i n g m i d d l e t e r r e s t r i a l u n i t , as t h e marine 'Babcock Member'. He t r a c e s i t w i t h c o n f i d e n c e from W o l v e r i n e R i v e r southward t o t h e r e g i o n n o r t h o f Monkman Pa s s , and th e n w i t h some u n c e r t a i n t y t o j u s t s o u t h o f Monkman where t h e c o a l i s p r e s e n t . The f a c i e s changes which 55 occur i n t h i s r e g i o n make the u n i t v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o t r a c e l i t h o l o g i c a l l y south of Monkman. The Gates upper t e r r e s t r i a l zone i s o n l y weakly d e f i n e d , both p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y and l i t h o l o g i c a l l y . Palyno- l o g i c a l l y , i t i s r e c o g n i z e d as a t h i n zone l a c k i n g marine s p e c i e s between two marine u n i t s . I t c o n t a i n s a t o t a l o f 19 spore s p e c i e s , 2 of which are unique t o the zone ( F i g . 8 ) . The u n i t i s t h i c k e s t i n the northwest (50-60 meters) and t h i n s t o 25-30 meters between Monkman Pass and B e l c o u r t Mt.. Although t h i s i s a r e v e r s a l of the normal t r e n d , gaps i n sampling of the upper Gates a t Bullmoose and Q u i n t e t t e Mts., and the d i s t a n c e between the two s e c t i o n s , may obscure a more complex r e l a t i o n s h i p between marine and non-marine s t r a t a i n t h i s r e g i o n . L i t h o l o g i c a l l y , the upper t e r r e s t r i a l u n i t i s q u i t e v a r i a b l e , making i t d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h from the u n d e r l y i n g and o v e r l y i n g marine u n i t s . However, two or three t h i n c o a l h o r i z o n s p e r s i s t throughout. The top of the Gates Formation i s r e s t r i c t e d marine, and c o n t a i n s a r i c h assemblage of 24 marine and 44 non- marine s p e c i e s , i n c l u d i n g 4 sp e c i e s of d i n o c y s t s and 11 sp e c i e s o f spores t h a t are unique t o t h i s zone ( F i g . 8 ) . The Gates upper marine u n i t c o n s i s t s of 40-60 meters of predominantly thick-bedded sandstone, with minor s i l t s t o n e s , s hales and t h i n c o a l s . 56 Age Determination A c c o r d i n g to Singh (1975) the appearance of e a r l y angiosperm p o l l e n i n North America f o l l o w s a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n with r e s p e c t to time, and a l l o w s f a i r l y a c c u r a t e d a t i n g of mid-Cretaceous r o c k s . Monosulcate ( r e t i c u l a t e ) g r a i n s f i r s t appear i n sediments i n the E a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s i n Barremian-Aptian time, but i n Western Canada and United S t a t e s they have not been recorded i n s t r a t a o l d e r than Middle A l b i a n . T r i c o l p a t e ( r e t i c u l a t e ) g r a i n s make t h e i r appearance i n Middle A l b i a n rocks throughout North America, and t r i c o l p o r a t e (smooth, t r i a n g u l a r ) g r a i n s mark the Albian-Cenomanian boundary. In the present study s e v e r a l monosulcate p o l l e n s p e c i e s ( C l a v a t i p o l l e n i t e s h u g h e s i i , C. c o u p e r i i , C. minutus) have been found throughout the Gething Formation and a s i n g l e t r i c o l p a t e g r a i n ( T r i c o l p i t e s crassimuras) i s present near the top of the Gething t e r r e s t r i a l u n i t . Another t r i c o l p a t e g r a i n ( P s i l a t r i c o l p i t e s parvulus) was found i n the non- marine h o r i z o n of the b a s a l Gates u n i t . T r i c o l p i t e s crassimuras was recorded by Singh (1971) from l a t e Middle A l b i a n t o e a r l y Late A l b i a n rocks i n northwestern and c e n t r a l A l b e r t a , but he notes an A l b i a n age f o r the s p e c i e s . P s i l a t r i c o l p i t e s p arvulus was recorded i n e a r l y Late A l b i a n rocks by Singh (1971) and g i v e n a Late A l b i a n to Cenomanian age i n North America. 57 In a d d i t i o n a number of the non-ubiquitous s p e c i e s p r e s e n t i n the c o a l f i e l d s t r a t a are r e s t r i c t e d i n range t o the Middle A l b i a n i n North America i n c l u d i n g : A n t u l s p o r i t e s d i s t a v e r r u c o s u s B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m sp. A F o v e o s p o r i t e s c a n a l i s J a n u a s p o r i t e s s p i n u l o s u s K l u k i s p o r i t e s a r e o l a t u s P i c e a p o l l e n i t e s sp. S e v e r a l o t h e r s range from the Late A l b i a n upward i n c l u d i n g : L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s caperatus Murospora t r u n c a t a O l i g o s p h a e r i d i u m anthophorum Ascotomocystis maxima Hy s t r i c h o s p h a e r i d i u m cooksoni The p a l y n o l o g i c a l evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t the e n t i r e Gething through Gates s e c t i o n i n the Peace R i v e r c o a l f i e l d i s o f Middle A l b i a n t o e a r l y Late A l b i a n age. SUMMARY With renewed i n t e r e s t i n c o a l , a number of s t u d i e s have been undertaken i n the Peace R i v e r C o a l f i e l d i n the past 10 year s , with the express purpose of r e c o g n i z i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g the complexly i n t e r f i n g e r e d marine and non- marine s t r a t a . Although c o n s i d e r a b l e progress has been made, r a p i d f a c i e s changes and the s t r u c t u r a l l y d i s t u r b e d nature of the s t r a t a , along with the absence of s t r a t i - g r a p h i c a l l y u s e f u l m a c r o f o s s i l s make t h i s task extremely d i f f i c u l t over d i s t a n c e s g r e a t e r than a few tens of k i l o m e t e r s . 58 The present p a l y n o l o g i c study takes advantage of the economic development, and near i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s o f depo- s i t i o n a l s e t t i n g and g e o l o g i c age i n order t o r e s o l v e a number of problems of f a c i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n , c o n t a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and nomenclature. E x t e n s i v e d r i l l i n g o f the c o a l f i e l d s t r a t a p r o v i d e s abundant, e a s i l y o b t a i n a b l e m a t e r i a l f o r study. The c o a l - b e a r i n g s t r a t a , l a i d down i n a marginal marine s e t t i n g , i s r i c h i n both marine and non- marine palynomorphs which e x h i b i t o v e r l a p i n near shore environments and p r o v i d e a means of c o r r e l a t i n g s t r a t a where sedi m e n t o l o g i c methods f a i l . The Lower Cretaceous age of the rocks ensures an abundant and d i v e r s e assemblage which enhances c o r r e l a t i o n of the s t r a t a w i t h i n the c o a l f i e l d and' with o u t l y i n g a r e a s , and p r o v i d e s a r e l i a b l e means of d a t i n g the r o c k s . One hundred and n i n e t y nine core samples, r e p r e s e n t i n g almost 3000 meters of s e c t i o n from the Gething, Moosebar and Gates formations i n the southern h a l f of the c o a l f i e l d , have been examined f o r palynomorphs. Of the 350 s p e c i e s o f p o l l e n , spores, d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t s , a c r i t a r c h s , a l g a l c y s t s and f u n g a l spores i d e n t i f i e d 94 are u b i q u i t o u s and the remaining 256 are r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r occurence t o s p e c i f i c formations o r zones w i t h i n a formation. The type and r e l a t i v e abundance of palynomorph i n d i c a t e the g e n e r a l d e p o s i t i o n a l s e t t i n g , and a l l o w i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of open marine, r e s t r i c t e d marine, and non-marine en- vironments. P a l y n o l o g i c a l l y barren zones a l s o r e p r e s e n t 59 d i s t i n c t e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . Both u b i q u i t o u s and r e s t r i c t e d s p e c i e s a r e used t o i d e n t i f y t h e marine and non- marine zones, and t o c o r r e l a t e t h e s e zones t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o a l f i e l d , o r w i t h f a c i e s e q u i v a l e n t s t r a t a . The G e t h i n g F o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a t h i n r e s t r i c t e d marine d e p o s i t which marks t h e base o f t h e f o r m a t i o n i n t h e study a r e a ; a t h i c k non-marine s u c c e s s i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y by a few z o n e a b l e and u b i q u i t o u s s p e c i e s and numerous r e c y c l a n t s ; and two marine tongues which o c c u r i n the n o r t h e r n and upper h a l f o f t h e f o r m a t i o n . The f i r s t o f thes e t r a n s g r e s s i o n s p e n e t r a t e d as f a r s o u t h as t h e A n t l e r R i d g e / T r i a d Creek r e g i o n ; t h e second went no f u r t h e r t h a n th e Q u i n t e t t e Mt. r e g i o n and i s o v e r l a i n by a t h i n , d i s - c o n t i n u o u s , non-marine wedge c o n t a i n i n g economic c o a l . The Moosebar F o r m a t i o n i s a t h i c k s u c c e s s i o n o f marine s h a l e s r i c h i n palynomorphs, o v e r l a i n by a t h i c k , p a l y n o - l o g i c a l l y b a r r e n non-marine s u c c e s s i o n . The Gates F o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a complex p a t t e r n o f a l t e r n a t i n g and i n t e r f i n g e r i n g marine and non-marine s t r a t a . At t h e base o f t h e f o r m a t i o n i s a t h i c k s u c c e s s i o n o f open marine s t r a t a i n t h e n o r t h w e s t , which r a p i d l y g i v e s way t o r e s t r i c t e d marine s t r a t a i n t e r t o n g u i n g w i t h non-marine c o a l - b e a r i n g s t r a t a i n t h e c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . To the s o u t h e a s t , t h e r e s t r i c t e d marine c o n d i t i o n s p e r s i s t above and below a s i n g l e non-marine zone. The t h i n marine zone u n d e r l y i n g t h e t e r r e s t r i a l wedge i s t h e marine sandstone o f t h e 'Torrens Member'. The upper h a l f o f t h e 60 Gates Formation i s made up of t h i n , a l t e r n a t i n g marine and non-marine u n i t s which appear t o be continuous throughout the l e n g t h o f the study area. The b a s a l marine/non-marine u n i t i s o v e r l a i n by a middle t e r r e s t r i a l u n i t which t h i c k e n s i n a s o u t h e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n , and a t h i n middle marine u n i t . Above t h i s l i e an upper t e r r e s t r i a l u n i t , which appears to t h i c k e n i n a n o r t h w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n , but which may i n t e r f i n g e r with marine s t r a t a near the n o r t h e r n l i m i t s o f the study a r e a , and a t h i c k , r e s t r i c t e d marine u n i t which marks the top of the Gates Formation. The p a l y n o l o g i c zones e x h i b i t a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n with l i t h o g i c h o r i z o n s . Coal i n p a r t i c u l a r i s c o n s i s t e n t i n i t s .. occurrence along the t r a n s i t i o n zones between r e s t r i c t e d marine and non-marine s t r a t a , and i n t e r r e s t r i a l s t r a t a i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o marine i n f l u e n c e . In a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l u n i t s which have been i d e n t i f i e d , i n whole or i n p a r t , by other workers u s i n g s e d i m e n t o l o g i c a l or g e o p h y s i c a l means, i n c l u d i n g the Gething marine tongue, the Speiker and Torrens members and the Sandy c o a l - b e a r i n g member of Duff & G i l c h r i s t (1981), the S h e r i f f and Babcock members of Carmichael (1983) and•the Sukunka/Torrens member of L e c k i e (1981), are c o r r e l a t i v e with p a l y n o l o g i c zones. For each of these examples the p a l y n o l o g i c data more a c c u r a t e l y d e f i n e the upper, lower and l a t e r a l l i m i t s of the h o r i z o n , and t r a c e i t through l i t h o l o g i c ( i e f a c i e s ) changes. The p a l y n o l o g i c data, i n a d d i t i o n t o i d e n t i f y i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g the marine and non-marine s t r a t a , have r e s o l v e d 61 the longstanding controversy surrounding the contact between the Moosebar and Gates formations, placing i t below the clean, marine sandstone of the 'Torrens Member', and"above the palynologically barren 'Transition Unit'. The data also provide answers to the more recent questions regarding the re l a t i o n s h i p of the Gething Formation to the underlying and overlying formations. The marine horizon at the base of the Gething Formation provides a means of accurately locating the contact between the Gething and Cadomin formations, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the presence of thick conglomerates near the base of the overlying unit. The marine tongues at the top of the Gething are palynologically d i s t i n c t from the over- ly i n g marine strata of the Moosebar Formation, and l i k e l y remain so, even to the northwest where the intervening c o a l - bearing t e r r e s t r i a l strata may be absent. Based on the f i r s t appearance of a few monocolpate and t r i c o l p a t e angiosperm species the c o a l f i e l d strata can be assigned a Middle to Late Albian age. The Gething Formation at the base of the section i s l i k e l y early to middle Middle Albian and the top of the section i s no younger than late Middle Albian to early Late Albian. This age indicates that, at least within the southern half of the c o a l f i e l d , a considerable amount of Lower Cretaceous strata i s absent above the Jurassic-Cretaceous Minnes Formation. 62 CONCLUSIONS A composite p a l y n o l o g i c s e c t i o n has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the Lower Cretaceous rocks of the Peace R i v e r c o a l f i e l d . The data have p r o v i d e d a wealth of i n f o r m a t i o n , which i s used to zone, c o r r e l a t e and date the s t r a t a , as w e l l as r e s o l v e a number of s t r a t i g r a p h i c problems. With the groundwork l a i d , a d d i t i o n a l p a l y n o l o g i c s t u d i e s may be undertaken w i t h i n the c o a l f i e l d on a more d e t a i l e d s c a l e i n order to a c c u r a t e l y d e f i n e and c o r r e l a t e the c o a l - b e a r i n g s t r a t a , or i n o u t l y i n g areas, i n order t o expand on the present knowledge. For those working w i t h i n the c o a l f i e l d the p a l y n o l o g i c c r o s s - s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a r e f e r e n c e f o r comparison of l i t h o - l o g i c i n f o r m a t i o n s i m i l a r to the method used i n t h i s study, as w e l l as a r e l i a b l e f o s s i l z o n a t i o n f o r a c c u r a t e l y i d e n - t i f y i n g s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n i n the s e c t i o n . For the l a t t e r , w e l l chosen s u r f a c e samples can be of as much value as d r i l l core samples. In o t h e r areas a p a l y n o l o g i c study, although time consuming on a l a r g e s c a l e , can be an extremely u s e f u l t o o l f o r r e s o l v i n g s t r a t i g r a p h i c problems, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e - gions where f a c i e s changes and s t r u c t u r a l deformation become major o b s t a c l e s to the more c o n v e n t i o n a l s e d i m e n t o l o g i c a l methods of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n . 63 REFERENCES Adams, K.R. & Bonnett, R. (1969): Bute I n l e t wax, Nature, V o l . 223, No. 5209, pp. 943-944. A l b e r t a Study Group (1954): Lower Cretaceous of the Peace R i v e r Region, Western Canada Sedimentary B a s i n , R u t h e r f o r d Memorial V o l . , Amer. Assoc. P e t r o . Geol., T u l s a , Oklahoma, pp. 268-278. B e l l , W.A. (1956): Lower Cretaceous f l o r a s of Western Canada, Geol. Surv. Canada, Memoir 285, 153 pp., Brideaux, W.W. (1971): Palynology of the Lower Colorado Group, C e n t r a l A l b e r t a , Canada, P a l a e o n t o g r a p h i c a , Band 135, Abt. B, pp. 53-114, & F i s h e r , M.J. (1976): Upper J u r a s s i c - L o w e r Cretaceous d i n o f l a g e l l a t e assemblages from A r c t i c Canada, Geol. Surv. Canada, B u l l . 259, 53 pp., 7 p l a t e s . & M c l n t y r e , D.J. (1975): Miospores and M i c r o p l a n k t o n from A p t i a n - A l b i a n rocks a l o n g Horton R i v e r , D i s t r i c t o f MacKenzie, G e o l . Surv. Canada, B u l l . 252, 85 pp., 14 p l a t e s . , M c l n t y r e , D.J. & Young, F.G. (1 977): D i s c u s s i o n of Pocock's d i n o f l a g e l l a t e z o n a t i o n of Upper J u r a s s i c - Lower Cretaceous Canadian A r c t i c , B u l l . Can. Pet. Geol., V o l . 25, pp. 1264. Burden, E.T. (1984): T e r r e s t r i a l palynomorph b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y of the lower p a r t of the M a n n v i l l e Group (Lower Cret a c e o u s ) , A l b e r t a and Montana, i n : The Mesozoic of Middle North America, S t o t t & G l a s s ( e d s . ) , Can. Soc. P e t r o l . Geol., Memoir 9, pp. 249-269, 4 p l a t e s . Carmichael, S.M. (1983): Sedimentology of the Lower Cretaceous Gates and Moosebar Formations, Northeast C o a l f i e l d s , B r i t i s h Columbia, unpublished Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 285 pp. Duff, P.McL.D. & G i l c h r i s t , R.D. (1981): C o r r e l a t i o n of Lower Cretaceous c o a l measures, Peace R i v e r C o a l f i e l d , B.C., B.C. M i n i s t r y of Energy, Mines and P e t r o l . Res., Paper 1981-3, 31 pp. Hay, W.W. (1972): P r o b a b i l i s t i c s t r a t i g r a p h y , Ecologae g e o l . H e l v e t . , V o l . 65, pp. 255-266. Hedlund, R.W. & N o r r i s , G. (1968): Spores and p o l l e n g r a i n s from F r e d i c k s b u r g i a n ( A l b i a n ) s t r a t a , M a r s h a l l County, Oklahoma, P o l l e n e t Spores, Mus. Nat. D'Hist. N a t u r e l l e , Vol.X, No. 1, pp. 129-159, 9 p l a t e s . 64 Hughes, J.E. (1964): J u r a s s i c and Cretaceous s t r a t a of the B u l l h e a d s u c c e s s i o n i n the Peace and Pine R i v e r F o o t h i l l s , B r i t i s h Columbia Dept. Mines, B u l l . 51, 73 pp. (1 967): Geology of the Pine V a l l e y , B r i t i s h Columbia Dept. Mines, B u l l . 52, 137 pp. Hughes, N.F., Drewry, G.E. & L a i n g , J.F. (1979): Barremian e a r l i e s t angiosperm p o l l e n , P a l a e o n t o l o g y , Vol.22, Pt.3, pp. 513-535, 8 p l a t e s . Kummel, B. & Raup, D. (1965): Handbook of P a l e o n t o l o g i c a l Techniques, W.H. Freeman & Co., San F r a n c i s c o , London, 852 pp. L e c k i e , D.A. (1981): Shallow-marine t r a n s i t i o n a l t o non- marine sedimentation i n the Upper Moosebar - Lower Gates Member, F o r t S t . John Group, N.E. B r i t i s h Columbia: storm and t i d a l l y i n f l u e n c e d s h o r e l i n e s , Tech-Memo 81-1, McMaster U n i v e r s i t y , Hamilton, 64 pp. & Walker, R.G. (1982): Storm- and tide-dominated s h o r e l i n e s i n Cretaceous Moosebar - Lower Gates i n t e r v a l - outcrop e q u i v a l e n t s of Deep B a s i n gas t r a p s i n Western Canada, Amer. Assoc. P e t r o . Geol. B u l l . , V o l . 66, pp. 138-157. Manum, S.B., Bjaerke, T., Throndsen, T. & E i e n , M. (1976): P r e s e r v a t i o n and abundance of palynomorphs, and o b s e r v a t i o n s on thermal a l t e r a t i o n i n S v a l b a r d , Norsk P o l a r i n s t i t u t t Arbok, Oslo, 1977, pp. 121-130. & Cookson, I . e . (1964): Cretaceous microplankton i n a sample from Graham I s l a n d , A r c t i c Canada, c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the second "Fram"-Expedition (1898-1902) - with notes on microplankton from the Hassel Formation, E l l e f Ringnes I s l a n d , S k r i f t e r U t g i t t av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo, I. Mat-Naturv. K l a s s e . Ny S e r i e . No. 17, 36 pp., 7 p l a t e s . McGregor, D.C. (1965): T r i a s s i c , J u r a s s i c and Lower Cretaceous spores and p o l l e n of A r c t i c Canada, Geol. Surv. Canada, Paper 64-55, 32 pp. McLean, J.R. (1977): The Cadomin Formation: s t r a t i g r a p h y , sedimentology, and t e c t o n i c i m p l i c a t i o n s , B u l l . Can. P e t r o l . Geol., V o l . 25, pp. 92-827. (1982): L i t h o s t r a t i g r a p h y of the Lower Cretaceous c o a l - b e a r i n g sequence, F o o t h i l l s of A l b e r t a , Geol. Surv. Canada, Paper 80-29, 31 pp. 65 & W a l l , J.H. (1981): The E a r l y Cretaceous Moosebar Sea i n A l b e r t a , B u l l . Can. P e t r o l . Geol., V o l . 29, pp. 334- 377. McLearn, F.H. (1921): Mesozoic o f Upper Peace R i v e r , B r i t i s h Columbia, G e o l . Surv. Canada, Summ. Rept. 1920, Pt. B, pp. 1-6. , (1 923): Peace R i v e r Canyon Coal Area, B r i t i s h Columbia, Geol. Surv. Canada, Summ. Rept. 1922, P t . B, pp. 1-46. , (1931): The G a s t r o p l i t e s and oth e r Lower Cretaceous faunas o f the Northern Great P l a i n s , Trans. Roy. S o c , Canada, 3rd Ser., V o l . XXV, Sec. IV, pp. 1-8. , ( 1 940): Notes on the geography and geology o f the Peace R i v e r F o o t h i l l s , Trans. Roy. S o c , Canada, 3rd Ser., V o l . XXXIV, Sec. IV, pp. 63-74. , (1 948): New Lower Cretaceous s p e c i e s , Appendix, Geol. Surv. Canada, Paper 44-17, 2nd Ed. N o r r i s , G. (1967): Spores and p o l l e n from the Lower Colorado Group (Alb.? - Cenom.) of C e n t r a l A l b e r t a , P a l a e o n t o g r a p h i c a, S e r i e s B, V o l . 120, pp. 71-115, 18 - p l a t e s . , (1 982): Mesozoic p a l y n o l o g y of the Moose R i v e r B a s i n , i n Mesozoic Geology and M i n e r a l P o t e n t i a l of the Moose R i v e r B a s i n , T e l f o r d & Verma ( e d s . ) , O n t a r i o G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Study 21, pp.93-133, 12 p l a t e s . , J a r z e n , D.M. & Awai-Thorne, B.V. (1 975): E v o l u t i o n o f the Cretaceous t e r r e s t r i a l p a l y n o f l o r a i n Western Canada, i n : The Cretaceous System i n the Western I n t e r i o r of North America, W.G.E. C a l d w e l l (ed. ) , Geol. Assoc. Canada, Spec. Paper No. 13, pp. 333-364, 3 p l a t e s . , T e l f o r d , P.G. & Vos, M.A. (1 976): An A l b i a n m i c r o f l o r a from the Mattagami Formation, James Bay Lowlands, O n t a r i o , Can. Jour. E a r t h S c , V o l . 13, No. 2, pp. 400- 403. P a d e n - P h i l l i p s , P. & F e l i x , C.J. (1971): A study of Lower and Middle Cretaceous spores and p o l l e n from the southeastern U n i t e d S t a t e s ; I - Spores, i n P o l l e n e t Spores, Mus. Nat. D'Hist. N a t u r e l l e ; P u bl. t r i m e s t r i e l l e , V o l . X I I I , No. 2, (Aug. 1971), pp. 279- 348, 12 p l a t e s . P l a y f o r d , G. (1971): Palynology of b a s a l Cretaceous (Swan Ri v e r ) s t r a t a of Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Palaeontology, V o l . 14, Pt. 4, pp. 533-565, 5 p l a t e s . 66 Pocock, S.A.J. (1962): M i c r o f l o r a a n a l y s i s and age d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s t r a t a a t the J u r a s s i c - C r e t a c e o u s boundary i n the Western Canada P l a i n s , P a l a e o n t o g r a p h i c a, Ser. B, V o l . 111, 95 pp., 15 p l a t e s . (1 976): A p r e l i m i n a r y d i n o f l a g e l l a t e z o n a t i o n of the uppermost J u r a s s i c and lower p a r t of the Cretaceous i n the Canadian A r c t i c and p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n southward i n t o the Western Canada B a s i n , Geoscience & Man, V o l . 15, pp. 104-114, 2 p l a t e s . S c h i l l e r , E.A., Santiago, S.P. & Plachner, W.A. (1983): Monkman c o a l p r o p e r t y , B r i t i s h Columbia, Can. I n s t . Mining B u l l . , V o l . 76, No.850 (Feb. '83), pp. 65-71. S c h u l t h e i s , N.H. & Mountjoy, E.W. (1978): Cadomin conglomerate of western A l b e r t a - a r e s u l t of E a r l y Cretaceous u p l i f t of the Main Ranges, B u l l . Can. Pet. Geol., V o l . 26, pp. 297-342. Shaw, A.B. (1964): Time i n S t r a t i g r a p h y , McGraw-Hill, New York, 365 pp. Singh, C. (1964): M i c r o f l o r a of the Lower Cretaceous M a n n v i l l e Group, E a s t - c e n t r a l A l b e r t a , Res. Counc. A l t a . , B u l l . 15, 238 pp., 29 p l a t e s . (1971): Lower Cretaceous m i c r o f l o r a s of the Peace R i v e r area, N.W. A l b e r t a , Res. Counc. A l t a . , B u l l . 28, V o l . 1, pp. 1-299, 38 p l a t e s , & V o l . 2, pp. 300-542, 41 p l a t e s . (1975): S t r a t i g r a p h i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of e a r l y angiosperm p o l l e n i n the mid-Cretaceous s t r a t a of A l b e r t a , i n : The Cretaceous System i n the Western I n t e r i o r of North America, W.G.E. C a l d w e l l (ed. ) , Geol. Assoc. Canada, Spec. Paper No. 13, pp. 365-389. S t a p l i n , F.L. (1982): Determination of thermal a l t e r a t i o n index from c o l o u r of e x i m i t e ( p o l l e n , s p o r e s ) , i n : How to Asses M a t u r a t i o n and Paleotemperatures, Soc. Econ. P a l e o n t . & M i n e r a l . , Short Course No. 7, pp. 7-11. Steeves, M.W. & W i l k i n s , L.K. (1967): Spores and p o l l e n from the Lower Cretaceous of Saskatchewan, Canada. P a r t 1. S p o r i t e s , Can. Jour. Botany, V o l . 45, pp. 2329-2365, 8 p l a t e s . S t e l c k , C.R., Wall, J.H., Bahan, W.W. & M a r t i n , L . J . (1956): Middle A l b i a n f o r a m i n i f e r a from Athabasca and Peace R i v e r drainage areas of Western Canada, Res. Counc. A l t a . , Rep. No. 75, 60 pp. Sternberg, C M. (1932): Dinosaur t r a c k s from Peace R i v e r , B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report, 1930, N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada, pp. 59-85, 5 p l a t e s . S t o t t , D.F. (1962): Cretaceous rocks of Peace R i v e r F o o t h i l l s , Geol. Surv. Canada R e p r i n t from Edmonton Geol. Soc. Guide Book 1962, pp. 22-45. (1 968): Lower Cretaceous B u l l h e a d and F o r t S t . John Groups, between Smokey and Peace R i v e r s , Rocky Mountain F o o t h i l l s , A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia, Geol. Surv. Canada, B u l l . 152, 279 pp. (1 973): Lower Cretaceous B u l l h e a d Group between Bullmoose Mt. and Tetsa R i v e r , Rocky Mountain F o o t h i l l s , n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia, G e o l . Surv. Canada, B u l l . 219, 228 pp. (1 974): Lower Cretaceous c o a l measures of the F o o t h i l l s of w e s t - c e n t r a l A l b e r t a and n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia, Can. Mining & Metal. B u l l . , V o l . 67, pp. 87-101. (1 975): The Cretaceous system i n n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n : The Cretaceous System i n the Western I n t e r i o r of North America, W.G.E. C a l d w e l l (ed. ) , Geol. Assoc. Canada, Spec. Paper No.13, pp. 441-467. (1981): B i c k f o r d and Gorman Creek, two new formations of the J u r a s s i c - C r e t a c e o u s Minnes Group, A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia, S c i e n t i f i c and T e c h n i c a l Reports, Geol. Surv. Canada, Paper 81-1B, pp. 1-9. & Gibson, D.W. (1980): Minnes c o a l , n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia, Current Research, Part C, Geol. Surv. Canada, Paper 80-1C, pp. 135-137. T a y l o r , D.R. & Walker, R.G. (1984): Environments and paleogeography i n the A l b i a n Moosebar Formation and adjacent f l u v i a l Gladstone and Beaver Mines Formations, A l b e r t a , Can. Jour. E a r t h Sc., V o l . 21, pp. 698-714. W i l l i a m s , G.L. & S t e l c k , C R . (1975): S p e c u l a t i o n s on the Cretaceous paleogeography of North America, i n The Cretaceous System i n the Western I n t e r i o r of North America, C a l d w e l l (ed.), Geol. Assoc. Canada, Spec. Paper No. 13, pp. 1-20. 68 PLATE 1 - GETHING FORMATION A l l specimens are shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n u n l e s s otherwise s t a t e d F i g u r e 1: Murospora t r u n c a t a Singh F i g u r e 2: C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s potomacensis Brenner F i g u r e 3: R e t i c u l i s p o r i t e s s e m i r e t i c u l a t u s (Burger) N o r r i s F i g u r e 4: Cyclonephelium d i s t i n c t u m v a r . brevispinatum ( M i l l i o u d ) L e n t i n & W i l l i a m s F i g u r e 5: Cooksonites r e t i c u l a t u s Pocock F i g u r e 6: C l a s s o p o l l i s chateaunovi Reyre F i g u r e 7: dino sp. A (nov. sp.) F i g u r e 8: P a l a e o p e r i d i n i u m sp. A Bujak & W i l l i a m s  PLATE 2 - MOOSEBAR FORMATION A l l specimens are shown at X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n u n l e s s otherwise s t a t e d F i g u r e 1: U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s f o s s u l a t u s Singh, d i s t a l focus 2: same specimen; proximal focus F i g u r e 3: R e t i c u l i s p o r i t e s elongatus Singh F i g u r e 4: Eucommiidites t r o e d s o n i i (Erdtman) Hughes F i g u r e 5: P i c e a p o l l e n i t e s sp. ( c f Singh) F i g u r e 6: P i n u s p o l l e n i t e s sp. (X500) F i g u r e 7: Cymatiosphaera pachytheca Eisenack F i g u r e 8: Hystrichokolpoma f e r o x (Deflandre) Davey F i g u r e 9: Gardodinium e i s e n a c k i A l b e r t i F i g u r e 10: C l e i s t o s p h a e r i d i u m d i v e r s i s p i n o s u m Davey e t a l F i g u r e 11: P a r e o d i n i a c f a p h e l i a Cookson & Eisenack (X500) F i g u r e 12: S u b t i l i s p h a e r a p e r l u c i d a ( A l b e r t i ) J a i n & M i l l e p i e d  72 PLATE 3 - MOOSEBAR & GATES FORMATIONS A l l specimens are shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n unless otherwise s t a t e d F i g u r e 1: T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s a p i v e r r u c a t u s Couper F i g u r e 2: K l u k i s p o r i t e s a u r e o l a t u s Singh F i g u r e 3: Tanyosphaeridium sp. B ( c f Brideaux) F i g u r e 4: Cyclonephelium d i s t i n c t u m Deflandre & Cookson F i g u r e 5: Cyclonephelium d i s t i n c t u m Deflandre & Cookson F i g u r e 6: B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m sp. A Singh (X500) F i g u r e 7: S p i n i f e r i t e s c i n g u l a t u s (0. Wetzel) Davey & Wi l l i a m s F i g u r e 8: O d o n t o c h i t i n a o p e r c u l a t a (O.Wetzel) Deflandre & Cookson (X500) F i g u r e 9: Apteodinium maculatum Eisenack & Cookson (X500) F i g u r e 10: H y s t r i c h o s p h a e r i d i u m s t e l l a t u m Maier (X500)  PLATE 4 - GATES FORMATION Bas a l Marine/Non-Marine U n i t A l l specimens are shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n u n l e s s otherwise s t a t e d F i g u r e 1: Cooksonites v a r i a b i l i s Pocock F i g u r e 2: Cibotiumspora j u r i e n s i s (Balme) F i l a t o f f F i g u r e 3: C e r a t o s p o r i t e s c f m o r r i n i c o l u s S r i v a s t a v a F i g u r e 4: P o l y s i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s *sp. A* (nov. sp.) F i g u r e 5: C l e i s t o s p h a e r i d i u m multispinosum (Singh) Brideaux (X500) F i g u r e 6: Fromea amphora Cookson & Eisenack F i g u r e 7: S p i n i f e r i t e s c i n g u l a t u s (0. Wetzel) Davey & W i l l i a m s (X500) F i g u r e 8: C a l l i a l a s p o r i t e s segmentatus (Balme) Sukh Dev F i g u r e 9: Hystrichokolpoma 'sp. A'(nov. sp.) F i g u r e 10: Ascotomocystis maxima Singh (X500) F i g u r e 11: Gonyaulacysta c f episoma S a r j e a n t (X500)  PLATE 5 - GATES FORMATION Middle T e r r e s t r i a l U n i t A l l specimens are shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n u n l e s s otherwise s t a t e d F i g u r e 1: D i c t y o t o s p o r i t e s complex Cookson & Dettmann F i g u r e 2: K l u k i s p o r i t e s p s e u d o r e t i c u l a t u s Couper F i g u r e 3: 'spore sp. A' (nov. gen.) F i g u r e 4: D i c t y o p h y l l i d i t e s equiexinous (Couper) Dettmann F i g u r e 5: A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s t r i c o r n i t a t u s Weyland & G r e i f e l d ; d i s t a l focus F i g u r e 6: same specimen; proximal focus F i g u r e 7: L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s c i r n i i d i t e s (Ross) Brenner F i g u r e 8: C i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s d i s t a v e r r u c o s u s Brenner; d i s t a l focus F i g u r e 9: same specimen; proximal focus F i g u r e 10: C o n t i g n i s p o r i t e s multimuratus Dettmann  PLATE 6 - GATES FORMATION Middle Marine U n i t A l l specimens are shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n u n l e s s otherwise s t a t e d F i g u r e 1: L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s asperatus Dettmann F i g u r e 2: M a t o n i s p o r i t e s 'sp. A 1 (nov. sp.) F i g u r e 3: D i c t y o t o s p o r i t e s s p e c i o s u s Cookson & Dettmann F i g u r e 4: K u y l s p o r i t e s l u n a r i s Cookson & Dettmann F i g u r e 5: A c a n t h o t r i l e t e s l e v i d e n s i s Balme F i g u r e 6: C y a t h i d i t e s r a p h a e l (Burger) Burger F i g u r e 7: U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s undulapolus Brenner F i g u r e 8: Gonyaulacysta archeopyle operculum Type B (c f Singh, 1971) F i g u r e 9: Tasmanites tardus Eisenack F i g u r e 10: Gonyaulacysta o r t h o c e r a s (Eisenack) S a r j e a n t (X500) F i g u r e 11: C h y t r o i s p h a e r i d i a c f pococki S a r j e a n t ; near focus F i g u r e 12: same specimen; mid focus  80 PLATE 7 - GATES FORMATION Upper T e r r e s t r i a l U n i t A l l specimens are shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n u n l e s s otherwise s t a t e d F i g u r e 1: S e s t r o s p o r i t e s i r r e g u l a r u s (Couper) Dettmann; d i s t a l focus F i g u r e 2: same specimen; proximal focus F i g u r e 3: T i g r i s p o r i t e s r e t i c u l a t u s Singh F i g u r e 4: D l s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s 'sp. B' (nov. s p . ) ; d i s t a l focus F i g u r e 5: same specimen; e q u a t o r i a l focus F i g u r e 6: F o r a m i n i s p o r i s asymmetricus (Cookson & Dettmann) Dettmann F i g u r e 7: A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s b i l a t e r a l i s Singh F i g u r e 8: D l s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s 'sp. B' (nov. s p . ) ; proximal focus F i g u r e 9: M a t o n i s p o r i t e s c o o k s o n i i Dettmann F i g u r e 10: Tasmanites newtoni Wall F i g u r e 11: Palambages Form A Manum & Cookson; near focus F i g u r e 12: same specimen; mid focus  PLATE 8 - GATES FORMATION Upper T e r r e s t r i a l & Upper Marine U n i t s A l l specimens are shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n u n l e s s otherwise s t a t e d F i g u r e 1: F i g u r e 2: F i g u r e 3: F i g u r e 4: F i g u r e 5: F i g u r e 6: F i g u r e 7: F i g u r e 8: F i g u r e 9: F i g u r e 10: F i g u r e 11: F i g u r e 12: D l s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s 'sp. A* (nov. sp.) C y a t h i d i t e s punctatus ( D e l c o u r t & Sprumont) D e l c o u r t , Dettmann & Hughes F o r a m i n i s p o r i s wonthaggiensis (Cookson & Dettmann) Dettmann A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s unicus (Markova) Singh Phragmothyrites 'Form B' B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m sp. B Singh Cyclonephelium paucispinum Davey (X500) P a l a e o p e r i d i n i u m cretaceum Pocock (X500) Apteodinium maculatum Eisenack & Cookson (X500) Crassosphaera sp. A ( c f Backhouse); near focus same specimen; mid focus P t e r o s p e r m e l l a a u s t r a l i e n s i s (Deflandre & Cook- son) Eisenack & Cramer  84 PLATE 9 - GATES FORMATION Upper Marine U n i t A l l specimens are shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n unless otherwise s t a t e d F i g u r e 1: I s c h y o s p o r i t e s 'sp. A 1 (nov. s p . ) ; proximal focus F i g u r e 2: same specimen; d i s t a l focus F i g u r e 3: C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s c f t e r s u s (Kara Mursa) Pocock; proximal focus F i g u r e 4: same specimen; d i s t a l focus F i g u r e 5: F d v e o t r i l e t e s s u b t r i a n g u l a r u s Brenner; proximal focus F i g u r e 6: same specimen; d i s t a l focus F i g u r e 7: A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s dentimarginatus 'var. A'(nov. comb.) Fi g u r e 8: Phragmothyrites 'Form A' Fi g u r e 9: Pterodinium sp. A ( c f Brideaux & Mclntyre) (X500) F i g u r e 10: Ol i g o s p h a e r i d i u m complex (White) Davey & Wi l l i a m s (X500) F i g u r e 11: Gonyaulacysta c r e t a c e a Neale & S a r j e a n t (X500) F i g u r e 12: Ol i g o s p h a e r i d i u m diastema Singh (X500)  86 APPENDIX I Lower Cretaceous Palynomorph References Anan-York, R. & S t e l c k , C R . (1978): M i c r o f l o r a s from Upper A l b i a n N e o g a s t r o p l i t e s Zone, S i k a n n i C h i e f R i v e r , n o r t h e a s t B r i t i s h Columbia, i n : Western and A r c t i c Canada B i o s t r a t i g r a p h y , S t e l c k & C h a t t e r t o n ( e d s . ) , Geol. Assoc. Canada, Spec. Paper #18, pp. 473-493. Batten, D.J. (1973): Palynology of E a r l y Cretaceous s o i l beds and a s s o c i a t e d s t r a t a , P a laeontology, V o l . 16, Pt. 2, pp. 399-424, 7 p l a t e s . Brenner, G.J. (1963): The spores and p o l l e n of the Potomac Group of Maryland, Dept. of Geol., Mines and Water Res., S t a t e of Maryland, B u l l . 27, 215 pp., 43 p l a t e s . , (1974): P a l y n o s t r a t i g r a p h y of the Lower Cretaceous Gevar'am and Talme Yafe Formations of the Gevar'am 2 w e l l (South C o a s t a l P l a i n , I s r a e l ) , G e o l o g i c a l Survey of I s r a e l , B u l l . #59, pp. 1-27, 10 p l a t e s . Brideaux, W.W. (1971): Palynology of the Lower Colorado Group, C e n t r a l A l b e r t a , Canada, P a l a e o n t o g r a p h i c a , Band 135, Abt. B, pp. 53-114. & F i s h e r , M.J. (1976): Upper J u r a s s i c - L o w e r Cretaceous d i n o f l a g e l l a t e assemblages from A r c t i c Canada, Geol. Surv. Canada, B u l l . 259, 53 pp., 7 p l a t e s . & M c l n t y r e , D.J. (1975): Miospores and microplankton from A p t i a n - A l b i a n rocks along Horton R i v e r , D i s t r i c t of MacKenzie, Geol. Surv. Canada, B u l l . 252, 85 pp., 14 p l a t e s . , M c l n t y r e , D.J. & Young, F.G. (1977): D i s c u s s i o n of Pocock's d i n o f l a g e l l a t e z o n a t i o n of Upper J u r a s s i c - Lower Cretaceous Canadian A r c t i c , B u l l . Can. Pet. Geol., V o l . 25, pp. 1264. Bujak, J.P. & W i l l i a m s , G.L. (1978): Cretaceous p a l y n o s t r a t i g r a p h y of o f f s h o r e s o u th-eastern Canada, Geol. Surv. Canada, B u l l . 297, 19 pp., 3 p l a t e s . Burden, E.T. (1984): T e r r e s t r i a l palynomorph b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y of the lower p a r t of the M a n n v i l l e Group (Lower Cretaceous), A l b e r t a and Montana, i n : The Mesozoic of Middle North America, S t o t t & Glass ( e d s . ) , Can. Soc: P e t r o l . Geol., Memoir 9, pp. 249-269, 4 p l a t e s . 87 Burger, D. (1966): Palynology of uppermost J u r a s s i c and lowermost Cretaceous s t r a t a i n the E a s t e r n Netherlands, Overdruk U i t , L e i d s e Geologische Mededelingen, Deel 35, pp. 209-276, 39 p l a t e s . (1973): Spore z o n a t i o n and sedimentary h i s t o r y of the Neocomian, Great A r t e s i a n B a s i n , Queensland, Spec. Pubis. Geol. Soc. A u s t r a l i a , No. 4, pp. 87-118, 2 p l a t e s . (1974): Palynology of subsurface Lower Cretaceous s t r a t a i n the Surat B a s i n , Queensland, Bureau of M i n e r a l Resources, A u s t r a l i a , B u l l . 150, 16 pp., 3 p l a t e s . (1980): P a l y n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s i n the Lower Cretaceous of the Surat B a s i n , A u s t r a l i a , Bureau of M i n e r a l Res., Geol. & Geophys., B u l l . 189, 106 pp., 48 p l a t e s . C l a r k e , R.F.A. & V e r d i e r , J.P. (1967): An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of microplankton assemblages from the Chalk of the I s l e of Wight, England, Verhandelingen der K o n i n k l i j k e Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, A f d . Natuurkunde, E e r s t e Reeks - Deel XXIV - No. 3, 96 pp., .. 17 p l a t e s . Cookson, I . e . & Dettmann, M.E. (1958): Some t r i l e t e spores from Upper Mesozoic d e p o s i t s i n the e a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a n r e g i o n , Proc. Roy. Soc. V i c t o r i a , V o l . 70, Pt. 2, pp. 95-128, 6 p l a t e s . Cookson, I . e . & Eisenack, A. (1958): M i c r o p l a n k t o n from A u s t r a l i a n and New Guinea Upper Mesozoic sediments, Proc. Roy. Soc. V i c t o r i a , V o l . 70, Pt. 1, pp. 19-79, 12 p l a t e s . & Eisenack, A. (1960): Upper Mesozoic microplankton from A u s t r a l i a and New Guinea, Palaeontology, V o l . 2, Pt. 2, pp. 243-261, 3 p l a t e s . & E isenack, A. (1960): M i c r o p l a n k t o n from A u s t r a l i a n Cretaceous sediments, M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y , V o l . 6, No. 1, pp. 1-18, 3 p l a t e s . & Eisenack, A. (1961): Upper Cretaceous microplankton from the B e l f a s t No. 4 Bore, south-western V i c t o r i a , Proc. Roy. Soc. V i c t o r i a , V o l . 74, Pt 1, pp. 69-76, 2 p l a t e s . & Eisenack, A (1965): M i c r o p l a n k t o n from the Datrmoor Formation, S.W. V i c t o r i a , Proc. Roy. Soc. V i c t o r i a , V o l . 79, Pt. 1, pp. 133-137, 2 p l a t e s . 88 & Eisenack, A. (1965): M i c r o p l a n k t o n from the Browns Creek C l a y s , S.W. V i c t o r i a , Proc. Roy. Soc. V i c t o r i a , V o l . 79, Pt. 1, pp. 119-131, 5 p l a t e s . Cookson, I.C. & Hughes, N.F. (1964): M i c r o p l a n k t o n from the Cambridge Greensand (mid-Cretaceous), Palaeontology, V o l . 7, Pt. 1, pp. 37-59, 7 p l a t e s . Couper, R.A. (1964): Spore - p o l l e n c o r r e l a t i o n of the Cretaceous rocks of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, i n : Palynology i n O i l E x p l o r a t i o n ; A Symposium, A.T. Cross (ed.), Soc. Econ. P a l e o n t . & Mineralog., Spec. P u b l . No. 11, T u l s a , Okla. Davey, R.J. (1969): Non-calcareous microplankton from the Cenomanian of England, Northern France and North America, P a r t I, B u l l . B r i t . Mus. (Nat. H i s t . ) , Geol., V o l . 17, No. 3, pp. 103-180, 11 p l a t e s . , Downey, C., S a r j e a n t , W.A.S. & W i l l i a m s , G.L. (1966): S t u d i e s on Mesozoic and C a i n o z o i c d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t s , B u l l . B r i t . Mus. (Nat. H i s t ) , Geol., Supp. 3, 248 pp., 26 p l a t e s . D e l c o u r t , A.F., Dettmann, M.E. & Hughes, N.F. (1963): R e v i s i o n of some Lower Cretaceous microspores from Belgium, Palaeontology, V o l . 6, P t . 2, pp. 282-292, 4 p l a t e s . Dettmann, M.E. (1963): Upper Mesozoic m i c r o f l o r a s from south-eastern A u s t r a l i a , Proc. Roy. Soc. V i c t o r i a , V o l . 77, Pt. 1, pp. 1-148, 27 p l a t e s . & P l a y f o r d , G. (1968): Taxonomy of some Cretaceous spores and p o l l e n g r a i n s from E a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a , Proc. Roy. Soc. V i c t o r i a , V o l . 8, Pt. 2, pp. 69-94, 3 p l a t e s . Dorhofer, G. (1977): P a l y n o l o g i e und s t r a t i g r a p h i e der Buckeberg-Formation ( B e r r i a s i a n - V a l a n g i n i a n ) i n der Hilsmulde (N.W.-Deutschland), Geologisches Jahrbuch, Reihe A, Heft 42, 122 pp., 15 p l a t e s . Doyle, J.A. (1977): Spores and p o l l e n : the Potomac Group (Cretaceous) angiosperm sequence, i n : Concepts and Methods of B i o s t r a t i g r a p h y , Kauffman & Hazel ( e d s . ) , Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, pp. 339-363. E l s i k , W.C. & Jansonius, J . (1974): New genera of Paleogene f u n g a l spores, Can. Jour. Bot., V o l . 52, pp. 953-958> 1 p l a t e . 89 E v i t t , R.W. (ed.) (1975): Proceedings of a Forum on D i n o f l a g e l l a t e s h e l d a t Anaheim, C a l i f o r n i a , October 16, 1973 as p a r t of the S i x t h Annual Meeting, Amer. Assoc. S t r a t i g . P a l y n o l o g i s t s , C o n t r i b . S e r i e s , No. 4, 71 pp., 7 p l a t e s . Hedlund, R.W. & N o r r i s , G. (1968): Spores and p o l l e n g r a i n s from F r e d i c k s b u r g i a n ( A l b i a n ) s t r a t a , M a r s h a l l County, Oklahoma, P o l l e n e t Spores, Mus. Nat. D'Hist. N a t u r e l l e , Vol.X, No. 1, pp. 129-159, 9 p l a t e s . Hughes, N.F. (1969): J u r a s s i c and E a r l y Cretaceous p o l l e n and spores, i n : Aspects of Palynology, Tschudy & S c o t t ( e d s . ) , W i l e y - I n t e r s c i e n c e , John Wiley & Sons, New York, Toronto, pp. 311-329, 4 p l a t e s . , Drewry, G.E. & L a i n g , J.F. (1979): Barremian e a r l i e s t angiosperm p o l l e n , Palaeontology, Vol.22, Pt.3, pp. 513-535, 8 p l a t e s . & Moody-Stuart, J.C. (1969): A method of s t r a t i g r a p h i c c o r r e l a t i o n u s i n g E a r l y Cretaceous spores, Palaeontology, V o l . 12, Pt. 1, pp. 84-111. J a i n , K.P. (1975): A d d i t i o n a l d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s and a c r i t a r c h s from Grey Shale Member of Dalmiapuram Formation, South I n d i a , The P a l a e o b o t o n i s t , V o l . 24, No. 3, pp. 170-194, 6 p l a t e s . Kotova, I.Z. (1978): Spores and p o l l e n from Cretaceous d e p o s i t s of the e a s t e r n North A t l a n t i c Ocean, Deep Sea D r i l l i n g P r o j e c t , Leg 41, S i t e s 367 & 370, I n i t i a l Reports of the Deep Sea D r i l l i n g P r o j e c t , V o l . XLI, pp. 841-881, 14 p l a t e s . & Cookson, I.C. (1964): Cretaceous microplankton i n a sample from Graham I s l a n d , A r c t i c Canada, c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the second "Fram"-Expedition (1898-1902) - with notes on microplankton from the Hassel Formation, E l l e f Ringnes I s l a n d , S k r i f t e r U t g i t t av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo, I. Mat-Naturv. K l a s s e . Ny S e r i e . No. 17, 36 pp., 7 p l a t e s . McGregor, D.C. (1965): T r i a s s i c , J u r a s s i c and Lower Cretaceous spores and p o l l e n of A r c t i c Canada, Geol. Surv. Canada, Paper 64-55, 32 pp., 10 p l a t e s . M i l l i o u d , M.E. (1969): D i n o f l a g e l l a t e s and a c r i t a r c h s from some Western European Lower Cretaceous type l o c a l i t i e s , Proceedings of the F i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on- P l a n k t o n i c M i c r o f o s s i l s , Geneva, V o l . 2, pp. 420-434. 90 N o r r i s , G. (1967): Spores and p o l l e n from the Lower Colorado Group (Alb.? - Cenom.) of C e n t r a l A l b e r t a , P a l a e o n t o g r a p h i c a, S e r i e s B, V o l . 120, pp. 71-115, 18 p l a t e s . (1969): Miospores from the Purbeck Beds and marine Upper J u r a s s i c of southern England, Palaeontology, V o l . 12, Pt. 4, pp. 574-620, 12 p l a t e s . (1982): Mesozoic p a l y n o l o g y of the Moose R i v e r B a s i n , i n Mesozoic Geology and M i n e r a l P o t e n t i a l of the Moose R i v e r B a s i n , T e l f o r d & Verma (e d s . ) , O n t a r i o G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Study 21, pp.93-133, 12 p l a t e s . , J a r z e n , D.M. & Awai-Thorne, B.V. (1975): E v o l u t i o n of the Cretaceous t e r r e s t r i a l p a l y n o f l o r a i n Western Canada, i n : The Cretaceous System i n the Western I n t e r i o r of North America, W.G.E. C a l d w e l l (ed. ) , Geol. Assoc. Canada, Spec. Paper No. 13, pp. 333-364, 3 p l a t e s . , T e l f o r d , P.G. & Vos, M.A. (1 976): An A l b i a n m i c r o f l o r a from the Mattagami Formation, James Bay Lowlands, O n t a r i o , Can. Jour. E a r t h Sc., V o l . 13, No. 2, pp. 400- 403. P a d e n - P h i l l i p s , P. & F e l i x , C.J. (1971): A study of Lower and Middle Cretaceous spores and p o l l e n from the southeastern U n i t e d S t a t e s ; I - Spores, i n P o l l e n e t Spores, V o l . 13, No. 2, pp. 279-348, 12 p l a t e s . P l a y f o r d , G. (1971): Palynology of b a s a l Cretaceous (Swan R i v e r ) s t r a t a of Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Palaeontology, V o l . 14, Pt. 4, pp. 533-565, 5 p l a t e s . , Haig, D.W. & Dettmann, M.E. (1975): A mid-Cretaceous m i c r o f o s s i l assemblage from the Great A r t e s i a n B a s i n , northwestern Queensland, N. Jb. Geol. Palaont. Abh. ( S t u t t g a r t ) , 149, pp. 333-362, 6 p l a t e s . Pocock, S.A.J. (1962): M i c r o f l o r a l a n a l y s i s and age d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s t r a t a a t the J u r a s s i c - C r e t a c e o u s boundary i n the Western Canada P l a i n s , P a l a e o n t o g r a p h i c a, Ser. B, V o l . 111, 95 pp., 15 p l a t e s . (1967): The J u r a s s i c - C r e t a c e o u s boundary i n northern Canada, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, V o l . 5, pp. 129-136. (1976): A p r e l i m i n a r y d i n o f l a g e l l a t e z o n a t i o n of the uppermost J u r a s s i c and lower p a r t of the Cretaceous i n the Canadian A r c t i c and p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n southward i n t o the Western Canada B a s i n , Geoscience & Man, V o l . 15, pp. 104-114, 2 p l a t e s . 91 (1980): The A p t i a n - A l b i a n boundary i n Canada, IV I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a l y n o l . Conf. f Lucknow (1976-77) 2, pp. 419-424. Rouse, G.E. (1959): P l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s from Kootenay c o a l - measures s t r a t a of B r i t i s h Columbia, M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y , V o l . 5, No. 3, pp. 303-324, 2 p l a t e s . & S r i v a s t a v a , S.K. (1972): P a l y n o l o g i c a l z o n a t i o n of Cretaceous and E a r l y T e r t i a r y rocks of the Bonnet Plume Formation, n o r t h e a s t e r n Yukon, Canada, Can. Jour. E a r t h Sc., V o l . 9, No. 9, pp. 1163-1179, 6 p l a t e s . Sepulveda, E.G. & N o r r i s , G. (1982): A comparison of some Paleogene f u n g a l palynomorphs from A r c t i c Canada and from Patagonia, South A r g e n t i n a , R e v i s t a de l a A s o c i a c i o n P a l e o n t o l o g i c a A r g e n t i n a , Tomo XIX, No. 3-4, pp. 319-334, 4 p l a t e s . Singh, C. (1964): M i c r o f l o r a of the Lower Cretaceous M a n n v i l l e Group, E a s t - c e n t r a l A l b e r t a , Res. Counc. A l t a . , B u l l . 15, 238 pp., 29 p l a t e s . (1971): Lower Cretaceous m i c r o f l o r a s o f the Peace R i v e r a rea, N.W. A l b e r t a , Res. Counc. A l t a . , B u l l . 28, V o l . 1, pp. 1-299, 38 p l a t e s , & V o l . 2, pp. 300-542, 41 p l a t e s . (1975): S t r a t i g r a p h i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of e a r l y angiosperm p o l l e n i n the mid-Cretaceous s t r a t a of A l b e r t a , i n : The Cretaceous System i n the Western I n t e r i o r of North America, W.G.E. Ca l d w e l l (ed.), Geol. Assoc. Canada, Spec. Paper No. 13, pp. 365-389. S r i v a s t a v a , S.K. (1968): Fungal elements from the Edmonton Formation ( M a e s t r i c h t i a n ) , A l b e r t a , Canada, Can. Jour. Bot., V o l . 46, pp. 1115-1118, 1 p l a t e . (1972): Systematic d e s c r i p t i o n of some spores from the Edmonton Formation ( M a e s t r i c h t i a n ) , A l b e r t a , Canada, Pa l a e o n t o g r a p h i c a, Band 139, Abt. B, 46 pp., 35 p l a t e s . (1984): Barremian d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t s from southeastern France, C a h i e r s de M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g i e , Centre N a t i o n a l de l a Recherche S c i e n t i f i q u e , Anatole, France, 90 pp., 39 p l a t e s . Steeves, M.W. & W i l k i n s , L.K. (1967): Spores and p o l l e n from the Lower Cretaceous of Saskatchewan, Canada. Part 1. S p o r i t e s , Can. Jour. Botany, V o l . 45, pp. 2329-2365, 8 p l a t e s . 92 Stover, L.E. & E v i t t , W.R. (1978): A n a l y s i s of pre- P l e i s t o c e n e o r g a n i c - w a l l e d d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Publ., G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , V o l . XV, St a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a , 300 pp. W i l l i a m s , G.L. & Brideaux, W.W. (1975): P a l y n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of Upper Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks of the Grand Banks, A t l a n t i c C o n t i n e n t a l Margin, Geol. Surv. Canada, B u l l . 236, 162 pp., 47 p l a t e s . Wilson, G.J. (1984): New Zealand Late J u r a s s i c t o Eocene d i n o f l a g e l l a t e b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y - A summary, Newsl. S t r a t i g . , V o l 13, No. 2, B e r l i n , S t u t t g a r t , pp. 104- 117. Wiseman, J.F. & W i l l i a m s , A . J . (1974): P a l y n o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of samples from S i t e s 259, 261 & 263, Leg 27, Deep Sea D r i l l i n g P r o j e c t , I n i t i a l Reports of the Deep Sea D r i l l i n g P r o j e c t , V o l . XXVII, Washington, (U.S. Gov't P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ) , pp. 915-924. 93 APPENDIX I I - Species L i s t Note: Although the s p e c i e s l i s t i s ordered a l p h a - n u m e r i c a l l y s e v e r a l s p e c i e s are not i n the c o r r e c t order a l p h a b e t i c a l l y due t o d e l e t i o n s , a d d i t i o n s and c o r r e c t i o n s a f t e r coding. -(*) i n d i c a t e s u b i q u i t o u s s p e c i e s -(+) i n d i c a t e s s i n g l e specimens 1 * A b i e s p o l l e n i t e s sp. ( c f Singh, 1971) 2 A b i e t i n e a e p o l l e n i t e s sp. ( c f Brenner, 1963 3 A c a n t h o t r l l e t e s l e v i d e n s i s Balme, 1957 4 * A c a n t h o t r i l e t e s v a r i s p i n o s u s Pocock, 1962 5 * A e q u i t r i r a d i t e s s p i n u l o s u s (Cookson & Dettmann) Cookson & Dettmann, 1961 6 + A e q u i t r i r a d i t e s v e r r u c o s u s (Cookson & Dettmann) Cookson & Dettmann, 1961 7 * A l i s p o r i t e s b i l a t e r a l i s Rouse, 1959 8 * A l i s p o r i t e s g r a n d i s (Cookson) Dettmann, 1963 9 * A l i s p o r i t e s microsaccus (Couper) Pocock, 1962 10 * A l i s p o r i t e s c f minutus Rouse, 1959 11 * A l i s p o r i t e s sp. 12 A l i s p o r i t e s s i m i l i s (Balme) Dettmann, 1963 13 a l g a l colony ( c f 172 - f u n g a l colony Burden, 1984) 14 + A n t u l s p o r i t e s b a c u l a t u s (Archangelsky & Gamerro) Archangelsky & Gamerro, 1966 15 A n t u l s p o r i t e s d i s t a v e r r u c o s u s (Brenner) Archangelsky & Gamerro, 1966 16 * A p i c u l a t i s p o r i s asymmetricus Cookson & Dettmann, 1958 17 + A p i c u l a t i s p o r i s babsae Brenner, 1963 18 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s b i l a t e r a l i s Singh, 1971 19 * A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s c r i r a e n s i s ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) Pocock, 1964 20 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s dentimarginatus Brenner, 1963 21 + A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s dentimarginatus 'var. A' (nov. comb.) 22 * A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s e r d t m a n i i Pocock, 1964 23 * A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s potomacensis Brenner, 1963 24 * A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s p r o b l e m a t i c u s (Burger) Singh, 1971 25 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s pschekhaensis ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) Pocock, 1964 26 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s ( c f P l i c a t e l l a ) pseudomacrorhyza ( c f DOrhafer, 1977) 27 + A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s spinosus Pocock, 1964 28 + A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s c o o k s o n i i (Balme) Pocock, 1964 29 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s u n i c u s (Markova) Singh, 1964 30 *Aptea polymorpha Eisenack, 1958 31 Apteodinium grande Cookson & Hughes, 1964 32 +Apteodinium granulatum Eisenack, 1958 33 + A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s segmentus Brenner, 1963 34 Apteodinium maculatura Eisenack & Cookson, 1960 35 *Apteodinium r e t i c u l a t u m Singh, 1971 36 Apteodinium sp. Gocht, 1969 37 * A r a u c a r i a c i t e s a u s t r a l i s Cookson, 1947 38 Ascotomocystis maxima Singh, 1971 39 c f A u r i t u l i n a s p o r i t e s d e l t a f o r m i s Burger, 1966 40 * B a c u l a t i s p o r i t e s comaumensis (Cookson) Potonie, 1956 94 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 * B a c u l a t i s p o r i t e s + B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m 1 959 'sp B'(nov. sp.) crameri S i n g h , 1971 fimbriatum (White) S a r j e a n t , sp. A ( c f S i n g h , 1 971 ) sp. B ( c f S i n g h , 1 971 ) c f s t i m u l i f e r u m ( D e f l a n d r e ) S a r j e a n t , 1 961 1 961 B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m + B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m 1960 * B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m w h i t e i ( D e f l a n d r e a & C o u r t e v i l l e ) S a r j e a n t , 1959 • B i r e t i s p o r i t e s p o t o n i a e i D e l c o u r t & Sprumont, 1955 B i r e t i s p o r i t e s s p e c t a b i l i s Dettmann, 1963 + B u l l a s p o r i s c f a e q u i t o r i a l i s K r u t z s c h , 1959 • C a l l i a l a s p o i r i t e s dampieri (Balme) Sukh Dev, 1961 C a l l i a l a s p o r i t e s segmentates (Balme) Sukh Dev, C a l l i a l a s p o r i t e s t r i l o b a t u s (Balme) Sukh Dev, C a l l a i o s p h a e r i d i u m asymmetricum ( D e f l a n d r e & C o u r t e v i l l e ) Davey & W i l l i a m s , 1966 +cf Camarozonosporites o h a i e n s i s (Couper) Dettmann & P l a y f o r d , 1968 - f-Cassiculosphaeridia c f r e t i c u l a t a Davey, 1969 *Canningia aspera S i n g h , 1971 *Canningia c o l l i v e r i Cookson & E i s e n a c k , 1960 •Canningia minor Cookson & Hughes, 1964 Canningia r e t i c u l a t a Cookson & E i s e n a c k , 1960 +cf Cannosphaeropsis f i l a m e n t o s i s Cookson & E i s e n a c k , 1958 +Cannosphaeropsis c f p e r i d i c t y a E i s e n a c k & Cookson, 1 960 * C e d r i p i t e s canadensis Pocock, 196 2 * C e d r i p i t e s c r e t a c e u s Pocock, 1962 C e r a t o s p o r i t e s c f m o r r i n i c o l u s S r i v a s t a v a , 1972 * C e r e b r o p o l l e n i t e s mesozoicus (Couper) N i l s s o n , 1958 Chlamydophorella n y e i Cookson & E i s e n a c k , 1958 • C h y t r o e i s p h a e r i d i a c f c h y t r o e i d e s S a r j e a n t , 1962 + C h y t r o e i s p h a e r i d i a c f p o c o c k i S a r j e a n t , 1968 * C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s annulatus A r c h a n g e l s k y & Gamerro, 1966 • C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s • C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s 1 956 • C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s 1 933 C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s B o l k h o v i t i n a , 1953 • C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s • C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s • C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s 1955 • C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s Dettmann, 196 3 + C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s 1 955 augustus S i n g h , 1971 a u s t r a l i e n s i s (Cookson) P o t o n i e , dorogensis P o t o n i e & G e l l e t i c h , e x i l i o i d e s ( M a l j a v k i n a ) h a l l e i D e l c o u r t & Sprumont, 1955 hughesi Dettmann, 1963 i m b r i c a t u s (Markova) S i n g h , 1971 minor ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) Pocock, 1964 mohrioides D e l c o u r t & Sprumont, p s e u d o t r i p a t i t u s ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) c f sewardi D e l c o u r t & Sprumont, 95 82 + C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s c f sternum van Ameron, 1965 83 C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s c f t e r s u s (Kara-Mursa) Pocock, 1964 84 * C i c a t r i c o s o s p o r i t e s a u r i t u s S i n g h , 1971 85 Cibotiumspora j u r i e n s i s (Balme) F i l a t o f f , 1974 86 * C i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s caminus Balme, 1957 87 C i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s d i s t a v e r r u c o s u s B r e n n e r , 1963 88 * C i n g u t r i l e t e s c l a v u s (Balme) Dettmann, 1963 89 * C i r r a t r i r a d i t e s t e t e r N o r r i s , 1967 90 C l a s s o p o l l i s chateaunovi Reyre, 1970 91 * C l a s s o p o l l i s c l a s s o i d e s ( P f l u g ) Pocock & J a n s o n i u s , 1961 92 + C l a s s o p o l l i s c f hammenii B u r g e r , 1965 93 + C l a v a t i p o l l e n i t e s c o u p e r i i Pocock, 1962 94 * C l a v a t i p o l l e n i t e s h u g h e s i i Couper, 1958 95 + C l a v a t i p o l l e n i t e s minutus Brenner, 1963 96 C l e i s t o s p h a e r i d i u m d i v e r s i s p i n o s u m Davey, Downie, S a r j e a n t , & W i l l i a m s , 1966 97 C l e i s t o s p h a e r i d i u m granulatum B u r g e r , 1980 98 C l e i s t o s p h a e r i d i u m multispinosum (Singh) B r i d e a u x , 1971 99 +cf Comasphaeridium sp. A ( c f Pocock, 1964) 100 C o n c a v i s s i m i s p o r i t e s minor (Pocock) D e l c o u r t , Dettmann Hughes, 1963 101 ^ C o n c a v i s s i m i s p o r i t e s punctatus ( D e l c o u r t & Sprumont) Brenner, 1963 102 * C o n c a v i s s i m i s p o r i t e s v a r i v e r r u c a t u s (Couper) B r e n n e r , 1963 103 + C o n c a v i s s i m i s p o r i t e s verrucosus ( D e l c o u r t & Sprumont) D e l c o u r t , Dettmann & Hughes, 1963 104 C o n t i g n i s p o r i t e s c o o k s o n i i (Balme) Dettmann, 1963 105 + C o n t i g n i s p o r i t e s c f g l e b u l e n t u s Dettmann, 1963 106 C o n t i g n i s p o r i t e s multimuratus Dettmann, 1963 107 + C o n v e r r u c o s i s p o r i t e s e x q u i s i t u s S i n g h , 1971 108 Cooksonites r e t i c u l a t u s Pocock, 1962 109 Cooksonites v a r i a b i l i s Pocock, 1962 110 *Coptospora c f paradoxa (Cookson & Dettmann) Dettmann,. 1963 111 *Coptospora sp. A ( c f Dettmann, 1963) 112 Coptospora s t r i a t a Dettmann, 196 3 113 C o s t a t o p e r f o r o s p o r i t e s f o v e o l a t u s Deak, 1962 114 C o u p e r i s p o r i t e s complexus (Couper) Pocock, 1962 115 Crassosphaera be11a S i n g h , 1971 116 Crassosphaera sp. A ( c f Backhouse, 1984) 117 + C r i b r o p e r i d i n i u m c f i n t r i c a t u m Davey, 1969 118 * C y a t h i d i t e s asper ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) Dettmann, 1963 119 * C y a t h i d i t e s a u s t r a l i s Couper, 1953 120 * C y a t h i d i t e s minor Couper, 1953 121 C y a t h i d i t e s punctatus ( D e l c o u r t & Sprumont) D e l c o u r t , Dettmann & Hughes, 1963 122 C y a t h i d i t e s r a f a e l i (Burger) B u r g e r , 1980 123 *Cycadopides formosus S i n g h , 1964 124 *Cycadopides f r a g i l i s S i n g h , 1964 125 +Cycadopides ovatus Rouse, 1959 126 *Cycadopides sp. ( c f S i n g h , 1964) 127 +Cyclonephelium compactum D e f l a n d r e & Cookson, 1955 96 128 Cyclonephelium d i s t i n c t u m D e f l a n d r e & Cookson, 1955 129 Cyclonephelium d i s t i n c t u m v a r . brevispinaturn ( M i l l i o u d ) L e n t i n & W i l l i a m s , 1973 130 *Cyclonephelium membraniphorum Cookson & E i s e n a c k , 1962 131 Cycadopites c a r p e n t i e r i ( D e l c o u r t & Sprumont) S i n g h , 1964 132 Cyclonephelium paucispinum Davey, 1969 133 + C y c l o p s i e l l a ornamenta J a i n , 1977 134 Cymatiosphaera pachytheca E i s e n a c k , 1957 135 I s a b e l i d i n i u m c f acuminata (Cookson & E i s e n a c k ) L e n t i n & W i l l i a m s , 1975 136 + A l t e r b i a asymmetrica (Davey & V e r d i e r ) L e n t i n & W i l l i a m s , 1975 137 S u b t i l i s p h a e r a p e r l u c i d a ( A l b e r t i ) J a i n & M i l l e p i e d , 1973 138 +cf I s a b e l i d i n i u m thomasi (Cookson & E i s e n a c k ) L e n t i n & W i l l i a m s , 1977 139 C h a t a n g i e l l a c f v i c t o r i e n s i s (Cookson & Manum) L e n t i n & W i l l i a m s , 1976 140 * D e l t o i d o s p o r a diaphana W i l s o n & Webster, 1946 141 * D e l t o i d o s p o r a h a l l i i M i n e r , 1935 142 * D e l t o i d o s p o r a p s i l o s t o m a Rouse, 1959 143 -t-Densoisporites circumundulatus (Brenner) P l a y f o r d , 1971 144 D e n s o i s p o r i t e s m i c r o r u g u l a t u s B r e n n e r , 1963 145 Diconodinium c f a r c t i c u m Manum & Cookson, 1964 146 -f-Diconodinium c f glabrum E i s e n a c k & Cookson, 1960 147 f u n g a l body 'Type Wf 148 D i c t y o p h y l l i d i t e s equiexinous (Couper) Dettmann, 1963 149 D i c t y o p h y l l i d i t e s p e c t i n a t a e f o r m i s ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) D e t t - mann, 1963 150 + D i c t y o p h y l l i d i t e s sp. ( c f S i n g h , 1971) 151 D i c t y o t o s p o r i t e s complex Cookson & Dettmann, 1958 152 D i c t y o t o s p o r i t e s s p e c i o s u s Cookson & Dettmann, 1958 153 -f-Dingodinium c e r v i c u l u m Cookson & E i s e n a c k , 1958 154 d i n o sp A (nov sp) 155 Dinopterygium c l a d o i d e s D e f l a n d r e , 1935 156 D i p l o t e s t a a n g l i c a Cookson & Hughes, 1964 157 D l s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s 'sp. B' (nov.sp.) 158 D l s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s i r r e g u l a r i s S i n g h , 1971 159 * D i s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s perplexus (Singh) S i n g h , 1971 160 D i s t a l t r i a n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s 'sp. A' (nov. sp.) 161 Eucommiidites t r o e d s s o n i i (Erdtman) Hughes, 1961 162 +Exochosphaeridium c f phragmites Davey, Downie, S a r j e a n t & W i l l i a m s , 1966 163 F o r a m i n i s p o r i s asymmetricus (Cookson & Dettmann) D e t t - mann, 1963 164 +Foraminisporis b i f u r c a t u s (Couper) ? 165 F o r a m i n i s p o r i s wonthaggiensis (Cookson & Dettmann) Dettmann, 1963 166 * F o v e o s p o r i t e s c a n a l i s Balme, 1957 167 +Foveosporites l a b i o s u s S i n g h , 1971 168 F o v e o t r i l e t e s s u b t r i a n g u l a r i s B r e n n e r , 1963 169 F r a c t i s p o r o n i t e s sp. C l a r k e , 1965 170 Fromea amphora Cookson & E i s e n a c k , 1958 97 171 f u n g a l body 'Type M' 172 f u n g a l colony ( c f Burden, 1984) 173 Gardodinium e i s e n a c k i A l b e r t i , 1961 174 Ginkgocycadophytus sp. 175 *Ginkgocycadophytus n i t i d u s (Balme) de J e r s e y , 1962 176 * G l e i c h e n i i d i t e s c i r c i n i d i t e s (Cookson) Dettmann, 1963 177 * G l e i c h e n i i d i t e s senonicus Ross, 1949 178 Gonyaulacysta archeopyle operculum Type B ( c f Singh, 1971) 179 Gonyaulacysta c f c a s s i d a t a (Eisenack & Cookson) S a r j e a n t , 1966 180 Gonyaulacysta c r e t a c e a Neale & S a r j e a n t , 1960 181 Gonyaulacysta c f episoma S a r j e a n t , 1966 182 +Gonyaulacysta h e l i c o i d e a (Eisenack & Cookson) S a r j e a n t , 1966 183 Gonyaulacysta c f o r t h o c e r a s (Eisenack) S a r j e a n t , 1966 184 f u n g a l body 'Type B' 185 +cf Hexasphaera asymmetrica (Deflandre & C o u r t e v i l l e ) C l a r k e & V e r d i e r , 1967 186 +Hystrichokolpoma 'sp. A' (nov. sp.) 187 Hystrochokolpoma f e r o x (Deflandre) Davey, 1969 188 S p i n i f e r i t e s c i n g u l a t u s (O. Wetzel) Davey & W i l l i a m s , 1966 189 +fungal body 'Type 0' 190 + S p i n i f e r i t e s cornutus var. laevimura Davey & W i l l i a m s , 1966 191 + S p i n i f e r i t e s raraosa v a r . brevispinosum ? 192 S p i n i f e r i t e s ramosa v a r . m u l t i b r e v i s Davey & W i l l i a m s , 1966 193 * S p i n i f e r i t e s ramosa var. ramosa Davey & W i l l i a m s , 1966 194 +cf S p i n i f e r i t e s w e t z e l i i (Deflandre) S a r j e a n t , 1970 195 H y s t r i c h o s p h a e r i d i u m cooksoni Singh, 1971 196 H y s t r i c h o s p h a e r i d i u m s t e l l a t u m Maier, 1959 197 I n a p e r t u r o p o l l e n i t e s dubius (Potonie & V e n i t z ) Thomson & P f l u g , 1953 198 + I s c h y o s p o r i t e s d i s j u n c t u s Singh, 1971 199 + I s c h y o s p o r i t e s 'sp. A' (nov.sp.) 200 J a n u a s p o r i t e s s p i n i f e r u s Singh, 1964 201 c f K a l y p t e a monoceras Cookson & Eisenack, 1960 202 K l u k i s p o r i t e s a r e o l a t u s Singh, 1971 203 * K l u k i s p o r i t e s f o v e o l a t u s Pocock, 1964 204 K u y l i s p o r i t e s l u n a r i s Cookson & Dettmann, 1958 205 L a e v i g a t o s p o r i t e s g r a c i l i s Wilson & Webster, 1946 206 * L a e v i g a t o s p o r i t e s ovatus Wilson & Webster, 1946 207 * L a r i c o i d i t e s magnus (Potonie) Potonie, Thomson & T h i e r g a r t , 1950 208 L e c a n i e l l a f o v e a t a Singh, 1971 209 + G l e i c h e n i i d i t e s 'sp.' ?(nov. sp.) 210 + L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s ambifoveolatus Brenner, 1963 211 L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s asperatus Dettmann, 1963 212 L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s c a n a l i c u l a t u s Singh, 1971 213 L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s caperatus Singh, 1971 214 L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s c i r n i i d i t e s (Ross) Brenner, 1963 98 21 5 21 6 21 7 218 21 9 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 . 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 • L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s dettmannae Burger, 1980 + L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s i r r e g u l a r i s Brenner, 1963 •Lycopodiumsporites a u s t r o c l a v a t i d i t e s (Cookson) Potonie, 1956 +Lycopodiumsporites circolumenus Cookson & Dettmann, 1 958 s e m i r e t i c u l a t u s Burger, 1966 Downie, S a r j e a n t , & +Matonisporites M a t o n i s p o r i t e s •Lycopodiumsporites c r a s s a t u s Singh, 1971 •Lycopodiumsporites c r a s s i m a c e r i u s Hedlund, 1966 Lycopodiumsporites eminulus Dettmann, 1963 +Lycopodiumsporites expansus Singh, 1971 Lycopodiumsporites marginatus Singh, 1964 +Lycopodiumsporites nodosus Dettmann, 1963 •Lycopodiumsporites r e t i c u l u m s p o r i t e s (Rouse) Dettmann, 1 963 +Lycopodiumsporites c f Lycopodiumsporites sp. +Leptodinium alectrolophum Davey, W i l l i a m s , 1966 • L y g o d i o i s p o r i t e s sp. B ( c f Singh, 1964) M a t o n i s p o r i t e s cooksoni Dettmann, 1963 •(-Matonisporites c r a s s i a n g u l a t u s (Balme) Dettmann, 1963 'sp. A * (nov.sp.) c f excavatus Brenner, 1963 P o d o c a r p i d i t e s naumovi (Naumova) Singh, 1964 M i c h r y s t r i d i u m s t e l l a t u m D e flandre, 1945 +Micrhystridium c f sydus V a l e n s i , 1953 • M i c r o r e t i c u l a t i s p o r i t e s u n i f o r m i s Singh, 1964 +Monosulcites scabrus Brenner, 196 3 P o d o c a r p i d i t e s ornatus Pocock, 1962 +Muderongia sp. A ( c f Brideaux & M c l n t y r e , 1975) Muderongia t e t r a c a n t h a (Gocht) A l b e r t i , 1961 +Murospora f l o r i d a Balme, 1957 Murospora t r u n c a t a Singh, 1971 • N e o r a i s t r i c k i a t r u n c a t a (Cookson) Potonie, 1956 O d o n t o c h i t i n a o p e r c u l a t a (0. Wetzel) Deflandre, 1946 +Odontochitina c f s t r i a t o p e r f o r a t a Cookson & Eisenack, 1 962 O l i g o s p h a e r i d i u m anthophorum (Cookson & Eisenack) Eisenack & K j e l l s t r o m , 1971 O l i g o s p h a e r i d i u m complex (White) Davey & W i l l i a m s , 1966 O l i g o s p h a e r i d i u m diastema Singh, 1971 -••Oligosphaeridium c f p r o l i x i s p i n o s u m Davey & W i l l i a m s , 1 966 O l i g o s p h a e r i d i u m pulcherrimum (Deflandre & Cookson) Davey & W i l l i a m s , 1966 +Ornamentifera b a c u l a t a Singh, 1971 •Osmundacidites w e l l m a n i i Couper, 1953 Palambages Form A Manum & Cookson, 1964 P a l a e o p e r i d i n i u m cretaceum Pocock, 1962 P a l a e o p e r i d i n i u m sp. A Bujak & W i l l i a m s , 1978 P a r e o d i n i a c f a p h e l i a Cookson & Eisenack, 1958 • P a r e o d i n i a ceratophora Deflandre, 1947 • P a r v i s a c c i t e s r a d i a t u s Couper, 1958 P e r i n o p o l l e n i t e s e l a t o i d e s Couper, 1958 99 261 + P e r o t r i l e t e s pannuceus Brenner, 1963 262 + P f l u g i p o l l e n i t e s t r i l o b a t u s (Balme) Pocock, 1962 263 Phragmothyrites 'Form A' 264 Phragmothyrites 'Form B 1 265 +Phragmothyrites 'Form C 266 P h y l l o c l a d i d i t e s inchoatus ( P i e r c e ) N o r r i s , 1967 267 * P h y l l o c l a d i d i t e s raawsonii Cookson, 1947 268 Phragmothyrites 'Form D' 269 P i n u s p o l l e n i t e s sp. 270 * P i t y o s p o r i t e s a l a t i p o l l e n i t e s (Rouse) Singh, 1964 271 * P i t y o s p o r i t e s c o n s t r i c t u s Singh, 1964 272 P l u r i c e l l a e s p o r i t e s p s i l a t u s C l a r k e , 1965 273 +Polysphaeridium s u b t i l e Davey, Downie, S a r j e a n t & W i l l i a m s , 1966 274 P o d o c a r p i d i t e s b i f o r m i s Rouse, 1957 275 * P o d o c a r p i d i t e s canadensis Pocock, 1962 276 P o d o c a r p i d i t e s e l l i p t i c u s Cookson, 1947 277 * P o d o c a r p i d i t e s h e r b s t i i Burger, 1966 278 * P o d o c a r p i d i t e s m i n i s u l c u s Singh, 1964 279 * P o d o c a r p i d i t e s multesimus ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) Pocock, 1962 280 P o d o c a r p i d i t e s potomacensis Brenner, 1963 281 + P s i l a t r i c o l p i t e s p a r v u l u s (Groot & Penny) N o r r i s , 1967 282 * P o l y c i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s reduncus ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) P l a y f o r d & Dettmann, 1965 283 + P o l y c i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s c f t r i a n g u l a r u s ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) P l a y f o r d & Dettmann, 1965 284 + P o l y c i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s 'sp. A' (nov.sp.) 285 +cf P o l y p o d i i s p o r i t e s ( c f Dbrhofer, 1977) 286 P r o l i x o s p h a e r i d i u m c f mixtispinosum Klement, 1960 287 +Prolixosphaeridium sp. ( c f Singh, 1971) 288 +Pseudoceratium dettmannae Cookson & Hughes, 1964 289 +Pterodinium a l i f e r u m Eisenack, 1958 290 Pterodinium sp. A ( c f Brideaux & M c l n t y r e , 1975) 291 * P t e r o s p e r m e l l a c f a u r e o l a t a Cookson & Eisenack, (1962)? 292 P t e r o s p e r m e l l a a u s t r a l i e n s i s (Deflandre & Cookson) Eisenack & Cramer, 1973 293 P t e r o s p e r m e l l a h a r t i i ( S a r j e a n t ) S r i v a s t a v a , 1984 294 P t e r o s p e r m e l l a sp. B Singh, 1971 295 + R e t i c u l a t a s p o r i t e s ( c f N o r r i s , 1982) 296 R e t i c u l i s p o r i t e s elongatus Singh, 1971 297 + R o u s e i s p o r i t e s r a d i a t u s Dettmann, 1963 298 * R o u s e i s p o r i t e s r e t i c u l a t u s Pocock, 1962 299 +Occisucysta sp. A ( c f Bujak & W i l l i a m s , 1978) 300 + S c r i n i o d i n i u m sp. ( c f S a r j e a n t , 1972) 301 * R u g u b i v e s i c u l i t e s rugosus P i e r c e , 1961 302 S c h i z o s p o r i s sp. 303 * S c h i z o s p o r i s c o o k s o n i i Pocock, 1962 304 S c h i z o s p o r i s g r a n d i s Pocock, 1962 305 * S c h i z o s p o r i s parvus Cookson & Dettmann, 1959 306 +Schizosporis r e t i c u l a t u s Cookson & Dettmann, 1959 307 S c h i z o s p o r i s r u g u l a t u s Cookson & Dettmann, 1959 308 * S c h i z o s p o r i s s p r i g g i i Cookson & Dettman, 1959 309 S c o l e c o s p o r i t e s Lange & Smith, 1971 310 S c r i n i o d i n i u m campanula Gocht, 1959 100 311 S e s t r o s p o r i t e s i r r e g u l a r i s (Couper) Dettmann, 1963 312 * S p h e r i p o l l e n i t e s p s i l a t u s Couper, 1958 313 + S t a p l i n i s p o r i t e s caminus (Balme) Pocock, 1962 314 * S t e r e i s p o r i t e s a n t i q u a s p o r i t e s (Wilson & Webster) Dettmann, 1963 315 * S t e r e i s p o r i t e s p s i l a t u s (Ross) Manum, 1962 316 Tanyosphaeridium sp. B ( c f Brideaux, 1971) 317 Tasmanites newtoni W a l l , 1965 318 Tasmanites s u e v i c u s (Eisenack) Wall, 1965 319 Tasmanites t a r d u s Eisenack, 1957 320 +Taurocusporites reduncus ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) Stover, 1962 321 * T a x o d i a c e a e p o l l e n i t e s h i a t u s (Potonie) Kremp, 1949 322 T i g r i s p o r i t e s r e t i c u l a t u s Singh, 1971 323 T i g r i s p o r i t e s scurrandus N o r r i s , 1967 324 * T o d i s p o r i t e s minor Couper, 1958 325 +1 spore sp. A' (nov. gen.) 326 + T r i l i t e s t u b e r c u l i f o r m i s Cookson, 1947 327 * T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s a p i v e r r u c a t u s Couper, 1958 328 * T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s c r a s s u s Brenner, 1963 329 T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s marylandensis Brenner, 1963 330 - f S t e l l a t o p o l l i s sp. ( c f Burden, 1 984) 331 T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s p u r v e r u l e n t u s ( V e r b i t s k a y a ) Dettmann, 1 963 332 + T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s t r i b o t r y s Dettmann, 1963 333 T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s t r i o r e t i c u l o s u s Cookson & Dettmann, 1958 334 + T r i p a r t i n a v a r i a b i l i s M a l j a v k i n a , 1949 335 U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s f o s s u l a t u s Singh, 1971 336 U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s pannuceus (Brenner) Singh, 1971 337 ^ U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s sp. ( c f Singh, 1971) 338 * U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s undulapolus Brenner, 1963 339 V e r r u c o s i s p o r i t e s asymmetricus (Cookson & Dettmann) Pocock, 1962 340 * V e r r u c o s i s p o r i t e s rotundus Singh, 1962 341 + T r i c o l p i t e s crassimurus (Groot & Penny) Singh, 1971 342 +Veryhachium rhomboidium Downie, 1959 343 V i t r e i s p o r i t e s c f c r a i g i i Pocock, 1964 344 C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s potomacensis Brenner, 1963 345 V i t r e i s p o r i t e s p a l l i d u s ( R e i s s i n g e r ) N i l s s o n , 1958 346 K l u k i s p o r i t e s p s e u d o r e t i c u l a t u s Couper, 1958 347 S p h e r i p o l l e n i t e s scabratus Couper, 1958 348 R e t i c u l i s p o r i t e s s e m i r e t i c u l a t u s (Burger) N o r r i s , 1969 349 P i c e a p o l l e n i t e s sp. ( c f Singh, 1964) 350 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s t r i c o r n i t a t u s Weyland & G r e i f e l d , 1953 351 +Cooksonites 'sp. A' (nov. sp.)

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 4 0
France 2 0
China 2 20
City Views Downloads
Unknown 3 1
Beijing 2 0
Boardman 2 0
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items