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Quaternary geology : Coquitlam-Port Moody area, British Columbia Hicock, Stephen Robert 1976

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QUATERNARY  GEOLOGY:  PORT MOODY A R E A ,  COQUITLAM-  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  by B.  Sc.,  A Thesis the  Stephen Robert Hicock U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  Submitted  in  Requirements MASTER  Partial  Fulfillment  for  Degree  OF  the  of  SCIENCE  i n The F a c u l t y of G r a d u a t e Studies (Department of G e o l o g i c a l Sciences)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s to the r e q u i r e d  THE  U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H June, 1 9 7 6  © w  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  COLUMBIA  Stephen Robert Hicock, 1976  1973  of  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  fulfilment of  the requirements f o r  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  make i t  freely available  that permission  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  by h i s of  in p a r t i a l  representatives.  this  written  thesis  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  G-  &<S  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  20 75 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  permission.  Department of The  It  ^8JTU/L^  7&  /C^l. Columbia  not be allowed without my  Frontspiece: Stereo pair of Mary Hill Gravel Pit, Port Coquitlam, B.C. as it appeared in March, 1974.  ABSTRACT During underwent by  Quaternary  two  nonglacial  eustatic  and  relative  to  or  three  by  outwash  by  isostatic present  and  ice  sea  occurred  21,600  radiocarbon  yr.  before  on  Creek  Stade  at ional  B.  each  The  units  are  dimensional  cally. study carbon  in  is  separated  by  extremely  at  best  dates.  Semiahmoo? basically  The  time the  same  by  Coquitlam  which it  has  units  are  not  based  t e n t a t i v e and topography  of  must the  radiocarbon then.  possibly  (Fraser),  separated  was  been  and  the  earliest  25,000  the  Evans  Nine  than be  a  forunit.  three-  reshaped  Quaternary occur  strati-  sporadi-  three-dimensional  supported  area yr.  were  units  form-  described  representing  the  and  recognized  a geo1ogic-c1imatic  which  two  separated  Washington.  sediment  other  were  correlate with  landscapes  on  m,  glaciation  mapped  by  tectonic  (between  unconformities  and  230  advance  Stade  Drift  may  some  major  The  separated  to  tills  Coquitlam),  area  accompanied  up  ice  Consequently,  complex  since  last  representing by  of  and  buried  (>62,000  major  northwestern  new o n e s .  Correlations are  the  was  probably  represented  mainland;  irregular  replaced  each  B.P.)  probably  and  Moody  glaciations  changes  Coquitlam  1ithostratigraphic  area,  graphy  C.  the  discovered  the  and  with  (Quadra). by  major  glaciation  level,  (Vashon  represented  the  Each  During  is  Coqui11 am-Port  three  advances  deposits.  interstade  the  sea-level  Associated  local  stades an  possibly  intervals.  adjustment.  two  and  time  was B.P.)  by  radio-  developed and  has  before remained  Large buried lower  in  gravel uplands  Coquitlam  extensive  of  is  pit  reserve  zoning  the  and  River  the  outwash run  reserves  four  most  valuable  divisions.  the  types  in  mined.  very  phasing  reserves  the  with  area,  fill  Outwash  found  commonly  are  in  sediment  valley.  estimation  regulations  covering  in  occur  area  Buried  difficult, out  gravel  urban  and  of  occupying  gravels  the  many  are and  the  the  most  Vashon  landscapes and  them  make  municipal  operations  and  industrial  sub-  V.  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Page  ABSTRACT  iii  T A B L E OF CONTENTS L I S T OF T A B L E S L I S T OF F I G U R E S AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  V vi i viii xi i  CHAPTER  ONE:  PLATES  INTRODUCTION  A.  General  B.  Previous  T 1  Work  CHAPTER  TWO:  A. B. C. D. CHAPTER  Introduction Measured S e c t i o n s Diagrammatic Composite Sections Q u a t e r n a r y H i s t o r y and C o n c l u s i o n s THREE: LOWER COQUITLAM V A L L E Y  7 9 9 21 29  Introduction Measured S e c t i o n s Diagrammatic Composite Q u a t e r n a r y H i s t o r y and  29 32 32 38  A. B. C. D. CHAPTER A. B. C. D. CHAPTER  MARY  5  FOUR:  PORT  HILL  7  MOODY D I S P O S A L  In t r o d uc t i o n Measured S e c t i o n s Diagrammatic Composite Q u a t e r n a r y H i s t o r y and FIVE:  Sections Conclusions  QUATERNARY  SITE  STRATIGRAPHY  C o r r e l a t i o n of Sediment U n i t s C o m p o s i t e S e c t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n graphic Units  C.  Till  CHAPTER  SIX:  A. B. CHAPTER A. B. C.  Fraser  Glaciomarine  QUATERNARY  45 46 46 46  Section Conclusions  A. B.  and  45  54 of  Lithostrati-  Deposits  54  HISTORY  73  Lowland  73  C o q u i t l a m - P o r t Moody A r e a SEVEN: E N G I N E E R I N G AND ENVIRONMENTAL Construction Materials F o u n d a t i o n M a t e r i a l s and Sewage D i s p o s a l  54 58  Drainage  GEOLOGY  74 86 86 93 97  vi.  Page D.  Flood  E.  Slides  CHAPTER  EIGHT:  Control and  Washouts  CONCLUSIONS  98 98 101  A. Q u a t e r n a r y G e o l o g y B. E n g i n e e r i n g a n d E n v i r o n m e n t a l G e o l o g y C. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r S t u d y REFERENCES CITED  107  APPENDICES  110  1 Radiocarbon  101 103 105  Dates i n  2 , P e b b l e P r o v e n a n c e A n a l y s e s and L o c a l i t i e s 3 S t e r e o g r a m s and L o c a l i t i e s o f G l a c i a l D i a m i c t o n Pebble Fabric Analyses k Sediment Sample L o c a l i t i e s  112 113 114  VI1  LIST  OF  TABLES  Caption I.  II. III.  G r a v e l P i t O p e r a t i o n s on Lower C o q u i t l a m R i v e r Correlation  of  Page t h e West Valley  Lithostratigraphic  F o u n d a t i o n M a t e r i a l s and D r a i n a g e , C o q u i 1 1 a m - P o r t Moody A r e a , B.C.  Bank  Units  of  the  30 55 96  viii.  LIST  OF  FIGURES  AND  PLATES  Capt ion Fig.  Page  1.  I n d e x and G r a v e l P i t Geological Contacts.  Location  Maps  with  2.  Measured S t r a t i g r a p h i c S e c t i o n s , Mary G r a v e l P i t , P o r t C o q u i t l a m , B.C.  3.  Diagrammatic Cross S e c t i o n s : Gravel P i t , Port Coquitlam,  Mary B.C.  Hill  Hill  2 10 PockeJ^on back cover <Ubif- -> ,p  k.  Detailed G u l l y at  Diagrammatic Cross Section M e a s u r e d S e c t i o n B.  in  20  R e s u I t s o f Some F i e l d Work Done i n M a r y A, G l a c i a l Diamicton H i l l Gravel Pi t P e b b l e F a b r i c s : B, P a l e o c u r r e n t D a t a : C, P e b b l e P r o v e n a n c e ; D, G e n e r a l i z e d Regional Geology Showing Source Areas f o r P e b b l e s i n C.  23  6.  Measured S t r a t i g r a p h i c West Bank o f t h e Lower B.C.  33  7.  B l o c k D i a g r a m , West S l o p e o f t h e Lower Coquitlam River V a l l e y , B r i t i s h Columbia.  34  8.  R e s u l t s o f Some F i e l d Wrok Done i n t h e Lower C o q u i t l a m R i v e r V a l l e y G r a v e l P i t s : A , G l a c i a l D i a m i c t o n P e b b l e F a b r i c s ; B, P a l e o c u r r e n t D a t a ; C, P e b b l e P r o v e n a n c e ; D, G e n e r a l i z e d R e g i o n a l G e o l o g y Showing S o u r c e A r e a s f o r P e b b l e s i n C.  39  9.  H y p o t h e t i c a l Fence lam V a l l e y , B.C.  43a  S e c t i o n s in the Coquitlam Valley,  Diagram,  Lower  Coquit-  10.  Measured S t r a t i g r a p h i c S e c t i o n s at the P o r t Moody D i s p o s a l Site: A, S e c t i o n D e s c r i p t i o n s , B, S e d i m e n t S a m p l e L o c a t i o n s .  47  11.  D i a g r a m m a t i c C o m p o s i t e S e c t i o n , P o r t Moody Disposal S i t e , P o r t Moody, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  48  12.  R e s u l t s o f Some F i e l d Work Done a t t h e P o r t Moody D i s p o s a l Site: A, G l a c i a l D i a m i c t o n P e b b l e F a b r i c s ; B, P a l e o c u r r e n t D a t a ; C, P e b b l e P r o v e n a n c e ; D, G e n e r a l i z e d R e g i o n a l Geology Showing Source Areas f o r Pebbles in C .  50  Caption 13-  Hypothetical Reconstruction Developed During Quaternary Moody, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  ]k.  H y p o t h e t i c a l Quaternary Fence Diagram: Coq u i. 11 a m - P o r t Moody A r e a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  Plate  I :  Figs.  15"20  15-  Supra 1 i t t o r a 1 lag i n t o p l a t y Vashon  16.  Shell Fig.  cast  of P a r t s of H i l l Time Near P o r t  from  gravel grading downward lodgement t i l l , Mary Hill.  supra1 i t t o r a 1  lag  gravel  in  15-  17-  Foreset deltaic  18.  Fossi1iferous va1 l e y .  19.  Blocky Capilano g l a c i o m a r i n e stony clayey s i l t o v e r l y i n g p l a t y Vashon t i l l , Mary Hill.  20.  Compact, b o u l d e r y Ma r y H i l l .  Plate  2:  and t o p s e t bedded C a p i l a n o sand and g r a v e l , C o q u i t l a m  Figs.  marine  clayey  Vashon  silt,  raised valley. Coquitlam  lodgement  till,  21-26  21.  P o l i s h e d , g r o o v e d , s t r i a t e d , and c h a t t e r m a r k e d g r a n i t i c e r r a t i c r e s t i n g on V a s h o n t i l l , Mary Hill.  22.  F o r e s e t bedded Ma r y H i l l .  23.  C o n t o r t e d i c e c o n t a c t Vashon sand, and f l o w t i l l , C o q u i t l a m v a l l e y .  2h.  Cross-bedded Ma r y H i l l .  Quadra  Sand  (large  scale),  25.  Cross-bedded Mary Hill.  Quadra  Sand  (small  scale),  26.  Thin peat l a y e r o v e r l y i n g s i l t s , Mary Hill.  Plate 27.  3:  Thinly Drift,  Figs.  Vashon  outwash  sandy  gravel, gravel,  Semiahmoo?  stony  underlying  Vashon  27"32  bedded Quadra Sand Coquitlam v a l l e y .  X.  Caption  Page  28.  Load c a s t s , b a l l and p i l l o w s t r u c t u r e s , and c o n v o l u t e d b e d d i n g in s i l t y f i n e sand i n F i g . 27 .  29-  Massive  30.  Sharp a n g u l a r c o n t a c t : Coquitlam D r i f t o v e r l a i n by Q u a d r a S a n d a n d u n d e r l a i n by s a n d , e i t h e r Quadra of p a r t of the Cowichan Head F o r m a t i o n , M a r y Hill.  31.  C o w i c h a n Head f l u v i a l g r a v e l a n d s a n d u n c o n f o r m a b 1 y o v e r l y i n g C o w i c h a n Head? dense stony o r g a n i c c o l l u v i u m , M a r y Hill.  32.  C o w i c h a n Head? M a r y H i1 1 .  Plate 33-  34.  k:  stony  Figs.  Coquitlam D r i f t ,  stony  organic  Mary  Hill.  colluvium,  33-38  68  C o w i c h a n Head? w o o d - r i c h o r g a n i c s i l t layer ( c e n t r e of photo) between Quadra? l a m i n a t e d s i l t y f i n e sand ( a b o v e ) and Semiahmoo? till and o u t w a s h g r a v e l ( b e l o w ) , P o r t Moody, B.C. Buried landscape: C o w i c h a n Head p e a t l a y e r c o n t a i n i n g a f o s s i l s p r u c e stump ( b e l o w b o u l d e r in c e n t r e of photo) a b u t s a g a i n s t t h e s l o p e f o r m e d on C o w i c h a n H e a d ? s t o n y o r g a n i c c o l . 1.u v i urn , Ma r y H i l l .  35-  Fossil  spruce  stump  36.  Semiahmoo?  Drift,  37-  Semiahmoo? Fig. 36.  glaciomarine?  38. . S e m i a h m o o ? , p 1 a t y Plate  5:  Figs.  in  peat  Coquitlam  layer  Fig.  34.  valley.  stony  lodgement  in  clayey  till  in  silt  Fig.  in  36. 69  33-kh  39-  Semiahmoo? g 1 a c i o 1 a c u s t r i n e r h y t h m i c a l l y l a m i n a t e d s t o n y s i l t , Mary Hill.  40.  Semiahmoo?  41.  H i g h b u r y ? f l u v i a l t h i n l y bedded s a n d , silt, and m i n o r g r a v e l b e t w e e n Semiahmoo? outwash g r a v e l and sand ( a b o v e ) and W e s t l y n n ? outwash? gravel (below), Coquitlam v a l l e y .  proglacial  sand,  Port  Moody.  xi.  Caption thinly  bedded  Page  42.  Rippled, F i g . 41 .  Highbury?  sand  43.  Contact: s i l t , and overlying Coquitlam  44.  Semi-impervious Westlynn? outwash? gravel, Coquitlam v a l l e y .  in  H i g h b u r y ? t h i n l y bedded sand, minor gravel unconformab1y Westlynn? outwash? g r a v e l , valley. coarse  45 . . M a t r i x G r a i n S i z e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T i l l and Glaciomarine Deposits: A, P l o t o f Analyses B, A r e a s o f G r a i n S i z e D i s t r i b u t i o n .  71  46.  Inferred Ice Movement D i r e c t i o n s from Pebble F a b r i c s in Exposed Pleistocene Glacial Diamictons: C o q u i 1 1 a m - P o r t Moody Area, B r i t i s h Columbia.  75  47.  P a l e o c u r r e n t D i r e c t i o n s in Exposed Pleistoc e n e Sand and G r a v e l : C o q u i 1 1 a m - P o r t Moody Area, B r i t i s h Columbia.  48.  Pebble Provenance of Exposed Pleistocene Sediments: C o q u i 1 1 a m - P o r t Moody A r e a , B r i t i s h Columbia.  49.  Grain S i z e D i s t r i b u t i o n of P l e i s t o c e n e Gravel Deposits: C o q u i 1 1 a m - P o r t Moody A r e a , B r i t i s h Columbia. A, G l a c i a l Outwash B, R a i s e d D e l t a a n d A l l u v i a l F l o o d P l a i n C, S u p r a l i t t o r a l D, A r e a s o f G r a i n S i z e D i s t r i b u t i o n .  xii.  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The w r i t e r scientist  of  the  for  his  for  providing  both  to  W.  for  being  E.  R.  D.  M.  sity,  for  to  R.  G.  professor whose the  conversations,  to  W. A .  the  for  and  in  and  of  Dumas o f  information  of  the  the  Geological  about  also  and  while  extended of  for  of  G.S.C.  critically  the  Freund  of  granting  at  to  W.  thesis C.  the  Simon  to  for  the  R.  was  Barnes, Sciences,  of  the  thesis;  Fraser  Univer-  fabric  H.  data;  MacNeill,  University,  critically Aggregates Mary  the  writer;  pebble  Construction access  the  Department  Acadia  started,  providing  reading  writer's  drafting;  Department was  to  the  Department,  for  to  Terrain  Geological  also  in  for  dates; materials  G.S.C.  G.S.C.  J.  thesis E.  the  for  reading  organic  the  facilities  Geology  to  of  laboratory  analyses  the  to  Geography  the  radiocarbon on  Sciences,  preparation,  for  studies  the  British  Jr.,  both  Rau,  of  critically  Department  L.  reading  for  employment  is  U.B.C.,  the  computer  and  summer  Gratitude  Sciences,  manuscript;  area,  work, discussions,  and  insect  Ottawa;  providing  direction  Blake,  thesis  winter  in  professor  thesis  Matthews  Mark  critically  the  Kucera  Geological  for  Vancouver,  stimulating  in  professor  to  Mathews,  many  research  field  support  prepared.  for  and  supervising  financial  Division,  U.B.C.,  for  Division,  University  from  associate  topic,  in  senior  the  to  with  Sciences  support  otherwise,  Armstrong,  at  and  writer  E.  advisor  manuscript;  Sciences  J.  thesis  the  submitted  and  H.  enlightening  J . V.  to  Terrain  thesis  and  the w r i t e r ' s  Columbia,  to  G.S.C.,  the  geological  many  indebted  encouragement  manuscript; and  is  Hill  under  reading Ltd. gravel  for  pit;  to  Hill  gravel  ship  and  the  Mingrove, pit  and W.  typing  D. the  of  maps  head  since  operation  District  ation Mrs.  J.  to  1939, the  Coquitlam concerning  Hicock,  B.A.,  manuscript.  foreman, for  who  relating  writer;  to  Engineering the  has  B.  its  Thomas,  valley  the w r i t e r ' s  at  history P.  Department  Coquitlam  B.Ed.,  worked  the of  Eng.,  for  Mary owner and  inform-  pits;  and  mother,  for  to  xiv.  D ED I CAT I ON Dedicated whose in was  to  p a t i e n c e and  realizing surpassed  Fran understanding  the c o m p l e t i o n of only  by  her  this  work  encouragement.  CHAPTER  ONE:  INTRODUCTION  General The the  city  H9°13' It  Coqui11 am-Port of  and  lies  a  49°20'N,  at  contains  Vancouver  the  the  flat-lying  Fraser, Hill  is  employed Canada  Soon  after  B.C.  of  the  Rivers.  J.  E. to  of  assist  and  in  For  out  on  this  in  the  best  thesis  stratigraphic  the  the  exposed began,  it  contains  some  ically  Quaternary  deposits  in  ation  nonglacial  of This  gravel  study  pits  Pleistocene correlate  in  is the  glaciations, organic based area  sediments  these  are  sections  the  of  the  sea-level  Mary  of  of  terrain  studies  of  the  undertook and  pre-Vashon  Fraser  most  the  Quater-  where  Lowland.  realized the  was  that  the  stratigraph-  world,  whose  changes,  and  history the  form-  sediments.  on in  area,  was  the  Survey  writer  in  onto  west.  stratigraphy  Moody  by  detailed which  well and  investigations  stratigraphic  exposed  gain  an  and  is  of  eight  sections an  1)  and  the w r i t e r  revaluation  area  repeated  and  the  thesis  (Fig.  surrounds  in  Moody  involved  area  197^-76,  latitudes  opens  deposited  north  Coqui11 am-Port complex  which  Geological  Coqui11 am-Port are  the  by  of  Mountains  the  detail  km e a s t  122°53'W  of  Quaternary  B.C.  the  him  and  valley  This  work,  Armstrong  sediments work  field  to  20  Coast  sediments  uplands  time of  working  Pleistocene  end  Coquitlam  the  history  122°45'  and  maps  of  longitudes  by  by  located  approximately  underlain  Lowland,  problem  bounded  area  (G.S.C.)  Fraser  nary  southern  is  is  Coquitlam  with  inventory  and  bordered  During  and  area  g1 a c i e r - c a r v e d  Pitt,  and  Moody  of  attempt  understanding  of  the  to  2.  122°53  122°45'  (  Figure 1  INDEX AND GRAVEL P I T LOCATION MAPS WITH GEOLOGICAL CONTACTS Armstrong, i n p r e p . ) .  (based on  L E G E N D  for F i g u r e 1  Quaternary Deposits Holocene Holocene Sediments 13  Slopewash  12  Peat—bog, swamp, and shallow lake deposits.  11  Fraser River s e d i m e n t s — f l o o d p l a i n , channel, and estuarine s i l t , clay, and minor sand.  10  Lowland stream d e p o s i t s — channel and f l o o d p l a i n s i l t , clay, fine sand and minor gravel; may i n part be d e l t a i c deposits.  9  Mountain stream d e p o s i t s — c h a n n e l and d e l t a i c sand and gravel with minor s i l t and clay.  Holocene and Pleisocene 8  S a n d — f l o o d p l a i n , channel, and slopewash sand (Holocene); may i n part be reworked marine l i t t o r a l and beach sand (Pleistocene)  Pleistocene Capilano Sediments 7  Raised marine beach, s p i t , bar, and l a g veneer sand and gravel.  6  Raised i n t e r t i d a l and beach sand.  5  Raised d e l t a i c and channel f i l l sand and gravel.  Vashon D r i f t and Capilano Sediments 4  Glaciomarine stony s i l t loam and g l a c i a l deposits including t i l l , stony laminated s i l t s , and s u b s t r a t i f i e d g l a c i o f l u v i a l sand and gravel.  Vashon-Drift 3  T i l l , stony laminated s i l t s and s u b s t r a t i f i e d g l a c i o f l u v i a l sand and gravel.  Pre-Vashon Sediments 2  Sand, gravel, s i l t ,  clay, and t i l l underlying Vashon D r i f t .  Mesozoic B e d r o c k — g r a n i t i c and associated rock types a t or near the surface. Commonly o v e r l a i n by t i l l , s i l t , and outwash sand and g r a v e l .  Geological contact  /».../, Gravel P i t studied Gravel p i t s studied: A  Mary H i l l  B  Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t  C  Allard  D  Kask Bros.  E  Johnson  F  S and S and Columbia B i t u l i t h i c  G  Jack Cewe L t d .  H  Port Moody sanitary  landfill  depbsitiona1 during  processes  Quaternary  interpretation more  sources  time.  of  of  and  mechanisms  This  adjacent  granular  operating  should  areas  help  and  aggregate  in  the  the  area  the  geological  in  discovering  perhaps  in  in  Greater  Vancouver  area. Investigations radiocarbon  by  dating  sediments;  or  determination  and  sand  and  i m b r i c a t i o n ; stone  determine  gravel  of  samples  and  channel  step. the  up  face  and  concave  could  seen.  in  scraping  undisturbed Individual and  diagrammatic graphy  of  axes  cross  the  sediments.  were out  a  the  troughs  normal  exposures  of  glacial  cross pits  are  for  and  insect  long  pebble  Appendix  digging  into  in  view,  plan  Large  Fig.  form  a  in  were axes  done  by  as  they  axes  a  scale  2k)  paleochannel  2  (paleo  to  5 m;  to  and  surface  measuring occurred  diamictons. in  each  graphically  each  of  in  25).  were  sections  c o r r e l a t e d and sections  to  analyses  pebble  then  (Fig.  5 cm t o  of  size  cross-beds  by  measured  plunge  stratigraphic  scale  in  bedding,  grain  given  horizontal  then  widths  are  flow  diamictons  Analyses  determined  were  fabric  glacial  sediments;  small  the  foreset  the a r e a ;  the  on  sections  Pebble  d i r e c t i o n and  described  5 cm)  of  provenance  based  (paleochannel  where  be  of  d i r e c t i o n of  measured  the  to  Paleochannel  cross-beds  of  in  included  paleostream  cross-bedding,  flow  have  c o l l e c t e d from of  studies  analyses  directions  widths  sediment  from  some o r g a n i c - b e a r i n g  Paleocurrent  associates  directions  ice  calculations  and  materials  fabric  of  minera1ogica1  studies  of  units  directions  writer  organic  the  basic  the  pit.  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h one  gravel  pit  illustrated  are by  Finally  the  strati-  another  and  cross  sections tion  constructed  of  the  Quaternary  descriptions  and  the  sediment  units  red  to  site  of  the  only  of  south the  Lougheed  public tions  in  took  Crown  then  extended sale the  of  the  granular  mid  The was  by  geology Howe of the  1  s  by  Reconstruc-  based  them.  for  that  on  section  Photographs  Five  but  in  the  area in  Fraser  area  in  Gravel  are  own  until the  of  refer-  Scott  under at  City  of  was  a pit  north  use  from other  excava-  the  District in  the  have  valley,  strict  Moody  in  1963  for  Moody  Coquitlam  mid  mainly  1960  for  the  imposed  by  landfill  sales  garbage  s.  1  and  sanitary  sand  for  of  opened  by-laws  Port  Port  it  general  the  Bros,  opened  the  The  valley  Coquitlam  was  and  1940's.  the m u n i c i p a l i t y the  River  1928,  Co.  early  their  use  and  the  the  and  in  disposal.  Work earliest  Burwash of  the  work  (1918)  on  surficial  who  Greater  mapped  Vancouver  geology  the area  Johnston  (1921,  1923)  surficial  deposits  in  Vancouver  sedimentation further  Coqui11 am-Port  of  the  the  Fraser  geological Moody  area  until  (east  to  published  River  studies  done  surficial  Sound.  No  is  Chapter  on  and  in  7)  land  the  in  Sand  aggregate,  by  area  from  in  Hill  pit  Excavations  begun  1960  Previous  in  pits  the  drawn  Mary  (No.  companies  gravel  were  of  Deeks  the  of  map a r e a .  thesis.  gravel  Land  whole  included  aggregate  of  District.  site  slope  Highway  control  Since  are  until  removed  history  the  first  pit  the  conclusions  throughout  The  through  area  in  and  the  bedrock  Haney)  the while  area  and  first  map  studying  delta.  were  published  Armstrong  on  the  (1953 ) w r o t e  a  paper  on  the  geology  Fraser  Valley,  on  glaciomarine  the  and  Armstrong  Vancouver nary  area  of  wrote  paper  a  British  in  the  in  in  ernary  Fraser geology  Armstrong Mary the  and  Hill, Mary  half)  and  Hill  a  the  paper,  he  in  (Armstrong,  thesis  Georgia  Armstrong his  Lowland the  Hicock  in  a  revised  completed  a  surficial  Armstrong  of  southwest  In  exposure the  a field  trip  at  Hill,  Mary  Pleistocene  B.C.  1965).  a  and  north-  Learning  deposits  on  (1968)  the  sand  gravel  reported  on  stratigraphic  preliminary and  in  Fraser (1975)  valley  using  by  the  Quater-  the  that  surficial year  Lowland  and  for  gravel  Mary  Hill  (in as  a  field  buried  and in  press) a  Hicock the  studies  map  described  unpublished  development  Clague  geology  briefly  investigated  Armstrong  sediments,  the  of  the  area  Roddick  on  pit.  Quadra  1961  paper  area. (1975)  and  and  a  report  gravel  Armstrong  on  and  w r o t e .an  and  scale)  al.,  (1975)  valley  (1957)  in  Lower  map o f  replaced  southwestern  Rowe  Quaternary-multiple  bedrock  documented  the o p e r a t i o n s  this  area.  viewpoint.  et  the  distribution  coastal  described  chronology  of  area,  in  published  same  Armstrong  a geological  joint  the  later  (1:63,360  of  (1954)  the  was  1965)-  map  deposits  preliminary  This  (1965)  of  in  showing  soils  from  of  revaluation the  produced  the  and  Strait  found  New W e s t m i n s t e r on  Recently and  deposits  described  studied  the  Brown  and  Washington  generally  in  and  Armstrong  stratigraphy  pits  Armstrong  (Roddick,  a classic  western  gravel  general.  Columbia  guidebook and  in  report  geology  and  (east  report  preliminary  sand  (1956)  deposits  map a n d  and  of  trip  the  Quat  guidebook,  landscapes B.Sc.  in  thesis  (1976)  lower  have  sheets  on  described  Coquitlam  redefined  parastra totype  the  section.  CHAPTER TWO:  MARY  HILL  1975  the  Introduction Mary  Hill  gravel  Columbia.  It  was  Hill,  of  Port  by  City  the w i d e ,  f1 a t - b o t t o m e d  long,  km w i d e ,  done  (Fig. and  thesis,  Fraser  River  with  an  of  the  best  in  three  of  the  the  exposed  stratigraphy the  Fraser  composite  Sand  ally  the  clam  of  and  mined  and  buckets and  extended of  Lowland  and  field  1200  m north  3 km  work of  the  contained  sections,  some  commonly  (Frontspiece).  remaining  exposures  contacts.  Pleistocene by  Pitt,  When  m and  750  exemplified  to  scoop  caught  transported dumped  up  started Co.  by  This  Much  revealed  complex  uplands  buried  throughout  landscapes  in  the  that at  Bros.)  in  the  mounted  on  the  river  buckets  by  carts  hoppers  hydraulicwater  on  from  level. hill, on  a  barge.  pilings,  monitored  the  by  1928  River  was  into  into  which  Fraser  further  gravel  Hill  from a d e r r i c k  dredge,  a gate  the  Mary  pumping  suspended  excavated to  at  (Gil ley  gravel  behind  had  then  was  immobile  f a c e was  buckets  is  pipelines  monitored be  approximately  sediment  Gravel  a steam-driven  to  was  but  southern„s1ope  six-inch  hillside  Hill  stratigraphic  in  surrounded  Fraser,  Fraser  occurs  upland  Mary  the  pit  in  the  excavation  Freshwater  Later  filled  of  of  width  the  British  hills.  Gravel  through  in  probably  Lowland  the  in  slope  rounded  elevation.  Pleistocene  been  nature  Mary  largest  southern  small  valleys  average  dimensions,  complex  the  a  95 m i n  this  had  into  1).  for  pit  in  Coquitlam,  Rivers  was  was  excavated  Coquitlam 1.5  pit  the As  the  tracks.  feeding  the  used  the  gravel The sorting  8.  apparatus  on  1930  a wooden  separating  road  constructed  when  the  In  1946  a  by  1950  trucks  hopper  which  separating storage soon and  Ltd. it  the  (now  until  plans  to  Until and  scrubbers  at  the  base  mining  was  replaced  soon  I960 but  and  company by  it  the  pit  were  the  pit  extended  in  sand,  gravel,  least  $20  and  million  with  all  owners.  Ge.nstar)  In  bought  which  close  the  of  Port  could  was  often 200  the  the  deep  metres  north  have  run  has rock  at  supplied at  a  material  process  small  these  from  was  1970  zoning The  city  only  sand  within  and  in the  and 1965pit  closure  in  million m  of  present-day at  with  (Learning,  River  time of 20  tower  difficult,  Fraser  over  only,  pit,  operated  areas  uncovered  the  the  Cement  till  removal of  been  of  separating  in  gravel  pit  and  site.  process  holes  dimensions  pit  to  making  areas  crushed (pit  steel  installed  only  the  shovels  in  of  Coquitlam.  plant  a new  last  because  separating year  and  the  and  Coleman,  Ocean  pit  operated  to  City  1958  The  required  1952,  interest  the  companies.  the  diesel  Evans,  their  a  concrete  in  large  and  to  to  and  shore.  hill  gravel  hill  by  on  greater  1928  the  built  only  to  of  until  on  the  plant  homes  years  expanded Since  by  that  mined,  much  1975-  sole  Ltd.  was  the  many  sold  subsidiary  washers  For  then  after  way  mateVial  separating  amalgamated  engineered  1968).  greatly  built  imposed  gravel,  Since  steel  Bros,  of  monitored  A new  Aggregates  have  base  carrying  various  regulations  the  belt  and  when  along  this  constructed  a conveyor  controlled  1975  was  the  Gilley  Construction  plant  operated  haul  latter  through  Bros,  to  hydraulic  1955  Gilley  used  were  trucks.  making  were  fed  silos  in  was  plant.  after  Evans  barge.  the  value site)  of to  at the  construction Measured  best  exposed  a Wallace  measured to  units  diagram  and  are  and  of  Mary  The m e a s u r e d time of  Geological  and  broken  are  Fig.  the  area.  contacts is  in  known  contacts  shown  in  section  measured  Fig.  lines  sections each to  maps  is  between  save under  chapter  later  in  the  work  the  text  where  space  the  fence  shown  section  The  2. chosen  A diagrammatic  legend  this  were  in  "Quaternary  or  in  the  appendices.  diagram  of  the  southern  Sections  it  sections  which  relationships  2).  separate  a diagrammatic as  pit  cross  p l o t t e d on in  Composite  Hill  the  the measured  coded  mapping  information  four  Map,  r e c o r d e d on  3 is  in  stratigraphic  Conclusions"  Diagrammatic Fig.  data  are  also  History  the  Vancouver  a l t i m e t e r are  l i e along  (Index  Field  done  half  Tiernan  incorporating  3-  Data  the G r e a t e r  sections  i l l u s t r a t e the  sediment  was  and  sections  best  Fig.  in  Sections  The with  industry  fence  probably  of  Fig.  are  appeared  2 and  p l o t t e d on  shown  by  solid  from o t h e r ,  topographic each lines  less  i n d i c a t e where  before  cross  excavation. surface  section.  indicate  well  at  exposed  i n f o r m a t i o n was  where sections, extra-  polated. Descriptions in  the  legend;  commencing Unit lodgement rine  an  t i l l ,  phases,  the  however,  with 1,  of  was  sediment additional  the o l d e s t  units  in  Fig.  information  is  given  given  below,  unit.  undifferentiated glacial  complex,  g 1 a c i o f 1uvia 1 , g l a c i o m a r i n e , found  3 are  in measured  sections  B,  and D,  comprised  of  g1acio1acustM,  and  P,  10 80  A"  , par, tf215°(at)  r80  60  HH61SD 18,GOO + (GSC 2194, WD)— WIMST'' KH59TL' N  40 H  Pt " ^tf043° (no)  7  MH27SD 27,000 + 490 (GSC 2263, WD) MH09ST 40,500 + 1700 (GSC 2167, WD) HH08ST  r-60  h. xbl95°(la), 210°(ae)  ct, U , par, contain* H claate; colluviim  -40 mauoi^yPr  20-1  MH29SD-tz3-«llty, la, h, rf>165 (a«),f c  , 1*. dt, pr, ct, ponded  r-20  This aection not aamplad.  80 60  'ct, xbl90°Ua)  H  gr, pebble fabric 233 (aO; -a, in p. be t i l l 6  I , at, par, x»200°(le)  rt  -60  . I , xb21S°(l.) 195°(ea)  v  HU3,35SD'  {  G  S  C  2  2CH  2  1  7  MH31ST'  Oil^' p, par ^d50°S, xb(la), f  X *,Tm,  Ptr * Fe, tb, xb070°T(aa)  >  L  \  P  M  N  Y  pebble-cobble gravel, ~ pil5°HW, pr  .  •Section X la not on tni* aection line; it occur• 120n aouth of aection J.  Thla aection not aanpled.  r-20  C  C"  27,400 + 420 (CSC 2107, WD) ^28,200 + 200 (GSC 2139, WD) 29,600 + 200 [GSC 2140. PT) 26.200 + 3: (GSC 2191, W D ) - J 40,200 +430 (GSC 2137, W D H  60 pebble-cobble gravel, dlO SW, par •dl0°S, g, at, par •t, et, pr pr, pebble fabric (no)*  SAMPLE LOCATIONS: SECTIONS A, B.C HH38TL MH39SD  HH37GV containa organic material  20H  • P". tf231°(wk) • " g, c, d0S°SE. a  . g, xb215°(la) 195 {••)  HH33,35SD^  2 6 , 0 0 0 + 310  26,200 +  -40  r-20  LEVEL  ahell caata, blocky structure, Mn-ataioed joint rIrideacent •urfacea, pr, pebble fabric 16S°(at)  40 H  r80  H60  ILboulder layer, pr L»d in allty fine aand , xb-d25°SSV. pi20°H, pr . r, xb215°(.a)  •Pebble fabric froa Rove, 1975.  r-40  E  pr, pebble fabric (no) ,pt-wd containa wd  » N  MH65GV MB64 ITL-ferfp, par, tf (no) ^pebble-cobble gravel, dl5° MH66GV SSW, pll5°HKW, par  Section deatroyed before •enpling  M, par, xb200"(le)  D" r-80 r-60  (CSC 2277, WD),(CSC 219T, WD) KH54TL  20-  JBT'"' * ' P  r  MH17SD 40,200 + (GSC 2137, WD)  t , 1 M( w k )  TUg*-pebble-cobble gravel, pr MH52CM-J^"  P R  '  P  E  B  B  L  E  T A H T L C  < >  r-40  ^•organic -bearing MH19SD A * * p t  f  NO  KH53GV •*^VP« «-*'>l>ble gravel, par bbl  r-20  at. par  SEA 100  LEGEND  :  ' ' J Sand  EM  sn.  U|111U) Slony ctayey silt (massive-thought lo be glaciomarine) Glacial complex including: till, laminated irony silt, and fine sand  MH01SD GV ST TL GM MH-Mary Hill  A  Sample no.-sand  Stony clayey silt (thought to be glaciomarine) Measured stratigraphic section  t:::::::::j Layered peal ood sapropel sequence with interbedded, organic-bearing silty t^iJIM Stony cdluvial organic complex 18.600 * 190  METRES  100  200  horizontal scale  9 Till, in places overlain by thin mantle of supralittoral (wove washed) log grovel Gravel 1  0  Radiocarbon dote  (GSC 2194, PTW0) -" ^ ^ d a t e from peat or wood i ny e o r s  B  P  Lab. no-. Geological Survey of Canada  Figure 2  h horizontally bedded tb thinly bedded In laminated xb cross bedded.paleoc direction towards which sti (Is)-measurement taken fi large scale channel (channel v •dlh up to 5m) (js)-measurement taken fi small scale channel (channel \ idth up to 5cm) d dipping beds, dip and di recti f rippled bedding  g contains gravel interbeds and lenses g-pi, pr, etc. -cha rater is tie following the da applies only to the gravel interbed etc. m fnossive, uniform et contorted f faulted fs fissile p platy $ contains fossil shell fragments c contains detrital cool and pea lasts st contains dispersed stones and pt thin fossil peat layer wd thin fossil wood layer pr pebbles and/or cobbli generally rounded psr pebbles and/or cobbli generally subrounded pi pebbles and/or cobbli ted. imbricatio n dip and direction tf till (pebble) fabric analysis don ed direction towards whic (st) strong preferred pebble orientation (wk)weok preferred pebble orientati irding to Appendix 3 (no) no preferred pebble orientotion Fe sediment stained with iron oxide  MEASURED STRATIGRAPHIC SECTIONS, MARY HILL GRAVEL PIT, PORT COQUITLAM, B.C.  TT.  and  in  other  Because these  of  limited  limited  phases  (youngest  in  to  exposures  exposure,  unit  1  oldest):  is  on  the  the  not  south  flank  stratigraphic  certain,  but  of  Mary  Hill.  succession  is  thought  of  to  g 1 a c i o l a c u s t r. i ne , g 1 a c i oma r i ne ,  be  glacio-  fluvial., t i l l . Armstrong unit  exposed  Semiahmoo  (1965)  on  the  Drift  described  south  (?).  has  revealed  that  only  one  phase  the  found  this  probably  of  phase  blocky  structure)  stones  (up  till  phase,  later  in  were  The laminated in the  the  in  blue-grey  it  poorly  no  however,  no  and  mapped  it  into  in  the  unit  (but  has  1.  pebble  writer  weathers  It  to  few  is  a  scattered  matrix  shell  is  P.  than  orientation  or  since  The  contains  as  silt  M and  a finer  shells  hill  clayey  sections  compacted,  preferred  silt  hill  massive  observed),  clayey  stony,  complex  is  stony  the  (shown  impressions  i t.  till  phase  silt  is  has  5A);  includes  containing  gullies  till  silty  and  the  in measured  as  and  of  excavation  glacial  2 m dia.  Fig.  found  this  exposed  glaciomarine  to  flank  Further  then  a massive  at  pale  measured  ponded  till  g1acio1acustrine  clasts  sections  greenish-brown,  and  B and  very  stony  was  observed  only  D.  In  gullies  stony  and  these has  a  sandy  to  matrix. The  glaciolacustrine  was  exposed  at  the  hill  m west  the  glaciomarine  was  probably  70  measured of  phase  formed  by  laminated  section  measured (Fig. stones  P,  silt  and  fine  and  on  the  section  M,  where  39)-  The  dropping  sand  south it  phase  flank  overlies  g1acio1acustrine from  of  drifting  ice  phase into  12.  mud on  the  laminae this  bottom of  are  commonly  phase.  Wood  radiocarbon -  pers.  (W.  A.  nary  yr.  comm.)  B.P.  and  lignified.  Abies  sp.  permit  positive  phase  at  which  deposited  f a u l t e d and  may  D.  Wilson  in  > 6 2 , 0 0 0  Washington  (G.S.C.  reported  on  of  to  be  the  B.P.  Quaterlatter  compressed  those  wood  yr.  the  distorted,  underlie  section  found  does  the  M and  developed the  position  stony  at  complex  detrital C)  of  in  two  organic-rich containing  when  in  not  massive  are  probably  t i l l . these  fine the  A and  till  and  Due  to  Fig.  medium phase  lack  by  of  unit  1.  outwash  the  of  k)  sand  proglacial  sediments  C.  was  B and As  glacier  exposures,  can  only  be  exposed  only  in  (exposed  assortment  of  in  a  stated  interlayered  diamicton an  to  in  1.  section  crudely  detail  overridden  colluvium,  sections  measured  has  of  unit  organic  measured  base  in  sorted  underlie  faults  overlying  2,  gullies  later  be g1 a c i o 1 a c u s t r i n e  Unit  and  measured  well  sub-till  B,  of  sand  and  as  this  and  silts  stratigraphic  the  University  Condition  (shown  described  at  as  appear  B  and  sediments  deposits  the  stones  dated  highly  section  stony  contorted  that  over  sand  identification."  measured  interbedded  These  fine  deposits.  At  are  is  and  >hh , 0 0 0 r a d i o c a r b o n  and  features  G1aciof 1uvia 1 gravel  outwash  were  Ottawa)  "Sample  Fir).  Silt  draped  comm.). L.  Laboratory,  (Western  glaciomarine  phase  >48,000  Visible  or  Stuiver,  pers.  follows:  lake.  under  this  (M.  as  Jr.,  Paleocology as  bent  from  and  Blake,  sample  a glacial  small in  phases: at  exposure  the a  sections  organic  the  debris  legend, dense, A  (Fig. 3 2 ) ,  (looks  13.  like  till  from a d i s t a n c e ) ;  diamicton  (exposed  only  clasts  of g l a c i a l  phases  are reworked  organic-rich  phase  strongly From as  B.P.  by L.  D.  the s i l t - r i c h  40,500*1700  comm.)  a n d was  "Coniferous Tsuga of  rich  "...the  by R.  somewhat  determined J.  analyzed  sample  previously  V. M a t t h e w s  organic-rich  phase  "The sample:  B.P.  another section  appears  wood  Ottawa)  by  40,200+430  comm.)  a n d was  (pers.  s p.  even  resemble  those  the on  organic-  i t as  follows:  age  than  2137-40,200-430)." a sample  of the  and r e p o r t e d :  following  beetles  were  of  (University  a younger  examined  dated  comm.):  from  (G.S.C.  (spruce)."  J r . , pers.  M. S t u i v e r  chunk  wood,  B, a r o o t  A and commented  strata  formed  Blake,  Features  t o have  for this (G.S.C.,  (W. A .  hemlock)."  both  as  Pi cea  section  J . Mott  that  "Coniferous  probably  decayed.  (western  A dated  comm.):  and  Wood f r o m t h e  J r . , pers.  at measured  identified  at measured  third  (pers.  and l i g n i f i e d phase  deposits  section  silt-rich  wood,  suggests  landscape.  Blake,  yr.  heterophylla  phase  (W. A .  radiocarbon  wood  Washington)  on a b u r i e d  Wilson  compressed  B) c o n t a i n i n g  and g l a c i a l  at measured  yr.  compacted,  The w r i t e r  organic  processes  identified  at section  sediments.  mass w a s t i n g  radiocarbon  and a p o o r l y  identified  in  Co 1 e o p t e r a Carabidae "ground b e e t l e s " Agonum c o n s i m i l e G y l l e n h a l  Pronotum  Staphy1inidae "rove beetles" Olophrum boreale (Payk.)  Pronota, heads  this  elytra,  " T h e s p e c i e s i n t h i s s a m p l e a r e n o r t h e r n a n d c a n n o t be c o l l e c t e d at Vancouver today. A r e l i c t population of A. c o n s i m i l e a p p a r e n t l y o c c u r s t o d a y a t Duncan on Vancouver I s l a n d , but o t h e r w i s e a l l c o l l e c t i n g records are from l o c a l i t i e s in n o r t h e r n B.C. In o t h e r p a r t s o f  14.  Canada i t i s a l s o p r i m a r i l y n o r t h e r n , o c c u r r i n g from E d m o n t o n n o r t h i n A l b e r t a ; C h u r c h i l l a n d The P a s i n M a n i t o b a ; F o r t S e v e r n , O n t a r i o ; Ungava r e g i o n of Q u e b e c ; C a p e B r e t o n I s l a n d , Nova S c o t i a ; a n d i n Newf o u n d l a n d and s o u t h e r n L a b r a d o r . A. c o n s i m i l e l i v e s n e a r s t a n d i n g w a t e r w h e r e s u b s t r a t e i s s o a k e d and vegetation is abundant. T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 0_. b o r e a l e i s l e s s p e r f e c t l y k n o w n , b u t i t w o u l d be e n t i r e l y unexpected at Vancouver today. In t h e n o r t h ( N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s and A l a s k a ) i t may be c o l l e c t e d i n t h e same b i o t y p e s t h a t . A . c o n s i m i l e o c c u p i e s . Hatch i n h i s m o n o g r a p h on t h e b e e t l e s o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t ( i n c l u d i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) d o e s n o t l i s t 0_. bo r e a 1 e , b u t I s t r o n g l y s u s p e c t t h a t i t d o e s o c c u r i n n o r t h e r n m o s t B.C. s i n c e I have c o l l e c t e d i t i n the s o u t h e r n p a r t of the Yukon T e r r i t o r y . It seems q u i t e l i k e l y in view of these f o s s i l s t h a t the peat f r o m w h i c h t h e y come was d e p o s i t e d d u r i n g a p e r i o d of c l imate c o l d e r than at p r e s e n t . " Unit measured layers (5 10 -  3,  organic  section (10-40  separated  by  (See  Fig.  29,600*200 and  was  B where  cm t h i c k )  cm t h i c k ;  also  bog'and.swamp, three and  a  i d e n t i f i e d by  organic-bearing 4).  described  by  yr.  S.  thin lower S.  from  B.P.  fibrous  occurred and  fine the  (W.  Federovich  A.  and  sapropel Blake,  (pers.  at  peat  sapropel  pers.  sand  only  fissile  diatomaceous  Federovich,  silty  A sample  radiocarbon  deposits,  comm.)  minor  layer Jr.,  comm.)  as  layer are  gravel  dated  pers.  as  comm.)  follows:  "Due to e x c e s s i v e f r a g m e n t a t i o n , c r i t i c a l identif i c a t i o n was a t t i m e s d i f f i c u l t a n d u n c e r t a i n , a l l o w i n g only a p a r t i a l l i s t i n g of the diatom taxa present in the assemblage. It a l s o p r e c l u d e s a d e t a i l e d e c o l o g i c a l interpretation. However, the dominance of s p e c i e s comp r i s i n g t h e g e n e r a Eu no t i a a n d P i nnu1 a r i a s u g g e s t s an o l i g o t r o p h i c , c a l c i u m - p o o r bog e n v i r o n m e n t . " The species:  fresh-water "Cyc1ote1 la  Eunot i a ex i g u a , Eunotia Melos i ra  diatom comta,  Eunotia  praerupta, d i stans,  assemblage Cymbella  alpina?,  Eunotia Eunotia  includes cistula,  Eunot i a  robusta,  the  following  Eunot i a a r c u s ,  1 una r i s , v a r .  Eunotia  robusta  va1 i da ? , P i nnu1 a r i a  Subarcuata ,  var.  i nterrupta ,  d i adema ,  15.  Pinnularia  ma i o r ,  Pinnularia  v i r i d i s , Rhopa 1 od i a g i b b a , M.  Kuc  sapropel  (G.S.C.,  viridis,  var.  s u d e t i c a ?,  Tabellaria f locculosa.  Ottawa)  also  made  this  P i nnu1 a r i a  11  comment  on  the  sample:  " T h i s i s a most t y p i c a l d i a t o m a c e o u s s a p r o p e l , r a t h e r o 1 i g o t r o p h i c , on w h i c h d e v e l o p e d v a s c u l a r plant (sedgy) growth. If t h e r e i s any t i m e i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n t h e s e two c o m p o n e n t s i t i s s h o r t . The sample is very u n i f o r m , is f r e e of i n t r o d u c e d macrof o s s i l s , and i s t h u s s u i t a b l e f o r r a d i o c a r b o n d a t i n g . " Wood yr.  from B.P.  comm.)  the (W.  lowest A.  peat  Blake,  reported:  layer  Jr.,  pers.  "Identified  Matthews  examined  reported  as  the  dated  lowest  as  as  28,200-200  comm.)  Picea  peat  and  sp.  layer  L.  D.  radiocarbon Wilson  (spruce)."  for  fossil  (pers.  Dr.  J.  beetles  V.  and  follows:  "Foss i1s : Co 1 e o p t e r a Carabidae "ground b e e t l e s " S c a p h i n o t u s a n g u s t i c o 1 1 i s Mann. S. m a r g i n a t u s F i s c h . Patrobus f o s s i f r o n s Eschz.  Elytra Elytra Pronotum  Scarabaeidae Genus?  Pronota,  "scarab  beetles" elytra  Chrysome 1 i dae Dona c i a "All Vancouver forest the from Yr.  the B.P.  comm.)  three area  species  third  of  Elytra the  today.  The  near peat  (W.  Blake, "Wood  Identified  first  layer Jr., is as  two a r e  individuals  ponds."  second A.  i d e n t i f i e d species  (Scaphinotus  occurs  stated:  section.  sp.  A fossil  (Fig. pers.  somewhat Picea  s p.  35)  can  for are  comm.)  snail  (spruce)  (30  and  R.  in  part  eaters) cm  deep while  radiocarbon  J . Mott  therefore  probably  the  diameter)  27,400-420  and  decayed  found  t h e most  stump  dated  be  P.  (pers. hard  to  sitchensis.  16.  Wood yr.  from B.P.  the (W.  highest A.  Blake,  comm.)  reported:  (sitka  spruce)."  shown  later Unit  the  pit  at  in  contains  ward  into  rusty  3 4  and  and  and  has  been  mapped  of  unit  6.  Wood  (W.  A.  Blake,  B.P.  From  section  -320  radiocarbon  L.  D.  Wilson  (western the  (pers.  paleoslope  A.  Blake,  organic  on  Jr.,  it:  silt  was  "...as  layer  at  at  as  pers.  comm.);  Picea  sp.  R.  J.  (spruce)."  Mott  sand  radiocarbon  Mott  (pers.  sitchensis)  unit  A.  rusty  silt  2,  comm.)  top  sp. of  (pers.  the J,  as  is  grades  down-  section  dispersal 5  belong  was  Jr.,  to  "Identified gravel, of  the  R.  J.  Mott  (spruce)." unit yr.  4  B.P.  comm.)  at  as  Abies cm  (pers. from  measured A.  and sp.  above  26,200 d a t e )  Wood  (W.  26,900  comm.)  26,000-310 r a d i o c a r b o n and  the  identified.  dated  30  30)  radiocarbon  not  pers.  yr.  it:  at B.P.  comm.) a  thin  section  Blake,  identified  J  coal  (Fig.  26,200*320  but  fluvial  This  unit  may  of  X.  measured  30 cm d i a . )  Blake,  middle  and  and  of  it  comm.)  1 m south as  F,  At  A dated  reported:  in  containing  (3 m l o n g ,  Picea the  J. P.  layers  however  pers.  (W.  31),  base.  clayey  4;  25,800-310 r a d i o c a r b o n  dated  the  section  dated  pers.  (cf.  exposed  silt  2 (and  unit  was  organic  log  from  R.  overlies  (Fig.  Jr.,  B.P.  and  s p.  C  unit  comm.)  A,  A,  stony  from  Wood  section  identified  with  yr.  Picea  gravelly  fossil  fir)."  measured (W.  X a  comm.)  gravel,  underlies  27,000-490  as  34.  silt  faulted  wood  yr.  as  sections  and  sand  clasts  pers.  and  sandy  sand  dated  unconformab1y  wood-bearing  fine  cross-bedded  Jr.,  Unit  measured  unit  layer  "Identified  Figs,  4,  peat  C  Jr., "...as  17.  Unit J  (Fig.  found This  29,  30)  this  unit  is  and  part  be  adequately channel gravel  and (I  probably  in  10  from  streams.  the  very  dated  as  unit  1)  Jr.,  pers.  comm.)  "Identified Unit  as  beds  on  ably  deposited  the  by  and  Mary  Hill  (6%),  L.  as  as  section 6  Wilson  to  this  to  the  press)  west  C. sections  described be  proglacial  into  from  unit  7 and  were  by  the the  peaty  (88%  of  Compos i t a e ,  from a t h i n  comm.)  unit.  reported  P i cea  B,P,  in  1 m deep)  26--direct1y  (pers.  in  carried  Artern ? s a ,  yr.  may  clusters  Terasmae)  D wood  (Fig.  to  upward  parts  follows: (6%)  is  stone  (in  J.  radiocarbon  peat  over 1ying  (W.  A.  Blake,  reported:  (spruce)." southward-dipping of  Mary  voluminous and  by  Sa1 i x  D.  sp.  flanks  tills  Clague  It  (0.1  and  tree  origin. stoni-  several  thought  shallow  i c e or  in  grade  stones  out  C,  were  it  section  pit.  is  which  (identified  18,600*190 and  3 and  are  base.of, unit  Picea  the  between  of  measured  7 occurred  sand  deltas  At  at  back  Armstrong  P i nus  layer  the  floating  Sand a t  5 pinches  exposed  deposits,  clay;  observed  is  Isolated  assemblage  pollen),  at  plain  fragments  and  25),  Fig.  A,  compactness,  2k,  Pa 1 e o c h a n n e l s  L y c o p o d i um.  layer  a boulder  of  m wide).  Quadra  aboreal  legend  flood  polynomorph  and  the  dropped  meltwater  by  in  were  C unit  sections  a glaciomarine  silt,  1 m dia.  at  shell  varies  sand,  A and  towards  sand.  to  only  of  and  suggests  but  to  sand. (Figs.  in  and  up  observed  shells  massive  sections  represented  was  strongly  proportions  t h e m i d d l e and  silt  which  Boulders  6,  silt,  Fossil  generally  matrix  Unit  wide  L.  unit,  measured  is  clayey  and  till.  Between  in  stony  in  ness,  and  5,  Hill  (Fig.  meltwater  close  to  foreset 22).  discharges  advancing  ice  gravel  It as  was  and prob-  proglacial  margins.  18.  Pa 1 e o c h a n n e l s Unit over  the  are  8,  deeper  till  entire  (Figs.  area  southward-dipping (Armstrong  and  next  youngest  This  unit  deposited massive  dia.  layer  contorted), as  on  of  mapping  the it  but  was  (Armstrong,  (Fig.  21).  in  observed  Hicock,  elsewhere  1975).  characteristic features  manganese shells dia.  staining  and  were  on  fragments, observed  in  Armstrong  collected a  the  flank  south J.  tenuis  E.  of  Wagner  (Montagu),  (Carpenter),  and this  scattered  Hill  and  comm.)  Nuculana  Clinocardium  at  shell  of  5)  pit  are:  section  assemblage fauna  follows:  fossa  (Baird), (Gould),  ice  to  5 m  only  the  time  previous  Rowe,  1975;  legend  of  blocky  structure,  In from  were  were  seen  by  of  Stones L.  tills,  up  at  presence  stones.  the  Stones  the  7) •  reddish-  unit  the  (unit  dull  1968;  the  wasting  with  the  by  which  was  in  Hill  compacted,  19),  in  three  lodgement  tills  to  6. sections  Mary  (Fig.  as  blandum  of  stony  grey  unit  surfaces,  fossil  least  gravels  edges  stated  this  unit  at  poorly  Learning,  As of  joint  Mary  (pers.  contact  1965;  several  oxidation.  sediments  unit  truncated  flow  from dark of  1953,  to  the  degree  (and  and  stony at  is  outwash  ice,  slides  glaciomarine L  by  in  in  at  slope  layer  platy,  less  varies  in  section  and  and  occurs  each  glacier  mud  colour  9,  measured  F.  southern  of  observed  Armstrong  the  base  at  workers  on  separated  those  exposed  and  at  the  was  pit  1975);  and  than  the  compact,  depending  were  21)  from  Unit  the  Hicock,  Till  orange,  20,  layers  deposited  margins.  of  narrower  varies  (or  probably  and  Fig.  marine  up  to  10  1962  J.  E.  this  unit  identified  Pelecypoda: Ch1amys  3,  cm  on  by  Nucu1 a  h i nd s i i  Clinocardium  ciliatum  19.  (Fabricius), (Gmelin),  Serripes  Macoma  planiuscula a rc t i ca Natica  inconspicua  (Grant  (Linne); clausa  groen1 a n d i c u s  and  ve rm i c u1 a r i s  (Broderip  Gale),  Mya  Gastropoda:  (Broderip (Linne);  (Brugiere), and  truncata  Trichotropia  and  Sowerby);  Cirripedia:  Ma coma  ca1ca rea  Sowerby),  Macoma  (Linne),  H i a te1 l a  cancellata  Annelida:  Ba1 a n u s  (Hinds),  Se r pu1 a  sp.  Dr.  Wagner  also  rema r k e d : " E x c e p t f o r Macoma p l a n i u s c u l a , w h i c h h a s n o t p r e v i o u s l y been i d e n t i f i e d from t h i s a r e a , a l l o f t h e s e s p e c i e s a r e common i n t h e N e w t o n s t o n y c l a y . M. p l a n i u s c u l a i s a c o l d - w a t e r f o r m , r a n g i n g a t p r e s e n t f r o m t h e A r c t i c Ocean t o Puget Sound." Unit one  10,  meter)  ocean  supra 1 i t t o r a 1  cover  waves  and when  time.  beach  first  almost  may  clean  oxidized occurs  as  units  8 and Fig.  the  units was  formed  Burwash found  pebble-cobble  and  upper  slopes  15)  gravel  containing  a  reddish-orange stones  in  the  and  to  of  of  a  sandy  gravel  same  size  by  at  one  gravels  oxidized,  reworked, Generally  containing that  was  A complete  washed,  range  than  these  a beach  slightly matrix.  over  (1 9 2 3 ) .  well  silty  (less  formed  these  Johnston  between  thin  washing  formation  (1918)  a  probably  and  the  (Fig.  was  against  the  for  9 and  forms  slightly unit  a  10  few  occurs  in  (with  no  9• k  is  a more  exaggeration)  only  together,  be  a dull  casts,  vertical  by  gravel,  8 and  pounding  concept  diamicton  shell  B,  they  conceived  transition  units  spray  sediments, The  over  lag  site  and  could  uncovered  be  where  detailed of  the  units  represents  one  drainage 1,  2,  site  differentiated. between  diagrammatic  two o r g a n i c  and where  Here  an  units:  section  trench 3 of  at  Fig.  various  measured 3  occurred  phases  unconformity the  section  "Fossil  of  (Fig. Bog  these 34,35) and  (No V e r t i c a l  Exaggeration.)  LEGEND SAND I  j Sond with gravel interbeds.  FOSSIL BOG and GYTTJA DEPOSITS |,!!llj!;!.j Thin fissile peat and sapropel layers containing fossil tree stumps (up to 30cm dia.), roots, logs, (up to 3m long),and insects. (  J fine sand and silty fine sand containing finely disseminated organic matter and fossil insects; and minor iron stained,well sorted fine gravel.  STONY COLLUVIAL ORGANIC COMPLEX J Dense, stony and gritly, detrital organic - rich diamicton (weathered surface resembles till) containing fossil twigs, leaves, wood pieces , and insects; stones up t< i. observed at this site.  If  p x v r q Moderately to poor ly compac l e d , contorted, stony, silt - rich diamicton containing fossil wood pieces and roots.clasts of laminaled stony silt,and grovel and sc L j i l i d and lenses.  "UNDIFFERENTIATED" GLACIAL COMPLEX  Ittii'irii^l  Laminated stony silts; compact, slightly con tor ted. containing clasts of till; probably ponded. Till;massive, moderately to well compacted; pale brownish green colour.  [ ' , ^ ] Contorted and faulted stony silts interbedded with well sorted fine to medium stony sand; faults probabIy caused by the load of overriding ice.  27.400 ± 420 Section not exposed below this line  ••• '  G e o l o g i c a l contact; observed, inferred  ( G S C 2107. SP,WD) Xdate  Radiocarbon date in years B. P. sapropel or wood  Lab. no..Geological Survey of Canada  INDEX MAP  DETAILED DIAGRAMMATIC CROSS-SECTION Figure 4  GULLY AT MEASURED SECTION B ro o  21.  Gyttja  Deposits,"  importance Gyttja  narrow  Organic  an  this  Deposits"  would  has  of  the  dated  figure  may  from  various  where  and  two  the a  are  A geological  map was  ously  as  infilled  Rowe day  and  (1975) in  the  Quaternary Mary separated  drew spring  History Hill  two  The not  hill  least stades  and  legend  that  the  "Colluvial  younger  than  "Sand"  the  what  unit  right  is  Glacial  1  side  adequately  and  and  of  the  describes  radiocarbon  dates,  diagram.  drawn  for  and  the  pit  gullies,  map o f  pit  continu-  Soon  map w o u l d  the  exposures  which  proceeded.  a geological  as  as  it  the  be  pit  will  meaningless.  appeared  one  Conclusions  one  the  subjected  separated  suggest during is  during that the  not  (Armstrong,  a  at  least  interval.  glacial  stades,  itself  to  nonglacial  (minor  possibly  times  bedrock-cored  layers  the  On  Bog  1975.  been  layers  three  and  of  units,  excavation  and  has  between  glaciomarine least  of  The  faces  a geological  occurred,  interval  at  graded  by a t  glaciation ation)  gravel  units;  base  The  "Fossil  "'Undifferentiated  the  not  the  organic  landscape.  p l o t t e d on  near-vertical  be  the  sediment  o c c u r r e d gorily changed  of  Complex."  material  The  merge.  the  two  organic  buried  of  the  far.  top  as  buried,  between  so  Organic  uncertain  older,  surfaces  phases  obtained,  is  contain it  represents  these  "Colluvial  have  hiatus  unconformity  Complex"  the  surface  may  Complex"  been  the  and  intervals by  an  which  ocean  1957))  glaciations  During within  interstade peat  waters  Pleistocene recent  two  the  last glaci-  (a  warmer  formed).  Three  covered  the  hill  epoch.  geonorpho1ogicaI but  the  probably  form  existed  (and  more  than  62,000  during ated  years  glacial  glacial The  (Q.L-'\3k),  ago  conditions  complex,  earliest  although  when  was  unit  being  phase  of  and  fine  unit  1 to  contorted  silt  They  appear  be g 1 a c i o 1 a c u s t r i n e  Glacier and till  ice advanced  reshaped  them.  deposits  glacier floating  ice  The  Meltwater dropped  glacier  the  deposited, glacier's During  deposited ice ance  up  randomly  to  land  eustatically Meltwater raised  and/or  at  D,  sea  the  in  these  glaciomarine  sea  and  the  retreating  floor  percussion  ains-derived  isostatica11y  rising  from  into  of  which  drifting  silts  (Figs.  may  floor  keels.  containing  widely  in  a  unit  1.  similar  the  the  2),  the  of  and  ponded  D,  muds  and  Coast  Appendix followed  Hill.  were  sea  of  surface  Mary  probably  level.  Drifting  northern  proven-  muds. faster  than  became  exposed.  by  the  Rhythmically scattered, dropstones  wood  the  depressions  formed  manner  Scattered  h)  sub-  weight  till  filled  ice  (Fig.  apparently  mainly  been  depressions  and  (Figs.5C,  which  sheet  Appendix  B  sub-  deposits.  into  rebounded  D,  of  the  present  5C,  phase  under  sea-floor  have  the  t h e s e .sed i m e n t s  sediments  ocean  ice  section  down  drowned  stones  was  c l i m a t e warmed  sand  sea,  kO m a b o v e  2)  on  the  eventually  Appendix  laid  clasts  and  the  dropped  5A)  shape,  undifferenti  down  over  5A)  till  glaciomarine  least  then  g1acio1acustrine  down  time  (Fig.  (Figs.5C, The  the  this  the  proglacial  hollows  gravel  and  laid  contorted  and  into  3),  measured  was  r e t r e a t e d as  probably  be  or  till  filled  outwash  retreat  in  (Fig.  became  stones  then  Mountains-derived were  southward  f a i l e d and  ice.  sand  Lodgement  (Fig.  a different  deposited.  till  to  1  in  in  scouring laminated  Coast were  Mountlaid  described  for  fragments  were  the  23.  A  GLACIAL DIAMICTON  B  PEBBLE*FABRICS  Inferred d i r e c t i o n of i based on s t r o n g , weak, and f e r r e d pebble (long a x i s ) t ions (Appendix 3) •  Glacioi  Stony Clayey  O  Till  x  Stony Clayey S i l t  +  T i l l phase o f U n d i f f e r . Complex (unit 1)  Pebble-Cobble Sandy G r a v e l  O  Sand  •  Sandy G r a v e l  Silt  (unit 7, F i g . 3)  (unit 7) (unit 4)  Measurements done on:  (unit 8)  C r o s s - b e d d i n g ; paleochannel widths 5cm to 5m (large s c a l e )  (uni'  ! C r o s s - b e d d i n g ; paleochannel widths up to 5cm (small s c a l e )  ated G l a c i a l  I Pebble i m b r i c a t i o n  A Massive Stony S i l t phase o f U n d i f f e r i G l a c i a l Complex (unit 1)  l  /  _The r a t i o o f long a x i s l e n g t h / i n t e r m e d i a t e a x i s length f o r most pebbles measured was 1.5 to 2.0. 95% o f a l l pebble long a x i s measured i n t h i s p i t dipped l e s s than 2 5 ° , and 60% dipped l e s s than 1 0 ° ; 55% dipped Northward {aga: of i c e r.  F o r e s e t bedding I n f e r r e d d i r e c t i o n o f stream flow  More than one measurement taken a t same s i l (eg. F o r e s e t bedding i n u n i t 7, and l a r g e s c a l e paleochannels i n u n i t 6 were both analysed a t same s i t e )  f  1  ,1  PALEOCURRENT DATA  A  1  11 123° D  122° GENERALIZED  REGIONAL GEOLOGY:  PEBBLE SOURCE AREAS.  (modified a f t e r Roddick e t . a l . , 1973: G e o l o g i c a l Map #165)  rTr^.i C  PEBBLE*PROVENANCE  (see F i g . D f o r  G.S.C. Open F i l e  GRANITIC AND ASSOCIATED ROCK TYPES ( i n c l u d i n g low grade metaplutonics, metavol'  Samples taken from: G'Supralittoral  Lag G r a v e l  (unit 10, F i g . 3)  ®  Till  •  Pebble-Cobble G r a v e l ( u n i t 7)  (unit 8)  * pebbles having Cascade Mtns- source (Eastern provenance) 100  0  0 i % pebbles having Coast Mtns. source QJ {Northern provenance)  10  O Sand  (unit 6)  H Stony Clayey S i l t B Sandy G r a v e l  -C Sand (unit 6, F i g . 3) pebble sample i n T which 80% o f the pebbles have a Coast I Mtns. source (Northern provenance) and 20% have a Cascade Mtns. source (Eastern provenance)  (unit 5)  (unit 4)  ,  0 F o s s i l Bog and G y t t j a Deposits (unit 3). 0  C o l l u v i a l Organic Complex ( u n i t 2)  Pebbles ranging from 1 to i  dia.  E-n-j.-nri  VOLCANIC ROCK TYPES  piij:::iii:i  ( i n c l u d i n g f l o w s , t u f f s , and b r e c c i a s )  J iljfill  QUARTZITE, CHERT, PELITE, AND ARGILLITE  OTHER ROCK TYPES { i n c l u d i n g medium to high grade metamorphics, sedimentary, and u l t r a m a f i c s ) UNCONSOLIDATED  (QUATERNARY)  were  LB U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d G l a c i a l Complex ( u n i t 1)  Fig.5  RESULTS OF SOME FIELD WORK DONE IN MARY HILL GRAVEL PIT: A, GLACIAL DIAMICTON PEBBLE FABRICS; B, PALEOCURRENT DATA; C, PEBBLE PROVENANCE, DJ GENERALIZED REGIONAL GEOLOGY SHOWING SOURCE AREAS FOR PEBBLES IN C.  SEDIMENTS  24.  deposited  in  the  growing  along  rounded  clasts  glacial  sediment  The  has  on  a  deposits  not  developed  on  A large B.P.  yr.  at  yr.  3)  B.P.  that  would  (unit  Fraser  contains  Hill.  slope  developed  (Fig.  4).  dominantly landscape  (in  also  between on  Pebbles  bog  unit  1.  deposited.  It  probably  a  during  mixing  organic  trees)  and  2 have  a dominant  2).  landscape  A  this ago  hemlock  B.P.  organic  or  northwas  and  older  the  and  than  evidence  elsewhere  deposits  Presumably  27,000  interbed (Figs.  5C,  at  30,000  were the  Organic  than  40,000  in  the  formed  warm  apparent  deposits years  Deposits"  "Colluvial  younger  this  30,000  Gyttja  material  colluvium  3-  40,000  Bog  layers  gyttja  a gravel  unit  "Fossil  through  and  provenance on  between  organic  and  30,000  from  formed  has  persisted  the  northern was  prep.)  40,000  Layered  formed  on  well  non-  years  processes  hiatus;  organic  yr.  at  trees  the  and  interval  exist  organic  that  glacial  unit  the  suggesting  30,000  Mary  to  buried  narrow  Armstrong  between  older  40,000  was  western  Appendix  unless  have  2)  Lowland  seems  Hill,  Fig.  B.P.  5C , D,  3)  wasting  from  are  2.  3,  Complex"  About  a depression,  and  they  trees  immediatley a f t e r  of  spruce  t i m e gap Mary  Hill  edge mass  an  developed  Fig.  Pebbles  unit  from  2,  by  (Figs.  Mary  represent  however,  reworked was  may  (unit  the  interval,  provenance  of  and  shore;  unravelled.  colluvium  sediments.  lake  A landscape  been  at  silts  probably  history  (containing  glacial  (unit  were  unit.  slope  a nonglacial  yr.  prehistoric  and  organic  formed  ern  the  geologic  glaciation stony  g1acio1acustrine  non-  time  containing  ago,  spruce  against  measured  in  unit  D.  Appendix  gap  a  section  3 have 2).  a A  B  25.  Fluvial clasts on  silt,  (unit  k,  long of  Fig.  the o r g a n i c  wood-bearing and  30  (Fig.  cm d i a . forest 5B)  unit.  measured  below  stony  However, resent  an  is  and  up  26,000 the  phase was  at  years  ago  was  Pebbles  from  provenance  proglacial  was  landscape clayey  m above  rafts have  (Figs.  5C,  5A)  are  are  strongly  the  glaciomarine  deposits  the  glaciomarine  sediments  were  oriented  probably  glacier  ice  for  during  this  D,  this  and  developed  a  in  with  occurs unit  a  ice  local  developed (unit  by  to  on  unit  Fig.  3)  laid  Mary  Hill  the  southwest  occurred,  sand  three  was  muds. in  t i l l . the  formed  (Fig.  fabrics  ice advance  by  and  fabrics  thereby  them w i t h  lobe  component  Pebble  two o f  landscape  ice  as  sea-bottom  eastern  2).  underlying  was  covered  into  the  h.  than  piedmont  k.  rep-  from  less  a  the  advance  level  stones  as  5,  sea  mixing  A  sand  last  and  time.  this  the  Appendix  probably  of  during  substantial  a south  mapped  Coast  outwash  probably  unit  the  south-  may  present  dropped  flowed  from  k m  existence  6 and  depressed  of  to  unit  silt  the ocean  the  one  up  faulted  been  sand  least  deposition and  has  to  A  unit  inconclusive  and  by  when  this  5)  interrupted  75  and  during  slope  logs  Streams  derived  wood  the  At  buried  fir.  J cross-bedded  similar  of  ago.  indicating  mainly 2)  detrital  against  years  k,  western  were  isostatica11y  icebergs  unit  (unit  stony  least  deposited  containing  Appendix  silt  northeast.  melting  their  in  texturally  early  to  land  occurs  section  Fossi1iferous down  layer  D,  containing  26,000  silt  5C,  g1aciation,which east  about  pebbles  clayey  it  then  inc1uding  ;  and  (Figs.  gravel  were  colluvium  Mountains At  and  3)  organic  a buried  ward  sand,  over  disturbing Faults weight on  unit  of 5-  26.  By the  about  ice  18,600  margin  had  (spruce)-bearing unit  6.  After  glacial  shallow  to  During  this  in  Coast  the  greater in  1 m deep)  time  an  ice  lated  stones  ice  blocks  As  the  stone  and/or  ice  at  the by  (Fig  was  from  the  hill  fine  meltwater  probably  with and  the  the  to  sand  streams  (Figs.  5C,  clusters  D,  were  parts  Appendix  the  sea  as  while  the  land  by  was  foreset  being  of  gravel.  (Fig. 2)  flowing  amounts  area  Appendix  deltaic  became  Iso-  from  meltwater  immediate  D,  m),  southward  dropped  discharges  5C,  2)  probably  the  10  low  competence,  increasing  carried  approached  to  pro-  of  streams  increasing  of  medium  advancing  small  carrying  (Figs.  away  layer  of  wood  channels.  Mountains-derived into  base  thin  braided  Coast  7,  a  probably  meltwater  unit  the  and  warmed,  (1  southward-f1owing  of  Hill  had  in wide  large  sand  climate  5B),  Eventually  tree  sheet  peat  distal  sheet  channels  Mountains-derived and  formed  discharges  deeper  the  Mary  and  Mountains.  when  from  southward  Coast  ing  of  deposited  meltwater  larger,  layer  formation  flowing  (0.1  ago,  retreated  peat  s a n d was  discharges  years  streams.  of  Mary  5B)  Hill  deposited  gravel  beds  melt-  and  .  dipping  isostatica11y  depres-  sed. The unit  8,  ice was  briefly; margin the  and  again, this  the  deposited  below,  between,  from  8 also  have  unit  the  (unit  depositing  procedure  truncating  advanced  Presumably  d e l t a i c outwash  advanced  till  eventually  deposited.  more  first;  third  sheet  a  was  above  a dominant  ice  the  area  margin  and  t i l l ,  retreated  7) was  deposited;  the  second  till  which  truncated  once  more  repeated  previous and  into  two. the  Outwash tills  northern  to  gravel  (Fig.  provenance  3). as  ice  form  a  was Pebbles do  those  27.  from  unit  pebbles  each  own  each  (Figs.  were  During its  7  probably  again  the  In  and  major  may  have  previous  one  the  being  deposited  upper  channels.  while  main,  the  north.  charge wide, Mary  The the  sea  76 now  thin  and ice  m above faster  Silt"  present than  last  unit  the  sediments  it  7.  were  and  in  and  the  area.  incorporated  the 8,  in  tills.  Mary  During  Hill  formed, burying  k  was  and  ice  layer  trun-  7 and  r e t r e a t e d as once  fast (unit sea  the  more  enough, 9,  level.  to  As  eustatically  3)  shallow the  east  and  retreated advance  distal,  main  ago  was  Hill  and  low-  ofunit  sheet  the  existed  braided  sand ice  rapidly  from  conditions  deposit  the  years J)  from Mary  6  in  reached  8. climate before  and  Fig.  and  to  Eventually  hill  then  interstadial  continued  units  5,  from  probably  glaciation  in w i d e ,  gone  formed  last  section  continued  sheet  was  26,000  advanced unit  sheet  perhaps  peat  streams  of  Hill  The  measured  lobe  deposition  local  Mary  c l i m a t e about (at  ice  ice  at  glaciation.  outwash  local  deposited  rebound  Clayey  of  streams  the  6,  ice advance  a cooling  come,  later  eastern-derived  overrode  units  landscapes  channels.  covered  statically Stony  a  meltwater  Hill  the  to  shallow  of  distant,  yet  while  a  the  With  sheet  redeposited  distal  Perhaps during  and  last  with  by  from o l d e r  glacier  the  sand  northeast  there  the  started  Some  landscapes.  during  while  main  new  2).  the  episode  summary,  the  Appendix  reworked  outwash  depositional  cating  D,  ice advance  rounded  reshaped  the  5C,  became  the  land  warmer  and  could  iso-  fossi1iferous  "Glaciomarine  was  up  to  continued  to  the  laid  land  rising  sea  down  level,  the  at  least  rise, surface  of  Mary  the  Hill  (underlain  pounding  of  to  completely  of  unit  10,  Port  Rivers;  interval composite and/or  surf  on  one,  by  hill  was  reshaped  truncating  by  by  ones  9 and  left  the  other  partially a  east  of  of  ice  time  ice the  thin  cover  Pitt,  during  each  glacial  constructed  Thus  and and  the  landscapes, before  have  and  wasting,  buried  Coquitlam-  sediments  Fraser,  action.  advances  from Mary  mass  many  experienced  which  creeks,  marine  up o f  the  the  (Holocene)  Hill  storms,  that  retreat  the  made  shown  the  Mary  9)  Gravel."  to  last  8 and  8 and  occurred  after  finally  units  during  units  has  post-glacial  Hill and  press)  Sumas)  around  and  Mary  (in  area  During deposited  by  " S u p r a 1 i t t o r a 1 Lag  Langley, Moody  and  disaggregated  Armstrong (Fort  waves  mainly  it.  Hill. been  Coquitlam man. nonglacial  hill each  is  a masking  29  CHAPTER  THREE:  LOWER COQUITLAM  VALLEY  Introduction Coquitlam part the  of  the  Fraser  carved of  valley,  Coast  which  is  incised  lam  with  pits  River  valley  Watershed.  In  of  the  extreme  Columbia,  Vancouver. and  Quaternary  emerges  It  Brown,  is  a  1954),  sediments  southern  that  onto  glacier-  the are  bottom deeply  River.  sediments in  in  British  (Armstrong  Coquitlam  gravel  of  km e a s t  valley  Quaternary in  20  filled  by  commences  Mountains  Lowland  bedrock  which  the  west  below  these  are  well  bank  of  Coquitlam  pits  exposed the  Lake  several  along  lower and  buried  Pipeline  part  the  of  the  Greater  landscapes  Road Coquit  Vancouver  have  been  exposed. Lower  Coquitlam  gravel  pits  in  the  opened  the  first  between  Pipeline  started  test  Other were  freely  until the  pits  the  area  in  the  valley  (Fig.  Table  valley.  mid  enlarged  I  and  the  of  by  the  highest  Lowland. 1942,  pits  4 km t o  District  and  have  Road  in  has  before  excavated  opened  that  Fraser  pit  pits  small  valley  the  north  gravel  were  in  Sand  was  the  in  their  west  in  Jack in  Co.  the  Land  and  use  by-laws  of  for  the  have river  1). summarizes  occurred  over  gravel the  pit  years  ownership on  the  west  and side  Ltd  1958.  companies  bank  area  Cewe  personal  several  of  Gravel  Crown  land-use  then the  1).  valley  located for  and  located  (Fig.  imposed  Since pits  C up  public  Coquitlam  1960's.  which  B and  valley the  Deeks  concentration  operations of  the  TABLE  Pit (Fig.  I:  GRAVEL  PIT  OPERATIONS  ON  THE  WEST  OPERATOR  OWNER  BANK  OF  THE  Greater  as  Vancouver  DATES  Sewerage  J . B. G.  Kiewit & Sons of Kask Bros. Ready as above  Canada Ltd. Mix Ltd.  D and Allan  R Sand and Johnson  Gravel  C.  Scott  B.  Jack  (south end )  Kiewit £ Columbia Jack  Cewe  Cewe  C  Allard  A l l a r d , C. J . Smithers, Selkirk, D. Keenan, Terry  (north end) F  and  Trucking  West-Lin  above  D  ?  1975  to  278 ,04 2  and  E.  A.  same same C and  Ltd.  S and until none  Ltd. Sons of Canada Ltd. B i t u l i t h i c Ltd.  same same  Ltd.  Supplies  Contractors  C  same Johnson  Graves  Gravel  to  1975  Ltd.  1960 s  A.  M.  Value  and  Allard  Information * *  TYPE  OF  OPERATION  IN  1976  of  pit  K.  M.  Fulawka  Contractors  provided run  front  by  end  early Trucking  S Sand early  Ltd.  ?  and G r a v e l 1970's  Ltd.  to  ?  Ltd.  Burt  material  Thomas,  ranges  from  P.  to  ?  1960's  to  1975  to  to  to  1 to 1975  1975 to present  $1.00  per  of  as  166  above  dormant  as  same same  D i s t r i c t  f r o n t end l o a d e r s , dump trucks; pit run o p e r a t i o n w i t h portable sorting equipment in reserve  27,627  232 ,  above  since  at  least  1972  above  present  1950's  to  as  ,000  1960's  1960's late  Eng.  trucks,  present  same  80$  dump  present  early  ? 1960's  1960's  to  1975  from  6  present  ear1y 1960's t o ? ? to e a r l y 1976 early 1976 to present  Trucking  loaders,  equipment.  present to  1  to  688,463  present  (ma i n pit) G ( e x t reme north end)  VALLEY*  sorting  J. R. A.  G  C  and  D i s t r i c t  C  F  RIVER  3  Drainage  E  COQUITLAM  Removal of Sand and G r a v e l f rom 1 April 75 to 31 M a r c h 76 (m )""  1)  B  LOWER  17,158  front end l o a d e r s , sorting equipment,  dump trucks, asphalt plant.  front  dump  pit  end  run  loaders,  trucks;  operation  Coquitlam  cubic  yard  ( 0 . 7 6 rn ^ ) *  Screened  gravel  and  crushed  rock  is  sold  up  to  $ 1*. 2 5  per  cubic  yard.  The by  I960  Deeks  Sand and  (Learning,  Ltd.  operated  pits  B and  In  pits  in  the  late  the  owner-opera tors  the  pit  and  Branch.  the  and  1968)  two  C.  Gravel  of  During  field  they  the  became  and  area  1960's  that  property  Co.  work  Phillips  Contracting  between  Pipeline  Road  and  in  consigned  very  Ltd.  H.  Lafarge  area,  was  G.  Deeks-McBride  Concrete 1974  to  Ltd.  they  the  and became  closed  Coquitlam  few e x p o s u r e s  remained  down Parks  in  this  area. Learning operating which  (1968)  pits  carried  in  the  the  elsewhere  Coquitlam  River  excavated  pits  for  for  have  been  1940's.  From  April  (for  pit  and  run  Since  gravel,  closure  used  diesel  shovels  out  of  gravel,  sand,  District  Tens  of  1975,to valued  of  the  and  March  pits 31,  lower  rock  was  and  remaining  cubic since  trucks  sorting  the  the  the  load  to  in  s  1  meters the  of  early  1976,  1.25  million  approximately  $1.5  million  excavated  the  or  crushed  of  1960  to  pits  operated  these  at  early  pit  most  millions  from  m a t e r i a l ) , were  the  the  From  removed 1,  during  pit.  The  use.  that  either  the  sale.  personal  sand  in  valley,  material  m^ o f  valley  gravel  equipment  is  reported  Mary  from  Hill  the  gravel  pits. pit  in  1975  one of  (pit  A,  Fig.  province, width and  of  1),  extending 300  having  m,  faces  sures  the  gullies and  as  slumped  Cewe 1200  pit  drop  of  pit  F reach  pits  are  confined  of  the  material.  pit  becomej^the Pipeline  vertical  in  most  has  m along  containing  a vertical  vertical in  the  150 75 to  areas  faces  m from m in  largest  Road w i t h standing top  to  height.  near-vertical are  underlain  in an  the average  100  m  high  bottom. Sediment faces by  Nearexpo-  and  to  bulldozed  32.  Measured  ured on  Fig.  6 shows  with  a Wallace  the  ured  Sections  west  side  sections axis  and  (Index  map,  Fig.  these  done,  ded  on  data and  maps  chapter  in  Diagrammatic  lower  drawn and  in  the  Coquitlam  River  one  section  small  is  are  the  multiple  in  in  each  the  History  meas-  gravel  pits  These  meas-  parallel  lines  normal  diagram  to  to  the  it  incorporating  7.  section,  legend.  were  The and  where data  the  are  work  also  Conclusions"  recor-  in  this  appendices. Sections  River  This  valleys  information  block  valley  diagram  that  cate  and  line  Fig.  a diagrammatic  6.  section  later  the  valley.  shown  "Quaternary  time.  sections,  cross  which  in  block  coded  Quaternary where  cross  p l o t t e d on  Coquitlam Fig.  altimeter  A diagrammatic  Composite  Fig. 7 is the  Tiernan  6).  are  sections  and  four  under  or  stratigraphic  along  sections  Field was  of  lie  valley  all  the  broken  is  formed  in  contacts  known  contacts  of  containing  illustrates  were  Geological  diagram  from  the the  the  shown  west  bank  measured buried  by  solid  less  where  of  sections  landscapes  sediments  other,  indicate  the  during  lines  indi-  well-exposed  information  was  extrapolated. The  sediment  additional oldest  up  to  information  are is  described  given  in  below,  the  legend;  commencing  however,  with  the  unit.  Unit gravel  units  1, w h i c h  (Figs,  kk,  20 m h i g h  consists 4 5 ) , is  in  pits  E,  of  near-impervious  exposed F,  and  in G.  vertical It  pebble-cobble overhanging  contains  almost  faces entirely  33 LEGEND S u p r a l i t t o r a l lag gravel  I horizaontally bedded  T i l l ; i n places o v e r l a i n by t h i n mantle ( s u p r a l i t t o r a l lag gravel  •> laminated  G4  3 t h i n l y bedded  EZ3  : S A M P L E L O C A T I O N S FOR M E A S U R E D S E C T I O N S C 5 and F3  3 cross-bedded; d i r e c t i o n of paleoatream flow : taken from large scale paleochannel (width up to S ro) : taken from small scale paleochannel (width up to Stony clayey s i l t  (thought to be  5cm)  F3  ct; contains at least one t i l l layer (at top of section); mainly gravelly xb sand below t i l l layer  d dipping beds; dip and d i r e c t i o n  glac:  r r i p p l e d bedding Undifferentiated g l a c i a l d r i f t ; includes logement and flow t i l l , gravel and sand, and laminated stony s i l t  g contains gravel interbeds  and  lenses  g-psr - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c following the dash applies only to the gravel interbeds, < m massive, homogeneous cl contorted  te  f faulted 2 1 , 6 0 0 ± 200 (GSC  Radiocarbon date  2203, W D , S H | ^  ^ ^  'n years  IS oantAins f o s s i l s h e l l s  date from w o o d or s h e l l s  Lab. n a , G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y of  WL01GV Sample no.  p'platy  B.P.  st contains scattered stones and stone c l u s t e r s pr pebbles and/or cobbles generally  Canada  pi pebbles and/or cobbles imbricated;  WL  West-Lin gravel p i t  GV - Gravel  AL -  A l l a r d gravel p i t  SD - Sand  KB -  Kaak Bros, gravel p i t  ST -  JN-  Johnson gravel p i t  SS-  S and S gravel p i t  B.Cl  !tc.  rounded  psr pebbles and/or cobbles generally subrounded  :  TL GM?-  imbrication dip and direction  tf t i l l (pebble) f a b r i c analysis done at s i t e ; i n f e r r e d direction of ice movement (st) - strong preferred pebble o r i e n t a t i o n (Appendix 5) (wk)  silt  g-psr, xbl20 (ss); i n placea s l l t y ,  In,  - weak preferred pebble o r i e n t a t i o n (Appendix 5)  Fe sediment stained with i r o n oxide  Till Glaciomarine!?) stony clayey s i l  * Elevations plotted beside each upper measured section apply only to that section.  Measured  tb, xb055 ( s s ) . Fe; lower part of unit i s  ct; contains at l e a s t 2 t i l l l a y e r s . tfl78°(stdone on lower layer)  E4  wood-bearing organic s i l t layer h,  tb, r , s t ; contains load casts, convolute bedding, b a l l and p i l l o w structures, and r o t t e d wood tubea  260  pr, crudely  xb  Gl  m, par, pebble f a b r i c 200° (st); may In part be t i l l i ^ - g-psr  r-260  p, psr; tfl75°(at) ct;  contains at least 3 t i l l layers, t f l 6 8 (wk-done on top layer)  pebble-cobble g r a v e l , psr , t f l 9 9  h.  ct; contains at least one t i l l layer (at top of section); mainly gravelly xb sand below t i l l layer  h240  (wk)  pil5°SW  h,  r, g-psr, xb010° tb, Fe (98), pebble-cobble gravel, h, pr, p l l O NE, crudely xb  h220  ct;  contains at l e a s t one  till  \-200  layer  21,600 + 200 (GSC 2203, WD)  , psr, xb235 (la) h,  tb, xb020°(ss), Fe t; contalna at least c  h,  g-psr, f , xbl60°(ls); In places s i l t y ,  lm,  g-psr, xbI20 ( s s ) ; in places s i l t y ,  hl80  El  2 160  Fe 12,000*100 (GSC 2177,  xbl30°(ss) psr,  Fe  JN05TL  > 120  C3 KB03TL  C2 INDEX MAP AND L O C A T I O N OF MEASURED S E C T I O N S  KB04ST  Cl  B0-\  ,p, psr; contains JN04SD sand and gravel, JN03ST and lm. s i l t lenses; tfl98°(st) JK02GV •pebble-cobble gravel, psr, h (below t i l l ) , d 20 S (above sand); Pi05-15°N  pebble-cobble gravel, par, contains t i l l c l a a t s , dlO SH,  Fe  , psr, tfl80°(st)  m  I  v pebble-cobble g r a v e l , h,  a  Nh.  h,  tb, r , g-psr, xb010°(sa), Fe id-bearing organle s l i t  pebble-cobble grovel, h, NE, crudely xb •ntalns at least one t i l l , pr, pll5°NE; crudely xb  pr, crudely  xb  crudely  J  xb PIT  layer  h!20 h, par, crudely  ' v J - h, pr, xb  Fe  H40  5|-h, tb, Fe, xb 060° (88); lover part of u n i t Is s i l t y . In, r ^-wood-bearing organic s i l t  wood-bearing organic s i l t layer  pr, pll5°SW h,  m  par  psr, tfl99°(wk)  M60 b, tb, g-par, xb,  g-psr, tb, xb055 (ss), Fe; lower part of u n i t i s s l l t y , lm, r  par, t f l 7 5 " ( s t )  Ip,  G3  s l i d e deposit; unsorted diami c t o n containing logs and debris  h, tb, r , at; contains load casts, convolute bedding, b a l l and p i l l o w structures, and rotted wood tubes m, psr, pebble f a b r i c 200°(st); may In part be t i l l  \f- Pebble-cobble gravel, psr, contains 111 c l a s t s  , at, X M 3 0 ( B B )  G  WAS  NOT  hlOO  SAMPLED  pr, pll0°  h 80  layer  . g-psr  o  60H  ct;  contalna at 1<  •60  - c t , contains at least 3 t i l l l a y e r s , tf!68 (wk-done on top layer)  pTTTB- g, psr, d5°SW, Fe  40H  i  psr, tfl80°(st st,  t; contalna at l e a s t 2 t i l l layers, tf178°(st-done on lower layer)  -TO  , dl0°SM, Fe  SH)  | ^ g. psr, d30°SV, p i 10°SH, Fe  - t b , s t , psr, xb235°(ls)  500  METRES  horizontal  20-i  500  1000  -40  scale  •20 S E A  Figure 6  L E V E L  MEASURED STRATIGRAPHIC SECTIONS IN THE WEST BANK OF THE LOWER COQUITLAM VALLEY, B. C.  L E G E N D SUPRALITTORAL LAG GRAVEL P o o r l y s o r t e d , commonly c o n t a i n s sandy to s i l t y c o n t a i n s marine s h e l l c a s t s .  matrix  YELLOW SAND AND GRAVEL O c c u r s as t o p s e t , f o r e s e t , and b o t t o m s e t beds, .n marine theII c o m ; p r o b a b l y r a i s e d marine d e l t a i c and i n t e r t i d a l d e p o s i t s . u  FOSSILIFEROUS CLAYEY SILT C o n t a i n s abundant marine s h e l l s ; e i t h e r marine o r glaciomarine deposits.  I n c l u d e s p l a t y , compact lodgement ' t i l l ; massive o r c o n t o r t e d , compacted f l o w t i l l ; some l a m i n a t e d s t o n y s i l t (ponded) and openwork g r a v e l l e n s e s ; b o u l d e r s up to 3m d i a . o b s e r v e d .  UNDIFFERENTIATED DRIFT Mapped i n exposures which are i n n a c c e s s i b l e • i n c l u d e s lodgement and flow t i l l , sand, g r a v e l and l a m i n a t e d s t o n y s i l t .  PEBBLE-COBBLE GRAVEL AND SAND F o r e s e t bedded i n p l a c e s , moderately t o p o o r l y s o r t e d ; o c c u r s between t i l l l a y e r s ; p r o b a b l y p r o x i m a l outwash.  W e l l s o r t e d , g e n e r a l l y s u b h o r i z o n t a l l y bedded, c r o s s - b e d d e d ' c o n t a i n i n g g r a v e l l e n s e s and i m e r b e d i , and s c a t t e r e d s t o n e s and s t o n e c l u s t e r * ; i n p l a c e s f a u l t e d and c o n t o r t e d ; i n p l a c e s l a m i n a t e d , r i p p l e d , c o n t a i n i n g l o a d c a s t s and c o n v o l u t e b e d d i n g ; p r o b a b l y p r o g l a c i a l outwash.  GLACIAL COMPLEX i n c l u d e s a t l e a s t two p l a t y lodgement t i l l s and one g l a c i o marine ? s t o n y c l a y e y s i l t l a y e r s e p a r a t e d by outwash sand and gravel.  RUSTY SAND AND GRAVEL W e l l s o r t e d , g e n e r a l l y h o r i z o n t a l l y t h i n l y bedded, c r o s s bedded, s t a i n e d w i t h i r n o x i d e s ; base o f u n i t i s l a m i n a t e d , c r o s s - b e d d e d , and r i p p l e d s i l t y f i n e sands c o n t a i n i n g a t h i n wood-bearing o r g a n i c s i l t l a y e r ; p r o b a b l y f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s 0  SEMI-IMPERVIOUS COARSE GRAVEL M o d e r a t e l y to w e l l s o r t e d , g e n e r a l l y s u b h o r i z o n t a l l y bedded c r u d e l y c r o s s - b e d d e d c o b b l e g r a v e l w i t h a c o a r s e sand m a t r i x p r o b a b l y outwash d e p o s i t s . Present land  surface  Area o f measured s e c t i o n Buried landscape (unconformity); observed, i n f e r r e d Geological contact, observed, i n f e r r e d _ Bedding t h i c k n e s s e s c l a s s i f i e d to McKee and W e i r , 1953.  according  Figure 7 :  BLOCK  D I A G R A M , W E S T S L O P E of t h e L O W E R C O Q U I T L A M  R I V E R V A L L E Y , B. C .  35.  granitic is  stones  unknown;  and  the  few  sand  moderate  to  lenses. poor  The  sorting  origin  of  suggests  this  gravel  is  glacio-  it  fluvial. Unit is and  2  composed has  a  (Figs. of  41,  well  rusty  colour.  (pa 1 e o c h a n n e l s  pled.  Wood in  identified Unit  and  by  massive  38)  fewer  stones,  gravels  no  is  4  is  probably  36)  or are  exposed sand  in  proglacial  streams  10 m w i d e )  less  shells  mostly  probably  dering  is  (Fig.  Unit  finer*  flowing  channels.  dropped  the  it  from  a  and  pits  a variety outwash  ice or  the  by  was (spruce)." F3  tills  and  horizontally  pits  it  has  tills  probably were  bedded  been  not  (Fig.  a  exposed.  clayey 38),  silt  contains  glaciomarine;  found  in  it.  The  g1 a c i o f 1 u v i a 1 . D, of  E,  F  (Figs.  textures  deposited  shallow  Scattered  rip-  of  section  stony  impressions  base  sp.  structure)  is  and  "...Picea  is  and  cross-  and  lodgement  other  the  gravel  comm.)  consequently  than  probably  the  It'  > 4 9 , 0 0 0 and > 4 4 , 0 0 0  separated In  bedded,  measured  two  G.  minor  cm w i d e )  pers.  at  F and  and  (near  as  Jr.,  pits  10  comm.):  blocky  shell  and bed  gully  layer  compact,  in  thinly  contains  matrix  in  are  dated  gravels.  to  silt,  Blake,  sediments  (weathers  sand,  silt  (pers.  in  silt  sandy  a  A.  where  clayey  has  however,  only  younger  37)  is  Wilson  cross-bedded  (Fig.  and  D.  in  5 cm d e e p  F3 was  (W.  exposed  strata  organic  B.P.  L.  37,  to  section  3 occurs  stony  covered The  by  36,  massive  yr.  up  is  fluvial  The  a thin  measured  radiocarbon  (Figs.  from  43)  sorted  bedded  unit)  42,  (0.1  stones  tree  parts  by  to and  27,  and  28),  and G  structures.  low-discharge  1 m deep), stone  carried  wide  clusters in  the  It  mean(1  to  were  streams.  36.  Faults  and  contortions  load  of  ured  section  yr. L.  overriding  B.P. D.  (W.  A.  Wilson Unit  except In  G2,  B,  most  pits  ever,  unit  believed  gravel  and  sand  outwash  at  C.  The  it  lenses  of  sand,  most  commonly  also  seen  at  pit  least  where  D,  two  three  places  layers  are  local  ice  advances deposited  Coquitlam  valley  below  B under 6,  pits  E and  tills  by  by  f i l l ,  were  highly in  the  the  and  youngest  previous  cover  clayey  silt,  occurs  including  of at  One pits  how-  coarse  in  the within  It  is  portions till  was  C and  F,  are found  and  lodgement  this  unit.  various  In  sediment  till  represent  and  each  Unit pit  C,  pelecypods,  eroding  5 mantles and  23).  the  disappears  sediments.  C only  and  at  and  (Fig.  younger pit  and  D,  deposits  advances. at  C and  silt.  glaciation;  southward  sediments.  containing  orange  in  pits  differen-  found  compact  observed  last  thick  shells  Both  all  to  (5a)  stony  ice-contact  next  dips  G.  by  near-vertica1,  were  oxidized.  in  pits  till  at  meas-  identified  made  In  pale  contorted  a  marine  it.  5 occur  the  radiocarbon  younger  of  was  clasts  but  been  unit  during  sediments  abundant  has  i n t e r m i x e d , as truncated  parts  laminated  within  is  are  Unit  till  flow(?)  Tills  pit  colour  in  by  heterogeneous,  grey  at  5  is and  tills  unit  till  Till  gravel,  the  exist  non-compacted many  dark  (5b).  from  exposed  buried  within  by  (spruce)."  is  attempt  Wood  was  sp.  higher  no  layers  and  drift, be  5-  caused  21,600*200  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d into  outwash  pit  dated  comm.)  to  the  where  sediment be  in  probably  unit  " . . .P i c e a  associated  occurred  were  5,  pers.  comm.):  is  5 could  unit  Jr.,  exposures,  many  unit  deposited  below  and it  it  inaccessible the  just  till  this  that  Blake,  where  tiate  ice  (pers.  5,  in  contains  gastropods,  37.  annelids,  and  both  valves  with  dark  and  stones  marine  (Fig.  clayey  found  at  7.  sand  in  and  site  gravel,  elevation  from  rusty  and  bedding.  Shell  casts  were  Armstrong  (pers.  delta  was  probably  raced  by  wave  Unit  8  comm.)  pair  Clarke,  A.  but  were  unit  occurs  as  of  filled  Sa x i domu s comm.)  Jr.,  found  with  and  pers.  Blake,  this  is  a  thin  lag  found  B,  in  pits  spray  reworking  valley  when  occurs  between lag In  pers.  in  probably  dated comm.).  similar  has  a  glacio-  For not  (up  (Fig.  to  the  are  D.  It  the  terraces  were  formed.  grey,  compact  till  sands  bottomset  sand  beds  by  intertidal.  and  w<aB'  mantle the  as  slopes  of  and  delta  The  later  ter-  fell.  formed  5 on  The  foreset,  sea  of  unit  marine  D.  bottomset  1 m thick) top  to  probably  rising  the  17)  topset,  sea-level  at  and  a  a composite  result  of  unit  wave-washed  terraces  a  In  of  the  and  of  storm  lower  places 5 and  a  was waves  Coquitlam  transition  the  overlying  gravel.  most  with  contacts  the  in  B  in  they  the  gravel C,  found  and  as  pits  display  formed  action  supralittoral  was  H.  (W.  therefore,  are  tacts  B.P.  this  surrounded  A matching A.  occur  origin.  gravels  rusty  silt.  yr.  Pelecypods  completely  ( i d e n t i f i e d by  elsewhere;  increasing  and  18).  intact,  radiocarbon were  Unit  and  muscle  valves  12,000*100  material  echinoid  blue-grey  G i ganteus  No  an  exposures  and  were the drawn  the  truncate observed  reasons for  the  sediment  older in  sediments.  three  stated lower  in  units  have In  dimensions Chapter  Coquitlam  undulatory  many  (Fig.  Two, valley  places  conthese  7).  a geological gravel  pits.  map  38.  Quaternary  History  Quaternary valley  during  tinental Two  River the  at  least  glaciers  a fiord  Multiple  removed  and d u r i n g  at  at  water  and r e t r e a t s  the Coquitlam  sediments  sediments  action,  then  of  con-  interval. valley  the Pleistocene  to the present  older  Coquitlam  one n b n g l a c i a l  that  in these  valley  by i c e a n d / o r  least  parallel  developed  in the lower  advances  twice during  roughly  of each  deposited  indicate  least  were  formation  were  two m a j o r  layers  valleys  valley  Conclusions  sediments  glaciomarine  became  and  epoch.  Coquitlam ( F i g . 7)-  were  filled  During  e r o d e d and  i n by m o r e  sed iments . Unit  1 is  lam v a l l e y , more  than  valley was  flowing  cooler  rial,  that  followed  8B)  the Coast that  laid  occurs  (probably  Mountains,  to t r a n s p o r t  unit  years  were  low-discharge  An o r g a n i c - r i c h  presumably  streams  in sediment  than  ago) d u r i n g streams layer  49,000  containing  unit  cobble-sized to  1  mate-  poorly  This  a landscape  was  which  regime.  years  a nonglacial  compared  by  down t h e  depositing  candidates.  developing  ago,  the climate  and n o r t h e a s t w a r d - f 1 o w i n g  2 more  silt  when  2)  is moderately  are likely  of e r o s i o n change  which  deposited  62j000 y e a r s  C, D, A p p e n d i x  enough  in a sediment  Coquit-  1 was d e p o s i t e d  great  c l i m a t e warmed  62,000  (Figs.8B,  Unit  The s t r e a m s  a radical  than  Hill).  a n d was  more'than  today.  by a p e r i o d  down  in the lower  of  and outwash  represents The  ago  southward  than  found  g1aciof 1uvia 1 in o r i g i n ,  years  discharges  sorted,  sediment  t o QL-194 a t Mary  from  heeded  probably  49,000  according streams  the oldest  ago  (probably  interval.  to those spruce  streams  more  These  depositing twigs,  (Fig.  unit  possibly  1.  39.  A  GLACIAL DIAMICTON PEBBLE * FABRICS  B  VALEOCURRENT  DATA  I n f e r r e d d i r e c t i o n o f i c e movement, baaed of  •  Yellow Sand and G r a v e l  Strong p r e f e r r e d pebble (long o r i e n t a t i o n (Appendix 3)  A  Pebble-Cobble G r a v e l and Sand  axis)  O Sand  V  Weak p r e f e r r e d pebble (long o r i e n t a t i o n (Appendix 3) Till • Till  ( u n i t 5b, P i g .  7)  phase o f G l a i c a l Complex  Massive stony c l a y e y s i l t Complex ( u n i t 3|  (unit  axis)  (unit  (unit  5a)  4)  T  Rusty Sand and G r a v e l  •  Semi-Impervious  3]  ( u n i t 7. F i g . 7}  ( u n i t 2)  Coarse G r a v e l  ( u n i t 1)  Measurements done o n :  phase o f G l a c i a l  1 C r o s s - b e d d i n g ; p a l e o c h a n n e l widths (large scale)  5cm t o 5m  2 C r o s s - b e d d i n g ; p a l e o c h a n n e l width up t o 5cm (small s c a l e )  The r a t i o o f l o n g a x i s l e n g t h / i n t e r m e d i a t e a x i s l e n g t h f o r most pebbles was 1.5 to 2.0, 90* o f a l l pebble long a x i s dipped l e s s than ' 2 5 ° , and 57% d i p p e d l e s s than 1 0 ° ; 15* d i p p e d Northward ( a g a i n s t d i r e c t i o n o f i c e movement)  3 Pebble i m b r i c a t i o n * F o r e s e t bedding /  I n f e r r e d d i r e c t i o n o f stream flow  *AA M n m than one measurement taken from same s i t e , (e.g. F o r e s e t bedding and pebble i m b r i c a t i o n i n u n i t 5a were b o t h a n a l y s e d a t same s i t e )  D  GENERALIZED  REGIONAL GEOLOGY:  PEBBLE SOURCE AREAS.  (modified a f t e r Roddick e t . a l . , 1973: G e o l o g i c a l Map #165)  C  PEBBLE*PROVENANCE  r'^L'MI  (see F i g . D f o r  Yi. IVy.l Samples  taken from:  © S u p r a l i t t o r a l Lag G r a v e l a Yellow Sand and G r a v e l 5 Till •  (unit  (including  f l o w s , t u f f s , and b r e c c i a s )  QUARTZITE, CHERT, PELITE, AND ARGILLITE  ( u n i t 5a) OTHER ROCK TYPES  e.g.-a Pebble sample from u n i t 5a i n which 90* o f the [ p e b b l e s have a Coast source (Northern I provenance) and 10* have a Cascade Mtns. source (Eastern provenance)  Mtn3.  ( u n i t 3)  A Rusty Sand and G r a v e l V Semi-Impervious  ( i n c l u d i n g low grade me tamp l u t o n i c s and m e t a v o l c a n i c s )  VOLCANIC ROCK TYPES  * pebbles h a v i n g Coast Mtns. source (northern provenance)  4)  • G l a c i a l Complex  GRANITIC AND ASSOCIATED ROCK TYPES  ( u n i t 7)  ( u n i t 5b)  Pebble-Cobble Gravel  O Sand  ( u n i t 8, F i g . 7)  * Pebble sample h a v i n g Cascade Mtns. source (Eastern provenance)  G.S.C. Open F i l e  Gravel  ( u n i t 2) ( u n i t 1)  * P e b b l e s ranging  from 1 '  dia.  were  ( i n c l u d i n g medium to h i g h grade metamorphics, sedimentary, and u l t r a m a f i c s  m  UNCONSOLIDATED  (QUATERNARY)  RESULTS OF SOKE FIELD WORK DONE IN THE LOWER COQUITLAM RIVER VALLEY GRAVEL PITS: A, GLACIAL DIAMICTON PEBBLE FABRICS I B, PALEOCURRENT DATA; C, PEBBLE PROVENANCE( D, GENERALIZED REGIONAL GEOLOGY SHOWING SOURCE AREAS FOR PEBBLES IN C.  SEDIMENTS  40.  with  some  pebbles 8C,  in  D,  ments  trees unit  Appendix by  the  The  till  first  advanced D,  With  renewed  ice  w a s h was valley,  at  been  this  this  time.  northern  and  a  Scattered  provenance  reworked  northeastward  into  (Figs.  from o l d e r  the  sedi-  valley.  landscape  which  unit  of  the  135  the  sandy  was  An  developed  the  on  the  became  a  fiord.  During  this  stone  icebergs  these  pebbles  their  long  layer  may  are  floor.  drifted  axes  dip  part  be c o i n c i d e n t a l .  strongly  Fig.  be The  t i l l ; layer  8C  the  when  ice  the  down  contains  valley.  of  unit  (Figs.  8A,  Following  3-  retreated again,  more  out-  to  a  till  have  clayey was  probably  that  fiord.  pebble  fewer  formed  to stones  almost and  Fig.  all  suggests 8A  imbricated,  This  with  silt  dropped  Mountains  perhaps  the  the  stony  indicates  the  invaded  disappeared  sediments ice  3 was  later  northward.  however,  north  unit  Coast  oriented,  generally  the outwash  of  fiord  floating  southward  3-  second  appears The  from  unit  down;  deglaciation  when  derived  are  sea  ice  the  laid  the  be g l a c i o m a r i n e  m a.s.l. sea  the  another  of  to  outwash  depositing  and  to  on  of  modified  outwash  Coquitlam  i c e , more  onset  streams  Mountains  filled  the  gravel  deposited  Coast  the  down,  the  in  with  3 was  2), a n d  interpreted  mud on  it  c l i m a t e and  meltwater  c l i m a t i c warming  laid  least  a cooling  readvanced,  uplift.  layer  of  of  retreat  the  that  have  followed  covered  Appendix  then  of  flowing  south, from  brief  into  may  and  southward-f1owing  and  at  2)  result  landscape  land  formed  a dominantly  period  glaciation,  a  it,  depos i t s . As  C,  in  2 have  streams  erosional these  growing  suggests and  glaciomarine? orientation  stones  than  the  may tills,  41.  the  matrix  massive  is  and  highly  finer  little  occur  shells  origin  for  due  isostatic is  sea  was  level  control  on in  worked  the  from  deposits  silt  in  layer and  outwash unit  2.  unit  3•  further  layer  is  of  gravels  earlier,  years  ago  ley  at  red.  that  Climatic  deposition  and  in  (o.l  shallow  debouched probably tered  from still  stones  dropped  8B,  and  C,  not the  had  D,  Clasts  k was  filling  sea  would  another  begun  1 m deep),  again  in  not  by  (1  to  ice of  far  the  and  stone  from m e l t i n g  north  clusters  ice  blocks  in  found  the  and  of  tree  changes of  to  have on  prevents  each  re-  of  stony  the  clayey  from  the  into  the  by  about  21,600  formed.  If  valley  have  were  been  streams  is  these  present  peat  the  it  sedi-  probably  entered  till  the  val-  may  have  occur-  the  time of  unit  k  that  carried  the  10 m w i d e ) the  Coast in  glaciomarine  dates  cut  and  contain  a  ice advance  streams  wide  and  deposited  southward-advancing the  2)  glaciomarine,  low-discharge  to  may  (assuming  Appendix  unit  instead  cooling  to  events.  southward-f1owing  and  is  but  the  radiocarbon  uplift  landscape,  silt  time,  of  is  stratigraphic  relative  developed  deposited  sediments  change  platy  deposition  were  ments  ponded  during  layer  sea-level  Landscapes  (Figs.  or  Absolute  3 and  glaciomarine)  clayey  Lowland  this  are  same  unit  Mountains  stony  tills  of  Coast  the  Lack  isostatic  a new  net  these  the  the  and  Therefore,  events  the  3,  Fraser  preferred.  only  unit  in  press).  eustatic  timing  of  whereas  the  in  determined.  After  on  in  is  unknown;  the  tills  sediments  (Armstrong,  this  sediments  Similar  elsewhere  marine  to  the  compacted;  compacted.  position  found  than  channels  ensuing  glaciation,  Mountains.  this parts  unit  sands  were  carried  Scatprobably by  the  42.  proglacial 2203  streams.  21,600*200  smooth  surface  sediment  layer  posed  the  in  The  radiocarbon and  may  lower  and  deposited,  landscape. the  The Coast  a  the  Appendix  2)  cut  C,  into  The  unit  unit  5b.  were  f a u l t e d and  unit  4.  4 and  sediments  by  lenses  ponded  deposited during  in  the  this  some  outwash  valley  by  glaciation.  non-compacted,  contorted  flow  tills  stony  at  each  till  the  edge  arid o u t w a s h  of  the  were  i c e and  least  formed had  and  the  During  till  5a,  tills  5a),  and  fine  sand,  and  platy however, as  lodgesome  viscous  the  action  of  k)  three  advances  ice;  water  greater  than  (unit  deposited  ice.  C,  Coquitlam  compact  glacier  wasting  layer,  are  8B,  and  (units  silt  glacier  Most  (Figs.  gravel  the  the  deposited  At  local  of  and  stony  in  from  entered  the  places.  laminated  3  buried  narrower  ice  and  a  streams  this  sand  base  mudflows  at  in  by  and  filled  landscapes  units  southward  and  a  exposed.  These  ice  the  of  formed  the  that  valley,  sediments  deeper  overridden  contorted  of  As  5a.  ex-  recorded  streams  older  unit  previous  separated  tills  meltwater  be  by  are  2)  a  not  when  only  moved  Appendix  channels  remodelled  containing  D,  in  it  ment  8A,  flowed  valley,  retreats  eventually  may  are  and  and  periods  2)  (GSC-  wood-bearing  Coquitlam  (unit  k  ends  a  It  intervals  one  with  depositing  were  of  the  lower  it  and  5b),  the  unit  interval  represented  filling  streams  (unit  in  glacier  (Figs.  now  from  valley.  between  southward-flowing  new v a l l e y ,  discharges  River  from  rounded  reworked  nonglacial  deposits  advancing  while  two  had  a nonglacial  is  sediments  Mountains  valley D,  only  and  stick  B.P.)  been  occurred  Perhaps  Pleistocene  although  have  Coquitlam  interval  spruce  yr.  representing  nonglacial k were  dated  deposition  reshaped  the  older By  the  landscapes  13,000  thesis  in the  sea  and  marine  on  a  years  area  progress.  The  and  determined.  only  Following  sea  Appendix  ded  the  against of  up  175  to  into  the  land  unit  the  7 was  the  valley  5,  delta  unit  formed  as  meltwater  carving  7yet  This  above  the  and  spray lag  terraces marine  a new o n e ,  sea-level this  present  ice  up  action  similar  agai  deposited  the  time  sea  a composite  retreating  Waves  a fiord  during  down  was  retreated,  6 were  streams  a supralittoral  while  to  carried  rose  ice  became  events  outside  deglaciation  Absolute  formed  the  data  the  unit  relative  being  walls.  forming  of  and  from  of  m a.s.l.  change  as  which  eustatic  outwash  another  and  valley,  isostatica11y  m a.s.l.  level  marine  valley  to  (Figs.  8B,  to  north.  the  sea,  surf  to  140  the  the  unit  8,  m a.s.l.  modified to  D,  poun-  reworked  gravel,  C,  older  present-  1 andscape. Later  east  this,  radiocarbon  warmed  70  and  net  debouching  unit  landscapes day  the  on  one.  sediments  southward-f1owing  2)  drift  had  least  recessional by  As  at  new  Armstrong),  Coquitlam  isostatic  was  the  the  to  unknown;  by  E.  climate  to  are  delta  J.  a  (based  glaciomarine  landscape due  formed  B.P.  from  entered  changes  and  of  ice  the  advances  Coquitlam  (Fort  valley,  valley,  but  did  During  the  post-glacial  deposited tom o f  and  its  activity  on  not  eroded  valley, the  after  reach  by  and  river  Langley,  the by  it  banks.  the  last  (Armstrong,  (Recent) present  mass  Sumas)  time  to  ice  advance  in  press).  sediments  Coquitlam  wastage  occurred  River  processes  and  the into  have in  the  human  been bot-  43a.  44.  Throughout Coquitlam ever,  valley,  their The  of  the  lower  in  lam  River  units  in  lower  Coquitlam  sediment filled,  fill  nary  units  supported lead  smaller  few  in  in  made  meters  In  away,  as  model  is  valleys  occurred;  the  fills Lowland.  sediment  the the  in  example  Fraser  the  how-  unknown.  sediment  of  for  shown  the  illustrated  of  development  Quaternary  units  lower  Coquit-  distribution bottom  Fig. that  time.  Other  bordering  the  of  9-  of  the  This  occurred  sketch in  the  sedimentFraser  Lowland  phenomena.  than  dates  can  some p l a c e s sediment  few as  fills  Coquitlam  other  these  different  slope  occupying  two.  a  are  conclusions.  7 and  scale.  twelve  fill  lower  on  best  Quaternary  western  in  completely  bordering  multiple valley  the  are  occurrence  valley  similar  radiocarbon  Fig.  the  bedrock  to m i s l e a d i n g  mapped  than  by  in  sediment  the  sediments  sediment  sporadic  throughout  of  of  deposition probably  the  valleys  multiple valley  contain  Because  makeup  (bedrock)  glaciated  also  the  is  A hypothetical  the  the  magnitude  bedrock  valley.  these  sediment  valley  geological  landscapes  illustrates  and  Coquitlam  7 demonstrates buried  of  tectonic adjustments  glaciated  and  may  history  importance  complex  found Fig.  the  valley,  up  the  at  best  units  subdivided  a drill  hole  layers,  and  could in  of  study  t e n t a t i v e and  sediment  further  Quater-  correlations  three-dimensional  Nine be  making  may  have on  been  a  penetrate  others,  only  more a  45.  CHAPTER  FOUR:  PORT MOODY D I S P O S A L  SITE  Introduction  Hill  The  best  and  the  sanitary a  Coquitlam  landfill  section  tion  Pleistocene  containing  represents  The  section  high  on  site  only  east  the  exposures  on  Barnet  a  the  part  occurs of  in  a  area  Highway  of  is  a  at  creek  than  the l).  exposed,  and  gully  the  of  sec-  hill.  face  south  Moody  Here  composite  vertical  Mary  Port  (Fig.  larger  a gullied  large  other  occurs  landscapes  small  side  in  valley  buried  observed  the  exposure  35 m the  Barnet  H i ghway. The in  1963  mid  the  the  was  originally  Scott  Bros.  City  of  ravine.  Port  the  creek  was  then  built  over  the  east  side  minor  the  since  and  sand.  trucks  with  of  1960 s have  During sand  and  A bulldozer  blanket  of  being  excavated  over and  Burrard  for for  city  filled  field  piles.  sand  sand  the  1  then  ravine  the then it.  trucks  Only  trucked  out  minor of  In  use  sole  fill of  a  amounts pit  east  the  gully  former  but  of  bridge  pit  on  excavated the  pit.  both  with  pits garbage  filled  dump  on  garbage  and  when  side  road  their  gully  of  the pit  present  owner  sand  the  gully  the  outside  loader  the  of  on  used  garbage  the  sales.  disposal  end  the  the  The  entire  dumped  levelled  to  also  own  the  front  pit  Inlet.  the  of  control  place  city  their  almost a  in  side  sand  used  garbage  became  work  for  another  were  The  west  gained  installed  f i l l .  the  Ltd.  Co.  sand  enter  the  the  amounts  late  and  of  to  on  opened  and was  Co.  Oil  Moody  culvert  permit  In  Gravel  Garbage  a drainage  only  opened  British-American  1  and to  by  1960 s  while of  pit  the spread  sand the  a  were writer  46.  examined side  as  before  it. the  The  vertical  further  Measured  city  is  east  exposed  measured  with  a Wallace  the in  They  pit  lie  Fig.  face  11.  done  and  separate  this  on  chapter  Fig.  11  sediments  of  the  at  are by  hill-  be  benched  tacts  i n d i c a t e where  A geological in  Port  of  section  the  cross  The  is  section  data  are and  were  shown  in  shown where  also  in  parallel  mentioned  each  cross  section  later work  recorded  Conclusions"  through  the  Port  Moody  sanitary  landfill  in  Fig.  6 and  the  of  the  cross  lines  base  in  i n d i c a t e where  exposed  i n f o r m a t i o n was  sections,  the  pit  Two a n d and site  at  and  Geological is  broken  con-  drawn  for  in the  the  legend.  reasons  Three.  Conclusions has  been  the  extrapolated.  map o f  not  site.  information  s u f f i c i e n t l y described was  Quaternary  exposure  section.  are  Moody  are  section  History  pit  line  gully  units  History  the  Section  less-well  Chapters  Quaternary  legend.  in  appendices.  solid  from o t h e r ,  Sediment  cross  p l o t t e d on  p l o t t e d on  known  The  the  must  a l t i m e t e r and  side  a diagrammatic  sections  shown  short  "Quaternary  Composite is  are  the  under in  one  diagrammatic  in  mapping  contacts  stated  and  sections  Tiernan  The  coded  or  and  eastern  data  exposed  measured  time  high  into  proceed.  the  Field  maps  Diagrammatic  The  too  stratigraphic  along  Introduction.  was on  10.  the  can  is  further  Sections best  to  digging  face  excavation  The  Fig.  not  subjected  to  at  least  two  47.  B  100-1  p.psr.tf 214°(wk)  h  Im, silty  g.st, psr ; h,in places tb,r,f, and ct, xb-210°(ls)  P.psr.tf  metres  SEA SECTION  to  g.st, psr; h, J xb-210°(ls  g,st, psr; h, in places tb, t, and ct; xb-215°(ls)  A  1 3 9 < £ ) - ^  thin (2cm) stony organic silt layer  P.psr  50^  MOO  tb'SncJr xG-20l°(ls)-  g.psr-l Im —'  50  UJ Oi  100  LEVEL  DESCRIPTIONS  MOO  100. PM02TL  PM01SD50-  50  not sampled  B  SEA  SEDIMENT  SAMPLE  LEVEL LOCATIONS 122°53'  wm  122°52'  122°5l'  Tii1 49°18'  Sand Stony  Silt  Wood-bearing o r g a n i c s i l t Cv  layer  Covered 49°17'  I  PM01SD Sample Number SD  Sand  ST  TI  Till  PM P o r t Moody  A, B , C h tb Im xb  ct f P st psr tf  p9  '  Silt site  Measured s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s  INDEX M A P A N D L O C A T I O N MEASURED SECTIONS  OF  h o r i z o n t a l l y bedded t h i n l y bedded laminated c r o s s - bedded; d i r e c t i o n o f p a l e o s t r e a m f l o w (Is) - measurement taken from l a r g e s c a l e p a l e o c h a n n e l (width 1 t o 5 m) r i p p l e d bedding c o n t a i n s g r a v e l i n t e r b e d s and l e n s e s contorted faulted platy c o n t a i n s s c a t t e r e d stones and stone c l u s t e r s p e b b l e s g e n e r a l l y subrounded t i l l (pebble) f a b r i c a n a l y s i s done a t s i t e ; i n f e r r e d d i r e c t i o n o f i c e movement (st) - s t r o n g p r e f e r r e d pebble o r i e n t a t i o n (Appendix 3) (wk) - weak p r e f e r r e d pebble o r i e n t a t i o n (Appendix 3)  MEASURED STRATIGRAPHIC SECTIONS AT THE PORT MOODY DISPOSAL SITE A. SECTION DESCRIPTIONS, B. SEDIMENT SAMPLE LOCATIONS.  (PIT H, F i g . 1 ) :  48.  122°53  49°18'  •5j  ~ 3  TILL Platy lodgement t i l l . UPPER SAND Contains scattered stones and stone c l u s t e r s ; grades downward from h o r i z o n t a l l y bedded, 49°17' cross-bedded med. sand to t h i n l y bedded and r i p p l e d f i n e sand; probably p r o g l a c i a l outwash and f l u v i a l deposits. FOSSIL SWAMP DEPOSIT Laminated f i n e sandy s i l t containing f o s s i l leaves, twigs, and logs up to 1 m long and 15 cm dia.; swamp and f l u v i a l deposits.  INDEX MAP  DRIFT LAYER Includes logement t i l l , contorted stony s i l t , and g r a v e l l y sand; stony s i l t probably g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e ; sand probably g l a c i o f l u v i a l . LOWER SAND I d e n t i c a l i n texture to unit 5; faulted, subhorizontally bedded, cross-bedded, i n places t h i n l y bedded and r i p p l e d ; contains minor gravel lenses and interbeds, and scattered stones and stone c l u s t e r s ; probably g l a c i o f l u v i a l deposits.  Buried land scape (unconformity) and geological contact; observed, i n f e r r e d . Base of exposure. Area of measured section.  Fiq  11  DIAGRAMMATIC COMPOSITE SECTION, PORT MOODY DISPOSAL SITE, PO?T MOODY, BRITISH COLUMBIA.  49.  glaciations During  separated  these  hills  which  events were  sediments  and  a  of  remnant The  its,  flowing Coast  stone  and  tree  as  clusters  channels.  Faults  (0.1 in  the  load  landscape  was  formed  un i t  D,  the  to  1 m deep) were  overriding on  this  lodgement and  to  north  the  2).  southward  depos-  southwardin  the  Scattered ice  stones  blocks  low-discharge  probably  (1  m to  caused  deposited  by w a t e r  was  plain  by  wide  that  It  today,  The  and  1.  flood  from m e l t i n g  ice  unit  further  sand  of  streams.  sand  unit  and  Appendix  dropped  hill,  and  (Fig.  till  was  laid  gravel  and  ponded  ice 12A)  down  on  stony  streams  10 m w i d e )  after unit  depo2.  A  action. into the silt  the landof  2. the  nonglacial  unit  3 were  slope  formed The  of  unit  to  the  The  of  and  w i t h outwash  As a  area  C,  These  a composite  of  a glacier  in  the  ice advanced  Moody  scape  12B,  sand  that  of  today.  channel  than  landscapes  ice a c t i o n .  up  Moody  interval.  on  and  made  the  from  probably  by  Port  is  proglacial  carried  shallow  by w a t e r  Port  exposed  (Figs.  parts  The  at  nonglacial  deposited  eventually  debouching  in  sition  reshaped  exists  unit  one  were  a climate cooler  Mountains  flowed  later  which  streams  and  least  sediments  deposited  during  at  landscapes  oldest  probably  by  result  of  a warming  interval  began.  deposited on  top  in  of  north  sands  in  grade  from  Coast  by  ice  retreated  and  silt  and  fine  of  containing  after  that  and  southward-f1owing  Mountains  thinly  the  trees,  sand  against  the  2.  again  deposited the  Laminated  swamp,  unit  climate cooled h were  a  climate,  bedded  (Figs. and  proglacial streams  12B,  stoneless  C, at  D,  sands  from  ice  Appendix  the  base  of  2).  50.  GRANITIC AND ASSOCIATED ROCK TYPES ( i n t ' l u d i n q low grado m o t a p l u t o n i c s  [ metavolcani  VOLCANIC ROCK TYPES (lnclutliriij  flows,  tuffs,  and t  Samples t a k e n ® Till  ( u n i t 5, Viq.  11)  On * f a b l e s h a v i m , Coa^t MLria. s o u r c e (>KI rtliE-rn  O Upper Hand (ur ID D r i f L l j y c ? r (L A Lower .Sand (ur  El  T Z I T E , C.flKRT, P E L I T E , AND ARGILLITE R ROCK TYI'LS  O  p e b L l t ; aampl 85* o f Clio [Jt'tiblo  r i d d i n g medium Lo h i q h qrad 11 men tii ry , and u l trama f Li-s) NSOLJ DA'I'ED (OUATERNAKY) SEDIMENTS  RESULTS OF SOME FIELD WORK DONE AT THE PORT M00DV DISPOSAL SITE: A, GLACIAL DIAMICTON PEBBLE FABRICS; B, PALEOCURRENT DATA; C, PEBBLE PROVENANCE; D, GENERALIZED RFGIONAL GEOLOGY SHOWING SOURCE AREAS FOR PEBBLES IN C.  )  51.  the  unit  deep)  into  and  gravelly  narrow  cating  that  as  advancing  the  scape  was As  the  the  the  Marine  the  of  can  wood  layer  dates  is  The within  and  the  by  unit  Port  20  top,  cm  indi-  competence A  land-  action.  12A),  covering  deposited  to  found  from  at  this  events;  be  were  till  Two  the pit  however for  Mary  Hill  in  and  of  unit  5  adjacent Three);  Port  Moody  prevents dates  some o f  25,000-60,000 at  formed  (Chapters  extrapolated  each  small 2;  If  Moody  local  years and  control  from  the  site.  adjacent  units.  old,  The  based  elsewhere  in  on the  is,  in  that was  against unit  time  stream  sediments  action,  have  mass  been  wastage  activity.  landscapes  area  these  (Holocene)  section  unit  which  against  by  human  These  3 abuts  1.  not  sediments  eroded  and  it.  In  and  deposits  dates  post-glacial  and  processes,  abuts  and  to  area.  ice  (Fig.  the and  Moody  and  southward  were  expected  Port  (10  Low l a n d .  deposited  unit  be  at  discharge  water  retreat  Quaternary  similar  During  unit  of  deep  units.  ice  deposits  probably  from  Fraser  last  in  landscape  older  radiocarbon  timing  areas  the  in  channels  the  h by  glaciomarine  the  these  Lack  unit  advanced  the  and  increased  on  sands  cm w i d e )  approached  remolded  during  however,  on  ice  glacier  it  50  streams  truncated  areas  to  developed  site,  which  (30  cross-bedded  2;  contains occur  most  Fig.  11  deposited unit and  buried  2;  four  at  cases,  the  unit  finally,  landscapes  a  landscapes  base  each  of  truncated  represents on  buried  unit  by 1  younger  is  unit are  unit  landscape;  3, a n d  5 truncates extrapolated  ones.  truncated  southward-s1 oping  k overlies  sediment  also  units to  the  U,  2,  north  52.  Till  present land surface  (unit 5, F i g . 11) —+—+  former top o f T i l l  •* -H- -H-  former and present case o f T i l l  - I I I I I  former and present top o f Upper Sand  — •—•—  former and present base o f Upper Sand  Upper Sand (unit 4) rev ['.IrSkigy  F o s s i l Swamp Deposit (unit 3)  D r i f t Layer (unit 2) former and present top o f D r i f t Layer Lower Sand (unit 1)  F i g u r e 13  former and present base o f D r i f t Layer  HYPOTHETICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF PARTS OF HILLS DEVELOPED DURING QUARTERNARY TIME NEAR PORT MOODY, BRITISH COLUMBIA.  and  south  of  throughout  the  pit,  Quaternary  illustrated  by  sketch  sediment  units  each and  The part in  of  Port  Chapter  posite the  in  a  the  most  Two,  series  time  of  would  hypothetical unit  cases  Moody  larger  hills,  Fraser  a  has  is  and  is  Lowland.  diagram  many  by  landfill  hill,  not  in  at  Fig.  contact younger  site  is  unlike  example buried  formed  various  reconstructed  a sloping  another  containing  be  truncated  sanitary  composite  hills  of  this In  with  adjacent  this  units. a  Hill  small described  Quaternary  landscapes,  is  13-  only  Mary  the  and  stages  that  com-  occur  in  54.  CHAPTER A.  C o r r e l a t i o n of Fig. lam-Port  14  The  Sediment  is  a  Moody  correlation  of  formational Quaternary  showing  is  unit  assigned  nine  the  have  been  sion  established  Port  Moody and  cribed  in  S.  R.  listed  in  the  succession  Table  climatic  unit,  Major bury  in  II.  each are  follows Drift;  the  are  area.  has  Each  a glacial,  rank.  A brief  have  Fig.  which  to of  1976  the  by  sediment  this  history  in  J.  the  been  14,  which  succesCoquitlamE.  units  established  of  the  nonglacial  stratigraphic (in  1974  with  names  in  represents  stadial,  units  Lowland  Correlations Four)  unit  Formal  Quaternary  during  (1975a) e s t a b l i s h e d units,  Fraser  distinguishable  units  drawn  Four.  Nine  Fraser  to  to  Two  Arm(des-  succession  derivation  of  follows.  mational  as  Two  Chapters  information.  in  located)  and  drillhole  the  Hicock.  Chapters  are  are  is  stratigraphy  by  1ithostratigraphic  the  Coquit-  sections  that  correlated with  area  in  the  composite  interstadial  for  Quaternary  through  the  exposed  or  Armstrong  on  diagram  described  1i t h o s t r a t i g r a p h i c  ( i n t e r g 1 a c i a 1),  strong  the  supplemented  a geo1ogic-c1 imatic  to  fence  units  based  deposits  STRATIGRAPHY  Units  sediment  chapters,  QUATERNARY  hypothetical  area  correlation  these  FIVE:  probably  exposed  (youngest Olympia  Glaciation: Sediments;  in  five  major  representing the  Fraser  to o l d e s t ) :  Nonglacial  Semiahmoo  Major  that  a major  Lowland.  Fraser  Interval:  Drift;  Glaciation?:  Pleistocene  geologicThese  units  Glaciation: Quadra  Nonglacial Westlynn  for-  Sediments;  Interval: Drift.  High-  TABLE GEOLOGIC-CLIMATIC  UNITS  RADIOCARBON AGES YEARS B.P.  (AfLer Armstrong, in press and A r m s t r o n g and H i c o c k, 1976) HOLOCENE  1 1 , OOO  to  PLEISTOCENE LATE WISCONSIN FRASER G L A C I A T I O N  26,000  t o l l , 0 0 0  present  I I  CORRELATION  E S T A B L 1 SHED STRATIGRAPHIC SUCCESSION FOR THE F R A S E R LOWLAND (mod. a f t e r Armstrong, in press) Holocene  Sediments  Capilano Washon  Sediments  ^  60,000?to  M I D D L E OR E A R L Y W I S C O N S I N M A J O R GLAC 1 AT 1 ON  probably  >62,000  Semiahmoo  EARLY WISCONS i N ? MAJOR NONGLAC1AL 1 NTERVAL  probably  >62,000  Highbury  E A R L Y OR MAJOR  P R E - W 1 S C O N S 1N GLACIATION  kets  refer  ^62,000  to  sediment  unit  numbers  Cowichan  Head  Formation*^  Drift  each  UNITS  Supralittoral  SED 1 M E NT U N I T S AT COQUITLAM VALLEY (Fig.  Sediments  Lag  Gravel  (10)* Silt  (9) (8) (7) (6) (5)  SandyGravel Fossil Bog a n d G y t t j a D e p o s i t s ?Stony C o l l u v i a l Organic Complex  (4) (3) (2)  Undifferentiated  (1)  Glacial  Complex  figure.  Supralittoral Lag G r a v e l Y e l l o w Sand and G r a v e l Fossi1 iferous Clayey S i l t Till P e b b 1 e - C o b b 1e G r a v e l 6 S a n d Sand  ----  ?  Question placed  in  indicate  the  established  that  sediment  units  stratigraphic  Till  (5)  ?UpperSand  (4)  ?FossiI  Glacial  Complex  Sand  and  ( 3)  Gravel  ?Serai-Impervious Grave!  marks  (9) (8) (7) (6) (5) (4)  ----  Rusty j  S E D I M E N T U N I T S AT P O R T MOODY ( F i g . 11)  7)  ----  Sediments  WestlynnDrift  in  River  G l a c i o m a r i n e Stony Clayey Till Pebble-Cobble Gra»el Sand S t o n y C l a y e y S i l t  Drift  MIDDLE WISCONS 1 N OlYMP1 A NONGLACIAL 1NTERVAL  LITH0STRAT1GRAPNIC  S E D I M E N T U N I T S AT MARY H I L L ( F i g . 3)  Fraser  Quadra Sand Coquitlam Drift  26,000  OF  behind  succession.  thei  Cobble  ?Drift ?Lower  Swamp  Layer Sand  (2)  (1)  ----  Deposit  (3)  (2) (1)  56.  LEGEND HOLOCENE  (11,000 yr. B P . - P R E S E N T ) P&WW) HOLOCENE SEDIMENTS: Kffifta modem stream s i l t , sand and gravel, bog deposits, and slopewash.  PLEISTOCENE FRASER GLACIATION (LATE WISCONSIN, 26,000-11,000) CAPILANO SEDIMENTS: raised marine and glaciomarine sand, gravel, and clayey s i l t . VASHON DRIFT: lodgement and flow t i l l , outwash gravel and sand, and substi  i medium sand.  :ified d r i f t ,  •el, and interbedded s i l t  COQUITLAM DRIFT: glaciomarine? stony clayey s i l t diamicton; may  OLYMPIA NONGLACIAL INTERVAL (MIDDLE WISCONSIN, 60,000? 26,000) COWICHAN HEAD FORMATION: bog, swamp, and c o l l u v i a l organic sediments interbedded with f l u v i a l gravel, sand, and s i l t . _  MAJOR GLACIATION (MIDDLE OR EAR' Y WISCONSIN, probably >62.000) ' i V J SEMIAHMOO? DRIFT:  •"•."j  •  lodgement t i l l , outwash gravel and sand, glaciomarine?  MAJOR NONGLACIAL INTERVAL HIGHBURY? SEDIMENTS:  (EARLY WISCONSIN ?. probably > 62,000)  f l u v i a l sand, organic-bearing s i l t , and gravel.  MA MAJ.OR GLACLAJJON (EARLY OR PRE,-_WISCpNSIN, >62,000) jHTl WESTLYNN DRIFT? IIHIH'I outwash? coarse gravel and minor sand.  ittJ Biata  E3  olacustrine laminated stony s i l t .  stony clayey s i l t , and glac  Geological contact and buried landscape Water surface.  GRANITIC BEDROCK  figur. U  HYPOTHETICAL QUATERNARY PENCE DIAGRAM : COQUITLAM-PORT MOODY. BRITISH COLUMBIA  (major unconformity).  Armstrong  and H i c o c k  stratigraphic four  of  Fraser  units  the major  exposed  Glaciation:  Drift;  Capilano Quadra  Nonglacial  Armstrong  (youngest Vashon  Interval:  to o l d e s t ) :  Nonglacial Highbury?  Quadra  Sand;  The  term  inter-till sediments  needed  Drift;  established  Olympia Semiah-  six  major  Coquitlam v a l l e y  and  geo1ogic-c1imatic Capilano  Sediments;  in c o a s t a l  Washington  units  Sediments,  Semiahmoo?  Drift;  Glaciation?:  of  to deposits  the  Pre-  above  et a l .  Quadra  deposits  Recently  Clague  (1976)  and C l a g u e  to the Olympia  and t h e " C o w i c h a n  (1953)  redefined They  Fyles  (1969)  in  origin  these  the "Quadra"  defined  sands  associated  with  Head  Formation"  as  later  interval.  a glaciofluvial sand  and  to a  and  nonglacial  and c r o s s - b e d d e d (1976)  Columbia  assigned  (1965) a n d E a s t e r b r o o k  t w o new s t r a t o t y p e s . upper  were  t o be  glaciomarine  British  and Brown  demonstrated  the level-bedded  known  and  southwestern  by A r m s t r o n g  assigned  the p r o g l a c i a l  some  and t h e d e p o s i t s  Armstrong  establishing  that  g l a c i o f l u v i a l , marine  interval  Armstrong  showed  was a p p l i e d  (1 9 6 3 ) .  ation,  oldest):  modification.  "Quadra"  exposed  nonglacial  as  to  to  Sediments.  Glaciation:  Highbury?  them  Glaciation:  Glaciation:  Major  information  fluvial,  northwestern  and  Vashon  later  litho-  Gravel.  correlations  of  (youngest  Major  the major  Fraser  Interval:  Additional  most  of  major  and a s s i g n e d  units  in the lower  four  five  Highbury  (1976)  units  them w i t h  Drift,  Hill  Sediments,  Sediments;  and H i c o c k  1i t h o s t r a t i g r a p h i c correlated  a t Mary  geologic-climatic  Interg1aciation: moo  described  (1975)  deposits sediments  "Quadra  the Fraser  the lower  for  Sand" Glaci-  bog,  58.  swamp,  fluvial,  organic Thus,  deposits  at  (1975)  Mary  may  3);  glacial gravel  (units  carbon  dates  bably  Sediments is  than  the  cribed with  Mary  Thus  Cowichan  are  not  exposed  Evans  Glaciation sion  unit  for  the  B•  (1976)  Composite  sites  5,  are  are  for  Fig.  3)  mainland Stade  Fraser  sand,  and  radio-  with  (1975)  6,  non-  received  and  the  (unit  Olympia silt,  Hicock  Hicock  Highbury  are  pro-  that  true  Highbury  oldest  unit  exposed  Hill older  British  which  the  has  Columbia in  associated  and  not and  et  existence younger  been may  Washington  (Armstrong,  established  the  Vashon  unit  occurred  unit  indicate  than  This  Glaciation  to  also  des-  correlate State,  al.,  1965)•  the  Fraser  with  stratigraphic  succes-  Lowland.  in  the  lower  believed  and  to  Coquitlam be  Description  descriptions given  and  Hill;  Formation.  be a d d e d  Section  Detailed dual  from Mary  Head  Creek  Correlations Hicock  dates  Fraser  the  and  gravel  correlated  Formation  Mary  1ithostratigraphic may  of  interval.  Glaciation  minor  Recently  deposits  Head  Fraser  and  Drift.  (unit  the  the  at  the  sediments,  3).  Armstrong  the  Cowichan  new  by  of  during a  that  Armstrong  sand and  organic  gravel,  nonglacial  of  Formation  Fig.  sand,  Olympia  Sand o f  fluvial  k,  silt,  Sediments"  Head  and  Hill  the  Quadra  and  indicate  previously  the  early  3,  Semiahmoo?  a drift  with  including:  Radiocarbon of  into  Cowichan  2?,  at  part  there  the  marine  "Quadra  proglacial  interval  Sediments  the  split  and  and  associated  Hill  be  including: Fig.  estuarine,  in  of  by  Armstrong  and  correct.  of  Lithostratigraphic  sediment  Chapters  valley  Two  to  units Four.  exposed The  at  Units indivi-  following  is  59.  a  composite  section  Coqui11 am-Port the to  Moody  nomenclature 5  illustrate  of  1ithostratigraphic  area,  listed  established most  of  the  Description  for  from the  sediment  units  youngest  Fraser units  exposed to  Lowland.  Plates  Max.  Thickness Observed  Sediments ?  PLEISTOCENE Glaciation  Capilano  using 1  described.  S e d i m e n t s d e p o s i t e d by t h e F r a s e r , C o q u i t l a m , a n d P i t t R i v e r s , by m o u n t a i n and l o w l a n d s t r e a m s , i n bogs and swamps, a n d by m a s s w a s t i n g a n d m a n .  Fraser  the  oldest,  HOLOCENE Holocene  in  Sediments  Rusty sandy to s i l t y s u p r a l i t t o r a l lag g r a v e l ( F i g . 15) c o n t a i n i n g subangular granitic pebbles. The m a t r i x i s m a i n l y composed of s u b a n g u l a r g r a n i t i c d e t r i t u s , and c o n t a i n s m a r i n e s h e l l c a s t s ( F i g . 16). F o r m s a m a n t l e up t o 1 m t h i c k on C a p i l a n o g l a c i o m a r i n e s e d i m e n t s and V a s h o n D r i f t . F o r m e d by s e a w a v e s a n d s p r a y reworking these l a t t e r deposits.  1  I n t e r b e d d e d y e l l o w sandy g r a v e l and g r a v e l l y s a n d ( F i g . 17) c o n t a i n i n g suba n g u l a r to subrounded g r a n i t i c p e b b l e s . Sand i s s u b r o u n d e d t o s u b a n g u l a r , composed m a i n l y o f q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r w i t h m i n o r h o r n b l e n d e and g r a n i t i c r o c k f r a g ments. Occurs in s o u t h w a r d - d i p p i n g fores e t a n d s u b h o r i z o n t a 1 t o p s e t b e d s a n d was d e p o s i t e d i n t o t h e s e a as a c o m p o s i t e d e l t a .  15  F i n e t o medium y e l l o w s a n d , s u b h o r i z o n t a l l y t h i n l y bedded, c o n t a i n i n g subrounded g r a i n s composed m a i n l y of q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r w i t h m i n o r h o r n b l e n d e , b i o t i t e , and g r a n i t i c r o c k f r a g m e n t s . Cont a i n s m a r i n e s h e l l c a s t s a n d was d e p o s i t e d as m a r i n e l i t t o r a l and d e l t a i c s e d i m e n t s .  1k  (m)  Stony to s t o n e l e s s c l a y e y s i l t c o n t a i n ing a b u n d a n t m a r i n e s h e l l s ( F i g . 18). Bedded in p l a c e s , i t has a b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e w i t h m a n g a n e s e o x i d e s t a i n i n g on j o i n t surfaces ( F i g . 19). S t o n e s a r e m a i n l y r o u n d e d and g r a n i t i c and t h e f i n e s a r e composed o f q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r w i t h m i n o r h o r n b l e n d e and g r a n i t i c rock fragments. M a r i n e and g l a c i o m a r i n e deposits. GSC 2177 ( s h e 1 1 s - 12 , 0 0 0 * 1 0 0 ) c o l l e c t e d from t h i s layer. Major  Unconformity Vashon  Drift  Till ( F i g . 20), at l e a s t t h r e e sheets representing local ice advances, separated by o u t w a s h g r a v e l a n d s a n d . Mostly lodgement, but p r o b a b l y i n c l u d e s f l o w t i l l . Contains lenses of ponded, laminated stony silt. C o n t a i n s subrounded to subangular g r a n i t i c p e b b l e s t o b o u l d e r s up t o 5 dia. ( F i g . 21). Matrix grains are angular face t e d , and m a i n l y composed o f q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r w i t h minor hornblende, e p i d o t e , and g r a n i t i c r o c k fragments. Sandy g r a v e l and g r a v e l l y s a n d , under, b e t w e e n , and o v e r V a s h o n t i l l sheets, cont a i n i n g t h i n l y bedded s i l t y f i n e sand lenses. E x t r e m e l y v a r i a b l e i n t e x t u r e and structures; f r o m f o r e s e t c o b b l e g r a v e l b e d s ( F i g . 22) to f a u l t e d and c o n t o r t e d s a n d and g r a v e l displaying i c e - c o n t a c t f e a t u r e s ( F i g . 23)Contains subrounded to s u b a n g u l a r , f r o s t e d and composed m a i n l y o f q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r w i t h m i n o r h o r n b l e n d e , e p i d o t e , b i o t i t e , and g r a n i t i c rock fragments. Outwash d e p o s i t s ; g r a d e s downward i n t o Quadra Sand. Major  Unconformity Quadra  Sand  M e d i u m t o f i n e s a n d ( F i g s . 2k, 2 5 , 2 7 , 28) c o n t a i n i n g sandy s i l t i n t e r b e d s ; g r a v e l lenses and i n t e r b e d s ; s c a t t e r e d s t o n e s and s t o n e clust e r s ; and d e t r i t a l c o a l and p e a t c l a s t s . Genera l l y s u b h o r i z o n t a l l y bedded, c r o s s - b e d d e d ; in places rippled, faulted. Contains subrounded to s u b a n g u l a r g r a n i t i c p e b b l e s ; sand g r a i n s are subangular to s u b r o u n d e d , s l i g h t l y f r o s t e d and m a i n l y composed o f q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r w i t h  m i n o r h o r n b l e n d e , e p i d o t e , b i o t i t e , and g r a n i t i c rock fragments. D e p o s i t e d as p r o g l a c i a l o u t w a s h , b u t may i n p a r t be f l u v i a l deposits. G_SC 2\3k ( F i g . 26) (wood i n p e a t 1 a y e r - - 1 8 ,600 -190) a n d 2203 ( w o o d - - 2 1 , 6 0 0 * 2 0 0 ) w e r e c o l l e c t e d f rom t h i s u n i t . Major  Unconformity C o q u i 11 am  Drift  S t o n y c l a y e y s i l t d i a m i c t o n ( F i g s . 29, 30) c o n t a i n i n g marine s h e l l fragments. Stones are a m i x t u r e of subrounded g r a n i t i c , v o l c a n i c , c h e r t , q u a r t z i t e , and p e l i t i c r o c k t y p e s ; fines a r e m a i n l y composed of s u b a n g u l a r , f a c e t e d g r a i n s o f q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r w i t h m i n o r h o r n b l e n d e and a r g i l l a c e o u s , a m p h i b o 1 i t i c ? , and c h e r t y r o c k fragments. T h i s is the o n l y u n i t exposed in the C o q u i 1 1 a m - P o r t Moody a r e a t h a t c o n t a i n s a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of Cascades M t n s , - d e r i v e d material. P r o b a b l y g l a c i o m a r i n e d e p o s i t s , b u t may i n p a r t be t i l l . Major  Unconformity Quadra?  Sand  M e d i u m s a n d ( F i g . 30) c o n t a i n i n g g r a v e l l e n s e s , s c a t t e r e d s t o n e s and s t o n e c l u s t e r s . C r o s s - b e d d e d and f a u l t e d , c o n t a i n i n g d e t r i t a l c o a l and p e a t c l a s t s . Contains subrounded to s u b a n g u l a r g r a n i t i c p e b b l e s and s u b a n g u l a r to s u b r o u n d e d medium sand m o s t l y composed o f q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r w i t h m i n o r h o r n b l e n d e , e p i d o t e , and g r a n i t i c r o c k f r a g m e n t s . Prob a b l y d e p o s i t e d as p r o g l a c i a l outwash but may i n p a r t be f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s associated w i t h t h e C o w i c h a n Head F o r m a t i o n . Major  Unconformity  Olympia  Nonglacial  Cowichan  Head  Interval Formation  R u s t y sandy g r a v e l g r a d i n g downward into s i l t y f i n e sand ( F i g . 31), both c o n t a i n i n g wood-bearing organic s i l t layers. Wood l a y e r s c o n t a i n l o g s up t o k m l o n g a n d 30 cm d i a . Subhorizonta11y bedded; contains subrounded g r a n i t i c p e b b l e s and s u b r o u n d e d to subangular sand g r a i n s m a i n l y composed of q u a r t z  f e l d s p a r w i t h minor b i o t i t e , hornblende, e p i d o t e , and g r a n i t i c r o c k f r a g m e n t s . Probably f l u v i a l a n d swamp d e p o s i t s . GSC 2273 (wood f r o m o r g a n i c s i 1 t - - 2 5 , 8 0 0 * 3 1 0 ) . 2277 (wood f r o m g r a v e l - - 2 6 , 0 0 0 * 3 1 0 ) , 2191 (wood f r o m g r a v e l - - 2 6 . 2 0 0 * 3 2 0 ) , a n d 2217 (wood f r o m o r g a n i c s i 1 t - - 2 6 , 9 0 0 * 3 2 0 ) were c o l l e c t e d from t h i s unit. Quadra? Sand, below C o q u i t l a m D r i f t may i n p a r t b e l o n g t o t h i s u n i t . I n t e r b e d d e d p e a t , s a p r o p e l , and s i l t y f i n e s a n d s e q u e n c e ( F i g s . 3 3 , 3 4 , 35) c o n t a i n i n g f o s s i l l o g s up t o 3 m l o n g a n d 30 cm d i a . F o s s i l l e a v e s , i n s e c t s , and diatoms a l s o found in t h i s u n i t . S i l t y sand i s s u b r o u n d e d t o s u b a n g u l a r and i s m a i n l y composed o f q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r w i t h m i n o r b i o t i t e , hornblende, e p i d o t e , and g r a n i t i c rock f r a g m e n t s . Deposited a s b o g a n d swamp d e p o s i t s . GSC 2263 (wood f r o m p e a t - - 2 7 , 0 0 0 * 4 9 0 ) , 2107 ( F i g . 35) (wood f r o m peat--27,400*420), 2139 (wood f r o m p e a t - - 2 8 , 2 0 0 * 2 0 0 ) , a n d 2 1 4 0 ( s a p r o p e 1--29 , 6 0 0 * 2 0 0 ) w e r e c o l l e c t e d from t h i s u n i t . Cowichan  Head  Formation?  Stony o r g a n i c c o l l u v i u m , comprised o f a s t o n y , w o o r - b e a r i n g s i l t - r i c h phase and a s t o n y , wood-bearing dense o r g a n i c - r i c h phase ( F i g . 32) c o n t a i n i n g f o s s i l l e a v e s a n d i n s e c t s ; b o t h a r e p r o d u c t s o f mass w a s t i n g . Stones from t h i s u n i t a r e m o s t l y subrounded and g r a n i t i c . GSC 2137 (wood f r o m t h e o r g a n i c - r i c h phase-4 0 , 2 0 0 * 4 3 0 ) , 2167 (wood f r o m t h e s i l t - r i c h phase--40,500*1700) were c o l l e c t e d from t h i s unit. Major  Unconformity  Major  Glaciation Semiahmoo?  Droft  R h y t h m i c a l l y l a m i n a t e d s i l t ( F i g . 39) c o n t a i n i n g s c a t t e r e d subrounded g r a n i t i c stones. The s i l t i s c o m p o s e d o f a n g u l a r g r a n i t i c d e t r i t u s . Probably g 1 acio1acustrine deposits. GSC 2120 ( w o o d - - > 4 8 , 0 0 0 ) a n d Q L - 1 9 4 ( S t r u i v e r , U. o f Wash., wood-->62,000) were c o l l e c t e d from this unit. Massive stony clayey s i l t c o n t a i n i n g s c a t t e r e d subrounded Weathers to a blocky s t r u c t u r e .  ( F i g s . 3 6 , 37) granitic stones. F i n e s a r e made  of q C a r i r a n d ? ' ^ . composed m a i n l y or q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r w i t h m i n o r h o r n b l e n d e e p i d o t e , and g r a n i t i c r o c k f r a g m e n t s Prob^hlv g l a c o m a r l n e d e p o s i t s , b u t may m a y ' ?i n" p ol'rr l a r t be l ^t i ll l 3  0  r  0  c  k  f  l  o  u  r  Y  Sandy g r a v e l and g r a v e l l y sand ( F i g . 36), s u b h o r i z o n t a 1 1 y bedded and c r o s s - b e d d e d , deposi t e d b e l o w , b e t w e e n , and above Semiahmoo? tills. Contains subrounded to subangular granitic p e b b l e s and s u b a n g u l a r , s l i g h t l y f r o s t e d sand g r a i n s a r e m o s t l y composed o f q u a r t z and f e l d spar w i t h minor hornblende, b i o t i t e , e p i d o t e , and g r a n i t i c r o c k f r a g m e n t s . Outwash deposits. At Mary H i l l t h i s u n i t u n d e r l i e s t h e m a s s i v e g l a c i o m a r i n e ? u n i t and c o n t a i n s l e n s e s o r c l a s t s o f s t o n y c l a y e y s i l t , p o s s i b l y p i c k e d up f r o m a lower g l a c i o m a r i n e u n i t . Lodgement t i l l ( F i g s . 36, 3 8 ) . a t l e a s t two l a y e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g l o c a l i c e a d v a n c e s , between o u t w a s h sand and g r a v e l . Contains lenses of ponded, laminated stony s i l t . Pebbles a r e m o s t l y s u b r o u n d e d t o s u b a n g u l a r and g r a n i t i c . M a t r i x v a r i e s from a n g u l a r , f a c e t e d , sandy silt and i s m a i n l y composed of q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r w i t h m i n o r h o r n b l e n d e , e p i d o t e , and g r a n i t i c rock f ragments. Medium t o f i n e sand e x p o s e d a t t h e P o r t M o o d y d i s p o s a l s i t e ( F i g . kO) c o n t a i n i n g s i l t y f i n e sand i n t e r b e d s , g r a v e l l e n s e s and i n t e r b e d s , and s c a t t e r e d s t o n e s and s t o n e c l u s t e r s . G e n e r a l l y subhorizonta11y bedded, e x t e n s i v e l y crossbedded, in places r i p p l e d , f a u l t e d . Contains g r a n i t i c p e b b l e s and sand i s s u b a n g u l a r to s u b r o u n d e d , s l i g h t l y f r o s t e d and m o s t l y composed o f q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r w i t h m i n o r h o r n b l e n d e , b i o t i t e , e p i d o t e , and g r a n i t i c r o c k f r a g m e n t s . P r o b a b l y p r o g l a c i a l o u t w a s h d e p o s i t s , b u t may i n p a r t be f l u v i a l . The w r i t e r c o n s i d e r s this t o be t h e S e m i a h m o o ? e q u i v a l e n t o f Q u a d r a S a n d ( d e p o s i t e d d u r i n g the F r a s e r G l a c i a t i o n ) . Major  Unconformity  Major  Nonglacial Highbury?  Interval Sediments  R u s t y s i l t , f i n e sand and m i n o r g r a v e l ( F i g s . A l . 4 2 , 43) e x p o s e d i n t h e l o w e r C o q u i t lam R i v e r v a l l e y . Subhorizonta11y t h i n l y bedded, c r o s s - b e d d e d , and r i p p l e d ; c o n t a i n s a w o o d bearing organic s i l t layer. Pebbles are mainly  s u b r o u n d e d and g r a n i t i c and t h e s u b r o u n d e d to s u b a n g u l a r sand and s i l t g r a i n s a r e m o s t l y composed o f q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r w i t h m i n o r h o r n b l e n d e , b i o t i t e , e p i d o t e , and g r a n i t i c rock fragments. Probably f l u v i a l floodplain sediments. GSC 2 0 9 4 - 2 (wood f r o m o r g a n i c s i 1 t - - > 4 9 , 0 0 0 ) was c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h i s u n i t . Major  Unconformity  Major  Glaciation? Wes 1 1 y n n  Drift?  Semi-impervious cobble gravel (Figs. 43, 44) e x p o s e d i n t h e l o w e r C o q u i t l a m R i v e r v a l l e y , c o n t a i n i n g minor sand l e n s e s . Subhorizonta11y b e d d e d , c r u d e l y c r o s s - b e d d e d ; c o n t a i n s o v e r 90% rounded to s u b r o u n d e d g r a n i t i c p e b b l e s and c o b b l e s w i t h m i n o r m a t r i x o f medium t o c o a r s e s u b a n g u l a r sand g r a i n s m o s t l y composed o f q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r w i t h m i n o r h o r n b l e n d e , biotite, e p i d o t e , and g r a n i t i c r o c k f r a g m e n t s . Probably glaciofluvial deposits.  Till  and  Glaciomarine  Armstrong exposed  in  suggested dropping till  the that  into  deposited  t i 1 1 -1 i k e  sea-floor  muds  directly  under  them.  Today  Fraser  orange  (oxidized),  glaciomarine  scattered  stones,  blocky  surfaces  and  sediments are  commonly  not  with  by  floating  ice,  rather  than  ice,  as  is  was  commonly  easily  as by  till  is  compact  They  both  distinguish-  blue-grey,  manganese fossil  believed  sediments,  Vashon  dark  stones  wide1yaccepted.  compacted.  contain  They  formed  area.  are  origin.  were  glaciomarine  stony,  sediments  clays"  theory  Moody  structure  their  G l a c i a t i o n , are  very  and  glaciomarine  discussed  glacier  this  the  Coqui11 am-Port  and  from  during  the  described  "stony  Capilano  dull  joint  Lowland  and  in  acteristic  (1954)  till  able  Capilano  Brown  the  before  Vashon  Deposits  Fraser  deposited  workers  few  and  23  grey  and  to  platy.  containing have  a  oxide  staining  marine  shells  charon and  65.  15. S u p r a l i t t o r a l l a g g r a v e l g r a d i n g downward i n t o dark grey Vashon lodgement t i l l , Mary H i l l ( s e c t i o n N, F i g . 2 ) . 16. S h e l l c a s t from s u p r a l i t t o r a l l a g g r a v e l i n F i g . 15. 17. Foreset and topset bedded C a p i l a n o r a i s e d d e l t a i c sand and g r a v e l , Coquitlam v a l l e y ( p i t B, F i g . 6 ) .  18. F o s s i l i f e r o u s marine c l a y e y s i l t , Coquitlam v a l l e y Fig.  ( s e c t i o n C5,  6).  19. Blocky Capilano g l a c i o m a r i n e stony c l a y e y s i l t o v e r l y i n g p l a t y Vashor till,  Mary H i l l  (near s e c t i o n L, F i g . 2 ) .  20. Compact, bouldery Vashon t i l l ,  Mary H i l l  ( s e c t i o n E,  Fig. 2).  Plate 1: Figs. 15 to 20.  21. Polished, grooved, s t r i a t e d , and chattel-marked granitic e r r a t i c resting on Vashon t i l l , Mary H i l l (near section E, Fig. 2). 22. Foreset bedded Vashon outwash sandy gravel, Mary H i l l (section K, Fig. 2). 23. Contorted ice contact Vashon sand, gravel, and flow t i l l , Coquitlam valley (section G2, Fig. 6).  Drs. J.E.Armstrong and J . J . Clague for  scale.  24. Cross-bedded Quadra Sand (large scale), Mary H i l l (section D, Fig. 2).  23 J  25. Cross-bedded Quadra Sand (small scale), Mary H i l l (section D, Fig. 2). 26. Thin peat layer (under boots) overlying Semiahmoo? stony s i l t , Mary Hill  (section D, Fig. 2). Wood from peat dated as 18,600 + 190 y r . B.P.  Plate 2- Figs. 21 to 26.  67.  T h i n l y bedded Quadra Sand u n d e r l y i n g Vashon D r i f t , Coquitlam v a l l e y ( s e c t i o n F4, F i g . 6 ) . P i c k f o r s c a l e i n c e n t r e o f photo. 28. Load c a s t s , b a l l and p i l l o w s t r u c t u r e s , and c o n v o l u t e d bedding s i l t y f i n e sand i n F i g . 27. 29. Massive stony Coquitlam D r i f t , Mary H i l l  in  ( s e c t i o n J , F i g . 2 ) . L t o R,  Drs. J . J . Clague, J.M. Ryder, R . J . F u l t o n , and J . E . Armstrong f o r s c a l e .  30. Sharp angular c o n t a c t : Coquitlam D r i f t o v e r l a i n by Quadra Sand and u n d e r l a i n by sand, e i t h e r Ouadra o r p a r t o f the Cowichan Head Formation, Mary H i l l  31  (section J , F i g . 2).  P i c k f o r s c a l e i n c e n t r e of photo.  Cowichan Head f l u v i a l g r a v e l and sand unconformably o v e r l y i n g  Cowichan  Head? dense stony o r g a n i c c o l l u v i u m (dark, lower r i g h t i n p h o t o ) , Mary Hill 32  ( s e c t i o n C, F i g . 2 ) . B l u f f i s 10 m h i q h .  Cowichan Head? stony o r g a n i c c o l l u v i u m , Mary H i l l  ( s e c t i o n A, F i g .  2).  Dr. R.J. F u l t o n f o r s c a l e . Wood from F u l t o n ' s s h o u l d e r - l e v e l dated as 40,200 + 430 y r .  B.P.  Plate 3: Figs. 27 to 32.  33. Cowichan Head? wood-rich organic s i l t layer between quadra? laminated s i l t y fine sand (above) and Semiahmoo? t i l l and outwash gravel  (below)  Port Moody (section C, Fig. 10). 34. Buried landscape: Cowichan Head peat layer containing a spruce stump (below boulder 1n centre of photo) abuts against the slope formed on Cowichan Head? stony organic colluvium (on which Dr. J.E. Armstrong is standing), Mary H i l l (section B, Fig. 2). 35. Fossil spruce stump in peat layer in Fig. 34. Stump dated as 27,400 ± 420 yr. B.P. Stony organic colluvium can be seen below at the base of the shovel handle. Semiahmoo? Drift, Coquitlam valley. Two lodqement t i l l s separated by outwash gravel are overlain by outwash gravel and sand and then by massive glaciomarine? stony clayey s i l t ; Vashon Drift overlies the stony s i l t (section F3, Fig. 6). Pick for scale at the top of the upper t i l l , lower l e f t centre of photo. 37. Semiahmoo? glaciomarine? stony clayey s i l t in Fig. 36. 38. Semiahmoo? platy lodgement t i l l  1n Fig. 36.  H  38  Plate 4: Figs. 33 to 38.  69.  39. Semiahmoo? g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e r h y t h m i c a l l y laminated stony s i l t , Mary H i l l  (near s e c t i o n M, F i g . 2 ) .  40. Semiahmoo? p r o g l a c i a l sand, Port Moody ( s e c t i o n B, F i g . 10). 41. Highbury? f l u v i a l t h i n l y bedded sand, s i l t , and minor gravel outwash g r a v e l and sand (above) and Westlynn?  outwash? gravel  ( l i g h t and dark s t r i p e s ) between Semiahmoo? ( b e l o w ) , Coquitlam v a l l e y ( s e c t i o n F3, F i g . 6 ) .  42. R i p p l e d , t h i n l y bedded Highbury? sand i n F i g . 41. Dr. J . E . Armstrong f o r s c a l e . 43. Contact: Highbury? t h i n l y bedded sand, s i l t , and minor gravel unconformably o v e r l y i n g Westlynn?  Plate 5:  Figs. 39  to 44.  outwash?  shell  casts. Differences  ments,  between  however,  older  are  not  glaciomarine  grey  fine  pre-Vashon as  units  may  sediments  (in  scattered,  rounded  stones  (Fig.  they  19),  grey  to  dull  are  obvious in  places and  and  glaciomarine  (Figs.  36,  37,  part  be  bedded) blocky  considered  orange  tills  to  (oxidized),  t i l l .  containing  abundant  sugangular  to  subrounded  stones  to  matrix,  is  considered  to  silty  These  two  series,  examples  between  glaciomarine the  matrix  It  illustrates finer  and  is  marine  in  thought  by  rounded ing  the  to  them as  the  glaciomarine  pebbles  in  is  very  two  tills.  disturbing  and  the  angular  framework  grains.  over  older  grains  are  plotted  and  in  till  in  occurs,  till  or  as  Fig.  15-  contain  however, glacio-  t i l l .  generally was  and  and  analyses  rounded probably  incorporating  gravels)  20).  generally  This  sandy  transitional  them w i t h  pebbles  a  15,  ice overriding  mixing  matrix  ice advancing  with  size  sediments  glacier  glaciomarine  (and  are  Some o v e r l a p  and  gravels  in a  a  containing  (Figs.  Grain  types  the  from  till  difficult.  sediment  result  be  found  widely  Where  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of  than  then  its  own  redeposit-  dropstones  in  deposits.  Theoretically oriented  macroscopic  is  blue-  encountered  diamicton  members  glaciomarine  glacier  outwash  end  the  to  till  textural  that  sediments,  contrast  caused  which  in  matrix  Both  are  deposits  of  a  it  are  the  dark  few,  glaciomarine.  compact  and  Where  structure  be  38)  sedir  the  should  lodgement  d i r e c t i o n of not  till  pebbles  i c e movement  be o r i e n t e d ,  having  should and  been  be  strongly  glaciomarine  randomly  dropped  SAND  MATRIX GRAIN S I Z E  SAND  DISTRIBUTION  OF T I L L AND GLACIOMARINE D E P O S I T S :  Fig.45 A.  PLOT OF ANALYSES  B.  AREAS OF GRAIN S I Z E  DISTRIBUTION  72.  to  the  on  both  are,  sea  types  however,  pre-Vashon riding  and  marine  Such which  is  sediment  mixed  unit  appears  shells, case  for  Pebble  this  study  This  also have  fabric  (Fig.  suggests been  evidence  of  the o c c u r r e n c e  near  to  growth  Capilano and  completely  disturbed  Chapter  Six)  that  a glaciomarine  be  Capilano  done  disturbed  to  the  16,  analyses  some o f by  the  over-  t i l l .  pelecypods  both  However, or  in  ice.  deposits  with  conclusive  occur,  overridden  in  inconclusive.  undisturbed  pebbles silt.  the  floating  glaciomarine  only  sediment  by  of  i c e and  The a  floor  position,  scattered embedded  glaciomarine barnacles  infilled  glaciomarine by  of  glacier  and  still  in  for stones it.  sediments,  in  attached  to  surrounded  deposits  ice.  origin  have  not  by  clayey  been  73.  CHAPTER  Fraser  prep.)  has  (1965,  sediments  ing  Wisconsin  ted  to  and  repeated  major  thickness  mountainous  ice  mainly  accompanied  thick  As  a  Vashon  of and  the  (in  Langley  when  much  of  and  the  major  geological  the  up  was  tectonic at  of  adjust  least very  widely  and  composite in  when  readvan-  history  non-marine,  incorporated  stage  to  a  adjoin-  glaciation  marine,  Armstrong's  reached  before  300 m t h i c k ,  is  involving  ice  probably  changes  subjec-  intervals.  of  sea  dur-  was  stage the  the  that  nonglacial  least  Lowland  which  Lowland  advance  Each  complex at  eroded.  by  sea-level  this  in  and  unconsoli-  (deg1aciation)  arms  eustatic,  of  press  glacial,  stratigraphic Table  II  for  representing  at  least  deposits. press) in  glaciation:  glaciers  of  Fraser  older  and  the  overrode  retreat  including  and  time  glaciers.  sediments  glaciations  Fort  a  in  He c o n c l u d e s  a maximum  m and  repeated  history  located.  an  papers  Lowland,  separated  valleys  isostatic,  origin  Armstrong  the  and  result  deposited  section  last  areas,  Quaternary  diversified  three  1,800  other  Fraser  through  least  in  and  earlier  went  surging  resulting  200 m.  were  as by  is  glaciers,  occupied  locally  ments  HISTORY  Quaternary  the  glaciations  at  ing  in  probably  piedmont of  the  area  glaciation  coalescing  cing  exposed Moody  b,  1975a,  w r i t t e n about  Coqui11 am-Port  Each  QUATERNARY  Low l a n d  Armstrong  dated  SIX:  the  mapped Lowland,  Vashon,  Fort  from  the  including  Langley,  and.the. ( l a s t )  advancing  deposits  east  Sumas and  and  ice  three Sumas.  advances  northeast  and  stades He as  in  the  describes piedmont  terminating  74.  in  the  of  Alaska)  Fort  for  before  down  the  during  and  approximately  and  this  depoSumas were  Armstrong, westward  area,  post-Vashon  the  sediments to  area.  also  of  extend  study  glacier  Moody  were  west  According  deposits  of  the only  the  glaciomarine  Formation  are  sediments To  time.  5 km e a s t  Malaspina  Coqui11 am-Port  advance.  marine  this  study  represents  the  than  the  Vashon  Drift.  This  may  be  in  in  to  a  which  Pleistocene  Coquitlam  drift  sediment  depo-  years  ago,  *T7G),  under  in  probably  more  by  area  further  north  Mountains  ( F i g . ^|-8H). from  climate  (Fig. ^ 7 F )  Highbury?  fluvial  the  in  unit  that  glaciation, it  Evans  Armstrong  up An  a  was  is  as  Coquitlam  Creek  and  Stade  Hicock  a joint  than  the  radical  into  that  (in  prep.)  paper.  the  sediments  and  lower  more  in  more  today, valley  period  change  warmed  oldest  meltwater  of  Coquitlam  erosional  the  deposited  southward-f1owing  probably  northward  last  designates  gravel,  and  a climate cooler  resulting  and  the  extensively  outwash?  the  a glacier  The  Stade,  in  a drift  Area  Drift?,  exposed  stade  Washington.  unit  Port-Moody  Westlynn  discovered  a c o r r e l a t i v e of  northwestern this  writer  a fourth  earlier  scape  the  (like  occur.  probably  discuss  of  glaciomarine ice  Langley  sediments  During  found  histories  post-Vashon  point  to  km e a s t  Capilano  Fort  their  Sumas  and  sits  B.  15  Sumas  Capilano  of  marine  terminus  laid  much  about  Langley  sited ice  sea  49,000  streams  in  the  (Fig.  and  streams  from  Coast a  regime  valley and  62,000  debouching  sediment  Coquitlam  than  than  followed  nonglacial  Quaternary  landdeveloped.  flowed  depositing  probably  more  122°50 49°20'.  49°15'H  LEGEND  I n f e r r e d d i r e c t i o n o f i c e movement, based on: Strong p r e f e r r e d pebble axis) orientations Weak p r e f e r r e d p e b b l e  (long  (long  axis) o r i e n t a t i o n s J|J  A CAPILANO GLACIOMARINE B VASHON T I L L  No p r e f e r r e d p e b b l e orientations  SEDIMENTS  C COQUITLAM GLACIOMARINE? SEDIMENTS D SEMIAHMOO? T I L L E SEMIAHMOO? GLACIO MARINE  eg 3/  SEDIMENTS  average o f 3 a n a l y s e s : s t r o n g p r e f e r r e d pebble o r i e n t a t i o n i n f e r r i n g i c e movement towards 2 0 0 ° .  FIG. 46  (long  axis)  * D a t a condensed from F i g s . 5A, 8A, and 12A. Ratio o f long/intermediate axis lengths f o r most p e b b l e s was 1.5 t o 2.0. 90% o f a l l p e b b l e l o n g axes d i p p e d l e s s t h a n 2 5 ° , and 57% d i p p e d l e s s t h a n 1 0 o 43% d i p p e d northward, a g a i n s t t h e main d i r e c t i o n o f i c e movement ;  INFERRED ICE MOVEMENT DIRECTIONS FROM PEBBLE FABRICS*IN EXPOSED PLEISTOCENE GLACIAL DIAMICTONS: COQUITLAM - PORT MODDY AREA, BRITISH COLUMBIA  122°50'  122°45'  A CAPILANO SEDIMENTS  E SEMIAHMOO? DRIFT  B VASHION DRIFT  F HIGHBURY? SEDIMENTS  C  G WESTLYNN DRIFT?  QUADRA SAND  eg. ; average of 3 analyses: 3/ i n f e r r e d d i r e c t i o n of / paleostream flow (200°)  D COWICHAN HEAD FORMATION *Data condensed from F i g s . 5B, 8B, and 12B F i g . 47:  PALEOCURRENT DIRECTIONS IN EXPOSED PLEISTOCENE SAND AMD GRAVEL: COQUITLAM-PORT MOODY AREA, BRITISH COLUMBIA  122°50'  122°45'  |49 20'-f>  U9  15'  % pebbles having Cascade Mtns. source (eastern provenance)  A CAPILANO SEDIMENTS B VASHON DRIFT C QUADRA SAND D  COQUITLAM  E F G H  COWICHAN HEAD FORMATION SEMIAHMOO? DRIFT HIGHBURY? SEDIMENTS WESTLYNN DRIFT?  DRIFT  ,QQ '—  100 % pebbles having Coast Mtns. source (northern provenance)  1  e g . 3^  average o f 3 a n a l y s e s : 80% o f the pebbles have a Coast Mtns. source (northern provenance) and 20% have a Cascade Mtns. source (eastern provenance)  * Data condensed from F i g s . 5C, 8C, and 12C.  GEOLOGY; PEBBLE SOURCE AKEAS. ick et. al., 1973: G.S.C. Open File  LEGEND; see Fig.5D F i g . 48 :  PEBBLE PROVENANCE* OF EXPOSED PLEISTOCENE SEDIMENTS: COQUITLAM - PORT MOODY AREA, BRITISH COLUMBIA.  78.  than  6 2 , 0 0 0  years  that  either  the  menon  in  against  stream a main,  transported older out  the  Mountains valley, older  from  its  and  Moody  by  diverted  During  pieces  of  the of  spruce  that  position.  developed  A period  on  again  in  than the  proglacial?  tree  parts  clusters  meltwater  into  discharges  outwash  competent  Eventually  the  4-8 F ) , o v e r r o d e landscapes  and  the  sand.  as  gravel streams  in  the  sand  and at  sand Mary  onset was  old  of  laid  and  a major down  a.  glacier  Pieces  of  eroded  advanced  in  the  Semiahmoo?  while  area,  by  to  the and  stones  by  further  deposited and  Port  ice  sand  was  glaci-  at  The  ones  far  (Fig. 4-7E) prob-  streams  Coq u i 11 a m - P o r t M o o d y  reshaping  very  followed  dropping  Hill  layer  protuber-  streams,  were  Coast  reworking  silt  the  southward-advancing t he  and  Sharp  advancing  glacier  the  Coquitlam  transported  ( F i g . 4-8Ft).  floated  southward  Sediments.  meltwater  Mountains  the  was  reworked  /  of  was  gravel  flow off  erosion  the  y e a r s [ f r o m an  6 2 , 0 0 0  Coast  with  flow  flowing  organic  not  of  Highbury?  the  flow which  formed.  was  pheno-  the  provenance  thin  was  it  that  reaches  time a  suggests  local  where  streams  northern  wood  a  probably  lower  this  suggest  by  Streams  material  Semiahmoo?  more  Coarser  up  or  stream  deposited  Mountains.  eddies  flow;  northeastward were  ( F i g . 48G)  f l o w was  back  stream  s o u t hwa r d - f 1 ow i ng  possibly  more  that  Coast  was  bends  climate cooled  ation  stone  or  a main  growth  The  north  meander  t h e wood  landscape  ably  stream  sediments.  on  provenance  northeastward  depositing  containing ances  by  and  Pebble  southward,  sediments  of  ago.  increasing southward.  these  larger,  Coquitlam glacier  carving  developing  and  valley.  (Figs. 4-60, out  faults  new in  79.  Semiahmoo? least  proglacial?  two a d v a n c e s  and  sands  with  brief  retreats  area  in  the  and  Coquitlam-Port  sand  outwash.  tatically and  During closely  presumably  the  whole  formed  by  sea  floor  The  land  became  drifting mud then  in  a  raised  and/or pond dated wood  >62,000  from  older  has only  stratigraphic the at  floor  area Mary  existed  to  it.  in  The  silts  record  Moody,  Semiahmoo?  between  and  Mary  Hill  also  The  next  sediment  colluvium  Port  drowned  keels)  At  represented  from  and  the  of  same by  a  to  sea  stones  135  and  were  m a.s.l.  at  Mary  were by  into  Hill  deposited scouring  the  laminated  silts  may  An  erosional  represent  landscape  and  was  time  before  and  loco,  and  then,  also  in  too  then.  a different  in  at  and  the  area  Moody and  The in  uplands  Village shape.  The  Essondale  a different  be d e p o s i t e d  on  sparce The  Harbour  between  reworked  time  action.  is  was  formed  Semiahmoo? water  a  interval  Coquitlam-Port  Mai11 a r d v i 1 1 e , and  Hill  Hill,  forming  Semiahmoo?  Mary  Mary  dropping up  eus-  Coquitlam  It  in  sea  sediments  formed  since  topography  the  gravel  meltwater  the  ice  by  by  Moody  exposed  are  the  dropstones  although  to  and  the  time,  existed  Moody.  retreat;  randomly  B.P..  topography  the  ice  (possibly  ice  modified  on  the  with  yr.  to  ice  deglaciation  sediments.  prior  Port  separated  deposited  (QL.-19M  basically  locally  tills  above  deglaciation  lowlands  organic  rose  nonglacial  Port  and  depression  Wood  this  Glaciomarine  were  radiocarbon  comment  Hill,  and  bydrifting  remained  was  fiord.  laminated  Drift.  been  area,  ice melting  Semiahmoo?  Semiahmoo?  has  in  as  followed  area  sea  lake  followed  isostatica11y  percussion  or  a  ( F i g . ^1-6E)  glaciolacustrine  of  at  Ay  Semiahmoo?  and  probably  weight  Moody^lodgement  rose  valley  its  form.  was  tentatively  the  stony  grouped  80.  with  the  edge  of  ably  during  acting  Cowichan  a depression  on  western prep.)  Head  mixing  hemlock  Vancouver  at  trees)  evidence (20  km w e s t  radiocarbon  carbon  yr.  B.P.  (IGSC  carbon  yr.  B.P.  (GSC  of  Coquitlam-Port  from a b u r i e d U.  of  Wash.)  Formation By a b o u t ichan  yr.  and  may  30,000  Formation  Nonglacial  Interval. sand  loped  on  years  ago  which  spruce  fluvial and  against ments the  the  were  Coast  turally deposits  of  had  bog  and  (in  deposits Hill  gravel, trees the  streams  ( F i g . 4-8 E) .  and  grew) bog  southwest comm.)  Stuiver,  Mary  to  Quadra  Formation  and  B.P.  Olympia  in  the  peat  a slope  the  to  deve25,500 (in  Cowichan  Head  and  also  abutted  fluvial  sedi-  ( F i g . ^f-7D)  a sand  Sand,  and  deposits  These  Hill  yr.  the  southward  At  Head  during  deposits  flowing  wood  Cow-  26,000  colluvium.  had  the  swamp of  radio-  of  were growing  From a b o u t  radio-  32,580 km  North at  Cowichan  abutted against  the o r g a n i c  Head  32,200  (pers.  the  in  area)  radiocarbon  Mary  trees  which  down o v e r  Cowichan  Armstrong  (QL-195,  of  swamp  at  colluvium.  by  and  (10  Armstrong  prob-  spruce  at  Delta  t h e age  formed  Spruce  and  the  processes  existing  in Vancouver  structurally similar the  rerun)  58,800^900  that  fir  Mountains  and  as  western  deposited  93  area)  sand,  on  interval  at  ago,  wasting  (containing  from 25,000-60,000 ago  years  sediments.  From e a s t  silt,  laid  slope  and  Moody  a slope  C o q u i t l a m - P o r t Moody (GSC  214),  layers,  the o r g a n i c  F o r m a t i o n were  B.P.  dated  years  Head  interbedded  the  believes  range  glacial  221).  forest  deposits  on  40,000  by mass  a nonglacial of  formed  about  interval,  and  of  It  Hill  organic  36,200  the  Mary  a nonglacial  and  has  Formation.  unit,  overlies  underlies  off  texswamp  Coquitlam  81.  Drift;  thus  However, early  i t has been  this  lower  sand  in the Fraser  Coquitlam  Drift.  mapped  with  t h e Cowichan  may i n f a c t  be Q u a d r a  Glaciation, prior  A landscape  Head  Sand  Formation.  deposited  to the deposition  was f o r m e d  of  on t h e Cowichan  Head  Formation. The  climate cooled  Glaciation, Quadra  less  appears  Vashon?  that  deposition  local  piedmont  Mountains. which  (contains  like  The  the Coquitlam  ^ - 6 C ) .  valley  while  suggest This  an i c e dam) up t o 2 5 0 m a . s . l .  2 1 , 6 0 0  years  B.P.  filled  the whole If  Without  Fraser  this  Lowland  the l a t t e r  caused  was t h e c a s e ,  t i l l -  Coquitlam Drift  probably  Coquitlam i c e . t h e mouth  Sand was d e p o s i -  i n t h e v a l l e y by  i c e dam Q u a d r a and S t r a i t  of  by w e s t w a r d -  blocked  Quadra  eastern  i c e movement  Coquitlam  t o have  proglacial  sediments  mixture  of overriding  appears  of a  by C o q u i t l a m  and d i s t u r b i n g below  Quadra  t h e Cascade  has a s t r o n g  was p r o b a b l y  the weight  advance  It  b u t may i n p a r t be  unit  fabrics  The sand  Mountains.  glaciomarine  for this  ice overriding  i c e lobe  from  fragments),  sediments  under  Coquitlam  surging,  in the  Glaciation  by t h e w e s t w a r d  (Fig.  proglacial  t o be d e p o s i t e d  is represented  and p e b b l e  sediments.  faults  elevation.  shell  Probably  in t h e Coast  t o be m a i n l y  and n o r t h  Coquitlam  (behind  event  of the Fraser  in the Fraser  possibly  provenance  and g l a c i o m a r i n e  developed  ted  marine  the east  glaciomarine  of  is thought  ( F i g . ^ftD)  advancing  ago.  sediment  early  stadial  The p e b b l e  from  Hill  ice lobe,  fossil  component was  years  2 6 , 0 0 0  was i n t e r r u p t e d  This  the onset  i c e to the north  a t Mary  Sand  till.  with  S a n d was t h e e a r l i e s t  advancing  Drift,  than  again  Sand  may h a v e  of Georgia  most  to that  o f t h e Quadra  Sand  82.  has  been  for  the  latter  advance and  eroded  for  Fulton  Saanich  and  hypothesis  the and  Creek  drift  unit  Halstead  Drift may  with  Coquitlam  Drift.  from and  the the  thin ice  have  Evidence  lam  the  ice  eroded  upland, was  60  both  Hill  (fine  to  the  and  block  immediately up  to  50  Sand  in  the  the  Sand,  of  The  Fraser  River,  Streams  flowed  in  deposition,  Mary  at  Hill  Mary the  advancing  shallow,  low when  during  wide  a  valley,  during  been  of  Coquit-  4-7C)  valley  and  Lowland.  At  Village  valley,  Quadra  area,  Sand  south  Sand  channels Quadra  i c e was  time.  later  the  (Fig.  Fraser  Quadra  this  erased  Coquitlam  initial  Coquitlam  of  Coquitlam  Guildford  contains  area,  Stagnant  streams  the  Moody  Hill.  retreat  lower  on  18,600  formation  Hill  have  also  by  (?)  the  after  in  with  formed  Coquitlam-Port  Coquitlam  the  medium)  was  Mai11 a r d v i 1 1 e - H a r b o u r  south  was  correlate  which  still  meltwater  m thick.  competence  was  may  the  may  from  of  and  on  Drift,  i c e - f r e e Mary  hypothesis  unit  (1968)  Their  allow  part  new Quadra in  to  trees  During  Quadra  probably  across  m thick.  discharge  Stade.  i t , with  and  spruce  southward-f1owing  of  deposited  Mary  this  the  enough  f l o w around  Vashon  much  towards  warmed  to  sheet  of  Washington.  A landscape  withdrawn ice  they  limit  Halstead  a drift  which  Coquitlam  evidence  western however  described  Drift.  Vashon  continued  unknown;  Island,  have  containing  block  Hill  had  support  redeposited Mary  the  stream to  is  however,  The  northwestern  Creek  Mountains,  bed  diverting  during  when  climate  may  in  i c e must  Coast  peat  Vancouver  Evans  Coquitlam B.P.,  ice  (1972)  found  elsewhere;  lacking.  correlate with  correlate  years  is  Coquitlam  Peninsula,  Evans  redeposited  of  at  and  least stream  Sand  retreating,  83.  and  stagnant  Coquitlam allowing closer and  area,  stream  flowed more the  ice  as  in  Coast  mouth  ice  narrower  created  a  the  advanced  competence  increased  channels,  Mountains-derived  action  of  disintegrated,  Vashon  and  deeper,  the  block  the  discharge  Water  Vashon  discharge  outwash  derived  onto  (Fig.  into  the  this  time  deposits  as  flow  were  because  Port  Moody  away  from is  the  not  new  the  too  gravel  (Fig.  landscape  on  main  Arm,  outwash ice  flow  tills  at  own  tills.  down  ice  north  the  its  overlie  that  the  of  outwash in  Pleistocene ice  the  Port  beds  During  deposited  in  ice-contact  disposal  site,  perhaps  Coquitlam  Coquitlam  passed  passed  Stones  Vashon  the  Mountains-  foreset  were  or  high-  per-  because  River  and  valley.  over  the  site  Moody,  and  would  The  and  came  have  site.  eventually  redepositing  indicates  to  Vashon  of  as  and  ice  west  flow  outwash  Vashon  to  the  deposits  Moody  by  Coast  depressed.  Port  erased  stream as  the  Coast  outwash  isostatica11y  at  the  Southward-f1owing,  gravel  Coarse  off  deposited  ice-contact  valley.  far  4-7 B)  coarse was  and  were  unlikely  Vashon  and  land  southward  Lowland.  (Fig.  observed  they  advanced  Fraser  streams  tills  was  Indian  deposited  the  Coquitlam  haps  ice  4-8B) V a s h o n  sea  lower  where  and  of  Sand .  and  ment  more  sand.  Mountains  and  pass,  southward and  most  stagnant  the  Eventually  down  the  to  with  latter  As  blocked  water  depositing  the  have  more  to  Quad r a  may  valley.  water  4-8C)  ice  over  the  deposits, the  Vashon  sediments  reworked  older  area, and  deposited  tills in  mostly  the  are  lodge-  subrounded  area.  sediments  reworkin  when  This it  84.  overrode  the  surface.  ice  Vashon  the  area  the  Vashon  Stade.  the  ones  and  fine  and  i c e - r a f t e d dropstones  ponds was  sand  occupying  developed By  Fort  Fraser the lano  time  to  at  the  and  the  the  sea;  floor  and  muds  (Fig  ice  valley  the  marine  ice  T6A).  Mountains  than  composite  /  found  during  studies  (Figs.  all  formed  deposited  in  three  by  advances.  till  stony  fine  small  surface.  in  occurred  Laminated  which silt  sediments  meltwater  A major  Coquitlam-Port  Stades in  and  was  the  warming  landscape  The  glaciomarine 12,000 a  Village  further started rising  formed  upland  up  retreat to sea to  the  closely  valley  followed  where  Capi-  were  depo-  ago.  During  Hill,  Port  were  stones of  level.  this  Moody,  drowned into  Vashon  A  although  eastern  isostatica11y  140  Fraser  area,  sediments  Mary  dropped  in  sea  years  fiord;  and  Moody  started  Coquitlam  randomly  land  was  had  press).  into  eustatically delta  were  least  deposited  the  With the  it.  till  70 m a . s . l . ,  floating  and  c l i m a t e was  Mai11 a r d v i 1 1 e - H a r b o u r  Coast  faster  in  marine  Coquitlam  for  and  At  are  provenance  the  (Armstrong,  least  tills  manner.  that  the  stones  gravels  movement  before  the  Sumas  Vashon  and  below  Drift.  B.P.  and  similar  sediments  being  on  begun  fossi 1iferous  sited  the  years  Langley  retreating  the  Vashon  had  Lowland  in  hollows  on  13,000  deglaciation the  lenses  deeply  rounded  advances  ice  down  many  outwash  fabric  older  laid  buried  a  ice  southward  eroded  in by  local  Pebble  was  contain  acted  represent  advance  truncated  tills  separated  indicate  ice  bedrock  probably  tills  and  *{-GB, ^ r 8 B ) Each  where  Semiahmoo?  Semiahmoo? three  land  by  seaice  into  rise  Capilano  m a.s.l.  at  the  mouth  of  streams (Figs. and  the  Coquitlam  debouching  working  them,  As  pounded  Capilano  Supralittoral both  containing  same  time  terraces  mouth  of  the  Moody  Fraser  Lowland  press),  about  During incised  175  and  area  the  largely  Fraser  River.  the  lowest  slopes  banks,  flood  lowland  have  also  unconsolidated the  played  fill  from o l d e r  Mt.  from  formed  and  At  delta  the at  the  of  the  Coquitlamwhile  eastern  (Armstrong,  to  Fraser  on  its  River  and  in  from  mouth.  has  sand  exposed  Coquitlam  plain  and  River  deposited  Over Mary  the  Hill,  deposited  places  peat  bog  the  Fraser  flood  mass  wasting,  and  Coquitand  Mountain human  the  deposition  and  erosion  since  the  retreat  the  last  area.  plain  swamp  in  of  to  from  flood  plain. and  along  Lake  extending  In  slides,  roles  Coquitlam  sediments  flood  Essondale  silt.  Moody  Drift.  winnowed  time,  ancestral  sediment  between  sediments  Coqui11 am-Port  the  a  streams,  re-  the  Stade  built  formed  streams,  Sumas  also  also  area,  deposition  gravel  course  and  have  the  lower  sand  the  composite  its  Mai11 a r d v i 1 1 e , t h e  estuarine  time  Burke  plain  deposits  vity  of  waves  ago.  reworked  It  lag  storm  action.  post-glacial  valley  along  the  north  sea,  were  wave  the  Vashon  sands  casts,  meltwater  to  in  and  During  the  years  Coquitlam  the  and  in  post-glacial  river  into  the  slopes  this  valley.  still  11,500  the  shell  entering  above  littoral  by  cut  glacier  sediments  supralittoral  was  gravel,  below  were  rose upland  and  m a.s.l.  was  and  lam R i v e r  the  marine  Coquitlam  deltas  land  gravels  up  raised  the  southward-f1owing  retreating  glaciomarine  lag  to  the  against  deposited  Port  from  4-7A, 4-8A) .  spray  valley.by  ice  actiof from  86.  CHAPTER  SEVEN:  ENGINEERING  Environmental  problems  sources  of  granular  Lowland  by  Armstrong  This  chapter  Port  Moody  ation the  on  is  area,  the  to  Gravel  and in  purposes,  and  the  been  in  four 2.  by  has  types:  1.  and  4.  delta  41,  43),  Deposits  of  especially of  for  from  the  this  Fraser  study.  solving  foundation  the  Coquitlam-  geological in  and  (1968).  Learning  for  control,  this  only  sand  and  Inform-  materials problems  materials  slides,  Port  sand  and  in  production of  and  area  during  in  the  and  supralittoral  the  aid  per-  and washouts.  type  to  area  important  gravel  and  may  and  (19 6 8,  gravel  be  gravel  gravel  have  operations  1960's.  (Figs.  plain  industry  deposits  Learning  the  Quaternary  construction  an  and  sand  from  classified  22,  23,  and  sand  36,  43,  sand  (Figs.  into 44)  (Figs. 15,  16),  gravel.  first  Vashon  for  is  sand  flood  mined  and  the  gravel  river  sand  detail  deposits  alluvial  3.  area  (1953, 1957)  Moody  outwash  materials  Moody  types  Armstrong  present-day  deposits  flood  the  and  described  and  31,  contractor  materials,  are  Sources  Gravel  17,  and  and  input of  geology,  discussed  papers  distribution  Coqui11 am-Port  Coquitlam-  raised  omic,  sand  gravel  described  the  surficial  been  these  minor  disposal,  the  area.  40-49)  pp.  to  GEOLOGY  Materials  sediments  in  and  planner,  Construction  of  including  sewage  have  ENVIRONMENTAL  (1953, 1957, 1961)  construction  drainage,  related  aggregate  summary  types  engineer,  taining  a  AND  type  outwash be  laid  are  the  most  deposits, down.  extensive  which  The  were  other  and  the  outwash  econlast units  87.  are:  Quadra  were  laid  and  Sand,  down  retreating F i g . 4-9  types  of  modern 25,  by  meltwater  gravel  from  grain-size  curves  three  deposits  exposed  the  not  2 7 , 2 8 ) contains  very  minor  deposits  sand.  contain  however,  gravels  gravel-sized Most  stones.  the  of  the  Raised  gravel  35%  sand;  most  pebbles  (k t o  2 0 mm)  sorted  than  mud  f r a c t i o n and  are  actually  retreating ciated  delta  ice  time  (Figs.  than  3 1 , k\,  deposited and  by  flood  was  k3)  fraction  as  contain  Raised  delta  down  farther  from  the  delta  Longer better  gravels  Nonglacial  (Cowichan  deposits  Head,  at  the  are  also  alluvial  streams  but  were  and  better  of  3 2 mm) (Fig.  smaller are  slightly  little  or  no  deposits(Fig. end  of  last  derived  from  glaciers  asso-  distances the  flood  17)  the  and  raised  slightly  were  1%.  weight)  of  than  of  2k,  material  area  sorting  than  {k t o  streams  transport  of  composed  by  Highbury?)  are  less  gravels  they  laid  in  to  deposits  made  These  deposited  gravels.  silt  largely  is  four  (Figs. of  7 5 % (by  plain  the  types  gravel-sized  were  glacier-derived plain  is  flood  outwash.  outwash  outwash.  sizes  is  of  Samples  pebble-sized  weight)  gravels  resulted  Raised  the  alluvial  boulders.  they  outwash  gravels.  rounded  few  is  three from  25%  the  outwash  very  that  the  travel  advancing  Sand  size  remaining  gravel  than  in  these  fraction  the  However,  with  greater  of  All  contain  6 5 % (by  recessional  glaciation.  sediments  area.  Quadra  generally  d e l t a i c and contain  and  ranging of  for  study  gravel.  abundance  ( F i g . ^9A)  in  analyzed  grains  m a t e r i a l ; the  •4-98) g e n e r a l l y  better  These  debouching  were  Outwash  Westlynn?.  streams  gravels  boulders;  nel  and  glaciers.  illustrates  river  gravel  and  Semiahmoo?,  more  plain  gravels  not,  of  course,  deposited  as  chan-  sorted  than  outwash.  u X O  UJ  >  256 128 64 32 c  99.  16 8  4  2  ' 1  0.5 0.25 1  ( phi units) GRAIN SIZE (millimetres)  1 0  1 2  3  4  5  1  1 «H 75H  5025-  // 5H  '  / /  I' //  / \  /  /  I 1  F i g . 49:  GRAIN S I Z E DISTRIBUTION OF PLEISTOCENE GRAVEL DEPOSITS: COQUITLAM-PORT MOODY AREA, BRITISH COLUMBIA. A. GLACIAL OUTWASH B. RAISED DELTA AND ALLUVIAL FLOODPLAIN C. SUPRALITTORAL D. AREAS OF GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION.  co 00  89.  Supralittoral sized the  material,  type  stones.  resulted  Capilano  fines  to  limits for  for  cult  to  have  been  companies study Port  area  at  the  In is  the  F,  overlain  by  till  was  with  found  Semiahmoo?  adjacent These  to  at  pit  G.  prior  units  of  types  a  mm)  32  large  This  bimodr  Vashon  till out  F i g . 4-9D  are  the  field  superimposed  analyses  thus  In  {k t o  winnowing  In  gravel  to  River  mining is  were  field  diffi-  limits  River F  valley  (Figs.  1,  are  and  extraction  of  at  7)  and  them e s t i m a t i o n  Hill  their  gravel  must  gravel.  No  Vashon  contacts  water and  outgravels  which  undulating by  and  outwash  outwash.  and  the  outwash  outwash  formed of  in  Westlynn?  sediments,  in  some  Mary  Vashon  three-dimensional  landscapes  and  Semiahmoo?  Westlynn?  thickness  occur  Elsewhere  exposed  glaciomarine  in  deposits  valley  them.  only  overlie  vary  buried  outwash  Semiahmoo?  directly  are  Because  are  and/or  outwash  mud.  containing  partly  done;  Coquitlam  outwash  and  or  sediment  surfaces  action.  lower  exposed  and  reworking  gravel  pre-Vashon  Coquitlam  E,  removed  of  pre-Vashon  but  sand  gravel.  were  oxides,  this.type.  there  pits  till .and  for  iron  pebble-sized  and  lag  gravel-  mud m a t r i x .  Supralittoral three  by fine  spray  sediments  only  operating  ]k m t h i c k  be  of  and  80%  contain  bimodal,  lesser  Pleistocene  exposures  Moody.  wash  and  estimated  bank  a  supralittoral  three  perform  west  by  of  mostly  are  waves  comparison.  Limited the  the  the  direct  surrounded  glaciomarine  form  is  deposits  sea  stained  composed  fraction  from  generally  heavily  mostly  gravel  fraction  ality  is  gravel  These  gravel  and  the  ( F i g . 4-9C)  commonly  20%  remaining  this  are  gravels  and  sand  with  surfaces ice reserves  90.  and is  of  the  lateral  extremely  have  a  clude  Capilano and  As  in  stated  to  end 140  of  flood  the  Head  plain  Highbury?  last at  sediments  F i g . 4-9B  plotted  on  gravel In of  the in  removed gravel  from  gravel  lies  or  by  prior  between  Coquitlam  River  gravel  fan-shaped  is  landscape  formed  (Figs.  41,  gravel to  is  extraction.  and  and  is  and  pinches  Vashon  Drift  in  clayey  more  silt  plain in  based  sand  by  a  than  which  outwash  must sand  in  Capilano  lower  mantle Head  Highbury?  northward the  are  Cowichan  mined.  out  Interval.  43).  Semiahmoo?  easily  as  Curves  gravel  1 m thick.  to  up  River.  flood  overlain  stony  at  delta  streams  and  42,  Coquitlam gravel  deposited  Coquitlam  is  in-  gravel.  marine  There  lower  fluvial  and  interval.  Highbury?  to  the  deposits  were  channel  unit.  up  Westlynn?  valley  on  of  deltaic  gravel  as  in  Nonglacial  nonglacial  this  sand  nonglacial  Olympia  appears  Formation  ancestral by  deposited  in  Capilano  overlain  with  the  sediments  lag  the  analyses  beds  Highbury?  places  is  were  Head  material  exposed.  gravel  a composite  deposited  during  not  sediments  as  of  a pre-Olympia  supralittoral  gravel  was  sediments  during  mouth  was  interbedded  Capilano  run  sediments  plain  Cowichan  glaciation the  contact  pit  however,  Highbury?  flood  fluvial  of  outwash,  lower  deltas,  Six,  gravel  deposits  only  the  Highbury? Chapter  with  alluvial  raised  m a.s.l.  Cowichan  contact  and  continuity  Westlynn?  valley;  delta  sediments  the  upper  River  Raised  vertical  difficult.  planar  Coquitlam  and  the  be and lower  deltaic  against  a  Coquitlam  buried valley.  J>edded  Highbury?  Sediments  thickness  for  Coquitlam  River,  appear  2 km a l o n g from  pit  horizonta11y^and  Pipeline G almost  Road, to  continue  on  pit  the E  west  (Figs.  at side  1,  7)>  uniform of where  91.  they  are  truncated  Capilano ing  of  ing  monly  till  and  discussed  these  Vashon  supralittoral  Vashon  action,  by  previously, It  fine  20%  be e c o n o m i c a l l y the  underlying  outwash  and  together  Present-day material  of  eroded  from  tocene  glacial  the  Most  and  gravel  lag  rounded  from well  with  slopewash  thin  being  and  dirty  replenished  and  alluvial  flood  are  the  sorted  limited outwash.  in  extent. The  most  mainly  which  marine  dirty  (com-  stained)  to  action  cut  are  finer  torrential  to  winter  also and  by  form  are  of  dirty  range  widespread river  economically  collu-  but  gravel  it  is  is  an  delta  source they  with  too  constantl  Raised  important  sub-  gravels  and  are  mined  out  streams  of  hillsides.  but  Pleis-  winter  on  runoffs.  commonly  of  sorted,  alluvial  gravels  is  mountain a  and  winnowed  well  however,  an  gravel  torrential  produce  and  bars  composed  Smaller  gravels  Pleistocene  extensive  largely  extent;  deposits  are  this  Present-day  in  channel  materials  banks  lag  as  of  consisting  beds  Vashon  mineable.  Most  transported  and  beach  They  iron  occurs  River.  stream  the  too  cover-  be  limited  of  and  mantle  can  stream  plain  thin  marine  deposits  be e c o n o m i c a l .  by  a  rework-  by  directly overlie  processes  but  the  may  wasting  raised  source,  where  by  sediments  mud m a t r i x ,  mainly  in  as  thin  boulders.  gravel  to  too  and  gravels  summary,  best  sand  formed  it  and  left,  mass  In  important  the  occurs  however,  banks,  cobbles  sorted  and  Coquitlam  is  granitic  associated  vial  of  and  gravel  sediments,  was  glaciomarine  diamicton  these  river  runoffs. a  sand  stream the  gravel  usually  important;  through  bed  lag  Capilano  diamictons.  contains  Drift.  are  and also  underlying  important  are  the  92.  outwash  deposits.  usually  nearer  however, thick  in  sections  lardville reserves  of  large also  gravel  and  gravel  sand  and  the  million  dollars  been  deposits  above  and  Port  fluvial  lateral  buried  by  \k a n d  dri11 ing  and  valley  gravel  3 for  depths)  Moody  and  gravel  and  vertical  methods  Ma i 1 sand  extents  because  landscapes  of  bounding  at  America. tens  many  millions  struction  is  the  major  of  with  the  sites. abundance of  cubic to  the  Municipal  zoning  largest  gravel  and  sand  Mary  Hill.  Houses  and  apartment  of  Vashon  and  of  Moody  area.  industry Hill  in  5  value  at  6  of  centres, and  area  least  Vancouver  gravel  sand alone  gravel  at  area  and  and  sand  as  a  result,  deposits has  a value  of  area  for  regulations  have  closed  in  British  buildings  pre-Vashon  in  supplied  Vancouver  operation  the  operation  exceeded  gravel Moody  problem  probably  good  Greater  the  reserves  of  meters  Mary  Greater  urban  Coquitlam-Port  mining  the  The  lowest-cost  of  of  production  transport  dollars  purposes.  closure  a present-day  pit the  millions of  the  pit-head  in  The  largest  industry  the  of  the  Coquitlam-Port  easy  some  present  the  meters  within  many  regulations  Before  fortunate  enjoyed  large  exposed  being  deposits;  River  in  annual  cubic  North  by  outwash  operators  sand  million  has  Figs.  their  determine  zoning  Lowland.  1975,  has  (see  outwash,  accessible,  Coquitlam  been  uplands  however,  older  have  Hill the  than  most  units.  Fraser in  Mary  the  lower  three-dimensional  Municipal  The  the  outwash  pre-Vashon  to  is  surface of  beneath  exist;  irregular,  these  bank  in  deep  outwash  land  older  be d i f f i c u l t  the  to  the  Buried  probably  will  to  the west  operators. and  Vashon  Columbia  con-  at  will  probably  cover  outwash  deposits  and  some  Cowichan  further sand  urban  Head  development  operations  covered  by  transported area,  may  fluvial  and be  land  from areas greatly  much  and  out  and  sand  will  farther  increasing  and  rezoning  phased  Gravel  gravel  away  sand.  other more  gravel  large  then  from  With  transportation  reserves  have  the  and  to  be  Vancouver  and  possibly  costs.  Other area,  that  problems, might  related  hinder  to  gravel  the and  surficial sand  geology  excavation  are  of  the  as  follows  1.  E x c e s s i v e overburden of t i l l or g l a c i o m a r i n e stony clayey s i l t . Both a r e d i f f i c u l t to remove w i t h a s h o v e l o r l o a d e r and b o t h p r e s e n t a d i s p o s a l problem.  2.  D i s c o n t i n u i t y o f g r a v e l and sand u n i t s , due t o i r r e g u lar buried landscapes bounding the s t r a t a , causing them t o r a n d o m l y s w e l l and p i n c h o u t ( F i g . 30). Disc o n t i n u o u s g r a v e l l e n s e s in d o m i n a n t l y sand u n i t s also cause problems in g r a v e l r e s e r v e e s t i m a t i o n .  3.  O v e r s i z e d b o u l d e r s up t o 5 m d i a . u n i t s , w h i c h c a n n o t be h a n d l e d by blasting.  h.  Occurrences of i n t e r b e d d e d t h i n f i n e s t r a t a can cause problems in washing washouts in steep s l o p e s .  5.  O c c u r r e n c e o f t i l l and s t o n y c l a y e y s i l t r i d g e s ( F i g . 30) b e t w e e n . s a n d and g r a v e l u n i t s . Both a r e d i f f i c u l t f o r m a c h i n e r y t o h a n d l e a n d when w e t t h e y f o r m m u d h o l e s . I f t h e r i d g e s a r e h i g h , t h e y make t h e o v e r l y i n g g r a v e l and sand t o o t h i n t o mine e c o n o m i c a l l y .  6.  High groundwater a small operator  Foundation  Materials  Armstrong nent in  also  buildings.  thereby  mining  Formation  to  the  ation  Fraser  and  of  Lowland.  materials  is  in g l a c i a l without  sand and s i l t and s i z i n g , and  tables, p a r t i c u l a r l y troublesome for w i t h o n l y a shovel or loader o p e r a t i o n .  (1957,  foundations  ( F i g . 21) equipment  Drainage  1961) the  summarized various  A knowledge  characteristics  Pleistocene of  the  p a r t i c u l a r l y desirab1e  perti-  sediments  properties wherever  the  of  found found-  stability  94.  and  d u r a b i l i t y of  underlying The on  glacier  ice. by  during  the  at  least  the  Most  1800  tills  under  between physical  However,  (i.e.  area  the  and  have  they  or  In and  Thus  nature  of  tills  however,  were  formed  from d r i f t i n g  ice,  and  even  Where  to  approximately development  on  these  problems  may  resemble  1 itho 1ogica11y.  area  sions  on  are  the  the  quite  Chines  hillside  harden  by  in the  and when  used  a  natural  impervious  as  f i l l .  glaciomarine  dropping  into  glaciomarine by  voids  form  become  under'  unde-  fill  to  Ti1 1- 1 i k e  i c e ) 'may  deposits  may  and  attain  major  urban  encounter  those  Examples  the  deposited  sea-floor  deposits fail  when  loads.  more,  unlike  of  only  relatively  together  preloaded  Heights  south  times  deposits  particles  stones  deposits  drainage  by  pre-  various  tills,  remain  them  by  or  been  preloaded  fine  light  ft.)  and  Moody  should  glaciomarine  5 m (15  have  post-Vashon  post-Vashon  been  sediments  preloaded  ice at  drainage.  relatively  post-Vashon  of  excavation  poor  subjected  been  lodgement  can  after  not  have  the  them.  bind  very  have  whether  been  tills  have  that  is  whereas  are  loads.  sliding,  those  rial  by  deposits  ft.)  overlying  particles  they  deposits, muds  ice,  concrete.  again,after  older  epoch,  the  heavy  coarse  and  built  Moody a r e a  in  of  be  m (5900  sediments  weights  formed  to  till  Pleistocene  of  great  be a f f e c t e d  consideration  are  Vashon  Coquitlam-Port  weight  of  important  foundations  loaded  the  may  materials.  most  which  structures  in  of  the  the  Harbour  Barnet  thicknesses and  local tills  industsettling that  they  Coquitlam-Port Village  Highway,  subdivi-  between  the  95.  cities some  of  Port  houses  Moody  were  and  built  glaciomarine  stony  experiencing  drainage  bearing series water  pressure  lying  deposits.  out  from  them  to  loads  would  and  age;  therefore,  (and  underlying)  the  very  occurring, 1 of area,  sediments  indicates,  name  up  the  in  and  found  in  Capilano  pore  flow.  in  the  water  thesis)  where  has  the  Vashon  are  remapped  the  enough  in  tills  both  broken  the to  be  till  and  Heights  excessive  is  and  under-  washed causing  very  light  Glaciomarine  depo-  control be  downward  drain-  controlled  industrial  in  these  development  Armstrong  (ii h 7 p r e p ,  the  surficial  deposits  of  Capilano  distribution  a  pore  have  conditions  are  encounter  sediments,  should  hillsides.  may  Sands  fail.  or  and  thick  and in  glaciomarine  t i l l .  easy  extent  in  to  urban  Armstrong,  characteristics  lesser  the  Quadra  these  ft.)  glaciomarine  glaciomarine Under  on  by  subdivisions fossi1iferous  Chines  caused  pressure  Coqui11 am-Port  table  places  Capilano  sediments  deposits  drainage the  some  underlying  Ta b.l e . II I (mod i f i ed a f t e r ation  8 m (25  p e r m e a b i l i t i e s , which  including and  to  up  the  especially  this  silts  in  the  these  (post-Vashon)  problems  these  low  In  Capilano  gullies  even  cause  have  Fig.  the  Coquitlam.  slide  Here  beneath fail  or  built  sits  is  As  washout  on  clayey  problems. of  Port  to  Moody  excavate  glaciomarine to  and  removed.  require  of  1961)  Pleistocene  found-  sediments  area.  All  the  materials  listed  except  for  the  tills  and  to  be  high  deposits. blasting  glaciomarine  summarizes  Cohesion and  deposits  may  some o f will  have  the to  a  boulders be  TABLE  Type  Till: Vashon,  of  III:  FOUNDATION MATERIALS  AND  COQ.UITLAM-PORT MOODY AREA,  B.C  Bea r i n g V a l u e f o r Founda t i ons  P r e l o a d e d by Glacier Ice  Depos i t  DRAINAGE,  Drainage  yes  excel lent  surface  drainage  yes  good  excellent  no  good  yes  fair  only  Semiahmoo?  Sand and G r a v e l : Vashon (where o v e r l a i n by t i l l ) , C o w i c h a n H e a d , Semiahmoo?, Highbury l Westl ynn?  to  excellent  downward  and  lateral  f  Sand and G r a v e l : C a p i l a n o , Vashon l a i n by t i l l )  (where  not  Glaciomarine stony c l a y e y silt: P o r t C o q u i t l a m , Semiahmoo? G l a c i o m a r i n e stony c l a y e y ma r i ne c 1 a y e y s i l t :  e x c e l l e n t downward and l a t e r a l e x c e p t where g r o u n d w a t e r table near s u r f a c e  over-  silt  and  no  to  v e r y poor drainage  good  poor to f a i r ; se 111emen t s  may  have  excessive  surface  downward  drainage  and  lateral  only  Ca p i1 a no G 1 a c i o 1 a c u s t r i n e laminated stony silt: V a s h o n (where o v e r l a i n by t i l l ) , Sem i a hmoo ?  yes  fair  to  good  Medium to c o a r s e s a n d : Ho 1 o c e n e - - d e p o s i t e d by modern s t r e a m s in low f l a t - l y i n g areas  no  fair  to  good,  F i n e s a n d , s i l t , and c l a y : Ho 1 o c e n e - - d e p o s i t e d by modern s t r e a m s in low f l a t - l y i n g areas  no  yes  F o s s i l peat, and c l a y :  organic  Quadra ( m i n o r ) , Highbury? Peat, organic f i n e clay: Ho 1 o c e n e - - m o d e r n depos i t s  fine  Cowichan  sand,  sil t  sand,  silt,  and  and  swamp  downward  and  lateral  poor most of the water t a b l e near  y e a r as surface  v e r y poor to f a i r ; in a r e a s u n d e r l a i n by m o s t l y s i l t and c l a y e x c e s s i v e s e t t l e m e n t s may o c c u r ; a r e a s u n d e r l a i n by m o s t l y f i n e sand and s i l t a r e s u s c e p t i b l e to 1 i q u e f i c a t i o n  surface  only  poor  v e r y poor drainage  to  depending  on  density  fair  Head,  no bog  v e r y poor drainage  p r e l o a d e x t e n s i v e l y o r remove from f o u n d a t i o n s ; undergoes extreme c o m p a c t i o n and e x c e s s i v e settling occurs  drainage  downward  and  ground-  lateral  very d i f f i c u l t ; peat h o l d s 26 t i m e s i t s own w e i g h t o f  up to water CTl  97.  Sewage  D i sposa1  Wherever  sewage  disposal  drainage  and  sub-soil  Hill  the  slopes  and  is  dependent  conditions  of  must  on  septic  tanks,  be c o n s i d e r e d .  Maillardville,  Essondale,  Mary  Harbour  up/and  Village,  Harbour  Chines,  loco  covered  with  are  Vashon In  t i l l .  places  These  they lag  downward  drainage  however,  during  the  surface  becomes  the  fields  drain  upland  northeast  surface  not  valley  are  the  which  the  is  at  or  are  should  development slopes  bench  on  of  of  Capilano  supra-  littoral  areas and  must,  the  side  by  Vashon  till  and  overlie  Vashon  or  should  not  overlying  be d o n e  where  of  Burke  surface, septic  The  have tank  these  unfavourapart  lots.  the  Capilano  Quadra can  of  even-  runoff.  slopes  under  Maillardville etc. west  the  therefore,  for  near  tank  s u f f i c i e n t l y far  adjacent  drainage  is  drainage  septic  ground  be u s e d  placed on  and  upper  favourable  them;  table  near-surface  southern  permit  underlying  from  near  which  groundwater  the  through  sand  materials  must  be  layer  overflow  not  tanks  drainage.  mantle  the  and  downward  gravel  upland  and  some d o w n w a r d  holes  this  the  and  sediments no  the  surface  and  they  underlain  areas  drainage  loco  septic  affect  and  sediments  ever,  If  Hill,  Mountain,  by  drainage  to  Mary  these  of  conditions,  as  these  bedrock  installation.  so  sand  t h e ^ n o r t h e a s t, o f  almost  thin  seasons  Much o f in  a  impervious  thin  downs]ope  Mountain,where  able  the  permit  Capilano  rainy  poor.  tually  only  to  and  glaciomarine  by  and/or  the  of  very  absorption  mantled  gravel  Moody,  Capilano  deposits  are  littoral  Port  gravel  east lower  groundwater  Burnaby  Coquitlam  glaciomarine and  sand.  be a c c o m p l i s h e d  impervious  of  by  material;  In putting how-  contamination  98.  is  a  problem. In  Hwy.,  the  lower  Capilano  permit where  easy the  permeable  downward  water  supply In  Hill, area  at  and  the  Moody,  tile,  especially  during  Moody  area.  Essondale north  in  of  used the  Slides  in  not  it.  the  form  septic  near  the  effluent  be  of  septic  tanks,  must and  between  sewage  groundwater  places  that  except where  taken  the  in  ground-  contamination. Essondale  M a i l l a r d v i l l e , and  tank  which  Again,  care  of  Lougheed  surface.  problem,  valley  the  terraces  tank  a  disposal  table  are  is  at  in  and the  Mary lowland  will  not  or  close  periodically  operate to  the  flooded,  seasons.  a serious  along  The  Mary  Hill  cities  of  on  near Port  Vegetative to  Coquitlam-Port  and  the  problem  Fraser  Coquitlam  effectively  Large mainly  is  and  flood.  heavy  the  rainy  Dykes  controlling  are  septic  or  gravel  of  Control Flooding  ally  River south  where  absorption  is  km n o r t h  2-3  p e r i o d i c a l l y for  lowland  Port  and  is  spacing  Coquitlam  satisfactorily  Flood  table  checked  the  in  sand  contamination  construction  valley,  c i r c u l a t i o n of  groundwater  groundwater the  Coquitlam  the  Coquitlam-Port  River  are  effective  River  floods  its  mouth  Moody  and  cover,  check  minimize  Moody  in  and Port  dams,  frequently mountain  in between  streams  Coquitlam  occasion-  and  measures  destruction  other  caused  by  flooding  area.  Washouts slides steep  rainfall  have  slopes and  occurred under  excessive  in  the  unstable land  area soil  clearing.  over  the  conditions  years, caused  by  99.  The  steep the  west  north  of  heavy  rainfalls  water  tables  Lougheed  fine  fail  slide,  natural shed  discovered excavation. fall  the  at  Mary  thin  by  As drained must  and Port lam  the  fine  be m o n i t o r e d during  therefore, Moody River  Moody,  area  years  by  Large  Vancouver  Water-  Armstrong  (1957)  in  a  came  out  slope  of  water  of  the  hill. cut  reservoir,  a mudflow  rain-  occurred  the  shovel  separated  building  excessive  south  the  a  at  It  through  which  by o u t w a s h  and  to  (1957)-  washout  when  overloaded  materials  old  material  sheets  became  Moody  to  through  large  a buried  till  layer  mentioned,  and  (and  the  Village  water  underlying  seasons  place.  potential occur  pore  c o n t r o l l e d where  rainy  taking  valley,  Harbour  the  slope  Greater  due  to  a  excavation  sediments  is  on  due  Armstrong  Port  valley  sliding  overlying  caused  1953  River  large  was gravels.  pit  was  slide.  previously  development  In  tapping  silt  probably  Heights.  this  the  100  the  much  by  At  least  and  gravel  of  near  Lake.  season  pit  out  causing  occur  at  Coquitlam  Washouts  documented  was  two V a s h o n  by  especially  slide  gravel  saturated  excavated  been  slide  bed,  lower  undergone  layers,  Coquitlam  Chines  silt  has  draining  also  rainy  during  overlain The  a  Hill  occurred a  scars  The  during  gullies  have  a major  the  human a c t i v i t y .  water  below  of  Hwy.  sediment  si ide  Gates  and  and  pervious and  slope  and  Areas  slide the  north  side  and  west of  in  poorly  sediments)  in  the  steep  where of  areas,  along  pressure  low  urban  the  and  slope  within bank  slopes  of  occur, industrial  stabilities,  the  Coquitlam-  the  lower  upland  Mai11 a r d v i 1 1 e , t h e  area  between west  and  CoquitPort south  .  TOO.  slopes slope of  of of  the  on  east  Burke  slopes  and  Coquitlam  top and  of  Port are  Mountain  the  gently  and  peat  bogs),  and  Port  Moody,  Harbour  on  of  Port top  and  areas  where  Moody of  the  excellent  for  lain  glacier-loaded  till  are  the  the  east by  west  lower  near  the  top  of  the  upland  of  the  upper  and  uplands  at  or  other  settling at  Mary  of  near  the  surface,  flat  areas  around  may  occur  on  Maillardville.  have  drainage  may  high be a  where  slopes  Hill  foundations  bed-  slopes  Maillardville,  is  side  side,  and  (however  they  south  mostly  the  are  building  downward  on  the  Hill,  River  and  on  areas  bench  bedrock  and  area  (underlain  Village,  Village,  are  and  Mary  Coquitlam  uplands  surface  valley sloping  Harbour  of  steep,  hazardous  area,  loco,  Coquitlam  however,  River  Stable  above  reaches  Less  loco  Moody,  Port  by  a small,  slopes  gentle.  and  lower  the  north  Mountain,  between  the  Hill,  Maillardville.  lower  rock), the  Mary  and The  as  Burke  between  tops  they  are  of  the under-  slope;stability; problem.  101.  CHAPTER A.  Quaternary  Quaternary  indicate  glaciations, glacial Each and  major  represented  local  major  advance.  possibly  glaciation peat  represents on  separated than  sented  cribed  in the area,  climatic  unit,  Holocene  Sediments  (Late Drift,  Interval  (Middle  Formation;  Major  glaciation  the major  invasion  units  representing succession  Capilano Drift;  each  stades  in the  during  which  this  study,  and i s  have a  (Middle  or Early  des-  geologic-  Fraser  Olympia  Glaciation  at  repre-  been  established: Glaciation  Sediments,  60,0007-26 , 000) :  before  deposits.  has been  Wisconsin,  occur-  in the area  epoch,  (11,000 y r . B . P . - p r e s e n t ) ;  and C o q u i t l a m  with  recognized  and g l a c i o m a r i n e  probably  Two o r  two  case,  occurred  1ithostratigraphic  each  by e u s t a t i c  (an i n t e r v a l  in t h i s  the Pleistocene marine  non-  sediments.  glaciation)  and has n o t been  26,000-11,000):  Sand,  associated  i d e n t i f i e d during  and t h e f o l l o w i n g  Wisconsin, Quadra  major  Drift,  Marine  during  formational  were  within  stade  by  tectonic adjustments.  the stades,  by f o s s i 1 i f e r o u s  Nine  by o r g a n i c  by a n i n t e r s t a d e  Coquitlam  times  separated  three  o f up t o 230 m, r e l a t i v e t o  the last  the e a r l i e r  three  deposits,  and r e t r e a t s  t h e B.C. m a i n l a n d .  least  changes  intervals  warmer  formed).  by d r i f t  Moody  t o two and p o s s i b l y  a n d r e t r e a t was a c c o m p a n i e d  During  glacial  subjected  and p r o b a b l y  advances  in the Coquitlam-Port  are represented  sea-level  sea l e v e l ,  three  red,  which  i c e advance  isostatic  (smaller  sediments  i t has been  intervals  present  CONCLUSIONS  Geology  Exposed area  EIGHT:  Vashon  Nonglacial  Cowichan Wisconsin,  Head prob-  102.  ably  >62,000):  (Early Major  Wisconsin?,  These  buried  Drift;  probably  Glaciation?  Drift? ing  Semiahmoo?  (Early  units  are  landscapes  Major  >62,000):  or  Nonglacial Highbury?  Interval Sediments;  Pre-Wisconsin, >62,000):  separated  which  were  by  Westlynn  unconformities  later  modified  by  representstream  and/  o r i c e a c t i o n . During former  the  area  becomes  be  impossible  because  the  on  t e n t a t i v e and  radiocarbon  dates.  information  may  some  in  15  places  different  away,  as  nonglacial  present  1963;  Thus to  area  a  as  during  and  one  of  another  differ-  and  may  absolute  chronologic  ages  Sediment  units  sporadi-  buried  based  occur  landscapes  wherever purely  in  could  and  study  drill  cor: at  by hole  conclusions.  p e n e t r a t e more  others,  or  are  possible  on  misleading  hole and  time.  succession  units  three-dimensional  a drill  uplands  Quaternary  lithologic  of  study  unit  The  the  stratigraphic  supported  layers,  sediment  formed.  out  resemble  completely  only  a few  In than  meters  two. have  interglacial Armstrong,  writer  a  be  carved  the  without  should  sediments  or  of  closely  than  new o n e s  times  sections.  other  lead the  few as  was  development  sediment  "Quadra"  Fyles,  may  formational  and  especially  separate  of  made  fill  several  stratigraphic  relations best  ages  to  each  unravelling  complex,  chronologic  cally  sediment  the  of  reshaped  remodelled  very  complete  were  valley  Consequently,  ent  deposition  landscapes  Coquitlam in  the  agrees,  in  deposits  1965). that  the  past  (Armstrong  Clague  Quadra  been  Sand  (1976) is  considered and  as  Brown,  proposed,  proglacial  and  1953; the  (distal)  103.  outwash ever,  deposited  as  a  separately defined Vashon  north  from  as  Vashon  The  Glaciation  Coast  valley  dam  250  up  to  deposition the when ice  peat  was  advanced  carved  out  since  of  record  is  too  before  that  Outwash granular is  in  Semiahmoo?  reshaping  the  time  older  Quadra  has  been  mapped  al.  (1965)  that  for  the  Coquit-  deposition,  early was  ice  during  to  ago.  Hill.  During  this  time  Lowland.  the  has  and  area has  been  modified  The  comment  on  only  B.P.,  Vashon streams  valley  basically  the  locally  pre-Semiahmoo? the  yr.  meltwater  Coquitlam  remained  ice  during  Mary  the  the  area 18,600  in  the  Sand  by  and  of  Quadra  Moody  area  by  behind  occurred  fill  Fraser  mouth  which  the  the  the  the  deposited  Coquitlam-Port  towards  by  interrupted  blocked  have  strata in  Vashon?  years  Fraser  to  How-  bounding  Sand  It  21,600  landscapes.  sparce  et  suggests  S a n d was  Quadra  of  Sand  ice.  ice,  south  the  by  and  same the  stratigraphic  Pleistocene  topography  time. and  Environmental  sand  aggregate  most  the  at  the  topography  Engineering  in  further  it  lower  ice which  about  growing  of  the  ago.  Quadra  Coquitlam  much  redeposited The  while  m a.s.l.  of  years  Vashon  Armstrong,  started  Coquitlam  continued  retreat  Quadra  writer  Mountains,  westward-advancing  from  southward-advancing  25,800  Coquitlam  be  proglacial  from  about  to  present  area  derived the  Drift,  sediments  Moody  in  derived unit  Drift.  streams  meltwater  1ithostratigraphic  Quadra  lam-Port  by  and for  accessible  gravel  Geology are  the  most  extensive  construction  purposes.  and  mined  commonly  sources  Vashon  gravel  of  outwash  deposit;  however,  104.  Semiahmoo? but  they  latter  and  are  Westlynn?  usually  deposits  outwash  too  deeply  are  buried  are  found  buried  Quaternary  deposits  (e.g.  Mary  Quaternary  sediment  fills  occupying  tains  which  River  valley).  are  the  border  best  valleys,  or  buried  but  economic. of  the  lag is  delta  but in  are  usually  is too  river  and  Quaternary  sediments,  is  gate  (e.g.  Coquitlam  River  type  directly  able  (e.g.  overlies  Capilano  Some p r o b l e m s removal  of  irregular  and  especially  underlain Land and  by  municipal  good  buildings or  and  and  of  that  roads;  glaciomarine  and  by  Where  one  combination overlying  run  Coast  Moun-  and  mountain  upland  stained  granular  be out  aggre-  uneconomic  gravel  may  mine-  become  Vashon will  outwash).  be  buried  industrial  to  flowing  the  glaciomarine to  fills.  redepositing  thin  operators  due  gravels  of  streams  for  till  in  sediment  iron  source  thick  banks  underlies  and  by  Coquitlam  mouths  and  pit  These  deposits;  landscapes;  rezoning  of  land  reserves.  low have  older  pit  urban  gravel  surfaces  Drift  especially  lower  through  gravel).  by  the  valley  and  muddy,  a good  supralittoral  in  the  deposited  the  river  floodplain  mountain  cutting  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  sediments  (Vashon  t i l l ,  by  thin,  encountered  in  alluvial  and  quality  underlain  (e.g.  to  high  be e c o n o m i c .  valleys  widespread  also  to  and  confined  another  overburden,  the  and  equally  uplands  Hill),  gravel  Mountains,  in  Lowland  uplands  gravel  Modern  Coast  Fraser  Raised  sorted  Supralittoral surfaces  the  of  slope been  which  deposits  underlain  pre-loaded  sediments)  however,  are  are  drainage are  at  best may or  by  by  bedrock  glacier  ice  locations  for  be  near  poor the  where  bedrock,  surface.  105.  Capilano  glaciomarine  glacier for  engineers  When on  i c e and  these  very  and  cause  become  slopes.  have  serious  contractors  sediments  small  water  This  is  water  pressure  in  high,  underlying  pervious  strata  and  flow.  areas  and  Sewage  underlain  bedrock,  and  must  when  installing  pose  serious  urban  serious  and  1.  for  Detailed  pre-Vashon and  regions  nology,  m i c r o p a 1 eon t o 1ogy,  Vashon contact 3.  Drift  is  is  areas  steep  a  slopes  water  drains may  problem  fail  in  sediments,  near  the  and  surface.  contamination  underlain  sewage  even  becomes  sediment  groundwater  and  and  to work  sediments,  aided and  by  disposal  Flooding  has  peat  bogs  problems  not  emphasis  on  sedimen to 1ogica1  elsewhere out by  fossil  sedimento1ogica1  with  to  flow  been  a  Study  sediments  of  Detailed  as  thick.  area.  history  2.  these  table  development.  Further  Pleistocene  on  glaciomarine  Flat  drainage,  stratigraphic  adjacent  t i l l ,  tanks  can  sediments  wash o u t  septic  be g i v e n  the  true  problems  become  they  glaciomarine  also  industrial in  may  by  drainage  deposits  underlying  groundwater  tanks.  these  pre-loaded  and  saturated,  the  septic  problem  by  impervious  settling,  Recommendations  land  by  the  overlying  disposal  where  Consideration  to  the  been  especially  pore  them,  not  settling  where  where  through  C.  can  sediments  and  facies  the  in  the  study  Fraser  correlation  radiocarbon insect  of Low-  and  dating,  paly-  studies.  stratigraphic relationships  study of  the  of ice-  depos i t s . Pa 1 y n o 1 o g i c a 1  containing  organic  and  fossil  materials.  insect  studies  of  the  sediments  106.  k.  Detailed  deposits  including:  mineralogic, and  other  grain  granitic  stones  juxtaposition  mental area  size  and  study  on  compared  in  Detailed problems  involving  produce  pebble  study fabric,  of  glaciomarine  chemical,  roundness,  and  bulk  till  density,  penetration,  Atterberg,  analyses.  Detailed  5-  6.  comparative  the  the  "hazard"  to  cause  intact  Quaternary  study to  the  of  potential  maps  for  of  in  case  the  disintegration  granitic  sediments  construction study  of  in  the  engineering the  found  and  some in  area. and  Coquitlam-Port  histories  area.  stones  of  field  environMoody work  to  107.  REFERENCES  CITED  A r m s t r o n g , J . E . , 19 5 3 G e o l o g y o f Sand and G r a v e l Deposits in Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; C a n . , M i n . , Met. B u l l . , A p r i l , 1953, PP1-8. :  A r m s t r o n g , J . E . , 1957: S u r f i c i a l G e o l o g y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r Map-Area, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; G e o l . Surv. C a n . , Pap. 5 7 ~5  a n d Map 16-1957-  A r m s t r o n g , J . E . , 1961 : S o i l s of the C o a s t a l Area of Southwest B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : j_n_ L e g g e t , R. F. ( e d . ) : Soils i n C a n a d a ; R o y a l S o c . C a n . , S p e c . P u b l . N o . 3, p p - 2 2 ~ 3 2 . A r m s t r o n g , J . E . , 1 965: Stop 1 3 2 : j_n_ G u i d e b o o k f o r Conference J , P a c i f i c Northwest, I.N.Q.U.A., V l l t h USA, p p . 106-107; p u b l . N e b r a s k a A c a d . S c i . _  Field Congress,  A r m s t r o n g , J . E . , 1975a: Quaternary Geology, S t r a t i g r a p h i c S t u d i e s , and R e v a l u a t i o n o f T e r r a i n I n v e n t o r y Maps, Fraser Lowland, B r i t i s h Columbia; Geol. Surv. Can.,  Pap. 75-1,  P t . A , p p . 377-380.  A r m s t r o n g , J . E . , 1975b: Fraser Lowland--Canada: j_n_ E a s t e r b r o o k , D. J . ( e d . ) : The L a s t G l a c i a t i o n : Guidebook f o r F i e l d C o n f e r e n c e , S e p t . 7 ~ 1 7 > I n t . G e o l . C o r r e l . Prog. " Q u a t e r n a r y G l a c i a t i o n s in the Northern H e m i s p h e r e , " p p . 7^-97; p u b l . G e o l o g y D e p t . , W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n State College. Armstrong, J . Lowland, Can., in  E.: Post-Vashon Wisconsin G l a c i a t i o n , Fraser B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C a n a d a ; subm. t o G e o l . S u r v . press.  Armstrong, J . Deposits subm. t o  E.: M i d d l e W i s c o n s i n and O l d e r P l e i s t o c e n e in the F r a s e r Lowland, B r i t i s h Columbia; to G e o l . Surv. Can., in prep.  be  A r m s t r o n g , J . E.: S u r f i c i a l G e o l o g y , New W e s t m i n s t e r Map S h e e t ; u p d a t e d v e r s i o n o f A r m s t r o n g , 1957, t o be s u b m . t o G e o l . Surv. Can. , in prep. A r m s t r o n g , J . E. a n d B r o w n , W. L . , 1953= Ground-water Resources of Surrey M u n i c i p a l i t y , B r i t i s h Columbia; Geol. Surv. Can., Water Supply Paper 322. A r m s t r o n g , J . E. a n d B r o w n , W. L . , 1954: Late Wisconsin Marine D r i f t and A s s o c i a t e d S e d i m e n t s o f t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C a n a d a ; B u l l . G e o l . S o c . A m . , V o l . 65,  pp.  349-364.  108.  A r m s t r o n g , J . E. a n d C l a g u e , J . J . : Two s t r a t i g r a p h i c U n i t s in Southwestern to G e o l . Surv. C a n . , in p r e s s .  New Q u a t e r n a r y L i t h o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; subm.  A r m s t r o n g , J . E . , C r a n d e l l , D. R., E a s t e r b r o o k , D. J . , a n d N o b l e , J . B., 1 9 6 5 : L a t e P l e i s t o c e n e S t r a t i g r a p h y and C h r o n o l o g y i n S o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and N o r t h w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n ; B u l l . G e o l . Soc. Am., V o l . 76, pp. 321-330. A r m s t r o n g , J . E. a n d H i c o c k , S. R., 1975: Quaternary Landscapes: P a s t and P r e s e n t - - a t Mary H i l l , C o q u i t l a m , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , P a p . 7 5 - 1 , P t . B, p p . 9 9 - 1 0 3 . A r m s t r o n g , J . E. a n d H i c o c k , S. R., 1976: Quaternary M u l t i p l e V a l l e y D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e Lower C o q u i t l a m V a l l e y , C o q u i t l a m , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; G e o l . Surv. C a n . , Pap. 7 6 - I , P t . B, i n p res s . A r m s t r o n g , J . E. a n d H i c o c k , Fraser (Late Wisconsin) B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; t o be i n prep. B u r w a s h , E. M. J . , 1 9 1 9 : Univ. Chicago Press,  The 106  S. R.: Coquitlam D r i f t : An E a r l y Ice Advance in the F r a s e r L o w l a n d , subm. t o J . Q u a t e r n a r y R e s e a r c h , Geology pp.  of  Vancouver  and  Vicinity;  C l a g u e , J . J . , 1976: Q u a d r a Sand and i t s R e l a t i o n t o t h e L a t e Wisconsin G l a c i a t i o n of Southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia; subm. t o Can. J . E a r t h S c i . , in p r e s s . E a s t e r b r o o k , D. J . , 1 9 6 9 : P l e i s t o c e n e Chronology of L o w l a n d a n d San J u a n I s l a n d s , W a s h i n g t o n ; B u l l . Am., V o l . 80, pp. 2 2 7 3 - 2 2 8 6 .  the Puget Geol. Soc.  F u l t o n , R. J . a n d H a l s t e a d , E. C . , 1 9 7 2 : Quaternary Geology of the Southern Canadian C o r d i l l e r a : Guidebook f o r F i e l d E x c u r s i o n 02; Int. G e o l . Cong., 2 4 t h , Canada, 49pp. F y l e s , J . G., I963: S u r f i c i a l Geology of Home v i l l e Map-Areas, Vancouver Island, B r i t i s h S u r v . C a n . , Mem. 3 1 8 , 142pp. H a l s t e a d , E. Island;  C., 1968: The C o w i c h a n I c e C a n . J . E a r t h S c i . , V o l . 5,  J o h n s t o n , W. A . , Geol. Surv.  1921: Can.,  Sedimentation of Mem. 12 5 , - 4 6 p p .  J o h n s t o n , W. A . , Geol. Surv.  1923: Can.,  Geology of Fraser Mem. 1 3 5 , 8 7 p p -  L e a r n i n g , S. F . , 1 9 6 8 : Area; Geol. Surv.  Lake and P a r k s Columbia; Geol.  Tongue, Vancouver pp. 1409-1415the  Fraser  River  River  Delta  Sand and G r a v e l i n t h e S t r a i t C a n . , Pap. 66-60, 149pp.  Delta;  Map-Area; of  Georgia  109.  M c K e e , E. D. and W e i r , G. W., 1 9 5 3 : Terminology for Stratif i c a t i o n and C r o s s - S t r a t i f i c a t i o n ; B u l l . G e o l . S o c . , A m . ,  Vol.  Gk, p p .  381-390.  Roddick, J . A . , 1965: Vancouver North, Coquitlam, Lake M a p - A r e a s , B r i t i s h Columbia; Geol. Surv.  and Pitt C a n . , Mem.  335,  276pp. R o d d i c k , J . A. a n d A r m s t r o n g , J . E . , 1 9 5 6 : Pitt ( V a n c o u v e r , E a s t H a l f ) M a p , New W e s t m i n s t e r B r i t i s h Columbia; Geol. Surv. Can., 8-1965R o d d i c k , J . A . , M u l l e r , J . E . , a n d O k u l i t c h , A. Fraser River ( 2 2 1 5 ) Map S h e e t ; G e o l . S u r v . F i l e Map No. 165. Rowe,  Lake District,  V. 1973: C a n . , Open  J . , 1975: The G e o l o g i c H i s t o r y o f Q u a t e r n a r y Deposits in t h e Mary H i l l G r a v e l P i t , P o r t C o q u i t l a m , B . C . ; unpubl. B.Sc. T h e s i s , Univ. B r i t . C o l . , 67pp.  no.  A P P E N D I C E S  Number on Maps  Date radiocarbon year before present  Laboratory Number  tlevation (metres)  Material  Collector  1  GSC 2177  12,000±100  69  2  GSC 2194  18,600±190  61  3  GSC 2203  21,600±200  190  wood from f i n e sand i n Quadra Sand  J . E . Armstrong  4  GSC 2273  25,800±310  50  wood from organic s i l t at top of Cowichan Head Formation  J.V. Matthews  5  GSC 2277  26,000+310  40  wood from sandy gravel i n Cowichan Head Formation  S.R. Hicock  6  GSC 2191  26,200±320  40  wood from sandy gravel i n Cowichan Head Formation-located 1 m from GSC 2277  S.R. Hicock  7  GSC 124  26,450±520  35  peaty s i l t from s i l t y f i n e sand in Cowichan Head Formation  J . E . Armstrong  8  GSC 2217  26,900+320  37  wood from sandy s i l t i n Cowichan Head Formation  S.R. Hicock  9  GSC 2263  27,000±490  49  wood from peat i n Cowichan Head Formation  S.R. Hicock  10  GSC 536  27,180+460  35  wood from s i l t y clay i n Cowichan Head Formation  J . E . Armstrong  11  GSC 2107  27,400+420  39  wood from peat i n Cowichan Head Formation  J.E. Armstrong  12  GSC 2139  28,200+200  38  wood from peat i n Cowichan Head Formation  J . E . Armstrong  13  GSC 2140  29,600±200  35  sapropel in Cowichan Head Formation  J . E . Armstrong  14  GSC 2137  40,200+430  34  wood from stony organic c o l l u vium, probably i n Cowichan Head Formation  J . E . Armstrong  15  GSC 2167  40,500±1700  45  wood from stony organic c o l l u vium, probably i n Cowichan Head Formation  S.R. Hicock  16  GSC 2091  >44,000  23  wood from stony laminated s i l t in Semiahmoo? D r i f t  J . E . Armstrong  17  GSC 2094  >44,000  114  wood from organic s i l t i n Highbury? Sediments  J . E . Armstrong  wood from stony laminated s i l t in Semiahmoo? D r i f t  J . E . Armstrong  wood from organic s i l t i n Highbury? Sediments  J . E . Armstrong  wood from stony laminated s i l t in Semiahmoo? D r i f t  S.R. Hicock  18  GSC 2120 rerun of GSC 2091  >48,000  23  19  GSC 2094-2 rerun of GSC 2094  >49,000  114  >62,000  20  20  QL-194*  marine s h e l l s from Capilano glaciomarine f i n e sandy s i l t  J . E . Armstrong  wood from peat at base of Quadra Sand  J . E . Armstrong  *QL-194 was run by M. Stuiver, University of Washington. Survey of Canada.  A l l other dates were run by the Geological  A  122°47' ,y.  M  V  3 :i; -49°19'  i  II)  r  i \ -  ' ' *  17 • v 19'. •] 2  »J  9  4  B  11 13 12 #  -18'  .-.•./  i.-y  (? 1  122 °47' ?  M A R YI  .  m  H I1 L 1L 1  .  3  0  0  .ii—l  46'30' |  APPENDIX 1 :  0  .  10,00  j)l22°46  >l I  LOWER C O Q U I T L A M RIVER V A L L E Y  RADIOCARBON DATES  112.  :'.-?3 ••10 Rock Types * Locali t i e s  % Volcanic X Garibaldi type 1  % Granitic and Associated*  Mary H i l l ; estimated r a t i o Coast/Cascade  Capilano 1 2 3  Suprali t t o r a l 92 93 91  lag.  Capilano Glaciomarine: 4 82  gravel: 4 5 3 2  % Quartzite, Chert, Pel i t e , Argil lite  % Quartz  % Other*  13  Tottl % Dervied from Cascade Mtns.  provenance:  •49V  . \  30 I ^V 1  1  4 2 3  -  6  -  f i  1  .5  3  8  -  8  1  1  8 11 6  3  7 7 9  -  -  29 -•  Vashon T i l l : 5 6 7  85 79 83  Vashon Outwash: 8 9 10 11  78 80 80 89  7 6 8 2 1  11 11 11 7  2 2 1 "  2 1  Quadra Sand: 12 13 14 15 16 17 18  80 83 77 77 87 78 80  6 5 6 8 8 7 5  -  6 7 13 9 3 12 11  6 Z 3 2 1 3 2  2 3 1 4 1  47 63 89  10 14 9  -  38 20 2  4  1 3 "  Cowichan Head Formation: 22 92 92 23 24 95 25 91  5 3 4 5  -  1 3  -  2 2 1 1  Semiahmoo?Drift 26 27 28 29 30 31 32  3 6 5 6 5 7 7  2  4 4  Coquitlam  Total % Derived from Coast Mtns.  21 .  2 3  27.  3 2  -  MARY HILL  2  2  Drift  19 20 21  88 86 93 92 86 86 82  -  3  -  2 5 7 9  1  -  5 3 2  2  -2  1  1  -  Lower Coquitlam River V a l l e y ; estimated r a t i o Coast/Cascade provenance 19:1 1:9 0 1:1 2:3 Capilano Supral t t o r a l 33 95  1  1  2  Capilano d e l t a i c sand and g r a v e l : 34 93 5 1 35 89 4 -  2 3  -  Vashon 36 37 38 39  4 1 2 1  Till:  2  2  91 98 92 95  3  2  4 3  1 -  87 91 94 96  5 4 3 2  2 2  8  z  1 1 1  -  88 89  5 4  -  5 5  i  1  Semiahmoo? D r i f t : 46 86 97 47 92 48 49 94  7 2 5 5  2 -  5 1 2 1  I  1  -  1  Highbury? 50 51  4 5  -  4 4  1 3 ' 2 . 1 1  -  Vashon Outwash: 40 41 42 43  2 1  1 2  1 1 1  90 93 89 90  LOWER COQUITLAM RIVER VALLEY  Quadra Sand: 44 45  Westlynn 52 53 54 55  Sediments 92 90  •  -  1  Drift' 98 93 ' 95 99  Port Moody; estimated r a t i o 9:1 Vashon?Till: 55  94  2 1 "  Coast/Cascade provence: 1:4 0 3  -  1 1  -  -25" • 93 90 91  56  1:  -  2  Semiahmoo?Ori f t: 58 59  59  49V15"  * G r a n i t i c and associated rock types include raigmatites, metasedimentary, metavolcanic, amphibolites, and greenstones Others includes T e r t i a r y rock types and ^lder sedimentary  r-20"  rocks.  [SO ?  . 58 ..g  7  " ° >122 52 40"' 1  (  O  l  PORT MOODY  APPENDIX 2:PEBBLE PROVENANCE ANALYSES AND LOCALITIES  •••Mi . . .  GLACIAL DIAMICTON PEBBLE FABRICS* (based on samples o f 25 pebbles)  Analysis No.  Plunge D i r e c t i o n o f P r e f e r r e d Pebble Long Axis  VASHON TILL: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16  Amount of Plunge  Fabric** Strength  015° 196 069 035  13° 05 50 14  186  07  186 051 166  15 09 05  Strong Weak Strong Strong None Weak None Weak Weak Weak None Weak Strong Strong Weak Strong  -  -  -  -  -  034 180 198 168 178  07 01 01 05 15  053 180  02 07  Strong Strong None  215  09  060 319 019 175  12 45 03 14  Strong None Weak Strong Weak Strong  SEMIAHMOO? GLACIOMARINE?: 26 27 28 200  25  None None Strong  COQUITLAM GLACIOMARINE? 17 18 19 SEMIAHMOO? TILL: 20 21 22 23 24 25  LOWER COQUITLAM RIVER VALLEY r  •23 . . r49 i7 o'.*1  interpretation  S T E R E O G R A M S * AND  -  o  None  Fabric Strength i s based on Mark's s t a t i s t i c a l of the data at the 95% confidence level.  •.  Preferred fabric o r i e n t a t i o n ; lack, of t i c k s i n d i c a t e s the PORT MOODY fabric i s DISPOSAL SITE random. •Stereograms a r e e q u a l area lower hemisphere p r o j e c t i o n s o f pebble long axes. R a t i o of long/intermediate a x i s • lengths ranged from 1.5 t o 2.0 ,  i.Q * IQ0 22 52'40"  Data was taken from a computer a n a l y s i s o f the w r i t e r ' s f i e l d measurements done by D.M. Mark, Geography Department, Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y . Data f o r #27 was taken from Rowe, 1975.  A P P E N D I X 3 •'  MARY HILL  p  CAPILANO GLACIOMARINE: 29  *  •49°U  L O C A L I T I E S OF GLACIAL DIAMICTON P E B B L E FABRIC A N A L Y S E S  114.  .64'. 65 66 .•50 -  •49V  Li t h o s t r a t i g r a p h i c Unit  51.  P i t A (Mary H i l l ) : MH01SD MH02GV MH03SD MH04PT MH05PT MH06SD MH07GV MH08ST MH09ST HH10ST HHUTL MH12ST MH13PT NH14PT MH15GV MH16SD MH17SD MH18GV MH19SD MH20SD MH22GV MH23GV MH24SD MH25SD MH26GV MH27SD MH28SD MH28aGM MH29SD MH30GM MH31ST MH32SD MH33SD MH34GM HH35SD HH36GM MH37GV MH38TL MH39SD MH40SD MH41GV MH42GV M.H43TL HH44GV HH45TL MH46SD MH47SD HH48SD MH49TL MH50GV MH51SD HH52GM MH53GV MH54TL MH55ST MH56GH MH57SO MH58SD MH59TL MH60ST MH61SD MH62TL MH63GV MH64TL MH65GV  48  49»  Cowichan Head Formation Cowichan Head Formation Cowichan Head Formation Cowichan Head Formation? Cowichan Head Formation? Cowichan Head Formation Cowichan Head Formation? Semiahmoo? g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e Cowichan Head Formation? Semiahmoo? g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e Semiahmoo? lodgement t i l l Semiahmoo? g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e Cowichan Head Formation Cowichan Head Formation Cowichan Head Formation Cowichan Head Formation Cowichan Head Formation Cowichan Head Formation? Cowichan Head Formation? Cowichan Head Formation Cowichan Head Formation Cowichan Head Formation Cowichan Head Formation Quadra Quadra Quadra Quadra Coqui tlam Dri f t Cowichan Head Formation Co'quitlam D r i f t Cowichan Head Formation Cowichan Head Formation Cowichan Head Formation or Quadra-below Coquiltam D r i f t Coquitlam D r i f t Cowichan Head Formation or Quadra-below Coquitlam D r i f t Coqui1 tarn Dri f t Cowichan Head Formation or Quadra-below Coquitlam D r i f t Vashon lodgement t i 11 Quadra Quadra Vashon outwash Vashon outwash Vashon lodgement ti11 Vashon outwash Vashon lodgement t i l l Quadra Quadra Vashon outwash Vashon lodgement t i l l Capilano s u p r a l i t t o r a l Quadra Semiahmoo? glaciomarine? Semiahmoo? outwash Vashon lodgement t i l l Semiahmoo? g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e Semishmoo? glaciomarine? Quadra Semiahmoo? g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e ? Semiahmoo? lodgement t i l l Semiahmoo? g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e Quadra Vashon lodgement t i l 1 Vashon outwash Vashon lodgement t i l 1 Capilano s u p r a l i t t o r a l  MH66GV MH67GV MH68GV  Vashon outwash Capilano s u p r a l i t t o r a l Cowichan Head Formation  P i t B (G.V.S. 5 D.D., or West-Lin WL01SD Capilano r a i s e d d e l t a i c Pit C (All ALO.ST AL02GV AL03SD AL04ST AL05ST AL06SD AL07GV AL08TL AL09SD AL10ST  ard): Capilano glaciomarine Vashon outwash Capilano r a i s e d l i t t o r a l Capilano glaciomarine Capilano glaciomarine Capilano r a i s e d d e l t a i c Capilano s u p r a l i t t o r a l Vashon lodgement t i l l Vashon outwash Vashon g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e ?  » 61 59'  6 0  62. 56 57.  41 46 •• 38 * 4714'. 89  „ 17 36» 11 8 28o 37 12 i g ;.18 »  i •f 4  PIT  25 ?c ••to*  68  3:>  A  P i t D (Kask B r o s . ) : KB01SD Capilano r a i s e d d e l t a i c KB02GV Capilano r a i s e d d e l t a i c KB03TL Vashon lodgement t i l l KB04ST Vashon g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e KB05GV Vashon outwash KB06SD Quadra P i t E (Johnson): JN01GV Vashon flow t i l l ? JN02GV Vashon outwash JN03ST Vashon g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e Jri04SD Vashon g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e ? JN05TL Vashon lodgement t i l l JN06SD Quadra 0M07GV Westlynn? outwash? JN08SD Vashon outwash JN09SD Westlynn? outwash? JfJIOSD Vashon outwash? JN11ST Vashon g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e ? P i t F (S and S): SS01GV Westlynn? outwash? SS02SD Highbury? f l u v i a l SS03GV Highbury? f l u v i a l SS04TL Semiahmoo? lodgement t i l l SS05TL Semiahmoo? lodgement t i l l SS06SD Semiahmoo? outwash SS07GM Semiahmoo? glaciomarine? SS08GV Semiahmoo? outwash SS09SD Quadra Vashon flow? t i l l SS10TL 'Vashon g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e ? SSI 1 SD Vashon lodgement t i l l SS12TL P i t G (Cewe): not sampled P i t H (Port Moody): PM01SD Semiahmoo? p r o g l a c i a l PM02TL Vashon lodgement t i l l PM03SD Semiahmoo? p r o g l a c i a l PM04SD quadra PM05SD Semiahmoo? p r o g l a c i a l PM06TL Semiahmoo? lodgement t i l l PM07SD Cowichan Head Formation? PM08SD Cowichan Head Formation? PM09ST Cowichan Head Formation':' PM10SD Quadra PM11SD Quadra PM12ST Semiahmoo? g l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e ?  PITS  Sand  Till  Silt  Glaciomarine?  Gravel  Peat or organic c o l l u v i u  B to G  PITH  APPENDIX 4 :  SEDIMENT SAMPLE LOCALITIES  •44 ?45 *67  13 % 29 23 22 30 • * 24 43  3  5 6  3 1  --  FIGURE  3  DIAGRAMMATIC CROSS SECTIONS MARY HILL GRAVEL PIT PORT COQUITLAM, B. C.  400 m  400 m  L E G E N D SUPRAL]TTORAL LAG GRAVEL Very poorly sorted, conronly contains sandy to s l l t y matrix; marine shel 1 casts found In places. GLACIOMARINE STONY CLAYEY SILT , , Blocky structure, manganese oxide stalninq on joint surfaces; contains f o s s i l marine shells and shell fragments.  , , L l  Platy and well compacted in places. Includes some laminated stony s i l t (ponded) and openwork qravel lenses; boulders up to R n d1a. observed: probably mainly lodgement but may In part be flow t i l l »tiere massive or contorted and poorly compacted  between t i l l  layers In places; probably proximal outwash.  Faulted, contorted, cross-bedded, and contains gravel lenses and interbeds In upper part of unit; well sorted, subhori/ontally thinly bedded and tross-bedded; contains detrital coal and peat c l a s t s , scattered stones and stone clusters; probably pronlaclal (distal) outwash.  a  Major Unconformity; observed, inferred  MM* SIONV CLAYEY SILT Massive, generally poorly  Ideological comoacted  contains f o s s i l marine shells and shell fragments; probably glaciomarine but may in part be t i l l .  SANDY GRAVEL Fe-stalned, moderately sorted; m some exposures grades down wards Into very thinly bedded, rross-bedded. and rippled fine -.and and s l l t y fine sand at the base of the unit; contains scattered coal. wood, and peat clasts, and one or mor I thin peaiy wood layers with f o s s i l logs up to 30 cm dia. and t m long; probably f l u v i a l and q l a c i o f l u v l a l deposits; wood dates range from 25.800 to ?n.0O0 yr. R.P.  Contact; observed. Inferred  Reconstructed Kary H i l l p r o f l i t •  Topographic p r o f i l e at time of  rapping  Area of measured section  FOSSIL BOG AND GYTTJA DEPOSITS Tninly interbedded peat, sapropel. and well sorted fine sand layers; peat layers contain fosstl tree stumps up to 30 cm dia . roots, and logs up to 3 m long; sand layers contain finely disseminated organic material and fossil Insects; sapropel Is diatomaceous; probably fluvial and lacustrine deposits; dated peat and sapropel layers range from ?7,000 to 29.600 yr. R.P.  S,  ^ ' \ w o c r u * i y ° ? n w r b e d d e d " p h a s e s : a dense, stony and g r i t t y . drtrlBl organic-rich phase containing f o s s i l wood, leaves, and Insects (weathered surface resembles t i l l ) ; and a contorted, stony, wood-bearing s i l t - r i c h phase containing clasts of laminated stony s i l t , and gravel and sand lenses; whole complex thought to represent reworked orgainc and glacial sediments by mass wasting processes root from the contorted a piece of wood from the detrital organic-rich pnase dated 40.J0O • ««3 yr. B.P 40,i0u - 1700 yr. B.P. L  ,  l  UNDIFFERENTIATED GLACIAL COMPLEX Includes lodgement t i l l , massive stony clayey s i l t (weathers to blocky structure), rhythmically laminated s i l t and fine sand containing scattered stones, gravel and sand; missive stony clayey s i l t probably glaciomarine. laminated s i l t and fine sand orobably glaclolacustrine. and gravel and sand probably outwash; wood from laminated s i l t was dated as >62,000 yr. B.P.  Bedding thicknesses c l a s s i f i e d accordlno to "cKee and M l r . e  INDEX  M A P  

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