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Late Devonian conodont biostratigraphy of the Earn Group with age constraints for stratiform mineral… Irwin, Steven Edward Bruce 1990

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LATE DEVONIAN CONODONT BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE EARN GROUP WITH AGE CONSTRAINTS FOR STRATIFORM MINERAL DEPOSITS, SELWYN AND KECHIKA BASINS, NORTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA AND YUKON By STEVEN EDWARD BRUCE IRWIN B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J a n u a r y 1990 © Steven Edward Bruce I r w i n , 1990 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the l i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of G e o l o g i c a l Sciences The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada ABSTRACT Devonian and E a r l y Carboniferous marine c l a s t i c rocks of the Earn Group host s e v e r a l economically important s t r a t i f o r m massive sulphide and bedded b a r i t e d e p o s i t s . Due to the c h a o t i c sedimentation, c o n s i d e r a b l e r e g i o n a l metamorphic o v e r p r i n t and, r e l a t i v e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y , l i t t l e was known about the s t r a t i g r a p h y , the Late Devonian conodont fauna, or the age of the s t r a t i f o r m mineral d e p o s i t s w i t h i n the Earn Group. Conodont m i c r o f o s s i l s , however, are an e x c e l l e n t fauna f o r an Earn Group b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y program because of t h e i r a b i l i t y to withstand both temperatures i n excess of 400° C, and s i g n i f i c a n t p h y s i c a l s t r e s s . With standard l a b o r a t o r y techniques conodonts were r e a d i l y e x t r a c t e d from f i n e g r a i n calcareous e l a s t i c s and carbonate lenses w i t h i n the Earn Group. The conodonts are described from three s p e c i f i c areas where the Earn Group i s known to host s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c mineral d e p o s i t s : Macmillan Pass, Midway, and Gataga. As the m a j o r i t y of conodonts were div e r s e and w e l l preserved p l a t f o r m elements of the genus Palmatolepis, the taxonomic s t u d i e s focused on t h i s genus; other genera i n c l u d i n g A n c y r o d e l l a , I c r i o d u s , K l a p p e r i n a , Mesotaxis, and Polygnathus were examined as p a r t of the b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c / t a x o n o m i c s t u d i e s . Previous to t h i s study the widespread s t r a t i f o r m m i n e r a l i z a t i o n was dated as only Late Devonian. The conodont taxonomy and i i bios tra t igraphy i n the Earn Group provide age cons tra ints for durat ion and formation of the s tra t i form m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . The a b i l i t y to t i g h t l y constra in the age of the s trat i form m i n e r a l i z a t i o n adds to the knowledge of Earn Group depos i t ion , the paleogeography of the Selwyn and Kechika Basins , and has impl i ca t ions for s t r a t i f o r m mineral explorat ion s t ra teg ie s i n the Earn Group. On the basis of conodont faunal ages b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n at MACMILLAN PASS apparently occurs as three d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s : 1) CATHY property - E i f e l i a n to ear ly Frasnian; 2) PETE, JEFF, GARY, and GHMS propert ies - middle to la te Frasnian; 3) TEA property -E a r l y Carboniferous. In add i t ion , b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c minera l i za t ion at TOM and JASON propert ies l i k e l y occurs during middle to late Frasn ian . In the GATAGA area bar i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n have been recognized at several temporal ly d i s t i n c t l e v e l s i n the ear ly to middle Famennian: 1) Lower rhomboidea Zone; 2) Lower margini fera Zone; 3) Upper margini fera Zone. Several other mineral ized horizons are loosely constrained wi th in the same i n t e r v a l . Within the MIDWAY area the s t r a t i f o r m bar i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n at the EWEN and PERRY propert i e s i s of Ear ly Carboniferous, Tournais ian age, and corre la tes broadly with the TEA b a r i t e i n the Macmillan Pass area. In summary, events that produced s tra t i form b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c and b a r i t e minera l i za t ion i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins were not coeval . The Late Give t ian and ear ly Frasnian b a r i t e minera l i za t ion took p l a c e i n the Macmillan Pass and southernmost Gataga areas. During the middle F r a s n i a n b a r i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d z i n c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n events occurred a t Macmillan Pass. Several episodes of b a r i t e and/or b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n occurred i n the Gataga area during the middle Famennian. The youngest b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n events i n the Earn Group took place i n the E a r l y Carboniferous, Tournaisian time a t Macmillan Pass and Midway. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Table of Contents v L i s t of Tables ix L i s t of Figures and Plates x Acknowledgements x i i I. INTRODUCTION 1 A. Purpose and Scope 1 B. Regional Geology 5 C. Stratiform Mineral Deposits 9 D. Methods 13 I I . UPPER DEVONIAN CONODONTS 16 A. Taxonomy 16 B. Zonation 2 0 C. Biofacies 23 D. Previous Work in Western Canada 2 6 I I I . REGIONAL CASE STUDIES 32 A. Macmillan Pass 37 1. Geological Setting 37 2. Stratigraphy 38 3. Biostratigraphy 43 B. Midway 52 1. Geological Setting 52 2. Stratigraphy 53 3. Biostratigraphy 58 C. Gataga 63 1. Geological Setting 63 2. Stratigraphy 65 3. Biostratigraphy 7 0 v I I I . REGIONAL CASE STUDIES cont'd D. Synthesis 81 1. Macmillan Pass 81 2. Midway 85 3. Gataga 88 4. Selwyn and Kechika Basins Overview 91 IV. CONCLUSIONS 94 V. SYSTEMATIC CONODONT TAXONOMY 104 An c y r o d e l l a 106 An c y r o d e l l a binodosa 106 An c y r o d e l l a a f f . A. binodosa 108 An c y r o d e l l a curvata 108 A n c y r o d e l l a gigas 110 An c y r o d e l l a i o i d e s I l l An c y r o d e l l a l o b a t a 112 An c y r o d e l l a a f f . A. loba t a 113 An c y r o d e l l a nodosa 114 An c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a 115 Kla p p e r i n a 116 Kla p p e r i n a d i s p a r a l v e a 117 Kla p p e r i n a d i s p a r a t a 119 Kl a p p e r i n a d i s p a r i l i s 120 Kla p p e r i n a o v a l i s 121 Mesotaxis 12 3 Mesotaxis asymmetrica 12 3 Mesotaxis d e n g l e r i 125 Mesotaxis f a l s i o v a l i s 12 7 P a l m a t o l e p i s 129 Palma t o l e p i s c r e p i d a 13 0 P a l m a t o l e p i s d e l i c a t u l a 132 Palm a t o l e p i s d e l i c a t u l a c l a r k i 13 3 P a l m a t o l e p i s domanicensis 134 Palm a t o l e p i s f o l i a c e a 13 5 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a 137 Palm a t o l e p i s g l a b r a g l a b r a 139 Palm a t o l e p i s g l a b r a a f f . P. g. g l a b r a 139 Palm a t o l e p i s g l a b r a acuta 14 0 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a d i s t o r t a 14 2 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a l e p t a 14 3 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a l e p t a morphotype 1 144 Palm a t o l e p i s g l a b r a l e p t a morphotype 2 145 Palm a t o l e p i s g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a 146 Palma t o l e p i s g l a b r a a f f . P. g. p e c t i n a t a 148 Palm a t o l e p i s g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a morphotype 1 148 Palma t o l e p i s g l a b r a prima 149 Palma t o l e p i s g r a c i l i s 150 Palma t o l e p i s g r a c i l i s g r a c i l i s 151 Palma t o l e p i s h a s s i 153 v i V . SYSTEMATIC CONODONT TAXONOMY c o n t ' d Palmatolepis k l a p p e r i 154 Palmatolepis marginifera 156 Palmatolepis marginifera marginifera 156 Palmatolepis marginifera utahensis 158 Palmatolepis minuta 159 Palmatolepis minuta minuta 161 Palmatolepis minuta loba 162 Palmatolepis perlobata 163 Palmatolepis perlobata schindewolfi 164 Palmatolepis perlobata a f f . P. p. schindewolfi .... 166 Palmatolepis p o o l e i 167 Palmatolepis proversa 168 Palmatolepis punctata 169 Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa 171 Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa quadrantinodosa 172 Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa i n f l e x a 174 Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa inflexoidea 175 Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa n . s u b s p . A 177 Palmatolepis quadrantinodosalobata 178 Palmatolepis quadrantinodosalobata morphotype 1 . . . 179 Palmatolepis c f . P. reg u l a r i s 180 Palmatolepis rhenana 182 Palmatolepis rhomboidea 183 Palmatolepis rugosa 185 Palmatolepis rugosa trachytera 186 Palmatolepis rugosa a f f . P. r. trachytera 188 Palmatolepis s t o p p e l i 189 Palmatolepis subperlobata 190 Palmatolepis tenuipunctata 193 Palmatolepis transitans 195 Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s 196 Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i 198 Palmatolepis wolskajae 201 Palmatolepis s p . C O r c h a r d , 1988 2 02 Palmatolepis s p . B K l a p p e r & F o s t e r , 1986 203 Palmatolepis n . s p . A 203 Polygnathus 205 "Polygnathus" c r i s t a t u s 206 V I . BIBLIOGRAPHY 2 08 V I I . PLATES 226 v i i V I I I . APPENDICES 252 A. Macmillan Pass l o c a l i t i e s and sample i n f o r m a t i o n 1. G i v e t i a n - Frasnian 252 2. Famennian 266 B. Midway l o c a l i t i e s and sample information 1. Frasnian 273 2. Famennian 275 C. Gataga l o c a l i t i e s and sample information 1. G i v e t i a n - Frasnian 282 2. Famennian 287 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Table I . Age ranges of important G i v e t i a n and Frasnian conodont species and subspecies i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins 3 3 Table I I . Age ranges of important Famennian conodont species and subspecies i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins 35 Table I I I . D i s t r i b u t i o n of F r a s n i a n conodont species i n the Macmillan Pass area 242 Table IV. D i s t r i b u t i o n of F r a s n i a n conodont species i n the Midway and Gataga areas 244 Table V. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Famennian conodont species and subspecies i n the Macmillan Pass and Midway area 246 Table VI. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Famennian conodont species and subspecies i n the Gataga area 248 Table V I I . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Famennian conodont species and subspecies i n the Gataga area of northern B r i t i s h Columbia 250 i x LIST OF FIGURES AND PLATES Figure 1. Case study areas; Macmillan Pass, Midway, and Gataga, w i t h i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins 2 Figure 2. General ized western Canadian C o r d i l l e r a n terrane map 4 Figure 3. Regional Earn Group outcrop map with general locat ions of conodont sample s i t es 6 Figure 4. Late Devonian paleogeography of the Selwyn and Kechika Basin region 8 Figure 5. Late Devonian s tra t i form b a r i t e and b a r i t e -l e a d - z i n c - s i l v e r deposits i n western North American C o r d i l l e r a 10 Figure 6. The rev i sed in ternat iona l standard Late Devonian conodont zonation 2 0 Figure 7. C o r r e l a t i o n s of previous ly publ ished Late Devonian conodont b ios trat igraphy studies i n western Canada with Earn Group b ios trat igraphy 28 Figure 8. S t r a t i g r a p h i c sect ion across the Macmillan Pass area 40 Figure 9. General ized geologica l map of the Macmillan Pass Area with mineral explorat ion propert ies 41 Figure 10. A genera l i zed s t r a t i g r a p h i c sec t ion i n the Midway area 54 Figure 11. General ized geologica l map of the Midway Area with mineral explorat ion propert ies 55 Figure 12. A genera l i zed s t r a t i g r a p h i c sec t ion i n the Gataga Area 66 Figure 13. General ized geologica l map of the Gataga Area with mineral explorat ion propert ies 68 Figure 14. Age ranges for Givet ian , Frasnian , and Famennian faunas recognized i n the Macmillan Pass, Midway, and Gataga areas 8 3 Figure 15. T i m e - s t r a t i g r a p h i c chart for the Macmillan Pass, Midway, and Gataga areas 96 Figure 16. Ages of conodont faunas associated with s tra t i form b a r i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c i n the Macmillan Pass, Midway, and Gataga 99 x Figure 17. Standard orientation, morphology, and terminology of a t y p i c a l Palmatolepis specimen 105 PLATE 1. Frasnian Ancyrodella, Polygnathus, Icriodus, and Polylophodonta 226 PLATE 2. Frasnian Mesotaxis and Klapperina 228 PLATE 3. Frasnian Mesotaxis and Klapperina 230 PLATE 4. Frasnian Palmatolepis 232 PLATE 5. Frasnian and Famennian Palmatolepis 234 PLATE 6. Famennian Palmatolepis 236 PLATE 7. Famennian Palmatolepis glabra 238 PLATE 8. Famennian Palmatolepis 240 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The completion of t h i s t h e s i s i s due, i n large part, to the f i n a n c i a l support, encouragement, and guidance of my thesis advisor, Dr. Mike Orchard. I am gratef u l to Drs. M.J. Orchard, P.L. Smith, W.R. Danner, and G.E. Rouse for t h e i r patience and he l p f u l reviews of the manuscript. Thanks to the many people at the Geological Survey of Canada who provided valuable support during my project. A sp e c i a l thanks to Mr. P. Krauss for his patience and s k i l l with the SEM photo-micrography and laboratory work. The B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines, and Petroleum Resources supplied f i e l d support in the Midway area. Additional f i n a n c i a l support was provided by a Canada/British Columbia Mineral Development Agreement grant no. 5-55974 from the B r i t i s h Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines, and Petroleum Resources and by an NSERC operating grant, no. 581450. Many thanks to the many geologists, including G. Abbott, K. Dawson, S. Gordey, M. Insley, D. Maclntyre, W. Jakubowski, K. McClay, and J. Nelson who col l e c t e d Earn Group conodont samples. I would also l i k e to thank my family and friends f o r t h e i r support during my thesis project. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to dedicate this t h e s i s to the memory of my grandfather, William M. Kirkwood. x i i 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. PURPOSE AND SCOPE The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to investigate the Late Devonian conodont biostratigraphy of the Devono-Mississippian Earn Group and provide a biochronological framework for economically important sedimentary exhalative mineral deposits of the Selwyn and Kechika Basins. This study focuses on the biostratigraphy i n three areas with s t r a t i f o r m mineral deposits: Macmillan Pass, Gataga, and Midway ( f i g . 1) . Only broad age constraints were previously a v a i l a b l e f o r these deposits (Abbott, 1982; Maclntyre, 1982; Nelson & Bradford, 1987). Due to the complex li t h o s t r a t i g r a p h y of the Earn Group, which marks a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the basin depositional pattern, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to develop s t r a t i g r a p h i c correlations based on l i t h o l o g i e s . Recent conodont c o l l e c t i o n s from the Selwyn and Kechika Basins (map areas 1050, P, K, J, I, A; 1040, P, I; 94F, K, L), ( f i g . 2) provide the pot e n t i a l for a biochronological framework to a i d i n understanding the depositional history of the Earn Group. Furthermore, conodonts provide t i g h t e r age constraints for the deposition, frequency, and duration of Late Devonian sedimentary exhalative mineral deposits. The t i g h t e r age constraints for these deposits may a s s i s t i n exploration for, and development of such deposits. 2 F i g u r e 1. Case study areas; Macmillan Pass, Midway, and Gataga, w i t h i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins, northern B r i t i s h Columbia, southeastern Yukon, and southwestern North West T e r r i t o r i e s . Black areas d e l i n e a t e Earn Group outcrop areas w i t h i n the basins (outcrop areas adapted from Wheeler & McFeely, 1987, b a s i n and p l a t f o r m o u t l i n e s adapted from G a b r i e l s e & Yorath, 1989). I n t r o d u c t i o n / 3 In order t o e s t a b l i s h a sound b i o c h r o n o l o g i c a l framework, d e t a i l e d taxonomic d e s c r i p t i o n of the Frasnian and Famennian conodont faunas i s necessary. This study represents the f i r s t d e t a i l e d taxonomic d e s c r i p t i o n of Late Devonian conodonts i n the e p i c r a t o n i c s t r a t a of Western Canada. Taxonomic work focused on the important Late Devonian conodont genus Pal m a t o l e p i s ; a s s o c i a t e d genera i n c l u d e A n c y r o d e l l a , I c r i o d u s , Klapperina, Mesotaxis, and Polygnathus. The study i n v o l v e s the t e s t i n g of the e x i s t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l Late Devonian "standard" zonation scheme developed i n Germany by Z i e g l e r (1962), m o d i f i e d by Sandberg & Z i e g l e r (1973), Z i e g l e r , Klapper, & Johnson (1976), Z i e g l e r & Klapper (1982), and Z i e g l e r & Sandberg (1984) and s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d worldwide. Frasnian r e v i s i o n s presented r e c e n t l y by Klapper (1988) and Klapper & Lane (1988), Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck (1989) are a l s o featured. This t h e s i s addresses three main problems: 1) Given t h a t the mineral deposits a t Macmillan Pass, Gataga, and Midway are s t r a t i f o r m , can conodont b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y be used to c o n s t r a i n the age of these d e p o s i t s ? 2) Given the l i m i t e d study of Late Devonian conodonts i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins, what conodont taxa occur i n t h i s region? 3) Given t h a t the Earn Group conodonts are broadly dated as Late Devonian, does t h e i r temporal and s t r a t i g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n support the i n t e r n a t i o n a l "standard" conodont zonation scheme? 4 F i g u r e 2. G e n e r a l i z e d w e s t e r n C o r d i l l e r a n t e r r a n e map w i t h C a s s i a r T e r r a n e and A n c e s t r a l N o r t h A m e r i c a d e l i n e a t e d . L a t e Devonian conodonts were c o l l e c t e d from E a r n Group w i t h i n o u t l i n e d 1:250 000 s c a l e map a r e a s ( t e r r a n e map m o d i f i e d from G a b r i e l s e & Y o r a t h , 1989) . I n t r o d u c t i o n / 5 B. REGIONAL GEOLOGY I n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon T e r r i t o r y t h e Selwyn and K e c h i k a B a s i n s l i e w i t h i n t h e Omineca C r y s t a l l i n e and Rocky Mountain p h y s i o g r a p h i c b e l t s o f t h e Canadian C o r d i l l e r a . The b a s i n s r e p r e s e n t p a r t o f t h e w e s t e r n m i o g e o c l i n e southwest o f t h e O g i l v i e and M a c k e n z i e P l a t f o r m s and e a s t o f t h e C a s s i a r P l a t f o r m (Gordey e t a l . , 1982). The b a s i n s a r e p a r t o f a n c e s t r a l N o r t h America and t h e C a s s i a r T e r r a n e , w h i c h i s b e l i e v e d t o be a d i s p l a c e d s l i c e o f t h e m i o g e o c l i n e (Monger and B e r g , 1984), ( f i g s . 1 & 2) . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e Earn Group s t r a t a o u t c r o p n o r t h e a s t o f t h e T i n t i n a F a u l t system, w i t h s m a l l a r e a s o c c u r r i n g southwest o f t h e f a u l t n e a r Watson Lake ( f i g . 3) . I n o r d e r t o v i e w t h e b a s i n s i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n , 450 k i l o m e t r e s o f r i g h t -l a t e r a l s t r i k e s l i p o f f s e t must be r e s t o r e d on t h e T i n t i n a F a u l t (Abbott e t a l . , 1986), ( f i g . 4 ) . From l a t e s t P r o t e r o z o i c t h r o u g h M i d d l e Devonian, s h a l l o w t o deep wa t e r e l a s t i c s and s h e l f c a r b o n a t e s were d e p o s i t e d i n t h e Selwyn and K e c h i k a B a s i n s ( A b b o t t , 1982). On s u r r o u n d i n g p l a t f o r m a r e a s ( f i g . 1) s h a l l o w w a t e r c a r b o n a t e s and q u a r t z a r e n i t e accumulated d u r i n g t h e O r d o v i c i a n , S i l u r i a n , and Devonian. The s e t t i n g changed d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t h e L a t e Devonian t h r o u g h e a r l y M i s s i s s i p p i a n , w i t h a marked i n c r e a s e i n t e c t o n i c a c t i v i t y and t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f t h e t r a n s g r e s s i v e , n o r t h e r l y and w e s t e r l y d e r i v e d s h a l e , s i l t s t o n e , c h e r t , and l o c a l l y d e r i v e d c o a r s e sediment g r a v i t y d e b r i s f l o w s i n f a u l t c o n t r o l l e d g rabens (Gordey e t a l . , 1987), ( f i g . 4 ) . 6 Figure 3. Regional Earn Group outcrop map with general locations of conodont sample s i t e s ( • ) , northern B r i t i s h Columbia, southeastern Yukon, and southwestern North West T e r r i t o r i e s (outcrop areas adapted from Wheeler & McFeely, 1987). 8 Figure 4. Late Devonian paleogeography of the Selwyn and Kechika Basin area. Arrows show g e n e r a l i z e d paleoflow. Approximately 450 ki l o m e t r e s of r i g h t - l a t e r a l displacement on the T i n t i n a F a u l t has been r e s t o r e d (adapted from Abbott, Gordey, & Tempelman-Kluit, 1986). I n t r o d u c t i o n / 9 The f i n e g r a i n sediments were deposited d i s t a l t o or i n the i n t e r v e n i n g areas between such flows. At the same time, sedimentary e x h a l a t i v e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h submarine hydrothermal vents deposited s u l p h i d e s on t o the sea f l o o r . The conodont specimens were c o l l e c t e d from carbonate lenses and calcareous shale and s i l t s t o n e w i t h i n t h i s sequence. The Earn Group i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by abrupt changes i n f a c i e s and t h i c k n e s s , and by i n t e r n a l d i s c o n f o r m i t i e s . This assemblage i s i n d i c a t i v e of an a c t i v e t e n s i o n a l regime a r i s i n g from e i t h e r c o n t i n e n t a l r i f t i n g and s e p a r a t i o n , or of an e x t e n s i o n a l regime r e l a t e d t o s t r i k e - s l i p f a u l t i n g (Abbott et a l . , 1986). In some areas m i d - M i s s i s s i p p i a n through T r i a s s i c , r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e marine e l a s t i c s and carbonates are preserved (Gordey et a l . , 1982). The whole r e g i o n has been s t r u c t u r a l l y deformed during s e v e r a l episodes of f o l d i n g , s t r i k e - s l i p and t h r u s t f a u l t i n g , and minor igneous a c t i v i t y . C. STRATIFORM MINERAL DEPOSITS The s i g n i f i c a n t b e l t of mid-Paleozoic s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e and b a r i t e -l e a d - z i n c - s i l v e r d eposits of western North America ( f i g . 5) i s not w e l l dated. Famennian brachiopods have been recovered from a bedded b a r i t e sequence i n Sonora, Mexico ( N o l l , Dutro, and Beus, 1984) and Late Devonian conodonts have been recovered from the Slaven Chert of c e n t r a l Nevada which hosts bedded b a r i t e sequences (Rye, Shawe, and Poole, 1978). P r e l i m i n a r y a p p l i c a t i o n of conodont 10 F i g u r e 5 . Late Devonian s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c -s i l v e r d e p o s i t s i n western North American C o r d i l l e r a . I n t r o d u c t i o n / 11 b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y (Dawson & Orchard, 1982) t o s t r a t i f o r m mineral d e p o s i t s i n the Earn Group showed many t o be of Late Devonian age. The conodont b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y described h e r e i n , however, provides p r e c i s e ages f o r the Earn Group de p o s i t s at Macmillan Pass, Midway, and Gataga. The dep o s i t s are considered s y n - d e p o s i t i o n a l because of t h e i r concordance w i t h i n the s t r a t a . This i s a t t e s t e d by t h e i r w e l l laminated c h a r a c t e r , metal and m i n e r a l o g i c a l zonation, and occurrence of m i n e r a l i z e d c l a s t s i n the mineral deposits and i n the o v e r l y i n g s t r a t a (Turner, 1983, B a i l e s et a l . , 1986, McClay & B i d w e l l , 1986, and McClay & I n s l e y , 1986). Because the deposits are s y n - d e p o s i t i o n a l , p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l d a t i n g of the host sediments can d i r e c t l y date the d e p o s i t i o n and m i n e r a l i z a t i o n event(s) t h a t produced the min e r a l d e p o s i t . The m i n e r a l i z a t i o n at Macmillan Pass can be subdivided i n t o two types: (1) bedded b a r i t e d e p o s i t s such as those at the CATHY, JEFF, GHMS, TEA, MOOSE, PETE, and GARY p r o p e r t i e s ( f i g . 9), (2) s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e - l e a d z i n c - s i l v e r d e p o s i t s such as those at the TOM and JASON p r o p e r t i e s ( f i g . 9). Both types of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n are hosted by r e l a t i v e l y f i n e grained c l a s t i c sequences, accompanied by ch e r t and limestone, t h a t are u s u a l l y contained w i t h i n c o a r s e r sequences of sediment g r a v i t y d e b r i s flow e l a s t i c s (Dawson & Orchard, 1982; Turner, 1983; B a i l e s et a l . , 1986; McClay & B i d w e l l , 1986). The b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n occurs s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y above and below the b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c - s i l v e r d e p o s i t s . The e n t i r e area of d e p o s i t i o n i s s t r u c t u r a l l y deformed, w i t h s t e e p l y d i p p i n g t i g h t f o l d s and f a u l t s . At Midway only two I n t r o d u c t i o n / 12 bedded b a r i t e h o r i z o n s , EWEN and PERRY, are hosted i n f i n e grained Earn Group e l a s t i c s (Nelson & Bradford, 1987). In the Gataga d i s t r i c t both s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c deposits are hosted by f i n e grained Earn Group e l a s t i c s (McClay et a l . , 1988; McClay & I n s l e y , 1986). The m i n e r a l i z e d h o rizons are found i n po o r l y exposed s e c t i o n s of h i g h l y f o l d e d and sheared rocks. At Gataga, the b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n appears t o be s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y below and inter-bedded w i t h the b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . The s t r a t i f o r m s u l p h i d e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n occurred when hydrothermal f l u i d s vented i n t o b r i n e pools i n r e s t r i c t e d b a sins along marginal growth f a u l t s (McClay & B i d w e l l , 1986; B a i l e s et a l . , 1986). This process i s s i m i l a r t o the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n around "black smokers" seen o f f the west coast of North America today. At JASON and TOM, p r o p e r t i e s the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s f u r t h e r from the vent, and appears t o be dominated by b a r i t e whereas, proximal t o and o v e r l y i n g the vent i t i s dominated by lead and z i n c s u l p h i d e s . Turner (pers. comm. 1989) b e l i e v e s the d i f f e r e n t s t r a t i g r a p h i c zones at the JASON depos i t ( B a i l e s et a l . , 1986) represent the same s t r u c t u r a l l y repeated m i n e r a l i z a t i o n h o r i z o n , and t h a t the JASON deposit occurs at the same s t r a t i g r a p h i c l e v e l as the TOM de p o s i t . Unfortunately, no conodont c o l l e c t i o n s have been made i n the p r e c i s e i n t e r v a l s needed t o corroborate these hypotheses. A d d i t i o n a l conodont b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y , combined w i t h m i n e r a l o g i c a l , geochemical, and s t r u c t u r a l s t u d i e s , i s necessary t o f u l l y understand the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n and d e p o s i t i o n a l h i s t o r y of these I n t r o d u c t i o n / 1 3 i m p o r t a n t s t r a t i f o r m d e p o s i t s . Conodonts can p r o v i d e t h e b i o c h r o n o l o g i c a l framework f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g e x i s t i n g d e p o s i t s , as w e l l as h e l p i n g t o d e l i n e a t e f u t u r e e x p l o r a t i o n t a r g e t a r e a s and s t r a t a . D. METHODS Over 3 4 7 c a r b o n a t e , c a l c a r e o u s s h a l e and s i l t s t o n e samples were c o l l e c t e d and p r o c e s s e d t o o b t a i n t h e conodonts used i n t h i s s tudy. Sampling was done by a number o f r e g i o n a l and p r o p e r t y g e o l o g i s t s s i n c e 1 9 7 3 , w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s a m p l i n g u n d e r t a k e n i n 1 9 8 5 , 1 9 8 6 and 1 9 8 7 . Sample w e i g h t s ranged from a p p r o x i m a t e l y one t o s i x k i l o g r a m s . The m a j o r i t y o f samples a r e s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y i s o l a t e d from each o t h e r . Some samples were c o l l e c t e d as p a r t o f f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l government mapping p r o j e c t s from i s o l a t e d s u r f a c e o u t c r o p s . D r i l l i n g programs a t Midway and Gataga f a c i l i t a t e d d e t a i l e d s a m p l i n g from d r i l l c o r e m a t e r i a l o v e r i n t e r v a l s o f between t e n and s i x t y c e n t i m e t r e s . D u r i n g August 1 9 8 7 , t h e a u t h o r c o l l e c t e d 7 8 samples from d r i l l c o r e and i s o l a t e d o u t c r o p i n t h e Midway p r o p e r t y a r e a . O t h e r c o l l e c t o r s i n c l u d e ; J.G. A b b o t t , K.M. Dawson, S.P. Gordey, B. H a l l , T. Harms, M.W. I n s l e y , W. J a k u b o w s k i , I.R. J o n a s s o n , J.W. Lydon, K.R. McClay, D. M a c l n t y r e , D. Mundy, J . N e l s o n , and D. Tempelman-Kluit. Of t h e 2 8 6 samples c o l l e c t e d i n 1 9 8 5 , 1 9 8 6 and 1 9 8 7 , 7 8 c o n t a i n e d L a t e Devonian conodonts, 6 7 c o n t a i n e d conodonts i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e O r d o v i c i a n , S i l u r i a n , Lower and M i d d l e Devonian, and C a r b o n i f e r o u s , and 1 4 1 were b a r r e n ( 5 1 % p r o d u c t i v e , 4 9 % b a r r e n ) . I n t r o d u c t i o n / 14 The standard techniques of a c e t i c a c i d d i s s o l u t i o n , wet s i e v i n g , and heavy l i q u i d (tetrabromoethane) s e p a r a t i o n were used t o e x t r a c t and concentrate the conodonts from the host rock (Stone, 1986) . This processing was c a r r i e d out at the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Vancouver w i t h a d d i t i o n a l reprocessing at C.F. M i n e r a l Research, Kelowna, B r i t i s h Columbia. The d i s s o l u t i o n procedure f o r carbonate rocks i n v o l v e d p l a c i n g approximately one kilogram of rock sample, broken i n t o one t o three centimetre diameter p i e c e s , i n t o a ten l i t r e p l a s t i c bucket. The bucket was f i l l e d w i t h seven l i t r e s of 10% a c e t i c a c i d s o l u t i o n and three l i t r e s of f i l t e r e d spent 10% a c e t i c a c i d s o l u t i o n as a b u f f e r i n g agent. A f t e r one week, the i n s o l u b l e r e s i due was wet sieved and washed through a standard 31 centimetre two s i e v e stack c o n s i s t i n g of a no. 18 (1 mm) and no. 170 (0.09 mm) mesh. The coarse f r a c t i o n (>1 mm) was r e t a i n e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l a c i d i z i n g and the f i n e f r a c t i o n (>0.09) mm was d r i e d . Once d r i e d , the f i n e residue was placed i n funnels f i l l e d w ith tetrabromoethane d i l u t e d w i t h acetone t o a s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of 2.96 or 2.85. The heavy and l i g h t f r a c t i o n s were then drained on to separate f i l t e r papers, washed wi t h acetone and a i r d r i e d . The acetone-tetrabromoethane s o l u t i o n was c o l l e c t e d and allowed to evaporate i n a fume hood u n t i l the tetrabromoethane was concentrated. This procedure reduces the l o s s of the heavy l i q u i d . A l l stages of the se p a r a t i o n procedure i n v o l v i n g tetrabromoethane were c a r r i e d out i n a fumehood wi t h double gloves, apron, face I n t r o d u c t i o n / 15 s h i e l d and r e s p i r a t o r used f o r s a f e t y reasons since tetrabromoethane i s both hazardous and t o x i c (Hauff & A i r e y , 1980). A f t e r the l i g h t (<2.85 g/ml) and heavy (>2.85 g/ml) f r a c t i o n s were d r i e d , the l i g h t f r a c t i o n was checked f o r conodonts and the heavy f r a c t i o n c a r e f u l l y picked f o r m i c r o f o s s i l s u s i n g a b i n o c u l a r microscope u s i n g a moistened 000 p a i n t brush. Conodont y i e l d s i n productive samples, ranged from one t o s e v e r a l hundred per kilogram. Although the m a j o r i t y of the faunal d e s c r i p t i o n s were done under a b i n o c u l a r microscope, s e l e c t e d specimens were mounted on scanning e l e c t r o n microscope (SEM) stubs f o r photography. The mounting procedure i n v o l v e d p l a c i n g double s i d e d tape onto each stub, and p r e - c o a t i n g i t w i t h l e s s than two nanometres of go l d . The s e l e c t e d conodonts were arranged on the stub and subsequently coated w i t h gold, a minimum of 60 nanometres, u s i n g a Polaron E5400 high r e s o l u t i o n s p u t t e r coater. The conodonts were then photo-micrographed w i t h a Cambridge Stereoscan 90 SEM and P o l a r o i d Type 53 p r i n t f i l m . The micrographs, i n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g the i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r the p l a t e s , allowed f o r more d e t a i l e d specimen d e s c r i p t i o n s and comparisons. I I . UPPER DEVONIAN CONODONTS Conodonts / 16 A. TAXONOMY Conodonts were f i r s t d e s c r i b e d and i l l u s t r a t e d i n 1856 by C h r i s t i a n H. Pander (1794-1865). Every d i s t i n c t i v e element t h a t Pander found was c l a s s i f i e d as a separate genus, a taxonomic approach method known as form taxonomy. The generic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n given to the simple cone shaped elements was e n t i r e l y a r b i t r a r y and without any b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s . I n e v i t a b l y , however, i m p l i e d genetic r e l a t i o n s h i p s developed i n the form taxonomy system. A major c o n t r i b u t i o n t o form taxonomy came from U l r i c h and Bas s l e r (1926). They based t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system on the understanding t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n t o o t h morphology r e f l e c t e d s p e c i f i c or g e n e r i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . D e s c r i p t i o n s and s u b d i v i s i o n s of conodont elements based on form taxonomy continued with the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of Branson and Mehl between 1933 and 1944. The f i r s t T r e a t i s e on I n v e r t e b r a t e Paleontology (1962) on the subject of conodonts was e n t i r e l y based on form taxonomy. Form taxonomy, although a r b i t r a r y and ignorant of z o o l o g i c a l nomenclature g u i d e l i n e s , provided the most e f f e c t i v e system t o catalogue conodont elements f o r b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c purposes. In a d d i t i o n to the b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c a p p l i c a t i o n s of form taxonomy, ev o l u t i o n a r y trends were t r a c e d among some form genera. I n i t i a l s t u d i e s of t r a n s i t i o n s e r i e s between form elements were done by Lindstrom (1964) . Conodonts / 17 In 1879, G.J. Hinde described what he b e l i e v e d t o be n a t u r a l multielement assemblages of conodont elements. Hinde suggested t h a t these assemblages, c o n s i s t i n g of a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t shaped conodont elements, represented the complete s k e l e t a l apparatus of a conodont organism. In order t o adequately d e s c r i b e and name these assemblages Hinde proposed a system of multielement taxonomy. Generic and s p e c i f i c nomenclature was developed t o r e f l e c t genetic r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the assemblages. The o r i g i n a l assemblage d e s c r i b e d by Hinde and assemblages described by Schmidt (1934) and S c o t t (1934) i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l conodont genera were not a l l uni-element (Lindstrom, 19 64). One c o m p l i c a t i o n of multielement taxonomy i s i n p a r t due t o the way most conodont elements are found. Conodont assemblages and fused apparatuses are r a r e , i n the m a j o r i t y of s t u d i e s conodont elements are e x t r a c t e d as d i s c r e t e elements from d i s s o l v e d sedimentary rock. An e m p i r i c a l method to group l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n s of d i s c r e t e elements i n t o " n a t u r a l assemblages" was f i r s t used b y Huckriede (1958). Huckriede used e x i s t i n g fused c l u s t e r s and i n t a c t assemblages found on bedding planes as anatomical models to e m p i r i c a l l y group the d i s c r e t e elements. This method continues to be f r e q u e n t l y used by conodont taxonomists. S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s on c o l l e c t i o n s of d i s c r e t e conodont elements i s a l s o an important method f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i n g conodont apparatuses (Sweet, 1988). In t h i s study, form taxonomy i s used t o d e s c r i b e the pla t f o r m conodonts of the Earn Group f o r s e v e r a l reasons. One reason i s Conodonts / 18 because of i t s r a p i d e v o l u t i o n , the p l a t f o r m or Pa element i s the most d i a g n o s t i c element amongst Late Devonian conodontophorids. Secondly, w i t h i n the conodont c o l l e c t i o n s used i n t h i s study, the recovery of non-platform elements was i n c o n s i s t e n t and i n most cases poor. T h i r d l y , the standard Late Devonian zonation scheme was erected on conodonts c l a s s i f i e d by form taxonomy ( Z i e g l e r , 1962; Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973; Z i e g l e r & Sandberg, 1984). Recent s t u d i e s of Frasnian palmatolepids and polygnathids by Klapper & P h i l i p (1971; 1972), P h i l i p & McDonald (1975), Boogaard van den & Kuhry (1979), Fahraeus (1982), Klapper & Lane (1985; 1988), N i c o l l (1985), Klapper (1988) have provided v a l u a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of multielement apparatuses. R e v i s i o n s and refinements t o the standard zonation s c a l e are i n e v i t a b l e and h o p e f u l l y , the use of multielement taxa w i l l increase the r e s o l u t i o n of the Late Devonian zonation. Although t h e r e remain many imperfe c t i o n s w i t h the system of conodont taxonomy and d e s c r i p t i o n , conodonts maintain t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n as e x c e l l e n t t o o l s f o r b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c zonation and b i o f a c i e s s t u d i e s from the Cambrian through T r i a s s i c . Two schools of conodont taxonomy e x i s t : one school devoted to understanding the s t r a t i g r a p h i c a p p l i c a t i o n s of conodonts; the other school devoted to understanding the b i o l o g i c a l a f f i n i t i e s of conodont elements, assemblages and organisms. Each school, through i t s d i f f e r e n t devotion, looks at taxonomy d i f f e r e n t l y . B i o s t r a t i g r a p h y needs a taxonomic system t o describe d i f f e r e n t taxa which d e l i n e a t e a Conodonts / 19 s p e c i f i c time p e r i o d . Although the b i o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of taxonomy are important t o b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y , they are not of primary importance. As a r e s u l t , the form taxonomy system, even w i t h i t s b i o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d problems, continues t o be an e f f e c t i v e system to catalogue d i s a r t i c u l a t e d conodont elements. Conodonts were discovered and used e x t e n s i v e l y f o r b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y before major s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s addressed t h e i r b i o l o g i c a l a f f i n i t i e s . Increased knowledge of the conodont organism, through the d i s c o v e r i e s of multielement assemblages, has heightened the f a c t t h a t form taxonomy i s an a r b i t r a r y system which assumed conodont organisms were uni-element. As a r e s u l t , p a l eobiology has begun t o re-develop conodont taxonomy based on multielement assemblages. Some confusion r e s u l t s from t h i s re-development but, a multielement taxonomy system, which recognises the e x i s t i n g system and p r o v i d e s a f e a s i b l e t r a n s i t i o n mechanism, w i l l not undermine the b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c a p p l i c a t i o n s of conodonts. B. ZONATION The standard zonation succession subdivides the approximately 15 m i l l i o n years of Late Devonian time i n t o 28 zones ( f i g . 6) . Because the taxa used t o d e f i n e the zonation are recognized around the world, a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n of the o r i g i n a l zonation has been a p p l i e d worldwide (see Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979). 2 0 F i g u r e 6. The r e v i s e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l standard Late Devonian conodont zonation. A f t e r Z i e g l e r , 1962, 1971; Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979; Z i e g l e r & Sandberg, 1984; Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , Dreesen, & B u t l e r , 1988; Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, 1989. A b b r e v i a t i o n s : (Um) Uppermost, (U) Upper, (M) Middle, (L) Lower, (E) E a r l y , (S) Schimdtognathus (P) Polygnathus, (K) K l a p p e r i n a , (M) Mesotaxis, (A) A n c y r o d e l l a , (An) Ancyrognathus, (Pa) Pa l m a t o l e p i s , (Sc) Scaphignathus, (Ps) Psuedopolygnathus, (B) Bispathodus, (Pr) Protognathus. M.DEVON. • o UPPER DEVONIAN SERIES GIVETIAN FRASNIAN FAMENNIAN S T A G E cristatus hermanni -disparilis falsio valis transitans punctata asymmetricus An. triangularis rhenana Unguiformis triangularis crepida rhomboidea marginifera trachytera postera expansa praesulcata STANDARD CONODONT ZONATION (PELAGIC BIOFACIE i— c c An. triangularis r- c r- c l - c r- c r~ c c 3 r- c r - c r c c CO S. hermanni P. cristatus K. disparilis M. falsiovalis Pa. transitans Pa. punctata A. curvata An. triangularis Pa. rhenana An. asymmetricus Pa. Unguiformis Pa. triangularis Pa. deicatula clarki Pa. tenuipunctata Pa. crepida Pa. termini Pa. glabra glabra Pa. poolei Pa. rhomboidea Pa. m. marginifera Pa. marginifera utahensis Sc. velifer velifer Pa. rugosa trachytera Ps. granulosus Pa. perlobata postera Pa. gracilis manca Pa.gracilis expansa B. aculeatus 6. ultimus S. praesulcata poorly defined Pr. kockeli DEFINITION OF LOWER LIMIT BY APPEARANCE OF: Conodonts / 22 In the o r i g i n a l Late Devonian standard conodont zonation ( Z i e g l e r , 1962, 1971), the lower l i m i t and name of the zone were e s t a b l i s h e d by the f i r s t occurrence of s p e c i e s , r e g a r d l e s s of whether the species belonged t o a shallow-water genus (Scaphignathus) or n e r i t i c (Ancyrodella, Ancyrognathus) or p e l a g i c genus (Palmatolepis) (Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, 1989) ( f i g . 6) . La t e r work by Z i e g l e r & Sandberg (1984) and Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck (1989) has r e v i s e d the standard zonation t o r e f l e c t two lin e a g e s of p e l a g i c conodonts: Mesotaxis and Palmatolepis. Further work by Sandberg & Dreesen (1984) proposes an a l t e r n a t i v e shallow-water, n e r i t i c zonation based on i c r i o d i d and/or a n c y r o d e l l i d and ancyrognathid genera. Studies i n v o l v i n g conodont genera of the pol y g n a t h i d b i o f a c i e s (Klapper & Lane, 1985 and Metzger, 1989) continue t o expand the understanding and value of shallower water, i n n e r - s h e l f b i o f a c i e s . Recent s t u d i e s i n France (Klapper, 1988) and A l b e r t a (Klapper & Lane, 1988) have proposed a p r o v i s i o n a l r e v i s e d Late Devonian zonation. Klapper (1988) and Klapper & Lane (1988) do not base t h e i r zonation schemes on one conodont l i n e a g e but, u t i l i z e p e l a g i c and shallow water species w i t h i n a given area. The r e s o l u t i o n of these r e g i o n a l zonations i s much f i n e r than the standard zonation of Z i e g l e r (1962). The i n f o r m a l conodont zonation developed, however, i s intended f o r r e g i o n a l and not g l o b a l zonation. Due to t h e i r r e g i o n a l scope, these p r o v i s i o n a l schemes are d i f f i c u l t to recognize i n the r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll Frasnian c o l l e c t i o n s of Earn Group conodonts. Furthermore, s i n c e many new species used to Conodonts / 23 d e l i n e a t e zones are not r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to c o r r e l a t e them w i t h these zonations. The standard Late Devonian conodont zonation i s r e a d i l y a p p l i c a b l e t o the conodont taxa, i n d i c a t i v e of b a s i n a l b i o f a c i e s , i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins. Unfortunately, the exact G i v e t i a n -F r a s n i a n and Frasnian-Famennian boundary i n t e r v a l s are not recognized i n the Earn Group sequence. C. BIOFACIES An understanding of conodont b i o f a c i e s i s important f o r the development of conodont zonation. To b e t t e r understand conodont b i o f a c i e s the development and r e c o g n i t i o n of an e c o l o g i c model f o r the conodont l i f e s t y l e i s necessary. The f i r s t comprehensive e c o l o g i c model f o r conodonts suggested a p l a n k t i c mode of l i f e , where the animals were segregated by v e r t i c a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g both near sur f a c e and deep water genera (Seddon and Sweet, 1971). Based on segregation by v e r t i c a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , Seddon and Sweet (1971) erected two b i o f a c i e s i n the Devonian limestones of the Canning Basin, A u s t r a l i a . A near r e e f , shallower water b i o f a c i e s was dominated by I c r i o d u s fauna and a b a s i n a l , deeper water b i o f a c i e s i s dominated by Palm a t o l e p i s fauna. This type of segregation, common among other p l a n k t i c organisms, was c o n t r o l l e d by temperature, l i g h t i n t e n s i t y and food supply (Seddon and Sweet, 1971). Conodonts / 2 4 Druce (1973) recognized three p o s s i b l e b i o f a c i e s w i t h i n Late Devonian sediments based on depth zonation: B i o f a c i e s I , shallow water depth c h a r a c t e r i z e d by simple cones; B i o f a c i e s I I , s l i g h t l y deeper water i s dominated by I c r i o d u s ; B i o f a c i e s I I I , deepest water i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Palmatolepis. Druce pointed out t h a t the b i o f a c i e s appeared ubiquitous and, t h e r e f o r e , were i n d i c a t i v e of depth l a y e r i n g and a p e l a g i c mode of l i f e . The e x i s t e n c e of d e f i n i t e l a t e r a l segregation seen by Barnes and Fahraeus (1975) suggested an a l t e r n a t i v e benthic or nektobenthic h a b i t . Barnes and Fahraeus assumed, t h a t t o account f o r s e v e r a l conodont d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s , some E a r l y Ordovician conodont l a r v a e went through a p e l a g i c growth stage. The authors concluded t h a t t h e r e appeared t o be a slow ada p t a t i o n t o a nektobenthic h a b i t by O r d o v i c i a n conodonts away from a predominantly p e l a g i c h a b i t during Cambrian time. Sandberg (1976) e s t a b l i s h e d f i v e conodont b i o f a c i e s i n the Late Devonian Lower exspansa (formerly Upper s t y r i a c u s ) Zone of the western United S t a t e s . The b i o f a c i e s i n a shoreward d i r e c t i o n are as f o l l o w s : I) P a l m a t o l e p i d - b i s p a t h o i d ( c o n t i n e n t a l slope and r i s e ) ; I I ) Palmatolepid-polygnathid (shallow t o moderately deep water on the c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f ) ; I I I ) P o l y g n a t h i d - i c r i o d i d (moderately shallow water on the outer c r a t o n i c p l a t f o r m ) ; IV) Polygnathid-pelekysgnathid (shallow water of normal s a l i n i t y on the i n n e r c r a t o n ) ; V) Clydagnathid (very shallow water on o f f s h o r e banks and i n a s s o c i a t e d lagoons). Conodonts / 2 5 In 1978, Klapper and B a r r i c k compared both p e l a g i c and benthic modern day marine organisms i n an attempt to e x p l a i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s and the e c o l o g i c model of conodonts. Based on comparisons between modern organisms and Upper Devonian conodont d i s t r i b u t i o n , Klapper & B a r r i c k (1978) suggested th a t both a n e r i t i c - p e l a g i c or nektobenthic mode of l i f e c o uld e x p l a i n conodont d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s . Further s u b d i v i s i o n and d e l i n e a t i o n of conodont b i o f a c i e s was under taken by Sandberg and Z i e g l e r (1979) and Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , Dreesen, & B u t l e r (1988). Sandberg et a l . (1988) recognized two more important Fr a s n i a n b i o f a c i e s , the p o l y g n a t h i d - a n c y r o d e l l i d and p o l y g n a t h i d . The boundaries of conodont b i o f a c i e s were probably c o n t r o l l e d by n u t r i e n t supply, s a l i n i t y , temperature, t u r b i d i t y , and p h y s i c a l boundaries. Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck (1989) recognized the f o l l o w i n g conodont b i o f a c i e s , proceeding shoreward, duri n g the Frasnian f a l s i o v a l i s and t r a n s i t a n s zones; mesotaxid-polygnathid, p o l y g n a t h i d - i c r i o d i d , p o l y g n a t h i d - a n c y r o d e l l i d , polygnathid, and shallow water p a n d e r i n e l l i n i d . The authors noted t h a t the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of b i o f a c i e s was important to t h e i r zonal scheme because of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d w i t h e s t a b l i s h i n g p r e c i s e dates i n shallow water b i o f a c i e s . The f i r s t occurrences of conodonts w i t h i n shallow water b i o f a c i e s can be d i r e c t l y e f f e c t e d t r a n s g r e s s i o n - r e g r e s s i o n c y c l e s which w i l l e f f e c t the r e c o g n i t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r zone i n a given area. Conodonts / 2 6 The combined s t u d i e s of Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , Druce, Seddon, Sweet, and others have demonstrated the existence of r e c o g n i z a b l e conodont b i o f a c i e s worldwide w i t h i n Late Devonian sediments. B i o f a c i e s models, constructed f o r s p e c i f i c areas i n North America, Europe and A u s t r a l i a have been c o r r e l a t e d worldwide. The i n d i v i d u a l b i o f a c i e s are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the b a s i s of the r e l a t i v e abundance of conodont genera and named according t o the most abundant genus or genera. The paleo-environment t h a t each b i o f a c i e s represented i s i n t e r p r e t e d from both sedimentological and p a l e o n t o l o g i c a l evidence. The Late Devonian conodonts w i t h i n Selwyn and Kechika Basins g e n e r a l l y represent the b a s i n a l or p e l a g i c , F r a s n i a n age, mesotaxid-polygnathid and Famennian age, palm a t o l e p i d b i o f a c i e s . Approximately 2 0 conodont c o l l e c t i o n s i n d i c a t i v e of a b a s i n a l b i o f a c i e s c o n t a i n a few specimens of i c r i o d i d s . The shallower water i c r i o d i d genera were probably swept seaward i n t o the b a s i n a l b i o f a c i e s by sediment g r a v i t y d e b r i s flows. D. PREVIOUS WORK IN WESTERN CANADA Previous taxonomic and b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c s t u d i e s on Late Devonian conodonts i n western Canada inc l u d e Uyeno (19 67), Mound (19 68), P o l l o c k (1968), Uyeno (1974), N o r r i s & Uyeno (1981), Klapper & Lane (1985; 1988), and Orchard (1988) ( f i g . 7). Due t o d i f f e r e n c e s of faunal composition d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n between the Selwyn and Conodonts / 27 Kechika Basin conodont faunas and the faunas described i n A l b e r t a i s not p o s s i b l e (Klapper & Lane, 1988). In southern A l b e r t a , Mound (1968) des c r i b e a d i v e r s e fauna of Fra s n i a n conodonts from the B e a v e r h i l l Lake Formation, the Woodbend and Winterburn Groups, and Famennian conodonts from the Wabamun Group. Frasnian assemblages, corresponding t o other European and North America assemblages of s i m i l a r age, were recovered from subsurface samples. The c o l l e c t i o n s contained species of P a l m a t o l e p i s , Polygnathus, A n c y r o d e l l a , I c r i o d u s , and s e v e r a l other Frasnian sp e c i e s . The F r a s n i a n assemblages in c l u d e d specimens i n d i c a t i v e of the punctata, Upper asymmetricus, Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s , Lower rhenana, and l i n g u i f o r m i s zones ( f i g . 7). A small c o l l e c t i o n of Famennian Palmatolepis may represent p a r t of the rhomboidea Zone. P o l l o c k (1968) a l s o d e s c r i b e d conodont assemblages i n d i c a t i v e of the Frasnian i n southern A l b e r t a . P o l l o c k recorded 81 species and subspecies of genera i n c l u d i n g Palmatolepis, A n c y r o d e l l a , Polygnathus. These elements are i n d i c a t i v e of the t r a n s i t a n s Zone, punctata Zone, Upper asymmetricus Zone, Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone, Lower and Upper rhenana zones, and l i n g u i f o r m i s Zone. P o l l o c k ' s study e s t a b l i s h e d a general c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h other North American and Western A u s t r a l i a n s e c t i o n s ( f i g . 7). P r e l i m i n a r y work i n the Waterways Formation of northeastern and c e n t r a l A l b e r t a by Uyeno (1967) was expanded upon by Uyeno (1974) 28 F i g u r e 7. C o r r e l a t i o n s o f p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d L a t e Devonian conodont b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y s t u d i e s i n wes tern Canada and E a r n Group conodonts p l o t t e d w i t h the s t a n d a r d L a t e Devonian conodont z o n a t i o n . A s t e r i s k s (*) denote s p e c i e s a n d / o r fauna i n d i c a t i v e o f a s p e c i f i c conodont zone have been r e c o g n i z e d . Q u e s t i o n mark (?) denote s p e c i e s a n d / o r fauna r a n g i n g t h r o u g h a s p e c i f i c conodont zone have been r e c o g n i z e d ( a b b r e v i a t i o n s : (Um) Uppermost; (U) U p p e r ; (M) M i d d l e ; (L) Lower; (E) E a r l y ; (An) A n c y r o g n a t h u s ; (Gp.) Group; ( B . L . F M . ) B e a v e r h i l l Lake F o r m a t i o n ; (W.GP.) W i n t e r b u r n Group; (HAY R. FM.) Hay R i v e r F o r m a t i o n ; (TROUT R. FM.) T r o u t R i v e r F o r m a t i o n ; (MT.H. ) Mount Hawk F o r m a t i o n ; (R .FM.) Ronde F o r m a t i o n ; K a k i s a F o r m a t i o n , Sassenach F o r m a t i o n , Te tcho F o r m a t i o n ) . POLLOCK, 1968 Rocky Mountains P O L L O C K , 1 9 6 8 Alberta Plains MOUND, 1968 UYENO,1974 KLAPPER & LANE 1985 ORCHARD, 1988 KLAPPER & LANE 1988 ORCHARD, 1988 Medicine Lake HERE IN Selwyn Basin z < z z UJ z < < U-z o > LU Q tr UJ Q. 0. z < z w < LT f z Z < O 1-> UJ DE > 2 postera trachytera Um marginifera rhomboidea crepida triangularis Unguiformis rhenana An. triangularis asymmetricus U punctata transitans falsiovalis disparilis hermanni -cristatus 'I'I'IV l l l l l 5 < i < END GP. | - -_J_ m l l l l l Q 1 1 1 11 WOO -III 1 III "III -III -III III WOO I I I I 2 i i i i i LL - i CO I I I I I I I I I -v-v-v-y-: 11TJ-7J-7I.I • W ? l l l l l JTJTJ r'T' — _ J _ — _J_ —_l —— 2 _l_ — _l_ —_L LL —_l_ — _1_— -I— —_J_-_l X —_|_ —_|_— cc Q —_J_ — DC Lli — * — I — 0. SASSENACH | ' _ | _ i SASSENACH | 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 SASSENACH | l l l l l SASSENACH | I—I-I-I-I SASSENACH | I-I-I-I-I SASSENACH | l l l l l SASSENACH | 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 SASSENACH | 1 — 1 — 1 — 1— 1 SASSENACH | l l l l l SASSENACH | , l - l - l - l - l SASSENACH | l l l l l SASSENACH | 1 1 o 1 |MT. H.|R.FMJ i i-1 • r=r |MT. H.|R.FMJ • — • — i — • — i |MT. H.|R.FMJ I-I - i - i - i |MT. H.|R.FMJ r ^ ? W |MT. H.|R.FMJ i — i — i - i - i |MT. H.|R.FMJ i - i - i - i - i |MT. H.|R.FMJ i II i i |MT. H.|R.FMJ I-I-I-I-I mm* j, rs CV ? * ? ? ? ? ? * ? ? ? ? to Conodonts / 30 ( f i g . 7) . Faunas inc lud ing Ancyrode l la , Palmatolepis , and Polygnathus were described and i l l u s t r a t e d . Largely on the basis of Ancyrode l la species , Uyeno assigned the Waterways Formation to the t rans i tans and punctata zones. Corre la t i ons between the Waterways Formation fauna and, s i m i l a r aged assemblages i n North America and western Europe were noted by Uyeno. A report by Norr is and Uyeno (1981) includes a d d i t i o n a l faunal descr ip t ions from the Waterways Formation. Klapper and Lane (198 5) i l l u s t r a t e d and described a large number of Frasnian conodonts from the western North West T e r r i t o r i e s . Although most of the Frasnian conodonts c o l l e c t e d adjacent to the Trout River and Hay River belong to the Polygnathus (shallow water) b i o f a c i e s , there are several incurs ions of species from the Palmatolepis b i o f a c i e s . Klapper and Lane (1985) d i d not resolve the problem of c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s and the e x i s t i n g zonation scheme based on offshore Palmatolepis b io fac i e s . The ir c o r r e l a t i o n s with the "standard" Palmatolepis b io fac ie s based zonation are approximations: punctata and Upper asymmetricus Zone, Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone, and the Lower rhenana Zone ( f i g . 7) • Parts of a recent Frasnian conodont study by Klapper and Lane (1988) i n A l b e r t a Rocky Mountains c o r r e l a t e s with work done by Klapper (1988) i n France. Conodont faunas described by Klapper & Lane (1988) are general ly i n d i c a t i v e of the middle Frasnian, whereas, Earn Group faunas span lower and middle Frasnian ( f i g . Conodonts / 31 7) . The A l b e r t a assemblages were d i v i d e d i n t o seven inf o r m a l zones dominated by F r a s n i a n conodonts of the o f f s h o r e Palmatolepis b i o f a c i e s i n the o l d e r zones, and by the nearshore Polygnathus b i o f a c i e s i n the youngest zone. Although, conodont species from each of the seven zones developed by Klapper & Lane (1988) are recognized w i t h i n the faunas from Macmillan Pass, Midway, and Gataga areas, there are s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the A l b e r t a and the Selwyn and Kechika Basins c o l l e c t i o n s t o preclude d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n . C o r r e l a t i o n of the youngest zone of the Polygnathus b i o f a c i e s , i s p o s s i b l e w i t h p a r t s of the sequences described e a r l i e r by Klapper and Lane (1985) from the North West T e r r i t o r i e s . Conodonts from the Frasnian-Famennian boundary i n t e r v a l i n A l b e r t a and the North West T e r r i t o r i e s have been s t u d i e d by Orchard (1988), ( f i g . 7) . Fauna from the Trout R i v e r area, where Klapper and Lane (1985) worked, i n c l u d e s p e cies i n d i c a t i v e of the Upper rhenana Zone, and fauna no o l d e r than Middle t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone but o l d e r than Middle c r e p i d a Zone. In the A l b e r t a , Medicine Lake s e c t i o n , Orchard (1988) d e s c r i b e s fauna from the o f f s h o r e Palmatolepis b i o f a c i e s . Species i n d i c a t i v e of the Lower (?) and Upper rhenana Zone, Middle (?) and Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone and Lower (?) and Middle c r e p i d a Zone are i l l u s t r a t e d . S i m i l a r and i d e n t i c a l conodonts a l s o occur i n Selwyn and Kechika Basin faunas MP7-10 and G5-10 ( f i g s . 7 & 14) . Due t o low conodont y i e l d s and d i f f e r e n t b i o f a c i e s , fauna from the Trout R i v e r and Medicine Lake areas can not be dated a c c u r a t e l y i n terms of the standard Frasnian conodont zonation. Conodonts / 3 2 A d d i t i o n a l work i n v o l v i n g Late Devonian conodonts from the Earn Group of the Selwyn and Kechika Basins i n c l u d e s Dawson & Orchard (1982), Gordey, Abbott, & Orchard (1982), Norford & Orchard (1985), Orchard & I r w i n (1988), and I r w i n & Orchard (1988). These studi e s are r e f e r r e d t o s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the r e g i o n a l case study chapters which f o l l o w . I I I . REGIONAL CASE STUDIES The g e o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g , s t r a t i g r a p h y , and conodont b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y are described f o r each of the areas. A d i s c u s s i o n of the conodont b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y of each area and the c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins f o l l o w s . The g e o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g and s t r a t i g r a p h y s e c t i o n s are, f o r the most p a r t , a review of the published l i t e r a t u r e . The conodont b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y s e c t i o n s i n c l u d e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the informal conodont faunas i d e n t i f i e d by a p r e f i x ; MP, Macmillan Pass; M, Midway; G, Gataga, followed by a number, are d e s c r i b e d ( f i g . 14). These faunas were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the b a s i s of unique faunal age range and conodont species. Several conodont faunas may represent improvised c o l l e c t i o n s of another fauna but, are i d e n t i f i e d as separate faunas on the ba s i s of a d i f f e r e n t f a u n a l age range. Many conodont c o l l e c t i o n s from the Selwyn and Kechika Basins are s c a t t e r e d i n i s o l a t e d s u r f a c e outcrops w i t h l i m i t e d s t r a t i g r a p h i c c o n t r o l . The m a j o r i t y of the key species and subspecies of the faunas are i l l u s t r a t e d i n p l a t e s 1-8, w i t h t h e i r age ranges l i s t e d 33 Table I . Age ranges of important G i v e t i a n and Frasnian conodont species and subspecies i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins. Based on Z i e g l e r , 1962, 1971; Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979; Z i e g l e r & Sandberg, 1984; Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , Dreesen, & B u t l e r , 1988; Sweet, 1988; Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, 1989. Conodont Fauna GIVETIAN FRASNIAN varcus L M U hermanni-c r i s t a t u s d i s p a r i l i s f a l s i o v a l i s La t r a n s i t a n s punctata asym-metricus Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s rhenana U n g u i -formis FAMEN. t r i a n g u l a r i s M U Ancyrodella binodosa Ancyrodella curvata Ancyrodella gigas Ancyrodella i o i d e s Ancyrodella lobata Ancyrodella nodosa Ancyrodella rotundiloba Klapperina d i s p a r a l i s Klapperina disparalvea Klapperina d i s p a r a t a Klapperina o v a l i s Mesotaxis asymmetrica Mesotaxis d e n g l e r i Mesotaxis f a l s i o v a l i s Palmatolepis domanicensis Palmatolepis f o l i a c e a Palmatolepis hassi Palmatolepis proversa Palmatolepis punctata Palmatolepis rhenana Palmatolepis t r a n s i t a n s Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i Palmatolepis sp. C Orchard Palmatolepis n.sp. A "Polygnathus" c r i s t a t u s Polygnathus dubius Polygnathus Unguiformis -?-?-35 Table I I . Age ranges of important Famennian conodont species and subspecies i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins. Based on Z i e g l e r , 1962, 1971; Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979; Z i e g l e r & Sandberg, 1984; Sweet, 1988. FAMENNIAN t r i a n g u l a r i s c rep ida rhomboidea marq in i fe ra t r a c h y t e r a postera expansa p raesu lca ta Conodont Fauna M U M U U Um U M U Palmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmato lep is Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmato lep is Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Palmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Palmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Palmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Palmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Palmatolepis Pa lmatolepis Pa lmatolepis c rep ida d e l i c a t u l a c l a r k i g labra acuta g . d i s t o r t a g . g labra g . l ep ta g . pec t ina t a g . prima g . prima morph. 2 S&Z g . g r a c i l i s k l a p p e r i m. marg in i fe ra m. utahensis minuta minuta m. loba p. per lobata p. g ross ! p . helms! p. sch indewol f i p o o l e i q . quadrantinodosa q . i n f l e x a q . i n f l e x o i d e a quadrantinodosalobata q . morph. 1 S&Z 1973 c f . P . r e g u l a r i s rhomboidea rugosa t r achy te ra rugosa rugosa rugosa c f . ampla subperlobata s t o p p e l i t r i a n g u l a r i s tenuipuncta ta wolskajae LO Macmillan Pass / 37 on t a b l e s 1 & 2. Although no complete s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n s were measured, some c o l l e c t i o n s from d r i l l core m a t e r i a l at Midway and Gataga, occurred i n short measurable s e c t i o n s which provided good s t r a t i g r a p h i c c o n t r o l (appendices B & C) . Even without the p r e c i s e c o n t r o l of measured s e c t i o n s , the conodont c o l l e c t i o n s s t i l l p r ovide important ages f o r a b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c framework i n the Earn Group and the s t r a t i f o r m mineral d e p o s i t s . Unless otherwise noted, a l l conodont c o l l e c t i o n s are from the Earn Group. A. MACMILLAN PASS The Macmillan Pass area i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g 1:250 000 s c a l e map areas; Niddery Lake 105O, Sekwi Mountain 105P, Tay R i v e r 105K, Sheldon Lake 105J, and Nahanni 1051 ( f i g . 2) . W i t h i n t h i s area there are s e v e r a l s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c - s i l v e r d e p o s i t s i n c l u d i n g ; CATHY, JEFF, TOM, JASON, TEA, MOOSE, GHMS, PETE, and GARY p r o p e r t i e s ( f i g . 9). 1. G e o l o g i c a l S e t t i n g Previous work i n the Macmillan Pass area i n c l u d e s reconnaissance mapping by Blusson (1971; 1974), Gordey (1981), C e c i l e (1981); d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of s e v e r a l deposits by Came (1979), Dawson and Orchard (1982), Turner (1983), B a i l e s et a l . (1986), McClay and B i d w e l l (1986), and Winn and B a i l e s (1987) ; and r e g i o n a l s t r a t i g r a p h i c s t u d i e s by Gordey, Abbott, and Orchard (1982), Abbott Macmillan Pass / 3 8 (1982), Abbott, Gordey, and Tempelman-Kluit (1986), and Gordey, Abbott, Tempelman-Kluit, and G a b r i e l s e (1987). The Macmillan Pass area i n c l u d e s a p o r t i o n of the Selwyn Basin, which i s p a r t of the western miogeocline, southwest of the O g i l v i e and Mackenzie platforms (Gordey et a l . 1982), ( f i g . 1). Although there are s e v e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the Selwyn Basin, t h a t adopted here i s an i n f o r m a l d e f i n i t i o n from Abbott et a l . (1986) which r e f e r s t o the b a s i n as the geographical area roughly d e l i n e a t e d by the P a l e o z o i c carbonate-shale boundary and the T i n t i n a F a u l t . The Selwyn Basin was the s i g h t of deep and o f f - s h e l f sedimentation from l a t e Precambrian through Middle Devonian (Abbott, 1982). Shallow water p l a t f o r m carbonates and e l a s t i c s bordered the b a s i n during O r d o v i c i a n , S i l u r i a n , and Devonian time. An increase i n t e c t o n i c a c t i v i t y i s marked by the i n f l u x of l a t e Middle Devonian coarse sediments which transgressed over the area through E a r l y Carboniferous a f t e r which time tectonism decreased and sedimentation c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a t e c t o n i c a l l y s t a b l e , marine environment continued through T r i a s s i c time (Gordey et a l . , 1982). 2. S t r a t i g r a p h y The f o l l o w i n g s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n i s a s y n t h e s i s of work done by Abbott (1982), Gordey et a l . (1982) and Abbott et a l . (1986). S t r a t a of Late P r o t e r o z o i c through T r i a s s i c age, intruded by Cretaceous p l u t o n i c r o c ks, are exposed w i t h i n the Macmillan Pass Macmillan Pass / 39 r e g i o n ( f i g s . 8 & 9) . The area has been subjected t o s e v e r a l episodes of f o l d i n g and s t r i k e - s l i p and t h r u s t f a u l t i n g . There are s e v e r a l r e g i o n a l unconformities i n the Macmillan Pass d i s t r i c t . The o l d e s t s t r a t a exposed are Late P r o t e r o z o i c coarse quartzo-f e l d s p h a t i c t u r b i d i t e s , and shales at l e a s t 200 metres t h i c k commonly r e f e r r e d t o as the ' G r i t ' u n i t ( f i g . 9) . The e l a s t i c s are d ep os ited i n westward t h i c k e n i n g sequences which are b e l i e v e d t o r e f l e c t i n i t i a l r i f t i n g . Two hundred metres of E a r l y Cambrian and O r d o v i c i a n p h y l l i t e and s l a t e unconformably o v e r l y the ' G r i t ' u n i t . W i t h i n the t h i n l y laminated t o homogenous p h y l l i t e t h i n beds of limestone occur throughout w i t h t h i c k e r beds common l o c a l l y . O r d o v i c i a n conodonts from these s t r a t a show t h a t the u n i t i s time e q u i v a l e n t t o the R a b b i t k e t t l e Formation i n the Sheldon Lake and Tay R i v e r map areas (Gordey & I r w i n , 1987). In the Road R i v e r Group, approximately 450 metres of c h e r t , s l a t e , s h a l e , and s i l t y limestone, conformably o v e r l i e s the Cambro-Or d o v i c i a n u n i t ( f i g . 8) . O r d o v i c i a n , S i l u r i a n , and E a r l y t o Middle Devonian g r a p t o l i t e s and conodonts have been recovered from the Road R i v e r Group. Abrupt changes i n t h i c k n e s s w i t h i n the u n i t might be e i t h e r d e p o s i t i o n a l and connected to growth f a u l t s or a r e s u l t of e r o s i o n a l t r u n c a t i o n of the u n i t . Abbott (1982) a l s o d e s c r i b e s S i l u r i a n (?) and Devonian v o l c a n i c flows and feeders w i t h i n the Road R i v e r Group. The b a s a l Earn Group and i t s unconformable (?) contact w i t h the Road R i v e r Group i s diachronous. The l a t e s t E a r l y Devonian to M i s s i s s i p p i a n Earn Group i s t y p i f i e d 131° 00' 130° 00' F i g u r e 8. S t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n across the Macmillan Pass area (not r e s t o r e d ) . L o c a t i o n seen i n r e g i o n a l map below. Abrupt l a t e r a l changes i n s t r a t i g r a p h y r e f l e c t s y n - d e p o s i t i o n a l e x t e n s i o n a l and/or wrench f a u l t s . M i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n r e l a t i v e s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n s (modified from Abbott, Gordey, & Tempelman-K l u i t , 1986). 41 Figure 9. General ized geo log ica l map of the Macmillan Pass Area with mineral explorat ion propert ies (modified from Abbott, 1982). to Macmillan Pass / 43 by a complex i n t e r n a l s trat igraphy with i n t e r n a l unconformities and extreme changes i n th ickness , l i t h o l o g y , and fac ies (Gordey et a l . , 1982) ( f i g s . 8 & 9) . In the Macmillan Pass d i s t r i c t Gordey et a l . (1982) subdivided the Earn Group into lower and upper u n i t s . The Lower Earn Group includes a minimum 300-400 metres of chert , chert pebble conglomerates, and s i l i c e o u s shale spanning most of the Devonian. The Upper Earn Group, separated by an unconformity, cons is ts of a minimum 2 00-600 metres of Upper Devonian to Ear ly Carboniferous shale , sandstone, and chert conglomerate. This Earn Group subd iv i s ion i s not recognized at Gataga or Midway. The Upper Earn Group i s unconformably over la in by l o c a l l y preserved f ine grained e l a s t i c s , chert , and carbonate of r e l a t i v e l y shallow, s table , marine environment. The three r e g i o n a l l y d i s t i n c t Carboniferous, Permian, and T r i a s s i c u n i t s are separated by unconformities ( f i g . 8) . 3. B ios tra t igraphy The pre l iminary conodont b ios trat igraphy studies of Orchard i n the Macmillan Pass area defined three l eve l s of b a r i t e minera l i za t ion (Dawson & Orchard, 1982). The oldest horizon was Middle Devonian, followed by another horizon i n the Upper Devonian and the youngest horizon was of E a r l y Carboniferous age. The conodonts reported by Dawson and Orchard (1982) adjacent to PETE, J E F F , GHMS, CATHY, 0R0, and TEA bedded b a r i t e deposits are included i n the present study. A d d i t i o n a l conodonts were c o l l e c t e d by Abbott , Gordey, and McClay near the JASON and TOM s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c - s i l v e r deposits . Macmillan Pass / 44 The f o r t y two c o l l e c t i o n s from i n d i v i d u a l beds of calcareous shale and s i l t s t o n e or limestone pods over short s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n t e r v a l s are l i s t e d on t a b l e s I I I & V and appendix A. The Macmillan Pass area conodonts, w i t h three exceptions, have a c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index of 5 due t o a r e g i o n a l metamorphic o v e r p r i n t . Two c o l l e c t i o n s s i x t y k i l o m e t r e s north of the TOM de p o s i t have a CAI of ~4 and one c o l l e c t i o n adjacent t o a pl u t o n w i t h a CAI of 6-7 Conodont faunas Fauna MP1 This fauna, from c o l l e c t i o n s C-087691, C-087686, C-087545, C-087544, and C-087697, i s made up of small numbers of Polygnathus U n g u i f o r m i s subsp. Hinde. Fauna MP1, dated as E i f e l i a n t o e a r l y F r a s n i a n , represents the o l d e s t Earn Group conodonts i n the Macmillan Pass area. C o l l e c t i o n C-087691 occurs w i t h i n the CATHY b a r i t e h o r i z o n ( f i g . 9) and C-087545, and C-087544 occur d i r e c t l y above the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . A s i n g l e c o l l e c t i o n , C-087697 from s i x metres below the b a r i t e at the GHMS property (southeast of CATHY), cont a i n s Polygnathus dubius Hinde. Fauna MP2 Fauna MP2 i s represented i n the f o l l o w i n g c o l l e c t i o n s ; C-087695, C-087696, C-087543. Fauna MP2 i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the occurrence of Mesotaxis asymmetrica ( B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r ) , K l a p p e r i n a o v a l i s Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, and s e v e r a l indeterminate Polygnathus s p e c i e s . This fauna i s i n d i c a t i v e of l a t e f a l s i o v a l i s Macmillan Pass / 45 Zone through Upper asymmetricus Zone (Sandberg et a l . , 1989). A l l three c o l l e c t i o n s were made from a grey limestone about 15 metres below the bedded b a r i t e deposit at GHMS property, f i f t y kilometres southeast of the Macmillan Pass area . Fauna MP3 Fauna MP3 i n c o l l e c t i o n C-101978 contains Mesotaxis asymmetrica (Bischoff & Ziegler) and a s ing l e Palmatolepis a f f . P. t rans i tans M u l l e r . The age of t h i s small fauna i s t rans i tans Zone through Upper asymmetricus Zone. MP3 was c o l l e c t e d from less than 15 metres below a b a r i t e horizon at the GHMS property . Fauna MP4 C o l l e c t i o n C-087699 includes Icr iodus symmetricus Branson & Mehl, Ancyrode l la a f f . A. gigas Youngquist, and Palmatolepis c f . P. w i n c h e l l i (Stauf fer) . Fauna MP4 i s i n d i c a t i v e of upper t rans i tans Zone through Lower rhenana Zone. The c o l l e c t i o n was sampled at the PETE property ( f i g . 9) from a limestone d i r e c t l y beneath the b a r i t e containing minor amounts of bedded z i n c - l e a d - s i l v e r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . Fauna MP5 Fauna MP5 i s recognized i n c o l l e c t i o n s C-087698 and C-087700. The fauna contains Palmatolepis punctata Hinde, Palmatolepis c f . P. w i n c h e l l i (Stauffer) , and Icr iodus sp. Branson & Mehl. C o l l e c t i o n C-087698 also contains an indeterminate species of Ancyrodel la . Fauna MP5, i n d i c a t i v e of punctata Zone through Lower rhenana Zone, Macmillan Pass / 4 6 was c o l l e c t e d from the same limestone as MP4, below the PETE b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . Fauna MP6 A s i n g l e A n c y r o d e l l a c f . A. curvata (Branson & Mehl), recovered from c o l l e c t i o n C-101979, represents fauna MP6. MP6 i s i n d i c a t i v e of Upper asymmetricus Zone and p o s s i b l y i n t o the Lower t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone. I t was c o l l e c t e d from a limestone immediately below the b a r i t e h o r i z o n at the GHMS property. Fauna MP7 Fauna MP7 i s represented by c o l l e c t i o n s C-087557 and C-102321 th a t i n c l u d e P a l m a t o l e p i s h a s s i M u l l e r & M u l l e r . In a d d i t i o n , C-087557 contains A n c y r o d e l l a nodosa U l r i c h & B a s s l e r and C-102321 contains A n c y r o d e l l a a f f . A. i o i d e s Z i e g l e r and Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i ( S t a u f f e r ) . MP7 i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone through Lower rhenana Zone. Fauna MP7 was c o l l e c t e d from a coarse limestone east of the PETE property. Fauna MP8 Fauna MP8 i d e n t i f i e d i n c o l l e c t i o n s C-102340, C-087558, and C-102586. The fauna i s recognized by the co-occurrence of P a l m a t o l e p i s rhenana B i s c h o f f , Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i (Stauffer) and P a l m a t o l e p i s a f f . P. h a s s i M u l l e r & M u l l e r . C o l l e c t i o n C-102340 and C-087558 a l s o i n c l u d e s A n c y r o d e l l a nodosa U l r i c h & B a s s l e r . C-102586 inc l u d e s a specimen of Palmatolepis sp. C Orchard. Fauna MP8 i s i n d i c a t i v e of rhenana Zone. C o l l e c t i o n s of Macmillan Pass / 47 t h i s fauna were made from limestones northwest of the MOOSE property (C-102340), w i t h i n the JEFF b a r i t e (C-087558), and d i r e c t l y southwest of the PETE property (C-102586) ( f i g . 9). Fauna MP9 Fauna MP9 i s i d e n t i f i e d i n C-086425, C-087560, C-102281, C-118030, C-118032, and C-118033. A l l the c o l l e c t i o n s of Fauna MP9 include Palmatolepis rhenana B i s c h o f f but, are r e s t r i c t e d t o the Lower rhenana Zone by the co-occurrence of e i t h e r P a l m a t o l e p i s proversa Z i e g l e r (C-086425, C-118033, C-102281, C-118030, and C-118032) and/or Pal m a t o l e p i s w i n c h e l l i (Stauffer) w i t h Palmatolepis f o l i a c e a Youngquist (C-087560, C-102281, and C-118032). In a d d i t i o n , c o l l e c t i o n C-087560 contains Palmatolepis h a s s i M u l l e r & M u l l e r and C-102281 i n c l u d e s A n c y r o d e l l a sp. and Pa l m a t o l e p i s h a s s i M u l l e r & M u l l e r . MP9 i s confined t o the Lower rhenana Zone. MP9 was c o l l e c t e d from s e v e r a l tens of metres above the TOM b a r i t e - l e a d -z i n c h o r i z o n (C-118030, C-118032 & C-118033). C-086425 was c o l l e c t e d from l e s s than 25 metres above the hig h e s t GARY b a r i t e h o r i z o n . The other c o l l e c t i o n s of MP9 were from s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s i n the Macmillan Pass area not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any s t r a t i f o r m mineral d e p o s i t . Fauna MP10 Fauna MP10, c o l l e c t i o n s C-102342, C-118035, and C-118034, i s defined by the co-occurrence of Palmatolepis rhenana B i s c h o f f and Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i ( S t a u f f e r ) . C o l l e c t i o n C-118034 includes the only specimens of Palmatolepis n.sp. A. Fauna MP10 i s Macmillan Pass / 48 i n d i c a t i v e of rhenana Zone through l i n g u i f o r m i s Zone. C-102342 was c o l l e c t e d from a coarse limestone d i r e c t l y northwest of the MOOSE property. The other two c o l l e c t i o n s were sampled from s t r a t a above the TOM b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c h o r i z o n . Fauna MP11 Fauna MP11 of c o l l e c t i o n C-102320, i s a p o o r l y represented fauna which i n c l u d e s P a l m a t o l e p i s sp. C Orchard, P a l m a t o l e p i s sp. , and Polygnathus sp. Although Palmatolepis sp. C Orchard occurs i n Fauna MP8, i t s occurrence i n C-102320 can only be loosely-c o n s t r a i n e d as Frasnian i n age. MP11 was c o l l e c t e d from a coarse g r a i n limestone northeast of the GARY property. Fauna MP12 In c o l l e c t i o n s 0-093424, C-087561, and C-086413, fauna MP12 i s recognized by the occurrence of Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann. The co-occurrence of P. c f . P. r e g u l a r i s Cooper and P. minuta Branson & Mehl i n c o l l e c t i o n s 0-093424 and C-087561, and of Palmatolepis c f . P. subperlobata Branson & Mehl i n C-087561 r e s t r i c t s the fauna t o the Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s through Middle c r e p i d a zones. C o l l e c t i o n s 0-093424, C-087561, and C-086413 of fauna MP12 were c o l l e c t e d as i s o l a t e d samples from the Tay R i v e r , Niddery Lake, and Nahanni map areas, not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any s t r a t i f o r m m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . Macmillan Pass / 49 Fauna MP13 Fauna MP13 i s recognized i n c o l l e c t i o n s C-087562, C-089929, and C-108160. The diverse fauna, with i t s unique occurrence of Palmatolepis p o o l e i Sandberg & Z ieg l er and/or Palmatolepis quadrantinodosalobata morphotype 1 Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , i s r e s t r i c t e d to the Lower rhomboidea Zone. Fauna MP13 a lso inc ludes; Palmatolepis g labra l epta Z i e g l e r & Huddle, P. subperlobata Branson & Mehl, P. g labra a f f . P. g. prima Z i e g l e r & Huddle, P. g labra pec t ina ta Z i e g l e r , P. a f f . P. quadrantinodosa Branson & Mehl, P. c f . P. r e g u l a r i s Cooper, P. g labra a f f . P. g labra g labra , P. minuta Branson & Mehl, P. g labra acuta Helms, P. c f . P. quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann, P. k l a p p e r i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , P. g labra g labra U l r i c h & Bass ler , P. crepida Sannemann, P. tenuipunctata Sannemann. C-087652 was c o l l e c t e d from a carbonate lens i n a shale 50 ki lometres north of the TOM property . C o l l e c t i o n s C-089929 and C-108160 were sampled from a limestone 10 ki lometres west of CATHY b a r i t e , s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y above the PETE and GARY b a r i t e s . Fauna MP14 Fauna MP14, recognized i n c o l l e c t i o n C-089933, includes Palmatolepis margini fera margini fera Helms, P. g labra d i s t o r t a Branson & Mehl, and P. g labra l ep ta Z ieg l er & Huddle. MP14 i s i n d i c a t i v e of the margini fera Zone. This s ing le c o l l e c t i o n was sampled from an area for ty kilometres southwest of the JASON depos i t . Macmillan Pass / 50 Fauna MP15 Fauna MP15 i s recognized i n c o l l e c t i o n C-087589. In a d d i t i o n to P a l m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a c f . P. m. m a r g i n i f e r a , t h i s small c o l l e c t i o n s i n c l u d e s P. c f . P. g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a Z i e g l e r and P. quadrantinodosa c f . P. q. i n f l e x o i d e a Z i e g l e r . The range of t h i s fauna i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone but, p o s s i b l y i n t o the lowest Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone. MP15 was c o l l e c t e d from southwest of Macmillan Pass away from any m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . Fauna MP16 Fauna MP16 i s recognized i n c o l l e c t i o n s C-087685 and C-108159. C o l l e c t i o n C-108159 i s a r e - c o l l e c t i o n from the same l o c a l i t y t h a t produced c o l l e c t i o n C-087685. These c o l l e c t i o n s c o n t a i n a d i v e r s e faunal assemblage which i n c l u d e s ; P a l m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a m a r g i n i f e r a Helms, P. g l a b r a d i s t o r t a Branson & Mehl, P. g l a b r a l e p t a Z i e g l e r & Huddle, P. g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a Z i e g l e r , P. p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i M u l l e r , P. rugosa t r a c h y t e r a Z i e g l e r , P. g l a b r a acuta Helms, P. g r a c i l i s g r a c i l i s Branson & Mehl, P. quadrantinodosa i n f l e x o i d e a Z i e g l e r , P. quadrantinodosa i n f l e x a M u l l e r , and P. g l a b r a a f f . P. g l a b r a prima Z i e g l e r & Huddle. The fauna a l s o i n c l u d e s P. rugosa t r a c h y t e r a Z i e g l e r which d e f i n e s the base of the t r a c h y t e r a Zone ( Z i e g l e r & Sandberg, 1984). This fauna, i n d i c a t i v e of the lower Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone, was c o l l e c t e d from coarse grained limestone s e v e r a l k i l o m e t r e s east of the CATHY b a r i t e . The fauna represents the youngest Famennian Earn Group fauna found at Macmillan Pass. Macmillan Pass / 51 Fauna MP17 Fauna MP17 i d e n t i f i e d i n c o l l e c t i o n C-086285, contains Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a . The range of MP17 i s from Upper cr e p i d a Zone i n t o Upper t r a c h y t e r a Zone. Three other Famennian conodont c o l l e c t i o n s from Macmillan Pass have not been assigned t o a s p e c i f i c fauna due to i n s u f f i c i e n t f a u n a l c o n t r o l . C o l l e c t i o n C-086286 includes one specimen of P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a subsp. indeterminate i n d i c a t i v e of c r e p i d a Zone through t r a c h y t e r a Zone. C o l l e c t i o n C-087588 includes Palmatolepis c f . P. p e r l o b a t a subsp. indeterminate and Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i which range from Middle c r e p i d a Zone through Upper expansa Zone. C o l l e c t i o n C-142984 w i t h Palmatolepis minuta subsp. indeterminate and Palmatolepis sp. indeterminate i s confined to the Famennian. Fauna MP18 An E a r l y Carboniferous age fauna was recognized by Orchard (Dawson & Orchard, 1982) from s e v e r a l c o l l e c t i o n s below the b a r i t e horizons at the TEA b a r i t e d e p o s i t ( f i g . 9). The fauna i n c l u d e s Polygnathus communis communis Branson & Mehl, Protognathodus p r a e d e l i c a t u s Lane, Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , Pseudopolygnathus m u l t i s t r i a t u s . Mehl & Thomas. Another c o l l e c t i o n made from w i t h i n the b a r i t e beds contains ' H i n d e o d e l l a 1 segaformis B i s c h o f f . Both the faunas are i n d i c a t i v e of Osagean (=Tournaisian) age (Orchard, i n Dawson & Orchard, 1982). Midway / 52 B. MIDWAY In t h i s s e c t i o n the area r e f e r r e d t o the Midway area i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g 1:250 000 s c a l e map areas; Watson Lake 105A, Jennings R i v e r 1040, McDame 104P, and Cry Lake 1041 ( f i g . 2) . Conodont c o l l e c t i o n s were made around the MIDWAY, PERRY, and EWEN deposits i n order t o develop the b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y of the area and c l a r i f y the age of the McDame-Earn contact and the bedded b a r i t e d e p o s i t s ( f i g . 10) . 1. G e o l o g i c a l S e t t i n g The Midway depo s i t i s l o c a t e d on the C a s s i a r P l a t f o r m ( f i g . 1), a s l i c e of the western North America miogeocline t h a t was d i s p l a c e d approximately 450 ki l o m e t r e s northwest between Middle J u r a s s i c and E a r l y Cenozoic, along the d e x t r a l T i n t i n a f a u l t system (Gab r i e l s e , 1985). The m i o g e o c l i n a l s t r a t a i n c l u d i n g s i l i c i c l a s t i c s and carbonates range i n age from E a r l y Cambrian t o E a r l y Carboniferous ( f i g . 11). The S y l v e s t e r A l l o c h t h o n was t h r u s t over t h i s autochthonous assemblage between the Middle J u r a s s i c t o mid-Cretaceous (Gordey et a l . , 1982). Previous work near the Midway deposit i n c l u d e s r e g i o n a l 1:250 000 s c a l e reconnaissance mapping by Ga b r i e l s e (1969) and 1:25 000 reconnaissance mapping by Nelson and Bradford (1987). A d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l e d property mapping and d r i l l core l o g g i n g has been done by C o r d i l l e r a n Engineering. Two p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t s by Maclntyre Midway / 53 (1982; 1983) described the geo log ica l s e t t i n g and minera l i za t ion at Midway. Orchard and Irwin (1988) publ ished a pre l iminary report on the conodont b ios trat igraphy of the Midway property area. 2. S trat igraphy The o ldest s t r a t a exposed i n the area are corre la t ed with the Lower Cambrian Atan Group (Nelson & Bradford, 1987) . Approximately 2500 metres have been subdivided into a lower s i l i c i c l a s t i c formation and an upper carbonate formation ( F r i t z , 1980). Conformably over ly ing the Atan Group i s roughly 3 00 metres of the Cambrian-Ordovic ian Kechika Group which includes t h i n bedded calcareous s i l t s t o n e , shale , and minor limestones ( f i g . 11). The Kechika Group i s conformably o v e r l a i n by O r d o v i c i a n - S i l u r i a n Road River Group. The Road River i s 2 00 metres of black, g r a p h i t i c , s i l t s t o n e and a r g i l l a c e o u s limestone which i s unconformably o v e r l a i n by the in formal ly named Tapioca sandstone un i t (Gabrie lse , 1969) ( f i g . 11) . The Lower Devonian Tapioca sandstone i s approximately 500 metres t h i c k (Nelson and Bradford, 1987) and cons i s t s of dolostone, sandy dolostone and q u a r t z i t e . The contact between the Tapioca sandstone and the over ly ing McDame Group i s t r a n s i t i o n a l . The Middle Devonian McDame Group i s made up of approximately 400 metres shallow, marine dolostone and f o s s i l i f e r o u s l imestone. The upper McDame Group limestone contains abundant stromatoporoids inc lud ing Amphipora, and tabulate c o r a l s , inc lud ing Syringopora and Thamnopora. Local accumulations of c rypta laga l laminates and s tromatol i tes are i n d i c a t i v e of an 54 GENERALIZED STRATIGRAPHIC SECTION MIDWAY AREA SYLVESTER ALLOCHTHON D - "fi EARN GROUP uD - M McDAME GROUP mD TAPIOCA SANDSTONE ID ROAD RIVER GROUP OS KECHIKA GROUP €0 barite mineralization ATAN GROUP 500 metres (approx.) F i g u r e 10. A g e n e r a l i z e d s t r a t i g r a p h i c s e c t i o n near the Midway property, northern B r i t i s h Columbia (modified from Nelson & Bradford, 1987). 55 F i g u r e 11. Generalized g e o l o g i c a l map of the Midway Area w i t h mineral e x p l o r a t i o n p r o p e r t i e s (modified from Nelson & Bradford, 1987) . Tf~Ci '^ 3^ L'o> ^^cT^? i^v r r^ 7^ \^^ -"'A-; MISSISSIPPIAN TO TRIASSIC "-£>) DEVONIAN TO MISSISSIPPIAN EARN GROUP U I o I ol © I o I MIDDLE DEVONIAN MCDAME GROUP LOWER DEVONIAN TAPIOCA SANDSTONE ORDOVICIAN TO SILURIAN ROAD RIVER GROUP CAMBRIAN TO ORDOVICIAN •:\-vA-ay'.w-f---:-:-:-r= • Midway / 57 i n t e r t i d a l t o s u b t i d a l environment. The upper McDame has undergone s i g n i f i c a n t d i s s o l u t i o n ; Nelson and Bradford (1987) r e p o r t 200 metres of r e l i e f a t the McDame-Earn contact. At l e a s t some of t h i s d i s s o l u t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o processes t h a t predate Earn Group d e p o s i t i o n . D r i l l core m a t e r i a l shows major c a v i t i e s i n the McDame i n f i l l e d w i t h b r e c c i a t e d Earn Group laminates. The Devono-Mississippian Earn Group c o n s i s t s of t u r b i d i t i c c l a s t i c sequences t h a t were o r i g i n a l l y named the Lower S y l v e s t e r Group ( G a b r i e l s e , 1969). These s t r a t a have been reassigned t o the Earn Group as d e f i n e d by Gordey et a l . (1982). At Midway, approximately 700 metres of bl a c k s l a t e , t h i n bedded calcareous s i l t s t o n e , t h i n t o t h i c k bedded sandstone and chert pebble conglomerate, unconformably o v e r l i e s the McDame Group (Nelson & Bradford, 1987) ( f i g . 10 & 11). C o r d i l l e r a n Engineering Ltd. described the MIDWAY property s t r a t i g r a p h y as two g e n e r a l l y coarsening upward sequences. The lower sequence c o n s i s t s of a f i n e g r a i n u n i t (1A) o v e r l a i n by a coarse g r a i n u n i t ( I B ) and the upper sequence contains another f i n e g r a i n u n i t (2A) o v e r l a i n by a coarse g r a i n u n i t (2B) . The upper McDame and basa l Earn groups c o n t a i n sulphide m i n e r a l i z a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the emplacement of a nearby Cretaceous p l u t o n (Nelson & Bradford, 1987). Two sedimentary e x h a l a t i v e b a r i t e d e p o s i t s , i d e n t i f i e d at the EWEN and PERRY p r o p e r t i e s , are hosted w i t h i n the upper 2A u n i t of the Earn Group ( f i g . 10). The upper contact of the Earn Group i s the complicated b a s a l t h r u s t system of the S y l v e s t e r A l l o c h t h o n (Nelson & Bradford, 1987). Midway / 58 3. B ios trat igraphy Conodonts occur i n s i g n i f i c a n t quantity and d i v e r s i t y within the Devono-Mississ ippian Earn Group sediments of the Midway area (tables IV & V, appendix B) . Although poor preservat ion and adhering matrix tended to obscure some morphologic d e t a i l s , confident taxonomic determinations were poss ib le a f t er comparisons to bet ter preserved specimens from elsewhere i n the Earn Group were completed. The co lour a l t e r a t i o n index of the Midway conodonts i s 5 with only one c o l l e c t i o n s l i g h t l y higher at 6 due to i t s proximity to an a l t e r a t i o n zone. McDame Group samples were c o l l e c t e d from limestone and dolomit ic s i l t s t o n e at or j u s t below the McDame/Earn group contact . The Earn Group conodonts were recovered from black, f ine grained, t h i n l y laminated calcareous shale and s i l t s t o n e . Earn Group samples of l ess than 1.5 kilograms y i e lded tens to hundreds of conodont platform and ramiform elements, both complete and fragmented specimens. The major i ty of the samples were c o l l e c t e d i n two d r i l l cores; from i n t e r v a l s of l e ss than 50 cm, over 2.5 m sections of d r i l l hole DDH-28 and DDH-34. Although there were no apparent l i t h o l o g i c a l d i f ferences i n t h i s d r i l l core mater ia l at the base (informal un i t 1AC, C o r d i l l e r a n Engineering Ltd . ) of the Lower Earn Group, there were more unproductive samples i n DDH-34 than from DDH-28 (tables IV & V, appendix B) . Orchard and Irwin (1987) previous ly d iv ided the Midway conodont specimens into s ix faunas inc lud ing three faunas i n the Sylvester Group. The Sylvester Group Midway / 59 conodonts are E a r l y Carboniferous or younger and o u t s i d e the scope of t h i s p r o j e c t . Fauna Ml Fauna Ml, i d e n t i f i e d i n c o l l e c t i o n 0-086357, i s the only Late Devonian conodont c o l l e c t i o n from the Watson Lake map-area ( f i g s . 2 & 3) . The fauna from an unnamed grey limestone i n c l u d e s I c r i o d u s b r e v i s (Huddle) and I c r i o d u s c f . I . b r e v i s Seddon of the nearshore I c r i o d u s b i o f a c i e s . Fauna Ml i s i n d i c a t i v e of l a t e G i v e t i a n through e a r l y Frasnian time. Fauna M2 Fauna M2 of c o l l e c t i o n C-088239 contains A n c y r o d e l l a sp., I c r i o d u s sp., and Polygnathus sp. The age of fauna M2 i s e a r l y Frasnian. The p o o r l y d e f i n e d fauna was sampled i n the Cry Lake map area south of the MIDWAY property from the McDame Group ( f i g s . 2 & 3). The c o l l e c t i o n was made from McDame carbonates about 10 metres below the McDame/Earn Group contact. Fauna M3 Another c o l l e c t i o n , C-088250, contains A n c y r o d e l l a sp. , A n c y r o d e l l a a f f . A. binodosa Uyeno, and Polygnathus sp. from the upper McDame Group an unknown di s t a n c e below the Earn Group contact. The fauna spans the middle f a l s i o v a l i s through punctata zones. This c o l l e c t i o n contains the only specimens of A n c y r o d e l l a binodosa Uyeno t o be recovered from the Selwyn and Kechika Basins. M3 was Midway / 60 c o l l e c t e d i n the Cry Lake map area, f i v e k i l o m e t r e s south along the same r i d g e from M2. Fauna M4 Fauna M4 (Fauna I , Orchard and I r w i n , 1987), from c o l l e c t i o n C-143101 co n t a i n s poorly preserved I c r i o d u s sp. , Palmatolepis sp. in d e t . , Polygnathus sp. i n d e t . and Palm a t o l e p i s c f . P. t r a n s i t a n s M u l l e r . The fauna provides an age range of t r a n s i t a n s through Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s zones. The c o l l e c t i o n was made from dolomite i n k a r s t i c hollows on top of McDame Group at the McDame/Earn Group contact l e s s than f i v e k i l o m e t r e s south of the MIDWAY d e p o s i t . Fauna M5 Fauna M5, recognized i n c o l l e c t i o n C-103232, contains A n c y r o d e l l a gigas Youngquist, A n c y r o d e l l a a f f . A. nodosa U l r i c h & B a s s l e r , A n c y r o d e l l a sp. i n d e t . , Palmatolepis a f f . P. proversa Z i e g l e r , P a l m a t o l e p i s a f f . P. w i n c h e l l i ( S t a u f f e r ) , Palmatolepis sp. , I c r i o d u s sp. , and Polygnathus sp. Fauna M5, i n d i c a t i v e of punctata Zone and i n t o Lower rhenana Zone, i s j u s t s l i g h t l y younger than the McDame Group sample .(C-088250). The c o l l e c t i o n i s from the Earn Group i n Cry Lake map area (1041/16), southeast of Midway ( f i g s . 2 & 3) . Fauna M6 The f o l l o w i n g c o l l e c t i o n s of Fauna M6 were made through a continuous 2.25 m s e c t i o n of s t r a t a from d r i l l hole DDH 83-28 at Midway / 61 the MIDWAY property d i r e c t l y above the McDame/Earn group contact. In s t r a t i g r a p h i c order, bottom to top; C-157908, C-157907, C-157906, C-157905, C-157909, C-118256, and C-157910 (table V & appendix B) . C-157929 co l l e c t e d from d r i l l hole DDH 83-34 also represents fauna M6. The co l l e c t i o n s are dominated by Palmatolepis ex gr. glabra U l r i c h & Bassler but, also includes Palmatolepis minuta Branson & Mehl, Palmatolepis subperlobata Branson & Mehl, Palmatolepis c f . P. reg u l a r i s Cooper, Palmatolepis quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann, and Palmatolepis tenuipunctata Sannemann. Fauna M6 represents the Upper crepida Zone. Fauna M7 Fauna M7 of C-118253 i s dominated by Palmatolepis ex gr. glabra, with P. minuta minuta, P. minuta loba, P. c f . P. regularis, P. subperlobata, P. quadrantinodosalobata, and P. klapperi. In addition, C-118253 contains two specimens of presumably reworked Mesotaxis asymmetrica, of Frasnian age. M7 i s ind i c a t i v e of the Lower rhomboidea Zone. C o l l e c t i o n C-118253 was colle c t e d immediately above C-157929 (Fauna M6) i n d r i l l hole DDH 83-34. Faunas M8 Fauna M8, recognized i n c o l l e c t i o n s C-157939 and C-157924, i s characterized by Palmatolepis glabra pectinata and P. cf. P. regu l a r i s . In addition, C-157939 contains P. g. acuta, P. g. prima, P. minuta minuta, and P. subperlobata. The co l l e c t i o n s provide an age of Upper crepida Zone through Lower rhomboidea Zone. Both c o l l e c t i o n s were from d r i l l core material at the MIDWAY Midway / 62 property; c o l l e c t i o n C-157939 was from d r i l l h ole 41, C-157924 was from d r i l l hole 31 (appendix B). Fauna M9 C-157938 contains Palmatolepis a f f . P. m a r g i n i f e r a Helms and Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a . Fauna M9 i s i n d i c a t i v e of the m a r g i n i f e r a Zone and represents the youngest Devonian Earn Group i d e n t i f i e d a t Midway. The fauna was c o l l e c t e d 50 cm above a c o l l e c t i o n of fauna M8 i n d r i l l hole 41 at the MIDWAY property. Faunas M10 C o l l e c t i o n C-157928 contains Palmatolepis minuta minuta, P. glabra acuta, P. g. p e c t i n a t a , P. g. l e p t a . The age range f o r t h i s fauna i s Upper c r e p i d a Zone through Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone. The c o l l e c t i o n a l s o contains two specimens of presumably reworked Mesotaxis asymmetrica. The fauna spans the age range of Faunas M6, M7, M8, & M9. M10 was sampled from d r i l l h o l e DDH 83-34 on the MIDWAY property. A f u r t h e r c o l l e c t i o n (C-153835), t e n t a t i v e l y i n c l u d e d here, contains Palmatolepis ssp., P a l m a t o l e p i s p e r l o b a t a a f f . P. p. s c h i n d e w o l f i , Bispathodus sp. , and Polygnathus sp. This fauna and can only be dated as Famennian, no o l d e r than middle c r e p i d a Zone. Fauna M i l Fauna M i l was desc r i b e d by Orchard and I r w i n (1987, Fauna I I I ) from the i n f o r m a l 2AC u n i t ( C o r d i l l e r a n Resources Ltd) i n the Midway area and w i t h i n outcrop of the EWEN and PERRY b a r i t e s near the Midway / 63 MIDWAY property ( f i g . 11) . The fauna c o n s i s t s of e a r l y Lower Carboniferous ( e a r l y t o middle Tournaisian) Siphonodella, with species of Gnathodus, Polygnathus, Protognathodus, and Pseudopolygnathus. C. GATAGA The Gataga area, i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g 1:250 000 s c a l e map areas; Kechika 94L, Tuchodi Lakes 94K, and Ware 94F ( f i g . 2 & 3) . A l a r g e number of conodont samples were c o l l e c t e d i n the Gataga area t o e s t a b l i s h a b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c framework f o r the s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c d e p o s i t s . 1. G e o l o g i c a l S e t t i n g The Kechika Basin i s the southern extension of the l a t e P r o t e r o z o i c through mid-late P a l e o z o i c Selwyn Basin i n the Yukon (Gordey, i n prep) ( f i g . 1) . This area i s p a r t of a complicated northwest t r e n d i n g f o l d and t h r u s t b e l t i n the western Rocky Mountains. The Gataga area i s bordered on the west by the Rocky Mountain Trench d e x t r a l s t r i k e - s l i p f a u l t system ( G a b r i e l s e , 1985) and on the east by l a t e P r o t e r o z o i c age s i l i c i c l a s t i c s (Taylor and S t o t t , 1973; McClay et a l . , 1988). I n t e n s e l y f a u l t e d , f o l d e d , and cleaved O r d o v i c i a n t o M i s s i s s i p p i a n , f i n e - g r a i n e d s i l i c i c l a s t i c s t r a t a rocks of the Kechika Basin are u n d e r l a i n by autochthonous Late P r o t e r o z o i c through Cambro-Ordovician p l a t f o r m t o o f f - s h e l f s i l i c i c l a s t i c s and carbonates (McClay & I n s l e y , 1986) . S t r a t a Gataga / 64 range i n age from Hadrynian through M i s s i s s i p p i a n ( f i g . 12) and are d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r d i s t i n c t t e c t o n o s t r a t i g r a p h i c packages bounded by steep southwest-dipping, northeast-verging t h r u s t f a u l t s . W i t h i n the Gataga area, Devonian lower Earn Group s t r a t a hosts s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c deposits i n c l u d i n g DRIFTPILE, BEAR, SAINT ( f i g . 13), CIRQUE, ELF, FLUKE, KWADACHA, and ROUGH p r o p e r t i e s (Came & Cathro, 1982; Maclntyre, 1983; J e f f e r s o n et a l , 1983; McClay et a l . , 1988). Previous work i n the Gataga area i n c l u d e s r e g i o n a l 1:250 000 s c a l e reconnaissance mapping by G a b r i e l s e (19 62) and Taylor and S t o t t (1973), and 1:50 000 mapping by Maclntyre (1982, 1983), McClay & I n s l e y (1986), McClay et a l . (1987). D e t a i l e d mapping of the D r i f t p i l e Creek deposit was done by Archer Cathro and As s o c i a t e s (Came & Cathro, 1982), a d d i t i o n a l 1:10 000 and 1:20 000 s c a l e area mapping has a l s o been completed (McClay & I n s l e y , 1986; McClay et a l . , 1987; McClay, I n s l e y , & Anderton, 1989). The d e t a i l e d mapping and l a r g e s c a l e mapping concentrated on the r e g i o n a l s t r a t i g r a p h y , s t r u c t u r e , and sedimentology of the Earn Group. P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was given t o the s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c and b a r i t e d e p o s i t s through d e t a i l e d mapping and sampling. Conodont samples were c o l l e c t e d i n 1984, 1985, and 1986 from d r i l l core and i s o l a t e d s u r f a c e outcrop by McClay et a l . as p a r t of t h e i r mapping p r o j e c t . Gataga / 65 2. S t r a t i g r a p h y The s t r a t i g r a p h i c nomenclature i n the Gataga area was developed by G a b r i e l s e (1962), Taylor and S t o t t (1973), F r i t z (1980) , and Maclntyre (1983). The most complete d e s c r i p t i o n of the Gataga area s t r a t i g r a p h y i s by McClay et a l . (1988). Due t o the c o m p l e x i t i e s w i t h i n the f o l d and t h r u s t b e l t , accurate t h i c k n e s s determinations f o r the Hadrynian through to E a r l y Carboniferous s t r a t a are d i f f i c u l t . The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of the Gataga area s t r a t i g r a p h y i s a f t e r McClay and I n s l e y (1986) and McClay et a l (1987; 1988). A t h i c k package of Hadrynian age, f i n e t o medium-grained s i l i c i c l a s t i c s w i t h small pods of o o l i t i c carbonate forms the cores of a n t i c l i n e s and the hanging w a l l panels of t h r u s t sheets on the eastern margin of the Gataga f o l d - b e l t (Taylor and S t o t t , 1973). An unnamed, 1.1-2.0 kilometres t h i c k , Lower t o Middle Cambrian sequence of q u a r t z i t e , d o l o m i t i c g r i t and shallow water carbonate o v e r l i e s the Hadrynian s t r a t a i n the eastern map-area ( f i g s . 12 & 13). Conformably o v e r l y i n g the Lower t o Middle Cambrian u n i t i s the Kechika Group. The Upper Cambrian through O r d o v i c i a n Kechika Group i s approximately 2 00 metres of t h i n l y inter-bedded d o l o m i t i c s i l t s t o n e , dolostone and p h y l l i t e , and calcareous p h y l l i t e w ith small i n t e r c a l a t e d limestone pods. O r d o v i c i a n through Lower Devonian Road R i v e r Group s t r a t a conformably o v e r l i e the Kechika 66 GENERALIZED STRATIGRAPHIC SECTION GATAGA AREA EARN GROUP UD ROAD RIVER GROUP Ord - MD KECHIKA GROUP u€ - ORD CAMBRIAN PROTEROZOIC barite or barite-lead-zinc mineralization 500 metres (approx.) Figure 12. A generalized s t r a t i g r a p h i c section i n the Gataga Area, northern B r i t i s h Columbia (adapted from McClay, Insley, & Anderton, 1989). Gataga / 67 Group. The Road R i v e r Group around Gataga i s approximately 2 00 metres t h i c k . G r a p t o l i t i c b l a c k shale, c h e r t , and minor limestone form the lower Road R i v e r Group, whereas, r e s i s t a n t d o l o m i t i c s i l t s t o n e and b i o t u r b a t e d s i l t s t o n e w i t h g r a p t o l i t e s form the upper s e c t i o n . Above the Road R i v e r Group i s the i n t e n s e l y folded and t h r u s t f a u l t e d lower Earn Group sequence (McClay et a l . , 1987) ( f i g s . 12 & 13). Conodonts from the Gataga area provide an Upper Devonian age f o r both the t h i n lower assemblage of thick-bedded, chert pebble conglomerate and c h e r t g r i t , t h i n bedded laminated s i l t s t o n e and s i l t banded shale, and the o v e r l y i n g t h i c k (400 metres) b l a c k s h a l e , c h e r t y a r g i l l i t e , and c h e r t . At Gataga t h i s u n i t , i n f o r m a l l y c a l l e d Gunsteel Formation to the south at the CIRQUE property ( J e f f e r s o n et a l . , 1983), contains economically important b a r i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . M i n e r a l i z a t i o n zones w i t h i n the Earn Group have been traced continuously along s t r i k e f o r 12 k i l o m e t r e s and at a r e g i o n a l s c a l e semi-continuously f o r 50 k i l o m e t r e s . McClay et a l . (1988) reported t h a t 70 metres of c r i n o i d a l g rainstone, sandstone, and s i l t s t o n e w i t h abundant s h e l l d e bris of M i s s i s s i p p i a n age was l o c a t e d i n the f o o t w a l l of the westernmost t h r u s t f a u l t i n the Gataga area ( f i g . 13) . This i s thought to represent the upper Earn Group (senso l a t o Gordey et a l . , 1982). 68 F i g u r e 13. Generalized g e o l o g i c a l map of the Gataga Area with m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n p r o p e r t i e s (modified from McClay, I n s l e y , & Anderton, 1989). 6 9 Gataga / 70 3. B ios tra t igraphy Within the Selwyn and Kechika Basins , the larges t number of Late Devonian conodont samples have been c o l l e c t e d from the Gataga area ( f i g . 3) . The rock samples from d r i l l cores and outcrop materia l for conodont analys i s were c o l l e c t e d by K. R. McClay & M. Insley i n 1984, 1985, and 1986 as part of a combined s tructure , sedimentology, and s trat igraphy pro jec t i n the Gataga region (McClay et a l . , 1987; 1988; McClay & Ins ley , 1986), (appendix C) . In a d d i t i o n , s ix outcrop samples were c o l l e c t e d southeast of the Gataga area by D. Maclntyre i n 1980 and 1981 ( f i g . 3, appendix C) . Approximate locat ions of c o l l e c t i o n s and faunas are given r e l a t i v e to the nearest mineral property . Samples from i n d i v i d u a l black arg i l l aceous limestone pods and calcareous shale and s i l t s t o n e were c o l l e c t e d from over very t h i n s t r a t i g r a p h i c i n t e r v a l s . Of the 23 0 samples c o l l e c t e d , 111 produced conodonts, of which 7 0 contained Late Devonian conodonts (tables IV, V I - V I I , appendix C) . The Frasnian conodont c o l l e c t i o n s from the Gataga region are scat tered i n i so la t ed surface outcrops with l i m i t e d s t r a t i g r a p h i c context or c o n t i n u i t y . No measured s t r a t i g r a p h i c sect ions were i d e n t i f i e d for systematic conodont sampling. The c o l l e c t i o n s made, however, provide important ages for basal Earn Group s t r a t a and for an unnamed limestone u n i t , south of Gataga, seen d i r e c t l y underly ing the Earn Group. The conodonts wi th in the Gataga area have a co lour a l t e r a t i o n index of 5. The proximity to mineral ized horizons does not e f fect t h i s va lue . Gataga / 71 Good s t r a t i g r a p h i c control i s , however, available for many of the 57 Famennian conodont c o l l e c t i o n s from Gataga because they were recovered from sixteen c a r e f u l l y logged d r i l l core sections. A large number of d r i l l holes were made i n the Gataga area to determine the subsurface geology and s i z e of the stratiform b a r i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c deposits. Fauna Gl Fauna Gl i n c o l l e c t i o n C-102874 consists of Klapperina d i s p a r i l i s (Ziegler, Klapper & Johnson), Klapperina disparalvea (Orr & Klapper), Klapperina disparata (Ziegler & Klapper), Mesotaxis f a l s i o v a l i s Sandberg, Ziegler, & Bultynck, Mesotaxis dengleri (Bischoff & Z i e g l e r ) , "Polygnathus" c r i s t a t u s Hinde, Polygnathus dubius Hinde (table 4 & appendix C). Fauna Gl i s i n d i c a t i v e of f a l s i o v a l i s Zone into the punctata Zone. I t was sampled from an unnamed limestone unit, possibly equivalent to the McDame Group at Midway, 2 0 kilometres southeast along s t r i k e from the BEAR property (Maclntyre, 1981) ( f i g . 13). The limestone unit here i s overlain by black cherty a r g i l l i t e of the basal Earn Group. Fauna G2 C o l l e c t i o n C-102892 represents Fauna G2. I t contains a single Ancyrodella rotundiloba with an age range of l a t e Early f a l s i o v a l i s Zone through punctata Zone. Ancyrodella rotundiloba was recovered from an unnamed b i o c l a s t i c limestone unit, located 40 kilometres southeast along s t r i k e from the BEAR property. Gataga / 72 Fauna G3 C o l l e c t i o n C-102891 and C-118543 co n t a i n the d i a g n o s t i c species of Fauna G3. Fauna G3 i s recognized by the co-occurrence of K l a p p e r i n a o v a l i s Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck and Palmatolepis a f f . P. t r a n s i t a n s M u l l e r . The age of Fauna G3 i s t r a n s i t a n s Zone through Upper asymmetricus Zone. C o l l e c t i o n C-102891 a l s o includes Mesotaxis asymmetrica ( B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r ) , Mesotaxis f a l s i o v a l i s ( Z i e g l e r & Klapper) Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, and s e v e r a l u n i d e n t i f i e d specimens of Polygnathus. C-102891 was sampled from a limestone bed i n a s e c t i o n of b l a c k c h e r t y a r g i l l i t e i n the f o o t w a l l of b a r i t i c zone on s t r i k e w i t h KWADACHA b a r i t e deposit, about seventy k i l o m e t r e s southeast of the Gataga area. C o l l e c t i o n C-118543 i s from near the SAINT property ( f i g . 13). Fauna G4 Fauna G4, c o l l e c t i o n C-102879, contains "Polygnathus" c f . "P". c r i s t a t u s Hinde and s e v e r a l u n i d e n t i f i e d Polygnathus species, s i m i l a r t o polygnathids i n the fauna G3. Fauna G4 was sampled from a limestone i n b l a c k cherty a r g i l l i t e u n d e r l y i n g a nodular bedded b a r i t e h o r i z o n f o r t y k i l o m e t r e s south of the BEAR property. The age of the fauna i s l a t e G i v e t i a n through e a r l y Frasnian. Fauna G4 represents the intermediate water depth p o l y g n a t h i d b i o f a c i e s . Fauna G5 Fauna G5 i s recognized i n c o l l e c t i o n C-118902. I t contains Palmatolepis proversa Z i e g l e r and Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i (Stauffer) which are r e l a t i v e l y long ranging s p e c i e s . Fauna G5 i s i n d i c a t i v e Gataga / 73 of punctata Zone through Lower rhenana zones. The c o l l e c t i o n was made several ki lometres west of the SAINT property ( f i g . 13). Fauna G6 Fauna G6 i s represented by c o l l e c t i o n C-118550. The c o l l e c t i o n includes Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i , several u n i d e n t i f i e d Palmatolepis and Polygnathus specimens, and Palmatolepis a f f . P. minuta. Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i provides a broad age range for Fauna G6 of Upper asymmetricus Zone in to Lower t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone. Palmatolepis a f f . P. minuta i s s i m i l a r to Palmatolepis sp. C (Orchard, 1988) which was described i n s t r a t a near the Frasnian-Famennian boundary. This c o l l e c t i o n was made adjacent to the SAINT property . Fauna G7 Fauna G7 i s recognized by the co-occurrence of Palmatolepis t rans i tans M u l l e r , P. domanicensis Ovnatanova, and P. punctata (Hinde) i n c o l l e c t i o n s C-118537 and C-116673. C o l l e c t i o n C-116673 also includes Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i , P. proversa, and Ancyrodel la a f f . A. lobata . Fauna G7 i s constrained within the Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone. I t i s recognized i n the v i c i n i t y of the ROUGH property , twenty north of the SAINT property ( f i g . 13). Fauna G8 C o l l e c t i o n C-116659 contains specimens of Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i , Palmatolepis hass i Mul l er & M u l l e r , Palmatolepis a f f . P. proversa Z i e g l e r , Ancyrodel la i o i d e s Z i e g l e r , and a large number of u n i d e n t i f i e d polygnathids and ramiform elements. Fauna G8 i s Gataga / 74 i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e m i d d l e A n c y r o g n a t h u s t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone t h r o u g h Lower rhenana Zone. Fauna G8 was c o l l e c t e d near t h e BEAR p r o p e r t y ( f i g . 1 3 ) . Fauna G9 Specimens o f P a l m a t o l e p i s w i n c h e l l i and P. rhenana o c c u r w i t h P. h a s s i and reworked M e s o t a x i s asymmetrica i n c o l l e c t i o n C-118903. T h i s c o l l e c t i o n , i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e Lower rhenana Zone, was sampled i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e SAINT p r o p e r t y . Fauna G10 C o l l e c t i o n C-118908 r e p r e s e n t i n g Fauna G10 c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l specimens o f P a l m a t o l e p i s a f f . P. rhenana and P a l m a t o l e p i s a f f . P. w i n c h e l l i w h i c h t o g e t h e r s i g n i f i e s t h e rhenana Zone. The a f f i n i t y d e s i g n a t i o n f o r t h e s p e c i e s i s due t o t h e a d h e r i n g m a t r i x on t h e conodonts w h i c h o b s c u r e s some d e t a i l . Fauna G10 was c o l l e c t e d i n t h e a r e a n e a r t h e DRIFTPILE p r o p e r t y ( f i g . 1 3 ) . Fauna G i l C-116684 c o n s i s t s o f P a l m a t o l e p i s m i n u t a m i n u t a Branson & Me h l , P. q u a d r a n t i n o d o s a l o b a t a Sannemann, P. s u b p e r l o b a t a Branson & Mehl, P. a f f . P. g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r , P. c f . P. r e g u l a r i s Cooper, P. a f f . P. t e n u i p u n c t a t a Sannemann, P. a f f . P. t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann. Fauna G i l , i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s t o Lower c r e p i d a zones, was c o l l e c t e d near t h e SAINT p r o p e r t y . Gataga / 75 Fauna G12 C-118892 i n c l u d e s Palmatolepis c r e p i d a Sannemann, Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann, Palmatolepis quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann, Palmatolepis minuta subsp.indeterminate, Palmatolepis c f . P. r e g u l a r i s Cooper, and Pa l m a t o l e p i s wolskajae Ovnatanova, Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a subsp, P a l m a t o l e p i s a f f . P. d e l i c a t u l a c l a r k i Z i e g l e r , Palmatolepis subperlobata Branson Se Mehl, Palmatolepis tenuipunctata Sannemann, Pal m a t o l e p i s sp., and Polygnathus sp. The age of Fauna G12 i s Middle c r e p i d a Zone. This d i v e r s e fauna was c o l l e c t e d t h r e e k i l o m e t r e s south of the DRIFTPILE property. Fauna G13 C-118917 c o n s i s t s of Palmatolepis a f f . P. g l a b r a U l r i c h Se B a s s l e r , P. minuta a f f . P. m. loba Branson S. Mehl, P. p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i M u l l e r , P. quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann, P. subperlobata Branson Se Mehl, and P. a f f . P. minuta Branson Si Mehl. The age of fauna G13 i s Middle c r e p i d a Zone and i n t o Lower rhomboidea Zone. Fauna G13 was c o l l e c t e d near the SAINT cl a i m s . Fauna G14 Fauna G14 of c o l l e c t i o n C-118544 con t a i n s Palmatolepis minuta minuta Branson Se Mehl, P. subperlobata, P. quadrantinodosalobata, and P. q. morphotype 1 Sandberg Se Z i e g l e r . This fauna represents the Upper c r e p i d a through Lower rhomboidea zones. This fauna was c o l l e c t e d from carbonate a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n near the SAINT property. Gataga / 7 6 Fauna G15 The small c o l l e c t i o n C-116719 c o n s i s t s of Palmatolepis rhomboidea Sannemann and P. c f . P. subperlobata Branson & Mehl i n c o l l e c t i o n C-116719. Fauna G15 i s i n d i c a t i v e of the Lower rhomboidea Zone was sampled from nodular limestone w i t h i n b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n d r i l l h ole 80-35. An occurrence of Palmatolepis rhomboidea has not been p r e v i o u s l y reported from western Canada. Fauna G16 C o l l e c t i o n C-116956 c o n s i s t s of a more d i v e r s e fauna i n c l u d i n g Palmatolepis ex gr. g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r species and P. quadrantinodosa a f f . P. q. i n f l e x o i d e a Z i e g l e r . The only occurrence i n the Earn Group of Palmatolepis s t o p p e l i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r i s from t h i s c o l l e c t i o n . P. s t o p p e l i has a short range from the upper Upper rhomboidea Zone i n t o the Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973) . Fauna G16 i s confined t o the upper Upper rhomboidea t o lower Lower m a r g i n i f e r a zones. G16 was sampled from below a b a r i t e h o r i z o n i n d r i l l hole 79-30. Fauna G17 C-118880 co n t a i n s P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann, P. a f f . P. g l a b r a , P. subperlobata, P. minuta minuta, and Polygnathus granulosus Branson & Mehl. The faunal age range i s Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone to Lower rhomboidea Zone. The c o l l e c t i o n was gather from outcrop s e v e r a l k i l o m e t r e s west of the SAINT property. Gataga / 77 Fauna G18 Seven c o l l e c t i o n s (C-116969, C-116983, C-116990, C-116997, C-117000, C-116695, C-116713) c o n s i s t of only a few specimens of P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a l e p t a Z i e g l e r & Huddle and are l o o s e l y dated from middle Upper c r e p i d a Zone through middle Upper t r a c h y t e r a Zone. Fauna G18 has been recovered from s e v e r a l d r i l l cores i n the area Gataga area (appendix C). Fauna G19 Fauna G19 i s i d e n t i f i e d i n c o l l e c t i o n C-116954 which c o n s i s t s of P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a c f . P. g. prima Z i e g l e r & Huddle, P. g. l e p t a morphotype 1, P. ?subperlobata, P. minuta subsp., P. g. p e c t i n a t a . Fauna G19 i s a l s o recognized i n three sparse c o l l e c t i o n s (C-118540, C-116981, C-116715) which c o n t a i n one or two specimens of P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a Z i e g l e r and c o l l e c t i o n s C-116955 with P. ex gr. g l a b r a , P. g l a b r a l e p t a morphotype 1, and P. g l a b r a a f f . P. g. prima Z i e g l e r & Huddle; C-116993 wi t h P. a f f . P. g l a b r a and P. g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a ; C-116912 wit h P. g l a b r a c f . P. g. p e c t i n a t a and P. a f f . P. minuta subsp. Fauna G19, i n d i c a t i v e of Upper c r e p i d a Zone through Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone, has a l s o been c o l l e c t e d from d r i l l core samples i n the Gataga area. Fauna G20 The d i a g n o s t i c species of Fauna G20, P a l m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a m a r g i n i f e r a , i s present i n the f o l l o w i n g c o l l e c t i o n s ; C-118548, C-118914, C-118915, C-116992, C-116909, C-116718, C-116722, C-116957. In a d d i t i o n , other palmatolepids i n c l u d i n g P. g l a b r a l e p t a , P. Gataga / 78 g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a , P. p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i M u l l e r , P. glabra d i s t o r t a Branson & Mehl, P. g l a b r a prima Z i e g l e r & Huddle, and P. minuta minuta Branson & Mehl make-up fauna G2 0. Two c o l l e c t i o n s , C-118889 and C-116698 have the same age but, do not co n t a i n P a l m a t o l e p i s m. m a r g i n i f e r a . Fauna G20 i s i n d i c a t i v e of the Lower and Upper m a r g i n i f e r a zones. Fauna G21 C o l l e c t i o n s C-116965, C-116991, and C-116994 c o n s i s t of Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a , P. g l a b r a d i s t o r t a . In a d d i t i o n , C-116965 and C-116991 contains P. m a r g i n i f e r a m a r g i n i f e r a . Fauna G21 i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone through the Uppermost m a r g i n i f e r a Zone. Fauna G21 i s found s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y above bedded b a r i t e and below b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c h o r i z o n s . Fauna G22 Fauna G2 2 i s a composite i n d i c a t i v e of Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons. The fauna occurs i n s i x c o l l e c t i o n s ; C-118907, C-118884, C-116977, C-116669, C-116720, and C-116724. C o l l e c t i o n C-116724 i n c l u d e s the only specimen of Palmatolepis k l a p p e r i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r from Gataga. This p a r t i c u l a r fauna i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone by the upper age l i m i t of Palm a t o l e p i s k l a p p e r i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r and the lower l i m i t of P. g l a b r a d i s t o r t a . S i m i l a r l y , P. quadrantinodosa i n f l e x o i d e a Z i e g l e r , which occurs i n C-118884, C-116977, and C-116669, has an e s t a b l i s h e d range confined t o the Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973). Furthermore, the co-occurrence of P. m a r g i n i f e r a Gataga / 79 m a r g i n i f e r a w i t h P. quadrantinodosa i n f l e x a , however, de f i n e s the lower age range f o r C-118907 & C-116720 as Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone. Other s p e c i e s represented i n fauna G22 i n c l u d e P. g l a b r a l e p t a , P. g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a , P. g l a b r a d i s t o r t a , P. g l a b r a prima, P. quadrantinodosa n.subsp. A, P. p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i , and P. minuta minuta. Fauna G23 Fauna G23, recognized i n c o l l e c t i o n s C-118547, C-116958, C-116980, C-116693, c o n s i s t s of Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a utahensis and the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s , P. g l a b r a d i s t o r t a , P. g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a , P. g l a b r a prima, P. m a r g i n i f e r a m a r g i n i f e r a , P. g l a b r a l e p t a . Fauna G23 i s c o n f i n e d t o the Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone by the occurrence of P a l m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a utahensis (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1984) . This fauna has been recovered from below and b a r i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c h o rizons. Fauna G24 Fauna G24, i d e n t i f i e d i n c o l l e c t i o n C-116697, c o n s i s t s of P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a d i s t o r t a , P. g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a , P. g l a b r a prima, P. m a r g i n i f e r a m a r g i n i f e r a , P. g l a b r a l e p t a and a unique specimen of P. rugosa a f f . P. r . t r a c h y t e r a Z i e g l e r . Z i e g l e r & Sandberg (1984) d e s c r i b e s i m i l a r P. rugosa t r a c h y t e r a specimens as the zonal index f o r the t r a c h y t e r a Zone. Wi t h i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n , however, the other subspecies are i n d i c a t i v e of the Lower and Upper m a r g i n i f e r a zones. Gataga / 80 Fauna G25 Fauna G25 i s r e c o g n i z e d i n f i v e c o l l e c t i o n s ; C-118539, C-118923, C-118924, C-116914, C-116730. I t i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone. A l t h o u g h G25 i n c l u d e s components o f G22 and G23, fauna G25 i s d e f i n e d by t h e c o - o c c u r r e n c e o f P a l m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a u t a h e n s i s w i t h P. g u a d r a n t i n o d o s a i n f l e x o i d e a and/or P. g u a d r a n t i n o d o s a i n f l e x a . The c o - o c c u r r e n c e i s p o s s i b l e o n l y i f t h e s p e c i e s range f o r b o t h P a l m a t o l e p i s g u a d r a n t i n o d o s a s u b s p e c i e s i s extended i n t o t h e l o w e r Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone. T h i s e x t e n s i o n o f t h e age range f o r P. q. i n f l e x a and P. q. i n f l e x o i d e a e f f e c t s n e i t h e r t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f , n o r t h e range o f Fauna G22. S i n c e Fauna G22 does n o t c o n t a i n specimens o f P. m a r g i n i f e r a u t a h e n s i s i t r e m a i n s d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from Fauna G25. Fauna G25 i n c l u d e s P. p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i , P. g l a b r a l e p t a , P. g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a , P. m a r g i n i f e r a m a r g i n i f e r a , P. g l a b r a d i s t o r t a , P. g l a b r a p r i m a , P. g l a b r a a c u t a , P. minuta m i n u t a , P. g u a d r a n t i n o d o s a g u a d r a n t i n o d o s a , P. g u a d r a n t i n o d o s a n.subsp. A. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e 14 Famennian conodont f a u n a s r e c o g n i z e d a t Gataga, f i v e c o l l e c t i o n s have not been a s s i g n e d a s p e c i f i c fauna due t o i n s u f f i c i e n t f a u n a l c o n t r o l . C o l l e c t i o n s C-116979 and C-116907 c o n t a i n P a l m a t o l e p i s a f f . P. g l a b r a . C o l l e c t i o n s C-116972 and C-116974 c o n t a i n P a l m a t o l e p i s sp. i n d e t e r m i n a t e . C o l l e c t i o n C-116962 c o n t a i n s two P o l y g n a t h u s sp. i n d e t e r m i n a t e . Synthesis / 81 D. SYNTHESIS 1. Macmillan Pass Eighteen conodont faunas from the Macmillan Pass area range i n age from E i f e l i a n through T o u r n a i s i a n , but are mostly Late Devonian. Eleven Frasnian faunas, MP1-MP11, c o n t a i n conodonts i n d i c a t i v e of the f a l s i o v a l i s , t r a n s i t a n s , punctata, Upper asymmetricus, Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s , and rhenana zones. Famennian faunas, MP12-MP17, c o n t a i n conodonts i n d i c a t i v e of the Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s , Upper c r e p i d a , Lower rhomboidea, and m a r g i n i f e r a zones ( f i g . 14). The youngest Earn Group fauna (MP18) i n the Macmillan Pass area i s Tournaisian age. The ages of the JASON and TOM s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c p r o p e r t i e s and the CATHY, GHMS, PETE, GARY, and JEFF bedded b a r i t e p r o p e r t i e s i n Macmillan Pass area are con s t r a i n e d by conodont faunas. The o l d e s t Earn Group conodonts i n the Macmillan Pass area occur w i t h i n the CATHY b a r i t e deposit and provide an age f o r the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of E i f e l i a n t o e a r l y Frasnian. Several faunas provide a maximum age f o r the bedded b a r i t e h o rizons at the GHMS property southeast of Macmillan Pass (Nahanni map area, 1051). Fauna MP2, i n d i c a t i v e of l a t e f a l s i o v a l i s Zone through Upper asymmetricus Zone was c o l l e c t e d from w i t h i n 15 metres below the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . Fauna MP3, c o l l e c t e d from s l i g h t l y above MP2 i s i n d i c a t i v e of the t r a n s i t a n s Zone through Upper asymmetricus Zone. Fauna MP6, i n d i c a t i v e of Upper asymmetricus Zone up to Lower Synthesis / 82 t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone, was c o l l e c t e d immediately beneath the b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . The faunal age of MP6 c o n s t r a i n s the age of b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n a t GHMS claims t o no ol d e r than the Upper asymmetricus Zone. A minimum age f o r the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s u n a v a i l a b l e a t present. Faunas i n d i c a t i v e of rhenana through l i n g u i f o r m i s (MP10), rhenana (MP8), and Lower rhenana zones (MP9) were c o l l e c t e d from Earn Group s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y above JASON and TOM p r o p e r t i e s . Because of t h e i r s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o the CATHY, the JASON and TOM m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s n e i t h e r o l d e r than the CATHY b a r i t e , E i f e l i a n through e a r l y Frasnian, nor younger than Lower rhenana Zone. An o l d e s t age f o r the PETE and GARY b a r i t e s i s provided by the ove r l a p p i n g age of faunas MP4 and MP5 c o l l e c t e d from a limestone immediately below the b a r i t e and s i m i l a r faunas recognized i n c o l l e c t i o n s from a limestone across the v a l l e y from PETE and GARY near the MOOSE property. Due t o the r a r i t y of limestone w i t h i n the s e c t i o n and the equi v a l e n t age, t h i s limestone bed i s c o r r e l a t i v e w i t h the limestone found d i r e c t l y below the PETE and GARY b a r i t e s . Together these faunas represent the Lower rhenana Zone. At GARY a Lower rhenana fauna MP9, c o l l e c t e d 25 metres above the b a r i t e , p r o v i d e s an upper l i m i t t o the age of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . Fauna MP8, i n d i c a t i v e of rhenana Zone, from w i t h i n the JEFF b a r i t e h o r i z o n c o n s t r a i n s the age of JEFF m i n e r a l i z a t i o n t o the rhenana Zone. A l l of these b a r i t e s are l i k e l y coeval w i t h i n the Lower rhenana Zone. Conodont faunas w i t h a range i n c l u s i v e of the Middle 83 F i g u r e 14. Ranges f o r Frasnian and Famennian faunas recognized i n the Macmillan Pass, Midway, and Gataga areas w i t h the r e v i s e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l standard Late Devonian conodont zonation. A f t e r Z i e g l e r , 1962, 1971; Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979; Z i e g l e r & Sandberg, 1984; Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , Dreesen, & B u t l e r , 1988; Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, 1989. A b b r e v i a t i o n s : (Um) Uppermost, (U) Upper, (M) Middle, (L) Lower, (E) E a r l y , (S) Schimdtognathus (P) Polygnathus, (K) Klapperina, (M) Mesotaxis, (A) A n c y r o d e l l a , (An) Ancyrognathus, (Pa) Palmatolepis, (Sc) Scaphignathus, (Ps) Psuedopolygnathus, (B) Bispathodus, (Pr) Protognathus. CO LU cr LU co STANDARD CONODONT ZONATION (PELAGIC BIOFACIES) MACMILLAN PASS MIDWAY GATAGA praesulcata expansa postera < Z o > UJ Q tr UJ a. CL D trachytera marginifera rhomboidea crepida triangularis MP17 G18 MP14 Um MP15MP16 MP13 MP12 M9M10 M6 | I Q16 G13G14G15 ' G17 G12 G 1 i J _ G21 G24 G19G20 G23 I G25 G22 -I MP6 MP10MP11 G6 Unguiformis rhenana MP4MP5 An. triangularis MP2 MP3 asymmetricus U punctata MP1 transitans falsiovalis disparilis hermanni-cristatus MP8 MP7 I MP9 G5 M4 M5 M1 M2 M3 G3 G4 G1 G2 G9G10 G8 G7 I I 00 Synthesis / 85 t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone are not found at Macmillan Pass. Fauna MP12, the o l d e s t Famennian fauna recognized at Macmillan Pass, i s i n d i c a t i v e of Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone through Middle c r e p i d a Zone. The s i x Famennian faunas (MP12-MP17, f i g . 14) at Macmillan Pass are s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y above, and un-associated w i t h s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e or b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . Fauna MP18 provides an age l i m i t of T o u r n a i s i a n f o r the TEA b a r i t e d e p o s i t i n the Macmillan Pass area. 2. Midway The conodonts i n the Midway area range i n age from Giv e t i a n ? through T o u r n a i s i a n . There are f i v e r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll Frasnian aged faunas (M1-M5), f i v e Famennian faunas (M6-M10), and one Tournaisian fauna (Mil) ( f i g . 14). The most abundant conodonts i n the Midway area are i n d i c a t i v e of the Upper c r e p i d a Zone and/or Lower rhomboidea Zone. Fauna Ml, c o l l e c t e d i n the Watson Lake map area (105A) , i s a unique c o l l e c t i o n of a l a t e G i v e t i a n through e a r l y Frasnian, r e l a t i v e l y shallow water i c r i o d i d b i o f a c i e s . Another shallow water b i o f a c i e s i n c l u d i n g A n c y r o d e l l a , I c r i o d u s , and Polygnathus species, i n d i c a t i v e of the middle E a r l y f a l s i o v a l i s Zone through punctata Zone, i s recognized i n faunas M2 and M3 . These faunas were c o l l e c t e d from the uppermost McDame Group south of the MIDWAY property i n the Cry Lake map area ( f i g . 2, 104/1). The occurrence of non-palmatolepid b i o f a c i e s suggests a r e l a t i v e l y shallow marine Synthesis / 86 environment w i t h i n t h i s area during the e a r l y F r a s n i a n . Fauna M5, i n d i c a t i v e of the punctata Zone i n t o Lower rhenana Zone, was c o l l e c t e d from b a s a l Earn Group a l s o w i t h i n the Cry Lake map area. This fauna contains shallower water A n c y r o d e l l a , I c r i o d u s , and Polygnathus species i n a d d i t i o n t o some deeper water Palmatolepis s p e c i e s . The occurrence of middle E a r l y f a l s i o v a l i s Zone through punctata Zone faunas M2 and M3 (shallow b i o f a c i e s ) i n the McDame Group and a punctata Zone i n t o Lower rhenana Zone fauna M5 (deep b i o f a c i e s ) f r o m the b a s a l Earn Group suggests t h a t the McDame Group was conformably o v e r l a i n by the Earn Group i n the Cry Lake map area d u r i n g an e a r l y F r a s n i a n t r a n s g r e s s i v e deepening c y c l e . In c o n t r a s t , adjacent t o the MIDWAY property (Jennings R i v e r map area, 1040; f i g . 2) most of Frasnian time appears t o be represented by a p e r i o d of non-deposition and/or e r o s i o n of s t r a t a , as represented by the unconformity between the McDame and Earn groups ( f i g . 10). Fauna M4, dated as t r a n s i t a n s Zone through Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone i s the only F r a s n i a n Earn Group fauna recognized a t the MIDWAY property. M4 was c o l l e c t e d from d o l o m i t i c s i l t s t o n e w i t h i n k a r s t i c hollows at the top of McDame Group carbonate. This fauna may represent a component of the i n s o l u b l e r e s idue l e f t on the top of the McDame Group k a r s t h o r i z o n , or an e a r l y pulse of Earn Group sedimentation on t o t h i s k a r s t s u r f a c e . The p r e c i s e age of the youngest McDame Group i s undated at Midway. Synthesis / 87 At Midway the upper McDame Group co n t a i n shallower water Amphipora, Thamnopora, Syringopora, stromatoporoids, c r y p t a l a g a l laminates, and s t r o m a t o l i t e s whereas, the o l d e s t Famennian conodonts recovered from the b a s a l Earn Group belong t o the of f s h o r e - b a s i n a l b i o f a c i e s of Pa l m a t o l e p i s . This b i o f a c i e s change i n d i c a t e s a dramatic increase i n water depth around the C a s s i a r P l a t f o r m i n the MIDWAY property area between the l a r g e l y Middle Devonian McDame Group d e p o s i t i o n and Famennian Earn Group d e p o s i t i o n . The time i n t e r v a l from the Upper rhenana Zone through Middle c r e p i d a Zone i s not represented by conodont faunas i n the Midway area. The o l d e s t Famennian fauna M6 at Midway i s i n d i c a t i v e of the Upper c r e p i d a Zone. The most common conodonts a t the MIDWAY property occur i n faunas M6-M10 and are i n d i c a t i v e of Upper crepida Zone through Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone ( f i g . 14) . These famennian faunas, c o l l e c t e d from the Earn Group d i r e c t l y above the McDame/Earn Group c o n t a c t , are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by abundant conodonts; which i s i n d i c a t i v e of e i t h e r very slow r a t e s of sedimentation, or of e r o s i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n as conodont l a g de p o s i t s , or an extremely p r o d u c t i v e environment t h a t was subjected t o a k i l l . Fauna M9, i n d i c a t i v e of the m a r g i n i f e r a Zone, i n c l u d e s the youngest Famennian conodonts recognized i n the Earn Group at Midway. Another Famennian conodont c o l l e c t i o n (fauna M10) i s poorly constrained t o w i t h i n the Upper c r e p i d a Zone through Uppermost m a r g i n i f e r a Zone. The Famennian faunas a t Midway are not asso c i a t e d w i t h any sedimentary e x h a l a t i v e mineral d e p o s i t s . The Synthesis / 88 youngest Earn Group fauna (Mil) i n the Midway area provides an e a r l y through middle T o u r n a i s i a n f o r the EWEN and PERRY b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . 3. Gataga The 25 conodont faunas a t Gataga range i n age from the uppermost G i v e t i a n d i s p a r i l i s Zone through the middle Famennian Uppermost m a r g i n i f e r a Zone. Ten G i v e t i a n - F r a s n i a n faunas (G1-G10) and f i f t e e n Famennian faunas (G11-G25) are recognized i n the Gataga area ( f i g . 14) . The most abundant conodonts at Gataga are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the f a l s i o v a l i s , Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s , rhenana, c r e p i d a , rhomboidea, and m a r g i n i f e r a zones. Both the deeper water and shallower water b i o f a c i e s are represented i n l a t e G i v e t i a n and e a r l y Frasnian of the Gataga area. The shallower water fauna, c o n s i s t i n g of A n c y r o d e l l a or polygna t h i d s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t water depth was l e s s i n the southernmost Gataga area during G i v e t i a n and e a r l y Frasnian time. However, middle t o l a t e Frasnian faunas recognized throughout the Gataga area belong t o the o f f s h o r e p a l m a t o l e p i d b i o f a c i e s . Fauna G3, i n d i c a t i v e of e a r l y Frasnian t r a n s i t a n s Zone through Upper asymmetricus Zone, was c o l l e c t e d below bedded b a r i t e horizons at the KWADACHA property, l e s s than seventy k i l o m e t r e s southeast of BEAR property. A second Late G i v e t i a n through e a r l y Frasnian fauna (G4) was sampled from below a nodular bedded b a r i t e h o r i z o n f o r t y k i l o m e t r e s southeast of the BEAR property. The other Synthesis / 89 Frasnian faunas are not d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s t r a t i f o r m m i n e r a l i z a t i o n at the SAINT, DRIFTPILE, and BEAR p r o p e r t i e s . Although fauna i n c l u s i v e of the Middle t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone are not recognized, the r e s t of lower and middle Famennian time at Gataga i s w e l l represented by conodont faunas ( f i g . 14). Some of these faunas provide an accurate b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c framework f o r abundant s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n the area. Faunas G14 (Upper c r e p i d a Zone through the Lower rhomboidea Zone) and G15 (Lower rhomboidea Zone) are the o l d e s t Gataga fauna a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t r a t i f o r m m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . The former was c o l l e c t e d at a b a r i t e h o r i z o n , whereas, the l a t e r fauna was i d e n t i f i e d from a sample w i t h i n a b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z e d h o r i z o n i n d r i l l hole DDH 80-35. Faunas G16 (upper p a r t of the Upper rhomboidea Zone through lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone) and G19 (Upper c r e p i d a Zone through Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone) were c o l l e c t e d d i r e c t l y below a b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c h o r i z o n i n d r i l l core 79-30. In the same d r i l l core and beneath another b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c h o r i z o n , a younger fauna G23 (Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone) was i d e n t i f i e d s t r u c t u r a l l y below fauna G16. S t r u c t u r a l r e p e t i t i o n by t h r u s t f a u l t i n g w i t h i n t h i s i n t e r v a l or an overturned sequence are the probable causes of the reversed conodont ages. The o l d e r age of Fauna G16 over the younger fauna G23 i l l u s t r a t e s s t r u c t u r a l r e p e t i t i o n occurs between the two m i n e r a l i z e d horizons i n d r i l l h ole DDH 79-3 0. The ages of the Synthesis / 90 faunas d i r e c t l y below the m i n e r a l i z e d horizons overlap and may be c o r r e l a t i v e . C o l l e c t i o n s of Fauna G18 occur above, below and w i t h i n b a r i t e h o r i z o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the fauna i s long ranging (Upper crepida Zone through Upper t r a c h y t e r a Zone) and only l o o s e l y c o n s t r a i n s e v e r a l mineral h o r i z o n s . An Upper c r e p i d a Zone through Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone fauna (G19) i s recognized i n four c o l l e c t i o n s below b a r i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z e d h o r i z o n s , and i n one c o l l e c t i o n above b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . One c o l l e c t i o n of fauna G20, i n d i c a t i v e of the Lower t o Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone, was made below the b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c horizon i n d r i l l hole DDH 81-48. The fauna provides an age of Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone or younger f o r the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . Unfortunately, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between m i n e r a l i z e d horizons and nine other c o l l e c t i o n s of Fauna G20 i s unknown. One c o l l e c t i o n of fauna G21, sampled from twenty metres above a b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z e d h o r i z o n i n d r i l l hole DDH 80-33, provides an upper age l i m i t f o r t h i s m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d m a r g i n i f e r a Zone. Two other c o l l e c t i o n s of Fauna G21 from d r i l l hole DDM 79-11 and d r i l l h ole DDM 79-12, were c o l l e c t e d below b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . One c o l l e c t i o n of Fauna G22 (Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone) recovered from a limestone w i t h i n p y r i t i c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n c o n s t r a i n s the age of the Synthesis / 91 mineralization within the Lower marginifera Zone. Two other c o l l e c t i o n s of G22, sampled from within a b a r i t e horizon and i n the hanging wall to a p y r i t i c mineralization horizon, date the barite mineralization and provide a minimum age f o r the p y r i t e . Two c o l l e c t i o n s of fauna G23 (Upper marginifera Zone) were made below b a r i t e and barite-lead-zinc horizons i n d r i l l holes 81-47 and 79-30. This fauna provides a maximum age of the Upper marginifera Zone for the mineralized horizons. Fauna G24 provides an age for the p y r i t i c mineralization associated with i t i n d r i l l hole 80-37 as Upper to Uppermost marginifera Zone. 4. Selwyn and Kechika Basins Overview Although the majority of conodont faunas i n the region of the Selwyn and Kechika Basins represent the offshore-basinal palmatolepid b i o f a c i e s , some of the early Frasnian faunas from the, southern Midway and southern Gataga areas are i n d i c a t i v e of shallower water b i o f a c i e s . When the tectonic displacement along the T i n t i n a f a u l t system i s restored, the southern Gataga area i s located north of the Midway area during the Late Devonian (f i g s . 3 & 4). The occurrence of early Frasnian ancyrodellid, i c r i o d i d , and polygnathid shallow water biofacies southeast of the Midway and Gataga regions suggests proximity to the southern edge of the Selwyn and Kechika Basins ( f i g . 4). Many of the fift y - t w o conodont faunas recognized within the Selwyn and Kechika Basins are demonstratably c o r r e l a t i v e ( f i g . 14). The Synthesis / 92 o l d e s t Earn Group fauna (MP1), i n d i c a t i v e of E i f e l i a n t o e a r l y F r a s n i a n , occurs at Macmillan Pass but, i s i d e n t i f i e d a t n e i t h e r Midway nor Gataga. Younger faunas (M3 & G1-G2) of both deeper and shallower water b i o f a c i e s , i n d i c a t i v e of the f a l s i o v a l i s Zone through punctata Zone are the o l d e s t seen i n the Gataga and Midway areas. S l i g h t l y younger faunas (MP3, M2, & G3) i n d i c a t i v e of the t r a n s i t a n s through Upper asymmetricus zones occur i n each area. Faunas MP3 & G3 occur below b a r i t i c horizons at both Gataga and Macmillan Pass. Other l i n k s between Gataga and Macmillan Pass occur as faunas MP7-MP9 and G7-G10 of the Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s , rhenana and Lower rhenana zones. Faunas (MP5, M5, & G5) i n d i c a t i v e of the punctata through Lower rhenana zones are recognized i n a l l three areas. Lower and Middle t r i a n g u l a r i s zones of the e a r l y Famennian are not represented w i t h i n the Earn Group conodont faunas ( f i g . 14) . Furthermore, no conodont faunas i n d i c a t i v e of the l a t e Famennian postera , expansa, or p r a e s u l c a t a zones are yet recognized i n the Earn Group. Lack of sedimentation, carbonate rock, i n h o s p i t a b l e environments, and/or e r o s i o n are probably the cause of these h i a t u s e s . Although e a r l y and middle Famennian conodont faunas are found i n each area, the g r e a t e s t number of these faunas occur i n the Gataga area. At Gataga many of the f i f t e e n faunas representing Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone i n t o Upper t r a c h y t e r a Zone are associated w i t h the b a r i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n ( f i g . 14). Faunas confined t o the Lower rhomboidea Zone occur at Macmillan Pass (MP13), Gataga (G12), and Midway (M7). The r a r e occurrence Synthesis / 93 of P a l m a t o l e p i s rhomboidea a t Gataga c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e s the o l d e s t Famennian s t r a t i f o r m mineral event w i t h i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins. Although the conodont species are not i d e n t i c a l , faunas i n d i c a t i v e of the Upper c r e p i d a through Lower rhomboidea zones are recognized a t Gataga (G14) and Midway (M8). A Macmillan Pass fauna (MP14), i n d i c a t i v e of the m a r g i n i f e r a Zone, c o r r e l a t e s w i t h faunas at Midway (M9) and Gataga (G21). Fauna G25 at Gataga, i n d i c a t i v e of the lowest Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone, i s the same age as the Macmillan Pass fauna (MP16), although the conodont species are not i d e n t i c a l . W i t h i n the e a r l y middle Famennian faunas at Midway (M6-M10) P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a acuta Helms i s more common than i n s i m i l a r age faunas a t e i t h e r Gataga (G14-G25) or Macmillan Pass (MP13-MP17). The abundance of Palmatolepis g l a b r a acuta may r e f l e c t e i t h e r environmental c o n d i t i o n s , endemism or a s p e c i f i c time i n t e r v a l a t Midway. The s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n discussed above occurs during the l a t e G i v e t i a n and e a r l y Frasnian at Macmillan Pass and i n the southernmost Gataga area. In a d d i t i o n t o these, much younger s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e d e p o s i t s of e a r l y Carboniferous age have a l s o been i d e n t i f i e d a t Macmillan Pass and Midway. The Tournaisian fauna, MP18, was c o l l e c t e d from above and below the TEA b a r i t e p r operty near Macmillan Pass ( f i g . 9) (Dawson & Orchard, 1982). The EWEN and PERRY b a r i t e s near Midway ( f i g . 11), dated as e a r l y to middle T o u r n a i s i a n age by Orchard Se I r w i n (1987) , are approximately coeval t o the TEA b a r i t e . The conodont 'Hindeodella' S y n t h e s i s / 94 s e g a f o r m i s B i s c h o f f i s common t o t h e T o u r n a i s i a n faunas a t Midway and M a c m i l l a n P a s s . IV. CONCLUSIONS G e n e r a l L a t e Devonian conodonts w i t h i n t h e Selwyn and K e c h i k a B a s i n s p r o v i d e a u s e f u l b i o s t r a t i g r a p h i c framework f o r t h e Ea r n Group s e d i m e n t a t i o n and f o r t h e s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c -s i l v e r d e p o s i t s w i t h i n i t . Conodont f a u n a l ages i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e w i d e s p r e a d d e p o s i t i o n o f s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c and b a r i t e i n t h e Selwyn and K e c h i k a B a s i n s o c c u r r e d s e v e r a l t i m e s o v e r a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . I n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g p r e c i s e age c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e s t r a t i f o r m m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , t h e Ea r n Group c o n t a i n s a more complete r e c o r d o f e a r l y t o m i d d l e F r a s n i a n and e a r l y t o m i d d l e Famennian conodont faunas t h a n p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d i n w e s t e r n Canada. A l l t h e major L a t e Devonian conodont t a x a o f t h e p a l m a t o l e p i d b i o f a c i e s , a r e r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e Ea r n Group conodont f a u n a s . A l t h o u g h t h e faunas a r e dominated by s p e c i e s and s u b s p e c i e s o f b a s i n a l p a l m a t o l e p i d b i o f a c i e s , some F r a s n i a n faunas from Midway and Gataga a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f s h a l l o w e r w a t e r b i o f a c i e s n e a r t h e s o u t h e r n margin o f t h e Selwyn and K e c h i k a B a s i n s . The s t r a t i g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f E a r n Group conodonts i s d e m o n s t r a b l y c o n s i s t e n t , f o r t h e most p a r t , w i t h t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d L a t e Devonian z o n a t i o n . Conclusions / 95 Palmatolepis n.sp. A i s described from a s m a l l fauna i n d i c a t i v e of rhenana Zone through l i n g u i f o r m i s Zone i n the Macmillan Pass area. Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa n.subsp. A was described i n s e v e r a l c o l l e c t i o n s i n d i c a t i v e of the Lower m a r g i n i f e r a through lowest Upper m a r g i n i f e r a zones i n the Gataga area. The appearance at Gataga and Macmillan Pass of Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa i n f l e x o i d e a , P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosa i n f l e x a faunas of the Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone provides a younger range f o r both subspecies than p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d . Here too, Palmatolepis rugosa t r a c h y t e r a occurs w i t h i n the Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone, which i s an o l d e r range f o r the subspecies than p r e v i o u s l y reported. Macmillan Pass 1) The m a j o r i t y of conodonts from the Earn Group at Macmillan Pass area range i n the E a r l y and Middle Frasnian t r a n s i t a n s , punctata, Upper asymmetricus, Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s , rhenana, l i n g u i f o r m i s zones. Several middle Famennian conodont faunas from the Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s , c r e p i d a , rhomboidea, and m a r g i n i f e r a zones are recognized. Upper Devonian conodont faunas younger than t r a c h y t e r a Zone or i n d i c a t i v e of the Lower and Middle t r i a n g u l a r i s zones are not recognized i n the Macmillan Pass area ( f i g s . 14, 15). 96 F i g u r e 15. T i m e - s t r a t i g r a p h i c chart of the Macmillan Pass, Midway, and Gataga areas i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins. Black i n d i c a t e s the occurrence of conodont faunas r e s t r i c t e d t o a s p e c i f i c conodont zone. S t i p p l e p a t t e r n represents conodont zones which are w i t h i n the range of i d e n t i f i e d conodont faunas. Cross hatch p a t t e r n represents conodont zones where s t r a t a does not e x i s t . White areas represent conodont zones t h a t have not been i d e n t i f i e d thus f a r . Conodont zonal scheme a f t e r Z i e g l e r , 1962, 1971; Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979; Z i e g l e r & Sandberg, 1984; Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , Dreesen, & B u t l e r , 1988; Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, 1989 (Devonian). 97 CO UJ tr LU CO LU o < H CO STANDARD CONODONT ZONATION (PELAGIC BIOFACIES) MACMILLAN PASS AREA MIDWAY PROPERTY MIDWAY CRY LAKE AREA GATAGA AREA SOUTHERN GATAGA AREA z < z o > LU Q tr LU CL CL 3 LU < < z CO < GC LL -?-> LU Q Z < I-LU > praesulcata expansa postera trachytera marginifera rhomboidea crepida triangularis linguiformis rhenana Um U L An. triangularis asymmetricus U punctata transitans falsiovalis disparilis hermanni -cristatus 1 I Conclusions / 98 2) Conodont faunas i l l u s t r a t e t h a t s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n occurs at three i n t e r v a l s i n the Macmillan Pass area ( f i g . 16) . The age of the o l d e s t b a r i t e , recognized at the CATHY property, i s E i f e l i a n t o e a r l y Frasnian. The age of four other b a r i t e p r o p e r t i e s o v e r lap w i t h i n the Lower rhenana Zone ( f i g . 16). The GARY property b a r i t e i s confined t o the Lower rhenana Zone. The PETE b a r i t e , which occurs at the same s t r a t i g r a p h i c l e v e l as the GARY b a r i t e , i s no o l d e r than Lower rhenana Zone. The JEFF b a r i t e i s co n s t r a i n e d by fauna from the rhenana Zone. The f o r t h b a r i t e , found on the GHMS property southeast of the other p r o p e r t i e s , i s no o l d e r than the Upper asymmetricus Zone. The TEA b a r i t e property i s E a r l y Carboniferous, Tournaisian i n age and represents the youngest s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n the Macmillan Pass Area ( f i g . 16). B a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n the Macmillan Pass area occurred during at l e a s t three d i f f e r e n t time i n t e r v a l s . 3) The age of s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n at the JASON and TOM i s no o l d e r than the CATHY b a r i t e d e p o s i t , and ol d e r than the Upper rhenana Zone. Due t o the s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n of the TOM and JASON de p o s i t s r e l a t i v e t o the CATHY, PETE and GARY b a r i t e s , they are probably w i t h i n the Upper asymmetricus through Lower rhenana zones ( f i g . 16) . 99 Figu r e 16. Ages of conodont faunas a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e and b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c i n the Macmillan Pass, Midway, and Gataga. The s o l i d bars represent the time i n t e r v a l w i t h i n which the conodont faunas range at the named l o c a t i o n s ; the age of the faunas may l i e anywhere w i t h i n the range of the bar. A c l o s e d bar i n d i c a t e s the fauna was c o l l e c t e d w i t h i n the mineral h o r i z o n ; upward arrows i n d i c a t e the fauna o r i g i n a t e d beneath; downward arrows i n d i c a t e the fauna o r i g i n a t e d above a h o r i z o n ; dashed bars represent u n c e r t a i n t y . Conodont zonal scheme a f t e r Z i e g l e r , 1962, 1971; Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979; Z i e g l e r & Sandberg, 1984; Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , Dreesen, & B u t l e r , 1988; Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, 1989 (Devonian), Sandberg, 1979 (To u r n a i s i a n ) . 100 MACMILLAN P A S S MIDWAY GATAGA co D o cc LU LL z o CD Lt < < z o > LU Q cr LU CL CL 3 Z < Z z LU < L L Z < z CO < Lt LL anchoralls • latus typicus crenulata sandbergl Z < LU > CD duplicata sulcata praesulcata expansa posters trachytera marginifera rhomboidea crepida triangularis linguiformis rhenana U M L U L U L Um U L An. triangularis asymmetricus U punctata transitans falsiovalls disparills hermanni-cristatus I CO < m i o o (-z o < >-cc < CD m tii LU CL Ml • A * I i CO LL LU I m >• cc oc LU a z LU 5 LU CO N NI _ l -1 CQ co m **** T A a I t I 1 1 • I N T CO m N « N _| N CO CO S oo t 1 CO A ii ca < i o < a < 03 Conclusions /101 Midway 1) Frasnian conodont faunas from the Earn Group i n the MIDWAY property area are i n d i c a t i v e of the t r a n s i t a n s , punctata, Upper asymmetricus, and Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s zones. Famennian faunas a t the MIDWAY property are i n d i c a t i v e of the Upper c r e p i d a , Lower rhomboidea, and m a r g i n i f e r a zones. Upper Devonian conodont faunas i n c l u s i v e of the Lower rhenana through Middle c r e p i d a zones, as w e l l as, t r a c h y t e r a through p r a e s u l c a t a zones are not found i n the area ( f i g s . 14, 15). 2) South of the MIDWAY property, i n the Cry Lake map area, the McDame Group appears t o be conformably o v e r l a i n by Earn Group sediments of the t r a n s i t a n s Zone through the Lower rhenana Zone. Shallow water E a r l y Frasnian fauna are recognized i n both the uppermost McDame Group and i n the lowermost Earn Group. In c o n t r a s t , at the MIDWAY property the McDame/Earn Group contact i s d i s t i n c t k a r s t h o r i z o n and shallow water sediments of the McDame Group are d i r e c t l y o v e r l a i n by mid Famennian Upper c r e p i d a through Lower rhomboidea Zone Earn Group sediments c o n t a i n i n g conodonts of the deep water b i o f a c i e s ( f i g s . 14, 15). 4) E a r l y Carboniferous, Tournaisian age conodont faunas c o n s t r a i n s t r a t i f o r m m i n e r a l i z a t i o n at the PERRY and EWEN p r o p e r t i e s ( f i g . 16) . Conclusions /102 Gataga 1) Conodonts from the Gataga area are i n d i c a t i v e of the Late G i v e t i a n , the Frasnian f a l s i o v a l i s , t r a n s i t a n s , punctata, Upper asymmetricus, Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s , rhenana, l i n g u i f o r m i s zones, and middle Famennian Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s , crepida, rhomboidea, m a r g i n i f e r a , t r a c h y t e r a zones. Upper Devonian conodont faunas younger than t r a c h y t e r a Zone, or i n c l u s i v e of the Lower and Middle t r i a n g u l a r i s zones are not recognized i n the Gataga area ( f i g s . 14, 15). 2) Conodonts from the middle G i v e t i a n and e a r l y Frasnian t r a n s i t a n s through Upper asymmetricus zones, occur below the o l d e s t s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the KWADACHA, i n the southernmost Gataga area of the Ware map area ( f i g . 15). 3) A l l the s t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n around the BEAR, SAINT, and DRIFTPILE p r o p e r t i e s i s confined w i t h i n the Famennian Upper c r e p i d a through m a r g i n i f e r a zones by seve r a l Famennian conodont faunas ( f i g . 16). B a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s cons t r a i n e d by faunas i n d i c a t i v e of the Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone, the m a r g i n i f e r a Zone, and may occur as e a r l y as Upper crepida or Lower rhomboidea zones. One b a r i t e i n t e r v a l i s no older than the Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone. Some b a r i t e horizons are l o o s e l y c o n s t r a i n e d by conodont faunas i n d i c a t i v e of the Upper c r e p i d a through Upper t r a c h y t e r a zones or Upper c r e p i d a through Conclusions /103 Upper m a r g i n i f e r a zones. S t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n at Gataga t h e r e f o r e occurred dur i n g at l e a s t two d i s t i n c t time i n t e r v a l s w i t h i n the e a r l y and middle Famennian ( f i g . 16). S t r a t i f o r m b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n the Gataga area i s constr a i n e d by s e v e r a l Famennian conodont faunas. The o l d e s t Famennian occurrence of b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins i s confined t o the Lower rhomboidea Zone. A second b a r i t e - l e a d - z i n c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n event i s constra i n e d by Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone fauna. A t h i r d d i s t i n c t i n t e r v a l i s no o l d e r than the Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone. In a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l s t r a t i f o r m horizons are dated as no younger than m a r g i n i f e r a Zone, and no o l d e r than the Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone or Upper c r e p i d a Zone ( f i g . 16). 104 V. SYSTEMATIC CONODONT TAXONOMY The systematic taxonomy of the f o l l o w i n g genera i s i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order: A n c y r o d e l l a , Klapperina, Mesotaxis, Palmatolepis, and Polygnathus. Because of t h e i r l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n i n Earn Group b i o s t r a t i g r a p h y , l a n c e o l a t e p o l y g n a t h i d s , i c r i o d i d s , and polylophondontids are not inc l u d e d i n the taxonomy. Terminology developed by Sweet (1981) t o des c r i b e conodont elements has been used i n the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s . A g e n e r a l i z e d palmatolepid p l a t f o r m element i s used to i l l u s t r a t e the o r i e n t a t i o n , morphology, and terminology of a pla t f o r m conodont element ( f i g . 16). The given age ranges of species and subspecies were developed and/or l i s t e d by the f o l l o w i n g authors; Sandberg & Z i e g l e r (1973, 1979), Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck (1989), Sweet (1988), Z i e g l e r (1962, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1977), Klapper & Z i e g l e r (1979), and Z i e g l e r & Sandberg (1984). The synonymy l i s t s i n c l u d e the o r i g i n a l entry, the f i r s t use of the species or subspecies by another author, e n t r i e s which c o n t r i b u t e t o the taxonomic d e s c r i p t i o n , and western North American occurrences. W i t h i n the occurrence s e c t i o n the number of specimens recovered from a p a r t i c u l a r area i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins i s given i n b r a c k e t s , f o r example; Midway: (1) . Information d i s t r i b u t i o n of the conodonts w i t h i n the c o l l e c t i o n s i s a v a i l a b l e on t a b l e s I I I , IV, V, VI, and V I I . 105 anterior F i g u r e 17. Standard o r i e n t a t i o n , morphology, and terminology of a t y p i c a l P a l m a t o l e p i s specimen. Systematic Taxonomy / 106 Genus A n c y r o d e l l a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r , 1926 Type s p e c i e s : A n c y r o d e l l a nodosa U l r i c h & B a s s l e r 192 6 Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , U l r i c h & B a s s l e r , 1926) S i m i l a r to Polygnathus but the depressed l a t e r a l areas are drawn out at the wider end so as t o g i v e the whole p l a t e an a n c h o r - l i k e o u t l i n e . Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Z i e g l e r , 1962; 1973) P l a t f o r m conodonts having a more or l e s s w e l l d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t r i a n g u l a r p l a t f o r m o u t l i n e . As a r u l e , t h r e e , u s u a l l y pointed lobes are developed, comprising the p o s t e r i o r end and two l a t e r a l lobes. The lobe may be broad or reduced. In some sp e c i e s , one or two a d d i t i o n a l p o s t e r i o r lobe-l i k e expansions occur by c o n s t r i c t i o n s at the margins of the p l a t e . The f r e e bade i s always d i s t i n c t l y developed and extends as a c a r i n a over the p l a t f o r m t o the p o s t e r i o r end. Two more or l e s s d i s t i n c t rows of nodes or secondary c a r i n a s run t o the ends of the a n t e r i o r lobes from the b l a d e / c a r i n a j u n c t i o n . The lower surface bears a b a s a l p i t of v a r i a b l e s i z e where the main k e e l and secondary k e e l s meet. Remarks: The important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r species determination i s the b a s a l c a v i t y o u t l i n e and p a t t e r n of development of secondary kee l s and c a r i n a s . A n c y r o d e l l a binodosa Uyeno, 19 67 1967 A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a binodosa n.subsp. Uyeno, p. 4, p i . 1, f i g s . 2, 4-5. 1968 Spathognathodus s w a n h i l l e n s i s P o l l o c k , p. 440-441, p i . 63, Systematic Taxonomy / 107 f i g s . 1, 2, 6. 1974 A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a binodosa Uyeno - Uyeno, p. 24-25, p i . 1, f i g s . 2, 4-6. 1981 A n c y r o d e l l a binodosa Uyeno - Bultynck & Jacobs, p i . 9, f i g s . 22-24. 1981 A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a binodosa Uyeno - N o r r i s & Uyeno, p. 24, p i . 9, f i g s . 22-24. 198 6 A n c y r o d e l l a binodosa Uyeno - Garcia-Lopez, p i . 1, f i g s . 1-3. 1987 A n c y r o d e l l a binodosa Uyeno - Garcia-Lopez, p i . 1, f i g s . 1-3. 1989 A n c y r o d e l l a binodosa Uyeno - Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, p. 209-210, p i . l , f i g s , 1-2, t e x t - f i g . 2, f i g . 1. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, 1989) A n c y r o d e l l a binodosa i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a t h i c k p l a t f o r m with margins t h a t are rounded t o oval i n upper view and i n cross s e c t i o n . The l a r g e b a s a l c a v i t y i s c r u c i f o r m , or where the a n t e r i o r arm of the cross i s weakly developed, T-shaped. The upper surf a c e ornamentation c o n s i s t s of two l a r g e nodes, one on e i t h e r s i d e of the p l a t f o r m , and i n l a r g e specimens, a few t o se v e r a l i n c i p i e n t t o small marginal nodes. Occurrence: A n c y r o d e l l a binodosa occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: North America: A l b e r t a and North West T e r r i t o r i e s . Europe: Spain, Morocco, and Germany. S y s t e m a t i c Taxonomy / 108 A n c y r o d e l l a a f f . A . b i n o d o s a P I . 1, f i g s . 6-7 Remarks: The specimens r e c o v e r e d from the E a r n Group e x h i b i t a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e bu lbous p l a t f o r m w i t h two prominent nodes and a b r o k e n p o s t e r i o r t i p . The i l l u s t r a t e d specimen has been s t r a i n e d t o some degree as t o s l i g h t l y d i s t o r t the c a r i n a a l i gnment and the e x t e n t o f t h e b a s a l p i t . I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, t o see a s e r i e s o f k i n k e d growth l i n e s on the lower s u r f a c e o f the i l l u s t r a t e d spec imen. The k i n k e d growth l i n e s sugges t s r u d i m e n t a r y development o f a s econdary k e e l , u n l i k e p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d specimens t h e r e f o r e t h e E a r n Group specimens a r e d e s i g n a t e d as a f f . O c c u r r e n c e : A n c y r o d e l l a a f f . A . b i n o d o s a specimens o c c u r i n the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : Midway: (1 ) . Range: A n c y r o d e l l a b i n o d o s a ranges from m i d d l e E a r l y f a l s i o v a l i s Zone i n t o t r a n s i t a n s Zone (Sandberg e t a l . , 1989) A n c y r o d e l l a c u r v a t a (Branson & M e h l , 1934) 1934 Ancyrognathus c u r v a t a n . s p . Branson & M e h l , p . 241, p i . 19, f i g s . 6, 11. 1958 A n c y r o d e l l a c u r v a t a (Branson & Mehl) - Z i e g l e r , p . 40-41, p i . 11, f i g . 5. 1966 A n c y r o d e l l a c u r v a t a (Branson & Mehl) - A n d e r s o n , p . 403, p i . 48, f i g s . 2, 4, 6, 9, 11, 13. 1966 A n c y r o d e l l a c u r v a t a (Branson & Mehl) - G l e n i s t e r & K l a p p e r , p . 798, p i . 86, f i g s . 13-15 . Systematic Taxonomy / 109 1985 A n c y r o d e l l a curvata (Branson & Mehl) - A u s t i n et a l . , p i . 4.6, f i g s . 2-3, 7. 1985 A n c y r o d e l l a curvata (Branson Se Mehl) - Z i e g l e r Sc Wang, p i . 3, f i g . 10. 1987 A n c y r o d e l l a curvata (Branson & Mehl) - Garcia-Lopez, p. 59-60, p i . 3, f i g s . 11-13. 1988 A n c y r o d e l l a curvata (Branson Se Mehl) - Klapper, p i . 3, f i g . 18-20. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , G l e n i s t e r S. Klapper, 1966) A species of A n c y r o d e l l a which i n a d d i t i o n t o the normal number of lobes, developed a s t r o n g l y pronounced p o s t e r o - l a t e r a l lobe. This e x t r a lobe bears a secondary c a r i n a and k e e l . Remarks: G l e n i s t e r Se Klapper (1966) d i s t i n g u i s h A n c y r o d e l l a l o b a t a from A n c y r o d e l l a c u r v a t a on the b a s i s t h a t A n c y r o d e l l a l o b a t a has a l e s s pronounced p o s t e r o - l a t e r a l lobe which l a c k s a secondary c a r i n a . The specimen from the Earn Group i s fragmented but, the prominent lobe and secondary k e e l and c a r i n a are evident. Occurrence: A n c y r o d e l l a curvata occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (1). North America: M i s s o u r i , Iowa. Europe: Germany, France, B r i t a i n , and Spain. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. A s i a : southern China. Range: Upper asymmetricus Zone through Lower t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone ( G l e n i s t e r St Klapper, 1966) . Systematic Taxonomy / 110 A n c y r o d e l l a gigas Youngquist, 1947 PI. 1, f i g s . 13-14 1947 A n c y r o d e l l a gigas n.sp. Youngquist, p. 96-97, p i . 25, f i g . 23. 1958 A n c y r o d e l l a gigas Youngquist - Z i e g l e r , p. 41-42, p i . 11, f i g s . 8, 10, 17. 1966 A n c y r o d e l l a gigas Youngquist - Anderson, p. 403, p i . 48, f i g s . 10, 14. 1974 A n c y r o d e l l a gigas Youngquist - Uyeno, p. 23-24, p i . 1, f i g s . 1, 8-9. 1979 A n c y r o d e l l a gigas Youngquist - Lane, M u l l e r , & Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g . 20. 1985 A n c y r o d e l l a gigas Youngquist - KLapper & Lane, p. 923, f i g . 14.14, 14.15. 1985 A n c y r o d e l l a gigas Youngquist - Z i e g l e r & Wang, p i . 3, f i g . 10. 1988 A n c y r o d e l l a gigas Youngquist - Klapper & Lane, p i . 3, f i g s . 13, 17. Diagnosis: ( a f t e r d e s c r i p t i o n Uyeno, 1974) A species of A n c y r o d e l l a w i t h a t r i a n g u l a r p l a t f o r m of n e a r l y symmetrical to somewhat i r r e g u l a r o u t l i n e . Upper surface of the p l a t f o r m i s ornamented w i t h coarse nodes i n a s e m i c i r c u l a r arrangement. Secondary keels are w e l l developed, extending to the a n t e r i o r end of the platform. Remarks: Klapper & Lane (1985) d e s c r i b e A n c y r o d e l l a gigas as having a w e l l developed, down-arched p o s t e r i o r lobe, which i s set o f f by c o n s t r i c t i o n s near the p l a t f o r m mid-length. They note that the l i t e r a t u r e concept of A n c y r o d e l l a gigas i s r e l a t i v e l y broad and i n c l u d e s specimens which do not e x h i b i t the p l a t f o r m c o n s t r i c t i o n s . The Earn Group specimens do not e x h i b i t moderately developed c o n s t r i c t i o n s . Systematic Taxonomy / 111 Occurrence: A n c y r o d e l l a g i g a s occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g ares: Macmillan Pass: (1), Midway: (1). North America: North West T e r r i t o r i e s , A l b e r t a , and Iowa. Europe: Germany. A s i a : southern China,and M a l a y s i a . Range: from upper t r a n s i t a n s Zone through Upper rhenana Zone ( Z i e g l e r , 1958, Sandberg et a l . , 1989). A n c y r o d e l l a i o i d e s Z i e g l e r , 1958 1958 A n c y r o d e l l a i o i d e s n.sp. Z i e g l e r , p. 42-43, p i . 11, f i g s . 2-4, p i . 3, f i g . 11. 1962 A n c y r o d e l l a i o i d e s Z i e g l e r - Z i e g l e r , t e x t - f i g . 2. 1973 A n c y r o d e l l a i o i d e s Z i e g l e r - Z i e g l e r , p. 23-24, An p i . 1, f i g s . 5-6. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Z i e g l e r , 1958; t r a n s l a t e d by Z i e g l e r , 1973) A species of the genus A n c y r o d e l l a w i t h none or considerably reduced p l a t f o r m , a long h i g h blade, and two l a t e r a l branches which are bent i n the a n t e r i o r d i r e c t i o n and form an obtuse angle. Basal p i t i s l a r g e . Remarks: This species o c c a s i o n a l l y has a small p o s t e r i o r platform which extends t o the p o s t e r i o r t i p . A few nodes may be present on the p l a t f o r m margins. Secondary k e e l extend towards the l a t e r a l lobes. A n c y r o d e l l a i o i d e s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from other Ancyrodella Systematic Taxonomy / 112 species by the reduced p l a t f o r m . Z i e g l e r (1973) notes t h a t A n c y r o d e l l a i o i d e s evolved from A n c y r o d e l l a nodosa through the r e d u c t i o n of lobes and p l a t f o r m . The specimens recovered from the Earn Group are s m a l l , p o s s i b l y j u v e n i l e specimens. Occurrence: A n c y r o d e l l a i o i d e s occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (1), Gataga: (3). Europe: Germany. Range: From upper p a r t of Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone t o top of Lower rhenana Zone ( Z i e g l e r , 1962). A n c y r o d e l l a l o b a t a Branson & Mehl, 1934 1934 A n c y r o d e l l a l o b a t a n.sp. Branson & Mehl, p. 239-240, p i . 19, f i g . 14, p i . 21, f i g . 22. 1958 A n c y r o d e l l a l o b a t a Branson & Mehl - Z i e g l e r , p. 43, p i . 11, f i g s . 6, 9. 1966 A n c y r o d e l l a l o b a t a Branson & Mehl - Anderson, p. 403, p i . 48, f i g s . 15-16. 1968 A n c y r o d e l l a l o b a t a Branson & Mehl - Mound, p. 470-471, p i . 65, f i g s . 7-12. 1981 A n c y r o d e l l a l o b a t a Branson & Mehl - Bultynck & Jacobs, p.24, p i . 9, f i g . 13. 1985 A n c y r o d e l l a l o b a t a Branson & Mehl - Klapper & Lane, p. 923, 925, f i g s . 14.12, 14.13, 14.16, 14.17. 1987 A n c y r o d e l l a l o b a t a Branson & Mehl - Garcia-Lopez, p. 62-63, p i . 3, f i g s . 7-10, t e x t - f i g . 11. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , a f t e r Klapper & Lane, 1985) A species of A n c y r o d e l l a c h a r a c t e r i z e d by two secondary k e e l s on the outer lobe. Systematic Taxonomy / 113 The k e e l s are d i r e c t e d p o s t e r o - l a t e r a l l y and a n t e r o - l a t e r a l l y • Upper s u r f a c e ornamented w i t h medium t o coarse nodes. Occurrence: A n c y r o d e l l a l o b a t a occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: North America: North West T e r r i t o r i e s , Iowa, A l b e r t a , and M i s s o u r i . Europe: Germany, Spain, and Morocco. A n c y r o d e l l a a f f . A. l o b a t a Branson & Mehl, 1934 PI. 1, f i g s . 3-4 Remarks: The small specimen from the Gataga area e x h i b i t s a pronounced a n t e r o - l a t e r a l l y d i r e c t e d p l a t f o r m extension w i t h two secondary k e e l s developed on the underside. The upper surface has a few w e l l developed nodes. This s m a l l specimen i s given an a f f . d e s i g n a t i o n because although i t e x h i b i t s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a n t e r i o r l y d i r e c t e d lobe, the upper surf a c e ornamentation i s nondiagnostic and precludes a p o s i t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n from A n c y r o d e l l a curvata. Occurrence: A n c y r o d e l l a a f f . A. l o b a t a occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Gataga: (1). Range: A n c y r o d e l l a l o b a t a ranges from w i t h i n t r a n s i t a n s Zone i n t o l i n g u i f o r m i s Zone (Garcia-Lopez, 1987) An c y r o d e l l a nodosa U l r i c h & B a s s l e r , 1926 PI. 1, f i g s . 8, 10 Systematic Taxonomy / 114 1926 A n c y r o d e l l a nodosa n.sp. U l r i c h & B a s s l e r , p. 48, p i . 1, f i g s . 10-13. 1958 A n c y r o d e l l a nodosa U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - Z i e g l e r , p i . 11, f i g . 1. 1966 A n c y r o d e l l a nodosa U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, 798-799, p i . 86, f i g s . 5-12 (see synonymy). 1985 A n c y r o d e l l a nodosa U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - Klapper & Lane, p. 925-927, f i g . 14.6, 14.7, 14.10, 14.11. 1988 A n c y r o d e l l a nodosa U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - Klapper & Lane, p i . 3, f i g . 10. 1988 A n c y r o d e l l a nodosa U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - Orchard, p i . 1, f i g . 5. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, 1966) A species of A n c y r o d e l l a having slender a n t e r i o r lobes and a narrow p o s t e r i o r lobe. Large specimens have c o n s t r i c t i o n s i n the p o s t e r i o r margin d i s t i n c t l y s e t o f f the p o s t e r i o r lobe from the r e s t of the p l a t f o r m . F u l l y developed secondary k e e l s and c a r i n a , l o c a t e d near the a n t e r i o r margins of the a n t e r i o r lobes, extend to the t i p s of these lobes. Remarks: Small specimens of A n c y r o d e l l a nodosa do not e x h i b i t p l a t f o r m c o n s t r i c t i o n s noted by Klapper & Lane (1985) . A n c y r o d e l l a nodosa i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from A n c y r o d e l l a i o i d e s by the l a r g e r p l a t f o r m . Occurrence: A n c y r o d e l l a nodosa occur i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (3), Midway: (1). North America: A l b e r t a and North West T e r r i t o r i e s . Europe: Germany. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Systematic Taxonomy / 115 Range: from base of Ancyrognathus Zone i n t o the l i n g u i f o r m i s Zone ( G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, 1966). A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a (Bryant, 1921) PI . 1, f i g s . 1-2 1921 Polygnathus r o t u n d i l o b u s n.sp. Bryant, p. 2 6-2 7, p i . 12, f i g s . 1-6. 1957 A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a (Bryant) - B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r , p i . 16, f i g s . 7, 10. 1958 A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a (Bryant) - Z i e g l e r , p. 44-45, p i . 11, f i g s . 11-12. 1967 A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a (Bryant) - M u l l e r & C l a r k , p. 908-910, f i g . 1. 1981 A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a r o t u n d i l o b a (Bryant) - Bultynck & Jacobs, p i . 10, f i g s . 5, 8-9. 1982 A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a (Bryant) - Bultynck, p i . 1, f i g s . 9, 12. 1985 A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a r o t u n d i l o b a (Bryant) - Bardashev & Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g . 28. 1985 A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a (Bryant) - Z i e g l e r & Wang, p i . 3, f i g s . 7-8, 12. 1989 A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a (Bryant) - Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, p. 212-213, p i . 2, f i g s . 5-6, 9-10, p i . 3, f i g s . 1-9, t e x t - f i g . 2, f i g s . 8-10. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Sandberg et a l , 1989) A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a broad, l a n c e o l a t e t o rounded, heart-shaped p l a t f o r m having numerous nodes, arranged randomly or i n two or more rows, between the c a r i n a and p l a t f o r m margins. The l a r g e t o small Systematic Taxonomy / 116 b a s a l p i t i s o n e - t h i r d t o one f i f t h or l e s s of the p l a t f o r m width. Remarks: A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a evolved from A n c y r o d e l l a s o l u t a by e v e r s i o n of the b a s a l c a v i t y t o form a p i t and by an increase i n nodose surface ornamentation (Sandberg et a l . , 1989). A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from A n c y r o d e l l a a l a t a by the l e s s developed k e e l s and by the presence of a small b a s a l p i t . Occurrence: A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Gataga area: (1). North America: New York and Michigan Europe: Germany, Morocco, and France. A s i a : southern China and U.S.S.R. Range: from l a t e E a r l y f a l s i o v a l i s Zone through punctata Zone (Garcia-Lopez, 1987). Genus Klap p e r i n a Lane, M u l l e r , and Z i e g l e r , 1979 Type sp e c i e s : Palmatolepis? d i s p a r a l v e a Orr & Klapper, 1968 Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Lane, M u l l e r , & Z i e g l e r , 1979) a genus having a l a r g e t r i a n g u l a r or L-shaped b a s a l c a v i t y the margins of which are d i s t i n c t l y r a i s e d above i t s lower surface. A l a r g e , t h i n , coarsely-nodose, p a l m a t o l e p i d - l i k e p l a t f o r m i s developed. A c e n t r a l node i s p o o r l y developed or absent. Systematic Taxonomy / 117 Remarks: The l a r g e basal c a v i t y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s K l a p p e r i n a from P a l m a t o l e p i s . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t K l a p p e r i n a was d e r i v e d from Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s and t h a t the Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s - K l a p p e r i n a e v o l u t i o n a r y l i n e was p a r a l l e l and quasi-contemporaneous w i t h the Polygnathus asymmetricus-Palmatolepis l i n e a g e . For t h i s reason, and because of morphological d i f f e r e n c e s , the new genus Kla p p e r i n a was e s t a b l i s h e d . The l i n e a g e o r i g i n a t e d w i t h Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s and appears t o have elapsed i n the very e a r l y Late Devonian (Lane, M u l l e r , and Z i e g l e r , 1979). K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r a l v e a (Orr & Klapper, 19 68) PI. 2, f i g s . 3-4 1968 P a l m a t o l e p i s ? d i s p a r a l v e a n. sp. Orr & Klapper, p. 1071-1072, p i . 140, f i g s . 1-11. 1970 P a l m a t o l e p i s ? d i s p a r a l v e a Orr & Klapper - K i r c h g a s s e r , p. 344-345, p i . 63, f i g . 1. 1973 P a l m a t o l e p i s ? d i s p a r a l v e a Orr & Klapper - Z i e g l e r , p. 271-272, Pa p i . 2, f i g . 1. 197 6 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s p a r a l v e a Orr & Klapper - Z i e g l e r , Klapper, & Johnson, p. 119, p i . 1, f i g . 23. 1979 K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r a l v e a (Orr & Klapper) - Lane, M u l l e r , & Z i e g l e r , p. 218, p i . 2, f i g s . 17-18. 1979 Palmatodella? d i s p a r a l v e a Orr & Klapper - Uyeno, p. 247, p i . 2, f i g s . 8-9. 1981 P a l m a t o l e p i s ? d i s p a r a l v e a Orr & Klapper - Huddle, p. B25, p i . 6, f i g s . 1-7. 1982 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s p a r a l v e a Orr & Klapper - Z i e g l e r & Klapper, p. 468-469. 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s p a r a l v e a Orr & Klapper - A u s t i n et a l , p i . 4.5, f i g s . 1-2. 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s p a r a l v e a Orr & Klapper - Bardashev & Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g s . 13-14. Systematic Taxonomy / 118 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s p a r a l v e a Orr & Klapper - Z i e g l e r & Wang, p i . 3, f i g . 2. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Orr & Klapper, 1968) A species questionably assigned t o Palm a t o l e p i s , which d i f f e r s from a l l species of the genus by possessing a l a r g e basal c a v i t y . The c a v i t y c o n s i s t s of a narrow trough t h a t extends along the main a x i s from near the p o s t e r i o r t i p t o about p l a t f o r m mid-length and tur n s there at r i g h t angle and b i s e c t s the outer lobe f o r a sh o r t d i s t a n c e . Remarks: K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r a l v e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an asymmetrical p l a t f o r m w i t h a w e l l d i f f e r e n t i a t e d outer lobe and asymmetrical b a s a l p i t . The upper surface i s covered w i t h coarse nodes. I t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Klapperina d i s p a r i l i s by the more pronounced outer lobe and b a s a l p i t . The p l a t f o r m i s somewhat arched w i t h the p o s t e r i o r t i p arched downward. The azygous node i s not w e l l d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Occurrence: K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r a l v e a occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Gataga: (13). North America: Indiana, New York, and North West T e r r i t o r i e s . Europe: Germany and B r i t a i n . A s i a : M a l a y s i a and southern China. Range: From base of d i s p a r i l i s Zone through middle E a r l y f a l s i o v a l i s Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979; Sandberg et a l . , 1989). Systematic Taxonomy / 119 K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r a t a ( Z i e g l e r & Klapper, 1982) 1981 Polygnathus asymmetricus asymmetricus B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r -Huddle, p i . 8, f i g s . 2-3. 1981 Polygnathus asymmetricus o v a l i s Z i e g l e r & Klapper - Huddle, p i . 14, f i g s . 1-4. 1982 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s p a r a t a n.sp. Z i e g l e r & Klapper, p. 466-467, p i . 1, f i g s . 3-5, p i . 2, f i g s . 4-11. 1988 K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r a t a Z i e g l e r & Klapper - Sweet, p. 104. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Z i e g l e r & Klapper, 1982) Representative p l a t f o r m elements of Palmatolepis d i s p a r a t a have a small, asymmetrical p i t t h a t i s l o c a t e d about at the centre of the p l a t f o r m and i n the c e n t r e of the c o n c e n t r i c growth l i n e s . In most specimens the upper s u r f a c e i s covered by f i n e , densely spaced nodes. Remarks: K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r a t a i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Klapperina d i s p a r i l i s and K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r a l v e a which have a l a r g e r , " r e -shaped b a s a l p i t and K l a p p e r i n a o v a l i s which has a more e c c e n t r i c a l l y l o c a t e d b a s a l p i t . Klapperina d i s p a r a t a i s separated from Mesotaxis asymmetricus on the b a s i s of i t s c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d and l a r g e r b a s a l p i t . In Mesotaxis asymmetricus the p i t i s s i t u a t e d e c c e n t r i c a l from the centre of the growth l i n e s ( Z i e g l e r & Klapper, 1982). Z i e g l e r & Klapper (1982) suggest t h a t Klapperina d i s p a r a t a i s d e r i v e d from "Polygnathus" c r i s t a t u s through t r a n s i t i o n a l forms which conforms to the l i n e a g e f o r Klapperina. Occurrence: K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r a t a occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Systematic Taxonomy / 12 0 Gataga: (1). North America: New York. Europe: Germany. Range: From base of d i s p a r i l i s Zone through middle E a r l y f a l s i o v a l i s Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979; Sandberg et a l . , 1989). K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r i l i s ( Z i e g l e r , Klapper, and Johnson, 1976) P I . 2, f i g s . 9-10 1958 P a l m a t o l e p i s t r a n s i t a n s M u l l e r - Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g . 2. 1970 Palmatolepis t r a n s i t a n s M u l l e r - K i r c h g a s s e r , p i . 63, f i g . 8. 1976 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s p a r i l i s n. sp. Z i e g l e r , Klapper, and Johnson, p. 119, p i . 1, f i g s . 18-22, 24-31. 1979 K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r i l i s ( Z i e g l e r , Klapper, and Johnson) -Lane, M u l l e r , & Z i e g l e r , p. 218. 1982 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s p a r i l i s Z i e g l e r et a l . - Z i e g l e r Se Klapper, p i . 3, f i g s . 5, 7-15. 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s p a r i l i s Z i e g l e r et a l . - A u s t i n et a l , p i . 4.5, f i g s . 3-4. 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s p a r i l i s Z i e g l e r et a l . - Bardashev Se Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g s . 11-12. 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s p a r i l i s Z i e g l e r et a l . - Hou et a l , p i . 3, f i g s . l a - b . 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s p a r i l i s Z i e g l e r et a l . - Z i e g l e r & Wang, p i . 2, f i g . 20, p i . 3, f i g s . 1, 3-4. 1988 K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r i l i s ( Z i e g l e r et a l . ) - Sweet, p. 104, f i g . 5.47. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Z i e g l e r et a l , 1976) Representative specimens of P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s p a r i l i s have an oval t o t r i a n g u l a r shaped, and asymmetrical p l a t f o r m o u t l i n e , but l a c k a w e l l - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d outer Systematic Taxonomy / 121 lobe. In lower view, the "L"-shaped b a s a l c a v i t y i s r a i s e d above the l e v e l of the lower sur f a c e . Remarks: This species i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r a l v e a i n t h a t both have a d i s t i n c t i v e " I i "-shaped b a s a l c a v i t y . F i n e r nodes cover the upper surface of K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r i l i s . The c a r i n a i s s t r a i g h t and g e n e r a l l y does not reach the p o s t e r i o r t i p . The azygous node i s i n d i s t i n c t . Z i e g l e r & Klapper (1982) noted that P almatolepis (=Klapperina) d i s p a r i l i s i s d e r i v e d from Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s . Occurrences: Klapperina d i s p a r i l i s occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Gataga: (5). North America: A l b e r t a Europe: Germany, B r i t a i n , and Morocco. A s i a : U.S.S.R. and southern China. Range: From base of d i s p a r i l i s Zone through middle e a r l y f a l s i o v a l i s Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979; Sandberg et a l . , 1989). K l a p p e r i n a o v a l i s Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck PI. 2, f i g s . 7-8, P I . 3, f i g s . 1-6 1968 Polygnathus asymmetrica o v a l i s Z i e g l e r & Klapper - Mound, p. 504, p i . 69, f i g . 4. 1970 Polygnathus asymmetricus asymmetricus B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r -Seddon, p i 10, f i g s . 2a-b. 1981 Polygnathus asymmetricus u n i l a b i u s n.subsp. Huddle, p. B26-27, p i . 7, f i g s . 13-15, p i . 8, f i g s . 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14. 1982 Polygnathus asymmetricus o v a l i s Z i e g l e r & Klapper - Z i e g l e r Systematic Taxonomy / 122 & Klapper, p. 471. 1985 Polygnathus asymmetricus u n i l a b i u s Huddle - Bardashev & Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g s . 18-19. 1986 Polygnathus u n i l a b i u s Huddle - Bultynck, p i . 2, f i g s . 7, 10-12. 1988 Mesotaxis o v a l i s ( Z i e g l e r & Klapper) - Klapper, p. 458, 1989 K l a p p e r i n a o v a l i s n.sp. Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, p. 213. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Huddle, 1981) This subspecies i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the asymmetrical b a s a l c a v i t y extending l a t e r a l l y as a broad lobe or l i p or the l a r g e r s i d e of the platform. Remarks: K l a p p e r i n a o v a l i s has a l a r g e asymmetrical b a s a l p i t . The p l a t f o r m i s a broad, s l i g h t l y asymmetrical, ovate t h a t i s s l i g h t l y arched. The i l l u s t r a t e d specimens show a v a r i a b l e p l a t f o r m o u t l i n e . The c a r i n a i s s t r a i g h t . The upper surface ornamentation i s v a r i a b l e from f i n e t o coarse nodes. Z i e g l e r & Klapper (1982) reassigned Polygnathus asymmetricus u n i l a b i u s Huddle to Polygnathus asymmetricus o v a l i s Z i e g l e r & Klapper (1964) because the holotype of P. a. o v a l i s has an asymmetrical b a s a l p i t . Klapper (1988) erected Mesotaxis o v a l i s ( Z i e g l e r & Klapper) from Polygnathus asymmetricus o v a l i s Z i e g l e r & Klapper which was l a t e r t r a n s f e r r e d by Sandberg et a l . (1989) t o Kla p p e r i n a o v a l i s . Occurrence: K l a p p e r i n a o v a l i s occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (4), Gataga: (3 0). North America: A l b e r t a , Texas, and New York. Europe: Germany and Morocco. Asia: U.S.S.R. Systematic Taxonomy / 123 Range: From base of f a l s i o v a l i s Zone through Upper asymmetricus Zone (Huddle, 1981; Sandberg et a l . , 1989) Mesotaxis Klapper & P h i l i p , 1972 Type species: Polygnathus asymmetricus Bischoff & Ziegler Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Klapper & P h i l i p , 1972) a multielement apparatus for Mesotaxis - consisting of s i x types of elements including P, 0,, N, A,, A2, and A3. P s k e l e t a l element i s polygnathan. Remarks: The morphology of the N, A1, and 01 elements readily distinguishes Mesotaxis from Polygnathus and necessitates i t s recognition as a separate genus. Mesotaxis asymmetrica (Bischoff & Ziegler) Klapper & P h i l i p , 1972 PI. 2, f i g s . 1-2, 11-12 1957 Polygnathus dubia asymmetrica n.subsp. Bischoff & Ziegler, p. 88-89, p i . 16, f i g s . 18, 20-22, p i . 21, f i g . 3. 1958 Polygnathus dubia asymmetrica Bischoff & Zi e g l e r - Ziegler, p i . 1, f i g s . 4-6, 8, 10. 1964 Polygnathus asymmetrica asymmetrica Ziegler, Klapper, and Lindstrom, p. 42 3. 1966 Polygnathus asymmetrica asymmetrica (Bischoff & Ziegler) -Glenister & Klapper, p.828, p i . 88, f i g . 6-7. 1968 Polygnathus asymmetricus asymmetricus (Bischoff & Ziegler) -Mound, p i . 68, f i g s . 8-9. Systematic Taxonomy / 124 1970 Polygnathus asymmetricus asymmetricus ( B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r ) -Ki r c h g a s s e r , p i . 63, f i g . 9. 1972 Mesotaxis asymmetrica asymmetrica ( B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r ) -Klapper & P h i l i p , p. 100, p i . l , f i g s . 20-27. 1974 Polygnathus asymmetricus asymmetricus B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r -Uyeno, p. 37, p i . 3, f i g s . 1, 3, 4, 6. 1975 Mesotaxis asymmetrica asymmetrica ( B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r ) -P h i l i p & McDonald, f i g . 3. 1979 Polygnathus asymmetricus asymmetricus B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r -Lane, M u l l e r , & Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g . 15. 1981 Polygnathus asymmetricus asymmetricus B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r -Bultynck & Jacobs, p i . 7, f i g . 17 1981 Polygnathus asymmetricus asymmetricus B i s c h o f f St Z i e g l e r -Huddle, p. B25-B26, p i . 7, f i g s . 19-22, p i . 8, f i g s . 1, 5-7. 1982 Polygnathus asymmetricus asymmetricus B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r -Z i e g l e r Sc Klapper, p. 469-471, p i . 1, f i g s . 7-8. 1985 Polygnathus asymmetricus asymmetricus B i s c h o f f Z i e g l e r -A u s t i n et a l . , p i . 4.5, f i g . 7. 1985 Polygnathus asymmetricus asymmetricus B i s c h o f f St Z i e g l e r -Bardashev & Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g s . 15-16. 1985 Polygnathus asymmetricus asymmetricus B i s c h o f f St Z i e g l e r -Hou et a l . , p i . 3, f i g s . 7a-b. 1985 Polygnathus asymmetricus B i s c h o f f St Z i e g l e r - Klapper St Lane, p. 934, f i g . 17.2. 1985 Polygnathus asymmetricus asymmetricus B i s c h o f f St Z i e g l e r -Z i e g l e r Si Wang, p i . 3, f i g . 5. 1986 Polygnathus asymmetricus B i s c h o f f St Z i e g l e r - Bultynck, p i . 2, f i g s . 1-2. 1988 Mesotaxis asymmetrica ( B i s c h o f f Si Z i e g l e r ) Klapper Si P h i l i p - Klapper, p. 458. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Z i e g l e r Si Klapper, 1982) Specimens of Mesotaxis asymmetrica have an asymmetrical, o v a l shaped platform o u t l i n e . The small p i t i s e c c e n t r i c , l o c a t e d a n t e r i o r of the Systematic Taxonomy / 125 c e n t r a l growth lines.The upper surface i s covered w i t h f i n e , densely packed nodes. The p l a t f o r m i s arched w i t h a s t r a i g h t inner margin and a rounded outer margin. The p i t i s i n an a n t e r i o r p o s i t i o n i n most specimens but n e a r l y c e n t r a l i n some. Remarks: Mesotaxis asymmetrica i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d form other broad p l a t f o r m elements l i k e K l a p p e r i n a o v a l i s and Mesotaxis species by a small b a s a l p i t and the p l a t f o r m o u t l i n e . The a n t e r i o r margins of the p l a t f o r m . Occurrence: Mesotaxis asymmetrica occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (5), Midway: (4), Gataga: (24). North America: A l b e r t a , North West T e r r i t o r i e s , and New York. Europe: Germany, B r i t a i n , and Morocco. A s i a : U.S.S.R., Malaysia, and southern China. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Range: From base of f a l s i o v a l i s Zone through Upper asymmetricus Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979; Sweet, 1988; Sandberg et a l . , 1989). Mesotaxis d e n g l e r i ( B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r ) P h i l i p & McDonald 1956 Polygnathus d e n g l e r i n.sp. B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r , p. 87-88, p i . 15, f i g s . 14, 15, 17-24, p i . 16, f i g s . 1-4. 1967 Polygnathus d e n g l e r i B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r - M u l l e r & C l a r k , p. 916, p i . 115, f i g s . 3a, b, 7a-c. 1970 Polygnathus d e n g l e r i B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r - K i r c h g a s s e r , p. 348-349, p i . 63, f i g . 2, p i . 64, f i g . 4, p i . 66, f i g . 2. Systematic Taxonomy / 126 1975 Mesotaxis d e n g l e r i ( B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r ) - P h i l i p & McDonald, f i g . 2. 1985 Polygnathus d e n g l e r i B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r - Bardashev & Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g . 17. 1985 Polygnathus d e n g l e r i B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r - Hou et a l . , p i . 3, f i g s . 5a-b. 1985 Polygnathus d e n g l e r i B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r - Z i e g l e r & Wang, p i . 2, f i g . 8, p i . 3, f i g . 15. 1986 Polygnathus d e n g l e r i B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r - Bultynck, p i . 2, f i g . 3. 1988 Polygnathus d e n g l e r i B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r - Klapper, p i . 3, f i g . 9. 1988 Polygnathus a f f . P. d e n g l e r i B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r - Klapper, p i . 3, f i g s . 7, 8. 1989 Mesotaxis? d e n g l e r i ( B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r ) - Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, p. 198. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d Kirchgasser, 1970) The p l a t f o r m i s narrow, oval-shaped, and symmetrical i n o u t l i n e , w i t h a pointed p o s t e r i o r margin. The f r e e blade i s short and high. The ornamentation on the f l a t upper surface c o n s i s t s of weakly developed short t r a n s v e r s e r i d g e s along the p l a t f o r m margin. These r i d g e do not extend i n t o the smooth weakly developed troughs t h a t p a r a l l e l the median c a r i n a . Remarks: Mesotaxis? d e n g l e r i i s s i m i l a r t o Mesotaxis asymmetrica but s i n c e the p l a t f o r m i s much narrower w i t h t h i c k e r upturned p l a t f o r m margins Mesotaxis? d e n g l e r i Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck (1989) questionably assigned i t t o the Mesotaxis genus. The basa l c a v i t y i s a n t e r i o r l y l o c a t e d and elongate. Huddle (1981) suggests a t r a n s i t i o n between s e v e r a l type of plat f o r m s i n the Lower Systematic Taxonomy / 127 asymmetricus Zone w i t h intermediate specimens d i f f i c u l t to spe c i a t e . P h i l i p & Mcdonald (1975) i d e n t i f i e d a multielement .assemblage f o r Mesotaxis d e n g l e r i ( B i s c h o f f Se Z i e g l e r ) made up of s i x elements. Occurrence: Mesotaxis? d e n g l e r i occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Gataga: (1) . North America: New York, Michigan, and Indiana. Europe: B r i t a i n , Germany, France, and Morocco. A s i a : southern China and U.S.S.R. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Range: from the base of the d i s p a r i l i s Zone i n t o the punctata Zone (Sweet, 1988; Sandberg et a l . , 1989). Mesotaxis f a l s i o v a l i s ( Z i e g l e r & Klapper) Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck PI . 2, f i g s . 5-6, PI. 3, f i g s . 7-9 1958 Polygnathus dubia dubia Z i e g l e r , p i . 1, f i g s . 1, 3a-b. 1964 Polygnathus asymmetrica o v a l i s Z i e g l e r & Klapper, p. 422-423. 1966 Polygnathus asymmetrica o v a l i s Z i e g l e r & Klapper - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p. 828, p i . 87, f i g s . 8-9. 1974 Polygnathus asymmetricus o v a l i s Z i e g l e r & Klapper - Uyeno, p. 37, p i . 3, f i g s . 2, 5, 7, p i . 4, f i g s . 1, 3. 1975 Mesotaxis asymmetrica o v a l i s ( B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r ) - P h i l i p & McDonald, f i g . 4. 1979 Polygnathus asymmetricus o v a l i s Z i e g l e r & Klapper - Lane, M u l l e r , & Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g . 19. Systematic Taxonomy / 128 1981 Polygnathus asymmetrica o v a l i s Z i e g l e r & Klapper - Huddle, p. B26, p i . 7, f i g s . 23-26, p i . 8, f i g s . 10, 13, p i . 14, f i g s . 1-5, p i . 16, f i g s . 23-25. 1982 Polygnathus asymmetricus n.subsp. Z i e g l e r & Klapper -Z i e g l e r & Klapper, p i . 1, f i g . 6. 1985 Polygnathus asymmetricus o v a l i s Z i e g l e r & Klapper - A u s t i n et a l . , p i . 4.5, f i g . 7? 1985 Polygnathus asymmetrica o v a l i s Z i e g l e r & Klapper - Hou et a l . , p i . 3, f i g s . 6a-b. 1985 Polygnathus asymmetricus o v a l i s Z i e g l e r & Klapper - Z i e g l e r & Wang, p i . 3, f i g . 6. 1986 Polygnathus o v a l i s Z i e g l e r & Klapper - Bultynck, p i . 2, f i g s . 4-6, 8, 9. 1988 Polygnathus asymmetricus o v a l i s Z i e g l e r & Klapper - Irwin & Orchard, p i . 1, f i g . 1. 1989 Mesotaxis f a l s i o v a l i s n.sp. Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, p. 213. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, 1989) Specimens r e p r e s e n t i n g Mesotaxis f a l s i o v a l i s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an oval-shaped sub-equal p l a t f o r m ornamented w i t h small t o medium-s i z e nodes, covering the e n t i r e p l a t f o r m . The a n t e r i o r p l a t f o r m margin meet the short f r e e blade a t roughly equal angles. A small symmetrical p i t i s l o c a t e d a n t e r i o r of the growth centre. Remarks: The upper p l a t f o r m s u r f a c e of Earn Group specimens are ornamented w i t h small nodes and the margins are covered w i t h an f i n e r e t i c u l a t e p a t t e r n . This species i s n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l i n shape and ornamentation t o K l a p p e r i n a o v a l i s (Sandberg et a l . , 1989) which i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by having an asymmetrical, more c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d b a s a l c a v i t y . Narrow specimens of Mesotaxis f a l s i o v a l i s c l o s e l y resemble Mesotaxis? d e n g l e r i , from which M. f a l s i o v a l i s Systematic Taxonomy / 129 apparently evolved and t o which i t i s connected by many t r a n s i t i o n a l specimens. Mesotaxis? d e n g l e r i i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d , however, by having unornamented, wide to narrow, a d c a r i n a l troughs t h a t separate ornamented areas from the c a r i n a and by having a more elongate b a s a l c a v i t y (Sandberg, et a l . , 1989). Occurrence: Mesotaxis f a l s i o v a l i s occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Gataga: (34). North America: A l b e r t a , New York. Europe: Germany, Morocco, and B r i t a i n . A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. A s i a : M a l a y s i a and southern China. Range: From base of f a l s i o v a l i s Zone i n t o o l d e s t p a r t of Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone. (Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, 1989) . Genus Palmatolepis U l r i c h and B a s s l e r , 192 6 Type s p e c i e s : Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r , 1926 Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , U l r i c h & B a s s l e r , 1926) P l a t e more or l e s s i r r e g u l a r l y palmate, the c r e s t (carina) curved and b i f u r c a t i n g i n i t s upper h a l f so as t o extend a d i v i s i o n i n t o each of the two main lobes and i t s lower end not extending beyond the narrowing l a t e r a l areas. Upper s u r f a c e h i g h l y ornamented, u s u a l l y w i t h r a d i a l l y or otherwise arranged rows of minute t u b e r c l e s . Under surface w i t h c o n c e n t r i c growth l i n e s and low r i d g e s corresponding t o the b i f u r c a t e d c r e s t of the upper surface. Systematic Taxonomy / 13 0 Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Z i e g l e r , 1973) Asymmetric p l a t f o r m conodonts having a more or l e s s l a r g e and arched p l a t e , a f r e e and f i x e d blade w i t h c a r i n a , and a c e n t r a l (azygous) node. A k e e l i s u s u a l l y continuous from a n t e r i o r t o p o s t e r i o r end. Only some species have a developed b a s a l p i t as an extremely small s l i t i n the k e e l . Upper ornamentation i s v a r i a b l e i n coarseness and d e n s i t y . Outer l a t e r a l lobe and secondary c a r i n a may be developed. Inner margin parapet i s developed i n p h y l o g e n e t i c a l l y younger s p e c i e s . Remarks: Orr and Klapper (1968) termed the l a t e r a l lobe as the outer lobe. T h i s p o s i t i o n i s based on the development from Mesotaxis asymmetrica, the ancestor of P a l m a t o l e p i s . The l a t e r a l lobe of Pal m a t o l e p i s developed from the outer asymmetrical h a l f of the Mesotaxis asymmetrica pl a t f o r m . G l e n i s t e r & Klapper (1966) defined the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features of Palmatolepis as f o l l o w s : 1) pl a t f o r m o u t l i n e , 2) general aspects of upper sur f a c e s c u l p t u r e , 3) p o s i t i o n and c h a r a c t e r of outer lobe, 4) ch a r a c t e r of b l a d e - c a r i n a , 5) p o s i t i o n and character of parapet i f present, 6) p o s i t i o n of p o s t e r i o r end i n l a t e r a l view. They d i d not regard the presence or absence of a secondary c a r i n a as s i g n i f i c a n t . P almatolepis c r e p i d a Sannemann, 1955 PI. 5, f i g . 1 1955 Palmatolepis c r e p i d a n.sp. Sannemann, p i . 6, f i g . 21. 1956 Palmatolepis c r e p i d a Sannemann - B i s c h o f f , p i . 8, f i g s . 31-32, p i . 10, f i g . 9. Systematic Taxonomy / 131 1959 Palmatolepis c r e p i d a Sannemann - Sco t t & C o l l i n s o n , t e x t f i g . 4, f i g . 5. 1962 Palmatolepis c r e p i d a Sannemann - Z i e g l e r , p i . 6, f i g s . 12 -19, t e x t f i g . 3. 1973 Palmatolepis c r e p i d a Sannemann - Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p i . 5, f i g s . 9-11. 1973 Palmatolepis c r e p i d a Sannemann - Z i e g l e r , v. 1, p. 263-264, Pa p i . 3, f i g s . 5-6. 1979 Palmatolepis c r e p i d a Sannemann - Cygan, p. 195, p i . 3, f i g . 4, p i . 5, f i g s . 1-3. 1979 Palmatolepis (Panderolepis) c r e p i d a Sannemann - Boogaard van den & Kuhry, p. 46, f i g . 18. 1983 Palmatolepis c r e p i d a Sannemann - Wang & Z i e g l e r , p i . 8, f i g . 14. 1985 Palmatolepis c r e p i d a Sannemann - Z i e g l e r Se Wang, p i . 4, f i g s . 22-23. 1988 Palmatolepis c r e p i d a Sannemann - Orchard, p i . 3, f i g . 14. (same specimen i l l u s t r a t e d on p l a t e 5, f i g u r e 1) 1989 Palmatolepis c r e p i d a Sannemann - I r w i n St Orchard, p i . 1, f i g . 7. (same specimen i l l u s t r a t e d on p l a t e 5, f i g u r e 1) Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Sannemann, 1955) A species of Palmatolepis t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a drop-shaped o u t l i n e . Remarks: Z i e g l e r (1962) s t a t e d t h a t the species evolved from Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s through the s i g n i f i c a n t or complete r e d u c t i o n of the outer lobe. Palmatolepis c r e p i d a i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Palmatolepis l i n g u i f o r m i s by the p o s t e r i o r p l a t f o r m always being d i s t i n c t l y bent upwards. The c a r i n a p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node i s p o o r l y developed and reaches the p o s t e r i o r end i n only a few specimens, whereas the p o s t e r i o r c a r i n a i n Palmatolepis l i n g u i f o r m i s i s more s t r o n g l y developed and reaches the p o s t e r i o r Systematic Taxonomy / 132 end. Z i e g l e r (1962) a l s o recognized t h a t Palmatolepis c r e p i d a i s connected t o Palmatolepis t e r m i n i through t r a n s i t i o n a l forms. Occurrence: Palmatolepis c r e p i d a occur i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (1), Gataga: (6), Midway (5). North America: Nevada, Texas. Europe: Germany, Belgium, I t a l y , Poland, France. Range: W i t h i n the c r e p i d a Zone and overlaps w i t h the o l d e s t occurrences of Palmatolepis rhomboidea (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973). Pal m a t o l e p i s d e l i c a t u l a Branson & Mehl, 1934 1934 P a l m a t o l e p i s d e l i c a t u l a Branson & Mehl, p.237. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Z i e g l e r , 19 62) A small t r i a n g u l a r species of P a l m a t o l e p i s i n which the upper surface i s smooth t o shagreen-like except a t the margins i n one subspecies. In most specimens, the outer margin of the p l a t f o r m meets the blade f a r t h e r a n t e r i o r l y than does the inner margin. The outer lobe i s t r i a n g u l a r . B l a d e / c a r i n a i s s t r a i g h t t o s l i g h t l y s i g m oidal. P o s t e r i o r end i n l a t e r a l view i s weakly arched downward or upward. Remarks: The three subspecies of Palmatolepis d e l i c a t u l a i n c l u d e ; P a l m a t o l e p i s d e l i c a t u l a d e l i c a t u l a , Palmatolepis d e l i c a t u l a c l a r k i , and P a l m a t o l e p i s d e l i c a t u l a protorhomboidea. Only Palmatolepis d e l i c a t u l a c l a r k i i s recognized w i t h i n the Earn Group. Pa l m a t o l e p i s d e l i c a t u l a i s b e l i e v e d t o have evolved from Systematic Taxonomy / 13 3 P a l m a t o l e p i s t r i a n g u l a r i s ( Z i e g l e r , 1973). Pal m a t o l e p i s d e l i c a t u l a c l a r k i Z i e g l e r , 1962 1962 P a l m a t o l e p i s marginata c l a r k i n.sp. Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g s . 20-27, t e x t f i g . 4b-c. 1966 P a l m a t o l e p i s d e l i c a t u l a c l a r k i Z i e g l e r - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, pi.92, f i g . 12. 1973 P a l m a t o l e p i s d e l i c a t u l a c l a r k i Z i e g l e r - Z i e g l e r , p. 269-270, Pa p i . 3, f i g . 4. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Z i e g l e r , 1962) A subspecies of Palmatolepis d e l i c a t u l a w i t h the f o l l o w i n g p e c u l i a r i t i e s : the inner margin of the p l a t f o r m meets the blade midway between the a n t e r i o r edge of the blade and the c e n t r a l node. The outer lobe i s more s t r o n g l y pronounced and more pointed, the e n t i r e outer h a l f of the p l a t f o r m i s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y smaller than i n Palmatolepis d e l i c a t u l a d e l i c a t u l a . The margins of the p l a t f o r m are mostly r a i s e d , always strengthened by r i d g e s and nodes i n the a n t e r i o r h a l f and o f t e n i n the p o s t e r i o r h a l f . Remarks: Pa l m a t o l e p i s d e l i c a t u l a c l a r k i i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from P. rhomboidea by the form of build-up on the a n t e r i o r inner platform. P. d. c l a r k i shows a s e r i e s of s m a l l nodes on i t s a n t e r i o r inner p l a t f o r m margin whereas, P. rhomboidea e x h i b i t s an ramp or platform bulge. P. d. c l a r k i d i f f e r s from the nominate subspecies by a longer f r e e blade and the p r o p o r t i o n a l l y s m a l l e r more angular outer lobe. While Palmatolepis d e l i c a t u l a c l a r k i has s t r o n g l y sculptured p l a t f o r m margins the nominate subspecies has a smooth or shagreen-l i k e upper s u r f a c e . Systematic Taxonomy / 13 4 Occurrence: P a l m a t o l e p i s d e l i c a t u l a c l a r k i occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Gataga: (6). North America: Ohio and Utah. Europe: Germany, Belgium, and Poland. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Range From lower l i m i t of Middle t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone i n t o Middle c r e p i d a Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979). P a l m a t o l e p i s domanicensis Ovnatanova, 1976 1968 P a l m a t o l e p i s f o l i a c e a Youngquist - P o l l o c k , p i . 61, f i g . 20. 1976 P a l m a t o l e p i s domanicensis Ovnatanova, p. 213-214, p i . 9, f i g 1-2. 1988 P a l m a t o l e p i s domanicensis Ovnatanova - Klapper, p i . 1, f i g s . 1-2. 1988 P a l m a t o l e p i s domanicensis Ovnatanova - Klapper & Lane, p i . 2, f i g . 21-23. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n , Ovnatanova, 1976) Conodonts with hastate, downward curved p l a t f o r m . Outer edge of p l a t f o r m r a i s e d , p r a c t i c a l l y p a r a l l e l t o c a r i n a , rounded l a t e r a l lobe b arely i n d i c a t e d along i n n e r edge. P o s t e r i o r end p l a t f o r m pointed and drawn out downward. Free blade d e n t i c u l a t e , 1/5 of the platform length. Carina s t r a i g h t , d e n t i c u l a t e i n f r o n t of p r i n c i p l e node, whil e behind i t the d e n t i c l e s weaken and the c a r i n a i s expressed Systematic Taxonomy / 135 by a weak chain of nodes. C e n t r a l node i s s h a r p l y c o n i c a l . Upper su r f a c e of p l a t f o r m u n i f o r m l y s c u l p t u r e d i n nodes t h a t are grouped p a r a l l e l t o the edge of the p l a t f o r m i n a d u l t specimens. Below there i s a c a r i n a (keel) and a broad apron. Remarks: Palmatolepis domanicensis i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from P a l m a t o l e p i s t r a n s i t a n s by the r a i s e d outer edge of the pl a t f o r m and the h e a v i l y narrowed and pointed p o s t e r i o r t i p . I t d i f f e r s from Palmatolepis f o l i a c e a by the comparatively l a r g e p l a t f o r m w i t h i n c i p i e n t l a t e r a l lobe and pointed p o s t e r i o r end (Ovnatanova, 1976). Klapper and Lane (1988) d i f f e r e n t i a t e d P a lmatolepis a f f . P. domanicensis w i t h a s m a l l e r , narrower p l a t f o r m and a more d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d outer lobe. Occurrence: Palmatolepis domanicensis occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Gataga: (5). North America: A l b e r t a Europe: France, U.S.S.R. Range: confined t o the Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone (Ovnatanova, 1976). Palmatolepis f o l i a c e a Youngquist, 1945 PI. 4, f i g . 9 1945 Palmatolepis f o l i a c e u s n.sp Youngquist, p. 364-365, p i . 56, f i g s . 11-12. 1957 Palmatolepis f o l i a c e a Youngquist - M u l l e r & M u l l e r , p i . 140, f i g s . 6, 7, 9. Systematic Taxonomy / 136 1958 Palmatolepis f o l i a c e a Youngquist - Z i e g l e r , p i . 7, f i g s . 8, 16. 1983 Palmatolepis f o l i a c e a Youngquist - Wang & Z i e g l e r , p i . 4, f i g . 1. 1988 Palmatolepis f o l i a c e a Youngquist - Klapper & Lane, p i . 2, f i g s . 18-20. 1988 Palmatolepis f o l i a c e a Youngquist - Orchard, p i . 1, f i g s . 15, 19, 22. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Youngquist, 1945) P l a t e narrow r e l a t i v e to l e n g t h , t h i n , convex o r a l l y , moderately undulating on broad s i d e , not as convex and only s l i g h t l y u n d u l a t i n g on narrow s i d e . Surface r e l a t i v e l y smooth but bears numerous small nodes. Carina o r i g i n a t e s as rough low r i d g e without d i s t i n c t d e n t i c l e s near p o s t e r i o r end of p l a t e , passes forward c u r v i n g s l i g h t l y toward broad p o r t i o n t o azygous node. Aboral surface of p l a t e i s e s s e n t i a l l y smooth, bearing only s m a l l escutcheon d i r e c t l y beneath azygous node. Remarks: The specimens i l l u s t r a t e d by Orchard (1988) have an inner g e n i c u l a t i o n p o i n t and an outer i n c i p i e n t lobe but l a c k the s i g n i f i c a n t a n t e r i o r p l a t f o r m bulge t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s some specimens of Polygnathus l i n g u i f o r m i s . The i l l u s t r a t e d specimen from the Earn Group e x h i b i t s a r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t c a r i n a , and an i n c i p i e n t outer lobe. The outer margins of the p l a t f o r m are s l i g h t l y r a i s e d . Occurrence: Palmatolepis f o l i a c e a occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass (12). Systematic Taxonomy / 137 North America: Iowa, A l b e r t a . A s i a : southern China. Europe: Germany. Range: middle Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone through Lower rhenana Zone p o s s i b l y i n t o l i n g u i f o r m i s Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979; Orchard, 1988). P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a U l r i c h and B a s s l e r , 1926 1879 Polygnathus s e r r a t a - Hinde, G.J., v. 35, p. 365, p i . 17, f i g s . 4-5 (nomen dubium) 192 6 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a - U l r i c h & B a s s l e r , v. 68, a r t . 12, p. 52, p i . 9, f i g s . 16-19 1963 Polygnathus s e r r a t a (Hinde) - Helms, p. 465-466, p i . 4, f i g . 12. 1968 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - Huddle, p. 29-31, p i . 14, f i g s . 25-26. 1977 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a U l r i c h Se B a s s l e r - Z i e g l e r , p. 289-290. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l t r a n s l a t e d from Z i e g l e r , 1960, 1962 by Z i e g l e r , 1977; i n n e r and outer reversed t o comply w i t h present usage) A s p e c i e s of Palmatolepis which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a long, slender p l a t f o r m . The upper surface i s shagreen-like (appearance of rough suede l e a t h e r ) , an outer lobe i s not developed. An inner parapet may be present. The blade i s moderately sigmoidal and commonly does not reach the p o s t e r i o r t i p . Remarks: The species evolved from P. tenuipunctata through the r e d u c t i o n i n the outer lobe and by the development of a parapet of Systematic Taxonomy / 138 v a r i a b l e morphology. P. k l a p p e r i i s s i m i l a r but has a much wider p l a t f o r m . Z i e g l e r (1962) d i f f e r e n t i a t e d subspecies on the v a r i a t i o n s i n the parapet morphology and the p o s t e r i o r c a r i n a . They are known t o have d i f f e r e n t ranges and are of e v o l u t i o n a r y and s t r a t i g r a p h i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . The subspecies were f i r s t recognized by G l e n i s t e r & Klapper (1966) i n A u s t r a l i a , r e v i s e d by Z i e g l e r & Huddle (1969), and are now recognized around the world. For synonymies see the r e s p e c t i v e subspecies. Helms (1963), due to u n s a t i s f a c t o r y p r e s e r v a t i o n of Polygnathus s e r r a t a Hinde (1879), concluded t h a t i t was c o n s p e c i f i c w i t h P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r . Because the specimen i s embedded i n the rock Helms was unable t o determine the species, as a r e s u l t , Polygnathus s e r r a t a i s regarded as a nomen dubium ( G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, 1966). Occurrence: Subspecies of Palmatolepis g l a b r a are the most common Famennian conodont seen i n the Earn Group. Subspecies i n c l u d i n g P. g. g l a b r a , P. g. acuta, P. g. l e p t a , P. g. d i s t o r t a , P. g. p e c t i n a t a , and P. g. prima have been recovered from the Earn Group at Macmillan Pass, Midway, and Gataga. Range: Conodont zonation: from the base of the Upper cr e p i d a Zone through the t r a c h y t e r a Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979) . Systematic Taxonomy / 139 Palmatolepis g l a b r a g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r , 1926 1926 Palmatolepis g l a b r a n.sp. U l r i c h & B a s s l e r , p i . 9, f i g . 20 1934 Palmatolepis g l a b r a g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - Branson & Mehl, p i . 18, f i g . 22. 1966 Palmatolepis g l a b r a g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - Winder, p i . 156, f i g . 6. 1968 Palmatolepis g l a b r a g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - Huddle, p. 3 0-31. 1975 Palmatolepis g l a b r a g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - P h i l i p & McDonald, f i g . 10. 1977 Palmatolepis g l a b r a g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - Z i e g l e r , p. 291-292, Pa p i . 6, f i g . 1. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Z i e g l e r , 1977) A subspecies of Palmatolepis g l a b r a having a parapet w i t h a s t r a i g h t a n t e r i o r margin t h a t j o i n s the blade under a r i g h t angle. The inner parapet margin i s p a r a l l e l t o the blade. The parapet may bear a weak bulge. Occurrence: Palmatolepis g l a b r a g l a b r a occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: North America: Tennessee, I l l i n o i s , and M i s s o u r i . Palmatolepis g l a b r a a f f . P. g. g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r , 1926 PI. 6, f i g . 7 Remarks: Palmatolepis g l a b r a a f f . P. g. g l a b r a appears more sigmoidal i n o u t l i n e and the parapet i s a ramp shaped r a t h e r than a t r u e c r e s t . The p l a t f o r m appears t o be s l i g h t l y t h i n n e r than Palmatolepis g l a b r a g l a b r a . The inner parapet margin of Palmatolepis g l a b r a a f f . P. g. g l a b r a i s s u b - p a r a l l e l t o the blade. Systematic Taxonomy / 140 Occurrence: Palmatolepis g l a b r a a f f . P. g. g l a b r a occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (10) , Midway (1). Range: Range of Palmatolepis g l a b r a g l a b r a i s not f i r m l y determined, Lower rhomboidea Zone through Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979). Palmatolepis g l a b r a acuta Helms, 1963 PI. 6, f i g s . 9, 14 1934 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - Branson & Mehl, p. 233-234, p i . 18, f i g . 22. 1959 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - S c o t t & C o l l i n s o n , t e x t - f i g . 3, alpha morphotype, e p s i l o n morphotype, d e l t a morphotype, p i . 76, p. 3, 4, 11, 12. 1960 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s t o r t a Branson & Mehl - C l a r k & Becker, p i . 2, f i g . 8. 1962 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a n. subsp. A Z i e g l e r , p i . 5 , f i g . 1-2.] 1963 Panderolepis s e r r a t a acuta n. subsp. Helms, p.468-469, p i . 3 , f i g s . 1-4, 6, t e x t - f i g . 2, f i g . 23. 1976 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a acuta Helms - Druce, p. 154-155, p i . 53, f i g . 4. 1977 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a acuta Helms - Z i e g l e r , v. 3, p. 293 -295, p i . 6 , f i g s . 2-3 (see synonymy) 1979 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a acuta Helms - Cygan, p. 199-200, p i . 10, f i g . l a - b . Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Helms, 1963, t r a n s l a t i o n , Z i e g l e r , 1977) A l a r g e subspecies of P. s e r r a t a (Hinde) having a narrow p l a t f o r m and elongate p o s t e r i o r p l a t f o r m end. I t has a t h o r n - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n of the i n n e r p l a t f o r m margin a n t e r i o r l y d i r e c t e d w i t h an acute Systematic Taxonomy / 141 angle t o the blade. The-inner margin bears a high but s h o r t , comb-l i k e c r e s t t h a t i s diagonal w i t h the blade, terminating anteriorward and does not reach the t h o r n - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n . Remarks: The acute angle between the parapet and the blade and the narrow elongate p l a t f o r m are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Palmatolepis g l a b r a acuta. The parapet may be d e n t i c u l a t e or sharp. Palmatolepis g l a b r a acuta evolved from forms t r a n s i t i o n a l w i t h P. g. prima, P. g. prima morphotype 1, and P. g. l e p t a by developing the acute angle between the p l a t f o r m margin and blade. P. g. p e c t i n a t a i s s i m i l a r t o P. g. acuta i n parapet development but l a c k s the acute angle. P. g. prima has a broader p l a t f o r m . T r a n s i t i o n a l forms between P. g. p e c t i n a t a and P. g. acuta are noted i n the l i t e r a t u r e and are evident w i t h i n the Earn Group specimens. P. g. acuta w i t h i n the Earn Group e x h i b i t s a v a r i a t i o n i n t h o r n - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n s from minor to s t r o n g l y developed. Occurrence: Palmatolepis g l a b r a acuta occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (9), Midway: (23), Gataga: (3). North America: M i s s o u r i , Nevada, Texas, I l l i n o i s , and Ontario. Europe: Germany, Poland, and I t a l y . A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Range: From high i n Upper c r e p i d a Zone i n t o the Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979). Systematic Taxonomy / 142 Pa l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a d i s t o r t a Branson & Mehl, 1934 PI. 7, f i g s . 8-11, 17, 19 1934 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s t o r t a n.sp. Branson & Mehl, p i . 18, f i g . 13. 1934 Pa l m a t o l e p i s p e c t i n i f e r a n.sp. Huddle, p i . 9, f i g s . 6-7. 1962 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s t o r t a Branson & Mehl - Z i e g l e r , p i . 5, f i g s . 8-13. 1966 P a l m a t o l e p i s d i s t o r t a Branson & Mehl - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p i . 89, f i g . 8, p i . 91, f i g . 2, 4. 1977 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a d i s t o r t a Branson & Mehl - Z i e g l e r , v. 3, p. 297-300, Pa. p i . 6., f i g s . 4-6 (see synonymy). 1979 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a d i s t o r t a Branson & Mehl - Cygan, p. 200, p i . 5, f i g . 7. 1979 P a l m a t o l e p i s (Panderolepis?) d i s t o r t a Branson & Mehl -Boogaard van den and Kuhry, p. 49-50, f i g . 22. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Z i e g l e r , 1977) A subspecies of Palmatolepis g l a b r a having a narrow, elongate s t r o n g l y sigmoidal p l a t f o r m w i t h a shagreen-like s u r f a c e . The w e l l developed, d e n t i c u l a t e or sharp, inner parapet i s p a r a l l e l and c l o s e t o the blade. The outer p l a t f o r m bears a stro n g bulge a n t e r i o r t o the c e n t r a l node. Remarks: The p r i n c i p l e d i a g n o s t i c f e a t u r e i s the strong convex morphology of the outer p l a t f o r m w i t h a steep drop o f f t o the margin and the deep ab o r a l trough. Small, p o s s i b l y j u v e n i l e , specimens of P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a d i s t o r t a show a s i m i l a r convex p l a t f o r m and steep marginal drop o f f . Palmatolepis g l a b r a d i s t o r t a i s a common Pa l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a group subspecies w i t h i n the Earn Group. Z i e g l e r (1977) notes t h a t Palmatolepis g l a b r a d i s t o r t a i s derived from P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a and i s connected by a Systematic Taxonomy / 143 complete t r a n s i t i o n a l s e r i e s . T r a n s i t i o n a l forms are common i n the Earn Group. Occurrence: Palmatolepis g l a b r a d i s t o r t a occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (71), Gataga: (79) . North America: M i s s o u r i , Tennessee, Indiana, Texas. Europe: Germany, Poland, A u s t r i a , I t a l y , Y u g o s l a v i a , Belgium, Spain, France, and U.S.S.R. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Range: From the base of the Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone i n t o the Lower t r a c h y t e r a Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979). Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a Z i e g l e r & Huddle, 19 69 PI. 7, f i g s . 7, 12, 13 1934 Palmatolepis g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - Branson & Mehl, p i . 18, f i g . 26. 1959 Palmatolepis g l a b r a elongata Holmes - Helms, p i . 5, f i g . 25, p i . 2, f i g . 12. 1960 Palmatolepis g l a b r a elongata Holmes - Z i e g l e r , p i . 1, f i g . 10 (holotype) 19 62 Palmatolepis g l a b r a elongata U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - Z i e g l e r , p i . 5, f i g s . 6-7 ( f i g . 6 copy of holotype) 1966 Palmatolepis g l a b r a elongata Holmes - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p. 811, 814, p i . 95, f i g . 1. 1973 Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a Z i e g l e r & Huddle - Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g . 3, 16. 1976 Palmatolepis g l a b r a acuta Helms - Druce, p i . 52, f i g . 3, p i . 53, f i g . 4. Systematic Taxonomy / 144 1977 Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a Z i e g l e r & Huddle - Z i e g l e r , p. 301-303, Pa. p i . 7, f i g s . 1-3 (see synonymy). 1979 Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a Z i e g l e r & Huddle - Cygan, p. 201-202, p i . 3, f i g s . 6-7, p i . 5, f i g s . 8-9. 1979 Palmatolepis (Panderolepis) g l a b r a group U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - Boogaard van den & Kuhry, p. 46-48, f i g . 21. 1989 Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a Z i e g l e r & Huddle - I r w i n & Orchard, p i . 1, f i g . 5. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Z i e g l e r & Huddle, 1969) A subspecies of Palma t o l e p i s g l a b r a having an extremely slender, elongate p l a t f o r m w i t h a t r i a n g u l a r inner parapet t h a t i s bowed upward. Remarks: Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a i s b e l i e v e d t o have evolved from Pal m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a prima by the bowing up of the f l a t p l a t f o r m i n t o a t r i a n g u l a r parapet ( Z i e g l e r , 1977). The holotype of P. g. elongata Holmes, 1928 i s m i s s i n g p a r t of i t s p l a t f o r m and can not be excluded as P. g. prima. As a r e s u l t Z i e g l e r & Huddle (1969) e s t a b l i s h e d P. g. l e p t a f o r P. g. elongata sensu Z i e g l e r (1962) . P. g. l e p t a i s the most common P. g. subspecies w i t h i n the middle Famennian Earn Group samples. W i t h i n the Earn Group the t y p i c a l P. g. l e p t a Z i e g l e r & Huddle co-occurs w i t h two v a r i a n t s , morphotype 1 and morphotype 2 (see below f o r d e s c r i p t i o n s ) . Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a morphotype 1 PI. 7, f i g s . 2, 3, 5 This morphotype shows a s i m i l a r narrow, elongate p l a t f o r m as f o r the t y p i c a l form. The d i s t i n c t i o n i s made wit h the t r i a n g u l a r parapet; the morphotype 1 parapet area i s not r a i s e d above the Systematic Taxonomy / 145 plane of the p l a t f o r m , the s i z e i s intermediate between the t y p i c a l form and morphotype 2. Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a morphotype 2 PI. 7, f i g s . 1, 4, 6 This morphotype has a very narrow and elongate p l a t f o r m , a prominent azygous node i n l i n e w i t h a d e n t i c u l a t e c a r i n a , and there i s no development of an inner a n t e r i o r p l a t f o r m or parapet. Morphotype 2 i s c o n s i s t e n t l y s m a l l e r i n s i z e than the t y p i c a l form P. g. l e p t a or morphotype 1. Due t o the co-occurrence of the t y p i c a l P. g. l e p t a w i t h the morphotypes i n some samples i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the morphotypes represent a ontogenetic growth s e r i e s thus: P. g. l e p t a morphotype 2 -> P. g. l e p t a morphotype 1 -> Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a . The i n d i v i d u a l range of the morphotypes i s w i t h i n the t o t a l range of P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a l e p t a . Occurrence: Pa l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a l e p t a occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (57), Midway: (55), Gataga: (206). North America; M i s s o u r i , Texas, Nevada, Tennessee, Alabama, Ontario. Europe: Germany, Poland, I t a l y , Belgium, U.S.S.R. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Systematic Taxonomy / 146 Range: Upper c r e p i d a Zone through Upper t r a c h y t e r a Zone ( Z i e g l e r & Sandberg, 1984). Palm a t o l e p i s g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a Z i e g l e r , 1962 PI. 7, f i g s . 14, 15, 20-21 1941 Pal m a t o l e p i s sp. Branson & Mehl, p i . 7, f i g . 11. 1955 Pal m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - Sannemann, p i . 24, f i g . 7. 1959 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - S c o t t & C o l l i n s o n , p i . 75, f i g s . 10, 18, 20, p i . 76, f i g s . 1-4, 7, 10-14. 1960 Pal m a t o l e p i s d i s t o r t a Branson & Mehl - C l a r k & Becker, p i . 2, f i g . 7. 1962 Pal m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a n.sp. Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g s . 3-5. 1966 Pal m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a Z i e g l e r - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p i . 89, f i g s . 1-3, 5, 9, 10, p i . 90, f i g s . 4-5, p i . 91, f i g s . 1, 3, 5. 1966 Pal m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a Z i e g l e r - Winder, p i . 156, f i g . 5. 1973 Palmatolepis g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a Z i e g l e r - Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g . 29. 1977 Pal m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a Z i e g l e r - Z i e g l e r , v. 3, p. 305-307, Pa. p i . 6, f i g s . 7-11 (see synonymy). 1979 Pal m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a Z i e g l e r - Cygan, p. 202-204, p i . 5, f i g s . 10-11, 15. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Z i e g l e r , 1962, t r a n s l a t e d , Z i e g l e r , 1977) A subspecies of Palmatolepis g l a b r a having the f o l l o w i n g p e c u l i a r i t i e s : The margin of the inner p l a t f o r m begins abruptly at the m i d - t h i r d of the t o t a l l ength w i t h i t s a n t e r i o r rim v e r t i c a l t o the blade; i t runs almost s t r a i g h t towards the p o s t e r i o r end. The inner a n t e r i o r of the p l a t f o r m i s f o r t i f i e d by a sharp c r e s t Systematic Taxonomy / 147 parapet which may a l s o be d e n t i c u l a t e . This c r e s t i s as high as the c a r i n a i n s i d e view; i t terminates immediately d i r e c t l y a n t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node. Remarks: The parapet of Palmatolepis g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a l i e s c l o s e r t o the blade, i s g e n e r a l l y longer than Palmatolepis g. prima, and i s commonly d e n t i c u l a t e . Palmatolepis g. p e c t i n a t a i s s i m i l a r to Palmatolepis g l a b r a g l a b r a , but i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the parapet which f o r P. g. g l a b r a i s a moderate bulge a t a g r e a t e r distance from the blade ( Z i e g l e r , 1977). Palmatolepis g. p e c t i n a t a i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o i t s descendant Palmatolepis g. d i s t o r t a through parapet development. The l a t t e r , however, has a s t r o n g l y convex outer p l a t f o r m w i t h a steep drop o f f and a deep trough on the aboral s u r f a c e . The outer p l a t f o r m of Palmatolepis g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a i s t h i n and f l a t . The P. g. p e c t i n a t a from the Selwyn-Kechika Basins are commonly seen as a t r a n s i t i o n a l s e r i e s w i t h P. g. d i s t o r t a . The major d i s t i n c t i o n between these subspecies being the f l a t t e n e d p l a t f o r m and l e s s s i gmoidal p l a t f o r m o u t l i n e f o r P. g. p e c t i n a t a and the convex and sigmoidal p l a t f o r m f o r P. g. d i s t o r t a . P. g. p e c t i n a t a v a r i e s i n s i z e s i g n i f i c a n t l y but, maintains the s u b s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at each stage. Occurrence: P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a occur i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (62), Midway: (64), Gataga: (183). Systematic Taxonomy / 148 North America: Nevada Europe: Germany, Poland, I t a l y , Spain, and Belgium. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin and Bonaparte Gulf Basin. Range: From high i n the Upper c r e p i d a Zone through Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979). Palmatolepis g l a b r a a f f . P. g. p e c t i n a t a PI. 7, f i g . 18 Remarks: Palmatolepis g l a b r a a f f . P. g. p e c t i n a t a e x h i b i t s a wide robust p l a t f o r m a t y p i c a l of Palmatolepis g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a . The o v e r a l l width/length r a t i o i s reduced i n t h i s form. Palmatolepis g l a b r a a f f . P. g. p e c t i n a t a specimens occur i n faunas c o n t a i n i n g t y p i c a l forms of Palmatolepis g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a and Palmatolepis g l a b r a d i s t o r t a . P almatolepis g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a morphotype 1 Sandberg & Z i e g l e r PI. 7, f i g . 16 1973 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a morphotype 1 Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g s . 4, 12-15, p i . 5, f i g . 14. D e s c r i p t i o n : (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973) This morphotype has a high s h o r t parapet t h a t probably evolved w i t h i n the P. g l a b r a lineage from forms t r a n s i t i o n a l between P. g. prima and P. g. l e p t a . Many e a r l y specimens have a parapet t h a t i s composed of a l a r g e rounded node t h a t r i s e s high above the blade. S t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y younger Systematic Taxonomy / 149 specimens have a parapet, angular i n side view, formed from a single node. P. g. pectinata morphotype 1 specimens from the Earn Group are uncommon but, characterized by a very short parapet, rather than a single i d e n t i f i a b l e node. In t h i s respect, the parapet of morphotype 1 specimens appear to be t r a n s i t i o n a l with P. g. pectinata. The f l a t platform diagnostic of P. g. pectinata i s maintained i n t h i s morphotype. P. g. pectinata morphotype 1 accompanies P. g. pectinata through to the upper part of the Upper rhomboidea Zone. Occurrence: P. g. pectinata morphotype 1 occurs i n the following areas: Macmillan Pass: (23) North America: Nevada Palmatolepis glabra prima Zi e g l e r & Huddle, 19 69 PI. 8, f i g . 14 1934 Palmatolepis glabra U l r i c h & Bassler - Branson & Mehl, p i . 18, f i g . 9. 1962 Palmatolepis glabra glabra U l r i c h & Bassler - Ziegler, p i . 1, f i g s . 11-13, p i . 4, f i g s . 14-15. 1969 Palmatolepis glabra prima n. subsp. Ziegler & Huddle, p. 379-380 (holotype selected from Ziegler, 1962, f i g . 14) 197 3 Palmatolepis glabra prima U l r i c h & Bassler - Sandberg & Ziegler, pi.2, f i g s . 1, 7. 1973 Palmatolepis glabra prima U l r i c h & Bassler Morphotype 1 -Sandberg & Ziegler, pi.2, f i g s . 2, 8-10. 1973 Palmatolepis glabra prima U l r i c h & Bassler Morphotype 2 -Sandberg & Ziegler, pi.2, f i g . 11. Systematic Taxonomy / 150 1977 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a prima Z i e g l e r & Huddle - Z i e g l e r , v. 3, p. 309-312, Pa. p i . 7, f i g s . 4-7 (see synonymy) 1979 P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a prima Z i e g l e r & Huddle - Cygan, p. 204-205, p i . 5, f i g s . 5-6. 1979 P a l m a t o l e p i s (Palmatolepis) g l a b r a prima Z i e g l e r & Huddle - Boogaard van den & Kuhry, p. 46-48, f i g . 19. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Z i e g l e r & Huddle, 1969) A subspecies of Palmatolepis g l a b r a having a n t e r i o r l y a rounded convex, inner p l a t f o r m margin parapet. This parapet i s g e n e r a l l y i n the same plane as the outer p l a t f o r m margin, may, be o b l i q u e t o t h i s . Remarks: T h i s subspecies evolved from P. tenuipunctata by reducing the outer lobe. T r a n s i t i o n a l forms are recognized between P. g. prima and P. t e n u i p u n c t a t a . Occurrences: P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a prima occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (13), Midway: (26), Gataga: (21). North America: I l l i n o i s , M i s s o u r i , Nevada, Tennessee, Texas, and Alabama. Europe: Germany, Poland, Belgium, Spain, and I t a l y . A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Range: From the base of Upper c r e p i d a Zone as high as Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973). P a l m a t o l e p i s g r a c i l i s Branson & Mehl, 1934 1934 P a l m a t o l e p i s g r a c i l i s n.sp. Branson & Mehl, p. 238, p i . 18, f i g s . 2, 5, 8. Systematic Taxonomy / 151 Diagnosis ( o r i g i n a l , Branson & Mehl, 1934) This i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Palmatolepis w i t h a remarkably reduced p l a t e . As a r u l e the p l a t e i s developed only as narrow margins p a r a l l e l i n g the c a r i n a . The p l a t e i s widest a n t e r i o r l y and tapers t o the p o s t e r i o r end. The outer margin of the p l a t e i s r e g u l a r l y convex i n the f r o n t , s t r a i g h t e n i n g towards the r e a r . Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Sandberg Se Z i e g l e r , 1979) Palmatolepis g r a c i l i s i s a species of Palmatolepis c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e l a t i v e l y narrow p l a t f o r m t h a t appears t o be smooth under an o p t i c a l microscope and a k e e l t h a t i s s t r o n g l y d e f l e c t e d l a t e r a l l y beneath the c e n t r a l node. Remarks: Pal m a t o l e p i s g r a c i l i s i s r e l a t e d t o Pa l m a t o l e p i s minuta through the f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n of the p l a t f o r m . I t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Palmatolepis minuta by the s t r o n g l y d e f l e c t e d k e e l . Sandberg & Z i e g l e r (1979) consider the k e e l an important phylogenetic development a f t e r e v o l u t i o n from Palmatolepis minuta. The four subspecies of Pal m a t o l e p i s g r a c i l i s i n c l u d e ; P a l m a t o l e p i s g r a c i l i s g r a c i l i s , P a l m a t o l e p i s g r a c i l i s manca, Pa l m a t o l e p i s g r a c i l i s s i g m o i d a l i s , and Palmatolepis g r a c i l i s gonioclymeniae. Only Pal m a t o l e p i s g r a c i l i s subsp. indeterminate and Palmatolepis g r a c i l i s g r a c i l i s have been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the Earn Group c o l l e c t i o n s . P almatolepis g r a c i l i s g r a c i l i s Branson Se Mehl, 1934 1955 Palmatolepis g r a c i l i s g r a c i l i s Branson Se Mehl - Sannemann, p i . 24, f i g . 15. Systematic Taxonomy / 152 1962 Palmatolepis g r a c i l i s g r a c i l i s Branson & Mehl - Mehl & Z i e g l e r , p i . 1, f i g s . 1-2. 19 66 Palmatolepis g r a c i l i s g r a c i l i s Branson & Mehl - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p i . 90, f i g . 6. 1977 Palmatolepis g r a c i l i s g r a c i l i s Branson & Mehl - Z i e g l e r , p. 316-317, Pa. p i . 7, f i g s . 8-10. 1979 Palmatolepis g r a c i l i s g r a c i l i s Branson & Mehl - Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1979) The nominate subspecies i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t , narrow platform, the a n t e r i o r margins of which g e n e r a l l y terminate at about mid-le n g t h of the blade and by a high c a r i n a . The margins of the upper surf a c e of the p l a t f o r m form a r a i s e d rounded rim. Remarks: The nominate subspecies shows considerable v a r i a t i o n i n s i z e of the p l a t f o r m and the l e n g t h and width ( Z i e g l e r , 1977). Occurrence: Palmatolepis g r a c i l i s g r a c i l i s occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (5) . North America: M i s s o u r i , Texas, I l l i n o i s , Wyoming, and Nevada. Europe: Germany, U.S.S.R., Poland, A u s t r i a , I t a l y , B u l g a r i a , Yugoslavia, Spain, and Great B r i t a i n . A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin and Bonaparte Gulf Basin. Range: From Upper rhomboidea Zone through p r a e s u l c a t a Zone (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1979). Systematic Taxonomy / 153 Palmatolepis h a s s i M u l l e r & M u l l e r , 1957 1957 P a l m a t o l e p i s h a s s i n.sp. M u l l e r & M u l l e r , p i . 139, f i g . 2, p i . 140, f i g . 2-4. 1958 P a l m a t o l e p i s h a s s i M u l l e r & M u l l e r - Z i e g l e r , p i . 7, f i g s . 3-7, 10, 13. 1962 P a l m a t o l e p i s h a s s i M u l l e r & M u l l e r - Z i e g l e r , t e x t - f i g . 8. 1968 P a l m a t o l e p i s gigas M i l l e r & Youngquist - Mound, p i . 68, f i g s . 3, 6. 1975 P a l m a t o l e p i s h a s s i M u l l e r & M u l l e r - P h i l i p & McDonald, f i g . 6. 1983 P a l m a t o l e p i s h a s s i M u l l e r & M u l l e r - Wang & Z i e g l e r , p i . 4, f i g . 7. 1986 P a l m a t o l e p i s h a s s i M u l l e r & M u l l e r - Klapper & Fo s t e r , J r . , p i . 1, f i g . 12, p i . 2, f i g . 14. 1988 P a l m a t o l e p i s h a s s i M u l l e r & M u l l e r - Klapper, p i . 1, f i g s . 3, 6 (form 2), p i . 1, f i g . 5 (form 4) Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , M u l l e r & M u l l e r , 1957) A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Pal m a t o l e p i s w i t h a l a r g e s t r o n g l y arched t r i l o b a t e p l a t e . The p o s i t i o n of the outer lobe i s a n t e r i o r of the azygous node. The blade i s r e l a t i v e l y f l a t , the c a r i n a and ke e l s i g m o i d a l . A secondary k e e l i s o f t e n present, although a secondary c a r i n a i s not. Remarks: Pa l m a t o l e p i s h a s s i i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i by i t s l a r g e r , wider p l a t e , a somewhat l e s s sigmoidal b l a d e / c a r i n a , and the more a n t e r i o r p o s i t i o n of the lobe. Z i e g l e r (1962) b e l i e v e s t h a t Palmatolepis h a s s i i s an e v o l u t i o n a r y l i n k between P a l m a t o l e p i s punctata and Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i . P a l m a t o l e p i s h a s s i has a l a r g e r outer lobe, a l e s s robust p l a t f o r m , Systematic Taxonomy / 154 and a more sigmoidal b l a d e / c a r i n a than Palmatolepis punctata. There are a l s o s i m i l a r i t i e s between Pal m a t o l e p i s h a s s i and P a l m a t o l e p i s w i n c h e l l i . Occurrence: Palmatolepis h a s s i occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (3), Gataga: (21). North America: A l b e r t a and Iowa. Europe: France, Poland, and Germany. A s i a : southern China. Range: From the base of the Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone i n t o the lower p a r t of the Upper rhenana Zone. A few specimens have been recovered from the Upper asymmetricus Zone ( Z i e g l e r , 1973). Pa l m a t o l e p i s k l a p p e r i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973 PI. 6, f i g s . 2, 6 1973 P a l m a t o l e p i s k l a p p e r i n.sp. Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p. 104, p i . 2, f i g s . 6, 17-18, p i . 5, f i g . 12. 1974 P a l m a t o l e p i s k l a p p e r i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r - Dreesen & Dusar, p. 31, p i . 6 , f i g s . 12-16, t e x t f i g . 21. 1975 P a l m a t o l e p i s k l a p p e r i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r - Z i e g l e r , v. 2, p. 243-244, Pa p i . 5, f i g s . 8-11. 1976 P a l m a t o l e p i s k l a p p e r i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r - Dreesen, p i . 2 , f i g . 5. 1979 P a l m a t o l e p i s k l a p p e r i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r - Cygan, p. 211-213, p i . 6, f i g . 6. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1975) Palmatolepis k l a p p e r i i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a shagreen s u r f a c e , an outer p l a t f o r m t h a t has a s l i g h t l y t o d i s t i n c t l y convex curvature and l a c k s a Systematic Taxonomy / 155 lobe, and an i n n e r p l a t f o r m t h a t i s e l e v a t e d above the outer pl a t f o r m . The r a i s e d i n n e r p l a t f o r m i s almost e n t i r e l y formed by an elongate bulge w i t h a f l a t t e n e d top termed a "ramp". Remarks: Dreesen & Dusar (1974) p o i n t out t h a t the weak or absent c a r i n a p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node, i s p r o g r e s s i v e l y absorbed by the surrounding p l a t f o r m , and i s v i s i b l e as a groove i n some specimens. The p o s t e r i o r t i p of the p l a t f o r m o f t e n extends f o r a short d i s t a n c e i n the l i n e of t h i s groove. Sandberg & Z i e g l e r (1973) note t h a t some j u v e n i l e specimens have a rounded a n t e r i o r margin of the i n n e r p l a t f o r m and thus resembles Palmatolepis g l a b r a prima morphotype 1. The Earn specimens are a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e and mature elements which do not e x h i b i t such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The ramp i s separated from the c a r i n a by a narrow s l i t . Some specimens i n the p h y l o g e n e t i c a l l y younger stages l a c k a p o s t e r i o r c a r i n a and have a ramp t h a t terminates between the c e n t r a l node and the p o s t e r i o r p l a t f o r m , thus p a r t i a l l y resembling Palmatolepis s t o p p e l i (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973). Occurrence: P a l m a t o l e p i s k l a p p e r i occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (12), Midway: (3), Gataga: (3). North America: Nevada. Europe: Poland, Belgium, and France. Range: From the base of the rhomboidea Zone i n t o the lower part of the Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone ( Z i e g l e r , 1973). Systematic Taxonomy / 156 Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a Helms, 1959 Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Z i e g l e r , 1962) A subspecies of P. quadrantinodosa w i t h the f o l l o w i n g p e c u l i a r i t i e s : The o u t l i n e i s almost completely the same as P. quadrantinodosa quadrantinodosa; the parapet, as a r u l e , c o n s i s t s of a continuous sharp r i d g e , which i s s e r r a t e i n a few specimens; the p o s t e r i o r t i p i s of s i t u a t e d somewhat more outward than i n Palmatolepis q. quadrantinodosa. Remarks: The taxon was f o r m a l l y r a i s e d t o s p e c i f i c rank by Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973. I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the absence of an outer lobe and the presence of a sharp inner p l a t f o r m parapet t h a t begins a t the a n t e r i o r end and extends p o s t e r i o r t o the c e n t r a l node. In advanced forms t h i s parapet may reach the p o s t e r i o r t i p of the p l a t f o r m . The parapet i s g e n e r a l l y smooth but, may be s e r r a t e or nodose. The shape of the p l a t f o r m ranges from n e a r l y round through o v a l t o narrow and elongate. Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a evolved from the f i e l d of t r a n s i t i o n between P. q. i n f l e x a and Palmatolepis s t o p p e l i . Sandberg & Z i e g l e r (1973) a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a d u p l i c a t a evolved from Palmatolepis k l a p p e r i although d i r e c t development from the m a r g i n i f e r a stock i s conceivable. G e n e r a l l y there appears t o be an e v o l u t i o n a r y t r e n d i n the development of the species l e a d i n g t o extension of the parapet and i n c r e a s i n g blade c a r i n a s i n u o s i t y . Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a m a r g i n i f e r a Helms, 1959 PI. 8, f i g s . 1, 2, 5-11 1956 Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa n.subsp. B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r , p i . 12, f i g . 10. Systematic Taxonomy / 157 1956 Pal m a t o l e p i s i n f l e x a n.sp. M u l l e r , p i . 10, f i g s . 3, 4, 6, 9. 1959 Pal m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosa m a r g i n i f e r a Z i e g l e r s i c -Helms, p i . 5, f i g s . 22-23. 1962 Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa m a r g i n i f e r a Z i e g l e r - Z i e g l e r , p i . 7, f i g s . 6-9. 1966 Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa m a r g i n i f e r a Helms ex Z i e g l e r - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p i . 91, f i g s . 7, 9-15. 1973 Pal m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a m a r g i n i f e r a Helms - Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p i . 3, f i g s . 13-14. 1977 Pal m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a m a r g i n i f e r a Helms - Z i e g l e r , v. 3, Pa. p i . 7, f i g s . 17-18, Pa. p i . 8, f i g s . 1-2 (see synonymy). 1979 Pal m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a m a r g i n i f e r a Helms - Cygan, p. 213-214, p i . 6, f i g s . 7-8, p i . 7, f i g . 10. 1979 Pal m a t o l e p i s ( C o n d i t o l e p i s ) m a r g i n i f e r a Helms - Boogaard van den & Kuhry, p. 53-54, f i g . 26. 198 3 P a lmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a m a r g i n i f e r a Helms - Wang & Z i e g l e r , p i . 3, f i g . 13. 1984 Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a m a r g i n i f e r a Helms - Z i e g l e r & Sandberg, p. 187. 1989 Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a m a r g i n i f e r a Helms - Ir w i n & Orchard, p i . 1, f i g . 9. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973) The nominate subspecies of Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a has a v a r i a b l e p l a t f o r m shape, from rounded t o o v a l , and a shagreen surface. The outer p l a t f o r m i s r e l a t i v e l y f l a t w i t h a s l i g h t l y concave a n t e r i o r margin and a convex p o s t e r i o r margin. The Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a stock has the common tendency t o produce nodes on the a n t e r i o r outer p l a t f o r m . This tendency i s e x h i b i t e d by the morphotypes named Palma t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a granulosa and Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a tuber, which Z i e g l e r & Sandberg r e s t o r e d t o Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a m a r g i n i f e r a , and by Pal m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a utahensis. Systematic Taxonomy / 158 In some specimens the parapet, u s u a l l y a sharp c r e s t , i s d e n t i c u l a t e . In l a r g e r specimens the parapet extends p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node and i n many specimens may continue t o the p o s t e r i o r t i p . P h y l o g e n e t i c a l l y younger specimens of P. m. m a r g i n i f e r a u s u a l l y have narrower p l a t f o r m s , t r a n s i t i o n a l t o P. m. utahensis. Occurrence: P a l m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a m a r g i n i f e r a occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (51), Midway: (1), Gataga: (247). North America: Nevada, Texas, Utah, and Ontario. Europe: Germany, Poland, I t a l y , Spain, Yugoslavia, A u s t r i a , and Belgium. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. A s i a : southern China. Range: From the base of Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone i n t o Lower t r a c h y t e r a Zone (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973). P a l m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a utahensis Z i e g l e r & Sandberg, 1984 PI. 8, f i g s . 3-4 1966 P a l m a t o l e p i s guadrantinodosa m a r g i n i f e r a Helms ex Z i e g l e r - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p i . 91, f i g . 6. 1973 P a l m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a n.subsp. Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p. 104, p i . 3, f i g s . 20, 26. 1974 P a l m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a n.subsp. Sandberg & Z i e g l e r -Dreesen & Dusar, p. 28, p i . 5, f i g s . 29-30, 32. 1977 P a l m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a n.subsp. Sandberg & Z i e g l e r -Z i e g l e r , v. 3, Pa. p i . 8, f i g . 4-5. Systematic Taxonomy / 159 1983 Pa l m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a n.subsp. Sandberg & Z i e g l e r - Wang & Z i e g l e r , p i . 3, f i g s . 21-22. 1984 Pa l m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a utahensis n.subsp. Z i e g l e r & Sandberg, p. 187, p i . 1, f i g s . 6-10. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Z i e g l e r & Sandberg, 1984) A subspecies of Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s t r o n g l y nodose a n t e r i o r outer p l a t f o r m and a very narrow i n n e r p o s t e r i o r platform. Remarks: Pal m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a utahensis specimens from the Earn Group are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the o r i g i n a l d i a g n o s i s . Occurrence: Pa l m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a u t a h e n s i s occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Gataga: (14) . North America: Utah, Nevada. Europe: Belgium. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. A s i a : southern China. Range: Mainly Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone, But may range s l i g h t l y h igher ( Z i e g l e r & Sandberg, 1984). Pal m a t o l e p i s minuta Branson & Mehl, 1934 19 34 Palmatolepis minuta n.sp. Branson & Mehl, p i . 18, f i g s . 1, 6, 7. Systematic Taxonomy / 160 Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Branson & Mehl, 1934) The p l a t e i s b i l a t e r a l l y symmetrical i n o u t l i n e . The c a r i n a i s very low and f a i n t back of the azygous node and becomes obsolete about h a l f to t w o - t h i r d s the l e n g t h of the p o s t e r i o r lobe. In f r o n t of the azygous node the c a r i n a i s h i g h . Some specimens have a l a r g e blade compared t o the s i z e of the p l a t e and others have no blade extension i n f r o n t of the p l a t e . The azygous node i s an almost symmetrical slender cone. The o r a l surface of the p l a t e i s smooth and n e a r l y f l a t but has a shallow l o n g i t u d i n a l trough b i s e c t i n g the back lobe. The a b o r a l s i d e of the p l a t e i s plane save f o r the down-turning of the back end and the r i d g e formed by the k e e l . The p l a t e on each s i d e of the k e e l i s a m i r r o r d u p l i c a t e of the other save f o r a very s l i g h t sigmoidal t w i s t . The k e e l i s very slender and low on the back lobe excepting near the t i p , but higher and much stronger on the f r o n t lobe. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Z i e g l e r , 1977) A species of Palmatolepis having a r e s t r i c t e d a n t e r i o r p l a t f o r m , broadening i n the region of the c e n t r a l node and tapers t o the p o s t e r i o r end. Upper surface i s shagreen-like. An outer lobe may be present. The blade c a r i n a i s n e a r l y s t r a i g h t . P o s t e r i o r p l a t f o r m i s h o r i z o n t a l t o s l i g h t l y f l e x e d downward i n l a t e r a l view. Remarks: Z i e g l e r (1962) i d e n t i f i e d the e v o l u t i o n of Palmatolepis minuta from Palmatolepis d e l i c a t u l a stock through the withdrawal Systematic Taxonomy / 161 of the a n t e r i o r p l a t f o r m and refinement of ornamentation. Su b s p e c i a t i o n i s based on p l a t f o r m shape, presence or absence of a l a t e r a l lobe. F i v e subspecies of Palmatolepis minuta have been i d e n t i f i e d ; Palmatolepis minuta minuta, Palmatolepis minuta s c h l e i z i a , P a lmatolepis minuta l o b a , Palmatolepis minuta wolskae, and P a l m a t o l e p i s minuta s u b g r a c i l i s . Only Palmatolepis minuta minuta and Palmatolepis minuta lo b a have been recognized from the Earn Group c o l l e c t i o n s . P a l m a t o l e p i s minuta minuta Branson & Mehl, 1934 PI. 8, f i g . 14 1934 P a l m a t o l e p i s minuta n.sp Branson & Mehl, 1934, p i . 18, f i g s . 1, 6-7. 1962 P a l m a t o l e p i s minuta minuta Branson & Mehl - Z i e g l e r , p i . 3, f i g s . 1-10. 1966 P a l m a t o l e p i s minuta minuta Branson & Mehl - Anderson, p. 408-409, p i . 49, f i g . 18 1966 P a l m a t o l e p i s minuta minuta Branson & Mehl - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p i . 90, f i g s . 1, 2, 7-14. 1977 P a l m a t o l e p i s minuta minuta Branson & Mehl - Z i e g l e r , p. 335-338, Pa p i . 9, f i g s . 1-5 (see synonymy). 1979 P a l m a t o l e p i s minuta minuta Branson & Mehl - Boogaard van den & Kuhry, p. 42-43, f i g . 13. 1983 P a l m a t o l e p i s minuta minuta Branson & Mehl - Wang & Z i e g l e r , p i . 3, f i g . 14. 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s minuta minuta Branson & Mehl - Z i e g l e r & Wang, p i . 4, f i g . 19. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Z i e g l e r , 1977) A subspecies of Palmatolepis minuta having a s m a l l , subovate t o elongate p l a t f o r m . Carina continues p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node. In some specimens the Systematic Taxonomy / 162 p o s t e r i o r c a r i n a i s considerably lower, i n other specimens i t i s a l o n g i t u d i n a l depression. A l a t e r a l lobe, i f present, i s f l a t . Remarks: I n o l d e r phylogenetic stages the outer p l a t f o r m i s expanded i n the area of the c e n t r a l node as an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d lobe. At t h i s stage the outer p l a t f o r m s t a r t s nearer t o the a n t e r i o r end than the inner p l a t f o r m . Occurrence: Palmatolepis minuta minuta occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (5), Midway: (19), Gataga: (90). North America: M i s s o u r i , Iowa, and Nevada. Europe: Germany, Poland, A u s t r i a , U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia, I t a l y , France, and Great B r i t a i n . A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin and Bonaparte Gulf Basin. Range: From the boundary of Middle/Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone through Upper t r a c h y t e r a Zone ( Z i e g l e r , 1977). Palmatolepis minuta l o b a Helms, 1963 1963 P a l m a t o l e p i s minuta loba n.subsp. Helms, p i . 2, f i g s . 13-14, p i . 3, f i g . 12. 197 3 P a l m a t o l e p i s minuta loba Helms - Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p i . 5, f i g s . 1-2. 1977 P a l m a t o l e p i s minuta loba Helms - Z i e g l e r , p. 339-340, Pa p i . 9, f i g s . 7-8. 1983 P a l m a t o l e p i s minuta loba Helms - Wang & Z i e g l e r , p i . 3, f i g . 16, p i . 8, f i g . 9. Systematic Taxonomy / 163 Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Helms, 1963) A subspecies of Palmatolepis minuta which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a w e l l d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , long outer lobe and a very s t r o n g c e n t r a l node. Remarks: Pa l m a t o l e p i s minuta loba i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Palmatolepis minuta minuta and the other Palmatolepis minuta subspecies by i t s w e l l d i f f e r e n t i a t e d outer lobe, which i s f l a t or has a s l i g h t depression. Occurrence: P a l m a t o l e p i s minuta loba occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Midway: (5), Gataga: (4). North America: Nevada. Europe: Germany, Poland, and I t a l y . A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. A s i a : southern China. Range: Through Upper c r e p i d a Zone i n t o Lower rhomboidea Zone ( Z i e g l e r , 1973) . P a l m a t o l e p i s p e r l o b a t a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r , 192 6 1926 P a l m a t o l e p i s p e r l o b a t a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r , p. 49-50, p i . 7, f i g s . 19-23. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , U l r i c h & B a s s l e r , 1926) Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a shows the tendency t o obsolescence of the l a t e r a l branch of the medial c r e s t , the i r r e g u l a r although decidedly lobate o u t l i n e and the decided curvature of the c r e s t may represent a more t r i a n g u l a r morphotype of the species. Systematic Taxonomy / 164 Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1979) Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s c a l l o p e d blade, and by a l a r g e , wide p l a t f o r m t h a t i s f l e x e d upward p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node. Remarks: Sannemann (1955) f i r s t recognized the most d i a g n o s t i c f e a t u r e of the s p e c i e s , the s c a l l o p e d blade, through which the species i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the Palmatolepis rugosa group. Z i e g l e r (1962) subdivided Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a i n t o Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i , Palmatolepis p. p e r l o b a t a , and Palmatolepis p. sigmoidea. Helms (1963) added Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a maxima and P a l m a t o l e p i s p e r l o b a t a postera. Sandberg & Z i e g l e r (1979) t r a n s f e r r e d Palmatolepis helmsi and Palmatolepis rugosa g r o s s i . P r e s e n t l y t h e r e f o r e , there are seven subspecies of Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a recognized on the b a s i s of curvature of b l a d e / c a r i n a , p l a t f o r m shape, and the absence or presence of a l a t e r a l lobe. P a l m a t o l e p i s p e r l o b a t a p e r l o b a t a gave r i s e t o Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i from which a l l other subspecies evolved from ( Z i e g l e r , 1977). Range: Species range from Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone i n t o p r a e s u l c a t a Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979). Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i M u l l e r , 1956 PI. 6, f i g s . 4, 8, 12 1956 Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i n.sp. M u l l e r , p i . 8, f i g s . 22-31, p i . 9, f i g . 33. 1962 Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i M u l l e r - Z i e g l e r , p i . 8, f i g s . 2-5. 1966 Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i M u l l e r - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p i . 92, f i g , 8, p i . 93, f i g s . 1-6. Systematic Taxonomy / 165 1968 Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r - Huddle, p i . 16, f i g . 8, p i . 15, f i g . 8. 1977 Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i M u l l e r - Z i e g l e r , p. 361-364, p i . 11, f i g s . 1-7 (see synonymy). 1979 Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i M u l l e r - Boogaard van den & Kuhry, p. 55, f i g . 27-28. 1979 Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i M u l l e r - Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p. 180, p i . 1, f i g s . 22-24, p i . 2, f i g . 13. 1983 Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i M u l l e r - Wang & Z i e g l e r . p i . 4, f i g . 3. 1985 Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i M u l l e r - A u s t i n et a l , p i . 4.7, f i g . 16. 1989 Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i M u l l e r - Metzger, f i g . 13, no. 32. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , M u l l e r , 1956) Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i has a l a r g e , elongate, s t r o n g l y u n d u l a t i n g p l a t e with grained or g e n t l y shagreen-like s u r f a c e . I t s maximum width i s a n t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node. The c a r i n a i s more or l e s s s t r o n g l y inwardly curved a n t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node. L a t e r a l lobe i s moderately l a r g e . The secondary c a r i n a i s not developed. Remarks: The subspecies i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a l e s s c o a r s e l y ornamented upper surface and by a u s u a l l y small l a t e r a l lobe. The present subspecies concept i s very broad. Sandberg & Z i e g l e r (1979) d e s c r i b e s e v e r a l morphotypes i n c l u d i n g those w i t h small or no l a t e r a l lobes which are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a p e r l o b a t a by the expansion, b u l g i n g and t i l t i n g of the parapet area and by a l a c k of nodes p a r a l l e l i n g the s i d e of the p o s t e r i o r p l a t f o r m . Some Earn Group specimens e x h i b i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r t o t h i s morphotype. Another morphotype Systematic Taxonomy / 166 recognized by Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1979) w i t h a narrow, c o a r s e l y ornamented p l a t f o r m , a long lobe, and a s c a l l o p e d blade t h a t a n t e r i o r l y resembles the smooth blade of Palmatolepis rugosa i s not recognized w i t h i n the Earn Group specimens. Occurrence: P a l m a t o l e p i s p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (21), Midway: (2), Gataga: (63). North America: Nebraska, Arkansas, Indiana, Utah, Tennessee, Idaho, and Alabama. Europe: Germany, Poland, Yugoslavia, U.S.S.R., I t a l y , Spain, Belgium, and Great B r i t a i n . A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. A s i a : China. Range: From Upper c r e p i d a Zone through Upper expansa Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979). P a l m a t o l e p i s p e r l o b a t a a f f . P. p. s c h i n d e w o l f i PI. 6, f i g . 11 Remarks: P a l m a t o l e p i s p e r l o b a t a a f f . P. p. s c h i n d e w o l f i i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from P. p. s c h i n d e w o l f i by i t s l a c k of an outer lobe on the mid-outer p l a t f o r m . The a f f . specimen i s i d e n t i c a l i n p l a t f o r m o u t l i n e , c a r i n a length and s i n u o s i t y , and shape of the inner and outer p l a t f o r m s . Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a a f f . P.. ' p. s c h i n d e w o l f i may represent a new subspecies however, only one Systematic Taxonomy / 167 specimen has been recovered which precludes a formal designation. Occurrence: Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a a f f . P. p. s c h i n d e w o l f i occurs at Gataga. Range: Pal m a t o l e p i s p e r l o b a t a a f f . P. p. s c h i n d e w o l f i i s found i n a c o l l e c t i o n at the Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone - Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone boundary. Pal m a t o l e p i s p o o l e i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973 PI. 5, f i g s . 9-10 1973 Palmatolepis p o o l e i n.sp. Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p. 106, p i . 14, f i g s . 14-26. 1977 P a l m a t o l e p i s p o o l e i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r - Z i e g l e r , v. 3, p. 245, Pa p i . 5, f i g s . 12-15. 1983 Pa l m a t o l e p i s p o o l e i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r - Wang & Z i e g l e r , p i . 3, f i g . 12. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973) Palmatolepis p o o l e i i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p l a t f o r m s t r o n g l y nodose i n the a n t e r i o r h a l f and weakly nodose p o s t e r i o r t o the c e n t r a l node, a high inner parapet formed by a c l u s t e r of nodes, and a weak t o obsolescent outer lobe. The margin of the outer p l a t f o r m s t a r t s c l o s e t o the a n t e r i o r end of the blade. The inner p l a t f o r m begins about midway between the c e n t r a l node and the a n t e r i o r t i p . The blade i s s l i g h t l y curved and continues only weakly p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node. Systematic Taxonomy / 168 Remarks: Sandberg & Z i e g l e r (1973) b e l i e v e d Palmatolepis p o o l e i evolved from Palmatolepis quadrantinodosalobata from which i t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a much reduced outer lobe. Occurrence: Palmatolepis p o o l e i occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (15) . North America: Nevada. Europe: Germany. A s i a : southern China. Range: w i t h i n the Lower rhomboidea Zone (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973). Pal m a t o l e p i s proversa Z i e g l e r , 1958 P I . 4, f i g s . 6, 11 1958 Palmatolepis proversa n.sp. Z i e g l e r , p i . 3, f i g s . 11-12, p i . 4, f i g s . 7, 9-14. 1966 Palmatolepis proversa Z i e g l e r - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p . 818-819. 1966 Palmatolepis proversa Z i e g l e r - Winder, p i . 156, f i g . 14. 1968 Palmatolepis proversa Z i e g l e r - P o l l o c k , p i . 61, f i g . 22. 1973 Palmatolepis proversa Z i e g l e r - Z i e g l e r , v. 1, p. 289-290, Pa p i . 2, f i g . 5 (see synonymy). 1983 Palmatolepis proversa Z i e g l e r - Wang & Z i e g l e r , p i . 4, f i g . 2. 1988 Palmatolepis proversa Z i e g l e r - Klapper, p i . 2, f i g s . 14-15. 1988 Palmatolepis proversa Z i e g l e r - Klapper & Lane, p i . 1, f i g s . 3-4. 1989 Palmatolepis proversa Z i e g l e r - I r w i n & Orchard, p i . 1, f i g . 3. Systematic Taxonomy / 169 Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Z i e g l e r , 1958) A species of P a l m a t o l e p i s with a r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g l y sigmoidal blade and an a n t e r i o r l y s i t u a t e d outer lobe, the a n t e r i o r margin of which runs o b l i q u e l y toward the blade and i s bent upward i n most specimens. The lower s u r f a c e of the lobe bears a secondary k e e l t h a t runs towards the centre of the growth by forming an angle of 45° w i t h the main k e e l . The p l a t f o r m margin i s wide. A very small b a s a l p i t i s h i n t e d i n a few specimens. Remarks: Palmatolepis proversa i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Palmatolepis punctata by having a more slender form, a more s t r o n g l y sigmoidal blade, and through the 4 5° angle between the secondary k e e l and the main k e e l ( Z i e g l e r , 1973). The a n t e r i o r p l a t f o r m margins are b u i l t up w i t h a s e r i e s of nodes. Occurrence: Palmatolepis proversa occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (18), Midway: (1), Gataga: (34). North America: M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y , Iowa, Ontario, and A l b e r t a . Europe: Germany and Poland. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. A s i a : southern China. Range: From punctata Zone t o lower p a r t of Lower rhenana Zone ( Z i e g l e r , 1962; Sandberg et a l . , 1989). Palmatolepis punctata (Hinde, 1879) P I . 4, f i g . 2 1879 Polygnathus punctatus [ s i c ] Hinde, p. 367, p i . 17, f i g . 14. Systematic Taxonomy / 170 1958 P a l m a t o l e p i s punctata (Hinde) - Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g s . 4-7, p i . 3, f i g s . 1-10. 1966 P a l m a t o l e p i s punctata (Hinde) - Winder, p i . 156, f i g . 13. 1968 P a l m a t o l e p i s subrecta M i l l e r & Youngquist - Mound, p. 501, p i . 68, f i g . 7, 15, 17, p i . 71. f i g s . 5-7, 9, 10. 1973 P a l m a t o l e p i s punctata (Hinde) - Z i e g l e r , v. 1, Pa p i . 1, f i g s . 4-5. 1983 P a l m a t o l e p i s punctata (Hinde) - Wang & Z i e g l e r , p i . 4, f i g . 4. 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s punctata (Hinde) - Klapper & Lane, p. 928, f i g s . 15.12-15.14. 1988 P a l m a t o l e p i s punctata (Hinde) - Klapper, p i . 1, f i g s . 8-9. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Hinde, 1879) P l a t e unsymmetrical, f l a t and t h i n , a d e l i c a t e k e e l which does not reach the t i p , but i s reproduced beyond the lower p o r t i o n of the p l a t e and has two or three nodes on i t . The surface of the p l a t e i s covered w i t h very minute t u b e r c l e s . Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , a f t e r M u l l e r , 1956, Z i e g l e r , 1958, G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, 1966) A species of P a l m a t o l e p i s w i t h a l a r g e r e l a t i v e l y t r i a n g u l a r p l a t f o r m b e a r i n g coarse s c u l p t u r e on the upper s u r f a c e . A d i s t i n c t outer lobe l i e s s l i g h t l y a n t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node. The b l a d e / c a r i n a i s u s u a l l y s l i g h t l y s i g m oidal, i n some specimens n e a r l y s t r a i g h t . The c e n t r a l node i s g e n e r a l l y only s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the other c a r i n a l nodes. The p o s t e r i o r end i s arched downward. The c a r i n a does not reach the p o s t e r i o r t i p of the p l a t e . Remarks: Palmatolepis punctata i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Palmatolepis Systematic Taxonomy / 171 t r a n s i t a n s , by a more d i s t i n c t outer lobe and sigmoidal b l a d e / c a r i n a . P a l m a t o l e p i s proversa i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by i t s more s t r o n g l y s igmoidal b l a d e / c a r i n a , a n t e r i o r l y d i r e c t e d outer lobe, and p l a t f o r m margin bu i l d - u p . Palmatolepis punctata i s regarded as the ancestor of most wide-plated palmatolepids i n the E a r l y Upper Devonian ( Z i e g l e r , 1962). Occurrence: P a l m a t o l e p i s punctata occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (2), Gataga: (2). North America: New York, Iowa, Texas, Ontario, North West T e r r i t o r i e s , and A l b e r t a . Europe: Germany, Poland, and A u s t r i a . A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. A s i a : southern China Range: From the base of the punctata Zone i n t o the Lower rhenana Zone ( Z i e g l e r , 1962; Sandberg et a l . , 1989). P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosa Branson & Mehl, 1934. Synonymy see under r e s p e c t i v e subspecies. D e s c r i p t i o n : ( o r i g i n a l ) P l a t e s l i g h t l y u n d u l a t i n g , wide i n p r o p o r t i o n t o l e n g t h , suboral i n o u t l i n e . The c a r i n a o r i g i n a t e s at or near the p o s t e r i o r end of the p l a t f o r m and i s s t r a i g h t t o the azygous node. The azygous node i s broad and low. A n t e r i o r of the node the c a r i n a turns sharply towards the inner margin and continues near p a r a l l e l t o t h a t margin. The c a r i n a continues as Systematic Taxonomy / 172 a s h o r t f r e e blade. The o r a l surface of the p l a t f o r m i s marked w i t h a gr a n u l a r t e x t u r e or very slender s h o r t sinuous ridges (Branson & Mehl, 1934) . Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , a f t e r Z i e g l e r , 1962; and G l e n i s t e r Se Klapper, 1966) A species of Palmatolepis i n which the a n t e r i o r outer p l a t f o r m extends t o the a n t e r i o r margin of the blade; the a n t e r i o r i n n e r margin l i e s a t a p o i n t t h a t i s halfway between the a n t e r i o r end and the c e n t r a l node. The upper surface i s s h a g r e e n - l i k e , no outer lobe i s present. The b l a d e - c a r i n a i s s i g m o i d a l , c a r i n a i s only weakly or not developed p o s t e r i o r of the azygous node. A parapet or bulge on the i n n e r s i d e i s developed. P o s t e r i o r end i s f l e x e d upward or h o r i z o n t a l . P a l matolepis quadrantinodosa quadrantinodosa Branson Se Mehl, 1934 Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa n.sp. Branson Se Mehl, p i . 18, f i g s . 3, 17,20. Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa quadrantinodosa Branson & Mehl - Z i e g l e r , p i . 7, f i g s . 10-11. Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa quadrantinodosa Branson St Mehl - Winder, p i . 156, f i g . 7. Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa quadrantinodosa Branson St Mehl - Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p i . 3, f i g s . 27-30. Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa quadrantinodosa Branson & Mehl - Z i e g l e r , p. 367-372, Pa p i . 8, f i g s . 10-16 (see synonymy) Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa quadrantinodosa Branson Se Mehl - Cygan, p i . 7, f i g s . 4,5,7. 1934 1962 1966 1973 1977 1979 Systematic Taxonomy / 173 Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Z i e g l e r , 1977) The nominate subspecies of P a l m a t o l e p i s guadrantinodosa i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an o v a l shagreen p l a t f o r m , the inner h a l f of which bears rows of nodes p a r a l l e l i n g the c a r i n a , or a c l u s t e r of nodes i n the a n t e r i o r p a r t , or short r i d g e s running t r a n s v e r s e t o the blade. Remarks: Sandberg & Z i e g l e r (1973) i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s subspecies as two morphotypes t h a t a r i s e from two d i s t i n c t p h y l e t i c l i n e s . One e v o l v i n g from Palmatolepis s t o p p e l i by the conversion of type ramp-l i k e i nner p l a t f o r m t o rows of nodes and/or r i d g e s . The other evolved from Palmatolepis guadrantinodosa i n f l e x a by the development of nodes and/or sh o r t t r a n s v e r s e r i d g e s on the bulge-l i k e i n n e r p l a t f o r m . I t appears t h a t the forms w i t h rows of nodes t h a t p a r a l l e l the blade have no c a r i n a p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node whereas, those w i t h s h o r t t r a n s v e r s e r i d g e s or c l u s t e r s of nodes have only a weak c a r i n a reaching t o or c l o s e t o the p o s t e r i o r t i p of the p l a t f o r m . Occurrence: Palmatolepis guadrantinodosa guadrantinodosa occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Gataga: (3). North America: M i s s o u r i , Tennessee, Texas, Nevada, and Ontario. Europe: France, Germany, Belgium, Poland, and U.S.S.R. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Range: uppermost rhomboidea Zone through the Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973). Systematic Taxonomy / 174 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosa i n f l e x a M u l l e r , 1956 PI. 6, f i g . 1 1956 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosa i n f l e x a M u l l e r , p. 10, f i g . 5. 1962 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosa i n f l e x a M u l l e r - Z i e g l e r , p i . 7, f i g s . 1-5. 1973 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosa i n f l e x a M u l l e r - Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p i . 4, f i g s . 7-13. 1977 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosa i n f l e x a M u l l e r - Z i e g l e r , p. 377-379, p i . 12, f i g . 3-10 (see synonymy). 1979 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosa i n f l e x a M u l l e r - Boogaard van den & Kuhry, p. 52, f i g . 24. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , M u l l e r , 1956) Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa i n f l e x a has a l a r g e suboval p l a t f o r m . The b l a d e / c a r i n a i s s t r o n g l y curved a n t e r i o r l y , but i n an obtuse angle p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node, from where i t runs s t r a i g h t towards the p o s t e r i o r end. The p o s t e r i o r end i s d i r e c t e d somewhat inward. In some specimens there i s no c a r i n a p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node. Secondary k e e l s and c a r i n a s are not developed. Remarks: T h i s subspecies of Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a v a r i e t y of morphologic expressions of the inner p l a t f o r m (parapet area) and length/width r e l a t i o n . At l e a s t three types have been recognized near the top of the uppermost rhomboidea Zone (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973, and Helms & Z i e g l e r , 1976). The f i r s t i s a s h o r t o v a l form i n which the inner p l a t f o r m i s f l a t . From t h i s form developed a second form having a round-topped short bulge on the a n t e r i o r inner p l a t f o r m . The t h i r d form i s more elongate w i t h a f l a t or s l i g h t l y bowed up inner p l a t f o r m . The Systematic Taxonomy / 175 specimens from the Earn Group resemble morphotype 2. The b u i l t up inner p l a t f o r m of Palmatolepis k l a p p e r i d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from P. q. i n f l e x a . Occurrence: Palmatolepis guadrantinodosa i n f l e x a occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (2), Gataga: (12). North America: I l l i n o i s , Utah, Nevada, and Texas. Europe: Germany, Poland, France, U.S.S.R. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin Range: From uppermost p a r t of the Upper rhomboidea Zone through Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973). Specimens from the Earn Group may range i n t o the lower Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone. This range i s younger than p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d by Sandberg & Z i e g l e r (1973). Pa l m a t o l e p i s guadrantinodosa i n f l e x o i d e a Z i e g l e r , 1962 PI. 6, f i g s . 3, 5, 10 1962 P a l m a t o l e p i s guadrantinodosa i n f l e x o i d e a Z i e g l e r , p i . 5, f i g s . 14-18. 1966 P a l m a t o l e p i s guadrantinodosa i n f l e x o i d e a Z i e g l e r G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p i . 93, f i g s . 11-12. 1977 P a l m a t o l e p i s guadrantinodosa i n f l e x o i d e a Z i e g l e r - Z i e g l e r , p. 383-384, Pa. p i . 13, f i g s . 1-5 (see synonymy). Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Z i e g l e r , 1962) P l a t e shagreen-like and f l a t , i t s p o s t e r i o r end f l e x e d upward. Blade i s s t r o n g l y sigmoidal, Systematic Taxonomy / 176 p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node i t i s p o o r l y d e f i n e d . The c e n t r a l node i s p o s i t i o n e d much more p o s t e r i o r l y than i n other subspecies. No parapet i s developed. Remarks: In most specimens the c a r i n a p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node i s represented by one or two i n d i s t i n c t nodes or i t i s absent. In a few specimens i t i s developed as a narrow, low l i n e t h a t may even reach the p o s t e r i o r t i p (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973). This subspecies i s recognized by an elongate p l a t f o r m . I t resembles Palmatolepis g l a b r a prima, but, i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the more p o s t e r i o r l y placed c e n t r a l node. Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa i n f l e x o i d e a evolved from Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa i n f l e x a through the e l o n g a t i o n of the p l a t f o r m and by the posterior-ward m i g r a t i o n of the c e n t r a l node ( Z i e g l e r , 1977). T r a n s i t i o n a l forms have been recognized (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973). Earn Group specimens i l l u s t r a t e the p l a t f o r m width/length r a t i o v a r i a t i o n . Occurrence: P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosa i n f l e x o i d e a occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (2), Gataga (24). North America: Texas and Nevada. Europe: Germany, U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia, I t a l y , and Belgium. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Range: Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973). Specimens from the Earn Group may range i n t o the lower Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone. This range i s younger than p r e v i o u s l y described by Sandberg & Z i e g l e r (1973). Systematic Taxonomy / 177 Palmatolepis guadrantinodosa n.subsp. A P I . 6, f i g . 13 Type l o c a l i t y : Gataga, D r i f t p i l e Creek area, B.C. Type s t r a t a : Gunsteel Formation, Earn Group Diagnosis: A subspecies of Palmatolepis guadrantinodosa having a s h a g r e e n - l i k e , p o s t e r i o r l y bulbous platform. The outer p l a t f o r m i s broad and- i t s margin has a prominent i n f l e x i o n a n t e r i o r of the azygous node. The narrow inner p l a t f o r m i s s l i g h t l y b u i l t up and has a s i m i l a r i n f l e x i o n p o s t e r i o r of the azygous node. D e s c r i p t i o n : The s t r a i g h t a n t e r i o r c a r i n a i s d e f l e c t e d a n t e r i o r of the azygous node and continues as a weak l i n e of nodes p o s t e r i o r of i t , o c c a s i o n a l l y p a r a l l e l e d by a shallow groove, to near the p o s t e r i o r t i p . The a n t e r i o r p o r t i o n of the i n n e r p l a t f o r m i s b u i l t up t o form a weak r i d g e p a r a l l e l t o , but separated from, the c a r i n a by a groove. The inner p l a t f o r m begins approximately h a l f way between the a n t e r i o r t i p and the azygous node. The outer p l a t f o r m begins a t the a n t e r i o r end of the c a r i n a . Remarks: This new subspecies shows s i m i l a r i t i e s t o both Pal m a t o l e p i s guadrantinodosa and Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a but the p l a t f o r m o u t l i n e i s unique i n the p o i n t s of i n f l e x i o n . The inner p l a t f o r m b u i l d up of Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa n. subsp. A i s s i m i l a r t o , but much s m a l l e r i n height and l e n g t h than the Systematic Taxonomy / 178 parapet/ramp development of Palm a t o l e p i s s t o p p e l i , Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a , and Palmatolepis guadrantinodosa guadrantinodosa. M a t e r i a l : s i x t e e n specimens C-118907 85-OFM-25 3 C-118924 85-OFM-42 1 C-118884 85-OFM-62 1 C-116977 86-OFM-G27 1 C-116914 86-OFM-G64 10 (1 photographed) Occurrence: Gataga area, northern B r i t i s h Columbia Range: From Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone through lowest Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone. Palm a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann, 1955 PI. 5, f i g s . 13, 17 1955 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann, p i . 24, f i g . 6. 1962 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann - Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g s . 6-12. 1966 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p i . 92, f i g s . 1-3. 1973 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann - Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p. 105-106, p i . 4, f i g s . 33-41. 1973 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann - Z i e g l e r , p. 295-298, Pa p i . 4, f i g s . 6-8 (see synonymy). 1975 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann - Druce, p. 116-117. p i . 14, f i g . 3. 1983 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann - Wang & Z i e g l e r , p i . 3, f i g . 11. 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann - A u s t i n et a l , p i . 46, f i g . 15. 1989 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann - Metzger, f i g . 13, no. 31. Systematic Taxonomy / 179 Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Sannemann, 1955) A species of Palmatolepis t h a t resembles P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosa w i t h the exception of a strong l a t e r a l lobe opposite the c e n t r a l node. Remarks: P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an elongate l a t e r a l lobe, a r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t b l a d e / c a r i n a , and a c l u s t e r of coarse nodes on the a n t e r i o r i n n e r platform. The p o s t e r i o r end of the p l a t f o r m i s f l e x e d upward except f o r the extreme t i p which i s d e f l e c t e d downwards ( Z i e g l e r , 1973). Occurrence: P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (2) , Midway: (1), Gataga: (25). North America: Nebraska, M i s s o u r i , I l l i n o i s , Wisconsin, Texas, Utah, Tennessee, and A l b e r t a . Europe: Germany, Poland, Belgium, A u s t r i a , I t a l y , and B r i t a i n . A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. A s i a : southern China. Range: From c r e p i d a Zone through lower p o r t i o n of Lower rhomboidea Zone. P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata morphotype 1 Sandberg & Z i e g l e r PI. 5, f i g . 17 1973 P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann - Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , morphotype 1, p. 105-106, p i . 4, f i g s . 27-32. Remarks: Sandberg & Z i e g l e r (1973) recognized a morphotype which Systematic Taxonomy / 180 i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a hi g h , s t r o n g l y nodose parapet area t h a t i s hig h e r and s h a r p l y d e l i n e a t e d from the smooth p o s t e r i o r region of the i n n e r p l a t f o r m . The parapet area i s comprised of rows of nodes t h a t are almost c o n c e n t r i c t o the curved p o r t i o n of the c a r i n a . The outer a n t e r i o r p l a t f o r m i s s t r o n g l y nodose. The outer lobe i s s l i g h t l y reduced and downward d i r e c t e d . Occurrence: Palmatolepis quadrantinodosalobata morphotype 1 occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (11), Gataga: (4) . North America: Utah. Range: From w e l l above base of c r e p i d a Zone i n t o lower p o r t i o n of Lower rhomboidea Zone (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973). Palmatolepis c f . P. r e g u l a r i s Cooper, 1931 PI. 5, f i g s . 3-4 1931 Palmatolepis r e g u l a r i s n.sp. Cooper, p. 242, p i . 28, f i g . 36. 1955 Palmatolepis c f . P. r e g u l a r i s Cooper - Sannemann, p. 135, p i . 1, f i g . 6. 1962 Palmatolepis c f . P. r e g u l a r i s Cooper - Z i e g l e r , p. 75-77, p i . 6, f i g s . 20-24, t e x t f i g . 7. 1963 Palmatolepis c f . P. r e g u l a r i s Cooper - Helms, p. 478, p i . 1, f i g . 1, p i . 2, f i g . 12, t e x t . f i g . 2, f i g s . 30-31. 1963 Palmatolepis c f . P. r e g u l a r i s Cooper - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p. 821-822, p i . 92, f i g s . 14-16. 1973 Palmatolepis c f . P. r e g u l a r i s Cooper - Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p. 106, p i . 1, f i g s . 27-30. 1979 Palmatolepis c f . P. r e g u l a r i s Cooper - Cygan, p. 223-224, p i . 7, f i g . 6, 13. Systematic Taxonomy / 181 1983 Palmatolepis c f . P. r e g u l a r i s Cooper - Wang Se Z i e g l e r , p i . 14, f i g . 6. 1985 Palmatolepis c f . P. r e g u l a r i s Cooper - Z i e g l e r Se Wang, p i . 4, f i g . 3. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Cooper, 1931) Species i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s extremely r e g u l a r o u t l i n e , the s i d e s of which are formed by two "ogee" (sigmoidal) curves. The l e a f - l i k e appearance i s f u r t h e r enhanced by the sigmoidal c a r i n a which i s continuous f o r a n t e r i o r to p o s t e r i o r t i p s . The t o o t h i s without ornamentation except f i n e c o n c e n t r i c l i n e s . Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , G l e n i s t e r Se Klapper, 1966) Palmatolepis c f . P. r e g u l a r i s d i s p l a y s a s t r o n g l y sigmoidal p l a t f o r m and shagreen-l i k e upper surface. The i n n e r lobe i s d i s t i n c t only i n e a r l y phylogenetic stages. The b l a d e / c a r i n a i s s t r o n g l y sigmoidal, except i n l a t e phylogenetic stages when i t i s moderately sigmoidal. P o s t e r i o r end i s f l e x e d upwards. Occurrence: Palmatolepis c f . P. r e g u l a r i s occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (5), Midway: (12), Gataga: (4). North America: Nevada, Oklahoma. Europe: Germany, A u s t r i a , I t a l y , Poland, France, and Morocco. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. A s i a : southern China. Range: From Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone i n t o Lower rhomboidea Zone (Klapper St Z i e g l e r , 1979) . Systematic Taxonomy / 182 Palmatolepis rhenana B i s c h o f f , 1956 PI. 4, f i g s . 3, 7, 13 1956 P a l m a t o l e p i s rhenana n.sp. B i s c h o f f , p i . 8, f i g s . 26-28, 30, p i . 10, f i g . 7. 1962 P a l m a t o l e p i s rhenana B i s c h o f f - Z i e g l e r , t e x t f i g . 8. 19 66 P a l m a t o l e p i s gigas M i l l e r & Youngquist - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p. 810, p i . 88, f i g . 12. 1966 P a l m a t o l e p i s gigas M i l l e r & Youngquist - Winder, p i . 156, f i g . 11. 1970 P a l m a t o l e p i s gigas M i l l e r & Youngquist - Seddon, p i . 11, f i g s . 1-2, 9, 10. 1973 P a l m a t o l e p i s gigas M i l l e r & Youngquist - Z i e g l e r , v. 1, Pa p i . 2, f i g s . 2-3. 1983 P a l m a t o l e p i s gigas M i l l e r & Youngquist - Wang & Z i e g l e r , p i . 3, f i g . 32. 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s gigas M i l l e r & Youngquist - Klapper & Lane, p. 928, f i g . 15.7. 1988 P a l m a t o l e p i s rhenana B i s c h o f f - Klapper, p i . 2, f i g s . 1, 13. 1988 P a l m a t o l e p i s a f f . P. rhenana B i s c h o f f - Klapper & Lane, p i . 1, f i g s . 10-13. 1988 P a l m a t o l e p i s rhenana B i s c h o f f - Orchard, p i . 1, f i g s . 11, 16, 23, 25, p i . 3, f i g . 1. 1989 P a l m a t o l e p i s rhenana B i s c h o f f - I r w i n & Orchard, p i . 1, f i g . 4. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Klapper & Lane, 1985) A species of Palm a t o l e p i s which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a prominent outer lobe, a sigmoidal c a r i n a which extends t o the p o s t e r i o r t i p . The ornamentation on the upper surface i s a r e l a t i v e l y uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i n e t o medium coarse nodes. The p o s t e r i o r end i s arched downward. Systematic Taxonomy / 183 Remarks: P a l m a t o l e p i s gigas M i l l e r & Youngquist i s now regarded as a j u n i o r synonym of Palmatolepis rhenana B i s c h o f f , t h e r e f o r e , the species and zonal name r e v e r t s t o P a l m a t o l e p i s rhenana B i s c h o f f (Orchard, 1988, p. 35). Occurrence: Palmatolepis rhenana occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (47), Gataga: (13). North America: A l b e r t a , North West T e r r i t o r i e s , Yukon, and Ontario. Europe: Germany and France. A s i a : southern China. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Range: From the base of the rhenana Zone t o the top of the rhenana Zone, some specimens reputedly occur i n Lower t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone ( Z i e g l e r , 1962). Pal m a t o l e p i s rhomboidea Sannemann, 1955 PI. 5, f i g . 18 1955 P a l m a t o l e p i s rhomboidea n.sp. Sannemann, p i . 24, f i g . 14. 1962 P a l m a t o l e p i s rhomboidea Sannemann - Z i e g l e r , p i . 7, f i g s . 14-16. 19 66 P a l m a t o l e p i s rhomboidea Sannemann - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p i . 92, f i g . 4, p i . 95, f i g . 18. 1973 P a l m a t o l e p i s rhomboidea Sannemann - Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p i . 1, f i g s . 20-26. 1973 Pa l m a t o l e p i s rhomboidea Sannemann - Z i e g l e r , v. 1, p. 299-301, Pa p i . 1, f i g s . 6-7 (see synonymy) 1974 Pal m a t o l e p i s rhomboidea Sannemann - Dreesen & Dusar, p i . 7 , f i g s . 11-12. 1979 Pa l m a t o l e p i s rhomboidea Sannemann - Cygan, p. 224-225, p i . 8, f i g s . 1-3,6 (see synonymy) Systematic Taxonomy / 184 Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Sannemann, 1955) A species of Palmatolepis t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a rhomb-like p l a t f o r m . Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973) The p l a t f o r m i s u s u a l l y small and o v a l . The a n t e r i o r inner margin begins p o s t e r i o r of the p o i n t where the a n t e r i o r outer margin begins, about halfway between the a n t e r i o r end of the blade and the c e n t r a l node. The b l a d e / c a r i n a i s s i g m o i d a l , an outer lobe i s g e n e r a l l y not developed. Pa l m a t o l e p i s rhomboidea has a bulge or a low parapet on the a n t e r i o r p o r t i o n of the inner p l a t f o r m , t h i s i s the key d i s t i n c t i o n between t h i s species and P a l m a t o l e p i s d e l i c a t u l a . Shallow a d c a r i n a l grooves on both sid e s of the p l a t f o r m may be present. The s u r f a c e i s smooth to shagreen-like. The p o s t e r i o r end of the p l a t f o r m i s f l e x e d upward. In some specimens (Sandberg Se Z i e g l e r , 1973) both s i d e s of the p l a t f o r m may s t a r t at the same p o s i t i o n on the blade and the p o s t e r i o r end may be f l e x e d downward ( Z i e g l e r , 1973) . Occurrence: Palmatolepis rhomboidea occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Gataga: (4). North America: Texas and Nevada. Europe: Germany, Poland, I t a l y , France, and U.S.S.R. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Range: From Lower rhomboidea Zone i n t o the Lower m a r g i n i f e r a Zone (Sandberg Se Z i e g l e r , 1973). Systematic Taxonomy / 185 Palmatolepis rugosa Branson & Mehl, 1934 1934 P almatolepis rugosa n.sp. Branson & Mehl, p. 23 6, p i . 18, f i g s . 15, 16, 18, 19. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Branson & Mehl, 1934) P l a t e sigmoidal curved, somewhat t w i s t e d at the f r o n t end, i n c r e a s i n g i n width from f r o n t t o back save f o r a s m a l l , sharp pointed lobe on one s i d e back of the middle. The c a r i n a on the back lobe i s low and i s d i s t i n c t only near the azygous node. In f r o n t of the azygous node i t i n c r e a s e s r a p i d l y i n height. I t i s without d e n t i c l e s or has i n d i s t i n c t ones near the node. A row of strong nodes b i s e c t s the s i d e lobe. On one s i d e of the c a r i n a the p l a t e i s narrow and bears a s e r i e s of short r i d g e s normal to the c a r i n a . The s u r f a c e of the p l a t e i s smooth save f o r a few low i r r e g u l a r nodes. A row of l a r g e nodes p a r a l l e l s the c a r i n a i n f r o n t of the s i d e lobe, the nodes decreasing i n s i z e forward t o near the f r o n t end of the blade. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1979) P almatolepis rugosa i s a s p e c i e s of Palmatolepis c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a moderately t o very c o a r s e l y ornamented p l a t f o r m t h a t i s broadly expanded t o form a s e m i c i r c u l a r arc on the outer s i d e between the c e n t r a l node and the p o s t e r i o r t i p and a narrow parapet area t h a t p a r a l l e l s the c a r i n a . The p l a t f o r m i s g e n e r a l l y f l a t p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node. The blade has a sharp c r e s t t h a t g e n e r a l l y does not show the t i p s of the fused d e n t i c l e s i n s i d e view. The secondary c a r i n a i s weak or i t s p o s i t i o n may be represented by a depression but a s t r o n g r i d g e g e n e r a l l y extends across the a n t e r i o r p a r t of the outer lobe Systematic Taxonomy / 186 towards the blade, invariably anterior to the central node. Remarks: Palmatolepis rugosa according to Ziegler & Sandberg (1984) comprises four subspecies; Palmatolepis rugosa rugosa, Palmatolepis rugosa ampla, Palmatolepis rugosa c f . ampla, and Palmatolepis rugosa trachytera. At present, only Palmatolepis rugosa trachytera has been i d e n t i f i e d i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins. Palmatolepis rugosa trachytera Ziegler, 1960 P I . 8, f i g s . 13, 15, 16 1955 Palmatolepis rugosa Branson & Mehl - Sannemann, p i . 24, f i g . 10. 1960 Palmatolepis rugosa trachytera n.subsp. Ziegler, p i . 1, f i g . 6, p i . 2, f i g s . 1-9, text f i g s . 12-13. 1962 Palmatolepis rugosa trachytera Zi e g l e r - Ziegler, p i . 8, f i g . 15. 1977 Palmatolepis rugosa trachytera Z i e g l e r - Ziegler, p. 405-406, p i . 14, f i g s . 6-11. 1978 Palmatolepis rugosa trachytera Zi e g l e r - Narkiewicz, p i . 10, f i g . 8. 1984 Palmatolepis rugosa trachytera Ziegler - Ziegler & Sandberg, p. 187-188, p i . 1, f i g s . 1-5, 12. 1985 Palmatolepis rugosa trachytera Z i e g l e r - Austin et a l , p i . 4.7, f i g . 19. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Ziegler, 1960) Palmatolepis rugosa trachytera has a strongly sigmoidal curvature, a less strongly developed outer lobe and, as compared with the nominate subspecies, a wider outer platform r e l a t e d to the length. The poste r i o r t i p has a further inward p o s i t i o n than the nominate subspecies. Systematic Taxonomy / 187 Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Z i e g l e r & Sandberg, 1984) Palmatolepis rugosa t r a c h y t e r a p l a t f o r m width i s n e a r l y constant and the outer p o s t e r i o r p l a t f o r m i s so expanded t h a t the p o s t e r i o r end forms a ne a r l y r i g h t angle w i t h the c a r i n a , thus c r e a t i n g a pl a t f o r m shape l i k e a narrow p a r a l l e l o g r a m . The outer lobe ranges from very weak to strong. Some specimens have only very weak nodes. Remarks: P a l m a t o l e p i s rugosa t r a c h y t e r a i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Palmatolepis rugosa rugosa by a sma l l e r and s h o r t e r outer lobe. P. r . t r a c h y t e r a i s s t r o n g l y sigmoidal w i t h an expanded p o s t e r i o r outer p l a t f o r m . A sharp parapet p a r a l l e l s the c a r i n a , separated from i t by a narrow, deep a d c a r i n a l groove. The parapet may c o n s i s t p a r t l y of a sharp c r e s t and p a r t l y of separate p o s t e r i o r -a n t e r i o r nodes. Z i e g l e r (1977) noted t h a t the o r i g i n of Palmatolepis rugosa t r a c h y t e r a i s u n c l e a r but, i t may have evolved from Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a u t a h e n s i s or Palmatolepis rugosa c f . ampla. Z i e g l e r & Sandberg (1984) noted specimens w i t h weak outer lobes bear a strong resemblance t o a p o s s i b l e P. m a r g i n i f e r a ancestor. The specimen of c o l l e c t i o n C-116697 may t h e r e f o r e , represent a s l i g h t l y younger a n c e s t r a l form of P. rugosa t r a c h y t e r a , p o s s i b l y i n t r a n s i t i o n from P. m a r g i n i f e r a subsp. The specimens of P. rugosa t r a c h y t e r a from w i t h i n the Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone at Macmillan Pass (C-108159, P I . 8, f i g . 12) may a l s o represent a t r a n s i t i o n a l form between i t s p o s s i b l e ancestors, e i t h e r P. rugosa c f . ampla M u l l e r or P. m a r g i n i f e r a utahensis Z i e g l e r & Sandberg. Systematic Taxonomy / 188 Occurrence: Palmatolepis rugosa t r a c h y t e r a occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (7). North America: Nevada and Utah Europe: Great B r i t a i n , Germany, Poland, and I t a l y . Range: Lower and Upper t r a c h y t e r a Zone, p o s s i b l y i n t o the Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone w i t h i n the Selwyn and Kechika Basins. The occurrences of Palmatolepis rugosa t r a c h y t e r a from recognized Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone faunas suggests an o l d e r f i r s t appearance of t h i s subspecies than p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d by Z i e g l e r & Sandberg (1984) and s i m i l a r t o the range f o r Palmatolepis rugosa c f . ampla. Palmatolepis rugosa a f f . P. r . t r a c h y t e r a PI. 8, f i g . 12 Remarks: In c o l l e c t i o n C-116697, from Gataga, P a l m a t o l e p i s rugosa a f f . P. r . t r a c h y t e r a occurs w i t h i n an Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone fauna. The specimen of P. rugosa a f f . P. r . t r a c h y t e r a has a reduced outer lobe, reduced p l a t f o r m nodes and an a t y p i c a l broad parapet. The upper surface ornamentation i s subdued. Occurrence: Palmatolepis rugosa P. r . t r a c h y t e r a occurs i n an upper Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone through Uppermost m a r g i n i f e r a Zone c o l l e c t i o n a t Gataga. Systematic Taxonomy / 189 Palmatolepis s t o p p e l i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973 PI. 5, f i g . 15 1962 Palmatolepis sp. Z i e g l e r , p i . 7, f i g s . 12-13. 1963 Palmatolepis (Pander) i n f l e x a M u l l e r - Helms, f i g . 2, f i g . 55. 1973 Palmatolepis s t o p p e l i n.sp. Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p. 106-107, p i . 3, f i g s . 1-11, p i . 5, f i g . 13. 1974 Palmatolepis s t o p p e l i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r - Dreesen & Dusar, p. 26, p i . 5, f i g s . 1-7. 1977 Palmatolepis s t o p p e l i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r - Z i e g l e r , p. 249-250, Pa p i . 5, f i g . 5-7. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973) Palmatolepis s t o p p e l i i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a rounded shagreen p l a t f o r m . The outer h a l f of the p l a t f o r m begins a t the a n t e r i o r end of the blade and has no lobe. The inner p l a t f o r m margins begins at the a n t e r i o r end of the blade, and an i n n e r p l a t f o r m formed by a high ramp that terminates at a l i n e between the c e n t r a l node and the p o s t e r i o r t i p . The ramp i s g e n e r a l l y f l a t - t o p p e d and g e n t l y d i p p i n g i n both d i r e c t i o n s . The c a r i n a p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node i s g e n e r a l l y absent. Remarks: Palmatolepis s t o p p e l i i s b e l i e v e d t o have evolved from the s l i g h t l y o l d e r Palmatolepis guadrantinodosa i n f l e x a by an upward b u l g i n g of the inner p l a t f o r m . Most p h y l o g e n e t i c a l l y older specimens have a very weak c a r i n a p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node, whereas, most younger stages l a c k a c a r i n a ( Z i e g l e r , 1977). Systematic Taxonomy / 190 Occurrences: Palmatolepis s t o p p e l i occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Gataga: (2). North America: Nevada. Europe: Germany, Poland, Belgium. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Range: From the upper p o r t i o n of the Upper rhomboidea Zone i n t o the lowermost p a r t of the Upper m a r g i n i f e r a Zone (Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , 1973). Pa l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata Branson & Mehl, 1934 PI. 5, f i g s . 5, 7, 11, 16 1934 P a l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata n.sp. Branson & Mehl, p. 235-23 6, p i . 18, f i g s . 3, 17, 20. 1955 P a l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata Branson & Mehl - Sannemann, p. 135, p i . 6, f i g . 23. 1962 P a l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata Branson & Mehl - Z i e g l e r , p. 79, p i . 4, f i g s . 1-2. 1963 P a l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata Branson & Mehl - Helms, p i . 1, f i g . 14. 1963 P a l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata subsp. A Branson & Mehl - Helms, p i . 1, f i g . 19. '1966 P a l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata Branson & Mehl - Winder, p i . 156, f i g . 9. 1974 P a l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata Branson & Mehl - Dreesen & Dusar, p i . 7, f i g s . 8-10. 1979 P a l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata Branson & Mehl - Cygan, p. 2 25-227, p i . 17, f i g . 8, p i . 10, f i g . 4 . 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata Branson & Mehl - Klapper & Lane, p. 930, f i g . 15.2. 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata Branson & Mehl - A u s t i n et a l , p i . 4.6, f i g . 14. Systematic Taxonomy / 191 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata Branson & Mehl - Z i e g l e r & Wang, p i . 4, f i g . 11. 1988 Pa l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata? Branson & Mehl - Orchard, p i . 2, f i g . 5. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Branson & Mehl, 193 4) P l a t e very t h i n , n e a r l y f l a t but s l i g h t l y t w i s t e d on narrow s i d e . Narrow s i d e nearly uniform width, margin convex, the main co n v e x i t y opposite the centre node, s l i g h t l y concave, s t r a i g h t , or s l i g h t l y convex forward. Broad s i d e has a n e a r l y asymmetrical lobe s t r o n g l y concave on each s i d e , p r o j e c t i n g s t r o n g l y i n the middle. Surface i s smooth save f o r very small nodes and r i d g e s . The c a r i n a extends f u l l l e n g t h of p l a t e , i n some specimens becoming obsolete near the back end. Aboral s i d e smooth; k e e l low and narrow but, highest at e x t r e m i t i e s ; p i t absent; a f a i n t r i d g e b i s e c t s the l a t e r a l lobe of most specimens. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Klapper & Lane, 1985) A more or l e s s t r i a n g u l a r species d i s p l a y i n g a shagreen-like upper surface. The outer lobe i s l a t e r a l l y extended. The b l a d e / c a r i n a i s sigmoidal, the c a r i n a i s weakly developed p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node. The p o s t e r i o r end i s f l e x e d upwards. Remarks: The p l a t f o r m o u t l i n e of Earn Group Palmatolepis subperlobata specimens i s h i g h l y v a r i a b l e . The specimens i l l u s t r a t e d on p l a t e 5 appear t o f o l l o w a t r a n s i t i o n a l s e r i e s with the two extreme specimens i n f i g u r e s 5 and 7. I f the specimen i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g . 7 developed the l a t e r a l lobe and lengthened Systematic Taxonomy / 192 the p o s t e r i o r end the specimen i n f i g . 11 could be produced. From t h a t specimen, i f the p o s t e r i o r end was reduced, a specimen s i m i l a r t o t h a t of f i g . 16 could be a t t a i n e d . F i n a l l y , i f the specimen of f i g . 16 continued the r e d u c t i o n of the p o s t e r i o r end and increased the length l a t e r a l lobe the specimen i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g . 5 could a r i s e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , because the i l l u s t r a t e d specimens are from c o l l e c t i o n s of about the same age the age of the specimens can not be separated nor can a p o s s i b l e phylogenetic s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s apparent l i n e a g e be determined. P. subperlobata i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Palmatolepis tenuipunctata by the w e l l developed l a t e r a l lobe. I t d i f f e r s from Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s i n having a shagreen-like s u r f a c e . Helms (1963) separated P a l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata subsp. A on the b a s i s of an elongated l a t e r a l lobe and shortened p o s t e r i o r p l a t f o r m , l i k e the specimen i l l u s t r a t e d i n p i . 5, f i g . 5. Occurrence: Pa l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (22) , Midway: (50) , Gataga: (41). North America: M i s s o u r i , New York, Ohio, Nevada, Utah, Ontario, A l b e r t a , and North West T e r r i t o r i e s . Europe: Germany, A u s t r i a , Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, I t a l y , Poland, Spain, B r i t a i n , Morocco. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. A s i a : China. Systematic Taxonomy / 193 Range: From Lower t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone through Lower rhomboidea Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979). Palmatolepis t e n u i p u n c t a t a Sannemann, 1955 1955 Palmatolepis t e n u i p u n c t a t a Sannemann, p i . 6, f i g . 22. 1962 Palmatolepis tenuipunctata Sannemann - Z i e g l e r , p i . 4, f i g s . 3-13. 1966 P a l m a t o l e p i s t e n u i p u n c t a t a Sannemann - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p i . 89, f i g . 4, p i . 92, f i g s . 9-11. 1973 P a l m a t o l e p i s t e n u i p u n c t a t a Sannemann - Z i e g l e r , v. 1, p. 303-305, Pa p i . 4, f i g . 3-4 (see synonymy). 1979 P a l m a t o l e p i s t e n u i p u n c t a t a Sannemann - Cygan, p. 229-231, p i . 9, f i g s . 1-3, 5, 6. 1979 P a l m a t o l e p i s (Manticolepis) tenuipunctata Sannemann Boogaard van den & Kuhry, p. 36-37, f i g s . 7-8. 1983 P a l m a t o l e p i s t e n u i p u n c t a t a Sannemann - Wang & Z i e g l e r , p i . 4, f i g . 5. 1985 Palmatolepis t e n u i p u n c t a t a Sannemann - Z i e g l e r & Wang, p i . 4, f i g s . 9, 12. 1989 Palmatolepis t e n u i p u n c t a t a Sannemann - I r w i n & Orchard, p i . 1, f i g . 8. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Sannemann, 1955) Palmatolepis tenuipunctata i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e g u l a r minute g r a n u l a t i o n of the p l a t e and a d e l i c a t e l y d e n t i c u l a t e blade. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Z i e g l e r , 197 3) The species has a more or l e s s t r i a n g u l a r p l a t f o r m i n younger phylogenetic stages, the pl a t f o r m i s much narrower i n l a t e r stages. P o s t e r i o r end i s f l e x e d upward, the outer lobe i s g e n e r a l l y s m a l l . Blade/carina i s moderately Systematic Taxonomy / 194 s i g m o i d a l . The inner parapet i s commonly weak. The upper surface i s s h a g r e e n - l i k e . Remarks: Small specimens of P a l m a t o l e p i s p e r l o b a t a resemble Pal m a t o l e p i s tenuipunctata. Sannemann ( t e x t f i g s . 2 & 3, 1955) i l l u s t r a t e d the d i f f e r e n c e i n the a n t e r i o r blade d e n t i c u l a t i o n between these two s p e c i e s ; the d e n t i c l e s are c l o s e together i n Palmatolepis tenuipunctata but, the t i p s of the d e n t i c l e s are f a r t h e r apart and separated by concave arcs i n Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a . The a n t e r i o r i n n e r margin of the Palmatolepis t e n u i p u n c t a t a p l a t f o r m begins w i t h a convex curve before becoming concave, whereas, the same margin f o r Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a begins w i t h a concave curve ( G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, 1966). In a d d i t i o n , the p o s t e r i o r c a r i n a continues t o the p o s t e r i o r t i p i n Palmatolepis t e n u i p u n c t a t a . Occurrence: Palmatolepis t e n u i p u n c t a t a occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (2), Midway: (9), Gataga: (3). North America: Texas and Wisconsin. Europe: Germany, Poland, Belgium, A u s t r i a , And France. A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Range: From the base of t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone through t o the top of c r e p i d a Zone ( Z i e g l e r , 1973). Systematic Taxonomy / 195 Palmatolepis t r a n s i t a n s M u l l e r , 1956 PI. 4, f i g s . 1, 5 1956 P a l m a t o l e p i s (Manticolepis) t r a n s i t a n s n.sp. M u l l e r , p i . 1, f i g s . 1-2. 1963 P a l m a t o l e p i s (Manticolepis) t r a n s i t a n s M u l l e r - Helms, t e x t . f i g . 2, f i g . 3. 1968 P a l m a t o l e p i s t r a n s i t a n s M u l l e r - P o l l o c k , p i . 61, f i g s . 19, 29. 1968 P a l m a t o l e p i s t r a n s i t a n s M u l l e r - Orr & Klapper, p i . 140, f i g . 13. 1970 P a l m a t o l e p i s t r a n s i t a n s M u l l e r - K i r c h g a s s e r , p. 344-345, p i . 63, f i g s . 1, 8. 1973 P a l m a t o l e p i s t r a n s i t a n s M u l l e r - Z i e g l e r , v. 1, p. 309-310, Pa p i . 1, f i g s . 1-3 (see synonymy). 1988 P a l m a t o l e p i s t r a n s i t a n s M u l l e r - Klapper, p i . 1, f i g s . 7,10. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , M u l l e r , 1956) A species of Palmatolepis w i t h a l a r g e , rounded, c o a r s e l y s c u l p t u r e d p l a t e and small c e n t r a l node. Carina and k e e l are s t r a i g h t , secondary c a r i n a and secondary keels are absent. The p l a t f o r m margin i s very broad and sculptured. Remarks: P a l m a t o l e p i s t r a n s i t a n s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Palmatolepis d i s p a r a l v e a by a minute basal p i t ( i f developed) and from Palmatolepis punctata by a s t r a i g h t b l a d e / c a r i n a and a l e s s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d outer lobe ( Z i e g l e r , 1973). Helms (1963) b e l i e v e d t h a t P a l m a t o l e p i s t r a n s i t a n s evolved from wide-plated Polygnathus stock and i s a n c e s t r a l t o Palmatolepis punctata. The specimens from the Selwyn and Kechika Basins show conspicuous growth l i n e s on the upper p l a t f o r m s u r f a c e . Systematic Taxonomy / 196 Occurrences: Palmatolepis t r a n s i t a n s occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (1), Midway: (1), Gataga: (23). North America: New York, Texas, and A l b e r t a . Europe: Germany, Poland, B r i t a i n , Spain, and A u s t r i a . A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Range: From the base of the t r a n s i t a n s Zone i n t o the Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone ( Z i e g l e r , 1971; Sandberg e t a l . , 1989). Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann, 1955 PI. 5, f i g . 2 1955 P a l m a t o l e p i s t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann, p i . 24, f i g . 3. 1962 P a l m a t o l e p i s t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann - Z i e g l e r , p i . 1, f i g s . 1-19. 1966 Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p i . 92, f i g s . 17-18. 1973 P a l m a t o l e p i s t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann - Z i e g l e r , v. 1, p. 311-314, Pa p i . 3, f i g s . 1-2 (see synonymy). 1975 Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s (Sannemann) - P h i l i p & McDonald, f i g . 8. 1979 Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann - Cygan, p 232-233, p i . 7, f i g . 11, p i . 9, f i g s . 9-10, p i . 10, f i g . 2. 1979 Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann - Boogaard van den & Kuhry, p. 3 4-35, f i g . 5. 1983 P a l m a t o l e p i s t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann - Wang & Z i e g l e r , p i . 3, f i g . 30. 1985 Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann - Z i e g l e r & Wang, p i . 4, f i g . 10. 1985 Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann - A u s t i n et a l , p i . 4.6, f i g . 13. 1988 Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann - Orchard, p i . 2, f i g . 14, p i . 3, f i g s . 6, 10 (same specimen). Systematic Taxonomy / 197 1989 Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann - I r w i n & Orchard, p i . 1, f i g . 6 (same specimen). Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Sannemann, 1955) A species of Palmatolepis which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a n e a r l y t r i a n g u l a r p l a t f o r m . Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Z i e g l e r , 1973) The ornamentation of the t r i a n g u l a r p l a t f o r m c o n s i s t s of coarse nodes t h a t are evenly d i s t r i b u t e d on the upper s u r f a c e . The outer lobe maybe rounded or s h a r p l y terminated. I t may be d i r e c t e d a n t e r i o r l y , p o s t e r i o r l y , or l a t e r a l l y . B l a d e / c a r i n a i s moderately s i g m o i d a l . Carina p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node c o n s i s t s of a row of s m a l l , low nodes. Secondary c a r i n a and k e e l may be present. P o s t e r i o r part of the p l a t f o r m i s g e n e r a l l y f l e x e d upward w i t h the extreme t i p f l e x e d upward or downward. Remarks: Z i e g l e r (1973) s t a t e d Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s was connected t o Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i (= P. subrecta) by t r a n s i t i o n a l forms. Palmatolepis subperlobata i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a shagreen-l i k e upper surf a c e . T r a n s i t i o n a l forms e x i s t between Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s and P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata. Occurrence: Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (11), Gataga: (7). North America: Tennessee, M i s s o u r i , Iowa, Wisconsin, Utah, Nevada, and A l b e r t a . Europe: Great B r i t a i n , Germany, France, Poland, Belgium, U.S.S.R., and I t a l y . Systematic Taxonomy / 198 A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin A s i a : China. Range: From base of t r i a n g u l a r i s Zone through Middle c r e p i d a Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979). Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i ( S t a u f f e r , 19 38) PI. 4, f i g s . 4, 8, 12 1947 P a l m a t o l e p i s subrecta n.sp. M i l l e r & Youngquist, p. 513-514, p i . 75, f i g . 7-11. 1947 P a l m a t o l e p i s gigas n.sp. M i l l e r & Youngquist, p i . 75, f i g . 1. 1951 P a l m a t o l e p i s subrecta M i l l e r & Youngquist - Hass, p i . 1, f i g . 19. 1966 P a l m a t o l e p i s subrecta M i l l e r & Youngquist - G l e n i s t e r & Klapper, p.823-824, p i . 88, f i g s . 1-3 (see synonymy). 1966 P a l m a t o l e p i s subrecta M i l l e r & Youngquist - Winder, p. 1275, p i . 156, f i g . 8. 1968 P a l m a t o l e p i s subrecta M i l l e r & Youngquist - Huddle, p. 34, p i . 16, f i g s . 5-7. 1979 P a l m a t o l e p i s (Manticolepis) subrecta M i l l e r & Youngquist -Boogaard van den & Kuhry, p. 30-32, f i g s . 1-2. 1979 P a l m a t o l e p i s subrecta M i l l e r & Youngquist - Cygan, p. 227-229, p i . 8, f i g s . , 4, 5, 7-12, p i . 10, f i g s . 9-10 (see synonymy) 1983 P a l m a t o l e p i s subrecta M i l l e r & Youngquist - Wang & Z i e g l e r , p i . 3, f i g . 27. 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s subrecta M i l l e r & Youngquist - Klapper & Lane, p. 930, f i g . 15.11. 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s subrecta M i l l e r & Youngquist - A u s t i n , e t a l . , p i . " 4 . 6 , f i g . 1. 1985 P a l m a t o l e p i s subrecta M i l l e r & Youngquist - Z i e g l e r & Wang, p i . 4, f i g . 7. Systematic Taxonomy / 199 1986 P a l m a t o l e p i s subrecta M i l l e r & Youngquist - Klapper & F o s t e r , p i . 1, f i g . 8, p i . 2, f i g . 7. 1988 P a l m a t o l e p i s w i n c h e l l i ( S t a u f f e r , 1938) - Klapper, p i . 1, f i g . 8, p i . 2, f i g . 5 1988 P a l m a t o l e p i s w i n c h e l l i ( S t a u f f e r , 1938) - Klapper & Lane, p i . 1, f i g s . 5, 8. 1988 P a l m a t o l e p i s subrecta M i l l e r & Youngquist - Orchard, p. 35, p i . 1, f i g s . 20-21, 24. Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , M i l l e r & Youngquist, 1947) This species i s based on s e v e r a l specimens w i t h a f a i r l y s t r a i g h t , f i n e l y d e n t i c u l a t e a n t e r i o r l y high b l a d e / c a r i n a . The c a r i n a extends p o s t e r i o r of the azygous node as a low r i d g e without a d i s t i n c t branch on the l a t e r a l lobe. Oral s u r f a c e of the p l a t e i s concave a n t e r i o r l y and convex p o s t e r i o r l y , the l a t e r a l lobe i s concave. On the concave ab o r a l surface there i s a p o o r l y developed k e e l and no w e l l developed growth l i n e s . Remarks: Klapper (1988) synonymized Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i ( S t a u f f e r , 1938) w i t h Palmatolepis subrecta M i l l e r & Youngquist, 1947 because Bryantodus w i n c h e l l i i s a p r i o r name a p p l i e d t o the Pb element of the apparatus of P a l m a t o l e p i s subrecta. Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i has a pronounced round-ended outer lobe, s t r a i g h t a n t e r i o r c a r i n a , sigmoidal p o s t e r i o r of c e n t r a l node, an a n t e r i o r f r e e blade w i t h uniform d e n t i c l e s , and a s u b c i r c u l a r inner p l a t f o r m margin ( A u s t i n et a l . , 1985). The upper s u r f a c e ornamentation i s v a r i a b l e but, g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t s of coarse nodes u s u a l l y concentrated near the margins. J u v e n i l e specimens show l i t t l e ornamentation as nodes are a l a t e r ontogenetic development. The Systematic Taxonomy / 2 00 j u v e n i l e p l a t f o r m has a p o o r l y developed l a t e r a l lobe and the p l a t f o r m i s rhomboid i n o u t l i n e . The convex p o s t e r i o r i s maintained i n j u v e n i l e specimens. The morphology of Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i i s h i g h l y v a r i a b l e . Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i i s s i m i l a r t o Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s but, has a convex p o s t e r i o r t i p r a t h e r than a concave t i p . The d i f f e r e n c e between Pal m a t o l e p i s w i n c h e l l i and Palmatolepis rhenana i s l e s s d i s t i n c t : P a l m a t o l e p i s rhenana tends t o have a l a r g e r inner p l a t f o r m , a more elongate l a t e r a l lobe, and uniform nodes. Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i i s very s i m i l a r t o P a l m a t o l e p i s h a s s i which d i f f e r s i n having a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r and wider platform, a s t r a i g h t e r f u l l l e n g t h b l a d e / c a r i n a (Cygan, 1979) Occurrence: P a l m a t o l e p i s w i n c h e l l i occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass: (69), Midway: (10), Gataga: (74). North America: Iowa, Arkansas, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Utah, A l b e r t a , North West T e r r i t o r i e s , and Ontario. Europe: Germany, A u s t r i a , Belgium, France, Yugoslavia, Spain, Morocco, and B r i t a i n . A u s t r a l i a : Canning Basin. Range: From Upper asymmetricus Zone to l i n g u i f o r m i s Zone (Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979). Systematic Taxonomy / 2 01 Palmatolepis wolskajae Ovnatanova, 1969 PI. 5, f i g . 6 1969 Palmatolepis wolskajae n.sp. Ovnatanova, p. 139, p i . 1, f i g . 6. 1973 Palmatolepis a f f . Palmatolepis c i r c u l a r i s Szulczewski -Sandberg & Z i e g l e r , p i . 1, f i g s . 1-12. 1977 Palmatolepis wolskajae Ovnatanova - Z i e g l e r , p. 413-414, Pa p i . 14, f i g s . 12-13. 1985 Palmatolepis wolskajae Ovnatanova - Klapper & Lane, p. 930, f i g . 15.15. 1988 Palmatolepis wolskajae Ovnatanova - Orchard, p i . 3, f i g . 8. (same specimen) Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Ovnatanova, 1969) Conodonts w i t h a round, s l i g h t l y undulated p l a t f o r m . The p o s t e r i o r end of the p l a t e i s rounded. The l a t e r a l lobe i s rounded, s m a l l , and p o s i t i o n e d near the c e n t r a l node. The c e n t r a l node i s l a r g e and round. The upper su r f a c e i s shagreen-like. The middle p o r t i o n of the k e e l i s low. Remarks: Palmatolepis wolskajae i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o Palmatolepis c i r c u l a r i s . I t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by three important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : P a lmatolepis wolskajae has a broad but d e f i n i t e l y elongate p l a t f o r m , whereas Palmatolepis c i r c u l a r i s has a s u b c i r c u l a r o u t l i n e ; Palmatolepis wolskajae has a w e l l defined, longer, and more slender outer lobe; the p o s t e r i o r c a r i n a of P a l m a t o l e p i s wolskajae i s low but d i s t i n c t , whereas Palmatolepis c i r c u l a r i s does not have a p o s t e r i o r c a r i n a ( Z i e g l e r , 1977). Klapper & Lane (1985) i n c l u d e specimens not d i s p l a y i n g a c a r i n a p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node i n t o t h e i r P a l m a t o l e p i s wolskajae Systematic Taxonomy / 2 02 concept. Orchard (1988) d e s c r i b e d a new species , Palmatolepis canadensis, t h a t i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o Palmatolepis wolskajae. P a l m a t o l e p i s canadensis appeared t o occupy an e v o l u t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n between Palmatolepis wolskajae and i t s predecessor Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s . The development may a l s o have p a r a l l e l e d t h a t of Pal m a t o l e p i s subperlobata (Orchard, 1988). Occurrence: Palmatolepis wolskajae occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Gataga: (6). North America: Nevada, A l b e r t a , and North West T e r r i t o r i e s . Europe: U.S.S.R. Range: W i t h i n c r e p i d a Zone (U.S.S.R. Ovnatanova, 1969). Middle - Upper c r e p i d a Zone (North America Z i e g l e r , 1977). Palmatolepis sp. C Orchard, 1988 1988 Palmatolepis sp. C Orchard, p i . 3, f i g . 3 Remarks: Orchard (1988) r e f e r s t o Palmatolepis sp. C as a Frasnian homeomorph of the Famennian Pa l m a t o l e p i s minuta. The species i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s m a l l , t r i a n g u l a r , r e s t r i c t e d p o s t e r i o r p l a t f o r m , and a r e l a t i v e l y long, s l i g h t l y curved f r e e blade. The c a r i n a i s subdued p o s t e r i o r of the azygous node. Occurrence: Palmatolepis sp. C occurs at Macmillan Pass (2) and i n the Mount Hawk Formation at Medicine Lake, A l b e r t a . Systematic Taxonomy / 203 Range: P a l m a t o l e p i s sp. C occurs w i t h i n a fauna i n d i c a t i v e of rhenana Zone. W i t h i n the Mount Hawk Formation i t occurs i n a fauna recognized as Lower rhenana Zone (Orchard, 1988). Pal m a t o l e p i s sp. B Klapper & Foster PI. 4, f i g . 10 1986 P a l m a t o l e p i s sp. B Klapper & F o s t e r , p i . 2, f i g s . 6, 8. 1989 P a l m a t o l e p i s sp. B Klapper & F o s t e r - Klapper, p i . 2, f i g . 3 Diagnosis: The p l a t f o r m o u t l i n e and shape of the outer lobe d i s t i n g u i s h e s P a l m a t o l e p i s sp. B from Palmatolepis h a s s i . The p o s t e r i o r i n n e r and outer p l a t f o r m of P. sp B i s wider than P. h a s s i . The p o s i t i o n of the outer lobe i s a n t e r i o r of the outer lobe f o r both s p e c i e s however, f o r P. sp. B, the lobe i s broad and l e s s p o inted than the outer lobe of P. h a s s i . The upper p l a t f o r m ornamentation i s s i m i l a r f o r both s p e c i e s . Occurrence: P a l m a t o l e p i s sp. B occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Macmillan Pass (1) Europe: France Range: P a l m a t o l e p i s sp. B occurs i n a c o l l e c t i o n w i t h i n the rhenana Zone. Palmatolepis n.sp. A PI. 4, f i g s . 14-15 Type l o c a l i t y : Macmillan Pass area, Yukon. Systematic Taxonomy / 204 Type s t r a t a : Earn Group, near Tom deposi t . Diagnosis: A species of Palmatolepis which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by high a n t e r i o r p l a t f o r m margins, a s t r a i g h t c a r i n a a n t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node, and a w e l l developed secondary c a r i n a on the outer p l a t f o r m running between the c a r i n a and r a i s e d p l a t f o r m edge. The pl a t f o r m o u t l i n e i s s i m i l a r t o Palmatolepis proversa but, the p o s t e r i o r i s s l i g h t l y bulbous and the outer p l a t f o r m has a pronounced a n t e r i o r l y d i r e c t e d lobe almost p a r a l l e l t o the c a r i n a . The c a r i n a i s absent p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node. A f r e e blade i s developed. D e s c r i p t i o n : The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g feature of t h i s species i s the pl a t f o r m o u t l i n e and the r a i s e d outer p l a t f o r m margins. The nodose inner p l a t f o r m margin i s the same height as the c a r i n a a n t e r i o r l y but diminishes p o s t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node. A s e r i e s of subdued nodes o u t l i n e the p o s t e r i o r p l a t f o r m margin. There i s a small unornamented p o s t e r i o r t i p beyond the sm a l l nodes. The row of nodes continue on the p o s t e r i o r outer p l a t f o r m margin t o a p o s i t i o n across from the c e n t r a l node. A n t e r i o r of t h i s p o i n t the platform margin i s a w e l l developed r i d g e of nodes, e q u i v a l e n t t o the height of the c a r i n a . The p o r t i o n of the margin i s d i r e c t e d away from the c a r i n a l i n e at an acute angle. The a n t e r i o r outer margin adjacent t o the main c a r i n a i s unornamented. A low, sharp secondary c a r i n a i s developed immediately a n t e r i o r of the c e n t r a l node. The secondary c a r i n a forms a r i d g e between the main c a r i n a and the outer a n t e r i o r p l a t f o r m margin. Systematic Taxonomy / 2 05 Remarks: The high, robust p l a t f o r m margins are very d i s t i n c t i v e . The development i s s i m i l a r t o Palmatolepis proversa but i s much more developed. The e n t i r e outer p l a t f o r m of Palmatolepis proversa i s b u i l t - u p u n l i k e the new sp e c i e s . M a t e r i a l : three specimens, C-118034 84-MJO-MM-5 3 (1 photographed) Occurrence: Macmillan Pass area, Yukon. Range: in c l u d e d i n small fauna i n d i c a t i v e of rhenana Zone through l i n g u i f o r m i s Zone. Genus Polygnathus Hinde, 1879 Type sp e c i e s : Polygnathus dubius, Hinde, 1879 Diagnosis: ( o r i g i n a l , Hinde, 1879) I propose t h i s genus f o r an animal possessing numerous minute and v a r i o u s l y formed conodont t e e t h and s i m i l a r l y minute t u b e r c u l a t e p l a t e s grouped together, but of which the n a t u r a l arrangement i s not at present known. Remarks: Diagnosis was amended by Klapper & P h i l i p (1971) to described the multielement nature of the genus. Z i e g l e r (1972) doubted t h a t Polygnathus occurs i n the s k e l e t a l apparatuses defined by Klapper & P h i l i p (1971). He proposed t h a t Polygnathus as represented by co n s e r v a t i v e as w e l l as advanced (wide plated) forms, may have possessed an apparatus without ramiform elements ( Z i e g l e r , 1973). Systematic Taxonomy / 2 06 Occurrence: Europe, North America, A s i a , A u s t r a l i a , A f r i c a . Range: Devonian through Lower Carboniferous(Klapper & Z i e g l e r , 1979). Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s Hinde, 1879 1879 Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s n.sp. Hinde, p. 366, p i . 17, f i g . 11. 1968 Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s Hinde - Orr & Klapper, p i . 139, f i g s . 1-4. 1970 Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s (?) Hinde - Kirchgasser, p.346-347, p i . 63, f i g s . 3, 7, 10. 1979 Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s Hinde - Uyeno, p. 241, p i . 2, f i g s . 12, 13. 1981 Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s Hinde - Bultynck & Jacobs, p i . 7, f i g s . 10-11. 1981 Polygnathus ectypus Huddle - Huddle, p. B30, p i . 7, f i g s . 16-18, p i . 9, f i g s . 1-3, 6, 7. 1985 Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s Hinde - A u s t i n et a l . , p i . 4.5, f i g s . 5, 9. 1985 Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s Hinde - Bardashev & Z i e g l e r , p i . 2, f i g s . 1-2. 1988 Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s ? Hinde - Klapper, p i . 3, f i g . 14. 1989 "Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s " Hinde - Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, p. 2 01. Diagnosis: ( r e v i s e d , Z i e g l e r & Klapper, 1982) Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s specimens have a n e a r l y symmetrical, somewhat ov a l shaped to s u b c i r c u l a r p l a t f o r m o u t l i n e . The upper surface i s covered w i t h coarse, densely packed nodes. Very short a d c a r i n a l grooves are Systematic Taxonomy / 207 present a t the a n t e r i o r end of the p l a t f o r m . The basal p i t i s symmetrical t o very s l i g h t l y asymmetrical, s m a l l , and i n an a n t e r i o r p o s i t i o n . Remarks: Z i e g l e r & Klapper (1982) d e s c r i b e the tendency f o r l a t e specimens of Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s t o develop a s l i g h t asymmetry i n the shape of the p i t . They note t h a t from t h i s a f i e l d of t r a n s i t i o n develops which l a t e r s p l i t s i n t o two branches: one towards K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r a t a and the other t o K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r i l i s and K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r a l v e a . Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from other broad p l a t f o r m polygnathids by coarser nodes on the upper s u r f a c e and the development of a d c a r i n a l grooves at the a n t e r i o r end of the pl a t f o r m . Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s ? described by Klapper (1988) has some nodes on the a n t e r i o r p l a t f o r m t h a t are t r a n s v e r s e l y elongate and s e v e r a l adjacent nodes are commonly fused i n t o s hort t r a n s v e r s e r i d g e s . Occurrence: Polygnathus c r i s t a t u s occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Gataga: (2). North America: North West T e r r i t o r i e s , New York, and Indiana. Europe: B r i t a i n , France, and Germany. A s i a : U.S.S.R. Range: From base of d i s p a r i l i s Zone through punctata Zone (Sandberg et a l . , 1989). 208 VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbott, J.G. 1982: S t r u c t u r e and s t r a t i g r a p h y of the Macmillan Fold B e l t : evidence f o r Devonian f a u l t i n g ; i n Yukon Geology and E x p l o r a t i o n 1981; Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development (Canada), Open F i l e Report., 16 p. Abbott, J.G., Gordey, S.P., and Tempelman-Kluit, D.J. 1986: S e t t i n g of s t r a t i f o r m , sediment-hosted l e a d - z i n c deposits i n Yukon and northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia; i n Mineral d e p o s i t s of northern Canadian C o r d i l l e r a , e d i t e d by J.A. Morin, Canadian I n s t i t u t e of Mining and M e t a l l u r g y , S p e c i a l Volume 37, p. 1-18. Anderson, W. 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Z i e g l e r , W., Klapper, G., and Johnson, L. 1976: R e d e f i n i t i o n and s u b d i v i s i o n of the varcus Zone (conodonts, Middle-?Upper Devonian) i n Europe and North America; Geologica e t P a l a e o n t o l o g i c a , no. 10, p. 109-140. B i b l i o g r a p h y /225 Z i e g l e r , W. and Klapper, G. 1964: Polygnathus asymmetricus o v a l i s n.subsp., i n Z i e g l e r , W., Klapper, G. and Lindstrom, M., The v a l i d i t y of the name Polygnathus (Conodonta, Devonian and Lower Carboniferous) ; J o u r n a l of Paleontology, v. 38, p. 421-423. Z i e g l e r , W. and Lane, H.R. 1987: Cycles i n Conodont e v o l u t i o n from Devonian t o mid-Carboniferous; i n Paleobiology of Conodonts, e d i t e d by R.J. A l d r i d g e , E l l i s Horwood L t d . , Chichester, Sussex, p. 147-163. Z i e g l e r , W. and Sandberg, C A . 1984: P a l m a t o l e p i s Based R e v i s i o n of the upper part of the Late Devonian Conodont Zonation; i n G e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of America, S p e c i a l Paper 196, e d i t e d by D.L. Cl a r k , p. 179-194. Z i e g l e r , W. and Wang, C 1985: Sihongshan s e c t i o n , a r e g i o n a l reference s e c t i o n f o r the Lower-Middle and Middle-Upper Devonian boundaries i n East A s i a ; C o u r i e r F o r s c h u n g s i n s t i t u t Senckenberg, e d i t e d by W. Z i e g l e r and R. Werner, Devonian s e r i e s boundaries- R e s u l t s of world-wide s t u d i e s , no. 75, p. 17-38. V I I . PLATES 226 PLATE 1 Figures 1-2: Figu r e s 3-4: Figu r e 5: Figures 6-7: Figures 8, 10: Figures 9, 12: 9: 12: Fi g u r e 11: Figu r e s 13-14: A n c y r o d e l l a r o t u n d i l o b a ( B r y a n t ) ; upper and lower views, X60, GSC Loc. No. C-102892, Gataga. A n c y r o d e l l a a f f . A. l o b a t a Z i e g l e r ; lower and upper views, X90, GSC Loc. No. C-116673, Gataga. l a n c e o l a t e polygnathid, upper view, X60, GSC Loc. No. C-102281, Macmillan Pass. A n c y r o d e l l a a f f . A. binodosa Uyeno; upper and lower views, X50, GSC Loc. No. C-088250, Midway. A n c y r o d e l l a nodosa U l r i c h & B a s s l e r ; lower and upper views, X90, GSC Loc. No. C-102340, Macmillan Pass. I c r i o d u s symmetricus Branson & Mehl upper view, X60, GSC Loc. No. C-102891, Gataga. upper view, X60, GSC Loc. No. C-102874, Gataga. Polylophodonta sp.; upper view, X40, GSC Loc. No. C-118547, Gataga. A n c y r o d e l l a gigas Youngquist; upper and lower views, X80, GSC Loc. No. C-103232, Midway. 228 PLATE 2 F i g u r e s 1-2, 11-12: M e s o t a x i s asymmetrica ( B i s c h o f f & Z i e g l e r ) K l a p p e r & P h i l i p I - 2: upper and l o w e r v i e w s , X65, GSC Loc. No. C-102891, Gataga. I I - 12: l o w e r and upper v i e w s , X50, GSC Loc. No. C-087543, M a c m i l l a n P a s s . F i g u r e s 3 - 4 : K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r a l v e a O r r & K l a p p e r ; l o w e r and upper v i e w s , X50, GSC Loc. No. C-102874, Gataga. F i g u r e s 5-6: M e s o t a x i s f a l s i o v a l i s Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & B u l t y n c k ; upper and l o w e r v i e w s , X90, GSC Loc. No. C-102891, Gataga. F i g u r e s 7-8: K l a p p e r i n a o v a l i s (Huddle) Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & B u l t y n c k ; l o w e r and upper v i e w s , X50, GSC Loc. No. C-102891, Gataga. F i g u r e s 9-10: K l a p p e r i n a d i s p a r i l i s ( Z i e g l e r & K l a p p e r ) Lane, M u l l e r , & Z i e g l e r ; upper and l o w e r v i e w s , X50, GSC Loc. No. C-102874, Gataga. 230 PLATE 3 F i g u r e s 1-3, 4 - 6 : K l a p p e r i n a o v a l i s (Huddle) Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & B u l t y n c k 1-2: upper and l o w e r v i e w s , X90, GSC Loc. No. C-102891, Gataga. 3: d e t a i l o f b a s a l c a v i t y from same specimen, X180, GSC Loc. No. C-102891, Gataga. 4: d e t a i l o f b a s a l c a v i t y , X180, GSC Loc. No. C-102891, Gataga. 5-6: l o w e r and upper v i e w s o f same specimen, X90, GSC Loc. No. C-102891, Gataga. F i g u r e s 7-9: M e s o t a x i s f a l s i o v a l i s Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & B u l t y n c k 7-8: upper and l o w e r v i e w s , X70, GSC Loc. No. C-102891, Gataga. 9: d e t a i l o f b a s a l c a v i t y from same specimen, X140, GSC Loc. No. C-102891, Gataga. 232 PLATE 4 A l l views are of the upper s u r f a c e unless noted. Figures 1, 1: 5: Figure 2: Figures 3, 3 : 7: 13 : 7, Palmatolepis t r a n s i t a n s M u l l e r X70, GSC Loc. No. C-116673, Gataga. X60, GSC Loc. No. C-102891, Gataga. Palmatolepis punctata (Hinde) Z i e g l e r ; X60, GSC Loc. No. C-087700, Macmillan Pass. 13: Palmatolepis rhenana B i s c h o f f X60, GSC Loc. No. C-102340, Macmillan Pass. X60, GSC Loc. No. C-087700, Macmillan Pass. X50, GSC Loc. No. C-087558, Macmillan Pass. Figures 4, 8, 12: Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i ( S t a u f f e r ) 4: 8: 12: Figures 6, 6: 11: Fi g u r e 9: X60, GSC Loc. No. C-102340, Macmillan Pass. X60, GSC Loc. No. C-118032, Macmillan Pass. X80, GSC Loc. No. C-102340, Macmillan Pass. 11: Palmatolepis proversa Z i e g l e r X60, GSC Loc. No. C-118032, Macmillan Pass. X50, GSC Loc. No. C-118902, Gataga. Palmatolepis f o l i a c e a Youngquist; X60, GSC Loc. No, C-102281, Macmillan Pass. Fi g u r e 10: Figures 14-15: 14 : 15: Palmatolepis sp. B Klapper & F o s t e r ; X60, GSC Loc. No. C-087558, Macmillan Pass. Palmatolepis n.sp. A X60, GSC Loc. No. C-118034, Macmillan Pass, l a t e r a l view at a 45° t i l t of same specimen, X60, GSC Loc. No. C-118034, Macmillan Pass. 234 Figur e 1: Figure 2: Figures 3-4: 3: 4: Figure 5: Figures 7, 11, 7: 11: 16: Figure 6: Figures 8, 12: Figures 9-10: 9: 10: Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 17: Figure 18: PLATE 5 A l l views of upper s u r f a c e . P a l m a t o l e p i s c r e p i d a Sannemann; X40, GSC Loc. No. C-118892, Gataga. Pa l m a t o l e p i s t r i a n g u l a r i s Sannemann; X40, GSC Loc. No. C-118892, Gataga. Pa l m a t o l e p i s c f . P. r e g u l a r i s Cooper X70, GSC Loc. No. C-118892, Gataga. X70, GSC Loc. No. C-116684, Gataga. Pa l m a t o l e p i s subperlobata subsp. A Helms; X7 0, GSC Loc. No. C-087562, Macmillan Pass. 16: Palmatolepis subperlobata Branson & Mehl X60, GSC Loc. No. C-118917, Gataga. X60, GSC Loc. No. C-118880, Gataga. X70, GSC Loc. No. C-118880, Gataga. P a l m a t o l e p i s wolskajae Ovnatanova; X60, GSC Loc. No. C-087562, Gataga. Pa l m a t o l e p i s minuta subsp.; X70, GSC Loc. No. C-118917, Gataga. P a l m a t o l e p i s p o o l e i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r X70, GSC Loc. No. C-108160, Macmillan Pass. X60, GSC Loc. No. C-108160, Macmillan Pass. P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann; X70, GSC Loc. No. C-118917, Gataga. Pa l m a t o l e p i s minuta minuta Branson & Mehl; X70, GSC Loc. No. C-118924, Gataga. Pa l m a t o l e p i s s t o p p e l i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r ; X80, GSC Loc. No. C-108160, Macmillan Pass. P a l m a t o l e p i s quadrantinodosalobata morphotype 1 Sandberg & Z i e g l e r ; X70, GSC Loc. No. C-087562, Macmillan Pass. P a l m a t o l e p i s rhomboidea Sannemann; X90, GSC Loc. No. C-116719, Gataga 235 236 Fi g u r e 1: Figu r e s 2, 6: Fi g u r e s 3, 3: 5: 10: Fi g u r e s 4, 4: 8: 12: Fi g u r e 7: Fi g u r e s 9, 14 : 9: 14: F i g u r e 11: F i g u r e 13: PLATE 6 A l l views of upper surf a c e . P almatolepis guadrantinodosa i n f l e x a Z i e g l e r ; X50, GSC Loc. No. C-087685, Macmillan Pass. Palmatolepis k l a p p e r i Sandberg & Z i e g l e r ; X60, GSC Loc. No. C-108160, Macmillan Pass. 5, 10: Palmatolepis guadrantinodosa i n f l e x o i d e a Z i e g l e r X60, GSC Loc. No. C-118884, Gataga. X70, GSC Loc. No. C-116914, Gataga. X50, GSC Loc. No. C-118924, Gataga. 8, 12: Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a s c h i n d e w o l f i M u l l e r X50, GSC Loc. No. C-116697, Gataga. X50, GSC Loc. No. C-116914, Gataga. X60, GSC Loc. No. C-108159, Macmillan Pass. Palmatolepis g l a b r a a f f . P. g. g l a b r a U l r i c h & B a s s l e r ; X40, GSC Loc. No. C-108160, Macmillan Pass. Palmatolepis g l a b r a acuta Helms X3 0, GSC Loc. No. C-116957, Gataga. X50, GSC Loc. No. C-116914, Gataga. Palmatolepis p e r l o b a t a a f f . P. p. s c h i n d e w o l f i M u l l e r ; X30, GSC Loc. No. C-116914, Gataga. Palmatolepis guadrantinodosa n.subsp. A; X60, GSC Loc. No. C-116914, Gataga. 238 PLATE 7 Figu r e s 1, 4, 1: 4: 6: A l l views of upper s u r f a c e . 6: Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a Z i e g l e r & Huddle morphotype 2 X70, GSC Loc. No. C-116958, Gataga. X70, GSC Loc. No. C-118547, Gataga. X70, GSC Loc. No. C-118924, Gataga. Fig u r e s 2, 3, 2: 3: 5: F i g u r e s 7, 7: 12: 13: 12, 5: Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a Z i e g l e r & Huddle morphotype 1 X50, GSC Loc. No. C-116697, Gataga. X50, GSC Loc. No. C-118539, Gataga. X50, GSC Loc. No. C-116983, Gataga. 13: Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a Z i e g l e r & Huddle X40, GSC Loc. No. C-116997, Gataga. X60, GSC Loc. No. C-116914, Gataga. X30, GSC Loc. No. C-108159, Macmillan Pass. Figures 8-11, 17, 19: Pal m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a d i s t o r t a Branson & Mehl 8: 9: 10, 17: 11: 19: Fig u r e s 14-15, 14: 15: 20: 21: F i g u r e 16: X50, GSC Loc. No. X50, GSC Loc. No. X50, GSC Loc. No. X60, GSC Loc. No. X60, GSC Loc. No. C-116697, Gataga. C-108159, Macmillan Pass. C-118884, Gataga. C-116697, Gataga. C-108159, Macmillan Pass. 20-21: Pal m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a Z i e g l e r X70, GSC Loc. No. C-118884, Gataga. X50, GSC Loc. No. C-116958, Gataga. X60, GSC Loc. No. C-118547, Gataga. X60, GSC Loc. No. C-116958, Gataga. Palmatolepis g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a morphotype 1, Sandberg & Z i e g l e r ; X65, GSC Loc. No. C-118884, Macmillan Pass. F i g u r e 18: Palmatolepis g l a b r a a f f . P. g. p e c t i n a t a Z i e g l e r ; X60, GSC Loc. No. C-116697, Gataga. 239 240 PLATE 8 A l l views of upper surface . Figures 1, 2, 5-11: Palmatolepis margin i fera marginifera Helms 1: X60, GSC Loc. No. C-116914, t r a n s i t i o n a l to Palmatolepis margini fera utahensis , Gataga. 2: X70, GSC Loc. No. C-118924, t r a n s i t i o n a l to Palmatolepis margini fera utahensis , Gataga. 5: X50, GSC Loc. No. C-116957, Gataga. 6: X50, GSC Loc. No. C-116914, Gataga. 7: X60, GSC Loc. No. C-116697, Gataga. 8: X60, GSC Loc. No. C-108159, Macmillan Pass. 9: X60, GSC Loc. No. C-116914, Gataga. 10: X60, GSC Loc. No. C-118884, Gataga. 11: X80, GSC Loc. No. C-118924, Gataga. Figures 3-4: Palmatolepis margini fera utahensis Z i e g l e r & Sandberg 3: X60, GSC Loc. No. C-116914, Gataga. 4: X70, GSC Loc. No. C-118924, Gataga. Figures 12: Palmatolepis a f f . P. rugosa trachytera Z ieg l er 12: X60, GSC Loc. No. C-116697, Gataga. Figures 13, 15-16: Palmatolepis rugosa trachytera Z ieg ler 13: X50, GSC Loc. No. C-108159, Macmillan Pass. 15: X30, GSC Loc. No. C-108159, Macmillan Pass. 16: X40, GSC Loc. No. C-108159, Macmillan Pass. Figure 14: Palmatolepis g labra prima Z i e g l e r & Huddle; X30, GSC Loc. No. C-116958, Gataga. 2 4 2 Table I I I . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Frasnian conodont species i n the Macmillan Pass area of southeast Yukon and southwest North West T e r r i t o r i e s (99 denotes there are at l eas t 99 elements). M a c m i l l a n Pass GSC. Loc. C-087695 C-087696 C-087697 C-101978 C-101979 C-086425 C-087542 C-087543 C-087544 C-087545 C-118030 C-118032 C-118033 C-118034 C-118035 C-087557 C-087560 C-087686 C-102281 C-102320 C-102321 C-102340 C-102342 C-087691 C-087698 C-087699 C-087000 C-087558 C-102586 F r a s n i a n conodont fauna GSC. Loc. C-087695 C-087696 C-087697 C-101978 C-101979 C-086425 C-087542 C-087543 C-087544 C-087545 C-118030 C-118032 C-118033 C-118034 C-118035 C-087557 C-087560 C-087686 C-102281 C-102320 C-102321 C-102340 C-102342 C-087691 C-087698 C-087699 C-087000 C-087558 C-102586 A n c y r o d e l l a s p . 1 1 A n c y r o d e l l a c u r v a t a 1 A n c y r o d e l l a g i g a s 1 A n c y r o d e l l a i o i d e s 1 A n c y r o d e l l a nodosa 1 1 1 I c r i o d u s s p . 1 2 I c r i o d u s symmetr icus 1 3 1 P a l m a t o l e p i s s p . 2 7 12 4 1 6 5 15 6 1 37 6 K l a p p e r i n a o v a l i s 1 1 2 H e s o t a x i s asymmetr ica 1 1 1 2 P a l m a t o l e p i s f o l i a c e a 5 4 3 P a l m a t o l e p i s h a s s i 1 6 4 3 5 1 1 P a l m a t o l e p i s p rove r sa 1 20 6 7 4 P a l m a t o l e p i s punc ta ta 1 1 P a l m a t o l e p i s rhenana 2 3 8 11 1 1 4 1 2 8 6 3 P a l m a t o l e p i s t r a n s i t a n s 1 P a l m a t o l e p i s w i n c h e l l i . 12 6 1 4 5 2 20 6 11 1 1 2 9 2 P a l m a t o l e p i s s p . C Orchard , 1988 1 1 P a l m a t o l e p i s s p . B K l a p p e r , 1986 1 P a l m a t o l e p i s n . s p . A 3 Po lygna thus s p . 5 3 34 4 21 1 2 7 4 24 4 9 6 3 1 4 1 Polygna thus dub ius 1 7 Polygna thus l i n g u i f o r m i s subsp. 1 4 1 1 1 rami form elements 2 16 2 15 7 15 2 4 12 40 40 31 3 50 4 24 8 24 9 37 50 25 6 5 6 20 30 25 to W 244 Table IV. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Frasnian conodont species i n the Midway and Gataga areas of northern B r i t i s h Columbia (99 denotes there are at l e a s t 99 elements). Midway Gataga SSC. Loc. C-088250 CN n CN f». o rH 1 u C-143101 C-086357 C-088239 C-118946 C-102874 C-102879 C-102891 C-102892 C-118537 C-118543 C-118550 C-118902 C-118903 C-118908 C-116659 C-116673 Piasnian conodont fauna SSC. Loc. C-088250 C-143101 C-086357 C-088239 C-118946 C-102874 C-102879 C-102891 C-102892 C-118537 C-118543 C-118550 C-118902 C-118903 C-118908 C-116659 C-116673 Ancyrodella sp. 1 1 1 Ancyrodella binodosa 3 Ancyrodella gigas 1 Ancyrodella ioides 2 1 Ancyrodella lobata 1 Ancyrodella nodosa 1 Ancyrodella rotundiloba 1 Icriodus sp. 20 3 2 1 3 5 Icriodus brevis 1 Icriodus symmetricus 7 16 Icriodus nodosus 1 Klapperina disparalis 5 Klapperina disparalvea 13 Klapperina disparata 1 Klapperina ovalis 1 29 Hesotaxis asymmetrica 19 6 Hesotaxis dengleri 1 Mesotaxis falsiovalis 28 5 Palmatolepis sp. 8 2 2 3 5 4 12 Palmatolepis domanicensis 1 4 Palmatolepis hassi 2 1 Palmatolepis proversa 1 8 4 2 Palmatolepis punctata 2 Palmatolepis rhenana 3 7 Palmatolepis triangularis 2 Palmatolepis transitans 1 7 5 1 10 Palmatolepis winchelli 10 2 8 17 3 26 8 Polygnathus sp. "Polygnathus" cristatus 40 3 1 1 39 6 14 2 1 1 3 22 99 2 1 1 Polygnathus dubius 6 rami form elements 30 5 20 40 1 50 50 3 40 40 2 37 99 7 99 99 2 4 6 Table V. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Famennian conodont species and subspecies i n the Macmillan Pass area of southeast Yukon and southwest North West T e r r i t o r i e s and the Midway area of northern B r i t i s h Columbia (99 denotes there are at l e a s t 99 elements). Macmil lan Pass Midway GSC. Loc. O-093424 C-086285 C-086286 C-086413 C-087588 C-087589 C-087685 C-087561 C-087562 C-089929 C-089933 C-108159 C-108160 C-142984 C-118253 C-118256 C-157905 C-157906 C-157907 C-157908 C-157909 C-157910 C-157924 C-157928 C-157929 C-157938 C-157939 C-153835 Famennian conodont fauna GSC. Loc. O-093424 C-086285 C-086286 C-086413 C-087588 C-087589 C-087685 C-087561 C-087562 C-089929 C-089933 C-108159 C-108160 C-142984 C-118253 C-118256 C-157905 C-157906 C-157907 C-157908 C-157909 C-157910 C-157924 C-157928 C-157929 C-157938 C-157939 C-153835 P a l m a t o l e p i s c r e p i d a 1 1 2 2 Pa lma to l ep i s g l a b r a subsp. 1 7 4 2 P a l m a t o l e p i s g . acu ta 2 2 5 8 1 1 2 2 1 4 1 3 P a l m a t o l e p i s g . d i s t o r t a 19 9 43 Pa lma to l ep i s g . g l a b r a 10 1 Pa lma to l ep i s g . l e p t a 7 3 7 6 9 6 7 6 8 5 6 3 3 2 Pa lma to l ep i s g . l e p t a morph. 1 3 Pa lma to l ep i s g . l e p t a morph. 2 6 11 14 Pa lma to l ep i s g . p e c t i n a t a 1 4 10 9 35 3 16 5 1 3 5 2 9 5 6 5 1 6 Pa lma to l ep i s g . prima 6 3 4 10 4 5 5 2 Pa lma to l ep i s g r a c i l i s g r a c i l i s 2 3 Pa lma to l ep i s k l a p p e r i 2 10 3 Pa lma to l ep i s m. marg in i f e r a 1 7 8 35 1 Pa lma to l ep i s minuta subsp. 3 10 5 2 1 1 3 Pa lma to l ep i s m. minuta 3 1 1 3 3 1 1 3 2 6 Pa lma to l ep i s m. loba 2 1 2 Pa lma to l ep i s pe r loba t a subsp. 1 2 Pa lma to l ep i s p . s c h i n d e w o l f i 2 2 17 1 1 Pa lma to l ep i s p o o l e i 1 14 Pa lma to l ep i s quadrantinodosa subsp. 1 Pa lma to l ep i s q . i n f l e x a 1 1 Pa lma to l ep i s q . I n f l e x o i d e a 1 1 Pa lma to l ep i s quadrant inodosa lobata 1 1 1 Pa lma to l ep i s q . morph. 1 11 Pa lma to l ep i s c f . P . r e g u l a r i s 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 3 1 1 Pa lma to l ep i s rugosa t r a c h y t e r a 1 6 Pa lma to l ep i s subper lobata 5 7 5 5 8 15 5 1 3 1 11 4 2 Pa lma to l ep i s t enu ipunc ta ta 2 1 2 2 2 2 Pa lma to l ep i s t r i a n g u l a r i s 9 1 1 Polygnathus sp . 6 3 2 2 5 1 3 2 2 2 4 1 2 3 1 2 Poly lophodonta sp . 1 rami form elements 20 5 5 6 17 5 50 6 30 40 20 99 99 20 50 30 50 15 4 10 10 20 7 248 Table VI. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Famennian conodont species and subspecies i n the Gataga area of northern B r i t i s h Columbia (99 denotes there are at le a s t 99 elements). Gataga GSC. Loc. C-118539 C-118540 C-118544 C-118547 C-118548 C-118907 C-118914 C-118915 C-118917 C-118923 C-118924 C-118880 C-118884 C-118889 C-118892 C-116954 C-116955 C-116956 C-116957 C-116958 C-116962 C-116965 C-116969 C-116977 C-116979 C-116980 C-116981 C-116983 C-116990 C-116991 C-116992 Famennian conodont fauna GSC. Loc. C-118539 C-118540 C-118544 C-118547 C-118548 C-118907 C-118914 C-118915 C-118917 C-118923 C-118924 C-118880 C-118884 C-118889 C-118892 C-116954 C-116955 C-116956 C-116957 C-116958 C-116962 C-116965 C-116969 C-116977 C-116979 C-116980 C-116981 C-116983 C-116990 C-116991 C-116992 Palmatolepis crepida 6 Palmatolepis d e l i c a t u l a c l a r k i 6 Palmatolepis glabra subsp. 3 4 2 5 3 7 2 1 1 2 Palmatolepis g . acuta 2 Palmatolepis g . d i s t o r t a 3 1 14 45 1 1 6 2 2 4 Palmatolepis g. lepta 4 1 2 2 10 1 7 3 3 1 3 Palmatolepis g . lepta morph. 1 2 5 4 6 4 1 Palmatolepis g . lepta morph. 2 2 7 3 7 16 11 11 11 1 2 11 Palmatolepis g . pect inata 2 2 12 2 5 2 13 22 34 3 2 2 13 2 2 8 Palmatolepis g . prima 4 1 4 3 1 1 1 1 Palmatolepis g. prima morph. 2 2 2 Palmatolepis marginifera subsp. 1 Palmatolepis m. marginifera 5 15 1 2 3 16 44 33 1 7 3 3 1 2 3 Palmatolepis m. utahensis 2 1 1 10 2 1 1 Palmatolepis minuta subsp. 3 20 11 1 1 1 Palmatolepis m. minuta 9 1 2 1 15 35 4 Palmatolepis m. loba 4 Palmatolepis perlobata subsp. 2 Palmatolepis p. schindewolfi 1 1 1 8 15 2 Palmatolepis q . quadrantinodosa 1 1 Palmatolepis q. in f l exa 1 2 Palmatolepis q. inf lexoidea 2 9 3 2 1 Palmatolepis q. n . subsp. A 2 1 1 1 Palmatolepis quadrantinodosalobata 2 4 9 3 Palmatolepis q . morph. 1 4 Palmatolepis c f . P. regular i s 2 Palmatolepis s toppe l i 2 Palmatolepis subperlobata 2 1 11 2 1 Palmatolepis tenuipunctata 1 Palmatolepis t r i a n g u l a r i s 7 Palmatolepis wolskajae 6 Polygnathus sp. 7 2 4 3 8 2 2 1 2 2 Polylophodonta sp. 1 1 2 rami form elements 18 50 10 4 2 21 41 4 99 99 60 6 60 2 8 3 1 60 3 8 2 2 3 t o 250 Table VII. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Famennian conodont species and subspecies i n the Gataga area of northern B r i t i s h Columbia (99 denotes there are at le a s t 99 elements). Gataqa GSC. Loc.i C-116993J C-116994 C-116997j C-117000 C-116907j C-116909 C-116912 C-116914I C-116669! IT) r~ vo vO r - l r- l 1 u CO VO vO rH rH CJ C-1166931 C-116695! C-116697! C-116698 C-116713| C-1167141 C-116715 C-116718 C-116719i C-116720J C-1167221 C-116724J C-116730 C-102884J Famennian conodont fauna GSC. Loc.i C-116993J C-116994 C-116997j C-117000 C-116907j C-116909 C-116912 C-116914I C-116669! C-1166931 C-116695! C-116697! C-116698 C-116713| C-1167141 C-116715 C-116718 C-116719i C-116720J C-1167221 C-116724J C-116730 C-102884J Palmatolepis glabra subsp. 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 64 Palmatolepis g. acuta 1 Palmatolepis g. distorta 3 1 7 22 1 4 2 33 Palmatolepis g. lepta 1 3 1 8 1 1 1 2 Palmatolepis g. lepta morph. 1 1 1 3 3 5 Palmatolepis g. lepta morph. 2 1 2 1 1 2 10 10 7 Palmatolepis g. pectinata 1 4 1 19 9 10 1 1 1 5 1 1 5 Palmatolepis g. prima 1 Palmatolepis gracilis subsp. 1 Palmatolepis klapperi 2 Palmatolepis marginifera subsp. 99 Palmatolepis m. marginifera 1 32 1 1 20 1 2 12 38 Palmatolepis m. utahensis 17 4 Palmatolepis minuta subsp. 2 1 1 Palmatolepis m. minuta 4 19 Palmatolepis perlobata subsp. 3 Palmatolepis p. schindewolfi 22 1 9 1 2 Palmatolepis q. guadrantinodosa 1 Palmatolepis g. inflexa 8 1 Palmatolepis q. inflexoidea 1 2 4 Palmatolepis q. n. subsp. A 10 Palmatolepis quadrantinodosalobata 7 Palmatolepis cf. P. regularis 2 Palmatolepis rhomboidea 4 Palmatolepis rugosa trachytera 1 Palmatolepis subperlobata 14 1 9 Palmatolepis tenuipunctata 2 Palmatolepis triangularis 1 Polygnathus sp. 3 1 4 1 1 rami form elements 1 2 4 7 22 99 12 60 99 5 1 24 50 99 252 VIII. APPENDICES A. MACMILLAN PASS LOCALITY AND SAMPLE INFORMATION 1. Givetian - Frasnian GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087695 f i e l d number: K.M. Dawson, 1981; DY1981 map area: 1051/7, Nahanni l a t i t u d e and longitude: 62°24 !; 128°30' UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 525710E; 6918650N. geographic description: GHMS claims. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Grey limestone bed ?15 m below barite. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. colour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 period or epoch: Middle to Late Devonian; age: l a t e Givetian to early Frasnian; conodont zone: Late f a l s i o v a l i s through middle Upper asymmetricus. reference: Dawson, K.M. and Orchard, M.J. (1982) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-08769 6 f i e l d number: K.M. Dawson, 1981; DY1984 map area: 1051/7-8, Nahanni l a t i t u d e and longitude: 62°24'; 128°30' UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 525710E; 6918650N. geographic desc r i p t i o n : GHMS claims. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; formation: P o r t r a i t Lake Formation s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Grey limestone ?15 m beneath bedded b a r i t e l o c a l i t y , l i t h o l o g y : Grey limestone colour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 period or epoch: Middle to Late Devonian; age: l a t e Givetian to early Frasnian; conodont zone: Late f a l s i o v a l i s through middle Upper asymmetricus. reference: Dawson, K.M. and Orchard, M.J. (1982) Macmillan Pass /253 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087697 f i e l d number: K.M. Dawson, 1981; DY1985 map area: 1051/7-8, Nahanni l a t i t u d e and longitude: 62°24'; 128°30' UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 525710E; 6918650N. geographic description: GHMS claims. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation, s t r a t i g r a p h i c description: Grey limestone ?6 m beneath bedded b a r i t e l o c a l i t y l i t h o l o g y : grey limestone colour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 period or epoch: Middle to Late Devonian; age: l a t e Givetian to e a r l i e s t Frasnian; conodont zone: hermani-cristatus into Early f a l s i o v a l i s . reference: Dawson, K.M. and Orchard, M.J. (1982) ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-101978 f i e l d number: K.M. Dawson, 1981; DY1983 map area: 1051/7-8, Nahanni l a t i t u d e and longitude: 62°24'; 128°30' UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 525710E; 6918650N. geographic description: GHMS claims. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation, s t r a t i g r a p h i c description: 0-15 m beneath bedded b a r i t e l o c a l i t y , l i t h o l o g y : carbonate, colour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 period or epoch: Late Devonian; age: early Frasnian; conodont zone: transitans through Upper asymmetricus. reference: Dawson, K.M. and Orchard, M.J. (1982) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-101979 f i e l d number: K.M. Dawson, 1981; DY1987 map area: 1051/7-8, Nahanni l a t i t u d e and longitude: 62°24'; 128°30' UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 525710E; 6918650N. geographic description: GHMS claims. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation, s t r a t i g r a p h i c description: Grey limestone immediately beneath bedded b a r i t e l o c a l i t y , l i t h o l o g y : Grey limestone colour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 period or epoch: Late Devonian; age: early Frasnian; conodont zone: Upper asymmetricus through Lower t r i a n g u l a r i s , reference: Dawson, K.M. and Orchard, M.J. (1982) M a c m i l l a n Pass /254 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-086425 f i e l d number: I.R. J o n a s s o n and J.W. Lydon, 1981; GN01-006-900 map a r e a : 1050/1, N i d d e r y Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°06', 130°11' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 440370E; 6997210N. g e o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Gargantua N o r t h . l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : E a r n Group; P o r t r a i t Lake F o r m a t i o n . s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : 0.5 m t h i c k l i m e s t o n e bed i n m i d d l e o f c h e r t beds, 25 m below c o n t a c t w i t h p l u t o n ( h o r n f e l s e d s h a l e ) , 25 m above uppermost b a r i t e s t r a t a ( c h e r t ) . l i t h o l o g y : L i m e s t o n e . sample w e i g h t : 1.914 kg. (-0.168 kg. i n s o l u b l e s ) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n i n d e x : 6 - 7 p e r i o d o r epoch: L a t e Devonian; age: m i d d l e F r a s n i a n ; conodont zone: Lower rhenana. r e f e r e n c e : Dawson, K.M. and O r c h a r d , M.J. (1982) ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087542 f i e l d number:. K.M. Dawson, 1980; DY 1772 map a r e a : 1051/7-8, Nahanni l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 62°24'; 128°30I UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 525710E; 6918650N. g e o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : GHMS c l a i m s . l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : E a r n Group; P o r t r a i t Lake F o r m a t i o n , s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Grey l i m e s t o n e 6 m beneath bedded b a r i t e l o c a l i t y , l i t h o l o g y : Grey l i m e s t o n e sample w e i g h t : 2.55 kg. f o s s i l s : sponge s p i c u l e s c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n i n d e x : 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: L a t e Devonian; age: e a r l y F r a s n i a n ; remarks: The named p o l y g n a t h i d ranges from U. h e r m a n n i - c r i s t a t u s Zone i n t o E a r l y f a l s i o v a l i s Zone (Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & B u l t y n c k , 1989); poor p r e s e r v a t i o n p r e c l u d e s u n q u a l i f i e d d e t e r m i n a t i o n . r e f e r e n c e : Dawson, K.M. and O r c h a r d , M.J. (1982) Macmillan Pass /255 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087543 f i e l d number: K.M. Dawson, 1980; DY 1777 map area: 1051/7-8, Nahanni l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 62°24'; 128°30' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9:525710E; 6918650N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : GMHS claims. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation, s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Grey limestone w i t h c a l c i t e v eins 15 m? beneath bedded b a r i t e l o c a l i t y , o v e r l y i n g orange-wethering mudstone. l i t h o l o g y : Grey limestone w i t h c a l c i t e v e i n s . sample weight: 2.37 kg. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Middle t o Late Devonian; age: l a t e G i v e t i a n t o e a r l y Frasnian; conodont zone: Late f a l s i o v a l i s through middle Upper asymmetricus. reference: Dawson, K.M. and Orchard, M.J. (1982) ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087544 f i e l d number: K.M. Dawson, 1980; 80-DY-1790 map area: 1050/7, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°16.5', 130°34' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 423300E; 7016750N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : CATHY property. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : B a r i t i c limestone above (?) s i l i c e o u s s i l t s t o n e . Orebody hanging w a l l , l i t h o l o g y : B a r i t i c limestone, sample weight: 2.338 kg. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Middle or E a r l y Late Devonian; age: E i f e l i a n - e a r l y Frasnian. Macmillan Pass / 2 5 6 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087545 f i e l d number: K.M. Dawson, 1980; 80-DY-1792 map area: 105O/7, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°16.5', 130°34' UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 423300E; 7016750N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : CATHY property. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : B a r i t i c limestone at upper ore contact w i t h s i l t s t o n e . l i t h o l o g y : B a r i t i c limestone, sample weight: 1.693 kg. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Middle t o E a r l y Late Devonian; age: E i f e l i a n t o e a r l y F r a s n i a n ; conodont zone: c o s t a t u s i n t o E a r l y f a l s i o v a l i s (Sandberg, Z i e g l e r , & Bultynck, 1989) . ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087557 f i e l d number: J.G. Abbott, 1981; 81-TOA-40-10 map area: 105P/4, Sekwi Mountain l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°00', 129°55.5' geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : South Block, 40.5 km at 185° from Macmillan Pass, l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation, s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : At top of u n i t , s e c t i o n M. 2 0 cm t h i c k grey, p l a t e y coarse grained limestone w i t h i n blue weathering s i l i c e o u s s h a l e , l i t h o l o g y : Grey, p l a t e y coarse grained limestone, sample weight: 1.122 kg. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: middle F r a s n i a n ; conodont zone: Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s - Lower rhenana. Macmillan Pass /257 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087560 f i e l d number: J.G. Abbott, 1981; 81-TOA-41-811.5m map area: 1050/1, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and longitude: 63°08.5', 130o01.0' UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 448750E; 7001420N. geographic description: Central Block; 11 km at 177° from Macmillan Pass, l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation, s t r a t i g r a p h i c description: 3m from top of unit uDpt. 10 cm thick medium-grey weathering, platey, graphitic, coarse-grained limestone within blue weathering platey g r a p h i t i c mudstone. Section 45, 893 m i n Nahanni f i l e , l i t h o l o g y : Coarse grained carbonate, sample weight: 0.63 6 kg. colour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 period or epoch: Late Devonian; age: l a t e Frasnian; conodont zone: Lower rhenana. reference: Gordey, S.P., Abbott, J.G., and Orchard, M.J. (1982) ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087686 f i e l d number: J.G. Abbott, 1981; 81-TOA-20-8 map area: 1050/2, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and longitude: 63°14.3', 131°31.0» UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 424030E; 7013010N. geographic description: Central Block; 24 km at 270° from Macmillan Pass, l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Sapper Formation, s t r a t i g r a p h i c description: Top of unit, l i t h o l o g y : carbonate, colour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 period or epoch: Devonian; age: E i f e l i a n - Frasnian. reference: Gordey, S.P., Abbott, J.G., and Orchard, M.J. (1982) Macmillan Pass /258 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-l02281 f i e l d number: J.G. Abbott, 1981; 81-TOA-12-6 map area: 1050/7, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and longitude: 63°17', 130°47» UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 407080E; 7018460N. geographic description: N Block?; 41.5 km at 277° from Macmillan Pass. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation, s t r a t i g r a p h i c description: Unit uDpt (Dp3?). 1 m wide light-grey weathering black limestone bed within black chert and cherty a r g i l l i t e . l i t h o l o g y : carbonate, sample weight: 1.607 kg. colour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 period or epoch: Late Devonian; age: early Frasnian; conodont zone: Lower rhenana. remarks: fused p a i r of Palmatolepis w i n c h e l l i . ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-102320 f i e l d number: J.G. Abbott, 1981; 81-TOA-40-8 map area: 105P/4, Sekwi Mountain l a t i t u d e and longitude: 63°03 1, 129°55.5' geographic description: South Block, 40 km at 186° from Peak 7654. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation, s t r a t i g r a p h i c description: Unit uDpt (Dp3?). 20 cm thick, grey weathering, platey, dark grey, coarse grained limestone i n brown weathering dark grey to black shale, l i t h o l o g y : Grey, platey coarse grained limestone, colour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 period or epoch: Late Devonian; age: Frasnian. Macmillan Pass /259 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-102321 f i e l d number: J.G. Abbott, 1981; 81-TOA-40-11 map area: 105P/4, Sekwi Mountain l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°00', 129°541 geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : South Block, 41 km a t 182° from Peak 7654. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation, s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : 20 m from top o f ; u n i t uDpt (Dp3?). 20 cm t h i c k , grey, p l a t e y , coarse grained limestone w i t h i n blue weathering s i l i c e o u s shale, l i t h o l o g y : Grey, p l a t e y coarse grained limestone, c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: middle F r a s n i a n ; conodont zone: uppermost Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s through Lower rhenana. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-10234 0 f i e l d number: J.G. Abbott, 1981; 81-TOA-48-1 map area: 1050/1, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63 o04.5', 130°17.5' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 434980E; 6994320N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : S Block; 22.5 km a t 215° from Macmillan Pass. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : At top of u n i t uDpt (Dp3?). Buff weathering, p l a t e y , coarse-grained b l a c k limestone l e s s than 1 m t h i c k , w i t h i n blue weathering g r a p h i t i c shale. l i t h o l o g y : Coarse grained black carbonate. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: F r a s n i a n ; conodont zone: rhenana. remarks: P a l m a t o l e p i s w i n c h e l l i fused p a i r . Macmillan Pass /260 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-102342 f i e l d number: J.G. Abbott, 1981; 81-TOA-50-2 map area: 1050/1, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°04.5', 130°14.5' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 437480E; 6994240N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : S Block; 21.5 km a t 211° from Macmillan Pass. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation, s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : At top of u n i t uDpt (Dp3?). 1 m t h i c k b u f f weathering, p l a t e y , coarse-grained b l a c k limestone w i t h i n b lue weathering, g r a p h i t i c s l a t e , l i t h o l o g y : carbonate, c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: l a t e F r a s n i a n ; conodont zone: rhenana through l i n g u i f o r m i s . remarks: p o s s i b l y s l i g h t l y younger than C-102340 s i n c e fauna i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t . ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087691 f i e l d number: K.M. Dawson, 1981; 81-DY-1943 map area: 105O/7, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°16.5', 130°33' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 423300E; 7016750N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : CATHY Property. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : 0.4 m limestone bed i n grey lower b a r i t e . l i t h o l o g y : Limestone, sample weight: 2.424 kg. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Middle or Late Devonian; age: E i f e l i a n - e a r l y Frasnian. r e f e r e n c e : Dawson, K.M. and Orchard, M.J. (1982) Macmillan Pass /261 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087698 f i e l d number: K.M. Dawson, 1981; 81-DY-1830 map area: 1050/1, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°02•, 130°06' UTM co o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 444500E; 6989300N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : PETE c l a i m s . l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Base of b l a c k limestone t h a t l i e s beneath b a r i t e w i t h minor amounts of bedded z i n c - l e a d - s i l v e r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . l i t h o l o g y : Black limestone. sample weight: 2.544 kg. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5.5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: F r a s n i a n ; conodont zone: punctata i n t o Lower rhenana. ref e r e n c e : Dawson, K.M. and Orchard, M.J. (1982) ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087 699 f i e l d number: K.M. Dawson, 1981; 81-DY-1831 map area: 1050/1, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°02 ' , 130°06* geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : PETE c l a i m s . l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Centre of b l a c k limestone t h a t l i e s beneath b a r i t e w i t h minor amounts of bedded z i n c - l e a d - s i l v e r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . l i t h o l o g y : Black limestone. sample weight: 2.017 kg. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: F r a s n i a n ; conodont zone: upper t r a n s i t a n s i n t o Lower rhenana. ref e r e n c e : Dawson, K.M. and Orchard, M.J. (1982) Macmillan Pass /2 62 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087700 f i e l d number: K.M. Dawson, 1981; 81-DY-1832 map area: 1050/1, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°02 1 , 130°06' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 444500E; 6989300N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : PETE c l a i m . l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Top of b l a c k limestone t h a t l i e s beneath b a r i t e w i t h minor amounts of bedded z i n c - l e a d - s i l v e r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . l i t h o l o g y : Black limestone. sample weight: 1.821 kg. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5.5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: F r a s n i a n ; conodont zone: punctata through middle Lower rhenana. re f e r e n c e : Dawson, K.M. and Orchard, M.J. (1982) ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087558 f i e l d number: S.P. Gordey, 1981; 81-GGA-3 6A1/A2 map area: 105P/12, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°36.6I, 129°39.4' geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : J e f f c l a i m , l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : from limey i n t e r v a l of bedded b a r i t e . l i t h o l o g y : Black limestone. sample weight: 3.302 kg. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: F r a s n i a n ; conodont zone: rhenana. remarks: samples A l and A2 were processed se p a r a t e l y i n t i a l l y . r e f e r e n c e : Gordey, S.P., Abbott, J.G., and Orchard, M.J. (1982), Dawson, K.M. and Orchard, M.J. (1982) Macmillan Pass /2 63 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-10258 6 f i e l d number: S.P. Gordey, 1982; 82-GGA-32-893 map area: 1050/1, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°08'15", 130°0. 0 1 geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : S e c t i o n 32, sw of PETE, 876 m above base of Earn Group. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Limestone. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 1.589 kg. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: middle t o l a t e F rasnian; conodont zone: rhenana. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118030 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1984; 84-MJO-MM-l map area: 1050 Niddery Lake UTM co o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 442000E; 7003000N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : near the TOM property l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 3.5 kg.(-0.276 kg.) co l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: F r a s n i a n ; conodont zone: lowest rhenana. ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118032 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1984; 84-MJO-MM-3 map area: 1050, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°07', 130°09» UTM co o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 442000E; 7003000N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Macmillan Pass, above TOM o/c. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; U n i t 3B. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 3.5 kg. co l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: F r a s n i a n . conodont zone: Lower rhenana. Macmillan Pass /264 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118033 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1984; 84-MJO-MM-4 map area:' 1050, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°07», 130°09' UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 442000E; 7003000N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Macmillan Pass. Ridge 3 km E of Niddery Camp. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : 3B "S y n c l i n e " , l o c . 2 (26/8/84). l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 6 kg. co l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: Frasnian. conodont zone: Lower rhenana. remarks: P a l m a t o l e p i s sp. p o s s i b l y t r a n s i t i o n a l between Palmatolepis proversa and Palmatolepis n. sp. of C-118034. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118034 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1984; 84-MJ0-MM-5 map area: 1050, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63 007', 130 009' UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 442000E; 7003000N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Macmillan Pass. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : U n i t 3B, o/c 433. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 3 kg f o s s i l s : sponge s p i c u l e s c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d or epoch: Late Devonian; age: F r a s n i a n ; conodont zone: rhenana through l i n g u i f o r m i s . GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118035 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1984; 84-MJO-MM-map area: 1050, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°07', 130°09' U T M c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 442000E; 7003000N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Macmillan Pass. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : U n i t 3B. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 5.2 kg. f o s s i l s : sponge s p i c u l e s abundant c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: F r a s n i a n ; conodont zone: rhenana through l i n g u i f o r m i s Macmillan Pass /266 2. Famennian GSC l o c a t i o n number: 0-093424 f i e l d number: D.J. Tempelman-Kluit, 1975; TO-75-23-7 map area: 105K/3, Tay R i v e r l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 62 o03'15"; 133°16! UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 8: 591025 m E., 6881200N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Map u n i t SDdl. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s through Middle c r e p i d a . remarks: A l l specimens are broken, p o s s i b l y run through crusher p r i o r t o a c i d i z i n g . ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-086285 f i e l d number: BUSG-77-57B3 map area: 1051/8, Nahanni l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 62°25.8'; 129 018.0 f UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 484390E; 6921750N l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: middle Upper c r e p i d a through middle Upper t r a c h y t e r a . r e f e r e n c e : Gordey, S.P., Abbott, J.G., and Orchard, M.J. (1982) remarks: very small specimens. Macmillan Pass /2 67 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-086286 f i e l d number: BUSG-77-59H1 map area: 1051/8, Nahanni l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 62°27.6'; 129°19.0' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 483250E; 6925200N l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. f o s s i l s : sponge s p i c u l e s c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: c r e p i d a through Upper t r a c h y t e r a . ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-086413 f i e l d number: S. Gordey, 1979: GGA.79.72D1 map area: 1051, Nahanni l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 62°25.7', 129°15.8' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 486450E; 6921850N l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Prevost Formation. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Limestone lens or block w i t h i n Prevost Fm. shales l i t h o l o g y : carbonate, sample weight: 4.852 kg. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: e a r l y Fammenian; conodont zone: t r i a n g u l a r i s through Middle c r e p i d a . r e f e rence: Orchard r e p o r t 123, 1980 remarks: D i f f i c u l t sample t o break down; conodonts are broken and/or w i t h adhering matrix. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087588 f i e l d number: S.P. Gordey, GGA 8 0-16C1 map area: 1051/8, Nahanni l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 62°29.0'; 129°21.4' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 481350E; 6927495N l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: probably Middle c r e p i d a through Upper expansa. reference: Gordey, S.P., Abbott, J.G., and Orchard, M.J. (1982) Macmillan Pass /268 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087589 f i e l d number: S.P. Gordey, GGAW 80-29B map area: 1051/8, Nahanni l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 62°29.6'; 129°23.5' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 479485E; 6928580N l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: middle Famennian; conodont zone: Lower m a r g i n i f e r a . r e f e r e n c e : Gordey, S.P., Abbott, J.G., and Orchard, M.J. (1982) ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087685 f i e l d number: J.G. Abbott, 1981; 81-TOA-11-8 map area: 1050/1, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°15.3', 130°28.5' UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 426550E; 7014880N geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : 21.5 km at 276° from Macmillan Pass, north block. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation; UDpt. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Thin beds of dark-grey t o b l a c k , coarse-grained limestone w i t h s i l v e r - w e a t h e r i n g b l a c k g r a p h i t i c mudstone. l i t h o l o g y : Coarse-grained limestone, sample weight: 1.637 kg. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: lower Upper m a r g i n i f e r a . remarks: Parapet r e d u c t i o n i n Palmatolepis g l a b r a l e p t a Z i e g l e r & Huddle and P a l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a d i s t o r t a Branson & Mehl i s reduced. r e f e r e n c e : Gordey, S.P., Abbott, J.G., and Orchard, M.J. (1982) Macmillan Pass /269 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087561 f i e l d number: S. Gordey, 1981; 81-GGA-31A-0m map area: 1050, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°38.4', 130°02.8' l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : shale u n i t near base of s e c t i o n J l ; s e c t i o n 19, 0 m i n Nahanni f i l e , l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 1.765 kg. (-0.2 kg. d o l o m i t i c mudstone) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: ~4 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: Fammenian; conodont zone: Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s through Middle c r e p i d a . r e f e r e n c e : Gordey, S.P., Abbott, J.G., and Orchard, M.J. (1982) ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-087562 f i e l d number: S. Gordey, 1981; 81-GGA-31A-75m map area: 1051, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°38.4', 130°02.8' l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : shale u n i t near base of s e c t i o n J l ; s e c t i o n 19, 0 m i n Nahanni f i l e , l i t h o l o g y : carbonate, sample weight: 1.42 kg. f o s s i l s : sponge s p i c u l e s c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 4-4.5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: E a r l y Fammenian; conodont zone: upper Upper c r e p i d a through lower Lower rhomboidea. ref e r e n c e : Gordey, S.P., Abbott, J.G., and Orchard, M.J. (1982) Macmillan Pass /270 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-089929 f i e l d number: J.G. Abbott, 1982; 82-TOA-ll-357m map area: 1050/2, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°15.3', 130°55.8' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 403075E; 7015250N geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : S Block; 3 0 km at 276 (272?)° from Macmillan Pass. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Tsichu Formation; Blue Shale Member. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : At base of blue shale at top of u n i t Msp. -3m t h i c k medium-grey, f e t i d , Fine t o coarse-grained limestone o v e r l y i n g t h i c k beds of brown weathering, cr o s s - l a m i n a t e d sandstone of the lower member of the upper Earn Group. The limestone i s o v e r l a i n by blue weathering shale of the middle member. l i t h o l o g y : Fine t o coarse-grained carbonate. sample weight: 1.170 kg. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 4.5-5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: e a r l y middle Famennian; conodont zone: Lower rhomboidea. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-08993 3 f i e l d number: J.G. Abbott, 1982; 82-TOA-18-4 map area: 105O/1, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°02.3', 130°28.0' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 400450E; 6990940N geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : S Block; 52 km at 245° from Macmillan Pass. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Approximately 10 m below top of u n i t uDpt (Dp4?). 20 cm t h i c k bed of p l a t e y , grey, coarse-grained, b l a c k limestone t h a t i s about 20 m s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y below the top of the u n i t of blue weathering b l a c k s l a t e t h a t could belong t o e i t h e r the upper or lower Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : P l a t e y , grey coarse-grained, black carbonate. sample weight: 1.118 kg. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: ~4 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: middle Famennian; conodont zone: m a r g i n i f e r a . Macmillan Pass /271 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-108159 f i e l d number: J.G. Abbott, 1983; 83-TOA-15-2 map area: 1050/1, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°15.5', 130°28.0' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 426550E; 7014880N geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : 22 km at 275° from Macmillan Pass. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; P o r t r a i t Lake Formation. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : U n i t uDpt (Dp3?). W i t h i n s i l v e r weathering shale of the lower Earn Group, l i t h o l o g y : carbonate, sample weight: 2.176 kg. f o s s i l s : sponge s p i c u l e s , r a d i o l a r i a n s c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: lower Upper m a r g i n i f e r a . remarks: R e c o l l e c t i o n of C-087685. Pa l m a t o l e p i s g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a Z i e g l e r specimen has a reduced parapet, l i k e morphotype 1. Palmatolepis rugosa t r a c y t e r a i s l i k e l y a t r a n s i t i o n a l form P a l m a t o l e p i s rugosa c f . ampla w i t h an e a r l y appearance. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-108160 f i e l d number: J.G. Abbott, 1983; 83-TOA-17-1 map area: 1050/2, Niddery Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 63°15.5', 13 0°55.0' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 403075E; 7015250N geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : 45 km at 272° from Macmillan Pass, l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Tsichu Formation; Blue Shale Member. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : U n i t Msp. From blue weathering shale at the top of cross-bedded sandstone of the upper Earn Group. I t i s o v e r l a i n by quartz and a r e n i t e . l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 2.116 kg. c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 4.5-5 p e r i o d o r epoch: Late Devonian; age: e a r l y middle Famennian; conodont zone: Lower rhomboidea. remarks: Faunule i s r e c o l l e c t i o n of C-089929. T o t a l of 100+ conodonts. Macmillan Pass /272 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-142984 f i e l d number: S. Gordey, 1986; 86-GGAG-37B-4 map area: 105K/3, Tay River l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 6 2 ° 3 I 1 2 . 2 " , 1 3 3 ° 1 5 ' 3 0 . 7 " UTM coordinates: Zone 8: 591050E; 6881150N geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : P e l l y Mountains, N of Magundy Creek. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 1.544 kg. co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 4.5-5 per iod or epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s into Upper t rachytera . 273 B. MIDWAY LOCALITY AND SAMPLE INFORMATION 1. F r a s n i a n GSC l o c a t i o n number: 0-086357 f i e l d number: D.J. Tempelman K l u i t , 1973; TOA73-56b map area: 105A, Watson Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 60°32', 129°00' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 500150E; 6710350N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : 6 kilo m e t r e s W of Mount Hundere ( e l e v a t i o n 1579m) l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group? s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : T h i n l y laminated. Map u n i t 5 ( ? ) , GSC map 19-1966. l i t h o l o g y : Grey f e t i d limestone, f o s s i l s : " t e n t a c u l i t e s " c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: e a r l y t o middle Frasnian. remarks: Processed by B. Cameron, i d e n t i f i e d by T. Uyeno. reference: Dawson, K.M. and Orchard, M.J. (1982) ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-088239 f i e l d number: T. Harms, 1983; 83-GAH-22a map area: 1041/16, Cry Lake l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°49'28", 128°21'33" geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : 28 km E of N arm of Cry Lake, Harm's c o l l e c t i o n s i t e No. 4, on the W s i d e of the head of Ramhorn Creek, 6.1 km a t 3 3 5° from the N end of Blue Sheep Lake. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : McDame Group; P l a t y limestone member. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Sample immediately under the base of Earn, estimated l e s s than 10 m below base of Earn Group. 1 i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 0.98 0 kg. co l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5+ epoch: Late Devonian; age: e a r l y F r a s n i a n . Midway /274 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-088250 f i e l d number: T. Harms, 1983; 83-GAH-72F map area: 1041/16, Cry Lake l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 8 ° 4 6 ' 1 0 " , 128024'40" geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : 24 km E of N arm of Cry Lake, 4.8 km at 274° from the SW end of Blue Sheep Lake, Harm's c o l l e c t i o n s i t e No. 2. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : McDame Group; F e t i d Limestone Member. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 0.2 69 kg. co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: ear ly Frasnian; conodont zone: middle E a r l y f a l s i o v a l i s through punctata. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-103232 f i e l d number: T. Harms, 1983; 83-GAH-80bF map area: 1041/16, Cry Lake l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 8 ° 5 5 l 4 5 " , 1 2 8 ° 2 9 , 2 0 " geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : 15 km E of Rapid R i v e r , unnumbered Harm's c o l l e c t i o n s i t e , 13.9 km at 2 63° from junct ion of Ramhorn Creek and Major Hart R i v e r . l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Black a r g i l l i t e above p l a t y limestone, immediately below Sylves ter A l loc thon . l i t h o l o g y : carbonate, sample weight: 0.44 6 kg. co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: middle Frasnian; conodont zone: punctata into Lower rhenana. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-143101 f i e l d number: J . Nelson, 1986; 86-JN-03-06-01A map area: 1040/16, Jennings River l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 9 ° 5 0 ' 0 4 " ; 1 3 0 ° 1 9 l 3 6 " UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 425635.3E; 6633501N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Southeast of Donegal Mtn. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : McDame Group? l i t h o l o g y : grey, tan , green, pink dolomit ic s i l t s t o n e , dolomite i n k a r s t i c hollows on top of McDame Group, co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Frasnian; conodont zone: t rans i tans through Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s . Midway /275 2. Famennian GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118253 f i e l d number: W. Jakubowski, 1984; 84MJO-83-34-1AC map area: 1040/16, Jennings River l a t i t u d e and longitude: 5 9 ° 5 5 ' ; 130°20» approx. UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 425898.15E; 6643965.52N geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Discovery area, Midway deposi t , 7 km ENE of east end of Tootsee Lake between Tootsee and L i t t l e Rancheria R ivers , l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Subunit 1AC. Sample i n t e r v a l 748.5 to 748.8m; DDH 83-34. l i t h o l o g y : calcareous a r g i l l i t e . sample weight: 1.167 kg co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Lower rhomboidea. remarks: Extremely abundant faunule. Many specimens are d i s t o r t e d and have adhering matrix . Mesotaxis asymmetrica reworked or contamination. 15/16 of sample remains. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-l18256 f i e l d number: W. Jakubowski, 1984; 84MJO-83-28-1AC map area: 1040/16, Jennings River l a t i t u d e and longitude: 5 9 ° 5 5 * ; 1 3 0 ° 2 0 1 ( a p p r o x ) UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 425740.56E; 6644133.47N geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Discovery area, Midway deposi t , 7 km ENE of east end of Tootsee Lake between Tootsee and L i t t l e Rancheria Rivers , (DDH 83-28). l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Subunit 1AC. Sample i n t e r v a l 646.2 to 646.7m. l i t h o l o g y : calcareous a r g i l l i t e . sample weight: 0.971 kg co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper crep ida through Lower rhomboidea. remarks: Extremely abundant faunule. Preservat ion l i k e that i n C-118253. 3/4 of sample remains. Midway /276 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-1579 05 f i e l d number: S. Irwin, 1987; 87-OF-SI-28-1 map area: 1040/16, Jennings River l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 59°55 ' 47 .1" , l S O ^ O ' O . l " UTM coordinates : Zone 9: 425470.56E; 6644133.47N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Midway D r i l l Hole 28. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Subunit 1AC, Sample i n t e r v a l 647.0 -647.2 m from top. l i t h o l o g y : calcareous a r g i l l i t e . sample weight: 0.532 kg. (residue wt. 0.52 kg.) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper crepida through lowest rhomboidea. remarks: 7/8 of sample remains. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-157906 f i e l d number: S. Irwin, 1987; 87-OF-SI-28-2 map area: 1040/16, Jennings River l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 9 ° 5 5 ' 4 7 . 1 " , 130 o20'0.1" UTM coordinates : Zone 9: 425470.56E; 6644133.47N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Midway D r i l l Core 28. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Base at Earn - McDame contact , subunit 1AC. Sample i n t e r v a l 647.2 - 647.4 m from top. l i t h o l o g y : calcareous a r g i l l i t e . sample weight: 0.665 kg. (residue wt. 0.70 kg.) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper crepida through Lower rhomboidea. remarks: 3/4 of sample remains. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-157907 f i e l d number: S. Irwin, 1987; 87-OF-SI-28-3 map area: 1040/16, Jennings River l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 9 ° 5 5 ' 4 7 . 1 " , 130 020'0.1" UTM coordinates : Zone 9: 425470.56E; 6644133.47N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Midway D r i l l Hole 28. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group ? s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : McDame - Earn Group contact . Sample i n t e r v a l 647.4 - 647.25 m from top. l i t h o l o g y : calcareous a r g i l l i t e . sample weight: 0.473 kg. (residue wt. 0.0 kg.) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper crep ida . remarks: 7/8 of sample remains. Midway /277 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-157908 f i e l d number: S. Irwin, 1987; 87-OF-SI-28-4 map area: 1040/16, Jennings River l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 9 ° 5 5 l 4 7 . 1 " , l S O ^ O ' O . l " UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 425470.56E; 6644133.47N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Midway D r i l l Hole 28. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group ? s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : McDame - Earn Group contact . Sample i n t e r v a l 647.65 - 648.05 m from top. l i t h o l o g y : calcareous a r g i l l i t e . sample weight: 0.838 kg. (residue wt. 0.126 kg.) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper crep ida . remarks: 15/16 of sample remains. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-157909 f i e l d number: S. Irwin, 1987; 87-OF-SI-28-5 map area: 1040/16, Jennings River l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 9 ° 5 5 l 4 7 . 1 " , l S O ^ O ' O . l " UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 425470.56E; 6644133.47N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Midway D r i l l Hole 28. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Subunit 1AC, Sample i n t e r v a l 646.7 -647.0 m from top. l i t h o l o g y : calcareous a r g i l l i t e . sample weight: 1.010 kg. (residue wt. 0.287 kg.) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper crepida . remarks: 7/8 of sample remains. Midway /278 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-157910 f i e l d number: S. Irwin, 1987; 87-OF-SI-28-6 map area: 1040/16, Jennings River l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 59°55 • 47.1", l S O ^ O ' O . l " UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 425470.56E; 6644133.47N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Midway D r i l l Hole 28. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Subunit 1AC, Sample i n t e r v a l 645.8 -646.2 m from top. l i t h o l o g y : calcareous a r g i l l i t e . sample weight: 1.270 kg. (residue wt. 0.322 kg.) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper crep ida . remarks: adhering matrix . 7/8 of sample remains. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-157924 f i e l d number: S. Irwin, 1987; 87-OF-SI-31-2 map area: 1040/16, Jennings River l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 59°55 • 11. 8" , 1 3 0 ° 2 0 ' 3 5 . 4 " UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 424901.29E; 6643051.37N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Midway D r i l l Core 31. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Subunit 1AC, lowermost Earn contact with McDame at base. Sample i n t e r v a l 371.05 - 371.35 m from top. l i t h o l o g y : calcareous a r g i l l i t e . sample weight: 1.623 kg. (residue wt. 0.215 kg.) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper crep ida through Lower rhomboidea. remarks: adhering matr ix . 7/8 of sample remains. Midway /279 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-157928 f i e l d number: S. I r w i n , 1987; 87-OF-SI-34-2 map area: 1040/16, Jennings R i v e r l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 59°55 • 42.0", 13 0°19 ' 32.4" UTM co o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 425898.15E; 6643965.52N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Midway D r i l l Hole 34. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Uppermost McDame. Contact w i t h Earn at 748.9 m. Sample i n t e r v a l 748.9 - 749.1 m from top. l i t h o l o g y : calcareous a r g i l l i t e . sample weight: 1.013 kg. (residue wt. 0.80 kg.) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper c r e p i d a through Upper m a r g i n i f e r a . remarks: adhering matrix. Two Frasnian Mesotaxis asymmetrica are reworked or contamination, at McDame - Earn Group contact. 7/8 of sample remains. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-157929 f i e l d number: S. I r w i n , 1987; 87-0F-SI-34-3 map area: 1040/16, Jennings R i v e r l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 59 055'42.0", 130°19 • 32 . 4" UTM co o r d i n a t e s : Zone 9: 425898.15E; 6643965.52N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Midway D r i l l Hole 34. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Subunit 1AC, lowermost Earn contact w i t h McDame at base. Sample i n t e r v a l 748.2 - 748.9 m from top. l i t h o l o g y : calcareous a r g i l l i t e . sample weight: 1.269 kg. (residue wt. 0.198 kg.) f o s s i l s : adhering matrix c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper c r e p i d a . remarks: 13/16 of sample remains. Midway /280 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-157982 f i e l d number: S. Irwin, 1987; 87-OF-SI-34-11B map area: 1040/16, Jennings River l a t i t u d e and longitude: 59°55 1 42 . 0" , 130°19 • 32 . 4" UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 425898.15E; 6643965.52N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Midway D r i l l Hole 34. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Subunit 2AC, Sample i n t e r v a l 596.05 -596.20 m from top. l i t h o l o g y : calcareous a r g i l l i t e . sample weight: 0.568 kg. (residue wt. 0.340 kg.) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-157938 f i e l d number: S. Irwin, 1987; 87-OF-SI-41-1 map area: 1040/16, Jennings River l a t i t u d e and longitude: S^SS'S .S", 13 0°19 ' 18 . 0" UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 426099.23E; 6642872.8N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Midway D r i l l Hole 41. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Subunit 1AC, Sample i n t e r v a l 853.3 -853.6 m from top. l i t h o l o g y : calcareous a r g i l l i t e . sample weight: 1.286 kg. (residue wt. 0.817 kg.) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 6 (altered) epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: margini fera . ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-157939 f i e l d number: S. Irwin, 1987; 87-OF-SI-41-2 map area: 1040/16, Jennings River l a t i t u d e and longitude: 5 9 ° 5 5 , 6 . 8 " , 1 3 0 ° 1 9 » 1 8 . 0 " UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 426099.23E; 6642872.8N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Midway D r i l l Hole 41. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Subunit 1AC, McDame - Earn contact at base of i n t e r v a l . Sample i n t e r v a l 854.1 - 854.4 m from top. l i t h o l o g y : calcareous a r g i l l i t e . sample weight: 1.212 kg. (residue wt. 0.364 kg.) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper crepida through Lower rhomboidea. Midway /281 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-153835 f i e l d number: J . Nelson, 1987; 87-JN-JN-4-8 map area: 104P/12, McDame UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 456050E; 6617300N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : Canyon south of Alec Chief Creek. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : calcareous black s la te with black s la te and chert , f o s s i l s : spumel larian r a d i o l a r i a n s colour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian. conodont zone: No o lder than Middle crep ida . 282 C. GATAGA LOCALITY AND SAMPLE INFORMATION l l G i v e t i a n - F r a s n i a n GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118946 f i e l d number: D. M a c l n t y r e , S80-6-187 map a r e a : 94F/11, Ware, l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 374500E; 6376100N. g e o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : E a r n Group. l i t h o l o g y : c a r b o n a t e . c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n i n d e x : 5? epoch: L a t e Devonian; age: F r a s n i a n - e a r l y Famennian remarks: Conodonts have a d h e r i n g m a t r i x . ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-102874 f i e l d number: D. M a c l n t y r e , 1981; M81-005 map a r e a : 94F/10, Ware l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 57°40 ,48", 124°53 I08" UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 387490E; 6394500N. g e o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : 4 km SSW o f F e r n Peak, l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : McDame Group ? s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : C r i n o i d a l l i m e s t o n e u n i t o v e r l a i n by b l a c k c h e r t y a r g i l l i t e ( G u n s t e e l ) and u n d e r l a i n by q u a r t z wacke ( b a s a l D e v o n i a n ) . Two-hole c r i n o i d s common. l i t h o l o g y : c a r b o n a t e . c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n i n d e x : 5 epoch: M i d d l e - L a t e Devonian boundary; age: l a t e G i v e t i a n ; conodont zone: f a l s i o v a l i s . ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-102879 f i e l d number: D. M a c l n t y r e , 1981; M81-236a map a r e a : 94F/1, Ware l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 57°06 I37", 124°21'03" UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 418120E; 633 0265N. g e o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : 6.5 km W o f O s p i k a R i v e r , l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : B a s a l Earn Group; " G u n s t e e l " F o r m a t i o n , s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Limestone bed i n b l a c k c h e r t y a r g i l l i t e s t h a t u n d e r l i e n o d u l a r and bedded b a r i t e zone, l i t h o l o g y : c a r b o n a t e , c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n i n d e x : 5 epoch: M i d d l e - L a t e Devonian boundary; age: l a t e G i v e t i a n - e a r l y F r a s n i a n . Gataga /283 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-102891 f i e l d number: D. Maclntyre , 1981; M81-032 map area: 94F/11, Ware l a t i t u d e and longitude: 5 7 ° 4 0 l 3 2 " , 1 2 5 ° 0 3 ' 3 3 " UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 377020E; 6393490N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : 9 km N of Kwadacha River , l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Basal Earn Group; "Gunsteel" Formation, s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Limestone bed i n sect ion of black cherty a r g i l l i t e s = f o o t w a l l of b a r i t i c zone. On s t r i k e with Kwadacha b a r i t e depos i t , l i t h o l o g y : carbonate, co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Middle to Late Devonian; age: l a te Give t ian to e a r l y Frasn ian; conodont zone: t rans i tans through middle Upper asymmetricus. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-102892 f i e l d number: D. Maclntyre , 1981; M81-093 map area: 94F/2, Ware l a t i t u d e and longitude: 5 7 ° 0 5 ' 5 2 " , 1 2 4 ° 3 3 l 2 2 " UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 405950E; 6329125N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : 0.5 km SW of Earn showing, l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Top of Road River Group ?; Pesika Reef Formation ? s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Sample from base of 15 m t h i c k uni t of medium to thin-bedded, grey b i o c l a s t i c limestone at base of t h i c k sect ion of rusty black s i l t y shale. Limestone has beds r i c h i n 2 hole c r i n o i d s and c o r a l fragments near top of u n i t . l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: ear ly Frasnian; conodont zone: l a t e E a r l y f a l s i o v a l i s through punctata. Gataga /284 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118537 f i e l d number: K .M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-5 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 8 ° 0 8 I 0 0 " , 125°58 • UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 324950E; 6447651N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e , L o c a l i t y DP 265. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 4.413 kg. (residue wt. 0.328 kg) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: e a r l y Frasn ian; conodont zone: Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s , remarks: Two fused c lus t er s of ramiform elements. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118543 f i e l d number: K .M. McClay, 1985; 85-0FM-11 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 8 ° 0 7 , 0 0 " , 1 2 5 ° 5 8 ' 0 0 " UTM coordinates : Zone 10: 324992E; 6445508N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e , Loc. DP 218. Saint Claims. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group, l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 3.400 kg. (residue wt. 1.280 kg) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: e a r l y Late Devonian, age: Frasn ian; conodont zone: t rans i tans through Upper asymmetricus. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118550 f i e l d number: K .M. McClay, 1985; 85-0FM-18 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 8 ° 0 6 , 0 0 n , 1 2 5 ° 5 7 ' UTM coordinates : Zone 10: 325978E; 6445070N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e , FC-91. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 1.000 kg. (residue wt. 0.745 kg) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: middle Frasnian to lower Famennian. remarks: Pa. a f f . P. minuta see Orchard, 1988. Palmatolepis sp. C. Gataga /285 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118902 f i e l d number: K .M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-20 map area: 94K/1, Kechika River l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 8 ° 0 6 ' 0 0 " , 1 2 6 ° 0 0 l 0 0 " UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 676075E; 6443830N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e , TP 51. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 2.800 kg. (residue wt. 0.480 kg) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Frasn ian; conodont zone: punctata through middle Lower rhenana. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118903 f i e l d number: K .M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-21 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 8 ° 0 6 ' 0 0 " , 1 2 5 ° 5 7 , 0 0 " geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e , FC-89a, flycamp 2. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 3.700 kg. (residue wt. 1.240 kg) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Frasn ian; conodont zone: Lower rhenana. remarks: adhering matrix. Fused p a i r . ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-1189 08 f i e l d number: K .M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-26 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 8 ° 0 5 ' , 1 2 5 ° 5 7 ' 0 0 " UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 325610E; 6443062N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : D r i f t p i l e Creek FC-64, near Chevron Creek. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group, l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 2.050 kg. (residue wt. 1.285 kg) colour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Frasn ian; conodont zone: Lower rhenana through l i n g u i f o r m i s . remarks: Adhering matrix. Gataga /286 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-116659 f i e l d number: K .M. McClay, 1986; 86-OFM-G74 map area: 94F/13, Ware l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 57°58 • ; 125°50» UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 331558E; 6429470N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e , TS 462. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : limestone from wi th in cherty a r g i l l i t e and chert sequence, scree above, l i t h o l o g y : carbonate, co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Frasnian; conodont zone: Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s through Lower rhenana. remarks: 3/4 of sample remains. ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-116673 f i e l d number: K .M. McClay, 1986; 86-OFM-G88 map area: 94L/8, Kechika l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 8 ° 1 6 ' , 1 2 6 ° 1 2 ' UTM coordinates: Zone 9: 327647E; 6443082N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e , R312, 1870 m e levat ion, l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation, l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 3.111 kg. (residue wt. 0.140 kg) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Frasnian; conodont zone: Ancyrognathus t r i a n g u l a r i s . Gataga /287 2. Famennian GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-102884 f i e l d number: D. Maclntyre, 1980; 80-DP-18 map area: 94F/13, Ware l a t i t u d e and longitude: 5 7 ° 5 7 l 5 4 " , 125047'53" UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 334350E; 6428730N geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : 5 km NW of South Gataga Lake, l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; "Warneford" Formation, s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Limestone interbedded with t h i c k sec t ion of proximal t u r b i d i t e s (western provenance). Over l i e s cherty a r g i l l i t e s of Gunsteel Fm. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate, co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 4+ epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: marg in i fera . remarks: Faunule i s composed of 200+ very small elements, j u v e n i l l e specimens; CAI i s d i f f i c u l t to determine. ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118539 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-7 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and longitude: 5 8 ° 0 7 ' 0 0 " , 1 2 5 ° 5 7 ' 0 0 " UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 325894E; 6446235N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a t g a - D r i f t p i l e . DP 288. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 3.30 kg. (residue wt. 0.880 kg) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper marg in i fera . remarks: Large b a r i t i c res idue . Gataga /288 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118540 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-8 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°04'00", 125°57'00" UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 325999E; 6446200N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a t g a - D r i f t p i l e . DP 289. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 3.90 kg. (residue wt. 1.12 kg) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: middle Upper c r e p i d a through Upper m a r g i n i f r e a . remarks: Large b a r i t i c r e s i d u e . ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-l18544 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-12 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°08', 125 058'00" UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 324825E; 6447400N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a t g a - D r i f t p i l e . o/c 263. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : B a r i t e h o r i z o n , UH. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 2.20 kg. (residue wt. 0.165 kg) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: e a r l y Famennian; conodont zone: upper Upper c r e p i d a through lower Lower rhomboidea. remarks: 7/8 of sample remains. Gataga /289 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118547 f i e l d number: K .M. McClay, 1985; 85-0FM-15 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 8 ° 0 4 1 , 125o54'00" UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 329052E; 6440275N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a t g a - D r i f t p i l e . o/c DP 483. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Limestone TH?, UH horizon? l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 2.00 kg. (residue wt. 0.25 kg) colour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper margini fera remarks: Palmatolepis g labra l epta Z i e g l e r & Huddle appears as poss ib ly three morphotypes or growth stages. Palmatolepis margin i fera Helms specimens with and without nodes, and have v a r i a b l e p lat form width. Polygnathus sp. three species} conservat ive; b i l o b a t e ; nodose. Poss ib ly Polylophodonta. ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-l18548 f i e l d number: K . M . McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-16 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 8 ° 0 4 1 , 1 2 5 ° 5 4 , 0 0 " UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 328287E; 6439112N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a t g a - D r i f t p i l e . l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : between TH1 and TH2, DDH 81-49, 77.9m. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 0.36 kg. (residue wt. 0.87 kg) f o s s i l s : abundant r a d i o l a r i a n s (40) colour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Lower through Upper margin i fera remarks: Palmatolepis margini fera Helms speciemens have no nodes. Gataga /290 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118907 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-25 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°07,00", 125°56,00" UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 325625E; 6445755N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a t g a - D r i f t p i l e . DP 347. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 2.05 kg. (residue wt. 0.2 0 kg) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Lower m a r g i n i f e r a . remarks: Fragmented. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118914 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-32 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°07'00", 125°57'00" UTM co o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 325550E; 6446247N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a t g a - D r i f t p i l e . o/c 611a. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 4.85 kg. (residue wt. 1.40 kg) f o s s i l s : r a d i o l a r i a n s c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Lower through Upper m a r g i n i f e r a . remarks: P a l m a t o l e p i s m a r g i n i f e r a Helms specimen has no nodes. Fragmented and w i t h adhering matrix. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118915 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-33 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°07'00", 125 o58'00" UTM co o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 324747E; 6446660N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a t g a - D r i f t p i l e . DP 229. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 5.15 kg. (residue wt. 0.120 kg) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 4 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Lower through Upper m a r g i n i f e r a . remarks: Specimens are s m a l l . Gataga /291 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118917 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-35 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58 o08'00", 125058»00" UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 324590E; 6447525N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a t g a - D r i f t p i l e . DP 528. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 3.70 kg. (residue wt. 0.70 kg) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Middle c r e p i d a i n t o Lower rhomboidea. remarks: 1/2 of sample remains. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118923 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1985; 85-0FM-41 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°07', 125 058'00" UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 325048E; 6446975N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a t g a - D r i f t p i l e . TP 158. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 2.30 kg. (residue wt. 0.690 kg) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: upper Lower through lower Upper m a r g i n i f e r a . remarks: Palmatolepis m a r g i n i f e r a w i t h and without nodes. 3/4 of sample remains. ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118924 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-42 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°041, 125 053'00" UTM co o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 329475E; 6440645N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a t g a - D r i f t p i l e . FC 3 60. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 4.25 kg. (residue wt. 0.48 kg) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: at Lower m a r g i n i f e r a - Upper m a r g i n i f e r a boundary, remarks: Fused p a i r of Pa. m a r g i n i f e r a [photo] Gataga /292 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-11888 0 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-58 map area: 94L/1, Kechika l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°06'; 126°09' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 325448E; 6446812N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a t g a - D r i f t p i l e . o/c 605. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 3.34 kg (residue wt. 0.340 kg) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famenian; conodont zone: Upper t r i a n g u l a r i s through Lower rhomboidea. ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118884 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-62 map area: 94K/, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°02,00", 125 o55'00" UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 327850E; 6443125N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a t g a - D r i f t p i l e . FC 461. Limestone i n B a r i t e Creek Gataga P r o j e c t , l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group, l i t h o l o g y : Limestone. sample weight: 2.68 kg. (residue wt. 0.160 kg) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Lower m a r g i n i f e r a . remarks: P. g. d i s t o r t a and P. g. p e c t i n a t a are i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l s e r i e s . 15/16 of sample remains. ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118889 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-67 map area: 94L, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°04 • , 125°53 ' geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a t g a - D r i f t p i l e . o/c 842. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 1.87 kg. (residue wt. 0.510 kg) f o s s i l s : sponge s p i c u l e s c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Lower through Upper m a r g i n i f e r a . remarks: 1/2 of sample remains. Gataga /293 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-118892 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1985; 85-OFM-70 map area: 94K/, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58o02»00", 125055'00l» UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 327883E; 6436500N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a t g a - D r i f t p i l e . o/c 895. Mount Waldemar r i d g e , l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group, l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 2.23 kg. (residue wt. 0.0 kg) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: e a r l y Famennian; conodont zone: Middle c r e p i d a . remarks: Good P. t r i a n g u l a r i s fauna. ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-116954 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1986; 86-0FM-G4 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°04'15", 125°54' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 328400E; 6440548N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e . DDH 79-30. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation; MDss. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : From d r i l l l o g , sampled from 41.5m -41.75m, Box 4-110-139', limestone interbedded w i t h s i l i c e o u s a r g i l l i t e s , above TH1 and below TH2. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 0.264 kg. (residue wt. 0.60 kg) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper c r e p i d a through Upper ? m a r g i n i f e r a . remarks: Adhering matrix. Gataga /294 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-116955 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 198 6; 86-OFM-G5 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°04'15", 125°54' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 328400E; 6440548N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e . DDH 79-3 0. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation; uDss-dB from d r i l l l o g s . s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : From d r i l l l o g , sampled from 44.3m -44.8m, Box 5-139-160*, limestone interbedded w i t h black a r g i l l i t e s , between TH2 and TH1. l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 0.485 kg. (residue wt. 0.239 kg) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: uppermost c r e p i d a through Upper m a r g i n i f e r a . remarks: some adhering matrix. ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-116956 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1986; 86-OFM-G6 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°04'15", 125°54' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 328400E; 6440548N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e . DDM 79-30. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation; dB. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : From d r i l l l o g , sampled from 53.9m -4.25m, Box 6-160-185', limestone interbedded w i t h a r g i l l i t e s . l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 0.385 kg. (residue wt. 0.385 kg) f o s s i l s : r a d i o l a r i a n s c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: upper Upper rhomboidea through lower Lower m a r g i n i f e r a . Gataga /295 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-116957 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1986; 86-OFM-G7 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°04,15", 125°54' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 328400; 6440548N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e . DDM 79-30. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation; uDns. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : From d r i l l l o g , sampled from 116.7m -117m, Box 15-373'-404' limestone beds below TH1 m i n e r a l i z e d u n i t (6.84m below), l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 0.610 kg. (residue wt. 0.124 kg) f o s s i l s : r a d i o l a r i a n s , sponge s p i c u l e s c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Lower through middle Upper m a r g i n i f e r a . remarks: Fused p a i r of Palmatolepis g l a b r a p e c t i n a t a Z i e g l e r . ************************* GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-116958 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1986; 86-0FM-G8 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°04'15", 125°54' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 328400E; 6440548N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e . DDM 79-30. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation; uDns. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : From d r i l l l o g , sampled from 119.8m -120m, Box 15-373-404', c o a r s e l y c r y s t a l l i n e limestone, 10m below TH1 m i n e r a l i z e d h o r i z o n , l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 0.574 kg. (residue wt. 0.0 kg) f o s s i l s : (abundant, w e l l preserved) r a d i o l a r i a n s (40), sponge s p i c u l e s c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper m a r g i n i f e r a . remarks: P. g. p e c t i n a t a and P. g. d i s t o r t a are t r a n s i t i o n a l . Gataga /296 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-l16962 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1986; 86-OFM-G12 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and longitude: 5 8 ° 0 5 ' , 1 2 5 ° 5 4 ' UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 328150E; 6441100N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e . DDM 80-38. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation; uDns. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : From d r i l l l og , sampled from 90m -90.2m, Box 16-287-305, massive l imestone, 2.2m above unmineral ized hor izon , l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 0.886 kg. (residue wt. 0.571 kg.) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian. age: Famennian. remarks: adhering matrix. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-116965 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1986; 86-OFM-G15 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and longitude: 5 8 ° 0 5 ' , 1 2 5 ° 5 4 1 UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 32 8150E 644125ON. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e . DDM 80-33. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation; uDdb. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : From d r i l l l og , sampled from 18.2m -18.4m, Box 3-49-67', l imestone 20 m above un i t TH2 minera l ized hor izon , l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 0.574 kg. (residue wt. 0.366 kg.) f o s s i l s : r a d i o l a r i a n s co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: margin i fera . remarks: Palmatolepis margin i fera margini fera i s a fused p a i r [photo] Gataga /2 97 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-l16969 f i e l d number: K .M. McClay, 1986; 86-0FM-G19 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 5 8 ° 0 5 ' , 1 2 5 ° 5 4 ' geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e . DDM 80-35B. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation; UDb. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : From d r i l l l og , sampled from 68.9m -69.1m, 68.9m from c o l l a r , below TH2 mineral ized hor izon, l i t h o l o g y : nodular calcareous s i l t s t o n e . sample weight: 0.340 kg. (residue wt. 0.232 kg.) f o s s i l s : abundant r a d i o l a r i a n s , sponge sp icu les co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: middle Upper crepida through middle Upper t r a c h y t e r a . ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-116972 f i e l d number: K .M. McClay, 1986; 86-OFM-G22 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 58°04 1 , 1 2 5 ° 5 4 ' UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 327225E; 6439870N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e . DDM 79-18. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation; MDss. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : From d r i l l l og , sampled from 50.8m -51.1m, Box 6-151-174', 12.6m below UH (??) minera l i za t ion hor izon . l i t h o l o g y : nodular black limestone. sample weight: 0.502 kg. (residue wt. 0.475 kg.) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian. age: Famennian. remarks: adhering matrix. Gataga /298 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-116974 f i e l d number: K .M. McClay, 1986; 86-OFM-G24 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 58°04 1 , 1 2 5 ° 5 4 ' UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 327825E; 6439870N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e . DDM 79-18.-l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation; MDss. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : From d r i l l l o g , sampled from 88.1m -88.7m, Box 12-287-311', 50m below UH m i n e r a l i z a t i o n horizon, l i t h o l o g y : b lack nodular, laminated l imestone, sample weight: 0.866 kg. (residue wt. 0.704 kg.) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian, remarks: adhering matrix . ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-116977 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1986; 86-OFM-G27 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 58°04 ' , 1 2 5 ° 5 4 ' UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 328010E; 6439450N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e . DDM 81-51. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation; uDca. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Sampled from 61.7m - 61.9m, Box 11-193-211', grey-black calcareous s i l t s t o n e , no minera l i za t ion i n hole , l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 0.415 kg. (residue wt. 0.259 kg.) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Lower margini fera . remarks: small specimens. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-116979 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 198 6; 8 6-OFM-G2 9 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and longi tude: 58°04 ' , 125°54 • UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 327825E; 6439870N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e . DDM 81-47. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation; MDss. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Sampled from 45.4m - 45.6m, Box 8-142-161', nodular limestone 3m below UH m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , l i t h o l o g y : carbonate. sample weight: 0.596 kg. (residue wt. 0.259 kg.) co lour a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian. remarks: 1/4 of sample remains. Gataga /299 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-116980 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1986; 86-OFM-G30 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°04', 125°54' UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 327825N; 6439870N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e . DDH 81-47, Box 19-348-365'. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation; MDss. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Sampled from 105.3m t o 105.5m, 63.3m below UH m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , l i t h o l o g y : nodular limestone. sample weight: 0.575 kg. (residue wt. 0.399 kg.) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper m a r g i n i f e r a . remarks: adhering m a t r i x , fragmented. ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-116981 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1986; 86-OFM-G31 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°04' , 125°54 1 UTM coordinates: Zone 10: 327825E; 6439870N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e . DDM 81-47. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation; MDss. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Sampled from 108.9m to 109.1m, Box 19-348-365', laminated calcareous and carbonaceous s i l t s t o n e , 67.2m below UH m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , l i t h o l o g y : Calcareous s i l t s t o n e . sample weight: 0.676 kg. (residue wt. 0.454 kg) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper c r e p i d a through Upper m a r g i n i f e r a . remarks: adhering m a t r i x . Gataga /300 GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-l16983 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1986; 86-OFM-G33 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°04 1 , 125°54' UTM c o o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 328450E; 6439142N. geographic d e s c r i p t i o n : G a t a g a - D r i f t p i l e . DDM 80-40. l i t h o l o g i c u n i t ( s ) : Earn Group; Gunsteel Formation; UDca. s t r a t i g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n : Sampled from 117.2m - 118.0m, Box 22-380-395', 0.75m nodular limestone i n black cherty a r g i l l i t e . l i t h o l o g y : Calcareous s i l t s t o n e . sample weight: 1.989 kg. (residue wt. 0.605 kg.) c o l o u r a l t e r a t i o n index: 5 epoch: Late Devonian; age: Famennian; conodont zone: Upper c r e p i d a through middle Upper t r a c h y t e r a . ************************** GSC l o c a t i o n number: C-l16990 f i e l d number: K.M. McClay, 1986; 86-OFM-G40 map area: 94K/4, Tuchodi Lakes l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e : 58°04 1 , 125°53' UTM co o r d i n a t e s : Zone 10: 3289