UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The geology of the Beltian rocks of the Cordillera in Canada McKechnie, Neil Douglas 1933

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DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA THE GEOLOGY OF THE BEITIAW ROCKS OF THE CORDILLERA IN CANADA *7 N e i l D o u g l a s M c K e c h n i e U . B . C . LIBRARY I CAT MO L£i> Ri • H3b I ACC. NO. THE GEOLOGY OF THE BELT IAN ROCKS OP THE CORDILLERA IN CANADA N E I L DOUGLAS McKECHKIE A T h e s i s submitted, f o r t h e Degree o f M a s t e r o f A p p l i e d S c i e n c e i n t h e Department o f G e o l o g y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A p r i l 1935 Close o/sBf/bon. C/cxse ofLower M&sozora. Jvrass/cJe£ewahdrert. o »-3 Great Mains. EZI mJ m ^ _ E L •SarxfcAx*?. Gran/re. CcrrafomenTfe. Scpsa/r. 03 hi M o CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 1 C h a p t e r I GEOLOGICAL HISTORY . . 3 C h a p t e r I I EARLY WORK • 8 C h a p t e r I I I CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION OF FORMATIONS.. 28 N o n - S c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n 28 P u r c e l l S e r i e s 29 Windermere S e r i e s 32 Bow V a l l e y P r e - C a m b r i a n 35 Summit S e r i e s 36 G a l t o n and L e w i s S e r i e s 38 F r a n k l i n M o u n t a i n s 41 S c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n 41 P r i e s t R i v e r T e r r a n e 42 S l o c a n and U p p e r Arrow l a k e s ....... 45 Shuswap T e r r a n e 46 N o r t h Thompson V a l l e y 49 C a r i b o o S e r i e s 50 P i n l a y R i v e r 51 Yukon Group 52 T i n d i r Group 55 Mount S t e v e n s Group 5& C h a p t e r IV THE SHUSWAP PROBLEM 58 C h a p t e r V BELTIAN CLIMATE AND CONDITIONS OP SEDIMENTATION ....... 72 CONTENTS ( c o n t i n u e d ) Page C h a p t e r V I RELATIONSHIP TO YOUNGER FORMATIONS 78 To t h e S e d i m e n t s 78 To t h e I n t r u s i v e s 82 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE INTRUSIVES AND THE METAMORPHISM OP THE BELTIAN 84 ADDENDUM 86 FOSSILS OF THE BELTIAN 87 INDEX TO PLATES AND MAPS F r o n t i s p i e c e ; D i a g r a m I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e G e o l o g i c a l H i s t o r y o f t h e C o r d i l l e r a i n Canada. P l a t e I The S u b d i v i s i o n s o f t h e C o r d i l l e r a i n Canada f o l l o w i n g p . 2. P l a t e I I C o r r e l a t i o n T a b l e f o l l o w i n g p.28. P l a t e I I I Map o f P a r t o f t h e Shuswap V a l l e y , Osoyoos D i s t r i c t , B . C . . f o l l o w i n g p.62. P l a t e IV S t r u c t u r e S e c t i o n i n K o o t e n a y D i s t r i c t f o l l o w i n g t e x t . P l a t e V S t r u c t u r e S e c t i o n i n t h e V/indermere f o l l o w i n g t e x t . P l a t e V I S t r u c t u r e S e c t i o n i n t h e S e l k i r k M o u n t a i n s f o l l o w i n g t e x t . P l a t e s V I I - I X P h o t o m i c r o g r a p h s o f P u r c e l l S e d i u e n t s f o l l o w i n g t e x t . P l a t e s X I V - X I X V i e w s f o l l o w i n g t e x t . INDEX TO PLATES ATI3) MAPS ( c o n t i n u e d ) Map 1. P r e - C a m b r i a n A r e a s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l b e r t a and Yukon „. I n P o c k e t . Map 2. P u r c e l l M o u n t a i n s , Showing D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e I r e n e and Toby C o n g l o m e r a t e s .... I n P o c k e t . Map. j. L i m i t s o f t h e t e r r a n e s d e f i n i t e l y known t o be o f B e l t i a n age I n P o c k e t . (this l i s t i n g copied from copy 2) "Structure Section from Alberta Boundary to Pend d»Oreille River Along the 49th Par a l l e l . After Daly In Pocket. n and map i t s e l f transferred. Library, U.B.C. February 27, 1950 - 1 -BfTRODUCTIOK T h i s p a p e r p r e s e n t s a b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e p r e - C a m b r i a n f o r m a t i o n s o f the C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a , a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n b y t h e w r i t e r o f a number o f t h i n s e c t i o n s o f r o c k s f r o m t h e Shuswap t e r r a n e e a s t o f V e r n o n , B.C., and a new g r o u p i n g o f the B e l t i a n f o r m a t i o n s i n Canada p r o p o s e d by Dr. S . J . S c h o f i e l d o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t h a s n o t b e e n p o s s i b l e t o d e v o t e a s much t i m e t o a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a s t h e s u b j e c t d e s e r v e s . W i t h i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1871 t o 1914 a new s c h o o l o f p r e - C a m b r i a n g e o l o g y had i t s b e g i n n i n g s and f o u n d r e c o g n i t i o n . The f i r s t C a n a d i a n g e o l o g i s t s t o work i n t h e C o r d i l l e r a b r o u g h t w i t h them a c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e p r e - C a m b r i a n a s a c o m p l e x , a n e c e s s a r y r e s u l t o f t h e l o n g e x p e r i e n c e most o f them ha d h a d i n t h e p r e - C a m b r i a n o f e a s t e r n C a n a d a , and i t was t o be more t h a n f o r t y y e a r s b e f o r e t h e g r e a t t h i c k n e s s e s o f , c o m p a r a t i v e -l y , s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d and l i t t l e d i s t u r b e d b u t u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s s e d i m e n t s o f t h e C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a were t o be r e c o g n i z e d as o l d e r t h a n Lower C a m b r i a n . The r e s u l t o f c o m p r e s s i n g t h i s i m p o r t a n t p e r i o d I n t o t h e s i n g l e c h a p t e r t h a t i s d e v o t e d t o i t c a n n o t be o t h e r t h a n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y b u t i t i s f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e p r e s e n t c o n c e p t o f the g e o l o g y o f t h e B e l t i a n and some r e f e r e n c e to i t i s t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l . The p e t r o g r a p h y o f t h e Shuswap r o c k s has b e e n t a k e n f r o m t h e w r i t e r ' s B a c h e l o r ' s t h e s i s , s u b m i t t e d t o t h e D e p a r t -ment o f G e o l o g y , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , i n 1932; A number o f -2-t h i n s e c t i o n s o f F u r c e l l s e d i m e n t s were examined a s p a r t o f the p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h i s p a p e r . The f i n e n e s s o f g r a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s e r o c k s , however, p r e v e n t e d t h e f i n d i n g o f any i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s not a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d by D a l y a n d S c h o f i e l d . N o r was t h e r e s u f f i c i e n t t i m e t o make c h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s . R e f e r e n c e t o what r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d i s c o n t a i n e d i n C h a p t e r V. Acknowledgments a r e made to Dr. C.E. C a i r n e s , o f the G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Ca n a d a , f o r the l o a n o f t h e t h i n s e c t i o n s o f the P u r c e l l s e d i m e n t s , and t o Dr. S . J . S c h o f i e l d , o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r t h e u s e o f h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y and f o r t h e a s s i s t a n c e he h a s g i v e n t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . -3-CHAPTSR I GEOLOGICAL HISTORY. The f i r s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e g e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d o f t h e C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a was a d v a n c e d by G.M. Dawson*" i n 2 1901 and m o d i f i e d by R.A. D a l y i n 1912. B o t h b e l i e v e d t h a t 1 Dawson, G.LI.- Geol.Soc.Am., Vol . 1 2 , 1901. 2 D a l y , R.A.- G e o l . S u r v . , Can., Mem.38, 1912.  Dawson's Shuswap t e r r a n e h a d been t h e s o u r c e o f P a l a e o z o i c s e d i m e n t s . I n c r e a s e d k n owledge o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e d i -ments i n t h e r e g i o n l e d t o a new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a d v a n c e d by S . J . S c h o f i e l d ^ i n 1923, w h i c h abandoned t h e Shuswap t e r r a n e 3 S c h o f i e l d , S . J . - "The G e o l o g i c a l R e c o r d o f t h e C o r d i l l e r a i n Canada". T r a n s . R o y . S e c . , Can., Vol . 1 7 , 1923, S e c . I V .  a s t h e s o u r c e o f s e d i m e n t s and p o s t u l a t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a n a n c i e n t l a n d mass w h i c h he named r ,Ca3cadia". T h i s s e c t i o n i3 a resume o f Dr. S c h o f i e l d ' s h y p o t h e s i s . " D u r i n g B e l t i a n t i m e s , t h e e a s t e r n s h o r e l i n e o f C a s c a d i a e x t e n d e d n o r t h w e s t w a r d a l o n g a l i n e marked a p p r o x -i m a t e l y by t h e Okanagan l a k e , t h r o u g h n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t o A l a s k a . I t i s n o t known how f a r e a s t t h e b a s i n w h i c h l a y t o t h e e a s t o f t h e a n c i e n t l a n d mass e x t e n d e d . A t l e a s t i t i n c l u d e d t h e a r e a now o c c u p i e d by t h e Rocky m o u n t a i n s a s w e l l a s by t h e F r a n k l i n m o u n t a i n s t o t h e n o r t h . However, I do n o t t h i n k t h a t t h e B e l t i a n b a s i n o f s e d i m e n t a t i o n r e a c h e d t h e L a u r e n t i a n h i g h l a n d s ' * . The e a s t e r n c o a s t l i n e o f C a s c a d i a r e c e d e d compara-t i v e l y r a p i d l y d u r i n g e a r l y P a l a e o z o i c t i m e u n t i l , i n t h e l a t e -4-O r d o v i e i a n o r e a r l y S i l u r i a n , i t extended, a l o n g a l i n e a l i t t l e w est o f t h e p r e s e n t c o a s t o f H o r t h A m e r i c a . I n t h e s h a l l o w s e a t o t h e e a s t w a r d , e x t e n d i n g t o t h e s h o r e s o f t h e L a u r e n t i a n H i g h l a n d s , s e d i m e n t a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o t h e end o f t h e P a l a e o z o i c and i n t o t h e e a r l y M e s o z o i c . The p r e s e n c e o f l o c a l c o n g l o m -e r a t e s , i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e r e g i o n and o f v a r y i n g a g e , shows t h a t t h i s s h a l l o w s e a wa3 f l u c t u a t i n g "but t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e o f any m a j o r d i s t u r b a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h i s l o n g i n t e r -v a l . The T r i a s s i c and J u r a s s i c s e d i m e n t s a r e r e m a r k a b l e f o r the l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f v o l c a n i c m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n e d i n them. T h e r e f o r e , d u r i n g t h e s e p e r i o d s , C a s c a d i a , o r t h e b a s i n , must have b e e n t h e s c e n e o f g r e a t v o l c a n i c a c t i v i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y on i t s e a s t e r n c o a s t . T h a t the e a s t e r n c o a s t had b e e n m o u n t a i n -b u i l t i s shown by t h e e x i s t e n c e o f g r a n i t e p e b b l e s i n t h e S i l u r i a n o f s o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a and i n t h e U p p e r T r i a s s i c c o n -g l o m e r a t e on G r a v i n a I s l a n d , A l a s k a . A t t h e c l o s e o f t h e J u r a s s i c a p e r i o d o f m o u n t a i n b u i l d i n g t o o k p l a c e , t h e J u r a s s i d e R e v o l u t i o n . I t i s r e a s o n -a b l e to s u p p o s e , i n v i e w o f l a t e r e v e n t s , t h a t t h i s d i s t u r b a n c e was a n e a s t w a r d c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h a t w h i c h had s u p p l i e d t h e g r a n i t e t o t h e e a s t c o a s t o f C a s c a d i a . F o u r m o u n t a i n c h a i n s a p p e a r e d i n t h e b a s i n o f s e d i m e n t a t i o n : ( a ) The V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d - Cueen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d r a n g e . The C o a s t Range o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . (b) The S i e r r a Hevada r a n g e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . ( c ) The S e l k i r k s and. t h e i r e x t e n s i o n s o u t h w a r d i n t o t h e B i t t e r r o o t a n d C l e a r w a t e r r a n g e s . ( d ) The A l a s k i d . e s o n t h e n o r t h e r n b o r d e r o f C a s -c a d i a . G r a n i t i c i n t r u s i o n a c c o m p a n i e d th e f o l d i n g o f t h e s e d i m e n t s . The V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d - Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d r a n g e , the C o a s t Range and t h e S e l k i r k s , a s w e l l a s C a s c a d i a , t o c o n -f i n e t h e d i s c u s s i o n t o t h e C a n a d i a n a r e a , s u p p l i e d s e d i m e n t s t o a n e a s t e r n and a w e s t e r n b a s i n o n t h e f l a n k s o f t h e h i g h -l a n d s t h r o u g h o u t t h e C r e t a c e o u s . An e l o n g a t i o n o f t h e s e m o u n t a i n c h a i n s n o r t h w e s t w a r d d i v i d e d t h e C r e t a c e o u s s e d i m e n t s i n t o t h r e e m a i n b a s i n s : ( a ) The V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d - Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s b a s i n , b etween C a s c a d i a and t h e C o a s t Range. (b) The I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u b a s i n , between t h e C o a s t Range and t h e C o l u m b i a - S e l k i r k r a n g e . ( e ) The Rocky M o u n t a i n s - G r e a t P l a i n s b a s i n , b e t w e e n t h e S e l k i r k range and t h e L a u r e n t i a n H i g h l a n d s . The o c c u r r e n c e o f g r a n i t e p e b b l e s i n t h e C r e t a c e o u s o f a l l t h r e e b a s i n s shows t h a t t h e b a t h o l i t h s o f t h e t h r e e c h a i n s were a l l u n r o o f e d . "The o v e r l a p o f l a t e r C r e t a c e o u s s e d i m e n t s on t h e o l d e r f o l d e d J u r a s s i c a n d T r i a s s i c r o c k s on Queen C h a r l o t t e and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d s , p o i n t t o a s t e a d y e n l a r g e m e n t o f the C r e t a c e o u s b a s i n s i n U p p e r C r e t a c e o u s t i m e s . The p r e s e n c e o f C r e t a c e o u s rock3 i n t h e v a l l e y s o f t h e C o a s t Range, s u c h a s t h o s e o f H a r r i s o n l a k e a n d K i t s u m -g a l l u m r i v e r , shows t h a t the C o a s t Range may have been i n t h e p a s t submerged by t h e c l o s e o f t h e C r e t a c e o u s . From t h i s i t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e f o u r g r e a t J u r a s s i c m o u n t a i n c h a i n s were r e d u c e d t o a c o n d i t i o n a p p r o x i m a t i n g p e n e p l a n a t i o n by t h e -6-c l o s e o f t h e C r e t a c e o u s p e r i o d " . I n e a r l y T e r t i a r y t i m e t h e o r o g e n i c movements o f t h e l a r a m i d e r e v o l u t i o n a f f e c t e d t h e whole r e g i o n o f t h e C o r d i l l e r a and t h e G r e a t P l a i n s . The p e n e p l a n e d J u r a s s i c m o u n t a i n s were u p l i f t e d , t h e b a s i n s o f s e d i m e n t a t i o n were f o l d e d t o f o r m new m o u n t a i n c h a i n s a n d v e r t i c a l l y u p l i f t e d t o f o r m t h e G r e a t P l a i n s . The f o l d i n g o f t h e w e s t e r n b a s i n s was a c c o m p a n i e d by i n t r u s i o n s o f g r a n i t e , now e x p o s e d i n l i m i t e d a r e a s i n t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s , t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a an d i n t h e Y u k on. S m a l l b a s i n s o f s e d i m e n t a t i o n p e r s i s t e d i n Lower T e r t i a r y t i m e i n t h e V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u , Rocky M o u n t a i n and G r e a t P l a i n s r e g i o n s , l o c a l o r o g e n i c move-ments u p l i f t e d t h e s e b a s i n s a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e O l i g o c e n e ; i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e s t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was u p l i f t e d a t t h e same t i m e . "The p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h a t o f c o m p r e s s i o n a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e O l i g o c e n e was one o f t e n s i o n c a u s e d by t h e s i n k i n g o f t h e P a c i f i c b a s i n , t h u s c a u s i n g a s t r e t c h i n g o f t h e a r e a a d j a c e n t t o t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t . The s i n k i n g o f t h e P a c i f i c a r e a , e i t h e r by downwarping o r by f a u l t i n g , marked t h e l a s t a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e P a c i f i c l a n d mass C a s c a d i a w h i c h sank b e n e a t h t h e w a t e r s o f t h e P a c i f i c . o e e a n . On t h e c o n t i n e n t , t h e s t r e t c h i n g o f t h e l a n d mass p r o d u c e d f i s s u r e s w h i c h p e r m i t t e d t h e o u t p o u r i n g o f t h e v a s t f l o o d s o f l a v a w h i c h marked t h e M i o c e n e ' o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . . . . . . The T e r t i a r y c l o s e d w i t h t h e g l a c i a l age o f t h e P l e i s t o c e n e and t h e d e p r e s s i o n o f t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t , i f n o t o f -7-t h e whole C o r d i l l e r a . V u l c a n i s m d e c r e a s e d . V7ith t h e g r a d u a l d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e g r e a t P l e i s t o -c e n e i c e f i e l d s , r e m n a n t s o f w h i c h s t i l l e x i s t , t h e e o a s t a l a r e a s have b e e n s t e a d i l y r i s i n g . D e f i n i t e r e c o r d s o f an up-l i f t o f 450 f e e t have been o b t a i n e d . -8-GHAPTSR I I EARLY WORK. S y s t e m a t i c e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e C o r d i l l e r a i n Canada began w i t h r e c o n n a i s s a n c e s u r v e y s by t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y s Company i n 1871; t h e f i r s t p a r t y l e f t V i c t o r i a on 1 J u l y 20 o f t h a t y e a r . R e g a r d l e s s o f the r o u t e s e l e c t e d , t h e 1 F l e m i n g , S a n f o r d - " E x p e d i t i o n s t o t h e P a c i f i c " . T r a n s , o f t h e Roy. S o c . o f Can., I889, S e c . I I , p.  r a i l r o a d was t o c r o s s a b r o a d b e l t o f p r a c t i c a l l y u n i n h a b i t e d t e r r i t o r y f r o m w h i c h no r e v e n u e c o u l d be drawn; t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f the e x i s t e n c e o f o r e d e p o s i t s i n t h i s b e l t o f f e r e d t h e q u i c k e s t s o l u t i o n o f t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o b l e m o f r e v e n u e . The t h e n D i r e c t o r o f t h e G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada, Dr. A.R.C. S e l w y n , was a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t o o b t a i n a u t h o r i t y t o c a r r y on g e o l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h e wake o f t h e r a i l r o a d r e c o n n a i s -s a n c e p a r t i e s . Dr. S e l w y n , 2 w i t h James R i c h a r d s o n a s a s s i s t -2 S e l w y n , A . R . C - G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada, K e p o r t o f P r o g r e s s , 1871-2.  a n t , f o r m e d a p a r t y w h i c h a l s o l e f t V i c t o r i a i n J u l y , 1871. S e l w y n 1 s s u r v e y f o l l o w e d t h e F r a s e r R i v e r f r o m Y a l e t o Cache C r e e k , f r o m Cache C r e e k v i a t h e C a r i b o o Road t o C a r i -boo; f r o m Cache C r e e k v i a Kamloops and t h e N o r t h Thompson R i v e r t o T e t e Jaune Cache and on t o L e a t h e r P a s s . A " G r a n i t e G n e i s s and M i c a - S c h i s t s e r i e s " i s d e s c r i b e d a s a u n i t . "The t a l c o s e , m i c a c e o u s s c h i s t s o f t h e C a r i b o o r e g i o n , and t h e ba s e r o c k s o f t h e S e l k i r k M o u n t a i n s and t h e G o l d Range p r o b a b l y b e-l o n g t o the same s e r i e s . The s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e r o c k s o f t h i s s e r i e s i s o f t e n o b s c u r e , and t h e y a r e much b r o k e n and d i s t u r b e d . 1 . . . . . . " Ho a t t e m p t was made t o d e f i n e t h e age o f 1. S e l w y n , ATRTGV- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , R e p t . o f P r o g r e s s , lEjl-Z. *"" t h e s e r o c k s ; S e l w y n b e l i e v e d them t o be t h e o l d e s t r o c k s i n t h e a r e a . He d e s c r i b e s s i m i l a r l y a l t e r e d r o c k s i n 1875 i n an a r e a n o r t h - e a s t o f P r i n c e George.*^ 2 S e l w y n , A.R.C.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , R e p t . o f P r o g r e s s , lb75~6. I n 1878 G.M. Dawson^ r e p o r t e d a h i g h l y a l t e r e d s e r i e s 3 Dawson, G.M.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , R e p t . o f P r o g r e s s , Id77"-8. o f r o c k s S u r r o u n d i n g t h e Shuswap l a k e s . e x t e n d i n g s o u t h w a r d t o ab o u t h a l f w a y t o t h e n o r t h end o f Okanagan l a k e and f r o m t h e r e s o u t h - e a s t w a r d t o t h e g o l d r a n g e . He r e f e r r e d them t o t h e H u r o n i a n o f e a s t e r n Canada, w i t h t h e r e s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e y may be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e Ca s c a d e C r y s t a l l i n e s e r i e s o f t h e C o a s t Range, C a r b o n i f e r o u s i n age. I t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o n o t e h e r e t h a t C I S . C a i r n e s o f the G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y , whose work i n t h a t a r e a i s the most r e c e n t , b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e s e r o c k s may be a s 4 y o u n g a s C a r b o n i f e r o u s . Dawson g i v e s h e r e t h e f i r s t 4 C a i r n e s , C.E.- P e r s o n a l Com1mu*nication. d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r e - C a m b r i a n r o c k s , a s s u c h , i n t h e C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a . I n t h e A p r i l and May i s s u e s o f t h e G e o l o g i c a l Maga-z i n e f o r l88l, G.M. Dawson'* r e v i e w s t h e knowledge o f t h e 5 Dawson, G.M.- " G e o l o g y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " . Geol.Mag. l o b l , ; . pp.1-19.  g e o l o g y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . He w r i t e s o f t h e o l d e s t r o c k s a s f o l l o w s : " S t i l l o l d e r r o c k s , w h i c h may i n d e e d r e p r e s e n t p a r t o f t h e A r c h e a n o f t h e f o r t i e t h p a r a l l e l a r e a , a r e known t o -10-o c c u r , but about them l i t t l e h a s y e t b e e n c e r t a i n l y d e t e r m i n e d . They a p p e a r i n t h e G o l d Range and i n t h e r e g i o n between i t a nd th e Rocky M o u n t a i n s . The r o c k s a p p e a r t o be g n e i s s e s a n d g r a n i t e s , h o l d i n g o r t h o c l a s e f e l d s p a r , a n d w i t h a b u n d a n t q u a r t z a n d m i c a , v e r y o f t e n g a r n e t i f e r o u s and c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e . They were o r i g i n a l l y c l a s s e d w i t h t h e s c h i s t o s e g o l d - b e a r i n g r o c k s o f C a r i b o o a nd t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l s e w h e r e , b u t we have a l r e a d y f o u n d r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e s c h i s t s a r e much newer "^ The ' p r e - C a m b r i a n * becomes more c l o s e l y 1 Dawson, G.K.-"Geology o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " . G e ol.Mag., 1881, pp. 1-19.  c o n f i n e d t o the h i g h l y a l t e r e d s c h i s t s and g n e i s s e s . 2 H, Bauerman , i n 1883, r e p o r t e d oh "The G e o l o g y o f 2 Bauerman, i l . - Ge'ol.Surv.Can. , A n n . K e p t . lbij2-^4, pp.T-41B. ~ t h e C o u n t r y n e a r t h e 4 9 t h . P a r a l l e l o f U o r t h l a t i t u d e West o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s " . He mapped as p r e - C a m b r i a n a " p o r p h y r i t i c and s y e n i t i c g n e i s s " o n t h e e a s t s i d e o f Osoyoos l a k e , " g n e i s s , q u a r t z i t e , m i c a - and h o r n b l e n d e - s l a t e a l l f i n e l y l a m i n a t e d a nd i r r e g u l a r l y c o n t o r t e d , g r e e n s t o n e and f e l d - s p a t h i c p o r p h y r y d y k e s i n v e r y g r e a t numbers, b o t h i n g n e i s s a nd i n s h a l y r o c k s " between Rock Cr e e k and C o l v i l l e and a f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g c h i e f l y o f g r a n i t e g n e i s s between t h e Spokane and M o y i e r i v e r s . He mapped t h e u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s " b l u i s h - g r a y and g r e e n f i n e l y g r a n u l a r s i l i c e o u s s l a t e s " w i t h t h e i r " s e v e r a l a p p a r e n t l y i n t e r s t r a t i f i e d b eds o f a m y g d a l o i d a l and compact t r a p p e a n r o c k s " e a s t o f t h e H o y i c r i v e r , e n masse a s P a l a e o z o i c . I n 1885 G.K. Dawson d e s c r i b e d an u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s 3 Dawson, P.M.- Geol".Surv.Can. , Ann.Rep77~T885 , P t . B . "~* - l i -ana o n l y s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d s e r i e s o f r o c k s between l a t i t u d e s 4.9° and J?1°;K)', t h e r e g i o n i n c l u d i n g R.A. D a l y ' s 49th P a r a l l e l s e c t i o n o f 1J12. f r o m K o o t e n a y r i v e r t o W a t e r t o n l a k e , t h e e a s t e r n p a r t o f S . J . S c h o f i e l d ' s G r a n b r o o k Map A r e a (1915), J . -Walker's Windermere Map A r e a (1926) e a s t o f t h e K o o t e n a y r i v e r , and most o f C D . W a l c o t t ' s Bow r i v e r a r e a (1910), t h e o l d e s t r o c k s o f w h i c h a r e now h e l d t o be p r e - C a m b r i a n i n a g e . T h e i r c o m p a r a t i v e l y u n a l t e r e d c o n d i t i o n l e d Dawson t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y were P a l a e o z o i c and t h e p r e s e n c e o f m i d d l e C a m b r i a n f o s s i l s on V e r m i l l i o n and K i c k i n g H o r s e p a s s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s b e d s were o f C a m b r i a n a g e . I n 1886 R..G. McConnell^" measured a s e c t i o n a c r o s s 1 HcConnelT7~RTG7- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Ann.Rept. ISbfa, V o l . 2 , P t . D . th e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s , f o l l o w i n g t h e l i n e o f the C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y a l o n g t h e Bow and K i c k i n g H o r s e v a l l e y s f r o m G o l d e n e a s t w a r d t o B a n f f , f r o m where i t l e a v e s t h e r a i l w a y and f a l l o w s t h e D e v i l s ' Lake v a l l e y to i t s g a p . The r o c k s were an e a s t w a r d c o n t i n u a t i o n o f Dawson's f o r m a t i o n o f l88j>« S i n c e t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e age o f t h e s e s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d a nd u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s beds was t o be one o f t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s o f C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a n g e o l o g y , t h e s e f i r s t d e s c r i p -t i o n s by Dawson and H e C o n n e l l a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . "Under t h i s name ( C a m b r i a n ) a g r e a t s e r i e s o f beds f o r m i n g t h e l o w e s t members o f the s e c t i o n i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e Rocky Mount-a i n s i s c l a s s e d . The r o c k s a r e g e n e r a l l y q u a r t z i t e s , q u a r t -z o s e , a r g i l l a c e o u s a nd c a l c a r e o u s s h a l e s , and s l a t e s o f v e r y v a r i e d t e x t u r e a nd c o l o r , l i m e s t o n e s , c o n g l o m e r a t e s and bedded g r e e n s t o n e s ( D i a b a s e ? ) a r e a l s o p r e s e n t , but o f m i n o r i m p o r t -a n c e . The t h i c k n e s s o f t h e s e r i e s .(on S o u t h K o o t e n a y P a s s ) i s e s t i m a t e d a s a t l e a s t 11000 f e e t . t h e b a s e o f t h e s e ' c t i o n i s n o t anywhere s e e n I n l o w e r p a r t s o f t h e s e r i e s z o n e s o f r e d b e d s a r e p r o m i n e n t . These show p s e u d o -morphs o f s a l t c r y s t a l s , m u d - c r a c k s and o t h e r e v i d e n c e s o f c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n d i c a t e d by t h e T r i a s s i c r o c k , b u t no f o s s i l s have been o b t a i n e d f r o m them. .... The c o n g l o m e r a t e s were s e e n f o r t h e most p a r t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e C a m b r i a n a n t i c l i n a l o f the u p p e r p o r t i o n o f t h e Bow V a l l e y . T h ey a r e c h a r a c t e r i s e d by p e b b l e s o f m i l k y o r s e m i - t r a x i s p a r e n t q u a r t z , t o g e t h e r w i t h p i e c e s s i m i l a r i n s i z e o f f r e s h - l o o k i n g w h i t i s h f e l s p a r , and t h e m a t r i x c o n t a i n s a n abundance o f p a l e m i c a . T h e s e c o n s t i t u e n t s have e v i d e n t l y been d e r i v e d f r o m some n o t f a r d i s t a n t e x p o s u r e s o f c o a r s e g r a n i t i c o r g n e i s s i c r o c k s . F r a g m e n t s a r e a l s o f o u n d o f d a r k , l u s t r o u s s c h i s t . R o c k s o f the c h a r a c t e r o f t h o s e l a r g e l y d e v e l o p e d on Shuswap l a k e and i n 1 2 t h e G o l d Range wou l d a f f o r d s u c h m a t e r i a l . " M c C o n n e l l f o u n d 1 Dawson, G.M.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Ann.Rept. l b « 5 , P t . I B. 2 M c C o n n e l l , R.G.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , A n n . K e p t . 1886, Vol. 2 P t . D . t h a t Dawson's c o n g l o m e r a t e d i v i d e d a b a s a l and u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s member, c o n s i s t i n g m a i n l y o f "a g r e a t s e r i e s o f d a r k - c o l o u r e d a r g i l l i t e s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some s a n d s t o n e s , q u a r t z i t e s , a n d c o n g l o m e r a t e s n e a r t h e t o p o f t h e f o r m a t i o n " , w h i c h he named "Bow R i v e r s e r i e s 1 1 f r o m a n o v e r l y i n g " C a s t l e M o u n t a i n s e r i e s " n e a r t h e b a s e o f w h i c h l o w e r C a m b r i a n f o s s i l s were f o u n d . The two s e r i e s a r e a n g u l a r l y c o n f o r m a b l e . Dawson 1 c o r r e l a t e d t h e s e r o c k s w i t h t h e C a m b r i a n o f -13-1 Dawson, G.M.- C a n . R e c . S e i . , I o 6 b , p.4. G.D. w a l c o t t i n t h e G r a n d Canyon o f t h e C o l o r a d o r i v e r i n A r i z o n a , t h e Ch u a r and G r a n d Canyon g r o u p s : "The o c c u r r e n c e o f t h i c k beds o f p a r t i - c o l o r e d s h a l e s , t h e abundance o f r i p p l e -marks- and m u d - c r a c k s t h r o u g h o u t , a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h e e v i d e n c e ( i n t h e Grand Canyon g r o u p ) o f c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s v o l c a n i c a c t i v i t y , i n t h e f o r m o f i n t e r b e d d e d g r e e n s t o n e s , c o n s t i t u t e p o i n t s o f i d e n t i t y w i t h t h e s e r i e s h e r e d e s c r i b e d . " However, i n 1886, W a l c o t t ^ p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e G r a n d Canyon and l l a n o 2 W a l c o t t , C.D.->""Am.Jour.Sci. , V o l » X g Z l I , I o « 6 , p . I 3 o . s e r i e s be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e Keweenaw s e r i e s and t h e w h o l e p l a c e d i n a s y s t e m o f p r e - C a m b r i a n a g e , t h e Keweenaw t o i n c l u d e , b e s i d e s t h e o r i g i n a l Keweenaw o f l a k e S u p e r i o r , t h e l l a n o s e r -i e s o f T e x a s , and Ch u a r and G r a n d Canyon s e r i e s o f A r i z o n a . T h i s g r o u p i n g n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a Keweenawan l a n d mass e x t e n d i n g f r o m t h e l a k e S u p e r i o r r e g i o n s o u t h t o c e n t r a l T e x a s and wes t w a r d t o c e n t r a l n o r t h e r n A r i z o n a . T h i s l a n d mass f u r n i s h e d t h e s e d i m e n t s o f t h e l o w e r a n d m i d d l e C a m b r i a n a n d d i s a p p e a r e d .beneath t h e s e a i n t h e u p p e r C a m b r i a n . T h i s e x p l a i n e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f m i d d l e and u p p e r C a m b r i a n f o s s i l s i n b e d s i m m e d i a t e l y o v e r l y i n g u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s s t r a t a . T h a t t h i s t h e o r y , a t f i r s t , made b u t l i t t l e i m p r e s s i o n on C a n a d i a n 3 g e o l o g i s t s i s shown i n a p a p e r by G.M. Dawson p u b l i s h e d t h e 31 Dawson"7 G.M.'-~C^n7Rec.Sci77~lB"o6, p.4. ~ . same y e a r . He m e n t i o n s W a l c o t t * s r e c e n t p a p e r b u t w r i t e s o f the o l d e s t r o c k s i n the C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s a s f o l l o w s : "The o l d c r y s t a l l i n e r o c k s f o r m no p a r t o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s The -14-l o w e s t r o c k s h e r e r e p r e s e n t e d a r e q u a r t z i t e s , s l a t e s and s h a l e s more o r l e s s i n d u r a t e d , w i t h o c c a s i o n a l l y t r u e s c h i s t s o f a s u b - c r y s t a l l i n e c h a r a c t e r , f o r m i n g a s e r i e s s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s and r e f e r a b l e , so f a r a s t h e s c a n t y f o s s i l e v i d e n c e shows, t o t h e C a m b r i a n . " The o n l y r o c k s a c c e p t e d a s o f p r e - C a m b r i a n age were t h o s e h i g h l y a l t e r e d f o r m a t i o n s a r o u n d t h e Shuswap l a k e s , and e a s t o f Osoyoos l a k e . I n 1888 C M . Dawson 1, R . C M c C o n n e l l a n d W, O g i l v i e 1 .'Dawson, C H . - G-eol.Sarv.Can. , /inn.Rept* l» o 7 - 8 8 T P t . B . made a r e c o n n a i s s a n c e s u r v e y a r o u n d t h e Lewes and P e l l y r i v e r s , up t h e S t i k i n e r i v e r t o T e l e g r a p h C r e e k , a n d v i a Bease l a k e t o t h e j u n c t i o n o f t h e Dease and H a r d r i v e r s , f r o m F r a n c i s l a k e v i a t h e U p p e r P e l l y r i v e r t o t h e head w a t e r s o f t h e Lewes, and f r o m t h e r e by.way o f C h i l l c o o t p a s s t o t h e head o f L y n n C a n a l . D e s p i t e l a c k o f f o s s i l e v i d e n c e t h e o l d e s t r o c k s were r e f e r r e d t o the P a l a e o z o i c . 2 I n t h e same y e a r Amos Bowman , i n r e p o r t i n g on t h e 2 Bowman, Amos "- S"e o l . S a r v . C a n . , A nn.Rept. 1887-88. l o d e g o l d p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e C a r i b o o D i s t r i c t , d e s c r i b e d m e t a m o r p h i c f o r m a t i o n s w h i c h e x t e n d f r o m t h e n o r t h a n d e a s t arms o f Q u e s n e l l a k e t o t h e head w a t e r s o f t h e S w i f t r i v e r , a d i s t a n c e o f about f o r t y m i l e s . These he d i v i d e d i n t o two s e r i e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e a p p a r e n t e x t e n t o f metamorphism: "The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r o c k s a p p e a r t o be r e l a t e d , a n d s e p a r a b l e o n l y b y r e g a r d i n g t h e more c r y s t a l l i n e a s a n o l d e r and u n d e r l y i n g member". The o l d e r he r e f e r r e d t o t h e A r c h e a n , t h e y o u n g e r t o the C a m b r i a n . -15-I n 1889 G.M. Dawson 1 d e s c r i b e d , a s e r i e s o f m i c a -T Dawson, G.M.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . ,' Ann.Rept. Ibb 1?. s c h i s t s , g n e i s s e s , h o r n b l e n d e - s c h i s t s , h o r n b l e n d e g n e i s s e s and c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e m a r b l e s d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t a n a r e a a l o n g t h e I l l i c i l l i w a e t r i v e r t o R e v e l s t o k e , b o r d e r i n g t h e C o l u m b i a r i v e r a nd A r r o w l a k e s to t h e j u n c t i o n o f t h e K o o t e n a y r i v e r , f o l l o w i n g the K o o t e n a y e a s t t o K o o t e n a y l a k e and f r o m t h e r e n o r t h w a r d t o i t s h e a d . He c o r r e l a t e d t h e s e r o c k s , on l i t h o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e , w i t h t h e r o c k s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e Shuswap l a k e s , w h i c h were r e f e r r e d t o t h e A r c h a e a n , airid named them t h e Shuswap s e r i e s . O v e r l y i n g t h e s c h i s t s and g n e i s s e s a r e l e s s metamorphosed s e d i m e n t s w h i c h a r e c o r r e l a t e d , l i t h o l o g i c a l l y , w i t h t h e Adams l a k e s e r i e s t o t h e west; and i n t e r m e d i a t e s e r i e s , c o n f i n e d t o t h e s o u t h - e a s t s h o r e o f U p p e r Arrow l a k e c o r r e l a t e s w i t h t h e F i s k o n l i t h o f t h e Shuswap l a k e s a r e a . A l t h o u g h f o s s i l s were l a c k i n g i n them, b o t h h e r e and i n t h e Shuswap l a k e s c o u n -t r y , Dawson b e l i e v e d t h e r o c k s y o u n g e r t h a n t h e Shuswap s e r i e s t o be P a l a e o z o i c i n age, p r o b a b l y l o w e r C a m b r i a n t o C a r b o n i f e r -o u s . T h i s b e l i e f was b a s e d o n a n a l o g y between t h e s e and s i m i l a r - a p p e a r i n g r o c k s o f known age o c c u r r i n g e l s e w h e r e . 2 R.G. M c C o n n e l l d e s c r i b e d c r y s t a l l i n e s c h i s t s a l o n g 2 M c C o n n e l l , R . G . - ~ G e o l 7 S u r v . C a n . , Ann.Rept ."IBB^T t h e P e l l y - Y u k o n v a l l e y . "They b e a r a s t r o n g g e n e r a l r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e A r c h a e a n r o c k s . r e c e n t l y d e s c r i b e d by Dr. Dawson " 5 A.P. Coleman's p a p e r on t h e ' B i g Bend' o f t h e 3 Col e m a n , A.P7- Trans.RoyTsl)c7c*a"n7 > IB89,~Sec.IV. C o l u m b i a r i v e r , where t h e r i v e r e n c l o s e s t h e S e l k i r k m o u n t a i n s -16-on three s i d e s , refers m i c a - arid h o r n b l e n d e - s c h i 3 t s , g a r n e t i f e r o u s s e r i c i t e - s c h i s t s and s c h i s t o s e l i m e s t o n e s t o t h e A r c h e a n . He n o t e u a r e s e m b l a n c e between c e r t a i n q u a r t z i t e s and s o f t g r e e n s c h i s t s i n t h i s a r e a and t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by R.O. McConnell^" i n t h e w e s t e r n p a r t o f Bow p a s s but makes no f u r t h e r T McConnel'l, R".G-.,- G e o I . S u r v . C a n . x Ann.Rept. l a d 6, p*25T), comment upon t h e i r a g e . C o n t i n u i n g h i s work upon t h e b a s e o f t h e N o r t h a A m e r i c a n C a m b r i a n , C D . W a l c o t t came t o c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s • 2"~WaTcott, C D . - A m . J o u r . S c i . , V o l . X X X V I I , l»o9» w h i c h were to have a f a r r e a c h i n g e f f e c t on t h e p r e - C a m b r i a n o f the C o r d i l l e r a . F i r s t , he d e f i n e d t h e b a s e o f t h e C a m b r i a n a s t h e zone o f t h e O l e n e l l u s f a u n a . S e c o n d , he showed t h a t b e n e a t h t h i s zone t h e r e were u n a l t e r e d s e d i m e n t s s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e : "The s e c t i o n l a i d b a r e i n t h e G r a n d Canyon o f t h e C o l o r a d o , b e n e a t h t h e g r e a t u n c o n f o r m i t y at t h e b a s e o f t h e known C a m b r i a n , shows 12 , 0 0 0 f e e t o f u n a l t e r e d s a n d s t o n e , s h a l e s and l i m e s t o n e t h a t , I t h i n k , were d e p o s i t e d i n p r e -C a m b r i a n t i m e " 3 I n I 8 9 0 , G.M. Dawson made a r e c o n n a i s s a n c e a c r o s s 3 Dawsoli , H O f T ~ Bull.GeoI . 5oc7ImT7 l b 1 ? ! , V o l . 2 , pp.163-176. t h e S e l k i r k m o u n t a i n s a l o n g t h e l i n e o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c r a i l w a y . He r e f e r r e d t h e g n e i s s e s and c r y s t a l l i n e s c h i s t s t o the Shuswap s e r i e s , A r c h e a n i n a g e . I n 1891, J . P . M c E v o y 4 mapped t h e g n e i s s e s a n d m i e a -4 H c E v o y , J . P . - G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Sum'm.Rept. 10*91* s c h i s t s a r o u n d 8hu3wap, Long ( K a l a m a l k a ) , M a b l e and S u g a r -17-l a k e s as a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e Shuswap t e r r a n e . G.M. Dawson's p a p e r , "Hote on t h e G e o l o g i c a l S t r u c -t u r e o f t h e S e l k i r k R a n g e " 1 d i s c u s s e s t h e p r e - C a m b r i a n i n some I Dawson, G.M.- B u l l . G e o l . S o c . A m . , V o l . 2 , l b 1 ? ! . d e t a i l and c o n t a i n s t h e f i r s t r e f e r e n c e by a C a n a d i a n g e o l o g i s t t o W a l c o t t ' s c o n c l u s i o n s . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o h i s Adams Lake s e r i e s , w h i c h o v e r l i e s h i s Shuswap s e r i e s o f C u c hean a g e , he w r o t e : "The p e c u l i a r l i t h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r ( w h i c h , t a k e n by i t s e l f , m i g ht be s u p p o s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r o c k s s h o u l d be c l a s s e d as u p p e r p a r t s o f t h e A r c h e a n ) o f t h e s e Adams Lake s c h i s t s i s t h u s b e l i e v e d to depend c h i e f l y on t h e dynamic metamorphism r e s u l t i n g f r o m extreme p r e s s u r e w h i c h h a s a f f e c t -ed the v o l c a n i c components o f t h e P a l a e o z o i c , where t h e s e have b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t r i c t f l e x u r e s o f t h e G o l d s y s t e m " . I n d i r e c t r e p l y to W a l c p t t ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t a s e r i e s o f u n a l t e r e d s a n d s t o n e , s h a l e s a n d l i m e s t o n e u n d e r l i e s t h e C a m b r i a n , he w r o t e : " I n a l a t e p a p e r on t h e 3 t r a t i g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e O l e n e l l u s f a u n a Mr. C D . W a l c o t t h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e Bow R i v e r s e r i e s o f t h e C a n a d i a n Rocky M o u n t a i n s may be r e g a r d e d a s ' A l g o n k i a n * . He does n o t , however, a p p e a r t o have been aware o f the f a c t , above a l l u d e d t o , t h a t t h e O l e n e l l u s f a u n a c h a r a c t e r i z e s b o t h t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h i s s e r i e s and t h e l o w e r p a r t o f the C a s t l e M o u n t a i n g r o u p . With t h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e i n e v i d e n c e , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e c o m p l e t e s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l c o n f o r m -i t y o f t h e two s e r i e s , t h e w r i t e r c a n n o t but r e g a r d i t a s more i n c o n s o n a n c e w i t h th e c o n d i t i o n s , so f a r a s t h e s e a r e known, and t h e r e f o r e a s more p h i l o s o p h i c a l t o i n c l u d e , f o r t h e -18-p r e s e n t a t l e a s t , t h e whole of t h i s g r e a t c o n f o r m a b l e mass of r o c k s , t o i t s b a s e , u n d e r t h e name C a m b r i a n . I n t i t a n and N e v a d a , where Mr. W a l c o t t r s o b s e r v a t i o n s o n the w e s t e r n C a m b r i a n have c h i e f l y b e en made, i t seems t h a t t h e b e d s c l a s s e d a s ' A l g o n k i a n * l i k e w i s e i n g e n e r a l c o n f o r m a b l y u n d e r l i e t h o s e i n w h i c h t h e O l e n e l l u a f a u n a i s known, t h e c o n d i t i o n s b e i n g a p p a r e n t l y i n most c a s e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e h e r e d e s c r i b e d . On t h e p r o p r i e t y o f the use o f t h e new t e r m i n r e g i o n s w i t h w h i c h he i s n o t p e r s o n a l l y f a m i l i a r t h e w r i t e r w i s h e s t o o f f e r no o p i n i o n , b u t he may t a k e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f s t a t i n g t h a t he h a s met w i t h no r o c k s i n Canada t o w h i c h i t s a p p l i c a t i o n c a n be c o n s i d e r e d at p r e s e n t a p p r o p r i a t e , e i t h e r i n t h e i n t e r e s t of p r e c i s i o n i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f f a c t s a l r e a d y a s c e r t a i n e d , o r b e c a u s e o f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f h e r e t o f o r e u n r e c o g n i z e d r e l a t i o n s as between t h e o l d e r f o r m a t i o n s . " I n I896, R.G. M c C o n n e l l 1 r e f e r r e d t o t h e Shuswap T M c C o n n e l l , R.Q.- Geol.Surv.CahTT A n n T I l e p t . , V o l . V I I , Ib?4. s e r i e s a t e r r a n e o f m i c a - g n e i s s e s , s c h i s t s and c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e s o c c u r r i n g a l o n g t h e F i n l a y and Omineca r i v e r s , i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 2 I n 1897. G.M. Dawson d i s c u s s e d h i s " A r c h e a n " a s 2 Dawson, G.M.~fhe~""Handbook o f C a n a d a , IH97. f o l l o w s : "Rocks r e f e r a b l e t o t h e A r c h e a n o b t a i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , but i t has n o t so far been f o u n d p o s s i b l e t o r e c o g n i z e d e f i n i t e l y t h e L a u r e n t i a n and H u r o n i a n s y s t e m s . Where t h e y have been n o t e d a n d e x a m i n e d , c h i e f l y i n t h e G o l d r a n g e s and I n t e r i o r p l a t e a u , t h e y have b e e n - 1 9 -d i s t i n g u i s h e d a s the Shuswap s e r i e s . They i n c l u d e r o c k s r e s e m b l i n g t h e F u n d a m e n t a l G n e i s s o f t h e e a s t i n c h a r a c t e r a n d c o m p o s i t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e s , q u a r t z i t e s and g n e i s s i c r o c k s r e s e m b l i n g t h o s e o f t h e G r e n v i l l e s e r i e s and e v i d e n t l y r e p r e s e n t i n g metamorphosed s e d i m e n t s . A t t h i s d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e t y p i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s o f t h e L a u r e n t i a n , i t i s n o t t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t any p r e c i s e p a r a l l e l i s m i n m i n e r a l com-p o s i t i o n and d e g r e e o f a l t e r a t i o n c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d , b u t t h a t t h e s e r o c k s r e a l l y a r e A r c h e a n h a s b e e n d e t e r m i n e d by t h e i r u n c o n f o r m a b l e i n f r e p o s i t i o n t o t h e l o w e s t P a l a e o z o i c s t r a t a . " 1 I n a m a r g i n a l n o t e on h i s "Shuswap S h e e t " , i s s u e d i n 1 Dawson, G.H.- The Shuswap S h e e t , G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , ltijti. I898, Dawson r e i t e r a t e s h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e Shuswap s e r i e s i s r e f e r a b l e to t h e F u n d a m e n t a l G n e i s s . I n 1 8 9 9 , R.W. B r o c k 2 d e s c r i b e d " S h u s w a p - 1 i k e " s c h i s t s d B r o c k , R.W.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , £umm.Rept.~lH99* and g n e i s s e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f l o w e r A r r o w l a k e and i n so d e s c r i b i n g them was t h e f i r s t to c a s t doubt upon th e r e f e r e n c e o f s u c h r o c k s , i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t o t h e Shuswap s e r i e s s i n c e i t was d e s c r i b e d and named by Dawson i n 1 8 8 9 . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f G.M. Dawson, as a n a u t h o r i t y on t h e g e o l o g y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , may be g a u g e d 3 f r o m t h e r e p o r t by J . P . McEvoy on t h e r o c k s o f t h e s o u t h -3 McBvoy, J . P . - G e o T . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. l ' 8 9 9 » ~ ~ w e s t e r n p a r t o f E a s t K o o t e n a y : "While no f o s s i l s were f o u n d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e age o f t h e s e b e d s , and f r o m t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e t h e y -20-m i g h t b e l o n g e i t h e r t o t h e C a r b o n i f e r o u s o r D e v o n i a n , t h e f a c t t h a t C a r b o n i f e r o u s r o c k s a r e known t o o c c u r i n many p l a c e s i n t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t h a t so f a r t h e r e i s no p o s i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e l a t t e r , i s p e r h a p s s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n t o p r o v i s i o n a l l y c l a s s them a s C a r b o n i f e r o u s . " He r e f e r s some n e i g h b o u r i n g b e d s t o t h e C a m b r i a n , but i n s p i t e o f t h e l a c k o f f o s s i i s i n u n a l t e r e d r o c k s i n w h i c h t h e y m ight w e l l ' b e e x p e c t e d h i s r e p o r t c o n t a i n s no h i n t - o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e i r b e i n g o l d e r t h a n t h e Cam-b r i a n . Had Dawrson n o t c o r r e l a t e d h i s o l d e r f o r m a t i o n s so d e f i n i t e l y o n l i t h o l o g i c a l g r o u n d s , had he n o t c o n f i n e d h i s p r e - C a m b r i a n t o t h e h i g h l y metamorphosed r o c k s and had h i s r e p u t a t i o n f o r sound work b e e n l e s s t h a n i t was, s u c h a l o o s e c o r r e l a t i o n c o u l d n e v e r have b e e n s e r i o u s l y o f f e r e d . I t i s t r u e t h a t H c E v o y was a t o p o g r a p h e r r a t h e r t h a n a g e o l o g i s t , but the c o r r e l a t i o n was a c c e p t e d a n d p u b l i s h e d by t h e G e o l o g i -c a l S u r v e y o f Canada. I n I899, W a l c o t t d e f i n e d t h e t e r m " A l g o n k i a n " a s a 1 W a l c o t t , CI.D.- B u l l . G e o l .Soc.Am. , 1899, pp.199-244. term g i v e n by t h e U.S.G.S.^ t o t h e p e r i o d e m b r a c i n g t h e ti m e 2 U.S.G.S., B u l l . b l , 15-91, p.362. o f d e p o s i t i o n o f the c l a s t i c r o c k s o l d e r t h a n C a m b r i a n . The base o f t h e A l g o n k i a n i s t h e l o w e s t o f t h e r e c o g n i z a b l e c l a s -t i c r o c k s , t h e b a s e o f w h i c h r e s t s upon t h e A r c h e a n . He i n c l u d e d i n t h e A l g o n k i a n t h e B e l t t e r r a n e o f M o n t a n a , t h e G r a n d Canyon s e r i e s o f A r i z o n a , t h e l l a n o s e r i e s o f T e x a s a n d t h e A v a l o n t e r r a n e o f N e w f o u n d l a n d . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e -21-l o w e r C a m b r i a n - B e l t i a n c o n t a c t s a s e x p o s e d i n t h e B e l t moun-t a i n s o f Montana d i s c l o s e d t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : a g r e a t s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n c o n f o r m i t y b e t w e e n the C a m b r i a n and t h e B e l t f o r m a t i o n s ; t h a t t h e B e l t t e r r a n e was d i v i s i b l e i n t o s e v e r a l f o r m a t i o n s , and t h a t f o s s i l s o c c u r r e d i n t h e G r e y s o n s h a l e s n e a r l y 7000 f e e t b e n e a t h t h e h i g h e s t b e d s o f the B e l t t e r r a n e . " The f i r s t s t a t e m e n t o f t h e f a c t t h a t u n a l t e r e d p r e -C a m b r i a n f o r m a t i o n s e x i s t i n the C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a i s c o n -t a i n e d i n t h i s p a p e r : " B e n e a t h the l o w e s t h o r i z o n c a r r y i n g t h e O l e n e l l u s f a u n a o f t h e C o r d i l l e r a n r e g i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h e r e i s a g r e a t s e r i e s o f s l a t e s , s a n d -s t o n e s a n d , o c c a s i o n a l l y , t h i n - b e d d e d l i m e s t o n e s i n w h i c h no t r a c e o f l i f e h a s b e en d i s c o v e r e d . What t h e i r r e l a t i o n s a r e t o t h e B e l t s e r i e s o f Montana and t h e G r a n d Canyon s e r i e s o f A r i z o n a i s unknown a s i n no l o c a l i t y have t h e y b e e n s e e n i n c o n t a c t . " 1 I n 1900 J . P . McEvoy r e p o r t e d on a s t r i p o f t e r r i -1 MoBvoy, J . P . - G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , " A n n . R e p t . l b ? b , pp.I-4ID. t o r y e x t e n d i n g f r o m Edmonton westward t h r o u g h t h e Y e l l o w h e a d p a s s i n t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s , down t h e F r a s e r r i v e r t o T e t e J a u n e Cache and f r o m t h e r e t o t h e h e a d w a t e r s o f t h e Canoe r i v e r . He d e s c r i b e s two c o n g l o m e r a t e s , one on t h e M i e t t e r i v e r , the o t h e r between T e t e Jaune Cache and Canoe r i v e r , w h i c h he c o r r e l a t e s l i t h o l o g i c a l l y w i t h Dawson's Bow R i v e r c o n g l o m e r a t e . The u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s s l a t e s , q u a r t z i t e s and l i m e -s t o n e s a r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e Bow R i v e r s e r i e s ( C a m b r i a n ) ; a s e r i e s o f g a r n e t i f e r o u s m i c a - s c h i s t s , m i c a c e o u s e r u p t i v e s and -22-g n e i s s e s i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e A r c h a e a n b e c a u s e o f i t s s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e Shuswap s e r i e s . He r e p o r t s p e g m a t i t e v e i n s up t o f i f t y f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s c u t t i n g t h e s c h i s t s and g n e i s s e s but no c o n -c l u s i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e age o f the metamorphosed r o c k s , n o r e v e n o f t h e i r metamorphism, i s drawn f r o m t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e s e v e i n s w i t h g a r n e t i f e r o u s s c h i s t . 1 I n 1901 , E.G. M c C o n n e l l , r e p o r t i n g on "The K l o n d i k e 1 M c C o n n e l l , E.G.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , A n n . R e p t . V o l . X I V , 1901. G o l d F i e l d s " , d e s c r i b e d t h r e e p r e - C a m b r i a n f o r m a t i o n s . The o l d e s t , t h e ' H a s i n a " s e r i e s , c o n s i s t s o f q u a r t z i t e s , q u a r t z -m i c a - s c h i s t s , g r e e n c h l o r i t e - and a c t i n o l i t e - s c h i s t s and bands o f c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e , t h e g r e e n c h l o r i t e - a n d a c t i n o l i t e -s c h i s t s r e p r e s e n t i n g i n t r u s i v e s and e x t r u s i v e s y o u n g e r t h a n t h e s e d i m e n t s , o c c u r r i n g i n t h e Yukon R i v e r v a l l e y b e t w e e n F o r t S e l k i r k and F o r t y m i l e r i v e r . Next i n a g e , and i n t r u s i v e i n t o t h e H a s i n a s e r i e s , i s t h e " K l o n d i k e " s e r i e s o f s e r i c i t e s c h i s t s , and o r d i n a r y and augen g n e i s s e s r e p r e s e n t i n g a l t e r e d q u a r t z and g r a n i t e p o r p h y r i e s , and c h l o r i t e - and a m p h i b o l i t e - s c h i s t s r e p r e s e n t i n g b a s i c p o r p h y r i e s ; a g n e i s s i c p h a s e , t h e " P e l l y " g n e i s s e s i s e v e r y w h e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them. The K l o n d i k e s e r i e s c r o s s e s t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f t h e K l o n d i k e d i s t r i c t , n o r t h w e s t t o s o u t h e a s t i n a band o f f r o m t e n t o t w e n t y m i l e s i n w i d t h , b o r d e r e d on b o t h s i d e s by t h e H a s i n a s c h i s t s . The t h i r d f o r m a t i o n , t h e " M o o s e h i d e " d i a b a s e , f o u n d i n t h e l o w e r K l o n d i k e v a l l e y , o n M o o s e h i d e m o u n t a i n , t o t h e n o r t h , and on t h e w e s t e r n bank o f t h e Yukon r i v e r , o p p o s i t e M o o s e h i d e m o u n t a i n , i s a somewhat s h e a r e d d i a b a s e w h i c h he c o n s i d e r e d n e a r l y t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f the K l o n d i k e s e r i e s i n a g e . -23-I n 1904, J o s . K'eele"^ d e s c r i b e d a s e r i e s o f q u a r t z i t e s , 1 K e e l e , J o s . - G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Ann.Rept. 1904, P t . A , p . l b . m i c a - 3 c h i s t s and g r a p h i t i c s c h i s t s o f s e d i m e n t a r y o r i g i n n e a r Mayo l a k e i n t h e c o u n t r y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e head w a t e r s o f t h e S t e w a r t r i v e r w h i c h he c o r r e l a t e d w i t h M c C o n n e l l ' s H a s i n a s e r i e s . A y o u n g e r q u a r t z - p o r p h y r y , a l t e r e d t o s e r i c i t e s c h i s t , i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e K l o n d i k e s e r i e s . I n t h e same y e a r M o C o n n e l l ^ d e s c r i b e d h i s " K l u a n e " 2 M c C o h h e l l , R.G.- Geol.Surv.Can.., Arm.Rept. 1904, P t . A . , p.IT" s e r i e s , p r i n c i p a l l y q u a r t z - m i c a - s c h i s t s o f s e d i m e n t a r y o r i g i n , w h i c h o c c u r i n the K l u a n e h i l l s a l o n g t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f K l u a n e l a k e i n s o u t h w e s t e r n Yukon. The K l u a n e s e r i e s i s i n t r u d e d by t h e C o a s t Range b a t h o l i t h . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t t h e s e Yukon f o r m a t i o n s , t h o u g h a g r e e i n g i n t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h t h e Shuswap t e r r a n e o f Dawson, were n o t so named. The f a s h i o n o f r e f e r r i n g h i g h l y metamorphosed r o c k s t o t h e Shuswap s e r i e s wa3 b e c o m i n g o b s o l e t e . I n 1906 W a l c o t t c o r r e l a t e d t h e A l g o n k i a n f o r m a t i o n s 3 Walcott., C D . - B u l l . G e o l . S o c . A m . , V o I 7 l 7 , T9"0"bT pp.I -2b . o f n o r t h w e s t e r n Montana, the B e l t s e r i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e a s t o f t h e K o o t e n a y r i v e r , t h e H i s k o n l i t h and Adams l a k e s e r i e s o f t h e Shuswap l a k e s a r e a , and t h e C a s t l e M o u n t a i n and Bow R i v e r s e r i e s on t h e 5 1 s t p a r a l l e l . "Prom t h e known p r e s e n c e o f upward o f t h i r t y t h o u s a n d f e e t o f p r e - C a m b r i a n u n a l t e r e d s e d i m e n t s i n Montana a n d I d a h o , on t h e s t r i k e o f t h e s t r a t a o f t h e Adam3 Lake a n a H i s k o n l i t h s e r i e s , i t a p p e a r s t o -24-be more p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e H i s k o n l i t h and most o f t h e Adams Xake ( S e l k i r k ) s e r i e s a r e o f p r e — C a m b r i a n age and t o be c o r -r e l a t e d w i t h t h e B e l t t e r r a i n a s d e v e l o p e d i n n o r t h w e s t e r n Montana and n o r t h e r n Idaho The C r e s t o n and K i t c h e n e r q u a r t z i t e s a p p e a r t o b e l o n g t o t h e l o w e r p o r t i o n o f t h e A l g o n k i a n s e c t i o n . . . . . . . From t h e p r e s e n c e o f l o w e r C a m b r i a n - . f o s s i l s i n t h e Bow R i v e r s e r i e s o f M c C o n n e l l i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s s e r i e s was l a i d down i n t h e e r o s i o n i n t e r v a l b etween the A l g o n k i a n and t h e M i d d l e C a m b r i a n i n M o n t a n a . " I n 1909 G.S. M a l l o c h 1 d i v i d e d t h e o l d e s t r o c k s I M & l l o c h , G.S.- Geol .SuW7Can77~Summ.Rept. 1909, pp.126-127. ~~ between T e t e Jaune Cache and F o r t G e o r g e , a l o n g t h e F r a s e r r i v e r , i n t o a Shuswap g r o u p o f s c h i s t s and g n e i s s e s , a l o w e r C a m b r i a n Bow R i v e r s e r i e s and an U p p e r C a m b r i a n C a s t l e M o u n t a i n s e r i e s o f r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d r o c k s . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e Shuswap g r o u p r e p r e s e n t m e t a m o r p h i c p h a s e s o f g r e y q u a r t -z i t e s o f t h e C a s t l e M o u n t a i n s e r i e s . 2 I n 1910 W a l c o t t f o u n d a f i n e q u a r t z c o n g l o m e r a t e , X.ruleott, C.D.- S m i t h s o n i a n Misc. C o l l . , Vol.53, 1910, pp.422~ . 431. one h u n d r e d f e e t t h i c k , a t t h e b a s e o f t h e l o w e r C a m b r i a n i n t h e Bow R i v e r v a l l e y . B e n e a t h t h e c o n g l o m e r a t e he f o u n d two s a n d s t o n e f o r m a t i o n s t o w h i c h he gave t h e names " H e c t o r " and " C a n a l C r e e k " . These r o c k s were f o r m e r l y i n c l u d e d i n M c C o n n e l l ? s C a m b r i a n Bow R i v e r s e r i e s . The H e c t o r and C a n a l C r e e k f o r m a t i o n s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e Camp C r e e k and K i n t l a -S h e p p a r d f o r m a t i o n s "which l i e b e n e a t h t h e C a m b r i a n and above the S i y e h l i m e s t o n e i n Montana, s o u t h w e s t e r n A l b e r t a a n d -25-30utheastern B r i t i s h Columbia." 1 I n 1911 R.A. D a l y reported on a reconnaissance of 1 D a l y , R.A.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Sumra.Rept. 1911 , pp.lbjt-174. the Shuswap terrane i n the v i c i n i t y of the Shuswap lakes. Important changes i n the conception of the relationship of the Shuswap series to overlying formations were made: ( l ) the Shuswap series i s a thermally metamorphosed f a c i e s of the His k o n l i t h and Adams l a k e s e r i e s , the a l t e r a t i o n being due to pre-Beltian granites; ( 2 ) the Adams lake and Hiskonlith series are not Cambrian but pre-Beltian; (5) the term "Shuswap s e r i e s " was enlarged to include a l l pre-Beltian rocks; (4) the name "Niskonlith" was dropped as a designation f o r any of t h e rocks so named by Dawson since these rocks were of d i f f e r i n g ages. An important res u l t of Dr. D a l y ' s work i n t h i s area was his recognition of the fact that the "Shuswap" schists and gneisses are not necessarily a separate en t i t y but that they may be high-l y altered facies of neighbouring formations. The l i t h o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y between the Shuswap series and the "Fundamental G n e i s s " of eastern Canada, the basis of Day/son's b e l i e f that the series i s Cuchean, i s thus, by inference, shown to be meaningless. 2 I n 1912 D a l y described the rocks occurring along the 2 D a l y , ~ R . A . - G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Hem.30, 1912. 49th P a r a l l e l from the P a c i f i c coast t o the G r e a t P l a i n s . The basal formations o f h i s column are those o f the P r i e s t R i v e r terrane, quartzites, dolomites, p h y l l i t e s and s c h i s t s , which he tentati v e l y correlated with Dawson's K i s k o n l i t h of the Shuswap lakes area. The s i m i l a r i t y o f this terrane to pre-Cambrian -2b-s t r a t a i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s n o t e d , and t h e t e r r a n e i s so mapped. R o c k s y o u n g e r t h a n t h e P r i e s t R i v e r a r e d e s c r i b e d u n d e r t h e names Summit s e r i e s , P u r c e l l s e r i e s , G a l t o n s e r i e s and L e w i s s e r i e s , a l l o f w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d l a t e r . The base o f the Summit s e r i e s i s t h e I r e n e c o n g l o m e r a t e w h i c h D a l y d e s c r i b e d a s m a r k i n g an u n c o n f o r m i t y between t h e Summit s e r i e s and t h e P r i e s t R i v e r t e r r a n e : "The c o l o u r , c o m p o s i t i o n and g e n e r a l f i e l d h a b i t o f the q u a r t z i t e , p h y l l i t e and d o l o m i t e p e b b l e s c l e a r l y show t h e i r d e r i v a t i o n f r o m t h e u n d e r l y i n g P r i e s t R i v e r t e r r a n e . " C o r r e l a t i o n o f a l l t h e u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s f o r m a t i o n s i s o n t h e g r o u n d s o f l i t h o l o g y and t h e e r r o r s i n age d e t e r m i n a t i o n . w h i c h have s i n c e b e e n d i s c o v e r e d , a r e t h e i n e v i t a b l e o u t g r o w t h s o f t h e l i t h o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s by Dawson and M c C o n n e l l o f t h e f o r m a t i o n s t o t h e n o r t h . T h e s e f o r m a t i o n s a r e p l a c e d , f o r t h e most p a r t , i n t h e P a l a e o z o i c . W a l e o t t ' s a r g u m e n t s f o r t h e i r p r e - C a m b r i a n age a r e r e v i e w e d and d e n i e d . The g r e a t l i m e s t o n e ( S i y e h ) beds w h i c h o c c u r i n many p a r t s o f t h e r e g i o n a r e d e s c r i b e d a s c h e m i c a l p r e c i p i -1 t a t e 3 w h i c h c o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d t o h o l d f o s s i l s . 1 D a l y , R.A.- O ^ T c i t T , P t . I I , p.b70. ~ I n 1914 S . J . S c h o f i e l d 2 d i s c o v e r e d a s e c t i o n n e a r 2 S c h o f i e l d , S.y~~~G~foT73urv.Can. , M u s . B u l I . 2, 1914, pp.7 9-91. E l k o , B.C., i n w h i c h the p r e - C a m b r i a n - P a l a e o z o i c c o n t a c t i s w e l l e x p o s e d . E v i d e n c e d e r i v e d f r o m an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s c o n t a c t e n a b l e d S c h o f i e l d to show t h a t a l l o f D a l y ' s u n f o s s i l -i f e r o u s f o r m a t i o n s were t o be r e f e r r e d t o t h e p r e - C a m b r i a n i n 3 a g e . D a l y ' s M o y i e R i v e r s e c t i o n was a l t e r e d by t h e 3 D a l y , R.A.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Mem.3b, 1912. -27-d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f the r o c k s t h e r e g r o u p e d a s K i t c h e n e r i n t o two f o r m a t i o n s , - one, named t h e " A l d r i d g e " , o l d e r t h a n t h e C r e s t o n f o r m a t i o n o f the P u r c e l l s e r i e s ; t h e o t h e r y o u n g e r , f o r w h i c h t h e name " K i t c h e n e r " was r e t a i n e d . Dr. S c h o f i e l d ' s p a p e r d e f i n e d t h e p r e - C a m b r i a n e s s e n t i a l l y a s i t i s now c o n c e i v e d . The f o r m a t i o n s o f s o u t h -e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , by r e a s o n o f t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e amount o f work done on them, must be t a k e n a s t h e t y p e s e c t i o n s to w h i c h o t h e r u n f o s s i l i f e r o u s s t r a t a o f t h e C o r d i l l e r a i n Canada a r e to be r e f e r r e d f o r c o r r e l a t i o n . B a n c r o f t c o r r e l a t e s t h e I r e n e c o n g l o m e r a t e w i t h t h e Toby c o n g l o m e r a t e o f t h e Windermere.* I f t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i s 1 G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Hem.143, 192b, p . l o . c o r r e c t t h e Summit s e r i e s i s o f Windermere a g e , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , and t h e P r i e s t R i v e r t e r r a n e may be e i t h e r B e l t i a n o r p r e - B e l t i a n . The w r i t e r i s n o t c o n v e r s a n t w i t h Dr. B a n c r o f t ' s e v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n . 2 Dry3dale, i n 1917, d i s c o v e r e d C a r b o n i f e r o u s f o s s i l s 2 Geol75u.rY.Can. , Hem.117 , 1920, p . l o . i n t h e L a u r i e f o r m a t i o n o f D a l y ' s " B e l t i a n " i n t h e S e l k i r k 3 D a l y , R.A.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Hem.bo, 1915. m o u n t a i n s . S i n c e t h e f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e A l b e r t Canyon d i v i -s i o n , i n w h i c h t h e L a u r i e i s i n c l u d e d , a r e m u t u a l l y c o n f o r m -a b l e , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t a l l o f D a l y ' s " B e l t i a n " above t h e u n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e Shuswap s e r i e s , t h e A l b e r t C anyon d i v i s i o n a n d t h e G l a c i e r d i v i s i o n , a r e P a l a e o z o i c i n a g e . The p r o b l e m o f t h e age o f t h e Shuswap s e r i e s i s r e v i e w e d i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r . -28-CHAPTER I I I CLASSIFICATION! AND DESCRIPTION OF FORMATIONS. The p r e - C a m b r i a n f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e C a n a d i a n C o r d i l -l e r a a r e g r o u p e d , i n t h i s e h a p t e r , as S c h i s t o s e and Hon-S c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n a f t e r a scheme o u t l i n e d by S . J . S c h o f i e l d . The d i v i s i o n i s b a s e d , a s the names s u g g e s t , on t h e p r e d o m i n -a n c e o f s c h i s t o s e and g n e i s s i c o r o f m a s s i v e r o c k s i n e a c h s e r i e s . Map 1. shows t h a t t h e s c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n f o r m s a more o r l e s s c o n t i n u o u s band t h a t p a r a l l e l s t h e t r e n d o f t h e C o r d i l l e r a f r o m t h e 4 9 t h p a r a l l e l i n t o t h e Yukon. I t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r e a s i n w h i c h b a t h o l i t h i c i n t r u s i o n h a s o c c u r r e d . The n o n - s c h i s t o s e ' B e l t i a n , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s f o u n d i n a r e a s i n w h i c h i g n e o u s r o c k s a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y s c a r c e . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t h e r m a l metamorphism o f p r e - C a m b r i a n s e d i m e n t s i n t h e C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a i s due t o t h e M e s o z o i c and T e r t i a r y i n t r u s i o n s r a t h e r t h a n t o i g n e o u s a c t i v i t y i n p r e - C a m b r i a n t i m e s . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i3 d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c h a p t e r d e v o t e d t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e Shuswap s e r i e s . The c o r r e l a t i o n o f p r e - C a m b r i a n o f s o u t h - e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , as r e g a r d s t h e l e w i s and G a l t o n s e r i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r , f o l l o w s t h a t g i v e n by S c h o f i e l d . 1  1 S c h o f i e l d , S . J . - G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , M u s T S u I I . 2. E o n - S c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n . The n o n - s c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n r o c k s a r e t h e G a l t o n and PLATE I I . Co Fimld area. rrelation of the Kon-Schi T. C o n f o r m a b l e fit places. Hector and Corral Creek an* L a.rd.tf o.u Map- Urco». Uncon formity La rdm.au. H o m l l l . HoMtfth/ef, Tb»y Cony IOni P u r c e l l Range. E r o s i o n S u r f a c e P.nd D'Ofllle R f v*r Wolf er<. (?) Irene VolcanicS Irene Cong lomerote Urtconformi ty Unconformity Moon f Nelson. Roo»vtfle. Dutch Creek. Gateway. PrWIHpj. Crateway. Kintlo S hep pa ret . PurceI I L a v a . P u r c e l l L a v a . Puree II Lava. S i y c h . 51 ye h. S i y e h . Ki tchener 3^lt yn G r i i-m* 1. Creston CU drtdgc -Lea*" R i v e r T e r r a r>c. L. Al lan, J . A . - G.S.C, Mem.55* 2. Walker, J.F.- G.S.C, Kem.lol. 3.. Schofield, S . J . - G.S.C, Mas.Bull. TTo.c. L. Walker, J.F.- G . S . C , Mem.148. |. Schofield, S . J . - G . S . C , Was.Bull. Ho.2. il y , R.A.- G . S . C , rea.18-. -29-l e w i s s e r i e s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l B o u n d a r y , f r o m K o o t e n a y r i v e r e a s t w a r d t o t h e e a s t e r n f r o n t o f t h e C l a r k e r a n g e , t h e P u r c e l l s e r i e s o f s o u t h e r n E a s t K o o t e n a y , t h e Windermere s e r i e s i n t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f K o o t e n a y d i s t r i c t , and t h e H e c t o r a n d C o r r a l C r e e k f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e Bow R i v e r a r e a . The most c o m p l e t e s e c t i o n o f t h e B e l t i a n i s a f f o r d e d by t h e Windermere and t h e o l d e r P u r c e l l s e r i e s . 1 PURCELL SERIES. 1 S c h o f i e l d , S . J . - P e r s o n a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n . The P u r c e l l S e r i e s i s an a n c i e n t g r o u p o f s e d i m e n t s d e p o s i t e d on t h e w e s t e r n s i d e o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n g e o s y n -c l i n e . They c o n s i s t o f a g r e a t t h i c k n e s s o f f i n e - g r a i n e d q u a r t z i t e s , a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s , a r g i l l i t e s and l i m e s t o n e s , a l l f o r m i n g a r e m a r k a b l y homogeneous s e r i e s , . S h a l l o w w a t e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n c l u d i n g r i p p l e - m a r k s , r a i n - p i t s a n d mud-c r a c k s a r e common a t v a r i o u s h o r i z o n s . The s e r i e s e x t e n d s s o u t h w a r d a c r o s s t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l B o u n d a r y i n t o Idaho a n d Montana; t h e n o r t h e r n l i m i t h a s n o t b e e n d e f i n i t e l y d e t e r m i n e d ; t h e w e s t e r n l i m i t i s o b s c u r e d by b a t h o l i t h i c i n t r u s i o n b u t i t p r o b a b l y i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s c h i s t o s e rock3 i n t h e S e l k i r k m o u n t a i n s ; the s e d i m e n t s p a s s u n c o n f o r m a b l y u n d e r t h e P a l a e o -z o i c f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e Rocky m o u n t a i n s t o t h e e a s t . A l d r i d g e F o r m a t i o n : The A l d r i d g e f o r m a t i o n i s a t t h e b a s e o f t h e P u r c e l l s e r i e s . I t c o n s i s t s o f d a r k g r e y a r g i l -l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s and p u r e r q u a r t z i t e s and a r g i l l i t e s i n b eds a f r a c t i o n o f an i n c h t o s e v e r a l f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s . T h e s e r o c k s w e a t h e r t o a r u s t y brown c o l o u r . They a r e e x p o s e d t o a -30-t h i c k n e s s o f o v e r 8000 f e e t ; t h e b a s e i s n o t known. C r e s t o n F o r m a t i o n : The A l d r i d g e f o r m a t i o n p a s s e s by g r a d u a l t r a n s i t i o n i n t o the o v e r l y i n g C r e s t o n f o r m a t i o n . The C r e s t o n i s d o m i n a n t l y o r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s , q u a r t z i t e s a n d a r g i l l i t e s i n beds o f ab o u t one f o o t i n t h i c k n e s s . G r e e n a n d p u r p l e c o l o r i n g i s common. These r o c k s a r e o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d P l a t e • . by a p e c u l i a r i n t e r r u p t e d b a n d i n g ( F i g . xi ) w h i c h i s n o t p r e -c i s e l y d u p l i c a t e d i n any o t h e r f o r m a t i o n o f t h e P u r c e l l s e r i e s . The w e a t h e r e d s u r f a c e i s g r e y i s h i n t o n e . The t h i c k n e s s i s 4300 f e e t . K i t c h e n e r F o r m a t i o n : The C r e s t o n f o r m a t i o n p a s s e s by i n s e n s i b l e g r a d a t i o n i n t o t h e K i t c h e n e r f o r m a t i o n . The K i t c h -e n e r i s e s s e n t i a l l y a l i m e s t o n e f o r m a t i o n , w i t h l i m y q u a r t z i t e and a r g i l l i t e . The l i m e s t o n e s c o n t a i n t h e "molar t o o t h " . Plata . s t r u c t u r e ( P i g . x n i ; , c a u s e d by a l e a c h i n g o f s o f t c a r b o n a t e f r o m between i r r e g u l a r s i l i c e o u s b a n d s , t h e mode o f f o r m a t i o n o f w h i c h i s n o t known. The K i t c h e n e r f o r m a t i o n i s 4300 f e e t t h i c k . S i y e h F o r m a t i o n : The S i y e h f o r m a t i o n c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l i e s t h e K i t c h e n e r . The l o w e r p a r t i s composed o f t h i n - b e d d e d , g r e e n and p u r p l e , m u d - c r a c k e d m e t a r g i l l i t e s a nd s a n d s t o n e s . A b o u t 2000 f e e t above t h e ba s e o c c u r t h i n - b e d d e d and m a s s i v e s i l i c e o u s , c o n c r e t i o n a r y l i m e s t o n e s , g r e y o n f r e s h f r a c t u r e and w e a t h e r i n g g r e y a n d b u f f . They r e a c h a t h i c k n e s s o f a b o u t 1000 f e e t . The l i m e s t o n e s a r e s u c c e e d e d by p u r p l e and g r e e n m u d - c r a c k e d m e t a r g i l l i t e s i n t h i n b e d s . The t h i c k n e s s i s 4000 f e e t P u r c e l l S i l l s : The P u r c e l l s i l l s i s a g r o u p o f t a b u l a r i n t r u s i v e b o d i e s w h i c h were i n t r u d e d between t h e h o r i z o n t a l s t r a t a o f t h e P u r c e l l s e r i e s and were l a t e r t i l t e d w i t h t h e s e r i e s . The s i l l s v a r y i n c o m p o s i t i o n f r o m a h y p e r s t h e n e g a b b r o t h r o u g h i n t e r m e d i a t e t y p e s t o a v e r y a c i d g r a n i t e o r g r a n o p h y r e ; t h e t e x t u r e v a r i e s f r o m f i n e - g r a i n e d t o p o r p h y r i -t i c . The s i l l s a r e p r e s e n t i n g r e a t e s t abundance i n t h e A l d r i d g e f o r m a t i o n and o c c u r o c c a s i o n a l l y i n t h e C r e s t o n and K i t c h e n e r and s p a r i n g l y i n t h e S i y e h . P u r c e l l L a v a : The P u r c e l l l a v a o v e r l i e s , and i n p l a c e s i s i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h , t h e S i y e h f o r m a t i o n . I t i s p r i n c i p a l l y an a m y g d a l o i d a l b a s a l t and b e c a u s e o f a s i m i l a r i t y i n c o m p o s i t i o n i t i s b e l i e v e d t o r e p r e s e n t an e x t r u s i v e phase o f t h e P u r c e l l s i l l s . The t h i c k n e s s o f t h e f l o w s v a r i e s f r o m 50 f e e t t o 300 f e e t . Gateway F o r m a t i o n : T h i s f o r m a t i o n r e s t s c o n f o r m a b l y upon t h e u p p e r member o f t h e P u r c e l l l a v a . The l o w e r p a r t c o n s i s t s o f a l t e r n a t i n g bands o f c o n c r e t i o n a r y , s i l i c e o u s d o l o m i t e a n d l i m e s t o n e w e a t h e r i n g b u f f and m a s s i v e l i g h t - g r e y q u a r t z i t e s . T h ese a r e s u c c e e d e d by t h i n - b e d d e d sandy a r g i l l i t e s , w h i c h a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f c a s t s o f s a l t c r y s t a l s i n a b u n d a n c e , and g r e e n i s h - g r e y s i l i c e o u s a r g i l l i t e s . The t h i c k -n e s s i s a b o u t 1000 f e e t . P h i l l i p s F o r m a t i o n : The Gateway f o r m a t i o n p a s s e s g r a d u -a l l y i n t o t h e o v e r l y i n g P h i l l i p s f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f -32-d a r k p u r p l i s h and r e d m e t a r g i l l i t e s , sandy a r g i l l i t e s and s a n d -s t o n e s . The t h i c k n e s s i s 300 f e e t . R o o s v i l l e F o r m a t i o n : The P h i l l i p s f o r m a t i o n i s o v e r l a i n c o n f o r m a b l y by t h e R o o s v i l l e f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i s composed most-l y o f m a s s i v e , l a m i n a t e d , g r e e n , s i l i c e o u s m e t a r g i l l i t e s w e a t h e r i n g g r e e n i s h g r e y and r u s t y brown. M u d - c r a c k s a r e abundant a t a l l h o r i z o n s . The t h i c k n e s s i s 1000 f e e t . Mount K e l s o n F o r m a t i o n : The Mount N e l s o n f o r m a t i o n r e s t s c o n f o r m a b l y upon t h e D u t c h C r e e k f o r m a t i o n w h i c h i s t h e n o r t h e r n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e R o o s v i l l e , P h i l l i p s a n d u p p e r p a r t o f t h e Gateway. I t c o m p r i s e s a s u c c e s s i o n o f c r y s t a l l i n e m a g n e s i a n l i m e s t o n e s and s l a t e s and h a s a t i t s b a s e , and a l s o n e a r t h e u p p e r e r o d e d s u r f a c e , m a s s i v e w h i t e q u a r t z i t e s . I t i s o v e r l a i n u n c o n f o r m a b l y b y the Windermere s e r i e s and has a n o b s e r v e d t h i c k n e s s o f 3,400 f e e t . 1 WINDERMERE SERIES. 1 W a l k e r , J . F . - G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Mem.14b, 1926. G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Hem.161, 1929.  The Windermere s e r i e s i s L a t e P r e - C a m b r i a n i n age and l i e s u n c o n f o r m a b l y above t h e Mount K e l s o n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e P u r c e l l s e r i e s . The b a s a l T o b y c o n g l o m e r a t e and the H o r s e -t h i e f f o r m a t i o n a r e i n t h e Windermere map a r e a i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f l a k e P/indermere i n t h e e a s t K o o t e n a y d i s t r i c t ; t h e H a m i l l s e r i e s , B a d s h o t f o r m a t i o n and t h e l a r d e a u s e r i e s o c c u r i n t h e L a r d e a u map a r e a , a l o n g , I r r e g u l a r s t r i p o f c o u n t r y r e a c h i n g f r o m t h e n o r t h end o f K o o t e n a y l a k e n o r t h w e s t w a r d a c r o s s -33-S e l k i r k m o u n t a i n s t o C o l u m b i a v a l l e y a t R e v e l s t o k e . B e s i d e s t h e b a s a l c o n g l o m e r a t e , t h e s e r i e s c o n s i s t s o f s l a t e s , p e b b l e c o n g l o m e r a t e , q u a r t z i t e s , s c h i s t s , l i m e s t o n e s and p h y l l i t e s a p p a r e n t l y i n u n b r o k e n s u c c e s s i o n . Toby C o n g l o m e r a t e : The Toby c o n g l o m e r a t e i s t h e b a s a l member o f t h e Windermere s e r i e s . I t o v e r l i e s , u n c o n f o r m a b l y , b o t h t h e Mount K e l s o n a n d , i n one p l a c e , t h e R o o s v i l l e f o r m a -t i o n s o f t h e P u r c e l l s e r i e s . I t i s e x t r e m e l y v a r i a b l e ; i n p l a c e s t h e m a t r i x i s l a r g e l y s l a t e t h r o u g h w h i c h a r e s c a t t e r e d f r a g m e n t s o f s l a t e and s h a l e and o c c a s i o n a l b o u l d e r s o f l i m e -s t o n e and q u a r t z i t e . The m a t e r i a l s c o m p osing t h e c o n g l o m e r a t e have n o t t r a v e l l e d f a r and i n a l l case3 t h e b o u l d e r s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h u n d e r l y i n g r o c k s o f t h e P u r c e l l s e r i e s . Many o f t h e b o u l d e r s a r e r o u n d e d b ut many a l s o a r e s u b a n g u l a r and a n g u l a r , i n d i c a t i n g r a p i d e r o s i o n a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The b o u l d e r s and f r a g m e n t s v a r y f r o m f o u r t o f i v e f e e t down t o p e b b l e s and s h i n g l e ; t h e a v e r a g e s i z e i s f r o m f o u r t o t e n i n c h e s . The f o r m a t i o n v a r i e s i n t h i c k n e s s f r o m 30 t o 2000 f e e t . H o r s e t h i e f F o r m a t i o n : The H o r s e t h i e f f o r m a t i o n c o n f o r m -a b l y o v e r l i e s t h e Toby c o n g l o m e r a t e . I t i s made up i n l a r g e p a r t o f g r e y , g r e e n and p u r p l i s h s l a t e w i t h s e v e r a l l e n t i c u l a r b e ds o f c o a r s e q u a r t z i t e and p e b b l e c o n g l o m e r a t e and numerous t h i n i n t e r b e d s o f " b l u e - g r e y , c r y s t a l l i n e , and m o s t l y n o n -m a g n e s i a n , l i m e s t o n e , w h i c h o c c u r a t d i f f e r e n t h o r i z o n s b u t f o r m a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p a r t o f the whole f o r m a t i o n . Most o f t h e p e b b l e s a r e q u a r t z and q u a r t z i t e but a few a r e l i m e s t o n e ; -34-a l l a r e w e l l s o r t e d and c l o s e l y p a c k e d . The a v e r a g e maximum s i z e o f t h e g r a i n s i s one and o n e - h a l f i n c h e s . The H o r s e t h i e f f o r m a t i o n v a r i e s i n t h i c k n e s s f r o m 4000 t o 5000 f e e t . E a m i l l S e r i e s : The H a m i l l s e r i e s r e s t s c o n f o r m a b l y o n t h e H o r s e t h i e f f o r m a t i o n . I t i s a s u c c e s s i o n o f s t r a t a v a r y i n g i n n a t u r e f r o m q u a r t z i t e to s c h i s t and l i m e s t o n e ; a g r e a t t h i c k -n e s s o f q u a r t z i t e i s t a k e n as t h e b a s e . B a d s h o t F o r m a t i o n : The B a d s h o t f o r m a t i o n i s a g r e y , c r y s t a l l i n e , sometimes s i l i c e o u s l i m e s t o n e , i n p l a c e s w e l l b e d d e d , a t o t h e r p o i n t s massive.. I t i s c o n f o r m a b l e w i t h t h e H a m i l l s e r i e s and v a r i e s f r o m 150 t o s e v e r a l h u n d r e d f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s * L a r d e a u S e r i e s : The l a r d e a u s e r i e s c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l i e s t h e B a d s h o t f o r m a t i o n . I t l i e s i n a g r e a t s y n c l i n a l t r o u g h n o r t h w e s t o f K o o t e n a y l a k e ^ a h e t e r o g e n e o u s a s s e m b l a g e o f meta-morphosed s e d i m e n t s . The l o w e s t member i s a b l a c k c a r b o n a c e o u s r o c k , a s l a t e , p h y l l i t e o r s c h i s t d e p e n d i n g upon t h e d e g r e e o f metamorphlsm, s u c c e e d e d by g r e y t o g r e e n i s h p h y l l i t e s and s c h i s t s , c a l c a r e o u s i n p a r t , a n d t h e s e i n t u r n a r e o v e r l a i n by a f i n e - g r a i n e d , h i g h l y c a r b o n a c e o u s s i l i c e o u s r o c k , w e a t h e r i n g w i t h a v e s i c u l a r a p p e a r a n c e . The l a t t e r r e s e m b l e s a n i g n e o u s r o c k i n a p p e a r a n c e but has been d e t e r m i n e d a s o f s e d i m e n t a r y o r i g i n by Walker.' 1 1' W a l k e r , ~J.P.- Geol.Surv.Pan.', Mem.161, 1929, pTTl. -35-BOW VALLEY PRE-CAMBRIAH ROCKS. ^" 1 W a l c o t t , C D . - S m i t h s o n i a n M i s c . C o l l . , Vol . 5 3 , No.7,"T910. [ Bow V a l l e y , A l b e r t a , i s u n d e r l a i n by u n a l t e r e d s e d i -m e n t a r y s t r a t a o f p r e - C a m b r i a n age f r o m H e c t o r l a k e t o t h e v i c i n i t y o f C a s c a d e s t a t i o n on t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . T hese a r e s h a l e a n d s a n d s t o n e f o r m a t i o n s t o w h i c h t h e names H e c t o r a n d C o r r a l C r e e k f o r m a t i o n s have b e e n a p p l i e d . The b a s e o f the f o r m a t i o n s i s n o t known; t h e y a r e u n c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l a i n by a m i d d l e C a m b r i a n c o n g l o m e r a t e on t h e s o u t h s l o p e s o f C a s t l e M o u n t a i n . They a r e r o u g h l y c o r r e l a t i v e w i t h t h e W i n d e m e r e 2 s e r i e s . 2 S c h o f i e l d , S . J . - P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . *" Corral_,S ,re^k_J&rmation. T h « b a s a l f o r m a t i o n i s composed o f h a r d c u a r t z i t i c s a n d s t o n e s o v e r l a i n by c o a r s e - g r a i n e d l i g h t - g r e y s a n d s t o n e i n m a s s i v e l a y e r s w i t h some i n t e r b e d s o f f i n e q u a r t z c o n g l o m e r a t e . The base h a s not been r e c o g n i z e d . The m e a s u r e d t h i c k n e s s i s 1320 f e e t . H e c t o r F o r m a t i o n : The H e c t o r f o r m a t i o n c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r -l i e s the Corral Creek. A t t h e base i s a r e d d i s h p u r p l e , a r e n a -c e o u s , s i l i c e o u s s h a l e w i t h g r e e n i s h b a n d s . O v e r t h i s i s a m a s s i v e b e d d e d c o n g l o m e r a t e , q u a r t z p e b b l e s a n d f r a g m e n t s o f g r e y p i n k i s h l i m e s t o n e i n a c o a r s e s a n d s t o n e m a t r i x . " T h i s i s e v i d e n t l y a d e p o s i t made f r o m m a t e r i a l b r o u g h t down by a r i v e r r e a c h i n g b a c k i n t o t h e h i l l s o f t h a t e p o c h . The p r e s e n c e o f l i m e s t o n e i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t , a s i t i n d i c a t e s l i m e s t o n e s b e l o w 3 any e x p o s u r e s o f t h e p r e - C a m b r i a n r o c k s o f the Bow V a l l e y . " $ W i l c o t t , C D . - S m i t h s o n i a n H i s c . G o I I . , Vol . 5 3 , No.7 ,1910 ,p.42B. -3b-O v e r l y i n g t h e c o n g l o m e r a t e a r e b e d s o f g r e e n i s h , p u r p l e , d a r k -g r e y a n d b l a c k a r e n a c e o u s and s i l i c e o u s s h a l e s . The H e c t o r f o r m a t i o n i s 1300 f e e t t h i c k . 1 SUMMIT SERIES. 1 D a l y , R.A.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Mem.3b, 1912, p.141 e t s e q . ~ The Summit s e r i e s was d e s c r i b e d by D a l y i n 1912. I t i s a s u c c e s s i o n o f c o n g l o m e r a t e s , e f f u s i v e g r e e n s t o n e s , q u a r t -z i t e s , s a n d s t o n e s , p h y l l i t e s and s i l i c e o u s g r i t i n t h e S e l k i r k m o u n t a i n s , a t t h e 4 9 t h P a r a l l e l . The c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e b a s a l f o r m a t i o n , t h e I r e n e c o n g l o m e r a t e , w i t h t h e Toby c o n g l o m e r a t e , by B a n c r o f t , r e f e r s the Summit s e r i e s to t h e Windermere i n a g e . I r e n e C o n g l o m e r a t e : The I r e n e c o n g l o m e r a t e i s t h e b a s a l member o f t h e Summit s e r i e s . I t marks an u n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e u n d e r l y i n g , s c h i s t o s e , P r i e s t R i v e r t e r r a n e . C o a r s e c o n g l o m e r -a t e i s t h e h i g h l y d ominant c o n s t i t u e n t o f t h e f o r m a t i o n . The p e b b l e s a r e s q u e e z e d and w e l l w a t e r - w o r n , r a n g i n g i n s i z e f r o m co a r s e " s a n d - g r a i n s to b o u l d e r y masses a f o o t o r more i n d i a m e t e r . The cement i s a s c h i s t o s e , c r y s t a l l i n e mass, p r o b a b -l y d e r i v e d f r o m g r e y w a c k e o r v e r y muddy s a n d . The c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p e b b l e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c o n g l o m e r a t e was d e r i v e d f r o m the e r o d e d P r i e s t R i v e r t e r r a n e . The f o r m a t i o n i s more t h a n 5000 f e e t t h i c k . I r e n e V o l c a n i c s : T h r o u g h i n t e r b e d d i n g , t h e c o n g l o m e r a t e i s t r a n s i t i o n a l i n t o t h e o v e r l y i n g I r e n e V o l c a n i c f o r m a t i o n , a g r e a t mass o f b a s i c l a v a f l o w s . I n t e r c a l a t e d i n t h e l a v a f l o w s -37-a r e a few s u b o r d i n a t e l a y e r s o f b a s i c t u f f , a t h i c k band o f c o n g l o m e r a t e - b r e c c i a and a s t r o n g b e d o f d o l o m i t e . The mass has been g r e a t l y a l t e r e d and s c h i s t e d by dynamic raetamorphism. I t i s 6000 f e e t t h i c k . Monk F o r m a t i o n : The Monk f o r m a t i o n c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l i e s t h e I r e n e T o l c a n i c s . The r o c k s a r e p h y l l i t i c s l a t e , p h y l l i t e , s c h i s t o s e c o n g l o m e r a t e , s h e a r e d q u a r t z c o n g l o m e r a t e , schi3ts, s l a t e a n d g r i t , 3.500 f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s . W o l f F o r m a t i o n : The W o l f f o r m a t i o n i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y q u a r t z i t e w i t h s a n d s t o n e and a f e l d s p a t h i c q u a r t z g r i t o r c o n -g l o m e r a t e , c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l y i n g t h e Monk f o r m a t i o n . I t i s 2,900 f e e t t h i c k . Dewdney F o r m a t i o n : By i n s e n s i b l e g r a d a t i o n t h e W o l f f o r m a t i o n p a s s e s i n t o t h e c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l y i n g Dewdney f o r m a -t i o n , banded q u a r t z i t e s , o f a f i n e r g r a i n t h a n t h o s e o f t h e W o l f , w i t h two bands o f c o a r s e c o n g l o m e r a t e , g r e a t l y s u b o r d i -n a t e t o the q u a r t z i t e s i n t h i c k n e s s . The Dewdney f o r m a t i o n i s 2000 f e e t t h i c k . R i p p l e F o r m a t i o n : The R i p p l e f o r m a t i o n c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r -l i e s t h e Dewdney. I t i s a u n i f o r m , h a r d , v e r y h e a v i l y p l a t e d w h i t e q u a r t z i t e , a p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e o f w h i c h i s t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f e x t r e m e l y w e l l p r e s e r v e d r i p p l e - m a r k s a t v a r i o u s h o r i z o n s . I t i s 1,650 f e e t t h i c k . B e e h i v e F o r m a t i o n : The R i p p l e q u a r t z i t e p a s s e s a b r u p t l y i n t o t h e c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l y i n g B e e h i v e f o r m a t i o n . The -38-dominant r o c k - t y p e i s a t h i n t o medium-bedded, l i g h t g r e e n i s h g r e y q u a r t z i t e , w e a t h e r i n g r u s t y brown w i t h t h i n , t h o u g h numerous i n t e r b e d s o f d a r k g r e e n i s h , s i l i c e o u s m e t a r g i l l i t e , w e a t h e r i n g d a r k brown o r d a r k g r e y ; r i p p l e - m a r k s , s u n - c r a c k s and a n n e l i d t r a i l s a r e p l e n t i f u l . O v e r t h i s b e d a r e t h i n n e r beds o f g r e y and w h i t e q u a r t z i t e , l i g h t g r e y l i m e s t o n e , p h y l -l i t e s and s i l i c e o u s m e t a r g i l l i t e s . The t h i c k n e s s i s 7000 f e e t . Lone S t a r F o r m a t i o n : The B e e h i v e f o r m a t i o n merges g r a d u a l l y i n t o the o v e r l y i n g Lone S t a r f o r m a t i o n . T h i s f o r m a -t i o n c o n s i s t s p r i n c i p a l l y o f d a r k - g r e y o r g r e e n i s h - g r e y , o f t e n c a r b o n a c e o u s p h y l l i t e , w i t h some g r e e n i s h s e r i c i t e - q u a r t z s c h i s t and t h i n i n t e r b e d s o f l i g h t - g r e y q u a r t z i t e . The whole f o r m a t i o n i s h i g h l y metamorphosed. I t i s 2000 f e e t t h i c k . GALTON AND LEWIS SERIES. The G a l t o n s e r i e s l i e s i n t h e I l a c D o n a l d a n d G a l t o n r a n g e s and the L e w i s s e r i e s i n t h e C l a r k e r a n g e o f the Rocky m o u n t a i n s a t t h e 4 9 t h P a r a l l e l . A number o f f o r m a t i o n s a r e common t o b o t h and t o t h e P u r c e l l s e r i e s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . The c o r r e l a t i o n t a b l e f o r the G a l t o n and L e w i s s e r i e s i s g i v e n h e r e and t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f f o r m a t i o n s i s c o n f i n e d t o t h o s e n ot f o u n d i n t h e P u r c e l l s e r i e s . G a l t o n S e r i e s L e w i s S e r i e s U n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h l o w e s t M.Cambrian) R o o s v i l l e , 1000 f e e t E r o s i o n s u r f a c e P h i l l i p s , 300 f e e t ( G a l t o n S e r i e s ) ( L e w i s S e r i e s ) Gateway, 2,025 f e e t K i n t l a , 800 f e e t S h e p p a r d , 600 f e e t P u r c e l l L a v a P u r c e l l L a v a S i y e h , 4000 f e e t S i y e h , 4,100 f e e t Wigwam, 1,200 f e e t M a c D o n a l d , 2,350 f e e t H e f t y , 775 f e e t G r i n n e l l , 1,600 f e e t Appekung, 2,600 f e e t A l t y n , 650 f e e t A l t y n , 3,500 f e e t W a t e r t o n , 200 f e e t t a t e r t o n F o r m a t i o n : The Water-ton f o r m a t i o n i s t h e o l d e s t known f o r m a t i o n o f t h e L e w i s s e r i e s . I t c o n s i s t s o f a s t r o n g , m a s s i v e , d a r k g r e y d o l o m i t e , r e s e m b l i n g , i n hand s p e c i m e n , a t h i c k - b e d d e d a r g i l l i t e . A l t y n F o r m a t i o n : The A l t y n f o r m a t i o n o v e r l i e s t h e Wa t e r -t o n c o n f o r m a b l y i n t h e L e w i s s e r i e s and i s t h e o l d e s t known f o r m a t i o n o f t h e G a l t o n s e r i e s . The r o c k t y p e s i n c l u d e a r e n a -c e o u s m a g n e s i a n l i m e s t o n e s , d o l o m i t i c s a n d s t o n e s , d o l o m i t i c g r i t s and p u r e d o l o m i t e s , named i n t h e o r d e r o f r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e . H e f t y F o r m a t i o n : The H e f t y f o r m a t i o n c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l i e s t h e A l t y n i n t h e M a c D o n a l d r a n g e . The dominant r o c k - t y p e i s a h e a v i l y b e d d e d r e d o r r e d d i s h - g r e y s a n d s t o n e , o c c a s i o n a l l y somewhat c a l c a r e o u s . I t s mass i s i n t e r r u p t e d by t h i n beds o f r e d s h a l e a nd by r a r e r l i g h t g r e e n i s h - g r e y , b r o w n - w e a t h e r i n g q u a r t z i t e s . S u n - c r a c k s and r i p p l e - m a r k s a r e common a t v a r i o u s h o r i z o n s . -40-M a c D o n a i d F o r m a t i o n : T he M a c D o n a l d f o r m a t i o n c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l i e s t h e H e f t y . The f o r m a t i o n i s n o t a b l y homogeneous i n r e s p e c t t o t h e main l i t h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s ; t h e p r i n c i p a l r o c k -t y p e i s a h i g h l y s i l i c e o u s a r g i l l i t e o r m e t a r g i l l i t e . Wigwam F o r m a t i o n : C o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l y i n g t h e M a c D o n a l d i s the Wigwam f o r m a t i o n , f a i r l y homogeneous r e d o r b r o w n i s h - r e d s a n d s t o n e s , i n t e r r u p t e d by p a r t i n g s o f r e d , s i l i c e o u s raetargil-l i t e . The b e d d i n g i s g e n e r a l l y t h i n . T h r o u g h o u t t h e f o r m a t i o n s u n - c r a c k e d , r i p p l e - m a r k e d , s o m e t i m e s c r o s s - b e d d e d , h o r i z o n s o c c u r . Appekung F o r m a t i o n : The Appekung f o r m a t i o n c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l i e s t h e A l t y n i n the C l a r k e r a n g e . I t i s a mass o f h i g h l y s i l i c e o u s a r g i l l i t e , i n g e n e r a l o f a d a r k g r e y c o l o r and t h i n -b e d d e d . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l d e f i n i t e h o r i z o n s o f a w h i t i s h q u a r t z i t e f r o m 15 t o 20 f e e t t h i c k . The s t r a t a a r e f r e q u e n t l y r i p p l e - m a r k e d and o c c a s i o n a l l y c o a r s e - g r a i n e d , b u t nowhere c o n g l o m e r a t i c . G r i n n e l l F o r m a t i o n : The G r i n n e l l f o r m a t i o n , c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l y i n g t h e Appekung, i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a s h a l y a r g i l l i t e , e x h i b i t i n g r i p p l e - m a r k s , m u d - c r a c k s and t h e i r r e g u l a r s u r f a c e s o f s h a l l o w w a t e r d e p o s i t s . I t may be a phase o f t h e Appekung w i t h t h e l i n e o f d i s t i n c t i o n between them d i a g o n a l t o t h e 1 s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . 1 W i l l i s " , B.- B u l l . G e o l . S o c . A m . , Vol . 1 5 , 1902, p.322. - 4 1 -S h e p p a r d F o r m a t i o n : The S h e p p a r d f o r m a t i o n c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l i e s t h e P u r c e l l l a v a i n the C l a r k e and L e w i s r a n g e s . I t i s d o m i n a n t l y d o l o m i t i c w i t h i n t e r b e d s o f q u a r t z i t e , a r g i l l i t e and b a s i c , a m y g d a l o i d a l , l a v a . I t h a s b e e n w e l l s i l i c i f i e d . K i n t l a F o r m a t i o n : The K i n t l a f o r m a t i o n c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r -l i e s t h e S h e p p a r d f o r m a t i o n . I t i s a s e q u e n c e o f d e e p - r e d a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e s a n d s i l i c e o u s s h a l e s , w i t h marked w h i t e q u a r t z i t e s a n d o c c a s i o n a l c a l c a r e o u s b e d s . FRANKLIN MOUNTAINS. 1 M.Y. W i l l i a m s d e s c r i b e s a s h a l e f o r m a t i o n u n d e r l y i n g 1 W i l l i a m s , M.Y.- Sumra.Rept. 1922, P t . B , p.75. g r i t s , c o n g l o m e r a t e s and s a n d s t o n e s i n the F r a n k l i n m o u n t a i n s . The y o u n g e r b e d s a r e c o r r e l a t e d , by l i t h o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y , w i t h S c h o f i e l d ' s C a m b r i a n n e a r C r a n b r o o k , B. C., a n d , on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e c o n g l o m e r a t i c phase i n d i c a t e s a b a s a l u n c o n f o r m i t y , t h e s h a l e s a r e t e n t a t i v e l y r e f e r r e d t o t h e p r e -C a m b r i a n . The S c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n . I n t h i s d i v i s i o n a r e i n c l u d e d a l l t h e p r e s u m a b l y B e l t i a n f o r m a t i o n s w h i c h have u n d e r g o n e a h i g h d e g r e e o f meta-morphism. I t must be r e a l i z e d t h a t , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f t h e P r i e s t R i v e r t e r r a n e a t t h e 4 9 t h P a r a l l e l , no e v i d e n c e h a s b een p r o d u c e d t o p r o v e t h a t any o f t h e s e f o r m a t i o n s a r e d e f i n i t e l y p r e - C a m b r i a n i n a g e . F o r m a t i o n s o f C a r b o n i f e r o u s age r e s t -42-c o n f o r r a a b l y u pon t h e s c h i s t o s e f o r m a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; i n t h e Yukon ( 6 0 ° N L a t . ) a r e a t h e y a r e o v e r l a i n by f o s s i l i f e r o u s M i d d l e C a m b r i a n r o c k s . No d e f i n i t e c o r r e l a t i o n h a s b e e n made t h r o u g h o u t t h e s c h i s t o s e b e l t and i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t t h e s e f o r m a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a common p e r i o d o f d e p o s i t i o n . P a r t l y b e c a u s e o f the a m b i g u i t y e x i s t i n g i n r e g a r d t o t h e age o f so many o f t h e s e f o r m a t i o n s a n d p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f the marked l i t h o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y t h a t e x i s t s t h r o u g h o u t , t y p e s e c t i o n s have been s e l e c t e d . T hese a r e t h e P r i e s t R i v e r t e r r a n e a t t h e 4 9 t h P a r a l l e l ; C a i r n e s ' p r e - C a m b r i a n b e t w e e n S l o c a n and U p p e r A r r o w l a k e s ; D a l y ' s Shuswap t e r r a n e a t Shuswap l a k e ; U g l o w ' s B a r r i e r e , F e n n e l and B a d g e r C r e e k f o r m a t i o n s i n t h e N o r t h Thompson v a l l e y ; t h e C a r i b o o s e r i e s o f J o h n s o n a n d Uglow; t h e p r e - C a m b r i a n o f the F i n l a y r i v e r a r e a a s d e s c r i b e d by Dolmage; and t h e Yukon, Mount S t e v e n s and T i n d i r g r o u p s i n Yukon T e r r i t o r y a s d e s c r i b e d by C o c k f i e l d . A l l t h e s u p p o s e d l y p r e - C a m b r i a n s c h i s t o s e t e r r a n e s o m i t t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n have b e e n r e f e r r e d t o i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s and a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p -t i o n h e r e would e n t a i l much r e p e t i t i o n w i t h o u t a d d i n g t o t h e c l a r i t y o f d i s c u s s i o n . 1 PRIEST RIVER TERRAWE. 1 P a l y , R . A . - ~ G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Mem.3b, 1912, p.25b. The P r i e s t R i v e r t e r r a n e o u t c r o p s a t , and t o t h e e a s t w a r d o f , the h e a d w a t e r s o f P r i e s t r i v e r , i n t h e s o u t h e r n 2 S e l k i r k m o u n t a i n s . S c h o f i e l d had c o r r e l a t e d i t w i t h t h e 2 S c h o f i e l d , S . J . A l d r i d g e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e P u r c e l l s e r i e s . D a l y h a s s u b d i v i d e d -43-t h e t e r r a n e i n t o s e v e r a l i r r e g u l a r b e l t s , A, B, 0, D, E , F and G, r u n n i n g , i n g e n e r a l , m e r i d i o n a l l y a n d f o l l o w i n g t h e s t r i k e o f the b e d d i n g p l a n e s . The t e r r a n e h a s b e e n i n t r u d e d by t h e R y o k e r t and Bayonne b a t h o l i t h s w h i c h D a l y a s s i g n s t o t h e J u r a s s i c a n d T e r t i a r y r e s p e c t i v e l y . B e l t A: T h i s i s a h e t e r o g e n e o u s g r o u p o f r o c k s i n c l u d i n g b i o t i t e , c h l o r i t e and s e r i c i t e s c h i s t s ; s h e a r e d , compact q u a r t z i t e s ; a n d d o l o m i t e s . The m i c a c e o u s s c h i s t s o c c u p y most o f the b e l t ; s e r i c i t e q u a r t z i t e s a r e n e x t most a b u n d a n t ; t h e d o l o m i t e s o c c u r a s t h i n bands i n t e r c a l a t e d i n s c h i s t a n d q u a r t z i t e . B e l t B: The n e x t b e l t , t o t h e e a s t , i s s i m i l a r t o B e l t A but h e r e t h e d o l o m i t e i s t h e dominant r o c k t y p e . B e l t G: Thi3 b e l t i s composed, e s s e n t i a l l y , o f w e l l and t h i n l y f o l i a t e d p h y l l i t e s , c h l o r i t e - s e r i c i t e s c h i s t s and p h y l l i t i c b i o t i t e - s e r i c i t e s c h i s t s , a l l t e n d i n g t o w a r d a d a r k g r e e n i s h - g r e y c o l o u r . Wo d o l o m i t e was f o u n d . W i t h i n t h e s t a p l e r o c k s t h e r e o c c u r s t r o n g bands o f d a r k g r e y , i n t e n s e l y s h e a r e d , q u a r t z i t e i n w h i c h was f o u n d a n opaque b l a c k d u s t b e l i e v e d t o be c a r b o n . B e l t D: T h i s i s d o m i n a n t l y a more o r l e s s s h e a r e d q u a r t -z i t e compact i n t e x t u r e and v a r y i n g i n c o l o u r f r o m w h i t e t o p a l e g r e e n i s h - g r e y . W i t h i n the q u a r t z i t e b e d s a r e numerous, t h o u g h t h i n , i n t e r c a l a t i o n s o f s e r i c i t i c a n d c h l o r i t i c s c h i s t s a l o n g w i t h b e d s o f d o l o m i t e . The b e l t i s i n t r u d e d by t h e -44-Bayonne b a t h o l i t h and n e a r t h e c o n t a c t l a r g e f o i l s o f b i o t i t e and m u s e o v i t e have d e v e l o p e d . B e l t E: B e l t E i s composed o f a c i d s e d i m e n t s more h i g h l y metamorphosed t h a n t h o s e o f B e l t D. The dominant t y p e i s a h i g h l y s e r i c i t i c 3chi3t i n w h i c h l a r g e b i o t i t e f o i l s have b e e n e x t e n s i v e l y d e v e l o p e d a l o n g t h e p l a n e s o f s c h i s t o s i t y . The g e n e r a l g r o u n d mass o f t h e r o c k i s a f e l t o f q u a r t z and a b u n -da n t s e r i c i t e , w i t h r o u n d o r h e x a g o n a l b i o t i t e p l a t e s r a n g i n g f r o m 1 mm. t o 3 mm. i n d i a m e t e r . P a l e - r e d d i s h a n h e d r a l g a r n e t s o f t e n accompany t h e b i o t i t e p l a t e s . I n t h e b i o t i t e s c h i s t s i s one band o f a m p h i b o l l t e about one h u n d r e d f e e t t h i c k t h a t i s e v i d e n t l y a s h e a r e d and metamorphosed b a s i c i n t r u s i v e . A s e c o n d a l t e r e d b a s i c i n t r u s i v e o c c u r s a s a h o r n b l e n d e c h l o r i t e s c h i s t . B e l t ?: L i k e B e l t D, t h i s b e l t i s composed o f s h e a r e d q u a r t z i t e w i t h s u b o r d i n a t e i n t e r b e d s o f m i c a s c h i s t . The q u a r t z i t e , however, i s more n e a r l y a t r u e q u a r t z s c h i s t . A band o f g a r n e t - b e a r i n g a m p h i b o l i t e o c c u r s n e a r t h e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e R y c k e r t b a t h o l i t h . B e l t G: T h i s b e l t i s e s s e n t i a l l y composed o f g l i t t e r i n g , c o a r s e to medium g r a i n e d m i c a s c h i s t s , v a r y i n g i n c o l o u r f r o m l i g h t t o d a r k g r e e n i s h - g r e y and d a r k r u s t y brown. The a v e r a g e phase i s d i s t i n c t l y more f e r r u g i n o u s t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r s i x b e l t s . As a r u l e t h e s c h i s t s a r e w e l l b a nded and t h e b a n d s a r e b e l i e v e d t o r e p r e s e n t t r u e b e d d i n g . The o r i g i n a l s e d i m e n t s were d o u b t l e s s c h i e f l y a r g i l l i t e s , more o r l e s s r i c h i n s i l i c a , -45-w i t h s u b o r d i n a t e t h i n i n t e r b e d s o f s a n d s t o n e . T h e i r e x i s t i n g metaraorphie e q u i v a l e n t s a r e m u s c o v i t e b i o t i t e s c h i s t s c a r r y i n g v a r i a b l e and o f t e n i m p o r t a n t amounts o f r e d g a r n e t , y e l l o w e p i d o t e and t o u r m a l i n e . 1 S10CAN AND UPPER ARROW LAKES AREA. I" C a i r n e s , C.E.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , SuiamTRept. 192b,, P t . A , p.96. A s e r i e s o f c r y s t a l l i n e s c h i s t s i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h m a s s i v e , l i g h t - c o l o u r e d q u a r t z i t e , c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e , g r e e n -s t o n e and p a r a g n e i s s e s , l y i n g u n c o n f o r m a b l y b e n e a t h t h e Meso-z o i c K a s l o s e r i e s , i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e p r e - C a m b r i a n . No f o r m a t i o n name h a s been a s s i g n e d t o i t and no c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n d i v i d u a l n e i g h b o u r i n g p r e - C a m b r i a n f o r m a t i o n s i s o f f e r e d . The c r y s t a l l i n e s c h i s t s a r e medium- t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d r o c k s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r l u s t r o u s a p p e a r a n c e and s c h i s t o s e s t r u c t u r e . M e t a - c r y s t a l s o f s t a u r o l i t e , s c a p o l i t e and g a r n e t a r e f a i r l y common; r e d g a r n e t s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y a b u n d a n t i n some b e d s . The q u a r t z i t e s a r e l i g h t - c o l o u r e d , m a s s i v e , w e l l -b e d d e d r o c k s i n w h i c h t h e r e i s commonly q u i t e a n a b u n d a n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f b i o t i t e and g a r n e t . The l i m e s t o n e beds a r e c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e , w h i t e r o c k s c a r r y i n g more o r l e s s q u a r t z . S m a l l f l a k e s o f g r a p h i t e a r e commonly p r e s e n t and o t h e r s e c o n d a r y m i n e r a l s i n c l u d e g a r n e t , d i o p s i d e and e p i d o t e . The p a r a g n e i s s e s a p p e a r a s a g r a d a t i o n a l phase b e -tween t h e c r y s t a l l i n e s c h i s t s and t h e a s s o c i a t e d g n e i s s i c - 4 6 -i n t r u s i v e s o f t h e K e l s o n b a t h o l i t h a n d t h e y r e p r e s e n t a more o r l e s s c o m p l e t e l y d i g e s t e d p r o d u c t o f t h e o l d e r r o c k s . A b e l t o f g r e e n s t o n e s c h i s t , s e v e r a l h u n d r e d f e e t w i d e , c r o s s e s U p p e r Arrow l a k e s o u t h o f S t . L e o n and P i n g s t o n c r e e k s . T h i s g r e e n s t o n e h a s t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a n a l t e r e d v o l -c a n i c r o c k . I t i s o v e r l a i n by g r a n u l a r , q u a r t z - b i o t i t e s c h i s t s c a r r y i n g , i n p l a c e s , l a r g e c r y s t a l s o f f e l d s p a r and what a p p e a r t o be d e f o r m e d and a l t e r e d r o c k f r a g m e n t s a s w e l l a s o c c a s i o n a l w e l l - r o u n d e d p e b b l e s o f q u a r t z i t e . 1 SHUSWAP TERRAHE* 1 D a l y , R.A.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Mem.bb, 1915» p.10 e t s e q . The Shuswap t e r r a n e c o m p r i s e s t h e o l d e s t f o r m a t i o n s i n the a r e a l y i n g between G o l d e n and Kamloops a l o n g t h e m a i n l i n e o f t h e C.P.R. T o n k a w a t l a F o r m a t i o n : The T o n k a w a t l a p a r a g n e i s s i s t h e o l d e s t f o r m a t i o n i n the t e r r a n e a s e x p o s e d a l o n g t h e r a i l w a y s e c t i o n . They a r e m a s s i v e , r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous s c h i s t s , r e s e m b l i n g o r t h o g n e i s s i n a p p e a r a n c e , g r e e n i s h g r e y , s t r o n g l y m i c a c e o u s and v i s i b l y f e l d s p a t h i c a s w e l l a s q u a r t z o s e . The bed s r a n g e f r o m a few i n c h e s t o a h u n d r e d f e e t and more i n t h i c k n e s s . I n t e r c a l a t e d w i t h t h e s c h i s t e d beds a r e t h i n l a y e r s o f p a l e - g r e y t o w h i t e , m e d i u m - g r a i n e d l i m e s t o n e ; q u a r t z , b i o -t i t e , m u s e o v i t e , t a l c , c h l o r i t e and d i o p s i d e a r e d e v e l o p e d . The f o r m a t i o n o u t c r o p s o n l y where t h e T o n k a w a t l a v a l l e y j o i n s t h e C o l u m b i a r i v e r v a l l e y , j u s t west o f R e v e l s t o k e . -47-Ghase F o r m a t i o n : T h i s i s a s e r i e s o f ba n d e d , t h o u g h m a s s i v e , c a l c a r e o u s q u a r t z i t e s . The a c t u a l base i s n o t known. The dominant r o c k i s 'white t o p a l e g r e y o r b l u i s h - g r e y q u a r t -z i t e , g e n e r a l l y c h a r g e d w i t h g r a i n s o f c a l c i t e a n d o f v a r i o u s s i l i c a t e s o f metaraorphie o r i g i n . The l a t t e r i n c l u d e d i o p s i d e , t r e r a o l i t e , m i c r o c l i n e , t i t a n i t e and m u s c o v i t e . The f o r m a t i o n i s a t l e a s t 3000 f e e t t h i c k . Salmon Arm F o r m a t i o n : The Salmon Arm f o r m a t i o n c o n f o r m -a b l y o v e r l i e s t h e Chase q u a r t z i t e . The p r i n c i p a l r o c k t y p e i s a g a r n e t i f e r o u s m u s c o v i t e - b i o t i t e - q u a r t z s c h i s t . The g a r n e t s a r e p o i k i l i t i c and f o r m t h e n u c l e i i o f k n o t s d e v e l o p e d i n t h e s c h i s t . O r t h o c l a s e o r o t h e r a l k a l i n e f e l d s p a r a n d p l a g i o c l a s e i n s m a l l g r a i n s a r e r e l a t i v e l y r a r e a c c e s s o r i e s . The t h i c k n e s s i s 1,800 f e e t . S i c a m o u s F o r m a t i o n : The Salmon Arm f o r m a t i o n i s t r a n s i -t i o n a l i n t o t h e o v e r l y i n g S i c a m o u s l i m e s t o n e . T h i s l i m e s t o n e i s t y p i c a l l y i m p ure and s c h i s t o s e , b l u i s h - g r e y t o d a r k g r e y i n c o l o u r . The g r a i n v a r i e s f r o m f i n e t o medium. G e n e r a l l y a few q u a r t z and p y r i t e g r a n u l e s a r e a c c e s s o r y , b u t t h e c h i e f i m p u r i t i e s a r e c a r b o n and s e r i c i t e ( o r t a l c ? ) . The c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c d a r k c o l o u r i s g i v e n by d i s s e m i n a t e d c a r b o n d u s t w h i c h a p p e a r s i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f t h e l i m e s t o n e . I t i s 3*200 f e e t t h i c k . B a s t i o n F o r m a t i o n : The Sic a m o u s l i m e s t o n e p a s s e s g r a d u -a l l y i n t o t h e y o u n g e r B a s t i o n f o r m a t i o n . The l o w e r p a r t o f t h e f o r m a t i o n i s c h i e f l y composed o f p h y l l i t e s . I n t e r b e d d e d -48-w i t h them a r e s e v e r a l b e d s o f w h i t e t o d a r k g r e y o r b l a c k i s h l i m e s t o n e , i n g e n e r a l more m a s s i v e t h a n t h e Sieamous l i m e s t o n e . I n t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e f o r m a t i o n , b e d s o f s e r i c i t i c q u a r t z i t e and o f d o l o m i t i c m e t a r g i l l i t e s i n t e r r u p t t h e p h y l l i t e s . A t s e v e r a l h o r i z o n s , v a r y i n g f r o m n e a r t h e bas e upward, t h i c k . zo n e s o f t a l c s c h i s t , c h l o r i t e s c h i s t , and e p i d o t i c o r z o i s i t i c s c h i s t s , b e a r i n g q u a r t z and c h l o r i t e , were o b s e r v e d . I n t e n s e metamorphism h a s so o b s c u r e d t h e b e d d i n g t h a t t h e t h i c k n e s s c o u l d n o t be d e t e r m i n e d , but i t i s e s t i m a t e d a t 5000 f e e t . T s h i n a k i n F o r m a t i o n : The T s h i n a k i n i s a l i m e s t o n e f o r m a -t i o n c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l y i n g t h e B a s t i o n s c h i s t s * I t i s a t r u e m a r b l e . The l o w e r l i m e s t o n e i s g e n e r a l l y m a s s i v e b u t i n t e r r u p -t e d a t i n t e r v a l s o f abo u t 20 f e e t b y s c h i s t o s e z o n e s . I t i s c r e a m - c o l o u r e d , y e l l o w i s h - w h i t e o r b l u i s h - g r e y a n d , r a r e l y , pure w h i t e . C a r b o n a c e o u s m a t e r i a l i s n e a r l y , o r q u i t e , a b s e n t . A band o f g r e y p h y l l i t e , a b o u t 800 f e e t t h i c k and s i m i l a r t o th e i n t e r b e d s i n t h e l o w e r l i m e s t o n e , p a s s e s g r a d a t i o n a l l y i n t o t h e u p p e r . The u p p e r l i m e s t o n e i s e s s e n t i a l l y l i k e t h e l o w e r b u t w i t h a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f i n t e r b e d d e d s c h i s t s . Adams l a k e F o r m a t i o n : The u p p e r T s h i n a k i n l i m e s t o n e i s d i r e c t l y and c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l a i n by t h e Adams l a k e f o r m a t i o n . The Adams Lake c o n s i s t s c h i e f l y o f g r e e n s c h i s t s d e r i v e d by metamorphism f r o m b a s i c e r u p t i v e s . At s e v e r a l h o r i z o n s t h e s e s c h i s t s c a r r y t h i n i n t e r c a l a t i o n s o f l i m e s t o n e and q u a r t z i t i c s c h i s t s . The t h i c k n e s s i s e s t i m a t e d a s 10,000 f e e t . -49-NORTH THOMPSON V A L L E Y . 1 I Uglow, W.L.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1921, P t . A , p.7b. The l o w e r f o r m a t i o n s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t , t h e B a d g e r C r e e k , F e n n e l l and B a r r i e r e , i n a s c e n d i n g o r d e r , a r e c l a s s e d a s p r e - C a m b r i a n o r l a t e P a l a e o z o i c . They a r e i n t r u d e d by a c i d i g n e o u s r o c k s p r e s u m a b l y c o r r e l a t i v e w i t h t h e C o a s t Range i n t r u s i v e s . They a r e u n c o n f o r m a b l y o v e r l a i n by Eo c e n e s e d i -ments. B a d g e r C r e e k F o r m a t i o n : T h i s i s a s e r i e s o f metamor-p h o s e d , s e d i m e n t a r y and v o l c a n i c r o c k s , now l a r g e l y s c h i s t o s e . The r o c k t y p e s a r e h o r n b l e n d e s c h i s t ; f i n e - g r a i n e d d o l o m i t e and l i m e s t o n e i n t h i n b e d s ; s i l i c i f i e d a r g i l l i t e ; q u a r t z s l a t e ; d o l o r a i t i c q u a r t z i t e ; m i c a c e o u s , t h i n ^ b e d d e d , f l a g g y q u a r t z i t e , b i o t i t e s c h i s t and a s c h i s t o s e a n d e s i t i e t u f f w h i c h i s g r a d a t i o n a l i n t o the o v e r l y i n g F e n n e l l f o r m a t i o n . The t h i c k -n e s s i s 3,500 f e e t . F e n n e l l F o r m a t i o n : T h i s f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s c h i e f l y o f a complex o f a l t e r e d b a s i c r o c k s o f i n t r u s i v e , e x t r u s i v e and f r a g m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r s . The r o c k s a r e c h l o r i t e s c h i s t ; s l i g h t -l y s c h i s t o s e , f i n e - g r a i n e d g r e e n s t o n e w i t h beds o f s c h i s t o s e t u f f s ; a p r o b a b l e m e t a - b a s a l t ; e l l i p s o i d a l l y w e a t h e r e d g r e e n -s t o n e a s s o c i a t e d h e r e and t h e r e w i t h s i l l - l i k e a nd d y k e - l i k e masses o f a l t e r e d h o r n b l e n d e g a b b r o , and n a r r o w l e n s e s and beds o f f i n e - g r a i n e d w h i t e l i m e s t o n e o r d o l o m i t e w i t h i n t h e g r e e n -s t o n e . The t h i c k n e s s i s not g i v e n i n Dr. Uglow's r e p o r t . B a r r i e r e F o r m a t i o n : The B a r r i e r e f o r m a t i o n c o n f o r m a b l y -50-o v e r l i e s t h e F e n n e l l . The dom i n a n t r o c k s a r e g r e y a n d b l a c k -b a n d ed a r g i l l i t e ; b r o w n i s h - w e a t h e r i n g , f i n e - g r a i n e d , s e r i c i t i e q u a r t z i t e ; b r o w n i s h t o b u f f c o l o u r e d s e r i c i t i e s c h i s t ; f i n e -g r a i n e d , w h i t e t o g r e y , m a s s i v e l i m e s t o n e ; d o l o m i t i c q u a r t z i t e ; s c h i s t o s e q u a r t z p e b b l e c o n g l o m e r a t e ; s i l i c i f i e d a r g i l l i t e ; t a l c s c h i s t ; w h i t e , g l i s t e n i n g , f i s s i l e , s e r i c i t e s c h i s t ; g r e y -i s h g r e e n t u f f ; and s c h i s t o s e a m y g d a l o i d a l b a s a l . The t h i c k -n e s s i s v e r y u n c e r t a i n due t o s t r i k e - f a u l t i n g . 1 CABIBOO SERIES. 1 Johnson7~W.A. & Uglow, W.L.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Mem.149, 192b, p . I I e t s e q . The C a r i b o o s e r i e s u n d e r l i e s most o f t h e B a r k e r v i l l e m ap-area. The o n l y a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e age o f the s e r i e s i s t h a t i t l i e s u n c o n f o r m a b l y b e n e a t h t h e S l i d e M o u n t a i n s e r i e s o f M i s s i s s i p p i a n a ge. The much g r e a t e r meta-morphism o f the C a r i b o o 3 e r i e s , p o i n t i n g t o a p e r i o d c o n s i d e r -a b l y a n t e d a t i n g t h e M i s s i s s i p p i a n , a s w e l l a s t h e l i t h o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e members o f t h e C a r i b o o s e r i e s w i t h t h e B e l t i a n r o c k s , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e C a r i b o o s e r i e s i s p o s s i b l y o f B e l t i a n a g e . The b a s a l f o r m a t i o n i s t h e R i c h f i e l d , w h i c h i s s u c c e s s i v e l y o v e r l a i n by t h e c o n f o r m a b l e B a r k e r v i l l e and P l e a s a n t V a l l e y f o r m a t i o n s . R i c h f i e l d F o r m a t i o n : T h i s f o r m a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s t h e main p a r t o f what i s p o p u l a r l y known a s t h e " C a r i b o o s c h i s t s " . T r u e s c h i s t s , however, f o r m o n l y a s m a l l e l e m e n t . The f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f m a s s i v e q u a r t z i t e , f i n e q u a r t z p e b b l e c o n g l o m e r a t e , -51-m i c a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e , q u a r t z s l a t e , q u a r t z s e r i c i t e s c h i s t , s e r i c i t e s c h i s t , c a r b o n a c e o u s and c l a y s l a t e w i t h m i n o r i n t e r -c a l a t i o n s o f l i m e s t o n e , c a l c a r e o u s a r g i l l i t e , and s i l i c i f i e d t u f f , a l l d e r i v e d f r o m m a i n l y q u a r t z o s e s e d i m e n t s . The t h i c k -n e s s i s o v e r 8000 f e e t . The b a s e i s n o t known. B a r k e r v i l l e F o r m a t i o n : The c h i e f r o c k s o f t h i s f o r m a t i o n a r e l i m e s t o n e s p r e s e n t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i r d e f o r m a t i o n . The r o c k s a r e a t h i c k l y b e d d e d , f i n e - g r a i n e d , m a s s i v e , g r e y , unmetamorphosed t y p e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a m e d i u m - g r a i n e d , b u f f - c o l o u r e d , c r y s t a l l i n e t y p e and w i t h a t h i n l y bedded a r g i l l a c e o u s v a r i e t y . Where t h e l i m e s t o n e shows e v i d e n c e s o f i n t e n s e m i n o r f o l d i n g , i t i s s l a t y . I n many p l a c e s , a l s o , t h e r o c k i s o f a u t o c l a s t i c c h a r a c t e r , and b l o c k s o f a n g u l a r g r e y l i m e s t o n e a r e s e p a r a t e d by a l i g h t e r - c o l o u r e d f i l l i n g o f c o a r s e r - g r a i n e d c a l c i t e . Most o f t h e e x p o s u r e s show v e i n l e t s o f w h i t e c a l c i t e . The t h i c k n e s s i s 2500 f e e t . P l e a s a n t V a l l e y F o r m a t i o n : The members o f t h i s f o r m a t i o n a r e e s s e n t i a l l y a r g i l l a c e o u s , the domi n a n t t y p e b e i n g a c l a y s l a t e , v a r y i n g i n c o l o u r f r o m g r e y t o p a l e brown t o b l a c k , and p o s s e s s i n g a w e l l d e v e l o p e d c l e a v a g e . A t h i c k n e s s o f 5000 f e e t t o t h e e r o s i o n s u r f a c e i s known. 1 F IKLAY RIVER AREA. 1 Dolmage, V i c t o r - G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1927, Pt.A,~p72*5. The o l d e s t r o c k s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e F i n l a y r i v e r a r e m a i n l y q u a r t z - m i c a s c h i s t , m i c a q u a r t z i t e a n d a c i d g n e i s s , -52-w i t h a few e m a i l bands o f impure l i m e s t o n e and l e n s e s o f h o r n -b l e n d e g n e i s s . A l l t h r e e main t y p e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y q u a r t z -m i c a r o c k s , w i t h s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s o f f e l d s p a r and g a r n e t . The q u a r t z - m i c a s c h i s t c o n s t i t u t e s about t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e w h o l e . G n e i s s e s o c c u r a t o n l y a few l o c a l i t i e s ; t h e y a r e p r o b a b l y o r t h o g n e i s s e s . The l i m e s t o n e s f o r m a m i n o r p a r t o f t h e f o r m a t i o n and o c c u r a s t h i n , w e l l - b e d d e d l e n s e s . The t h i c k -n e s s o f t h e s e r i e s i s n o t known. 1 YUKON GROUP. 1 G o c k f i e l d , W.E.- G e o l .Surv.Can.', MemTl23, 1921, p.12 e t s e q . The name "Yukon G r o u p " was a p p l i e d by D.P. C a i r n e s 2 C a i r n e s , D.D.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Mem.67, 1914, pp.40-44. t o t h e metamorphosed r o c k s o f b o t h s e d i m e n t a r y and i g n e o u s o r i g i n a l o n g t h e Y u k o n - A l a s k a b o u n d a r y n o r t h o f t h e Yukon r i v e r . C a i r n e s c o n s i d e r e d them t o be d e f i n i t e l y p r e - C a m b r i a n ; 3 C o c k f i e l d , however, s u g g e s t s t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n i s n o t T ~ C o c k f i e l d , V/.E.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1926, P t . A , p.4. s u f f i c i e n t l y d e f i n i t e t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a and t h a t , i n c o n s e -q u e n c e , t h e r e e x i s t s some doubt a s t o t h e i r a ge. He c o n c l u d e s , b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f e v i d e n c e t o t h e c o n t r a r y , t h a t t h e y a r e p r o b a b l y p r e - C a m b r i a n . The g r o u p i n c l u d e s t h e H a s i n a s e r i e s , o l d e s t , K l o n d i k e s e r i e s and t h e P e l l y g n e i s s e s . I t i s e x p o s e d 4 a s a whole a l o n g the I n t e r n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r y , a n d i n t h e S i x t y -5 6 7 m i l e and Ladue r i v e r s , D e z a d e a s h and A i s h i h i k l a k e a r e a s . 4 C a i r n e s , D.D.- op. c i t . : ~ ! 5 C o c k f i e l d , W.E.- G e o 1 . S u r v . C a n . , Mem.123, 1921. 6 C o c k f i e l d , W.E.- G e o l . S u r v . Can. , Summ.Rept. 1 ^ 7 , P t . A , p . l . 7 C o c k f i e l d , W.E.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1926, P t . A , p . l . - 5 3 -1 The H a s i n a and K l o n d i k e s e r i e s o c c u r a t Keno H i l l i n the Mayo 1 C o o k f i e T d " , W.K. - G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1923, P t . A , p . l . d i s t r i c t . H a s i n a S e r i e s ; The H a s i n a s e r i e s i s made up o f g n e i s s o i d q u a r t s i t e s , q u a r t z - m i c a and m i c a and g r a p h i t i c s c h i s t s , s h e a r e d c o n g l o m e r a t e s and c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e . I n t h e l e a s t a l t e r e d p o r t i o n s , t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h e s e v a r i o u s r o c k s have a p a r a l l e l a r r a n g e m e n t , g i v i n g to t h e r o c k s a l a m i n a t e d a p p e a r -a n c e ; i n t h e most a l t e r e d p o r t i o n s t h e r o c k s a r e c o m p l e t e l y r e c r y s t a l l i z e d i n t o f i n e - g r a i n e d g n e i s s e s and s c h i s t s , d i s t i n -g u i s h e d o n l y w i t h g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y f r o m t h e a l t e r e d i g n e o u s r o c k s . The s h e a r e d c o n g l o m e r a t e s make up o n l y s m a l l p o r t i o n s o f t h e f o r m a t i o n a n d a p p a r e n t l y r e p r e s e n t a c o a r s e r f a c i e s o f t h e q u a r t z i t e . The c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e i s a g r e y o r g r e e n i s h - b l u e t o w h i t e m a r b l e , much s h e a r e d and d i s t u r b e d . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a g n e i s s o i d q u a r t z i t e , a q u a r t z - m i c a s c h i s t , o r a m i c a s c h i s t , i s b e l i e v e d to be d e p e n d e n t , n o t 30 much upon t h e d e g r e e o f metamorphism, a s upon o r i g i n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o m p o s i t i o n . K l o n d i k e S e r i e s : T h i s g r o u p c o n s i s t s o f l i g h t - c o l o u r e d s e r i c i t e s c h i s t s w i t h s u b o r d i n a t e amounts o f c h l o r i t i c s c h i s t s . T h e s e s c h i s t s r e s e m b l e , i n a p p e a r a n c e , the most c o m p l e t e l y r e c r y s t a l l i z e d r o c k s o f the H a s i n a , on t h e one hand, and t h e most s h e a r e d o f t h e g r a n i t e g n e i s s e s on the o t h e r . The w h i t e , l i g h t y e l l o w , o r l i g h t g r e e n s e r i c i t e s c h i s t s a r e t h e most abundant r o c k s . These p o s s e s s a marked f o l i a t i o n a c c e n t u a t e d by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e c o n d a r y m i n e r a l s a s a n e c e s s a r y -54-accompaniment t o the p r o n o u n c e d dynamic a g e n c i e s t o w h i c h t h e y have been s u b j e c t e d . The c h l o r i t e s c h i s t s a r e f i n e - g r a i n e d r o c k s s h owing abundant c h l o r i t e a nd e p i d o t e . They o c c u r b o t h a s bands a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h t h e s e r i c i t e s c h i s t s and a s ma s s e s . A m p h i b o l i t e s : T h i s name i s u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e a. c l a s s o f s c h i s t o s e , p r e - C a m b r i a n r o c k s o f d a r k g r e e n i s h c o l o u r a n d b a s i c c o m p o s i t i o n . Some o f them a r e o l d e r t h a n t h e g r a n i t e g n e i s s w i t h w h i c h t h e y a l w a y s o c c u r , but o t h e r s may be d i f f e r e n t i a t e s f r o m t h e magma w h i c h gave r i s e t o t h e g n e i s s . The l a r g e s t a r e a o f t h e s e a m p h i b o l i t e s and g n e i s s e s ( P e l l y ) l i e s a l o n g t h e S i x t y r a i l e r i v e r , e a s t w a r d f r o m t h e B o u n d a r y and f o r m i n g a n a r e a 1 s i x m i l e s l o n g and f i v e m i l e s w i d e . 1 C o c k f i e l d , W.E.- Geo1.Surv.Can., Mom.123, 1 ? 2 I , p.20. The c o l o u r s r a n g e f r o m v a r i o u s s h a d e s o f g r e e n t o n e a r l y b l a c k . The c o m p o s i t i o n r a n g e s f r o m t h a t o f a d i o r i t e t o a s b a s i c a s a p y r o x e n i t e . Q u a r t z i s a b s e n t , o r p r e s e n t o n l y i n s m a l l amounts; h o r n b l e n d e , b i o t i t e , p y r o x e n e a n d p l a g i o c l a s e make up t h e g r e a t e r p o r t i o n s o f t h e r o c k s . P e l l y G n e i s s e s : These o r t h o g n e i s s e s v a r y g r e a t l y i n t e x t u r e , c o m p o s i t i o n a n d g e n e r a l a p p e a r a n c e , i n t h e f i e l d , p a s s i n g f r o m f i n e - g r a i n e d s c h i s t i n t o a c o a r s e - g r a i n e d g r a n i t e g n e i s s . A r e a s and bands o f a u g e n g n e i s s , f r e q u e n t l y a l t e r n a -t i n g w i t h the g r a n u l a r v a r i e t y , a r e l i g h t brown t o r e d d i s h r o c k s , c o n s i s t i n g o f p o r p h y r i t i c i n d i v i d u a l s o f f e l d s p a r , and o c c a s i o n a l l y q u a r t z , s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h a groundmass o f f i n e -g r a i n e d m a t e r i a l , w h i c h i s h i g h l y s h e a r e d , w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f abundant m i c a on t h e p l a n e s o f s c h i s t o s i t y . The f e l d s p a r -55-e r y s t a l s a r e drawn out i n t o l e n t i c u l a r a r e a s o f g r a n u l a t e d m a t e r i a l , o r , more f r e q u e n t l y , e x h i b i t o n l y i n c i p i e n t s i g n s o f c r u s h i n g . I n many o f t h e s e r o c k s a m i l k y - w h i t e q u a r t s , a p p a r e n t l y s e c o n d a r y , o c c u r s w i t h r o u n d e d o r l e n t i c u l a r o u t -l i n e s o r f i l l i n g i n t h e s p a c e between f o l i a t i o n p l a n e s . 1 TIHDIR GROUP. I C o c k f i e l d , W.E.- i*eol."Surv.Can. , Summ.Rept. 1924, P t . A , p.4. The T i n d i r g r o u p i s e x p o s e d i n t h e U p p e r B e a v e r R i v e r a r e a , Mayo d i s t r i c t , Y ukon. I t s age h a s n o t b een d e f i n i t e l y d e t e r m ined, s a v e t h a t i t i s p r e - O r d o v i c i a n . C o c k f i e l d t e n t a -t i v e l y r e f e r s i t to the p r e - C a m b r i a n . The g r o u p i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o two f o r m a t i o n s , w h i c h have n o t , a s y e t , been named. The l o w e r f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f q u a r t z i t e , s l a t e , l i m e s t o n e a n d c o n g l o m e r a t e ; t h e u p p e r c o n -s i s t s o f c a l c a r e o u s s a n d s t o n e , s l a t e , a r g i l l i t e and l i m e s t o n e . The q u a r t z i t e s a r e w h i t e , l i g h t g r e y , o r b l u e and a r e much l e s s metamorphosed t h a n a r e t h o s e o f t h e Y u k o n g r o u p . I n t e r b e d d e d w i t h them a r e bands arid beds o f w h i t e , c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e . The l i m e s t o n e , i n p l a c e s , a t t a i n s a t h i c k n e s s o f more t h a n f i f t y f e e t . The s l a t e s a r e r e d , g r e e n , g r e y o r b l a c k a n d i n c l u d e d i n them a r e t h i n b e d s o f q u a r t z i t e and c o n g l o m e r a t e , and more m a s s i v e b e d s o f w h i t e o r g r e y c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e . The c a l c a r e o u s s a n d s t o n e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d o l o m i t i c s a n d s t o n e and l i m e s t o n e , s l a t e s and a r g i l l i t e s . T h e s e r o c k s w e a t h e r a d u l l r e d to brown. A s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s l a t e s a r e d a r k -c o l o u r e d o r b l a c k a r g i l l i t e s . -56-1 MOUNT STEVENS GROUP. 1 C o c k f i e l d , W.ET^ G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Hem.150, 1 9 2 b , " T t . A , p.H. . The r o c k s o f t h i s g r o u p a r e e x t e n s i v e l y d e v e l o p e d i n t h e w e s t e r n p a r t o f W h i t e h o r s e d i s t r i c t , Yukon. T h e r e i s no d i r e c t e v i d e n c e a s t o the' age but t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o l a t e r i g n e o u s r o c k s w h i c h c u t them show t h a t , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , t h e y a r e t h e o l d e s t r o c k s i n t h e d i s t r i c t . The members o f the Mount S t e v e n s g r o u p c o n s i s t o f s e r i c i t e s c h i s t s , c h l o r i t e s c h i s t s , g r e e n s t o n e s c h i s t s , s e r i -c i t i e Q u a r t z i t e s , g n e i s s o i d q u a r t z i t e s , h o r n b l e n d e g n e i s s e s and c r y s t a l l i n e l i m e s t o n e . S e r i c i t e S c h i s t s : T h e s e a r e l i g h t g r e y , s o f t , f i s s i l e r o c k s o f a b r i g h t , g l i s t e n i n g a p p e a r a n c e due t o t h e amount o f m i c a t h e y c o n t a i n . C h l o r i t e S c h i s t s : The c h l o r i t e s c h i s t 3 a r e p a l e t o d a r k • g r e e n , s o f t , f r i a b l e r o c k s , o c c a s i o n a l l y w i t h a r e d d i s h c a s t due to t h e p r e s e n c e o f l i m o n i t e . G r e e n s t o n e S c h i s t s : The g r e e n s t o n e s c h i s t s a r e f i n e t o m e d i u m - t e x t u r e d g r e e n i s h r o c k s , p r e v a i l i n g l y f i r m and. compact, t h a t h a v e , a p p a r e n t l y , been d e r i v e d f r o m a n d e s i t e s . S e r i c i t i e Q u a r t z i t e s : T h e s e a r e d a r k g r e e n i s h , f i n e -g r a i n e d r o c k s w i t h c l o s e f o l i a t i o n . They a r e o f s e d i m e n t a r y o r i g i n . G n e i s s o i d Q u a r t z i t e s : The g n e i s s o i d q u a r t z i t e s a r e p r e v a i l i n g l y l i g h t g r e y t o w h i t e , w i t h a common d e v e l o p m e n t o f - 5 7 -c o l o u r b a n d i n g . They have a f i n e , g n e i s s o i d s t r u c t u r e . They c o n t a i n g r a i n s o f q u a r t z i n t e r g r o w n w i t h f e l d s p a r w h i c h i s much a l t e r e d t o s e r i c i t e and c a l c i t e . H o r n b l e n d e G n e i s s e s : The h o r n b l e n d e g n e i s s e s a r e f i n e t o c o a r s e - t e x t u r e d r o c k s w i t h a d e c i d e d g n e i s s o i d s t r u c t u r e . T h e s e r o c k s have t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f c r u s h e d b a s i c i n t r u s i v e s and were p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d f r o m g a b b r o s and g r a n o d i o r i t e s . -58-CHAPTER IV. THE SHUSWAP PROBLEM. The age o f t h e Shuswap s e r i e s was d e f i n i t e l y p l a c e d 1 by Dawson a s A r c h a e a n : "The Shuswap s e r i e s p r o p e r i s e v i d e n t l y 1 Dawson, G.M.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Shuswap S h e e t , l b 9 b . r e f e r a b l e t o t h e A r c h a e a n and i s much l i k e t h e G r e n v i l l e s e r i e s o f t h e L a u r e n t i a n o f E a s t e r n Canada. T h i s r e s e m b l a n c e e x t e n d s t o i t s manner o f a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e f o l i a t e d r o c k s t h a t r e s e m b l e t h e 'Fundamental G n e i s s * o f the same r e g i o n . " I n C h a p t e r I I o f t h i s p a p e r t h e e v i d e n c e g a t h e r e d by l a t e r w o r k e r s , t h r o w i n g g r a v e d o u b t on t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f Dawson's c o r r e l a -t i o n , h a s b e en r e v i e w e d . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l r e v i e w t h e more s i g n i f i c a n t e v i d e n c e i n d e t a i l . 2 I n 1914 S . J . S c h o f i e l d e x a m i n e d an a r e a west o f 2 S c h o f l e T d , S . J . - G e o l T S u r v . C a n . , Summ.R'ept. 1914, p . 3 l » ~ K o o t e n a y l a k e . F i e l d e v i d e n c e showed t h a t B a l y ' s P r i e s t R i v e r t e r r a n e , c o n s i d e r e d by him t o be A r c h a e a n , i s , i n p a r t a t l e a s t , a metamorphosed e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e A l d r i d g e f o r m a t i o n o f B e l t i a n a g e . "The P r i e s t R i v e r t e r r a n e and t h e A l d r i d g e f o r m -a t i o n a r e r o c k s o f t h e same f o r m a t i o n d i f f e r i n g o n l y i n d e g r e e o f metamorphism." C.W. D r y s d a l e , i n 1916, s u b s t a n t i a t e d S c h o f i e l d ' s 3 s t a t e m e n t : "The P r i e s t R i v e r t e r r a n e , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g 3 S c h o f i e l d , S . J . - T r a n s . R o y . S o c . , Can., V b l . X V I I , S e c . I V , ; 1923, p.82. A r c h a e a n , i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be B e l t i a n and s i m p l y t h e h y d r o -t h e r m a l l y metamorphosed e x t e n s i o n o f t h e P u r c e l l s e r i e s a c r o s s -59-t h e P u r c e l l t r e n c h a s o r i g i n a l l y shown on t h e West K o o t e n a y map, The metamorphism i s due to b a t h o l i t h i c i n v a s i o n w h i c h i n t h i s l o c a l i t y a p p e a r s t o c o n f o r m c l o s e l y t o t h e r e g i o n a l s t r u c -t u r e , t h e f o r m a t i o n s w i n g i n g t o p a r a l l e l t h e g r a n i t e c o n t a c t s . The t e r r a n e i n c l u d e s the f o l d e d and domed K i t c h e n e r , C r e s t o n and A l d r i d g e members p f t h e P u r c e l l s e r i e s c u t h e r e and t h e r e by g r a n i t e and co m p l e m e n t a r y d y k e s f r o m t h e l a r g e a d j a c e n t masses o f g r a n i t e I n t h e P u r c e l l t r e n c h no e v i d e n c e was f o u n d o f a p r o n o u n c e d r e g i o n a l b r e a k o r f a u l t w i t h a downthrow w h i c h may measure 20,000 t o 30,000 f e e t ( D a l y ) . . . . . . . The I r e n e c o n g l o m e r a t e i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e b a s e o f t h e B e l t t e r r a n e i n Canada ( D a l y ) b u t s i m p l y t h e b a s e o f a y o u n g e r s e r i e s t h a n t h e P u r c e l l . ' * 1 I n 1920, S c h o f i e l d , i n h i s r e p o r t o n t h e A i n s w o r t h 1 S c h o f i e l d , S . J . - G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Mem.ll77"l920, p.14. M i n i n g Camp, d i s c u s s e s the age o f t h e "Shuswap" r o c k s o f t h a t a r e a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s : " I n 1914 a s a r e s u l t o f t h e s t u d y o f t h e s e r i e s o f r o c k s l y i n g e a s t o f K o o t e n a y l a k e and west o f th e w e s t e r n l i m i t o f the C r a n b r o o k map a r e a t h e w r i t e r f o u n d t h a t t h e P u r c e l l s e r i e s p a s s e d c o n f o r m a b l y u n d e r t h e r o c k s d e s i g n a t e d a s Shuswap by Dawson. Hence t h i s s e r i e s e x p o s e d on th e e a s t e r n and w e s t e r n s l o p e s o f K o o t e n a y l a k e i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f A i n s w o r t h must be l a t e r i n age t h a n t h e P u r c e l l s e r i e s and can n o t be Shuswap o r p r e - B e l t i a n . The abundant s i l l s o f pegma-t i t e i n t h e s o - c a l l e d Shuswap s e r i e s a r e unmetamorphosed, whereas t h e s e r i e s i t s e l f c o n s i s t s e n t i r e l y o f h i g h l y metamor-p h o s e d r o c k s . These p e g m a t i t e s , b e c o m i n g more numerous a s t h e -6o-t e r r a n e i3 d e s c e n d e d o n t h e l o w e r e l o p e s o f K o o t e n a y l a k e and a l o n g t h e s h o r e s o f t h e l a k e i t s e l f , a r e g e n e t i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e K e l s o n g r a n i t e o f J u r a s s i c a g e . I n t h e o l d r e p o r t , t h e c o n t a c t b e t w e e n the s o - c a l l e d Shuswap s e r i e s and t h e l a t e r r o c k s was p l a c e d where the p e g m a t i t e s i l l s c e a s e t o a p p e a r i n the a s s o c i a t e d s c h i s t s ; h ut f o r t h e r e a s o n s g i v e n above i t w i l l be s e e n t h a t t h e s e s i l l s c a n n o t be u s e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g o r d e l i m i t i n g t h e age o r s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e s o -c a l l e d Shuswap s e r i e s and t h e l a t e r r o c k s a n d t h a t t h e s c h i s t s t h a t have been c a l l e d Shuswap r o c k s a r e r e a l l y metamorphosed e q u i v a l e n t s o f s e d i m e n t s w h i c h a r e B e l t i a n o r p o s t - B e l t i a n i n age. I n t h e A i n s w o r t h a r e a the Ainsworth s e r i e s c o n s i s t s o f a c o n f o r m a b l e s e t o f s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s w h i c h u n d e r l i e s c o n f o r m -a b l y the r o c k s o f t h e S l o e a n s e r i e s w h i c h a r e P e n n s y l v a n i a n i n age. Hence t h e A i n s w o r t h s e r i e s i s C a r b o n i f e r o u s o r p r e -C a r b o n i f e r o u s and p r o b a b l y p o s t - B e l t i a n i n a g e . " M..F. B a n c r o f t s p e n t s e v e r a l y e a r s i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e r o c k s e x p o s e d on t h e west s h o r e o f K o o t e n a y l a k e w i t h t h o s e o f t h e l a r d e a u and t h e i r c o n t i n u a t i o n n o r t h w a r d t o t h e C.P.R. main l i n e a t R e v e l s t o k e , i n t h e S e l k i r k m o u n t a i n s . He 1 f o u n d t h a t the o l d e s t r o c k s were d i v i s i b l e i n t o a b a s a l s e r i e s 1 B a n c r o f t , M.F.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1921, p.I09A. (Shuswap o f Dawson) and a y o u n g e r s e r i e s o f s e d i m e n t s ( H i s k o n -l i t h o f Dawson). Of t h e age r e l a t i o n s h i p he w r i t e s : " T h e r e c a n be no doubt t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e i n t e r v a l i s r e p r e s e n t e d between t h e basement r o c k s and t h e S l o c a n ( K i s k o n l i t h ) s e r i e s . " 2 S c h o f i e l d , however, i n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s age r e l a t i o n s h i p , 2 S c h o f i e l d , S.J..- T r a n s . R o y . S o c . C a n . , V o l . X V I I , S e c . I V , p.b7* -61-disagrees with Bancroft; "This contact was c a r e f u l l y studied by the writer at A i n s w o r t h . It i s clear that the two series are conformable.•••• no evidence was found of a time i n t e r v a l at the same contact in the Ainsworth section where the same f o s s i l i f e r o u s rocks (Slocan series) o v e r l i e the basement rocks." Bancroft gives no evidence to support his view. 1 In 1928, C.E. Cairnes , reporting on a reconnaissance 1 Cairnes, C.E.- Geol.Surv.Can., Summ.Rept. 192b, p.97A. between Upper Arrow and Slocan lakes, postulates an unconform-i t y between pre-Cambrian c r y s t a l l i n e s chists and the overlying Kaslq series of volcanic and basic i n t r u s i v e s , mesozoic i n age: "The general structure of the pre-Cambrian rocks lends strength to the view that they are separated by a great unconformity from succeeding sedimentary and v r l c a n i c formations. Their average dip i s low as compared with that of l a t e r formations and t h e i r strike does not everywhere conform with the north-westerly trend of deformation of the younger rocks The age of these older rocks i s referred, t e n t a t i v e l y , to the late "pre-Cambrian on the basis o f l i t h o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t y with rocks of that age appearing along the shores of Kootenay lake and extending northerly and northwesterly into lardeau country." Ho int r u s i v e i s described as pre-Cambrian. In 1915, R.A. Haly^ described an unconformity between 2 Daly, R.A.- Geo1.Surv.Can., Mem.68, 1915. p.62. the Shuswap series and the overlying Albert Canyon d i v i s i o n at Albert canyon on the main l i n e of the C.P.R. He described the basal quartzite of the Albert Canyon d i v i s i o n as unconformably -62-o v e r l y i n g a n o r t h o g n e i s s i c s i l l o f t h e Shuswap t e r r a n e . "The o r t h o g n e i s s i c s i l l i s r i v e n , by numerous d y k e s o f a p l i t e and p e g m a t i t e o f t y p i c a l Shuswap h a b i t T h e i r i n j e c t i o n e n t i r e -l y a n t e d a t e d t h e B e l t i a n s y s t e m , i n w h i c h n e i t h e r s i l l , n o r dyke o f g r a n i t e , a p l i t e , o r p e g m a t i t e was f o u n d a t any h o r i z o n w i t h i n t h e a r e a c o v e r e d . The s a l i c i n j e c t i o n s c u t t i n g t h e o r t h o g n e i s s a r e t r u n c a t e d by t h e o l d e r o s i o n s u r f a c e l i m i t i n g 1 t h e g r e a t body a b o v e . " H.C. G u n n i n g r e p o r t e d o n t h i s c o n t a c t 1 G u n n i n g , E . G . — G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept* I 9 2 o , p . i ^ Q A . i n 1928 a n d d i s p u t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an u n c o n f o r m i t y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g words: "The s e c t i o n p r o v e s t h a t t h e f r e s h g r a n i t i c d y k e s , i n c l u d i n g a p l i t e s and p e g m a t i t e s t h a t c u t t h e g n e i s s e s , a l s o c u t t h e o v e r l y i n g s e d i m e n t s . Ho u n c o n f o r m i t y was n o t e d . D a l y d i v i d e d t h e i n t r u s i v e s i n t o an o l d e r g r a n i t e of- p r e -2 B e l t i a n age and a y o u n g e r , J u r a s s i c , g r a n i t e . G u n n i n g 2 G u n n i n g , E T C . - Idem., p . I 5 l A . r e f e r r e d t h e o l d e r g r a n i t e , t h e o r t h o g n e i s 3 o f t h e c o m p l e x , t o t h e M e s o z o i e . D u r i n g the f i e l d s e a s o n s o f 1929 and 19J0 t h e w r i t e r w o r k e d , u n d e r Dr. C.E. C a i r n e s , i n t h e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g Mable a n d S u g a r l a k e s w h i c h l i e about 35 m i l e s s o u t h - e a s t o f Shuswap l a k e . T h e r e the metamorphic Shuswap 3 e r i e s u n d e r l i e s a s e r i e s o f l e s s a l t e r e d r o c k s c o r r e l a t e d b y Dawson w i t h h i s I T i s k o n l i t h t o t h e n o r t h . The s i 1 1 - s e d i m e n t complex s t r i k e s n o r t h - s o u t h , t h e s o - c a l l e d K i s k o n l i t h s t r i k e s e a s t - w e s t . Where t h e comp l e x p a s s e s i n t o the o v e r l y i n g r o c k s t h e s t r i k e s s w i n g more n e a r l y n o r t h w e s t e r l y and may e v e n be e a s t - w e s t i n p l a c e s . The • -63-d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e o f the two s e r i e s w o u l d i n d i c a t e a n u n -c o n f o r m i t y . The v a r y i n g s t r i k e s n e a r t h e c o n t a c t a r e t o be e x p e c t e d i f p r e s s u r e i s a p p l i e d t h r o u g h t h e medium o f an u n e v e n s u r f a c e . Dr. C a i r n e s , however, i n c l i n e s t o t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e 1 a p p a r e n t u n c o n f o r m i t y i s s t r u c t u r a l r a t h e r t h a n s t r a t i g r a p h i c . 1 C a i r n e s , C.E.- P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . ~ Whether o r n o t an a c t u a l u n c o n f o r m i t y e x i s t s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e i n t r u s i v e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o m p l e x a l s o a f f e c t e d t h e s o - c a l l e d N i o k o n l i t h ; e v i d e n c e s o f t h e b l e a c h i n g o f b o t h q u a r t z i t e s and a r g i l l i t e s , s l l i e i f i c a t i o n o f l i m e s t o n e s , a n d g r a d a t i o n s between t r u e a r g i l l i t e and q u a r t z i t e a n d r o c k s h a r d -l y d i s c e r n i b l e f r o m a c i d i g n e o u s t y p e s a r e q u i t e common. S e v e n t h i n s e c t i o n s were e x a m i n e d o f r o c k s , s e v e r a l o f w h i c h , i n t h e f i e l d , were commonly m i s t a k e n f o r i n t r u s i v e s , and i n e v e r y e a s e s a v e t h a t o f an o b v i o u s p e g m a t i t e t h e s e p r o v e d to be o f s e d i m e n -t a r y o r i g i n . Ho e v i d e n c e was f o u n d o f an i n t r u s i v e o l d e r t h a n 2 l a t e M e s o z o i c . The d e t a i l s o f the m i c r o s c o p i c e x a m i n a t i o n o f •2 C a i r n e s , C.E.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1931, pp.b7A and 70A. t h e t h i n s e c t i o n s a r e a s f o l l o w s . S e v e n s p e c i m e n s o f t h e complex f r o m t y p e e x p o s u r e s were e x a m i n e d m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y . One o f t h e s e , t a k e n f r o m t h e s o u t h s i d e o f t h e r i v e r , j u s t e a s t o f Shuswap P a i l s , i s g r e y i n c o l o u r and w e l l b anded, r e s e m b l i n g , i n hand s p e c i m e n , a b a nded q u a r t z i t e . The w e a t h e r e d s u r f a c e shows e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t i a l w e a t h e r i n g ; t h e more s i l i c e o u s band shows c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e a l t e r a t i o n w h i l e t h e o t h e r i s p i t t e d a n d , i n some p l a c e s , e n t i r e l y removed f r o m between t h e a d j a c e n t bands f o r a d i s t a n c e -64-i n w a r d s o f a b o u t l / 8 o f an i n c h . I n t h i n s e c t i o n t h i s r o c k i s s e e n t o be composed l a r g e l y o f q u a r t z and a c a r b o n a t e , i n a l t e r n a t i n g l a y e r s . The c a r b o n a t e shows c o n s i d e r a b l e a l t e r a t i o n , w h i c h makes t h e c e r -t a i n d e t e r m i n a t i o n d i f f i c u l t ; i t a p p e a r s t o be d o l o m i t e . Mag-n e t i t e g r a i n s a r e f a i r l y p r o m i n e n t a n d , w h i l e t h e y a r e d i s t r i b u -t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e c t i o n , t e n d t o c o n c e n t r a t e i n t h e c a r b o n a t e b a n d s . C y a n i t e i s p r e s e n t , l a r g e l y w i t h i n t h e c a r b o n a t e b a n d s , t h o u g h a few g r a i n s l i e i n t h e q u a r t z l a y e r s , i n c l u d e d i n i n d i v i d u a l q u a r t z g r a i n s . A few g r a i n s o f a u g i t e and a l i t t l e m u s e o v i t e a l s o o c c u r . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t w h e r e a s bands o f a l m o s t p u r e c a r b o n a t e a r e o b s e r v e d , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be no s i l i c a l a y e r w h i c h does h o t c o n t a i n p a r t i c l e s o f e v e r y o t h e r m i n e r a l p r e s e n t . The q u a r t z g r a i n s a r e u n i f o r m i n s i z e and i n t e r l o c k b o t h w i t h one a n o t h e r and w i t h g r a i n s o f t h e o t h e r m i n e r a l s . A s l i g h t amount o f g r a n u l a t i o n i s n o t i c e -a b l e between some o f t h e c a r b o n a t e g r a i n s , b u t , on t h e w h o l e , the r o c k h a s b e e n w e l l r e c r y s t a l l i z e d . The s e c o n d s p e c i m e n , t a k e n from a n o u t c r o p a b o u t two h u n d r e d f e e t a bove the Shusvsrap R i v e r on t h e h i l l t o t h e s o u t h , a b o u t a m i l e e a s t o f Shuswap F a l l s , i s s i m i l a r i n c o l o u r a n d s t r u c t u r e t o t h e r o c k j u s t d e s c r i b e d . I t i s , however, g a r n e t -i f e r o u s . The garnet3 measure about a n e i g h t h o f a n i n c h i n d i a m e t e r and a r e r e d i n c o l o u r . E x a m i n e d i n t h i n s e c t i o n , t h e r o c k p r o v e s t o be com-p o s e d c h i e f l y o f q u a r t z and f e l d s p a r , w i t h s e c o n d a r y b i o t i t e d e v e l o p e d i n b a n d s . The g a r n e t s show f r a c t u r i n g . The f r a c -t u r e s a r e f i l l e d w i t h q u a r t z , The f e l d s p a r i s b a d l y w e a t h e r e d -65-and c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d o n l y as a member o f t h e p l a g i o c l a s e g r o u p , w i t h a s m a l l amount o f o r t h o c l a s e . A c c e s s o r y m i n e r a l s a r e c h l o r i t e , h o r n b l e n d e and m a g n e t i t e . 'The c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e s e two s p e c i m e n s i s o f some i m p o r t a n c e s i n c e t h e y have been t a k e n from o u t c r o p s s i m i l a r i n a p p e a r a n c e a n d s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o s e t o g e t h e r t o a l l o w o f t h e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e y a r e e x p o s u r e s o f one c o n t i n u o u s r o c k mass. The c a r b o n a t e , so abundant i n t h e f i r s t , i s m i s s i n g i n t h e s e c o n d ; m a g n e t i t e i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e and a b u n d a n t i n t h e f i r s t , i t i s f i n e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d and s c a r c e i n t h e s e c o n d . C h l o r i t e i s a b s e n t f r o m the f i r s t , b u t p r e s e n t i n s m a l l amounts i n t h e s e c o n d . The s e c o n d i s g a r n e t i f e r o u s . The c a r b o n a t e s and some o f t h e i r o n may have combined t o f o r m g a r n e t o f t h e v a r i e t y a n d r a d i t e . The b i o t i t e i s b e g i n n i n g t o go o v e r t o c h l o r i t e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i n t e n s i t y o f metamorphism i n c r e a s e s 'eastward f r o m Shuswap F a l l s , i . e . t o w a r d s t h e l e n s o f p e g m a t i t e s o u t h o f Woodward C r e e k . On t h e S i l v e r K i l l s , west o f S h u n t e r s C r e e k , i s a b r i t t l e s c h i s t o s e r o c k s h o w i n g , i n hand s p e c i m e n , e x t e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b i o t i t e . T h e r e i s a s u g g e s t i o n o f a b a n d i n g , a t a n a n g l e t o t h e s c h i 3 t o s i t y , n a r k e d by l a y e r s o f a more d i s t i n c t i v e s i l v e r y s h e e n . Q u a r t z i s the most dominant m i n e r a l . W i t h t h e q u a r t z i s a s m a l l q u a n t i t y o f o r t h o c l a s e . T h e s e two m i n e r a l s f o r m a groundmass, f i n e a n d e v e n g r a i n e d , i n w h i c h l i e i d e o m o r p h i c b a s a l t i c h o r n b l e n d e , h y p i d e o m o r p h i c b i o t i t e and m u s c o v i t e a n d g a r n e t a n d a l l o t r i o m o r p h i c t o u r m a l i n e . The m u s c o v i t e i s -66-a l i g n e d i n t h e p l a n e o f t h e s e h i s t o s i t y , i n p l a c e s b e n t a r o u n d g r a i n s o f q u a r t z f e l d s p a r a n d b i o t i t e f l a k e s have b e e n o b s e r v e d i n c l u d e d i n q u a r t z g r a i n s . C l u s t e r s o f s m a l l b i o t i t e f l a k e s , t o u r m a l i n e and q u a r t z g r a i n s , bounded by b e n t f l a k e s o f musco-v i t e o c c u r o c c a s i o n a l l y i n t h e s e c t i o n . The g r e a t p r e d o m i n a n c e o f q u a r t z i n t h e groundmass, t o g e t h e r w i t h the p r e s e n c e o f c r y s t a l s o f g a r n e t , t o u r m a l i n e a n d m i c a and the o c c u r r e n c e o f the c l u s t e r s m e n t i o n e d above 1. L e j t h , O.K., a n d Head, W.J. , Met a m o r p h i c G e o l o g y , p.225« *" w h i c h s u g g e s t a l t e r e d and r e - c r y s t a l l i z e d p e b b l e s , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s r o c k has; b e e n d e r i v e d f r o m a s e d i m e n t , p r o b a b l y a n impure s a n d s t o n e . The g a r n e t and h o r n b l e n d e show c o n s i d e r a b l e f r a c -t u r i n g and s l i g h t d i s p l a c e m e n t , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t movement w i t h i n t h e s c h i s t c o n t i n u e d a f t e r t h e y h a d f o r m e d . I t i s n o t e d , how-? e v e r , t h a t t h e h o r n b l e n d e a n d b i o t i t e a r e n o t o r i e n t a t e d p a r a l l e l to t h e p l a n e s o f s e h i s t o s i t y , a s i s t h e m u s c o v i t e , b u t a r e m u t u a l l y p a r a l l e l a t a h i g h a n g l e to the s c h i n t o s i t y . T h r e e o f t h e s p e c i m e n s a r e f r o m a c l i f f on t h e west s i d e o f the Shuswap R i v e r , a b o u t a m i l e b e l o w S u g a r l a k e . The f i r s t was t a k e n n e a r t h e t o p o f the c l i f f a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 3800 f e e t . I t i s a f i n e - g r a i n e d , l a m i n a t e d q u a r t z o s e r o c k , d i r e c t l y u n d e r l y i n g a p h y l l i t e . E x a m i n e d i n t h i n s e c t i o n , t h e r o c k p r o v e s t o be com-p o s e d o f about e i g h t y p e r c e n t q u a r t z , w i t h m u s c o v i t e and s e r p e n t i n e d e r i v e d f r o m c h r y s o l i t e I n about e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n s . The m u s c o v i t e and s e r p e n t i n e o c c u r a t o r n e a r t h e p l a n e s o f t h e l a m i n a e . The q u a r t z g r a i n s a r e i n t e r l o c k e d . -67-T J n d e r l y i n g t h i s r o c k , and exposed, t o 200 f e e t b e l o w i t , i s a f i n e - g r a i n e d , q u a r t z o s e and c a l c a r e o u s f o r m a t i o n . The r o c k b r e a k s w i t h a c o n c h o i d a l f r a c t u r e . M i c r o s c o p i c e x a m i n a t i o n shows the r o c k t o be made up , p r i n c i p a l l y , o f i n t e r l o c k i n g g r a i n s o f q u a r t z , w i t h a b o u t t w e n t y p e r c e n t c a l e i t e , a few g r a i n s o f a b a d l y a l t e r e d p y r o x -ene ( d i o p s i u e ? ) a n d a s m a l l amount o f f i n e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d m a g n e t i t e . I n s e v e r a l p l a c e s q u a r t z was i n t r u s i v e i n t o t h e c a l e i t e g r a i n s a n d , i n one i n s t a n c e , i n c l u d e d a c a l e i t e g r a i n . At l e a s t some o f t h e q u a r t z , t h e n , i a l a t e r t h a n t h e c a l e i t e , a l t h o u g h t h e enormous p r e d o m i n a n c e o f q u a r t z i n t h i s r o c k r e n d e r s i t u n l i k e l y t h a t the o r i g i n a l mass was e v e r a l i m e s t o n e . I t was, more p r o b a b l y , a c a l c a r e o u s s a n d s t o n e . A t an e l e v a t i o n o f 5500 f e e t , on t h e same c l i f f , a s i l l o f p e g m a t i t e was f o u n d . The f e l d s p a r s a r e o r t h o c l a s e and o l i g o c l a s e . On t h e Mabel Lake r o a d , j u s t n o r t h o f Mabel L a k e P. 0., t h e r e o c c u r s a w e l l banded r o c k , o f a l t e r n a t i n g s i l i -c e o u s and m i c a c e o u s l a y e r s . T h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s c o n -c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e b i o t i t e a t the c o n t a c t s b e t w e e n the b a n d s , b u t i n some p l a c e s t h e r e i s i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n and c o n s e q u e n t b l u r r i n g o f t h e s e c o n t a c t s . M i c r o s c o p i c a l l y t h e bands d i f f e r i n s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s . The s i l i c e o u s band i s composed o f e v e n l y s i z e d g r a i n s o f q u a r t z , o r t h o c l a s e , raicrocline, a p l a g i o c l a s e f e l d s p a r n e a r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f l a b r a d o r i t e , a s m a l l amount o f b i o t i t e and some d i s s e m i n a t e d m a g n e t i t e . The m i c a c e o u s band c o n s i s t s o f q u a r t z , -68-o r t h o c l a s e , a l b i t e , d i o p s i d e , b i o t i t e , t o u r m a l i n e and a l a r g e r amount o f m a g n e t i t e . The a l b i t e was d e t e r m i n e d f r o m m e a s u r e -ments o f t h e a n g l e , f r o m t h e t r a c e s o f p e r i c l i n e a n d a l b i t e t w i n n i n g on 100, and f r o m e x t i n c t i o n a n g l e s . B o t h bands a r e e v e n g r a i n e d , t h e s i l i c e o u s b e i n g s l i g h t l y f i n e r . I n b o t h t h e g r a i n s a r e i n t e r l o c k i n g . The b i o t i t e i n t h e m i c a c e o u s l a y e r h a s b e e n f r a c t u r e d and c r u m p l e d . I t f r e q u e n t l y i n c l u d e s g r a i n s o f f e l d s p a r s . T h i s r o c k i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a n example o f l i t - p a r - l i t i n j e c t i o n . The f e l d s p a r s i n t h e s i l i c e o u s l a y e r , o r t h o c l a s e , m i c r o c l i n e , l a b r a d o r i t e , a r e t y p i c a l o f an i g n e o u s r o c k ; t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s i l i c a i s n o t t o o g r e a t ; what c a n be o b s e r v e d o f an o r d e r o f c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n i s t h e n o r m a l one f o r a n i g n e o u s r o c k . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f a l b i t e ^ a nd d i o p -s i d e 2 i n t h e m i c a c e o u s l a y e r , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p r e s e n c e o f 1 W i n c h e l l , A.H.- E l e m e n t s o f O p t i c a l M i n e r a l o g y , P t . I I , p.329. 2 W i n c h e l l , A.N.- I b i d . , p.185.  s e c o n d a r y b i o t i t e , l e a d s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t s u c h b a n d s a r e metamorphosed s e d i m e n t s . C h e m i c a l A n a l y s e s . P a r t i a l c h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s were made o f t h e f i r s t two r o c k s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n , f r o m the v i c i n i t y o f Shuswap F a l l s . -69-I I I I I I IV S i O 40.29 57.55 56.65 49.81 A 1 2 0 ^ 5.09 0.65 5.03 5.17 Pe^O^ 9.14 0.92 0.82 29.17 CaO 16.90 9.28 22.12 2.43 KgO 8.48 8.01 3.44 0.95 77.90 76.41 66.06 87.55 I . From Shuswap F a l l s . I I . From one m i l e east o f Shuswap F a l l s . I I I . S a n d s t o n e f r o m W e s t p h a l i a . I V . Ferruginous Sandstone from Folkestone, England." Clarke, F.W.- B u l l e t i n 330, TT.3.S.S. , p74TT7 A s a l i e n t f e a t u r e o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s r e v i e w e d above i s t he p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h e f a c t t h a t r o c k s o f t h e "Shuswap" t y p e i n c e n t r a l and s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e f o u n d t o c o n f o r m -a b l y u n d e r l i e f o r m a t i o n s o f C a r b o n i f e r o u s age. The f i e l d work done a l o n g t h i s c o n t a c t shows t h a t an unconformit;/" e x i s t s f o r a no t p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d d i s t a n c e between A l b e r t Canyon and A i n s -w o r t h , t h e f o r m a t i o n s b ecoming c o n f o r m a b l e a t t h e s e p o i n t s . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n t h i s f a c t a l o n e w h i c h d e n i e s t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s o f the complex a r e l a t e p r e - C a m b r i a n i n a g e , and t h a t i s t h e h y p o t h e s i s commonly a g r e e d upon. I f t h i s i s s o , why i n t h e r e no d e f i n i t e e v i d e n c e o f pre-Carbonife-r o u s s t r a t a i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f " A l b e r t Canyon and a t A i n s w o r t h ? -70-A n o t h e r p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t i s t h a t t h e o l d e s t r o c k s above C a i r n e s ' " G r e a t U n c o n f o r m i t y " between the S l o c a n and U p p e r A r r o w l a k e s a r e M e s o z o i c i n a g e . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e P r i e s t R i v e r t e r r a n e , t h e complex has n o t b e e n d e f i n i t e l y shown t o be p r e - C a m b r i a n I n any l o c a l i t y . I f i t i s assumed t h a t t h e c omplex, i n the t y p e a r e a , d o e s r e p r e s e n t s e d i m e n t s o f a s i n g l e p e r i o d o f d e p o s i t i o n , a l l t h a t i s d e f i n i t e l y known o f t h e s e r i e s i s t h a t i t i s p r e - C a r b o n i f e r o u s . The h y p o t h e s i s o f Dawson, t h a t t h e complex i s A r c h a e a n , must be d e f i n i t e l y a b andoned a n d i n f u t u r e the b u r d e n o f p r o o f o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p r e - B e l t i a n r o c k s i n t h e C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a must r e s t w i t h t h e g e o l o g i s t who makes t h a t a s s e r t i o n . B e c a u s e o f t h e w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e o f Dawson's c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e complex, many f o r m a t i o n s , t h e age o f w h i c h i s o b s c u r e and may w e l l r e m a i n s o , have b e e n r e f e r r e d t o t h e A r c h a e a n and t h e t e r m "Shuswap" has t h u s become f i r m l y embedded i n the l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s s c a r c e l y c o n c e i v a b l e , i n t h e l i g h t o f p r e s e n t k n o w l e d g e , t h a t a l l , o r a n y , o f t h e s e f o r m a t i o n s w i l l p r o v e t o be o f t h e same age. I n r e g a r d t o age t h e t e r m "Shuswap" i s m e a n i n g l e s s , but f o r t u n a t e l y i t h a s b e e n a p p l i e d o n l y t o r o c k s whioh have s u f f e r e d a h i g h d e g r e e o f metamorphism and i n t h a t r e g a r d the meaning i s d e f i n i t e . D e p r i v e d o f any a g e - s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e n , I t may be r e t a i n e d , w i t h o u t a d d i n g t o c o n f u s i o n , i n t h e g e o l o g i c a l n o m e n c l a t u r e o f t h e C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a . The p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f t h e t e r m "Shuswap" c a n be summarized as f o l l o w s : -71-1. I t i s a p p l i e d to f o r m a t i o n s w h i c h a r e n o t a l l o f t h e same a g e . 2. Over a wide a r e a t h e ''Shuswap" t e r r a n e i s d e f i n i t e l y n o t A r c h a e a n and may be p o s t - B e l t i a n . 3. Ho "Shuswap" f o r m a t i o n s a r e known t o be A r c h a e a n . -72-CKAPTER V. BELTIAN CLIMATE AND CONDITIONS OF SEDIMENTAT I ON. The c h i e f f a c t o r s g o v e r n i n g t h e p o s s i b l e d e d u c t i o n s i n r e g a r d to c l i m a t e a n d c o n d i t i o n s o f s e d i m e n t a t i o n f r o m i n d u r a t e d s e d i m e n t s a r e g r a i n s i z e , shape o f g r a i n , s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e s ( s u c h as r a i n - p i t s , r i p p l e - m a r k s , m u d - c r a c k s ) , c r o s s - b e d d i n g , a n d c o l o u r . 1 T w e n h o f e l d i s c u s s e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f v a r i o u s 1 T w e n h o f e l , W.H.- " T r e a t i s e on S e d i m e n t a t i o n " , 1932. c o l o u r s o n f r e s h r o c k s u r f a c e s a s f o l l o w s : B l a c k i s due l a r g e -l y t o i n c o m p l e t e d e c a y o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r u n d e r more o r l e s s a n a e r o b i c c o n d i t i o n s i n m a r s h e s , wet ( a n d c o l d ) p l a i n s , l a k e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e w i t h no a n n u a l o v e r t u r n , v e r y s h a l l o w w a t e r s o f t i d e l e s s o r a l m o s t t i d e l e s s s e a s , and i n deep h o l e s o f t h e s e a s and the o c e a n . G r e y s , i f d a r k , have s o m e t h i n g o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f b l a c k , b u t t h e l i g h t e r s h a d e s have a much w i d e r r a n g e o f o r i g i n . I f the d e p o s i t s a r e c o n t i n e n t a l , s e v e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e . They may be t h o s e o f a d e l t a , o f p a r t s o f t h e n e r i t i c b o t t o m o r o f t h e c o n t i n e n t a l s l o p e s , o r t h e y may have been d e p o s i t e d i n v e r y deep w a t e r . C o l o u r s a l t e r i n g f r o m one b e d d i n g u n i t t o a n o t h e r a r e c o n -s i d e r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c o n t i n e n t a l d e p o s i t s - r i v e r f l o o d p l a i n s , a l l u v i a l f a n s , d e l t a s , e t c . - but i t i s known t h a t s u c h c o m b i n a t i o n s a l s o a r e f o u n d i n t h e d e p o s i t s o f t h e n e r i t i c e n v i r o n m e n t . G r e e n , when n o t due t o g r e e n d e t r i t a l s , i n d i c a t e s c h i e f l y the more o r l e s s a l t e r e d p y r o c l a s t i c s o r t h e -73-g l a u c o n i t i c muds and. sands o f s l i g h t l y r e d u c i n g and s l o w l y a c c u m u l a t i n g a r e a s o f t h e s e a . Red c o l o u r s , y e l l o w , b u f f , p u r p l e , brown, e t c . , i m p l y t h a t d e p o s i t i o n t o o k p l a c e u n d e r c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s o f h o t a n d d r y s e a s o n s a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h r a i n y s e a s o n s , o r u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f g e n e r a l d r y n e s s , d e p o s i -t i o n i n t h e l a t t e r c a s e o c c u r r i n g i n a r e g i o n a n d c l i m a t e m a r g i n a l t o the r e g i o n o f o r i g i n o f t h e s e d i m e n t s o r i n t h e same r e g i o n , but i n a g e o l o g i c e p o c h s u b s e q u e n t to t h a t i n w h i c h t h e m a t e r i a l s became r e d . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e P u r c e l l and Windermere s e r i e s , a f f o r d i n g t h e most c o m p l e t e s e c t i o n o f d e f i n i t e l y B e l t i a n r o c k s i n t h e C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a , w i l l be u s e d t o deduce t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f B e l t i a n s e d i m e n t a t i o n . A l d r i d g e E p o c h : The b r o w n - w e a t h e r i n g g r e y q u a r t z i t e s i n d i c a t e t h e p r e s e n c e o f f e r r o u s i r o n . The g r a i n s a r e a n g u l a r 1 and s m a l l . I n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f Goat r i v e r c o n g l o m e r a t e f o r m s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e f o r m a t i o n . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f 1 3chof i en~STJ«- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Mem.7b, 1915, p » 9 o . t h i n s e c t i o n s showed a few v e r y a n g u l a r g r a i n s o f f e l d s p a r . The s e d i m e n t s , t h e n , were d e p o s i t e d i n s h a l l o w w a t e r u n d e r s e m i - a r i d c o n d i t i o n s o f c l i m a t e . The m a t e r i a l s were n o t t r a n s -p o r t e d v e r y f a r and were d e r i v e d f r o m a n i g n e o u s r o c k , p r o b a b l y o f a v e r y a c i d t y p e . C r e s t o n E p o c h : The s e d i m e n t s a r e f i n e r i n g r a i n t h a n t h o s e o f the A l d r i d g e . The g r a i n s a r e a n g u l a r and f e l d s p a r i s more p r o m i n e n t . The dominant c o l o u r s a r e g r e e n and p u r p l e . -74-Climatic conditions, then, are becoming more a r i d , or else the water i s shallowing. The presence of a r g i l l i t e s i n t h i s form-ation, i n conjunction with the presence of angular grains of feldspar, shows that the water was deepening. Kitchener Epoch: The limy nature of t h i s formation, with the thick beds of limestone, points to f a i r l y deep water sedi-mentation. On the whole, the grains are much better rounded and feldspar i s quite rare. These sediments then, have been transported farther than those of the Aldridge and Creston. This suggests that the land surface from which the sediments are coming has become appreciably lower i n elevation above sea-l e v e l . The colours of the shallow water phases, the calcareous quartzites, are those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of alternating wet and dry seasons under t r o p i c a l conditions. Siyeh Epoch: Evidently a great change i n conditions took place with the coming of Siyeh time. The colours of the s e d i -ments are greyish-green, red, purple and brown. The formation i s dominantly of somewhat calcareous mud-rocks. F o s s i l r a i n -p r i n t s , mud-cracks and ripple-marks are common. The grains are dominantly of quartz, and no fresh feldspar was seen i n t h i n -section. Ripple-marks showing the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n t e r -ference ripple-marks (Plate X ; are common. Kindle has found 1 Kindle, E.M.- Geol.Surv.Can., H u s T l u l l . Ko.25, 1917, P*34. that such ripple-marks are formed i n shallow water i n which the ordinary wave generated by the action of the wind on the sur-face i 3 s p l i t up into two or more sets of o s c i l l a t i o n s moving -75-i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . They a r e n e v e r s e e n a l o n g a s t r a i g h t , 1 u n i n t e r r u p t e d s h o r e - l i n e . The p r e s e n c e o f raud-cracks o v e r a 1' K i n d l e , E.M.- I b i d . , p.36. w i d e a r e a s u g g e s t s a g r e a t t i d e - f l a t , a l t e r n a t e l y l e f t e x p o s e d t o t h e a c t i o n o f a d r y i n g - w i n d and l a t e r c o v e r e d by s h a l l o w w a t e r , so s h a l l o w t h a t i t s r i p p l e a c t i o n d i d n o t a p p r e c i a b l y b e v e l t h e e dges o f the m u d - c r a c k s ( P l a t e X I ) . The e x i s t e n c e o f d eep r a i n p i t s ( P l a t e X ) shows t h a t t h e r e were s e a s o n s o f h e a v y r a i n f a l l . The r o c k c o l o u r s i n d i c a t e a r i d c o n d i t i o n s a n d t h e i r a l t e r n a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t , i n p a r t , t h e y may be d e l t a d e p o s i t s . I t may be assumed, t h e n , t h a t t h e l a n d s u r f a c e s u p p l y i n g t h e s e d i m e n t s has u n d e r g o n e c o n s i d e r a b l e u p l i f t s i n c e K i t c h e n e r t i m e . I f a h i g h r a n g e o f m o u n t a i n s e x i s t e d n e a r t h e b o r d e r s o f t h e S i y e h s e a , d u r i n g t h e s e a s o n i n w h i c h w e s t e r l y w i n d s p r e v a i l e d t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n w o u l d be on t h e m o u n t a i n t o p s and to t h e west o r l a n d w a r d s i d e , s i n c e t h e w e s t e r l y w i n d s w o u l d l o s e t h e i r m o i s t u r e w h i l e c r o s s i n g t h e r a n g e . The w i n d c r o s s i n g t h e s h o r e l i n e d u r i n g t h i s s e a s o n w o u l d t h e r e f o r e be a d r y i n g w i n d . D u r i n g a s e a s o n o f e a s t e r l y p r e v a i l i n g w i n d s t h e o p p o s i t e e f f e c t w o u l d o b t a i n and t h e c o a s t w o u l d have a r e l a t i v e l y humid c l i m a t e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t i n t h e s e beds we have t h e f i r s t h i n t o f a l a r g e r i v e r f l o w i n g f r o m t h e o l d l a n d mass. D e p o s i t i o n o f t h e B e l t i a n s e d i m e n t s was i n t e r r u p t e d a t the c l o s e o f S i y e h t i m e by t h e o u t p o u r i n g o f t h e P u r c e l l l a v a , a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e i n t r u s i o n o f t h e P u r c e l l s i l l s i n t o t h e A l d r i d g e s e d i m e n t s . The P u r c e l l l a v a s u r f a c e p r o j e c t e d -76-above t h e s u r f a c e o f the s e a , t h o u g h 3 l i g h t l y , s i n c e a b o u t 18 i n c h e s o f c o n g l o m e r a t e mark t h e d i v i s i o n between i t and t h e a n g u l a r l y c o n f o r m a b l e o v e r l y i n g Gateway f o r m a t i o n . Gateway E p o c h : The Gateway i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y r i p p l e -marks, m u d - c r a c k s a n d a b u n d a n t c a s t s o f s a l t c r y s t a l s . T h e r e -f o r e c o n d i t i o n s were n o t much d i f f e r e n t t h a n d u r i n g S i y e h t i m e . P h i l l i p s E p o c h : C o n t i n e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s o f d e p o s i t i o n c o n t i n u e d . R o o s v i l l e E p o c h : C o n t i n e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s o f d e p o s i t i o n c o n t i n u e d . G r e e n c o l o r a t i o n b e c o m i n g more p r o m i n e n t i n t h e P h i l l i p s and R o o s v i l l e f o r m a t i o n s , s u g g e s t s ' t h a t t h e c l i m a t e was b e c o m i n g l e s s a r i d . T h e s e f o r m a t i o n s a r e n o t , now, p r e s e n t i n t h e P u r c e l l r a n g e . Mount N e l s o n E p o c h : A f l u c t u a t i o n o f s e a l e v e l t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h i s e p o c h w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f l i m e -s t o n e . A t t h e c l o s e o f t h i s epoch t h e s e a s e c e d e d . The o l d l a n d a g a i n sank b e n e a t h t h e s e a a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Windermere t i m e and t h e Toby c o n g l o m e r a t e was d e p o s i t e d . The m a t e r i a l s o f t h e c o n g l o m e r a t e show e v i d e n c e s o f v e r y s h o r t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . H o r s e t h i e f E p o c h : G r e e n and p u r p l i s h c o l o u r s and c o a r s e and f i n e s e d i m e n t s show t h a t t h e c l i m a t e was p r o b a b l y s e m i - a r i d w i t h t h e d e p t h o f t h e s e a v a r y i n g f r o m f a i r l y s h a l l o w t o d e e p , - 7 7 -w i t h s h a l l o w s p r e d o m i n a t i n g . H a m i l l E p o c h : S i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s o b t a i n e d . Deep w a t e r became more p r e v a l e n t . B a d s h o t E p o c h : The s e a - l e v e l h a s r i s e n and most o f t h e d e p o s i t i o n was i n deep w a t e r . L a r d e a u E p o c h : The b l a c k , c a r b o n a c e o u s r o o k a t t h e b a s e may i n d i c a t e e i t h e r l a n d o r v e r y deep s e a c o n d i t i o n s . I n v i e w o f t h e a b s e n c e o f l i m e s t o n e i t i s more p r o b a b l e t h a t c o n t i n e n -t a l c o n d i t i o n s o b t a i n e d . I t i s a l s o p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e v e r y s h a l l o w b o r d e r o f an a l m o s t t i d e l e s s s e a i s r e p r e s e n t e d . T h e r e e v i d e n t l y was l i f e i n t h i s s e a . SUMMARY. The B e l t i a n s e d i m e n t s , a s t h e y a r e known a t p r e s e n t , were d e p o s i t e d a l o n g t h e s h a l l o w m a r g i n o f a s e a b o r d e r i n g a h i g h r a n g e o f m o u n t a i n s . Wide t i d e f l a t s , s i m i l a r t o t h o s e now e x i s t i n g a r o u n d H u d s o n Bay, e x t e n d e d f r o m t h e m o u n t a i n o u s c o a s t . The c l i m a t e was t r o p i c a l , w i t h a l t e r n a t i n g wet a n d d r y s e a s o n s . - 7 8 -CHAPTER V I . RELATIONSHIP TO YOUNGER FORMATIONS. To t h e S e d i m e n t s . CAMBRIAN: I n t h e C r a n b r o o k map-area t h e Lower C a m b r i a n s t r a t a 1 l i e n o n c o n f o r m a b l y upon d i f f e r e n t members o f t h e B e l t i a n . A I S c h o f i e l d , S . J . - G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , M u s . B u l l . No.55, 1922. d i s c o n f o r m i t y i3 e x p o s e d at E l k o , B.C. The e v i d e n c e s o f a d i s -c o n f o r m i t y a r e a s f o l l o w s : 1. A b s e n c e o f the Tob y c o n g l o m e r a t e and t h e H o r s e t h i e f f o r m a t i o n s p r e s e n t i n the Windermere a r e a t o t h e n o r t h . 2. A C a m b r i a n m a r i n e t r a n s g r e s s i o n i s i n f e r r e d i n t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f t h e B u r t o n f o r m a t i o n o f Lower C a m b r i a n age s i n c e t h i s i n f l u e n c e i s i n harmony w i t h o t h e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e Ro c k y M o u n t a i n g e o s y n c l i n e . 5. The c o n g l o m e r a t e a t t h e b a s e o f t h e B u r t o n i s com-p o s e d c h i e f l y o f h e m a t i t i c m a t e r i a l w i t h p e b b l e - l i k e shape a n d m i n o r q u a n t i t i e s o f q u a r t z i t e and q u a r t z i n a h e m a t i t i c cement. A c o n c e n t r i c s t r u c t u r e s u g g e s t i n g c o n c r e t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e s some o f the h e m a t i t i c c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h e c o n g l o m e r a t e . A l l t h e h e m a t i t i c p e b b l e - s h a p e d e l e m e n t s p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t s u b s e -quent e r o s i o n a n d c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f the h e m a t i t e d e p o s i t s w h i c h o c c u r a b u n d a n t l y i n t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r e - C a m b r i a n s e r i e s . The q u a r t z i t e p e b b l e s a r e i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e q u a r t z i t e s o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g P h i l l i p s f o r m a t i o n . The o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e s e p e b b l e s -79-a l r e a d y metamorphosed b e f o r e the d e p o s i t i o n o f t h e B u r t o n , i n d i c a t e s a time i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n the d e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e R o o s -v i l l e and B u r t o n f o r m a t i o n s . 4. The g r i t w h i c h o v e r l i e s t h e c o n g l o m e r a t e i s c h a r a c -t e r i z e d by t h e abundance o f m i l k y - w h i t e q u a r t z p e b b l e s e v i d e n t l y d e r i v e d f r o m t h e e r o s i o n o f q u a r t z v e i n s w h i c h a r e known t o be p r e s e n t i n t h e u n d e r l y i n g R o o s v i l l e f o r m a t i o n a n d i n o t h e r members o f t h e p r e - C a m b r i a n s e r i e s . G r e e n p e b b l e s o f the R o o s v i l l e s i l i c e o u s m e t a r g i l l i t e s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t , and s i n c e t h e y a r e metamorphosed s i m i l a r l y t o t h e m e t a r g i l l i t e s o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g R o o s v i l l e , i t s u p p o r t s t h e i d e a t h a t t h e R oos-v i l l e was metamorphosed b e f o r e the B u r t o n was l a i d down. In the s e c t i o n where n o n - c o n f o r m a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p o b t a i n s , s i x m i l e s e a s t o f C r a n b r o o k , B.C., t h e f o l l o w i n g f i e l d e v i d e n c e i s p r e s e n t : 1. The C a m b r i a n r o c k s f o r m a s y n c l i n e whose a x i s s t r i k e s a l i t t l e n o r t h o f e a s t and p l u n g e s t o w a r d t h e e a s t , w h e r e a s t h e u n d e r l y i n g B e l t i a n r o c k s s t r i k e n o r t h and s o u t h w i t h a d i p t o t h e e a s t . I n t h e i m m e d i a t e v i c i n i t y o f t h e c o n t a c t t h e s t r i k e s o f t h e two g r o u p s a r e a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o e a c h o t h e r . The u n d e r -l y i n g s e r i e s e x h i b i t s an e x t r e m e l y w e l l - m a r k e d s h e a r i n g whose s t r i k e c o r r e s p o n d s i n g e n e r a l t o t h e a x i a l s t r i k e o f t h e o v e r -l y i n g s y n c l i n e o f C a m b r i a n r o c k s . 2. The b a s a l member o f t h e l o w e r C a m b r i a n s e r i e s i s a w e l l - b e d d e d , m a s s i v e c o n g l o m e r a t e , t h e w e l l - r o u n d e d p e b b l e s o f w h i c h a r e composed c h i e f l y o f q u a r t z and o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r e -C a m b r i a n r o c k s . T h i s c o n g l o m e r a t e i s 600 f e e t t h i c k and shows -8o-r i p p l e - m a r k s , a n d, i n some p l a c e s , c r o s s - b e d d i n g . 3. The u n d e r l y i n g B e l t i a n r o c k s are s i l i c e o u s m e t a r g i l -l i t e s , g r e e n and p u r p l e i n c o l o u r , and a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by abundant m u d - c r a c k s and r i p p l e - m a r k s , e v i d e n c e o f s h a l l o w w a t e r d e p o s i t i o n . The C a m b r i a n r o c k s a r e o f m a r i n e d e p o s i t i o n . 4. The B e l t i a n r o c k s a r e w e l l - i n d u r a t e d , s i l i c e o u s m e t a r g i l l i t e s w h e r e a s t h e C a m b r i a n r o c k s o f s i m i l a r n a t u r e a r e s o f t s h a l e s . 5. The v a r y i n g t h i c k n e s s o f s i l i c e o u s m e t a r g i l l i t e s o f t h e S i y e h f o r m a t i o n , between t h e P u r c e l l l a v a and t h e b a s a l c o n g l o m e r a t e o f t h e C a m b r i a n , shows t h a t e r o s i o n h a s p e r m i t t e d t h e Lower C a m b r i a n r o c k s t o r e s t o n d i f f e r e n t h o r i z o n s o f t h e p r e - C a m b r i a n . DEVOIIAF: Wear C r a n b r o o k t h e D e v o n i a n r e s t s d i s c o n f o r m a b l y on t h e S i y e h f o r m a t i o n o f B e l t i a n a g e 1 . The h o r i z o n o f t h e 1 S c h o f i e l d , 5.J.- Geol.Surv.Can77"Mem.7b, 1913, P»53« D e v o n i a n i s p r o b a b l y the J e f f e r s o n l i m e s t o n e w h i c h r e s t s w i t h c o n c o r d a n c e o f d i p upon t h e Gateway, P u r c e l l l a v a and S i y e h f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e B e l t i a n . The e v i d e n c e f o r the d i s c o n f o r m i t y i s a s f o l l o w s ; 1. The J e f f e r s o n l i m e s t o n e r e s t s i n p a t c h e s upon d i f f e r e n t s t r a t i g r a p h i c h o r i z o n s . 2. The b a s e o f t h e J e f f e r s o n c o n s i s t s o f s a n d y l i m e s t o n e . 3. The n o n - a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e f o r m a t i o n s P h i l l i p s , R o os-v i l l e , B u r t o n and E l k o , s u g g e s t s an e r o s i o n i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n t h e Gateway f o r m a t i o n and t h e J e f f e r s o n l i m e s t o n e . -81-CARBONIFEROUS: I n t h e l a r d e a u a r e a (117° 27* W l o n g . , 50° 311 H l a t . ) B a n c r o f t " * d e s c r i b e s a b r e a k between t h e basement r o c k s o f 1 B a n c r o f t , M.F.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1921, P t . A , p.109. "Windermere age and the M i l f o r d s e r i e s o f C a r b o n i f e r o u s a g e . The c o n t a c t i s a d i s c o n f o r m i t y and was d e t e r m i n e d p r i n c i p a l l y on t h e b a s i s o f the d i f f e r e n c e i n metaraorphisra o f t h e two s e r i e s . A c o n t a c t between p r e s u m a b l y B e l t i a n r o c k s and r o c k s 1 o f C a r b o n i f e r o u s age i s d e s c r i b e d a s u n c o n f o r m a b l e by Uglow. 1 U g l o w r f . L . - Geo 1. S u r v . Can. , Mem.149, I 9 2 b , p.37. H i s e v i d e n c e i s a s f o l l o w s : 1. " T h e r e i s some d i s c o r d a n c e o f s t r i k e and d i p b e t w e e n t h e two s e r i e s . D i s c o r d a n c e o f s t r i k e i s shown on the g e o l o g i -c a l map due west o f Mount M u r r a y , where t h e Guyet f o r m a t i o n l i e s a c r o s s t h e c o n t a c t o f t h e B a r k e r v i l l e and P l e a s a n t V a l l e y f o r m a t i o n s . 2. The Guyet c o n g l o m e r a t e r e s t s on an e r o s i o n s u r f a c e o f the C a r i b o o s e r i e s , and c o n t a i n s p e b b l e s and b o u l d e r s o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g f o r m a t i o n s o f t h a t s e r i e s . The b a s a l p a r t o f t h i s c o n g l o m e r a t e i s c l a y e y a n d somewhat s c h i s t o s e , and a p p e a r s t o g r a d e i n t o t h e u n d e r l y i n g s l a t e and s c h i s t . T h i s p a r t , t h e r e -f o r e , i s the r e s u l t o f t h e metamorphism o f a n o l d r e s i d u a l m a n t l e o f c l a y e y d e c o m p o s i t i o n p r o d u c t s . 3. P e b b l e s o f f o l d e d , c r e n u l a t e d , s l a t y a n d s c h i s t o s e r o c k s i n the c o n g l o m e r a t e a r e p r o o f o f the metamorphism o f t h e C a r i b o o s e r i e s b e f o r e t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f t h e b a s e o f t h e S l i d e M o u n t a i n s e r i e s . P e b b l e s o f m e d i u m - g r a i n e d i n t r u s i v e r o c k s -82-i n d i c a t e t h a t e r o s i o n removed a c o n s i d e r a b l e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g r o c k s b e f o r e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e c o n g l o m e r a t e . 4. T h e r e i s a d e c i d e d d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d e g r e e o f meta-morphism t o w h i c h t h e r o c k s o f t h e two s e r i e s have b e e n s u b -j e c t e d . The C a r i b o o s e r i e s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by q u a r t z i t e , s l a t e and s c h i s t , w h e r e a s t h e S l i d e M o u n t a i n s e r i e s i s made up p f i n d u r a t e d s h a l e , c h e r t and m a s s i v e , f o s s i l i f e r o u s l i m e s t o n e . 5. F e l s i t e and q u a r t z p o r p h y r y d y k e s , much r e p l a c e d by s i d e r i t e , o c c u r o n l y i n C a r i b o o s e r i e s . 6. T h e r e i s an a b s e n c e , i n t h e S l i d e M o u n t a i n s e r i e s , o f l a r g e q u a r t z v e i n s w h i c h a r e s u c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f the C a r i b o o s e r i e s . 7. The Mount M u r r a y s i l l s o c c u r a b u n d a n t l y i n t h e u p p e r s e r i e s and v e r y s p a r i n g l y i n t h e l o w e r , o r C a r i b o o s e r i e s . 8. P l a c e r g o l d was f o u n d i n t h e Guyet c o n g l o m e r a t e , but the b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e r i c h p l a c e r f i e l d s o f t h e a r e a do n o t i n c l u d e any o f t h e c o u n t r y u n d e r l a i n b y t h e S l i d e M o u n t a i n s e r i e s . " To t h e I n t r u s i v e s . DEVONIAN: D e v o n i a n d i o r i t e and d i a b a s e masses i n t r u d e t h e 1 N a s i n a s e r i e s i n t h e Mayo d i s t r i c t , Yukon. 1 C o c k f i e l d , W.E.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1921, P t . A . , MapT 2 P y r o x e n i t e and p e r i d o t i t e a r e r e p o r t e d a s c u t t i n g 2 C a i r n e s , P.P.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1915, P t . A , p.41 members o f t h e Mount S t e v e n s g r o u p i n t h e Wheaton d i s t r i c t , -83-Yukon. They a r e t e n t a t i v e l y r e f e r r e d t o t h e D e v o n i a n i n age. JURASSIC-CRETACEOUS: G r a n i t e i n t r u s i v e s , g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e C o a s t Range b a t h o l i t h , i n t r u d e members o f t h e Y u k o n and Mount S t e v e n s g r o u p s i n s o u t h w e s t e r n Yukon. The Omineca b a t h o l i t h o f p o s t - C a r b o n i f e r o u s , and 1 p r e s u m a b l y o f J u r a s s i c , age c u t t h e p r e - C a m b r i a n r o c k s a l o n g 1 Dolmage, V i c t o r , - G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1927, P t . A , p.28. t h e F i n l a y and Omineca r i v e r s . West o f t h e F i n l a y r i v e r and s o u t h o f F o r t Graharae, p e g m a t i t e d y k e s p e n e t r a t e t h e s e h i s t s , u s u a l l y a l o n g t h e s t r i k e . The M e s o z o i c i n t r u s i v e s o f s o u t h e r n c e n t r a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a s r e g a r d s t h e a r e a s o f p r e - C a m b r i a n and p r e s u m a b l y p r e - C a m b r i a n r o c k s , a r e e i t h e r known to be o r may be assumed t o be g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e K e l s o n b a t h o l i t h . A l l t h e s c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n r o c k s i n t h i s r e g i o n a r e i n t r u d e d by t h e s e g r a n i t e s . An i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d o f K o o t -enay l a k e i s t h a t the metamorphosed s e d i m e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e huge s u b - c i r c u l a r i n t r u s i v e mass d i p t o w a r d i t . S c h o f i e l d 2 S c h o f i e l d , S . J . - P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . *"" b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s phenomenon shows t h a t t h e s e d i m e n t s were f o l d e d i n t o a g e a n t i c l i n e b e f o r e t h e i n t r u s i v e p e n e t r a t e d them. T h i s w o u l d r e q u i r e t h a t t h e magma p r o g r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e o v e r -l y i n g f o l d e d s e d i m e n t s by t h e method o f o v e r h e a d s t o p i n g . TERTIARY: The K u s k a n a x b a t h o l i t h w h i c h C a i r n e s b e l i e v e s t o be -84-1 p o s s i b l y o f T e r t i a r y age s i n c e i t p o s t - d a t e s t h e K e l s o n 1 C a i r n e s , C.E.- G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept., 1928, P t . A , pp.9b ; and 104. b a t h o l i t h , i n t r u d e s s c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n r o c k s e a s t o f t h e U p p e r Arrow l a k e . The c h i e f t y p e s a r e s y e n i t e and g r a n i t e . RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE INTRUSIVES AND THE METAMORPHISM OP THE BELTIAN. The a r e a s i n w h i c h t h e p r e - C a m b r i a n ( ? ) f o r m a t i o n s a r e c l a s s e d a s " S c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n " a r e t h o s e i n w h i c h t h e above i n t r u s i v e s a r e known t o be p r e s e n t (Map l ) . The d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s members o f t h e S c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n b r i n g o u t two i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ; f i r s t , t h e e x t e n t o f metamorphism v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e p r o m i n e n c e o f i n t r u s i v e s i n any a r e a ; s e c o n d , t h e r o c k m i n e r a l s o f the S c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n a l w a y s I n c l u d e t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c o n t a c t metamorphism. T h e r e -f o r e i t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t c o n t a c t metamorphism, i f n o t t h e o n l y f a c t o r , has b een t h e dominant i n f l u e n c e i n p r o d u c i n g t h e s c h i s t s and paragneisse3. 2 3 G.M. Dawson a n d , l a t e r , R.A. D a l y have a d v a n c e d a 2 Dawson, G.M7-~BuTl.Geol.Soc.Am.7 V o l . 1 2 , 1901, p.64. 3 D a l y , R.A.- G e o l . S u r v . Can., Mem. 68, l ? l j , p.44. _______ t h e o r y o f s t a t i c metamorphism t o a c c o u n t f o r p a r t o f t h e meta-morphism. I t i s b a s e d on t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h t h e s c h i s t -o s i t i e s p a r a l l e l t h e b e d d i n g p l a n e s i n t h e s e p r e - C a m b r i a n r o c k s a n d p o s t u l a t e s t h a t t h e metamorphism i s due t o l o a d w i t h o u t movement. I t f o l l o w s t h e n , s i n c e t h e r e i s no movement, t h a t p r e s s u r e must have been e q u a l i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . I f p r e s s u r e -85-i s e q u a l i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , t h e metaraorphie m i n e r a l s w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a l l have t h e same o r i e n t a t i o n ; a n d s c h i s t s and p a r a g n e i s s e s , t h e r e f o r e , p r o b a b l y w o u l d n o t r e s u l t , s a v e l o c a l l y . Two l a w s o f p h y s i c a l c h e m i s t r y must be c o n s i d e r e d ; f i r s t , t h a t u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f u n i f o r m p r e s s u r e t h o s e m i n e r a l s w i l l f o r m w h i c h have th e g r e a t e s t d e n s i t y ; s e c o n d , t h a t u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f n o n - u n i f o r m p r e s s u r e t h o s e m i n e r a l s w i l l f o r m t h a t have one g r e a t e s t d i m e n s i o n a n d t h a t d i m e n s i o n w i l l l i e i n th e d i r e c t i o n o f l e a s t p r e s s u r e . I t i s t h e m i n e r a l s w h i c h a r e t o be e x p e c t e d u n d e r t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e s e c o n d l a w t h a t a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e c o n d a r y m i n e r a l s o f t h e s c h i s t o s e p r e -C a m b r i a n . The t h e o r y o f - ' S t a t i c Metamorphism", i n s o f a r a s i t a f f e c t s t h e S c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n , may be d i s c a r d e d ; f i r s t , b e c a u s e i t d o e s n o t e x p l a i n a number o f f a c t s ; s e c o n d , b e c a u s e i t i s u n n e c e s s a r y t o t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n o f t h e s e r o c k s . -86-APDEN33UM. The r e v i e w o f t h e modern l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e p r e -C a m b r i a n o f t h e C o r d i l l e r a i n Canada, o f w h i c h t h i s p a p e r i s a t o o b r i e f summary, ha s shown t h a t s a v e f o r t h o s e f o r m a t i o n s c l a s s e d as N o n - S c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n , and t h e P r i e s t . R i v e r t e r r a n e o f the S c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n , t h e r e a r e no f o r m a t i o n s d e f i n i t e l y known t o be o f p r e — C a m b r i a n age. l a c k o f f o s s i l s and h i g h metamorphism have f o r m e d t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s , b u t , i n v i e w o f t h e n a t u r e o f the b u l k o f t h e s e d i m e n t s , t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f metamorphism t o which t h e y have b e e n s u b j e c t e d and t h e c o m p a r a t i v e p a u c i t y o f f i e l d work, t h e s e a r e u n r e l i a b l e c r i t e r i a . I n t h e s e v e r a l a r e a s where s u p p o s e d l y p r e - C a m b r i a n f o r m a t i o n s c o n f o r m a b l y u n d e r l i e b e d s known t o be C a r b o n i f e r o u s i n a g e , t h e r e i s i n no i n s t a n c e a s u f f i c i e n t t h i c k n e s s o f s e d i m e n t s to a c c o u n t f o r t h e D e v o n i a n , S i l u r i a n , O r d o v i c i a n and C a m b r i a n s t r a t a , to say n o t h i n g o f p r e - C a m b r i a n , w h i c h may be l o g i c a l l y assumed t o be p r e s e n t . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n r e f e r e n c e t o P l a t e s IV, V and VI w i l l show t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Shuswap t e r r a n e a l o n g t h e m a i n l i n e o f t h e C.P.R. ( P l a t e V I ) r e s e m b l e s more c l o s e l y t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Windermere ( P l a t e V) t h a n t h a t o f t h e P u r c e l l s e r i e s ( P l a t e I V ) . I t i s w e l l known t h a t d e e p l y b u r i e d r o c k s d e f o r m l e s s t h a n t h e l e s s d e e p l y b u r i e d and t h a t f a u l t i n g i s more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f y o u n g e r f o r m a t i o n s i n the same p e r i o d o f movement. I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e " S c h i s t o s e B e l t i a n " , e x c e p t t h e P r i e s t R i v e r -87-t e r r a n e , i s o f P a l a e o z o i c age. The t e r r a " B e l t i a n ' 1 i s b e c o m i n g a s much o f a vogue a s the t e r m "Shuswap" was u n t i l a few y e a r s ago. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, th e l a t e r t e r m has n o t b e e n c o n f i n e d t o r o c k s o f a d e f i n i t e t y p e , a s was "Shuswap" and t h e age r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e , i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f i n s t a n c e s , no more d e f i n i t e . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t c o n f u s i o n w i l l , i n t i m e , ensue and t h e l i t e r a t u r e may t h u s be encumbered w i t h one more m e a n i n g l e s s t e r m . I t i s s u g g e s t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e t e r m " B e l t i a n " be c o n f i n e d t o t h o s e f o r m a -t i o n s t h e p r e - C a m b r i a n age o f w h i c h i s d e f i n i t e l y a s c e r t a i n e d , and t h e term "Shuswap" be r e v i v e d t o a p p l y t o a l l t h e h i g h l y metamorphosed f o r m a t i o n s o f u n c e r t a i n a g e . FOSSILS OF TITS BELTIAlf. I n t h e C o r d i l l e r a t h e B e l t i a n r o c k s a r e c a l l e d t h e B e l t t e r r a n e where f o s s i l r e m a i n s have been d i s c o v e r e d . The 1 f o s s i l s o c c u r i n t h e G r e y s o n f o r m a t i o n , a b e l t o f c a l c a r e o u s I W a l c o t t , C P . - GeoI.Soc.Am. , Vol . 1 0 , lb*??, p.<.35» s h a l e s , a t a h o r i z o n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7,700 f e e t b e n e a t h t h e summit o f t h e B e l t t e r r a n e a t i t s maximum d e v e l o p m e n t . The f a u n a i n c l u d e f o u r s p e c i e s o f a n n e l i d t r a i l s and a v a r i e t y t h a t a p p e a r s t o have been made by a m i n u t e m o l l u s c o r c r u s t a c e a n . T h e r e a l s o o c c u r i n the same s h a l e s t h o u s a n d s o f f r a g m e n t s o f one o r more g e n e r a o f C r u s t a c e a n s . A l l t h e s p e c i -mens a r e v e r y much c o m p r e s s e d and f l a t t e n e d , a n d o f t e n l a r g e f r a g m e n t s o f t h e t e s t s have been b r o k e n by a movement i n t h e -88-shale subsequent to th e i r imbedment i n the mud. The most intere s t i n g feature of the fauna i s the occurrence of undoubted organic remains and the presence of a crustacean of a much higher type than most palaeontologists would have predicted f o r th i s horizon. The specimens include Helminthoidichnites (?) . neihartensis, H. (?) s p i r a l i s , H. (?) meeki, P l a n o l i t e s corru-gatus, and P. superbus, a l l t r a i l s i n the shales of Proterozoic age. Specimens of Merostomata have also been described by the same author. The most important i s the Genus Beltina under which name are classed the fragmentary remains of a Crustacean, which, as f a r as can be judged from what i s known of i t , i s referable to the Merostomata. Thousands of fragments were c o l l e c t e d from the calcareous Greyson shales. The species i s c a l l e d Beltina d a n i i . , F o s s i l s from the Aldridge formation of southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia have been described by B u r l i n g 1 who states 1 Burling, L.D.- Geol.Surv.Can., Summ.Rept. 1916, p.58. that the f o s s i l occurs near the top of the formation. This f o s s i l appears to represent a specimen of Bel t i n a . Specimens of Beltina danii were discovered by Daly 2 i n the Altyn formation of Proterozoic age. Reporting on the 2 Daly, R.A.- Geol .Surv. Can. , Mem. 58, 1912., p.b57~ c o l l e c t i o n , Walcott stated that the mode of occurrence i s sim i l a r to that of the Greyson shales of the Algonkian (Proter-ozoic) i n the Belt Mountains of Montana. Hundreds of broken fragments of the carapace of the crustacean are di s t r i b u t e d -89-e v e n l y t h r o u g h t h e r o c l c . O c c a s i o n a l l y a segment o r f r a g m e n t o f what a p p e a r s t o be one o f t h e a p p e n d a g e s i s s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l p r e s e r v e d t o i d e n t i f y i t . Z 0 u z Palaeozoic B e l g i a n W i n d e r m e r e S t r u c t u r e S e c t i o n s i n t h e ^ V i n d e r m c r e S c a l e . M i l e ; , > • ? ! 1 1 1 £ 1 ' ! t F r o m a 3 C - M e m . 1 4 0 , J I W 4 l » t r . Structure Section in the Selkirk Mountains Horizontal and Vertical s c o / e M i l e s 9 / a £ ; j e 7 fl 9 lo M o d i f i e d from G - S - C • M e m . 6 8 , P Q-Daly, PLATE V I I . M a g n i f i c a t i o n 120 X. F i g . 1. A l d r i d g e q u a r t z i t e , showing a n g u l a r p l a g i o c l a s e f e l d s p a r w i t h q u a r t z and s e r i c i t e . N o t e a n g u l a r i t y o f g r a i n s . X n i c o l s . F i g . 2. A l d r i d g e q u a r t z i t e , showing s e r i c i t i z e d f e l d s p a r and g r a i n s o f m a g n e t i t e i n a q u a r t z - m i c a g r o u n d mass. X n i c o l s . PLATE VII. 1 P i g . 1 p i g . 2 "aj PLATE V I I I . M a g n i f i c a t i o n 120 X. F i g . 1. O r e s t o n q u a r t z i t e , s h owing a n g u l a r b a s i c f e l d s p a r i n a g r o u n d mass o f q u a r t z w i t h some s e r i c i t e . Note a n g u l a r i t y o f g r a i n s . X n i c o l s . F i g . 2. S i y e h m e t a r g i l l i t e , s h o wing m a g n e t i t e and s e r i c i t i z e d f e l d s p a r . PLATE V I I I . PLATE IX. M a g n i f i c a t i o n 120 X.-F i g . 1. K i t c h e n e r q u a r t z i t e , s h o w i n g s e r i c i t i z e d f e l d s p a r i n f i n e g r o u n d mass, c h i e f l y q u a r t z . X n i c o l s . F i g . 2. K i t c h e n e r l i m e s t o n e , showing q u i t e w e l l r o u n d e d g r a i n s . PLATE IX . PLATE X. P i g . 1. Pig... .2. I n t e r f e r e n c e r i p p l e marks and. r a i n - p i t s on S i y e h m e t a r g i l l i t e . I n t e r f e r e n c e r i p p l e marks i n u n c o n s o l i d a t e d s a n d . A f t e r K i n d l e , G.S.C., Mus.: B u l l . 25, p.99. PLATE X. PLATE X I . P i g . 1. M a d - c r a c k s i n S i y e h raetargillite. F i g . I. I n t e r r u p t e d b a n d i n g t y p i c a l o f t h e C g g e t o n f o r m a t i o n . F i g . 3. W a t e r f a l l on d i p - p l a n e o f ^ I d r i d g e q u a r t z i t e , C h e r r y C r e e k , E a s t K o o t e n a y . PLATE X I . F i g . 3 PLATE X I I . 4feg*y=^a^4-&ft—±00—X. F i g , 1. I n c o m p e t e n t a r g i l l i t e i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h competent q u a r t z i t e ; C h e r r y C r e e k , E a s t K o o t e n a y . F i g . 2. F a u l t i n A l d r i d g e q u a r t z i t e ; Weaver C r e e k , E a s t K o o t e n a y . F i g . '3. A l d r i d g e beds on P e r r y C r e e k , E a s t K o o t e n a y . N o t e t h e f l a t - l y i n g a t t i t u d e . PLATE X I I . F i g . 2 F i g . 3 PLATE. X I I I . Mag994r£-i ca-t i o n — l - t £ 9 — X > S t e e p l y d i p p i n g C r e s t o n q u a r t z i t e , E a s t K o o t e n a y . V e r t i c a l C r e s t o n q u a r t z i t e , E a s t K o o t e n a y . " M o l a r T o o t h " s t r u c t u r e t y p i c a l o f K i t c h e n e r l i m e s t o n e ; U p p e r M o y i e L a k e , E a s t K o o t e n a y . P i g . 1 F i g . d P i g . b PLATE XIV. F i g . 1. C o a s t Range west o f t h e B r i d g e R i v e r a r e a , L i l l o o e t d i s t r i c t . F i g . 2. S p a n i s h c r e e k , C a r i b o o d i s t r i c t . F i g . 3' Morehead l a k e , C a r i b o o d i s t r i c t . PLATE XV. - Magna, f i o a t i o n -li20 X. F i g . 1. T y p i c a l t o p o g r a p h y o f the C a r i b o o d i s t r i c t . F i g . 1 , Ffrecked b r i d g e where t h e o l d r o a d f r o m C u e s n e l to. B a r k e r v i l l e c r o s s e d t h e S o u t h f o r k o f t h e Q u e s n e l R i v e r . F i g . - 3 « Q a e s n e l F o r k s , one o f t h e camps e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e g o l d r u s h o f 18.59• PLATE X V I . ^M&gnif LGQ^ttr^r-—3r20- X. P i g . 1. Okanagan v a l l e y n e a r A r m s t r o n g , B. C. Note the s c a r c i t y , o f v e g e t a t i o n on t h e s o u t h e r l y s l o p e s , p i c t u r e f a c i n g s o u t h -w e s t . F i g . 2. C o l d s t r e a m v a l l e y , f a c i n g e a s t . , Note the u n i f o r m i t y o f t h e h i l l t o p s . P i g . . 3 . K a l a m a l k a . l a k e , V e r n o n , B. C. PLATE X V I . PLATE X V I I . - I f e g i ^ f i j s ^ t a r e f t — I c i Q -X-. F i g . 1. L o o k i n g e a s t n e a r l i g h t n i n g peak, west o f Lower Arrow l a k e . F i g . 2.,- L i g h t n i n g Peak. F i g . 3. F a c i n g n o r t h f r o m l i g h t n i n g peak. Note t h e p l a t e a u - l i k e a p p e a r a n c e . PLATE X V I I . PLATE X V I I I . F i g . 1. M o n a s h i e c r e e k i n a c a n y o n i n N i s c o n l i t h r o c k s . 35 m i l e s e a s t o f V e r n o n , B. C. F i g . 2. P u r c e l l M o u n t a i n s f r o m t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n t r e n c h n e a r C r a n b r o o k , B.C. F i g . 3. Rocky M o u n t a i n s f r o m the Rocky M o u n t a i n t r e n c h n e a r C r a n b r o o k , B.C. Mount F i s h e r i n t h e c e n t r e . PLATE XIX. F i g . 1. V a l l e y o f P e r r y c r e e k , E a s t K o o t e n a y , showing hoy/ t h e c r e e k has c u t down i n t o t h e U - s h a p e d v a l l e y l e f t a f t e r the r e t r e a t o f the i c e . F i g . 2. S t . M a r y ' s p r a i r i e , E a s t K o o t e n a y . F i g . 3. T y p i c a l Rocky M o u n t a i n t o p o g r a p h y e a s t o f B a n f f , A l b e r t a . Note t h e s e r r a t e d p e a k s . BIBLIOGRAPHY. H. Bauerman, R e p o r t P.Do Adams & W.J. D i c k , D i s c o v e r y o f P h o s p h a t e o f Lime i n tn e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s . Com. o f C o n s e r -v a t i o n , O t t a w a , 1915. J.A. A l l a n , G e o l o g y o f t h e F i e l d map a r e a , B. C. and A l b e r t a . G e o l . S u r v . Canada, Mem. 4b, 1914. M.F. B a n c r o f t , G e o l . S u r v . o f Canada, Summ. K e p t . 1921. p. 109A. on t h e G e o l o g y o f t h e c o u n t r y n e a r t h e  4 9 t h p a r a l l e l o f N o r t h L a t i t u d e west  o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s f r o m o"b"3erva- t i o n s made i n I H 5 9 - b l . G e o l . S u r v . Canada, Ann.Rept. 1H82-4, p p . l - 4 1 B . Amos Bowman, R e p o r t on the G e o l o g y o f t h e M i n i n g D i s t r i c t o f C a r i b o o , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . G e o l . Surv, Canada, Ann. R e p t . , l « « 7 - 8 8 . L.D. B u r l i n g , F o s s i l s i n t h e A l d r i d g e f o r m a t i o n o f S.E. " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . G e o l . S u r v . 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C a n . , Sunm.Rept., 1920 , p.3a• S i l v e r - L e a d D e p o s i t s o f D a v i d s o n M o u n t a i n s , Mayo P i s t r i c t , Yukon. G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Surara.Rept. 1921, p.3a. S i x t y m i l e a nd Ladue R i v e r s a r e a , Yukon. G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Mem.123, 1921, pp.12-25. E x p l o r a t i o n s i n S o u t h e r n Yukon. G e o l . S u r v . Can., Sunm.Rept. 1922, p . 3 a . G e o l o g y and Ore D e p o s i t s o f Keno H i l l D i s -t r i o T , Yukon. G f e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ. R e p t . 1923, pp.2-4a. The B e a v e r R i v e r A r e a , Mayo D i s t r i c t , Yukon. G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1924, pp. 4~5a. A i s h i h i k Lake D i s t r i c t , Yukon. G e o l . S u r v . Can., Summ.Rept., 1926, pp.4-5a. C o c k f i e l d and A.H. B e l l , Whitehor 3e P i s t r i c t , Yuk0n. G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Mem.150, 1926,pp.7~10. D.D. C a i r n e s , D.D. C a i r n e s , W.E. C o c k f i e l d , W.E. C o c k f i e l d , W.E. C o c k f i e l d , W.E. C o c k f i e l d , W.E. C o c k f i e l d , W.E. C o c k f i e l d , C o c k f i e l d , W.E. W.E. A. P. C o c k f i e l d , C o c k f i e l d , Coleman, A.P. Coleman, A. P. R. A . Coleman, D a l y , R.A. D a l y , R.A. D a l y , R.A. D a l y , R.A. D a l y , D e a a d e a s h a r e a , Y u k on. G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1927, p p . l - 8 a . L i t t l e Salmon A r e a , Yukon. G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , ~ Summ.Rept. 1928, pp.1-11. N o t e s o n t h e G e o l o g y and Geography o f t h e B i g Bend o f th e C o l u m b i a . T r a n s . R o y . S o c . C anada, 1889;, S e c . 4 . G e o l o g y a n d G l a c i a l F e a t u r e s o f Mt. Robson. C a n . A l p . J o u r . , V o l . 2 , 1910, pp.108-113. Note on t h e G e o l o g y o f t h e S e l k i r k M t n s . Can. A l p . J o u r . , V o l . 3 , 1911, pp.119-120. R e c o n n a i s s a n c e o f t h e Shuswap L a k e s a nd v i c i n i t y . G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1911, pp.165-174. G e o l o g y o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n C o r d i l l e r a a t t h e F o r t y - n i n t h P a r a l l e l . G e o l . S u r v . C a n . Mem. 38, I9I2. P r e - C a m b r i a n f o r m a t i o n s i n S o u t h C e n t r a l B. C. S c i e n c e , 1912, p.311 Am., Vol . 2 3 , 1912, p a n d ,721. G e o l . S o c . G e o l o g y o f t h e P u r c e l l and S e l k i r k M o u n t a i n s a t  t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y ( m a i n  line')'. G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. T9T4, pp.156-164. A G e o l o g i c a l R e c o n n a i s s a n c e between G o l d e n a nd Kam l o o p s , B.C., a l o n g t h e C.P.R. N.F. G.M. G.M. G.M. G. D a v i s Dawson, Dawson, G.M. G.M. C e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Mem.60, 1915-C l e a r w a t e r Lake a r e a , B.C. G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1929, p.283a. E x p l o r a t i o n o f S o u t h e r n B. C. ReDo r t o f P r o -g r e s s , 1877-78. G e o l o g y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , G e o l . M a g a z i n e , 1B81, pp. 1-19. Dawson & A.R.C. S e l w y n , D e s c r i p t i v e S k e t c h o f t h e P h y s i c a l G e o g r a p h y and G e o l o g y o f t h e  Dom i n i o n o f Canada. 1884. P r e I i m i n a r y ~ R e p o r t o n t h e P H y 3 i c a l a n d G e o l o g i -c a l F e a t u r e s o f t h a t p o r t i o n o f t h e  Rocky M o u n t a i n s between L a t i t u d e s 49° a n d 51u30'. G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Ann. 18135, C a n . R e c . S c i . , G.M. Dawson, Dawson, Dawson, G.M. Dawson, G.M. Dawson, R e p t . 88 , P t . B . The C a n a d i a n Rocky M o u n t a i n s . R e p o r t o n a n E x p l o r a t i o n o f th e Yukon D i s t r i c t , N.W.T. and A d j a c e n t N o r t h e r n P o r t i o n  o'f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . G e o l . S u r v . Can. , A n n . R e p t . , IH87-88, P t . B . 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C a n . , Ann.Rept. I b 9 d , p p . l - 4 4 d . M i n e r a l D e p o s i t s between h i l l o o e t a nd P r i n c e G e o r g e , B.C. G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Mem.118, 19207 p.b. C r o w s n e s t and F l a t h e a d C o a l A r e a s . G e o l . S u r v . C a n , 191b , pp.2b-j$5c. S . J . S c h o f i e l d , S . J . S c h o f i e l d , S . J . S c h o f i e l d , S . J . S c h o f i e l d , S . J . S c h o f i e l d , A.R.C. S e l w y n , A.R.C. S e l w y n , Summ.Rept, The P r e - C a m b r i a n ( B e l t i a n ) r o c k s o f s o u t h -e a s t e r n B.C. and t h e i r C o r r e l a t i o n ? G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , M u s . B u l l . Ho.2, 1914, pp.79-91. The C r a n b r o o k map a r e a . G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Mem. 7.6, 1915. R e p o r t on A i n s w o r t h Mg. Camp, G e o l . S u r v . Can., Mera.117, 1920. The o r i g i n o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n T r e n c h , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T r a n s . R o y . S o c . Canada, 1921, I V , pp.61-97. The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e P r e - C a m b r i a n ( B e l t i a n ) t e r r a i n t o t h e Lower C a m b r i a n s t r a t a o f S o u t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , M u s . B u l l . Ho.55, 1922, pp.1-15. The G e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d o f t h e C o r d i l l e r a i n  Canada. T r a n s . R o y . S o c . C a n a d a , 1925, TV, pp.79-94. J o u r n a l and R e p o r t o f P r e l i m i n a r y E x p l o r a t i o n s  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , R e p t . o f P r o g . 1 B 7 1 - 7 2 , p p . 6 4 - 6 6 . B r i e f n o t e on e x p l o r a t i o n s n e a r I l l e c i l l e w a e t , B.C. G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. Ib87, p. 2A. P.p. S h e p a r d , P r o b l e m s i n t h e S t r a t i g r a p h y a l o n g t h e Rooky """Mountain T r e n c h . Jour'n,Geology, V o l . 3 0 , 1 9 2 2 , pp.361-376. C H . S t o c k w e l l , G a l e n a H i l l , Mayo D i s t r i c t , Y ukon. G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1925, p p . 2 a - 4 a . P i e r r e T e r n i e r , I ' E x c u r s i o n C I, du. X l l e C o n g r e s G e o l o g i q u e i n t e r n a t i o n a l : l e s t e r r a i n s p r e -C a n b r i e n s de l a r e g i o n des l a c s ; l e s  p r o b l e m e s t e c t o n i q u e s d e s g r a n d e s c h a i n e s de 1'Guest, ^ x t r a i t s d es Comptes r e n d u s des s e a n c e s de 1'Academic des S c i e n c e s , t . 1 5 7 , p.747. G e o l o g y o f the H o r t h Thompson map a r e a , B.C. G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1 9 2 0 , p p . 7 2 -1 O 6 A . G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Mem.149, 1926, p. 37. D. I f a l c o t t , D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e C h u a r and Grand Canyon G r o u p s o f t h e C o l o r a d o Canon i n A r i z o n a . W.L. Uglow, W.L. Uglow, C Am.Jour, o f S c i . , V o l . X X V I , p.437- 1880. C D . 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W a l k e r , R e c o n n a i s s a n c e i n t h e P u r c e l l Range west o f B r i s c o , K o o t e n a y D i s t r i c t , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1923, pp.222-230. J . F . Wa1ker, G e o l o g y and M i n e r a l R e s o u r c e s o f t h e Windermere Map A r e a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . G e o l . S u r v . Can77T5em7T48 , 1926," pp. 1-61. J . F . W a l k e r , K o o t e n a y Lake D i s t r i c t , B.C. G e o l . S u r v . C a n . , Summ.Rept. 1928, pp.119-136. J . F . W a l k e r , M i n e r a l D e v e l o p m e n t s i n SaJLmo map a r e a , B.C. & e b l .Surv.Can., Summ.Rept. 1929, p.254a. B. W i l l i s , S t r a t i g r a p h y and S t r u c t u r e , L e w i s and L i v i n g s t o n R anges, Montana. Geol.Soc.Am., V o l . 1 3 , 1902., pp.305-352. M.Y. W i l l i a m s , R e c o n n a i s s a n c e a c r o s s n o r t h e a s t e r n B.C. a n d t h e G e o l o g y o f t h e n o r t h e r n e x t e n s i o n o f F r a n k l i n M t n s . , K.WTT. G e o l . S u r v . Can., R e p t . 1922, pp.65-88B. A o W . . Kaleden K J M I I . - , , , Kol A eating . . . . . . Keeftn A • J ' A •. reek Keluwna Kmmm Ktrri*d*i* . . . . Kerulejf Kettle Valley Kildunan k'tlt/artl A i inherit 1/ him.t(]uit Kincolilh Kin-jcome Inlet Kitujs'jate. Kitchener Kitimat V • . .49-12.1 ..49-119 . .50-120 . .40-116 . .48-1*8 . .50-121 . .52-121 . .49-119 . .49-119 . .49-123 . .52-122 . .49-118 . .49-125 . .49-122 .".49-118 . .52-127 . .54129 . .50-126 . .49116 . .55-127 . .49 116 .58-128 ..54-128 Kituanya 55-128 Knuttford . . . Koch Siding -A oksilah A I . I V / A / Intel . Kootenay Bay Kuper Inland . Kyuguot .50-120 .49-117 .48 123 .50-135 .48-110 .48-123 .49-127 Lake Cowichan 48-124 Uc La Hache 51-121 Udner 49-1*8 U d y r a i t h 48-1*3 Uidlau- 49-121 Uke Hill 48-1*3 Ungarra 49-123 Ung Bay 49-124 Ungford Station ....48-1*8 Ungley Fori 49-1*2 Ungl, v Prairit 49-122 Lardo {Lardeau) 50-116 lAugueti 49-124 Ucington 50-119 Urn Hill 63-131 Lillooet 60-1*1 Lindelt 49-1*1 Uchdale 40-1** Urkepart 52-131 Unguorth 58-1*1 Loot 53-120 Urne Creek 54-128 Mine 50-122 Unit Creek 81-120 Lower Xieola 50-1*0 Lotellt 49-1*2 Station 52-118 Lulu hland 49-123 Lumberton 40-115 Lumby 5IMI8 Lund 49-1*4 Lynn Creek 48-123 Lytton 50-121 .53-1*0 .49-122 .51-120 .51-116 .51-119 .50-118 .62-122 .50-121 .50-119 .49-1*2 .50-117 .60-118 .50-120 .55124 .53-128 .50-119 .48-133 .40-123 .49-119 -40-11.'. .54-132 .49-1*2 .48-123 .49-120 108° Salmon Arm Salmo Halt Spring hland Sandim Sandepit Sandwirk San Jotrf Bay . . . . fllil Mateo Sardit Saturna Sarary hland . . . . Savona Sayivard Schooner Pntsage . Seaford Sea titter Cote . . . Seehelt Selon Uke Seremtake 70 Mile Howe .. Seymour Am Shawnigan l^tke . Shoreacre, Shutharlie Sku •p Sicamoiu Sidney Sidney Inlet Silrcrdale Silierton Silrer Valley Simoon*** Simoom Sound Sirdar Six Mile Creek . . . Skeeua fronting . . . Skidrgate Skidegate . V I M I O I I . Skookumchuck . . .. Slocnn Bloom Park Sluggett Souther, Soda Creek Sointula Soltgua JMMMI Sooke Sorrento South Bank South Fort (leorge. South Pender South Port Mann . South Salt Spring South Slocan South Wellington . South Wettm'intter Spencer, Bridge . . . Sperling Station .. Springhoute Sputtum flfwfa* Sguirret Cote ... Stare Fallt Sterhead Stellaco >•(,,.,„(.... Steu-arl SliUuater Straiton Stralhaaeer St mil berry Hill Slreatham Stuart hland . . Stuart Hirer .... Slump Uke . . . . Sulliraii Station Summerland . . . Summit Uke . . Sutmywold Surf Inlet Surge Xarrou-t . Surrey Centre . . A N M M Bay . . Swift Creek . . . . Syringa Creek . . Taft Tanglefoot Tappen . .. ..'.(>• 119 .49-117 .48-123 .49-117 .58-131 .49-124 .50-128 .48-124 .49-121 .48-123 .49-124 .50-120 .50-125 .51-127 .30-124 .50 I2H .49-123 .50-122 .481*3 .51-121 18 1*3 .41M17 .50-127 .50-119 .60-118 .48-183 . 19 12li .49-122 .49117 .49-122 .49-119 .50-126 .49-116 .51117 .55-127 .53-132 .53181 .411-116 .00117 .49-117 .48-1*3 .54-1*7 .52-122 .50-127 ,60-118 .48-123 ..48-123 . .50119 . 54-125 .53-122 . IN-123 .49 122 . . 48-123 l!i 117 .49-1*3 . .49-122 . .50-121 . .49-122 ..51 122 . .49-121 . .49-128 . .50-119 .50-124 . 111 l-ji; ..49-122 ..54-124 . .49-123 .55129 .49-124 19122 . 122 . .49 122 . .53-1211 . .50-125 . . 53-128 . 50-1*0 ..49-122 . .49-119 . .50117 . .50 119 . . t i 12* . .50-125 . .49122 . .53-1*8 . .52119 . .49117 Tar Tatla Lake Tchetinkut Telegraph ( Telkira . . . Terrace . . . Tete Jaune Thurtlon Harboi Tlell Tod Inlet Tot** Toptey Tr«il TranquiUe Trapp Uke . . . Trimly Valley Trout Uke .. . Tulameen . . . . Tapper Creek . T urgoote . 40-116 .50-119 .49-117 .54 I2« .52-119 .49-122 48-1*3 .50-118 .49-117 .50-125 .52-131 .53-131 •IS 123 .54-126 .49-117 .50-120 .50-120 .50-118 .50-117 .19-120 .55-120 48-128 . f .12.. 49-124 Ueluelel . . . Union Bay . Upper Hal Creek .".il 121 Upper Squamith 49-123 H'k .14-1*8 Vallican Vananda Vanartdol V m i m u w Vanderkoof Van Winkle Vargot Varenhy Vedder t^rotting Vieoia V it-tori* I int ,'7,i Vofkt Valley . Wadham, . . Waldo Walhachin . . Walnut tirovi Waneta . . . . Wai-dner . . . Wmn Webtten Cor Wellington . . Wetthank . Wettbridge . West Dcmat* Wert llrand , Wettholmc .. Went Summei Whalelm.il . White Uke Wh.t.- Hock . White Sulplu II lu .49-1*4 .64-128 .49 123 .54-124 .53-121 111 I 25 .51-119 .4K-121 5 0 H » 49-128 .48-1*3 511 1'Jli 49-120 .51 127 .49-115 .50-120 19-1*2 19-117 .49-115 .49-115 .49-1*2 .49-124 .49-119 .49-119 .50-117 MM IK .40-111 .49-12* Whylecliff William. U * . . William* Siding Willoughby . . . . WOtow Bierr . .. Wilmer Wibmn Creek . .. Wilton Landing Windermere . . . . Wmlair Wistaria Woadfibre Woodpecker . . . . Wuott Bay WjftUfi Wumulel Vahk Yah Vennadon .49-116 .49-1*1 .49-1** .49-1*2 .49117 5ff ST 55* 54? r.;t 90 i:t 48 Pt^lyconic 113 1 3 5 " M A P N o . 1J J a n u a r y 1st . 1923 M A P 2. L E G E N D Q S T R A T I F I E D C L A Y A N D S A N D IIVTHI/SIVJES TERT/ARY (?) S A L M O N R I V E R M O N Z D N I T E 5 f>OST-TR//\SSIC KUSKANAX B A T H O L I T H MESOZOIC K TRIASSlC K A S L O S E R I E S ME-TOZOIC -&\EAJ:OZOIC M M I L r o R D S E R I E S PALAEOZOIC W A R D IS/ E R F O R M A T I O N I*HE - CS\J\4B R L\JSf L A R D E A U S E R I E S IY B / A D S M O T F O R M A T I O N H A M I L L S E R I E S H O R S E T H I E T F O R M A T I O N T O S V — • I R E N E C O N G L O M E R A T E S U M O I V I D E D W I N D E R M E R E 5 U M M I T ' P E N D O R E I L L E S E R I E S si Q: P R E I S T RIVE R T E R R A N E . M O U N T N E L S O N , R O O S V I L L E , P H I L L I PS * « G A T E W A V r O H M A T I O N S P U R C E L L L A V / A S I L L S |SIYEH ,K I T C H E N E R , C R E 3 T O N A L D R I D G E T O r T M A T I O N S P U R C E L L M O U N T A I N S KOOTENAY D I S T R I C T BRITISH C O L U M B I A S c a l e 500,000 Miles MAP 3 E O G R A P H I C B R A N C H . B . C . y J b o O "3 3 ID f _ 5 < c E < Bl t Ii'." < e s a _i 5 z o o LI z u c E -' > O 2 < Z c u C 5 I" J < N W 1 G 1 L L I V R A Y P U R C E l - L T R E N C H R A N G E R A N G E M A C D O N A L O R A N G E P O C K Y M O U N X A I N R E U C H . 1 1 1 .. 1 'Its. C H ; T « C - O U 5 u E LI Z < £_ L! 5_ _ S E C T I O N A T T H E F O R T Y - N I N T H P A R A L L E L , By R.A.Daiy. Scale: ofes * O-SSfr* SiatuteMilesTo I Inch Mil. 

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