Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Palynologic zonation and correlation of the Peace River coalfield, northeastern British Columbia Broatch, Jane Catherine 1987

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
UBC_1987_A6_7 B72.pdf [ 8.39MB ]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0052785.json
JSON-LD: 1.0052785+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0052785.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0052785+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0052785+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0052785+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0052785 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0052785.txt
Citation
1.0052785.ris

Full Text

PALYNOLOGIC ZONATION AND CORRELATION OF THE PEACE RIVER COALFIELD, NORTHEASTERN B R I T I S H COLUMBIA By JANE CATHERINE B.Sc,  BROATCH  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1981  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF  SCIENCE  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s  conforming  to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA October  1987  (C) J a n e C a t h e r i n e B r o a t c h ,  1987  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  of  department  this or  publication of  thesis for by  his  or  her  representatives.  that the  for  an advanced  Library shall make  it  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written  Geological  Sciences  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  requirements  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be  permission.  Department of  the  O c t o b e r . 14. 1987  ii ABSTRACT The s t r a t a o f t h e P e a c e R i v e r c o a l f i e l d ,  i n the  F o o t h i l l s o f n o r t h e a s t e n B r i t i s h Columbia, formed i n a t e c t o n i c a l l y a c t i v e r e g i o n near t h e western margin o f t h e craton.  The c o m p l e x p a t t e r n o f i n t e r t o n g u i n g m a r i n e a n d  non-marine  s t r a t a w h i c h r e s u l t e d was s u b s e q u e n t l y d e f o r m e d  by f o l d i n g a n d t h r u s t i n g , m a k i n g  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c o r r e l a -  tion extremely d i f f i c u l t . The p r e s e n t p a l y n o l o g i c s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n i n a n a t t e m p t t o r e s o l v e some o f t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c p r o b l e m s , where sedimentological  a n d g e o p h y s i c a l methods h a v e f a i l e d .  The  primary aim of t h e study i s t o generate a composite palynol o g i c s e c t i o n t h a t c a n be u s e d t o z o n e , c o r r e l a t e a n d d a t e the c o a l - b e a r i n g  strata  i n the southern half of the c o a l -  field. Eleven d r i l l  holes representing  s e c t i o n from t h e G e t h i n g , Moosebar s a m p l e d a t 15 m e t e r i n t e r v a l s . palynomorphs  n e a r l y 3000 m e t e r s o f  a n d G a t e s f o r m a t i o n s were  The 199 s a m p l e s e x a m i n e d f o r  y i e l d e d a t o t a l a s s e m b l a g e c o n t a i n i n g 232  p o l l e n and spore s p e c i e s ,  96 d i n o f l a g e l l a t e a n d a c r i t a r c h  s p e c i e s a n d 22 a l g a l c y s t a n d f u n g a l s p o r e s p e c i e s . are restricted  256 o f  the  350 s p e c i e s  i n their occurrence within  the  s e c t i o n , and have been used t o zone and c o r r e l a t e t h e  strata. Open m a r i n e , r e s t r i c t e d m a r i n e a n d n o n - m a r i n e are  i d e n t i f i e d on t h e b a s i s o f t y p e and r e l a t i v e  of palynomorphs.  horizons abundance  C o n t a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e examined and  iii clarified, logic  the palynologic  information,  s e c t i o n i s compared w i t h  and a g e o l o g i c  litho-  age i s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e  rocks. The G e t h i n g F o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a t h i n b a s a l u n i t , o v e r l a i n by a t h i c k n o n - m a r i n e t e r i z e d by p o o r p r e s e r v a t i o n clearly defined  succession  charac-  o f p a l y n o m o r p h s , and  two  marine tongues which o c c u r i n the  and u p p e r h a l f o f t h e f o r m a t i o n . base o f t h e u n i t d e f i n e s  northern  The m a r i n e u n i t a t t h e  the Gething-Cadomin  marine tongues near the top of the formation logically distinct  marine  contact.  The  are palyno-  from the o v e r l y i n g marine s t r a t a o f t h e  M o o s e b a r F o r m a t i o n , and r e p r e s e n t  a unique  transgressive  phase. The l o w e r h a l f o f t h e M o o s e b a r F o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f m a r i n e s h a l e s , w i t h an a b u n d a n t and d i v e r s e a s s e m b l a g e dinocysts  and a c r i t a r c h s , r e p r e s e n t i n g  open marine c o n -  d i t i o n s f o r most o f t h i s p h a s e o f d e p o s i t i o n . half of the formation  of  The  upper  c o n s i s t s of a p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y barren,  c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d sequence which i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e l a t i v e l y high  energy  (non-marine) r e g r e s s i v e  phase.  The G a t e s F o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a c o m p l e x p a t t e r n intertonguing  m a r i n e and n o n - m a r i n e  strata.  The  of  lower h a l f  of t h e Gates i s open marine i n t h e r e g i o n o f B u l l m o o s e and i n t e r t o n g u i n g  m a r i n e and n o n - m a r i n e  i n the region  W o l v e r i n e R i v e r t o Monkman P a s s .  In the southeast,  terrestrial  two r e s t i c t e d m a r i n e  s t r a t a o c c u r s between  zones w h i c h a r e c o n t i n u o u s w i t h  Mt., from  the  t h e open m a r i n e s t r a t a t o  iv the  northwest.  The r e s t r i c t e d m a r i n e u n i t w h i c h  the  terrestrial  s t r a t a , has been p r e v i o u s l y  whole o r i n p a r t h e r e t o be p a r t palynologic  identified in  a s t h e ' T o r r e n s Member', a n d i s c o n s i d e r e d o f t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n on t h e b a s i s  evidence.  The b a s a l  o v e r l a i n by a m i d d l e t e r r e s t r i a l an u p p e r t e r r e s t r i a l  to early  and m i d d l e m a r i n e u n i t ,  and u p p e r m a r i n e  late Albian  of  marine/non-marine u n i t i s  unit.  The e n t i r e G e t h i n g t h r o u g h G a t e s s e c t i o n Albian  underlies  i s middle  i n a g e , b a s e d on t h e  first  a p p e a r a n c e o f e a r l y a n g i o s p e r m m o n o c o l p a t e and t r i c o l p a t e grains.  and  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS T I T L E PAGE  i  ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  V  L I S T OF FIGURES  v i i  L I S T OF PLATES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  INTRODUCTION  1  PREVIOUS WORK  6  Stratigraphy  6  Paleontology  7  Palynology  7  PALEOGEOGRAPHY  8  ;  STRATIGRAPHY  10  Cadomin F o r m a t i o n  12  Gething Formation  14  Moosebar F o r m a t i o n  16  Gates Formation  18  METHODS Sampling  20 .  20  Processing  25  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Species  27  Data M a n i p u l a t i o n  28  Photography  29  RESULTS  30  Sample C o n t e n t  30  Zonation & Correlation  32  vi Gething Formation  40  Moosebar F o r m a t i o n  43  Gates Formation  47  Age D e t e r m i n a t i o n  56  SUMMARY...  57  CONCLUSIONS  62  REFERENCES  .  63  PLATES  •  68  APPENDIX I  •  86  APPENDIX I I  93  vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure Figure  1: Map showing l o c a t i o n o f study area i n B.C. F o o t h i l l s  (shaded) 2  2: S t r a t i g r a p h i c Nomenclature o f the Peace R i v e r Coalfield  5  Figure  3: Lower Cretaceous Time S c a l e  Figure  4: T e x t - F i g u r e s  Figure  5: D e t a i l e d map o f study area showing l o c a t i o n s of d r i l l hole and s u r f a c e s e c t i o n s 6: NW-SE c r o s s s e c t i o n showing d r i l l h o l e distribution  Figure  1 & 2 of Williams  9 & S t e l c k (1975) 11 21 23  Figure  7: NW-SE p a l y n o l o g i c c r o s s s e c t i o n c o n t a i n i n g J^~C ff^^-, d r i l l hole data ia-p©e-k-et  Figure  8: G e n e r a l i z e d b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c z o n a t i o n o f the  0  Peace R i v e r c o a l f i e l d Figure  33  9: NW-SE p a l y n o l o g i c c r o s s s e c t i o n  39  F i g u r e 10: L i t h o l o g i c c o r r e l a t i o n with p a l y n o l o g i c c r o s s section  (modified a f t e r Carmichael, 1983)....  45  F i g u r e 11: Data f o r DDH BPM-2  i n - pook-ot  F i g u r e 12: Data f o r DDH BP-29  -i-n—poek-et  F i g u r e 13: Data f o r DDH QWD-7403 & QBD-7402  ift-poeket  F i g u r e 14: Data f o r DDH MDD-7808, MDD-7804 & MDD-7821 «-peeket F i g u r e 15: Data f o r DDH BWD-76-4 & BD-7802  tn-p©eket  F i g u r e 16: Data f o r DDH BXD-76-7 & BD-76-1  ^-i-n—pocket  viii L I S T OF PLATES Plate  1 : GETHING FORMATION  69  Plate  2: MOOSEBAR FORMATION  71  Plate  3: MOOSEBAR & GATES FORMATIONS  73  Plate  4: GATES FORMATION - B a s a l M a r i n e / N o n - M a r i n e  Plate  5: GATES FORMATION - M i d d l e T e r r e s t r i a l  Plate  6: GATES FORMATION - M i d d l e M a r i n e U n i t  Plate  7: GATES FORMATION - U p p e r T e r r e s t r i a l  Unit  Plate  8: GATES FORMATION - U p p e r T e r r e s t r i a l Marine U n i t s  & Upper  Plate  9: GATES FORMATION - U p p e r M a r i n e U n i t  U n i t . 75  Unit  77 79 81 83 85  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n  t o the British  Columbia M i n i s t r y o f Energy, Mines & Petroleum Resources f o r t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . i n d e b t e d t o D r . W.J. M c M i l l a n , project  would n o t have been  I am p a r t i c u l a r l y  w i t h o u t whose s u p p o r t  this  possible.  I w o u l d e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o t h a n k D r . G l e n n R o u s e , who provided h i s support and e x p e r t i s e , e n t h u s i a s t i c and p a t i e n t  a n d who r e m a i n e d  beyond a l l r e a s o n a b l e  I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o h i m f o r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  expectations. t o attend the  W e s t e r n Canada C o a l G e o s c i e n c e Forum i n 1982 a n d 1 9 8 6 . A d d i t i o n a l t h a n k s t o M. S u l l i v a n , who a s s i s t e d w i t h  the -  d r a f t i n g , F.C. MacKay, f o r h e r h e l p i n t h e d a r k r o o m , a n d E. M o n t g o m e r y , who p r i n t e d due  t o J.E.  patient  the f i n a l plates.  Thanks a r e a l s o  deSequera f o r t h e use o f h i s computer, and h i s  assistance.  F i n a l l y , my l o v e a n d t h a n k s t o my h u s b a n d , D a v i d f o r h i s support and t o l e r a n c e .  Gillis  1 INTRODUCTION B r i t i s h Columbia's Peace R i v e r c o a l f i e l d R o c k y M o u n t a i n F o o t h i l l s midway b e t w e e n P r i n c e George.  lies  i n the  Dawson C r e e k a n d  I t t r e n d s f r o m S a x o n R i d g e , n e a r t h e B.C. -  A l b e r t a b o r d e r , n o r t h w e s t t o Carbon Creek f o r a  strike  l e n g t h o f 250 km ( F i g . 1 ) . The  strata of the c o a l f i e l d  formed a l o n g t h e southwest  m a r g i n o f t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s C l e a r w a t e r Sea d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f major t e c t o n i s m c e n t r e d j u s t west o f t h e c r a t o n . S u c c e s s i v e t r a n s g r e s s i o n s from t h e n o r t h - n o r t h w e s t have r e s u l t e d i n a complex p a t t e r n o f i n t e r t o n g u i n g  marine,  m a r g i n a l marine and c o a l - b e a r i n g t e r r e s t r i a l r o c k s . Laramide Orogeny, compressed  from L a t e Cretaceous t o Oligocene t i m e ,  the s t r a t a i n a series of northwest - southeast  t r e n d i n g f o l d s and t h r u s t s . economic  The  Subsequent  e r o s i o n has exposed  c o a l d e p o s i t s i n p r o g r e s s i v e l y younger r o c k s from  north t o south. C o a l was f i r s t  r e p o r t e d i n t h e Peace R i v e r a r e a i n t h e  1800's b y e a r l y e x p l o r e r s .  I n t h e e a r l y 1900's g e o l o g i c a l  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w e r e i n i t i a t e d b y t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t s o f g o l d and p e t r o l e u m , b u t e x t e n s i v e e x p l o r a t i o n f o r mineable c o a l d i d not begin u n t i l 1960*s a n d e a r l y drill  programs  1970's ( S t o t t ,  1968).  the late  S u r f a c e mapping and  c a r r i e d o u t by more t h a n a d o z e n  companies  have e s t a b l i s h e d c o k i n g and t h e r m a l c o a l r e s o u r c e s i n e x c e s s of 8 b i l l i o n tonnes  ( C a r m i c h a e l , 1983) a n d r e s e r v e s o f  s e v e r a l hundred m i l l i o n tonnes ( S c h i l l e r e t a l , 1983).  2  Figure 1  Map s h o w i n g l o c a t i o n i n B.C. F o o t h i l l s .  of study  area  (shaded)  3 Although much work has been done, and the g e n e r a l stratigraphy  i s f a i r l y w e l l understood, c o n t r o v e r s i e s  still  e x i s t i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n o f the s t r a t a . is  r e f l e c t e d i n the two s e t s o f nomenclature s t i l l  within the c o a l f i e l d  ( F i g . 2 ) , and the recent  proposed d i v i s i o n s o f the e s t a b l i s h e d  units  G i l c h r i s t , 1 9 8 1 ; McLean, 1982; Carmichael, The  This  i n use  surge o f newly  (Duff & 1983).  d i f f i c u l t i e s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n a r e  l a r g e l y t h e r e s u l t o f two f a c t o r s ; the r a p i d l y changing f a c i e s and a p a u c i t y cally useful f o s s i l s .  o f w e l l preserved and/or s t r a t i g r a p h i Facies  have r e s u l t e d i n g r a d a t i o n a l at s e v e r a l contact  or intertonguing  relationships  boundaries causing i n c o n s i s t e n t d i v i s i o n  of t h e s t r a t a from one r e g i o n consistent  changes w i t h i n the c o a l f i e l d  t o another.  and e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e  Lithologically  s t r a t i g r a p h i c horizons  are r a r e , t h i n and u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i a b l e o n l y on g e o p h y s i c a l logs  (eg. t o n s t e i n s ,  information  bentonite l a y e r s ) .  To date  fossil  has been o f l i t t l e v a l u e i n a s s i s t i n g recog-  n i t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n o f the s t r a t a . paleontological  W i t h i n the c o a l f i e l d  s t u d i e s have been l i m i t e d i n scope, and  s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y u s e f u l , w e l l preserved f o s s i l s a r e r a r e . Information r e g a r d i n g is  the ranges of those t h a t can be used  not y e t complete enough t o a l l o w r e l i a b l e d a t i n g and  c o r r e l a t i o n o f the rocks with o u t l y i n g The  areas.  present p a l y n o l o g i c a l study was undertaken i n the  summer o f 1981 with the support o f the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources.  The primary o b j e c -  4  t i v e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e s t a b l i s h a composite  biostrat-  i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n based on b o t h t h e t e r r e s t r i a l p o l l e n and s p o r e s , and t h e m a r i n e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t s from t h e Lower Cretaceous coal-bearing s t r a t a coalfield.  i n the southern half of the  The c o m p o s i t e s e c t i o n i s t h e n u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e  w h e t h e r b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c z o n a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e , a n d how i t r e l a t e s t o known a n d p r o p o s e d r o c k s t r a t i g r a p h i c  divisions.  I n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n s used t o e s t a b l i s h t h e composite  section  a r e c o r r e l a t e d a c r o s s t h e s t u d y a r e a , and marine and nonmarine f a c i e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n t h e f o r m a t i o n s . The r o c k s o f t h e P e a c e R i v e r c o a l f i e l d a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d t o a s t u d y o f t h i s t y p e f o r a number o f r e a s o n s : t h e e v o l u t i o n o f b o t h l a n d p l a n t s and d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s  during  E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s t i m e was r a p i d , w i t h t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f flowering plants this period  (angiosperms) o c c u r i n g toward t h e end o f  ( S i n g h , 1 9 7 5 ; Hughes e t a l ; 1 9 7 9 ) .  T h i s has  resulted i n a d i v e r s i t y of species with r e l a t i v e l y ranges.  Futhermore,  short  t h e presence o f humic c o a l s i n t h e  r e g i o n has p r o v i d e d c o n d i t i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of a r i c h p o l l e n and spore assemblage. composed o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l  Palynomorphs  are  (sporopollenin) resistant to  d e s t r u c t i o n o r a l t e r a t i o n e x c e p t under c o n d i t i o n s o f s e v e r e ( b u r i a l ) temperature or abrasion.  P o l l e n and s p o r e s a r e , i n  g e n e r a l , u b i q u i t o u s i n many f i n e - g r a i n e d t e r r e s t r i a l a n d nearshore rocks r e g a r d l e s s o f environment. marine and t e r r e s t r i a l palynomorphs  In addition,  a r e u s u a l l y mixed i n  5  nearshore  fades,  providing the potential  for correlation  between t h e two.  STOTT 1 978  NW  o  CH  Moosebar Fm  «  o b  b  M  (0 J3 d) CO 0 0  Minnes Fm  Figure  2 - Stratigraphic Coalfield  GP iEAD BUL:  Brenot Fm  Cadomin Fm  11  u  Gething Fm  •J  Dresser Fm  BUL  W  ;!  M  co <  Gething Fm  HEAD GP  s  ER GP  LOWER CRE:TA<CEO  « o b  EH  Gates . a n Marine ^ S ?y Tongue'^?' ^bearing ^ Mb T o r r e n s Mb S p i e k e r Mb  CO  EH  Moosebar Fm  Upper S i l t y Mb  tes  CO  EH  «  Gates Fm  Mnnnfai n  E  O  EH  CO  b  JOHN  JOHN  Gates Fm  Hulcross Fm  NH0I  O  o  CO  Hulcross Fm  SE  -  e  Mudstone Mb Lower <5i 1 t-v Mb  \  Park Fm ^ " V ^ Grande  b  C o a  w a: URMO;  Hulcross Fm  McLEAN & WALL 1 981  DUFF & GILCHRIST 1 981  Crk  HUGHES 1 967  Cache Mb  Torrens Mb  E >  0  u r-i  ^  Moosebar Mb  s  Chamberlain Mb  Gething Fm  Gladstone Fm  Cadomin Fm  Cadomin Fm  Minnes Fm  Nomenclature  Nikanassin Fm  o f t h e Peace  River  6 PREVIOUS WORK Stratigraphy  - The  f i r s t d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of the  strati-  graphy i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Peace R i v e r d i s t r i c t i n i t i a t e d by ing reports  the by  Geological  Survey of  early explorers  and  p e t r o l e u m , and  c o a l i n the area.  c a r r i e d out  F.H.  by  1950's. of the  fur traders Much o f t h e  subsurface geology laid  work  was  who  continued the  descriptions the  f o r a l l subsequent s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n v e s -  1973,  1975  & 1981)  has  c l a t u r e c u r r e n t l y i n use  contributed  gold,  ( A l t a . S t u d y G r o u p , 1954)  I n o n g o i n g s t u d i e s , D.F.  C o n c u r r e n t w o r k by  of  Study Group p u b l i s h e d  tigations. 1974,  1940)  follow-  Lower C r e t a c e o u s s t r a t a i n t o  When t h e A l b e r t a  g r o u n d w o r k was  Canada i n 1917  M c L e a r n ( 1 9 2 1 , 1923,  h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the  were  J.E.  Stott  p r o p o s e d and  (1962,  r e v i s e d the  t h r o u g h o u t most o f the Hughes ( 1 9 6 4 , 1967)  t o understanding the  has  P e a c e and  nomen-  coalfield. also  s t r a t i g r a p h y , and  a workable l o c a l nomenclature f o r the  1968,  provides  Pine  Valleys. More r e c e n t l y D u f f and d e t a i l e d d i v i s i o n and geophysical and  gas  Gilchrist  c o r r e l a t i o n of the  d a t a from the  exploration.  (1981) have proposed s t r a t a based  on  numerous h o l e s d r i l l e d d u r i n g  Other s t u d i e s  s p e c i f i c f o r m a t i o n s and  a  have c o n c e n t r a t e d  t h e i r geologic  on  s i g n i f i c a n c e . McLean  (1977) e x a m i n e d t h e  s t r a t i g r a p h y , s e d i m e n t o l o g y and  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the  Cadomin F o r m a t i o n .  ( 1 9 8 2 ) , and  coal  Carmichael  Leckie  tectonic  (1981),  Leckie  and  Walker  (1983) have  preted  the  d e p o s i t i o n a l environments of the Moosebar  interand  7 Gates F o r m a t i o n s based on d e t a i l e d s e d i m e n t o l o g i c a l Taylor  and Walker  depositional  (1984) c a r r i e d o u t a s i m i l a r s t u d y o f t h e  e n v i r o n m e n t s and p a l e o g e o g r a p h y o f t h e Moosebar  F o r m a t i o n and e q u i v a l e n t Paleontology - Local  strata.  paleontological  and c o r r e l a t i n g t h e r o c k s w i t h  studies  studies  aimed a t  dating  o u t l y i n g a r e a s have been  c a r r i e d o u t by a number o f i n v e s t i g a t o r s . faunal  studies.  McLearn  included  i n much o f h i s s t r a t i g r a p h i c w o r k a n d i n  s e p a r a t e works (McLearn; 1931,  1948)  and prompted  further  i n v e s t i g a t i o n by S t e r n b e r g ( 1 9 3 2 ) o f t h e d i n o s a u r t r a c k s i n Peace R i v e r  Canyon.  Bell  (1956) d i d an e x t e n s i v e  study of  the m e g a f l o r a from t h e s e and o t h e r Lower C r e t a c e o u s r o c k s i n w e s t e r n Canada.  Chamney ( r e p o r t e d  S t e l c k , e t a l (1956)  i n S t o t t , 1968)  identified foraminifera  Moosebar F o r m a t i o n , and S t e l c k  Palynology section  - The c l o s e  from t h e  i d e n t i f i e d marine  r e t r i e v e d f r o m c o r e by D u f f and G i l c h r i s t  marine  macrofauna  (1981).  a s s o c i a t i o n of the Early  i n the northeast c o a l f i e l d with  and  Cretaceous  s i m i l a r aged r o c k s  i n t h e A r c t i c a n d w e s t e r n I n t e r i o r o f Canada a n d t h e U n i t e d States  has been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d  Palynological  studies  of the P l a i n s region  b e e n c a r r i e d o u t by P o c o c k 1975), N o r r i s Brideaux  (see Paleogeography).  (1962,1976),  o f Canada h a v e  S i n g h (1964,  (1967, 1982), Steeves & W i l k i n s  (1971), P l a y f o r d  1971,  (1967),  (1971), N o r r i s , et a l (1975),  N o r r i s , e t a l (1976) and Burden  (1984).  South of the  C a n a d i a n b o r d e r work h a s b e e n done by H e d l u n d  &  Norris  8 (1-968), and  Paden-Phillips & Felix  rocks from A r c t i c  (1971).  Canada h a v e b e e n e x a m i n e d by Manum &  Cookson (1964), McGregor (1965), B r i d e a u x Brideaux  Contemporaneous  & F i s h e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , and  Pocock  & Mclntyre  (1975),  (1976).  PALEOGEOGRAPHY According  t o W i l l i a m s and  the Peace R i v e r c o a l f i e l d  S t e l c k (1975) t h e d e p o s i t s o f  formed a l o n g the western  the Rocky Mountain F o r e l a n d B a s i n .  The  strata  margin of  represent  p a r t o f t h e J u r a s s i c - C r e t a c e o u s c l a s t i c wedge s h e d  eastward  onto the e r a t o n d u r i n g a major o r o g e n i c phase i n the C o r d i l l e r a n o f t e r r a i n a c c r e t i o n and ated with  L a t e J u r a s s i c t i m e t h e c r a t o n was  With a r i s i n g  reached  t o t h e P a c i f i c Ocean t h r o u g h  & S t e l c k , 1975). t h e c e n t r a l and  A large f l u v i a l western  the P a c i f i c , probably  - A l b e r t a border  s y s t e m d r a i n i n g much o f  this  and  drained  into  t h e P e a c e R i v e r Embayment  1 o f W i l l i a m s & S t e l c k , 1975:  reproduced  U p p e r J u r a s s i c d e p o s i t s o f m i x e d m a r i n e and  o r i g i n are found  (Williams  United States flowed north  through  remained  embayments w h i c h  n o r t h w e s t w a r d n e a r t h e c o n t i n e n t a l m a r g i n and  4).  emergent.  C o r d i l l e r a t o the west, the i n t e r i o r  a s f a r i n l a n d an t h e B.C.  (Text-fig.  associ-  subduction.  During  connected  a r c magmatism  i n t h e N i k i n a s s i n and  in Fig.  terrestrial  Minnes Formations  region. U p l i f t t o t h e w e s t may  warping  h a v e c a u s e d t e m p o r a r y down-  i n t h e f o r e l a n d b a s i n d u r i n g Neocomian  (Lower  of  9 Cretaceous) time ( F i g . 3) r e s u l t i n g i n a g r a d i e n t change i n the f l u v i a l system.  Rapid e r o s i o n o c c u r r e d and marine  waters began t o t r a n s g r e s s i n t o the lowlands.  The con-  n e c t i o n t o t h e P a c i f i c remained open u n t i l l a t e Neocomian time, and p o s s i b l y as l a t e as E a r l y A p t i a n  (Williams &  S t e l c k , 1975) but was c u t o f f when u p l i f t caused r a p i d d e p o s i t i o n o f e l a s t i c s eastward onto the c r a t o n , which may have choked the f l u v i a l system and d i v e r t e d i t northward t o d r a i n i n t o the A r c t i c  region.  ALBIAN w  APTIAN  D O W  BARREMIAN  u  <  EH W  2  U  H  PH  «  w o  100 MY  118 MY  HAUTERIVIAN  <  s o u o w 2  VALANGINIAN BERRIASIAN 141 MY  F i g u r e 3 - Lower Cretaceous Time S c a l e  10 By  Aptian  t i m e ( F i g . 3) t h e C o r d i l l e r a h a d become t h e  main s o u r c e o f e l a s t i c s w h i c h were b e i n g r e w o r k e d by t h e rivers.  Rocks o f t h e B u l l h e a d  l a i d down d u r i n g  G r o u p ( F i g . 2) w e r e  t h i s phase o f a g g r a d a t i o n .  likely  Eustatic  changes i n s e a l e v e l r e s u l t e d i n f l o o d i n g o f t h e c o n t i n e n t a l margins and t h e lowlands o f t h e f l u v i a l n o r t h e r n A r c t i c and a l o n g t h e G u l f  systems i n t h e  o f Mexico i n t h e south.  In l a t e E a r l y A l b i a n the t r a n s g r e s s i o n had  progressed i n t o Alberta  1975:  ( T e x t f i g . 2, W i l l i a m s  & Stelck,  r e p r o d u c e d i n F i g . 4) a s f a r s o u t h a s C a l g a r y  & Wall,  1981).  time d e p o s i t i n g (Fig.  A regressive  phase f o l l o w e d  t h e r o c k s o f t h e Lower F o r t  2) i n t h e P e a c e R i v e r  boreal  area.  sea had connected w i t h  the northward  o f a major d e p o s i t i o n a l c y c l e  i n Middle  transgressing  of Mexico, marking the  (Kootenay-Blairmore).  phase i n l a t e L a t e A l b i a n  leaving a large landlocked  Albian  S t . John Group  c o n t i n u o u s seaway t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e c r a t o n c u t o f f by a r e g r e s s i v e  (McLean  By e a r l y L a t e A l b i a n , t h e  T e t h y a n Sea o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h e G u l f end  from t h e n o r t h  The  became  time  i n l a n d s e a (Mowry S e a ) o c c u p y i n g  much o f t h e n o r t h e r n i n t e r i o r a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e L o w e r Cretaceous (Williams  & Stelck,  1975).  STRATIGRAPHY Although considerable standing coalfield  work h a s b e e n done t o w a r d u n d e r -  t h e s t r a t i g r a p h y and d e p o s i t i o n a l h i s t o r y o f t h e s t r a t a , a number o f p r o b l e m s s t i l l  exist.  s e d i m e n t s w e r e l a i d down i n a t e c t o n i c a l l y a c t i v e  The .  region  ;  11  Figure 4  12  which r e s u l t e d conditions. and  i n f l u c t u a t i n g marine and  F a c i e s grade i n t o one  v e r t i c a l l y , and  along the  several  l e n g t h of the  criteria  another both  and  Correlating  establishing  In a d d i t i o n ,  the  strata,  consistent  f o r i d e n t i f y i n g c o n t a c t boundaries i s  difficult.  laterally  formations change c h a r a c t e r  coalfield.  even over s h o r t d i s t a n c e s ,  non-marine  often  e n t i r e formations or p a r t s of  formations l a i d down under s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s are c h a r a c t e r , making them d i f f i c u l t  similar in  to i d e n t i f y i n i s o l a t e d  outcrop o c c u r r e n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the absence of marker h o r i z o n s and  well preserved  Subsequent f o l d i n g and  macrofossils. thrusting  has  altered  the  a l r e a d y complex p a t t e r n of f a c i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n and obscured the The  lateral  generalized  relationships. stratigraphy  summarized i n F i g u r e 2 . units  of the  rock  intended t o p r o v i d e i n into  Cadomin Formation of the  Bullhead  i s a r e s i s t a n t conglomerate c o n s i s t i n g  dominantly c h e r t  and  the  results.  Cadomin Formation - The  in a clean  coalfield is  problems s p e c i f i c to the area and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  Group ( F i g . 2)  of the  A brief description  i s f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n  s i g h t i n t o the  further  quartzite  sandy m a t r i x .  of  pebble t o c o b b l e - s i z e c l a s t s  Locally  i t may  vary t o a pebbly  sandstone or c o n t a i n t h i n beds of mudstone, s i l t s t o n e c o a l , most commonly near i t s l i m i t s of d e p o s i t i o n . generally  thick-bedded t o massive, and  was  and  It i s '  d e p o s i t e d as  a  13 wedge up t o 200  meters t h i c k along  Rocky Mountain F o o t h i l l s , 100  km  to the east  edge i n t h e  t a p e r i n g t o a few m e t e r s l e s s  (McLean, 1977).  R i v e r V a l l e y i n n o r t h e a s t e r n B.C. The  i t s western  I t extends  from the  to southwestern  than Pine  Montana.  C a d o m i n l i e s u n c o n f o r m a b l y on L a t e J u r a s s i c t o E a r l y  Cretaceous  rocks w i t h i n the c o a l f i e l d , but o v e r l a p s  s i v e l y o l d e r r o c k s t o t h e e a s t and  north.  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the u n d e r l y i n g rocks i s not apparent scale  l o c a l l y , b u t has  (Stott, The  angular always  b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d on a r e g i o n a l  1973).  conglomerate i s g e n e r a l l y thought  down a s a s e r i e s o f c o a l e s c i n g a l l u v i a l ated f l u v i a l  progres-  influence.  The  from the west d u r i n g u p l i f t northwest-southeast  t o have been  f a n s w i t h an  m a t e r i a l was  derived  associ-  dominantly  i n Late J u r a s s i c time, with  t r e n d i n g Fox  e a s t a c t i n g as a minor secondary  laid  Creek escarpment t o  the  s o u r c e , and  the  marking  the  e a s t e r n l i m i t o f Cadomin d e p o s i t i o n ( M c L e a n , 1 9 7 7 ) . The  t h i n c o a l s t r i n g e r s w i t h i n the formation are of  economic importance,  b u t o i l and  gas  have been r e p o r t e d i n  t h e Cadomin s o u t h e a s t o f t h e Peace R i v e r C o a l f i e l d Alberta  no  i n the  Foothills.  Discussion - Although  the angular  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  Cadomin c o n g l o m e r a t e w i t h t h e u n d e r l y i n g r o c k s has  the been w e l l  e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e amount o f t i m e r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e h i a t u s i s still  a matter  t h e gap  of controversy.  Stott  ( 1 9 6 8 , 1973)  t o encompass most o f N e o c o m i a n t i m e  on e x t e n s i v e m a p p i n g t h r o u g h o u t  considers  ( F i g . 3)  the f o o t h i l l s ,  based  whereas  :  14  Hughes (1964, 1967)  considers the unconformity  little  i n the Pine V a l l e y  significance  t o be  region.  In  of  addition,  t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e Cadomin c h a n g e s c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m conglomerate  i n the south to pebbly  with f i n e e l a s t i c s u n i t has  and  coal  sandstones  i n the n o r t h .  interbedded  As a r e s u l t ,  b e e n mapped i n p a r t a s t h e D r e s s e r F o r m a t i o n  C r a s s i e r Group  (Hughes, 1964  c u r r e n t l y used  by  the c o a l  & 1967),  the  of  the  t e r m i n o l o g y which i s  l i c e n c e holders north of the  Pine  River. Suitable material Cadomin i s s c a r c e and drawn a b o u t  t h e age  the o v e r l y i n g  and  c o n s e q u e n t l y , few  study of  the  c o n c l u s i o n s can  be  of the formation or i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p  underlying rocks.  p a l y n o l o g i c work on mations  for a palynologic  However,  t h e G e t h i n g , Cadomin and  to  additional Minnes  for-  t o the north of the present study area i s c u r r e n t l y  b e i n g done by  t h e a u t h o r and  will  likely  resolve  these  problems. Gething Formation Group  Gething Formation  ( F i g . 2) c o n s i s t s o f a c y c l i c a l  of thin-bedded, mudstones. eratic  - The  fine-grained  sandstones  f o r m a t i o n , b u t more o f t e n n e a r  siltstones,  conglomerates  occur o c c a s i o n a l l y  more s o u t h e r n e x p o s u r e s .  c o a l - b e a r i n g sequence  sandstones,  Thick to thin-bedded  of the Bullhead  near  the base,  lower  sandstone,  unit  the  particularly  in  In the n o r t h e r n h a l f  by a t h i c k  which grades  succession of  southward  into  conglom-  the top of  a r e a , the c o a l - b e a r i n g sequence i s d i v i d e d and  and  and  of the  i n t o an  study  upper  fine-grained i n t e r b e d d e d marine  15 mudstones and t r a c e d as 1981)  siltstones.  f a r south  where t h e y The  Gething  as  The  m a r i n e i n t e r b e d s have b e e n  Q u i n t e t t e Mountain  appear t o p i n c h has  (Duff  &  Gilchrist,  out.  b e e n mapped by  Stott  (1973) f r o m  the  B e l c o u r t Mountain r e g i o n northwest to Prophet R i v e r . t h e Cadomin c o n g l o m e r a t e u n d e r l y i n g with  i t , i t f o r m s a wedge  i t s t h i c k e s t s e c t i o n s t o w a r d t h e w e s t e r n edge o f  foothills.  I t reaches  the Pine V a l l e y and  (Duff  a maximum t h i c k n e s s o f & Gilchrist,  1981)  and  550  the  meters i n  t h i n s eastward  northward. Deposition of the  fluvial-deltaic  formation  setting,  likely  elastics  occurred  river  in a  d e r i v e d from a l l u v i a l  d e p o s i t i o n t o t h e west were r e w o r k e d a l o n g  a  sea  1973).  Coal occurs Formation,  but  throughout the  i n most r e g i o n s  either discontinuous  present,  the  River,  above t h e marine  Discussion  the  extent  seams a r e  of the Gething  numerous,  Formation,  the  & Gilchrist  i n the  Sukunka  contact  with  near the  the  arbitrary  (1981) n o t e t h a t t h e  the  upper  strata.  conglomerate e x h i b i t s a c l e a n matrix coalfield  thin,  At  between Q u i n t e t t e M o u n t a i n and  Cadomin c o n g l o m e r a t e becomes l a r g e l y  but w i t h i n the  Gething  to correlate.  - Where t h i c k c o n g l o m e r a t e s o c c u r  Duff  of the  t h r e e o r f o u r m i n e a b l e seams o c c u r formation  just  entire  or d i f f i c u l t  part of the  1973).  fan  north-flowing  system near the margin o f a t r a n s g r e s s i n g A r c t i c  (Stott,  and  Like  on  underlying (Stott, Cadomin  geophysical  conglomerates are  base  logs,  rarely  16  drilled  or subjected to geophysical evaluation.  consequence o f the d i s c o n t i n u o u s glomerates,  drill  h o l e s which terminate  conglomerate are o f t e n the or not 2).  they  The  means o f i d e n t i f y i n g work by  s t u d i e s had in  the  Duff  the Gething  the  study  & Gilchrist the extent  their  questions  about the  two  formations.  about the nature  palynologic data and  - The  ( F i g . 3)  i s a coarsening  consisting  of f i n e ,  dark grey  interbedded  o r a t some l o c a t i o n s , grain  sandstone u n i t .  by a p e b b l e noticeably field.  l a y e r and  them o f a m a j o r and  the  has  which  new  c o n t a c t between  clearly  the  d e l i n e a t e s the questions  contact.  of the F o r t St.  upward m a r i n e  and  general  raised  r e s o l v e s any  to a dominantly  sequence  fine-grain  thin  sandstones,  well sorted,  fine-  A t most l o c a t i o n s i t s b a s e i s marked g l a u c o n i t i c mudstone bed,  t o t h e west and  In the p a s t ,  reliable  detailed  s h a l e s which grade t o  mudstones, s i l t s t o n e s  BPM-  M o o s e b a r Forma-  Moosebar F o r m a t i o n  J o h n Group  (eg.  Formation,  and  of the Gething-Moosebar  Moosebar F o r m a t i o n  by  the P l a i n s ,  Gething  no  formation,  r e l a t i o n s h i p of the  m a r i n e component o f t h e  thick  of the marine i n f l u e n c e  of the Bluesky  e q u i v a l e n t s on  The  con-  contact.  (1981),  marks t h e c o n t a c t b e t w e e n t h e G e t h i n g t i o n s and  first  provide a  Identification  top of the  absence i n the c o a l f i e l d  a t the  Cadomin F o r m a t i o n  from t h i s  Formation.  marine tongue near the  of the Gething  Cadomin - G e t h i n g  b e e n done on  a  s u b j e c t o f d e b a t e as t o whether  have p e n e t r a t e d  palynologic data  Until  nature  As  field  i s almost  absent  which t h i n s  i n the  w o r k e r s have mapped t h e  coalMoosebar  17 F o r m a t i o n as unit;  b a s a l m a r i n e s h a l e s and  r e c e n t l y formal  member names ( s e e F i g . 2) have b e e n  proposed f o r the  lithologically  Gilchrist,  1981;  McLean, 1 9 8 2 ) .  consistent  lithologically  north of the Alberta.  Pine  distinct The  units  formation  River, southeast  and  (Duff is  southeast  relatively  into  onto the  high r e s u l t i n g during  from u n u s u a l l y  Gadomin and  The  Gething  foothills Plains.  shales represent transgression marking the though the  and  thins  McLean  and  shallow  formation  n a t u r a l gas  topographic sediments  Clearwater  shelf  north,  i s not  the  western  Sea.  The  and  marine  c o n d i t i o n s f o l l o w i n g a major with  the  coarser  (McLean & W a l l , o f economic  elastics  1981).  Al-  significance,  to the n o r t h e a s t  (Wilrich  River Formation) are a t a r g e t f o r  exploration. - In the  Formation with first  fine-grained  past  the  contact  t h e o v e r l y i n g G a t e s was  t h i c k and sandstone"  at different  "results  t h i c k deposits of  equivalent rocks  Spirit  to a  Belcourt  time.  r e g r e s s i v e phase  Member o f t h e  Discussion  of the  from the  stratigraphically  occurs  attribute  Moosebar F o r m a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s  southwestern extent  of the  which they  from  west-central  (1981) n o t e a p r o m i n e n t t h i n n i n g i n t h e Mount  t o Smokey R i v e r a r e a ,  &  throughout i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  I t i s t h i c k e s t i n the northern  to the n o r t h e a s t Wall  an o v e r l y i n g t r a n s i t i o n  relatively (Stott,  horizons  of the  d e f i n e d as  continuous  1968).  This  throughout the  i n a highly irregular  contact  Moosebar  on  "the  base  succession  of  succession coalfield  and •  Stott's regional  18  cross  sections"  (Leckie,  1981).  r e c o g n i z e d mappable d i v i s i o n s but have n o t s u c c e s s f u l l y Gilchrist for  More r e c e n t l y w o r k e r s have  w i t h i n t h e Moosebar  r e d e f i n e d the c o n t a c t . Duff &  (1981) h a v e p r o p o s e d  a n i n f o r m a l 'marine member'  t h e s h a l e b e d s a n d f o r m a l T o r r e n s and S p i e k e r members  for the 'transition'  unit.  McLean  (1982) h a s a l s o  a T o r r e n s Member w i t h i n s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y in  Formation  the Alberta  lithologic  Foothills.  grounds,  Gilchrists'  although  Gates  i t t o b a s a l Gates  i n the c o a l f i e l d .  A l l o f t h e newly  members l i e b e l o w t h e p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d M o o s e b a r -  c o n t a c t , and r e c o g n i z e t h e m a r i n e o r i g i n  overlying  units.  The p r e s e n t s t u d y  Moosebar - G a t e s  and r e s i s t a n t -  t o t h e u n d e r l y i n g and  indicates  contact i s palynologically  a t t h e base o f a r e s i s t a n t ,  marine  that the  d i s t i n c t , and  lithologically  persistent  sandstone.  Gates  Formation  Group  ( F i g . 2) c o n s i s t s o f i n t e r b e d d e d s a n d s t o n e s ,  - The G a t e s  stones and mudstones. coal  seams r a n g i n g  distributed exposures prior  on  i t encompasses D u f f &  n a t u r e o f t h e T o r r e n s Member r e l a t i v e  lies  equivalent rocks  T o r r e n s Member and p a r t o f t h e S p i e k e r Member o f  the Moosebar F o r m a t i o n proposed  He e q u a t e s  proposed  of the Fort  conglomerates,  silt-  and numerous  the formation.  I n more n o r t h e r n  t h e r e i s a pronounced marine i n f l u e n c e  which,  s t u d y , had b e e n t r a c e d s o u t h w a r d t o t h e  o f Q u i n t e t t e Mountain  Carmichael,  S t . John  i n t h i c k n e s s up t o 10 m e t e r s a r e  throughout  to this  vicinity  Minor  Formation  1983).  ( D u f f & G i l c h r i s t , 1981;  19 The  Gates i s r e c o g n i z e d  as  o f P e a c e R i v e r , where i t o c c u r s nants, the  to the  B.C.  a formation l a r g e l y as  - A l b e r t a border  Alberta Foothills  Malcolm Creek Formation  southeast.  The  strata  deposited  i n a f l o o d p l a i n e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t was  inundated  by  Several h a l f of the regional  u n i t f r o m Sukunka R i v e r i n t o the  seams a r e d i s t r i b u t e d mation but  these  where t h i c k e n e d the  are by  not  local  members o f t h e  Spirit  along  structure.  equivalent River  lower  the  Numerous  thin  remainder of the  for-  e c o n o m i c t o mine a t p r e s e n t , Natural  gas  except  occurs  Upper W i l r i c h and  in  Fahler  Formation immediately  - Although extensive  c a r r i e d out  on  the  influence.  The  northeast  and  Carmichael  distribution  of coal,  extent  been  of the  (1983) r e c o g n i z e s and  Leckie  four s i g n i f i c a n t  two  one  con-  represented  Mountains.  major marine  m a j o r and  & Walker  been  marine  particularly  Quintette  (1981) have i d e n t i f i e d  transgressions,  the  has  s i n c e i t i s known t o i n f l u e n c e  r e g i o n b e t w e e n B u l l m o o s e and Gilchrist  d e t a i l e d work has  number o f t r a n s g r e s s i v e d e p o s i t s  o f some i m p o r t a n c e ,  occurrence  and  Gates Formation, t h e r e  siderable uncertainty regarding  least  southeast  i n the  coalfield.  Discussion  is  were  north.  Alberta Foothills.  throughout the  stratigraphically  of the  from the  the  occasionally  t h i c k seams o f m i n e a b l e c o a l o c c u r  strike  In  t o member s t a t u s i n  (McLean, 1 9 8 2 ) .  marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n s  north  e r o s i o n a l rem-  i n the  i t i s reduced  from j u s t  in  the the  Duff  &  tongue,  s e v e r a l minor  (1982) s u g g e s t t h a t  i n c u r s i o n s have o c c u r r e d  at  Mount  at  20 Spieker.  The  p a l y n o l o g i c data i n d i c a t e t h a t the marine  i n f l u e n c e i s more e x t e n s i v e than p r e v i o u s l y thought.  METHODS  In the l a t e 1970's and e a r l y 1980's, renewed i n t e r e s t in  c o a l l e d to the s i g n i n g of a 15 year c o n t r a c t by  n o r t h e a s t l i c e n s e h o l d e r s t o s e l l thermal the Japanese. of  two  and coking c o a l to  I t a l s o provided the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a number  s t r a t i g r a p h i c s t u d i e s (see Previous Work) which would  improve i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n of s t r a t a , and hence f a c i l i t a t e mine p l a n n i n g and r e s e r v e  estimates.  As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the age and d e p o s i t i o n a l s e t t i n g of the rocks make the Peace R i v e r c o a l f i e l d w e l l s u i t e d t o a p a l y n o l o g i c a l study. these and  The economic importance o f  s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t gas-bearing  the n o r t h e a s t , and  the a v a i l a b i l i t y of d r i l l  provide a d d i t i o n a l i n c e n t i v e f o r conducting  rocks to  core m a t e r i a l a study  in this  area. Sampling - 13 d r i l l  h o l e s and  s e l e c t e d f o r sampling  7 s u r f a c e s e c t i o n s were  ( F i g u r e 5).  The d r i l l  hole s e c t i o n s  are p i e c e d together to get the best r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Lower Cretaceous  s e c t i o n from 7 l o c a t i o n s ; Belcourt-Secus  T r i a d Creek, Monkman Pass, Q u i n t e t t e Mt., Bullmoose Mt.,  and Mt.  Wolverine  Mt., Rv.,  Merrick-Sukunka North ( F i g u r e 6 ) .  Surface s e c t i o n s compliment, r a t h e r than complete,  drill  hole s e c t i o n s , s i n c e r e s u l t s from s u r f a c e samples were  Figure  5 - D e t a i l e d map o f s t u d y a r e a s h o w i n g l o c a t i o n s d r i l l h o l e and s u r f a c e s e c t i o n s  of  22  e x p e c t e d t o be l e s s r e l i a b l e discussion  o f 'Surface Samples'in t h i s  Initial on  selection of a l l sections  2 criteria:  ensures that  h a d t o be u n f a u l t e d .  upper and lower c o n t a c t s p r o v i d i n g  for  correlation.  nature o f the contact prevents repetetive  relationship.  resulted  of  and h e n c e  i n 'gaps' i n s a m p l i n g  sections  Occasionally,  drilled,  -  failed  Adhering  i n some a r e a s Quintette  to yield  f o r most o f t h e d e s i r e d  inadequate information  and/or content o f a d r i l l  hole prevented  what m i g h t o t h e r w i s e have been a s u i t a b l e  Surface sections  criterion  a formation.  In p a r t i c u l a r the Wolverine  complete, u n f a u l t e d  location  control  p o s i t i o n and t h e  sampling o f a s e c t i o n ,  although extensively  formations.  with  i n order t o  The s e c o n d  confusion over exact p o s i t i o n within  region,  The f i r s t  stratigraphic  f o r m a t i o n was p o s s i b l e  determine the accuracy o f the contact  to the c r i t e r i a  by t h e  I n many c a s e s s a m p l i n g o f t h e o v e r l y i n g  and/or u n d e r l y i n g  Fig. 6).  primarily  t h e e n t i r e f o r m a t i o n i s sampled,  the  (see  was b a s e d  s a m p l e d h a d t o be i n t e r s e c t e d  and t h e s e c t i o n  criterion  section).  t h e u p p e r and l o w e r c o n t a c t s o f t h e  formation(s) being section;  t h a n c o r e samples ( s e e  were s e l e c t e d  regarding sampling  section.  after consultation  with  company g e o l o g i s t s , s i n c e  a v a i l a b l e maps were n o t d e t a i l e d  enough t o i n d i c a t e  local  Individual  small  samples c o n s i s t e d  grams o f t h e c l e a n e s t desired  faults  in a  section.  of approximately  600-800  mudstone a v a i l a b l e a t o r n e a r t h e  sample i n t e r v a l .  The most d e s i r e a b l e  sample i s f r e e  Mt Merrick I -Sukunka  Bullmoose Mt  Quintette Mt  Wolverine Rv  Monkman Pass  T r i a d CrkA n t l e r Rdg  BelcourtSecus Mt SE  MINNES FM •Scale: Horizontal- 1.5 cm = 10 km V e r t i c a l - 1 mm = 10m  *-"  l i t h o l o g i c contact l i t h o l o g i c contact unconformity  (based (based  DATUM: Gething/Moosebar c o n t a c t  Figure  6 - NW-SE c r o s s s e c t i o n showing d r i l l hole d i s t r i b u t i o n  on d r i l l h o l e d a t a ) on a v e r a g e t h i c k n e s s e s )  24 of  'contaminants' such as s i l t ,  carbonaceous m a t e r i a l .  pyrite,  coal or other  When t h e s e components c a n n o t  avoided a t the sampling stage, t a k i n g  sufficient  a l l o w s them t o be e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e sample  prior  be  material to  d i s s o l u t i o n of the rock i n a c i d .  C o r e Samples used i n t h i s samples, Gates are  - 238  c o r e samples  study, i n c l u d i n g  35 Moosebar s a m p l e s  samples  and  1 Cadomin sample, (24 m a r i n e  1 H u l c r o s s sample.  f r o m t h e Minnes  separate study.  were t a k e n ; 199  The  F o r m a t i o n and w i l l  The  samples  intervals  ( o n a v e r a g e ) and  meters o f  section.  over surface  70 G e t h i n g  transition),  39 u n u s e d  be r e p o r t e d  were t a k e n a t 15  91  samples on i n a  meter  r e p r e s e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2990  T h e r e a r e a number o f a d v a n t a g e s samples  & 11  are  samples;  t o t h e use o f c o r e  core i s e a s i l y  accessible  and  p r o v i d e s c o n t i n u o u s e x p o s u r e o f r o c k ; c o n t a c t s a r e more accurately  pinpointed;  depths are e a s i l y are  unaltered  sample  intervals are consistent  checked a g a i n s t  by w e a t h e r i n g .  The  core markers;  and  o n l y problems  arising  c o r e s a m p l i n g , as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, unfaulted  were  complete  u p p e r and  l o w e r c o n t a c t s , and a l a c k o f e a s i l y  w h i c h has been of  t h e B.C.  and  subsequently remedied  Ministry  S u r f a c e Samples were s e l e c t e d  f o r m a t i o n s which  hole location  of Mines'  samples from  difficulty  obtaining  i n f o r m a t i o n on d r i l l  and  contain  both  accessible  c o n t e n t (a c o n d i t i o n  with the  introduction  computerized Coal F i l e ) .  - Of t h e 89  surface  samples  f o r p r o c e s s i n g b a s e d on r e s u l t s  taken,  10  from a d j a c e n t  25 core s e c t i o n s .  Surface  determine the u s e f u l n e s s  samples were taken p r i m a r i l y t o of s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l r e l a t i v e t o  • f r e s h ' or unweathered core m a t e r i a l .  Surface  sections i n  t h i s r e g i o n are most o f t e n s t e e p l y d i p p i n g and weathered.  deeply  In a d d i t i o n , the mudstone i s r e c e s s i v e  u s u a l l y p o o r l y exposed.  and  As a r e s u l t , s u r f a c e samples were  taken at 30 meter i n t e r v a l s and o f t e n r e q u i r e d the use of auger to o b t a i n s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l .  Although i t i s e a s i e r t o  o b t a i n a complete Cadomin through Gates s e c t i o n a t  one  l o c a t i o n i f the s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a are met,  to  access  s e c t i o n s i s not always p o s s i b l e s i n c e many of these are exposed on very steep s l o p e s and Processing  cliff  - Samples were processed  u s i n g standard  s i z e , p l a c e d i n HC1  palyn-  Any  r e s i d u a l mineral  was  f o r s e v e r a l hours  to d i s s o l v e carbonate; then i n HF a c i d o v e r n i g h t s i l i c a t e s ; c l a y was  best  faces.  o l o g i c a l procedures (Kummel & Raup; 1965); the rock crushed t o pea-gravel  to d i s s o l v e  removed through s e t t l i n g and s i e v i n g . matter (eg. CaF  s i l i c a , g l a u c o n i t e , p y r i t e ) was s e p a r a t i o n i n z i n c bromide.  crystals,  undissolved  removed by heavy  liquid  N i t r i c a c i d and a c e t o l y s i s  s o l u t i o n were a p p l i e d t o samples c o n t a i n i n g e x c e s s i v e  coaly  or c e l l u l o s i c m a t e r i a l r e s p e c t i v e l y ; an o x i d i z i n g reagent (eg. S c h u l t z ' s s o l u t i o n , household bleach) was l i g h t e n dark palynomorphs. with s a f r a n i n e dye,  an  and  used t o  Processed samples were s t a i n e d  1 or 2 drops were d r i e d onto a  c o v e r s l i p i n C e l l o s i z e ; the c o v e r s l i p was  i n v e r t e d onto a  26 glass  slide  and  secured  w i t h a m o u n t i n g medium  (eg.  Gelva,  Flo-texx). During  p r o c e s s i n g s e v e r a l p r o b l e m s were  encountered  w h i c h r e q u i r e d m o d i f i c a t i o n o f some p r o c e d u r e s enhance r e c o v e r y o f the palynomorphs.  i n order  Since the  (12-20 urn) a n g i o s p e r m p o l l e n make t h e i r  first  l a t e Lower C r e t a c e o u s  c a r e was  to  rocks, particular  l o s e these d u r i n g removal of the c l a y .  sample a f t e r  rinsing  was  allowed  longer than usual r e s u l t i n g content  i n the r e s i d u e .  drawing i t through suction  a 10-15  Larger  a 270  urn s i e v e b u t  urn PVC  clay by  the a i d of  a  The  The  a s h had  ash  residue i n ZnBr  2  w  i  a specific  settling  t  h  a  S  #  G  substance  o n l y as floating  s e p a r a t i o n from  but  less  i n ZnBr  2  >  between 1.7  w  than  ith  mineral  a S.G.  to settle and  to separate  'wax'. I t f i r s t i n the  test  tube  out  t h e o t h e r o r g a n i c s was  not  of  the  1/3  of  the d e s i r e d substance  appeared after  greater  1.9.  from  a bituminous-looking  in  slightly  o c c u r r i n g i n approximately  samples, which f a i l e d  identified  of  t r a p p i n g them i n  gravity  f r a g m e n t s were f o u n d  Another substance,  r e s i d u e was  'flakes'  s m a l l e r fragments r e q u i r e d treatment  removed t h r o u g h  2.2.  to contain  removed by  g r e a t e r t h a n most o r g a n i c m a t t e r ,  organic  the  minutes  removed  mesh w i t h  not  of  i n a h i g h e r than normal  f r a g m e n t s c o u l d be  heavy l i q u i d .  the  taken  pump.  ash.  than  appearance i n  t o c o n t i n u e a few  A number o f s a m p l e s were f o u n d  matter  smaller  Settling  T h i s m a t e r i a l was  to  as a  dark  sieving. complete,  However, as  27  abundant d i s c r e t e p a r t i c l e s  were f o u n d  Removal o f t h e 'wax' was a c h i e v e d s t r e n g t h HC1  (S.G. a p p r o x i m a t e l y  i n the residue.  by r i n s i n g  with  full  1.16) w h i c h a l l o w e d t h e  r e m a i n d e r o f t h e 'wax' t o f l o a t . For  the f i r s t  60 s a m p l e s p r o c e s s e d  p r o c e d u r e o f m a k i n g 3 mounts fractions) differences  was a d h e r e d i n colour  dinoflagellate walled  spores  to.  the standard  ( c o a r s e , medium & f i n e When i t became a p p a r e n t  (thermal  a l t e r a t i o n ) between t h e  c y s t s and t h i n - w a l l e d s p o r e s , was c a u s i n g  that  under-oxidation  and t h e t h i c k -  or over-oxidation  of  s a m p l e s , a n d h e n c e a l o s s o f s p e c i e s , a c h a n g e was made  in  t h e mounting procedure.  at  various  to  any l i g h t e n i n g o f t h e o r g a n i c s .  stages  concentration  S l i d e s were made f o r e a c h  of bleaching,  i n c l u d i n g a T A I mount  sample prior  Because o f improved  and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e palynomorphs a f t e r t h e  m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made, t h e f i r s t  60 s a m p l e s were  repro-  cessed.  Identification  o f Species  nomorphs was c a r r i e d with  - Identification  o u t on a L e i t z  interference contrast.  systematic lense. using  grid  using  o f the paly-  Orthoplan  microscope  S l i d e s were s c a n n e d  ina  10X, 12X o r 15X o c u l a r s a n d a 25 power  Identifications  were c a r r i e d  o u t under o i l immersion  a 100 power l e n s e , g i v i n g a m a g n i f i c a t i o n o f 1000-  1500X. Appendix I I c o n t a i n s to  identify  a complete  t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s  l i s t of references  palynomorphs.  used  28 Data M a n i p u l a t i o n unexpectedly  - The  number o f s a m p l e s t a k e n and  l a r g e number o f p a l y n o m o r p h s r e c o v e r e d  o f c o n v e n t i o n a l r a n k i n g m e t h o d s (Shaw, 1964; prohibitive. through  a s e r i e s o f p l o t s and was  ordered  t o each s p e c i e s  a f o r m a t i o n was  p a l y n o m o r p h s , and  diagrams.  To  noted, forming  the occurrence  thus  s a m p l e d e p t h s ( F i g . 7,  ( o r d e r i n g the  i n pocket).  s p e c i e s a r e p l o t t e d by s a m p l e , and  drill  species l i s t  was  occurrence The  the  species  achieved  by  hole l o c a t i o n s  All  non-ubiquitous  C o r r e l a t i o n of  abundance o f  the occurrence  hole to the next.  was  ubiquitous  the presence of u b i q u i -  a c r i t a r c h s i s noted.  h o l e s r e l i e s on t y p e and  f r o m one  species  species.  drawing a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l p l o t of the d r i l l  ( t o t a l a s s e m b l a g e ) , and  this  a number  a r o u g h z o n a t i o n b a s e d on  according to t h e i r e a r l i e s t occurrence)  drill  achieved  of each  i d e n t i f y i n g the  Ranking of the species l i s t  t o u s d i n o c y s t s and  use  1972)  facilitate  a l p h a b e t i c a l l y and  r e s t r i c t e d ranges of the remaining  and  make  (Appendix I I ) .  From t h e o r i g i n a l d a t a in  Hay,  I n s t e a d , r a n k i n g o f t h e s p e c i e s was  the s p e c i e s l i s t assigned  the  palynomorphs  of i n d i v i d u a l  Finally,  the  species  ranking of  p o s s i b l e by n o t i n g t h e e a r l i e s t o r  the  lowest  of each s p e c i e s i n the s e c t i o n .  r e s u l t s o f t h i s r a n k i n g have been used t o  F i g u r e 8,and t o o r d e r 11-16, i n p o c k e t ) .  the i n d i v i d u a l d r i l l  The  ranked  list  generate  hole plots  used i n F i g u r e 8  f r o m t h a t u s e d i n F i g u r e s 11-16, i n t h a t s p e c i e s t h a t  (Figs. differs occur  29  as a s i n g l e s p e c i m e n h a v e b e e n o m i t t e d Zonation  from t h e G e n e r a l i z e d  p l o t u n l e s s t h e s p e c i e s a p p e a r s t o be p r e v i o u s l y  undescribed  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  These s p e c i e s a r e i n d i c a t e d  on t h e l i s t b y s i n g l e q u o t e s ( ' ) . R e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e o f e a c h s p e c i e s i s d e n o t e d on F i g u r e s 11-16 a s f o l l o w s ; s i n g l e o c c u r r e n c e (0),  2-5 s p e c i m e n s - h a l f c i r c l e  - full  circle  mining  which species a r e r e l i a b l e  and  - open  ( 3 ) , more t h a n  ( • ) . The i n f o r m a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t  correlation.  Figures  circle  5 specimens i n deter-  indicators f o r zonation  11-16 a l s o i n c l u d e a p l o t o f T A I  v a l u e s and t h e o c c u r r e n c e  o f a s h a n d 'wax'.  P h o t o g r a p h y - P h o t o g r a p h s f o r p l a t e s were t a k e n w i t h a n Orthomat-W a u t o m a t i c  m i c r o s c o p e c a m e r a o n Kodak PAN 2415  b l a c k and w h i t e  (ASA 5 0 ) . N e g a t i v e s  developed  film  using standard  darkroom  and p r i n t s  were  techniques.  Note: c o l o u r s l i d e s f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n were t a k e n on F u j i colour s l i d e film the tungsten  light  (ASA 50) u s i n g a n 80A ( b l u e ) f i l t e r source.  over  The s l i d e f i l m was s h o t a t ASA  12 t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r l o n g e x p o s u r e t i m e s . The s l i d e s developed  50  by a c o m m e r c i a l l a b .  were  30  RESULTS The o v e r a l l  palynomorph assemblage o b t a i n e d  Gething through Gates s u c c e s s i o n abundance  and d i v e r s i t y  i s rich  and v a r i e d .  o f s p e c i e s has a l l o w e d  o f numerous, p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y  distinct  into depositional zone.  abundance  consistency with respect addition,  palynomorphs  o f each provide  e n v i r o n m e n t s and f a c i e s  The f o r m a t i o n o f c o a l  the  throughout the  The t y p e s o f  p r e s e n t , and t h e r e l a t i v e  The  recognition  zones w i t h i n  s e c t i o n , most o f w h i c h c a n be c o r r e l a t e d length of the study area.  from the  changes  appears t o e x h i b i t  insight  i n each  a degree o f  t o the environments recognized.  the palynomorphs  p r o v i d e a means o f d a t i n g  In  the  formations.  Sample C o n t e n t Of t h e 197 ples  c o r e samples used f o r t h i s  (83%) c o n t a i n  i n d i g e n o u s p a l y n o m o r p h s and 34  (17%) a r e b a r r e n o r c o n t a i n p a l y n o m o r p h s recycled. including  A total 232  spore species  o f 350  pollen  c y s t and a c r i t a r c h  species,  sam-  samples t o be  identified, dinoflagellate  cyst  and  fungal  (Appendix I I ) .  known t o have, a r i c h  preserved  96  and 22 a l g a l  samples c o l l e c t e d ,  p r o c e s s i n g b a s e d on t h e i r  are present  163  considered  s p e c i e s has b e e n  and s p o r e s p e c i e s ,  Of t h e 89 s u r f a c e for  study,  in all  proximity  10 were  to core  palynomorph assemblage.  10 s a m p l e s , and a b u n d a n t ,  specimens o c c u r  i n 7 o f them.  selected  samples  Palynomorphs relatively  well  A l t h o u g h t h e assem-  31 blages do not e x h i b i t the abundance and/or d i v e r s i t y of those found i n c o r r e s p o n d i n g core samples, they do  indicate  t h a t s u r f a c e samples can be of v a l u e when used i n an area where the p a l y n o l o g i c s e c t i o n i s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d , or t o supplement core r e s u l t s .  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s were not done f o r  s u r f a c e samples s i n c e i t was  felt  t h a t the time i n v e s t e d  would not r e s u l t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the data a l r e a d y o b t a i n e d from core samples. Recycled palynomorphs are present i n v a r y i n g amounts i n a l a r g e number of samples and have been excluded from results.  Although o f t e n d i f f i c u l t  the  to recognize, i n t h i s  study r e c y c l a n t s have been i d e n t i f i e d as those specimens which e x h i b i t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r TAI v a l u e , and/or g r e a t e r c o r r o s i o n (chemical degredation) or p i t t i n g (abrasion) of the w a l l r e l a t i v e t o s i m i l a r types of p a l y n omorphs i n the sample. TAI v a l u e s , determined  f o r each sample based on  c o l o u r , are p l o t t e d on F i g u r e s A-G. f a l l w i t h i n the 2.25-2.50 range, h i g h as 3.0,  cuticle  Although most v a l u e s  s e v e r a l readings went as  and a few f e l l below 2.0.  v a l u e s occur i n the Gething Formation  Most of the h i g h e r but none of the  anomalous readings shows any c o n s i s t e n t a s s o c i a t i o n with other o b s e r v a b l e f a c t o r s f a c i e s boundaries or  'wax').  (eg. palynomorph type, p r o x i m i t y t o  or c o a l , m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , presence  of ash  I t i s suspected t h a t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a c i d i c  environments where most peats form, TAI v a l u e s are a f f e c t e d by c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g d e p o s i t i o n and e a r l y d i a g e n e s i s i e .  32 that  some a l t e r a t i o n may  prior  to thermal  Manum e t a l The  alteration  s a m p l e s , and  standard.  a waxy b i t u m i n o u s  EDS The  m a r i n e , and pyrite it  a l s o on  profile 'wax'  just  (8 o f 13)  i s not  are  substance  similar  occurs  over  half  i n 19  F i g u r e s A-G.  particular by  high  palynomorph type Adams & B o n n e t t  i t i s not  w i t h i n the  mine t h e  s i g n i f i c a n c e of these  provided  f o r others working who  core  i n 63 o f t h e The  i n conjuction with  settings,  of the  the  nor  (the reader  (1969) on  of  However,  1  occurrences i s referred  substances,  study  to  the  Wax).  to deter-  the data  area, or i n  any  of  the Bute I n l e t  scope of t h i s  find  'wax .  as  does i t e x h i b i t  ( o r low)  in this may  core  v o l c a n i c ash  of the notable occurrences  Although  depositional  (see  i n zones i n t e r p r e t e d  e x c l u s i v e t o marine u n i t s ,  an a r t i c l e  activity  t o an a n d e s i t e / b a s a l t  largely  a s s o c i a t i o n with anomalously any  to chemical  associated with b u r i a l  o f v o l c a n i c ash  samples i s p l o t t e d an  p l a c e due  1976).  f  occurrence  produced  take  are  similar  information of  value.  Z o n a t i o n and The veal  in  e d i t e d d a t a , when p l o t t e d  a pattern of frequent  shallow 9).  Correlation  sea over  coastal  S i x m a j o r and the Gething  transgressions,  on  inundations  lowlands  a cross section, from  to the  t h e n o r t h by  south  (Figs.  f o u r minor t r a n s g r e s s i o n s are  through  Gates s e c t i o n .  a s w e l l as t h e  re-  A l l of the  a  7 &  identified major  i n t e r v e n i n g non-marine  G E T H I N G FP1  B I O S T R A T I G R A P H IC ZONATION  MOOSEBAR  w v  p> 3  tr  SPORES & P O L L E N 15 21 39 83 165 199 205 213 221 252 351 230 323 157 311 276 227 333 3 53 232 331 166 87 104 106 280 325 336 18 168 322 329 148 212 122 74 121 160 29 113 260 350 114 152 20 151 214 52 65 85 100 109 144 200 281 284 345 346 12 49 338 223 327 77 266 2 161 149 163 204 211 25 202 274 304 233 269 296 335 339 349 90 131 239 307 343 347 70 93 95 108 112 174 197 234 243 302 344 348  FM  i-3  i  (u 3 : ui • H-  rt  O  a  GATES 2  PJ  3  Pi  0 in 1  a  FM  w M  Rl X 1 PI H- 1 3 Hrt) 3 (0 '  ID  ii s  ni a cn a rt !-•  i-i m PI  3 Rl  I-I  36 h>-  a  3 M (0 fl>  IB i-l  i-i a  a  T3  r r fl) h 1  X 8i i-l P3 (D  G XI 'O ID i-l  Pi  Antulsporites distaverrucosus Appendicisporites d e n t i m a r g i n a t u s ' v a r . A' c f Auritulinasporites deltaformis Cicatricosisporites c f tersus Foraminisporis wonthaggiensis I s c h y o s p o r i t e s ' s p . A' Laevigatosporites gracilis Lycopodiacidites caperatus Lycopodiumsporites eminulus Ornamentifera baculata Cooksonites ' s p . A' Matonisporites cooksoni Tigrisporites scurrandus D l s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s 'sp. B Sestrosporites•irregularus Podocarpidites e l l i p t i c u s Lycopodiumsporites sp. B Trilobosporites trioreticulosus Acanthotriletes levidensis Callialasporites trllobatus M a t o n i s p o r i t e s ' s p . A' Trilobosporites purverulentus Foveosporites canalis Cingulatisporites distaverrucosus Contignisporites cooksonii Contignisporites multimuratus Podocarpidites potomacensis 'Spore s p . A (nov.gen.) U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s pannuceus Appendicisporites bilateralis Foveotriletes subtriangularis Tigrisporites reticulatus T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s marylandensis Dictyophyllidites equiexinous Lycopodiacidites canallculatus Cyathidites rafaeli Cicatricosisporites exilioides C y a t h i d i t e s punctatus D l s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s ' s p . A' Appendicisporites unicus Costatoperforosporites foveolatus Perinopollenites elatoides Appendicisporites tricornitatus C o u p e r i s p o r i t e s complexus Dictyotosporites speciosus Appendicisporites dentimarginatus D i c t y o t o s p o r i t e s complex Lycopodiacidites cirniidites C a l l i a l a s p o r i t e s segmentatus Ceratosporites c f morrinicolus Cibotiumspora juriensis C o n c a v i s s i m i s p o r i t e s minor Cooksonites variabilis Densoisporites microrugulatus Januasporites spiniferus P s l l a t r i c o l p i t e s parvulus P o l y c i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s ' s p . A' Vitreisporites pallidus Kluklsporites pseudoreticulatus Alisporites similis Biretisporites spectabilis U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s undulapolus Lycopodiumsporites marginatus Trilobosporites apiverrucatus Cicatricosisporites imbricatus Phyllocladidites inchoatus Abietineaepollenitessp. Eucommiidites t r o e d s s o n i i Dictyophyllidites pectinataeformis Foraminisporis asymmetricus Kuylisporites lunaris Lycopodiacidites asperatus Appendicisporites pschekhaensis Klukisporites areolatus Podocarpidites blformis Schizosporis grandis Matonisporites c f excavatus Pinuspollenites Reticulisporites elongatus Undulatisporites fossulatus V e r r u c o s l s p o r i t e s asymmetricus Piceapollenites Classopollis chateaunovi Cycadopides c a r p e n t i e r i Podocarpidites ornatus Schizosporis rugulatus Vitreisporites cf craigii S p h e r i p o l l e n i t e s scabratus Cicatricosisporites annulatua Clavatipollenites couperii C l a v a t i p o l l e n i t e s minutus Cooksonites reticulatus Coptospora s t r i a t a Ginkgocycadophytus sp. Inaperturopollenites dubius P o d o c a r p i d i t e s naumovai Murospora t r u n c a t a Schizosporis sp. C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s potomacensis Reticulisporites semireticulatus 1  1  D I N O F L A G E L L A T E CYSTS & ACRITARCHS 156 235 255 290 178 69 31 132 180 247 248 310 183 38 54 170 179 181 186 201 286 34 44 67 98 128 188 192 245 249 251 43 45 208 241 155 196 316 96 97 134 137 145 173 187 195 257 129 36 60 154 256  Diplotesta anglica Michrystridium stellatum Palaeoperldinium cretaceum Pterodinium sp. A Gonyaulacysta a r c h e o p y l e Type B Chytroeisphaeridia c f pococki Apteodinium grande Cyclonephelium paucispinum Gonyaulacysta cretacea Oligosphaeridium anthophorum Oligosphaeridium complex S c r i n i o d i n i u m campanula Gonyaulacysta orthoceras Ascotomocystis maxima Callaiosphaeridia cf reticulata Fromea amphora Gonyaulacysta c f cassidata Gonyaulacysta c f episoma Hystrichokolpoma ' s p . A' c f K a l y p t e a monoceras Prolixosphaeridium c f mixtispinosum Apteodinium maculatum > Baitisphaeridium sp. A W Chlamydophorella nyei Cleistosphaeridium multispinosum Cyclonephelium distlnctum Spiniferites cingulatus S p i n i f e r i t e s ramosa v a r . m u l t i b r e v i s Odontochitina operculata Oligosphaeridium diastema Oligosphaeridium pulcherrimum Baitisphaeridium fimbriatum Baitisphaeridium sp.B L e c a n i e l l a foveata Muderongia t e t r a c a n t h a Dinopterygium cladoides Hystrichosphaeridium stellatum Tanyosphaeridium sp. B Cleistosphaeridium diversispinosum Cleistosphaeridium granulatum Cymatiosphaera pachytheca Subtilisphaera perlucida Diconodinium c f arcticum Gardodinium e i s e n a c k i Hystrichokolpoma ferox Hystrichosphaeridium cooksoni Pareodinla c f aphelia Cyclonephelium distinctum var. brevispinatum Apteodinium sp. Canningia reticulata d i n o s p . A (nov. s p . ) Palaeoperidlnium sp. 1  ALGAL CYSTS f. FUNGAL SPORES 171 268 292 254 309 172 263 319 116 169 264 317 272 294 318  f u n g a l b o d y 'Type M' Phragmothyrites 'Form D Pterospermella australiensis P a l a m b a g e s Form A Scolecosporites f u n g a l c o l o n y ( B u r d e n '84) Phragmothyrites 'Form A' Tasmanltes tardus Crassosphaera sp. A Fractisporonitessp. Phragmothyrites 'Form B' Tasmanites newtoni Pluricellaesporites psilatus Pterospermella sp. B Tasmanites suevicus 1  Figure  8 - Generalized biostratigraphic Peace R i v e r c o a l f i e l d  zonation of the CO CO  34  d e p o s i t s of the  r e g r e s s i v e phases, can  unique palynomorph assemblage Although  recognized  on  diversity. be  The  zones can  and  terize  each zone.  study,  94  Figure  a l l but  c o r r e l a t i o n are  8 summarizes t h e Of  the  of  150  s p e c i e s , are  study,  their  in  Moosebar l i t h o l o g i c  21  and  to  The  equivalents.  identified The  i n Figures  in  species,  algal  characthis  remaining  256  85  c y s t and  the d r i l l i n the  from each.  holes  fungal  geophysical  used i n  s e c t i o n and The  the  Gething-  c o n t a c t , as d e t e r m i n e d by  from c o r e  and  occurrence.  position  samples taken  area.  illustrated  spore  l o c a t i o n of  relative  abundance  study  (Appendix I I ) . p o l l e n and  be  palynomorphs t h a t  species  restricted  7 shows t h e  geologists  350  s p e c i e s and  Figure  company  l o g s , has  been used  t h e datum s i n c e t h e r e  i s g e n e r a l l y good a g r e e m e n t on i t s  position.  contacts  according by  Lithologic  t o company d r i l l  average thickness  t i o n s and/or nearby d r i l l 1973;  Duff  & Gilchrist,  (solid  hole data  (dashed  l i n e s ) are  as  placed  o r , where u n a v a i l a b l e ,  l i n e s ) b a s e d on  hole  1981;  a  occurs  p a l y n o l o g i c zones  traced to facies  acritarch  p o s i t i o n of the  a few  l e n g t h of the  are ubiquitous  s p e c i e s , made up  this  be  z o n a t i o n and  7 & 9,  spore  still  the b a s i s o f palynomorph type,  This allows  d i n o c y s t and  species rarely  z o n e , e a c h zone c a n  c o r r e l a t e d the e n t i r e  remaining  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  ( F i g . 8).  a s i n g l e non-ubiquitous  throughout a p a r t i c u l a r  be  information Carmichael,  measured  (Stott, 1983).  1968  sec&  35  Sample numbers a r e h o l e s and (Note: holes  p l o t t e d to the  non-ubiquitous  this  i s reversed  is limited).  species are  theses  relative also of  f o r p o l l e n and  c y s t s and  marine s t r a t a .  The  fungal spores.  The  or  m a r i n e d i n o c y s t and not  restricted  marine  0.5  of coal,  units.  as  the  and  or  species.  from t e r r e s t r i a l  of occasional flood  or  is available.  separate  Although  spores  dinocysts  strata  with  storm d e p o s i t e d non-marine  p a r t s of the  recognized  and  and the  specimens. (terressection in  species  palynomorphs whatsoever. samples  of  particularly  samples c o n t a i n o n l y r a r e u b i q u i t o u s  'barren'  marine  presence or absence  (or near shore) f a c i e s ,  them t o be  presence  single  information  uncommon i n m a r i n e s t r a t a ,  d i s t r i b u t i o n of these  paren-  correlation  p a l y n o l o g i c zones, there are  allow  The  (dotted l i n e s )  b a s e d on  a b u n d a n t r e c y c l a n t s , o r no  to  curved  r e c o g n i t i o n and  I n a d d i t i o n t o r e c o g n i z a b l e m a r i n e and  which the  and  square  meters i n t h i c k n e s s , i s p l o t t e d  acritarch  a c r i t a r c h s are absent  trial)  drill  acritarchs is  stratigraphic  from non-marine s t r a t a  exception  i n the  palynologic contacts  p o l l e n are  right  d i n o c y s t s and  occurrence  seams e x c e e d i n g  where g e o p h y s i c a l  the  spores,  acritarchs,  abundance o f u b i q u i t o u s  indicated to a s s i s t  mutiple  p l o t t e d on  drill  Type o f p a l y n o m o r p h i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by;  f o r d i n o c y s t s and  for algal  of the  where s p a c e b e t w e e n a d j a c e n t  an a b s e n c e o f p a r e n t h e s e s parentheses  left  and  The  i s c o n s i s t e n t enough  as d i s t i n c t  palynologic  36  Two t y p e s o f m a r i n e z o n e s , o p e n m a r i n e a n d marine, a r e i d e n t i f i e d  i n this  palynomorph(s) present, diversity an  o f each.  s t u d y b a s e d on t h e t y p e ( s )  and t h e r e l a t i v e  algal  R e s t r i c t e d marine s t r a t a c o n t a i n abundances t h a t  terrestrial  the  cysts  reflect  proximity  strata are characterized  and a c r i t a r c h s  o r minus a l g a l  considered terized  (except  t o open m a r i n e  by a n a b s e n c e o f  as q u a l i f i e d  and f u n g a l  debris.  earlier),  by a n a b s e n c e o f d i a g n o s t i c  spores,  zones,  species  and/or the  s p e c i m e n s , o r by a  absence o f palynomorphs. It  should  be e m p h a s i z e d h e r e t h a t  z o n e s , a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e d e n s i t y study,  identify  The  palynologic  i n this  influence.  n o n - m a r i n e s t r a t a and v i c e  of palynologic  versa.  evidence.  Placement o f a  b o u n d a r y i s somewhat a r b i t r a r y d e p e n d i n g on t h e  between s a m p l e s  coal w i l l  horizons  o f sampling used  m a r i n e / n o n - m a r i n e u n i t s have b e e n d e t e r m i n e d s o l e l y  the basis  distance  the palynologic  the p r e v a i l i n g depositional  M a r i n e z o n e s may c o n t a i n  ally,  Barren  and  h e r e t o be p r e d o m i n a n t l y n o n - m a r i n e , a r e c h a r a c -  p r e s e n c e o f a l a r g e number o f r e c y c l e d total  spores.  a l l types o f palynomorphs  p r e s e n c e o f v a r i a b l e q u a n t i t i e s o f p o l l e n and  plus  on  and f u n g a l  environments.  Terrestrial dinocysts  by  d i n o c y s t / a c r i t a r c h a s s e m b l a g e and a n  absence o f p o l l e n and s p o r e s ,  or  of  a b u n d a n c e and  Open m a r i n e s t r a t a a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d  abundant and d i v e r s e  in relative  restricted  in a vertical  p e r s i s t along,  and a boundary w i l l  or close  be p l a c e d  section.  Occasion-  to, palynologic t o emphasize  probable  37 concurrent  episodes of  palynologic  the  section reveals  palynologic  palynologic a strong  b o u n d a r i e s and  lithologic  units of  l a r g e l y on  geophysical  c o n f i r m e d and study of  the  Duff  this  of  a number o f d r i l l  breaks.  study.  section  I n many i n s t a n c e s  and  extensively  reversed,  and  in  to provide  all  including 3  ( F i g . 10)  reveals  coincide  sampled  that  with  lithologic  agreement between the  two  i n the  relationships  the  that  is  fine,  or  are  making l i t h o l o g i c c o r r e l a t i o n 1  lateral,  to  these l i t h o l o g s  C a r m i c h a e l s work has  to describe  vertical  zonation  are  sedimentological  several of  non-coal-bearing  extremely d i f f i c u l t .  Figure  determined  t h r o u g h f a c i e s c h a n g e s where c o a r s e and  stratigraphically  working  holes,  boundaries frequently  coal-bearing  order  A  the  (1983) r e s u l t e d i n d e t a i l e d  Comparison of  palynologic  maintained  Many o f  Moosebar-Gates s e c t i o n from Wolverine R i v e r  lithologs  palynologic  (1981),  study.  Carmichael  w i t h the  breaks.  p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l evidence,  by  this  litho-  c o r r e l a t i o n between  & Gilchrist  and  r e f i n e d by  s e c t i o n w i t h the  lithologic  S e c u s Mt.  for  compromising  data.  Comparison o f logic  c o a l development without  lithologic occur  i n the  a f a m i l i a r point  of  been r e l i e d  changes,  on  both  palynologic reference  section  for  others  area.  8 i s a p l o t of  established  non-ubiquitous  species  i n Figure  species  7.  r a n g e s b a s e d on The  species  list  the includes  w h i c h o c c u r more t h a n o n c e i n a  sample a n d / o r i n more t h a n one  sample.  Single  specimens  38  (listed  i n Appendix II) are  omitted  are  considered  f o r zonation,  not  included  on  Figure  s p e c i m e n s o f any presumed t o be p r e p a r e d by The  reliable The  species  new.  the  exceptions  not  found  of  for future  shows t h e  e a c h u n i t as  total well  to this  new  8 since  although they  i n the  Descriptions  author  diagram  characterizes  7.  from F i g u r e  are  and  are  being  publication. species  as  the  assemblage  species  which  unique to  zone.  Solid  lines  i n d i c a t e the  presence of a species  unit;  dotted  lines  i n d i c a t e the  likely  species  in a  zone b a s e d on  study.  Dinocyst  and  the  despite  the  restricted  heavily  f o r zonation  initial  identifications  and  may  fungal not  material;  reported  species  rectify  of  cysts  and  fungal  and;  palynologic  i n the  the  on  plates  reasons:  the  Gething  dinocyst  species  algal  and  s p o r e s commonly geological  environment) of  They a r e  to  included  i n order  to  are  sigmost in  the  help  omission.  number o f  text  documented.  illustrated  this  relied  to recognize  and  a  material,  not  p o l l e n , s p o r e s and  literature  well  fungal  the  in a  presumed  p a l y n o m o r p h s , done on  ( i e . range, d e p o s i t i o n a l  this  The  algal  i n the  i s not  zonation  the  on  not  in  interpretation for several  have r e s u l t e d i n f a i l u r e  nificance  in  A l g a l and  are  r a n g e s shown, a r e  and  samples, c o n c e n t r a t e d  occurrence of  range e s t a b l i s h e d  a c r i t a r c h species  o c c u r i n non-marine u n i t s .  are  single  literature species  they  species,  f o r each  total  and  restricted,  zone i s t a k e n f r o m F i g u r e  work i s done t h e  zonation  can  be  8.  reported As  refined  more to  39  WOLVERINE RV  SUKUNKA NORTH  MDD-780B-  BPM-2  BD-76-1  BD-7802  MDD-7821  SECUS  BELCOURT MT  ANTLER RIDGE -TRIAD CREEK  MONKMAN PASS  QUINTETTE NT  1  BULLMOOSE MT  MT  BXD-76-7  BWD-76-4 |  MDD-7804 |  SE  HULCROSS FM -  1  GATES FM Upper Marine Upper T e r r e s t r i a l  GATES EM Middle Marine Middle  Is.  Terrestrial  Middle GATES FM Basal Marine  L..  (restricted)  Middle  GATES FM B a s a l Marine (open)  Marine  Terrestrial  i  B a s a l Marine (restricted) GATES FM B a s a l Non-marine  MOOSEBAR FM Transition Unit  tr...  (Torrens Mb) GATES FM 8 a s a l M a r i n e - —-  ••—:  MOOSEBAR FM I  -  -  MOOSEBAR FM Marine  —  (Torrens Mb)  —  Transition Unit  1  MOOSEBAR FM Marine  I  datum  I. Gething Non-marine I"  Gethingl  GETHING FM Terrestrial !  Marine Tongue  i  I.  r  |  1  |  i  •  Gething Marine Tongue Gething Non-marine GETHING FM Terrestrial  1  ;  1  palynologic contact .. l i t h o l o g i c c o n t a c t ( b a s e d on d r i l l h o l e d a t a ) — — — l i t h o l o g i c c o n t a c t ( b a s e d on a v e r a g e t h i c k n e s s e s ) v w v w ^ . unconformity m c o a l seam (> 0.5 m e t e r s )  MINNES FM  . SCALE: H o r i z o n t a l : 0.5 cm = 2 km V e r t i c a l : 0.5 cm = 20 m  I  Figure  9 - NW-SE p a l y n o l o g i c  cross  DATUM: Gething/Moosebar  section  /  contact  |  40 i n c l u d e some o f t h e 50 p o l l e n a n d s p o r e s p e c i e s a n d 35 d i n o c y s t / a c r i t a r c h s p e c i e s which occur as s i n g l e , and whose r a n g e s  have n o t been  specimens,  determined.  F i g u r e 9 s u m m a r i z e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o n F i g u r e 7. S i x major marine which and  t r a n s g r e s s i o n s , d e f i n e d here as marine  strata  c a n be c o r r e l a t e d t h e e n t i r e l e n g t h o f t h e s t u d y a r e a ,  f o u r minor marine  Major  i n c u r s i o n s have been  identified.  t r a n s g r e s s i o n s o c c u r a t t h e base o f t h e G e t h i n g  F o r m a t i o n , i n t h e lower h a l f o f t h e Moosebar F o r m a t i o n , a t the base and t h e t o p o f t h e b a s a l Gates marine/non-marine u n i t , i n t h e upper middle Gates, and a t t h e t o p o f t h e Gates Formation.  Two m a r i n e  tongues  are identified  i n t h e upper  h a l f o f t h e G e t h i n g , and a n o t h e r two o c c u r i n t h e b a s a l Gates marine/non-marine u n i t , a l l i n t h e northwest  half of  the study a r e a . The  i n t e r v e n i n g non-marine s t r a t a , r e p r e s e n t i n g marine  regressions, occur; i n the Gething Formation marine  u n i t and below t h e marine  tongues;  above t h e b a s a l  i n t h e B a s a l Gates  marine/non-marine u n i t i n t h e southeast h a l f o f t h e study area.  Two more a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e u p p e r h a l f o f t h e G a t e s  Formation. tongues Moosebar  B a r r e n zones a r e i d e n t i f i e d above t h e marine  i n t h e G e t h i n g , and i n t h e upper h a l f o f t h e Formation.  Gething Formation Gething Formation  - The m a r i n e  u n i t a t t h e base o f t h e  i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 m e t e r s t h i c k  S u k u n k a t o Monkman P a s s .  Southeast  i n t o an upper and lower tongue.  from  o f Monkman i t s p l i t s  The u p p e r t o n g u e  thins  41  rapidly  and  may  be a b s e n t  s o u t h e a s t o f S e c u s Mt..  The  t o n g u e m a i n t a i n s a t h i c k n e s s o f 20-30 m e t e r s ,  but  suggests  that  o f Secus  and  both tongues  that  area.  The  i t splits  unit  again i n the v i c i n i t y  persist  beyond the l i m i t s  c o n t a i n s b o t h m a r i n e and  palynomorphs i n d i c a t i n g  a restricted  evidence  of the  marine  southeast  There  (Clavatipollenites reticulatus, species  couperii,  spore s p e c i e s  C. m i n u t u s ,  Cooksonites  P o d o c a r p i d i t e s naumovai ) and  ('dino  s p . A')  exclusive  study  environment,  i n f l u e n c e notably stronger i n the are four  Mt.,  non-marine  with the t e r r e s t r i a l ( F i g . 7).  lower  one d i n o c y s t  t o the Gething b a s a l marine  unit. Although  Dave G i b s o n  ( p e r s . comm.) f o u n d  evidence  of  t h e m a r i n e i n f l u e n c e a t t h e b o t t o m o f QWD-7403, t h e r e appears  t o be no  sistently  o r g e o p h y s i c a l means o f  r e c o g n i z i n g the b a s a l marine u n i t  stratigraphic mation.  lithologic  position  immediately  other than i t s  a b o v e t h e Cadomin F o r -  O u t s i d e t h e s t u d y a r e a , and  i n r e g i o n s where  Cadomin/Gething c o n t a c t i s i n doubt, (particularly  con-  p a l y n o l o g i c ) work may  the  paleontologic provide the only  evidence of i t s presence.  unit be  The  Gething  and  the lower marine tongue  terrestrial,  a single of the  spore  strata  w h i c h l i e between t h e b a s a l m a r i n e  d e s p i t e poor  (fig.  9) a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o  r e c o v e r y o f palynomorphs.  species (Reticulisporites  semireticulatus),  12 p r e s e n t i n t h e G e t h i n g F o r m a t i o n  confined  t o t h e n o n - m a r i n e zone.  The  Only  unit  (Fig.8), i s c o n t a i n s numerous  42  u b i q u i t o u s s p e c i e s and r e c y c l a n t s , samples a r e b a r r e n . recycling  The p o o r  are consistent  p r e s e r v a t i o n and p e r v a s i v e  w i t h t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by S t o t t  (1973) o f d e p o s i t i o n i n t o energy  a l t h o u g h many o f t h e  the f l u c t u a t i n g ,  c o n d i t i o n s o f an a l l u v i a l - d e l t a i c  The  upper h a l f  of the Gething  Bullmoose Pass.  Mt., a n d t h i n s  south as the A n t l e r  to less  than  suggests  Sukunka N o r t h  but t h i n s r a p i d l y  the W o l v e r i n e  section.  s p e c i e s found  striata,  Cicatricosisporites (Apteodinium  Formation  that  i t extends  The u p p e r  and d i s a p p e a r s j u s t  2 spore  potomacensis)  (Coptospora  and 2 d i n o c y s t  sp., P a l a e o p e r i d i n i u m sp.) a r e  t o these marine zones. t h e upper and lower  marine i n f l u e n c e  data  No a t t e m p t  tongues  t o do t h i s  by D u f f  was made t o  palynologically,  i n t h e upper h a l f  h a s been i d e n t i f i e d  describe their  reliably. o f the Gething  & Gilchrist  Gething Marine  s e v e r a l c o a r s e n i n g upward s e q u e n c e s t h a t resent a rapid  (1981)  (p. 12).  Duff &  Tongue a s "... apparently  t r a n s g r e s s i v e c y c l e and a somewhat  regressive cycle."  south o f  s p e c i e s and 4  u s i n g g e o p h y s i c a l (and p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l ) e v i d e n c e . Gilchrist  as f a r  35 m e t e r s t h i c k a t  i n the Gething,  since there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t The  tongue i s  10 m e t e r s a t Monkman  Of t h e 12 s p o r e  dinocyst  distinguish  The l o w e r  R i d g e / T r i a d Creek r e g i o n .  marine tongue i s a l s o a p p r o x i m a t e l y  restricted  north of  30-35 m e t e r s t h i c k between Sukunka N o r t h a n d  Palynologic evidence  species  environment.  Formation  Q u i n t e t t e c o n t a i n s two m a r i n e t o n g u e s . approximately  moderate t o h i g h  " ( I t ) may a l s o e x t e n d  rep-  slower up i n t h e  43 s e c t i o n t o include the next coarsening "... w o u l d  e x t e n d up t o j u s t  below  The u p p e r m a r i n e t o n g u e i d e n t i f i e d lie  just  below  upward s e q u e n c e . " and  t h e C h a m b e r l a i n seam...". i n this  s t u d y does  t h e C h a m b e r l a i n seam, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t  c o a r s e n i n g upward c y c l e s w h i c h D u f f & G i l c h r i s t probable marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n s are e q u i v a l e n t tongues i d e n t i f i e d regressive  cycle'  palynologically.  i s , palynologically,  f o r a few u b i q u i t o u s The  strata  spore species  which o v e r l i e  b a r r e n o f palynomorphs. Gilchrist  The  This  the  identify  as  t o the marine  intervening  a barren  'slower  zone e x c e p t  i n t h e extreme n o r t h w e s t .  the marine tongues a r e a l s o zone, r e f e r r e d  t o by D u f f and  as t h e C h a m b e r l a i n Member, i s a n i m p o r t a n t c o a l -  bearing unit  of limited  lateral  m e t e r s t h i c k a t B u l l m o o s e Mt.,  extent. i t thins  A p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 rapidly  s o u t h e a s t , d i s a p p e a r i n g between W o l v e r i n e R i v e r Q u i n t e t t e Mt..  D u f f and G i l c h r i s t  zone a l s o  i n a northwesterly d i r e c t i o n ,  thins  marine s t r a t a . for  indeed  indicate  that  t o the and the  coal  c u t o f f by  A t p r e s e n t no p a l y n o l o g i c d a t a a r e  available  the r e g i o n north o f Bullmoose Mountain. The b a r r e n s t r a t a  i n the upper p a r t o f the G e t h i n g  F o r m a t i o n do n o t d i f f e r terrestrial  strata  under s i m i l a r  significantly  and a r e presumed  from the u n d e r l y i n g  t o have been  deposited  conditions.  Moosebar F o r m a t i o n - The b a s e o f t h e M o o s e b a r F o r m a t i o n is  identified  marine s p e c i e s dinocyst  palynologically ( F i g . 7).  and a c r i t a r c h  by t h e f i r s t  A lower marine  s p e c i e s and  major  influx  zone c o n t a i n i n g  30 s p o r e s p e c i e s  of 27  ( F i g 8),  44  and  an upper  ' T r a n s i t i o n Unit' completely  morphs make up t h e M o o s e b a r The  marine u n i t  barren  o f palyno-  Formation.  varies i n thickness  from  t h e n o r t h w e s t t o 70 m e t e r s i n t h e s o u t h e a s t  100 m e t e r s i n  and i s c h a r a c -  terized  p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y by 9 d i n o c y s t / a c r i t a r c h s p e c i e s and  5 spore  species  (Fig. 8).  Although  i t i s dominated by  m a r i n e s p e c i e s t h r o u g h o u t most o f t h e s t u d y open m a r i n e c o n d i t i o n s , t h e r e  area,  indicating  i s an i n c r e a s e i n t e r r e s t r i a l  p a l y n o m o r p h s i n t h e Mt. B e l c o u r t - S e c u s Mt. r e g i o n , suggesting  proximity  three of the d r i l l  to a terrestrial  holes  source.  contain a single  In a d d i t i o n ,  barren  sample i n  t h e m i d d l e o f t h e m a r i n e s e q u e n c e , and a f o u r t h contains  a sample w i t h  o n l y a few s p o r e s ,  r e g r e s s i v e o r emergent phase a t t h i s Lithologically, or  of  indicating a (Fig. 7).  t h e Moosebar m a r i n e u n i t  3 coarsening-upward c y c l e s o f f i n e  (Leckie,  level  1981; C a r m i c h a e l ,  1983).  hole  consists of 2  to s i l t y black  A t most l o c a t i o n s t h e t o p  the second coarsening-upward c y c l e corresponds  regression  identified  Although and  Gething  logic lies  t o the  p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y ( F i g . 10).  t h e p a l y n o l o g i c b o u n d a r y between t h e Moosebar  formations  contact  shales  i s fairly  i n the southern  c o n s i s t e n t with  half  o f the study  above t h e Gething/Moosebar c o n t a c t  the l i t h o area, i t  i n the northern  half.  T h i s may be due i n p a r t t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f m a r i n e  strata  so c l o s e t o t h e t o p o f t h e Gething,  discontinuous  nature  and t o t h e  o f t h e ' C h a m b e r l a i n Member' and t h e  c o a l w i t h i n i t , making t h e l i t h o l o g i c  contact  somewhat  SUKUNKA NORTH  BULLMOOSE MT  NW  WOLVERINE RV  OMO r r o v r / o i Compo.lt.  QUINTETTE MT  McConfc.y Road C u t  QBD 721»  MONKMAN PASS  MOD 7 » I 4 / 7 » 1 8 Compottt.  ANTLER RIDGE -TRIAD CREEK  «DD 7811/7008 Compo.it.  Note: L i t h o l o g s do not n ( » c p « r n „ i of - o s L s e c t i o n " n r ^ y ^ y " from t h e p a l y n o l o g i c s e c t i o n !  SBO 76-3  a  S  U l  l  g  h  t  SCALE: H o r i z o n t a l : 0.5 cm = 2 km V e r t i c a l : 0.5 cm = 20 m Figure  10  -  Lithologic  correlaUnn  BELCOURT MT  4*.u  l  y  l  n  n  thickness  e  80D 78-01  SECTS MT  46  difficult  to  Gilchrist  (1981) t h a t  to the  locate  accurately.  palynologic  marine species species  was  The  i n the  thins  meters i n the  of  shales,  but  the  amount o f  section.  that  the  Transition Unit  siltstones  and  sandstone,  s i l t s t o n e and  unit  and  shale.  Thin coals  At  Spieker  scribes section,  consists  Mt. a  section w h i c h he  only  the  and  latter  the  by  and  consists  are  divides  the  and the  In  the  base of  i s highly  variable  palynologic  section  (1983),  Quintette  Mt.  in  Crk.  thick-bedded  present near Leckie  of region  (1981)  the de-  Wolverine/Quintette  overlying of  the  dark  intervening  lithologically  top  unit  sandstone, s i l t s t o n e  northwest,  the  is  intro-  thin interbeds  occasionally  the  the  Ridge/Triad of  thin-bedded  s i m i l a r to  former at at  of  The  meters i n  Carmichael  Antler  shale.  i n the  bedded c o a r s e m a t e r i a l placing  the  s a n d s t o n e s o v e r l a i n by  the  top.  8).  sandstones i n t o the  described  the  dinocyst  marine shales  30  coarse material  south of  not  single  (Fig.  northwest to  between W o l v e r i n e Rv.  n o r t h w e s t , and  correlates  palynomorphs.  A comparison of  l i t h o l o g s ( F i g . 10)  section,  absence of  b e d d e d s i l t s t o n e s and  a c r o s s the  the  a total  a  and  zoneable  L i t h o l o g i c a l l y i t i s r e c o g n i z e d by  duction  Duff  is  32  l y i n g above the  by  indicates  the  common t o b o t h  distinguished  southeast.  Of  formations, only  'Transition Unit'  40  B u l l m o o s e Mt.  evidence.  two  f o u n d t o be  from  by  t h e i r G e t h i n g M a r i n e Tongue  Moosebar m a r i n e n o r t h o f  s u p p o r t e d by  with  Speculation  one  between t h e finer  thick-  sediments,  coarsening-upward  a second c y c l e .  Outside  cycle of  47  his  s t u d y a r e a t h i s d i v i s i o n i n t o c o a r s e n i n g upward  i s n o t a l w a y s a p p a r e n t , and would l i k e l y  result  i n the  correlation of different stratigraphic horizons. ' S p i e k e r Member' o f D u f f & G i l c h r i s t s t r a t a between  cycles  The  (1981) " i n c l u d e s a l l  t h e m u d s t o n e member a n d t h e c l e a n  well-sorted  s a n d s t o n e o f t h e u p p e r T o r r e n s member." a n d i s e q u i v a l e n t t o the  T r a n s i t i o n U n i t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e t o p few  m e t e r s , c o n s i d e r e d h e r e t o be p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y p a r t o f t h e overlying unit  ( T o r r e n s Mb).  in the following  T h i s i s e x p l a i n e d more  fully  section.  G a t e s F o r m a t i o n - The b a s e o f t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n , a s interpreted i n this  s t u d y , o c c u r s as an i n f l u x o f m a r i n e  palynomorphs above t h e b a r r e n ' T r a n s i t i o n U n i t ' .  The G a t e s '  contains 3 major, p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t marine u n i t s : a b a s a l marine u n i t which i s d i v i d e d i n t o an upper and lower zone b y a n o n - m a r i n e  wedge, a m i d d l e m a r i n e u n i t , a n d a n  upper m a r i n e u n i t w h i c h marks t h e t o p o f t h e f o r m a t i o n . Non-marine s t r a t a a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e b a s a l Gates i m m e d i a t e l y above t h e b a s a l marine/non-marine between  t h e m i d d l e and upper marine u n i t s  The b a s a l G a t e s u n i t the  unit,  u n i t and  (Fig. 9).  i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y open marine i n  n o r t h w e s t , r a p i d l y g i v i n g way t o a c o m p l e x p a t t e r n o f  i n t e r t o n g u i n g marine and non-marine  s t r a t a and, f u r t h e r  s o u t h e a s t , t o upper and l o w e r r e s t r i c t e d m a r i n e t o n g u e s , s e p a r a t e d b y 60 m e t e r s The  (on average) o f non-marine  strata.  zone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by 29 d i n o c y s t a n d a c r i t a r c h  48 species,  7 o f w h i c h a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o t h i s u n i t , a n d 41  spore s p e c i e s ,  9 o f which a r e r e s t r i c t e d  (Fig. 8).  At B u l l m o o s e Mt. i n t h e n o r t h w e s t , open marine c o n d i t i o n s a r e i n d i c a t e d b y a 100 m e t e r t h i c k containing  an abundant and d i v e r s e d i n o c y s t / a c r i t a r c h  assemblage.  A few non-marine  top o f t h e s u c c e s s i o n gression.  species  n e a r t h e m i d d l e and.  ( F i g . 7) i n d i c a t e o c c a s i o n a l r e -  Four o f t h e lower Gates 7 d i n o c y s t  (54,179,181,286)  lacking.  A somewhat s i m p l i f i e d  intertonguing  species  a p p e a r t o be e x c l u s i v e l y open m a r i n e .  Between B u l l m o o s e and Q u i n t e t t e are  succession  Mts. palynologic  interpretation of the  o f marine and non-marine  s t r a t a ( F i g . 7) i s  based on a n o r t h w a r d p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n Quintette  data  M t . a n d Monkman P a s s , a n d o n c o m p a r i s o n  from with  l i t h o l o g s f r o m C a r m i c h a e l s s t u d y ( F i g . 1 0 ) . The d a t a 1  i n d i c a t e t h a t r e s t r i c t e d marine c o n d i t i o n s out  p e r s i s t through-  t h e s t u d y a r e a a t t h e base and t o p o f t h e Gates  marine/non-marine transgressions  u n i t , and t h a t a t l e a s t 2 minor  marine  p e n e t r a t e a s f a r s o u t h a s Monkman P a s s .  S o u t h o f Monkman P a s s a t h i c k s u c c e s s i o n strata lies  basal  between  o f non-marine  t h e upper and lower r e s t r i c t e d  marine  zones. The l o w e r r e s t r i c t e d m a r i n e z o n e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y by an assemblage o f d i n o c y s t s ,  spores, a l g a l  c y s t s and f u n g a l m a t e r i a l .  restricted to  Of t h e 7 d i n o c y s t s  t h e G a t e s m a r i n e / n o n - m a r i n e u n i t , 2 (Fromea  a m p h o r a.  49 Hystrochokolpoma lower marine  'sp. A')  are  found e x c l u s i v e l y i n t h i s  zone.  Carmichael's d r i l l  hole  lithologs indicate that  this  zone c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y o f r e s i s t a n t , t h i c k - b e d d e d  sand-  tone, c o n t a i n i n g t h i n interbeds of conglomerate i n  the  southeast,  becoming f i n e r i n the northwest  L i t h o l o g i c and only s l i g h t l y of the  p a l y n o l o g i c data i n thickness  show t h a t t h e  f r o m 25  section, possibly reaching  l o w e r m a r i n e zone has  zone v a r i e s  t o 30 m e t e r s a c r o s s  study  b e e n mapped i n w h o l e o r  (1983) a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e s  most o f h i s d r i l l  h o l e s , but  the  The  Gilchrist  occasionally correlates i t with  using geophysical  variable i n thickness to the cally.  workers.  'Transition  " c l e a n , w e l l - s o r t e d s a n d s " mapped by (1981),  logs, are  ( f r o m 5 t o 20 m e t e r s ) ,  and  top of the marine sandstones i d e n t i f i e d A c l o s e r look a t the g e o p h y s i c a l  u p w a r d c y c l e and  r a n g e s f r o m 25  palynologi-  logs indicates a 'clean  Spieker  T o r r e n s / S u k u n k a Member'.  s a n d s t o n e " w h i c h i s "20  the  the c l e a n sands t h a t o v e r l i e i t  t o 30 m e t e r s .  s a n d s t o n e u n i t a t Mt.  &  correspond  A t most l o c a t i o n s t h e c o m b i n e d t h i c k n e s s o f  coarsening  1  Duff  highly  s l i g h t coarsening-upward c y c l e j u s t below these sands'.  in  sandstone i n  t h i c k non-marine sandstones of the u n d e r l y i n g Unit'.  20  area.  p a r t a s t h e T o r r e n s Member by a number o f o t h e r Carmichael  most  a minimum t h i c k n e s s o f  meters i n the northwest p a r t of the This  ( F i g . 10).  He  Leckie  (1981) i d e n t i f i e s  at the top of describes  an  t o 30 m t h i c k and  his "amalgamated  occurs  as  a  this  50 continuous  body, w i t h o c c a s i o n a l t h i c k c o n g l o m e r a t i c  a c r o s s t h e whole o f t h e study a r e a . excluded,  Conglomerate  lenses,  lenses  t h e r e i s an o v e r a l l upward i n c r e a s e i n g r a i n  f r o m v e r y f i n e , o r f i n e g r a i n e d t o medium g r a i n e d  size  sand-  stone. " (p. 2 2 ) . Recognition of the Torrens  Member i n t h e f i e l d  r e s u l t e d i n much c o n f u s i o n a n d l i k e l y w i l l so. As C a r m i c h a e l  has  continue  p o i n t s o u t "Coal companies working  t o do i n the  F o o t h i l l s o f n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia g e n e r a l l y r e f e r to  the f i r s t  t h i c k sandstone i n t e r v a l beneath t h e lowermost  e c o n o m i c c o a l seam a s t h e T o r r e n s present  immediately  Member." ( p . 1 4 ) . C o a l i s  above t h e T o r r e n s  Member o n l y i n t h e  r e g i o n s o u t h o f Q u i n t e t t e , where t h e s a n d s t o n e i s o v e r l a i n by t h i c k n o n - m a r i n e d e p o s i t s . coal occurs  The  o f Q u i n t e t t e Mt. t h e  above a s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y h i g h e r marine  s t o n e , w h i c h marks t h e f i r s t Monkman a r e a  North  sand-  minor t r a n s g r e s s i o n i n t o t h e  (Fig.10).  marine sandstones o f the Torrens  Member a r e  c o n s i d e r e d b y some w o r k e r s t o mark t h e t o p o f t h e M o o s e b a r Formation  (Duff & G i l c h r i s t ,  1981; L e c k i e , 1981), w h i l e  o t h e r s c o n s i d e r i t t o be e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e b a s a l Formation evidence  (McLean, 1982; C a r m i c h a e l , s t r o n g l y supports  Member a s b a s a l G a t e s .  1983).  Gates  Palynologic  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Torrens  Although  marine u n i t i n the southeast,  a distinct,  restricted  i ti s palynologically  i n s e p a r a b l e from t h e open m a r i n e s t r a t a o f t h e b a s a l Gates in  the northwest.  I n a d d i t i o n , none o f t h e 8 m a r i n e  species  51 found  i n t h e T o r r e n s Member  clusively The  a r e r e s t r i c t e d ex-  t o t h e T o r r e n s Member and M o o s e b a r m a r i n e  two u n i t s , i n f a c t ,  barren  ( F i g . 7)  are separated  'Transition Unit'  shales.  by t h e p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y  (Fig. 8).  Above t h e T o r r e n s Member i n t h e n o r t h w e s t h a l f o f t h e study area and  i s a thickened  non-marine s t r a t a .  succession  of intertonguing  Although palynologic  l a c k i n g between B u l l m o o s e a n d Q u i n t e t t e sistency of the data a t Quintette reasonable extrapolation marine r e g r e s s i o n  lying  and  was f o l l o w e d  Carmichael  transgression  i n part,  drill  allow  holes  used  (Fig. 7).  A  short  (1983) i s a b l e  Member  o f B u l l m o o s e Mt., i n t o t h e Monkman  to identify  this  a s t h e ' S h e r i f f Member' b u t none o f  i n h i s study  him t o a c c u r a t e l y  gression,  stopped  allows  above t h e T o r r e n s  by a m i n o r t r a n s g r e s s i o n  Pass r e g i o n .  the  Mts., t h e con-  region  immediately  o v e r much o f t h e s t u d y a r e a  data are  a n d Monkman P a s s  into this  marine  identify  penetrate  deep enough t o  t h e base o f t h e t r a n s -  and f a c i e s c h a n g e s p r e v e n t him f r o m t r a c i n g i t  south o f Quintette  Mt.  A second r e g r e s s i o n  probably  reached  B u l l m o o s e Mt. i n t h e n o r t h w e s t , a s e v i d e n c e d by t h e p r e s e n c e of  several  non-marine s p e c i e s  marine sequence. be  traced  basis  persistent section.  The t r a n s g r e s s i o n  overlying this  s o u t h w a r d t o Monkman P a s s .  shown j u s t n o r t h the  i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e open  of Quintette  o f abundant  spores,  coal horizon  A third  Mt. i s l o c a t e d relative  can a l s o  regression p r i m a r i l y on  to dinocysts,  ( F i g . 10) a t t h i s  and a  position i n the  52  Detailed sedimentologic t h e r e g i o n f r o m S e c u s Mt.  work by C a r m i c h a e l  (1981) i n  t o W o l v e r i n e R i v e r , and  ( 1 9 8 1 ) b e t w e e n W o l v e r i n e R i v e r and  by  B u l l m o o s e Mt.,  Leckie  provide  e x c e l l e n t l i t h o l o g i c evidence f o r accurately l o c a t i n g t r a n s g r e s s i o n s and horizons  r e g r e s s i o n s n o r t h o f Q u i n t e t t e Mt.  in particular  ( F i g . 10)  are  t r a n s i t i o n w i t h m a r i n e s t r a t a o c c u r s , and t r a c e t h e t r a n s g r e s s i o n s and Although  phase i m m e d i a t e l y  overlying his  S p i e k e r , and  two  study.  The  The  used  three  found i n t h i s i n the basal  Q u i n t e t t e Mt  i n t e r t o n g u i n g o f m a r i n e and  p a l y n o l o g i c and  reasonably  lithologic  unwise  be  9).  extrapolated  information.  A 40 m e t e r t h i c k s e q u e n c e o f r e s t r i c t e d  n o n - m a r i n e s p e c i e s , c a n be beyond the s t u d y species 8 of the  area.  (Ascotomocystis 9 spore species  Two  10)  non-marine  t o p o f t h e b a s a l G a t e s u n i t i s m a r k e d by a  s t r a t a , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n e a r e q u a l  Gates  (Fig.  second  m a j o r t r a n s g r e s s i o n ( t h e u p p e r r e s t r i c t e d m a r i n e zone Fig.  to  a regressive  3 ) , i t w o u l d be  l a r g e number o f c o a l h o r i z o n s  i s more c o m p l e x t h a n c a n  from p r e s e n t  be  more t r a n s g r e s s i v e / r e g r e s s i v e c y c l e s i n  F o r m a t i o n b e t w e e n W o l v e r i n e R i v e r and  strata  the  ' T o r r e n s / S u k u n k a Member' a t  r e g r e s s i o n s to the  suggests that the  at  identified  Leckie recognizes  the o v e r l y i n g b a s a l Gates ( h i s C y c l e to equate these  can  regressions  palynologically.  Coal  s t r o n g l y developed  the base and/or t o p o f non-marine s t r a t a where  Mt.  the  on  marine  numbers o f m a r i n e  and  t r a c e d s o u t h w a r d t o S e c u s Mt. of the  7 b a s a l Gates  and  dinocyst  maxima, c f K a l y p t e a  monoceras),  (Callialasporites  segmentatus,  and  53 C e r r a t o s p o r i t e s c f m o r r i n i c o l u s , Cibotiumspora  juriensis,  C o n c a v i s s i m i s p o r i t e s minor, Cooksonites v a r i a b i l i s , Densoisporites microrugulatus, Januasporites s p i n i f e r u s , Polycingulatisporites  'sp. A') a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o the upper  marine u n i t . The upper r e s t r i c t e d marine u n i t and the open marine s t r a t a t o the northwest correspond t o the Gates Tongue o f Duff & G i l c h r i s t  Marine  (1981).  The non-marine component o f t h e b a s a l Gates marine/nonmarine u n i t l i e s immediately above the Torrens Member. I t i s 30 meters t h i c k i n the southeast, i n c r e a s i n g t o 90 meters at Monkman Pass where i t f i r s t begins t o i n t e r f i n g e r with marine s t r a t a .  The u n i t c o n t a i n s o n l y 1 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  spore s p e c i e s ( P s i l a t r i c o l p i t e s coal-bearing succession.  p a r v u l u s ) and i s a major  I t corresponds approximately t o  the Sandy C o a l - b e a r i n g U n i t o f Duff & G i l c h r i s t  (1981),  which they t r a c e as f a r northwest as Sukunka R i v e r u s i n g geophysical logs.  P a l y n o l o g i c a l evidence i n d i c a t e s that a l l  s t r a t a i n t h e lower Gates from Bullmoose predominantly  Mt. northwest a r e  marine.  The Gates middle t e r r e s t r i a l u n i t l i e s above the b a s a l marine/non-marine u n i t and c o n t a i n s 17 spore s p e c i e s , 4 o f which a r e e x c l u s i v e t o t h i s zone ( F i g . 8 ) . I t c o n s i s t s o f 80 meters o f s t r a t a a t B e l c o u r t Mt. i n the southeast, but t h i n s r a p i d l y t o 20 meters a t Monkman Pass. maintain t h i s t h i c k n e s s t o the northwest  I t appears t o  l i m i t o f the study  54 area, although  i t may p i n c h o u t o r i n t e r f i n g e r w i t h  marine  s t r a t a i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f B u l l m o o s e Mt.. L i t h o l o g i c a l l y t h e u n i t may be r e c o g n i z e d l o c a t i o n s by a n i n f l u x o f c o a r s e  a t most  m a t e r i a l ( F i g . 10) a b o v e  the f i n e r , c o a l - b e a r i n g sediments o f t h e r e s t r i c t e d zone a t t h e t o p o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g b a s a l G a t e s However, s o u t h  of the Antler Ridge/Triad  r e l a t i o n s h i p a p p e a r s t o be r e v e r s e d ;  marine  unit.  Creek s e c t i o n t h i s  the underlying  r e s t r i c t e d marine tongue i s c o a r s e r and c o n t a i n s  thick  c o n g l o m e r a t e s , whereas t h e t h i c k e n e d  strata  terrestrial  become f i n e r - g r a i n e d a n d c o a l - b e a r i n g  (Fig.10).  A t h i n , r e s t r i c t e d marine u n i t o v e r l i e s t h e middle non-marine u n i t .  I t i s i d e n t i f i e d p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y by t h e  p r e s e n c e o f a few z o n e a b l e ,  a n d numerous u b i q u i t o u s  s p e c i e s , i n a t h i n zone between two d i s t i n c t l y zones.  marine  non-marine  Of t h e 25 n o n - m a r i n e a n d 4 m a r i n e s p e c i e s  present,  o n l y 3 spores and a s i n g l e d i n o c y s t s p e c i e s a r e e x c l u s i v e t o t h i s u n i t ( F i g . 8 ) . I t t h i n s f r o m 30 m e t e r s i n t h e n o r t h w e s t t o 10 m e t e r s i n t h e s o u t h e a s t . The  m i d d l e m a r i n e u n i t i s d o m i n a t e d by s a n d s t o n e , b u t  becomes c o a l - b e a r i n g  i n t h e Monkman P a s s r e g i o n .  (1983) i d e n t i f i e s t h i s , and t h e c o a r s e the u n d e r l y i n g middle t e r r e s t r i a l 'Babcock Member'.  Carmichael  non-marine s t r a t a o f  u n i t , as t h e marine  He t r a c e s i t w i t h c o n f i d e n c e  from  W o l v e r i n e R i v e r s o u t h w a r d t o t h e r e g i o n n o r t h o f Monkman Pass,  a n d t h e n w i t h some u n c e r t a i n t y t o j u s t s o u t h o f  Monkman w h e r e t h e c o a l i s p r e s e n t .  The f a c i e s c h a n g e s w h i c h  55  occur i n t h i s region  make t h e u n i t  trace  s o u t h o f Monkman.  lithologically  The G a t e s u p p e r t e r r e s t r i a l defined,  both p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y  logically,  i s only  i t i s recognized as a t h i n  spore s p e c i e s ,  thins  zone  impossible t o  weakly  and l i t h o l o g i c a l l y .  s p e c i e s between two m a r i n e u n i t s .  The u n i t  virtually  zone l a c k i n g  marine  I t c o n t a i n s a t o t a l o f 19  2 o f w h i c h a r e u n i q u e t o t h e zone  i s thickest  Palyno-  (Fig.  8).  i n t h e n o r t h w e s t (50-60 m e t e r s ) a n d  t o 25-30 m e t e r s between Monkman P a s s a n d B e l c o u r t  Although t h i s i s a r e v e r s a l  o f t h e normal t r e n d ,  Mt..  gaps i n  sampling o f t h e upper Gates a t Bullmoose and Q u i n t e t t e Mts., and t h e d i s t a n c e more complex strata  between t h e two s e c t i o n s ,  relationship  i n this  making  t h e upper t e r r e s t r i a l  i td i f f i c u l t  u n d e r l y i n g and o v e r l y i n g three t h i n coal  between m a r i n e a n d n o n - m a r i n e  region.  Lithologically, variable,  may o b s c u r e a  unit  to distinguish  marine u n i t s .  i s quite  from t h e  However, two o r  horizons p e r s i s t throughout.  The t o p o f t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d m a r i n e , and c o n t a i n s a r i c h marine s p e c i e s ,  assemblage  including  species o f spores that  o f 24 m a r i n e a n d 44 n o n -  4 s p e c i e s o f d i n o c y s t s a n d 11  a r e u n i q u e t o t h i s zone  The G a t e s u p p e r m a r i n e u n i t  consists  (Fig.  8).  o f 40-60 m e t e r s o f  predominantly t h i c k - b e d d e d sandstone, with minor s i l t s t o n e s , s h a l e s and t h i n  coals.  56  Age  Determination According  angiosperm  to Singh  pollen  (1975) t h e a p p e a r a n c e  i n North America  p a t t e r n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t i m e , and d a t i n g of mid-Cretaceous appear  rocks.  follows a  early  consistent  allows f a i r l y Monosulcate  i n sediments  of  accurate  (reticulate)  grains  first  States  i n Barremian-Aptian  United  S t a t e s t h e y have n o t b e e n r e c o r d e d i n s t r a t a  than Middle A l b i a n . their  appearance  America,  and  i n the E a s t e r n United  time, but  Tricolpate  (reticulate)  i n Middle Albian  tricolporate  the Albian-Cenomanian  i n W e s t e r n Canada  rocks throughout  throughout  tricolpate  grain  boundary.  couperii,  (Tricolpites  (Psilatricolpites  pollen species  C. m i n u t u s ) have  the Gething Formation  the top of the Gething grain  and  a  terrestrial  unit.  p a r v u l u s ) was  Another  found  c r a s s i m u r a s was  r e c o r d e d by  Singh  (1971) f r o m  Albian to early  Late Albian  rocks i n northwestern  b u t he n o t e s an A l b i a n age  Psilatricolpites  p a r v u l u s was  age  i n North  America.  non-  Tricolpites  central Alberta,  (1971) and  near  tricolpate  i n the  unit.  Singh  single  crassimuras) i s present  marine h o r i z o n o f the b a s a l Gates  r o c k s by  North  (smooth, t r i a n g u l a r ) g r a i n s mark  h u g h e s i i , C.  been f o u n d  older  g r a i n s make  In the p r e s e n t s t u d y s e v e r a l monosulcate (Clavatipollenites  and  late  Middle and  f o r the  recorded i n early Late  given a Late A l b i a n  species. Albian  t o Cenomanian  57 I n a d d i t i o n a number o f t h e n o n - u b i q u i t o u s present the  i n the c o a l f i e l d  strata  species  are restricted  i n range t o  Middle A l b i a n i n North America i n c l u d i n g : Antulsporites distaverrucosus Baitisphaeridium sp. A Foveosporites canalis Januasporites spinulosus Klukisporites areolatus P i c e a p o l l e n i t e s sp.  Several others  range from t h e Late  A l b i a n upward i n c l u d i n g :  L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s caperatus Murospora t r u n c a t a Oligosphaeridium anthophorum Ascotomocystis maxima Hystrichosphaeridium cooksoni The Gething is  p a l y n o l o g i c a l evidence  i n d i c a t e s that the e n t i r e  t h r o u g h Gates s e c t i o n i n t h e Peace R i v e r  of Middle Albian t o e a r l y Late  coalfield  A l b i a n age.  SUMMARY W i t h renewed i n t e r e s t  i n coal,  been u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e Peace R i v e r years,  with  correlating  the complexly  along  with  h a s been  the absence o f  u s e f u l m a c r o f o s s i l s make t h i s  over distances  kilometers.  progress  c h a n g e s and t h e s t r u c t u r a l l y  of the s t r a t a ,  difficult  i n the past  i n t e r f i n g e r e d m a r i n e a n d non-  Although considerable  made, r a p i d f a c i e s  graphically  Coalfield  have  t h e e x p r e s s p u r p o s e o f r e c o g n i z i n g and  marine s t r a t a .  nature  a number o f s t u d i e s  greater  task  disturbed stratiextremely  t h a n a few t e n s o f  10  58 The  present  p a l y n o l o g i c study  takes  economic development, and near i d e a l sitional  advantage o f t h e  c o n d i t i o n s o f depo-  s e t t i n g a n d g e o l o g i c age i n o r d e r  number o f p r o b l e m s o f f a c i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n , relationships, coalfield  and n o m e n c l a t u r e .  strata  provides  material  f o r study.  marginal  marine s e t t i n g ,  to resolve a contact  Extensive d r i l l i n g  abundant, e a s i l y  obtainable  The c o a l - b e a r i n g s t r a t a , i s rich  i n both  marine palynomorphs which e x h i b i t  laid  the rocks  methods f a i l .  ensures  o v e r l a p i n near  shore  strata  The Lower C r e t a c e o u s  of the strata  with  and p r o v i d e s  o u t l y i n g areas,  where  age o f  a n a b u n d a n t and d i v e r s e a s s e m b l a g e  enhances c o r r e l a t i o n  the  down i n a  m a r i n e and n o n -  e n v i r o n m e n t s a n d p r o v i d e a means o f c o r r e l a t i n g sedimentologic  of the  which  within the c o a l f i e l d and' a r e l i a b l e means o f d a t i n g  rocks. One h u n d r e d a n d n i n e t y n i n e c o r e  almost  samples,  3000 m e t e r s o f s e c t i o n f r o m t h e G e t h i n g ,  Gates formations  i n the southern  been examined f o r palynomorphs. pollen,  spores,  dinoflagellate  c y s t s and f u n g a l s p o r e s remaining  The  o r zones w i t h i n a  type  and r e l a t i v e  cysts,  vironments.  of the c o a l f i e l d ,  acritarchs,  algal  occurence  to specific  formation.  abundance o f palynomorph and a l l o w  indicate  identification  m a r i n e , and n o n - m a r i n e e n -  Palynologically  have  94 a r e u b i q u i t o u s and t h e  i n their  the g e n e r a l d e p o s i t i o n a l s e t t i n g , o f open m a r i n e , r e s t r i c t e d  M o o s e b a r and  Of t h e 350 s p e c i e s o f  identified  256 a r e r e s t r i c t e d  formations  half  representing  barren  zones a l s o  represent  59  d i s t i n c t environmental conditions.  Both u b i q u i t o u s and  r e s t r i c t e d s p e c i e s a r e used t o i d e n t i f y t h e marine and nonmarine zones, and t o c o r r e l a t e t h e s e zones t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o a l f i e l d , or with facies equivalent  strata.  The G e t h i n g F o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a t h i n  restricted  marine d e p o s i t w h i c h marks t h e base o f t h e f o r m a t i o n i n t h e study a r e a ; a t h i c k non-marine  succession  characterized  p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y by a few z o n e a b l e and u b i q u i t o u s s p e c i e s and numerous r e c y c l a n t s ; a n d two m a r i n e t o n g u e s w h i c h o c c u r i n t h e n o r t h e r n a n d u p p e r h a l f o f t h e f o r m a t i o n . The f i r s t o f these t r a n s g r e s s i o n s p e n e t r a t e d as f a r south as t h e A n t l e r R i d g e / T r i a d C r e e k r e g i o n ; t h e s e c o n d went no f u r t h e r t h a n t h e Q u i n t e t t e Mt. r e g i o n and i s o v e r l a i n by a t h i n , c o n t i n u o u s , non-marine  wedge c o n t a i n i n g e c o n o m i c  dis-  coal.  The M o o s e b a r F o r m a t i o n i s a t h i c k s u c c e s s i o n o f m a r i n e shales r i c h  i n palynomorphs, o v e r l a i n by a t h i c k , p a l y n o -  l o g i c a l l y b a r r e n non-marine  succession.  The G a t e s F o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a c o m p l e x p a t t e r n o f a l t e r n a t i n g and i n t e r f i n g e r i n g marine and non-marine  strata.  At t h e base o f t h e f o r m a t i o n i s a t h i c k s u c c e s s i o n o f open m a r i n e s t r a t a i n t h e n o r t h w e s t , w h i c h r a p i d l y g i v e s way t o r e s t r i c t e d marine s t r a t a bearing strata  i n t e r t o n g u i n g w i t h non-marine  i n the c e n t r a l part of the study area.  the s o u t h e a s t , t h e r e s t r i c t e d marine c o n d i t i o n s above and below a s i n g l e non-marine  zone.  coalTo  persist  The t h i n  marine  zone u n d e r l y i n g t h e t e r r e s t r i a l wedge i s t h e m a r i n e s a n d s t o n e o f t h e ' T o r r e n s Member'.  The u p p e r h a l f o f t h e  60  G a t e s F o r m a t i o n i s made up o f t h i n , non-marine  u n i t s w h i c h a p p e a r t o be c o n t i n u o u s t h r o u g h o u t  the l e n g t h o f t h e study a r e a . unit  a l t e r n a t i n g marine and  The b a s a l  marine/non-marine  i s o v e r l a i n by a middle t e r r e s t r i a l  in a southeasterly direction, Above t h i s thicken  unit,  i n a northwesterly direction, with marine s t r a t a  the s t u d y a r e a , and a t h i c k ,  which  thickens  and a t h i n m i d d l e marine  l i e an upper t e r r e s t r i a l  interfinger  unit  unit.  which appears t o  b u t w h i c h may  near t h e n o r t h e r n  restricted  limits of  marine u n i t  which  marks t h e t o p o f t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n . The p a l y n o l o g i c lithogic  horizons.  zones e x h i b i t Coal  i n particular  occurrence along the t r a n s i t i o n marine and non-marine close  proximity  strata,  other workers u s i n g  correlation  i s consistent  z o n e s between  identified,  i n i t s ..  strata i n  In a d d i t i o n ,  i n whole  with  restricted  and i n t e r r e s t r i a l  t o marine i n f l u e n c e .  u n i t s w h i c h h a v e been  including  a strong  several  o r i n p a r t , by  sedimentological or geophysical  means,  t h e G e t h i n g marine tongue, t h e S p e i k e r and T o r r e n s  members a n d t h e Sandy c o a l - b e a r i n g member o f D u f f & Gilchrist  (1981), t h e S h e r i f f  Carmichael  t h e s e examples  with p a l y n o l o g i c  the palynologic  t h e u p p e r , l o w e r and l a t e r a l i t through l i t h o l o g i c The p a l y n o l o g i c correlating  members o f  (1983) a n d • t h e S u k u n k a / T o r r e n s member o f L e c k i e  (1981), a r e c o r r e l a t i v e  trace  and B a b c o c k  data,  zones.  F o r each o f  d a t a more a c c u r a t e l y  limits  define  o f t h e h o r i z o n , and  (ie facies) i n addition  t h e marine and non-marine  changes. t o i d e n t i f y i n g and  strata,  have  resolved  61  the l o n g s t a n d i n g c o n t r o v e r s y surrounding the c o n t a c t between the Moosebar and Gates f o r m a t i o n s , p l a c i n g i t below the c l e a n , marine sandstone of the 'Torrens Member', and"above the p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y b a r r e n ' T r a n s i t i o n U n i t ' .  The data a l s o  p r o v i d e answers t o the more r e c e n t q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the Gething Formation t o the u n d e r l y i n g and overlying formations.  The marine h o r i z o n a t the base of the  Gething Formation p r o v i d e s a means of a c c u r a t e l y  locating  the c o n t a c t between the Gething and Cadomin f o r m a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the presence of t h i c k conglomerates base of the o v e r l y i n g u n i t .  near the  The marine tongues a t the top  of the Gething are p a l y n o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from the overl y i n g marine s t r a t a of the Moosebar Formation, and  likely  remain so, even t o the northwest where the i n t e r v e n i n g b e a r i n g t e r r e s t r i a l s t r a t a may  be absent.  Based on the f i r s t appearance t r i c o l p a t e angiosperm  coal-  of a few monocolpate and  s p e c i e s the c o a l f i e l d s t r a t a can be  assigned a Middle t o Late A l b i a n age.  The Gething  Formation  at the base of the s e c t i o n i s l i k e l y e a r l y t o middle Middle A l b i a n and the top of the s e c t i o n i s no younger than l a t e Middle A l b i a n t o e a r l y Late A l b i a n .  T h i s age  indicates  t h a t , a t l e a s t w i t h i n the southern h a l f of the c o a l f i e l d , a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of Lower Cretaceous s t r a t a i s absent above the J u r a s s i c - C r e t a c e o u s Minnes Formation.  62  CONCLUSIONS A composite p a l y n o l o g i c for  the  The  d a t a have p r o v i d e d  Lower C r e t a c e o u s r o c k s  a number o f  groundwork l a i d ,  strata,  or  present  knowledge.  the  define  as  i n o u t l y i n g areas,  as  the  s i m i l a r to the  a reliable  fossil  In o t h e r c o n s u m i n g on  the  t o expand on  the  zonation  the  litho-  in this  study,  for accurately section.  samples can  be  in  palynologic  of  For as  identhe  much  value  samples. areas a palynologic a large  s c a l e , can  be  study, an  although  g i o n s where f a c i e s c h a n g e s and major o b s t a c l e s  to  the  tool  in re-  s t r u c t u r a l d e f o r m a t i o n become  more c o n v e n t i o n a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  time  extremely u s e f u l  f o r r e s o l v i n g s t r a t i g r a p h i c problems, p a r t i c u l a r l y  methods o f  be  coal-bearing  method u s e d  well core  as  f o r comparison of  latter,  chosen s u r f a c e  well  s t u d i e s may  coalfield  a reference  which i s  With  c o r r e l a t e the  s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n i n the  drill  s t r a t a , as  coalfield.  a more d e t a i l e d s c a l e  tifying  as  Peace R i v e r  i n order  those working w i t h i n  information  well  and  on  established  information,  date the  coalfield  cross-section provides logic  been  s t r a t i g r a p h i c problems.  to accurately  For  the  additional palynologic  undertaken w i t h i n order  of  a wealth of  u s e d t o z o n e , c o r r e l a t e and resolve  s e c t i o n has  correlation.  sedimentological  63 REFERENCES Adams, K.R. & B o n n e t t , R. ( 1 9 6 9 ) : B u t e V o l . 223, No. 5209, pp. 943-944.  Inlet  wax,  Nature,  A l b e r t a S t u d y Group ( 1 9 5 4 ) : Lower C r e t a c e o u s o f t h e P e a c e R i v e r R e g i o n , W e s t e r n Canada S e d i m e n t a r y B a s i n , R u t h e r f o r d M e m o r i a l V o l . , Amer. A s s o c . P e t r o . G e o l . , T u l s a , Oklahoma, pp. 268-278. Bell,  W.A. ( 1 9 5 6 ) : Lower C r e t a c e o u s f l o r a s o f W e s t e r n Canada, G e o l . S u r v . Canada, Memoir 285, 153 pp.,  B r i d e a u x , W.W. ( 1 9 7 1 ) : P a l y n o l o g y o f t h e Lower C o l o r a d o Group, C e n t r a l A l b e r t a , C a n a d a , P a l a e o n t o g r a p h i c a , Band 135, A b t . B, pp. 53-114, & F i s h e r , M.J. ( 1 9 7 6 ) : Upper J u r a s s i c - L o w e r C r e t a c e o u s d i n o f l a g e l l a t e a s s e m b l a g e s f r o m A r c t i c Canada, G e o l . S u r v . Canada, B u l l . 259, 53 pp., 7 p l a t e s . & M c l n t y r e , D.J. ( 1 9 7 5 ) : M i o s p o r e s and M i c r o p l a n k t o n f r o m A p t i a n - A l b i a n rocks along Horton R i v e r , D i s t r i c t of M a c K e n z i e , G e o l . S u r v . Canada, B u l l . 252, 85 pp., 14 plates. , M c l n t y r e , D.J. & Young, F.G. (1 9 7 7 ) : D i s c u s s i o n o f P o c o c k ' s d i n o f l a g e l l a t e z o n a t i o n o f Upper J u r a s s i c Lower C r e t a c e o u s C a n a d i a n A r c t i c , B u l l . Can. P e t . G e o l . , V o l . 25, pp. 1264. B u r d e n , E.T. ( 1 9 8 4 ) : T e r r e s t r i a l p a l y n o m o r p h b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y o f t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e M a n n v i l l e Group (Lower C r e t a c e o u s ) , A l b e r t a and Montana, i n : The M e s o z o i c o f M i d d l e N o r t h A m e r i c a , S t o t t & G l a s s ( e d s . ) , Can. S o c . P e t r o l . G e o l . , Memoir 9, pp. 249-269, 4 p l a t e s . C a r m i c h a e l , S.M. ( 1 9 8 3 ) : S e d i m e n t o l o g y o f t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s G a t e s and M o o s e b a r F o r m a t i o n s , N o r t h e a s t C o a l f i e l d s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 285 pp. D u f f , P.McL.D. & G i l c h r i s t , R.D. (1981): C o r r e l a t i o n o f Lower C r e t a c e o u s c o a l m e a s u r e s , P e a c e R i v e r C o a l f i e l d , B.C., B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and P e t r o l . Res., P a p e r 1981-3, 31 pp. Hay,  W.W. (1972): P r o b a b i l i s t i c s t r a t i g r a p h y , H e l v e t . , V o l . 65, pp. 255-266.  Ecologae  geol.  H e d l u n d , R.W. & N o r r i s , G. ( 1 9 6 8 ) : S p o r e s and p o l l e n g r a i n s from F r e d i c k s b u r g i a n ( A l b i a n ) s t r a t a , M a r s h a l l County, Oklahoma, P o l l e n e t S p o r e s , Mus. N a t . D ' H i s t . N a t u r e l l e , V o l . X , No. 1, pp. 129-159, 9 p l a t e s .  64  Hughes, J . E . ( 1 9 6 4 ) : J u r a s s i c and C r e t a c e o u s s t r a t a o f t h e B u l l h e a d s u c c e s s i o n i n t h e P e a c e and P i n e R i v e r F o o t h i l l s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p t . M i n e s , B u l l . 51, 73 pp. (1 9 6 7 ) : G e o l o g y Mines, B u l l .  of the Pine V a l l e y , 52, 137 pp.  British  Columbia  Dept.  Hughes, N.F., Drewry, G.E. & L a i n g , J . F . ( 1 9 7 9 ) : B a r r e m i a n e a r l i e s t angiosperm p o l l e n , P a l a e o n t o l o g y , Vol.22, P t . 3 , pp. 513-535, 8 p l a t e s . Kummel, B. & Raup, D. T e c h n i q u e s , W.H. 852 pp.  ( 1 9 6 5 ) : Handbook o f P a l e o n t o l o g i c a l Freeman & Co., San F r a n c i s c o , L o n d o n ,  L e c k i e , D.A. ( 1 9 8 1 ) : S h a l l o w - m a r i n e t r a n s i t i o n a l t o nonm a r i n e s e d i m e n t a t i o n i n t h e Upper M o o s e b a r - Lower G a t e s Member, F o r t S t . J o h n Group, N.E. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : s t o r m and t i d a l l y i n f l u e n c e d s h o r e l i n e s , Tech-Memo 81-1, M c M a s t e r U n i v e r s i t y , H a m i l t o n , 64 pp. & W a l k e r , R.G. ( 1 9 8 2 ) : S t o r m - and t i d e - d o m i n a t e d s h o r e l i n e s i n C r e t a c e o u s M o o s e b a r - Lower G a t e s i n t e r v a l - o u t c r o p e q u i v a l e n t s o f Deep B a s i n gas t r a p s i n W e s t e r n Canada, Amer. A s s o c . P e t r o . G e o l . B u l l . , V o l . 66, pp. 138-157. Manum, S.B., B j a e r k e , T., T h r o n d s e n , T. & E i e n , M. ( 1 9 7 6 ) : P r e s e r v a t i o n and a b u n d a n c e o f p a l y n o m o r p h s , and o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e r m a l a l t e r a t i o n i n S v a l b a r d , N o r s k P o l a r i n s t i t u t t A r b o k , O s l o , 1977, pp. 121-130. & Cookson, I . e . (1964): C r e t a c e o u s m i c r o p l a n k t o n i n a sample f r o m Graham I s l a n d , A r c t i c Canada, c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d " F r a m " - E x p e d i t i o n (1898-1902) - w i t h n o t e s on m i c r o p l a n k t o n f r o m t h e H a s s e l F o r m a t i o n , E l l e f R i n g n e s I s l a n d , S k r i f t e r U t g i t t av Det N o r s k e Videnskaps-Akademi i O s l o , I . M a t - N a t u r v . K l a s s e . Ny S e r i e . No. 17, 36 pp., 7 p l a t e s . M c G r e g o r , D.C. ( 1 9 6 5 ) : T r i a s s i c , J u r a s s i c and Lower C r e t a c e o u s s p o r e s and p o l l e n o f A r c t i c Canada, G e o l . S u r v . Canada, P a p e r 64-55, 32 pp. McLean, J.R. ( 1 9 7 7 ) : The Cadomin F o r m a t i o n : s t r a t i g r a p h y , s e d i m e n t o l o g y , and t e c t o n i c i m p l i c a t i o n s , B u l l . Can. P e t r o l . G e o l . , V o l . 25, pp. 92-827. ( 1 9 8 2 ) : L i t h o s t r a t i g r a p h y o f t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s c o a l b e a r i n g sequence, F o o t h i l l s o f A l b e r t a , G e o l . Surv. Canada, P a p e r 80-29, 31 pp.  65  & W a l l , J . H . ( 1 9 8 1 ) : The E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s Moosebar Sea i n A l b e r t a , B u l l . C a n . P e t r o l . G e o l . , V o l . 29, p p . 334377. M c L e a r n , F.H. ( 1 9 2 1 ) : M e s o z o i c o f Upper P e a c e R i v e r , C o l u m b i a , G e o l . S u r v . C a n a d a , Summ. R e p t . 1920, pp. 1-6.  British P t . B,  ,  (1 9 2 3 ) : P e a c e R i v e r Canyon C o a l A r e a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , G e o l . S u r v . C a n a d a , Summ. R e p t . 1922, P t . B, p p . 1-46.  ,  ( 1 9 3 1 ) : The G a s t r o p l i t e s a n d o t h e r Lower C r e t a c e o u s f a u n a s o f t h e N o r t h e r n G r e a t P l a i n s , T r a n s . Roy. S o c , Canada, 3 r d S e r . , V o l . XXV, S e c . I V , p p . 1-8.  ,  ( 1 940): Notes on t h e geography and g e o l o g y o f t h e Peace R i v e r F o o t h i l l s , T r a n s . Roy. S o c , Canada, 3 r d S e r . , V o l . XXXIV, S e c . I V , p p . 63-74.  ,  (1 9 4 8 ) : New Lower C r e t a c e o u s s p e c i e s , S u r v . Canada, P a p e r 44-17, 2nd E d .  Appendix,  Geol.  N o r r i s , G. ( 1 9 6 7 ) : S p o r e s a n d p o l l e n f r o m t h e Lower C o l o r a d o Group ( A l b . ? - Cenom.) o f C e n t r a l A l b e r t a , P a l a e o n t o g r a p h i c a , S e r i e s B, V o l . 120, p p . 71-115, 18 plates. ,  (1 9 8 2 ) : M e s o z o i c p a l y n o l o g y o f t h e Moose R i v e r B a s i n , i n M e s o z o i c G e o l o g y a n d M i n e r a l P o t e n t i a l o f t h e Moose R i v e r B a s i n , T e l f o r d & Verma ( e d s . ) , O n t a r i o G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y , S t u d y 21, pp.93-133, 12 p l a t e s .  , J a r z e n , D.M. & A w a i - T h o r n e , the C r e t a c e o u s t e r r e s t r i a l Canada, i n : The C r e t a c e o u s I n t e r i o r o f North America, A s s o c . Canada, S p e c . P a p e r plates.  B.V. (1 9 7 5 ) : E v o l u t i o n o f p a l y n o f l o r a i n Western System i n t h e W e s t e r n W.G.E. C a l d w e l l ( e d . ) , G e o l . No. 13, p p . 333-364, 3  , T e l f o r d , P.G. & Vos, M.A. (1 9 7 6 ) : An A l b i a n m i c r o f l o r a f r o m t h e M a t t a g a m i F o r m a t i o n , James Bay L o w l a n d s , O n t a r i o , C a n . J o u r . E a r t h S c , V o l . 13, No. 2, p p . 400403. P a d e n - P h i l l i p s , P. & F e l i x , C . J . ( 1 9 7 1 ) : A s t u d y o f Lower and M i d d l e C r e t a c e o u s s p o r e s a n d p o l l e n f r o m t h e southeastern United States; I - Spores, i n P o l l e n e t S p o r e s , Mus. N a t . D ' H i s t . N a t u r e l l e ; P u b l . t r i m e s t r i e l l e , V o l . X I I I , No. 2, (Aug. 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 279348, 12 p l a t e s . P l a y f o r d , G. ( 1 9 7 1 ) : P a l y n o l o g y o f b a s a l C r e t a c e o u s (Swan R i v e r ) s t r a t a o f Saskatchewan and Manitoba, P a l a e o n t o l o g y , V o l . 14, P t . 4, p p . 533-565, 5 p l a t e s .  66  P o c o c k , S . A . J . ( 1 9 6 2 ) : M i c r o f l o r a a n a l y s i s and age determination of s t r a t a a t the J u r a s s i c - C r e t a c e o u s b o u n d a r y i n t h e W e s t e r n Canada P l a i n s , P a l a e o n t o g r a p h i c a , S e r . B, V o l . 111, 95 pp., 15 p l a t e s . (1 9 7 6 ) : A p r e l i m i n a r y d i n o f l a g e l l a t e z o n a t i o n o f t h e u p p e r m o s t J u r a s s i c and l o w e r p a r t o f t h e C r e t a c e o u s i n t h e C a n a d i a n A r c t i c and p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o u t h w a r d i n t o t h e W e s t e r n Canada B a s i n , G e o s c i e n c e & Man, V o l . 15, pp. 104-114, 2 p l a t e s . S c h i l l e r , E.A., S a n t i a g o , S.P. & P l a c h n e r , W.A. (1983): Monkman c o a l p r o p e r t y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Can. I n s t . M i n i n g B u l l . , V o l . 76, No.850 ( F e b . ' 8 3 ) , pp. 65-71. S c h u l t h e i s , N.H. & M o u n t j o y , E.W. ( 1 9 7 8 ) : Cadomin conglomerate of western A l b e r t a - a r e s u l t of E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s u p l i f t o f t h e M a i n Ranges, B u l l . Can. P e t . G e o l . , V o l . 26, pp. 297-342. Shaw, A.B. York,  ( 1 9 6 4 ) : Time i n S t r a t i g r a p h y , M c G r a w - H i l l , 365 pp.  New  S i n g h , C. ( 1 9 6 4 ) : M i c r o f l o r a o f t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s M a n n v i l l e G r o u p , E a s t - c e n t r a l A l b e r t a , R e s . Counc. A l t a . , B u l l . 15, 238 pp., 29 p l a t e s . ( 1 9 7 1 ) : Lower C r e t a c e o u s m i c r o f l o r a s o f t h e P e a c e R i v e r a r e a , N.W. A l b e r t a , R e s . Counc. A l t a . , B u l l . 28, V o l . 1, pp. 1-299, 38 p l a t e s , & V o l . 2, pp. 300-542, 41 plates. (1975): S t r a t i g r a p h i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f e a r l y angiosperm p o l l e n i n t h e m i d - C r e t a c e o u s s t r a t a o f A l b e r t a , i n : The C r e t a c e o u s System i n t h e W e s t e r n I n t e r i o r o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , W.G.E. C a l d w e l l ( e d . ) , G e o l . A s s o c . Canada, S p e c . P a p e r No. 13, pp. 365-389. S t a p l i n , F.L. (1982): D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f thermal a l t e r a t i o n i n d e x f r o m c o l o u r o f e x i m i t e ( p o l l e n , s p o r e s ) , i n : How t o A s s e s M a t u r a t i o n and P a l e o t e m p e r a t u r e s , S o c . E c o n . P a l e o n t . & M i n e r a l . , S h o r t C o u r s e No. 7, pp. 7-11. S t e e v e s , M.W. & W i l k i n s , L.K. ( 1 9 6 7 ) : S p o r e s and p o l l e n f r o m t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , C a n a d a . P a r t 1. S p o r i t e s , Can. J o u r . B o t a n y , V o l . 45, pp. 2329-2365, 8 plates. S t e l c k , C.R., W a l l , J.H., Bahan, W.W. & M a r t i n , L . J . (1956): M i d d l e A l b i a n f o r a m i n i f e r a f r o m A t h a b a s c a and P e a c e R i v e r d r a i n a g e a r e a s o f W e s t e r n Canada, R e s . Counc. A l t a . , Rep. No. 75, 60 pp.  Sternberg, CM. (1932): D i n o s a u r t r a c k s from Peace R i v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1930, N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, pp. 59-85, 5 p l a t e s . S t o t t , D.F. ( 1 9 6 2 ) : C r e t a c e o u s r o c k s o f P e a c e R i v e r F o o t h i l l s , G e o l . S u r v . Canada R e p r i n t f r o m Edmonton G e o l . S o c . G u i d e Book 1962, pp. 22-45. (1 9 6 8 ) : Lower C r e t a c e o u s B u l l h e a d and F o r t S t . J o h n G r o u p s , between Smokey and P e a c e R i v e r s , R o c k y M o u n t a i n F o o t h i l l s , A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , G e o l . S u r v . Canada, B u l l . 152, 279 pp. (1 9 7 3 ) : Lower C r e t a c e o u s B u l l h e a d Group between B u l l m o o s e Mt. and T e t s a R i v e r , Rocky M o u n t a i n Foothills, n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , G e o l . S u r v . Canada, B u l l . 219, 228 pp. (1 9 7 4 ) : Lower C r e t a c e o u s c o a l m e a s u r e s o f t h e F o o t h i l l s o f w e s t - c e n t r a l A l b e r t a and n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Can. M i n i n g & M e t a l . B u l l . , V o l . 67, pp. 87-101. (1 9 7 5 ) : The C r e t a c e o u s s y s t e m i n n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n : The C r e t a c e o u s System i n t h e W e s t e r n I n t e r i o r o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , W.G.E. C a l d w e l l ( e d . ) , G e o l . A s s o c . Canada, S p e c . P a p e r No.13, pp. 441-467. ( 1 9 8 1 ) : B i c k f o r d and Gorman C r e e k , two new f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e J u r a s s i c - C r e t a c e o u s M i n n e s G r o u p , A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S c i e n t i f i c and T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t s , G e o l . S u r v . Canada, P a p e r 81-1B, pp. 1-9. & G i b s o n , D.W. (1980): Minnes c o a l , n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C u r r e n t R e s e a r c h , P a r t C, G e o l . S u r v . Canada, P a p e r 80-1C, pp. 135-137. T a y l o r , D.R. & W a l k e r , R.G. ( 1 9 8 4 ) : E n v i r o n m e n t s and p a l e o g e o g r a p h y i n t h e A l b i a n M o o s e b a r F o r m a t i o n and a d j a c e n t f l u v i a l G l a d s t o n e and B e a v e r M i n e s F o r m a t i o n s , A l b e r t a , Can. J o u r . E a r t h S c . , V o l . 21, pp. 698-714. W i l l i a m s , G.L. & S t e l c k , C R . ( 1 9 7 5 ) : S p e c u l a t i o n s on t h e C r e t a c e o u s p a l e o g e o g r a p h y o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , i n The C r e t a c e o u s System i n the Western I n t e r i o r o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , C a l d w e l l ( e d . ) , G e o l . A s s o c . Canada, S p e c . P a p e r No. 13, pp. 1-20.  68  PLATE 1 - GETHING All  FORMATION  s p e c i m e n s a r e shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n unless otherwise stated  Figure  1: M u r o s p o r a t r u n c a t a  Figure  2: C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s  Figure  3: R e t i c u l i s p o r i t e s  Figure  4: C y c l o n e p h e l i u m (Millioud)  Singh potomacensis  Brenner  s e m i r e t i c u l a t u s (Burger)  Norris  distinctum var. brevispinatum  Lentin & Williams  Figure  5: C o o k s o n i t e s  reticulatus  Figure  6: C l a s s o p o l l i s  Figure  7: d i n o s p . A  Figure  8: P a l a e o p e r i d i n i u m s p . A B u j a k & W i l l i a m s  chateaunovi  Pocock Reyre  (nov. sp.)  PLATE 2 - MOOSEBAR FORMATION All  Figure  s p e c i m e n s a r e shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n unless otherwise stated  1:  U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s f o s s u l a t u s Singh,  2:  same s p e c i m e n ; p r o x i m a l  Figure  3:  Reticulisporites  Figure  4:  Eucommiidites  Figure  5:  P i c e a p o l l e n i t e s sp.  ( c f Singh)  Figure  6:  P i n u s p o l l e n i t e s sp.  (X500)  Figure  7:  Cymatiosphaera pachytheca  Figure  8:  Hystrichokolpoma  Figure  9:  Gardodinium  Figure  10:  Cleistosphaeridium  Figure  11:  Pareodinia  Figure  12:  Subtilisphaera perlucida Millepied  distal  focus  focus  elongatus  Singh  t r o e d s o n i i (Erdtman) Hughes  ferox  eisenacki  Eisenack  (Deflandre)  Davey  Alberti  diversispinosum  Davey e t a l  c f a p h e l i a Cookson & E i s e n a c k (Alberti)  Jain &  (X500)  72  PLATE 3 - MOOSEBAR & GATES All  FORMATIONS  s p e c i m e n s a r e shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n unless otherwise stated  Figure  1: T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s  apiverrucatus  Couper  Figure  2: K l u k i s p o r i t e s a u r e o l a t u s  Figure  3: T a n y o s p h a e r i d i u m  Figure  4: C y c l o n e p h e l i u m d i s t i n c t u m D e f l a n d r e  & Cookson  Figure  5: C y c l o n e p h e l i u m d i s t i n c t u m D e f l a n d r e  & Cookson  Figure  6: B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m  Figure  7: S p i n i f e r i t e s  Singh  sp. B ( c f Brideaux)  sp. A  cingulatus  Singh  (X500)  ( 0 . W e t z e l ) Davey &  Williams Figure  8: O d o n t o c h i t i n a & Cookson  Figure Figure  operculata  (O.Wetzel)  Deflandre  (X500)  9: A p t e o d i n i u m maculatum E i s e n a c k 10: H y s t r i c h o s p h a e r i d i u m  & Cookson  s t e l l a t u m Maier  (X500)  (X500)  PLATE  4 - GATES FORMATION B a s a l  All  Marine/Non-Marine  Unit  s p e c i m e n s a r e shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n unless otherwise stated  Figure  1: C o o k s o n i t e s  Figure  2: C i b o t i u m s p o r a  Figure  3: C e r a t o s p o r i t e s  Figure  4: P o l y s i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s  Figure  5: C l e i s t o s p h a e r i d i u m Brideaux  variabilis  Pocock  juriensis  cf morrinicolus *sp. A*  Filatoff Srivastava  (nov. sp.)  multispinosum  (Singh)  (X500)  Figure  6: Fromea  amphora C o o k s o n &  Figure  7: S p i n i f e r i t e s Williams  (Balme)  cingulatus  Eisenack ( 0 . W e t z e l ) Davey  &  (X500)  Figure  8: C a l l i a l a s p o r i t e s  segmentatus  Figure  9: H y s t r i c h o k o l p o m a  'sp. A ' ( n o v . s p . )  Figure  10: A s c o t o m o c y s t i s  Figure  11: G o n y a u l a c y s t a  maxima S i n g h  (Balme) Sukh  (X500)  c f episoma S a r j e a n t  (X500)  Dev  PLATE 5 - GATES FORMATION All  Middle T e r r e s t r i a l  Unit  s p e c i m e n s a r e shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n unless otherwise stated  Figure  1: D i c t y o t o s p o r i t e s complex C o o k s o n & Dettmann  Figure  2: K l u k i s p o r i t e s p s e u d o r e t i c u l a t u s  Figure  3: ' s p o r e s p . A' ( n o v . gen.)  Figure  4: D i c t y o p h y l l i d i t e s  equiexinous  Figure  5: A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s  tricornitatus  Greifeld;  distal  Couper  ( C o u p e r ) Dettmann Weyland &  focus  Figure  6: same s p e c i m e n ; p r o x i m a l  Figure  7: L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s c i r n i i d i t e s  Figure  8: C i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s d i s t a v e r r u c o s u s distal  Figure Figure  focus (Ross) Brenner Brenner;  focus  9: same s p e c i m e n ; p r o x i m a l  focus  10: C o n t i g n i s p o r i t e s m u l t i m u r a t u s  Dettmann  PLATE 6 - GATES FORMATION M i d d l e M a r i n e All  s p e c i m e n s a r e shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n unless otherwise stated  Figure  1: L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s a s p e r a t u s  Figure  2: M a t o n i s p o r i t e s  Figure  3: D i c t y o t o s p o r i t e s s p e c i o s u s  Figure  4: K u y l s p o r i t e s l u n a r i s  Figure  5: A c a n t h o t r i l e t e s l e v i d e n s i s  Figure  6: C y a t h i d i t e s r a p h a e l  Figure  7: U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s u n d u l a p o l u s  Figure  8: G o n y a u l a c y s t a a r c h e o p y l e (cf  Figure Figure  Unit  Singh,  'sp. A  1  Dettmann  (nov. sp.) C o o k s o n & Dettmann  C o o k s o n & Dettmann Balme  (Burger)  Burger Brenner  operculum  Type B  1971)  9: T a s m a n i t e s t a r d u s  Eisenack  10: G o n y a u l a c y s t a o r t h o c e r a s  (Eisenack)  Sarjeant  (X500) Figure  11: C h y t r o i s p h a e r i d i a c f p o c o c k i focus  Figure  12: same s p e c i m e n ; mid  focus  Sarjeant;  near  80  PLATE 7 - GATES FORMATION All  Figure  Upper  Terrestrial  Unit  s p e c i m e n s a r e shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n unless otherwise stated  1: S e s t r o s p o r i t e s i r r e g u l a r u s distal  focus  Figure  2: same s p e c i m e n ;  Figure  3: T i g r i s p o r i t e s  Figure  4: D l s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s distal  ( C o u p e r ) Dettmann;  proximal  focus  reticulatus  Singh  ' s p . B' ( n o v .  sp.);  focus  Figure  5: same s p e c i m e n ;  equatorial  focus  Figure  6: F o r a m i n i s p o r i s  asymmetricus  ( C o o k s o n & Dettmann)  Dettmann Figure  7: A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s  Figure  8: D l s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s proximal  Figure  bilateralis  Singh  ' s p . B' ( n o v .  sp.);  focus  9: M a t o n i s p o r i t e s  cooksonii  Figure  10: T a s m a n i t e s n e w t o n i  Figure  11: Palambages  Figure  12: same s p e c i m e n ; mid  Dettmann  Wall  Form A Manum & C o o k s o n ; focus  near  focus  PLATE 8 - GATES FORMATION Upper T e r r e s t r i a l & Upper M a r i n e U n i t s All  s p e c i m e n s a r e shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n unless otherwise stated  Figure  1: D l s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s  Figure  2: C y a t h i d i t e s Delcourt,  Figure  punctatus  ' s p . A* (Delcourt  & Sprumont)  Dettmann & Hughes  3: F o r a m i n i s p o r i s Dettmann)  wonthaggiensis  (Cookson  &  Dettmann  Figure  4: A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s  Figure  5: P h r a g m o t h y r i t e s  Figure  6: B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m  Figure  7: C y c l o n e p h e l i u m  Figure  8: P a l a e o p e r i d i n i u m  Figure  9: A p t e o d i n i u m  unicus  'Form sp. B  (Markova) S i n g h  B' Singh  paucispinum cretaceum  Davey  (X500)  Pocock  (X500)  maculatum E i s e n a c k & C o o k s o n  Figure  10: C r a s s o s p h a e r a  sp. A  Figure  11: same s p e c i m e n ;  mid  Figure  12: P t e r o s p e r m e l l a a u s t r a l i e n s i s son)  (nov. sp.)  ( c f Backhouse);  near  (X500) focus  focus  E i s e n a c k & Cramer  ( D e f l a n d r e & Cook-  84  PLATE 9 - GATES FORMATION Upper M a r i n e U n i t A l l s p e c i m e n s a r e shown a t X1000 m a g n i f i c a t i o n unless otherwise stated Figure  1: I s c h y o s p o r i t e s  'sp. A  1  (nov. s p . ) ;  proximal  focus Figure  2: same s p e c i m e n ; d i s t a l  Figure  3: C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s Pocock; p r o x i m a l  focus  c f tersus  (Kara  Mursa)  focus  Figure  4: same s p e c i m e n ; d i s t a l  Figure  5: F d v e o t r i l e t e s  focus  subtriangularus  Brenner;  proximal  focus Figure  6: same s p e c i m e n ; d i s t a l  Figure  7: A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s  focus  dentimarginatus  'var.  A'(nov.  comb.) Figure  8: P h r a g m o t h y r i t e s  Figure  9: P t e r o d i n i u m  Figure  sp. A ( c f Brideaux  10: O l i g o s p h a e r i d i u m Williams  'Form A'  complex  & Mclntyre)  (X500)  ( W h i t e ) Davey &  (X500)  Figure  11: G o n y a u l a c y s t a  cretacea  Figure  12: O l i g o s p h a e r i d i u m  Neale & Sarjeant  diastema  Singh  (X500)  (X500)  86  APPENDIX  I  Lower C r e t a c e o u s P a l y n o m o r p h  References  A n a n - Y o r k , R. & S t e l c k , C R . ( 1 9 7 8 ) : M i c r o f l o r a s f r o m Upper A l b i a n N e o g a s t r o p l i t e s Zone, S i k a n n i C h i e f R i v e r , n o r t h e a s t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n : W e s t e r n and A r c t i c Canada B i o s t r a t i g r a p h y , S t e l c k & C h a t t e r t o n ( e d s . ) , G e o l . A s s o c . Canada, S p e c . P a p e r #18, pp. 473-493. B a t t e n , D.J. ( 1 9 7 3 ) : P a l y n o l o g y o f E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s s o i l beds and a s s o c i a t e d s t r a t a , P a l a e o n t o l o g y , V o l . 16, P t . 2, pp. 399-424, 7 p l a t e s . B r e n n e r , G.J. ( 1 9 6 3 ) : The s p o r e s and p o l l e n o f t h e Potomac Group o f M a r y l a n d , D e p t . o f G e o l . , M i n e s and Water Res., S t a t e o f M a r y l a n d , B u l l . 27, 215 pp., 43 p l a t e s . ,  ( 1 9 7 4 ) : P a l y n o s t r a t i g r a p h y o f t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s Gevar'am and Talme Y a f e F o r m a t i o n s o f t h e Gevar'am 2 w e l l (South C o a s t a l P l a i n , I s r a e l ) , G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f I s r a e l , B u l l . #59, pp. 1-27, 10 p l a t e s .  B r i d e a u x , W.W. ( 1 9 7 1 ) : P a l y n o l o g y o f t h e Lower C o l o r a d o Group, C e n t r a l A l b e r t a , Canada, P a l a e o n t o g r a p h i c a , Band 135, A b t . B, pp. 53-114. & F i s h e r , M.J. ( 1 9 7 6 ) : Upper J u r a s s i c - L o w e r C r e t a c e o u s d i n o f l a g e l l a t e a s s e m b l a g e s f r o m A r c t i c Canada, G e o l . S u r v . Canada, B u l l . 259, 53 pp., 7 p l a t e s . & M c l n t y r e , D.J. ( 1 9 7 5 ) : M i o s p o r e s and m i c r o p l a n k t o n f r o m A p t i a n - A l b i a n rocks along Horton R i v e r , D i s t r i c t of M a c K e n z i e , G e o l . S u r v . Canada, B u l l . 252, 85 pp., 14 plates. , M c l n t y r e , D.J. & Young, F.G. ( 1 9 7 7 ) : D i s c u s s i o n o f P o c o c k ' s d i n o f l a g e l l a t e z o n a t i o n o f Upper J u r a s s i c Lower C r e t a c e o u s C a n a d i a n A r c t i c , B u l l . Can. P e t . G e o l . , V o l . 25, pp. 1264. B u j a k , J . P . & W i l l i a m s , G.L. ( 1 9 7 8 ) : C r e t a c e o u s p a l y n o s t r a t i g r a p h y o f o f f s h o r e s o u t h - e a s t e r n Canada, G e o l . S u r v . Canada, B u l l . 297, 19 pp., 3 p l a t e s . B u r d e n , E.T. ( 1 9 8 4 ) : T e r r e s t r i a l p a l y n o m o r p h b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y o f t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e M a n n v i l l e Group (Lower C r e t a c e o u s ) , A l b e r t a and Montana, i n : The M e s o z o i c o f M i d d l e N o r t h A m e r i c a , S t o t t & G l a s s ( e d s . ) , Can. S o c : P e t r o l . G e o l . , Memoir 9, pp. 249-269, 4 p l a t e s .  87 B u r g e r , D. ( 1 9 6 6 ) : P a l y n o l o g y o f u p p e r m o s t J u r a s s i c and lowermost C r e t a c e o u s s t r a t a i n t h e E a s t e r n N e t h e r l a n d s , O v e r d r u k U i t , L e i d s e G e o l o g i s c h e M e d e d e l i n g e n , D e e l 35, pp. 209-276, 39 p l a t e s . ( 1 9 7 3 ) : S p o r e z o n a t i o n and s e d i m e n t a r y h i s t o r y o f t h e Neocomian, G r e a t A r t e s i a n B a s i n , Q u e e n s l a n d , Spec. P u b i s . G e o l . S o c . A u s t r a l i a , No. 4, pp. 87-118, 2 plates. ( 1 9 7 4 ) : P a l y n o l o g y o f s u b s u r f a c e Lower C r e t a c e o u s s t r a t a i n the S u r a t B a s i n , Queensland, Bureau o f M i n e r a l R e s o u r c e s , A u s t r a l i a , B u l l . 150, 16 pp., 3 p l a t e s . ( 1 9 8 0 ) : P a l y n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s i n t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s o f t h e S u r a t B a s i n , A u s t r a l i a , B u r e a u o f M i n e r a l Res., G e o l . & Geophys., B u l l . 189, 106 pp., 48 p l a t e s . C l a r k e , R.F.A. & V e r d i e r , J . P . ( 1 9 6 7 ) : An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f m i c r o p l a n k t o n assemblages from the C h a l k o f the I s l e o f Wight, England, V e r h a n d e l i n g e n d e r K o n i n k l i j k e N e d e r l a n d s e Akademie v a n W e t e n s c h a p p e n , A f d . N a t u u r k u n d e , E e r s t e Reeks - D e e l XXIV - No. 3, 96 pp., .. 17 p l a t e s . C o o k s o n , I . e . & Dettmann, M.E. ( 1 9 5 8 ) : Some t r i l e t e s p o r e s f r o m Upper M e s o z o i c d e p o s i t s i n t h e e a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a n r e g i o n , P r o c . Roy. S o c . V i c t o r i a , V o l . 70, P t . 2, pp. 95-128, 6 p l a t e s . C o o k s o n , I . e . & E i s e n a c k , A. ( 1 9 5 8 ) : M i c r o p l a n k t o n f r o m A u s t r a l i a n and New G u i n e a Upper M e s o z o i c s e d i m e n t s , P r o c . Roy. S o c . V i c t o r i a , V o l . 70, P t . 1, pp. 19-79, plates.  12  & E i s e n a c k , A. ( 1 9 6 0 ) : Upper M e s o z o i c m i c r o p l a n k t o n f r o m A u s t r a l i a and New G u i n e a , P a l a e o n t o l o g y , V o l . 2, P t . 2, pp. 243-261, 3 p l a t e s . & E i s e n a c k , A. ( 1 9 6 0 ) : M i c r o p l a n k t o n f r o m A u s t r a l i a n C r e t a c e o u s s e d i m e n t s , M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y , V o l . 6, No. pp. 1-18, 3 p l a t e s . & E i s e n a c k , A. ( 1 9 6 1 ) : Upper C r e t a c e o u s m i c r o p l a n k t o n f r o m t h e B e l f a s t No. 4 B o r e , s o u t h - w e s t e r n V i c t o r i a , P r o c . Roy. S o c . V i c t o r i a , V o l . 74, P t 1, pp. 69-76, 2 plates. & E i s e n a c k , A (1965): M i c r o p l a n k t o n from the Datrmoor F o r m a t i o n , S.W. V i c t o r i a , P r o c . Roy. S o c . V i c t o r i a , V o l . 79, P t . 1, pp. 133-137, 2 p l a t e s .  1,  88  & E i s e n a c k , A. ( 1 9 6 5 ) : M i c r o p l a n k t o n f r o m t h e Browns C r e e k C l a y s , S.W. V i c t o r i a , P r o c . Roy. S o c . V i c t o r i a , V o l . 79, P t . 1, pp. 119-131, 5 p l a t e s . C o o k s o n , I.C. & Hughes, N.F. ( 1 9 6 4 ) : M i c r o p l a n k t o n f r o m t h e Cambridge Greensand ( m i d - C r e t a c e o u s ) , P a l a e o n t o l o g y , V o l . 7, P t . 1, pp. 37-59, 7 p l a t e s . C o u p e r , R.A. (1964): Spore - p o l l e n c o r r e l a t i o n o f the C r e t a c e o u s r o c k s o f t h e N o r t h e r n and S o u t h e r n Hemispheres, i n : P a l y n o l o g y i n O i l E x p l o r a t i o n ; A Symposium, A.T. C r o s s ( e d . ) , S o c . E c o n . P a l e o n t . & M i n e r a l o g . , S p e c . P u b l . No. 11, T u l s a , O k l a . Davey, R . J . ( 1 9 6 9 ) : N o n - c a l c a r e o u s m i c r o p l a n k t o n f r o m t h e Cenomanian o f E n g l a n d , N o r t h e r n F r a n c e and N o r t h A m e r i c a , P a r t I , B u l l . B r i t . Mus. ( N a t . H i s t . ) , G e o l . , V o l . 17, No. 3, pp. 103-180, 11 p l a t e s . , Downey, C., S a r j e a n t , W.A.S. & W i l l i a m s , G.L. (1966): S t u d i e s on M e s o z o i c and C a i n o z o i c d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t s , B u l l . B r i t . Mus. ( N a t . H i s t ) , G e o l . , Supp. 3, 248 pp., 26 p l a t e s . D e l c o u r t , A.F., Dettmann, M.E. & Hughes, N.F. (1963): R e v i s i o n o f some Lower C r e t a c e o u s m i c r o s p o r e s f r o m B e l g i u m , P a l a e o n t o l o g y , V o l . 6, P t . 2, pp. 282-292, 4 plates. Dettmann, M.E. ( 1 9 6 3 ) : Upper M e s o z o i c m i c r o f l o r a s f r o m s o u t h - e a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a , P r o c . Roy. S o c . V i c t o r i a , V o l . 77, P t . 1, pp. 1-148, 27 p l a t e s . & P l a y f o r d , G. ( 1 9 6 8 ) : Taxonomy o f some C r e t a c e o u s s p o r e s and p o l l e n g r a i n s f r o m E a s t e r n A u s t r a l i a , P r o c . Roy. S o c . V i c t o r i a , V o l . 8, P t . 2, pp. 69-94, 3 p l a t e s . D o r h o f e r , G. ( 1 9 7 7 ) : P a l y n o l o g i e und s t r a t i g r a p h i e d e r Buckeberg-Formation ( B e r r i a s i a n - V a l a n g i n i a n ) i n der H i l s m u l d e (N.W.-Deutschland), G e o l o g i s c h e s Jahrbuch, R e i h e A, H e f t 42, 122 pp., 15 p l a t e s . D o y l e , J.A. ( 1 9 7 7 ) : S p o r e s and p o l l e n : t h e Potomac Group ( C r e t a c e o u s ) a n g i o s p e r m s e q u e n c e , i n : C o n c e p t s and Methods o f B i o s t r a t i g r a p h y , K a u f f m a n & H a z e l ( e d s . ) , Dowden, H u t c h i n s o n & R o s s , I n c . , S t r o u d s b u r g , P e n n s y l v a n i a , pp. 339-363. E l s i k , W.C. fungal plate.  & J a n s o n i u s , J . ( 1 9 7 4 ) : New g e n e r a o f P a l e o g e n e s p o r e s , Can. J o u r . B o t . , V o l . 52, pp. 953-958> 1  89 E v i t t , R.W. (ed.) ( 1 9 7 5 ) : P r o c e e d i n g s o f a Forum on D i n o f l a g e l l a t e s h e l d a t Anaheim, C a l i f o r n i a , O c t o b e r 16, 1973 a s p a r t o f t h e S i x t h A n n u a l M e e t i n g , Amer. A s s o c . S t r a t i g . P a l y n o l o g i s t s , C o n t r i b . S e r i e s , No. 4, 71 pp., 7 p l a t e s . H e d l u n d , R.W. & N o r r i s , G. ( 1 9 6 8 ) : S p o r e s and p o l l e n g r a i n s from F r e d i c k s b u r g i a n ( A l b i a n ) s t r a t a , M a r s h a l l County, Oklahoma, P o l l e n e t S p o r e s , Mus. N a t . D ' H i s t . N a t u r e l l e , V o l . X , No. 1, pp. 129-159, 9 p l a t e s . Hughes, N.F. ( 1 9 6 9 ) : J u r a s s i c and E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s p o l l e n and s p o r e s , i n : A s p e c t s o f P a l y n o l o g y , T s c h u d y & S c o t t ( e d s . ) , W i l e y - I n t e r s c i e n c e , J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , New Y o r k , T o r o n t o , pp. 311-329, 4 p l a t e s . , Drewry, G.E. & L a i n g , J . F . ( 1 9 7 9 ) : B a r r e m i a n e a r l i e s t a n g i o s p e r m p o l l e n , P a l a e o n t o l o g y , V o l . 2 2 , P t . 3 , pp. 513-535, 8 p l a t e s . & M o o d y - S t u a r t , J . C . ( 1 9 6 9 ) : A method o f s t r a t i g r a p h i c c o r r e l a t i o n using E a r l y Cretaceous spores, P a l a e o n t o l o g y , V o l . 12, P t . 1, pp. 84-111. Jain,  K.P. ( 1 9 7 5 ) : A d d i t i o n a l d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s and a c r i t a r c h s f r o m G r e y S h a l e Member o f D a l m i a p u r a m F o r m a t i o n , S o u t h I n d i a , The P a l a e o b o t o n i s t , V o l . 24, No. 3, pp. 170-194, 6 plates.  K o t o v a , I . Z . ( 1 9 7 8 ) : S p o r e s and p o l l e n f r o m C r e t a c e o u s d e p o s i t s o f t h e e a s t e r n N o r t h A t l a n t i c Ocean, Deep Sea D r i l l i n g P r o j e c t , L e g 41, S i t e s 367 & 370, I n i t i a l R e p o r t s o f t h e Deep Sea D r i l l i n g P r o j e c t , V o l . X L I , pp. 841-881, 14 p l a t e s . & C o o k s o n , I.C. ( 1 9 6 4 ) : C r e t a c e o u s m i c r o p l a n k t o n i n a sample f r o m Graham I s l a n d , A r c t i c Canada, c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d " F r a m " - E x p e d i t i o n (1898-1902) - w i t h n o t e s on m i c r o p l a n k t o n f r o m t h e H a s s e l F o r m a t i o n , E l l e f R i n g n e s I s l a n d , S k r i f t e r U t g i t t av Det N o r s k e Videnskaps-Akademi i O s l o , I . M a t - N a t u r v . K l a s s e . Ny S e r i e . No. 17, 36 pp., 7 p l a t e s . M c G r e g o r , D.C. ( 1 9 6 5 ) : T r i a s s i c , J u r a s s i c and Lower C r e t a c e o u s s p o r e s and p o l l e n o f A r c t i c Canada, G e o l . S u r v . Canada, P a p e r 64-55, 32 pp., 10 p l a t e s . M i l l i o u d , M.E. ( 1 9 6 9 ) : D i n o f l a g e l l a t e s and a c r i t a r c h s f r o m some W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n Lower C r e t a c e o u s t y p e l o c a l i t i e s , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e F i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e onP l a n k t o n i c M i c r o f o s s i l s , Geneva, V o l . 2, pp. 420-434.  90  N o r r i s , G. ( 1 9 6 7 ) : S p o r e s and p o l l e n f r o m t h e Lower C o l o r a d o Group ( A l b . ? - Cenom.) o f C e n t r a l A l b e r t a , P a l a e o n t o g r a p h i c a , S e r i e s B, V o l . 120, pp. 71-115, 18 plates. ( 1 9 6 9 ) : M i o s p o r e s f r o m t h e P u r b e c k Beds and m a r i n e Upper J u r a s s i c o f s o u t h e r n E n g l a n d , P a l a e o n t o l o g y , V o l . 12, P t . 4, pp. 574-620, 12 p l a t e s . (1982): Mesozoic p a l y n o l o g y of M e s o z o i c G e o l o g y and M i n e r a l R i v e r B a s i n , T e l f o r d & Verma S u r v e y , S t u d y 21, pp.93-133, , J a r z e n , D.M. & Awai-Thorne, the Cretaceous t e r r e s t r i a l Canada, i n : The C r e t a c e o u s I n t e r i o r of North America, A s s o c . Canada, S p e c . P a p e r plates.  t h e Moose R i v e r B a s i n , i n P o t e n t i a l o f t h e Moose (eds.), Ontario Geological 12 p l a t e s .  B.V. ( 1 9 7 5 ) : E v o l u t i o n o f p a l y n o f l o r a i n Western System i n t h e W e s t e r n W.G.E. C a l d w e l l ( e d . ) , G e o l . No. 13, pp. 333-364, 3  , T e l f o r d , P.G. & Vos, M.A. (1 9 7 6 ) : An A l b i a n m i c r o f l o r a f r o m t h e M a t t a g a m i F o r m a t i o n , James Bay L o w l a n d s , O n t a r i o , Can. J o u r . E a r t h S c . , V o l . 13, No. 2, pp. 400403. P a d e n - P h i l l i p s , P. & F e l i x , C . J . ( 1 9 7 1 ) : A s t u d y o f Lower and M i d d l e C r e t a c e o u s s p o r e s and p o l l e n f r o m t h e southeastern United States; I - Spores, i n P o l l e n et S p o r e s , V o l . 13, No. 2, pp. 279-348, 12 p l a t e s . P l a y f o r d , G. ( 1 9 7 1 ) : P a l y n o l o g y o f b a s a l C r e t a c e o u s (Swan R i v e r ) s t r a t a o f S a s k a t c h e w a n and M a n i t o b a , P a l a e o n t o l o g y , V o l . 14, P t . 4, pp. 533-565, 5 p l a t e s . , H a i g , D.W. & Dettmann, M.E. (1975): A mid-Cretaceous m i c r o f o s s i l assemblage from the G r e a t A r t e s i a n B a s i n , n o r t h w e s t e r n Q u e e n s l a n d , N. J b . G e o l . P a l a o n t . Abh. ( S t u t t g a r t ) , 149, pp. 333-362, 6 p l a t e s . P o c o c k , S . A . J . ( 1 9 6 2 ) : M i c r o f l o r a l a n a l y s i s and age determination of s t r a t a at the J u r a s s i c - C r e t a c e o u s b o u n d a r y i n t h e W e s t e r n Canada P l a i n s , P a l a e o n t o g r a p h i c a , S e r . B, V o l . 111, 95 pp., 15 p l a t e s . ( 1 9 6 7 ) : The J u r a s s i c - C r e t a c e o u s b o u n d a r y i n n o r t h e r n Canada, Review o f P a l a e o b o t a n y and P a l y n o l o g y , V o l . 5, pp. 129-136. (1976): A p r e l i m i n a r y d i n o f l a g e l l a t e z o n a t i o n o f the u p p e r m o s t J u r a s s i c and l o w e r p a r t o f t h e C r e t a c e o u s i n t h e C a n a d i a n A r c t i c and p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o u t h w a r d i n t o t h e W e s t e r n Canada B a s i n , G e o s c i e n c e & Man, V o l . 15, pp. 104-114, 2 p l a t e s .  91 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : The A p t i a n - A l b i a n b o u n d a r y i n Canada, I V International Palynol. Conf. Lucknow (1976-77) 2, p p . 419-424. f  Rouse, G.E. ( 1 9 5 9 ) : P l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l s f r o m K o o t e n a y c o a l measures s t r a t a o f B r i t i s h Columbia, M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y , V o l . 5, No. 3, p p . 303-324, 2 p l a t e s . & S r i v a s t a v a , S.K. ( 1 9 7 2 ) : P a l y n o l o g i c a l z o n a t i o n o f C r e t a c e o u s a n d E a r l y T e r t i a r y r o c k s o f t h e B o n n e t Plume F o r m a t i o n , n o r t h e a s t e r n Yukon, Canada, Can. J o u r . E a r t h S c . , V o l . 9, No. 9, p p . 1163-1179, 6 p l a t e s . S e p u l v e d a , E.G. & N o r r i s , G. ( 1 9 8 2 ) : A c o m p a r i s o n o f some P a l e o g e n e f u n g a l p a l y n o m o r p h s f r o m A r c t i c Canada a n d f r o m P a t a g o n i a , S o u t h A r g e n t i n a , R e v i s t a de l a A s o c i a c i o n P a l e o n t o l o g i c a A r g e n t i n a , Tomo XIX, No. 3-4, pp. 319-334, 4 p l a t e s . S i n g h , C. ( 1 9 6 4 ) : M i c r o f l o r a o f t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s M a n n v i l l e Group, E a s t - c e n t r a l A l b e r t a , R e s . Counc. A l t a . , B u l l . 15, 238 pp., 29 p l a t e s . ( 1 9 7 1 ) : Lower C r e t a c e o u s m i c r o f l o r a s o f t h e P e a c e R i v e r a r e a , N.W. A l b e r t a , R e s . Counc. A l t a . , B u l l . 28, V o l . 1, p p . 1-299, 38 p l a t e s , & V o l . 2, p p . 300-542, 41 plates. (1975): S t r a t i g r a p h i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f e a r l y angiosperm p o l l e n i n t h e m i d - C r e t a c e o u s s t r a t a o f A l b e r t a , i n : The C r e t a c e o u s System i n t h e W e s t e r n I n t e r i o r o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , W.G.E. C a l d w e l l ( e d . ) , G e o l . A s s o c . Canada, S p e c . P a p e r No. 13, pp. 365-389. S r i v a s t a v a , S.K. ( 1 9 6 8 ) : F u n g a l e l e m e n t s f r o m t h e Edmonton F o r m a t i o n ( M a e s t r i c h t i a n ) , A l b e r t a , Canada, Can. J o u r . B o t . , V o l . 46, pp. 1115-1118, 1 p l a t e . ( 1 9 7 2 ) : S y s t e m a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f some s p o r e s f r o m t h e Edmonton F o r m a t i o n ( M a e s t r i c h t i a n ) , A l b e r t a , Canada, P a l a e o n t o g r a p h i c a , Band 139, A b t . B, 46 pp., 35 p l a t e s . (1984): B a r r e m i a n d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t s from s o u t h e a s t e r n F r a n c e , C a h i e r s de M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g i e , Centre National de l a R e c h e r c h e S c i e n t i f i q u e , A n a t o l e , F r a n c e , 90 pp., 39 p l a t e s . S t e e v e s , M.W. & W i l k i n s , L.K. ( 1 9 6 7 ) : S p o r e s and p o l l e n f r o m t h e Lower C r e t a c e o u s o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , Canada. P a r t 1. S p o r i t e s , Can. J o u r . B o t a n y , V o l . 45, pp. 2329-2365, 8 plates.  92 S t o v e r , L . E . & E v i t t , W.R. (1978): A n a l y s i s o f p r e Pleistocene organic-walled dinoflagellates, Stanford U n i v e r s i t y P u b l . , G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , V o l . XV, S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a , 300 pp. W i l l i a m s , G.L. & B r i d e a u x , W.W. (1975): P a l y n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f Upper M e s o z o i c a n d C e n o z o i c r o c k s o f t h e Grand Banks, A t l a n t i c C o n t i n e n t a l M a r g i n , G e o l . Surv. Canada, B u l l . 236, 162 pp., 47 p l a t e s . W i l s o n , G . J . ( 1 9 8 4 ) : New Z e a l a n d L a t e J u r a s s i c t o E o c e n e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y - A summary, N e w s l . S t r a t i g . , V o l 13, No. 2, B e r l i n , S t u t t g a r t , pp. 104117. Wiseman, J . F . & W i l l i a m s , A . J . ( 1 9 7 4 ) : P a l y n o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f s a m p l e s f r o m S i t e s 259, 261 & 263, Leg 27, Deep Sea D r i l l i n g P r o j e c t , I n i t i a l R e p o r t s o f t h e Deep Sea D r i l l i n g P r o j e c t , V o l . X X V I I , W a s h i n g t o n , (U.S. G o v ' t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ) , pp. 915-924.  93 APPENDIX I I - S p e c i e s  List  Note: Although t h e s p e c i e s l i s t i s ordered alpha-numerically s e v e r a l species a r e not i n the c o r r e c t order a l p h a b e t i c a l l y due t o d e l e t i o n s , a d d i t i o n s and c o r r e c t i o n s a f t e r c o d i n g . -(*) i n d i c a t e s ubiquitous species -(+) i n d i c a t e s s i n g l e s p e c i m e n s 1 * A b i e s p o l l e n i t e s s p . ( c f S i n g h , 1971) 2 A b i e t i n e a e p o l l e n i t e s s p . ( c f B r e n n e r , 1963 3 A c a n t h o t r l l e t e s l e v i d e n s i s Balme, 1957 4 * A c a n t h o t r i l e t e s v a r i s p i n o s u s P o c o c k , 1962 5 * A e q u i t r i r a d i t e s s p i n u l o s u s ( C o o k s o n & Dettmann) C o o k s o n & Dettmann, 1961 6 + A e q u i t r i r a d i t e s v e r r u c o s u s ( C o o k s o n & Dettmann) C o o k s o n & Dettmann, 1961 7 * A l i s p o r i t e s b i l a t e r a l i s Rouse, 1959 8 * A l i s p o r i t e s g r a n d i s ( C o o k s o n ) Dettmann, 1963 9 * A l i s p o r i t e s m i c r o s a c c u s ( C o u p e r ) P o c o c k , 1962 10 * A l i s p o r i t e s c f m i n u t u s Rouse, 1959 11 * A l i s p o r i t e s s p . 12 A l i s p o r i t e s s i m i l i s (Balme) Dettmann, 1963 13 a l g a l colony ( c f 172 - f u n g a l c o l o n y B u r d e n , 1984) 14 + A n t u l s p o r i t e s b a c u l a t u s ( A r c h a n g e l s k y & Gamerro) A r c h a n g e l s k y & Gamerro, 1966 15 A n t u l s p o r i t e s d i s t a v e r r u c o s u s (Brenner) Archangelsky & Gamerro, 1966 16 * A p i c u l a t i s p o r i s a s y m m e t r i c u s C o o k s o n & Dettmann, 1958 17 + A p i c u l a t i s p o r i s b a b s a e B r e n n e r , 1963 18 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s b i l a t e r a l i s S i n g h , 1971 19 * A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s c r i r a e n s i s ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) P o c o c k , 1964 20 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s d e n t i m a r g i n a t u s B r e n n e r , 1963 21 + A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s d e n t i m a r g i n a t u s ' v a r . A' ( n o v . comb.) 22 * A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s e r d t m a n i i P o c o c k , 1964 23 * A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s p o t o m a c e n s i s B r e n n e r , 1963 24 * A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s p r o b l e m a t i c u s ( B u r g e r ) S i n g h , 1971 25 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s p s c h e k h a e n s i s ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) Pocock, 1964 26 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s ( c f P l i c a t e l l a ) pseudomacrorhyza ( c f D O r h a f e r , 1977) 27 + A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s s p i n o s u s P o c o c k , 1964 28 + A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s c o o k s o n i i (Balme) P o c o c k , 1964 29 A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s u n i c u s (Markova) S i n g h , 1964 30 * A p t e a p o l y m o r p h a E i s e n a c k , 1958 31 A p t e o d i n i u m g r a n d e C o o k s o n & Hughes, 1964 32 + A p t e o d i n i u m g r a n u l a t u m E i s e n a c k , 1958 33 + A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s segmentus B r e n n e r , 1963 34 A p t e o d i n i u m maculatura E i s e n a c k & C o o k s o n , 1960 35 * A p t e o d i n i u m r e t i c u l a t u m S i n g h , 1971 36 A p t e o d i n i u m s p . G o c h t , 1969 37 * A r a u c a r i a c i t e s a u s t r a l i s C o o k s o n , 1947 38 A s c o t o m o c y s t i s maxima S i n g h , 1971 39 c f A u r i t u l i n a s p o r i t e s d e l t a f o r m i s B u r g e r , 1966 40 * B a c u l a t i s p o r i t e s comaumensis ( C o o k s o n ) P o t o n i e , 1956  94  41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81  * B a c u l a t i s p o r i t e s 'sp B ' ( n o v . s p . ) + B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m c r a m e r i S i n g h , 1971 ( W h i t e ) S a r j e a n t , 1 959 Baitisphaeridium fimbriatum B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m s p . A ( c f S i n g h , 1 971 ) B a i t i s p h a e r i d i u m s p . B ( c f S i n g h , 1 971 ) +Baitisphaeridium cf stimuliferum (Deflandre) S a r j e a n t , 1960 *Baitisphaeridium whitei (Deflandrea & C o u r t e v i l l e ) Sarjeant, 1959 • B i r e t i s p o r i t e s p o t o n i a e i D e l c o u r t & S p r u m o n t , 1955 B i r e t i s p o r i t e s s p e c t a b i l i s D e t t m a n n , 1963 + B u l l a s p o r i s c f a e q u i t o r i a l i s K r u t z s c h , 1959 • C a l l i a l a s p o i r i t e s d a m p i e r i ( B a l m e ) S u k h Dev, 1961 C a l l i a l a s p o r i t e s s e g m e n t a t e s ( B a l m e ) S u k h Dev, 1 961 C a l l i a l a s p o r i t e s t r i l o b a t u s ( B a l m e ) S u k h Dev, 1 961 C a l l a i o s p h a e r i d i u m asymmetricum ( D e f l a n d r e & C o u r t e v i l l e ) Davey & W i l l i a m s , 1966 +cf C a m a r o z o n o s p o r i t e s o h a i e n s i s ( C o u p e r ) D e t t m a n n & Playford, 1968 - f - C a s s i c u l o s p h a e r i d i a c f r e t i c u l a t a D a v e y , 1969 * C a n n i n g i a a s p e r a S i n g h , 1971 *Canningia c o l l i v e r i Cookson & E i s e n a c k , 1960 • C a n n i n g i a m i n o r C o o k s o n & H u g h e s , 1964 Canningia r e t i c u l a t a Cookson & E i s e n a c k , 1960 +cf C a n n o s p h a e r o p s i s f i l a m e n t o s i s C o o k s o n & E i s e n a c k , 1958 +Cannosphaeropsis c f p e r i d i c t y a E i s e n a c k & Cookson, 1 960 * C e d r i p i t e s c a n a d e n s i s P o c o c k , 196 2 * C e d r i p i t e s c r e t a c e u s P o c o c k , 1962 Ceratosporites cf morrinicolus Srivastava, 1972 * C e r e b r o p o l l e n i t e s mesozoicus (Couper) N i l s s o n , 1958 Chlamydophorella n y e i Cookson & E i s e n a c k , 1958 • C h y t r o e i s p h a e r i d i a c f c h y t r o e i d e s S a r j e a n t , 1962 + C h y t r o e i s p h a e r i d i a c f p o c o c k i S a r j e a n t , 1968 * C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s a n n u l a t u s A r c h a n g e l s k y & Gamerro, 1966 • C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s a u g u s t u s S i n g h , 1971 • C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s a u s t r a l i e n s i s (Cookson) P o t o n i e , 1 956 • C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s dorogensis Potonie & G e l l e t i c h , 1 933 Cicatricosisporites exilioides (Maljavkina) Bolkhovitina, 1953 • C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s h a l l e i D e l c o u r t & S p r u m o n t , 1955 • C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s h u g h e s i D e t t m a n n , 1963 C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s i m b r i c a t u s ( M a r k o v a ) S i n g h , 1971 1964 • C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s minor ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) Pocock, C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s mohrioides D e l c o u r t & Sprumont, 1955 •Cicatricosisporites pseudotripatitus (Bolkhovitina) D e t t m a n n , 196 3 + C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s c f sewardi D e l c o u r t & Sprumont, 1 955  95 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127  + C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s c f s t e r n u m v a n Ameron, 1965 C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s c f t e r s u s ( K a r a - M u r s a ) P o c o c k , 1964 * C i c a t r i c o s o s p o r i t e s a u r i t u s S i n g h , 1971 Cibotiumspora j u r i e n s i s (Balme) F i l a t o f f , 1974 * C i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s c a m i n u s B a l m e , 1957 C i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s distaverrucosus Brenner, 1963 * C i n g u t r i l e t e s c l a v u s ( B a l m e ) D e t t m a n n , 1963 *Cirratriradites teter Norris, 1967 C l a s s o p o l l i s chateaunovi Reyre, 1970 * C l a s s o p o l l i s c l a s s o i d e s ( P f l u g ) Pocock & J a n s o n i u s , 1961 + C l a s s o p o l l i s c f hammenii B u r g e r , 1965 + C l a v a t i p o l l e n i t e s c o u p e r i i P o c o c k , 1962 * C l a v a t i p o l l e n i t e s h u g h e s i i C o u p e r , 1958 + C l a v a t i p o l l e n i t e s minutus Brenner, 1963 C l e i s t o s p h a e r i d i u m d i v e r s i s p i n o s u m Davey, Downie, S a r j e a n t , & W i l l i a m s , 1966 C l e i s t o s p h a e r i d i u m granulatum Burger, 1980 C l e i s t o s p h a e r i d i u m m u l t i s p i n o s u m ( S i n g h ) B r i d e a u x , 1971 +cf C o m a s p h a e r i d i u m s p . A ( c f P o c o c k , 1964) C o n c a v i s s i m i s p o r i t e s minor (Pocock) D e l c o u r t , Dettmann H u g h e s , 1963 ^ C o n c a v i s s i m i s p o r i t e s punctatus ( D e l c o u r t & Sprumont) Brenner, 1963 * C o n c a v i s s i m i s p o r i t e s v a r i v e r r u c a t u s (Couper) Brenner, 1963 + C o n c a v i s s i m i s p o r i t e s verrucosus ( D e l c o u r t & Sprumont) D e l c o u r t , D e t t m a n n & H u g h e s , 1963 C o n t i g n i s p o r i t e s c o o k s o n i i ( B a l m e ) D e t t m a n n , 1963 + C o n t i g n i s p o r i t e s c f g l e b u l e n t u s D e t t m a n n , 1963 C o n t i g n i s p o r i t e s m u l t i m u r a t u s D e t t m a n n , 1963 + C o n v e r r u c o s i s p o r i t e s e x q u i s i t u s S i n g h , 1971 C o o k s o n i t e s r e t i c u l a t u s P o c o c k , 1962 C o o k s o n i t e s v a r i a b i l i s P o c o c k , 1962 * C o p t o s p o r a c f p a r a d o x a ( C o o k s o n & D e t t m a n n ) Dettmann,. 1963 * C o p t o s p o r a s p . A ( c f D e t t m a n n , 1963) C o p t o s p o r a s t r i a t a D e t t m a n n , 196 3 C o s t a t o p e r f o r o s p o r i t e s f o v e o l a t u s Deak, 1962 C o u p e r i s p o r i t e s c o m p l e x u s ( C o u p e r ) P o c o c k , 1962 C r a s s o s p h a e r a be11a S i n g h , 1971 Crassosphaera sp. A ( c f Backhouse, 1984) + C r i b r o p e r i d i n i u m c f i n t r i c a t u m D a v e y , 1969 * C y a t h i d i t e s a s p e r ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) D e t t m a n n , 1963 * C y a t h i d i t e s a u s t r a l i s C o u p e r , 1953 * C y a t h i d i t e s m i n o r C o u p e r , 1953 C y a t h i d i t e s punctatus ( D e l c o u r t & Sprumont) D e l c o u r t , D e t t m a n n & H u g h e s , 1963 C y a t h i d i t e s r a f a e l i (Burger) Burger, 1980 * C y c a d o p i d e s f o r m o s u s S i n g h , 1964 * C y c a d o p i d e s f r a g i l i s S i n g h , 1964 + C y c a d o p i d e s o v a t u s R o u s e , 1959 *Cycadopides sp. ( c f Singh, 1964) + C y c l o n e p h e l i u m compactum D e f l a n d r e & C o o k s o n , 1955  96  128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170  C y c l o n e p h e l i u m d i s t i n c t u m D e f l a n d r e & C o o k s o n , 1955 Cyclonephelium distinctum v a r . brevispinaturn ( M i l l i o u d ) L e n t i n & W i l l i a m s , 1973 * C y c l o n e p h e l i u m membraniphorum C o o k s o n & E i s e n a c k , 1962 C y c a d o p i t e s c a r p e n t i e r i ( D e l c o u r t & Sprumont) S i n g h , 1964 C y c l o n e p h e l i u m p a u c i s p i n u m D a v e y , 1969 + C y c l o p s i e l l a o r n a m e n t a J a i n , 1977 C y m a t i o s p h a e r a p a c h y t h e c a E i s e n a c k , 1957 I s a b e l i d i n i u m c f acuminata (Cookson & E i s e n a c k ) L e n t i n & W i l l i a m s , 1975 + A l t e r b i a asymmetrica (Davey & V e r d i e r ) L e n t i n & W i l l i a m s , 1975 Subtilisphaera perlucida (Alberti) Jain & Millepied, 1973 +cf I s a b e l i d i n i u m thomasi (Cookson & E i s e n a c k ) L e n t i n & W i l l i a m s , 1977 C h a t a n g i e l l a c f v i c t o r i e n s i s ( C o o k s o n & Manum) L e n t i n & W i l l i a m s , 1976 * D e l t o i d o s p o r a d i a p h a n a W i l s o n & W e b s t e r , 1946 * D e l t o i d o s p o r a h a l l i i M i n e r , 1935 * D e l t o i d o s p o r a p s i l o s t o m a R o u s e , 1959 - t - D e n s o i s p o r i t e s c i r c u m u n d u l a t u s ( B r e n n e r ) P l a y f o r d , 1971 D e n s o i s p o r i t e s m i c r o r u g u l a t u s B r e n n e r , 1963 D i c o n o d i n i u m c f a r c t i c u m Manum & C o o k s o n , 1964 -f-Diconodinium c f g l a b r u m E i s e n a c k & C o o k s o n , 1960 f u n g a l body 'Type W D i c t y o p h y l l i d i t e s e q u i e x i n o u s ( C o u p e r ) D e t t m a n n , 1963 D i c t y o p h y l l i d i t e s pectinataeformis (Bolkhovitina) Dettmann, 1963 + D i c t y o p h y l l i d i t e s s p . ( c f S i n g h , 1971) D i c t y o t o s p o r i t e s c o m p l e x C o o k s o n & D e t t m a n n , 1958 D i c t y o t o s p o r i t e s s p e c i o s u s C o o k s o n & D e t t m a n n , 1958 -f-Dingodinium c e r v i c u l u m C o o k s o n & E i s e n a c k , 1958 d i n o sp A (nov sp) D i n o p t e r y g i u m c l a d o i d e s D e f l a n d r e , 1935 D i p l o t e s t a a n g l i c a C o o k s o n & H u g h e s , 1964 D l s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s ' s p . B' ( n o v . s p . ) D l s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s i r r e g u l a r i s S i n g h , 1971 * D i s t a l t r i a n g u l i s p o r i t e s p e r p l e x u s ( S i n g h ) S i n g h , 1971 D i s t a l t r i a n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s ' s p . A' ( n o v . s p . ) E u c o m m i i d i t e s t r o e d s s o n i i ( E r d t m a n ) H u g h e s , 1961 +Exochosphaeridium c f phragmites Davey, Downie, S a r j e a n t & W i l l i a m s , 1966 F o r a m i n i s p o r i s asymmetricus (Cookson & Dettmann) D e t t mann, 1963 +Foraminisporis b i f u r c a t u s (Couper) ? F o r a m i n i s p o r i s w o n t h a g g i e n s i s (Cookson & Dettmann) D e t t m a n n , 1963 * F o v e o s p o r i t e s c a n a l i s B a l m e , 1957 + F o v e o s p o r i t e s l a b i o s u s S i n g h , 1971 F o v e o t r i l e t e s s u b t r i a n g u l a r i s B r e n n e r , 1963 F r a c t i s p o r o n i t e s s p . C l a r k e , 1965 Fromea amphora C o o k s o n & E i s e n a c k , 1958 f  97 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178  f u n g a l body 'Type M' f u n g a l c o l o n y ( c f Burden, 1984) Gardodinium e i s e n a c k i A l b e r t i , 1961 Ginkgocycadophytus sp. * G i n k g o c y c a d o p h y t u s n i t i d u s (Balme) de J e r s e y , 1962 * G l e i c h e n i i d i t e s c i r c i n i d i t e s (Cookson) Dettmann, 1963 * G l e i c h e n i i d i t e s s e n o n i c u s R o s s , 1949 G o n y a u l a c y s t a a r c h e o p y l e o p e r c u l u m Type B ( c f S i n g h , 1971) 179 G o n y a u l a c y s t a c f c a s s i d a t a ( E i s e n a c k & Cookson) Sarjeant, 1966 180 G o n y a u l a c y s t a c r e t a c e a N e a l e & S a r j e a n t , 1960 181 G o n y a u l a c y s t a c f e p i s o m a S a r j e a n t , 1966 182 + G o n y a u l a c y s t a h e l i c o i d e a ( E i s e n a c k & Cookson) S a r j e a n t , 1966 183 G o n y a u l a c y s t a c f o r t h o c e r a s ( E i s e n a c k ) S a r j e a n t , 1966 184 f u n g a l body 'Type B' 185 +cf H e x a s p h a e r a a s y m m e t r i c a ( D e f l a n d r e & C o u r t e v i l l e ) C l a r k e & V e r d i e r , 1967 186 + H y s t r i c h o k o l p o m a 'sp. A' (nov. sp.) 187 H y s t r o c h o k o l p o m a f e r o x ( D e f l a n d r e ) Davey, 1969 188 S p i n i f e r i t e s c i n g u l a t u s (O. W e t z e l ) Davey & Williams, 1966 189 + f u n g a l body 'Type 0' 190 + S p i n i f e r i t e s c o r n u t u s v a r . l a e v i m u r a Davey & W i l l i a m s , 1966 191 + S p i n i f e r i t e s raraosa v a r . b r e v i s p i n o s u m ? 192 S p i n i f e r i t e s ramosa v a r . m u l t i b r e v i s Davey & Williams, 1966 193 * S p i n i f e r i t e s ramosa v a r . ramosa Davey & W i l l i a m s , 1966 194 +cf S p i n i f e r i t e s w e t z e l i i ( D e f l a n d r e ) S a r j e a n t , 1970 195 H y s t r i c h o s p h a e r i d i u m c o o k s o n i S i n g h , 1971 196 Hystrichosphaeridium s t e l l a t u m Maier, 1959 197 I n a p e r t u r o p o l l e n i t e s d u b i u s ( P o t o n i e & V e n i t z ) Thomson & Pflug, 1953 198 + I s c h y o s p o r i t e s d i s j u n c t u s S i n g h , 1971 199 + I s c h y o s p o r i t e s 'sp. A' ( n o v . s p . ) 200 Januasporites s p i n i f e r u s Singh, 1964 201 c f K a l y p t e a monoceras Cookson & E i s e n a c k , 1960 202 K l u k i s p o r i t e s a r e o l a t u s S i n g h , 1971 203 * K l u k i s p o r i t e s f o v e o l a t u s P o c o c k , 1964 204 K u y l i s p o r i t e s l u n a r i s C o o k s o n & Dettmann, 1958 205 L a e v i g a t o s p o r i t e s g r a c i l i s W i l s o n & W e b s t e r , 1946 206 * L a e v i g a t o s p o r i t e s o v a t u s W i l s o n & W e b s t e r , 1946 207 * L a r i c o i d i t e s magnus ( P o t o n i e ) P o t o n i e , Thomson & Thiergart, 1950 208 L e c a n i e l l a f o v e a t a S i n g h , 1971 209 + G l e i c h e n i i d i t e s 'sp.' ? ( n o v . sp.) 210 + L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s a m b i f o v e o l a t u s B r e n n e r , 1963 211 L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s a s p e r a t u s Dettmann, 1963 212 L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s c a n a l i c u l a t u s Singh, 1971 213 L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s c a p e r a t u s S i n g h , 1971 214 L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s c i r n i i d i t e s (Ross) Brenner, 1963  98 21 5 • L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s d e t t m a n n a e B u r g e r , 1980 21 6 + L y c o p o d i a c i d i t e s i r r e g u l a r i s B r e n n e r , 1963 21 7 • L y c o p o d i u m s p o r i t e s a u s t r o c l a v a t i d i t e s (Cookson) P o t o n i e , 1956 218 + L y c o p o d i u m s p o r i t e s c i r c o l u m e n u s C o o k s o n & Dettmann, 1 958 21 9 • L y c o p o d i u m s p o r i t e s c r a s s a t u s S i n g h , 1971 220 • L y c o p o d i u m s p o r i t e s c r a s s i m a c e r i u s H e d l u n d , 1966 221 L y c o p o d i u m s p o r i t e s e m i n u l u s Dettmann, 1963 222 + L y c o p o d i u m s p o r i t e s e x p a n s u s S i n g h , 1971 223 L y c o p o d i u m s p o r i t e s m a r g i n a t u s S i n g h , 1964 224 + L y c o p o d i u m s p o r i t e s n o d o s u s Dettmann, 1963 225 • L y c o p o d i u m s p o r i t e s r e t i c u l u m s p o r i t e s (Rouse) Dettmann, 1 963 226 + L y c o p o d i u m s p o r i t e s c f s e m i r e t i c u l a t u s B u r g e r , 1966 227 L y c o p o d i u m s p o r i t e s sp. 228 + L e p t o d i n i u m a l e c t r o l o p h u m Davey, Downie, S a r j e a n t , & W i l l i a m s , 1966 229 • L y g o d i o i s p o r i t e s s p . B ( c f S i n g h , 1964) 230 M a t o n i s p o r i t e s c o o k s o n i Dettmann, 1963 231 •(-Matonisporites c r a s s i a n g u l a t u s (Balme) Dettmann, 1963 232 + M a t o n i s p o r i t e s 'sp. A * ( n o v . s p . ) 233 M a t o n i s p o r i t e s c f excavatus Brenner, 1963 234 P o d o c a r p i d i t e s naumovi (Naumova) S i n g h , 1964 235 M i c h r y s t r i d i u m s t e l l a t u m D e f l a n d r e , 1945 236 + M i c r h y s t r i d i u m c f s y d u s V a l e n s i , 1953 237 • M i c r o r e t i c u l a t i s p o r i t e s u n i f o r m i s S i n g h , 1964 238 + M o n o s u l c i t e s s c a b r u s B r e n n e r , 196 3 239 P o d o c a r p i d i t e s o r n a t u s P o c o c k , 1962 240 +Muderongia s p . A ( c f B r i d e a u x & M c l n t y r e , 1975) 241 M u d e r o n g i a t e t r a c a n t h a ( G o c h t ) A l b e r t i , 1961 242 +Murospora f l o r i d a Balme, 1957 243 M u r o s p o r a t r u n c a t a S i n g h , 1971 244 • N e o r a i s t r i c k i a t r u n c a t a (Cookson) P o t o n i e , 1956 245 O d o n t o c h i t i n a o p e r c u l a t a ( 0 . W e t z e l ) D e f l a n d r e , 1946 246 . + O d o n t o c h i t i n a c f s t r i a t o p e r f o r a t a C o o k s o n & E i s e n a c k , 1 962 247 O l i g o s p h a e r i d i u m a n t h o p h o r u m (Cookson & E i s e n a c k ) E i s e n a c k & K j e l l s t r o m , 1971 248 O l i g o s p h a e r i d i u m complex (White) Davey & W i l l i a m s , 1966 249 O l i g o s p h a e r i d i u m d i a s t e m a S i n g h , 1971 250 -••Oligosphaeridium c f p r o l i x i s p i n o s u m Davey & W i l l i a m s , 1 966 251 O l i g o s p h a e r i d i u m p u l c h e r r i m u m ( D e f l a n d r e & Cookson) Davey & W i l l i a m s , 1966 252 + O r n a m e n t i f e r a b a c u l a t a S i n g h , 1971 253 • O s m u n d a c i d i t e s w e l l m a n i i C o u p e r , 1953 254 Palambages Form A Manum & C o o k s o n , 1964 255 P a l a e o p e r i d i n i u m c r e t a c e u m P o c o c k , 1962 256 P a l a e o p e r i d i n i u m s p . A B u j a k & W i l l i a m s , 1978 257 P a r e o d i n i a c f a p h e l i a Cookson & E i s e n a c k , 1958 258 • P a r e o d i n i a c e r a t o p h o r a D e f l a n d r e , 1947 259 • P a r v i s a c c i t e s r a d i a t u s C o u p e r , 1958 260 P e r i n o p o l l e n i t e s e l a t o i d e s C o u p e r , 1958  99  261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310  + P e r o t r i l e t e s pannuceus Brenner, 1963 + P f l u g i p o l l e n i t e s t r i l o b a t u s (Balme) P o c o c k , 1962 P h r a g m o t h y r i t e s 'Form A' P h r a g m o t h y r i t e s 'Form B + P h r a g m o t h y r i t e s 'Form C P h y l l o c l a d i d i t e s inchoatus (Pierce) N o r r i s , 1967 * P h y l l o c l a d i d i t e s raawsonii C o o k s o n , 1947 P h r a g m o t h y r i t e s 'Form D' Pinuspollenites sp. * P i t y o s p o r i t e s a l a t i p o l l e n i t e s (Rouse) S i n g h , 1964 * P i t y o s p o r i t e s c o n s t r i c t u s Singh, 1964 P l u r i c e l l a e s p o r i t e s p s i l a t u s Clarke, 1965 + P o l y s p h a e r i d i u m s u b t i l e Davey, Downie, S a r j e a n t & Williams, 1966 P o d o c a r p i d i t e s b i f o r m i s Rouse, 1957 * P o d o c a r p i d i t e s c a n a d e n s i s Pocock, 1962 P o d o c a r p i d i t e s e l l i p t i c u s Cookson, 1947 *Podocarpidites h e r b s t i i Burger, 1966 *Podocarpidites minisulcus Singh, 1964 * P o d o c a r p i d i t e s multesimus ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) Pocock, 1962 P o d o c a r p i d i t e s potomacensis Brenner, 1963 + P s i l a t r i c o l p i t e s p a r v u l u s ( G r o o t & Penny) N o r r i s , 1967 * P o l y c i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s reduncus ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) P l a y f o r d & Dettmann, 1965 +Polycingulatisporites cf triangularus (Bolkhovitina) P l a y f o r d & Dettmann, 1965 + P o l y c i n g u l a t i s p o r i t e s 'sp. A' ( n o v . s p . ) +cf P o l y p o d i i s p o r i t e s ( c f D b r h o f e r , 1977) P r o l i x o s p h a e r i d i u m c f m i x t i s p i n o s u m Klement, 1960 +Prolixosphaeridium sp. ( c f Singh, 1971) + P s e u d o c e r a t i u m d e t t m a n n a e C o o k s o n & Hughes, 1964 +Pterodinium a l i f e r u m Eisenack, 1958 Pterodinium sp. A ( c f Brideaux & M c l n t y r e , 1975) * P t e r o s p e r m e l l a c f a u r e o l a t a Cookson & E i s e n a c k , (1962)? P t e r o s p e r m e l l a a u s t r a l i e n s i s ( D e f l a n d r e & Cookson) E i s e n a c k & Cramer, 1973 Pterospermella h a r t i i (Sarjeant) Srivastava, 1984 P t e r o s p e r m e l l a sp. B Singh, 1971 +Reticulatasporites (cf Norris, 1982) R e t i c u l i s p o r i t e s e l o n g a t u s S i n g h , 1971 +Rouseisporites r a d i a t u s Dettmann, 1963 * R o u s e i s p o r i t e s r e t i c u l a t u s Pocock, 1962 + O c c i s u c y s t a sp. A ( c f Bujak & W i l l i a m s , 1978) + S c r i n i o d i n i u m sp. ( c f S a r j e a n t , 1972) * R u g u b i v e s i c u l i t e s rugosus P i e r c e , 1961 S c h i z o s p o r i s sp. * S c h i z o s p o r i s c o o k s o n i i Pocock, 1962 S c h i z o s p o r i s g r a n d i s Pocock, 1962 * S c h i z o s p o r i s p a r v u s Cookson & Dettmann, 1959 + S c h i z o s p o r i s r e t i c u l a t u s C o o k s o n & Dettmann, 1959 S c h i z o s p o r i s r u g u l a t u s C o o k s o n & Dettmann, 1959 * S c h i z o s p o r i s s p r i g g i i C o o k s o n & Dettman, 1959 S c o l e c o s p o r i t e s Lange & S m i t h , 1971 S c r i n i o d i n i u m campanula Gocht, 1959 1  100 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351  S e s t r o s p o r i t e s i r r e g u l a r i s ( C o u p e r ) Dettmann, 1963 * S p h e r i p o l l e n i t e s p s i l a t u s Couper, 1958 + S t a p l i n i s p o r i t e s c a m i n u s (Balme) P o c o c k , 1962 * S t e r e i s p o r i t e s a n t i q u a s p o r i t e s (Wilson & Webster) Dettmann, 1963 * S t e r e i s p o r i t e s p s i l a t u s ( R o s s ) Manum, 1962 T a n y o s p h a e r i d i u m sp. B ( c f B r i d e a u x , 1971) Tasmanites newtoni Wall, 1965 Tasmanites suevicus (Eisenack) Wall, 1965 Tasmanites tardus Eisenack, 1957 +Taurocusporites reduncus ( B o l k h o v i t i n a ) Stover, 1962 * T a x o d i a c e a e p o l l e n i t e s h i a t u s ( P o t o n i e ) Kremp, 1949 T i g r i s p o r i t e s r e t i c u l a t u s Singh, 1971 T i g r i s p o r i t e s scurrandus N o r r i s , 1967 * T o d i s p o r i t e s minor Couper, 1958 + s p o r e s p . A' (nov. gen.) + T r i l i t e s t u b e r c u l i f o r m i s Cookson, 1947 * T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s a p i v e r r u c a t u s Couper, 1958 * T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s crassus Brenner, 1963 T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s marylandensis Brenner, 1963 - f S t e l l a t o p o l l i s s p . ( c f B u r d e n , 1 984) T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s purverulentus ( V e r b i t s k a y a ) Dettmann, 1 963 + T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s t r i b o t r y s Dettmann, 1963 T r i l o b o s p o r i t e s t r i o r e t i c u l o s u s C o o k s o n & Dettmann, 1958 +Tripartina v a r i a b i l i s Maljavkina, 1949 U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s f o s s u l a t u s Singh, 1971 U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s pannuceus (Brenner) S i n g h , 1971 ^ U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s sp. ( c f Singh, 1971) * U n d u l a t i s p o r i t e s undulapolus Brenner, 1963 V e r r u c o s i s p o r i t e s a s y m m e t r i c u s ( C o o k s o n & Dettmann) Pocock, 1962 * V e r r u c o s i s p o r i t e s rotundus Singh, 1962 + T r i c o l p i t e s crassimurus ( G r o o t & Penny) S i n g h , 1971 + V e r y h a c h i u m r h o m b o i d i u m Downie, 1959 V i t r e i s p o r i t e s c f c r a i g i i Pocock, 1964 C i c a t r i c o s i s p o r i t e s potomacensis Brenner, 1963 V i t r e i s p o r i t e s p a l l i d u s (Reissinger) Nilsson, 1958 K l u k i s p o r i t e s p s e u d o r e t i c u l a t u s Couper, 1958 S p h e r i p o l l e n i t e s s c a b r a t u s Couper, 1958 R e t i c u l i s p o r i t e s s e m i r e t i c u l a t u s (Burger) N o r r i s , 1969 P i c e a p o l l e n i t e s sp. ( c f Singh, 1964) A p p e n d i c i s p o r i t e s t r i c o r n i t a t u s Weyland & G r e i f e l d , 1953 + C o o k s o n i t e s 'sp. A' (nov. sp.) 1  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 9 0
China 4 20
United Kingdom 4 4
Ukraine 2 0
Algeria 2 0
France 2 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 7 2
Ruthin 4 2
Ashburn 4 0
Beijing 2 0
Shenzhen 2 20
Boardman 2 0
Fremont 1 0
Mountain View 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0052785/manifest

Comment

Related Items