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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Geochemical dispersion over massive sulphides within the zone of continuous permafrost, Bathurst Norsemines,… Miller, John Kevin 1978

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GEOCHEMICAL DISPERSION OVER MASSIVE SULPHIDES WITHIN THE ZONE OF CONTINUOUS PERMAFROST, BATHURST NORSEMINES, DISTRICT OF MACKENZIE, N.W.T. by JOHN KEVIN MILLER B.Sc, University of Akron 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN. PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Geological Sciences) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required^ standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1978 0John Kevin M i l l e r , 1978 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of this thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Geological Sciences The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date December 7, 1978 ABSTRACT A geochemical survey was undertaken in the v i c i n i t y of massive sulphides at Anne-Cleaver and Camp Lakes to assess secondary geochemical dispersion within the zone of con-tinuous permafrost. Samples were collected at several depths within the active layer together with snow-melt runoff, seepage, p i t and lake waters and sediments. For each element (Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) geo-chemical patterns are similar in a l l three s o i l layers (L-F-H 0 to 14 and 14 to 25 inch depths); therefore, sample depth does not appear to be c r i t i c a l . Ag, Fe and Pb display similar, well developed patterns and, except for Fe, possess high geochemical contrast. Conversely, Cd, Cu and Zn pat-terns are poorly developed and have low contrast, p a r t i c u l a r l y in mineral s o i l . In areas of low pH, high levels of Ag, Fe and Pb can be found while Cu and Zn values are low and often form negative anomalies. High Zn levels are usually confined to areas of r e l a t i v e l y high pH. Relative to t o t a l patterns, p a r t i a l extraction (0.05M EDTA and 1.0M HC1) patterns provide l i t t l e additional information; however, low p a r t i a l to t o t a l r a t i o patterns are well devel-oped, which suggests c l a s t i c dispersion. Because Pb i s immobile, i t can be used as a model for g l a c i a l dispersion of sulphides. Dispersion of Pb i s in narrow thin zones of sulphide-rich t i l l which r i s e at low (<2°) angles 1000 to 2000 feet down ice from the source. Anomalous metal concentrations and gossan are detectable i n excess of i i i . 4000 feet down ice. Cu and Zn, although dispersed i n i t i a l l y the same as Pb, have subsequently been subjected to extensive hydromorphic dispersion as a resu l t of intensive oxidation and leaching in the a c i d i c , water-rich s o i l s of the active layer. Con-sequently, high levels of Cu and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , Zn with high geochemical contrast are found in the surrounding waters and sediments. Relative to Cu and Zn, Pb i s much more r e s t r i c t e d and less concentrated in sediments and waters. This i s because Cu and Zn enter the lake largely as dissolved species while Pb enters as a sorbed constituent on clay-sized p a r t i c u l a t e matter. High Cu-Pb-Zn level s in sediments and waters are r e s t r i c t e d to lakes lying down drainage from mineralization and/or down ice in areas of metal-rich t i l l . Within in d i v i d u a l lakes, sediments display e r r a t i c metal levels with fluctuations often 2^10x. Conversely, lake waters are homogeneous but possess more limited dispersion halos r e l a t i v e to center-lake sediments. Pb i s more l i k e l y than Cu and Zn to locate mineralization in a l l sample media; however, in waters, Cu and Zn are more ea s i l y detected and offer a much larger target than Pb. The effects of permafrost on geochemical dispersion are minimal. Hydromorphic and c l a s t i c dispersion patterns are well developed, perhaps better developed than in temperate climates. Signif i c a n t i n h i b i t i n g or complicating factors, with regard to geochemical dispersion are not present. i v . TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE i ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS . . iv LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURES x i i i LIST OF PLATES xxix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xxxi CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO EXPLORATION GEOCHEMISTRY IN PERMAFROST TERRAINS 1 I THESIS OBJECTIVES 1 II PERMAFROST, PERIGLACIAL PHENOMENA AND GEOCHEMICAL DISPERSION 2 A. Permafrost and the P e r i g l a c i a l Environment .... 2 B. Climatic Influences 10 C. Geochemical Dispersion in Permafrost Terrains 11 1. Ionic and hydromorphic dispersion 11 2. Mechanical dispersion 17 i . G l a c i a l 17 i i . P e r i g l a c i a l 19 3. History of geochemical exploration within the zone of continuous permafrost 22 CHAPTER 2: DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA 30 I LOCATION AND ACCESS 30 V . II CLIMATE, TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE 30 III GENERAL GLACIAL HISTORY AND SURFICIAL GEOLOGY 33 A. Bathurst Inlet 33 B. G l a c i a l Geology of Camp Lake 39 IV SOILS . 43 V VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE 48 VI GENERAL GEOLOGY OF THE PROPERTY 48 A. Introduction and Exploration History 48 B. Regional Geology 50 C. Detailed Geology of Camp Lake 53 CHAPTER 3: SAMPLE COLLECTION, PREPARATION AND ANALYSIS : 56 I GENERAL INTRODUCTION 56 II SOIL 56 A. C o l l e c t i o n and Preparation 56 B. Decomposition 60 1. N i t r i c - p e r c h l o r i c digestion ( t o t a l attack) 60 2. P a r t i a l extraction procedures 60 III SEDIMENTS: COLLECTION, PREPARATION AND DIGESTION 61 IV WATER 62 A. Co l l e c t i o n and Preservation 62 B. F i e l d Analysis 63 V ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 64 VI MISCELLANEOUS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES 66 A. Size Fraction Analysis 66 B. Heavy Mineral Separates 66 v i . C. Conductivity and pH 66 D. Loss on Ignition 67 VII ANALYTICAL PRECISION 67 CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION OF ANALYTICAL DATA 75 I INTRODUCTION TO DATA PRESENTATION 75 II SOILS 77 A. P r o b a b i l i t y Plots 77 B. N i t r i c - p e r c h l o r i c Extraction Patterns 87 C. P a r t i a l Extractions and Ratios 95 1. Introduction 95 2. 1.0M hydrochloric acid 98 3 . 0. 05M EDTA 98 4. P a r t i a l to t o t a l metal r a t i o s 100 5. Total to t o t a l metal r a t i o s 101 D. Conductivity and pH 101 III SOIL PITS: GEOCHEMICAL PROFILES 102 A. Introduction 102 B. Metal, pH, Conductivity and Size Fraction Di s t r i b u t i o n s 103 C. Heavy Mineral Separates 105 D. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Elements between Size Fractions 106 IV WATERS 109 A. Introduction 109 B. Regional Data: Lake and Stream Waters 112 1. Streams 112 2. Lakes 113 v i i . C. Local Data: Surface-seepage, P i t and Snow-melt Runoff 120 1. Surface-seepage and p i t waters 120 2. Snow-melt runoff 120 V SEDIMENTS 125 A. Introduction 125 B. S u r f i c i a l Lake Sediments 127 C. Lake Sediment Cores 136 D. Stream Sediments 138 CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY OF GEOCHEMICAL DISPERSION AT BATHURST NORSEMINES 248 I SOILS , 248 A. G l a c i a l Dispersion Model 248 B. Po s t - g l a c i a l Dispersion 256 II WATERS AND SEDIMENTS 264 A. Surface-seepage, P i t and Snow-melt Runoff ... 264 B. Stream Waters and Sediments 267 C. Lake Waters 268 D. Lake Sediments 274 III FINAL DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY 279 A. Element Dispersion 279 B. Application to Exploration 285 1. Regional 285 2. Detailed 288 IV CONCLUSIONS 291 BIBLIOGRAPHY 294 v i i i . APPENDIX A: GEOCHEMICAL DATA FOR SOIL PITS 14, 17, 49, 52, 109, 113 AND 198 FROM.THE CAMP. . LAKE AREA 309 APPENDIX B: GEOCHEMICAL DATA FOR THE ANNE-CLEAVER LAKES AREA 322 APPENDIX C: PLATES 1 TO 18 364 ix. LIST OF TABLES TABLE NUMBER 1 Climatic data from Bathurst Norsemines and Contwoyto Lake, 100 miles to the southwest 32 2 Summary of sampling at Camp and Anne-Cleaver Lakes 57 3 Operating conditions for the Techtron AA4 and Perkin-Elmer 303 atomic absorption spectrophotometers 65 4 Precision estimates at the 95 percent con-fidence l e v e l for paired s o i l samples and rep l i c a t e standard rock analyses by atomic absorption spectrophotometry r.. 68 5 Precision estimates at the 95 percent con-fidence l e v e l for paired sediment samples analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry 69 6 Comparison of Zn concentrations (ppb) in samples collected from Camp Lake in July 1974 and 1975 and from Anne Lake in 1974 .... 71 7 Comparison of Zn and Cu concentrations (ppb) in lake waters as a function of time and an a l y t i c a l technique 72 X . 8 Parameters of partitioned lognormal Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn populations 79 . 9 Metal content of s o i l at Camp Lake (minus 80-mesh f r a c t i o n HN03/HC104 digestion) 82 10 Average contrast for Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in each of the three s o i l layers ... 90 11 D i s t r i b u t i o n of elements under swampy (gleyed) conditions at s i t e s 279 and 280 .. 93 12 Comparison of t o t a l and p a r t i a l attacks on Layer 1 minus 80-mesh f r a c t i o n 97 13 Comparison of the average contrast for t o t a l , 1.0M HC1 and 0.05M EDTA extractable Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in Layer 1 99 14 Relative concentrations of HN03/HC104, 1.0M HC1 and 1.0M hydroxylamine-hydrochloride/ acetic acid extractable Mn (minus 80-mesh) in r e l a t i o n to s o i l drainage 110 15 Dissolved Zn (ppb) in exit and entrance streams of Camp Lake, 1975 114 16 Comparison of metal, conductivity and pH values in water samples collected from the same s i t e s on July 9, and 30, 1974 (modified from Cameron and Ballantyne, 1975) 115 17 Geochemistry of Camp, Banana, Anne and Turtle Lake Waters 116 x i . 18 Variation with respect to time in the composition of surface lake waters in the v i c i n i t y of the Yava (Agricola Lake) prospect, 40 miles south of Bathurst Norsemines 117 19 Water composition of Camp, Banana and Lower Sunken Lakes sampled during July, 1974 118 20 Comparison of Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, S0 4, pH and conductivity values in water from surface-seepages and s o i l p i t s 121 21 Comparison of the geochemistry of snow-melt runoff with seepage-pit waters at Camp Lake . 122 22 Comparison of Zn, Cu, conductivity and pH values in snow-melt runoff with surface-seepage and p i t waters col l e c t e d at the same sample s i t e 123 23 Major and minor element composition of near-shore lake sediments from a 1250 square mile region centered on Camp Lake 128 24 Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn and organic carbon con-tent of near-shore lake sediments from the Bathurst Norsemines region 129 25 Comparison of the geochemistry of regional near-shore lake sediments with lake-center sediments from the Bathurst Norsemines property 130 x i i . 26 Metal content of lake sediments sampled with a mud snapper at Bathurst Norsemines .. 131 27 Cu, Pb and Zn r a t i o s in sediments and s o i l s 132 28 Metal content of stream sediments adjacent to mineralized zones at Camp Lake 140 29 S o l u b i l i t i e s of Cu, Pb and Zn sulphates ...... 257 30 Comparison of Cu and Zn concentrations and Zn/Cu ra t i o s in sampling media at Camp Lake 266 31 Comparison of Cu and Zn dispersion in lake waters near the Main and East Cleaver Lake Zones and at the Agricola Lake prospect .... 272 Bl Metal content of s o i l at Anne-Cleaver Lakes (minus 80-mesh f r a c t i o n , HN03/HC104 digestion) 323 B2 Metal content of stream sediments adjacent to mineralized zones at Anne Lake 324 x i i i . LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NUMBER 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n of permafrost in Canada .. 3 2 Idealized cross section of permafrost from the A r c t i c Islands to northern Alberta 5 3 Idealized diagram depicting a possible mode of o r i g i n for c i r c l e s (from S h i l t s , 1973a) 7 4 Block diagram of c i r c l e s showing t y p i c a l com-ponents and their, s p a t i a l relationships (from S h i l t s , 1973a) 8 5 Relationship between fros t creep, s o l i f l u c t i o n and retrograde movement (adapted from Price, 1972) 9 6 General relationship between weathering pro-cesses and geochemical.dispersion 12 7 Metal ion migration in permafrost te r r a i n s : effects of seasonal changes 13 8 Schematic representation of the effect of water bodies on permafrost 16 9 P r o f i l e s of geochemical dispersion in: A) un-disturbed t i l l , B) in c i r c l e s , and C) s o l i -f l u c t i o n lobe with considerable displacement. 20 xiv. 10 Dispersion of zinc i n lake sediments and waters from the Agricola Lake massive sulphide prospect (from Cameron and Ballantyne, 1975) 26 11 Location of study areas and massive sulphide bodies 31 12 Inferred drainage paths based on airphoto interpretations, f i e l d observations and a comparison of lake elevations (cf. Cameron and Ballantyne, 1975) 34 13 Measurements of generalized g l a c i a l flow directions in the Bathurst Inlet region (from Blake, 1963) 36 14 D i s t r i b u t i o n of 32 measurements of g l a c i a l d i r e c t i o n movements at Bathurst Norsemines . 37 15 Generalized s u r f i c i a l geology and environ-ment map 41 16 Generalized s o i l map 45 17 Regional geology map of the study area 51 18 Simplified geologic map of Camp Lake 54 19 Camp Lake: location of s o i l g r i d , s o i l p i t , stream water and sediment sampling s i t e s ... 58 20 Precision conformation at the 90th percentile for an a r b i t r a r i l y chosen precision of +_ 20% (after Thompson and Howarth, 1973) 74 21 Log prob a b i l i t y plot of Cu, -80 mesh fr a c t i o n , t o t a l attack 141 X V . 22 Log prob a b i l i t y plot of Fe, -80 mesh fr a c t i o n , t o t a l attack 142 23 Log pro b a b i l i t y plot of Mn, -80 mesh fr a c t i o n , t o t a l attack 143 24 Log prob a b i l i t y plot of Pb, -80 mesh fr a c t i o n , t o t a l attack 144 25 Log prob a b i l i t y plot of Zn, -80 mesh fr a c t i o n , t o t a l attack 145 26 Camp Lake: Ag content of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 146 27 Camp Lake: Ag content of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 147 28 Camp Lake: Ag content of Layer 2 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 148 29 Camp Lake: Cd content of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 149 30 Camp Lake: Cu content (ppm) of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 150 31 Camp Lake: Cu content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 151 32 Camp Lake: Cu content (ppm) of Layer 2 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 152 33 Camp Lake: Fe content of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 153 34 Camp Lake: Fe content of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 154 x v i . 35 Camp Lake: Fe content of Layer 2 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 155 36 Gamp Lake: Mn content (ppm) of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 156 37 Camp Lake: Mn content of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 157 38 Camp Lake: Mn content of Layer 2 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. 158 39 Camp Lake: Pb content (ppm) of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 159 40 Camp Lake: Pb content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 160 41 Camp Lake: Pb content (ppm) of Layer 2 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 161 42 Camp Lake: Zn content (ppm) of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 162 43 Camp Lake: Zn content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 163 44 Camp Lake: Zn content (ppm) of Layer 2 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 164 45 Camp Lake: estimated percentage of v i s i b l e surface iron staining 165 46 Camp Lake: pH of the L-F-H horizon 166 47 Camp Lake: pH of Layer 1 s o i l s 167 48 Camp Lake: pH of Layer 2 s o i l s 168 49 Camp Lake: conductivity of Layer 1 s o i l s .... 169 xv i i . 50 ' Camp Lake: Cu content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , 1.0M HC1 ext., -80 mesh -170 51 Camp Lake: Cu content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , 0.05M EDTA ext., -80 mesh 171 52 Camp Lake: Fe content of Layer 1 s o i l s , 1.0M HC1 ext., -80 mesh 172 53 Camp Lake: Fe content of Layer 1 s o i l s , 0.05M EDTA ext., -80 mesh 173 54 Camp Lake: Pb content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , 1.0M HC1 ext., -80 mesh 174 55 Camp Lake: Pb content of Layer 1 s o i l s , 0.05M EDTA ext., -80 mesh 175 56 Camp Lake: Zn content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , 1.0M HC1 ext., -80 mesh 176 57 Camp Lake: Zn content of Layer 1 s o i l s , 0.05M EDTA ext., -80 mesh 177 58 Camp Lake: r a t i o of 1.0M HC1 ext. to t o t a l ext. Cu (CUpj^) in Layer 1 s o i l s 178 59 Camp Lake: r a t i o of 0.S05M EDTA ext. to t o t a l ext. Cu (Cu-g^) i n Layer 1 s o i l s 179 60 Camp Lake: r a t i o of 1.0M HC1 ext. to t o t a l ext. Fe ( F e ^ ) in Layer 1 s o i l s 180 61 Camp Lake: r a t i o of 1.0M HC1 ext. to t o t a l ext. Pb (Pb t„) in Layer 1 s o i l s 181 r i K 62 Camp Lake: r a t i o of 0.05M EDTA ext. to t o t a l ext. Pb (Pb.™) i n Layer 1 s o i l s 182 63 Camp Lake: r a t i o of 1.0M HC1 ext. to t o t a l ext. Zn (Zn W R) in Layer 1 s o i l s 183 x v i i i . 64 Camp Lake: r a t i o of 0.05M EDTA ext. to t o t a l ext. Zn ( Z n E j ^ ) i n Layer 1 s o i l s ,184 65 Camp Lake: r a t i o of t o t a l ext. Pb to Cu in the L-F-H s o i l horizon 185 66 Camp Lake: r a t i o of t o t a l ext. Pb to Cu i n Layer 1 s o i l s 186 67 Camp Lake: r a t i o of t o t a l ext. Pb to Zn in the L-F-H horizon 187 68 Camp Lake: r a t i o of t o t a l ext. Pb to Zn in Layer 1 s o i l s 188 69 Camp Lake: location map and s i t e numbers of s o i l p i t s 189 70 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 11, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 190 71 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 11, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 191 72 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 11, d i s t r i b u t i o n of size f r a c t i o n s , heavy minerals, pH and conductivity 192 73 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 17, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 193 74 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 17, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 194' 75 Camp Lake; s o i l p i t 17, d i s t r i b u t i o n of size fractions, heavy minerals, pH and conductivity 195 xix. 76 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 20, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 196 77 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 20, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 197 78 Camp Lake: s o i l , p i t 20, d i s t r i b u t i o n of size fractions, heavy minerals, pH and conductivity 19'8 79 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 107, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 199 80 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 197, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 200 81 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 107, d i s t r i b u t i o n of size fractions, heavy minerals, pH and conductivity 201 82 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 121, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 202 83 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 121, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 203 84 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 121, d i s t r i b u t i o n of size fractions, heavy minerals, pH and conductivity 204 85 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 123, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 205 86 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 123, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 206 87 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 123, d i s t r i b u t i o n of size fractions, heavy minerals, pH and conductivity 207 X X . 88 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 125, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 208 89 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 125, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 209 90 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 125, d i s t r i b u t i o n of size fractions, heavy minerals pH and conductivity 210 91 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t number 11, d i s t r i b u t i o n of metal between size fractions at 22 inches depth, 1.0M HC1 and HN03/HC104 attacks 211 92 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t number 11, d i s t r i b u t i o n of metal between size fractions at 42 inches depth, 1.0M HC1 and HN03/HC104 attacks 212 93 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t number 20, d i s t r i b u t i o n of metal between size fr a c t i o n s at 22 inches depth, 1.0M HC1 and HNOg/ HC104 attacks 213 94 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t number 20, d i s t r i b u t i o n of metal between size fractions at 40 inches depth, 1.0M HC1 and HN03/HC104 attacks 214 95 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t number 107, d i s t r i b u t i o n of metal between size fractions at 14 inches depth, NHgOH•HCl/CHgCOOH and HN03/ HC10. attacks 215 xx i . 96 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t number 123, d i s t r i b u t i o n of metal between size fractions ;at 44 inches depth, NH20H'HC1/CH3C00H and HNOg/ HC104 attacks 216 97 Camp Lake: Cu and Zn content of surface-seepage and p i t waters (1974) 217 98 Camp Lake: Cu and Zn content of snow-melt runoff (1975) 218 99 Camp Lake: contoured map of the Cu content (ppb) in snow-melt runoff 219 100 Camp Lake: contoured map of the Zn content (ppb) in snow-melt runoff 220 101 Cu and Zn content (ppb) in lake waters from the Bathurst Norsemines Area (modified from Cameron and Ballantyne, 1975) 221 102 Camp Lake: location, sample number, water depth and metal content of sediments collected with a mud snapper 222 103 Banana Lake: location, sample number, water depth and metal content of sediments coll e c t e d with a mud snapper 223 104 Lower and Upper Sunken Lakes: location, sample number, water depth and metal content of sediments col l e c t e d with a mud snapper ... 224 105 Anne Lake: location, sample number, water depth and metal content of sediments coll e c t e d with a mud snapper 225 xx i i . 106 Turtle Lake: location, sample number, water depth and metal content of sediments coll e c t e d with a mud snapper 226 107 Camp Lake: location, sample number and water depth of sediment cores 227 108 Camp Lake: core 1417, stratigraphy and metal content with depth 228 109 Camp Lake: core 1418, stratigraphy, metal content and L.O.I, with depth 229 110 Camp Lake: core 1419, stratigraphy, metal content and L.O.I, with depth 230 111 Camp Lake: core 1420, stratigraphy and metal content with depth 231 112 Camp Lake: core 1421, stratigraphy, metal content and L.O.I, with depth 232 113 Camp Lake: core 1422, stratigraphy, metal content and L.O.I, with depth 233 114 Camp Lake: core 1423, stratigraphy, metal content and L.O.I, with depth 234 115 Camp Lake: core 1424, stratigraphy, metal content and L.O.I, with depth 235 116 Camp Lake: core 1425, stratigraphy and metal content with depth 236 117 Camp Lake: core 1426, stratigraphy, metal content and L.O.I, with depth 237 118 Camp Lake: core 1427, stratigraphy, metal content and L.O.I, with depth 238 xx i i i . 119 Camp Lake: core 1428, stratigraphy, metal content and L.O.I, with depth 239 120 Camp Lake: core 1429, stratigraphy and metal content with depth 240 121 Camp Lake: core 1430, stratigraphy and metal content with depth 241 122 Banana Lake: location, sample number and water depth of sediment cores 242 123 Banana Lake: core 1645, stratigraphy, metal content and L.O.I, with depth 243 124 Banana Lake: core 1646, stratigraphy, metal content and- L.O.I, with depth 244 125 Banana Lake: core 1647, stratigraphy, metal content and L.O.I, with depth 245 126 Banana Lake: core 1648, stratigraphy and metal content with depth 246 127 Idealized s t r a t i g r a p h i c and geochemical model of center-lake sediments at Bathurst Norsemines 247 128 Cross section of g l a c i a l deposits showing sheet-like zones of high copper concen-. trations extending in a down-ice d i r e c t i o n from the Jameland and Kamkotia mines (taken from Skinner, GSC Open F i l e Report 116) 249 129 Cross section of deep s o i l Pb (ppm) geo-chemistry, over a disseminated galena occurrence in the Republic of Ireland 250 xx iv. 130 Variation (>10%) of Pb content between Layer 1 and 2......... . ... 252 131 Idealized g l a c i a l dispersion model for Pb (and other elements) at Camp Lake 254 Al Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 14, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 310 A2 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 14, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 311 A3 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 49, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 312 A4 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 49, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 313 A5 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 52, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 314 A6 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 52, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 315 A7 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 109, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 316 A8 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 109, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 317 A9 Camp Lake: , s o i l p i t 113, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 318 A10 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 113, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 319 A l l Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 198, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 320 X X V . A12 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 198, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 321 . Bl Anne-Cleaver Lakes: location of s o i l g r i d , soil.', p i t and stream sediment sample s i t e s 325 B2 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Ag content of the L-F-H horizon and Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 326 B3 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Cd content of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 327 B4 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Cd content of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 328 B5 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Cu content (ppm) of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 329 B6 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Cu content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 330 B7 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Cu content of Layer 1 s o i l s , 1.0M HC1 ext., -80 mesh 331 B8 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Cu content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , 0.05M EDTA ext., -80 mesh ... 332 B9 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: r a t i o of 1.0M HC1 ext. to t o t a l ext. Cu (Cu™) in Layer 1 s o i l s . . . 333 B10 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: r a t i o of 0.05M EDTA to t o t a l ext. Cu ( C U E R ) ^ n Layer 1 s o i l s 334 B l l Anne-Cleaver Lakes: estimated percentage of v i s i b l e surface iron staining 335 xx v i . B12 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Fe content of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 336 B13 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Fe content of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 337 B14 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Fe content of Layer 1 s o i l s , 1.0M HC1 ext., -80 mesh 338 B15 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Fe content of Layer 1 s o i l s , 0.05M EDTA ext., -80 mesh 339 B16 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: r a t i o of 1.0M HC1 ext. to t o t a l ext. Fe (Fe™) in Layer 1 s o i l s .... 340 lift B17 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Mn content of the L-F-H :horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 341 B18 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Mn content of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack . . . 342 B19 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Pb content (ppm) of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 343 B20 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Pb content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 344 B21 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Pb content of Layer 1 s o i l s , 1.0M HC1 ext. , -80 mesh 345 B22 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Pb content of Layer 1 s o i l s , 0.05M EDTA ext., -80 mesh 346 B23 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: r a t i o of 1.0M HC1 ext. to t o t a l ext. Pb (Pkj^) i - n Layer 1 s o i l s .... 347 B24 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: r a t i o of 0.05M EDTA ext. to t o t a l ext. Pb (Pb„ p) i n Layer 1 s o i l s .... 348 x x v i i . B25 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Zn content (ppm) of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 349 B26 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Zn content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 350 B27 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Zn content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , 1.0M HC1 ext., -80 mesh 351 B28 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Zn content of Layer 1 s o i l s , 0.05M EDTA ext., -80 mesh 352 B29 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: r a t i o of 1.0M HC1 ext..to t o t a l ext. Zn (Zn™) in Layer 1 s o i l s 353 B30 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: r a t i o of 0.05M EDTA ext. to t o t a l ext. Zn ( Z n ^ ) in Layer 1 s o i l s .... 354 B31 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: pH of the L-F-H horizon 355 B32 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: pH of the Layer 1 s o i l s 356 B33 Anne Lake: s o i l p i t 431, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 357 B34 Anne Lake: s o i l p i t 431, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 358 B35 Anne Lake: s o i l p i t 433, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 359 B36 Anne Lake: s o i l p i t 433, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n . with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 360 B37 Anne Lake: s o i l p i t 452, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack 361 x x v i i i . B38 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: dissolved Cu and Zn (ppb) in seepage, p i t and stream waters (1974) .... 362 B39 Anne-Cleaver Lakes: dissolved Cu and Zn (ppb) in snow-melt, pond and stream waters (1975) 363 xx ix. LIST OF PLATES PLATE NUMBER 1 Unsorted c i r c l e with vegetation-iree center 365 2 Photo taken looking up slope at a 4 to 5 foot wide unsorted c i r c l e 365 3 A 1975 photo of a 1974 s o i l s i t e (14) 366 4 Inactive vegetated c i r c l e 366 5 View from 3000 feet of the Bathurst Norsemines region showing the great abundance of lakes and low r e l i e f of the area 367 6 Typical s o i l sampling s i t e (131) and s o i l p r o f i l e • • • • 367 7 Typical s o i l sampling s i t e (69) and s o i l p r o f i l e with thin (<2 inch) L-F-H horizon ... 368 8 Poorly drained but ungleyed s o i l sampling s i t e (32) with thin L-F-H horizon 368 9 S o i l s i t e (323) at Anne-Cleaver Lakes Area .... 369 10 Anne-Cleaver Lakes Area from 300 feet 369 11 Camp Lake from 500 feet looking northeast in early June 1975 370 12 Sediment core 1419 370 13 Sediment core 1424 371 14 Sediment core 1427 371 XXX . 15 "(In pocket). Color G.S.C. a i r photograph of the Camp Lake Area 372 16 (In pocket). Continuation of Plate 15 372 17 (In pocket). Color G.S.C. air photograph of the Anne-Cleaver Lakes Area 372 18 (In pocket). Continuation of Plate 17 372 xxx i . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author i s indebted to many individuals who contributed to t h i s thesis. Assistance in the f i e l d was provided by Mr. Mike Waskett-Myers in 1974 and Mr. Barry Hogan in 1975. Spe-c i a l thanks are extended to Mr. Paul Wilton, Ms. Barbara Mioduszewska and Mr. Frank Ferguson of Cominco Limited for as-sistance in the f i e l d and for subsequent discussions and con-f i d e n t i a l materials which greatly aided interpretation of geo-chemical r e s u l t s . Special thanks i s also offered to E.M. Cameron of the Geological Survey of Canada for b r i e f discus-sions of f i e l d data at Bathurst Norsemines and Agricola Lake in 1974 and 1975. An a l y t i c a l determinations were made by the author, Mr. Waskett-Myers and Mr. A.S. Dhillon. Assistance with thesis preparation was given by Miss Geraldine Desmond who also s k i l -f u l l y typed the text. Special thanks are extended to Dr. C.I. Godwin and A.J. S i n c l a i r for c r i t i c a l examination and con-str u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m of preliminary drafts. Dr. W.K. Fletcher, who supervised t h i s study, i s offered many thanks for his time and patience under d i f f i c u l t working conditions. The author i s highly indebted to management and s t a f f of Cominco Limited who provided generous funding and l o g i s t i c a l support for t h i s study and to Dresser Minerals International Incorporated who supported preparation and reproduction of the manuscript. P a r t i a l assistance for summer f i e l d work was also supplied by the B.C. Government as part of t h e i r Career '74 and Career '75 programs. 1. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO EXPLORATION GEOCHEMISTRY IN PERMAFROST TERRAINS I THESIS OBJECTIVES Geochemical investigations of metal dispersion in s o i l , water and sediment were conducted over and adjacent to v o l -canogenic massive sulphide deposits at Bathurst Norsemines in the D i s t r i c t of Mackenzie, N.W.T. The area l i e s within the zone of continuous permafrost. P a r t i c u l a r attention has been given to: 1) Defining s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s of trace elements in s o i l , sediment and water and th e i r r e l a t i o n -ship to mineralized zones. 2) Assessing the si g n i f i c a n c e of g l a c i a l - p e r i g l a c i a l phenomena upon dispersion patterns and ion mobility. 3) Determining the most appropriate sampling medium and method in terms of exploration. 4) Defining the mode of metal occurrence within the various sample media. 5) I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and characterization of geochemical anomalies using various p a r t i a l extractions and s t a t i s t i c a l methods. In the course of th i s study, more than 1400 s o i l , 200 water and 100 sediment samples were collected. Over 24,000 an a l y t i c a l determinations were conducted on these samples in an e f f o r t to achieve the above objectives. 2. II PERMAFROST, PERIGLACIAL PHENOMENA AND GEOCHEMICAL DISPERSION A. Permafrost and the P e r i g l a c i a l Environment Before discussing geochemical methods which might be u t i l i z e d within permafrost t e r r a i n i t i s useful to define some terms and examine those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of permafrost and p e r i g l a c i a l processes which can affect metal dispersion and consequently the application of geochemical techniques in mineral exploration. Permafrost, permanently frozen ground, i s defined s o l e l y on the basis of temperature (Brown and Kupsch, 1974). It i s s o i l , subsoil or even bedrock occurring at variable depths in a r c t i c to subarctic regions in which a temperature of less than 0°C has existed con-tinuously for at least two years. Depending upon the continuity of the frozen layer, perma-fro s t i s c l a s s i f i e d as either continuous or discontinuous (Brown, 1970) and together these two types or zones underlie nearly half the land mass of Canada (Fig. 1). In the con-tinuous zone, permafrost i s normally found everywhere at depth, varying in thickness from 180 to 280 feet at i t s southern boundary to in excess of 1500 feet in the extreme north. In the discontinuous zone, as the name implies, large areas of unfrozen ground or t a l i k s are found at various depths. Tal i k s also occur within the continuous zone but are r e s t r i c t e d to areas beneath lakes and r i v e r s which do not completely freeze in the winter. 4. The active layer i s the zone above permafrost which freezes and thaws annually. It i s d i r e c t l y underlain by permafrost except in the discontinuous zone where i t may be separated from permafrost by an intervening t a l i k (Price, 1972; F i g . 2). It i s r e l a t i v e l y thin, 1.5 to 4.0 feet, in the far north but increases to about 12 feet near the southern boundary of discontinuous permafrost. In Canada, the active layer t y p i c a l l y consists of an a c i d i c , cold, wet, and rocky t i l l . S o i l p r o f i l e development i s minimal and Gleysolic and Regosolic s o i l s dominate (Price, 1972; Brown 1970; Tarnocai, 1977). Furthermore, substantial f r o s t action, e s p e c i a l l y cryoturbation, has mechanically d i f f e r e n -t i a t e d the upper portions of the active layer into sorted and non-sorted features c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of patterned ground (e.g. . c i r c l e s , nets and st r i p e s ; Washburn, 1972). Almost a l l s o i l sampling in a r c t i c Canada i s done in the active layer, therefore, i t s e f f e c t i v e use as a sampling medium necessitates an understanding of p e r i g l a c i a l processes. Although there are many types of p e r i g l a c i a l phenomena (Washburn, 1956, 1972) the most relevant to exploration geochemistry are c i r c l e s , sorted and non-sorted, and s o l i -f l u c t i o n lobes. C i r c l e s are known by many names (e.g. mud b o i l s , f r o s t b o i l s , f r o s t scars, tundra craters, medallion patches, etc . ) . They are d i a p i r i c structures, 1.0 to 8.0 feet in diameter, which are thought to be produced by P t i o l u l . . N .W .T . M o r m o n W . l l i , N . W . T . H o y J i l v . r , N . W . T . | 7 i ° N ) . ( 6 5 ° N 1 ( 6 l ° N ) w ^^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ S c o l l . r . d P o f c h . 1 " X / / y V y y v / X / % F . w M . l . n T h i c k f^^A^^^^^A^^^^^AA^^^^^^^^^S^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ U n f r o i . n G r o u n d ///////////////M (To l ik | C o n l i n u o u l D11 c o n l i n u o u i P . r m o f r o l l Z o n . 1 P . r m o f r o i t Z o n t j U < —1 Figure 2. Idealized cross section of permafrost from the A r c t i c Islands to northern Alberta. Note that the active layer i s deepest in the subarctic (e.g. Hay River, 61°N) and decreases in depth north and south of th i s zone. Also note that the active layer can be separated from permafrost by an intervening t a l i k (adapted from Price, 1972). 6. d i f f e r e n t i a l freeze-thaw (Corte, 1962) and/or pressures caused by hydrostatic -or cryostatic conditions ( S h i l t s , 1973a, Fi g . 3). Generally, they are r e s t r i c t e d to low angle slopes and, at Bathurst Norsemines, heaving and extrusion of s i l t y material was observed to occur early in the summer when the active layer i s most saturated with water (Plates 1 to 3). Following observations in the Mackenzie delta, by Mackay and MacKay (1976) i t i s suggested that hydrostatic rather than c r y o s t a t i c processes are a more l i k e l y mechanism of fr o s t b o i l genera-tion (Fig. 4). S o l i f l u c t i o n or g e l i f l u c t i o n i s the slow (one to two inches per year), viscous, down-slope movement of waterlogged s o i l and other unsorted and saturated s u r f i c i a l material (Price, 1972; Highashi and Corte, 1971). Although s o i l creep and mass movement may be important components of s o l i f l u c t i o n (Fig. 5), the s o l i f l u c t i o n process i s distinguished by higher s o i l moisture, d i f f e r e n t i a l s o i l movement, which often produces lobate structures, and a more r e s t r i c t e d period of a c t i v i t y , generally in early summer when water i s most available. S o l i f l u c t i o n i s best developed on slopes of 5 to 25 degrees where i t generally manifests i t s e l f as large lobes, one hundred to several hundred, feet in s t r i k e and two to four feet in height, which may coalesce forming a crenu-lated pattern. S o l i f l u c t i o n can also occur on slopes of only two or three degrees, but i s generally more subtle and re-As sediment flows from crest.permalrost table is lowered producing more unfrozen sediment; relief on till surlaces is quickly reduced Organic growth and Figure 3. Idealized diagram depicting a possible mode of o r i g i n for c i r c l e s (from S h i l t s , 1973a). Humus, plant and animal debris, stones,dwarf trees and shrubs Haid,sandy carapace; weak sub - horizontal w * ' J V*,ff'<>?iii layering * : > * > C??> ^ . Thin(5-15cm)Bhorizon; &If$&' * A " ° * Jm^JS * only d e v e l o p e d near >/'7K/t£'r' .. .„,, ^yT,>r,>' ^ , peripheryol active ^ c ^ & ^ L .swT* * J». * D O j | g *pCm, I/T-TJ1) . i i - - r>)r<"" ^ \ \ ^ \ Permanently ^ frozen J $ J J ' ° cm o 4 0 -1 2 0 H 160-40 80 120 160 2 0 0 240 280 320 360 -400cm Figure 4. Block diagram of c i r c l e s showing t y p i c a l components and thei r s p a t i a l relationships (from S h i l t s , 1973a). 00 9. F R O S T C R E E P FROST CREEP A N D S O I I F L U C T I O N Figure 5. Relationship between fr o s t creep, s o l i f l u c t i o n and retrograde movement (adapted from Price, 1972). 10. stricted-. On slopes greater than 25 degrees water i s quickly l o s t as runoff which c a r r i e s away the f i n e r s o i l . Because fine s o i l and high moisture contents f a c i l i t a t e s o l i f l u c t i o n development, the loss of both fines and water severely l i m i t s s o l i f l u c t i o n development on such slopes. B. Climatic Influences Since permafrost i s a function of cl i m a t i c conditions, systematic cl i m a t i c changes over many years or hundreds of years w i l l cause permafrost and active layer thicknesses to fluctuate (Gold and Lachenbruch, 1973; Bryson et a l . , 1965); however, such e f f e c t s in terms of geochemical d i s -persion, have not been reported. It i s suggested, therefore, that long term o s c i l l a t i o n s of the mean annual a i r temperature (M.A.A.T.) allow r e l a t i v e l y unweathered permafrost material to be subjected p e r i o d i c a l l y to intense chemical and physical weathering c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the present active layer and, i f cryoturbation i s s u f f i c i e n t , incorporation of former permafrost material into the upper portion of the active layer may occur. Furthermore, an increase in the M.A.A.T. may result in longer periods of thaw and more intense chemical and b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y ; conversely, a decrease in the M.A.A.T. i s thought to i n h i b i t dispersion processes. Such long term cli m a t i c fluctuations are thought to be recorded in lake sediments as variations in sediment texture, trace element composition and organic matter content (cf. Karrow and Anderson 1975), which are subjects considered in Chapters 4 and 5, Sections V and II respectively. C. Geochemical Dispersion in Permafrost Terrains 1. Ionic and hydromorphic dispersion Although the same basic weathering and dispersion pro-cesses ( b i o l o g i c a l , chemical and physical) operate in the permafrost regime, as in the temperate zone (Fig. 6), the severity of the climate and the presence of permafrost impose thei r own peculiar r e s t r i c t i o n s on geochemical dispersion. For example, u n t i l recently permafrost was considered to be almost impermeable. Consequently, groundwater movement, except in the shallow active layer, was thought to be v i r -t u a l l y non-existent. However, as recent studies have shown (Anderson, 1967: Murmann, 1973) water and ion movement with-in permafrost can occur through d i f f u s i o n a l processes (Fig. 7). Ion d i f f u s i o n rates in permafrost were preconceived to be similar to s o l i d state d i f f u s i o n rates. However, d i f f u s i o n rates for frozen s o i l s (-3° to -15°C) were found to range from _3 10 cm to 5 cm per day, which i s only about a factor of 10 less than the same s o i l s at 25°C and subs t a n t i a l l y higher, by several orders of magnitude, than s o l i d state d i f f u s i o n rates (Anderson and Morgenstern, 1973). Furthermore, i f the tortuosity of the migration path i s considered, the rates are only s l i g h t l y less than those in an aqueous solution. W E A T H E R I N G C O N T R O L S T Y P E S O F W E A T H E R I N G D I S P E R S I O N P A T T E R N S D I S P E R S I N G A G E N T S S P E C I F I C D I S P E R S I O N M E C H A N I S M S Climate *—•> Geology, Biological Biogenic plants j plant m a t e r i a l a n i m a l s T 1. l i v i n g p l a n t s a b s o r b m a t o l ; w h e n d e a d , m e t a l i t r e t u r n e d to the o r g a n i c t a l l with s l i g h t d i s p e r s i o n . 2. d i s p e r s i o n by a n i m o l m o v e m e n t . Biology + Geomorphology Physical ^Minera l izat ion^ "V, , , Hydromorphic d i f f u s i o n s u r f a c e w a t e r l Ionic d i s p e r s i o n in l a k e s , s t r e a m s a n d s u r f a c e r u n o f f . 2. l a k e t u r n o v e r a n d w o t e r f l o w by g r a v i t y or w i n d . g r o u n d w a t e r T 1. Ionic d i s p e r s i o n 2. g r o u n d w a t e r f l o w Clastic Ice glacial periglacial w a t e r T T < ^ — g r a v i t y w i n d 1. c o n t i n e n t a l 2. a l p i n e 1. c r y o f u r b a l i o n I, n d l m t n t i I. t o l l c r e e p 2. t o l i f l u c t i o n 2. m u d f l o w i 3. f r o i t c r e e p e t c . I. a e o l l a n l a n d s s p r i n g w a t e r Figure 6. General r e l a t i o n s h i p between weathering processes and geochemical dispersion. 13. SUMMER : dry (3) b u i l d - u p o f m e t a l p \ 4 I PERMAFROST I S n o w m e l t r u n o i l If S o i l t h a w o n d r u n o i l ?F r o i e n * So i l « * PERMAFROST V SPRING : thaw (2) (4) FALL '. rains 777 . / Rami 5 u r l o c e . u n o i l F l u . h > u n o l f PERMAFROST L o ' . % n * u r S n o w c o l l e c t So It1 I o g a i n • J; - , F . o . . n » o i U " \ ° I ce C c u r n ^ l t 4 U_4 r_ PERMAFROST „„'","*„, (1) WINTER : freeze Figure 7. Metal ion migration in permafrost t e r r a i n s : e f f e c t s of seasonal changes. The basic process by which ions move from permafrost upwards i s probably ionic d i f f u s i o n in solution. There i s s u f f i c i e n t moisture in permafrost to allow capillary-type migration to occur. In the winter metal ions move towards the s o i l surface in response to various gradients. Carbonate and sulphate crusts are formed and some metal moves into the overlying snow. This process continues u n t i l spring when there i s melting and metal ions are flushed out in a pulse of early run-off, which may take several weeks. In summer surface runoff has ceased, but c a p i l l a r y action continues to supply metal-rich waters to the s o i l surface where the water evaporates leaving behind soluble metal complexes i f there i s l i t t l e summer ra i n . In the f a l l , r a i n i s more frequent r e s u l t i n g in a flush runoff which may be as intense as the spring pulse under certain conditions (from Jonasson and Allan, 1973) . 14. Diffusion rates of t h i s magnitude can only be accounted for by the existence of continuous, thin films of l i q u i d water, 3 to 18 angstroms thick, surrounding the s o i l part-i c l e s (Anderson and Hoekstra, 1965). Ugolini and Anderson (1972) and Tyutyunov (1960, 1961) have shown that these thin films of water are saline and probably allow important chemical reactions to occur. Consequently, permafrost may not be as much of a ba r r i e r to trace element movement nor as e f f e c t i v e in l i m i t i n g chemical weathering as once thought. Furthermore, many laboratory and a few f i e l d studies have shown that ions may move in response to various gradients and that weathering within permafrost does occur. However, the presence of massive i c e (e.g ice lenses, layers and wedges), which can occupy as much as 80 percent of permafrost by volume, can d r a s t i c a l l y and-unpredictably reduce ion move-ment (MacKay, pers. comm.). F i e l d studies, assessing the r e l a t i v e importance of io n i c d i f f u s i o n within permafrost with respect to migration of elements from sulphide ore bodies have not been reported except in r e l a t i v e l y inacessible Russian journals (e.g. Shvartsev and Lufkin, 1966). Although permafrost generally i s considered as a north-ward thickening r e l a t i v e l y impermeable wedge, i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n -because of the large numbers of lakes on the northern Canadian Shield -resembles a well perforated and dented sieve. This i s because lakes greater than about six feet deep do not com-15. p l e t e l y freeze in the winter and, since water i s most dense at approximately 4°C, the deeper water bodies remain at or near t h i s temperature year around. Consequently, well developed t a l i k s , occur beneath larger lakes and r i v e r s (Fig. 8). The presence of large numbers of t a l i k s might result in interconnected networks of thawed ground allowing groundwaters to c i r c u l a t e and exchange or dispense metals and other ions into overlying sediments and waters as postulated by Alla,n (1971). At Bathurst Norsemines the presence of very thick (>1600 feet) permafrost (Taylor and Judge, 1974) e f f e c t i v e l y pre-vents lake induced t a l i k s from penetrating permafrost, except where lakes exceed 4500 feet in diameter. Furthermore, be-cause the t i l l i s r e l a t i v e l y thin, generally less than 50 feet on the northern Shield, bedrock permeability i s the c r i t -i c a l factor in terms of ion and deep groundwater movement. Unless the bedrock i s permeable, i . e . faulted or fractured; the presence of t a l i k s i s i r r e l e v a n t . If ionic d i f f u s i o n through permafrost i s discounted as a major factor of metal dispersion, hydromorphic dispersion of metals within the overburden i s r e s t r i c t e d to the shallow active layer. Furthermore, i t seems l i k e l y that t h i s l a y e r } which i s usually water saturated and constantly -reworked by cryoturbation, i s a zone of comparatively intense chemical a c t i v i t y . Sulphide minerals entering the active layer from Figure 8. Schematic representation of the effect of water bodies on permafrost. Note the double convex shape of the lake induced t a l i k . ( g ) . Also note that the bottom of permafrost clo s e l y follows surface topography (after Price, 1972). t—1 17. outcrop or sub-outcrop would be expected to decompose allowing t h e i r soluble and mobile products to be transported into the network of streams and lakes which covers an average of 15 to 30 percent of the northern Canadian Shield. The possible role of g l a c i a l and p e r i g l a c i a l processes in bring-ing trace elements and mineralized rock fragments into the upper portions of the active layer i s considered in the next section. 2. Mechanical dispersion i) G l a c i a l The whole of the northern Canadian Shield has been sub-jected to at least one episode of continental g l a c i a t i o n . It seems l i k e l y , therefore, that p r i o r to onset of present p e r i g l a c i a l conditions, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c l a s t i c dispersion pat-terns developed as a res u l t of g l a c i a l corrosion of mineralized bedrock. Normally t h i s r e s u l t s in finger or fan-shaped geo-chemical or boulder indicator trains extending down ice several miles from the source These indicator trains have been widely used for prospecting in both Finno-Scandia and Canada. S h i l t s (1973a, b, c, 1974a, 1976) has described examples from the Kaminak region of the N.W.T. Consequently, g l a c i a t i o n i s the single most important dispersive process in the permafrost environment of the Bear and Slave Structural Provinces. Without g l a c i a t i o n , whereby fresh rock i s comminuted and wide-ly dispersed, chemical a c t i v i t y and subsequent hydromorphic 18. dispersion would not be as intense nor as widespread. At Bathurst Inlet the ice-sheet scoured bedrock and l e f t r e l a t i v e l y thin t i l l deposits, generally thought to be of l o c a l provenance, and moderate to abundant fresh bedrock exposures (Craig, 1960). Locally, the t i l l has been reworked and/or largely removed resu l t i n g in esker, kame and outwash deposits with associated features (e.g. esker scour channels). Eskers are common'throughout glaciated regions, but are p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable in the continuous permafrost zone. Although they may appear continuous over many miles, most eskers are b u i l t in short overlapping segments from streams extending from tens or hundreds of feet to perhaps a few miles back from the ice margin (Howarth, 1971). Consequently,. they drain r e l a t i v e l y r e s t r i c t e d areas and, unlike streams and r i v e r s whose sediment has been derived from a l l of their upstream drainage basin, esker material can only have been derived from as far upstream as the head of the short segment associated with i t s formation and, therefore, i s of very r e s t r i c t e d provenance. This, combined with th e i r low 2 density (1 l i n e a r mile per 10 square miles around Bathurst Norsemines), makes them generally unsuitable geochemical sampling medium for exploration purposes, although they have been used in other areas ( S h i l t s , 1973a; Gachau-Hereillat and LaSalle, 1971). i i ) P e r i g l a c i a l In terms of exploration the two most important p e r i -g l a c i a l processes and features of the permafrost zones are c i r c l e s and s o l i f l u c t i o n lobes. C i r c l e s , sorted and non-sorted, are ubiquitous in the continuous permafrost zone and are thought to bring to the surface, through cryo-turbation, s o i l which i s very similar in trace metal con-tent to that at the base of the active layer (Pitul'ko, 1968; Allan and Hornbrook, 1970, 1971; S h i l t s , 1973a). Furthermore, because c i r c l e s are often closely spaced, even impinging on one another to form nets, the churning motion ascribed to their development tends to homogenize the active layer and disrupt s o i l p r o f i l e development. As a r e s u l t , even though chemical a c t i v i t y and hydromorphic dispersion are substantial, there i s l i t t l e v i s u a l representation of these a c t i v i t i e s in terms of s o i l p r o f i l e development. This contrasts with undisturbed tundra where eluviati o n and i l l u v i a t i o n may make sampling depth a s i g n i f i c a n t factor (Fig. 9). Additionally, c i r c l e s are thought to contain a greater percentage of fi n e r s o i l material r e l a t i v e to less disturbed tundra because of physical sorting by various frost processes (cf. Corte, 1962). When active, these fr o s t processes result in c i r c l e s being free of vegetation, thereby presenting an eas i l y and readi l y available sample of mineral s o i l . Consequently, where possible, sampling of c i r c l e s has generally been recommended. 20. A B C 10 20 30 10 20 30 3 6 9 Figure 9. P r o f i l e s of geochemical dispersion i n : A) undisturbed t i l l , B) in c i r c l e s , and C) s o l i f l u c t i o n lobe with con-siderable displacement. Scale of concentration i s ar b i t r a r y . Modified from Pitul'ko (1968). 21. S o l i f l u c t i o n processes are usually observed on slopes of 5 to 25 degrees as large lobate structures, the noses of which are outlined by abundant grasses, large shrubs and bushes. Where present, s o l i f l u c t i o n i s generally thought of as a hindrance in geochemical data interpretation, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the detailed stage, because in many instances i t d i f f e r e n t i a l l y displaces and fragmentizes s o i l anomalies (Levinson, 1974). It may displace s o i l , p a r t i c u l a r l y s u r f i c i a l s o i l , considerable distances down slope (up to 600 feet: Pitul'ko, 1968) and consequently, anomalous s o i l commonly overlies non-anomalous s o i l and barren bedrock (Fig. 9c). Therefore, metal trends with depth should be considered where s o l i f l u c t i o n or other forms of down-slope movement are thought to be present. Conversely, because s o l i f l u c t i o n displaces geochemical anomalies, i t may be thought of as a dispersal mechanism and therefore a possible aid, instead of a hindrance, by enlarging geochemical anomalies. However, although common in the p e r i g l a c i a l environment, at Bathurst Norsemines s o l i f l u c t i o n i s noticeable in only a few r e s t r i c t e d areas where slopes are in excess of 10 degrees. Consequently, s o l i f l u c t i o n does not appear to s i g n i f i c a n t l y disrupt or aid the development of s o i l geochemical anomalies in t h i s area. Likewise, at Yava Lake, 40 miles southeast of Bathurst Norsemines, Cameron (,1977a) found s o l i f l u c t i o n processes to be of minor importance with s o i l displacement generally less than 30 feet. 3. History of geochemical .exploration within the zone of continuous permafrost Few papers have been published on the application of geochemical methods within the zone of continuous permafrost. Although many mining companies have made geochemical surveys, the information derived from these projects i s largely held in c o n f i d e n t i a l company reports. Only since 1970 have published reports in the West become available (Allan and Hornbrook, 1970). U n t i l that time, the only available l i t e r a t u r e was by Russian s c i e n t i s t s (Ivanov, 1966; Kozhara 1964; Pitul'ko, 1968). Canadian l i t e r a t u r e since Allan and Hornbrook's 1970 paper t o t a l s less than 20 a r t i c l e s * covering a wide variety of sampling programs and techniques u t i l i z e d in the N.W.T. Most l i t e r a t u r e has been concerned primarily with the f e a s i b i l i t y of geochemical methods and with providing a data base for future programs. Although intense physical weathering has been documented and widely accepted for some time (Price, 1972; T r i c a r t , 1970) chemical weathering and ionic mobility, were thought u n t i l recently, to be severely limited. However, Kozhara (1964) assessed the r e l a t i v e importance of chemical weathering by comparing ion runoff between r i v e r s flowing within areas underlain by permafrost and those within a more temperate climate. The r e s u l t i n g values from r i v e r s within the permafrost zone were f u l l y commensurate with known figures for the Volga and Dnepr r i v e r s in temperate central Russia. S h i l t s (1973a, 1974b) and Cameron 0-977a, b) also be-l i e v e chemical weathering to be intense. From his observa-tions in the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , S h i l t s concluded that within the active layer l a b i l e minerals (e.g. sulphides and carbonates) are completely destroyed and weathering products such as iron and manganese oxides, along with clays, are moved vi a cryoturbation towards the s o i l surface. These weather-ing products are subsequently deposited along drainage paths v i a snow-melt runoff or heavy rains. The r e a l i z a t i o n that chemical weathering i s intensive and that movement of ions v i a drainage paths does occur has led to successful application of hydrogeochemical methods in a r c t i c Canada (Cameron and Ballantyne, 1975; Allan, 1974b) and in the U.S.S.R., where hydrogeochemistry i s used ex-tensively in exploration programs (Shvartsev, 1971). Allan (1971), in a pioneering study of lake waters and sediments, found a density of one sediment sample per 10 square miles s u f f i c i e n t over a 1500 square mile region in the Coppermine River area, N.W.T., to delineate areas of copper mineralization associated with faulted b a s a l t i c 24. flows. However, the p o s s i b i l i t y exists that the patterns Allan obtained may r e f l e c t mechanical rather than chemical dispersion processes because near-shore sediments, where the water depth was generally less than f i v e feet, were colle c t e d . Nevertheless, most of Allan's sediments were composed of s i l t and were not located near any obvious inflowing or outflowing streams. Consequently, the geochemical patterns are thought to r e f l e c t a s i g n i f i c a n t degree of chemical weathering and hydromorphic dispersion. Further evidence of t h i s i s provided by a strong posi t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the copper content of anomalous lake waters and sediments. Cameron et a l . (1974b), in an extensive investigation in the eastern Slave Province, also found near-shore lake sediments at a density of one sample per 10 square miles e f f e c t i v e in delineating areas containing massive sulphide occurrences. However, Cameron in follow-up studies in 1975 and 1976 (Cameron, 1977a, b), found center-lake sediments a better sampling medium than near-shore sediments. A companion study by Cameron and Ballantyne (1975) of the same region u t i l i z i n g lake waters showed t h i s medium to also be useful in detecting massive sulphide occurrences. Results from these studies showing the relationship of Zh in:lake waters, near-shore and center-lake sediments as a function of pH and distance from the Agricola Lake massive sulphide 25. prospect are shown in Figure 10. Boyle et a l . (1971) also found lake-water sampling for the mobile elements Cu, Zn and Ni, an e f f e c t i v e regional reconnaissance method in the Kaminak Lake region, N.W.T. Hydrogeochemistry has been c r i t i z e d as an exploration tool because of: 1) temporal va r i a t i o n in water chemistry, 2) dissolved metal concentrations are often near the detection l i m i t of most a n a l y t i c a l methods, and 3) samples are bulky and pre-analytical treatment including f i l t e r i n g , a c i d i f y i n g and concentration of trace metals i s often re-quired (Hoffman, pers. comm.; Cameron and Ballantyne, 1975). However, many of these drawbacks appear to be i n s i g n i f i c a n t when hydrogeochemical methods are used for locating v o l -canogenic massive sulphides within the continuous perma-frost zone. In p a r t i c u l a r , temporal variations in lake-water chemistry and pre-analytical treatment such as f i l t e r i n g and a c i d i f y i n g appear to have l i t t l e e f fect on the o v e r a l l r e s u l t s as emphasized by Cameron and Ballantyne (1975) and Cameron (1977b). The o v e r a l l homogeniety of trace element l e v e l s in lake waters,•compared to the marked vari a t i o n that can occur within sediments in a lake, suggests that lake waters may be a very useful medium -for regional reconnaissance surveys. With respect to other reconnaissance sampling media, S h i l t s (1973a, 1974a) has advocated the use of the cla y - s i z e 26. Figure 10. Dispersion of zinc in lake sediments and waters from the Agricola Lake massive sulphide prospect (from Cameron and Ballantyne, 1975). f r a c t i o n (<2y) in s o i l reconnaissance surveys. This recommendation was based on the need to reduce e r r a t i c r esults caused by variable quantities of fine sand and s i l t in the minus 80-mesh f r a c t i o n . Use of the r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous clay-size f r a c t i o n takes advantage of the a b i l i t y of clays and associated c o l l o i d s to scavenge trace metals. However, separation of the minus-2v f r a c t i o n i s tremendously time consuming and expensive and, therefore, unsuited for rapid processing of large numbers of geochemical samples. Although S h i l t s found eskers to be a better sampling medium than t i l l ( c i r c l e s ) , because of the ease of sampling, consistency of sampling and higher contrast, i t was concluded that because eskers have lim i t e d and e r r a t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n they may only be suitable for broad reconnaissance However, to be e f f e c t i v e even for broad reconnaissance they would have to be sampled at very short i n t e r v a l s because of the i r segmented character. Allan (1973) also compared t i l l and esker sampling, along with stream sediments, over the Ragland deposit, Ungava, Quebec and found them a l l to be useful media, although esker sampling was the least s a t i s f a c t o r y in o u t l i n i n g the Ni-Cu ore bodies. T i l l sampling, at r e l a t i v e l y high densities ( i n t e r v a l s of 200 f t . ) in anomalous areas outlined by stream sediment or esker surveys, defined areas of interest more pre-c i s e l y . Similar r e s u l t s were obtained at Coppermine River, 28. N.W.T. where i t was. found that Cu mineralization could be defined best regionally by lake water, semi-regionally by stream sediments and in d e t a i l by t i l l ( c i r c l e ) sampling on a 200 x 100 foot gr i d (Allan, 1971). Cameron and Durham (1975) and Cameron (1977a) also found c i r c l e sampling very e f f e c t i v e in o u t l i n i n g the Agricola Lake Cu-Pb-Zn prospect, 40 miles southeast of Bathurst Norse-mines. Although geochemical patterns are 'smeared' down ice f or more than 1000 feet, Pb anomalies (unlike Cu and, in particular, Zn) are well developed with values over 5000 ppm contrasting sharply with non-anomalous leve l s of 15 to 3 0 ppm. Allan and Hornbrook's (1970, 1971) findings concerning the importance of c i r c l e sampling, on a detailed scale, f o l -low those of Pitul'ko (1969), i n that, i f samples are taken at the same depth from c i r c l e s and from undisturbed t i l l , the former w i l l usually exhibit higher geochemical contrast due to the effects of cryoturbation. One important aspect of exploration geochemistry which appears to have been neglected almost t o t a l l y i n studies of geochemical dispersion within the zone of continuous perma-fro s t i s the use of p a r t i a l extractions to i d e n t i f y and characterize geochemical anomalies. In view of the probable importance of hydromorphic dispersion t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y surprising. Consequently, in t h i s thesis several extraction procedures have been investigated in order to provide information on both dispersion processes, and as a means improving anomaly contrast. 30. CHAPTER 2 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA I LOCATION AND ACCESS The Bathurst Norsemines property i s in the D i s t r i c t of Mackenzie, N.W.T. (Fig. 11), at approximately 65°55' north l a t i t u d e and 108°25' west longitude (NTS coordinates 76/F-16). No t r a i l s or roads lead to the area and access i s by a i r -c r a f t from Yellowknife, the main supply center 300 a i r miles to the southwest. Break up of the ice occurs in mid to late June and makes access to the property d i f f i c u l t at t h i s time. F i e l d studies were centered on Camp Lake, over the A or Main Zone, and at Anne-Cleaver Lakes along the "mineral horizon" within a large block of claims held by Bathurst Norsemines. However, discussion w i l l be confined largely to geochemical dispersion at Camp Lake (Main Zone). Data for Anne-eieaver Lakes are included,however, in Appendix B. II CLIMATE, TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE Due to i t s remoteness, cli m a t i c data are lacking; however, a weather station i s maintained at Contwoyto Lake, approx-imately 100 miles to the southwest. Table 1 summarizes climatic data from t h i s station (Penny, pers. comm. Vancouver Climatology Office) and supplementary sources. This area, 1 0 8 ° Jto' -l65°sy' 1 0 8 ° s°' Figure 11. Location of study areas and massive sulphide bodies, CO 32. Table 1. Climatic data 1 from Bathurst Norsemines and Cont-woyto Lake, 100 miles "to the southwest. Metric English Mean annual a i r temperature (M.A.A.T.) -12.5°C 10.3°F Mean annual ground temperature - 7.1°C 19.0°F January mean a i r temperature -31.0°C -23.9°F July mean a i r temperature 9.0°C 48.2°F Total mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n 27.6 cm 10.8 i n . a) rain 14.5 cm 5.7 i n . b) snow 131.0 cm 51.2 i n . Average number of days of p r e c i p i t a t i o n per year 130 130 Active layer thickness (estimate) 1.5 m 4.9 f t . Permafrost thickness 2 500.0 m 1640.0 f t 1: Based on observations made between the years 1959 to 1970. Data supplied by Penny, Vancouver Climatology Office , Canada. 2: Data from Bathurst Norsemines property, courtesy of the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Canada. 33. because of low p r e c i p i t a t i o n (10 to 11 inches per year), may be considered to be an a r c t i c desert with very thick permafrost (>1600 fe e t ) . Despite low p r e c i p i t a t i o n , the combination of low temperature over much of the year with subdued topographic r e l i e f (50 to 200 feet) has resulted in water being retained in numerous lakes, ponds and swamps which comprise some 30 percent of the surface area (Plate 5). The remaining surface consists of gently r o l l i n g boulder strewn h i l l s and o f l a t , r e l a t i v e l y boulder-free, lowlands ranging from 1300 to 1500 feet elevation. Well developed streams are rare because of the subdued topography and most of the lakes and ponds have no v i s i b l e outflows or inflows. However, pos-s i b l e drainage paths may be inferred from a comparison of lake elevations (Fig. 12, cf. Cameron and Ballantyne, 1975). I l l GENERAL GLACIAL HISTORY AND SURFICIAL GEOLOGY A. Bathurst Inlet Evidence of Pleistocene g l a c i a t i o n i s well documented (Craig, 1960; Blake, 1963; Tremblay, 1971). Numerous e r r a t i c s , eskers, kames, outwash deposits, drumlins and bedrock s t r i a e occur throughout the region. However i t i s unclear whether there were multiple g l a c i a t i o n s (Blake, 1963; Tremblay, 1971) or a single g l a c i a l event (Craig 1960) m a s s i v e s u l p h i d e b o d i e s e s k e r , d a s h e d w h e r e d i s c o n t i n u o u s s t r e a m , d a s h e d w h e r e i n f e r r e d - i n t e r m i t t e n t . l a k e d r a i n a g e , i n f e r r e d a n d a c t u a l l a k e e l e v a t i o n s a r e In f e e t L o k e 1300 Figure 12. Inferred drainage paths based tin airphoto interpretations, f i e l d observations and a comparison of lake elevations (cf. Cameron and Ballantyne, 1975). at Bathurst Inlet. Nevertheless, Craig and Blake (op. c i t . ) have both established that ice movements in the region were bimodal (Fig.. 13). This discontinuity in the flow pattern i s believed by Blake to have resulted from a funneling e f f e c t , and consequently more rapid flow, through the Bathurst Trench r e l a t i v e to the less active or stagnant ice of the plateau (Tremblay, op. c i t . ) . This resulted in north-westerly ice movement within the Trench and west-southwesterly movement west of the Trench. Consequently, because the study area l i e s along the Trench-plateau margin, an area of g l a c i a l flow t r a n s i t i o n , measurement of s t r i a e within the study area show a bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n (Fig. 14) con-sistent with the p r i n c i p a l regional trends established by both Blake and Craig (op. c i t . ) . As the ice retreated eastward from the Bathurst region, g l a c i a l sediments were deposited. T i l l cover i s generally thin, 6 to 25 feet, except in bedrock val l e y s . Most of the t i l l i s probably a lodgement or basal t i l l deposit with only minor amounts of ablation t i l l (Scott, 1976). The t i l l i s generally compact, bouldery and d i f f i c u l t to penetrate with hand tools. Boulders and cobbles, which comprise approximately 20 to 40 percent of the t i l l , are subangular to subrounded, with the exception of e r r a t i c s , which are generally rounded to well rounded. Eskers, prominent features of the region, occur at 8 36. Bathurst Norsemines Camp Figure 13. Measurements of generalized g l a c i a l flow directions in the Bathurst Inlet region (from Blake, 1963). 37. 38. to 15 mile inte r v a l s and generally p a r a l l e l the g l a c i a l flow d i r e c t i o n . They are f a i r l y continuous over several miles and in some cases extend in excess of 25 miles in an unbroken chain. Karnes, deltas, outwash deposits and scoured bedrock surfaces are associated with eskers and/or present day drainage paths. Drumlins are also common features of the Bathurst region, while end moraines are not recognized. Since the development of end moraines i s most l i k e l y during pauses or s l i g h t readvances i n the ov e r a l l course of ice recession, their absence i s attributed to a r e l a t i v e l y uniform and rapid retreat of the ice mass. Two other common features of the area are the presence of well exposed bedrock and b l o c k f i e l d s (felsenmeer). Also noted i s the occurrence of boulder f i e l d s and/or trains which can be distinguished from b l o c k f i e l d s by a lesser degree of angularity and a more direc t r e l a t i o n s h i p with g l a c i a l quarrying, i . e . boulder f i e l d s are largely g l a c i a l l y derived whereas b l o c k f i e l d s are largely the resul t of in s i t u f r o s t weathering of the underlying bed-rock. In general b l o c k f i e l d s occur on r e l a t i v e l y f l a t ground and are well defined even though they may be irre g u l a r in plan. Blockfields consist of angular to subangular blocks 1.5 to 7.0 feet in diameter with v i r t u a l l y no matrix of 39. fi n e r s o i l or rock. Bl o c k f i e l d s may cover large areas or be r e l a t i v e l y r e s t r i c t e d to a .few thousand square feet. Since b l o c k f i e l d s generally arise from in s i t u weathering by f r o s t r i v i n g and heaving of the underlying bedrock,, a well jointed or fractured bedrock surface where water may accumulate and freeze i s most conducive to th e i r develop-ment. Alt e r n a t i v e l y , because some b l o c k f i e l d s contain e r r a t i c s and/or rounded boulders, they are thought by some (Bird, ^ .1967) to hav^ e resulted from the washing out of fines from a boulder-rich t i l l . However, at Bathurst Norsemines the b l o c k f i e l d s , based on lithology, geochemical patterns and lack of nearby g l a i c o f l u v i a l deposits, are believed to have resulted from in s i t u f r o s t heaving and, to a lesser extent, g l a c i a l quarrying from very nearby bedrock projections. B. G l a c i a l Geology of Camp Lake Several units of g l a c i a l sediments have been defined with t i l l , esker, esker delta, kames and outwash deposits most e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d . However, for convenience, g l a c i o -f l u v i a l deposits (e.g. esker, kames, etc.) have been com-bined (Fig. 15). G l a c i o f l u v i a l deposits occupy much of the area around the southeast corner of Camp Lake. Although the esker complex continues for many miles east and west of Camp Lake, i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y well developed 40. over a one mile length southeast of Camp Lake (Plate 16). Based on the orientation of the esker delta, the inter n a l structure of the esker sediments (observed in p i t s and trenches), a e r i a l photographs, and the general g l a c i a l history of the area, sediment transport within the esker i s judged to have been dominantly westward. Associated with these undifferentiated g l a c i o f l u v i a l deposits, par-t i c u l a r l y southwest of Camp Lake, i s an area, 2000 to 6000 feet wide, of scoured bedrock produced by g l a c i a l melt-waters during ice recession (Plates 15 and 16). Two well defined areas of boulder accumulations were mapped north of Camp Lake (Fig. 15). The one closest to the lake i s cigar shaped, oriented east-west and l i e s between the two (?) g l a c i a l flow directions (Fig. 14). It contains numerous sulphide-bearing boulders, which are similar to and down ice from mineralized outcrops west of the Banana-Camp stream (B-C stream). A strong Pb anomaly (Fig. 40) associated with t h i s boulder accumulation can also be traced to mineralized outcrops west of B-C stream. Consequently, t h i s boulder accumulation i s l i k e l y to have been largely g l a c i a l l y derived (via g l a c i a l corrosion) from these outcrops and/or nearby sub-outcrops and i s therefore termed a boulder f i e l d or t r a i n . The other boulder accumulation l i e s several hundred feet to the north, i s more irregular and contains only a very few sulphide-bearing boulders (between s i t e numbers 42. 60 and 76, see F i g . 19). Although i t p a r a l l e l s a g l a c i a l flow d i r e c t i o n (WNW), and i s down ice from mineralized out-crops, t h i s boulder accumulation probably originated in large part'; by fr o s t heave because most of the boulders are angular and appear to be of l o c a l o r i g i n . Furthermore, geochemical patterns crosscut t h i s boulder accumulation suggesting that, for the most part, i t has not been derived from mineralized bedrock located up ice but has instead been derived from the underlying non-mineralized rock. Consequently t h i s boulder accumulation i s considered to be a b l o c k f i e l d . Sulphide-bearing boulders were also noted near s o i l sampling s i t e numbers 13, 14, 17, 19 and 64. Associated with these boulders are strong, well developed Pb anomalies (Fig. 40) which can be traced to mineralized outcrops near B-C stream. Based on geochemical patterns, i t i s sug-gested that these sulphide-bearing boulders were a l l derived from the v i c i n i t y of mineralized outcrops adjacent to B-C stream. On the basis of f i e l d observations and diamond d r i l l holes the t i l l at Camp Lake i s boulder and cobble r i c h and averages 10 to 20 feet thick. There may be some c o r r e l a -tion between^till thickness and the percentage of boulders. Thinner t i l l i s generally more boulder r i c h because of the ease with which f r o s t heaving of blocks from underlying bedrock can occur; thicker t i l l (10 to 15 feet) reduces the effectiveness of fros t heave by l i m i t i n g the annual temperature range in the underlying bedrock and by making i t p h y s i cally more d i f f i c u l t to heave. A large area (600 x 1000 feet) of r e l a t i v e l y boulder free, but thin (< 3 feet thick) t i l l l i e s east of Camp Lake. A lower content of fines and patches of g l a c i o -f l u v i a l material down slope suggests that t h i s t i l l may have been reworked or winnowed by g l a c i a l melt waters. When examined in p i t s , the t i l l shows a gra d i t i o n a l change in texture beginning at approximately 18 to 22 inches depth. Below t h i s depth the t i l l i s generally more cobble r i c h and consequently harder to penetrate with hand tools. Fluctuations in trace metal content and size f r a c t i o n sometimes correlate with the observed textural change. Possible explanations for these observed fluctuations and correlations are considered in Chapters 4 and 5. IV SOILS S o i l s have developed on t i l l and g l a c i o f l u v i a l material characterized by boulder and cobble r i c h loamy sands and sandy loams, imperfect to very poor drainage and strong to very strongly a c i d i c conditions with pH's averaging 4.7 to 5.6. Typical s o i l p r o f i l e s are shown i n Plates 6 to 9. At each s o i l sampling s i t e , v i s u a l s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were noted and the p r o f i l e was examined and c l a s s i f i e d to 44. a sublevel of the s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system of the Canadian Department of Agriculture (1970). The s o i l s were generally porous, due to voids created by melting ice, and brown to yellowish-brown (Munsell color 10YR 5/3 to 5/6). Occasionally they are dark brown (10YR 3/3) where the s o i l i s coarser or grey to dark grey where the s o i l s are gleyed. Plant roots seldom occurred below eight inches but were l o c a l l y noted at depths up to 20 inches. Brunisolic, Regosolic and Gleysolic s o i l orders occur but only the l a s t two are widespread (Fig. 16). The highest degree of s o i l development i s represented by the Brunisols, subgroups Orthic Dystric and Degraded Dystric, which are r e s t r i c t e d to well drained coarse tex-tured esker or outwash material. Because t h i s parent material covers less than two percent of the land surface, Brunisols are the least common s o i l type. It i s thought that these Brunisols are similar to Hornbrook and Allan's (1970) " A r c t i c Brown S o i l " described at Coppermine River, N . W. T . Elsewhere, on s i t e s with imperfect to poor inte r n a l drainage or in areas of thin t i l l , Regosols (Orthic, Dystric, and to a lesser extent L i t h i c ) are the most abundant s o i l order comprising approximately 70 percent of the s o i l s sampled. Gleysols (Rego and Cryic subgroups), the next G l e y s o l s B r u n l s o l s G l e y e d R e g o s o l s • Hi R e g o a n d C r y i c G l e y s o l s • [ilijl L i t h l c a n d O r t h i c R e g o s o l s •O r f h i c D y s f r l c R e g o s o l s w i t h • " . _ m i n o r G l e y e d R e g o s o l s . m i n e r a l i z e d o u t c r o p Figure 16. Generalized s o i l map. 46. most abundant order, occur on low s i t e s adjacent to lakes or low gradient streams, topographic depressions, and at breaks-in-slope. These s o i l s generally have a thicker organic layer or mat (L-F-H and Ah horizons) than the Regosols and are more water saturated with free water commonly occurring within 4 to 10 inches of the s o i l sur-face. Permafrost often l i e s r e l a t i v e l y close to the surface beneath Gleysols because of the good insulation provided by the well developed L-F-H and Ah horizons. In fact, the active layer may be only one to two feet thick where organic cover i s heavy, whereas, an average of four to six feet i s common elsewhere. Most of the study area i s affected by extensive cryo-turbation, manifested as numerous c i r c l e s , sorted and non-sorted, which are abundant enough to impinge on one another, forming polygons and nets. Many of the c i r c l e s are active as noted by vegetation-free centers, extrusion and heaving (Plates 1 to 3); whereas, others are so i n - -active as to be almost indistinguishable from less disturbed tundra. Inactive or dormant c i r c l e s have a low, doughnut-shaped mound of vegetation with a thick Ah horizon and a cen-t r a l , s l i g h t l y depressed, vegetated area (Plate 4>. Although these two types of c i r c l e s are common, most c i r c l e s , in terms of cryoturbation a c t i v i t y , l i e between these extremes. Except in the very iron stained gossan zone west of the B-C stream, s o l i f l u c t i o n processes are not noticeable. The general lack of s o l i f l u c t i o n i s probably attributable to the very gentle slopes (2 to 5 degrees) and the bouldery nature of the t i l l (Plates 10 and 16). Where s o l i f l u c t i o n does occur i t i s in r e l a t i v e l y boulder-free t i l l and on unvegetated slopes, both factors apparently relatable to the presence of large amounts of weathering sulphides and concomitant low s o i l pH's. The r e l a t i v e l y f i n e r grain sizi of these s o i l s and the lack of s t a b i l i z i n g vegetation prob-ably aids s o l i f l u c t i o n processes in these areas. In areas of intense iron staining associated with mineralization, oxidizing sulphides, p a r t i c u l a r l y p y r i t e . give r i s e to extremely low pH values (<_4.5). Mineral grains and rock fragments are severely attacked by the acid i c groundwater and coated by iron oxides and hydroxides ob-tained from the decomposition of pyr i t e . This re s u l t s in the entire s o i l p r o f i l e appearing bright orange (Munsell color 10YR 5/8). Consequently, any detailed s o i l pro-f i l e development i s obscured. Furthermore, because t h i s intense chemical weathering re s u l t s in a f i n e r s o i l texture through reduction of s o i l p a r t i c l e size and chemical p r e c i p i t a t i o n of metal oxides (e.g. Fe), these areas appear to be much more susceptible to cryoturbation. This in turn probably accelerates the weathering process. Low s o i l pH and active cryoturbation also i n h i b i t vegetation and t h i s together with the exothermic nature of sulphide oxidation, may result in a thicker active layer. V VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE The region i s well north of the tree l i n e and has a ty p i c a l a r c t i c tundra f l o r a . Dwarf willow and birch and lichens cover much of the area. Grasses are dominant on wetter s i t e s and on the more exposed h i l l s where drainage i s good. W i l d l i f e includes barren land g r i z z l e s , wolverines, musk oxen, ground s q u i r r e l s , weasels, foxes and a r c t i c hares. In the summer, thousands of caribou and many birds pass through the area on the i r annual migration. VI GENERAL GEOLOGY OF THE PROPERTY A. Introduction and Exploration History Because of active exploration by several companies in areas adjacent to the Bathurst Norsemines property much of the detailed geology of the area i s held as co n f i d e n t i a l by Cominco Limited; therefore, only a general picture of the 49. geology w i l l be presented here. Most of the data in t h i s section has been obtained from published reports by MacNeill (1973, 1974, 1976) and from personal communications with several Cominco employees, most notably B. Mioduszewska and P. Wilton whose assistance proved invaluable. The exploration history of the Bathurst Norsemines property began in 1962 with reconnaissance scale mapping of the area by the Geological Survey of Canada (Fraser, 1964). In 1965 Rio Tinto Exploration Company Limited presumably attracted by the obvious gossans of the area, inspected the Main Zone at Camp Lake. Limited trenching revealed disseminated copper minerals and pyrite in s i l i c e o u s zones but interest was i n s u f f i c i e n t to warrant further investigation. Following claim staking in 1966 and 1967, limited work was carried out in 1968 by Bathurst Inlet Mining Corporation, Norsemines Limited., and A t l i n Yukon Limited. These companies merged in 1969 to form Bathurst Norsemines Limited., present owners of the 901 claims. Geological work that year involved more mapping, electromagnetic surveys, and 13 shallow d r i l l holes t o t a l l i n g 2900 feet. Cominco Limited optioned the property in 1970 and since that time a l l exploration work has been carried out by them. Work has included helicopter-borne electromagnetic and 50. magnetometer surveys, ground electromagnetic and gravity surveys and geochemical sampling. Diamond d r i l l i n g , con-s i s t i n g of 93 holes t o t a l l i n g 40,106 feet, has indicated three major ore bodies, the East Cleaver Lake, Boot Lake and Main or "A" Zones. Published data (MacNeil op. c i t . ) give a combined t o t a l of over 13 m i l l i o n tons of ore averaging approximately 0.40% Cu, 1.2% Pb, 7.5% Zn, 7.0 oz./ton Ag and 0.07 oz./ton Au. In addition, an equivalent tonnage of substantially lower grade ore has been indicated. Furthermore, at two other locations, Finger Lake and Jo Zone (Fig. 17), intersections of sulphides have also been encountered. B. Regional Geology A s i m p l i f i e d picture of the somewhat complex regional geology, with location of ore bodies and s i g n i f i c a n t mineralized zones, i s shown in Figure 17. The Bathurst Norsemines property i s underlain by a broad, northwest trending assemblage of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks, assumed to be Archean ( F r i t h and H i l l , . 1975) and belonging to the Yellow-knife Group. These rocks have been subjected to three, or possibly four, phases of deformation and metamorphism which ap-proached upper amphibolite facies grade but l a t e r retrograded (Wilton, pers. comm.). These rocks form a belt up to 12 «5 G<2 A >4 2 /A Banana Loke^^ 65 QflBol Linear Lake 0 . Thigh C.0 Comp Laki Main or A ZontN Epsl Cleaver "Lake Zone 6» Flying Horie 4 Lake 1300 0 I H 1300 ft. —S 400 0 400m. SCALE Lower Sunken 1,6 Lake • Jo Zone Rhyollte pyroelatlicii Rhyollte agglomerate Ooclte/Andeille flows and pyroclaitlci m LH S Calcareous and arglllaceoui rhyollte ruffs (contains the "mlnerol horlion") Carbonates and cole-elllcatei 1 S | Gornetlferoue amphlbotlI• (mttomorphoiod Iron Cm.) LI] Greywockei ond tiltstonet; derived lehlltl r—| Melaiomatlc alterations by granite L Z J ("hybrid rock") ^ s , r i k , „ d <lp ^ W l 0 t l e n Felsic intrusions lArMoeiWe lulphlde booMet ~ Possible fault Hjrdrothermal alteration Inferred geologic conlocl Figure 17. Regional geology, map of the study area (map compiled by Cominco geologists). 52. miles wide and 25 miles long which occurs as an i n l i e r or s y n c l i n a l remnant in g r a n i t i c t e r r a i n . Rocks within the belt are steeply overturned, dip 50 to 70 degrees to the southwest, and plunge to the southeast. Within the map area (Fig. 17) the surrounding g r a n i t i c rocks appear to be contemporaneous or s l i g h t l y younger, as shown by an ex-tensive zone of "hybrid rocks" formed from volcanic and sedimentary rocks which have undergone metasomatic a l t e r a t i o n during emplacement of the granite. A large f a u l t system, the Hackett River Fault, l i e s several miles south of the ore bodies, p a r a l l e l i n g the a x i a l trace of the synclinorium (sy n c l i n a l remnant). Ore bodies and mineralized zones developed within a thick sequence of andesites and r h y o l i t e s (flows, t u f f s and breccias) which were deposited, often explosively, in an eugeosynclinal environment. Mineralization occurred during the late or waning stages of r h y o l i t i c volcanism in conjunction with fumarolic a c t i v i t y centered on the Main and Jo Zones. At the same time a wide variety of mixed rock types were forming including argillaceous t u f f i t e s , cherts, greywackes, ironstones, and tuffaceous limestones. This assemblage implies the presence of more quiescent con-ditions with chemical pre c i p i t a t e s and, to some extent, e p i c l a s t i c rocks becoming dominant. This group of rocks i s quite variable, depending upon proximity to a vent, in composition, thickness and extent. Part of t h i s assemblage, comprising r h y o l i t e t u f f s , calcareous t u f f i t e and lime-stone i s known as the "mineral horizon" and i s the host for the ore bodies. Overlying t h i s r e l a t i v e l y thin assemblage i s either a thick (5000 fe e t ) , mainly e p i c l a s t i c , sequence of metamorphosed a r g i l l i t e s , greywackes, s i l t s t o n e s and impure sandstones (turbidites?) with minor t u f f bands (Main, Jo and Boot Lake Zones), or a series of andesite-dacite flows followed by carbonate units (Anne Lake "mineral horizon" and East Cleaver Lake Zone). This o v e r a l l sequence of rocks combined with the association of mineralized zones with a late stage, and often explosive phase, of submarine volcanism i s consistent with the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of these deposits as volcanogenic (cf. Fryer and Hutchinson, 1976; Sangster, 1972). C. Detailed Geology of Camp Lake The geology at Camp Lake i s thought to form part of a continuous sequence proceeding from moderate r h y o l i t i c sub-marine volcanism, through an episode of explosive c y c l i c andesite-dacite to r h y o l i t e a c t i v i t y , to a much more quiescent period involving intermixed volcanic and sedimentary phases. Regional metamorphism has deformed the rocks pro-ducing a steeply dipping, (approximately 60 degrees) large, closed and moderately southeast plunging syncline (Fig. 18). 1 ,0 ? 1LA La Rhyolite pyroclastifjs Andeslte flows and tuffs ' Hydrothermal alteration IMinerol horlion (rhyolite tuffs, • jcalcoreous tuffite and limestone Argil I ite s, graphitic and sulphidic [i^jGreywackes/Siltstones ond derived schists m i n e r a l i z e d o u t c r o p Figure 18. Simplified geologic map of Camp Lake. In terms of exploration geochemistry, the most im-portant features are the mineralized outcrops and the trace of the "mineral horizon" which marks the boundary between the underlying volcanic rocks and the overlying sedimentary rocks. D i r e c t l y beneath the "mineral horizon" i s an i r -regular layer of andesite t u f f agglomerate ( m i l l rock of Sangster, 1972) which i s generally a few hundred feet or less thick and extends for approximately 3000 feet along s t r i k e . The upper part of the agglomerate, and the lower part of the "mineral horizon", has experienced moderate hydrothermal a l t e r a t i o n and s i l i c i f i c a t i o n . Within t h i s a l t e r a t i o n zone the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of agglomerate i s d i f f i c u l t . Contained in the a l t e r a t i o n zone and cross cutting the volcanics, are several s l i g h t l y sinuous conduit pipes where intense hydro-thermal a l t e r a t i o n (leaching) and s i l i c i f i c a t i o n has occurred. It i s thought that the majority of the mineralizing f l u i d s ascended through these pip e - l i k e zones. Beneath the a l -teration zone and the agglomerate l i e s a quartz-eye r h y o l i t e t u f f . Above the "mineral horizon" i s a 5000 foot thick sequence of metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, possibly t u r b i d i t i e s , the lower 150 to 200 feet of which are graphitic and sulphidic possibly as a res u l t of late stage vent emanations. 56. CHAPTER 3 SAMPLE COLLECTION, PREPARATION AND ANALYSIS I GENERAL INTRODUCTION Samples were coll e c t e d in the summers of 1974 and 1975. Table 2 summarizes the types and numbers of samples c o l l e c t e d . S o i l sample location was controlled through the use of chain and compass. Lake water and sediment samples were located on detailed maps at 1 inch to 200 feet. A regional lake water and sediment survey had been planned but was not implimented due to d i f f i c u l t i e s with the helicopter. II SOIL A. C o l l e c t i o n and Preparation S o i l samples were coll e c t e d by hand digging to a depth of 15 to 40 inches. Sampling depth was limited by stones and cobbles and by slumping of the p i t walls at r e l a t i v e l y shallow depths in the wet s o i l . At each station the s i t e , s o i l p r o f i l e , and the parent material and vegetation were recorded; channel samples were taken from one face of the p i t . Location, s i t e number and sample type are shown in Figures 19 and B l . -I n i t i a l l y an attempt was made to sample s o i l horizons but, except for the shallow (generally less than three inches) organic-rich surface horizon (L-F-H), th i s was not possible 57. Table 2. Summary of sampling at Camp and Anne-Cleaver Lakes Medium Number of Samples Camp Lake Anne-Cleaver Lakes (1) S o i l L-F-H horizon 0-14 i n . (0^10 i n . ) 1 layer 14-25 i n . (10-20 in.) layer >25 i n . (>20 in.) depths Pi t p r o f i l e s (2) Waters Surface seepage Snow-melt runoff P i t seepage Lake Stream 271 280 157 10 300 22 63 13 21 19 139 152 49 3 52 16 15 2 12 10 (3) Sediments Lake bottom Lake suspended Stream 50 16 6 25 4 14 1: ( ) designates sampling in t e r v a l s at Anne-Cleaver Lakes. Figure 19. Camp Lake: location of s o i l grid, s o i l p i t , stream water and sediment sampling s i t e s . 98 9 9 100 101 102 103 59. because of poor s o i l p r o f i l e development. Consequently, for routine mineral s o i l sampling several a r b i t r a r y depth interv a l s were chosen (0 to 14 inch, 14 to 25 inch, 25 to 36 inch and 36 to 45 inch). However, except for s o i l p r o f i l e studies, the lower density d i s t r i b u t i o n of >25 inch depth samples over the s o i l g r i d does not allow e f f e c t i v e contouring of metal values. Table 2 summarizes geochemical sampling at Camp and Anne-Cleaver Lakes. Detailed s o i l p r o f i l e information was obtained from the excavation of 16 deep p i t s (usually >50 inches depth). Digging was limited by s o i l flowage and occasionally boulders. In no case was permafrost a l i m i t i n g factor. The fr o s t table, however, was encountered at several s i t e s early in the season but thawing was rapid and t h i s b a r r i e r , after a few days exposure, quickly receded. Attempts were made to excavate deep p i t s and cross-section sample active c i r c l e s but t h i s proved impossible due to continuously flowing s o i l . A Copco S o i l Sampler 1 also proved i n e f f e c t i v e because stones either prevented penetration or plugged the sampling tube. Consequently, most p i t s were s i t e d in areas of r e l a t i v e l y undisturbed t i l l or in dormant c i r c l e s . A l l samples were placed in high wet strength Kraft paper envelopes and dried at ambient temperatures for two or more 1: The Copco S o i l Sampler i s a gasoline driven percussion sampler which drives a one inch diameter rod and sample tube into the s o i l . 60. days before shipping to the Department of Geological Sciences, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Samples were then d i s -aggregated with the aid of a rubber mallet and a portion was sieved through an 80-mesh nylon screen (177 microns). The minus 80-mesh material, usually amounting to 10 to 20 g, and the plus 80-mesh fractions were stored separately. B. Decomposition 1. N i t r i c - p e r c h l o r i c d i g e s t i o n ( t o t a l attack) 0.5 g of minus 80-mesh material was transferred to a test tube, 2 ml of a 4:1 mixture of n i t r i c - p e r c h l o r i c acids added and then evaporated to dryness overnight on a hot a i r bath. The residue was redissolved i n 2.5 ml of warm 6 M hydrochloric acid, diluted with d i s t i l l e d water to 10 ml, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using standards prepared in 1.5. M hydrochloric acid. Where necessary additional d i l u t i o n s were made with 1.5 M hydro-c h l o r i c acid using an automatic d i l u t o r . 2. P a r t i a l extraction procedures P a r t i a l attacks using cold 1.0 M hydroxylamine hydro-chloride acetic acid, 1.0M hydrochloric acid and 0.05M EDTA (ethylenediamine. tetraacetate) were carried out on various size f r a c t i o n s . For each p a r t i a l attack the pro-cedure was as follows: a 0.5 g sample was transferred to a test tube and 10.0 ml of one of the three reagents added. This mixture was mechanically shaken for 14 hours and then the solutions allowed to s e t t l e for at least a day before being analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Standards were prepared in 1.5 M hydrochloric acid for the 1.0 M hydrochloric acid and 0.05M EDTA extractions, and in 1.0 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid for the 1.0 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid attack. I l l SEDIMENTS: COLLECTION, PREPARATION AND DIGESTION Samples of the upper zero to four inches of sediment were collected from Turtle, Anne, Banana, Camp, Upper and Lower Sunken Lakes using a mud snapper 1. Additional samples were collected from Camp and Banana Lakes using a modified Phleger coring device which retrieved short four to twelve inch cores. This device causes some compaction of the sediment. Sample locations are shown in Figures 102 to 107 and 122. . Immediately upon r e t r i e v a l the cores were sealed inside their p l a s t i c l i n e r s so that, on a r r i v a l at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, several weeks l a t e r , 1: Manufactured by Kahl S c i e n t i f i c Instruments, C a l i f o r n i a . 62. the cores were s t i l l moist and fresh in appearance. After removal from th e i r l i n e r s the cores were s p l i t lengthwise and divided into short homogeneous segments on the basis of v i s u a l sedimentological and chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Segments were placed in paper coin envelopes and dried in an oven at 80°C for one to two days before disaggregating with the aid of a mortar and pestle. Due to the fin e nature ( s i l t - c l a y grain size) of the cores sieving to minus 80-mesh was unnecessary in most cases. Stream sediments (Figs.. 19 and Bl) were collected from several square feet of stream bed as near mid-stream as possible taking care to avoid bank and c o l l u v i a l material. After drying at ambient temperatures, stream sediment pre-treatment was similar to that described for s o i l s (page 60) except that a porcelain mortar and pestle were required for complete disaggregation. IV WATER A. Co l l e c t i o n and Preservation Near-surface water samples were coll e c t e d close to the centers of streams (Figs. 19, B38 and B39) and at the surface, halfway to the bottom and near the bottom of lakes at several locations within the lake. Surface seepages (Figs. 97 and B38) were sampled wherever encountered along the s o i l grids; generally they were small pools in topographic depressions or breaks-in-slope, or small r i v u l e t s found after th'e snow melted i n June. In mid to late June, snow-melt runoff was sampled from ice-water pools and small temporary streams with undefined channelways (Figs. 98 and B39). Where possible, water was also collected from s o i l - g r i d s i t e s one to two days after excavation.(Figs. 97 and B38). A l l water samples, except for lake water samples which were coll e c t e d using a Van Dorn Sampler 1 and four l i t e r polyethylene jugs, were collected in 500 ml acid washed, d i s t i l l e d water rinsed polyethylene bottles. Samples taken during the day were f i l t e r e d each evening using Sartorius f i l t e r s and 0.45y m i l l i p o r e membranes. Passage of water through the f i l t e r was accelerated by pressure from a small nitrogen tank. A 250 ml portion of the f i l t r a t e was a c i d i f i e d with 2 ml of 6 M hydrochloric acid and placed in an acid washed 250 ml polyethylene bottle for subsequent analysis. Analysis was ,by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, without pre-concentration. B. F i e l d Analysis Aliquots of f i l t e r e d water were analyzed for a l k a l i n i t y , chloride (both by t i t r a t i o n ) and sulphate (by t u r b i d i t y ) using Hach k i t s . Conductivity was measured using a Hach 2510 Conductivity Meter. 1: Kahl S c i e n t i f i c Instruments, C a l i f o r n i a . 64. BDH Universal Liquid Indicator was used to measure pH on u n f i l t e r e d waters at the s i t e of c o l l e c t i o n where possible. V ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY The theory and interference problems associated with atomic absorption spectrophotometry as an a n a l y t i c a l tool are adequately discussed elsewhere (Abbey, 1967; Chr i s t i a n and Feldman, 1970; Fletcher, 1970). A techtron AA4 atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn determinations, and a Perkin-Elmer 303, equipped with a deuterium continuum lamp for background correction, was used for determinations of Ag, Cd, and Pb. Samples were analyzed in batches of 24; each batch included a U.B.C. standard rock.sample, an a n a l y t i c a l blank, and a duplicate sample. Chemical interferences in the determination of Ca and Mg in s o i l were reduced by addition of a lanthanum oxide solution as a releasing agent (Christian and Feldman, 1970, pp. 237-258). This procedure was not taken with water samples and these results,therefore, are not absolute. Instrumental procedures as described by Fletcher (1971) were followed and are presented in Table 3. 65. Table 3. Operating conditions for the Techtron AA4 and Perkin-Elmer 303 atomic absorption spectrophotometers. S l i t Wavelength Width (A 0) Ag 1 6 4.0 5.0 1 mm 3280 Ca 10 3.5 20.0 lOOy 4227 Cd 1 6 4.0 5.0 1 mm 2288 Cu 3 2.5 20.0 50y 3248 Fe 5 2.5 20.0 50y 3720 Mg 4 3.5 20.0 100u 2852 Mn 10 2.5 20.0 100u 2795 Pb 1 14 4.0 5.0 1 mm 2175 Zn 6 2.3 20. 0 lOOy 2139 1: Elements determined on the Perkin-Elmer 303, a i r and f u e l flow rates are based on ar b i t r a r y scales for a l l elements. P T ^ ^ . Current Fuel A i r Element , x (ma) Gauge Pressure 66. VI MISCELLANEOUS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES A. Size Fraction Analysis Approximately 65 g of disaggregated dry s o i l was placed in a set of s t a i n l e s s steel sieves (U.S. Standard No. 10, 40, 80 and 270) 1 and shaken on a rotap for f i v e minutes. Results are expressed i n weight ..percent of the minus 10-mesh f r a c t i o n . B. Heavy Mineral Separates Heavy minerals were separated from 1 g samples of minus -80-plus 270-mesh material using bromoform, s p e c i f i c gravity 2.89. Each sample was shaken with bromoform and allowed to s e t t l e for 10 minutes before the heavy f r a c t i o n was drained o f f . This procedure was repeated two to three times r i n s i n g the sides of the funnel free of mineral grains after each shaking. Results are expressed in milligrams per gram. Trace element analysis of heavy mineral separates followed the same procedure as used for s o i l samples using a 4:1 nitricr-perchloric acid digestion. C. Conductivity and pH Sample pH was determined by placing 5 g pebble-free samples, into paper cups and adding 25 ml of d i s t i l l e d water. 1: Metric mesh sizes of 2.0, 0.42, 0.177 and 0.053mm respectively. 67. The r e s u l t i n g s l u r r i e s v/ere s t i r r e d three to four times over a one hour period, before measuring pH with an Orion .404 pH meter. Electrodes were occasionally calibrated using buffered solutions of pH 4.0 and 9.0. Conductivity measurements, using a Hach 2510 con-d u c t i v i t y meter, were made on the same s l u r r i e s after ad-di t i o n of a further 25 ml of d i s t i l l e d water. The s l u r r i e s were s t i r r e d and allowed to s e t t l e for one-half hour before a f i n a l s t i r r i n g at the time of measurement. Values are pre-sented as microhms per square centimeter with a 1:10 s o i l to water mixture. D. Loss on Ignition Loss on i g n i t i o n (L.O.I.) was used to estimate organic content of 60 lake sediment samples. Approximately l g (0.6 to 1.5g) samples were weighed in crucibles and placed in a muffle furnace. The temperature was gradually raised over an hour to 500°C, held at t h i s temperature for three hours, followed by a 3 to 5 hour cool down. The crucibles were then reweighed and the percentage weight loss recorded. VII ANALYTICAL PRECISION An a l y t i c a l control and precision was maintained with an an a l y t i c a l blank and a U.B.C. standard rock sample. Precision was estimated by analysis of paired samples and by re p l i c a t e 68. Table 4. Precision estimates at the 95 percent confidence l e v e l for paired s o i l samples and r e p l i c a t e standard rock analyses by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Element Average ^ Concentration No. of Paired Samples Precision (+_%) Ag 1.04 ( d . l . ) 2 42 69 Ca 514 (5240) 10 (7) 15 (16) Cd 0.96 (d.l.) 42v (40) 21 Cu 125.(22) 42v(40) 10v (17) Fe 2.51% (1.53%) 42 (40) 20"(23) Mg 1.04% (0.52%) 10 (7) 18 (25). Mn 350 (262) 42 (41) 5 (7) Pb 283 (d.l.) 42 (41) 13 Zn 230 (14) 42 (41) 19 (17) 1: Concentration in parts per m i l l i o n (ppm) unless otherwise noted. 2: () results for the U.B.C. standard rock. d . l . : S i g n i f i e s concentration l e v e l s below the detection l i m i t . 69. Table 5. Precision estimates at the 95.percent confidence l e v e l for paired sediment samples analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. E l m nt Average No. of Precision (+7' e e n Concentration 1 Paired Samples — ° ' Ag 0.52 8 23.4 Cd 5.90 8 1.7 Cu 1130.0 8 6.4 Fe 4.2% 8 6.1 Mn 5055.0 8 17.5 Pb 187.0 8 4.2 Zn 1466.0 8 6.2 1: Concentration in parts per m i l l i o n (ppm) unless otherwise noted. 70. analysis of the U.B.C. standard rock. Precision on these samples at the 95 percent confidence l e v e l was computed on an IBM 360/67 computer according to a procedure outlined by Garrett (1969) and programed by Fox (1971). Results for paired samples and r e p l i c a t e analyses are presented in Tables 4 and 5 respectively. Except for Zn, precision values for the standard rock are very close to, but consistently poorer than, those determined for the paired s o i l samples. Un-fortunately, precision values for Ag, Cd, and Pb for the standard rock are not available because concentrations of these elements l i e below the detection l i m i t . Comparison of Tables 4 and 5 shows that precision for sediments i s better than for s o i l s , except for Mn. This most l i k e l y r e f l e c t s the smaller grain size of the sediments and the greater ease and completeness of the digestion r e l a t i v e to the s o i l s . In the case of Mn, poor precision within the sediments may be caused by manganese's irr e g u l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n (Bolviken and Sinding-Larsen, 1973, p. 295) where values range from 300 to in excess of 80,000 ppm. Duplicate water samples were not collected and a n a l y t i c a l precision cannot therefore be estimated; however, multiple samples taken from Camp Lake at d i f f e r e n t times show a re-markable s i m i l a r i t y (Table 6). Cameron and Ballantyne (1975) and Cameron (X977b) also report l i t t l e to moderate v a r i a t i o n in metal content with time in samples they collected and analyzed. Furthermore, metal concentrations in lake waters Table 6. Comparison of Zn concentrations (ppb) in samples collected from Camp Lake in July 1974 and 1975 and from Anne Lake.in 1974. Camp Lake Anne Lake 1974 1975 1974 74 65 33 69 74 37 72 71 37 74 71 37 74 71 46 71 68 X=72 X=70 Copper was below the detection l i m i t (-15 ppb) in a l l samples. Table 7. Comparison of Zn and Cu concentrations (ppb) in lake waters as a function of time and a n a l y t i c a l technique. Zn A Cu-Lake A B C A B 3 Camp 72 71 69 <15 9 <15 3 Banana <10 4 <10 <15 2 <15 3 Anne 38 44 <15 6 Lower Sunken 28 30 <15 2 Upper Sunken 63 63 <15 8 Flying Horse 355 404 <15 27 T u r t l e 3 11 16 <15 3 Cleaver 118 166 <15 5 1: Detection l i m i t s : t h i s study 15 ppb Cu, 10 ppb Zn; Cameron et. a l . (1975) 1 ppb for Cu and Zn. 2: A: Data from t h i s study, 1974. B: Data from Cameron et. a l . , 1975 (collected in 1974). C: Data from t h i s study, 1975. 3: Average of more than one sample. 73. collected by t h i s author in 1974 and 1975 are sim i l a r , even though a dif f e r e n t a n a l y t i c a l technique was used, to values reported by Cameron and Ballantyne (1975). as shown in Table 7. Because of the low number of paired samples for each type of p a r t i a l extraction and size f r a c t i o n analyzed, precision was assessed using a graphical method developed by Thompson and Howarth (1973) and shown in Figure 20. Precision at the 90 percent confidence l e v e l , except for low level s of Pb, closely conforms to an a r b i t r a r i l y chosen precision l i m i t of +20 percent. In addition, data for duplicate samples sub-jected to size f r a c t i o n analysis, L.O.I, and heavy mineral separations shows that a n a l y t i c a l precision of these three pro-cedures i s within +10 percent of the o r i g i n a l value. Results are therefore considered more than adequate for the purposes of t h i s thesis. Figure 20. Precision conformation at the 90th percentile for an a r b i t r a r i l y chosen precision of + 20% (after Thompson and Howarth, 1973). Data are paired samples of various size f r a c t i o n s , sub-jected to several p a r t i a l attacks. CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION OF ANALYTICAL DATA I INTRODUCTION TO DATA PRESENTATION Due to the volume of geochemical data in the form of figures for Chapter 4 i t has become necessary to assemble these figures at the end of the chapter. The various tables remain within the text as in previous chapters. Geochemical data for the s o i l g r i d are divided into three s o i l layers: an e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e organic-rich s o i l horizon (L-F-H) and two a r b i t r a r i l y chosen mineral s o i l layers (0 to 14 inch and 14 to 25 inch; hereafter referred to as Layer 1 and Layer 2 respectively). Each of the three layers i s presented as several single element contour maps prepared from computer plots. Contour i n t e r -vals were selected on the basis of computer derived log-normalized histograms and/or pr o b a b i l i t y plots prepared from histograms following the methods of Lepeltier (1969) and S i n c l a i r (1976). In some cases (e.g. Fe and Cu) contour inter v a l s vary between s o i l layers as a res u l t of f l u c t u a t i n g metal values with depth and/or because the most precise in t e r v a l s , in terms of pattern development, were sought. For the contoured geochemical maps, thresholds ( i . e . anomalous vs background) are not shown because the majority of the data for many of the elements can be considered 76. anomalous on a regional scale, although not rea d i l y apparent in t h i s study. Because of the scale of t h i s study, l o c a l thresholds (more highly anomalous concentrations) are more important and are discussed in somewhat limited d e t a i l . Nevertheless, t h i s author prefers to emphasize pattern development rather than 'high numbers' when re l a t i n g geo-chemical anomalies to a bedrock source. This i s based on the knowledge that i n glaciated areas near-surface s o i l geochemical anomalies may be displaced down ice considerable distances r e s u l t i n g in highly anomalous values overlying barren bedrock while less anomalous, possibly background, values o v e r l i e mineralization. Therefore, pattern develop-ment i s of prime importance. The deep s o i l p i t data (multi-element graphs, size fractions, pH, conductivity, p a r t i a l attacks and heavy mineral analysis) are considered in Section III and, except for several selected examples, the remainder of the data has been relegated to Appendix A. This i s due partly to the volume of data and i t ' s complexity which prevents making anything but broad generalizations. A discussion of a l l the s o i l data can be found in Chapter 5. Dispersion in various water types (stream, lake, seepage, snow-melt runoff, etc.) as well as lake and stream sediments, was also investigated. Metal concentrations i n these media reveal s i g n i f i c a n t hydromorphic dispersion for several elements with Cu and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , Zn the most notable. Presentation of metal concentrations and patterns in waters and sediments are considered in Sections IV and V respective-ly . A general discussion of geochemical dispersion with respect to s o i l , water and sediment forms the basis of Chapter 5. II SOILS A. Probab i l i t y Plots Probability plots for Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn are presented with a l l three s o i l layers plotted on the same diagram (Figs. 21 to 25), although o r i g i n a l l y each s o i l layer was plotted separately. Superimposing the three s o i l layers f a c i l i t a t e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s between the s o i l layers. Due to i n s u f f i c i e n t data, probability plots for Ag and Cd were not attempted. Examination of the plots r e a d i l y reveals that the d i s -t r i b u t i o n of metal values for most elements over most of the concentration range closely approximates a lognormal d i s -t r i b u t i o n ; however, there are s i g n i f i c a n t departures from a lognormal approximation, especially in the case of Fe, Mn, and, to a lesser extent, Cu, Pb and Zn. For Fe and Mn departure from lognormality occurs at high concentrations; whereas, for Cu, Pb and Zn i t occurs only at low to very low concentrations. 78. Except for Mn (Fig. 23), v a r i a t i o n between s o i l layers i s minimal. In many cases one l i n e or a smooth curve could be f i t t e d to the data points to e a s i l y represent a l l three s o i l layers over most of the concentration range (e.g. Fe, Fig . 24). In the case of Fe there i s v i r t u a l l y no v a r i a t i o n between s o i l layers; nevertheless, there i s a d i s t i n c t b i -modal d i s t r i b u t i o n present which i s c l e a r l y relatable to mineralization (Figs..33 to 35). Following the method of S i n c l a i r (1976) p a r t i t i o n i n g of either of the three Fe plots reveals two d i s t i n c t populations with a well defined i n -f l e c t i o n point (optimum population separation) at -1.8 percent Fe (Fig. 22). Population A (anomalous) comprises 25 to 35 ( percent of the data with population B (background) the remainder. Parameters of partitioned populations A and B are given i n Table 8. The use of =1.8 percent Fe as a threshold (or 2 percent in the case of mineral s o i l Layers 1 and 2) proved most ef-f e c t i v e in ou t l i n i n g anomalous Fe concentrations (Figs. :33 t o ; 35). The use of higher threshold values (e.g. 3%) were found to unduly r e s t r i c t the extent of the anomaly, while lower threshold values (e.g. 1.5%) yielded nebulous, spotty patterns. It was recognized at the outset of t h i s thesis that the s o i l grids were strongly biased with respect to geochemical anomalies r e s u l t i n g in 30 to over 90 percent of the samples 79. Table 8. Parameters of partitioned lognormal Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn populations. Population Proportion N X a X+lc X-la Cu(ppm) Layer 1 A 90 244 64(1.81) 0.46 185 23 B 10 37 10.5(1.02) 0.13 14 8 Cu(ppm) Layer 2 A 80 125 98(1.99) 0.47 290 33 B 20 32 16(1.20) 0.14* 22 11.5 % Fe 1 A =32 226 2.1(0.32) 0.43 5.8 . 0.8 B -68 482 1.1(0.04) 0.14 1.5 0.8 Mn(ppm) L-F-H A 38 103 98(1.99) 0.49 300 32 B 5 5 149 89(1.95) 0.07 103 76 C 7 19 27(1.43) 0.24 47 15.5 Mn(ppm) Layer 1 A 3.5 10 380(2.58) 0.24 660 220 B 96.5 271 120(2.08) 0.18 182 82 Cont/. . . . 80. 2 —3 4 — • — Population Proportion N X a X+lcr X-la Pb(ppm) L-F-H A 8.9 198 42(1.62) 0.56 155 11.5 B 11 25 4.8(0.68) 0.08 6.0 4.0 Pb(ppm) Layer 1 A 60 118 100(2.0) 0.86 730 14 B 40 78 5.8(0.76) 0.23 9.7 3.4 Pb(ppm) Layer 2 A 60 68 38(1.58) 0.94 330 4.4 B 40 45 5.8(0.76) 0.23 9.7 3.4 Zn(ppm) Layer 1 A -95.5 268 68(1.83) 0.35 150 30 B =4.5 13 22.5(1.35) 0.13 30 16.5 1: The Fe prob a b i l i t y plots for the three s o i l layers have been combined and treated as one because of their close resemblance. 2: N = t o t a l number of samples in each population. 3: X = geometric mean followed by log-^X in ( ). 4: a = standard deviation in base 10 logorithms. containing at least one metal in anomalous concentrations. Consequently, had the 'standard procedure' of the mean plus two standard deviations (cf. Hawkes and Webb, 1962) been chosen to define thresholds (e.g. 5.7% Fe), anomalies would have been reduced to a few small patches which - although pinpointing mineralized outcrops and f l o a t - would have greatly reduced the amount of information available (e.g. g l a c i a l smearing of Fe-rich t i l l would have been mostly hidden within the background population). Probability plots for Mn (Fig. 23) are somewhat more complex than for Fe, in that, a well developed trimodal d i s -t r i b u t i o n present in the L-F-H becomes a well developed b i -modal d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Layer 1 and a unimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n in Layer 2. Coupled with t h i s i s a d i s t i n c t difference in the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Mn between the mineral s o i l (Layers 1 and 2 have almost i d e n t i c a l plots) and the organic-rich s o i l (L-F-H horizon). This difference i s characterized by a r e l a t i v e l y lower average concentration and wider range (steeper slope) of Mn values in the L-F-H horizon r e l a t i v e to the mineral s o i l (Table 9). P a r t i t i o n i n g of the trimodal and bimodal Mn p r o b a b i l i t y plots (L-F-H and Layer 1 respectively) Into their respective population groupings (see Table 8 for population parameters) reveals that i n the L-F-H horizon, population A (anomalous) i s associated with areas that are, for the most part, swampy (compare Figs. 15 -and 36) or at the-base of slopes ( i . e . near Table 9. Metal content 1 of s o i l at Camp Lake (minus 80-mesh fr a c t i o n HNOg/ HC104 digestion) S o i l Layer Ag1 Cd Cu %Fe Mn Pb Zn L-F-H N=2702 A d-34 B 1.7C.44) C 185 d-7.2 1.2(.35) 143 4-3720 61(.58) 0 0.3-25 1.37(.31) 0 14-3567 89(.33) 0 d-3088 36(.61) 47 9-682 71(.36) 0 Layer 1 0-14 in, N=281 A B C d-99 1.9(.61) 217 d-1.3 0.3( .30) 247 6-990 53(.50) 0 0.6-24 1.53(.24) 0 14-638 125(.19) 0 d-4600 23(.71) 85 14-422 65(.30) 0 Layer 2 14-25 in. N=157 A B C d-27 2.6(.52) 110 d-0.9 0.5(.34) 133 8-1021 67(.50) 0 0.3-20 1.65(.28) 0 66-473 129(,18) 0 d-4225 35(.82) 44 17-500 66(.28) 0 A: Range. B: Geometric mean followed by standard deviation (a) in base 10 logs in ( )• C: Number of samples below the detection l i m i t , omitted from calculations of X and a d: Detection l i m i t : Ag =0.4 ppm; Cd =0.3 ppm; Pb - 4 . 0 ppm 1: Metal content in ppm unless noted otherwise. 2: N = t o t a l number of samples. 3: For Ag N = 262 L-F-H; 273 Layer 1 and 139 Layer 2. 4: For Cd N = 258 L-F-H; 269 Layer 1 and 145 Layer 2. 83. Camp Lake). In either case, pH i s r e l a t i v e l y high (compare Figs. 46 and 36). Although Eh was not measured, i t i s assumed to be high (oxidizing) because the underlying near surface mineral s o i l does not appear to be gleyed. Conversely, population C, which i s confined to the L-F-H horizon, i s composed of very low Mn values (X = 27 ppm) which are associated with very a c i d i c conditions and/or swampy areas where Eh i s reducing ( i . e . underlying mineral s o i l i s strongly gleyed).. In a few cases population C i s associated with areas of r e l a t i v e l y good internal drainage ( i . e . Brunisols, compare Figs. 36 and 16). Although there i s a wide range in Eh/pH conditions under which population C type values can be found, these conditions are such that Mn would be mobile and hence r e l a t i v e l y depleted in r e l a t i o n to other areas within the L-F-H horizon. As expected, population B occurs where environmental conditions are more normal, that i s , Eh/pH i s neither r e l a t i v e l y high nor low and inter n a l s o i l drainage i s average. Consequently, population B comprises the largest percentage of the data. In the s u r f i c i a l s o i l , the percentage of population A r e l a t i v e to population B sharply decreases with depth (pop. A =38% L-F-H; =3.5% Layer 1 ) such that in Layer 2, whose plot i s v i r t u a l l y a straight l i n e , population A i s not recognized. As previously mentioned, the s o i l grids are strongly biased towards geochemical anomalies revealed in an e a r l i e r 84. s o i l survey by Cominco Limited.. Consequently,, the majority of s o i l samples contain r e l a t i v e l y anomalous concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn derived from mineralized bedrock. As a result, Cu, Pb and Zn are best approximated (at 95% confidence level) over most of the concentration range by single log-normal populations composed of anomalous values. However, the s o i l grid also contains a small to moderate percentage of samples (10 to 20% for Cu and Zn and 11 to 40% for Pb) with metal concentrations representative of background. The combination of Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn from two d i s t i n c t sources (massive sulphides and non-mineralized bedrock) r e s u l t s in p r o b a b i l i t y plots which are d i s t i n c t l y bimodal. The degree of bimodality and the ease with which popula-tions may be separated correlates with metal mobility. For example, highly mobile Zn exhibits the most linear p r o b a b i l i t y plots of the three elements (Cu, Pb and Zn) and shows the least tendency towards bimodality; whereas, Pb, the least mobile of the three elements, displays the highest tendency towards bimodality and i s also the least l i n e a r . Moderately mobile Cu, as expected, l i e s between Pb and Zn in terms of both l i n e a r i t y and bimodality. In the case of Pb, r e l a t i v e l y well developed anomalous (A) and background (B) populations can be defined with i n -f l e c t i o n points at the 60th and 89th cumulative percentiles (Layers 1 + 2 and L-F-H respectively). However, much of the background population (B) l i e s near the a n a l y t i c a l detection 85. l i m i t . Furthermore, Pb values recorded as zero ppm have been omitted from calculations and subsequent plots. Con-sequently, population B i s not as precisely defined as A. The r e l a t i v e importance of omitting the Pb data recorded as 'zero ppm' was assessed by: 1) inclusion of the data re-corded as zero, recalculating percentages and reconstructing p r o b a b i l i t y plots and 2) assuming that zero ppm Pb did not exist and that the samples actually contain 1 to 3 ppm Pb, a l i k e l y p o s s i b i l i t y (Hawkes and Webb, 1962, p. 367). Values of 1 to 3 ppm were then assigned (with 3 ppm emphasized over 2 ppm and so on), cumulative percentages recalculated and pr o b a b i l i t y plots reconstructed. Results for the l a t t e r are shown for Layer 1 in Figure 24. In general, the l a t t e r assumption results in a better defined i n f l e c t i o n point and easier population separation due to the inherent 'bottom l i m i t ' imposed by the 1 ppm boundary. Inclusion of the Pb values recorded as zero ppm results in a plot which i s similar to the o r i g i n a l plot but with population B no better defined than i n the o r i g i n a l plot. Pb values in population B are characterized by the p r o b a b i l i t y plot as less than 9 ppm i n the L-F-H horizon and less than 22 ppm in mineral s o i l (Fig. 24). Applying these thresholds (rounded to the nearest ten for convenience) to the Pb s o i l g r i d data (Figs. 39 to 41) reveal that in the min-eral s o i l the 20 ppm contour provides excellent separation be-tween populations. Likewise, the 10 ppm contour for Pb in the 86. L-F-H horizon provides good population separation, although 20 ppm may be a better choice. For Cu and Zn (Figs. 21 and 25) the presence of bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n s are developed best in the mineral s o i l with Cu displaying less overlap between populations than Zn. Although there i s a bimodal tendency in the L-F-H horizon, the high degree of overlap and the r e l a t i v e l y small percentage (<6%) of data belonging to population (B) are such that separation i s not warranted. Population B in Layer 1 can be assumed to roughly approximate population B for the L-F-H horizon based on the close s i m i l a r i t y between the L-F-H horizon and Layer 1 pro b a b i l i t y plots for Cu and Zn at low metal concentrations. As with Pb, the upper l i m i t of population B for Cu and Zn closely approximates the i n i t i a l contour i n t e r v a l for the s o i l g r i d geochemical maps (Figs. 30 to 32 and 42 to 44) which in turn approximates the regional threshold. In Figure 25,only population B for Zn (Layer 1) i s shown because population A l i e s very close to the pr o b a b i l i t y plot for the t o t a l data (as does population A for the L-F-H and Layer 2). A similar s i t u a t i o n exists for Cu whereby population A (Layer 1 and L-F-H horizon) closely follows the trend shown by the prob a b i l i t y plots for the respective t o t a l data and are not, therefore, presented. In summary, pr o b a b i l i t y plots for Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were found to be useful in selecting contour i n t e r v a l s and relating/defining grouped concentrations with possible sources and/or causes. They also aided, with regards to thresholds, in substantiating what may have been otherwise a subjective decision, especially where bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n s are present but not rea d i l y recognizable in histogram form. B. N i t r i c - p e r c h l o r i c Extraction Patterns Except east of Camp Lake, where a north-south orientation can sometimes be seen (e.g. Cu, Figs. 30 and 31; Zn Figs. 42 to 44), geochemical patterns - coinciding with the general s t r i k e of the geology and outcrops of footwall disseminated mineralization (Fig. 18) - display a general east-west trend. The former trend, which might result from l i n e bias, i s com-pli c a t e d by the presence of a veneer of g l a c i o f l u v i a l sediments. Anomalous geochemical patterns are best developed north of Camp Lake where they coincide with the general direction(s) of g l a c i a t i o n (Fig. 14) and the gossan zone (Fig. 45). The most s t r i k i n g geochemical patterns are shown by Pb in Layers 1 and 2 where values increase from less than 20 ppm along the grid periphery to over 1000 ppm closer to mineral-ized zones (Figs. 18 and.39 to 41). In the L-F-H horizon, mineralized outcrops are adjacent to and contained within the 20 ppm contour. The 80 ppm contour i s divided into two west-ward broadening zones, which are open at the western gri d 88. l i m i t , and separated by an east-west trending belt of lower values (<80 ppm) near the grid center. The southern belt closes sharply around mineralized outcrop east of B-C stream while the northern belt closes 200 to 300 feet west of mineralized outcrop near Banana Lake. Relative to the southern anomaly, the northern anomaly i s broader, longer and more irr e g u l a r . The narrow belt of low (40 to 70 ppm) Pb values noted i n the L-F-H horizon has broadened in Layer 1, e f f e c t i v e l y separating and providing better d e f i n i t i o n of the two east-west to west-northwest trending anomalies as now defined by the 100 ppm contour. It should be noted that broadening of t h i s belt of low Pb values i s not a function of the change in contour i n t e r v a l from 80 to 100 ppm because Pb values almost invariably l i e below 70 ppm within t h i s b e l t . In addition, there i s a f i n g e r - l i k e zone of high (_>100 ppm) Pb with a southwest orientation associated with the northern Pb anomaly which i s best developed in Layer 1 (Fig. 40). Both of the Pb anomalies (_>100 ppm) in Layer 1 l i e on the outer flanks of the "mineral horizon" (Figs :. 40 and 18) and can be related ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the southern anomaly) to mineralized outcrop adjacent to the B-C stream. However, for the northern Pb anomaly the rel a t i o n s h i p to mineralized outcrop i s best defined in Layer 2 (Fig. 41). Relative to the L-F-H horizon, Layer 1 exhibits the same general Pb patterns but with higher contrast (Table 10) and better anomaly d e f i n i t i o n . This trend continues in Layer 2 where the northern Pb anomaly i s best defined, showing high contrast and a clear association with mineralized outcrop west of Banana Lake. However, d e f i n i t i o n of the southern Pb anomaly in Layer 2 i s unclear because samples were not coll e c t e d at key s i t e s 1 . It can nevertheless, generally be concluded that, r e l a t i v e to the southern Pb anomaly, the northern anomaly i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y better developed with higher contrast and extensive, but narrow down ice d i s -persion. Consequently, the presence of a strong, well developed gossan associated with the northern anomalous zone i s expected. Comparing Ag (Figs. 26 to 28) and Fe (Figs. 33 to 35 ) dis t r i b u t i o n s in the three s o i l layers with the relevant Pb patterns reveals that these two elements display good correlation.with Pb. Although Fe i s not generally con-sidered to be an immobile element, i t s behavior and general correlation with immobile elements (Ag and Pb) rather than mobile elements (Cu, Mn and Zn) at Camp Lake suggests that i t can be considered r e l a t i v e l y immobile. At depth, a l l three elements display well developed, westward broadening northern anomalies which are c l e a r l y associated with the gossan zone. Ag and Pb values within the northern anomalous 1: Site numbers 8, 9, 10, 46, 48, 64, 106, 120 and 174. Table 10. Average contrast for Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in each of the three s o i l layers. S o i l Layer Ag Cd Cu Fe Mn Pb Zn L-F-H 7.5 5.0 14 . 1 4.1 4. , 5 16. 8 5.2 Layer 1 16.7 4.1 10 . 1 3.1. 2, .4 26. 2 3.9 Layer 2 11. 2 6.3 9. 8 3.5 2. .3 44. 0 3.7 1: Contrast i s defined here as X + 2a •=- X. S t a t i s t i c s based on N = 270 (L-F-H); 281 (Layer 1) and 156 (Layer 2) except for Ag and Cd where N = 77, 56 and 29 for Ag, and 115, 22 and 13 for Cd respectively. zone increase down ice (westward) with the highest values occurring approximately 1500 feet west of mineralized out-crop. Conversely, in the southern anomalous zone Ag, Fe and Pb patterns appear to decrease in size and inte n s i t y with respect to depth. In contrast to Pb, Ag and Fe d i s t r i b u t i o n s in the mineral s o i l , patterns of the r e l a t i v e l y mobile elements Cu and Zn are not as d i r e c t l y relatable to mineralized outcrop (see Figs. 30 to 32 and 42 to 44). In general, patterns for Cu and, in p a r t i c u l a r , Zn are r e l a t i v e l y i r r e g u l a r and diffuse with contrast between anomalous zones and peripheral background areas markedly lower than for Pb (Table 10). Nevertheless, in the L-F-H horizon Cu (Fig. 30) can be successfully related to mineralized outcrop; however, Zn patterns - although developed best in the L-F-H horizon -remain nebulous even though contrast i s higher r e l a t i v e to the mineral s o i l (Table 10). Although Cu and Zn patterns are similar in some respects, there are certain features which make the Cu patterns unique. They are: 1) a well developed east-west zone of low Cu values (<_60 ppm) which becomes better defined with depth and 2) a strong north-south belt of high Cu values (_>200 ppm) near the northwest corner of Camp Lake. The l a t t e r trend, which i s absent from the L-F-H horizon but well developed in Layer 2, abruptly truncates the east-west zone of low Cu values (Figs. 31 and 32). Relative to the L-F-H horizon and Layer 92. 1, Cu patterns in Layer 2 are characterized by abrupt and well defined boundaries, although t h i s i s not re f l e c t e d in contrast as defined in Table 10. In the L-F-H horizon, two areas of high (->200 ppm) Cu values can be seen (Fig. 30). The area northwest of B-C stream i s closely associated with several mineralized out-crops; while the second area, centered on the B-C stream i s closely associated with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of gleyed s o i l s (cf. Figs. 30 and 16). Both areas become more r e s t r i c t e d with depth, p a r t i c u l a r l y the area centered on B-C stream and, for t h i s area, i t appears fortuitous that mineralization i s outlined because Cu appears to be r e f l e c t i n g environmental conditions (such as Eh and pH) rather than the underlying mineralization. This i s well documented at s i t e s 279 and 280 which provide an example of hydromorphic accumulation of Cu, Fe and, to a lesser extent, Zn in near-surface swampy or gleyed s o i l s (Table 11). Further evidence of hydro-morphic accumulation can be found in the area just southeast of Banana Lake where a large area of anomalous Fe. (>_1.8%) in the L-F-H horizon is- absent from Layers 1 and 2 (FigS7.3:3 to 35). Although Cu and Fe are highly concentrated in the L-F-H horizon r e l a t i v e to the mineral s o i l (Table 11), Zn and Mn -the most mobile elements of the group - display a low degree of hydromorphic concentration. This rspresumably due;to .their higher mobility which results in rapid flushing of Zn and Mn from the ac i d i c s o i l s . As a result, contrast i s r e l a t i v e l y Table 11. D i s t r i b u t i o n of elements under swampy (gleyed) conditions at s i t e s 279 and 280. Site 279 Site 280  Element •— L-F-H Layer 1 Layer 2 L-F-H Layer 1 Layer 2 Cu 2976 126 115 546 47 62 Zn 84 35 37 73 29 32 Fe% 25.1 1.1 1.1 1.6 1.3 1.6 Pb 82 d . l . d . l . d . l . d . l . d . l . Mn 51 86 101 116 105 103 A l l values in ppm except where noted. d . l . = sample with concentration below detection l i m i t . 94. low and the highest concentrations of these two elements are usually found where pH's are more moderate and leaching, therefore, less intense. Adjacent to mineralized outcrop Zn values commonly approximate background (<J50 ppm) in the three s o i l layers and only rarely do they exceed 200 ppm. This i s in contrast to the average grade of Zn mineralization (=7.5%) when compared with geochemical values for Cu and, in p a r t i c u l a r , Pb and the average ore grade of these elements (0.4% and 1.5% re s p e c t i v e l y ) . Comparison of the Cu patterns with Ag, Fe, Pb and pH patterns, as well as the geologic map (Fig. 18) reveals many s i m i l a r i t i e s . For example, Ag, Fe and Pb patterns display, in at least one of the three s o i l layers, two well developed east-west belts of high metal concentrations separated by a narrow to moderately wide zone of low, near-background values. These zones of low values correspond very closely with one another. Consequently, i t i s not surprising that the zone of low Cu values also closely corresponds with Ag, Fe and Pb zones of low concentration, a l l of which d i r e c t l y o v e r l i e the sub-outcrop of the "mineral horizon". However, unlike Ag, Fe and Pb, Cu does not display well developed east-west belts of high values. Instead, areas of high Cu concentrations (>_200 ppm) occur as sporadic patches which are, in some cases, d i f f i c u l t to relate! d i r e c t l y to mineralized outcrop. Nevertheless, i t can be seen that 95. in a l l cases high Cu values l i e either down ice or down slope of mineralized outcrops. Cd patterns are poorly developed, due in part to low contrast (Table. 10), but mainly because concentrations are very low (<3 ppm) in the L-F-H horizon (Fig. 29) and, in the mineral s o i l , r a rely above the detection l i m i t . There i s some correlation between detectable concentrations of Cd and high Zn values in the L-F-H horizon (compare Figs. 29 and 42). Mn patterns display low contrast (Table 10) and are poorly developed, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the mineral s o i l (Figs. 37 and 38). In the L-F-H horizon (Fig. 36) high Mn values (_>200 ppm) are somewhat related to high levels of Zn (_>200 ppm) near the northwest corner and eastern shore of Camp Lake. C. P a r t i a l Extractions and Ratios 1. Introduction P a r t i a l extractions of Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn u t i l i z i n g cold 1.0M hydrochloric acid and 0.05M EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) on the minus 80-mesh f r a c t i o n of Layer 1 were undertaken to try to: 1) improve anomaly contrast, 2) d i s -tinguish mechanical ( g l a c i a l ) dispersion trains from hydro-morphic anomalies and 3) characterize the mode of metal occurrence. In general, EDTA removes a l l loosely bonded metal adsorbed on organic matter, c o l l o i d a l phases and clay p a r t i c l e s or other minerals with large surface areas. 96. l.OM HC1, a s l i g h t l y stronger extractant, removes metal associated with a l l of the above phases plus metal associated with acid soluble secondary minerals and,to a large extent, Fe and Mn oxides. These two reagents were chosen primarily because they are two of the most commonly employed p a r t i a l extractants, although various other p a r t i a l extractants may be more ef f e c t i v e in s e l e c t i v e l y removing metal associated with various sample phases (e.g. organic, Mn oxides, Fe oxides, etc.). The theory and use of many p a r t i a l extractants are adequately described elsewhere ( E l l i s et a l . , 1967; Chester and Hughes, 1967; Chao, 1972; Maynard and Fletcher, 1973; Bradshaw et a l . , 1974; Gatehouse et a l . , 1977; Peachy and Allen, 1977). Most of the s o i l grid lying east of Camp Lake was ex-cluded from these procedures due to the presence of g l a c i o -f l u v i a l material characterized by low t o t a l metal values. In addition, the two westernmost g r i d lines were not i n -cluded because they were added to the gr i d as follow up, after i n i t i a l studies were completed. As expected, the l.OM hydrochloric acid extraction was found to remove more metal than the 0.05M EDTA attack with both extractions removing a greater percentage of Pb followed by Cu, Zn and Fe r e l a t i v e to t o t a l values (Table 12). 97. Table 12. Comparison of t o t a l and p a r t i a l attacks on Layer 1, minus 80-mesh f r a c t i o n . , , .,1 Average Metal Content % Total Metal Extracted ractant N  Cu Fe% Pb Zn Cu Fe Pb Zn Camp Lake T o t a l 4 168 60 1. 51 24 59 1.0M HC1 168 39 0. 48 18 32 72 . 2 33 .7 82 .8 59 .5 0.05M EDTA 166 14 0. 06 55 5 6 27 .4 4 . 8 38 .9 11 .4 Anne Lake Total 135 79 2. 34 76 184 1.0M HC1 135 38 : 0. 61 31 76 51 . 0 29 . 2 75 . 1 47 .3 0.05M EDTA 127 11 0. 04 24 10 17 .2 2. 2 43 .5 6. 2 1: N = t o t a l number of samples. 2: Geometric means (samples below detection l i m i t omitted from calculation), in ppm except where noted. 3: Average percent extracted based-on geometric.mean of p a r t i a l to t o t a l r a t i o s . 4: 1 to 4 HN03/HC104 attack. 5: Only 40 of 168 samples were above the detection l i m i t . 98. 2. l.OM hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid extractable patterns of the r e l a t i v e l y immobile elements Fe and Pb (Fe„ and Pb^) very closely r e-semble the i r respective t o t a l patterns (compare Figs. 52 and N 54 with 34 and 40), although contrast i s somewhat lower (Table 13). For the more mobile elements the hydrochloric acid attack provided more useful information. In the case of Zn, s l i g h t l y improved contrast (Table 13) has allowed a northern Zn^ anomaly (_>50 ppm), which extends westwards from the northernmost mineralized outcrops, to be c l e a r l y defined r e l a t i v e to the t o t a l Zn (Zn T) pattern (compare Figs. 56 and 43). The highest Zn^ values display a negative correlation with zones of intense Fe staining (Fig. 45) and low (<4.4) pH (Fig. 47). This relationship i s not well developed in the Zn,p patterns. Conversely, for Cu^ (Fig. 50) there i s neither a negative or posit i v e correlation with areas of i n -tense Fe staining and low pH presumably because Cu i s not as mobile as Zn, nor as immobile as Pb. The highest Cu^ values occur towards the outer portion of the grid in close associa-t i o n with weakly (Cu) mineralized outcrop of altered footwall pyroc l a s t i c s (Fig. 18) or along the north shore of Camp Lake. 3. 0.05M EDTA Except for the poorly developed Fe (Fe„) pattern (Fig. 53), EDTA extractable patterns (Figs. 51, 55 and 57) are similar Table 13. Comparison of the average contrast 1 for t o t a l , l.OM HC1 and 0.05M EDTA extractable Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in Layer 1. Extractant N 2 Cu Fe Pb Zn Camp Lake Total . 168 8.5 3.4 32.5 3.6 l.OM HC1 168 7.6 2.4 29.6 . 4 . 6 0.05M EDTA 166 6.6 ; 4.0 13.8 4.4 Anne Lake Total 125 6.5 3.0 33.1 6.3 l.OM HC1 135 5.2 2.5 13.4 7.4 0.05M EDTA 127 5.2 4.6 9.2 7.2 1: Contrast i s defined here as X + 2 cr -f X. 2: N = t o t a l number of samples. 100. to hydrochloric acid extractable patterns; even though con-tra s t and the percentage of metal extracted i s consistently lower (Tables 12 and 13). Although 0.05M EDTA removes a higher percentage of Pb than Cu, Fe, or Zn, contrast i s markedly reduced r e s u l t i n g in a s i g n i f i c a n t l y less informative Pb„ pattern r e l a t i v e to Pb„ and PbTT. Occasional high Pb hi I n . values (_>100 ppm) are obtained with 0.05M EDTA but their scattered d i s t r i b u t i o n .effectively prevents contouring. 4. P a r t i a l to t o t a l metal r a t i o s P a r t i a l to t o t a l metal r a t i o s (Me™ or M e ™ ) were deter-v HR ER mined by r a t i o i n g p a r t i a l metal values with the corresponding t o t a l metal value for each sample in Layer 1. Ratios (0.01 to 1.00) were plotted and histograms prepared by com-puter. Where either Me^, Mer or Me™ values are below the n hi 1 detection l i m i t , the undefined r a t i o s have been omitted. A plot of F e ™ r a t i o s resulted in very low uninterpretable hiix values and hence i s not presented here. Examination of M e ™ plots (Figs. 58, 60,.61 and 63) lift reveals that, with the exception of Pb, well developed pat-terns relatable to mineralized outcrops and consistent with previously established g l a c i a l d i rection(s) are characterized by the lower r a t i o values. Although Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn are primarily dispersed in a west to northwest di r e c t i o n , there are indications, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the mineral s o i l , for some anomalies (positive or negative) to be oriented in a southwest 101. to west-southwest dir e c t i o n (e.g. Figs. 34, 41 and 50). P a r t i a l to t o t a l r a t i o s reveal the west-southwest orienta-tion of anomalies more often than either t o t a l or p a r t i a l extraction data. Possible explanations for t h i s occurrence are considered in Chapter 5. 5.. Total to t o t a l metal r a t i o s Ratios of Me T values (Pb to Zn and Pb to Cu) were plotted for the L-F-H and Layer 1 (Figs. 65 to 68). Except for a somewhat nebulous Pb/Cu pattern in the L-F-H horizon, these patterns are well defined and possess linear east-west to west-northwest trends with excellent correlation to g l a c i a l d i r e c t i o n ( s ) , the assumed dispersive mode, and the source(s) of geochemically anomalous Cu, Pb. and Zn at Camp Lake. In general, r a t i o s decrease towards the outer g r i d margin r e f l e c t i n g the sharper decrease in Pb values r e l a t i v e to Cu and Zn. D. Conductivity and pH Except for several small areas of disconnected r e l a t i v e l y 2 high values (>100 yohms/cm ) centered on the B-C stream in Layer 1,. conductivity patterns are poorly developed (Fig. 49). Outside the B-C stream area, conductivity values are randomly dist r i b u t e d with values usually displaying a narrow range of 70 to 85 yohms/cm at 0 to 14 inch depths. Conductivity 102. values in the L-F-H horizon and in Layer 2 approximate a random d i s t r i b u t i o n and consequently are not presented. Unlike conductivity, pH patterns (Figs. 46 :to 48) are well developed, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the deeper mineral s o i l and are reasoned to become better defined with depth. Well developed zones of low pH (<5.0 and <4.3 in Layer 1 and Layer 2 respectively) are s p a t i a l l y related to both the gossan zone and the northern Pb, Fe and Ag anomalies in Layers 1 and 2. I l l SOIL PITS: GEOCHEMICAL PROFILES A. Introduction Detailed information on metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with respect to depth was provided by digging 13 deep p i t s (plus 3 at Anne Lake, see Appendix B) ranging in depth from 32 to 54 inches with samples col l e c t e d every two inches. The p i t locations (Fig. 69) were chosen to provide reasonable cross sections of geochemical anomalies, including 'background' areas, at both d i s t a l and proximal l o c a l i t i e s with respect to the proposed anomaly sources ( i . e . mineralized outcrops). Seven of the 13 p i t s were selected for more detailed studies involving size f r a c t i o n analysis (plus p a r t i a l and t o t a l attacks on various size fractions) as well as p a r t i a l : t o t a l r a t i o s , heavy mineral separates, pH and conductivity. Data for the seven detailed p i t s are presented in Figures 70 to 90. Data for the remaining p i t s are in Appendix A. 103 . B. Metal, pH, Conductivity and Size Fraction Distributions In general, metal values are constant or increase with depth, except in areas adjacent to mineralized outcrops where post g l a c i a l weathering processes have enriched the upper portion of the s o i l (e.g. p i t s i t e s 121 and 123, Figs. 83 and 86). With these exceptions, metal value f l u c t u a t i o n with respect to depth i s moderate (2 to 5x) for a l l elements except Pb which, within a few inches, can increase or decrease dramatically (up to lOx). Most metals, with the possible exception of Ca, display a posi t i v e correlation with each other and Fe i s more sympathetic with Cu, Pb and Zn than i s Mn. Good correlation exists between pH, conductivity and metal levels (e.g. Figs. 74 and 75) and i t i s puzzling there-fore, that, except in the most intense gossan zones, con-d u c t i v i t y measurements over the s o i l g r i d produce only vague and di f f u s e patterns. Percent s i l t - c l a y show l i t t l e i f any co r r e l a t i o n to metal values (compare Fig..86 with 87). However, in the f i e l d , percentage and angularity of pebbles and cobbles i n -creases with depth; t h i s change generally beginning at 18 to 20 inches depth, apparently corresponds to a commonly en-countered abberation or break i n metal trends for some of the p i t s (e.g. Figs. 71 and 80). Examination of metal p r o f i l e s at p i t s 121, 123 and 125 yiel d s some insight upon the d i s t r i b u t i o n of trace elements 104. as affected by g l a c i a l and post g l a c i a l weathering processes. P i t s 121 and 123 are down slope from mineralized footwall and "mineral horizon" outcrops approximately 350 and 150 feet respectively, while p i t 125 i s 60 feet up slope from the same outcrops. The t i l l thickness i s thin to moderate (5 to 10 feet) with the p i t s penetrating 3.6 to 4.3 feet into i t . Because pH's are low (2.6 to 4.0) only the r e l a t i v e l y im-mobile element Pb w i l l be considered, as Cu and Zn have been largely removed in solution. At p i t 121 (Fig. 83) there i s a s l i g h t enrichment of Pb (40 to 70 ppm) at 0 to 6 inches depth overlying r e l a t i v e l y low (<20 ppm) values c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of background. Closer to the outcrop, at p i t 123 (Fig. 86), the surface enrichment of Pb increases to 100 to 700 ppm and extends to a depth of 26 inches where Pb concentrations drop sharply to moderate -but highly e r r a t i c - levels of 10 to 60 ppm before tending to increase (?) near the p i t bottom. Conversely up slope of the outcrop at p i t 125 one finds low levels of Pb in the upper s o i l overlying sharply increasing concentrations in the deeper s o i l (Fig. 89). Although these s i t e s l i e d i r e c t l y over the projection of the massive sulphide sub-outcrop (Fig. 18), there i s l i t t l e i n dication of underlying mineralization i n the s o i l . For example, at 50 inches depth Pb concentrations are only 20 to 40 ppm i n p i t s 121 and 123 and 60 to 80 ppm in p i t 125 - only s l i g h t l y anomalous. However, p i t s 123 and 125 display i n -105. creasing Pb values with depth, beneath the surface enrichment, and t h i s i s perhaps a weak indication of the concealed mineralization below (cf. Hawkes and Webb, 1962). Proceeding down ice approximately 300 feet to s i t e s 107 and "109 - (Figs. 80 and A8. respectively) one finds very high values (>400 ppm) the entire depth of p i t 107 while in p i t 109 high Pb concentrations (>100 ppm) do not begin to appear u n t i l a depth of 20 inches i s obtained at which point Pb values sharply increase. The o v e r a l l higher Pb values i h pit.107 versus 109 r e f l e c t s the g l a c i a l l y in l i n e position of pit- 107 with mineralized outcrops east of B-C stream while p i t 109 i s situated 'outside' the main mechanical dispersion path. However, mineralization i s moderately r e f l e c t e d in the upper 20 inches of s o i l in p i t 109 but, i t i s not u n t i l depths greater than t h i s are sampled that the underlying mineralization i s strongly r e f l e c t e d . Based on the Pb patterns (Figs. 39 to 41) p i t 121 i s close to but not g l a c i a l l y in l i n e with the same mineralized outcrop as p i t 107 and consequently Pb values are low throughout the p i t , although there i s a s l i g h t tendency for Pb values to increase as the p i t bottom i s approached. Speculation on these trends and the manner in which g l a c i a l dispersion occurred are discussed in Chapter 5. C. Heavy Mineral Separates Over 60 heavy mineral separates u t i l i z i n g bromoform (S.G. 2.89) were made and examined under a binocular micro-106. scope. Of these, ten samples were selected and polished thin sections prepared. Examination of the polished sec-tions with a r e f l e c t i n g microscope revealed that, apart from occasional grains of pyrite, no other sulphides could be detected. Limonite commonly coats mineral grains and oc-casional reddish hematite coatings were also noted. A few grains were found which consisted of whitish to reddish-brown encrusting layers of some unidentified secondary (?) mineral(s). Consequently, except near weathering mineralized outcrops, sulphides are completely destroyed within the active layer by intensive p o s t - g l a c i a l weathering (cf. S h i l t s , 1972 and Cameron and Durham, 1975). Correlation of percent heavy minerals with Cu, Pb and Zn values i s e r r a t i c because bromoform i s not sulphide s e l e c t i v e . Many minerals common to the area such as amphiboles, micas and garnets have s p e c i f i c g r a v i t i e s greater than 2.89. However, in some cases, p a r t i c u l a r l y in areas adjacent to mineralized outcrops, high concentrations of heavy minerals can be related to high levels of Fe in the form of pyrite and pyri?hot ite;which :;are r e l a t i v e l y more stable in the surface en-vironment than Cu, Pb or Zn sulphides. D. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Elements between Size Fractions The d i s t r i b u t i o n of Ag, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn between size f r a c t i o n s 1 with respect to depth was examined for seven 1: U.S. standard mesh size -10+40; -40+80; -80+270 and -270 mesh. 107. p i t s selected to represent a wide range in metal values and environmental conditions. Based on previous s o i l p i t data (Parts B and C t h i s Section), four to f i v e samples were selected from each p i t and sieved into four size f r a c t i o n s as described in Chapter 3 Section VI. After f i n e l y grind-ing the two coarsest size f r a c t i o n s , digestion and analysis were as described in Chapter 3. Two p a r t i a l extractants, l.OM HC1 and l.OM NH20H;HC1/ CHgCOOH, were u t i l i z e d on selected unground samples. Be-cause size fractions were not ground for the p a r t i a l ex-tractions, t i g h t l y bonded and/or metal as sulphide inclusions i s unaffected by these attacks. Whereas, by grinding the two coarsest fractions of the samples subjected to the t o t a l attack, v i r t u a l l y a l l possible metal i s released. An assess-ment of the r e l a t i v e importance of Fe/Mn oxide scavenging r e l a t i v e to metal t i g h t l y bonded and/or as sulphide inclusions i s then possible. Typical t o t a l and p a r t i a l extractable metal d i s t r i b u t i o n s as well as p a r t i a l to t o t a l r a t i o s covering a wide range of values are shown in Figures 91 to 96. Variation with respect to depth in the d i s t r i b u t i o n of metal between size fractions with regards to p a r t i a l and t o t a l attacks was not noticeable. In general, a l l elements-display t o t a l metal values which increase as the size f r a c t i o n decreases with the sharpest i n -2: P i t numbers 11, 14, 20, 107, 121, 123 and.125. 108. crease occurring between minus 80+270 and minus 270-mesh fraction s . In many cases - p a r t i c u l a r l y for Mn - a double peak in metal values i s evident (e.g. Fe and Pb F i g . 91; Cu, Zn and Mn F i g . 96). The highest metal values are nearly always associated with the f i n e s t s o i l f r a c t i o n while a second peak commonly occurs in the coarser fractions (-10+40 or -40+80 mesh). The fine sand f r a c t i o n (-80+270-mesh) often contains the lowest metal values. Examination of the p a r t i a l extraction and p a r t i a l to t o t a l r a t i o data reveals that in most cases values consistent-ly decrease or tend to remain constant with increasing size f r a c t i o n . However, in a few instances the values display an increase towards the coarser fract i o n s . Differences in ground and unground t o t a l metal values were examined by selecting 50 samples and grinding a l l four size f r a c t i o n s . Except for the two coarse fractions (-10+40 and -40+80), there i s no difference in metal values between ground and unground samples. Values for the ground minus 10+40 mesh f r a c t i o n are generally 10 to 20 percent higher than the corresponding unground f r a c t i o n with Fe and Mn show-ing the largest increases. The minus 40+80-mesh f r a c t i o n displays a similar trend but with a r e l a t i v e increase in metal levels of less than 10 percent in the ground versus the unground sample. T r i a l studies u t i l i z i n g l.OM hydroxylamine-hydrochloride / acetic acid, which s e l e c t i v e l y dissolves amorphous Fe/Mn oxide 109. coatings and associated trace elements (Chester and Hughes, 1967; Chao, 1972), are shown in Figures 95 and 96. The highest l.OM, hydroxylamine-hydrochloride/acetic acid ex-tractable Cu, Pb and Zn values, as with HN03/HC104 and l.OM HC1 extractions, are in the f i n e s t size f r a c t i o n . However, there i s v i r t u a l l y no cor r e l a t i o n between percent extractable Fe and Mn with Cu, Pb and Zn. Nevertheless, Cu and Zn often display a secondary peak in the coarser size fractions which, although unrelated to amorphous Fe and Mn oxides, may be rela t a b l e to c r y s t a l l i n e Fe and Mn oxides. Relative to t o t a l values, the percentage of l.OM hydroxyl-amine-hydrochloride/acetic acid extractable Fe i s low (1 to 7%) suggesting that Fe i s generally not present in the s o i l as amorphous oxides. Conversely, Mn displays a wide range of values (<1 to 35%) with the percentage of l.OM hydroxyl-amine-hydrochloride/acetic acid extractable Mn related to pH/Eh conditions (Table 14). In general, Eh appears to be more important than pH, except where pH's are extremely low (<3.5), in which case, the percentage of l.OM hydroxylamine-hydrochloride/acetic acid extractable Mn rarely exceeds three percent (e.g. F i g . 96; pH i s less than 3.0). IV WATERS A. Introduction Water data may be divided into regional data and l o c a l 110. Table 14. Relative concentrations of HN03/HC104, l.OM HC1 and l.OM hydroxylamine-hydrochloride/acetic acid extractable Mn (minus 80-mesh) in r e l a t i o n to s o i l drainage. Mn(ppm) B i t e 1 Sample Number Depth (inches) pH A2 B 3 c 4 D 5 E 6 20 1096 4 5.4 252 109 79 43 31 20 1105 22 5.0 269 102 71 38 26 20 1112 36 4.4 218 84 54 39 25 20 1481 40 4.2 121 34 24 28 20 20 1484 46 4.2 128 46 24 36 19 107 1212 8 4.3 215 170 1.6 79 0.7 107 1215 14 4.3 129 N. A. 1.6 N.A. 1.2 107 1222 28 4.2 384 N.A. 4.2 N.A. 1. 1 107 1226 36 4.3 203 174 2.1 86 1.0 1: Site 20 i s r e l a t i v e l y well drained (oxidizing) while s i t e 107 i s near B-C Stream and Camp Lake and i s poorly drained (reducing). 2: A = HN03/HC104. 3: B = l.OM HC1. 4: C = NH20H.HC1/CH3C00H. 5: D'= % extract.l.OM HC1 (B^-A). 6: E = % extract. NH20H-HC1/CH3C00H (C^-A). N.A. = Not available. 111. data, depending on the scale of exploration, sample density and the area represented by the sample. Samples from lakes and streams represent large drainage or catchment basins measuring a few tenths to several square miles; whereas, samples of seepage, p i t or snow-melt runoff usually represent areas of less than a few hundred square feet. Samples from the l a t t e r three water types are more closely related to metal and pH values in s o i l s than lake or stream waters and consequently provide a l i n k between s o i l , lake and stream water data. Various water types were sampled over the summers of 1974 and 1975 (Table 2) with a twofold purpose: 1) to assess the r e l a t i v e importance of chemical weathering and hydro-morphic dispersion under permafrost conditions and 2) to determine the usefulness of hydrogeochemical methods at regional and detailed levels of exploration. I n i t i a l l y lake, stream, surface-seepage and p i t waters were sampled in July, 1974; however, the usefulness of the l a t t e r two media was limited by a v a i l a b i l i t y . Consequently, water sampling in 1975 was i n i t i a t e d e a r l i e r in the summer (June) to take advantage of abundant surface water - pro-vided by melting snow and thawing s o i l (Plate 11) - and to monitor temporal variations and examine the 'flushing e f f e c t ' of snow-melt runoff as postulated by Jonasson and Allan (1973) and various Soviet s c i e n t i s t s . Although the use of snow as a sample medium has been employed with success (Jonasson and 112. Allan, 1973), trace element concentrations are generally low and sampling depth c r i t i c a l ; therefore, the usefulness of snow-melt runoff, collected within 15 to 100 feet of melting snowbanks, was in doubt. Because sampling of lake and stream waters i s generally considered to be a reconnaissance rather than a detailed form of exploration geochemistry, data from the Anne-Cleaver Lakes area are included to augment the data from the Camp Lake area. Regional data from Cameron and Ballantyne (1975) have been added to f a c i l i t a t e a more complete understanding of the regional lake water geochemistry and to expand examination of vari a t i o n with respect to time and a n a l y t i c a l technique in the analysis of lake waters. A s i m i l a r approach has been taken with lake sediments as detailed in Section V. B. Regional Data: 1. Streams Evaluation of trace element lev e l s in streams i s d i f -f i c u l t because streams are r e l a t i v e l y few and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y display intermittant flows due to low topographic r e l i e f and low amounts of p r e c i p i t a t i o n (<12 inches/year). In general, stream flow i s substantial in early to mid June but there-after , most of the snow has melted and flow rates are d r a s t i c a l l y reduced u n t i l f a l l rains s l i g h t l y increase flow. Except for a segment of the main drainage system at Camp Lake, 113 . beginning at B-C stream and ending nearly two miles down drainage, data on streams are minimal. Seasonal v a r i a t i o n of dissolved metals in waters flowing into and out of Camp Lake were monitored at B-C and Camp-Upper Sunken Lake streams. The inflowing stream shows a con-sistent increase in Zn values from early June to the end of July while the exit stream (Camp-Upper Sunken Lake stream) displays concentrations which r i s e to a maximum in mid-late June and subsequently decrease and l e v e l off (?) (Table 15). Farther down drainage the stream crosses the "mineral horizon" just below Upper Sunken Lake and Zn values increase s l i g h t l y to 90 ppb then decrease to 85 ppb one-half mile farther down stream (Table 15)., Limited data for Ca (range 1500 to 3700 ppb) tend to show a negative correlation with Zn while Mg (range 800 to 1100 ppb) tend to show a posit i v e correlation with Zn. Fe i s rarely detectable ( d . l . =5 ppb) but Mn i s usually 12 to 25 ppb. 2. Lakes Regional lake water data/have largely been taken from Cameron and Ballantyne (1975). Where overlap of sampling occurred between t h i s author and Cameron, a comparison of data has been provided (Tables 7 and 16). Because the re-sults obtained by Cameron and t h i s author are remarkably similar (considering the d i f f e r e n t c o l l e c t i o n , preparation and a n a l y t i c a l techniques), a dir e c t comparison of data i s 114. Table 15. Dissolved Zn (ppb) in exit and entrance streams of Camp Lake, 1975. Date Camp Lake Upper Sunken Lake Sampled Exit Entrance Exit June 7 1 91 85 (90) 2 (85) 3 June 13 130. 6 July 4 65 10 July 27 55 29 July 30 58 55 1: 10 ppb Sunken below and 15 ppb Lake exit the d . l . of Cu detected at Camp Lake exit and respectively, a l l other samples were =10 ppb for Cu. Value in ( ) obtained 1000 feet down stream from Upper Sunken Lake. Value in ( ) obtained 4200 feet down stream from Upper Sunken Lake. i 115. Table 16. Comparison of metal, conductivity and pH values in water samples collected from the same s i t e s on July 9, and 30, 1974 (modified from Cameron and Ballantyne, 1975). Location Zn 1 Cu 1 pH Cond. 1 Camp Lake 71(66) 2 9(9) 7. 0(6 • 8) 31(31) Lower Sunken L. 30(28) 2(2) 7. 0(6 • 8) 25(25) Boot Lake 13(9) 1(1) 7. 3(7 • 1) -Thigh Lake 10(7) 3(2) 7. 4(7 .5) -Upper Banana L. 7(1) 1(1) 7. 3(7 • 2) -Banana Lake •<1(3) 2(3) 7. 2(7 .0) 27(27) 1: Zn and Cu values in ppb; conductivity in yohms/cm2. 2: Data i n ( ) are from samples collected on July 30, 1974. Note: Mn and Fe were ra r e l y detected ( d . l . = 8 ppb and 5 ppb respectively). Table 17. Geochemistry of Camp, Banana, Anne and Turtle Lake Waters. T , Depth Date ppb „ ^ ^ 1 Lake N „ , , ^ ., f f — r j s r — pH Cond. ( f t . ) Sampled Ca Mg Mn Zn ^ Camp 1 7/8/74 1472 Camp 15 7/8/74 1472 Camp 35 7/8/74 1472 Camp 1 7/15/74 1472 Camp 25 7/15/74 1515 Camp 50 7/15/74 1472 Camp 1 7/5/75 3105 Camp 10 7/5/75 3105 Camp 20 7/5/75 2277 Camp 1 7/5/75 3105 Camp 10 7/5/75 2173 Camp 25 7/5/75 3105 Camp 45 7/5/75 2691 Banana 1 7/28/74 1626 Banana 30 7/28/74 2042 Anne 1 7/29/74 6752 Anne 15 7/29/74 6752 Turtle 1 8/4/74 7280 Turtle 43 8/4/74 7197 Turtle 1 8/4/74 7155 Turtle 54 8/4/74 7322 801 8 74 7. 0 27 923 12 69 7 . 0 28 777 12 72 6. 9 27 801 d. 1. 774 7. 0 28 801 d. 1. 74 7. 0 28 801 d . l . 71 7. 0 28 868 d. 1. 65 6. 8 28 834 d. 1. 68 6. 8 30 851 'd. 1. 74 6. 7 28 842 d. 1. 71 6. 8 29 918 d. 1. 71 6. 8 27 809 17 71 6. 8 30 776 50 65 6. 8 29 715 12 d. 1. 7. 0 26 715 d. 1. d . l . 7. 0 26 1635 d . l . 37 7. 0 76 1609 d. 1. 37 7. 0 77 1297 12 10 7, 0 65 1272 8 13 7. 0 66 1297 12 10 7. 0 65 1297 12 11 7. 0 65 1: yohms/cm2. d . l . = concentration below the detection l i m i t . d . l . = 8 ppb for Mn and 7 ppb for Zn. Table 18. Vari a t i o n with respect to time in the composition of surface lake waters in the v i c i n i t y of the Yava (Agricola Lake) prospect, 40 miles-south of Bathurst Norsemines. Yava Lake Sample • East T o o i h o r t Lake samples Shorereef Lake a&npl Sajsple Number 740009 742472 750203 752750 740025 742486 750210 752767 742491 750175 752783 Data B&npled 1/7/74 23/7/74 30/6/75 IB/7/75 2/7/74 23/7/74 30/6/75 18/7/75 23/7/74 30/6/75 18/7/75 s i o 2 (ppm) 7.10 n.d. 2.68 3.61 2.97 n.d. 1.12 1.29 n.d. 0.35 0.25 A l (ppm) 1.75 n.d. n.d. n.d. 0.20 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. . n.d. n.d. ?a (ppb) 74.00 162.00 70.00 56.00 36.00 29.00 5.00 <3.00 15.00 < 3.00 < 3.00 Hn (ppb) 76.00 71.00 69.00 91.00 36.00 27.00 30.00 34 .00 4 .00 <3.00 O.00 N l (ppb) 20.00 26.00 24 .00 29 .00 8.00 11.00 • 13.00 14 .00 5.00 7.00 4.00 Cu (ppb) 39.00 59.00- 64.00 '90.00 7.00 11.00 9.00 13.00 2.00 2.00 1.00 Pb (ppb) 15.00 18.00 10.00 11.00 1.00 1.00 2.50 2.50 1.00 <1.00 < 1.00 Zn (ppb) 179.00 186.00 125.00 19 5.00 32.00 34.00 25.00 30.00, 2.00 2.00 <1.00 Ca (ppm) 2.50 3.17 2.32 3.40 1.80 1.84 0.86 1.96 0.97 0.BO 1.07 Mg (ppoi) • 1.42 1.30 1.33 1.53 0.94 0.92 0.45 0.89 0.49 0.40 0.47 Na (ppm) 1.00 1.08 0.76 1.10 0.60 0.66 0.38 0.75 0.48 0.38 0.63 K (ppa) 0.5S 0.52 0.40 0.71 • 0.48 0.41 0.30 0.50 0.22 0.26 0.22 S°4 (ppm) 40.60 41.10 26.50 37.50 14.00 12.20 10.10 ' 11.00 3.00 3.40 3.50 C l (ppm) 0.30 2.40 2.10 3.30 0.22 0.10 40.10 0.10 0.10 40.10 <0A0 A c i d i t y as CaCO^ (ppm) 26.5 n.d. 22.80 26.00 • n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. • A l k a l i n i t y at ICO^ (PP<») n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. .n.d. 0.50 1.90 1.30 2.30 1.80 S p e c i f i c conductance ( uohms) 112.00 141.00 • 104.00 127.00 31.00 41.00 30.00 34.00 19.50 14.40 14.80 pH 3.50 3.80 3.90 3.9 4.5 4.70 4.90 5.00 6.10 6.60 6.70 n.d. • not determined. Note: c o r r e l a t i o n of low pH and high l e v e l s of Cu, Pb and Zn. 118. Table 19. Water composition of Camp, Banana and Lower Sunken Lakes sampled during July, 1974. Banana Camp Lower Sunken S i 0 o ppm 2 Fe ppb <5 . 1.73 • <5. ..< 5 2 Mn ppb <8 < 8 W8: Ca ppm 2. 81 2.51 2.63 Mg ppm 0. 77 0. 80 0. 81 Na ppm1 0.49 0.40 0.52 K ppm 0. 47 0.47 0.47 SO. ppm1 2. 8.0 5. 00 6.70 Cl ppm 0. 20 0.60 0.60 PH 2 7. 20 7.00 7.00 Cond. 2 (yohms/cm ) 27(16) 3 30(18) 3 30(18) 3 1: Data from Cameron and Ballantyne (1975), lected July, 1974. samples c o l -2: Data col l e c t e d by t h i s author July, 1974. 3: Data i n ( ) equals dissolved s o l i d s content in ppm using the r e l a t i o n of s p e c i f i c conductance x 0.60 = dissolved s o l i d concentration in ppm (from Livingston, 1973). 119. possible. Geochemical data for Camp, Banana and Lower Sunken Lakes are given in Tables 16, 17 and 19 and Figure 101. Limited data for the lakes in and adjacent to the Anne-Cleaver Lakes study area are presented in Table 17 and Figure 101. Based on data from the 1974 and 1975 f i e l d seasons and Cameron's 1974 data (Cameron and Ballantyne, 1975) lake waters in the Bathurst Norsemines region can be considered homogeneous (within in d i v i d u a l lakes), of near neutral pH and exhibit l i t t l e seasonal v a r i a t i o n (Tables 16 to 18). Lake waters are extraordinarily clear, with v i s i b i l i t y i n excess of 25 feet, and extremely pure ( t o t a l dissolved s o l i d s <20 ppm) r e l a t i v e to most North American fresh waters (Livingston, 1973). Examination of Figure 101 (also F i g . 17, note trace of "mineral horizon") reveals that at both study areas anomalous concentrations of Zn (j>10 ppb) and Cu (_>2 ppb) are generally r e s t r i c t e d to lakes that l i e down ice and/or down drainage from mineralization. The highest Cu and Zn values are found in those lakes that l i e closest to but are d i r e c t l y down ice/down drainage from mineralization. Zn and Cu values pro-gressively decrease down ice/down drainage from mineralization with Cu values appearing to decrease more rapidly r e l a t i v e to Zn (Table 31; F i g . 101). Lakes that l i e up ice, or more importantly up drainage, (e.g. Banana Lake) contain ex-ceedingly low Cu and Zn values (Fig. 101). Pb and Ag were not detected in any lake waters while Mn and Fe were ra r e l y detected. 120. C. Local Data: Surface-seepage, P i t and Snow-melt Runoff 1. Surface-seepage and p i t waters Surface-seepage and p i t water data have been combined because of th e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s and s c a r c i t y over the s o i l g r i d (Fig. 97). Although broad areas of interest have been out-lined, sample density i s i n s u f f i c i e n t for detailed i n t e r -pretation. Nevertheless, Cu appears to form a s l i g h t l y more r e s t r i c t e d pattern r e l a t i v e to Zn. The highest Cu and Zn values are confined to the area north of Camp Lake and east of B-C stream in the v i c i n i t y of the gossan zone, low s o i l and water pH's and anomalous concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in s o i l s . Relative to Cu and Zn lev e l s in s o i l s , surface-seepage and p i t waters generally have much higher contrast. Although the data are limited, comparison of Cu and Zn values in surface-seepage with complimentary p i t waters (Table 20) shows that Zn values are consistently higher for surface-seepage waters while Cu lev e l s in these waters are approximately equal to those in p i t waters. Based on a l l the p i t and seepage data, Mn and Fe values are generally higher in p i t waters. 2. Snow-melt runoff The sampling of snow-melt runoff resulted in more com-plete coverage of the study area and, except for Fe, metal values and conductivity measurements are considerably lower Table 20. Comparison of Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, S0 4, pH and conductivity values in water from surface-seepages and s o i l p i t s . Zn (ppb) Cu (ppb) Fe (ppb) Mn (ppb) Surface-pit Ave. Surface P i t Surface P i t Surface P i t Surface P i t SO. pH Cond. 39 3600 3000 2400 1800 15 4 2459 2971 160 4.0 485 192 660 610 550 700 <5 52 79 117 35 4.4 70 66 358 218 18 15 <5 <5 49 111 47 5.0 130 277 252 68 <12 20 <5 < 5 96 33 <35 5.3 40 1: Because values for these three parameters are similar for both water types they have been combined and averaged. S0 4 i s in ppm and conductivity i s in microhms/cm2 . 122. Table 21. Comparison of the geochemistry of snow-melt run-off with seepage-pit waters at Camp Lake. 1 2 Water Type Range of Values N Mean Cone. Cu (ppb) Snow-melt Seepage-pit <10-2500 <10-2400 27 21 207 265 Zn (ppb) Snow-melt Seepage-pit <7-70307 <7-3600 63 32 296 460 pH Snow-melt Seepage-pit <4.0-6.7 <4.0-7.0 66 32 5.5 5.5 Conductivity (yohms/cm2) Snow-melt Seepage-pit 6-2750 18-490 66 32 44° 104 S0 4 (ppm) Snow-melt Seepage-pit <35-275 <35-230 10 15 87 73 Mn (ppb) Snow-melt Seepage-pit <8-2288 <8-2971 53 30 43 68' Fe (ppb) Snow-melt Seepage-pit <5-43107 <5-82 56 12 108' 21 1: N = number of samples above detection l i m i t ; the t o t a l number •• equals 66 and 32 for snow-melt and seepage-pit waters respectively. 2: Except for pH, where values less than 4.0 were taken as 3.0, values below the detection l i m i t s (d.l.) were not used in ca l c u l a t i o n of arithmetic means. 3: Two extremely high values of 2750 and 1710 microhms/cm were excluded in ca l c u l a t i o n of the mean. 4: The following extremely high metal values (ppb) were omitted from cal c u l a t i o n of arithmetic means: Zn, snow-melt 70307, 32520; Mn, seepage-pit 2971, 2459; Mn, snow-melt, 2204, 2288; Fe, snow-melt, 1839, 1349, 32107. 123. Table 22. Comparison of Zn, Cu, conductivity and pH values in snow-melt runoff with surface-seepage and pi t waters col l e c t e d at the same sample s i t e . Site Number Zn Pit/surface-seepage" Cu Cond. pH Snow-melt runoff 1 Zn Cu Cond. pH 9 124 d . l . 2 85 5. 8 35 d . l . 20 6. 0 44 23 d . l . 34 6. 0 10 d . l . 11 5. 3 55 114 d . l . 135 5. 5 65 d. 1. 45 5. 5 66 358 18 140 5. 0 16 d . l . 15 5. 0 66 (218) (15) (HO) (5. 0) 16 d . l . 15 5. 0 72 314 9,1 . 57 5. 7 162 d . l . 32 6. 0 76 13 ; d . l . 31 6. 0 14 20 15 5. 8 112 (1188) (1818) (315) (<4 .0) 586 399 144 4. 0 115 33 ; 130 15 6. 0 31 90 10 5. 5 125 (525) (1667) (127) (<4 .0) 34 130 14 5. 5 126 465 191 45 5. 5 25 50 14 5. 8 128 140 76 24 5. 8 98 60 14 5. 8 Zn and Cu values in ppb, conductivity in microhms;/cm2 values in ( ) are p i t waters, a l l other values are from surface-seepage waters. d . l . denotes concentration below the detection l i m i t of =10 ppb. 124. r e l a t i v e to surface-seepage/pit re s u l t s (Tables 21 and 22). In contrast, pH and sulphate lev e l s remain r e l a t i v e l y un-changed on the average (Table 21), although for sulphate the percentage of samples above the detection l i m i t of 35 ppm i s only 15 percent compared to 45 percent for surface-seepage/ p i t waters. Nevertheless, Cu and Zn concentrations are r e l a t i v e l y high with excellent geochemical contrast and well developed patterns (Figs. 98 to 100). Like the surface-seepage and p i t waters, the highest Cu and Zn values occur in the v i c i n i t y of mineralized foot-wall outcrops near B-C stream where the most intense part of the gossan, low (<4.0) s o i l and water pH's and negative to low Cu and Zn s o i l anomalies can be found (Figs. 31, 32 and 43 to 47). Relative to Cu, Zn i s more widely dispersed, has higher geochemical contrast and forms two narrow east-west belts of high (>40 ppb) values. High Cu values d i s -play a clear association with altered, weakly Cu mineralized footwall volcanics with the very high Cu values (>100 ppb) encompassing the most northerly Cu mineralized outcrops. High Cu and Zn levels in snow-melt runoff coincide with high Cu and Zn values i n s o i l s and outline, with extremely high values, those areas where Cu and Zn levels in s o i l can be characterized as negative anomalies due to low s o i l pH's (<4.0). Relative to the poorly developed, low contrast Cu and Zn patterns in the s o i l , Cu and Zn patterns in snow-melt 125. runoff are very well developed with contrast values of 40'to 100 compared to values of 4 to 14 for the s o i l s . V SEDIMENTS A. Introduction Two d i s t i n c t types of sediment are found in lakes of the Bathurst Norsemines Area: those of the immediate near shore (<_10 feet of water) and those found in deeper water. In general, near-shore sediments consist of sand and s i l t with subordinate amounts of pebbles and clay while lake-center sediments are more homogeneous, consisting almost en-t i r e l y of s i l t - a n d clay-size p a r t i c l e s with 12 to 28 per-cent organic matter (cf. Cameron,. 1977c). Near-shore sediments were not sampled in t h i s study because close examination of these sediments reveals that they closely resemble t i l l and are affected by many of the fro s t processes operating in t i l l . In addition, these sedi-ments may be s i g n i f i c a n t l y affected by mechanical processes which can result i n highly variable and limited geochemical dispersion t r a i n s . Examples of patterned ground features such as c i r c l e s and str i p e s in near-shore sediments can be seen upon close inspection of Plates 16 and 17. C i r c l e s are r e s t r i c t e d to very near-shore sediments while str i p e s form in s l i g h t l y deeper water where slopes are higher. S h i l t s and Dean (1975) 126. have adequately discussed the formation of many of these sub-aqueous features. Lake-center sediments were chosen because they are: 1) less affected by fr o s t processes and mechanical dispersion, 2) are more homogeneous and 3) provide a large anomalous dispersion t r a i n . In addition, lake-center sampling had not been previously reported for lakes within the zone of con-tinuous permafrost. A mud snapper was used to c o l l e c t 57 s u r f i c i a l lake sediment samples from Camp, Banana, Upper Sunken, Lower Sunken, Anne and Turtle Lakes. C o l l e c t i o n of s u r f i c i a l sediments were made to: 1) establish the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations across the deeper portions of lakes, 2) assess factors c o n t r o l l i n g metal d i s t r i b u t i o n and 3) examine geochemical dispersion in lake sediments r e l a t i v e to lake waters and s o i l s with regards to the applica-b i l i t y of lake-center sediments to mineral exploration. Detailed studies on metal d i s t r i b u t i o n s within sediments as a function of texture, depth within the sediment and Eh (studies which are not possible on s u r f i c i a l sediment) were provided by 18 core samples from Camp and Banana Lakes. Regional data, unfortunately, could not be obtained; therefore, regional data from Cameron and Durham (1974) and Allan et a l . (1973) have been included for comparison pur-poses because most of the data col l e c t e d by t h i s author from the aforementioned lakes suggests that v i r t u a l l y a l l these lakes are highly anomalous in Cu, Pb and Zn. Because streams are few with intermittant and i l l -defined flow, only a few sediment samples were coll e c t e d (Table 2); therefore, these data are only b r i e f l y discussed. B. S u r f i c i a l Lake Sediments Although regional background data were not obtained, Cameron and Durham (1974) have reported regional data for near-shore sediments from the region (106° to 110° west l o n g i -tude and 60°30' to 66° north l a t i t u d e ) , part of which i s sum-marized i n Tables 23 and 24. Comparison of regional near-shore, l o c a l near-shore and lake-center sediment geochemistry (Table 25) shows that metal levels in sediment can l o c a l l y be extremely high i n both near-shore and lake-center samples but that lake-center sediments generally contain higher values with better contrast (Table 25 and cf. Hoffman, 1976 pp. 197 and 328). Near-shore sediment may be influenced s i g n i f i c a n t l y by mechanical d i s -persion processes and, consequently, may not present as wide a target as lake-center or break-in-slope sampling (Hoffman, 1976). Comparison of these two sample types in terms of their chemical and textural components i s generally not v a l i d as near-shore sediments are t y p i c a l l y impoverished in trace metals r e l a t i v e to more f i n e l y divided, organic r i c h (>18% carbon) lake-center sediments. Furthermore, Cameron's Table 23. Major and minor element composition of near-shore lake sediments from a 1250 square mile region centered on Camp Lake 1. 2 3 Semi-regional Camp Lake X S G X S i 0 2 % 73.5 7.5 73.2 69.1 A1 20 3% 11.0 2.0 10. 8 12. 1 F e 2 ° 3 % 2. 67 1.36 2.37 3.0 Mg0% 1. 25 0. 55 1.15 1.70 Ca0% 0. 99 0.36 0. 91 1. 10 Na 20% 2. 22 0.67 2. 14 2.00 K 20% 1. 87 0. 55 1. 81 1.70 T i 0 2 % 0.37 0.11 0.35 0. 50 Mn0% 0. 042 0.016 0. 039 0.03 Ba% 0. 035 0.013 0.033 0. 04 Zn ppm 71.3 71. 5 50.5 1419.0 Cu ppm 34. 1 32. 5 24.7 624.0 Pb ppm 29.3 95. 1 11.9 140.0 Ni ppm 24. 0 27.4 16.8 32.0 Co ppm 9.2 11. 6 6.3 11. 0 Ag ppm 0.60 1. 16 0.30 0. 90 Hg ppb 19.7 11.7 17.4 48.0 1: Data from Allan et a l . (1973a), minus-250 mesh f r a c t i o n ; X, arithmetic mean; S, standard deviation; G, geometric mean. 2: S t a t i s t i c s computed from 28 near-shore lake sediments. 3: Average of three near-shore samples taken from 3 to 8 feet of water, 129. Table 24. Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn and organic carbon content of near-shore lake sediments from the Bathurst Norsemines regi o n . 1 Cu Pb Zn Fe% Mn Organic Carbon% Ar i t h . mean 24 13 - 2,.3 104 4.0 Geom. mean 20 13 32 2.2 89 2.0 Std. dev. 20 3.0 26 0.78 66 4.3 1: Data from GSC maps 10 to 13 - 1972, Sheet, 3; s t a t i s t i c s based on 1349 near-shore lake sediments coll e c t e d i n 3 to 8 feet of water; one sample per lake from an area of 12,500 mi 2. Table 25. Comparison of the geochemistry of regional near-shore lake sediments with lake-center sediments from the Bathurst Norsemines property. Arith. Mean Concentrations Lake N 2 Cu Pb Zn Fe% Mn LOI% Camp 5(20) 148(795) N.A.(133) 255(1064) N. A. (2 • 4) N.A.(1043) <1(20) Banana 2(9) 16(659) 15(24) 90(1008) 1. .6(2. 2) 64(86) N.A.(19) Lower Sunken K D 12(59) N.A.(3) 27(175) N. A. ( l • 2) N.A.(114) N.A.(7) Joe 1 11 11 16 1.8 64 <1(N.A.) Bat 1 64 N.A. 89 N.A N.A. N.A. Boot 1 25 N.A. 36 N.A N.A. N.A. " Thigh 1 29 N.A. 86 N.A N.A. N.A. Anne 1(16) 656(1543) N.A.(88) 875(3071) N. A. (2 .2) N.A.(279) N.A.(16) Turtle 2(9) 80(468) 19(16) 125(1572) 2 .5(2. 3) 163(1076) 3(10) 1: Near-shore sediment data from Cameron and Durham (1974) GSC Paper 74-27. Data in ( ) are for lake-center sediments from th i s study. Geochemical data in ppm unless otherwise noted. Cameron and Durham's data are from the minus 250-mesh fraction-; t h i s study minus 80-mesh fraction. N.A. = not available. 2: Number of samples. Table 26. Metal content of lake sediments sampled with a mud snapper at Bathurst Norsemines. Metal Content ppm Lake N Cu Pb Zn Fe % Mn 1 Mean Range Mean1 Range Mean 1 Range Mean1 Range Mean1 Range Camp 19 795 154-2260 133 9-302 1064 226-6264 2.42 1.3-13, . 1 1043 126-4300 Up. Sunken 2 260 241-282 33 31-34 429 419-438 1-7 1.7-1. 7 237 231-242 Lo. Sunken 1 59 3 175 1.2 114 Banana 9 659 29-1995 24 5-60 1008 74-2321 2.2 0.8-3. 9 181 89-295 Anne 16 1543 380-3439 88 25-147 3071 1415-5232 2.2 1.7-2. 8 279 2 154-1800 Turtle 9 468 291-757 16 9-28 1572 597-2984 2.3 2 1.5-12 .4 1076 2 150-26188 1: Arithmetic mean. 2: The following values were excluded in calculation of X: Fe: Camp Lake, 13.1% and 12.3% Turtle Lake, 12.4%. Mn (ppm): Anne Lake, 1800, 1260; Turtle Lake, 12269, 26188. 132. Table 27. Cu, Pb and Zn ra t i o s in sediments 1 and s o i l s 1 , Medium Ratios Cu:Pb Zn:Pb Zn:Cu Camp Lake Area Camp Lake S o i l s (0-14") 2.3 2 S8 1.22 Camp Lake seds. 6.0 8.0 1.34 Upper Sunken L. seds. 8.1 13.0 1.65 Banana L. seds. 27.0 42.0 1.52 Lower Sunken L. seds. 20.0 58.3 2.97 Anne Lake Area Anne Lake s o i l s (0-10") 1.8 2.3 2.16 Anne Lake seds. 17.5 34.9 1.99 Turtle Lake seds. 29.0 98.3 3.36 p Sediment:Soil Ratios Cu:Cu Pb:Pb Zn:Zn Camp Lake 15.0 5.8 16.4 Anne Lake 18.8 1.2 17.4 1: Total attack ( n i t r i c - p e r c h l o r i c ) , -80 mesh f r a c t i o n . 2: Based on geometric means for sediment and s o i l (Layer 1) data (Tables 9, 26 and.Bl). 133. data are for minus 250-mesh material while t h i s study used the minus 80-mesh f r a c t i o n . Nevertheless, because no other data are available, t h i s comparison i s presented as a guide to regional and l o c a l metal concentrations of the area. Sediments from Camp, Banana, Upper Sunken, Anne and Turtle Lakes obviously contain strongly anomalous leve l s of Cu and Zn, while Lower Sunken Lake contains s l i g h t l y anomalous concentrations of Cu and moderately high Zn lev e l s (Figs. 102 to 106; Tables 24 and 25). Pb values, however, show a d i s t i n c t , abrupt and limited d i s t r i b u t i o n as shown by Cu/Pb and Zn/Pb rat i o s and mean concentrations (Tables 25 to 27). Variation of Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn concentrations across the lake bottom i s considerable, especially for Fe and Mn (Table 26). Although amorphous Fe and Mn oxides play im-portant roles in scavenging Cu, Zn and, to a lesser extent, Pb from lake and stream waters (Horsnail et a l . , 1969; Garrett and Hornbrook, 1976; Coker and Nichol, 1975; Chao and Theobald, 1976) they do not appear to be important factors in l o c a l i z a t i o n of Cu, Pb or Zn in lake sediments sampled in t h i s study. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y well docu-mented by lake sediment core data (Figs. 108 to 126). Allan et a l . (1973) also reported poor correlations for Fe and Mn with Cu, Pb and Zn in near-shore lake sediments from the Bathurst region. With the exception of the eastern shore, Camp Lake contains s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher Pb concentrations than Banana 134. Lake. Passing from Camp into Upper Sunken and then Lower Sunken Lakes, there i s a marked decrease in Pb values with the lowest values occurring in Lower Sunken Lake. Within Camp Lake, the highest metal values are generally found towards the north to northwest end of the lake, i . e . closest the ore zone. In samples nearest the eastern shore, where sample depths are the shallowest, Pb levels are approx-imately 10 to 30 times lower than elsewhere while Cu and Zn values remain high. A similar s i t u a t i o n exists at Anne and Turtle Lakes (Figs. 105 and 106; Tables 25 and 26). Although s i g n i f i c a n t Zn-Pb-Cu mineralization can be found along the "mineral horizon" south of Anne Lake (Figs. 17, B6, B20 and B26), Turtle Lake i s well removed from mineralization and metal-rich t i l l ; however, Turtle Lake receives drainage from Anne Lake whose waters are highly anomalous in Cu and Zn (Figs. 12 and 101). Cu, Pb and Zn values are highly anomalous in Anne Lake sedi-ments; whereas, down drainage in Turtle Lake Zn, Cu and Pb values are,lower by factors of 2, 3.3 and 5.5 respectively and, except for very low levels of Pb, the values can s t i l l be considered highly anomalous (compare Tables 24 and 25). Within Anne Lake the higher Pb values, as at Camp Lake, are generally r e s t r i c t e d to those samples taken from depths exceeding 20 feet; however, the deepest sample (376) con-tains the lowest Cu, Pb and Zn values but highest percent L.O.I. In addition, the higher Pb values also r e l a t e to the 135. point where the "mineral horizon" enters Anne Lake (com-pare Figs. 17 and 105). At Turtle Lake, the highest Cu and Zn values are found in samples taken from shallow to intermediate depths (=10 to 30 f e e t ) . Samples collected from the deeper por-tions of Turtle Lake contain somewhat lower values. Con-versely, c o l l e c t i o n of samples from too near shore (<_ 8 feet water) may also r e s u l t in o v e r a l l lower metal values (Table 25). Therefore, c o l l e c t i o n of sediment samples from intermediate depths (=15 to 35 feet) or near the break-in-slope of the lake basin appears optimal (cf. Hoffman, 1976, p. 338; Winter, 1976). Possible explanations for v a r i a t i o n of metal content with water depth are considered in Chapter 5. Although lake sediments from t h i s study contain strong-ly anomalous values they also contain low values and, un-l i k e lake waters, comparison of metal values within lake sediments shows that Cu, Zn and Pb l e v e l s can fluctuate over an order of magnitude within a given lake. Nevertheless, almost any sample s i t e chosen within these two lakes would be anomalous on a regional scale. Ag and Cd values are low in a l l lakes and therefore, are not presented i n figures. Camp and Anne Lakes contain the highest values (range <1 to 15 ppm Ag and 5 to 50 ppm Cd) while adjacent lakes (e.g. Banana and Turtle) contain much lower Ag (<_1 ppm) and Cd (2 to 15 ppm) values. High Cd and Ag values tend to correlate with high Zn and Pb values respectively. 136. C. Lake Sediment Cores Short (4 to 12 inch) cores were coll e c t e d from Camp and Banana Lakes as part of a follow-up study on metal d i s -t r i b u t i o n within lake sediments (Figs. 107 to 127). In general, sediment cores consist of a basal (?) layer of sand-s i l t - c l a y or dense compact s i l t - c l a y , of unknown thickness, which occasionally contains pebbles. Deposited on t h i s i s a one to two inch thick, soft s i l t - c l a y which sometimes con-tains a f r i a b l e , whitish, s i l t y material (marl?). In several cores, plant f i b e r s were noted in a thin (1 to 2 inch) zone near the contact of these layers. Above the marl an organic, watery sediment (>70 percent H^ O by weight) begins to gradually appear over a one to two inch zone; however, in some cases,the contact i s knife sharp.. In general, the upper one to three inches.of a core are usually bright orange and black due to oxidation of Fe and Mn, while lower portions of the core range from tan to a medium or dark grey depending on organic content and Eh. Fe and Mn nodules increase in siz e , numbers and d e f i n i t i o n towards the sediment-water interface where they often form a nodule layer one to three centimeters thick. Although Fe and Mn nodules are abundant at the surface and the sedi-ment i s br i g h t l y colored, organic content remains unchanged r e l a t i v e to the underlying medium grey watery sediment (algal g y t t j a ) . Interspersed within the g y t t j a are thin 137. (1 to 3 mm), closely spaced sharp to dif f u s e black bands (Fig. 118 and Plate 13) and dif f u s e i r r e g u l a r Fe and Mn nodules. Figure 127 i s an ideal i z e d representation of the sedimentary stratigraphy which i s remarkably similar to sediment cores described by Karrow and Anderson (1975) from Louise Lake, Ontario, except that the sedimentation rate i s approximately 20 times less at Camp Lake. Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations vary almost as much with depth as they do over the sediment surface. Variations exceeding an order of magnitude are not unusual, especially for Mn (Figs. 109, 119 and 120). Rapid changes in metal values (up to 20x) over the length of a core are largely the resu l t of changes in sediment texture (e.g. Figs. 110 and 118). Within individual sediment types (e.g. gyttja, s i l t - c l a y etc.) v a r i a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower (Figs. 109 and 113). Relative to Cu and Zn, Pb displays the widest range of values with respect to depth, par t i c u -l a r l y in cores that penetrate the dense s a n d - s i l t - c l a y layer where metal values are invariably much lower (Figs. 118 and 120). Nevertheless, Cu and Zn values, although lower i n the s a n d - s i l t - c l a y (except Cu i n core 1645, F i g . 123), are s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y high (500 to 1200 ppm). Cu, Pb, Zn and L.O.I, values usually remain somewhat con-stant with respect to depth or increase to a maximum and then decline towards the bottom of the core. Conversely, Fe.and, i n particular, Mn increase - often dramatically - towards the 138. sediment-water interface (Figs. 109, 113, 119 and 123). Consequently, a negative correlation between Fe/Mn levels and base metals i s well developed (Figs. 112, 115 and 124); however, in a few instances there i s a gross sympathetic relationship (Figs. 110 and 117). In general, Cu and Zn trends closely p a r a l l e l one an-other while Pb trends, although similar to Cu and Zn, often display somewhat divergent trends (Figs. 115 and 120). Percent organic matter (L.O:l.) trends are somewhat l i k e those of Pb, i n that, while s i m i l a r to Cu and Zn trends, L.O.I, trends commonly fluctuate independently of Cu and Zn, p a r t i c u l a r l y in Banana Lake where negative correlations are • common (Figs. 123 to 125). Sediment cores 1424 and 1427 (Figs. 115 and 118) are strongly enriched i n Cu and Zn and analysis of a one to three millimeter black band at the oxidation/reduction interface in core 1427 (Plate 14) indicates a minimum of 2.2.percent Cu and 1.3 percent Zn. These Cu and Zn peaks contain cor-respondingly low to moderate leve l s of Fe, Mn, Ag and Pb. In some sediment cores (e.g. core 1423, F i g . 114) a double layer (repetition) or sudden s h i f t in Fe content can be seen. A similar pattern i s displayed by Zn, although i t i s the inverse of Fe. D. Stream Sediments Stream sediments were not collected in s u f f i c i e n t quantity 139. or over a large enough area for detailed interpretation. Nevertheless, data are offered (Table 28) as a guide to metal values in stream sediments adjacent to and draining the Main Zone. In B-C stream, p a r t i c u l a r l y the lower and middle por-tions (161, 159), highly anomalous Cu values occur, while Pb and Zn le v e l s , although anomalous, are lower presumably because of the high immobility of Pb and the high mobility of Zn. At s i t e 105, approximately 4000 feet down drainage from mineralized zones a highly anomalous value of 233 ppm Zn i s recorded; whereas, Cu and Pb values are low to moderate. 140 . Table 28. Metal content of stream sediments adjacent to mineralized zones at Camp Lake. A TS i ^ e Location Cu Pb Zn Fe% Mn Number 163 Banana L. exit 120 7 162 1. 3 96 161 Mid B-C stream 1113 37 45 4. 5 376 159 Camp L. entrance 850 103 373 3 . 4 1282 165 2 Camp L. exit 71 12 120 1. 0 121 173 800 f t . south U.S.L. 119 19 130 1. 5 142 105 4000 f t . south U.S.L. 120 35 233 1. 5 120 167 Hi Lake exit 131 35 71 2. 4 686 1: Total attack, minus 80-mesh. A l l values in ppm except where noted. 2: Exceptionally coarse sediment which contained l i t t l e s i l t or clay r e l a t i v e to the other samples. 141. 0 5 I 2 5 10 2 0 30 4 0 50 60 7 0 8 0 9 0 9 5 98 9 9 99.5 PROBAB IL ITY (cum. % ) Figure 21. Log prob a b i l i t y plot of Cu, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n , t o t a l attack. Black dots represent o r i g i n a l data. Open c i r c l e s are construction points, used i n obtaining partitioned populations shown as straight dotted l i n e s . 142. IRON 1 J $ 5 f5 £5 Xo 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 9 5 9 8 9 9 99.5 P R O B A B I L I T Y (cum. % ) Figure 22. Log pr o b a b i l i t y plot of Fe, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n , t o t a l attack. P a r t i t i o n e d populations are from the L-F-H horizon. Population B approximates background for a l l three s o i l layers. Population A i s one possible i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the L-F-H horizon. A l t e r n a t i v e l y an anomalous population ( > pop. B) and a depleted (negatively anomalous) population (. < pop. B) may be present, see F i g . 21 for explanation of symbols. 143. 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Figure 23. Log p r o b a b i l i t y plot of Mn, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n , t o t a l attack. See F i g . 21 for explanation of symbols. 144. 1 0 0 0 - L - F -• L b y e r L a y e r LEAD H N = N = 2 N = 2 2 3 1 9 6 3 recalculated wiith zjeros assumed to lie 3 ppm. Open c i r c l e s^ equal recalculated bointsj. P o b u l a j i o n A ( L a y £ r 2 ) ppulaiion A LayeN ) P o p u l a t i o n A ( L - F | i n f l e c t i o n layers p o i n t q , 2 ) l e c t i o n 1 2 0 . 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 P R O B A B I L I T Y ( c u m . % ) 9 0 9 5 9 8 9 9 9 9 . 5 Figure 24. Log pr o b a b i l i t y plot of Pb, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n , t o t a l attack. See F i g . 21 for explanation of symbols. 145. 1000 1 ' I ' ' • I ! I 1 ' 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 98 99 995 P R O B A B I L I T Y (cum. % ) Figure 25. Log prob a b i l i t y plot of Zn, -80 mesh f r a c t i o n , t o t a l attack. See F i g . 21 for explanation of symbols. Figure 26. Camp Lake: Ag content of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 27. Camp Lake: Ag content of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 28. Camp Lake: Ag content of Layer- 2 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 29. Camp Lake: Cd content of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 30. Camp Lake: Cu content (ppm) of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 31. Camp Lake: Cu content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80. mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 32. Camp Lake: Cu content (ppm) of Layer 2 s o i l s , -80.mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 33. Camp Lake: Fe content of the L-F-H horizon, - 80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 34. Camp Lake: Fe content of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 35. Camp Lake: Fe content of Layer 2 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 36. Camp Lake: Mn content (ppm) of- the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack Figure 37. Camp Lake: Mn content of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 38. Camp Lake: Mn content of Layer 2 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 39. Camp Lake: Pb content (ppm) of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 40. Camp Lake: Pb content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 41. Camp Lake: Pb content (ppm) of Layer 2 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 42. Camp Lake: Zn content (ppm) of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack Figure 43. Camp Lake: Zn content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 44. Camp Lake: Zn content (ppm) of Layer 2 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 4 5 . Camp Lake: estimated percentage of v i s i b l e surface iron staining. 166. Figure 47. Camp Lake: pH of Layer 1 s o i l s . Figure 48. Camp Lake: pH of Layer 2 s o i l s . Figure 49. Camp Lake: conductivity of Layer 1 s o i l s . Figure 50. Camp Lake: Cu content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , 1.0M HC1 ext., -80 mesh. Figure 51. Camp Lake: Cu content (ppm) of .Layer 1 s o i l s , 0.05M EDTA ext., -80 mesh. Figure 53. Camp Lake: Fe content of Layer 1 s o i l s , 0.05M EDTA ext., -80 mesh. Figure 54. Camp Lake: Pb content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , 1.OM HC1 ext., -80 mesh. Figure 55. Camp Lake: Pb content.of Layer 1 s o i l s , 0.05M-EDTA ext., -80" mesh. Figure 56. Camp Lake: Zn content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , l.OM HC1 ext., -80 mesh. Figure 57. Camp Lake: Zn content of Layer 1 s o i l s , 0.05M EDTA ext., -80 mesh. Figure 60. Camp Lake: r a t i o of 1.0M HC1 ext. to t o t a l ext. Fe (Fe„ R) in Layer 1 s o i l s . Figure 62. Camp Lake: r a t i o of 0.05M EDTA ext. to t o t a l ext. Pb (Pt>ER) in Layer 1 s o i l s . Figure 63. Camp Lake: r a t i o of 1.OM HC1 ext. to t o t a l ext. Zn (Zn H R) in Layer.1 s o i l Figure 64. Camp Lake: r a t i o of 0.05M EDTA ext. to t o t a l ext. Zn (Zn„ R) in Layer 1 s o i l s . Figure 65. Camp Lake: r a t i o of t o t a l ext. Pb to Cu in the L-F-H s o i l horizon. Figure 66. Camp Lake: r a t i o of t o t a l ext. Pb to Cu i n Layer 1 s o i l s . Figure 67. Camp Lake: r a t i o of t o t a l ext. Pb to Zn in the L-F-H s o i l horizon. Figure 68. Camp Lake: r a t i o of t o t a l ext. Pb to Zn i n Layer 1 s o i l s . Figure 69. Camp Lake: location map and s i t e numbers of s o i l p i t s . 10 100 0 10 l 20 N C H s 30 4 0 50 PPM 1000 6 0 0 0 L-F-H horizon f * : '• V '• \ \ V I V 1 • II i li i h • i\ i : i •/ ; '. 1/ /} / • / 4 / • • . t ii li / • ii If / m /( / ' /1 1 ( i 1 \ i \ \ i J j j / ( / / * / - 1 \ / 1 \ Ca . Fe xio-2 _ Mg xio~2 Mn Figure 70. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 11, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack Figure 71. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 11, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. S I Z E F R A C T I O N WT. % 10 20 30 40 50 H E A V Y M I N E R A L S (mg/gm) 20 30 40 50 60 70 LEGEND s ize f r a c t i o n 80 + 270 -270 h e a v y m i n e r a l s (S.G. _>2.89) c o n d u c t i v i t y PH Figure 72, Camp Lake: pH and conductivity r 20 40 60 80 100 CONDUCT IVITY (yohms/cm2) s o i l p i t 11, d i s t r i b u t i o n of siz e f r a c t i o n s , heavy minerals, Figure 73. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 17, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack S I Z E F R A C T I O N WT. % H E A V Y M I N E R A L S (mg/gm) LEGEND • 1 1 i i i » 20 40 60 80 100 CONDUCTIVITY (uohms/cm2 ) Figure 75. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 17, d i s t r i b u t i o n of size fractions, heavy minerals, pH and conductivity. 10 0 lOh l 20 N C H S 30 4 0 50 100 PPM 1000 6 0 0 0 V.L-F-H horizon I / / ( V Ca _ .. Fe x i o-^_ Mg xio - 2 . . , Mn Figure 76. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 20, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack S I Z E F R A C T I O N WT. % H E A V Y M I N E R A L S (mg/gm) LEGEND CONDUCT I VITY(yohms/cm2) co Figure 78. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 20, d i s t r i b u t i o n of size f r a c t i o n s , heavy minerals, pH and conductivity. 10 0 10 h l 20 N C H S 3 0 h 4 0 50 100 PPM 1000 6 0 0 0 L-F-H horizon Ca . Fe x io- 2 _ Mg xicr 2 . . Mn Figure 79. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 107, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. S I Z E F R A C T I O N WT. % 10 20 30 40 50 H E A V Y M I N E R A L S (mg/gm) 20 30 40 50 60 70 LEGEND size f r a c t i o n •80 + 270 -270 h e a v y m i n e r a l s (S.G. >2.89) c o n d u c t i v i t y PH Figure 81, 20 40 60 80 100 CONDUCTIVITY (yohms/cm2 ) Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 107, d i s t r i b u t i o n of size f r a c t i o n s , heavy minerals, pH and conductivity. Figure 82. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 121, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure 83. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 121, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh , t o t a l attack. S I Z E F R A C T I O N WT. % 10 20 30 40 50 H E A V Y M I N E R A L S (mg/gm) 20 30 4 0 50 60 70 LEGEND s ize f r a c t i o n •80 + 270 -270 h e a v y m i n e r a l s (S..G.. >2.89) c o n d u c t i v i t y — PH 1 0 0 PH 5 6 200 300 400 CONDUCTIVITY (yohms/cmJ ) 500 to o Figure 84 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 121, d i s t r i b u t i o n of size f r a c t i o n s , heavy minerals, pH and conductivity. Figure 85. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 123, metal d i s t r i b u t ion with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l att Figure 86. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 123, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. S I Z E F R A C T I O N WT. % H E A V Y M I N E R A L S (mg/gm) LEGEND i 1 1 1 > 400 500 600 700 800 CONDUCTIVITY (yohms/cm J) Figure 87. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 123, d i s t r i b u t i o n of size f r a c t i o n s , heavy minerals, pH and conductivity.. Figure 88. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 125, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. S I Z E F R A C T I O N WT. % 10 20 30 40 50 H E A V Y M I N E R A L S (mg/gm) 20 30 40 50 60 70 LEGEND size f r a c t i o n •80 + 270 -270 h e a v y m i n e r a l s (S.G. 22.89) c o n d u c t i v i t y — PH 200 300 400 500 CONDUCT IV lTY^ohms/cm2 ) Figure 90. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 125, d i s t r i b u t i o n of size f r a c t i o n s , heavy minerals, pH and conductivity. to i — ' o o: O.O 1000-5 0 0 - K PPM 100-5 0 - \ 10 Figure 91. .HN03/HCI0 4 ext. .I.OM HCI ext. Y-5.0 iT" I 1 ' millimeters 0.050 O . I O 0.20 \0.50 | I groin size 2 7 0 80 4 0 U.S. Stondord mesh 10.0 % Fe 1.0 h- 0.5 0.1 \ - 0 . 0 5 i 1 . 0 r I 0 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t number 11, d i s t r i b u t i o n of metal between size f r a c t i o n s at 22 inches depth, 1.0M HCI and HN03/HC104 attacks. 212. l.o - 0.8H 0.6 - OA CL b 0 . 2 cc 0 . 0 1000-500H PPM 10 0-50 —\ 10 5 - i . H N O , / H C I 0 4 e x t . . l . O M H C I ext . 10.0 5.0 % Fe 1.0 — 0.5 0.1 [ - 0 . 0 5 n 0.050 I 2 7 0 ' i 0.10 [ I millimeters | 0 . 2 0 0 . - 5 O I groin s i ze 1 80 4 0 U.S. S londord mesh I . O 10 Figure 92. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t number 11, d i s t r i b u t i o n of metal between s i z e f r a c t i o n s at 42 inches depth, l.OM HCI and HN03/HC104 attacks. 213. c o 1.0 o 0.8-A 0.6 Q- 0.2 b rr 0.0 1000-5 0 0 - \ PPM 100-50H /0 . H N 0 3 / H C I 0 4 e x t . J . O M H C I e x t . 0.050 I 2 7 0 0 . 1 0 ~\ 1 millimeters 0.20 \0.50 I grain s i i e 8 0 4 0 U.S. Standard mesh 1.0 2 0 I 0 r - 5 . 0 10.0 %.Fe 1.0 — 0.5 •O.I •0.05 Figure 93 Camp Lake: s o i l p i t number 20, d i s t r i b u t i o n of metal between siz e f r a c t i o n s at 22 inches depth, 1.0M HCI and HN03/HC104 attacks. 214. 1.0 a o ° 0 . 8 X LU 0 . 6 A o r-0.4 °- 0.2-6 cr 0.0 1000-5 0 0 - \ PPM 100-50 10 5 H -Pb-- C u -. H N 0 3 / H C I 0 4 ext . . I . O M H C I e x t . Z n + - Mn— X-5.0 —n—•—i r I millimeters 0.050 0.10 0.20 \0.5O | I groin size 270 80 40 U.S. Standard mesh 10.0 % Fe 1.0 h - 0.5 0.1 [ - 0 . 0 5 I . O r I 0 Figure 94. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t number 20, d i s t r i b u t i o n of metal between size fractions at 40 inches depth, l.OM HCI and HN03/HC104 attacks. 215. c 10 o • o 2 0.8 X o o a 0.6A OAA 0.2 * 0.0 1000-5 0 0 - \ PPM too-50 H 10 5H . H N 0 3 / H C I 0 4 e x t . . N H , 0 H H C I / C H , C 0 0 H e x t . t •Cu — ' J H I i I millimeters 0.050 0.10 0.20 \0.50 | I grain size 2 7 0 8 0 4 . 0 U.S. Stondcrd mssh 1.0 20 I 0 h - 5 . 0 V O . O % Fe Mn,Zn p p m p a r t i a l ext. only - 1.0 — 0.5 0.1 0.05 Figure 95. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t number 107, d i s t r i b u t i o n of metal between size fr a c t i o n s at 14 inches depth, NH20H.HC1/CH3C00H and HN03/:HC104 attacks. 216. 1.0 o o 2 0.8-i 0.6-\ OA 0.2 cc 0.0 1000-5 0 0 -PPM 100-50 10 5H - C u -.HN03/HCI04 e x t . _ N H 20H H C I / C H 3 C O O H e x t . [-5.0 Tf 0.050 I 2 7 0 millimel ers O . I O 0.20 \0.50 I groin size 8 0 4 0 U.S. Stondard mesh 10.0 % Fe 1.0 \ - 0.5 0.1 •0.05 1 . 0 20 1 0 Figure 96. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t number 123, d i s t r i b u t i o n of metal between siz e f r a c t i o n s at 44 inches depth, NH20H.HC1/CH3C00H and HN03/HC104 attacks. Figure .97. Camp Lake: Cu and Zn content of surface-seepage and p i t waters (1974). Figure 98. Camp Lake: Cu and Zn content of snow-melt runoff (1975). Figure 99. Camp Lake: contoured map of the Cu content (ppb) in snow-melt runoff. Figure 100. Camp Lake: contoured map of the Zn content (ppb) in snow-melt runoff. 108'30" — r — Massive sulphide bodies. Drainage direction Water sample site \ I  W 10) 7.3 pH <1 Zn 1 Cu B a n o n a 65'55' W 102 7.4 pH 8 Zn 1 Cu W113 7.4 pH 23 Zn 2 Cu W 103 7.3 pH 7 Zn 1 Cu B a n a n a WHO W 111 7.6 pH 7.2 pH 44 Zn 46 Zn 6 Cu 8 Cu Cathy C l e a v e r CD W 124 W 114 7.3 pH 7.3 pH 186 Zn 13 Zn 6 Cu 1 Cu l65*55' Cu and Zn content (ppb) in lake waters from the bathurst iNorsemmes **** (modified from Cameron and Ballantyne, 1975). Figure 101 bo to 222. Depth (ft.) Fe% Mn (ppm) Figure 102. Camp Lake: location, sample number, water depth and metal content of sediments collected with a mud snapper. 223. Figure 103. Banana Lake: location, sample number, water depth and metal content of sediments collected with a mud snapper. 224. Figure 104. Lower and Upper Sunken Lakes: location, sample number,, water depth in- ( ). and metal content of sediments collected with a mud snapper. Sample Depth (ft.) Fe% Mn (ppm) Figure 105, Anne Lake: location, sample number, water depth and metal content of sediments collected with a mud snapper. to to 226. Figure 106. Turtle Lake: location, sample number, water depth and metal content of sediments collected with a mud snapper. 2 0 DESCRIPTION 1.0% 100 Oh L Med. grey s i l t - c l a y / g y t t j a , abundant 1mm Fe/Mn nodules Black-grey s i l t - c l a y / | gyttja, i n d i s t i n c t 3-5mm blk. bands. Few Fe/Mn nodules. Above ave. water content. Tan-grey s i l t - c l a y with a few Fe/Mn nodules Grey-tan s i l t - c l a y , rare Fe/Mn nodules. L.0.1. P P M 1 0 % 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 \ \ \ \ 4 ft ii ; Cu Fe xio Mn Pb _ Zn L.O./.. Figure 108. Camp Lake: core 1417, stratigraphy and metal content with depth, 2 0 DESCRIPTION 1.0% 100 Fe-stained dk. grey s i l t / g y t t j a , abundant| l-2mm Fe/Mn nodules. Dark grey s i l t / g y t t j a , moderate Fe/Mn nodules, f a i n t l-4mm black banfls. Dark grey s i l t / g y t t j a | f a i n t l-4mm black bands, few moderate Fe/Mn nodules. As above. As above. As above. L.0.1. P P M 1 0 % 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Small quantity I t . at base, a few plant one 5mm pebble. Not analyzed As above V ii I / Cu _ Fe xio' Mn _ Pb Zn _ L.O.L _ Figure 109. Camp Lake: core 1418, stratigraphy, metal content and L.0.1. with depth 2 0 DESCRIPTION 1.0% 100 L.O.I. P P M 1 0 % 0 0 0 Med-dark grey g y t t j a , high H^ O content. As above. Light-med. grey s i l t -grading i n t o s i l t , th f i n e sand with depth Plant f i b e r s between 5.2-6.5 inches. Dark-med. grey 8mja^ ' s i l t l a yer ^.-^ at base. S / / L i g h t tan mediup f i n e sand. Note: see Plate 12 0 0 0 0 Cu _ Fe *io' Mn _ Pb _. Zn _ L.0./._ Figure 110. Camp Lake: core 1419, stratigraphy, metal content and L.0.1. with depth 2 0 DESCRIPTION Oh 2 h 1.0% 100 L.0.1. P P M 1 0 % 0 0 0 Bright orange and blafck Fe/Mn nodules l-2mm. S i l t y f i n e sand. Medium grey s i l t y fin> sand. Over a l l low-moderate H^ O content. Light grey s i l t - c l a y Plant f i b e r s at 4 . 5 -5 inches, abundant f i b e r s at 6 - 7 inches with white maj^ T" (?) betweeh the two layers.' 0 0 0 0 Cu Fe xio Mn Pb -Zn L.O.I.. Figure 111. Camp Lake: core 1420, stratigraphy and metal content with depth. 2 0 DESCRIPTION 1.0% 100 L.0.1. P P M 1 0 % 0 0 0 0 I t 2 3 4 5 6 h 7 8 9 10 II Med-fine sand size Fe/Mn nodules i n med grey s i l t / g y t t j a , b r i orange at base, sharp contact with section below. Med-dark grey s i with d i f f u s e l-3mm black bands every 0.5 to 1.5cm. As above but with f i b e r s over the l a s t inch. 0 0 0 0 Tan, f r i a b l e clay-mar with plant f i b e r s . Figure 112. Camp Lake: core 1421, stratigraphy, metal content and L.0.1. with depth 2 0 DESCRIPTION 1.0% 100 0 Dark-med. grey gyttja), abundant l-2mm Fe/Mn nodules at top. l-2m]m c l o s e l y spaced black bands common. Dark-grey g y t t j a , many l-2mm black bandjs blabk As above but with bands becoming d i f f u s 1 As above. L.0.1. P P M 1 0 % 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 I: i: i: I i A / { Y 35J000 Cu _ Fe *io~ Mn __ Pb Zn _ L.0.1. _ Figure 113. Camp Lake: core 1422, stratigraphy, metal content and L.O.I, with depth 1.0% 2 0 DESCRIPTION 100 0 2 3 4 5| ! 6 h Med. grey s i l t / g y t t j a with 1mm Fe/Mn nodules. F e - r i c h at surface. F e - r i c h zone of s i l t / | g y t t j a . Med. dark grey s i l t / g y t t j a , sharp contact| with underlying Fe-r zone. ibh F e - r i c h zone with 3mm| bands r i c h i n Fe at top and i n middle. Dark grey s i l t / g y t t j a ! Note: double layer or r e p e t i t i o n of sequence. L.0.1. P P M 1 0 % 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 / / / / V / < Cu Fe xio' Mn Pb Zn L.0.1. _ Figure 114. Camp Lake: core 1423, stratigraphy, metal content and L.0.1. with depth 1.0% 2 0 DESCRIPTION 100 L.O.I. P P M 1 0 % 0 0 0 Very br i g h t orange-red becoming, yellow-orange near base, a few Mn nodules, mostly s i l t - | clay. Yellow-brown s i l t - c l a y Medium grey f i n e sand s i l t with l-2mm black bands every l-2cm. As above but black bands more common. Note: see Plate 13 1 0 0 0 0 Cu __ Fe xio' Mn _ Pb Zn _ L.O.I. _ 7500 Figure 115. Camp Lake: core 1424, stratigraphy, metal content and L.0.1. with depth 2 0 DESCRIPTION 1.0% 100 0 3 4 5h 6 7 8 9 10 11 Medium dark grey silt) clay, abundant Mn nodules. Fe nodules less abundant. Some nodules 3-4mm. Medium grey s i l t - c l a y | Minor Fe s t a i n i n g at 5-6 inches, black 1-bands common. 2mm L.0.1. P P M 1 0 % 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cu Fe xio Mn Pb _ Zn L.0.1.. Figure 116. Camp Lake: core 1425, stratigraphy and metal content with depth. 1 . 0 % 0 DESCRIPTION 1 0 0 L.O.I. P P M 1 0 % 0 0 0 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I •i 10 Light-medium grey fin|e s a n d / s i l t . S i l t / f i n e sand with lmm Fe/Mn nodules. Tan f i n e s a n d / s i l t , 1 s i l a c e o u s 1 looking Plant f i b e r s common between 4-5 inches ^•'f/Lght grey m . g r a i n e d sand, Lgtz.;iO% Feldspar", "10 80% Tan f i n e sand with a few plant f i b e r s . 10 V 0 0 0 0 Cu Fe xio' Mn _ Pb Zn _ L.O./.-Figure 117. Camp Lake: core 1426, stratigraphy, metal content and L.0.1. with depth 2 0 DESCRIPTION 1.0% 100 L.0.1. P P M 1 0 % 0 0 0 Oh 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I I L Tan f i n e sand, becoming f i n e r with depth. A few Fe and some rare Mn nodules. S i l t - g y t t j a , h e a v i l y Fe-oxide colored. Very sharp F e - r i c h bljc (reducing?) band^ \ Medium-dark grey ^  g y t t j a . \ \ Dark grey g y t t j a ' with p l a n t f i b e r s / between 9-10 inches, very dark 8-9 inches. Med-fine sand j with p l a n t _ f i b e r s T \ r • \ Note: see Plate 14. 0 0 0 0 22400 Cu _ Fe xio' Mn _ Pb Zn _ L.0.1. Figure 118. Camp Lake: core 1427, stratigraphy, metal content and L.0.1. with depth 2 0 DESCRIPTION 1.0% 100 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II Dark grey s i l t - g y t t j a j with many 1mm Mn nodules, l-2mm black bands common. As above. As above but with few-Fe/Mn nodules. Nodul becoming d i f f u s e with depth. •'3r L.0.1. P P M 1 0 % 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 1$ s s X 700 Cu Fe x/o-2. Mn Pb Zn L.OJ. Figure 119. Camp Lake: core 1428, stratigraphy, metal content and L.O.I, with depth. to CO CO 2 0 DESCRIPTION 1.0% 100 L.O. I. P P M 1 0 % 0 0 0 0 Y 10 0 0 0 0 Fine-medium sand, Fe stained. Fe/Mn nodul common at base. Medium-dark grey s i l t f i n e sand. Grey-brown s i l t . Blk.-grey c l a y - s i l t with p l a n t f i b e r s between 8-9 inches. / / / Light tan dense c l a y . / Cu Fe xio Mn Pb Zn L.O./.. Figure 120. Camp Lake: core 1429, stratigraphy and metal content with depth. 2 0 DESCRIPTION 1.0% 100 L.0.1. P P M 1 0 % 1 0 0 0 Oh I 8 9 10 0 0 0 0 f 7 Mixture, s i l t - s a n d -c l a y to 1 inch) high|ly Fe stained. 1.5-3.0 inches medium Fe stailned f i n e s a n d - s i l t . y' Tan fine-med. varv] s a n d - s i l t , one 8mm Dense c l a y - s i l t . 2 d aebble y Cu Fe xio Mn Pb Zn L.0.1. Figure 121. Camp Lake: core 1430, stratigraphy and metal content with depth, 1.0% 2 0 DESCRIPTION 100 L.O.I. P P M Oh 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 11 1 0 % 0 0 0 0-0.5 inch, 2-5mm Mn underlain by blk. banfr modules 0.5-0.75 inch. Medium-dark grey s i l t g y t t j a , Mn nodules common. \ '. As above. \ \ As above ^ but Mn nodul becoming \nore d i f f u s \ \ \ \ \ \ Light g_re^ S-'fleTise c l a y . 0 S 0 0 0 0 78000 / 1 Cu Fe xio'2 Mn __ Pb Zn . L.OJ._.. Figure 123. Banana Lake: core 1645, stratigraphy, metal content and L.0.1. with depth 1.0% 2 0 DESCRIPTION 100 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 h 7 8 9 L.O. I. P P M 1 0 % 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fine sand grading i n t o g y t t j a near base. Yellow-brown at top?.grey-yellow at base. No v i s i b l e Fe/Mn nodules. \Med.-dark grey s i l b \gyttja, a few l-2m|n 'diffuse blk. bands Sharp contact at bhse. I Med.-dark grey •^ -2mm d i f f u s e •^ ommon. \ As above but blk. bands becoming 2-4 mm t h i c k . 1mm of hard l i g h t grey c l a y at base. Not analyzed. • s i l t - g y t t jfa, blk. bands/ I / 1 Cu Fe xio'2 Mn __ Pb Zn L.O.I. _... Figure 124. Banana Lake: core 1646, stratigraphy, metal content and L.0.1. with depth 1.0% 2 0 DESCRIPTION 100 L.0.1. P P M 1 0 % 1 0 0 0 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 10 12 \ ! Med. grey s i l t - g y t t j a with a few 3-6mm d i f f \dark grey bands. Med. grey s i l t - g y t t j a with f a i n t 3-5mm dark bands. No Fe/Mn nodules seen. As above but s l i g h t l y | Fe-stained. \ \ \ \ As above 0 0 0 0 Cu Fe xio~2 Mn __ Pb Zn L.O.I. Figure 125. Banana Lake: core 1647, stratigraphy, metal content and L.0.1. with depth 1.0% 2 0 DESCRIPTION 100 L.O.I. P P M 1 0 % 0 0 0 oh 2 3 4 51 6 7 8 9 10 / 10 0 0 0 0 Med. grey s i l t - g y t t j a with f a i n t F e - stain at top. No Fe/Mn nodule|s ^4ed. grey s i l t - g y t t j a j ^sharp contact with section below. \ Dark grey-med. grey a|t base s ^ l t - g y t t j a . Pronouilced 2mm blk. b^nd at topj / / Med. grey c l a y with f a i n t dark laye r s . Clay be firmer near base l i g h t e r colored. Whitish-grey hard, dense clay. I I b y t t j a / / coming/ and i I Cu Fe xio Mn Pb -Zn L.O.I. Figure 126. Banana Lake: core 1648, stratigraphy and metal content with depth. 247. R e l o f ive C o n c e n t r a t i o n s OO abundonf^,0 ^ o Fe/Mn o o 0 ^ nodules 0 O. "o 0 '° Ooronge-red o sill-cloy o O o CO LU 5 * H 10-4 silt-clay and gyttja o med./dk. grey i - silt—cloy-It.'greyT "plant r"**-marl ? v fibers^ 1 sdnd/s'i It/clay -..'some' pebbles P (t ill)":' •: 12-Figure 127. Idealized s t r a t i g r a p h i c and geochemical model of center-lake sediments at Bathurst Norsemines. 248. CHAPTER 5 GENERAL DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY OF GEOCHEMICAL DISPERSION AT BATHURST NORSEMINES I SOILS A. G l a c i a l Dispersion Model Skinner (1972) at the Jameland Mine, Ontario, found that the dispersive mode of g l a c i e r s , especially within a mile or two of an anomaly source, i s often as thin imbricated sheet-l i k e zones or wedges which r i s e from bedrock to the t i l l sheet surface (Fig. 128). The attitude and thickness of these zones vary in complex ways, but they often appear to correspond to r e l i c shear (thrust) planes within the t i l l . At the Louvem Deposit, Quebec, Garrett (1971) found, through overburden d r i l l i n g to bedrock and sampling at regular-ly spaced in t e r v a l s , that..."there i s also evidence that the anomalous zone escalades within the t i l l . Close to the ore, the anomalous Cu and Zn are found at the base of the t i l l ; however, as one proceeds down ice, the anomaly appears to r i s e at a gradient of 1 to 100 within the t i l l . This feature i s known as overriding and i s well known in Quaternary geology". Recent studies by t h i s author in the Republic of Ireland on disseminated galena occurrences in sandstone have also revealed extensive down ice dispersion of Pb as low angle, thin sheets or zones (Fig. 129). In more general terms, Moran (1971) and White (1971) also noted the rather ubiquitous Figure 128. Cross section of g l a c i a l deposits showing sheet-like zones of high copper concentrations extending in a down-ice di r e c t i o n from the Jameland and Kamkotia mines (taken from Skinner, GSC Open F i l e Report 116). t o CO {^iJ5^L0^60oJ/l95 ^25o\650^85^I75\^0^85^35__3 5 90_J50__ J t & ^ ^ T S O *' ISO \ ^ 270 / NO ^^2B5 2 6 c T \ 110 L l m s i t o n t S a n d i t o n t HOR IZONTAL S C A L E 0 400 BOO It. 0 122 244 m. v i r t l c a l • x o g g e r o l l o n 27x Figure 129. Cross section of deep s o i l Pb (ppm) geochemistry, over a disseminated galena occurrence in the Republic of Ireland. Glaciation was from north to south. A and C = near-surface zones of decreasing Pb values with depth; B = zone of increasing values with depth.. Data courtesy of Dresser Minerals International Inc. Compare with Figures 130 and 131. CO i—\ 251. occurrence of "transportational stacking" within single t i l l sheets and have extensively elaborated on such g l a c i o -tectonic structures in d r i f t . A s i m i l a r mechanism appears to have been operative at Camp Lake. Thus, considering dispersion of Pb (which has been least affected by po s t - g l a c i a l weathering from mineral-ized outcrops near B-C stream) i t i s apparent that: 1) the highest near-surface values (outside of those adjacent to the outcrops and related to present-day weathering) occur at _>1500 feet down ice; and 2) comparing Layers 1 and 2 the 100 ppm contour plunges up ice towards the source. In con-t r a s t i f simple g l a c i a l corrosion and transport were the dominant mode of anomaly formation, then one might expect Pb values in the near-surface t i l l to increase towards the source but, in t h i s case they decrease! It i s only in areas d i r e c t l y adjacent to mineralized outcrops that Pb values again increase and t h i s i s solely a resu l t of post-g l a c i a l weathering (Chapter 4, Section IIIB). Based on the s o i l grid and p i t data, p a r t i c u l a r l y for Pb, and the var i a t i o n of Pb between s o i l layers (Fig. 130) the ov e r a l l geochemical patterns at Camp Lake are thought to r e f l e c t a dispersive mode consistent with glacio-tectonic processes. That i s , geochemical dispersion at Camp Lake originated primarily from the two closely spaced mineralized outcrops west of B-C stream and, to a lesser extent, the mineralized outcrop just east of B-C stream near s i t e 198. Figure 130. V a r i a t i o n (>10%) of Pb content between Layers 1 and 2. Note grouping of data. Line A-B denotes cross section shown in Figure 131. 253; Dispersion was down ice in rather narrow ribbon-like or fan-type trains which gradually rose at low to very low angles (1 : 100) from the bedrock surface res u l t i n g in r e l a t i v e l y thin (1 to 3 feet) narrow zones of highly anomalous t i l l surrounded by an envelope of less anomalous t i l l . However, because of possible bedrock i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , which may result in transposing anomalous t i l l to higher lev e l s within the same t i l l sheet (cf. Garrett, 1971), the a b i l i t y to recog-nize g l a c i a l thrusting as such, as opposed to gradual mechanical mixing and assimilation i s d i f f i c u l t at best. Nevertheless, t h i s probably has occurred as evidenced by d i s t i n c t geochemical layering (Figs. 71, 72, 77 and 78) and possible r e p e t i t i o n of highly anomalous (_>1000 ppm) patches (Fig. 40). Variation of Pb content between s o i l layers may be re-lated, i d e a l l y , to the g l a c i a l dispersion model for Camp Lake (Fig. 131). However, in areas immediately adjacent to mineralized outcrops, there i s a general decrease in Pb values with respect to depth, especially down slope, because of post g l a c i a l weathering processes which have enriched the surface s o i l . Down ice, there i s an area of low to moderate Pb values which are generally constant with depth. This i s followed further down ice by a zone of moderate to high Pb values, which often increases substantially with depth, as the anomalous to highly anomalous portions of the indicator t r a i n are intercepted. Pb values continue to display i n -creasing values with respect to depth u n t i l the most intense '^highly anomalous Pb anomalous Pb contour Layer I • sample site, no change in Pb with depth 0 2 0 0 61 6 0 0 f e e t I 8 3 m e t e r s v e r t i c a l e x a g g e r a t i o n I7x Figure 131. Idealized g l a c i a l dispersion model for Pb (and other elements) at Camp Lake. Gl a c i a t i o n was from right to l e f t . Pb values in ppm. Compare with Figures 40, 128 and 129. CO 255. portion of the anomaly i s reached, beyond which an abrupt t r a n s i t i o n to decreasing values occurs. This abrupt tran-s i t i o n i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the r e l a t i v e l y thin zone or layer of highly anomalous t i l l , as seen at depth in s o i l p i t s 17 and 20 (Figs. 74 and 77 respectively), and in similar situations at the Jameland Mine, Ontario and the Louvem Deposit, Quebec. Enveloping the highly anomalous zone i s a s l i g h t l y thicker zone of less anomalous t i l l which grades l a t e r a l l y over tens of feet to perhaps a few hundred feet i n -to t i l l containing background concentrations of Pb. Con-sequently, only a r e l a t i v e l y short l a t e r a l distance of a few hundred feet i s required to proceed from increasing to de-creasing Pb values with respect to depth as shown in Figure 130. For shallower thicknesses of t i l l the above sequence may be l a t e r a l l y shortened and/or various trends absent (e.g. the southern Pb anomaly, Figs. 40, 41 and 129). Conversely, for greater thicknesses of t i l l there may be l i t t l e near-surface expression of concealed mineralization•(cf. Garrett, 1971). Due to the high secondary geochemical mobility of Cu and, in particular, Zn i t i s more d i f f i c u l t to r e l a t e patterns for these elements to a c l a s t i c g l a c i a l dispersion model. Never-theless, as discussed l a t e r , i t can reasonably be assumed that these two elements were dispersed in a manner si m i l a r , i f not i d e n t i c a l , to Pb but have undergone subsequent substantial hydromorphic r e d i s t r i b u t i o n due to high s o l u b i l i t i e s of 256. secondary weathering products (Table 29). B. Po s t - g l a c i a l Dispersion Geochemical r e s u l t s for Camp Lake were f i r s t s t a t i s -t i c a l l y analyzed by means of histograms and pr o b a b i l i t y plots , as presented and discussed in Chapter 4, Section 11 A'. The bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of most elements, have been partitioned into two groups with population A rel a t a b l e to sulphide mineralization and population B generally con-sistent with l o c a l background concentrations. The degree of bimodality and the ease with which these two populations (A and B) can be distinguished i s related to metal mobility, that i s , for immobile elements (Ag,.Pb and, to a lesser ex-tent, Fe) there i s a greater difference between population, parameters of A and B than there i s for mobile elements (Cu, Mn and Zn). The lack of r e l a t i v e l y large parameter differences be-tween populations A and B for mobile elements versus immobile elements i s probably a result of intensive p o s t - g l a c i a l weathering. Extensive leaching and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the more mobile elements has tended to smooth out or homogenize the differences between populations. The mobile element patterns may be said to be analogous to a photograph which was i n i t i a l l y well developed with high contrast ( i n i t i a l p o s t - g l a c i a l pattern) but which, after continued exposure to developing (p o s t - g l a c i a l weathering) has faded and lost much Table 29. S o l u b i l i t i e s of Cu, Pb and Zn sulphates. Sulphate S o l u b i l i t y g/lOOml H90, 0 C ZnS0 4 =90 CuS0 4 14-32 PbS0„ < 0.005 Data from Weast, R.C., 1976. 258. of i t s sharpness and contrast. Based on geology (Figs. 17 and 18) and g l a c i a l d i r e c -tions) (Fig. 14), as discussed in preceding sections, geo-chemical patterns for Ag, Fe and Pb are considered the result of g l a c i a l corrosion and down-ice dispersion from the v i c i n i t y of the three mineralized outcrops lying closest to B-C stream. The patterns display two d i s t i n c t pencil to fan-shaped anom-a l i e s extending west to northwest from these sources. The northernmost anomaly extends over 2500 feet from just west of B-C stream to well beyond the western g r i d l i m i t ; however, the l i m i t of dispersion may be on the order of 4500 to 5500 feet based on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of gossan (Plate 15). Lateral mechanical dispersion i s generally moderate with only a 3x to 6x increase at the western end of the grid over the e s t i -mated width (=150 feet) at the source. This i s consistent with evidence from a i r photos (Plates 15 and 16) and f i e l d observations of c i r c l e s (Plate 2) that movement of s o i l s by s o l i f l u c t i o n , s o i l creep, etc. i s r e l a t i v e l y minor and generally does not exceed a few tens of feet. In general, the northern anomaly i s characterized by high metal values within s u r f i c i a l s o i l in close proximity to mineralized outcrops. This r e f l e c t s p o s t - g l a c i a l weathering and transport of mineralized fragments from these outcrops by sheet wash and s o l i f l u c t i o n . ; Down: ic e , metal values in Layer 1 decrease away from these outcrops followed by a substantial increase s t i l l further down ice before gradually diminishing 259. to background levels with isolated nebulous patches of high values. Partly as a res u l t of more limited p o s t - g l a c i a l modification, anomalous trends and contrast are better pre-served in Layer 2 and i t i s apparent that, as described in the g l a c i a l model, the anomaly plunges up ice towards i t s source. A similar s i t u a t i o n exists for the southern Ag, Fe and Pb anomaly; however, t h i s anomaly i s shorter (1500 to 1800 feet) not as strongly anomalous nor as well developed as the more northerly anomaly. Nevertheless, in some instances (-e.-g. Pb in the L-F-H horizon) anomalous values (^80 ppm) ex-tend beyond the western gri d l i m i t , a distance exceeding 2800 feet (Fig. 39). The o v e r a l l lack of development of the southern anomaly, r e l a t i v e to the northern anomaly, i s thought to be a res u l t of less extensive corrosion and down-ice dispersion of mineralized rock brought about by the r e l a t i v e positions of the two p r i n c i p a l point sources. The sulphide-bearing out-crops east of B-C stream l i e on a gently westward facing slope and are not as prominent as the outcrops just west of B-C stream which l i e on a south to east facing slope. Con-sequently, because the former outcrops are topographically less prominent and l i e on a slope which slopes i n the p r i n c i p a l d i r e c t i o n of g l a c i a l flow, they.were somewhat pro-tected from g l a c i a l corrosion. Although Ag, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn were a l l presumably d i s -persed i n the same manner by g l a c i a t i o n , subsequent inten-260. sive p o s t - g l a c i a l weathering has resulted in Zn, and to a lesser extent, Cu patterns becoming irregular and nebulous due to hydromorphic dispersion. Both Cu and Zn are depleted in s o i l s r e l a t i v e to the grade o i sulphide mineralization (0.4% Cu; 7.5% Zn) and unlike the immobile elements their contrast decreases with depth. Although mobile element patterns are less well developed r e l a t i v e to immobile element patterns, they are best defined and related to mineralization in the L-F-H horizon. This tendency suggests that scaveng-ing associated with organic matter has occurred, especially for Cu. The significance of the c a p i l l a r y - a c t i o n mechanism (Fig. 7) i s unknown but most l i k e l y contributes mobile metals in some degree to the L-F-H horizon and plays some role in establishing decreasing contrast le v e l s with respect to depth (Table 10). In the case of Zn, geochemical patterns are very poorly developed. Contrast i s low (Table 10) and in some areas of low pH values (and high Pb contents) very low Zn levels (<_50 ppm) form negative anomalies as a resu l t of intense leaching. Higher Zn concentrations (^200 ppm) occur in the western portion of the grid where pH i s less acidic; no where, however, does Zn show evidence of s i g n i f i c a n t near-surface hydromorphic accumulation. A similar s i t u a t i o n exists for Cu. However, unlike Zn, the s l i g h t l y lower mobility of Cu and i t s greater a f f i n i t y for organic matter has resulted in Cu being scavenged by the 261. L-F-H horizon of swampy or gleyed s o i l s (compare Figs. 16 and 39). The underlying mineral s o i l contains r e l a t i v e l y lower values (compare Figs. 31 and 32 with 30) due to lower pH and Eh. In addition, some zones of low Cu concentrations near B-C stream, l i k e those of Zn, are associated with areas of low pH res u l t i n g in negative anomalies (compare Figs. 31 and 32 with 48). Comparison of Cu ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the L-F-H horizon) and Pb patterns shows that sporadic high Cu concen-trations (_>200 ppm) often coincide with areas of high Pb values and that these patches of high Cu may have once been connected some time after deglaciation but before r e d i s t r i b u -tion by chemical weathering. Furthermore, there i s some evidence, from a comparison of Cu R and Pb R patterns, that high Cu concentrations generally l i e to the north of high Pb values and are associated with footwall rocks while Pb values are s p a t i a l l y related to the "mineral .horizon" (Fig. 18). • This suggests that the lower part of the footwall i s r e l a t i v e l y depleted i n Pb in r e l a t i o n to Cu as documented in numerous studies of volcanogenic massive sulphides (Sangster, 1972; Lambert and Sato, 1974). The large north-south zone of high (_>200 ppm) Cu in the mineral s o i l may be explained as a case of hydromorphic tran-sport and p r e c i p i t a t i o n . Examination of a i r photos suggests that Cu i s transported in solution along a s l i g h t depression from an area of low (<_4.5) pH and high (>T000 ppm) Pb values towards Camp Lake (compare Fig. 32 with 41 and 48). Unfort-262. unately, pH and p a r t i a l extraction data are not available for t h i s area. Nevertheless, extrapolation of pH data suggests that pH increases towards the lake and p r e c i p i t a t i o n of Cu could therefore be expected. This would explain the narrowness, intensity, orientation and p a r t i a l Pb/Cu overlap (with the higher Cu values displaced down slope) of t h i s zone. In addition, the highest Cu values in Camp Lake sediments are found adjacent to t h i s zone (Fig. 102). It i s generally thought (Hawkes and Webb, 1963; pp. 150-151) that the degree of secondary mobility i s r e f l e c t e d by p a r t i a l attacks with the more mobile elements generally being the easiest to extract. Consequently mobile elements generally have the highest p a r t i a l to t o t a l r a t i o s , while r e l a t i v e l y immobile elements are characterized by lower per-centages of r e a d i l y extractable metal. At Bathurst Norsemines the opposite trend i s found (Tables 10 and 12). Examination of the p a r t i a l extraction data (Chapter 4, Section IIC) r e a d i l y reveals that the percentage of trace metal extracted by l.OM HCI and, to a lesser extent, 0.05M EDTA, i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t a b l e to the degree of secondary mobility/ s o l u b i l i t y (Table 29) and hence contrast (Table 10). Con-sequently the mobility order (Zn>Cu>Ag>Pb) i s inversely related to contrast and the percentage of l.OM HCI and 0.05M EDTA extractable metal. Although Pb i s the most immobile element with the highest contrast, i t i s also the most ea s i l y 263 . and rea d i l y extractable element; whereas Zn, the most mobile element has the lowest contrast, and r e l a t i v e to t o t a l values, i s most d i f f i c u l t to extract. Total and p a r t i a l extraction data for d i f f e r e n t size fractions are usually characterized by a general decrease in metal values from the fine to coarse size f r a c t i o n s with a s l i g h t peak in the coarser fractions (-10+40 or -40+80 mesh) and lowest values in the fin e sand fractions (-80+270 mesh);;: The secondary peak in the coarse fract i o n s i s largely confined to t o t a l data plots, increases with grinding and i s only occasionally present in the p a r t i a l extraction data. It i s therefore suggested that t h i s peak i s largely related to sulphide inclusions and/or l a t -t i c e bound metal and that Fe/Mn oxide coatings are of r e l a t i v e l y minor importance in terms of scavenging Cu, Pb or Zn. Cameron (1977a) has described a si m i l a r s i t u a t i o n . It would therefore appear that under the extremely a c i d i c s o i l conditions c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the anomalous zone, retention of Cu and Zn in s o i l s by secondary Fe and Mn minerals i s not important. Both Cu and Zn are extensively leached from the s o i l , leaching being most e f f e c t i v e close to mineralized outcrop where pH values are lowest. This r e s u l t s in negative Zn anomalies. Any remaining Zn at these s o i l s i t e s i s 264. held in non-labile l a t t i c e positions which are least l i k e l y to r e f l e c t the presence of sulphides and which are not s o l u b i l i z e d by p a r t i a l extractions. In contrast, Pb which probably remains in the s o i l s as an insoluble secondary Pb mineral (anglesite/plumbojarosite?) can be brought into solution by r e l a t i v e l y mild extractions (l.OM cold HCI or 0.05M EDTA). II WATERS AND SEDIMENTS A. Surface-seepage, P i t and Snow-melt Runoff Analysis of surface-seepage, p i t and snow-melt waters reveals the quantity and r e l a t i v e proportions (mobility) of metals being leached from s o i l s ; thereby providing a l i n k between metal values in s o i l s with those in lake waters and sediments. This f a c i l i t a t e s a better understanding of chemi-cal weathering and the manner in which lake water and sediment anomalies are generated and c l a s t i c s o i l anomalies destroyed. Water data for surface-seepage, p i t and snow-melt runoff readily reveal high levels of Zn with lesser concentrations of Cu. Pb was not detected in any sample. Values range from less than 10 ppb to over 70 ppm (Zn) with the higher values generally confined to areas of high s o i l values. However, the highest Cu and Zn values occur where s o i l values and s o i l and water pH's are lowest (e.g. near B-C stream, Fig . 9 8 ) . For example,, down slope of mineralized outcrops 265. near B-C stream low Zn and Cu (<^ 50 ppm and £20 ppm respec-t i v e l y ) are present in gossanous s o i l s . These low values are associated with high levels of Cu and Zn in seepage/pit water and snow-melt runoff. This suggests that leaching of Cu and Zn from these areas i s well advanced and that flushing of Cu and Zn from s o i l s under extremely a c i d i c con-ditions i s responsible for negative s o i l geochemical anomalies. The apparent Zn enrichment in surface-seepage waters over p i t waters (Table 20) may be the re s u l t of evaporative con-centration. Although Cu i s also concentrated by thi s pro-cess, i t s . lower mobility and higher degree of s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to scavenging generally negates the effects of evaporative concentrat ion. Examination of Zn/Cu r a t i o s for s o i l , sediment, seepage/ p i t , snow-melt and lake waters reveals s i m i l a r r a t i o s for a l l media except Camp Lake water (Table 30). The Zn/Cu r a t i o for combined seepage/pit and snow-melt waters i s approximately 1.5 to 1.6 which compares with a r a t i o of 1.12 in s o i l s , 8.0 in lake waters and 1.3 in sediments. This suggests that, r e l a t i v e to Cu, Zn i s being removed from s o i l s at a s l i g h t l y higher rate and in greater quantities. Upon entering Camp Lake, Cu i s precipitated or scavenged faster than Zn re-sul t i n g in an increase of the Zn/Cu r a t i o to 8.0. The pres-ent lake sediment Zn/Cu r a t i o of 1.3 can be explained as follows: Cu and Zn input from groundwater and snow-melt runoff roughly averages 230 ppb and 350 ppb respectively. D i l u t i o n Table 30. Comparison of Cu and Zn concentrations and Zn/Cu ra t i o s in sampling media at Camp Lake. mean concentration(ppm) Sample Type Cu Zn Zn/Cu S o i l Seepage/pit water Snow-melt water Lake water Lake sediment 60 0.265 0. 207 0.009 794 67 0.460 0. 296 0.072 1064 1. 12 1. 73 1.42 8.00 1.34 1: Combined averages for the L-F-H horizon, Layers 1 and 2. 267. (which has no effect upon the r a t i o ) and p r e c i p i t a t i o n reduces the l e v e l of Cu and Zn in Camp Lake to the present 9 ppb and 72 ppb respectively. Consequently, 221 ppb of Cu and 278 ppb of Zn have been l o s t , which re s u l t s in a c a l -culated Zn/Cu r a t i o of 1.26 for Camp Lake sediments which i s remarkably s i m i l a r to the measured value of 1.34. B. Stream Waters and Sediments The lack of a s i g n i f i c a n t number of streams in the study area precludes extensive detailed examination of stream waters and sediments. Except for a segment of the main drainage system at Camp Lake, data on streams are minimal. Because sampling of B-C stream water was very close to the edge of Camp Lake, the progressive r i s e of metal values (Table 15) may r e f l e c t diminishing discharge from Banana Lake resu l t i n g in samples which contain increasingly greater portions of Camp Lake waters. Alternatively, groundwaters from the area ad-jacent to the southernmost portion of Banana Lake contain high to very high metal values and may be increasingly im-portant as s o i l s gradually thaw and groundwater flow increases. The Zn peak recorded for the Camp Lake exit stream in early June (Table 15) i s the result of a large contribution of anomalous snow-melt runoff (X = 100 to 200 ppb Zn for the Camp Lake basin). Detailed measurements of B-C stream water pH reveal near neutral pH's close to Banana and Camp Lakes but s l i g h t l y 268. aci d i c to a c i d i c pH's (5.5 to 6.5) near the central portion of B-C stream. Water closest to the stream banks i s more aci d i c than that in mid stream, presumable because of the addition of low pH ground/snow-melt waters. The high l e v e l of Cu r e l a t i v e to Zn in B-C stream sedi-ment (Table 28) i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the mobility difference between Cu and Zn. Consequently, mixing of a c i d i c , metal-rich ground/snow-melt waters with near neutral waters in B-C stream results in rapid loss of Cu and Fe ( s i t e 161) and a delayed loss of Mn and Zn ( s i t e 159) r e s u l t i n g in high levels of the l a t t e r two elements being displaced down stream r e l a t i v e to Cu and Fe. C. Lake Waters Lake water anomalies can be c l a s s i f i e d according to the manner in which a lake receives metal as either: 1) dir e c t i n -put ( i . e . mineralization i s at least in part exposed or concealed beneath lake waters) or 2) i n d i r e c t input v i a the lake drainage basin from: A) metal-rich groundwater draining mineralization; B) metal-rich groundwater draining, metal-rich t i l l , and/or C) inflow from anomalous streams and/or other lakes. As might be expected, indir e c t metal input into a lake i s s i g -n i f i c a n t l y more common than direct metal input because of the larger area from which indir e c t input can originate ( i . e . the drainage basin) and widespread g l a c i a l dispersion of mineralization. Consequently, anomalous Zn and Cu con-269. centrations are r e s t r i c t e d to those lakes that contain mineral-i z a t i o n or l i e down ice and/or down drainage from mineral-iz a t i o n (Fig 101). In addition to considering the manner by which metal may enter a lake, i t i s also worthwhile examining anomaly size, degree of geochemical contrast and development with respect to drainage and g l a c i a l dispersion of mineralization. Geo-chemical data for the lakes adjacent to the Main Zone provide good examples of the various metal input types and show the importance of drainage and g l a c i a l dispersion of mineralization in r e l a t i o n to anomaly formation. Geochemical anomalies within Camp Lake, beneath which much of the Main or "A" Zone mineralization l i e s , can be considered as Type 1; however, Camp Lake also receives very s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of groundwater draining both mineralization (Type 2A) and highly anomalous t i l l (Type 2B). The l a t t e r two types are probably more responsible for the formation of the lake water anomaly than i s the sub-aqueous position of sulphides. Because Camp Lake i s normally ice covered u n t i l late June and the peak snow-melt runoff occurs in early to mid June, metal r i c h snow-melt water flows onto the ice covered lake and then to the exit stream, which i s open early in the season, without making contact with Camp Lake Waters. As a res u l t , water movement ( i . e . metal input) into Camp Lake from the drainage basin as a whole i s minimal u n t i l the protective ice cover begins to break up. Although break up of Camp 270. Lake ice i s only one to two weeks after the peak snow-melt runoff, the time necessary to go from l i t t l e to maximum snow melt to the melting of the la s t few snowbanks i s very short (1 to 3 weeks). Therefore, except for small, shallow lakes which lose their ice cover early in the season, the homogeneity of lake waters i s preserved from the i n i t i a l snow-melt "flushing e f f e c t " (Fig. 7) as postulated by Jonasson and Allan (1973). As , a r e s u l t , i n d i r e c t metal input into Camp Lake i s largely limited to metal-rich groundwater from the thawing active layer and, to a lesser extent, the last remnant snowbanks. Although Banana Lake l i e s adjacent to the Main or "A" Zone mineralization, Cu and Zn values are low because th i s lake l i e s up drainage and i s not in the g l a c i a l dispersion path of mineralization. Consequently, Banana Lake receives l i t t l e or no metal-rich ground, stream or other lake waters which could create an anomaly. Conversely, Bat and Cathy Lakes are removed from both mineralization (Fig. 17) and drainage from mineralization (Fig. 12). Nevertheless, Cu and - in pa r t i c u l a r - Zn values within these lake waters are anomalous because these two lakes l i e down ice from the Main or "A" Zone massive sulphides. As a resu l t , Cu and Zn s o i l anomalies can be found within t h e i r drainage basins to provide a source of metal-rich groundwater ( i . e . Type 2B input). Because the si t u a t i o n i s largely analogous to Camp Lake, i t i s not surprising that Zn/Cu r a t i o s for these two lakes are 271. nearly i d e n t i c a l to Camp Lake,even though Cu and Zn values are three to four times lower than in Camp Lake (Table 31). Some drainage from s o i l s may also be giving r i s e to the s l i g h t l y high Zn values in the upper reaches of Banana Lake and the two smaller lakes further up drainage. Lower Sunken Lake i s physically separated by an esker from Upper Sunken Lake and the stream connecting Camp and Upper Sunken Lakes (Plate 16). S o i l s southwest of Lower Sunken Lake are comprised of medium to coarse g l a c i o f l u v i a l deposits charac-terized by low Cu and Zn values. Consequently, drainage from the southwest could not be giving r i s e to the highly anomalous Zn values in Lower Sunken Lake. Instead, i t i s suggested that seepage from Upper Sunken Lake and the stream (both highly anomalous in Zn and Cu) along the northeast flank of the esker i s entering Lower Sunken Lake through the permeable esker material ( i . e . Type 2C input). A similar s i t u a t i o n exists at the Anne-Cleaver Lakes Area. Flying Horse and Cleaver Lakes l i e immediately down ice of the East Cleaver Lake mineralization and contain highly anomalous Cu and Zn concentrations. It i s suggested that the very high Cu and Zn values within these two lakes are hydromorphically derived from the surrounding highly anomalous t i l l and, to some extent, bedrock mineralization v i a groundwater and, to a lesser extent, snow-melt runoff (Figs. 17, 101, B6, B26, B38, B39 and Table 31). Further down ice, and down drainage, Cu and Zn values in lake waters decrease towards background l e v e l s . Table 31. Comparison of Cu and Zn dispersion in lake waters near the Main and East Cleaver Lake Zones and at the Agricola Lake prospect. p p b „ n . a „ 3 P o s s i b l e L a k e Z n C u Z n / C u pH D u r a i n a g e M e t a l ' * P o s i t i o n _ 4 S o u r c e s Camp L a k e A r e a F i r s t B a n a n a 1 1 1 7 3 1. 5 u p 2 A B B a n a n a 1 1 1 7 0 0. 7 u p 2 A B Camp 7 1 9 8 7 0 0. 0 d o w n 1 , 2 A B C U p p e r S u n k e n 63 8 8 7 0 1. 0 down 1 , 2 A B C L o w e r S u n k e n 3 0 2 15 7 0 1. 3 down 2 ABC C a t h y 28 3 9 7 2 1. 3 u p 2 ABC B a t 16 2 8 7 3 1. 0 " P 2 A B C A n n e - C l e a v e r L a k e s A r e a C l e a v e r 166 5 33 7 6 0. 3 down 1.2AB F l y i n g H o r s e 404 27 15 7 3 0. 9 down 2 ABC A n n e 45 6 7 7 4 1. 0 down 1 , 2 A B C T u r t l e 17 3 6 7 6 2. 2 down 2BC N. T u r t l e 13 2 6 7 6 3. 2 down 2BC W e d g e 7 1 7 7 7 3. 4 down 2 B C S e l m a 4 2 2 7 6 6 0 down 2 B C A g r i c o l a L a k e A r e a * W 4 7 2 186 59 3.2 .3 8 0 •4 d o w n 2 ABC W 4 7 1 176 56 3.2 3 9 0 8 down 2 B C W 4 8 5 28 5 3.1 4 8 1 2 down 2 C W 4 8 7 28 5 5.6 5 2 2 0 down 2 C V 4 9 0 11 2 5.5 5 7 2 3 down 2 C W 4 8 3 8 5 1.6 4 7 0 2 u p 2B W 4 8 2 13 4 3 . 2 6 0 0 3 u p 2 C W 4 8 1 13 3 4.3 6 0 0 7 u p 2 C W 47 5 18 9 2 3 7 0 7 d o w n 2 B C W 4 8 0 8 2 4 6 1 1 8 down 2C W 4 9 6 7 2 3 . 5 6 0 2 3 down 2 C W 4 9 4 8 2 4.0 6 0 2 4 down 2 C 1: S e e C a m e r o n a n d L y n c h ( 1 9 7 5 ) f o r d e t a i l s . 2: D = d i s t a n c e .to m a s s i v e s u l p h i d e ( m i l e s ) . 3 : R e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f t h e l a k e i n t h e d r a i n a g e s y s t e m w i t h r e s p e c t t o m a s s i v e s u l p h i d e s ( i . e . e i t h e r u p o r down d r a i n a g e f r o m m i n e r a l i z a t i o n ) . 4: F o r e x p l a n a t i o n o f s y m b o l s s e e t e x t . W h e r e m o r e t h a n o n e p o s s i b l e s o u r c e , m a j o r s o u r c e ( s ) a r e u n d e r l i n e d . 273. In lake waters, Cu concentrations and contrast are lower and dispersion more r e s t r i c t e d r e l a t i v e to Zn (Fig. 101 and Table 31). This may r e f l e c t the Cu-poor nature of mineral-i z a t i o n or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , the s l i g h t l y lower mobility of Cu r e l a t i v e to Zn. The l a t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s preferred based on Cu and Zn sulphate s o l u b i l i t i e s (Table 29), s o i l geo-chemical patterns, contrast r a t i o s (Table 10) and Cu and Zn concentrations and patterns in seepage/pit and snow-melt runoff (Chapter 4, Section IV). The mobility difference between Cu and Zn in lake waters i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident on examination of Zn/Cu r a t i o s , con-centrations and the distance down drainage from mineralization (Table 31). For example, in lakes containing background levels of Cu and Zn (e.g. Banana Lake), Zn/Cu r a t i o s are low (<4); whereas, in lakes containing anomalous concentrations of Cu and Zn near or down drainage from the Main Zone (e.g. Upper Sunken or Camp Lake), Zn/Cu r a t i o s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (j>8.0). in Lower Sunken Lake, which i s in the same drainage as Upper Sunken Lake but i s separated from i t by an esker (Plate 16), the Zn/Cu r a t i o i s approximately 15.0. Consequently, although Cu presents a smaller target, i t i s also more l i k e l y to pinpoint mineralization than i s Zn. Examination of Cu and Zn dispersion down drainage from the Cleaver Lake mineralized zone (Fig. 17) and at the Agricola Lake prospect, also shows that Zn i s more widely dispersed than Cu, but with d i f f e r e n t Zn/Cu r a t i o d i s t r i b u t i o n s (Table 31). 274. Relative to Camp Lake, Cu and, in particular, Zn lev e l s in the Anne-Cleaver drainage system are higher and display higher Zn/Cu ra t i o s in proximity to mineralization. Down drainage from mineralization there i s a constant decrease in r a t i o values as Zn i s more gradually reduced to background levels r e l a t i v e to Cu. Although Flying Horse Lake has the highest t o t a l Cu and Zn values, Cleaver Lake has the highest Zn/Cu r a t i o and l i e s closest to the orebody. Conversely, at Agricola Lake, pH's are much lower (3.8 to 6.0) and Zn/Cu ra t i o s in proximity to mineralization are correspondingly low (2.0 to 3.0) and increase only s l i g h t l y down drainage. However, Cu i s more abundant in the s o i l s and in the ore at Agricola Lake r e l a t i v e to Bathurst Norsemines and t h i s may play a r o l e i n lowering the Zn/Cu r a t i o s . In general, the lower the pH the higher the levels of Cu and Zn with the l e v e l of Cu approaching that of Zn ( i . e . lower Zn/Cu r a t i o s ) . D. Lake Sediments The d i s t r i b u t i o n of Cu, Pb and Zn in s u r f i c i a l lake sedi-ments reveals a wide range of values within and between i n -dividual lakes. With respect to the position of mineralization, metal values decrease down drainage from Camp Lake with Cu, Pb and Zn following the observed mobility order Zn>Cu>Pb (Tables 26 and 27). Anomalous Zn concentrations have higher contrast and larger anomalous dispersion trains than Cu or, in p a r t i c u l a r , Pb (cf. Cameron and Durham, 1974b).. However, 275. high Pb values are more l i k e l y to locate the source of an anomaly. Relative to s o i l s , sediments contain higher average con-centrations of Pb and, in p a r t i c u l a r , Cu and Zn (Tables 9, 26 and 27) which cannot be explained by the r e l a t i v e l y f i n e r grain size of sediments versus soils.. Because extensive flushing of Cu and Zn from s o i l s overlying mineralized zones has been demonstrated, i t can be concluded that large scale Cu and Zn anomalies in lake sediments are largely the res u l t of their hydromorphic dispersion. The relationship of high Cu and Zn values in lake waters with high levels of Cu and Zn in lake sediments i s read i l y apparent (Tables 17 and 26, Fig. 101). Also, however, r e l a t i v e l y low levels of Cu and Zn i n lake waters appear to be able to give r i s e to s i g n i f i c a n t lake sediment anomalies (e.g. Banana Lake) because sediments act as a sink or trap. Consequently, on a regional scale lake sediment anomalies offer a larger target than lake water anomalies (Fig. 10). Furthermore, the r e l a t i v e l y low r e l i e f and low rate of sedi-mentation (1 to 3 inches/1000 years) aids formation of hydro-morphic lake sediment anomalies by preventing d i l u t i o n of anomalies with abundant organic and inorganic d e t r i t u s . Conversely, lake waters are more dynamic with metal coming in (via s o i l drainage) and being removed simultaneously (via pre-c i p i t a t i o n and outflow) •resulting i n a steady state condition. r 276. Assuming Figure 127 i s an adequate stratigraphic/geo-chemical model for near-center lake sediments at Bathurst Norsemines, i t can generally be concluded that Cu, Pb and Zn values tend to increase with depth in sediment or remain con-stant; however, once the dense s a n d - s i l t - c l a y layer i s pene-trated, metal values decrease s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Conversely, Fe and Mn values increase - often dramatically - towards the sediment-water interface. Percent L.0.1. trends are mixed and generally display a narrow range of values within a lake. In terms of stratigraphy, the s a n d - s i l t - c l a y layer i s believed to represent t i l l because i t contains occasional pebbles and i s too dense to be the r e s u l t of normal lake sedi-mentation processes which give r i s e to the overlying g y t t j a and soft, s i l t - c l a y deposits. The l a t t e r often contains h a i r - l i k e plant f i b e r s (moss?) and occasionally a whitish, f r i a b l e deposit (marl?) which probably formed soon after de-g l a c i a t i o n and represents the f i r s t true lake sediment (cf. Karrow and Anderson, 1975). Deposited above th i s i s a watery, organic-rich (10 to 35% L.O.I.) ooze commonly c a l l e d g y t t j a or algal g y t t j a . Gyttja i s composed of s i l t - c l a y p a r t i c l e s bound by organic detritus, commonly alg a l remains and humic c o l l o i d s (Timperley and Allan, 1974). Fe and Mn nodules are commonly dispersed throughout lake sediments; however, they are usually concentrated at the sediment-water interface. Although the importance of Fe and Mn as scavengers of Cu, Zn and, to a lesser extent, Pb i s well 277. documented (Horsnail et a l . , 1969; Coker and Nichol, 1975; Chao and Theobald, 1976; Garrett and Hornbrook, 1976) Fe and, in p a r t i c u l a r , Mn display a negative correlation with Cu, Pb and Zn. In some cores Fe and Mn nodules become fewer, smaller and less well defined with depth (cf. Troup, 1969). This i s consistent with conditions below the upper one to two inches of sediment changing from oxidizing to reducing con-ditions . As a res u l t of reduction below the sediment surface Mn and, to a lesser extent, Fe are mobilized and probably move towards the surface where they, are reprecipitated, r e s u l t i n g in decreasing values with depth and, in .some case, extra-o r d i n a r i l y high values at the surface. Cu, Zn and, to some extent, Pb values display the opposite trend which suggests that they are either enhanced or at least are less mobile under reducing conditions. Black bands which commonly occur in g y t t j a and s i l t - c l a y , also become more diffuse with depth. The absence of these bands in the near-surface oxidized zones combined with their d i f f u s e (dissolution?) nature at greater depths within the sediment, suggests that these bands are formed along r e l a t i v e l y long term, stable oxidation-reduction boundaries. Their exact nature i s unknown but they commonly contain very high Cu and Zn concentrations, low Pb, Ag and Mn concentrations and moderate leve l s of Fe. Although these bands are assumed 278. to be reducing, hydrogen sulphide was not detected by smell. Nevertheless, sulphides could be present and not detectable in t h i s manner i f the Cu/Zn supply i s greater than the generation of sulphide ion (cf. Timperley and Allan, 1974). Pb concentrations are too low in a l l water types to ac-count for high Pb values in lake sediments. In addition, Pb trends within lake sediments often diverge from those of Cu and Zn and, most importantly, Pb values in near-shore sedi-ments are very low while Cu and Zn values remain high. A l l of which suggests a d i f f e r e n t mode of o r i g i n for the formation of Pb anomalies' in lake sediments. Because of the immobility of Pb, i t i s suggested that most of the Pb enters the lake basin sorbed on f i n e clay-sized p a r t i c u l a t e matter ( i . e . c l a s t i c dispersion) rather than as a dissolved species (cf. Hoffman, 1976). Much of t h i s p a r t i c u l a t e matter i s dumped into lakes upon melting of the ice cover and through heavy runoff following thunderstorms and melting of remnant snow-banks. Ice scour and wave action would then prevent deposi-tion of f i n e clay-sized sediments i n high energy near-shore environments. Increasing Cu and Zn values with respect to depth in sediment cannot be attributed to Fe, Mn or organic carbon en-richment. Although metal enhancement with depth may be related to 'aging' of organic matter (whereby important organic 279. functional groups are known to increase with sediment depth cf. Manskaya and Drozdova, 1968 p. 243), t h i s does not seem l i k e l y . On the other hand, metal-rich (Cu and Zn) ground-waters, emerging near the break-in-slope of the lake basin and flowing just above or up through the compact s i l t - c l a y layer, could be enhancing metal levels in the lower portions of the lake sediment (cf. Hoffman, 1976; Winter, 1974). This would explain.the presence of the highest metal values often occurring near the bottom of lake sediments and at intermediate water depths, presumably where groundwaters emerge. A l t e r -natively, the o v e r a l l decrease i n Cu, Pb and Zn values, as the sediment-water interface i s approached, could be due to a con-comitant decrease in the supply of these metals at the source ( i . e . s o i l s surrounding Camp Lake) as a r e s u l t of p o s t - g l a c i a l weathering. I l l FINAL DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY A. Element Dispersion It i s unclear whether there was more than one g l a c i a l episode in the Bathurst Norsemines Area. However, Blake (1963) and Craig (1960) discovered a s h i f t in g l a c i a l d i r e c t i o n from northwest to southwest. Measurements of g l a c i a l d i r e c t i o n indicators by t h i s author (Fig. 14) reveal a bimodal d i s -t r i b u t i o n consistent with those established by Blake (1963) (Fig. 13). Most of the g l a c i a l d i r e c t i o n indicators and geo-chemical patterns are oriented west-northwest to northwest. 280. Nevertheless, there i s a tendency for some geochemical patterns, p a r t i c u l a r l y p a r t i a l to t o t a l r a t i o patterns, to display a southwest orientation p a r a l l e l to the less well developed set of g l a c i a l d i r e c t i o n indicators. Based on immobile element (Ag, Pb and Fe) patterns i n s o i l , g l a c i a l dispersion of sulphide-rich t i l l originated primarily from the three mineralized outcrops lying closest to B-C stream. Both boulder trains and more extensive micro-boulder or geochemical indicator train s are present. Ag, Pb and Fe display the best developed geochemical indicator t r a i n s . These occur in each s o i l layer as two subparallel, narrow,finger to fan-shaped patterns with values increasing down ice (to the west). The more northerly t r a i n i s developed best and i s e a s i l y related to the pair of mineralized outcrops west of B-C stream (e.g. Figs. 27 and 41). The general trend of the more northerly t r a i n i s ea s i l y recognized in a i r photos as gossan (Plate 16). An idealized Pb dispersion model for the northern geo-chemical indicator t r a i n at Camp Lake i s shown in Figure 131. This model i s based on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Pb in Layers 1 and 2 and the trend of Pb values with respect to depth (Figs. 40, 41 and 130). From this, i t i s suggested that dispersion was down ice in narrow, thin trains which gradually rose at low to very low (<2°) angles from the b e d r o c k - t i l l interface. If these low angled trains are intercepted by surface s o i l 281. sampling then the highest values may well occur at some d i s -tance down ice where the indicator t r a i n reaches the surface. At s l i g h t l y deeper sampling depths the indicator t r a i n i s intercepted closer to the source and the anomaly appears to approach the source r e l a t i v e to the pattern in the overlying s o i l (compare Figs. 40 and 41). At s t i l l greater depth, high Pb values are confined to an area immediately down ice and close to the bedrock source (cf. Figs. 128, 129 and 131). It i s presumed that Ag, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn were a l l g l a c i a l l y dispersed in the same manner; however, the absence of Cu and Zn patterns similar to and superimposed on those of Ag, Fe and Pb i s the r e s u l t of extensive hydromorphic d i s -persion. Evidence for t h i s i s provided by high levels of Cu and Zn in seepage, p i t , snow-melt and lake waters (Figs. 97, 98 and 101). Leaching of Zn has been most complete, r e s u l t -ing in the formation of negative anomalies in areas of high Ag, Fe and Pb values and low pH. However, high (_>200 ppm) Zn values can be found in the western portion of the gr i d where pH's are more moderate. Nevertheless, r e l a t i v e to the amount of Zn in the ore (average grade 7.5%), there i s a severe depletion in the s o i l . On the other hand, Pb appears to have been retained in the s o i l as a stable secondary mineral and i s more readi l y extracted by reagents such as EDTA or d i l u t e HCI than the remaining Zn. A mobility order of Zn>Cu>Fe>Ag>Pb i s proposed. Hydromorphic s o i l anomalies are largely confined to the 282. L-F-H horizon. These anomalies are r e s t r i c t e d to elements of intermediate mobility ( i . e . Cu and Fe). Zn, because of i t s high mobility, does not form hydromorphic s o i l anomalies. In mineral s o i l , the only area of s i g n i f i c a n t hydromorphic s o i l anomalies occurs in the far western portion of the s o i l g r i d as a very s t r i k i n g north-south zone of very high Cu (Figs. 31 and 32). Because of the high mobility of Cu and Zn, detailed s o i l geochemical patterns for these two elements are less s a t i s -factory, r e l a t i v e to Pb, in locating possible sources of min-e r a l i z a t i o n . This becomes most apparent at depth (Layer 2) where Cu and Zn display low contrast (Table 10) and geochemical patterns are more d i f f i c u l t to r e l a t e to mineralized sources than immobile element patterns (Figs. 30 to 32 and 42 to 44). Conversely, Pb s o i l geochemical patterns become better defined and possess higher contrast as sample depth increases (Figs. 40 to 42, Table 10). Nevertheless, broad areas of interest (with regards to sources of Cu and Zn mineralization) are re a d i l y outlined, with wide dispersion and excellent geo-chemical contrast, by dissolved Cu and Zn i n seepage/pit, and snow-melt waters (Figs. 97 to 100). The highest Cu and Zn values in these waters surround mineralized outcrops and delineate those areas containing the lowest pH's and low, or in many cases, negative Cu and Zn s o i l geochemical anomalies (compare Figs. 99 and 100 with 30 to 32 and 42 to 44). On a more regional scale, Cu and Zn form widespread lake 283. water and center rlake sediment anomalies relatable to mineral-i z a t i o n (Figs. 10 and 101 to 106). Individual lakes display homogeneous Cu and Zn values in water (Tables 16 and 17) but wide v a r i a t i o n (up to 15x) in sediment (Table 26), largely as a function of texture and Eh (Figs. 107 to 127). Lake water anomalies are generated from drainage of mineralized rock and/or metal-rich t i l l . Consequently, lake water and, to a large extent, lake sediment anomalies are con-fined to lakes down drainage and/or down ice from mineralization. Because metal-rich t i l l may have been g l a c i a l l y dispersed up drainage, some lake" anomalies are higher than the mineralized sub-outcrop (e.g. Bat and Cathy Lakes, Figs. 12 and 101). A good correlation exists between high Cu and Zn values in lake waters and sediments (Tables 17 and 26, Fi g . 101); however, because sediments act as a sink or trap and sedimentation rates are low (1 to 3 inches/1000 years), r e l a t i v e l y low levels of Cu and Zn in lake water can give r i s e to s i g n i f i c a n t lake sediment anomalies (e.g. Banana Lake, compare Figs. 101 and 103). Although Pb was not detected in lake waters, i t forms s i g -n i f i c a n t sediment anomalies which, unlike those for Cu and Zn, are r e s t r i c t e d to lakes d i r e c t l y adjacent to mineralization and/or metal-rich t i l l . This i s because Pb, with i t s high im-mobility, enters lakes as a sorbed constituent on c l a y - s i l t p a r t i c u l a t e matter while Cu and Zn enter largely as dissolved species. As a r e s u l t , the highest Pb values are found near 284. the shore closest to mineralization but in water depths greater than 15 feet where wave action and ice scour do not prevent or disrupt accumulation of s i l t - c l a y sediments (Figs. 17 and 102 to 106). Conversely, the highest Cu and Zn values can be found anywhere within the lake but appear to occur predominantly at intermediate depths (Fig. 106). Down drainage dispersion of Cu and Zn through a series of lakes i s extensive in waters and sediments with anomalous concentrations extending farthest in lake sediments (Fig. 10). This i s presumably a res u l t of sediments acting as a trap and forming anomalies from low but anomalous levels of metals i n lake water. Relative to Cu, Zn displays higher values and wider dispersion in both water and sediments as a result of i t s higher mobility as shown by Zn/Cu ra t i o s (Fig. 101 and Tables 27 and 29). Contributions of snow-melt runoff, a l -though p o t e n t i a l l y large, are r e s t r i c t e d for the larger lakes because of long l a s t i n g ice cover which prevents mixing of snow-melt and lake waters. The use of water as a sampling medium has often been c r i t i c i z e d in North America because of: 1) bulk; 2) temporal variations; 3) metal concentrations near the detection l i m i t of most a n a l y t i c a l techniques and 4) pre-treatment such as a c i d i f y i n g , f i l t e r i n g , concentration etc. i s often required. However, studies by t h i s author and Cameron and Ballantyne (1975) and Cameron (1977b) show that in the Bathurst region lake waters are surp r i s i n g l y free of these c r i t i c i s m s . Although 285. lake waters were notpre-concentrated before analysis in t h i s study, t h i s procedure appears to be the only necessary step with regards to regional sample programs. Furthermore, the ease and r a p i d i t y with which samples can be collected argue well for the use of lake water as a regional or semi-regional exploration medium where deposits containing at least one mobile element are sought. Lake sediments also provide a good regional sample medium but wide v a r i a t i o n within lake sediments makes sample s i t e selection more c r i t i c a l , e specially at low (1 sample/10 sq. miles) sample densities. If low sample densities are em-ployed then one may wish to c o l l e c t two samples per lake. This requires l i t t l e additional effort, and anomalies, i f any, can then be assigned p r i o r i t i e s based on the number of anomalous samples and elements and their r e l a t i v e degree of geochemical contrast. B. Application to Exploration 1. Regional The application of geochemical exploration methods depend upon the state of geologic knowledge of the area and the type of mineralization sought. Assuming the geology i s poorly understood then the area to be explored can be large and sample densities, w i l l probably be low (1 sample per 5 to 10 2 mile ). Locating a mineral deposit at t h i s stage requires a 286. certain amount of luck and normally the data are used to de-fine smaller areas which appear favorable for mineralization. Fortunately, volcanogenic massive sulphides often occur in clusters or belts (Sangster, 1972), contain mobile elements (Cu and Zn) and, therefore, provide reasonably large geochemical targets. Consequently, lake sediments or waters provide the best regional sample media because they are wide-spread (Plate 5), quickly and e a s i l y sampled and can success-f u l l y represent the mineral potential of large areas. Stream sediments, although often chosen in other areas as a regional sample medium, are a poor choice at Bathurst Norse-mines because streams are scarce and poorly defined. The choice between lake waters and sediments i s a d i f f i -cult one. Lake waters have many advantages such as: 1) ease and speed of sampling; 2) highly homogeneous; 3) no sample preparation i s required and 4) r a p i d i t y of analysis. Disadvantages are few, the most serious being the r e s t r i c t i o n of analysis to mobile elements and smaller anomalous halos r e l a t i v e to lake-center sediments (Fig.10). These disadvantages are considered minor r e l a t i v e to the advantages. However, i f 2 the sample density i s greater than 1 sample per 3 mile , then lake sediments ( p a r t i c u l a r l y lake-center sediments) should be considered because of larger anomalous dispersion t r a i n s . If lake sediments are chosen one must decide at what depth of water to c o l l e c t samples. As shown in t h i s study and others (Hoffman, 1976; Cameron, 1977b) there i s a great d i f -ference in near-shore (<15 feet of water) versus lake-center 287. sediments with regards to composition, texture and anomaly size and contrast. Although near-shore sediments are easier to c o l l e c t , t h i s i s about their only advantage. In many cases, near-shore sediments display well developed pat-terned ground features and consequently, appear to be nothing more than sub-aqueous s o i l s (Plate 16). Furthermore, in shallow areas, wave action and ice scour prevent deposition of s i l t - c l a y material by which Pb enters the lake.. However, the deepest portions of the lake should also be avoided as they sometimes contain somewhat lower values, r e l a t i v e to intermediate depths (15 to 35 feet) which are the preferred sample s i t e s (cf. Hoffman, 1976). The distance of a lake from mineralization i s less im-portant than i s the position of the lake with regard to hydro-morphic and g l a c i a l dispersion of mineralization. Widespread geochemical dispersion occurs when the s t r i k e of the geology, g l a c i a l dispersion and p o s t - g l a c i a l drainage do not coincide. This results in a high p r o b a b i l i t y that lake water anomalies w i l l be formed in several lakes adjacent to mineralization. If mineralization, g l a c i a l dispersion of sulphides and drainage are a l l r e s t r i c t e d to one lake basin, then anomalous values within that lake may be quite high; however, such an anomaly can e a s i l y be missed because most regional: programs sample only a small to moderate percentage of lakes in the reconnaissance area (Hoffman, 1976 , pp.. 325-326 ). Because of the wide range in metal values within lake 288. sediments, there i s a chance of r e t r i e v i n g a sample containing background metal levels, p a r t i c u l a r l y in lakes somewhat re-moved from mineralization, although i f sampled in more d e t a i l anomalous values could be obtained. Consequently, sample s i t e selection i s c r i t i c a l and more than one sample s i t e per lake (Hoffman, 1976) or an increase in sample density may be warranted for regional lake sediment surveys. It i s suggested that multiple samples from d i f f e r e n t parts of the lake be taken i f regional sampling i s at low densities ( i . e . 2 one lake sampled per 8 to 10 miles ). Anomalies can then be c l a s s i f i e d into a p r i o r i t y rating scheme based on the number of anomalous samples,relative to the t o t a l collected per lake,and their r e l a t i v e degree of contrast. 2. Detailed Assuming that a regional geochemical survey has located anomalous metal values a detailed survey and geologic evalua-tion would be warranted. At th i s stage, s o i l s , seepage waters, snow-melt runoff or even lake waters could be used. The l a t t e r may be preferred as an intermediate or semi-detailed explora-tion phase i f regional sampling was at very low densities 2 (1 sample per 2.8 mile ). In thi s case, a sample density of 2 at least 1 sample per mile , combined with a rough geologic inspection, would be required. The geologic evaluation would consist of sampling any gossan or mineralized f l o a t from the area and roughly mapping the area to determine i f the geologic 289. environment i s conducive to hosting stratabound massive s u l -phides. Should the area appear favorable during geologic inspection,then several tens of s o i l samples at wide i n t e r -vals (2.8OO feet) should be collected. Follow-up work on areas that continue to produce geo-chemical anomalies, combined with favorable geologic settings, would most cert a i n l y involve detailed s o i l g r i d sampling at intervals ranging from 50 to 400 feet. Because the anomaly source (mineralization) needs to be precisely determined for d r i l l i n g , .immobile elements (Ag, Fe and Pb) are preferred be-cause they are less affected by p o s t - g l a c i a l weathering than mobile elements (Cu and Zn). Consequently, the optimum sample type (organic-rich L^F-H horizon versus mineral s o i l ) and - i f the l a t t e r type i s chosen - sample depth must be established. Except for the L-F-H horizon, v i s u a l l y recognizable s o i l horizons are rarely present; therefore, sampling of mineral s o i l i s usually at some arbitrary depth(s) (0 to 14 inches, 14 to 25 inches or deeper). Mobile element patterns are poorly developed i n a l l s o i l layers but are best defined in the L-F-H horizon; whereas, immobile element patterns are more than adequately developed in a l l s o i l layers, although best defined in the deeper s o i l . Differences between the s o i l layers, however, are somewhat subjective, especially for im-mobile elements. As a r e s u l t , selection of sample type and depth, depends on many factors besides the degree of geochemical pattern development. 290. Because f i e l d seasons are short and exploration expen-sive, rapid and easy geochemical sampling, preparation and analysis are preferred. Sampling of permafrost where Cu, Pb, Zn patterns have remained r e l a t i v e l y unaffected by post-g l a c i a l chemical and physical weathering i s perhaps ide a l . Unfortunately, the time and cost of such sampling procedures excludes these methods. , Relative to mineral s o i l , sampling and preparation of the L-F-H horizon requires more time and e f f o r t as large areas (tens of square feet) may need to be scavenged to obtain s u f f i c i e n t sample. Consequently, un-less resources are f r e e l y available, sampling of the shallow (0 to 14 inches depth) mineral s o i l i s preferred. Although t h i s study shows the minus 80-mesh fr a c t i o n to be more than adequate, the use of a f i n e r s o i l f r a c t i o n , may be more advantageous (cf. S h i l t s , 1973a). It i s suggested that decreasing the size f r a c t i o n may well decrease extraneous variation; thereby, enabling geochemical anomalies to be better defined and, for elements where the detection l i m i t i s an i n h i b i t i n g factor (e.g. Pb), attainment of better pre-c i s i o n . In addition, p a r t i a l and t o t a l extractions on various size f r a c t i o n s suggest that anomalous metal concentrations i n coarse fractions composed of rock/mineral fragments seem l i k e l y . As a r e s u l t , sampling and a n a l y t i c a l procedures based on t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y may be useful in r e l a t i n g / t r a c i n g highly mobile elements (Cu and Zn), to their bedrock source when 'standard' 291. procedures ( i . e . t o t a l extraction, minus 80-mesh) appear i n -adequate due to intense hydromorphic dispersion. The use of seepage and/or snow-melt waters, although po t e n t i a l l y quite e f f e c t i v e , has many disadvantages. For example, seepages occur at i n s u f f i c i e n t densities for highly detailed surveys. Furthermore, the actual source of mineral-iz a t i o n revealed by seepage anomalies can be some distance away. Although snow-melt runoff can very e f f e c t i v e l y out-l i n e areas of Cu-Zn mineralization, timing the sample pro-gram i s c r i t i c a l as the bulk of snow-melt runoff occurs over short (<3 weeks) time periods. Most importantly, however, i s the r e s t r i c t i o n of analysis to the more mobile elements and the p o s s i b i l i t y of poor reproduction i n both media. IV CONCLUSIONS Geochemical studies at .Bathurst Norsemines reveal exten-sive geochemical dispersion in s o i l , groundwater, snow-melt runoff and lake waters and sediments. Except for l i m i t i n g the depth of s o i l sampling to -5 feet,the effects of permafrost on geochemical programs are minimal. Hydromorphic and c l a s t i c dispersion patterns are well developed, perhaps better devel-oped than in temperate climates. S i g n i f i c a n t i n h i b i t i n g or complicating factors, with regard to geochemical dispersion, in s o i l , water and sediment are not present. In s o i l s , extensive well developed g l a c i a l dispersion i s evident in a west-northwest d i r e c t i o n away from mineralized 292. outcrops. The highest metal values occur approximately 1000 to 2000 feet down ice where geochemical indicator t r a i n s intercept the s o i l surface. Extensive chemical weathering has destroyed a l l traces of Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn s u l -phides . Ag, Fe and Pb patterns are well developed and display a c l a s s i c g l a c i a l (mechanical) mode of genesis. Anomalies for these elements are p a r t i c u l a r l y well defined in the deeper s o i l . Conversely, Cu and Zn patterns are best developed in the L-F-H s o i l horizon. Although these elements were i n i t i a l -ly dispersed the same as Ag, Fe and Pb, they have undergone wide scale hydromorphic dispersion. Consequently, geochemical contrast i s low and, in some cases, they form negative anomalies, A mobility order of Zn>Cu>Fe>Ag>Pb i s suggested. High levels of dissolved Cu and, in p a r t i c u l a r , Zn are found i n seepage, p i t and snow-melt waters. These media pro-vide the highest geochemical contrast and delineate Cu-Zn mineralization better than s o i l samples. Because of extensive hydromorphic dispersion, lake waters and sediments provide ideal regional sample media. Within ind i v i d u a l lakes, waters are homogeneous while sediments are characterized by rapid changes in texture and metal content. Dispersion halos are somewhat larger i n sediments than waters with Zn providing the largest halo followed by Cu and Pb. Within sediments, Cu and Zn trends closely p a r a l l e l one an-other. Pb trends often diverge from those of Cu and Zn 293. because Cu and Zn enter the lake largely as dissolved species while Pb enters as a sorbed constituent on s i l t - c l a y p a r t i c l e s . 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The processes leading to a l t e r a -tion and reconstruction of s o i l s and rocks at negative temperatures. Izd-vu Acad. Nauk U.S.S.R., Moscow (in Russian). Tyutyunov, I.A., 1961. Introduction to the theory of the formation of cryogenic rocks. Izd-vu Acad. Nauk U.S.S.R., Moscow (in Russian). Ugolirii, F.C. and Anderson, D.W., 1973. Ionic migration and weathering in frozen a n t a r c t i c s o i l s . S o i l S c i . , V. 115, No. 6: 461-470. Wahl, H.J., 1965. Year-end report, Cornwallis project. NWT. Dept. of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s . Washburn, A.L., 1956. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of patterned ground and review of suggested o r i g i n s . GSA B u l l . , V: 67:' 823-866. Washburn, A.L., 1972. P e r i g l a c i a l processes and environ-ments. Edward Arnold Ltd., London: 320 pp. Weast, R.C., 1976. ( E d i t o r ) . Handbook of Chemistry and physics 56th edition, 1975-1976. CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio. 308. Whitney, P., 1975. Relationship of manganese-iron oxides and associated heavy metals to grain s i z e in stream sediments. J. Geochem. • Explor., 4: 251-263. Winter, T., 1976. Numerical simulation analysis of the int e r a c t i o n of lakes and ground-water. USGS Prof.. Paper 1001. Zontov, N.S., 1959. The wurmian oxidation zone in the Norilsk Cu-Ni sulphide deposits. Dokl. Acad. S c i . U.S.S.R., Earth S c i . Sect. 129: 1057-1059. APPENDIX A GEOCHEMICAL DATA FOR SOIL PITS 14, 17, 49, 52, 109, 113 AND 198 FROM THE CAMP LAKE AREA 10 0 10 20 30 4 0 50 100 P P M 1000 6 0 0 0 .L-F-H horizon " " • . , . i ; / \ \ \ \ \ ; \ i ) i • 1 / 1 / I i j f \ l / \ \ \ \ j / \ ') i / \ / \ 1 / \ / 1 / J / / ( / 1 C 1 \ \ i\ / ) 1 / u \ j / / / / / \ / / i • < ( S v i Ca Fe M g M n x i c r * _ x i c r 2 Figure A l . Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 14, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack Figure A2. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 14, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure A3. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 49, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack Figure A4. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 49, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. 10 10 I 20 N C H E s 30 100 PPM 1000 6 0 0 0 \ ) "1 / \ L-F-H horizon Ca Fe Mg xio" 2.., Mn 4 0 \ \ ) \ 50 Figure A5. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 52, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack Figure A6. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 52, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure A7. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 109, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. £ Figure A8. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 109, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure A9. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 113, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80. mesh , t o t a l attack. Figure A l l . Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 198, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. 0 0 10 I 20 N C H E S 30 4 0 50 100 PPM 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 / \ y L-F-H horizon Cu _ Pb Zn ... Figure A12. Camp Lake: s o i l p i t 198, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. u to 322. APPENDIX B GEOCHEMICAL DATA FOR THE ANNE-CLEAVER LAKES AREA: SOIL SNOW-MELT RUNOFF SEEPAGE-PIT WATERS STREAM WATERS STREAM SEDIMENTS Table Bl. Metal content of s o i l at Anne-Cleaver Lakes (minus 80-mesh frac t i o n , HNC»3/ HC10, digestion). S o i l Layer Cu Pb Zn Cd Ag Mn Fe% L-F-H A 8-875 d-5640 21-2868 d-26.9 d-45.5 23-5648 0.3-6.4 N = 116 B 57(.44) 76(.73) 160(.45) 2.4(.37) 2.1(.42) 234(.51) 1.7(.25) C O 22 0 63 79 0 0 Layer 1 A 12-1454 d-11665 42-3374 d-15.5 d-28.1 46-4425 1.1-14.2 0-10 i n . B 82(.42) 76(.74) 177(.42) 1.5(.30) 2.4(.54) 241(.33) 2.4(.24) N = 129 C O 16 0 104 94 0 0 1: Metal content in ppm except where noted. 2: Data from the two easternmost gri d lines omitted. A: Range. B: Geometric mean followed by standard deviation in base 10 logs in ( ). C: Number of samples below the detection l i m i t , d: Detection l i m i t . Table B2. Metal content to mineralized of stream sediments zones at Anne Lake. adj acent TS ^ L 2 ?™P]Lf A g C u F e % M n p b Z n Number Number 1 791 2 800 3 805 4 911 3.8 396 2.0 735 d . l . 319 d . l . 60 6.9 2528 6.1 511 3.4 437 2.7 1030 507 6532 211 8428 11344 3528 35 510 1: Total attack, minus 80-mesh. A l l values in ppm except where noted. 2: See Figure Bl for sample s i t e locations. • 422 • 419, •42 0 • 421 •47oT I/ « 4 0 0 ,/V »399 •4 35 ^•lll \ »396 A«433 i ' * 3 9 5 •432 # 3 9 4 ..431 ^ - 3 9 3 / »3 9 2 •430 / •!„ .429 / * 3 9 1 •428 # 3 9 G •34 4 •342 •3 41 • 3 40 •3 3 9 •3 3 8 7 2^> •336 4 2 6 • S o i l grid s i t e * S o i l p i t s i t e x Stream sediment s i t e 500 I OOP feet 152 305 meters • 540 • 539 • 538 • 537 • 536 • 535 • 5 34 ••533 • 532 • 531 • 530 • 529 Figure B l . Anne-Cleaver Lakes: location of s o i l g r i d , SOJLI p i t . and stream sediment sample s i t e s . CO to cn Figure B2. Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Ag content of the L-F-H horizon and Layer .1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. CO Figure B3. Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Cd content of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh,, t o t a l attack. •>2 ppm 0 500 loop feet O 152 305 meters Figure B4. Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Cd content of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. co 00 CO to O '152 305 meters Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Cu content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , 0.05M EDTA ext. Figure B9. Anne-Cleaver Lakes: r a t i o of 1.0M HCI ext. to t o t a l ext. Cu (Cu U D) in Layer s o i l s . Figure BIO. Anne-Cleaver Lakes: r a t i o of 0.05M EDTA ext. to t o t a l ext. Cu (Cu__) in Layer ER s o i l s . Hi 20-40% >40% 15S -3Q5meters Figure B l l . Anne-Cleaver Lakes: estimated percentage of v i s i b l e surface iron s t a i n i ng, CO Figure B12. Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Fe content of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. co CO Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Fe content of Layer 1 s o i l s , 0.05M EDTA ext., -80 mesh. 0 500 IQOO feet CLCAVER = S = S S S H LAKE 0 •. 152 -305 meters B19. Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Pb content (ppm) of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. 152 . '305 meters Figure B20. Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Pb content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. co 00 Figure B25. Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Zn content (ppm) of the L-F-H horizon, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. CO *> CO 500 1000 feet CLCAVCR LAKE •152 305 meters Figure B27. Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Zn content (ppm) of Layer 1 s o i l s , 1.0M HCI ext., -80 mesh. Figure B28. Anne-Cleaver Lakes: Zn content of Layer 1 s o i l s , 0.05M EDTA ext., -80 mesh. CO cn ISO CO cn co 10 10 h 20 30 40 h 50h 100 PPM 1000 6000 L-F-H horizon 1 Ca _ Fe xio-2 Mg x io - 2 Mn 'igure B33. Anne Lake: s o i l p i t 431, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack Figure B34. Anne Lake: s o i l p i t 431, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure B35. Anne Lake: s o i l p i t 433, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. 10 0 io h • 20 N C H E S 30 40 50 100 PPM 1000 s 6000 L-F-H horizon Cu _ Pb _. Zn .... Figure B36. Anne Lake: s o i l p i t 433, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. Figure B37. Anne Lake: s o i l p i t 452, metal d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth, -80 mesh, t o t a l attack. ii N •A-/ 8 \ SAMPLE TYPE A Seepage APit OStream -/261 12/10 •intermittent stream . Cu/Zn 500 IQOO feet 152 305 meters Figure B38*. Anne-Cleaver Lakes: dissolved Cu and Zn (ppb) in seepage, p i t and stream wat (1974). Concentrations below the detection l i m i t are designated as -. ers co to SAMPLE TYPE -/44 • • -/420 .•-/14 mn~f- \ \ •174/75, •176/16^. 500 1000 feet if. Pond OStream \2Snow-melt runoff —» intermittent stream • Cu/Zn 152 505 meters Figure B39. Anne-Cleaver Lakes: dissolved Cu and Zn (ppb) in snow-melt, pond and stream waters (1975). Concentrations below the detection l i m i t are designated as -CO CO APPENDIX C PLATES 1 TO 18 (PLATES 15 TO 18 IN POCKET) P l a t e 1. Unsorted c i r c l e with v e g e t a t i o n - f r e e c e n t e r . Note recent e x t r u s i o n of tan s i l t , c r u m p l i n g / f o l d i n g of s o i l and the l a r g e e n c i r c l i n g cobbles. P l a t e 2 . Photo taken l o o k i n g up s l o p e at a 4 to 5 f o o t wide u n s o r t e d c i r c l e . Note small patch of r e c e n t l y extruded s i l t near top of c i r c l e and s e v e r a l o l d e r t u r f and stone rims or r i n g s along the down-slope s i d e which have formed as a r e s u l t of d i s c o n t i n u o u s co e x t r u s i o n and s o i l creep. 5 Plate 3. A 1975 photo of a 1974 s o i l s i t e (14). Note tension cracks and sagging in hole combined with bulging and heaving above hole. Inactive, vegetated c i r c l e . Note 8 foot diameter stone ring and s l i g h t l y de-pressed center. CO 03 View from 3000 feet of the Bathurst Norsemines region showing the great abundance of lakes and low r e l i e f of the area. Typical s o i l sampling s i t e (131) and s o i l p r o f i l e . Note thin (J<1 inch) L-F-H horizon and lack of Ae and B horizons. Plate 7. Typical s o i l sampling s i t e (69) and s o i l p r o f i l e with thin (<2 inch) L-F-H horizon. Darker colors along sides and bottom are due to wetness. P l a t e 9. S o i l s i t e (323) at Anne-Cleaver Lakes Area. Note t h i n L-F-H h o r i z o n and abundant p l a n t r o o t s to hole bottom (18 i n c h e s ) . Dark c o l o r a t i o n due to dampness and b u r i e d o r g a n i c matter. Anne-Cleaver Lakes Area from 300 f e e t . Diamond d r i l l i n foreground on the East Cleaver Lake Zone with Cleaver and F l y i n g Horse Lakes j u s t beyond f o l l o w e d by Anne Lake and, i n the f a r d i s t a n c e , T u r t l e Lake. Plate 11. Camp Lake from 500 feet looking north-east in early June 1975. The snow cover i s rapidly melting but the ice on Camp Lake exceeds six feet. The Cominco camp i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e on the southwest shore and the nose of Banana Lake i s just v i s i b l e in the upper l e f t corner. Plate 12. Sediment core 1419. Note dark, high water and or-ganic r i c h upper portion and s i l t y , grading down into sandy, bottom por-tion (cf. Fig. 110). CO o Sediment core 1424. Note bright orange (oxidized) upper portion and numerous thin black bands which become diffuse with depth (compare with Fig. 114). Plate 14. Sediment core 1427. Note 3mm black band at 11cm depth which contains very high Cu and Zn. This band is probably an oxidation-reduction boundary (cf. w Fig. 117). M (In pocket). Color G.S.C. a i r photograph of the Camp Lake Area. North i s towards the top and one inch i s approximately 1250 feet. A large area of gossan can be c l e a r l y seen to extend in a west-northwest direction from west of Bat Lake to the B-C stream. Abundant esker and g l a c i o -f l u v i a l deposits with associated areas of scoured bedrock are c l e a r l y v i s i b l e in the bottom of the photo. The Cominco Camp (12' x 18' tents) can be seen along the southwest shore of Camp Lake just northwest of the esker delta at the edge of the photo. Note abundant c i r c l e s , appearing asj tan dots, between Camp and Finger Lakes. Also, on the low angle slopes north of Banana Lake s o i l stripes can be seen. These continue into the shallow portions of the lake. (In pocket). Continuation of Plate 15. Note gossan (from the Jo Zone) in and adjacent to the stream just north of the well developed esker which divides Upper and Lower Sunken Lakes. Also note patterned ground features ( c i r c l e s and stripes) in the shallow areas of Camp Lake and, to the northeast, Linear and C i r c l e Lakes. A caribou t r a i l can be seen in the middle of the gossan between B-C stream and Bat Lake. (In pocket). Color G.S.C. a i r photograph of the Anne-Cleaver Lakes Area. North i s towards the top and one inch i s approximately 1250 feet. Note continuation (from the Camp Lake Area) of the esker with associated features and the pres-ence of c i r c l e s and stripes in the shallow areas of Turtle and Anne Lakes. (In pocket). Continuation of Plate 17. Note gossan adjacent to Cleaver and Flyi n g Horse Lakes (in center of photo) and just south of tents at Anne Lake. P l a t e 15. North t Plate 16. c-l North t 

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