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The geology and mineralogy of the western contact of the Coast range batholith Kania, Joseph Ernest Anthony 1928

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THE GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY OF THE WESTERN CONTACT OF THE COAST RANGE BATHOLITH by Joseph Ernest Anthony Kania aGc——-A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in the Department of GEOLOGY. «•oOo-The University of British Columbia APRIL 1928. jt v- 'tics--' .atf^  (.- * A, " • • ' Introduction * Page General Statement 3. Subject of thesis 2 sot of thesis 2 Sources of information Z Location and Extent of Area 2 Location S length 3 Width 3 3 A ©toaowledgments 3 Bibliography 4 CHAPTER II Stffijsmry and Conclusions 4 General Geology 4 Historical geology 4 Periods of intrusion 5 Age of the fcatholith 5 Mature of the intrusion 6 Economic Geology 6 Economic importance of Mesosoic intruslves 6 Minerals of economic importance 7 l£e tallogene t i c epochs 7 Metallogene ti c provineas 7 Types of deposits 8 Minor metals 8 CHAPTER III General Character of the Coast Range Region 9 The American Cordillera 9 Linear extent 9 Relation of Coast Range to it 9 ? v ^ - ii Page The Coast Range 9 Topograph 9 Main bathe lith 9 Insular system 9 Uniformity of summit levels 10 Contrast with Hookies 10 Pip of axis to north 10 Explanation of drowned valleys and origin of fiords and channels 11 Drainage 11 Antecedent streams 11 Smaller stream 12 Vegetation and Climate 12 CHAPTER IT Geology 13 General Geology 13 Swm&xy of the Geological History of Cordillera (Schofield) 13 Jurassic IX Cretaceous 13 Tertiary 14 Pleistocene 15 Post-Pleistocene 16 Chronological Record in Alaska {Martin) 16 Permian }J Trias sic Jurassie J J Cretaceous i 7 Structural Geology 2 0 Origin of the Bathoiith 20 Differentiation 20 Phases of intrusion Caparison with other localities <zi Stoping 2 1 The Volcanic Phase 2 1 Varieties of intrusives 8coke and Duncan areas 21 Sutton limestones 22 Vancouver group 22 Valdes group 22 queen Charlotte Islands 23 Yakeun formation 23 Haute formation 23 West ©oast of Vancouver Island 23 Coast of B.C. 24 Ketchikan and Wrangell districts 25 Prince Rupert-Skagway section 25 Tat&henshini river, Y.T. 26 Older volcanics 26 Kinase lake 26 Klotassls area 26 Whitehorse district 26 Perkins group 27 Chieftain volcanics 27 Xaoerge series 27 Atlin district 27 Limestone precipitated by submarine lava flows (hypothesis) 28 The B&tholithic phase - 29 Intrusion of batho lithe into syscliaoria (hypothesis) 30 Boundary country underlain by Coast Range batholithic rocks (hypothesis)31 General distribution of the bath©« lithic rocks 31 33 Summary of the manner of intrusion 32 The Phase of Minor Intrusives 33 Vancouver Island 33 Wark gabbro-diorite gneiss 34 Colquitz quartz-diorite gneiss 34 Saanich granodiorite 34 Cooke and Tyee porphyritee 3S Order of intrusion 35 Coast of B.C. 36 Leucocratic dykes 36 Eelanocratio dykes 36 Bellabella formation 37 Southeastern Alaska 38 Yukon Territory 39 Susmary of period of minor intrusives39 of the Batholith 4 0 Vancouver Island Tulameen district Graham Island 4 2 oVcfOM. fe. Wrsi.^' - - ..i . Page Whitehorse area 42 Granodiorite pebbles in Iaberge beds 42 Zymoetz river area 43 Eutauk lake area 4f Sciiefieldts sunaaary 44 Pest-lever Cretaceous batholiths 45 Conclusions 45 Structure of the Sathellth 46 Dip of the axis toward the north 46 Contrast of eastern and western contact 47 Slope of the contacts 47 Insular system underlain by Coast Range grancdiorite 43 Batholiths intruded into synclin-oreal areas 4S Conclusions regarding intrusion 48 Faulting and fissuring 49 Fiord system of B.C. 50 Economic Geology 50 Metallogenetic Epochs 50 Definition 5© Illustrations 50 Purpose 51 Source of Mineralising Solutions 51 The Periods of Mineralization 51 Schofield's four ptoses of the bath-elith 52 The first metallogenetio epoch 52 The second metaOogenetic epoch 53 The third metallogenetic epoch 53 Metallogenetio Provinces 54 Definition 54 Illustrations 54 Purpose 54 Explanation of maps 54 Association of Metalliferous Minerals and Hocks 56 Southeastern Alaska 56 Chromite 56 Pentlandite 56 Chalcopyrite 56 Magnetite (ilsaenitic) 56 Palladiua-bearing boinite 56 Nickel 56 Uagnetite in B.C. 57 Gold 60 Galena 61 Silver 61 Sphalerite 61 Summary 61 large lew-grade copper deposits 61 Gold-copper deposits 62 Iron deposits 62 CHAPTER V Metamorphisa 63 Ketchikan district 63 queen Charlotte Islands 65 Vancouver Island 66 Summary 66 -—-oOo—— Bibliography i - vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Map of the principal occurrences of copper en the western contact of the Coast Range batholith. (?lg#l) 55 Map of the principal occurrences of magnetite on the western contact of the C«ast Range batholith. (Fig.2) 58 Map of the Coast Range Batholith showing metallogenetic provinces along the western contact. (1"» 50 miles) Folder jSO* ' , . ""'v. *>s s WB8TSRH~50teTACTrQ/ Tfe COAST CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION General Statement, It is generally known txwH tne metalliferous depositpf western British Columbia, southeastern Alaska and -the southwestern part of the Jiflcon Territory are all, with few exceptions, genetically related to the Coast Range batho-11th* These deposits are very numerous ypd may be found at or near the eastern or western contacts, and*, then usually within the older intruded rooks* pendent sections, in the roof of the > batholith, of the intruded rocks play a ve^y important part in establishing the economic importance of txiw Co. ot Range batho-lith deposits* As a matter of fact the two largest known de-posits in the area, the Hidden Creek mine at j&nyox, B.C., and the Britannia mine on IIowe Sound are situated'in such roof pen-dants* In view of these facts it iu unfortunate- that most of the western contact should be concealed benoawal the waters of the Pacific Ocean. The eastern contact is characterized by lead-zinc-silver-gold deposits, with the values in the precious met-als. The western contact is characterize^ by copper deposits with minor values in gold and silver, and also a teaonetite-gar-netite type of mineralization* In dealing with the minerulo^y and geology of the western contact of the Coast Range batholith I have attemp-ted set so amok to submit original data as to present already f available data* selectively chosen? from the point of view of metallogenetic epochs and provinces* Whereas, in order to en-able me to treat the subject thoroughly, I have confined myself almost entirely to the western flank of the Coast Range batho-lith, the whole of this range of mountains necessarily comes into consideration during various parts of the discussion. The object of treating the mineral deposits of this area from the above point of view is to indicate the periods and areas of mineralization characteristic of certain metals. Inform-ation of this kind should be useful in aiding intelligent pros-pecting of still unprospected areas and also in the search for further ore bodies in already established mines. Information regarding the Coast Rang© batholith and the associated ore bodies was derived from many sources. The most important of these are the publications of the Can-adian and United States Geological Surveys, Economic Geology and the Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines of British Columbia. Among others are the publications of the Royal Soc-iety of Canada, the American Institute of Mining and Metallur-gical Engineers, the Canadian Mining Institute and the Geolo-gical Society of America. In connection with this work a thorough study of the Hidden Creek mine at Anyox B.C. , and a cursory examination of the Britannia mine on Howe Sound were made personally. Location and Extent of Area. The Coadt Range is a 3hain of mountains begin-ning at the Fraser River and occupying the whole western part of the province of British Columbia and all of the 'panhandle* of Alaska. In the vicinity of lynn Canal and ceasing to he the continental border the range continues for a short dis-tance into the southwestern part of the Yukon where, behind the St. Eliaas mountains, it merges with the Interior Plateau in a few low lying foothills in the vicinity of Lake Kluane. The range is approximately 1,000 miles longo The southern part, from the Fraser Biver to the Mass, has an average width of 100 miles. Prom the Mass to the Yukon the average width is only half of that while most of the northern part from west of Whitehorse to Kluane Lake is no more than 25 miles wide. The Pacific Ocean, adjacent to the Coast Range and along the latter*s entire length, is studded with islands whieh consist entirely or essentially of Coast Range b&tholith-ic rocks. In the folder may be found a geological map of the entire batholith, on a scale of 50 miles to the inch, showing also the main mineral deposits. Other maps, on a scale of approximately 190 miles to the inch, illustrating the metallogenetic provinces for the individual metals also accompany this thesis. Acknowledgments. I wish to gratefully acknowledge the kind suggestions and criticisms of Dr. S.J.Schofield, Department of Geology, University of British Columbia, who supervised the preparation of this treatise. Blbllofixaioliy. A list ©f the publications utilized is pre-paring this work will he found following chapter IV. CHAPTER II SUMMARY ABD COHCLUSIOMS General Geology. During late Palaeozoic and lower to middle Triassic times the area of the present Coast Range was mostly submerged, while a series of volcanic cones, on the site of this range, intercal^ated their ejectamenta with the serine sediments that were being laid down at the time. Intrusion, on a small Boale, and submarine lam flows were also commons the latter aiding in the precipitation of limestone from sea-water. Pellowing this period of volcanism there came a period of compression during which these older volcanics and sediment-afies were folded into synclinoria and anticlinoria with axes parallel to that of the main batholith. Into these synclinoria, and as a result of this folding, the main bathe-liths were intruded, while the host of smaller batholiths found their way into anticlinorial areas. The period of intrusion may be divided into three phases. The volcanic phase • •.«.andesites, dacites* basalts and tuffs. Th® batholithie phase «•••• granites to gabbros0 The phase of minor intrusives » , „« „ aplites, peg-matites 9 granophyres, and ultrabasic varieties. The following conclusions were arrived at re-garding the age of the bathelith. 1. Towards the northern end of the batholith there Kay have been batholithio intrusions, on a sail scale perhaps, before middle Jurassic times; this was followed, in the same the district, by main intrusion during post-middle Jurassic times. A 2. Along the entire length of the batholith the main intrusion took place no earlier than Upper Jurassic times 3. Much of the eastern part of the batholith, especially between the Bridge River and th© Skeena, is post-lower Cretaceous in age. 4. Towards the southern end of the batholith, in the lillooet and Skagit River areas, there are batholithie intrusions, again on a isinor scale perhaps, no later than upper Jurassic in age. 5. There is enough data to hand to prove that the intrusion of the Coast Range batholith lasted from upper Juraasic to post-lowermost Cretaceous and was not simultaneous along the entire length and width of the batholith. «*5— Regarding the nature of the intrusion it was concluded that; 1. The pre-batholithic rocks were folded, proceed-ing the intrusion, into a series of minor folds in the area of the present Insular Syste®, consisting of the offshore islands* This area as a whole had anticlinorial tendencies. To the east of this was a synelinorlal area into which the main Coast Range was intruded* To the east of this range, and especially is this true of the boundary country, there existed another area of minor folds -with anticlinorial tendencies on the whole. This was followed by another synclinorial area on the site of the present Kootenay batholith, 2m During the same general period this whole area was intruded by major and Kinor batholiths and apophyses all born of the same magmat.tc reservoir. Z. The two major batholiths were intruded into the two major synclinoria, The minor batholiths or apophyses were intruded into the synclinal areas of the minor folds, tii® se anticlinorial areas as a whole not being favourable to intru-sion on a large scale. Possible subsequent foundering of the batholith and later periods of compression may have very much accentuated the dip of these already inclined strata. Economic Geology. The important economic bearing that the Keso-zoic intrusives have on the ore deposits of British Columbia as a whole is now established beyond a doubt. This is still more striking is the ease of the Coast Range area, where all ere deposits, barring some sedimentary ones, are direetly connected with this intrusion and the pneumatolytic solutions derived from it. The minerals of economic importance, and those for which the deposits are worked, are gold, eopper and iron. Other minerals when they do occur, have so far not been found in economic quantities. The metallogenetic epochs are three in number and are enumerated below, 1. During this first epoch the mineralizing solu-tions from the Coast Range batholith percolated up through the intruded rocks arid, favouring the pre-batholithic sills for a host rock, were impounded beneath the roof rock. 2. This second metallogenetic epoch is character-ized by the post-batholithic intrusion of aplite and pegmat-i l ite dykes into which, during thja later stages of cooling, the mineralizing solutions found their way. 3. Only one known deposit, that of the Sunloch mine, falls into this third group* The Soeke gabbro intrudes Eocene (JSetchesin) volcanics and to it, and the solutions emanating from it, is attributed this phase of mineralization. As regards metallogenetic provinces, there is a definite association of igneous reeks and minerals, and the distribution of the former controls that ©f the latter. There are no known economic deposits located in the rock of the main batholith itself, the favourable zones being thee© some distance from the contacts. The actual distribution of the metals may be deduced from the accompanying maps, suffice It to say here that there are three main types of deposits found in the area, namely 1. large low-grade oopper deposits. 2. Gold-copper deposits. 5. Iron dsposits* These are described in more detail in chapter III® Other metals, such as silver, nickel, lead and zinc, ar© also found hut so far do not form an important part in the economic life of the area. CHAPTER III GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE COAST RAHGE REGION The American Cordillera, The American Cordillera is a vast chain of ranges flanking the Pacific Ocean and extending throughout South, Central and Morth America from some 400 miles north of Cape Horn to the most western tip of the Aleutian Islands, The length of this formidable mountain axis is approximately 12,200 miles, of which some 4,628 miles is taken up by the Andes* The Coast Rang® under dissuasion forms but a 1,000 mile link in this epeirogenetlc complex whieh, between certain definite boundaries, is very similar in age and origin to the aforementioned Coast Range, The Coast Range, a* Topography. Even as far back as 1887, when the geology and geological history of the Coast Range were first studied, G. 1 M*Bawson recognized that the range consisted not of one entire massif or batholith, but was a composite series of ranges, not one of whieh could be traced uninteruptedly for any great distance. West of this mountain system and parallel to it is a lower range of mountains, the Insular system. In the > i northern part its protruding peaks fonm the mountainous I Dawson, G.H., Yukon Region & Northern Portion of B.C., 1887. islands of the Alexander Archipelago and the Queen Charlotte / Islands* South of these,but with rather a wide gap in hoth the continehtal shelf and the range itself, Vancouver Island completes this lower mountain chain. All these ranges, however, are genetically re-1 lated in that they are in general of the same type of rock, a granodiorite, and in that they were injected, successively from west to east perhaps, during the same geological period, the late Jurassic. A remarkable feature of the Coast Range, one pointing to a uniformity of erosion and hence to a com-parative contemporaneity of uplift, and early noted by both 2 3 Dawson and Hayes is the remarkable uniformity of summit lev-els, giving it the appearance of a dissected plateau, which is in strong contrast to the Rockies which, as a much younger range, are still in their first cycle of erosion and exhibit thus a very uneven skyline. More will be said in this connec-tion in the next chapter. From south to north, in the Coast Range, there is a gradual decrease in summit levels from about 9,000 feet to about 4,000 feet. This difference can hardly be attributed to differential erosion, and I favour the idea that this down-ward dip to the north is an inherent structural feature and not due to superficial agencies. T Schofield, S.J.and Hanson, G.P Geology and Ore Deposits of 0 Salmon River District, B.C.jG.S.C.,Mem»132, p.9 Dawson, G.M., Report on the Area ©f the Kamloeps Map Sheet, _ B.C.jAnn.Rept.G.S.C.»new ser.,vol.?,1894, p.lOB jtfayes, C.W., An Expedition through the Yukon District. Mat. Geog. Mag. ? vol* 4, 1392, pp. 4-24. The coast is thickly indentated with fiords and channels, the great majority of which represent drowned river valleys of a comparatively recent date* As a matter of observation, taking note of the soundings marked on Admirality charts of the bays, fiords and waterways in general, one is astounded at the very few of them that would still be below sea-level with a rise of say 600 ft* in the present land Sur-face* A general subsidence of the region during glacial times, accompanied by the gouging effect of the glaciers, was responsible for the great lowering of the pre-glacial valley floors below sea level. When the ioe retreated the sea followed it up Into these now drowned valleys and the land rose, although not attaining its former general level. Even with this rise, which is in the neighborhood of 600 ft. as shown by recent shore lines and marine fossils at that elevation, a myriad of marine waterways remain whose existence can be attributed only to the scouring action of the contin-ental ice-sheet and the greater subsidence than subsequent elevation of the land mass. b. Drainage. During the laramide revolution, when the pMae-plained Jurassic mountains were again uplifted, several rivers, running transverse to the axis of the Coast Range, were able to maintain their course to the Pacific across the rising range* Among the most important of these antecedent streams ,wh'cif\ have their source in the Interior Plateau are* from north to south, the Taku, Stikine, Kass, Skeena, Dean, Bella-Co©la, Klena-Ktene * and. the Momalko, all of which cross the range through steep-sided, narrow gorges. On the seaward side of the range the drainage is carried to salt water by innumerable small streams, most of which hare their source in still actire glaciers. Typical U-shaped valleys are occupied by the larger streams of this class, such as the Dyea and Skagway. Most of these small - streams plunge into the sea as waterfalls * the shorelines being so steep in the majority of cases that large vessels may approach them safely within a few feet. c. Vegetation and Climate. The seaward side of the range has a heavy an-nual precipitation which, on the higher levels, fall® as snow. The lower reaches of the Pacific slope are, therefore, heavily forested with fir, spruce, hemlock, cedar and alder. The timber line, which Is about 4*000 ft. at Dixon* s Entrance, descends to about 3,000 ft. at Iynn Canal. Unless connected by bread valleys to the coast the inland slopes of the range have a low precipitation. CHAPTER IV GEOXOGY. General Geology. a. Summary of the Geological History of the Cordillera» It may he well to pause here and consider briefly the Oonel Range to its relation to the other topo-graphical and geological units of British Columbia5 the Interior Plateau, the Selkirks and the Rocky Mountains* X According to Schofield during the Jnrassid© revolution in upper Jurassic times the following four great mountain chains appeared in what was previously a great basin of sedimentation* 1* The Vancouver Island-^ueen Charlotte Island range. The Coast Range of British Columbia* 2. The Sierra levada Range. 3* The Selkirks and their extension southward, into the Bitterroot and Clearwater Ranges. 4* Th« Aiaski&es on the northern border cf Caeca-dia. 'Throughout the Cretaceous these four great moun-tain chains ••••• were areas of erosion, supplying sediments on both sides of these highland masses. In British Columbia the mountain chains were elongated in a north-westerly direc-tion, thus separating the Cretaceous sediments into three main basins. 1. Vancouver Island and Queen Charlotte Islands basin (between Cascadla and the Coast Range). 1 Schofield, S.J., The Geological Record of the Cordillera in panada. Trans.R.S.C., sect.4, 1923, p.92. 3. The Interior Plateau basin (between the Coast Range and the Columbia Selkirk Range). S* The Rooky Mountains and the Great Plain basin (between the Selkirk Rang® and the Laurentian Highlands.) «... .Erosion and sedimentation with a little volcanism contin-ued almost without interruption until the Laramide Revolution in early Tertiary time ....... it may be concluded that the four great Jurassic mountain chains were reduced to a condit-ion approximating peneplanation by the close of the Creta-ceous period* n Tertiary Record, "In early Tertiary time, orogenic movements of primary importance (the laramide Revolution) affected the whole region of the Cordillera and. the Great Plains. The peneplaned surface of the great Jurassic mountains was up-lifted, thus starting a new cycle of erosion while the basins of sedimentation wore folded and formed new mountain chains* thus producing mountains for ohe first tJUa& is thos& parts of the Interior plateau and the Rocky Mountain region which escaped the folding of the Jurasside revolution. ..... the laramide revolution can be rather closely dated as post - Up-per Cretaceous and pre - Upper Eocene." ...... "The folding which took place during the Lara-mid® revolution was accompanied by batholithic intrusions, only a very small part of which has been exposed, so far, by erosion. In the Rocky Mountains an intrusion of this age has been described by Allan, while numerous small intrusions of the same age occur in the Interior Plateau of British Columbia and in the Token* "Pros the limited distribution of the Lower Tertiary rooks in British Columbia, it can be concluded that eresioa mm predominated in the area now occupied by Bx-itish Columbia. The lower Tertiary basins were only of limited ex-tent and occur as patches in the Vancouver Island, Interior Plateau, Rocky Mountain and Great Plains regions. The close of the Oligocene was marked bji local erogenic movements which folded or tilted the Lower Tertiary rocks, and by igneous in-trusions. Also it is possible that the rest ef British Columbia was uplifted at the same time. "The period following that of compression at the close of the Oligocene was one of tension caused by the sinking of the Pacific-basin ...» The sinking marked the last appearance of the Pacific land mass Cascadla which sank be-neath the waters ef the Pacific ocean. On the continent, the stretching of the la»d mass produced fissures vdilch permitted the outpouring of the vast floods of lava which marked the Miocene of British Columbia, Oregon and Washington. ..... The fact that volcanism has been intermittently active fro® the Oligocene until the present tiiee along these volcanic lines, tends to show that the- Pacific area has been gradually sinking and is sinking at the present time.* Pleistocene. "The Pleistocene was marked by intense glacia-tion and depression of the areas adjacent to the Pacific coast at least. .«.« "Since the Pleistocene period •••• the coastal areas have "been steadily rising until definite records of 450 ft. hare "been recorded and other loss definite records of 1,000 ft. have been described." b. Chronological Record in Alaska* The following 1® a short chronological record of geological events in Alaska as outlined by Martin3". •Is Pcnnsylvanian or early Persian time thero was a widespread sarin® submergence* which carried the sea and spread deposits of limestone ever areas in all parts of Alaska if sot over the entire area. The fact that there ar® no extended areas in which these deposits have net been found and the absence of any known 11th®logic or faunal facies in the deposits indicate that the erogenic features which exist to-day and of Which we find indications throughout the depo-sits of Mesosoie and Tertiary time probably had not been out-lined before the end of the Paleozoic era. The absence of late Permian and of Lower and Middle Triassic sediments in most if not all of Alaska indi-cates a pronounced withdrawal of the sea toward the end of Paleozoic time. A thick and widespread accumulation of lava, which lies between the PenneyIvian or early Pemian and the Upper Triassic sediments at many places south of the Alaska Range, but not north of it, where the Upper Triassic and Car-boniferous limestones are in direct contact, indicates that ^Martin, George C., The Mesozoic Stratigraphy of Alaska. U.S.G.S.» Bull. 776,1926. the withdrawal of tits sea at the end of th® Paleozoic era was accompanied or closely followed by widespread volcanic out-bursts throughout th® region south of th© present Alaska Rang®. These volcanic deposits arc sharply limited by the- present axis of the Alaska Rang®, a fact whieh indicates that the present position of the Alaska Rang© was determined by dif-ferential movements that began at the end of Paleozoic time* In Upper Triassic time there was another pro-found marine submergence* which carried the sea into th® of the present major mountain axes of Alaska. .... the Upper Trias sis deposits were laid down in three geosynclinal basins* which occupied the site of the present Brooks Range, Rocky Mountains * and Alaska and Coast Ranges. In late Upper Triassic (Foric) time deposition was still restricted to the vicinity of the present mountains* but it was more widespread than formerly* .... At the end of th® Triassic period the sea probably withdrew from the entire Alaskan area* .... In Jurassic time there was another more or less gradual marine transgression. .... Upper Jurassic deposits are believed to have been laid down throughout the area south of the Alaska Range. The entire absence of marine Jurassic deposits north of the Alaska Range, except for some Lower Jurassic beds on the Arctic coast should be especially noted. Is Jurassic time there was again a persistent shore line in or near th® present position of the Alaska Rang®. Is Lower Cretaceous time the sea again swept over the greater part of Alaska. .... The deposits of Lower Cretaceous time generally include basal conglomerate succeed-ed is m i l p3mm by limestone and shale that are indicative of the atoenee of vigorous erosion in any nearby regions* Sandy beds are present notably in the vicinity of the present mountains. Volcanic rocks are notably absent «•*• At the beginning of Upper Cretaceous time the sea had receded from the Alaskan area* ...* The major tectonic features of Alaska appear to have been well outlined by the beginning of Upper Cretaceous time, so that the distribution of Upper Cretaceous bears a very definite relation to the existing geographic features* «... The Upper Cretaceous strata also include terrestrial deposits that were laid down in em-bayments that were the direct predecessors of the existing major valleys* *•••»* there was a gradual submergence of the Yukon Valley in Upper Cretaceous time which permitted the younger bads to extend progressively farther up the river. ... The Upper Cretaceous rocks of the southern part of Alaska are of later date, and it is believed while Upper Cretaceous sed-imentation was in progress in the Yukon valley the rest of Alaska was land. During the later half of Upper Cretaceous time, when sedimentation had probably ceased, in the Yukon region, the sea invaded parts of the southern coastal region of Alaska. .... The end of Cretaceous time on the Alaska Peninsula ap-pears to have been marked by a renewal of mountain growth which finds its expression in the increasing coarseness of the youngest Cretaceous deposits* The next succeeding deposits consist of Eocene tuff, which shews that the diastrophic move-that began tm late Cretaceous time afterwards culminated in volcani© outbursts. .... Cretaceous time was free ffoa volcanissu * . • • Upper Cretaceous time ended with the complete withdrawal of the sea from the Alaskan area and probably m s closely followed by the folding and erosion of the Cretaceous rocks. The Cretaceous rocks of Alaska are highly folded ai~ msst stfsrysfttare* and of them are by intrusive reeks and by metalliferous veins. In many places it is not possible to determine the esict date ©f the folding, intrusions and mineralisation* as some of the Tertiary reeks have bees simil-arly affected. It is believed, however, that at least part of the folding, intrusion, and mineralization dates from about the end of Cretaceous time. .... In some places there is clear proof of a® mneonfenaity at the base of the Tertiary rocks, and the writer believes that the Cretaceous- rocks of Alaska were subjected, to uplift and erosion, if mot felding, iMsjedi-sttely at the end of Cretaceous time in all parts of the Terri-tory. * / i From the foregoing, it is evident that the and' geological history of southeastern AiaskaAwe.stern British Columbia is essentially the same. A ssaaaaary of the geological events immediately proceeding and following the intrusion of the Coast Range batholith will be found at the beginning of Chapter II. a. Origin of the Batholith* The Coast Baage batholith, like all large ig-neous intrusions of its typo, solidified and crystallized from a ©olten w&gsm. under deep seated conditions. This is apparent from the uniformly coarse grained, normal plutonic character of the rock* and the extent and amount of contact mota^ iarphism developed in the intruded sad&M&taries* Buying the process of intrusion the parent magma became differenti-ated giving us a definite series a m sequence of complementary intrusions-* Regarding this sequence Clapp2- says, "In general. the Mesosoic igneous rocks ooufoxi* to the general eruptive cycle of 1} the volcanic phase, 2) the b&tholithie phase, 3} the phase of minor intrusives* The voloanica are composed almost entirely of basalts and andesites of a remarkably uni-form composition $ the batholiths are made up of a nvmiber of rocks erupted in a general sequence from basic to acidj and the minor intrusivea consist ©f a few rocks erupted in a general sequence from acid to basic* The volcanic rocks may have resulted from the eruption, through deep vents, of a but slightly differentiated, primary basaltic »gsat The composite batholiths m y have been foamed by the sacra? complete different-iation of the primary magma in chambers of various sizes, the older and smaller and hence more quickly crystallised and less differentiated portions solidifying to form the more basic rocks* The minor intrusive®» on th® other hand, produced by %Xapp» C*H», booke and Duncan Map Areas, ¥«X«/x*S*C.» Hem*96, 1917, p. 14* —-<21— injection of residual liquids, would "be drawn successively fmm lower a M lower levels a® crystallization of the batholi-thic masses progressed downward, and for that reason they ap-pear to have been more and more basic*" The composition of the earlier intrusions being that of the undifferentiated parent magaia, a reek of mean composition, is in accordance with observations in other loc-alities* ,:The variation, in the plutonte phase, from basic to acid stmftrais! to a geaaeml and more or less universal se-quence and is similar t© that found in ths* plutsnic rocks in the ICainoKoic province of Sky© where per idoti toss were first Intruded, followed by gabbras and, finally, by granite* The Oslo (Xristiania} province of Devonian in ITorway shows a similar sequence* The tendency of the end products of crystal-lization t© form rock& of extreme composition is also in ac-cordance with accepted theories. Stoping* and the absorption by the batholith of large blocks of the si lie ions intruded rocks* :m.y play an important part in the. differentiation of the magraa locally. 1) The volcanic phase* Dealing first with the southern part of Van-couver Island, where these rocks have been studied in detail, we find Clapp»s* statement th»-t "the Vancouver volcanics" (which are the ones he has reference to in the previous state-ment) "are basic, chiefly andesites, with some basalts or labradorite andesites. Flow, fragmental and injected types ps 94* are present *.*«*fp*117} Since th® Sutton limestone® are of »&rlme origin ant are- intercalated in the Vancouver volcanic® it is to he presume** therefore*, that the volcanic® were large-ly submarine. *«•« (p.123) the limestones ssnd volcanic® of th® belt are doubtless of nearly the- same age* that is lower Juras-sic.8 F y e a r ® previous to the work dime by ci&pp a&4 Cooke in the Socle© and .Duncan area®, Ba&creft ~* working on the coast and islands of- B.C* east sad north-east of Van-couver Island* describes a foaaaatioa of intercalated beds of limestone and volcanic rocks similar to the Vancouver group above* He called this the Valdes group and described it as followss "Volcanic rocks comprise by far the greater part of the formation, the intercalated sediments (limestones) being present in only a few localities* • ••• In the small are® on the mainland, mentioned in the last paragraph, (a narrow arm *«•* extending n®rthwaj?& from Blinklntep for a dis-tance of about seven miles) some layers of argillite alternate with layers of volcanic rock. *•*« Thick flows of basalt and andesite comprise th® major portion of the volcanic series, although, locally, agglomerates and tuffs are interbedded with them. •*•* (p.70} The name "greenstone", ....was given to these rocks in the field., .... The Valdes group was provisionally put into the Triassic but corresponds so closely to the Vancouver group ~ joeuawaneft, J*AuBite* Geology of the Coast Islands between the Strait of Georgia and Queen Charlotte Sound, B*C«, G.S.C*, Mem. 25, 1907, p. 69. >iV I that If is liars considered as a member of that group. We also find the Vancouver group represented' on Graham Island where basaltic and andesitic lam sedim&sts of the Yakoun formation (the upper Mnfcer of the Vancouver group)* which he definitely places in the middle Jurassic. He writes as follows; "The- Vancouver group is divided into the Yakoum fsanation* of middle Jurassic age* the Eaude formation, referred to the lower Jurassic.* and possibly 1b part Trlassie* .*«»• The Maud© formation is made up of datribal sedmenta, with a few bands of pyraclastic material near the top* .... (p.46) The Claude argillitas are intruded by coarse grained green diabase in large muses, .... (p.43) The Yakwm f oissa ilea is formed largely of pyroolastic rocks, and is part of water lain aggleia.erat-.ea and t"offs# Effus-ive types are also found, and. possibly sills and dykes. .. The formation is domia&stly sub-silicic, augite andesitm a M basalts being the usually occurring varieties, bath as effus-ive (or injected) and pyreclastic types, (f.50) The foregoing facta make it clear that the Yakoun volcanics were largely formed by the sub-aqueous accumulation of sub-silicic volcanic ejesta of various siaeS. These pyreclastic rocks are associated with lava flows and probably with lntru3.tvc,velcanic sills and dykes*. w In describing the occurrences of Vancouver vol-canics in the Vancouver Group on the northwest coast of Van-UacKanzie, J.D., Geology of Graham Island, British Columbia. c« * S.C., Mas. 88, 1916, p. 40-50. couver Island, Dolm^ge1 makes the following statement ; "The group consists almost entirely of volcanic rocks, chiefly and®sites, hut contains also many intercalated beds of tuff-aeeous argil lite and limestone, some of which attain a thick-ness of 2,000 feet or more* •».* Andesites are the prevailing types, hut daeites and basalts are also found *.•• Flow struc-tures are ®mmvn ..*• Tuffs are plentifully distributed throughout the group* *..» The tuffaceous argillites .... are always associated more or less closely with the limestones, .... The beds {these argillltesV*..« can be correlated with the highest of the Triassic beds" since they contain Pseudo-aenotis subcircularis, an upper Triassic guide fossil. Dealing nesrt with the area between Burke and Douglas channels Do Imaged speaking of the pre-ba the 1 i thic rocks, states that "The less metamorphosed of thess older rocks consist of amiesite, basalt, and breccias of a >>asic composition *.*<» in aiany plaice • •• • the volcanic rocks are interbedCied with feeds of limestone from a few feet up to 50 feet in thickness*.11 He correlates these beds with the Van-couver group on the great lithological similarity between the two. From the Douglas Channel north to the Alaskan boundary we again have a similar formation named the Eear River formation which Bo Imaged describes as consisting of ^DcImage, Victor, West Coast of Vancouver Island between Bark-ley and quatsino Sounds. G.S.C., Sum.Rept. 0 1920 A, p.14. '^ Dolioaga, Victor> Coast and Inlands of British Cc?um>ia between ^ Burke and Douglas Channels.C.3.C.,Sum.Rept.1921 A,p.25. ^olsfe^e, Victor# Coast Inlands of British Columbia between Douglas Channel and the Alaskan Boundary* G.S*C., SusuRept. 1922 A, p.14. "massive and fragments! greenstones with, a fee interbedded layers of fine argillaceous tuff and Impure limestone* .... There are also thick, mass ire flews of coarse andesite, some chlorite schist, a few thin beds Cf quarts-biotite schist, argillaceous tuff, and Impure limestone*M * Gcing further north into the Ketchikan and Wrangell districts we again find similar rocks clearly belong-ing te this pre -bat hell thio volcanic ghase, tmly thia time they are referred provisionally to the Jura-Cretaceous period1* They are described as followss "The extrusive rocks provision-ally referred to the Jura-Cretaoeous period are made up of lavas and tuffs like those of the upper Carboniferous* These extrusive® include altered andesites, hornblende pcrphyritos, quarts porphyrites, and basalt tuffs* With these extrusives are Included fragments! -nor clastic rocks composed of volcanic tuffs, sandstones and conglomerates. As a whole the lavas are lee3 prominent thas? the clastic rocks. They occur intercalated with the sedimentary slates or eso.n&stones or graywackea*" Speaking of the Prince Rupert-Skagway section as a whole, F»E«Wrigfet2 makes the following statement regard-ing: these volcanic rocks* volcanic activity began again in upper Carboniferous times and continued well into the Meso-soio era* Many of the altered massive greenstones and green-stone schists date from this long period. The beds of lava and ash, ejected from the volcanic vents, were contemporaneous bright, F.3S. artf C.r*, The ICstchikan and tfrungell Mining Dia-n tricts, Alaska. U*3*G*S*, Bull. M7. 1008, p*71* •Excursions in rorthorn British Columbia and Yuicoa Territory and alette Jforth Tfciflo C — nt, r-.S*?*, Guide Book Fo„10,1913* p*47* with the slat® beds, and because of their intimate association with the sediments the volcanics are regarded as submarine in-trusives Here the author evidently means extrusive© • Following the batholith still further north, into the Yukon Territory, rocks belonging to the older Vol-canics group, which shall be described presently, are reported to occur near Bait on Post on the Tatsheashini River-*-. Oairnes® describes the- older volcanics as occurring north-west of Kluane Lake and in the district of the upper White Elver* Crossing over eastward into the Klotassiss area which Is some 100 Miles north of Kluane Lake, the previously stated northern extremity of the Coast Range batholith, Cairmes3 not only found the Older Volcanics group but also batholithie in-trusives of dimensions and lithological character very similar to those of the Coast Range batholith* The volcanics here consist of andesitss, basalts, diabases, diorites and related igneous types with their associated tuffs and breccias. Coming back south along the eastern side of the batholith we find r-ocks,- representing this pra-batfcolithic volcanic phase, very similar to those across the Coast Range from them. Speaking of the lid.sehoree district, Cockfield^ 1. Gorans on, personal coiamuni ca t i on * 2Cairnes, D.B., The Upper White Eiver District, Y.T. , G.S.C«, Mem, 50, 1915 s p.114. ^Cairnes, D.D., Investigations and Mapping in Yukon Territory. G.S.C., Sum. Kept. 1916, p.12. 4Cockfield, W*S. and Bell, A.H., Whitehorse District* Yukon. G.S.C., Mem. 150, 1926, p.23. states that "the reeks ef the OMer Voleanies group are chiefly andesitos, diabases and basalts. Smaller quantities of deep-seated^ basis reeks such as diorite, g&bbro and amphibolite have been included. Areas of the Older Voleanies are fairly abundant • • •• along the margin of the Coast Range intrusives. .... (p.28} In his earlier work Cairnes separated the "Older Voleanies" into two groups, th© Perkins group and the Chief-tain Hill voleanies. This subdivision was subsequently aban-doned and both were included in one group and correlated with the Older Voleanies of White River district. Portions of the Older Voleanies are definitely intrusive into the Laborge beds, and say, therefore, be considered younger* .... The Older Vol-eanies are, probably, all older than the granitic intrusives* Although seme of the flows are more recent than the beds of the Xaberge series with which they come in contact, the writer is of the ©pinion that they *... are probably of Lower and Middle Jurassic age; and that the tuffs, which are so plenti-ful in the Xaberge series, are to be attributed to the same period of vulcanism." In the Atlin district^ the above description m y on the whole be duplicated to describe the rocks of the "Older Voleanies" (Perkins and Chieftain Hill groups) there. In this manner we could proceed south along the eastern con-tact of the batholith and find rocks representative of this volcanic phase up against the entire eastern margin of this intrusive mass. ^Cairnes, B.B., Portions of Atlin District, B.C., G.3.C., Mem. 37, 1913, pp. 54 and 65. From the foregoing brief sunssary it appears that prior to the intrusion of the stain batholith, all during Trias-sis and lever and middle Jurassic times, there mxQ* on the site and for some distance to each side of the present Coast Range batholith, a rather shallow sea which diminished in depth to-wards the north and disappeared altogether near the British submar'int //" of la ra Vck ft</re.4 orf Ptrf/y fro, C olumbia-Yukon boundary* Over this sea floor .partly from, cr*eln i» ft A floor what was in all probability, a series of volcanic cones run-ning the full length of the axes of the present Coast Range b&t-holith and the Insular System. Th«e lam flows alternated with stratified volcanic cjeetastenta and layers of sediraents both derived fro© these volcanic cones, while some of the sediments could have beegt derived from some nearby landa&ss such as Cascadia. This conditio®, accompanied also by intru-sion, prevailed throughout the lower Mesosoic and .heralded * * that period of trenendoos batholitMc intrusion* the upper Jurassic. To explain the intercalated beds of limestone in zk&m pre-batholithic submarine lam flows the following hypothesis is advanced as at least a partial explanation, since fossils imy also have contributed to the formation of these beds* let us consider for a moment the conditions created in sea water during a period of submarine lava flows such as we are dealing with in this instance. As the lava is poured out over the sea floor a considerable amount of occluded gas would be liberated into the water thus agitating it. This gas may or may not contain carbon dioxide. Should carbon dloxldo be present the tendency would be for it to go Into solution and increase the solubility of calcium carbonate by tfee fsassation of calcium bicarbonate. But this latter compound is very unstable and "can be broken down to normal carbonate and free carbon dioxide by evaporation, by rise of temperature, or mechanical agitation.1'1 In addition to this the solubiiity of carbon dioxide is water at atmospheric pressure is decreased 40$ by a rise in temperature from 0 to 12 degrees*2 We already saw that the escaping gases would agitate the water, and the heat supplied by the suhmariae lava flows would cause the increase in temperature and th® evaporation. The increase in temperature would drive off additional carbon dioxide, hence we have all the conditions favorable for th© precipitation of calcium carbonate or lime-stone. 2) The batholithic phase. The volcanic period, ending somewhere about the end of middle Jurassic times, was followed by a period of compression* Since, in general, all the earliest sediments folded during this period have a strike parallel to the axis of the Coast Kange, it is assumed that a compressive force, at right angles to this axis, was exerted. The sediments were folded into a series of parallel synclinoria and antl-clinoria all of which had an approximate north-west south-easterly trend. The following hypothesis is advanced to ex-1Clarke, F.W., The Data of Geochemistry. U.S.G.S. Bull. 770, 1924, p.131. ^Mellor, J.W., A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and The-oretical Chemistry, vol.6, p.48. plain the consistent dipping into the batholith of the in-i traded sedimentary hods as observed in the case of the Coast Range and Kootenay batholiths and those in the Insular System and boundary country. Even as the crest of an anticline or an anti-clinorium offer© a acne of weakness to the work of the agen-cies of erosion and we find the majority cf our river valleys in the erects of these geologic structures, so it is only reasonable to assume that a syncline or a synclinorium offers a similar zone of weakness to attacking forces from below, a mass of molten magma under great pressure for instance. Ac-cording to this postulate, then, we would expect to find the intruded strata dipping into the batholith from opposite sides. That is exactly what we find. Looking abroad for corroborative data in sup-port of the above hypothesis we are met by a similar set of conditions wherever the structure of batholiths has been worked out in soise detail. Goldschsidt1, speaking in general of batholithio intrusion and accompanying folding of the in-truded sediments, writes as followsj "Betrachten wir das geologische Auftreten dieser St&sme (batholiths in general), so finden wir, dass sie Srtlich und aeitlich ausaahmslos an Faltengebirge geknfipft sind. Wir finden sie in tief nieder-gefalteten Geosynklinalen, wie etwa in sMnorwegischen Faltung® graben, in welchen gross® Mengen toni^er Sediment® hinabgefal-tet sindj . Here we have, then, batholithio intrusion Goldschmidt, V.M., 8tammiestypen der Eruptivgasteine« Vid.-Selsk.Skr. I.M.-H.K1. 19S2,Ho.lC,p.7. into deeply folded geosynclines which, according to the above hypothesis, are structurally favourable to such intrusion* The occurrence, in that part of the Interior Plateau which lies between the Coast Range and the Selkirks, of isolated batholiths of Jurassic age and of a composition similar to that of the Coast Range batholith suggests the idea that that whole area*.continued for some distance south of the 49th parallel, is underlain by batholithic rocks of Coast Range composition and intruded during the same general period as that range* This hypothesis is based on the followin facta. Dryedale*, reporting on the geology of the Thom-son River valley below Kamloops Lake, says that "the batholith is intrusive into lower Jurassic rocks, and is capped by vol-canics and sedimentaries of upper Jurassic and lower Cretaceous age. It may be referred, therefore, to the late Jurassic and correlated with similar batholiths froa other parts of the British Columbia Cordillera as, for ©xasple, with a portion of the Coast Range batholith of western British Columbia and Yukon} the Selson granite batholith of West Kooteney, Kemoel, and Ceoyeee batholiths of the Okanagan Range and Kruger Moun-tain plateaux* and the Sumas granite stocks of the Skagit Range. In central Washington it correlates with the Mount Stewart batholith." In dealing with the granodiorites in the Tula-meen district Caswell2 states that "the evidence (on which to jDrysdale, Chas.W., G.S*C.f Sam. Rept. 1912., p.135. , . "Cemsell, Charles, Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Tul-ameen Distinct, B.C. ,G.S.C., Mem. 20, 1913, p.82. fix the age of the Eagle granodiotite) may he enumerated thus: en the head waters ©f the Tulameen River fossiliferoua Cretec-eous recks rest unconformably on the Eagle granodioritej the Eagle granodiorite is intrusive into the stratified rocks of the Tulameen group which, though they have yielded no fossils up to date, are lithologically similar to Triassic rocks. This places the Eagle granodierite in the Jurassic period, and it is placed in the upper part of that period, because the Boul-der granite, peri&otite, pyroxenite, and aagite syenite, all referred to the same period, are older than it." LeRoy1 and Drysdale*^  also quote similar occurrences. The above hypothesis and the proceeding one re-garding igneous intrusion tend to show, then, that the Selkirks and the Coast Rang© are batholiths injected into two consecut-ive synclinoria from one and the same igneous mass and that, underlying the intervening Interior Plateau, there are granitic rocks of the same age as these batholiths. These intervening granitic rocks find expression at the surface in small stocks and minor batholiths in tho boundary country, which are noth-ing but cupolas resting, so to speak, on the main mass of the batholith below. The reasons for their small dimensions and scattered occurrence are several. These interbatholithic areas ware not raised until the Xaramide revolution and were basins of ssd.imenta.tien all during the Cretaceous period. Then in Tertiary times thzy were covered by thick lava flows which, 1LeRoy, O.S., The Geology and Ore Deposits of Phoenix Boundary District, B.C. G.S.C., Kern* 21, 19IS, p. 41. ^Drysdale, Chas.W., Geology and Ore Deposit* of Rossland, B.C. G.C.C., Mem. 77, 19115, p. 245. except is rive;r valleys, still form a protective covering over the entire Interior Plateau, ae well as over much of the Insul-ar System whieh is an area of a minor antielinorium* Proceeding now to a consideration of the various types of batholithic rocks found in the Coast Range area, we find that1 "in general **•«* the central portion of the batho-lith is made up of graac&iorlte becoming more basic and chan-ging gradually into quarts diorite at the contacte of the in-truded recks* The basic phase is sore pronounced and wider along the Pacific border than along the eastern border where in fact the quarts diorite phase m y be missing and the grano-diorite occur in contact with the intruded rocks*R Instead of explaining, in writing, the known occurrences the different types of granitic rocks included in the Coast Range batholith I have plotted them, mostly those on the western side of the batholith, on the main map from which the corresponding mineral association may be observed as well* 5) The php.se of minor intrusives* As has been previously stated the phase of minor intrusives of the Coast Range batholith is marked by an increas-ing basicity, conforming thus to the general rule as worked out fro® data derived from numerous other localities. Describ-ing the occurrences on Vancouver Island Clapp2 writes as fcl-^Schofield, S.jr., The Britannia Mines, British Columbia* Fe. Geol*, vol* 21, Ho. 1926, p. 277. KJlapp, C*H*, Sooke and Duncan Map Areas, Vanoeuver Island. G.3.C., Mea. 96, 1917, p. 172* "Intrusive into the pre-upper Jurassic rocks described above are batholiths and stocks of plutonic rocks, and smaller masses of injected rocks* All the plutonic or bath-olithic rocks were irrupted during the same general perio£ of batholithic intrusion, but nevertheless they may be subdivided into three principal types, irrupted in a definite sequence* These types are, in the order of their irruption$ W&rk gabbro-diojbite gneiss, Colqultz qoarts-dicrite gneiss, and Saanich granodiorite* Most of the smaller masses of injected rocks orf as they are called, the minor intrusives? were irrupted during the same general period as well. They consist of dykes and small injected bodies of porphyrias* of two principal types, granodiorite or quarts-feldspar porphyrites, and gabbro-dior-ita porphyrites, They •••«* have been given respectively the distinctive names of Tyes quartss-feldspar porphyrites, and Sicker gabbro-diorita porphyrites. ••••• Three of the minor in-trusivess a gabbrp, a quartss-diorite porphyrite, and a horn-blende-augite andesite porphyrite are not clearly associated with the batholithic rocks and hence have been described sep-arately. *.** (p.197)"Associated with the Saanich granodiorite •••• and confined, for the greater part to the periphery of the Saanich batholith, are dyke-like and irregular intrusive bodies of quartz and feldspar porphyrites which have been called ..* granodiorite porphyrites. Many of the raasses of granodiorite porphyrite are ... intrusive ... into the Saanich granodiorite itself. Other masses are, however, distinctly older than the Saanich granodiorite, having been intruded by it. •Within the Duncan map area ••• apparently all these porphyrite masses are elder than the Saanich granodiorite sad have been called by Ceeke the Tyee porphyritee. ..#•* (pf198)**.. the Sicker gabbro-diorite porphyrite has almost certainly been intruded by the lady smith phase of the Saanich gxaaodioritet ..." (p.201)»*... The Sicker and Tyee porpbyrites are clearly alder than the Saanich granodiorite, but whether they are older or younger than $he Wark and Colquita gneisses cannot be determined. .... Therefore the sequence is considered provisionally as follows! 7 Diorite porphyrite (dykes). 6 Granodiorite porpbyrites {dykes}. 5 Saanich granodiorite and its various phases (stocks and batholiths). 4 Sicker gabbro-diorite porphyrite (dykes, sills and masses}. 3 Tyee quarts-feldspar porphyrite (dykes, sills and masses}* 2 Colquita quarts-diorite gneiss. 1 Wark gabbro-diorite gneiss. • •••In general the minor intrusives have followed the irruption of the batholithic rocks and the latter have fol-lowed the eruption of the Malahat, Vancouver and Sicker lavas* The irruptive cycle represented by the pre-upper Cretaceous igneous rocks of the Seeks and Duncan map areas, therefore, conforms to the general eruptive cycle announced by Marker, which consists ef three phases of igneous activity which follow one another in the following sequence* the volcanic phase, the bathsltthie phase and the phase ef miner intrusives*• Speaking of the coast and islands of British Columbia la general, Bancroft1 states that "dykes are so numerous that the total extent of their exposed surfaces con-stitutes a very striking and important feature of the bed-reck geology* .... the great er number of them must be regarded as the youngest rocks within the district* •*•• Within the heart of the Coast Hangs they are not so frequent in their occurrence as along its margin and upon the many islands* .... these dykes .... may be divided into two main groups - the leucocratio or light-colored .... and the melanocratlc er dark-colored* * * * * * Ee further states that "the intrusion of the first group of dykes was directly associated with or closely followed that of the batholiths of granite and grand!orite" and includes in It aplites, pegmatites, granophyres, syenite porphyries and a small group of gray to brown, fine grained, dense rocks of conch©Ida 1 fracture which he names felsltes* Next in order are the basio dykes of which he says the following (p. 116). "Of more widespread distribution are the vast number of dark dykes, whose intrusion marked the close of igneous action within this region* **•• it is evident that this last series was injected at some time during the period which elapsed between the invasion of the batholiths and the deposition of the Cretaceous coal measures. They cut the ore bodies of the district and, although in a few instances they have a thin selvage of pyrite along their contacts, they ^Bancroft, J.Austen, Geology of the Coast and Islands between the Strait of Georgia and Queen Charlotte Sound, B.C* G.S.C., Mem. 25,1913, p.111. hare played m very subordinate part, if any, in mineralization." Furthermore, the greater number of these dykes "either assume a direction which is parallel or tr^erse to the trend of the Coast Hangs, thus corresponding to the regional system of Joints* •*•• The dykes belonging to this group are lampro-phyrie in appearance, yet plagioelase enters into their com-position to a greater extent than in those dykes to which Bosenbusoh applies the term "lamprophyre s w . Their color varies ffom greyish-green to black* • •.•8 Following the Coast Range north of Vancouver Island we find a description, by Dolmage1, of the post batho-lithic dyke series there, which he names the Bellabella form-ation* He writes as follows? w .... the batholithic aid older rocks are cut by a vast number of peculiar dykes so numerous in places that the older rocks are completely re-placed* East **•• the number of these dykes diminishes rapidly, but westward they occur in considerable nisabers »»•• Throughout the district these dykes maintain vertical dip and a fairly uniform strike of north 5 to 35 degrees west* They are occasionally found cutting one another and in general the more basic varieties are the younger* ....They vary from blaek diabases or basalts through andesites or trachytes to highly silieious rhyolites. .»..• Here data on these dyke rocks are. available in Dolmage, Victor, Coast and Islands of British Columbia between Burke and Douglas Channels. G*S*C*, Sum.Rept. 1921 A, p.27. a report en as area north of this in whieh he1 says that •they wary considerably in age, bat probably are all younger than the ore deposits, which were formed after the partial consolidation of the batholith. They have had absolutely no metamorphic effects on the rocks they cut. .... They consist of a large variety of rock types ranging from acid quartz porphyries, granites, and syenites through dierltes and andesites to kersantites* Some of the varieties indentified are malachite, vogesite , garganite, and kersantite*" ¥© now come into the panhandle of Alaska on O the southern part of which the Wright brothers report as follows concerning these dyke rocks* "The various dyke rocks which accompany and intrude the Coast Range batholiths may be arranged in two groups* the first containing the pegmatites, aplites, alaskites, granite porphyries, and allied rocks, and iha second containing the lamprophyras of several types, diabases other basic intrusives* •*•« these rocks have little com-mercial value and, with the exception of the pegtaatites and aplites* are not of great importance* .... Im the central partsof the Coast Range the pegmatites and, in fact, all dyke rocks are rare, but along the western margin and ad-jacent sedimentary rocks hardly a cubic meter of country rock is visible which is not pervaded by them* «... the peg-matites are not all of the same age* but have been formed at different periods, the older dykes following definite -^ DcImage, Victor, Coast and Islands of British Columbia between Douglas Channel and the Alaskan Boundary, o G.S.C., Sura.Rept• 1922 A, p.17. "right, F*l. and C*W., The Ketchikan and Wrangell Mining Districts Alaska. U.S.G.8., Bull. 347, 1908,p.68 and fracture planes in the country rock, .... In the region of most Intense development of pegmatites, as in the Behm Canal area, the amount of ©re deposition was slight and no ore bodies of importance have been formed. .... oc-casionally the pegmatite dykes .... pass gradually into quartz veins.* The succession of pegmatite and aplite dykes followed by lamprophyre dykes seems to hold for the rest of south-eastern Alaska as Budding ton1 adheres to that order in speaking of that district as a whole. In the Yukon Territory no rocks corresponding to this post-batholithic intrusive phase have been reported on to date. The period ef minor intrusives may then be suKsraarized as follows* In the southern part of Vancouver Island we find quartz-feldspar porphyrites, gabbro-diorite porphyrites and diorite porphyrites closely following the intrusion of the batholithic masses* Worth-east of Vancouver Island, among the islands and fiords we find two groups of dykes, the leuco-cratic or light-colored and the melanocratic or dark-colored. The former are the earlier, following closely upon the in-trusion of the batholith, and consist of aplites, pegmatites, granophyres, syenite porphyries and felsites. The others are the basic dykes, injected before the deposition of the ^uddington, A.F., Coincident Variations of Types of Mineral-ization and of Coast Range Intrusives. Sc.Ceol.vol.22, Ho.2 1927, p.159. Cretaceous coal measures* Further north along the coast, up as far as the Alaskan "boundary, are dykes of this phase of the follow-ing varieties; silicicious rhyoiites, acid quartz porphyries, granites and syenites* disrites and andesites; "black diabases or basalts and kersantit^ee* In south-eastern Alaska we also find these two groups of peet-batholithie dykes* The earlier acid series consists of pegmatites, aplites, alaskites and granite por-phyries j the later basis series contains lamprophyres of several types, diabases and other basic intrusives* The sequence from acid to basic in these minor Intrusives is rather clearly established over a large area, and no doubt future work in now unexplored regions along the batholith will bring data to light which will further substan-tiate this order of intrusion* b* Age of the Batholith* Before proceeding in detail regarding the rel-ative age of the different parts of the batholith it may be well to state that Vancouver Island, the Q,ueen Charlotte Island and the Alexander Archipelago form the southern, central and northern segments of the Insular System* Their geology is similar to that of the coast section of the mainland, the rocks consisting in general of Palaeozoic and lower Mesozoic sedimentaries and voleanies, upper Jurassic intrusives and post upper Jurassic voleanies. Let us consider first tie plutonic intrusives in the southern part of Vancouver Island1, There we find that "intrusive into the pre-upper Jurassic rocks • ••« are batho-liths and stocks of plutonic rocks» ...• All the plutonic or batholithic rocks were irrupted during the same general period of batholithic intrusion, but nevertheless they may be sub-divided into three principal types, irrupted in a definite sequence. These types are, in the order of their irruption: Wark gabbro-diorite gneiss, Colquitz quartz diorite gneiss, and Saanich granodiorite, «... (p.173} The Wark and Colquitz gneisses are very intimately involved and form virtually a single batholith. .... The Wark gneiss is the predominating rook of the batholith it is intersected throughout .... by apophyses of the Colquitz gneiss. ....(p.195) usually the ©alio fades. .... The contacts of the Colquitz gneiss with the Wark gneiss are marked by extremely wide zones of contact shatter breccias ....(p.197) The Saanich grandiorite •••• is clearly intrusive into the Wark gneiss, and is quite certainly younger than the Colquitz gneiss (p.201} The Saanich grandiorite, and the minor intrusives are all uncomformably overlain by the sediments of the lianaimo series {Upper Cret-aceous}.8 Here we have then Coast Range batholith rocks from upper Jurassic to possibly middle Cretaceous times. Only those areas are being considered here where the age of the batholithic rocks has been ascertained with seme degree of accuracy. In the Tulameen district Camsell *» •'•Clapp, C.H. and Cooke, H.C., Sooke and Duncan Map Areas,V.I. , G.S.C., Mem. 96, 1917, p.172. definitely places the Eagle grandiorite in the Jurassic, preferably into the upper Jurassic, {See quotation on p.31}. Bancroftdescribing the area north-east of Vancouver Island states that "Since the batholiths intersect all of the stratified rocks* it is certain that the last and greatest invasion of magma took place later than the Triassic ....* Mackenzie2 states that "in regard to the age of the batho-llthie rocks of Graham Island it can only be said that they are post-middle Jurassic, and pre-upper Cretaceous. They are thus upper Jurassic or Lower Cretaceous in age. As the rocks bear a general resemblance to the granitic rocks of the Coast Range batholith, they may be correlated with this great in-trusive mass with a considerable degree of certainty. The Coast Range batholith is generally considered to be of upper Jurassic age." This post-middle Jurassle, then, is the youngest lower limit of the time of intrusion that is known* Corroborative data in this respect is available from the 3 Whitehorse area in the Yukon. Cockfield makes the statement that *a prominent feature of the Laberge beds is conglomerates which contain pebbles and boulders of granitic rocks identical in character with the Coast Range intrusives.* The Laberge beds are lower and middle Jurassic in age. He continues, "from this data Cairaes condluded that the Coast Range lntrus-10p. cit., p.103 20p. cit., p. 53 ^Cockfield, W.E., and Bell, A.H., Whitehorse District,Yukon. G.3.C., Mem. 150, 1926.p»32. V . ' % • * " iv«*, although litholegically very similar, were intruded at different times; that parts of the batholith were intruded and deroofed to supply material for the Laberge beds? and that this period of sedimentation was followed by further in-trusion* Nothing, however, has been brought forward to show that these pebbles and boulders were actually derived from the Coast Hangs batholith, except their iithological similarity to the intrusives now found* *.*• Rocks of lower Palaeozoic age containing diorite pebbles have been found on the Alaskan^cast. It is, therefore, more reasonable to con-sider the Coast Range Intrusives with respect only to the rocks which they cut. The later determination of the age of the laberge beds aa lower and early middle Jurassic limits to some extent the age of the intrusives. They are not earlier than the lower part of the Middle Jurassic." Whereas this occurrence of pebbles of Coast Range batholith composition may not influence the determination of the age of the batho-lith as a whole, the possibility of pre-Laberge batholithic intrusions, on a small scale perhaps, must not be overlooked. In the Zymoetz River area Hanson1 found Coast Range batholithic rocks intruded into the Hazelton group of Middle Jurassic age. These same conditions prevail in the Suteuk lake area2 and at other localities along the eastern -^Hanson, George, Reconnaissance in Zymoetz River Area, Coast o District, B.C., G.S.C., Sum.Rept. 1925 A, p. 107. Tfarshall, J.R*, Eutsuk Lake Area, Coast District, B.C*,G*S.C., Simi.Rept.1925 A, p. 150* contact. Having thus determined, as far as definite data will permit, the lewer limit of the age of intrusion of the batholith, let us now turn to a consideration of the upper limit. In proving the age of the hatholith, Sehofield1 summarized all the available data and showed it to be Upper Jurassic. His proof for the lower limit of the age of in-trusion is stated in part of the proceeding summery while his proof for the upper limit of the age of intrusion is confined entirely to the southern end of the batholith, namely the finding, by Dawson, of pebbles of a composition similar to that of the Coast Range batholith in bed© of lower Cretaceous age in the Skagit River and Lillocet areas* He also states that "Daly2 made a more detailed study of this Paysaten series and on fossil evidence determined their age as lower Cretaceous* This series overlies unconformably "Sjft the older Reiiinel batho-lith which, according to Schofield, is a southern extension of the Coast Range batholith. Since then, however, new data have become available. fhich arc summarized below, and which prove that pert of the batholith, at least, is of post-lower Cret-aceous age. Speaking mainly of the eastern contact,Dolmage3 states that "In the vicinity of Tatlayoko lake in Bridge River ^Schofield, S.J., and Hanson, C., Geology and Ore Deposits of Salmon River District,B.C.,G.S.C.,lIem.l32,1922,p.23. <:JDaly, R.A.,Geology of the Korth American Cordillera at the Forty-lfinth Parallel. G.S.C.,Hem.38, Pi.1,1912,p.481. ^Dolmage, Victor,Tatla-Bella Coola Area, Coast District, B.C., G.S.C., Sum. Rept. 1925 A, p.161. nap-area snail, batholith^ similar is composition to the Coast Range batholith and situated only a few miles from it, cut rocks containing lower Cretaceous fossils* In lasek© lake district what appears to he the main Coast Range batho-lith, cuts a thick series of coarse, fragmental volcanic rocks in which the writer found plant remains .... of Cretaceous age* In the Bella Coola-Tatla area the main batholith intrudes, at many places, rocks containing fossils of lower Cretaceous age* This evidence proves that this part, at least, of the batho-lith is younger than the lowest Cretaceous, and the evidence found in Tatlayok© Lake, and Bridge River districts strongly suggests that much of the eastern part of the batholith is of post basal lower Cretaceous*" It is interesting 1,0 note that Hanson1 found a 6-foot bed of conglomerate in the Skeena series midway between Cedarvale and Woodcock containing peb-bles of granodiorite* MH© fossils were found, but these rocks resemble those of the Skeeaa formation far more than they do those of the iiazeltcn group, and consequently are placed in the Skeena formation* The okeena formation is believed to be of Kooteaay age*" Jrcrn the foregoing summary of facts the follow-ing conclusions may be drawn* 1* Towards the northern end of the batholith there may have been batholithic intrusion, on a small scale perhaps, bef ore middle Jurassic times? this was followed, in the seme 'Hanson, George, Prince Rupert to Burns Lake, B.C* G*S*C*, Sum.Rept* 1924 A, p.41, district, by th® main intrusion during post-middle Jurassic times* 2* Along the entire length of the batholith the main intrusion took place no earlier than Upper Jurassic times* 3, Much of th® eastern part of the batholith, especially between the Bridge River and the Skeena, is post-lor/er Cretaceous in age* 4* Towards the southern end of the batholith, in the Mllooet and Skagit River areas, there are batholithic in-trusions, again on a minor scale perhaps, no later than Upper Jurassic in age* 5* There is enough data to hand to prove that the main intrusion of the COast Range batholith lasted from upper Jurassic to post-lowermost Cretaceous and was not simultaneous along the entire length and width of the batholith* 6* Sufficient data arc not available to make any definite statement regarding the age of the entire batholith* c* Structure of the Batholith, As previously mentioned, the gradual decrease, from south to north, from about 9,000 ft* to about 4,000 ft* in th© altitude of the summit levels of the Coast Range, is a structural variation brought about by the original dip of the axis of the range towards the north. This dip is equal to a gradient of somewhere in the order of one-tenth of one per cent, a very slight dip indeed* Eext let us consider the slope of the sides of the batholith. Schofield1, for the sake of contrast, sum-marized the conditions existing on both sides of the batholith as follows* "Eastern Flank Western Flank 1 Smooth flowing contact. 1 Vary Irregular contact 2 Few roof pendants. 2 Many roof pendants. 3 Very narrow metamorphic zone. 3 Wide metamorplilc zone. 4 slates,sandstones,and tuffs 4 Schists and gneisses characteristic. chara cteristic. 5 Moderate temperature eon- 5 High temperature conditions, ditions. 6 Gold-silver and silver-lead 6 Copper deposits of high tern-deposits of medium tempera- perature and pressure, ture and pressure. 7 Intruded rocks of roof type, gneisses, and schists reach the same elevation as the unaltered rocks along the steeply pitching contact." The foregoing conditions suggest the idea that we are dealing with a steeply dipping eastern contact, and a gently dipping western contact. These conclusions, with cer-tain local modifications, coincide with the facts. Buddington2, states that "along the south-western portion of the south-west border in Alaska the general f3lope of the surface of the batholith is relatively gentle, as indicated by the broad belt of schist and many exposed cupolas and stocks. As the south-west border of the batholith is followed north-west, the width of the belt of metamorphio complex decreases until it practically pinches out north-west of Juneau. This sug-gests that the slope of the batholith steepens to the north-west until it becomes almost vertical north-west of Juneau." ^Schofield,S.J., and Hanson,J.,Geology and Ore Deposits of Salmon River District,B.C. G.S.C,,Hem.132,1922,p.65. ^BuddingtonjA.F., Coincident Variations of Types of Minerali-zation and of Coast Range Intrusives* ic.Geol., vol. 22, Ho.2, 1927, p.172. Although the above condi tion prevails we must sot lose sight of the fact that the apophyses of the Coast Bang© in the off shore islands are just as numerous west of Junesu as they are west of the area further to the south.This would tend to show then that the aforementioned steepening is confined to the main exposed portion of the batholith and that th© whole net of Alaskan and also British Columbian waterways is underlain by Coast Bang© batholith!© rocks. We have then a set of conditions prevalent along th© western side of the batholith similar to that, as explained previously, existing east of the batholith in the boundary country. Little data are available regarding the nature of the strikes and dips of the pre-upper Jurassic rocks on Vancouver Island, "but "That data there are, almost without ex-ception? support the previously stated hypothesis that batho-<yndineS of liths are Intruded into synclinorial tiroao. The dips of the intruded rocks are found to be into the batholith", correspond-ing to the set of conditions encountered on the mainland in connection with the main Coast P.an^ e batholith, the TCoctenay batholi fch and the intervening stocks in the boundary district. Occasionally the dip of the strata on one side of a stock is found to bo parallel to that on the other. In that ease the intrusive will, as a rule, be found, to be elongated in a north and south direction and to be acre in the nature of a sill than a stuck, excluding this type then v/e ma.y draw the following conclusions. 1. The pre-batholithic rocks i^ ere folded, preceed-ing the intrusion, into a series of minor folds in the area of -48 -the present Insular System, consisting of Vancouver Island, the Queen Charlotte Islands and the Alexander Archipelago* This area as a whole had anticlinorial tendencies* To the east of this was a synclinorial area into which the Coast Range was intruded* To the east of the Coast Range, and especially is this true of the boundary country, there existed another area of minor folds with anticlinorial tendencies on the whole* This was followed by another synclinorial area on the site of the present Kootenay batholith, 2* During the same general period this whole area was intruded by major and minor batholiths afed apophyses all born of the same magmatic reservoir* 3* The two major batholiths were intruded into the two major synclinoria* The minor batholiths or apophyses were intruded into the synclinal areas of the minor folds, these anticlinorial areas as a whole not being favorable to intrusion on a large scale* The probability must not be overlooked that pesslble subsequent foundering of the batholith and later periods of compression would very much accentuate the dip of these already inclined strata* It is impossible to deal here, in more than just a general way, with the problem of faulting and fissur-ing in the Coast Range area* , The problem as a whole has been very well summarised by Schofield1 who makes the statement ^Schofield, S*J*, The Britannia Mines,B.C., Sc.Geol.vol.21, Ho.3,1926, p.279. that the fractures and fissures of British Columbia all follow two general directions* north-west and north-east* This evi-dence, supported by the fact that all the major folds are parallel to the axis of the Coast Range, points to a compres-sive force acting at right angles to the axis of the range. It Is interesting to note1 that prior to the period of folding immediately proceeding the intrusion of th© batholith "the prevalent structure was made up of north-easterly trending folds.* This structure was in th® main obliterated during th© more intense mountain building period of the Jurassid© period, but it shows a shifting of the seaward side of the force from north to south. As SchofleM points out, the fiord system of British Columbia and south western Alaska received its structural outline from these later north-west north-east faults and fissures. Bconomlo Geology. a* Metallogenetio Epochs. A metallogenetic epoch is a division of geolo-gic time. Ore deposits have formed since th© earliest of times and are still forming, but just as we have provinces in which metals have been regionally concentrated ss we have periods or epochs during which minerals formed more abundantly. Thus we have the iron ores of the Huronian, Clinton, Devonian and Carboniferous epochs, the gold deposits of pre-Cambrian,early and yn iddie-iaie Tertiary Cretaceous^ amd early Tertiary^ epochs, and many others. ^Wright, ?.E. and C.W., The Ketchikan and Wrangell Mining Districts, Alaska. U.S.G.S.,Bull. 347, 1908, p.39. It is the purpose ef this part of ay thesis to give a comprehensive view of the periods of mineralization along the western contact ef the Coast Range batholith with a view te aid in intelligent prospecting and to restrict the search for ore to the mors probable areas* (!) Source of Mineralizing Solutions* It is a point generally conceded by present day writers, that igneous rocks or magmas are the primary sources of practically all ore deposits, whether they are syngenetic or epigenetic, because all ore bodies, whether sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic, are formed of material primarily derived from igneous magmas* Some deposits have been formed directly by the consolidation of molten magmas, others by cold meteoric solutions that have leached the metals fromsedimentary or^rocks, and still others by hot, ascending solutions* It is to this last class that the deposits associ-ated with the Coast Range batholith belongjthey were formed from the heated waters and vapours emanating from the vast batholithio intrusion* It may be argued that sane of the dep-osits are too far removed from the nearest igneous contact to be genetically related to the intrusives but we must bear in mind the slope of the batholith, and the fact that, vertically, the distance to the igneous mass may be comparatively small* (ii) The Periods of Mineralization. In discussing the metallogenetic epochs in British Columbia Schofield1 states that the commercial ore ^Schofield, S.J. and Hanson, G., Geology and Ore Deposits of Salmon River District,B.C., G.S.C.*Mem.l32,1922,p.68 deposits sf tils province as a whole were formed mainly from solutions derived from the grandierite intrusions of Mssozoio age* later he1 enlarges on that idea and, considering the Coast Bangs as a composite batholith, writes as follows. "There are at least four phases of this batho-lith. The Britgannia phase The Jurassids " The Xaramide * The Gligoeide * The Britannia phase corresponds to ths pro-be thellthio volcanic and Intrusive phase discussed in this thesis* The three best known mines connected with this phase are the Britannia mine on Howe Sound, the Hidden Creek mine at Anyex and the Premier mine in the Portland Canal district. In all three cases the intrusives are quarts porphyry sills now altered to chlorite schists and greenstones. However, as Schofield points out, "in these cases the minor intrusive acts solely as ths host for the ore, the ore Itself being de-rived from the Jurasslde .... phase of the batholith*" Much of the ore, in Anyox at least, is also found in the sediment-aries adjoining the sills. Here we have then mineralizing solutions from ths Coast Range batholith percolating up through the intruded reeks and, favouring the pre-batholithic sills for a host rook, impounded in favourable places beneath the roof rock. •^Schofield, S.J., The Relationship of the Ore Deposits to Hlnor Igneous Intrusions in British Columbia. Paper read before the C.I.M.M., B.C.division, Hotel Vancouver, Sov.1927. The next metallogenetic epoch is genetically related to the period of minor intrusive© following the in-trusion of the main batholith, and more particularly to the splits and pegmatite dykes* A good example of this epoch is the Drum Lummon mine which, described by Dolmage1, "is of as unusual type, being one in which chalcocite, boraite, silver, and gold are associated with an acid pegmatite dyke* The peg-matite was formed from the residual liquor that resulted from the mere or less complete crystallisation of the magma which formed the Coast Range batholith. Prom these residual liquors* which were undoubtedly rich in water, the minerals - feldspar, hematite,quartz, and biotit® - were deposited in the order named. The minerals were formed at temperatures considerably above the critical temperature of water {355 degrees C.} and, therefore, when the depositing solutions were in a gaseous stats* The chalcoeite, bornite, and other metallic minerals were deposited by relatively cool liquid solutions which found their way into the pegmatite at a very much later date *...R This metallogenetic epoch then is characterized by the post-batholithic intrusion of aplite and pegmatite dykes into which, during the later stages of cooling, the mineralising solutions found their way. There is another metallogenetic epoch, during the Oligocene period, which Schofield also calls the Sunloch phase* This may be an important epoch but so far as we know olkly one deposit may be attributed to it . dolmage,V.,Coast and Islands of British Columbia between Burke and Douglas Channels* G.S.C.»Sum.Rept.l921 A,p.38. Th« use of the term 'metallogenetic province1 in this instance is in the sume'/as Lindgren uses it, and not synonymous with Spurr's meta 11 ographic province whieh is, in his own words, "one in which the metals possess a unity, a blood relationship, distinctive of that province," nor with Emmons* metallogenetic province* Both of these last two writers include their respective terns to denote provinces in which ore deposits possess characteristics that suggest nearly related genesis, and which may or may not contain ore deposits of different metals* As in the case of the Jurassic iron ores of England and France, the bauxite deposits of the southern United States, the copper ores of Keweenaw Point & etc*, I constrict the use of the term •metallogenetic province* to genetically related deposits of the same metal* A 'minerogen-etic province* is a term of still higher definition meaning, as it does, a province characterized by genetically related deposits of a single mineral* In determining the metallogenetio provinces along tho western contact of the Coast Range it is my inten-tion to gl^e, at a glance, a view of the distribution of tho metals in this region and also, by a difference in shading, on the maps, to distinguish the areas of promise from those of actual production by the use of lighter and darker color-ations respectively* The numbers alone on the various maps correspond to promising prospects where the meteIs have been found but have, for various repsons, chiefly those of trans-portation, not as yet been mined in economic quantities* A Tits most important occurrences of copper genetically felated to the Coast Range batholithic intrusion, (to face p.55) 1 Giltana Lake, Y.T. 2 Whitehorse District, Y.T. $ Iheaton District, Y.T. 4 Rainy Hollow and Chilkat River, Alaska, g Atlin District* B.C. 6 Lemesurier Island, Alaska* ? pinta Bay, Chichagof Island, Alaska. 8 Tenakee Inlet * • * © Tracy Arm, Alaska* 10 Hackett Creek, B*C* 11 Port- Houghton, Alaska* 12 Sitka District* Baranef Island, Alaska* 13 Dune on Canal, Cupreanof m a 14 Woedwodski Island, Alaska* 15 Shakan Bay, Prince of Wales Island (P.W.I.), Alaska* 16 Baker and Hoyes Islands, Alaska* It Salt Chuck Mine and Kasaan Peninsula, P.W.I., Alaska. IS Bear River, B.C. 19 Hetta Inlet, P.W.I., Alaska* 20 Miblaek Anchorage and Horth A m of Moira Sound, P.I.I., Alaska* 21 Gravina Island, (Seal Bay and Ball Head), Alaska. ton Bay* Alaska* 23 Hidden Creek Mime, Any ox B.C. 24 George Inlet and Tongass Harrows, Revillagiged© I. Alaska. 25 Texada Island (Marble Bay etc. ), B.C. 26 Alice Arm, Observatory Inlet, B.C. - 5-The Principal Occurrence; of COPPER ol3 Mine 11 prospect of on the western contact the Coast Range batholith Jig. 1 (seathera end) and Ball Island (east coast) Alaska 28 Kitsalas Canyon, Skeena River B.C. 29 Copper Bay, Moresby Island* queen Charlotte Islands. 30 Brum Xxnea Mine* Douglas Channel* B.C. 31 Kenans River, Gardner Canal, B.C. 32 Eutsuk lake District* B.C. 33 Gribbell Isftand, B.C. 34 Tasu Harbour, Moresby Island, queen Charlotte Islands. i 35 Ikeda Bay* Harriet Harbour, Moresby Island * . 36 Smet Inlet Mine* Princess Royal Island, B.C. 37 Klekane Inlet and Xutse Inlet, B.C. 38 Ellerslie and Dean Channels, B.C. 39 Evans Arm, King Island, B.C. 40 Yreka Mine* Quatsin© Sound, 7.1. 41 Old Sport Mine* • • • . 42 Cracroft Island* Johnstone Strait, B.C. 43 Knight Inlet, B.C. 44 Indian Chief Group, Sydney Inlet, V.I. 45 Quins ome lake District, V.I. 46 quadra Island, Georgia strait, B.C. 47 Phillips Arm (north ©f Butte Inlet}* B.C. 48 Homathko Elver and Head of Butte Inlet* B.C. 49 quadra Island, (Copper Cliff and Santa Anna)* B.C. 50 Barkley Sound, V.I. 51 Monitor Mine, Albemi Canal* V.I. 52 Lasquetti Island, B.C. 53 Jervis Inlet, B.C. §4 Lilleeet River, B.C. 56 lit. Sicker (Tyee Mim etc.}» T.I. §7 Britannia Mine, How® Sound, B.C. 58 Indian River and Xynn Creek, B.C. 59 Mt« Malaliat (east ef Shawinigan lake)* Y.I. 60 Mt. Skirt {north of Soldstreaa), V. I. 61 East Sseie* Jordan River, T.I. i? 'Zji&^M * * ' "r Mm;^ ' -•0*. -56 -small circle accompanying a «ia»tber denotes a deposit of known economic importance. On the large map in the folder an attempt is made to superimpose the various metallogenetic provinces upon each other* as well as to give an up to date outline of the Coast Range batholith. (i) Association of Metalliferous Minerals and Rocks. The association of certain metalliferous min-erals and rocks has been worked out at several localities al-ong the coast. Dealing with south-eastern Alaska as a whole Buddington1 makes the following statement. "Chremite has been found as disseminations through dunite, though not in commercial quantities. .... pentlandite is absolutely restricted to, and is actually known to occur only within, the magnesium-rich rocks of the ultrabasic or gabbroic groupf Chaleopyrite is associated with pentlandite wherever the latter occurs and is common as small blebs or veinlets within some ©f the amphibolitea and gabbrosj Ilmenitic magnetite tends to occur in large concentrated amounts only within the homblendites and alumin-ous pyroxenitesj Palladium-bearing bornite deposits have been found within pyrcxenitei ..... Hieke1-copper lodes .... occur in norite or bronzite segregations within the noritej .... in hornblende Buddington, A.F., Coincident Variations of Types of Minerali-sation and of Coast Range Intrusives.Ec.Geol. vol.22, Ho.2, 1927, p.159. gabbro; ...» in an amphibolite dyke with a high percentage of ilmenitic magnetite; .... in a schistose hasic dyke; .... in & troctolite dyke. The sulphides consist predominantly of pyrrhotite with a little pentlandite and chaleopyrite. They may fom practically solid lenses of sulphide, or they may he disseminated ...*• These same generalizations hold for the rest of the batholith as well* The large low-grade copper deposits are found in the silieified phases of the argillite-greenstone contacts. The magnetite deposits, according to Youngl, "in some cases occur in masses within or adjacent to the parent rock of which they are only a special phase* In other cases they form vein-like bodies or they occur as impregnations or replacements somewhat younger than the associated igneous rock and situated within it or some other neighbouring body of rock. ...*{p*9) Some of the magnetite deposits occur along the contacts between the granitic rocks and the volcanic and sedimentary assemblage^ none is known to be far removed from such contacts, and perhaps never lies so far amy as a mile from the boundary of a large granitic body. Many of the min-eral bodies lie wholly or mainly in limestone •••• but some of the bodies .... replace finely textureo. intrusives or effusives and even the granitic rocks (p»10) Ho individual deposit extends to great depth .... an extensive outcrop does not al-ways imply a considerable vertical thickness. .... In any given "Nfoung, G.A. and XJglow, W.L., The Iron Ores of Canada, vol.1, B.C. and Y.T., G.S.C. 1025, p.5. fit© meat important occurrences of magnetita genetic** ally related to the Coast Range Bathe11thie Intraaives. (to fa®a page SB). 1 Giltana lake District, Y.¥. 2 Nordenskioll River, Y.T. 5 Whitehorse District, Y.T, 4 Tenakee Inlet, Chicliagof Island, Alaska* 5 SnettiBljam Peninsula, Alaska. 6 Port Houghton, Alaska. 7 Tostoi Bay, Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. 8 Skowl Aim, • • • « • 9 Kasaan Peninsula, 2 • B 9 10 Hetta Inlet, « " • • 11 Porcher Island (east Side), B.C. 12 Stuart Anchorage, Pitt Island, B.C. 13 Kitiiaat River, B.C. 14 Iron Duke* Louise Island, B.C. 15 Apex Mountain and Tasu Eafcfcour, Moresby Island. v 16 Dnm Luramon, Douglas Channel, B.C. 1? Burmahy Island, B.C. 18 Harriet Harbour, Hue tin Inlet, Ikeda Bay, Cellison. Bay§ Moresby Island* ^ueen Charlotte Islands-19 Surf Inlet, Princess Royal Island, B.C. 20 Bean Channel, B.C. 21 Evans Arm, King Island, B.C. 221 Rivers Inletr»B.C. 23 Seymour Inlet, B.C. ' 24 Quatsino Sound, (vest am), 7,1. 25 Ingersoll River, V.I. -50-The Principal Occurrences of MAGNETITS on the western contact of the Coast Range "batholith 313 Mine 11 Prospect 1 COKDILLERAS OF CANADA. Fig. 2 M Iwm Group, Quatsino Sound, T.I. 27 IQBi^ &t Inlet, B.C. 28 Hiapkisii Hirer, V.I. 29 Fanny Bay asd Tieinity, mili$s A m , B.C. 3d Glengarry and Storaont, Hootka Sound district, T.I 31 Mensles Bay, T.I. 52 West Hedonda Island, B.C. 33 Head Bay, Tlugpana A m , Ifootka Sound, T.I. 34 Bacon lake, T.I. 35 Iron Hirer, T.I. 36 U&per Quins case lake, T.I. 37 Hesquiat lake, T.I. 38 Safcle Hirer, T.I. Preaeett, Paacton, lake, ete., mines, Texada Island 40 Ahousat, T.I. 41 Kennedy lake, T.I. 42 Henderson lake and Uehucklosit Harkour, T.I. 43 Sarita Hirer and Copper Island, T.I. 44. Alfeerni Area,„ T. I. 45 Iysn Creek, Burrard Inlet, B.C. 46 Berkley Siund district and SeeJaart Peninsula, T.I. 47 Mt. Malakat (east of Sli&winigan lake), T.I. 4ff Renfrew district, T.I. 49 Port Ssn Juan, T.I. §0 Sunlock, Jordan Hirer, T.I. 51 East Seoke, T.I. district the discovery of a a ingle body of magnetite is an almost certain indication that other bodies exist or did exist nearby *•«* but there are no known grounds for supposing that the undiscovered bodies lie iassediately adjacent to the known deposit. .*.« If in any given case the attitude of the mineral body is not clearly apparent it is not safe to assume that the mass extends in any direction more than a few feet beyond its observed limits* whether these be against drift or solid rock. ... The iron content of the individual deposits is vari-able. « « * • The mineral masses nowhere present features in-compatible with the assumption that they are replacement de-posits ...» but some of the bodies .... found .... differ from the ordinary type in that they are more of the nature of im-pregnations and have developed within comparatively narrow though in some cases long ssones, in schistose sediments and voleanics. •••• These impregnations lie close to the edges of the granitic bodies and appreciable amounts of aeeond&vy sili-cates, including garnet, are present." Uglow1, dealing with the eentact-metamorphio magnetite deposits on the west coast of Vancouver Island, divides them into three sub-classes* "(a) contact deposits in limestone (b; contact deposits in volcanic rocks (c) contact deposits of copper sulphides and magnet-ite in volcanic rocks or limestone. .... 1 Young, A. ami W^UUglew, The Iron Oreo of Canada, vol. 1, British Colombia and the Yukon Territory. Sc. Geol.Series, G.S.G., p.161. Contact metamorphic deposits in limestone (principally ©f the Mitinat formation?) produced by the intru-sion of horableude diorite (Beale formation) are sore import-ant as possible sources of iron ore than any other type, since their magnetite is more massive, of better quality, and is associated with less gangue. .... The deposits in volcanic rocks (andesiti'c tuff and andesite of the Vancouver volcan!cs} are in some cases quite extensive, with respect to the distance the mineralising solutions have wandered, but they are characterised by a bed-ding structure, inherited from the tuffs, in which discontin-uous flat lenses of magnetite are interbanded with layers of .... gangue, with a consequent rarity of magnetite segrega-tions* • The copper sulphide-magnetite group contains, in addition to magnetite, chalcepyrite and bornite, and occurs in both limestone and volcanic .^ ocks. The individual deposits .... all show a development of copper minerals considerably later than that of magnetite. This is believed to be due to the fact that those parts of the coast where they occur are underlain by two intrusives, an older diorite and a younger grandiorite or granitej and the magnetite mineralisation is believed to have been caused in large part by the influence of diorite, whereas the copper mineralization is ascribed to the younger intrusive.M The gold of the Coast Range batholith is foundv associated with pyrite, in quarts veins. These veins are lo-sated im intense shear zone© either in green (chlorite) schists er is quartz diorite* a batholithic phase of th® Coast Range. Do image1 makes th© statement that "in general it may he said that slightly hi^&er values are found where th© veins lie in schist than where they lie in quartz diorite,* Galena occurs in only negligible quantities along the western contact of the batholith* Do Image describes "a small but interesting deposit ,,». about half a mil© from Swanson bay* •*«• The deposit is a small, irregular, mineral-ized zone is micaceous schist* •.*• The mineralized zone con-sists of quarts stringers and ailicified schist containing considerable pyrite and a little galena," Silver is found in the gold deposits, and both of these minerals occur in small quantities in the low grada copper deposits in fairly uniform amounts* Sphalerite, though present in many of the ore deposits on the west coast, is not found in commercial quan-tities* wr© aay summarize, then, the types of deposits found on the western contact of the Coast Hange batholith as follows* large low-grade copper deposits These are large, irregular shaped, massive or disseminated, replacements in or near igneous rocks. They are dominantly pyritic, and pyrrhotite frequently occurs in t massive form. The copper is found as chalcopyrite or bornite, •^ DoImage, V., Coast and Islands of B.C. between Burke ana Doug-las Channels* G.S.C*, Sum.Rept. 1921 A,p.31. mtmd with the Irm -sulphide*, from 1& t© copper being generally required for economic operatic®* Examples of this class are Britannia (Howe Sound); Tye© and Sunlock {Vancouver Island) j Hidden Creek (Anyox)i and the pyritic deposits of Bcstall Eiver* Cold-copper deposits* Although the gold may be present in these de-posits in less important quantities than the copper, it is the gold which makes these' deposits economically attractive* RIn general3-* they occur as fissure veins and veinlike re-placements in close association with igneous rooks, or as irregular replacement bodies of small to medium sise within more or less defined <sones around the intrusive contacts* The minerals of these deposit© are chiefly ehalcopyrite, with pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenepyri te» and bcrnite, in^gang^of quartz* limestone or silicified intrusive*" Samples of this class are j Marble Bay, Copper '^ ueen, and Cornell (Teacada Island)} Drum Lmmon {Douglas Channel) and Surf Inlet (Prin* cess Royal Island)* Iron deposits* These are of the direct contact me tamo r phi e type occurring mostly in or near limestone* with magnetite as the principal mineral* These deposits are found along the entire bathoiith* Maps accompany this thesis iIlustrating the Nichols, H*0* and Uglow, W*I*, British Columbia as a Mining Province* Hixu&feg* vol«£9, July-Dec, 1923,p.77. u The know®, deposits are else shows with the deeper colours indicative of larger de-posits* CHAPTER V KBTAMORPHISH. The metajuorphic effects of the Coast Range "ba-the 11 th on the Intruded rocks along its western and eastern flanks in the Ketchikan district, as described by F.E. and _ are qlio characteruh'c eflh'i t>A7l\ol!l/] )n £-C Th< C*f»Wrlghtxr statement runs as follows. "Although the strata directly above the massifs have long since been removed by erosion, an observer approach-ing the contacts from the south-west finds that distinct chan-ges in the sedimentary rocks are generally noticeable,... The prevailing argillites become more visibly crystalline, and at ^Gp. cit. p. 65. maiay points «».. new minerals, andalusite and staurolite, occur. From tho coast of Behm canal to the western contact of the Coast Bangs massif the invaded sedimentary rocks change V from slates and argil!ites to phyllites and mica schists and in some places near the contact to gneiss. The many types of hornfels are rare, and spotted schists do not form an integral part of the complex. The strata are intensely folded and were undoubtedly deeply buried at the time of the granite invasion. Deep-seated metamorphie forces were already active and had un-doubtedly heated and altered the rock to such an extent that the granitic intrusion did not disturb their equilibrium greatlyj its chief effect being to accentuate the process of crystalliza-tion already in force and to increase their power rather than to replace them by others. At th© contact itself, the granite frequently contains inclusions of the schist, which have usually become more coarsely crystalline, though their original outline is still well preserved* .... It is significant that in these deep-seated schists and gneisses near the granite contact no ore bodies of consequence have been found, while rocks further away from the granite and nearer th© surface during its invasion in •any localities show traces of contact metamorphism, as in spotted schists, and contain valuable metalliferous deposits. .... Within the granite area Itself are occasional belts of included sedimentary rocks in a highly metamorphosed condition. They vary from argillites to miva, hornblende, and calcareous schists of various types, even marble, and occur in long bands intensely folded. They still preserve in general their north-west trend, parallel t© th® course of th© range, and their steep north-easterly dip •«»« The included schist belts within the Coast Range are usually not wide, and mor® appear near the mountain tops than at sea level* They can b® traced up the exposed cliffs and bare mountain sides for 4,000 to 6,000 feet. They are usually intensely mineralized with sulphides, especially pyrit®, and near the mountain crests show abundant evidence of contact metamorphism, formation of garnetiferous rocks, ©tc. These roof pendants, .... were evidently in the most favorable position to be affected by magmatie waters and heat escaping from the intrusives, so that the j now are the most heavily mineralised bodies. The character of th© invaded sedimentaries east of the inland border of the granite is noticeably dif-ferent. The slates and sandstones are less altered and typic-al schists and sandstones are rare. ...» The intruded rocks are often indurated and heavily mineralized with sulphides near the contact and show evidence of raeteniorphism by the in-trusives. H In the f^ ueen Charlotte Islands, where the Coa ite is evidently located at great dapth, we only find evidence of dynanic metnmorphism, then^al metamor-phi sm being alraoct absent, ?&ic}:entie^  state© that "the Mackenzie, J.D. Geology of Graham Island,- B.C. G.S.C'., 2£em. -88,1916, p.48. - 6 5 -Yakoun formation, *M3« greatly pointed and in some places sheared and faulted, is not extremely metamorphosed. Iv3crystal-lization is virtually absent? augite alters to chlorite and ealcite, instead of to uralite, and much of the feldspar is still quit® fresh, locally narrow quarts veins are common ...." These conditions he explains on the basis of pressure developed during mountain building periods. Concerning the area in the south of Vancouver Island, "Clapp states that "near the contact with the intrusive granitic rocks the marbles are coarser and correspondingly lighter colored. Ordinarily calcite is the only essential mineral .... 31opsids is the most common of the accessory minerals. «... west of 7izzle lake .... the marble contains irregular lasses and masses of white weathering wollastenite .... The limestones have been metamorphosed also into garnet-diopside-epidote rocks. .... In some inst anc e s the marbles have been metamorphosed to a grayish white, cherty rock, con-Bis ting of a finegrained mixture of calcite, quartz and sericite, and possibly feldspar.* f 'Jxom the above it will be seen that the law, that different contact minerals occur at different distances from the intrusive mass, holds here in a general »?ay. Also, in the same way as the roof pendants as a rule con Lain the valuable ore deposits for reasons stated above, even so the areas to the west of the batholith and east of the southern end of it, underlain as they are by the rocks of the batholith, are favorable areas for ore deposits. Both mineralization and contact metamorphic effects are more pronounced some distance from the contacts due to the more favorable conditions en-countered there by the pneureatolytic solutions* In order to sissraarise the problem of raetamor-phisa in connection with the Coast Range and to compare it with other similar batholiths abroad? I have chosen a strik-ingly parallel case,that of the granitic contact phenomena in the Pyrenees. Iacroiz*s summary is stated below as given by yenaaer*, "In this region the granite, normally biotitic* forms a vast massif in contact with a series of Palaeozoic sediments. The granite is believer! to have be on cmplaced by gradual impregnation, transformation, and finally incorpora-tion of the sediments, whose placo it now occupies and of which fragments, £iore or loss modified, are found within its mass. The motamorphic phenomena axo both andamorphic and oxo-morphic. «.». The sediments are chiefly quartsites, limestones* and schists, and their impregnation by the granite, with the formation of broad zones of contact minerals, and their final invasion and replacement by tho magna, can bo followed step by stop. Tho process takes the form both cf soaI:in;j of the whole rock and the injection of distinct veins,. Commonly the quartsites are feldupalliiaod, and #ica develops; slates are transfoxned into vica schists ana even gnuisjosj anu in the limestones a variety of lime-silicats minerals are introduced. tenner,Clarence IT* , The lOatmai Magma tic Province* J our.C*col* vol.54, ITo.1?, lurt Oct.-hov. 1926, p*?18. Am. i&tsrtts&lais feature in connection with the feldapathization of the schists and quartztites is that the structure of the quartz is modified and it tends to become microgranitic. This is one of the many instances to be found in the literature in which microgramtic texture is the result of replacement in solid rocks, and not due to the crystallization of a final magnetic eutectic, as is sometimes held to he the necessary interpretation. At one place a considerable deposit of iaagnet-its exists at the contact of granite and limestone, and sending veins into both. It is associated with iron silicatess meianite, diepside-hedenbergite, and a very ferruginous horn-blende. The deposit is explained as the result of uie local increase in iron of the emanations of the granite. At contacts with limestone the granite has undergone great endcmorphic changes, with production of basic minerals. .... The existence of the basic jaasaes is held to be closely connected with the metamorphiam of the limestone.* Lo doubt, as soon as further work has been done in connection with the Coast i-a&nge batholith, many of the occurrences of the basic phases will be explained as due to the contact metamorphic effects of limestone. - 6 8 -BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1 Baddley, Else? R., Eliot Blackwelder and Elmer R. Baddley Relations be two en Batholiths and Schistosity. Bull. G«S.C., vol. 36, 1925. p.208 (abstract). 2 Bancroft, J.Austen, Geology of the Coast and Islands bet-ween the Strait of Georgia and Queen Charlotte Sound, B.C., G.S.C., Mem. 23, 1913. 3 Book, Dr. Richard, Srzlagerstfitten, vols. 1 and 2, Frei-berg 1900. Pub. 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