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Minor elements in sphalerite and their implications for metallogenesis of carbonate-hosted zinc-lead… McLaren, Graeme Peter 1978

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MINOR ELEMENTS IN SPHALERITE AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS  FOR METALLOGENESIS OF  CARBONATE-HOSTED ZINC-LEAD DEPOSITS OF THE YUKON TERRITORY AND ADJACENT DISTRICT OF MACKENZIE by GRAEME PETER MCLAREN B. S c . , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o ,  1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f G e o l o g i c a l  We a c c e p t t h i s  thesis  to the required  as  Sciences)  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA May, 19 78 © Graeme P e t e r M c L a r e n , 1978  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  written  thesis  make i t  freely available  that permission  It  for financial  is understood that gain shall  permission.  University of B r i t i s h  y9^?/? <^  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and this  Columbia  /9  y 95>#  not  copying or  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS  Date  for  the requirements  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  Depa rtment The  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  representatives.  this  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  be allowed without my  ii ABSTRACT  Minor element c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n s p h a l e r i t e from the newly d i s c o v e r e d carbonate-hosted  z i n c - l e a d d e p o s i t s i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and  adjacent  D i s t r i c t of Mackenzie have been determined  to d e f i n e the metallogeny  of  remote r e g i o n of the Canadian c o r d i l l e r a .  C o n c e n t r a t i o n s of s i l v e r ,  cadmium,  c o b a l t , copper,  i r o n , manganese, n i c k e l , l e a d , and m e r c u r y . i n  were analyzed i n 166  specimens from 48 d e p o s i t s ;  were i n v e s t i g a t e d a t a q u a l i t a t i v e l e v e l . ages of r e g i o n a l metallogeny; be r e p r e s e n t e d by  these two  this  sphalerite  an a d d i t i o n a l 13 elements  Minor element d a t a d e f i n e s  two  d i f f e r e n t m i n e r a l i z i n g p r o c e s s e s a l s o might  events.  S p h a l e r i t e i n the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a i s g e n e r a l l y e n r i c h e d i n  copper,  l e a d , and mercury, and d e p l e t e d i n i r o n , r e l a t i v e to o t h e r d i s t r i c t s c o n t a i n ing s i m i l a r zinc-lead deposits. darkness  of c o l o u r i n s p h a l e r i t e .  I r o n contents v a r y s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y w i t h Minor element v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n s i n g l e  hand specimens, and a n a l y t i c a l v a r i a t i o n s , are both i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i v e between-specimen v a r i a t i o n s , as r e v e a l e d by a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e .  to  Minor  element v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n s i n g l e d e p o s i t s are s m a l l r e l a t i v e to betweendeposit v a r i a t i o n s ;  t h e r e f o r e , each d e p o s i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  the minor  element assemblage of the s p h a l e r i t e i t h o s t s . R e g i o n a l l y , s p h a l e r i t e o c c u r r e n c e s i n carbonate h o s t rocks d o l o m i t e s ) occurs as b r e c c i a m a t r i x , v e i n , and age  fracture f i l l i n g s .  (dominantly Two  major  groups of h o s t r o c k s , P r o t e r o z o i c to Lower Cambrian, and M i d d l e O r d o v i c i a n  to Devonian, are s e p a r a t e d by an Upper Cambrian to M i d d l e O r d o v i c i a n u n i t t h a t i s bounded by u n c o n f o r m i t i e s and  i s r e l a t i v e l y b a r r e n of m i n e r a l o c c u r r e n c e s .  L i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of minor element r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e s d i f f e r e n t trends f o r each age group.  distinctly  P r o b a b i l i t y graph a n a l y s i s of a l l minor  iii element contents ' e n r i c h e d ' and  d e f i n e bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n s c o n s i s t i n g of  'depleted' populations  f o r most elements.  relatively  Geographic  distri-  b u t i o n s of s p h a l e r i t e ' e n r i c h e d ' i n minor elements c o r r e l a t e c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h geographic Sphalerite  d i s t r i b u t i o n s of P r o t e r o z o i c and Lower Cambrian host  ' d e p l e t e d ' i n minor elements o c c u r s dominantly. i n O r d o v i c i a n to  Devonian h o s t  rocks.  A s i n g l e p e r i o d of s p h a l e r i t e d e p o s i t i o n i s inadequate observed  rocks.  minor element p a t t e r n s .  c o r r e l a t i n g i n geographic  Two  d i s t i n c t minor element  d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h two  rocks i n d i c a t e t h a t at l e a s t two  to e x p l a i n the  separate  age  populations groups of h o s t  independant m e t a l l o g e n i c events  l e d to  the  sphalerite mineralization. A major s h a l e b a s i n , l i k e l y dewatering associated only with  the O r d o v i c i a n to Devonian h o s t s , whereas major uncon-  f o r m i t i e s and p a l e o p h y s i o g r a p h i c are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  to produce m e t a l - r i c h b r i n e s , i s  elements s u g g e s t i v e o f k a r s t i c  the P r o t e r o z o i c and Lower Cambrian h o s t s .  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n suggests  t h a t these d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s might be  f o r the d i f f e r e n t minor element c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o u t l i n e d . of two  m e t a l l o g e n i c events, one  d u r i n g Middle  environments A regional responsible  T h e r e f o r e , a model  to L a t e Cambrian, and  d u r i n g L a t e Devonian o r l a t e r , i s proposed to e x p l a i n the s p a t i a l and r e l a t i o n s between minor element p o p u l a t i o n s and host age s p h a l e r i t e d e p o s i t s i n carbonate  r o c k s of the n o r t h e r n  another temporal  d i s t r i b u t i o n s of  cordillera.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF FIGURES  v i i  LIST OF TABLES LIST OF PLATES  x •  x i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xiii  CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION  1  1.1  The Nature of Minor Element S t u d i e s and T h e i r A p p l i c a b i l i t y to t h e N o r t h e r n Canadian C o r d i l l e r a  1  1.2  Review o f R e l a t e d Minor Element L i t e r a t u r e  3  1.3  O b j e c t i v e s and O u t l i n e o f P r e s e n t Study  9  CHAPTER 2 : MINOR ELEMENTS IN SPHALERITE  12  2.1  G e n e r a l P r i n c i p l e s o f Minor Element I n c o r p o r a t i o n  12  2.2  ZnS C r y s t a l Chemistry  14  2.3  Elements Recorded as Minor C o n s t i t u e n t s i n S p h a l e r i t e  22  2.3.1  Elements Most Commonly Recorded i n S p h a l e r i t e  23  2.3.2  Elements L e s s Commonly Recorded i n S p h a l e r i t e  28  CHAPTER 3 : THE SPHALERITE SAMPLE SUITE AND ITS MINOR ELEMENT ANALYSIS  31  3.1  S p h a l e r i t e Sample S u i t e D e s c r i p t i o n  31  3.2  Sample P r e p a r a t i o n  32  3.3  A n a l y t i c a l Procedures  34  3.3.1  Emission Arc Spectroscopy  34  3.3.2  Atomic A b s o r p t i o n S p e c t r o s c o p y  35  3.3.3  Mercury A n a l y s i s  41  .  V  3.4  A n a l y t i c a l Results  46  3.5  A p p l i c a b i l i t y of Results  53  CHAPTER 4 : REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF THE NORTHERN YUKON AND ADJACENT DISTRICT OF MACKENZIE  62  4..1  Introduction  62  4.2  Stratigraphy  64  4.3  Structural Styles  77  4.4  Regional Synthesis: Mineralization  P o t e n t i a l f o r Strata-bound Z i n c - L e a d  CHAPTER 5 : MINOR ELEMENTS IN SPHALERITE FROM THE NORTHERN YUKON AND ADJACENT DISTRICT OF MACKENZIE  80  85  5.1  G e o l o g i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S p h a l e r i t e Occurrences i n the Northern C o r d i l l e r a  85  5.2  Minor Element C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S p h a l e r i t e Northern C o r d i l l e r a  97  5.3  Analysis  o f Minor Element  from the  Distributions  101  5.3.1  Analysis  of Variance  101  5.3.2  I n t e r - e l e m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n and R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s  105  5.3.3  R e g i o n a l Geographic D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Minor Elements  108  5.4  Comparison of Minor Element Contents i n S p h a l e r i t e from the N o r t h e r n C o r d i l l e r a w i t h Other Areas and Types of :•[.!„. Mineralization  132  5.5  Colouration  136  i n Sphalerite  from t h e N o r t h e r n C o r d i l l e r a  CHAPTER 6 : INTERPRETATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH and D i s c u s s i o n :  Implications  for:  144  6.1  Interpretations Metallogenesis  ."'  144  6.2  Summary  153  6.3  Conclusions  154  6.4  Suggestions f o r F u t u r e Research  155  vi BIBLIOGRAPHY  157  APPENDIX A : GEOLOGIC AND MINERALOGIC DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL DEPOSITS  166  APPENDIX B : REGIONAL GEOLOGIC MAP AND CORRELATION CHART  203  APPENDIX C : CALCULATIONS OF ANALYTICAL PRECISION AND ANALYSES OF VARIANCE  206  C.l  Analytical Precision  207  C.2  Analyses of Variance  209  APPENDIX D : APPLICATION OF PROBABILITY GRAPHS  228  vii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE  PAGE  1- 1  MAJOR EXPLORATION CAMPS OF THE NORTHERN CORDILLERA  2- 1  CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC  2-2  ATOMIC PACKING AND COORDINATION  2- 3  CHALCOPYRITE AND STANNITE STRUCTURES DERIVED FROM THE SPHALERITE STRUCTURE  19  3- 1  COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR SILVER, CADMIUM, AND COBALT IN SPHALERITE 'STANDARDS'  43  3-2  COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR COPPER AND MANGANESE IN SPHALERITE 'STANDARDS'  44  3-3  COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR IRON AND LEAD IN SPHALERITE 'STANDARDS'  45  3- 4  VARIATIONS IN MINOR ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS ACROSS A ZONED SPHALERITE CRYSTAL AND IN TWO ADJACENT MASSIVE SPECIMENS  53  4- 1  PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE NORTHERN CORDILLERA  63  4-2  REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF THE NORTHERN CORDILLERA  65  4-3  PALEO-PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE NORTHERN CORDILLERA  66  4-4  DIAGRAMMATIC CROSS-SECTION, SELWYN BASIN TO MACKENZIE MOUNTAINS  68  4-5  TIME-SPACE PROJECTION OF MACKENZIE MOUNTAINS, WERNECKE MOUNTAINS, AND SELWYN BASIN STRATIGRAPHY  69  4- 6  TECTONIC ELEMENTS AND STRUCTURAL TRENDS OF THE NORTHERN CORDILLERA  78  5- 1  INDEX MAP OF ZINC-LEAD DEPOSITS STUDIED  86  5-2  BAR GRAPHS SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF DEPOSITS RELATIVE TO AGES OF HOST ROCKS  91  5-3  GEOGRAPHIC  93  5-4  BAR GRAPHS SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF DEPOSITS RELATIVE TO HOST LITHOLOGY  STRUCTURES OF SPHALERITE AND WURTZITE IN SPHALERITE  DISTRIBUTION OF HOST ROCK AGE GROUPS  4 16 17  94  viii FIGURE  PAGE  5-5  BAR GRAPHS SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF DEPOSITS RELATIVE TO MODE OF EMPLACEMENT OF MINERALIZATION  95  5-6  SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF CORRELATIONS AMONG ELEMENTS FOR 166 SAMPLE ANALYSES AND 48 DEPOSIT MEAN VALUES  107  5-7  SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF CORRELATIONS AMONG ELEMENTS FOR SPHALERITE TAKEN FROM PROTEROZOIC AND LOWER CAMBRIAN HOST ROCKS AND FROM ORDOVICIAN, SILURIAN, AND DEVONIAN HOST ROCKS  107  5-8  SCATTER DIAGRAM OF SILVER VERSUS MANGANESE  109  5-9  SCATTER DIAGRAM OF CADMIUM VERSUS MERCURY  110  5-10  SCATTER DIAGRAM OF IRON VERSUS MANGANESE  111  5-11  GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF SILVER IN SPHALERITE  114  5-12  GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF COBALT IN SPHALERITE  116  5-13  GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER IN SPHALERITE  118  5-14  GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF IRON IN SPHALERITE  120  5-15  GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN SPHALERITE  122  5-16  GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF CADMIUM IN SPHALERITE  124  5-17  GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF 'COMBINED METALS' IN SPHALERITE  127  5-18  GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF ANTIMONY IN SPHALERITE  129  5-19  GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF CHROMIUM IN SPHALERITE  130  5-20  GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF TIN IN SPHALERITE  131  5-21  DISTRIBUTION OF SOME MINOR ELEMENTS RELATIVE TO COLOUR IN SPHALERITE FROM BINNATAL SWITZERLAND  137  5-22  PLOT OF COLOUR VERSUS MEAN ANALYTICAL VALUE FOR FOUR ELEMENTS  139  5- 23  PLOT OF MINOR ELEMENT CONTENT OF CO-EXISTING GREEN AND ORANGE SPHALERITE GRAINS  142  6- 1  STRUCTURALLY CONTROLLED MIGRATION PATHS FOR DEWATERING BASINAL SOLUTIONS  146  ix FIGURE  PAGE  6-2  DISTRIBUTION OF ORDOVICIAN TO DEVONIAN AGED HOST ROCKS RELATIVE TO 'DEPLETED' POPULATIONS OF FOUR ELEMENTS  148  6-3  REGIONAL MINERALIZATION DUE TO TWO METALLOGENIC EVENTS  150  A-l  CALIBRATION CURVE DEFINING DEVIATION IN TEMPERATURE BETWEEN CONSOL READ OUT AND STAGE TEMPERATURE  196  C-l  SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF SAMPLE SEPARATIONS AND GROUPINGS FOR PRECISION AND ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE CALCULATIONS  208  C-2  TABULATION OF CALCULATIONS FOR AN ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE  210  D-1  PROBABILITY GRAPHS  230  X  LIST OF TABLES TABLE  PAGE  2-1  ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION OF Zn AND S ATOMS  17  2-2  TETRAHEDRAL COVALENT RADII, AND IONIC CHARGE AND RADII, OF SOME ELEMENTS COMMONLY FOUND SUBSTITUTING IN THE SPHALERITE STRUCTURE  20  2- 3  CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PRINCIPAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF  21  THE MINERALS OF THE SPHALERITE AND WURTZITE GROUPS 3- 1  GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLES AND SAMPLE LOCATIONS  32  3-2  EMISSION ARC SPECTROSCOPY DETECTION LIMITS  36  3-3  ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OPERATING CONDITIONS AND DETECTION LIMITS  38  3-4  PAIRED PRECISION TESTS  39  3-5  ATOMIC ABSORPTION ANALYSES OF STANDARD'MATERIALS  3-6  EMISSION ARC SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYTICAL RESULTS  47  3-7  ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYTICAL RESULTS  50  3-8  CORRELATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS  57  3-9  MINIMUM DEVIATIONS DISCERNIBLE ON ATOMIC ABSORPTION UNITS  59  3-10  INTERPRETATION OF ANOMALOUS DATA^ IN TERMS OF MINERALOGIC DATA AVAILABLE  61  5-1  GEOGRAPHIC AND GEOLOGIC INFORMATION FOR 166 SPECIMENS STUDIED  87  5-2  REGIONAL SUMMARY OF QUANTITATIVE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYTICAL RESULTS  98  5-3  REGIONAL SUMMARY OF EMISSION SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYTICAL RESULTS  5-4  MEAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR 48 DEPOSITS  5-5  CORRELATION MATRICES AMONGST EIGHT ELEMENTS FOR 166 SAMPLE-ANALYSES AND 48 DEPOSIT MEAN VALUES  106  5-6  POPULATIONS AND APPROXIMATE THRESHOLD VALUES DERIVED FROM PROBABILITY PLOTS  112  42  1  101  .  104  xi TABLE  PAGE  5-7  TABULATION OF MEAN ANALYTICAL VALUES OF MINOR ELEMENTS SPHALERITE FROM DIFFERENT LOCATIONS AND TYPES OF MINERALIZATION  5-8  MEAN ANALYTICAL RESULTS OF SOME ELEMENTS FOR FOUR COLOUR GROUPS IN SPHALERITE  140  A-l  FLUID INCLUSION AND LAST MELTING HOMOGENIZATION DATA FOR INCLUSIONS IN MINERALS ASSOCIATED WITH CARBONATE-HOSTED ZINC-LEAD DEPOSITS, Y.T. AND N.W.T.  195  A-2  SULPHUR ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF GALENA-SPHALERITE PAIRS FROM CARBONATE-HOSTED ZINC-LEAD DEPOSITS, N.W.T.  197  B-l  SOURCES USED IN COMPILATION OF THE REGIONAL GEOLOGIC MAP  204  B-2  REGIONAL  205  C-l  SEVENTEEN TRIPLICATED SAMPLE ANALYSES  212  C-2  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF TRIPLICATED SAMPLES  216  C-3  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE:  BETWEEN AND WITHIN DEPOSITS  220  C-4  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE:  BETWEEN AND WITHIN COLOUR CATEGORIES  224  CORRELATION  IN  CHART  133  xii .LIST OF PLATES PLATE  PAGE  A-l  BRECCIA TEXTURES  198  A-2  BRECCIA TEXTURES  . 1 9 9  A-3  BRECCIA TEXTURES  200  A-4  VEIN TEXTURES  201  A-5  VUG AND CAVITY FILLING TEXTURES  202  xiii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d t o Dr. C o l i n I . Godwin f o r c o n c e i v i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t and p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ;  numerous i d e a s were generated i n  e n t h u s i a s t i c d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h i s p r o j e c t w i t h h i m and h i s encouragement and f r i e n d s h i p a r e much a p p r e c i a t e d .  Dr. A. J . S i n c l a i r p r o v i d e d a s s i s t a n c e i n  the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a and h i s s u p p o r t and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m at a l l s t a g e s o f t h e r e s e a r c h i s acknowledged.  Drs. R. L. A r m s t r o n g , J . A.  McDonald, E. P. Meagher, and J . W. Murray a l l c r i t i c a l l y r e a d p a r t s o f t h e manuscript. C o n s i d e r a b l e a d v i c e on a n a l y t i c a l methods and t e c h n i q u e s was g i v e n by Mike and Ann Waskett-Myers. Azger Bentzen.  Computing problems were s o l v e d w i t h the h e l p o f  S p e c i a l thanks i s extended t o K a r e n Medford f o r t y p i n g t h e  f i n a l draft of the thesis. S p h a l e r i t e specimens from t h e n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a were  generously  donated by numerous government and e x p l o r a t i o n company g e o l o g i s t s ; a l i s t o f these c o n t r i b u t i n g s o u r c e s f o l l o w s t h i s acknowledgement. F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h from t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development, from A r c t i c and A l p i n e Research, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged.  and from The  xiv I n d i v i d u a l s and c o m p a n i e s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s p h a l e r i t e study of c a r b o n a t e - h o s t e d z i n c - l e a d d e p o s i t s of the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and a d j a c e n t D i s t r i c t o f M a c k e n z i e . Mr. R. H e w t o n Rio T i n t o Canadian Vancouver, B.C.  Exploration Ltd.  Mr. Tony H i t c h i n s Amax E x p l o r a t i o n s , Vancouver, B.C.  Inc.  D r . D. C r a i g Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n R e s o u r c e s W h i t e h o r s e , Y.T.  Mr. A r n i e B i r k e l a n d Mclntyre Mines L t d . Vancouver, B.C.  D r s . S. B l u s s o n a n d K. D a w s o n G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada V a n co u v e r , B.C.  Mr. J o h n B r o c k Welcome N o r t h M i n e s L t d . Vanocuver, B.C.  Mr. M i k e M a c l n n e s Great P l a i n s Development of Canada L t d . Calgary, Alberta  M r . C o l i n V. Dyson UMEX B u r n a b y , B.C.  Co.  Mr. P e t e r T e g a r t Serem L t d . V a n co u v e r , B.C. M r . Bob C a t h r o A r c h e r , C a t h r o , and W h i t e h o r s e , Y.T.  Dr. Hugh M o r r i s Cominco L t d . V a n co u v e r , B.C. Associates Ltd.  Mr. L e n S a l e k e n Western Mines L t d . Vancouver,"B.C.  Mr. B e r t R e e v e B a r r i e r Reef Resources L t d . Vancouver, B.C.  M r . R.E. G o r d o n D a v i s Cyprus A n v i l M i n i n g Corp. Vancouver, B.C.  Getty Mines L t d . Vancouver, B.C.  Noranda E x p l o r a t i o n L t d . W h i t e h o r s e , Y.T.  H u s d o n Bay E x p l o r a t i o n D e v e l o p m e n t Co. L t d . V a n co u v e r , B.C.  and  Texasgulf Inc. Vancouver, B.C.  1 CHAPTER 1:  1.1  The  INTRODUCTION  Nature of M i n o r Element S t u d i e s and t h e i r A p p l i c a b i l i t y t o the N o r t h e r n Canadian C o r d i l l e r a  S p h a l e r i t e , being  the most abundant s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l a f t e r p y r i t e ,  i n a wide range of g e o l o g i c environments, from low d e p o s i t s to much h i g h e r  temperature h y d r o t h e r m a l  temperature v e i n s and massive s u l p h i d e ore b o d i e s ,  hence, i t i s o f s i g n i f i c a n t  importance i n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on  c o n d i t i o n s of ore f o r m a t i o n .  D e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o the  a f f i l i a t i o n s of s p h a l e r i t e , aimed at d i s c e r n i n g i t s modes of and  deposits.  and  and  the  geochemical  precipitation  i t s c o n t r o l s on, o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e r i v e d from, o r e g e n e r a t i o n , a i d i n  d e v e l o p i n g g e n e t i c models and  of  occurs  i n determining  e x p l o r a t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r such  J u s t as m i n e r a l o g i c r e l a t i o n s between minor and major c o n s t i t u e n t s  an ore body can a i d i n d e f i n i n g the p h y s i o c h e m i c a l of r e g i o n a l metallogeny,  nature  so the r e l a t i o n s between Zn and  of ore s o l u t i o n s S, and  the  less  abundant n o n — s t o i c h i o m e t r i c elements t h a t might be i n c l u d e d i n s p h a l e r i t e , provide  i n f o r m a t i o n on the c h a r a c t e r of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l  grains  or on the c h a r a c t e r of z i n c d e p o s i t s .within a r e g i o n . V a r i o u s elements can be i n c l u d e d i n s p h a l e r i t e through isomorphous s u b s t i t u t i o n and  these a r e commonly present  i n amounts of a few weight  solid percent  (such as cadmium or manganese) but might amount to 10 weight percent  or more  (such as i r o n ) .  present  However, many other elements are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  i n q u a n t i t i e s r a n g i n g from b a r e l y d e t e c t a b l e t r a c e s t o a few Due  hundreds of  ppm.  to the range i n f a c t o r s c o n t r o l l i n g these v a r i a t i o n s i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n , a l l  l e v e l s from 10 ppm  to 10 weight percent might be of s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e i n  c o n t r i b u t i n g knowledge to s p h a l e r i t e geochemistry,  hence the term "minor"  element i s a p p l i e d as a more g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of c o n c e n t r a t i o n l e v e l s considered.  "Minor" i s used i n p r e f e r e n c e to the term " t r a c e " , which i s f a r  2 more r e s t r i c t i v e Specifically,  i n use because i t r e f e r s o n l y to v e r y s m a l l  " t r a c e " would not  i n the weight percentage  i n c l u d e d i s c u s s i o n of c o n c e n t r a t i o n s recorded  ranges,  even when these abnormally  might be of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e . a "minor" element study, and  quantities.  high values  No p r e c i s e c u t - o f f l e v e l i s i m p l i e d i n  t h i s term i s more a p p l i c a b l e i n t h i s  thesis.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o the minor c o n s t i t u e n t s of s p h a l e r i t e have been i n progress f o r many y e a r s , and study. and  V a r i o u s authors  t h i s p r o v i d e s a s u b s t a n t i a l background f o r t h i s  have analyzed  for different  s u i t e s of minor elements  have r e p o r t e d t h e i r r e s u l t s w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of c e r t a i n t y .  i n p a r t due  to 1) the c h o i c e of a n a l y t i c a l methods a v a i l a b l e ,  of i n t e r e s t a t the time, and  This i s  2) the elements  3) the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s t a n d a r d m a t e r i a l s to  compare a n a l y t i c a l a c c u r a c y w i t h .  T h e r e f o r e the r a r e s t u d i e s which d e f i n e d  the l i m i t a t i o n s of the a n a l y s e s , the completeness of the minor c o n s t i t u e n t r e c o r d , and  t h e i r a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s compared to standards, a r e much more  v a l u a b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f comparative l i m i t a t i o n s do not are i n v a l i d .  data  i s required.  Nevertheless,  these  imply t h a t the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from minor element s t u d i e s  F o r example, S t o i b e r (1940) drew the same c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t  DeLaunay and U r b a i n  (as quoted i n S t o i b e r , i b i d . ) r e c o g n i z e d as e a r l y as  namely t h a t d e p t h of v e i n f o r m a t i o n of f o r m a t i o n ) and  ( i n t e r p r e t e d as a measure of  temperature  t h a t m e t a l l o g e n i c p r o v i n c e s c o u l d be d e f i n e d by the minor  element c o n t e n t s of s p h a l e r i t e .  S i m i l a r s t u d i e s have been undertaken i n the  c o r d i l l e r a of the U n i t e d S t a t e s o u t l i n i n g m e t a l l o g e n i c p r o v i n c e s based minor element content  (Rose, 1970;  C o r d i l l e r a south of 60° l a t i t u d e 1945).  1912,  Burnham, 1959), and (Evans et a l . , 1968;  on  i n the Canadian Warren and  Thompson,  Thus the a n a l y s i s o f s p h a l e r i t e appears to be a v e r y u s e f u l t o o l i n  p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n r e l a t i v e l y p o o r l y known regions. A s p h a l e r i t e minor element study a p p l i e d t o the newly d i s c o v e r e d a t e hosted  z i n c - l e a d d i s t r i c t of the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a was  designed  carbonto  3 d e f i n e r e g i o n a l geochemical  p a t t e r n s i n t h i s r e l a t i v e l y unknown a r e a .  s i v e m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n w i t h i n t h i s r e g i o n , encouraged  Exten-  by i n d i c a t i o n s of  zinc-  l e a d p o t e n t i a l i n the n o r t h e r n Rocky Mountains of B r i t i s h Columbia  in  dates o n l y from 1972,  interest  yet i n the succeeding t h r e e years i n c r e a s i n g  1970,  l e d t o the s t a k i n g o f some 18,000 c l a i m s i n the Mackenzie Mountains a l o n e ( F i g u r e 1-1)(Brock,  1975) .  Brock  (1976) concluded  that e x p l o r a t o r y d r i l l i n g  on some of the more promising showings i n d i c a t e d o r e p o t e n t i a l s o f 10-20 l i o n tons o f seven percent combined z i n c and River).  T h i s i n t e r e s t and  lead  ( e . g . Goz  Creek,  mil-  Bear, Gayna  p o t e n t i a l promoted t h i s r e s e a r c h i n t o the d e s c r i p -  t i v e r e g i o n a l m e t a l l o g e n y of the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a , w i t h the i n t e n t of gaining insight mineralization.  i n t o g e n e t i c models r e l a t i n g  T h i s t h e s i s i s an e v a l u a t i o n of the minor element content  of the s p h a l e r i t e s from t h i s r e g i o n . knowledge of the geochemical northern c o r d i l l e r a . r e g i o n a l geochemical of the Canadian  1.2  s t r a t i g r a p h y , t e c t o n i c s and  The  primary i n t e n t i s to broaden t h e  nature o f the s p h a l e r i t e i n 'ores' of the  The r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t f i l l s  a gap, by o u t l i n i n g  n a t u r e , as i n d i c a t e d by the minor elements  c o r d i l l e r a n o r t h of 60°  the  i n sphalerite,  latitude.  Review o f R e l a t e d Minor Element L i t e r a t u r e  Minor  element s t u d i e s have been u t i l i z e d b e s t to determine  variations  i n the chemical c h a r a c t e r of c e r t a i n m i n e r a l s r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r g e n e s i s and to the r e g i o n i n which t h e y o c c u r .  More s p e c i f i c data r e g a r d i n g the  geo-  thermometry of p a r t i c u l a r d e p o s i t s has been c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g some minor elements  but t h e s e s t u d i e s tend to be h i g h l y r e s t r i c t e d  in applicability  due  to s p e c i f i c p h y s i o c h e m i c a l c r i t e r i a which must be confirmed p r i o r to a p p l i cation.  Much work has been done on s p h a l e r i t e i n terms o f i t s o c c u r r e n c e  i n s p e c i f i c types of d e p o s i t s (e.g. s t r a t a bound c a r b o n a t e — h o s t e d , v e i n ,  and  4  FIGURE 1-1 MAJOR EXPLORATION CAMPS OF THE NORTHERN CORDILLERA ( a f t e r Brock, 1975). Hatched area r e p r e s e n t s t h e r e g i o n a l e x t e n t of d e p o s i t s examined i n t h i s t h e s i s .  5 kuroko  types) and w i t h i n s p e c i f i c m e t a l l o g e n i c p r o v i n c e s ( e . g . metal  zones  w i t h i n the N o r t h American c o r d i l l e r a , and v a r i o u s M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y m i n i n g districts) . Mercer  (1976) r e c e n t l y summarized t h e p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e  minor elements i n o r e s found i n sedimentary r o c k s .  regarding  B r i e f l y , he  describes  s t r a t a bound carbonate—hosted d e p o s i t s  ( M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y - t y p e ) as b e i n g  generally deficient  ( s i l v e r i s u s u a l l y l e s s than 20  i n p r e c i o u s metals  ppm,  g o l d i s r a r e l y d e t e c t e d ) and e n r i c h e d i n cadmium and germanium.  He notes the  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of v a r i o u s a r e a s on the b a s i s of s p e c i f i c minor  element  assemblages,  most of w h i c h are d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l below.  Warren and Thompson (1945), i n one of the e a r l i e r r e g i o n a l  studies,  determined that western Canada, as a m e t a l l o g e n i c p r o v i n c e , produces e r i t e w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y h i g h g o l d and t i n v a l u e s and low germanium and vanadium v a l u e s .  gallium,  Furthermore, they determined t h a t many  i n d i v i d u a l mining d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n western Canada tend to e x h i b i t i s t i c minor  element assemblages.  m e t a l l o g e n i c p r o v i n c e was ic  sphal-  character-  Hence they concluded that the o v e r a l l •,  e s t a b l i s h e d through r e g i o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y of  specif-  elements and i n t e r n a l v a r i a t i o n s were developed by secondary c o n t r o l s of  temperature and d e p o s i t t y p e . In a more r e c e n t study of western Canadian c a r b o n a t e — h o s t e d l e a d - z i n c d e p o s i t s , Evans et a l . (1968) a n a l y z e d s p h a l e r i t e f o r i r o n , cadmium, manganese and s e l e n i u m .  D i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e s e minor  elements were r e l a t e d  l o g r a p h i c parameters and were thought to r e f l e c t of the d e p o s i t s . minor  to c r y s t a l -  the temperature o f f o r m a t i o n  Sulphur i s o t o p e r a t i o s , r e l a t e d p a r a g e n e t i c sequences  element c o m p o s i t i o n d a t a l e d to the development  and  o f a model f o r the  o r i g i n of t h e d e p o s i t s where " o r e " m e t a l s were p r e c i p i t a t e d out of connate b r i n e s , i n a manner s i m i l a r to the p r o p o s a l by B e a l e s and J a c k s o n (1966) . Jonasson and Sangster (1974), from the a n a l y s i s o n l y of the mercury  6 c o n t e n t s of s p h a l e r i t e from mines throughout  Canada, confirmed  the c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c v a r i a t i o n s of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r element w i t h i n m e t a l l o g e n i c r e g i o n s i n Canada, as w e l l as w i t h d e p o s i t type, host r o c k age, paragenetic a s s o c i a t i o n s .  and  to a l e s s e r  S p e c i f i c a l l y they s t a t e d t h a t s p h a l e r i t e i n v o l c a n -  o g e n i c d e p o s i t s c o n t a i n e d more mercury than carbonate-hosted t h a t grouping  of host r o c k ages r e f l e c t e d  from P r o t e r o z o i c to Phanerozoic t i o n s w i t h age  extent,  d e p o s i t s , and  a d e c r e a s i n g abundance of mercury  to Archean age  groups.  They r e l a t e d  varia-  to p e r i o d s of i n c r e a s e d mercury m o b i l i t y and d e p o s i t i o n d u r i n g  t e c t o n i c d i s t u r b a n c e s ; t h i s p o i n t , however, appears to r e q u i r e f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n u s i n g a broader Sangster  and L i b e r t y  and more d e t a i l e d d a t a b a s e .  (1971) were a b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h , on the b a s i s of  minor element c o n t e n t s , d i a g e n e t i c a l l y formed c o n c r e t i o n a r y s p h a l e r i t e from non-concretionary  s p h a l e r i t e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h z i n c — l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n hosted  w i t h i n the same carbonate  f o r m a t i o n i n t h e Bruce P e n i n s u l a , O n t a r i o ,  c r e t i o n a r y s p h a l e r i t e tended i n l e a d , manganese and Copper, n i c k e l , and  to be r i c h e r i n cadmium and  i r o n and  depleted  chromium r e l a t i v e to the n o n - c o n c r e t i o n a r y  s i l v e r were n o n - d i a g n o s t i c .  Con-  sphalerite.  T h i s simple case  illustrates  that mode of f o r m a t i o n of the s p h a l e r i t e , even when s p a t i a l l y v e r y  closely  r e l a t e d , can be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n c o n t r o l l i n g the c o n t e n t s of minor elements. On a more r e g i o n a l s c a l e , Burnham (1959) was  a b l e to c h a r a c t e r i z e t h r e e  d i s t i n c t m e t a l l o g e n i c b e l t s of h i g h t r a c e element c o n t e n t , which a r e genera l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the b e l t — l i k e d i s t r i b u t i o n of major ore d e p o s i t s , i n southwestern  U,S.A. and n o r t h e r n M e x i c o .  t h e b a s i s of the geographic  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  m e t a l c o n t e n t " i n c h a l c o p y r i t e , and content"in sphalerite.  M e t a l l o g e n i c b e l t s were d e f i n e d (1) t i n , s i l v e r , and  (2) the s l i v e r and  "combined  e v e n l y throughout  it.'  "combined metal  P r o v i n c e s w i t h i n each b e l t were d i s t i n g u i s h e d on  b a s i s t h a t the elements c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the o v e r a l l b e l t s were not F o r example, a p r o v i n c e of p a r t i c u l a r l y  on  the  distributed  silver—  7 e n r i c h e d s p h a l e r i t e was e s t a b l i s h e d and important were found to occur w i t h i n t h i s b e l t .  silver-bearing minerals  Burnham i n d i c a t e d t h a t h i s m e t a l l o g e n i c  b e l t s were r e l a t i v e l y c o i n c i d e n t w i t h the r e g i o n a l  'orogenic b e l t s ' d e s c r i b e d  by B i l l i n g s l e y and Locke (1941) and concluded t h a t t h e g r o s s t e c t o n i c and m e t a l l o g e n i c f e a t u r e s were r e l a t e d t o fundamental  deep seated c o m p o s i t i o n a l  h e t e r o g e n e i t i e s and a s s o c i a t e d p h y s i c a l d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s  (Burnham, i b i d . , p .  70). Rose  (1967, 1970) demonstrated  t h a t minor c o n s t i t u e n t s o f s p h a l e r i t e  and c h a l c o p y r i t e can c h a r a c t e r i z e mining  d i s t r i c t s i n the western U.S.A., as  w e l l as p r o v i n c e s w i t h i n each d i s t r i c t .  C l a s s i c a l l y zoned hydrothermal  depos-  i t s w i t h i n these d i s t r i c t s gave r i s e t o c o n s i d e r a b l e s m a l l s c a l e z o n a t i o n i n i n d i v i d u a l s p h a l e r i t e c r y s t a l s , as w e l l as l a t e r a l and v e r t i c a l  zonations  about  t o mask t h e  the deposit.  T h i s v a r i a b i l i t y , however, was i n s u f f i c i e n t  apparent d i s t i n c t i o n s between d i s t r i c t s , a l t h o u g h no s t a t i s t i c a l proof f o r t h i s was g i v e n . of o r e f l u i d  Rose r e l a t e d the o r i g i n s o f the p a t t e r n s t o s e p a r a t e surges  o f p o s s i b l e magmatic o r i g i n .  R e g a r d l e s s o f the g e n e t i c i n t e r -  p r e t a t i o n , t h i s study f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s t h e dominance o f r e g i o n a l  availability  of elements  how m e t a l -  over the f i n a l minor element c o n t e n t and demonstrates  l o g e n i c p r o v i n c e s might be determined  on t h i s  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f minor elements  basis.  i n o r e and h o s t r o c k s of some  M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y mining d i s t r i c t s has demonstrated  ( H a l l and H e y l , 1968)  that these c o n s t i t u e n t s o f s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a a r e d i s t i n c t w i t h i n each district.  Furthermore,  the r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s o f some elements  these m i n e r a l s can a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d i s t r i c t s .  between  I n one c a s e , a l i m i t e d  amount of d a t a i n d i c a t e d a z o n a l arrangement of minor elements  over a r a d i u s  of 20 to 25 m i l e s , c e n t e r e d on what was a p r o b a b l e f e e d e r b r e c c i a f o r t h e ores.  The authors concluded  the major elements heated  t h a t t h e minor elements  from the source r o c k s  were l e a c h e d along w i t h  ( i n t h i s case, basement r o c k s ) v i a  o i l f i e l d b r i n e s ( c f . Evans e t a l . , 1968; and Doe and Delevaux,  1972).  8 E l S h a z l y e t a l . (1957) s t u d i e d a number o f e p i g e n e t i c and s y n g e n e t i c samples of s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a from d e p o s i t s i n the B r i t i s h  I s l e s which  e x h i b i t e d a wide range o f f o r m a t i o n temperatures (as determined from g e o l o g i c r e l a t i o n s and m i n e r a l o g i c assemblages) .  T h e i r f i n d i n g s confirmed the p r e v a l -  ent o p i n i o n (of t h a t time) t h a t h i g h temperature s p h a l e r i t e s were e n r i c h e d i n indium, manganese, and t i n , and t h a t low temperature s p h a l e r i t e s i s t i c a l l y c o n t a i n e d g a l l i u m , germanium, and antimony.  character-  I n those d e p o s i t s  s p a t i a l l y r e l a t e d t o I n t r u s i v e s , and t h e r e f o r e thought to be r e l a t e d to h y d r o thermal ( i . e . i n f e r r e d h i g h e r temperature) c o n t r o l s , a z o n a t i o n of minor elements was  found.  S y n g e n e t i c d e p o s i t s c o n t a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y low minor  c o n t e n t s and i n t h i s way spatially related Rosique  resembled low temperature d e p o s i t s .  element  A comparison of  s t r a t i f o r m and v e i n s p h a l e r i t e i n F r a n c e by H a l f o n and  (1973) produced somewhat d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s , i n d i c a t i n g  that  vein  samples o f s p h a l e r i t e ( a g a i n , i n f e r r e d h i g h e r temperature) c o n t a i n e d more germanium, c o b a l t , copper, s i l v e r , and t i n , w h i l e the d i s p e r s e d  stratiform  s p h a l e r i t e c o n t a i n e d more barium, manganese, n i c k e l , vanadium, and chromium. A different  spectrum o f elements were determined i n t h i s study than by E l  S h a z l y et a l . ( i b i d . ) hence they a r e not d i r e c t l y comparable.  However, i t  i s apparent t h a t t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s c o n f l i c t w i t h H a l f o n and Rosique on t h e degree of i n c l u s i o n of manganese and germanium i n s p h a l e r i t e r e l a t i v e  to the  temperature of f o r m a t i o n , thereby s u g g e s t i n g o t h e r c o n t r o l s , such as r e g i o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y , might be more s i g n i f i c a n t . Minor elements i n s p h a l e r i t e i n kuroko—type d e p o s i t s o f the Shakani Mine, Japan, were i n v e s t i g a t e d by Nishiyama  (1974) .  Sphalerite i n this  environment  tends t o be e n r i c h e d i n manganese, cadmium, g a l l i u m , and mercury r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r o r e m i n e r a l s such as t e n n a n t i t e , g a l e n a , and c h a l c o p y r i t e .  Iron contents  i n s p h a l e r i t e were found to be r e l a t i v e l y low when compared to s p h a l e r i t e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r types of Japanese o r e d e p o s i t s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of minor elements, p a r t i t i o n e d d u r i n g  crystallization  9 between two  c o — e x i s t i n g host s u l p h i d e s (e.g. cadmium i n s p h a l e r i t e and  has been used  t o determine  and B a r t o n , 1971;  temperatures  M a c l n t i r e , 1963).  of f o r m a t i o n of ore d e p o s i t s  H a l l et a l . (1971) found  p r o m i s i n g r e s u l t s f o r both manganese and and  galena) (Bethke  t h i s method gave  cadmium d i s t r i b u t e d between s p h a l e r i t e  galena from the Darwin Mine, C a l i f o r n i a .  Nash  (1975) found, by a p p l y i n g  t h i s t e c h n i q u e t o s p h a l e r i t e from the Mayflower Mine, Utah, t h a t the b e s t tempe r a t u r e e s t i m a t e s were 100°C h i g h e r than those o b t a i n e d from f l u i d  inclusion  homogenization  i n this  temperatures.  Only  c o g e n e t i c s u l p h i d e s can be used  method and a n a l y t i c a l accuracy must be extremely h i g h s i n c e the element of i n t e r e s t i s o f t e n p r e s e n t i n o n l y t r a c e q u a n t i t i e s i n one  of the m i n e r a l s .  I r o n c o n t e n t s i n s p h a l e r i t e tend to i n c r e a s e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g of f o r m a t i o n and  temperature  t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p has been i n v e s t i g a t e d as a u s e f u l  mometer f o r many y e a r s  (Barton and K u l l e r u d , 1958;  S c o t t and Barnes,  T h i s technique r e q u i r e s a p r e c i s e knowledge of i r o n s a t u r a t i o n and  geother— 1972) .  sulphur  f u g a c i t y a t the time of p r e c i p i t a t i o n of the m i n e r a l , hence i t s a p p l i c a t i o n was  restricted  to e q u i l i b r i u m assemblages o f p y r i t e , p y r h o t i t e , and  More r e c e n t work ( C r a i g and S c o t t , 1974)  has  shown t h a t the mole p e r c e n t  i n s p h a l e r i t e can v a r y a p p r e c i a b l y at a g i v e n temperature p r e c i s e d a t a on temperature  of f o r m a t i o n cannot be o b t a i n e d .  Furthermore,  T h e r e f o r e use of i r o n c o n t e n t s i n s p h a l e r i t e as an i n d i c a t o r of  1.3  tempera-  (below 300°C) and phase r e l a t i o n s a r e v e r y p o o r l y d e f i n e d f o r t h i s  of f o r m a t i o n appears  FeS  o r p r e s s u r e , hence  the e x p e r i m e n t a l c a l i b r a t i o n d a t a i s l a r g e l y e x t r a p o l a t e d to lower tures  sphalerite.  range.  temperature  to have been i n v a l i d a t e d .  O b j e c t i v e s and O u t l i n e of P r e s e n t  Study  D i s t r i b u t i o n s of minor elements i n s p h a l e r i t e , as d i s c u s s e d above, are of demonstrated use  i n d e f i n i n g the o v e r a l l geochemical  nature of a r e g i o n  10 and any minor p r o v i n c e s w i t h i n t h a t r e g i o n .  P a t t e r n s r e c o g n i z e d might  i n response e i t h e r t o t h e r e g i o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f elements localized geological factors  develop  o r to more  (source or h o s t rock c o m p o s i t i o n ,  temperature o f  f o r m a t i o n , t e c t o n i c h i s t o r y , metamorphic or i n t r u s i v e events, e t c . ) .  The  o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s study, t h e r e f o r e , were t o : 1)  gather and a n a l y z e the minor element c o n t e n t of as many s p h a l e r i t e samples as p r a c t i c a l from a g e o c h e m i c a l l y r e l a t i v e l y unknown broad area o f t h e n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a n carbonate b e l t , t o d e f i n e t h i s aspect o f i t s geochemical n a t u r e , and t o o u t l i n e m e t a l l o g e n i c p r o v i n c e s w i t h i n i t ;  2)  determine a g e o l o g i c a l and g e n e t i c b a s i s f o r any m e t a l l o g e n i c p r o v i n c e s or trends found i n the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f elements, and  3)  compare these r e s u l t s w i t h p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d d a t a to determine the uniqueness o f t h e n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a n sphalerites.  P r e s e n t a t i o n o f these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s commences w i t h a r e v i e w of the nature o f the o c c u r r e n c e o f minor elements Discussed are:  i n s p h a l e r i t e i n Chapter  2.  (1) g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f minor element i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o a  c r y s t a l l i n e substance,  (2) the c r y s t a l c h e m i s t r y o f ZnS, and (3) a summary o f  possible substituents i n sphalerite.  Chapter  3 d e s c r i b e s the c o l l e c t i o n o f  the sample s u i t e , i t s p r e p a r a t i o n and a n a l y s i s , and along w i t h r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d , d i s c u s s e s the p r o b a b l e e r r o r s o u r c e s i n the method and any l i m i t a t i o n s introduce into the study.  these  Chapter 4 d e s c r i b e s t h e geology o f t h e f i e l d  area  of i n t e r e s t t o g e t h e r w i t h a s y n t h e s i s o f f e a t u r e s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s t r a t a bound carbonate—hosted,  zinc—lead deposits.  Chapter 5  c h a r a c t e r i z e s the n a t u r e o f t h e sampled d e p o s i t s o f the r e g i o n and o f the s p h a l e r i t e samples themselves,  prior  to p r e s e n t i n g the i n t e r p r e t i v e  techniques  a p p l i e d t o t h e a n a l y t i c a l data and t h e r e s u l t i n g element d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s . The r e s u l t s a r e then compared w i t h p u b l i s h e d data from o t h e r r e g i o n s and deposit types.  F i n a l l y a b r i e f statement  i s made c o n c e r n i n g the p o s s i b l e  c h e m i c a l agents t h a t might be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o l o u r a t i o n seen i n t h e specimens.  An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , found i n  11 Chapter 6, i s f o l l o w e d by ern c o r d i l l e r a .  c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the metallogeny  Suggestions  f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h designed  conclus i o n s o f t h i s paper are made as w e l l .  of the n o r t h -  to s u b s t a n t i a t e the  A d e t a i l e d compilation of  infor-  mation a v a i l a b l e on each d e p o s i t , a r e g i o n a l c o r r e l a t i o n c h a r t and map  refer-  ences, and  tech-  niques,  a t a b u l a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l  are p r o v i d e d i n the Appendices.  and  g r a p h i c a l data m a n i p u l a t i o n  12 CHAPTER 2:  2.1  MINOR ELEMENTS IN SPHALERITE  G e n e r a l P r i n c i p l e s of Minor Element I n c o r p o r a t i o n  Analysis  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e minor elements i n s p h a l e r i t e  requires  a knowledge of f a c t o r s c o n c e r n i n g the c r y s t a l c h e m i s t r y o f the h o s t as i t r e l a t e s t o t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f t h e minor elements.  Atomic bonding  i s t i c s a r e o f prime importance i n p r e d i c t i n g which elements might substitute  i n the s p h a l e r i t e s t r u c t u r e .  tural co-ordination,  characterconceivably  However, e l e c t r o n e g a t i v i t y ,  complex i o n f o r m a t i o n and o t h e r f a c t o r s w i l l a l l have  e f f e c t s on the i n c l u s i o n o f minor elements d u r i n g c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n . f a c t o r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d below, i n i t i a l l y i n the l i g h t governing i n c o r p o r a t i o n the  struc-  These  of t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s  o f minor elements i n any m i n e r a l , and secondly, i n  s p e c i f i c case f o r s p h a l e r i t e . The  s u b s t i t u t i o n of one element f o r another i s v e r y common and i s  accomplished  i n a v a r i e t y o f ways:  1. isomorphous s o l i d s u b s t i t u t i o n : s u b s t i t u t i o n of a c a t i o n or a n i o n i n t o a r e g u l a r atomic p o s i t i o n , w i t h o n l y minor s t r u c t u r a l u n i t d i s r u p t i o n , and w i t h a compensation f o r charge d i f f e r e n c e s between the s u b s t i t u t i n g and replaced ions, 2. i n t e r s t i t i a l solid substitution: acceptance o f r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l i o n s o r atoms i n t o the i n t e r s t i c e s o f a c r y s t a l , : w i t h no replacement o f h o s t ions o r atoms, ;  3. adsorption: the adherence of atoms o r i o n s as t h i n f i l m s on a c r y s t a l s u r f a c e o r i n s t r u c t u r a l i m p e r f e c t i o n s and d i s l o c a t i o n s ( i m p u r i t i e s can cause such d i s l o c a t i o n s ) , and 4. a b s o r p t i o n : i n c o r p o r a t i o n of f l u i d or s o l i d i n c l u s i o n s w i t h i n a growing c r y s t a l , o f t e n due t o r a p i d growth around adsorbed i m p u r i t i e s . Only s o l i d s o l u t i o n s u b s t i t u t i o n can be q u a n t i f i e d  a c c o r d i n g to c r y s t a l  l a t t i c e parameters, hence much r e s e a r c h i n t o minor element c o n t e n t s has r e l a t e d s o l i d s o l u t i o n s u b s t i t u t i o n t o s p h a l e r i t e u n i t c e l l edge dimensions  13 (Grafenauer e t a l , , 1969; Evans e t a l . , 1968). absorbed  I n c l u s i o n o f adsorbed and  m a t e r i a l can be h i g h l y v a r i a b l e , r e s u l t i n g i n random c h e m i c a l  v a r i a t i o n s , c o n t r o l l e d i n p a r t . b y the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f "contaminants".  Such  i n c l u s i o n s can, n e v e r t h e l e s s , be s i g n i f i c a n t because they can r e f l e c t the b u l k c o m p o s i t i o n o f s p h a l e r i t e forming  solutions.  T r o s h i n and T r o s h i n a (1965) have attempted  t o i n d i c a t e the s t a b i l i t y o f  ore f l u i d c o m p o s i t i o n and p h y s i o c h e m i c a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n parameters by r a n k i n g the mechanics o f minor element i n c o r p o r a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the s t a b i l i t y o f element c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . by s o l i d tion.  They propose t h a t s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d  s o l u t i o n i n c l u s i o n , w h i l e e r r a t i c c o n d i t i o n s l e a d t o random  I n t h i s way they have attempted  absorp-  to e x p l a i n v e r t i c a l z o n a t i o n and  minor element d i s p e r s i o n i n the ore d e p o s i t s o f the Severny  Akatui region,  U.S.S.R. Much o f the b a s i s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g how and why minor elements i n t o h o s t l a t t i c e s was l a i d (1937).  down i n t h r e e s i m p l i f i e d r u l e s by  substitute  Goldschmidt  These can be paraphrased a s : 1. atoms o r i o n s w i t h a r a d i u s w i t h i n 15%"*" o f t h e s u b s t i t u t e d i o n and w i t h a s i m i l a r charge s u b s t i t u t e f o r each o t h e r r e a d i l y ; atoms o r i o n s competing i n t h i s manner w i l l be admitted i n a p r o p o r t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r abundances; i n t h i s way the minor element i s "camouflaged" by the major element, 2. atoms o r i o n s w i t h the proper charge b u t too l a r g e a r a d i u s f o r easy s u b s t i t u t i o n tend t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t o the l i q u i d phase, t h a t i s , i n t o the l a t e r c r y s t a l l i z i n g f r a c t i o n s , and 3. when atoms o r i o n s w i t h s i m i l a r r a d i i , b u t d i f f e r e n t charges, compete f o r a p o s i t i o n i n the s t r u c t u r e , the element w i t h the g r e a t e r charge i s " c a p t u r e d " by the growing c r y s t a l s , t h a t i s , c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e e a r l y f r a c t i o n s , w h i l e the element w i t h the s m a l l e r charge i s "admitted" by the growing c r y s t a l s , or concentrated i n l a t e r f r a c t i o n s .  These r u l e s i n d i c a t e t h a t s p e c i f i c elements might c o n c e n t r a t e i n e a r l y o r  T h i s t o l e r a n c e may i n c r e a s e up to 25% under h i g h e r temperature (Day, 1963).  conditions  . 14 l a t e f r a c t i o n s o f a s p e c i f i c m i n e r a l , hence, l e a d i n g to the development zonations with respect to time.  They a l s o show t h a t s p e c i f i c elements may  s u i t e d to s p e c i f i c h o s t s and w i l l , high quantities  of be  as a r e s u l t , be found i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  (such as i r o n and cadmium i n s p h a l e r i t e ) .  However, these r u l e s r e f l e c t an o r i g i n a l s i m p l i f i e d view on the n a t u r e of minor element s u b s t i t u t i o n , and i t e v e n t u a l l y became apparent t h a t tions existed.  excep-  Most n o t a b l e were the d e v i a t i o n s developed i n the f i r s t s e t  of t r a n s i t i o n elements, scandium to z i n c .  For example,  z i n c was  found to  p r e f e r e n t i a l l y concentrate into sulphide minerals, or i f i n s i l i c a t e s ,  only  i n t o t e t r a h e d r a l l y c o - o r d i n a t e d atomic p o s i t i o n s , w h i l e Goldschmidt*s r u l e s p r e d i c t e d a much w i d e r range of s u b s t i t u t i o n  (Burns, 1970).  Therefore, other  f a c t o r s were found to account f o r the c o v a l e n t nature of bonding i n some elements (numbers 1 to 3 below) and f o r the v a r i a b i l i t y i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n of some elements  (numbers 4 and 5 below); these i n c l u d e ©'electronegativity  wood, 1955a), 2) c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e energies  (Ringwood,  (Ring-  1955b), 3) bond  (Burns, 1970), 4) a v a i l a b i l i t y and c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the s u b s t i t u e n t  a t the exact c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n s i t e  (Sims and B a r t o n , 1961), and 5) the  p h y s i o c h e m i s t r y of the c r y s t a l l i z i n g medium (pH, Eh, temperature, p r e s s u r e , complex  i o n f o r m a t i o n ) ( S i m s and B a r t o n , 1961).  F a c t o r s 4 and 5 a r e d i f f i c u l t  to s p e c i f y f o r the time of c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n and t h e i r e f f e c t s on the degree of minor element i n c l u s i o n are d i s p u t e d , hence i t appears t h a t the c r y s t a l c h e m i s t r y o f a host and i t s s u b s t i t u t i n g elements i s o f prime (Burns, 1970).  T h e r e f o r e , a d i s c u s s i o n o f s p h a l e r i t e c r y s t a l c h e m i s t r y and  of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f minor elements  2.2  importance  follows.  ZriS C r y s t a l Chemistry  The most common c r y s t a l l o g r a p h i c form o f z i n c s u l p h i d e i s s p h a l e r i t e  15 (3-ZnS), however, other due  i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d polymorphs e x i s t and  to t h e i r c l o s e , and u s u a l l y undetected, r e l a t i o n s h i p s to s p h a l e r i t e .  s t r u c t u r e of g-ZnS i s f a c e - c e n t e r e d ,  c u b i c , and  The  (a-ZnS), i s hexagonal and  second major polymorph, w u r t z i t e  ( F i g u r e 2-1).  The  d i f f e r e n t atomic s t a c k i n g sequences; up (Steinberger  e t a l . , 1973).  of temperature, as i t has erature  increases  close-packed  s t r u c t u r e s through  to 150  ZnS  ( F i g u r e 2-1) . close-packed  Polymorph s t a b i l i t y i s a p p a r e n t l y  been shown by Buck and  the symmetry of ZnS  Strock  s t r u c t u r e of w u r t z i t e .  Boyle and  (1955) t h a t as  structure  demonstrating  to 1020°C.  Above t h i s  More r e c e n t l y S c o t t  1  temp-  to the hexagonal  Jambor (1963) confirmed t h i s ,  temperature, a-ZnS i s the s t a b l e p o l y m o r p h .  record-  a function  decreases from the 4 - f o l d c u b i c  B-ZnS i s s t a b l e over the temperature range of 600  (1968) has  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s p h a l e r i t e - w u r t z i t e phase t r a n s i t i o n i s a l s o dependent and w u r t z i t e i s a p p a r e n t l y  sulphur  a p i c e s and  r o t a t e d through 60°  s t r u c t u r e i s a f a c e centered w i t h diamond and  i n tetrahedra  S atoms,-  t h a t are j o i n e d through t h e i r  r e l a t i v e to one  another.  The r e s u l t i n g  c u b i c arrangement ( F i g u r e 2-2), i s o s t r u c t u r a l  s i l i c o n carbide.  The  i o n i c model of s p h a l e r i t e , as  determined from the e l e c t r o n i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the Z n ^ ( T a b l e 2-1),  on  d e f i c i e n t r e l a t i v e to s p h a l e r i t e .  S t r u c t u r a l l y , the s p h a l e r i t e u n i t c e l l i s composed of Zn and each i n f o u r f o l d c o - o r d i n a t i o n ,  can  slightly  polymorphs have been  of s p h a l e r i t e through a 3 - f o l d rhombohedral m o d i f i c a t i o n ,  that  The  c r y s t a l l o g r a p h i c s i m i l a r i t i e s between these polymorphs  l e a d to an i n f i n i t e number of i n t e r m e d i a t e  ed  are of i n t e r e s t  r e v e a l s no f r e e e l e c t r o n s or i n c o m p l e t e l y  +  and  filled  S^  -  ions  electron shells  i n e i t h e r i o n , l e a d i n g to the observed p r o p e r t i e s of poor e l e c t r o c o n d u c t i v i t y , t r a n s p a r e n c y , and  decreased r e f l e c t i v i t y  (these  i n c r e a s i n g s u b s t i t u t i o n of f o r e i g n i o n s , n o t a b l y  1  properties Fe^ , +  change w i t h  i n t o the s t r u c t u r e ) .  a-ZnS i s s t a b l e at lower temperatures i n the presence of i n c r e a s e d Fe c o n t e n t ; i t appears s t a b l e to a p p r o x i m a t e l y 880°C w i t h 17 weight percent Fe (Stanton, 1972).  16  (a) S p h a l e r i t e  (b) Wurtzite FIGURE 2-1  CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC STRUCTURES OF- SPHALERITE (a) AND WURTZITE (b) The t e t r a h e d r a l stacking sequences (A,B, etc.) lead to cubic symmetry i n s p h a l e r i t e and hexagonal symmetry i n w u r t z i t e . The c-axis of w u r t z i t e i s a s i x f o l d screw axis i n v o l v i n g a t r a n s l a t i o n of one-half c f o r each 60° r o t a t i o n of the tetrahedra. . ( a f t e r Berry and Mason, 1959). I d e a l cubic s p h a l e r i t e i s o p t i c a l l y i s o t r o p i c , however i n c r e a s i n g disorder from the perfect stacking sequences, due to s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s l a t i o n s or f o r e i g n s u b s t i t u t i o n , leads to i n c r e a s i n g a n i s o t r o p i c b i r e f r i n g e n c e ( F l e e t , 1977). The covalent model of s p h a l e r i t e shows complete s a t u r a t i o n w i t h hybrid bonds and the development of s t a b l e s p hybrid o r b i t a l s (Griswold, 1968), J  henee the o v e r a l l bonding character i s e s s e n t i a l l y of a covalent nature w i t h a few i o n i c t r a i t s . In the w u r t z i t e s t r u c t u r e , the atoms are i n f o u r f o l d coordination and the tetrahedra are l i n k e d through t h e i r apices, however, they are not rotated r e l a t i v e to t h e i r neighbours and the c-axis i s elongated r e l a t i v e t o s p h a l e r i t e producing a hexagonal c l o s e packed u n i t .  Wurtzite may be preserved  17  a=5.406 A '  FIGURE 2-2 ATOMIC PACKING AND COORDINATION IN SPHALERITE ( a f t e r Berry and Mason, 1959) metastably through r a p i d quenching a f t e r p r e c i p i t a t i o n or p o s s i b l y a t low temperatures under s p e c i f i c physiochemical conditions; Vaughan (1974) i n d i c a t e s that some M i s s i s s i p p i Valley-type s p h a l e r i t e s may a c t u a l l y have  TABLE 2-1 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION OF Zn AND S ATOMS Element  Atomic Number  Ionic Charge  Zn  30  +2  S  16  -2  Electron . ^ Configuration [Ar], 4 s , 3 d 2  [Ar]  The [Ar] ' i n e r t ' core consists of completely f i l l e d I s , 2s, 2p, 3s, and 3p o r b i t a l s .  1 0  18 reverted  from a w u r t z i t e  precurser.  grown w i t h s p h a l e r i t e t o produce  W u r t z i t e i s a l s o found i n t i m a t e l y i n t e r -  'schalenblende which c o n s i s t s o f a l t e r n a t i n g 1  l a y e r s o f c u b i c and hexagonal l a y e r s  (Stanton, 1972) .  Atomic s u b s t i t u t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s between s p h a l e r i t e and w u r t z i t e to be u n i n v e s t i g a t e d , ZnS  appear  however, these a r e probably i n s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e hexagonal  and c u b i c ZnS m a i n t a i n c o n s t a n t i o n i c charges, i o n i c r a d i i , and  co-ordination The  numbers f o r the major elements.  sphalerite structure w i l l  1 2 2 i r o n , cadmium , and manganese , diadochic  t o l e r a t e s i g n i f i c a n t i n c o r p o r a t i o n of In n a t u r e , most s p h a l e r i t e s a r e a c t u a l l y  compounds o f ZnS w i t h FeS,  MnS, and CdS.  T h i s i s to be expected  as s p h a l e r i t e i s i s o s t r u c t u r a l w i t h a t l e a s t one polymorph of MnS and CdS, and  the c o v a l e n t  r a d i i o f z i n c , i r o n , manganese, and cadmium a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y  s i m i l a r t o encourage s u b s t i t u t i o n (Table 2-2). s p h a l e r i t e s t r u c t u r a l group (Table  2-3) i n c l u d e h a w l e y i t e  (HgS), t i e m a n n i t e (HgSe), and c o l o r a d o i t e within  L e s s common members o f t h e  (HgTe) .  (CdS), metacinnabar  A l l t h e elements p r e s e n t  these m i n e r a l s a r e r e l a t e d ; they occur i n s i m i l a r columns o f the  p e r i o d i c t a b l e and, hence, on a s t r u c t u r e and charge b a s i s , they can become minor c o n s t i t u e n t s  i n sphalerite.  Some common m i n e r a l s appear to be s t r u c t u r a l l y v e r y s i m i l a r to s p h a l e r i t e , , however due t o d i f f e r e n t major elements f i l l i n g s p h a l e r i t e s t r u c t u r e i s s l i g h t l y deformed. c h a l c o p y r i t e , where t h e c - a x i s ite  through a l t e r n a t e f i l l i n g  atoms, and s t a n n i t e  length  t h e l a t t i c e s i t e s , the t r u e  These " d e f e c t d e r i v a t i v e s " i n c l u d e  i s doubled r e l a t i v e t o t h a t of s p h a l e r ^  o f t e t r a h e d r a l p o s i t i o n s by copper and i r o n  (C^FeSnS/j.), where the z i n c l a t t i c e p o s i t i o n s o f the  s p h a l e r i t e model a r e o c c u p i e d by copper, i r o n , o r t i n ( F i g u r e  2-3).  I r o n contents a r e common up to 15 weight p e r c e n t and have been up to 26 weight p e r c e n t (Vaughan, 1976) . 2  Cadmium and manganese c o n t e n t s r a r e l y exceed 1 weight p e r c e n t ibid.) .  Bornite reported  (Vaughan,  19  is  structurally related  tetrahedral  to s p h a l e r i t e and  s i t e s i n the  chalcopyrite,  a n i o n s u b l a t t i c e are  FIGURE  filled  but  in  o n l y 3/4  of  the  bornite.  2-3  CHALCOPYRITE AND ST ANNITE STRUCTURES DERIVED FROM THE SPHALERITE STRUCTURE ( a f t e r A z a r o f f , 1960)  Greenockite  (CdS)  t h i s group i n c l u d e Any  of the  sphalerite  i s i s o s t r u c t u r a l with wurtzite  d e r i v a t i v e members o f  c u b a n i t e (CuFe2S3) p l u s some r a r e r s p e c i e s ( T a b l e 2-3) .  elements i n these m i n e r a l s r e p r e s e n t p o s s i b l e  substituents  in  the  structure.  Elements a b l e to e n t e r s t r u c t u r e s  s i m i l a r to t h a t o f s p h a l e r i t e , 2+  elements w i t h i o n i c r a d i i s i m i l a r to that commonly found as minor c o n s t i t u e n t s considerations than one  and  ( T a b l e 2-2).  i n h i b i t s u b s t i t u t i o n of an  from t h a t of the  of Zn  and  2or S  ions  are most  G e n e r a l l y charge b a l a n c e  i o n whose charge d i f f e r s by more  i o n , as o t h e r s u b s t i t u t i o n s must be made 2+ to compensate f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . For example, Sn would be expected to 2+ undergo o n l y l i m i t e d s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r Zn due to the s i z e d i f f e r e n c e s , and 4+ 2+ s i m i l a r l y Sn , even though of s i m i l a r r a d i u s to Zn , i s i n h i b i t e d from s u b s t i t u t i n g by s i n g l e Sn  4+  replaced  a charge b a l a n c e  i o n f o r two  Zn  Physiochemical factors  2+  ( i n some cases a l i m i t e d s u b s t i t u t i o n o f  i o n s might  a  occur).  c o n t r o l l i n g atomic s u b s t i t u t i o n s  are  sufficiently  TABLE 2-2 TETRAHEDRAL COVALENT RADII, AND IONIC CHARGE AND RADII, OF SOME ELEMENTS COMMONLY FOUND SUBSTITUTING IN THE SPHALERITE STRUCTURE ( i n A n g s t r o m s ) ( a f t e r A z a r o f f , 1960; and F l e i s c h e r , 1955).  1.04 -2 1.84 Mn  Fe  1.26 +2 0.80  1.23 +2 0.74  Co 1.32 +2 0.74  Ni 1.23 +2 0.69  Cu  Zn  Ga  Ge  1.35 +2 0.72  1.31 +2 0.74  1.26 +3 0.62  1.22 +2 0.73  Ag  Cd  In  Sn  1.53 +2 0.89  1.48 +2 0.97  1.44 +3 0.81  1.40 +2 0.93 +4 0.71  Hg  Pb  1.48 +2 1.10  1.46 +2 1.20 +4 0.84  As 1.18 +3 0.58  Se 1.14 -2 1.98  Sb  Te  1.36 +3. 0.76  1.36 -2 2.21  o  21 TABLE 2-3 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PRINCIPAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MINERALS OF THE SPHALERITE (a) AND WURTZITE (b) GROUPS ( a f t e r S t a n t o n , 1972)  Name "Simple"  Formula  Crystal system  Cell dimensions, A  Density  Hardness  Reflectivity  128-276  16.1-18.8  members  Sphalerite  ZnS CdS HgS HgSe HgTe  Hawleyite Metacinnabar Tiemannite Coloradoite "Derivative"  Cubic Cubic Cubic Cubic Cubic  a  a a  Tetragonal  a c a  =  5.28  =  10.41  =  5.46  c  =  10.725  Cubic  a  =  Tetragonal  a c  a b  =  6.41  =  7.42  c  =  6.15  =  5.406  4.096  a =  5.818  4.87  ?  =  5.854  7.65  73-86  =  6.069  8.30-8.47  26-39  25.5-29.2  =  6.444  8.04  23-28  36.2-37.7  4.1-4.3  174-245  42.5-44.0  4.3-4.5  171-307  27.1-28.0  10.21  4.6-5.1f  291-464  28.8-31.2t  =  5.38  4.50-4.65  315-397  25.1-28.7  =  10.76 4.45  133-358  24.7-28.1  a  ? 26.8  members  Chalcopyrite  CuFeS.  Stannite  Cu_FeSnS  Tetrahedritetennantite Famatinite  Tetragonal  4  (Cu,Ag,Fe) Sb S (Cu,Ag,Fe) _As Si3 Cu SbS 12  4  13  1  3  Enargite  Cu AsS 3  4  4  Orthorhombic  4  t Increases with increase in antimony and silver content,  (a) S p h a l e r i t e group m i n e r a l s  Name "Simple"  Crystal system  Formula  Cell dimensions, A  Density  Hardness Reflectivity  members  Wurtzite Greenockite  ZnS  Hexagonal  CdS  Hexagonal  a  =  3.820  c  ='  6.260  a  =  4.142  c  =  6.724  a b  =  6.43  =  11.04  c  4.089  146-274  17.4-18.2  52-91  19.0  4.03-4.18  150-260  39.2-42.5  6.38  158-249  36.0-41.5  4.95  193-285  37.1-43.0  4.101-4.215  40-74  32.0-40.0  4.9  "Derivative" members  Cubanite  Emplectite  Chalcostibite  Sternbergite  CuFe S 2  CuBiS  3  Orthorhombic  2  CuSbS,  AgFe S 2  Orthorhombic  Orthorhombic  3  Orthorhombic  (b) W u r t z i t e group m i n e r a l s  =  6.19  a = b =  6.13  c  3.89  =  14.51  a = b =  14.46  c  =  3.78  a b  =  6.61  =  11.64  c  =  12.67  6.01  22 v a r i a b l e t h a t they a r e b e s t examined i n accordance w i t h the l o c a l geology and assumed c o n d i t i o n s o f f o r m a t i o n .  The g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n o f i n c r e a s i n g  content, o f t e n complemented by i n c r e a s i n g manganese c o n t e n t Sims and B a r t o n , 1961) w i t h i n c r e a s i n g temperature  (Nash, 1975;  o f f o r m a t i o n has been  documented ( B a r t o n and K u l l e r u d , 1958; Sims and B a r t o n , 1961) . e x p l a n a t i o n o f simultaneous of elements  is difficult  However, the  i n d e p e n d e n t l y v a r y i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f a number  to e s t a b l i s h .  i n a t t e m p t i n g to e x p l a i n a unique  F o r example, T a y l o r and Radke  s i l v e r - c h l o r i d e correlation with  g r a i n s i n s o u t h e a s t M i s s o u r i , found no s i l v e r s u l p h i d e phases. from geochemical  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t submicron  or an o x y c h l o r i d e phase were d i s t r i b u t e d al.  iron  (1969),  sphalerite  They concluded  g r a i n s o f a complex c h l o r i d e  through the s p h a l e r i t e .  Parilov et  (1973) c o n c u r r e d w i t h t h i s c o n c l u s i o n from o b s e r v a t i o n s o f specimens from  c e n t r a l Kazakhstan, form from s o l i d inclusions.  U.S.S.R.; they suggested  t h a t t h e s i l v e r h a l i d e s might  s o l u t i o n w i t h s p h a l e r i t e o r be i n c l u d e d as s u b m i c r o s c o p i c  O v e r a l l , a number o f f a c t o r s , o f t e n i n c l u d i n g  'contamination',  are n e c e s s a r y t o account f o r the v a r i a t i o n s i n minor element c o n t e n t s .  2,3  Elements Recorded  As Minor  Constituents In Sphalerite  F a c t o r s c o n t r o l l i n g minor element i n c l u s i o n are s u f f i c i e n t l y  variable  t h a t o n l y g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the p r o b a b l e n a t u r e o f i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c element  ( i . e . isomorphous s o l i d  s u b s t i t u t i o n versus  'contamination'  from a f o r e i g n compound) or to the nature o f t h e c o n t r o l s imposed by o r e formation  (e.g. temperature,  f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n attempts  m e t a l l o g e n i c p r o v i n c e ) c a n be made h e r e . t o demonstrate  The  1) why a p a r t i c u l a r element might  s u b s t i t u t e i n t o the s p h a l e r i t e s t r u c t u r e , o r 2) how i t might become i n c l u d e d w i t h i n a s p h a l e r i t e sample. Canadian  S p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s determined  f o r western  s p h a l e r i t e s a r e I t e m i z e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h data r e l a t i n g t o the a v a i l -  23 a b i l i t y of s p e c i f i c  2.3.1  elements i n the Mackenzie f o l d b e l t .  Elements Most Commonly Recorded i n S p h a l e r i t e  Cadmium The  tetrahedral covalent  therefore why  radius  of cadmium i s c l o s e to t h a t of z i n c ,  i t r e a d i l y s u b s t i t u t e s i n t o the s p h a l e r i t e s t r u c t u r e .  cadmium i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y p r e s e n t i n s p h a l e r i t e .  must depend upon i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y i n ore  greenockite,  forming s o l u t i o n s .  the most common cadmium s u l p h i d e ,  Mackenzie f o l d b e l t . i c a l pathfinder  of  the  Cadmium c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  thus  Furthermore,  other m i n e r a l a c t s as a s i g n i f i c a n t h o s t f o r minor c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and  suggests  A c c o r d i n g to F l e i s c h e r  (1955) cadmium i s independent of the temperature of f o r m a t i o n and p a r a g e n e t i c d e p o s i t i o n a l sequence of s p h a l e r i t e .  This  no  o f cadmium,  i s r a r e l y reported  from  the  T h i s r e l a t i v e l y r a r e element c o u l d be used as a geochem-  for sphalerite in  exploration.  Cobalt 2+ Due  to a s i m i l a r i o n i c charge and  s i z e as  accepted i n t o the s p h a l e r i t e s t r u c t u r e and due  the Zn  ion, cobalt  i s commonly found t h e r e .  is readily However,  to i t s s i d e r o p h i l e n a t u r e i t i s more commonly found i n the i r o n and  sulphides,  therefore  c o b a l t may  be p r e f e r e n t i a l l y i n c l u d e d  chalco—  p y r i t e rather  than s p h a l e r i t e .  not  l a r g e and  a l l are uncommon i n the Mackenzie f o l d b e l t , however c o b a l t  has  been found a s s o c i a t e d w i t h uranium and  Wernecke Mountains could  f i n d no  (Laznicka,  systematic  The  i n p y r i t e or  copper  1977;  number of independent c o b a l t minerals' i s  Bell,  copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n 1978) .  r e l a t i o n between c o b a l t  temperature of f o r m a t i o n of the  Sims and  B a r t o n (1961)  c o n t e n t s and  s p h a l e r i t e samples.  the  the assumed  24 Copper Copper i s s t r o n g l y  sulphophile  and  formed over a wide temperature range. the  c u p r i c s t a t e and  concentrations.  therefore  c o n c e n t r a t e s i n many  I t i s r e a d i l y brought i n t o s o l u t i o n i n  i s u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n ground or ocean waters i n  O r i g i n a l l y copper was  believed  s p h a l e r i t e as i n c l u s i o n s of c h a l c o p y r i t e  t o be  (Warren and  s i m i l a r i o n i c charge, r a d i u s ,  and  Thompson, 1945;  weight p e r c e n t  Fleischer,  b o n d i n g , hence i t w i l l  r e a d i l y s u b s t i t u t e f o r z i n c i n the s p h a l e r i t e s t r u c t u r e .  to more than one  in  copper to have a  a f f i n i t y f o r covalent  minor c o n s t i t u e n t  low  dominantly i n c l u d e d  1955), however c r y s t a l l o g r a p h i c d a t a i n d i c a t e z i n c and  commonly r e p o r t e d  sulphides  Copper i s a  i n most s p h a l e r i t e a n a l y s e s and  can amount  ( E l S h a z l y et a l . , 1957).  Gallium Gallium, r e l a t i v e l y rare in sphalerite.  Strongly  s i l i c a t e structures  i n c r u s t a l abundance, appears to be  l i t h o p h i l e i n character,  easily.  compounds such as GaAs and  Discrete  GaSb are  concentrated  i t also enters i n t o alumino-  m i n e r a l s of g a l l i u m  i s o s t r u c t u r a l w i t h ZnS  are  r a r e , however  and  Warren  and  Thompson (1945) proposed coupled s u b s t i t u t i o n s of these compounds f o r ZnS sphalerite.  Day  Ga2S3 w i t h ZnS.  (1963) suggested p o s s i b l e l o c a l s o l i d Graesex:  (1969) found g a l l i u m  i a t e d with a r s e n i c - r i c h sulphosalts;  s o l u t i o n o f GaS  absent from s p h a l e r i t e  t h i s might i n d i c a t e t h a t g a l l i u m  in  or assocprefers  a r s e n i c a l compounds i n p r e f e r e n c e to a s p h a l e r i t e h o s t .  Germanium Germanium i s a r e l a t i v e l y r a r e element and appears to depend on  One  i n sphalerite  i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y within a metallogenic province.  p h i l e t e n d e n c i e s a r e i n d i c a t e d because a few known.  i t s concentration  germanium s u l p h i d e  of these permits i n t e r c h a n g e of Ge  2+  and  Zn  2+  ions  Sulpho-  minerals  are  (germanite  -  25 Cu-jCGe, Ga, Fe, Zn) (As,S)4) (Roberts et a l . , 1974). covalent for  considerations  I n a d d i t i o n , i o n i c and  i n d i c a t e that germanium can s u b s t i t u t e i n t o  sphalerite  zinc.  Indium Indium i s a common c o n s t i t u e n t cassiterite. reported,  o f some s u l p h i d e s ,  sulphosalts,  C o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f up to 5,000 ppm indium i n s p h a l e r i t e have been  but the reason f o r t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s obscure  is generally  and o f  concentrated i n deposits  (Day, 1963).  Indium  thought t o form a t medium t o h i g h  temperature ranges ( F l e i s c h e r , 1955; E l S h a z l y e t a l . , 1957),, but due t o i t s relative rarity,  r e g i o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y i s a p p a r e n t l y o f importance.  Iron I r o n i s abundant (up t o f i v e p e r c e n t , Day 1963) i n t h e c r u s t o f the earth and e x h i b i t s a wide range o f geochemical a f f i n i t i e s . substitutes  It readily  i n t o the s p h a l e r i t e s t r u c t u r e due t o s i m i l a r i o n i c  to z i n c , and might be present i n abundance i n some samples. i s sometimes n o t d i s c u s s e d  as a 'minor' element.  properties  As a r e s u l t i t  A general trend  of i n c r e a s -  ing degree o f s u b s t i t u t i o n o f i r o n f o r z i n c i s noted w i t h i n c r e a s i n g a t u r e by v a r i o u s  authors  ( C r a i g and S c o t t ,  1974; Sims and Barton, 1961) and  i r o n content has a l s o been l i n k e d t o c o l o u r a t i o n  (the h i g h e r i r o n c o n t e n t s  y i e l d i n g darker s p h a l e r i t e ) , however t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not exact and  temper-  (Roedder  Dwornik, 1968).  Lead Lead.: i s g e n e r a l l y u b i q u i t o u s i n the e a r t h and i s found i n a wide v a r i e t y of compounds.  I t exists either i n a divalent of tetravalent  s t a t e , however  n e i t h e r o f these s u i t a b l y meets the I o n i c requirements o f s u b s t i t u t i o n i n the sphalerite structure.  Sims and B a r t o n (1961) have i n d i c a t e d t h a t l e a d  will  26 substitute for zinc to a limited degree . 1  i a t e d w i t h ores o f z i n c .  Contamination  Lead m i n e r a l s a r e commonly a s s o c -  of s p h a l e r i t e with galena  inclusions  i s l i k e l y a prime source o f l e a d i n many s p h a l e r i t e a n a l y s e s .  Manganese Manganese i s a common c o n s t i t u e n t i n most s p h a l e r i t e .  T h i s can be  p r e d i c t e d by i o n i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and by the c r y s t a l l o g r a p h y o f MnS and ZnS . Manganese, due t o i t s geochemical  s i m i l a r i t y to:'iron, tends t o vary  sympath-  e t i c a l l y w i t h i r o n contents i n s p h a l e r i t e , and hence a l s o tends, i n g e n e r a l , to c o n c e n t r a t e i n d e p o s i t s thought  t o form a t h i g h e r temperatures.  and cadmium c o n t e n t s have been noted  Manganese  to vary d i r e c t l y w i t h each o t h e r  ( C h a k r a b a r t i , 1967), and i n one i n s t a n c e , manganese has been d i r e c t l y  related  to c o l o u r a t i o n (Graeser, 1969) .  Mercury Mercury can o c c u r as atomic  i n c l u s i o n s i n s p h a l e r i t e ( W a t l i n g , 1974),  most l i k e l y due t o i t s s i m i l a r c o v a l e n t bonding  character with z i n c .  l a r g e i o n i c r a d i u s , however, i n h i b i t s s u b s t i t u t i o n .  Being a h i g h l y v o l a t i l e  metal, mercury i s p a r t i c u l a r l y m o b i l e under hydrothermal result  i t seems t o be r e a d i l y t r a n s p o r t e d i n t o  (1968) determined  c o n d i t i o n s and as a  sedimentary  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s tend t o be h i g h e r than i n igneous r o c k s and H e y l  The  r o c k s where i t s  (Day, 1963).  t h a t mercury was a common and widespread  Jolly constit-  uent o f s p h a l e r i t e from z i n c d e p o s i t s o f c e n t r a l and e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s and suggest  t h a t t h i s element may be o f use i n p r o s p e c t i n g f o r s i m i l a r  zinc  m i n e r a l i z a t i o n ( c . f . Ozerova, 1959). Occurrences  o f s t i b n i t e and c i n n a b a r  (HgS) have been found  i n the  Sims and B a r t o n ( i b i d . ) presumed t h a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f up t o a few hundred ppm l e a d r e p r e s e n t s t h e approximate l i m i t o f s o l i d s o l u t i o n o f g a l e n a i n s p h a l e r i t e a t t h e temperature o f f o r m a t i o n o f t h e i r samples.  27/ Mackenzie Mountain b e l t , and (M_Arthur, M.,  1911,  r e c e n t l y n a t i v e mercury l o c a l i t i e s have been found  p e r s . comm.) which i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s element might  be  available regionally.  Nickel N i c k e l appears to be  a l e s s common c o n s t i t u e n t  quoted i n t r a c e amounts i n some r e p o r t s 1974); o f t e n i t i s not  determined.  of s p h a l e r i t e but  (Sangster and  Covalent radius  L i b e r t y , 1971;  and  charge  is Nishiyama,  similarities  w i t h z i n c suggest t h a t n i c k e l may  s u b s t i t u t e i n t o s p h a l e r i t e , however i n c l u -  s i o n s o f n i c k e l i f e r o u s p y r i t e and  c h a l c o p y r i t e have been suggested as a s o u r c e  of t h i s element i n a n a l y s e s  ( F l e i s c h e r , 1955) .  Silver Most authors  ( F l e i s c h e r , 1955;  contents i n s p h a l e r i t e to be i o n i c and  covalent  due  E l S h a z l y e t a l . , 1957)  to i n c l u d e d  r a d i i of s i l v e r do not  However, P a r i l o v e t a l . (1973, p. s p h a l e r i t e "show t h a t A g  +  enters  336)  impurities.  Ag  Slightly  silver large  promote easy s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r z i n c .  i n d i c a t e t h a t luminesenee: s p e c t r a  d i r e c t l y i n t o the m i n e r a l and  z i n c , t o g e t h e r w i t h charge compensating elements: +  believe  Ag  +  w i t h Ge  also 3+  of  replaces  or In  3+  and  3+ w i t h TI  ".  They a l s o suggest t h a t a r g e n t i a n  s o l i d s u b s t i t u t i o n w i t h s p h a l e r i t e occurs due  tetrahedrite-tennantite  to s i m i l a r c r y s t a l s t r u c t u r e s .  Tin Higher c o n c e n t r a t i o n s medium to h i g h  of t i n i n s p h a l e r i t e tend to be found i n those  temperature d e p o s i t s  s t a n n i t e or c a s s i t e r i t e .  The  ( E l S h a z l y , 1957)  which a l s o  l o c a l i z a t i o n of t i n d e p o s i t s  areas suggests t h a t r e g i o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y of t i n i s a l s o cher (1955) has  suggested t h a t t i n can  contain  to s p e c i f i c  important.  small  Fleis-  substitute for zinc, despite i o n i c  28 s i z e and charge d i f f i c u l t i e s and  stannite crystals  and s t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between s p h a l e r i t e  ( F i g u r e 2-3) enhances t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y .  Canada, Warren and Thompson (1945) found a metallogenic b e l t  I n western  that s p h a l e r i t e containing t i n defines  and i s more common than c a s s i t e r i t e .  Preliminary explor-  a t i o n f o r t i n might t h e r e f o r e be guided by t i n a n a l y s e s o f s p h a l e r i t e .  2.3.2  Elements L e s s Commonly Recorded i n S p h a l e r i t e  Ant imony Antimony i s r e l a t i v e l y r a r e i n c r u s t a l abundance, hence i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n might be c o n t r o l l e d p r i m a r i l y by i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y w i t h i n a m e t a l l o g e n i c ince.  I t i s c h a l c o p h i l e i n n a t u r e and tends t o c o n c e n t r a t e i n lower  ature d e p o s i t s ( E l S h a z l y e t a l . , 1957).  I o n i c charge d i f f e r e n c e s  s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r z i n c , however, H a l l and Czamanske (1972) determined copper  prov-  temper-  inhibit that  and antimony might make c o u p l e d s u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r z i n c i n s p h a l e r i t e .  Two common m i n e r a l s o f antimony, s t i b n i t e can be found  (Sb2S^) and j a m e s o n i t e  (Pb4FeSb6Sj4)  i n the Mackenzie f o l d b e l t and antimony was f r e q u e n t l y found i n  s p h a l e r i t e s of western  Canada (Warren and Thompson, 1945), but always w i t h  i n c l u s i o n s of other minerals  (particularly galena).  Arsenic A r s e n i c tends to c o n c e n t r a t e i n t o s u l p h i d e o r e b o d i e s i n a wide range of m i n e r a l s .  I t tends t o complex w i t h o t h e r i o n s (such as g a l l i u m ) t o form  u n i t s i s o s t r u c t u r a l w i t h ZnS. substitute into  I n t h i s way m o l e c u l e s b e a r i n g a r s e n i c might  sphalerite.  Bismuth Bismuth, analogous  t o antimony, i s r a r e i n c r u s t a l abundance and shows  29 a marked c h a l c o p h i l e  nature.  Its i o n i c character  to that of z i n c to make i t a s u i t a b l e s u b s t i t u e n t reported  i n s p h a l e r i t e s from w e s t e r n Canada but  by o t h e r m i n e r a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s e l e n i d e s and  and  i s not  sufficiently similar  i n sphalerite.  It is  c o n t a m i n a t i o n of  sphalerite  tellurides, is likely  (Warren  Thompson, 1945) .  Chromium Chromium does not  appear to be  a likely  s p h a l e r i t e based on i o n i c charge and r a r e l y found.  Due  to the  radius  candidate f o r i n c l u s i o n i n r e l a t i o n s ; the d i v a l e n t  r e l a t i v e r a r i t y of chromium, r e g i o n a l  state i s  availability  i s l i k e l y o f importance i n i n f l u e n c i n g i n c l u s i o n of chromium i n s p h a l e r i t e .  Selenium L i t t l e d a t a has it  been accumulated on selenium, m a i n l y due  u s u a l l y i s absent or p r e s e n t only  i s almost e x c l u s i v e l y c h a l c o p h i l e  i n n a t u r e and  s u l p h u r i n m i n e r a l s of heavy m e t a l s . and  i t might be  which are  i n trace quantities  I t may  important i n s u b s t i t u t i o n s  i s o s t r u c t u r a l with  to i t s r a r i t y ;  i n sphalerite.  occurs most o f t e n  replace  It  replacing  sulphur i n s p h a l e r i t e  of m o l e c u l a r u n i t s  (SbSe, HgSe)  ZnS.  Tellurium Tellurium  i s r e l a t i v e l y r a r e and  not  often reported  however i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h selenium makes i t a p o s s i b l e sulphur.  Warren and  i n sphalerite, substituent  Thompson (1945) noted i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h bismuth i n  s p h a l e r i t e from w e s t e r n Canada i n d i c a t i n g p r o b a b l e c o n t a m i n a t i o n by t e l l u r i d e minerals.  for  bismuth  30 Vanadium Ionic • z i n c can  r u l e s suggest o n l y a l i m i t e d amount of s u b s t i t u t i o n o f vanadium f o r  occur.  Warren and  Thompson (1945) d e c i d e d r e g i o n a l  the main f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g the vanadium content of  This  list  i s not  c o n s i d e r e d to be  those most u s e f u l i n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g ( i . e . metallogenic b e l t s ) . describing  ore  was  sphalerite.  complete i n d e s c r i b i n g  found i n s p h a l e r i t e , however i t i n c l u d e s  availability  a l l the  elements  those elements commonly found,  s p e c i f i c deposits or b e l t s of  and  deposits  A l l of the above elements have been used i n  samples w i t h i n  a deposit  or on  have been'documented as p o t e n t i a l l y v a l u a b l e  a regional indicators.  s c a l e , and  therefore  31 CHAPTER 3:  3.1  THE  SPHALERITE SAMPLE SUITE AND  ITS MINOR ELEMENT ANALYSIS  S p h a l e r i t e Sample S u i t e D e s c r i p t i o n  D u r i n g the s p r i n g and  summer of 1975,  e x p l o r a t i o n companies i n v o l v e d  z i n c - l e a d e x p l o r a t i o n i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and T e r r i t o r y were c o n t a c t e d any  by Dr.  C o l i n I . Godwin, who  carbonate-hosted showings l o c a t e d d u r i n g  activities.  Any  s p h a l e r i t e was  the a d j a c e n t  Northwest  r e q u e s t e d samples from  t h e i r summer e x p l o r a t i o n  samples were a c c e p t e d , however, c o a r s e g r a i n e d  p r e f e r a b l e , as  a l s o were r e q u i r e d .  The  crystalline  samples s u i t a b l e f o r f l u i d i n c l u s i o n s t u d i e s  purpose was  to b u i l d a r e g i o n a l c o l l e c t i o n ,  from  carbonate h o s t e d s p h a l e r i t e - - g a l e n a showings, which c o u l d form the b a s i s a s e r i e s of ongoing r e s e a r c h  projects.  The  Samples were taken e i t h e r by p r o s p e c t o r s  QT  separate l o c a t i o n s .  geologists involved i n  1) r e c o n n a i s s a n c e e x p l o r a t i o n , or 2) d e t a i l e d mapping and  Therefore,  diamond d r i l l c o r e s ,  development ( i . e .  e t c . ) of the l a r g e r , more p r o m i s i n g  t h e r e i s a broad spectrum i n a c t u a l s p h a l e r i t e samples  from l a r g e b o u l d e r s of e s s e n t i a l l y pure s p h a l e r i t e , through c r y s t a l l i n e and o n l y as v e r y  granular  of  consequent c o l l e c t i o n forms a  somewhat unique group of samples from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100  trenches,  in  showings. ranging  coarsely  samples of s p h a l e r i t e , to s p h a l e r i t e which o c c u r s  f i n e disseminations  i n host  rock.  S p h a l e r i t e i s a minor  sulphide  component i n some showings which are dominantly g a l e n a , p y r i t e , or b a r i t e . Other s u l p h i d e s  observed i n some of the samples i n c l u d e c h a l c o p y r i t e ,  h e d r i t e , b o u r n o n i t e , and b o u l a n g e r i t e . or l i m e s t o n e , of s p a r r y  The  host  rocks  are u s u a l l y d o l o m i t e  or b r e c c i a s of these l i t h o l o g i e s , w i t h s u l p h i d e s  c a l c i t e , d o l o m i t e , or c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e  p a r t i c u l a r l y those w i t h c o a r s e r g r a i n e d  tetra-  quartz,  i n a matrix Most  deposits,  s p h a l e r i t e specimens, produce c l e a n  32 unaltered sphalerite.  F i n e f r a c t u r e s through the s p h a l e r i t e g e n e r a l l y  c o n t a i n t h i n c o a t i n g s o f carbonate contaminants and, i n a few c a s e s , the s p h a l e r i t e has undergone commonly produced  a moderate  to extreme degree of o x i d a t i o n which  smithsonite.  The s e l e c t i o n o f a s u i t e o f samples c o n t r o l l e d by the a b i l i t y  f o r minor element a n a l y s i s  to v i s i b l y s e p a r a t e any contaminants u s i n g a  maximum 40X b i n o c u l a r m i c r o s c o p e ,  In t h i s manner, a t o t a l of 166  from 48 l o c a t i o n s were s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s . t i o n o f these samples  samples  The broad g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u -  i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 3-1 and i n F i g u r e 5-1,  of samples per d e p o s i t i s n o r m a l l y low  The number  (from one to t h r e e ) but i s as h i g h  as 20; a t l e a s t n i n e d e p o s i t s have a minimum of f i v e samples each. one are from carbonate h o s t e d l o c a t i o n s . d e p o s i t i s g i v e n i n Appendix  A l l but  A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f each  A.  TABLE  3-1  GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLES AND Territory  Number of samples  SAMPLE LOCATIONS Number o f Ideations  YUKON  82  24  N.W.T.  84  24  166  48  TOTALS  3.2  was  Sample P r e p a r a t i o n  O b t a i n i n g a pure s p h a l e r i t e c o n c e n t r a t e was  the most time consuming  and  the most important phase of the sample a n a l y s i s i n t h i s minor element s t u d y . Due  to the r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e m i n e r a l o g y of the samples i n g e n e r a l ,  s e p a r a t i o n o f s p h a l e r i t e from contaminants by under a b i n o c u l a r microscope was  'needle and t w e e z e r s  visual 1  picking  thought to be the e a s i e s t and perhaps  33 q u i c k e s t method.  M a g n e t i c s e p a r a t i o n and heavy l i q u i d  e f f e c t i v e l y remove most o f the c a r b o n a t e and quartz separation of sulphide t i o n by m i d d l i n g  concentration  will  gangue m a t e r i a l s , however  contaminants i s i n e f f e c t i v e , m a i n l y due t o contamina-  particles.  P i c k i n g under the b i n o c u l a r microscope would  s t i l l be r e q u i r e d i n t h e f i n a l stage ( c . f , P r i c e , 1972) b u t t h i s i s i m p o s s i b l on t h e s m a l l g r a i n s i z e s r e q u i r e d f o r e f f e c t i v e heavy media Samples i n t h i s p r o j e c t were crushed and hand p i c k e d under 40X m a g n i f i c a t i o n .  Finer grained  containing f i n e - g r a i n e d contaminations,  readily,  to apparent p u r i t y  s p h a l e r i t e samples, o r s p h a l e r i t e were n o r m a l l y  s l a b s which were found t o d i s a g g r e g a t e  separation.  cut i n t o 3-5 mm  i n t o d i s c r e t e mineral  thereby f a c i l i t a t i n g hand p i c k i n g .  g r a i n s more  A t t h i s stage a number o f sample  were r e j e c t e d on the b a s i s o f 1) p o s s i b l e c o n t a m i n a t i o n by e x c e s s i v e i n g , o r 2) v e r y f i n e g r a i n s i z e o f i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d a c c e s s o r y Fine-grained few  weather-  sulphides.  carbonate contaminants, i n s e p a r a b l e under the m i c r o s c o p e i n a  samples, were d i s s o l v e d by soaking  days.  thick  i n warm d i l u t e a c e t i c a c i d f o r s e v e r a l  P u r i f i e d samples were ground t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y -200 mesh i n an a l u m i n a -  ceramic Spex b a l l m i l l , Zonation  and were s t o r e d i n c l e a n p l a s t i c  i n c o l o u r and chemistry  common (Rose, 1967).  vials.  within single sphalerite crystals i s  These v a r i a t i o n s i n minor element c o n t e n t  c o u l d n o t be  studied using  the s e p a r a t i o n procedure o u t l i n e d , however, 17 samples were  independently  separated  twice  In order  t o check that hand p i c k i n g y i e l d s  r e s u l t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the e n t i r e hand specimen.  The s i g n i f i c a n c e of  these v a r i a t i o n s and the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the r e s u l t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d subsequently. Throughout the s e p a r a t i o n p r o c e s s , on observed p a r a g e n e t i c i n order  notes on a l l samples were m a i n t a i n e d  a s s o c i a t i o n s , and, hence, on p o s s i b l e contaminants,  t o a i d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f anomalous v a l u e s .  s t u d i e d to r e p r e s e n t tions provided  P o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s were  the m i c r o ^ m i n e r a l o g y o f every d e p o s i t and these d e s c r i p -  the b a s i s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the v a l i d i t y o f an a n a l y t i c a l  34 r e s u l t w i t h respect to p o s s i b l e contaminating  agents.  A p p l i c a t i o n of  these  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s e x p l a i n e d w i t h i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of e r r o r  sources.  X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n o f p u l v e r i z e d samples and p o i n t c o u n t i n g of p o l i s h e d g r a i n mounts were used i n an attempt  t o q u a n t i f y the degree of c o n t a m i n a t i o n  f o r e i g n m i n e r a l s but the r e s u l t s were not  3.3  3.3.1  Analytical  by  precise.  Procedures  Emission Arc  Spectroscopy  E m i s s i o n a r c s p e c t r o s c o p y i s a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e method to p r o c e s s l a r g e numbers of samples i n a q u a l i t a t i v e (or perhaps s e m i - q u a n t i t a t i v e ) manner. I n f o r m a t i o n about the range and magnitude of minor c o n s t i t u e n t s i n the s p h a l e r i t e samples was analysis.  g a i n e d r a p i d l y p r i o r to d e t a i l e d atomic  absorption  A r c s p e c t r o s c o p y used a H i l g e r Watts E-742 automatic  quartz  spectrograph. One  hundred mg  o f the f i n e l y ground s p h a l e r i t e was  t o r s i o n b a l a n c e and s t o r e d i n a p l a s t i c v i a l . m a t r i x m a t e r i a l was and  even b u r n .  i f necessary.  weighed out on a  A f u r t h e r 100 mg.  of  carbon  added to p r o v i d e a medium which would i n s u r e a c o n s t a n t  These volumes p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t sample f o r t h r e e spec  runs  A f t e r these powders were mixed i n the v i a l s f o r one minute  i n a Spex m i l l shaker, two a f u r t h e r two minutes,  g l a s s beads were added and shaking c o n t i n u e d f o r  p r o v i d i n g a homogenous m i x t u r e  graphite-.• Samples were then packed i n t o cup-type drop of a s u c r o s e s o l u t i o n was  of s p h a l e r i t e  and  carbon e l e c t r o d e s , and  one  dropped on top of each to b i n d the sample and  to a i d i n m a i n t a i n i n g an even b u r n .  The  e l e c t r o d e h o l d e r was  p l a c e d on a hot  p l a t e f o r one hour to d r y . Samples were e x c i t e d i n a 12 amp.  D.C.  a r c f o r 30 seconds, w i t h  the  35 s p e c t r a b e i n g r e c o r d e d on Kodak SA#1 g l a s s p h o t o g r a p h i c recorded plate.  plates.  Each p l a t e  ten samples p l u s one s t a n d a r d and one d u p l i c a t e d sample from These p l a t e s were processed  another  i n p a i r s i n a J a r r e l - A s h photoprocessor.  C o n c e n t r a t i o n s were e s t i m a t e d from these p l a t e s by v i s u a l comparison w i t h s t a n d a r d p l a t e s w i t h s p e c t r a r a n g i n g from one t o 10,000 ppm, i n c r e a s i n g i n approximately was determined  l o g a r i t h m i c s t e p s ( i .e. 1,2,5,10,20,50,. . .10,000).  as t o t a l i r o n oxide expressed  Iron  as weight p e r c e n t FeO.  s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t the sample v a l u e s determined t h e i r r e l a t i v e magnitudes cannot be c o n f i r m e d .  It  are q u a l i t a t i v e ;  even  T h i s i s because the s t a n d a r d  p l a t e s , which a r e the b a s i s o f the n u m e r i c a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n s , were o r i g i n a l l y prepared  using a g r a n i t i c rock matrix  s p i k e d w i t h f o r e i g n elements.  e f f e c t s were not i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s study, and consequently  Matrix  the n u m e r i c a l  r e s u l t s are p o s s i b l y i n a c c u r a t e . A t o t a l o f 20 elements o f p o t e n t i a l i n t e r e s t c o u l d be determined t h i s method"'".  D e t e c t i o n l i m i t s f o r these a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 3-2.  using  Four  elements, b e r y l l i u m , bismuth, molybdenum, and p l a t i n u m , were below d e t e c t i o n limits. ium,  Analyses  copper,  f o r 16 elements (antimony, a r s e n i c , barium, c o b a l t , chrom-  g a l l i u m , i r o n , manganese, n i c k e l , l e a d , s i l v e r , s t r o n t i u m , t i n ,  t i t a n i u m , and vanadium) a r e l i s t e d i n s e c t i o n 3.4, T a b l e 3-6.  3.3.2  Atomic A b s o r p t i o n  Spectroscopy  Atomic a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o s c o p y , performed on s o l u t i o n s o b t a i n e d each sample, p r o v i d e d q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s e s .  S p h a l e r i t e i s s o l u b l e i n an  HCI-HNO3 s o l u t i o n , howeverj t h i s d i g e s t i o n i n i t i a l l y presented The  from  problems.  s p h a l e r i t e i t s e l f was d i s s o l v e d , but l i b e r a t e d s u l p h u r , which remained  "^ A 21st element of i n t e r e s t , indium, c o u l d have been determined u s i n g the s t a n d a r d p l a t e s , but t h i s element was used as an i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d i n the g r a p h i t e m a t r i x m a t e r i a l , hence, i t c o u l d not be r e c o r d e d as a s p h a l e r i t e constituent.  36 TABLE  EMISSION ARC  3-2  SPECTROSCOPY DETECTION L I M I T S  -  100 ppm  As  Ba -  200 ppm  Co -  2 ppm  Cr -  1 ppm  Cu -  1 ppm  Ga -  1 ppm  Mn  -  1 ppm  Ni -  2 ppm  Pb  -  1 ppm  Ag -  1 ppm  Sr -  Sn -  1 ppm  Ti -  1 ppm  V  -  1 ppm  Be -  2 ppm  Bi -  2 ppm  Mo  2 ppm  Sb  0.1 wt.%  Fe -  -  -  200  100  1  ppm  ppm  FeO  Pt - no q u a n t i t a t i v e measure a v a i l a b l e - determinations purely q u a l i t a t i v e  D e t e c t i o n l i m i t s are determined from lowest v a l u e s d e t e c t a b l e above i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t e r f e r e n c e s a t minimum d i l u t i o n f a c t o r . undigested  and  coalesced i n t o a yellow p l a s t i c b a l l .  T h i s sulphur  was  s l o w l y decomposed u s i n g s t r o n g l y o x i d i z i n g , c o n d i t i o n s o b t a i n e d by adding excess  of c o n c e n t r a t e d HNO3.  Due  to the range i n o v e r a l l sample s i z e s , some  of which a r e as low as a p p r o x i m a t e l y of 200 mg was and kept  0.5  gm,  an atomic  a b s o r p t i o n sample s i z e  chosen i n o r d e r to m a i n t a i n a s t a n d a r d sample s i z e  to a l l o w f o r d u p l i c a t i o n o f an a n a l y s i s i f n e c e s s a r y . the problem of  used to weigh out  Ten ml of c o n c e n t r a t e d HC1  The beakers were covered  and  left  samples came s l o w l y to d r y n e s s . taken up  and  M HC1,  size  25 ml  200.00 mg  of sample i n t o a c l e a n  of c o n c e n t r a t e d HNO3 were added.  washed i n t o a 25 ml v o l u m e t r i c F i n a l s o l u t i o n s were then at  the l e v e l a t which a l l samples, s t a n d a r d s , and  were analyzed on the atomic  until  They were then removed from the h o t p l a t e ,  to the volume o f the f l a s k .  a c i d i t y of 1.5  T h i s sample  on a warm h o t p l a t e f o r 18 to 24 hours  i n t h r e e ml of c o n c e n t r a t e d HC1,  and made up  throughout,  ' p l a s t i c s u l p h u r ' d i s s o l u t i o n to a manageable l e v e l .  A t o r s i o n b a l a n c e was beaker.  an  absorption u n i t .  flask,  an blanks  A c i d - c l e a n e d p o l y b o t t l e s , used  37 f o r s t o r a g e o f s o l u t i o n s , were r i n s e d w i t h sample s o l u t i o n s p r i o r  to storage.  A complete s e t o f 1:10 d i l u t i o n s was made by p i p e t i n g one ml o f sample i n t o a t e s t tube, adding  n i n e ml o f 1.5 M HC1, and shaking s t o p p e r e d  b r i e f l y , p r i o r to the s p e c t r o s c o p y .  tubes  F u r t h e r d i l u t i o n s o f 1:10 ( i . e . t o t a l  d i l u t i o n o f 1:100) were made as r e q u i r e d . Blanks were made by d u p l i c a t i n g the a c i d a t t a c k u s i n g empty Secondary s t a n d a r d  s o l u t i o n s were prepared  beakers.  from 100 ppm s t o c k s o l u t i o n s and  were a s p i r a t e d b e f o r e and a f t e r each group o f samples r u n ,  A  Varian-Techtron  A.A.-4 u n i t was used to determine copper, i r o n and manganese.  A P e r k i n Elmer  model 303 u n i t , w i t h background c o r r e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , was used t o determine silver„ cadmium, c o b a l t , n i c k e l and l e a d , s i m i l a r to procedures o u t l i n e d by W.K. F l e t c h e r (1970).  Operating  c o n d i t i o n s and d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s  f o r these e i g h t elements a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 3-3.  Samples were r u n i n groups  o f 24, each group c o n s i s t i n g o f 21 samples, two d u p l i c a t e s from groups, and one b l a n k s o l u t i o n .  different  The 17 d u p l i c a t e s i s o l a t e d i n the s e p a r a t i o n  procedure were t r e a t e d as independent samples.  Furthermore, t h e i n i t i a l  sample o f each o f these d u p l i c a t e s was a n a l y z e d  twice.  I n t h i s way the  v a r i a n c e o f d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e a n a l y t i c a l procedure c o u l d be s p e c i f i e d (see s e c t i o n 3 . 5 ) . Computer c a l c u l a t e d c a l i b r a t i o n curves p r o v i d e d data from absorbance t o c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n ppm.  c o n v e r s i o n o f a l l sample  Results are recorded i n  s e c t i o n 3.4, T a b l e 3-7. Three o t h e r elements, chromium, antimony, and t i t a n i u m , were attempted s i n c e t h e i r p r e s e n c e was i n d i c a t e d by the e m i s s i o n s p e c t r o g r a p h i c  analyses.  Antimony c o u l d not be a c c u r a t e l y determined due t o i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t e r f e r e n c e s o b s c u r i n g both and  the s t a n d a r d  and sample s o l u t i o n absorbance r e a d i n g s .  Chromium  t i t a n i u m c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were below d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s and hence c o u l d not  be determined  ( s i m i l a r problems were encountered i n the n i c k e l and c o b a l t  determinations).  38 . TABLE  3-3  ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OPERATING CONDITIONS AND Element  a a  1  Slit,Width (vim)  Wave.Length (A)  . Ag Cd  DETECTION LIMITS Current .(mA)  H.2 Lamp  Detection Limits (ppm)  3280.7  1000  6  +  1  2288  1000  6  +  50  +  1  a  Co  2407.3  300  20  b  Cu  3247.5  50  3  1  b  Fe  2483  50  5  30  b  Mn  2794  50  5  1  a  Ni  2320  300  20  +  5  a  Pb  2170  1000  14  +  4  ^~ 2  Instrument used:  a -- P e r k i n Elmer; b —  Techtron  l i m i t s are determined from lowest v a l u e s d e t e c t a b l e above Detection i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t e r f e r e n c e s a t minimum d i l u t i o n f a c t o r  C a l c u l a t i o n s of a n a l y t i c a l p r e c i s i o n on d u p l i c a t e sample a n a l y s e s method of G a r r e t  a t the 95%  c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l , based  (Appendix C, T a b l e C - l ) were m o d i f i e d from  (1969) and a r e summarized, w i t h the formula used, i n T a b l e  Samples were grouped a c c o r d i n g to c o n c e n t r a t i o n l e v e l s p r i o r to calculations trations mean),.  to a v o i d u n r e a l l s t i c a l l y good p r e c i s i o n  Analytical precision  i r o n , and  lead.  i s reasonable  v a l u e s a t lower  concen-  overall  for silver,  the i n t e r m e d i a t e and h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n l e v e l s o f Precision  c o n c e n t r a t i o n l e v e l s of copper,  Differences i n precision  i s poor f o r mercury and  i r o n , and  i n s u f f i c i e n t data f o r s t a t i s t i c a l  procedures  ( l e s s than 25%)  3-4.  precision  (due to i n c l u s i o n of h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n samples i n the  cadmium, manganese, and copper,  the  lead.  f o r the  C o b a l t and n i c k e l  lower provided  analysis.  of combined hand sampling  and of a n a l y t i c a l procedures  alone  and  analytical  ( i . e . a n a l y t i c a l s e t one  versus  39 TABLE 3^4 PAIRED"PRECISION  ELEMENT  GROUP  MEAN VALUE RANGE  TESTS  1  NUMBER OF SAMPLE PAIRS IN GROUP  PRECISION •(*•%) ANALYTICAL ANALYTICAL ' SET ill • SET 7/2  A  0-300  17  13%  10%  Cd  A  700-5000  17  22%  11%  Cu .  A B C  0-50 90-370 500-800  6 8 3  92% 16% 63%  132% 3% 1%  Fe  A B C  0-800 1500-2400 3300-13000  8 4 5  36% 10% 11%  43% 23% 10%  17  21%  26%  8 9  52% 17%  30% 17%  Mn  0-100  Pb  A B  15-130 300-3450 0-225  Hg  13  72%  P r e c i s i o n c a l c u l a t i o n s at t h e 95% c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l f o l l o w e d the f o r m u l a : , 1.98 a P =? =: X and X , i s  A  x 190%  , where  o  [7 N • . 71 • . / 2^' ' l i ~ 2 i V i=i  A  the r e p l i c a t e mean w i t h i n  z  x  the group,  x  N  2  ~ r  , duplicate  samples  40 a n a l y t i c a l set p r o v i d e d by be  two  ) are  s m a l l and  the p i c k i n g of two  samples from the  i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i v e to the  fore, i s representative  appear random (Table 3-4).  of the  samples do  levels).  the  l i m i t s of a n a l y t i c a l p r e c i s i o n ) .  (e.g.  Such l o c a l l y poor p r e c i s i o n was  poorer  lead  m i n e r a l contaminants. the  samples  occur.  (samples 20023-127 and  lower c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s l i k e l y due  to  These contaminants w i l l  lower c o n c e n t r a t i o n ranges  20024-7 (Table C-l)  i n groups A and  i s o l a t e d cases of  or  C  contamination  A n a l y t i c a l p r e c i s i o n c a l c u l a t e d w i t h o u t sample 20023-127 i s  reduced from + 132%  to + 15%  f o r group A and  p r e c i s i o n i s reduced from + 63% sample 20024-7, samples do  including  a t t r i b u t e d dominantly to one  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , thereby f u r t h e r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t do  and  A  there.  Poor p r e c i s i o n i n copper a n a l y s e s can be two  at the  anticipated  presumably have a g r e a t e r r e l a t i v e e f f e c t on p r e c i s i o n w i l l be  there-  s p h a l e r i t e of an e n t i r e hand specimen ( i . e . the  sampling v a r i a n c e s  the presence of f i n e - g r a i n e d  and  Each a n a l y s i s ,  show s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o o r e r p r e c i s i o n f o r the p a i r  both a n a l y t i c a l and  variations  same hand specimen appear to  analytical variations.  hand specimen i s homogeneous w i t h i n few  Any  This h i g h l i g h t s  occur and  Interlaboratory  might b i a s  to + 3% the the  combined a n a l y t i c a l and  f o r group C when c a l c u l a t e d  f a c t that  sporadic,  highly  sampling without  anomalous  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s .  s t a n d a r d s p h a l e r i t e was  not  a v a i l a b l e , making a t r u e  test  2 of the  accuracy of  the a n a l y t i c a l procedure d i f f i c u l t  m i l l concentrates, presently s t a n d a r d s a t the G e o l o g i c a l  being established  the  However, 15  as i n t e r n a l  I.R.  a n a l y t i c a l procedure.  Jonasson f o r an  sphalerite  laboratory  Survey of Canada geochemical l a b o r a t o r i e s  Ottawa, were made a v a i l a b l e through Dr. s t a n d a r d check on  .  in  interlaboratory  When these powders were s u b j e c t e d  A n a l y t i c a l set one r e p r e s e n t s d u p l i c a t e samples segregated d u r i n g the hand p i c k i n g s e p a r a t i o n procedure; a n a l y t i c a l s e t two r e p r e s e n t s sample powders a n a l y z e d i n d u p l i c a t e (see Appendix C, F i g u r e C - l ) . 2 F l a n a g a n (1974) i n d i c a t e s that a s p h a l e r i t e s t a n d a r d , SF-Y, has been s y n t h e s i z e d i n Germany, but the n a t u r e o f the s p h a l e r i t e and the a v a i l a b i l i t y a t p r e s e n t i s unknown. T h i s source was d i s c o v e r e d too l a t e to be investigated.  41 to the HC1-HN0- a t t a c k , a f i n e w h i t e , sample, making i t n e c e s s a r y volume and a s p i r a t i n g on  g r a n u l a r r e s i d u e was  to f i l t e r a l l s o l u t i o n s p r i o r to b e i n g made UD  the atomic  absorption unit.  to  Otherwise these s t a n -  dards were t r e a t e d e x a c t l y as samples a n a l y z e d i n t h i s The  l e f t i n each  study.  c o r r e l a t i o n between the e s t a b l i s h e d G e o l o g i c a l Survey r e s u l t s  and  those o b t a i n e d i n t h i s study v a r i e s from element to element, and i n some cases, a l s o v a r i e s from h i g h to low 3-5  lists  the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d and F i g u r e s 3-1,  a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s of the two mium, c o b a l t all  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r a g i v e n element.  independent methods.  ( F i g u r e 3-1) , and  tend to be s l i g h t l y lower  manganese ( F i g u r e 3-2)  tends  copper ( F i g u r e 3-2)  concentrate  to be s l i g h t l y h i g h e r .  Owing to the d i s t i n c t l y  'standard' m a t e r i a l s , and  d i f f e r e n t a n a l y t i c a l techniques procedure  3 graphically  Analyses  of s i l v e r ,  obtained i n this  Lead and i r o n  d i f f e r e n t nature  (Figure  of the  3-3)  mill  the s p h a l e r i t e samples, coupled  with  not used i n t h i s s t u d y ) , the number  sample types.  The  e f f e c t s of these  ences, which would be p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t at lower T h e r e f o r e , these  'standards'  of the a n a l y t i c a l method used i n t h i s  3.3.3  study  to a g r e a t e r disagreement of  of background and complex-ion f o r m a t i o n i n t e r f e r e n c e s i s expected  not p r e d i c t a b l e .  cad-  (the p e r c h l o r i c a c i d , t o t a l - m e t a l d i g e s t i o n  of the G e o l o g i c a l Survey was  c o n s i d e r a b l y between the two  compare  than those of the G e o l o g i c a l Survey, whereas  show a c o n s i d e r a b l e s c a t t e r of data p o i n t s due analytical results.  2, and  Table  to vary interfer-  concentration l e v e l s ,  are  do not s e r v e as a t r u e t e s t  study.  Mercury A n a l y s i s  A t o t a l of 160 cially  samples, i n c l u d i n g  13 d u p l i c a t e s , were a n a l y z e d  f o r mercury by Min-En l a b s L t d . o f North Vancouver.  procedure  used by  t h i s f i r m d i g e s t s 1.000  The  commer-  analytical  gram of sample w i t h n i t r i c  and  42 TABLE "3-5 ATOMIC ABSORPTION ANALYSES OF 'STANDARD' MATERIALS G e o l o g i c a l Survey r e s u l t s a r e i n b r a c k e t s ; O=below d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s ( r e f e r to T a b l e 3-3 f o r d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s f o r each element); - =not determined; a l l r e s u l t s i n ppm, except Fe r e p o r t e d i n wt,%. Sample number  Element Fe  Ag  Cd  Co  Cu  Mri '  Ni  Pb  LCDF 7103  37 (40)  1004 (1148)  139 (165)  3400 (4057)  6.61 (7.30)  2336 (3000)  0 (3)  1048 (1310)  LCDF 7119  42 (42)  1032 (1296)  85 (106)  3230 (4453)  5.30 (7.09)  944 (830)  0 (3)  2632 (3500)  MTGM 7103  33 (33)  1131 (1222)  50 (51)  2985 (3373)  7.67 (6.43)  1314 (1065)  0 (3)  936 (1138)  MTGM 7123  35 (36)  1062 (1185)  42 (50)  2620 (2864)  7.30 (6.00)  1517 (1238)  0 (3)  1248 (1552)  MBRV 7111  400 (264)  1368 (1593)  0 (2)  15555 2.43 (13240) (2.30)  50 (45)  0 (5)  9923 (4655)  MBRV 7133  359 (264)  1329 (1615)  0 (3)  9877 1.79 (10740) (2.08)  37 (29)  0 (5)  788 (3167)  NMTL 7004  35 (37)  1238 (1370)  46 (54)  1950 (2356)  8.34 (6.22)  184 (150)  0 (3)  445 (500)  NMTL 7009  33 (41)  1210 (1370)  30 (35)  1700 (2237)  5.21 (5.93)  198 (174)  0 (3)  493 (500)  NMTL 7129  39 (40)  1279 (1415)  60 (69)  2850 (3373)  6.41 (7.43)  123 (99)  0 (3)  439 (500)  ORCN 7104  32 (33)  717 (800)  56 (70)  1890 (2186)  5.72 (6.26)  303 (263)  0 (3)  3205 (3667)  ORCN 7128  24 (29)  771 (903)  65 (69)  2570 (3407)  6.40 (5.44)  174 (139)  0 (3)  1756 (2176)  STBY 7610  73 (62)  1816 (2360)  52 (40)  3457 (5250)  4.32 (9.20)  -  19 (1)  4689 (1900)  6.70 (11.30)  -  -  41859 (55000)  -  -  40159 (56000)  -  46815 (62000)  SLVN 7509  SLVN 7602  SLVN 7607  •  _  -  -  -  -  _  _  -  -  -  7.12 (12.00)  _  _  - .  6.91 (11.30)  _  4.3  10  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  100  2  3  4 5 6 7 8 9  R e s u l t s from t h i s study  1000  2  3  (ppm)  FIGURE 3-1: COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR SILVER, CADMIUM, AND COBALT IN SPHALERITE 'STANDARDS'. S i l v e r i s r e p r e s e n t e d by c r o s s e s , cadmium i s shown by c l o s e d d o t s , and c o b a l t i s denoted by open c i r c l e s .  44  FIGURE 3-2: COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR COPPER AND MANGANESE IN SPHALERITE 'STANDARDS'. Copper (vlOO) i s r e p r e s e n t e d by open c i r c l e s , and manganese i s shown by c l o s e d d o t s .  45  1  2  3  4  5 6 7 8 9  10  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  109  2  3  R e s u l t s from t h i s study (ppm) FIGURE 3-3: COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR IRON AND LEAD IN SPHALERITE 'STANDARDS'. Lead (-M00) i s shown by open c i r c l e s , and i r o n ( i n %) I s denoted by c l o s e d d o t s . r  46 sulphuric acid.  I t i s then f u r t h e r o x i d i z e d w i t h 30% H_0. w h i l e h e a t i n g ;  o x i d i z i n g s t e p s a r e repeated as r e q u i r e d .  A f t e r c o o l i n g and d i l u t i n g  S u i t a b l e volume to r e f i n e the o x i d a t i o n procedure, titration until  the f i r s t p i n k c o l o u r i s o b t a i n e d .  to a  5% KMnO^ i s added by Mercury i s a n a l y z e d i n  the f l a m e l e s s atomic  a b s o r p t i o n chamber and measured by comparing samples  w i t h known standards  ( J . J . Barakso,  1977, p e r s . comm.).  the 13 d u p l i c a t e samples, i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y  good (±72%) .  r e s u l t s f o r mercury a r e i n c l u d e d w i t h the atomic 3.4,  Table 3-7.  3.4  A n a l y t i c a l Results  The  a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r both  and t h e atomic  P r e c i s i o n , based on The a n a l y t i c a l  absorption results i n section  the e m i s s i o n s p e c t r o g r a p h i c technique  a b s o r p t i o n techinque are t a b u l a t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n o r d e r  to keep t h i s d a t a t o g e t h e r i n a p o s i t i o n f o r easy r e f e r e n c e .  Table 3-6  c o n t a i n s e m i s s i o n s p e c t r o g r a p h i c d a t a , and T a b l e 3-7 c o n t a i n s  atomic  a b s o r p t i o n and mercury a n a l y s i s  data.  47  TABLE 3-6 EMISSION ARC SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYTICAL RESULTS (NO ANALYSES FOP. DEPOSITS 10020, 10032, 10050, r. 10053) 0 = MOT DETECTED: SEE TABLE 3-2 FOR OETECTICN LIMITS 10.NC.  AG  CD  10006002 5 40 15 r o 1CCC6003 8 35 1CC06CC5 5 100 10010C01 IC020004 0 0 1C022004 60 150 15 50 10024001 15 0 10024002 0 10C25001 2 10025004 0 2 1C025C06 0 2 70 • 70 10C26001 0 7 1CC270C1 0 2 1CC27CC2 0 50 10027003 40 0 1CC27004 30 0 10027005 4 0 1C028003 8 0 1CC28007 10029002 . 2 0 10C29CC4 15 0 0 40 1CC29CC5 0 10C29003 0 1CC30C01 20 100 0 0 10032001 o 15 10033001 100330C4 5 0 5 0 10033005 25 0 10033012 0 10033013 50 10033014 100 0 0 1 0033015 2 0 10033016 5 0 10033017 15 0 10033021 5 5 0 10033022 2 0 10033023 8 10033024 0 0 10033025 200 10C34C01 1 0 8 10034002 1 1CC34CC9 0 10 30 0 1CC35001 15 0 10035002 60 0 1CC36C01 80 0 10036002 40 20 10C37003 1CC370C4 50 30 10037020 100 180 15 130 1C037028 10037030 35 25 1003 7031 40 15 KCV37032 40 10 10042001 15 0 KC42nC2 10 0 10042003 10 0 10042004 15 0 100420CP 25 0 10042009 25 0 1004 2010 05 0 35 0 1C042C11 10042015 20 0 1CC42019 25 0 1CC42023 I8 0 10042027 10 100 1004.2031 10 150 10C42036 50 0 10042040 100 0 10042041 80 0 1004 2042 15 0 10042043 3 30  CU  NI  PB  8 80 800 20 600 30 8 10 00 100 70 10 30 0 100 0 3000 0 0 0 0 600 35 40 3000 35 50 5 6C0 1C00 40 C 500 40 40 40 0 40 40 0 40 5 0 15 80 750 35 60 10C0 1100 50 0 10 900 8 0 15 15 0 100 1000 30 C 8 00 2CC0 600 15 0 150 5 3 15 I CO 50 0 2 0 8 0 1 00 15 15 50 700 30 10100 1 00 40 10 50 300 50 800 25 4C 90C0 0 0 0 0 8 0 100 700 35 15 2 2 20 35 1 0 75 8 0 120 30 600 1 0 25 ' 1 ' 0 15 0 3 c 2 00 . 0 5 0 1 50 50 400 1 0 1 0 50 -30 15 60 1 0 20 30 3 0 0 60 40 10 0 500 1 0 100 10 20 c 75 15 0 20 5 10 0 3 50 50 500 35 c 0 35 500 35 25 0 700 15 50 8 30 700 600 80 25 1 00 600 30 25 150 4 0 20 130 700 40 30 20 600 500 40 50 700 700 60 20 150 700 40 30 2 00 700 4 0 0 100 400 40 0 20 2 00 ':04 50 400 30 0 30 600 10 0 75 300 50 0 150 150 15 0 300 70 10 C 500 300 5 0 80 200 15 0 30 100 10 0 10 300 30 10 20 300 40 10 20 300 40 0 2000 300 40 0 800 4C0 50 c 1200 100 20 0 15 50 2 0 0  SB  AS CR  SR  V  TI  RA GA  2 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 C . 0 0 0 0 5 0 2 0 5 0 0 02500 •••o C 2C0 0 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 02500 30 0 40 "20 0 0 20 0 5 0 1 0 IOC 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 25 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 30 0 0 35 0 0 3 0 10 0 0 15 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 20 10 0 0 0 0 0 20 100 200 0 0 100 15 0 0 50 100 0 0 0 3 0 0 30 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 • 0 0 2 0 0 0 8 0 6 C 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 4 0 150 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 I c 0 8 100 20 8 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 130 0 0 0 100 0 150 0 100 0 15 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 z 0 0 0 150 0 0 0 g 0 0 0 80 CO 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 2 • 0 ICO 0 C 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 150 0 18C 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 80 0 2 C 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 50 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 5 0 0 0 c C 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 70 0 0 0 150 0 0 C 0 8 0 150 0 0 40 5 0 0 40 0 0 0 400 0 0 20 75 0 0 0 • 0 20 0 40 0 0 0 0 65 0 0 750 0 0 30 0 0 3 0 0 180 20 C 0 85 150 2 0 0 0 50 0 5 130 0 0 0 80 80 0 IOC 200 150 0 0 0 0 0 C 0 20 C 300 20C 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 c 1 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0  15 20 1 5  c  5 S 2 0 3 2 1 2 1 C 90 15 40 0 0  0 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  SN  FE  15 8;o 15 s . o 3 3.0 0 6.0 0 0.0 0 6.0 8 3.0 35 1.0 0 3.0 0 0.5 20 0.5 0 5.0 0 0.3 5 1.0 15 1.0 30 5 . 0 35 1.0 0 1.0 0 0.2 0 1 .0 0 3.0 0 0.8 0 1.0 0 5.0 0 0.0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0 1.0 0 1.0 0 1.0 0 2.0 3 1.0 0 0.5 0 1.0 0 1 .0 0 ,0.5 0 'l.O 0 0.5 0 1.0 0 2.0 0 2 .0 0 0.5 8 1 .0 8 0.8 0 1.0 0 3 .0 0 2.0 0 4.0 20 3.0 0 2.0  50 0 2 .0 50 0 .3.0 40 0 1 .5 50 4 I .0 50 0 0.5 40 10 1 .0 50 0 I .0 50 100 0 . 5 20 50 0.5 8 5 1. 0 ? 1.0 8 8 0 1 .0 2 1 .0 2 8 2 3 .0 2 2.0 40 40 10 2 . 0 1 0 1.0 1 0 0. 5 I 0 2.0 2 0 2 .0 0 10 1.0  48  10.N't.  AG  1CC43CC4 10043005  5 3 4 8 15 50 00 00 0 4 0 3 0  10044001  10C45O01 10C46001 1OC46C02 10C50C01 1CC53001 20C03004 20003005 20004001 20004C02 20004003 200C5001 2CCC5CC4 20006001 2C0C60C4 2000600") 2C008007 200C8CCS 20009004 20012001 20012002 20012003 20C12004 20C12005 20012006 20C1 2007 2001210? 20012010 2CC120U 20012013 2CC13001 20015004 2C019004 20C20CC3 20021001 2CC21CC? 2CC23010 20023024 2CC23055 20023060 20023061 2CC23CS6 20023C<37 20C23126 2CC23127 20023123 2CC2312-5 20023136 20C23138 2CC23140 20023141 20023142 20C23144 20C2315? 20023154 20023155 20024001 200240C3 20C24005 200240C7 20C240C8 20024011 2CC25001 20025002 20025003 2CC25CC5 . 20025006 20C2501 0 20C25011 20025012  0  7 3 10 3 0 0  8 0 10 0  ' 5 15 2 15 10  15 15 15 3 10 5 5 8 P. 2 2 2 3 5 2 Z 0 0  10 10 2 5 5 3 3 5 10 3 10 60 60 50 15 20 30 1 0 2 0 1 0  2 2  CO  cu  MN Ni  0 30 2 0 40 1 0 900 20 0 80 5 5 10 eoo 0 700 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 10 0 500 2 0 0' 10 0 ICO 6C 0 4000 15 0 10 10 25 0 200 400 400 20 80 1500 15 300 400 10 0 15 10 0 15 10 0 15 25 0 30 10 50 30 0 0 70 20 0 20 200 0 200 20 0 150 70 0 300 40 0 30 150 0 150 30 70 15 300 0 3 20 0 700 0 0 700 50 0 40 10 0 60 20 0 150 15 0 200 25 0 30 15 0 50 10 0 40 15 0 30 30 0 30 40 0 30 30 0 30 30 0 50 30 0 10 30 0 200 30 0 4CC 30 0 100 20 0 200 10 c 200 30 0 40 '30 0 50 40 0 100 50 0 40 50 0 40 15 0 150 30 0 150 25 0 300 20 0 500 20 0 700 40 0 500 5 0 150 25 0 150 5 0 200 1 0 200 8 0 100 10 0 200 10 0 100 5 0 150 5 0 80 2  TABLE 3-6 (CONT INUED ) PB SB AS CR  80 0 60 0 100 . 40 120 0 100 0 1000 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 700 0 60 0 20 0 20 0 250 c 4 00 10 8 00 30 100 10 800 0 1 50 0 100 0 500 0 15 25 0 15 0 0 100 c 100 0 7 00 0 1000 6 00 0 0 3000 0 100 0 700 0 80 0 1 00 40 c 40 0 0 1 50 0 3 00 0 1 50 0 100 15 0 0 70 10 40 0 120 0 70 0 1 50 0 15 0 150 0 3 00 0 80 0 1 50 c 150 0 100 0 200 0 500 G 800 0 300 0 150 0 100 0 200 0 80' 0 15 0 0 0 30 8 0 0 0 0 15 0 2 0 30 0 5 0 40 0 2 0  0  0 0 0  0 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 c 0  0 c 0' 0 0 c c 10 0 100 c 100 150 0 0  0 0 0 0 c 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 c 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 c c 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0  0 0  c 0 0  c 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  c 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0  SR  TI  V  SA GA  SN  FE  0 0 30 0 0 15 0 1.5 0 0.8 2 0 15 0 0 25 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 1.0 2 0 10 . 0 0 0 0 1.0 0 0 5 0 0 3.0 0 35 0 0 20 0 0 5.0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0 0 2 0 0 10 0 5.0 750 2 0 0 0 20 10 0.0 0 0 0 2 c 0 0 0.2 0 0 0 c 0 2 0 0.3 0 0 20 0 0 75 5 1.3 0 2 0 100 0 2 20 2 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 5 .0 0 0 0 0 0 20 2 5.0 2 150 300 0 40 8 4.0 1 0 0 20 0 0 20 2 5.0 0 10 c 0 0 2 0 0.5 0 0 0 2 0 0 0.5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 c 0 0 2 5 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0.0 0 0 0 0' 0 8 5 0.0 3 0 80 0 0 0 0 0.3 3 0 80 0 • 0 0 0 0.3 0 0 5 0 0 15 0 0.1 40 0 0 0 0 0.2 0 2 0 0 30 0 0 2 0 0.5 0 3C c 0 0 2 0 0.5 0 40 0 0 2 3 0.3 3 0 0 5 c 0 5 10 0.1 0 0 0 30 0 0 15 0.0 1 100 40 8 04 0 0 100 0.1 0 100 20 0 0.5 01200 2 0 0 70 0 0 10 0 2 .5 0 0 2 5 300 15 15 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 40 10 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 c 0 1 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 0. 1 0 100 0 0 300 0 0.1 1 5 0 0 c 0 1 0 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 I 0 1 CO 0 0 0 0 0.1 2 0 8 0 0.1 I 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o.b 2 0 0 0 0 0 10 2 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 2 0 100 c 0 0 5 0 0.0 0 800 8 0 0 60 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0.0 0 100 0 0 0 8 0 0.0 p 2 0 0 c 0 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 OcO 0 200 0 0 200 10 0 0.1 0 0 0 0 8 0 1.0 a 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 1 .0 0 0 0 0 0 50 8 0.8 0 5 c 0 0 50 10 0.0 3 0 50 01500 2 0 0.0 0 0 0 10 8 0.3 K 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0. 3 0 0 6 3 0 0 5 0.0 0 0 5 c 0 15 0 1.0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1.5 0 0 8 0 0 5 5 1.5 0 0 50 0 0 2 0 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 8 5 0.3 0 0 c 0 0 5 0 0.3  49  10.NO. 2CC27CC3 20027004 2CC32C01 20 03'.001 2CC34002 2CC34003 20034005 2CC3401 1 20035001 20035002 20035003 2003 5006 20C36001 2C036CC3 2C036005 2C036CC6 20037001 20037002 2CC38001 20039001 2CC40001 2CC40CC? 20040003  AG  CO  CU  0  90 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  30 70 1 700 50 60 200 200 1C00 5C0 600 600 30 500 503 400 500 400 500 25 40 30 750  A  100 0 0 0 3 2 15 15 0 3 0 3 0 1 200 15 0 20 0 0 2  c  0 0 0 40 30 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  MN NI  TABLE 3-6 I CONTINUED I PB SB AS CR  30 3 400 15 0 3000 30 0 400 15 0 15 10 3 25 10 0 30 3 5 7 3 0 20 20 0 10 4 0 4 CO 8 20 0 15 0 15 5 5 2 2 C 10 30 0 15 2 a 10 30 0 100 10 0 10 20 C 0 50 10 40 20 10 20 20 10 10 30 0 3  0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C 0 C 0 0 0 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 c  SR  TI  0 0 2 0 0 15 0 0 C 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3CC 0 0 0 1 0 40 0 0 10 8 0 40 2 800 2C 0 0 25 8 0 15C 0 0 10 0 0 0 C 0 0  V 0 0 C 0 C 0 0  c  0 0 0 C C 0 0 0 0 C 0  c  0 0 0  BA GA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0  3 3 0 40 5 7 2 3 80 40 35 2 0 0 25 8 25 30 30 25 5 5 30  SN  FE  5 25 0 20 3 0 3 3 5 0 30 0 0 0 3 3 5 0 15 0 1 5 0 0  0.8 2.0 0.0 3.5 2.0 4.0 2.5 2.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 1 .5 0. 9 1.5 2.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 5.0 1.0 2.0 0.0  50  TABLE 3 - 7 ATOMIC ABSORPTION S PFCT ROGRAPHI C ANALYTICAL RESULTS 0 = NOT DETECTED: SEE TA3LF 3-3 POP. DETECTION LIMITS N . O . = NOT DETERMINED 10.NO. 1000600? 10006003 10r06005  10010001 10020004  10C22004 10024001 1002400? 10025001 10025004 10025006 10C26001 10027001 10027002 10027003 10027004 1C0270C5 10023003 10028CC7 1002°002 13C29004 19C29005 10029008 1013 0001 1003 2001 10033001 10033004 10033005 1003 3012 10033013 10033014 10 03 301 5 10033016 10033017 10033021 10033022 10033023 10033024 10033025 10034001 1003400? 10034009 10C35001 1003500? 10036001 1003600? 10037003 10 0 370 04 10037020 10037028 10037030 10037031 1C037032 1CC42001 1C042C02 10042003 10042004 10042008 10C47009 10042010 100420U 10042015 10042019 10042023 10042027 1004 2031 10042036 10042040 10042041 10042042 10042043  AG  CD  4. 7 . 878 13.2 1010 3.4 975 59. 4 1110 32.3 1460 35. 6 706 10.5 1548 11.4 1993 2. 5 1 795 2.6 1688 3.0 1740 45. 1 1425 4. 1 1584 6. 6 2065 22. 6 2123 15. 7 2359 19. 9 2274 1. 8 3445 2.8 4200 2. 1 1135 10.9 2 922 16. 7 2S6? 0. 0 2117 45. 5 172 6. 3 1 100 6.3 1629 2.6 1529 2.3 122 6 23. 9 1943 90. 3 1680 295. 9 2401 0. 0 1222 2. 9 12 02 16. 0 1612 2.6 1460 4. 7 1234 3. 6 1515 0. 0 1570 155. 3 1622 0. 0 9.30 0. 0 930 719 0.0 15.2 2224 14. 3 2495 27.4 1200 1C64 28. ? 11.7 2105 37. 6 1140 2299 32. 7 15.8 1733 40. 3 43. 0 40. 3 15. 2 7. 1 5. 1 9. 4 40. 3 35. 6 34.3 24.2 13. 8 13. 2 4.5 14. 8 4.4 56. 6 82.8 41.2 13. 7 2.1  2613 2375 2835 1599 1815 1448 1668 1439 1318 1439 1470 1630 1605 1 069 1474 1048 2388 2827 2355 1231 1394  CO 12.6 15. 1 10.5 0.0 5.4 22. 1 9. 7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.4 0. 0 0. 0 0.0 0. 0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0. 0 0.0 27.9 97. 9 0. 0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 , 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 7.3 0. 0 0. 0 0.0  0.0 0.0 0.0 13.6 13.6 6.5 5.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0. 0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 25.2 0.0 26.0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0. 0 5.4  CU  FE  123 13840 95 1 32 8 0 6 I 10130 10 1 20 394 63 13 172 91 80 26 4976 229 1857 3642 1 5 67 2004 56 1530 412 6812 164 1311 140 7 49 157 12 45 20 76 222 209 2363 13 1712 496 10 2477 13 4554 13 2 1 1821 24 18 34 513 1 21 40 92 35670 99 11 59 13 11 59 21 9 86 41 17 75 343 18 48 13 1701 1069 3 I 13 1087 123 1322 ?6 1083 37 1087 13 1159 21 1123 1304 160 31 2500 13 2645 1304 8 356 2500 299 21 93 571 1739 563 3260 145 23 7 3 389 66 54 33 7 3781 213 52 55 555 52 4 50 1 23 0 335 171 356 535 271 73 62 169  31 210 48 214 219 31 7 183 45 45  4234 50 28 55 58 23 19 1390 2268 13 90 1928 2149 36 29 34 73 2268 27 60 6573 7311 53 21 3062 2220 2794 3292 2488  MN  NI  PR  26 0.0 217 26 0.0 3462 71 0.0 55 165 0.0 1350 477 230 0.0 32 0.0 371 1 14 0.0 870 34 987 0.0 26 98 0.0 5 0. 0 83 4 0.0 0 47 0.0 1279 0.0 13 451 0.0 1 1 132 13 594 0.0 16 0.0 266 1 1 0.0 710 0 • 255 0.0 0 0.0 91 4 0.0 350 7 9.5 131 4 4 16.4 203 3 0. 0 570 75 12.0 10750 33 0.0 33 79 2 0.0 218 0.0 0 61 0 0.0 42 8 839 0.0 14? 2 0.0 0 0.0 29 2 0.0 467 5 0.0 640 2 0.0 136 0 0.0 68 3 0.0 38 2 0.0 73 3 0.0 96 C 0.0 0 0. 0 229 1 3 6 0.0 165 6 0.0 1587 32 0.0 110 57 0.0 P7 11 0.0 23 18 0.0 50 10 3 CO 177 16 0.0 3?6 25 0.0 180 46 0.0 95 74 2307 0.0 103 0.0 621 9.4 146 853 58 347 0.0 51 0. 0 113 197 36 0.0 49 0.0 95 10 0.0 327 659 10? 0.0 26 1601 0.0 29 0.0 700 3 0.0 353 14 99 0.0 33 0.0 44 16 0.0 36 51 0.0 21 116 0.0 4975 73 0.0 1307 99 3049 0.0 28 0.0 24 5 0.0 15  HG 3 .00 0 .00 2 .50 ' 0 .02 N.0. 12 .50 0 .00 215 .00 1 44.00 10 .50 12 .50 8 .00 1 92. 5 0 0 .00 295 .00 295 .00 2 92 .50 7 .50 2 .20 N. 0 . 2 . on 0 . 11 0 .05 60 .00 N.D. 52 .50 26 . 50 26 .50 1 20. 50 267 .00 0 .00 40 .00 40 .00 1 48 .00 46 .50 63 .50 44 . 5 0 38 .50 1 54 .00 10 .50 4 .00 2 .CO 3 .50 3 .00 8? . 50 0 .00 12 .00 5 .00 N .CV. 8 .80 3 .50 7 .50 8 .80 0 .00 45 .50 67 .50 N .0. 1 03.50 0 .00 1 24.50 117 .70 1 35 .50 1 63 .00 71 .00 8 .00 7 . 50 66 .50 61 .00 53 .50 1 08 .50 62 .50  51  TABLE  3-7  {CONTINUED) in.NO.  AG  '  CD  cu  CO  FE  MN  NI  HG  P8  lf!C43004  0. 0  1261  0.0  10943005  11  2603  0  0.0  183  2 .0 0  0. 0  1624  0.0  16  1837  0.0  116  1 760  0. 0  722  49 5 4  0 .22  10044001  4. 9  3 22  0.0  3C9  0. 00  10C45001  5. 2  2676  0. C  29  2526  3  0.0  235  0 . 81  6. 8  1465  0. 0  56  0  3433  3  0.0  87  17. 50  1 829  0.0  679  5395  29  0.0  1055  41 . 0 0  693  0. 0  40  1011  15  0.0  473  5  859  8  M .n . N. D .  43 4 0  10  0.0  28  2 .50  401  0.0  1230  44 . 00  720  2 15  0.0  263  0. 36  635  87  0.0  39  18 . 0 0  6 19  10  0.0  41  N. 0 .  N . n.  I O C  6001  ICC46C02  22. 9  10C5000I  0. 0  10C5  4.3  3001  20C03004  1795  0.0  0. 0  1427  0. 0  60  20003005  3. 5  2334  0. 0  96  20C0<.001  0. 0  1138  0.0  20CC4002  0. 0  1 933  C. 0  20004003  0.0  1201  0.0  1  8 68 2183  20C05001  0. 0  4466  0.0  10  20C05004  3. 7  4586  0.0  110  41  20006001  2.6  1030  22 1  2CCC6004  5.2  1 594  7.0  1193  64. 0  66. 9  1663  434  0. 0  37  1863  8  0.0  481  74  24  0.0  870  6630  9  0.0  2114  5935  1 3  0.0  148  6. 50 4 .90  0 . 00 6.  20  20006005  2.  93  10  0.0  2114  2 000.300 7  0.0  755  0.0  8  1294  9  0.0  450  M.  20C08CC9  0. 0  767  0.0  8  1590  18  0.0  336  0 . 00  20009004  0.0  2398  0.0  10  1326  21  0.0  1831  2 0 01 2 0 0 1  0. 0  1450  0.0  36  1 20  17  0. 0  1 24  50  0.0  8.4  0. 00  20  0.0  36  2 3 . 50 27 . 50  6  20012002  3. 5  1 560  0. 0  29  20012003  0.0  1436  0.0  39  20012004  0. 0  1441  0.0  44  20012005  8.7  1223  0. 0  73  20012006  0.0  1 142  0.0  44  20012007  5. 5  1377  0. 0  20012003  4. 4  1385.  0.0  2O012O1O  5.2  1339  0.0  1166  a  78  92  60  D.  0. 4 9 2 7 . 00  14  0.0  24  22  0.0  2314  N. 0 .  1 77  77  0.0  1230  2 ? 0 . 50  99  622  25  0.0  2067  N .0.  110  15 46  22  0.0  113?  110  1134  19  0.0  4837  12. 00  1 14 1042  N.  0.  51.7  47  725  18  0.0  231  24 . 00  1 166  0.0  24 1  9C7  16  0.0  3234  41 . 0 0  3.5  1522  0.0  173?  203  2  0.0  271  M. 0 .  20015004  9. 1  1453  0.0  1 837  567  135  C O  465  N . D.  2CC1"004  5. 8  858  0.0  19Q3  22  0. 0  103  0 . 29  20C20003  0. C  813  0. 0  37 73  8076  5 1  0.0  101  N. 0.  2CC21001  7.0  3076  0. 0  134  373  51  0. 0  368  1 . 12  2CC21O02  8. 3  3076  0.0  163  2096  40  0.0  105  1 .8 3  20023010  2.6  2242  0.0  21  165  35  0.0  755  0 .23  20023024  0. 0  2040  0. 0  3 0  0.0  ?5?  0. 23  0. 0  1672  0.  37 34  175  2OC23055  3 44  15  0.0  103  3 10 . 0 0  20023060  0. 0  2555  0.0  1 3  254  46  0. 0  205  20C23061  0. 0  2133  0.0  16  241  4 1  0.0  179  2 .40  20C23096  3. 0  2C40  0. 0  53  0.0  46 3  0 . 00  20023097  0.0  1933  0.0  21  299  4 1  C O  239  0. 49  20023126  6. 1  2511  0. 0  12  411  46  C O  573  0 . 00  20023127  0 . 0'  2341  0.0  8  75  35  0.0  59  0 . 65  20023123  5.  2  2841  0.0  131  2 83  40  0.0  766  0. 4 8  20023129  3. 0  2762  0.0  12  2 70  43  0.0  565  0.  20023136  0.  0  2114  0.0  15  179  36  0.0  303  0.  20023138  4.9  2300  0.0  12  175  48  C O  749  0 . 71  20023140  2. 7  2724  0. 0  1 3  259  43  0.0  386  0.  20023141  0.0  2 000  0. 0  5  165  36  0.0  463  0. 32  20023142  0. 0  1945  0.0  6  183  323  0 . 19  0. 0  26C3 2114  0. 0  9  2 36  34 47  0.0  20023144  0.0  476  0 . 44  0. 0  4  185  36  0.0  760  0 . 23  2365  0.  c  4  290  37  0.0  650  0 .20  2477  0. 0  9  458  36  0.0  222  0 . 61  8  3572  28  0.0  281  2 .20  19  2157  36  0.0  793  N . D.  1058  24  0. 0  146  3. 2 0  20012011  3.  20012013  18.3  20013001  20C23153  1.3  20C23154  0.  c  c  5  .  421  1 .  3 .4 0  47 44 54  20023155  3.0  20C24001  50. 0  20C24003  53. 6  1793 1374  0.0  20024005  32. 5  1615  0.0  40 525  117  46  0.0  30  0 . CO  38  340  8  0.0  0  2 .50  0.0  62  0.0  18  0 .0 0 1 4 . 50  0.  c  2OC24007  8. 2  1 574  0.0  20024008  19. 1  1648  0. 0  20024011  16.0  1629  0.0  8  516  19  0. 0  73  481  8 3  1. 0 0  20C25001  0. 0  1618  20025002  0.0  1752  0.0  20  0  1.8  1303  0.0  1 3  340 1449  0.0  20C25003  9  0.0  1 7  18. 50  2 0 C 2 5CC5  1. 3  1526  0.0  7  2022  8  0.0  0  1 2 . 00  20025C06  6.1  1400  0.0  26  1988  8  21  N. 0 .  20025C10  0.0  1416  o.o  26  1693  5  0.0  12  1 2 ., 5 0  20025011  1.9  1820  0.0  100  1589  10  0.0  192  22 . 5 0  20025012  2. 5  1641  0. 0  60  1900  5  0.0  36  17. 00  .  C O  52  ID.NT;  AG  20027003 2CC2700A 20C3200I 20C34001 20034002 20034003 20034005 20034011 20035001 20 03 5002 20035003 200"<5006 ?r"?500] 20C36003 20036005 2CC36C06 20037COI 20037002 20033001 20039001 20C40001 20040002 20C40003  0. 0 0. 0 69. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0.0 5. 7 5. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 6. 7 0. 0 0. 0 50. 6 2.5 0. 0 11. 1 0. 0 0.0 0.0  cn  cn  2099 12.4 1937 0.0 1 170 0.0 1 176 0.0 1381 0.0 1134 0.0 1584 0.0 1015 • C O 1184 0.0 1161 0. 0 1709 0. 0 1 52 3 0. 0 12.4 860 1836 13. 8 0.0 1872 2042 0. c 1964 0. 0 0.0 1910 0.0 1176 0.0 1196 0. 0 16S2 1604 0.0 9424 0.0  TABLE 3-7 (CONT INUEOI FE cu 1071 13 5 5527 155 10 198 726 4629 29 21 53 03 537? 50 63 5561 366 290 61 7 3143 33 1 •245 2487 210 2729 26 297 1 2435 442 1 97 71 3 70 28 1 725 126 2763 152 602 6365 !3 21 3521 3368 21 87 406 4  MN  NI  34 0.0 0.0 3^ 142 0.0 35 0. 0 23 0.0 1 0 0.0 0.0 15 1 1 0.0 28 0.0 4 0.0 0.0 22 5 69.9 8 0.0 5 0.0 46 0.0 4 0.0 31 CO 10 0.0 35 0.0 0.0 49 18 0.0 CO 13 0.0 18  P3  HG  536 6545 1512 56 30 28 p 40 29 1500 0 22 0 36 16 22 175 20 0 71 .74 68 13  170 .00 157 .00 2 .40 0 .00 9 .70 34 .50 26 . 00 26 .50 0 .00 6 .50 5 .70 N . D. 4 .50 7 .80 4 .00 4 .00 0 .03 0 .12 11 .80 2 .31 10 .00 10 .20 9 .20  53 3.5  A p p l i c a b i l i t y of Results  S p h a l e r i t e tends  to e x h i b i t c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n c o m p o s i t i o n on s m a l l  s c a l e s and s t u d i e s based i n t o account  on chemical a n a l y s e s which do n o t - t a k e  a r e sometimes q u e s t i o n e d .  this  variability  Rose (1967) has documented t h e v a r i a t i o n s  a c r o s s a s i n g l e zoned c r y s t a l o f s p h a l e r i t e u s i n g s p e c t r o g r a p h i c a n a l y s e s on samples d r i l l e d  from each zone ( F i g u r e 3-4).  The v a r i a t i o n s a r e o f d i f f e r i n g magni-  tudes f o r each element; cadmium i s v e r y s t a b l e throughout,  10  9  8  7  6 5  FIGURE  4  3  2  I  but cobalt or n i c k e l  53IA 530  3-4  .VARIATIONS IN MINOR ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS ACROSS A ZONED•SPHALERITE CRYSTAL AND IN TWO ADJACENT MASSIVE SPECIMENS ( a f t e r Rose, 1967). Sketch shows c o l o u r zones and sample l o c a t i o n s i n the c r y s t a l .  54 v a r i a t i o n s approach an o r d e r of magnitude.  Rose a l s o compares these zoned  s p h a l e r i t e a n a l y s e s w i t h those o f two massive s p h a l e r i t e .samples taken adjacent to the zoned c r y s t a l . 'within d e p o s i t  1  T h i s comparison i s more i n d i c a t i v e of the  minor element v a r i a t i o n s , which i n t h i s case, r e f l e c t  trends  s i m i l a r to the s i r g l e c r y s t a l v a r i a t i o n s . The  p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e of these v a r i a t i o n s i n r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s can  not be o v e r l o o k e d .  S p e c t r o g r a p h i c or e l e c t r o n microprobe  a n a l y s e s of a  tiny  s e c t i o n of a s i n g l e s p h a l e r i t e sample w i l l not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the e n t i r e hand specimen, and  the d e v i a t i o n from  the mean a n a l y s i s f o r a r e g i o n a l  group of specimens w i l l be l a r g e r than n e c e s s a r y some of the more s u b t l e r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s .  3  thereby p o s s i b l y masking  'Homogenization' of each  s p h a l e r i t e sample (as has been done i n t h i s s t u d y ) , whether zoned or not, reduces  i n t r a — s a m p l e v a r i a t i o n and y i e l d s a minor element content c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c of the o v e r a l l phase of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g elements  adsorbed  from the ore s o l u t i o n s w h i c h would not o t h e r w i s e be d e t e c t e d i n x - r a y c r y s t a l l o g r a p h i c methods.  Therefore i n a r e g i o n a l study o f t h i s n a t u r e , a  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p i c k i n g of a hand specimen, f o l l o w e d by c r u s h i n g and  'homo-  g e n i z a t i o n ' , produces r e s u l t s a p p l i c a b l e on a d i f f e r e n t s c a l e than those of Rose ( i b i d . ) .  R e g i o n a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y of r e s u l t s i n t h i s study i s confirmed  by the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e . In o r d e r to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of s m a l l s c a l e c h e m i c a l (of the type Rose has  i l l u s t r a t e d ) on the a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d ' i n  t h i s study, an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was t h a t were s e p a r a t e d t w i c e . reflect  designed, based  on the 17 samples  These samples y i e l d p a i r s of a n a l y s e s which  the s m a l l s c a l e sample v a r i a n c e s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o sampling  p a r t s of a s i n g l e hand specimen. p i c k e d t w i c e was  variations  The  two  o r i g i n a l sample from each of the  distinct 17  a l s o a n a l y z e d twice i n o r d e r to a l l o w d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of  a n a l y t i c a l v a r i a n c e s from sampling v a r i a n c e s . specimens were a c t u a l l y a n a l y z e d i n t r i p l i c a t e .  T h e r e f o r e , the 17 hand Appendix C ( F i g u r e C - l )  55  i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s procedure and tabulates the a n a l y t i c a l data p a i r s generated (Table C - l ) , Also included i n Appendix C i s a d i s c u s s i o n of the a n a l y s i s of variance technique applied to t h i s group of t r i p l i c a t e d analyses from s i n g l e hand specimens. Two analyses of variance were performed on t h i s data.  I n i t i a l l y , the  combined variances due t o hand sampling and a n a l y s i s were compared to the variance due to a n a l y s i s alone.  The r e s u l t s (Table C - 2 ) i n d i c a t e that these  two sources of variance are of the same magnitude f o r each element, i . e . the v a r i a b i l i t y introduced through sampling the same specimen twice i s n e g l i g i b l e r e l a t i v e to a n a l y t i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y . Secondly, the a n a l y t i c a l and hand specimen sampling variances w i t h i n a s i n g l e deposit were compared to those variances between the deposits, i n order to determine i f data variances incurred during a n a l y s i s are large enough to conceal n a t u r a l sample variances between deposits.  The r e s u l t s of  t h i s t e s t are compiled i n Table C—2 and. i n d i c a t e that i n a l l cases the w i t h i n deposit variance i s n e g l i g i b l e r e l a t i v e to the between deposit variance and n a t u r a l sample v a r i a t i o n s . These two t e s t s i n d i c a t e that 1 ) the a n a l y t i c a l data variances are low r e l a t i v e to the between deposit variances,. and 2 ) the separation and crushing procedure used produces a uniform sample which i s representative of the hand specimen.  Therefore, the conclusions that can be drawn are that the analy-  t i c a l r e s u l t s are: 1]  not complicated by numerous small scale minor element v a r i a t i o n s ,  2]  representative of the minor element content of the s p h a l e r i t e as generated by a phase of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , and  3]  a p p l i c a b l e on a r e g i o n a l s c a l e i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the minor element contents of s p h a l e r i t e .  A f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of variance comparing sample variances w i t h i n deposits  56 and between d e p o s i t s , d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 5 ( s e c t i o n 5.3), c o n f i r m s  and  s t r e n g t h e n s these c o n c l u s i o n s . The above statements  i n d i c a t e t h a t the a n a l y t i c a l technique i s a minor  source o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n the d a t a , however i t i s the o n l y s o u r c e over which any controls-can be m a i n t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y .  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the  s o u r c e s generated w i t h i n the a n a l y t i c a l procedures g u i d e l i n e s on the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s .  can y i e l d  error  independent  T h e r e f o r e , the f o l l o w i n g  d i s c u s s i o n d e f i n e s a n a l y t i c a l e r r o r s o u r c e s and o u t l i n e s the  limitations  they p l a c e on the r e s u l t s . Each phase of the a n a l y t i c a l b u t e e r r o r i n t o the f i n a l r e s u l t .  treatment  of the sample s u i t e might  These e r r o r s can add up to a  contri-  significant  percentage:^in a study o f t h i s n a t u r e , thus, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o survey  and  b r i e f l y d i s c u s s the p o s s i b l e sources and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the o v e r a l l analytical error. procedure  T h i s d i s c u s s i o n examines each s t e p of the a n a l y t i c a l  and summarizes any l i m i t a t i o n s imposed on the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f  results. S i n c e most minor element a n a l y s e s u t i l i z e a m i n e r a l s e p a r a t e , they are s u b j e c t to e r r o r due ( c f . Mercer,  1976,  to c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f the s e p a r a t e by  p, 3 ) .  'foreign' minerals  Such c o n t a m i n a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y the major s o u r c e o f  e r r o r i n a few samples s t u d i e d h e r e .  In t h i s p r o j e c t the mineralogy  d e p o s i t s sampled tends t o be r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e and  samples w i t h  o f the  coarse  g r a i n e d s p h a l e r i t e were p r e f e r r e d to f a c i l i t a t e s e p a r a t i o n o f a pure s p h a l erite.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n c l u s i o n of t r a c e s o f p y r i t e , g a l e n a , or c h a l c o p y r i t e  c o u l d not be  e n t i r e l y a v o i d e d and  can add d e t e c t a b l e p r o p o r t i o n s o f  their  major elements which, are s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i v e t o the t r u e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f these i n the s p h a l e r i t e i t s e l f .  T r a c e s o f c a l c i t e , d o l o m i t e , and q u a r t z were  l o c a l l y i n c l u d e d i n the s p h a l e r i t e samples,  however these contaminants  c o n t a i n l a r g e amounts o f any of the metals of i n t e r e s t , t h e r e f o r e t h e i r i n c l u s i o n would not have any a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t on m e t a l a n a l y s e s .  do  not  57 The  s e p a r a t e d samples w e r e , p u l v e r i z e d i n an alumina-ceramic  m i l l s i n c e t h i s method would not contaminate interest.  Spex shaker  the samples w i t h any metals  C a r r y over c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f one sample t o the next was  of  kept t o a  minimum by c l e a n i n g the m i l l t h o r o u g h l y w i t h compressed a i r between each sample, as w e l l as w i t h acetone and a i r ' a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . E m i s s i o n a r c s p e c t r o g r a p h i c r e s u l t s are g e n e r a l l y not r e l i a b l e due e r r o r s i n h e r e n t w i t h i n the a n a l y t i c a l technique problems i n c l u d e uneven sample burns photographic p l a t e s .  (see s e c t i o n 2,3.1).  These d i f f i c u l t l y  c o n t r o l l e d f a c t o r s , p l u s the  w i t h s t a n d a r d p l a t e s , l e a d t o poor  of  the comparison  Furthermore,  of s u l p h i d e m a t r i x samples w i t h  of the s p e c t r o g r a p h i c d a t a was  3-8  CORRELATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS C o r r e l a t i o n of 162 sample a n a l y s e s f o r seven elements determined on b o t h atomic a b s o r p t i o n and e m i s s i o n s p e c t r o g r a p h i c methods ( c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t a t the 99% s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l i s 0.180). Atomic A b s o r p t i o n A n a l y s e s Ag  Co  Cu  Fe  Mn  Ni  Pb  CO  <U cn  Ag  ca  Co  a o u <  •H  -H  -co  PL,  CO J 3  2 o u u CJ <D  P, CO  Cu Fe Mn Ni Pb  results.  t e s t e d by computing a c o r r e l a -  t i o n m a t r i x between the q u a n t i t a t i v e atomic a b s o r p t i o n r e s u l t s and  TABLE  limita-  reproducability  g r a n i t i c m a t r i x standards i n t r o d u c e d unknown m a t r i x e f f e c t s i n t o the The r e l i a b i l i t y  Further  and unevenidevelopment of s p e c t r a l  t i o n of v i s u a l comparison results.  to  .7126 .7196 .7179 .5368 .6092 .1898 .8792  the  58 emission spectrographic data. T a b l e 3-8,  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n , p r o v i d e d i n  i n d i c a t e a v e r y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n o f a n a l y t i c a l methods f o r the  seven elements i n common, a t the 99% s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l .  T h i s shows t h a t the  e m i s s i o n s p e c t r o g r a p h i c method p r o b a b l y p r o v i d e s s e m i - q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s for  these elements and i n d i c a t e s t h a t a n a l y s e s o f the remaining  probably are r e l i a b l e a t the s e m i - q u a n t i t a t i v e l e v e l .  elements  Specifically,  utili-  z a t i o n o f the e m i s s i o n s p e c t r o g r a p h data t o c o n f i r m element d i s t r i b u t i o n s a t the q u a l i t a t i v e presence  o r absence l e v e l i s a r e a s o n a b l e  approach.  Atomic a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s i s a p o t e n t i a l l y more quanti-i t a t i v e t e c h n i q u e , however, e r r o r s due t o t h e a n a l y s t ' s care and a n a l y t i c a l skill,  and t o m a t r i x e f f e c t s w i t h i n t h e m a t e r i a l b e i n g , a n a l y z e d ,  can occur.  High z i n c m a t r i x e f f e c t s appear t o be u n i n v e s t i g a t e d , b u t s i n c e each sample has a s i m i l a r m a t r i x , these e f f e c t s a r e c o n s t a n t throughout w i l l not b i a s any i n d i v i d u a l samples.  t h e a n a l y s e s and  Throughout t h e p r o c e d u r e s ,  a l l glass-  ware was t h o r o u g h l y washed between samples and r i n s e d i n a c i d s o l u t i o n s , and s t o r a g e b o t t l e s were c l e a n e d , r i n s e d i n a c i d , and r i n s e d w i t h sample s o l u t i o n s . The  t o r s i o n b a l a n c e used  t o weigh out samples i s a c c u r a t e t o +0,02 mg.  Final  volumes, and hence c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , were a c c u r a t e l y o b t a i n e d u s i n g 25 ml volumetric f l a s k s .  Standard  s o l u t i o n s , prepared from s t o c k s o l u t i o n s ,  p r o v i d e d r e l a t i v e l y l i n e a r absorbance c a l i b r a t i o n graphs. d e v i a t i o n s which c o u l d be determined The  s m a l l sample weights  used  The minimum  f o r each element a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e  3-9.  to a l l e v i a t e t h e p l a s t i c s u l p h u r problem,  u n f o r t u n a t e l y r e s u l t e d i n a d i l u t i o n f a c t o r o f 125 b e i n g a p p l i e d t o r e s u l t s determined  from the c a l i b r a t i o n graphs;  a n a l y t i c a l errors incurred to t h i s  p o i n t were a l s o m a g n i f i e d by t h i s f a c t o r .  L i m i t a t i o n s of the above method  appear to be q u i t e s m a l l b u t ' a n a l y s t e r r o r * remains n o n - q u a n t i f i a b l e . Determinations  o f o v e r a l l a n a l y t i c a l p r e c i s i o n and an a n a l y s i s of the  a n a l y t i c a l and n a t u r a l sample v a r i a n c e s between and w i t h i n d e p o s i t s p r o v i d e s  59 TABLE .3t9 MINIMUM DEVIATIONS DISCERNIBLE ON ATOMIC ABSORPTION UNITS (converted to ppm a t minimum d i l u t i o n f a c t o r ) Instrument u s e d -  an e s t i m a t e  a: b:  P e r k i n Elmer V a r i a n Techtron  Ag  1 (a)  Fe  4 (b)  Cd  2 (a)  Mn  1 (b)  Co  1 (a)  Ni  1 (a)  Cu  3 (b)  Pb  3 (a)  of the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f these r e s u l t s .  These c a l c u l a t i o n s ,  t a b u l a t e d i n Appendix C and d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , i n d i c a t e t h a t elements w i t h  the w i d e s t range of a b s o l u t e v a l u e s  w i l l define regional d i s t r i b u t i o n s w e l l . perhaps i r o n and manganese probably  and the b e s t p r e c i s i o n  Consequently, cadmium, s i l v e r , and  provide  P a r t of the ' n a t u r a l sample v a r i a n c e *  the most r e l i a b l e  i n t i m a t e l y associated with  Very f i n e  the s p h a l e r i t e , was  i n some samples, hence anomalously h i g h i r o n and l e a d v a l u e s I n those samples w i t h copper v a l u e s  information.  c o u l d be due t o c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f  the s p h a l e r i t e samples by a s s o c i a t e d s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l s . p y r i t e or galena,  those  included  are s u s p e c t .  a s s o c i a t e d copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n (Appendix A) some  are also suspect.  However, s p h a l e r i t e might c o n t a i n an  i n c r e a s e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i r o n , l e a d , o r copper, through i n c r e a s e d absorption,  and s o l i d s o l u t i o n , when formed from s o l u t i o n s  i n these elements t o a l s o p r e c i p i t a t e p y r i t e , g a l e n a ,  pyrite.  Therefore  i t i s very d i f f i c u l t  adsorption,  sufficiently  enriched  a t i o n from i n c l u d e d  grained  or c h a l c o -  t o q u a n t i f y the degree o f contamin-  particles.  A q u a l i t a t i v e measure of p o s s i b l e contaminants, can be found i n .the generalized mineralographic  d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r each d e p o s i t  (Appendix 1 ) ,  The hand specimen and p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n s do not cover e v e r y specimen thoroughly,  but they are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the m i c r o m i n e r a l o g y o f  60 a given deposit.  These d e s c r i p t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t f i n e , carbonate  filled  f r a c t u r e s a r e common t o many samples, and e x p e c t e d l y t r a c e s o f carbonate m i n e r a l s were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s manner.  Important  however, were r a r e l y seen d i s t r i b u t e d throughout  metal-bearing sulphides, the s p h a l e r i t e  samples.  T a b l e 3-10 p r o v i d e s an example o f the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f data suspected o f c o n t a m i n a t i o n o r anomalous to a d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n , i n terms o f the information available.  Seemingly anomalous v a l u e s were compared w i t h m i n e r -  a l o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n s t o check on the v a l i d i t y o f the s p h a l e r i t e a n a l y s e s . S i g n i f i c a n t p y r i t e o r g a l e n a c o n t a m i n a t i o n can p o s s i b l y l e a d t o t r a c e contaminations  o f c o b a l t and n i c k e l o r s i l v e r r e s p e c t i v e l y , s i n c e these  elements a r e more commonly found as minor c o n s t i t u e n t s o f these m i n e r a l s ( P r i c e , 1972; Nishiyama, contaminant  1974) .  Contamination  m i n e r a l i s nowhere expected  q u a n t i t y o f any contaminant  due t o minor elements o f a  t o be s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e (1)  m i n e r a l i n c l u d e d i s v e r y low, and (2)  the  the  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a minor element p r e s e n t i n o n l y t r a c e q u a n t i t i e s o f contami n a n t , i s h i g h l y d i l u t e d w i t h i n the s p h a l e r i t e s e p a r a t e . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the magnitude and sources of the e r r o r i n the d a t a l e a d s t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o a r e g i o n a l study o f t h i s n a t u r e . anomalous v a l u e s .  S p e c i a l c a r e must be taken t o i n t e r p r e t  T h e r e f o r e , r e g i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the atomic  a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o g r a p h i c d a t a can proceed w i t h i n the above full  guidelineslin  c o n f i d e n c e o f d e t e r m i n i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the  t r u e minor element c o n t e n t o f the s p h a l e r i t e s .  Emission spectrographic data  can a l s o be used, w i t h i n the g u i d e l i n e s p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d f o r i t , t o develop o r v a l i d a t e r e g i o n a l p a t t e r n s .  61 TABLE 13-10 INTERPRETATION OF ANOMALOUS DATA IN TERMS OF MINERALOGIC DATA AVAILABLE Deposit Number  A n a l y t i c a l Results (ppm) Fe Pb  Paragenetic Associations  Conclusions  10006  12,416  1,245  -sparry c a l c i t e veinlets -no o t h e r s u l p h i d e s observed  -second h i g h e s t Fe content recorded y e t no primary Fe m i n e r a l s observed —accept a n a l y t i c a l values  10030  12,140  10,750  - p y r i t e and g a l e n a replace sphalerite locally  -high Fe and Pb results correlate with p o s s i b l e contaminants —reject results because they a r e l i k e l y non-representative of s p h a l e r i t e alone  10032  35,870  3,879  -dolomite and sphalerite -no o t h e r s u l p h i d e s observed  -high Fe and Pb r e s u l t s , y e t no other sulphides observed -accept a n a l y t i c a l results  20020  8,076  101  - p y r i t e occurs w i t h carbonates i n fractures i n sphalerite  -moderate Fe r e s u l t with possible contaminant noted -nise a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t with caution ( i . e . Fe i s p o s s i b l y too h i g h )  20034  4,518  42  -galena p r e s e n t i n twin l a m e l l a e o f some deformed sphalerite  - h i g h Fe r e s u l t b u t no p y r i t e observed - p o s s i b l e galena contaminant but low Pb a n a l y s i s -accept a n a l y t i c a l results  62 CHAPTER 4:  REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF THE NORTHERN YUKON  AND ADJACENT DISTRICT OF MACKENZIE  4.1  Introduction  The physiography o f the Canadian c o r d i l l e r a n o r t h and east o f the T i n t i n a t r e n c h i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and a d j a c e n t D i s t r i c t o f Mackenzie i s dominated by a r c u a t e l y f o l d e d , and t h r u s t e d , b e l t s o f carbonate r o c k s which are s e p a r a t e d by i n t e r v e n i n g p l a t e a u x and b a s i n s .  Carbonate u n i t s  represent  the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the Rocky Mountain b e l t o f B r i t i s h Columbia, b u t a r e much more v a r i e d i n c h a r a c t e r , hence they c o n t a i n more p h y s i o g r a p h i c divisions  ( F i g u r e 4 - 1 ) . S t r u c t u r a l s u b d i v i s i o n s , t o be d i s c u s s e d  sub-  subsequent-  l y , g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w the p h y s i o g r a p h i c p a t t e r n s , r e f l e c t i n g s t r u c t u r a l and s t r a t i g r a p h i c c o n t r o l s over p h y s i o g r a p h y . physiography can be found i n Bostock (1946, The Selwyn and Mackenzie Mountains  D e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the 1970).  ( F i g u r e 4-1) a r e n o r t h e r l y  trending  f e a t u r e s , s e p a r a t e d by a l i n e o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d to s e p a r a t e r e s p e c t i v e l y , sedimentary r o c k s c o n t a i n i n g i n t r u s i v e s from those t h a t are s t r i c t l y mentary.  These mountains  swing to the west and are s u c c e s s i v e l y  as the Wernecke and O g i l v i e Mountains.  described  The R i c h a r d s o n Mountains a r e a  s h a l e - c a r b o n a t e b e l t which trends n o r t h from the Wernecke Mountains . northward swing from the O g i l v i e Mountains of the N o r t h e r n O g i l v i e  sedi-  A  extends i n t o the carbonate rocks  Mountains . 1  Due to r e c e n t e f f o r t s o f the G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada and o f e x p l o r a t i o n companies,  1  the geology o f t h i s a r e a i s becoming  increasingly  B o s t o c k (1970) has regrouped the N o r t h e r n O g i l v i e Mountains i n t o the Nahoni and P o r c u p i n e Ranges, as shown i n F i g u r e 4-1, however, the term N o r t h e r n O g i l v i e Mountains w i l l be a p p l i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s .  FIGURE 4-1: PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE NORTHERN CORDILLERA ( a f t e r Bostock, 1970)  64 understood.  The s t r a t i g r a p h i c framework, s t r u c t u r a l s t y l e s and o v e r a l l  t e c t o n i c e v o l u t i o n has been d i s c u s s e d  by v a r i o u s  Douglas e t a l . , 1970; Lenz, 1972; N o r r i s , d e s c r i p t i o n i s attempted h e r e .  authors ( G a b r i e l s e , 1967;  1972, 1974), hence n o r d e t a i l e d  The f o l l o w i n g summarizes the r e g i o n a l  geology and emphasizes the s t r a t i g r a p h i c and s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s most pertinent thesis.  t o the carbonate-hosted z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s A r e g i o n a l g e o l o g i c map i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e  Paleophysiographic features  pertinent  here, are p l o t t e d i n Figure  4-3.  and  a time-space p r o j e c t i o n ^  discussed  inithis  4-2 f o r r e f e r e n c e .  to s e d i m e n t o l o g i c c o n t r o l s  A diagrammatic c r o s s - s e c t i o n  discussed  (Figure  4-4)  ( F i g u r e 4-5) have a l s o been compiled i n o r d e r t o  f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e the s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s and t h e i r p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n to zinc-lead  4.2  mineralization.  Stratigraphy Proterozoic  and  and P a l e o z o i c  sedimentary rocks which have been f a u l t e d  f o l d e d , b u t n o t h e a v i l y metamorphosed, comprise t h e main b e l t s o f  interest  through the Mackenzie, Wernecke, O g i l v i e , and R i c h a r d s o n Mountains.  Two f a c i e s dominate the rock d i s t r i b u t i o n b o t h i n space and through time; f o l d e d and weakly metamorphosed a r g i l l a c e o u s rocks o f the Selwyn s h a l e grade l a t e r a l l y n o r t h  and e a s t  into a miogeoclinal  carbonate sediments o n l a p p i n g the c r a t o n d i s t r i b u t i o n of Ordovician  (Figure  basin  wedge o f p r e d o m i n a n t l y  4-3 i l l u s t r a t e s  the g e n e r a l  to E a r l y Devonian f a c i e s around the mountain b e l t s ) .  C r y s t a l l i n e basement m a t e r i a l  i s nowhere exposed,, however t o p o g r a p h i c o r  ^ The time-space p r o j e c t i o n was drawn t o h i g h l i g h t the temporal r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the l i t h o s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s h o s t i n g the z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . S p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s were ^projected' onto t h e s e c t i o n , around a r c u a t e l i n e s .". approximating the curve o f the Mackenzie Mountain b e l t . P r o j e c t i o n o f t h i s amount o f data onto a s i n g l e s e c t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s be made i n f a c i e s r e l a t i o n s and p o s i t i o n s ; some o f these g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a r e mentioned i n the t e x t . 1  FIGURE 4-2: REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF THE NORTHERN CORDILLERA R e f e r to Appendix B f o r c o r r e l a t i o n c h a r t and r e f e r e n c e s .  ON ON  FIGURE 4-3: PALEO-PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS OF THE NORTHERN CORDILLERA Dashed l i n e d i v i d e s e q u a l t h i c k n e s s e s o f O r d o v i c i a n t o e a r l y Devonian aged c l a s t i c r o c k s (to the south and west) from carbonate rocks ( t o the n o r t h and e a s t ) , ( a f t e r , Copeland, 1977). L i n e A-B d e f i n e s the p o s i t i o n o f the c r o s s - s e c t i o n ( F i g u r e 4-4) and the time-spa p r o j e c t i o n ( F i g u r e 4-5).  67 s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s i n the basement might have a i d e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the Proterozoic sedimentologic  c o n t r o l s which s u r v i v e d , i n g e n e r a l form, u n t i l  Devonian time. M i d d l e P r o t e r o z o i c sandstones, s i l t s t o n e s , a r g i l l i t e s  and orange  w e a t h e r i n g carbonate u n i t s comprise the o l d e s t sediments i n the a r e a . u n i t s a r e equated w i t h P u r c e l l - t y p e s e d i m e n t a t i o n southern  British  bordering  These  the c r a t o n i n  Columbia and A l b e r t a (Douglas e t a l . , 1970) and are  i n t e r p r e t e d t o have been formed as a m i o g e o c l i n a l wedge o f sedimentary d e r i v e d from the c r a t o n to the e a s t . number o f f o r m a t i o n s ,  H e l i k i a n rocks a r e r e p r e s e n t e d  rocks  by a  i n c l u d i n g G.S.C. u n i t HI, Tsetozene, K a t h e r i n e , H5,  and  L i t t l e Dal, plus t h e i r equivalents  ( F i g u r e 4-5, c . f . c o r r e l a t i o n c h a r t  and  g e o l o g i c map, refeorehces'j Appendix B) . The HI, Tsetozene, and K a t h e r i n e u n i t s comprise a g e n e r a l l y conformable  sequence o f i n t e r c a l a t e d q u a r t z i t e ^ s i l t s t o n e , s h a l e and d o l o m i t e .  Fine  c r o s s laminae, mudcracks, and s t r o m a t o l i t e s i n d i c a t e a shallow water o r i g i n and  a t h i n n i n g onto the c r a t o n to the e a s t .  Blusson  (1974a,b) r e c o r d s a  s i m i l a r s u c c e s s i o n i n u n i t s Hcs and Hsc ( c o r r e l a t i o n c h a r t , Appendix B) i n the Wernecke M o u n t a i n s .  Here, f i n e g r a i n e d c l a s t i c and impure c a r b o n a t e  r o c k s grade upward through a f e r r u g i n o u s c h e r t y member i n t o a s h a l l o w water a r g i l l i t e sequence.  Many o f the p e l i t i c members o f t h i s group have u n d e r -  gone low grade r e g i o n a l metamorphism. i n d i c a t e t h a t an e x t e n s i v e  Laznicka  (1977) and B e l l  (1978)  a r e a o f P r o t e r o z o i c sediments from the Wernecke  Mountains westward i n t o the O g i l v i e Mountains, c o n t a i n s s c a t t e r e d copper, c o b a l t , and p o s s i b l y uranium m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a r g e areas w i t h d i o r i t e dykes and s i l l s  Commonly t h i s m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  o f s i l i c e o u s and f e r r u g i n o u s b r e c c i a s and  (Archer e t a l . , 1976).  F i n e e l a s t i c s , found as b l a n k e t u n i t s i n the lower H5 group, grade upwards i n t o a d e p o s i t i o n a l s h a l l o w i n g  sequence o f b a s i n a l s h a l e s and  DIAGRAMMATIC (adapted  CROSS-SECTION, SELWYN BASIN TO MACKENZIE MOUNTAINS ( l i n e A B i n F i g u r e 4-3) from A i t k e n e t a l . , 1972; Douglas et a l . , 1970; and C e c i l e , 1978)  pb-zn-ba  UPR  D E V  na  hd  be  J3L  MIO.  0 N  ' o  I  co  LOW.  A N  *>  v v  c o *  -  —  b  M  ygy v \ v \ \ \ \ \ ]  \s.v \  \  \  \  \  A  0 : 0  v  \  \  \ vV v \  UPR  H A D R Y N  \  \di \  rr  L U R  \  \a \ t\ \  V Ve  0 0 0 \^ 0 0  Vi  \  \>\ M  \  V)' ( 0  \  \  ^  \  V  V  ,\  -s  I  A N  -A  i  9  *  V  I  I 0 j « I  o  0  H E L I K I A N  \ A  S .S  A  ,N A  A A A - c  b b b b  \  \  \  w  —  ,\ ,N > \ e  .\-A_hc.  \' V \  - c  c  -* *~ —  —  \  "  \ i  h»  sc ho  \  \  \  \-^\  t»\  IT7Z-7  \  \ A  \  ;  ^8  /  .—.  v  LEGEND LI t h o l o g l e s limestone dolomite shale sandstone conglomerate cc c h e r t ee e v a p o r i t e s vv v o l c a n i c t u f f s bb b a s i c f l o w s 3Sdyk.es, sills -tfV_bioherms, r e e f s fe i r o n f o r m a t i o n Cu c o p p e r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n zn-pb-ba z i n c - l e a d - b a r i t e m i n e r a l i zatdon  P h y s i o g r a p h i c and Geologic Features wi/>^ unconformities y-t^t^y facies transition  g  —' MCE MA RA TU SB V  zinc-lead deposits studied in this project: w i t h i n the M a c k e n z i e A r c h ®  area  Kl o u t s i d e area  FIGURE 4-5:  the Mackenzie  Arch  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11  faults M i s t y C r e e k Embayment Mackenzie Arch Redstone Arch Twitya U p l i f t Selwyn B a s i n volcanic centre References Gabrielse, 1967 A i t k e n e t a l . , 1972 C e c i l e , 1978a,b Cook and A i t k e n , 1978 D o u g l a s e t a l . , 1970 Aitken, 1977 Eisbacher, 1977 Laznicka, 1977 Lenz, 1972 Dawson, 1977 B l u s s o n , 1976  Formations na N a h a n n i lid H e a d l e s s l a Landry ar- A r n i c a so Sombre ca C a m s e l l d l Delorme be ' B l a c k c l a s t i c ' wh W h i t t a k e r mk M t . K i n d l e fm F r a n k l i n M o u n t a i n r r Road R i v e r sr Saline River mc M t . Cap sk S e k w i br sh ke ra Id h5 ka ts hi  TiME-SPACE PROJECTION OF MACKENZ IE MOUNTAINS, WERNECKE MOUNTAINS (Projected onto line AB i n Figure 4-3)  B a c k b o n e Ranges Sheepbed Keele Rapitan L i t t l e Dal" H5 Katherine Tsezotene HI  AND SELWYN BASIN STRATIGRAPHY  70 carbonates which h o s t s p e c t a c u l a r bioherms over 900 metres h i g h ( A i t k e n , 1977).  These r e e f s , commonly w i t h c r y p t a l g a l c o r e s and f l a n k i n g  talus  d e p o s i t s , form a weak t r e n d s u b p a r a l l e l t o the p r e s e n t p h y s i o g r a p h i c and structural trends.  A widespread  s u b t i d a l e v a p o r i t i c unit of considerable  t h i c k n e s s f o l l o w s the H5 d o l o m i t e d e p o s i t i o n and i s i n t u r n f o l l o w e d by p y r i t i f e r o u s s h a l e and carbonate u n i t s .  T h i c k carbonate rocks o f the L i t t l e  D a l Formation  c o n t i n u e s h a l l o w water bank d e p o s i t i o n u n t i l the end o f  H e l i k i a n time  (Aitken, i b i d . ) .  Embayments a l o n g the c r a t o n s h o r e l i n e  c o l l e c t e d a sequence o f fanglomerates  i n t e r c a l a t e d w i t h d o l o m i t i c sand-  stones c o n t a i n i n g c r y p t a l g a l l a m i n i t e s i n d i c a t i v e o f a s u p r a t i d a l environment ( E i s b a c h e r , 1977) . Redstone Formation  and bear  mudflat  These rocks form the narrow b e l t o f the  copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n throughout.  Eisbacher  ( i b i d . ) b e l i e v e s t h a t these embayments developed w i t h i n f a u l t bounded b a s i n s as a r e s u l t o f c r u s t a l d i l a t i o n which was d i r e c t l y f o l l o w e d by the R a c k l a n orogeny. P u r c e l l - t y p e s e d i m e n t a t i o n , which was brought  to a c l o s e i n s o u t h e r n  B r i t i s h Columbia by the E a s t Kootenay orogeny, was brought n o r t h by the R a c k l a n orogeny.  t o an end i n the  M i o g e o c l i n a l c o n d i t i o n s d i d not p e r s i s t  after  a g e n e r a l u p l i f t o f H e l i k i a n s t r a t a , which, a i d e d by f o l d i n g , f a u l t i n g , and e r o s i o n , l e d t o a major r e g i o n a l unconformity sedimentation  d e v e l o p i n g p r i o r t o Hadrynian  ( F i g u r e s 4-4 and 4 - 5 ) . B a s i c dykes and flows accompanied  Racklan f a u l t movements which p e r s i s t e d d u r i n g d e p o s i t i o n o f Hadrynian Rapitan The  conglomerates. l a t e P r o t e r o z o i c R a p i t a n Group i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  Racklan  a c t i v i t y and g e n e r a l l y , as a r e s u l t o f t h i s a c t i v i t y , i s composed o f coarse to f i n e g r a i n e d f e l d s p a t h i c c l a s t i c r o c k s .  Rapitan conglomeratic  facies  become f i n e r upwards, w i t h l o c a l i r o n f o r m a t i o n , c h e r t , and v o l c a n i c t u f f h o r i z o n s , and a r e f o l l o w e d by more a r g i l l a c e o u s and carbonate  members.  71 O v e r a l l , these c l a s t i c l i t h o l o g i e s , i n f o r m a l l y termed  the  'Grit  Unit'  throughout the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a , are thought t o r e p r e s e n t 'Windemeret y p e ' s e d i m e n t a t i o n t y p i c a l of the s o u t h e r n Rocky Mountain et  a l . , 1970).  to  the west o r southwest  areas  (Douglas  F e l d s p a t h i c contents i n d i c a t e a c r y s t a l l i n e source, p o s s i b l y ( G a b r i e l s e , 1967) .  L a z n i c k a (1977) has noted  copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e s y n g e n e t i c o r i g i n i n these lower argillaceous rocks. the  The  Hadrynian  ' G r i t U n i t ' passes upwards i n t o carbonate r o c k s o f  Keele Formation and the n o n - c a l c a r e o u s s h a l e s o f the Sheepbed F o r m a t i o n ;  these f o r m a t i o n s complete  the P r o t e r o z o i c s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e c o r d  (Figures  4—4  4-5).  and  During the lower to middle Hadrynian, d e p o s i t i o n a l c o n t r o l . over sedimentary f a c i e s g r a d u a l l y s h i f t e d from R a c k l a n t e c t o n i c i n f l u e n c e s to more s t a b l e b a s i n and a r c h s l o p e r e l a t i o n s ; p a t t e r n s developed a t t h i s dominated  f a c i e s r e l a t i o n s u n t i l the Devonian P e r i o d .  time  Several tectonically  p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s became dominant a t v a r i o u s times and l o c a t i o n s d u r i n g the  P a l e o z o i c ; these f e a t u r e s are not w h o l l y continuous and they tend to  d i s r u p t the r e g i o n a l sedimentary accumulations i n t o s e m i - r e s t r i c t e d b a s i n s adjacent to arches.  Gabrielse  (1967) demonstrated  the o r i g i n of the Redstone  A r c h d u r i n g the m i d d l e Hadrynian south o f K e e l e R i v e r ( F i g u r e s 4-3  and  4-5).  A i t k e n e t a l . (1972) suggested t h a t a hinge l i n e developed a t t h i s time w i t h i t s a x i s somewhat e a s t and dominantly n o r t h of t h i s l o c a t i o n ; is  the p r e c u r s o r to the dominant Cambrian Mackenzie A r c h  1970) 4-5)  o u t l i n e d i n F i g u r e s 4-3  and 4-4.  The  this  feature  (Douglas e t a l . ,  time-space p r o j e c t i o n  (Figure  p o r t r a y s both o f these f e a t u r e s and i n c l u d e s H a d r y n i a n u n i t s between  t h e i r l o c i p r o j e c t e d onto the s e c t i o n ; these u n i t s might not be p r e s e n t everywhere i n the Mackenzie.Mountains,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a r e a d i r e c t l y  e a s t o f the Redstone A r c h . a x i s . The P r o t e r o z o i c s u r f a c e was  bevelled r e l a t i v e l y f l a t  during l a t e  72 Hadrynian e r o s i o n , thereby a l l o w i n g r a p i d t r a n s g r e s s i o n o f Cambrian seas over a pronounced  and widespread u n c o n f o r m i t y .  A u n i f o r m sequence of  g r e s s i v e q u a r t z i t e s and s h a l e s o f the Backbone Ranges Formation bears  transan  e a r l y Cambrian O l e n e l l i d t r i l o b i t e assemblage e x t e n d i n g 'from the R i c h a r d s o n Mountains, (Fritz,  through the Backbone Ranges, t o the South Nahanni R i v e r headwaters  1974;  of sediments  Green e t a l . , formed  1967).  T h i s p a t t e r n i s the i n i t i a l e x p r e s s i o n  a d j a c e n t to the Mackenzie  i n t o the R i c h a r d s o n Trough  ( F i g u r e 4-3).  A r c h and e x t e n d i n g  northward  The o v e r l y i n g b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d  d o l o m i t e s o f the Sekwi Formation t h i n onto the Mackenzie  Arch and  develop  t h r e e f a c i e s , c o n s i s t i n g o f 1) an i n n e r d e t r i t a l b e l t o f near shore  clastic  r o c k s , 2) a carbonate s h e l f , and 3) an o u t e r d e t r i t a l l i m e s t o n e and  calcar-  eous s h a l e b e l t .  Cambrian t r i l o b i t e s and a r c h a e o c y a t h i d r e e f s are common  i n the carbonate members.  T h i c k carbonate bioherms a d j a c e n t t o the  Bonnet Plume h i g h ( F i g u r e 4-3)  d e f i n e a Lower Cambrian h i n g e l i n e , s e p a r a t i n g  a broad carbonate p l a t f o r m i n the n o r t h c e n t r a l Yukon and the R i c h a r d s o n trough to the e a s t ( F r i t z ,  1974).  D u r i n g the L a t e s t Cambrian, a g e n e r a l u p l i f t the e a s t e r n Selwyn B a s i n , produced top o f the Sekwi F o r m a t i o n .  of the a r e a , c e n t e r e d on  an e x t e n s i v e d e p o s i t i o n a l h i a t u s a t the  M i d d l e and Upper Cambrian f a c i e s p a t t e r n s were  s i m i l a r to those o f the Lower Cambrian, however, major e r o s i o n a ! p e r i o d s a t the end of the Lower and M i d d l e Cambrian l e d t o h i g h l y v a r i a b l e p r e s e r v a t i o n of these u n i t s .  Most o f the M i d d l e Cambrian s t r a t a was: removed and  the Upper Cambrian s t r a t a t h i n s t o n o n - e x i s t e n c e onto the Mackenzie  Arch.  M i d d l e and Upper Cambrian u n i t s d i r e c t l y e a s t of the a r c h are p a r t i a l l y p r e s e r v e d i n the Mt.  Cap Formation l i m e s t o n e s and s i l t s t o n e s .  s h a l e and mudstone of the o v e r l y i n g S a l i n e R i v e r Formation were  Gypsiferous formed  w i t h i n l o c a l i z e d , r e s t r i c t e d embayments p r e s e n t on the s u r f a c e of the pre-Upper  Cambrian u n c o n f o r m i t y .  73 O v e r a l l , the Cambrian p e r i o d was the Mackenzie Arch and facies distribution.  the f i r s t  to r e v e a l the dominance of  i t s p a r a l l e l i n g b a s i n s and  troughs over r e g i o n a l  T h i c k carbonate d e p o s i t s accumulated along  o f the a r c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a r e a between the p r e s e n t K e e l e Red  Rivers.  buildups  L o c a l e v a p o r i t i c s h o r e l i n e f a c i e s and  occur  immediately a d j a c e n t  To the west and  and  the f l a n k s and  Arctic  nearshore b i o h e r m a l  p a r a l l e l to the t r e n d of the  arch.  southwest, p l a t y impure carbonates grade i n t o c a l c a r e o u s  a r g i l l i t e s d i s t a l to the arch i n the Selwyn B a s i n a r e a .  F i g u r e 4-4  schem-  a t i c a l l y e x h i b i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the Lower Cambrian l i t h o f a c i e s acent  to the a r c h ) , the e r o s i o n a l b r e a k s ,  and  (adj-  the r e t u r n to carbonate  d e p o s i t i o n i n the Lower O r d o v i c i a n . Lower to M i d d l e O r d o v i c i a n F r a n k l i n Mountain Formation i s abundant along  the a x i a l l o c u s o f the Mackenzie A r c h and  these  carbonate  rocks  t h i c k e n r a p i d l y westward i n t o f a c i e s e q u i v a l e n t bedded s h a l e s , s i l t s t o n e s , and is  c h e r t s o f the Selwyn B a s i n . discontinuous  to  e r o s i o n a l break  and Upper Cambrian carbonates are continuous  F r a n k l i n Mountain F o r m a t i o n . Arch and  L o c a l l y the p r e - O r d o v i c i a n  During  the L a t e O r d o v i c i a n ,  the Mackenzie  Selwyn B a s i n became l e s s prominent as s e d i m e n t o l o g i c  a general depression  of the N o r t h American c r a t o n .  p a t t e r n s e s t a b l i s h e d by Cambrian f a c i e s p e r s i s t e d .  controls  However, the  due  general  Westward t i l t i n g  moderate f o l d i n g of the carbonates d u r i n g the M i d d l e to L a t e led  i n t o the  and  Ordovician  to an eastward b e v e l l i n g of the u n d e r l y i n g u n i t s , t h e r e f o r e , S i l u r i a n  rocks o v e r l y p r o g r e s s i v e l y o l d e r u n i t s to the e a s t . Formation o v e r l a p s onto t h i s e r o s i o n a l b r e a k . the Mackenzie Arch,  the Twitya U p l i f t  A M i d d l e S i l u r i a n phase of  (Cook and A i t k e n , 1978),  along the l o c u s of the e a r l i e r Redstone A r c h . of O r d o v i c i a n and  The Mount K i n d l e  Due  occurred  to the l o c a l i z e d  erosion  S i l u r i a n c a r b o n a t e s i n t h i s a r e a the o v e r l y i n g Delorme  Formation r e s t s unconformably on rocks  as o l d as P r o t e r o z o i c ,  The  time-  74 space p r o j e c t i o n ( F i g u r e 4-5)  i n d i c a t e s the p o s i t i o n o f t h i s u p l i f t ,  r e c o r d s O r d o v i c i a n to S i l u r i a n aged carbonate adjacent  to i t .  u n i t s immediately  beneath  and  These carbonates were l i k e l y removed d u r i n g e r o s i o n i n  those areas a f f e c t e d by  the Twitya U p l i f t , however they are p r e s e n t ' l n the  more n o r t h e r l y a r e a s , o u t s i d e the i n f l u e n c e of the u p l i f t . the carbonates  and  and  the u p l i f t  are p l o t t e d , but  Therefore,  they a r e d i s c o n t i n u o u s  both around  the extent of the mountain b e l t . Abrupt f a c i e s changes occur from the carbonate  rocks a d j a c e n t  Mackenzie Arch i n t o the s h a l e s o f the more r e s t r i c t e d R i c h a r d s o n the n o r t h and  the Selwyn B a s i n to the south and west.  i n the trough  commenced i n L a t e Cambrian time and  Active  Trough to  subsidence  continued, u n t i l E a r l y  Devonian, d u r i n g which time t h i c k sequences of g r a p t o l i t i c s h a l e s , laceous limestones, ulated.  t u r b i d i t i c l i m e s t o n e s , and  S i m i l a r f a c i e s developed  component decreases  i n the c e n t r e of the b a s i n .  O r d o v i c i a n to E a r l y Devonian c l a s t i c and 1977) .  regressive r e l a t i o n s .  Cecile  and  4-5  A line in  equal thicknesses of  carbonate  P r e c i s e f a c i e s boundaries  through time and F i g u r e s 4—4  rocks around the Selwyn are h i g h l y v a r i a b l e  a r e drawn to i n d i c a t e t r a n s g r e s s i v e —  (1978a,b) r e c e n t l y documented a major O r d o v i c i a n  to S i l u r i a n embayment of s h a l e s , t r a n s g r e s s i v e i n t o the carbonate c a l l e d the M i s t y Creek Embayment was  ( F i g u r e s 4-3,  4-4,  and  4-5).  accumulation.  receded  to the south and west s l i g h t l y d u r i n g Mt.  Intercalated with  O r d o v i c i a n to E a r l y S i l u r i a n age,  belt,  This feature  most t r a n s g r e s s i v e onto the p l a t f o r m d u r i n g F r a n k l i n Mountain  f o r m a t i o n and  present  T h i s t h i c k s u c c e s s i o n of O r d o v i c i a n to Devonian  i n d i c a t e s the l o c u s of approximately  B a s i n (Copeland,  accum-  carbonate  c h e r t - r i c h h o r i z o n s are  aged a r g i l l a c e o u s u n i t s comprises the Road R i v e r F o r m a t i o n . F i g u r e 4-3  argil-  l o c a l cherty horizons  i n the Selwyn B a s i n where ;the  away from the arch and  to the  carbonate  Kindle  the s h a l e s a r e v o l c a n i c t u f f s o f  Middle  d i s t r i b u t e d about a proposed v o l c a n i c  75 centre  ( C e c i l e , i b i d . ) i n d i c a t e d on F i g u r e s 4-4 and 4-5.  Volcanic  and b a s i c flows o f t h i s age have been r e c o g n i z e d f o r some time et a l . ,  tuffs  (Douglas  1970; B l u s s o n , 1974, map u n i t Ov) w i t h i n the M i d d l e O r d o v i c i a n  Sunblood Formation i n t h i s area> , The S i l u r i a n t o Devonian Delorme Formation marks the r e t u r n to w i d e spread carbonate p r e c i p i t a t i o n .  L o c a l i z e d d e p o s i t i o n a l controls adjacent  to the s h o r e l i n e produced e v a p o r i t e s and a r g i l l a c e o u s l a y e r s .  U p l i f t of  the Mackenzie p l a t f o r m i n the n o r t h e a s t (Lenz, 1972) l e d t o n o n - d e p o s i t i o n and some e r o s i o n d u r i n g t h i s time ( F i g u r e 4-5) . O v e r l y i n g the Delorme F o r m a t i o n i s a g e n e r a l l y conformable sequence o f Devonian carbonate u n i t s broken o n l y by a d i s c o n t i n u o u s h i a t u s d u r i n g p r e M i d d l e Devonian time.  D e p o s i t i o n a l f a c i e s throughout the Devonian were  more l o c a l i z e d and c o n t a i n e d numerous s t r o m a t o p o r o i d r e e f f a c i e s a l o n g carbonate bank to s h a l e b a s i n h i n g e l i n e s .  C a m s e l l and Sombre F o r m a t i o n  carbonates a r e t h i c k e s t i n the n o r t h e r n troughs and t h i n i n t o the Mackenzie Mountains.  A r n i c a Formation d o l o m i t e s conformably o v e r l y Sombre d o l o m i t e s  i n the Mackenzie Mountains.  They might unconformably  i n the n o r t h towards the R i c h a r d s o n M o u n t a i n s .  o v e r l i e Delorme u n i t s  M i d d l e and Upper Devonian  carbonates comprise the Landry, Headless, and Nahanni F o r m a t i o n s . A Devonian t o M i s s i s s i p p i a n aged b l a c k c l a s t i c u n i t o v e r l i e s the Road R i v e r Formation i n the Selwyn B a s i n a r e a and h o s t s s i g n i f i c a n t l e a d - z i n c - b a r i t e d e p o s i t s o f the M a c M i l l a n Pass a r e a . intercalated  stratiform  Volcanic t u f f s are  throughout t h i s s e c t i o n and are l i k e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  e u g e o s y n c l i n a l c o n d i t i o n s d e v e l o p i n g i n the c e n t r a l Yukon p l a t f o r m a t t h i s time (Douglas e t a l . ,  1970).  R e g i o n a l u p l i f t , c e n t e r e d i n the A r c t i c  i s l a n d s a r e a and a t t r i b u t e d t o the E l l e s m e r i a n Orogeny shed e l a s t i c s southwards  i n t o the Yukon t e r r i t o r y .  emergent n a t u r e o f the Mackenzie  terrestial  However, the g e n e r a l l y  t o O g i l v i e Mountain b e l t a t t h i s  time  76 r e s t r i c t e d accumulation The  incomplete  i n these mountain b e l t s .  C a r b o n i f e r o u s to Permian r e c o r d r e f l e c t s the emergent  nature of the r e g i o n d u r i n g the l a t e P a l e o z o i c (Douglas R e s t r i c t e d areas r e c e i v e d t e r r e s t r i a l c l a s t i c and R i c h a r d s o n Mountains.  et a l . , i b i d . ) .  s e d i m e n t a t i o n i n the O g i l v i e  Only minor carbonate  rocks formed i n the Mackenzie  Mountains d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . S t a b l e marine P a l e o z o i c s e d i m e n t a t i o n p a t t e r n s ceased at t h i s time  and  were r e p l a c e d by l o c a l o s c i l l a t o r y marine to non-marine regimes i n the Mesozoic.  These were, i n p a r t , induced by  the t e c t o n i c upheaval  which  climaxed i n the Columbian Orogeny d u r i n g M i d d l e J u r a s s i c t o l a t e  Early  Cretaceous  (Douglas e t a l . , i b i d . ) .  U p l i f t , erosion, tight folding,  f a u l t i n g , and r e g i o n a l metamorphism of a r g i l l a c e o u s members a f f e c t e d the Selwyn B a s i n r e g i o n ,  dominantly  A s e r i e s of s m a l l post t e c t o n i c  monzonite i n t r u s i o n s f r i n g e the Selwyn B a s i n ; potassium-argon emplacement of these r o c k s i n d i c a t e a l e n g t h y age Cretaceous  (110 - 81 m.y.^  s y e n i t e s and  G a b r i e l s e , 1967).  thrust  quartz  dates on  span of M i d d l e t o L a t e  Potassium-argon  dates  on  q u a r t z d i o r i t e s i n t r u d e d i n the Dawson to Mayo a r e a y i e l d  s i m i l a r L a t e Cretaceous  age  (76 - 90 m.y.,  the  C h r i s t o p h e r , 1973;  106  a  - 110  m.y.,  Douglas e t a l . , 1967). The  Columbian mountains were r e - j u v e n a t e d and new  d u r i n g the Laramide Orogeny of l a t e s t Long a r c u a t e , en e c h e l o n f o l d b u n d l e s , the Mackenzie Mountains developed  Cretaceous  to E a r l y O l i g o c e n e  accompanied by  a t t h i s time.  mountains were formed  thrusts,  was  o f t e n now  reversed.  comprise  Many of the f a u l t s  f o l d s f o l l o w e d the t r a c e s of o l d e r f e a t u r e s , however, the sense  age.  and  of movement  T e c t o n i c f e a t u r e s such as the Bonnet Plume h i g h ,  which a f f e c t e d v a r i o u s ages of P a l e o z o i c s e d i m e n t a t i o n , became l e s s prominent upon r e v e r s a l of the f a u l t s bounding the f e a t u r e ( N o r r i s and Hopkins, 1977). Complex f a u l t movements c o n t i n u e d i n t o the Paleocene  stage and l e d t o the  77 development  o f t e c t o n i c s u c c e s s o r b a s i n s such as the Bonnet Plume B a s i n  ( N o r r i s and Hopkins,  4.3  Structural  ibid.).  Styles  S t r u c t u r e s of the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t d e f o r m a t i o n of s u p r a c r u s t a l l a y e r e d sediments t y p i c a l o f the Rocky Mountain b e l t to."the s o u t h . In d e t a i l however, a more complex  p a t t e r n of f o l d s and f a u l t s has been  developed i n response t o a heterogeneous sequence of r o c k s and a h i s t o r y of r e j u v e n a t e d t e c t o n i c movements. prepared by N o r r i s and Hopkins 4-6.  T e c t o n i c elements o f the r e g i o n ,  (1977; c . f . K i n g , 1968), a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e  En e c h e l o n f o l d bundles a r e e v i d e n t on the n o r t h and west  s e c t i o n s of the Mackenzie Mountain b e l t , the N o r t h e r n O g i l v i e M o u n t a i n s .  complex  trending  i n the Wernecke Mountains, and through  E x t e n s i v e t h r u s t f a u l t s a r e found around t h e  concave i n t e r i o r of the Mackenzie Mountains and extend i n t o the R i c h a r d s o n Mountains. The Columbian orogen, the e f f e c t s of which were c e n t e r e d on the Selwyn B a s i n a r e a , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by and o l d e r s t r a t a ,  (1) o v e r t u r n e d and t h r u s t e d M i d d l e J u r a s s i c  (2) p r e - m i d d l e Cretaceous e r o s i o n a l u n c o n f o r m i t i e s , and  (3) r e g i o n a l metamorphism o f a r g i l l a c e o u s sediments (Douglas et a l . ,  1970).  S t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s i n the n o r t h w e s t e r n p a r t o f the b a s i n a r e p a r t i a l l y obscured due to f o l i a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h northwest t r e n d i n g t h r u s t and i s o c l i n a l  faults  folds.  Laramide d e f o r m a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t  t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e from Columbian i n  areas b o r d e r i n g the Selwyn and Mackenzie f o l d b e l t s .  Laramide  structures,  c e n t e r e d i n the Mackenzie Mountains, e x h i b i t en e c h e l o n bundles o f broad, s h o r t f o l d s and a s s o c i a t e d f a u l t s .  The o f f s e t  of the f o l d s i s d e x t r a l i n  oo  FIGURE 4-6: TECTONIC ELEMENTS AND STRUCTURAL TRENDS OF THE NORTHERN CORDILLERA ( a f t e r N o r r i s , 1974; N o r r i s and Hopkins, 1977)  79 the n o r t h t r e n d i n g bundles near the K e e l e R i v e r , b u t i s s i n i s t r a l when the f o l d bundles  swing  to the west near A r c t i c Red R i v e r .  Around the nose o f  the f o l d b e l t , f o l d s a r e not en e c h e l o n , but a r e of a d i p s l i p nature w i t h displacement  contraction  t r e n d i n g p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o the mean d i r e c t i o n o f  t r a n s p o r t along the f o l d b e l t  ( N o r r i s , 1974) .  Pre-Laramide  fracture  might have been r e - a c t i v a t e d a t t h i s time, and l e d t o the west, and n o r t h e a s t t r e n d i n g f a u l t s bounding al.,  1970).  N o r r i s (1972) prpposed  the v a r i o u s f o l d  that  northwest,  segments (Douglas e t  en e c h e l o n f o l d a r r a y s o f t h i s  might develop through s l i p p a g e o f s u p r a c r u s t a l rocks over deeper s u r f a c e s i n response each other.  systems  nature  decollement  t o p a r a l l e l f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g i n an o p p o s i t e sense t o  I t i s most probable t h a t the a r c u a t e n a t u r e o f the f o l d b e l t was  i n h e r i t e d p r i m a r i l y from the shape of the a n c i e n t m i o g e o c l i n e and the s u c c e s s i v e d e p o s i t i o n a l elements,  however, t h i s p a t t e r n might have been s t r u c t u r a l l y  a c c e n t u a t e d by means o f the t e c t o n i c movements j u s t d e s c r i b e d . In the western Mackenzie Mountains,  ancient t i g h t l y folded  anticlines  have been r e - f o l d e d , and f a u l t e d , o f t e n r e v e r s i n g the o r i g i n a l sense of o v e r t u r n i n g and hence exposing o l d e r u n i t s . rather l i m i t e d i n displacement,  T h r u s t f a u l t s , where they o c c u r , a r e  thereby l e a d i n g to a c r u s t a l s h o r t e n i n g o f  10 t o 20 p e r c e n t a c r o s s the Mackenzie and F r a n k l i n Mountains  (Douglas et a l . ,  1970). The R i c h a r d s o n A n t i c l i n o r i u m  ( F i g u r e 4-6) i s a broad n o r t h t r e n d i n g  h o r s t and a n t i c l i n o r i u m , p l u n g i n g g e n t l y t o the n o r t h and dominated by n o r t h to northwest:.trending f a u l t s w i t h a l a r g e d e x t r a l d i s p l a c e m e n t . . These f a u l t s l i n k up w i t h a s i m i l a r t r e n d i n g f a u l t the n o r t h e r n Mackenzie Mountains.  s e t of a l e s s conspicuous n a t u r e i n  Major u n c o n f o r m i t i e s i n d i c a t e  tent movement has been common, e l e v a t i n g some b l o c k s s u f f i c i e n t l y e r o s i o n down t o the P r o t e r o z o i c sedimentary  intermitto allow  r o c k s , b e f o r e a r e v e r s a l of the  movement allowed the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f much younger m a t e r i a l d i r e c t l y on top  80 ( e . g . Bonnet Plume B a s i n :  N o r r i s and Hopkins, 1977).  a n i s o t r o p i e s i n the sedimentary  ( F i g u r e 4-6)  approximately  i n c l u d e s the O g i l v i e Mountains  the Wernecke Mountains a r e a and  along the 140° m e r i d i a n .  such  events.  and forms the westermost r e - e n t r a n t of the o v e r a l l system. t r e n d westward from  and  column have a i d e d i n the occurrences o f  movements d u r i n g Columbian and p o s s i b l y Laramide The T a i g a Nahoni F o l d B e l t  Older f a u l t s  The  Fold  bundles  swing northwards,  e a s t t o west t r e n d i n g a r r a y s are  s i n i s t r a l , however, the o f f s e t d i r e c t i o n i s changed on the n o r t h t r e n d i n g swing to a d e x t r a l sense. of the a r c .  The  i s obvious and  C o n t r a c t i o n d i p s l i p f a u l t s c h a r a c t e r i z e the nose  s i m i l a r i t y to the f o l d s t y l e of the a r c u a t e Mackenzie b e l t  i s i n c l u d e d i n N o r r i s ' (1972) r e g i o n a l en e c h e l o n  folding  model.  4.4  Regional Synthesis:  P o t e n t i a l f o r Strata-bound  The n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a n r e g i o n appears w i t h i n Canada t o e x h i b i t geographic hosted  and  Zinc-Lead M i n e r a l i z a t i o n  to be the f i r s t major r e g i o n  s t r a t i g r a p h i c groupings  of  carbonate-  z i n c - l e a d d e p o s i t s , hence the name "Mackenzie V a l l e y Pb-Zn D i s t r i c t "  has been proposed  f o r t h i s area  (Sangster and L a n c a s t e r , 1976) .  This region  encompasses the e n t i r e Mackenzie V a l l e y watershed and i n c l u d e s the Robb Lake district  i n n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia, the w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d Pine P o i n t  d i s t r i c t , a South Nahanni d i s t r i c t , and The l a t t e r d i s t r i c t  the North Mackenzie Mountain  i s the s u b j e c t of t h i s  district.  thesis.  R e g i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n the carbonate b e l t of the northern c o r d i l l e r a proposed  (Brock, 1976;  by Jackson and B e a l e s  Macqueen, 1976)  are analogous  to those  (1967) f o r the P i n e P o i n t a r e a , and by  (1970) f o r the M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y mining  districts.  Heyl  These models i n v o l v e  81 the e x p u l s i o n of m e t a l - r i c h connate b r i n e s from a r g i l l a c e o u s sediments as they are compacted i n s h a l e b a s i n s a d j a c e n t thermal  a c t i v i t y might be  to carbonate  i n v o l v e d i n b r i n e enrichment.  o r s t r u c t u r e s p r o v i d e f l u i d c o n d u i t s i n t o the carbonate i t a t i o n of s u l p h i d e s i n s u i t a b l y prepared chemical  factors.  I n the n o r t h e r n  belts.  Igneous  Permeable l i t h o l o g i e s u n i t s where p r e c i p -  h o s t rocks i s c o n t r o l l e d by  physio-  c o r d i l l e r a , metals are most l i k e l y  derived  from i n t e r c a l a t e d s h a l e s and v o l c a n i c t u f f s of the Selwyn B a s i n t h a t south and west of the m i n e r a l i z e d carbonate b a r i t e d e p o s i t s , hosted unit  ( F i g u r e 4-5)  rocks.  Syn-sedimentary l e a d - z i n c -  i n a r g i l l a c e o u s sediments of the  i n the M a c M i l l a n  Pass a r e a  occur  'Black  (Dawson, 1977)  and  Clastic' i n the  s h a l e s o f the Road R i v e r Formation a t Howards Pass ( B l u s s o n , 1976), lend credence to p o t e n t i a l metal sources b e i n g  the Selwyn B a s i n .  The a s s o c i a t i o n  of t h i s l e a d , z i n c , and b a r i t e w i t h i n s p e c i f i c h o r i z o n s i n the Selwyn B a s i n suggests  l o c a l sedimentary o r v o l c a n o g e n i c  eastern  c o n t r o l s over  the  m i n e r a l i z a t i o n w h i c h i s thought to have o c c u r r e d d u r i n g L a t e Devonian o r M i s s i s s i p p i a n time (Dawson, i b i d . ) .  Sediment compaction and e x p u l s i o n of  connate f l u i d s from the Selwyn B a s i n c o u l d produce m e t a l - r i c h b r i n e s thereby  and  c o n s t i t u t e a s o u r c e f o r the m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s .  E x t e n s i v e t r a n s p o r t of m i n e r a l i z i n g f l u i d s along r e g i o n a l f a u l t s appears t o be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the model f o r the f o r m a t i o n of the P i n e P o i n t bodies  ( S k a l l , 1975;  Kesler e t . a l . ,  1972).  The  dominant d i r e c t i o n o f  m i g r a t i o n , as determined from c r y s t a l growth o r i e n t a t i o n s t u d i e s and  ore  fluid elonga-  t i o n of ore b o d i e s , has been equated to the t r e n d o f a deep, basement f a u l t , the MacDonald f a u l t , which was  r e a c t i v a t e d d u r i n g f o r m a t i o n of the  s t r a t i g r a p h i c h o s t s f o r the o r e .  Secondary d i s p e r s i o n away from t h i s major  c o n d u i t i s a t t r i b u t e d to m i g r a t i o n along Banaszak (1976) has the Miami trough  litho-  the l o c a l j o i n t i n g p a t t e r n s .  o u t l i n e d s i m i l a r c o n t r o l s over f l u i d m i g r a t i o n w i t h i n  f r a c t u r e . z o n e l e a d i n g to the M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y type  82 m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o f the T r i - S t a t e D i s t r i c t D i s t r i c t and  the  Southeast M i s s o u r i  f o l d s , f a u l t s and  The  District  Upper M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y  a l s o r e v e a l the  j o i n t s over f l u i d m i g r a t i o n  (Banaszak, i b i d . ; H e y l ,  In the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a , numerous pre-Devonian f a u l t s , and  permeable c l a s t i c u n i t s p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t  from the Selwyn B a s i n . the g e n e r a l  (Appendix A ) , suggests t h a t f a u l t s a c t e d and  guided e s c a p i n g b a s i n a l b r i n e s .  1968).  derived  i f as dominant  the p e t r o g r a p h i c  studies  as f l u i d c o n d u i t s  C e c i l e and  of  unconformities,  aquifers for f l u i d s  Fault controlled mineralization,  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f showings and  influences  as  indicate  which c o l l e c t e d  Morrow (1978) proposed  that  d i f f e r e n t i a l compaction between Road R i v e r F o r m a t i o n a r g i l l a c e o u s sediments and  o v e r l y i n g porous c a r b o n a t e u n i t s produced f r a c t u r e s which a c t e d  as  fluid  migration  channels f o r s o l u t i o n s producing z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n vugs  and v e i n s  i n the Mt.  Kindle  and  Delorme F o r m a t i o n s .  o r g a n i c - r i c h , p y r i t i f e r o u s shales R i v e r Formation as strengthening  They c i t e the  and b a s i c v o l c a n i c r o c k s '  the prime m e t a l s o u r c e ( i b i d . , p. 474),  the argument f o r a Selwyn B a s i n  'black,  of the Road thereby  further  o r i g i n for metal-enriched  brines. Facies  changes from b a s i n a l s h a l e s  c i t e d by Maucher and Callahan  S c h n e i d e r (1967) f o r the A l p i n e  (1967) f o r the M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y - t y p e  significant in localizing p o i n t out  lead-zinc ores,  deposits,  t h i s s t y l e of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n .  i n t o the  B r i t i s h Columbia and  that  carbonate p l a t f o r m t h i s l i k e l y had  f a c i e s changes and m i n e r a l i z a t i o n has  criteria  by  T a y l o r e t a l . (1975) shales  a t Robb Lake i n influence  northin  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between  been n o t e d i n the n o r t h e r n  been t r e a t e d as a major e x p l o r a t i o n  or  are also' h i g h l y  a strong  l o c a l i z i n g z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n present there.  and has  c a r b o n a t e s , such as  t h a t Lower to M i d d l e Devonian d o l o m i t i c s i l t s t o n e s and  form a sharp r e - e n t r a n t eastern  to platformal  cordillera  (Brock, 1976).  (1978b) o u t l i n e d the a s s o c i a t i o n of z i n c - l e a d d e p o s i t s  Cecile  h o s t e d i n Lower  83 Cambrian Sekwi Formation and  Ordovician  to S i l u r i a n Mt.  Kindle  carbonates p e r i p h e r a l t o a s i g n i f i c a n t s h a l e r e - e n t r a n t Embayment; F i g u r e s Mountains.  The  ( F i g u r e 4-5) f a c i e s and Devonian  4-4  and  4-5)  i n t o the  Formation  (the M i s t y  carbonate p l a t f o r m  Creek  i n the Mackenzie  time-space p r o j e c t i o n drawn f o r the n o r t h e r n  cordillera  h i g h l i g h t s - t h e s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of the Selwyn B a s i n  shale  z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n h o s t e d i n c a r b o n a t e s of O r d o v i c i a n  to  age.  Many of the r e g i o n a l f e a t u r e s fugic solutions leading  pertinent  to the model of b a s i n a l s t r a t a -  to m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n the a d j a c e n t c a r b o n a t e b e l t  are  p r e s e n t i n the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a ; hence, t h i s model appears r e a d i l y a p p l i c a b l e to t h i s a r e a .  However, z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n a t t r i b u t a b l e to  a p r o c e s s of k a r s t i f i c a t i o n of the carbonate b e l t a d j a c e n t to major unconformities i s also a v a l i d Figures  4-4  i t i e s w i t h i n and age.  and  4-5  consideration  i n d i c a t e the e x i s t e n c e  important as f l u i d  r e l a t e d to p a l e o k a r s t  for zinc-lead mineralization Smith (1972) s t u d i e d  features (Callahan,  and  conduits;  therefore  1967;  i s an i n h e r e n t  and  Lower Cambrian  however, they might  to p r e p a r a t i o n  O l s o n , 1977)  .  of a h o s t  Collins  the r e l a t i o n between t e c t o n i c movements and  t i o n over z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n Newfoundland and there  cordillera.  of major r e g i o n a l unconform-  o v e r l y i n g carbonate u n i t s of P r o t e r o z o i c  U n c o n f o r m i t i e s can be  a l s o be  f o r the n o r t h e r n  karstifica-  concluded t h a t ".  i n e v i t a b i l i t y to s p h a l e r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n g i v e n  carbonate p l a t f o r m undergoing a l a t e major d e p o s i t i o n a l phase f o l l o w e d major e r o s i o n a l phase" ( i b i d . , p. 215). permeability  in fluid  conduits  z a t i o n i n the P i n e P o i n t  and  Paleokarst  provided  development  deposit  . .  a by  a  enhanced  depositional sites for minerali-  ore b o d i e s ( S k a l l , 1975) .  Brock (1976) r e c o r d s  s o l u t i o n b r e c c i a t i o n , as a r e s u l t of k a r s t i f i c a t i o n r e l a t e d to unconformities,  and  that  overlying  l o c a l i z e d some of the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n at the Gayna R i v e r  (number 20024) i n the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a , and  possibly also controlled  f  84 m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n the Goz deposits. 4-4)  The  Creek (number 10033) and  Bear (number 20012)  diagrammatic c r o s s - s e c t i o n f o r the Mackenzie Mountains  d i s p l a y s the e x t e n t of the  sub-Upper Cambrian u n c o n f o r m i t y and  (Figure  highlights  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f groundwater s o l u t i o n s d r a i n i n g o f f the Mackenzie Arch through the a d j a c e n t P r o t e r o z o i c r e g i o n a l u p l i f t and Therefore,  and  Lower Cambrian carbonates  the r e g i o n a l s t r a t i g r a p h y  and  geologic  h i s t o r y of  numerous elements important to the  of s t r a t a b o u n d c a r b o n a t e h o s t e d z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n .  the et  approach can be  southeast a l . , 1975) .  during  exposure of the a r e a i n M i d d l e to Upper Cambrian time.  northern c o r d i l l e r a contains  graphic  and  taken, as has  ( S k a l l , 1975)  the  development  A purely s t r a t i -  been done i n the Pine P o i n t a r e a  or i n the Robb Lake a r e a to the  south  to  (Taylor  85 CHAPTER 5:  MINOR ELEMENTS IN S PHALERITE FROM THE  NORTHERN YUKON AND ADJACENT DISTRICT OF MACKENZIE  5.1  G e o l o g i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S p h a l e r i t e Occurrences i n the N o r t h e r n Cordillera  The northern not  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the s t r a t i g r a p h i c and s t r u c t u r a l framework o f the c o r d i l l e r a , r e l a t i v e t o the m e t a l l o g e n y o f the r e g i o n , i s , a t p r e s e n t ,  f u l l y understood.  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p can be o f prime importance i n d e f i n i n g  c o n t r o l s on m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , as has been shown i n e s t a b l i s h e d mining areas such as the s o u t h e a s t e r n  Missouri lead-zinc d i s t r i c t  or the P i n e P o i n t d i s t r i c t  ( S k a l l , 1975) .  (Gerdemann and Myers, 1972)  Therefore,  a summary d e s c r i p t i o n  o f the n a t u r e o f t h e g e o l o g i c o c c u r r e n c e o f the s p h a l e r i t e d e p o s i t s  considered  i n t h i s study f o l l o w s , based on 1) b r i e f g e o l o g i c data s u p p l i e d w i t h the samples, 2) the m i n e r a l o g r a p h i c general descriptions published T h i s summary p r o v i d e s  c h a r a c t e r o f the a v a i l a b l e samples, and 3) t o date on a few d e p o s i t s  a b r o a d e r data base f o r l a t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the  a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s .in terms o f r e g i o n a l Locations  (e.g. Brock, 1976).  metallogenesis.  o f t h e 48 d e p o s i t s s t u d i e d a r e d i s p l a y e d on the index map i n  F i g u r e 5-1 and t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c and b a s i c g e o l o g i c d e t a i l s a r e summarized i n Table  5-1.  Included  on t h e index map a r e a f u r t h e r 44 p o i n t s s p e c i f y i n g the  l o c a t i o n s o f s i m i l a r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e same b e l t of r o c k s ;  samples  from these a d d i t i o n a l 44 showings, a l t h o u g h a v a i l a b l e f o r study, were r e j e c t e d because they were u n s u i t a b l e f o r pure s e p a r a t i o n o f s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n s . main t r e n d of these 92 l o c a t i o n s f o l l o w s the a r c u a t e  The  t r a c e o f the Backbone  Ranges o f the Mackenzie Mountains b u t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d e p o s i t s becomes more d i s p e r s e d t o the northwest i n the Wernecke Mountains ( F i g u r e 5-1) . Another t r e n d of d e p o s i t s r e f l e c t s the b e l t o f d i s t u r b e d carbonate rocks o f  oo ON  FIGURE 5-1: INDEX MAP OF ZINC-LEAD DEPOSITS•STUDIED Numbered l o c a t i o n s ( » 0 6 ) r e p r e s e n t o c c u r r e n c e s o f s p h a l e r i t e a n a l y z e d i n t h i s r e p o r t ; a l l Yukon d e p o s i t s a r e p r e f i x e d by 100; a l l N.W.T. d e p o s i t s a r e p r e f i x e d by 200 (see T a b l e 5-1). Unnumbered l o c a t i o n s (* ) r e p r e s e n t o c c u r r e n c e s o f s p h a l e r i t e p r e s e n t i n the specimen c o l l e c t i o n b u t n o t a n a l y z e d .  87 TABLE  GEOGRAPHIC FCR  ID.NO.  NAME  NTS  AND  166  5-1  GEOLOGIC  SPECIMENS  LAT  INFORMATION STUDIED  LONG  HOST  L I T H .  HOST  AGE  COMMODITIES  10C06002  NEWT  1 0 6 D U  6 4 . 5 3  1 3 5 . 4 7  OOLM  8RXX  ORD-SI  ZN  PB  10C06CC3  NPWT  106011  6 4 . 5 3  135.47  DOLM  RRXX  ORD-SIL  ZN  PR  10C060O5  MrWT  1 0 6 0 U  6 4 . 5 3  135.47  DOLM  RRXX  ORD-SIL  ZN  PB  1CC10C01  ECONOMIC  106306  6 4 . 3 3  131.22  DOLM  IVM)  i;w  P3  ZN  1CC20004  TART  116313  6 4 . 8 3  1 3 9 . 8 3  OOLM  RRXX  HELIK1AN  P3  ZN  10022004  WILL  10S0C7  6 4 . 4 0  134.  D CL M  BRXX  HE L I K I  AN  PB  ZN  1 3 2 . 9 5  OOLM  BRXX  HADRYN  IAN  P3  ZN  1002 4001 10024002 10025001  COMINCO  10025004  COMINCO  10025006  COMINCO  BC*'5  10026001  VUG  7C  L  CAMS  COMINCO  A-6  106C10  COMINCO  A+6  106C10  6 4 . 7 5  1 3 2 . 9 5  OOLM  RRXX  HA DRY  PB  ZN  BC+5  106C10  64  .70  1 3 2 . 9 5  OOLM  BRXX  HADRYNIAN  PB  ZN  B C - 5  106C10  64  .70  1 3 2 . 9 5  DOLM  RRXX  HADRYNIAN  PB  ZN  106C10  64  .70  1 3 2 . 9 5  DOLM  PR XX  HADRYNIAN  PB  ZN  116A09  6 4 . 5 7  136.23  DOLM  BRXX  r- E L I K I A N  ZN  PS  106C1 1  6 4 . 6 2  133.2 5  DCLM  RRXX  HADRYN  PB  ZN  106C  6 4 . 6 2  133.2 5  DOLM  BRXX  HADRYNIAN  PB  ZN ZN  .  64 .7  5  NIAN  1CC27C01  COMINCO  7 * 0  10027002  COMINCO  10C27CC3  COMINCO  7 + 7 - 0  T06C11  6 4 . 6 2  1 3 3 . 2 5  DOLM  BRXX  H A CR Y N  IAN  PB  1002 70 04  COMIMCO  7 + D  106C11  6 4 . 6 2  133.2 5  DCLM  RR0XX  H A CR Y N I A N  PB  ZN  I0027C05  COMINCO  7+D  106C11  64  .62  133.25  BR X X  HADRYN  PR  ZN  r>  11  IAN  100260C3  CCMINCO  1  106C10  6 4 . 5 3  1 3 2 . 5 8  DOLM DCLM  BRXX  S I L - O E V  °B  ZN  10028007  COMINCO  1  106C10  64 .5 8  1 3 2 . 5 8  DOLM  BRXX  SI  PO  ZN  10029002  TOPOPDWSKI  ZN  6 4 . 7 0  1 3 2 . 6 5  L  I"S  CONG  S I L - D E V  PB  .106C10  64  1 3 2 . 6 5  L IMS  CONG  S  PB  ZN  10029005  TOPORO.VSK I  106C  6 4 . 7 0  1 3 2 . 6 5  L I MS  CONG  SIL-OEV  PB  ZN  10C29008  TOPOROVSKl  106C10  64  1 3 2 . 6 5  S  ZN  C O ^ I N CO  106CC5  6 4 . 5 0  1 3 3 . 8 3  L IMS DOLM  CONG  10030001 10C32001  CLOE  6 5 . 2 0  1 3 4 . 7 0  S HAL  BRXX  100330C1  ooz  106E02 106CC7  6 4 . 4 3  1 3 2 . 5 5  OCLM  BRXX  LCH  CAMS  ZN  AG  64  .43  132.55  DOLM  03  CD  106C.07  5RXX  LOW  CAM3  ZN  P3  CD  AG  .43  1 3 2 . 5 5  DOLM  BRXX  LOW  CAMR  ZN  PB  CD  AC,  1 3 2 . 5 5  OOLM  BRXX  LOW  CAM3  ZN  P3  CD  AC.  10033004  GO  I  10  Lr-DEV  10C29C04'' T O ° O P O W S K I  3  106C  IAN  CU  10  .70 .70  IL-DEV IL-DEV  PB  H E L I K I AN  P3  ZN  H E L I K I A N  ZN  PB  10033005  GOZ  106C07  64  10033012  106CC7  6 4 . 4 3  10033013  GOZ G O 7.  106C07  6 4 . 4 3  1 3 2 . 5 5  DOLM  BRXX  LOW  CAMB  ZN  ° B  CD  AG  10033014  GOZ  106C07  64  1 3 2 . 5 5  OCLM  BRXX  PB  CO  AG  GOZ  106C07  6 4 . 4 3  1 3 2 . 5 5  DOLM  RRXX  CAMB CAMR  ZN  1CC33015  LOW LOW  ZN  PB  CD  AG  10033016  GOZ  106C07  OCLM  BRXX  LOW  CAMR  ZN  =>B  CD  AG  GOZ  106CC7  6 4 . 4 3 6 4 . 4 3  1 3 2 . 5 5  10033C17  1 3 2 . 5 5  DCLM  BRXX  LOW  CAMB  ZN  P3  CO  AG  10033021  GOZ  106C07  64  .43  13 2 . 5 5  DCLM  BRXX  LOW  CAMB  ZN  PB  CD  AG  10033022  00  5.06C07  64  .43  1 3 2 . 5 5  D O L «  BRXX  LOW  CAMB  • ZN  PB  CD  AG  . 4 3  AG  z  .43  10033023  GOZ  106CC7  64  1 3 2 . 5 5  DOLM  BRXX  LCW  CAM3  ZN  P3  CO  10033024  GOZ  10 6 C  6 4 . 4 3  1 3 2 . 5 5  LOW  CAMB  ZN  PB  CD  AG  GOZ  SO6C07  64  1 3 2 . 5 5  0 0 L « OOLM  BRXX  10033025  BRXX  LOW  CAMB  ZN  PB  CD  AG  0 7  . 4 3  1C034001  31RKELAN D  106BC4  6 4 . 1 5  131.92  DOLM  RRXX  HADRYN  ZN  P3  100340C2  81  1 0 6 BO 4  6 4 .  131.92  DOLM  BRXX  HADRYNIAN  ZN  PB  ZN  (>8  D  KELAND  15  IAN  10C340C9  BIRKELANO  106304  6 4 . 1 5  131.92  DOLM  BRXX  HADRYN  10C35001  COMINCO  8  1O6L06  66 . 3 3  135.52  DOLM  RRXX  CAM3R!AN  PB  ZN  10C35002  COMINCO  8  106LC6  6 6 . 3 3  1 3 5 . 5 2  DOLM  BRXX  CAMRRIAN  PR  ZN  1CC36001  COMINCO  9  106C14  64  1 3 3 . 2 0  DCLM  RRXX  HELIKIAN  PB  ZN  10036002  COMINCO  9  106C  6 4 . 9 7  1 3 3 . 2 0  OOLM  BRXX  H E L I K I A N  PB  ZN ZN  14  .97  TAN  10037003  OZ  116B12  6 4 . 7 5  1 3 9 . 7 5  DCLM  RRXX  F F L I K I A N  PB  10037004  OZ  116B12  64  1 3 9 . 7 5  DOLM  RRXX  HELIKIAN  PB  ZN  10037020  OZ  1163  6 4 . 7 5  1 3 9 . 7 5  OOLM  BRXX  HELIKIAN  PB  ZN  10037028  OZ  116312  6 4 . 7 5  1 3 9 . 7 5  DCLM  BRXX  HELIKI  PB  ZN  10037030  OZ  U 6 B 1 2  6 4 . 7 5  1 3 9 . 7 5  DOLM  BRXX  H E L I K I A N  PB  ZN  10037031  OZ  U 6 3 1 2  64  DOLM  BRXX  10037032  nz  139.75  FFLIK  PB  ZN  116312  6 4 . 7 5  1 3 9 . 7 5  OOLM  BRXX  h E L I K I A N  PB  ZN  106C14  6 4 . 3 2  1 3 3 . 5 5  DOLM  BRXX  10C42OO2  P P O . F E IT PROFEIT  HADRYN  IAN  PB  106C14  ZN  64  1 3 3 . 5 5  OOLM  BRXX  1GC42003  PROFEIT  HADRYN  IAN  PB  ZN  106C  6 4 . 3 2  13.3. 5 5  DDL"  RRXX  HADRYNIAN  PB  ZN  AG  BA  CU  RRXX  HADRYN  IAN  PS  ZN  AG  BA  CU  IAN  CU  10C4 2001  12  14  .75  .75  . 3 2  AN  IAN  AG  BA  CU  BA  CU  10042004  PROFEIT  I.06C14  64  1 3 3 . 5 5  OOLM  10042CC8  PROFEIT  106C14  6 4 . 8 2  1 3 3 . 5 5  DCLM  BRXX  10042009  HADRYN  PB  PROFEIT  ZN  AG  BA  KJ6C  6 4 . 8 2  1 3 3 . 5 5  DOLM  BRXX  10042010  HADRYNIAN  PROFEIT  PB  ZN  AG  BA  M 6 C 1 4  CU  64  1 3 3 . 5 5  OOLM  BRXX  10042011  HADRYN  POOFE I T  PB  ZN  AG  BA  106C  14  CU  6 4 . 8 2  1 3 3 . 5 5  DCLM  10042015  PROFEIT  BRXX  HADRYNIAN  PB  ZN  AG  BA  1E6C  14  6 4 . S 2  1 3 3 . 5 5  OCLM  RRXX  cu  1CC4201 9  HA C R Y N I A N  PROFE  PB  ZN  AG  BA  106C14  CU  6 4 . 8 2  1 3 3 . 5 5  DOLM  BRXX  10042023  PROFEIT  HADRYN  PB  ZN  AG  1 0 6C  BA  CU  10042027  PROFEIT  106C14  cu cu cu cu cu cu cu cu  IT  14  14  .32  . 3 2  IAN  IAN  6 4 . 3 2  1 3 3 . 5 5  DOLM  BRXX  HACRYNIAN  PB  ZN  AG  BA  64  1 3 3 . 5 5  DOLM  RRXX  HADRYNIAN  PS  ZN  AG  6A  . 3 2  10042031  PROFEIT  106C14  6 4 . 8 2  1 3 3 . 5 5  DCLM  RRXX  PROFEIT  HA C R Y N  10042036  P3  IN  AG  BA  I 0 6 C 1 4  64 . 8 2  1 3 3 . 5 5  DOLM  BRXX  10042040  PROFEIT  HADRYNIAN  P3  ZN  AG  I 0 6 C 1 4 -  RA  64  1 3 3 . 5 5  DCLM  10042041  BRXX  PROFEIT  HADRYNIAN  PB  ZN  AG  106C14  BA  6 4 . 8 2  1 3 3 . 5 5  DOLM  10042042  BRXX  PROFEIT  HADRYNIAN  PB  106C  ZN  AG  3A  6 4 . 8 2  1 3 3 . 5 5  DOLM  BRXX  1C042043  PROFEIT  HADRYNIAN  PB  ZN  106C14  AG  BA  6 4 . 8 2  1 3 3 . 5 5  DOLM  BR  HACRYNIAN  PB  ZN  AG  BA  14  . 8 2  XX  IAN  88 TABLE  5-1  (CONTINUED* TO.NO.  NAME  NTS  LAT  LONG  HOST  L I T H .  HOST  AGE  COMMODITIES  10043004  FISHING  3ROH  116J05E  66 . 33  1 3 9 . 6 7  OCLM  BRXX  ORD-S  ZN  PS  10043005  FISHING  3RCH  116JC5E  6 6 . 33  139.67  DOL M  RRXX  ORD-SIL  ZN  P3  1C 04 4 0 0 1  WART  116J03W  66 . 07  OOLM  BKXX  OR D - S R  10045001  AXE  106C10E  6 4 . 56  1C046001 1CC460C2  GE8/19/75  1063G4E  64  .25  139.47 1 3 2 . 5 8 DOLM 1 3 1 . 3 1 DOLM  6 4 . 25  131.31  DCLM  63 . 91  132.00  OCLM  64 .4 2  1C050001  GE8/19/75 000  1063C4E 105O13W  10C53OO1  MT  106CC2W  IL L  ZN  P3  SIL-DEV  ZN  P3  CAMRRIAN  P3  ZN  C A M 3 R I A.N  PS  ZN  BRXX  H A OR Y N I A . N  ZN  (VN)  HA CR Y N I A M  ZN  P3  LCW  C A MB  ZN  PB  LOW  C A MB  2CCC30C4  PALM  106AC5  6 4 . 40  20003005  PALM  1O6A05  6 4 . 40  1 3 2 . 8 6 OOLM 1 2 9 . 3 0 DOLM 1 2 S . 3 0 OOLM  ZN  PS  2CC04001  JUDE  I06AC5  64 .37  129.87  OCLM  3PXX  OPO-SIL  ZN  20C04002  JUDE  10  129.87  DCLM  BRXX  CRD-SIL  Pi  64. 37  ZN  PS  20C04003  JUOE  106AC5  6 4 . 37  129.87  DOLM  3KXX  ORD-SI  P3  SISCOE  1063G1  6 4 . 18  1 3 0 . 3 8  LCST  DFVONIAN  ZN  PB  20005004  SI  106R01  6 4 . 13  1 3 0 . 3 8  LMST  e?xx  ZN  2CO0 5001  DEVONI  AN  ZN  PB  P AM  1 0 5 D U  6 3 . 52  129.  12  DCLM  BRXX  20006001  CAMQ  PB  ZN  2CC06CC5 20006004  PAM  105P11  63 . 52  129.12  DOLM  BKXX  LCW LOW  CAMS  PB  ZN  P AM  6 3 . 52  129. 1 2  LOW  CAM?  PB  BACKBONE  63  129. 1 7  LMST  RRXX  2 CCC8CC7  105P11 105P14  DCLM  BRXX  DEVONIAN  ZN  PB  BA  2CC08C09  BACKBONE WEATHER  105P14 105P14  129.1  7  LMST  BR X X  DEVONIAN  ZN  PB  3A  6 3 . 97  129.28  DOLM  PR X X BRXX  DEVONIAN  ZN  PB  BR X X  SI  L-DEV  ZN  P3  AG  BRXX  SI  L.-DEV  ZN  PB  AG  BRXX  SI  L-DEV  ZN  PB  AG  RRXX  SIL-DEV  7N  PB  AG  BRXX  SI  ZN  PB  AG  BRXX  SIL-DEV  ZN  P3  AG  ERXX  SIL-DEV  ZN  PS  AG  PRXX  SI  ZN  PB  AG  2C009C04  T I L L I CUM  SCOE  TYA  6AC5  .85  63 . 85  2CC12001  TWI  1C6AC3  6 4 . 03  129.3 7  DOLM  20012002  TWITYA  106A03  6 4 . 03  1 2 9 . 3 7  DOLM  20012003  TW!TYA  106A03  6 4 . 03  129.37  DOLM  20012004  TWITYA  106AC3  64 .03  129.3 7  DOLM  20C12005  TWITYA  106AC3  6'. . 0 3 64.. 03  129.37  DOLM  20C12OO6  TWITYA  106A03  20C12CC7  TWITYA  106A03  2C012008  TWI  TYA  106A03  TWI  TYA  2CC1  2010  20012011  TWITYA  106AC3 1  106A03  20C12013  TWITYA  106A03  2C013001  ESSAU  106315  20015004  JI M  106B08  2CC1900*  GILOFRSLEEVE  106C16  20020003  MOGUL  1 0 6C 16  2C021001  FC  CLAIMS  10SBCS  20021C02  FC  CLAIMS  1C63C8  20C23010 2G023024  P. E V REV  1O6A03  2C023055  REV  20023060 20023061  6 4 . 03 64. 03  6 4 .. 0 3 6 4 ., 0 3 6 4 .. 0 3 6 4 .. 7 5  6 4 .. 4 8 6 4 .. 9 8 6 4 .. 9 8 6 4 .. 3 6 6 4 .. 3 6  129.37 129.37 12 9 . 3 7 129.3 7 129.3  7  129.37 1 3 0 . 5 3 1 3 2 . 4 5 1 3 2 . 3 0 130.20 1 3 0 . 2 0  I06AC3  129.33  REV  W 6 A C 3  .13  129.33  REV  106A03  .13  129.33  20023096  •3 C V  106A C3  .13  129.33  20023C97  REV  106A03  .13 64 . .13 64. .13 64 . .13 64. .13 64. .13 6 4 . .13 64. .13 64. 6 4 .. 1 3  1 2 9 . 3 3  2CC23126  REV  1G6AC3  20023127  REV  106A03  2CC23128  REV  106AC3  20023129  REV  106A 03  20023136  R EV  106AC3  20023138  REV  106A03  20023140  REV  106A03  20023141  P EV  106A03  20023142  REV  106A03  200231A4  R EV  106AG3  20C23153 20023154  REV  106A03  REV  106AC3  20023155  REV  106A03  20024001  OAYNA  106315  20024003  GAY\JA  10 6 B 1 5  20024005  GAYNA  106FU5  20C24CC7  GAYNA  106915  20024008  GAYNA  10 6315  20C2401 1  GAYNA  106.315  20025001  TEGART  10  6RC9  20 02 5 0 0 2  TEGART  1C63C9  2C025O03  TEGART  SO 6 6 0 9  64.  6 4 . 64. 64.  6 4 .. 1 3 6 4 .. 1 3  6 4 .. 1 3 6 4 .. 1 3  6 4 .. 1 3 6 4 .. 9 5  64 .95 64 .95  64 .95 64 .95  64 .95 64 .53 64 . 5 3 64 .53 64 . 5 3  20 02 5 0 0 5  TEGART  1063C9  20025006  TEGART  106309  2002501C  106BC9  20025011  TEGART TEGART  64 .53 64 . 5 3  20C25012  TEGART  063C9 06BC9  64 .53 .53  DOLM DOLM DCLM DOLM L IMS OCLM  1 3 0 . 4 5  6 4 .. 1 3 6 4 .. 1 3 6 4 .. 1 3  106A03  DOLM DOLM  1 2 9 . 3 3 1 2 9 . 3 3  1 2 9 . 3 3 1 2 9 . 3 3 1 2 9 . 3 3  DCLM DOLM DCLM DOLM DOLM OOLM DCLM DOL M DOLM DCIM DOLM DOLM DOLM DCLM DCLM  1 2 9 . 3 3  OOLM  129.33  DOLM  129.33  DOLM  1 2 9 . 3 3  DCLM  1 2 9 . 3 3  DCLM  1 2 9 . 3 3  DCLM  1 2 9 . 3 3  DCLM  1 2 9 . 3 3  DCLM  129.33  DOLM  1 2 9 . 3 3  DOLM  130.70  DOLM  130.70  DOLM  130.70  OCLM  130.70  DOLM  130.70  0 01 M  130.7C  DCLM  130. 1 7  DOLM  130.17  DOLM  130.1  7  DOLM  130.1  7  DOLM  13C.17  DCLM  130.1  7  DOLM  130.17  DOLM  130.17  L  L-DEV  L-DE7  ZN  BRXX  SIL-DEV  ZN  PS  AG  BRXX  SIL-DEV  ZN  PS  AG  ZN  PS  AG  ZN  PB  AG  ZN  PS  AG AG  BRXX  SIL-DEV  eRxx  H A CR Y N  BRXX RRXX BRXX BRXX ( V M (VMI I V M ( VMI (VN) ( V M ( VN) ( V M (VN) ( V M (VN) (VN) (VNI I V M <VN) (VNI (VNI (VN) (VN) I VN) BRXX BRXX BRXX ERXX BRXX BRXX BRXX BRXX BRXX BRXX BRXX EPXX BR XX BRXX  IAN  DEVONIAN LCW  CAM3  ZN  PB  LOW  CAMS  ZN  P 3  DEVONI  AN  ZN  3A  PB  DEVONIAN  ZN  BA  PB  ORO-S!L  ZN  PB  CRD-SIL  ZN  P3  CRD-S  IL  ZN  PB  L  ZN  PB  ZN  P3  ORD-SI  OPO-SIL ORD-S!  L  ORD-SI OPC-S  L IL  ORD-SI  L  OPO-SIL ORO-SIL ORD-SIL CRD-SIL ORD-SI L CRD-SI  L  ORC-S  IL  CRD-SI  L  CRD-SIL ORD-SIL ORD-SI  L  H EL I K I  AN  HE L I K I AN HELIKIAN I-EL  IK I A N  HELIKIAN H E L I K I AN ORD-SIL OFO-SI  L  ZN  PB  ZN  PB  ZN  PB  ZN  PS  ZN  P3  ZN  PS  ZN  P9  ZN  P8  ZN  PS  ZN  PB  ZN  PS  ZN  PS  ZN  P3  ZN  PB  ZN  PB  ZN  CD  ZN  CO  PB  ZN  CO  PB  ZN  CC  PB  ZN  CD  PB  ZN  CD  PB  ZN  P3  ORD-SIL  ZN  OB  ORC-SIL  ZN.  PB  L  ZN  PB  IL  ZN  PB  ORD-SIL  ZN  PS  ORD-SIL  ZN  PB  ZN  PS  ORD-SI OPC-S  PB  89  TABL E 5-1 ( CONT I N U E O t NAME  10.NO.  LAT  NTS  LONG  HOST  LITH.  HOST  AGE  COMMODITIES  —*—— 20027C03  C L f A X  10 5 ° C 8  6 3 . 3 5  128.38  OCLM  HAORYN IAN  ZN  OR  20027004  CL  105P08  63 . 3 5  128.33  DOLM  HAORYM IAN  ZN  PB  20032001  MNTN  106ROOE  6 4 . 3 3  130.10  DCLM  BRXX  SIL-DEV  ZN  P3  2C034001  KI N O  106AC8  6 4 . 3 7  129.73  DOLM  RRXX  ORD-SIL  ZN  20C34002  K I NO  106A08  64  129.73  DOLM  BRXX  ORD-SIL  ZN  IMAX RIVER  .37  P3  20034003  KIND  1C6AC8  6 4 . 3 7  129.73  DCLM  BRXX  ORD-SIL  ZN  °8 PB  20034005  KIND  106A08  6 4 . 3 7  129.73  DOLM  BRXX  ORD-SI L  ZN  P3  20034011  KIND  106AC8  6 4 . 3 7  129.73  DCLM  BRXX  OPD-S I L  ZN  PB  20035001  SERFM  106R08E  64 . 4 0  130.13  DCLM.  BRXX  ORD-SIL  ZN  PB  20 C3 5 0 0 2  SEP EM  106RC8E  64 . 4 0  130.13  DOL"  BRXX  ORO-S  ZN  P 9  2003 5003  SE»~M  1063C8E  64 . 4 0  130.13  OCLM  BRXX  CRD-SIL  ZN  »R  20035006  SEREM  1063C8E  6 4 . 4 0  13 0 . 1 3  DOLM  BRXX  ORD-SI L  ZN  PB  2CC36001  KWI  106R09E  64  130.03  'DOL«  BRXX  LOWCAM  ZN  PB  20036003  KWI  1063  64.61  130.03  DCL  BRXX  I C HC A M  ZN  P9  20C36C05  KW!  106R09E  64  13C.03  DOLM  BRXX  LQWCAM  ZN  PB  2C036CC6  KWI  106RCSE  64.61  130.03  DCLM  PRXX  LCWCAM  ZN  P 8  2C037001  G J 7 / 3 0 / 7 5  106R08E  6 4 . 4 0  130.25  DOLM  RRXX  D E V O N I AN  ZN  2CC37002  G J 7 / 3 0 / 7 5  106SC8E  6 4 . 4 0  130.2 5  DOLM  BRXX  DEVONIAN  ZN  2C03S001  G J 7 / 1 4 / 7 5  106AC5W  6 4 . 4 0  129. 80  DOLM  BRXX  20039001  GUN  105I15E  6 2 . 8 8  128.55  L IMS  2CC40001  G J 7 / 2 7 / 7 5  1063C9E  6 4 . 4 2  130.20  DCLM  20040002  G J 7 / 2 7 / 7 5  106809E  6 4 . 4 2  130.20  2CC40003  G J 7 / 2 7 / 7 5  106809E  6 4 . 4 2  130.20  OSE  .61 .61  M  IL  ORD-SIL  ZN  CAMRRIAN  ZN  BA  BRXX  ORD-SIL  PB  ZN  DOLM  RRXX  ORD-SI L  PB  ZN  DOLM  3RXX  ORD-SIL"  P3  ZN  90 the O g i l v i e Mountains and t h e i r northward e x t e n s i o n i n t o the N o r t h e r n Mountains ( F i g u r e 4-1).  S i m i l a r z i n c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s a l s o known i n a few  l o c a t i o n s i n the s o u t h e r n R i c h a r d s o n M o u n t a i n s . sampled r e l a t i v e l y s p a r s e l y i n t h i s The  Ogilvie  These l a s t two areas a r e  study.  diagrammatic c r o s s - s e c t i o n through  the Backbone Ranges ( F i g u r e 4—4)  o u t l i n e s the g e n e r a l s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s o f the main carbonate b e l t and demonstrates that the l i t h o s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s c o n t a i n i n g the z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n form s i x d i s t i n c t age groups.  F i g u r e 5-2 summarizes the  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the d e p o s i t s among these h o s t r o c k age groups based on i n f o r m a t i o n from the 92 d e p o s i t s a v a i l a b l e t o t h i s study, and i n d i c a t e s t h a t the o l d e r r o c k s occurrences.  ( i . e . o f H e l i k i a n t o Lower Cambrian age) c o n t a i n most of the  Approximately  63 percent o f the d e p o s i t s a r e h o s t e d i n P r o t e r -  o z o i c o r Lower Cambrian u n i t s whereas the remaining O r d o v i c i a n to Devonian r o c k s .  The s e g r e g a t i o n o f h o s t rocks i n t o two major  c a t e g o r i e s appears to be fundamentally  d i s t i n c t on the f o l l o w i n g groundst  1] the Upper Cambrian t o O r d o v i c i a n carbonate Mountain Formation  37 p e r c e n t a r e i n M i d d l e  i s relatively  u n i t comprising  the F r a n k l i n  'barren' o f mineralization"'" ( F i g u r e 5-2;  c . f . F i g u r e s 4-4 and 4-5) and forms a s t r o n g d e l i n e a t i n g h o r i z o n between the two  age c a t e g o r i e s , 2] major r e g i o n a l u n c o n f o r m i t i e s e x i s t a t the base o f the  M i d d l e and Upper Cambrian ( i . e . a t the base of the d e l i n e a t i n g h o r i z o n ; c . f . F i g u r e s 4-4 and 4-5), and 3] another  r e g i o n a l unconformity  O r d o v i c i a n t o S i l u r i a n aged.Mt. K i n d l e Formation  o c c u r s below the  ( i . e . d i r e c t l y above the  d e l i n e a t i n g h o r i z o n ; c . f . F i g u r e s 4-4 and 4-5). A dominance o f z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n Cambrian and o l d e r host  rocks  Stratabound z i n c - l e a d d e p o s i t s a r e known t o be p r e s e n t i n the Lower O r d o v i c i a n Sunblood Formation s h a l e s (Archer and Cathro, 1976). Furthermore, minor l o c a l i z e d areas o f z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n O r d o v i c i a n carbonates are known (McArthur, p e r s . comm., 1978). T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h t h i s age u n i t i s not s t r i c t l y "barren", i t i s n o t a b l y d e f i c i e n t i n m i n e r a l o c c u r r e n c e s r e l a t i v e t o comparable l i t h o s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s o f younger and o l d e r ages.  91 been n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y w i t h i n t h i s b e l t Rocky Mountain b e l t  Host Rock  Age  (Dawson, 1975)  (Macqueen, 1976), however no  Number of Deposits (Total=92)  Devonian  and  i n the  southern  e x p l a n a t i o n s were o f f e r e d .  Percentage of d e p o s i t s i n a) 7 age groups b) 2 age  groups  13  12  S i l u r i a n to Devonian Ordovician Silurian  37 to  17  Cambrian to Ordovician Lower Cambrian  23  Hadrynian  19.5  Helikian  63  20.5 (c) FIGURE  BAR  5-2  GRAPHS SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF DEPOSITS RELATIVE TO AGES OF HOST ROCKS  Data from 92 d e p o s i t s i n the sample c o l l e c t i o n : (a) number o f d e p o s i t s i n each age i n t e r v a l , (b) d a t a from (a) as a percentage, and (c) g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of d e p o s i t s among two p r i n c i p a l age groups .  Such a d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n might be l i t h o f a c i e s developed d u r i n g  expected to r e l a t e to more  favourable  these p e r i o d s or to a g r e a t e r l e n g t h o f time  a v a i l a b l e to the o l d e r rocks f o r p r e p a r a t i o n as a h o s t f o r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . I n p a r t i c u l a r , no  e x p l a n a t i o n has been forwarded c o n c e r n i n g  the l a c k of  m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n the F r a n k l i n Mountain F o r m a t i o n and u n i t s o f age.  A fundamental r e l a t i o n between time of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n and  equivalent age  of h o s t  rock might be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n e x p l a i n i n g these p a t t e r n s b u t f u r t h e r  92 d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s i s d e f e r r e d to the m e t a l l o g e n i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n Chapter The 'geographic segregate  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h o s t rock age groups, contoured t o  the two major age groups, i s p l o t t e d on F i g u r e 5-3.  distribution reflects studied  the g e n e r a l i z e d geology  ( c . f . F i g u r e 4-2).  Hadrynian,  This  contoured  as e x h i b i t e d by the d e p o s i t s  D e p o s i t s h o s t e d by carbonate  rocks o f H e l i k i a n ,  and Lower Cambrian age dominate 1) the concave i n t e r i o r o f the  Mackenzie f o l d b e l t p e r i p h e r a l t o the Selwyn B a s i n , 2) a zone t h a t trends ;  northwards i n t o the Bonnet Plume v a l l e y and the core o f the R i c h a r d s o n Mount a i n s , and 3) a narrow b e l t around the concave e x t e r i o r o f the Backbone Ranges D e p o s i t s h o s t e d by O r d o v i c i a n , S i l u r i a n , and Devonian carbonate  rocks a r e  c o n c e n t r a t e d a l o n g the c e n t r a l a r c o f the Backbone Ranges, where t i g h t  fold-  ing  and t h r u s t i n g has produced a r e p e t i t i v e sequence o f l i t h o l o g i e s o f t h i s  age  ( F i g u r e 4-2).  Porcupine rocks.  The northwestern-most a r e a , i n t h e Northern  O g i l v i e and  Ranges, i s r e p r e s e n t e d by d e p o s i t s i n the younger age carbonate  O v e r a l l , t h i s h o s t age d i s t r i b u t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t ;  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s d e f e r r e d t o Chapter Dolomite  further  6.  i s , by f a r , the most common h o s t l i t h o l o g y .  Shale and l i m e s t o n e  g e n e r a l l y p a r t l y d o l o m i t i z e d , c o n t a i n the remainder o f the d e p o s i t s ( F i g u r e 5-4).  T e c t o n i c c o n t r o l s over l o c a l i z a t i o n o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n a r e a l s o s t r o n g l y  i n d i c a t e d because a minimum o f 80 p e r c e n t o f the showings a r e found i n t e c t o n i c b r e c c i a matrix  fillings  ( F i g u r e 5-5; P l a t e s A-1,2,3).  o r v e i n s r e l a t e d to f r a c t u r i n g and f a u l t i n g  F o r many o f the remaining  deposits  detailed  d e s c r i p t i o n s d e f i n i n g how m i n e r a l i z a t i o n occurs a r e not a v a i l a b l e , hence t h i s percentage  might be even h i g h e r .  d e t a i l here) i s recorded by f i e l d of  1  syngenetic s p h a l e r i t e ^ .  At l e a s t one d e p o s i t (not s t u d i e d i n  o b s e r v a t i o n s as p o s s i b l y c o n s i s t i n g  I t s h o u l d be noted  mainly  t h a t even though m i n e r a l i z e d  D e p o s i t 20010 ( I c e - E m i l y ) i s d e s c r i b e d as s y n g e n e t i c (?) galena and smithson i t e zones up t o 400 f e e t (130 metres) l o n g and 60 f e e t (19 metres) wide a t the top o f the Lower Cambrian Sekwi Formation dolomite (Archer and Cathro, 1976).  FIGURE 5-3: GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF HOST ROCK AGE GROUPS Ages a r e coded as f o l l o w s : © O Devonian • vOrdovician-Silurian ^OHadrynian B • S i l u r i a n - D e v o n i a n ^ ^ L o w e r Cambrian AAHelikian Symbols i n d i c a t e l o c a t i o n s o f s p h a l e r i t e analyzed i n t h i s study ( c l o s e d ) and o f o t h e r specimens i n the c o l l e c t i o n (open). S t i p p l e d areas denote d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f O r d o v i c i a n - D e v o n i a n h o s t r o c k s .  94 breccias  n o r m a l l y are  the/richest  zones i n any  deposit,  o c c u r r e n c e such as replacement, s o l u t i o n c a v i t y and  vug  o t h e r types o f filling,  and  locally  lenses,  are  also  some a p p a r e n t l y s t r a t i f o r m s y n g e n e t i c d i s s e m i n a t i o n s and described  f o r many d e p o s i t s  (Archer and  Cathro, 1976) .  Number of D e p o s i t s  Litholdgy  Shale  SI  N  12  (a)  (b)  FIGURE  5-4  BAR GRAPHS SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF LITHOLOGY. (Data from 92 d e p o s i t s (a) number of d e p o s i t s as a p e r c e n t a g e  the  region,  associated and  field  Percentage of D e p o s i t s  ii  Limestone  information  throughout  y//////m  75  Dolomite  Overall,  DEPOSITS RELATIVE TO HOST i n sample c o l l e c t i o n )  i n each l i t h o l o g y  (b) data from  (a)  i n d i c a t e s that t e c t o n i c f r a c t u r i n g , f a u l t i n g ,  b r e c c i a t i o n p r o v i d e d b o t h the major c o n d u i t s f o r f l u i d  the open spaces f o r p r e c i p i t a t i o n of the  "ore" minerals.  Due  migration to  dominance of b r e c c i a c o n t r o l and  to a l a c k of d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n  permit c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of many of  the remaining d e p o s i t s ,  to study g e o g r a p h i c v a r i a t i o n s of d e p o s i t Field descriptions  and  i t was  not  this to possible  types.  sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d i c a t e t h a t l i t t l e or  d i s s o l u t i o n of the h o s t r o c k accompanied m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . the b r e c c i a fragments suggests e i t h e r t h a t m i n e r a l i z i n g  The  angularity  o c c u r r e d independent of b r e c c i a t i o n .  t h a t ground p r e p a r a t i o n mineralization  s o l u t i o n s from which  c a v i t y or k a r s t f o r m a t i o n ) , zation  i n advance of  n a t u r a l r e e f t a l u s b r e c c i a t i o n , or  o r , i n some cases o n l y s h o r t l y p r i o r to  (by t e c t o n i c f a u l t i n g , f r a c t u r i n g , and  or  T h e r e f o r e , i t appears  of the h o s t might have o c c u r r e d w e l l  (by d o l o m i t i z a t i o n ,  no  of  the m a t r i x m i n e r a l s were p r e c i p i t a t e d were n o n - c o r r o s i v e to the h o s t rock, that m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  and  brecciation).  solution  minerali-  95 Mode o f Emplacement  Number o f D e p o s i t s  Percentage o f D e p o s i t s  Brecciation Vein Fracture F i l l i n g  A  85  Unknown Syngenetic (?)  1  •1  (a) FIGURE 5-5  (b)  BAR GRAPHS SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF DEPOSITS RELATIVE TO MODE OF EMPLACEMENT OF MINERALIZATION. (Data from 92 d e p o s i t s i n sample collection) See t e x t f o r e x p l a n a t i o n o f 'syngenetic ( ? ) ' . (a) number o f d e p o s i t s i n each category a percentage  P e t r o g r a p h i c examination  (b) data from (a) as  o f 60 p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s (Appendix A) r e v e a l e d  an o v e r a l l s i m p l i c i t y and s i m i l a r i t y i n the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n and between the d e p o s i t s .  Sparry c a l c i t e and d o l o m i t e a r e the dominant gangne m i n e r a l s  accompanying the s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n ( P l a t e A-1,2,3) and these appear t o have formed e i t h e r p r i o r t o o r l a t e r than o r e m i n e r a l s u l p h i d e s . carbonate  Sparry  v e i n l e t s are abundant w i t h i n t h e h o s t rocks and a r e commonly  found  as the i n i t i a l c o a t i n g s on b r e c c i a fragments o r along v e i n b o u n d a r i e s .  Fine  c a r b o n a t e - f i l l e d f r a c t u r e s c r o s s - c u t a l l b u t the c o a r s e s t and the s i l i c i o u s hosted  s p h a l e r i t e specimens  thus, g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e d , alogy.  ( P l a t e A-2);  a post s u l p h i d e phase of v e i n i n g i s  S p h a l e r i t e normally  dominates the s u l p h i d e m i n e r -  S p e c i f i c proportions o f sulphide minerals  are d i f f i c u l t  to assign  because most specimens s t u d i e d were s e l e c t e d i n the f i e l d w i t h a s p e c i f i c b i a s towards pure, c o a r s e g r a i n e d s p h a l e r i t e .  Dawson's (1975) p r e v i o u s l y e s t i m a t e d  r a t i o of s p h a l e r i t e : g a l e n a b e i n g 10:1 appears t o be a f a i r , estimate.  i f not low,  Galena and p y r i t e a r e t h e common s u l p h i d e a c c e s s o r y m i n e r a l s , and  e i t h e r c o - p r e c i p i t a t e d i n s m a l l amounts w i t h s p h a l e r i t e , o r , more commonly, formed a f t e r t h e main s p h a l e r i t e d e p o s i t i o n . replaced e a r l i e r s p h a l e r i t e .  L o c a l l y galena has p a r t i a l l y  A number o f showings r e c o r d copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  96 as w e l l (e.g. d e p o s i t 10042); t r a c e s of c h a l c o p y r i t e or t e t r a h e d r i t e occur i n these d e p o s i t s .  One  sample a n a l y z e d  (number 10042-15) c o n t a i n e d a nodule  of  massive b o u r n o n i t e w i t h a s s o c i a t e d m a l a c h i t e and a z u r i t e e n c l o s e d w i t h i n a larger sphalerite bleb. Quartz, where p r e s e n t , i s n o r m a l l y the youngest and forms l a r g e e u h e d r a l c r y s t a l s i n vugs. silicified  h o s t rocks and  A few  the gangue i s almost  mineral to p r e c i p i t a t e  deposits occur i n h i g h l y  e n t i r e l y quartz.  A generalized  p a r a g e n e t i c sequence f o r z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o f the r e g i o n , as from hand specimen and p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n examinations  (Appendix  determined  A), i s :  1] ground p r e p a r a t i o n p r i o r to m i n e r a l i z a t i o n by d o l o m i t i z a t i o n f o l l o w e d by t e c t o n i c f r a c t u r i n g and b r e c c i a t i o n , 2] p a r t i a l i n f i l l i n g of open spaces, f r a c t u r e s , e t c . by an carbonate phase ( t h i s i s not always e v i d e n t ) ,  initial  3] dominant s p h a l e r i t e d e p o s i t i o n , sometimes accompanied by minor p y r i t e , g a l e n a , or carbonate, 4] an a c c e s s o r y s u l p h i d e phase, c o n s i s t i n g of g a l e n a , p y r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e , t e t r a h e d r i t e , o r b o u r n o n i t e , w i t h o r w i t h o u t minor s p h a l e r i t e or carbonate gangue, 5]  l a t e s p a r r y carbonate f i l l i n g o r l i n i n g the remaining  spaces,  6] l a t e q u a r t z , commonly r e p r e s e n t e d by e u h e d r a l c r y s t a l s l i n i n g vugs (the t i m i n g of l a r g e s c a l e s i l i c i f i c a t i o n or the p a r a g e n e s i s of s i l i c i f i e d showings r e l a t i v e to t h e more normal carbonate p a r a g e n e s i s i s unknown), 7] l a t e f r a c t u r i n g of b o t h the h o s t and the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n w i t h subsequent i n f i l l i n g by f i n e s p a r r y carbonate (the e x a c t t i m i n g o f t h i s common f e a t u r e i s unknown; i t might be r e l a t e d to phase 5] i n some cases, or might be a f t e r 8 ] ) , and 8]  l a t e p r e c i p i t a t i o n of pyrobitumen.  T h i s sequence does not d e s c r i b e a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l l the d e p o s i t s , however i t does d e f i n e the dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b r e c c i a t i o n , s p a r r y carbonate gangue, and  s p h a l e r i t e dominance of the s u l p h i d e  Minor d e p a r t u r e s from t h i s sequence are.expected f a c t o r s such as temperature fluids.  The  due  mineralogy.  t o complex changes i n  or chemical c o m p o s i t i o n of the m i n e r a l i z i n g  s m a l l v a r i e t y of m i n e r a l t e x t u r e s observed  i n hand specimens  97 (Appendix  A) might be due  to these f a c t o r s .  Supergene o x i d a t i o n of  these  showings v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y , p r o b a b l y i n r e l a t i o n to degree of s u r f a c e exposure.  Z i n c r e a d i l y o x i d i z e s to a h i g h l y mobile  q u i c k l y r e a c t s w i t h carbonates  to form Z n C 0 3  s u l p h a t e s t a t e , which  (Boyle and Jambor, 1963).  S m i t h s o n i t e i s g e n e r a l l y p r e s e n t i n these d e p o s i t s and as massive  'dry bone o r e ' .  i n a few  cases  occurs  H y d r o z i n c i t e i s a l s o common as t h i n c o a t i n g s  on  many s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n s .  5.2  Minor Element C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S p h a l e r i t e from  The minor element assemblage determined  the N o r t h e r n  Cordillera  f o r the s p h a l e r i t e specimens  from the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a i n c l u d e s those elements most o f t e n found iated with this mineral.  A summary of the q u a n t i t a t i v e atomic  a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s i s given i n Table  assoc-  absorption  5-2.  Dominant c o n s t i t u e n t s i n T a b l e 5-2,  as expected,  are cadmium and  these b e i n g the o n l y elements w i t h mean v a l u e s i n the thousands of ppm  iron, range.  Cadmium, the o n l y element w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n l e s s than the mean v a l u e , d i s p l a y s the l e a s t f l u c t u a t i o n i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n a c r o s s the r e g i o n as a whole. The extreme range of v a l u e s i s 172 a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e range. been noted i n o t h e r a r e a s  to 9424 ppm,  however, 1000  to 3000 ppm  This s t a b i l i t y i n regional d i s t r i b u t i o n  (Sims and B a r t o n , 1961;  Nash, 1975)  is  has  and has .been  a t t r i b u t e d t o the f a c t t h a t s p h a l e r i t e i s the o n l y common ore m i n e r a l w h i c h accepts c o n s i d e r a b l e amounts o f cadmium i n t o i t s s t r u c t u r e .  Therefore there  i s no c o m p e t i t i o n from o t h e r s u l p h i d e s t o p a r t i t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t amounts away from s p h a l e r i t e ( c . f . s e c t i o n 2.3.1), I r o n c o n t e n t s of s p h a l e r i t e s a high o f 3,58  ( T a b l e 5-2)  range from a low of 92 ppm  to  weight p e r c e n t , w i t h a more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c range ( r e p r e s e n t i n g  98 TABLE 5-2 REGIONAL SUMMARY OF QUANTITATIVE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYTICAL RESULTS (based on a n a l y s e s o f 166 samples)  Element  Range (ppm)  Mean  Silver  0  -- 295  13.5  Cadmium  170 - 9424  1780  904  Cobalt  0 - :98;;  3.3  12  Copper  5 - 2100  172  312  Iron  92  2750  3815  Manganese  0 - 230  30  34  Nickel  0 -  0.7  5.7  Lead  0 - 10750  644  1274  Mercury  0 - 300  33  64  - 35870  70  (ppm)  **  Start! 30  **  * 0 = not d e t e c t e d ; r e f e r to T a b l e 3-3 f o r d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s ** Mean v a l u e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n are c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g 0 as an a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t  70 p e r c e n t of the a n a l y s e s ) o f 500 to 7000 ppm.  Only seven samples c o n t a i n  over one weight p e r c e n t i r o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the i r o n c o n t e n t s are g e n e r a l l y r e l a t i v e l y low.  Some o f the w e l l sampled d e p o s i t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low  i r o n ( e . g . d e p o s i t 20023 i s r e p r e s e n t e d by 20 samples, a l l o f which c o n t a i n l e s s than 500 ppm i r o n ) ;  consequently  the i r o n content i n s p h a l e r i t e c o u l d  p r o v i d e a method o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i n d i v i d u a l d e p o s i t s . Manganese i s o f t e n grouped w i t h i r o n and cadmium as the most common elements c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the s p h a l e r i t e s t r u c t u r e (Boyle and Jambor, 1963; S t o i b e r , 1940).  However, the samples from the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a p r o v i d e  r a t h e r low manganese v a l u e s . o n l y n i n e v a l u e s exceed  The maximum a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t i s 230 ppm and  100 ppm; the mean i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y  30 ppm  (Table 5-2),  T h i s r e s t r i c t e d range o f v a l u e s has l e a d to manganese b e i n g the second most  99 e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d element, even though the standard d e v i a t i o n i s 115 percent  to  120  of the mean.  Lead e x h i b i t s an a p p r e c i a b l e range of c o n c e n t r a t i o n s about i t s mean value.  P a r t of t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y may  be due  to c o n t a m i n a t i o n  amounts of galena, however, some samples c o n t a i n e d detected.  from t r a c e  insufficient  l e a d to be  A number of w e l l sampled d e p o s i t s (numbers 10042, 20012, and  20025) c o n t a i n d i s t i n c t l y low  l e a d v a l u e s r e l a t i v e t o the r e g i o n a l mean.  R e g i o n a l v a r i a b i l i t y o f copper tends to be h i g h , w i t h a n a l y t i c a l extending i s 180  from a few  percent  ppm  to over  2000 ppm.  of the mean v a l u e .  the s p h a l e r i t e i n some d e p o s i t s  The  r e s u l t i n g standard d e v i a t i o n  Copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  (e.g. number 10042), hence  from t h i s s o u r c e might c o n t r i b u t e to the v a r i a b i l i t y Again,  s p e c i f i c deposits  i s t i c a l l y low  from l e s s than 0.1  ppm  regional d i s t r i b u t i o n .  (e.g. numbers 10033 and  to over 300  ppm,  reflects  10042) are The  distinctly  o v e r a l l sample range,  the h i g h l y v a r i a b l e  F o r example, the h i g h e s t v a l u e obtained  (310 ppm)  ppm  mercury ( T a b l e 3-7)to 295  c o n t a i n s i n s u f f i c i e n t mercury to be d e t e c t e d  ppm  single  comes from the  (number 20023) whereas the 19 o t h e r samples from t h i s  d e p o s i t number 10027 c o n t a i n from 190  rence  distribution.  Of i n t e r e s t a l s o i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n  each c o n t a i n l e s s than 3.5  bility  20025) are c h a r a c t e r -  somewhat unique  e n r i c h e d i n mercury r e l a t i v e to the r e g i o n a l mean.  deposit  results.  i n copper c o n c e n t r a t i o n s .  I n t h i s case some d e p o s i t s  Rev  contamination  in analytical  ( e . g . numbers 10033, 20023, and  Mercury e x h i b i t s a h i g h l y v a r i a b l e and  deposits.  results  deposit  Four samples from  mercury, y e t a f i f t h  ( T a b l e 3-7) .  sample  This high  varia-  a c r o s s the r e g i o n and w i t h i n d e p o s i t s might be r e l a t e d to the  occur-  of v o l a t i l e mercury d u r i n g p r e c i p i t a t i o n of s p h a l e r i t e .  small physiochemical  In t h i s s t a t e  changes i n the m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s might produce  l a r g e e f f e c t s on the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of mercury.  100 S i l v e r v a l u e s are low a c r o s s the r e g i o n however the l a r g e  standard  d e v i a t i o n of the samples r e l a t i v e to the mean i n d i c a t e s a l a r g e r e g i o n a l variability.  In t h i s case some of the most sampled d e p o s i t s are  e n r i c h e d i n s i l v e r , but Cobalt and n i c k e l ,  o t h e r s are d e p l e t e d , r e l a t i v e to the r e g i o n a l mean. two  elements o f t e n l i n k e d g e o c h e m i c a l l y  as minor elements i n p y r i t e ) , are both p r e s e n t o n l y a few Table 3-7).  T h e r e f o r e l i t t l e can be to 98 ppm  and  said regarding t h e i r  a t l e a s t two  (particularly  i n detectable quantities i n  samples ( c o b a l t i n 24 samples, n i c k e l i n o n l y f i v e  C o b a l t ranges up  samples;  distribution.  d e p o s i t s show c o n s i s t e n c y i n  c o b a l t content w i t h i n each o f the t h r e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples. n i c k e l v a l u e i s 70  particularly  The  highest  ppm.  Many of the elements determined by e m i s s i o n s p e c t r o g r a p h i c methods are i n a c a t e g o r y s i m i l a r to c o b a l t and n i c k e l s i n c e l e s s than 25 p e r c e n t the samples a n a l y z e d  (which i n t h i s case t o t a l s 162)  contained  of  detectable  amounts o f antimony, a r s e n i c , chromium, s t r o n t i u m , vanadium, o r b a r i u m . summary of the e m i s s i o n s p e c t r o g r a p h i c r e s u l t s i s g i v e n i n T a b l e Antimony, a r s e n i c , and 3-2),  and no p a t t e r n s can be observed  i n the few  analyses  detectable analyses  above the d e t e c t i o n l i m i t .  and g a l l i u m i n 80 percent of the d e p o s i t s  available. illustrate  chromium shows no p r e f e r r e d d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the T i t a n i u m and  p e r c e n t of the d e p o s i t s s t u d i e d ( t i t a n i u m o c c u r s  percent  (Table  concentrations  Barium and vanadium have an i n s u f f i c i e n t number of r e s u l t s to t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n and  5—3.  s t r o n t i u m a l l have h i g h d e t e c t i o n l e v e l s  hence t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n s are l i k e l y t r u n c a t e d at lower  of the samples) and  g a l l i u m are p r e s e n t i n 58 p e r c e n t  t i n i s present  (37 p e r c e n t of the samples).  A  36 i n 75  of the samples  i n over  O v e r a l l , the  50  emission  s p e c t r o g r a p h i c a n a l y s e s w i t h the most p o t e n t i a l f o r p r o v i d i n g m e a n i n g f u l q u a l i t a t i v e information w i l l be from those elements t h a t have been d e t e c t e d i n approximately  20 to 80 percent  of the d e p o s i t s .  101 TABLE 5-3 REGIONAL SUMMARY OF EMISSION SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYTICAL RESULTS (based on 162 sample a n a l y s e s )  Mean Element  Standard Deviation (±ppm)  Percentage of Samples Represented  Antimony  0*- 3000  31**  85**  18  Arsenic  0 - 500  6  47  02  Barium  0 - 1500  28  163  05  Chromium  0-20  0.8  2.4  22  Gallium  0 - 400  16  35  79  Strontium  0 - 800  25  110  10  Tin  0 -100  5  13  36  Titanium  0 - 2500  50  280  57  Vanadium  0 - 30  0.5  3.4  05  Beryllium Bismuth Molybdenum  not  detected  Platinum  * **  5.3.  0 = not d e t e c t e d ; r e f e r to T a b l e 3-2 f o r d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s Mean v a l u e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a r e c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g 0 as an analytical result  A n a l y s i s o f Element D i s t r i b u t i o n  5.3.1  Analysis of Variance  The  preceding  s e c t i o n has i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n the more obvious cases o f  the w e l l sampled d e p o s i t s , c e r t a i n elements e x h i b i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y or low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s .  I f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s such as t h i s occur  high  throughout  the r e g i o n then a summation o f the r e s u l t s from each sample i n a d e p o s i t w i l l produce a mean a n a l y t i c a l v a l u e  representative of that deposit  alone.  102 An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s can be made through an a n a l y s i s of variance aimed at determining i f the sample variances w i t h i n a s i n g l e deposit are s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r or smaller than the v a r i a t i o n s between deposits across the region. Burnham (1959) has used such an approach to present a d d i t i o n a l informat i o n on the existence of d i s t i n c t metallogenic provinces i n the  southwestern  U.S.A. and northern Mexico using the t i n content of c h a l c o p y r i t e . He concluded that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t i n . revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater v a r i a t i o n between each mining d i s t r i c t than the v a r i a t i o n found w i t h i n each mining d i s t r i c t .  Therefore he s a t i s f i e d h i s o r i g i n a l goal of  demonstrating  that "a d e f i n i t e geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n i s more f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i f i t can be shown that the variance about the grand mean i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than the variance about the d i s t r i c t means" ( i b i d . , p. 47). In t h i s study the nine deposits represented by f i v e or more samples provide a s u i t a b l e data matrix, to study the variances w i t h i n each deposit r e l a t i v e to the variances about the r e g i o n a l mean. Tabulations of the data used and c a l c u l a t i o n s are included i n Appendix C, Table C-3.  Comparison  of the c a l c u l a t e d F - r a t i o at the 95 percent confidence l e v e l i n d i c a t e s that for a l l elements the w i t h i n and between deposit components of the t o t a l n a t u r a l sample variance are drawn from two independent sources.  Therefore  the data v a r i a b i l i t y between deposits can be considered s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than that w i t h i n the deposits.  This determination i n d i c a t e s that each  deposit can e f f e c t i v e l y be 'finger p r i n t e d ' on the basis of i t s minor element content.  I t also i s c r i t i c a l i n j u s t i f y i n g the c a l c u l a t i o n of representative  mean a n a l y t i c a l values f o r each deposit and thereby reducing the data population to 48 i n d i v i d u a l p o i n t s , each w i t h equal weighting. In the case of lead, the computed F - r a t i o i s close to the c r i t i c a l F - r a t i o while f o r a l l other elements the computed F - r a t i o i s much higher than  103 the c r i t i c a l F - r a t i o .  T h i s r e l a t i v e l a c k of r e g i o n a l between-deposit  v a r i a b i l i t y i n l e a d content might be r e l a t e d to the common occurrence  of  g a l e n a as the commonest and most abundant a c c e s s o r y s u l p h i d e i n these deposits.  Sims and Barton  (1961) noted  e r i t e samples not o b v i o u s l y contaminated  a common occurrence by g a l e n a and  of l e a d i n s p h a l -  they a t t r u b u t e d  this  l e a d content to the "approximate l i m i t of s o l i d s o l u t i o n of g a l e n a i n s p h a l e r i t e a t the temperatures 123).  p r e v a i l i n g d u r i n g the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n " ( i b i d . ,  R e g i o n a l l e a d v a l u e s i n s p h a l e r i t e from the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a  p. are  not e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h compared to the above wock by Sims and B a r t o n and s i m i l a r u n d e r l y i n g c o n t r o l on i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n might be s i g n i f i c a n t area. out.  However, the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n t a m i n a t i o n by g a l e n a cannot be  i n this ruled  I s o l a t e d samples b e a r i n g anomalous l e a d d e r i v e d from g a l e n a c o u l d  w i t h i n d e p o s i t v a r i a n c e s to a p o i n t where they  a  raise  c o u l d not be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from  between d e p o s i t v a r i a n c e s . T a b l e 5-4  c o n t a i n s the mean a n a l y t i c a l v a l u e s f o r each element,  l a t e d t o r e p r e s e n t the 48 d e p o s i t s a c r o s s the a r e a of i n t e r e s t . r e g i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are drawn from t h i s data b a s e .  calcu-  The f o l l o w i n g  104  TABLE  ID.  MEAN  ATOMIC  A 3 S O R ° T I O N  NO.  ENDING  IN  0  =  NOT  -090  SEE  N.D. TO.NO.  AG  CO  10CC6999  7.1  954  1001C001  5 9 . 4  1110  ANALYTICAL  DENOTES  DETECTED:  =  CO  12.  5-4  7  MEAN  TABLE NOT  RESULTS VALUE  3 - 3  C  0R  M AS  FOR  48  BEEN  DEPOSITS CALCULATED  DETECTION  LIMITS  DETERMINED  cu  FE  95  1241 6  0 . 0  10  120  MN  NI  PB  HG  41  0 . 0  1245  1.83  165  0 . 0  1850  0 . 07  10070004  37. R  146 0  5.4  394  6313  7 30  0 . 0  477  N.D.  10027004  3 5 . 6  706  22.1  172  9180  32  0 . 0  3711  12.50  19074999 10025999  11.0 2. 7  1770  4 . 9  21  0 . 0  929  0 . 0  128 46  3416  1738  2 39 2  0 . 0  60  10026001  45. 1  1425  3 . 4  0.0  12 79  1 0 0 2 7 9 9 ° 10028999  13.8  20S1  0 . 0  412 184  12 47 13  0 . 0  3323  0 . 0  12  0  0 . 0  430 173  71 5 . 0 0  2.3  1550 1 104  10079999  7.4  2284 172  0 . 0 2 7 . 9  19  2 634  6 . 5 12.0  609  12 1 4 0  5 75  0. 72 6 0 . 0 0  1 100 1560  3 5 370 1776  83 2  0 . 0 0 . 0  2 150  8 45  1  0030001  10032001 10033999 1 0 9 3 4 ° 9 9 10035999 10036999 10037999  45.5 6.8 4 3 . 1 0.0 14.8 2 7 . 8  97.9  860  0 . 0 2 . 4  69 17  2360 1132  0 . 0 0 . 0  328 567  2 37 0 2 500  6 . 3 3.1  331 198  4 76 9  0 . 0  14 722  2220 4954  29 620  2526 4 68 9  40 5  101 1 859  78 753  762 0 65 8  31.6 24.8  2038  10043999  0.0  10044001 10045001 1 0 O 6 ° 9 9  4.9  1443 1760  5.7 14.9  2676 1647  1626  . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0  0.0 4.3  1795  0 . 0  20C03999 70004999  1. 8 0 . 0 1.3  19C6 1424 4526  20003^99 70009004  3 . 5 0 . 0 0 . 0  1 2 ? ° 761 2393  0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 4 5.9  20012999  4 . 5  1 340  4 . 7  20C13001 2001500^  3.5 9. 1  1522  0 . 0 0. 0  2002000?  0.0 5.8  20023999 20074999 2002  5999  7. 1 1.6 30. 7  6 93  0 0 0 0  10050001 10053001  20019004 20021999  1 4 53 813 363 3 075  0 . 0 0 . 0  60 773 3 10 79  .0.0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0.0  37  0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0  629 114  3018  8 6 37 16  6 81 9 1442  11 14  0 . 0 0.0  132 6  0 . 0  235 571 47?  630 14 59 393 1331 1441  1 435  0 . 0  271 465  0 . 0  176  237  0 . 0  20  261  45 39  0 . 0  2336  0 . 0  1606  0 . 0  166  1293  76  0 . 0  42 5 219  1433 3299  10  0.0  73  70035999  1396  0 . 0  381  2C036999  1.7  1653  6 . 6  123  70037999  2 6 . 6  1937  0 . 0  204  I 1 76  0 . 0  157  1196  0 . 0  4237  0 . 0  0.0  22 3 16 15  101 103  0.0  11.1  7 0 . 6 0  150 309  0 . 0  1170  20040999  775  0 . 0  51  1258  20039001  8.43  0.0  2  22  1.1 1.4  0 . 0  651  8076 1993  69.4  20C33001  1.3  73 37  4  20034999  4 1 . 2 5  73 50  0 . 0 0 . 0  32  D.  5.50 3.25  0 . 0 0.0 0 . 0  0 . 0  N.  37  2 135  6.2  4 . 85  660 99  203 567  1560  8. 00  76. 2 3  736  2013  5 5 . 7 0  204  1737 1837  1 .8  20C32001  15  3203  0.0 C O 0 . 0  10750 3879  21 27  0 . 0  20077999  681 2  513 97  10042999  20005999 20006999  .  107. 00  1.11 0.00 0. 81 29. 25 N.D. N.D. 2 3 . 2 5 9. 1 3 0 . 0 0 5 . 36 0. 00 0. 49 53 . 64 N.D. •N.D. N. D. 0.29 1.47 1.  10  1.78  7  0 . 0  34  0 . 0  3541  155  142  0.0  1512  2 . 4 0  4518  19  0 . 0  42  19.34  1541  15  17.5  388  4 . 0 6  4989  16  0 . 0  19  5 . 0 ?  1 744  71  0 . 0  98  607  35  0.0  0  11.80  13  6 36 5  49  0 . 0  n  2.31  43  2432  18  0.0  52  9 . 8 0  .  37  13.85 1 6 3 . 5 0  0.  07  105 5.3.2  Inter-element  C o r r e l a t i o n and R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s  C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t matrices and  l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n equations  for eight  elements, s c a t t e r diagrams,  f o r element p a i r s were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the  UBC TRP computer program (Le and T e n i s c i , 1977) . determined a t a p p r o p r i a t e c o n f i d e n c e  Critical  c o e f f i c i e n t s were  l i m i t s u s i n g T a b l e A-30a o f Dixon and  Massey (1969) . Initially,  c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the 166 sample  a n a l y s e s and f o r the 48 d e p o s i t mean v a l u e s .  The r e s u l t s h i g h l i g h t a s t r o n g  p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p amongst c o b a l t , i r o n , and l e a d ( T a b l e 5-5, F i g u r e 5-6) for  both  tions;  calculations.  Manganese and s i l v e r  tend t o e x h i b i t p o s i t i v e  these a l s o c o r r e l a t e w i t h l e a d i n the dominant t r i o .  e x h i b i t s s t r o n g n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h these  o f the form  + bx were determined f o r a l l p o s s i b l e element p a i r s , u s i n g the 48 d e p o s i t  mean v a l u e s .  I n i t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the p l o t s suggested  r e l a t e d to h o s t rock age groups, were p r e s e n t .  (1) the 27 d e p o s i t s hosted  (2) the 21 d e p o s i t s h o s t e d  two t r e n d s ,  Individual correlation  m a t r i c e s , s c a t t e r diagrams, and r e g r e s s i o n equations for  Cadmium, however,  elements.  S c a t t e r p l o t s and b e s t - f i t l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n equations y=a  correla-  were then  determined  i n P r o t e r o z o i c and Lower Cambrian r o c k s , and  i n O r d o v i c i a n , S i l u r i a n , and Devonian r o c k s ;  i s o l a t e d , o u t l y i n g p o i n t s which unduly overweight the r e g r e s s i o n l i n e were not  included i n regression c a l c u l a t i o n s . C o r r e l a t i o n s c a l c u l a t e d from d e p o s i t mean d a t a from the two h o s t  rock  age groups p r o v i d e s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s t o those c a l c u l a t e d f o r a l l the data ( F i g u r e 5-7; c f . F i g u r e 5-6);  t h e major d i f f e r e n c e s a r e t h a t cadmium does not  enter i n t o s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e  c o r r e l a t i o n s i n the younger h o s t group and  i r o n does riot c o r r e l a t e w i t h l e a d .  ^ N i c k e l provided i n s u f f i c i e n t  L i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n s , however, i n d i c a t e  data f o r a n a l y s i s by t h i s method.  106  TABLE 5-5 CORRELATION MATRICES AMONGST EIGHT ELEMENTS FOR a) 166 SAMPLE ANALYSES AND b) 48 DEPOSIT MEAN VALUES AG  CD  CO  CU  FE  MN  PB  AG  1.000  CD  0.021  1.000  CO  -0.026  -0.185  1.000  CU  0.058  -0.082  0.049  1.000  FE  0.028  -0.208  0.658  0.067  1.000  MN  0.161  0.016  0.092  0.155  0.150  1.000  PB  0.122  -0.118  0.328  0.049  0.345  0.246  1.000  HG  0.132  -0.027  -0.070  -0.031  -0.068  -0.098  0.076  MN  PB  a) 166 samples r  AG  CD  > 9 Q  = 0.100  CO  r  i 9 5  CU  = 0.127  FE  AG  1.000  CD  --0.263  1.000  CO  0.038  -0.242  1.000  CU  0.007  -0.144  0.027  1.000  FE  0.036  -0.236  0.881  -0.057  1.000  MN  0.569  -0.218  0.150  0.170  0.181  1.000  PB  0.352  -0.321  0.517  0.025  0.481  0.233  1.000  HG  0.069  0.010  -0.024  -0.089  -0.050  -0.130  0.218  b) 48 deposits r „„= 0.188 .yu  r = 0.245 .y_>  107  Cd  Cd  A) 166 sample v a l u e s  B) 48 d e p o s i t mean v a l u e s FIGURE 5-6  SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF CORRELATIONS AMONG ELEMENTS FOR A) 166 SAMPLE ANALYSES, AND B) 48DEPOSIT MEAN VALUES Double l i n e s i n d i c a t e s t r o n g p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s (95% c o n f i d e n c e level); s i n g l e l i n e s show good p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s (90% c o n f i d e n c e level); dashed l i n e s f o l l o w s t r o n g n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s (95% confidence l e v e l ) .  A) P r o t e r o z o i c and Lower Cambrian v a l u e s  B) O r d o v i c i a n , S i l u r i a n , and Devonian v a l u e s  FIGURE"5-7 SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF CORRELATIONS AMONG ELEMENTS FOR SPHALERITE TAKEN FROM A) PROTEROZOIC AND LOWER CAMBRIAN HOST ROCKS, AND B) ORDOVICIAN, SILURIAN, AND DEVONIAN HOST ROCKS. Symbols as i n F i g u r e 5-6.  108 t h a t the d a t a from the two h o s t rock age groups might be d i s t i n c t l y  different.  Three s c a t t e r diagrams, s i l v e r v e r s u s manganese ( F i g u r e 5-8), cadmium v e r s u s mercury here  ( F i g u r e 5-9), and  i r o n v e r s u s manganese ( F i g u r e 5-10)  to i l l u s t r a t e these d i f f e r e n c e s .  are  reproduced  For most element p a i r s , a much b r o a d e r  s c a t t e r o f d a t a i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d e p o s i t s h o s t e d i n o l d e r r o c k s ; i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident at high concentration l e v e l s C o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p of d a t a from concentration l e v e l s . trends i n most cases  ( F i g u r e s 5-8  and  the two age groups i s seen a t the  this 5-10).  lower  B e s t — f i t l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n s show markedly d i f f e r e n t  ( F i g u r e s 5-8  and 5-9);  these l i n e s sometime d e f i n e  s i m i l a r t r e n d s but the g r e a t e r s c a t t e r of d a t a i n d e p o s i t s h o s t e d i n o l d e r rocks produces n o t a b l y d i f f e r e n t  regression lines  ( F i g u r e 5-10).  These s c a t t e r p l o t s emphasize a fundamental d i f f e r e n c e i n the data o b t a i n e d from s p h a l e r i t e s taken from  the two major h o s t age groups.  n a t u r e of the d i f f e r e n c e s i s not c l e a r from  The  t h i s d a t a b u t the dominance and  g r e a t e r s c a t t e r of h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the o l d e r h o s t rocks r e q u i r e s further investigation;  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s p a t t e r n w i l l be e x p l a i n e d  f u r t h e r i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n  (5.3.3) c o n c e r n i n g p r o b a b i l i t y  graph  a n a l y s i s of the d a t a .  5.3.3  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n s of Minor Elements  R e g i o n a l p a t t e r n s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the minor elements were i n v e s t i g a t e d by p a r t i t i o n i n g the a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s o f the 48 d e p o s i t s i n t o i n t e r n a l p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h the a i d of the p r o b a b i l i t y graph Sinclair  (1976).  technique of  T h i s method a l l o w s p a r t i t i o n i n g of d a t a i n t o  sub-populations  on the b a s i s o f assumptions c o n c e r n i n g the i d e a l form o f the d e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r each element. argued  Various authors  t h a t t h e r e i s no v a l i d reason why  ( S i n c l a i r , 1974;  Parslow,  1974)  have  t h r e s h o l d v a l u e s must be chosen on  109  Manganese (ppm) FIGURE 5-8: SCATTER DIAGRAM OF SILVER VERSUS MANGANESE Squares and s o l i d r e g r e s s i o n l i n e r e p r e s e n t data from P r o t e r o z o i c and Lower Cambrian h o s t s . C i r c l e s and dashed r e g r e s s i o n l i n e denote data from O r d o v i c i a n to Devonian h o s t s . r^= the p r o p o r t i o n o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n the dependant v a r i a b l e accounted f o r by the independant v a r i a b l e .  no  o 4-J  o Hg = 4.95 + (-0.0005) Cd n=20 r =l% 2  Outlying values not included Cd Hg B 172 60  3J  34  O 1340  2J  fa  4  O  Cd = 1303 +-3.34 Hg n=20 r =12%  O 0  2  H  —r 25 -  FIGURE 5-9:  —i—  50  1 75 Mercury (ppm)  100  125  SCATTER DIAGRAM OF CADMIUM VERSUS MERCURY Symbols as i n F i g u r e 5-8.  Ill  —,  20  FIGURE 5-10:  ,  40  r  1  60 80 Manganese (ppm)  1  100  '  120  SCATTER DIAGRAM OF IRON VERSUS MANGANESE Symbols as i n F i g u r e 5-8.  149  TABLE 5-6 POPULATIONS AND APPROXIMATE THRESHOLD VALUES DERIVED FROM PROBABILITY PLOTS  Element Silver  Population  Inflection Point (cum %)  15  >15  13-14 2-3  92%B 555A  31-32 0-1  A  83  >1000  95ZA 8%B  37-38 0-1  1000  B  17  <1000  92S5B 5%A  7-8 1-2  A  75  >25  95%A 7%B  34-35 0-1  25  B  25  <25  93%B 5%A  11-12 1-2  A  31  >3500  98%A 12 XB  12-13 3-4  400-3500  87.5%B 2%A 1%C  26-27 0-1 0-1  9  <400  99%C 0.5%B  4-5 0-1  90  >4  99%A 1XB  42-43 0  <4 .  99XB 1%A  4-5 0  »18  99%A 5*B  12 1-2  0.3-18  95%B 1%A  22-23 0  <0.3  100ZC  5  31  C  9!  A 90  Mercury  Number  <15  B  Manganese '  % '95U , 8%B  70  75  Iron  Population Contents and Overlap Range  B  83  Copper  Approximate Threshold (ppm)  30  A 30  Cadmium  Percentage of Total Data  3500 60 400  B  10  A  30 30 57  B 87 C  4  18 0.3  13  Comments  contains 3 exceptionally high values  contains 1 exceptionally high value  contains 4 exceptionally high values  contains 2 exceptionally high values  contains 3 values  'non-detected'  Furthermore, the mean deposit values were  Lead  The distribution of lead i s essentially unimodal. sensitive to regional variations.  Cobalt Nickel  Analytical results for these elements provided insufficient detectable concentrations for use i n probability plots.  113 the b a s i s o f c a l c u l a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the mean and a s e t number o f s t a n d a r d deviations.  T h e r e f o r e , i n t h i s study,  i n d i v i d u a l p o p u l a t i o n s were chosen  somewhat a r b i t r a r i l y on the b a s i s o f assumed d e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n models t h a t appeared t o correspond  c l o s e l y with  the r e a l d a t a .  Such a procedure  a i d s i n d e f i n i n g 1) t h r e s h o l d v a l u e s s e g r e g a t i n g p o p u l a t i o n s , 2) ranges i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n f o r each p o p u l a t i o n , and 3) the p o s s i b l e degree o f o v e r l a p o f populations. f o r geographic  Each p o p u l a t i o n so d e f i n e d , can then be I s o l a t e d and examined distribution patterns.  D i v i s i o n s between p o p u l a t i o n s  can then  be d e f i n e d by 1) and 2) above, such t h a t t h e r e i s a s p e c i f i e d o v e r l a p o f the populations.  P r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s , r e c o r d e d i n Appendix D, a r e summarized i n  T a b l e 5-6.  Silver S i l v e r f o l l o w s a bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n on the p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t w i t h f i v e t o e i g h t percent  o v e r l a p o f the p o p u l a t i o n s when segregated  t h r e s h o l d o f 15 ppm ( F i g u r e D — l a ) .  only  at a  The upper p o p u l a t i o n has a mean v a l u e of  33 ppm and a s l i g h t l y lower d i s p e r s i o n about i t s mean than the lower p o p u l a t i o n w i t h a mean o f two to t h r e e ppm.  T h i s lower p o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d e s t e n d e p o s i t s  where s i l v e r was not d e t e c t e d . The geographic  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these two s i l v e r p o p u l a t i o n s  ( F i g u r e 5-11)  shows an immediate s i m i l a r i t y to the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h o s t rock ages ( F i g u r e 5-3).  Higher  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f s i l v e r dominate the concave I n t e r i o r o f the  f o l d b e l t , the C o a l Creek Dome, and northward through the Bonnet Plume and Wind R i v e r V a l l e y s .  The Gayna R i v e r d e p o s i t  (number 20024) i s i n c l u d e d i n  the upper f a m i l y and i n d i c a t e s , even i f somewhat u n c e r t a i n l y , a p o s s i b l e continuation of higher Backbone Ranges.  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a l o n g the n o r t h e a s t e r n f l a n k o f t h e  A prominent b e l t o f d e p o s i t s w i t h a low s i l v e r  f o l l o w s the core o f the Backbone Ranges from the southeast  content  t o the northwest  FIGURE 5-11: GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF SILVER IN SPHALERITE © P o p u l a t i o n A : 1 5 - 7 0 ppm Ag V P o p u l a t i o n B : 0 - 15 ppm Ag S t i p p l e d a r e a denotes the e x t e n t o f s p h a l e r i t e s ' d e p l e t e d ' i n s i l v e r .  u n t i l i t i s c u t o f f i n the Bonnet Plume V a l l e y r e g i o n . are a l s o i n d i c a t e d f o r d e p o s i t s w i t h i n the N o r t h e r n points i n t h i s area are widely  Lower  concentrations  O g i l v i e Mountains.  spread, b u t t e n t a t i v e contours  Data  a r e drawn t o  link regional patterns. The  d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 5-11 take  i n t o account the o v e r l a p  of the p o p u l a t i o n s determined i n the p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s .  Three lower  popula-  t i o n v a l u e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n the upper p o p u l a t i o n a r e a and two upper p o p u l a t i o n values are Included  i n the lower a r e a .  P o p u l a t i o n boundaries  drawn t o  p a r t i t i o n these p o i n t s i n t o s t r i c t p o p u l a t i o n s would add p e r t u r b a t i o n s to the boundary l i n e s b u t would n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  change the dominant  distribution  pattern.  Cobalt Cobalt was d e t e c t e d  i n o n l y 14 o f t h e d e p o s i t s , t h e r e f o r e , e v a l u a t i o n  of c o b a l t data on p r o b a b i l i t y graphs was not w a r r a n t e d . the geographic  However, a p l o t o f  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o b a l t , based on i t s presence o r absence i n  d e t e c t a b l e q u a n t i t i e s , was made; a r e l a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n i s o b t a i n e d i n F i g u r e 5-12. C o n c e n t r a t i o n s  o f c o b a l t g r e a t e r than one ppm occur  the p e r i p h e r y o f t h e Selwyn B a s i n from the s o u t h e a s t ,  t o the C o a l Creek dome  i n the northwest, and northwards i n t o the Bonnet Plume V a l l e y a r e a . v a l u e i n the n o r t h e a s t h i n t s a t i n c r e a s e d amounts i n t h i s Deposits  i n the Backbone Ranges, the R i c h a r d s o n ,  O g i l v i e Mountains c o n t a i n u n d e t e c t a b l e  A single  area.  and the N o r t h e r n  amounts o f c o b a l t .  w i t h d e t e c t a b l e c o b a l t , w i t h i n the undetected  around  The o n l y d e p o s i t  c o b a l t r e g i o n (number 20012)  a c t u a l l y c o n t a i n s o n l y one anomalously h i g h c o b a l t v a l u e out o f e l e v e n thus, the b o u n d a r i e s ,  a s drawn, probably  samples  accurately r e f l e c t regional trends.  FIGURE 5-12: GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF COBALT IN SPHALERITE ©Cobalt detected • C o b a l t not d e t e c t e d S t i p p l e d a r e a denotes t h e e x t e n t of s p h a l e r i t e s w i t h undetected c o b a l t .  117 Copper Copper i s dominated by a p o p u l a t i o n o f h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s 75 p e r c e n t  o f the o v e r a l l data  approximately indicated.  seven The  The lower p o p u l a t i o n , r e p r e s e n t e d by o n l y 12 d e p o s i t s , has a Overlap  between the p o p u l a t i o n s i s f i v e  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s element, shown i n F i g u r e 5 - 1 3 , i n d i c a t e s  T h i s t r e n d terminates  i n the Wernecke Ranges, s i m i l a r t o o t h e r  Two upper p o p u l a t i o n p o i n t s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s  a t l e a s t one (number 10045 a t 29 ppm) l i e s v e r y  v a l u e o f 25 ppm s e g r e g a t i n g the p o p u l a t i o n s . lower p o p u l a t i o n l i e s The h i g h e r  a  t r e n d o f lower c o n c e n t r a t i o n s through the c e n t r a l Backbone  established trends. and  12 ppm.  percent.  somewhat i r r e g u l a r Ranges.  The mean v a l u e o f t h i s group i s  185 ppm, however, c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n about t h i s mean i s  mean v a l u e o f approximately to  (Figure D - l ) .  representing  belt  c l o s e t o the t h r e s h o l d  An i s o l a t e d member o f the  i n the N o r t h e r n O g i l v i e Mountains.  c o n c e n t r a t i o n p o p u l a t i o n dominates the Selwyn B a s i n periphery,,  the Bonnet Plume v a l l e y a r e a i n the Wernecke Mountains, and d i s p l a y s a s t r o n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the n o r t h e a s t e r n f l a n k o f the Backbone Ranges i n the h e a d waters o f the Mountain R i v e r .  O v e r a l l , t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f copper i n  s p h a l e r i t e r e f l e c t s a r e l a t i v e d e p l e t i o n through the Backbone Ranges, d e f i n i n g a trough o f low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s w i t h i n a r e g i o n o f h i g h e r  concentrations.  Iron The  p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t f o r i r o n can be r e s o l v e d i n t o t h r e e  populations  r e p r e s e n t i n g an upper 31 p e r c e n t , an i n t e r m e d i a t e 60 p e r c e n t , and a lower n i n e percent  o f the data  (Figure D - l c ) .  The lowest  population contains  f o u r data p o i n t s but these p o i n t s do not o v e r l a p w i t h  the o t h e r  only  populations.  The mean v a l u e o f 190 ppm i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e (1650  ppm) and upper (6800 ppm) p o p u l a t i o n means.  Because o n l y f o u r  data  co  FIGURE 5-13: GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER IN SPHALERITE • P o p u l a t i o n A : > 25 ppm Cu T P o p u l a t i o n B : < 25 ppm Cu S t i p p l e d a r e a denotes the e x t e n t o f s p h a l e r i t e s ' d e p l e t e d ' i n copper.  119 p o i n t s a r e i n c l u d e d , none o f which c l u s t e r t o g e t h e r , these d e p o s i t s a r e grouped w i t h  the i n t e r m e d i a t e p o p u l a t i o n i n the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n  plot  ( F i g u r e 5-14). The  i n t e r m e d i a t e f a m i l y c o n t a i n s 29 d e p o s i t s and e x h i b i t s a somewhat  h i g h e r v a r i a t i o n about i t s mean v a l u e than the o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n s , l e a d i n g t o a p o s s i b l e o v e r l a p o f 12 t o 13 p e r c e n t upper p o p u l a t i o n .  ( t h r e e to f o u r d e p o s i t s ) w i t h the  On the o t h e r hand,:.the upper p o p u l a t i o n o v e r l a p s the  i n t e r m e d i a t e by o n l y two p e r c e n t F i g u r e 5-14 i l l u s t r a t e s  (zero t o one d e p o s i t ) .  the d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n f o r i r o n and a g a i n  h i g h l i g h t s a trough o f low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s w i t h i n a b r o a d b e l t o f h i g h e r values. and  The d e p l e t e d trough i s - c e n t e r e d on the a r c o f the Backbone Ranges  terminates  i n t h e Wernecke Mountains.  f a l l within t h i s  trough.  Higher concentrations s t i l l  the Selwyn B a s i n and are d i s t r i b u t e d Backbone Ranges. distributions  The f o u r lowest  population values  a r e found p e r i p h e r a l t o  s p o r a d i c a l l y a l o n g the n o r t h e a s t e r n  O v e r a l l the g e n e r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n r e v e a l e d i n p r e v i o u s  i s again  supported.  Mercury Mercury r e s u l t s can be r e s o l v e d i n t o t h r e e p o p u l a t i o n s Populations  a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f an upper 30 p e r c e n t ,  p e r c e n t , and a lower 13 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l data 41 d e p o s i t mean v a l u e s ) .  (Figure D - l d ) .  an i n t e r m e d i a t e 57  (which i n t h i s case  totals  The lower p o p u l a t i o n c o n t a i n s 5 d e p o s i t s , o f which  3 c o n t a i n no d e t e c t a b l e mercury, t h e r e f o r e the mean v a l u e i s e s s e n t i a l l y zero ppm.  The upper p o p u l a t i o n has a mean v a l u e o f 60 ppm and tends to have  a s l i g h t l y wider v a r i a n c e about i t s mean than does the i n t e r m e d i a t e However i t does n o t a p p r e c i a b l y o v e r l a p the I n t e r m e d i a t e  population.  population. The  i n t e r m e d i a t e p o p u l a t i o n has a mean value, o f n i n e ppm and p o s s i b l y o v e r l a p s the upper f a m i l y by f i v e percent  (one t o two d e p o s i t s ) .  ho  o  FIGURE 5-14: GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF IRON IN SPHALERITE ©Population A : > 3500 ppm Fe • P o p u l a t i o n B : < 3500 ppm Fe S t i p p l e d a r e a denotes the e x t e n t o f . s p h a l e r i t e s ' d e p l e t e d ' i n i r o n .  121 The  geographic  d i s t r i b u t i o n of mercury, p l o t t e d i n F i g u r e 5-15,  s l i g h t l y more complex than the o t h e r s ; t h i s might be due distribution.  is  to the t r i m o d a l  H i g h e s t mercury c o n c e n t r a t i o n s occur i n the Wernecke Mountains,  and i n the Bonnet Plume and Snake R i v e r areas;  they a l s o occur s c a t t e r e d  along both  lowest  f l a n k s of the Backbone Ranges,  g e n e r a l l y occurs  The  concentration population  i n the most c e n t r a l ' l o c a t i o n s of the Backbone Ranges.  i n t e r m e d i a t e p o p u l a t i o n g e n e r a l l y l i e s i n between the lower and  The  higher  p o p u l a t i o n s d e f i n e d above. R e g i o n a l l y , the e s t a b l i s h e d t r e n d o f lower v a l u e s forming  a trough i n  the c e n t r a l Mackenzie Mountains, which i s cut o f f by h i g h e r v a l u e s i n the Wernecke Mountains, i s d u p l i c a t e d f o r the mercury r e s u l t s . of p o i n t s i n the more n o r t h e r n and w e s t e r n areas a b l e due  t o v a r i a b i l i t y and  Interpretation  of F i g u r e 5-15. i s q u e s t i o n -  s c a r c i t y of data p o i n t s .  Cadmium Cadmium p l o t s as a bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n dominated by an upper p o p u l a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g 83 p e r c e n t i m a t e l y 1650  ppm.  The  o f the d e p o s i t s ; the mean of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n i s approxremainder of the d e p o s i t s f a l l i n t o a lower p o p u l a t i o n  w i t h a mean of about 790  ppm  (Figure D - l e ) .  The upper p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d  f u r t h e r d i v i d e d about an i n f l e c t i o n p o i n t near e i g h t cumulative p r o v i d e an uppermost p o p u l a t i o n o f t h r e e d e p o s i t s over However, s i n c e these d e p o s i t s do not c l u s t e r a t ' a l l ,  percent  the 3500 ppm  be to  level.  the s e g r e g a t i o n of  data  i n t o such a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n appears to be meaningless on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , hence, they are i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the upper p o p u l a t i o n .  The  the i n d i v i d u a l r e - c a l c u l a t e d p o p u l a t i o n p l o t s ( F i g u r e D-le)  g e n t l e s l o p e of illustrates  the  low v a r i a t i o n about the mean v a l u e , r e l a t i v e to o t h e r elements throughout the r e g i o n , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p e c u l i a r to cadmium and noted p r e v i o u s l y (section  5.2).  FIGURE 5-15: GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN SPHALERITE © P o p u l a t i o n A : > 18 ppm Hg • P o p u l a t i o n B : 0.3 - 18 ppm Hg 0 P o p u l a t i o n C : < 0.3 ppm Hg S t i p p l e d a r e a denotes the e x t e n t o f s p h a l e r i t e s ' d e p l e t e d ' i n mercury.  123 Correlation matrices  (Table 5-5  and F i g u r e 5-6)  commonly i s n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h o t h e r metals; a g e n e r a l overview  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s .  cadmium f o l l o w a broad b e l t a x i s of the Backbone Ranges. Yukon ( F i g u r e 5—16).  through  i n d i c a t e t h a t cadmium t h i s i s borne out  Higher  from  concentrations of  the c e n t r a l Mackenzie Mountains a l o n g  These h i g h v a l u e s extend  Lower v a l u e s are found  a c r o s s the  northern  towards the Selwyn B a s i n  p o s s i b l y a l o n g the n o r t h e a s t e r n f l a n k of the Backbone Ranges.  The  Plume v a l l e y regio.n.does not t r u n c a t e the r e g i o n a l t r e n d s i n t h i s  the  and  Bonnet  case.  Cadmium v a l u e s do not appear to d e f i n e r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s as w e l l as o t h e r elements; the r e l a t i v e l y u n i f o r m d i s t r i b u t i o n of cadmium produces more s u b t l e r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s which are d i f f i c u l t  to o u t l i n e i n the methods  used.  Manganese Manganese d i s t r i b u t i o n i s dominated by a s i n g l e p o p u l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g 90 p e r c e n t of the d e p o s i t s ( F i g u r e D - l f ) .  Within t h i s population four  deposits are s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n , however, they have been i n c l u d e d r a t h e r than p i c k a second i n f l e c t i o n p o i n t at n i n e c u m u l a t i v e A l a r g e r i n f l e c t i o n occurs at the 90 cumulative only f i v e d e p o s i t s represent a lowest p o p u l a t i o n .  percent l e v e l . The  percent.  Therefore,  four highest values  are randomly d i s t r i b u t e d and of the f i v e lowest v a l u e s , o n l y t h r e e show any tendency to c l u s t e r .  Hence the data do not p r o v i d e a meaningful  p a t t e r n based on p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t  distribution  analysis.  Nickel N i c k e l c o n t e n t s i n s p h a l e r i t e were g e n e r a l l y below the d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s a c r o s s the r e g i o n ; hence the amount of a v a i l a b l e d a t a f o r a p r o b a b i l i t y was  too low to be i n t e r p r e t a b l e .  Only f o u r d e p o s i t s c o n t a i n e d any  plot  samples  Is3  FIGURE 5-16: GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF CADMIUM IN SPHALERITE © P o p u l a t i o n A : > 1000 ppm Cd • P o p u l a t i o n B : < 1000 ppm Cd S t i p p l e d a r e a denotes the e x t e n t o f s p h a l e r i t e s ' d e p l e t e d ' i n cadmium.  125 bearing n i c k e l .  These f o u r d e p o s i t averages ranged from 1.3 ppm to 17.5 ppm  but were s c a t t e r e d ; hence, no d i s t r i b u t i o n p l o t  i s given.  Lead The  p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t f o r l e a d ( F i g u r e D-lg) i n d i c a t e s t h a t l e a d i s  e s s e n t i a l l y unimodal, w i t h perhaps f o u r h i g h v a l u e s  and one low v a l u e .  As  i n the case o f manganese, t h i s data i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y p a r t i t i o n e d t o i n t e r pret.  Furthermore, i t was determined p r e v i o u s l y ( s e c t i o n 5.3) t h a t l e s s  c o n f i d e n c e c o u l d be p l a c e d i n the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l d e p o s i t s on the b a s i s of l e a d c o n t e n t , hence t h i s element might be i n s e n s i t i v e t o regional variations .  'Combined  Metals'  Many o f the metals f o r which q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s e s  are a v a i l a b l e  i n d i c a t e a s i m i l a r r e g i o n a l p a t t e r n i n element d i s t r i b u t i o n . geographic  d i s t r i b u t i o n p l o t was designed  populations segregated distributions. or  o f each d e p o s i t .  geographic  S i l v e r , c o b a l t , copper, and  i n s p h a l e r i t e were chosen f o r i n t e g r a t i o n . N e i t h e r l e a d was p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, n o r was cadmium, s i n c e i t  e x h i b i t e d an o p p o s i t e d i s t r i b u t i o n . s t a n d a r d i z e d i n order 'A' p o p u l a t i o n  assigned  i n their  T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n p l o t i s d e f i n e d below i n terms o f a t o t a l  i n c l u d e d , f o r reasons  Each  to determine i f the h i g h o r low  f o r each element were c o - e x t e n s i v e  'combined m e t a l ' content  i r o n contents  Therefore, a  Initially  the d a t a was v e r y  simply  to remove the dominance o f the a b s o l u t e v a l u e s o f i r o n .  (upper) member determined i n the p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t s was  a score of f i v e ,  each  'B' p o p u l a t i o n  (lower i n b i m o d a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s ,  i n t e r m e d i a t e i n t r i m o d a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s ) member a s c o r e o f t h r e e , and each 'C' p o p u l a t i o n  (lower i n t r i m o d a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s ) member a s c o r e o f one.  When  these s c o r e s were summed f o r each d e p o s i t the r e s u l t s ranged from a low o f  126 10 to a h i g h of 20. dence between low F i g u r e 5-17 contour  Scores  of 10 and 20 would r e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t  and h i g h p o p u l a t i o n s  correspon-  f o r a l l f o u r elements r e s p e c t i v e l y .  e x h i b i t s the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of these s c o r e s u s i n g a  i n t e r v a l of f o u r u n i t s .  The  p a t t e r n developed  i s dominated by  an  a r c u a t e , wavy t r e n d f o l l o w i n g the Backbone Ranges from the s o u t h e a s t  around  to the northwest i n t o the Wernecke Mountains where i t i s t e r m i n a t e d .  The  c e n t r e of t h i s a r c u a t e  t r e n d forms a trough of  'depleted' scores  by i n c r e a s i n g l y ' e n r i c h e d ' s c o r e s on each f l a n k . appears to be e x t e n t and  A highly  surrounded  'depleted'  c e n t e r e d near the headwaters o f the A r c t i c Red  River.  shape of t h i s c e n t r a l d e p r e s s i o n i s p o o r l y d e f i n e d due  area The  to a l a c k  of data p o i n t s a c r o s s i t , however s c o r e s of 11 to 14 u n i t s p e r i p h e r a l to i t s t r o n g l y support The  i t s existence.  ' e n r i c h e d ' t r e n d p e r i p h e r a l to the Selwyn B a s i n t u r n s s h a r p l y  northwards i n t o the Bonnet Plume v a l l e y area where some of the h i g h e s t are found.  These are the v a l u e s t h a t d e f i n e the sharp  d e p l e t e d trough  i n this area.  range of 16 t o 18 u n i t s and i s e n r i c h e d as w e l l .  c o n f i r m t h a t t h i s f l a n k of the Backbone Ranges  the d a t a i n the northwestern  i s too sparse  to d e f i n e  trends between d a t a p o i n t s ) are  T h i s t e s t i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r these f o u r elements the  d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the co-extensive.  The  ' e n r i c h e d ' and  ' d e p l e t e d ' p o p u l a t i o n s are  geographic approximately  dominant t r e n d o f each of these p o p u l a t i o n s i s h i g h l i g h t e d  the trends of the h i g h e s t and lowest  zone of i n t e r m e d i a t e s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t s boundaries  areas  ( i n p a r t drawn to f o l l o w the p r e v i o u s l y  i n d i c a t e d population and g e o l o g i c carbonate  by  Wernecke  O g i l v i e Mountains.  exact t r e n d s , p o s s i b l e contours  indicated.  the  Northeastern^most d e p o s i t s are a l l i n the  High s c o r e s c o n t i n u e a c r o s s the southern  Mountains to the N o r t h e r n Although  t e r m i n a t i o n of  values  f o r these f o u r e l e m e n t s .  s c o r e s on F i g u r e 5-17,. whereas  the  the a r e a of o v e r l a p of p o p u l a t i o n  FIGURE 5-17: GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF 'COMBINED METALS' IN SPHALERITE Numbered p o i n t s r e p r e s e n t sums o f s t a n d a r d i z e d contents o f s i l v e r , c o b a l t , copper, and i r o n ( s e e t e x t f o r e x p l a n a t i o n ) . Contours a r e drawn f o r s c o r e s 12, 16, and 20.  128 Emission Spectrographic  Data  E m i s s i o n s p e c t r o g r a p h i c a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s were examined i n a q u a l i t a t i v e manner i n o r d e r to determine any  d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s t h a t might be  A r s e n i c , s t r o n t i u m , vanadium, and barium were immediately b a s i s of i n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a above d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s and  r e j e c t e d on  ( c f . T a b l e 5-3).  g a l l i u m p r o v i d e d s u f f i c i e n t d a t a , however, q u a l i t a t i v e l y ,  appear randomly d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the r e g i o n . o f determining  s i g n i f i c a n t populations  c o u l d be a p p l i e d due  ( s e c t i o n 3.5).  Antimony, chromium, and  s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e number of d e p o s i t s  the  Titanium  these elements  Furthermore no  t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y p l a c e d on the a p p l i c a t i o n of the e m i s s i o n results  evident.  techniques  t o the  limita-  spectrographic  t i n were d e t e c t e d i n a  ( T a b l e 5-3)  to a l l o w s t u d y of  their  d i s t r i b u t i o n on the b a s i s of presence v e r s u s absence i n d e t e c t a b l e q u a n t i t i e s ; meaningful d i s t r i b u t i o n s were r e v e a l e d . Antimony, found  i n o n l y 10 d e p o s i t s , showed a marked c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n  the Wernecke Mountains and 5-18).  Only one  around the p e r i p h e r y of the Selwyn B a s i n  (Figure  d e p o s i t w i t h d e t e c t a b l e antimony i s i n the r e g i o n c h a r a c t e r -  i z e d by d e p o s i t s w i t h u n d e t e c t a b l e  antimony.  T h i s s i m p l e p a t t e r n bears  a  remarkable s i m i l a r i t y to the p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s . Chromium was of the remaining  d e t e c t e d i n samples from 27 d e p o s i t s 17 d e p o s i t s d e f i n e a non-detected  on the Backbone Ranges and The  similarity  (Figure 5-l§).  chromium t r e n d ,  Fifteen  centered  f l a n k e d by d e p o s i t s c o n t a i n i n g d e t e c t a b l e chromium.  to p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d r e g i o n a l p a t t e r n s i s d i s t i n c t .  T i n , d e t e c t e d i n 27 d e p o s i t s , i s c o n c e n t r a t e d  along  the  northeastern  f l a n k of the Backbone Ranges and i n the Wernecke Mountains ( F i g u r e 5-20). Other d e p o s i t s w i t h d e t e c t a b l e q u a n t i t i e s are s c a t t e r e d p e r i p h e r a l l y around the Selwyn B a s i n .  D e p o s i t s w i t h no d e t e c t a b l e t i n f o l l o w a b e l t through  c e n t r a l Backbone Ranges and F i g u r e 5-20.  Although  occur i n the western and northwestern  the  reaches  s l i g h t l y more i r r e g u l a r , the t i n p a t t e r n i s s i m i l a r  of  FIGURE 5-18: GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF ANTIMONY IN SPHALERITE ©Antimony detected V Antimony n o t d e t e c t e d S t i p p l e d a r e a denotes the e x t e n t o f s p h a l e r i t e s w i t h undetected antimony. ( A n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r 44 l o c a t i o n s only)  FIGURE 5-19: GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF CHROMIUM IN SPHALERITE ©Chromium detected • Chromium not d e t e c t e d S t i p p l e d a r e a denotes the e x t e n t o f s p h a l e r i t e s w i t h undetected chromium. ( A n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r 44 l o c a t i o n s o n l y )  FIGURE 5-20: GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF TIN IN SPHALERITE @ T i n detected V T i n not detected S t i p p l e d a r e a denotes the e x t e n t o f s p h a l e r i t e s w i t h undetected t i n . ( A n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r 44 l o c a t i o n s o n l y )  132 to other e s t a b l i s h e d r e g i o n a l  trends.  Summary P a t t e r n s e s t a b l i s h e d i n F i g u r e s 5-11'through 5-16 and 5-18 through 5-20 demonstrate a remarkable s i m i l a r i t y i n the geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the nine elements c o n s i d e r e d .  Furthermore the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h o s t rock ages  ( F i g u r e 5-3) a l s o c l o s e l y conforms  t o element d i s t r i b u t i o n t r e n d s , thereby  s u g g e s t i n g a fundamental r e l a t i o n s h i p between bimodal element d a t a and h o s t r o c k age c a t e g o r i e s .  I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n terms o f r e g i o n a l  m e t a l l o g e n y , a r e d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 6.  5.4  Comparison o f Minor Element Contents i n S p h a l e r i t e from the N o r t h e r n C o r d i l l e r a w i t h Other Areas arid Types o f M i n e r a l i z a t i o n  The minor c o n s t i t u e n t s determined i n s p h a l e r i t e from the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a a r e most comparable t o p u b l i s h e d a n a l y s e s a v a i l a b l e f o r o t h e r carbonate h o s t e d ( M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y type) z i n c - l e a d d e p o s i t s 1968;  Sangster and L i b e r t y , 1971; H a l l and H e y l , 1968) .  (Evans e t a l . ,  Marked c o n t r a s t s  can be seen between the a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s study and those o b t a i n e d from s p h a l e r i t e s from d i f f e r e n t types o f s p h a l e r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n ( i . e . hydrothermal v e i n s , v o l c a n o g e n i c d e p o s i t s , e t c . ) , i n c l u d i n g one s t u d y on s p h a l e r i t e from a nearby Yukon l o c a t i o n the minor element from Keno H i l l ,  (Boyle and Jambor, 1963, examined  content of s p h a l e r i t e from s i l v e r - r i c h l e a d - z i n c v e i n s  100 km s o u t h o f the Wernecke M o u n t a i n s ) .  these r e p o r t s a r e t a b u l a t e d f o r comparison i n T a b l e 5-7.  The r e s u l t s o f A mean a n a l y t i c a l  r e s u l t and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n were c a l c u l a t e d f o r any q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a p u b l i s h e d and these a r e l i s t e d below s i m i l a r c a l c u l a t i o n s d e r i v e d from d a t a  TABLE 5-7 TABULATION OF MEAN ANALYTICAL VALUES OF MINOR ELEMENTS IN SPHALERITE FROM DIFFERENT LOCATIONS AND TYPES OF DEPOSITS  Type o f Mineralization  Author  Location  This  Northern C o r d i l l e r a Stratabound  Al  thesis  Elements Mean A n a l y t i c a l Value and Standard D e v i a t i o n ( i n b r a c k e t s ) Cd Co Cu Fe Ni Mn Pb  Number o f Samples  Ag  166  13  1780  (30)  (904)  3.3 (12)  172 (312)  2570 (3815)  30 (34)  0.7 (5.7)  644 (1274)  . S i m i l a r types o f mineralization  Evans e t a l . , 1968  Western Canada  Sangster and L i b e r t y ,  Ontario  Stratabound Stratabound  20 12  1971 H a l l and H e y l , 1968 ii  II  II  ,)  Jonasson and S a n g s t e r ,  Similar  -  23265 (11040)  353 (266)  2.0  <6  (1.0)  2205 (470)  -  5.7 (3.8)  5464 (3320)  19 (6.4)  4.5 (0.6)  6  21 (17)  1678 (1321)  15.3 (8.9)  75 (58)  14133 (17150)  48 (55)  <4  Illinois-Kentucky Fluorite District  Stratabound  5  5 (6.7)  6860 (4130)  11.2 (10.0)  _  6 (8)  _  -  25100 (24115)  Upper M i s s i s s i p p i Valley D i s t r i c t  Stratabound  7  _  _  _  _  _  -  -  -  Stratabound  9  _  _  -  -  E a s t Tennessee District  -  - .  -  -  All  Stratabound  _  _  -  -'  -  Canada  18 locations  Nash, 1975  Yukon  Utah 1974  H a l f o n and Rosique,  10  Vein  Japan France  7  Vein Kuroko-type  12 9  Vein  1976 II  -  _  -  _  80 (100)  _  -  -  -  -  -  0.36 (0.33)  -  -  (1.1) (2.2)  -•  3.7 7.5  _  _  -  -  -  -  1100  8540  <10  (2060)  (1360)  -  1360 (2100)  55080 (31100)  1500 (2430)  49  3715  _  2310  (380)  53 •  3433  -6.6  (1120)  26280 (5730)  2186  (36)  3090 (928)  293 (234)  -  265 (271)  8.5 (8.5)  1307 (1243)  15.6 (10)  1646 (1803)  -  Other l o c a t i o n s and types o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  Nishiyama,  -  & (64) 33  _  location  B o y l e and Jambor, 1963  C]  _  -  Stratabound  1974 B]  _  (769)  Upper M i s s i s s i p p i Valley District -  J o l l y and H e y l , 1968  1800  -  He  II  Rose, 1967  II  New Mexico, C e n t r a l Mining D i s t r i c t  Stratiform Variable  Utah, Bingham Mining D i s t r i c t (- - n o t determined:  v a l u e s o f 0 ppm a r e s u b s t i t u t e d  " 130 57  _  (1145)  <20  -  -  22  (50)  (1926)  (6)  -  634 (285)  1961 (448)  33 (17)  2445 (555)  317  2264  13.6  (341)  (527)  (8)  1528 (637)  -  23.5 (41.5)  1439 (452)  223 (187)  _  _  -  -  3700 (2595)  9.5 (7.2)  29 (39)  3415 (625)  2.5 (1.9)  -  -  3610 (1990)  6.7 (9)  _  f o r non-detected r e s u l t s i n mean and standard d e v i a t i o n  (ID  calculations)  360 (310)  600 (650)  -  -  -  13.8 (15.8)  -  _  -  -  -  134 in  t h i s study.  D i r e c t comparisons are not always p r a c t i c a l because the  minor element s u i t e determined,  the a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s used,  number of samples analyzed a l l v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y . d e a l w i t h a s p e c i f i c d e p o s i t o r mining  Furthermore,  and  the  most s t u d i e s  d i s t r i c t , which tends t o be much s m a l l e r  than the a r e a d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s study, hence the data from the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a might be expected i s u s e f u l however, to b r i e f l y to  to v a r y more than o t h e r p u b l i s h e d r e s u l t s .  survey the r e s u l t s of o t h e r s t u d i e s r e l a t i v e  those of t h i s t h e s i s i n o r d e r to determine  from the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a . v a r i a b l e s from each study  It  the uniqueness  T h e r e f o r e , T a b l e 5-7  o f the  sphalerite  d e f i n e s some o f the  ( l o c a t i o n , type of d e p o s i t , number of samples  a n a l y z e d , a n a l y t i c a l s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n about the mean v a l u e c a l c u l a t e d ) to permit q u a l i f i c a t i o n s on the comparison o f the d a t a . R e l a t i v e t o r e p o r t e d minor element c o n t e n t s i n s p h a l e r i t e f o r o t h e r carbonate h o s t e d z i n c - l e a d d e p o s i t s , the s p h a l e r i t e s of the n o r t h e r n l e r a are low i n i r o n content and are h i g h i n copper, contents  cordil-  l e a d and mercury  ( l i t t l e d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g l e a d and mercury c o n t e n t s , hence  t h i s comparison i s u n c e r t a i n ) .  Silver,  cadmium, c o b a l t , manganese, and  n i c k e l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s allv:tend t o f a l l w i t h i n the range of r e p o r t e d v a l u e s for  these elements i n s p h a l e r i t e from o t h e r areas .  the s t r o n g e s t c o n t r a s t , b e i n g almost  an o r d e r o f magnitude below  r e p o r t e d f o r more s o u t h e r l y p a r t s of western for  the I l l i n o i s - K e n t u c k y f l u o r i t e d i s t r i c t  and H e y l , 1968) . Valley d i s t r i c t 1968)  Iron contents  Canada (Evans  exhibit those  e t a l . , 1968)  i n the M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y  or  (Hall  Mercury contents i n s p h a l e r i t e from the Upper M i s s i s s i p p i  and from the E a s t e r n Tennessee d i s t r i c t  are d i s t i n c t l y lower than those determined  ( J o l l y and H e y l ,  f o r the n o r t h e r n  cordillera.  S p h a l e r i t e i n v e i n l o d e s from c e n t r a l Kentucky and from c e n t r a l Tennessee ( J o l l y and H e y l , i b i d . ) appears to c o n t a i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of mercury comparable to  those from the s t r a t a b o u n d s p h a l e r i t e from the n o r t h e r n  cordillera,  135 however, d i f f e r i n g a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s make t h i s comparison  difficult.  The mercury c o n t e n t s i n s p h a l e r i t e from the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a a r e h i g h r e l a t i v e t o those quoted  f o r o t h e r r e g i o n s i n Canada w i t h  z i n c - l e a d d e p o s i t s (Jonasson and S a n g s t e r , 1974) .  carbonate-hosted  The n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a n  s p h a l e r i t e mean v a l u e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y two o r d e r s o f magnitude g r e a t e r than t h a t d e r i v e d from f i v e d e p o s i t s i n the P i n e P o i n t D i s t r i c t b u t i s o n l y double the r e s u l t from t h r e e d e p o s i t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia;  none o f the areas d i s c u s s e d  (Jonasson and S a n g s t e r , i b i d . ) d i s p l a y the range i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s determined f o r the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a . Sangster l i s t  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t Jonasson and  one d e p o s i t ( P r a i r i e Creek) i n the Mackenzie  Mountains  which  p r o v i d e d a mean v a l u e (based on o n l y two samples) o f 933 ppm; t h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than any o t h e r Canadian d e p o s i t s d i s c u s s e d by them and i s t h r e e times the h i g h e s t v a l u e determined i n t h i s S p h a l e r i t e taken from v e i n l o d e s a t Keno H i l l (Boyle and Jambor, 1963) i s markedly  report. i n the c e n t r a l Yukon  enriched i n s i l v e r ,  cadmium,  copper,  i r o n , and manganese r e l a t i v e to t h e carbonate h o s t e d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n 100 t o 200 km t o the n o r t h o r e a s t . 1975;  H a l f o n and Rosique,  Other v e i n o c c u r r e n c e s o f s p h a l e r i t e  (Nash,  1976) a l s o r e c o r d h i g h copper and i r o n c o n t e n t s ,  however they i l l u s t r a t e the v a r i a b i l i t y  found i n some elements  (e.g. s i l v e r ,  cadmium, manganese; T a b l e 5-7) thereby s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the type o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a dominant f a c t o r i n c o n t r o l l i n g minor contents of s p h a l e r i t e .  element  S i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from a study on  s p h a l e r i t e i n Kuroko type d e p o s i t s (Nishiyama, 1976) and from a b r o a d  study  encompassing v a r i o u s types o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n two mining d i s t r i c t s o f t h e southwestern U.S.A. (Rose, 1 9 6 7 ) ( c f . T a b l e 5-7).  136 5.5  C o l o u r a t i o n i n S p h a l e r i t e from the N o r t h e r n  Colouration i n minerals  i s most o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d to the presence of  t r a n s i t i o n metals orlanthanide  elements a f f e c t i n g the v a l e n c e  the c r y s t a l s t r u c t u r e (Burns, 1970).  Absorption  i n the v i s i b l e r e g i o n of the e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c  yellow,  light.  a v a r i e t y of t r a n s i t i o n m e t a l s and  range of c o l o u r s , from b l a c k and orange, and  content  (Palache  e t a l . , 1944).  however ( d i s c u s s e d below);, have q u e s t i o n e d i r o n contents  valence  Crystalline sphalerite considerable  dark amber shades, through p a l e r amber,  r e d shades, to green, p u r p l e and  of i r o n  these  exhibits a  c o l o u r l e s s tones.  t r e n d o f c o l o u r a t i o n from dark to p a l e o r i g i n a l l y was decreasing  electrons i n  o f s p e c i f i c r a d i a t i o n bands  spectrum by  e l e c t r o n s r e s u l t s i n c o l o u r a t i o n of t r a n s m i t t e d commonly c o n t a i n s  Cordillera  The  thought t o r e f l e c t  More r e c e n t  a  analyses  the d e t a i l e d c o r r e l a t i o n of  high  to dark c o l o u r s i n s p h a l e r i t e .  Roedder and Dwornik (1968) i n v e s t i g a t e d d i s t i n c t c o l o u r banding i n s p h a l e r i t e from the P i n e P o i n t D i s t r i c t and contents  were r e l a t i v e l y low  2) i r o n contents of the bands.  (from  0.3  to 2.5  iron  weight p e r c e n t ) ,  and  d i d v a r y w i t h banding but c o u l d not be r e l a t e d to c o l o u r a t i o n  A f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t e causes f o r the c o l o u r bands, such  as o r g a n i c c o n t e n t , pure ZnS  overall  concluded t h a t 1) the  ' r a d i a t i o n s e n s i t i v e c o l o u r c e n t r e s ' , and  stoichiometry,  d e v i a t i o n from  the authors c o u l d o f f e r no v e r i f i e d a l t e r n a t e  explanation. Graeser (1969) confirmed ;the l a c k o f c o r r e l a t i o n of i r o n content c o l o u r f o r s p h a l e r i t e samples from B i n n a t a l , S w i t z e r l a n d , however he mined a r e l a t i o n between manganese content t h i s case a l l of the darker brown and more than 100  ppm  manganese.  and  colour  with deter-  ( F i g u r e 5-21).  'black' s p h a l e r i t e samples  contained  Even though o n l y 12 samples were s t u d i e d  the t o t a l range of manganese c o n t e n t s was  r e l a t i v e l y small  In  ( l e s s than  and one  137 order of magnitude) the 100 ppm manganese l e v e l did provide an e f f e c t i v e threshold value f o r segregating colours.  Nishiyama (1975) also discounted  i r o n as the cause of dark colour i n sphalerite from a kuroko-type deposit i n  ppm  J  s  a  •2  i  s a.  a a  a  '  a  a  S  a a  B a  R a  B a  .  S  a  jjj /  F e  .  10000  Cd  Cu  1000-i  - O Mn  y  100  \  •  O  O  O  0)  O  O O  O  ,n  Go.  ©  FIGURE 5-21 DISTRIBUTION OF SOME MINOR ELEMENTS RELATIVE TO COLOUR IN SPHALERITE FROM BINNATAL, SWITZERLAND (after Graesner, 1969) Colour Index:  Japan.  0 yellow to brown-yellow 9 brown • dark brown to black  Here the lowest i r o n analysis (0.18 weight percent) came from black  s p h a l e r i t e , whereas analyses (0.33 weight percent) greater than the mean i r o n content were obtained from yellow-brown s p h a l e r i t e . Even though the above papers demonstrate a lack of detailed c o r r e l a t i o n between i r o n and colour, a number of reports have noted a general 'Sympathetic v a r i a t i o n between i r o n (and commonly manganese) contents i n sphalerite and colouration (Bradbury, 1961; Sims and Barton, 1961; Evans et a l . , 1968; and  138 Nash, 1975) . the n o r t h e r n Colours  A s i m i l a r statement can be made f o r the s p h a l e r i t e samples o f cordillera. found i n s p h a l e r i t e from the n o r t h e r n  c o r d i l l e r a include black,  dark amber, y e l l o w , b r i g h t orange, green, c o l o u r l e s s , and many and m o t t l e d  shades o f these  the 166 samples a n a l y z e d as f o l l o w s : 5) m o t t l e d  colours.  In order  intermediate  to s i m p l i f y the c o l o u r v a r i a b l e  i n t h i s study were coded i n t o f i v e c o l o u r  1) dark amber, 2) p a l e amber o r y e l l o w , or intermediate  unambiguously i n the f i r s t  tones.  categories  3) orange, 4) green, and  A t o t a l o f 100 samples c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d  f o u r c a t e g o r i e s d e f i n i n g d i s t i n c t c o l o u r s and the  minor element a n a l y s e s  f o r these samples were s t u d i e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e element  distributions relative  to c o l o u r a t i o n .  An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n v o l v i n g 10 samples i n each o f the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s was performed (Appendix C; T a b l e 95 p e r c e n t  confidence  colour  C-4) and i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t the  l e v e l t h a t t h e d a t a v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n each c o l o u r  group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than the v a r i a b i l i t y between c o l o u r groups f o r s i l v e r , copper, i r o n , and manganese (Table C-4, a,c,d,e). v a r i a t i o n s o f cadmium, l e a d , and mercury contents  c o u l d n o t be e v a l u a t e d  many undetected  group  c o u l d n o t be d i s t i n g u i s h e d  from the between group v a r i a t i o n s ( T a b l e C-4, b , f , g ) . variances  Within  Cobalt  and n i c k e l  i n t h i s method due to low abundances and  v a l u e s f o r these elements.  Mean v a l u e s were then c a l c u l a t e d  f o r s i l v e r , copper, i r o n , and manganese; these mean v a l u e s  are t a b u l a t e d i n  T a b l e 5-8 and a r e g r a p h i c a l l y d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 5-22. F i g u r e 5-22 demonstrates t h a t the t r e n d i n c o l o u r from dark amber to p a l e amber i s accompanied by a d i s t i n c t decrease i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n f o r each element.  The steep s l o p e s o f the trends  highlight this relationship best.  f o r copper, i r o n , and manganese  I f t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s extended t o  orange c o l o u r s , s i n c e these a r e o f a s i m i l a r hue t o the amber and y e l l o w shades above, i r o n decreases even f u r t h e r i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  However, copper,  139  •--^Silver — •©Copper Iron (*io) ^ ^Manganese  SO 01  100  50  10  DARK AMBER  PALE AMBER  ORANGE  GREEN  FIGURE 5-22 PLOT OF COLOUR VERSUS MEAN ANALYTICAL VALUE FOR FOUR ELEMENTS E r r o r bars denote the standard e r r o r of the mean f o r each v a l u e .  140 TABLE 5-8 MEAN ANALYTICAL RESULTS OF SOME ELEMENTS FOR FOUR COLOUR GROUPS IN SPHALERITE (quoted i n ppm; the s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f the mean i s g i v e n i n b r a c k e t s ) Element  Dark Amber  P a l e Amber  Orange  Green  (3) .  12 (5)  19 (7)  1.2 (0.4)  Copper  293 (43)  35 (13)  167 (75)  49 (12)  Iron  5500 (900)  2212 (710)  951 (285)  1569 (250)  Manganese  42 (6)  12 (4)  45 (10)  15 (3)  44  13  24  19  Silver  20  Number o f Analyses  s i l v e r , and manganese a l l show a d i s t i n c t i n c r e a s e i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n orange sphalerite relative  t o t h e p a l e amber and green c o l o u r s ; enrichment i n these  elements, coupled w i t h a d e p l e t i o n o f i r o n , might be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n t e n s e orange c o l o u r s observed  (based  o n l y on the elements from which  a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s are a v a i l a b l e ) . In t h e case o f t h e green c o l o u r e d s p h a l e r i t e i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g  t o note  t h a t F i g u r e 5-22 d i s p l a y s t h a t copper, s i l v e r , and manganese decrease i n concentration r e l a t i v e centration.  t o orange s p h a l e r i t e , whereas i r o n i n c r e a s e s i n c o n -  T h i s i s the o p p o s i t e  t r e n d t o t h a t d i s c u s s e d above, however,  the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s remains unknown s i n c e the mean a n a l y t i c a l a t t r i b u t e d t o the green s p h a l e r i t e tend of a b s o l u t e v a l u e f o r most elements. category  to f a l l  values  i n t o an i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n  Only s i l v e r i s d i s t i n c t i v e i n the green  s i n c e i t i s an o r d e r o f magnitude lower i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n green  s p h a l e r i t e than i n any o t h e r c o l o u r i n v e s t i g a t e d . One  p a r t i c u l a r hand specimen o f i n t e r e s t  (number 20023t-127) c o n s i s t e d o f  d i s c r e t e g r a i n s o f b r i g h t orange s p h a l e r i t e i n t e r g r o w n  w i t h p a l e green t o  141 colourless sphalerite.  I n p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n , these g r a i n s were i m p o s s i b l e t o  d i s t i n g u i s h i n p l a i n l i g h t and appeared to have p r e c i p i t a t e d d u r i n g the same m i n e r a l i z i n g episode  (Appendix A ) .  The i n d i v i d u a l g r a i n s were  sufficiently  l a r g e and pure t o permit i n d i v i d u a l s e p a r a t i o n o f the two c o l o u r s from the same hand specimen; these two c o l o u r s were then t r e a t e d as independent samples from d e p o s i t number 20023 and the a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s a r e r e c o r d e d as samples 20023-127 ( b r i g h t orange) and 20023-128 ( p a l e green t o c o l o u r l e s s ) i n T a b l e s 3-6 and 3-7.  These r e s u l t s a r e p l o t t e d t o g e t h e r i n F i g u r e 5-23 and e x h i b i t  a d i s t i n c t l y s i m i l a r trend i n minor element c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r each c o l o u r . With the e x c e p t i o n o f n i c k e l , cadmium, and c o b a l t r e s u l t s  (which a r e equal f o r  each c o l o u r ) , the green s p h a l e r i t e i s s l i g h t l y e n r i c h e d i n each element r e l a t i v e t o the orange s p h a l e r i t e . is  This trend f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  c o n t r a r y t o the t r e n d e s t a b l i s h e d above of s i l v e r ,  b e i n g found  i n t e n s i t y of orange c o l o u r , as suggested  confirmed  and manganese  i n g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n orange s p h a l e r i t e than i n g r e e n .  T h e r e f o r e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s i l v e r , copper,  The  copper,  specimen  and manganese b e i n g r e l a t e d t o  above, does not seem  d i r e c t v a r i a t i o n o f i r o n content w i t h darkness i n t h i s study.  Compared t o o t h e r areas  likely.  o f c o l o u r cannot be  the s p h a l e r i t e specimens  from the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a tend to be i r o n - p o o r (Table 5-7), y e t numerous dark amber t o b l a c k specimens are p r e s e n t . one weight percent i r o n  A l l seven samples r e c o r d i n g over  ( T a b l e 3-7) a r e v e r y dark i n c o l o u r , but the i r o n  contents f o r dark amber s p h a l e r i t e a r e as'low as 120 ppm IOOIO7OI) .  (sample number  However, the dominant f e a t u r e d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 5-22 i s t h a t  the d a r k e s t s p h a l e r i t e samples a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y e n r i c h e d i n minor elements r e l a t i v e to the p a l e r c o l o u r s .  T h e r e f o r e o n l y a sympathetic  relationship  between h i g h e r i r o n c o n t e n t , and perhaps h i g h e r copper c o n t e n t , w i t h c o l o u r a t i o n i n s p h a l e r i t e can be The  darker  confirmed.  f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n has c o n s i d e r e d c o l o u r a t i o n i n s p h a l e r i t e  PLOT OF MINOR ELEMENT CONTENTS OF CO-EXISTING GREEN AND ORANGE SPHALERITE GRAINS (Cd v a l u e s * 10)  143 p u r e l y on a q u a l i t a t i v e l e v e l .  Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of c o l o u r i n g agents might  attempted through measurement of the a b s o r p t i o n  be  s p e c t r a of the s p h a l e r i t e  specimens, however such a p r o j e c t i s o u t s i d e the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . Absorption  s p e c t r a can be used to i d e n t i f y o x i d a t i o n s t a t e s and  co-ordination  symmetries of a t r a n s i t i o n m e t a l i o n h e l d w i t h i n the s p h a l e r i t e s t r u c t u r e can be r e l a t e d to energy l e v e l t r a n s i t i o n s of t h a t i o n ( c f . Burns, 1970, When these t r a n s i t i o n e n e r g i e s length  coincide with  and  g i v e s the m i n e r a l  colour.  p o s s i b l e c o l o u r i n g agents can be  d e f i n e d and  can be equated to c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  o f the c o l o u r i n g agent.  metry or by  (called colour centres)  i n c l u s i o n of i n t e r s t i t i a l  Absorption  Therefore  specimens d i s c u s s e d for  (Lehmann and  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the a b s o r p t i o n  colour  spectra defects  stoichioparts  imperfections  Bambauer, 1973).  s p e c t r a of the 100  e a r l i e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n might p r o v i d e  i n t e r p r e t i n g the cause and  or  S e l e c t i v e a b s o r p t i o n of  of the v i s i b l e spectrum by e l e c t r o n i c t r a n s i t i o n s i n these might produce s p e c i f i c c o l o u r s i n m i n e r a l s  the  i n t e n s i t i e s of a s p e c i f i c  caused by d e v i a t i o n s from atoms.  53).  I n this.way  can a l s o be used to d e f i n e energy t r a n s i t i o n s r e l a t e d to v a c a n c i e s in a structure  p.  the energy of a s p e c i f i c wave-  ( c o l o u r ) of l i g h t , t h a t c o l o u r o f l i g h t i s absorbed whereas  remaining l i g h t i s t r a n s m i t t e d  and  sphalerite  a stronger  basis  i n t e n s i t y of the observed c o l o u r s .  A d i s c u s s i o n o f f o u r t h e o r i e s on the o r i g i n of c o l o u r i n m i n e r a l s has been p u b l i s h e d a f t e r the completion of t h i s t e x t . These t h e o r i e s compliment each o t h e r i n attempting to e x p l a i n :the r e l a t i o n o f c o l o u r t o the range of i n t e r a c t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p o s s i b l e f o r the v a l e n c e e l e c t r o n s p r e s e n t i n m i n e r a l s t r u c t u r e s . The r e f e r e n c e i s i n c l u d e d here to complete the above d i s c u s s i o n . R e f e r e n c e : Nassau, K u r t , 1978. The o r i g i n s of c o l o u r i n m i n e r a l s ; Amer. M i n e r a l . , V o l . 63, pp. 219-229.  144 CHAPTER 6: INTERPRETATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  6.1  Interpretations  and  Discussion:  Metal d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns 5-20)  Implications  AND  for  Metalldgenesis  o u t l i n e d i n Chapter 5 ( F i g u r e s 5-11  d e f i n e prominent bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n s which c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l  dominant c a r b o n a t e d e p o s i t i o n a l a x i s a l o n g the Mackenzie A r c h and b u t i o n of h o s t rock age l i t h o s t r a t i g r a p h i c and However, the by  through  geologic  groups ( F i g u r e 5-3).  the  the  This r e l a t i o n s h i p h i g h l i g h t s  t i m e - s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n f l u e n c e s on r e g i o n a l m e t a l l o g e n y .  dominant t e c t o n i c c o n t r o l over m i n e r a l d e p o s i t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n s of d e p o s i t s  (Appendix A)  s p h a l e r i t e m a i n l y i n b r e c c i a s , v e i n s , and i n d i c a t e s that s t r u c t u r a l considerations  and by  the  fracture f i l l i n g s are  as  indicated  o c c u r r e n c e of (Figure  a l s o important.  5-5),  I n l i g h t of  p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n on the p o t e n t i a l f o r z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n northern c o r d i l l e r a  distri-  ( s e c t i o n 4.4),  two  the  d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s seem to  p l a u s i b l y account f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f minor elements, h o s t r o c k ages, character  the  of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o u t l i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s .  These  and  are:  1]  the r e g i o n a l m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o c c u r r e d d u r i n g a s i n g l e m e t a l l o g e n i c event where the p r e s e n t minor element d i s t r i b u t i o n r e f l e c t s a z o n a t i o n i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s from ' e n r i c h e d ' to 'depleted' a r e a s , and  2]  the bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n s determined f o r most of the elements r e f l e c t two unique sources of metals and developed i n response to two independent m e t a l l o g e n i c events of d i f f e r e n t ages.  In the  f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i t w i l l become apparent t h a t the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n explains metallogenic  i n a d e q u a t e l y the  events, however, can be  data presented.  defined  and  the carbonate-hosted z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s M i n e r a l i z a t i o n formed d u r i n g  Two  first  independent  these appear to have produced i n the n o r t h e r n  a s i n g l e metallogenic  cordillera.  event might have  145 developed  a r e g i o n a l z o n a t i o n i n minor element c o n t e n t s  i n s p h a l e r i t e through  a g r a d u a l d e p l e t i o n of elements from m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s as they away from the m e t a l - r i c h source beds. suggests  progress  S t r u c t u r a l c o n t r o l over m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  major f a u l t s c o u l d have d i v e r t e d m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s i n t o  areas, thereby  enhancing development of minor element  ' e n r i c h e d ' and  specific 'depleted'  regions.  Such a p r o c e s s of s t r u c t u r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d f l u i d m i g r a t i o n i s  supported  i n the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a by  the m i n e r a l o g i c r e l a t i o n s  i n Appendix A, and by the p o s i t i o n s of major f a u l t s e t c . ) r e l a t i v e to source areas  ( F i g u r e 6-1)  and  (Hess,  Knorr,  determined Plateau,  to d i s t r i b u t i o n s of minor  element p o p u l a t i o n s . Regional the  zonations  i n minor element c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , such as suggested  'combined m e t a l ' contents  ( F i g u r e 5-17), are however, not g r a d a t i o n a l i n  i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s f o r each element; p o p u l a t i o n boundaries w e l l d e f i n e d and do not  support  stratafugic solutions.  Furthermore, zones of  developed  are  a g r a d u a l d e p l e t i o n of minor elements from ' p a r t i a l l y enriched' sphalerite,  through m i g r a t i o n of f l u i d s a l o n g j o i n t  a r e not observed  by  i n metal d i s t r i b u t i o n s .  p l a n e s p e r i p h e r a l to  O r d o v i c i a n , S i l u r i a n , and  faults,  Devonian  rocks i n t h r u s t s l i c e s commonly bear minor element p a t t e r n s i n s p h a l e r i t e of d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r than those Lower Cambrian r o c k s . are exposing  A simple  e x p l a n a t i o n to t h i s i s t h a t the t h r u s t f a u l t s  s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g m i n e r a l i z a t i o n which  p r e f e r e n t i a l l y formed w i t h i n the two at  i n the a d j a c e n t P r o t e r o z o i c and  d i f f e r e n t times.  age  groups through independent  was processes  C o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n l e a d s to a more  c o n v i n c i n g e x p l a n a t i o n , below, of the minor element d i s t r i b u t i o n  character-  istics . D i s t r i b u t i o n of s p h a l e r i t e deposits:; i n the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a i s dominated by host rocks of two 'barren' h o r i z o n ( F i g u r e 5-2).  distinct The  age  groups s e p a r a t e d by a r e l a t i v e l y  r e l a t i o n s h i p between bimodal element  ON  FIGURE 6-1: STRUCTURALLY CONTROLLED MIGRATION PATHS FOR DEWATERING BASINAL SOLUTIONS M e t a l - r i c h b r i n e s d e w a t e r i n g from the Selwyn B a s i n G&O o r the R i c h a r d s o n Trough (^) might have been d i v e r t e d a l o n g major f a u l t s (—4—) to produce a r e g i o n o f s p h a l e r i t e ' d e p l e t e d ' i n minor elements ( g e n e r a l l y o u t l i n e d by the s t i p p l e d area).  147 d i s t r i b u t i o n s and i n F i g u r e 6-2.  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of h o s t r o c k ages i s f u r t h e r  I n t h i s f i g u r e the  illustrated  ' d e p l e t e d ' p o p u l a t i o n f o r most elements i s  c o n s i s t e n t l y c e n t e r e d on and extends beyond the l i m i t s of the O r d o v i d i a n , S i l u r i a n , and Devonian h o s t rock d i s t r i b u t i o n , whereas the t i o n f o r each element r a r e l y extends p a t t e r n suggests  t h a t an event  Devonian rocks was extended  'enriched' popula-  i n t o the a r e a of younger h o s t s .  This  l e a d i n g to m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n O r d o v i c i a n to  c o n c e n t r a t e d i n these u n i t s i n the Backbone Ranges, but  i n t o a d j a c e n t P r o t e r o z o i c and Lower Cambrian u n i t s .  Conversely,  m i n e r a l i z i n g e p i s o d e a f f e c t i n g the P r o t e r o z o i c and Lower Cambrian r o c k s  a  was  r e s t r i c t e d t o these o l d e r units"'", most p r o b a b l y because i t o c c u r r e d p r i o r to d e p o s i t i o n o f the younger h o s t s . T h e r e f o r e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p of minor element d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s  and  h o s t rock age groups i s b e s t e x p l a i n e d by two m e t a l l o g e n i c events of  signif-  i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ages; one of these d e f i n e s a p r e - F r a n k l i n Mountain  Formation  m e t a l l o g e n i c event and event.  The  the o t h e r d e f i n e s a p o s t - F r a n k l i n Mountain  age of the younger event  s i n c e the youngest  Formation  i s presumably L a t e Devonian or  r o c k s a f f e c t e d are Upper Devonian.  later  The age of the m i n e r -  a l i z i n g episode a f f e c t i n g the P r o t e r o z o i c and Lower Cambrian r o c k s  appears  to be M i d d l e to L a t e Cambrian, t h a t i s , p r i o r to d e p o s i t i o n of p o t e n t i a l i n the F r a n k l i n Mountain Formation  (see F i g u r e s 5-2  and  hosts  5-5).  M i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s which l e d t o s p h a l e r i t e p r e c i p i t a t i o n d u r i n g the M i d d l e to L a t e Cambrian were r e l a t i v e l y e n r i c h e d i n minor elements and much of the c a r b o n a t e  t e r r a n e developed by L a t e Cambrian t i m e .  reached  Potential  "*" D i s t r i b u t i o n of copper ( F i g u r e 5-13) r e v e a l s the d i s c u s s e d o v e r l a p of d e p l e t e d v a l u e s i n t o the o l d e r h o s t s a l o n g the southwest f l a n k of the t r e n d ; however, on the n o r t h e a s t f l a n k , e n r i c h e d v a l u e s c o n s i s t e n t l y o v e r l a p the younger d e p o s i t s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the c o p p e r - e n r i c h e d Redstone Formation extends through t h i s area; s p e c u l a t i v e l y , t h i s f o r m a t i o n p o s s i b l y supplemented the copper i n the m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s which then caused e x t r a enrichment of copper i n s p h a l e r i t e a l o n g the n o r t h e a s t f l a n k of the t r e n d .  CO  FIGURE 6.-2:  DISTRIBUTION OF ORDOVICIAN TO DEVONIAN AGED HOST ROCKS RELATIVE TO 'DEPLETED' POPULATIONS OF FOUR ELEMENTS S t i p p l e d a r e a o u t l i n e s t h e O r d o v i c i a n to Devonian h o s t d i s t r i b u t i o n . Crosses i n d i c a t e d e p o s i t l o c a t i o n s . 'Depleted'population d i s t r i b u t i o n s are displayed as: Silver, ••••Cobalt, I r o n , and ~ Mercury.  149 s o u r c e s f o r these s o l u t i o n s cannot be c o n f i d e n t l y d e f i n e d because b a s i n a l source regions  f o r m e t a l - r i c h b r i n e s have not been documented i n the  r e g i o n a l P r o t e r o z o i c or Cambrian s t r a t i g r a p h y . suspects was  along and  t h a t an e x t e n s i v e  the p r e c u r s o r  s h a l e b a s i n was  C e c i l e (1978, p e r s . comm.)  present  to the younger Selwyn B a s i n .  during  the P r o t e r o z o i c  Proterozoic shales,  t h r u s t f a u l t s , are known near the Gayna R i v e r d e p o s i t  suggest a p o s s i b l e m e t a l source basinward  (Hewton, R.S.,  likely  1978-, p e r s . comm.).  the Selwyn B a s i n a r e a and  ( F i g u r e 6-3)  uplifted  (number 20024) t o the  southwest  However, these u n i t s do not outcrop  c o r r e l a t i o n s with  and  in  other P r o t e r o z o i c e l a s t i c s  are  uncertain. M i d d l e to L a t e Cambrian p a l e o p h y s i o g r a p h y s t r o n g l y suggests the ility 6-3) .  that k a r s t i c processes  were a c t i v e adjacent  possib-  to the Mackenzie A r c h  (Figure  Most of the M i d d l e Cambrian u n i t s were removed d u r i n g a major p e r i o d  of u p l i f t  and  e r o s i o n p r i o r to F r a n k l i n Mountain Formation d e p o s i t i o n i n the  Upper Cambrian.  Lack of known d e p o s i t s i n the c r e s t a l r e g i o n s o f the  Mackenzie A r c h might be  due  to 1) l e s s p r o m i s i n g  (note the arenaceous n a t u r e of the K a t h e r i n e a c t i v e d i s s o l u t i o n i n t h i s area and  host  present  lithologies i n this  F o r m a t i o n i n F i g u r e 6-2),  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of f l u i d s  or  to the south  area 2) and  west where s o l u t i o n b r e c c i a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h k a r s t i n g developed s p h a l e r i t e and  g a l e n a m i n e r a l i z a t i o n (as at Gayna R i v e r , number 20024, or Goz  number 10033; Brock, 1976).  Bernard (1973) o u t l i n e d a process  Creek,  whereby  k a r s t i c c a v i t i e s below u n c o n f o r m i t y s u r f a c e s can c o l l e c t d e t r i t a l and sediments ( i n c l u d i n g s u l p h i d e s )  and  produce z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . rocks  can p r o v i d e  deposits.  can c o n c e n t r a t e He  has been c o n s i d e r e d  Tennessee ( Z u f f a r d i , 1976).  metals s u f f i c i e n t l y  to  proposes t h a t d i s s o l u t i o n o f carbonate  s u f f i c i e n t metals to r e s u l t  Such a process  chemical  i n formation  of s i z e a b l e s u l p h i d e  f o r zinc deposits of  east  Here, development of a mature k a r s t system  w i t h i n the Lower O r d o v i c i a n Mascot and K i n g s p o r t  Formations and below  an  FIGURE 6-3: REGIONAL MINERALIZATION DUE TO TWO METALLOGENIC EVENTS Arrows i n d i c a t e p o s s i b l e m e t a l s o u r c e s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n paths l e a d i n g t o m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n each age group: l a - k a r s t p r o c e s s e s r e l a t e d t o the sub-Upper Cambrian u n c o n f o r m i t y , l b - p o s s i b l e P r o t e r o z o i c s h a l e b a s i n d e w a t e r i n g , 2 - Selwyn s h a l e B a s i n d e w a t e r i n g . Diamonds r e p r e s e n t schema t i c l o c a t i o n s o f d e p o s i t s s t u d i e d (as p r o j e c t e d on the time-space and c r o s s - s e c t i o n l i n e AB i n F i g u r e 4-3; i n p a r t i c u l a r , the t r u e r e l a t i o n between d e p o s i t l o c a t i o n s and t h e sub-Upper Cambrian u n c o n f o r m i t y i s unknown). See F i g u r e 4-4 f o r c r o s s - s e c t i o n r e f e r e n c e s .  151 unconformity,  p r o v i d e d a s u b s t a n t i a l s u b - s u r f a c e d r a i n a g e system which was  b r e c c i a t e d and p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d w i t h sediment;  b r e c c i a t e d channels i n the  K i n g s p o r t Formation  ( u n d e r l y i n g the Mascot Formation)  zinc mineralization  (Crawford and Hoagland, 1968) .  c o u l d be "... the same low-grade,  are the prime h o s t s f o r The s o u r c e o f z i n c however,  z i n c i f e r o u s , eroded Mascot Formation c o v e r i n g  the K i n g s p o r t " ( Z u f f a r d i , 1976, p. 200) .  Hence, k a r s t i c p r o c e s s e s a c t i v e i n  the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a c o u l d have prepared t h e carbonate h o s t s and s u p p l i e d metal-bearing s o l u t i o n s f o r z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n during Middle to Late Cambrian u p l i f t and e r o s i o n o f sediments  on the Mackenzie A r c h .  The source o f metals and s o l u t i o n s which produced t i o n d u r i n g the L a t e o r post-Devonian d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y ( s e c t i o n 4.4). proposed by C e c i l e  zinc—lead mineraliza-  i s p r o b a b l y the Selwyn B a s i n , as The M i s t y Creek Embayment, r e c e n t l y  (1978a,b) adds f u r t h e r evidence t h a t O r d o v i c i a n t o Devonian  h o s t e d d e p o s i t s c o u l d be d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y from m e t a l l i f e r o u s b r i n e s dewatering from the s h a l e b a s i n ; t h i s source i s l i k e l y unique Carbonate-hosted  to t h i s metallogenic event.  d e p o s i t s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h i s event a r e l a t e r a l l y p r o x i m a l t o  f a c i e s changes i n t o s h a l e s o f the Road R i v e r Formation unit  and the 'Black C l a s t i c '  ( F i g u r e 4-5); m i g r a t i o n o f s t r a t a f u g i c s o l u t i o n s , e i t h e r l a t e r a l l y o r  up-dip a l o n g the Mackenzie Arch p a l e o s l o p e , l e a d s d i r e c t l y i n t o h o r i z o n s now known t o c o n t a i n s p h a l e r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e l a t i v e l y low minor element c o n t e n t s ( F i g u r e 6-3). Any f a u l t s o r f r a c t u r e s i n these r o c k s would c o l l e c t  the s o l u t i o n s and d i r e c t  them i n t o o v e r l y i n g carbonate h o r i z o n s ,  i n c l u d i n g any a d j a c e n t P r o t e r o z o i c o r Lower Cambrian f o r m a t i o n s a l s o c u t by the  faults. Relatively  'barren' F r a n k l i n Mountain Formation carbonates d i v i d i n g the  two m i n e r a l i z e d age groups remain u n e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l i n t h i s s t u d y .  In  g e n e r a l , the l i t h o l o g i e s o f t h i s u n i t do not appear any l e s s p r o m i s i n g as h o s t s f o r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n than the younger f o r m a t i o n s ; the F r a n k l i n Mountain  152 Formation i s commonly porous and mineralized formations,  c o n t a i n s t r a c e s o f pyrobitumen s i m i l a r  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t p e t r o l i f e r o u s (and p o s s i b l y m e t a l -  l i f e r o u s ) s o l u t i o n s have t r a v e r s e d the f o r m a t i o n The  ( C e c i l e , 1978,  s h a l e s of the M i s t y Creek Embayment were most e x t e n s i v e  carbonates  to  d u r i n g F r a n k l i n Mountain accumulation  p o s s i b l y r e s t r i c t e d carbonate  accumulation  on the Mackenzie Arch p a l e o s l b p e .  p e r s . comm.).  i n t o the p l a t f o r m a l  ( C e c i l e , 1978a,b) and  a t t h i s time to a p o s i t i o n too  high  D i v e r s i o n of f l u i d s i n f a u l t zones to  s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y o v e r l y i n g u n i t s might a l s o have r e s t r i c t e d access of m i n e r a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s i n t o the F r a n k l i n Mountain Formation and m i n e r a l i z e d o n l y a restricted present  zone immediately  adjacent  to the s h a l e s .  d i s t r i b u t i o n of r o c k s o f t h i s age  of most i n t e r e s t and o u t c r o p s  Furthermore,  is highly restricted  the  i n the  dominantly occur w i t h i n the r e p e t i t i v e  areas sequence  of P r o t e r o z o i c and m i d d l e P a l e o z o i c u n i t s d i r e c t l y e a s t o f the dominant t r e n d of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n ( c f . r e g i o n a l geology It i s interesting p o s s i b l e sources  Selwyn B a s i n r e g i o n .  Volcanism  i n the Road R i v e r Formation  'Black C l a s t i c ' u n i t  (Dawson, 1977)  i n the  and a s s o c i a t e d hydrothermal s o l u t i o n s mjight  t o produce a g r e a t e r enrichment of minor metal c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n r o c k s , and  thereby  r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the  s p h a l e r i t e produced from these s o u r c e s . d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . hosted  4-2).  appears to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  of metals f o r the younger event i n the  these source  Figure  to note t h a t v o l c a n i s m  ( C e c i l e , 1978a,b) and  be expected  map,  However, t h i s i s not the  In the N o r t h e r n  O g i l v i e Mountains, d e p o s i t s  i n O r d o v i c i a n to S i l u r i a n aged carbonates,  i n the younger event,  are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  elements ( F i g u r e s 5-11,  12,  14,  c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e from any Furthermore, they are s e p a r a t e d  15,  16,  18,  observed  and  therefore mineralized  ' d e p l e t e d ' c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of minor 19,  and  20),. y e t they occur  a  of the documented v o l c a n i s m mentioned above. from the v o l c a n i s m  P r o t e r o z o i c and Lower Cambrian carbonate  of the Selwyn B a s i n  rocks b e a r i n g s p h a l e r i t e w i t h  by  153 p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h minor element c o n t e n t s ;  t h i s m i n e r a l i z a t i o n has a l r e a d y  been a t t r i b u t e d t o the o l d e r m e t a l l o g e n i c e v e n t .  I t i s apparent from  these  p a t t e r n s t h a t no d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p can be drawn between metals d e r i v e d from middle Paleozoic volcanism  i n the Selwyn B a s i n and metal c o n t e n t s  e r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n hosted  i n rocks o f the same age.  of s p h a l e r i t e d e p o s i t e d d u r i n g the M i d d l e w i l l remain u n e x p l a i n e d  i n sphal-  The r e l a t i v e  enrichment  t o L a t e Cambrian m e t a l l o g e n i c  i n d e t a i l u n t i l the sources  and p r o c e s s e s  event  of mineral-  i z a t i o n a t t h a t time are r e s o l v e d .  6.2  Summary  The model o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n proposed i n t h i s s e c t i o n attempts t o d e f i n e the r e g i o n a l metallogeny  o f carbonate-hosted  z i n c - l e a d d e p o s i t s o f the  n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a on the b a s i s o f 1) minor element d i s t r i b u t i o n s determined i n t h i s t h e s i s , 2) g e n e r a l g e o l o g i c and m i n e r a l o g i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , and 3) p r e v a l e n t ideas c o n c e r n i n g carbonate-hosted  the g e n e s i s o f s t r a t a b o u n d  zinc-lead mineralization.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the bimodal element d i s t r i b u t i o n s as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of two d i s t i n c t m e t a l sources l e r a l e a d s t o the h y p o t h e s i s are the u n d e r l y i n g cause.  f o r s p h a l e r i t e d e p o s i t s o f the n o r t h e r n t h a t two independent p r o c e s s e s  This hypothesis  accounts  groupings  of mineralization  f o r 1) two d i f f e r e n t  p o p u l a t i o n s f o r each minor c o n s t i t u e n t i n the s p h a l e r i t e , age  cordil-  2) two d i s t i n c t  o f r o c k s h o s t i n g the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , 3) s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between minor element d i s t r i b u t i o n s and h o s t r o c k d i s t r i b u t i o n s , 4) temporal r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the bimodal element d i s t r i b u t i o n s , the bimodal h o s t age  d i s t r i b u t i o n , and the 'barren' d e l i n e a t i n g h o r i z o n , and 5) g e o l o g i c and  m i n e r a l o g i c t e x t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the z i n c - l e a d d e p o s i t s .  154 Paleophysiography  of the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a d u r i n g the M i d d l e to L a t e  Cambrian suggests t h a t k a r s t i c p r o c e s s e s might have induced s p h a l e r i t e p r e c i p i t a t i o n at t h i s time, however other sources and p r o c e s s e s must a l s o c o n s i d e r e d f o r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of t h i s age.  Regional physiographic features  p r e s e n t d u r i n g L a t e Devonian or l a t e r p e r i o d s s t r o n g l y suggest episode of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n was from the Selwyn B a s i n . Formation was  The  p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d i n t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , and  dewatering  the major uncon-  i s a strong t i m e - s t r a t i g r a p h i c t h i s h i a t u s may  been an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the e a r l y m e t a l l o g e n i c event  i f karstic  have  processes  to the u n c o n f o r m i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t m i n e r a l i z i n g a g e n t s .  d i f f e r i n g sources of metals  younger  'barren' n a t u r e of the F r a n k l i n Mountain  h i a t u s s e p a r a t i n g the r o c k s a f f e c t e d by each event;  account  the  d e r i v e d from m e t a l — r i c h s o l u t i o n s  f o r m i t y beneath the F r a n k l i n Mountain d o l o m i t e s  related  be  The  and p r o c e s s e s of s p h a l e r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  f o r the d i f f e r i n g minor c o n s t i t u e n t s ; the d i f f e r i n g ages of m e t a l -  l o g e n i c events, accounts  f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s p h a l e r i t e o c c u r r e n c e s i n  two major h o s t r o c k age groups and e x p l a i n s the temporal  and  spatial  distri-  b u t i o n of minor element p a t t e r n s i n s p h a l e r i t e r e l a t i v e t o these h o s t  rock  ages.  6.3  Conclusions  F o l l o w i n g a r e the major c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g c h a r a c t e r of s p h a l e r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n the study a r e a , drawn from p r e t a t i o n of a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . r o c k s of the n o r t h e r n  In the  the inter-  carbonate  cordillera:  1] z i n c - l e a d d e p o s i t s can be i n d i v i d u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d on b a s i s of minor element c o n s t i t u e n t s i n s p h a l e r i t e ,  the  155 2] two d i s t i n c t p o p u l a t i o n s of z i n c - l e a d d e p o s i t s , as determined from minor element contents: i n s p h a l e r i t e , can be d e f i n e d , 3] two major age groups of host r o c k s , separated by a pronounced unconformity-bounded and r e l a t i v e l y 'barren' age u n i t , c o n t a i n the z i n c — l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , 4] geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n s of minor element p o p u l a t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t l y c o r r e l a t e w i t h the geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of host r o c k age groups, 5] a model of two independent p r o c e s s e s of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g d i f f e r e n t ages and p r o d u c i n g s p h a l e r i t e c o n t a i n i n g d i f f e r e n t minor element assemblages b e s t e x p l a i n s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , and 6] s p h a l e r i t e s c o n t a i n h i g h copper, l e a d , and mercury c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and low i r o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s r e l a t i v e to other carbonate-hosted z i n c — l e a d d i s t r i c t s i n North America. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a r e g i o n a l minor element study can r e l a t i v e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n d e f i n i n g s p e c i f i c geochemical m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of a broad interpret  a r e a and  a s p e c t s of  the  can p r o v i d e a s o l i d b a s i s on which to  the g e n e r a l nature of the r e g i o n a l m e t a l l o g e n y .  the n o r t h e r n c o r d i l l e r a ,  be  I n the case of  t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t has p r o v i d e d  data f o r a r e l a t i v e l y unexamined r e g i o n and t i g a t i o n s of the s p h a l e r i t e o c c u r r e n c e s  significant  new  should s t i m u l a t e f u r t h e r i n v e s -  i n o r d e r to v e r i f y  the  interpreta-  t i o n s o f f e r e d here.  6.4  Suggestions  f o r F u t u r e Research  F u t u r e r e s e a r c h should be d i r e c t e d at f u r t h e r d e f i n i n g the sources metals  f o r , and  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f , the z i n c — l e a d o c c u r r e n c e s of  northern c o r d i l l e r a .  Independent t e s t s of the h y p o t h e s i s  t h a t two  the  periods  of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n produced the s p h a l e r i t e d e p o s i t s s h o u l d be d e v i s e d . r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s suggest  of  The  the f o l l o w i n g p o s s i b l e p r o j e c t s :  1] l e a d i s o t o p e a n a l y s i s of as many g a l e n a samples as p o s s i b l e  156 from the d e p o s i t s s t u d i e d , i n order to d e f i n e approximate ages and p o s s i b l y m e t a l sources f o r the z i n c - l e a d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n (such a study i s p r e s e n t l y i n p r o g r e s s i n the Department of G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia), 2] s u l p h u r i s o t o p e a n a l y s i s of c o - e x i s t i n g s u l p h i d e p a i r s c o u l d p r o v i d e temperatures o f f o r m a t i o n of the d e p o s i t s ( t h i s method has been a p p l i e d to two d e p o s i t s (Appendix A, T a b l e A-2) but the r e s u l t s have, as y e t , not been i n t e r p r e t e d ) and c o u l d p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g a p o s s i b l e source f o r the , s u l p h u r i n the s u l p h i d e s ( i . e . b i o g e n i c v e r s u s magmatic s o u r c e s , c f . Evans et a l . , 1968),  •  3] minor c o n s t i t u e n t a n a l y s i s of the s h a l e source r o c k s and the carbonate host rocks from immediately a d j a c e n t to the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , immediately a d j a c e n t to the p o s s i b l e f l u i d c o n d u i t s , and a c r o s s the r e g i o n as a whole, should be done i n order to f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e the models of s h a l e b a s i n s o u r c e s , k a r s t i c models, and p o s s i b l e f l u i d m i g r a t i o n paths; these a n a l y s e s might a l s o t e s t bimodal element d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s i n these r o c k s r e l a t i v e to age d i s t r i b u t i o n s , 4] a v a r i e t y of o t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l techniques (Q-mode f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , t r e n d s u r f a c e a n a l y s i s ) might f u r t h e r d e f i n e the b a s i c bimodal element and host age d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the r e g i o n as a whole, as w e l l as some of the more s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n s (between samples or d e p o s i t s ) w i t h i n each age group or w i t h i n ' e n r i c h e d ' and ' d e p l e t e d ' minor element groups, and 5] a more q u a l i t a t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o p o s s i b l e c o l o u r i n g agents i n these s p h a l e r i t e s might be attempted u s i n g the a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r a method o u t l i n e d i n s e c t i o n 5.5, Unfortunately c o l l e c t i o n and  l i t t l e opportunity  i s a v a i l a b l e to expand the  specimen  therefore further define regional d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the n o r t h e r n and w e s t e r n areas; however c o n t i n u e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n u s i n g the specimens a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n a n a l y t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s o u t l i n e d (as i n s e c t i o n 3.5)  c o u l d p r o v i d e a broader d a t a base on which to b u i l d  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of r e g i o n a l metallogeny, such as those proposed i n t h i s study.  157 BIBLIOGRAPHY  A i t k e n , J.D., 1977. 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Z u f f a r d i , P., 1976. K a r s t s and economic m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s ; i n Wolf, K.H. ( e d . ) . Handbook o f s t r a t a - b o u n d and s t r a t i f o r m o r e d e p o s i t s , V o l i 3, pp. 175-212.  166  APPENDIX A  GEOLOGIC AND MINERALOGIC DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL DEPOSITS  167 APPENDIX  A  GEOLOGIC AND MINERALOGIC DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL DEPOSITS  Each d e p o s i t Identity: Geodata;  Deposit Geologic  studied i s described  i n the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t form format.  number, d e p o s i t name. information  - any i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e c o n c e r n i n g the r e g i o n a l or l o c a l geology o f the d e p o s i t i s r e c o r d e d here - the s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n used a r e : 1) data o r i g i n a l l y p r o v i d e d w i t h the specimens 2) N o r t h e r n C o r d i l l e r a n M i n e r a l Inventory (Archer and Cathro, 1976) 3) any other p u b l i s h e d o r u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s a v a i l a b l e ( t h e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n known tends t o v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y from one d e p o s i t t o another) Spec. D e s c r . : Specimen d e s c r i p t i o n s Hand: Hand specimen s u i t e - t h i s s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s an o v e r a l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f a l l f e a t u r e s v i s i b l e i n the hand specimens i n the c o l l e c t i o n ( r e g a r d l e s s of whether the specimen was used f o r a n a l y s i s o r n o t ) - a l s o i n c l u d e d a r e any f e a t u r e s noted under the b i n o c u l a r microscope d u r i n g the s e p a r a t i o n procedures Polished:  Temp.:  P o l i s h e d s e c t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n s (and sample numbers d e s c r i b e d ) - one or two p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s were s e l e c t e d from t h e specimens a n a l y z e d i n o r d e r t o b r i e f l y determine t h e m i c r o - m i n e r a l o g i c assemblages (and hence, any p o s s i b l e micro—contaminants) and to determine any p a r a g e n e t i c sequences v i s i b l e - p h o t o g r a p h i c p l a t e s are i n c l u d e d w i t h some d e s c r i p t i o n s t o i l l u s t r a t e s i g n i f i c a n t features  Temperature i n d i c a t o r s - a l i m i t e d amount of f l u i d i n c l u s i o n homogenization temperature and sulphur i s o t o p e d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g t h i s c o l l e c t i o n (Godwin, C.I., 1977); t h i s data i s i n c l u d e d where a p p l i c a b l e and i s a l s o summarized i n Table A - l .  168 Identity:  10006, Newt  Geodata:  - an O r d o v i c i a n to S i l u r i a n aged d o l o m i t e (GSC u n i t 8, Road R i v e r Formation carbonate f a c i e s equivalent) hosts s p h a l e r i t e veins and t e c t o n i c b r e c c i a f i l l i n g s , w i t h minor a s s o c i a t e d g a l e n a - l o c a l l y t h i s u n i t d i r e c t l y o v e r l i e s a Hadrynian, orange weathering dolomite u n i t i n t h i s area  Spec. Descr. Hand:  the hand specimens range from massive g a l e n a w i t h minor s p h a l e r i t e , to massive s p h a l e r i t e , or to b r e c c i a t e d d o l o m i t e h o s t fragments w i t h i n a s p h a l e r i t e - s p a r r y c a l c i t e m a t r i x massive g a l e n a c o n t a i n s s m a l l randomly o r i e n t e d i n c l u s i o n s o f dark amber s p h a l e r i t e ; the g a l e n a i s somewhat f o l i a t e d and sheared and bears t h i n o x i d a t i o n c o a t i n g s the massive, medium t o c o a r s e g r a i n e d s p h a l e r i t e i s a dark amber c o l o u r , and except f o r l o c a l o x i d a t i o n , i s e s s e n t i a l l y pure s p h a l e r i t e i n ' t h e b r e c c i a m a t r i x i s i n t i m a t e l y mixed w i t h the s p a r r y c a l c i t e and appears contemporaneous w i t h i t  Polished:  two p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s (10006-2, 10006-5), one each from massive and b r e c c i a t e d specimens, were s t u d i e d the massive m a t e r i a l proved e s s e n t i a l l y pure, w i t h o n l y l a t e stage s p a r r y c a l c i t e v e i n l e t s c u t t i n g the s p h a l e r i t e the b r e c c i a m a t r i x c o n t a i n s e u h e d r a l c a l c i t e rhombs as i n c l u s i o n s w i t h i n s p h a l e r i t e or as s t r i n g e r s through the s p h a l e r i t e ; the s p h a l e r i t e appears t o have e n c l o s e d the c a l c i t e rhombs w i t h i n medium g r a i n e d , e u h e d r a l c r y s t a l s , hence the s p h a l e r i t e i s formed a f t e r the c a l c i t e no o t h e r s u l p h i d e s were seen the r e l a t i o n between the massive g a l e n a i n the hand specimens and the s p h a l e r i t e i s not seen i n the s e c t i o n s s t u d i e d , t h e r e f o r e a complete p a r a g e n e s i s i s unknown  Temp .:  two s e c t i o n s w i t h pseudo-secondary f l u i d i n c l u s i o n s p r o v i d e d homogenization temperatures o f 125.9°C (10006-3) and of 131.5°C (10006-5) (Table A - l )  Identity:  10010, Economic  Geodata:  - g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h b a r i t e - c a l c i t e - q u a r t z - p y r o b i t u m e n v e i n s , a r e found c u t t i n g the top o f the Lower Cambrian Sekwi Formation - t h e s e v e i n s appear to be emplaced a l o n g e a s t s t r i k i n g f r a c t u r e s r e l a t e d t o a northwest t r e n d i n g f a u l t system  Spec. D e s c r . : Hand: - the h o s t v e i n m a t e r i a l i s a g r a n u l a r orange-weathering, w e l l f r a c t u r e d , f e r r o - d o l o m i t e which c a r r i e s d i s s e m i n a t i o n s and massive i n c l u s i o n s o f s u l p h i d e s - s p h a l e r i t e , of honey o r dark amber c o l o u r , i s found as d i s s e m i n a t i o n s o r as coarse c r y s t a l l i n e fragments d i s t r i b u t e d through—  169 out t h e v e i n - a l t e r a t i o n to h y d r o z i n c i t e i s seen l o c a l l y - sparse t o coarse d i s s e m i n a t i o n s o f g a l e n a a r e common and can develop t o massive l e n s e s , a p p a r e n t l y from the w i d e s t v e i n s ; g a l e n a a l s o shows some o x i d a t i o n rims - p y r i t e i s l e s s common, o c c u r r i n g as t r a c e d i s s e m i n a t i o n s through the f e r r o d o l o m i t e , and i s o f t e n accompanied by s p h a l e r i t e or g a l e n a - specimen 10010-1 i s a b r e c c i a t e d m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n i n g fragments of the h o s t d o l o m i t e , sub-angular dark amber s p h a l e r i t e , f i n e euhedral g a l e n a cubes, and a l a t e stage s p a r r y c a l c i t e - s p h a l e r i t e dominates the s u l p h i d e s and occurs as i r r e g u l a r fragments f i l l i n g the gaps between s p a r r y c a l c i t e c r y s t a l s - g a l e n a occurs i n minor q u a n t i t i e s , c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p h a l e r i t e , or l e s s commonly, i n f i l l i n g around c a l c i t e rhombs - the p a r a g e n e t i c sequence i s n o t d i s p l a y e d w e l l here and i s a c t u a l l y m u l t i - s t a g e and complex (Gibson, 1975) - f l u i d i n c l u s i o n homogenization temperatures from primary i n c l u s i o n s i n s p h a l e r i t e y i e l d e d a r e s u l t o f 152.0°C (10010-1) (Table A)  10020, T a r t - g a l e n a , s p h a l e r i t e , and p y r i t e a r e hosted i n a H e l i k i a n d o l o mite - t h e s u l p h i d e s , p l u s s p a r r y c a l c i t e , form the m a t r i x of a f a u l t breccia  - the grey, f i n e g r a i n e d d o l o m i t e h o s t i s b r e c c i a t e d i n t o a n g u l a r fragments and cemented by medium to f i n e g r a i n e d , c r y s t a l l i n e , brownish-red s p h a l e r i t e and white s p a r r y c a l c i t e ( P l a t e A-2) - a network o f v e i n s and s t r i n g e r s of m a t r i x m a t e r i a l includes' some d o l o m i t e h o s t fragments - two c o r e samples r e v e a l p y r i t e v e i n l e t s one cm. wide i n a coarse s p h a l e r i t e - s p a r r y c a l c i t e matrix - g a l e n a i s r a r e in\the specimens o b t a i n e d - s p h a l e r i t e , t h e dominant m i n e r a l i n specimen 10020—5, o c c u r s as f i n e t o medium s i z e d , s u b h e d r a l , g r a i n s , i n t e r l o c k i n g i n t o massive accumulations; the c o l o u r grades from p a l e y e l l o w t o . deeper r e d d i s h - o r a n g e away from the h o s t d o l o m i t e , i n d i c a t i n g p o s s i b l e s u c c e s s i o n s o f d e p o s i t i o n o r changing c h e m i s t r y during p r e c i p i t a t i o n - p y r i t e forms i r r e g u l a r , f r a c t u r e d g r a i n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s p h a l e r i t e o r as s t r i n g e r s through and around d o l o m i t i c h o s t fragments - no o t h e r s u l p h i d e s were observed - s p a r r y c a l c i t e occurs throughout, i n t e r g r o w n w i t h s p h a l e r i t e and as a f i n a l , open space f i l l i n g  170 - s p h a l e r i t e and p y r i t e appear to be contemporaneous and c a l c i t e developed d u r i n g a middle to l a t e s t a g e , hence the p a r a g e n e s i s is: sphalerite pyrite — calcite  Identity:  10022, W i l l  Geodata:  - a f a u l t c o n t r o l l e d H e l i k i a n d o l o m i t e b r e c c i a has been i n f i l l e d w i t h s p h a l e r i t e , galena, minor c h a l c o p y r i t e , and s p a r r y d o l o m i t e  Spec. Descr.: Hand: - medium to f i n e g r a i n e d , brown, s p h a l e r i t e , i n t i m a t e w i t h w h i t e c o a r s e , s p a r r y d o l o m i t e forms the m a t r i x o f a w e l l b r e c c i a t e d , m i c r i t i c grey d o l o m i t e host - l o c a l l y f i n e p y r i t e g r a i n s are p r e s e n t w i t h i n the m a t r i x - l a t e stage d o l o m i t e v e i n l e t s cut a c r o s s the b r e c c i a fragments and the m a t r i x Polished:  - p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n 10022-1 r e v e a l s the h o s t d o l o m i t e bears much f i n e g r a i n e d d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e and some g a l e n a - the b r e c c i a i n f i l l i n g appears t o be m a i n l y a medium to c o a r s e grained, c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e with f i n e i n c l u s i o n s of p y r i t e , g a l e n a and w h i t e , s p a r r y d o l o m i t e - p y r i t e g r a i n s are s u b h e d r a l and contemporaneous w i t h the sphalerite - g a l e n a forms a n h e d r a l g r a i n s and s t r i n g e r s , i n p l a c e s c u t t i n g o t h e r s u l p h i d e s , hence i s p r o b a b l y contemporaneous and s l i g h t l y later - ragged b o u n d a r i e s between s p h a l e r i t e and s p a r r y d o l o m i t e , and i n c l u s i o n s o f one i n the o t h e r , suggest a contemporaneous formation. - l a t e stage w h i t e s p a r r y d o l o m i t e v e i n l e t s cut both the b r e c c i a fragments and the m a t r i x s u l p h i d e s , and are l a t e r t e c t o n i c a l l y fractured - the p a r a g e n e s i s i s : s p h a l e r i t e pyrite galena dolomite  Identity:  10024, Cominco A + 6  Geodata:  - g a l e n a , p y r i t e , and s p h a l e r i t e are hosted i n Hadrynian c a r b o n ates c l o s e to the boundary of the o v e r l y i n g Cambrian c a r b o n a t e s - t h i s l o c a t i o n i s o n l y f o u r m i l e s to the n o r t h of l o c a t i o n 10025  Spec. Descr,.: Hand: - the host c a r b o n a t e i s a grey-ferown, s u c r o s i c d o l o m i t e w i t h g r e y a l g a l ( ? ) bands which are l o c a l l y d i s r u p t e d and o f f s e t  dark  171 through b r e c c i a t i o n and i n f i l l i n g of s t r i n g e r s of s p a r r y d o l o m i t e - the s u l p h i d e s occur as t h i n v e i n s along f r a c t u r e l i n e s o r as b r e c c i a matrix f i l l i n g s - v e i n s of f i n e g r a i n e d s p h a l e r i t e w i t h t r a c e s o f f i n e g r a i n e d p y r i t e extend i n t o the b r e c c i a t e d areas - l o c a l l y , v e i n s up t o two cm. wide c o n s i s t of c o a r s e g r a i n e d greenish-brown s p h a l e r i t e , b e a r i n g d i s c r e t e c o a r s e g a l e n a cubes - the b r e c c i a m a t r i x i s m a i n l y dark brown, medium t o c o a r s e g r a i n e d s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h dense to sparse d i s s e m i n a t i o n s o f p y r i t e , and i s f o l l o w e d by s p a r r y d o l o m i t e Polished:  - p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n 10024-2 i s a sample of b r e c c i a m a t r i x m a t e r i a l w i t h l a r g e , a n g u l a r , f r a c t u r e d g r a i n s of s p h a l e r i t e which i s a p p a r e n t l y pure and forms an i n i t i a l p a r a g e n e t i c phase - i n f i l l i n g around the s p h a l e r i t e and through f r a c t u r e s i n i t , i s a c o a r s e s p a r r y d o l o m i t e b e a r i n g d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e and t r a c e s of g a l e n a - p a r a g e n e s i s appears t o be: sphalerite pyrite galena dolomite  Identity:  10035, Cominco BC + 5  Geddata:  - s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a a r e hosted i n Hadrynian carbonates to an o v e r l y i n g Cambrian c a r b o n a t e  close  Spec. Descr.: Hand: - the host c a r b o n a t e i s a v e r y c o a r s e l y b r e c c i a t e d , grey, . a l g a l l y ( ? ) laminated dolomite - c o a r s e w h i t e s p a r r y d o l o m i t e v e i n s accompany c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e orange, and greenish-brown s p h a l e r i t e as the dominant forms of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n ; t h e s p h a l e r i t e i s r e f r a c t u r e d , vuggy, and bears w h i t e o x i d a t i o n c o a t i n g s i n the vugs ( s m i t h s o n i t e ? ) - s p h a l e r i t e a l s o b e a r s d i s c r e t e g r a i n s and s t r i n g e r s of g a l e n a and some d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e - e u h e d r a l quartz c r y s t a l s and massive, i s o l a t e d , c o a r s e c r y s t a l l i n e b l e b s of red-brown s p h a l e r i t e form a l a t e s t a g e , c o m p l e t e l y i i n f i l l i n g some vugs Polished:  - a p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n (10025-1) of massive, orange, w e l l f r a c t u r e d s p h a l e r i t e w i t h c o a r s e g a l e n a i n c l u s i o n s was s t u d i e d - the s p h a l e r i t e i s c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e w i t h t r a c e s o f f i n e g r a i n e d p y r i t e and g a l e n a d i s s e m i n a t e d throughout - the s p h a l e r i t e i s w e l l f r a c t u r e d and the f r a c t u r e l i n e s are f i l l e d with galena>pyrite>sparry dolomite - g a l e n a may form l a r g e b l e b s , perhaps i n f i l l i n g vugs i n s p h a l e r i t e and i t s e l f forming i n t e r n a l vugs which a r e p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d by b l a d e d white c r y s t a l s ( b a r i t e ? ) as a f i n a l stage - b r e c c i a t i o n of the d o l o m i t e h o s t appears t o be f o l l o w e d by a major s p h a l e r i t e phase b e a r i n g minor g a l e n a , p y r i t e , and s p a r r y d o l o m i t e as an i n i t i a l p a r a g e n e t i c phase; t h i s was t h e n  172 r e - f r a c t u r e d and i n f i l l e d w i t h g a l e n a , p y r i t e , and s p a r r y d o l o m i t e f o l l o w e d by l o c a l b a r i t e ( ? ) p r e c i p i t a t i o n - paragenesis i s : s p h a l e r i t e galena — pyrite — dolomite barite(?) quartz Temp.:  - primary f l u i d i n c l u s i o n s i n s p h a l e r i t e y i e l d e d homogenization temperatures o f 243 ,9°C (10025-4) and 238.2°C (10025-6) — homogenization temperature f o r i n c l u s i o n s i n quartz p r o v i d e d a r e s u l t of 165°C; t h i s lower temperature i s l i k e l y due t o the l a t e r s t a g e of f o r m a t i o n of the q u a r t z  Identity:  10026, Vug  Geodata:  - a t o t a l o f e i g h t showings a r e known from t h i s l o c a t i o n - the most common m i n e r a l i z a t i o n type, and the h i g h e s t grades, a r e found i n narrow, e r r a t i c f a u l t b r e c c i a zones, t r e n d i n g n o r t h t o n o r t h e a s t , and hosted i n orange—weathering H e l i k i a n dolomite - f r a c t u r e s j u s t o u t s i d e the f a u l t b r e c c i a zone a r e not m i n e r a l ized - t y p i c a l l y , the b r e c c i a t e d a n g u l a r d o l o m i t e fragments a r e h e l d I n a m a t r i x o f s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a and w h i t e s p a r r y d o l o m i t e - s p h a l e r i t e and d o l o m i t e appear contemporaneous and may a l s o contain disseminated p y r i t e  Polished:  - a n g u l a r banded p y r i t i c d o l o m i t e host r o c k fragments are i n f i l l e d by a s i n g l e phase of medium t o f i n e , i r r e g u l a r g r a i n s of s p h a l e r i t e and s p a r r y d o l o m i t e - the angular b r e c c i a fragments, the r e s t r i c t i o n o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n to the f a u l t zones, and the simple n a t u r e o f the mineralogy, a l l p o i n t to a r a p i d i n f i l l i n g o f the b r e c c i a and p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f s p h a l e r i t e and d o l o m i t e  Identity: Geodata:  10027, Cominco 7 + D - g a l e n a and  s p h a l e r i t e a r e h o s t e d by Hadrynian  dolomite  Spec. Descr, - the specimens a r e e s s e n t i a l l y massive, c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e Hand: s p h a l e r i t e w i t h minor g a l e n a and p y r i t e and abundant s p a r r y dolomite w i t h i n a b r e c c i a - t h e s p h a l e r i t e i s m o t t l e d amber to brown - the g a l e n a i s medium to c o a r s e g r a i n e d , i n i r r e g u l a r b l e b s and o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i n e g r a i n e d p y r i t e - f r a c t u r e s i n galena and s p h a l e r i t e a r e i n f i l l e d w i t h c o a r s e  173 w h i t e s p a r r y d o l o m i t e and i n a d o l o m i t e gangue  fragments of these s u l p h i d e s f l o a t  Polished:  - two p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s (10027-4 and 10027-5) were s t u d i e d - they r e v e a l a n g u l a r fragments of c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e which c o n t a i n t r a c e s of p y r i t e , and c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e galena with p y r i t e , a l l i n a sparry dolomite matrix - the s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n s a r e s l i g h t l y f r a c t u r e d and l o c a l l y i n f i l l e d w i t h g a l e n a and p y r i t e , s u g g e s t i n g these m i n e r a l s may have extended s l i g h t l y l a t e r i n p a r a g e n e s i s than the s p h a l e r i t e - the p a r a g e n e s i s appears t o be: sphalerite galena pyrite dolomite  Identity:  10028, Cominco 1  GeOdata:  - g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e are hosted by a S i l u r i a n to Devonian aged carbonate - c o l l o f o r m s p h a l e r i t e and minor g a l e n a and p y r i t e occur w i t h c a l c i t e i n vugs and b r e c c i a zones i n a l g a l r e e f s - the v e i n s and v e i n l e t s a r e t r a c e a b l e f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e s  Spec. Descr.: Hand: — a medium grained, c r y s t a l l i n e d d o l o m i t e , mottled brown t o g r e y i n c o l o u r , i s the host - t h i s h o s t has been b r e c c i a t e d and i n f i l l e d by s p h a l e r i t e and sparry c a l c i t e - the t h i c k e s t bands of s p h a l e r i t e form c o l l o f o r m l a y e r s w i t h c o a r s e c r y s t a l l i n e i n n e r l a y e r s which become f i n e r outwards ( P l a t e A-4) - the s p h a l e r i t e grows on c o a r s e s p a r r y c a l c i t e i n v a r y i n g c o l o u r bdnds - p a r a g e n e s i s i s obscure and appears c y c l i c Temp.:  - a single, f l u i d i n c l u s i o n temperature from a b a r i t e (10028-3) y i e l d e d a r e s u l t of 158.8°C ( T a b l e A - l )  specimen  Identity:  10029, Toporowski  Geodata:  - the m a t r i x of an i n t r a c l a s t i c l i m e s t o n e conglomerate i n the S i l u r i a n t o Devonian aged Delorme Formation has been r e p l a c e d by s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a - the base of the showings i s a t h r u s t f a u l t s e p a r a t i n g the Hadrynian Sheepbed Formation from the Delorme Formation  Spec. D e s c r . : Hand: — the h o s t i s an i n t r a c l a s t i c l i m e s t o n e b r e c c i a b e a r i n g rounded  174 and a n g u l a r c l a s t s up to t h r e e cm, i n diameter which a r e f r i n g e d by s p h a l e r i t e and f i n a l l y the remaining spaces a r e i n f i l l e d by s p a r r y c a l c i t e - some f i n e f r a c t u r e s c u t t i n g the host rock fragments a r e f i l l e d with sphalerite Polished:  - p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s of b r e c c i a t e d (10029-5) and massive (10029-8) s p h a l e r i t e were s t u d i e d - coarse s p h a l e r i t e c o a t s the l i m e s t o n e fragments and i s i t s e l f f r a c t u r e d and i n f i l l e d w i t h s p a r r y c a l c i t e - the massive s p h a l e r i t e specimen shows coarse amber s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h r a r e t i n y p y r i t e g r a i n s and a s p a r r y c a l c i t e - the p a r a g e n e s i s appears t o be: sphalerite pyrite calcite —  Identity:  10030, Cominco 3  Geodata:  - H e l i k i a n c a r b o n a t e s host s p h a l e r i t e and  Spec. Descr, Hand:  galena  a s i n g l e specimen c o n s i s t s of rounded s p h a l e r i t e b l e b s i n warped bands w i t h galena and s p a r r y c a l c i t e between the bands r u s t y weathering i n d i c a t e s p o s s i b l e d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e s p h a l e r i t e o c c u r s as f i n e to c o a r s e g r a i n e d c r y s t a l l i n e m a t e r i a l w i t h abundant i n c l u s i o n s of c a l c i t e s p a r r y c a l c i t e i n f i l l s along s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n b o u n d a r i e s and i n p l a c e s appears to r e p l a c e s p h a l e r i t e g a l e n a o c c u r s as medium to c o a r s e , d i s c r e t e g r a i n s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c a l c i t e and o f t e n p a r t i a l l y r e p l a c i n g the s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n boundaries p y r i t e t r a c e s a l s o occur w i t h the c a l c i t e p a r a g e n e s i s appears to be: sphalerite galena pyrite — calcite  Polished:  ;  Identity:  10032, C l o e  Geodata:  — s p h a l e r i t e i s hosted i n b r e c c i a t e d b l a c k , c a l c a r e o u s s h a l e s of H e l i k i a n age — a l e a d geochemical anomaly i s p r e s e n t here, but no g a l e n a i s seen  Spec. Descr.: Hand:  a black calcareous shale i s w e l l b r e c c i a t e d into angular fragments and i s i n f i l l e d by contemporaneous w h i t e s p a r r y d o l o m i t e and dark r e d s p h a l e r i t e  175 Polished:  - s e c t i o n 10032-1 r e v e a l s a n g u l a r b l a c k s h a l e fragments which a r e surrounded i n i t i a l l y by coarse s p a r r y d o l o m i t e and secondly by a phase of s p h a l e r i t e and d o l o m i t e i n f i l l i n g between g r a i n s and fragments - no other s u l p h i d e s were observed  I d e n t i t y : I.  10033, Goz  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h l e s s e r amounts o f g a l e n a , minor p y r i t e and b o u l a n g e r i t e , o c c u r i n f l a t l y i n g , grey porous, d o l o m i t i z e d l i m e s t o n e u n d e r l y i n g the Cambrian Sekwi Formation - m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s i n h i g h l y s i l i c i f i e d b r e c c i a s , vugs, and f r a c t u r e s and as d i s s e m i n a t i o n s - n o r t h t r e n d i n g f a u l t s may have been a c t i v e i n upgrading t h e the o r i g i n a l m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  Spec. Descr, Hand:  the host i s a banded d o l o m i t e w i t h orange s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n s throughout i t ; the d o l o m i t e i s s i l i c i f i e d , o f t e n t o a g r e a t ext ent most specimens a r e h i g h l y s i l i c i f i e d and c o n t a i n quartz crystals the c o a r s e s t s p h a l e r i t e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o a r s e s t quartz galena might be present as f i n e d i s s e m i n a t i o n s o r l o c a l l y as large grains associated with quartz c r y s t a l s the s p h a l e r i t e appears p a r t i a l l y d i s s o l v e d and etched by the quartz t h i n q u a r t z v e i n l e t s cut some s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n s  Polished:  s e c t i o n 10033-14 c o n s i s t s o f massive, y e l l o w c o a r s e g r a i n e d s p h a l e r i t e w i t h quartz i n f i l l i n g around the s p h a l e r i t e p y r i t e i s r a r e but i s found as f i n e g r a i n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the quartz r a r e l y f i n e traces o f galena w i l l r e p l a c e quartz p a r a g e n e s i s appears t o be: s p h a l e r i t e pyrite galena — quartz  Temp.  pseudo-secondary i n c l u s i o n s i n s p h a l e r i t e were s t u d i e d from t h r e e specimens ( T a b l e A - l ) ; temperatures o b t a i n e d were 150.5°C (10033-13), 171.6°C (10033-22), and 130.9°C (10033-25)  Identity:  10034, B i r k e l a n d  Geodata:  - numerous pods o f s p h a l e r i t e and galena occur i n b r e c c i a zones of Hadrynian ' z e b r a d o l o m i t e s 1  176 Spec. Descr.; Hand: - the h o s t c o n s i s t s o f brown weathering, banded grey d o l o m i t e s which have been b r e c c i a t e d - the b r e c c i a m a t r i x i s composed o f medium g r a i n e d green s p h a l e r i t e and w h i t e s p a r r y d o l o m i t e - g a l e n a i s a l s o p r e s e n t as f i n e g r a i n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s p h a l e r i t e or as massive m a t r i x m a t e r i a l Polished:  - the sub-rounded g r a i n s o f the carbonate h o s t are f r a c t u r e d and p a r t i a l l y dissolved - the s p h a l e r i t e i s c o a r s e , c r y s t a l l i n e m a t e r i a l w i t h t r a c e i n c l u s i o n s of f i n e grained galena - w h i t e s p a r r y dolomite f i l l s i n between the s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n s and has i n c l u d e d many of the o l d e r carbonate h o s t fragments - the p a r a g e n e s i s i s : s p h a l e r i t e galena — dolomite  Identity:  10035, Cominco 8  Geodata:  - g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e are h o s t e d i n Cambrian  Spec. Descr• Hand:  Polished:  carbonates  h i g h l y a n g u l a r fragments of grey m i c r i t i c d o l o m i t e h o s t are supported by a m a t r i x o f w h i t e s p a r r y d o l o m i t e , minor p y r i t e , and c o a r s e , green, c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e the s p h a l e r i t e i s h i g h l y f r a c t u r e d and i n f i l l e d by v e i n l e t s of carbonate which c o n t a i n s d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e s e c t i o n 10035-1 c o n t a i n s a n g u l a r fragments o f d o l o m i t e h o s t surrounded by coarse white s p a r r y d o l o m i t e ; the d o l o m i t e bears thin stringers of pyrite medium to f i n e g r a i n e d green s p h a l e r i t e i n c l u d e s some d o l o m i t e rhombs i n i t ; the s p h a l e r i t e i s w e l l f r a c t u r e d and carbonate and d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e l o c a l l y i n f i l l the f r a c t u r e s no g a l e n a was observed the p a r a g e n e s i s i s : d o l o m i t e pyrite — — sphalerite  Identity:  10036, Cominco 9  Geodata:  — s p h a l e r i t e and galena are h o s t e d i n H e l l k i a n d o l o m i t e - t h i s l o c a t i o n i s f i v e m i l e s n o r t h e a s t of the D e l o r e s Creek copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n area  Spec. Descr.: Hand: - the h o s t i s a h i g h l y a n g u l a r , grey m i c r i t i c d o l o m i t e b r e c c i a  177 w i t h many f i n e v e i n l e t s o f s p a r r y d o l o m i t e - s p h a l e r i t e o c c u r s as open space f i l l i n g s , " f i n e s t r i n g e r s , and a one t o two cm. wide v e i n l e t o f c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e deep amber t o r e d m a t e r i a l Polished:  - a p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n (10036-1) o f the c o a r s e v e i n s p h a l e r i t e r e v e a l s grey m i c r i t i c h o s t d o l o m i t e fragments bounded by coarse c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z , then narrow rims o f s p a r r y carbonate, f o l l o w e d by s p h a l e r i t e - the s p h a l e r i t e i s c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e , deep r e d and c o n t a i n s some fragments o f t h e e a r l i e r carbonate phases - p y r i t e occurs as t r a c e d i s s e m i n a t i o n s throughout - the p a r a g e n e s i s i s : q u a r t z carbonate — sphalerite pyrite — •- - -  Identity:  10037, Oz  GeOdata:  - g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e a r e c o n f i n e d t o r e f o l d c h e r t y and stroma t o l i t i c dolomites o f H e l i k i a n age - the m i n e r a l i z e d u n i t l i e s w i t h i n u p l i f t e d s e c t i o n s o f P r o t e r o z o i c d o l o m i t e s and p h y l l i t e s - younger O r d o v i c i a n t o S i l u r i a n dolomites unconformably o v e r l i e the H e l i k i a n u n i t s  Spec. Descr.: Hand: - the h o s t i s a grey, m i c r i t i c d o l o m i t e , i n p a r t s i l i c i f i e d , and l o c a l l y b r e c c i a t e d i n t o a n g u l a r fragments - the m a t r i x has been i n f i l l e d by p y r i t e , g a l e n a , s p h a l e r i t e and t r a c e s of c h a l c o p y r i t e - v e i n l e t s o f g a l e n a and o f s p h a l e r i t e , each w i t h minor i n c l u s i o n s of o t h e r s u l p h i d e s are p r e s e n t - g a l e n a a l s o occurs as c a v i t y f i l l i n g s and a l o n g bedding p l a n e s i n banded dolomites - p y r i t e i s commonly d i s s e m i n a t e d through the h o s t d o l o m i t e s - b r e c c i a m i n e r a l i z a t i o n might have been d e r i v e d from v e i n and s t r a t i f o r m m i n e r a l i z a t i o n d u r i n g d e f o r m a t i o n and b r e c c i a t i o n (Came, 1975) Polished:  - the h o s t rock i s m a c r o c r y s t a l l i n e w i t h l a m i n a t i o n s and c o n t a i n s abundant d i s s e m i n a t e d f i n e g r a i n e d p y r i t e ( s e c t i o n s 10037-31, 10037-32) - s p a r r y c a l c i t e v e i n l e t s c u t t i n g the h o s t c o n t a i n s t r a c e s o f sphalerite - a s p h a l e r i t e v e i n l e t , two cm. wide, c o n t a i n s s p a r r y c a l c i t e i n c l u s i o n s and t r a c e s o f p y r i t e and g a l e n a - a l a t e s t a g e s p a r r y c a l c i t e forms v e i n l e t s c u t t i n g a l l c o n s t i t uents  Temp:  - a f l u i d i n c l u s i o n homogenization temperature of 351.0°C was o b t a i n e d from a b a r i t e specimen (10037—53) from t h i s d e p o s i t (Table A - l )  178 10042, P r o f e i t - s t r a t i f o r m galena and minor s p h a l e r i t e occur i n vuggy, b r e c c i a t ed Hadrynian d o l o m i t e , near a s h a l e - o u t - m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s found over a c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r i k e l e n g t h  - the h o s t i s a grey, f i n e t o medium g r a i n e d , porous s u c r o s i c d o l o m i t e c o n t a i n i n g narrow s p a r r y laminae and s p h a l e r i t e b l e b s - the s p h a l e r i t e , as w e l l as g a l e n a and p y r i t e , can become f i n e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d through p a r t s of t h i s h o s t : where the h o s t i s s h a r p l y b r e c c i a t e d the fragments are s e t i n a m a t r i x of coarse w h i t e s p a r r y d o l o m i t e and massive r e d to amber s p h a l e r i t e - massive, coarse sheared g a l e n a i s a l s o found - b o u r n o n i t e a l s o o c c u r s , as s p a r s e d i s s e m i n a t i o n s to l a r g e b l e b s i n one sample - b o u l a n g e r i t e n e e d l e s may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a l a c h i t e and a z u r i t e a l t e r a t i o n products - p y r i t e occurs i n v e i n l e t s , d i s s e m i n a t i o n s and masses of g r a i n s ; t h i s can l e a d t o e x t e n s i v e boxwork t e x t u r e s - one s e c t i o n each o f b r e c c i a t e d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n (10042-8) and of copper b e a r i n g s p h a l e r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n (10042-15) were studied - the b r e c c i a t e d m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t s o f massive c o a r s e g r a i n e d dark r e d to amber s p h a l e r i t e , massive, coarse p y r i t e , and s p a r r y calcite - g a l e n a i s found as f i n e i n c l u s i o n s i n p y r i t e and as r a r e l a r g e r g r a i n s a l o n g the s p h a l e r i t e - c a l c i t e boundary - the copper b e a r i n g m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s marked by a c i c u l a r b o u l a n g e r i t e i n c l u s i o n s i n b o u r n o n i t e ; a boundary rim of m a l a c h i t e , a z u r i t e , and c a l c i t e surrounds the b o u r n o n i t e - s p h a l e r i t e c o m p l e t e l y surrounds the b o u r n o n i t e nodule; copper carbonate a l t e r a t i o n extends i n t o the s p h a l e r i t e a l o n g c a l c i t e v e i n l e t s only short distances - the p a r a g e n e s i s i s complex, but appears t o be: bournonite — boulangerite — sphalerite calcite malachite/azurite — galena ? pyrite ? - two f l u i d i n c l u s i o n d e t e r m i n a t i o n s y i e l d e d homogenization temperatures of 209.6°C (10042-1) and 203.7°C (10042-3) (Table A-l)  10043, F i s h i n g Branch - s p h a l e r i t e occurs as^replacements and v e i n s i n f o s s i l i f e r o u s dolomite — the h o s t i s beneath the Gossage Formation, hence Is o f p r o b a b l e  179 Ordovician to S i l u r i a n Spec. Descr, Hand:  age  the h o s t i s a p a l e grey d o l o m i t e , m i l d l y b r e c c i a t e d and i n f i l l e d w i t h a m a t r i x of s p a r r y c a l c i t e and f i n e . t o medium g r a i n e d green s p h a l e r i t e the s p h a l e r i t e i s c o n c e n t r a t e d w i t h i n grey d o l o m i t e fragments i n i r r e g u l a r b l e b s and appears as a replacement, however i t a l s o extends i n t o the s p a r r y m a t r i x w i t h s i m i l a r t e x t u r e s  Polished:  — s e c t i o n 10043-2 r e v e a l s the h o s t t o be m i c r o c r y s t a l l i n e d o l o m i t e c o n t a i n i n g abundant f i n e d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e - s p h a l e r i t e occurs as medium to c o a r s e g r a i n e d m a t e r i a l , intimate with sparry c a l c i t e - the c a l c i t e l o c a l l y appears t o r e p l a c e the s p h a l e r i t e - p y r i t e occurs as v e r y f i n e g r a i n s , m a i n l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h sparry c a l c i t e only - the p a r a g e n e s i s i s : s p h a l e r i t e pyrite calcite —  Identity:  10044, Wart  Geodata:  - minor b r e c c i a pods and.veins of s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a are h o s t e d by a c y c l i c d o l o m i t e of O r d o v i c i a n t o S i l u r i a n age  Spec. Descr. Hand:  Polished:  the h o s t i s a brown m i c r i t i c d o l o m i t e which i s cut by v e i n l e t s of dark brown c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e and minor g a l e n a ( P l a t e A-4) the m i c r i t i c d o l o m i t e h o s t i s h i g h l y p y r i t i c a t h i n i r r e g u l a r band of s p a r r y carbonate i s c o n c e n t r a t e d along the d o l o m i t i c h o s t - s p h a l e r i t e boundary the s p h a l e r i t e i s c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e , and c o n t a i n s t r a c e s o f disseminated p y r i t e i n s u f f i c i e n t material i s available f o r paragenetic i n t e r p r e t a tion  Identity:  10045, Axe  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e and carbonates  galena a r e h o s t e d i n S i l u r i a n t o Devonian aged  Spec. D e s c r . : Hand: - the h o s t i s a grey m i c r i t i c l i m e s t o n e c o n t a i n i n g p a l e green granular s p h a l e r i t e - l o c a l dark brown v a r i e t y o f s p h a l e r i t e f i l l s i n between the  180 green s p h a l e r i t e g r a n u l e s - s p a r r y f i l l s some f r a c t u r e s , i n the  sphalerite  Polished:  - s e c t i o n s 10045-1 and 10045-4 r e v e a l massive green c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e sphalerite with l a t e r i n t e r s t i t i a l sparry c a l c i t e - green s p h a l e r i t e c o n t a i n s d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e — p a r a g e n e s i s appears to be: sphalerite red -— green pyrite calcite  Identity:  10046, GE 8/19/75  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a occur i n v e i n l e t s and s t r i n g e r s w i t h c a l c i t e and minor c h a l c o p y r i t e and t e t r a h e d r i t e i n a h o s t of p a l e grey sandy c a l c a r e o u s d o l o m i t e of Cambrian age  Spec. Descr. Hand:  Polished:  the h o s t i s a porous grey d o l o m i t e w i t h v e i n l e t s and vugs i n f i l l e d by coarse s p a r r y c a l c i t e and medium to c o a r s e g r a i n e d red-brown s p h a l e r i t e and minor galena f i n e g r a i n e d c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e i s dispersed, through a c a l c i t e m a t r i x ( s e c t i o n 10046-1) the c a l c i t e appears g r a n u l a r and contemporaneous w i t h s p h a l e r i t e coarse g a l e n a c r y s t a l s p a r t i a l l y r e p l a c e o t h e r m i n e r a l s l o c a l l y paragenesis i s : s p h a l e r i t e calcite —•— galena  Identity:  10050,  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a b r e c c i a pods are h o s t e d i n t e c t o n i c b r e c c i a zones i n a. H a d r y n i a n ' G r i t U n i t ' d o l o m i t e  Spec. DesCr.: Hand:  Polished:  Odd  the sample i s massive, green medium g r a i n e d s p h a l e r i t e w i t h minor g a l e n a and a l a t e s t a g e c a l c i t e f i l l i n g gaps s p h a l e r i t e occurs as c o a r s e i r r e g u l a r g r a i n s w i t h f i n e c a r b o n a t e i n c l u s i o n s ( s e c t i o n 10050-1) the s p h a l e r i t e i s w e l l f r a c t u r e d and s p a r r y c a l c i t e i n f i l l s the f r a c t u r e s and p a r t i a l l y corrodes the s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n boundaries the g a l e n a i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c a l c i t e between the s p h a l e r i t e grains the p a r a g e n e s i s i s : s p h a l e r i t e galena calcite  181 Identity:  10053, Mt.  Tillicum  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e i s h o s t e d i n Hadrynian  dolomite  Spec. Descr.: Hand:  - the h o s t i s a m o t t l e d brown to b l a c k d o l o m i t e cut by a v e i n c o n t a i n i n g c a l c i t e , p y r i t e , s p h a l e r i t e and q u a r t z - the p y r i t e i s i n e u h e d r a l , l o c a l l y zoned, cubes and i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c a l c i t e phase - c a l c i t e i s p r e c i p i t a t e d i n two t o t h r e e s t a g e s - the s p h a l e r i t e i s medium t o c o a r s e g r a i n e d and cut by c a l c i t e — f i l l e d fractures  Polished:  - the h o s t appears t o be a bedded d o l o m i t e cut by t h i n s p a r r y v e i n l e t s which c o n t a i n t r a c e s of d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e ( s e c t i o n 10053-1) - y e l l o w c a l c i t e has been f r a c t u r e d and i n f i l l e d w i t h more s p a r r y c a l c i t e and d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e - s p h a l e r i t e forms a c o a r s e c r y s t a l l i n e v e i n l e t which has been f r a c t u r e d and i n f i l l e d by a l a t e s t a g e c a l c i t e - p a r a g e n e s i s i s not c l e a r i n t h i s s e c t i o n and appears c y c l i c  Identity:  20003, Palm  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e and galena are hosted Formation dolomites  i n Lower. Cambrian Sekwi  Spec. Descr.: Hand; - the h o s t i s a medium g r a i n e d c r y s t a l l i n e d o l o m i t e w i t h dissemi n a t e d s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n s throughout - t r a c e s of p y r i t e are common - vugs o f c a l c i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , p y r i t e , and q u a r t z a r e a l s o present - the vugs a r e l i n e d w i t h t h i n c a l c i t e l a y e r s , f o l l o w e d by s p h a l e r i t e w i t h p y r i t e t r a c e s , and f i n a l l y by q u a r t z c r y s t a l s Polished:  - s e c t i o n 20003-5 i s dominated by coarse c r y s t a l l i n e , amber g r a i n s o f s p h a l e r i t e which are h i g h l y f r a c t u r e d - coarse g r a i n e d g a l e n a appears c o n f i n e d to a s i n g l e band, p o s s i b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c a l c i t e ; g a l e n a r e p l a c e s some s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n boundaries - c o a r s e w h i t e s p a r r y c a l c i t e f i l l s i n between the s p h a l e r i t e grains - t r a c e s o f p y r i t e are present i n the s p h a l e r i t e - the p a r a g e n e s i s i s : s p h a l e r i t e pyrite — galena calcite  182 Identity:  20004, Jude  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e i s hosted i n the O r d o v i c i a n to S i l u r i a n aged K i n d l e Formation d o l o m i t e s  Spec. Descr, Hand:  Polished:  Mt.  a n g u l a r b r e c c i a fragments of a medium g r a i n e d c r y s t a l l i n e d o l o m i t e host are h e l d i n a m a t r i x o f w h i t e s p a r r y d o l o m i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a , and q u a r t z w h i t e s p a r r y d o l o m i t e forms e u h e d r a l c r y s t a l s and i s f o l l o w e d by orange, coarse g r a i n e d s p h a l e r i t e , and l e s s e r amounts o f galena l a t e stage e u h e d r a l q u a r t z c r y s t a l s form druzy c o a t i n g s i n some vugs i n s e c t i o n 20004-1 ( P l a t e A-3) the d o l o m i t e h o s t i s h i g h l y g r a n u l a r and c o n t a i n s abundant i n c l u s i o n s o f p y r i t e and g a l e n a ; the s u l p h i d e s are dominantly found i n the i n t e r s t i c i e s between g r a i n s , but they a l s o r e p l a c e some g r a i n s the white s p a r r y d o l o m i t e c o n t a i n s coarse c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e and f i l l s i n between b r e c c i a fragments the s p h a l e r i t e may be pure o r may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i n e g r a i n e d g a l e n a , p y r i t e , and d o l o m i t e i n the b r e c c i a m a t r i x the p a r a g e n e s i s not e a s i l y determined i n t h i s s e c t i o n  Identity:  20005, S i s c o e  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a , w i t h a s s o c i a t e d f l u o r i t e , are h o s t e d i n the Devonian aged Landry Formation l i m e s t o n e - emplacement i s f r a c t u r e c o n t r o l l e d  Spec. Descr. Hand:  Polished:  a c o r a l i n e grey l i m e s t o n e i s b r e c c i a t e d i n t o sub-rounded fragments and cemented w i t h a m a t r i x of y e l l o w to orange, medium g r a i n e d s p h a l e r i t e , w h i t e s p a r r y c a l c i t e , and l o c a l pyrobitumen two s e c t i o n s (20005-1 and 20005-4) were s t u d i e d the h o s t rock, a m i c r o c r y s t a l l i n e grey l i m e s t o n e , c o n t a i n s t r a c e s of f i n e g r a i n e d p y r i t e and b l e b s of s p a r r y c a l c i t e coarse y e l l o w to orange s p h a l e r i t e dominates the b r e c c i a m a t r i x f i n e g r a i n e d p y r i t e and c o a r s e s p a r r y d o l o m i t e f i l l the i n t e r — s t i c i e s a f t e r the s p h a l e r i t e s p h a l e r i t e a l s o occurs as coarse g r a i n e d massive aggregates b e a r i n g t r a c e s of v e r y f i n e d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e s p a r r y d o l o m i t e forms l a t e stage c r o s s c u t t i n g v e i n l e t s paragenesis i s : s p h a l e r i t e pyrite dolomite  183 Identity:  20006, Pan  Geodata:  - d i s s e m i n a t e d g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e occur i n d i s c o n t i n u o u s zones w i t h i n the Lower Cambrian Sekwi Formation d o l o m i t e  Spec. Descr, - the h o s t , a f i n e g r a i n e d grey d o l o m i t e w i t h o o l i t i c and a l g a l Hand: s t r u c t u r e s , i s b r e c c i a t e d i n t o a n g u l a r fragments and has been i n f i l l e d w i t h w h i t e s p a r r y d o l o m i t e , medium g r a i n e d dark amber s p h a l e r i t e , and l e s s e r amounts o f coarse g a l e n a and p y r i t e Polished:  - s e c t i o n s 20006-4 and 20006-5 were s t u d i e d - the m i c r i t i c , d o l o m i t e h o s t c o n t a i n s abundant f i n e , e u h e d r a l p y r i t e d i s s e m i n a t i o n s throughout - the b r e c c i a matrix i s a complex f i l l i n g o f c o a r s e , dark amber s p h a l e r i t e bearing very f i n e grained disseminated p y r i t e , c o a r s e e u h e d r a l galena g r a i n s , and l e s s e r amounts o f p y r i t e and s p a r r y d o l o m i t e l a t e stage, f i l l i n g i n t e r s t i c i e s s p a r r y d o l o m i t e occurs as and f r a c t u r e s p a r a g e n e s i s appears to be: s p h a l e r i t e galena pyrite dolomite  Identity:  20008, Backbone  Geodata:  - g a l e n a , s p h a l e r i t e , and s m i t h s o n i t e o c c u r w i t h i n b r e c c i a zones a p p r o x i m a t e l y 150 to 300 metres e a s t of a t h r u s t f a u l t c u t t i n g the Devonian Landry Formation l i m e s t o n e - f o u r showings have l o c a l v e r y h i g h grades  Spec. Descr, Hand:  Polished:  the grey, m i c r i t i c l i m e s t o n e h o s t i s b r e c c i a t e d i n t o suba n g u l a r fragments and cemented by a m a t r i x of s p a r r y c a l c i t e , medium g r a i n e d c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e , and l e s s e r amounts of medium g r a i n e d g a l e n a - some vugs i n the l i m e s t o n e a r e f i l l e d by c a l c i t e and s p h a l e r i t e - o x i d a t i o n i s l o c a l l y e x t e n s i v e , w i t h much v i s i b l e s m i t h s o n i t e - the h o s t i s a m i c r o c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e w i t h s p a r r y i n c l u s i o n s - i n s e c t i o n 20008-1 the b r e c c i a m a t r i x i s a v e r y complex a s s o c i a t i o n of coarse g r a i n e d s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a , and f i n e to medium g r a i n e d s p a r r y c a l c i t e - a l l g r a i n s are w e l l f r a c t u r e d and a number o f d e f o r m a t i o n p e r i o d s are e v i d e n t - p a r a g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n s a r e not e v i d e n t i n t h i s s e c t i o n  184 20009, Weather - f o u r showings o f g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e are h o s t e d i n narrow f r a c t u r e b r e c c i a zones w i t h i n the Devonian aged Sombre and A r n i c a Formations (dolomite) near a t h r u s t f a u l t  - angular b r e c c i a t e d fragments o f m i c r i t i c grey d o l o m i t e h o s t rock are cemented by numerous s t a g e s o f a grey c a l c a r e o u s m i n e r a l , w h i t e s p a r r y c a l c i t e , s p h a l e r i t e , and galena - the s p h a l e r i t e i s medium t o f i n e - g r a i n e d , r e d to orange i n c o l o u r and l o c a l l y o c c u r s as coarse c r y s t a l s i n vugs - the g a l e n a forms medium t o c o a r s e s i z e d g r a i n s o c c u r r i n g as d i s c r e t e or i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p h a l e r i t e - s e c t i o n 20009^1 c o n s i s t s o f massive y e l l o w orange s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h t r a c e s o f d i s s e m i n a t e d and r a r e g a l e n a g r a i n s - p y r i t e i s also associated with sparry c a l c i t e that f i l l s fractures i n sphalerite - the paragenesis' i s : s p h a l e r i t e galena pyrite — calcite  20012, Twitya - g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h minor q u a r t z , c a l c i t e and t e t r a h e d r i t e , occur i n b r e c c i a t e d , d o l o m i t i z e d r e e f o i d l i m e s t o n e i n the S i l u r i a n to Devonian aged Delorme and Devonian aged C a m s e l l Formations - the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n f i l l s c r o s s c u t t i n g f r a c t u r e s , forms b r e c c i a m a t r i c e s , r e p l a c e s f o s s i l s , . and i s d i s s e m i n a t e d throughout - low grade s t r a t i f o r m d i s s e m i n a t i o n s , o f s p h a l e r i t e and galena have been r e m o b i l i z e d and upgraded i n b r e c c i a and f r a c t u r e zones a d j a c e n t t o a t h r u s t f a u l t  - the h o s t i s a grey f i n e to medium g r a i n e d d o l o m i t i z e d l i m e s t o n e , b r e c c i a t e d and l o c a l l y h e a v i l y a l t e r e d - s p a r r y c a l c i t e i n f i l l s the h o s t and i s accompanied by c o a r s e red to amber s p h a l e r i t e and l e s s e r amounts of g a l e n a - l o c a l r u s t y zones i n d i c a t e p y r i t e i s p r e s e n t - s p h a l e r i t e a l s o occurs i n massive coarse c r y s t a l l i n e phases w i t h f i n e t r a c e s . o f galena - s e c t i o n 20012-11 c o n s i s t s o f massive, deep amber t o y e l l o w green s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h t r a c e s of f i n e g a l e n a g r a i n s i n f r a c t u r e between, and l o c a l l y p a r t i a l l y r e p l a c i n g , the s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n s - f i n e c a l c i t e f i l l s l a t e stage f r a c t u r e s - p y r i t e o c c u r s as r a r e t r a c e s w i t h i n the s p h a l e r i t e o r between the s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n s  185 - the p a r a g e n e s i s appears to be:  sphalerite galena pyrite calcite  Temp.:  - f l u i d i n c l u s i o n homogenization temperatures on s p h a l e r i t e from t h i s d e p o s i t were 308.1°C (20012-4a) and 204.0°C (20012-4b) (Table A - l ) - a l s o , a s u l p h u r i s o t o p e a n a l y s i s performed on galena-sphalerite p a i r s from t h i s d e p o s i t y i e l d e d a temperature of 400°C (20012-1) (Table A-2)  Identity:  20013 ' Essau  Geodata:  Spec. DesCr. Hand:  Polished:  s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h minor g a l e n a , f i l l ' s vugs i n a d o l o m l t i c l i m e s t o n e o f H a d r y n i a n age v e i n l e t s and d i s s e m i n a t i o n s o c c u r l o c a l l y a dark grey m i c r i t i c d o l o m i t i c h o s t has been b r e c c i a t e d and appears to have been p a r t i a l l y d i s s o l v e d i n t o rounded i r r e g u l a r fragments the m a t r i x appears to have formed i n i t i a l l y from coarse g r a i n e d , orange c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e i n rounded g r a i n s w h i c h was f o l l o w e d by w h i t e , c r y s t a l l i n e quartz i n f i l l i n g f r a c t u r e s through the h o s t r o c k fragments and e n c l o s i n g the s p h a l e r i t e grains the host i s m a c r o c r y s t a l l i n e , c o n t a i n s t r a c e s of d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e , and i s cut by f r a c t u r e s which a l s o c o n t a i n p y r i t e ( s e c t i o n 20013-1) s p h a l e r i t e occurs i n the m a t r i x as c o a r s e c r y s t a l l i n e g r a i n s , somewhat f r a c t u r e d and c o n t a i n i n g c a l c i t e t r a c e s i n the fractures q u a r t z forms the remainder o f the m a t r i x , e n c l o s i n g both the s p h a l e r i t e and the h o s t rock fragments a complete p a r a g e n e s i s i s not shown i n t h i s s e c t i o n  Identity:  20015,  Jim  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h minor g a l e n a , o c c u r s as v e i n l e t s i n h i g h l y f r a c t u r e d grey d o l o m i t e of Devonian age  Spec. Descr, - l i t t l e of the h o s t d o l o m i t e i s p r e s e n t i n specimens a v a i l a b l e Hand: - specimens c o n s i s t m a i n l y o f s p h a l e r i t e i n two forms; f i n e g r a i n e d green s p h a l e r i t e i s dominant and i s cut by f r a c t u r e s c o n t a i n i n g c o a r s e r orange s p h a l e r i t e , s p a r r y c a l c i t e , and  186 minor g a l e n a - one specimen c o n s i s t s of massive orange s p h a l e r i t e which i s w e l l f r a c t u r e d and i n f i l l e d w i t h s p a r r y and some g a l e n a Polished:  - s e c t i o n 20015-1 c o n s i s t s o f massive coarse g r a i n e d s p h a l e r i t e w i t h abundant carbonate i n c l u s i o n s throughout - f r a c t u r e s through the s p h a l e r i t e are f i l l e d w i t h carbonate as well - g a l e n a o c c u r s as i r r e g u l a r d i s s e m i n a t i o n s - paragenesis i s : galena sphalerite pyrite — calcite  Identity:  20019, G i l d e r s l e e v e  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h minor g a l e n a , occurs i n t h r e e s e p a r a t e s t r a t i f o r m m i n e r a l i z e d h o r i z o n s i n the Lower Cambrian Sekwi Formation i n d o l o m i t e slump b r e c c i a s  Spec. Descr. Hand:  Polished:  the h o s t i s a f i n e g r a i n e d c r y s t a l l i n e d o l o m i t e , l o c a l l y banded w i t h s o f t sediment d e f o r m a t i o n f e a t u r e s f i n e g r a i n e d green s p h a l e r i t e . o c c u r s throughout most of the h o s t , and a medium g r a i n e d green to amber s p h a l e r i t e o c c u r s i n scattered blebs l o c a l l y , b r e c c i a i n f i l l i n g s o f g r e e n i s h s p h a l e r i t e are f o l l o w e d by coarse w h i t e s p a r r y c a l c i t e the h o s t i s a m i c r i t i c d o l o m i t e w i t h abundant d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e ( s e c t i o n 20019-1), b r e c c i a t e d i n t o a n g u l a r fragments c a l c i t e o r s p h a l e r i t e . m a y o c c u r around the h o s t r o c k fragments s p h a l e r i t e occurs as c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e , r e l a t i v e l y pure g r a i n s ; f i n e f r a c t u r e s i n the s p h a l e r i t e are f i l l e d w i t h calcite p y r i t e occurs as d i s s e m i n a t i o n s , mainly i n s p a r r y c a l c i t e a r e a s , b u t l o c a l l y i s found w i t h i n c a l c i t e f i l l e d f r a c t u r e s through the s p h a l e r i t e s p a r r y c a l c i t e i s the f i n a l stage paragenesis i s : s p h a l e r i t e pyrite calcite  Identity:  20020, Mogul  GeOdata:  - s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h minor galena, occurs i n b r e c c i a zones i n a r g i l l a c e o u s dolomites o f the Sekwi Formation of Lower Cambrian age  187 - p o s s i b l y r e l a t e d t o a nearby  thrust  fault  Spec. Descr.: Hand: - the h o s t i s a f i n e g r a i n e d grey d o l o m i t e , l o c a l l y b r e c c i a t e d - f i n e g r a i n e d green s p h a l e r i t e occurs throughout o r as c o a r s e greenish-brown g r a i n s i n the b r e c c i a m a t r i x - p y r i t e i s a l s o common as f i n e d i s s e m i n a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s p h a l e r i t e - s p a r r y c a l c i t e occurs as a l a t e stage Polished:  - s e c t i o n 20020-3 r e v e a l s t h a t t h e m a c r o c r y s t a l l i n e d o l o m i t e h o s t c o n t a i n s abundant f i n e d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e - s p h a l e r i t e occurs as coarse c r y s t a l l i n e g r a i n s w i t h i n c l u s i o n s of carbonate w i t h i n g r a i n s and i n f r a c t u r e s through the sphalerite - p y r i t e i s commonly found w i t h the carbonate and l o c a l l y i n the fractures i n sphalerite - the carbonate cement i s v e r y g r a n u l a r and may be s l i g h t l y re-crystallized - p a r a g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n s a r e obscure In t h i s s e c t i o n  Identity:  20021, F.C. Claims  Geodata:  - massive s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h b a r i t e and minor g a l e n a , f i l l a s o l u t i o n b r e c c i a i n the Devonian Camsell Formation l i m e s t o n e  Spec. Descr.: Hand:  Polished:  a m i c r i t i c grey d o l o m i t e h o s t i s b r e c c i a t e d i n t o a n g u l a r fragments and cemented by narrow i n f i l l i n g s o f medium to c o a r s e g r a i n e d amber s p h a l e r i t e f o l l o w e d by w h i t e s p a r r y d o l o m i t e - s e c t i o n 20021-1 ( P l a t e A-3) r e v e a l s the m a c r o c r y s t a l l i n e d o l o m i t e h o s t bears d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e throughout; l o c a l l y p y r i t e forms medium g r a i n e d dense aggregates - angular b r e c c i a fragments o f the h o s t rock a r e rimmed by a narrow s p a r r y carbonate l a y e r - the dominant m a t r i x m a t e r i a l i s a c o a r s e c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e which c o n t a i n s t r a c e s o f p y r i t e and carbonate as i n c l u s i o n s and as f r a c t u r e f i l l i n g s - s p a r r y c a l c i t e forms the e a r l i e s t and l a t e s t phases i n m a t r i x infillings - the p a r a g e n e s i s i s : s p h a l e r i t e pyrite — calcite  188 Identity:  20023, Rev  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e and galena o c c u r s i n v e i n s and as d i s s e m i n a t i o n s a t f o u r showings a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a u l t s i n the O r d o v i c i a n to S i l u r i a n aged Mt. K i n d l e Formation d o l o m i t e s  Spec. Descr. Hand:  a f o s s i l i f e r o u s d o l o m i t e h o s t , w i t h l o c a l arenaceous l a y e r s , c o n t a i n s v e i n s and s o l u t i o n c a v i t i e s i n f i l l e d w i t h massive coarse c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e , g a l e n a , and s p a r r y d o l o m i t e (Plate A-l) the s p h a l e r i t e may be massive orange, green, o r c o l o u r l e s s and i s i n t i m a t e w i t h coarse g a l e n a where t h i s i s p r e s e n t s p a r r y d o l o m i t e f i l l s vugs as a l a t e stage much s m i t h s o n i t e i s l o c a l l y p r e s e n t l o c a l l y q u a r t z c r y s t a l s o c c u r as a f i n a l stage  Polished:  two s e c t i o n s were s t u d i e d (20023-126, 20023-127, 128) the s e c t i o n s c o n t a i n massive, c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e w i t h t r a c e I n c l u s i o n s o f f i n e p y r i t e and some s p a r r y c a l c i t e s e c t i o n 127,128 c o n t a i n s two d i s t i n c t c o l o u r s o f s p h a l e r i t e i n t i m a t e l y intergrown i n one hand specimen (127 i s b r i g h t orange, 128 i s c o l o u r l e s s t o p a l e g r e e n ) ; t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s o n l y v i s i b l e under c r o s s e d n i c o l s complete p a r a g e n e s i s i s n o t seen i n these s e c t i o n s  Temp.:  f l u i d i n c l u s i o n homogenization temperatures p r o v i d e d r e s u l t s of 187.3°C on s p h a l e r i t e (20023-67) and o f 210.7°C on quartz (20023-99a) (Table A - l ) ; note t h a t these specimens a r e from d i f f e r e n t showings on t h i s p r o p e r t y sulphur isotope a n a l y s i s of g a l e n a - s p h a l e r i t e p a i r s y i e l d e d temperatures o f 220°C (20023-14) arid 215°C (20023-24) f o r the Main showing, 325°C (20023-98) f o r the W a t e r f a l l showing, and 670°C (20023-146) f o r the West C i r q u e showing ( T a b l e A-2)  Identity:  20024, Gayna R i v e r  Geodata:  - numerous s p h a l e r i t e and galena showings a r e h o s t e d i n b r e c c i a t ed Hadrynian d o l o m i t e s - most o f the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s near t o a l i m e s t o n e - d o l o m i t e i n t e r f a c e i n c o l l a p s e b r e c c i a s along a s i n g l e h o r i z o n - the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s a l s o near t o a s h a l e - c a r b o n a t e f a c i e s change - the showings i n c l u d e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n 1) f r a g m e n t a l slump and t a l u s b r e c c i a s , 2) s t o m a t o l i t i c r e e f o i d f l a n k s , and 3) f i s s u r e veins - e x t e n s i v e gypsum i s p r e s e n t i n the a r e a  Spec. Descr.: Hand:  the h o s t - i s a f i n e g r a i n e d grey m i c r i t i c d o l o m i t e , w e l l b r e c c i a t e d i n t o a n g u l a r fragments, and cut by carbonate and sulphide v e i n l e t s  189 - the b r e c c i a m a t r i x c o n s i s t s o f w h i t e s p a r r y c a l c i t e f o l l o w e d by coarse g r a i n e d c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e o f amber t o orange c o l o u r , c o a r s e g r a i n e d g a l e n a , and much p y r i t e - l o c a l l y some massive p i e c e s o f c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e b e a r s i n t e r s t i t i a l p y r i t e and l a t e stage c a l c i t e - some vugs a r e f i l l e d w i t h c a l c i t e and c r y s t a l l i n e p u r p l e fluorite Polished;  - the s e c t i o n s s t u d i e d (20024-5 and 20024-8) do n o t c o n t a i n any host rock m a t e r i a l - s e c t i o n 20024-5 c o n t a i n s abundant e u h e d r a l p y r i t e and c a l c i t e g r a i n s s e t i n coarse g r a i n e d s p h a l e r i t e - p y r i t e and c a l c i t e a r e a l s o o f t e n w e l l rounded and a r e found a l o n g s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n boundaries as w e l l as throughout the sphalerite i t s e l f - the s p h a l e r i t e i n t h i s s e c t i o n appears to be a l a t e s t a g e , e n c l o s i n g a l l p r e v i o u s phases - s e c t i o n 20024-8 c o n t a i n s coarse,: g r a n u l a r s p h a l e r i t e which a g a i n bears e u h e d r a l p y r i t e and c a l c i t e , b u t o n l y i n t r a c e quantities - otherwise carbonate forms the m a t r i x s u r r o u n d i n g the s p h a l e r i t e and some q u a r t z g r a i n s - the o v e r a l l p a r a g e n e s i s appears to be: s p h a l e r i t e pyrite calcite — quartz  Identity:  20025, T e g a r t  GeOdata:  - g a l e n a and s p h a l e r i t e o c c u r i n v a r i o u s m i n e r a l i z e d h o r i z o n s over a t h i c k n e s s o f 150 m. i n the upper Sekwi Formation (Lower Cambrian) and the Mt. K i n d l e Formation ( O r d o v i c i a n t o S i l u r i a n ) dolomites - m i n e r a l i z a t i o n appears t o be f r a c t u r e c o n t r o l l e d near a f a u l t zone  Spec. D e s c r . : Hand: - a medium t o f i n e g r a i n e d c r y s t a l l i n e grey d o l o m i t e w i t h a r e n aceous and vuggy p a r t s , comprises the h o s t ( P l a t e A-5) - the vugs and f r a c t u r e s a r e i n f i l l e d w i t h coarse c r y s t a l l i n e c a l c i t e f o l l o w e d by c o a r s e , green s p h a l e r i t e , l o c a l l y w i t h p y r i t e , and o f t e n a f i n a l stage o f e u h e d r a l quartz c r y s t a l s - some specimens a r e massive pure c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e - some b r e c c i a t e d specimens show p y r i t e rimming the dolomite h o s t fragments, which i s then f o l l o w e d by s p a r r y c a l c i t e and c o a r s e c r y s t a l s o f s p h a l e r i t e and galena Polished:  - two s e c t i o n s (20025-1 and 20025-11) r e v e a l a f i n e t o medium g r a i n e d p y r i t i e h o s t d o l o m i t e has been m i l d l y f r a c t u r e d and i n f i l l e d by coarse s p a r r y c a l c i t e and medium t o c o a r s e g r a i n e d crystalline sphalerite  190 - the s p h a l e r i t e l o c a l l y i n c l u d e s euhedral c a l c i t e rhombs - the complete p a r a g e n e s i s i s obscure i n these s e c t i o n s  Identity: Geodata:  20027,  Climax  s p h a l e r i t e and minor g a l e n a , w i t h e u h e d r a l q u a r t z c r y s t a l s b e a r i n g j a m e s o n i t e n e e d l e s , i s h o s t e d i n a Hadrynian d o l o m i t e  Spec. Descr, Hand: - the specimens p r e s e n t c o n s i s t of coarse g r a i n e d h i g h l y f r a c t u r e d and somewhat o x i d i z e d s p h a l e r i t e w i t h minor amounts o f g a l e n a , b o u l a n g e r i t e , and abundant e u h e d r a l q u a r t z ' c r y s t a l s which contain f i n e black jamesonite i n t e r n a l l y Polished:  - the specimens a v a i l a b l e were not s u i t a b l e f o r p o l i s h e d s e c t i o n s - p a r a g e n e t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s are taken from Penco (1976) - p a r a g e n e s i s appears to be r e l a t e d to two hydrothermal s t a g e s : 1) a phase of p r o d u c t i o n of m i l k y q u a r t z and f e r r o a n d o l o m i t e as open space f i l l i n g s , f o l l o w e d by c o l o u r l e s s e u h e d r a l quartz c r y s t a l s c o n t a i n i n g n e e d l e s of g a l e n a and b o u l a n g e r i t e 2) a phase of p r e c i p i t a t i o n of s p h a l e r i t e , t e t r a h e d r i t e , b o u l a n g e r i t e , galena, and minor p y r i t e c o m p l e t e l y o r p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d the remaining v o i d s  Temp.:  - f l u i d i n c l u s i o n homogenization temperatures on s p h a l e r i t e produced r e s u l t s of 246.4°C (20027-1) t o 278.0°C (20027-3); f l u i d i n c l u s i o n s i n q u a r t z y i e l d e d s i m i l a r temperatures of 270°C (Table A - l )  Identity:  20032, Mountain R i v e r  Geodata:  — s p h a l e r i t e and galena o c c u r i n q u a r t z - c a l c i t e v e i n s and b r e c c i a zones i n . the S i l u r i a n to Devonian aged Delorme Formation d o l o mites  Spec. Descr, Hand:  Polished:  the f r a c t u r e d , medium to f i n e g r a i n e d , grey d o l o m i t e h o s t rock c o n t a i n s t h i n c a l c i t e v e i n l e t s , which i n t h i s specimen, b e a r medium g r a i n e d c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e of dark amber c o l o u r the s p h a l e r i t e l o c a l l y c o n t a i n s i n c l u s i o n s of f i n e g a l e n a s e c t i o n 20032-1 r e v e a l s the h o s t d o l o m i t e i s m a c r o c r y s t a l l i n e and c o n t a i n s r a r e t r a c e s o f d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e a l s o t h i n v e i n l e t s of s p a r r y c a l c i t e and d i s s e m i n a t e d s p h a l e r i t e cut through the h o s t fragments  191 - s p h a l e r i t e occurs as massive c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e m a t e r i a l which i s w e l l f r a c t u r e d and c u t by t h i n v e i n l e t s o f s p a r r y carbonate - much o f the s p h a l e r i t e i s f r e e o f i n c l u s i o n s , however near the c o n t a c t w i t h the h o s t d o l o m i t e i r r e g u l a r g r a i n s o f g a l e n a and s p a r r y carbonate occur; these g r a i n s appear i n p a r t t o be r e p l a c i n g the s p h a l e r i t e - the p a r a g e n e s i s appears t o be: s p h a l e r i t e galena carbonate  Identity:  20034, K i n d  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e and galena a r e h o s t e d i n the O r d o v i c i a n to S i l u r i a n aged Mt. K i n d l e Formation dolomites  Spec. Descr, Hand:  a b r e c c i a t e d , grey arenaceous d o l o m i t e w i t h abundant c a l c i t e s t r i n g e r s i s cemented by a m a t r i x o f c o a r s e s p a r r y w h i t e c a l c i t e f o l l o w e d by green t o r e d c o a r s e c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e and q u a r t z c r y s t a l s  Polished:  - s e c t i o n 20034-1 r e v e a l s t h a t the h o s t r o c k fragments a r e o f a medium g r a i n e d c r y s t a l l i n e d o l o m i t e - s p a r r y c a l c i t e i s found a d j a c e n t t o the h o s t rock fragments - s p h a l e r i t e i s found as f i n e i n c l u s i o n s a t the o u t e r edge o f t h i s c a l c i t e zone and i t becomes massive and p a r t i a l l y r e p l a c e s the c a l c i t e - the s p h a l e r i t e i s f r a c t u r e d and i n f i l l e d x<rith t h i n v e i n l e t s o f calcite - g a l e n a i n c l u s i o n s w i t h i n deformed twin planes o f the s p h a l e r i t e a r e common, p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e t o the s p a r r y c a l c i t e and the host dolomite - the p a r a g e n e s i s i s : c a l c i t e sphalerite galena  Identity:  20035, Serem  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e and g a l e n a occur i n t h e O r d o v i c i a n t o S i l u r i a n aged Mt. K i n d l e Formation d o l o m i t e s , near t o a s h a l e - o u t  Spec. D e s c r . : Hand: - the h o s t r o c k i s a f i n e g r a i n e d grey d o l o m i t e b r e c c i a t e d i n t o a n g u l a r fragments and cemented i n a m a t r i x o f w h i t e s p a r r y calcite - red to green s p h a l e r i t e f i l l s vugs i n the c a l c i t e  192 - l o c a l l y some s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n s are e n c l o s e d by a l a t e r c a l c i t e - euhedral q u a r t z c r y s t a l s l o c a l l y f i l l some vugs as a l a s t stage Polished:  — the host d o l o m i t e i s f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e and c a r r i e s d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e ( s e c t i o n s 20035-2 and 20035-5) - c a l c i t e i s t h e - I n i t i a l phase s u r r o u n d i n g the h o s t fragments - the s p h a l e r i t e , f o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l c a l c i t e , tends to be massive, c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e , and c o n t a i n s f i n e f r a c t u r e s w h i c h are c a l c i t e f i l l e d - f i n e d i s s e m i n a t e d g r a i n s o f p y r i t e and g a l e n a are p r e s e n t - q u a r t z c r y s t a l s , s u b h e d r a l , a r e p r e s e n t w i t h the c a l c i t e m a t r i x and i n the s p h a l e r i t e - the p a r a g e n e s i s appears to be: sphalerite calcite pyrite galena quartz  Identity:  20036,Kwi  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e occurs i n the Lower Cambrian Sekwi dolomites  Formation  Spec. Descr.: Hand: - a f i n e g r a i n e d , b l a c k d o l o m i t e has been b r e c c i a t e d i n t o c o a r s e and f i n e a n g u l a r fragments which are cemented i n a m a t r i x of s p a r r y w h i t e c a l c i t e and green s p h a l e r i t e ( P l a t e A - l ) - the s p h a l e r i t e i s medium t o coarse g r a i n e d , l o c a l l y corrodes the h o s t d o l o m i t e , and i s i n p a r t e n c l o s e d by c a l c i t e - the c a l c i t e appears as a l a s t stage, cementing the m a t r i x fully Polished:  - the f i n e l y c r y s t a l l i n e d o l o m i t e host bears d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e throughout ( s e c t i o n 20036-1) - the s p h a l e r i t e i s c o a r s e l y . c r y s t a l l i n e and r e l a t i v e l y f r e e of i n c l u s i o n s , however i n t e r n a l f r a c t u r e s are c a l c i t e f i l l e d - the s p a r r y c a l c i t e appears to be contemporaneous w i t h s p h a l e r i t e as evidenced by r e g u l a r c o n t a c t s and i n c l u s i o n s o f one w i t h the o t h e r - l a t e stage e u h e d r a l q u a r t z c r y s t a l s . a r e p r e s e n t around b o t h the c a l c i t e and the s p h a l e r i t e - the p a r a g e n e s i s i s : s p h a l e r i t e —• calcite quartz  193 Identity:  20037, GJ  7/30/75  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e occurs i n a s t r o n g l y b r e c c i a t e d and g r a i n e d Devonian d o l o m i t e w i t h i n a f a u l t zone  fractured  fine  Spec. D e s c r . : Hand: — a m i c r i t i c dark grey d o l o m i t e has been b r e c c i a t e d and w e l l f r a c t u r e d and i n f i l l e d m a i n l y by orange s p h a l e r i t e i n t h i n v e i n l e t s and open space f i l l i n g s ( P l a t e A-2) - s p a r r y c a l c i t e forms rare, v e i n l e t s which are cut o f f by the sphalerite Polished:  - s e c t i o n 20037-1 r e v e a l s t h a t the m a c r o c r y s t a l l i n e d o l o m i t e h o s t c o n t a i n s d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e throughout - the h o s t rock i s h i g h l y fragmented and i n f i l l e d by r e l a t i v e l y pure medium g r a i n e d c r y s t a l l i n e s p h a l e r i t e - the s p h a l e r i t e has been f r a c t u r e d and cut by numerous s p a r r y c a l c i t e v e i n l e t s which l o c a l l y c a r r y s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n s i n t o v e i n l e t s through the h o s t fragments - the p a r a g e n e s i s i s : s p h a l e r i t e calcite  Identity:  20038, GJ  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e i s h o s t e d i n an O r d o v i c i a n to S i l u r i a n aged dolomite 1.5 km, from the K i n d d e p o s i t (20034)  Spec. Descr, Hand:  Polished:  7/14/75  a medium g r a i n e d , c r y s t a l l i n e , grey d o l o m i t e has been b r e c c i a t ed and c o n t a i n s v e i n l e t s , s o l u t i o n c a v i t y f i l l i n g s , and m a t r i x f i l l i n g s of coarse s p h a l e r i t e and s p a r r y d o l o m i t e s e c t i o n 20038—1 r e v e a l s t h a t the medium g r a i n e d d o l o m i t e h o s t bears d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e and i s o f t e n p a r t i a l l y d i s s o l v e d and cemented by s p a r r y d o l o m i t e sharp c o n t a c t s are seen between the s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n s and the sparry dolomite some i n c l u s i o n s o f d o l o m i t e i n s p h a l e r i t e o c c u r , but the c o a r s e s t s p h a l e r i t e tends to be f r e e of i n c l u s i o n s o t h e r than the dolomite f i l l e d f r a c t u r e s the p a r a g e n e s i s i s : s p h a l e r i t e calcite  Identity:  20039,  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e , w i t h minor g a l e n a and b a r i t e , i s h o s t e d i n Cambrian limestone  Gun  194 Spec. Descr, Hand:  Polished:  a f i n e to medium g r a i n e d g r a n u l a r l i m e s t o n e i s fragmented and r e p l a c e d by medium g r a i n e d g r a n u l a r s p h a l e r i t e the e n t i r e specimen appears r e - c r y s t a l l i z e d i n t o g r a n u l e s the specimen i s dominantly rounded, g r a i n s o f s p h a l e r i t e s e t i n a m a t r i x of s p a r r y c a l c i t e , and minor amounts of g r a n u l a r carbonate h o s t the boundary r e l a t i o n s tend to i n d i c a t e c o - p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f the s p h a l e r i t e and c a l c i t e f o l l o w e d by l a t e r r e - c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n t r a c e s o f d i s s e m i n a t e d p y r i t e are p r e s e n t w i t h i n b o t h the s p h a l e r i t e and the c a l c i t e the p a r a g e n e s i s i s : s p h a l e r i t e • pyrite calcite  Identity:  20040, GJ 7/27/75  Geodata:  - s p h a l e r i t e occurs i n the O r d o v i c i a n to S i l u r i a n Mt. K i n d l e Formation dolomite  Spec. Descr.: - p a l e grey, subrounded, m i c r i t i c d o l o m i t e b r e c c i a fragments Hand: are cemented by coarse w h i t e ' s p a r r y d o l o m i t e and c o a r s e green to orange s p h a l e r i t e b l e b s d i s t r i b u t e d throughout Polished:  1  - the medium g r a i n e d c r y s t a l l i n e d o l o m i t e h o s t fragments are somewhat corroded and r e p l a c e d by s p a r r y c a l c i t e and s p h a l e r i t e ( s e c t i o n 20040-1) - commonly, s p a r r y c a l c i t e forms narrow bands between s p h a l e r i t e and the h o s t r o c k fragments - some f i n e s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n s are i n c l u d e d i n s p a r r y m a t e r i a l - the p a r a g e n e s i s i s : c a l c i t e —-— — sphalerite  TABLE  FLUID  INCLUSION  AND  LAST  MELTING  CARBONATE  HOMOGENIZATION  HOSTED  ZINC-LEAD (after  NUMBER  SAMPLE  MIN.  A  and  10006  003  SL  PS  10006  005  SL  PS  10010  001  SL  10025  004  10025  TYPE  DEPOSIT .  5  DATA  FOR  INCLUSIONS  DEPOSITS,  Godwin,  LAST  6  A - l  Y . T .  AND  IN  MINERALS  ASSOCIATED  WITH  N.W.T.  1977)  MELTING  °C  •  7  •  HOMOGENIZATION  LOW  MEAN  HIGH  NO  LOW  ° C  7  MEAN  HIGH  NO  125.9  133.0  10  131.5  134.9  4  152.0  160.7  2  243.9  250.8  4  D  NEWT  -28.0  -23.2  -18.0  4  120.0  OR  S  NEWT  -13.5  -12.1  -9.4  6  124.0  P  OR  PS  ECONOMIC  -5.5  -4.6  -4.1  3  143.3  SL  P  and  PS  COMINCO  BC  -6.1  -5.5  -4.9  2  240.0  004  QZ  PS  COMINCO  BC  -3.4  -3.4  -3.4  4  163.2  165.0  10025  004  QZ  S  COMINCO  BC  —  -1.4  —  1  LOWER  10025  006  SL  P  COMINCO  BC  -4.9  -4.5  -4.0  2  230.0  238.2  250.8  5  1  —  158.8  —  1  146.0  150.5  155.0  4  •  and  PS  THAN  FOR  •  167.5  7  PS  1  10028  003  BA  P  COMINCO  -3.9  -3.6  -3.2  2  10033  013  SL  PS  GOZ  -6.8  -4.4  -4.. 5  '8  10033  022  SL  PS  GOZ  -12.3  -11.1  -9.5  4  169.9  171.6  10033  025  SL  PS  GOZ  -15.8  -15.7  -15.6  2  —  130.9  —  053  BA  P  OZ  0  345.0  351.0  353.0  10042  001  SL  PS  PROFEIT  -8.6  -7.3  -6.6  3  201.8  209.6  217.2  10042  003  SL  P  PROFEIT  -9.3  -9.3  -9.3  3  195.0  203.7  212.4  20012  004A  309.0  2  20012  004B  SL  —  1  20023  025  QZ  PS  20023  067  SL  P  20023  099A  QZ  PS  20027  001  SL  P  20027  002  SL  PS  20027  003  SL  P  10037  2  ^  A l l  5  Mineral  runs  host  g  Type  f l u i d  ^  Deposit  of  were  '  3  by to  3  J .  Temperature  McLeod,  f l u i d  data  i s  are  OR  PS  TWITYA  -2.8  -2.4  -2.1  2  307.2  308.1  P  OR  PS  TWITYA  -1.4  -1.3  -1.3  2  —  204.0  or  PS D  D  unless  e t c .  uncorrected  noted.  is  coded  l o c a t i o n ,  DONE  P  i n c l u s i o n  i n c l u s i o n  c h a r a c t e r ,  SL  NOT  .  coded  as as f o r  i n  P  or  4 •  3 2  (MAIN)  -7.0  -5.0  -3.0  4  (ESAU)  -15.7  -15.4  -15.1  2  180.0  187.3  190.0  9  REV  (WATF)  0  165.0  210.7  246.0  5  NOT  DONE  INCLUSIONS  LEAKED  0  CLIMAX  -8.7  -8.1  -7.5  4  200.5  246.3  279.0  4  CLIMAX  -9.0  -8.3  -7.6  2  265.5  2 6 7 .9  272.0  4  CLIMAX  -8.0  -6.9  -6.2  3  —  278.0  —  1  were  =  by SL  R. =  primary,  'fhie-preceding  pressure  ?  2 1  REV  follows:  follows:  173.3  REV  Runs as  '  Carne.  s p h a l e r i t e , PS  =  were  by  M.  quartz,  FU  =  pseudo-secondary,  d e s c r i p t i o n s .  instrument  Runs QZ  S  =  McArthur. =  f l u o r i t e ,  secondary,  D  BA =  =.;barite, daughter  CA  =.r.calcite..  product  noted.  .  d e v i a t i o n ;  c a l i b r a t i o n  chart  for  instrument  is  i n ' F i g u r e  A - l .  Figure A - i :  C a l i b r a t i o n curve ( A p r i l 1976) defining deviation i n temperature between consol read out and stage temperature. Chaixmeca f l u i d i n c l u s i o n heating and freezing stage, room 301, Department of Geological Sciences, U.B.C.  TABLE A-2 SULPHUR ISOTOPE ANALYSIS  OF GALENA-SPHALERITE PAIRS FROM CARBONATE  HOSTED ZINC-LEAD DEPOSITS, N.W.T. ( a f t e r Godwin, 1977)  NUMBER  NAME  N.T.S.  LAT,  LONG.  8S 0/00 GALENA SPHALERITE  20012-1  TWITYA (BEAR)  106/A/03  64.03  129.37  +10.38  20023-14  REV  106/A/03  64.13  129.33  +6.0  3  +9.4  106/A/03  64.13  129.33  +6.5  3  +10.0  106/A/03  64,13  129.33  +10.9  106/A/03  64.13  129.33  A S S 0/00 SPHALERITE-GALENA  34  APPX. TEMP.  1.81  400  3  3.4  220  3  3.5  215  2.2  325  0.95  670  +12.19  2  34  2  (MAIN SHOW) 20023-24 REV 20023-98  (MAIN SHOW)  +13.I '  3  3  4  REV 20023-146  11.4 ' 3  5  12.35 ' 3  6  (WATERFALL) REV (WEST CIRQUE) 2 A n a l y s e s by Dr. C.E. Rees, Department o f P h y s i c s , McMaster U n i v e r s i t y , Hamilton, O n t a r i o , L8S 4K1. ^ Mass spectrometry on samples c o n v e r t e d t o SF6. ^ Mass spectrometry o n samples c o n v e r t e d t o SO2. ^ Two s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s b o t h +13.1. g Two s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s both +11.4. -j Two s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s , one +12.3, the o t h e r +12.4. Temperature determined from graph by K a j i w a r a and Krouse, 1971 ( F i g . 1 ) .  198  a) Fragments o f d o l o m i t e host r o c k (dark grey) a r e h e l d i n a m a t r i x o f s p a r r y d o l o m i t e ( w h i t e ) and orange and green c o a r s e s p h a l e r i t e ( g r e y ) . (specimen 20023-141)  b) A d o l o m i t e host (dark grey) i s b r e c c i a t e d i n t o a n g u l a r fragments and i n f i l l e d by s p a r r y c a l c i t e (white) and green s p h a l e r i t e (grey) . L a t e c a l c i t e f i l l e d f r a c t u r e s c u t a l l fragments. (specimen 20036-1)  PLATE A - l : BRECCIA TEXTURES  199  a) Fragments o f h o s t d o l o m i t e (dark grey) are e n c l o s e d by a s p h a l e r i t e r i m (grey) . P y r i t e forms a band e x t e n d i n g through the specimen and c a l c i t e (white) f i l l s i n r e m a i n i n g s p a c e s . L a t e f r a c t u r e s c u t a l l o t h e r phases, (specimen 20036-1)  b) The h o s t d o l o m i t e (dark grey) has been b r e c c i a t e d and i n f i l l e d by orange s p h a l e r i t e (grey) and c a l c i t e ( w h i t e ) . Continued f r a c t u r i n g produced s p a r r y c a l c i t e v e i n l e t s throughout the specimen, (specimen 20037-1)  PLATE A-2:  BRECCIA TEXTURES  200  a) The l i m e s t o n e h o s t (dark grey) c o n t a i n i n g p y r i t e g r a i n s ( b r i g h t white) has been b r e c c i a t e d i n t o a n g u l a r fragments and i n f i l l e d by c o a r s e , r e l a t i v e l y pure s p h a l e r i t e ( p a l e g r e y ) . (specimen 20021-1; m a g n i f i c a t i o n X75)  b) Porous g r a n u l a r h o s t d o l o m i t e (grey, at l e f t ) has been fragmented and i n f i l l e d by s p a r r y d o l o m i t e (dark grey rhomb) and c o a r s e s p h a l e r i t e ( p a l e grey, c e n t r e ) ; t r a c e s of galena are a l s o p r e s e n t . (specimen 20004-1; m a g n i f i c a t i o n X75)  PLATE A-3:  BRECCIA TEXTURES  201  a) Brown d o l o m i t e (grey) w i t h abundant f i n e p y r i t e i s cut by a dark brown coarse s p h a l e r i t e v e i n l e t (dark grey) . (specimen 10044-1)  b) S u c c e s s i v e bands of brown-green (dark grey i n photo) and y e l l o w ( p a l e grey i n photo) s p h a l e r i t e form c o l l o f o r m l a y e r s over s p a r r y c a l c i t e (white) . C a l c i t e also occurs at l a t e r stages with s p h a l e r i t e . Traces of galena are p r e s e n t ( b l a c k speck, lower r i g h t ) . (specimen 10028-5)  PLATE A-4:  VEIN TEXTURES  202  a) Grey d o l o m i t e h o s t ( p a l e grey i n photo) i s arenaceous and vuggy. Vugs are i n f i l l e d by s p a r r y c a l c i t e (white) and dark brown s p h a l e r i t e (dark grey) . (specimen 20025-1)  PLATE A-5:  VUG AND CAVITY FILLING TEXTURE  203  APPENDIX B  REGIONAL GEOLOGIC MAP AND CORRELATION CHART  204 APPENDIX B  )  REGIONAL GEOLOGIC MAP AND CORRELATION CHART The r e g i o n a l g e o l o g i c map  ( F i g u r e 4-2) i n t h i s t h e s i s was c o m p i l e d from  a number o f sourcer.maps (Table B - l ) , G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada. the  a l l o f w h i c h a r e a v a i l a b l e from the  A c o r r e l a t i o n c h a r t o f map u n i t s from each o f  s o u r c e s used i s p r o v i d e d i n T a b l e B-2 s i n c e a l l u n i t s a r e not c o n s i s t e n t l y  named on each s o u r c e map.  The l e g e n d o f t h e c o m p i l a t i o n map i s b r o k e n down  i n t o r e g i o n a l u n i t s c o n s i d e r e d most c r i t i c a l t o t h i s s t u d y f o r r e g i o n a l m e t a l l o g e n y and i s based on age and l i t h o l o g y .  TABLE B - l SOURCES USED IN COMPILATION OF THE REGIONAL MAP NTS R e f e r e n c e  Source  Author  105 I  Map 18-1967  Green e t a l . , 1967  l"=4miles  105 P  GSC Paper 7.1.-22  B l u s s o n , 1971  l"=4miles  105 0,N  GSC.Open F i l e 205  B l u s s o n , 1974  l"=4miles  106 A,B  GSC Open F i l e 221  B l u s s o n , 1974  l"=4miles  106 A,B,C  GSC Open F i l e 205  B l u s s o n , 1974  l"=4miles  106 D, 116 A,B,C  GSC Memoir 364 Green, 1972  l"=4miles  106 E,F,K,L, 116 F,G,H,I,J,K,  GSC Map 101963  l"=16miles  (northern parts)  Approximate S c a l e  N o r r i s e t a l . , 1963  TABLE  B-2  REGIONAL CORRELATION CHART Green, 1972 106 D 116 A.B.C  U n i t s Used i n T h i s R e p o r t Age Formations or _____________ Lithologies  10b  Recent and Pleistocene  glacial t i l l s , landslides, alluvium.  26 g l a c i a l alluvium  Ccnozoic  intrusives Cretaceous  21  (mainly stocks)  till  intrusives  and  8b  Mlssissipplan t o Devonian  Devonian  Tv v o l c a n i c s Kg i n t r u s i v e s Kd i n t r u s i v e s Trq q u a r t z i t e and shale  16 - 25 s h a l e s , limestones, shiets q u a r t z i t e , some gabbro.  carbonates elastics  15 T a h k a n d i t Fm. Cp d o l o m i t e 14 l i m e s t o n e , s h a l e s h a l e and sanda cone  and  B l u s s o n , 1971 105 P 32 g l a c i a l alluvium  sedimentary cover Gone metamorphic rocks, dykes, s i l l s , etc.  Green et a l . , 1967 105 I  N o r r i s - e t a l . , 1963 n o r t h o f '65  till  31 i n t r u s i v e s  10 - 13 s h a l e s , sandstones, limestones.  and  9 limestone, shale, s a n d s t o n e , conglomerate  Besa R i v e r Fm. 'Black C l a s t i c ' unit  13a N a t i o n R i v e r Fm.DMss q u a r t z i t e 26 - 28 s h a l e 13 s h a l e , a r g i l l i t e . D M c g l c< nglomerate and q u a r t z i t e l i m e s t o n e , conglom- DM s h a l e , conglomerate erate DMs Besa R i v e r Fm. Ps s h a l e , a r g i l l i t e conglomerate  18 s h a l e , sandstone conglomerate  Nahanni Fm. H e a d l e s s Fm. L a n d r y Fm. A r n i c a Fm. Sombre Fm. Cams e l l Fin.  10 - 11 l i m e s t o n e and d o l o m i t e  17 Nahanni Fn. 7-8 s h a l e , sandstone, 16 Headless Fm. conglomerate, limestone. 15 l i m e s t o n e ( A r n i c a and Landry e q u i v a lents) 14 Landry Fm. 13 A r n i c a Fm. 12 Sombre Fm.  12  8a M l s s i s s i p p l a n to O r d o v i c i a n 7  B l u s s o n , 1974 106 A,B,C  Fm.  limestone  Dn Dh DI Da Ds Dc  Nahsnni Fm. Headless Fm. Landry Fm. A r n i c a Fn. Sombre Fm. • C a m s e l l Fm.  SI>c d o l o m i t e , limestone SDd Delorme Fm.  25 24 23 22 21  Nahanni Fm. Headless Fm. Landry Fm. A r n i c a Fm. Sombre Fm.  20 Delorme  6  S i l u r i a n to Devonian  Delorme  5  O r d o v i c i a n to Silurian  Road R i v e r Fm.(and enrbonnto f n c i e a equivalent) W h l t t a k e r Fm. Mt. K i n d l e Fa.  OSDr Road R i v e r Fm. 19 W h i t t a k e r 9 Road R i v e r Fm. OSk Mt. K i n d l e Fm. 8 dolomite, limes t o n e , soma v o l c a n ics  6  Upper Cambrian to O r d o v i c i a n  F r a n k l i n Mountain Fm. Sunblood Fm. some v o l c a n i c s  7 limestone, conglomerate  Ov v o l c a n i c s Co d o l o m i t e , limestone  3  Lower Cambrian  Sekwi Fm. Backbone Fm.  6 limestone, dolomite, shale 5 s a n d s t o n e , conglomerate  Cs Sekwi Fm. Cqc Backbone  2  Hadrynian  Sheepbed Fm. K e e l e Em. R a p i t a n Group (Grit Unit)  4 calcareous v o l c anics 3 R a p i t a n Group  HCs Sheepbed Fm. Hk K e e l e Fm. Hr R a p i t a n Group Hs G r i t U n i t  1  Helikian  L i t t l e D a l Fm. GSC U n i t H5 K a t h e r i n e Fm. T s e t z o e n e Fm. CSC U n i t HI  1-2 dolomite, shale.  He He  } }  Fm.  Fm.  6 Road R i v e r 5 carbonates  Fm.  18 Sunblood Fm. 17 d o l o m i t e , l i m e stone 16 s h a l e '  Fm.  11 Delorme  Fm.  9 Sunblood Fm. 7 limestone, dolomite, s i l t s t o n e  15 l i m e s t o n e , s h a l e 4 - 6 limestone, 3-4 conglomerate 14 Sekwi Fm. dolomite, s i l t s t o n e limestone,shale, 12 - 13 s i l t s t o n e , evaporites. quartzite 8-10 dolomite, 3 s i l t s t o n e , dolo- : siltstone, slate mite, q u a r t z i t e 5 - 7 -Rapitan Croup 2 K a t h e r i n e Fm. 1 phyll^te, quarti-  ite  O Ul  206  APPENDIX C  CALCULATIONS OF ANALYTICAL PRECISION AND  ANALYSES OF VARIANCE  207 APPENDIX C ^ CALCULATIONS  OF ANALYTICAL PRECISION AND  ANALYSES OF VARIANCE  C.1  Analytical  Precision  A n a l y t i c a l p r e c i s i o n was c a l c u l a t e d commercial mercury a n a l y s e s o n l y .  f o r t h e atomic a b s o r p t i o n and  The atomic a b s o r p t i o n method  17 samples which were a n a l y z e d i n t r i p l i c a t e has  been t r e a t e d  resenting  as two s e t s o f p a i r e d  (Figure  C-l).  included  Each  triplicate  a n a l y s e s , w i t h one s e t o f p a i r s  the p r e c i s i o n o f combined hand specimen sampling and a n a l y t i c a l  procedures  ( a n a l y t i c a l s e t one) and the o t h e r s e t r e p r e s e n t i n g Replicate  each element a r e l i s t e d i n Table C - l .  I t s h o u l d be noted that o n l y 13  duplicated that  samples were a v a i l a b l e t o o t e s t  sample a n a l y s e s f o r  f o r a n a l y t i c a l p r e c i s i o n o f mercury  sampling p r e c i s i o n o f mercury was not i n v e s t i g a t e d  I n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a was a v a i l a b l e results.  paired  analytical  p r e c i s i o n alone ( a n a l y t i c a l s e t two).  and  rep-  (Table  C-lg).  f o r p r e c i s i o n e s t i m a t e s o f n i c k e l and c o b a l t  T a b l e 3-4 r e c o r d s the p a i r e d  precision  tests.  208  HAND SPECIMEN  Separation Procedure  A  B  2  'Analytical Check'  Analytical Set Two  'Original Sample'  'Separation Check'  Analytical Set One  FIGURE C - l SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF SAMPLE SEPARATIONS AND GROUPINGS FOR PRECISION AND ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE CALCULATIONS  Analytical Procedure  P r e c i s i o n and Analysis of Variance Calculations  209 C.2  Analyses  of Variance  An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i s a s t a t i s t i c a l technique whereby the o v e r a l l v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n a s e t of data c a n be reduced component sources  of v a r i a b i l i t y .  and a t t r i b u t e d to a number o f  T h i s can be a c h i e v e d by t r e a t i n g  a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t as an e s t i m a t o r o f t h e expected t i o n s from v a r i o u s o t h e r s o u r c e s .  mean v a l u e p l u s c o n t r i b u -  I f an experiment has a s t r u c t u r e which  can attempt t o d e f i n e the prime s o u r c e s ,  then a measure o f each c o n t r i b u t i o n  to the v a r i a t i o n o f t h e a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t about the expected determined. w i l l permit  each  mean can be  Hence, a knowledge o f the r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f each the c o n f i d e n t u t i l i z a t i o n o f the o v e r a l l data  r e s t r i c t i o n s d i s c o v e r e d d u r i n g the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . of t h i s t e c h n i q u e  can be found  i n Walpole and Myers  source  s e t w i t h i n any Further discussion  (1972) o r Koch and L i n k  (1970) . In t h i s experiment, sources  of v a r i a b i l i t y  to be c o n s i d e r e d  a n a l y t i c a l v a r i a n c e v e r s u s hand specimen v a r i a n c e  (even  are:  1)  though t h i s has  a l r e a d y been examined w i t h i n the p r e c i s i o n a n a l y s i s , i t may be b r i e f l y re-examined w i t h i n the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t a b l e s ) , 2) o v e r a l l and  sampling  analytical  v a r i a n c e s between d e p o s i t s v e r s u s o v e r a l l a n a l y t i c a l and  sampling  v a r i a n c e s w i t h i n d e p o s i t s , and 3) the g e n e r a l data v a r i a b i l i t y between d e p o s i t s i n the r e g i o n v e r s u s those d e p o s i t s . 3) i s c r i t i c a l  Determining  the v a r i a b i l i t y o f the d a t a w i t h i n eachi of the r e l a t i v e importance o f the sources  i n 2) and  i n d e f i n i n g the c h a r a c t e r o f s p e c i f i c d e p o s i t s w i t h i n the  e n t i r e a r e a as a whole. The  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e treatment  uses a sum of squares method  whereby the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n v a r i a n c e can be expressed  as a sum o f the  between p o p u l a t i o n v a r i a n c e and the w i t h i n p o p u l a t i o n v a r i a n c e .  Calculations  i n t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e d i s p l a y e d as a r a t i o o f v a r i a n c e between these two  210 FIGURE C-2 TABULATION OF CALCULATIONS FOR AN ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE  Source  Degrees o f Freedom  Sum of Squares  r  Mean Square  Computed F  K  _K_  Total  Z_ 1=1  = SSB  K-l  2  SSB  S  = rp-r-  n  ...  F =  n ^L_(yij - y D j=l  ^ 1=1  x  (yx - y)  1=1  Within  2  ,—.  ^ ( y i j ~ y)  = SSW  =  S S  T  K(n-l)  S  2  =  2  K(n-l)  riK-1  j=l  K = # deposits  y l = d e p o s i t mean  n = # samples  y  = t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n mean  y i j = s i n g l e sample r e s u l t  sources,  the f i n a l  r a t i o h a v i n g an F - d i s t r i b u t i o n .  The e q u a t i o n s  used  ( c f . Walpole and Myers, 1972, p . 356) a r e shown i n F i g u r e C-2, B a s i c assumptions u n d e r l y i n g these t e s t s a r e t h a t the samples are randomly chosen from a normal p o p u l a t i o n . f o l l o w a log-normal  T r a c e element data g e n e r a l l y  d i s t r i b u t i o n and the sample p o p u l a t i o n used f o r these  t e s t s may not s t r i c t l y r e f l e c t  the same normal d i s t r i b u t i o n , but w i l l be  s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c u r a t e to ensure a meaningful p e r s . comm.).  test  ( S i n c l a i r , A . J . , 1977,  T h e r e f o r e , a l l c a l c u l a t i o n s were performed on l o g - t r a n s f o r m e d  data. A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e s u l t s , c a l c u l a t e d from data i n T a b l e C - l , a r e d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e C-2.  The computed F v a l u e  i s shown, along w i t h the  c r i t i c a l F v a l u e f o r a sample p o p u l a t i o n o f t h i s d e s i g n . the mean square  A comparison o f  v a l u e s f o r the w i t h i n sample p a i r v a r i a n c e of b o t h  analytical  s e t s one and two p r o v i d e s a r a t i o which a l s o f o l l o w s an F d i s t r i b u t i o n and  211 which y i e l d s i n f o r m a t i o n on v a r i a n c e due v a r i a n c e due  to a n a l y s i s alone.  F r a t i o of the two well.  to hand sampling and  Therefore,  f o r each element, the  comparison  a n a l y t i c a l s e t s i s a l s o shown, w i t h i t s c r i t i c a l v a l u e  These r e s u l t s were d i s c u s s e d i n the t e x t r e l a t i v e to the sources  variability  considered  ( r e f e r to Chapter 3, s e c t i o n 3.5).  c r i t i c a l F v a l u e s were determined u s i n g a one level  a n a l y s i s versus  (Walpole and Myers, 1972, It  the  confidence  Table V I I ) .  should be noted t h a t o n l y 13 samples were a n a l y z e d  mercury.  of  In a l l c a s e s  s i d e d t e s t at the. 95%  as  Specimens were not i n d e p e n d e n t l y  mercury a n a l y s i s , hence sampling v a r i a n c e s  separated  i n duplicate for  p r i o r to the  commercial  can not be c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h i s  element. A f u r t h e r t e s t was  performed to examine the v a r i a n c e of  specimens themselves, between and w i t h i n d e p o s i t s . hypothesis  T h i s was  individual to t e s t  t h a t the specimens from a s i n g l e d e p o s i t can c h a r a c t e r i z e t h a t  d e p o s i t r e l a t i v e to the v a r i a t i o n s found i n a l l samples a c r o s s the In t h i s case, chosen.  the  the n i n e d e p o s i t s h a v i n g  region.  a minimum of f i v e specimens each were  From d e p o s i t s c o n t a i n i n g more than f i v e specimens, a random  s e l e c t i o n of f i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was are r e c o r d e d  i n T a b l e C-3  sample d u p l i c a t e s , and  made.  The  r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s  f o r each element, p r e c i s e l y as i n the case of  are discussed  i n Chapter 5,  section  5.3.  V a r i a t i o n of a n a l y s e s w i t h i n and between d i s t i n c t c o l o u r groups a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d u s i n g an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e .  was  Ten  samples from each o f  the f o u r c o l o u r c a t e g o r i e s were used i n t h i s  t e s t and  the c a l c u l a t i o n s are  shown i n T a b l e  i s l i n Chapter 5, s e c t i o n  C-4.  D i s c u s s i o n of t h i s data  5.6,  TABLE C - l a SEVENTEEN TRIPLICATED SAMPLE ANALYSES ( l i s t e d as a n a l y t i c a l p a i r s ) (recorded i n ppm) Element:Silver A n a l y t i c a l Set One Sample Number  100C6 3  10024 1  10027 2  10033 14  10036 2  10042 1  10042 9  10044 1  20005 4  20008 9  20012 2  20023 '20023 96 126  20024 7  20025 1  20034 1  20035 1  V  13  11  7  295  28  15  • 36  5  4  0  3  3  6  8  0  0  5  B  13  10 •  3  288  27  19  35  5  5  0  3  2  6  •7  0  2  8  13  11  7  295  28  15  36  5  4  0  3  3  6  8  0  0  5  12  11  3  290  29  15  37  3  2  0  3  5  7  10  0  0  5  n a l y t i c a l Set Two A  l  ,  A  2  (0= not detected :  r e f e r to Table 3^-3 f o r d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s )  TABLE C-lb • •SEVENTEEN TRIPLICATED SAMPLE ANALYSES ( l i s t e d as a n a l y t i c a l p a i r s ) (recorded i n ppm) ElementtCadmium A n a l y t i c a l Set One 10006 10024 Sample Number 1 3  10027 2  10033 14  10036 2  10042 1  10042 9  10044 1  20005 4  20008 9  20012 2  20023 96  20023 126  20024 7  20025 1  20034 1  20035 1  l  1010  1548  2065  2401  1064  1599  1318  1760  4586  767  1560  2040  2511  1574  1618  1176  1184  B  940  1525  2065  1879  1155  1773  1308  1783  5504  791  1624  1939  2944  1374  1644  1194  1004  A  A n a l y t i c a l Set Two  A  2  1010  1548  "2065  2401  • 1064  1599  1318  1760  4586  767  1560  2040  2511  1574  1618  1176  1184  942  1327  1926  1953  1022  1618  1426  1755  4524  714  1,453  2048  2393  1539  . 1531  1090  1125  (0= not detected:  r e f e r to Table 3-3 f o r d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s )  TABLE C - l c SEVENTEEN TRIPLICATED SAMPLE ANALYSES ( l i s t e d as a n a l y t i c a l p a i r s ) (recorded i n ppm) Element:Copper A n a l y t i c a l Set One Sample Number l B A  10006 3 95 103  10024 1 26 33  10042 9  10036 2  10042 1  13 16  563 545  280 280  • 271 293  10027 2  10033 14  140 144  20005 4  20008 9  722 740  110 114  8 8  10044 1  20034 1  20035 1  20023 96  20023 126  20024 7  20025 1  29 31  5 21  12 39  525 .105  73 14  198 192  366 362  20012 2  l a l y t l c a l S e t Two A  l  A  2  95  26  140  . 13  563  280  271  722  110  8  29  5  12  525  73  198  366  92  29  152  16  558  280  272  733  110  8  29  5  58  519  71  191  367  1(0= not detected:  r e f e r to Table 3^-3 f o r d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s )  TABLE C-ld SEVENTEEN TRIPLICATED SAMPLE ANALYSES ( l i s t e d as a n a l y t i c a l p a i r s ) (recorded i n ppm) Element:Iron A n a l y t i c a l Set One Sample 10006 10024 Number 3 1 A  l  B  10027 2  10033 14  10036 2  10042 1  10042 9  10044 1  20005 4  20008 9  20012 2  20023 96  20023. 20024 126 7  20025 1  20034 1  20035 1 _  13280  4976  749  1701  3260  2319  2149  4954  4174  1590  124  421 •  411  117  481  726  290  12750  4990  728  1341  3403  2382  2117  5129  3220  1421  104  213  268  145  445  701  176  Analytical Set Two A  l  13280  4976  '749  1701  3260  2319  2149  4954  4174  1590  124  421  411  117  481  726  290  2  12520  5113  765  1739  3235  2957  2261  5391  3722  1426  .97  275  209  90  . 431  633  104  A  (0= not detected:  r e f e r to Table 3-3 f o r d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s )  TABLE C-le SEVENTEEN TRIPLICATED SAMPLE ANALYSES ( l i s t e d as a n a l y t i c a l pairs) (recorded i n ppm) Element:Manganese  A n a l y t i c a l Set One 10033 14  10036 2  10042 1  11  0  18  58  . 102  22  13  10  0  19  62  . 104  11  . 0  18  58  0  12  .69  Sample Number  10006 3  10024 1  l B  26  14  25  A  1C027 2  10042 9  10044 20005 4 1  20008 9  20012 2  20023 96  20024 7  20025 1  20034  1  20035 1  24  18  50  53.  46  46  8  35  28  24  24  13  39  43  36  .48  8:  33  24  102  22  24  18  50  53  46  46  8  35 '  28  122  31  24  18  49  55  49  49  8  36  26  20023 126  l a l y t i c a l Set Two A  A  i ;.  26  14  2  30  17 . 10  (0= not detected:  refer to Table 3^-3 f o r detection l i m i t s )  TABLE C - l f  A n a l y t i c a l Set One Sample 10006 10024 Number 3 1 A  l  B  3462 3450  •SEVENTEEN TRIPLICATED SAMPLE ANALYSES ( l i s t e d as a n a l y t i c a l pairs) (recorded i n ppm) Element:Lead 10027 2  10036 2  10042 9  10044 20005 1 4  347  659  870 612  336 .  870  802  86  29  47  330  719  29  50  10042 1  309 286  870  132  10033 14  20008 9  20012 2  20023 96  20023 126  20024 7  20025 1  20034 1  20035 1  84  463  573  370  92  476  755  30  18  56  29  13  11  55  19  336  84  463  573  30  18  56  29  l a l y t i c a l . Set Two  \  3462  870  • 132  29  50'  347  659  309  2  3422  904  123  35  42  327  619  317  A  767 394 110 546 916 22 • ' 16 19 51 (0= not detected: refer to Table 3-3 f o r detection l i m i t s )  TABLE C-lg THIRTEEN DUPLICATED SAMPLE ANALYSES (recorded i n ppm) Element: Mercury A n a l y t i c a l Set Two Sample Number  10006 2  10024 2  10025 4  10033 ft  10034 1  10042 20012 1 1  A  l  3.00  215.00 10.05 26.50  10.50  A  2  5.20  233.00  18.00 61.50 25.50  7.80  25.20  8.80  20012 20019 4 4  27.00 27.50 22.00  20023 20024 96 8  0.29  0.18  2.50  8.50  0.10  2.30  20025 20034 2 1_ 14.50 23.50 9.80  19.50  TABLE  ANALYSIS  OF  VARIANCE  OF  TABLE  C-2a  TRIPLICATED  ANALYSIS  SAMPLES  OF  VARIANCE  Set  A n a l y t i c a l  One  Sum  Source  Degrees  of  Between  of  Freedom  Squares  Mean  Computed  Square  Set  SAMPLES  One  Source  Sum  of  Degrees  Squares  F  of  Freedom  1.12  Between  0..81  16  12.99  TRIPLICATED  Element:Cadmium  E l e m e n t : S i l v e r  A n a l y t i c a l  OF  C-2b  Mean  Computed  Square  F  0.07  16  65.11  70.02 Within  T o t a l  A n a l y t i c a l  Set  Source  0.19  17  13.18  33  Within  0.01  T o t a l  A n a l y t i c a l  Two  Sum  Degrees  of  -Freedom  Squares  of  Computed  Mean Square  '  Set  Source  0.02  17  1.14  33  Two  Sum  Degrees  of  ^Freedom  Squares  F  0.001  of  Computed  Mean Square  '  F  N3  r-•  ON Between  16  13.79  0.86  Between  1.04  16  0.07  Within  0.01  17  0.006  T o t a l  1.05  33  86.46 Within  T o t a l  0.16  17  13.95  33  0.009  C r i t i c a l  F  Q  0  5  107.69  C r i t i c a l  ( 1 6 , 1 7 )  1.22  F  (17,17)  C r i t i c a l  F  &  2.29  0  ( 1 6 , 1 7 )  >  0  5  0  5  .{17,17)  2.29  2.29  Comparison  F  17,17)  Comparison  1.66-  F  (17,17)  C r i t i c a l  F  &  >  2.29  TABLE  ANALYSIS  OF  VARIANCE  OF  TRIPLICATED  Element:  A n a l y t i c a l  Set  TABLE  C-2c  ANALYSIS  SAMPLES  of  Degrees  Between  o f  Freedom  Squares  12.62  Mean  Computed  Square  Set  TRIPLICATED  SAMPLES  One -  Source  Sum  of  Degrees  Squares  F  Between  0.79  16  OF  Element:Iron  A n a l y t i c a l  Sum  VARIANCE  Copper  One  Source  OF  C-2d  11.68  of  Mean  Freedom  Square  16  0.73  Computed F  117.88  15.99 Within  To  A n a l y t i c a l  t a l  Set  Source  0.84  17  13.46  33  Within  A n a l y t i c a l  Sum  of  Degrees •Freedom  12.94  16  of  Computed  Mean Square  Set  Source  F  0.81  0.006  0.11 11.79  T o t a l  Two  Squares  Between  0.05  33  Two  Sum  Degrees  of  Squares  Between  •Freedom  of  Mean  Computed  Square  12.72  16  0.79  0.18  17  0.01  12.90  33  F  31.62 Within  T o t a l  0.43  17  13.37  33  73.64 Within  0.03  T o t a l  C r i t i c a l  F  0  0  5  ( 1 6 , 1 7 )  C r i t i c a l  2.29  Comparison  1.96  F  (17,17)  C r i t i c a l  F^  2.29  F  0  0  ( 1 6 , 1 7 )  S  2.29  0 f r  (17,17)  Comparison  0.60  F  (17.17)  C r i t i c a l  F  O  2.29  0  f  r  ( 1 7 , 1 7 )  TABLE  ANALYSIS  OF  VARIANCE  OF  TABLE  C-2e  TRIPLICATED  ANALYSIS  SAMPLES  OF  VARIANCE  Element:Manganese  A n a l y t i c a l  Set  A n a l y t i c a l  Sum  Degrees  o f  Between  o f  Freedom  Squares  Mean  Computed  Square  Set  SAMPLES  Lead  One  Source  Sum  of  Degrees  Between  of  Freedom  Squares  F  2.48.  16  39.65  TRIPLICATED  Element:  One•  Source  OF  C - 2 f  Computed F  0.97  16  15.55  Mean Square  1345.77 W i t h i n  0.03.  17  T o t a l  39.68  33  A n a l y t i c a l  Set  Source  112.91 Within  T o t a l  A n a l y t i c a l  Two  Sum  Degrees  of  •Freedom  Squares  Between  0.001  40.26  16  o f  Computed  Mean Square  Set  Source  17  15.70  33  Between  0.008  Two  Sum  of  Degrees  Squares  F  2.52  0.15  -'Freedom  of  Mean  Computed  Square  14.98  16  0.94  Within  0.07  17  0.004  T o t a l  15.05  33  F  228.28  1060.38 W i t h i n T o t a l  0.04  17  40.32  33  0.002  C r i t i c a l  F  0  <  0  5  C r i t i c a l  ( 1 6 , 1 7 )  0.50  F  (17,17)  C r i t i c a l  F  2  Q  . 2 9  0  0  ( 1 6 , 1 7 )  5  2.29  2.29  Comparison  F  0  5  (17,17)  Comparison  2.00.  F  (17.17)  C r i t i c a l  o  2  . 2 9  f  r  (17,17)  to i—• co  TABLE  'ANALYSIS  OF  VARIANCE  C-2g  OF  Element:  A n a l y t i c a l Source  Set  SAMPLES  Mercury  Two Sum  of  Squares Between  DUPLICATED  Degrees  of  Mean  Freedom  14.57  16  1.55  17  16.12  33  Computed  Square '  F  1.21 10.17  Within  T o t a l  0.12  C r i t i c a l  F  Q  2.72  0  5  (11,12)  TABLE TABLE  ANALYSIS ANALYSIS  OF  VARIANCE:  C-3b  C-3a  BETWEEN  AND  WITHIN  OF  VARIANCE:  BETWEEN  AND  WITHIN  DEPOSITS  DEPOSITS Element:  Cadmium  E l e m e n t : S i l v e r Deposits Deposits.  10027 1  4  10033 24  10037  20012.  10042  0  7  12  20023  20024  20025  50  3  0  20034 2  2  3  90  38  5  9  0  59  0  0  3  23  3  33  13  5  0  32  6  0  4  16  4  16  4  4  0 .  7  0  0  5  20  155  43  83  18  2  19  3  6  (0=not  detected:  r e f e r  to  Table  3-3  for  detection  l i m i t s )  1  10027  10033  10037  10042  20012  20023  20024  1548  1943  2105  1815  1436  2242  1739  20025 •  20034  1644  1194. 1381  2  2065  1680  1140  1443  1223  2569  1374  1752  3  2123  1460  2299  1605  1389  2000  1615  1400  1134  4  2359  1515  1733  1048  1166  1608  1374  1416  1584  5  2274  1622  2375  2827  1166  2114  1641  1015  (0=not  detected:  r e f e r  to  Table  3-3  for  .  1648  1 -i —  j d e t e c t i o n  l i m i t s )  to t-o O Source  Sum  of  Squares Between  Within  T o t a l  75.56  Degrees Freedom .  8  62.07  36  137.83  44  of  Source  Computed  Mean Square  Between  9.47  Sum  of  Squares  F  Degrees Freedom  of  Mean  Computed  Square  0.30  AO  5.46 Within  1.72 T o t a l  C r i t i c a l  F 2.22  F  0.03  0  5  (  8  » 3 ° )  0.25  36  0.55  44  0.007  C r i t i c a l  F  Q  05  (8,36)  2.22  TABLE  ANALYSIS  OF  VARIANCE:  C-3c  BETWEEN  Element:  TABLE  AND  WITHIN  DEPOSITS  ANALYSIS  OF  VARIANCE:  Copper  10033  10037  10042  20012  20023  20024  20025  20034  10027  20012  20023  1775  2873  1890  92  165  3572 .  729  1848  6654  2268  1042  175  2157  1246  1083  3781  2759  110  165  1958  1988  5803  50  4  2077  1159  5255  5321  47  286  145  1693  5872  68  5  2368  1304  5028  2220  241  185  340  1900  5561  145  335  .39  21  8  192.  1  1131  2  144  343  389  171  73  131  19  .20  29  2  3  157  26  337  31  110  5  40  26  21  3  4  222  18  218  214  47  9  105  26  5  209  160  524  317  241  4  38  60  to  Table  DEPOSITS  10042  42  r e f e r  WITHIN  10037  165  d e t e c t e d :  AND  Deposits  1  (0°not  BETWEEN  Element:Iron  Deposits 10027  C-3d  3-3  for  .  14  d e t e c t i o n  l i m i t s )  (0=not  10033  detected:  r e f e r  to  Table  3-3  for  20024  20025  20034  445  701.  .340  4629  d e t e c t i o n  l i m i t s )  ho  Source  Sum  o f  Squares Between . Within  T o t a l  Degrees Freedom  7.51 .  8  : 5.70  1  3  >  2  1  4  Mean  Computed  Square  Source  F  : 0 . 15  Between  of  Degrees .  Freedom  10.47  of  Mean  Computed  Square  Within  T o t a l  F  Q  2.22  >  0  5  ( 8 , 3 6 )  F  1.30  5.92  4  C r i t i c a l  Sum  Squares  0.93 :  36  o f  11.71 4.02  36  14.49  44  0.11  C r i t i c a l  F  Q  2.22  0  5  ( 8 , 3 6 )  TABLE  ANALYSIS  OF  VARIANCE:  C - 3  BETWEEN  Element:  TABLE  e  AND  WITHIN  ANALYSIS  DEPOSITS  OF  VARIANCE:  10033  10037  10042  20012  20023  20024  20025  10  2  16  86  22  35  36  .3  23  3  13  0  25  14  19  36  24  8  10  8  103  A  16  2  46  5  11  0  103  (0"Tiot  detected:  51  '  20  35  28  8  33  51  18  47  48  5  15  73  16  36  8  5  11  detection  l i m i t s )  r e f e r  to  Table  3-3  for  10027  20034  1 2  13  AND  WITHIN  DEPOSITS  Lead  Deposits  Deposits 10027  BETWEEN  Element:  Manganese  C-3f  1  10033  10037  20012  20023  20024  20025  2003  113  36  755  281  11  55  2814  10042  451  839  177  2  86  142  326  197  59  793  3  594  68  180  99  4837  463  146  4  266  73  95  21  281  476  13  12  8  5  710  0  621  1307  3284  760  0  36  40  (0=mot  detected:  r e f e r  to  Table  3-3  for  .0  80  21  detection  28  l i m i t s )  to . Source  Sum  of  Squares Between  Degrees Freedom  of  Mean  Computed  Square  25.59  8  3.20  Within  16.58  36  0.46  T  42.17  44  :  o  t  a  :  :  l  F  Source  Sum  Between  Squares 18.57  6.95  F  Q  2.22  0  5  ( 8 , 3 6 )  Degrees Freedom 8  • '  :  Within  T o t a l  C r i t i c a l  of  3  0  >  1  0  48.67  of  Mean  •' 3  6  Computed  Square 2.32 : .  F  2.77  Q  44  C r i t i c a l  F  0  2.22  >  0  5  ( 8 , 3 6 )  NJ N>  TABLE  ANALYSIS  OF  VARIANCE:  C-3  BETWEEN  Element:  g  AND  WITHIN  DEPOSITS  Mercury  Deposits 10027  1  10033  10037  10042  20012  20023  20024  20025  20034  192.5  120.5  12.0  45.5  23.5  0.2  2.2  12.0  23.5.  267.5  267.0  5.0  67.5  220.5  0.7  l'.!0  14.5  9.7  295.0  46.5  8.8  163.0  12.0  0.3  3.2  18.5  34.5  295.0  44.5  8.8  7.5  24.0  0.4  20.0  12.5  26.0  154.0  7.5  61.0  41.0  0.2  2.5  17.0  26.5  2 3 4  5  292.5  (0=not  detected:  r e f e r  to  Table  3-3  for  •  detection  l i m i t s )  NJ NJ Source  Sum  of  Squares Between  Degrees .  Freedom  29.14  of  Mean  Computed  Square  F  3.64 35.40  Within  T o t a l  3.70  32.84  0.10 44  C r i t i c a l  F  0  >  0  2.22  5  ( 8 , 3 6 )  TABLE  ANALYSIS  OF VARIANCE:  BETWEEN  TABLE  C-4a  AND W I T H I N  COLOUR  CATEGORIES  ANALYSIS  OF VARIANCE:  BETWEEN  1  10.5  1.8  Amber  Amber  0.0  155.3  1  1548  3445  1622  930  1584  4200  1138  719  1226  2511  1624  1522  1261  2  4.1  2.8  0.0  0.0  3  6.8  2.6  3.5  0.0  3  7  56.6  2.9  0.0  0.0  82.8  0.0  0.0  5.2  • 1200 1100  1529  85  1318  1943  1841  693  !  2388  1202  2000  1441  7  2827  4466  1945  2841  1374  2608  1526  4  .  0.0  0.0  23.9  35.6  0.0  6.1  2.3  27.4  , 5  §• 6 co  Amber  5  6  8  0.0  16.0  1.8  2.5  8  1377  9  58.6  0.0  1.8  9  1161  1629  2114  1641  5.5  1836  1196  2365  1528  10  (0=not  detected:  Source  Sum  refer  o f  to  Table  Degrees  Squares  o f  Freedom  Between  60.49  3  Within  23.09  36  Total  83.58  39  :  :  3-3  10  0.0  0.0  11.1  6.7  CATEGORIES  Green  Pale  Green  Orange  Orange  Dark  2  4 in cj  Amber  COLOUR  Colours  Colours Pale  AND W I T H I N  E l e m e n t : Cadmium  Element:Silver  Dark  C-4b  f o r  detection Mean  limits) Computed  Square  Source •  F  Between  20.16 •  3  1  -  4  2.90  Freedom  o f  Mean  Computed  Square 0.07  1.08  36  0.03  1.30  39  2.48  Total  0 5  Degrees  0.22  Within  FQ  o f  Squares  3  0.64  C r i t i c a l  Sum  (3,36)  C r i t i c a l  F  C  >  2.90  0  5  ( 3 , 3 6 )  TABLE C - 4 c ANALYSIS  O FV A R I A N C E :  TABLE C-4 d  BETWEEN AND WITHIN  COLOUR  CATEGORIES  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE: BETWEEN AND WITHIN COLOUR CATEGORIES Element: I r o n  Element: Copper  Colours  Colours Dark Amber  Pale Amber  Orange  Green  Dark Amber  Pale Amber  Green  1  26  13  160  31  1  4976  1712  1304  2500  2  164  10  8  8  2  35870  496  720  1304  18  1732  11  3  12  16  4  2149  u 5  3062  §" 6  2220  3  • 92 571  21  S5  271  41  8  40  219  13  5  44  317  10  6  131  622  99  19  9  7  8  3143  617  8  4  60  1311  297  13  4  210  9 10  12400  1* 6 o  7  '8 9 10  '  ' 1739  4  »  Orange  iH  " 7  1159  203  2603  .986 •  411  1837  1775  175  1011  1087  165  114  1836  183  288  2157  236  2022  516  185  1900  6365  290  2487 NJ  Source Between  Sum o f Squares  Degrees o f Freedom  8.16  Mean Square  Computed F  Source Between  2.72  Sum o f Squares  Degrees o f Freedom  5.50  Mean Square  Computed F  1.83 11.21  9.13  Within Total  10.72  36  18.88  39  0.30  Within Total  Critical  F  0 0 5  2.90  (3,36)  5.89  36  11.39  39  0.16  Critical  F  0 0 5  2.90  (3,36)  TABLE  ANALYSIS  OF VARIANCE:  BETWEEN Element:  TABLE  C-4- e  AND W I T H I N  COLOUR  CATEGORIES  ANALYSIS  OF VARIANCE:  BETWEEN Element:  Manganese  Amber  Amber  Orange  Green  0  0  13  1  870  255  0  229  13  0  15  6  2  451  91  263  1587  2  61  271  183  42  573  116  659  839  59  473  4975  640  463  24  1307  481  323  766  2067  793  476  0  15  62  760  36  36  71  650  22  3  83  0  2  0  4  11  0  46  3  102  8  35  15  116  5  36  14  4  .  5  detected:  Sum  o f  6.78  r e f e r  -  5 &6 cu  " 7  40  34  8  47  36  25  23  4 a  a  8  73  •3879  3 .  ?  Squares Between  Pale  1  8 9 10  Source  Dark  Amber  a  19  36  5  49  37  5  to  Table  Degrees Freedom  o f  3-3  f o r  8  9 10  d e t e c t i o n  Mean  limits)  Computed  Square  3  2.26  0.72  (0=not  Source -  F  25.85  36  T o t a l  32.63  39  Sum  F  0  2.90  Q  5  ( 3 , 3 6 )  r e f e r  o f  to  0  1  • '  f o r  d e t e c t i o n  Mean  l i m i t s )  Computed F  0.95 •  36  3  3-3  Square  3 :  35.16  g  o f  Freedom  2.85  3  Table  Degrees  Squares  : Within  T o t a l  C r i t i c a l  detected':  Between 3.]5  Within  CATEGORIES  Lead  14  5 £6  (0=not  COLOUR  Amber  m  «  Green  Orange  Pale  AND W I T H I N  Colours  Colours Dark  C-4f  0.97 0.98  9  C r i t i c a l  F  Q  2.90  Q  5  ( 3 , 3 6 )  TABLE  ANALYSIS  OF  VARIANCE:  BETWEEN  C-4g  AND  WITHIN  COLOUR  CATEGORIES  Element:Mercury  Colours  1 2  4 5  !• to to  6 7  8 9 10 (0=not  Source  Green  7.5  154.0  10.0  2.2  0.4  2.0  26.5  0.0  2.0  82.5  120.5  0.0  0.2  0.0  40.0  0.7  66.0  44.0  0.3  27.5  61.0  0.0  0.2  0.5  0.0  0.0  0.4  12.0  6.5  no  0,2  17.0  7.8  2.3  0.2  0.1  Pale  Amber  Amber  0.0 192.5 .0.0  3  m *-i  Orange  Dark  detected:  Sum  o f  Squares Between  r e f e r  to  Table  Degrees Freedom  of  3-3  0.0  .  for  detection  limits)  Computed  Mean  F  Square 1.36  4.07  0.64 W i t h i n  T o t a l  76.19  36  80.26  39  2.12  C r i t i c a l  F  Q  2.90  Q  5  ( 3 , 3 6 )  NJ  228  APPENDIX D  APPLICATION OF PROBABILITY GRAPHS  229 APPENDIX D APPLICATION OF PROBABILITY GRAPHS  The  application of probability  graphs to geochemical a n a l y s e s  affords  a simple method o f p a r t i t i o n i n g the data i n t o d i s t i n c t p o p u l a t i o n s and p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on each p o p u l a t i o n i n terms o f i t s mean, s t a n d a r d degree o f o v e r l a p w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g by S i n c l a i r  populations.  The method i s w e l l e x p l a i n e d  (1976) , hence no d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n i s p r o v i d e d  In t h i s study  d e v i a t i o n , and  the q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s  here.  f o r seven elements  ( n i c k e l and c o b a l t p r o v i d e d  insufficient  graphs ( F i g u r e s D-1: a-g).  P o p u l a t i o n s were p a r t i t i o n e d on t h e b a s i s o f  i n f l e c t i o n p o i n t s found The  i n the curve  data) were p l o t t e d as p r o b a b i l i t y  ( d e s i g n a t e d i n the f i g u r e s w i t h an arrow).  c l o s e d dots i n the f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t  the o r i g i n a l data p o i n t s , the open  c i r c l e s d e f i n e the p l o t s o f each p o p u l a t i o n r e c o n s t r u c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t 100% of a data p o p u l a t i o n , and the t r i a n g l e s d e f i n e a curve r e c o n s t r u c t e d by i d e a l combination  o f the p a r t i t i o n e d p o p u l a t i o n s .  The p e r c e n t a g e o f the t o t a l  d a t a , t h e mean, and the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a r e g i v e n f o r each p o p u l a t i o n . Plots of i n d i v i d u a l populations  d e r i v e d from an o r i g i n a l t r i m o d a l d i s t r i b u t i o n  are drawn from p l o t s o f the A-B and B-C p o p u l a t i o n s , r e c a l c u l a t e d to 100%. F o r t y - e i g h t data values  (one f o r each d e p o s i t ) were analyzed  (except mercury which p r o v i d e d 41 v a l u e s ) .  on each p l o t  T h i s s i z e o f sample p o p u l a t i o n ,  which i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l f o r a n a l y s i s by p r o b a b i l i t y graphs, n e c e s s i t a t e s c a u t i o n i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the graphs.  Nevertheless,  minor element abundances i n the p a r t i t i o n e d p o p u l a t i o n s cases  the differences i n a r e so g r e a t i n many  t h a t the v a l i d i t y o f the multi-modal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e d i n  F i g u r e s D - l a to D - l g i s u n d i s p u t a b l e .  230  FIGURE D - l a :  PROBABILITY GRAPH OF SILVER  231  1  2  6  K>  20  30  40  60  CUMULATIVE  60  7 0  «0  80  PERCENT  FIGURE D - l b : PROBABILITY GRAPH OF COPPER  98  1*  232  1  2  6  10  20  30  40  60  CUMULATIVE  60  70  60  »0  PERCENT  FIGURE D - l d : PROBABILITY GRAPH OF MERCURY  SS  9*  *•  234  1U  20  30  40  SO  CUMULATIVE  60  TO  PERCENT  FIGURE D - l e : PROBABILITY GRAPH OF CABHIUM  »8  I*  235  CUMULATIVE  FIGURE D - l f :  PERCENT  PROBABILITY GRAPH OF MANGANESE  236  CUMULATIVE  FIGURE D - l g :  PERCENT  PROBABILITY GRAPH OF LEAD  

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