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Distribution of foraminifera in cores from Juan de Fuca Ridge, North East Pacific Malott, Mary Lou 1981

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DISTRIBUTION OF FORAMINIFERA IN CORES FROM JUAN DE FUCA RIDGE, NORTH EAST PACIFIC by MARY LOU MALOTT B .A . , The U n i v e r s i t y of Gue l ph , 1970 B . S C , The U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s We accep t t h i s t h e s i s as con fo rm ing t o the r e q u i r e d s t anda r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1981 © MARY LOU MALOTT, 1981 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 I 0 /-7Q \ i i ABSTRACT B e n t h i c and p l a n k t i c F o r a m i n i f e r a from the Juan de Fuca R i dge , Nor th Eas t P a c i f i c , were i d e n t i f i e d and counted i n 55 samples from 6 c o r e s . There i s a r i c h f o r a m i n i f e r a n d i v e r s i t y of 193 t a x a , one t h i r d of wh ich are new or u nde s c r i b ed s p e c i e s . P l a n k t i c spec imens are most abundant w i t h s i n i s t r a l l y c o i l e d G l oboquad r i n a  pachyderma the most common s p e c i e s . The m a j o r i t y of the 184 b e n t h i c s p e c i e s come from the supe r f am i 1 i e s B u l i m i n a c e a , O r b i t o i d a c e a and C a s s i d u l i n a c e a . The most abundant b e n t h i c s p e c i e s are d i s p l a c e d downslope and outnumber the i n d i g enou s lower ba t h ya l f a u n a . An a l g a l ' c y s t ' i d e n t i f i e d as Pachysphaera s p . may prove to be a b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c marker near the P l e i s t o c e n e - H o l o c e n e boundary . I t o c cu r s from the s u r f a c e to between 40 and 60 cm. below a dec rease i n the p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r a n - r a d i o l a r i a n r a t i o , wh ich i n d i c a t e s the g l a c i a l - p o s t g l a c i a l c l i m a t i c s h i f t . T h i s change of r a t i o was the on l y means of c o r r e l a t i n g between co r e s as n e i t h e r the b e n t h i c nor p l a n k t i c f o r a m i n i f e r a n assemblages were u s e f u l f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t ime zones i n the l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e - H o l o c e n e i n t e r v a l c o r e d . Much of the sed iment r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c o r e s i s h em i p e l a g i c and o r i g i n a t e d from upper to l ower b a t h y a l i i i depths as i n d i c a t e d by the e n t r a i n e d b e n t h i c f o r a m i n i f e r a . In the P l e i s t o c e n e s e c t i o n of one c o r e , d e t r i t a l qua r t z g r a i n s and mica f l a k e s i n a d d i t i o n t o s h e l f f o r a m i n i f e r a i n d i c a t e t u r b i d i t e movement west and southward from the s h e l f . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF PLATES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INTRODUCTION METHODS Area and Core L o c a t i o n s L a b o r a t o r y P rocedu res S t a i n i n g Spe c i e s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Coun t i ng and R e l a t i v e Abundance Scann ing E l e c t r o n Photography RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Bi o s t r a t i graphy Systemat i cs Spe c i e s Occu r rence and Abundance Age of the Cores V RESULTS AND DISCUSSION CONT'D P a l e o e n v i ronment D i s t r i b u t i o n and Abundance B a t h y m e t r i c I n d i c a t o r s P l a n k t o n i c Fauna and A s s o c i a t e d Env i r onmen ta l F a c t o r s B e n t h i c Fauna and A s s o c i a t e d 46 Env i r onmen ta l F a c t o r s CONCLUSIONS 48 BIBLIOGRAPHY 52 PLATES 60 APPENDICES 70 A Taxonomic l i s t i n g of s p e c i e s d e s c r i p t i o n s 70 B A l p h a b e t i c a l l i s t of s p e c i e s 130 C D e s c r i p t i o n of t e n t a t i v e l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e 134 B i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c marker D Depth Z o n a t i o n s 135 E Rad i o ca rbon Da t i ng 136 page 28 28 38 43 v i LIST OF TABLES page Tab le 1 Core l o c a t i o n s 10 Tab le 2 Core h i s t o r i e s 11 Tab l e 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a n 16 Spec i e s from the Juan de Fuca Ridge Tab l e 4 c o n t ' d 17 Tab le 5 c o n t ' d 18 Tab l e 6 c o n t ' d 19 Tab le 7 c o n t ' d 20 Tab l e 8 P o p u l a t i o n Trends 29 Tab le 9 Spec i e s of t h i s Study R e l a t e d to 45 P l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a n Zones of the No r t he rn P a c i f i c v i i LIST OF FIGURES page F i g u r e 1 B a t h yme t r i c Map of the C o n t i n e n t a l 6 Marg in of Western Canada F i g u r e 2 N o r t h - C e n t r a l Juan de Fuca R idge F i g u r e 3 P o p u l a t i o n : Abundance w i t h r e s p e c t 30 to Depth v i i i LIST OF PLATES page P l a t e 1 P l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a 61 P l a t e 2 Most Abundant B e n t h i c F o r a m i n i f e r a 63 P l a t e 3 B en t h i c Lower Ba thya l F o r a m i n i f e r a 65 P l a t e 4 B en t h i c N e r i t i c , Upper and M idd l e 67 Ba thya l F o r a m i n i f e r a P l a t e 5 Undes c r i b ed and M inu te F o r a m i n i f e r a 69 P l a t e 6 T e n t a t i v e La te P l e i s t o c e n e 134 B i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c Marker i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The w r i t e r would l i k e to g i ve a very s p e c i a l thank you to Bruce Cameron f o r h i s gu idance d u r i n g t he s t u d y . D r . J .W. Murray i s acknowledged f o r p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . A thank you to Dr . Murray and Dr . R .L . Chase f o r t h e i r he lp and r ev i ew of the m a n u s c r i p t . The f o l l o w i n g peop le are a l s o thanked f o r t h e i r h e l p : Dr . P a t r i c k McLaren gave encouragement i n a d d i t i o n to r e ad i n g and commenting on s e v e r a l d r a f t s of the pape r , D r . W.C. A u s t i n c r i t i c a l l y read the manusc r i p t and d i s c u s s e d b i o l o g i c a l a spec t s of the r e s e a r c h , Dr . R. Best and Dr . P. Smith a l s o c r i t i c a l l y read the pape r . The w r i t e r w i shes to acknowledge the a s s i s t a n c e of the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada i n p r o v i d i n g samples p l u s the use of f a c i l i t i e s w h i l e c omp l e t i n g the r e s e a r c h . A s p e c i a l thanks to a l l the s t a f f at the P a c i f i c Geosc i ence C e n t r e , P a t r i c i a Bay and to B r i a n Sawyer f o r h i s s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the p l a t e s and t a b l e s . A thank y o u , a l s o , to B r i a n and to R i c h a r d F r a n k l i n f o r d e v e l o p i n g the p l a t e s . Acknowledgement i s due t o the c a p t a i n and crew of CFAV Endeavour f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n and he lp o b t a i n i n g the c o r e s . X F i n a n c i a l s uppo r t was g i ven by the f o l l o w i n g companies and i n s t i t u t i o n s : Cominco L t d . ; P l a c e r L t d . ; B.C. M i n i s t r y of Ene rgy , Mines and Pe t r o l eum Resou r ce s ; F ede r a l Department of Energy Mines and Re sou r c e s ; N a t i o n a l S c i e n t i f i c and E n g i n e e r i n g Research C o u n c i l ; U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co l umb i a . Many thanks to c o l l e g u e s i n the geo logy depa r tmen t , e s p e c i a l l y E i l e e n , Ray, Mike and Ken f o r t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n and he lp w i t h v a r i o u s a s pe c t s of the r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g . John Kn i gh t made many u s e f u l comments r e g a r d i n g use of the s cann i ng e l e c t r o n m i c r o s c o p e . A thank you to Barb f o r her s u g g e s t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y to use the word p r o c e s s o r , a l s o to Sus i and Maureen f o r a l l the meals they f ed me. I am very g r a t e f u l to my pa r en t s and f a m i l y f o r t h e i r suppo r t d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . 1 INTRODUCTION Trans fo rm f a u l t s and magnet i c anoma l i es a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Juan de Fuca R idge of the Nor th Eas t P a c i f i c were used by W i l son (1965) and V ine and W i l s on (1965) r e s p e c t i v e l y , to demons t ra te sea f l o o r s p r e a d i n g . Th i s s t i m u l a t e d i n t e r e s t i n the geo logy and geophys i c s of p l a t e i n t e r a c t i o n s i n the area and s ub sequen t l y numerous s t u d i e s have c o n t r i b u t e d knowledge on the ba thyme t r y , magne t i c s , s e i s m i c i t y , heat f l o w , t e c t o n i c s , geo logy and p l a t e i n t e r a c t i o n s near the Juan de Fuca R idge ( eg . T i f f i n and Seeman, 1975; S r i v a s t a v a et a l . , 1971, D a v i s , L i s t e r , and L ew i s , 1976; Dav is and L i s t e r , 1977a; McManus et a l . , 1972, Dav i s and L i s t e r , 1977b; Ba r r and Chase , 1974; R i d d i h ough , 1977) . Through the above r e s e a r c h h igh heat f l ow v a l u e s were d i s c o v e r e d i n the v i c i n i t y of the Juan de Fuca R idge and were thought to be p o s s i b l e s i t e s o f hyd ro the rma l c i r c u l a t i o n and metal e n r i c hmen t . To a s ses s the p o s s i b l e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of sed iments the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada conduc ted a r e g i o n a l s tudy i n 1977 and the Department of G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia conduc ted s t u d i e s on the sed iments and geochem i s t r y of s e l e c t e d a reas of the Juan de Fuca and E x p l o r e r R idges d u r i n g t h r e e c r u i s e s , 1977 to 1979 [ T i f f i n et a l . , 1978; B o r n h o l d , T i f f i n and C u r r i e , 1980; G r i l l et a l . , 1980; C o o k , ( i n p r e p . ) ; 2 B g l a n d , ( i n p r e p . ) ; P r i c e , ( 1981) ; Hansen, ( i n p r e p ) ] . In a d d i t i o n to the geochemica l and s e d i m e n t o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s conduc ted on the co r e s c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g these c r u i s e s the o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s s tudy were t o : (a) i d e n t i f y the p l a n k t o n i c and b e n t h i c f o r a m i n i f e r a n assemb lages near the Juan de Fuca R i d g e . (b) e v a l u a t e the u s e f u l n e s s of these assemb lages f o r d a t i n g and c o r r e l a t i o n between c o r e s . ( c ) a s se s s p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the assemblages f o r r e c o g n i t i o n of t u r b i d i t e sequences and the p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e of hyd ro the rma l p r o ce s se s and/o r geochemica l a n o m a l i e s . (d) a s se s s the u s e f u l n e s s of the assemb lages f o r p a l e o e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to the c a l c i u m ca rbona t e compensa t ion depth (CCD), sou r ce and r a t e s of s e d i m e n t a t i o n and changes of o c eanog r aph i c p h y s i c a l p a r ame t e r s . Repo r t s on f o r a m i n i f e r a from the P a c i f i c began a c en t u r y ago w i t h H.B. B r a d y ' s (1884) work on f o r a m i n i f e r a , from the C h a l l e n g e r E x p e d i t i o n , wh ich i n c l u d e d spec imens from the c e n t r a l and wes te rn n o r t h P a c i f i c . T h i s work was l a t e r t a x o n o m i c a l l y updated by Ba r ke r ( 1960 ) . From 1910 to 1917 Cushman p u b l i s h e d a s e r i e s of monographs on f o r a m i n i f e r a from the no r th P a c i f i c . More s p e c i f i c r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s were made d u r i n g the 1930 ' s to 1950 ' s when N a t l a n d , Crouch and 3 Bandy p u b l i s h e d f o r a m i n i f e r a n depth and t empe ra tu r e ranges from the C a l i f o r n i a c o a s t , as summarized i n Na t l a nd ( 1957 ) . S t u d i e s no r th of C a l i f o r n i a were s t a r t e d i n the 1960 ' s when Enbysk (1960) e s t a b l i s h e d the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f o r a m i n i f e r a on the s h e l f and s l o p e as we l l as from 47 deep sea samples i n the no r th eas t P a c i f i c f rom Oregon to A l a s k a . A taxonomic s tudy was p u b l i s h e d by Smith (1973) of f o r a m i n i f e r a f rom l a t i t u d e s 25° to 55° N i n a more c e n t r a l area of the no r th P a c i f i c up to the A l e u t i a n s . Bergen and O ' N e i l (1979) de te rm ined the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f o r a m i n i f e r a i n the Gu l f of A l a s k a . S t u d i e s which have d e a l t more s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h s h a l l o w e r wate r f o r a m i n i f e r a of the Nor th East P a c i f i c are by G a l l a g h e r ( 1979 ) , McCu l l o ch ( 1977 ) , Todd and Low (1967 ) , and Uch io ( 1960 ) . A l t hough both B r a d y ' s (1884) and Cushman's (1910-1917) works have remained as b a s i c r e f e r e n c e s f o r taxonomic s tudy of deep sea f o r a m i n i f e r a i n the no r th P a c i f i c t h e r e have been few s t u d i e s to e s t a b l i s h the d i v e r s i t y , d i s t r i b u t i o n or e co l ogy of b e n t h i c f o r a m i n i f e r a i n the a r e a . The p h y s i c a l env i ronment which has de te rm ined t he se c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the ba t h ya l f o r a m i n i f e r a i s not we l l known. The nor th P a c i f i c ba thya l depths have g e n e r a l l y been d e s c r i b e d as c o l d and dark w i t h p h y s i c a l parameters such as t empe r a t u r e , s a l i n i t y , d i s s o l v e d 0 2 , C 0 2 and n u t r i e n t s 4 r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e th rough both d i s t a n c e and t ime ( S c h n i t k n e r , 1980) . There are few r e f e r e n c e s to p h y s i c a l o ceanog raph i c pa ramete rs i n the deep n o r t h e a s t P a c i f i c . P i c k a r d (1980) p r e s en t ed a gene ra l su rvey of P a c i f i c deep wate r t empe ra tu r e and s a l i n i t y below 2000 m. a l ong a p r o f i l e at 175° W l o n g i t u d e . The t empe ra tu r e and s a l i n i t y ranges were 1.1° to 2.2° C and 34.65% to 34.75% r e s p e c t i v e l y . S t u d i e s from the Juan de Fuca R idge area a l ong L i ne P at 48° to 50° N. l a t i t u d e and 125° to 145° W l o n g i t u d e at a depth of 1500 m. gave the same t empe ra tu r e and s a l i n i t y va l ue s as above (Thomson, 1973 ) . No deep wate r i s formed i n the P a c i f i c . The A n t a r c t i c i s the wate r mass sou rce f o r the P a c i f i c Deep Water and i s r e f l e c t e d by the u n i f o r m i t y of bottom c o n d i t i o n s ( P i c k a r d , 1980; S c h n i t k e r , 1980) . The P a c i f i c deep and bottom water masses o r i g i n a t i n g o f f A n t a r c t i c a come from the south between New Zea l and and A n t a r c t i c a f l ow no r th and eas tward a c r o s s the equa to r b i f u r c a t i n g near the Hawa i i an I s l a n d s ( P i c k a r d , 1980; Gordon , 1975 ) . A l t hough the deep f l ow p a t t e r n of the no r th P a c i f i c has been d i s c u s s e d f o r a number of y ea r s (Reed, 1969; Edmond et a l , 1971; Gordon , 1975) the r e s u l t a n t p a t t e r n i s s t i l l u n r e s o l v e d (War ren , 1975) . 5 U n l i k e the knowledge of deep c i r c u l a t i o n , t ha t of the s u r f a c e water p a t t e r n s i s we l l e s t a b l i s h e d . Waters of the no r th P a c i f i c are c a r r i e d eas tward by the Ku r o sh i o C u r r e n t , and become pa r t of the Nor th P a c i f i c Cu r r en t which d i v i d e s near the Nor th Amer ican c o n t i n e n t i n t o the n o r t h e r l y A l a s k an Gyre and the s o u t h e r l y C a l i f o r n i a c u r r e n t . The p o s i t i o n of the d i v e r g en ce v a r i e s between 50° N i n the summer and 45° N i n the w i n t e r ( P i c k a r d , 1980) . The s tudy area i s s i t u a t e d w i t h i n the range of the d i v e r g en c e s h i f t and i s t h e r e f o r e i n f l u e n c e d by both n o r t h e r l y and s o u t h e r l y water masses. b 7 entral ca Ridge 1: 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 in m e t e r s 25 Km. 1-8 METHODS Area and Core L o c a t i o n s Lo ran-C n a v i g a t i o n was used to f o l l o w p r ede t e rm i ned t r a c k l i n e s w i t h i n the s tudy r e g i o n ( F i g s . 1 , 2 ) . A 3.5 kHz h igh r e s o l u t i o n subbot tom p r o f i l i n g system gave s h a l l o w s e i sm i c p r o f i l e s f rom which f a v o u r a b l e co re s i t e s c ou l d be chosen on the b a s i s of s t r u c t u r e s and sed iment t h i c k n e s s . The s i x co res of t h i s s tudy (Tab l e 1) were t aken betweeen 47° 50' N and 48° 30' N l a t i t u d e and 128° 35 ' W and 129° 05 ' W l o n g i t u d e ( F i g . 2) i n depths r ang i ng between 2150 and 2650 m. wh i c h , depend ing on the depth c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used (App. D ) , p l a c e s them i n a l ower b a t h ya l or upper a b y s s a l env i r onmen t . Among the numerous co res t a k e n , s i x were s e l e c t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s on s : Cores 51 ,18 ,29 - f o r a m i n i f e r a n abundance and p o s i t i o n near the r i d g e . Core 37 - f o r a m i n i f e r a n p resence and p o s i t i o n pa r t way between Core 51 and the o t he r more s o u t h e r l y ones . Cores 11,12 - p o s i t i o n ea s t of the r i d g e i n r e l a t i v e l y t h i c k sed iment c o v e r . C o l l e c t i o n and S to rage A l l s i x of the co re s were c o l l e c t e d by a 2!4" 9 d i ame t e r g r a v i t y c o r e r used aboard CFAV Endeavour : Cores 37 and 51 i n 1977, the rema inder i n 1978. Core 37 was made a v a i l a b l e f o r s amp l i ng by the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, the o t he r s were c o l l e c t e d by the Dept . of G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbi a . At s ea , on board the Endeavour , the Un i v . B r i t . C o l . co res were f i r s t measured, then d e s c r i b e d w i t h r e s p e c t to c o l o u r and sed iment t ype and were s ub sequen t l y subsampled at the s u r f a c e f o r geochemica l and p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . A f t e r w a r d s , the co res were s e a l e d and s t o r e d u p r i g h t i n a c o l d l o c k e r . A f t e r the c r u i s e the co res were s p l i t , photographed and subsampled at the U n i v e r s i t y . A s t anda rd sample s i z e of 10 c m 3 , and samp l i ng i n t e r v a l of 10 cm. were a t t emp ted ; however, because of the d i f f e r i n g h i s t o r i e s of the co re s t h i s was not a lways p o s s i b l e (Tab le 2 ) . A r c h i v a l h a l v e s of the co re s were s t o r e d at the Department of G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co l umb i a , excep t f o r Core 37 which i s s t o r e d at the P a c i f i c Geosc i ence C e n t r e , P a t r i c i a Bay, B.C. L a b o r a t o r y P rocedu res Sample s i z e f o r t h i s s tudy was l i m i t e d because CORE NUMBER UBC-77-51 GSC-77-37 PGC-78-6-11 PGC-78-6-12 PGC-78-6-18 PGC-78-6 -29 LATITUDE 48° 30.0 'N. 48° 0 3 . 1 5 ' 47° 50 . 48 ' 47° 54 . 94 ' 47° 55 . 04 ' 47° 54 . 85 ' TABLE 1 CORE LOCATIONS LONGITUDE DEPTH GENERALIZED BATHYMETRY 128° 52.0'W 2180 m. Top of West R i d ge , Juan de Fuca Ri dge 128° 53 . 56 ' 2540 J u s t e a s t and b a t h y m e t r i c a l 1 y l ower than Juan de Fuca R idge 128° 37 . 83 ' 2633 T h i r t y km. e a s t of Juan de Fuca R idge i n a rea of r e l a t i v e l y t h i c k sed iment cove r 128° 5 1 . 7 9 ' 2602 F i v e km. e a s t of Juan de Fuca R idge i n a rea of t h i c k sed iment cove r 129° 0 2 . 3 3 ' 2460 Sed iment t r a p j u s t west o f Juan de Fuca Ridge 129° 0 3 . 0 6 ' 2336 Sed iment t r a p on Juan de Fuca Ri dge CORE NUMBER LENGTH UBC-77-51 124 cm. GSC-77-37 192 cm. PGC-78-6-11 99 cm. PGC-78-6-12 123 cm. PGC-78-6-18 44 cm. PGC-78-6-29 51 cm. TABLE 2 CORE HISTORIES HISTORY C o l l e c t e d i n June , 1977. F i r s t s amp l i ng ( F a l l , 1977) of 100 c m . 3 over top 7 cm. Second samp l i ng ( S p r i n g , 1979) 10 c m . 3 over 2 cm. i n t e r v a l s a p p r o x i m a t e l y eve ry 15 cm. Sampled i n 1979: 0-12 cm. and 79-87 cm. f o r 1 1 +C d a t i n g . (Samples and da tes [App. E] f rom R. Cook, Dept . G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , U n i v . B r i t . C o l . ) . C o l l e c t e d i n Augus t , 1977. Samp l ing ( S p r i n g , 1979) of 10 c m . 3 over 2 cm. i n t e r v a l s every 10 cm. C o l l e c t e d June , 1978. Samp l i ng ( F a l l , 1978) of between 10 to 28 cm. 3 over 2 cm. i n t e r v a l s e ve r y 10 cm. Samples were o r i g i n a l l y f o r e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y s t u d i e s and were d r i e d f o r 24 to 48 hours at 105° C. then l a t e r used f o r f o r a m i n i f e r a l a n a l y s i s . C o l l e c t e d June , 1978. Samp l ing ( June , 1978) of 36 t o 50 c m . 3 over 2 cm. i n t e r v a l s eve ry 20 cm. C o l l e c t e d June , 1978. Samp l i ng ( June ,1978) f i v e smears (app rox . 10 c m . 3 ) a c r o s s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9 cm. i n t e r v a l s th roughout the core l e n g t h . C o l l e c t e d June , 1978. Samp l i ng ( June , 1978) of 10 c m . 3 over 2 cm. i n t e r v a l s e ve r y 10 cm. from 0 to 12 samples from the same l e v e l s were a l s o r e q u i r e d by co -wo r ke r s f o r geochemica l and s e d i m e n t o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . No a t tempt was made to de te rm ine wet we igh t because water l o s s i s known to d i f f e r between the co r e s due to t h e i r d i f f e r i n g h i s t o r i e s (Tab le 2 ) . The we igh t of the d r i e d r e s i d u e a f t e r wet s i e v i n g the subsample t h r ough 18 and 200 mesh s t a nda r d s i e v e s was not r e c o r d e d . Th i s was due aga in to d i f f e r i n g h i s t o r i e s and the sma l l d r i e d s i z e , where s e v e r a l l a r g e spec imens or rock c h i p s would b i a s r e s u l t s . I n s t ead of u s i n g we igh t va l ue s f o r c ompa r i s on , the samples were s t a n d a r d i z e d by u s i ng a 10 cm 3 , vo lume. S t a i n i n g In Cores 11 , 12, 18, and 29 a sample from the top 2 cm. was p r e s e r v ed immed i a t e l y a f t e r c o l l e c t i o n i n 4% b u f f e r e d f o r m a l i n . S t a i n i n g t e c hn i q ue s were l a t e r used to de te rm ine the number of l i v i n g spec imens . The s t a i n s Rose Bengal and Sudan B lack B (heated s a t u r a t e d s o l u t i o n ) were used a c c o r d i n g to methods sugges ted by Wa lker et a l ( 1974 ) . The r e s u l t s were not s a t i s f a c t o r y because both s t a i n s gave ambiguous amounts of heavy e x t e r n a l s t a i n . Rose B e n g a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y , has been known to produce ambiguous r e s u l t s (G reen , 1960 ; Walker et a l . , 1974; I ng l e et a l . , 1980) . Because of t hese prob lems no a t tempt has been made to i n d i c a t e the p resence of l i v i n g spec imens . 13 Spe c i e s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Taxa were i d e n t i f i e d to genus or s p e c i e s u s i n g the s t a nda r d r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h i s area of the P a c i f i c c i t e d e a r l i e r t o g e t h e r w i t h the ongo ing E l l i s and Mess ina Ca t a l o gue of F o r a m i n i f e r a ( 1 9 6 4 - ) . S pe c i e s t ype m a t e r i a l were not a v a i l a b l e f o r s t u d y . T h e r e f o r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s were based on compar i sons w i t h f i g u r e s and d e s c r i p t i o n s from the above ment ioned l i t e r a t u r e . Those t a xa which are unde s c r i b ed ( p l u s a few taxa based on l y on f r agmen t s ) are d e s i g n a t e d " s p . " ( e g . K a r r e r i e l 1 a s p . ) i n Tab l e s 3 to 7 and the Append i c e s . Coun t i ng and R e l a t i v e Abundance The e s t i m a t e of abundance i n each sample was based on the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s . The whole sample or the whole of a c onven i en t s p l i t p o r t i o n was s p r e a d , as e ven l y as p o s s i b l e , over a g r i d e d p i c k i n g t r a y . The e n t i r e t r a y was scanned t o : A. ( i ) make a mental e s t i m a t e of r e l a t i v e abundances . ( i i ) t a ke note of p y r i t e and g l a u c o n i t e o c c u r r e n c e , ( i i i ) note the c o n d i t i o n of the t e s t s . B. Four or f i v e squares were randomly s e l e c t e d and a count made of the number of o rgan i sms as we l l as b i o t i c 14 and n o n b i o t i c p a r t i c l e s l a r g e r than 75u (200 mesh s c r een s i z e ) . The number of b i o t i c and n o n b i o t i c p a r t i c l e s counted i n the squares ranged from 28 up to 1 ,245, the average be ing 750. From these counts the f o l l o w i n g data were o b t a i n e d : % b i o t i c m a t e r i a l ; % n o n b i o t i c m a t e r i a l ; % t o t a l f o r am . (% whole spec imens [ p l a n k t o n i c & b e n t h i c ] p l u s % f r a gmen t ed ) ; % p l a n k t o n i c f o r am. ( f rom % whole f o r a m . ) ; % b e n t h i c f o ram. ( f rom % whole f o r a m . ) ; % r a d i o l a r i a ; % d i a t oms ; % sponge s p i c u l e s ; % o s t r a c o d s ; % d i n o f 1 a g e l 1 a te c y s t s ? (Tab le 3 ) . Counts of p l a n k t o n i c spec imens were a l s o made at t h i s t ime (second l a s t l i n e of Tab le 7 ) . From these counts the dominant p l a n k t o n i c s p e c i e s and the r e l a t i v e pe r cen t ages were de te rm ined (Tab le 7 ) . Counts were not made of Core 18 or f o r the 93-96 cm. i n t e r v a l of Core 51 ; however an e s t i m a t e of abundance was made a c c o r d i n g to the g r a d a t i o n a l s c a l e i n the l egend of Tab l e s 3 to 7. At l e a s t the f i r s t ten G l oboquad r i n a pachyderma were examined , i n s e v e r a l randomly p i c k ed s qua r e s , t o g i v e a r i g h t to l e f t c o i l i n g r a t i o (Tab le 3 ) . For the b e n t h i c s p e c i e s ano the r c o u n t i n g p rocedu re was used to de te rm ine r e l a t i v e pe r cen t f r e q u e n c i e s (Tab l e s 3 to 7 ) . These counts were f rom randomly p i c k ed rows c o m p r i s i n g 1/6 to 1/5 of the sample p r e v i o u s l y su rveyed as above ( l i n e F, Tab l e s 3 to 7 ) . Rough e s t ima t e s of the b e n t h i c p o p u l a t i o n were 15 then ob t a i n ed by m u l t i p l y i n g the t o t a l counted by the a p p r o p r i a t e f a c t o r . In those samples where t h e r e were ve ry few f auna l remains the whole sample was p i c k ed and c oun t ed . S cann ing E l e c t r o n Photography The s cann ing e l e c t r o n photographs i n P l a t e s 1 to 5 were taken on the SEMCO Nanlab 7 i n s t r umen t at the Department of G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , U n i v . B r i t . C o l . S t anda rd s tubs were l e f t to dry o v e r n i g h t w i t h a s i n g l e c o a t i n g of a s o l u t i o n c o n t a i n i n g 1 pa r t rubbe r cement to 4 pa r t s t r i c h l o r e t h y l e n e . The spec imens chosen from v a r i o u s samples among the co re subsamples were mounted u s i ng a f i n e brush and d i s t i l l e d wa t e r . An i t e r a t i v e p rocess of go ld c o a t - s c a n - c o a t - s c a n was u sed . The exac t t h i c k n e s s of c o a t i n g c ou l d not be de te rm ined because the new Edmond's S p u t t e r Coa te r had not y e t been c a l i b r a t e d . 0 lb TABLE 3 Distribution of Foraminiferan species from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, N. E. Pacific. Benthic species occurrences plotted as percentages of total benthic fauna. Legend Present less than 1% W\ Rare —i 1-9% Common 10-34% • Abundant 3 5 - 6 9 % Very abundant 70 - 100 % < > « <—i u IT) En 1 Z r~ M m 1 u ai CO O o u 2 o 0 • A Esti m a t e d v o l . of whole sample (cm, d ) 10 10 10 B Est i m a t e d t o t a l no. b e n t h i c s i n sample 57d67d280h6O 75 atoteod dttac|84a]i,55oli C Es t i m a t e d no. b e n t h i c s i n u n i t v o l . f10 cm. 1 29 240teooteod- hpad 1^840)1550 1520 D T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n (plank.. + ben. ) i n 10 cm.' ROOM BOCte30BOd M 4 r«5HO0 E Number of b e n t h i c s p e c i e s F Number of b e n t h i c specimens counted 40 212MO0 hOO G % B i o t i c m a t e r i a l 84 z Ex z. 95 H % N o n b i o t i c m a t e r i a l .  I % Fragments of F o r a m i n i f e r a hioo 30 z 49 K 95 J % F o r a m i n i f e r a (whole not fr a g m e n t s ) - i 35 6 0 X K % P l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a L % B e n t h i c F o r a m i n i f e r a • 9 ^ 50 2 0 X M % R a d i o l a r i a N % Diatoms z z Z} ixl X z O % Sponge s p i c u l e fragments zzz 1 X. X XXX .XX. P % D i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t s ? z Q % Ostracods X R G l a u c o n i t e z S P y r i t e E, T R i g h t / L e f t c o i l i n g Globoquadrina pachyderma 0 / q7q/ Q/o7' 1 Rhabdammina? sp. 2 Rhizammina sp. 3 Ba t h y s i p h o n r u f u s 4 Bathysiphon sp. zz: z 5 Saccammina s p h a e r i c a z 6 Ammodiscus p l a n o r b i s z JXL 7 Ammodiscus sp. z: Reophax g u t t i f e r 9 Reophax l o n g i c o l l i s 10 Reophax nodulosus 11 Reophax? sp. 12 Spirolocammina? t e n u i s 13 Haplophragmoides s p h a e r i l o c u l u s 14 Thalmannammina sp. 15 Cyclammina c a n c e l l a t a 16 B i g e n e r i n a sp. 17 Trochammina sp. 18 Ammosphaeroidina s p h a e r o i d i n i f o r m i s 19 D o r o t h i a b r a d y i 20 E g g e r e l l a p a r k e r a e z E l X XX 21 K a r r e r i e l l a sp. 22 M a r t i n o t t i e l l a sp. :x F Number of b e n t h i c specimens counted 1374E665 T A B L E 4 Distribution of Foraminiferan species from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, N.E. Pacific. Benthic species occurrences plotted as percentages of total benthic fauna. 1 8 TABLE 5 Distribution of Foraminiferan species from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, N. E. Pacific. Benthic species occurrences plotted as percentages of total benthic fauna. Legend Present less than 1 % Rare 1 - 9 % Common 1 0 - 3 4 % ppl Abundant L J 3 5 - 6 9 % [ I Very abundant 1—1 7 0 - 1 0 0 % zz :K 67 Polymorphina sp. 68 Laryngosiqma c f . L. h y a l a s c i d i a z 69 O o l i n a b o r e a l i s zz 70 O o l i n a c f . O. b o t e l l i f o r m i s 71 O o l i n a desmophora 72 O o l i n a g l o b o s a xxxxx z. X xxxxx 73 O o l i n a g l o b o s a s e t o s a ZZx\ z X 74 O o l i n a hexagona 75 O o l i n a l i n e a t a ? z. XX .XX. 76 O o l i n a melo xz 77 O o l i n a c f . O. s c a l a r i f o r m i s - s u l c a t a X X 78 O o l i n a seminuda X 79 O o l i n a s t r i a t o - p u n c t a t a t r i c o s t a :z 80 O o l i n a sp. xxz z 81 O o l i n a sp. B X 82 O o l i n a sp. C IX] 83 O o l i n a sp. D 84 O o l i n a sp. E -XU-85 O o l i n a sp. F z 86 O o l i n a sp. X 87 O o l i n a sp. H z X. 88 O o l i n a sp. I XX. X XXX X :zx: 89 O o l i n a sp. J 90 F i s s u r i n a c f . F. a l v e a t a z z 91 F i s s u r i n a a l v e o l a t a X X 92 F i s s u r i n a a p i c u l a t a p u n c t u l a t a z 93 F i s s u r i n a c f . F. k e r g u e l e n e n s i s Z Z 94 F i s s u r i n a c f . F. l u c i d a XXXXXXXZ 95 F i s s u r i n a ? marginata X z: x. x x y\x\xMx 96 F i s s u r i n a orbignyana 97 F i s s u r i n a r a d i a t a X .XX. 98 F i s s u r i n a seguenziana E H x JXL 1 2 99 F i s s u r i n a c f . F. s p i n u l a t a X zx X X 100 F i s s u r i n a sp. A X X. X. X X 101 F i s s u r i n a sp. zx z X JXL 102 F i s s u r i n a sp. C X 103 F i s s u r i n a sp'. D X 104 F i s s u r i n a sp. E JXL 105 F i s s u r i n a sp. F z. 106 T 5 T F i s s u r i n a sp. F i s s u r i n a sp. 108 F i s s u r i n a sp. I z. :xx: 109 F i s s u r i n a sp. J X 110 F i s s u r i n a sp. L z 111 F i s s u r i n a sp. ZX JXL F Number of b e n t h i c specimens counted 166143117 212MOC|244pi5 99M3^90 fed 374E66 589 T A B L E 6 Distribution of Foraminiferan species from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, N.E. Pacific. Benthic species occurrences plotted as percentages of total benthic fauna. Legend P r e s e n t l e s s t h a n 1 % R a r e 1-9% Common 10-34% A b u n d a n t 35-69% V e r y a b u n d a n t 70 - 100 % 112 F i s s u r i n a s p . 113 F i s s u r i n a sc Z ZZ z 3 X 114 F i s s u r i n a s p . 0 115 F i s s u r i n a s p . ZZZK Z z z: z 116 F i s s u r i n a s p . S 117 F i s s u r i n a s p . X z 118 F i s s u r i n a s p . U 119 F i s s u r i n a s p . V X 120 F i s s u r i n a s p . X ZZ 121 P a r a f i s s u r i n a k e r g u e l e n e n s i s z z X X 122 P a r a f i s s u r i n a b i c o n i c o f o r m i s X X 123 P a r a f i s s u r i n a f u s u l i f o r m i s 124 P a r a f i s s u r i n a l a t e r a l i s z 125 P a r a f i s s u r i n a c f . n e o c u r t a X 126 P a r a f i s s u r i n a s p . A z X 127 P a r a f i s s u r i n a s p . B 128 P a r a f i s s u r i n a s p . C 129 P a r a f i s s u r i n a s p . F s X 130 B u l i m i n e l l a e l e g a n t i s s i m a z 131 S p h a e r o i d i n a b u l l o i d e s ZZ z z 132 B r i z a l i n a p a c i f i c a ZZ z X XM 133 B r i z a l i n a p e i r s o n a e X z 134 B r i z a l i n a s u b d e p r e s s a X z X. xzxxx: 135 B r i z a l i n a s p . X X X X l XX Z X 136 C a s s i d u l i n o i d e s t e n u i s z E x z 137 B u l i m i n a b a r b a t a z XX XK X m: 138 B u l i m i n a mexicana ZXXX Z EXX 139 B u l i m i n a r o s t r a t a XZ X X XXXK 140 G l o b o b u l i m i n a h o e g l u n d i ? Uxx] x z xz x 141 G l o b o b u l i m i n a p a c i f i c a xM XZ 142 S t a i n f o r t h i a complanata z X 143 S t a i n f o r t h i a c f . S . ro tunda 144 S t a i n f o r t h i a seminuda X ZZ. ZZ. 145 U v i g e r i n a a u b e r i a n a X 146 U v i g e r i n a j u n c e a 147 U v i g e r i n a p e r e g r i n a d i s r u p t a X X x: zz \x\ 148 U v i g e r i n a s e n t i c o s a 13 wxz X. XXKXXZ Z wt 149 U v i g e r i n a s p . A 150 U v i g e r i n a s p . B z X X 151 T r i f a r i n a f l u e n s 152 B u c e l l a f r i g i d a 153 E p i s t o m i n e l l a e x i g u a XZX 154 V a l v u l i n e r i a ? a r c t i c a I S xzz: z x. z X. XI XX" F Number of b e n t h i c specimens counted 166 143117 99h3990 E01 374J266 589 20 T A B L E 7 Distribution of Foraminiferan species from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, N.E. Pacific. Benthic species occurrences plotted as percentages of total benthic fauna. Legend Present less than 1 % m Rare 1 - 9 % pi Common J 1 0 - 3 4 % Abundant 3 5 - 6 9 % Very abundant 7 0 - 1 0 0 % jfc P lanktonics as % of total planktonics 155 V a l v u l i n e r i a c f . g l a b r a 156 V a l v u l i n e r i a sp. ZZZ K Z Z Z zn 157 V a l v u l i n e r i a sp. B X 158 V a l v u l i n e r i a S £ . W] ZZZ z E 159 H e r o n a l l e n i a ? sp. KKEZl i s : 160 G l o b o r o t a l i a s c i t u l a ZXXZK ZZ * 161 G l o b i g e r i n a b u l l o i d e s 26 36 as las 12 33J30 ZZ .9° . * 162 G l o b i g e r i n a quinqueloba Z ZZZ z '.ZZ 163 Globoquadrina d u t e r t r e i * 164 Globoquadrina hexagona * 165 Globoquadrina pachyderma 166 O r b u l i n a u n i v e r s a z 167 G l o b i g e r i n i t a g l u t i n a t a * 168 G l o b i g e r i n i t a ? uvula ZZ 169 Eponides tumidulus h o r v a t h i 170 Eponides sp. 171 E i l o h e d r a l e v i c u l a 172 P l a n u l i n a w u e l l e r s t o r f i z 173 C i b i c i d e s sp. ZZ 174 C a s s i d u l i n a cushmani WW? 175 E h r e n b e r g i n a t r i g o n a z 176 G l o b o c a s s i d u l i n a sp. 177 C h i l o s t o m e l l a o o l i n a z z z. 178 A s t r o n o n i o n ? c f . A. b i k i n i e n s i s 179 F l o r i l u s sp. z 180 F l o r i l u s sp. B ZZ 181 P u l l e n i a b u l l o i d e s Zl z 182 P u l l e n i a s u b c a r i n a t a z 183 P u l l e n i a sp. 184 G y r o i d i n a i o 185 G y r o i d i n a n e o s o l d a n i i z 186 G y r o i d i n a sp. 187 O r i d o r s a l i s umbonatus 188 C i b i c i d o i d e s k u l l e n b e r g i 189 Melonis pompi1ioides 190 Melonis zaandamae z 191 Melonis sp. 192 Hoeglundina b r a d y i ZZZ z z. 193 R o b e r t i n a c h a r l o t t e n s i s * Number of p l a n k t o n i c specimens counted B60hO» 262 p9SE7Dh36 212 Number of b e n t h i c specimens counted 21 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION B i o s t r a t i g r a p h y S y s t e m a t i c s A d e t a i l e d s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s was not the purpose of t h i s s t u d y . However, d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the t axa was ne ce s sa r y and the taxonomic c o n f u s i o n wh ich e x i s t s i n d e a l i n g w i t h b e n t h i c f o r a m i n i f e r a adds a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of t ime to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s making compar i son w i t h p u b l i s h e d r e s u l t s very d i f f i c u l t because of the abundance of synonymies ( B o l t o v s k y , 1980) . A r i c h f o r a m i n i f e r a n d i v e r s i t y of 193 taxa was d i f f e r e n t i a t e d (Tab l e s 3 to 7 ) . Sho r t synonymies and s y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s were t a b u l a t e d i n Append ix A, to p r o v i d e a b a s i c r e f e r e n c e to t axa of t h i s s tudy and a r e f e r a l , where p o s s i b l e , to p u b l i s h e d f i g u r e s o f synonymous s p e c i e s . Of the 193 s p e c i e s l i s t e d one t h i r d c o u l d not be i d e n t i f i e d from p u b l i s h e d f i g u r e s and d e s c r i p t i o n s (a few genera were a l s o q u e r i e d ) . F u r t h e rmo r e , v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n a s p e c i e s have been i n t e r p r e t e d d i f f e r e n t l y by a u t h o r s . Such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n t h i s s tudy are i n c l u d e d i n the remarks a f t e r the d e s c r i p t i o n (Append ix A ) . The f o l l o w i n g are g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s based on the taxonomic a n a l y s i s (Tab l e s 3 to 7 ) : 1 S p e c i e s from the subo rde r g roup i ng R o t a l i i n a 22 f a r outnumber a l l o t he r f o rms . 2 The T e x t u l a r i i n a and M i l i o l i n a are g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by on l y a few s p e c i e s w i t h i n each sample . 3 The r o t a l i i d s u p e r f a m i l y Nodosa r i a cea i s r e p r e s en t ed by 94 s p e c i e s (3/4 f rom the s u b f a m i l y O o l i n i n a e ) , h a l f the t o t a l number of s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i e d i n the s t u d y . However, s p e c i e s i n t h i s s u p e r f a m i l y are t y p i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by on l y a few i n d i v i d u a l s so t h a t members compr i se on l y 1 to 5% of the t o t a l b e n t h i c p o p u l a t i o n . 4 The few s p e c i e s but abundant i n d i v i d u a l s f rom o the r supe r fam i 1 i e s ( B u i i m i n a c e a , O r b i t o i d a c e a and C a s s i d u l i n a c e a ) r e g u l a r l y compr i se up to 30% of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , o c c a s i o n a l l y as h igh as 60%. The f i r s t t h r e e g e n e r a l i z e d f i n d i n g s l i s t e d above were a l s o noted i n a s tudy of b e n t h i c deep sea f o r a m i n i f e r a i n the s ou t hea s t I nd i a n Ocean ( C o r l i s s , 1979 ) . The g r e a t e r abundance f rom the subo rde r R o t a l i i n a may be the r e s u l t of moderate CaC03 a v a i l a b i l i t y ( G r e i n e r , 1 9 7 4 ; C o r l i s s , 1979) . C o n t r a d i c t o r y env i r onmen ta l c o n d i t i o n s are i n d i c a t e d by the f r equency d i s t r i b u t i o n . The few but abundant s p e c i e s are t y p i c a l of a s t r e s s e d or u n s t a b l e 23 env i ronment whereas the d i v e r s i t y of t a xa i s i n d i c a t i v e of s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s ( S c h n i t k e r , 1980 ) . Is the d i v e r s i t y r e f l e c t i n g l ong term o v e r a l l s t a b i l i t y and the abundance of a few, the sho r t term m i c r o f 1 u c t a t i o n s of a p h y s i c a l parameter such as CaCo 3 ? Species Occurrence and Abundance The p l a n k t o n i c group occu r s w i t h g r e a t e s t numbers and masks the b e n t h i c f a u n a . There are n i ne p l a n k t o n i c s p e c i e s , two of which are the most abundant ( P l a t e 1 ) : G l oboquad r i n a pachyderma  G l o b i g e r i na b u l 1 o i des  G l o b i g e r i na qui nque loba and G1o b i g e r i n i t a uvu l a are common i n a few samp les . G l oboquad r i n a pachyderma i s o ve rwhe lm i ng l y the most abundant t h roughou t the c o r e s . The most common b e n t h i c s p e c i e s a r e , i n d e c r e a s i n g abundance ( P l a t e 2 ) : O rb i t o i dacea E i 1ohed ra 1e v i c u1 a B u l i m i n a c e a U v i g e r i n a sent i c o s a C a s s i d u l i n a c e a G1oboca s s i du1 i na sp.A Gy ro i d i na i o 24 E i l o h e d r a l e v i c u l a i s the most abundant i n 60 % of the samp les , U v i g e r i n a s e n t i c o s a i n 30 %. E i t h e r Uvi g e r i na s e n t i cosa or G l o b o c a s s i d u l i na sp . A o c cu r s as the second most abundant s p e c i e s i n 30 % of the samp le s . G y r o i d i n a i o , i n about 15 % of the samp le s , i s the t h i r d most common. A l t hough the v a l u e s of the pe r cen t age abundance f o r each of these f ou r s p e c i e s v a r i e s between samples t h e i r r a n k i n g does n o t . Fo r co r e s 51 , 18, and 29 t he r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the abundance of any of the f ou r s p e c i e s e i t h e r down the co re l e ng t h or between c o r e s . An anomalous t r end does occu r however i n the t h r e e deepes t c o r e s (11 ,12 and 37) where the top 20, 40 and 60 cms . , r e s p e c t i v e l y , are r a d i o l a r i a n r i c h . When t h e r e i s a h i gh pe r cen t age of r a d i o l a r i a the most common s p e c i e s i s u s u a l l y U v i g e r i n a s e n t i c o s a ( o c c a s i o n a l l y Me l o n i s p o m p i 1 i o i d e s , or E i1ohed r a  l e v i c u l a ) . Other common but l e s s abundant s p e c i e s are ( i n o rde r of d e c r e a s i n g dominance, P l a t e s 2 to 5 ) : Epon i des  tumi du l u s h o r v a t h i , C a s s i d u l i na cushman i , Or i d o r s a l i s  umbonatus, Me l on i s p o m p i 1 i o i des , Me lon i s s p . , S t a i n f o r t h i a c omp l ana t a , B u l i m i na r o s t r a t a , P1 anu1 i na  w u e l 1 e r s t o r f i , Pu11en i a b u l 1 o i des , Qui n q u e l o c u l i na s p . A , Eh r enbe rg i na t r i gona, Hoeg lund i na b r a d y i , C i b i c i do i des k u l l e n b e r g i , Me l on i s zaandamae, Sphae ro i d i na b u l 1 o i des , K a r r e r i e l 1 a sp . 25 U v i g e r i n a s e n t i c o s a i s the on l y dominant b en t h i c s p e c i e s i n d i g enous to lower ba thya l d ep t h s . The o the r dominant s p e c i e s are known to occu r at s h a l l o w e r depths (Enbysk , 1960; Bergen and O ' N e i l , 1979 ) . T h e i r abundance i s c o n s i d e r e d the r e s u l t of downslope t r a n s p o r t and c o n c e n t r a t i o n mask ing the i n p l a c e f a u n a . Age o f the Cores Core 51 , because i t s r i c h n e s s i n f o r a m i n i f e r a , was the on l y co re of t h i s s tudy from which  l k C da tes were ob t a i n ed (App. E ) : Core 51 I n t e r v a l 0-12 cm. 19,000 BP ± 840/930 y r s . 79-87 cm. 23,660 BP ± 1350/1620 y r s . From the d a t i n g , p l u s f o r a m i n i f e r a n r i c h n e s s and l a c k of change of the p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a n r a d i o l a r i a n r a t i o a l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e age i s i n f e r r e d t h roughou t the l e n g t h of t h i s c o r e . Cores 18 and 29 are a l s o i n f e r r e d to be of l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e age based on t h e i r f o r a m i n i f e r a n r i c h n e s s and the l a c k of change i n the r a t i o of p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a to r a d i o l a r i a . Th i s change of r a t i o i s used i n Cores 11 , 12 , and 37 t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the s e d i m e n t a t i o n at the top of the co res o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the c l i m a t i c t r a n s i t i o n f rom g l a c i a l t o n o n g l a c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . The top 20 cm. of Core 11 , 40 cm. of Core 12 and 60 cm. of Core 37 are r a d i o l a r i a n 26 r i c h . In each of these co res p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a become dominant w i t h i n the next 10 cm. i n t e r v a l down c o r e . I t i s t h i s s h i f t i n f auna l dominance which marks the c l i m a t i c change. S u p p o r t i n g ev i dence of the f auna l change i n t h i s s tudy came from geochemica l s t u d i e s conduc ted on the same co r e s by M. P r i c e , ( 1 981 ) . P r i c e ' s gene r a l f i n d i n g s , based on geochemica l a n a l y s i s of 17 co re s i n the s tudy a r e a , showed t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y the upper 40 cm. of many co r e s are r i c h i n S i . A s h o r t i n t e r v a l below t h i s i s s t i l l h igh i n S i w i t h a low Ca c o n t e n t , then below t h a t the s i t u a t i o n r e v e r s e s and Ca i s e n r i c h e d , w i t h S i i n low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . Th i s s h i f t r e f l e c t s the change i n r a t i o of f o r a m i n i f e r a to r a d i o l a r i a . The same change i n r a t i o , a l t hough i t seems u n l i k e l y , c o u l d be produced by a f o r a m i n i f e r a n l y s o c l i n e w i t h i n which t he re i s d i s s o l u t i o n of the f o r a m i n i f e r a and r e l a t i v e en r i chmen t of the r a d i o l a r i a . T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d in more d e t a i l i n the s e c t i o n r e g a r d i n g abundance. A form i d e n t i f i e d as a ' c y s t ' of Pachysphae ra sp . (App. C) was found i n on l y the t h r ee deepes t c o r e s ( 1 1 , 1 2 , 3 7 ) . The ' c y s t s ' are few i n number and occu r s p o r a d i c a l l y . T h e i r p r e s en c e , however, may be s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t they are found on l y from the 27 s u r f a c e to between 40 and 60 cm. below the change of the p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a n - r a d i o l a r i a n r a t i o . T h i s r a t i o was used by Duncan e t a l (1970) to date the Ho i o c ene - L a t e P l e i s t o c e n e boundary i n the N . E . P a c i f i c a t 12,500 BP. However, Ba rna rd and McManus (1973) found i t c o u l d not be used i n t h i s way because the r a t i o was t ime t r a n s g r e s s i v e up the c o n t i n e n t a l s l o p e . They i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s h i f t i n the r a t i o was more l i k e l y a r e f l e c t i o n of the t i m e - t r a n s g r e s s i v e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s near the g l a c i a l - p o s t g l a c i a l boundary and t h e r e f o r e c ou l d not be used as an i s o c h r onou s b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n d i c a t o r over a wide a rea o f the N . E . P a c i f i c . With r e ga r d to t ime s t r a t i g r a p h i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s the change i n r a t i o of p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a to r a d i o l a r i a was used i n t h i s s tudy to denote the c l i m a t i c s h i f t f rom g l a c i a l t o pos t g l a c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . The ba thya l f o r a m i n i f e r a n assemb lages showed no s i g n i f i c a n t t r end s among the co r e s and are not c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l t ime s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n d i c a t o r s . Over 400 taxa i d e n t i f i e d i n a s tudy of samples from the m idd l e ba thya l i n n ine DSDP ho l e s from the South A t l a n t i c , South P a c i f i c and Ind i an Oceans were found to be poor s t r a t i g r a p h i c gu i des because the Qua te rna r y b a t h ya l fauna was e s s e n t i a l l y the same as t h a t of the O l i g o c ene ( B o l t o v s k y , 1980) . 28 The Pachysphaera s p . ' c y s t 1 may p o t e n t i a l l y be of b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c impor tance i n the l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e . However, f u r t h e r s tudy of i t s i d e n t i t y , d i s t r i b u t i o n and s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n i s needed. PALEOENVIRONMENT D i s t r i b u t i o n and Abundance A r i g o r o u s s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of q u a n t i t a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n data (Tab l e s 3 to 7) was not a t t empted because the o r i g i n a l data are not c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y p r e c i s e . However some q u a l i t a t i v e t r e nd s are a ppa r en t . For i n s t a n c e , the average and range of abundance i n Core 51 i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t f rom the r ema i n i ng co res (Tab le 8 ) . I f such d i f f e r e n c e s are s i g n i f i c a n t they c ou l d be r e l a t e d to one or more n a t u r a l or a r t i f i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n c l u d i n g those l i s t e d , t hen d i s c u s s e d be low: 1 the c a r bona t e compensa t i on depth (CCD) and f o r a m i n i f e r a n l y s o c l i n e (depth range above the CCD where t h e r e i s p a r t i a l d i s s o l u t i o n of f o r a m i n i f e r a n t e s t s ) . 2 b i o l o g i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h such f a c t o r s as t e m p e r a t u r e , s a l i n i t y , oxygen , n u t r i e n t con ten t and c u r r e n t s . 3 the e f f e c t s of the mechan i ca l p r o c e s s i n g of samp les . TABLE 8 POPULATION TRENDS CORE NUMBER NO. 10 c m . 3 TOTAL POPL. AVERAGE SAMPLES UBC-77-51 9 337,330 37,480 GSC-77-37 20 30,706 1,535 PGC-78-6-11 10 4,185 420 PGC-78-6-12 6 3,020 505 PGC-78-6-18 5 16,590 3,320 PGC-78-6-29 5 87,410 17,480 POPL. RANGE 840 -79 ,120 1-9,250 1-2 ,320 55 -2 , 280 1 ,440 -6 ,400 7 , 725 -39 ,000 30 4 a c h a n c e r e l a t i o n 5 g e o g r a p h i c a l s e t t i n g i n f l u e n c i n g t y p e and amount o f s e d i m e n t a t i on 6 d i a g e n e t i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n 1 The CCD and F o r a m i n i f e r a n L y s o c l i n e A r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a l y s o c l i n e and o r CCD s u g g e s t s an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween a b u n d a n c e and d e p t h . C o r e s b e l ow t h e CCD and w i t h i n a l y s o c l i n e w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o have l o w e r a b u n d a n c e s due t o d i s s o l u t i o n o f f o r a m i n i f e r a n t e s t s . The d e e p e r c o r e s o f t h i s s t u d y do show a d r op i n a b u n d a n c e ( F i g . 3 ) . F i g . 3 Population: Abundance with respect to depth o o o <N T? -o a « N C N i nc reas ing depth (m.) * the ave rage of t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n fo r each core The d e e p e s t c o r e s a r e above t h e CCD b u t do a p p r o a c h i t a c c o r d i n g t o s e v e r a l s t u d i e s on t h e 31 r e g i o n . Be rge r and W i n t e r e r (1974) show a CCD of 3000 m. a t 50° N. 130° W. and Takahash i (1975) showed the same CCD f a r t h e r to the west (180° W. l o n g i t u d e ) . There was no i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r the l y s o c l i n e a t the sample s i t e s . However, some of the c o r e s m igh t be expec ted to f a l l w i t h i n a d i s t i n c t l y s o c l i n e . In the C e n t r a l Nor th P a c i f i c , P e t e r s on (1966) and Be rge r (1967) noted some d i s s o l u t i o n from 200 to 3500 m. T h e r e f o r e , d i f f e r e n c e s i n p o p u l a t i o n due to l y s o c l i n e e f f e c t s cannot be c o m p l e t e l y d i s c o u n t e d . However, d i s s o l u t i o n was not i n d i c a t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s on s : 1 (a) In v i s u a l scans of the samples very few p i t t e d or e t ched spec imens were f ound . The pe r cen t age of f ragmented f o r a m i n i f e r a , Tab le 3 ( l i n e I ) , shows fewer f ragments a t d ep t h . However, these p r e dom i n a t e l y p l a n k t o n i c f r agments have the t e x t u r a l appearance of be i ng m e c h a n i c a l l y broken r a t h e r than d i s s o l v e d . K b ) The b e n t h i c to p l a n k t o n i c r a t i o i s c o n s i s t e n t l y low t h roughou t a l l the c o r e s . B en t h i c s p e c i e s r e p r e s e n t on l y 1 to 10 % of the f o r a m i n i f e r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 90% of the samp le s . P a r k e r and Be rge r (1971) sugges ted t h a t the b e n t h i c to p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a n r a t i o i s l owes t i n samples w i t h no CaC0 3 d i s s o l u t i o n and h i g h e s t where d i s s o l u t i o n has taken p l a c e and more r e s i s t a n t s p e c i e s 32 r e m a i n . C a l c a r e o u s b e n t h i c t e s t s were shown to have more r e s i s t a n c e than p l a n k t o n i c s ( P a r k e r and B e r g e r , op . c i t . ) . In t h i s s tudy compar i sons between co re samples and among co re s g i v e no t r end s i n the b e n t h i c to p l a n k t o n i c r a t i o , to s uppo r t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n abundance a re due to d i f f e r e n t i a l s o l u t i o n . However, t h e r e are no d e t a i l e d data on r e l a t i v e ages among the co r e s p o s i t i v e l y e x c l u d i n g an u n d i s c l o s e d t r e n d . 1 ( c ) Three very s m a l l , d e l i c a t e p l a n k t o n i c forms ( a v e r a g i n g 180y) a re found most f r e q u e n t l y and i n h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n s i n the t h r ee deepes t c o r e s o f t h i s s tudy (11,12,37). These s p e c i e s a r e : G l o b i g e r i na qui nque l oba , G l o b i g e r i n i ta g l u t i n a t a , and Gl ob i g e r i n i t a u v u l a . Hecht e t a l (1975) found t h a t d i s s o l u t i o n o f p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a i n the s i z e f r a c t i o n s m a l l e r than 250p o c cu r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a s t e r than i n l a r g e r f r a c t i o n s . Smal l d e l i c a t e p l a n k t o n i c s i n the s u r f a c e sed imen t s of the deeper c o r e s i n d i c a t e s d i s s o l u t i o n has not l i k e l y taken p l a c e . 1(d) G l o b o r o t a l i a s c i t u l a i s found i n a l l the c o r e s o f t h i s s tudy and 80 % of the samp les , f u r t h e r m o r e , i t s r e l a t i v e abundance does not change t h r oughou t the 33 c o r e s . O r b u l i n a u n i v e r s a i s most p r e v a l e n t i n the t h r ee deepes t c o r e s . Ruddiman and Heezen (1967) and Pa r k e r and Be rge r (1971) noted a number of p l a n k t o n i c s p e c i e s e x h i b i t e d d i f f e r e n t i a l s o l u t i o n a t d ep t h . In t h e i r low to h igh l a t i t u d e s tudy of the South P a c i f i c , P a r ke r and Be rge r (1971) found G l o b i g e r i n i t a g l u t i n a t a to be r e l a t i v e l y abundant e x cep t i n samples from h i gh l a t i t u d e s t h a t were s u b j e c t to s o l u t i o n . Be" ( 1977 ) l i s t e d G l o b i g e r i n a t a g l u t i n a t a as low i n r e s i s t a n c e to s o l u t i o n . G l o b i g e r i n i t a uvu l a was abundant i n the f i n e f r a c t i o n of A n t a r c t i c samples and o t h e r h igh l a t i t u d e u n d i s s o l v e d samples ( P a r k e r and B e r g e r , 1971) . Ruddiman and Heezen (1967) and Be rge r (1970) c o n s i d e r e d O r b u l i n a u n i v e r s a ve ry f r a g i l e and s u b j e c t to s o l u t i o n . However, O r b u l i n a u n i v e r s a has d i s p l a y e d i n c o n c l u s i v e d i s s o l u t i o n t r end s i n both l a b o r a t o r y e xpe r imen t s and obse rved n a t u r a l a s s emb l age s . G l o b o r o t a l i a s c i t u l a was found to be a s o l u t i o n prone s p e c i e s d e c r e a s i n g i n r e l a t i v e abundance i n more d i s s o l v e d samples and g r e a t e r water depths (B£ e t a l . , 1975) . The p resence of the above f ou r s p e c i e s i n s u r f a c e samples of co re s of t h i s s tudy i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t d i s s o l u t i o n has p r obab l y not taken p l a c e . 34 Tu r n i n g t o the d i s c u s s i o n of o t he r f a c t o r s t h a t may be s i g n i f i c a n t i n p r odu c i n g the ' d i f f e r i n g abundance and d i s t r i b u t i o n t r e n d s : 2 B i o l o g i c a l and P h y s i c a l O ceanog r aph i c a l I n t e r a c t i o n The deep P a c i f i c water i s c o n s i d e r e d one of the most un i f o rm of a l l o c ean i c water masses ( P i c k a r d , 1980; S c h n i t k e r , 1980) and because the co res were taken w i t h i n 4 to 20 km. of one a no t h e r , ( e x cep t Core 51 which i s f rom a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 km. no r th of the o t h e r s ) , f auna l d i f f e r e n c e s between co res due to change of p h y s i c a l o ceanog raph i c parameters i s not c o n s i d e r e d l i k e l y u n l e s s l o c a l geotherma l a c t i v i t y has e n r i c h e d Core 51 . There were no i n d i c a t i o n s t h i s was the c a s e . 3 Mechan i c a l P r o c e s s i n g The t r ea tmen t was the same f o r a l l s amp le s , except those of Core 11 , and the l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n s o f some co res would not be p r e f e r e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by the wash ing and s i e v i n g . The l a t t e r may have been harsh augment ing f r a g m e n t a t i o n and d e c r e a s i n g the count of whole i n d i v i d u a l s . The on l y d i f f e r e n c e i n h a n d l i n g of samples was t h a t those of Core 11 were oven d r i e d . Core 11 had the l owes t t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . D i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s i n g of d u p l i c a t e samples would be neces sa r y to r e s o l v e the q u e s t i o n of p o s s i b l e d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s on the f a una l p o p u l a t i o n of Core 11 due t o oven d r y i n g . 35 4 Chance R e l a t i o n The g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e i n the average and range o f abundance of p o p u l a t i o n s i n Core 51 sugges t s t h a t chance i s imp r obab l e ; however, t h i s p o s s i b l i t y cannot be d i s c o u n t e d . 5 Geog raph i c S e t t i n g I n f l u e n c i n g Type and Amount o f S e d i m e n t a t i o n The geog raph i c s e t t i n g of the c o r e s , 250 kms. o f f s h o r e , and t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to the Juan de Fuca R idge (Tab le 1) has i n f l u e n c e d the type and amount of s e d i m e n t a t i o n . Sand s i z e , n o n b i o t i c r e s i d u e i n p r o p o r t i o n s 50% i s found a lmos t e x c l u s i v e l y i n those co re s i n t e r p r e t e d as l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e and i n core s e c t i o n s below the f o r a m i n i f e r a n - r a d i o l a r i a n r a t i o change. The n o n b i o t i c r e s i d u e i s c h i e f l y d e t r i t a l q u a r t z g r a i n s and mica f l a k e s . The 80-82 cm. i n t e r v a l of Core 12 ( l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e s e c t i o n of c o r e ) has a 75% n o n b i o t i c r e s i d u e and the f o l l o w i n g s h e l f f o r a m i n i f e r a : B u 1 i mi ne11 a e l e g a n t i s s ima , T r i f a r i na f 1 u e n s , L a r y n g o s i gma c f . L. hy a 1 a s c i d i a and Robe r t i na  c h a r ! o t t e n s i s . A l t hough the p o s i t i o n o f t h i s co re i s not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d i s t i n c t deep sea c h a n n e l , t u r b i d i t e m a t e r i a l o r i g i n a t i n g from the s h e l f i s i n d i c a t e d by the b i o t i c and n o n b i o t i c c o n t e n t . No o t he r t u r b i d i t e sequences w i t h a s h e l f o r i g i n were i d e n t i f i e d . T h i s may be the r e s u l t of r i g i d samp l i ng eve ry 10 cms. and m i s s i n g o t he r t h i n t u r b i d i t e s equences . 36 Du r i ng the P l e i s t o c e n e t u r b i d i t e s were l a r g e r and more competent than i n the Ho locene and sed iment was d e p o s i t e d more e x t e n s i v e l y a c r o s s the sea f l o o r (G r i gg s and Ku lm, 1970 ) . Some t u r b i d i t e a c t i v i t y o r i g i n a t i n g f rom the s h e l f can be expec ted i n the P l e i s t o c e n e s ed imen t . No t u r b i d i t e s of s h e l f o r i g i n were found i n the Ho locene i n t e r v a l . T u r b i d i t e s are p r e s e n t l y c o n f i n e d to channe l s and i t i s on l y here t h a t f o r a m i n i f e r a from s h e l f t h rough abys sa l depths have been found i n t u r b i d i t e sequences whereas the i n t e r b e d d e d h em i p e l a g i c c l a y s have on l y deep fauna (G r i gg s and F ow l e r , 1971; G r i gg s and Ku lm, 1970) . Except f o r s h e l f fauna i n one t u r b i d i t e sequence the rema inde r of the b e n t h i c f o r a m i n i f e r a are upper t o l owe r ba t h ya l t h e r eby i n d i c a t i n g a h e m i p e l a g i c sed iment s o u r c e . There i s l i t t l e c o n t i n e n t a l l y d e r i v e d m a t e r i a l , and much of the n o n b i o t i c r e s i d u e i s b a s a l t c h i p s , g l a s s shards or f e c a l p e l l e t f r a gmen t s . The p resence of the m ine r a l component sugges t s eas tward downslope movement from the Juan de Fuca R i d ge . The one t u r b i d i t e sequence w i t h e n t r a i n e d s h e l f fauna and o the r i n t e r v a l s w i t h a sma l l t e r r i g e n o u s component of d e t r i t r a l qua r t z g r a i n s and mica f l a k e s have p r obab l y been c a r r i e d west and southward f rom the s h e l f . P l e i s t o c e n e and Ho locene i n t e r v a l s i n the co res have d i f f e r i n g r a t e s of s e d i m e n t a t i o n . The two  l h C dates i n Core 51 d e f i n e a 4,660 yea r span when 77 cm. 37 o f sed iment was d e p o s i t e d . Assuming a c o n s t a n t supp l y d u r i n g t h a t t ime the P l e i s t o c e n e s e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e would be 16.5 cm./lOOO y r s . The f o r a m i n i f e r a n - r a d i o l a r i a n r a t i o change o c cu r s a t an average depth of 40 cm. Assuming a se t date of 12,500 y r s . and aga in a s teady sed iment supp l y the Ho locene r a t e i s 3.2 cm . / lOOOy r s . 6 D i a g e n e t i c D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n In Core 37 t he re i s a marked absence of b i o t a a f t e r 140 cm. Below t h i s i n t e r v a l t he re are no a g g l u t i n a t e d , m i l i o l i d or n o d o s a r i d forms and reduced numbers of o t h e r CaC0 3 s p e c i e s . Ano the r anomalous f e a t u r e of t h i s co re i s a 60 cm. i n t e r v a l of p y r i t e o c cu r r en c e j u s t above the f auna l d e c r e a s e . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s s p e c u l a t i v e , on the b a s i s of the ev i dence from one c o r e . A b i o g e n i c o r i g i n f rom r e d u c t i o n of o r g an i c m a t t e r , a d i a g e n e t i c l e a c h i n g p ro ce s s or a t ype of hyd ro the rma l c i r c u l a t i o n may be p r odu c i n g these phenomena. Deeper and more e x t e n s i v e c o r i n g and geochemica l s t u d i e s might c l a r i f y these f i n d i n g s . In eve ry sample of Core 51 a m i ne r a l agg r ega t e termed g l a u c o n i e o c cu r s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h f o r a m i n i f e r a n r i c h n e s s . The g l a u c o n i e i s b e l i e v e d to c o n s i s t of v a r i a b l e amounts of i l l i t e , m o n t m o r i l l o n i t e and c h l o r i t e ( B j e r k l i and Os tmo -Sae t e r , 1973 ) . Th i s co re i s a t the top of the West Juan de Fuca R idge and i s l i k e l y s u b j e c t to s lump ing remov ing more r e c en t sed iment and/o r to w innowing p r odu c i ng a l a g d e p o s i t . G l a u c o n i t e i s b e l i e v e d to be an a l t e r a t i o n p r odu c t o f the agg rega te 38 g l a u c o n i e . G l a u c o n i t e i s known to o c cu r where t h e r e i s a s low r a t e of s e d i m e n t a t i o n and forms from the a l t e r a t i o n of o r g a n i c ma t t e r such as f e c a l p e l l e t s or from the m i n e r a l s i l l i t e and b i o t i t e ( Read i ng , 1978 ) . Core 51 , may w e l l be a l a g d e p o s i t s i t u a t e d i n a r e g i o n of low s e d i m e n t a t i o n . Bathymetric I n d i c a t o r s A l l s i x c o r e s are f rom a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same depth w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Core 51 from about 500 m. s h a l l o w e r . With the s i x c o r e s from one depth r ange , d i s t i n c t i o n between f o r a m i n i f e r a l i v i n g a t a g i ven depth and those d i s p l a c e d downslope i s n e c e s s a r i l y based on the l i t e r a t u r e . Bergen and O ' N e i l (1979) de te rm ined b a t h y m e t r i c ranges of f o r a m i n i f e r a i n A l a s kan w a t e r s . They noted s h a l l o w e s t o c c u r r e n c e s o f a s p e c i e s and s e t b a t h y m e t r i c zone bounda r i e s where changes of p o p u l a t i o n assemb lages o c c u r r e d . S h a l l o w e s t o c c u r r e n c e s p r o v i d ed a means to d i s t i n g u i s h the t r u e upper b a t h yme t r i c l i m i t of a p o p u l a t i o n f rom i t s d i s p l a c e m e n t downslope a f t e r d e a t h . Enbysk (1960) l i s t e d s p e c i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f n e r i t i c th rough aby s sa l depths f o r f ou r a reas no r t h of 40° l a t i t u d e i n the e a s t e r n P a c i f i c : Oregon, Wash i ng t on , Vancouver I s l a n d and A l a s k a . She s t a t e d t h a t the s p e c i e s were chosen f o r t h e i r abundance or p e r s i s t e n c e w i t h i n a b a t h y m e t r i c r ange . Her s tudy d i d not i n d i c a t e s h a l l o w e s t o c c u r r e n c e s . 39 N a t l a n d ' s (1957) b i o f a c i e s VI (1300 t o 2500 mete r s ) o f f C a l i f o r n i a was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: U v i g e r i n a  s e n t i c o s a , Bu1i mi na r o s t r a t a , Noni on pompi1 i o i de s , P ii 1 T e n i a buTToi de s . He d i d not i n d i c a t e how the b i o f a c i e s range was de te rm ined ( i e . by s h a l l o w e s t o c c u r r e n c e ) . Two s p e c i e s c o n s i d e r e d lower ba thya l i n d i c a t o r s i n the p r e v i o u s t h r e e s t u d i e s and common i n t h i s s tudy are U v i g e r i n a sen t i cosa and Mel on i s pompi1 i o i des• Other s p e c i e s common i n the p r e s en t s tudy and l i s t e d i n one or more of the o t he r s as be ing depth i n d i c a t o r s or hav i ng a f i r s t o c cu r r en ce i n t h i s depth range , are ( P l a t e 3 ) : Melor i i s zaandamae  P u l T e n i a b u l 1 o i des  BuTi mi na r o s t r a t a  Or i d o r s a l i s umbonatus  S p h a e r o i d i na b u l l o i des These s p e c i e s are common th roughou t the l e n g t h 1 c o r e s . From p u b l i s h e d l i s t s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b a t h ya l es on l y U v i g e r i n a s e n t i c o s a i s one of the f o u r abundant s p e c i e s of t h i s s t u d y . Of the o t he r of a l s p e c i most 40 t h r e e abundant s p e c i e s , E i l o h e d r a l e v i c u l a i s r e p o r t e d by Bergen and O ' N e i l (1979) from the n e r i t i c (92 m.) to the lower ba t h ya l (2623 m . ) , b e i n g most common i n the m idd l e b a t h ya l but t he r e r e p r e s e n t i n g on l y 4 to 11 % o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . Uch io (1960) r e p o r t e d on n e r i t i c to m idd l e ba thya l (1300 m.) env i r onmen t s o f f San D i ego , t h e r e he found l i v i n g p o p u l a t i o n s of E. l e v i c u l a t h r oughou t t h a t r ange , w i t h the l a r g e s t p e r c en t age s i n the m idd l e b a t h ya l (up to 16 % of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ) . I ng l e e t a l . (1980) i n a s tudy o f f P e r u - C h i l e found E. l e v i c u l a from the s h e l f edge a t 142 m. to 3550 m. They l i s t t h i s s p e c i e s among the dominant assemblage of the upper m idd l e b a t h ya l (500-1500 m.) but a l s o w i t h h igh o c c u r r e n c e s i n the 1ower b a t h y a l . G y r o i d i n a i o , o f f San Diego ( U c h i o , 1960) , has a s p o r a d i c d i s t r i b u t i o n from about 500 m. th rough the m idd le b a t h y a l , w i t h a l i v i n g p o p u l a t i o n r e c o r ded on l y f rom a t l e a s t 1200 m., the lower l i m i t of h i s s a m p l i n g . Bergen and O ' N e i l ( 1979 ) , found fj. _j_o_, f rom the Gu l f of A l a s k a , i n on l y the m idd l e to l ower b a t h y a l ( 595-2623 m. ) . G l o b o c a s s i d u l i na sp . A i s c o n s i d e r e d synonymous w i t h C a s s i d u l i na subg lobosa Brady of Smith ( 1973 ) . She found sma l l r a r e forms of t h i s s p e c i e s , and one t h a t s t a i n e d w i t h rose b e n g a l , south of the A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s a t 4 ,430 m. Bergen and O ' N e i l (1979) r e p o r t t h i s sma l l s p e c i e s from 475 to 2280 m. in the Gu l f of A l a s k a . 41 Thus , of the f o u r most abundant s p e c i e s on l y U v i g e r i n a s e n t i c o s a c ou l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n p l a c e . From the l i s t i n g of common but l e s s abundant s p e c i e s i n t h i s s tudy the f o l l o w i n g are i n d i c a t o r s of lower ba t h ya l i e . g r e a t e r than 1500 m. depths [ f rom the f i n d i n g s of Bergen and O ' N e i l ( 1 979 ) , Enbysk ( 1960 ) , Na t l a nd ( 1 957 ) , I ng l e et a l ( 1980) ] ( P l a t e 3 ) : *? Or i d o r s a l i s umbonatus  Mel on i s pompi1 i o i des  Bu1imi na r o s t r a t a  Eh r enbe rg i na t r i gona  S p h a e r o i d i n a bu11oi des [*? one r e p o r t i n the upper ba thya l ( 275 m.) i n I ng l e et a l (1980) , t h i s r e c o r d was i n the sou the rn P a c i f i c i n c o n t r a s t to the o t he r t h r e e no r t h e r n P a c i f i c s t u d i e s . ] A c c o r d i n g to the l i t e r a t u r e (Bergen and O ' N e i l , 1979; I n g l e et a l . , 1980) the f o l l o w i n g have a f i r s t o c c u r r e n c e i n the b a t h y m e t r i c l e v e l s l i s t e d and i n d i c a t e d p o s s i b l e downslope movement ( P l a t e s 3 and 4 ) : from the m idd le ba thya l (500-1500 m. ) P1 anu1i na w u e l 1 e r s t o r f i Me l on i s zaandamae f rom the upper ba thya l (200- 5 0 0 m . ) S t a i riforthia comp lanata 42 f rom the n e r i t i c ( l e s s than 200 m.) C a s s i d u l i na cushmani 1 P u 1 1 en i a b u l 1 o i des  Hoeg lund i na b r ad y i 2 C i b i c i do i des k u l 1 e n b e r g i 1 g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d an i n d i c a t o r of l ower ba thya l d ep t h s , however, Enbysk (1960) r e p o r t e d the s p e c i e s f rom 138 m. on the A l a s kan s h e l f . 2 c o n s i d e r e d m idd l e ba t h ya l ( I n g l e e t a l ( 1 980 ) , however, Enbysk (1960) r e c o r d s l i v i n g spec imens at 78 m. on the A l a s kan s h e l f . A l t hough the p resence of these common s p e c i e s p l u s some of the f ou r dominant forms i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r downslope t r a n s p o r t from any or a l l of the upper depth r ange s , d i s p l a c emen t i s c o n s i d e r e d u n l i k e l y f rom a t l e a s t the n e r i t i c f o r the f o l l o w i n g two r e a s on s : (a) I t cannot be d i s c o u n t e d t h a t l i v i n g forms of these s p e c i e s can be found a t ba thya l d ep t h s . Mo reove r , none of these s p e c i e s i s a member of the dominant assemblage groups o f the i n n e r th rough ou t e r n e r i t i c zones (down to 200 m. ) . These depths are g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the genera E1p h i d i u m, C i b i c i d e s , C a s s i d u l i n a [C . c a l i f o r n i c a , C. s u b g l o b o s a , ( l a r g e r o bu s t f o rm) ] and Uvi g e r i na [ U. j uncea] ( N a t l a n d , 1957 ; Enbysk , 1960; U c h i o , 1960; Bergen and O ' N e i l , 1979) . The f i r s t two genera are not even found i n t h i s s t ud y , nor are e i t h e r of the c a s s i d u l i n i d s . However, a few spec imens of Uvi g e r i na j uncea are p r e s e n t . 43 (b) A l t hough E i l o h e d r a l e v i c u l a i s a common c o n s t i t u e n t of upper b a t h ya l f a una s , 230-560 m. (Bergen and O ' N e i l , 1979; I ng l e et a l . , 1980; Enbysk , 1960) , i t i s i n the m idd le ba thya l depths of 500 to 1500 m. t h a t i t and S t a i n f o r t h i a comp lan ta and C a s s i d u l i n a cushmani become s i g n i f i c a n t ( Enby sk , 1960 ; Bergen and O ' N e i l , 1979; I ng l e et a l . , 1980 ) . Three o the r s p e c i e s common to t h i s s tudy have a s h a l l o w e s t o c cu r r en ce i n the m idd le b a t h y a l : G y r o i d i n a i o , P l a n u l i n a w u e l 1 e r s t d r f i , and Me lon i s zaandame. From the e v i d en ce i n the c o r e s , downs lope t r a n s p o r t has o c c u r r e d f rom upper and m i d d l e , to l ower b a t h ya l depths ( a , a bo ve ) . The abundance i n the co re s o f m idd le b a t h ya l fauna (b , above) sugges t s the main component came from t h i s depth a l t hough t h i s cannot be proved c o n c l u s i v e l y . P l a n k t o n i c Fauna and A s s o c i a t e d E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s G l oboquad r i n a pachyderma, the most abundant p l a n k t o n i c s p e c i e s t h roughou t a l l co res i s s i n i s t r a l l y c o i l e d i n the m a j o r i t y of samples (Tab le 3, l i n e 17 ) . However, i n Core 12 t h e r e were h igh numbers o f d e x t r a l l y c o i l e d spec imens t h r o u g h o u t . A c c o r d i n g to 44 Be (1977) s i n i s t r a l l y c o i l e d G l oboquad r i na pachyderma i s an i n d i c a t o r of p o l a r wate rs w h i l e d e x t r a l c o i l i n g occu r s i n t r a n s i t i o n and s ubpo l a r a r e a s . However, the co re s u n d e r l i e an area c o n s i d e r e d to be s ubpo l a r to t r a n s i t i o n ( i e . Bradshaw, 1959; Thomson, 1973 ) . The reason f o r the d i s c r e p e n c y i n water mass a s s o c i a t i o n i s not c l e a r . There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Core 12 and the o t he r s i n g e o g r a p h i c ! p o s i t i o n or t ime f r ame . T h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n the b i o t a of Core 12 come f rom a d i f f e r e n t t empe ra tu r e r eg ime . The reasons f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s of c o i l i n g are u n c l e a r i n t h i s c a se . Of the p l a n k t o n i c s p e c i e s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t h i s s tudy a l l are found i n wate rs c o o l e r than 18°C except G l oboquad r i n a hexagona (Bradshaw, 1959; B£, 1977) . W i t h i n the t empe ra tu re range 0° to 18°C the waters of the N. P a c i f i c are grouped i n t o t h r e e r e g i o n s ( A r c t i c 0 ° - 5 ° C , S u b a r c t i c 5 ° -10°C , T r a n s i t i o n 10°-18°C) w i t h each of these r e g i on s hav i ng a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p l a n k t o n i c f auna l assemblage (Be", 1977 ) . In t h i s s tudy the g r e a t e s t number of s p e c i e s were of the s u b a r c t i c assemblage but the a r c t i c and t r a n s i t i o n zones were a l s o p re sen t (Tab le 9 ) . No s u r f a c e pa l eoenv i r onmen ta1 change was i n d i c a t e d by the p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a n assemblage which showed no v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n or among Tab le 9 Spec i e s of t h i s Study Re l a t ed to P l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a n Zones of t h e No r the rn P a c i f i c , (adapted f rom B £ , 1 9 7 7 ) . 0° A r c t i c 5°C S u b a r c t i c 10°C T r a n s i t i o n 18°C G l ob i g e r i na pachyderma Gl ob i g e r i na bu l 1 o i des O r b u l i na uni v e r s a G l o b i g e r i n a qu inque l oba  G l o b o r o t a l i a s c i tu1 a  G1o b i g e r i n i t a uvu la  G l o b i g e r i n i t a g l u t i n a t a 46 c o r e s . However, as was noted e a r l i e r the r a t i o of p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a t o r a d i o l a r i a i s sugges ted as an i n d i c a t o r of the c l i m a t i c s h i f t f rom the l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e t o the Ho l o cene . Benthic Fauna and Associated Environmental Factors A range from n e r i t i c to l ower ba thya l depths are the o r i g i n a l env i ronments of the 184 b e n t h i c s p e c i e s i d e n t i f i e d . The i nd i g enous lower ba thya l fauna were outnumbered by p r edom inan t l y mid and upper ba thya l s p e c i e s d i s p l a c e d downs lope . The ba thya l fauna which show no t r e nd s th roughou t or among the co res i n d i c a t e t h a t no d i s c e r n i b l e change i n the env i ronment of the sea -bo t tom has o c c u r r e d i n the s tudy area d u r i n g the l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e to Ho locene i n t e r v a l r e p r e s e n t e d by the sed iments c o r e d . F u r t h e rmo r e , the morphology of b a t h ya l f o r a m i n i f e r a n t e s t s has not e vo l v ed s i n c e the O l i g o cene ( B o l t o v s k y , 1980) . Th i s unchang ing aspec t of the fauna i s c o n s i d e r e d a r e f l e c t i o n of s t a b l e deep sea c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g t h a t t i m e . The ba t hya l assemblage i s p a r a d o x i c a l i n i t s f r equency d i s t r i b u t i o n and the g r e a t number of s p e c i e s i n d i c a t e s a very s t a b l e env i r onmen t ; but on the o t he r hand dominance of a few s p e c i e s may be c o n s i d e r e d a response t o u n s t a b l e or s t r e s s e d c o n d i t i o n s ( S c h n i t k e r , 1980 ) . I t i s assumed t h a t t he 47 ba thya l fauna are s e n s i t i v e to change, i e . would have undergone e v o l u t i o n a r y change and/or e x t i n c t i o n had deep sea c o n d i t i o n s a l t e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The e v o l u t i o n of ba thya l s p e c i e s has been very s low ( B o l t o v s k y , 1980) . The w r i t e r knows of no s t u d i e s on l i v i n g ba t h ya l s p e c i e s to de te rm ine the b i o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e of p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s . The f o l l o w i n g s p e c u l a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s i s s u gge s t e d : The O l i g o c ene e v o l u t i o n of b a t h ya l b e n t h i c s p e c i e s may be r e l a t e d to a wo r l d wide change i n o cean i c c i r c u l a t i o n . S i n c e the O l i g o c e n e , w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d ba thya l faunas ( B o l t o v s k y , 1980; Doug l a s , 1973) had i n common the A n t a r c t i c bottom wate r wh ich has f l owed nor thward i n t o the t h r e e major ocean ba s i n s ( P i c k a r d , 1980; K e n n e t t , 1977) at l e a s t s i n c e the deve lopment of the C i r c u m - A n t a r c t i c Cu r r en t i n the l a t e O l i g o c ene ( K enne t t , 1977; Kennet t et a l . , 1975; J e n k i n s , 1974; Kennet t et a l . , 1972) . The s l o w l y chang ing na tu re of the b a t h ya l fauna which e vo l v ed i n the O l i g o c ene may be a r e f l e c t i o n of the c on t i n uan ce of a s t a b l e deep sea c i r c u l a t i o n , f rom the A n t a r c t i c r e g i o n , s i n c e t h a t t i m e . As sugges ted by S c h n i t k e r (1980) i t may we l l be s t r a t i f i e d wate r -masses which have i n f l u e n c e d depth d i s t r i b u t i o n of ben th i c . f o ram i n i f e r a . 48 CONCLUSIONS With r e spe c t to the o b j e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s were r e a ched : (a) W i t h i n the r i c h d i v e r s i t y of 193 f o r a m i n i f e r a n s p e c i e s t h e r e are one t h i r d t h a t are new or u n d e s c r i b e d . The m a j o r i t y of the 184 b e n t h i c s p e c i e s are from the subo rde r R o t a l i i n a w i t h a few s pe c i e s but abundant i n d i v i d u a l s f rom the supe r fam i 1 i e s B u l i m i n a c e a , O r b i t o i d a c e a and C a s s i d u l i n a c e a . The Nodosa r i a c ea compr i se h a l f the t o t a l number of b e n t h i c s p e c i e s but on l y 5% of the number of spec imens . There are a few s pe c i e s from each of the T e x t u l a r i i n a and M i l i o l i n a . The p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a are n u m e r i c a l l y the most abundant and f rom the n ine p l a n k t o n i c s p e c i e s p r e sen t the two most common a r e : G1 o b o q u a d r i n a  pachyderma and G l ob i g e r i ria b u l 1 o i d e s . Four b e n t h i c s p e c i e s are c o n s i s t e n t l y common th roughou t a l l co re s and, i n o rde r of d e c r e a s i n g abundance, a r e : E i 1ohed ra  l e v i c u l a , U v i g e r i n a s e n t i c o s a , G l o b o c a s s i d u l i na sp . and Gy ro i d i na i o. Among the abundant b e n t h i c s p e c i e s of t h i s s tudy the f o l l o w i n g can be c o n s i d e r e d i n p l a c e and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a lower ba thya l env i r onmen t : U v i g e r i n a sent i c o s a , Mel on i s pompi1 i o i des , Me lon i s  zaandamae, Pu11eni a bu11oi d e s , Bul i mi na r o s t r a t a , Or i d o r s a l i s umbonatus and Sphae ro i d i na buV\ o i d e s . 49 A major component of the f a una l assemblage i s i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f l e c t i n g downslope movement from upper and m idd le ba thya l d ep t h s . These mask the r e c o g n i t i o n of i n d i g enou s f a u n a . Specimens d i s p l a c e d from n e r i t i c or s h e l f env i ronments are r a r e . (b) N e i t h e r the b e n t h i c nor p l a n k t o n i c assemblage i s of va l ue f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t ime zones or c o r r e l a t i n g between c o r e s . However, a change i n the p l a n k t o n i c f o r a m i n i f e r a n - r a d i o l a r i a n r a t i o can be used to d e l i m i t the c l i m a t i c change f rom g l a c i a l t o post g l a c i a l t imes and a l l o w s c o r r e l a t i o n between t h r e e c o r e s . Th i s r a t i o changes at an average depth of 40 cm. An a l g a l form i d e n t i f i e d as a ' c y s t ' of Pachysphaera sp . (App. C) o c cu r s from the s u r f a c e to between 40 and 60 cm. below the f o r a m i n i f e r a n r a d i o l a r i a n r a t i o change. Dependent on more p r e c i s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and knowledge of i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n t h i s ' c y s t ' c o u l d prove t o be a b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c marker c l o s e t o t he P l e i s t o c e n e - H o l o c e n e boundary . (c) T u r b i d i t e a c t i v i t y was more pronounced i n the P l e i s t o c e n e and i s i n t e r p r e t e d to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a lmost e x c l u s i v e o c c u r r e n c e of h igh pe r cen tages o f sand s i z e n o n b i o t i c r e s i d u e (>50%) i n subsamples from t h e P 1 e i s t o c e n e s e c t i o n of the c o r e s . One t u r b i d i t e sequence o r i g i n a t i n g f rom the s h e l f was i d e n t i f i e d by 50 the p resence of f o u r n e r i t i c spec imens and a n o n b i o t i c r e s i d u e of 75%. P y r i t e , i n Core 37, i n an i n t e r v a l j u s t above a s t r i k i n g drop of f o r a m i n i f e r a n abundance may be b i o g e n i c i n o r i g i n or a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l e a c h i n g p ro ce s s or p o s s i b l y w i t h hyd ro the rma l c i r c u l a t i o n . However, f u r t h e r s tudy i s needed t o r e s o l v e the na tu re of the o c c u r r e n c e . The P l e i s t o c e n e sed iment at the top o f Core 51 i s i n t e r p r e t e d as the r e s i d u e r ema i n i ng a f t e r the s l ump ing of r e c en t s ed imen t , or a l a g produced by w innow ing . The p resence of g l a u c o n i e t h r oughou t the co re i s s u g g e s t i v e of a h i a t u s i n s e d i m e n t a t i o n and p o s s i b l y the a l t e r a t i o n of o r g an i c ma t te r such as f e c a l p e l l e t s . (d) The CCD or an a s s o c i a t e d l y s o c l i n e are not i n t e r p r e t e d as i n f l u e n c i n g abundance because t h e r e are very few p i t t e d or e t ched spec imens , the b e n t h i c to p l a n k t o n i c r a t i o was c o n s i s t e n t l y l ow, and sma l l d e l i c a t e p l a n k t o n i c s b e l i e v e d to d i s s o l v e r e a d i l y are found th roughou t the c o r e s . The app rox ima te t h i c k n e s s of s e d i m e n t a t i o n between 19,000 and 23,000 BP i s 77 cm. and from the p r e sen t to 12,500 BP i s 40 cm. I f s e d i m e n t a t i o n r a t e s were c o n s t a n t t h i s would be e q u i v a l e n t to 16.5 cm./lOOO y r s . i n the l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e and 3.2 cm./lOOO y r s i n t he Ho l o cene . 51 The sed iment i n the co re s i s a lmost e n t i r e l y h e m i p e l a g i c hav ing o r i g i n a t e d from upper to lower b a t h ya l depths as i n d i c a t e d by the e n t r a i n e d f a una . An a s s o c i a t e d n o n b i o t i c r e s i d u e of g l a s s shards and b a s a l t c h i p s i s s u g g e s t i v e of downslope t r a n s p o r t eas tward and southward from the Juan de Fuca R i d g e . D e t r i t a l q ua r t z g r a i n s and mica f l a k e s p l u s s h e l f f o r a m i n i f e r a n s p e c i e s , i n the one t u r b i d i t e sequence samp led , were p r obab l y c a r r i e d west and southward f rom the s h e l f . S i n i s t r a l l y c o i l e d G l o boquad r i n a pachyderma are abundant th roughou t the co res and i n d i c a t e a c o l d wa te r mass i n f l u e n c e . The change to a g r e a t e r r e l a t i v e abundance of r a d i o l a r i a i n the p o s t g l a c i a l may i n f e r an a l t e r a t i o n i n c l i m a t i c and c i r c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n s at the c l o s e of the P l e i s t o c e n e . The g l a c i a l - p o s t g l a c i a l t r a n s i t i o n c ou l d not be d i s c e r n e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n the f o r a m i n i f e r a n as semb lages . 52 BIBLIOGRAPHY B a r k e r , R.W., 1960 F o r a m i n i f e r a dredged by HMS C h a l l e n g e r , Soc . Econ . M i n . P a l e o .  Spec . P u b l . 9 . B a r n a r d , W.D. , McManus, D.A. , 1973 P l a n k t o n i c Forami n i f e r a n - R a d i o l a r i an S t r a t i g r a p h y and the P l e i s t o c e n e -Ho locene Boundary i n the No r t heas t P a c i f i c , G e o l . Soc . Am. B u l l . V . 8 4 , p. 2097-2100 . B a r r , S . M . , Chase , R . L . , 1974 Geo logy of the no r t h e r n end of Juan de Fuca R idge and s e a f l o o r s p r e a d i n g , C a n . J . Ea r t h S c i . , v . 1 1 , p. 1384-1406 . Be*, A . W . H . , 1977 An E c o l o g i c a l , Zoogeograph i c and Taxonomic Review of Recent P l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a , i n Oceani C  M i c r o p a T a e o n t o l o g y , (Ramsay A . T . S . ed . ) v . l , p . 1 - 100 . Be\ A . W . 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Review of Go rdon ' s Genera l Ocean C i r c u l a t i o n , i n Numer i ca l Models o f Ocean C i r c u l a t i o n , Na t . Acad . S c i . P r o c e ed . Symp., Durham N .H . , p .49-51 T rans fo rm f a u l t s , ocean r i d g e s and magnet i c anoma l i e s southwest of Vancouver I s l a n d , Sc i ence , v . 1 5 0 , p . 482 -485 . 60 PLATE 1 PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERA Figures' 1,2 G l oboquad r i na pachyderma 200X (p .118 ) UBC-77-51 (0-7 cm. ) u m b i l i c a l and edge v iews d i ameter 180y ( t_h ickness 75y) 3 G l o b i g e r i n i t a uvu l a 350X (p .119) GSC-77-37 (90-92 cm.) o b l i q u e a p e r t u r a l v iew d iam. 90p 4 ,5 G l o b i g e r i n a b u l l o i d e s 110X (p .117 ) UBC-77-51 (0-7 cm.) s p i r a l and u m b i l i c a l v iews J_ength 455y ( t h . 310y) 6 O r b u l i n a uni v e r s a 95X (p .118 ) GSC-77-37 (100-102 cm.) d iam. 430y 7 ,8 ,9 G l o b o r o t a l i a s c i t u l a 130X (p .116) UBC-77-51 (64-66 cm.) s p i r a l , o b l i q u e u m b i l i c a l and edge v iews d iam. 365 y t h . 195y 10,11 G l o b i g e r i n a qu i nque l oba 230X (p .117) GSC-77-37 (90-92 cm.) a p e r t u r a l and s p i r a l v iews 1. 195p ( t h . 95y) 62 PLATE 2 MOST ABUNDANT BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA F i gures 1,2 ,3 E i l o h e d r a l e v i c u l a 215X (p .120) UBC-77-51 (79-81 cm.) s p i r a l , edge and u m b i l i c a l v iews d iam. 210y t h . 90 y 4-9 U v i g e r i n a s e n t i c o s a (p .112 ) UBC-77-51 (0-7 cm.) f i g . 4 j u v e n i l e ( s m o o t h / p a p i 1 1 i a t e ) 140X 1 . 220 y t h . 15y f i g . 5 immature ( p a p i l l i a t e ) 100X 1 . 430 y t h . 260 y GSC-77-37 (100-102 cm.) f i g . 6 a du l t ( s m o o t h / p a p i 1 1 i a t e ) 55X 1 . 805y t h . 365 y f i g . 7 a du l t (smooth) 60X 1 . 755 y t h . 405 y f i g . 8 a du l t ( s m o o t h / p a p i l l i a t e ) 55X 1 . 910y t h . 390y f i g . 9 a d u l t ( p a p i 1 1 i a t e / s p i n o s e ) 60X 1 . 715y t h . 269y 10-12 G y r o i d i n a i o 150X (p .125) UBC-77-51 (0-7 cm.) edge, u m b i l i c a l and s p i r a l v iews d iam. 275y t h . 180y 13-15 G l o b o c a s s i d u l i n a s p . 275X (p .123) UBC-77-51 (0-7 cm.) f i g . 1 3 u m b i l i c a l v iew PGC-78-6-29 (40-42 cm. ) f i g . 1 4 , 1 5 s p i r a l and s i d e v iews 1. 155y d iam. 130y G3 64 PLATE 3 BENTHIC LOWER BATHYAL FORAMINIFERA F i gures 1,2, S p h a e r o i d i n a b u l l o i d e s 130X (p .106) UBC-77-51 (0-7 cm.) s p i r a l and u m b i l i c a l v iews 1. 300y d iam. 235y 3,4 P u l l e n i a b u l l o i d e s 150X (p .124) PGC-78-6-29 (40-42 cm.) edge and u m b i l i c a l v iews d iam. 260y 5,6 Eh r enbe rg i na t r i g o r i a 80X (p .122) PGC-78-6-18 (25-34 cm.) a p e r t u r a l and edge v iews 1. 495y w id th 430y t h . 260p 7-9 Or i d o r s a l i s umbonatus 7(40X) 8,9( 130X) (p .126 ) PGC-78-6-29 (40-42 cm.) s p i r a l , edge and u m b i l i c a l v iews f i g . 7 d iam. 1350y ( t h . 840y) f i g .8,9 d iam. 325 p ( t h . 180 u) 10,13 Me l on i s p o m p i l i o i d e s 95X (p .127) UBC-77-51 (93-96 cm.) s p i r a l and edge v iews 1. 375u t h . 265p 11,12 B u l i m i n a r o s t r a t a 145X (p .109) PGC-78-6-12 (40-42 cm.) edge and a p e r t u r a l v iews 1 . 300y t h . 195y 14,15 Me l on i s zaandamae 120X (p .128) (M i dd l e to lower b a t h y a l ) PGC-78-6-29 (40-42 cm.) edge and s p i r a l v iews 1. 350u t h . 155y 66 PLATE 4 BENTHIC NERITIC, UPPER » MIDDLE BATHYAL FORAMINIFERA F i gures 1,2, P l a n u l i n a w u e l l e r s t o r f i 60X (p.121) PGC-78-6-29 (30-32 cm.) s p i r a l and u m b i l i c a l views 1 . 665y ( t h . 310u) 3-5 Hoeglundina bradyi 50X (p.129) GSC-77-37 (100-102 cm.) s p i r a l , edge and u m b i l i c a l views diam. 715 p t h . 365y 6,7 B r i z a l i n a p a c i f i c a 6(140X) 7(125X) (p.107) UBC-77-51 (0-7 cm.) side and edge views 1. 310p breadth 90 p t h . 65 y 8 S t a i n f o r t h i a complanata 115X (p.110) UBC-77-51 (0-7 cm.) edge view 1 . 365y di am. 115p 9,10 C a s s i d u l i n a cushmani 110X (p.122) UBC-77-51 (0-7 cm.) s p i r a l and u m b i l i c a l views diam. 350y ( t h . 170u) 11,12 C i b i c i d o i d e s k u l l e n b e r g i 80X (p.127) PGC-78-6-29 (40-42 cm.) s p i r a l and oblique u m b i l i c a l views diam. 535y t h . 260p 68 P L A T E 5 U N D E S C R I B E D AND M I N U T E F O R A M I N I F E R A Figures 1 , 2 , 3 E p o n i d e s t u m i d u l u s h o r v a t h i 3 2 5 X ( p . 1 2 0 ) U B C - 7 7 - 5 1 ( 3 4 - 3 6 c m . ) s p i r a l , u m b i l i c a l a n d e d g e v i e w s d i a m . 1 2 0 p t h . 5 0 p 4 , 5 V a l v u l i r i e r i a ? a r c t i c a 3 2 5 X ( p . 1 1 4 ) U B C - 7 7 - 5 1 ( 0 - 7 c m . ) u m b i l i c a l a n d s p i r a l v i e w s 1 . 1 4 5 p ( t h . 8 0 p ) 6 Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a s p . A 2 0 0 X ( p . 7 8 ) P G C - 7 8 - 6 - 1 1 ( 1 0 - 1 2 c m . ) s i d e v i e w 1 . 1 9 5 p t h . 1 0 5 p 7 K a r r e r i e l 1 a s p . 1 1 0 X ( p . 7 7 ) G S C - 7 7 - 3 7 ( 8 0 - 8 2 c m . ) o b l i q u e s i d e v i e w 1 . 3 5 0 p t h . 1 9 5 p 8 , 9 M e l o n i s s p . 1 4 0 X ( p . 1 2 8 ) P G C - 7 8 - 6 - 2 9 ( 3 0 - 3 2 c m . ) s p i r a l a n d e d g e v i e w s 1 . 2 8 5 p t h . 1 7 5 p 1 0 , 1 1 B r i z a l i n a s p . 1 0 ( 1 5 5 X ) 1 1 ( 1 9 0 X ) ( p . 1 0 8 ) U B C - 7 7 - 5 1 ( 0 - 7 c m . ) s i d e a n d e d g e v i e w s 1 . 2 60 p t h . 6 5 p 70 Append ix A SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTIONS The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s f o l l o w the taxonomic o r d e r i n g of L o e b l i c h and Tappan ( 1964 ) . Phy lum: S a r c o d i n a Schmarda,1871 C l a s s : Rh i zopodea von S i e b o l d , 1 8 4 5 S u b c l a s s : G r a n u l o r e t i c u l o s i a de S a e d e l e e r , 1 9 3 4 Orde r : F o r a m i n i f e r i d a E i c hwa !d , 1830 Subo rde r : T e x t u l a r i i n a De lage and H£rouard ,1896 S u p e r f a m i l y : Ammodiscacea Reuss ,1862 F a m i l y : A s t r o r h i z i d a e B rady ,1881 S u b f a m i l y : A s t r o r h i z i n a e B rady ,1881 Genus: Rhabdammina M.Sars i n Ca r pen t e r , 1 869 1 Rhabdammi na ? sp . Remarks: A few c o a r s e l y a g g l u t i n a t e d c y l i n d r i c a l f ragments are t e n t a t i v e l y a s s i g ned to Rhabdammina. S u b f a m i l y : Rh i zammin inae Rhumb!er, 1895 Genus: Rhizammina B rady ,1879 2 Rhi zammi na sp . Remarks: Th i s form i s r e p r e s e n t e d by on l y a few f r agmen ta r y spec imens found in one c o r e . T e s t , a t h i n e l o n g a t e , b r an ch i ng t u be ; wa l l c o a r s e l y a g g l u t i n a t e d of p r edom ina t e l y qua r t z g r a i n s . 71 Genus: Ba thy s i phon M .Sa r s ,1872 3 Ba thy s i phon r u f u s de F o l i n Ba t h y s i phon r u f u s de F o l i n , 1 8 8 6 A c t . Soc . L i n n . Bordeaux , v .40 p .283 , p l . 6 f i g . 8 a - c ; L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 , n . 7 , p .16 , p l . 1 f i g . l . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o n g a t e , s l i g h t l y t a p e r i n g , i r r e g u l a r c o n s t r i c t i o n s ; wa l l t h i c k , smooth and p o l i s h e d , f i n e l y a g g l u t i n a t e d , y e l l o w brown c o l o u r ; a p e r t u r e open end of t u be . Remarks: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n based on f ragmented spec imens , most s e v e r a l m i l l i m e t e r s i n l e n g t h . 4 Ba thy s i phon sp . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t l a r g e , a r c u a t e or s i nuou s t u b e , un i f o rm d i a m e t e r ; wa l l ve ry c o a r s e l y a g g l u t i n a t e d w i t h qua r t z g r a i n s and numerous p r o t r u d i n g sponge s p i c u l e s . Remarks: S p e c i f i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n not p o s s i b l e because of f ragmented na tu re of the spec imens . F a m i l y : Saccammin idae B rady ,1884 S u b f a m i l y : Saccammin inae B rady ,1884 Genus: Saccammina M .Sa r s ,1869 5 Saccammi na s p h a e r i c a M.Sars Saccammi na s p h a e r i c a M . Sa r s , 1869 , F o r h a n d l . V i d e n s k . S e l s k . C h r i s t i a n a , Aa r . 1868, p .248; Cushman, J .A . 1910, US. Nat . Mus. B u l l . 71 p t . l , p .38 , f i g . 3 3 , 3 5 , 3 6 ; Ba r k e r , R .W . 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . , Spec . P u b l . 9 , p .36 , p l . 1 8 , f i g . 1 1 , 1 2 , 1 3 , 1 5 ; V i l k s . G . 1969, M i c r o p a l e o . V.1'5, p . 43 , p l . l f i g . 6 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t f r e e , s p h e r i c a l ; wa l l a g g l u t i n a t e d , coa r se qua r t z g r a i n s and mica f l a k e s , c o l o u r g r ey ; a p e r t u r e rounded at end of s ho r t neck. 72 F a m i l y : Ammodisc idae Reuss ,1862 S u b f a m i l y : Ammodisc inae Reuss ,1862 Genus: Ammodiscus Reuss ,1862 6 Ammodi scus p l a n o r b i s Hog lund Ammodiscus p l a n o r b i s Hog l und , 1947, F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the Gu l lmar F j o r d and the Skage rak . Upp s a l a , Un i v . Z o o l . B i d r a g , Bd .26 , p .125 , p l . 2 8 , f i g . 1 3 , 1 4 , p l . 8 , f i g . 4 a , b , p.110 t f . 9 1 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s m a l l , mode ra te l y t h i c k , b i c oncave and r e g u l a r l y p l a n i s p i r a l , about 10 w h o r l s ; s l i g h t l y i n v o l u t e , one whor l c o v e r i n g 1/3 to 1/2 of p r e v i o u s c o i l ; s u t u r e s d i s t i n c t , s l i g h t l y d e p r e s s e d ; a p e r t u r e open end of t ube ; wa l l smooth, p o l i s h e d , very f i n e l y a g g l u t i n a t e d ; c o l o u r un i f o rm l i g h t orange w i t h t r a n s p a r e n t p r o l o c u l u s ; numerous, s p o r a d i c r a d i a l s t r i a t i o n s . Remarks: A. p l a n o r b i s d i f f e r s f rom A. hoeg lund i (U ch i o ) w i t h the l a t t e r hav i ng one h a l f the t h i c k n e s s of A. p i a n o r b i s Hog lund . 7 Ammodi scus sp . Remarks: Curved f ragments b e l o n g i n g to a l a r g e Ammodiscus were found i n s e v e r a l samp les . The s i z e and gene ra l c h a r a c t e r sugges t s a f f i n i t y w i t h Ammosdiscus p a c i f i c a Cushman and V a l e n t i n e . S u p e r f a m i l y : L i t u o l a c e a de B I a i n v i 1 1 e , 1 8 2 5 F a m i l y : Ho rmos in i dae Haecke l , 1 894 S u b f a m i l y : Ho rmos in i nae Haecke l , 1 894 Genus: Reophax Mon t f o r d , 1808 8 Reophax gu11 i f er Brady Reophax g u t t i f e r B r a d y , 1 8 8 1 , Q u a r t . J . M i c r . S c i . V . 2 1 , p .49 ; Cushman, J . S . , 1910, U.S. Nat . Mus. B u l l . 71 p t . l p .88 , f i g . 123. S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : T e s t , f r e e , s i n g l e s u b s p h e r i c a l chamber w i t h an e l o nga t e c y l i n d r i c a l neck on both ends; w a l l a g g l u t i n a t e d qua r t z g r a i n s , r ough , c o l o u r y e l l o w o range . 73 Remarks: The f ragments c o m p r i s i n g Reophax? sp . may be broken f ragments of the necks which connec t chambers o f R. g u t t i f e r . 9 Reophax l o n g i c o l l i s (W i e s n e r ) P r o t e o n i na l o n g i c o l l i s W i e sne r , 1 929 , Deut . Sud. P o l a r . Exped. V . 2 0 , p .82 , p i . 6 , f i g . 5 5 ; Uch io T . , 1960, Cush . Fd . Foram. R e s . , Spec . P u b l . N.5 , p .50 , p i . 1 , f i g . 1 , 2 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t f r e e , s p h e r i c a l chamber w i t h e l o nga t e s l e n d e r neck; wa l l a g g l u t i n a t e d , very l a r g e mica f l a k e s and f i n e r q u a r t z g r a i n s ; a p e r t u r e r ounded , at end of s l e n d e r neck. Remarks: U c h i o ' s spec imens are f i g u r e d w i t h a l e s s pronounced neck . The spec imen of t h i s s tudy hav i ng i n c o r p o r a t e d l a r g e and numerous mica f l a k e s shows a f f i n i t i e s to P ro teon i ' na mi cacea Cushman. 10 Reophax nodu losus Brady Reophax nodu losus B r ad y , 1879 , Qua r t . J . M i c r . S c i . V . 1 9 , p .52 , p i . 4 , f i g . 7 , 8 ; Cushman J . A . , 1910, U.S. Na t . Mus. B u l l . 71 p t . l , p .87 , f i g . 122. S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t an e l o nga t e s e r i e s of chambers each b roades t p r o x i m a l l y , t a p e r i n g s l i g h t l y d i s t a l l y ; wa l l a g g l u t i n a t e d , qua r t z g r a i n s , smooth; a p e r t u r e (broken away) assumed open end of t u b e . Remarks: Th i s spec imen co r r e sponds to the l ong chambered, smooth w a l l e d forms ment ioned by Cushman. 11 Reophax ? sp . Remarks: F i v e c o a r s e l y a g g l u t i n a t e d f ragments of a s ho r t neck between en l a r g ed segments were found i n one samp le , and are b e l i e v e d to be from one or two spec imens ; they may p o s s i b l y r e p r e s en t neck f ragments between chambers of Reophax g u t t i f e r B rady . S u b f a m i l y : L i t u o l a c e a de B l a i n v i l i e , 1 8 2 5 F a m i l y : R z eha k i n i d a e Cushman,1933 Genus: Sp i r o l o cammina E a r l a n d , 1 9 3 4 12 Spi ro locammi na? t e n u i s E a r l and Sp i r o l o cammina t e n u i s E a r l and , 1934 , D i s c o v e r y R e p t s . , V . 1 0 , p . 109 , p i . 4 , f i g . 13 -16 . 74 ?S i gmoi1 i na ( Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a ) tenu i s ( C z j z e k ) , Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t h ea s t P a c i f i c , Ph .D . T h e s i s , U. Wash. , p i . 5 , f i g . 1 2 . ? S p i r o p t h a l m i d i um ( S p i r o l o c u l i n a ) pusi11um ( E a r l a n d ) , B a r k e r , 1960, Taxonomic Notes on B r a d y ' s Rep t . of the C h a l l e n g e r E x p e d . , P I . 1 0 , f i g . 9 , 1 0 . ?0phtha1mid ium p u s i l l u m ( E a r l a n d ) , Sm i t h , 1973, U . S .G . S . P r o f . Paper 706, p .14 , p l . l f i g , 18; C o r l i s s , 1979, M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y , V . 2 5 ( 1 ) , p . 5 , p l . l , f i g . 7 - 8 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o n g a t e , p l a n i s p i r a l , t h r e e p a i r s of chambers 1/2 c o i l i n l e ng t h d e v e l o p i n g over neck o f the p r e v i o u s chamber; wa l l t h i n , smooth, h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e rounded end of chamber on s ho r t neck . Remarks: The p lacement of t h i s form w i t h i n Spi ro]ocammi na or S p i r o l o c u l i n a i s dependent upon whether the wal 1 f s s i l i c i o u s , m i nu t e l y a g g l u t i n a t e d or c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e . T h i s form does not appear p o r c e l l a n e o u s and f i t s E a r l a n d ' s d e s c r i p t i o n very c l o s e l y , t h e r e f o r e i t i s t e n t a t i v e l y p l a c ed i n Spi ro locammi na . F a m i l y : L i t u o l i d a e de B I a i n v i 1 1 e , 1 8 2 5 S u b f a m i l y : Hap l oph ragmo id i nae Maync,1952 Genus: Hap lophragmo ides Cushman,1910 13 Hap lophragmoi des s p h a e r i l o c u l u s Cushman Hap lophragmo ides s phae r i 1 o cu l um Cushman,1910, U.S. Na t . Mus. B u l l . 71 p t . l , p .107 , t . f . 1 6 5 ; Todd and Low, 1967, U . S . G . S . P r o f . Paper 573-A, p .15 , p l . l , f i g . 2 0 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test p l a n i s p i r a l , l a s t whor l f i v e chambers , p a r t i a l l y i n v o l u t e , chambers g l o b o s e , s u t u r e s d ep r e s s ed ; a p e r t u r e low e q u a t o r i a l basa l s l i t ; w a l l a g g l u t i n a t e d , smooth, c o l o u r y e l l o w brown. Remarks: Two d i f f e r e n t s i z e d spec imens were found and one was assumed to be m i c r o s p h e r i c , the o the r a mega l o sphe r i c form which was more compressed and one t h i r d s m a l l e r . Genus: Thaimannammina Poko rny ,1951 14 Thaimannammi na sp . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s u b g l o b u l a r , s t r e p t o s p i r a i c o i l , few chambers; w a l l a g g l u t i n a t e d , excess of cement , c o l o u r l i g h t orange brown; a p e r t u r e i n t e r i o m a r g i n a l s l i t . 75 S u b f a m i l y : Cyc l ammin inae Ma r i e , 1 941 Genus: Cyc lammina B rady ,1879 15 Cyclammi na cance l l a t a Brady Cyc lammina c a n c e l l a t a B rady , 1879, Quat . J . M i c r . S c i . , n . s . V . 1 9 , p .62 , [ f i g . f rom Rept . C h a l l e n g e r Exped. , p l . 3 7 , f i g . 8 - 9 ] ; B a r k e r , 1 9 6 0 , Soc . Econ . M i n . P a l e o . Spec . P u b l . 5, p l . 3 7 . f i g . 8 - 9 ; Cushman,1910, U.S. Na t . Mus. B u l l . 71 , p t . l , p .110 , f i g . 168-170; Sm i t h , 1973 , U . S .G . S . P r o f . Paper 706, p .14 , p l . l , f i g . 1 8 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test l a r g e , p l a n i s p i r a l , b i c o n v e x , dep res sed at the u m b i l i u s , 18 low broad chambers , dep ressed s i n u a t e s u t u r e s , marg in rounded; w a l l f i n e l y a g g l u t i n a t e d , r e t i c u l a t e , i m p e r f o r a t e ou t e r l a y e r w i t h l a b y r i n t h i c i n t e r i o r , orange brown c o l o u r ; a p e r t u r e b roken away. Remarks: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n based on two spec imens . Some of the s u t u r e s are l i m b a t e , dark brown i n c o l o u r ( FeO? ) . F a m i l y : T e x t u l a r i i d a e Eh renbe rg ,1838 S u b f a m i l y : T e x t u l a r i i n a e Eh renbe rg ,1838 Genus: B i g e n e r i n a d ' 0 r b i g n y , 1 8 2 6 16 B i g e n e r i n a sp . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t f r e e , e l o n g a t e , e a r l y p o r t i o n b i s e r i a l l a t e r u n i s e r i a l ; wa l l smooth, a g g l u t i n a t e d , q u a r t z g r a i n s , mica f l a k e s , c o l o u r grey w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l rounded . F a m i l y : Trochammin idae Schwager , 1877 S u b f a m i l y : T ro cham in i nae Schwager ,1877 Genus: Trochammina P a r k e r and Jones ,1859 17 Trochammi na sp . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t t r o c h o s p i r a i , low s p i r e , l a s t 3 chambers f o rm ing l o b a t e p e r i p h e r y , s u t u r e s i n d i s t i n c t ; w a l l a g g l u t i n a t e d , c o l o u r wh i t e (some m o t t l i n g ) ; a p e r t u r e e q u a t o r i a l i n t e r i o m a r g i n a l a r c h . 76 Genus: Ammosphaero id ina Cushman,1910 18 Ammosphaero id ina s p h a e r o i d i n i f o r m i s (B rady) Haplophragmium s p h a e r o i d i n i f o r m e B rady , 1884, Rep t . c h a l l e n g e r Exped. , Z o o l . V . 9 , p .313 . Ammosphaero id ina s p h a e r o i d i n i f o r m i s ( B r a d y ) , Cushman,1910, U.S. Nat . Mus. B u l l . 7 1 , p t . l , p .128 , f i g . 202. S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t g l o b u l a r , t h r e e v i s i b l e embrac ing chambers , s t r e p t o s p i r a i l y c o i l e d ; wa l l a g g l u t i n a t e d , smooth and p o l i s h e d , excess of cement, c o l o u r w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e low i n t e r i o m a r g i n a l a r c h . Remarks: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s based on one spec imen which i s not c o a r s e l y a renaceous and i s one h a l f the s i z e of the specimen d e s c r i b e d by Cushman. F a m i l y : A t a xoph r agm i i d ae Schwager ,1877 S u b f a m i l y : G l o b o t e x t u l a r i i n a e Cushman,1927 Genus: D o r o t h i a P lummer,1931 19 D o r o t h i a b r ady i (Cushman) Gaud ry i na b r ady i Cushman,1911, U.S. Nat . Mus. B u l l . 71 p t . 2 , p .67 , f i g . 1 0 7 , not Do r o t h i a bradyana Cushman S ynop t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s m a l l , e a r l y p o r t i o n t r o c h o s p i r a l l a t e r b i s e r i a l a ppea r i ng o vo i d i n c r o s s e c t i o n , as broad as l ong at a p e r t u r a l end , few chambers , i n f l a t e d ; wa l l f i n e l y a g g l u t i n a t e d , smooth, c o l o u r l i g h t grey w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e low basa l i n t e r i o m a r g i n a l s l i t i n l a s t chamber f a c e . Remarks: A s m a l l e r t e s t than Cushman's d e s c r i p t i o n , o t h e rw i s e i d e n t i c a l . Genus: E g g e r e l l a Cushman,1933 20 E g g e r e l l a pa r ke rae (Uch i o ) K a r r e r i e l l a pa r ke rae U c h i o , 1 9 6 0 , Cush . Fd . Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 5 , p .56 , p i . 2 , f i g . 2 1 - 2 3 . ? V e r n e u i l i n a b r a d y i Cushman,1911, U . S . N a t . M u s . B u 1 1 . 7 1 , p t . 2 , p .54 , f i g . 8 7 . 77 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s m a l l , i n i t i a l l y t r o c h o s p i r a l l a t e r t r i s e r i a l , s ho r t and s t o u t w i t h g l o b u l a r chambers , b road at a p e r t u r a l end t a p e r i n g to b l un t i n i t i a l end , s u t u r e s d i s t i n c t , dep res sed and n e a r l y h o r i z o n t a l ; w a l l ve ry f i n e l y a g g l u t i n a t e d , smooth and p o l i s h e d , c o l o u r l i g h t wh i t e g rey ; a p e r t u r e , low i n t e r i o m a r g i n a l s l i t at base of l a s t chamber. Remarks: Uch io d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t h i s s p e c i e s f rom V e r n e u i 1 i na b r ad y i Cushman on the b a s i s of E. pa r ke r ae be i ng s m a l l e r , hav ing more g l o b u l a r chambers and a s l i g h t l y r a i s e d a p e r t u r a l l i p . The Juan de Fuca R idge spec imens are of s i m i l a r s i z e and shape to K. pa rke rae Uch io but l a c k the r a i s e d l i p . V. b r ady i Cushman a l t h ough two to t h r e e t imes l a r g e r than the Juan de Fuca spec imens a l s o has no r a i s e d l i p and co r r e sponds i n gene ra l morpho logy . Genus: K a r r e r i e l l a Cushman, 1933 21 K a r r e r i e l 1 a sp . P l . 5 f i g . 7 ?Gaudy r i na s i p hone ! l a Reuss ,1851 ( p a r t ) Deu t s ch . G e o l . Ges. Z e i t s c h r . Bd. 3 p .78 , f i g . 4 0 - 4 1 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test sma l l i n i t i a l l y t r o c h o s p i r a l l a t e r b i s e r i a l and t w i s t e d about l ong a x i s , chambers o v e r l a p p i n g p r e v i o u s h i g h e s t p o r t i o n of chamber on o u t s i d e o f t e s t , s u t u r e s dep ressed and i n d i s t i n c t ; wa l l a g g l u t i n a t e d , very f i n e p a r t i c l e s , sugary s u r f a c e t e x t u r e , c o l o u r w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e rounded , on sho r t d i s t i n c t neck in l ower m idd l e of f i n a l chamber f a c e . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s i s c l o s e s t to Gaudy r ina s i p h o n e ! l a Reuss ,1851 ( p a r t ) e s p e c i a l l y i n hav i ng the ou t e r chamber edge the h i g he s t and the a pe r t u r e on the i n n e r f a c e . Genus: M a r t i n o t t i e l 1 a Cushman,1933 22 M a r t i n o t t i e l 1 a sp . ? C 1 a v u l i n a communis d 'O r b i g n y v a r . p a l l i d a Cushman, 1927 , C a l i f . Un i v . S c r i p p s I n s t . Ocean. B u l l . Tech . Se r . V . l , p. 138, p l . 2 f i g . l . S y nop t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test i n i t i a l l y a cu r ved t r o c h o s p i r a l sudden ly na r r ow ing t o s t r a i g h t u n i s e r i a l e q u i d i a m e t e r chambers; wa l l a g g l u t i n a t e d mos t l y q u a r t z g r a i n s , some mica f l a k e s , sugary t e x t u r e , c o l o u r grey w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , cu rved s l i t w i t h r a i s e d l i p . 78 Subo rde r : M i l i o l i n a Delage and He*rouard, 1896 S u p e r f a m i l y : M i l i o l a c e a Eh renbe rg ,1839 F a m i l y : F i s h e r i n i d a e M i l l e t t , 1898 S u b f a m i l y : C y c l o g y r i n a e L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1961 Genus: C y c l o g y r a Wood, 1842 23 C y c l o g y r a sp . ? C y c l o g y r a sp . L agoe , 1977 , J . Foram. Res . V . 7 ( 2 ) , p .119 , pTTl fTgT 2. S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test p l a n i s p i r a l , g l o b u l a r p r o l o c u l u s f o l l o w e d by u n d i v i d e d chamber of 2 w h o r l s ; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , smooth; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l open end of t u b e . F a m i l y : M i l i o l i d a e Eh r enbe r g , 1839 S u b f a m i l y : Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n i n a e Cushman, 1917 Genus: Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a d ' O r b i g n y , 1826 24 Qui n q u e l o c u l i na sp .A P1 .5 f i g . 6 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test s m a l l , chambers e l o n g a t e one h a l f c o i l i n l e n g t h , c o i l i n g i n q u i n q u e l o c u l i n e f a s h i o n ; wa l l p o r c e l l a n e o u s , some h y a l i n e or p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , wh i t e c o l o u r ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , a rounded ova l w i t h no v i s i b l e t o o t h p l a t e . 25 Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a sp .B S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test s m a l l , a lmost as broad as l o n g , chambers one h a l f c o i l i n l e n g t h , q u i n q u e l o c u l i n e c o i l i n g , wa l l p o r c e l l a n e o u s , some p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , i m p e r f o r a t e , c o l o u r y e l l o w - w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , s e m i c i r c u l a r end of t u be , s i n g l e t o o t h . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s resemb les Q. a kne r i a na d ' O r b i g n y . 26 Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a sp.C ? Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a a n t a r c t i c i a n a McCu l1och ,1977 Q u a l i t a t i v e O b s e r v a t i o n s on Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a l Te s t s With Emphasis on the E a s t e r n P a c i f i c , Un i v . S. C a l i f , p . 482 , p l . 231 , f i g . 4 , 5 . 79 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s m a l l , q u i n q u e l o c u l i n e c o i l i n g , basa l p o r t i o n of chambers cu rves back onto p r e v i o u s chamber; wa l l p o r c e l l a n e o u s , i m p e r f o r a t e , c o l o u r w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , s e m i c i r c u l a r end of tube w i t h s imp l e t o o t h . 27 qui n q u e l o c u l i na sp.D S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test moderate s i z e , q u i n q u e l o c u l i n e c o i l i n g , chambers one h a l f c o i l i n l e n g t h w i t h basa l p o r t i o n o v e r l a p p i n g p r e v i o u s chamber, chambers w i t h s l i g h t k e e l ; wa l l p o r c e l l a n e o u s , i m p e r f o r a t e , b r i g h t w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , s e m i c i r c u l a r end of t u be , s imp l e t o o t h . 28 Pyrgo c f . P. murrh i na (Schwager) of au tho r s B i l o c u l i n a murrhyna Schwager, of Cushman, 1917, U.S. Nat . Mus. B u l l . 71 , p t . 6 , p .75 , p i . 2 8 , f i g . 3 , p i . 2 9 , f i g . l . B i 1 o c u l i na 1 u c e r nu l a Schwager , 1866 Nova ra . Exped . G e o l . T h e i l . v . 2 , p. 202, p i . 4, f i g . 17 (not f i g . 14 ) . Pyrgo r o t a l a r i a L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, Sm i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 ( 7 ) , p .47 , p i . 6 f i g . 5 , 6 . Lagoe, 1977 , J . F o r a m . Res . v . 7 ( 2 ) , p .119 , p i . 2 . , f i g . 2 1 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t o v a l , i n f l a t e d , chambers b i l o c u l i n e c o i l i n g , one h a l f c o i l i n l e n g t h , p e r i p h e r y c a r i n a t e ; wa l l p o r c e l l a n e o u s , g l o s s y w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l r a i s e d l i p w i t h broad s imp l e t o o t h . Remarks: S e ve r a l r e p o r t e d s p e c i e s are i n t e r p r e t e d as one which has m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y v a r y i n g o n t o g e n e t i c s t a g e s : an advanced o n t o g e n e t i c form has basa l p r o j e c t i o n s wh ich w i l l form the a p e r t u r e and t o o t h p l a t e of the next chamber, an e a r l y o n t o g e n e t i c s tage w i t h a pronounced and cu rved neck. 29 Pyrgo sp . ?Pyrgo w i l l i a m s o n i ( S i l v e s t r i ) of Lagoe, 1977, J . Foram. Res . v . 7 ( 2 ) , p .119 , p l . l , f i g . 14. S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t very e l o n g a t e , b i l o c u l i n e ; wa l l p o r c e l l a n e o u s , h y a l i n e when wet , c o l o u r y e l l o w - w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e s l i g h t l y s u b t e r m i n a l , rounded w i t h b i f e d t o o t h . Remarks: Th i s s i n g l e spec imen appears the same as t h a t f i g u r e d by Lagoe, but l a c k s the b a s a l l y r o t und na tu re o f B i l o c u l i n a w i 11 i amsoni S i 1 v e s t r i . 80 Genus: P y r g o e l l a Cushman and E .M.White , 1936 30 Pyrgoel1 a sp.A Synopt i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test s u b s p h e r i c a l , s l i g h t l y o v a l , two chambers b a r e l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e : wal l p o r c e l l a n e o u s , i m p e r f o r a t e , c o l o u r g lossy milk wh i te ; aper ture s u b t e r m i n a l , s e m i c i r c u l a r with l a r g e tooth l e a v i n g only a c r e s c e n t s l i t . 31 Pyrgoel1 a sp.B S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test s u b g l o b u l a r , extended a p e r t u r a l t e r m i n a t i o n , two chambers, i n d i s t i n c t s u t u r e s , baxal s p i n e ; wall p o r c e l l a n e o u s , g l o s s y , c o l o u r y e l l o w - w h i t e , p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e when wet; a p e r t u r e , t e r m i n a l , s e m i c i r c u l a r , l a r g e tooth i n f i l l i n g a l l b u t c r e s c e n t i c s l i t . Genus: T r i l o c u l i n a d ' O r b i g n y , 1826 32 T r i 1 o c u l i na f r i gi da Lagoe T r i 1 o c u l i na f r i gi da Lagoe, 1977 , J . Foram. Res. v . 7 ( 2 ) , p .120, f i g . 6 D , 6 E ; p l . 1 , f i g . 1 2 , 1 7 , 1 8 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test t r i l o c u l i n e c o i l i n g , chambers one h a l f c o i l in l e n g t h , c r o s s e c t i o n a l o u t l i n e t r i a n g u l a r ; wal l i m p e r f o r a t e , p o r c e l l a n e o u s , most specimens h y a l i n e , g l o s s y white c o l o u r ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded, at end of short neck, no v i s i b l e t o o t h . S u b f a m i l y : Mi 1 i o l i n e l 1 i n a e V e l l a , 1957 Genus: M i l i o l i n e l l a Wiesner , 1931 33 M i l i o l i n e l l a ? sp . Synopt i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test l a rge o v a l , r o b u s t , chamber t r i l o c u l i n e and s t r o n g l y o v e r l a p p i n g , d i s t i n c t s u t u r e s ; wal l p o r c e l l a n e o u s , i m p e r f o r a t e , c o l o u r g lossy milk w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , l a r g e f l a p i n f i l l i n g a l l of a p e r t u r e except c r e s c e n t i c s l i t . Remarks: The a p e r t u r a l f l a p may be a very broad t o o t h thereby p l a c i n g t h i s specimen in T r i 1 o c u l i na. 81 Genus: S c u t u l o r i s L o e b l i c h and T a p p a n, 1953 34 S c u t u l o r i s s p . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o nga t e i n f l a t e d o v a l , q u i n q u e l o c u l i n e c o i l i n g , chambers s t r o n g l y embrac i ng , s u t u r e s i n d i s t i n c t ; wa l l p o r c e l l a n e o u s , i m p e r f o r a t e , smooth, m i l k wh i t e c o l o u r ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , s e m i c i r c u l a r w i t h l a r g e t o o t h i n f i l l i n g a l l but c r e s c e n t s l i t . S u b f a m i l y : M i l i o l i n a e Eh r enbe rg , 1939 Genus: Ammomassi1ina Cushman, 1933 35 Ammomassi1i na? sp . ?Ammomass i 1 i na a l v e o l i n i f o rm i s ( M i l l e t t ) of B a r k e r , 1960 ( p a r t ) Soc. EcoTT. P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9, p l . 8 , f i g . 14 a , b. S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : E a r l y p o r t i o n of t e s t s i g m o l i n e , l a t e r chambers i n one p l a n e ; wa l l a g g l u t i n a t e d , c a l c a r e o u s cement, wh i t e c o l o u r w i t h numerous b l a ck micaceous f l e c k s ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded on s ho r t neck, no e v i d en ce of t o o t h . Remarks: Th i s form l a c k s the c r i b r a t e a p e r t u r e of the genus and the specimen f i g u r e d by Brady ( B a r k e r , 1960) i s t h r e e t imes the s i z e . Subo rde r : R o t a l i i n a De lage and HeVouard , 1896 S u p e r f a m i l y : Nodo s a r i a c e a Eh renbe rg ,1838 F a m i l y : N o d o s a r i i d a e Eh r enbe r g , 1838 S u b f a m i l y : N o d o s a r i i n a e Eh r enbe r g , 1838 Genus: Nodo sa r i a Lamarck, 1812 36 Nodosa r i a? sp .A Remarks: The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s based on f r agmented spec imens . Two chambers , u n i s e r i a l , r e c t i l i n e a r ; wa l l h y a l i n e , f i n e l y po rous ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l ? (b roken open ) . 82 3 7 N o d o s a r i a? s p . B S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : T e s t mu11 i v o cu1 a r , s u b g l o b u l a r c h a m b e r s , r e c t i l i n e a r , s u t u r e s h o r i z o n t a l , r o u n d e d b a s a l c h a m b e r ; w a l l t r a n s l u c e n t , 8 - 10 l o n g i t u d i n a l r i b s ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , r o u n d e d c e n t r a l . R e m a r k s : I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s b a s ed on s e v e r a l , two c h a m b e r e d f o r m s and no d i s t i n c t a p e r t u r e . G e n u s : A s t a c o l u s de M o n t f o r t , 1808 38 A s t a c o l u s c f . A . hy a1 a c r u1u s L o e b l i c h and Tappan A s t a c o l us c f . A . h y a l a c r u l u s L o e b l i c h and T a p p a n , 1953 , S m i t h . M i s c . C o l l . , v . 1 2 1 , n . 7 , p . 5 2 , p l . 9 , f i g . 1 -4 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : T e s t l a r g e , r o b u s t , p l a n i s p i r a l , e a r l y p o r t i o n c o i l e d a bou t p r o l o c u l y , l a t e r p o r t i o n u n c o i l i n g , s u t u r e s i n d i s t i n c t , c h ambe r s i n c r e a d i n g i n s i z e , i n f l a t e d ; w a l l s m o o t h , o p a q u e ; a p e r t u r e r a d i a t e , a t p e r i p h e r a l t i p , v i s i b l e i n p r e v i o u s c h a m b e r s p r o c u d i n g d e e l e d a f f e c t . R e m a r k s : T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s b a s e d on one s p e c i m e n w h i c h d i f f e r s f r o m A . h y a l a c r u l u s by h a v i n g more i n f l a t e d c h ambe r s and a l e s s v i s i b l e p r o l u c u l u m . The two f o r m s a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r i n g e r n e r a l m o r p h o l o g y and s i z e . 39 A s t a c o l u s s p . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : T e s t s m a l l , a r c u a t e , 6 c h a m b e r s c o i l e d a bou t p r o l o c u l u m s e v e n t h s t a r t s t o u n r o l l ; s u t u r e s d i s t i n c t , o b l i q u e and h i g h e s t on o u t e r m a r g i n ; w a l l s m o o t h , f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e , some s p e c i m e n s h y a l i n e o t h e r s w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , r a d i a t e a t p e r i p h e r a l a n g l e . R e m a r k s : L o e b l i c h and Tappan w o r k e d w i t h o n l y two s p e c i m e n s and s u g g e s t e d t h e f o r m s we re j u v e n i l e b e c a u s e o f t h e s m a l l number o f c h a m b e r s . A s t a c o l us s p . has t h e same number o f c h ambe r s as L o e b l i c h and T a p p a n ' s s p e c i e s bu t i s one h a l f t h e s i z e ; t h e s i z e d i f f e r e n c e may r e p r e s e n t G e n u s : D e n t a l i n a R i s s o , 1826 40 D e n t a l i na c f . D. c a l o m o r p h a ( R e u s s ) o f B a r k e r , 1960 N o d o s a r i a c f . N. c a l o m o r p h a R e u s s , o f B a r k e r , 1 9 6 0 , S o c . E c o n . P a l e o . M i n . S p e c . P u b l . 9 , p . 1 2 8 , p 1 . 6 1 , f i g . 23 , 24 , 2 7 . nojt R e u s s , 1866 83 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test e l o n g a t e , u n i s e r i a l , a r c u a t e , chambers l o n g e r than b r oad , s u t u r e s d i s t i n c t , s l i g h t l y o b l i q u e ; wa l l h y a l i n e , f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a pe r u t u r e t e rm i n a l , r a d i a t e . Remarks: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n based on two spec imens of d i f f e r i n g s i z e . The s m a l l e r specimen may be the megal o s p h e r i c g e n e r a t i o n . These spec imens appear i d e n t i c a l to the f i g u r e d spec imens of Brady (o f B a r k e r , 1960) but are not t ho se of N. ca lomorpha Reuss which have an en l a r g ed f i r s t chamber. 41 D e n t a l i n a paupe ra ta d ' O r b i g n y D e n t a l i na paupe ra ta d ' O r b i g n y , 1846, F o r a m i n i f e r e s f o s s i l e s du b a s s i n t e r t i a r e V ienne p . 46 , p l . l , f i g . 5 7 - 5 8 ; L o r b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, Sm i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v .121 n . 7 , p . 57 , p i . 9 , f i g . 7 - 9 ; B a r k e r , 1960 , Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . Pub. 9, p.X (notes on t . f i g . 1 4 b ) . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test a s e r i e s of s u b g l o b u l a r chambers , a r c u a t e w i t h an a p i c a l s p i n e , s u t u t e s are smooth and h o r i z o n t a l ; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , r a d i a t e , e c c e n t r i c on the concave s i d e of the a r c . Remarks: D ' O r b i g n y ' s f i g u r e and d e s c r i p t i o n do not s t a t e whether the rounded a p e r t u r e i s r a d i a t e . 42 Denta l i n a ? sp . A Remarks: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n based on s e v e r a l f r agments wh ich i n d i c a t e a u n i s e r i a l , a r c ua t e t e s t w i t h t e r m i n a l c r i b r a t e a p e r t u r e . 43 Denta 1 i na sp . B S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t mu l t i c h ambe r ed , a r c u a t e , t a p e r i n g at a p i c a l end and at a p e r a t u r e , sho r t neck, s u t u r e s o b l i q u e ; w a l l h y a l i n e , l ower t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f chamber f r o s t y or f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of neck . 44 D e n t a l i n a ? sp . C S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s m a l l , t e a r drop shaped , base p a r t i a l l y broken but appears j o i n e d to p r e c eed i ng chamber; w a l l h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded open end of t u b e . Remarks: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s based on f ragmented spec imens and i s t e n t a t i v e l y p l a ced w i t h D e n t a l i n a . 84 Genus: Lagena Walker and Jacob i n Kanmacher, 1798 45 Lagena c f . L. au r i g l obo sa McCu l l o ch Lagena a u r i g l o b o s a M c C u l l o c h , 1977, Q u a l i t a t i v e O b s e r v a t i ons on Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a l T e s t s Wi th Emphas is on the Ea s t e r n P a c i f i c , Un i v . S. C a l i f . , p .27 , p i . 6 1 , f i g . 2 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test e l o nga t e o v a l , s l i g h t l y i n f l a t e d , c i r c u l a r c r o s s e c t i o n , w i de s t i n m idd le t a p e r i n g to b l un t a p e r t u r a l end , t a p e r i n g s l i g h t l y to base w i t h a c i r c u l a r kee l or ' e a r ' on each s i d e of base of t e s t ; wa l l h y a l i n e when wet , f i n e l y dense l y p e r f o r a t e , except c i r c u l a r a rea s u r r o u n d i n g e a r s ; a p e r t u r e broken away. Remarks: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n based on one spec imen . 4 6 Lagena c a t e n u l a ( W i l l i a m s o n ) E n t o s o l e n i a squamosa Montague v a r . c a t e n u l a W i l l i a m s o n , 1858 ,Rec . Foram. Great B r i t a i n , p .13 , p l . l , f i g . 3 1 . Lagena c a t e n u l a Reuss , 1862, S i t z . Akad . W i s s . , Wien, v . 4 6 , p t . 1 , ( 1 8 6 3 ) , p .332 , p i . 6 , f i g . 7 4 - 7 5 ; Cushman, 1913, U.S . Nat . Mus. B u l l . 71 , p t . 3 , p .18 , p i . 7 , f i g . 1 , 2 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s ubg l obo s e , s ho r t neck; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e w i t h 8 v e r t i c a l r i b s and numerous upward a r ched h o r i z o n t a l c o s t a e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of neck. 47 Lagena d i stoma Pa r k e r and Jones Lagena d i s t oma Pa r k e r and Jones MS. , 1864 i n B r ady , H . B . , L i n n . Soc . London, T r a n s . , 1864, v . 2 4 , p t . 3 , p .467 , p i . 4 8 , f i g . 6 ; L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, Sm i t h . M i s c . C o l l . V . 1 2 1 , n . 7 , p .63 , p i . 1 1 , f i g . 2 5 , 2 6 (not f i g . 2 7 ) . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o n g a t e , s p i n d l e shaped , c y l i n d r i c a l tube na r row ing on one end to an e l o nga t e neck and on o t h e r t o a p i c a l s p i n e ; w a l l h y a l i n e w i t h l o n g i t u d i n a l s t r i a t i o n s , d e l i c a t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , o p e n end of t u be , rounded . Remarks: Except f o r the s t r i a t i o n s t h i s s p e c i e s i s s i m i l i a r to L. e l o nga t a (Eh renbe rg ) which has a c y l i n d r i c a l mid p o r t i o n of the t e s t t ha t t a p e r s near both ends . 48 Lagena e l o n g a t a (Eh renbe rg ) M i l i o l a e l o n g a t a Eh r enbe r g , 1844, K. P r e u s s . Akad . W i s s . B e r l i n , p.274 (no f i g . ) Lagena e l o n g a t a ( E h r e n b e r g ) , B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . E con . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9, p i . 5 6 , f i g . 2 7 - 2 9 . 85 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o n g a t e , s p i n d l e shaped , mid p o r t i o n c y l i n d r i c a l t a p e r i n g on both ends to e l o nga t e neck; wa l l smooth, h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of neck. Remarks: Eh renbe rg gave no t ype f i g u r e and f rom h i s d e s c r i p t i o n L. e l o nga t a cannot be s epa r a t ed from L. g r a c i 1 1 i m a . L. e l o n g a t a above i s i n t e r p r i t e d t o be t h a t s p e c i e s w i t h a c y l i n d r i c a l mid p o r t i o n t a p e r i n g to e l o nga t e ends; whereas L. g r a c i 1 1 ima i s i n t e r p r e t e d t o have one b roades t mid po i n t and then t a p e r i n g to bothe ends . 49 Lagena f o v e o l a t a Reuss v a r . paradoxa Si debottom Lagena f o v e o l a t a Reuss v a r . paradoxa S i d ebo t t om , 1912, Queke t t , M i c r . C lub J o u r . , London, S e r . 2 , v . 1 1 ( 1 9 1 0 - 1 2 ) , n . 70 , p .395 , p l . 1 8 , f i g . 2 2 - 2 3 . Lagena paradoxa M c C u l l o c h , 1977, Q u a l i t a t i v e O b s e r v a t i o n s on Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a l Tes t s With Emphasis on the Ea s t e r n P a c i f i c , Un i v . S. C a l i f . , p . 41 , p l . 5 0 , f i g . 3 4 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o nga t e o v a l , b a s a l l y e i t h e r b l u n t l y rounded or a sho r t s p i n e , a p e r t u r a l l y t a p e r i n g to a s ho r t c y l i n d r i c a l neck; w a l l 20-24 t h i n l o n g i t u d i n a l r i b s w i t h e i t h e r (?) v e r t i c a l rows of p seudopunc ta te p e r f o r a t i o n s w i t h i n the r i b or (?) v e r t i c a l r i b s t u n n e l l e d by h o r i z o n t a l p e r f o r a t i o n s ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of neck . Remarks: The d i s i n t i g r a t i o n ( ? / ? ) growth of t h i s s p e c i e s removes the r i b b i n g l e a v i n g a h i s p i d or p a r t i a l l y h i s p i d t e s t . Th i s s p e c i e s i s s i m i l a r to L. s u l c a t a Walker and Jacob v a r . s t r i a t o - p u n c t a t a Pa r k e r and J one s ; however the l a t t e r has h a l f as many as many r i b s . L. s t r i a t o - p u n c t a t a v a r . cauda ta H a l k y a r d , and L . v i k e n s i s He s s l and may be v a r i a t i o n s of L. f o v e o l a t a v a r . pa radoxa . 50 Lagena g i bbera Buckner Lagena g i b b e r a Buckne r , 1940, K. Leop . C a r o l . D e u t s c h . Akad . N a t u r f . , Abh. (Nova A c t a ) , H a l l e , v . 9 , n .62 , p .432 , f i g . 4 8 - 50 ; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p l . 5 7 , f i g . 8 , 9 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s u b g l o b u l a r sac w i t h sho r t c y l i n d r i c a l neck; wa l l c o a r s e l y h i s p i d and more so on neck; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of neck. 86 51 Lagena g r a c i 1 i s W i l l i a m s o n Lagena g r a c i l i s W i l l i a m s o n , 1848, Ann. Mag. Na t . H i s t . London, s e r . 2 , v . l , p. 13, f i g . 5 ; Enbysk, 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t h ea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. t h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p i . 7 . f i g . 2 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o nga t e ova l w i t h a sho r t neck and basa l s p i n e ; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e w i t h 10-12 l o n g i t u d i n a l r i b s from base to neck; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of t u b e . 52 Lagena g r a c i 11 ima (Seguenza) Amphor ina g r a c i 11 ima Seguenza , 1862, Dei t e r rem' T e r z i a r i i de l di s t r e t t o d i M e s s i n a , P t . 2 , Foram. Mon. M io . M e s s i n a , p . 51 , p l . l , f i g . 37. Lagena g r a c i 11 ima (Seguenza) B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 5 6 , f i g . 21 -22 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o nga t e s p i n d l e shaped , b roades t i n the m idd le t a p e r i n g to both ends w i t h e l o n g a t e d base and neck; w a l l d e l i c a t e h y a l i n e and smooth; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , r ounded , open end of neck. Remarks: L. g r a c i 1 1 ima i s i n t e r p r e t e d to have one sho r t s e c t i o n of b roades t mid p o r t i o n then t a p e r i n g to both ends , see L. e l o n g a t a . 53 Lagena h i s p i d u l a Cushman Lagena h i s p i d u l a Cushman, 1913, U.S . Na t . Mus. B u l l 71 , p t . 3 , p i . 5 , f i g . 2 , 3 ; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 5 6 , f i g . 1 0 - 1 1 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t u n i l o c u l a r d e l i c a t e g l o b u l a r sac w i t h e l o nga t e neck; wa l l h y a l i n e , very f i n e l y h i s p i d ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded open end of nedk. 54 Lagena l a e v i s (Montagu) Vermicu lum l aeve Montagu, 1803, Tes ta cea B r i t a n n i c a , J . S . H o l l i s , Romsey, E n g l . ( f i g . f rom Wa lkera and Boys , 1784, M inu te S h e l l s , p l . l f i g . 9 ) . Lagena l a e v i s (Montagu) , Cushman, 1913, U.S. Na t . Mus. B u l l . 7 1 , p t . 3 , p . 5 , p l . l , f i g . 3 , p i . 3 8 , f i g . 5 ; Enbysk, 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t h ea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p i . 7 , f i g . 3 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test u n i l o c u l a r , d e l i c a t e , g l o b u l a r sac w i t h e l o nga t e neck; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e and smooth , wh i t e c o l o u r ; a p e r t u r e t e m i n a l , rounded end of neck. 87 55 Lagena l a e v i s (Montagu) v a r . Lagena l a e v i s (Montagu) v a r i a n t s , B a r k e r , 1 9 6 0 , Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 5 7 , f i g . 23. Lagena ( O o l i n a ) s t r i a ta ( d ' O r b i g n y ) v a r . s u b s t r i a t a W i l l i a m s o n , Cushman, 1913, ( p a r t ) U.S. Nat . Mus. B u l l . 71, p t . 3 , p .20 , p i . 8 , f i g . 2,3 (not f i g . 1 ) . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test u n i l o c u l a r , g l o b u l a r sac w i t h very l ong s l e n d e r neck; wa l l h y a l i n e w i t h f i n e l o n g i t u d i n a l s t r i a t i o n s t h a t s p i r a l up neck; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l rounded end of neck . 56 Lagena meri d i o n a l i s Wiesner Lagena g r a c i 1 i s W i l l i a m s o n v a r . me r i d i o n a1 i s W i e sne r , 1931, Deut . S u d - p o l a r Exped. 1901-1903, v .20 ( Z o o l . v . 1 2 ) . p .117 , p i . 1 8 , f i g . 211 . Lagena m e r i d i o n a l i s W i e sne r , L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953 , Sm i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 , n . 7 , p .62 , p i . 1 2 , f i g . l ; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p .119 , p i . 5 8 , f i g . 1 9 (not f i g . 2 2 , 2 4 ) . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o nga t e ova l w i t h a s ho r t neck and basa l s p i n e ; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e w i t h 10-12 l o n g i t u d i n a l r i b s a l t e r n a t i n g ones ex tend onto neck; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l rounded end of t u b e . 57 Lagena mo 11i s Cushman Lagena (Amphori na) g r a c i 1 1 i ma (Seguenza) v a r . mo l1 i s Cushman, 1944, CUsh"I Lab. Foram. Res. Spec . P u b l . 12, p. 2 1 , p 1. 3, f i g . 3. Lagena mo l1 i s Cushman, L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953 ( p a r t ) Sm i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 , n .7 , p .63 , p i . 1 1 , f i g . 2 7 (not f i g . 2 5 , 2 6 ) . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : M o r p h o l o g i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o L. g r a c i 1 1 ima except t h a t i t has numberous f i n e l o n g i t u d i n a l s t r i a t i o n s . L. di stoma Pa r ke r and J ones , i s very s i m i l a r except the t e s t i s c y l i n d r i c a l i n the mid p o r t i o n then t a p e r i n g on both ends; L. mol1 i s i s b roades t at one po i n t t a p e r i n g from t ha t p o i n t to both ends . 58 Lagena nebu l o sa Cushman Lagena (ve rm i cu lum) l a e v i s (Montagu) v a r . nebu l o sa Cushman, 1923, U.S. Nat . Mus. B u l l . 124, p .29 , p i . 5 , f i g . 4 , 5 . Lagena nebu losa Cushman, B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 5 6 , f i g . 12. 8 8 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : T e s t u n i l o c u l a r , c y l i n d r i c a l s a c w i t h n e c k ; w a l l f r o s t e d w h i t e c o l o u r , p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , r o u n d e d e n d o f n e c k . 59 L a g e n a s t e l 1 i g e r a B r a d y L a g e n a s t e l l i g e r a B r a d y , 1 8 8 1 , Q u a t . J . M i c r . S c i . , L o n d o n , n . s . v . 2 1 , p . 6 0 , p 1 . 5 7 , f i g . 35 , 3 6 ; C u s h m a n , 1 9 1 3 , U . S . N a t . M u s . B u l l . 71 p t . 3 , p . 2 6 , p i . 1 2 , f i g , 3 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i t p i o n : T e s t v e r y s m a l l u n i l o c u l a r , p y r i f o r m , f l a t t e n e d b a s e w i t h r i n g , a b o r a l e n d h a s 9 c o s t a e e x t e n d i n g 1/3 way up t e s t ; w a l l h y a l i n e , s m o o t h ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , r o u n d e d , e n d o f t u b e . 6 0 L a g e n a s u b s t r i a t a W i l l i a m s o n L a g e n a s u b s t r i a t a W i l l i a m s o n , 1 8 4 8 , A n n . M a g . N a t . H i s t . , L o n d o n , s e r . 2 , v . l , p . 1 5 , p l . 2 , f i g . 1 2 . L a g e n a ( O o l i n a ) s t r i a t a ( d ' O r b i g n y ) v a r . s u b s t r i a t a W i 1 1 i a m s o n , C u s h m a n 1 9 1 3 ( p a r t ) , U . S . N a t . M u s . B u l l . 7 1 , p t . 3 , p . 2 0 , p l . 8 , f i g . l ( n o t f i g . 2 , 3 ) . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : T e s t u n i l o c u l a r , e l o n g a t e c y l i n d r i c a l s a c , b a s a l l y w i t h b l u n t l y r o u n d e d o r w i t h s p i n e , a p e r t u r a l e n d w i t h s h o r t n e d k ; w a l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e w i t h n u m e r o u s ( 2 0 - 3 0 ) f i n e l o n g i t u d i n a l r i b s f r o m b a s e t o n e c k ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , r o u n d e d e n d o f n e c k . R e m a r k s : A l t h o u g h m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o L . g r a c i l i s t h i s s p e c i e s h a s f i n e r a n d m o r e n u m e r o u s l o n g i t u d i n a l s t r i a t i o n s . 61 L a g e n a s u l c a t a ( W a l k e r a n d J a c o b ) v a r . a p i c u l a t a C u s h m a n L a g i na s u l c a t a ( W a l k e r a n d J a c o b ) v a r , a p i c u l a t a C u s h m a n , 1 9 1 3 ( p a r t ) , U . S . N a t . M u s . B u l l . 71 p t . 3 , p . 2 3 , pl.9, f i g . 3 ( n o t f i g . 4 ) . L a g e n a s u l c a t a ( W a l k e r a n d J a c o b ) v a r . s p i c a t a C u s h m a n a n d M c C u l l o c h , 1 9 5 0 , S . C a l i f . U n i v . P u b l . L . A . , A l l a n H a n c o c k P a c . E x p e d . , v . 6 , n . 6 , p . 3 6 0 , p l . 4 8 , f i g . 3 - 7 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : T e s t u n i l o c u l a r , g l o b u l a r c h a m b e r w i t h b a s a l s p i n e a n d p r o d u c e d n e c k ; w a l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e w i t h 1 5 - 1 6 l o n g i t u d i n a l r i b s on c h a m b e r n o t n e c k ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , r o u n d e d e n d o f n e c k . 62 L a g e n a s p . A S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : T e s t u n i l i c u l a r e l o n g a t e o v a l w i t h a p r o d u c e d n e c k ; w a l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , 1 0 - 1 2 l o n g i t u d i n a l h i g h l y r a i s e d r i b s r u n n i n g o n t o n e c k ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , r o u n d e d e n d o f n e c k . 89 63 Lagena sp.B Lagena sp . n o v . ( l ) B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 5 7 , f i g . 3 1 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test an e l o nga t e ova l w i t h c i r c u l a r c r o s s e c t i o n , the neck r e g i o n has a d i s t i n c t smooth cone na r row ing to a sho r t t ube ; w a l l i s h e a v i l y r i b b e d ( 9 - 1 3 ) , h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of neck . 64 Lagena? sp.C S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s u b s p h e r i c a l , compressed , a p e r t u r a l cone; wa l l h y a l i n e when wet, f i n e l y dense l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l e l l i p t i c a l , ? e n t o s o l e n i a n tube th rough a p e r t u r a l cone . Remarks: One spec imen shows h i n t of e n t o s o l e n i a n t u be , which would t h e r e f o r e p l a c e the s p e c i e s i n O o l i n a . Genus: L e n t i c u l i n a Lamarck, 1804 65 L e n t i c u l i n a convergens (Bornemann) C r i s t e l l a r i a conve rgens Bornemann,1855, Deut . G e o l . Ges . Z e i t s c h r . , Bd. 7 ( 2 ) , p .327 , p i . 1 3 , f i g . 1 6 (not 17 ) ; Cushman, 1913, U.S. Na t . Mus. B u l l . 71 p t . 3 p . 68 , p i . 3 4 , f i g . 3 . L e n t i c u l i n a convergens (Bornemann) , B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 6 9 , f i g . 6 , 7 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t l e n t i c u l a r , p l a n i s p i r a l b iumbonate , chambers t r i a n g u l a r ; wa l l smooth; a p e r t u r e r a d i a t e , at top of a p e r t u r a l f a c e . 66 L e n t i c u l i n a sp . ? C r i s t e l 1 a r i a r e n i f o r m i s d ' O r b i g n y , of Cushman, 1 9 1 3 ( p a r t ) , U.S. Nat . Mus. B u l l . 71 , p t . 3 , p .65 , p i . 3 0 , f i g . 4 (not p i . 3 3 , f i g . l ) . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t p l a n i s p i r a l , b iumbonate , chambers g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g i n s i z e not u n c o i l i n g , p e r i p h e r a l k e e l , f l u s h r a d i a l s u t u r e s ; wa l l smooth, a p e r t u r e r a d i a l at top of a p e r t u r a l f a c e . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s compares w i t h one of Cushmna's d e s i g n a t i o n s f o r C. rem' f ormi s but does not compare w i t h h i s o t he r nor w i t h th~e o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of d ' O r b i g n y where s u c c e s s i v e chambers ga in r a p i d l y i n h e i g h t . 90 S u p e r f a m i l y : Nodo sa r i a c ea Eh r enbe r g , 1838 F a m i l y : Po lymorph! 'n i dae d ' O r b i g n y , 1839 S u b f a m i l y : Po lymorph! 'n i nae d ' O r b i g n y , 1839 Genus: Po l ymorph ina d ' O r b i g n y , 1826 67 Po l ymorph i na sp . Polymorph! ' n i dae, formae f i s t u l o s a e , B a r k e r , 1960 ( p a r t ) , Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p1 . 73 , f i g . 1 5 . ?Po l ymorph ina ova ta d ' O r b i g n y , f i s t u l o s e form of Cushman, 1913, U.S. Nat . Mus. B u l l . 71 , p t . 3 , p .87 , p l . 4 0 , f i g . 4 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t b a s a l l y f u s i f o r m t a p e r i n g to a p o i n t , a p e r t u r a l l y f i s t u l o s e ; wa l l b a s a l l y smooth and p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , s u t u r e s s l i g h t l y e x c a v a t e d , a p e r t u r a l l y h i s p i d ; a p e r t u r e numerous s l e n d e r necks w i t h rounded open i n g s . F a m i l y : G l a n d u l i n i d a e Reuss , 1860 S u b f a m i l y : G l a n d u l i n i n a e Reuss , 1860 Genus: La rynos igma L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953 68 Laryngos i gma c f . L. h y a l a s c i d i a L o e b l i ch and Tappan Laryngos igma h y a l a s c i d i a L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, Sm i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 ( 7 ) , p l . 1 5 , f i g . 6 - 8 . P y r u l i n a c y l i n d r o i d e s (Roemer) of B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9, p 1 . 72 , f i g . 6 . S ynop t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test e l o nga t e f u s i f o r m , b i s e r i a l s l i g h t l y t w i s t i n g , s t r o n g l y embrac ing chambers , s u t u r e s f l u s h n e a r l y v e r t i c a l ; wa l l smooth, h y a l i n e , very f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , r a d i a t e w i t h sho r t cu rved e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s c l o s e l y resemb les L. h y a l a s c i d i a ; however, s u t u r e s are more o b l i q u e i n the l a t t e r . 91 S u b f a m i l y : O o l i n i n a e L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1961 Genus: Oo l i n a d ' O r b i g n y , 1839 69 Oo l i n a bo r ea l i s L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1961 Oo l i n a bo r ea l i s L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1954, Wash. A c ad . S c i . J . v . 4 4 ( 12 ) , p .384 . Oo l i n a c o s t a t a ( W i l l i a m s o n ) of L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, Sm i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 ( 7 ) , p . 68 , p i . 1 3 , f i g . 4 - 6 . not ( W i l l i a m s o n , 1 8 5 8 ) Oo l i n a e l e gan t i i s s ima (Bornemann)? B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ. P a l e o . M i n . S~pec. P u b l . 9 , p i . 5 7 , f i g . 3 2 . Lagena a c u t i c o s t a Reuss , of Cushman, 1913, U.S. Nat . Mus. B u l l . 7 1 , p t . 3 , p . 23 , p i . 8 , f i g . 9 (not p i . 8 , f i g . 10, p i . 2 3 , f i g . 2 ) . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s m a l l , s u b s p h a e r i c a l , u n i l o c u l a r ; w a l l w i t h 10 l o n g i t u d i n a l c o s t ae f o rm ing r i n g on base and j o i n i n g to form smooth c o l l a r a p i c a l l y be fo re sho r t neck; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded , end of s ho r t neck . Remarks: The taxonomy of t h i s s p e c i e s i s most c o n f u s e d ; 0. c o s t a t a W i l l i a m s o n , Ovu l i n a e l e g a n t i s s i m a Bornemann and Lagena a c u t i c o s t a Reuss are T a Tj s p e c i es i n which the c o s t a e r i s e up to the base of the neck and are d e s c r i b e d as hav i ng no smooth c o l l a r j u s t b e f o r e the neck b e g i n s , as i n t h i s s p e c i e s . 70 O o l i n a c f . 0. B o t e l 1 i f o rm i s (B rady ) Lagena b o t e l 1 i f o rm i s B r ady , 1881, Quat . J . M i c r . S c i . London, n . s . v . 2 1 , p .60 , ( f i g . i n B rady , 1884 Rept . Voy. C h a l l e n g e r , Z o o l . v . 9 , p i . 5 6 , f i g . 6 ) Oo l i n a b o t e l 1 i f o r m i s (Brady) of B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p .114 , p i . 5 6 , f i g . 6 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s m a l l , u n i l o c u l a r a r c u a t e , c y l i n d r i c a l e l o nga t e chamber; wa l l h y a l i n e , f i n e l y po rous ; a p e r t u r e rounded at t i p of sho r t t e r m i n a l c o n s t r i c t i o n . Remarks: The morphology i s the same as B r a d y ' s f i g u r e d spec imen but i s one h a l f the s i z e . 71 Oo l i n a desmophora ( Jones ) Lagena v u l g a r i s W i l l i a m s o n v a r . desmophora J one s , 1874, T r a n s . L i n n . Soc . v . 3 0 , p i . 1 9 , f i g . 23 , 24. Lagena desmophora Rymer-Jones of Cushman, 1913, US. Nat . Mus. B u l l . 71^ p t . 3 , p i . 1 3 , f i g . 3 . O o l i n a desmophora (Rymer - Jones ) of B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 5 8 , f i g . 4 2 , 4 3 . 92 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s u b g l o b u l a r , e l o nga t e neck; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e ob s cu r r ed by 8 prominent r a i s e d r i b s a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h lower c o s t a e , a row of e l l i p t i c a l shaped pores down each r a i s e d r i b ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded open end of neck. 72 Oo l i n a g l obosa (Montagu) Vermi c u l um globosum Montagu, 1803, Te s t a cae B r i t a n n i c a , p. 523 , ( f i g f rom Walker and Boys , 1784 , M inute S h e l l s p 1 . 1 , f i g . 8 . ) Lagena g l obo sa (Montagu) Cushman, 1913, U.S . Na t . Mus. B u l 1 . 71 , p t . 3 , p . 3 , p l . 4 , f i g . 2 . O o l i n a g l obo sa (Montagu) B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p1 . 56 , f i g . 1 - 3 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t u n i l o c u l a r g l o b u l a r chamber, b a s a l l y may have s p i n e ; wa l l h y a l i n e ( or p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e ) , smooth; a p e r t u r e s t e l l a t e or a f i s s u r e . Remarks: There seem to be s e v e r a l n o n s p e c i f i c v a r i e t i e s : a) p e r f e c t l y s p h e r i c a l chamber (b) s l i g h t l y ova l chamber (c) rounded , s t e l l a t e or f i s s u r e d a p e r t u r e . 73 O o l i n a g l obosa (Montagu) s e t o s a ( E a r l a n d ) Lagena g l obosa (Montagu) v a r . s e t o s a E a r l a n d , 1934, D i s c o v e r y Rep t s . Cambr idge , v . 1 0 , (T935 ) , p .150 , p l . 6 , f i g . 5 2. O o l i n a g l obosa (Mon tagu) s e t o s a E a r l a n d , Enbysk B . J . , 1960 D i s t r i b t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t h ea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. t h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p l . 8 , f i g . 7 . Oo l i na g l obosa (Montagu) s e t o sa ( E a r l a n d ) , B a r k e r , 1960 , Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p1 . 56 , f i g . 3 3 - 3 5 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t u n i l o c u l a r , g l obose w i t h 4 basa l s p i n e s ; wa l l h y a l i n e , dense l y and f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded o p e n i n g , s h o r t , c e n t r a l s t r a i g h t e n t o s o l e n i a n tube which cu r ves and a t t a c h e s to w a l l . 74 Oo l i na hexagona ( W i l l i a m s o n ) E n t o s o l e n i a squamosa (Montagu) v a r . hexagona W i l l i a m s o n , 1848, Ann. Mag. Na t . H i s t . , London, s e r . 2 , v . l , p . 20 , p l . 2 , f i g . 2 3 Oo l i n a hexagona (Wi11 a imson ) , L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953 , Sm i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 , n . 7 , p .69 , p l . 1 4 , f i g . 1 , 2 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t u n i l o c u l a r , g l o b u l a r s a c , a p i c a l end b l u n t l y rounded a p e r t u r a l end t a p e r i n g to s ho r t neck; wa l l cove red by hexagonal d e p r e s s i o n s not a l i g n e d i n rows; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of neck . 93 Remarks: D i s t i n g u i s h e d from 0. melo by the l a t t e r hav i ng the hexagona l a reas a l i g n e d i n rows. 75 Oo l i na 1i neat a ( W i l l i a m s o n ) ? of au tho r s ? E n t o s o l e n i a T i n e a t a W i l l i a m s o n , 1848, Ann. Mag. Nat . H i s t . London, s e r . 2 , v . l , p .18 , p l . 2 , f i g . 1 8 . O o l i n a l i n e a t a ( W i l l i a m s o n ) L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 ( 7 ) , p .70 , p 1 . 1 3 , f i g . 1 1 - 1 3 ; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . M i n . P a l e o . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p .118 , p 1 . 5 7 , f i g . 1 3 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test s m a l l , u n i l o c u l a r , g l o b u l a r ; wa l l h y a l i n e , numerous very f i n e l o n g i t u d i n a l s t r i a t i o n s ; a p e r t u r e rounded w i t h sho r t s t r a i g h t , c e n t r a l e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s compares w i t h B a r k e r ' s and L o e b l i c h and Tappan ' s f i g u r e s ; however, W i l l i a m s o n ' s f i g u r e shows a d i s t i n c t l y ova l f o rm. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the s p e c i e s v a r i e s f rom g l o b u l a r to o v o i d . 76 Oo l i na melo d ' O r b i g n y Oo l i n a me]o d ' O r b i g n y , 1839, Voyage dans l ' A m e r i q u e Mer i d i o n a l , F o r a m i n i f e r a , S t r a s b o u r g , L e v r a u l t , t . 5 , p t . 5 , p .20 , p l . 5 , f i g . 9 ; L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 , n . 7 , p . 7 1 , p l . 1 2 , f i g . 8 - 1 5 ; Todd and Low, 1967 , U . S .G . S . P r o f . Paper 573A, p .29 , p i . 3 , f i g . 2 7 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test pear shaped , rounded a p i c a l l y , s h o r t neck , c i r c u l a r c r o s s e c t i o n ; w a l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e when wet , l o n g i t u d i n a l rows (20) of hexagona l d e p r e s s i o n s ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of t u b e . 77 Oo l i na c f . 0. s e a l a r i f o r m i s - s u l c a t a (W iesne r ) Lagena ( E h t o s o l e n i a) s e a l a r i f o r m e - s u l c a t a W i e sne r , 1931, Deut . Sud. P o l a r Exped. 1901-1903 , B d . 2 0 ( Z o o l . B d . 1 2 ) , p .120 , p l . 1 8 , f i g . 2 1 9 . Oo l i n a s e a l a r i f o r m i s - s u l c a t a ( W i e s n e r ) , L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, Sm i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 , n . 7 , p . 72 , p l . 1 3 , f i g . 7 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s ubg l obo s e , f l a t t e n e d base , t a p e r s a p i c a l l y to sho r t t h i n neck t u be ; wa l l w i t h seven heavy c o s t a e at s hou l d e r becoming i r r e g u l a r r e t i c u l a t i o n s ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of t u b e . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s d i f f e r s f rom 0. s e a l a r i f o r m e - s u l c a t a in hav i ng hexagona l r e t i c u l a t i o n s f rom the s h ou l d e r not the m i d l i n e upward. 94 78 Oo1ina semi nuda (B rady) Lagena seminuda B rady , 1884, Repor t Foram. C h a l l e n g e r EXped . , Z o o l . p t . 2 2 , v . 9 , p .472 , p i . 5 8 , f i g . 3 4 . Oo l i n a seminuda ( B r a d y ) , B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 5 8 , f i g . 3 4 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s u b g l o b u l a r , basa l h a l f c ove red by hexagona l c o s t a e ; wa l l opaque b a s a l l y upper h a l f h y a l i n e , smooth; a p e r t u r e s ub t e rm i n a l i n cup l i k e d e p r e s s i o n , r ounded , s h o r t , c e n t r a l e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e . 79 Oo l i n a s t r i a t o p u n c t a t a ( P a r k e r and J ones ) v a r . t r i c o s t a (Cush"ma~n and Gray) Lagena s t r i a t o - p u n c t a t a Pa r ke r and Jones v a r . t r i c o s t a Cushman and Gray , 1946, Cush . Lab . Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 1 9 , p . 2 1 , p i . 4 , f i g . 5 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t u n i l o c u l a r , e l o nga t e ova l w i t h s ho r t neck, c i r c u l a r c r o s s e c t i o n ; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e w i t h l o n g i t u d i n a l rows of f i n e r i b s and a t r i a n g u l a t e ar rangement of l o n g i t u d i n a l rows of r a i s e d t u b u l a r p o r e s ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of neck. 80 Oo l i na sp . A S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t u n i l o c u l a r , e l o nga t e ova l w i t h s ho r t neck , c i r c u l a r c r o s s e c t i o n ; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e w i t h l o n g i t u d i n a l rows of f i n e r i b s and two l o n g i t u d i n a l rows 180° apa r t of r a i s e d t u b u l a r p o r e s s ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of neck. Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s i s s i m i l i a r to 0. s t r i a t o - p u n c t a t a  t r i c o s t a t a but has on l y 2 i n s t e a d of 3 rows of r a i s e d t u b u l a t i ons . 81 06T ina sp .B ? M i 1 i o l a ovum Eh renbe rg , 1843, K. P r e u s s . A k a d . , W i s s . , p .166 . ?Lagena ovum Cushman, 1913, U.S. Na t . Mus. B u l l . 71 , p t . 3 , p . 5 , p i . 2 . f i g . 2 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test e l o n g a t e , c y l i n d r i c a l , c i r c u l a r c r o s s e c t i o n , basa l end b l u n t l y p o i n t e d , a p e r t u r a l end b l u n t and s l i g h t l y d ep r e s s ed ; wa l l h y a l i n e , t h i n ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , r ound , i n c e n t r e of s l i g h t d e p r e s s i o n . Remarks: Th i s spec imen resembles 0. ovum ( E h r e n b e r g ) ; however h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s vague and has no f i g u r e . 0. ovum of Cushman i s tw i c e as l a r g e . 95 82 O o l i n a sp.C S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o nga t e o v a l , c i r c u l a r c r o s s e c t i o n , b l u n t l y rounded b a s a l l y , t a p e r i n g to cone at a p e r t u r a l end; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , 8 l o n g i t u d i n a l r i b s w i t h r e c t a n g u l a r to hexagonal d e p r e s s i o n s , some spec imens w i t h d e p r e s s i o n s on l y on top h a l f , top cone w i t h ou t r i b b i n g ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , r ounded . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s most c l o s e l y resemb les 0. s quamosa - su l c a t a ( H e r o n - A l l e n and E a r l a n d ) ; however , t h a t s p e c i e s shows a more g l obose t e s t and nocone about the a p e r t u r e . 83 Oo l i na sp . D S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test t e a r - d r o p shaped, w i de s t j u s t below the m idd le t a p e r i n g to a b l un t base and a l s o t a p e r i n g up to an a p e r t u r a l cone; wa l l h y a l i n e , 12 l o n g i t u d i n a l c o s t a e ; a p e r t u r e rounded end of non r i bbed cone , s h o r t , s t r a i g h t , c e n t r a l e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s i s v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l to Lagena sp .B but the l a t t e r l a c k s an e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e . 84 Oo l i na sp . E S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s u b g l o b u l a r , c i r c u l a r c r o s s e c t i o n , w i de s t near base t a p e r i n g to t h i n a p e r t u r a l cone ; w a l l t h i n opaque; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l rounded end of a p e r t u r a l cone . 85 Oo l i n a sp . F S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t p y r i f o r m , b roades t b a s a l l y w i t h c e n t r a l s ho r t s p i n e , s l o w l y even l y t a p e r i n g to a p e r t u r a l end; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , d en se l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , sma l l rounded open ing i n end of t e s t , s h o r t , s t r a i g h t , c e n t r a l , e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e . 86 Oo l i n a sp . G S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t u n i l o c u l a r pear shaped , some t e s t s i r r e g u l a r l y a r c h ed ; wa l l smooth f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l o v a l . 87 Oo l i na sp . H S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t u n i l o c u l a r very e l o nga t e o v a l , b r oade s t near base t a p e r i n g near a p e r t u r e ; w a l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , smooth; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l ova l s l i t ; e n t o s o l e n i a n tube h a l f l e n g t h of t e s t . 96 88 Oo l i n a sp . I S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t u n i l o c u l a r , very e l o n g a t e o v a l , b r oades t near base t a p e r i n g to b l un t a p e r t u r a l end , a few spec imens have a basa l s p i n e ; wa l l h y a l i n e , when wet ted opaque horseshoe around each s i d e of basa l end; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , r ounded , s h o r t s t r a i g h t e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e . 89 Oo l i na sp . J S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t u n i l o c u l a r , c u l i n d r i c a l , rounded base w i t h t r a c e of c e n t r a l s p i n e , a p e r t u r a l end s l i g h t l y p roduced ; wa l l opaque, smooth; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded , r a d i a t e , s ho r t e n t o s o l e n i a n tube 1/3 t e s t l e ng t h at end a t t a c h ed to w a l l . Genus: F i s s u r i n a Reuss , 1850 90 F i s s u r i n a c f . F. a l v e a t a McCu l l o ch F i s s u r i n a a l v e a t a M c C u l l o c h , 1977, Q u a l i t a t i v e O b s e r v a t i o n s on Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a l Te s t s With Emphasis on the E a s t e r n P a c i f i c , Un i v . S. C a l i f . , p .90 , p i . 5 6 , f i g . 21 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test compressed ova l w i t h a f l a t l y t r u n c a t e d a p e r t u r a l end; wa l l opaque, two basa l ' a u r i c l e s ' or ea r s which are s ha l l ow i n h e i g h t ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , e l o n g a t e na r row, ova l s l i t . 91 F i s s u r i n a a l v e o l a t a Brady Lagena a l y e o l a t a B rady , 1884, Rep. Voy. C h a l l e n g e r Exped. , Z o o l . , v . 9 , p 1 . 60 , f i g . 3 0 , 3 2 ; Cushman, 1913, U.S. Na t . Mus. B u l l . 7 1 , p t . 3 , p . 33 , p 1 . 1 8 , f i g . l . F i s s u r i n a a 1ve61 ata ( B r a d y ) , B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p l . 6 0 , f i g . 3 0 , 3 2 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t p y r i f o r m , a p e r t u r a l end produced or h o o d - l i k e , b a s a l l y t h r e e c a r i n a , m idd le one most pronounced ou t e r two j o i n i n g w i t h m idd le c a r i n a c e n t r a l l y , t h i s produces two l a t e r a l l o o p s ; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , f i n e l y dense l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e e l o n g a t e , t e r m i n a l s l i t . 92 F i s s u r i n a a p i c u l a t a (Reuss) v a r . p u n c t u l a t a (S i debottom) F i s s u r i n a a p i c u l a t a (Reuss) v a r . p u n c t u l a t a S i d ebo t t om , 1912, Queke t t . M i c r . C l u b . J . , London, s e r . 2 , v. 11 ( 1910 - 1912 ) , n .70 , p .382 , p i . 1 4 , f i g . 2 1 - 2 3 ; M c C u l l o c h , 1977 Q u a l i t a t i v e O b s e r v a t i o n s on Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a l Te s t s With Emphasis on the Ea s t e r n P a c i f i c , Un i v . S. C a l i f . , p .90 , p l . 6 8 , f i g . 1 5 . 97 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test e l o nga t e o v a l , w i de s t at m i dd l e t a p e r i n g b a s a l l y to s ho r t s p i n e and a p e r t u r a l l y to two l i p s ; wa l l h y a l i n e , t h i n , few coa r se punc t a ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l s l i t between two l i p s of equal h e i g h t . 93 F i s s u r i n a c f . F. k e r g u e l e n e n s i s P a r r F i s s u r i n a k e r g u e l e n e n s i s P a r r , 1950, Rep t s . BANZ A n t a r c t . Res . Exped . 1929 -31 , s e r . B , v . 5 , p t . 6 , p .305 , p i . 8 , f i g . 7 . B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ. P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p .122 , p i . 5 9 , f i g . 8 - 1 1 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s m a l l , compressed s phe r e , s l i g h t kee l w i t h 4 basa l s p i n e s ; wa l l h y a l i n e , smooth; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l s l i t , s ho r t e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e . Remarks: F. k e r g u e l e n e n s i s P a r r has a more a r c ua t e neck i s twa i c e as l a r g e and has a l o nge r e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e . 94 F i s s u r i n a c f . F. 1uc i da ( W i l l i a m s o n ) of au tho r s T E n t o s o l e n i a margi nata (Montagu) v a r . 1uc i da W i l l i a m s o n , 1848, Ann. Mag. Na t . H i s t . , s e r . 2 , v . l , p .17 , p i . 2 , f i g . 1 7 . F i s s u r i n a 1uc i da ( W i l l i a m s o n ) , L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953 , S m i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 , n .7 , p .76 , p i . 1 4 , f i g . 4 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s u b s p h e r i c a l w i t h s l i g h t convex a p e r t u r a l a r c h , compressed , two to t h r e e sho r t basa l s p i n e s , very s l i g h t rounded p e r i p h e r a l k e e l ; w a l l opaque, dense l y p e r f o r a t e i n two broad bands i n s i d e l a t e r a l ma r g i n s , p e r i p h e r a l band p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e a s l i t i n the t e r m i n a l a r c h . Remarks: The e qua t i n g of t h i s s p e c i e s to En tosoTen i a ma rg i na t a (Montagu) v a r . 1uc i da Wi11i amson i s q u e r i e d because the l a t t e r i s more e l o nga t e and i s f i g u r e d as hav i ng a s ho r t neck su r rounded by a h y a l i n e k e e l . T h i s s p e c i e s c l o s e l y resemb les F. 1uc i da of L o e b l i c h and Tappan but the fo rmer has basa l s p i n e s and an opaque t e s t . 95 F i s s u r i n a ? margi nata (Montagu) Vermi culum margi natum Montagu, 1803, Te s t a cea B r i t a n n i c a , J . S . HoTTTs, Romsey, E n g l . , p. 524 , ( f i g . f rom Walker and Boys , 1784, M inu te S h e l l s , p l . l , f i g . 7 ) F i s s u r i n a margi na ta (Montagu) , L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 , n .7 , p .77 , p i . 1 4 , f i g . 6 , 7 , 9 ; Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t h ea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. t h e s i s , U n i v . Wash . , p i . 9 , f i g . 2 . V i l k s , 1969, M i c r o p a l e o . v . 1 5 , p .48 , p i . 2 , f i g . 2 4 . 98 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test s p h e r i c a l to o v a t e , compres sed , s l i g h t hood; wa l l t h i n h y a l i n e , h i g h l y ; p e r f o r a t e except f o r p e r i p h e r i a l band; a p e r t u r e s u b t e r m i n a l c r e s c e n t i c s l i t i n hood, e n t o s o l e n i a n tube l e n g t h of t e s t a t t a c hed to w a l l . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s has a wide range of form v a r y i n g f rom s u b s p h e r i c a l to o v a l ; has v a r i o u s degrees of c o m p r e s s i o n , some i n d i v i d u a l s have a f u l l we l l deve loped k e e l . Numerous i n d i v i d u a l s have i n equa l l i p s and i t i s q u e r i e d whether t h i s s p e c i e s shou l d be p l a c ed w i t h P a r a f i s s u r i n a . 96 F i s s u r i n a o r b i gnyana Seguenza F i s s u r i n a o r b i gnyana Seguenza , 1862 Foram. M o n o t a l . M i o c . M e s s i n a , p .66 , p i . 2 , f i g . 25 , 26 ; Cushman, 1913, U.S. Nat . Mus. B u l l . 71 , p t . 3 , p .42 , p i . 1 9 , f i g . l ; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 1 2 4 , p .59 , f i g . 26 . L ageno so l e n i a b r a d y i f o rmata M c C u l l o c h , 1977 , Q u a l i t a t i v e O b s e r v a t i o n s on Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a l Tes t s With Emphasis on the E a s t e r n P a c i f i c , U n i v . S. C a l i f . , p . 53 , p i . 6 1 , f i g . 15 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t o v a l , compressed , 3 k ee l s w i t h m idd l e kee l w i d e s t , ou t e r two k e e l s low and b l e n d i g w i t h broad neck at the top m i d d l e , neck sho r t and s t o u t ; wa l l heavy , opaque, i m p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l rounded end of neck , s ho r t c e n t r a l e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e . Remarks: Seguenza ' s f i g u r e , a l t hough t r i c a r i n a t e , does not c o r r e s pond we l l w i t h what l a t e r au tho r s have p l a ced i n t h i s genus. The spec imens of t h i s s tudy l a ck the w id th of the m idd l e kee l and have a s h o r t e r neck than Cushman's and B a r k e r ' s f i g u r e s . L a g e n o s o l e n i a b r a d y i f o r m a t a McCu l l o ch may be the same s p e c i e s . F i s s u r i n a sp . C w i t h the neck e n c l o s e d by a hood, may be long w i t h i h t h i s s p e c i e s , be ing a l a t e r o n t o g e n e t i c s t a g e . 97 F i s s u r i n a r a d i a t a Seguenza F i s s u r i n a r a d i a t a Seguenza , 1862, Dei t e r r e n t T e r z i a r i i de l d i s t r e t t o di M e s s i n a , p t . 2 , M e s s i n a , p . 70 , p i . 2 , f i g . 4 2 , 4 3 . Lagena s ub l a geno i d e s Cushman, 1913, U.S. Nat . Mus. B u l l . 71 , p t . 3 , p .40 , p i . 1 6 , f i g . 4 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t f l a s k shaped s l i g h t l y compressed neck about 1/4 of- t e s t , p e r i p h e r a l k e e l , basa l s p i ne (w i t h t u b u l a r p e r f o r a t i o n s ) b l e n d i n g i n t o k e e l ; wa l l h y a l i n e , f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e d , kee l w i t h t u b u l a r p e r f o r a t i o n s ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of neck , e n t o s o l e n i a n tube c e n t r a l , s h o r t . 99 98 F i s s u r i n a seguenz i ana ( F o r n a s i n i ) Lagena s eguenz i ana F o r n a s i n i , 1886, Soc . G e o l . 11a 1. , B o l l . Roma, v. 5, p .351 , p l . 8 , f i g . 1 - 8 . F i s s u r i n a seguenz i ana ( F o r n a s i n i ) B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M m . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p .122 , p 1 . 5 9 , f i g . l . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test o v a l , compressed , one broad kee l f rom which a sho r t neck e x t e nd s ; wa l l opaque, smooth, wh i t e c o l o u r ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of neck . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s resemb les F . o r b i gnyana except f o r the 3 k e e l s of the l a t t e r . 99 F i s s u r i n a c f . F. s p i n u l a t a McCu l l o ch F i s s u r i n a s p i n u l a t a M c C u l l o c h , 1977 Q u a l i t a t i v e O b s e r v a t i o n s on Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a l Te s t s With Emphasis on the E a s t e r n P a c i f i c , Un i v . S . C a l i f . , p . 131 , p l . 5 9 , f i g . 10 -12 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test s m a l l , compressed o v a l , two s ho r t l a t e r o b a s a l s p i n e s , a p i c a l end w i t h hood; wa l l h y a l i n e excep t f o r 4 l o n g i t u d i n a l narrow opaque bands at l a t e r a l marg ins and opaque l i p l i k e f e a t u r e s in the hood; a p e r t u r e l ong t e r m i n a l , narrow s l i t a l ong hood. Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s compares w i t h F. s p i n u l a t a excep t f o r the l a t t e r be ing one h a l f as l a r g e and r e p o r t e d from warm sha l1ow wa t e r . 100 F i s s u r i n a sp . A S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test compressed ova l or e l o n g a t e ova l w i t h sho r t neck; wa l l t h i n , d e l i c a t e , h y a l i n e , numerous c o a r s e , e ven l y spaced p e r f o r a t i o n , s n o o t h , i m p e r f o r a t e ph lange or kee l down about neck and f o rm ing very s l i g h t kee l on top 1/3 of t e s t ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of nedk, phi a l i n e l i p , e n t o s o l e n i a n tube c e n t r a l , s t r a i g h t , about 1/3 l e n g t h of t e s t . Remarks: Th i s spec imen c l o s e l y resemb les L ageno so l en i a  a s u b t i 1 i s McCu l l o ch except the l a t t e r s pe c i es has more m a r g i n a l l y p l a c ed pores and i s n e a r l y tw i c e the s i z e . s u b t i 1 i s Buchner i s more ova l and a l s o has more marg i na l p e r f o r a t i ons . 101 F i s s u r i n a sp . B S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t t e a r drop shaped chamber , s l i g h t l y compressed , no k e e l , i n d e n t a t i o n at neck be f o r e l i p , h i n t of basa l s p i n e ; wa l l h y a l i n e , numerous f i n e 100 even l y spaced p e r f o r a t i o n s ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l rounded end s ho r t s t o u t neck w i t h p h i a l i n e l i p , l ong s t r a i g h t c e n t r a l e n t o s o l e n i a n tube 3/4 t e s t l e n g t h where a t t a c h e s to w a l l . Remarks: F i s s u r i n a sp . A i s s i m i l a r but t h i s s p e c i e s i s l a r g e r , l e s s compressed and has a s h o r t e r neck w i t h no k e e l . F. omni p e r f o r a t a M c C u l l o c h , i s s i m i l a r but has a narrow marg ina l h y a l i n e area and a s ho r t e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e . 102 F i s s u r i n a sp . C ?Lagena pa l 1 i o l a t a E a r l a n d , 1934, Foram. P t . 3 , F a l k l a n d I s . S ed t . of A n t a r c t i c D i s c o v e r y R e p o r t s , v . 1 0 , ( 1935 ) , p .158 , p l . 7 , f i g . 5 ,6 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t o v a l , i n f l a t e d w i t h l o ng s l e n d e r neck 1/3 l e ng t h of t e s t , neck en c l o s ed in t h i c k h y a l i n e e x t e n s i o n of the t h r e e basa l k e e l s which fuse at the neck to form a hood; wa l l f i n e l y , d en se l y p e r f o r a t e , k e e l s i m p e r f o r a t e h y a l i n e , c o l o u r g l o s s y w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e rounded end of neck. Remarks: L. pal 1 i o l a t a i s q u i t e s i m i l a r , l a c k i n g on l y the more comp le te development of the ou t e r k e e l s and i s h a l f the s i z e . There i s a resemb lance to F. orb i gnyana Seguenza but the l a t e r i s more i n f l a t e d has a s h o r t e r neck and l e s s deve loped k e e l s . The spec imens of t h i s s tudy ma be a l a t e ? o n t o g e n e t i c s tage of F. o r b i gnyana. 103 F i s s u r i n a sp . D S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s u b s p h e r i c a l , compressed , s i g h t p e r i p h e r a l kee l on the lower h a l f of the t e s t w i t h about 6 c o s t a e between the k e e l s ; w a l l h y a l i n e when wet , f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e , smooth, i m p e r f o r a t e k e e l , opaque arch around a p e r t u r e ; a pe r t u r e t e r m i n a l s ho r t s l i t , e n t o s o l e n i a n tube l e ng t h of t e s t a t t a c h ed to w a l l . 104 F i s s u r i n a sp . E S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s p h e r i c a l , compressed , sho r t t h i n neck w i t h ve ry wide kee l which d i v i d e s l a t e r a l l y to form 2 k e e l s j o i n i n g aga in at the base; wa l l h y a l i n e when wet , v i s i b l e e n t o s o l e n i a n t ube . 105 ? F i s s u r i n a sp . F S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s u b g l o b u l a r , a s s y m e t r i c a 1 , t h r e e " e a r s ' or f l a p s t r i g o n a l l y a r r a n g e d ; wa l l h a l f h y a l i n e h a l f opaque, smooth; a p e r t u r e ? , a sho r t s l i t at base of an ear? Remarks: Three spec imens which may be abnormal or deformed i n d i v i d u a l s . 101 106 F i s s u r i n a sp . G S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test s p h e r i c a l , compressed , a r c u a t e neck or hood, ova l c r o s s e c t i o n , s ho r t basa l s p i n e ; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , f o u r l a t e r a l a r ched opaque b a n d s , ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , l ong t h i n s l i t i n m idd le of hood where e n t o s o l e n i a n tube drops downward between two l i p l i k e f e a t u r e s . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s i s s i m i l a r to F. nud i f o rm i s McCu l l o ch except the l a t t e r has t h i n n e r opaque l a t e r a l bands and a l e s s pronounced basa l s p i n e . 107 F i s s u r i n a sp . H S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o nga t e o v a l , compressed , neck or hood, l a t e r a l mid to basa l k e e l , b l u n t e d basa l s p i n e ; wa l l h y a l i n e when wet , f i n e l y and dense l y p e r f o r a t e , numerous s t r i a t i o n s i n broad cu rve around base ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , ova l s l i t i n hood. 108 F i s s u r i n a sp . I S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o nga t e o v a l , compressed , t u b u l a r s ho r t neck, s l i g h t kee l about neck and t e s t ; w a l l d en se l y p e r f o r a t e , c o l o u r w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of neck, some have p h i a l i n e l i p . Remarks: F i s s u r i n a sp . I has a kee l around the e n t i r e t e s t whereas in F. sp . A the kee l i s on the upper 1/3 of the t e s t . L ageno so l e n i a a s u b t i 1 i s McCu l l o ch i s s i m i l a r but more compressed and has l a t e r a l l y p l a c ed po r e s . 109 F i s s u r i n a sp . J S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t f l a s k shaped w i t h t u b u l a r neck, kee l we l l deve loped about neck and base but l e s s so c e n t r a l l y ; wa l l h y a l i n e c e n t r a l l y , dense f i n e p e r f o r a t i o n s around basa l and l a t e r a l edges , kee l h y a l i n e , i m p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l rounded end of neck , p h i a l i n e l i p . Remarks: F. sp . J resemb les F. sp. P but i s more e l o n g a t e , has a l o nge r neck and has a h y a l i n e kee l (w i t h ou t s t r i a t i o n s ) about the neck . 110 F i s s u r i n a sp . L S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t f l a s k shaped , compressed , e l o nga t e t u b u l a r neck, s ho r t basa l s p i n e ; wa l l smooth opaque and h i g h l y p e r f o r a t e except f o r h y a l i n e p e r i p h e r a l band; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , ova l end of t u b e , p h i a l i n e l i p . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s has the same mo r pho l o g i c a l o u t l i n e as Lagena margi na ta (Montagu) v a r . sp i n i f e r a E a r l a nd however the l a t t e r has a d i s t i n c t k e e l . 102 111 F i s s u r i n a sp . N S ynop t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test b e l l shaped i n f l a t e d n e a r l y c i r c u l a r c r o s s e c t i o n , basa l kee l or ' s k i r t ' ; wa l l h y a l i n e when wet , smooth, i m p e r f o r a t e or very f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e , basa l kee l ve ry t h i n , h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , ova l w i t h e n t o s o l e n i a n tube which t w i s t s near a p e r t u r e then a t t a c h e s to t e s t near k e e l . Remarks: T h i s s p e c i e s l a c k s the t u b u l a t i o n s i n the kee l of Lagena f i m b r i a ta B rady . L. f i mbr i a ta po1i t a Chapman and Pa r r i s f i g u r e d w i t h t u b u l a t i o n s in the kee l but t h i s i s negated i n the d e s c r i p t i o n . Fj_ a f f i mbr i a ta McCu l l o ch i s c l o s e l y s i m i l a r but c o a r s e l y p e r f o r a t e and from e q u a t o r i a l , s h a l l ow wa t e r . 112 F i s s u r i n a sp . 0 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test i n f l a t e d b e l l shaped, basa l kee l of s k i r t , c i r c u l a r c r o s s e c t i o n , sho r t s t o u t neck r e g i o n ; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , t h i n ; a p e r t u r e , t e r m i n a l , o v a l , i n produced neck. Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s i s s i m i l a r to F i s s u r i n a sp . N but d i f f e r s by hav i ng a d i s t i n c t , s t ou t neck r e g i o n . I t a l s o l a c k s the t u b u l a r p e r f o r a t i o n s i n the k e e l . 113 F i s s u r i n a sp . P S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t f l a s k shaped, compressed , su r rounded by s i n g l e p e r i p h e r a l k e e l ; w a l l opaque, smooth , d en se l y p e r f o r a t e , c o l o u r w h i t e , kee l h y a l i n e w i t h ( t u b u l a r ? ) s t r i a t i o n s in neck p o r t i o n ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , rounded end of nedk, p h i a l i n e l i p . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s c l o s e l y resemb les L agenoso l en i a  fumosa McCu l l o ch but the l a t t e r l a c k s the s t r i a t i o n s i n the neck k e e l . 114 F i s s u r i n a sp . Q. S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s u b c i r c u l a r , compressed , kee l s h ou l d e r to s h o u l d e r , a rched a p e r t u r a l r e g i o n ; wa l l d ense l y p e r f o r a t e except f o r a h y a l i n e band on each s i d e of kee l which i s a l s o h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l s l i t between arched l i p s . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s may be a l a t e o n t o g e n e t i c form of F. margi nata which has deve loped a f u l l k e e l . 115 F i s s u r i n a sp . R S ynop t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s u b c i r c u l a r , basa l c r o s s formed by a sho r t kee l p e r p e n d i c u l a r to prominant l a t e r a l 103 k e e l , the l a t e r a l k e e l s form a sp i ne on the ou t e r edge and ex tend 1/2 way up t e s t , a p e r t u r a l end a r c h e d ; wa l l h y a l i n e when wet, dense l y and even l y p e r f o r a t e , k e e l s h y a l i n e , d e l i c a t e ; a p e r t u r e s ub t e rm i n a l s l i t between two l i p s of s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t h e i g h t . Remarks: Lagena s t a p h y l 1 e a r i a (Schwager) v a r . q u a d r i c a r i n a t a S i d ebo t t om , i s s i m i l a r but has numerous c e n t r a l ba sa l s p i n e s and no a p e r t u r a l l i p s . F i s s u r i n a  sp i nos i f o rm i s McCu l l o ch i s s i m i l a r but has n o n c a r i n a t e s p i n e s and opaque l a t e r a l b and i ng . 116 F i s s u r i n a sp . S S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s u b c i r c u l a r , compres sed , t r i m a r g i n a t e s h ou l d e r basa l k e e l s , a p e r t u r a l end a r c h ed , l ower 1/3 t e s t 6-7 co s t ae between k e e l s ; wa l l opaque; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l s l i t between two equa l l i p s , s h o r t , c e n t r a l , s t r a i g h t e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e . 117 F i s s u r i n a sp . T S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t very sma l l s u b c i r c u l a r , compressed , s l i g h t k e e l , very s l i g h t l y a rched a p e r t u r a l end; wa l l h y a l i n e , numerous t h i n l o n g i t u d i n a l r i b s ; a p e r t u r e e l o n g a t e ova l s l i t , s ho r t s t r a i g h t , c e n t r a l e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e . 118 F i s s u r i n a sp . U S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test s u b c i r c u l a r , compres sed , a rched a p e r t u r a l l i p s , two narrow e l l i p t i c a l basa l k e e l s or ' e a r s ' on each s i d e of the base of the t e s t ; w a l l h y a l i n e , f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l e l o nga t e ova l between two equal a p e r t u r a l l i p s , e n t o s o l e n i a n tube l e ng t h o f t e s t a t t a c h ed to w a l l . 119 F i s s u r i n a sp . V S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s m a l l , compressed o v a l , s l i g h t l y a s s y m e t r i c a l ; wa l l h y a l i n e smooth; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l s l i t , sho r t e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e . Remarks: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s based on one spec imen which may be abhe r r en t ( a s s y m e t r y ) . F i s s u r i n a e l a m e l T a t a McCu l l o ch i s s i m i l a r but more compressed w i t h a narrow opaque p e r i p h e r a l band. 120 F i s s u r i n a sp . X S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test t e a r d r o p shaped w i t h p o i n t e d a p e r t u r a l end , w i de s t near base , s l i g h t l y compressed; wa l l h y a l i n e when wet, f i n e l y dense l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , t h i n s l i t between two p o i n t e d equa l l i p s , e n t o s o l e n i a n tube s h o r t , c e n t r a l s t r a i g h t . 104 Genus: P a r a f i s s u r i n a P a r r , 1947 121 P a r a f i s s u r i n a k e r g u e l e n e n s i s ( P a r r ) F i s s u r i n a k e r g u e l e n e n s i s P a r r , 1950, Rep t s . BANZ A n t a r c t i c Exped . s i r . B , v .5 , p. 305 , p i . 8 , f i g . 7 ; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 5 9 , f i g . 8 - 1 0 . P a r a f i s s u r i n a a r c t i c a Green , 1960, M i c r o p a l e o . , v . 6 , p .70 , p l . l , f i g . 2 a , b . ; V i1k s , 1969, M i c r o p a l e o . , v . 1 5 , p .48 , p i . 2 , f i g . 3 0 . ; Lagoe, 1977, J . Foram. Res . v . 7 , p .122 , p i . 3 , f i g . 1 5 ( t e x t f i g . 7 ) . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test s m a l l , compressed sphere w i t h a r c u a t e a p e r t u r a l neck or hood, f o u r basa l s p i n e s ; wa l l h y a l i n e , f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e s ub t e rm i n a l s l i t between two l i p s . Remarks: S e v e r a l t imes s m a l l e r than P a r r ' s or G r een ' s spec imens . Pa r r noted t h a t i n one spec imen the l i p s were of unequal h e i g h t and would p l a c e the spec imen i n P a r a f i s s u r i n a except f o r the numerous spec imens of equal l i p s . Th i s w r i t e r sugges t s t h a t the l i p he i gh t may vary w i t h ontogeny f rom no l i p s ( e a r l y ontogeny? see F i s s u r i n a c f . F. k e r g u e l e n s i s , t h i s paper ) t o equa l l i p s , (F .  k e r g u r l e n e n s i s of B rady , of P a r r , and of B a r k e r ) , t o unequal l i p s ("p. a r c t i ca of G reen , of V i l k s , and of L agoe ) . 122 P a r a f i s s u r i n a b i con i c o f o rm i s McCu l l o c h P a r a f i s s u r i n a b i con i c o f o rm i s M c C u l l o c h , 1977 Q u a l i t a t i v e O b s e r v a t i o n s on Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a 1 Tes t s With Emphasis on the E a s t e r n P a c i f i c , U n i v . S. C a l i f . , p .140 , p i . 7 1 , f i g . 1 9 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t b r o ad l y o v a l , b i c o n v e x , t h i n broad c e n t r a l kee l w i t h a s h o r t e r b roade r kee l to each s i d e , hood; wa l l h y a l i n e when wet , dense l y p e r f o r a t e , w i de r kee l h y a l i n e , i m p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e s ub t e rm i n a l s l i t at base of sho r t hood. 123 P a r a f i s s u r i n a f u s u l i f o r m i s L o e b l i c h and Tappan P a r a f i s s u r i n a f u s u l i f o rm i s L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 , n .7 , p .79 , p i . 1 4 , f i g . 1 8 , 1 9 ; L agoe , 1977 , J . Foram. Res . v . 7 ( 2 ) , p .122 , p i . 3 , f i g . 7 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o n g a t e , f u s i f o r m , subrounded base , a r c u a t e t a p e r i n g a rched a p e r t u r e ; wa l l h y a l i n e , f i n e l y dense l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e s ub t e rm i na l rounded open ing below upper l i p , e n t o s o l e n i a n tube 1/2 t e s t l e n g t h f a s t e n e d to abo ra l w a l l . 105 124 P a r a f i s s u r i n a l a t e r a l i s (Cushman) Lagena l a t e r a l i s Cushman, 1913, U.S. Nat . Mus. B u l l . 71 , p t . 3, p .p .9 , p l . 1 , f i g . l . P a r a f i s s u r i n a l a t e r a l i s (Cushman), B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p .116 , p l . 5 6 , f i g . 1 7 , 1 8 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o nga t e o v a l , compressed , b a s a l l y b l u n t , some w i t h s ho r t s p i n e , hood; wa l l h y a l i n e , d en s e l y p e r f o r a t e excep t f o r band around ma rg i n ; a p e r t u r e s u b t e r m i n a l , s l i t at base of hood, e n t o s o l e n i a n tube one h a l f l e n g t h of t e s t , a t t a c hed to wa l l and f l a r i n g at end. 125 P a r a f i s s u r i n a c f . P. neocu r t a McCu l l o ch P a r a f i s s u r i n a neocu r t a M c C u l l o c h , 1977, Q u a l i t a t i v e O b s e r v a t i o n s on Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a l Tes t s With Emphasis on the E a s t e r n P a c i f i c , Un i v . S. C a l i f . , p . 1 51 , p l . 7 0 , f i g . 2 2 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t g l obose w i t h hooded a p e r t u r e ; wa l l h y a l i n e , dense l y p e r f o r a t e except hood and a t h i n area su r roundong i t ; a p e r t u r e s ub t e rm i n a l s e m i c i r c u l a r open ing between upper and l ower l i p s , l ong e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e , e n l a r g e d at end where f a s t e n s to abo ra l w a l l . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s i s more g l o b u l a r than P. n eo cu r t a and has u n i f o r m i l y d i s t r i b u t e d po r e s . 126 P a r a f i s s u r i n a sp . A S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o n g a t e o v a l , compressed , w i de s t at bo t tom, basa l s p i n e , lower l a t e r a l and basa l k e e l , s l i g h t hood; wa l l t h i n h y a l i n e , f i n e l y and dense l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e s ub t e rm i n a l at base of hood, e n t o s o l e n i a n tube l e ng t h of t e s t a t t a c h ed to w a l l . Remarks: S i m i l a r to P. t e c t u l o s t o m a L o e b l i c h and Tappan excep t the l a t t e r l a c k s the b a s a l - 1 a t e r a l kee l and i s not l a t e r a l l y compressed . 127 P a r a f i s s u r i n a sp . B S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t c y l i n d r i c a l rounded base , s l i g h t hood, compressed; wa l l t h i n h y a l i n e , f i n e l y d en se l y p e r f o r a t e excep t f o r n o n p e r f o r a t e band around p e r i p h e r y ; a p e r t u r e s ub t e rm i n a l s l i t at base of hood, e n t o s o l e n i a n tube c e n t r a l s t r a i g h t 1/4 l e ng t h of t e s t . 128 P a r a f i s s u r i n a sp . C S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o nga t e o v a l , compressed , s l i g h t hood; wa l l t h i n , h y a l i n e dense l y and f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e s u b t e r m i n a l , s l i t at base of hood, e n t o s o l e n i a n tube l e ng t h of t e s t a t t a c h ed to w a l l . 106 Remarks: Very s i m i l a r to P a r a f i s s u r i n a sp . B excep t t h i s s p e c i e s i s more o v a l , l e s s compressed and has a very l ong e n t o s o l e n i a n t u b e . 129 P a r a f i s s u r i n a sp . F S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : t e s t e l o nga t e o v a l , w i de s t near base then t a p e r i n g to b l un t base , a p e r t u r a l end t a p e r s to s ho r t hood; wa l l h y a l i n e , t h i n , f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e s ub t e rm i n a l a rch at base of hood, e n t o s o l e n i a n tube 1/2 t e s t l e n g t h a t t a c h ed to abo ra l w a l l . S u p e r f a m i l y : B u l im i n a c e a Jones 1875 F a m i l y : T u r r i l i n i d a e Cushman, 1927 S u b f a m i l y : T u r r i l i n i n a e Cushman, 1927 Genus: B u l i m i n e l l a Cushman, 1911 130 B u l i m i n e l l a e l e g a n t i s s i m a ( d ' O r b i g h y ) B u l i m i n a e l e gan t i i s s i ma d ' O r b i g n y , 1839 , Voyage dans I ' Ame r i que M e r i d i o n a l e ; F o r a m i n i f e r e s , S t r a s b o u r g , L e v r a u l t , t . 5 , p t . 5 , p . 51 . B u l i m i n e l l a e l e g a n t i s s i m a ( d ' O r b i g n y ) , B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p l . 5 0 , f i g . 2 0 , 2 1 ; U ch i o , 1960, Cush . Fd . Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 5 , p l . 6 , f i g . 2 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o nga t e o v a l , two c o n v o l u t i o n s , chambers l o n g , very low f o rm ing t i g h t c o i l about v e r t i c a l a x i s ; wa l l smooth, p a r t i a l l y h y a l n e , f i n e l y and den se l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e cu rved s l i t a l ong base of a p e r t u r a l f a c e . S u p e r f a m i l y : B u l im i n a c e a J ones , 1875 F a m i l y : S p h a e r o i d i n i d a e Cushman, 1927 Genus: S p h a e r o i d i n a d ' O r b i g n y , 1826 131 S p h a e r o i d i n a b u l l o i d e s d ' O r b i g n y PT73 FTg s . 1,2 Sphae ro i d i na b u l l o i des d ' O r b i g n y , 1826, Ann. S c i . Na t . v . 7 , n . i , modeles n .65 ; B a r k e r , 1960 , Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p l . 8 4 , f i g . 1 - 5 . 107 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test s u b g l o b u l a r , s t r o n g l y embrac ing h e m i s p h e r i c a l chambers , s p i r a l c o i l i n g , l a s t 3 chambers v i s i b l e ; wa l l smooth, f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e , wh i t e c o l o u r ; a p e r t u r e c r e s c e n t i c s l i t above j u n c t i o n of 3 chambers , w i t h broad s imp l e t o o t h p l a t e . F a m i l y : B o l i v i n i t i d a e Cushman, 1927 Genus: B r i z a l i n a C o s t a , 1856 132 B r i z a 1 ina ( B o l i v i na , of a u t ho r s ) pac i f i ca Cushman and McCu l l o ch P I . 4 f i g s . 6 , 7 B o l i v i na a c e r o s a Cushman v a r . pac i f i ca Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , 1942, P u b l . Un i v . S. C a l i f . , A l l a n Hancock Pac . E x p e d . , v . 6 , n .4 , p .185 . B o l i v i na pac i f i ca Cushman and M c C u l l o c h , U c h i o , 1960, Cush . Fd". Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 5 , p i . 7, f i g . 2 . B o l i v i n a pseudopunc ta ta Hog lund , 1947, Foram. in the Gu l lma r F j o r d and the Skage rak , U p p s a l a , Un i v . Z o o l . B i d r a g . Bd . 26 , p .273 . ? B o l i v i na semi nuda Cushman, 1911, U.S. Na t . Mus. B u l l . 7 1 , p t . 2, p. 34 , f i g . 5 5 . ? B o l i v i n a s p i n e s c e n s i f o r m i s M c C u l l o c h , 1977, Q u a l i t a t i v e O b s e r v a t i o n s on Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a l Tes t s With Emphasis on the E a s t e r n P a c i f i c , U n i v . S. C a l i f . , p .259 , p i . 1 0 5 , f i g . 2 1 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o nga t e t a p e r i n g b a s a l l y b i s e r i a l w i t h s t r o n g l y o v e r l a p p i n g chambers , ova l i n c r o s s e c t i o n ; wa l l h y a l i n e , smooth i m p e r f o r a t e i n upper p o r t i o n of chamber, f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e i n l ower h a l f of chamber; a p e r t u r e s l i t up f a ce w i t h t o o t h p l a t e . 133 B r i z a l i n a ( B o l i v i na , of a u t ho r s ) p e i r s o n a e Uch io B o l i v i n a p e i r s o n a e U c h i o , 1960, Cush . Fd . Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 5 , p . 6 3 , p i . 7 , f i g . 3 , 4 . ? B o1 i v i n a s e m i c1 a r a M c C u l l o c h , 1977, Q u a l i t a t i v e O b s e r v a t i o n s on Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a l Tes t s With Emphasis on the E a s t e r n P a c i f i c , U n i v . S. C a l i f . , p i . 1 0 5 , f i g . 1 3 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test sma l l b i s e r i a l t a p e r i n g , chambers i n f l a t e d and rounded i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n , chambers s e r r a t e w i t h basa l l a t e r a l s p i n e , s u t u r e s d ep r e s s ed ; wa l l h y a l i n e , f i n e l y den se l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e low arch m e d i l l y at base of l a s t chamber f a c e . 134 B r i z a l i n a subdepressa (B rady) V i r g u l i n a subdep res sa B rady , 1884, Rep. Voy. C h a l l e n g e r E x p e d . , Z o o l . , v . 9 , p i . 5 2 , f i g . 1 4 - 1 7 . 108 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test e l o nga t e s u b c y l i n d r i c a l , b i s e r i a l a l t e r n a t i n g chambers , p e r i p h e r y smooth, s u t u r e s f l u s h , i n d i s t i n c t ; wa l l smooth, dense l y f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e , broad loop up a p e r t u r a l f a c e . 135 B r i z a 1 i n a sp . P I . 5 f i g s . 1 0 , 1 1 B o l i y i na s p . , Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t hea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p i . 1 1 , f i g . 7. S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test e l o n g a t e , t a p e r i n g , compressed , b i s e r i a l arrangement of o v e r l a p i n g chambers; wa l l c a l c a r e o u s , s u t u r e s l imba t e w i t h c o s t a c r e a t i n g c r i s s - c r o s s e f f e c t ; a p e r t u r e , s l i t up a p e r t u r a l f a ce w i t h t o o t h p l a t e . Remarks: The s p e c i e s a lways appeats roughened , see SEM pho t og r aph . F a m i l y : I s l a n d i e l l i d a e L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1964 Genus: C a s s i d u l i n o i d e s Cushman, 1927 136 C a s s i d u1i n o f d e s t e n u i s P h l e ge r and P a r k e r C a s s i d u T i n o i d e s t e n u i s Ph l ege r and P a r k e r , 1951, G e o l . Soc . Am. Mem. 46 , p t . 2 , p .27 , p i . 1 4 , f i g . 1 4 - 1 7 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o nga t e s u b c y l i n d r i c a l , e a r l y p o r t i o n s u b g l o b u l a r and c o i l e d , l a t e r u n c o i l i n g , b i s e r i a l a l t e r n a t i n g chambers , s u t u r e s d i s t i n c t , f l u s h ; w a l l smooth, f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e broad loop up a p e r t u r a l f a c e . Remarks: P h l e g e r and P a r k e r c o n s i d e r e d t h i s form La te P l e i s t o c e n e or Recent ( t r a n s i t i o n f a u n a ) . I t was found w i t h l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e c o l d water faunas i n the lower p a r t s of co re s (Gu l f of Mex.) but not i n r e cen t bottom samp les . The same t ype of o c cu r r en ce i s noted i n t h i s s tudy (Tab le 6 ) . 109 F a m i l y : B u l i m i n i d a e J one s , 1875 S u b f a m i l y : B u l i m i n i n a e J one s , 1875 Genus: B u l i m i n a d ' O r b i g n y , 1826 137 B u l i m i na ba rba t a Cushman B u l i mi na ba rba t a Cushman, 1927 , S c r i p p s I n s t . Ocean. Tech . S e r . v . l , p . 151 , p l . 2 , f i g . 1 1 ; Enbysk, 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t h ea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. t h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p l . l l , f i g . 8 , 9 ; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p l . 5 0 , f i g . 1 1 , 1 2 ; Bergen and 0 1 N e i l , 1979 , J . P a l e o . , v . 5 3 , n . 6 , p l . 4 , f i g . 14. S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o n g a t e o v a l , t r i s e r i a l , i n f l a t e d chambers s t r o n g l y o v e r l a p p i n g , l a s t chamber ex tends back one h a l f l e ng t h of t e s t ; wa l l c a l c a r e o u s , h y a l i n e , e a r l y p o r t i o n t e s t s p i n o s e , l a t e r smooth; a p e r t u r e l oop w i t h i n t e r n a l t o o t h p l a t e p a r t i a l l y c o v e r i n g o p en i n g . Remarks: B. ba rba ta i s t w i c e the s i z e of spec imens of t h i s s t u d y . 138 B u l i m i n a mex icana Cushman B u l i m i n a s t r i a t a d 'O r b i g n y mexi cana Cushman, of B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p l . 5 1 , f i g . 1 0 , 1 2 B u l i m i n a mex icana Cushman, Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t hea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash . , p l . l l , f i g . 4 ; U ch i o , 1960, Cush . Fd . Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 5 , p l . 6 , f i g . 4 ; Bergen and 0 ' N e i l , 1979, J . P a l e o . , v . 5 3 , n .6 , p l . 5 , f i g . 1 0 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s m a l l , compact , t r i s e r i a l chambers w i t h basa l s p i n e s a l ong edge; wa l l smooth p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e low basa l i n t e r i o m a r g i n a l a r c h . 139 Bu l im i na r o s t r a t a Brady PT73 f i g s . 11,12 B u l i m i na r o s t r a t a B rady , 1884, Rep. Voy. C h a l l e n g e r Exped. , Z o o l . , 779, p 1 . 5 1 , f i g . 1 4 , 1 5 ; Cushman, 1913, U.S. Na t . Mus. B u l l . 7 1 , p t . 2 , p . 87 , f i g . 1 4 0 , ? B u l i m i n a a l a z a n e n s i s Cushman, of Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t hea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p l . l l , f i g . 1 3 , 1 4 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test o v o i d , t r i a n g u l a r i n c r o s s s e c t i o n , f o u r t e e n or more l o n g i t u d i n a l c o s t a obscu re t r i s e r i a l chamber arrangement excep t f o r top p o r t i o n of 110 l a s t chamber, w i de s t near a p e r t u r a l end and t a p e r i n g b a s a l l y ; w a l l c a l c a r e o u s ; a p e r t u r e sma l l s l i t up chamber f a c e . Remarks: B. r o s t r a t a , of B rady , i s s l i g h t l y l a r g e r and has a basa l s p i n e . Genus: G l o b o b u l i m i n a Cushman, 1927 140 G l o b o b u l i m i n a hoeg l und i ? Uch io G l o b o b u l i m i n a hoeg lund i U c h i o , 1960, Cush . Fd . Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 5 , p .63 , p l . 6 , f i g . 7 , 8 . ? G l o b o b u l i m i n a a u r i c u l a t a ( B a i l e y ) of Todd and Low, 1967, U . S . G . S . P r o f . Paper 573-A, p .15 , p l . 3 , f i g . 3 8 ; Bergen and O ' N e i l , 1979, J . P a l e o . , v . 5 3 , n . 6 , p l . 5 , f i g . 9 . ? G l o b o b u l i m i n a c f . G. a u r i c u l a t a ( B a i l e y ) , of Sm i t h , 1973, U . S .G . S . P r o f . Paper 706, p .14 , p l . 3 f i g . 1 0 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t f u s i f o r m , c i r c u l a r i n c r o s s s e c t i o n , t r i s e r i a l , a p i c a l l y p o i n t e d or b l u n t l y rounded , b roades t j u s t above m i d d l e , chambars s t r o n g l y embrac i ng , s u t u r e s a lmos t h o r i z o n t a l at chamber base; wa l l smooth, p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e , c o l o u r w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e l oop w i t h spoon-shaped t o o t h . 141 G l o bobu l im i n a p a c i f i c a Cushman G l o b o b u l i m i n a p a c i f i c a , Cushman, 1927, C o n t r . Cush. F d . Form. Res . v . 3 ( 1 ) , p .67 , p l . 1 4 , f i g . 1 2 ; as above but q u e r i e d , B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p l . 5 0 , f i g . 7 - 1 0 ; U ch i o , 1960, Cush. Fd . Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 5 , p l . 6 , f i g . 9 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test o v a t e , t h r e e s t r o n g l y embrac ing chambers , b roades t j u s t above base ; wa l l smooth, p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e l oop w i t h spoon shaped t o o t h p l a t e . Genus: S t a i n f o r t h i a H o f k e r , 1956 142 S t a i n f o r t h i a , (V i r g u1 ina of a u t ho r s ) comp lanata Egger Pl . 4 f i g . 8 V i r g u 1 i na s c h r e i b e r s i ana Cz j zek comp lanata Egger , 1893 , Akad . W i s s . , M a t h . - P h y s i k . , Bd . 1 8 ( 2 ) , p .292 , p . 8 , f i g . 9 1 - 9 2 . V i r g u l i n a comp lana ta Egger , U c h i o , 1960, Cush . Fd . Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 5 , p l . 6 , f i g . 1 3 . C a s s i d e l l a comp lanata ( E g g e r ) , V i l k s , 1969, M i c r o p a l e o . v . 1 5 , p .48 , p l . 3 , f i g . 1 8 ; Lagoe, 1977, J . Foram. Res. v . 7 ( 2 ) , p l . 4 , f i g . 1 0 . S t a i n f o r t h i a comp lana ta ( E g g e r ) , I ng l e et a l . , 1980, M i c r o p a l e o . v . 2 6 ( 2 ) , p1 5 . , f i g . 1 0 , 1 1 . I l l ?Vi r gu1 i na d a v i s i Chapman and P a r r , B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . E con . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 5 2 , f i g . 1 - 3 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o n g a t e , b i s e r i a l , t w i s t e d , chambers i n f l a t e d and o v e r l a p p i n g , h i g h e r than b r o ad , a p i c a l s p i n e ; wa l l smooth, h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e e l o nga t e wide s l i t up chamber f a c e . 143 S t a i n f o r t h i a c f . S. r o tunda ( P a r r ) Vi r g u l i na ro tunda P a r r , 1950, Rep t s . BANZ A n t a r c t i c Exped . s e r . B , v . 5 , p .337 , p i . 1 2 , f i g . 1 4 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o n g a t e , b i s e r i a l t w i s t e d , chambars l a t e r a l l y o v e r l a p p i n g ; wa l l h y a l i n e , smooth, very f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e open loop up chamber f a c e . 144 S t a i n f o r t h i a seminuda (Na t l a nd ) V i r g u l i n a semi nuda N a t l a n d , 1933 , B u l l . S c r i p p s I n s t . Ocean. TecTu s e r . v . 3 ( 1 0 ) , p i . 5 , f i g . 1 2 ; U c h i o , 1960, Cush . Fd . Foram. Res. Spec . P u b l . 5 , p i . 6 , f i g . 1 9 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o n g a t e , t r i s e r i a l , t w i s t e d ; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , c l e a r area around upper p e r i p h e r y o f each chamber the rema inde r d en se l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e open loop i n f a ce of l a s t chamber. 145 U v i g e r i n a aube r i ana d ' O r b i g n y U v i g e r i n a aube r i ana d ' O r b i g n y , 1839, Ramon de l a S a g r a , H i s t o i r e phys ique et n a t u r e l l e de l ' l l e de Cuba, P a r i s , p .106 , v . 8 , p i . 2 , f i g . 23 , 24 ; (as above but q u e r i e d by) U c h i o , 1960, Cush. Fd . Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 5 , p i . 7 , f i g . 1 1 . U v i g e r i n a a s p e r u l a C z j z e k , of B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 7 5 , f i g . 8 , 9 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test e l o n g a t e , b i s e r i a l , i n f l a t e d chambers , s u t u r e s i n d i s t i n c t , wa l l c o a r s e l y h i s p i d ; a p e r t u r e t em i n a l end of s ho r t neck . Remarks: Th i s form may be an end member of the g r a d a t i o n a l s e r i e s of U. s e n t i c o s a . D 'O rb i gny d e s c r i b e d the s p e c i e s as h i s p i d t h roughou t w i t h the sho r t s p i ne s be i ng more pronounced on the basa l p o r t i o n of the chambers; t h i s i s a cha rac te r ! " s i c of U. sent i c o s a . 146 U v i g e r i n a j uncea Cushman and Todd U v i g e r i n a j un cea Cushman and Todd, 1941, Cush . Lab . Foram. Res. C o n t r . v . 1 7 , p .78 , pi 20, f i g . 4 - 1 1 ; U ch i o , 1960, Cush . Fd . Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 5 , p i . 7 , f i g . 1 5 - 1 6 ; Bergen and O ' N e i l , 1979, J . P a l e o . , v . 5 3 , n .6 , p i . 3 , f i g . 4 112 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test e l o n g a t e , t r i s e r i a l , rounded i n s e c t i o n ; wa l l c o s t a t e , each chamber hav i ng d i s c r e t e low sharp r i b b i n g , c o l o u r w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , s h o r t neck , p h i a l i n e l i p . 147 U v i g e r i n a p e r e g r i na Cushman v a r . d i s r u p t a Todd U v i g e r i n a p e r e g r i na Cushman v a r . d i s r u p t a Todd, of Enbysk, 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t hea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p i . 1 2 , f i g . 1 6 . U v i g e r i n a bradyana F o r n a s i n i , of B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . E con . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 7 4 , f i g . 2 6 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o nga t e t r i s e r i a l l a t e r becoming b i s e r i a l , e a r l y chambers w i t h low narrow co s t a e ( 10 / chambe r ) , l a s t chamber h i s p i d ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , end of s ho r t h i s p i d neck, p h i a l i n e l i p . 148 U v i g e r i n a s e n t i cosa Cushman PT72 f i g . 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 Uvi g e r i na ent i cosa Cushman, 1927 , S c r i p p s I n s t . Ocean. Tech . s e r . v . l , p i . 3 , f i g . 1 4 ; Bergen and O ' N e i l , 1979, J . P a l e o . , v . 5 3 , n .6 , p i . 4 , f i g . 1 6 . ? U v i g e r i n a c a n a r i e n s i s d ' O r b i g n y , of Cushman, 1913, U.S . Na t . Mus. B u l l . 71 , p t . 3 , p .92 , p i . 4 2 , f i g . 6 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o n g a t e , t r i s e r i a l , chambers i n f l a t e d , s u t u r e s d ep r e s s ed , d i s t i n c t ; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , smooth or very s l i g h t l y h i s p i d e s p e c i a l l y near s u t u r e s , apex i s d i s t i n c t l y h i s p i d , c o l o u r w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l , end of s ho r t nedk w i t h p h i a l i n e l i p . Remarks: U. s e n t i c o s a shows much g r a d a t i o n i n i t s h i s p i d n a t u r e , see P l a t e 2. Th i s s p e c i e s may grade i n t o U. a u b e r i a n a . 149 Uvi g e r i na sp . A T U v i g e r i n a b r unnen s i s K a r r e r , of B rady , 1884, Rep. Voy. Cha l 1enge r E x p e d . , T o o 1 . , v . 9 , p i . 7 5 , f i g . 4 , 5 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test e l o n g a t e , e a r l y t r i s e r i a l l a t e r b i s e r i a l ; wa l l e a r l y chambers s l i g h t l y c o s t a t e b a s a l l y , l a s t chamber h i s p i d ; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l end of moderate neck . Remarks: A o n t o g e n e t i c s tage of U. s e n t i cosa? 150 Uvi g e r i na sp . B S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e l o n g a t e , e a r l y t r i s e r i a l l a t e r b i s e r i a l ; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , very f i n e l y h i s p i d excep t c o a s e l y h i s p i d l a s t chamber; a p e r t u r e t e r m i n a l 113 moderately long neck with p h i a l i n e l i p . Remarks: An o n t o g e n e t i c stage of U. s e n t i c o s a ? Genus: T r i f a r i n a Cushman, 1923 151 T r i f a n ' na f 1 uens (Todd) Ang luoger ina f l u e n s Todd, 1948, A l l a n Hancock Pac. Exped. , v . 6 , n. 5 , p .288, pl . 36 , f i g . l ; Enbysk, 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a in the Nor theast P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , U n i v . Wash. , p l . 1 2 , f i g . l . T r i f a r i n a f l u e n s (Todd) , Bergen and O ' N e i l , 1979, J . Pal e o . , v. 53 , nT6 , p l . 2 , f i g . 8. S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t e longate t r i s e r i a l becoming u n i s e r i a l , t r i a n g u l a r in c r o s s e c t i o n ; wal l with l o n g i t u d i n a l costae which curve with t e s t c u r v a t u r e ; a p e r t u r e oval on very s h o r t neck. Remarks: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n based on one spec imen. S u p e r f a m i l y : D i scorbacea Ehrenberg , 1838 F a m i l y : D i s c o r b i d a e E h r e n b e r g , 1838 S u b f a m i l y : D i s c o r b i n a e E h r e n b e r g , 1838 Genus: B u c e l l a Anderson, 1952 152 B u c e l l a f r i g i d a (Cushman) P u l v i n u l i n a f r i g i d a Cushman, 1922, Can. B i o l . Board , C o n t r . Can. Bi ol . (1921), n . 9 , p . 1 2 ( 1 4 4 ) , f i g . see Parker and Jones , 1865, P h i l s . T r a n s , v . 1 5 5 , p .396 , p 1 . 1 4 , f i g . 1 4 , 1 5 , 1 7 . B u c e l l a f r i g i d a (Cushman), L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, Smith . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 , n .7 , p l . 2 2 , f i g . 2 , 3 ; Enbysk, 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a in the Nor theast P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un iv . Wash., p 1 . 1 5 , f i g . 1 1 , 1 2 . Synopt i c d e s c r i p t i o n : T e s t t r o c h o s p i r a l , p lanoconvex , s p i r a l l y sutures f l u s h s l i g h t l y r e c u r v e d , u m b i l i c a l l y secondary i n f i l l i n g in u m b i l i c a l reg ion s p r e a d i n g out a long s u t u r e s ; wal l smooth, h y a l i n e on s p i r a l s i d e ; aper ture i n t e r i o m a r g i n a l basal s l i t on chamber f a c e . 114 Genus: E p i s t o m i n e l 1 a Husezima and M a r u h a s i , 1944 153 Epi s tomi n e l l a e x i g u a (B rady) P u1v i n u1 i n a e x i gua B r ady , 1884, Rep. Voy. C h a l l e n g e r E x p e d . , Z o o l . , v . 9 , p l . 1 0 3 f i g . 1 3 , 1 4 ; E p i s t o m i n e l 1 a e x i gua ( B r a d y ) , B a r k e r , 1960 , Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p l . 1 0 3 , f i g . 1 3 , 1 4 ; Enbysk, 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t h ea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p l . 1 3 f i g . 1 7 , 1 8 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s m a l l , t r o c h o s p i r a l , s l i g h t l y b i c o n v e x , s p i r a l s i d e e v o l u t e n e a r l y f l a t , u n b i l i c a l s i d e i n v o l u t e , convex , o b l i q u e but s t r a i g h t s u t u r e s d o r s a l l y , s l i g h t l y r e c u r v ed v e n t r a l l y ; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e narrow s l i t j u s t below and p a r e l l e l t o p e r i p h e r a l k e e l . S u b f a m i l y : Bagg i n i nae Cushman, 1927 Genus: V a l v u l i n e r a Cushman, 1926 154 V a l v u l i n e r i a ? a r c t i c a Green P1.5 fig74~75 V a l v u l i n e r i a a r c t i c a G reen , 1960, M i c r o p a l e o . v . 6 ( 1 ) , p . 7 1 , p l . 1 , f i g . 3 ; V i l k s , 1969, M i c r o p a l e o . v . 1 5 , p l . 3 , f i g . 9 ; Lagoe , 1977, J . Foram. Res . v . 7 ( 2 ) , p l . 4 , f i g . 9 , 1 3 , 1 8 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s m a l l , t r o c h o s p i r a l , l o b a t e p e r i p h e r y , s p i r a l s i d e e v o l u t e w i t h very low s p i r e , chambers i n c r e a s i n g mode ra te l y i n s i z e , s u t u r e s d i s t i n c t , d e p r e s s e d , r a d i a l to s l i g h t l y c u r v e d , l a s t chamber has v a l v u l a r p r o j e c t i o n e x t e nd i n g back over u m b i l i c a l r e g i o n ; wa l l smooth, h y a l i n e , f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e u m b i 1 i c a l - e x t r a u m b i 1 i c a l beneath v a l v u l a r p r o j e c t i o n . Remarks: Th i s form i s q u e s t i o n a b l y p l a c ed w i t h V a l v u l i n e r i a a l t hough the h igh chambers and t h e i r mode ra t e l y r a p i d en la rgement sugges t a f f i n i t i e s to Canc r i s . Th i s sma l l s p e c i e s may be a j u v e n i l e form of a s p e c i e s of Canc r i s . 155 V a l v u l i n e r i a c f . V . g l a b r a Cushman V a l v u l i n e r i a v i 1a rdeboana ( d ' O r b i g n y ) v a r . g l a b r a Cushman, 1927, S c r i p p s I n s t . Ocean. B u l l . Tech . s e r . v . l , p . 161 , p l . 4 , f i g . 5 , 6 . 115 V a 1v u 1 i n e r i a g l a b r a Cushman, U c h i o , 1960, Cush . F d . Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 5 , p i . 8 , f i g . 6 , 7 ; Q u a l i t a t i v e O b s e r v a t i o n s on Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a l Tes t s With Emphasis on the E a s t e r n P a c i f i c , Un i v . S. C a l i f , p . 351 , p i . 1 3 4 , f i g . 4 . Rotamorph i na (V a 1v u1 i n e r i a) l a e v i g a t a ( Ph l e ge r and P a r k e r ) , Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t hea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p i . 1 5 , f i g . 1 6 , 1 7 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test s m a l l , chambers i n f l a t e d and t r i a n g u l a r i n shape s p i e a l s i d e e v o l u t e , u m b i l i c a l i n v o l u t e ; w a l l h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e u m b i 1 i c a l - e x t r a u m b i 1 i c a l c ove r ed by broad f l a p . 156 V a l v u l i n e r i a sp . A S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t low t r o c h o s p i r a i , rounded p e r i p h e r y , s p i r a l l y e v o l u t e , l a s t chamber i n f l a t e d w i t h l obe e x t e n d i n g over u m b i l i c a l r e g i o n , a p e r t u r a l f a ce h igh t r i a n g u l a r , s u t u r e s vary from s t r a i g h t to s l i g h t l y c u r v e d ; w a l l smooth, f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e , opaque; a p e r t u r e low basa l a r ch over p e r i p h e r y e x t e nd i n g under f l a p on u m b i l i c a l s i d e . Remarks: Th i s form d i f f e r s f rom V a l v u l i n e r i a sp.C by hav i ng a h igh t r i a n g u l a r a p e r t u r a l f a c e . ^ s i m i l a r form l a c k i n g a pronounced f l a p was p l a c ed i n Noni one!1 a  a u r i c u l a H e r o n - A l l e n and E a r l a n d , by L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, ( Sm i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 , n . 7 , p i . 1 6 , f i g . 6 , 7 , 1 0 . ) 157 Va1vu1i n e r i a sp.B S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t t r o c h o s p i r a i , compressed , open u m b i l i c u s chambers r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g i n s i z e ; wa l l smooth, f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e low basa l a rch over p e r i p h e r y e x t e nd i n g onto u m b i l i c a l s i d e . 158 V a1v u1 i n e r i a sp.C ? V a l v u l i n e r i a a raucana ( d ' O r b i g n y ) , of U c h i o , 1960, Cush . FcT Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 5 , p i . 8 , f i g . 3 - 5 ; S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t t r o c h o s p i r a i , very low s p i r e , chambers i n f l a t e d s u b g l o b u l a r , l a s t chamber w i t h broad f l a p over u m b i l i c u s , s u t u r e s d i s t i n c t , c u r v e d , d ep r e s s ed ; w a l l , t h i n smooth, h y a l i n e , each chamber c o a r s e l y p e r f o r a t e i n basa l 2/3 the upper 1/3 p lu s a p e r t u r a l f a c e , and u m b i l i c a l f l a p are i m p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e broad a r ch ove r p e r i p h e r y and e x t e nd i n g i n t o u m b i l i c a l r e g i o n under f l a p . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s may be a more r obus t form of V a 1v u1 i n e r i a s p . A . V. araucana i n the o r g i n a l f i g u r e i s shown to be much more compressed . 116 F a m i l y : G l a b r a t e l 1 i d a e L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1964 Genus: H e r o n a l l e n i a Chapman and P a s r r , 1931 , 159 He rona l 1en i a? s p . ? C a r 1 f r a n k l i n o i d e s p r o c i d u a M c C u l l o c h , 1977, Q u a l i t a t i v e O b s e r v a t i o n s on Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a l Tes t s With Emphasis on the E a s t e r n P a c i f i c , Un i v . S . C a l i f . , p .295 , p i . 1 2 8 , f i g . 1 4 , 1 6 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : T r o c h o s p i r a i , compressed , p l a n o - c o n v e x , c a r i n a t e , s u t u r e s o b l i q u e and f l u s h , a p e r t u r a l i n d e n t a t i o n i n chamber f a c e s f o r a p e r t u e ; wa l l t h i n h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e low i n t e r i o m a r g i n a l a rch set down i n deep i n d e n t a t i o n of chamber f a c e . Remarks: Que s t i o ned whether be longs i n H e r o n a l 1 e n i a because the form l a c k s the grooves on the chamber f a c e . S u p e r f a m i l y : G l o b i g e r i n a c e a C a r p e n t e r , P a r k e r and J o ne s , 1862 F a m i l y : G l o b o r o t a l i i d a e Cushman, 1927 S u b f a m i l y : G l o b o r o t a l i i n a e Cushman, 1927 Genus: G l o b o r o t a l i a Cushman, 1927 160 G l o b o r o t a l i a s c i t u l a (B rady ) PTTT F i g s . 7 , 8 , 9 P u l v i n u l i n a s c i t u l a B rady , 1882, Roy. Soc . E d i nbou r gh , P r o c . v . l l , n. 3, pT716, ( f i g . i n C h a l l e n g e r Rep t s . 1884, p i . 1 0 3 , f i g . 7 . ) G l o b o r a t a l i a s c i t u l a ( B r a d y ) , Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t hea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash . , p i . 2 , f i g . 9 - 1 2 , 1 5 ; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . E con . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 1 0 3 , f i g . 7 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t t r o c h o s p i r a i , low s p i r e , l o b a t e p e r i p h e r y ; wa l l smooth, f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e t h r o u g h o u t , except f o r nonporous p e r i p h e r y ; basa l a p e r t u r e , u m b i l i c a l to e x t r a u m b i 1 i c a l , may have f i n e l i p . 117 F a m i l y : G l o b i g e r i n i d a e C a r p e n t e r , P a r k e r and J one s , 1862 S u b f a m i l y : G l o b i g e r i n i d a e C a r p e n t e r , P a r k e r and J o ne s , 1862 Genus: G l o b i g e r i n a d ' O r b i g n y , 1826 161 Gl ob i g e r i na bul 1 o i des d 'O r b i g n y P l a t e l , f i g s . 4,b G l o b i g e r i na b u l 1 o i des d ' O r b i g n y , 1826, Ann. S c i . N a t . , P a r i s , ser. l~j t . 7, pT277 ; Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the N o r t h e a s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , U n i v . Wash . , p l . l , f i g . 1-4; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p1 . 7 9 , f i g . 5 , 7 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Te s t t r o c h o s p i r a l , low s p i r e , s p h e r i c a l chambers , f ou r i n l a s t w h o r l , s u t u r e s d ep r e s s ed ; w a l l g r a n u l a r ; a p e r t u r e broad a r ch over w i d e l y open u m b i l i c u s . 162 G l o b i g e r i n a qu i nque l oba Na t l and G l o b i g e r i n a qu i nque l oba N a t l a n d , 1938, S c r i p p s I n s t . Ocean. B u l l . Te ch . s e r . v . 4 , n . 5 , p . 149 , p l . 6 , f i g . 7 ; Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the N o r t h e a s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash . , p l . 2 , f i g . 5 , 6 ; Be", 1977 , An E c o l o g i c a l , Zoogeog raph i c and Taxonomic Review of Recent P l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a , i n Ocean i c M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y (Ramsay, A .T . e d . ) , p l . 9 , f i g . 15. S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Te s t s m a l l , t r o c h o s p i r a l , low s p i r e , s p h e r i c a l chambers s l i g h t l y a p r e s s e d , f i v e i n l a s t w h o r l ; w a l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , smooth, f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e low basa l a r ch u m b i 1 i c a l - e x t r a u m b i 1 i c a l , l i p of v a r y i n g w i d t h . Remarks: I t i s q u e s t i o n e d whether t h i s s p e c i e s shou l d be p l a c ed i n G l o b i g e r i n i t a , s e v e r a l spec imens were found w i t h l a r g e m o d i f i e d f i n a l cJTambers or b e l l a s . 163 G l oboquad r i n a d u t e r t r e i ( d ' O r b i g n y ) G l o b i g e r i n a d u t e r t r e i d ' O r b i g n y , 1839, Ramon de l a S a g r a , H i s t o i r e phys i que e t n a t u r e l l e de l ' l l l e de Cuba, P a r i s , p .84 , f i g . i n v . 8 , p l . 4 , f i g . 1 9 - 2 1 . G l oboquad r i n a d u t e r t r e i ( d ' O r b i g n y ) , Be", 1977 , An E c o l o g i c a l , Zoogeog raph i c and Taxonomic Review of Recent P l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a , i n Ocean ic M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y (Ramsay, A . T . e d . ) , p i . 1 0 , f i g . 2 3 a - f . 118 Gl ob i g e r i na e gge r i Rhumbler , 1901 , Nord isch.es P l a n k t o n , K i e l , L i e f 1, N r . 1 4 , p .19 , t . f . 2 0 . ; Enbysk, 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t hea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p l . l , f i g . 5 - 8 ; B a r k e r , 1960, S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t t r o c h o s p i r a i , no s p i r e on e v o l u t e s p i r a l s i d e , i n v o l u t e u m b i l i c a l s i d e , g l o b u l a r chambers ; wa l l g r a n u l a r ; a p e r t u r e u m b i 1 i c a l - e x t r a u m b i 1 i c a l o f f open u m b i 1 i c u s . 164 G l oboquad r i na hexagona ( N a t l a n d ) G l o b i g e r i n a hexagona N a t l a n d , 1938, S c r i p p s I n s t . Ocean. B u l l . Tech . s e r . v . 4 ( 5 ) , p .149 , p i . 7 , f i g . l . G l oboquad r i n a hexagona ( N a t l a n d ) , Be, 1977, An E c o l o g i c a l , Zoogeog raph i c and Taxonomic Review of Recent P l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a , i n Ocean i c M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y (Ramsay, A . T . e d . ) , p i . 1 0 , f i g . 2 4 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t t r o c h o s p i r a i , low s p i r e , p e r i p h e r y l o b a t e , f i v e chambers i n l a s t w h o r l , s u t u r e s r a d i a l , d e p r e s s e d ; wa l l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e ob s cu r r ed by co r s e dense r e t i c u l a t i o n s ; a p e r t u r e basa l a rched loop w i t h l i p , between u m b i l i c u s and p e r i p h e r y . 165 G l oboquad r i n a pachyderma (Eh renbe rg ) P l . l f i g . 1 , 2 ? A r i s t e r o s p i r a pachyderma Eh r enbe r g , 1861, K. P r e u s s . Akad . W i s s . B e r l i n , p . 2 / 6 , 277 , 303 ( f i g . i n K. Akad . W i s s . B e r l i n , Abh, J a h r g , 1872, p l . l , f i g . 4 ) G l o b i g e r i n a pachyderma ( E h r e n b e r g ) , Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t h ea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p i . 2 , f i g . 1 - 4 , 7 , 8 ; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 1 1 4 , f i g . 1 9 . G l o boquad r i n a pachyderma ( E h r e n b e r g ) , Be, 1977, An E c o l o g i c a l , Zoogeograph i c and Taxonomic Review of Recent P l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a , i n Ocean i c M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y (Ramsay, A .T . e d . ) , p i . 1 0 , f i g . 2 2 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test s m a l l , low t r o c h o s p i r a i , chambers s t r o n g l y embrac ing g i v i n g t e s t rounded appea rance , s u t u r e s s l i g h t l y dep ressed i n d i s t i n c t ; wa l l ve ry g r a n u l a r ; a p e r t u r e sma l l a rch over c l o s e d u m b i l i c u s , some w i t h l i p . S u b f a m i l y : O r b u l i n i n a e S c h u l t z e , 1854 Genus: O r b u l i n a d ' O r b i g n y , 1839 166 O r b u l i na uni v e r s a d 'O r b i g n y P l . l , f i g . 6 119 O r b u l i n a uni v e r s a d ' O r b i g n y , 1839 , Ramon de l a S ag r a , H i s t o i r e phys i que et n a t u r e l l e de l ' l l e de Cuba, P a r i s , f i g i n v . 8 , p l . 1 , f i g . l ; Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a in the No r t hea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p i . 2 , f i g . 1 7 - 1 8 ; B a r k e r , 1 9 6 0 , Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 8 1 , f i g . 8 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s p h e r i c a l , u n i l o c u l a r ; w a l l c o a r s e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e one l a r g e pore and numerous a r e a l p o r e s . S u b f a m i l y : C a t a p s y d r a c i n a e B o l l i , L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1957 Genus: G l o b i g e r i n i t a B ronn imann , 1951 167 G l o b i g e r i n i t a g l u t i nata Egger G l o b i g e r i n a g l u t i n a t a Egger , 1893, Akad . W i s s . M a t h - P h y s i k . , C l . Abh. Mun i ch , Bd . 18( 1895) , A b t h . 2 , p . 371 , p i . 1 3 , f i g . 19 - 21 ; Enbysk, 1960 , D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t hea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash . , p l . l , f i g . 9 - 1 3 . G l o b i g e r i n i t a g l u t i n a t a ( E g g e r ) , Be, 1977, An E c o l o g i c a l , Zoogeog raph i c and Taxonomic Review of Recent P l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a , i n Ocean i c M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y (Ramsay, A . T . e d . ) , p l . 9 , f i g . 1 8 a , b . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s m a l l , t r o c h o s p i r a l , low s p i r e , s p h e r i c a l chambers w i t h t h r e e i n l a s t w h o r l ; w a l l h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e low arch u m b i 1 i c a l - e x t r a u m b i 1 i c a l , no open u m b i l i c u s . 168 G l o b i g e r i n i t a ? uvu l a ( Eh renbe rg ) PT75 FT g73 P y l o d e x i a uvu l a Eh renbe rg , 1861, K. P r e u s s . Akad . W i s s . B e r l i n , M o n a t s h e r . , p.276 ,277 , 308 ; f i g . i n K. Akad . W i s s . B e r l i n , A b h . , J a h r g . 1872, p l . 2 , f i g . 2 4 , 2 5 . G l o b i g e r i na b r ad y i W i e sne r , 1931, D r y g a l s k i , E . v a n . , Deut . S u d - p o l a r Exped. 1901-1903 , Bd.20 ( Z o o l . B d . 1 2 ) , p .133 , ( f i g . f rom B rady , 1884, Rep. Voy. C h a l l e n g e r E x p e d . , Z o o l . , v . 9 , p i . 8 2 , f i g . 8 , 9 ; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p l . 8 2 , f i g . 8 , 9 G l o b i g e r i n o i d e s minuta N a t l a n d , 1938, S c r i p p s I n s t . Ocean. B u l l . TecTTT s e r . v . 4 ( 5 ) , p .150 , p l . 7 , f i g . 2 , 3 . G l o b i g e r n i t a b r ady i , Be, 1977, An E c o l o g i c a l , Zoogeog raph i c and Taxonomic Review of Recent P l a n k t o n i c F o r a m i n i f e r a , i n Ocean ic M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y (Ramsay, A . T . e d . ) , p l . 9 , f i g . 1 9 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test m i nu t e , t r o c h o s p i r a l , h i gh s p i r e , numerous s p h e r i c a l chambers i n c r e a s i n g in s i z e ; 120 wal l p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , smooth; a p e r t u r e basal a r c h , e x t r a u m b i 1 i c a l in face of l a s t chamber. Remarks: The genus was q u e r i e d because no ev idence of a b e l l a was found . S u p e r f a m i l y : O r b i t o i d a c e a Schager , 1876 F a m i l y : Epon id idae H o f k e r , 1951 Genus: Eponides De M o n t f o r t , 1808 169 Eponides tumi dulus (Brady) v a r . h o r v a t h i Green PT75 f i g s . 1 ,2 ,3 Eponides tumidulus (Brady) v a r . h o r v a t h i Green, 1960, M i c r o p a l e o n t o l o g y , v . 6 ( l ) , p . 7 1 , p l . l , f i g . 5 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test s m a l l , t r o c h o s p i r a l , low s p i r e , three w h o r l s , 8 chambers in l a s t w h o r l , deep open u m b i l i c u s , i n f l a t e d ovo id chambers, su tures d i s t i n c t , d e p r e s s e d , s l i g h t l y o b l i q u e ; wal l smooth p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e basal low i n t e r i o m a r g i n a l arch in a p e r t u r a l face with l i p . Remarks: Scanning e l e c t r o n photograhy showed that some specimens are c o a r s e l y p e r f o r a t e around the u m b i l i c u s whereas in o thers there are none and the u m b i l i c u s was not as pronounced ( p i . 5 , f i g . 2 , 3 ) . 170 Eponides sp. S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t small t r o c h o s p i r a l , low s p i r e , three whorls with 6 chambers in l a s t , rounded p e r i p h e r y , s p i r a l l y e v o l u t e , u m b i c a l l y i n v o l u t e , sutures d i s t i n c t , f l u s h to s l i g h t l y d e p r e s s e d ; w a l l , smooth, p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e low arch i n t e r i o m a r g i n a l at base of a p e r t u r a l f a c e . Genus: E i l o h e d r a L i p p s , 1965 171 » E i1ohedra l e v i c u l a (R e s i g) pi . 2 f i g s . 1 , 2 , 3 Epi stomi nel1 a l e v i c u l a R e s i g , 1958, M i c r o p a l e o . v . 4 ( 3 ) , p .304, t . f . l b a - c . Eponides l e y i c u l u s ( R e s i g ) , Uch io , 1960,Cush. F d . Foram. Res. Spec. P u b l . 5 , p i . 1 0 , f i g . 2 3 - 2 5 . Eponides l e y i c u l u s ( R e s i g ) , Bergen and O ' N e i l , 1979, J . P a l e o . , v . 5 3 , n .6 , p i . 4 , f i g . 2 2 - 2 4 . E i l o h e d r a l e v i c u l a ( R e s i g ) , Ingle et al . 1980, M i c r o p a l e o . , v . 2 6 ( 2 ) , p .134, p i . 2 , f i g . 2 , 3 . 121 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test sma l l t r o c h o s p i r a i , b i c o n v e x , s p i r a l l y more so , numerous chambers i n t i g h t c u r l , f i v e chambers i n l a s t w h o r l , chambers rhombo ida l i n s p i r a l v i ew , t r i g o n a l i n u m b i l i c a l v i ew , s u t u r e s s l i g h t l y d e p r e s s e d , o b l i q u e s p i r a l s i d e ; wa l l t h i n p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e , smooth, c o l o u r s p i r a l l y y e l l o w brown; a p e r t u r e t h i n i n t e r i o m a r g i n a l s l i t at base of a p e r t u r a l chamber f a c e , ( s c ann i ng photographs show p u s t u l e s and b o r d e r i n g l i p . ) Remarks: The a p e r t u r e does not show the e x t e n s i o n p a r a l l e l i n g the p e r i p h e r y as d e p i c t e d f o r the genus; r a t h e r t h e r e i s j u s t a very s l i g h t i n d e n t a t i o n . F a m i l y : C i b i c i d i d a e Cushman, 1927 S u b f a m i l y : PI anl i l i n i nae Bermudez, 1952 Genus: P l a n u l i n a d ' O r b i g n y , 1826 172 P l a n u l i n a w u e l 1 e r s t o r f i (Schwager) PT74 f i g . l ,2 Anoma l ina w u e l 1 e r s t o r f i Schwager , 1866, Novara Exped . 1857-59 , Wien, 1866, G e o l . T h e i l . Bd.2 A b t . 2 , p .258 , p i . 7 f i g . 1 0 5 , 107. P l a n u l i n a w e u l 1 e r s t o r f i ( S chwage r ) , Cushman, 1913, U.S. Na t . Mus. B u l l . TV, p t . 5, p .34 , p i . 1 2 , f i g . 3 ; Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t hea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p i . 1 6 , f i g . 1 2 , p i . 1 7 , f i g . 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 ; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 9 3 , f i g . 9 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test d i s c o i d a l , low t r o c h o s p i r a l , s p i r a l s i d e e v o l u t e , u m b i l i c a l s i d e i n v o l u t e , p e r i p h e r y s ha r p , i m p e r f o r a t e , s u t u r e s l i m b a t e s t r o n g l y a r c h e d , chambers k i dney shaped , i n f l a t e d ; wa l l c o a r s e l y p e r f o r a t e s p i r a l l y , f i n e l y so u m b i l i c a l l y ; a p e r t u r e low a r ch at p e r i p h e r y e x t e nd i n g onto s p i r a l s i d e . S u b f a m i l y : C i b i c i d i n a e Cushman, 1927 Genus: C i b i c i d e s De M o n t f o r t , 1808 173 Ci b i c i des s p . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test t r o c h o s p i r a l , low s p i r e , s p i r a l s i d e f l a t t e n e d to e x c a v a t e d , e v o l u t e , u m b i l i c a l s i d e convex , i n v o l u t e , angu l a r p e r i p h e r y ; wa l l c o a r s e l y 122 p e r f o r a t e s p i r a l l y , but f i n e l y u m b i 1 i c a l l y ; a p e r t u r e narrow basa l s l i t over p e r i p h e r y e x t e nd i n g onto s p i r a l s i d e . S u p e r f a m i l y : C a s s i d u l i n a c e a d ' O r b i g n y , 1839 F a m i l y : C a s s i d u l i n i d a e d ' O r b i g n y , 1839 Genus: C a s s i d u l i n a d ' O r b i g n y , 1826 174 C a s s i d u l i n a cushmani R .E .and K.C. S tewar t ' PT74" F i g s . 9 , 1 0 C a s s i d u l i n a cushmani R.E. and K.C. S t e w a r t , 1930, J . P a l e o . , v. 4 (1 j , p. 7 1 , p l . 9 , f i g . 5 . Ca s s i d u l i n a d e l i c a t a Cushman, of U c h i o , 1960, Cush. Fd . Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 5 , p l . 9 , f i g . 1 7 ; Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t h ea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p l . 1 9 , f i g . 1 4 , 1 5 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t l e n t i c u l a r , b iumbonate , b i s e a r i a l e n r o l l e d , s h a r p l y ang led p e r i p h e r y ; wa l l t h i n smooth , p o l i s h e d , p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e e l o nga t e s l i t near marg in t h a t may appear as a c r e s c e n t i c s l i t w i t h t o o t h . Remarks: Uch io c o n s i d e r e d C. cushmani a form w i t h i n the range of v a r i a t i o n of C. d e1 i c a t a . Genus: E h r e n b e r g i n a , Reuss ,1850 175 Eh renbe rg i na t r i gona Goes PT73 F i g s . 5 ,6 Eh r enbe r g i n a s e r r a t a Reuss v a r . t r i gona Goes, 1896 , Ha rva rd C o l l e g e Mus. Comp. Z o o l . B u l l . , v . 2 9 , p .49 , p l . 6 , f i g . 1 8 3 - 4 ; Enbysk, 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t h ea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p l . 2 0 , f i g . 1 , 2 , 1 1 - 1 3 ; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ. P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p l . 5 5 , f i g . 2 , 3 , 5 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test b i s e r i a l s l i g h t l y e n r o l l e d , chambers b r o a d , l ow , c r o s s s e c t i o n t r i g o n a l , base of chambers s p i n o s e , chambers meet v e n t r a l l y to form s h a l l o w f u r r o w ; wa l l smooth, p o l i s h e d , a p e r t u r e e l o nga t e s l i t p a r a l l e l t o p e r i p h e r y and p e r p e n d i c u l a r to base of a p e r t u r a l f a c e . 123 Genus: G l o b o c a s s i d u l i n a V o l o s h i n o v a , 1960 176 G l o b o c a s s i d u l i n a s p . F T T 2 — f i g s . 1 3 , 1 4 , 1 5 C a s s i d u l i n a s u b g l o b o s a , B rady , of Sm i t h , 1973, U.S. G e o l . Survey P r o f . Paper 706, p .14 , p l . 4 f i g , 3 ; Bergen and O ' N e i l , J . P a l e o . v . 5 3 ( 6 ) , p l . 4 , f i g . 1 1 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Te s t very s m a l l , b i s e r i a l e n r o l l e d , s u b g l o b u l a r , rounded p e r i p h e r y ; wa l l smooth, f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e , h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e broad e q u a t o r i a l s l i t up chamber f a c e . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s resemb les C. subg lobosa B r ady , however B r a d y ' s s p e c i e s i s very much l a r g e r . F a m i l y : Non i on i dae S c h u l t z e , 1854 S u b f a m i l y : Chi 1os tome l1 i n ae B rady , 1881 Genus: Chi 1ostomel1 a Reuss i n C z j z e k , 1849 177 Ch i 1ostomel1 a o o l i na Schwager Chi 1ostomel1 a o o l i n a Schwager , 1878, i n S t o h r , R. Comp. G e o l . I t a l . Bo 11 - , v . 9 , p .513 , p l . l , f i g . 1 6 ; Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the N o r t h e a s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p i . 2 1 , f i g . 2 1 - 2 3 ; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 5 5 , f i g . 1 4 , 1 7 ; I n g l e e t a l . , 1980, M i c r o p a l e o . v . 2 6 ( 2 ) , p l . 6 , f i g . 9 , 1 0 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Te s t o v a l , p l a n i s p i r a l , 2 chambers i n l a s t w h o r l , s t r o n g l y embrac i ng ; wa l l h y a l i n e , smooth, c o a r s e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e e q u a t o r i a l basa l s l i t i n l a s t chamber. S u b f a m i l y : Non i on i nae S c h u l t z e , 1854 Genus: A s t r o n o n i o n Cushman and Edwards, 1937 178 A s t r o n o n i o n (?) c f . A. b i k i n i e n s i s M c C u l l o c h A s t r o n o n i o n b i k i n i e n s i s McCu l l o ch , 1977 Q u a l i t a t i v e O b s e r v a t i o n s on Recent F o r a m i n i f e r a l T e s t s With Emphasis on the E a s t e r n P a c i f i c , Un i v . S. C a l i f . , p . 437 , p i . 1 7 6, f i g . 2 7 - 2 9 . 124 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test s m a l l , p l a n i s p i r a l , compressed , s l i g h t l y e v o l u t e on u m b i l i c a l s i d e , sma l l umbonal boss on o t h e r , p e r i p h e r y s l i g h t l y l o b a t e , 6-7 chambers i n l a s t w h o r l , s u t u r e s r a d i a l t o cu rved w i t h some med ia l t h i c k e n i n g ; wa l l smooth, h y a l i n e , r e l a t i v e l y c o a r s e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e e q u a t o r i a l basa l a rch over p e r i phe r y . Genus: F l o r i l u s De M o n t f o r t , 1808 179 F l o r i l u s sp . A S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t p l a n i s p i r a l i n v o l u t e s y m m e t r i c a l , r a p i d l y e n l a r g i n g chambers g i v i n g f l a r i n g t e s t , l a s t chamber e l o nga t e f a ce w i t h lower l obes c o v e r i n g both u m b i l i c a l r e g i o n s ; wa l l h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e low arch ove r p e r i p h e r y . 180 F l o r i l u s sp . B F l o r i l u s (Non i on i na ) l a b r a d o r i c u s (Dawson) of Todd and Low, 1967, U.S. G e o l . Survey P r o f . Paper 573-A , p i . 1 5 , f i g . 9 ; Sm i t h , 1973 , U.S. G e o l . Survey P r o f . Paper 706 , p l . 4 f i g . 4 ; Non i on i na scapha ( F i c h t e l and M o l l ) , of Cushman, 1913, U.S. Na t . Mus. B u l l . 71 , p t . 4 , p i . 1 5 , f i g . l , p i . 1 6 , f i g .3 ,4 Nonion scaphum ( F i c h t e l and M o l l ) , of B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 1 0 9 , f i g . 1 4 , 1 5 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t p l a n i s p i r a l i n v o l u t e , s ymme t r i c a l r a p i d l y e n l a r g i n g chabmbers g i v i n g f l a r i n g t e s t , l a s t chamber b r oad , not c o v e r i n g u m b i l i c a l r e g i o n , t r i a n g u l a r f a c e ; wa l l smooth, f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e low a rch over p e r i p h e r y . Remarks: Not Dawson's s p e c i e s wh ich shows the two l o be s of the f i n a l chamber coming down over the u m b i l i c u s and p r e v i o u s w h o r l s . Genus: P u l l e n i a Pa r ke r and Jones i n C a r p e n t e r , Pa r ke r and J o n e s , 1862 181 P u l l e n i a b u l l o i d e s ( d ' O r b i g n y ) FTTT f i g s .3 ,4 Non i on i na b u l l o i d e s d ' O r b i g n y , 1846, F o r a m i n i f e r e s f o s s i l s d u b a s s i n t e r t i a i r e de V i e nne , Gide et Comp., P a r i s , p .107 , p l . 5 , f i g . 9 - 1 0 . P u l l e n i a b u l l o i d e s ( d ' O r b i g n y ) , Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t hea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , U n i v . Wash . , p l . 2 1 , f i g . 1 3 - 1 6 ; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p l.84, f i g . 1 2 , 1 3 . 125 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t s p h e r o i d a l , p l a n i s p i r a l i n v o l u t e , 5 chambers in l a s t w h o r l , s u t u r e s r a d i a l , f l u s h or s l i g h t l y d ep r e s s ed ; wa l l smooth, p o l i s h e d ; a p e r t u r e t h i n s l i t u m b i l i c u s to u m b i l i c u s , b a s a l l y i n f a ce of l a s t chamber. 182 P u l l e n i a s u b c a r i n a t a ( d ' O r b i g n y ) P u11e n i a (Noni on i na) s u b c a r i n a t a ( d ' O r b i g n y ) , of S m i t h , U . S .G . S . P r o f . Paper 706, p i . 4 , f i g . 9 ; P u l l e n i a (Noni on i na) qu i nque l oba ( R e u s s ) , of I n g l e et a l . , 1980, M i c r o p a l e o . v . 2 6 ( 2 ) , p i . 5 , f i g . 8 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t p l a n i s p i r a l , compressed , i n v o l u t e , s y m m e t r i c a l , s l i g h t l y l o b a t e p e r i p h e r y , 5-6 c h ambe r s /who r l , s u t u r e s s l i g h t l y dep res sed and c u r v e d ; wa l l smooth, f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e : a p e r t u r e c r e s c e n t i c s l i t u m b i l i c u s to umb i l cus over p e r i p h e r y . 183 P u l l e n i a sp . P u l l e n i a s p . 2, Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t h ea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p i . 2 1 , f i g . 1 1 , 1 2 . P u l l e n i a s a l i s b u r y i R .E .and K.C. S t e w a r t , of Bergen and O ' N e i l , 1979, J . P a l e o . , v . 5 3 , n .6 , p i . 3 , f i g . 1 8 ; p i . 4 , f i g . 1 2 , 1 3 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t p l a n i s p i r a l , compressed , i n v o l u t e , s y m m e t r i c a l , 6 chambers , very s l i g h t l y l o b a t e p e r i p h e r y , s u t u r e s s l i g h t l y dep ressed and c u r v e d , a p e r t u r a l f a ce rounded (not peaked ) ; wa l l smooth, f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a l p e r t u r e a p e r i p h e r a l s l i t u m b i l i c u s to u m b i l c u s , h i g h e s t over p e r i p h e r y . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s i s s i m i l a r to P. s a l i s b u r y i excep t the l a t t e r i s f i g u r e d w i t h a nar rower peaked a p e r t u r a l f a c e . F a m i l y : A l a bam i n i d a e H o f k e r , 1951 Genus: G y r o i d i n a d ' O r b i g n y , 1826 184 Gy ro i d i na i o R e s i g TT72. fTg sTTO ,11 ,12 Gy ro i d i na i d R e s i g , 1958 , M i c r o p a l e o . v . 4 ( 3 ) , p .304 , t . f . l b a - c ; ~ U c h i o, 1960, Cush . F d . Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 5 , p i . 8 , f i g . 1 6 - 1 8 . 126 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t t r o c h o s p i r a l , s p i r a l s i d e f l a t , e v o l u t e , u m b i l i c a l s i d e convex i n v o l u t e , 9/10 chambers / w h o r l , 2 1/2 w h o r l s ; wa l l smooth, h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e , t h i n basa l e q u a t o r i a l s l i t between l a s t chamber and p r e v i ous w h o r l . 185 Gy ro i d i na n e o s o l d a n i i B r o t z e n G y r o i d i n a n e o s o l d a n i i B r o t z e n , 1936, Sweden, S v e r . G e o l . Unde r s . A v h . , S e r . C , n .396 , p .158 , ( f i g . f rom B rady , Repor t C h a l l e n g e r Exped. p i . 1 0 7 , f i g . 6 , 7 ; B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 1 0 7 , f i g . 6 , 7 ; I n g l e et a l . , 1980, M i c r o p a l e o . v . 2 6 ( 2 ) , p . 7 , f i g . 1 0 , 1 1 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t t r o c h o s p i r a l , p l a n o - c o n v e x , s p i r a l s i d e e v o l u t e , f l a t , u m b i l i c a l s i d e ve ry convex , i n v o l u t e , l a s t chamber w i t h broad f l a t a p e r t u r a l f a c e , s u t u r e s r a d i a l t o s l i g h t l y c u r v e d , s u t u r e s i n d i s t i n c t ; w a l l smooth, p o l i s h e d , h e a v i l y c a l c i f i e d o b s c u r r i n g m o r p h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s ; a p e r t u r e narrow basa l e q u a t o r i a l s l i t between l a s t chamber and p r e v i o u s w h o r l . 186 Gy ro i d i na sp . A Gy ro i d i na ( R o t a l i na) 1amarck i ana ( d ' O r b i b n y ) , of S m i t h , 1973, U . S .G . S . P r o f . Paper 706, p i . 4 f i g . 7 . Gy ro i d i na c f . G. 1amarck i ana ( d ' O r b i g n y ) , of Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of Forami n i f e r a i n the No r t h e a s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p i . 1 4 , f i g . 7 ,8 , 1 4 , 1 5 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t t r o c h o s p i r a l , rounded p e r i p h e r y , u m b i l i c a l s i d e convex , i n v o l u t e , 7 chambers , s p i r a l s i d e e v o l u t e , 2 w h o r l s , very s l i g h t l y convex ; w a l l smooth , ve ry f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e , low basa l e q u a t o r i a l a r ch i n a p e r t u r a l f a c e . Remarks: T h i s s p e c i e s does not c o r r e s pond w i t h t he d i s t i n c t l y b iumbonate spec imen o r i g i n a l l y f i g u r e d by d ' O r b i gny. Genus: O r i d o r s a l i s , Ande r son , 1961 187 O r i d o r s a l i s umbonatus (Reuss) PTT3 f Tg s . 7 , 8 , 9 R o t a l i n a umbonatus Reuss , 1851 , Deut . G e o l . G e s . , Ze i tschr.~, Bd . 3 , p .75 , p i . 5 , f i g . 3 5 . T r u n c a t u l i n a t e n e r a B rady , 1884, Rept . C h a l l e n g e r E x p e d . , Z o o l . , p t . 2 2 , v . 9 , p .665 , p i . 9 5 , f i g . 1 1 . Pseudoepon ides umbonatus ( R e u s s ) , U c h i o , 1960, Cush . Fd . Foram. Res . Spec . P u b l . 5 , p i . 8 , f i g . 2 6 - 2 8 ; Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t h ea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p i . 1 4 , f i g . 5 , 6 . O r i d o r s a l i s t e n e r a ( B r a d y ) , I ng l e et a l . , 1980, M i c r o p a l e o . v . 2 6 ( 2 ) , p i . 5 , f i g . 5 , 6 . 127 S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Test t r o c h o s p i r a l , low s p i r e on e v o l u t e s p i r a l s i d e , s t r o n g l y convex on i n v o l u t e u m b i l i c a t e s i d e ; wa l l s t r o n g l y c a l c i f i e d on s p i r a l s i d e o b s c u r i n g a l l but gene ra l morpho lgy ; a p e r t u r e low basa l e q u a t o r i a l s l i t between l a s t chamber and p r e v i o u s w h o r l , seconda ry a p e r t u r e ( s ) on s p i r a l s i d e near j u n c t i o n s p i r a l s e p t a l s u t u r e s . Remarks: Does not have t r u e e l o nga t e a p e r t u r e o f O r i d o r s a l i s ; however, l a t e o n t o g e n e t i c s t ages have secondary a p e r t u r e s . E a r l y o n t o g e n e t i c s t ages have been p l a c ed w i t h i n a v a r i e t y of gene ra . F a m i l y : Anoma l i n i d ae Cushman, 1927 S u b f a m i l y : Anoma l i n i n ae Cushman, 1927 Genus: C i b i c i d o i d e s Tha lmann, 1939 188 C i b i c i d o i d e s k u l l e n b e r g i , ( P a r k e r ) PT74" F i g s . 11,12 C i b i c i d e s k u l l e n b e r g i P a r k e r , 1953, Swedish Deep Sea Exped . 1947-48 , R e p t s . , v . 7 , n . i , p .49 , p l . l l , f i g . 7 -8 ; Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t h e a s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p i . 1 7 , f i g . 3 ,4 , 8 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t low t r o c h o s p i r a l , rounded p e r i p h e r y , u m b i l i c a l s i d e p a r t i a l l y e v o l u t e , 3 w h o r l s , 12 chambers i n l a s t w h o r l , s u t u r e s d i s t i n c t , d ep r e s s ed ; wa l l on s p i r a l s i d e dense l y p e r f o r a t e , very f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e u m b i l i c a l l y , c o l o u r y e l l o w o range ; a p e r t u r e low arch w i t h s l i g h t l y r a i s e d l i p , at the p e r i p h e r y and s l i g h t l y e x t e n d i n g onto s p i r a l s i d e . Genus: Me l on i s De M o n t f o r t , 1808 189 Me l on i s p o m p i l i o i d e s ( F i c h t e l and M o l l ) FTTT f i g . 1 0 , 1 3 N a u t i l u s p o m p i l i o i d e s F i c h t e l and M o l l , 1798, T e s t a c ea m i c ro s copTa a l i q u e mi nut a ex gene r i bu s A rgnoau ta et N a u t i l u s , Wien , Cames ina , p . 3 1 , p l . 2 , f i g . a - c . Non i on ( ? ) p o m p i l i o i d e s ( F i c h t e l and M o l l ) , B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p i . 1 0 9 , f i g . 1 0 , 1 1 . Me l o n i s p o m p i l i o i d e s ( F i c h t e l and M o l l ) , Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t h ea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p i . 1 0 , f i g . 2 1 , 2 2 ; I ng l e et a l . , 1980, M i c r o p a l e o . v . 2 6 ( 2 ) , p .9 , f i g . 1 4 , 1 5 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t p l a n i s p i r a l , s y m m e t r i c a l , 128 i n v o l u t e , deep l y b i u m b i 1 i c a t e , h a l f as broad as l o n g ; wa l l t h i c k , very c o a r s e l y p e r f o r a t e , s u t u r e s f l u s h and i n d i s t i n c t ; a p e r t u r e c r e s c e n t i c s l i t over p e r i p h e r y u m b i l i c u s to u m b i l i c u s . Remarks: Th i s form has l e s s b read th than the d e s c r i b e d M. pompi1 i o i des ; however, i t does have the random coa r s e p e r f o r a t i o n s . Th i s may be a g r a d a t i o n a l form between M. p o m p i 1 i o i d e s and M. zaandamae. Spec imens from the SE. I nd i an Ocean have the same g r a d a t i o n of w id th ( C o r l i s s , B . H . , 1977, J . F o r a m . Res. v . 9 ( 1 ) , p . 50 - 60 . Anoma l i n o i d e s bar leeanum ( W i l l i a m s o n ) v a r . zaandamae Van V o o r t h u y s e n , 1952, J . P a l e o . v . 2 6 ( 4 ) , p . 681 . Nonion zaandamae (van V o o r t h u y s e n ) , L o e b l i c h and Tappan, S m i t h . M i s c . C o l l . 121, p .87 , p l . 1 6 , f i g . 1 1 , 1 2 ; V i l k s , 1969, M i c r o p a l e o . v . 1 5 ( 1 ) , p l . 3 , f i g . 2 1 . G a v e l i n o n i o n bar leeanum ( W i l l i a m s o n ) , B a r k e r , 1960, Soc . Econ . P a l e o . M i n . Spec . P u b l . 9 , p l . 1 0 9 , f i g . 8 . Nonion b a r l e a n u s ( W i l l i a m s o n ) , Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t hea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p l . 1 0 , f i g . 1 8 . Me l on i s bar leeanum ( W i l l i a m s o n ) , I ng l e et a l . , 1980, M i c r o p a l e o . v . 2 6 ( 2 ) , p . 113 -150 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t p l a n i s p i r a l , s y m m e t r i c a l l y i n v o l u t e , b i u m b i 1 i c a t e , 10-12 chambers per w h o r l , p e r i p h e r y smooth ly rounded , 2 to 3 t imes as l ong as b r o ad , s ep t a d o u b l e , s u t u r e s f l u s h ; wa l l d en se l y and c o a r s a e l y p e r f o r a t e , h y a l i n e to opaque w h i t e ; a p e r t u r e narrow c r e s c e n t i c s l i t u m b i l i c u s to u m b i l i c u s a l ong p e r i p h e r y at base of a p e r t u r a l f a c e . ? P u11e n i a s p . l Enbysk , 1960 , D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t h e a s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , U n i v . Wash . , p 1 . 2 1 , f i g . 7 , 8 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t p l a n i s p i r a l , s y m m e t r i c a l , i n v o l u t e , p e r i p h e r y rounded or very s l i g h t l y l o b a t e , 8 chambers per w h o r l ; wa l l smooth, very f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e , p a r t i a l l y h y a l i n e ; a p e r t u r e basa l s l i t u m b i l i c u s t o umbi1 i c u s . Remarks: Th i s s p e c i e s i s very s i m i l a r to P. e l egans Cushman and Todd, but l a c k s the l o b a t e p e r i p h e r y ; and has 8 not 7 chambers . The SEM photograph shows secondary a p e r t u r e s ? between chambers on l a t e r a l f a ce s of t e s t . 190 Me lon i s zaandamae (van PT71 F i g s . 1 3 , 1 4 191 MeTonis sp . P I . 5 f i g s . 8 , 9 129 192 Hoeg lund ina b r ad y i Ga l l oway and W i s s l e r PI .4 f T g T . 3 , 4 , 5 E p i s t om i n a b r ady i Ga l l oway and W i s s l e r , 1927, J . P a l e o . V j _ l , p. 60, pi . 10, f i g . 1. Hoeg lund ina b r ady i (Ga l l oway and W i s s l e r ) , Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a in the No r t h ea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash. , p i . 1 4 , f i g . 3 , 4 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t t r o c h o s p i r a l , b i c o n v e x , s p i r a l s i d e s t r o n g l y convex , i n v o l u t e , 7 chambers in l a s t w h o r l , p e r i p h e r y c a r i n a t e , s u t u r e s t h i c k e n e d o b l i q u e s p i r a l s i d e , n e a r l y r a d i a l u m b i l i c a l l y ; wa l l smooth, very f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e ; a p e r t u r e ( p r ima r y ) wide s l i t i n chamber f a ce near s p i r a l s i d e and p a r a l l e l to s u t u r e between a p e r t u r a l f a c e and p r e v i o u s w h o r l , ( s e conda ry ) 1 a t e r o - m a r g i n a l a p e r t u r e in each chamber w i t h f o rwa rd hook, s e c o n d a r i l y c l o s e d . F a m i l y : R o b e r t i n i d a e Reuss , 1850 Genus: d ' O r b i g n y , 1846 193 Robe r t i n a c h a r ! o t t e n s i s (Cushman) C a s s i d u l i n a c h a r ! o t t e n s i s Cushman, 1925, C o n t r . Cush . Lab. Form. Res . v . l n . l l , p . 4 1 , p i . 6 , f i g . 6 , 7 . R o b e r t i no i des (?) c h a r ! o t t e n s i s (Cushman), L o e b l i c h and Tappan, 1953, S m i t h . M i s c . C o l l . v . 1 2 1 , n . 7 , p i . 2 0 , f i g . 6 , 7 . R o b e r t i n a c h a r ! o t t e n s i s (Cushman), Enbysk , 1960, D i s t r i b u t i o n of F o r a m i n i f e r a i n the No r t hea s t P a c i f i c , PhD. T h e s i s , Un i v . Wash . , p i . 1 1 , f i g . l . R o b e r t i n a c a l i f o r n i c a Cushman and P a r k e r , 1936, C o n t r . Cush. Lab. Foram. Res. v . 1 2 ( 4 ) , p .97 , p i . 1 6 , f i g . 1 4 . S y n o p t i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Tes t h igh t r o c h o s p i r a l , numerous c h ambe r s /who r l , l a r g e broad f l a t a p e r t u r a l f a c e ; w a l l t h i n smooth, h y l i n e ; a p e r t u r e s i n g l e s l i t up l a s t chamber f a c e . 130 APPENDIX B ALPHABETICAL LIST OF SPECIES 6 Ammodiscus p l a n o r b i s 7 Ammodiscus sp . 35 Ammomassi1ina? s p . 18 Ammosphaero id ina s p h a e r o i d i n i f o r m i s 38 A s t a c o l u s c f . A. h y a l a c r u l u s 39 A s t a c o l u s sp . 178 A s t r o n o n i o n ? c f . A. b i k i n i e n s i s 3 Ba t h y s i phon r u f u s 4 Ba thy s i phon sp . 16 B i g e n e r i n a sp . 132 B r i z a l i n a p a c i f i c a P I . 4 f i g s . 6 , 7 133 B r i z a l i n a p e i r s o n a e 134 B r i z a l i n a subdepressa 135 B r i z a l i n a sp . P I . 5 f i g s . 1 0 , 1 1 152 B u c e l l a f r i g i d a 137 B u l i m i n a ba r ba t a 138 B u l i m i n a mexicana 139 B u l i m i n a r o s t r a t a P I . 3 f i g s . 1 1 , 1 2 130 B u l i m i n e l l a e l e g a n t i s s i m a 174 C a s s i d u l i n a cushmani P I . 4 f i g s . 9 , 1 0 136 C a s s i d u l i n o i d e s t e n u i s 177 Chi 1ostomel1 a o o l i n a 173 C i b i c i d e s sp . 188 C i b i c i d o i d e s k u l l e n b e r g i P I . 4 f i g s . 1 1 , 1 2 15 Cyclammina c a n c e l l a t a 23 C y c l o g y r a sp . 40 D e n t a l i n a c f . D. ca lomorpha 41 D e n t a l i n a paupe ra ta 42 D e n t a l i n a ? sp.A 43 D e n t a l i n a sp .B 44 D e n t a l i na sp . C 19 D o r o t h i a b r a d y i 20 E g g e r e l l a pa r ke r ae 175 Eh renbe rg i na t r i g o n a P I . 3 f i g s . 5 , 6 171 E i l o h e d r a l e v i c u l a P I . 2 f i g s . l t o 3 153 E p i s t o m i n e l 1 a ex i gua 169 Epon ides t um i du l u s h o r v a t h i P I . 5 f i g s . l to 3 170 Epon ides sp . 90 F i s s u r i n a c f . F. a l v e a t a 91 F i s s u r i n a a l v e o l a t a 92 F i s s u r i n a a p i c u l a t a p u n c t u l a t a 93 F i s s u r i n a c f . F. k e r g u e l e n e n s i s 94 F i s s u r i n a c f . F. l u c i d a 95 F i s s u r i n a ? ma rg i na t a 96 F i s s u r i n a o rb i gnyana 97 F i s s u r i n a r a d i a t a 131 98 F i s s u r i n a seguenz i ana 99 F i s s u r i n a c f . F. s p i n 100 F i s s u r i n a sp . A 101 F i s s u r i n a sp . B 102 F i s s u r i n a sp . C 103 F i s s u r i n a sp . D 104 F i s s u r i n a sp . E 105 F i s s u r i n a sp . F 106 F i s s u r i n a sp . G 107 F i s s u r i n a sp . H 108 F i s s u r i n a sp . I 109 F i s s u r i n a sp . J 110 F i s s u r i n a sp . L 111 F i s s u r i n a sp . N 112 F i s s u r i n a sp . 0 113 F i s s u r i n a sp . P 114 F i s s u r i n a sp . Q 115 F i s s u r i n a sp . R 116 F i s s u r i n a sp . S 117 F i s s u r i n a sp . T 118 F i s s u r i n a sp . U 119 F i s s u r i n a sp . V 120 F i s s u r i n a sp . X 179 F l o r i l u s sp . A 180 F l o r i l u s sp . B 161 G l o b i g e r i n a b u l l o i d e s P l . l f i g s . 4 , 5 162 G l o b i g e r i n a qu i nque l oba P l . l f i g s . 1 0 , 1 1 167 G l o b i g e r i n i t a g l u t i n a t a 168 G l o b i g e r i n i t a ? uvu l a P l . l f i g . 3 140 G l o b o b u l i m i n a h oeg l u nd i ? 141 G l o b o b u l i m i n a p a c i f i c a 176 G l o b o c a s s i d u l i n a sp . P1.2 f i g . 1 3 to 15 163 G l oboquad r i n a d u t e r t r e i 164 G l oboquad r i n a hexagona 165 G l oboquad r i n a pachyderma P l . l f i g s . 1 , 2 160 G l o b o r o t a l i a s c i t u l a P l . l f i g s . 7 to 9 184 G y r o i d i n a i o P1 .2 f i g s . 1 0 to 12 185 G y r o i d i n a n e o s o l d a n i i 186 G y r o i d i n a sp . 13 Hap lophragmoides s p h a e r i 1 o c u l u s 159 H e r o n a l 1 e n i a ? sp . 192 Hoeg lund ina b r ady i P l . 4 f i g s . 3 to 5 21 K a r r e r i e l l a sp . P1 .5 f i g . 7 45 Lagena c f . L. a u r i g l o b o s a 46 Lagena c a t e n u l a 47 Lagena d i s toma 48 Lagena e l o n g a t a 49 Lagena f o v e o l a t a paradoxa 50 Lagena g i b be r a 51 Lagena g r a c i l i s 52 Lagena g r a c i l l i m a 132 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 68 65 66 22 33 189 190 191 Lagena h i s p i d u l a Lagena l a e v i s Lagena l a e v i s v a r . Lagena meri d i o n a l i s Lagena m o l l i s Lagena nebu losa Lagena s t e l l i g e r a Lagena s u b s t r i a t a Lagena s u l c a t a a p i c u l a t a Lagena sp . A Lagena sp . B Lagena sp . C La ryngos igma c f . L. h y a l a s c i d i a L e n t i c u l i n a convergens L e n t i c u l i n a sp . M a r t i n o t t i e l 1 a sp . M i l i o l i n e l 1 a? sp . Me l on i s p o m p i l i o i d e s MeIon i s zaandamae Me l on i s sp . P I . 5 P I . 3 f i g s . 1 0 P I . 3 f i g s . 1 4 , 1 5 f i g s . 8 , 9 13 36 Nodosa r i a ? sp.A 37 Nodosa r i a ? SP.B 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 166 187 122 123 121 124 125 126 0o Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo Oo 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na 1 i na b o r e a l i s c f . 0. b o t e l 1 i f o rm i s desmophora g l obosa g l obosa s e t o s a hexagona 1 i n e a t a ? mel o c f . 0. s e a l a r i f o r m i s - s u l c a t a seminuda s t r i a t o - p u n c t a t a t r i c o s t a sp . sp . sp . sp . sp . sp . sp . sp . sp . sp . A B C D E F G H I J O r b u l i n a u n i v e r s a PI O r i d o r s a l i s umbonatus 1 f i g PI .3 6 f i gs . 7 to 9 P a r a f i s s u r i na P a r a f i s s u r i na P a r a f i s s u r i na P a r a f i s s u r i na P a r a f i s s u r i na P a r a f i s s u r i na b i con i c o f o rm i s f u s u l i f o r m i s k e r g u e l e n e n s i s 1 a t e r a l i s c f . P. neocu r t a sp . A 133 127 128 129 172 67 181 182 183 28 29 30 31 P a r a f i s s u r i n a sp . B P a r a f i s s u r i n a sp . C P a r a f i s s u r i n a sp . F P l a n u l i n a w u e l 1 e r s t o r f i Polymorph! ' na sp . P u l l e n i a b u l l o i d e s s u b c a r i na ta sp . P P u l l e n i a P u l 1 e n i a Pyrgo c f . Pyrgo sp . Py rgoe l1 a P y rgoe l 1 a sp sp murrh i na A ,B 24 Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a sp .A 25 Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a sp.B 26 Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a sp.C 27 Q u i n q u e l o c u l i n a sp.D P l . 4 f i g s . 1 , 2 P l . 3 f i g s . 1 , 2 P1.5 f i g . 6 8 Reophax g u t t i f e r 9 Reophax l o n g i c o l l i s 10 Reophax nodu losus 11 Reophax? sp . 1 Rhabdammina? sp . 2 Rhizammina sp . 193 R o b e r t i n a c h a r l o t t e n s i s 5 Saccammina s p h a e r i c a 34 S c u t u l o r i s sp . 131 S p h a e r o i d i n a b u l l o i d e s P l . 3 f i g s . 1 , 2 12 Sp i r o l o cammina? t e n u i s 142 S t a i n f o r t h i a comp lanata P l . 4 f i g . 8 143 S t a i n f o r t h i a c f . S. ro tunda 144 S t a i n f o r t h i a seminuda 14 Thaimannammina sp . 151 T r i f a r i n a f l u e n s 32 T r i l o c u l i n a f r i g i d a 17 Trochammina sp . 145 U v i g e r i n a aube r i a na 146 U v i g e r i n a j uncea 147 U v i g e r i n a p e r e g r i n a d i s r u p t a 148 U v i g e r i n a s e n t i c o s a P1.2 f i g s . 4 to 9 149 U v i g e r i n a sp . A 150 U v i g e r i n a sp . B 154 V a l v u l i n e r i a ? a r c t i c a P1.5 f i g s . 4 , 5 155 V a l v u l i n e r i a c f . V. g l a b r a 156 V a l v u l i n e r i a sp . A 157 V a l v u l i n e r i a sp . B 158 V a l v u l i n e r i a sp . C 134 APPENDIX C TENTATIVE LATE PLEISTOCENE BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC MARKER P l a t e 6 f i g . l D e s c r i p t i o n : The above form has been i d e n t i f i e d as a ' c y s t ' o f an a l g a l P r a s i n o p h y t e : Pachysphaera sp . (Dr . G. Rouse, p e r s . comm.). I t i s 156 y i n d i ameter , t r a n s p a r e n t and c l e a r to y e l l o w i n c o l o u r w i t h a s i n g l e s l i t o p en i n g . None were found s t i l l ' e n c y s t e d 1 . Some of the p e r f o r a t i o n s which are v i s i b l e i n the SEM photograph do p i e r c e the ' c y s t ' . The form i s un touched by d i l u t e HC1 and i s b e l i e v e d to be composed of a complex l i p o i d w i t h l i t t l e or no c e l l u l o s e ( W a l l , D. , 1962, Ev idence from Recent P l a n k t on Rega rd inq the B i o l o g i c a l A f f i n i t e s of Tasmani t es Newton 1875 and L e i o s p h a e r i d i a E i s enack 1958, G e o l . Mag, v . 9 9 ( 4 ) , p . 353 -362 . *P l e a se no te : Pachysphaera sp . has been r e f e r r e d to as a ' d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c y s t " i n l i n e P, Tab le 3. 135 APPENDIX D COMPARISON OF BATHYMETRIC DEPTH ZONES Bergen and 0 'Ne i 1 , 1979 N e r i t i c i n n e r 0 • - 50 m. m idd le 49 -• 100 ou t e r 100 -- 200 Ba thya l upper 200 -• 600 m idd l e 600 -• 1,600 1 ower 1,600 - 2 , 625 Enbysk , 1960 N e r i t i c upper and m idd l e 0 - 50m. l ower 50 - 200 Ba thya l upper 200 - 500 mid 500 - 1000 l ower 1000 - 2000 Lower ab y s s a l below 2800 m. I ng l e et a l . , 1980 S h e l f 0 -190 m. Ba thya l upper 190 - 800 upper m idd le 800 - 1800 lower m idd l e 1800 - 2550 l ower 2550 - 4500 Aby s sa l be low 4500 m. 136 APPENDIX E RADIOCARBON DATING The 1 4 C dates d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s paper were o b t a i n ed by R. Cook, Dept . G e o l . S c i . , U .B .C . f r om: D i c a r b R a d i o i s o t o p e L a b o r a t o r y 16432 Stone R idge Rd. Chag r i n F a l l s , Ohio 44022 The samples were from Core 51, i t ' s l o c a t i o n and h i s t o r y are l i s t e d i n Tab l e s 1 and 2. D i c a r b #1539 - f r om 0-12 cm. -20 gms. dry we ight c o n t a i n i n g sand and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 gms. of f o r a m i n i f e r a mos t l y G l oboquad r i na pachyderma - t he date o b t a i n e d was 19,000 BP +840/-930 y r s . D i c a r b #1540 - f r om 79-82 cm. -22 gms. dry we ight c o n t a i n i n g sand and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 gms. of f o r a m i n i f e r a mos t l y G l oboquad r i na pachyderma - t he date o b t a i n ed was 23,660 BP +13507-1620 y r s . 

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