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Volcanic stratigraphy and lithochemistry of the lower Jurassic Hazelton group, host to the Eskay Creek… Bartsch, Roland D. 1993

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VOLCANIC STRATIGRAPHY AND LITHOCHEMISTRY OF THE LOWER JURASSIC HAZELTON GROUP, HOST TO THE ESKAY CREEK PRECIOUS AND BASE METAL VOLCANOGENIC DEPOSIT  by  ROLAND DIETER BARTSCH  B.Sc. (Hons.), The University of New England, 1987  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE  MASTER OF SCIENCE in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Department of Geological Sciences)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard ,  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1993  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  (Signature  Department of  C,cadocc)  \  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  G ri  ABSTRACT  Eskay Creek 21 Zone is a precious and base metal volcanogenic massive sulphide and sulphosalt deposit in northwestern British Columbia, hosted in Lower Jurassic Upper Hazelton Group rocks. Geological reserves are 4.3 million tonnes grading 28.8 g/t gold and 1, 027 g/t silver (Homestake Canada Ltd., pers. com .). A significant part of the reserves are contained within the 21B Zone as stratiform, graded sulphide and sulphosalt beds, dominated by sphalerite-tetrahedrite; the deposit includes massive, stratabound lenses of stibnite-realgar-cinnabar-arsenopyrite and underlying epigenetic mineralization. 21 Zone deposit footwall rhyolite is part of a linear felsic flow dome complex several kilometers long on the western limb of the Eskay Creek anticline. Dikes feed the rhyolite domes. Four distinct rhyolite flow dome facies have been defined including peripheral facies of pyroclastic rocks, and feeder, outer, and internal flow facies. Facies reflect stages and processes of dome growth, and define individual centers along the fissure vent zone. Outer dome facies displays vapor phase volcanic features, devitrification, and enrichment in K, Sb, Ag, Hg. Intense Ksilicate, sericitic, and silicic alteration, with precious and base metal mineralization, occurs in the feeder dikes to the rhyolite flow domes. The 21 Zone deposit is located within 200 metres of the main rhyolite feeder dikes, along and between synvolcanic subbasin-bounding faults. Stratiform ore occurs in argillite between volcanic vent facies footwall rhyolite and hanging wall basalt. Basalt overlying the felsic magma erupted from numerous dikes. Pillow basalt flow facies drape over the felsic flow domes; massive basalt flow facies dominate the main vent zone and grade to autobrecciated basalt flow facies in the 21 Zone subbasin. Alteration in the basalt is weak and dominantly propylitic (chlorite). Igneous rocks are a polymodal calc-alkaline suite with two periods of hiatus recorded by fine elastic sedimentary rocks; andesite - hiatus 1 - dacite - rhyolite - dacite - hiatus 2 (peak alteration and 21 Zone mineralization) basalt. Volcanism occurred in an extensional basinal environment. Consistent mineralogy, calc-alkaline affinities  and fractionation trends, suggest the intermediate to felsic volcanic rocks are cogenetic, derived through igneous fractionation of early voluminous andesite. Fractionation involved early anhydrous minerals. K, Th, U are enriched in the rhyolites; these elements are part of a distinctive element suite (K, Th, U, Ti, P, Ce) involved in K-silicate alteration associated with precious and base metal mineralization; consequently the alteration and mineralization is an integral part of the igneous paragenetic sequence.  ii TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT^  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS^  iii  LIST OF TABLES^  vi  LIST OF PLATES^  vii  LIST OF FIGURES^  is  ACKNOWLEDGMENT^  xii  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION^  1  1.1 PREAMBLE^  1  1.2 OBJECTIVES AND APPROACH ^  1  1.3 PREVIOUS WORK^  3  1.4 NOMENCLATURE^  3  1.5 REGIONAL GEOLOGY^  4  1.6 HAZELTON AND BOWSER LAKE GROUP STRATIGRAPHY ^  8  CHAPTER 2 VOLCANIC AND SEDIMENTARY FACIES OF THE UPPER HAZELTON GROUP ^10 2.1 A FACIES APPROACH TO STRATIGRAPHIC SUBDIVISIONS^  10  2.2 STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK OF THE PROUT PLATEAU^  13  2.3 ESKAY CREEK ANTICLINE FACIES RELATIONSHIPS ^  16  2.3.1 LOWER HAZELTON GROUP MARINE SEDIMENTARY FACIES ASSOCIATION^16 2.3.2 UPPER HAZELTON GROUP POLYMODAL VOLCANIC FACIES ASSOCIATION^19 2.4 REGIONAL FACIES RELATIONSHIPS ^  39  111  CHAPTER 3 PETROLOGY OF THE UPPER HAZELTON GROUP VOLCANIC SUCCESSION ^43 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.2 PETROGRAPHIC ALTERATION INDEX ^  44  3.3 ANDESITE FACIES^  45  3.3.1 PRIMARY MINERALOGY^  45  3.3.2 ALTERATION MINERALOGY^  46  3.4 ESKAY PORPHYRY^  47  3.4.1 PRIMARY MINERALOGY^  47  3.4.2 ALTERATION MINERALOGY ^  48  3.5 SUBVOLCANIC RHYOLITE AND DACITE DIKES ^  52  3.5.1 PRIMARY MINERALOGY^  52  3.5.2 ALTERATION MINERALOGY ^  53  3.6 RHYOLITE AND DACITE FACIES ^  58  3.6.1 PRIMARY MINERALOGY^  58  3.6.2 ALTERATION MINERALOGY ^  59  3.7 BASALT FACIES^  68  3.7.1 PRIMARY MINERALOGY^  68  3.7.2 ALTERATION MINERALOGY ^  68  3.8 MINERALOGICAL VARIATION SUMMARY^  72  CHAPTER 4 PARAGENESIS OF THE UPPER HAZELTON GROUP VOLCANIC SUITE AND SUPERIMPOSED ALTERATION^  76  4.1 MAGMATIC ASSOCIATION^  76  4.2 THE VOLCANIC PETROGENETIC SEQUENCE^  809  iv  4.3 DIFFERENTIATION TRENDS ^  83  4.3.1 INTRODUCTION^  83  4.3.2 STANDARD VARIATION PLOTS^  83  4.3.3 PEARCE ELEMENT RATIO DIAGRAMS ^  84  4.3.4 RARE - EARTH AND LARGE-ION LITHOPHILE SCA I I ER PLOTS^ 87 4.4 ALTERATION^  90  4.4.1 ALTERATION STYLES AND DISTRIBUTION ^  90  4.4.2 ALTERATION GEOCHEMISTRY^  95  4.4 THE ESKAY CREEK 21 ZONE DEPOSIT^  104  CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ^  107  5.1 DISCUSSION^  107  5.2 FUTURE WORK^  114  5.3 CONCLUSION^  115  REFERENCES  ^  119  APPENDIX A MISCELLANEOUS DIAGRAMS  ^  125  APPENDIX B SAMPLE DATA AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSES APPENDIX C OUTCROP AND SAMPLE LOCATION MAPS  ^  132  v LIST OF TABLES  Table 2.1 Generalized characteristics of volcanic facies subdivisions used in construction of facies  interpretations.^  11  Table 2.2 Generalized characteristics of marine sedimentary facies subdivisions used in construction of  facies interpretations.^  12  Table 4.1 Whole rock chemistry of the Upper Hazelton Group igneous rock suite; average and range in  composition of the most unaltered samples for each rock type. ^  77  Table 4.2 General mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the Upper Hazelton Group igneous  rock suite.^  78  Table B-1 Whole rock geochemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic and sedimentary  rocks.^  137  Table B-2 Analytical standards; summary statistical data.  177  LIST OF PLATES  Plate 2.1 Volcanic facies. a) Andesite proximal volcanic facies association. b) Dacite marine pyroclastic volcanic facies. c) Western limb of the Eskay Creek anticline looking NE to the fold closure and 21 Zone deposit. d) 21 Zone rhyolite flow dome feeder fades. 21  Plate 2.2 Volcanic facies. a) Discordant relations between sedimentary bedding and subvolcanic  rhyolite dikes. b) Altered feldspar phyric subvolcanic feeder dikes to the rhyolite flow domes. c) Rhyolite flow dome peripheral facies. d) Distal facies lapilli tuffs. 27  Plate 2.3 Volcanic fades. a) Rhyolite flow dome vent facies flow banded rhyolite (21 Zone flow dome).  b) Rhyolite flow dome vent facies massive flow banded rhyolite. c) Flow banded rhyolite spine, cutting rhyolite flow dome peripheral facies rocks (Mackay flow dome). e) Massive, flow banded obsidian, displaying weak devitrification. 30  Plate 2.4 Volcanic facies. a) Rhyolite internal flow dome facies. b) Rhyolite flow dome internal facies.  c) Transition from rhyolite internal to outer flow dome facies, massive lens of 'false pyroclastic textured' (Allen, 1988) devitrified rhyolite glass. d) Degassing structures (Emma flow dome).^31  Plate 2.5 Volcanic facies; rhyolite flow dome outer facies (Mackay Zone flow dome). a)  Autobrecciated, flow banded, finely vesiculated rhyolite. b) Autobrecciated, flow banded, finely vesiculated, flow banded rhyolite. c) 'Black matrix breccia'. d) 'Black matrix breccia'. 32  Plate 2.6 Volcanic facies. a) Rhyolite outer flow dome facies. b) Basalt marine pillow volcanic facies  association. c) Basalt marine pillow volcanic facies association. d) Argillite subbasin facies.^37  vii Plate 3.1 Subvolcanic felsic flow dome feeder dikes (western limb of the Eskay Creek anticline: a) Strongly altered (A.I.=3) plagioclase phyric felsic dike. b) Intensely altered (A.I.=4) plagioclase phyric felsic  dike.  56  Plate 3.2 Rhyolite: a) and b) moderately altered (A.I.=2), flow banded, weakly devitriflerl obsidian. c) Strongly altered (A.I.=3), devitrified obsidian. d) Strongly altered (A.I.=3), 'false pyroclastic textured' (Allen,  1988)  rhyolite.  63  Plate 3.3 Basalt overlying the rhyolite flow dome sequence displaying variation in the intensity of alteration. a) Locally preserved unaltered patch (A.I.). b) Least altered (A.I.=1). c) Strongly altered (A.I.=3). d) Intensely altered (A.I.=4). 71  viii LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 1.1 a) Morphogeological belts of the Canadian Cordillera, and location of the 'Metallogenesis of  the Iskut River' project area; b) Location of the Eskay Creek deposit, and the area covered by this thesis.  6  Figure 1.2 Distribution of the Lower to Middle Jurassic Hazelton Group and Bowser Lake Group, and  location of the Eskay Creek 21 zone deposit within the Upper Hazelton Group volcanic-sedimentary sequence.  7  Figure 2.1 Regional volcanic facies interpretation map of the Prout Plateau.  14 Figure 2.2 Regional sedimentary facies interpretation map of the Prout Plateau. ^ 15  Figure 2.3 Generalized stratigraphic column for the Upper Hazelton Group on the western limb of the  Eskay Creek anticline.^  17  Figure 2.4 Detailed volcanic and sedimentary facies interpretation map of the northern half of the  Eskay Creek anticline. ^  18  Figure 2.5 Detailed facies interpretation map of the Mackay Zone rhyolite flow dome.^24  Figure 2.6 Interpreted cross-section A - A' across the Mackay Zone rhyolite flow dome.^25  Figure 2.7 Detailed facies interpretation map of the 21 Zone rhyolite flow dome and area surrounding  the 21 Zone precious and base metal deposit. ^  26  ix Figure 2.8 Distribution, maximum size (length of longest axis), and abundance of vesicles and amygdales in basalt flows and dikes, for the northern half of the Eskay Creek anticline. ^38  Figure 3.1 Alteration assemblage variations with increasing, petrographically determined, alteration 73  index.^  Figure 3.2 Interpreted major element loss and gains based on alteration assemblage variations with increasing, petrographically determined alteration index (A.I.). ^  74  Figure 4.1 Volcanic discrimination plots of least and moderately altered rocks. a) Si02 vs Zr/TiO2 79  diagram. b) Alkali - Fe - Mg diagram. ^  Figure 4.2 X - Y trace element plots for the least altered Upper Hazelton Group igneous rock suite. a) Nb vs Zr. b) TiO2 vs Zr.^  81  Figure 4.3 Pearce element ratio diagrams for petrographically determined least and moderately altered rocks, of Al (a) and Fe (b) versus Si, with conserved Zr in the denominator. ^  85  Figure 4.4 Pearce element ratio diagrams for petrographically determined least and moderately altered rocks, of Na (a) and K (b) versus Si, with conserved Zr in the denominator. ^  86  Figure 4.5 Rare-earth element (REE) scatter plots normalized with 'primitive mantle' (PRM) (normalizing data from Taylor and McLennan, 1985). a) andesite. b) rhyolite and dacite. c) basalt.^88  Figure 4.6 Rare-earth element (REE) and large-ion-lithophile (LIL) element scatter plots normalized with mid ocean ridge basalt (MORB; normalizing data from Jenner, 1992). a) andesite. b) rhyolite and dacite.  c)  basalt.  89  x Figure 4.7 Summary histograms of petrographically determined alteration index (A.I.) populations for samples taken from the Upper Hazelton Group bimodal volcanic rock suite. ^  91  Figure 4.8 X - Y plots of Th versus Zr. a) Th vs Zr plot of least to intensely altered volcanic rocks on the Prout Plateau. b) Affects of alteration on Th/Zr ratios of the polymodal Hazelton Group volcanic rock  suite.  96  Figure 4.9 Probability plot of Th/Zr ratios; generated using 'Probplot' (software by Stanley, 1987). ^97  Figure 4.10 Distribution of high and low Th/Zr ratios. ^  98  Figure 4.11 Composite geochemical cross-sections for the Mackay and Emma rhyolite flow domes (figure 2.4, 2.5); sections are constructed looking south, and are plots of PER ratios vs distance from a base line along the eastern edge of the subvolcanic dikes. 101  Figure 4.12 Composite geochemical cross-sections for the Mackay and Emma rhyolite flow domes (figure 2.4, 2.5); sections are constructed looking south, and are plots of PER ratios vs distance from a base line along the eastern edge of the subvolcanic dikes. 102  Figure 5.1 A schematic reconstruction of the volcanic environment during formation of the Eskay Creek 21 Zone deposit.^  109  Figure A.1 X - Y plots of major oxides (a) Fe, and (b) SiO2 versus Zr.^  126  Figure A.2 X - Y plot of Mg, versus Zr.^  127  Figure A.3 Pearce element ratio diagrams for petrographically determined least and moderately altered rocks, of Mg (a) and Ca (b) versus Si, with conserved Zr in the denominator.^  128  xi  Figure A.4 Pearce element ratio diagrams for petrographically determined least and moderately altered  rocks, of Ti (a) and Mn (b) versus Si, with conserved Zr in the denominator. ^  129  Figure A.5 Ti vs Zr (X - Y) plots for the Upper Hazelton Group igneous rock suite. a) Ti vs Zr for all  rock types and alteration intensities. b) Ti vs Zr for the Eskay Porphyry.^  130  Figure A.6 X - Y trace and major element plots for the Upper Hazelton Group igneous rock suite. a)  Nb vs Zr. b) K2O vs Zr.^  131  xii  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  I am grateful to International Corona Corporation, Granges Inc., American Fibre Corporation, Silver Butte Resources Ltd., Prime Equities Inc., and their respective staffs for ongoing logistical and technical support of this study. Thanks are also extended to Western Mining Corporation Limited; its generous study-leave program, and financial support, enabled me to take two years leave to come from Australia and undertake an M.Sc.  Financial support for the research for the MDRU Project "Metallogenesis of the Iskut River Area" was provided by thirteen exploration and mining companies, a Science Council of British Columbia Research and Technology Grant, and a Natural Science and Engineering Council Research CRD Grant.  Assistance from Dr. A. J. Sinclair, my supervisor, Dr. A. J. Macdonald, coordinator of the Iskut Project, Dr. J. Thompson, director of the Mineral Deposit Research Unit, and co-workers in MDRU is greatly appreciated. Particular thanks go to: Dr. P. D. Lewis for numerous discussions on the regional stratigraphy of the Prout Plateau and for technical assistance with computers; Tina Roth for numerous discussions on the Geology of the Eskay Creek 21 Zone deposit; and, Arne Toma for his assistance with sample preparation and drafting.  Support and assistance from family and friends was greatly appreciated. To Sal, your company, and understanding during my more grumpy moments was a great help.  Introduction  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION  1.1 PREAMBLE  An extraordinarily high-grade precious and base metal deposit was discovered near Eskay Creek within northwestern British Columbia in 1988-1989 by Prime Exploration Limited of Vancouver, B.C.. The 21 Zone deposit comprises several subzones distinguished by differing ore mineralogies and grades, hosted in volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group. Geological reserves for the 21 Zone are 4.3 million tonnes grading 28.8 g/t gold and 1 027 g/t silver (Homestake, pers. corn.). The bulk of the reserves are contained within the 21B Zone as stratiform sheets of graded and fragmental sulphides and sulphosalts dominated by sphalerite and tetrahedrite; the deposit includes massive stratabound lenses of stibnite-realgar-cinnabararsenopyrite and underlying vein stockwork and disseminated mineralization. Stratiform mineralization occurs in argillite at the contact between footwall rhyolite and hanging wall basalt. Alteration in the footwall rocks is intense and regionally extensive; in the hanging wall basalts, alteration is not regionally pervasive but occurs as local intense zones immediately overlying the 21 Zone deposit.  The Eskay Creek 21 Zone deposit is within the northern half of the Unuk map area (Alldrick et a/.,1989), 84 kilometres north-west of Stewart, in the centre of the Iskut-Sulphurets gold camp on the Prout Plateau. The area is part of the Stikinia tectonic terrane of the Intermontane tectonic belt (Gabrielse et al., 1991).  1.2 OBJECTIVES AND APPROACH  This study aims to describe the volcanic stratigraphy of the Prout Plateau as an integral part of a team approach to a larger project, 'Metallogenesis of the Iskut River Area' which includes regional structural and stratigraphic mapping, extensive geochronology as well as detailed studies of individual mineral deposits. This work is being undertaken in conjunction with, and complementary to work in the area by industry and government geologists.  Introduction^  2  Detailed site-specific work by Roth (1993a, 1993b) and Ettlinger (1991) on the Eskay Creek 21 Zone deposit includes mapping at 1:1,000 scale and detailed diamond drill core studies; work by A.J. Macdonald (1992) includes petrographic studies of the Eskay Porphyry.  The author's research aims at providing a broad geological framework in which to understand the environment of formation of the Eskay 21 Zone deposit. Mapping at 1:5,000 and 1:15,000 scale was undertaken over an area of 30 km2 covering the Prout Plateau (i.e. the area surrounding the Eskay Creek Deposit). The framework established by this study is supplemented more regionally with extensive 1:20,000 scale mapping by Peter Lewis (1991, 1992) focusing on stratigraphy and structure.  The focus of this study is the host stratigraphy for the Eskay Creek 21 Zone precious and base metal deposit, and emphasizes documentation of: 1. volcanic and sedimentary facies; 2. petrography and lithochemistry of intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks; 3. regional alteration and metal zonations; and, 4. structural controls on mineralization.  To achieve this aim , several approaches have been utilized: 1. 1:5,000 and 1:15,000 scale outcrop and facies interpretation mapping; 2. detailed mapping and construction of cross-sections for important local areas using diamond drill hole data; 3. development of stratigraphic columns; 4. compilation of existing lithogeochemical analyses for the area; 5. lithochemical sampling at 300m intervals to infill existing data; 6. detailed petrographic descriptions of the principal units; and, 7. evaluation of regional alteration patterns.  Introduction^  3  1.3 PREVIOUS WORK  A regional framework of the geology of the Prout Plateau was established by geologists of the Geological Survey of Canada (Anderson, 1989; Anderson and Thorkelson, 1990) and the British Columbia Geological Survey Branch (Alldrick and Britton, 1988; Alldrick et al., 1989, 1990). Lewis (1992) established a structural framework for the Prout Plateau.  Property scale mapping at 1:5 000 and 1:1 000 scales was undertaken by geologists with: Prime Equities Inc. (1989-1990, unpublished) and International Corona Corporation (1991-1993, unpublished) for the TOK and GNC claims; Rebagliatti and Coplan Consultants for American Fibre Corporation/Silver Butte Resources Limited on the SIB claims (1990-1992, unpublished); and, Granges Corporation Limited on the COL claims (1991, unpublished).  The Eskay Creek deposit and property geology are described by Idziszek et al. (1990), Blackwell (1990), Britton et al. (1990), Ettlinger (1991), Roth and Godwin (1992) and Roth (1993a,1993b).  A Jurassic geochronological framework of the Iskut River project area is provided through recent biochronology studies (Nadaraju and Smith, 1992, 1993); and Nadaraju (1993); and isotope geochronometry of plutonic suites is reported by Anderson and Bevier (1990) and Macdonald et al (1992).  1.4 NOMENCLATURE  Volcanic and intrusive rocks in this thesis are classified according to the International Union of Geological Sciences igneous rock classification (Streckeisen, 1979, 1980). The common practice of classifying hypabyssal igneous rocks as their volcanic equivalents (Hyndman,1985) is followed.  The morphology of the volcanic rocks are described throughout the text and on outcrop maps in terms of common descriptive parameters defined or described within standard igneous petrology texts (Hyndman, 1985; Cas and  Introduction^  4  Wright, 1988). Rock classifiers with genetic connotations are avoided except in the case of unequivocal field relationships.  Allochthonous (terrigenous) sedimentary rocks are classified according to the scheme of Pettijohn et al, (1973). Autochthonous (carbonate) rocks are classified according to Dunham (1962).  The geological time scale of Harland et al (1990) is used throughout this thesis.  1.5 REGIONAL GEOLOGY  The Canadian Cordillera is divided longitudinally into five northwest trending morphogeological belts (Fig. 1.1a, 1.1b) characterized by unique combinations of morphology, lithology, geochronology and structural attributes. From east to west they are the Foreland, Omineca, Intermontane, Coast and Insular belts. Characteristics of these belts are described in detail by Gabrielse et al, 1992 and as summarized below. The Project area is located on the western edge of the northern part of the Intermontane Belt.  West of the Intermontane Belt are the Coast and Insular Belts. The Coast Belt forms the Coast and Cascade mountains; areas of high relief composed dominantly of granitic and metamorphic rocks of the Coast Plutonic Complex. Metamorphic grades range from greenschist to amphibolite facies. The intrusive rocks comprise I-type granitic plutons of average quartz diorite composition, often separated by high grade gneiss. Plutons generally young from west to east; to the west mid-Cretaceous and younger, to the east Late Cretaceous and Tertiary.  The Intermontane Belt, relative to adjoining belts, is topographically low and physiographically subdued. The belt is composed of amalgamated terranes resulting from accretion, and overlap assemblages of sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Regional metamorphic grades rarely reach as high as greenschist facies.  Major terranes of the Intermontane belt from east to west include Slide Mountain, Quesnellia, Cache Creek, Stikinia (figure 1.2), Alexander and Wrangellia Terranes. Strata within the terranes range from Middle Proterozoic  Introduction^  5  to Middle Jurassic in age. Assemblages within the Alexander, Quesnell, Stikinia, and Wrangellia terranes are interpreted as having magmatic arc affinities; the Cache Creek and Slide Mountain terranes comprise oceanic and marginal ocean floor deposits.  Overlap sedimentary and volcanic assemblages derived from neighboring uplifts include the Bowser Basin, SustutSkeena and Nechako Basins. Flat-lying Tertiary Volcanic Rocks overlie terranes and basins alike.  Plutonic rocks are predominantly I-type, associated with Late Triassic, Early Jurassic, Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanism.  Structure in the Intermontane Belt varies from one area to the next and depends on the competence of the rocks. Volcanic sequences are broadly folded; folding in sedimentary sequences is tighter and accompanied by thrust faulting. Major structures are: •  Middle and Late Jurassic westward vergent folds and thrust faults on the eastern margin;  •  Cretaceous and Tertiary eastward vergent folds and thrust faults along the western edge; and,  •  Late Cretaceous and Tertiary northwesterly strike-slip faults  The study area is in Stikinia, on the north-western flank of the Bowser Basin (figures 1.2). Stikinia consists of Lower Devonian to Middle Jurassic volcanic and subageous sedimentary strata and comagmatic plutonic rocks. Major units of Stikinia within the study area are Upper Triassic Stuhini Group and Lower to Middle Jurassic Hazelton Group assemblages, which are exposed in stratigraphic continuity with sedimentary rocks of the Bowser Basin (this study). Lower to middle Jurassic Hazelton Group (the focus of this study) comprises marine and subaerial calc-alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, and interbedded sedimentary rocks (shale, siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate). The Middle to Lower Cretaceous Bowser Lake Group comprises elastic sedimentary rocks, lower stratigraphic units being dominated by marine sedimentary rocks and upper units by nonmarine sedimentary rocks.  6  Introduction^  Generalized Terrane Map of the Canadian Cordillera Modified from G.S.C. Map 1713A, Wheeler et al.,(1991)  Km 100^200^300  Figure 1.1a  54' e5'  Figure 1.1 b  Snip  X'  TOM.  Aa ANL  Mackay  Eskay  Lake  Johnny Mountain  Creek  MAP AREA, THIS STUDY  — 5• 30'  0  10 km  Major mineral deposit  Sulp hur  AIL  ets  Creek  56' 30' —  Kerr Sulphurets  Figure 1.1^a) Morphogeological belts of the Canadian Cordillera, and location of the 'Metallogenesis of the Iskut River' project area; b) Location of the Eskay Creek deposit, and the area covered by this thesis.  7  Introduction^  ■  Jurassic Intrusions  km 0^100^200  .300  Lower to Middle Jurassic Hazelton Group (volcanic rocks, dominantly calc—alkaline) Bowser Lake Group (sedimentary rocks)  Modified from G.S.C. Map 1712A, Wheeler, J., and McFeely, P., 1991.  Figure 1.2^Distribution of the Lower to Middle Jurassic Hazelton Group and the conformably overlying Bowser Lake Group. The Eskay Creek 21 zone is hosted within the Upper Hazelton Group volcanic-sedimentary sequence.  Introduction^  8  1.6 HAZELTON AND BOWSER LAKE GROUP STRATIGRAPHY  The Iskut River area consists largely of Jurassic volcanic and sedimentary strata belonging to the Hazelton Group or Bowser Lake Group. Numerous descriptions of these units exist (Anderson, 1989; Alldrick et al., 1989, 1990).  The Jurassic Hazelton Group is suggested by Anderson and Thorkelson (1990) lie conformably on Triassic Stuhini Group in the Iskut River area with the contact marked by a section of interbedded siltstone, greywacke and volcanic clast conglomerate. Independent mapping of the same area by Henderson et al (1992) and Lewis et al (1992) recognized an angular unconformity and less commonly a disconformity at the base of the Hazelton Group, which can be mapped continuously on the southwestern side of the McTagg anticlinorium for over 20 km. Two characteristic lithologies are recognized at the unconformity; granitoid clast conglomerate and interbedded calcareous sandstone and siltstone ("Jack formation" after Henderson et al., 1992). Lewis et al (1992) tentatively defined the Jack formation as the lowest formation of the Hazelton Group, because it is conformable with overlying Hazelton Group strata. Ammonites from the Jack formation are dated at Hettangian-Early Sinemurian (Nadaraju, 1993).  The Hazelton Group comprises four formations and the Bowser Lake Group comprises several informal units. Different authors describe contrasting stratigraphic successions as characteristic of the units, with different contact relationships, ages, and positions of group boundaries within the defined formations. Difficulties in applying the existing nomenclature to the Iskut River project area are discussed by Lewis et al (1992), and are summarized below.  Problems with the existing stratigraphic nomenclature arise as a result of rapid lateral thickness and facies changes reflecting numerous coalescing polymodal volcanic centers and superimposed structural complexity.  The Mount Dilworth formation, delineated initially by Alldrick (1987) in the Salmon River area, comprises felsic tuffs, breccias, and flows. Alldrick and Britton (1988) and Alldrick et al (1989) traced a semi-continuous felsic volcanic interval throughout the eastern half of the Iskut river area, which they correlate with the Mount Dilworth  Introduction^  9  formation. Included in this correlation are felsic volcanic rocks in the immediate footwall to the Eskay Creek stratiform precious and base metal deposits.  Regional stratigraphic correlations rely heavily on recognition of the 'Mt Dilworth formation'. However Lewis (1992) has documented the occurrence of thin felsic pyroclastic rocks within the Betty Creek formation. Consequently the upper marker (the Mount Dilworth formation) of the Betty Creek formation is not distinct. More importantly, the proposed regional marker in the Iskut Project area represents several different coalescing small felsic to mafic volcanic centres (Bartsch 1993, Lewis et al 1992, this study) displaying rapid volcanic and sedimentary facies and thickness changes.  Lewis (in press) has tabulated geochronological data for the Iskut area and has defined a destinct Aalenian to Bajocian intrusive and coeval volcanic sequence. The sequence is polymodal, and represents numerous coeval volcanic centres, including host dacite-rhyolite and hanging wall basaltic rocks of the Eskay Creek deposit. The Aalenian to Bajocian igneous event is followed by the dominantly marine sedimentary regime represented by the Bowser Lake Group.  The Middle and Upper Jurassic Bowser Lake Group consists of a thick succession of shale, and lesser sandstone, wacke and conglomerate. Bowser Lake Group strata conformably or paraconformably overlie Hazelton Group rocks. Macrofossils from the lowest exposed stratigraphic levels on the Prout Plateau yield Bathonian to Callovian ages (Nadaraju, 1993).  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group  ^  10  CHAPTER 2  VOLCANIC AND SEDIMENTARY FACIES OF THE UPPER HAZELTON GROUP  2.1 A FACIES APPROACH TO STRATIGRAPHIC SUBDIVISIONS  To avoid perpetuation of inconsistent stratigraphic subdivisions, existing formation names are not used in this study. Interpretations of the stratigraphy are based on facies and facies associations, thus providing a basis for interpretation of both process and environment.  "A facies is the sum lithological and palaentological characteristics exhibited by a deposit that can be defined and distinguished within an emplacement unit. The characteristics and number of facies are site specific, and can be designed to suit an environment and working scale. Facies defined in this way are the product of a particular set of conditions" (Allen, 1993). Single facies are rarely diagnostic of an environment, however facies associations may be genetically or environmentally related.  Facies in this text are defined on the basis of descriptive characteristics, and assigned genetic names based on the author's interpretation. Diagnostic sedimentary and volcanic features characterizing the facies in the field and their interpretations are tabulated (tables 2.1 & 2.2). The primary objective of the project is to test a cogenetic hypothesis for mineralization and magmatism at Eskay Creek, and to determine the depositional environment of ore formation. Assigned facies names reflect the type of volcanic centre, and distance from source. Facies association name systematics used are:  Dominant Lithology - Environment - Emplacement Style - Relative Proximity To Source Example: Rhyolite - Subaqueous - Flow Dome - Vent - Facies Association.  VOLCANIC FACIES ASSOCIATIONS AND SUBDIVISIONS REFLECTING PROXIMITY TO VENTS IIIII.  VOLCANIC VENT DOME^I felalc rocks I FEEDER  increasing sedimentary component and abundance of mature sedimentary rocks DISTAL  PROXIMAL  Comagmatic^subvolcanic dikes and sills in the  Thick (<20m) block breccia and lapilli tuff.  immediate footwall rocks.  Breccias clasts comprise autobrecciated flow  Thin^(<5m) lapilli and crystal lithic tuff bed; Sedimentary rocks typically^weakly stratified and displaying rare only. grading.  Massive internal cryptocrystalline zone, and an  banded rhyolite and pumice.  outer massive flow banded zone displaying  Poor to no stratification within deposits.  May overlap with distal facies for composite  micro and macro flow folds.  Minor thin over- and underlying sedimentary  vents if comagmatic.  Most intense phyllic alteration zone.  rocks, dominantly volcaniclastic.  Massive, may be weakly flow banded,^and  indicators if comagmatic.  May overlap with^composite^vent^proximal INTERNAL  characterised by pseudo-pillows grading from <2m diameter to <1m diameter outwards from the feeder zones. Abundant minor comagmatic dikes . The^outer^transition^is^marked^by^local lithophysae rich zones in close association with zones of perlitic cracking. MAPPING^SCALES^AT^WHICH^THE^FACIES OUTER  Dominated by chaotic massive auto-brecciated  SUBDIVISIONS ARE APPLICABLE ARE INDICATED  flow banded rhyolite.  BY THE TYPE STYLES.  Abundant minor comagmatic dikes; may^be intruding flow thrusts.  VOLCANIC - ALL SCALES  Capped by^<10m thick 'black matrix breccia';  VENT  in situ breccias comprising rhyolite clasts in a  FEEDER - <1:10 000  -  >1:10 000  black chart matrix. PERIPHERAL  Underlying^thin^(<5m),^and^laterally^thick (<20m►,pumice block breccia and lapilli tuff; displaying weak or no stratification and possible thin basal welded zones. Intruded by minor comagmatic dikes.  COMPOSITE ( felak to malk rocks I  PROXIMAL  DISTAL  Locus of^comagmatic^subvolcanic^intrusive LAVA  Abundant thick, massive, autobrecciated and  Isolated flows dominated by intermediate and  rocks^in^the^immediate^footwall^and/or  pillowed flows.  mafic compositions.  emplacement units.  Flows may grade outward to flows interclated  Flows are dominantly brecciated interfingering  Coincident^maxima in an emplacement unit  with massive flows, flow breccias and scree.  with flow toe scree, or pillowed, but may be  proximity^indicator^(i.e.,^thickness,  Minor comagmatic dikes.  massive.  vesiculation).  Minor^sedimentary^rocks,^dominantly  Thick^interbedded^sedimentary^sequences;  Abundant peperites.  volcaniclastic.  including mature and volcanicalstic rocks.  Rare and thin interflow sedimentary beds.  Table 2.1  SEDIMENTARY  Generalized characteristics of volcanic facies subdivisions used in construction of facies interpretations.  Volcanic and Sedimentary Fades of the Upper Hazelton Group^  12  Facies name structure is maintained for more detailed scales and includes qualifiers representing mappable subdivisions (table 2.1).  Example: Flow Banded Rhyolite - Subaqeuous - Flow Dome Feeder - Facies Association.  One or more descriptors may be omitted in the absence of diagnostic characteristics.  Sedimentary rocks of the Hazelton Group in the study area are dominated by argillite; shallow and deep marine facies are subdivided on the presence or absence, abundance and nature of interbedded clastic and carbonate lithologies, and bioclastic component (table 2.2). The subdivisions are relative (i.e. can not be quantified) but the presence of abundant bivalves in the shallow water facies implies water depths within the photic zone (<200 metres).  MARINE SEDIMENTARY FACIES SUBDIVISIONS FACIES SHALLOW  DOMINANT LITHOLOGY  INTERBEDDED DIAGNOSTIC LITHOLOGIES  Massive finely laminated carbonaceous argillite.  Abundant interbeds of: Well sorted, medium to coarse grained sandstone, finely laminated and crossbedded, and may contain abundant calcareous concretions. Calcareous and bioclastic lithic wacke,^sandstone and siltstone^containing^abundant^shallow^water^fauna (bivalves). Thin (<3 metres) massive limestone. Quartz arenite, finely laminated and cross-bedded.  DEEP  ARGILLITE Thick^monotonous^sequences^of^finely^bedded^and Minor thin^(<2 metres) turbidite facies,^coarse clastic interbeds. laminated carbonaceous argillite.  TURBIDITE Repetitious^cycles^of^normally^graded^beds, Finely laminated carbonaceous argillite. breccia/conglomerate - lithic wacke - sandstone - sikstone, containing abundant argillite rip-up clasts in the base of each bed, and scour marks in underlying argillites.  Table 2.2^Generalized characteristics of marine sedimentary facies subdivisions used in construction of facies interpretations.  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group^  13  2.2 STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK OF THE PROUT PLATEAU  The structural geology of the Prout Plateau is dominated by a major north to northeasterly trending fold triplet, anticline - syncline - anticline (figure 2.1) and thrust faulting in the south, resulting from significant east-west shortening (Lewis 1992).  Bowser Lake Group deep marine facies rocks are exposed in the Mackay syncline and as a linear belt extending through the faulted synclinal closure to the south. The intensity of deformation increases southwards; to the north second order folds in the Mackay syncline are symmetrical, wavelengths are 400 to 800 metres, and hinges are rounded to subangular with 90° interlimb angles (Lewis 1992). To the south the synclinal closure is more strongly deformed; folds with strong westerly symmetry are cut by west vergent thrust faults and fold axial planes swing from northwest to a northerly orientation.  Hazelton Group rocks are exposed to the west and east of the Mackay syncline on the Squashed Camp and Eskay Creek anticlines respectively (figure 2.1). The Eskay Creek anticline lacks the minor folding documented in the Bowser Lake Group rocks; the fold gently plunges to the northeast, dips on the western and eastern limbs vary from 40° to 75°, and the geometry of the hinge is poorly constrained. The western limb of the Eskay Creek anticline is cut by the west-verging Coulter Creek thrust fault to the south, where Hazelton Group rocks are thrust over Bowser Lake Group rocks. Mapping of the Squashed Camp anticline is restricted to the hinge and eastern fold limb; to the north, second order folds plunge gently to the north, are symmetric, have subangular hinges of approximately 80° and axial planes with northwesterly to northerly orientations; to the south, structures are poorly constrained and bedding dips steeply (40 to 90°) to the west and east on the respective fold limbs.  Steeply dipping faults with north, northwest, and northeast strike directions occur throughout the area (figure 2.1). Faults with northerly (000°) orientations cut folds and thrust faults, whereas faults with northeasterly (015 - 045°) and east northeasterly (045 - 060°) orientations typically pre-date regional folding. Northeasterly trending faults are regionally continuous, and on the Eskay Creek anticline are well constrained displaying steep easterly and westerly dips. Faults predating the regional folding are intruded by felsic and mafic dikes comagmatic with the  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group^  Figure 2.1^Regional volcanic facies interpretation map of the Prout Plateau.  14  ^ ^ ^  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group ^  15  6280  218 ZONE -  -  •0c)  u -  21A IONE  22 ZONE  6278 PORPHYRY ZONE  ESKAY PORPHYRY  6276  6274  Se LANE *Off  LEGEND  LULU ZONE  BOWSER LAKE GROUP DEEP MARINE FACIES ASSOCIATION  6272  Turbidite Deep Marine Sedimentary Facies  I ^-I -  Argillite Deep Marine Sedimentary Facies  UPPER HAZELTON GROUP MARINE SEDIMENTARY FACIES ASSOCIATION  15E  Polymodal Marine Vent Volcanic Facies Polymodal Distal Volcanic FocWs Pair-racial Marine Distal Volcanic Facies  6270  I  Shallow Marne Sedimentary and Polymodal Volcanic Facies Deep Marine Sedimentary and Polymodal Volcanic Facies Mafic Dikes Felsic Porphyritic Intrusions  6268  9 `?  Argillite Shallow Marine Sedimentary Facies Argillite Deep Marine Facies  O  Vt  Andesite Proximal Volcanic Facies LOWER HAZELTON GROUP MARINE SEDIMENTARY FACIES ASSOCIATION  EZ^Undifferentiated Argillite Marine Sedimentary Facies  GEOLOGICAL BOUNDARIES & SYMBOLS 6266  Geological Contact  • o^ooD  Extent of outcrop traversed Thrust Fault  oa (o ° 04,,f 4 1,o 0^0  -^Normal Fault: Major, Minor  ^-4-^  Syncline. Anticline  o 8 ,,„00 1510j0 o o lo 0 1 o o o ,Q3  6264  %^% 0 o5,0 COS o 0 1^e c>  o o'a  •C) o8 d7  0  a  o  2 KM  lS  .,„0 0  I 0 0 B 0 0 I  °° cz,^c>  0^  UTM COORDINATES 0 1000  Drown by A. Tome Mineral Deposit Reeested‘ Unit, !Owl River Project. 1991  Figure 2.2^Regional sedimentary facies interpretation map of the Prout Plateau.  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group ^  16  Upper Hazelton Group volcanic rocks, control facies variations in the volcanic stratigraphy, and localize alteration and mineralization. Slip directions on the northeasterly trending fault surfaces are not determined; however, relative contact displacements and facies distributions indicate strike and dip slip motion, east northeasterly faults are dominated by dip-slip displacements, exposing younger strata on the southern sides.  Regional and detailed volcanic and sedimentary facies of the Prout Plateau are interpreted from 1:15000 and 1:5000 scale mapping respectively (appendix C). Documentation of lateral facies variation on the gently northwesterly plunging Eskay Creek anticline are restricted due to steep bedding dips on the western and eastern fold limbs. On the Mackay anticline outcrop patterns are complex and discontinuous due to folding, imbrication by faulting, rapid facies variations, and irregular topography; however, lateral facies variations are well exposed.  2.3 ESKAY CREEK ANTICLINE FACIES RELATIONSHIPS  The gently northeasterly plunging Eskay Creek anticline hosts the Eskay Creek deposit at its northern closure. A consistent general stratigraphy, well constrained with biochronology by Nadaraju (1993) and U-Pb zircon geochronometry of subvolcanic intrusive suites exists for the Eskay Creek anticline. Temporal stratigraphic relationships on the Eskay Creek anticline are summarized in figure 2.3. The Hazelton Group stratigraphy is divided into a lower sedimentary facies association, and an upper volcanic facies association, and is overlain by Bowser Lake Group sedimentary facies.  2.3.1 LOWER HAZELTON GROUP MARINE SEDIMENTARY FACIES ASSOCIATION  Lower Hazelton Group sedimentary rocks contain little or no volcanic detritus, and comprise a lower shale dominated deep marine facies association, and an upper shallow marine facies association consisting of: finely laminated shale; cross-bedded and finely laminated, medium grained, quarztofeldspathic sandstone, commonly containing abundant calcareous concretions; conglomerate, comprising well rounded heterolithic clasts, typically with a carbonate matrix and containing abundant ammonites and bivalves; and, fine to medium grained, evenly  ESKAY CREEK ANTICLINE GENERALISED STRATIGRAPHY MINERALIZATION  None apparent.  1. 21 zone stratiform—stratabound mineralization' (massive sphalerite, tetrahedrite, boulangerite, bournonite, galena, pyrite 1 realgor, stibnite arsenopyrite & orpiment tylrit ton et al. al. 1990) in carbonaceous siltstone mudstone). vein & disseminated pyrite, galena tetrahedrite, sphalerite & chalcopyrite. . Lulu zone. fault controlled mineralization st ibnite, pyrite, ruby silver, sphalerlte) hosted y carbonaceous siltstone. 3. 21 zone disseminated & stockwork^, mineralizatgart scfit h igeeritthek tetim alraVe e Ubitt en iTa it controllYerd mineralfzation zones 6,22 etc. 4. Emma adit• vein stockwork, disseminated, hydrothermal breccia mineralization (pyrite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite). 5. Mackay adit; as above, within & at the contact of felsic dikes. 6. Sib Lake adit; silicified fault zone, vein & disseminated pyrite. 7. Silicified fault zones, vein & disseminated pyrite & minor galena, sphalerite & chalcopyrite.  ALTERATION INDEX  No ecinek, disseminated & fracture controlled. Weak, Moderate, local strong fault & bedding controlled alteration. Strong to intense, pervasive.  VERTICAL SCALE 100 m  f the Eskay Creek anticline.  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group ^  18  Figure 2.4^Detailed volcanic and sedimentary facies interpretation map of the northern half of the Eskay  Creek anticline.  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group ^  19  laminated and cross-bedded calcareous sandstone containing abundant bivalves. Ammonites are dated by Nadaraju (1993) as Hettangian to Sinemurian boundary (approximately 203.5 Ma).  2.3.2 UPPER HAZELTON GROUP POLYMODAL VOLCANIC FACIES ASSOCIATION  Upper Hazelton Group polymodal volcanic and sedimentary stratigraphy comprises five distinct subfacies associations (figure 2.3) which are further subdivided (figure 2.4).  I. Andesite proximal volcanic facies association  Thick (<200m) dominantly coarse monolithic andesite breccia and volcaniclastic rocks. Breccias at the base are thick, unsorted and poorly stratified, and comprise angular matrix and clast supported andesite clasts less than 50cm diameter, in a compositionaly identical matrix (plate 2.1a). The sequence becomes increasingly more thinly stratified toward the top and contains minor siltstone and feldspathic wacke interbeds. The strata are a dark green color due to a pervasive chlorite alteration assemblage. Breccia clasts and coarse lithic fragments are typically strongly flattened parallel to a strong axial planar cleavage. The unit is not subdivided in the authors mapping, however the monolithic nature, poor stratification, coarseness and angularity of the breccias are interpreted to signify that the unit represents proximal facies.  2.^Argillite marine sedimentary facies association  Shales and interbedded coarse elastic sedimentary, volcaniclastic and carbonate rocks. The upper and lower contacts of the unit are disconformable with the adjacent strata (figure 2.4). Shallow marine facies association constitutes the southern exposures on the western limb of the anticline, the transition to deep marine facies association in the north is approximately coincident with the synvolcanic Mackay adit fault.  Shallow marine facies association comprises shales interbedded with massive medium grained quartzofeldspathic  sandstone (some beds contain large <0.5m diameter calcareous concretions), thin bioclastic limestone, carbonaceous shale containing abundant bivalves, coarse lithic wacke, conglomerate and breccia. The upper section of the interval comprises minor thin discontinuous felsic volcanic rocks; to the north at the transition to  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group ^  20  deeper marine facies the felsic volcanic rocks are reworked and clasts of subrounded rhyolite are incorporated in heterolithic breccias interbedded with sandstone and siltstone.  Deep marine facies association dominantly comprises fine and evenly laminated siltstone and shale with 0.5 to 5m  thick interbeds of normally graded breccia to sandstone, poorly stratified andesitic volcaniclastic rocks, and unsorted andesite breccias. Clasts within the breccia are angular to subrounded and compositionaly identical to the underlying andesitic rocks. Ammonites from calcareous shale interbeds immediately south of the anticline closure are Late Pliensbachian (approximately 190-187 Ma).  3.^Dacite marine volcanic facies association  Comprises a continuous thick sequence of dominantly dacitic proximal and vent facies volcanic rocks forming the base of the felsic volcanic strata (figure 2.3, 2.4).  Proximal marine pyroclastic volcanic facies is the lowest facies and comprises poor to well stratified pumice rich  block and lapilli dacite tuffs, these strata are thick (<50m) on the eastern limb of the anticline and are thin (<10m) and well stratified on the western limb. The pyroclastic unit displays a general gradation from a coarse poorly sorted base containing angular lithic clasts and fiamme less than 50cm by 50cm and 50cm by 10cm diameter respectively (plate 2. ib), to well stratified lapilli tuff toward the top with clasts typically less than 10cm diameter. The strata are strongly bimodal, comprised predominantly of lithic fragments, pumice, glass and crystal fragments; pumice clasts are typically significantly larger (2 to 10 times) than the lithic clasts. A marine depositional environment is inferred primarily from the underlying and overlying sedimentary strata. However, Cashman and Fiske (1991) have shown experimentally with supporting field evidence that water-saturated pumice fall-out deposits can display conspicuous clast bimodality, with pumice 5 to 10 times larger than codeposited lithic clasts, and that similar material errupted onto land displays less well-developed bimodality with pumice generally 2 to 3 times as large as lithic fragments.  South of the transition from shallow to deep marine facies on the western limb of the anticline in the underlying sedimentary facies, the pyroclastic interval is thin, discontinuous, and possibly represented by sedimentary rocks  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group  ^  21  (d)  Plate 2.1 Volcanic facies. a) Andesite proximal volcanic facies association; coarse, angular, monolithic, clast-supported, andesite breccia, with occasional large andesite blocks. b) Dacite marine pyroclastic volcanic facies; poorly stratified, unsorted, matrix supported breccia, containing abundant coarse fiamme and angular finely vesiculated pumice clasts and fine volcanic lithic (non-vesiculated) clasts. c) Western limb of the Eskay Creek anticline looking NE to the fold closure and 21 Zone deposit; stratigraphy dips 75° to 45° NW; area F = flow dome facies (topographic lows comprise peripheral facies, topographic highs flow facies); the ridge marked with D = subvolcanic feeder dikes to the rhyolite flow domes intruding sedimentary facies. d) 21 Zone rhyolite flow dome feeder facies; the subvolcanic felsic dikes at the point of extrusion form a massive cryptocrystalline gossanous rhyolite plug, flow banded at the top, and is surrounded to the sides and behind (hinterground of photo) by rhyolite flow dome vent facies.  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group ^  22  containing reworked felsic clasts at the top to the unit.  Vent dacite pyroclastic and flow volcanic facies  outcrop where the Eskay Creek plagioclase-hornblende-biotite  dacitic porphyry intrudes to the base of the pyrocalstic facies at the north eastern end of the Eskay Creek anticline (figure 2.4); within this zone the pyroclastic and underlying sedimentary rocks are intruded by small 10 to 20m diameter dacite domes with massive feldspar and hornblende phyric holocrystalline cores and hydroclastite margins comprising vitrophyric dacite clasts and shards in a cherty matrix. Overlying the pyroclastic vent facies on the eastern limb are massive dacite flows. The margins of the flow are extremely amygdaloidal, with amygdules up to 10cm in diameter. From the coincidence of these relationships the pyroclastic and dacite flow dome are interpreted as vent facies of the Eskay porphyry dacite. Late Pliensbachian (approximately 198-193 Ma) ammonites from underlying sedimentary rocks, Aalenian (178-173.5 Ma) radiolaria from argillites within the stratigraphically higher basalt facies, and a 185.5 ± 1.5 Ma (Toarcian) zircon U-Pb isotope age (Macdonald et al, 1992) are consistent with the dacite volcanic rocks and intrusion being at least cotemporal and possibly comagmatic.  4. Rhyolite marine flow dome vent volcanic facies association  Facies relationships of the thick (<150m) rhyolite and lesser dacite volcanic sequence overlying the dacite facies rocks, define a linear coalesced flow dome complex (figure 2.4). A major mineralized subvolcanic felsic dike is mapped along the same strike length (plate 2.1c).  Felsic dikes crop out as a discontinuous series of prominent lensoid, bright orange gossanous bluffs and knolls extending from the Coulter Creek thrust fault in the south to the anticline closure in the north, where it converges with its extrusive equivalents as bedding dips flatten in the fold closure (plate 2.1d). The dikes strike subparallel to bedding, but dip at a high angle to bedding (figure 2.4, 2.5, 2.6 and plate 2.2a). The location of the 'dike lenses' correlates spatially with the thickest and flow dominated facies of the felsic extrusive rocks. Variable, intense to moderate K-silicate (K-feldspar, albite, quartz, sericite), sericitic (sericite, pyrite, quartz) and silicic (quartz, ± pyrite) alteration and epigenetic mineralization are pervasive throughout the dikes (plate 2.2b). In exposures at low stratigraphic levels the dikes are feldspar phyric, typically visible as ghosts due to the intense alteration. In  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group^  23  diamond drill core the dikes are multiphase, containing rare, moderately altered, late dacite porphyry with intrusive contacts into intensely altered cryptocrystalline rhyolite.  Facies and stratigraphic relationships defining the domes are best exposed at two localities: 1) in a well preserved section on the western limb of the anticline at Mackay adit (the Mackay Zone flow dome, figure 2.4, 2.5), where the structure dips steeply to the west, exposing a cross-sectional view of a dome (figure 2.5), and, 2) immediately southeast of the Eskay Creek deposit (the '21 Zone flow dome', figure 2.4 and 2.7). At this second locality close to the fold closure (21 Zone flow dome), bedding is less steep exposing a plan view of the dome. Facies defining the flow domes are listed in table 2.1.  Rhyolite peripheral flow dome facies is the earliest eruptive stage of the felsic volcanism, and comprises  pyroclastic deposits of unsorted rhyolite breccia and lapilli tuff. The facies is thin (<2m) or not present at the base of the flow facies, and at the margins the facies is thick (<20m). It is comprised dominantly of unsorted and non stratified block breccia of dense rhyolite and pumice clasts (plate 2.2c). The base of the interval locally contains zones of abundant fiamme. The facies is well exposed peripheral to the Mackay Zone flow dome. Peripheral facies were not observed as significant to the north surrounding the 21 Zone dome, however this may be a function of exposure.Rhyolite flow domes are commonly preceded by pyroclastic deposits from plinian or phreatic eruptions, resulting in rings of lithic or pumice breccia (Cas and Wright,1988; Gibson, 1992; and Fink and Manley, 1987). Regional proximal and distal facies breccias and lapilli tuffs (plate 2.2d), probably correlate with these deposits.  Rhyolite feeder flow dome facies is best exposed in the 21 Zone flow dome, where the subvolcanic dike converges  with the rhyolite dome complex, and the 'dike' forms a lensoidal plug having intrusive contacts with adjacent comagmatic rhyolite. The plug is cryptocrystalline and has a strong K-silicate and sericitic alteration assemblage, cropping out as a bright orange gossanous cliff. The top of the plug is flow banded and surrounded by a zone dominated by massive flow banded and flow folded, white finely vesiculated devitrified rhyolite (figure 2.6 & plate 2.1d, 2.3a, b). Similar facies relationships exist at the convergence of the subvolcanic dike and rhyolite flows to the south at the Coulter Creek thrust fault.  ^ ^  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group ^  24  MACKAY ZONE FLOW DOME SCHEMATIC GEOLOGY MAP  400m 4,  4, 4, ^4, ^4,  ^4,  4, ^4,^4, 4, ^4,^4, ^4,^4,^4,  ^4,  4, ^4,^4,^4 ^4  , ^4,^4,^  4,^4,  4, ^4,^4,^4, 4, ^4,^4,^4,^4,  4' 4,  A A A A AA AAA A A A A A A A A A  4, ^4,^4, 4, ^4,^4,  4,  4,  A AAA A A  ^4  4, ^4,^4,^4, 4,  , ^4,  A A A A A A  4,  A A AAA A A A A A A A  4,  4, ^4,^4,^4,^4, 4, ^4,^4,^m^4, 4, ^4,^4,^4,  ^4  , ^4,^4,^4,  4, ^4^4^4,  4, ^4,^4,^4,^4, 4, ^m^4,^4,  ^4  4,  , ^4,^4,^4  ^4  4,  ,  4, ^4,^4,  ^4  ^4,^4,  , ^4,^4,  4, ^4,  4, 4, ^4,  4, ^T^4, 4, ^4,^4,  w  O O O O  4,  6275000N  4,  4, 4,  BOWSER LAKE GROUP DEEP MARINE ^Felsic Marine Flow Dome Facies SEDIMENTARY FACIES ASSOCIATION ^Association. Turbidite deep marine sedimentary^Minor dacite dike. facies association. Rhyolite feeder flow dome facies. Argillite deep marine sedimentary facies association.  Argillite shallow marine sedimentary fades association.  Rhyolite/dacite internal facies.  Feldspathic sandstone marker bed containing abundant calcareous concretions. Argillite deep marine sedimentary facies association.  Chert & cherty silstone.  Rhyolite marine outer flow dome facies. 'Black matrix' rhyolite breccia.  Basalt pillows & pillow breccia.  Autobrecciated flow banded rhyolite.  UPPER HAZELTON GROUP MARINE VOLCANIC FACIES ASSOCIATION. Basalt Marine Pillow Volcanic Fades Association.  Basaltic subvolcanic intrusions. \  Strong K-silicate. sericitic, & silicic alteration; vein & disseminated Pb-Zn-Cu-Au-Ag mineralization.  Rhyolite peripheral flow dome facies.  Andesite proximal volcanic facies association.  Fault.  Rhyolite/dacite multiphase sub- ^I,.^Bedding, flow banding & volcanic intrusions.^ eutaxitic foliation.  Figure 2.5^Detailed facies interpretation map of the Mackay Zone rhyolite flow dome.  MACKAY ZONE RHYOLITE FLOW DOME X-SECTION A - A' 100m  E 1250m -  BOWSER LAKE GROUP DEEP MARINE SEDIMENTARY FACIES ASSOCIATION. Argillite deep marine sedimentary facies association. Turbidite deep marine sedimentary facies association.  ■  UPPER HAZELTON GROUP MARINE VOLCANIC FACIES ASSOCIATION. Basaltic subvolcanic intrusions. Minor basaltic dike. Felsic Marine Flow Dome Facies Association. Rhyolite/dacite internal flow dome facies.  Rhyolite marine outer flow dome facies. 'Black matrix' rhyolite breccia. 0 0  Autobrecciated flow banded rhyolite.  Rhyolite peripheral flow dome facies. Rhyolite/dacite multiphase subvolcanic intrusions. Argillite shallow marine sedimentary facies association. Andesite proximal volcanic facies association.  Figure 2.6^Interpreted cross-section A - A' across the Mackay Zone rhyolite flow dome.  Fault. K —silicate, sericitic, & silicic alteration; disseminated & vein Pb—Zn—Cu—Au—Ag mineralization. Rhyolite flow banding.  DDH.^Diamond drill hole.  !§?-- / ""  I  -  Figure 2.7^Detailed facies interpretation map of the 21 Zone rhyolite flow dome and area surrounding the 21 Zone precious and base metal deposit. Surface projections of the Eskay Creek 21 Zone represent approximate deposit boundaries (at a 0.4 ounces per tonne cutoff grade) of different ore types (Homestake pers. com ., 1993).  ti  0.  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group  27  a) Discordant relations between sedimentary bedding (outcrop, foreground-left; bedding is planar and crossbedded) and subvolcanic rhyolite dikes (outcrop, hinterground right). b) Altered feldspar phyric subvolcanic feeder dikes to the rhyolite flow domes; selected core from a 63 metre thick interval displaying variations in the alteration and vein stockwork styles and intensity; the top four core sections display dominant K-silicate alteration with minor base-metal sulphide and quartz-pyrite veins (note yellow sodium cobaltinitrate stain indicating presence of K-feldspar); the lowest core section displays dominant sericitic alteration with massive pyrite veins cut by latest milky quartz veins. c) Rhyolite flow dome peripheral facies (southern end of Mackay flow dome, intruded by a small basaltic dike); massive, unsorted, rhyolite breccias, comprising lithic and pumice clasts. d) Distal facies lapilli tuffs (from squashed camp anticline); lateral equivalent to rhyolite flow dome peripheral facies. Plate 2.2 Volcanic facies.  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group^  28  Similar relationships are observed at a smaller scale; the Mackay fault zone is intruded by a feldspar phyric dike 2 to 5 metres thick (figure 2.5), along strike the dike is massive and cryptocrystalline, and vents as a spine of massive flow banded and highly flow folded finely vesiculated devitrified rhyolite cutting through the peripheral facies of the Mackay Zone flow dome (plate 2.3d).  Rhyolite-dacite internal flow dome facies (figure 2.5, 2.6) is characterized by a lower zone of dominantly massive  dacite and rhyolite interdigitated with pseudopillowed rhyolite. Pseudopillows are the dominant morphological feature of the facies, they comprise elliptical and round, massive to weakly flow laminated rhyolite enveloped in zones of strongly flow banded rhyolite less than 25cm thick; flow banding anastomoses tangentially around the pseudopillows and is strongest in planes parallel to the long axis of the pseudopillows (plate 2.4a, b). Pseudopillow margins are sharp and brecciated, grading internally to weakly fractured and massive cores. The core of the pseudopillows are commonly grey, less siliceous and microcrystalline in thin section; outward the pillows become more siliceous and the brecciated margins and flow banded inter pseudopillow zones are white and cherty or intensely altered by sericite or chlorite, and finely vesicular in thin section. Pseudopillows range in size from 20cm to 2m, and display a general decrease in size transitionally to the outer facies. In lower exposures of the internal facies the inter-pseudopillow flow banded zones are thin (<5cm) and pseudopillows look like a stacked sequence of pillows (plate 2.4a, b).  Massive microcrystalline dacite occurs within the lower part of the Mackay adit flow dome, contact relationships are uncertain because it was observed in diamond drill core only. In core the upper and lower contacts are gradational from brecciated to fractured and massive; the contacts are possibly intrusive.  The transition from the internal to outer facies in the Mackay Zone dome is marked by local lenses of 'false pyroclastic textured' rhyolite (Allen, 1988). These zones comprise small lithophysae (<6mm diameter) rich perlitic cracked rhyolite modified by hydrothermal alteration; diffusion of hydrothermal fluids from the perlitic cracks into the glass leaves numerous residual rounded or cigar shaped 'kernals', imparting a fragmental appearance to massive flow banded rhyolite (plate 2.4c).  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group  ^  29  Rhyolite outer flow dome facies (figure 2.5, 2.6) is dominated by white autobrecciated, finely vesiculated, flow  banded rhyolite (plate 2.5a, b), but includes minor massive flow banded rhyolite, and pseudopillowed rhyolite. The autobreccias comprise clasts of flow banded, finely spherulitic and vesicular (vesicles less than 2mm) angular rhyolite clasts in a mineralogically identical spherulitic matrix; clasts are typically platy in appearance (rectangular in cross-section) with long axes parallel to internal flow banding; flow banding within adjacent clasts may be sub parallel or rotated. The transition from feeder to outer flow dome facies is gradational in the 21 Zone flow dome. In the Mackay flow dome the facies is similarly gradational from internal facies, autobrecciated flow banded rhyolite forms a thick (less than 50m) cap to internal facies.  'Black matrix breccia' forms a thin (less than 10m) carapace to the outer flow dome facies at the contact with overlying and adjacent cherty siltstone, siltstone and basalt. The 'black matrix breccia' comprises white, massive, flow banded, and autobrecciated, flow banded clasts in a black cherty matrix (plates 2.5c, d); clast fragmentation styles and the proportion of matrix are variable. The flow dome contacts are locally sutured and adjacent sedimentary rocks are locally brecciated (plate 2.6a).  The matrix is black chert at the base of the zone and becomes increasingly silty toward the outer contact with a coincident increase in the amount of matrix. In the basal zone clasts are angular with planar and concave fracture surfaces, matrix supported and form a jigsaw puzzle arrangement (plate 2.5c). Breccia clasts and underlying massive autobrecciated rhyolite are cut by fine vienlets infilled by the black chert matrix. Within the matrix are abundant fine rhyolite shards with concave fracture surfaces, the fine shards display segregation and concentration into laminae which anastomose around clasts; these textures suggest fluidisation of the matrix resulting in sorting and flow laminae. The outer contact of the breccia zone is increasingly matrix-dominated and locally contains rounded clasts with fine 1 to 2 centimetres wide, bleached, fine grained, chilled margins (plate 2.5d).  Fractures and discrete breccia zones less than 1 metre wide cut the autobrecciated flow banded rhyolite beneath the 'black matrix breccia' zone. Fracture fill and the breccia matrix comprises black to clear quartz; rhyolite clasts within the breccias are angular.  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group  ^  30  Plate 2.3 Volcanic facies. a) Rhyolite vent flow dome facies (21 Zone flow dome); massive flow banded rhyolite. b) Rhyolite vent flow dome facies; massive flow banded rhyolite displaying minor flow folds (sample A91-041), flow banding is defined by alternating laminae and bands of devitrified massive glass and finely vesiculated glass. c) Flow banded rhyolite spine cutting rhyolite flow dome peripheral facies rocks (Mackay flow dome); vent facies of the Mackay adit felsic dike (mineralization occurs at the contact and within the dike). d) Massive flow banded obsidian displaying weak devitrification (white spots and bands are isolated and crowded bands of spherulites respectively (least altered rhyolite); sample AJM-ISK90-257 from a massive rhyolite flow on the eastern limb of the Eskay Creek anticline, outside the hydrothermal alteration halo surrounding the 21 Zone deposit, and subvolcanic felsic rhyolite dome feeder dikes.  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group  ^  31  Plate 2.4 Volcanic facies. a) Rhyolite internal flow dome facies; pseudopillows of massive rhyolite with flow brecciated rims, enclosed in flow banded rhyolite (Mackay Zone flow dome, low in section). b) Rhyolite internal flow dome facies; small pseudopillows in flow banded rhyolite, the pillows are elongate parallel to the flow banding (Mackay Zone flow dome, high in section). c) Transition from rhyolite internal to outer flow dome facies; a massive lens of 'false pyroclastic textured' (Allen, 1988) devitrified rhyolite glass; the result of alteration along perlitic cracks, resulting in formation of kernels that look like lapilli in outcrop;. the 'kernels' are elongate parallel to weakly preserved flow banding, and locally are cored by lithophysae. d) Degassing structures (Emma flow dome); vuggy interconnected patches (black, elongate parallel to the pencil) in the upper sheet of a flow thrust.  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group  ^  32  Plate 2.5 Volcanic facies; rhyolite outer flow dome facies (Mackay Zone flow dome). a) Autobrecciated, flow banded, finely vesiculated rhyolite. b) Autobrecciated, flow banded, finely vesiculated rhyolite (sample E91021). c) 'Black matrix breccia'; angular rhyolite clasts with a black chert matrix; matrix supported, and with a jigsaw puzzle' arrangement. d) 'Black matrix breccia' (peperite); round rhyolite clasts with thin chilled margins (lighter in color), in a black chert matrix.  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group ^  33  Volcanic flow thrusts cut the upper section of the rhyolite internal and outer flow dome facies; thrusts are interpreted from rhyolite exposures that crop out as overhanging sheets with planar bases. Exposed thrust planes comprise brecciated and laminated rhyolite with the lamination subparallel to the thrust plane. Within the upper thrust sheet of a flow thrust exposed on the Emma flow dome, are irregular stockwork breccias and fracture controlled, interconnected, coarsely vuggy patches extending from the thrust plane at a high angle. The structures are analogous in appearance to degassing structures in tuffs, but are formed in flow brecciated rhyolite (plate 2.4d).  The facies associations defining the flow domes are laterally and vertically gradational from each other and interfinger. The dominant characteristics of the flow dome facies are a probable result of variation in the erupting magma's viscosity, syn to post crystallization flow stress, and magmatic degassing. Flow brecciation may result from stress due to continued flow of a viscous congealed lava, or stress imposed on the congealed viscous crust of a lava by internal flow. The congealed viscous lava may be deformed plastically and break into slabs and blocks, or it may fracture in a brittle manner if viscosity and strain rates are high. The brecciated lava may be free to tumble, be sintered together, or incorporated into non fragmented lava (Cas and Wright, 1988).  The amount of congealment of the flow, and deformation style are a function of temperature decrease radially from the vent and outward from the centre of the flow. Pseudopillows within the flow dome core are possibly the result of plastic deformation of congealed rhyolite lava elongated parallel to the flow of less viscous lava within the hotter internal facies of the domes. Massive flow banded and folded rhyolite of the feeder facies and autobrecciated flow banded rhyolite in the outer facies are the glassy 'cold' carapace to internal facies. Within the feeder facies the rhyolite was 'hot', less viscous and able to flow and deform plastically to form flow folds. The transition from feeder facies to outer facies is a function of increased congealment, higher viscosity and resultant brittle behavior with dropping temperature away from the vent, and superimposed stress due to flow away from the vent.  Lithophysae rich lenses at the internal to outer facies transition are suggested to be the result of degassing of the internal facies and entrapment beneath a solidified outer facies cap. Internal facies display no evidence of quench fragmentation and was probably protected by the quenched outer facies. Discrete hydrothermal breccia zones  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group  ^  34  cutting throughout the outer fades with a white or black cherty matrix are possibly the result of phreatomagmatic fragmentation or magmatic degassing.  The 'black matrix breccia' carapace to the outer facies are the probable result of numerous dynamic processes occurring on and in the dome carapaces. Variably sized and shaped, splintery and blocky rhyolite fragments with sharp edges and planar, concave or convex margins may be the result of quench shattering or phreatomagmatic fragmentation (Cas and Wright, 1988). Cas and Wright (1988) point out that in many situations both may occur simultaneously, and Pichler (1965) points out that for viscous felsic magmas, quench-fragmentation and autobrecciation may be interrelated and simultaneous.  Local occurrence of rounded rhyolite clasts with chilled margins in delaminated cherty siltstone in the outer zone of the 'black matrix breccia' are clear evidence of local intrusion or flow of lava over wet unconsolidated sediments forming peperites. The jigsaw puzzle, matrix supported 'black matrix breccia' may reflect endogenous growth of the domes, evidenced by intrusive contact relationships in the internal facies, resulting in extension of the outer facies and in-situ brecciation of the rhyolite. Discrete hydrothermal breccia zones cutting throughout the outer facies with a white or black cherty matrix are possibly the result of phreatomagmatic fragmentation due to the influx of sea water or wet unconsolidated sediments in the fractured outer carapace; or due to devolatilisation of the internal facies. The interaction of sea water or wet unconsolidated sediments with the heated internal facies may cause the fluidisation of the breccia matrix, resulting in the sorting and concentration of fine shards in laminae anastomosing around the breccia clasts; alternatively, sorting resulting in formation of the laminae could possibly be derived through volatile streaming from the degassing rhyolite.  Analogous zoning in the Inyo obsidian flow dome, reflecting cooling, degassing, and temperature-dependent yield strength are documented by Fink and Manley (1987).  5. Basalt marine vent volcanic facies association  Three basalt facies associations overly the rhyolite, fed by mafic dikes; mafic dikes intrude throughout the upper sedimentary and felsic volcanic rocks typically occupying structures intruded by early rhyolite dikes (figures 2.1,  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group^  35  2.4, 2.7). The dikes increase in abundance from the Coulter Creek thrust fault in the south to the anticlinal closure in the north. The abundance of dikes is reflected in an increased thickness of basalt facies rocks overlying the felsic volcanic facies. Shales intercalated with the basalts contain Aalenian (178-173.5 Ma) radiolaria (Nadaraju, 1993).  Minor basaltic dikes intruding the flow dome facies are thin (<4m), continuous and discontinuous lensoidal intrusive sheets. The lensoidal dikes intrude volcanic flow faults within the rhyolite flow domes.  Basalt marine pillow volcanic facies association extends from west of Mackay adit as a semi-continuous,  thickening sequence to the 21A Zone deposit in the north (figure 2.4). Pillow facies is dominated by pillowed and pillow brecciated flows (plates 2.6b, c) and includes minor massive flows, basalt hyaloclastite and hydroclastite and abundant interdigitated shale. Inter pillow and pillow breccia matrix comprises shale. The basalt occurs in immediate contact with rhyolite or seperated from rhyolite by thin (<1m thick) black chert or 2 to 10 metre thick argillite. Outcrop distributions of the pillowed basalts (figure 2.4) imply that they were draped over and around palaeotopographical highs represented by the thick rhyolite flow facies; the basalts erupted from minor mafic dikes intruding the rhyolite flow domes.  Basalt dikes to the north and northwest of the 21 Zone flow dome intrude structures parallel to the main rhyolite feeder dikes and cross-cutting structures. The felsic and mafic dikes, in conjunction with contact displacements of strata underlying the basalt facies, and linear mineralized brecciated zones of rhyolite extending through the 21A Zone, define a synvolcanic fault which is reflected by a coincident, abrupt, linear basalt facies transition from pillow to massive flow facies (figure 2.4 & 2.7).  Basalt marine massive flow volcanic facies association is dominated by massive fine to coarse grained basalt flows  intercalated with minor shale, pillowed and brecciated flows and hyaloclastite. Some of the coarse grained basalts may be intrusive, contact relationships were not observed. Some flow tops were observed immediately above the 21B Zone deposit, and display small pillows and ropy vesicular crusts.  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group^  36  Basalt marine flow breccia volcanic facies association comprises abundant brecciated basalt and lesser massive  basalt flows, intercalated with minor siltstone. Gradations from massive to brecciated basalts are observed in this zone; locally breccia clasts have vesicular margins. Consequently, brecciation is interpreted to be a result of flow autobrecciation.  Argillite subbasin fades; in the 21 Zone, argillite comprises a less than 20m thick mappable unit overlying  rhyolite and overlain by massive basalt (figure 2.7 & plate 2.6d). Argillite, cherty argillite or chert, typically less than five metres thick, occupies this stratigraphic position everywhere. The thick 21 Zone argillite interval is bounded to the west and east by synvolcanic faults, pinching out rapidly in the fault zone to the west. This thick interval of sedimentary rocks comprising carbonaceous shale, finely laminated siltstone, minor lithic wackes, and calcareous mudstone, hosts the 21A and 21B Zone massive and semi-massive finely bedded and graded sulphide and sulphosalt mineralization.  Throughout most of the sequence vesicles are less than 1 centimetre diameter and comprise less than 5% of the rock, occurring within thin pillow rinds or as thin flow top layers. Massive basalts immediately overlying the 21 Zone subbasin facies display a marked increase in size and abundance of vesicles and amygdules, ranging to 2 centimetres diameter and comprising up to 20% by volume of the rock (figure 2.8). Vesicles and amygdules in this zone display spherical and irregular outlines, occurring as discrete discordant patches and concordant layers throughout the flows, and are infilled by calcite and chlorite. The highly vesiculated zone is underlain by a basalt dike swarm defined by diamond drilling (Marsden, Homestake Canada Ltd., pers corn 1993). Rhyolite underlying adjacent less vesiculated areas contain rare mafic dikes.  Proximal massive flows grading laterally into pillowed flows have been observed by Cisineau and Dimroth, 1982, and Barager, 1984 and are attributed to the rate and volume of lava effusion (Walker, 1972:1973; Ballard et al., 1979). Massive subaqueous flows are simple flows and may be analogous to subaerial sheet-flood flows formed by brief voluminous eruptions with high rates of effusion (Gibson, 1992). Lateral transitions from massive to pillowed flows, and lateral and vertical transitions from massive to autobrecciated flows may be a function of increasing viscosity due to cooling and degassing or a product of lower effusion rates (Cas and Wright, 1988; Gibson, 1992).  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group  ^  37  Plate 2.6 Volcanic facies. a) Rhyolite outer flow dome facies; irregular contact between brecciated cherry siltstone and rhyolite 'black matrix breccia'. b) Basalt marine pillow volcanic facies association; pillow basalts interdigitated with argillite draped over the Mackay Zone flow dome. c) Basalt marine pillow volcanic facies association; pillow breccia with argillite matrix. d) Argillite subbasin facies; finely laminated, carbonaceous  argillite overlying rhyolite flow dome facies, approximately 100 metres from the 21 Zone deposit (not mineralized).  Volcanic and Sedimentary Fades of the Upper Hazelton Group  AMYGDALE — VESICLE SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION  38  21 Zone, Argillite Marine Subbasin Facies.  Minor (<5%) & >5mm diameter. Minor (<5%) & <5mm diameter.  nnrria Rhyolite Flow Dome.  Mackay Zone .Rhyolil Flow Dome.  Figure 2.8^Distribution, maximum size (length of the longest axis indicated by the number in circles), and  abundance of vesicles and amygdales in basalt flows and dikes, for the northern half of the Eskay Creek anticline.  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group ^  39  On the Eskay Creek anticline the transition from massive to pillowed basalt facies is interpreted to be a function of paleotopography, effusion rates and volume. The pillowed basalts originate from minor thin mafic dikes intruding the rhyolite flow domes, forming small discontinuous centres draped over steep sided felsic dome flow fronts and onto adjacent peripheral dome facies and onlapping sedimentary facies. The high proportion of massive flows over the argillite subbasin facies to the east, are interpreted to be due to voluminous eruptions fed by a mafic dike swarm through synvolcanic subbasin growth faults and ponding within the down thrown fault blocks.  Bowser Lake Group argillite deep marine sedimentary facies (figure 2.4)comprising argillite interbedded with  minor normally graded breccia to lithic wacke, overlie the basalt facies, and contain Bathonian (166.1-161.3 Ma) ammonites. The sedimentary rocks have fault and conformable onlapping contact relations with the Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. Modern rhyolite flow domes and composite volcanic vents commonly have high relief; high relief in the Eskay Creek flow dome facies is evident by the Mackay flow domes rapid transition from a 120 metre thick flow to peripheral facies less than 20m thick. Extreme palaeotopographical relief implies that the sedimentary rocks onlapping the volcanic sequence may appear highly disconformable and have contrasting ages without implying a major erosional surface. Micro- and macrofaunal assemblages collected from the contact range from Late Toarcian (approximately 180 Ma) to Bathonian (166.1 - 161.3 Ma; Nadaraju,1993).  2.4 REGIONAL FACIES RELATIONSHIPS  Three regional volcanic facies associations are defined, vent, proximal, and distal, and two sedimentary facies which are both concordant and discordant to the regional volcanic facies associations, shallow marine, and deep marine. Regional facies are illustrated in figures 2.1 and 2.2, the dominant characteristics of the facies are defined  in tables 2.1 and 2.2.  Polymodal vent and proximal volcanic facies associations defined on the Eskay Creek anticline have a northwesterly linear distribution parallel to comagmatic subvolcanic dikes and elongate intrusions. The polymodal vent facies is truncated to the south by the Coulter Creek thrust fault, and is exposed again to the southwest on the 'Squashed Camp anticline' in an approximate linear continuation, despite displacements along the Coulter Creek  Volcanic and Sedimentary Fades of the Upper Hazelton Group ^  40  thrust fault. The volcanic rocks are texturally, petrographically and chemically indistinguishable from the felsic volcanic rocks exposed on the western limb of the Eskay Creek anticline.  Structural complexity, rapid facies changes, flat bedding dips on the well exposed anticline axis and irregular topography result in an irregular outcrop distribution on the 'Squashed Camp anticline'. The bedding dips steeply to the east and west on the respective anticline limbs, where bedding is generally parallel to the slope. Small offsets define numerous fault blocks throughout the anticline, and the fault zones are commonly intruded by minor felsic and mafic dikes.  Emplacement units in the proximal and distal facies of the Upper Hazelton Group volcanic facies are thin and are consequently undifferentiatedand and treated as facies associations in the regional interpretation. Within individual fault blocks a general stratigraphy consistent with that exposed on the Eskay Creek anticline is present, andesite facies  -  sedimentary fades felsic fades -  -  sedimentary facies  -  basalt facies  -  sedimentary facies, however  individual intervals may be thin or not present (i.e. rhyolite lapilli tuffs 0 to 2m thick). Ammonites from Bowser Lake Group argillites overlying basalt volcanic facies southwest of Tom Mackay lake are Bathonian (166.1-161.3 Ma), an age consistent with the volcanic interval being laterally equivalent to the basalt volcanic facies at Eskay Creek.  Volcanic stratigraphic relationships are poorly defined in the polymodal vent volcanic facies to the south. Two styles of vents are recognized; rhyolite flow dome vent facies to the north and a polymodal composite vent to the south. Rhyolite flow dome facies display internal outer and peripheral facies relationships consistent with those displayed by well exposed domes on the western limb of the Eskay Creek anticline. A composite vent is defined to the south by a thickening volcanic pile radiating from a central point, comprising andesite flows and breccia, overlain dominantly by dacite flows. Within the vent facies, the dacite flows are extremely amygdaloidal, and the core of the vent is intruded by massive feldspar and hornblende phyric andesite. The two vent styles maintain similar spatial and compositional relationships, as exposed in subvolcanic intrusions and comagmatic volcanic rocks on the Eskay Creek anticline.  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group ^  41  On the 'Squashed Camp anticline' the vent facies grade rapidly from south to north to polymodal marine proximal and distal volcanic facies (figure 2.1). Diagnostic features defining the facies transitions are listed in table 2.2. The  most striking lateral variation is in the felsic volcanic rocks which define a semicontinuous marker horizon. The rhyolite reaches a maximum thickness of 10 metres in the proximal facies and is typically 1-2 metres thick in the distal facies. It comprises weakly stratified lapilli tuffs locally overlain by fine crystal vitric tuffs. Throughout the proximal and distal facies are minor 1 meter thick felsic dikes, rare occurrences of peperite and small flow domes (typically less than 10 metre in diameter) with brecciated margins of rhyolite clasts in cherty siltstone matrix (hyaloclastite). The transition from proximal to distal facies is also strongly reflected by a transition from 10 to 15 meter thick massive basalt flows which are locally columnar jointed, to autobrecciated flows less than ten metres thick.  Vent and proximal facies contain rare sedimentary rock interbeds. The transition to distal volcanic facies is concomitant with an increasing interdigitated sedimentary rock component. Sedimentary rocks immediately underlying the rhyolite flow dome facies on the western limb of the Eskay Creek anticline display a transition from shallow to deep marine sedimentary facies transition from south to north, without variation in the volcanic facies. In the Eskay Creek anticline the upper section of the oldest sedimentary rocks exposed in the core of the anticline are shallow marine facies.  To the north and west, the proximal volcanic facies are both in fault contact and interfinger concordantly with deep marine sedimentary facies of the Bowser Lake Group that occupy the Mackay syncline and are bound to the west  and east by the Eskay Creek and Squashed Camp anticlines respectively (figure 2.2). Argillite deep marine sedimentary facies is dominant, comprising a thick monotonous sequences of finely laminated siltstone with rare  interbeds of sandstone, normally graded conglomerate to lithic sandstone beds less than lm thick, and calcareous siltstone.  Turbidite deep marine sedimentary facies is arealy restricted, occurring as three distinct coarse elongate clastic  wedges thinning toward, and interfingering with, argillite facies to the north and northwest (figure 2.2), and has conformable and faulted contact relations. The thickest section of the most western exposed wedge of turbidites is  Volcanic and Sedimentary Facies of the Upper Hazelton Group  ^  42  bound to the east by the Argillite Creek fault. The facies are dominated by thick normally graded conglomerate and breccia to lithic wacke and sandstone beds up to 10 metres thick, intrebedded with abundant finely laminated siltstone. Conglomerate clasts and lithic fragments within the beds are heterolithic, comprising well rounded sedimentary and felsic to mafic volcanic clasts. Conglomerates at the base of each bed contain abundant carbonaceous siltstone rip up clasts; some display strong internal soft sediment deformation and attenuation parallel to bedding. Argillites immediately underlying coarse clastic beds typically have scoured upper contacts.  The distribution, contact relations and nature of the coarse clastic deposits are consistent with derivation as turbidity currents derived from the south, channelised within elongate, possibly fault-bound, troughs. Despite folding, the troughs are clearly reflected in the faulted stepped upper contact of the Hazelton Group. North-west of the vent facies on the Squashed Camp anticline, sedimentary facies interbedded with proximal facies volcanic rocks in a 'down dropped' block are deep marine. In contrast, in the adjacent 'up thrown' block to the northwest, the interbedded sedimentary rocks are shallow marine facies (figure 2.2). These facies relationships suggest that block faulting, resulting in the formation of grabens, occurred during Hazelton Group deposition (i.e.. synvolcanic). The graben immediately north and west of the vent facies on the Squashed Camp anticline was subsequently folded; a lateral extension of the graben to the north, possibly correlates with Hazelton Group rocks underlying the eastern turbidite filled trough on the Mackay anticline.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession^  43  CHAPTER 3  PETROLOGY OF THE UPPER HAZELTON GROUP VOLCANIC SUCCESSION  3.1 INTRODUCTION  Surface grab and diamond drill core rock samples were collected, thin sectioned, detailed petrographic descriptions made, and submitted for whole rock chemical analysis. Samples were collected by the author and MDRU coworkers; a data base of 300 whole rock analyses has been established. In the data base are data representing all the volcanic lithologies within the authors study area; for the regionally extensive felsic and mafic intervals which host the 21 Zone deposit, suites of least to intensely altered rocks are well represented. Careful sample collection and preparation procedures were followed (Appendix B). Analyses were carried out mostly at X-Ray Assay Laboratories using their MER, research grade, analytical package (Appendix B, table B.1). Standards and duplicates were submitted with each sample batch (Appendix B for description; summary statistical data for the standards is presented in table B.2).  The data are used to establish primary igneous features, and attempt to determine if the alteration and mineralization is linked to igneous processes. The approach taken was:  1 To establish a least altered suite of rocks on petrographic criteria; describe and summarize the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of the least altered rocks; assess if the volcanic rocks are potentially cogenetic; and, if so, establish geochemical fractionation trends; and,  2 Establish the timing, mineralogy, spatial distribution and chemical signatures (element losses and gains) of alteration within the igneous rock suite.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession  ^  44  Through comparison of the igneous fractionation trends and alteration signatures, a statement of the ability to generate the Eskay Creek 21 Zone mineralizing system is possible. All aspects of the data cannot be assessed in this thesis, but a framework is established for ongoing research by the author and MDRU coworkers.  3.2 PETROGRAPHIC ALTERATION INDEX  The petrographic character of the Upper Hazelton Group igneous lithologies reflects magmatic processes, late magmatic vapor phase crystallization and superimposed ubiquitous hydrothermal alteration. To determine the variation in primary and secondary mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the sequence, a simple petrographic alteration index (A.I.) was applied to subset samples into suites reflecting varying degrees of alteration. The A.I. is constructed to reflect the degree of physical modification to the sample, and does not indicate the alteration assemblage; the index constructed in this way enables comparison of the degree of alteration to lithologies with contrasting primary compositions which may as a result have similarly contrasting alteration assemblages.  The A.I. is a scale of 0 to 5 based on the degree of preservation of primary textures and minerals, and the presence of veining or open space fill. The alteration index scale is:  Criteria  ^  Scale  Unaltered  Primary textures & minerals only  ^  0  Least Altered  Primary textures, partial replacement of primary mafic minerals and glass  ^  1  Moderately Altered  Primary textures, complete replacement of primary mafic minerals and glass  ^  2  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession ^ Criteria^  45 Scale  Strongly Altered  Partial preservation of primary textures (relicts of primary minerals 'stable' in the coexisting alteration assemblage, i.e. quartz phenocrysts and albite plagioclase rims in quartz, k-feldspar, albite alteration assemblages)^  3  Intensely Altered  Complete recrystallization or replacement, fine grained, no primary textures preserved ^4 Complete recrystallization, medium grained, triple point grain junctions common, veined^5  Samples displaying veining and extensive open space fill shift up the scale by one.  The subsequent petrographic descriptions based on 208 thin sectioned samples (Appendix B), describe the volcanic rocks in terms of the A.I. subdivisions, and are tabulated for each volcanic lithology. Primary mineralogical assemblages are interpreted from least altered rocks.  3.3 ANDESITE FACIES 3.3.1 PRIMARY MINERALOGY  Andesite facies include minor massive flows but are dominated by thick sequences of monolithic breccias and lapilli tuffs, displaying partial reworking at the top of the sequence. The flows, clasts and matrix within the unreworked fragmental deposits are compositionally similar, varying primarily in texture. Massive flows and breccia clasts vary from plagioclase and amphibole phyric and trachytic textured, to coarsely vesicular pumice; in the breccia matrix phenocrysts are identical but fragmented.  Plagioclase crystals vary and commonly have a bimodal size distribution, with coarse plagioclase (7 - 10 millimetre long laths) complexly zoned from calcic cores (inferred by preferential replacement by calcite, chlorite or sericite of crystal cores) to albitic rims (commonly sharply bounded). Plagioclase laths less than 2 millimetre long ranging from phenocrysts to fine microlites are more albitic in composition. Amphiboles are completely replaced by  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession^  46  secondary minerals (predominantly chlorite), but retain their sub- to euhedral form; biotite is similarly replaced; minor fine euhedral apatite crystals are disseminated within biotite. Sub- to euhedral magnetite is ubiquitous, disseminated throughout the matrix.  Mode %^Size Range (mm)  Mineral^ Phenocrysts  Plagioclase^40 - 65^< 10 Amphibole^3 - 10^< 2 Mica (Biotite?)^Trace^< 1 Magnetite^< 2^< 0.5 Apatite^ Trace^< 0.1 Groundmass  Glass^  5 50 -  3.3.2 ALTERATION MINERALOGY  Moderately Altered  Andesite facies rocks display a regional pervasive alteration and are dominantly in the moderate alteration category. Intense alteration, dominated by an assemblage quartz, sericite, pyrite, ± potassium feldspar occurs, locally in fault zones intruded by minor felsic dikes and at the contact of larger felsic intrusions, where contact relations are equivocal due to the intense alteration; precursors consequently can not be determined confidently by field relations.  The degree of alteration throughout the andesite facies rocks is erratic due to the variability in the andesite breccias and tuffs (i.e. pumice to holocrystalline clasts).  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession ^  47  Alteration Assemblage: chlorite, sericite, ± pyrite, calcite. Phenocrysts  Plagioclase^Cores are partially to completely replaced by massive or disseminated fibrous aggregates of sericite and massive chlorite, where replacement commonly occurs as sharply bounded zones with relatively unaltered phenocryst cores and rims. Calcite also locally occurs as patchy replacement of plagioclase. Alteration in larger phenocrysts is typically pervasive with only thin ragged albite rims preserved. Chlorite in phenocrysts varies but commonly displays anomalous Berlin blue interference colors (i.e. penninite) in cross polarized light (C.P.L.). Amphibole^Pseudomorphed by chlorite, dominantly penninite, and containing minor fine opaque oxides. Apatite^Unaltered. Magnetite^Minor exsolution of ilmenite, and locally replaced by pyrite. Groundmass  Glass^Altered to chlorite, dominantly penninite; minor calcite occurs interstitially with chlorite.  3.4 ESKAY PORPHYRY 3.4.1 PRIMARY MINERALOGY  The Eskay Porphyry comprises phenocrysts of plagioclase, amphibole, biotite and sphene, and rare megacrysts of potassium feldspar in a fine grained (<80 microns) groundmass of quartz, plagioclase and potassium feldspar constituting 50 - 70 % of the rock. Plagioclase is commonly of two varieties: 1) sub- and euhedral, medium grained laths less than 4 millimeters long displaying well developed polysynthetic twinning and zoning to sodic rims that are sharply bounded in some cases (more calcic cores are interpreted by the preferential partial alteration of plagioclase cores); and, 2) sub- to euhedral, small less than 1 millimeter long albite phenocrysts. Potassium feldspar is rare occuring as local euhedral phenocrysts up to 1.2 mm long, in places enclosing small plagioclase and rare amphibole phenocrysts.  Amphibole in all samples is completely replaced by secondary minerals but retains sub- to euhedral phenocyrst outlines. Biotite is similarly pseudomorphed, but partially preserved as platey phenocrysts with chloritised rims and  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession ^  48  cleavage planes in one sample (AJM-ISK90-228). Minor fine euhedral apatite, zircon and sphene are disseminated throughout the matrix as fine sub- and euhedral phenocrysts and occur as fine grained clusters within amphibole and biotite. Sphene is altered completely but sub- and euhedral acute rhombic cross-sections of phenocrysts are preserved by fine trails of rutile.  Mode Size Range (mm)  Mineral Phenocrysts  Plagioclase^15 -^40 K-feldspar (rare)^0 - 5  0.5 - 4 8-12  Amphibole^5 - 10  0.2 - 4  <5  0.1 - 1  Mica (Biotite?)^< 2  1-3  <1  0.5 - 1  Apatite^ Trace  0.5  Zircon^ Trace  0.2  Quartz^  Sphene^  Groundmass  Quartz, Plagioclase, K-feldspar ^50 - 70  0.1  3.4.2 ALTERATION MINERALOGY  Alteration is pervasive in the Eskay porphyry, the most intense alteration occurs at the intrusion contacts, especially where intersected by faults.  Least Altered  Alteration within least altered rocks is restricted largely to the groundmass and ferromagnesian minerals.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession ^  49  Alteration Assemblage: Chlorite, potassium feldspar, sericite, albite, ± pyrite, calcite. Phenocrysts  Plagioclase^Minor patchy calcite replacement, albitisation and sericitisation of phenocryst cores. Amphibole^Completely pseudomorphed by green, weakly pleochroic chlorite (P.P.L.) and minor calcite, quartz, sericite and opaque oxides. Opaque oxides commonly define fine trails preserving amphibole 120° cleavage. K-feldspar^Minor fine disseminated sericite and fine fluid inclusions. Biotite^Completely replaced by chlorite; one exception (AJM-ISK90-228) where biotite is preserved in the core of some biotite flakes, with chlorite replacing the rims and along cleavages. Sphene^Replaced by rutile, calcite and chlorite, acute rhombic cross sections well preserved. Groundmass^A fine grained (<80 microns) undifferentiable mosaic of quartz, plagioclase and potassium  feldspar. Fine disseminated alteration minerals chlorite, sericite, calcite, pyrite are obviously secondary, what proportion of the main groundmass constituents are primary is indeterminable; however, as quartz, plagioclase and potassium feldspar replace phenocrysts, occur in veins, and in the case of K-feldspar increases in abundance with increasing alteration index (except when sericite is the dominant potassic mineral present), some proportion of these minerals are a result of alteration. Minor disseminated euhedral pyrite is common  Veining: two distinct minor fracture vein sets are recognized. The paragenetic sequence defined by cross-cutting  relations is: 1) Quartz, albite ± rare potassium feldspar veinlets. Albite occurs as fine subhedral laths dominantly radiating from vein margins, and albite and k-feldspar occur as 'connectors' optically continuous with fractured primary plagioclase and potassium feldspar phenocrysts cut by veinlets. The vein-feldspars are clear in plane polarized light (P.P.L.), whereas primary phenocrysts have a dusty appearance due to submicroscopic alteration minerals and abundant fine fluid inclusions. 2) Thin fracture veinlets of sericite cut the quartz + feldspar veinlets and disseminated euhedral pyrite.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession^  50  Moderately Altered Moderately altered rocks have similar alteration assemblages to least altered, but with a higher degree of replacement and veining. Phenocrysts  Plagioclase^Alteration assemblage as per least altered rocks, replacement varies from 10 to 80 %. Cores of plagioclase commonly display massive sericite replacement or zones of sericite replacement with sharp boundaries (probably replacing more calcic zones), albite rims are unaltered. Albitised plagioclase has a perthitic and antiperthitic appearance. Amphibole^Replaced by chlorite and quartz with fine inclusion trails of opaque oxides, primary inclusions of apatite and zircon are preserved. Chlorite (pennenite) is pale green, weakly pleochroic (P.P.L.) with anomalous Berlin blue birefringence (C.P.L.). K-feldspar^Minor fine disseminated sericite and fine fluid inclusions. Biotite^Replaced by chlorite (penninite) or muscovite. Sphene^Replaced by fine opaque oxides and calcite, and ±pyrite, rhombic outlines well preserved by fine rutile inclusion trails. Apatite^Unaltered. Zircon^Unaltered. Groundmass^Abundant disseminated and massive patchy potassium feldspar, chlorite and sericite. Potassium  feldspar abundance is commonly high (up to 90 % of the rock), and sericite increases at the expense of potassium feldspar.  Veining: minor veinlets, as per least altered.  Strongly Altered  Alteration is pervasive, primary minerals are replaced or recrystallized, and veining is common.  Alteration assemblage: quartz, sericite, chlorite, rutile, albite, pyrite, ± potassium feldspar.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession  ^  51  Phenocrysts  Plagioclase^Variable alteration from 10 to 100 %, by albite, quartz, sericite ± potassium feldspar; plagioclase laths have ragged replaced boundaries or unaltered albite rims with sharp boundaries. Plagioclase contain fine tabular sub- to euhedral rutile crystals disseminated throughout, rutile is more abundant within extensively sericite altered laths, typically concentrated in alteration fronts and ultimately occurring in high concentrations within unaltered albite phenocryst rims where the remainder of the crystal is replaced. K-feldspar^'Antiperthitic' with fine intergrowths of albite, and largely replaced by sericite. Amphiboles^Poorly preserved primary crystal outlines or 'ghosts', primarily replaced by medium grained mosaics of quartz and minor chlorite; opaque oxides in the amphiboles are largely replaced by pyrite, and in some instances amphiboles are only interpretable based on small clusters of fine opaque oxide, pyrite, and primary apatite and zircon. Biotite^Ragged muscovite flakes may be after biotite. Sphene^Complete replacement by quartz, pyrite and rutile. Apatite^Unaltered. Zircon^Unaltered. Groundmass^Alteration varies from quartz, sericite, and pyrite ± potassium feldspar, rutile to massive sericite  and pyrite. Pyrite abundance increases with increasing sericite.  Veining: two dominant vein sets are recognized. The paragenetic sequence defined by cross-cutting relations is:  1) quartz, albite ± potassium feldspar veinlets; commonly forming optically continuous 'connectors' between plagioclase phenocrysts. Where the veins intersect potassium feldspar phenocrysts, the veins are filled by potassium feldspar and alternate to plagioclase on intersecting plagioclase laths enclosed by the potassium feldspar. 2) quartz and calcite veinlets.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession ^  52  Intensely Altered The porphyry cannot be recognized as such except through field relations because it is 90 to 100% replaced, recrystallized, and intensely veined; intensely altered rocks contains abundant vein-hosted and disseminated sulphides, dominantly pyrite but including galena, chalcopyrite and sphalerite in the Porphyry Zone.  Alteration Assemblage: quartz, pyrite, ± potassium feldspar, albite, sericite, chlorite.  Plagioclase^0 to 10 % relict patches and rims defining 'ghost' outlines of phenocrysts. Amphibole^Recognizable by analogy only, as coarse quartz mosaics containing fine grained clusters of apatite and zircon. Groundmass^Dominated by medium grained mosaics of quartz, containing abundant disseminated sub- to  euhedral pyrite and disseminated rutile.  Veining: dominated by quartz and pyrite veins.  3.5 SUBVOLCANIC RHYOLITE AND DACITE DIKES 3.5.1 PRIMARY MINERALOGY  Dike feeders to the rhyolite flow domes on the western limb of the Eskay Creek anticline are variable, multiphase intrusions, with internal intrusive contact relations. The dikes vary from; massive cryptocrystalline rhyolite at high stratigraphic levels (at the base of feeder facies in the flow domes) containing rare cristobalite phenocrysts, and occasionally displaying weak flow banding, to massive porphyry with up to 40% phenocrysts at deeper stratigraphic levels.  The porphyritic dikes are mineralogically similar to the Eskay Porphyry, comprising phenocrysts of plagioclase, amphibole, biotite, sphene, in a fine groundmass of cryptocrystalline quartz, plagioclase and potassium feldspar and containing fine sub-, and euhedral zircon and apatite disseminated in the groundmass and clustered within amphibole phenocrysts. Sporadic plagioclase phenocrysts, and rare samples containing fine plagioclase microlites in the groundmass display moderate flow alignment.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession ^  53  Amphibole is replaced completely by secondary minerals in all samples, but were sub- to euhedral phenocrysts. Biotite are similarly altered, and are interpreted from rare fine mica flakes pseudomorphed by chlorite.  Mode  Mineral  Rhyolite  Dacite  Size Range (mm)  Size Range (mm)  Phenocrysts  15 - 40 0.5 - 5  Plagioclase Quartz  Trace^0.2  Tr. - 5 0.1 - 1  Mica (biotite?)  Trace  Sphene  Trace  1-3  Zircon  Trace  Trace  <0.1  Apatite  Trae  Trace  <0.1  Groundmass  quartz, feldspar  3.5.2 ALTERATION MINERALOGY  The felsic dikes are enveloped in an intense alteration zone extending from Eskay Creek in the north to the Coulter Creek thrust fault in the south (figure 2.2, 2 4). Historical mine workings (Ema adit, Mackay adit, Sib Lake adit) and numerous prospects occur along the entire strike length of the dikes; mineralization is hosted by the dikes and within the alteration envelope in adjacent lithologies.  Moderately Altered  The 'least altered' dikes are moderately altered and preserved primary textures are restricted to moderately altered plagioclase and local pseudomorphed amphibole phenocrysts.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession^  54  Alteration assemblage: quartz, potassium feldspar, sericite, pyrite, albite, rutile, ± chlorite. Phenocrysts  Plagioclase^Phenocrysts are clearly visible in hand specimen, less altered phenocrysts are commonly perthitic in appearance with patchy and laminar replacement by potassium feldspar, and potassium feldspar exsolution laminar are commonly replaced by sericite. Alternatively, phenocrysts display 10 - 80 % replacement of more calcic cores by sericite ± pyrite, rutile, with rutile clustered as tabular euhedral crystals at the sericite alteration front within albite. Amphibole^Pseudomorphed by quartz, sericite, fine opaque oxides ± pyrite; dominant quartz replacement is characterized by equigranular quartz mosaics, slightly coarser than the groundmass containing fine grained clusters of primary apatite and zircon. Mica^Rare coarse muscovite; platey muscovite flakes with ragged crystal edges, may be primary or a replacement of biotite (by analogy with least to strongly altered transition of chlorite to muscovite replacement of biotite observed in the Eskay Porphyry). Sphene^Rare acute rhombic crystal 'ghosts' replaced by quartz and rutile. Apatite^Unaltered. Zircon^Unaltered. Groundmass The groundmass is a fine grained (5 - 80 microns) indistinct aphanitic mosaic of quartz, albite,  potassium feldspar, sericite and fine to medium grained euhedral pyrite; the proportion of primary versus secondary silicate minerals is indeterminable. Pyrite disseminated throughout the  groundmass is rimmed by sericite and fibrous quartz within pressure shadows.  Veining: three distinct vein sets occur throughout; the paragenetic sequence defined by cross-cutting relationships  is: 1) quartz and albite veinlets; albite occurs as fine subhedral laths radiating from vein margins and occasionally within the core of veins, or, as patches or 'connectors' optically continuous with fractured phenocrysts cut by the veins. Albite in the veins is clear in plane polarized light, whereas primary phenocrysts are dusty in appearance due to fine disseminated sericite alteration and abundant fine fluid inclusions; 2) quartz and calcite veinlets, and,  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession^  55  3) quartz, sericite, pyrite veinlets ± rutile, and abundant rutile and pyrite in the vein selvages.  Strongly Altered The alteration mineral assemblage is similar to the moderately altered areas, varying primarily in the chlorite species, degree of replacement, and grain size (degree of crystallinity) of the groundmass (plate 3. la).  Alteration assemblage: quartz, sericite, potassium feldspar, pyrite, rutile, ± chlorite (penninite). Phenocrysts  Plagioclase^Alteration as per least altered; replacement is typically more pervasive (20 to 80 %), commonly plagioclase cores are completely replaced by sericite leaving thin sharply bounded rims of albite containing high concentrations of euhedral tabular secondary rutile. Rare green, pleochroic (P.P.L) chlorite (penninite) with anomalous Berlin blue interference colors (C.P.L.) is disseminated in plagioclase. Sericite locally rims and partially replaces chlorite. Amphibole^Rare phenocryst ghosts, primarily replaced by equigranular mosaics of quartz, distinguishable primarily by fine grained clusters of apatite, zircon ± pyrite. Groundmass^Comprised dominantly of a fine grained mosaic of quartz, sericite, albite, pyrite ± potassium  feldspar, and chlorite; grainsize is generally coarser than moderately altered areas (20 to 200 microns) and quartz and feldspar display triple point junction grain boundaries. Veining: veins are abundant and unchanged from moderately altered rocks.  Intensely Altered Primary minerals are completely replaced or recrystallized. The alteration assemblage is dominated by quartz and sericite, and secondary rutile is notably absent (plate 3.1b). Alteration assemblage: quartz, sericite, pyrite, albite. Phenocryst  Plagioclase^Phenocrysts laths are rarely visible as 'ghosts' in hand specimen, and visible in thin section as relict patches of albite or albite rims with a 'fragmental' texture due to fine sericite fracture stockworks.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession ^  56  Plate 3.1 Subvolcanic felsic flow dome feeder dikes (western limb of the Eskay Creek anticline). a)  Strongly altered (A.L=3) plagioclase phyric felsic dike; primary amphibole and mica is completely replaced, and plagioclase is partially replaced (particularly calcic cores of phenocrysts, whereas albite rims are relatively unaltered). The fine dark mineral disseminated and concentrated in the plagioclase, is rutile. The groundmass is cryptocrystalline quartz, sericite and alkali feldspar. (E92-146; C.P.L., field of view 2.6mm). b) Intensely altered (A.I.=4) plagioclase phyric felsic dike; phenocrysts are completely replaced or recrystallized with exception of minor plagioclase (albite), and the rock is cut by coarse quartz + albite veins; the groundmass is a fine mosaic of quartz, alkali feldspar, and sericite. Note the large simply twinned vein albite (centre) which is optically continuous with a thinner primary phenocryst in the host rock; in P.P.L. the primary phenocryst has a dusty appearance due to fine sericite and fluid inclusions; vein feldspar is clear in P.P.L. (S92-119; C.P.L., field of view 2.6mm).  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession^  57  Groundmass^Comprises dominantly fine grained mosaics of quartz and albite, and interstitial stockworks of  massive cryptocrystalline sericite; sericite commonly defines a weak stockwork cut by the vein set present.  Veining: Abundant veining occurs throughout. Two distinct vein sets are recognized; the paragenetic sequence  defined by cross-cutting relations is: 1) quartz and albite veinlets (plate 3.1b); veins may be dominated by albite commonly occurring as connectors optically continuous with primary plagioclase phenocrysts largely replaced by sericite; and, 2) quartz, minor epidote ± calcite.  In outcrop and diamond drill core from the Mackay Zone, distinct vein sets were observed within strong and intensely altered felsic dikes and mudstones and shales at the dike contacts. A paragenetic sequence among the base metal sulphide mineralized veins is recognized, and sulphides display zoning within the veins. The paragenetic sequence and sulphide zoning patterns are: la) quartz, chalcopyrite veinlets; lb) quartz, sphalerite and chalcopyrite veins; where veins are zoned from chalcopyrite to sphalerite inwards, and sphalerite is pale honey-brown; 2) quartz, sphalerite ± galena veins; where sphalerite is zoned from dark brown cores to pale honey brown cores and is locally rimmed by galena; 3) quartz, sphalerite, and pyrite veins; where pyrite rims sphalerite or occurs as isolated patches; 4) quartz and pyrite veins; and, 5) milky quartz ± calcite veins. Early base metal sulphide veins both within the shales and felsic dikes display intense potassium feldspar + quartz, ± sericite alteration envelopes to several centimetre wide and rare narrow intensely silicified zones immediately adjacent to the veins. Quartz ± pyrite or calcite are more abundant in broad zones dominated by intense silicification.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession  ^  58  3.6 RHYOLITE AND DACITE FACIES 3.6.1 PRIMARY MINERALOGY  Dacite and rhyolite facies rocks display a high degree of textural variation and little mineralogical variation. Primary textures within the felsic volcanic rocks vary from block, breccia and lapilli pumaceous pyroclastic rocks to massive flows of flow banded and autobrecciated obsidian (devitrified) with finely vesicular laminae and massive, finely scoreaceous layers. Post eruptive alteration is characterized by devitrification with associated hydrothermal alteration and pronounced open space fill within highly porous, vesiculated volcanic rocks. Due to the variability of the primary volcanic rocks, sampling and the subsequent petrographic descriptions are focused on massive flows, with exception of distal facies rocks where felsic flows are rare.  The primary mineralogy of the felsic volcanic rocks is dominated by glass, both within flows and in pyroclastic rocks, the presence of glass is interpreted on the basis of textural criteria, however weakly devitrified black obsidian is preserved as isolated patches in otherwise altered flows at locations distant from the Eskay Creek deposit; for example, in flows on the eastern limb of the Eskay Creek anticline, and at the base of distal vitric lapilli tuffs on the Squashed Camp anticline (figure 2.2). Within weakly devitrified patches of black obsidian are abundant fine indistinguishable opaque inclusions and fine fluid inclusions. Phenocrysts within the flow and pyroclastic rocks are rare, dominated by minor fine euhedral quartz phenocrysts and rare fine plagioclase, amphibole and biotite phenocrysts. Quartz phenocrysts are dominantly cristobalite pseudomorphs with cubic outlines.  Subdivision of the rhyolites and dacite in hand specimen and thin section by petrographic criteria is not possible because devitrified glass is the dominant rock forming component; in hand specimen the dacite locally appears slightly less siliceous; however, hydrothermal alteration heightens difficulties in subdivision. In thin section and rarely visible in hand specimen, the dacite contains abundant fine plagioclase microlites and minor plagioclase, quartz and amphibole phenocrysts.  59  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession  Mode Mineral  %  Size Range (mm)  %^Size Range (mm) Docile  Rhyolite Phenocrysts  2-4  Plagioclase  Rare  <2  Trace - 15  Quartz  <1  <1  <1  Amphibole  Trace  <1  Trace  .1  Biotite  Trace  <1  Trace  <1  Zircon  Trace  .401..t,  Trace  540  Apatite  Trace  5401.1,  Trace  540  1  Groundmass  Glass  <99  <99  Plagioclase microlites  <40  <80ja  3.6.2 ALTERATION MINERALOGY  Felsic volcanic rocks are altered pervasively, most intensely in feeder facies and outer facies of the rhyolite flow domes and within synvolcanic fault zones.  Least Altered  Least altered samples occur as isolated patches of weakly devitrified glass in otherwise altered flows (plate 3.2a, b) or tuffs.  Alteration Assemblage: quartz (cristobalite, tridymite ?), albite, potassium feldspar, sericite, chlorite, calcite,  pyrite. Phenocrysts  Amphibole^Plagioclase pseudomorphs are rare, replaced by quartz, chlorite and opaques.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession^  60  Quartz^Unaltered with sharp crystal boundaries, and recrystallized to quartz mosaics but maintaining phenocryst outlines. Plagioclase^Minor patchy albitisation, containing minor disseminated sericite. Groundmass  Glass^In flow banded rhyolite, the most striking devitrification feature is the development of less than 5 millimeter diameter spherulites (plate 3.2a, b), appearing in hand specimen as isolated white spheres within black flow laminated matrix and as white flow bands 0.5 mm to 2 cm thick comprising crowded overlapping spherulites in a fine mosaic of anhedral quartz, alkali-feldspar and minor sericite, chlorite and fine euhedral pyrite. Visible in thin section, the white spherulitic devitified bands alternate and cluster with finely vesiculated laminae containing abundant spherical to lenticular vesicles elongated parallel to the flow banding. The spherulites consist of spherical radiating clusters of quartz (cristobalite?), potassium feldspar and albite.  Thick bleached bands up to 2 centimeters thick, are zones dominated by finely vesiculated laminae (scoreaceous bands). Black relatively undevitrified areas contain isolated disseminated fine spherulites, the black color in hand specimen reflects numerous fine (<51.1) opaque inclusions and bubbles, imparting the black color in hand specimen. Devitrification is at the expense of the inclusions, and spherulites and devitified glassy laminae associated with vesiculated bands contain abundant potassium feldspar.  Within dacite, the glass displays analogous devitrification features, minor plagioclase phenocrysts and abundant fine plagioclase microlites are well preserved, with minor replacement by calcite and quartz. Early alteration along perlitic cracks is well represented in lithophysae-rich dacite flows on the eastern limb of the Eskay Creek anticline; perlitic cracks are lined by calcite or quartz with narrow (< 2 millimetres) recrystallized selvages of quartz, feldspar ± pyrite, in which primary plagioclase microlites are not discernible. In the cores of perlitic crack bounded zones, primary textures are well preserved; fine plagioclase microlites in a fine matrix of quartz,  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession^  61  feldspar, opaque minerals ± chlorite. Perlitic cracks are not recognized in any rhyolite samples in this alteration category.  In distal tuffs, the weakly devitrified glass is also black in hand specimen, in thin section the black is due to fine opaques and fluid inclusions. Alteration at the expense of the opaque grains, alteration occurs as fine grained white selvages to fractures, forming replacement 'veinlets' and as fine laminae parallel to weak flow alignment within clasts. Altered areas comprise fine (<80n) mosaics of quartz, potassium feldspar, and albite.  Veining and open space fill: perlitic cracks are lined by calcite and contain minor pyrite and galena. Quartz veins  locally cut across zones of calcite-lined perlitic cracks and locally bifurcate and 'intrude' along perlitic cracks. Vesicles are infilled by quartz and albite (plate 3.2a, b); the later occur as small subhedral twinned laths and tabular crystals along, or radiating from vesicle walls; vesicles are in places lined by colloform silica.  Moderately Altered  Moderately altered rocks are restricted largely to distal and proximal facies lapilli tuffs, and from within massive flow internal facies in the core of pseudopillows, and late dacite dikes. Moderately altered flow banded and autobrecciated rhyolites are completely devitrified, however primary flow and breccia textures are well preserved.  Alteration Assemblage: quartz (cristobalite, trydimite?), albite, potassium feldspar, sericite, pyrite, ± chlorite. Phenocrysts  Quartz^Cubic, euhedral, cristobalite phenocrysts with sharply defined grain boundaries. Plagioclase^Small plagioclase phenocrysts are dusty in appearance due to finely disseminated fluid inclusions and sericite, and contain minor patches of clear albite. Amphibole^Phenocrysts are completely replaced by quartz chlorite, thought to have been amphibole based on fine grained clusters of zircon, apatite, opaques and vague relict amphibole crystal crosssection.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession ^  62  Groundmass  Glass  ^  Complete devitrification, with glass and finely vesiculated bands reflected by alternating laminae  and lenses with contrasting grainsize; devitified glass is typically 30 to 80 microns and vesicle fill 80 to 200 microns. Finer grained devitrified glass comprises quartz and potassium feldspar, and albite laminae contain abundant fine 1 millimeter diameter spherulites of well defined spheres of radiating fibrous crystals of quartz and alkali feldspar.  Autobrecciated flow banded flow rock textures generally are well preserved and discernible as primary brecciation, the clast boundaries are typically sharp. Clasts are mineralogically identical to massive flow banded flows; breccia matrix, however, is typically finer grained, and displays stronger replacement by sericite.  Perlitic cracks are not recognized in any samples in this alteration category.  Veining and vesicle fill: two distinct vein sets, with paragenetic sequence defined by cross-cutting relationships  include: 1) quartz , albite, ± K-feldspar veinlets 2) pyritic fracture veinlets 3) calcite veinlets Vesiculated laminae comprise bands with abundant spherical to fine cigar shaped filled vesicles filled by quartz, albite ± calcite; albite and quartz occur as subhedral crystals commonly lining vesicle walls, and radiating into the center of vesicles. Chalcedonic silica also locally lines vesicle walls; late quartz occurs as fine anhedral mosaics, and rarely late open space fill is dominated by calcite, interstitial to quartz.  Strongly Altered Strongly altered rocks (plate 3.2c, d) display extreme textural variation due to alteration superimposed on perlitic cracks, jointing and flow autobreccias, resulting in development of 'false pyroclastic textures' and 'pseudobreccias'.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession  ^  63  Plate 3.2 Rhyolite. a) and b) Moderately altered (A.1.-2), flow banded, weakly devitrified obsidian. Faint flow banding is defined by: elongate and spherical vesicles (clear) infilled with quartz + albite; and, crowded laminae of spherulites (clear fine radiating mosaics of quartz and alkali feldspar in the groundmass). The opaque mineral in the section is pyrite, occurring as spherical clusters of fine disseminated pyrite concentrated in spherulites. Note, spherulites are more abundant (as is pyrite) and larger, adjacent to vesicles. (E92-070; P.P.L and C.P.L., field of view 2.6mm). c) Strongly altered (A.I.=3), devitrified obsidian; now a fine mosaic of quartz and alkali feldspar; fine vesicles are reflected by slightly coarser grained recrystallized quartz infill weakly defining flow banding. Note, large spherical quartz filled vesicle bottom left; the dark euhedral mineral on, and radiating from the vesicle walls is monazite. (AJM-ISK90-057; C.P.L., field of view 2.6mm). d) Strongly altered (A.I.=3), 'false pyroclastic textured' (Allen, 1988) rhyolite; sericite, clinochlore and quartz distributed along perlitic cracks, with spherical and rectangular 'kernels' of devitrified rhyolite glass (fine quartz and alkali feldspar mosaics; S92105; C.P.L., field of view 2.6mm).  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession^  64  Alteration Assemblage: quartz (cristobalite, tridymite?), albite, potassium feldspar sericite, pyrite, ± rutile,  monazite, chlorite. Phenocrysts  Quartz^Euhedral square cristobalite phenocrysts display sharp and slightly ragged boundaries commonly rimmed by fine selvages of recrystallized quartz. The outer margins of the quartz phenocrysts contain fine fluid inclusions. Plagioclase^Quartz, sericite and albite alteration; microlites in the groundmass typically indistinct, and rare phenocrysts replaced dominantly by sericite and albite. Amphibole?^Replaced by quartz ± chlorite, and sericite, and containing minor fine grained clusters of apatite, zircon and pyrite inclusions. Groundmass  Glass^Comprises massive fine grained (<80p) cryptocrystalline quartz, albite, sericite, chlorite, rutile, monazite (plate 3.2c) ± potassium feldspar. Spherulites less than 100 microns diameter are typically disseminated throughout, but commonly are concentrated within and adjacent to layers with abundant vesicles infilled with coarser grained (<200 micron) secondary minerals. The spherulites vary from well defined spheres and "bow ties" of radiating fibrous crystals of quartz and alkali feldspar, to minor vague recrystallized spots of equidimensional quartz ± alkali feldspar.  Perlitic cracks and flow autobreccias are extensively modified; perlitic cracks vary from concentric (plate 3.2d) to rectangular fracture patterns; concentric perlitic cracks are commonly cored by lithophysae. Perlitic cracks are lined by sericite, chlorite and fine trails of sub- to euhedral pyrite ± quartz or quartz, rutile, and pyrite. The later fracture veinlets display zoned alteration selvages, from quartz and sericite altered zones free of opaque oxides that contain minor clusters of fine anhedral rutile and pyrite, to quartz, feldspar and chlorite altered cores containing fine evenly disseminated opaque oxides.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession ^  65  Flow autobreccias and pyroclastic fragmental rocks are enhanced by intense alteration focused typically within the matrix and invading clast boundaries; most commonly the matrix alteration assemblage is dominated by sericite. Autobrecciated flows are recognizable by juxtaposed patches with sharp planar boundaries and irregular diffuse boundaries, marked by fine rims of pyrite, and displaying angularly discordant flow banding.  Veining and open space fill: vesicle fill within pumaceous rhyolite is typically quartz, albite, ± potassium feldspar.  rutile, and monazite (plate 3.2c); quartz, albite, and rare rutile closely associated with monazite commonly form euhedral crystals lining vesicle walls, with late interstitial fill of anhedral quartz ± albite. Lithophysae are lined by chalcedonic silica and mulled by chlorite with Berlin blue anomalous interference colors in C.P.L. (i.e. penninite). Larger lithophysae are rimmed by sericite and pyrite, perlitic cracks are lined by sericite and chlorite, and sericite and pyrite fracture filling veinlets cut perlitic cracks and lithophysae.  Distinct vein cross-cutting relationships define a paragenetic sequenc: 1) quartz, albite, ± K-feldspar, rutile veins; 2) rare quartz + epidote veins; 3) sericite, quartz, ± pyrite, and rutile; 4) chlorite, quartz, pyrite; and, 5) pyrite fracture veinlets.  Intensely Altered Intensely altered rocks vary from texturally variable quartz, ± sericite, chlorite, pyrite, to massive monomineralic phyllosilicate or quartz rocks. Primary volcanic and superimposed devitrification textures are rarely recognizable. Intensely altered rocks predominate within feeder facies rhyolite flows and synvolcanic faults (i.e. 21 Zone subbasin growth faults, and 22 Zone fault).  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession ^  66  Alteration Assemblage: quartz, sericite (illite), pyrite, ± chlorite (chlinochore); chlorite (chlinchore) ± quartz,  sericite, pyrite. Phenocrysts:  Quartz^Typically completely recrystallized to fine equidimensional anhedral mosaics of annealed quartz, maintaining cristobalite phenocyst outlines. Plagioclase^Complete replacement (rare partial preservation of albite) Amphibole^Unrecognizable if present Groundmass:  Glass^Glassy massive flow banded and autobrecciated flows are recrystallized to the point of complete destruction of primary flow textures that commonly contain minor relict patches from which the primary volcanic textures may be interpreted.  Preservation of flow banding in massive flows and flow autobreccias varies from: 1) Massive alternating very fine (<80 micron) laminae containing vague spherulites recrystallized to fine spheres of anhedral equidimensional quartz ± albite in a groundmass of fine quartz ±albite, sericite, chlorite and alternating with coarser grained typically anhedral mosaics of (200 - 400 micron) quartz ± albite vesicle open space fill; to, 2) laminated or istockworki quartz-sericite rocks where the finer grained quartz-feldspar-sericitepyrite assemblage representing altered glass is replaced by massive sericite. Flow banding is preserved by alternating layers of sericite-dominated laminae, and laminae containing fine lenses of recrystallized, equidimensional anhedral quartz mosaics, probably reflecting relict vesicles filled by quartz.  Perlitic cracks displays a number of preservation styles from: 1) extreme replacement by quartz, sericite, pyrite with fine euhedral pyrite trails defining perlitic cracks and sharp alteration fronts to massive chloritised relict patches in the core to perlitic cracked zones; to,  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession ^  67  2) fine inclusion trails defining distinctive concentric perlitic fracture patterns of fine grained euhedral pyrite which are enclosed by fine recrystallized mosaics of anhedral equigranular quartz. Autobrecciated flow banded rhyolites and flow banded rhyolites, are typically indistinguishable. Relict, less altered laminated patches are common in zones where primary textures are destroyed; the less altered patches have irregular sutured boundaries, commonly sharp, highlighted by fine sulphide rims, and 'clasts' vary from massive cryptocrystalline chlorite in a sericite, quartz, pyrite alteration envelope, or less commonly visa versa.  Massive phyllosilicate zones comprise massive pale and dark green, chlorite (clinochore; Etlinger, 1992), and massive sericite (illite; Roth 1993). Temporal relationships are not distinguishable; in the 21 zone massive chlinchore is commonly cut by late sericite-pyrite replacement veinlets, but chlorite veins cut, and chlorite overprints, sericite altered zones.  Vein and open space fill: in unmineralized samples the vein and open space fill paragenetic sequence defined by  cross-cutting relationships is: la) rare early rims or complete fill by chalcedonic silica; lb) quartz ± albite, and sericite as late interstitial fill,; lc) quartz ± albite ± rutile? veinlets; 2) sericite + pyrite ± utile? veinlets; 3) quartz + pyrite ± rutile veinlets; 4) quartz ± calcite veinlets; and, 5) calcite fracture veinlets. In mineralized samples common vein assemblages observed in thin section are: 1) quartz, sphalerite (cut by discrete cross-cutting quart veins); 2) quartz, galena, sphalerite; 2) quartz, sphalerite, galena, sericite (late interstitial vein fill), ± pyrite; 3) sericite, quartz (interstitial and as discrete cross-cutting veinlets); and, 5) quartz, galena, calcite veins (galena and calcite interstitial and core of vein).  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession^  68  3.7 BASALT FACIES 3.7.1 PRIMARY MINERALOGY  Basaltic rocks, that is flows and dikes, are mineralogically very similar, varying primarily in the grain size of the constituent minerals, relative proportion of crystal phases versus glass, and superimposed alteration. However, basalt flow rocks display extreme textural variations from highly amygdaloidal (particularly in vent facies flows or at flow tops and pillow rinds), to hyaloclastite comprised dominantly of vesicular massive glass shards containing no phenocrysts and occasionally fine plagioclase microlites, or massive medium grained crystalline basalt with minor interstitial glass.  The basalts are fine to medium grained, display subophititc and intersertal textures, with anhedral to subhedral augite enclosing plagioclase laths. Fine to medium grained subhedral to euhedral magnetite typically occurrs at the margins of interstitial glass and rarely as inclusions within pyroxene. Mode Av. %  Mineral  Plagioclase  20 - 55  45  Clinoyroxene (augite)  10 - 30  25  Magnetite  5 - 10  5  Glass  5 - 100  20  3.7.2 ALTERATION MINERALOGY  Alteration is regionally pervasive but weak; local intense alteration occurs in basalt immediately overlying synvolcanic faults bounding the 21 Zone subbasin.  Least Altered  'Unaltered' basalt was observed only in one sample within cores to breccia clasts (E92-016; plate 3.3a), in which interstitial glass is preserved. The sample is from the base of a flow high in the basalt sequence. Interstitial glass in  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession ^  69  the sample is unaltered, within and concentrated at the margins of the glass are small brown (P.P.L.) palagonite spherulites. For geochemical purposes the sample is classified as altered, the basalt is locally brecciated due to stockwork veining; veins have a typical late vein assemblage of calcite, prehnite, pyrobitumen, and quartz; the vein envelope is less than 5 millimeters thick has a similar calcite-prehnite assemblage and abundant palagonite spherulites at the outer alteration front.  Alteration in the majority of least altered rocks is dominated by chlorite replacement of glass; other minerals display minor disseminated alteration (plate 3.3b).  Alteration assemblage: calcite, chlorite, palagonite, sericite, ± pyrite.  Plagioclase^Minor disseminated and patchy sericite, calcite and chlorite alteration. Pyroxene^Weak chlorite replacement on some grain boundaries, however grain boundaries are commonly sharp with chloritised glass. Glass^Completely replaced by dominantly clear (P.P.L.), non pleochroic chlorite (chlinochore), with low first order birefringence colors (C.P.L.). Magnetite^Displays exsolution of ilmenite along cleavages, and occasional partial replacement by pyrite.  Veining & amygdule fill: minor chlorite and, or calcite fracture veinlets and amygdule fill, and calcite + prehnite,  pyrobitumen + quartz ± pyrite veins.  Moderately Altered Moderately altered samples display similar mineralogy to least altered samples and differ primarily in the degree of alteration of pyroxenes and plagioclase and subtle changes in the chlorite composition (plate 3.43 &.3.44)  Alteration Assemblage: chlorite, calcite, sericite, quartz, pyrite, ± palagonite.  Plagioclase^5 to 80 % alteration by sericite, chlorite and quartz. Pyroxene^Minor patches of unaltered pyroxene, typically where completely encased by plagioclase laths; replaced by chlorite.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession^  70  Glass^Completely replaced by chlorite (clinchlore) as above, however chlorite replacing pyroxene and immediately adjacent to pyroxene are partially green and weakly pleochroic (P.P.L.) and display anomalous blue interference colors in (C.P.L.). Magnetite^Displaying ilmenite exsolution, and occasional replacement by pyrite. Pyrite^Disseminated, sub- to euhedral, and commonly replacing magnetite.  Veining & amygdule fill: minor chlorite or calcite veinlets and amygdule fill.  Strongly Altered Alteration is pervasive and mineral assemblages are markedly different, particularly striking is the change in chlorite composition (plate 3.3c) to dominantly penninite.  Alteration Assemblage: chlorite, quartz, sericite, pyrite.  Plagioclase^5 to 100% replacement by fine mosaics of quartz, sericite, and chlorite. Pyroxene^Completely replaced by chlorite. Glass^Completely replaced by chlorite Magnetite^Partial to complete replacement by pyrite. Chlorite^Replacing glass and pyroxene is green and weakly pleochroic in P.P.L., and has anomalous Berlin blue interference colors in C.P.L. Quartz & Calcite commonly occur interstitially to plagioclase laths replacing the groundmass. Pyrite^Subhedral, euhedral and spherulitic pyrite is disseminated throughout.  Veining & amygdule fill: amygdules are dominantly infilled by chlorite and, or calcite; veins comprise dominantly  of chlorite ± pyrite and prehnite (CA90-291-87.0), or calcite, pyrite ± prehnite (CA90-423-57.0).  Intensely Altered Intensely altered basalts are arealy restricted to immediately overlying the 21 Zone deposits, where synvolcanic subbasin facies bounding faults project into the overlying strata, and basalts contain abundant quartz veins within 2  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession  71  (a)  Plate 3.3 Basalt overlying the rhyolite flow dome sequence, displaying variation in the intensity of alteration; strong and intensely altered rock samples overlie the 21 Zone deposit. a) Locally preserved unaltered patch (A.I.=0); glass (isotropic), feldspar and pyroxene are unaltered. (E92-116; C.P.L., field of view 2.6mm). b) Least altered (A.I.=1); glass and margins of augite are altered to chlorite; plagioclase contains minor disseminated chlorite and sericite, and display patchy calcite replacement. Opaque minerals are magnetite, displaying minor exsolution of ilmenite. (CA95-11.4; C.P.L., field of view 2.6mm) c) Strongly altered (A.I.=3); complete replacement of glass and pyroxene by chlorite (penninite); plagioclase contains minor disseminated sericite and chlorite, and the rock is cut by penninite veinlets. Opaque minerals include pyrite (adjacent to vein), magnetite and ilmenite. (CA90-291-87.0; C.P.L., field of view 2.6mm). d) Intensely altered (A.I.=4); Quartz, calcite, and pyrite altered with subtle preservation of primary textures; plagioclase laths are replaced by mosaics of quartz and sericite, but lath crystal boundaries are partially preserved. (CA90-423-48.0; C.P.L., field of view 2.6mm)  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession^  72  to 3 metre wide pervasive quartz-carbonate alteration zones. Primary textures are vaguely preserved by finely disseminated opaques, but primary minerals are replaced completely by fine mosaics of alteration minerals, dominantly quartz.  Alteration Assemblage: quartz, calcite, pyrite, ±sericite, chlorite.  Plagioclase^Fine mosaics of quartz, sericite ±chlorite, primary plagioclase lath outlines preserved by fine trails of opaques (pyrite). Pyroxene+Glass Altered pyroxene is not distinguishable from altered glass; it is replaced dominantly by quartz mosaics (typically coarser grained than within replaced plagioclase laths), calcite is typically ragged and interstitial. Magnetite^Partial, but typically completely replaced by pyrite, particularly in vein selvages.  Veining & amygdule fill: amygdales are infilled by one or any combination of quartz, calcite, and pyrite; pyrite is  interstitial or within the cores of quartz filled amygdules, and occurs at the rims of calcite filled amygdules. Vein assemblages and the paragenetic sequence based on cross-cutting relations are: 1) massive pyrite veinlets; and, 2) calcite veinlets, and quartz-calcite veins with disseminated pyrite at the vein-margin; the pyrite in thin-section and hand specimen varies from course sub- to euhedral clystalls, to finely laminated bands and botryoidal open space fill.  3.8 MINERALOGICAL VARIATION SUMMARY  Mineralogical variations expressed by the Hazelton Group rocks indicate that hydrothermal alteration occurred through processes such as phase transformation, growth of new minerals, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and ion exchange reactions. The mineralogy of the original rock type and stratigraphic position (i e timing of eruption with respect to the stage of hydrothermal activity) influence the secondary mineralogy.  The alteration mineralogy, veining and temporal relationships within the felsic and mafic volcanic rocks are  ALTERATION UNDID( UNALTERED  ^  WEAK  ^  MODERATE^I^ STRONG  ^  INTENSE  FELSIC ROCKS  PRIMARY MINERALS REMAINING K-feldspar Plagioclase  sodio  sods, + oalcio  Amphibole Biotite Zircon, Apatite Glass Magnetite  SECONDARY MINERALS PRESENT K-feldspar Sericite Albite Quartz Chlorite Epidote Calcite Rutile Monazite Pyrite Suphides (galena, ohaloopyrite, tetrehedritel ^ Corundum  subsoloanio falai° feeder dices ony___  VEIN ASSEMBLAGES IN FELSIC ROCKS ONLY Otz, Ab, K-feldspar Quartz, Galena, Chalcopyrite, Tetrahedrite Serioite, Pyrite, +/- Quartz, Rutile, Calcite VOLCANIC HIATUS ; 21 ZONE STRATABOUND AND STRATFORM MINERALIZATION SHALE HOSTED STRATABOUND AND STRATFORM ORE AND GANGUE ASSEMBLAGE  Wells in which assemblages are inserted indicate the alteration index of immediatley underlying felsic volcanic recital Sulphides, Galena, Pyrite, Realgar, Stibnite, Arsenopyrke, Orpiment MAPIC ROCKS  PR/MARY MINERALS REMAINING Plagioclase CPX 1Augke) Magnetite Glass  SECONDARY MINERALS PRESENT Chlorite^  Clinoohore^  Penninite  Serioito Quartz Prehnite Calcite Palagonite limonite Pyrite  VEIN ASSEMBLAGES IN BASALT ONLY Penninke, +/- Prehnite  Chlorite, Pryite^ Chlorite, Prehnite, Quartz, Calcite, Pyrobitumen  VEIN ASSEMBLAGES IN FELSIC AND MARC ROCKS Chlorite , +1- Pyrite Quartz, Pyrite Quartz, +/- Calcite LEGEND ^ ^  Accessory mineral, in all samples. ^ Major mineral, in all samples.^  Aceeesory mineral, not always present. Major mineral, not always present.  Figure 3.1^Alteration assemblage variations with increasing, petrographically determined, alteration index (A.I.). Alteration assemblages are listed by rock type (down the page is equivalent to up stratigraphic section), indicating both dependence of the alteration assemblage and intensity, on lithology and time. Note, alteration intensity peak ( highest A.I.) in the felsic igneous rocks.  ALTERATION INDEX ^ UNALTERED INTERPRETED MAJOR ELEMENTAL LOSS AND GAIN FELSIC ROCKS  WEAK  ^  MODERATE  ^  STRONG  ^  INTENSE  EARLY ASSEMBLAGES (occurring in felsic rocks only) LOSS Ca Mg Na Ti  GAIN  ,CAMV 1.040.43 Utai Mat  Si K Mg Fe  subvolcanic felsic dikes only  Al Ti, Ce, P Pb,Zn, Cu, Au, Ag  INTERMEDIATE ASSEMBLAGES (occurring In felsIc end mark rocks) GAIN  volcanic rocks only  Mg Fe Si LOSS  volcanic rocks only, with chlorite alteration  Si  volcanic rocks only, with chlorite alteration  K, Na (depending on alteration assemblage of precursor) MARC ROCKS INTERMEDIATE ASSEMBLAGES (occurring In felsic and milk rocks)  LOSS Ca Mg  GAIN  " .0871"10333.3.  Mg Si Ca Fe Mn LATE ASSEMBLAGES (occurring in felsic and ma/ic rocks) Si Ca LEGEND Relative increase in loss or gain  Figure 3.2^Interpreted major element loss and gains based on alteration assemblage variations with increasing, petrographically determined alteration index (A.I.). Alteration assemblages are listed by rock type (down the page is equivalent to up stratigraphic section). K is most consistently and pervasively added as a result of alteration (except where overprinted with late chlorite dominant assemblages); precious and base metal mineralization occurs with the potassic alteration.  Petrology of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Succession^  75  summarized in figure 3.1. Relationships are applicable at thin-section, outcrop, and regional scales, however they are generalized; exceptions and variations are common. From the observed mineralogical changes, major chemical losses and gains are predictable (figure 3.2).  The absence of unaltered rocks and mineralogical alteration assemblages indicating chemical loss and gain even in least altered rocks, indicate that caution is required in assessing primary chemical signatures. Chemical trends are likely to be dominanted by superimposed alteration, and for more mobile major elements such as calcium, alteration assemblages indicate that loss is significant even within least altered rocks.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^76  CHAPTER 4  PARAGENESIS OF THE UPPER HAZELTON GROUP VOLCANIC SUITE AND SUPERIMPOSED ALTERATION  4.1 MAGMATIC ASSOCIATION  Rocks comprising the basalt-andesite-dacite-rhyolite association of the Upper Hazelton Group have primary mineralogical assemblages and chemical signatures consistent with calc-alkaline affinities. General mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the volcanic suite are listed in tables 4.1 and 4.2; in table 4.2 a comparison is made with general characteristics of calc-alkaline volcanic rocks after Hyndman (1985). Plagioclase is the most abundant phenocryst mineral, typically zoned (calcic cores to more sodic rims), and hornblende and biotite are common in felsic rocks. Potassium feldspar is rare, occurring locally in intrusive equivalents of the volcanic rocks, and even less commonly in the extrusive felsic rocks; in both cases potassium feldspar appears late in the rocks crystallization sequence, enclosing late albitic plagioclase, hornblende and apatite phenocrysts.  Augite is the dominant mafic mineral present in the basaltic rocks, and hornblende and biotite are found throughout andesites, dacites and rhyolites in both extrusive and intrusive comagmatic rocks. Magnetite (probably titanomagnetite, indicated by ubiquitous exsolution of ilmenite) is common as phenocrysts in basalt and is invariably present in the groundmass of hornblende andesite.  Estimated relative volumes of each lithology, based on outcrop area within the area mapped by the author, are: andesite > dacite > rhyolite > basalt. High abundances of andesite with lesser, although proportionally high dacite  and rhyolite is characteristic of calc-alkaline suites (Hyndman, 1985); tholeiitic series rocks are dominated by basalt.  VOLCANIC PARAGENETIC SEQUENCE ANDESITE BRECCIAS MODERATELY ALTERED AVERAGE RANGE 5102^% 54.89 51.90 1102^5 0.99 0.76 4)203^% 17.16 13.40 Fe2O3^% 7.82 8.21 Mn0^% 0.16 0.09 M90^% 3.40 0.98 CM)^% 3.86 1.17 Na20^% 4.35 2.89 K20^% 1.57 0.48 P205^% 0.25 0.44 H2O^% 2.76 1.40 CO2^% 2.13 1.06 LOI^% Cr^PPM NI^PPM Co^PPM So^PPM V^PPM Cu^PPM Pb^PPM Zn^PPM W^PPM Mo^PPM S^PPM As^PPM Sb^PPM Te^PPM Pd^PPS Ag^PPM Au^PPS Ha^PPB Rb^PPM Cs^PPM Ba^PPM Sr^PPM TI^PPM Nb^PPM Zr^PPM Y^PPM Th^PPM U^PPM Le^PPM Ce^PPM Pr^PPM Nd^PPM Sm^PPM Eu^PPM Gd^PPM Tb^PPM Dy^PPM Ho^PPM Er^PPM Tm^PPM Yb^PPM Lu^PPM B^PPM Ge^PPM No. of analyses  Table 4 1 tYPe•  4.40 89 25 14 16.50 171.71 27.1 <2 88.2 2 7 2568 4.8 1.5 0.11 3 1.0 4 27 44 3 1192 470 0.7 8 124 22 4.9 2.3 22.2 43.1 6.5 24.8 5.4 1.84 4.8 0.7 4.0 0.76 2.2 0.3 1.9 0.34 28 <10 7  2.54 15 2 8 8.31 126.00 2.2 <2 85.1 1 7 170 0.9 0.1 0.08 3 1,0 3 8 17 1 278 117 0.3 El 88 14 3.0 1.2 17.7 39.5 4.4 19.7 4.7 1.27 3.1 0.5 3.1 0.50 1.7 0.2 1.5 0.28 18 <10  Ii0. ESKAY PORPHYRY INTRUSION LEAST ALTERED AVERAGE RANGE 60.50 82.83 80.60 1.64 0.68 0.54 15.83 20.60 16.00 11.60 4.21 3.38 0.24 0.10 0.08 8.87 1.40 0.88 8.22 1.89 0.25 8.43 3.87 2.08 3.35 8.45 3.51 0.77 0.24 0.09 3.70 0.08 0.03 0.34 3.08 0.01  66.10 0.57 16.20 4.97 0.11 2.29 5.00 5.07 8.45 0.34 0.15 1.11  6.16 390 82 21 32.00 210.00 83.8 <2 122.0 3 7 8700 8.1 4.5 0.14 3 1.0 6 86 87 6 1770 1280 1.1 13 143 40 9.7 4.3 25.7 49.0 6.5 20.3 8.3 2.02 8.5 0.8 4.8 1.09 2.8 0.4 2.5 0.51 41 <10  2.64 87 2 8 8.80 <2.00 34.0 18 81.0 3 1 8800 15.0 26.4 <0.02 <1 0.1 31 1410 150 3 3900 373 <0.1 18 196 27 8.5 3.4 18.0 41.0 <0.1 <0.1 3.9 <0.1 <0.1 0.7 <0.1 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 3.0 0.30 46 <10  2.23 82 2 5 5.98 <2.00 11.8 8 42.5 2 1 5933 10.9 8.2 <0.02 <1 0.1 16 898 124 2 3000 238 <0.1 13 188 22 8.0 3.0 17.0 36.3 <0.1 <0.1 3.6 <0.1 <0.1 0.8 <0.1 <0.06 <0.1 <0.1 2.0 0.23 25 <10 4  1.66 75 1 4 5.30 <2.00 2.0 4 27.0 1 1 3600 6.3 1.8 <0.02 <1 0.1 1 870 88 1 1800 168 <0.1 12 175 17 7.5 ' 2.4 16.0 27.0 <0.1 <0.1 3.3 <0.1 <0.1 0.6 <0.1 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 1.0 0.10 18 <10  DACITE (FLOW) RHYOUTE FLOW FLOWS & LAPILLI TUFFS LEAST ALTERED LEAST ALTERED G92-049 AVERAGE RANGE 84.80 75.15 73.20 0.70 0.19 0.23 15.50 13.46 12.70 3.81 0.40 0.84 0.09 0.02 0.02 1.19 0.32 0.15 2.88 0.31 0.22 4.35 4.23 0.09 2.78 3.77 1.31 0.23 0.04 0.02 1.70 0.73 0.50 1,55 0.11 0.01 2.55 85 <1 4 8.01 56.00 1.7 <2 68.4 2 <1.0 490 1.3 0.4 <0.02 <1 0.4 2 15 74 3 1920 524 0.4 18 195 15 7.7 3.5 33.4 84.2 6.1 23.3 4.6 1.42 4.4 0.6 2.9 0.49 1.3 0.2 1.2 0.19 24 <10  1.38 123 3 2 2.75 9.60 8.8 <2 22.5 2 2 1271 5.6 4.0 0.02 <1 0.4 7 204 81 6 1653 136 0.7 22 289 45 8.6 3.4 31.2 59.5 8.5 28.3 5.2 0.60 3.9 0.4 2.0 0.33 1.1 0.3 1.1 0.18 39 24  1  4  0.93 61 2 1 2.08 5.00 1.5 <2 5.9 1 1 97 2.8 1.3 0.02 <1 0.4 4 31 32 1 1310 21 0.4 19 283 27 7.0 2.3 27.0 61.7 5.8 22.8 4.6 0.61 3.3 0.3 1.3 0.23 0.7 0.2 0.5 0.09 19 20  77.10 0.25 14.10 1.44 0.02 0.55 0.39 8.30 5.84 0.04 1.40 0.29 2.47 170 3 3 3.41 15.00 28.5 <2 32.2 2 2 3300 9.6 8.5 0.02 <1 0.4 9 420 149 18 1980 441 1.6 27 315 80 10.0 4.8 34.8 84.0 7.4 29.0 5.9 0.89 4.3 0.7 3.3 0.47 1.8 0.3 1.7 0.29 87 27  RHYOLITE SUBVOLCANIC DIKES STRONGLY ALTERED AVERAGE RANGE • 78.00 77.00 0.08 0.07 9.72 9.08 1.96 0.85 0.00 -0.01 1.38 0.07 0.08 -0.01 0.13 -0.01 5.18 2.44 0.02 0.01 1.20 0.20 <0.01 <0.01 2.10 143 2 1 0.49 4.87 4.4 151 313.4 3 1 9297 49.6 22.8 <0.02 2 0.7 713 1088 104 1 2945 115 3.2 31 128 50 10.9 7.1 14.2 33.7 3.9 17.3 4.9 0.51 5.1 0.9 6.8 1.08 3.2 0.4 3.8 0.47 32 <2.33 3  0.80 88 1 <1 0.22 4.00 2.3 11 22.4 <1 <1 71 3.6 2.5 <0.02 2 <0.1 <1 83 85 <1 444 13 0.7 26 113 38 9.6 4.3 7.2 18.7 2.4 10.9 4.1 <0.05 4.8 0.8 4.8 0.90 2.7 0.4 3.0 0.38 26 <10  DACITE LATE SUBVOLCANIC DIKES MODERATELY ALTERED AVERAGE 392-117 092-123 79.80 83.46 83.30 83.80 0.08 0.60 0.84 0.66 10.80 18.90 17.10 18.70 3.06 2.76 2.89 2.83 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.38 3.88 0.33 0.38 0.14 0.79 0.68 0.99 0.42 2.02 2.33 1.71 8.89 8.72 8.66 8.77 0.28 0.02 0.25 0.22 2.80 0.70 0.60 0.80 <0.01 0.57 0.60 0.84 3.16 200 4 2 0.89 5.00 8.8 383 880.0  e  4 23100 93.0 52.0 0.02 2 1.5 120 2890 118 4 6440 245 4.5 30 164 67 13.0 10.1 19.2 44.3 5.0 21.7 5.8 1.01 6.3 1.0 8.2 1.18 3.5 0.5 4.2 0.53 39 13  2.10 05 3 0 3.78 84.50 4.3 <2 24.6 5 1 15200 70.5 4.6 <0.02 <1 0.9 100 34 154 2 8226 269 1.8 7 111 8 5.0 2.9 17.8 37.9 3.9 18.3 3.8 2.23 3.3 0.4 1.8 0.31 0.9 0.1 1.1 0.24 28 <10 2  2.05 71 2 5 3.48 87.00 4.4 <2 25.2 13 <1.0 13300 65.0 4.2 <0.02 <1 0,9 100 38 151 2 8020 260 1.8 8 114 9 4.9 3.0 18.8 41.1 4.3 17.8 4.2 2.24 3.8 0.4 1.8 0.33 0.9 0.1 1.1 0.30 30 <10  2.15 59 4 8 4.04 82.00 4.1 <2 24.0 4 1 17100 78.0 4.8 <0.02 <1 0.9 100 31 157 1 8430 278 1.7 8 108 8 5.0 2.8 18.8 34.7 3.5 14.7 3.4 2.21 3.0 0.3 1.8 0.28 0.8 0.1 1.1 0.17 28 <10  BASALT (FLOWS) FLOWS LEAST ALTERED AVERAGE RANGE • 47.78 48.00 1.69 1.01 15.03 13.10 12.42 8.92 0.19 0.12 8.90 4.22 8.57 4.27 2.95 1.00 0.18 0.33 0.19 0.10 3.24 2.00 0.73 0.12 3.50 242 73 41 37.53 329.70 36.9 3 91.2 2 4 4529 9.2 3.2 0.04 3 0.4 6 70 9 2 361 239 0.8 5 91 30 1.4 0.3 8.1 18.3 2.8 13.1 4.1 1.44 5.1 0.8 5.8 1.21 3.5 0.5 3.5 0.56 28 18 10  2.54 69 113 29 2.57 244.00 1.6 3 9.4 1 4 200 0.8 0.3 0.04 2 0.2 3 11 5 1 162 101 0.2 2 58 23 1.1 0.1 3.3 8.7 1.3 7.2 2.6 0.97 3.8 0.5 2.8 0.66 2.1 0.3 2.2 0.36 22 15  50.80 2.34 17.80 13.80 0.22 11.90 13.00 3.98 0.78 0.26 5.10 1.93 5.65 370 124 54 43.80 456.00 88.1 3 118.0 3 4 19000 31.0 8.7 0.04 4 0.7 11 230 17 3 948 403 1.6 6 172 38 1.8 0.6 37.7 70.8 8.8 34.0 7.2 2.18 9.0 1.5 10.8 2.22 8.8 1.0 5.7 0.87 38 21  BASALT SUBVOLCANIC DIKES LEAST ALTERED TR-92-38 AVERAGE 48.30 48.40 1.48 1.44 15.50 15.40 11.50 10.60 0.21 0.21 7.08 7.99 8.89 8.80 3.00 3.70 0.83 0.68 0.18 0.15 3.10 3.70 0.32 0.03 3.00 245 53 37 40.15 293.50 38.9 <2 84.8 <1.0 <1.0 196 1.7 3.1 <0.02 <1 0.3 4 97 9 I 840 351 0.3 6 78 27 <0.5 0.1 4.2 11.4 1.8 8.7 3.3 1.27 4.4 0.7 4.8 0.95 2.7 0.4 3.0 0.42 17 10  3.70 250 63 38 39.40 271.00 38.8 <2 80.2 <1.0 <1.0 180 2.9 4.8 <0.02 <1 0.2 41 10 1 1030 483 0.3 5 73 25 <0.5 <0.1 4.2 11.3 1.6 8.6 3.3 1.34 4.2 0.8 4.6 0.89 2.5 0.4 2.8 0.37 13 <10  TR-92-61 48.20 1.47 15.80 12.40 0.20 8.12 10.90 2.29 0.32 0.18 2.60 0.81 2.30 240 63 38 40.90 316.00 39.1 <2 89.8 <1.0 <1.0 210 0.5 1.3 <0.02 <1 0.3 4 163 8 <1 249 238 0.3 8 78 28 <0.6 0.1 4.1 11.5 1.6 8.7 3.2 1.19 4.5 0.7 5.0 1.00 2.9 0.4 3.2 0.47 20 10  i^2  Whole rock chemistry of the Upper Hazelton Group igneous rocks; average, and range in composition of the most unnaltered samples for each rock  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration  ^  78  CALC ALKALINE SERIES (Hyndman, 1985).  UPPER HAZELTON GROUP VOLCANIC SUITE.  Environment  Some plateau basalts; volcanoes on thick continental crust of continental margin or island arc.  Most abundant rock/ differentiation trend Mineralogy  Abundant andesite, minor to much dacite and rhyolite.  Back arc basin or intra-arc rift basin environment suggested by: 1. intercalated sedimentary rocks varying laterally from shallow to deep marine facies; 2. volcanics regionally underlie, and locally interfinger with the Bowser Basin; and 3. latest felsic and mafic magmatism dominated by fissure eruptive vent zones several kilometres long (i.e. rift related). Andesite most abundant with much dacite, rhyolite, and basalt.  Orthopyroxene & pigeonite.  Augite.  Plagioclase phenocrysts common; biotite and hornblende common in intermediate to felsic rocks, with tridymite, cristobalite and rare K-feldspar. 17 - 18 % (15 - 22 % most common).  Plagioclase phenocrysts common; biotite and hornblende common in intermediate to felsic rocks, with tridymite, cristobalite and rare K-feldspar. Average 15 % (12.5 - 17.5 % common).  Basalt  0.85 % average (0.5 most common).  Average 0.37 % (0.15 - 0.85 % common)  Andesite  0.5 - 4 % (medium - and high - K andesite); 1.2 - 3.0 most common.  Average 1.57 % (0.36 - 1.72 % common)  K/Rb Sr  124 - 807 ( > 400 common). 190 - 15000 ppm (490 ppm average).  FeO*/MgO (*total Fe as FeO) Fe, TiO2  < 2.25 at 57 % Si02.  Average 422 (202 - 777 common). Average 299 ppm (21 - 966 ppm common). Average 2.1 at 57 % Si02 (range 1.97 2.22). Decrease during fractionation, no iron enrichment on Alk - Fe - Mg diagram (figure 4.2).  -  Mafics in Groundmass Phenoaysts  A190/ K20  Highly incompatable trace elements  Decrease during fractionation, no iron enrichment on Alk - Fe - Mg diagram.  Ba/La  > 15  Ratios vary; average 92 (range 5 - 243).  La/Nb  >2  Ratios vary, average 1.64 (range 0.7 6.3).  Nbilr  --  Si02 Magnetite Table 4.2 suite.  ^  Rapid increase during crystallization (figure 4.1). Forms throughout crystallization; commonly titanomagnetite.  Conserved; average 0.7 (range 0.35 0.16). Rapid increase during crystallization. Titanomagnetite, forming throughout crystallization.  General mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the Upper Hazelton Group igneous rock  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^ 79 Winchester & Floyd, 1977  Na20 + K20^  MgO  LEGEND • • ■ • El  ■ •  BASALT FLOWS Least altered Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC BASALT DIKES Least altered Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC DACITE DIKES Moderately altered RHYOLITE FLOWS AND TUFFS Least altered Moderately altered  • • • • A  ESKAY PORPHYRY INTRUSION Least altered Moderately altered DACITE FLOW Least altered ANDESITE BRECCIAS Least altered Moderately altered  Figure 4.1 Volcanic discrimination plots of least and moderately altered rocks. a) Si02 vs Zr/TiO2 diagram; the volcanic and subvolcanic rocks have four distinct compositions; spread in the data primarily reflects moderate degrees of alteration. b) Alkali - Fe - Mg diagram; the volcanic suite displays no iron enrichment during igneous fractionation (i.e. calc-alkaline).  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^80  Main chemical criteria distinguishing the volcanic rocks as a calc-alkaline rather than a tholeiitic rock series are the high potassium, alumina, total LIL-element contents, high FeO/MgO ratios at 57% silica (figure 4.1a), and a lack of enrichment in iron during differentiation (figure 4.1b) reflecting saturation of the magma in magnetite at an early stage, possibly due to oxidizing conditions from high water contents (Gill, 1981).  Calc-alkaline volcanic rocks occur in a number of environments and are most characteristic of volcanic island arcs, continental margin volcanic chains, continental crust behind arc or continental margin chains, or in very wide continental margin belts. The Hazelton volcanic rocks are commonly described as island arc volcanic rocks based on their calc-alkaline affinities and their subaerial to submarine depositional environment (Alldrick, 1988); however, a distinct volcanic chain with an arcuate trend has not been demonstrated to have existed. The tectonic environment can be inferred from several general features:  1 The Hazelton Group volcanic rocks regionally underlay, are conformable with, and locally interfinger on the Prout Plateau with the sedimentary Bowser Lake Group rocks; 2 The calc-alkaline volcanic suite deposited in deep, and shallow marine to subaerial environments; 3 There is an abrupt transition to a deep marine environment following eruption of the latest dominantly bimodal rhyolitic and basaltic rocks, with vent facies forming linear belts extending for tens of kilometres along structurally controlled feeder dikes (i.e. rift related); and, 4 The facies distribution of the volcanic and sedimentary rocks define regional and local fault blocks (horsts and grabens) bounded by synvolcanic faults. Extensional tectonics, implied by controls on the volcanic centres and sedimentary-volcanic facies, and subaerial to marine conditions, are consistent with either back arc or intra-arc basin environments.  4.2 THE VOLCANIC PETROGENETIC SEQUENCE  Consistent calc-alkaline mineralogical and chemical characteristics, and spatial overlap of proximal, vent, and feeder fades of the rhyolite, dacite and basalt, and the regionally consistent volcanic paragenetic sequence suggest the hypothesis that the various volcanic units are related.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^81  35  LEGEND IGNEOUS FRACTIONATION OR MASS GAIN & LOSS  30 25  a  ■ a  0  ■ Rhyolite  •  -0 15 O  10  ••  A^• 0 0 0^  O MO A 0^ ▪ A A II  0X ■  5  4  so  0^ 0  131.  A  Dacite  0  2 SD  •  Andesite  BASALT FLOWS  Least altered Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC BASALT DIKES ■^Least altered • Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC DACITE DIKES ▪ Moderately altered RHYOLITE FLOWS AND TUFFS ■ Least altered o Moderately altered  • o  20  • o  • • •  Basalt  40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400  • A  ESKAY PORPHYRY INTRUSION Least altered Moderately altered DACITE FLOW Least altered ANDESITE BRECCIAS Least altered Moderately altered  3 2.5^ 2  \ C\/  i;^IGNEOUS  o^FRACTIONATION ,^• 9: t'w  Basalt  1.5  2 SD  p  ;mi  .  ■^% 6 o + /,' o^ N A Andesite ■^  0  1  o A  • •  A 4* ^ N. V  -.  w ".•^O GI^m. 44,0k  .5  +^  MASS GAIN  0  1  Dacite  -------- ,------^---  0  ■  --------^i^  ---  MASS LOSS T -41/13/L-1-1--Rhyo lite  120^180^240 Zr (ppm)  ^  300  ^  360  Figure 4.2 X - Y trace element plots for Upper Hazelton Group igneous rock suite. a) Nb vs Zr for least altered rocks plot within analytical uncertainty (i.e. within ± two standard deviation shown by the error cross), on an approximate best fit line through the origin; that is, Nb and Zr are conserved (incompatible during igneous fractionation, and conserved during alteration); in moderately altered rocks Nb and Zr are mostly immobile during alteration, with shifts along the best fit line possibly due to mass gain or loss; shifts away from the line indicate the possibility of some mobility of Nb (as Zr is immobile figure 4.2b). b) TiO2 is compatible during igneous fractionation (decreasing Ti during igneous fractionation indicated by an approximate best fit line for the least altered rocks); consistent ratios within analytical uncertainty for each rock type, defining lines through the origin, indicate Ti and Zr are immobile during alteration for the least altered rocks. Shifts along lines through the origin (lines of conservation) reflect mass gain and loss. Spread in the moderately altered samples is due primarily to mass gain or loss, and mobilization of Ti during alteration (Zr is interpreted to be conserved due to the preservation of primary zircons in intensely altered rocks; addition or loss of Ti is indicated by data points shifting off the lines of conservation for each rock type); alteration assemblages include accessory Ti minerals, such as rutile in felsic igneous rocks.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^82  Ratios of the incompatible trace element pairs Nb/Zr are consistent throughout the suite of rocks, the X-Y plot of these elements defines a linear trend (within analytical uncertainty) intersecting the origin (figure 4.2a). The Nb/Zr relations are consistent with Nb and Zr being incompatible and conserved during fractionation, and is further consistent with a cogenetic hypothesis for the polymodal (basalt to rhyolite) volcanic suite (McLean & Kranidiotis, 1987; Barrett et al., 1991).  The Upper Hazelton Group volcanic stratigraphy is temporally well constrained (figure 2.3). The regionally distributed volcanic and subvolcanic suite display consistent calc-alkaline affinities and a distinct temporal sequence with two major periods of hiatus represented by sedimentary facies. The volcanic and subvolcanic sequence is: andesite hiatus I z dacite 1^rhyolite and dacite 2 - hiatus 2 with mineralization & alteration ^basalt,  and estimated relative volumes of each lithology based on outcrop area is: andesite > dacite 1 >rhyolite and dacite 2 >basalt > sulphide and sulphosalt mineralization  Based on biochronology and Zircon U-Pb isotopic ages (figure 2.3), the best estimate of the duration in the Eskay Creek area of total Upper Hazelton volcanism, bimodal volcanism (period represented by dacite to basaltic volcanism), and the maximum time represented by the first significant volcanic hiatus, based on biogeochronology ( Nadaraju, 1993) and zircon U-Pb ( Macdonald, et al., 1992) dating are: volcanism duration^30 Ma (uncertainties; lower limit ±6.5 Ma (B), upper limit ±11.5 Ma (B)) bimodal volcanism^12 Ma (uncertainties; lower limit ±1.5 Ma (Z); upper limit ±15 Ma (B)) hiatus 1^7.5 Ma (uncertainties; lower limit ±6.5Ma (B)); upper limit ±1.5 Ma (B))  Uncertainties (from Harland et al., 1990) for the age determinations of stratigraphic boundaries based on biogeochronology are high, the total period of volcanic activity may be less than 12 Ma or as much as 48Ma, and the bimodal volcanism may represent one geologically 'brief incident. Hyndman (1985) states that potassiumargon determinations on the composite Boulder batholith indicate that ten million years is not unreasonable for crystallization of a large granitiod batholith.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^83  Spatial distributions, conserved incompatible element ratios and temporal relations (localization of the bimodal volcanic feeder and vent facies in the same structurally controlled zone, and within a short time interval) are permissive for derivation of the polymodal suite of rocks through igneous fractionation from a common source. The earliest volcanic activity dominated by andesites is regionally and locally most voluminous. The field relations suggest the most likely 'parental' magma was andesitic in composition. It may be fortuitous that the basalts have similar incompatible trace element ratios; alternatively, it is consistent with derivation of the intermediate to felsic rocks from a common 'homogeneous' source, derivation of the basalt from an andesitic melt, or unrecognized coherent behavior of Nb and Zr.  4.3 DIFFERENTIATION TRENDS 4.3.1 INTRODUCTION  Differentiation trends are examined using the least and moderately altered rock suite determined from detailed petrographic examinations; element variation in the chemical data for the moderately altered rocks is typically greater than in the less altered rocks due to widely variable effects of superimposed alteration, of course none of the rocks are entirely unaltered. Mineralogical variations indicate that weak degrees of alteration particularly affect concentrations of MgO, and FeO, and to a lesser degree, Na20 and K20 (figure 3.1, 3.2).  4.3.2 STANDARD VARIATION PLOTS  Chemical data for the least altered rock suite reflect mainly, primary igneous chemical variations. On simple X-Y variation diagrams of 'incompatible' (Nb/Zr, figure 4.2a) and 'compatible'-'incompatible' (Ti02/Zr, figures 4.4-4.7) elements (ie compatible or incompatible during fractionation) the least altered rocks have comparable ratios for each rock composition (within analytical uncertainty), and display fractionation paths common to igneous suites. On an X - Y plot of two conserved elements, the effect of alteration is to dilute or concentrate the conserved elements by net addition or subtraction of other elements; thus, plotted compositions move along a line through the origin and precursor composition, toward the origin in the case of dilution and away from the origin in the case of concentration. For element pairs 'incompatible' during fractionation (figure 4.3), the shift due to dilution or  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^84  concentration is parallel to the igneous fractionation trend; and, for 'compatible'-'incompatible' pairs during fractionation (figure 4.4), the data will plot on a series of lines radiating from the origin through the igneous fractionation trend (McLean & Kranidiotis, 1987; Maclean, 1990; Barrett et al., 1991).  Variations in Zr data are consistent with conservation during both fractionation and alteration. TiO2 is compatible during fractionation, crystallizing into titanomagnetite, but Ti is immobile in least and moderately altered rocks (figure 4.2a). Nb is conserved during fractionation, however the range of values is higher in moderately altered rocks (figure 4.2b) and suggests slight mobility. Ti02/Zr ratios for least altered rocks display weak shifts along lines through the origin suggesting minor mass gains and losses; for moderately altered rocks the range of the shifts is greater reflecting the higher degree of alteration.  X - Y plots of major oxides (Fe, Mg, Si02; appendix A, figure A. la, b, and A.2) versus Zr (conserved during alteration) indicate that in petrographically determined least altered rocks the major elements were unmodified (cluster within analytical uncertainty for each rock type). Standard composition discrimination plots may consequently be used carefully. A plot of (Ti02/Zr) versus Si02 (figure 4.1b) indicates that the volcanic rock compositions are consistent with a compositional range for basalt - rhyolite sequences (Winchester and Floyd, 1977), with the least altered rocks displaying minimal spread. On a standard Alkali-Fe-Mg (AFM) diagram, the least altered samples display a typical calc-alkaline fractionation path with no iron enrichment during differentiation. The basalt data display some spread which may be attributable to the ubiquitous chlorite ± pyrite alteration of interstitial glass.  4.3.3 PEARCE ELEMENT RATIO DIAGRAMS  Harker diagrams (X-Y plots) of Si02 (wt %) versus major oxide (wt %) or trace element (ppm) are commonly employed to describe elemental concentration during igneous fractionation; on Harker diagrams elements are expressed as concentrations or intensive variables. Consequently, the effects of material transfer are obscured by 'closure', the constraint that all element concentrations of a system must equal unity (or 100%); that is, material  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^ 85 .8 IGNEOUS FRACTIONATION, MATERIAL TRANSFER  .6 0  /  .4  •* •  Basalt  °° 0 A * A  • +6  • tts(0 .417A  .2 0  0 .25  Andesite  01 Rhyolite  0^.2^.4^.6^.8^1^1.2^1.4^1.6^1.8^2 Si/Zr PER (molar) IGNEOUS FRACTIONATION, MATERIAL TRANSFER  .2  • •/  o Basalt ^•  ■ o  E .15 cc  s  •  c•  0 A PO A 0  4 /A A  .05  0  0  +^/ o /  744;")  •  Andesite  vv  •  n^Rhyolite  0^.5^1^1.5^2 Si/Zr PER (molar) LEGEND • o  ■ • ■ •  BASALT FLOWS^ Least altered^ Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC BASALT DIKES Least altered Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC DACITE DIKES Moderately altered RHYOLITE FLOWS AND TUFFS Least altered Moderately altered  ESKAY PORPHYRY INTRUSION •^Least altered • Moderately altered DACITE FLOW • Least altered ANDESITE BRECCIAS • Least altered A Moderately altered  Figure 4.3 Pearce element ratio diagrams for petrographically determined least and moderately altered rocks, of Al (a) and Fe (b) versus Si, with conserved Zr in the denominator (elements are expressed in molar terms); fractionation trends, approximated with dashed lines, with steep slopes, indicate that Al, Fe and Si are involved in material transfer (i.e. in the crystallizing phases) during igneous fractionation. Interpreted igneous fractionation trends are indicated on the graphs; Al is not involved in material transfer during alteration within the least altered rocks and displays little variation for rock suites of one composition; however, data for Fe (Na and K, figure 4.4) display sub-trends. The later elements are involved in material transfer during all styles and intensities of alteration superimposed on the rocks, and the variations or sub-trends in the data are the probable effect of superimposed alteration.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^ 86 .2 IGNEOUS FRACTIONATION LOSS OR GAIN  0  •  .16 c'Fr  0  E  .12 A  • .08  0  / 2/  I  Andesite g w /A Rhyolite^/,p  'a' • D./ •  0  •  4  o  .04  Basalt  • + r°  A  w Q_  • + 70 /  0  iag+•  •  • a  0^.5^1^1.5 Si/Zr PER (molar)  2  .2  .15 IGNEOUS FRACTIONATION MINIMAL LOSS OR GAIN 0  •  • • ,>0 0  .05  0•0  Rhyolite  0  -  Jr v.^•  4 0.1) zr e_^0  0 ^ 0 LEGEND • O • • a  ■ a  E do  •4  Basalt •  0+ 00^•  .5^1^1.5 Si/Zr PER (molar)  BASALT FLOWS Least altered Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC BASALT DIKES Least altered Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC DACITE DIKES Moderately altered RHYOLITE FLOWS AND TUFFS Least altered Moderately altered  • • • • •  2  ESKAY PORPHYRY INTRUSION Least altered Moderately altered DACITE FLOW Least altered ANDESITE BRECCIAS Least altered Moderately altered  Figure 4.4 Pearce element ratio diagrams for petrographically determined least and moderately altered rocks, of Na (a) and K (b) versus Si, with conserved Zr in the denominator (elements are expressed in molar terms); fractionation trends, approximated with dashed lines, with steep slopes indicate Na, K and Si are involved in material transfer (i.e. in the crystallizing phases) during igneous fractionation. Interpreted igneous fractionation trends are indicated on the graphs; Al is not involved in material transfer during alteration within the least altered rocks and displays little variation for rock suites of one composition (figure 4.3a); however, data for Na and K (and Fe, figure 4.3b) is scattered and slightly variable. The later elements are involved in material transfer during all styles and intensities of alteration superimposed on the rocks, and the variations in the data are the probable effect of superimposed alteration.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^87  transfer of one element causes the concentration of unrelated elements to change. To avoid the effects of closure, major oxides and trace elements are plotted as Pearce element ratio diagrams, the axes of which are expressed in molar terms and have a conserved element in the denominator (Zr in this case) causing variations in the Pearce element ratios (PER's) to be directly proportional to the amount of material transfer in the numerator element (Stanley, 1993). Pearce element diagrams are X-Y plots of Pearce element ratios, with a common conserved element as denominator for ratios on both axes.  Pearce element ratio diagrams of the major elements versus Si for the suite of least altered rocks (figure 4.3a, b, and 4.4a, b) indicate material transfer during igneous fractionation. Material transfer is indicated by steep slopes (slopes > 0) on the PER diagrams whereas elements with minimal or no material transfer occuring during fractionation have flat slopes (slopes It 0); that is no variation in the Y-axis ratio ,  PER diagrams for the major oxides indicate material transfer during fractionation of Si, Al, Fe, Ti, Mn, Mg, Ca and Na (figure 4.3a, b and 4.4b, c; appendix A, figure A.3a, b, and A.4a, b) and minimal or no material transfer of K; this is consistent with the chemical variation of the volcanic suite being produced by the crystallization and sorting of the dominant observed phenocryst assemblage of the rocks; that is, plagioclase - hornblende - augite, magnetite - sphene ± biotite and rare potassium-feldspar occurring only locally in intrusive rocks, and appearing late in the crystallization sequence. The minimal involvement of potassium-silicates in the fractionation of the rocks indicates that the magma is progressively enriched in K.  4.3.4 RARE EARTH AND LARGE ION LITHOPHILE SCATTER PLOTS -  -  Rare-earth elements are normalized with 'primitive mantle' (normalizing data from Taylor and McLennan, 1985) in figure 4.4a, b, and c. Andesites display enrichment in lighter rare earths. The rhyolite flows and dacite subvolcanic dikes intruding the rhyolite feeder structures both display enrichment and depletion of light and heavy REE's respectively (the plots display steeper slopes). The rhyolites display a moderate negative Eu anomaly with respect to the andesites. Late dacite dikes intruding rhyolite within the subvolcanic feeders and flow dome vent facies, are mineralogically similar to the rhyolites but differ in a high modal abundance of feldspar phenocrysts,  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^88  100  10  1  100  La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd lb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu RHYOLITE FLOWS AND TUFFS & SUBVOLCANIC DACITE DIKES (least altered) _ _ — - _ _ _ _ La in andesite DACITE DIKES  10  Lu in andesite  RHYOLITE  Norm: PRIM 1  La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu GdTb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu  100 BASALT FLOWS AND SUBVOLCANIC DIKES (LEAST ALTERED) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ La in andesite  10 Lu in andesite  —-—-—-—-  Norm: PRIM 1  La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu  Figure 4.5 Rare-earth element (REE) scatter plots normalized with 'primitive mantle' (PRM) (normalizing data from Taylor and McLennan, 1985). a) andesite; enriched in light REE's with respect to PRM. b) rhyolite and  dacite; enrichment in light and depletion of light and heavy REE's with respect to PRM, and andesite. c) basalt displays flat REE patterns and enrichment with respect to PRM.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^ 89  1000  100  10  1  .1  Cs Rb Ba Th U K Nb La Ce Sr Nd Zr Sm Eu TI Gd Dy Y Er Yb Lu  10000 1000 LIL's- K,77-1,U ENRICHED COMPARED TO ANDESITE -  100 10  1 .1 1000  Cs Rb Ba Th U K Nb La Ce Sr Nd Zr Sm Eu Ti Gd Dy Y Er Yb Lu .7.  BASALT FLOWS AND SUBVOLCANIC DIKES : (least altered)  100 LIL's- K, TH,U^ -DEPLETED COMPARED TO ANDESITE _  10  1 _ Norm: MORB  1  Cs Rb Ba Th U K Nb La Ce Sr Nd Zr Sm Eu T1 Gd Dy Y Er Yb Lu  Figure 4.6^Rare-earth element (REE) and large-ion-lithophile (LIL) element scatter plots normalized with mid ocean ridge basalt (MORE; normalizing data from Jenner, 1992); rhyolite andesite and basalt are enriched in LIL's- K, Ba, Th, U. a) andesite. b) rhyolite and dacite; enriched LIL's (K, Th, U) and Zr with respect to andesite. c) basalt; LIL's (K, Th, U, Ba) and Zr are 'depleted' with respect to andesite.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^90  and display a moderate positive Eu anomaly (i.e. Eu substituting into the plagioclase phenocrysts in the dike). The basaltic rocks display flat REE abundances.  Rare-earth and LIL's plots normalized with MORB (normalizing data from Jenner, 1992; figures 4.6a, b, and c) indicate that andesites, rhyolites and basalts are enriched significantly in LIL's with respect to MORB.  The rhyolites are enriched, and basalts depleted in light REE's. Similarly, rhyolite is depleted in heavy REE's and enriched in light REE's, with respect to the andesites. The maximum enrichment or depletion of the light rare earths in the basalts and rhyolites respectively are approximately proportional. Variations in normalized values for the heaviest rare earths (Tm, Yb, Lu) for the basalts and rhyolites pivot around the mean values for the heaviest REE's in the andesites, with the minimum and maximum values in the basalts and rhyolites respectively equal to the mean value for the andesites. In comparison to the andesites, the rhyolites and basalts are enriched and depleted respectively in Ba, Th, U, K, and Zr; other LIL's display erratic variations.  These relationships may be consistent with the fractionation model of an andesitic 'parental' composition represented by the early voluminous andesites from which fractionion has produced an end-member differentiate of rhyolite (enriched in K, Ba, Th, U, and Zr), and possibly basalt; or alternatively and more likely, it is consistent with derivation: of the intermediate to felsic rocks from a 'homogeneous' basaltic source.  4.4 ALTERATION 4.4.1 ALTERATION STYLES AND DISTRIBUTION  Mineralogical variations expressed by the Hazelton Group rocks from petrographically determined least to intensely altered rocks, indicate that hydrothermal alteration occurred through processes such as phase transformation, growth of new minerals, mineral dissolution and precipitation. The mineralogy of the original rock and stratigraphic position (i.e. timing of eruption with respect to the stage of hydrothermal activity) influence the secondary mineralogy.  ^  ••••  z 10 co  m  SUBVOLCANIC BASALTIC DIKES  8  14  BASALT FLOWS  12  BASALT, 21 ZONE D.D.H. SAMPLES  10  O6  8  Co  6 4  r-  m 2  Co  2  0  4^5  0  1  2  3  4  5  ARGILLITE 10  SUBVOLCANIC RHYOLITE & DACITE DIKES  co m 6 0 m 4 co -0  2  co 0 ^ ^12  z  ^  c 10 • co m8•  40  16  35 30  14 • RHYOLITE FLOWS, 21 ZONE D.D.H. SAMPLES 12 •  25  10 •  20  8•  15  6•  10  4•  5  2•  0  1^2^3 ,r7 ESKAY PORPHYRY  10  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  DACITE FLOWS AND TUFFS ALTERATION INDEX (A.I.) 0 - UNALTERED 1 - LEAST ALTERED 2 - MODERTELY ALTERED 3 - STRONGLY ALTERED 4 - INTENSELY ALTERED  0 6• n^ cn 4• -  >  r"^2 • cn 0 ^  0  El  ■  1^2^3^4^5 ALTERATION INDEX (A.I.)  1^2^3^4^5 ALTERATION INDEX (A.I.)  Figure 4.7 Summary histograms of petrographically determined alteration index (A.I.) populations for samples taken from the Upper Hazelton Group bimodal volcanic rock suite. A.I.'s are highest, and intensely altered rocks are proportionally most abundant in the felsic facies rocks, indicating that alteration peaked following their eruption. Intensely altered basaltic rocks are restricted to immediately overlying the 21 Zone deposit; the high number of samples from diamond drill holes in the 21 Zone bias the data.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic .Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^92  Variations in alteration assemblages through time as a function of lithology are summarized in figure 3.1. The temporal and spatial relations of the alteration are best expressed by tabulation (figure 4.7) of the petrographically determined alteration index which reflects the intensity of alteration; alteration index ranges are higher in the felsic volcanic rocks with a large proportion of moderate to intensely altered (A.I. = 2 - 5), whereas in the basalts overlying the stratabound 21 Zone mineralization the alteration index ranges from least to minor intensely altered rocks (A.I. = 1 - 4); the data are strongly biased by the number of samples taken from core in the Eskay Creek 21 Zone deposit area, with the few intensely altered basaltic rocks restricted to the area immediately above the 21 Zone deposit. These relations indicate that alteration and mineralization peaked following eruption of the rhyolite and predating eruption of the basalts, although late stages of mineralization continued after deposition of some of the basalts.  Spatial distribution of alteration throughout the volcanic stratigraphy is irregular. The irregularity is visually identifiable in outcrop and thin-section as being the result of the heterogeneous nature of the volcanic pile, particularly where high high porosity and permeability existed in scoriaceous flows, flow top breccias, pumaceous breccias and lapilli tuffs, autobrecciated flows, and flow thrust faults. Zones of intense alteration controlled by primary morphological features have limited vertical stratigraphic extents, whereas alteration and mineralization within zones consistently cutting stratigraphic boundaries likely reflect major hydrothermal conduits. A regionally pronounced discrete linear alteration zone cutting stratigraphic boundaries extends the entire length of the west limb of the Eskay Creek anticline; from the 21 Zone deposits (figure 2.1, 4.8) in the north to the Coulter Creek thrust fault in the south west, and in the most southern exposures on the squashed camp anticline. The alteration zone coincides with, and overprints the felsic flow dome feeder dikes; longevity of the structure as a conduit for igneous intrusion and hydrothermal fluids is indicated by multiple stages of rhyolitic, dacitic and basaltic intrusions, and multiple stages of alteration and mineralization styles.  Four dominant alteration styles are recognized in the Upper Hazelton Group volcanic stratigraphy: K-silicate, sericitic, silicic, and propylitic using Meyer and Hemly's (1967) terminology.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^93 K-silicate alteration includes silicate minerals indicative of potassium and sodium alteration and is characterized  by the presence of interstitial and replacement potassium feldspar, albite, quartz, ± pyrite, and quartz, albite and rare potassium feldspar vein fill. This alteration association is ubiquitous and restricted to intrusive and extrusive felsic rocks, occurring as replacement and rare vein and open space fill, and locally occurs in zones of intense alteration in andesite facies rocks intruded by and underlying the felsic rocks in linear fault-controlled zones of strong and intense alteration.  Within the Eskay dacite phorphyry, most intense K-silicate alteration, with extensive alteration of the plagioclase phenocrysts occurs in samples containing potassium-feldspar megacrysts. Potassium feldspar megacrysts appear late in the crystallization sequence of the Eskay Porphyry, enclosing small sub- to euhedral sodic plagioclase, and amphibole phenocrysts and fine euhedral apatite inclusions. Late development of the megacrysts are a clear indication that the felsic melt became enriched with respect to potassium. Similarly, typical zonation of plagioclase phenocrysts from calcic cores to sodic rims, and late small albitic phenocrysts within all the felsic intrusions indicates late melt enrichment in sodium.  Within proximal and vent facies felsic flows and distal tuffs the potassic alteration is intimately related to devitrification, exemplified within least altered rhyolite flows with the appearance of white, potassium feldsparrich lithophysae, spherulites, and replacement laminae and bands parallel to flow banding comprising crowded spherulites. The completely devitrified spherulitic bands are intimately associated with highly vesicular flow laminae and bands, in which vesicles are lined by albite, quartz, rutile, and monazite (plate 3.2).  K-silicate alteration typically grades into or is overprinted partially or completely by sericitic, silicic and propylitic alteration assemblages. The alteration style is pervasive, and most intense within and adjacent to the felsic dikes (feeders to the felsic flow domes), and is intimately associated with base and precious metal disseminated, patchy, bleby and vein mineralization (galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, tetrahedrite). Strong K-silicate alteration  occurrs as discrete selvages to base metal sulphide veins. K-feldspar is also minor gangue in the 21 A Zone deposit (T. Roth, 1993), and monazite associated with the K-silicate alteration is reported within sphalerite from the 21 Zone (M. Bevier, pers. com ., 1993).  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration^94 Sericitic alteration is a white to pale green-grey coloured quartz-sericite-pyrite dominated assemblage that is  texturally destructive. High proportions of sericite replacement occurs at the expense of primary and secondary potassium feldspar. Pyrite is the dominant sulphide within sericite altered zones. It is present as disseminated euhedral grains and as veinlets, with and without quartz, that cross-cutting base metal vein mineralization. Sericitic alteration is dominant in the felsic igneous rocks, and most intense in and adjacent to the feeder dikes to the felsic flow domes. Quartz ± sericite - pyrite alteration and pyrite ± quartz veins occur within minor basaltic dikes and extend into the stratigraphically lowest hanging wall basalts overlying the 21 Zone deposit (hanging wall mineralized zones; Blackwell, 1990; Rye et al., 1993).  Silicic alteration dominated by quartz ± minor calcite is pronounced in two zones, occuring as:  1) massive replacement zones, relatively barren of sulphides, within and adjacent to felsic subvolcanic intrusions generally grading into sericitic and K-silicate alteration. Quartz veining in these zones is abundant, dominated by massive milky quartz veins, commonly cut by quartz + calcite veins. Both vein sets cut base-metal sulphide and pyritic vein sets associated with K-silicate and sericitic alteration respectively. 2) discrete intensely quartz veined zones with associated 2-4 meter wide quartz and calcite replacement envelopes occur within basalt at relatively high stratigraphic levels along the projected trend of 21 Zone subbasin facies growth faults (figure 2.7). In the basalts, chlorite veining cuts pyrite 1 quartz veins, and calcite ± quartz veins cut chlorite veins.  Propylitic alteration consists dominantly of chlorite ± calcite and pyrite. Within the felsic volcanic rocks propylitic  alteration assemblages interdigitate with K-silicate altered rocks. Propylitic alteration is synchronous with sericitic alteration: perlitic cracks lined and bound by envelopes of sericite and pyrite bound 'kernels' with chlorite rich cores; and, chlorite overprints sericitic altered zones as veinlets. Propylitic alteration does not occur within and immediately adjacent to the intensely K-silicate, sericitic, and silicic altered felsic dikes, but is pervasive laterally in andesite facies rocks and patchy within the felsic volcanic rocks. Beneath the 21A Zone, Roth (1993) has defined a discrete linear stockwork replacement zone of massive chlinchore coincident with the western subbasin bounding fault zone. The zone tapers at depth to the base of the rhyolite, and appears do be overprinting other alteration styles.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^95  Propylitic alteration is dominant throughout the basalt facies overlying the felsic volcanic rocks and 21A and 21B stratabound and stratiform precious and base metal mineralization. The degree of replacement of glass and ferromagnesian minerals in the basalts is undoubtedly a function of 'location' (top, bottom, middle, thickness, brecciation and fracturing of the flows), however the chlorite displays marked visually identifiable compositional variation into more intensely altered zones proximal and overlying the 21 zone deposits. Chlorite in least and moderately altered rocks is clear and non-pleochroic in P.P.L., with low first order birefringence colors (chlinochore). Chlorite in the strong and intensely altered rocks is dominated by penninite, weakly pleochroic (clear-pale green) in P.P.L., with anomalous Berlin blue interference colors in C.P.L (plate 3.3).  4.4.2 ALTERATION GEOCHEMISTRY  Geochemical variation of the volcanic rocks is dominated by gains and losses during hydrothermal alteration. All major and trace elements display extreme variability to the extent where trace elements commonly invoked as conserved during alteration, such as Ti and Nb, are unequivocally mobile in strong to intensely altered rocks (appendix A, figure A.5a, b and A.6a, b). The mobility of these elements is supported by petrographic observations; for example hydrothermal rutile occurs in open space fill and veins within the rhyolite. Zirconium is commonly described as conserved during intense alteration (McLean & Kraidiotis, 1987; Barrett, et al., 1991; and Stanley, 1993), but conservation can not be confirmed using standard graphical techniques involving consistent ratios for conserved element pairs that define a line through the origin. Zirconium is postulated, however, as being immobile during alteration because primary euhedral zircon remains in strong and intensely altered rocks despite otherwise complete mineralogical modification of the rocks.  Elements which best seperate the altered from least altered rocks are Th or U versus Zr (all the strong to intensely altered rocks, irrespective of composition, define a second population with higher Th/Zr - U/Zr ratios than the least altered rocks; figure 4.8); both elements are added in early K-silicate alteration probably occurring in monazite (an accessory mineral in the K-silicate alteration). A simple X-Y plot of Th versus Zr (figure 4.8a) unequivocally subsets all the intermediate and felsic rocks (Th values are generally below detection limits for least altered basalts) into two distinct populations reflecting the degree of alteration determined from detailed petrographic descriptions.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration^96  40 ^ MODERATE TO INTENSELY ALTERED  35 - (population 2)  LEAST TO MODERATELY  30 - ALTERED (population 1)  E  2 SD  25  - k-silicate, sericitic, ._9132 20 & silicic afterati  1• * Kirk] 111 • D'  15  rrljt  10  + 9' 111'  5  0  • CM X  X: 34,260 Fir NPX:1  0  50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Zr (ppm)  LEGEND BASALT VOLCANICS & INTRUSIONS Least Altered^ • Moderately & strongly altered x Intensely altered INTERMEDIATE VOLCANICS & INTRUSIONS • Least altered^ ■ • Moderately & strongly altered^0 • •  X  40  ESKAY PORPHYRY INTRUSION Least altered Moderate &strongly altered Intensely altered FELSIC VOLCANICS & INTRUSIONS Least altered Moderate & strongly altered Intensely altered Undifferentiated  I  I  35  C  z  30 25  E  I  massive clinochlore  STRONG TO 20 - INTENSELY ALTERED k-silicate, sericitic, & silicic alteration  15  L^-  10  LEAST ALTERED  (  5  0 0^  Mass  Gain I  50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Zr (ppm)  Figure 4.8^see next page.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration^ 97  Figure 4.8^X - Y plots of Th versus Zr. a) Th vs Zr plot of least to intensely altered volcanic rocks on the Prout Plateau; high Th/Zr ratios split least and strong to intensely altered rocks into two distinct subsets. b) Affects of alteration on Th/Zr ratios of the polymodal Hazelton Group volcanic rock suite; Th/Zr ratios are vector quantities. The two distinct populations in the data is the affect of minor addition of Th and major mass gains and losses of major elements. Major and dominant mass gain of K, Si, Na with early alteration, and no addition of Th, would shift a primary Th/Zr data point (least altered rhyolite, L) on a line through the origin to G (subparallel to the igneous fractionation trend); trace additions of Th (proportionally a lot less than for the majors) at any stage of the earliest alteration moves the data vertically away from the line L - G, to K; K become the new starting point for subsequent alteration; multiple new starting points with different Th/Zr ratios are generated. Propylitic alteration resulting from sea water hydrothermal convection cells, ultimately producing massive clinchlore rocks, results in significant mass loss (Si, K, Na removed, Mg added), while Th is not added, and immobile; and, the data shift along a linear trend away from the origin to C. Note if samples come from restricted areas and have suffered similar degrees of alteration (i.e. homogeneous, and subsequently have consistent new starting points) the data will lye along a straight line passing through the origin and could be confused as conserved with comparison to a least altered subset of the same rock from outside the alteration; it may result in its interpretation as a totally different rock suit. Petrographic descriptions are essential to recognize and interpret these affects. Figure 4.9^Probability plot of Th/Zr ratios, generated using 'Probplot' (Stanley, 1987). The data comprise two populations; population 1 comprises petrographically determined least to moderately altered rocks; and, population 2 comprises moderate to intensely altered rocks. Statistics describing the populations are listed at the side of the plot; the two populations overlap, and thresholds for each are listed.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^ 98  6280  21B ZONE • 21A ZONE  22 ZONE  6278 PORPHYRY ZONE  ESKAY PORPN'IRY  6276  cZb  4' 1  )1  j/4, I  *(0  1  SIB LAKE ADD  6274  10  6272  LEGEND  6270  Th/Zr RATIO POPULATIONS  I  ' n 1. mean w 0.032) o^Low Th/Zr ratio (populates Overlap of I & 2 (thresholds w 0.05 & 0.058) •^High Th/Zr ratio (population 2 mean w 0.081)  GEOLOGICAL BOUNDARIES & SYMBOLS Geological Contact 6268  Extent of outcrop traversed Thrust Foutt Normal Foult: Valor. Lefler Syncline. Anticline  6266  2 KM  UDA COORDINATES X 1000  Ifl  6264  PROUT PLATEAU REGIONAL ALTERATION DISTRIBUTION Th/Zr RATIOS INTERPRETATION BY R.D. BARTSCH and P.D. LEWIS BASE MAP DRAFTED BY A. TOILIA  Figure 4.10 Distribution of high and low Th/Zr ratios. High ratios correspond with strong to intense alteration, and are restricted to the western limb of the Eskay Creek anticline. There is a parallelism of the intense alteration with the linear belt of polymodal vent facies and underlying subvolcanic felsic dikes. Th is added to the rocks during early K-silicate alteration, which is associated with precious and base metal mineralization occurring in numerous showings and deposits within the area defined by high Th/Zr ratios. High ratios also occur on the squashed camp anticline: to the south, as a continuation of the linear zone on the Eskay Creek anticline; and, as sporadic values to the north reflecting local alteration zones. Th/Zr ratios are consistently low on the eastern limb of the Eskay Creek anticline where the Eskay Porphyry reaches its highest stratigraphic level, indicating that the porphyry is not directly related to the alteration, and consequently the Eskay Creek 21 Zone mineralization. Least altered samples of weakly devitrified obsidian crop out on the eastern limb of the Eskay Creek anticline, in the area defined by low Th/Zr ratios.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration^99  The distinct split (figure 4.8a, b) in the least and strongly altered rocks in these elements is a function of trace additions of Th with associated, dominant and major mass gains with early K-silicate, sericitic and silicic alteration (with major additions in K, Na, Si; Roth, 1993.) and dominant mass loss with variable overprinting propylitic alteration, to massive chlinochore (mass loss associated with complete removal of K and Na for Mg in massive chlinochore; Roth, 1993.). The two Th/Zr ratio populations do not represent different comagmatic rock suites: samples from both populations come from the same flow units; and, neither population defines a comagmatic suite (do not lie on a line through the origin within analytical uncertainty).The Th/Zr ratio populations have normal distributions and can be characterized using a probability plot (figure 4.9; Sinclair, 1981); the two populations are:  least to moderately altered rocks^population 1 (mean = 0.032) moderate to intensely altered rocks^population 2 (mean = 0.081)  The data are split into three subsets using the threshold values unique to the populations (0.58 & 0.050) and plotted on the regional geological interpretation map (figure 4.10); the third group comprises the overlap in the least and strongly-intensely altered sample populations. The second population, reflecting moderate to intense degrees of alteration, are arealy restricted to the western limb of the Eskay Creek anticline correlating with the felsic flow dome volcanic vent facies and subvolcanic feeder dikes; the zone appears in linear continuity (despite the structural shortening due to folding subsequent to the alteration) to the south west on the Squashed Camp anticline within the continuation of the vent fades rocks. The alteration indicator to the north on the Squashed Camp anticline is variable but dominantly indicates weak alteration in the proximal and distal facies volcanic rocks. Notably, on the eastern limb of the Eskay Creek anticline, Th/Zr ratios are consistently low indicating minimal alteration; the transition from high to low ratios is abrupt occurring at the fold closure. Weak alteration indicators in the this area where the Eskay Porphyry reaches its highest stratigraphic position indicates that it was not directly related (except as an early stage in the igneous fractionation sequence from which the mineralizing fluids may have evolved) to the alteration system on the western limb of the fold and consequently the 21 Zone mineralization.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration  ^  100  The localization, intensity and styles of alteration in the felsic flow domes and feeder on the western limb of the fold are reflected in the whole rock chemistry. Composite geochemical cross-sections are constructed (figure 4.11, 4.12) using surface and diamond drill hole samples from the Mackay and Emma flow domes, where the domes display no structural disruption; sections are constructed looking south, and plot PER element ratios (to remove the affects of closure) versus distance from a base line on the eastern margin of the subvolcanic feeder dikes to the domes. Zr (interpreted to be conserved) is used in the denominator of the PER ratios; trends observed from the plots can be demonstrated without using PER ratios to take effects of closure into accout.  The profiles map the geochemical variations across the flow dome facies. PER ratios are indicated for least altered rhyolites and dacites to give an indication of primary compositional variation, and act as markers for loss and gains of the respective elements.  From the cross-sections, the following observations emerge: 1 K is dominantly added throughout the flow domes, with the most extreme additions in the subvolcancic dikes and flow dome feeder facies (K-silicate and sericitic alteration); 2 Th is consistently added across the facies with the most extreme variation in the subvolcanic dikes and flow dome feeder facies; 3 Al, Fe, Ag, Sb, and Cu are added both in the subvolcanic dikes and flow dome feeder facies, and in the outer flow dome facies; 4 Au, As, Pb and Zn are added in the subvolcanic dikes and flow dome feeder facies; 5 Hg is added in the subvolcanic and within the internal flow dome facies; within the flow dome facies addition of Hg is most pronounced at the transition to the outer facies. 6 Na displays loss and gain across the dome with most extreme loss in and adjacent to the subvolcanic dikes and flow dome feeder facies; 7 Mg is consistently added, with only minor additions within the subvolcanic dikes and extremely variable and highest additions in the internal and outer flow dome facies; and,  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration  ^101  Figure 4.11 Composite geochemical cross-sections for the Mackay and Emma rhyolite flow domes (figure 2.4, 2.5); sections are constructed looking south, and are plots of PER ratios vs distance from a base line along the eastern edge of the subvolcanic dikes. Average PER ratios for least altered samples are shown as a base line; variations from the base line indicate element gains or losses. Gains and losses are most significant in the subvolcanic dikes and rhyolite flow dome feeder facies, indicating focused hydrothermal alteration. Minor gains and losses also occur in the transition from rhyolite internal to outer dome flow dome facies, and within outer flow dome fades, in zones displaying magmatic vapor phase volcanic textures and crystallization. Petrographically determined alteration indices (A.I. numbers increase with increasing degrees of alteration) are similarly plotted, and indicate most intense alteration occurred within the subvolcanic dikes and rhyolite feeder flow dome facies rocks.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^ 102  as  '1/4v  :9 6° 0)^ \?s-^  co 4 3.5  11 1  0.03  3-  0.025 -  t  ,, 2.5 -  i 0.02;. 0.015 -  1.5 4  N  0 0.01 -  I-  0.005a  0.5 0 14  0 0.7  12  0.6 0.5  ■  a  ■  -  .2  a  8  0.4  6  0.3 -  ■  a 0.2  4  0.1 -  2  .11  -11.-91Na  0 1.2  -  I 0.8 ?  E 0.6  1  0.4 0.2 0 30 25 -  2.5 -  320 ?  15  -  10 5-  0.5-  0^50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 DISTANCE (11)  E  Least Altered Dacite  450 500  0  p 0^SO 100 ISO 200 250 300 350 400 45 0 500 E^CVSTANCE (a)  Least Altered Rhyolite (mean) ^----------^Both (approx.)  Figure 4.12^Composite geochemical cross-sections for the Mackay and Enuna rhyolite flow domes (figure 2.4, 2.5); sections are constructed looking south, and are plots of PER ratios vs distance from a base line along the eastern edge of the subvolcanic dikes. Average PER ratios for least altered samples are shown as a base line; variations from the base line indicate element gains or losses. Gains and losses are most significant in the subvolcanic dikes and rhyolite flow dome feeder facies, indicating focused hydrothermal alteration. Minor gains and losses also occur in the transition from rhyolite internal to outer dome flow dome facies, and within outer flow dome facies, in zones displaying magmatic vapor phase volcanic textures and crystallization.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^103  8 Ca displays little variation with extreme addition in the outer flow dome facies; comparison with least altered rocks indicate minimal loss; however this may be a function of very early loss of Ca from least altered samples, as indicated petrographically (e.g. replacement of zoned plagioclase calcic cores) within the least altered rocks.  The geochemical variations are consistent with those predicted from detailed petrographic descriptions (figure 3.2). Zones of intense alteration can be inferred from areas displaying extreme ranges in the geochemistry. Greatest element additions and losses occur in the subvolcanic felsic dikes, and rhyolite flow dome feeder facies; within these zones the petrographically determined alteration index (A.I.; similarly plotted across the domes; figure 4.11), maximum is highest (i.e. the most intensely altered zone).  Notably pervasive additions of the LIL's (such as K and Th) elements, not significantly involved in material transfer during igneous fractionation (i.e. enriched in the melt), are most consistently and pervasively added in the earliest alteration assemblage with chalcophile (Sb and As) and siderophile (Au and Ag) elements, and focused in the same structure from which the felsic magma erupted.  Addition of K, Al, Sb, Cu, Fe and Hg in the transition to, or within, the outer flow dome facies (flow dome carapace) coincides with vapor-related volcanic textures, such as: finely vesiculated flow banded rhyolite (vesicles lined by early alteration assemblages of K-feldspar, albite, rutile, monazite, quartz); lithophysae; strongly spherultised glass with spherulites concentrated in bands displaying the most pronounced vesiculation (where spherulitisation is shown experimentally to be accelerated in the presence of an alkali rich fluid); and, degassing structures. This relation between vapor-related volcanic features in the felsic flow dome carapaces, and metal enrichment, suggest that alkalis and metals were derived from magmatic volatiles driven from the rhyolite internal and feeder flow dome facies.  Strong, irregular addition of Mg restricted to internal and outer flow dome facies may be due to sea water interaction explaining the occurrence of propylitic alteration assemblages at early through to late stages, but dominant as the latest and regionally extensive assemblage. Earliest sea water action is evident in the volcanic textures on the flow dome carapace in development of 'black matrix breccias'.  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^104  4.4 THE ESKAY CREEK 21 ZONE DEPOSIT  The Eskay creek 21 Zone precious and base metal deposit is hosted in vent facies volcanic rocks, and argillite sedimentary subbasinal rocks within the Upper Hazelton Group. Geological reserves for the 21 Zone are 4.3 million tonnes grading 28.8 g/t gold and 1 027 g/t silver (Homestake, pers. corn. 1993). Several distinct subzones of contrasting mineralization styles have been defined. The ore is mostly hosted by rhyolite flow dome facies rocks, and in argillite subbasin fades rocks immmediately overlying the rhyolite; minor discrete zones occur within basalt overlying the argillite. The deposit sits within 100 metres of the subvolcanic felsic dikes, and rhyolite feeder flow dome facies and within massive basalt vent facies.  The 21A Zone (figure 2.7) has probable and possible reserves of 1.41 tonnes grading 7.2 grams gold per tonne and 116.6 grams silver per tonne, at a cutoff grade of 1.4 grams gold per tonne (Roscoe Postle associates Incorporated quoted in Britton, et al., 1990). Highest precious metal values occur in a massive stratabound lens of stibniterealgar-orpiment-arsenopyrite and cinnibar, hosted within argillite at the contact of underlying, intensely altered, and stockwork veined, rhyolite flow dome facies rocks. The massive sulphide - sulphosalt ore lens internally displays complex replacement and cross-cutting vein relations. Surrounding the massive sulphide lens is a zone of realgar and cinnabar veins, generally with calcite or quartz selvages (Roth and Godwin, 1991); veins cut the outer rhyolite flow dome facies 'black matrix breccia' and overlying argillite. Much of the precious metal mineralization is associated with fine disseminated pyrite, sphalerite, galena and tetrahedrite (Roth and Godwin, 1991; Roth, 1993) in strongly to intensely altered rhyolite outer flow dome facies  Underlying the massive stratabound ore lens, and mapped well into the footwall of the deposit, is a discrete, intensely altered, synvolcanic fault zone (intruded by felsic and mew dikes). In outcrop visible alteration is dominated by intense silicification, and alteration zones contain finely disseminated pyrite, sphalerite, galena and tetrahedrite. In drill core, Roth (1993) has defined a discrete chlorite vein stockwork within this zone directly underlying the massive stratabound ore lens. The 21A Zone fault bounds the western edge of the 21 Zone argillite subbasin facies. The location of the massive stratabound sulphide - sulphosalt ore lens with internal replacement and cross-cutting vein relation, underlain by a discrete zone of intense alteration, and mineralization, within  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^105  synvolcanic subbasin bounding fault zones (focused hydrothermal flow), suggests that 21A zone is at least one example of a possible hydrothermal vent in the deposit. An analogous structure, though poorly defined bounds the argillite subbasin facies to the east.  The 21B Zone (figure 2.7)has a mineable reserve of:1.08 million tonnes grading 65.5 grams gold per tonne and 2,930 grams silver per tonne, 5.7% zinc, 0.77% copper and 2.89% lead (with a 27 % dilution factor; Danielson, 1993). The bulk of the reserve is contained within a high grade core containing 40% of the total precious metals in only 25% of the tonnes (i.e. 250,000 tonnes at approximately 5 ounces of gold equivalent per tonne; Danielson 1993), as stratiform sheets of graded and fragmental sulphides and sulphosalts, mainly sphalerite and tetrahedrite.  The stratiform ore occurs at the contact of underlying rhyolite outer flow dome facies rocks, within fine, evenly laminated carbonaceous shale. The 21B zone includes minor massive and semi-massive stibnite-realgar-cinnabararsenopyrite lenses analogous to the 21A zone; semi-massive coarse elastic sulphide-sulphosalt; rhythmically bedded coarse to fine grained sulphide-sulphosalt alternating with argillite interbeds; low to high angle vein and disseminated, low sulphide footwall zones); and, local massive pyrite-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-gold ores (Britton, et al., 1989; Blackwell, 1990; Rye, et al, 1993).  Sulphide-sulphosalt beds display sedimentary features, including grading and minor load structures (Rye, et a/.,1993). Underlying the 21 B zone is widespread silicification and a blanket of intense chlorite alteration in outer rhyolite flow dome facies. Stockwork mineralization does not underlye the bedded sulphide-sulphosalt deposits; taken inconjunction with observed sedimentary features in the main ore zone, the ore is thought to have been redeposited as mass transport debri flows (Rye, et al., 1993). One contradicting piece of evidence of mass transport is unreported, that is, the expectation of highly eroded bases to the dense sulphide-sulphosalt beds. Limited observations of coarse fragmental sulphide-sulphosalt beds by the author indicate planar bases parallel to bedding, suggesting a more passive mode of emplacement  The Hanging Wall Zones (figure 2.7) are not well described in the available literature on the deposit; the mineralization is probably epigenetic, and comprise zones of intense quartz-calcite-pyrite veining and pervasive  Paragenesis of the Upper Hazelton Group Volcanic Suite and Superimposed Alteration ^106  alteration within basalts and argillite overlying the rhyolite and main 21B Zone chemical and fine elastic sedimentary beds. Pyrite occurs as disseminations, patches, and veins, and typically has a colloform habit.  Discussion and Conclusion ^  107  CHAPTER 5  DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION  5.1 DISCUSSION  The temporally well constrained Lower Jurassic Upper Hazelton Group volcanic stratigraphy exposed on the Prout Plateau comprises a coherent calc-alkaline volcanic sequence with two major periods of hiatus, represented by sedimentary facies (figure 5.1):  andesite^hiatus 1^dacite 1^rhyolite & dacite 2^- hiatus 2 with mineralization & alteration ^basalt.  Mineralogical and geochemical variations (in particular incompatible element pairs Nb/Zr) in least altered rocks are consistent with a cogenetic hypothesis for the polymodal volcanic rock suite, and derivation through igneous fractionation; fractionation trends are classically calc-alkaline. Initial volcanic eruptions were andesitic, and volumetrically greatest. Fractionation involved anhydrous minerals, dominantly plagioclase (zoned calcic to sodic), with late amphibole, minor biotite and quartz in the felsic rocks, and rare K-feldspar phenocrysts in felsic intrusive rocks occurring late in the rocks crystallization sequence; late albite and K-feldspar indicate that during crystallization the melts became enriched in Na and K. Plagioclase, augite, and magnetite are dominant in the basaltic rocks.  Geochemical variations of the least altered rocks reflect the material transfer (i.e. in the crystallizing phases) of major elements forming minerals involved in igneous fractionation, and no material transfer (i.e. in the crystallizing phases) of K; indicating probable progressive concentration of K in the melt. Overall the rhyolite displays relative enrichment in LIL (K, Th, U) and light REE's', with respect to the earliest volcanic rocks in the area (i.e. andesite).  Discussion and Conclusion^  108  The Eskay Creek 21 Zone deposit sits within vent facies of two extreme end member compositions, rhyolite and basalt. Rhyolitic eruptions occurred along a linear fissure vent zone several kilometres long, forming a belt of rhyolite flow domes (figure 5.1). Early ryhyolite eruptions produced subaqueous pyroclastic deposits (peripheral and distal flow dome facies), attesting to a high volatile component to the highly differentiated rhyolites. Pyroclastic eruptions were followed by extrusion of viscous rhyolitic to dacitic lava, forming steep sided flow domes, formed dominantly by endogenous growth. Vent flow dome facies is dominated by massive flow banded, and flow folded, finely vesicluted rhyolitic glass (devitrified) high in the domes; cryptocrystalline, aphyric rhyolite low in the dome; and, cryptocrystalline rhyolite or plagioclase ± amphibole ± biotite ± quartz phyric dacite in the throat of the vents and deeper within the subvolcanic feeder dikes. Internal flow dome facies display pseudopillow textures which are interpreted as partially congealed magma, rolled, and deformed into spheres, formed in flowing, less congealed magma. Outer flow dome facies display a myriad of textural variations, including autobrecciated flow banded finely vesiculated devitrified glassy rhyolite, peperites, hyaloclastites, and extensional carapace breccias (formed due to internal growth extending the quenched dome carapace).  Rhyolite outer flow dome facies rocks, and the transition zone from internal to outer flow dome facies display vapor phase volcanic features; fine vesiculation, degassing structures, and lithophysae. Spherulites occur as bands parallel to flow banding in fine vesicle-rich laminae in the outer flow dome facies. Lithophysae associated with 'false pyroclastic textures' (alteration along concentric and rectangular perlitic cracks) commonly occur at the transition from internal to outer flow dome facies. Vesicles are lined dominantly with the early pervasive K-silicate alteration assemblage (K-feldspar, albite, quartz, monazite and rutile).  K-silicate alteration is associated with base and precious metal mineralization. The elements involved in the formation of the early K-silicate alteration (Fe, P, Ce, Na, Ti, Nb, U, Th, K) are a distinctive group of "incompatible" elements which concentrate in later differentiates during igneous fractionation (with the exception of Fe) or, may concentrate in magmatic water or gas phases (Hyndman, 1988). Mineralogy and geochemistry indicate that igneous fractionation involved early and progressive crystallization of anhydrous minerals, probably resulting in enrichment of water in the magma; K-feldspar was not involved in igneous fractionation, resulting in particular enrichment of K in the highly differentiated rhyolites.  N Sea Water Surface  21 ZONE RHYOLITE FLOW DOME  Basalt Pillow Flow Facies (Draped over flow domes)  Hydrothermal Vents, Massive Sulphides and Sulphosalts  Basalt Massive Flow Facies Within Subbasin Argillite Subbasin Facies  MACKAY RHY  Basaltic Dikes Onset of Basaltic Eruptions Rhyolite Spine  Synvolcanic Faults  Seawater Hydrothermal Convection Cells (Propylitic Alteration)  Distal Volcanic Facies Peripheral Rhyolite Flow Dome Facies  Minor Cryptodome  Internal Rhyolite Flow Dome Facies Rhyolite and Dacite Dikes Rhyolite Internal and Outer^ Flow Dome Facies  Magmatic Devolatilization (K-Silicate, Sericite and Silicic Alteration)  Geofantasy by Bartsch and Toma, 1993  Figure 5.1^A schematic reconstruction of the volcanic environment during formation of the Eskay Creek 21 Zone deposit.  Discussion and Conclusion ^  110  Flow dome facies displaying vapor phase volcanic features, also display variable degrees of enrichment in K, Fe, Ag, Sb, Cu, Hg; the precious and base metal assemblage is part of the distinctive suite of elements forming the 21 Zone deposits. The association provides support for the derivation of the mineralization from magmatic devolatilization. Lofgren (1970, 1971) has shown that the devitrification process is enhanced by alkali rich fluids; indication of alkali enrichment of magma during igneous fractionation, and the association of volcanic vapor phase volcanic textures, and alkali additions with devitrification, suggest that devitrification is, at least in part, the result of volatiles released and streaming from the congealing internal facies beneath the quenched outer facies carapace.  Overwhelmingly, the most intense K-silicate, sericitic and later silicic alterations are focused in the subvolcanic felsic feeder dikes and rhyolite flow dome feeder facies (probably, at least in part, overprinting the affects of degassing of the rhyolite flow domes); within these zones additions of K, Al, Fe, Au, Ag, As, Hg, Pb, Sb. Cu, Zn are most pronounced. The alteration reflects focused hydrothermal flow within and adjacent to the felsic volcanic feeder dikes, a direct link to the source magma chamber (figure 5.1)  Compositional variation in the volcanic rock suite is restricted. Least altered rock compositions cluster as four dominant rock types, viz. andesite, dacite, rhyolite, and basalt, with very little variation in between. If one is to postulate generation of the distinct compositional clustering through an igneous fractionation process (at least for the andesitic to rhyolitic rock suite), an efficient sorting mechanism is required. If igneous fractionation occurred producing volatile rich felsic melts, linear fault and fissure controls on emplacement of intrusions (both dikes and larger intrusive bodies) on the Prout Plateau, and regionally throughout the Hazelton Group, would allow maximum focusing of both the volatile phase and light felsic magma into aphophyses along the structures.  Rhyolite flow dome facies are complex, and individual domes overlap along the fissure vent zone (figure 5.1). Felsic flow domes with fault-controlled fissure vents in California such as the Mono-Inyo system (Bailey et al, 1982), indicate possible younging directions outward along the structures over periods in the order of 30 thousand years (Friedman, 1968, in Bailey, 1992). Eruptions at the tips of structure are volumetrically less, and are better preserved due to the lack of disruption by subsequent eruptions. In the Mono Craters case, at the 'tip' of the structure, latest eruptions along the structure include basaltic rocks. The author speculates that this may be due to  Discussion and Conclusion^  111  migration of the erupting centres as the controlling fracture propagates. Although this relationship can not be demonstrated for the Eskay Creek anticline rhyolite flow dome complex, it is suggested by analogy because the youngest volcanic rocks (basalts) are stacked at one end of the main fissure. This scenario may be important in producing a major ore deposit, as magmatic degassing may predate or be contemporaneous with felsic magmatic activity, and early 'ore deposits' in or adjacent to the vent zones are not likely to be preserved during early violent eruptions preceeding flow dome growth (recorded by rhyolite peripheral flow dome facies pyroclastic rocks). Consequently the likeliest preservation site for a deposit is at the 'tip' of the fissure vent zones. Similarly, venting of focused magmatic volatiles in the fissure vent zone and hydrothermal convection cells is most likely at the apex of the propagating fracture or in minor-fracture systems cutting the main fissure; early eruptions seal the fissure and rhyolite flow domes along the fracture may act as effective 'corks'. Faults cutting the main fissure vent, at the possible 'tip' of the structure, bound the 21 Zone sub basin which hosts the Eskay Creek 21 Zone precious and base metal deposit (figure 5.1).  Abundant shallow marine fauna are preserved in the sedimentary facies underlying the rhyolites, whereas relatively deeper marine conditions are indicated by sedimentary facies (i.e. no shallow marine fauna are preserved in the argillites) immediately overlying the 21 Zone ore deposit; this in itself may be a critical feature in developing an ore deposit from a volatile rich felsic magma. Hydrostatic pressure of 1 bar per 10m constrains magmatic gas expansion (gas volume increases exponentially with decreasing pressure; Cas and Wright, 1988); consequently significant water depths may prevent catastrophic explosive eruptions allowing a more passive degassing of the magma chamber. Peripheral facies pyroclastic rocks are not volumetrically significant along the strike length of felsic flow dome facies, and are not observed around the domes at Eskay Creek (possibly a function of exposure), felsic flows are dominant.  Felsic magmatism is followed by a brief hiatus during which peak alteration and exhalation of the 21 Zone deposits occurred. Hydrothermal alteration and epigenetic mineralization is pervasive and strong throughout the intermediate and felsic volcanic and intrusive stratigraphy, but weak in the younger basaltic rocks, with local intense alteration zones restricted to immediately above the 21B zone deposit. Shales marking the short hiatus  Discussion and Conclusion^  112  btween the felsic and mafic vent volcanic facies rocks, host the stratiform and stratabound 21 Zone deposits; the deposits records the peak in hydrothermal activity.  The ore and alteration element assemblages are dominated by those elements observed to be added in intense alteration zones coincident with the subvolcanic dikes, and postulated to be magmatic in origin. The 21 zone ore comprises chalcophile and siderophile elements S, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sb, Hg, As, Ag, and Au; alteration and ore gangue assemblages throughout the sequence are dominated by early addition of L1L's and REE's such as K, Th, U, Ti, P, Ba, Ce and early and late lithophile elements of Na, and Si and Mg respectively.  The link between the earliest K-silicate alteration and associated base and precious metal mineralization, to magmatic processes is supported by analogy with gold-rich porphyry copper deposits (although the latter generally are associated with diorite to granodiorite), which according to Silitoe (1993) display: 1) early K-silicate alteration commonly with minerals indicative of sodic and potassic metasomatism, where Kfeldspar is more abundant with high-K calc-alkaline intrusions (typically biotite-magnetite dominant in porphyry deposits); 2) structurally controlled, localized sericitic alteration, with pyrite as the only sulphide mineral; 3) K-silicate and sericitic alteration grade outward to propylitic alteration. 4) the bulk of gold introduced during K-silicate alteration, is associated with Cu-Fe and Fe sulphide.  Basaltic eruptions occurred from numerous minor fissure controlled centres along the strike length of the rhyolite flow dome vent facies, but was focused at the northern end of Eskay Creek anticline where it formed thick massive flow units that were constrained by the 21 sub basin bounding faults. Minor basaltic dikes intruding the rhyolites are variable in thickness; commonly smaller dikes are lensoidal, intruding high angle or thrust volcanic flow faults. The dikes intruded wet sediments where the domes were covered by wet unconsolidated sediments forming peperites, and extruded as pillowed and pillow brecciated flows draped over the steep topography of the rhyolite flow domes (figure 5.1).  Discussion and Conclusion^  113  Hydrothermal alteration is regionally weak within the younger basaltic rocks, and is dominantly propylitic, with local silicic zones is restricted to the area immediately above the 21B zone deposit. Propylitic alteration also occurs within the rhyolite flow dome facies rocks as both early and late alteration with respect to the K-silicate, sericitic and silicic alterations; propylitic alteration does not occur in the subvolcanic felsic feeder dikes, and is reflected by variable additions Mg to the rocks. Propylitic alteration is probably the result of sea water hydrothermal convection, due to thermal gradients across the flows (figure 5.1).  Synvolcanic growth faults bound the 21 Zone, and sedimentary facies underlying the felsic volcanic flow dome facies on the Eskay Creek anticline indicate a north to south transition from relatively shallow to deep marine facies, with abrupt fades transitions along minor faults. The Bowser Lake Group sedimentary facies overlying the Upper Haze1ton Group on the Eskay Creek anticline are deep marine, and include coarse turbidite sequences possibly channeled within fault bound blocks. The interpretation of linear fissure eruptive vents along synvolcanic faults defining fault-bounded blocks, and controlling sedimentary and volcanic facies; with the ultimate transition to deep marine basin facies, is consistent with a basinal rift environment.  Volcanism in extensional environments such as the Long Valley region in California (Bailey, 1982; Hill and Bailey 1985) are interpreted to have mid-crustal mafic roots, where magma chambers forming elongate chambers and dikes (the Mono-Inyo Craters chain is a 45 km long, north-west trending zone of vents in the Long Valley Caldera fed by dikes) are controlled by lithospheric extension. Within the Long Valley Caldera, recent mafic magmatic injections accompanying earthquakes in 1978, and 1980 has been suggested (Julian 1983); and, Bailey (1982) and Hill and Bailey (1985) suggests that inception of the Mono-Inyo volcanic episode was accompanied by injection of mafic magma from mid-crustal levels, which induced thermal and physiochemical rejuvenation of the existing shallow silicic Long Valley Caldera magma chambers.  A common 'homogeneous' source, due to mafic mid-crustal magma chamber roots in the extensional volcanic environment interpreted to have existed during deposition of the Lower Jurassic rocks, is one hypothetical explanation for the geochemical similarities between the basalts overlying the Eskay Creek 21 Zone Deposit and younger intermediate to felsic rocks. Basaltic magma injection triggered by tectonic activity would undoubtedly  Discussion and Conclusion^  114  intrude the same extensional structures used by earlier felsic magma. Eruption of highly fractionated rhyolites, followed closely by peak hydrothermal activity and marginally predating eruption of the basaltic rocks, may reflect thermal rejuvenation driven by the mere igneous activity.  'Bimodal volcanic' hosted volcanogenic stratabound and stratiform precious and base metal deposits most commonly occur at the contact of felsic flow domes, often within thin sedimentary units and overlain by basalt (e.g. Que River deposit, Tasmania; Large et al., 1988, Large, 1990; and, Kuroko deposits in Japan Ishihara et al., 1974). In the case of the Kuroko deposits, they are typically overlain by basalt, and commonly occur where the basalt is thickest (Sato and Kusaka, 1974); as is the case for the Eskay Creek 21 Zone deposit. The common relationship between rhyolite vent facies^hiatus with chemical sedimentation (precious and base metal ore deposition)^basalt vent facies suggests that the formation of the deposits is very process specific, related to  igneous processes.  5.2 FUTURE WORK  Future and ongoing research by the author will deal with interpretation of the extensive whole rocks geochemical data set compiled by the author (appendix B); possible study topics include: 1. determination of the regional distribution of mass gains and losses, and metal zonation studies around the Eskay Creek 21 Zone deposit; to establish further geochemical exploration guidelines; and, 2. comparative studies of the regional data set, with the local data set of T. Roth and A. Etlinger from the 21 Zone intensely altered rocks; of particular interest is the behavior of trace elements commonly considered to be immobile, but observed to be mobile in early alteration and immobile in subsequent overprinting alteration styles resulting in pseudo-conserved behavior (satisfying tests for conservation, but starting from a new altered precursor composition). Future field work is required to improve the facies framework developed in this thesis, and recommended projects include;  Discussion and Conclusion^ 1.  115  detailed 1: 1000 scale mapping of textural variation, geochemical variation of the well preserved Mackay Zone flow dome; significant well preserved diamond drill core exists for the area, and exposure is 95 percent.  2.  no significant work was carried out on Bowser Lake Group sedimentary rocks laterally equivalent to, and overlying the Hazelton Group; the author has the impression that sedimentation was contemporaneous with, and partly controlled by deformation; mapping of sedimentary facies may better establish structural styles prevalent in the Jurassic.  A fundamental conceptual question which merits further contemplation is:  ' Why do stratiform volcanogenic precious and base metal deposits so often occur in a short hiatus within sedimentary rocks, underlain by thick rhyolite, and overlain by the thickest basalt intervals in a particular area?'  The author feels the cause must be very process specific, related to the generation of the deposit, and not just localization of unrelated basaltic magma due to structural controls on feeders and overlying facies.  5.3 CONCLUSION  The Eskay Creek 21 Zone is a unique, high-grade precious and base metal volcanogenic massive sulphide and sulphosalt deposit in northwestern British Columbia, hosted in volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group.  The 21 Zone deposit comprises several subzones distinguished by differing ore mineralogies and grades. Geological reserves for the 21 Zone are 4.3 million tonnes grading 28.8 g/t gold and 1 027 g/t silver. A significant part of the bulk of the reserves are contained within the 21B Zone as stratiform sheets of graded and fragmental sulphides and sulphosalts dominated by sphalerite and tetrahedrite; the deposit includes massive, stratabound lenses of stibnite-realgar-cinnabar-arsenopyrite and underlying vein stockwork and disseminated mineralization.  116  Discussion and Conclusion^  Stratiform mineralization occurs in argillite at the contact between volcanic vent facies footwall rhyolite and hanging wall basalt.  The volcanic rocks are part of a polymodal calc-alkaline volcanic suite belonging to the Upper Hazelton Group. The volcanic stratigraphy is exposed on the northeasterly trending Eskay Creek anticline and northerly trending Squashed Camp anticline. The volcanic and subvolcanic suite define a consistent stratigraphy (from yougest to oldest) of andesite hiatus 1 dacite rhyolite & dacite hiatus 2 (peak alteration and 21 Zone mineralization) -  -  -  -  -  basalt. Breaks in volcanism are marked by periods of fine-grained elastic and chemical sedimentation; sedimentary  rocks underlying the Upper Hazelton Group are shallow marine sedimentary facies, hiatus 1 includes shallow and deep marine sedimentary facies, hiatus 2 and overlying Bowser Lake Group rocks are deep marine sedimentary facies.  Consistent mineralogy, calc-alkaline affinities and fractionation trends, in conjunction with constant ratios of certain trace element pairs incompatible during igneous fractionation (Nb/Zr), are consistent with a cogenetic hypothesis for the volcanic rock suite. Earliest andesites are volumetrically most significant and may represent 'parental' magma from which dacite and rhyolite were formed through igneous fractionation. Dominant early phenocryst minerals indicate that fractionation involved early anhydrous minerals (plagioclase in felsic rock, with minor late hornblende and biotite, and rare K-feldspar in intrusive rocks) probably leading to water enrichment in the magma. As a result of igneous fractionation, 'incompatible' elements (in particular L1L's i.e. K, Th, U) were enriched in the melt. These elements are part of a distinctive element suite (K, Th, U, Ti, P, Ba, Ce) involved in early K-silicate alteration associated with precious and base metal mineralization; where potassium in particular is pervasively added during alteration of the 21 Zone deposits footwall stratigraphy. Consequently, the alteration and base and precious metal mineralization is an integral part of the igneous paragenetic sequence.  Thickest intervals of the most highly differentiated rocks sandwich the 21 Zone stratiform deposit. The rhyolite stratigraphy is part of a felsic flow dome complex which forms a linear belt several kilometres long exposed on the western limb of the Eskay Creek anticline. Major semi-continuous subvolcanic dikes feed the rhyolite domes. Distinct rhyolite flow dome facies reflecting stages, and the process of dome growth define individual centres along  Discussion and Conclusion ^  117  the fissure vent zone. Rhyolite flow dome peripheral facies pyroclastic rocks reflect early pyroclastic eruptions. Rhyolite flow facies include: feeder flow dome facies of massive cryptocrystalline rhyolite at depth, and flow banded and flow folded rhyolite toward the dome carapace; outer flow dome facies include flow autobrecciated flow banded rhyolite, and carapace 'black matrix breccia' (hyaloclastite and hydroclastite reflecting magma, water and wet sediment interaction, and extensional flow top breccias due to endogenous growth causing extension of the dome carapace; breccias have a black chert to siltstone matrix); and, internal flow dome facies of pseudopillows (analogous to autobreccia; partially congealed magma rolled and extended in the hotter core of the dome during dome growth).  The outer dome facies and transition to internal flow dome facies display vapor phase volcanic textures and crystallization features including fine pervasive vesiculation, lithophysae, and degassing structures. Vesicles in the zone commonly are lined by fine euhedral minerals albite, K-feldspar, monazite and rutile, part of a K-silicate alteration assemblage associated with precious and base metal mineralization. Local development of 'false pyroclastic textures' are most pronounced within these areas and associated with lithophysae; taken in conjunction with pronounced spherulite development in vesicular flow bands it is suggested that devitrification is, in part, caused by magmatic volatiles. The zones displaying vapor phase features are anomalous in part of the 21 Zone ore and alteration element suite (e.g. K, Sb, Ag, Hg) supporting a magmatic origin for the mineral deposit.  Hydrothermal fluid flow was focused in and adjacent to the felsic feeder dikes to the rhyolite flow domes, resulting in intense K-silicate, sericitic and silicic alteration with vein stockwork, and disseminated base and precious metal mineralization overprinted on the dikes. K-silicate and sericitic alteration is restricted to the footwall stratigraphy of 21 Zone stratiform and stratabound ore zones. Silicic alteration is late, occurring in the deposit footwall rocks, and locally within the basaltic hanging wall rocks; silicic alteration in the footwall stratigraphy is also most intense in the subvolcanic feeder dikes to the rhyolite flow domes. Propylitic alteration is both early and late, overprinted by, and overprinting K-silicate, sericitic and silicic alteration. Complex overprinting of alteration styles restricts the ability to define alteration zonation. Zones of focused hydrothermal flow in and adjacent to the subvolcanic felsic dikes are mappable in the field, and quantified best using a petrogaphic alteration index recording the degree of preservation of primary volcanic textures and minerals. The Eskay Creek 21 Zone deposit is located within 200  Discussion and Conclusion^  118  metres of the main rhyolite feeder dikes along synvolcanic sub-basin bounding faults intruded by felsic and mafic dikes.  Basalts overlying the felsic magma erupted from numerous vents, dominantly fissure vents fed by minor dikes. The 21 Zone deposit is overlain by the thickest basaltic interval where dikes form swarms in the underlying stratigraphy. Pillow basalt flow facies are distal from the main vent zone and drape over and around the rhyolite flow domes; in the 21 Zone subbasin the flows were restricted forming massive basalt flow facies, grading vertically and laterally to autobrecciated basalt flow facies.  Transition from shallow marine sedimentary fades in the Lower Hazelton Group to deep marine sedimentary facies in the basalt facies and overlying conformable Bowser Lake Group, regional faults defining linear fault blocks controlling sedimentary and volcanic facies, and regional linear fissure eruptive fissure vent zones, indicate that volcanism probably occurred in an extensional basinal environment.  119  References^ REFERENCES  Alldrick, D.J., Britton, J.M., Webster, I.C.L. and Russell. C.W.P. 1989: Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Unuk Area (104B/7E,8W,9W,10E); B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Open File 198910. Alldrick, D.J., Britton, J.M., MacLean, M.E. Hancock, K.D., Fletcher, B.A., and Hiebert, S.N. 1990: Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Snippaker Map Area (104B/6E, 7W, 10W, 11E); B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines, and Petroleum Resources, Open File 1990-16. 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Wheeler, J.O. and McFeely, P. (comp.) 1991: Tectonic Assemblage Map of the Canadian Cordillera and adjacent parts of the United States of America; Geological Survey of Canada, Map 1712A, scale 1:2,000,000. Winchester, J.A. and P.A. Floyd, 1977. Geochemical discrimination of different magma series and their differentiation products using immobile elements; in Chemical Geology, vol.20, pp. 325-343.  APPENDIX A  MISCELLANEOUS DIAGRAMS  Appendix A^  126  100  1  IGNEOUS FRACTIONATION Si not conserved ALTERATION Si conserved  80  • _.- "  17- II .  qi+^, • 3,-Andesite ae, ,0- -- . °  60 _  A466-2:1 O ,i 0 Al * ---  74-  ---  ,  •111:0  Ii --  --V  a  Rhyolite  o Dacite  8 .  (4 .  Basalt ° -I-  20  0  2 SD  12  IGNEOUS FRACTIONATION Fe not conserved  Basalt^ct+ • • +\ co o^ \ A  8  ALTERATION Fe partially conserved in least altered +  %o  o \  \ • A 0 AA \  a) u_  At\  Andesite \ \ • 40 4 \  0  ++  4 —,-2 SD  El.  Dacite ■  Rhyolite ...., .. a -• .• is i  LEGEND  ■ + GI  ■ o  360  I  I  . it.• . +  • o  300  0^60^120^180^240 Zr (ppm)  15  e -§-  i  I^I  I^I  60^120^180^240 Zr (ppm)  BASALT FLOWS Least altered Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC BASALT DIKES Least altered Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC DACITE DIKES Moderately altered RHYOLITE FLOWS AND TUFFS Least altered Moderately altered  • • • • A  ■^r.i.  ^  300  ^  0  360  ESKAY PORPHYRY INTRUSION Least altered Moderately altered DACITE FLOW Least altered ANDESITE BRECCIAS Least altered Moderately altered  Figure A.1^X - Y plots of major oxides (a) Si02, and (b) Fe versus Zr (conserved during alteration), indicate that in petrographically determined least altered rocks, the major elements were unmodified during alteration (cluster within analytical uncertainty for each rock type).  ^ ^ ^  127  Appendix A^  15  i IGNEOUS FRACTIONATION Mg not conserved  •  12  ALTERATION Mg partially conserved in least altered  • +  t  I No Basalt p +^■  8  • 4 tO o:^0. 0D \ +•a A  4  Andesite 1 \ 0  0  ^  2 SD  0 0  A A^0  0 + +  ^'I  0  \ 0 IN^0 A  i  ^,  A^0 --1^EMI^  •0>  Dacite 0  Rhyolite  • - .I- — ___  i--  -  I  0^60^120^180^240 Zr (ppm)  ^"IN_^• Eli^af >  ^  -  300  ^  D  360  LEGEND • o It  + a  ■ 0  BASALT FLOWS Least altered Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC BASALT DIKES Least altered Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC DACITE DIKES Moderately altered RHYOLITE FLOWS AND TUFFS Least altered Moderately altered  • * • • A  ESKAY PORPHYRY INTRUSION Least altered Moderately altered DACITE FLOW Least altered ANDESITE BRECCIAS Least altered Moderately altered  Figure A.2 X - Y plot of Mg versus Zr (conserved during alteration); in petrographically determined least altered rocks, their is some variation in Mg, with only a few samples clustering within analytical uncertainty; indicating slight modification in Mg during alteration. Chlorite is pervasive in least altered basaltic rocks, probably reflecting interaction with sea water, and addition of Mg.  128  Appendix A^  .6 .5 IGNEOUS FRACTIONATION, MATERIAL TRANSFER  .4  71  •  .3  /  •  • 3/0 + / 0  .2 1  •  o  •  8  0  0  Basalt  07 4 4  A  /  kA ♦ Andesite  Rhyolite +44%^+  +2 1.  o  0  .5^1 Si/Zr PER (molar)  1.5  2  .4  .3  IGNEOUS FRACTIONATION, MATERIAL TRANSFER  0 E  / ■/  0  tc • +1  .2 • 0 /  • 0  •  A  9/ 0  / Basalt  •  /•  0  • A  •  / A  A 0 0 4,/ 24°A.° 0  0  Andesite Rhyolite 44-7  ®  ° + ai+oi  0^.5^1^1.5^2 Si/Zr PER (molar) LEGEND  •  o  ■ •  BASALT FLOWS Least altered Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC BASALT DIKES Least altered Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC DACITE DIKES Moderately altered RHYOLITE FLOWS AND TUFFS Least altered Moderately altered  • o  •  •  A  ESKAY PORPHYRY INTRUSION Least altered Moderately altered DACITE FLOW Least altered ANDESITE BRECCIAS Least altered Moderately altered  Figure A.3 Pearce element ratio diagrams for petrographically determined least, and moderately altered rocks, of Mg (a) and Ca (b) versus Si, with conserved Zr in the denominator (elements are expressed in molar terms); fractionation trends, approximated with dashed lines, have steep slopes, indicating Mg, Ca and Si are involved in material transfer (i.e. in the crystallizing phases) during igneous fractionation.  Appendix A^  LEGEND  129  Si/Zr PER (molar)  BASALT FLOWS Least altered Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC BASALT DIKES ll^Least altered + Moderately altered SUBVOLCANIC DACITE DIKES • Moderately altered RHYOLITE FLOWS AND TUFFS ■ Least altered • Moderately altered • o  • * • • A  ESKAY PORPHYRY INTRUSION Least altered Moderately altered DACITE FLOW Least altered ANDESITE BRECCIAS Least altered Moderately altered  Figure AA Pearce element ratio diagrams for petrographically determined least, and moderately altered rocks, of Ti (a) and Mn (b) versus Si, with conserved Zr in the denominator (elements are expressed in molar  terms); fractionation trends, approximated with dashed lines, have steep slopes, indicating Ti, Mn and Si are involved in material transfer (i.e. in the crystallizing phases) during igneous fractionation.  130  Appendix A^ 3 Igneous Fractionation Trend (based on least altered rocks)  2.5  Ti NOT CONSERVED IN MODERATE TO INTENSELY ALTERED ROCKS  0  •  2  • H°  F  a  2 SD .  °\G, +  A  /03^Cif \I • • 01^n Aa • 1: 11..,„ chri o-^4. 4^di drop t  44+^Rhyolite  .5 • /^nmil8  O! ^  04  0 0  & Dacite  .....  040viikik - —^1+1 " bi  imOril • 1:19 •^....^... ..  50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Zr (ppm)  3  I  Igneous Fractionation Trend (based on least altered rocks)  2.5  2 SD •  2  •  •• N  0  Basalt  1.5  •  F  •  1  \  •  .•••  .5  0  0^  ESKAY PORPHYRY INTRUSION, Ti NOT CONSERVED IN MODERATE TO INTENSELY ALTERED ROCKS •  \A^Dacite  di  0 1.0.44 •  Rhyolite  50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Zr (ppm)  LEGEND • • • • •  BASALT VOLCANICS & INTRUSIONS Least Altered Moderately & strongly altered Intensely altered INTERMEDIATE VOLCANICS & INTRUSIONS Least altered Moderately &strongly altered  • ■ 0  ESKAY PORPHYRY INTRUSION Least altered Moderate &strongly altered Intensely altered FELSIC VOLCANICS & INTRUSIONS Least altered Moderate & strongly altered Intensely altered Undifferentiated  Figure A.5 Ti vs Zr (X - Y) plots for the Upper Hazelton Group igneous rock suite. a) Ti vs Zr for all rock types and alteration intensities; Zr is interpreted to be conserved (based on preservation of primary zircon in  intensely altered rocks), however, Ti displays distinct shifts from the least altered rocks reflecting additions and loss of Ti. Additions of Ti are consistent with common occurrence of rutile in quartz veins, vesicle fill, and in Ksilicate and sericitic alteration assemblages. b) Ti vs Zr for the Eskay Porphyry; samples from the Eskay porphyry display less variation as a result of alteration; this may be a function of less open space fill, and fracturing in the intrusion, and consequently, less extreme mass gains and losses. Least altered porphyry samples define one tight cluster within analytical uncertainty (i.e. Ti is conserved; Zr interpreted to be conserved), moderate to intensely altered rocks display moderate variations in Ti, and do not plot along a straight line (within analytical uncertainty) through the origin, and therefore is not conserved.  Appendix A^  131  I  120  Nb NOT CONSERVED IN MODERATE TO INTENSELY ALTERED ROCKS  +1.  100  E .0  80  _ 2 SD  LEAST ALTERED, (Igneous fractionation)  ■  60 40 20  0  0  50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Zr (ppm)  F O  2  50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Zr (ppm) LEGEND • • • • •  BASALT VOLCANICS & INTRUSIONS Least Altered^ • Moderately & strongly altered Intensely altered^ ■ INTERMEDIATE VOLCANICS & INTRUSIONS Least altered^ ■ Moderately &strongly altered  ESKAY PORPHYRY INTRUSION Least altered Moderate &strongly altered Intensely altered FELSIC VOLCANICS & INTRUSIONS Least altered Moderate & strongly altered Intensely altered Undifferentiated  Figure A.6 X - Y trace and major element plots for the Upper Hazelton Group igneous rock suite. a) Nb vs Zr; Zr is interpreted to be conserved (based on preservation of primary zircon in intensely altered rocks), however, Nb displays a similar shift to that of Th (figure 4.8), splitting the least and strong to intensely altered rocks into two distinct groupings. b) K20 similarly displays shifts to higher values in the strong to intensely altered rocks; with exception of three least altered Eskay Porphyry samples, which may reflect higher degrees of alteration than recognized petrographically.  APPENDIX B  SAMPLE DATA AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSES  Appendix B^  133  SAMPLE DATA AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSES  Compiled in the following spreadsheets are sample data and geochemical analyses from the Prout Plateau; including surface grab and diamond drill core. Samples were collected by the author, and MDRU co-workers. Analytical sample collection and preparation procedures were consistent for all sample batches. Analyses were carried out mostly at X-Ray Assay Laboratories using their MER, research grade, analytical package. Some earlier batches were analyzed at Bondar Clegg using their analogous research quality analytical package. Samples analysis techniques included XRF, ICP and fire assay, and samples required preparation accordingly.  SAMPLE COLLECTION AND PREPARATION PROCEDURES  •  Collection of freshest sample possible;  •  Minimum of 1 kilogram for fine grained rocks; minimum of 3 kilograms for porphyritic or coarse grained rocks (more if helicopter access was available to sample site.  •  Prepare thin section for all samples (some samples missed in earlier batches).  •  Stain slide offcuts with sodium cobalti nitrate (where available the author has stained samples collected by coworkers).  •  Thoroughly clean all crushing equipment. with wire brush and compressed air before processing each sample.  •  Crush entire sample in jaw crusher at closest jaw setting.  •  Split sample repetitively to recover one 16 dram bottle.  •  Splitter cleaned with a soft brush and compressed air after each sample.  •  Grind recovered sample using a chrome ring mill to a -200 powder; milling entire sample for a total of 50 seconds.  •  To determine adequate grinding times a sieve test was run every ten samples.  •  Ring mill washed with water and dried N'ti th compressed air after each sample.  •  A 50 gram sample was recovered by repetitive splitting (splitter cleaned as per **) and collected in plastic sample bottles for shipment to the laboratory.  •  A second 50 gram sample was recovered in a plastic sample bottle for archiving and XRD analysis.  134  Appendix B^  STANDARDS  A minimum of 10% internal standards were sent with each sample batch, standards used were:  •  UBC-MDRU igneous rock standards; MDRU p-1 and MDRU wp-1, consisting of Porteau Cove granodiorite and Watts Point dacite, respectively. Both of these are local Coast Batholith rocks utilized as standards by J.K. Russell and R.L. Armstrong; and,  •  CANMET ore standards; consisting of reference gold ore CH-1 and copper-molybdenum ore, HV-1 (used only with sample batches containing mineralized samples.  A minimum of 5% duplicate samples were included in each batch. Outcrop duplicates were included in later sample batches (batch 6 and 10) prepared by the author.  Tabulation of standards submitted with the samples, was carried out by Arne Toma (MDRU Iskut project research assistant). Analyses and summary statistics of the standards are summarized in table B.2. Summary data includes; the mean, and range in means for the standards used; standard deviations; and, coefficients of variance.  Data included in the spread sheet (table B-1) and abbreviations used are:  HEADERS^DESCRIPTORS SAMPLE^Sample number (e.g. AJM-ISK90-087). UNIT^Measurement units. METHOD^Analytical technique. XRF^X-Ray Flourescence Spectrometry. GRAV^Gravimetric. COULOM^Coulometry Spectrometry. NA^Neutron Activation Analysis.  Appendix B^  135 ICP^Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry DCP^Direct Coupled Plasma Spectrometry ICPMS^ICP Mass Spectrometry. AA^Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. LECO^Leco analyzer. GFAA^Graphite Furnace AA FADCP^Fire Assay DCP CVAA^Cold Vapor AA WET^Wet chemistry.  DETECT. LIMIT^Detection limit quoted by the laboratory (for each laboratory or batch they are different, and are listed accordingly). EASTING-NORTHING UTM coordinates (sample locations also plotted on figure C.3). LAB.^Laboratory used. BATCH^Batch numbers (for cross-checking with duplicate and standards, etc.,compiled and assessed by Arne Toma). SAMPLE TYPE^Sample information available. T = thin section. X = XRD analysis. A = Whole rock analysis. RX. TYPE^Rock type based on field relations and petrographic descriptions (not chemistry). EP- Eskay porphyry intrusion (dacitic). Fd- dacite. Fr- rhyolite. FV- undifferentiated  felsic volcanic.  Fi- undifferentiated subvolcanic felsic intrusive. Iv- undifferentiated intermediate volcanic. Ii- undifferentiated intermediate volcanic.  ^  136  Appendix B^  Mv- undifferentiated mafic volcanic. Mi- undifferentiated subvolcanic intrusive. Sag- argillite. vn- vein. MS- massive sulphide. A.I.^Alteration index; petrographically determined; reflecting the degree of preservation of igneous textures and minerals. ( see chapter 3). 0 = unaltered. 1 = least altered. 2 = moderately altered. 3 = strongly altered. 4 = intensely altered. 5 = intensely altered.  Detailed thin section and hand specimen descriptions are available for most samples. Information such as: the property from which samples came from; outcrop duplicates; sampler; the percentage of K-feldspar based on estimates from stained slabs; rock textures; and, stratigraphic position (i.e. formation names assigned by the sample collector in the field), are included in an extensive spreadsheet available on computer disk.  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks.^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE  UNIT  SIO2 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K20 P205 LOI SUM H20+ PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  DETECT. LIMIT  METHOD  DETECT. LIMIT  METHOD  DETECT LIMIT  AJM-ISK90- A.TM-ISK90087 089 411684 6277699 B.C. 4 T,A EP  411779 6277825 B.C. 4 T,A EP  65.1 0.55 15.91 3.38 0.08 0.68 0.34 4.21 6.51 0.34 1.66 98.76 <0.05 0.15 85 2 5 5.9  63.2 0.54 15 4.75 0.11 1.64 0.25 3.33 7.34 0.34 2.41 98.91 0.15 0.09 80 2 5 5.3 2 7 46 <5 <5 3 <1 8800 9.3 <5 1.9 <10  XRAL  XRAL  B.C.  B.C.  B.C. XI  B.C. X1  XRF XRF  0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01  DCP DCP DCP DCP DCP DCP DCP DCP DCP DCP GRAV  0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01  DCP DCP DCP DCP DCP DCP DCP DCP DCP DCP  0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01  0.1 0.01 2 1 1 0.05 2 0.5 2 0.5 1 0.2 1 1 50 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.02 1 0.1 10 1 5 2 1 1 1 0.1 2 1  GRAV LECO ICP ICP ICP NA  0.01 0.02 1 1 1 0.2  ICP ICP ICP ICP NA NA NA LECO NA NA NA NA  I 2 1 5 5 1 I 0.02 0.5 5 0.1 10  ICP ICP ICP NA ICP ICP ICP ICP ICP ICP ICP ICP LECO ICP  1 1 1 0.1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  ICP ICP  5 10  5 4 27 <5 <5 2 <1 5500 5.3 <5 4 <10  ICP  0.2  ICP  0.2  <0.2  <0.2  NA CVAA NA NA XRF XRF  2 0.01 5 0.5 20 1  ICP ICP  1 1  16 67 130 1 3000 175  12 74 130 1.1 3900 236  200  XRF XRF  1  NA  13 175 21 7.6 3.4 16 32  XRF XRF XRF XRF XRF XRF XRF XRF GRAV  CO2  CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  METHOD  137  WET COULOM* NA ICP ICP ICP DCP ICP ICP ICP ICPMS AA NA ICP LECO* NA GFAA NA GFAA FADCP ICP FADCP FADCP* WET XRF NA XRF XRF ICPMS  XRF*  5  ICP  1  XRF  1  XRF  1 1  NA NA ICPMS ICPMS ICPMS ICPMS ICPMS ICPMS ICPMS ICPMS ICPMS ICPMS ICPMS ICPMS ICPMS ICPMS XRF DCP  0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.05 100 10  NA NA NA NA  0.2 0.2 2 5  NA NA NA NA  0.5 1 1 2  12 190 23 7.5 3.1 16 27  NA ICP  0.1 1  NA NA NA  10 0.1 0.5  3.4 <I  3.9 <I  NA  0.5  NA  0.1  0.6  0.6  NA NA  0.5 0.2  NA NA NA  2 1 0.2  2 <0.2  2 0.2  DCP  10  16  20  XRF  * Denotes exceptions: CO2-batch 1- wet- 0.01; S-batch 1 and 2-XRF-50; Au-batch 1-FADCP--1.  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L 5102 TIO2 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O 1(20 P205 LOI SUM 1120+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB  at Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  138  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90226 223 227 221 225 228 093 220 411851 6276897 B.C. 4 T,A EP 1 62.5 0.57 16.2 3.74 0.1 1 5 5.07 3.51 0.19 2.31 100.19 <0.05 1.11 75 1 6 6.1  411783 6276941 B.C. 4 T,A EP 1 60.5 0.56 16.2 4.97 0.09 2.29 1.97 2.08 8.45 0.09 2.54 99.74 <0.05 <0.02 87 1 4 6.6  34 18 61 <5 <5 <I <1 <200 14 <5 25.4 <10  411729 6277977 B.C. 4 T,A EP 2  411757 6277617 B.C. 4 TA EP 2  411794 6277492 B.C. 4 T,A EP 2  411988 6277291 B.C. 4 T,A EP 2  411908 6276858 B.C. 4 TA EP 2  411744 6276967 B.C. 4 T,A EP 2  63.7 0.59 16.8 2.92 <0.01 0.09 0.15 3.1 8.91 0.2 1.73 98.19 0.3 <0.02 110 1 3 6.1  62.1 0.59 16.2 4.84 0.13 1.8 0.28 2.34 7.99 0.49 2.1 98.86 <0.05 0.04 92 1 3 6.7  62.5 0.56 15 4.47 0.09 1.51 0.17 2.74 7.29 0.25 2.71 97.58 <0.05 <0.02 90 2 3 6.2  62.4 0.6 17.2 3.19 0.08 1.65 2.38 4.83 3.09 0.2 3.21 98.83 <0.05 1.63 68 1 9 7.1  61.6 0.58 16.2 4.99 0.1 1.75 1.92 3.41 4.38 0.25 3.04 98.22 <0.05 1.25 68 1 7 6.7  63.34 0.57 15.39 3.64 0.08 2.07 0.44 3.64 6.5 0.35 2.36 98.38 0.15 <0.02 59 <1 3 6.1  6 4 36 <5 <5 <1 <1 3500 15 <5 1.6 <10  232 10 49 <5 32 <1 1 6900 32 <5 5.5 <10  2 3 45 <5 <5 3 <I 5600 12 <5 1.8 <10  7 5 34 <5 <5 4 <1 4900 7.6 <5 1.9 <10  6 3 47 <5 <5 <I <1 <200 <0.5 <5 0.9 <10  3 6 66 <5 <5 <I <1 <200 2 <5 3.2 <10  2 4 35 <5 <5 3 <1 500 21 <5 1.9 <10  <0.2  <0.2  1  <0.2  1  <0.2  <0.2  <0.2  <2 77 86 2.6 1800 373  31 141 150 2.5 3300 168  37 137 170 0.9 16300 161  19 12 150 2.3 2600 261  16 29 140 2.2 2700 255  <2  <2  <10 73 2.5 910 162  11 99 3.4 1500 148  19 <10 120 2.1 2100 170  16 195 27 8.2 3.2 18 41  12 185 17 8.5 2.4 18 41  10 171 28 7.6 2.9 42 45  10 172 24 7.6 3.2 19 37  20 203 19 7.6 3.4 15 29  13 220 25 7.9 6.5 19 39  11 188 23 8 3.6  14 197 27 7.9 3.5  18 40  16 45  3.6 <1  3.3 <1  3.8 <I  3.9  3 <1  3.4 <I  3.7 <I  4 <1  0.7  0.6  0.8  0.6  0.5  0.6  0.8  0.8  3 0.3  <2 0.3  3 0.4  3 0.3  2 <0.2  3 <0.2  2 0.2  3 0.3  46  16  16  18  15  22  19  14  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^ SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L 5802 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 LOI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB 712 TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  */*  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90229 230 231 232  E91-027  139  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90094 095 097  411673 6277010 B.C. 4 T,A EP 2  411561 6277081 B.C. 4 T,A EP 2  411473 6277089 B.C. 4 T,A EP 2  411453 6277154 B.C. 4 T,A EP 2  410798 6275780 XRAL 6 T, A EP 2  411686 6277007 B.C. 4 T,A EP 3  411831 6277938 B.C. T,A EP 3  411862 6277859 B.C. 4 T,A EP 3  61.9 0.57 16.1 4.34 0.15 2.49 0.25 1.64 7.95 0.26 2.58 98.23 <0.05 <0.02 81 2 3 6.2  60.7 0.57 16.4 4.87 0.15 3 0.22 1.88 8.15 0.18 2.71 98.83 <0.05 <0.02 68 1 3 5.8  63.5 0.58 15.8 3.97 0.06 1.68 0.22 2.84 7.19 0.21 2.37 98.42 0.1 <0.02 65 2 4 5.9  65 0.56 15.7 3.2 0.13 2.05 0.29 5.39 4.62 0.06 1.49 98.49 <0.05 <0.02 63 3 10 5  63.7 0.67 16.4 4.64 0.09 1.88 0.37 3.62 3.83 0.24 2.53 97.97 0.25 <0.02 40 1 5 10  67.7 0.54 14.2 2.82 0.03 0.61 0.13 3.81 5.9 0.4 1.81 97.95 0.25 <0.02 160 1 2 3.7  68.12 0.53 14.35 1.87 <0.01 0.24 0.03 2.32 8.7 0.24 1.56 97.96 0.3 <0.02 130 <1 <1 3.4  130 15 63 <5 <5 3 <1 500 25 <5 4.5 <10  3 7 37 <5 <5 5 <1 400 44 <5 2.4 <10  2 4 30 <5 <5 <I <1 1100 27 <5 2.2 <10  29 148 91 <5 <5 <1 <I 400 21 <5 3.8 <10  62.2 0.607 17 4.82 0.12 0.89 2.52 4.16 4.17 0.29 3.08 100.256 1.1 1.73 52 <I 4 5.27 79 1.5 <2 71.6 <1 <0.2 1 <I  4 3 49 <5 <5 2 <1 700 3.4 <5 1.3 <10  132 13 145 <5 <5 <I 8 5200 22 <5 5.3 <10  3 19 8 <5 <5 4 9 500 35 <5 7.6 <10  <0.2  <0.2  <0.2  0.4  <0.2  <0.2  0.3  16 63 170 3.6 3000 235  45 <10 160 2.2 2800 333  21 <10 160 2.2 2600 162  15 200 73 <0.5  14 15 120 1.7 2000 109  63 2230 110 0.9 4700 149  34 414 150 1.1 5200 267  19 198 22 8 2.8 14 32  13 200 15 8.1 3 15 30  17 201 21 7.9 2.5 16 40  20 194 24 7.2 8.2 9 26  17 122 27 4.6 2.2 17 35  14 178 19 7.2 3.6 14 37  11 175 18 7.2 4.4 13 24  3.4 <I  3.2 <1  3.7 <1  2.2 <1  4.3 <1  3 <1  2.7 <I  0.7  <0.5  0.7  0.7  0.7  0.6  <0.5  .,..2 0.2  <2 0.3  2 0.3  <0.2  3 0.2  2 <0.2  <2 <0.2  21  15  25  10  18  18  17  1900 147  200 1.9 <0.5 0.9 <0.02 <I <0.1 <10 <I 6 104 4 3120 200 1 10 160 39 6.8 2.8 23.2 41.3 5.1 21.9 5 1.63 3.5 0.7 3.9 0.95 2.6 0.4 2.4 0.54 <100 30  4  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks.^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L 5102 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 WI SUM 11.20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB Zit Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  °Am PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90218 222 224 096 217 090  140 G92-049  G92-049  EP 4  411862 6277859 B.C. 4 T,A EP 4  406018 6263762 XRAL 10 AT Fd 1  406018 6263762 XRAL 10 AT Fd 1  61.7 0.63 17 4.61 0.07 1.55 3.3 2.07 5.91 0.26 2.8 99.9 <0.05 0.06 68 2 8 6.9  65.5 0.53 14.9 4.01 0.01 0.14 0.24 3.62 7.48 0.37 2.52 99.32 0.1 0.05 130 2 12 6.3  66.4 0.53 14.5 3.22 0.15 2.52 0.1 0.15 10.3 0.2 <0.05 98.07 0.25 <0.02 110 3 3 4.9  24 3 58 <5 <5 <1 <I <200 4.3 <5 5 <10  8 17 41 <5 <5 1 10 24100 282 <5 5.7 <10  3 8 98 <5 <5 <I 2 300 6.1 <5 1.4 <10  64.5 0.761 15.6 3.65 0.09 1.19 2.68 4.26 2.76 0.23 2.35 98.3 1.6 1.55 76 1 5 8.74 54 1.3 <2 64.3 <1 <0.2 1 <1 490 1.3 <0.5 0.4 <0.02  64.6 0.783 15.5 3.61 0.09 1.19 2.68 4.35 2.78 0.23 2.55 98.6 1.7 1.55 65 <1 4 8.01 56 1.7 <2 58.4 <1 <0.2 2 <1 450 1.3 <0.5 0.4 <0.02  <0.2  <0.2  0.4  <0.2  <0.1  0.4  19 <10 120 1.8 2600 187  16 45 140 1.3 4900 250  <2 <10 130 3.1 2200 72  552 531 140 0.7 3600 91  8 189 160 0.6 6800 222  10 15 71 3  12 114 20 4.6 1.5 17 38  15 149 22 5.5 3.3 12 27  16 145 12 6 5 11 21  16 196 29 8.6 4.6 20 46  15 151 23 6.7 29.6 12 20  9 114 16 4.2 2.1 14 30  3.8 <1  3.2 <1  1.7 <I  4.1 <1  2.9 <I  2.9 <I  0.5  0.6  <0.5  0.7  0.7  <0.5  <2 0.3  <2 <0.2  <2 <0.2  3 0.3  2 <0.2  <2 <0.2  2 14 74 3 1920 524 0.4 16 195 15 7.7 3.5 33.4 64.2 6.1 23.3 4.6 1.42 4.4 0.6 2.9 0.49 1.3 0.2 1.2 0.19 <100  27  13  32  25  20  <10  411433 6277606 B.C. 4 T,A EP 3  411520 6273290 B.C. 4 T,A EP 3  411895 6277348 B.C. 4 T,A EP 3  411928 6276849 B.C. 4 T,A EP 3  411821 6277848 B.C. 4  63 0.71 15.5 6.28 0.07 1.67 0.32 1.15 4.37 0.2 4.64 97.91 <0.05 <0.02 89 1 7 10  62.5 0.75 16.43 4.96 0.07 1.39 0.38 3.6 4.37 0.26 2.9 97.61 <0.05 <0.02 56 1 5 11  67.8 0.47 13 3.48 0.08 1.07 0.02 0.35 9.19 0.19 2.33 97.77 0.1 <0.02 130 2 4 4.8  11 49 49 <5 <5 6 7 22500 28 <5 18.8 <10  4 <2 32 <5 <5 <I <1 9600 <0.5 <5 0.8 <10  3 3 53 <5 <5 <1 2 <200 8.3 <5 3.3 <10  0.7  <0.2  417 615 120 4.6 1800 70  TA  1910 541 0.5 18 194 16 8.4 3 35.8 67 6.3 23.8 4.8 1.56 5.1 0.5 3.1 0.55 1.3 0.2 1.4 0.28 <100 28  24  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE FtX . TYPE A.L SIO2 1102 AL203 FE2O3 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 LOI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB Zit Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  E92-022  E92-032  G91-112  G91-166  592-104  412638 6277227 XRAL 10 A,T Fd 2 66.1 0.773 11.1 8.57 0.07 4.02 0.33 0.29 2.88 0.11 3.9 98.3 3.1 0.04 73 4 19 21.6 160 8.7 2 70.1 <I <0.2 I <I 10500 15  412337 6276652 XRAL 10 A,T Fd 2 54.2 1.54 13.4 11.5 0.21 3.75 3.87 3.47 1.35 0.52 5.1 99 3.5 2.4 20 <I 14 32 126 4.7 <2 122 <1 <0.2 1 7 1010 3.3  408075 6267722 XRAL 6 S, A Fd 2 52 1.04 16.9 8.35 0.13 5.72 6.5 3.32 3.31 0.12 2.62 100.255 1.2 0.26 300 98 32 42.3 283 54.8  405307 6270809 XRAL 6 S, A Fd 2 50.2 1.28 17 8.08 0.15 3.35 6.53 5.49 1.68 0.83 5.23 100.299 1.5 2.94  <2  <2  86.6 <I <0.2 <I <1 220 23 <0.5 5.7 <0.02 <I <0.1 <10 4 22 42 1 1650 412 1.4 3 64 28 <0.5 0.3 5 9.3 1.7 10.2 3.2 1.19 4.2 0.9 5.3 1.19 4.1 0.5 3.3 0.63 <100 20  97.2 <1 <0.2 <1 <1 210 <0.1 <0.5 <0.1 <0.02 <I <0.1 <10 <1 16 26 <I 2890 1090 <0.1 25 185 22 13 3.9 80.1 133 14.2 53.4 8.1 2.25 6.4 0.8 5.1 0.83 2.5 0.3 2 0.39 104 19  408888 6275676 XRAL 10 A,T Fd 2 38.4 1.82 17.1 10.3 0.21 2.39 12.2 2.5 2.32 0.26 6.6 94.2 2.1 7.49 280 67 47 46.6 390 36.4 <2 103 <1 <0.2 39 <I 52600 32 <0.5 3.6 <0.02  <0.5  <0.5  4.1 <0.02  I <0.02  0.7  I  43 84 65 2 1670 <10 1.3 9 90 8 1.9 1.2 8.2 18.7 2.1 9.2 2.4 0.87 2.6 0.3 1.6 0.29 0.8 0.1 0.7 0.14 <100 33  3 51 23 1 543 117 0.3 13 132 40 3 1.7 17.7 40 4.4 19.7 5.4 1.76 6.5 0.8 4.1 0.66 1.7 0.2 1.5 0.32 <100 18  54  33 15 17.2 159 20.6  141  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90062^078  CA89-24179.5  411315 6278328 B.C. 4 TA Fd 3 77.8 0.06 9.8 1.88 0.02 2.95 0.08 1.55 1.76 0.06 2.26 98.22 0.15 0.03 93 <I 1 0.8  411759 6278336 B.C. 4 TA Fd 3 79.3 0.04 8.21 1.55 <0.01 0.02 0.01 0.09 7.02 0.39 1.05 97.68 <0.05 <0.02 240 2 <I 0.3  3 24 44 <5 <5 2 <1 <200 18 <5 7.5 <10  4 1690 1716 <5 12 <1 4 10800 88.6 <5 42.3 <10  <1 11 23.5 222 14.1 386 117 <1 <0.2 9 <I 31100 92 <0.5 15 <0.02  0.4  0.2  2.6  2.1  10 107 85 5 285 161 0.8 6 91 35 <0.5 0.2 6.5 15.9 2.2 11.6 4.2 1.32 5.6 0.8 5.7 1.1 3 0.4 3.1 0.39 <100 23  <2 570 84 1 140 82  387 3706 130 <0.5 4800 256  38 173 69 11 8.9 3 12  23 143 23 10 6.3 11 29  3.9 <I  5.3 <1  1.3  1.4  6 0.5  5 0.3  20  13  75 637 129 2 6500 279 3.3 10 113 21 3 1.8 13.3 29.2 3.2 14.7 4.1 1.84 4.5 0.6 3.4 0.61 1.6 0.3 1.7 0.25 <100 15  411739 6278533 XRAL 10 Fd 3 56.2 1.38 14.5 7.07 0.2 3.62 0.84 0.07 7.78 0.41 4.85 97.7 2.3 0.3 54  Table B - 1  Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L S102 1102 AL203 FE203 M140 MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 WI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD  W MO  S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR  Y TH  U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL  B  UNIT  •/.  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  CA89-63263.5 411820 6278598 XRAL 1 A Fd 3 70.5 0.827 10.4 5.66 0.02 0.95 0.8 0.15 5.18 0.18 4.77 99.62 1.5 0.62 100 3 25 18.7 203 17.6 7 14.5 <I <0.2 9 3 <765000 270 <0.5 61 0.04 2 3.6 10 280 <761000 115 4 1530 58 3.4 14 96 45 2.4 1.2 10.8 19.7 2.7 13.3 3.1 0.55 2.9 0.4 2.3 0.44 1.3 0.1 0.9 0.13 <100 28  142  E92-021  E92-086  G91-143  S92-102  AJM-ISK90058  G91-125  412172 6277602 XRAL 10 AT Fd 3  412139 6275481 XRAL 10 A,T Fd 3  405442 6267307 XRAL 6 T, A Fd 3  408871 6275681 XRAL 10 AT Fd 3  411201 6278011 BC 4 TA Fd 4  406657 6267410 XRAL 6 S, A Fd 5  66.1 1.02 10.4 8.83 0.12 3.57 0.68 2.18 1.65 0.34 3.45 98.5 2.7 0.08 73 <I 19 17.4 228 24.2 30 231 <1 0.4 4 1 17800 13 <0.5 12 <0.02  77.5 0.198 12.4 2.23 0.04 0.25 0.2 <0.01 3.71 0.04 2.85 99.5 1.8 <0.01 74 <1 2 2.78 4 4 <2 11 <1 <0.2 1 1 30400 8.7 <0.5 12 <0.02  52.5 2.18 19.3 5.72 0.05 1.61 4.02 6.32 2.1 0.27 4.15 98.3 1.7 0.89 340 104 45 42.5 452 39 <2 88.8 1 <0.2 39 <1 29500 18 0.5 2.7 <0.02  79.2 0.07 9.62 1.62 <0.01 1.77 0.02 0.26  3 3 500 155  20.6 0.358 7.35 4.38 0.24 12.3 21.2 1.21 1.26 0.16 31.5 100.693 0.4 31 21 6 <I 7.54 75 15.8 <2 28.9 <1 <0.2 <1 <I 760 13  <5  <0.5  25.8 <10  2.7 <0.02  0.5  0.3  48.5 1.32 17.2 9.22 0.11 5.15 5.37 3.59 1.34 0.27 8.23 100.397 2.9 4.19 170 100 24 24.8 167 29.9 <2 54.9 <1 <0.2 <I 1 290 1.6 <0.5 0.6 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10  0.4  <0.2  25 476 26 1 1460 33 0.5 9 89 14 2 1.4 12.3 27.6 3.1 14 3.7 1.32 3.8 0.5 2.8 0.52 1.4 0.2 1.5 0.33 <100 20  25 101 80 3 830 <10 0.6 18 287 56 6.9 3.4 30.2 62.1 6.1 23.5 5.4 0.77 4.7 0.5 2.2 0.37 1 0.2 1.4 0.17 <100 67  3 31 41 22 554 135 0.7 8 113 33 0.7 0.4 8.9 19.7 3.5 15.1 4.3 1.36 4 0.7 3.9 0.63 2.1 0.3 1.4 0.22 <100 61  II 79 94 5 256 188 0.9 13 120 35 <0.5  19 1120 100 2.6 850 19  1.6 6.5 17.3 2.3 12.6 4.8 1.44 6.2 0.9 6.2 1.17 3.1 0.4 2.8 0.33 <100 36  3.31 0.03 2.43 98.33 0.1 0.04 200 1 3 0.9 6 34 29 <5  <5  40 211 311 13 9.3 27 62  10 <1 3.3  14 1.6 24  <1 <0.1 <10 <1 26 41 3 333 728 0.5 8 75 16 2.2 0.9 8.4 15.8 2.2 9.4 1.9 0.65 1.7 0.3 1.5 0.2 0.9 0.1 0.6 0.11 <100 42  AJM-ISK90061 411291 6278215 XRAL 2 A Fd 75.1 0.083 12 1.61 0.03 1.4 0.08 2.77 5.08 0.03 1.39 99.7 1.2 0.01 170 12 4 0.95 8 66.2 <2 32.5 <I <0.2 9 <I 88 24 <0.5 27 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 11 480 91 <1 1000 53 1.6 76 175 186 15 11.6 20.3 51.6 7.9 41.6 14.2 0.19 15.2 2.6 19.6 3.97 11.8 1.6 8.6 1.19 <100 23  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L SIO2 1702 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O X20 P205 LOI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD  W MO  S AS SE SD TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR  UNIT  °A.  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB  TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL  PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  B  PPM  Y TH  U LA CE PR  ND SM EU  GD  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90075^076^077^079  411655 6278057 XRAL 2 A Fd  411772 6278261 XRAL 2 A Fd  411769 6278287 XRAL 2 A Fd  411823 6278483 XRAL 2 A Fd  68.5 0.621 15.8 3.93 0.02 0.55 0.26 2.72 4.52 0.27 3.08 100.6 1.8 <0.01 59 2 4 7.47 146 5.9 8 17.6 <1 <0.2 3 <1 9890 87 <0.5 4.2 <0.02 1 <0.1 10 130 69 117 2 2660 165 1 20 106 7 4 1.8 11.8 21.7 2.4 10.4 2.5 0.67 1.5 0.2 1.4 0.29 0.9 0.1 1 0.2 <100 17  62.3 0.768 17.1 6.37 0.06 1.43 1.98 4.05 2.1 0.17 3.08 99.6 2.7 1.28 40 4 14 7.78 144 6.4 <2 92.6 <1 <0.2 <1 <1 250 1.9 <0.5 3.1 <0.02 2 <0.1 <10 32 32 58 6 1700 178 0.5 16 115 25 4.5 1.9 8.9 17.7 2 9.9 2.2 0.77 1.6 0.3 2.1 0.37 1.1 0.2 1 0.19 <100 26  58.8 1.33 15.1 11.8 0.06 2.94 1.59 1.99 1.69 0.47 4.31 100.2 4 0.73 54 11 27 30.5 143 28.9 5 122 <1 <0.2 3 <1 <50 1.4 <0.5 6.9 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 <I 79 45 4 1020 93 0.4 25 195 50 6.5 2.3 19.5 42.5 5.1 23.9 6.5 2.03 7.4 0.9 4.9 0.87 2 0.2 1.6 0.23 <100 33  45.6 1.34 13.5 13.8 0.2 10.9 6.66 1.4 0.29 0.15 6.08 100 5.3 0.32 240 134 65 32.6 322 35.1 <2 118 <1 <0.2 1 <1 76 3.4 <0.5 3.7 <0.02 2 <0.1 10 <1 24 7 3 552 I11 0.2 23 66 23 <.5 <2 3.6 9.2 1.5 8.6 2.8 1.11 3.5 0.6 4.6 0.95 3 0.4 2.6 0.43 <100 14  CA89-63272.0  CA89-63286.1  411820 6278598 XRAL 1 A Fd  411820 6278598 XRAL 1 A Fd  59.7 1.2 13.4 9.09 <0.01 0.41 0.53 0.21 9.56 0.31 5.54 100.366 0.7 0.02 72 3 42 19.8 326 83.9 18 109 <I <0.2 9 <1 <765000 860 0.7 64 <0.02 2 26.8 <10 3200 <761000 125 2 3590 81 5 15 97 46 2.9 1.9 6.3 16 2.6 15 3.5 0.73 3.9 0.6 3.5 0.68 1.7 0.2 1.2 0.2 <100 11  55.5 0.978 15 9.34 0.21 6.22 2.5 0.13 3.25 0.13 5.39 98.744 4.9 1.85 45 7 31 26.8 191 5.3 57 141 <I <0.2 1 <1 88 24 0.5 4.4 <0.02 4 0.5 <10 5 50 98 6 816 22 1 13 118 17 2.8 1.2 11.1 23.1 2.8 14.1 3.5 1.01 3.8 0.6 3.2 0.62 1.9 0.2 1.5 0.23 <100 15  143  G91-132  G91-132  405991 6268419 XRAL 6 T, A Fi 1 63.5 0.446 16.2 4.1 0.13 1.72 1.73 5.37 3.16 0.17 2.23 99.109 1.1 0.67 67 <1 3 4.35 71 8.2 <2 66.1 <1 <0.2 1 <1 140 2.8 <0.5 0.2 <0.02 3 <0.1 <10 5 16 87 1 2350 636 <0.1 9 112 11 6 3 23.6 39 4.8 19.4 3.9 1.17 3.3 0.6 3.1 0.5 2.1 0.2 2 0.34 <100 17  405991 6268419 XRAL 6 T, A Fi 1 63.8 0.456 16.4 4.16 0.13 1.76 1.76 5.51 3.18 0.17 2 99.697 1.6 0.68 62 <1 4 5.39 70 8.3 <2 62.6 <1 <0.2 1 <1 120 1.7 <0.5 0.2 <0.02 2 <0.1 10 7 5 87 <1 2500 627 <0.1 6 122 12 5.4 2.5 24.1 39.9 4.8 20.9 3.3 1.16 3.1 0.4 3.3 0.52 1.8 0.2 2 0.28 <100 21  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L 5102 1102 AL203 FE2O3 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 LOI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD  W MO  S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB  ZR Y TH  U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL  B  UNIT  •A• PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  144  L91-068  592-117  S92-117  S92-123  A91-092  E91-001  E91-024  406631 6273207 XRAL 6 T, A Fi 2 58.5 0.856 16.4 6.21 0.09 2.83 4.27 4.57 1.08 0.25 2.85 98.234 1.4 1.4 45 2 8 12.1 150 63.6 <2 65.1 <1 <0.2 3 <1 8700 <0.1 <0.5 0.4 <0.02 <I <0.1 <10 <1 21 24 3 1420 1260 0.6 6 135 19 6 2.7 22 43.9 5.7 26.1 5.7 1.71 4.1 0.7 3.8 0.67 2.5 0.3 2 0.31 115 25  AJM-ISK90022  409354 6275553 XRAL 10 A,T Fi 2 63.1 0.629 16.7 2.67 0.03 0.32 0.56 2.31 9 0.27 2 98.5 0.6 0.49 67 <I 4 3.24 84 8.4 <2 25.3 <I <0.2 4 <1 13600 64 <0.5 3.7 <0.02  409354 6275553 XRAL 10 A,T Fi 2 63.3 0.64 17.1 2.69 0.03 0.33 0.58 2.33 8.66 0.28 2.05 98.9 0.6 0.5 71 2 5 3.48 87 4.4 <2 25.2 <I <0.2 6 <I 13300 65 <0.5 4.2 <0.02  409430 6275679 XRAL 10 A,T Fi 2 63.6 0.556 16.7 2.83 0.05 0.38 0.99 1.71 8.77 0.22 2.15 98.9 0.8 0.64 59 4 6 4.04 82 4.1 <2 24 <1 <0.2 4 1 17100 76 <0.5 4.8 <0.02  408001 6273291 XRAL 6 T, A Fi 3 67.3 0.872 16.6 4.07 0.02 0.64 0.16 3.5 3.38 0.19 3.54 100.431 1.6 0.03 53 <1 2 6.95 84 3.3 6 14.5 <1 <0.2 <3 <I 26000 110 <0.5 9.1 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 100 33 108 4 1120 46 3.5 5 176 40 2.5 1.3 14.3 28.7 4.1 19.1 5.3 1.1 4.6 0.6 2.7 0.58 1.6 0.2 I 0.37 <100 33  409795 6276383 XRAL 1 X,T,A Fi 3 77 0.083 10.8 1.98 0.02 3.88 <0.01 0.42 2.44 0.01 3.16 99.848 2.8 <0.01 68 4 <1 0.89 5 4.2 11 57.7 <I <0.2 <I <1 71 3.6 <0.5 2.5 0.02 2 <0.1 <10 <1 83 85 4 444 13 0.7 39 154 46 13 4.3 19.2 44.3 5 21.7 5.1 <0.05 5.3 1 6.2 1.15 3.3 0.4 3.5 0.49 <100 33  410117 6276510 XRAL 6 T,A Fi 3 63.3 0.649 17.5 4.65 0.03 0.58 0.39 1.32 7.13 0.17 3.62 100.089 1.5 0.17 42 <1 7 5.36 78 21.7 <2 88.2 <1 <0.2 4 <I 30000 320 <0.5 7.7 <0.02 1 0.8 10 450 56 161 3 6320 183 3 8 140 27 5 1.9 13.1 28.4 4 19.3 5.2 1.22 4.9 0.8 2.8 0.63 1.5 0.3 1.8 0.48 <100 26  409481 6275738 XRAL 6 T, A Fi 3 64.6 0.539 16.3 1.92 0.28 0.6 1.58 3.81 6.25 0.24 1.93 98.594 0.7 1.75 67 <1 <I 3.1 75 1.7 <2 101 <1 0.8 2 <I 5400 20 <0.5 1.4 <0.02 <1 0.1 <10 18 28 118 1 4410 274 1.8 7 122 31 4.8 3.3 36.9 63.4 7.9 30.8 6.2 2.07 5.2 0.7 4.1 0.79 2.5 0.3 2.3 0.54 <100 40  <0.1  0.9  0.9  93 38 148 2 8030 279 1.7 9 112 10 4.5 2.9 18.5 39.7 4.2 17.5 3.9 2.22 3.4 0.4 1.9 0.34 I 0.2 1.2 0.19 <100 30  100 36 151 2 8020 260 1.8 6 114 9 4.9 3 18.8 41.1 4.3 17.8 4.2 2.24 3.6 0.4 1.9 0.33 0.9 0.1 1.1 0.3 <100 30  100 31 157 1 8430 278 1.7 8 108 8 5 2.8 16.8 34.7 3.5 14.7 3.4 2.21 3 0.3 1.6 0.28 0.8 0.1 1.1 0.17 <100 28  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L SIO2 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O IC20 P2O5 LOI SUM 1120+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR Y 111 U LA CE PR  ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  •7.  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  145  E91-105  E92-096  E92-146  S92-118  E91-030  S92-119  S92-119  S92-130  40053 6276079 XRAL 6 A Fi 3  411706 6278030 XRAL 10 A,T Fi 3  411217 6277622 XRAL 10 A,T Fi 3  409342 6275563 XRAL 10 A,T Fi 3  408960 6275403 XRAL 6 T, A Fi 4  409333 6275571 XRAL 10 A,T Fi 4  409333 6275571 XRAL 10 A,T Fi 4  409445 6275758 XRAL 10 A,T Fi 4  53 0.661 15.4 9.05 0.27 1.75 7.26 3.36 1.44 0.29 7.77 100.425 1.8 5.3 21 <1 7 9.15 91 11 <2 116 <I <0.2 1 <I 390 7.7 <0.5 1.9 <0.02 7 <0.1 20 17 33 33 2 948 410 0.9 7 129 21 2.8 1.7 11.8 25.4 3.8 18.1 5 1.56 4 0.5 3.9 0.8 2 0.3 2 0.42 <100 21  66.5 0.623 16.1 4.01 0.03 0.53 0.47 2.56 5.24 0.29 3.05 99.8 1.5 <0.01 41 2 7 7.59 68 27.2 300 22.7 <1  63.6 0.524 16.3 4.29 0.17 1.16 1.65 3 3.63 0.11 3.55 98.2 1.9 1.68 60 <1 4 5.75 63 8.2 7 46.2 <1 <0.2 3 <1 18200 62 <0.5 2.8 <0.02  79.3 0.096 9.52 1.75 0.04 1.19 1.36 4.62 0.3 0.02 1.85 100.131 0.9 1.01 210 1 <1 1.92 22 0.5 <2 38.1 <1  65.3 0.497 14.9 4.58 0.02 0.3 0.52 2.08 6.98 0.2 3.2  65.3 0.494 15 4.63 0.02 0.32 0.51 2.03 6.92 0.2 3.2 99.2 0.8 0.13 67 3 8 4.61 93 9.4 28 22.8 <1 <0.2  57.6 0.653 20.3 5.25 0.04 1.17 0.43 2.55 5.24 0.14 4.75 98.3 2.2 0.19 37 <I 5 5.09 79 6.7 <2 143 <1  <0.2 4 1 21500 120 <0.5 3.3 <0.02  61.2 0.895 18.2 3.43 0.01 0.51 0.53 0.25 9.57 0.35 3.05 98.9 1.6 <0.01 39 2 14 11.3 114 30.1 97 31.7 <1 <0.2 16 <1 21700 57 <0.5 5.6 <0.02  1.9  0.2  0.4  280 47 118 3 2970 153 1.1 12 110 9 4.4 1.4 14.2 28.3 2.9 12 3 1.15 2.8 0.3 1.9 0.36 1 0.1 1.2 0.21 <100 36  97 98 184 3 7720 254 2.6 8 106 9 2.9 1.1 14 29.5 3.3 14.5 3.4 2.07 3.6 0.3 1.9 0.36 1 0.2 1 0.27 <100 24  110 46 103 4 2020 156 0.8 9 121 II 3.9 2.6 23.2 47.2 5.2 21.9 4.9 1.63 4 0.4 2.1 0.36 1 0.2 1.3 0.19 <100 30  <0.2 2 <1 280 1.1 <0.5 2.1 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 7 22 16 I 240 185 0.8 25 140 134 11 8.7 29.1 55.6 7.8 36.4 8.1 0.58 8.8 1.4 10.3 2.27 7.4 1 7.8 1.25 <100 15  99.2 0.9 0.14 65 3 9 4.48 89 9.5 27 21.3 <1 <0.2 4 <1 32700 340 <0.5  3 <I 32900 330 <0.5  12 <0.02  12 <0.02  <0.2 4 <1 32000 37 <0.5 3.6 <0.02  1.7  1.3  0.6  240 82 140 2 5420 153 2.6 8 104 7 4.9 2.7 16.9 33.4 3.4 13.8 3.1 1.69 2.8 0.3 1.3 0.22 0.6 0.1 0.9 0.16 <100 32  240 83 134 3 5310 164 2.7 8 100 8 4.7 2.7 17.4 34.6 3.5 14.2 3.2 1.68 2.8 0.3 1.4 0.25 0.7 0.1 1 0.2 <100  36 49 162 3 1480 110 1.2 8  38  144 8 5.7 2.8 19.7 40.2 4.4 20.6 4.3 1.21 3.2 0.3 1.6 0.26 0.8 0.1 1 0.17 <100 38  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^ SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L SIO2 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O  UNIT  07.  K2O P2O5 WI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB 7J2 Y TH U LA CE PR  ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  •A•  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  146  TR-92-72  TR-92-73  E91-016  E91-016  E92-090  E92-147  G91-147  411604 6277761 XRAL 10  411969 6278021 XRAL 10  Fi 4  Fi 4  409361 6275622 XRAL 6 T, A Fi 5  409361 6275622 XRAL 6 A Fi 5  410593 6277137 XRAL 10 A,T Fi 5  410055 6276449 >MAL 10 A,T Fi 5  405376 6268676 XRAL 6 S, A Fi 5  77.2 0.07 9.08 3.06 <0.01 0.2 0.14 <0.01 6.21 0.02 2.35 99 0.6 <0.01 160 1 2 0.22 4 6.6 383 860 <1  79.8 0.076 9.27 0.85 <0.01 0.07 0.12 <0.01 6.89 0.02 0.8 98.3 0.2 <0.01 200 2 2 0.37 5 2.3 58 22.4 <1  76.8 0.081 11.4 1.42 0.01 0.37 <0.01 0.13 6.45 0.02 1.7 98.667 0.9 0.04 130 1  77.6 0.076 11.5 1.47 0.01 0.36 <0.01 0.1 6.39 0.02 1.62 99.434 0.8 0.01 130 <1  4.8 8 4 23100 93 <0.5 52 <0.02  <0.2 2 <1 4720 52 <0.5 14 <0.02  79.7 0.078 9.37 1.25 0.01 0.1 0.13 0.03 6.4 0.02 1.05 98.8 0.4 <0.01 190 2 1 0.55 5 3.2 22 5.3 <1 <0.2 4 <1 6410 63 <0.5 6.4 0.04  78 0.098 11 0.94 0.01 0.28 0.14 0.02 6.89 0.02 1.15 98.7 0.7 0.01 130 2 2 1.01 4 2.1 <2 5.4 <1 <0.2 5 <I 2710 9.5 <0.5 8.2 <0.02  1.5  0.7  40.6 0.799 11.9 9.39 0.22 3.61 13.5 0.82 3.76 0.64 13.7 99.355 2.8 11.7 67 16 16 23.3 224 76.7 <7 71.1 <1 <0.2 3 <1 1300 5.6 <0.5 0.4 <0.02 6 <0.1  110 2690 116 I 5440 88 4.5 29 117 38 9.6 10.1 7.2 18.7 2.4 10.9 4.1 1.01 4.8 0.8 5.9 1.18 3.5 0.5 4.2 0.53 <100 39  120 484 111 <1 2950 245 4.3 26 113 67 10 7 16.2 38.1 4.4 19.2 5.6 0.56 5.2 0.8 4.8 0.9 2.7 0.4 3 0.38 <100 25  <I 0.75 4 <0.5 38 5 <I <0.2 6 <I 8400 27 <0.5 9.8 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 25 110 151 2 2090 174 2.8 26 167 74 10 8.1 14.2 31.2 4.3 20.3 6 <0.05 7.2 1.5 10.1 2.13 6.6 0.9 6.2 0.8 <100 37  <I 0.58 3 <0.5 39 9.1 <I <0.2 7 <1 8600 29 <0.5 10 <0.02 <I <0.1 <10 27 100 154 2 2100 187 3.5 27 156 84 10 8.6 20 42.4 5.8 25.8 6.8 0.41 8.1 1.7 12.3 2.77 8.2 1.1 7.6 1.23 <100 21  0.4  0.5  37 119 133 1 5630 162 2.1 28 116 62 11 7.8 7.5 18.4 2.2 10.2 4.5 1.11 6.7  27 88 155 1 1470 228 2.4 29 155 51 12 8 16.3 36.3 3.9 16.1 5.2 0.38 6.2 1 7.4 1.45 4.1 0.6 4.6 0.63 <100 31  I 7.7 1.49 4.2 0.7 4.6 0.81 <100 31  10 2 42 81 4 2280 1260 <0.1 22 78 16 2.2 1.5 11.4 22.2 3 13.7 3.2 1.04 3.1 0.4 3.2 0.51 1.4 0.2 1.2 0.23 <100 34  AJM-15K90026 409955 6276238 XRAL 2 A Fi 64.9 0.741 15.6 7.2 0.14 1.58 1.09 3.94 1.79 0.37 2.39 99.9 2.8 0.41 51 3 32 8.77 156 15.7 12 115  <I <0.2 2 2 1660 410 <0.5 3.8 0.04 <1 1 <10 71 71 50 2 1060 148 0.8 13 119 17 4 2.3 24.5 41.8 5.7 26.4 5.5 1.38 4.2 0.5 3.7 0.68 1.8 0.2 1.8 0.29 <100 24  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE  UNIT  AL SIO2 1102 AL.203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 LOI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD  W MO  S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG  RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJIVI-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90032 257 033 256 059 060 410292 411837 410553 411730 411246 411389 6276744 6275048 6277032 6275117 6277981 6278224 XRAL XRAL XRAL XRAL XRAL XRAL 2 2 1 2 2 I A A A A A A Fi Fr Fr Fl Fi Fi 1 1 73.5 0.271 13.6 3.04 0.03 1.91 0.12 0.68 3.52 0.06 3.08 100.1 2.7 <0.01 44 34 4 2.45 16 7.4 <2 87 <1 <0.2 I <1 <50 2.2 <0.5 4.8 0.08 <I <0.1 10 6 34 105 3 2390 26 0.7 20 302 94 7.4 3.4 41.6 77.3 8.4 35.8 7.5 0.49 4.5 0.5 4.4 0.79 2.3 0.3 2 0.33 <100 35  73.9 0.409 13.5 3.47 0.02 1.71 0.13 1.19 3 0.07 2.54 100.2 2.4 0.01 35 <I 10 8.56 27 3.7 <2 113 <1 <0.2 <I <1 <50 <.3 <0.5 1.8 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 <I 39 89 3 2330 45 0.6 42 195 122 7.9 3.3 37.4 66.7 9.6 43.1 9.6 1.58 6.6 0.8 6.5 1.25 3.6 0.6 4.2 0.65 <100 28  70.1 0.504 13.4 2.38 0.01 0.28 0.11 1.28 8.23 0.07 1.77 99.4 0.7 0.01 130 5 9 7.04 81 11.3 15 32.4 <1 <0.2 2 4 9730 150 <0.5 15 0.04 2 <0.1 <10 240 550 136 1 11500 268 3.7 <10 87 5 2.8 1.6 10.9 19.4 2.2 9.6 1.8 0.67 0.8 0.1 0.9 0.22 0.6 0.1 0.6 0.13 <100 25  79.5 0.065 11.1 0.38 0.01 0.41 0.1 1.02 5.92 0.03 1.08 100 0.9 0.03 190 4 <1 0.73 3 2.2 <2 103 <1 <0.2 3 <I 88 8.9 <0.5 18 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 3 410 113 1 3120 61 2.2 51 134 80 13 10 23.9 51 6.6 31 8.4 0.19 8 1.4 8.1 1.58 4.9 0.7 4.6 0.65 <100 42  73.2 0.234 14.1 1.44 0.02 0.43 <0.01 5.85 3.66 0.04 0.93 100.062 0.5 0.01 120 3 3 2.08 15 1.6 <2 27 <I <0.2 2 <I 97 4.3 <0.5 1.3 0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 <I 310 68 <I 1310 35 0.5 27 282 59 7.4 2.3 31.2 59 6.6 28.5 5.9 0.61 4 0.3 1.4 0.24 0.8 <01 07 0.1 <100 19  76 0.191 13.4 0.4 <0.01 0.15 <0.01 4.67 4.28 0.02 0.93 100.273 0.5 <0.01 140 2 2 2.15 11 28.5 <2 24.7 <I <0.2 2 2 136 2.6 <0.5 3.8 <0.02 <I <0.1 <10 <I 420 74 1 1960 43 0.5 23 263 60 7 2.3 27 51.7 5.8 24.8 4.8 0.51 3.3 0.3 1.3 0.23 0.7 <0.1 0.5 0.09 <100 37  147 G91-138  L92-141  405312 6266931 XRAL 6 T, A Fr 1  405582 6273666 XRAL 10 A,T Fr 1  74.3 0.238 13.6 0.74 0.02 0.55 0.39 0.09 5.84 0.04 2.47 98.499 1.4 0.29 61 <I <1 3.37 5 1.5 <2 32.2 <1 <0.2 1 2 3300 5.9 <0.5 2.4 <0.02 <I <0.1 10 4 31 149 16 1540 21 1.5 19 315 35 10 4 34.6 63.4 7.4 29 5.6 0.69 4.1 0.7 3.3 0.47 1.8 0.3 1.7 0.29 <100 67  77.1 0.249 12.7 0.79 0.02 0.15 0.22 6.3 1.31 0.04 1.2 100.3 0.5 0.03 170 3 3.41 7 2.6 <2 5.9 <1 <0.2 1 1 1550 9.6 <0.5 8.5 <0.02 0.4 9 53 32 2 1400 441 0.4 20 297 27 10 4.8 32.1 64 6.1 22.8 4.6 0.57 4.3 0.4 2.1 0.39 1.1 0.2 1.4 0.23 <100 34  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE Ai S102 TIO2 AL2O3 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA20 K2O P2O5 LOI SUM 1120+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB Zit Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  V. .1. % •/. % % % % % % % % % % PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90057 080  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90063 056  TR-92-59 411560 6277846 XRAL 10  TR-92-60 411560 6277846 XRAL 10  Fr 3  Fr 3  80.8 0.081 10.5 0.47 0.01 0.11 0.2 3.16 4.35 0.03 0.45 100.3 0.3 <0.01 150 3 <I 0.43 2 2.9 <2 13.1 <1 <0.2 3 <1  81.54 0.06 8.83 0.41 <0.01 <0.01 0.02 3.33 3.71 0.07 0.53 98.5 <0.05 0.03 230 2 1 0.6  78.8 0.05 9.22 1.66 0.01 2.51 0.07 2.45 1.15 0.06 2.05 98.03 0.05 0.04 90 1 1 0.7  3 6 14 <5 <5 2 <1 <200 22 <5 25.6 <10  411194 6278848 B.C. 4 TA Fr 3  411838 6278621 B.C. 4 T,A Fr 3  78.6 0.07 11 0.63 <0.01 0.02 0.09 5.15 2.29 0.12 0.74 98.71 0.1 0.09 180 1 2 0.5  77 0.05 10.4 0.46 0.01 0.19 0.11 0.1 8.55 0.46 0.72 98.05 0.05 0.25 210 1 <I 0.4  4 5 11 <5 <5 <1 <1 <200 31 <5 30.1 <10  6 3197 2924 <5 20 <I 4 1200 23 <5 10.4 <10  2210 10 <0.5 27 <0.02  82.4 0.097 8.89 0.46 0.01 0.21 0.29 1.87 4.01 0.05 0.7 99.1 0.4 0.11 200 2 2 0.42 3 3.8 3 15.2 <1 <0.2 2 <1 290 13 <0.5 43 <0.02  <0.2  0.8  <0.1  0.7  27 383 47 <0.5 230 80  130 655 130 0.8 2600 105  33 185 68 12 7.3 24 51  35 179 <I 13 8.8 15 40  7.2 <1  7.7 <1  1.5  1.5  5 0.5  5 0.2  20  13  17 242 73 <1 675 53 1.5 28 143 77 13 7.7 19.9 43.3 4.9 20.8 6.1 0.18 6 1 6.6 1.38 3.8 0.6 5.1 0.62 <100 49  11 149 80 1 997 117 1.7 25 127 63 10 7.9 20.9 44.4 4.9 20.6 5.7 0.21 5.6 0.8 5.9 1.13 3.3 0.5 3.6 0.45 <100 56  411131 6278836 B.C. 4 T,A Fr 4  411310 6278334 B.C. 4 TA Fr 4  148  TR-92-19 411605 6278628 XRAL 10 Fr 4  AJM-ISK90072 411699 6278613 B.C. 4 T,A Fr 5  4 9 32 <5 <5 <I <1 <200 35 <5 5.7 <10  76.1 0.161 12.4 1.28 0.03 0.25 0.6 4.96 2.64 0.03 1.5 100 0.6 <0.01 76 1 1 0.74 7 4.8 <2 30.5 <1 <0.2 1 2 90 0.4 <0.5 2.7 <0.02  6 213 67 <5 <5 <1 2 <200 91.8 <5 226 <10  <0.2  <0.2  0.9  1.2  24 901 86 <0.5 260 37  <2 335 57 0.8 80 118  26 166 45 13 7 19 44  35 186 91 1I 7.3 4 19  6.9 <1  4.2 <I  1.4  1.4  5 0.4  7 0.6  18  30  3 137 77 1 238 49 1.1 19 157 32 9.6 6 17.6 36.7 3.9 16.3 4.5 0.15 5.3 0.8 5.7 1.14 3.2 0.5 3.3 0.47 <100 30  82.8 0.04 7.02 0.72 0.02 2.5 0.02 0.02 2.14 0.22 2.37 97.87 0.15 <0.02 290 2 4 0.3  398 1743 62 <0.5 930 12 52 147 31 10 8.1 10 21  4 <I 0.9  5 0.4 20  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^ SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE  UNIT  Al  5102 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 LOI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD  W MO  S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR  Y TH  U IA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL  B  0/4  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  149  TR-92-64  E92-013  E92-070  G91-118  S92-103  S92-150  A91-039  A91-039  411784 6278282 XRAL 10  412095 6278938 XRAL 10 AT Fv 2 70.7 0.086 13 2.77 0.03 1.9 0.52 1.96 5.74 0.03 1.65 98.7 1.4 0.46 120 3 2 0.96 5 5.1 10 188 <1 <0.2 1 5 2040 11 <0.5 4.5 <0.02  411126 6274285 XRAL 10 AT Fv 2 72.9 0.214 14.2 1.63 0.02 0.11 0.2 5.4 4.2 0.03 1.05 100.2 0.3 0.05 170 3 4 1.74 10 4.6 3 15.9 <1 <0.2 1 2 9250 14 <0.5 14 <0.02  406910 6267731 XRAL 6 S, A Fv 2 72 0.297 14 0.74 0.01 0.08 <0.01 5.01 4.62 0.05 0.93 98.177 0.4 0.01 130 34 29 39.3 7 45.2 <2 96.9 <I <0.2 2 <I 520 7.3 <0.5 2.2 <0.02 2 <0.1 10 6 39 75 <I 3260 186 0.7 21 357 44 11 4.6 7.3 16.7 2.6 14.4 4.8 2.05 6.9 1.3 8.1 1.7 5.8 0.8 48 0.85 <100 27  408880 6275676 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 2 46.1 1.95 17.6 7.15 0.12 1.4 8.89 3.66 2.93 0.29 5.8 96 1.7 4.94 290 54 33 46.8 385 38 <2 122 <1 <0.2 31 <1 43100 16 <0.5 2.1 <0.02  409080 6275646 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 2 69.1 0.063 8.99 3.98 0.16 1.12 6.73 0.76 3.22 0.02 4.65 98.9 1 6.48 160 5 3 2.55 24 10.8 13 90.8 <I <0.2 3 <1 13200 15 <0.5 5 <0.02  407720 6272619 XRAL 6 T, A Fv 3 75.4 0.116 11.1 1.43 0.04 0.74 0.93 3.15 4.56 0.05 1.69 99.441 0.5 1.28 150 2 <1 1.4 11 3.4 7 24.6 <1 <0.2 <I 1 1500 3.7 <0.5 1.4 <0.02 200 <0.1 <360 160 32 79 <1 1780 73 0.5 23 138 67 9.9 5.6 28 58.1 7.8 34.1 8.2 0.15 6 0.9 4.7 0.8 2.5 0.4 2.3 0.29 <100 <10  407720 6272619 XRAL 6 A Fv 3 76.8 0.074 11.5 0.66 0.02 0.66 0.8 3.23 4.64 0.03 1.77 100.423 0.4 1.2 170 <1 <I 0.43 6 2.1 5 21.3 <1 <0.2 2 <1 1800 4.2 <0.5 1.6 <0.02 <I <0.1 <10 4 36 82 1 1850 57 0.9 25 124 67 10 5.7 34.3 65.9 9 40.4 9 0.14 7.3 1.1 5.3 1.09 2.7 0.4 2.8 0.46 165 13  Fr 5 79.4 0.085 10.9 0.79 0.02 1.02 0.09 <0.01 3.09 0.02 2.75 98.3 1.8 <0.01 100 <I <1 0.67 3 7.9 48 146 <1 0.2 4 2 3950 100 <0.5 67 <0.02 6.7  1.1  0.5  440 2110 122 2 1020 <10 4.5 25 122 48 10 7 5.2 14.1 2.1 11.3 4.5 0.21 5 0.8 5.7 1.18 3.4 0.5 3.6 0.43 <100 53  0 163 89 1 2740 114 3.5 32 166 91 13 6.9 35.6 78.2 8.5 35.3 9.8 0.61 10 1.2 7.3 1.48 4.4 0.7 5.2 0.88 <100 21  51 361 62 1 2410 132 0.9 19 258 41 6.9 3.3 27.8 57.3 5.6 22 5.1 1.01 4.4 0.4 2.1 0.39 1.1 0.2 1.3 0.22 <100 38  0.2  0.5  8 79 119 7 380 172 0.9 9 104 41 <0.5 1.3 7.7 18.5 2.5 13.2 4.7 1.52 6.5 0.9 6.6 1.26 3.5 0.5 3.5 0.46 <100 45  2 92 119 2 470 114 1.1 23 108 106 9.5 5.3 19 42.3 4.8 20.7 6.2 0.17 6.9 1.1 7.7 1.56 4.6 0.7 4.9 0.61 <100 63  Table B I Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  150  -  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX.TYPE A.L SIO2 1102 AL203 8E203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 LOI SUM 11.20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD  W MO  S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR  Y TH  U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL  B  UNIT  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  A91-044  A91-047  A91-096  407719 6272572 XRAL 6 A Fv 3  408583 6272949 XRAL 6 T, A Fv 3  407714 6273290 XRAL 6 T, A Fv 3  58.7 0.08 8.4 0.8 0.07 5.43 7.95 1.84 3.89 0.03 11.8 99.228 0.3 11.9 140 <I <1 0.46 9 0.6 <2 11.6 <1 <0.2 1 <I 420 2.1 <0.5 1 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 5 25 65 1 1800 110 0.8 20 119 61 9 6.9 35.4 72.2 9 41.2 9.4 0.24 6.8 1.1 5.4 1.35 4 0.7 4.8 0.78 <100 34  79.8 0.069 10.9 1.19 0.02 1.43 <0.01 3.93 1.17 0.03 1.54 100.164 1.1 0.07 200 1 <I 0.76 7 3.7 4 57 <1 <0.2 4 3 200 1 <0.5 1.6 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 4 25 60 1 249 94 1 27 149 205 11 9.1 19.7 43.3 5.7 25.8 7.4 0.22 8.9 1.8 11.5 2.46 7.4 1.1 6.9 0.92 <100 18  82.2 0.075 10 0.89 0.03 0.34 0.01 5.59 0.31 0.02 0.54 100.08 0.4 0.04 230 <I <1 0.66 9 1.6 9 40.3 <1 <0.2 <3 1 470 7.1 <0.5 1.6 <0.02 1 <0.1 <10 4 22 18 <I 258 134 1.1 28 159 66 11 4.4 17.9 33.9 5.3 28.6 7.9 0.37 8.9 1.6 8.9 1.87 4.9 0.5 3.5 0.55 <100 16  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISIC90036^041^046^048 029 410263 410351 410104 410674 410910 6276796 6277234 6277395 6277370 6277852 XRAL XRAL XRAL B.C. B.C. I 1 4 1 4 X,T,A X,T,A X,T,A T,A T,A Fv RN, Fv Fv Fv 3 3 3 -^3 3  90.4 0.053 4.4 1 0.02 0.25 0.05 0.26 2.02 0.02 1 99.491 0.7 0.01 280 4 2 0.81 7 7.8 14 29.9 <I <0.2 2 3 336 220 <0.5 7.6 0.02 1 0.2 <10 11 <761000 83 1 131 11 1.1 24 83 26 6.3 3.8 9.1 19.4 2.5 11.5  2.8 0.07 3.1 0.6 3.8 0.83 2.5 0.3 2 0.29 <100 17  77.3 0.101 11.8 1.7 0.01 0.12 <0.01 4.94 3.16 0.01 1.23 100.398 0.6 <0.01 170 1 2 0.98 3 5.2 7 56.5 <I <0.2 4 <1 1220 61 <0.5 1.7 <0.02 <1 0.2 <10 4 410 101 <1 151 31 0.8 43 171 82 12 7.1 13.3 26.1 3.5 16.1 5.2 0.06 7 1.4 9 1.87 5.7 0.8 3.9 0.47 <100 30  73.2 0.096 15.4 1.08 0.02 0.51 0.08 4.72 3.65 0.01 1.7 100.532 1.1 <0.01 81 2 3 1.72 8 3 <2 37.8 <1 <0.2 2 2 73 18 <0.5 14 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 3 230 236 2 370 132 1.3 36 169 75 11 5.9 4.4 8.4 1.1 6.9 3.1 <0.05 4.8 1 6.9 1.43 4.6 0.6 3.9 0.56 <100 33  82.99 0.06 7.88 1.19 <0.01 0.77 0.03 0.03 3.65 0.1 1.56 98.26 <0.05 0.2 130 1 <I 0.7  0.53 98.49 <0.05 0.26 370 2 1 <0.2  3 21 9 <5 <5 3 2 600 83.5 <5 21.8 <10  224 763 1183 <5 <5 <3 4 3300 109 <5 358 <21  1  50  140 969 150 1.3 200 14  823 7816 120 <0.5 1600 49  38 177 123 10 7.5 14 35  20 145 89 11 6.4 26 47  6.6 <1  10 <1  1.7  2.2  8 0.9  14 1.4  26  21  83 0.05 7.44 0.79 <0.01 0.05 0.06 0.06 6.37 0.14  Table B- 1  Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks.^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L S102 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O X20 P2O5 LOI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  a/.  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  151  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90049 050^052 053^064 100^104 112 410927 409394 410927 411201 410927 410919 410850 410927 6277939 6277939 6276249 6277939 6278007 6278995 6278413 6277939 B.C. XRAL B.C. B.C. B.C. XRAL B.C. XRAL 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 TA X,T,A T,A T,A T,A T,A X,T,A TA Fv Fv Fv Fv Fv Fv Fv Fv 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 76.65 0.06 11.13 1.42 <0.01 0.56 0.06 4.11 2.23 0.15 1.44 97.81 <0.05 0.27 150 I <1 0.9  75.71 0.09 13.1 0.88 <0.01 0.75 0.02 2.14 4.05 0.07 2.02 98.83 <0.05 0.1 170 <I 1 1.1  78.3 0.07 10.1 1.65 0.01 0.68 0.11 2.55 2.62 0.04 1.99 98.12 0.15 0.09 130 18 I 0.6  66 0.08 19.2 0.94 <1101 0.46 0.05 3.35 8.62 0.07 1.64 100.41 <0.05 0.08 88 2 <I 1  76.6 0.07 11.7 1.04 0.01 0.43 0.14 3.22 3.7 0.06 1.3 98.27 0.1 0.04 150 2 1 0.8  5 39 97 <5 <5 3 7 5900 4490 <5 53.2 <10  5 33 77 <5 <5 <1 4 1600 898 <5 56.2 <10  7 40 85 <5 <5 <I 24 6300 445 <5 56.8 <10  5 27 65 <5 <5 4 9 4300 946 <5 130 <10  4 25 102 <5 <5 4 <1 700 58.6 <5 13.3 <10  1.3  1.4  0.9  0.3  <0.2  180 2063 110 1.4 270 63  150 11686 140 2.2 120 40  60 1512 130 1.4 190 45  2610 32720 280 1.2 630 70  <2 227 150 1.5 160 I11  33 178 94 12 6.9 11 23  70 248 46 20.1 13 18 40  36 169 104 14 14 39 69  61 241 95 21 20.1 20 52  53 221 140 16 14 31 37  7.4 <I  5.2 <1  10.3 <I  11.8 <1  12 <I  1.5  0.9  2.3  2.3  2.7  12 1.1  6 0.4  9 0.7  12 0.7  12 I  28  80  46  40  22  79.8 0.078 11.1 1.15 0.02 0.42 0.02 2.26 3.83 0.01 1.54 100.425 1.1 0.02 180 9 2 0.99 10 34.4 8 123 <1 <0.2 4 6 704 38 <0.5 9.7 0.04 <1 0.1 <10 <1 180 153 2 1610 62 2 46 143 79 13 10.2 27.9 55.6 7.2 34.2 9.5 <0.05 11.1 1.9 12.2 2.32 7.8 1.2 7.5 0.98 <100 30  85.6 0.066 7.43 0.57 <0.01 0.07 <0.01 1.46 4.27 0.01 0.54 100.06 0.3 <0.01 230 4 <I 0.53 3 6.1 19 43.3 2 <0.2 2 2 155 110 <0.5 43 0.08 1 1 <10 29 600 108 1 333 31 3.1 37 125 50 10 7.3 14.7 28.8 3.6 16.4 4.6 0.08 4.2 0.8 5.5 1.16 4 0.6 4.1 0.57 <100 20  82 0.065 8.49 0.7 0.02 0.1 0.63 0.18 6.57 0.02 0.54 99.552 0.3 0.49 240 4 <I 0.63 5 223 805 853 <I 4.5 7 3 2450 63 <0.5 250 <0.02 <1 50.3 <10 510 <761000 123 I 2000 74 6.3 35 117 42 10 7 26.4 58.6 7.9 39.1 10.2 0.05 10.7 1.8 11.2 2.11 6.2 0.8 4.9 0.66 <100 14  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^ SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L  UNIT  5102 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 WI  SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD  W MO  S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB Zit  Y TH  U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL  B  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  AJM-ISK90197  408654 6273291 XRAL 1 A Fv 3 79.8 0.078 10.8 1.56 0.02 0.52 0.02 3.08 2.51 0.02 1.47 99.96 1.1 <0.01 200 4 2 1.69 10 3.7 <2 47.3 <1 <0.2 4 6 888 2.7 <0.5 1.5 0.02 <1 <0.1 10 <1 58 105 2 535 60 0.7 46 149 118 13 8.2 29 57.9 7.5 34.3 8.7 0.58 10.3 1.9 13.3 2.54 8 1.1 6.2 0.84 <100 31  152  E92-002  E92-003  E92-024  E92-087  G91-117  G91-126  G91-170  412227 6278275 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 3 75.5 0.664 7.75 6.11 0.18 2.18 0.55 1.66 1.37 0.3 3.25 99.7 1.8 0.03 120 <1 15 10.4 154 18.9 465 810 1 3.4 21 9 22200 150 2.6 18 <0.02  412227 6278275 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 3 56.5 1.42 14.2 9.03 0.21 3.3 0.98 4.48 2.33 0.58 4.7 98.5 2.5 0.01  412149 6277143 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 3 52.2 1.38 14.3 12.9 0.06 2.2 0.57 0.1 8.82 0.39 5.9 99.1 2.1 <0.01 32 <1 22 27.8 326 18.7 31  412441 6277432 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 3 71 0.635 8.8 6.13 0.08 2.63 0.44 <0.01 4.59 0.11 2.75 97.4 2 0.13 88 4 16 15.5 142 11.7 16 78.8 <I <0.2 8 4 10300 14 <0.5 6.1 <0.02  406871 6267739 XRAL 6 S, A Fv 3 71.9 0.311 14 0.83 0.01 0.09 <0.01 4.9 4.72 0.05 0.93 98.191 0.4 0.03 110 <1 <1 3.82 11 1.1 11 7 <I <0.2 2 2 1100 7.8 <0.5 2.2 <0.02 <I <0.1 <10 3 56 76 <1 3340 165 1.3 24 392 38 11 4.8 41 75.9 9 34.7 7.8 0.94 4.5 0.6 3 0.62 2.1 0.3 2.2 0.44 <100 20  406787 6267384 XRAL 6 S, A Fv 3 70.1 0.364 12.3 2.16 0.1 0.73 3.75 2.82 3.25 0.08 4.39 100.335 1 3.56 53 5 2 6.42 49 17.8 7 123 <1 <0.2 2 2 2500 8.8 <0.5 2.8 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 <1 60 91 7 1530 755 1 11 197 36 5.9 2.5 24.8 43.7 5.5 20.9 4.8 0.99 4.4 0.7 3.5 0.52 1.6 0.2 1.3 0.16 <100 68  405203 6270937 XRAL 6 S, A Fv 3 63.8 0.439 15.4 3.5 0.09 1.83 3.54 4.79 2.19 0.17 3.77 99.725 1.6 2.21 49 16 5 5.57 63 18.7 <2 51.8 <1 <0.2 2 <1 1700 2.4 <0.5 1.2 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 6 11 59 3 1280 406 1.1 8 94 17 5.1 2.9 12.6 24.2 2.9 12.6 3.2 0.81 2.3 0.5 2.9 0.46 2 0.3 1.7 0.32 <100 44  40  <1 12 19.8 248 8.3 36 46.9 1 <0.2 22 9 33600 220 1.7 22 <0.02  54  <I <0.2 6 5 57800 430 <0.5 12 <0.02  1.3  1.2  1.7  2.1  31 755 32 1 1830  49 224 39 1 6420 78 1.3 9 106 9 2.4 1.7 16.7 36.9 4.1 17.7 4.6 1.75 11.2 0.4 2.2 0.38 I 0.1 1.1 0.25 <100 <10  100 329 145 <1 2290 <10 2.6 10 112 11 2.6 1.4 9.3 23.3 2.8 12.4 3.4 1.4 3.5 0.4 2.3 0.39 1.1 0.2 1.3 0.25 <100 20  75 523 76 1 2440 33 1.2 7 83 8 2 1.2 4.6 10.7 1.2 5.3 1.4 0.78 1.6 0.2 1.4 0.26 0.7 0.1 0.8 0.13 <100 29  54  0.5 7 56 5 1.2 0.5 4.7 10.7 1.2 5.6 1.6 0.68 1.7 0.2 1.1 0.21 0.5 <0.1 0.6 0.08 <100 30  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks.^ SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L SIO2 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 WI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB  Zit Y  TH U  LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  •/.  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  153  G92-050  G92-051  092-057  S92-099  S92-102  S92-105  S92-106  S92-107  405450 6264633 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 3  405629 6265014 XRAL I0 A,T RN, 3 74.4 0.092 13.9 0.49 0.03 0.13 0.19 5.35 3.35 0.02 1.1 99.1 0.6 <0.01 110 3 <I 2.01 5 1.5 <2 16.1 <I <0.2 2 1 260 0.8 <0.5 0.5 <0.02  405766 6265633 XRAL 10 A,T RN, 3 79 0.191 10.8 0.7 0.02 0.11 0.24 4.94 2.29 0.03 0.6 99.3 0.3 0.07 270 3 2 1.27 6 3.1 7 29.4 <1 <0.2 1 I 990 2.2 <0.5 1.1 <0.02  408864 6275684 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 3  408871 6275681 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 3  408895 6275674 XRAL 10 A,T RN, 3  408902 6275673 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 3  74.9 0.087 11.3 2 0.02 0.29 0.35 0.71 6.89 0.03 1.45 98.1 0.6 0.11 210 2 1 0.94 4 3.2 10 108 <I <0.2 4 <1 7800 6.9 <0.5 1.8 <0.02  52.6 2.16 19 5.61 0.05 1.59 4.17 6.29 2.17 0.27 4.1 98.1 1.7 0.92 320 104 44 43.7 373 38.8 <2 88.9 1 <0.2 36 <I 28000 16 <0.5 2.4 <0.02  70.4 0.088 13.6 2.6 0.07 1.65 1.48 2.09 4.1 0.03 2.6 98.8 1.7 0.93 130 2 2 1.95 5 7 8 111 I <0.2 4 2 3680 3.1 <0.5 1.2 <0.02  79 0.104 10.1 1.99 0.03 0.36 0.76 3.36 3.15 0.03 1 99.9 0.5 0.41 190 1 2 0.71 3 3.2 8 26.1 <1 <0.2 3 <1 2750 1.4 <0.5 1.4 <0.02  409042 6275659 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 3 79.5 0.076 10.3 1.48 0.02 0.44 0.42 0.14 5.07 0.02 1.55 99.1 1.2 0.22 160 3 2 2.31 10 3.4 4 85.2 1 <0.2 4 10 4370 7 <0.5 2.4 <0.02  77.7 0.159 12.6 0.37 0.02 0.06 0.16 6.62 1.57 0.03 0.95 100.4 0.4 <0.01 130 3 2 1.31 5 2.2 3 11.9 <1 <0.2 <1 <I 1030 <0.5 <0.5 0.7 <0.02 0.8 10 16 32 <I 1140 150 0.3 22 112 10 14 5.6 36 63.8 5.3 17 2.7 0.6 2.7 0.3 1.6 0.31 1 0.2 1.4 0.21 <100 26  0.2  0.7  <0.1  <0.1  0.3  0.4  <0.1  12 18 97 1 298 122 0.7 24 78 14 II 6.4 18.5 40.3 3.7 11.9 2.8 0.28 2.6 0.4 2.3 0.43 1.3 0.2 1.5 0.22 <100 36  10 15 36 1  13 55 144 1 872 67 1.4 23 157 89 14 8.9 34.1 74.7 8.2 34.2 9.9 0.26 10.6 1.6 10.4 2.07 5.9 0.9 6.3 0.79 <100 37  7 81 92 6 261 179 0.9 14 115 58 0.5 1.3 6.8 17.7 2.5 12.9 4.8 1.46 6.2 0.9 6.4 1.17 3.1 0.4 2.9 0.34 <100 26  11 54 164 4 249 79 1 34 187 116 17 11.3 39 86.2 9.3 39.5 11.5 0.15 12.7 1.9 13.5 2.68 7.9 1.3 9.4 1.18 <100 37  7 18 84 <I 400 72 0.7 24 142 87 12 7.4 21.5 48.3 5.5 23.7 7.1 0.12 8.2 1.2 8.3 1.6 4.6 0.7 5.1 0.68 <100 31  12 20 156 2 913 27 1.5 25 138 53 '13 7.8 17.4 40.3 4.6 19.7 5.9 0.25 6.4 0.9 6.4 1.3 3.8 0.6 4 0.63 <100 45  2850 251 0.5 20 118 9 14 5 43 71.9 5.9 18.7 2.8 0.98 2.2 0.3 1.5 0.3 0.9 0.1 1.2 0.21 <100 31  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX.TYPE A.I. SIO2 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 LOI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB Zit Y TH U IA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  S92-109  S92-109  S92-110  A91-041  409080 6275646 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 3  409080 6275646 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 3  409098 6275641 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 3  407718 6272592 XRAL 6 T, A Fv 4  46.2 1.49 14.2 6.22 0.21 1.21 11.6 2.97 3.15 0.25 5.75 93.3 1.4 9.48 230 47 35 36.1 282 33.6 10 86.3 <1 <0.2 32 1 38800 76 <0.5 21 <0.02  46.4 1.49 13.9 6.31 0.21 1.22 11.7 3.04 3.17 0.26 5.65 93.4 1.4 9.45 220 43 33 33.9 305 33.2 10 82.5 <1 <0.2 30 <I 38200 73 <0.5 20 <0.02  72.7 0.11 13.7 1.73 0.04 1.18 1.74 5.31 1.82 0.02 1.8 100.2 1.3 1.15 100 2 1 1.32 <2 3.9 17 131 <1 <0.2 3 <I 1590 3.4 <0.5 1.2 <0.02  77.8 0.07 10.1 0.82 0.02 0.66 0.95 2.6 4.29 0.03 2.08 99.632 0.4 1.35 200 <I <1 0.47 7 2.4 6 45.7 <1 <0.2 1 <I 3100 2.7 <0.5 1.7 <0.02  0.2  <0.1  <0.1  10 101 144 4 185 154 1.5 34 86 124 0.8 4.6 10.9 24.6 3 15.3 5.2 0.51 7.4 1.1 8.4 1.69 5.2 0.8 5.3 0.67 <100 59  7 101 144 5 190 157 1.4 33 88 117 0.8 4.9 10.8 24.1 3 14.5 5 0.49 6.7 1.1 8 1.99 5 0.8 5.1 0.64 <100 58  6 38 108 3 230 84 0.6 38 188 129 15 9.8 34 78.3 9.3 39.4 12.3 0.11 13.8 2.1 14 2.62 7.5 1.1 7.8 0.91 <100 34  <1 <0.1 10 4 66 74 1 1630 70 1.2 26 121 45 10 6 26.6 56.7 7.4 31.5 7.7 0.2 5.1 0.8 4.6 0.96 2.9 0.3 2.5 0.56 <100 30  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJNI-ISK90- AJM-ISK90020 019 028 034 409628 409669 410144 410479 6276510 6276479 6276767 6277084 XRAL XRAL XRAL XRAL 1 1 1 1 X,T,A X,T,A X,T,A X,T,A Fv Fv Fv Fv 4 4 4 4 84.4 82.1 80.6 81.7 0.099 0.064 0.078 0.076 8.55 10.2 10.1 9.67 0.84 0.41 2.11 1.2 <0.01 0.01 <0.01 0.04 0.08 0.09 0.74 1.26 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.03 5.4 4.99 0.17 4.1 0.21 1.83 3.68 0.81 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.7 0.54 2.47 1.39 100.318 100.281 100.03 100.335 0.4 0.3 1.4 1.1 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 160 140 120 150 1 <I 4 2 <1 2 3 2 0.72 0.56 2.23 1.1 4 4 8 6 4.3 3.8 8.2 3.8 3 <2 11 <2 18.6 36 126 47.9 <I <1 <1 <1 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 1 1 6 3 2 <I 23 <1 147 522 <765000 66 32 3.7 840 2.3 1.1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 2.9 2.2 28 1.5 <0.02 <0.02 0.04 <0.02 4 <1 <1 <1 <0.1 <0.1 0.8 <0.1 <10 <10 <10 <10 9 <1 40 <1 670 310 <761000 66 6 44 172 42 <1 <1 3 1 97 263 431 151 28 27 10 110 <0.1 0.5 2.6 0.3 37 30 29 36 99 164 135 136 62 59 108 75 9.7 7.7 13 8.9 5.3 4.2 12.3 3.9 5.1 21.2 14.9 12.3 12.4 41.9 31 28.7 1.8 4.8 4.3 3.6 9.1 20.6 21.1 16.1 3.3 4.6 5.8 5.4 0.09 0.09 0.28 0.06 4.7 5 7.1 6.2 0.9 0.9 1.4 1.3 6.6 5.4 8.4 8.4 1.31 1.15 1.7 1.68 3.8 3.4 5.3 4.8 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.5 3.2 3.3 5.2 2.9 0.43 0.49 0.78 0.42 <100 <100 <100 <100 22 26 33 22  154  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^ SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE SIO2 7102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 LOI SUM 1120+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN B1 CD  W MO  S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR  Y TH  U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL  B  UNIT  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  155  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90043 045 051^116 042 118 273  410307 6277362 XRAL 1 X,T,A Fv 4 80.2 0.131 8.84 2.12 0.02 0.24 <0.01 0.55 5.41 0.02 2.16 99.805 0.9 0.02 190 9 3 3.1 44 9.3 3 82 <I <0.2 4 13 2010 120 0.7 33 <0.02 <1 0.4 <10 17 200 163 1 964 27 2.1 15 115 51 6.6 5.2 18 31.5 3.8 15.9 3.3 0.12 3.2 0.5 3.4 0.79 2.4 0.3 2.8 0.43 <100 26  410225 6277269 B.C. 4 TA Fv 4 79.2 0.08 10.1 1.05 <0.01 0.18 0.07 4.26 1.63 0.39 1.08 98.04 0.1 0.09 150 4 2 1  410595 6277486 B.C. 4 TA Fv 4 81.54 0.06 8.55 1.52 0.01 0.94 0.33 0.92 3.22 0.24 1.93 99.26 <0.05 0.67 130 2 <1 0.7  410927 6277939 B.C. 4 T,A Fv 4 85.5 0.06 6.98 0.47 <0.01 0.09 0.15 3.95 0.68 0.02 0.59 98.49 <0.05 0.13 390 3 3 0.4  6 9 23 <5 <5 <I 3 <200 34 <5 11.4 <10  4 21 63 <5 <5 <1 <1 1300 82.5 <5 14.5 <10  4 15 19 <5 <5 <1 <1 <200 18 <5 10.6 <10  <0.2  <0.2  <0.2  7 192 67 <0.5 320 6  9 140 160 2.7 230 47  <2 151 17 <0.5 80 89  24 174 54 10 5.8 8 17  34 211 247 12 21 35 78  35 141 38 10 10 10 21  3.8 <1  13.7 <1  3.9 <1  1.3  3.6  0.8  5 0.5  22 2.2  4 <0.2  32  38  22  410927 6277875 XRAL 1 TA Fv 4 79.6 0.074 10.4 0.74 <0.01 0.31 <0.01 0.16 6.79 0.02 1.08 99.401 0.7 <0.01 220 2 1 0.77 4 211 560 310 <1 1.4 7 4 2750 51 <0.5 370 0.02 <1 '^29.5 <10 320 <761000 157 1 1910 70 7.6 37 129 42 12 9.3 21.7 47.6 6.3 31.2 8.8 0.08 9.5 1.7 9.9 2.07 6.1 0.8 5.3 0.69 <100 26  411191 6278372 XRAL 1 TA Fv 4 72 0.09 15.8 0.77 0.01 0.57 0.08 5.65 4.2 0.02 1.08 100.318 0.7 <0.01 140 3 <1 1.11 5 44.2 <2 108 <1 <0.2 4 8 1700 85 <0.5 16 0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 13 590 149 1 271 83 3.3 56 176 60 18 9.1 16.3 34.9 5.1 26.8 7.8 <0.05 9.4 1.6 9.7 1.82 5.3 0.7 4.3 0.58 <100 22  UG ESK XRAL 1 TA Fv 4 82.9 0.065 7.57 1.04 0.03 1.57 1.03 0.12 2.62 0.02 2.39 99.442 1.4 1.27 140 I <1 0.83 6 162 31 120 <1 <0.2 4 2 <765000 360 <0.5 73 0.04 <1 1.4 <10 460 <761000 105 1 598 73 5.5 39 118 93 10 7.9 15 33 4.5 21.3 6.3 <0.05 7 1.3 8.6 1.69 5.2 0.7 4 0.59 <100 18  CA89-63102.2  411820 6278598 XRAL 1 A Fv 4  71.8 0.096 13.2 1.75 0.03 2.93 0.75 0.3 4.08 0.02 3.47 98.906 2.5 0.94 78 2 2 1.25 2 5 8 139 <1 <0.2 2 8 4870 480 0.5 20 0.06 2 0.6 10 36 <761000 140 6 4110 21 28.4 51 175 143 18 25.4 47.2 106 14.2 62.7 15.6 <0.05 15.7 2.7 17 3.49 10.7 1.7 10.5 1.51 <100 30  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L S102 TIO2 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O IC20 P2O5 LOI SUM 1120+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL  NB ZR Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  CA89-63234.5 411820 6278598 XRAL 1 A Fv 4  CA89-89149.2 411933 6278433 XRAL 2 A Fv 4  77.3 0.095 11.9 1.4 0.02 1.44 0.11 0.08 4.2 0.02 3.62 100.266 1.9 0.24 98 <1 <I 1.19 <2 7.2 5 44.8 <I <0.2 6 3 <765000 100 <0.5 16 <0.02 3 0.6 10 290 110 177 3 613 18 2.1 38 179 100 14 8.2 46.2 89.7 11 48.3 10.9 0.12 10.6 2 13.6 2.62 7.3 1.1 6.6 0.97 <100 31  74 0.092 13.1 1.15 0.09 4.96 0.08 0.05 2.92 0.02 3.54 100.098 2.9 0.03 94 6 <1 1.16 7 2.1 <2 69.8 <1 <0.2 5 3 88 63 <0.5 18 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 39 770 97 2 652 16 4.1 57 183 117 13 8.5 20.9 52.3 7.2 34.6 9.9 0.09 9.7 1.7 13.4 273 8.6 1.2 7.3 1.65 <100 29  CA90-291130.1 412233 6278924 XRAL 2 A Fv 4 79.7 0.064 8.13 0.85 0.09 5.42 0.14 0.06 1.54 0.02 3.7 99.83 2.4 1 150 2 2 0.78 <2 18.4 13 95 <I 162 1 4 2880 77 <0.5 68 <0.02 <I 1.5 <10 120 21100 57 2 936 13 1.9 31 121 54 9.1 5.3 27 54.5 6.2 25.4 4.8 0.1 3.3 0.6 5.7 1.19 4 0.6 3.8 0.51 <100 18  CA90-423156.7 412297 6279232 XRAL 2 A Fv 4 75.6 0.049 7.35 3.18 0.03 1.57 0.16 0.09 2.83 0.03 3.7 94.741 1.4 1.01 230 3 <I 1.3 15 16.5 15000 174 <I 1.7 2 1 19500 130 7.7 110 2.2 3 25.6 10 710 1170 99 3 1220 28 3.3 107 173 13 8.5 6 20.1 41.5 5.2 22.7 4.9 0.21 3.6 0.5 3.3 0.69 2.1 0.4 2.5 0.4 <100 35  CA90-423172.0 412302 6279230 XRAL 2 A Fv 4  CA90-423181.0 412304 6279228 XRAL 2 A Fv 4  73.9 0.065 9.66 2.98 0.02 1.26 0.23 0.18 4.82 0.03 3.23 96.608 1.4 0.86 190 4 2 1.86 12 32.9 8650 4050 <1 16 2 2 21400 370 0.7 77 0.77 3 10.9 <10  78.3 0.071 10.1 1.19 0.01 0.27 0.11 0.22 7.22 0.03 1.08 98.853 0.5 0.17 240 4 2 1.42 7 9.4 2010 2690 <1 12.2 2 2 8560 160 <0.5 74 0.27 2 1.6 <10  720 6250 119 2 2000 94 5.4 71 153 20 10 6.2 18.1 37.2 4.7 20.6 4.8 0.08 4.7 0.8 4.6 0.89 27 0.4 3 0.48 <100  200 1600 132 1 2200 136 4 47 151 19 13 7.5 31.9 63.4 7.4 32 7.2 0.12 5.5 0.8 4.8 0.82 2.6 0.4 2.8 0.4 <100  38  36  156  E91-019  E91-021  409111 6275090 XRAL 6 T, A Fv 4  408838 6275296 XRAL 6 T, A Fv 4  76 0.074 13.5 1.17 0.02 0.51 <0.01 4.11 3.41 0.02 1.31 100.279 0.9 0.04 110 2 <1  75.5 0.093 9.98 1.74 0.03 3.18 1.75 2.25 2.13 0.03 3.08 99.935 1.5 1.48 160 <I <1 0.41 8 3.8 18 93 <1 <0.2 2 2 2600 3.9 <0.5 1.7 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 5 380 54 1 1090 184  0.75 5 4.1 9 66.8 <I .112 4 <I 500 9.1 .10.5 1.8 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 3 33 151 2 1010 56 1.4 29 169 98 15 8 22.1 39 6.9 30.4 8.8 <0.05 10.9 2 13.1 2.71 6.8 1 6.2 0.82 <100 30  1 27 123 96 11 7.2 27.4 58 7.9 36.8 8.9 0.37 9 1.2 7.8 1.64 4.4 0.6 3.2 0.63 <100 19  Table B - 1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L 5102 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O IC20 P2O5 WI SUM H2O+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W  MO S  AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS  BA SR TL NB ZR Y  TH U  IA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  0/0  •AD PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  157  E91-103  E92-034  E92-068  S92-108  S92-112  S92-113  TR-01  TR-05  408970 6275486 XRAL 6 T, A Fr, 4  412397 6276292 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 4  41134.8 6274996 XRAL 10 A,T FI., 4  409063 6275650 XRAL I0 A,T Fv 4  409120 6275634 XRAL 10 A,T FN., 4  409127 6275632 XRAL 10 A,T Fv 4  411756 6278497 B.C.2 XI A Fv 4  411862 6278700 B.C.2 XI A Fv 4  87 0.065 7.05 0.6 0.01 0.24 0.1 1.15 3.06 0.03 0.85 100.361 0.5 0.12 290 <1 <1 0.52 12 2.6 11 30.2 <I <0.2 4 <1 410 3.1 <0.5 1.8 <0.02 5 <0.1 15 5 28 91 1 1380 40 1.3 19 108 257 8.3 12.3 25.9 43.9 6.5 29.1 7.7 0.34 9.7 2.1 14.9 3.26 9.9 1.3 8 1.02 <100 34  74 0.201 13 1.92 0.03 0.51 0.37 4.11 4.37 0.04 0.75 99.5 0.7 0.17 140 2 1 1.94 10 1.9  76.3 0.1 12.4 1.75 0.04 0.43 0.78 5.91 1.8 0.02 0.65 100.2 0.6 0.52 160 2 1 0.77  63.2 0.111 13.7 2.81 0.07 4 5.11 <0.01 3.66 0.02 6.35 99.1 2.9 4.57 59 <1 2 1.72 10 3.8 11 118 <1 <0.2 4 2 5590 2.9 <0.5 1.6 <0.02  75.1 0.07 12.33 1.27 <0.01 1.6 0.11 0.05 4.11 0.02 3.38 98.04  77 <I  <2 3.8 4 107 <I <0.2 4 1 800 1 <0.5 0.5 <0.02  71.2 0.092 13.3 2.31 0.03 3.37 0.9 0.61 3.34 0.02 4 99.2 2.7 1.16 75 1 1 1.03 5 4.8 14 128 <1 <0.2 2 1 4370 5 0.7 2 <0.02  72.47 0.09 12.16 2.26 0.03 4.84 0.42 0.07 2.93 0.04 4.61 99.92  <2 35.7 <I <0.2 <I 1 910 7 <0.5 1 <0.02  69.6 0.677 8.55 2.69 0.16 1.47 5.3 2.05 2.8 0.17 4.65 98.3 0.9 4.72 150 3 7 14.5 112 11.8 <2 23.3 <1 <0.2 2 2 510 3.2 <0.5 1.2 <0.02  2 24 24 21 <5 <1 <20 4 9900 195  121 I <1 1.1 <1 7 30 160 <5 <1 <20 3 6800 156  24 <10  11 <10  <0.1  <0.1  <0.1  <0.1  <0.1  2.3  1.6  6 25 75 1 1810 51 0.3 18 274 33 7.3 2.2 31.7 64.1 6.5 26.3 5.8 1.01 5.2 0.5 4.1 0.66 1.7 0.2 1.5 0.32 <100 35  4 28 43 1 1550 253 0.6 7 87 13 2.1 0.9 6.2 15.6 1.9 8.7 2.6 1.04 3 0.4 2.4 0.43 1.1 0.2 1.1 0.18 <100 39  6 46 46 1 351 96 0.4 25 157 82 13 6.6 22.1 48.9 5.4 23.3 6.9 0.11 7.9 1.3 9 1.8 5.3 0.8 5.1 0.55 <I00 34  5 44 147 8 480 19 1.1 32 176 92 15 9.4 25.4 60.4 6.8 29.9 9 0.15 9.9 1.5 10.7 1.99 5.7 0.9 6.6 0.81 <100 39  6 37 152 8 489 79 1 35 183 115 15 9.6 37.4 83 9.3 40.6 12.3 0.21 13.9 2.1 14.5 2.76 7.8  262 32  178 10  51 219 106 20 10 30 69  56 207 94 20 10 28 56  39 10.3 <0.5  35 10 <0.5  2  2  <2 10 1.8  <2 9  1.1 7.7 0.9 <100 54  <1 1.3  1.4  158  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX.TYPE  UNIT  A.L 5102 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 LOI SUM 1120+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD  W MO  S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR TH  U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL  B  •A•  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  AJM-ISK90071  CA89-89115.8  CA89-89137.4  CA89-89138.5  CA90-423103.3  CA90-423112.5  CA90-423120.3  CA90-423125.8  411619 6278746 B.C. 4 T,A Fv 5 76.34 0.08 11.86 0.54 0.01 2.22 0.05 0.06 3.63 0.21 3.18 98.18 0.35 0.02 92 <I 1 0.7  411920 6278454 XRAL 2 A Fv 5 12.5 0.049 9.15 0.88 0.19 12.8 32.5 0.02 <0.01 0.02 27.6 95.928 4.8 25.7 <10 16 1 0.84 8 13.7 <2 17.5 <1 <0.2 1 2 8980 100 <0.5 16 <0.02 <I 2.7 <10 94 10100 3 1 1930 714 1.4 22 115 28 10 5.1 16.3 35.1 4.3 18.6 5.3 0.2 5.1 0.9 6.1 1.14 3.5 0.5 3 0.49 <100 II  411929 6278441 XRAL 10  411929 6278440 XRAL 2 A Fv 5 33.3 0.136 24.3 1.38 0.42 27.7 0.09 0.07 1.35 0.03 11.4 100.241 9.6 0.03 19 46 3 0.81 9 2.8 <2 114 <1 <0.2 2 4 1300 51 <0.5 7.8 <0.02 <I 0.3 <10 74 1080 44 3 323 16 1.6 116 332 94 33 20.1 49.2 92.5 10.9 46.1 11.9 0.1 8.1 1.4 11.1 2.16 6.5 I 6.5 0.92 <100 26  412282 6279240 XRAL 2 A Fv 5 79.1 0.05 5.01 5.66 0.03 0.95 0.08 0.19 1.43 0.02 4.7 97.283 1.3 0.53 230 2 2 0.52 20 24.9 5180 12200 <1 42.6 <1 6 37600 660 1.8 190 0.67 <1 5.3 20 520 9950 53 1 482 8 61.7 64 112 20 7.4 6.9 4.6 10.1 1.4 6.4 2 0.09 2.5 0.5 3.6 0.77 2.4 0.4 2.7 0.37 <100 27  412285 6279238 XRAL 2 A Fv 5 87.9 0.057 6.39 1.08 0.02 1.01 0.07 0.05 1.69 0.02 1.7 100.049 1.1 0.12 190 1 2 0.71 13 6.9 15 29.1 <I <0.2 1 2 3440 70 0.8 40 0.16 <1 <0.1 20 72 870 53 2 515 11 6.1 34 108 20 9.3 6.5 8.6 16.6 2.1 8.9 2.2 0.11 2.6 0.6 3.6 0.78 2.3 0.4 2.5 0.35 <100 51  412287 6279237 XRAL 2 A Fv 5 57.8 0.068 10.5 4.06 0.42 14.2 0.2 0.29 0.28 0.03 6.62 94.499 2.6 0.3 74 1 <1 0.55 40 54.9 9270 16200 <1 60.6 1 6 9110 10 4.6 21 0.58 <1 3.1 20 31 6510 19 2 200 16 0.5 63 154 34 11 9.5 43.4 78.9 8.5 32 5.6 0.32 5.3 0.9 6 1.26 4 0.6 4.1 0.54 <100 21  412288 6279236 XRAL 2 A Fv 5 69.3 0.054 7.73 7.62 0.08 2.39 0.33 0.19 2.23 0.03 7.31 97.361 1.9 2.38 180 2 1 0.69 41 49.6 5440 10600 <I 48.6 2 4 44200 590 10 140 1.82 2 7.7 20 630 12800 72 2 788 29 29 65 122 26 7.7 4.7 20.6 41.2 5.1 23.6 5.2 0.24 6 1 6.2 1.21 3.3 0.4 2.3 0.3 <100 30  3 22 15 <5 <5 3 2 400 29 <5 8.5 <10 0.4 120 1701 130 3.3 450 13 54 263 85 17 11 23 61  10 <1 1.8  7 0.5 24  Fv 5 30.7 0.139 22.4 1.38 0.47 31.9 0.17 <0.01 0.16 0.03 13.1 100.5 11.5 0.03 8 <1 2 0.74 8 3.3 444 125 <I <0.2 2 2 3490 44 <0.5 2.4 <0.02 1.5 90 2400 5 3 166 I1 0.2 75 331 61 33 22.8 61.1 127 13.5 53.2 14 0.11 11.4 1.7 10.3 1.79 5.2 0.8 6 0.86 <100 16  Table B-1  Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L S102 TIO2 A1,203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O IC20 P205 LOI SUM 11.20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO  S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  •A•  */*  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  159  CA90-423132.8 412290 6279235 XRAL 2 A Fv 5  CA90-423135.8 412291 6279235 XRAL 2 A Fv 5  CA90-423146.3 412294 6279233 XRAL 2 A FN., 5  CA90-423153.0 412296 6279232 XRAL 2 A F., 5  CA90-42371.6 412273 6279244 XRAL 2 A Fv 5  CA90-42391.5 412279 6279241 XRAL 2 A Fv 5  CA90-465190.4 411924 6278601 XRAL 10  CA90-477149.0 411995 6278281 XRAL 10  Fv 5  Fv 5  84.4 0.058 6.77 2.35 0.03 1.28 0.24 0.06 2.03 0.02 2.39 99.705 1.4 0.41 200 3  72 0.069 8.66 3.05 0.3 9.67 0.24 0.03 0.79 0.03 4.7 99.579 4 1.07 130 <1  43.1 0.064 10.4 20.8 0.11 6.38 0.29 0.07 2.68 0.09 16.4 100.472 3.7 3.43 100 5  58.1 0.053 7.17 18.4 0.03 1.55 0.09 0.14 2.24 0.05 12.4 100.306 2 0.75 130 2  77.2 0.053 5.61 8.63 0.02 0.65 0.07 0.03 1.67 0.02 6.16 100.209 1.3 0.04 190 1  71.1 0.034 3.78 7.49 0.03 0.66 0.08 0.39 1.04 0.02 6.47 91.163 1.2 0.42 230  33.7 0.166 19.8 2.35 0.18 24.1 0.2 0.24 1.63 0.04 11.2 93.7 8.9 <0.01 <100  73.8 0.086 11.8 2.79 0.02 1.9 0.24 <0.01 4.92 0.02 3.35  <I  11  1  <I  7 1  <I 1  <1  <I  0.65 3 13.1 26 32.3 <I <0.2 2 7 12200 110 0.6 26 0.41 <1 <0.1 30 250 3200 65 2 655 19 3.5 26 101 28 7.6 4.6 15.9 31.6 3.8 17.2 4.3 0.22 4.9 0.9 5.5 1.1 3.4 0.5 3 0.39 <100 22  0.68 27 4.7 26 133 <I <0.2 3 4 4080 17 <0.5 10 0.25 2 <0.1 10 63 110 28 1 302 19 0.7 45 131 32 10 6.6 13.6 27.9 3.6 17.2 5.1 0.31 6 1.1 7 1.39 4.2 0.6  0.23 28 101 183 233 <1 <0.2 2 11 135000 2700 0.5 100 2.35 <1 14.2 10 4200 9710 75 3 724 34 11.1 52 123 19 7.7 6.3 7.3 15.3 2.1 10.3 2.9 0.13 3.7 0.7 4.6 0.97 3.1 0.5  0.12 14 22.6 71 31.2 <1 <0.2 3 5 53300 840 1 430 0.42 <1 4.7 10 1800 14600 53 1 800 8 132 44 98 25 8.2 5.5 11.1 24.7 3.4 16.1 4.1 0.26 4.6 0.9 5.5 1.06  <0.05 13 50.9 6770 23900 <1 85.2 1 11 68100 1100 6 330 2.89 2 17.4 30 3200 22800 53 2 511 8 91.7 81 120 13 5.4 45 2.7 6.3 I 5.5 1.7 0.13 2 0.4 2.6 0.56 1.7 0.3  2.22 10 5120 5470 14700 <I 75.3 <1 6 17200 370 <0.5 4100 <0.02  I 0.72 5 5.3 6 26.1 <1 <0.2 2 <1 18700 74 <0.5 15 <0.02  96.6  0.8  740  12.6 2.45 7.8  63 274 100 4 2680 97 3.6 30 150 87 15 9 10.2 27.3 3.4 15.7 5.5 0.56 5.9 0.9 6.6 1.26 3.8  3.5 0.48 <100 76  3.3 0.47 <100 38  0.31 18 88 1650 6700 <1 26 1 3 135000 2400 0.7 130 1.46 3 10.6 <10 2400 9390 73 2 654 12 13.3 67 112 19 6.6 5.1 9.3 20.4 2.8 13.1 3.6 0.2 3.7 0.7 4.7 0.95 2.8 0.4 3 0.42 <100 20  1.3 9.7 1.27 <100  0.6 4.8 0.66 <100  57  41  3.1 0.4 2.4 0.31 <100 34  1.5 0.21 <100 31  65200 60 8 566 38 2.8 56 356 67 30 <10 78.6 165 17 65.6 14.2 0.19 13.1 1.9  99.2 1.6 0.01 79  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks.^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L 5102 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 LOI SUM 1120+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD  W MO  S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB Zit  Y TH  U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL  B  UNIT  •/.  •/. PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  TR-07  TR-14  TR-16  TR-92-68  TR-92-78  411814 6278397 B.C.2 XI A Fv 5 67.44 0.09 15.16 2.76 0.02 2.43 0.8 0.08 4.94 0.06 5.46 99.24  411872 6278497 B.C.2 XI A Fv 5 68.52 0.07 11.44 1.47 0.02 9.86 0.06 0.04 1.39 0.05 5.93 98.85  411987 6278287 B.C.2 XI A Fv 5 76.69 0.05 7.92 5.15 <0.01 0.45 0.07 0.1 4.94 0.01 3 98.38  411972 6278112 XRAL 10  411784 6278282 XRAL 10  42 2 <1 1.4 <I 9 35 160 <5 <I <20 7 16400 446  60 3 <I 1.1 3 5 20 92 <5 <I <20 7 9400 661  165 1 <1 0.5 <1 7 162 14 <5 <I <20 <1 32100 139  35 <10  66 <10  34 <10  Fv 5 75.7 0.067 10.9 0.77 <0.01 0.24 0.12 <0.01 7.63 0.03 1.1 97.1 0.5 <0.01 140 2 1 0.4 3 1.6 <2 26.5 <I <0.2 1 <1 220 55 <0.5 9.7 <0.02  Fv 5 81.4 0.072 9.78 0.98 0.01 0.74 0.25 <0.01 2.85 0.02 2.35 98.6 1.4 <0.01 120 2 <1 0.68 4 7.5 48 176 <1 0.7 4 1 4410 130 <0.5 68 <0.02  <0.2  1.3  1.1  0.3  5.8  72 1680 158 1 4780 213 3.5 26 122 95 12 7.8 22.9 55.9 6.6 28.3 6.6 0.93 5 0.7 3.9 0.73 2.3 0.4 3.2 0.46 <100 46  430 2720 107 2 963 <10 4 23 107 35 9.3 7 6.1 14.5 1.9 9.3 3.4 0.19 3.7 0.6 4.7 0.96 2.9 0.4 3.1 0.37 <100 41  85 23  219 9  34 8  57 230 112 24 14 44 87  29 194 51 16 8 31 57  24 120 65 13 8 6 13  49 14.4 <0.5  28 7.4 <0.5  12 3.6 <0.5  3  1  I  <2 11 1.9  <2 5 0.9  <2 7 1.2  160  AJM-ISK90- AJM-1SK90- AJM-ISK90010^012 024  409666 6276047 XRAL 1 A Fv  409674 6276020 XRAL I A Fv  409874 6276302 XRAL 1 A Fv  79.9 0.331 6.08 5.99 <0.01 0.41 0.11 0.13 1.93 0.1 4.08 99.124 1.2 <0.01 150 4 11 2.64 73 34.2 405 1470 <1 8.5 4 <1 <765000 140 1.5 16 0.15 4 1.9 <10 100 790 51 1 529 30 0.8 12 71 4 3.3 1.7 11.4 19.9 2.5 11.2 2 0.63 1.6 0.2 0.8 0.17 0.5 <0.1 0.5 0.07 <100 17  70.3 0.494 15.5 2.04 <0.01 0.46 0.14 3.5 4.61 0.16 2.23 99.81 1.5 0.05 76 1 6 4.21 78 8.5 430 42 <1 <0.2 3 1 3820 280 1.1 7.4 0.13 <1 1.7 <10 650 410 106 1 3210 126 1.1 15 115 20 5.3 3.1 15.9 29.9 3.5 15.6 3.3 0.43 2.4 0.3 1.3 0.29 1.1 0.2 1.3 0.22 <100 27  84.9 0.064 6.73 1.77 <0.01 0.18 <0.01 0.21 3.99 0.02 1.47 99.786 0.7 <0.01 160 3 2 0.65 I1 73.4 628 1610 <1 9.3 3 1 <765000 1000 0.7 84 <0.02 1 40.3 <10 660 860 79 1 4010 44 1.7 25 100 33 7.5 3.6 74.5 82.7 8.7 37 7.6 0.82 7.7 1.2 6.9 1.39 4 0.6 3.9 0.59 <100 29  Table B-1  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L SIO2 TIO2 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O 1(20 P205 LOI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB  7:1t Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY 110 ER TM YB LU CL B  161  Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^ UNIT  8/.  0/. 07. •A• PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  AJM-ISK90- AJM - ISIC" 116A 103 410910 410927 6277852 6277875 XRAL B.C. 1 4 X,A T,A Fv Fs, 70.8 0.105 16.7 0.95 <0.01 0.98 <0.01 2.03 5.62 0.02 2.85 100.1 2 <0.01 110 1 2 1.7 5 4.3 6 44.8 4 <0.2 4 6 2100 980 <0.5 54 0.18 <1 1.4 <10 83 <761000 216 3 309 45 12.1 68 222 79 24 13.3 21.1 47.9 5.9 26.7 7.3 <0.05 6.9 1.3 9.4 1.94 6.7 1.1 7.9 1.17 <100 57  65.1 0.55 15.5 3.41 0.05 0.99 0.95 2.84 6.37 0.31 1.49 97.56 0.2 0.53 93 1 4 4.5 4 12 39 <5 <5 2 4 200 20 <5 5.5 <10 <0.2 17 209 130 2.3 3400 207  210 23 7.7 4 14 34  3.2 <I 0.6  <2 0.2 17  CA89-63152.8 411820 6278598 XRAL 1 A Fv  CA89-63173.1 411820 6278598 XRAL 1 A Fv  CA89-63245.7 411820 6278598 XRAL 1 A F.,  CA89-63-95.3 411820 6278598 XRAL 1 A Fv  CA89-89114.4 411919 6278455 XRAL 2 A Fv  CA89-89123.7 411923 6278449 XRAL 2 A RN,  82.4 0.079 9.3 0.81 0.01 0.84 0.17 0.29 3.25 0.01 2.16 99.606 1.3 0.13 130 2 <1 0.91 3 4.5 8 20.6 <1 <0.2 5 2 3130 59 <0.5 I1 <0.02 1 <0.1 20 93 270 129 2 2440 28 3.3 37 131 86 10 7.3 35.5 59.8 7.3 32.4 7.9 <0.05 8.4 1.6 10.8 2.16 6.3 I 5.7 0.81 <100  79 0.083 10.7 1.3 0.03 2.82 <0.01 0.09 3.12 0.01 3.08 100.336 2.2 <0.01 100 2 1 0.9 <2 1.1 <2 69.2 <I <0.2 4 3 1830 15 <0.5 5.9 0.11 3 <0.1 10 10 170 142 2 823 16 2.3 37 139 69 12 7.3 37.7 65.9 7.8 34 7.8 0.07 8.9 1.6 10.8 2.16 5.9 0.9 5.1 0.75  76.8 0.067 11 0.73 0.03 1.77 0.67 0.16 5.75 0.02 2.31 99.548 1.3 0.97 100 2 <I 0.58 5 4 <2 25.7 <1 <0.2 2 2 2510 19 0.5 15 0.02 2 <0.1 10 160 170 132 2 1910 179 1.9 44 149 53 15 9.6 17.5 37.2 5 22.2 5.7 0.07 5.6 0.9 5.8 1.1 2.9 0.4 2.7 0.35 <100 42  74 0.085 13.1 1.71 0.02 1.5 0.94 1.16 4.2 0.02 2.54 99.939 1.8 0.81 97 12 2 1 8 7.4 8 164 <1 <0.2 1 17 <765000 160 <0.5 27 0.06 3 0.7 20 59 <761000 131 3 5730 79 21.5 39 139 119 14 12.2 22.4 48.7 6.9 32 8.5 <0.05 9.2 1.7 11.5 2.3 7.1 1 7 1.01 <100 37  35.7 0.039 4.67 1.01 0.45 11 21.3 0.02 <0.01 0.02 18.2 92.672 3.3 16.5 58 15 <1 0.45 <2 17.5 42 50.2 <1 1.2 1 1 34200 38 <0.5 24 <0.02 1 19.9 <10 46 4950 4 1 2340 400 0.1 15 71 27 6 3.3 15 31 3.6 16.6 3.7 0.05 3.6 0.5 4.4 0.94 3.1 0.4 2.7 0.4 <100 14  70.2 0.084 15.7 1.56 0.04 2.88 0.16 0.17 4.21 0.03 3.77 99.045 1.7 0.02 75 <I 1 1.25 7 78.5 534 3280 <I <0.2 4 3 9570 150 <0.5 96 <0.02 1 14 <10 200 170000 157 2 1980 16 14 58 197 88 16 11.3 22.8 55.4 7.5 34 9.1 0.08 10.1 1.8 14.3 2.98 9.4 1.3 7.9 1.13 <100 30  26  <100 26  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L  UNIT  SIO2 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K.20 P2O5 SUM 1120+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD  W MO  S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB Zit  Y TH  U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL  B  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  CA89-89140.5 411932 6278436 XRAL 2 A Fv 30.9 0.121 22.5 2.16 0.55 28.1 0.1 0.19 0.68 0.04 11.6 96.994 10.7 0.01 15 62 2 0.99 6 4.8 5690 8030 <1 12.4 2 2 4480 86 0.5 9.6 <0.02 <1 4.6 <10 52 68900 25 3 319 26 1.1 124 308 60 29 16.6 122 197 19.4 78.3 17.8 0.2 11.9 1.8 14.9 2.77 8.3 1.3 8.1 1.14 <100 18  CA90-291118.4 412226 6278935 B.C.2 X1 A Fv 33.2 0.173 24.1 2.42 0.44 16.1 2.02 0.24 3.44 0.03 12.6 95.003 7.3 4.99 14 13 2 2.47 13 983 2240 7020 <1 38.5 <5 13 <765000 <100 0.6 2100 0.04 3 99 <10 390 <761000 92 10 2030 116 4.3 64 296 45 26 31.6 65.1 109 11.7 45.8 10.7 0.33 10.5 1.6 9.7 1.89 5.5 0.8 5.2 0.74 <100 42  CA90-291123.0 412230 6278929 XRAL 2 A Fv 19.4 0.108 12.5 4.23 0.43 19.8 0.49 1.01 0.11 0.07 16 74.216 7.4 2.68 <200 8 2 1.93 8 12000 4200 92700 <I 292 <50 6 56700 <227 0.8 16000 <0.02 2 494 <10 1000 970000 41 <10 455 21 0.8 118 324 61 <20 <20 58.4 112 12.7 55.7 11.4 0.17 8.7 1.4 12.4 2.46 7.6 1.2 8.8 1.27 <100 13  CA90-291154.0 412242 6278910 XRAL 2 A Fv 69.8 0.102 16.1 1.94 0.02 2.07 0.09 0.08 4.91 0.03 4.7 100.07 2.5 0.69 100 1 2 1.2 5 15.6 <2 29.6 <1 312 2 5 10200 100 <0.5 110 <0.02 <I 3 <10 58 2840 150 4 1870 22 14.6 63 216 80 18 11.4 34 77.7 9.6 43.3 10.7 0.2 8.9 1.6 11.5 2 5.7 0.9 6.1 0.87 <100 30  CA90-423108.5 412283 6279239 XRAL 2 A Fv  CA90-423141.3 412293 6279234 XRAL 2 A Fv  75.8 0.055 5.79 3.24 0.12 4.26 0.09 0.33 0.8 0.02 4.31 94.868 2 1.37 180  63.6 0.055 7.24 13.9 0.04 2.11 0.29 0.05 2.72 0.07 9.77 99.975 2.1 1.34 190 3 4 0.85 13 74.7 865 211 <1  1 1 0.64 25 18.1 7000 18300 <1 65.2 1 5 16000 370 8 29 2.08 2 7 10 180 6000 37 I 391 8 3.4 67 126 19 8.3 6.4 3.7 8 1.1 4.8 1.8 0.11 2.3 0.5 3.1 0.67 2 0.3 2.1 0.27 <100 30  <0.2 1 8 89800 950 0.8 100 0.46 <I 32.5 <10 3800 4610 67 3 1110 37 7.3 42 115 21 7.8 6.1 14.7 29.5 3.9 17.2 3.9 0.13 3.6 0.7 4.5 0.92 3 0.5 3.5 0.52 <100 26  162  G91-169 405203 6270937 XRAL 6 S, A Fv 74.1 0.619 9.15 4.3 0.09 1.88 2.27 3.7 0.44 0.13 2.31 99.097 1.4 1.28 130 47 4 10.5 91 15.9 <2 126 <I <0.2 2 3 2300 5.1 <0.5 0.6 <0.02 4 <0.1 10 8 16 8 <I 671 82 0.5 6 142 35 1.2 1.1 10.8 20 3.6 15 3.5 0.78 3.6 0.6 3.7 0.82 1.8 0.2 1.5 0.14 <100 20  TR-04 411868 6278701 B.C.2 XI A Fv 59.97 0.13 14.18 3.21 0.04 9.99 1.4 0.07 2.84 0.03 7.57 99.43  9 20 1 2 8 16 64 59 <5 <1 <20 20 17200 540 77 <10 3.6  79 28 43 257 79 19 17 42 82 40 10 <0.5 2  <2 7 1.2  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE  UNIT  163  TR-06  TR-08  TR-10  TR-12  TR-13  CA90-42373.0  TR-02  TR-09  411854  411885  411794  411780  411818  412273  411759  411795  6278699  6278467  6278428  6278451  6278389  6279244  6278492  6278427  B.C.2  B. C.2  B.C.2  B.C.2  B.C.2  XRAL  B.C.2  B.C.2  Xl  Xl  XI  X1  XI  2  Xl  X1  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  Fv  Fv  Fv  Fv  Fv  Fv-MS  Fv-Sag  Fv-Sag  5  5  79.31  78.73  66.05  71.65  87.64  51.6  74.94  62.73  0.06  0.05  0.12  0.08  0.03  0.025  0.07  0.12  10.23  9.5  17.4  11.82  5.29  3.56  9.88  14.55 4.01  A.L  SIO2 TIO2 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 LOI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR Y TH U IA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  0.99  0.72  2.73  1.58  1.2  21.1  2.13  <0.01  0.02  0.01  0.02  <0.01  0.08  0.01  0.02  0.31  4.2  1.68  4.99  0.65  1.95  2.62  4.82  0.21  0.03  0.14  0.09  0.02  0.07  0.26  0.46  0.11  0.04  0.1  0.05  0.03  0.26  0.06  0.23  6.57  2.17  5.9  2.83  1.54  0.77  2.95  4.19  0.07  0.04  0.04  0.07  0.02  0.02  0.07  0.06  1.67  3.42  4.55  4.37  1.83  15.4  4.33  6.45  99.53  98.92  98.72  97.55  98.25  94.903  97.32  97.64  1.6 1.24  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  176  130  90  74  237  180  104  57  3  <1  <I  I  16  11  80  <I  <1  <I  <1  2 <1  3  <I  2  0.9  1.8  1.1 <1  0.5  <0.05  1.1  3  2  0.6 <I  1  29  <1  5  18  17  7  14  86.8  8  12  16  84  36  14  67  2940  30  27  53  39  165  22  1  15100  82  205  <5  <5  <5  <I  <5  <5  <I  <5 <I  <5  <1  <1  <1  59.4  <1  <1  <20  <20  <20  <20  <20  <1  <20  <20  <1 11  5  I  4  2  1  55  17  17  3500  3200  17600  6300  5900  88  12500  20100  28  31  361  79  51  2700  1132  925  56.4 17  13  43  18  11  1200  110  114  <10  <10  <10  <10  <10  0.33  <10  <10  5.3  0.5  5.7  0.7  1.1  41.8  0.2  <0.2  5 10 <7610000 30700 44 2 181  73  67  186  61  506  123  71  13  7  13  19  6  6  21  18  265 43  37  61  47  19  80  38  42  187  163  301  221  99  79  49  213  156  64  86  131  41  7  36  123  17  14  27  18  7.2  <2  16  20  10  6  11  14  3  <1  7  15  26  22  30  42  21  6.5  20  33  58  44  62  78  37  14.7  41  65  2.2 40  25  40  42  17  9.6  22  44  12.3  8  11.6  11.2  4  1.6  5.9  11.7  <0.5  <05  <0.5  <0.5  <0.5  0.11  <0.5  <0.5  <I  2  <2  1.4 3  2  2  2  <1  0.3 1.6 0.29 0.9  3  <-2  2  2  <2  0.1  <2  14  6  13  10  4  0.8  6  10  2.4  1  2.1  1.6  0.7  0.07  1.1  1.6  <100 23  Table B - 1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX.TYPE A.L SIO2 T102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 LOI SUM 1120+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W  MO S  AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR Y  TFI U  LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  •/.  CA90-42379.0  CA90-42384.3  TR-03  TR-11  CA89-89-98.3  A91-058  G91-174  L91-063  412275 6279243 XRAL 2 A Fv-Sag  412277 6279243 XRAL 2 A Fv-Sag  411762 6278487 B.C.2 Xl A Fv-Sag  411785 6278439 B.C.2 Xl A Fv-Sag  411913 6278464 XRAL 2 A Fv? 5  407971 6270092 XRAL 6 T,A Ii 2  411729 6265974 XRAL 6 S, A Ii 2  406076 6274315 XRAL 6 T,A Ii 2  74.4  52.9 0.017 1.72 8.12 0.56 4.03 5.61 0.76 0.25 0.02 7.08 81.107 0.8 8.82 230 17 1 <0.05 19 44.9 3660 62100 <1 239 2 9 95000 790 3.9 260 1.58 <1 10.3 20 8400 27800 19 1 311 163 57.4 37 38 24 <I  78.56 0.09 8.08 2.88 0.02 2.35 0.78 1.81 1.18 0.02 2.86 98.63  64.15 0.14 14.4 3.76 0.03 6.04 0.38 0.24 3.52 0.09 5.85 98.6  131 58 2 1.9 9 45 20 118 <5 <I <20 28 10900 407  61 139 3 2.8 6 9 25 175 <5 <I <20 15 11400 462  84 0.062 8.37 1.06 0.01 0.61 0.1 0.1 2.13 0.02 2.23 98.877 1.5 <0.01 130 99 <I 0.74 <2 9.5 16 101 <1  59.9 0.59 16.6 4.8 0.19 1.83 3.28 2.61 5.46 0.23 3.85 99.88 2 2.41 47 <1  53.8 0.877 15.5 7.21 0.09 6.67 6.22 2.69 0.67 0.26 6.16 100.415 2.5 2.84 390 55 16 22.7 210 48.8 <2 69.6 <1 <0.2 <1 <I  89 <10  108 <10  0.3  <0.2  59.2 1.15 14.6 9.11 0.23 1.75 2.82 4.14 3.49 0.45 3.08 100.324 1.9 1.23 43 <1 5 13.4 46 7.4 <2 133 <1 <0.2 2 2 150 2 <0.5 0.8 <0.02 29 <0.1 <55 22 21 69 1 2280 124 0.2 14 222 40 4.6 2.7 26.3 52.3 7.2 32.7 7.8 2.27 8.8 1.5 9 1.75 5.4 0.8  0.034  4  •Ar  6/6 PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  164  2.02 0.02 0.56 0.16 0.38 1.05 0.02 3.31 86.044 0.9 0.18 250 4 <1 0.47 11 23 15200 20500 <1 72.4 1 1 28000 210 3 160 1.44 2 23.5 <10 960 8140 84 1 616 10 32.5 148 192 21 4.7 4.4 6.1 15.3 2.2 10.1 2.8 0.11 3 0.6 4 0.78 2.2 0.3 2 0.29 <100 42  <I 3.3 7.4 1.2 5.9 2 1.27 2.4 0.4 2.6 0.52 1.5 0.2 1.5 0.2 <100 15  149 17  163 22  28 113 66 11 8 22 42  32 232 106 19 II 32 63  25 6.7 <0.5  40 10 <0.5  I  2  <2 6 0.9  <2 9 1.6  3.6 <50 <I 12800 <227 0.5 6400 <0.02 3 3.9 <10 490 34300 68 <10 1550 19 24.4 31 120 59 <10 <10 24 49.6 6 26.5 6.4 0.09 4.7 0.8 6 1.21 3.8 0.6 3.3 0.52 <100 26  <1 5.87 96 7.8 <2 66.2 <1 <0.2 2 <I 4300 7.7 <0.5 2.8 <0.02 <1 0.2 <10 4 46 113 5 4030 546 2.5 11 162 30 6.6 3.1 22.4 42.3 4.9 23.2 4.4 1.25 3.9 0.6 3 0.72 2 0.3 2.2 0.52 <100 24  46 0.81 <100 24  2600 5.2 <0.5 1.1 <0.02 3 <0.1 <10 5 85 17 3 1480 772 0.8 7 88 15 9.7 4.3 23.2 43.6 5.3 23.6 4.7 1.51 3.1 0.6 3.1 0.5 1.9 0.3 1.8 0.3 <100 24  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^ SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L 5102 1702 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O 1(20 P2O5 WI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB  7;R Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  AJM-ISK90- AjM-ISK90014 027 409866 410227 6275867 6276168 XRAL XRAL 2 2 A XA Iv Iv 1 1 56.4 54.5 0.903 0.896 19.2 20.6 7.02 6.69 0.23 0.15 2.84 1.57 1.17 2.96 6.43 3.19 1.85 3.35 0.51 0.42 3.39 2.54 100.1 97.1 3.7 3.4 1.06 1.9 15 28 2 3 16 16 12.2 9.68 192 178 2.2 4.7 <2 <2 86.8 89.8 <1 <I <0.2 <0.2 2 <I <I <1 <50 <50 8.1 5.4 <0.5 <0.5 1.8 4.5 0.14 0.08 <1 <1 <.1 <0.1 <10 10 <1 <1 8 8 87 83 5 6 1310 1770 191 176 0.5 0.5 18 15 116 143 21 18 4.5 3.9 2.2 2.3 21.6 22.2 39.5 43 4.9 5.2 23.8 23.9 4.9 4.7 1.6 1.62 4.1 3.8 0.5 0.5 4.1 3.9 0.77 0.75 2.2 2 0.3 0.3 1.9 1.7 0.31 0.28 <100 <100 20 33  165  E91-106  G91-128  L91-073  AJM-I5K90219  G91-142  409802 6275390 XRAL 6 T, A Iv 2  406940 6267355 XRAL 6 S, A Iv 2  405886 6274493 XRAL 6 S, A Iv 2  411637 6275205 B.C. 4 T,A Iv 3  405264 6267295 XRAL 6 T, A Iv 3  54.9 0.747 18.9 6.78 0.24 0.98 4.38 5.4 2.22 0.38 5.16 100.318 2.2 3.08 18 <1 10 8.31 146 26.6 <2 91.8 <I <0.2 <I <1 170 0.9 <0.5 1.3 <0.02 3 <0.1 10 5 6 58 1 1540 362 1.1 7 123 14 3.5 2 23.2 42.7 6.2 27.3 6.3 2.02 5.7 0.8 4.3 1.09 2.5 0.3 2.5 0.51 <100 41  53.9 1.06 17.5 6.25 0.06 2.78 4.91 6.42 0.63 0.47 5.7 99.821 2.2 3.26 110 24 8 17.1 144 15.7 <2 76.6 <1 <0.2 <1  51.9 1.09 16.1 9.36 0.12 5.19 4.15 4.72 0.46 0.77 5.62 99.581 2.6 2.21 110 62 21 18.5 200 39.4 <2 92.4 <1 <0.2 3 <1 310 5.6 <0.5 0.1 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 3 11 17 2 278 412 0.8 7 131 30 3.5 1.2 25.7 49 6.5 29.3 6.2 1.27 5.1 0.8 4.6 0.85 2.8 0.4 2.1 0.38 138 21  62.5 0.47 14.9 5.05 0.08 3.55 0.26 3.57 4.14 0.5 2.49 97.51 <0.05 0.04 66 5 9 9.3  54.8 0.685 18.2 7.56 0.18 2.59 2.62 6.5 1.31 0.3 3.85 98.88 2.5 1.51 13 <1  49.4 1.77 15 13.4 0.21 6.92 6.18 1.66 0.32 0.23 3.54 98.7 4.5 0.87 260 59  12 8.57 141 29.2 <2 81.6  52 41.8 409 40.1 <2 103  <I 300 1.3 <0.5 <0.1 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 4 11 18 2 527 514 0.8 9 145 16 2.7 1.3 19.7 37.2 5.3 22.8 4.8 1.63 4.9 0.7 3.6 0.63 1.9 0.3 1.2 0.2 <100 32  5 8 54 <5 <5 5 3 2700 72.5 <5 2.2 <10 <0.2 16 28 76 0.5 3100 140 10 112 36 2.4 1.7 5 13  2.1 <1 0.7  3 0.3 13  A3M-ISK90008 409519 6276146 XRAL 2 A Iv  <I  <1  <0.2 <1 2 1000 3 <0.5 0.1 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 4 16 33  <0.2 <I <1 1040 11 <0.5 2.5 0.11 <I <0.1 <10 2 78 11  2 1670 691 0.5 7 115 14 3 1.5 24.4 44.1 5.3 245 5.2 1.53 4.2 0.6 3.4 0.5 2 0.3 1.5 0.22 <100 22  4 417 165 <.1 11 85 31 <.5 0.2 4.8 11.8 2 11.2 3.4 1.29 4.8 0.8 6.2 1.25 3.6 0.5 3.3 0.52 <100 14  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^ SAMPLE FASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX.TYPE A.L SIO2 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K20 P205 LOI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN DI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE. PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  AJM-ISK90- AXA-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90009 013^016^023 409625 409781 409746 409844 6276062 6275936 6276665 6276340 XRAL XRAL XRAL XRAL 2 2 2 2 A A A A Iv Iv Iv Iv 66.4 0.622 19.8 2.14 0.02 0.72 0.1 2.29 4.75 0.13 3.39 100.6 2.4 <0.01 38 2 3 6.73 103 10.5 <2 14.3 <1 <0.2 2 <1 2270 34 <0.5 4.5 0.1 <1 1 <10 33 26 144 3 2350 64 1 22 138 7 6.2 3.4 19.6 34.6 4.2 18.2 3.1 1.3 2 0.3 1.4 0.26 0.7 0.1 1 0.14 <100 46  65.9 0.727 18.8 3.2 0.03 0.58 0.3 4.31 3.47 0.26 2.47 100.2 2.3 <.01 53 3 7 8.05 115 4.35 <2 21.9 <1 <0.2 3 <1 211 100 I 3.5 <0.02 <1 0.2 <10 16 26 79 3 1650 172 0.5 18 151 32 2.5 1.8 12.7 24.1 3 13.7 3 0.92 2.1 0.2 1.9 0.34 0.8 0.1 0.7 0.11 <100 44  51 1.65 15.4 12.2 0.19 3.33 7.24 3.39 0.37 0.23 2.39 97.5 2.2 1.09 280 63 57 39.4 377 52.4 <2 90.3 <1 <0.2 <I <I 27200 14 <0.5 13 0.06 <I 0.2 <10 1 78 15 2 971 247 0.2 II 76 31 <.5 0.2 5.1 12.9 1.9 10.6 3.3 1.41 4.5 0.8 6.2 1.3 3.9 0.6 3.6 0.61 <100 28  62.8 1.17 18.5 5.28 0.05 1.16 1.48 3.68 2.95 0.21 2.23 99.7 2.8 0.88 51 <I 19 12.3 210 15.1 <2 89.8 <I <0.2 <I <I <50 1.1 <0.5 1.5 0.08 <I <0.1 <10 8 51 79 4 1440 163 0.9 20 146 13 5.3 2.8 18.2 34.9 3.8 16.8 3.2 1.17 2.8 0.3 2.6 0.52 1.5 0.2 1.3 0.22 <100 41  166  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90030^031^040^068 410240 410273 410337 411422 6276784 6276759 6277404 6278771 XRAL XRAL XRAL XRAL 2 2 2 2 A A A A Iv Iv Iv Iv 63.4 1.06 13.3 7.92 0.15 1.56 3.23 1.44 2.68 0.53 2.77 98.2 3.1 2.1 60 3 18 16.8 128 15.3 <2 73.4 <I <0.2 1 <I <50 4.6 <0.5 7.2 0.05 <I <0.1 <10 <1 22 92 3 991 124 0.8 24 118 62 3.4 1.5 13.4 27.8 3.6 17.8 4.3 1.43 4.2 0.6 4.5 0.83 2.4 0.3 1.8 0.28 <100 29  57.5 1.08 13.2 10.1 0.22 2.43 4.4 3.01 1.5 0.48 5.54 99.6 3 4.64 53 4 14 17.8 113 4.2 <2 104 <1 <0.2 <1 <I <50 3.5 <0.5 8.4 <0.02 <1 1.1 <10 <I 39 47 3 818 140 0.4 20 112 22 2.7 1.1 17 33.3 4 19.4 4.6 1.37 4 0.5 4.3 0.85 2.4 0.3 2.1 0.34 <100 23  39.7 1.35 12.9 8.66 0.24 2.79 16 0.77 2.12 0.2 12.8 97.6 3.8 12.4 190 51 41 34.4 311 41.1 <2 133 <1 <0.2 <1 <1 4110 26 0.8 20 <0.02 <1 0.2 20 <1 240 76 3 473 145 1.7 14 75 23 <5 1.4 4.6 11.6 1.7 9.3 2.9 1.05 3.9 0.6 4.2 0.92 2.6 0.4 2.2 0.38 <100 21  48 1.72 15.4 11.6 0.2 4.64 8.85 3.5 1.29 0.23 3.77 99.4 3 2.2 250 73 53 40.9 437 29.2 <2 99.5 <1 <0.2 <1 <I 57 8 <0.5 5.1 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 5 39 26 1 1390 341 0.9 24 80 33 0.5 0.4 4.6 12 1.9 10.9 3.8 1.48 4.5 0.8 5.7 1.25 3.7 0.5 3.3 0.57 <100 21  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^ SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L 5102 TIO2 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O 1(20 P2O5 LOI SUM 1120+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR Y TH U IA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90069 070^081 233  411461 6279000 XRAL 2 A Iv  411577 6278816 XRAL 2 A Iv  49.2 1.85 15.6 12.1 0.22 5.23 6.45 4.5 0.34 0.26 2.93 98.7 3.2 0.55 280 76 63 45.9 409 49 <2 106 <1 <0.2 3 <I 15100 20 <0.5 9.3 0.03 3 <0.1 <10 7 75 12 1 587 380 0.3 15 81 35 <5 0.4 4.8 12.8 2 10.9 3.8 1.27 4.9 0.9 6.1 1.28 3.9 0.6 3.6 0.55 <100 18  48.1 1.91 16 12.1 0.19 5.61 5.78 4.63 0.15 0.25 3.47 98.2 3.8 0.33 270 81 67 44.5 429 34.3 <2 117 <I <0.2 2 <I 150 8.1 <0.5 2.3 <0.02 2 <0.1 <10 <1 69 6 1 148 190 <.1 23 90 32 <.5 0.3 4.7 12.4 1.8 10.4 3.7 1.32 48 0.8 5.8 1.19 3.7 0.5 3.30.54 <100 <10  411308 6279945 XRAL 2 A Iv 48.9 1.75 15 13.1 0.22 5.21 8.01 4.05 0.26 0.24 2.47 99.3 2.4 0.1 260 66 55 39.6 389 23.6 <2 101 <I <0.2 2 <I 88 2 <0.5 4 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 <I 32 8 <1 647 311 0.1 23 84 32 <.5 0.1 4.4 11.6 2 11.1 3.8 1.5 4.8 0.8 6.2 1.29 3.9 0.5 3.6 0.58 <100 32  411432 6277172 B.C. 4 T,A Iv 54  0.65 15.9 9.15 0.24 7.51 0.36 2.05 3.14 0.24 4.99 98.23 0.05 <0.02 25 7 17 13 6 5 119 <5 <5 2 <1 400 12 <5 1.2 <10 <0.2 43 48 91 6.5 1200 77 12 86 13 2.3 0.9 8 14  2.3 <I <0.5  <2 <0.2 14  167  G91-111  G91-146  L91-062  TR-92-38  408187 6267432 XRAL 6 T, A Iv  405549 6268585 XRAL 6 S, A Iv  406141 6274427 XRAL 6 T, A hfi 1 49.4 0.833 15 7.68 0.14 7.31 8.19 2.61 1.72  411772 6277866 XRAL 10  46.7 1.99 14.6 13.5 0.21 7.53 9.8 1.76 0.64 0.45 2.47 99.795 2.3 0.04 240 127 35 33.1 306 38.1 <2 110 <1 <0.2 <1 <I 2000 <0.1 <0.5 0.2 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 <1 11 20 7 818 206 0.3 10 176 41 0.5 0.5 16.7 38.4 5.3 23.3 6.5 2.06 7.8 1.2 8.1 1.83 4.1 0.7 4.1 0.52 <100 31  47 1.07 16.7 6.98 0.18 2.55 9.01 4.97 1.84 0.78 7.39 99.113 2.1 5.61 49 33 12 14.7 150 29 <2 96.3 <1 <0.2 2 <I 530 0.6 <0.5 0.1 <0.02 <I <0.1 <10 6 21 63 2 4030 1410 0.5 48 173 22 10 3.3 67.2 118 13 48.4 8.6 2.07 6.4 0.9 49 0.83 2.8 0.4 1.9 0.37 <100 24  0.28  4.77 98.181 2.6 2.93 420 105 19 23.5 182 40.8 4 95.2 <1 <0.2 <2 3 570 0.9 <0.5 1.3 <0.02 4 0.2 10 5 11 44 1 1200 806 <0.1 7 139 16 14 5.8 23.8 43.1 5.3 21.9 4.1 1.02 3.3 0.5 3 0.58 2 0.2 1.5 0.26 <100 10  Mi 1 48.4 1.44 15.4 10.6 0.21 7.99 6.69 3.7 0.83 0.15 3.7 99.3 3.7 0.03 250 53 36 39.4 271 38.6 <2  80.2 <1 <0.2 <1 <1 180 2.9 <0.5 4.8 <0.02 0.2 <1 41 10 1 1030 463 0.3 5 73 25 <0.5 <0.1 4.2 11.3 1.6 8.6 3.3 1.34 4.2 0.6 4.6 0.89 2.5 0.4 2.8 0.37 <100 13  168  Table B - 1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE  UNIT  E91-100  E91-100  E91-102  E92-145  E92-148  G91-124  E91-022  412026 6278463 XRAL 10  409346 6275763 XRAL 6 T, A Mi 2  409346 6275763 XRAL 6 T,A Mi 2  408875 6275285 XRAL 10 A,T Mi 2  412281 6277169 XRAL 10 A,T Mi 2  406372 6267398 XRAL 6 S, A Mi 2  408960 6275403 XRAL 6 T, A Mi 3  44.2 1.56 14.5 12 0.15 6.49 9.41 1.77 0.5 0.21 9.31 100.175 2.5 5.59 250 73 35 39.2 277 33.2 <2 1I1 <I <0.2 1 <1 1200 2.2 <0.5 1.4 <0.02 7 <0.1 20 6 33 20 3 359 176 1 4 76 33 <0.5 <0.2 4.6 11.4 2 12.7 4.2 1.7 5.1 I 6.4 1.36 4.2 0.6 3.4 0.66 <100 23  44.3 1.56 14.5 12.1 0.15 6.44 9.41 1.78 0.49 0.21 9.31 100.327 3.2 5.43 250 72 36 38.5 299 32.6 <2 119 <I <0.2 <2 <1 950 2.3 <0.5 1.2 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10  409091 6275753 XRAL 6 T, A Mi 2 45.6 1.92 16.3 12.9 0.23 5.16 5.83 2.79 1.2 0.26 7.93 100.212 2.2 4.2 240 56 36 43.6 397 36.3 <2 111 <1 <0.2 14 <1 720 76 <0.5 1.6 <0.02 9 <0.1 20 10 28 56 3 341 300 0.9 5 108 28 <0.5 <0.2 5.3 13.5 2.3 13.7 4.4 1.17 5.7  as  47.2 0.709 15.9 8.56 0.19 8.97 3.77 2.64 1.76 0.13 8.39 99.025 2.3 3.89 96 97 26 30 226 66.8 <2 61.6 <I <0.2 <1 <1 780 <0.4 <0.5 0.2 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 8  44 1.64 16.2 10.2 0.23 5.3 8.04 4.7 0.23 0.16 9.16 99.927 3.3 5.97 230 70 40 43.1 288 37.1 <2 104 <1 <0.2 34 <1 950 16 <0.5 4.1 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10  6 38 6 6280 832 0.6 4 40 11 0.5 0.3 4.9 10.6 1.7 8.6 2.6 1.13 2.4 0.5 3.2 0.55 1.7 0.3 1.6 0.23 <100  33 14 3 209 206 2.2 4 74 75 <0.5 1.3 9.4 17.8 2.9 16.9 4.9 1.37 5.9 1 6.8 1.51 3.8 0.5 2.9 0.61 <100  42  16  Mi 1  A.L SIO2 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K20 P205 LOI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  TR-92-51  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  48.2 1.47 15.6 12.4 0.2 6.12 10.9 2.29 0.32 0.16 2.3 100 2.5 0.61 240 53 38 40.9 316 39.1 <2 89.6 <I <0.2 <1 <1 210 0.5 <0.5 1.3 <0.02 0.3 4 153 8 <1 249 238 0.3 6 78 28 <0.5 0.1 4.1 11.5 1.6 8.7 3.2 1.19 4.5 0.7 5 1 2.9 0.4 3.2 0.47 <100 20  17 27 18 3 355 178 0.3 4 82 43 <0.5 0.3 4.1 10.4 1.8 10.8 3.8 1.5 4.6 0.7 5.8 1.16 3.4 0.5 3.8 0.6 <100 29  1 7.9 1.82 5 0.6 3.6^0.67 <100 34  41.7 1.49 16.3 10.9 0.21 7.14 7.57 3.9 0.23 0.16 8.7 98.3 4.7 5.86 230 64 46 42.9 317 43.8 <2 107 <1 <0.2 7 <1 2830 35 <0.5 6.1 <0.02  <0.2 <1 <1 850 2.8 <0.5 1.6 <0.02  0.8  <0.1  18 51 11 4 150 218 0.2 5 80 33 <0.5 0.3 5.6 13.2 1.8 9.7 3.6 0.78 4.9 0.6 4.2 0.76 2.1 0.3 2.1 0.36 <100 <10  9 30 27 2 2440 232 0.3 6 73 28 <0.5 <0.1 4.7 12.7 1.7 9.8  1.6 15.2 11.9 0.2 7.37 5.32 3.51 1.95 0.22 4.25 99.8 3.8 1.05 200 38 40 41.9 267 35.5 <2 98.2 <1  3.7 1.75 4.8 0.7 5.1 0.97 2.8 0.4 3 0.43 <100 12  I  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^ SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE  UNIT  A.L SIO2 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O IC20 P2O5 LOI SUM 1120+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB 712 Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  CA89-89-34.3 CA89-95-11.4 411887 411850 6278503 6278532 XRAL XRAL 2 10 A Mv Mv 1 1 47.2 47.8 1.52 1.67 15.5 14.8 13 12.3 0.21 0.2 5.65 6.73 9.37 8.35 3.68 3.61 0.43 0.35 0.17 0.23 2.7 2.85 98.786 99.7 3.4 3.2 1.19 0.17 280 230 67 62 53 43 42.4 42.8 389 338 38.5 24.6 <2 <2 113 102 <1 <I 4.8 <0.2 <1 3 <I <I 627 200 <0.8 15 <0.5 <0.5 2.9 1.5 <0.02 <0.02 <I 0.3 0.2 10 11 <4 230 41 10 6 <1 I 459 213 258 403 0.6 0.2 31 5 76 83 32 31 <0.5 <0.5 0.1 0.2 4.1 4.6 11.2 13 1.7 1.8 9.7 10 2.9 3.9 1.31 1.32 4.2 5.1 0.7 0.8 5.2 5.6 1.1 1.08 3.4 3 0.5 0.5 3.4 3.2 0.52 0.47 <100 <100 25 25  CA89-96100.4 411864 6278506 XRAL 10  CA90-46553.1 411882 6278671 XRAL 10  Mv 1  Mv 1  46.2 1.33 13.1 13.3 0.22 11.9 7.8 I 0.16 0.14 4.8 100 4.9 0.12 370 124 54 36.4 302 345 <2 94.4 <1 <0.2 <1  46.3 1.59 14.9 13.3 0.19 7.93 9.49 1.64 0.39 0.21 3.25 99.2 3.5 0.23 260 77 43 39.6 344 34 <2 99.8 <I <0.2 <I <1  <1 1510 6 <0.5 3.1 <0.02  570 0.9 <0.5 4.9 <0.02  0.3  0.7  5 192 5 3 152 101 0.4 4 63 23 <0.5 <0.1 3.6 9.7 1.3 7.2 2.6 0.97 3.6 0.5 4 0.77 2.3 0.3 2.5 0.36 <100 39  4 59 10 2 153 161 0.2 5 78 29 <0.5 0.2 4.3 12 1.7 9.3 3.4 1.35 4.6 0.7 5.1 1.02 2.9 0.4 3.4 0.45 <100 33  169  E91-017  E91-017  E92-010  G91-114  409727 6276595 XRAL 6 T, A Mv 1  409727 6276595 XRAL 6 A Mv 1  412282 6278687 XRAL 10 A,T Mv 1  408098 6268050 XRAL 6 S, A Mv 1  50.5 1.67 15.4 12.6 0.21 4.22 7.37 3.73 0.27 0.23 3.54 99.844 2.5 0.88 270 63 35 43.2 305 44.5 <2 95.4 <1 <0.2 <2 <1 17000 10 <0.5 8.4 <0.02 4 <0.1 <10 6 54 8 1 521 248 <0.1 5 92 31 <0.5 <0.2 4.4 11.6 2 11.6 3.6 1.45 4.9 0.9 5.9 1.35 3.7 0.6 3.7 0.61 <100 25  50.8 1.67 15.4 12.8 0.21 4.23 7.42 3.68 0.26 0.23 2.54 99.345 2.2 0.88 260 61 36 43.6 320 44.4 <2 104 <I <0.2 <3 <1 19000 9.5 <0.5 8.7 <0.02 <I <0.1 <10 3 56 12 3 538 243 1.1 5 94 24 <0.5 <0.5 5.2 14 2.3 14.1 4.6 1.97 5.8 1 7 1.72 5 0.6 4.5 0.67 <100 22  46 1.4 15.1 11.5 0.12 10.3 4.27 3.78 0.29 0.15 5.65 98.7 5.1 1.27 220 74 45 41.4 306 41.3 <2 103 <I <0.2 <1 <1 200 0.9 <0.5 0.3 0.04 0.5 <1 26 9 2 948 309 0.2 4 74 26 <0.5 0.4 4.3 12 1.6 8.6 3.2 1.38 5.3 0.6 4.7 0.98 2.7 0.4 2.9 0.48 <100 <10  47.5 1.74 14.6 12.7 0.19 5.43 12.1 2.06 0.27 0.19 3.08 99.928 2.7 0.38 150 <1 <I 2.57 293 1.5 3 9.4 <1 <0.2 <1 4 2600 <0.5 <0.5 0.7 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 7 11 5 <1 176 236 1.5 6 119 35 1.1 0.3 37.7 70.6 8.6 34 7.2 0.99 4.6 0.6 2.8 0.66 2.1 0.3 2.2 0.5 <100 26  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^ SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.I. SIO2 TIO2 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 LOI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB Zit TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  '134  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  G91-115  G91-116  A91-037  408078 6267922 XRAL 6 S, A Mv 1 49 2.34 13.9 13.8 0.2 6.19 6.48 3.98 0.16 0.26 3.08 99.46 2.9 0.25 59 18 29 41 456 19.1 <2 118 <1 <0.2 <1 <1 1800 0.6 <0.5 0.3 <0.02 2 <0.1 <10 9 22 7 <1 196 173 0.5 6 172 35 1.6 0.5 9.3 21.8 3.5 19 6.6 2.16 9 1.5 10.6 2.22 6.8 1 5.7 0.87 <100 35  408075 6267722 XRAL 6 S, A Mv I 46.3 1.01 17.6 8.92 0.15 6.44 13 2.31 0.76 0.1 3.54 100.201 2 1.93 320 108 34 42.3 244 86.1 <2 72.5 <I <0.2 1 <1 840 31 <0.5 0.8 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 3 11 17 1 251 260 1.1 2 58 38 <0.5 <0.2 3.3 6.7 1.3 7.7 2.6 1.45 4.1 0.8 4.8 1.24 3.2 0.6 3.7 0.69 <100 25  408480 6274105 XRAL 6 T, A Mv 2 44.1 0.835 13.7 9.64 0.21 7.33 8.01 3.23 0.82 0.37 10 98.843 1.4 6.94 380 112 27 28.8 215 74.4 <2 83.5 <1 <0.2 <1 <1 1500 2.5 <0.5 3.4 <0.02 <I <0.1 <10 4 120 33 17 4400 795 1 7 72 25 2.9 1.7 25.1 48.7 6.5 28.5 5.1 1.51 4.2 0.7 4.4 0.87 2.2 0.3 2 0.46 113 44  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK"" 086 CA89-89-10.5 015  409937 6275811 XRAL 2 A Mv 2 51 1.01 20.5 8.61 0.27 3.44 1.85 4.09 3.84 0.5 2.31 97.7 2.5 0.3 23 9 13.9 138 2.7 <2 109 <I <0.2 <I <1 <50 4 <0.5 2.1 <0.02 <1 0.2 <10 <I 26 55 3 2280 272 0.2 26 108 16 4.2 1.7 19.1 35.1 4.5 20.9 5.1 1.46 3.8 0.5 3.5 0.62 1.6 0.2 1.4 0.25 <100 24  411613 6280127 B.C. 4 T,A Mv 2 44.2 1.55 16.7 8.01 0.09 6.56 6.22 5.41 0.55 0.46 8.4 98.15 0.15 6.3 300 59 36 38.1 37 5 105 <5 <5 2 I 2400 56 <5 31.8 <10 <0.2 <2 121 15 1.7 340 302 7 88 37 <0.2 <0.2 5 9.3  3.6 <1 1.1  4 0.6 18  411877 6278518 XRAL 2 A Mv 2 48.2 1.54 15.1 11.4 0.17 6.57 6.59 3.18 0.57 0.28 4.93 98.57 3.8 2.65 200 52 43 37.5 337 23.8 <2 124 <1 1.6 <1 <1 1920 25 <0.5 4.5 <0.02 <1 0.3 10 7 300 9 1 326 106 0.7 22 74 31 <0.5 0.5 5.4 12.7 1.9 11 3.2 1.23 4 0.7 5.3 1.12 3.5 0.5 3.1 0.47 <100 25  170 E92-011 18  E92-031  6278870 XRAL 10 A,T Mv 2 50.3 0.883 19.9 5.63 0.06 4.08 0.52 0.8 8.74 0.11 6.23 98.7 2.5 0.01 50 26 22 40.1 249 60.8 <2 45.3 <I <0.2 8 2 24300 460 <0.5 68 <0.02  412337 6276652 XRAL 10 A,T Mv 2 55.2 1.4 13 11.6 0.14 4.79 3.3 2.43 2.01 0.54 3.85 98.4 3.9 1.9 26 <1 17 29.3 128 4.8 <2 119 <1 <0.2 <1 <I 990 2.2 <0.5 1.3 <0.02  0.5 26 11000 148 6 13300 58 8 8 43 12 1.4 2.9 2.8 6.6 0.8 4 1.5 2.19 1.5 0.3 2 0.42 1.3 0.2 1.6 0.25 <100 19  0.9 6 43 28 <1 665 173 0.4 9 118 20 2.5 1.6 15.5 34.9 3.9 17.6 5 1.66 6.2 0.7 4.2 0.72 1.8 0.2 1.7 0.28 <100 21  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^ SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L  UNIT  sum  7102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K20 P205 LO1 SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB  ZR Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  E92-072  G91-136  G91-151  G91-158  411109 6274638 XRAL 10 A,T Mv 2  405256 6266239 XRAL 6 T,A Mv 2  405883 6269241 XRAL 6 S,A Mv 2  406317 6271084 XRAL 6 S,A Mv 2  50.8 1.92 14.5 12.4 0.23 4.22 4.11 2.73 1.06 0.4 6.2 98.6 3.5 4.11 24 <I 14 34 277 9 <2 184 <1 <0.2 <I <1 400 1 <0.5 4.4 <0.02  49.8 1.17 16.8 8.05 0.1 5.14 6.05 5.07 1.43 0.71 5.93 100.632 3.2 3.02 53 33 10 16.3 166 34.9 <2 87 <1  51.8 1.24 16.4 8.37 0.14 4.33 7.52 5.08 0.36 0.89 2.93 99.29 2.5 0.3 63 27 14 16.6 189 20.2 <2 99.4 <I  <0.2 3 <1 150 <0.1 <0.5 <0.1 <0.02 <I <0.1 <10 4 5  <0.2 <1 <1  0.4 31 175 23 3 355 110 0.4 12 136 37 2.5 1.5 17.5 38.9 4.3 19.1 5.2 1.35 6 0.8 4.9 0.9 2.4 0.3 2.4 0.33 <100 34  20 2 2320 795 0.4 23 191 27 10 2.8 69.3 127 13.3 46.9 7.5 2.11 5.3 0.8 4.9 1.04 2.6 0.4 2.4 0.3 <100 32  960 <0.1 <0.5 <0.1 <0.02 4 <0.1 10 6 16 6 <1 781 966 0.4 27 175 37 14 4.1 82.4 148 15 57.9 9.5 2.56 6.7 1 5.4 0.91 3 0.5 2.3 0.41 <100 37  49.7 1.14 16.2 8.6 0.15 5.71 7.84 2.98 1.43 0.66 5 99.717 3 2.1 140 73 16 25.2 224 51.8 <2 88.6 <1 <0.2 <I <I 1500 1.2 <0.5 0.1 <0.02 <I <0.1 <10 3 16 25 2 1440 1080 0.5 12 112 24 5 2.1 27.7 52.1 6.6 27.8 6.2 1.65 48 0.8 4.1 0.67 2.6 0.3 1.9 0.25 <100 42  1 71  L92-142 405307 6270809 XRAL 10 A,T Mv 2  L92-142  A91-032  405307 6270809 XRAL 10 A,T Mv 2  408018 6274483 XRAL 6 T,A Mv 3  50.1 1.3 17.6 8.65 0.13 3.68 4.93 5.54 1.84 0.82 3.55 98.6 3 1.86 52 33 21 18.4 192 25.5 <2 104 <1 <0.2 <2 <1 220 0.5 <0.5 <0.1 <0.02  50.4 1.29 17.7 8.52 0.13 3.67 4.94 5.52 1.82 0.81 3.55 98.8 3 1.84 54 31 20 16.9 216 25.1 <2 96.6 <1 <0.2 3 <1 210 <0.1 <0.5 <0.1 <0.02  0.3  0.5  9 12 25 1 2910 961 0.2 26 178 24 14 3.3 84.9 154 14 51.1 8.9 2.89 7.8 0.9 4.5  4 14 26 1 2880 957 0.2 27 173 22 14 4.2 78.7 147 13.6 49.7 8.4 2.72 7.4 0.8 4.3 0.75 2 0.3 2 0.28 106 24  80.2 0.101 8.86 1.3 0.04 0.35 2.14 3.6 1 0.03 2.39 100.094 0.6 1.64 170 2 <1 1.58 14 2.6 <2 94.2 <1 <0.2 3 16 5800 6.4 <0.5 3.8 <0.02 <I <0.1 <10 4 56 53 2 260 228 0.9 19 153 51 9 5.5 38.2 70.2 8.6 35.4 7.1 0.21 7 1.2 7.1 1.6 3.9 0.5 3.4 0.47 <100  0.81 2.1 0.3 2.2 0.34 119 20  28  AJM-ISK90067 411134 6278561 XRAL 2 A Mv 3 49.2 1.76 15.2 12.3 0.2 5.43 8.14 2.97 0.91 0.24 2.47 98.9 3 0.61 260 <1 53 42.9 386 34.9 <2 105 <1 <0.2 1 <I 3980 30 <0.5 8 0.04 <1 <0.1 <10 <1 130 30 1 425 288 0.4 <10 86 33 <5 0.1 4.9 12.5 1.9 10.6 3.7 1.53 4.9 0.8 5.6 1.23 3.8 0.5 3.3 0.53 <100 31  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX.TYPE AI SIO2 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P205 LOI SUM 1120+ CO2 CR NJ CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB 711. Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  CA89-36286.2  CA89-36286.6  411761 6278486 XRAL 10  411761 6278486 XRAL 10  Mv 3  Mv 3  56.3 1.51 15.1 9.8 0.28 5.75 0.75 0.9 3.97 0.42 4.45 99.4  56.5 1.51 15.1 9.84 0.28 5.75 0.75 0.94 3.98 0.42 4.4 99.7 4 0.2 13 <I 22 28.3 380 5  4.1 PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  0.1 15 <1 23 28.3 309 4 10 130 <1 <0.2 5 3 16700 130 <0.5 43 <0.02  40 <0.02  1.7  2.2  13 158 73 3 1730 66 1.5 II 129 21 3 1.7 17.3 37.8 4.1 18.3 4.8 1.23 5.1 0.6 4 0.74 2 0.3 1.9 0.26 <100 35  13 138 <I <0.2 5 3 4840 120 <0.5  17 102 75  CA90-29187.0  CA90-42357.0  411890 6278499 XRAL 2 A Mv 3  412217 6278950 XRAL 2 A Mv 3  412190 6279246 XRAL 2 A Mv 3  39.9 0.926 9.9 8.71 0.24 3.75 19.6 2.38 0.02 0.14 12.5 98.068 2 13.1 170 44 37 26.4 234 36.6 <2 74.8 <1  45.1 1.61 15.5 12.2 0.16 11.3 3.01 2.69 0.08 0.17 6.54 98.427 6.5 2.17 220 60 57 40.3 372 46.7 <2 113 <1 <0.2 2 <I 305 43 0.7 16 0.08 <I 1.3 20 3  35.9 1.77 16.6 10.2 0.14 18.8 1.85 0.48 2.03 0.19 8.39 96.761 7.4  CA89-63-35.0 CA89-89-42.1 411820 6278598 XRAL 1 A Mv 3 30.9 1.22 13.5 24.1 0.17 7.45 4.3 0.4 3.23 0.14 10.6 96.247 5.2 3.2 180 56 50 30.7 326 45.1 18 117 <I <0.2 1 10 <765000 480 3.9 140 <0.02 1 5.6 10 74 1000 42  <0.2 <I <I 5290 31 <0.5 8.1 <0.02 <1 0.3 <10 3 240 2  4  1  <I  1760 58 1.5 II 132 22 3.1 1.9  2040 77 3 6 83 26  <10 141 0.1 15 52 21 <0.5  17.3 37.9 4.1 18.1 4.7 1.22 5.1 0.7 4 0.73 2 0.3 2 0.28 <100 27  1.1 1 3.4 10.1 1.7 9.9 3.4 1.11 4.5 0.7 5.2 1.06 3.3 0.5  1 2.8 7.1 1.1 6.3 1.9 0.77 2.6 0.5 3.2 0.72 2.3 0.3  2.9 0.45 <100 <10  1.9 0.33 <100 13  400 2 2 533 111 0.2 14 79 40 <0.5 0.6 4.3 10.7 1.7 9 3.2 1.2 4.3 0.6 4.8 0.94 2.8 0.4 2.4 0.33 <100 12  1 72  E92-004  E92-016  412377 6278196 XRAL  411806 6279199 XRAL 10 A,T My 3  10 A,T Mv 3 45.4 2.25 13.4 12.7 0.07 11.4 3.65 1.95 0.25 0.27 6.35 97.7 6.2 1.54 120 27 35 50.7 438 31.5 <2 133  <I  <1  0.8 10 <1 11300 82 1.2 45 0.2 3 1.3 10 100 270 28 3 3660 35 3.2 19 87 22 <0.5 0.6 4.7 11.8 1.9 10.1 3.1 0.68 3.8 0.7 4.4 0.88 2.4 0.4  <0.2 <1 <1 1820 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.26  38.9 1.2 15.6 5.26 0.16 2.72 23.7 1.28 0.04 0.23 10.3 99.4 3 8.35 190 49 34 33.5 282 45.1 <2 92.9 <1 <0.2 2 1 1420 29 <0.5 5.6 <0.02  <0.1  0.3  <1 20 5 3 219 58 0.1 6 100 34 0.5 0.3 5.9 16.8 2.3 12.8 4.5 4.44 7.7 0.9 6.4 1.27 3.5 0.5 3.4 0.57 <100 <10  6 96 4 <I  1.23 250 76 74 46.3 421 59.9 109 284  2.3 0.31 <100 22  <10 47 0.1 5 71 29 <0.5 0.4 5.9 14.2 1.9 9.5 3.4 1.41 4.4 0.7 4.7 0.98 2.9 0.4 3.2 0.43 <100 14  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L SIO2 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O K2O P2O5 LOI SUM 1120+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD W MO S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  UNIT  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  CA90-42340.1  CA90-42348.0  412264 6270249 XRAL 2 A Mv 4 45 1.71 16.4 12.4 0.06 3.67 0.31 0.49 8.77 0.19 9.31 100.511 2.6 0.01 270 79 70 34.3 351 48.3 <2 293 <1 1.4 39 <1 76500 610 1.6 110 0.02 <1 1.3 <10 2100 4250 122 3 19700 10 21 13 77 17 <0.5 1.1 2.3 4.8 0.9 6.1 2.3 1.56 3.2 0.6 3.4 0.68 1.9 0.3 1.8 0.22 <100 39  412266 6279248 XRAL 2 A Mv 4 40.2 1.62 15.8 8.88 0.09 17.7 0.46 0.37 1.53 0.17 12.7 99.593 6.8 0.01 230 91 78 39.5 332 46.9 30 336 <1 <0.2 12 <I 40900 240 1.6 87 <0.02 3 3.1 <10 560 1150 45 9 636 20 4.2 16 80 21 <0.5 0.3 4.7 11.2 1.8 9.3 3.2 0.54 3.9 0.7 4.4 0.81 2.3 0.3 2 0.25 <100 17  CA90-423-  55.5 412189 6279246 XRAL 2 A Mv 4 35.6 0.872 11.1 11.2 0.15 7.66 9.99 0.17 3.96 0.23 4.77 86.004 3.4 8.21 130 51 36 25.1 255 316 765 6410 <1 28.2 16 I1 47300 620 5.6 100 0.74 <1 4.8 10 760 2030 80 2 2680 78 6.2 18 65 22 <0.5 2.1 5.2 10.5 1.9 9.5 2.7 1.25 3.7 0.6 3.8 0.81 2.3 0.4 2.3 0.31 <100 12  173  AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISK90- AJM-ISIC90018a^0186^055^065^082  409600 6276518 XRAL 2 A Mv 48.7 1.75 16.3 12 0.17 5.14 5.01 3.01 0.7 0.26 3.54 96.7 4.3 2.6 300 63 55 45 427 41.1 <2  105 <I <0.2 <1 <I 162 40 <0.5 4.2 0.06 <I <0.1 10 <I 21 32 5 664 380 0.5 16 81 32 <5 0.3 5.3 12.5 2 11.3 3.8 1.34 4.8 0.8 5.8 1.22 3.6 0.5 3.1 0.49 <100 <10  409600 6276518 XRAL 2 A Mv  410768 6278175 XRAL 2 A Mv  411104 6278481 XRAL 2 A My  411612 6280127 XRAL 2 A Mv  44.9 1.91 16.8 14.2 0.22 6.19 3.78 3.31 0.53 0.28 4.23 96.4 5.2 2.12 310 69 57 45.6 399 55.5 <2 97.4 <1 <0.2 <1 <1 154 9.6 <0.5 4.2 0.06 <1 <0.1 10 1 23 20 4 865 391 0.2 21 84 34 <5 0.2 5.1 13.54 2 12.4  48.9 1.68 14.7 12.3 0.21 5.89 9.75 2.61 0.34 0.26 1.77 98.5 2.5 0.59 260 50 44 41.4 396 41.8 <2 99.1 <I <0.2 <1 <1 <50 3.1 <0.5 2.7 0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 <I 32 6 <1 518 297 0.3 11 78 32 <.5 0.3 5.2 12.9 1.8 10.9 3.3 1.52 4.5 0.8 5.8 1.18 3.6 0.6 3.3 0.55 <100 15  47.2 1.65 16.6 12.6 0.23 5.74 6.05 3.4 1.67 0.19 4.23 99.7 4 1.37 240 12 63 43.5 393 23.9 <2 99 <1 <0.2 1 <I 130 44 <0.5 4.9 0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 <1 69 43 <1 1160 332 1.2 <10 78 32 <5 0.4 4.3 11.1 1.7 10.2 3.4 1.41 4.2 0.8 5.7 1.15 3.9 0.5 3.5 0.54 <100 19  43.5 1.95 18.3 11.4 0.08 10.2 0.18 1.87 3.64 0.2 8.23 100.5 6.2 <0.01 260 39 22 38.3 489 39 <2 114 <1 <0.2 6 <1 14000 51 <0.5 44 <0.02 3 0.8 10 19 6140 61 3 8420 59 7 19 92 27 <5 2 2.9 8.2 1.5 8.3 2.2 0.44 2 0.3 2 0.42 1.1 0.2 1.2 0.23 <100 17  3.8 1.38 4.6 0.9 6.5 1.3 4 0.5 3.3 0.54 <100 16  Table B - 1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L 5102 TIO2 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O 1(20 P2O5 LOI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN B1 CD  W MO  S AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB  ZR Y TH U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL  B  UNIT  •A,  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  A.IM-ISK90083 411613 6280127 XRAL 2 A Mv 48.1 1.93 19.5 10.8 0.11 7.14 0.57 2.75 2.22 0.21 5.54 99.2 5.6 0.02 290 87 54 41.5 467 53.2 <2 97.6 <1 <0.2 1 <I <50 32 <0.5 28 <0.02 3 <0.1 <20 <1 55 54 4 3200 189 1.8 <10  CA90-29115.9 412191 6278992 XRAL 2 A Mv 47 1.47 15.3 11.2 0.21 5.31 10.4 3.6 0.5 0.19 3.39 98.642 2.9 2.72 220 62 57 39.7 370 31.2 <2 100 <1 <0.2 <I <1 1370 39 <0.5 7.3 <0.02 <1 <0.1 <10 <1 57 11 1 619 471 0.3 17 72 31 <0.5  91 26 <.5 1.2 5.9 14 2.2 12.6 4.3 1.52 4.8 0.8 5.9 1.13 3.3 0.4 2.5 0.38 <100  0.4 4.5 11.2 1.7 9.8 3.3 1.17 3.9 0.8 5.4 1.16 3.6 0.5 3.5 0.57 <100  23  23  CA90-42329.3 412261 6279251 XRAL 2 A Mv 48.7 1.6 16 12.8 0.14 6.7 3.48 2.95 0.58 0.18 3.77 97.066 5 1.16 230 74 63 40.5 337 40.7 <2 116 <1  E91-175  G91-150  411630 6278354 XRAL 6 T, A Mv  #REF! #REF! XRAL 6 S, A Mv  48.1 1.5 14.7 10.8 0.23 5.08 9.4 4.47 0.14 0.18 4.62 99.294 2.5 2.96 220 69 39 42 338 37.7 <2 99.1 <1 <0.2 <2 <1 2500 21 <0.5 3.4 <0.02 <1  55.8 0.665 16 6.5 0.12 1.4 3.39 0.81 9.86 0.36 4.54 100.24 1.2 3.52 34 5 8 14.4 577 61.7 13 59.9 <I  CA89-89-74.7 411903 6278479 XRAL 2 A Sag 1  75 30 <0.5  <0.1 <10 2 140 7 1 208 300 0.4 5 80 33 <0.5  <1 <1 200 1.7 <0.5 1 <0.02 47 <0.1 20 5 27 199 1 5020 1830 0.5 27 116 16 4.7  0.7 4.3 II 1.8 10.4 3.4 1.41 4.7 0.7 5.6 1.14 3.4 0.5  0.5 3.6 9.4 1.8 10.7 3.9 1.51 4.7 0.9 6.6 1.27 4.3 0.8  3.1 31.4 49.9 5.7 22 3.4 1.15 2.9 0.4 2.6 0.41 1.5 0.2  58.7 0.572 11.6 5.95 0.04 2.29 3.82 1.9 2.06 0.36 11.2 98.764 2.9 2.16 48 356 15 20.3 575 102 <2 1030 <I <0.2 5 132 56800 1800 7 100 0.08 4 1.2 10 120 150000 74 5 2360 118 50.7 14 104 49 2.6 12.3 12.2 20.5 3.7 18 4.1 1.07 3.9 0.6 4.5 0.93 2.8 0.4  3 0.41 <100 <10  3.7 0.53 <100  1.3 0.31 <100 53  3 0.56 <100 37  <0.2 1 <1 <50 I 0.5 2.5 0.12 2 <0.1 <10 6 41 12 1 1470 303 1.8 14  16  <0.2  1 74 CA90-291112.4 412226 6278935 XRAL 2 A Sag 5 55.7 0.057 2.51 1.23 0.08 0.53 0.38 1.08 0.69 0.02 4.54 66.916 1.6 0.51 <200 25 2 1.79 17 13400 5890 88500 <1 3.4 <100 3 94000 <227 1.6 34000 <0.02 10 3000 10 <7610000 1300000 71 <20 763 13 0.6 97 170 15 <20 <20 8.2 16.1 2.4 11 2.4 0.09 1.5 0.3 2.3 0.54 1.8 0.2 1.8 0.28 <100 13  AJM-ISK.90091 411835 6277841 BC 4 T,A Sag 75.3 0.51 10.5 3.96 0.06 1.05 0.13 1.5 3.55 0.14 3.41 100.11 0.1 0.85 110 6 17 14 10 18 289 <5 <5 4 7 15800 35 <5 9.1 <10 0.3 140 637 97 3.2 1200 34 10 126 18 3.2 12 15 27  3.1 <1 0.5  2 <0.2 39  Table B-1 Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX.TYPE A.L 5102 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2O IC20 P2O5 WI SUM H20+ CO2 CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD  W MO  S AS SE SE TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB  ZR Y TH  U LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY 110 ER TM YB LU CL  B  UNIT  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  CA89-63-41.6 CA89-89-10.3 CA89-89-83.6 CA89-89-89.0 411820 411876 411907 411909 6278598 6278518 6278473 6278470 XRAL XRAL XRAL XRAL 1 2 2 2 A A A A Sag Sag Sag Sag 61 0.426 10.8 3.94 0.02 0.67 8.24 0.37 4.65 0.09 7.47 97.77 1.5 6.11 65 80 10 15.2 336 54.8 6 1110 <1 17.1 I 28 <765000 64 4.2 56 <0.02 4 1.7 10 15 820 92 2 777 44 5.3 8 68 19 1.7 6.6 9.2 14.8 2.5 11.3 2.9 0.76 3.4 0.5 3.2 0.68 2.1 0.3 2.2 0.37 <100 34  58.4 0.333 13.9 6.52 0.07 3.44 12.2 0.02 0.05 0.16 4.62 99.719 2.6 0.33 100 39 3 10.5 216 41.6 <2 421 <1 <0.2 <1 <1 5750 2.6 1.6 6.9 <0.02 1 0.2 <10 5 1020 5 <1 30 13 0.3 20 92 23 4.9 4 15.1 25.1 3.3 14.7 2.8 0.95 2.9 0.4 3.5 0.73 2.2 0.3 2.2 0.36 <100 <10  49.9 0.164 17.1 2.71 0.03 7.9 0.55 0.26 2.69 0.04 8.93 90.791 5.2 0.34 <150 64 <I 2.49 35 112 34 1420 <I <0.2 <100 14 49200 <227 1.7 32000 <0.02 8 65.4 10 <7610000 690000 95 <20 4470 27 103 47 232 92 <20 <20 33.8 68.6 8.3 37.7 9.1 0.33 8 1.4 10.4 2.02 6.5 0.9 5.7 0.89 <100 30  67.5 0.138 13.1 2.56 0.03 7.43 0.12 0.12 1.41 0.03 6.23 98.912 4.6 <0.01 26 30 <1 2.21 26 27.4 9 273 <1 10.6 5 22 21400 2700 <0.5 330 <0.02 5 12.3 10 <7610000 160000 52 5 2130 16 108 43 209 52 12 14.9 28.9 61.6 7.2 31.3 7 0.19 6.1 1 8.4 1.7 5.4 0.8 4.7 0.71 <100 33  CA90-291114.3 512226 6278935 XRAL 2 A Sag <227 <227 <227 <227 <227 <227 <227 <227 227 <227 <227 <227 0.9 0.71 <1000 14 3 0.84 30 4650 42 51000 <1 <0.2 <1000 I 364000 <227 <0.5 140000 <0.02 3 1120 <10 <7610000 3200000 40 <100 <227 97 0.8 <227 44 1 <100 <100 2.4 0.4 <0.1 0.2 0.1 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.05 0.1 <0.1 0.2 0.05 <100 <10  CA90-29126.7 412195 6278985 XRAL 2 A Sag 46.4 1.03 13.3 9.94 0.11 6.65 7.61 0.45 3.07 0.14 6.77 95.657 4.7 4.49 160 76 37 29 374 61.1 <2 346 <1 0.8 1 16 14000 <227 2.6 240 0.06 3 2.5 20 43 2440 50 3 1660 96 3.8 15 83 32 1.5 3.9 8.6 16.7 2.2 12 3.2 1.08 3.8 0.7 5.5 1.1 3.3 0.5 3.1 0.5 <100 38  1 75 CA90-42352.4 412188 6279247 XRAL 2 A Sag 51.6 1.11 12.9 7.15 0.07 2.22 6.05 0.07 6.04 0.17 4.39 92.186 1.8 5.04 200 77 51 31.8 286 112 224 559 <1 2.6 36 6 44300 2400 2.4 240 0.67 <I 8.9 <10 1100 860 138 4 3690 104 12.5 31 70 23 <1 1.7 4.6 10.1 1.8 10.3 2.7 1.14 3.8 0.6 41 0.8 2.2 0.4 2.2 0.28 <100 36  E91-018 409134 6275853 XRAL 6 T, A Sag 79.8 0.539 8.72 1.91 0.02 0.36 0.45 1.62 2.32 0.12 2.85 98.849 1.1 0.24 190 6 4 9.46 153 20.6 3 50.6 <1 <0.2 13 10, 9300 58 <0.5 27 <0.02 3 0.8 10 46 530 93 2 1100 81 2.8 4 55 10 1 4.6 11.4 15.3 2.9 13.4 2.9 0.86 2.7 0.4 2.8 0.63 2 0.2 1.6 0.43 <100 22  Table B-I Whole rock chemistry of the Lower Jurassic Hazelton Group volcanic rocks. ^  SAMPLE  EASTING NORTHING LAB BATCH SAMPLE TYPE RX . TYPE A.L SIO2 1102 AL203 FE203 MNO MGO CAO NA2 0 K2O P2O5 WI SUM 1120+  UNIT  'AP  TR-1S 411982 6278295 B.C.2 X1 A Sag 77.97 0.05 8.9 1.81 0.03 2.97 0.03 0.04 2.7 0.06 3.13 97.69  W  MO S  AS SE SB TE PD AG PT AU HG RB CS BA SR TL NB ZR Y  111 U  LA CE PR ND SM EU GD TB DY HO ER TM YB LU CL B  PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPB PPM PPB PPB PPB PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM PPM  CA89-63108.8 411820 6278598 XRAL 1 A Sal 3  <5  <1  <I <20 4 10100 68  31.2 <1 <I 12100 17 <0.5 11 <0.02 2 <0.1 <10 <1 130 4 <I 45 114 0.3 <10 49 17 0.5 1.6 4 8.6 1.2 6 1.8 0.88 2.5 0.4 2.9 0.6 2.1 0.3 1.9 0.32  77 0.093 6.87 1.9 0.07 7.43 0.59 0.12 0.75 0.02 3.85 98.774 3 0.78 110 16 2 0.91 16 6.8 2260 210 <1 0.3 3 13 <165000 640 3 32 0.08 4 2.2 10 120 690 28 2 709 12 3.1 30 115 21 7.8 10.7 25.3 49.4 6.2 25 4.9 <0.05 3.8 0.6 4.1 0.9 2.9 0.6 3.7 0.56  <100  <100  21  17  CO2  CR NI CO SC V CU PB ZN BI CD  CA90-291-8.2 412188 6278996 XRAL 2 A Sag?  139 2 1 1.5 3 4 58 77  12 <10 0.3  137 14 37 164 83 15 9 15 31 22 7.2 <0.5 2  2 8 1.4  27.7 0.668 9.15 9.3 0.18 3.23 28.9 0.36 0.18 0.13 16.5 96.303 2.8 17.9 120 42 30 18.8 208 53.2 <2 123  AJM-ISK90092  c A90 _423 _  CA90-423-  49.3  411852 6277825 B.C. 4 T,A  412186 6279248 XRAL 2 A  45.2 412265 6279248 XRAL 2 A  vn  MS  MS  5  5  54.1 0.22 5.25 21.6 0.01 0.4 0.27 0.04 3.83 0.58 11.96 98.26 <0.05 <0.02 390 9 22 3.6  71.4 0.193 3.86 3.28 0.05 6.1 0.2 0.36 0.02 0.08 5.93 91.505 2.6 <0.01 240 47 4 5.3 105 4560 8430 23800 <1 89.8 3 19 41300 230 26.4 2600 0.72 <1 66.4 10 430 16500 14 <5 210 8 3 62 63 6 <5 <10  1178 936 13005 29 98 3 22 94600 603 29 87.4 <10 8.7 873 42340 72 <0.5 1900 19  <5 34 <I 1.5 1.5 I1 15  2.4 <1 <0.5  Q" <0.2 16  <227 <227 <227 <227 <227 <227 <227 <227 <227 <227 <227 <227 0.9 0.34 <100 72 1 <0.05 14 36900 1390 320000 <1 1630 <20 25 299000 880 530 4300 <0.02 6 1720 10 <1610000 140000 221 <10 <227 5 33.9 <227 513 2 <10 <10  1 76 CA90 -42350.3 412187 6279248 XRAL 2 A MS 13.4 0.232 3.88 42.7 0.07 6.62 0.56 0.29 0.01 0.13 27 94.915 3.6 0.32 150 23 6 0.72 83  1 2.4 0.5 2.5 0.7 0.2 0.9 0.2 0.8 0.16 0.6 0.1 0.7 0.11  0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.05  144 1290 24600 <1 84.4 4 6 287000 180 68.5 39 3.17 <1 6.8 <10 580 5390 14 1 158 4 1.4 35 58 5 0.6 2.1 0.5 2 0.6 3.2 0.7 0.14 0.7 0.2 0.8 0.17 0.6 0.1 0.8 0.12  <100  <100  <100  18  <10  <10  ^ ^  of  ^  ^c• N^M  .^OD °• C0'^• CD^OD  8L7)3  CV  g ; 88^‘Z),,• cc.  ^  M  • •  NC000.-0  S8S  ^ U)  ▪  8  ooScn  Los zt  °DSc.,  oo 6 omm No,aa  0SE  N0V  '4.vaRs  66oi4OM  3I  R8L4ELS  SE 8 J. 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'4  8 0,„8^e ai gN N ^  8SERRR 66.-6.-6  0.  .0800 0— '  gS888g  8 6 c,2oi oi 6  O  g88888 g  00^00  0 — 88 •0 0 2-----^0----— ) °-:^8m 2s3,40-, .112 2 E.9 4 mc==.423^ 00 '05(S5<2  csio660  CD 0 V N  Rc8—c18I  r- CI r- r- 0  666666  08888 0- 66 R.  gp 0 ; i3 ILT .T I  888888 0C400.-71N  666ciOci  10000V0  ea N co Noo a 6. 6M6^O^,‘;,‘`'  N  N0VNN  c.;  NN0000^  (. a  8E8E  O  N  am2sEg^2,12,7,r4 g.c.=*6. .E  NMOOM  OCONMCOM ONMCOMN  .a  0  NNOM8 NOMM  N^0 N^N  oi 6 oi M a 6 •  • ei 6 :2 6 6  NNM000 ONMI-MV  .-66666  <WEa  RSg,")g%  N "1.6  ogcoo m 0.007  .NNCOMM  7  col ,46046.0  §Fri."E:  8 8 88g-t  el Nat.-N  et 0 O CO 0. Ci r- CV 0 0  ES  6o' oi 66  . g  R48S7,'8  N ° NONNNM MMO Mr^<R8`c N •^Csi I oDNS) 66ci666 N RN 'c:,,TA  MOOD o m MMOOD.-0 OCOOD 4^.-0000)0n ^u.i.-et Ouio, 6 °  (11  ^in  I  ^0  E E  0E  E  0a  a  >a  N.-  0 0  7 Lc;^7^oo IN^• co ^  NNM  ONO 6 6  000  NCO NC.;  go M XNM SCOOD ^0042 4",^"4:^.c7, SgS8— Nr . 6 .^co^co 0.MN E ogoi a n ES gg ooN oi oigLP, 6 6 •oo co a mao "coo,^c"' com N OIr- N INN ^r^N.-  . E  CV Obt  SST, 0 -cr, MOM 6 cerN'  M  07 S C.; S V M  Noco oo MMOON0 Nam o o^movoNa 6.-6 0  ° 8 N •  .83 22^°^:22E9g=. °-07. ^2' &11^m==<, cr < 224c^00^cc 00^00  ^ ^  Table B-2 Ana ytical standards; summary statistical data. ^ Sam*^11^Pb^Th^  u^8a^SIO2^Al203^C..0^Mg0^Pia20^  178 K20^F*203^MnO^7102^  ROM^ppm^PPM^PPM^ppm  P205  Min Mean ^10.60^ 0.50^2.00^0.05^1.00^0.50^0.90^ 0.80^249.00 48.80^15.50^3.87^2.06^2.83^ Max Mean 23.20^4.00^57.00^0.60^1.00^0.50^ 0.80 2.60^1.00^790.00^64.20^18.90^10.30^5.76^ Avg Mean 5.72^4.51 15.95^1.75^30.00^0.25^1.00^0.50^ 1.90^0.88^504.75^56.58^17.15^6.96^ 3.34^4.52^1.97 Avg StDev 18.03^1.63^34.25^0.40^1.00^0.50^1.95 ^0.90^467.00^56.23^16.98^6.96^3.34^ 4.51^1.96 Mean CV% 113.01^92.86 114.17 160.00^100.00^100.00^102.63^ 102.86 92.52^99.38^98.98^100.04^100.22 99.83^ 99.62 Moans QGRM 100^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^ 0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^ 0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00 QGRM 101^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^ 0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00 ^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00 ALB 1^10.80^4.00^39.00^0.80^ 1.00^0.50^2.60^0.80^790.00 58.40^ 17.70^3.87^2.06^5.20^4.51 MBX 1^23.20^0.50^2.00^0.30^1.00 ^0.50^2.00^0.90^249.00 48.80^ 15.50^8.53^5.76^2.83^1.04 WP 1^12.00^0.50^57.00^0.05^1.00^ 0.50^0.90^1.00^273.00 54.90^18.90^ 10.30^2.88^5.72^0.80 P 1^18.00^2.00^22.00^0.05^ 1.00^0.50^2.10^0.80^707.00^84.20^16.50 ^5.12^2.64^4.32^1.51 St Devi QGRM 100 QGRM 101 ALB 1 MBX 1 WP 1 P1  0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^ 0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^ 0.00^0.00^0.00 0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^ 0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^0.00^ 0.00^0.00^0.00 14.20^5.00^38.00^0.40^1.00^0.50^ 2.50^0.60^658.00^57.50^17.50^3.73 ^2.03^ 24.60^0.50^32.00^0.60^1.00^0.50^ 5.16^4.50 2.20^1.00^248.00 48.40 ^15.20^8.42^5.70 ^2.79^0.98 15.20^0.50^65.00^0.50^1.00^0.50^1.10^ 1.10^307.00^54.90^18.70^10.50^2.91^ 18.10^0.50^2.00^0.10^1.00^0.50^2.00 5.68^0.76 ^0.90^655.00^64.10^16.50^5.18^ 2.73^4.41^1.59  APPENDIX C  OUTCROP AND SAMPLE LOCATION MAPS  

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