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Sedimentology of the lower cretaceous gates and moosebar formations, northeast coalfields, British Columbia Carmichael, Scott M. M. 1983

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SEDIMENTOLOGY OF THE LOWER CRETACEOUS GATES AND MOOSEBAR FORMATIONS,  NORTHEAST COALFIELDS, BRITISH  COLUMBIA  By SCOTT M.M. B.Sc,  The U n i v e r s i t y  CARMICHAEL of Edinburgh,  1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  Department We a c c e p t  of G e o l o g i c a l  this  t h e s i s as  to the r e q u i r e d  THE  © Scott  M.M.  conforming  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH August  Sciences  COLUMBIA  1983  Carmichael,  1983  >E-6  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an of  British  it  freely available  agree t h a t for  the  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  understood  that  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not  be  G^OlQfrY  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  Date  (3/81)  'M-e-  of  Columbia  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  the  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  the  University  I agree that  permission by  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t the  Columbia,  department or for  in partial  written  i  ABSTRACT The  Lower C r e t a c e o u s  Northeast thick  Coalfields  interval  sediments. Gates  Gates  and Moosebar F o r m a t i o n s  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  o f m a r i n e and n o n - m a r i n e , c o a l  The Moosebar F o r m a t i o n  Formation  marine c y c l e s .  study a r e a , non-marine sediments interbedded with  The  i n the Gates  Formation  (the S h e r i f f  s o u t h o f Duke M o u n t a i n ,  coarsening-upward  interval  3 main  marine c y c l e s  were d e p o s i t e d m a i n l y  prograded facies  shoreface-beach  occur  member,  sediments  northwards.  interpreted  non-marine.  i n the Moosebar-lower  d u r i n g r e g r e s s i o n s when t h e  The c y c l e s a r e c o m p r i s e d  as o f f s h o r e , t r a n s i t i o n  (and l o c a l l y  i n the Gates  distributary  o f up  zone a n d  channel) d e p o s i t s .  t r a n s g r e s s i v e d e p o s i t s a r e p r e s e n t a t t h e base o f t h e  Sheriff energy Sheriff  member. Lower G a t e s  shorelines are interpreted  a n d wave d o m i n a t e d . S h o r e l i n e t r e n d s  environments mainly  i n lagoons,  fluvial  within a coastal  braided river  Formation  channels plain  river  setting.  towards the northwest,  channels  are interpreted  and o v e r b a n k  types with anastomosing  b r a i d e d ) and m e a n d e r i n g flowed  E-W, and  NW-SE f o r t h e F a l h e r C.  Non-marine d e p o s i t s i n t h e G a t e s forming  as h i g h  f o r the Torrens,  and Babcock Members a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y  approximately  as  o f between 2 a n d 4  above t h e T o r r e n s Member a r e e n t i r e l y  shorelines  Thin  of the  C and Babcock member) w h i c h p i n c h o u t t o w a r d s t h e s o u t h .  Formation  to  unit  clastic  In the n o r t h e r n p a r t of t h e  3 major m a r i n e t o n g u e s  In t h e s t u d y a r e a  Gates  a 350-450 m  bearing  and l o w e r m o s t  ( t h e T o r r e n s Member) c o n s i s t  coarsening-upward  Falher  comprise  i n the  The c h a n n e l s a r e or s t r a i g h t (non-  a l s o p r e s e n t . The r i v e r s  n o r t h , n o r t h e a s t and e a s t  with  northeasterly coarse  fluvial  river-alluvial  d i r e c t i o n s most common. Up conglomerates,  lacustrine  The  upper  and  well  transgressive  deposits are  s a n d s t o n e s and approximately  flat Gates  in  0.4-2  upper few  km  d e p o s i t s which and c o a s t a l  (maximum  plain  10 m),  but l a t e r a l l y  massif) belts  N-S.  e x t e n s i v e marine l a g .  deposits  include  shelf  by e s t u a r i n e  are overlain  strongly  laterally  channel  locally  deposits with thin t o be  to shallow  subtidal  coal  tidally  by  and  tidal  seams. Upper influenced.  extensive coal  <1.0  m).  With  seams, t h e G a t e s c o a l s a p p e a r and  coastal  depositional  t o have a c c u m u l a t e d  l o w e r G a t e s were d e p o s i t e d km  retreat  wide t r e n d i n g NW-SE and  (generally  autochthonous  75  t y p e s of  seams o c c u r  o f t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n . C o a l seams i n t h e  Gates are t h i n  plain  Three  both  recognised:  in turn  s h o r e l i n e s appear  very thin  environments  deposits.  regressive  the lower p a r t  swamp  (Babcock member) c o n t a i n s  deposits.  sandstones o v e r l a i n  Thick  drained  conglomerates preserved in l i n e a r  3. L a g o o n - i n t e r t i d a l  shoal  i n levee, crevasse  e s t u a r y mouth | s h o a l  (maximum 90 cm)  marine  unit  regressive  (maximum 40 m)  Upper G a t e s  to p o o r l y  Gates marine and  2. A t h i n  as p r o x i m a l b r a i d e d  s e d i m e n t s were d e p o s i t e d  transgressive  1. T h i c k  interpreted  separate very  f a n d e p o s i t s a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e s o u t h n e a r Mount  B e l c o u r t . Overbank splay,  to three  at  least  in  the Gates Formation  setting.  the e x c e p t i o n  t o be  as p e a t  entirely  i n swamps i n a  Some o f t h e c o a l s  i n swamps w h i c h e x t e n d e d  from t h e s h o r e l i n e . (28 m t o t a l  t h i c k ) occurs i n the F o o t h i l l s  The coal  maximum c o a l and  of  i n the  inland for development  6 seams >1.5  s o u t h of K i n u s e o Creek,  m  near  the  b o u n d a r y between t r a n s i t i o n a l m a r i n e and  non-marine  facies  belts. Cross-sections sections  illustrate  based  on c l o s e l y  the o c c u r r e n c e  spaced  and  borehole  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  seams i n the.Duke, Honeymoon, B a b c o c k , Frame and Thinning  and  pinchout splay  of c o a l  channel  and  Sheriff  member. D r a p i n g  d e p o s i t s causes may  lead  The  of c o a l  seams o v e r  fluvial  pinchout  fluvial  of  to c o r r e l a t i o n problems  i n the e a r l y  stages  and  a f f e c t the p o t e n t i a l m i n e a b i l i t y  main d e t r i t a l with  components  fragments,  clastic  sedimentary  fragments,  igneous  rock  amounts. M e s o z o i c M o u n t a i n F r o n t and  s i l i c e o u s rock and  fragments  t o Cambrian  fragments,  and  feldspar  components.  sandstones carbonate  as  seams. are rock  rock  present  r o c k s of  interpreted  of  of c o a l  metasedimentary  sedimentary  Main Ranges a r e  the d e t r i t a l  i n the Gates  the  channel  t h i c k n e s s which  chert  of  landward  to  Pits.  in interseam  q u a r t z and  source  the  coal  variations  exploration  rapid  near  outcrop  McConkey  seams o c c u r s a d j a c e n t  d e p o s i t s and  and  the  in lesser Rocky  the p r i n c i p a l  iv  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  L I S T OF FIGURES  ix  L I S T OF TABLES  .  xxvi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xxvii  INTRODUCTION  1  PREAMBLE  1  GEOLOGICAL SETTING  3  I. Tectonic II.  Setting  3  P a l e o g e o g r a p h y and R e g i o n a l of  Stratigraphy  the K o o t e n a y - B l a i r m o r e Assemblage  6  LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC NOMENCLATURE  12  AGE OF THE MOOSEBAR AND GATES FORMATIONS  14  PART I LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY AND  PALEOENVIRONMENTS  OF THE  MOOSEBAR AND LOWER GATES FORMATIONS 1.1  ..15  REGIONAL CORRELATIONS OF THE GATES AND MOOSEBAR FORMATIONS  1.2 MARINE  15  DEPOSITS - INTRODUCTION  18  1 .3 REGRESSIVE DEPOSITS  19  1.3.1 Mudstone F a c i e s  - Description  19  1.3.2 Mudstone F a c i e s  - Interpretation  22  1.3.3 T r a n s i t i o n F a c i e s  - Description  27  1.3.4 T r a n s i t i o n F a c i e s  - Interpretation  29  1.3.5 S h e e t S a n d s t o n e  Facies  - Description  37  Facies  A  42  Facies  B  45  V  Facies  C  50  1.3.6  Sheet  Sandstone  1.3.7  Comparison  Facies  - Interpretation  o f t h e Lower G a t e s C o a s t a l  w i t h Modern H i g h and Low Beach-to-Offshore 1.4  ...51  Facies  Energy  Sequences  ......53  TRANSGRESSIVE DEPOSITS  55  1.4.1  Facies  D  55  1.4.2  Facies  E  56  1.4.3  Facies  F  57  1.4.4  Origin  of the T r a n s g r e s s i v e  Deposits  57  1.5  SUMMARY OF MARINE PALEOCURRENT DATA  60  1.6  LAGOONAL DEPOSITS  1.7  NON-MARINE DEPOSITS - INTRODUCTION  67  1.8  FLUVIAL CHANNEL DEPOSITS  68  ..60  1.8.1  Type  1 Channel D e p o s i t s - D e s c r i p t i o n  68  1.8.2  Type  1 Channel D e p o s i t s - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  1.8.3  Type 2 C h a n n e l D e p o s i t s - D e s c r i p t i o n  1.8.4  Type 2 C h a n n e l D e p o s i t s - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  1.8.5  Type 3 C h a n n e l D e p o s i t s - D e s c r i p t i o n  1.8.6  Type 3 C h a n n e l D e p o s i t s - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  1.8.7  Type 4 C h a n n e l  1.8.8  Type 4 C h a n n e l D e p o s i t s - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  1.8.9  Type 5 C h a n n e l D e p o s i t s - D e s c r i p t i o n  78  1 .9 OVERBANK DEPOSITS Levee  Data  ..99 99 ..106 109  1.8.10 Type 5 C h a n n e l D e p o s i t s - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Paleocurrent  ..90 96  Deposits - Description  1.8.11 Summary o f F l u v i a l  ..77  .109  .....111 111  1.9.1  Natural  Deposits  1.9.2  Crevasse Splay Deposits  112 ........113  vi  1.9.3 O r i g i n  of the Crevasse  Splay Deposits  121  1 .9.4 Lake D e p o s i t s 1.9.5 W e l l  to Poorly  123 Drained  Swamp D e p o s i t s  PART I I FACIES ASSOCIATIONS IN THE UPPER GATES TRANSGRESSIVE AND AND 2.1  .....127  FORMATION:  REGRESSIVE MARINE, ESTUARINE,  COASTAL PLAIN DEPOSITS  AND 129  INTRODUCTION  129  2.2 FACIES - DESCRIPTION AND  INTERPRETATION  2.2.1 G e n e r a l  130 130  2.2.2 F a c i e s  1A - D e s c r i p t i o n  136  2.2.3 F a c i e s  1A - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  157  2.2.4 F a c i e s  1B - D e s c r i p t i o n  159  2.2.5 F a c i e s  1B - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  163  2.2.6 F a c i e s  2A - D e s c r i p t i o n  165  2.2.7 F a c i e s  2A - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  170  2.2.8 F a c i e s  2B - D e s c r i p t i o n  2.2.9 F a c i e s  2B - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n '  ...171 ....172  2.2.10 F a c i e s  3A - D e s c r i p t i o n  173  2.2.11 F a c i e s  3B - D e s c r i p t i o n  180  2.2.12 F a c i e s  3A and 3B - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  185  2.2.13 F a c i e s  3C - D e s c r i p t i o n  189  2.2.14 F a c i e s  3C - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  190  2.2.15 F a c i e s  4 - Description  193  2.2.16 F a c i e s  4 - Interpretation  195  2.2.17 F a c i e s  5 - Description  198  2.2.18 F a c i e s  5 - Interpretation  201  2.3 UPPER GATES DEPOSITIONAL MODELS  209  vii  2 . 4 DISCUSSION  . ..  211  PART I I I OCCURRENCE, DISTRIBUTION AND DEPPSITIONAL SETTING OF COAL SEAMS IN THE GATES FORMATION  214  3.1 SEDIMENTOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF COAL OCCURRENCES AND DISTRIBUTION IN THE DUKE MOUNTAIN AREA 3.1.1  214  Introduction  3.1.2 C o a l  214  Seams i n t h e Duke M o u n t a i n A r e a  216  3.2 SEDIMENTOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF COAL OCCURRENCES AND DISTRIBUTION IN THE BABCOCK AREA 3.2.1  Introduction  3.2.2 C o a l 3.2.3  223 223  Seams i n t h e B a b c o c k A r e a  Depositional  Factors  Distribution  and C o n t i n u i t y  of  Controlling  the Thickness,  t h e G a n d I seams  3.2.4 Model and  225  228  f o r the D e p o s i t i o n  of the G  I seams  233  3.3 COAL OCCURRENCES IN THE FRAME  AND  MCCONKEY PITS  235  3.4 PLANT COMMUNITIES IN THE GATES PEAT SWAMPS  241  3.5 REGIONAL TRENDS IN COAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE GATES FORMATION 3.5.1  241  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between R e g i o n a l and  Paleogeography  Coal  Development  of the Gates Formation  .244  3.6 DEPOSITIONAL SETTING OF COAL SEAMS IN THE  GATES FORMATION  PART IV SANDSTONE PETROGRAPHY  246  253  vi i i  4.1 DATA AND METHODS  253  4.2 FRAMEWORK GRAINS  253  4.3 MATRIX AND CEMENTS  258  4.4 MISCELLANEOUS CONSTITUENTS  259  4.5 TEXTURE 4.6 SANDSTONE  .259 CLASSIFICATION  4.7 SOURCE AREA  260 260  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  266  REFERENCES  272  L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e j _ . L o c a t i o n map o f t h e s t u d y a r e a showing t h e o u t c r o p p a t t e r n o f t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n and l o c a l i t i e s m e n t i o n e d i n the text. F i g u r e 2. G e n e r a l i s e d t e c t o n i c map showing t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e C o r d i l l e r a n O r o g e n , F o r e l a n d B a s i n and p r i n c i p a l r e e n t r a n t s on t h e e a s t e r n Orogen ( m o d i f i e d a f t e r D o u g l a s e t a l . , 1976 and E i s b a c h e r e t a l . , 1974). F i g u r e 3. C o r r e l a t i o n c h a r t o f L a t e J u r a s s i c a n d E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i t s i n p a r t s of n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l b e r t a a n d n o r t h w e s t e r n Montana ( m o d i f i e d a f t e r McLean, 1982). F i g u r e 4. N o n - p a l i n s p a s t i c map showing t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f L a t e J u r a s s i c and E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s seaways a n d i m p o r t a n t c o a l measure s e q u e n c e s . C o m p i l e d from C o a l Task F o r c e ( 1 9 7 6 ) , Douglas e t a l . , (1976); G i b s o n (1977); Hamblin and Walker, ( 1 9 7 9 ) ; J e l e t z k y ( 1 9 7 1 ) ; McLean, ( 1 9 8 2 ) ; McLean a n d W a l l , (1981); S t e l c k e t a l . , (1972); S t o t t , (1968), (1972), (1974), (1975), (1982); Yurko, (1975). F i g u r e 5_. 1 - R e g i o n a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f t h e G a t e s and Moosebar F o r m a t i o n s , f o o t h i l l s of n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia ^ — - - ^ r ^at back o f t h e s i s ) . F i g u r e 6 . 2 - R e g i o n a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f t h e G a t e s a n d Moosebar Formations, f o o t h i l l s of n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia ( l o c a t i o n o f s e c t i o n s shown on F i g u r e 5_) , - \ K f e i - . , / a t back of t h e s i s ) . « F i g u r e 7. 3 - Gamma r a y l o g c o r r e l a t i o n o f s t r a t a e q u i v a l e n t t o the G a t e s and Moosebar F o r m a t i o n i n t h e p l a i n s ( w e l l l o c a t i o n s shown on F i g u r e 5) „ "* -~ ( a t back o f t h e s i s ) . F i g u r e 8. S o u t h e r n l i m i t and F a l h e r C m a r i n e  of the S h e r i f f units.  member, Babcock  member  F i g u r e 9A. O f f s h o r e (mudstone f a c i e s ) mudstones and s i l t s t o n e s in t h e lower p a r t of t h e f i r s t coarsening-upward c y c l e i n the Moosebar F o r m a t i o n . The more r e s i s t a n t bands a r e s i l t s t o n e s and c a r b o n a t e c o n c r e t i o n s . F i g u r e 9B. T h i s view shows two c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d , r e g r e s s i v e c y c l e s i n t h e upper Moosebar F o r m a t i o n . The more r e s i s t a n t s a n d s t o n e s on t h e l o w e r l e f t r e p r e s e n t t r a n s i t i o n zone ( t r a n s i t i o n f a c i e s ) d e p o s i t s a t the t o p of the f i r s t c y c l e . The s e c o n d c y c l e b e g i n s w i t h o f f s h o r e (mudstone f a c i e s ) mudstones and t h i n s i l t s t o n e s w h i c h g r a d e upwards i n t o t h e t r a n s i t i o n f a c i e s c o n s i s t i n g of i n t e r b e d d e d s i l t s t o n e s , f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s a n d t h i n m u d s t o n e s . Note t h e l a r g e c a r b o n a t e c o n c r e t i o n s i n t h e upper p a r t o f t h e s e c o n d c y c l e . B o t h p h o t o g r a p h s f r o m o u t c r o p s on t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e of Mount Frame.  X  F i g u r e JMO. C o r e p h o t o g r a p h s o f o f f s h o r e (mudstone f a c i e s ) mudstones and s i l t s t o n e s . B i o t u r b a t i o n i s common i n t h i s f a c i e s and f r e q u e n t l y d e s t r o y s a l l t r a c e o f b e d d i n g ( F i g u r e s 10b, I 0 h ) . T r a c e f o s s i l s a r e d o m i n a t e d by h o r i z o n t a l forms c o n s i s t i n g o f d a r k g r e y s i n g l e o r p a i r e d t u b e s ('h' i n F i g u r e 1 0 f ) s u r r o u n d e d by a h a l o o f l i g h t e r c o l o u r e d b i o t u r b a t e d sediment. These r e p r e s e n t g r a z i n g t r a i l s of H e l m i n t h o i d a , S c a l a r i t u b a N e r e i t e s or Phycosiphon . A s e c o n d t y p e o f h o r i z o n t a l burrow ( P a l e o p h y c u s ? ) I s shown i n F i g u r e 1Og. V e r t i c a l b u r r o w s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t i n t h e mudstone f a c i e s ( e . g . , F i g u r e s 10c, 1Oe) b u t a r e much l e s s common. T r i c h i c h n u s ( t ) b u r r o w s a r e p r e s e n t i n F i g u r e 1Oe. P y r i t e ( p y ) o c c u r s w i t h i n one o f t h e b u r r o w s i n t h i s F i g u r e . I t a l s o occurs as l a r g e r i r r e g u l a r , patches ( F i g u r e 1Od). P a r a l l e l b e d d i n g c a n be s e e n i n s e v e r a l o f t h e c o r e s and r i p p l e s a r e p r e s e n t i n F i g u r e 1Od. A BD 7802 1588 f t b MDD 7918 115.3 m c BD 7802 1577.5 f t d MDD 7811 190.46 m e BD 7802 1581 f t f BD 7802 1563.5 f t g No r e c o r d h MDD 7 915 115.3 m Figure Core photographs of t r a n s i t i o n facies) deposits.  zone  (transition  F i g u r e 11a. Low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d e d a n d p a r a l l e l bedded s i l t s t o n e . Note t h e s h a r p base a n d t o p a n d t h e s m a l l mudstone r i p - u p c l a s t s i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e b e d . (MDD 7811, 180.3 m). F i g u r e 11b. S i l t s t o n e bed w h i c h shows low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g , i n the lower p a r t and r i p p l e s a t t h e t o p . T h i s type o f s e q u e n c e i s common i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n f a c i e s . In o u t c r o p t h e low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g i s t y p i c a l l y hummocky c r o s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . (MDD 7801, 124.2 m). F i g u r e 11c. T h i s c o r e shows t h e a l t e r n a t i o n o f s t r o n g l y b i o t u r b a t e d mudstone beds w i t h p a r a l l e l bedded s i l t s t o n e s w h i c h c o n t a i n ony a few b u r r o w s . H e l m i n t h o i d a type burrows a r e common i n t h e mudstones a t t h e t o p a n d base o f t h e c o r e . B o t h h o r i z o n t a l b u r r o w s (? P a l e o p h y c u s ) a n d v e r t i c a l b u r r o w s a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e s i l t s t o n e . (MDD 7918, 103.75 m). F i g u r e 11d. T h i s c o r e shows s i m i l a r b e d d i n g s t r u c t u r e s t o F i g u r e 11b b u t c o n t a i n s upward doming l a m i n a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f hummocky c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ( H . C . S . ) . I n c o r e s , H.C.S. c a n r a r e l y be p r o v e n due t o s m a l l c o r e d i a m e t e r s and t h e g e n t l e d i p s o f t h e l a m i n a t i o n s . (MDD 7918, 103.75 m). F i g u r e 11e. S t r o n g l y b u r r o w e d s i l t s t o n e i n w h i c h P a l e o p h y c u s i s t h e dominant t r a c e f o s s i l . H e l m i n t h o i d a type burrows a r e a l s o p r e s e n t . (MDD 7918, 95 m).  xi  F i g u r e 11f. T r a c e f o s s i l s i n t h e mudstone a t t h e b a s e o f t h i s c o r e i n c l u d e H e l m i n t h o i d a t y p e b u r r o w s and C h o n d r i t e s ( c ) , (MDD 7918, 85.4 m). F i g u r e 11g. Low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g i n a s i l t s t o n e b e d . Mudstone r i p - u p c l a s t s a t t h e b a s e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s i l t s t o n e was d e p o s i t e d by s t r o n g e r o s i v e c u m e n t s . F i g u r e 11h. F i n e - g r a i n e d p a r a l l e l bedded s a n d s t o n e w h i c h c o n t a i n s a b u n d a n t P a l e o p h y c u s b u r r o w s . Note t h e t r u n c a t e d s u b - v e r t i c a l burrow ( t ) n e a r t h e t o p . (MDD 7918, 50.5 m). F i g u r e _1_2. P r i m a r y fac i e s .  sedimentary  structures  i n the  transition  F i g u r e 12a. M u d s t o n e s and s i l t s t o n e s i n t h e lower p a r t e x h i b i t l e n t i c u l a r and f l a s e r b e d d i n g . The t h i c k e r bed i n t h e upper p a r t shows hummocky c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and c l i m b i n g wave r i p p l e s at the top. F i g u r e 12b. S h a r p c r e s t e d s y m m e t r i c a l wave r i p p l e s s u r f a c e o f a bed i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n f a c i e s .  on  the  top  F i g u r e J_3. O u t c r o p o f t h e l o w e r G a t e s on t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f Mount Frame. The p r o m i n e n t g r e y s a n d s t o n e i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d i s the T o r r e n s Member. N o t e t h e a b r u p t and p l a n a r t o p s u r f a c e w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e a n c i e n t b a c k s h o r e . The T o r r e n s i s o v e r l a i n by 10.5 m o f b l a c k mudstones i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h t h i n s i l t s t o n e s and s a n d s t o n e s ( l a g o o n a l d e p o s i t s ? ) . A t h i n (0.5 m) c o a l seam o c c u r s above t h i s a t t h e t o p r i g h t of t h e p h o t o g r a p h . T h i s i s o v e r l a i n by s a n d s t o n e s and a c o n g l o m e r a t e f i l l e d c h a n n e l ( c ) . M a r i n e s a n d s t o n e s of t h e S h e r i f f member(s) o u t c r o p on t h e s l o p e ' i n t h e d i s t a n c e o v e r l y i n g a t h i n t r a n s g r e s s i v e l a g a t the' t o p o f t h e channel d e p o s i t s . F i g u r e J_4. Road c u t a t t h e McConkey P i t . The t y p e s e c t i o n of t h e S h e r i f f member i s a l o n g t h e r o a d b e h i n d t h e h i l l i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d . The f i r s t t h i c k seam on t h e l e f t i s t h e 10 m t h i c k J seam. Seams above t h i s i n c l u d e t h e G seam (2.0 m t h i c k ) and t h e E seam. E o c c u r s w i t h i n an i n t e r v a l o v e r 20m t h i c k but c o n t a i n s numerous s p l i t s and s m a l l f a u l t s . F i g u r e j_5. View o f t h e 10 m t h i c k J seam a l o n g t h e McConkey r o a d cut. J r e s t s d i r e c t l y on n e a r s h o r e m a r i n e s a n d s t o n e s o f t h e S h e r i f f member and i s o v e r l a i n by i n f e r r e d l a k e - l a c u s t r i n e d e l t a d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t i n g of a c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d sequence of i n t e r b e d d e d m u d s t o n e s , s i l t s t o n e s and f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s . Non-marine U n i o n i d b i v a l v e s a r e common i n mudstones i m m e d i a t e l y above J . Note t h e w e l l d e v e l o p e d p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n s i n t h e i n f e r r e d l a k e d e p o s i t s . In t h i s s e c t i o n J i s s t r o n g l y s h e a r e d and s t r u c t u r a l l y t h i c k e n e d by 2-3 m a l o n g t h e r o a d . F i g u r e JJ5. Low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g and p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g s h o r e f a c e s a n d s t o n e s ( s h e e t s a n d s t o n e f a c i e s A) o f  i n lower the  xi i  Sheriff  member.  F i g u r e J_7. S k o l i t h o s burrows c o n s i s t i n g o f s i m p l e , even w i d t h , v e r t i c a l tubes i n lower s h o r e f a c e sandstones (sheet s a n d s t o n e f a c i e s A) o f t h e S h e r i f f member. F i g u r e J_8. P a r a l l e l l a m i n a t e d t o burrowed sequence i n l o w e r s h o r e f a c e s a n d s t o n e s ( s h e e t s a n d s t o n e f a c i e s A) o f t h e S h e r i f f member. F i g u r e J_9. T r a c e f o s s i l s sandstone f a c i e s ) .  i n s h o r e f a c e - beach  sandstones  (sheet  F i g u r e 19a,b. V e r t i c a l U - s h a p e d b u r r o w s , p r o b a b l y D i p l o c r a t e r i o n . I n F i g u r e 19b t h r e e l a r g e U - s h a p e d structures are v i s i b l e . F i g u r e 19c. P a r a l l e l l a m i n a t e d t o burrowed are Paleophycus.  sequence.  spreite  The burrows  F i g u r e 19d. C o r e p h o t o g r a p h o f burrowed m a r i n e s a n d s t o n e s i n t h e upper p a r t o f t h e S h e r i f f member i n b o r e h o l e QMD 7705. T r a c e f o s s i l s i n c l u d e h o r i z o n t a l forms o f Ophiomorpha (o) and S k o l i t h o s ( s ) . F i g u r e 19e. S t r o n g l y b u r r o w e d s a n d s t o n e a t t h e t o p o f t h e S h e r i f f member i n b o r e h o l e QBD 7701 (186.2 m). Burrows c o n s i s t s of small h o r i z o n t a l t o s l i g h t l y i n c l i n e d c i r c u l a r t o o v a l t u b e s w i t h no e v i d e n c e o f b r a n c h i n g . T h e s e a r e s i m i l a r t o M a c a r o n i c h n u s s e g r e g a t u s ( C l i f t o n a n d Thompson, 1978). F i g u r e 20. P r i m a r y s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s i n c o r e s f r o m nearshore marine sandstones (sheet sandstone f a c i e s B ) . F i g u r e 20a. C r o s s - b e d d i n g , p a r a l l e l 7811, 114.15 m).  bedding and r i p p l e s  (MDD  F i g u r e 20b. Same a s 2fj. N o t e t h e s c o u r e d s u r f a c e a t t h e t o p o f t h e c o r e (MDD 7811, 112.86 m). F i g u r e 20c. A l t e r n a t i o n s o f p a r a l l e l bedding and r i p p l e s . A s i n g l e h o r i z o n t a l burrow( P a l e o p h y c u s ) i s p r e s e n t a t t h e b a s e . ( b ) . (MDD 7918, 19.6 m). Figure  20d. C r o s s - b e d d e d  sandstone.  (MDD 7918, 10.8 m).  F i g u r e s 21a,b. C r o s s - b e d d i n g a n d p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g i n n e a r s h o r e m a r i n e s a n d s t o n e s ( s h e e t s a n d s t o n e f a c i e s B) a=MDD 7823, 391.7m; b=MDD 7823, 388 m. F i g u r e 21c. Core photograph o f massive a t t h e t o p o f t h e T o r r e n s Member  root p e n e t r a t e d sandstone (MDD 7823, 385.3 m).  F i g u r e 21d. M a s s i v e r o o t p e n e t r a t e d s a n d s t o n e a t t h e t o p o f t h e S h e r i f f member o v e r l a i n d i r e c t l y by t h e J c o a l seam.  xi i i  F i g u r e 22. Summary o f " m a r i n e " Moosebar (UM) a n d S h e r i f f  p a l e o c u r r e n t d a t a i n the upper member (SH) i n t e r v a l .  F i g u r e 23a. S h o r e l i n e p r o f i l e o f modern sandy c o a s t l i n e s ( m o d i f i e d a f t e r R e i n e c k and S i n g h ( 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 285.) F i g u r e 23b. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a f t e r M i a l l , 1977) .  of f l u v i a l  channel patterns  (modified  F i g u r e 24. B o r e h o l e c r o s s s e c t i o n i n t h e Duke M o u n t a i n a r e a , showing t h e complex f a c i e s a s s o c i a t i o n s n e a r t h e l a n d w a r d p i n c h o u t o f t h e S h e r i f f member m a r i n e u n i t . N o t e t h a t c o a l seam B2 t h i n s a n d i s r e p l a c e d by m a r i n e s a n d s t o n e s o f t h e S h e r i f f member t o w a r d s t h e n o r t h . B o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s shown on F i g u r e 83. F i g u r e 2_5. O u t c r o p s e c t i o n s o f t h e member a n d l o w e r G a t e s F o r m a t i o n s on t h e n o r t h e a s t s i d e o f t h e F i v e C a b i n C r e e k s y n c l i n e . Marine d e p o s i t s occur mainly w i t h i n c o a r s e n i n g upward c y c l e s . T h i c k c o n g l o m e r a t e s i n t h e upper p a r t o f s e c t i o n s FC4 a n d FC6 a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s d i s t r i b r u t a r y c h a n n e l f i l l ( b r a i d e d r i v e r ) d e p o s i t s . The c o n g l o m e r a t e s p i n c h o u t t o w a r d s t h e s o u t h e a s t i n s e c t i o n FC7 a n d a r e r e p l a c e d by s a n d s t o n e s w h i c h e x h i b i t p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g , t r o u g h and t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g and r a r e h e r r i n g b o n e c r o s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . Trace f o s s i l s i n these sandstones include Macaronichnus segregatus. F i g u r e 26. View o f t y p e 1 c h a n n e l f i l l d e p o s i t s n e a r s e c t i o n s FC4 a n d FC6 ( F i g u r e 25) on t h e n o r t h e a s t s i d e o f t h e F i v e C a b i n C r e e k s y n c l i n e . The c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t o f m a s s i v e c o n g l o m e r a t e s a n d c o a r s e - g r a n u l a r s a n d s t o n e s . The base of. t h e c h a n n e l i s e x p o s e d i n t h e d i s t a n c e and o v e r l i e s s e v e r a l m e t r e s o f c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstones w h i c h i n t u r n r e s t on g r e y , m a r i n e s a n d s t o n e s o f t h e S h e r i f f member ( l o w e r r i g h t of the photograph). F i g u r e 2_7. F l u v i a l ( t y p e 1) c o n g l o m e r a t e s a n d s a n d s t o n e s i n b o r e h o l e QBD 7308. C o a l s p a r i s abundant i n t h e s a n d s t o n e s on t h e l o w e r l e f t o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h . S c a l e i s 18 cm l o n g . F i g u r e 2j5. P r i m a r y s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s i n i n t e r t i d a l t o s h a l l o w s u b t i d a l m a r i n e s a n d s t o n e s a t t h e t o p o f s e c t i o n FC 7 i n t h e F i v e C a b i n C r e e k a r e a . These d e p o s i t s a r e r e p l a c e d by t y p e 1 d i s t r i b u t a r y c h a n n e l s a n d s t o n e s a n d c o n g l o m e r a t e s in s e c t i o n FC 6, 150 m t o t h e n o r t h w e s t . F i g u r e 28a. S a n d s t o n e s e x h i b i t i n g t r o u g h c r o s s - b e d d i n g p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g and h e r r i n g b o n e c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . F i g u r e 28b. T r o u g h bedding.  and t a b u l a r  Figure  28c. P a r a l l e l  Figure  29. O u t c r o p  c r o s s - b e d d i n g and p a r a l l e l  b e d d i n g and t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g .  sections  of type 2 channel  fill  deposits in  xiv  the Windy P i t a r e a on t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f Babcock M o u n t a i n . The lower u n i t o f t h e s e c h a n n e l f i l l d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t s p r e d o m i n a n t l y of f i n e - t o medium-grained, trough c r o s s - b e d d e d s a n d s t o n e s . The upper u n i t i s c o a r s e r - g r a i n e d and composed o f m a s s i v e , e r o s i o n a l l y b a s e d u n i t s o f c o n g l o m e r a t e and c o a r s e t o g r a n u l a r s a n d s t o n e s i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h f i n e - t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d p e b b l y sandstones which e x h i b i t t a b u l a r and t r o u g h c r o s s - b e d d i n g and o c c a s i o n a l l y p a r a l l e l bedding. F i g u r e 3_0. O u t c r o p p h o t o g r a p h s o f t y p e 2 c h a n n e l on t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f Babcock M o u n t a i n .  fill  deposits  F i g u r e 30a. T r o u g h c r o s s - b e d d e d f i n e - t o m e d i u m - g r a i n e d sandstones c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the lower u n i t of type 2 channel f i l l d e p o s i t s . F i g u r e 30b. M a s s i v e c o n g l o m e r a t e a n d i n t e r c a l a t e d s a n d s t o n e i n t h e upper u n i t .  cross-bedded  F i g u r e 30c,d. M a s s i v e , c o n g l o m e r a t e and c o a r s e t o g r a n u l a r s a n d s t o n e a t t h e base o f t h e upper u n i t . Note t h e c h a n n e l l e d b a s e o f t h e upper u n i t d e p o s i t s i n F i g u r e 30c. F i g u r e 30e. L a r g e s e t o f t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g i n c o n g l o m e r a t e and c o a r s e t o g r a n u l a r , p e b b l y s a n d s t o n e s f r o m t h e upper unit. F i g u r e 30f. M a s s i v e t o weakly s t r a t i f i e d c o n g l o m e r a t e o v e r l a i n by p a r a l l e l and c r o s s - b e d d e d c o a r s e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s i n the upper u n i t . F i g u r e 3J_. S e c t i o n A - B o r e h o l e c r o s s s e c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v a l , between t h e F and J seams a t B a b c o c k showing t h e ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of type 2 c h a n n e l f i l l d e p o s i t s , c r e v a s s e s p l a y d e p o s i t s , and t h e d r a p i n g o f t h e G/l1 seam o v e r t h e c h a n n e l . N o t e t h e p i n c h o u t o f t h e 13 and 12 seams a d j a c e n t to t h e s p l a y and c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s . A l s o , t h e t h i c k e n i n g o f the G/I-F i n t e r v a l i n t h e i n t e r c h a n n e l a r e a ( i n b o r e h o l e s 7303 and 7 7 1 2 ) . B o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s shown on F i g u r e 32. S e c t i o n c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e base o f t h e J seam a s h o r i z o n t a l datum. F i g u r e 32. S a n d s t o n e and c o n g l o m e r a t e i s o p a c h s i n t h e i n t e r v a l between c o a l seams J and G / l i n t h e Babcock a r e a . F i g u r e 32a. I s o p a c h s o f t h e l o w e r associated splay deposits. F i g u r e 32b. I s o p a c h o f t h e upper deposits.  unit unit  of type 2 channel-and of type 2 channel  F i g u r e 33. L i n e d r a w i n g t r a c e d f r o m a p h o t o g r a p h o f l a r g e s c a l e bedforms i n t h e upper u n i t o f t y p e 2 c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s . P h o t o g r a p h i s an o b l i q u e view o f a c l i f f e x p o s u r e on t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f Babcock M o u n t a i n . Note t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f  XV  low a n g l e e r o s i o n a l s u r f a c e s i n t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e o u t c r o p . A l a r g e c h a n n e l w i t h a c o n c a v e upwards b a s e i s p r e s e r v e d t o w a r d s t h e n o r t h w e s t . The more r e c e s s i v e upper p a r t of the o u t c r o p c o n s i s t s of trough and t a b u l a r c r o s s bedded s a n d s t o n e s . F i g u r e 34. C o r e from b o r e h o l e QBD 7715 a t B a b c o c k , s h o w i n g t h e v e r y a b r u p t c o n t a c t (A) between t y p e 2 (upper u n i t ) c h a n n e l f i l l d e p o s i t s and o v e r l y i n g o v e r b a n k d e p o s i t s . The c h a n n e l f i l l s e d i m e n t s c o n s i s t m a i n l y o f c o n g l o m e r a t e s and c r o s s bedded a n d r i p p l e d s a n d s t o n e s . These a r e o v e r l a i n by p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t e d and massive s i l t s t o n e s and carbonaceous mudstones ( i n f e r r e d l a k e d e p o s i t s i n t h e abandoned c h a n n e l ) w h i c h g r a d e upwards i n t o more m a s s i v e carbonaceous mudstones ( i n f e r r e d p o o r l y d r a i n e d swamp d e p o s i t s ) a n d t h e 2.4 m t h i c k G c o a l seam. F i g u r e 3_5. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f c h a n n e l f i l l d e p o s i t s i n t h e i n t e r v a l s between c o a l seams B4 a n d B5 ( F i g u r e 35a) a n d B7 and B8 ( F i g u r e 35b) i n t h e Duke M o u n t a i n a r e a . The c h a n n e l f i l l d e p o s i t s i n t h e B4-B5 i n t e r v a l a r e i n t e r p r e t e d from t h e i r l o g c h a r a c t e r a n d c o a l company c o r e d e s c r i p t i o n s . C h a n n e l f i l l d e p o s i t s i n t h e B7-B8 i n t e r v a l a r e i l l u s t r a t e d in more d e t a i l on F i g u r e J36. The b o r e h o l e s shown on t h e s e maps i n c l u d e o n l y t h o s e w h i c h were a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a u t h o r and w h i c h p e n e t r a t e d t h e i n t e r v a l o f i n t e r e s t . F i g u r e ^ 6 . B o r e h o l e c r o s s s e c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v a l between c o a l seams B7 a n d B9 i n t h e Duke M o u n t a i n a r e a s h o w i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of type 3 channel d e p o s i t s and a s s o c i a t e d o v e r b a n k s e d i m e n t s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e l a r g e r c h a n n e l between seams B7 and B8 a n d t h e b o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s a r e shown on F i g u r e 3_5. S e c t i o n c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e base o f t h e B9 seam a s h o r i z o n t a l datum. F i g u r e 3J7. O u t c r o p s e c t i o n o f t h e Moosebar F o r m a t i o n , G a t e s F o r m a t i o n , H u l c r o s s F o r m a t i o n a n d lower p a r t o f t h e B o u l d e r C r e e k F o r m a t i o n from a r i d g e on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f Dumb Goat Mountain. Three t h i c k conglomerate i n t e r v a l s a r e present i n the non-marine p a r t of t h e Gates Formation (type 4 c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s ) . The r o s e d i a g r a m s show t h e d i p d i r e c t i o n o f i m b r i c a t e d p e b b l e s and i n d i c a t e p a l e o c u r r e n t s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s t h e n o r t h a n d n o r t h e a s t . Nearby b o r e h o l e s (DG 8101, MBD 7828 a n d BDD 7601, shown on F i g u r e 6) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e e i t h e r 3 o r 4 t h i c k seams (>1.5 m T i n t h e c o v e r e d i n t e r v a l s between t h e T o r r e n s Member and c o n g l o m e r a t e 3, and numerous t h i n seams (<1.5 m) between c o n g l o m e r a t e 3 and the H u l c r o s s Formation. F i g u r e 38_. View t o w a r d s t h e n o r t h o f t h e F o o t h i l l s i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . The peak i n t h e c e n t r e i s Mount B e l c o u r t . Dumb Goat M o u n t a i n i s l o c a t e d 3 km t o t h e n o r t h w e s t . On Mount B e l c o u r t and Dumb Goat M o u n t a i n , C r e t a c e o u s r o c k s d i p towards t h e southwest beneath a major t h r u s t f a u l t which b r i n g s forward P a l e o z o i c and Mesozoic r o c k s o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n F r o n t Ranges.  xvi  F i g u r e 39. View of p a r t o f t h e Dumb Goat M o u n t a i n s e c t i o n shown on F i g u r e 37.  outcrop  F i g u r e 40. T y p i c a l c l a s t s u p p o r t e d f a b r i c o f c o n g l o m e r a t e s on Dumb Goat M o u n t a i n . Note t h e w e l l d e v e l o p e d i m b r i c a t i o n i n s p h e r i c a l c l a s t s . C l a s t s a r e w e l l r o u n d e d and c o n s i s t m a i n l y o f q u a r t z i t e and c h e r t w i t h l e s s e r amounts o f quartzose sandstone, limestone, s i l t s t o n e , a r g i l l i t e , mudstone a n d d o l o m i t e . F i g u r e 4J_. T a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g c o n g l o m e r a t e 2.  i n sandstones o v e r l y i n g  F i g u r e 42^. Summary o f " f l u v i a l " p a l e o c u r r e n t d a t a i n t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n . T h i s d i a g r a m does n o t i n c l u d e d a t a from t h e upper G a t e s , n o r t h o f K i n u s e o C r e e k w h i c h i s shown on F i g u r e s 55 and 65. F i g u r e 43. S a n d s t o n e i s o p a c h map s h o w i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f s p l a y d e p o s i t s i n t h e i n t e r v a l between c o a l seams G / l and F i n t h e Babcock a r e a . F i g u r e 4_4. B o r e h o l e c r o s s s e c t i o n s h o w i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c r e v a s s e s p l a y and other overbank d e p o s i t s i n the i n t e r v a l between c o a l seams G / l a n d F i n t h e Babcock a r e a . Note t h e occurrence of mainly fining-upward sequences i n the p r o x i m a l s p l a y d e p o s i t s and coarsening-upward sequences i n t h e d i s t a l s p l a y d e p o s i t s . B o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s a r e shown on F i g u r e 4_3. L e g e n d i s shown on F i g u r e 24. F i g u r e 45. C o r e from b o r e h o l e QBD 7219 i n t h e Babcock a r e a showing t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d i s t a l c r e v a s s e s p l a y d e p o s i t s . L i t h o l o g i e s c o n s i s t of t h i n interbedded s i l t s t o n e s and f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s w h i c h e x h i b i t p a r a l l e l bedding, r i p p l e s and c l i m b i n g r i p p l e l a m i n a t i o n . C o r e c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e 16 m t h i c k i n t e r v a l above t h e 11 seam i n b o r e h o l e 7219 shown on F i g u r e 44. Figure  46. C o r e p h o t o g r a p h s o f o v e r b a n k  deposits.  F i g u r e 4 6 a . I n t r a f o r m a t i o n a l c o n g l o m e r a t e composed o f s i l t s t o n e r i p - u p c l a s t s . T h i s c o r e i s from a u n i t w h i c h i s 55 cm t h i c k a n d was p r o b a b l y f o r m e d by a s i n g l e f l o o d e v e n t . (MDD 7823, 360.1 m). F i g u r e 46b. The i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e d i m e n t i n t h i s core a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e r e s u l t of a s i n g l e sheet f l o o d e v e n t ; t h e o n s e t o f t h e f l o o d i s marked by s i l t s t o n e r i p - u p c l a s t s and t h e e r o s i v e base o f t h e s a n d s t o n e b e d ( e ) . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by t h e p r o g r a d a t i o n o f a t h i n sand s h e e t w h i c h formed t h e h i g h a n g l e f o r e s e t s ( f ) . As t h e c u r r e n t s weakened t h e t o p o f t h e sand s h e e t was r e w o r k e d t o f o r m r i p p l e s ( r ) . The f i n a l e p i s o d e i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e p a r a l l e l bedded s i l t s t o n e s formed by d e p o s i t i o n from s u s p e n s i o n a t t h e end of t h e f l o o d . S i l t s t o n e s a t t h e t o p e x h i b i t c o n v o l u t e b e d d i n g ( c ) (MDD 7823, 360.1 m).  xvi i  F i g u r e 46c. P a r a l l e l bedding and c l i m b i n g s i l t s t o n e s . (MXD 7827, 401.2 m).  ripples  i n overbank  F i g u r e 46d. I n f e r r e d w e l l d r a i n e d swamp d e p o s i t c o n s i s t i n g o f massive r o o t ( r ) p e n e t r a t e d s i l t s t o n e . Note t h e s m a l l s i l i c e o u s c o n c r e t i o n s at the base. F i g u r e s 46e,f. I n f e r r e d l a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t i n g of p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t e d s i l t s t o n e s and m u d s t o n e s . Note t h e two b u r r o w s i n 46e. F i g u r e 46g. R i p p l e d f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h d a r k grey s i l t s t o n e s . S e v e r a l burrows a r e v i s i b l e i n t h i s c o r e . T h i s t y p e o f d e p o s i t i s common i n b o t h l e v e e a n d c r e v a s s e s p l a y e n v i r o n m e n t s (QBD 7306, 1690 f t ) . F i g u r e 46h. M a s s i v e o v e r b a n k s i l t s t o n e . The a b s e n c e o f b e d d i n g may be t h e r e s u l t o f v e r y r a p i d s e d i m e n t a t i o n , . b i o t u r b a t i o n , o r d e s t r u c t i o n by t h e e s c a p e o f water d u r i n g c o m p a c t i o n . A l t e r n a t i v e l y b e d d i n g may be p r e s e n t b u t would r e q u i r e o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s ( e . g . , e x p o s u r e t o X - r a y s ) t o make it visible. F i g u r e 4_7. G e n e r a l i s e d c r o s s s e c t i o n showing t h e f a c i e s p r e s e n t i n t h e upper G a t e s between t h e McConkey P i t a n d D u c h e s s Mountain. F i g u r e 48. S e c t i o n A - upper G a t e s c r o s s s e c t i o n i n t h e Babcock a r e a ( l o c a t i o n o f s e c t i o n i s shown on F i g u r e 6 6 ) . F i g u r e 49. S e c t i o n B - upper G a t e s c r o s s s e c t i o n i n t h e Babcock a r e a ( l o c a t i o n o f s e c t i o n i s shown on F i g u r e 6 6 ) . L e g e n d i s shown on F i g u r e 48. F i g u r e 50. C r o s s s e c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v a l between t h e B7 c o a l seam a n d t h e H u l c r o s s F o r m a t i o n i n b o r e h o l e s n e a r t h e Duke P i t ( b o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s a r e shown on F i g u r e 3 5 ) . H o r i z o n t a l datum i s t h e t o p o f t h e B9 u p p e r seam. N o t e t h a t B9) i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e D seam on F i g u r e s 4J_ a n d 42_. L e g e n d i s shown on F i g u r e 48. F i g u r e 5_K Map showing t h e a p p r o x i m a t e a r e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u p p e r G a t e s f a c i e s 1A, 2A a n d 4. ( N o t e : S c a l e o f map i s t o o s m a l l t o show a l l t h e s e c t i o n s w h i c h p e n e t r a t e these f a c i e s ; b o r e h o l e s and w e l l s shown on t h e map a r e o n l y t h o s e u s e d on t h e r e g i o n a l c r o s s s e c t i o n s - F i g u r e s 5, 6 a n d 7.) Figure  5_2. I s o p a c h map o f f a c i e s  F i g u r e 53. C o r e a n d o u t c r o p lithologies. Figure  53a. P o o r l y  1A i n t h e B a b c o c k  area,  p h o t o g r a p h s o f f a c i e s 1A  sorted conglomerate with  a sandy  matrix.  F i g u r e 53b,d. W e l l s o r t e d c o n g l o m e r a t e / g r a n u l a r s a n d s t o n e l a c k i n g any f i n e sandy m a t r i x a n d w i t h v e r y good  xvi i i  intergranular porosity, 7620, 137 m).  (b = QMD  7609, 42.5  m;  d =  F i g u r e 53c. V e r y w e l l s o r t e d c o a r s e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e good i n t e r g r a n u l a r p o r o s i t y (QMD 7620, 139 m) . F i g u r e 53e. P o o r l y 7618, 66 m).  sorted  conglomerate  w i t h a sandy  QMD  with very  matrix  (QMD  F i g u r e 5 3 f . S a n d s t o n e s and c o n g l o m e r a t e s a t t h e t o p o f f a c i e s 1A i n QBD 7712. Burrows c o n s i s t i n g of s m a l l c i r c u l a r t o o v a l tubes ( p o s s i b l y Macaronichnus segregatus) are present i n s a n d s t o n e s a t the t o p of f a c i e s 1A ( b ) . F a c i e s 1B o c c u r s a t the t o p r i g h t from A-B. Note t h e v e r y s h a r p c o n t a c t (B) between f a c i e s 1B and t h e mudstones and s i l t s t o n e s a t t h e base of f a c i e s 2A a t t h e t o p r i g h t o f t h e c o r e . F i g u r e 53g. P a r a l l e l b e d d i n g formed by a l t e r n a t i o n s of f i n e - and c o a r s e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e and c o n g l o m e r a t e n e a r t h e base of f a c i e s 1A on t h e s o u t h s i d e of Mount Frame. A s m a l l s c o u r i s p r e s e n t i n s a n d s t o n e s i n t h e upper l e f t . T h e s e s e d i m e n t s are i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e r e s u l t o f d e p o s i t i o n from s t r o n g upper f l o w regime c u r r e n t s . The s a n d s t o n e s and c o n g l o m e r a t e s a r e v e r y c l e a n w i t h good i n t e r g r a n u l a r porosity. F i g u r e 54. C o r e o f s e d i m e n t s i n f a c i e s 1A, 1B and t h e base o f f a c i e s 2A f r o m b o r e h o l e QBD 7201 i n t h e Babcock a r e a . F i n e g r a i n e d p e b b l y s a n d s t o n e s i n t h e lower p a r t e x h i b i t p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g (upper f l o w r e g i m e ) and c r o s s - b e d d i n g . In the upper p a r t t h e s a n d s t o n e s become c o a r s e r - g r a i n e d and are i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h c o n g l o m e r a t e s . Note t h e much l a r g e r s i z e of c l a s t s i n f a c i e s 1B (between B and C) compared to. f a c i e s 1A and t h e v e r y a b r u p t t o p of f a c i e s 1B. Figure  5_5. P a l e o c u r r e n t d a t a from  facies  1A.  F i g u r e 56. O u t c r o p p a t t e r n and i s o p a c h s o f f a c i e s 1A i n t h e Frame and McConkey P i t a r e a s . N o t e t h e r a p i d t h i n n i n g and p i n c h o u t o f f a c i e s 1A on t h e west s i d e of t h e Frame a r e a and e a s t s i d e o f t h e McConkey a r e a . F i g u r e 57a. L a r g e s c a l e g e n t l y d i p p i n g bedforms i n f a c i e s 1A on the s o u t h s i d e o f Mount Frame. The D c o a l seam i s e x p o s e d below f a c i e s 1A b e h i n d t h e f i e l d a s s i s t a n t . The l i n e d r a w i n g showing t h e l a r g e s c a l e b e d f o r m s i n t h e Frame a r e a ( F i g u r e 6J_) i s from t h i s o u t c r o p . F i g u r e 57b. O u t c r o p of f a c i e s 1A on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f t h e McConkey P i t ( n o t e t h e f i g u r e on r o a d f o r s c a l e ) . In t h i s a r e a f a c i e s 1A t h i n s from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 m t o 0 m o v e r a d i s t a n c e o f 500 m and p i n c h e s o u t i n t h e a r e a j u s t t o t h e r i g h t of t h i s v i e w . Note t h e p r e s e n c e of l a r g e s c a l e g e n t l y d i p p i n g s u r f a c e s which t a p e r towards the s o u t h ( t o the r i g h t i n t h i s photograph).  xix  F i g u r e 58a. C o n t a c t between f a c i e s 1A and the D c o a l seam i n t h e Windy P i t a r e a on the n o r t h w e s t s i d e of Babcock M o u n t a i n . Note t h e low a n g l e i n c l i n e d s u r f a c e s i n f a c i e s 1A d i p p i n g towards the r i g h t (southwest). F i g u r e 58b. L a r g e l o g i m p r e s s i o n i n p e b b l y s a n d s t o n e s n e a r base of f a c i e s 1A i n the McConkey P i t a r e a .  the  F i g u r e 58c. I n t e r b e d d e d s a n d s t o n e s and c o n g l o m e r a t e s i n t h e upper p a r t of f a c i e s 1A i n the McConkey P i t a r e a . B e d d i n g c o n s i s t s of t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g o r i e n t e d i n an e a s t s o u t h e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n and p a r a l l e l t o g e n t l y i n c l i n e d bedding. Note the r e a c t i v a t i o n s u r f a c e ( r ) i n t h i s s e t . F i g u r e 5_9. E r o s i o n a l c o n t a c t between f a c i e s 1A and t h e D c o a l seam on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f Mount Frame. N o t e t h e low a n g l e s u r f a c e a t t h e base of f a c i e s 1A i n F i g u r e 59a. The two i n c l i n e d s u r f a c e s shown i n F i g u r e 59b r e p r e s e n t t h e downdip t e r m i n a t i o n o f l a r g e s c a l e low a n g l e i n c l i n e d s u r f a c e s . The s t i c k (arrowed) i s 2 m l o n g . F i g u r e 60a. L a r g e 2-3 m t h i c k , h i g h a n g l e , i n c l i n e d c r o s s - b e d i n f a c i e s 1A on t h e s o u t h s i d e of Mount Frame. S e t i s bounded a t t h e base and a t t h e t o p by low a n g l e i n c l i n e d s u r f a c e s w h i c h e x t e n d from t h e t o p t o t h e base of t h e o u t c r o p . The l a t e r a l e x t e n t of t h e s e b e d f o r m s i n t h i s o u t c r o p i s shown on the l i n e d r a w i n g ( F i g u r e 6 1 ) . F i g u r e 60b. C l o s e up view of t h e c r o s s - b e d i n F i g u r e 60a s h o w i n g the g e n t l y c u r v e d f o r e s e t s d i p p i n g t o t h e l e f t (westward) and t h e i r t r u n c a t i o n a t t h e t o p by a low a n g l e i n c l i n e d s u r f a c e . ( N o t e : T h i s v i e w i s t i l t e d a t an a n g l e p a r a l l e l t o t h e low a n g l e i n c l i n e d s u r f a c e s ) . F i g u r e 6J_. L i n e d r a w i n g s t r a c e d from p h o t o m o s a i c s of f a c i e s i n c l i f f e x p o s u r e s ort t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e of Babcock M o u n t a i n and the s o u t h s i d e of Mount Frame. F i g u r e 62. O u t c r o p s e c t i o n o f f a c i e s Windy P i t a r e a on the n o r t h w e s t  1A  1A and f a c i e s 1B i n t h e s i d e of Babcock M o u n t a i n .  F i g u r e 63a. C o r e p h o t o g r a p h s showing t h e a b r u p t c o n t a c t between f a c i e s 1B (A) and f a c i e s 2A. Note t h a t c o n g l o m e r a t e s a t t h e t o p of f a c i e s 1B o c c u r i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h a t h i n (<1 cm) s a n d s t o n e beds s i m i l a r i n a p p e a r a n c e t o t h e s a n d s t o n e s i n f a c i e s 2A. The s a n d s t o n e s a t t h e base of f a c i e s 2A a r e v e r y f i n e - g r a i n e d and o c c u r i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h d a r k g r e y mudstone. P a r a l l e l b e d d i n g , low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g (c) r i p p l e s , l e n t i c u l a r and f l a s e r b e d d i n g a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e s e deposits. F i g u r e 63b. P y r i t e (py) i n s e d i m e n t s a t (QBD 7302, 231 .5 ni)  the  b a s e of  facies  2A.  F i g u r e 63c. R i p p l e s , l e n t i c u l a r b e d d i n g and b i o t u r b a t i o n i n s e d i m e n t s a t the base of f a c i e s 2A (QBD 7721, 215.55 m).  XX  F i g u r e 63d. S i l t s t o n e bed a t t h e base of f a c i e s 2A w h i c h e x h i b i t s low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g i n t h e l o w e r p a r t and r i p p l e s a t t h e t o p . Note t h e s h a r p base and i n t e r n a l s c o u r ( s ) (QBD 7711, 140.85 m). " F i g u r e 63e. V e r y f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e bed a t t h e base of f a c i e s 2A which e x h i b i t s p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g a t t h e base and r i p p l e s , w i t h numerous T e r e b e l l i n a burrows ( t ) , a t the t o p . (QBD 7715, 258.8 m). F i g u r e 6 3 f . F i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e i n f a c i e s 2A i n w h i c h b e d d i n g c o n s i s t s of b r o a d c o n c a v e upwards and upward domed f e a t u r e s ( s w a l e y c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ) . Note t h e low a n g l e i n t e r s e c t i o n s o f s t r a t i f i c a t i o n (arrowed) and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c flaggy weathering. F i g u r e 64. S y m m e t r i c a l dunes on t h e t o p s u r f a c e o f f a c i e s 1B a t an o u t c r o p on t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f Babcock M o u n t a i n . Figure  6j>. P a l e o c u r r e n t d a t a from  Figure  66.  I s o p a c h map  of  facies  facies 2A  1B,  2A,  2B and  5B.  i n t h e Babcock a r e a .  F i g u r e s 67a,b. Swaley c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n f a c i e s 2A s a n d s t o n e s on t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f Babcock M o u n t a i n . Bedding c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of superimposed concave upwards s h a l l o w s c o u r s . I n t e r n a l l y , t h e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i s p a r a l l e l or a t a v e r y low a n g l e t o t h e s c o u r s . A s h a l l o w 4 m wide, c o n c a v e upwards f e a t u r e w i t h a s c o u r e d base i s p r e s e n t a t t h e r i g h t of F i g u r e 67a. The s t i c k (arrowed) i s 2 m long. F i g u r e s 6 7 c , d . Low. a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g i n f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s ' o f f a c i e s 2A (c = QBD 7204, 97 f t , d= QBD 20.7 m).  7721,  F i g u r e 67e. C o r e from t h e upper p a r t o f f a c i e s 2a i n b o r e h o l e QBD 7712 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 215 m). S a n d s t o n e s a r e f i n e - g r a i n e d w i t h a few i s o l a t e d p e b b l e s and t h i n p e b b l y s t r e a k s . B e d d i n g c o n s i s t s o f p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g and low a n g l e c r o s s bedding . Figure  68.  I s o p a c h map  of  facies  3A and  3B  i n t h e Babcock a r e a .  F i g u r e 69a. C o r e from b o r e h o l e QBD 7711 (113 m) showing t h e e r o s i o n a l c o n t a c t between f a c i e s 3A and f a c i e s 2A. Note t h e p r e s e n c e of c o a l s p a r and mudstone p e b b l e s i n f a c i e s 3A s a n d s t o n e s and t h e i r c o a r s e r g r a i n - s i z e compared t o s a n d s t o n e s i n f a c i e s 2a. F i g u r e 69b. C o r e from b o r e h o l e QBD 7306 (1212 f t ) . In t h i s c o r e , f a c i e s 3A s a n d s t o n e s c o n t a i n abundant mudstone r i p - u p clasts. F i g u r e 69c. C o r e from t h e upper p a r t o f f a c i e s 3A QBD 7711 (117 m). B e d d i n g c o n s i s t s m a i n l y o f  in borehole parallel  xxi  l a m i n a t i o n s , d e f i n e d by t h i n a l t e r n a t i o n s of f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e , s i l t s t o n e and c a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s , and r i p p l e s . Compare t h i s t o t h e c o a r s e r and more m a s s i v e s a n d s t o n e s i n t h e l o w e r p a r t of f a c i e s 3A i n F i g u r e 69a. Figures  70a,b,c,d. Core  from the  lower p a r t  of  facies  3A.  F i g u r e s 70a,b,c. C r o s s b e d d i n g i n medium- t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s (a = QBD 7209, 940.5 f t ; b = QBD 7209, 935 f t ; c = QBD 7721, 191.7m). F i g u r e 70d. M a s s i v e 129.6 m). Figures  fine-  70_e,f_,£. C o r e  to medium-grained  from the  upper p a r t  of  sandstone facies  (QBD  7711,  3A.  F i g u r e 70e. P a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n d e f i n e d by t h i n l a m i n a e c a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s i n f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e (QBD 115 m) .  of 7711,  F i g u r e 70f. F i n e - g r a i n e d r i p p l e d with siltstone/carbonaceous  ripples m).  sandstone with c u r r e n t d r a p e s . (QBD 7711, 115  F i g u r e 70g. R i p p l e s (?wave formed) and t h i n i n t e r l a y e r e d s a n d s t o n e - m u d s t o n e . (QBD 7720, 101.75). F i g u r e 7J_. C o r e of f a c i e s 3B from b o r e h o l e QBD 7201 . Note t h e g r a d a t i o n a l lower c o n t a c t of f a c i e s 3B w i t h f a c i e s 2A (A) and t h e a b r u p t t o p of f a c i e s 3B ( B ) . In t h i s c o r e f a c i e s 3B i s o v e r l a i n by c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstones of f a c i e s 5. In t h e l o w e r p a r t of f a c i e s 3B f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s and s i l t s t o n e s o c c u r i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h t h i n l a m i n a e of d a r k g r e y mudstone and c a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s . P a r a l l e l b e d d i n g i s w e l l d e v e l o p e d . The s a n d s t o n e s c o a r s e n - u p w a r d s and a r g i l l a c e o u s m a t e r i a l becomes l e s s common a t t h e t o p . N o t e the numerous b u r r o w s i n f a c i e s 3B. These i n c l u d e 'U'-shaped (U) and v e r t i c a l (S) t y p e s ( S k o l i t h o s ) . Figure  12.  Trace  fossils  and  bioturbation in facies  3B.  F i g u r e s 72a,b. L a r g e 'U'-shaped b u r r o w s ( p r o b a b l y D i p l o c r a t e r i o n or R h i z o c o r a l l i u m ) (QBD 7754, 145.6 m). Figure  72c.  Strongly  burrowed  interval  (QBD  F i g u r e 72d. T h i n v e r t i c a l mudstone f i l l e d bedded s a n d s t o n e (QBD 7754, 138 m).  7201,  burrows  248'). in  parallel  F i g u r e s 7 2 e , f . Note t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e of v e r t i c a l t o s u b - v e r t i c a l b u r r o w s , t h e a l t e r n a t i o n of s t r o n g l y b u r r o w e d i n t e r v a l s (b) with i n t e r v a l s i n which burrows are absent, t r u n c a t e d b u r r o w s ( t ) and e s c a p e t r a c e s (e) (QBD 7201, 255 f t and QBD 7201, 262 f t ) . F i g u r e s 72g,h. T r a c e 146.15 m).  formed by  burrowing b i v a l v e  (?)  (QBD  7754,  xxi i  F i g u r e 73a. Very f i n e - g r a i n e d sandstone bed c h a r a c t e r i s e d i n t e r n a l l y by low angle cross-bedding and a r i p p l e d top. Base of f a c i e s 3B i n borehole QBD 7715, 240.7 m. F i g u r e s 73b,d. P a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n and r i p p l e s i n f a c i e s 3B. (b = QBD 7754, 144.65 ; d = QBD 7724, 185.4 m). F i g u r e 73c. Small f l e c k s of d i s s e m i n a t e d carbonaceous d e b r i s on a bedding plane s u r f a c e i n f a c i e s 3B sandstones. C u r r e n t s are i n d i c a t e d by the p r e f e r r e d o r i e n t a t i o n of the carbonaceous d e b r i s . (QBD 7754, 146.3 m) . F i g u r e 73e. I n f e r r e d t i d a l f l a t d e p o s i t s ( f a c i e s 3C) i n borehole QBD 7711. Note the t h i c k e r u n i t s of sandstone i n the lower part (low t i d a l f l a t d e p o s i t s ) o v e r l a i n by l e n t i c u l a r , f l a s e r bedded and t h i n i n t e r l a y e r e d sandstones and mudstones (mid t i d a l f l a t d e p o s i t s ) which grade upwards i n t o massive s i l t y mudstones (high t i d a l f l a t d e p o s i t s ) . The C c o a l seam occurs a few metres above t h i s c o r e . ) . F i g u r e 74. Sedimentary and b i o g e n i c  s t r u c t u r e s i n f a c i e s 3C.  F i g u r e 74a. Coarse and f i n e l y i n t e r l a y e r e d sandstone and mudstone ( s ) , r i p p l e s and l e n t i c u l a r bedding ( r ) , t r u n c a t e d bedding (t) and flame s t r u c t u r e s ( f ) . (QBD 7708, 89.3 m). F i g u r e 74b. F l a s e r bedding with t h i n l y i n t e r l a y e r e d s i l t s t o n e and mudstone at the top. (QBD 7721, 181. 1 m) . F i g u r e 74c. Sandstone r i p p l e s with mudstone drapes, t h i n l y i n t e r l a y e r e d sandstone and mudstone amd l e n t i c u l a r bedding. (QBD 7208, 500 f t ) . F i g u r e 74d. L e n t i c u l a r bedding and t h i n to c o a r s e l y i n t e r l a y e r e d sandstone and mudstone. (QBD 7711, 108 f t ) . F i g u r e 74e. B i o t u r b a t i o n i n f a c i e s 3C sandstones and s i l t s t o n e s . (QBD 7719, 73.95 m). F i g u r e 74f. F l a s e r bedding, l e n t i c u l a r bedding and t h i n l y i n t e r l a y e r e d sandstone and mudstone. (QBD 7721, 178.9 m). F i g u r e 74g. L e n t i c u l a r , wavy(w) and r i p p l e bedding. Soft sediment deformation s t r u c t u r e s occur i n the lower r i g h t of the c o r e . (QBD 7754, 44 m) . F i g u r e 7_5. . Sedimentary and b i o g e n i c  s t r u c t u r e s i n f a c i e s 4.  F i g u r e s 75a,b. S t r o n g l y b i o t u r b a t e d s i l t s t o n e m).  (MDD  7908, 140.9  F i g u r e 75c. I n t e r l a y e r e d s i l t s t o n e and mudstone, l e n t i c u l a r and r i p p l e bedding. (MDD 7822, 164.7 m). F i g u r e 75d. S t r o n g l y b i o t u r b a t e d s i l t s t o n e . C h o n d r i t e s burrows (c) are present i n the lower part of the c o r e . CMDD 7908,  xxi i i  142.9  m).  F i g u r e s 7 5 e , f . R i p p l e s and f l a s e r b e d d i n g . F l a s e r s a r e m a i n l y c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of c a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s , (e = MDD 7822, 164 ; f = MUD 7704, 86.6 m) . Figure  76_.  S e d i m e n t a r y and  Figure  76a.  Cross-bedded  ftT7~  biogenic  sandstone  structures in facies from  facies  5B  (QBD  m  5.  7302,  74  F i g u r e s 76b,c. P a r a l l e l b e d d i n g , r i p p l e s and c l i m b i n g r i p p l e s i n f a c i e s 5C d e p o s i t s , (b = QBD 7721, 170.7 m ; c = QBD 7721, 191 m) . F i g u r e 76d. I n t e r b e d d e d mudstones and s a n d s t o n e s i n f a c i e s 5C. Note t h e a b u n d a n t c a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s and c o a l s p a r ( s ) . (QBD 7714, 91.25 m). F i g u r e 76e. S i l t s t o n e from f a c i e s 5C a few m e t r e s below the Gates/Hulcross contact.Note t h e p y r i t e (py) w h i c h o c c u r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r o o t s a t t h e t o p of the c o r e (QBD 7720, 64 m) . F i g u r e 7 6 f . I n t e r b e d d e d mudstones and s a n d s t o n e s i n f a c i e s Note t h e s m a l l b u r r o w . (QBD 7751, 29.55 m). F i g u r e 76g. facies  C o n v o l u t e b e d d i n g and s y n - s e d i m e n t a r y 5C d e p o s i t s (QBD 7754, 118.65 m).  F i g u r e 76h. R o o t s 149.3 m).  i n m a s s i v e mudstones of  facies  faults 5A.  5C.  in  (QBD  F i g u r e 77a. T r o u g h and t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g i n o u t c r o p s f a c i e s 5B s a n d s t o n e s on k o s t u i c k M o u n t a i n .  7721, of  F i g u r e 77b. C o t e of f a c i e s 5A and 5C d e p o s i t s i n QBD 7718 (163 m). C o a l and c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstone a t t h e b a s e ( f a c i e s 5A) i s o v e r l a i n by i n t e r b e d d e d mudstones and s i l t s t o n e s ( f a c i e s 5C) w h i c h a r e s t r o n g l y b i o t u r b a t e d . B e d d i n g i n t h e s e d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t s m a i n l y of p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g and o c c a s i o n a l ripples. F i g u r e 77c. S o f t s e d i m e n t d e f o r m a t i o n d e p o s i t s (QBD 7721, 161 m).  structure in facies  5C  F i g u r e 78a. C o r e p h o t o g r a p h of t h e G a t e s / H u l c r o s s c o n t a c t i n b o r e h o l e QBD 7209. The c o n t a c t i s p i c k e d a t t h e base of t h e f i r s t c o n g l o m e r a t e (A) w h i c h i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a t r a n s g r e s s i v e m a r i n e l a g d e p o s i t . 35 cm of s t r o n g l y b u r r o w e d s i l t s t o n e s below t h i s (A-B) a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as l a g o o n a l d e p o s i t s . The b i o t u r b a t e d s i l t s t o n e u n i t r e s t s a b r u p t l y on c o a s t a l p l a i n s i l t s t o n e s and s a n d s t o n e s . S e v e r a l o t h e r t h i n l a y e r s of c o a r s e s a n d s t o n e and conglomerate are present interbedded with Hulcross s i l t s t o n e s and m u d s t o n e s . T h e s e a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as s t o r m  xxiv  d e p o s i t e d l a g s formed i n t h e o f f s h o r e e n v i r o n m e n t a f t e r t h e t r a n s g r e s s i o n . T y p i c a l o f f s h o r e H u l c r o s s sediments a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e two c o l u m n s on t h e r i g h t . F i g u r e 78b. C o r e p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e G a t e s / H u l c r o s s c o n t a c t (A) i n b o r e h o l e QBD 7711. In t h i s c o r e t h e c o n t a c t i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a s i n g l e t h i n t r a n s g r e s s i v e l a g o f c o a r s e p e b b l y s a n d s t o n e . Compare t h i s w i t h F i g u r e 71 a where s e v e r a l l a g s a r e p r e s e n t . Dark g r e y , c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstone w i t h a r g i l l a c e o u s c o a l i s p r e s e n t i n t h e column on t h e l e f t . F i g u r e 78c. B i o t u r b a t e d s i l t s t o n e a t t h e base o f t h e H u l c r o s s F o r m a t i o n . (QBD 7708, 38.75 m) Figure  79. Upper G a t e s d e p o s i t i o n a l m o d e l s .  Figure  8_0. G e n e r a l i s e d  g e o l o g i c a l map  o f t h e Duke M o u n t a i n  area.  F i g u r e 8J_. C r o s s s e c t i o n i n t h e Duke P i t - D u c h e s s M o u n t a i n a r e a showing t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e major m a r i n e u n i t s , f l u v i a l c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s and c o a l seams. R e f e r t o F i g u r e 82 f o r l e g e n d . L o c a t i o n o f c r o s s s e c t i o n i s shown on F i g u r e s 3_5 and 80. F i g u r e 82. C r o s s s e c t i o n i n t h e Honeymoon P i t a r e a s h o w i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e major m a r i n e u n i t s , f l u v i a l c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s a n d c o a l seams. The x12.5 v e r t i c a l e x a g g e r a t i o n o f t h i s c r o s s s e c t i o n c a u s e s t h e a n g l e a t w h i c h B5 i s d r a p e d o v e r t h e c h a n n e l t o a p p e a r much g r e a t e r t h a n on a 1:1 s e c t i o n (where i t i s l e s s t h a n 3 ° ) . L o c a t i o n o f c r o s s s e c t i o n i s shown on F i g u r e s 3_5 and 80. F i g u r e 83. Map showing t h e s o u t h e r n l i m i t o f t h e S h e r i f f member m a r i n e u n i t and i t s e f f e c t . o n t h e t h i c k n e s s and'' d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e B2 c o a l seam. C r o s s s e c t i o n i s shown on F i g u r e 24. F i g u r e 8_4. Gamma r a y and d e n s i t y l o g c o r r e l a t i o n from b o r e h o l e s i n t h e Honeymoon P i t a r e a , s h o w i n g t h e b a s i s f o r t h e B5 c o r r e l a t i o n and i t s " d r a p i n g " over f l u v i a l c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s . B o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s a r e shown on F i g u r e 35. F i g u r e 8_5. G e o l o g i c a l map and b o r e h o l e area.  l o c a t i o n s i n t h e Babcock  F i g u r e 86. C r o s s s e c t i o n i n t h e B a b c o c k a r e a showing t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e major m a r i n e u n i t s , f l u v i a l c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s and c o a l seams. B o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s a r e shown on F i g u r e 85. F i g u r e 87. S e c t i o n B - C r o s s s e c t i o n o f t h e F - J i n t e r v a l i n t h e Babcock a r e a showing t h e d r a p i n g o f t h e G/I1 seam o v e r f l u v i a l c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s and t h e p i n c h o u t o f t h e 13 and 12 seams a d j a c e n t t o t h e c h a n n e l and s p l a y d e p o s i t s . B o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s a r e shown on F i g u r e 88.  XXV  F i g u r e 8_8. I s o p a c h map o f t h e 11 ( F i g u r e 88a) and 12 ( F i g u r e 88b ) c o a l seams i n t h e Babcock a r e a . Shaded a r e a s r e p r e s e n t c h a n n e l and s p l a y d e p o s i t s w h i c h a r e e q u i v a l e n t l a t e r a l l y t o t h e s e c o a l seams. F i g u r e 89. M o d e l t o i l l u s t r a t e the seams i n t h e Babcock a r e a . F i g u r e 90_. G e n e r a l i s e d Pits.  d e p o s i t i o n of  g e o l o g i c a l map  of  the  the  G and  Frame and  I  McConkey  F i g u r e 9_1_. C r o s s s e c t i o n i n t h e Frame P i t s h o w i n g t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e major m a r i n e u n i t s , c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s and c o a l seams. B o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s shown on F i g u r e 90. F i g u r e 9_2. C r o s s l o c a t i o n of c o a l seams. i s shown on  s e c t i o n i n t h e McConkey P i t showing t h e t h e major m a r i n e u n i t s , c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s and B o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s shown on F i g u r e 90. L e g e n d F i g u r e 91.  F i g u r e 9_3. R e g i o n a l maps of t o t a l t h e number of seams o v e r 1.5 ( F i g u r e 93b).  c o a l i s o p a c h s ( F i g u r e 93a) and m t h i c k i n the Gates Formation  F i g u r e 9_4. G e n e r a l i s e d p a l e o g e o g r a p h y of t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n . T h i s f i g u r e was c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g the d a t a on t h e r e g i o n a l c r o s s s e c t i o n s from t h i s s t u d y ( F i g u r e s 5,6 and 1) together w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n on c r o s s s e c t i o n s by D u f f and G i l c h r i s t ( 1 9 8 1 ) , L e c k i e ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) and i n S t o t t (1968, 1982) f o r t h e r e g i o n n o r t h of the s t u d y a r e a . F i g u r e 9_5. M o d e l s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e d e p o s i t i o n a l s e t t i n g c o a l f o r m i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s i n the G a t e s F o r m a t i o n .  of  the  F i g u r e 9_6. Map showing t h e l o c a t i o n of b o r e h o l e s and outcrop s e c t i o n s from w h i c h s a m p l e s were p o i n t c o u n t e d t o d e t e r m i n e composition. F i g u r e 9_7. A t r i a n g u l a r d i a g r a m i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e c o m p o s i t i o n t h e framework g r a i n s i n t h e G a t e s s a n d s t o n e s . F i g u r e 98. C o m p a r i s o n of framework g r a i n c o m p o s i t i o n of s a n d s t o n e s i n t h e l o w e r - m i d d l e G a t e s and u p p e r G a t e s .  of  xxvi  L I S T OF TABLES  Table  1. Summary o f t h e main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s the  coarsening-upward  Formation  Table  Gates.  i n the lower  3. C o m p o s i t i o n middle  Table  i n the Moosebar  2. Summary o f t h e main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s deposits  Table  and l o w e r  marine c y c l e s  of f l u v i a l  channel  Gates.  of p o i n t  counted  thin  sections  (lower-  of p o i n t  counted  thin  sections  (upper  Gates).  4. C o m p o s i t i o n Gates) .  of the f a c i e s i n  xxv i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I  w i s h t o thank my s u p e r v i s o r y  W.C. B a r n e s , R.M. B u s t i n encouragement grateful  t o R.D. G i l c h r i s t  logistics  prior  E . Panchy  critical  during  Storage F a c i l i t y particularly  advice,  t o my a t t e n t i o n t h e  field  s e a s o n . I w i s h t o thank D.  (Denison M i n e s ) , E. S c h i l l e r ,  the study. S t a f f at Charlie  grateful  E. S a n t i a g o and  (Ranger O i l ) f o r t h e i r  a t t h e B.C.M.E,M.P.R. C o r e  Lake were most h e l p f u l  a n d K. C l a r k .  indebted  t o E . Montgomery o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t  of G e o l o g i c a l  Sciences  f o rh i s advice  instruct  ion.  British  t o G. W h i t e ,  a n d I am  R. K a r s t  Financial  I am  on p h o t o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e s a n d d a r k  s u p p o r t was p r o v i d e d  Columbia  I am  o f t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n and f o r h i s a d v i c e on  ( P e t r o - C a n a d a ) a n d M. M i t c h e l l  assistance  Murray,  reviews of the t h e s i s .  forbringing  t o the f i r s t  J o h n s o n , R. S a g i  D r s . J.W.  a n d W.H. Mathews f o r t h e i r  and f o r t h e i r  research potential  committee  Ministry  room  by U n i o n O i l o f Canada,  of.Energy, Mines  and P e t r o l e u m  Resources and Petro-Canada. Most  importantly,  understanding  I t h a n k my w i f e J e a n  and encouragement.  f o r her patience,  1  INTRODUCTION  PREAMBLE Major c o a l d e p o s i t s occur Early  i n s e d i m e n t s of L a t e  Tertiary  age  i n the  Canada. D u r i n g  the  1970's e x t e n s i v e d r i l l i n g  in  the F o o t h i l l s  Rocky M o u n t a i n  of n o r t h e a s t e r n  t h e main c o a l r e s e r v e s o c c u r Gates Formations  of E a r l y  these  are  formations  Force,  1976)  Formation.  first  estimated  two  areal  clearly  d e m o n s t r a t e d by  ( W i l l i a m s and  Interior 1979;  environment  rocks  and  of  Ryer, In t h e  Total  and  developed  i n the  Gates  i n the  Gates  Bullmoose)  in  with  1983.  thickness,  quality  and  ( C o a l Task  lateral  of c o a l seams a r e  of d e p o s i t i o n . T h i s  i n the c e n t r a l Keith,  the U n i t e d  as  that  coal reserves  megatons  for late  showed  fact  has  been  sedimentological studies in  Cretaceous  1963;  United  S t a t e s and  Appalachian  W a n l e s s e t a l . , 1969;  Home  and  Tertiary  rocks  i n the  Western  States  (Flores,  1981;  Marley  et a l . ,  et  1981). Foothills  number o f b o r e h o l e s G a t e s and  scheduled  distribution  to t h e i r  Carboniferous  being  c o a l parameters such  related  1978)  7719  companies  the Gething  p r o p e r t i e s ( Q u i n t e t t e and  coal production  continuity,  al.,  at  age.  Western  coal  Columbia  intervals,  Cretaceous  C u r r e n t l y , mines a r e  Important  areas  i n two  by  of w h i c h 5350 megatons a r e p r e s e n t  c o a l measures a t the  British  r e g i o n of  Jurassic-  of  northeastern  have been d r i l l e d  British by  u n d e r l y i n g Moosebar F o r m a t i o n s .  provide  core  and  geophysical  outcrop  i n f o r m a t i o n o f f e r s an  log data  Columbia, a l a r g e  c o a l companies These  which,  into  the  boreholes  supplemented  excellent opportunity  by  to study  the  2  F i g u r e J_. L o c a t i o n map of t h e s t u d y a r e a s h o w i n g t h e o u t c r o p p a t t e r n o f t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n and l o c a l i t i e s m e n t i o n e d i n the t e x t .  3  depositional The  primary  interpret and  environments  of t h e G a t e s - M o o s e b a r  objective  the paleoenvironments  facies  i n the Gates  and  what e x t e n t d e p o s i t i o n a l distribution continuity secondary and  of c o a l  and  areal  objective  to i n t e r p r e t The  Alberta  and  o f t h e major d e p o s i t i o n a l  Moosebar F o r m a t i o n s  factors affect  of  and  data  i n terms of  i s located  Columbia  coal  110  km  (Figure  area  i n t o a d j a c e n t p a r t s of t h e P l a i n s .  sandstones  provenance.  and  w e l l s have been u s e d  to  seams. A  of  i n the F o o t h i l l s  border  t o show  the t h i c k n e s s ,  i s to d e s c r i b e the petrography  from  between  the W o l v e r i n e 1 ) . In t h e to extend During  12,000 m of c o r e were l o g g e d  boreholes. Thirteen  and  units  regional  individual  data  approximately  the  distribution  of a p p r o x i m a t e l y petroleum  i s t o d e s c r i b e and  Formation  this  British  thesis  i n the Gates  a r e a of study  distance  of t h i s  interval.  major o u t c r o p s e c t i o n s  from and  River, a northwest,  the  the  the  study  study,  a total  of  75  numerous s m a l l  o u t c r o p s e c t i o n s were m e a s u r e d . F u r t h e r d a t a , p o i n t s were provided  by  g e o p h y s i c a l " l o g s from  b o r e h o l e s and  14 p e t r o l e u m  approximately  85 c o a l  company  wells.  GEOLOGICAL SETTING  1. T e c t o n i c S e t t i n g Lower C r e t a c e o u s form  part  of a t h i c k  Rocky M o u n t a i n basin  r o c k s of n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h molasse  s e q u e n c e w h i c h was  F o r e l a n d B a s i n of W e s t e r n Canada  i s bounded t o t h e west by  t h e e a s t by  P a l e o z o i c r o c k s and  Late Mesozoic  and  Early  the C o r d i l l e r a n the Canadian  Cenozoic,  Columbia  d e p o s i t e d i n the (Figure  2).  Orogen and  S h i e l d . During  the C o r d i l l e r a n  Orogen  The to the  4  underwent  two  main p h a s e s  from L a t e J u r a s s i c Orogeny 1976).  to e a r l i e s t  L a t e C r e t a c e o u s and  from L a t e C r e t a c e o u s t o O l i g o c e n e t i m e These  subduction accretion and  of d e f o r m a t i o n ; the Columbian  e p i s o d e s and of s e v e r a l  Price,  orogen,  o r o g e n i e s were t h e r e s u l t  1979;  which  sediments  collision  exotic  D i c k i n s o n , 1976).  received  during  and  e x t e n s i v e d e f o r m a t i o n and c r u s t a l phases. and  The  folding  Mountain molasse  and  produced  Thrust Belt, deposits  The  a latest  amounting  Jurassic  O l i g o c e n e megacycle, et a l . , from  shifted  (Figure  During  et a l . ,  the B e l l y  principal the P e e l ,  during  Basin,  the  the o r o g e n i c  by e a s t w a r d  to a t o t a l  thrusting  t h e Rocky  upward  t h i c k n e s s of  Cretaceous  1974;  about  megacycle,  and a L a t e C r e t a c e o u s  River-Paskapoo coarse facies re-entrants  the L i a r d ,  2 ) . In d e t a i l  the Laramide  Cretaceous molasse Foreland  of  on  through  Assemblage  of the  molasse  the eastern  t h e Peace  the coarse f a c i e s  and  side  of  the  of the  d i a c h r o n o u s l y a l o n g the t r e n d of the.mountain  (Eisbacher  (Monger  t h e main s o u r c e a r e a f o r t h e  through E a r l y  1974). The  four  the orogenic b e l t , Crowsnest  w i t h the  underwent  i s composed o f two  the K o o t e n a y - B l a i r m o r e Assemblage,  prograded  Early Mesozoic, shortening  formed  part  of  miogeoclinal  a mountainous r e g i o n ,  which  series  of the F o r e l a n d B a s i n .  megacycles  (Eisbacher  clastic  characterised  F o r e l a n d B a s i n molasse  coarsening 5000 m;  d e f o r m a t i o n was  of a complex  eastern  Laramide  (Douglas et a l . ,  to North America  The  c a r b o n a t e and  the P a l e o z o i c  the  events a s s o c i a t e d  terranes  Orogeny  molasse  front  E i s b a c h e r , 1981). Orogeny, t h e L a t e J u r a s s i c  deposits,  were d e f o r m e d  a l o n g the western by  folding  and  to Late  margin  eastward  of  the  thrusting.  5  'Toe"  300 km.  RMTB MFB SFB  Rocky Mountain Thrust Belt Mackenzie Fold Belt Selwyn Fold Belt Late Jurassic to Tertiary Rocks of the Rocky Mtn Foreland Basin  Re-entrant  F i g u r e 2. G e n e r a l i s e d t e c t o n i c map s h o w i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e C o r d i l l e r a n O r o g e n , F o r e l a n d B a s i n and p r i n c i p a l r e - e n t r a n t s on t h e e a s t e r n O r o g e n ( m o d i f i e d a f t e r D o u g l a s e t a l . , 1976 and E i s b a c h e r e t a l . , 1974).  6  Presently,  these  thrust  slices  Thrust  Belt.  2.  rocks are  along  the  P a l e o g e o g r a p h y and  Blairmore  Late  and  progressively southeastern  t o the  fold  t h e Rocky  the  1977;  British  and  Mountain  the  Kootenay-  Pacific  Columbia  along  Hamblin  i n the  Cretaceous  Ocean  t o t h e west  from the U n i t e d  and  indicating orogenic  this  1979). The  the  first  ( S t e l c k et a l . ,  Alberta,  In thick  to the  (Jansa,  which  in a  1972;  u p p e r p a r t of  pulse  seas  States  seaway  Elk Formation  belt  by  ( F i g u r e 3) were d e p o s i t e d  Walker, the  western  sediment.  southwestern  t h e m a r g i n of and  time,  C o l u m b i a were o c c u p i e d  Kootenay Group  conglomerates  disturbance  earliest  i n the marine b a s i n w i t h  British  setting  and  K o o t e n a y Group c o n s i s t s of thick  of  of  S t r a t i g r a p h y of  flowing rivers  filled  seams of  Gibson,  Regional  Jurassic  1972). N o r t h w a r d  .deltaic  e a s t e r n margin  northeastern  which connected  coal  in a series  Assemblage  During Alberta  exposed  the  contains  of  tectonic  southwest  (Gibson,  1977) . As  the  prograded  sea  over  northeastern comprise Coals  r e t r e a t e d to the  m a r i n e d e p o s i t s . In  British  Columbia  the N i k a n a s s i n  i n these  northwest,  intervals  and  Formation are  thin  the  non-marine  Foothills  and  sediments  P l a i n s of  western A l b e r t a these and  Minnes Group  and  not  deposits  (Figure 3).  economically  important. In p o s t - V a l a n g i n i a n in  the  uplift  destroying  of  the  time,  a major  entire central  the marine c o n n e c t i o n  tectonic  event  p a r t of B r i t i s h  between  the P a c i f i c  resulted  Columbia, Ocean  and  NORTHWESTERN MONTANA  PLAINS  FOOTHILLS SOUTHERN ALBERTA  Northeastern Central-Northern British Columbia Alberta  PEACE RIVER PLAINS  Ma Bulla Fn  poulder Creek] Fm Hulcross Fm  BLACKLEAF FORMATION Limestone Unit  Grande  BEAVER Cache MINES u - Member FORMATION e E Torrens Mbr  u  z < a. Ui IIZ  x<  2i  I  Limestone]  Unit  calcareous Mbr  GLADSTONE FORMATION Cutbank Sandstone  CADOMIN FM  to  2  Moosebar Member  GATES FORMATION  MOOSEBAR FORMATION  Paddy Mbr CadotteMbij Harmon Mbrl Notikewin Mbr  FORMATION CADOMIN FM  GETHING FORMATION  BOW ISLAND FORMATION  IWilrich Mbr  GETHING FORMATION  CADOMIN FM ^[CADOMIN FM|  MORRISON FM KOOTENAY GP NIKANASSIN FM MINNES GROUP NIKANASSIN FM  CENTRAL ALBERTA  LLOYDMINSTER  VIKING FM  VIKING FM  JOLI FOU FM  JOLI FOU FM  GRAND RAPIDS FM  Falher Mbr  Bluesky Fm  GLADSTONE  SOUTHERN ALBERTA  Clearwater Formation Glauconitic Member Ostracode  Zone  Sunburst Sandstone Cutbank Sandstone  JURASSIC  Wabiskaw Mbr Ostracode Zone  ELLERSLIE FORMATION  jSparky Mbr GP.Mbr Rex Mbr Lloydminsler Mbr]  Cummings Mbr  Dina Mbr  DEVILLE FM DEVONIAN  DEVONIAN  F i g u r e 3. C o r r e l a t i o n c h a r t o f L a t e J u r a s s i c and E a r l y C r e t a c e o u s s t r a t i g r a p h i c u n i i n p a r t s of n o r t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l b e r t a and n o r t h w e s t e r n Montana ( m o d i f i a f t e r McLean, 1982).  8  the  Foreland  led  to e x t e n s i v e  in  the  and  Basin  Foreland  uplift  These  Channel  the  and  the  covered  a. s i n g l e  McLean as  east  the  mountain  and  braided  fed a trunk  by  an  thin  4 ) . T h i s event  e r o s i o n of p r e - V a l a n g i n i a n  of M c l e a n ,  bounded on by  fans  rivers  ( F i g u r e 7A  p.  Cadomin F o r m a t i o n  in a l l u v i a l  fans  and  Basin. Along  s a n d s t o n e s of  deposited  ( S t e l c k e t a l . , 1972,  front,  were  (McLean,  stream, the  1977),  Spirit  pediment d e p o s i t s  1977).  River  flowing northwest  erosional scarp. Extensive bed  sediments  conglomerates  ( F i g u r e 3) rivers  of c o n g l o m e r a t e a r e formed a f t e r  a long  also  and  areas  i n t e r p r e t e d by period  of  erosion. In A p t i a n Foreland  Basin  advancing 3)  time  the  Arctic  Ocean t r a n s g r e s s e d  ( S t e l c k e t a l . , 1972,  seaway, t h i c k c o a l s of  were d e p o s i t e d  i n the  R i v e r s . These c o a l s are formed on  the  plain  p.  the  Foothills  Stott  l o c a t e d i n the F o o t h i l l s  River. Farther  south  3)  d e p o s i t s of McLean,  1982). C o a l  apparently By Arctic  the Gladstone  thin  late Ocean  ( W i l l i a m s and this the  seaway southern  and  plain,  Formation  economically  Foreland  Basin  1975,  6 ) . The  p.  just  north  having  of  the  Peace  equivalent and  estuarine  Wall,  Formation  strata  1981; are  m a r i n e t r a n s g r e s s i o n of  i s u n c e r t a i n . McLean and as  Smoky  important.  into  Stelck,  south  (McLean and  the  the  P e a c e and  lacustrine  E a r l y A l b i a n time  limit  just  seams i n t h e G l a d s t o n e not  (Figure  ( 1 9 7 2 ) , as  Alberta Foothills,  c o n s i s t of a l l u v i a l  the  complex whose main  d e p o c e n t r e was  (Figure  into  the  Formation  between t h e  of a major d e l t a  i n the  9 ) . South of  Gething  i n t e r p r e t e d by  south  had  reached  central  southernmost  Wall  although  Alberta  extent  (1981, F i g u r e  of C a l g a r y  the  of  5c)  they  show  admit  9  there  i s the p o s s i b i l i t y  farther  resulted  t r a n s g r e s s i o n was f o l l o w e d i n the r e t r e a t  in  o f t h e seaway back  the l a t t e r  ( F i g u r e 3) w h i l e  included  into  Foothills  this  are represented  northeastern  and P l a i n s a r e shown British  deposits  Equivalent i n Figure  Columbia,  facies  Peace R i v e r The  i n t h e Gates, which occurs  (Figure  18 o f S t o t t ,  Cretaceous  coal deposits  Gates Formation  Columbia  seams a s f a r s o u t h northwest  which  of the Gates Formation,  ( F i g u r e 2 o f McLean,  i n the to just  t h e Grande i s equivalent  contains  as Waiparous Creek, approximately  of Calgary  British  border  R i v e r . In the A l b e r t a F o o t h i l l s ,  two-thirds  of t h e  J u r a s s i c to Early  thickness are present  Cache Member o f t h e M a l c o l m C r e e k F o r m a t i o n , t o t h e lower  south  of n o r t h e a s t e r n  from t h e A l b e r t a / B r i t i s h  of the Pine  just  l i m i t of  regressive cycle contain  i n the Late  molasse. In t h e F o o t h i l l s  C o l u m b i a , c o a l seams o f economic  3. I n  1968).  non-marine sediments of t h i s  t h e most e x t e n s i v e  strata  the extent of  r e g r e s s i v e c y c l e i s w e l l d e f i n e d by t h e n o r t h e r n  non-marine  south  of n o r t h e a s t e r n  t h e c o a s t a l and n o n - m a r i n e  of n o r t h e a s t e r n  north  by t h e Moosebar  i n the o v e r l y i n g Gates Formation.  the A l b e r t a F o o t h i l l s  the  r e g r e s s i o n which  c o a s t a l and non-marine sediments p r o g r a d e d  Columbia  Formation are  by a major  o f f s h o r e marine d e p o s i t s . In t h e F o o t h i l l s  British  considerably  C o l u m b i a and n o r t h - c e n t r a l A l b e r t a . D u r i n g t h e  regression, over  i t c o u l d have r e a c h e d  south.  This  British  that  thick  80 km  1982). T o g e t h e r t h e  G a t e s F o r m a t i o n and t h e Grande Cache Member c o m p r i s e a c o a l bearing  sequence which extends  Foothills.  In t h e P l a i n s ,  f o r approximately  equivalent  strata  700 km i n t h e  i n t h e Upper  10  M a n n v i l l e Group  (Figure  3) c o n t a i n  area  Alberta  (Figure  of c e n t r a l  southwestern coal  Alberta  b e a r i n g sequence  the Beaver which  Mines  include  (Mellon,  1967)  northeastern south t o near Foothills  sediments  without  the d e p o s i t i o n  British  large  In  Columbia,  this ( p a r t s of  Columbia,  by a r e g r e s s i o n  northern l i m i t was  coal  development. Formation in  the s h o r e l i n e  18 o f S t o t t ,  Columbia  1968).  during  retreated  border  T h i s marine  which  Formation  coastal (Figure  back  i n the transgression and 3)  non-marine  prograded  of t h e H u l c r o s s F o r m a t i o n  of non-marine  a g a i n near  sediments  t h e Peace  River  (Figure  in this (Figure  18 o f  1968).  After deposits,  the d e p o s i t i o n in latest  transgression  of the B o u l d e r Creek  Middle Albian  extended  the B o r e a l  t i m e , a major  regressive marine  seaway s o u t h t o c o n n e c t  up  with the Tethyan  seas a d v a n c i n g n o r t h from the G u l f  of  (Jeletzky,  pp.  marks t h e  end  1971,  44,45).  of t h e K o o t e n a y - B l a i r m o r e In  one  4)  s h a l e s o r mudstones  of t h e G a t e s  the A l b e r t a / B r i t i s h  phase  1976).  non-marine sediments  significant  of the B o u l d e r Creek  regressive Stott,  into  green c o l o u r e d  north over o f f s h o r e d e p o s i t s 3 ) . The  10 o f Y u r k o ,  seams o v e r a  F o r m a t i o n and Upper M a n n v i l l e Group, F i g u r e  (Figure  followed  coal  southeastern B r i t i s h  grades  r e d and  Following  was  and  thick  summary, t h e G a t e s  o f t h r e e major  This  event  effectively  Mexico  megacycle.  F o r m a t i o n and  coal-bearing  sequences  equivalent  strata  i n the Late  form  Jurassic  to E a r l y  C r e t a c e o u s K o o t e n a y - B l a i r m o r e A s s e m b l a g e o f t h e Rocky  Mountain  F o r e l a n d B a s i n of Western  the K o o t e n a y - B l a i r m o r e Assemblage  C a n a d a . The formed  coal  deposits in  i n swamps i n a  deltaic,  11  LATE JURASSIC EARLIEST CRETACEOUS  EARLY ALBIAN  APTIAN -EARLIEST ALBIAN  LATE EARLY ALBIAN EARLY MIDDLE ALBIAN  SEAS ~ _~" COAL MEASURES  Figure N o n - p a l i n s p a s t i c map showing the d i s t r i b u t i o n of L a t e J u r a s s i c and E a r l y Cretaceous seaways and important c o a l measure sequences. Compiled from Coal Task Force (1976), Douglas et a l . , (1976); Gibson (1977); Hamblin and Walker, (1979); J e l e t z k y (1971); McLean, (1982); McLean and W a l l , (1981); S t e l c k et a l . , (1972); S t o t t , (1968), (1972), (1974), (1975), (1982); Yurko, (1975).  1 2  estuarine,  and c o a s t a l p l a i n  periodically Figure  occupied  the northern  4 shows t h e l o c a t i o n  distribution these  setting,  forming  Late  Jurassic  s e q u e n c e s and t h e i r and E a r l y  to a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t sequence  southwestern  seas.  Formation,  i n southeastern  This third  regressive  major c o a l  Columbia and  i n swamps s o u t h e a s t  further north  i s t h a t of the Gates Formation  by t h e  i n swamps  major  coal-  and e q u i v a l e n t  s e q u e n c e was d e p o s i t e d d u r i n g a major  phase w h i c h r e s u l t e d  swamps o v e r  of a  i s represented  o f a t r a n s g r e s s i v e seaway. The t h i r d  strata.  large areas  i n the development  of c o a l  of w e s t - c e n t r a l A l b e r t a and n o r t h e a s t e r n  Columbia.  LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC In t h i s  NOMENCLATURE  section a brief  account  b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e Moosebar F o r m a t i o n stratigraphic  part  British  w h i c h was d e p o s i t e d  sequence  The  They a r e n o t i n t e n d e d  by t h e K o o t e n a y c o a l m e a s u r e s ,  seaway. The t h i r d s e q u e n c e  bearing  account  r e l a t i o n s h i p with the  A l b e r t a d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f r e g r e s s i o n . The s e c o n d  transgressive  British  general  of t h e main  t h e p a l e o g e o g r a p h y . The f i r s t  major c o a l - b e a r i n g f u r t h e r n o r t h  southeast  Basin.  s e q u e n c e s . The p u r p o s e o f  in distribution  Cretaceous  i s represented  w h i c h were d e p o s i t e d  Gething  p a r t of the F o r e l a n d  of t h e major c o a l b e a r i n g  coal  o f seaways w h i c h  o f some o f t h e seaways and t h e  maps i s t o show t h e c h a n g e s  bearing  south  nomenclature  of t h i s  of the h i s t o r i c a l and G a t e s  i s presented.  subject, refer  to Stott  Moosebar a n d G a t e s F o r m a t i o n s  of t h e F o r t S t . John Group. These  Formation  F o r a more c o m p l e t e (1968,  occur  1982).  w i t h i n t h e lower  formations  were  13  originally  defined  the  Peace R i v e r .  the  Pine  of  sandstones,  later  the  area.  Pine  Use  and  and  by  Stott  of  the  Strata  British  Wilrich,  east  Falher  Formation  to the  and  Stott  McLean  the  of  the  the  and  ( F i g u r e 3)  N o t i k e w i n Members, of  the  Gates south  of  term Creek  area  Spirit  to  of  non-marine sediments  term  sandstone u n i t at  the  b a s e of  rocks The  i n the  Torrens  Alberta  unit occurs  near  G a t e s and  upper  by  Member  the  Alberta/British northern  part  coal  Malcolm  Torrens  i n the  the  Foothills  i n the  the  extensively  Torrens  Member g r a d a t i o n a l l y  sandstones  i n the  s e c t i o n of  i s a t Mount T o r r e n s ,  River  the  equivalent  in  the  introduced  i s overlain abruptly  This  Peace  1954).  (1982) f o r m a l l y  t h e Moosebar F o r m a t i o n and  border.  the  include  of  1982)  unit,  Gates Formations  thin  type  of  Boulder  o v e r l i e s m a r i n e mudstones and  F o r m a t i o n s . The  the  lower  area  entire Foothills  Foothills  (the Malcolm Creek F o r m a t i o n ) .  bearing,  Moosebar  Formation  (1982) abandoned t h e  t o t h e Moosebar and  f o r a prominent marine  G a t e s F o r m a t i o n and  Commotion  Foothills  Gates, Hulcross  ( A l b e r t a S t u d y Group,  Recently  succession  Gates Formation  to the  of  Columbia.  equivalent  subsurface  vicinity  (1943) d e f i n e d a  C r e e k Members, w i t h  restricted  r a i s e d the  along  (1968) i n t o t h r e e members,  status throughout  northeastern  i n the  t e r m s Commotion F o r m a t i o n and  River. Recently,  formational  Shaw  localities  c o n g l o m e r a t e s o v e r l y i n g the  Boulder  generally  Commotion and  Member  Peace R i v e r ,  Commotion F o r m a t i o n . The  subdivided  Member was  the  (1923) from t y p e  the  G a t e s Member, e q u i v a l e n t  River  the  S o u t h of  shales  Gates, Hulcross the  McLearn  R i v e r , Wickenden and  F o r m a t i o n as was  by  Creek  (McLean, Columbia Alberta  Foothills Wapiti  and h a s been  River.  Coal  northeastern sandstone the  c o r r e l a t e d by McLean as f a r n o r t h  companies  British  interval  working  Columbia  as the  i n the F o o t h i l l s of  generally  beneath t h e lowermost  r e f e r to the f i r s t economic  coal  thick  seam a s  T o r r e n s Member. Regional  correlation sections  Formations described Wapiti  River  applied  in section  o f t h e Moosebar and G a t e s  1.1  i n d i c a t e that  t h e term T o r r e n s Member  to a s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y higher  described  by McLean  i n the type  AGE OF THE MOOSEBAR AND GATES The  macrofossil  north  has i n the past marine  of the  been  sandstone than  that  section.  FORMATIONS  and c o r r e l a t i v e m i c r o f o s s i l z o n e s o f t h e  Moosebar and G a t e s F o r m a t i o n s a r e shown i n S t o t t  (Figure  Stott,  t o the lower  part  1982). The Moosebar F o r m a t i o n i s a s s i g n e d  o f t h e A r c t h o p l i t e s s p p . Zone  Formation  t o t h e upper  lower p a r t considers  part  of J e l e t z k y ' s  (Ammonitida)  o f A r c t h o p l i t e s s p p . Zone and t h e  s p p . Zone a s l a t e  age and Unnamed zone F as e a r l y M i d d l e A l b i a n . the  Moosebar F o r m a t i o n i s l a t e  Formation  late  macrofossil  Early Albian  dating.  and t h e G a t e s  (1968) Unnamed zone F. J e l e t z k y  the A r c h t h o p l i t e s  5 of  Early Albian  (1980)  Early Albian i n Thus,  t h e age o f  and t h e G a t e s  to early Middle Albian,  b a s e d on  1 5  PART I . LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY AND  PALEOENVIRONMENTS  AND LOWER GATES  OF THE MOOSEBAR  FORMATIONS  1.1 REGIONAL CORRELATIONS OF THE GATES AND MOOSEBAR The  major d e p o s i t i o n a l  Formations Plains,  i n the F o o t h i l l s ,  are i l l u s t r a t e d  units  i n t h e G a t e s a n d Moosebar  and e q u i v a l e n t  by t h r e e  FORMATIONS  s t r a t a i n the  regional cross  sections  (Figures  5, 6 and 7, i n p o c k e t s a t back o f t h e s i s ) . The l o c a t i o n  of  sections  are  these  i s shown on F i g u r e  5. C r o s s - s e c t i o n s  b a s e d on c o a l company b o r e h o l e d a t a and m e a s u r e d  sections  i n the F o o t h i l l s  while  section  1 and 2 outcrop  3 i s a gamma-ray l o g  correlation  of s t r a t a e q u i v a l e n t  t o t h e G a t e s and Moosebar  Formations  i n 14 p e t r o l e u m w e l l s  i n t h e P l a i n s . The NW-SE  orientation the  of these  d i s t r i b u t i o n of d a t a p o i n t s .  orientation  i s parallel  advantage that to  At the  be  to infer  the present,  correlated  cross  in  the lower p a r t  it  occurs  which has t h e  sections  due  s t r a t i g r a p h y of  i s n o t a v a i l a b l e . In t h e M o o s e b a r -  however, a p r o m i n e n t  76-6 ( F i g u r e  6), this  bentonite a useful  s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y higher,  l a y e r can time  bentonite  o f t h e Moosebar F o r m a t i o n , w h i l e  Moosebar F o r m a t i o n and n e a r  and a r e  stratigraphic basis.  d e t a i l e d time  r e g i o n a l l y and thus p r o v i d e s  N o r t h o f b o r e h o l e MOD  this .  between d a t a p o i n t s  c o r r e l a t i o n on a t i m e  interval  interval,  strike  by  i s small.  i n the study area,  Gates-Moosebar  lower Gates  t o the t e c t o n i c  5, 6 and 7 a r e l i t h o l o g i c a l  intended  i s constrained  In t h e F o o t h i l l s  the e f f e c t s of shortening  f o l d i n g and t h r u s t i n g Figures  not  regional cross-sections  line.  i s present  t o the south  i n t h e upper p a r t  of the  t h e base o f t h e T o r r e n s Member.  This  16  relationship prograded present  i s further  evidence that  in a northerly  The  f a c i e s o f t h e G a t e s , b u t c a n n o t be  correlated.  T o r r e n s Member c a n be c o r r e l a t e d  A l b e r t a / B r i t i s h Columbia far  border  as t h e W o l v e r i n e R i v e r .  area  just  t h i c k marine  unit  "Sheriff  was p r e v i o u s l y  i n t e r v a l which  unit  overlying  be r e f e r r e d  unit  a thin transgressive  deposits.  two  coarsening-upward marine  the  part  h a s been  Babcock  cycles.  i t consists  the  from Denison Mines  "Babcock  member." T h i s  i n turn  5 ) . North of the  on F i g u r e  7  The d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d i s shown on F i g u r e  8.  of the Gates Formation, a second  sandstone, c o n g l o m e r a t e s and minor Geologists  sandstone which  t h e S h e r i f f member c o n s i s t s o f  i d e n t i f i e d . This  a r e a where  o f a 32  i n t e r v a l p i n c h e s out and i s  o f t h e S h e r i f f member  t h e upper unit  along a  t h e McConkey P i t  In t h e p e t r o l e u m w e l l s  i n some F o o t h i l l s s e c t i o n s  marine  exposed  as the  s a n d s t o n e a n d minor  i n t e r v a l (Figure  and  In  to informally  i s well  of marine  t h i s non-marine  by m a r i n e  limit  by a  c a l l e d t h e S h e r i f f P i t ) where i t c o n s i s t s  Wolverine River,  southern  i s overlain  i s overlain  14) a t t h e McConkey P i t ( n o t e :  on a t h i n non-marine  replaced  i n turn  and t h e  m a i n l y of s a n d s t o n e . In t h i s  will  coarsening-upward  siltstone rests  t h e T o r r e n s Member  member." The S h e r i f f member  road c u t (Figure  m thick  Between t h e W o l v e r i n e R i v e r  consisting  t h i s marine  from t h e  i n the F o o t h i l l s , northwest as  s o u t h of Kinuseo Creek,  by a t h i n n o n - m a r i n e  thesis,  system  d i r e c t i o n . Bentonites are occasionally  i n t h e non-marine  regionally  the Gates c o a s t a l  refer  unit  i s well  of a t h i c k  major  developed i n  sequence  of marine  mudstones a n d s i l t s t o n e s . to this unit  nomenclature  will  informally  be f o l l o w e d  as  i n the  17  F i g u r e 8. S o u t h e r n l i m i t o f t h e S h e r i f f and F a l h e r C m a r i n e u n i t s .  member, Babcock  member  18  present  s t u d y . The d i s t r i b u t i o n  deposits  i n t h e Babcock member  A third  Wolverine River, companies c o r e  present area,  i s shown i n F i g u r e  i n b o r e h o l e QWD  on t h e b a s i s  d e s c r i p t i o n . This  i n the F o o t h i l l s  D.A. L e c k i e  and t h e c o a l  m a r i n e u n i t h a s n o t been  t o the east.  but i s  North of the study  ( p e r s . comm., 1982) has i d e n t i f i e d  Moosebar a n d G a t e s F o r m a t i o n s  in strata equivalent  up t o 9 to the  i n t h e P l a i n s . The m a r i n e  unit  t h e S h e r i f f and Babcock members i s e q u i v a l e n t t o  Leckie's present  cycle  of the  south of the Wolverine R i v e r ,  coarsening-upward, marine c y c l e s  Figure  of marine 8.  7115, n o r t h  of l o g c h a r a c t e r  i n the petroleum wells  between  limit  m a r i n e u n i t , between t h e S h e r i f f a n d Babcock  members i s i d e n t i f i e d  recognised  and s o u t h e r n  Falher  C c y c l e and t h i s  t h e s i s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n  name w i l l  be u s e d  of the F a l h e r  8. The S h e r i f f member c o r r e l a t e s w i t h a n d t h e Babcock member w i t h  i n the  C i s shown on  Leckie's  the lower p a r t  Falher F  of the  N o t i k e w i n Member.  1.2 MARINE DEPOSITS - INTRODUCTION The  marine d e p o s i t s  F o r m a t i o n s c a n be b r o a d l y regressive The  1  deposits  i n t h e Moosebar a n d l o w e r classified  i n t o two main  and t r a n s g r e s s i v e  regressive deposits  occur  Gates categories:  deposits.  within  coarsening-upward  Throughout the t h e s i s , t h e terms r e g r e s s i o n and t r a n s g r e s s i o n a r e u s e d i n t h e s e n s e o f seaward p r o g r a d a t i o n o f t h e s h o r e l i n e ( r e g r e s s i o n ) and landward m i g r a t i o n of t h e s h o r e l i n e ( t r a n s g r e s s i o n ) without n e c c e s s a r i l y i m p l y i n g changes i n sea level. 1  19  cycles  which a r e e a s i l y r e c o g n i s a b l e  i n outcrops,  geophysical  l o g s . Most o f t h e m a r i n e  lower G a t e s  i n t e r v a l occur  ranging  in thickness  upward c y c l e s  from  are present  within  10 to. 60 m. Two o r t h r e e  and t h e F a l h e r  coarsening-  o f one o r two c o a r s e n i n g -  C normally consists transgressive  of a s i n g l e  deposits  a t t h e base o f t h e S h e r i f f member  upward r e g r e s s i v e  cycles  i n t h e Moosebar F o r m a t i o n a n d T o r r e n s  coarsening-upward c y c l e . Thin recognised  i n the Moosebar-  coarsening-upward  Member. The S h e r i f f member c o n s i s t s upward c y c l e s  sediments  c o r e s and  below  have  been  coarsening-  deposits.  1.3 REGRESSIVE DEPOSITS Core and o u t c r o p s t u d i e s Member a n d S h e r i f f member regressive  deposits  three  lithofacies  main  facies,  indicates  i n these  that  be r e f e r r e d  sandstone  into  t o a s mudstone  ( c o n s i s t i n g of i n t e r b e d d e d  and s a n d s t o n e s ) and s h e e t  Torrens  the coarsening-upward  i n t e r v a l s c a n be s u b d i v i d e d  which w i l l  transition facies  siltstones  o f t h e Moosebar F o r m a t i o n ,  facies  mudstones, (table 1).  A d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d e p o s i t i o n a l  environment  of  sections.  these  1.3.1  three  Mudstone F a c i e s This  Formation (Figure  -  i s given  f a c i e s i s present  i n t h e lower p a r t  a t t h e base o f t h e f i r s t  cycles  i n the f o l l o w i n g  Description  9) where i t v a r i e s  overlying is  lithofacies  o f t h e Moosebar  coarsening-upward  in thickness  cycle  f r o m 25-60 m. I n t h e  and i n t h e S h e r i f f member, t h e mudstone  facies  t h i n or absent. The  dominant  l i t h o l o g y i s d a r k g r e y mudstone,  occasionally  T a b l e 1. Summary of the main c h a r a c t e r 1 s t t e a o f thQ f a c i e s J n the coarsenIng-upward mar tne e v e I e s i n the Moosebar format Ion and lower G a t e s .  Mein L l t h o l o g y  Mudstone F a c i e s  Thickness  Mudstone, t h i n (max. 15 cm)  Main Bedding Types  Bloturbatlon  Remarks  Inferred DeposI tlonal Environment  Parallel  Strong, burrows  O c c u r s below the transltlon facies  Offshore Mar Ine  bedding  s i 1tstones  Transition  Facies  Sheet Sandstone Facies  horizontal and  trails predominate  at the b a s e o f the coarseningupward marine c y c l e s  Interbedded mudstones s i l t s t o n e s and  P a r a l l e l bedding. low a n g l e c r o s s bedding, hummocky  V a r i a b l e , more i n t e n s e In mudstones and  Occurs g r a d a t i o n a l l y above the mudstone f a d e s  very fine-grained sandstones  cross s t r a t i f i cation ripples, lenticular bedding  si 1tstones H o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l traces  or, in s e c t i o n s where the mudstone f a c i e s i s absent, at the b a s e o f the coarsenIng-upward cycle.  see below  O c c u r s a t the top of the c o a r s e n i n g upward c y c l e s . In some s e c t i o n s the entire coarseningupward c y c l e i s composed o f t h i s f a c i e s . Can be subdivided into 3 main f a c i e s ( F a d e s A.B.C)  Very f i n e - to coarse-grained sandstone  MarineTranslHon Zone  MarineShoreface /Beach (local1y dlstrlbu tary channel)  Very f i n e - to medIum-gr a 1ned sandstone  Comprises approx. the lower 2/3 of the sheet sandstone f a d e s  P a r a l l e l bedding, low angle c r o s s bedding  Varlable-absent to moderate. Burrows 1ncIude v e r t l e a l , 'U'-shaped and h o r i z o n t a l types. O f t e n c o n f i n e d to d i s tinct strongly burrowed I n t e r v a 1 s .  LowerMiddle Shoreface  F i n e - t o medtumg r a l n e d sandstone  A p p r o x i m a t e l y the upper t/3 of the s h e e t sandstone facies •  P a r a l l e l beddtng trough and t a b u l a r cross-bedding ripples  Weak. Burrows r e s t r i c t e d to thin, strongly burrowed i n t e r v a l s . Roots common In top 50 cm  Upper Shoref ace Beach  C r o s s bedding massive beds  Absent  Fine- to coarseg r a i n e d sandstone  Forms e r o s i o n a l l y based, f i n i n g upward u n i t s . replacing facies 8 a t the t o p o f the  Dlstrlbu -tary. Channel cycles  to o  21  interbedded  with  siltstones.  I n o u t c r o p s bands o f s m a l l  weathering (Figure and  frequently  bioturbation  destroys  present  bedding,  structures  siltstone  beds w h i l e  burrowing  organisms.  Trace are  fossils  tubes  t h e dominant 0.2-2 mm  10).  parallel  In  bedding  In a d d i t i o n t o  siltstones.  Frequently,  these  i n t h e lower p a r t  of the  r e w o r k e d by  f a c i e s a r e d i s t i n c t i v e and  forms. V e r t i c a l  10). These t r a c e s  Helminthoida,  a 0.5-1 cm wide  burrows a r e a l s o  surfaces.  siltstones,  and Phycosiphon  fossils  species  in this only  cannot  distinct  3 mm-1  interval  t r a i l s of (Hantzschel,  between t h e s e on b e d d i n g  l i m i t e d bedding  4 types  plane studied  plane  be d e t e r m i n e d . found m a i n l y  cm d i a m e t e r , e l l i p t i c a l structure  mudstone  f a c i e s have been  l e s s common h o r i z o n t a l t r a c e s , include  up t o 3 cm i n .  are s i m i l a r to the grazing  which p r o v i d e  the exact  c i r c u l a r to  of b i o t u r b a t e d  1978). The d i s t i n c t i o n  As t h e t r a c e  Other  'halo'  ribbons  on t h e shape o f t h e t r a i l  i n cores,  surfaces,  c o n s i s t s of black,  Scalarituba, Nereites  Chamberlain,  depends m a i n l y  trace  wide a n d e l o n g a t e  (Figure  without  structure.  i n t h e mudstone  within  mainly  bioturbated,  the tops a r e e x t e n s i v e l y  length,  1962;  (Figure  facies  b u t a r e much l e s s common. I n t h e mudstones a n d t h i n  siltstones, oval  t o b e d d i n g a r e common  of bedding  are preserved  d o m i n a t e d by h o r i z o n t a l  present  rusty  low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g and r i p p l e s a r e  i n some o f t h e t h i c k e r  sedimentary  (2-15 cm)  grey  i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s  a l l trace  sedimentary  t o medium  parallel  which a r e l e s s s t r o n g l y  t h e most common  parallel  (max. 15 cm) l i g h t  carbonate concretions  9 ) . Strong  intervals is  thin  (possibly  i n the  burrows  Paleophycus).  22  Vertical 1 mm  burrows o c c u r m a i n l y  diameter  (Figure  10e)  tubes and  Authigenic and  o c c u r s as  2 mm  present  1.3.2  and  pyrite  but up  burrows  Mudstone F a c i e s dominant  Helminthoida, below  fair  this  long  trace  to T r i c h i c h n u s  tubes  usually  in larger  areas  1-2  (Figure I0d). Often,  less  than  in  the p y r i t e  is  Interpretation fossil  i n t h e mudstone  facies,  t r a c e s of a s p e c i e s s i m i l a r  (Chamberlain,  stratigraphic  of t h e mudstone  position,  facies  are  which  to  of m a r i n e s e d i m e n t s  deposited  1978). On  the b a s i s  similarity  mudstone f a c i e s d e p o s i t s w i t h o t h e r modern and  siltstones  cm  facies  10e).  t o g e t h e r with the o v e r a l l  their  10c).  common i n t h e mudstone  (Figure  w e a t h e r wave b a s e  d e p o s i t s and  include thin  and  is characteristic  evidence  and  species (Figure  patches  occasionally  c o n s i s t s of h o r i z o n t a l  of  is fairly  t o 4 cm  siltstones  long s i m i l a r  other u n i d e n t i f i e d  i n or near  The  t o 8 cm  small c i r c u l a r  diameter  diameter  up  i n the  of  the  ancient offshore  the mudstones  interpreted  and  as o f f s h o r e  deposits. By 1978,  comparison  p.  weather  234),  with other  sublittoral  t h e mudstones a r e  suspension  angle cross-bedded  interpreted  d e p o s i t s , while and  rippled  lithofacies as mainly  the p a r a l l e l  siltstones  (Johnson,  bedded,  probably  fair low  represent  c o a r s e r m a t e r i a l s u p p l i e d t o the o f f s h o r e d u r i n g storms. strong of  bioturbation  infaunal  (Howard, rates.  i n t h e mudstone  reworking  1978)  and  exceeded or  i s probably  the  facies  kept  indicates  pace w i t h  result  of s l o w  that  The rates  sedimentation sedimentation  F i g u r e 9A. O f f s h o r e (mudstone f a c i e s ) mudstones and s i l t s t o n e s i n the lower p a r t of the f i r s t c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d c y c l e i n the Moosebar F o r m a t i o n . The more r e s i s t a n t bands a r e s i l t s t o n e s and c a r b o n a t e c o n c r e t i o n s . F i g u r e 9B. T h i s view shows two c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d , r e g r e s s i v e c y c l e s i n t h e upper Moosebar F o r m a t i o n . The more r e s i s t a n t sandstones on the lower l e f t r e p r e s e n t t r a n s i t i o n zone ( t r a n s i t i o n f a c i e s ) d e p o s i t s a t the t o p of t h e f i r s t c y c l e . The second c y c l e b e g i n s w i t h o f f s h o r e (mudstone f a c i e s ) mudstones and t h i n s i l t s t o n e s which grade upwards i n t o the t r a n s i t i o n f a c i e s c o n s i s t i n g of i n t e r b e d d e d s i l t s t o n e s , f i n e - g r a i n e d sandstones and t h i n mudstones. Note t h e l a r g e c a r b o n a t e c o n c r e t i o n s i n the upper p a r t of the second c y c l e . Both photographs from o u t c r o p s on the n o r t h w e s t s i d e of Mount Frame.  24  25  F i g u r e J_0. C o r e p h o t o g r a p h s o f o f f s h o r e (mudstone f a c i e s ) mudstones a n d s i l t s t o n e s . B i o t u r b a t i o n i s common i n t h i s f a c i e s and f r e q u e n t l y d e s t r o y s a l l t r a c e o f b e d d i n g ( F i g u r e s 10b, l O h ) . T r a c e f o s s i l s a r e d o m i n a t e d by h o r i z o n t a l forms c o n s i s t i n g o f d a r k g r e y s i n g l e o r p a i r e d t u b e s ('h' i n F i g u r e 1 0 f ) s u r r o u n d e d by a h a l o o f l i g h t e r c o l o u r e d b i o t u r b a t e d sediment. These r e p r e s e n t g r a z i n g t r a i l s of H e l m i n t h o i d a , S c a l a r i t u b a N e r e i t e s or Phycosiphon . A s e c o n d t y p e o f h o r i z o n t a l burrow ( P a l e o p h y c u s ? ) i s shown i n F i g u r e 1Og. V e r t i c a l b u r r o w s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t i n t h e mudstone f a c i e s ( e . g . , F i g u r e s 10c, 1Oe) b u t a r e much l e s s common. T r i c h i c h n u s ( t ) b u r r o w s a r e p r e s e n t i n F i g u r e 1Oe. P y r i t e ( p y ) o c c u r s w i t h i n one o f t h e b u r r o w s i n t h i s F i g u r e . I t a l s o o c c u r s as l a r g e r i r r e g u l a r p a t c h e s ( F i g u r e 1Od). P a r a l l e l b e d d i n g c a n be s e e n i n s e v e r a l o f t h e c o r e s and r i p p l e s a r e p r e s e n t i n F i g u r e 1Od. 1 588 f t BD 7802 A 115. 3 m MDD 7918 b 1 577.5 f t BD 7802 c 1 90.46 m MDD 781 1 d 1 581 f t BD 7802 e BD 7802 1563 .5 f t f No r e c o r d g 115. 3 m MDD 7915 h  2fo  27  The by  formation  Berner  dissolved  (1970).  of p y r i t e  i n modern muds h a s been  He c o n c l u d e d  that b a c t e r i a l  s u l p h a t e and t h e d e c o m p o s i t i o n  then  reacts with  with  elemental  i n mudstone  iron  t o form  sulphur  facies  t o form  s e d i m e n t water  1.3.3  interface  Transition This  pyrite.  therefore, that  w i t h i n t h e sediment  beneath the sheet  i s present  sandstone  facies.  i n t h e number and t h i c k n e s s o f s i l t s t o n e  facies  contact  consist  The mudstones a r e g e n e r a l l y s i l t y  form  t h i c k e n i n g and  and s a n d s t o n e s  o u t c r o p w e a t h e r medium t o d a r k  outcrops  sharp  The t r a n s i t i o n  siltstones  cycles.  the s i l t s t o n e s  which  o f mudstones,  sandstones,  greyish-orange  (Figure  facies  i n t h e u p p e r Moosebar c y c l e s and 0-15 m t h i c k  grained  in  beds  by an  member.  Lithologies  cores  i s represented  i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a  i n t h e amount o f gamma r a d i a t i o n .  the S h e r i f f  i s absent,  The c o n t a c t between t h e  increase  this  i n the  a t t h e base o f t h e c y c l e  and t h e t r a n s i t i o n  9 ) . On gamma r a y l o g s ,  or,  facies  facies  in  near t h e  facies  mudstone  15-25 m t h i c k  local  during deposition.  c y c l e s where t h e mudstone  facies  is  of p y r i t e  Facies - Description  coarsening-upward  decrease  i n turn react  The o c c u r r e n c e  f a c i e s ' o c c u r s above t h e mudstone  the t r a n s i t i o n  sulphur  s u l p h i d e which  m o n o s u l p h i d e s . These  sediments suggests,  reducing conditions prevailed  r e d u c t i o n of  of o r g a n i c  compounds l e a d s t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f h y d r o g e n  summarised  carbonate  and very  coarsening-upward  and d a r k  are light  g r e y . In  t o medium g r e y b u t  y e l l o w i s h brown.  concretions a r e present  ( F i g u r e 9b). These c o n c r e t i o n s occur  fine-  Large  i n some  as i s o l a t e d  28  spheres,  30-75 cm  in diameter,  s e v e r a l metres long Ripples  and  other  concretions The  and  or  30-50 cm  bedding  as  more c o n t i n u o u s  thick, parallel  structures  preserved  suggests a p o s t - d e p o s i t i o n a l  lower p a r t  of  the to  3 m  cm  siltstones,  which e x h i b i t p a r a l l e l  r i p p l e s and  the  of  upper p a r t  common and replaced thick.  the  by  In  the  thick  lenticular  fine-grained  beds of  internal erosion  near  the  material  of  mudstone r i p - u p Load c a s t s ,  fragments are  beds a r e  casts,  abrupt  o c c a s i o n a l l y present  t r a n s i t i o n facies include  Occasionally, Symmetrical  few  of  up  to  the  of  base.  surface.  Primary  parallel  i n the  bedding, and  slump s t r u c t u r e s  low ripples.  the  tops  i n the  are  mudstone and flaser  upper  massive.  observed  and  the  basal  was  lenticular  small  wood  wave r i p p l e l a m i n a t i o n  which e x h i b i t p a r a l l e l ,  the  oriented  some beds a r e  thinly-bedded  of  small  common on  b e d s . I n t e r v a l s of  occur  carbonaceous  near  are  scale  thick  and  12a)  some b e d s . S m a l l  1 m  lower c o n t a c t s  hummocky c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  lower p a r t s  In  less  to  4 m  siltstone/sandstones  wave r i p p l e s ( F i g u r e  beds. Climbing part  the  i n the  on  part  angle cross-bedding,  11).  gradually  erosional  g r o o v e marks and  angle  fine-grained  o c c a s i o n a l l y present  structures  the  very  The  or  sedimentary of  are  (1-15  low  (Figure  i n beds up  surfaces,  bedding planes.  c l a s t s are  flute  bedding,  t r a n s i t i o n f a c i e s . Disseminated  i s common on  siltstone/sandstone  of  with t h i n  bedding  sandstones  some c y c l e s c o m p o s i t e  top  the  t r a n s i t i o n f a c i e s , mudstones a r e  sandstone, with the  interbedded  s i l t s t o n e s become t h i c k e r and  very  within  transition facies consists  i n u n i t s up  cross-bedding,  bedding.  origin.  mudstones thick)  to  bands  upper  present  siltstone  bedding  of  occur  in a  29  .interbedded  with  Strong siltstones are  of the t r a n s i t i o n  sandstone,  up  facies.  The dominant  facies.  vertical  but i n d i v i d u a l  Chondrites  beds a r e r a r e l y  grazing t r a i l s  a r e common  w i t h i n b e d s . The v e r t i c a l  beds o f s i l t s t o n e a n d  strongly bioturbated.  on t h e t o p s u r f a c e s o f  (Paleophycus)  in  bed o f p e b b l y ,  the t r a n s i t i o n  b u r r o w s a r e 0.2-2 cm wide a n d burrows p r o b a b l y  facies,  sandstones. the  and v e r y  outcrop  coarse  sedimentation.  The  s e c t i o n ( F i g u r e 5 ) , a 20  to granular  interbedded  f i n e - g r a i n e d , hummocky  The base o f t h e s a n d s t o n e  t o p s u r f a c e c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s  (amplitudes  represent  sandstone  i s present  4.5 m above t h e b a s e o f the- S h e r i f f  member. T h i s s a n d s t o n e o c c u r s siltstones  areoccasionally  burrows a r e t r u n c a t e d .  In t h e s y n c l i n e e x t e n s i o n . cm t h i c k  t o those  and P a l e o p h y c u s a r e  e s c a p e t r a c e s formed d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f r a p i d o f some v e r t i c a l  fossils  a n d 'U'-shaped b u r r o w s a r e  t o 12 cm l o n g . Some o f t h e l o n g e r  tops  trace  horizontal traces, similar  beds and h o r i z o n t a l b u r r o w s  present  i n t h e mudstones a n d t h i n n e r  ( F i g u r e 11). In t h e t h i c k e r  horizontal,  Horizontal these  type"  i n t h e mudstone  a l s o present  present  sandstones.  b i o t u r b a t i o n i s common  "Helminthoida  present  the  up t o 10 cm) s p a c e d  with  mudstones,  cross-stratified  i s abrupt  and p l a n a r  of symmetrical  approximately  while  dunes  0.5 m a p a r t . The  a v e r a g e t r e n d o f t h e dune c r e s t s i s 6 6 ° - 2 4 6 ° .  1.3.4 T r a n s i t i o n The  overall  Facies - Interpretation coarsening  amounts o f wave a n d c u r r e n t evidence  that the t r a n s i t i o n  of l i t h o l o g i e s formed  and i n c r e a s e i n the  sedimentary  structures are  f a c i e s was d e p o s i t e d  i n shallower  30  F i g u r e JJ_. Core photographs of t r a n s i t i o n facies) deposits.  zone  (transition  F i g u r e 11a. Low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d e d a n d p a r a l l e l b e d d e d s i l t s t o n e . Note t h e s h a r p base a n d t o p and t h e s m a l l mudstone r i p - u p c l a s t s i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e b e d . (MDD 7811, 180.3 m). F i g u r e 11b. S i l t s t o n e bed w h i c h shows low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g i n the lower p a r t and r i p p l e s a t the t o p . T h i s type of s e q u e n c e i s common i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n f a c i e s . I n o u t c r o p t h e low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g i s t y p i c a l l y hummocky c r o s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . (MDD 7801, 124.2 m). F i g u r e 11c. T h i s c o r e shows t h e a l t e r n a t i o n of s t r o n g l y b i o t u r b a t e d mudstone beds w i t h p a r a l l e l b e d d e d s i l t s t o n e s w h i c h c o n t a i n ony a few b u r r o w s . H e l m i n t h o i d a type burrows a r e common i n t h e m u d s t o n e s a t t h e t o p and b a s e o f t h e c o r e . B o t h h o r i z o n t a l b u r r o w s (? P a l e o p h y c u s ) a n d v e r t i c a l b u r r o w s a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e s i l t s t o n e . (MDD 7918, 103.75 m). F i g u r e 11d. T h i s c o r e shows s i m i l a r b e d d i n g s t r u c t u r e s t o F i g u r e 11b b u t c o n t a i n s upward doming l a m i n a t i o n s characteristic of hummocky c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ( H . C . S . ) . I n c o r e s , H.C.S. c a n r a r e l y be p r o v e n due t o s m a l l c o r e d i a m e t e r s a n d t h e g e n t l e d i p s o f t h e l a m i n a t i o n s . (MDD 7918, 103.75 m). F i g u r e 11e. S t r o n g l y b u r r o w e d s i l t s t o n e i n w h i c h P a l e o p h y c u s i s the dominant t r a c e f o s s i l . H e l m i n t h o i d a type burrows a r e a l s o p r e s e n t . (MDD 7918, 95 m). F i g u r e 1 1 f . T r a c e f o s s i l s i n t h e mudstone a t t h e b a s e o f t h i s core include Helminthoida type burrows and C h o n d r i t e s ( c ) , (MDD 7918, 85.4 m). F i g u r e 11g. Low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g i n a s i l t s t o n e b e d . Mudstone r i p - u p c l a s t s a t t h e base i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s i l t s t o n e was d e p o s i t e d by s t r o n g e r o s i v e c u m e n t s . F i g u r e 11h. F i n e - g r a i n e d p a r a l l e l bedded s a n d s t o n e w h i c h c o n t a i n s abundant P a l e o p h y c u s burrows. Note t h e t r u n c a t e d sub-vertical burrow ( t ) n e a r t h e t o p . (MDD 7918, 50.5 m).  31  32  F i g u r e J_2. P r i m a r y facies.  sedimentary  structures  i n the t r a n s i t i o n  F i g u r e 12a. M u d s t o n e s a n d s i l t s t o n e s i n t h e l o w e r p a r t e x h i b i t l e n t i c u l a r and f l a s e r b e d d i n g . The t h i c k e r b e d i n t h e upper p a r t shows hummocky c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n a n d c l i m b i n g wave r i p p l e s at the t o p . ?  F i g u r e 12b. S h a r p c r e s t e d s y m m e t r i c a l wave r i p p l e s s u r f a c e o f a bed i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n f a c i e s . .  on t h e t o p  33  34  water d e p t h s t h a n alternation with  that  environment rates  mudstone  of s t r o n g l y b i o t u r b a t e d  siltstones  suggests  the u n d e r l y i n g  f a c i e s . The  mudstones and s i l t s t o n e s  and s a n d s t o n e s w h i c h a r e o n l y  the t r a n s i t i o n  weakly  f a c i e s was d e p o s i t e d  i n an  c h a r a c t e r i s e d by r a p i d v a r i a t i o n s i n  (Howard,  bioturbated  sedimentation  1978).  Based on i t s s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n and by c o m p a r i s o n other  modern a n d a n c i e n t  Howard and R e i n e c k ,  shoreline deposits  1972; W u n d e r l i c h ,  deposits  with  ( C a m p b e l l , 1971;  1972; B a l s l e y ,  transition  facies  transition  zone between t h e o f f s h o r e and l o w e r  1980) t h e  a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as f o r m i n g  i n the  shoreface  (Figure  23a) . The  e r o s i o n a l base o f t h e t h i c k e r s i l t s t o n e  beds t o g e t h e r truncated  with  burrows,  t h e p r e s e n c e o f mudstone r i p - u p internal  g r o o v e marks on t h e b a s a l deposited these  from h i g h  beds r e s e m b l e  stratification (Bouma,  siltstone  with  a  turbidites  i n d i c a t e s that  b u t low a n g l e  these  beds were  Superficially, and hummocky  of the c l a s s i c a l  cross-  turbidite  model  (Johnson,  s t u d i e s of storm  1978; H a m b l i n  1981; Mount,  and Walker,  1982), s u g g e s t s  and s a n d s t o n e beds were d e p o s i t e d  of storm  that  mainly as a  processes.  in increased  lowering  recently published  1980; K r e i s a ,  In modern c o a s t results  and f l u t e and  energy, e r o s i v e c u r r e n t s .  shelf deposits  Bourgeois,  result  surface  surfaces  clasts,  1962).  influenced  the  erosion  a r e not f e a t u r e s  Comparison  1979;  and s a n d s t o n e  and s h e l f a r e a s , wave h e i g h t s  the passage of a storm  and wave e n e r g i e s  o f t h e d e p t h a t w h i c h wave i n d u c e d  which  c u r r e n t s can  causes  35  interact volumes  w i t h t h e sea f l o o r of s e d i m e n t  offshore  transport  suggested  that  (turbidity)  (wave b a s e ) . In t h e n e a r s h o r e ,  a r e e r o d e d and mechanism  the sediment  current,  transported  offshore.  is controversial; i s transported  Hayes  by a  g e n e r a t e d by t h e seaward  Swift  p.  produced with  by a l o n g s h o r e and  intense  which  o f a moderate  sufficiently shelves,  strong  1973;  Most  The  Butman e t a l . , on  by  facies  on  suspension from  the  erode  be  the sea f l o o r .  In modern  oscillatory  d e p t h s o f a s much as 200  sedimentary s t r u c t u r e s  and  has come f r o m s t u d i e s  s e d i m e n t s . Hummocky  m  in ancient  sequences of  in  ancient  crossstorm d e p o s i t s  and  o f t h e Moosebar and G a t e s F o r m a t i o n s .  Harms e t a l . (1975) f o r g e n t l y that  still  induced  t e r m hummocky c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  stratification  are  i n d u c e d c u r r e n t s can  storm  i s a common b e d f o r m  the t r a n s i t i o n  depths  1979).  storm d e p o s i t s  t h a n modern m a r i n e  stratification in  t h e water  depth.  e n e r g y may  o b s e r v e d i n water  information  shallow marine  storm  current  formed  jets"  in conjunction  by wave i n d u c e d c u r r e n t s  t o move s e d i m e n t  wave r i p p l e s  c u r r e n t s have been  rather  coastal  acting  s t o r m , a t 60 m water  re-suspend sediment,  (Ewing,  declines.  Butman e t a l . (1979) have n o t e d s e d i m e n t produced  storm  p r o v i d e a mechanism.  Below t h e d e p t h s a t w h i c h and  winds,  of t h e l o w e r i n g o f wave b a s e ,  the sea f l o o r ,  passage  "downwelling  of  wave i n d u c e d c u r r e n t s c a n e r o d e t h e s e a f l o o r  increased. near  onshore  r i p c u r r e n t s may  As a r e s u l t in  suggests that  (1967),  return  from t h e n e a r s h o r e a r e a as t h e s t o r m 268),  The  density  surge waters (1976,  large  (H.G.S.) was  undulating  sets  of  coined  by  cross-  c u t e a c h o t h e r a t low a n g l e s and  i n which  36  the  l a m i n a e a r e randomly  convex-up.  oriented  Laminae t y p i c a l l y  hummocks and t r o u g h s w h i c h metres et  t o the c u r v e d shapes of  have w a v e l e n g t h s  and a m p l i t u d e s o f 10-20 cm  (Walker,  s u s p e n s i o n o f sand on hummock  the a c t i o n  sandstone  the b a s a l  i s preferred  velocities  bedding  interpretation,  (1979) i s t h a t  t h e hummocky  by t u r b i d i t y This  c u r r e n t s and  second  f o r t h e H.C.S. beds i n t h e  have  flute  c a s t s and g r o o v e  marks a l o n g  either  conditions  i n t h e s a n d s t o n e s and s i l t s t o n e s  of d e p o s i t i o n below t h a t  (Reineck and Singh,  from  1973, p . 106) o r under  (Jopling,  1967).  i s clear  the p a r a l l e l  f l o w regime Symmetrical  upper  ripples  flow  regime,  I n most c a s e s i t i s u n c l e a r w h i c h facies deposits,  c o n t a i n mudstone r i p - u p c l a s t s that  bedding  but i n  and t r u n c a t e d  was formed  from  c u r r e n t s a n d n o t from s u s p e n s i o n . wave r i p p l e s  (1982) a s f o r m i n g under  on t h e t o p s u r f a c e s  lower  flow regime  decline  of the storm-generated c u r r e n t .  bedding  i n some u n i t s  sediments  burrows  strong  of p a r a l l e l ,  low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d e d a n d H.C.S. b e d s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d  these  may have  suspension i n current  necessary t o generate  i s represented i n t r a n s i t i o n  beds w h i c h  upper  formed  surface.  as a r e s u l t  process  by t h e d e p o s i t i o n  and t r o u g h topography,  by s t o r m wave a c t i o n .  f a c i e s which  Parallel formed  and Walker  reworked  interpretation transition  1979, p . 8 1 ) . Harms  formed  beds may have been e m p l a c e d  subsequently  o f one t o f i v e  o f s t o r m waves. An a l t e r n a t i v e  p r o p o s e d by H a m b l i n  it  conform  a l . ( 1 9 7 5 ) , s u g g e s t e d t h a t H.C.S.  from by  a n d may be b o t h c o n c a v e - u p o r  of the t r a n s i t o n  by Mount  conditions during the  Flaser facies  and l e n t i c u l a r suggests  were d e p o s i t e d i n a r e a s w i t h l i m i t e d  that  sand  supply  37  and  variable  formed and  during  tidal  The coarse  extension  described  of normal  Island  units  of c u r r e n t  bed o f  of the S h e r i f f  member  are similar to  o f f New  (Yorath et a l . ,  Zealand  (Gillie,  1979). L e c k i e  (1982) have d e s c r i b e d  similar  (1981)  bedforms i n  i n the Gates Formation n o r t h of the study a r e a . In t h e dunes a r e formed  on t h e s e a bottom  the S h e r i f f  i n water  by o s c i l l a t o r y  wave  d e p t h s o f 20-100 m. T h i s  seems  f o r t h e s y m m e t r i c a l dunes a t t h e base  member. The s o u r c e o f t h e c o a r s e t o g r a n u l a r  and p e b b l e s i n w h i c h  t h e dunes a r e f o u n d  s e d i m e n t s may have been induced c u r r e n t s  transported  o r have been  c o a r s e n e a r s h o r e on c o a s t a l during  shelves  wave  activity.  outcrop section  from modern  t h e most p r o b a b l e o r i g i n  floor  storm  s a n d s t o n e near t h e base  t h e modern examples  of  or as a r e s u l t  w i t h moderate  L e c k i e and Walker  motion  s t r u c t u r e s may have  s y m m e t r i c a l dunes w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t i n a t h i n  and Vancouver  marine  These  periods as a r e s u l t  variations  associated  the s y n c l i n e  1979)  conditions.  weather  to granular  bedforms  and  fair  current  variations  in  current  the marine  offshore  derived  plain  i s uncertain.  locally  deposits  transgression  by s t r o n g  sand  These storm  from beds o f  exposed  a t t h e base  on t h e s e a of the S h e r i f f  member.  1.3.5  Sheet This  regressive pinchout, transition of  Sandstone  facies  Facies  - Description  occurs a t the top of the coarsening-upward  cycles.  In t h e S h e r i f f  south of Kinuseo Creek, facies  member near (Figure  i t s landward  8 ) , t h e mudstone a n d  a r e a b s e n t and t h e e n t i r e m a r i n e  the sheet sandstone  facies.  unit  I n a r e a s where t h e s h e e t  consists  38  F i g u r e _1_3« O u t c r o p o f t h e lower G a t e s on t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f Mount Frame. The p r o m i n e n t g r e y s a n d s t o n e i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d i s t h e T o r r e n s Member. Note t h e a b r u p t and p l a n a r t o p s u r f a c e w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e a n c i e n t b a c k s h o r e . The T o r r e n s i s o v e r l a i n by 10.5 m of b l a c k mudstones i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h t h i n s i l t s t o n e s and s a n d s t o n e s ( l a g o o n a l d e p o s i t s ? ) . A t h i n (0.5 m) c o a l seam o c c u r s above t h i s a t t h e t o p r i g h t of t h e p h o t o g r a p h . T h i s i s o v e r l a i n by s a n d s t o n e s and a c o n g l o m e r a t e f i l l e d c h a n n e l ( c ) . Marine s a n d s t o n e s of the S h e r i f f member(s) o u t c r o p on t h e s l o p e i n t h e d i s t a n c e o v e r l y i n g a t h i n t r a n s g r e s s i v e l a g a t the t o p of the channel deposits.  F i g u r e J_4. Road c u t a t t h e McConkey P i t . The t y p e s e c t i o n o f t h e S h e r i f f member i s a l o n g t h e r o a d b e h i n d t h e h i l l i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d . The f i r s t t h i c k seam on t h e l e f t i s t h e 10 m t h i c k J seam. Seams above t h i s i n c l u d e t h e G seam (2.0 m t h i c k ) and t h e E seam. E o c c u r s w i t h i n an i n t e r v a l o v e r 20m t h i c k b u t c o n t a i n s numerous s p l i t s a n d s m a l l f a u l t s .  F i g u r e j_5. View o f t h e 10 m t h i c k J seam a l o n g t h e McConkey r o a d c u t . J r e s t s d i r e c t l y on n e a r s h o r e m a r i n e s a n d s t o n e s o f t h e S h e r i f f member a n d i s o v e r l a i n by i n f e r r e d l a k e - l a c u s t r i n e d e l t a d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t i n g of a coarsening-upward sequence of i n t e r b e d d e d m u d s t o n e s , s i l t s t o n e s a n d f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s . Non-marine U n i o n i d b i v a l v e s a r e common i n mudstones i m m e d i a t e l y above J . N o t e t h e w e l l d e v e l o p e d p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n s i n the i n f e r r e d l a k e d e p o s i t s . In t h i s s e c t i o n J i s s t r o n g l y s h e a r e d a n d s t r u c t u r a l l y t h i c k e n e d by 2-3 m a l o n g t h e r o a d .  40  F i g u r e J_7. S k o l i t h o s burrows c o n s i s t i n g o f s i m p l e , even w i d t h , v e r t i c a l t u b e s i n lower s h o r e f a c e s a n d s t o n e s ( s h e e t s a n d s t o n e f a c i e s A) of t h e S h e r i f f member.  F i g u r e J J 3 . P a r a l l e l l a m i n a t e d t o burrowed s e q u e n c e i n l o w e r s h o r e f a c e s a n d s t o n e s ( s h e e t s a n d s t o n e f a c i e s A) o f t h e S h e r i f f member.  42  sandstone picked few  facies  a t the base  of t h e  the t r a n s i t i o n first  thick  facies,  sandstone  the c o n t a c t bed above  is  which  o r no mudstone beds o c c u r . The  dominant  sections,  thin  unit.  These  12-32  m and w h i c h  7).  The 110  the  lithology  km  deposits  (Figure  within  the f a c i e s .  In many s e c t i o n s facies  B)  based  on  structures.  replaced  by a t h i r d  t h e base  of  in thickness  geometry  (Figures over a  the from  5,  6 and  distance  i s t h e most w i d e s p r e a d  example o f  light  t o medium g r e y i n the  sandstones  coarsens-upward  the sandstones are c l e a n  they c o n t a i n  dark  and  and  grey laminae  very of  material.  i t is possible  t h e t y p e and In a few facies  to s u b d i v i d e " t h e sheet  ( f a c i e s A)  distribution  sections  (facies  and  an upper  of p h y s i c a l  t h e upper  unit  unit and  is  C).  A  This  facies  o c c u p i e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y the lower  sheet sandstone interval  bedding  streaks.  be c o r r e l a t e d  i n t o a lower u n i t  biogenic  this  range  In some  13).  Generally,  or carbonaceous  sandstone  pebbly  t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d and  sorted. Occasionally,  siltstone  i s sandstone.  to greyish-orange. G r a i n - s i z e  from v e r y f i n e -  Facies  can  sandstones are t y p i c a l l y  ranges  the  sheet-like  i n a NW-SE d i r e c t i o n  commonly  (facies  thin  form u n i t s w h i c h  exhibit  sheet sandstone  weather  facies  mudstones a r e p r e s e n t n e a r  T o r r e n s Member w h i c h  The  well  of t h i s  the sandstones c o n t a i n  Occasionally,  of  overlies  facies.  consist  (Figures  16,  Primary  o f low 1 8 ) . The  sedimentary  t w o - t h i r d s of  structures in  a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g and bases  parallel  o f s e t s a r e commonly  43  F i g u r e J_9. T r a c e f o s s i l s sandstone f a c i e s ) .  i n shoreface  - beach  sandstones  F i g u r e 1 9a,b. V e r t i c a l U-shaped b u r r o w s , p r o b a b l y D i p l o c r a t e r i o n . I n F i g u r e 19b t h r e e l a r g e U - s h a p e d structures are v i s i b l e . F i g u r e 19c. P a r a l l e l l a m i n a t e d t o b u r r o w e d are P a l e o p h y c u s .  (sheet  spreite  s e q u e n c e . The b u r r o w s  F i g u r e 19d. C o r e p h o t o g r a p h o f b u r r o w e d m a r i n e s a n d s t o n e s i n t h e upper p a r t o f t h e S h e r i f f member i n b o r e h o l e QMD 7705. T r a c e f o s s i l s i n c l u d e h o r i z o n t a l forms o f O p h i o m o r p h a ( o ) and S k o l i t h o s ( s ) . F i g u r e 19e. S t r o n g l y b u r r o w e d s a n d s t o n e a t t h e t o p o f t h e S h e r i f f member i n b o r e h o l e QBD 7701 (186.2 m). Burrows c o n s i s t s of small h o r i z o n t a l t o s l i g h t l y i n c l i n e d circular t o o v a l t u b e s w i t h no e v i d e n c e o f b r a n c h i n g . T h e s e a r e s i m i l a r t o M a c a r o n i c h n u s s e g r e g a t u s ( C l i f t o n a n d Thompson, 1978) .  44  45  erosional  w i t h a few c e n t i m e t r e s  of scour  into the underlying  bed.  Hummocky c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  this  f a c i e s i n t h e S h e r i f f member on t h e McConkey  Mudstone p e b b l e s and r i p - u p present  c l a s t s together  sections,  i n f a c i e s A ranges  physical  predominate over  sedimentary  biogenic  structures  s t r u c t u r e s . Strong  t o t h e upper p a r t s  parts  o r no b i o t u r b a t i o n .  show l i t t l e  a parallel  t o burrowed  sequence  tops of burrows a r e t r u n c a t e d Trace large  with coal  spar a r e  from weak t o m o d e r a t e . In  commonly c o n f i n e d  of  road c u t .  i n some beds b u t a r e n o t common.  Bioturbation all  was o b s e r v e d a t t h e base o f  fossils  consists  Ophiomorpha (Figure  Figure  i s present  I9d).  to s l i g h t l y (probably  by t h e o v e r l y i n g b e d .  (Figures  h o r i z o n t a l , v e r t i c a l and  17, 18, 1 9 ) . A common to oval  horizontal  i n both h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l  The 'U'-shaped b u r r o w s c o n s i s t o f n e a r l y  inclined  burrow tubes  (Paleophycus - Figure 19c).  spreite f i l l e d  Diplocraterion - Figures  in diameter  18 shows an example  i n f a c i e s A. O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e  o f 0.5-1 cm d i a m e t e r , c i r c u l a r  w h i c h f o r m d e n s e boxworks  bioturbation i s  o f b e d s , whereas t h e l o w e r  in facies A include  'U'-shaped b u r r o w s  clearly  similar to Skolithos,  b u r r o w s up t o 15 cm 19a,b) V e r t i c a l  are also  forms vertical across  t u b e s 2-5 mm  present.  Facies B This the this  sheet  f a c i e s occupies approximately sandstone  interval  occasional  f a c i e s . Primary  consist  cross-bedding  occurs,  sedimentary  of cross-bedding,  r i p p l e s . In c o n t r a s t  t h e upper o n e - t h i r d o f  parallel  structures in bedding and  t o f a c i e s A, where low a n g l e  facies B contains  mainly high  angle  cross-  46  F i g u r e 2Cj« P r i m a r y s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s i n c o r e s f r o m nearshore marine sandstones (sheet sandstone f a c i e s B ) . F i g u r e 20a. C r o s s - b e d d i n g , p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g 7811, 114.15m).  and r i p p l e s  F i g u r e 20b. Same a s 2fJ. Note t h e s c o u r e d s u r f a c e t h e c o r e (MDD 7811, 112.86 m).  (MDD  at the top of  F i g u r e 2 0 c . A l t e r n a t i o n s o f p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g and r i p p l e s . A s i n g l e h o r i z o n t a l burrow( P a l e o p h y c u s ) i s p r e s e n t a t t h e base Figure  ( b ) . (MDD  7918,  20d. C r o s s - b e d d e d  19.6 m) . sandstone.  (MDD  7918, 10.8  m).  47  48  F i g u r e s 2 1 a , b. C r o s s - b e d d i n g a n d p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g i n n e a r s h o r e m a r i n e s a n d s t o n e s ( s h e e t s a n d s t o n e f a c i e s B) a=MDD 7823, 391.7m; b=MDD 7823, 388 m. F i g u r e 21c. Core photograph of massive r o o t p e n e t r a t e d sandstone a t t h e t o p o f t h e T o r r e n s Member (MDD 7823, 385.3 m). F i g u r e 21d. M a s s i v e S h e r i f f member  root p e n e t r a t e d sandstone a t t h e t o p of t h e o v e r l a i n d i r e c t l y by t h e J c o a l seam.  49  50  bedding.  In o u t c r o p s b o t h t r o u g h and  stratification cm.  Parallel  was  observed. Sets  bedding  Occasionally,  i s present  parallel  tabular  range  cross-  in thickness  throughout  this  bedding a l t e r n a t e s with  from  5-25  interval. ripples  (Figure  20) . W i t h the bioturbation or  exception in facies B  t h i n , densely  bioturbated.  slightly  30  21d).  and  cm-1  The  m of  In  outcrops  planar. thick  In  1 mm  siltstones  Facies  of  top  (Figure  of  f a c i e s has the  f a c i e s B.  sheet  The  f a c i e s B.  present  of  facies B 15)  while  black seams  at  In  the  been  is often  top  the  by  similar  i s caused  of  by  facies B  trace  Oregon  and  Thompson  coast.  sections  carbonaceous (Figure  to  is similar  f a c i e s B i s abrupt  in other  roots  are  horizontal  Clifton  to  strongly  and  is overlain directly  recognised  sandstone  lithologies  sandstones which are in  surface  thin coal  a species  in diameter. This described  i s o l a t e d burrows  by  a  the  mudstones,  13).  C  This the  top  beds c o n s i s t of and  the  interval,  t o a few  bioturbation  s e d i m e n t s on  some s e c t i o n s  c o a l seam  overlying  the  the  d e n s e n e t w o r k s of  to Macaronichnus segregatus, intertidal  of  facies B  burrows at  tubes  top  i n t e r v a l s of  c o n s i s t of  inclined  (1978) from  very  In most c a s e s t h i s  21c,  distinctive  top  the  is restricted  burrowed  P a l e o p h y c u s . The  (Figures  of  base of  the  a few  sections  f a c i e s where i t o c c u r s  in  in f a c i e s C c o n s i s t mainly  generally  some s e c t i o n s  in only  coarser  and  less well  c o n g l o m e r a t e s up  f a c i e s or  as  to  place of  sorted  1 m thick  t h i n pebbly  at  layers  than are  51  scattered  throughout.  w h i c h have a b r u p t the  t o p 0.5-2  sections.  m.  Clay pebbles  near  Primary  the  bases and  structures  sandstones  i n s e t s 5-50  thickness  overlain  and  coal.  overlain  cm  towards the  and  by  thick  which  6-10  m  fine  thick  upwards i n  s p a r a r e common i n most  impressions  consist  bedding  of  thick  mainly  and  are massive.  large  of  logs  t o p . The  The  cross-bedding  t o p c o n t a c t of  conglomerates  as  i s abrupt  siltstones  Creek a r e a ,  interpreted  in  facies C  mudstones,  i n the F i v e Cabin  cross-  ripples.  w h i c h commonly d e c r e a s e  non-marine carbonaceous  In o u t c r o p s by  coal  sections,  with o c c a s i o n a l p a r a l l e l the  and  units  base.  sedimentary  Occasionally, occurs  or e r o s i o n a l  In some o u t c r o p  are present  bedding  These d e p o s i t s form  facies C i s  fluvial  in  origin.  1.3.6  Sheet The  Sandstone F a c i e s -  stratigraphic  Interpretation  position  of t h e  sheet  sandstone  above o f f s h o r e and  transition  zone d e p o s i t s and  below  bearing  sediments,  clearly  that  was  non-marine  by  the o c c u r r e n c e  Ophiomorpha, P a l e o p h y c u s ) . the sandstones,  bioturbation  interpreted  forming  (Figure  as  23a).  lower  B a s e d on  fossils  this  of p h y s i c a l  sequences suggests  shoreface while  facies  (e.g.  beach  that  nature  sedimentary  p a t t e r n s , f a c i e s A and  i n s h o r e f a c e and  facies  This i s  the coarsening-upward  C o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r modern and  shoreface-beach the  of m a r i n e t r a c e  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  s t r u c t u r e s and  in  coal  d e p o s i t e d i n a shallow m a r i n e - c o a s t a l environment.  supported  of  indicates  facies,  B are  environments ancient  f a c i e s A was  deposited  B r e p r e s e n t s upper  shoreface  52  and  beach The  (foreshore/backshore) parallel  t o b u r r o w e d beds  sequences d e s c r i b e d other  lower  parallel  weather  shoreface  (1972) and B a l s l e y  deposits.  Howard  associated  shoreface bedding  currents.  with a l t e r n a t e  a n d lower  foreshore  upper  regime p a r a l l e l  flow  flow  shallower  to-ripple  parts  bedding  bedding d e s c r i b e d  of bars  strong i n t h e upper  o f many modern b e a c h e s .  Parallel  bedding  (Clifton  by D a v i d s o n - A r n o t t slopes  coarser  planar  and Greenwood  of t h i s  deposit.  that  (1976) on t h e  t o p of f a c i e s B  backshore.  f a c i e s , which  include  relative  f a c i e s C probably  The main  the generally  t o f a c i e s A a n d B,  or e r o s i o n a l base and p r e s e n c e of l a r g e suggest  The p a r a l l e l -  i n Kouchibouguac  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f a c i e s C i s u n c e r t a i n .  g r a i n - s i z e of l i t h o l o g i e s  bedding,  areas  e t a l . , 1971), a n d on  of nearshore bars  corresponds c l o s e l y t o the ancient  characteristics  beaches,  i n foreshore  i n the. n e a r s h o r e a r e a .  New B r u n s w i c k . The a b r u p t  The  i s common  On modern  flow  i n f a c i e s B i s s i m i l a r to the p l a n e - t o - r i p p l e  seaward and landward  lower  a r e common  regime c o n d i t i o n s .  a r e s u l t o f swash p r o c e s s e s  fill  with  i n f a c i e s B i s i n t e r p r e t e d as the r e s u l t of sheet w i t h upper  abrupt  storm and f a i r  cross-stratification  was a s s o c i a t e d  Such c o n d i t i o n s  associated  Bay,  from  (1972) i n t e r p r e t s t h e  o c c u r r e n c e of t r o u g h and t a b u l a r  facies B indicates deposition  the  (1980)  sequences as t h e r e s u l t of i n t e r m i t t e n t  and e r o s i o n  unidirectional  as  i n facies A are similar to  conditions.  The in  by Howard  t o burrowed  deposition  deposits.  scale  represents  cross-  a channel  The s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n o f f a c i e s C, above  shoreface  deposits  and l a t e r a l  to nearshore  (upper  53  shoreface-beach) channel Hunter  sediments  or r i p c h a n n e l e t a l . , 1979)  channel  fill  is consistent  {Davidson-Arnott  interpretation.  deposits in facies C  the t h i c k n e s s of r i p c h a n n e l al.,  (1979),  distributary more  and  The  (6-10  Greenwood,  t h i c k n e s s of m)  1976; the  i s much l a r g e r  d e p o s i t s d e s c r i b e d by H u n t e r  t h e Oregon c o a s t . Based  channel  distributary  interpretation  on  this  for facies C  than et  evidence, a i s considered  likely.  1.3.7 High  from  with a  Comparison Energy  and  of t h e Low  Energy  Modern b e a c h e s c a n depending Singh,  on  1973,  lower  286):  be  i s s t r o n g , , and  wave a c t i o n  i s m i l d . The  coasts  (Clifton 1981)  beaches.  Examples o f  1972;  Sapelo  energy low  Island  low  broadly  facies  similar.  t h e wave r e g i m e , physical  types  (Reineck  on  energy  Hunter  b e a c h e s a l o n g c o a s t s where  et a l . ,  the G e o r g i a c o a s t 1972;  1974,  1979;  California  Howard  ( B e r n a r d and New  energy  beaches  1972),  Galveston  Leblanc,  Brunswick  1965)  and  (Davidson-  1976).  facies,  structures,  low  energy  however, d i f f e r  w i t h h i g h wave e n e r g y  sedimentary  and  (Howard, e t a l . ,  Wunderlich,  o f modern h i g h and  Shoreface  and  b e a c h e s a l o n g c o a s t s where  t o i n t e r m e d i a t e wave e n e r g y  Reineck,  Greenwood,  Foreshore  main  b e a c h e s a l o n g t h e Oregon and  i n the Texas G u l f Coast  and  two  the c o a s t l i n e  t h e b e a c h e s a l o n g K o u c h i b o u g u a c Bay, Arnott  into  Sequences  a r e t h e b e s t documented examples o f h i g h  Howard and  Island  along  e t a l . , 1971;  Reineck,  include  classified  High  wave a c t i o n  C o a s t a l F a c i e s w i t h Modern  Beach-to-Qffshore  t h e wave e n e r g y p.  Gates  whilst  beaches  are  according to  areas b e i n g dominated  by  i n t e r m e d i a t e t o low  wave  54  energy  a r e a s r e c o r d an a l t e r n a t i o n  structures  (Elliot,  depositional h i g h energy  facies coast  Island, Georgia) two  i n the beach  by Howard and R e i n e c k greatly  shoreface thick  i s 9 m thick.  a t Sapelo  variations energies  Island  The f a c i e s do,  while  the C a l i f o r n i a facies  in California.  i n t h i c k n e s s are the d i r e c t  coast r e s u l t  that the  or o v e r a l l  The u n d e r l y i n g t r a n s i t i o n and 9 m t h i c k  (Sapelo  i n t h i c k n e s s : At, S a p e l o  i s 2 m thick  i n t h e two a r e a s . H i g h e r  California  coast  facies  structures.  differences  from a  (1981) i n d i c a t e s  in their  sequence o f s e d i m e n t a r y  t h e s h o r e f a c e sequence  of the  t o o f f s h o r e sequence  ( C a l i f o r n i a ) and a low e n e r g y  however, show s i g n i f i c a n t Island,  and b i o g e n i c  1978, p . 1 5 2 ) . A r e c e n t c o m p a r i s o n  a r e a s do n o t d i f f e r  vertical  between p h y s i c a l  result  is 3 m  The  of d i f f e r e n t  wave  wave e n e r g i e s on t h e  i n a l o w e r i n g of the average  depth of  wave b a s e and c o n s e q u e n t l y an i n c r e a s e i n t h e t h i c k n e s s o f s h o r e f a c e and t r a n s i t i o n Three  main  lines  f a c i e s compared  of evidence  s h o r e l i n e s were h i g h e n e r g y 1. S h o r e f a c e facies  - beach  are developed  evidence  (Hayes,  over  alone,  Gates  i n the lower  Gates  coastal  inlets  or t i d a l  channels  were t i d e  which  dominated  1975).  comparable  along  t h e lower  dominated:  i f the s h o r e l i n e  2. The t h i c k n e s s o f t r a n s i t i o n  energy  that  Island.  l a r g e a r e a s and t h e r e i s no  f o r numerous t i d a l  w o u l d be e x p e c t e d  suggest  and wave  environments  to Sapelo  zone and s h o r e f a c e f a c i e s i s  t o the t h i c k n e s s of these  coastal  i n modern  a r e a s and v e r y much g r e a t e r t h a n  low t o i n t e r m e d i a t e e n e r g y however,  facies  shorelines.  i s not c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e  that  high found  This point  that  t h e lower  55  Gates s h o r e l i n e s it  m i g h t be a r g u e d t h a t  subsidence, to  were h i g h  eustatic  the s h o r e l i n e  shoreface  the combination  sea l e v e l  could  strata 1982,  input  t r a n s i t i o n and  i n the F o o t h i l l s  1981; L e c k i e  and W a l k e r ,  north  clearly  area  1982) and i n e q u i v a l e n t  to the east  indicates high  facies  of the study  (Youn,  1983). The p r e s e n c e o f c o n g l o m e r a t e s  Gates  sediment  i n t h e lower Gates n e a r s h o r e  i n the subsurface  facies  1982; C a n t , i n the nearshore  wave e n e r g i e s  along  the lower  shorelines.  1.4 TRANSGRESSIVE  DEPOSITS  Three d i s t i n c t Sheriff  of r e g i o n a l  and h i g h  thick  since  deposits.  the study area,  (Leckie,  rise  produce  3. C o n g l o m e r a t e s a r e p r e s e n t in  e n e r g y and wave d o m i n a t e d  f a c i e s are present  member w h i c h , on t h e b a s i s  stratigraphic  a t t h e base of the  of t h e i r  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  p o s i t i o n , a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as  transgressive  deposits.  1.4.1  Facies This  northwest (Figure  D  f a c i e s c r o p s o u t i n t h e McConkey  r o a d c u t and on t h e  s i d e o f Mount Frame. I n t h e McConkey  5 ) , f a c i e s D c o n s i s t s o f 6.1  c o n g l o m e r a t e s and s i l t s t o n e s .  road c u t s e c t i o n  m of s a n d s t o n e s w i t h  These d e p o s i t s  minor  erosionally overlie  c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstones and a t h i n c o a l a t t h e t o p o f a 13.5 m thick  interval  of i n f e r r e d l a g o o n - c o a s t a l  sandstones are f i n e sedimentary  swamp d e p o s i t s .  t o medium-grained and w e l l  structures  include  parallel  sorted.  The  Primary  b e d d i n g and low a n g l e  56  c r o s s - b e d d i n g . Mudstone in  the sandstones.  occur  near  streaks  rip-up clasts  'U'-shaped b u r r o w s s i m i l a r  t h e base o f t h e u n i t  occur  scattered  but  throughout.  siltstone  thick  sandstones  2 m above t h e  occurs  sandstones  overlie  and  a 35 cm  (Figure  conglomerates.  coal  pebbly  t o 30 cm  thick.  interbedded with  near  A  the  base.  In t h e Frame s e c t i o n of  to Rhizocorallium  T h e s e a r e more numerous  where t h e y a r e up  50 cm  present  a r e not common. T h i n  t h e base of t h e u n i t bed,  are o c c a s i o n a l l y  6), f a c i e s D c o n s i s t s  o f 7.5  m  These d e p o s i t s e r o s i o n a l l y  seam a t t h e t o p of a  10.8  m  interval  of  inferred  l a g o o n - c o a s t a l swamp d e p o s i t s above t h e T o r r e n s Member.  Facies D  in this  lower  unit  grained,  section consists  i s 3.9  well  s t r e a k s . The  m thick  sorted  and  s e g r e g a t u s a r e common n e a r is erosionally  pebbly up  sandstones  t o 4.6  and  m thick.  the top  1.4.2  The  i s abrupt  Burrows s i m i l a r  by m a s s i v e ,  pebbly  and c o n t a i n  to  Macaronichnus This  lower  coarse to granular  which occur w i t h i n  base o f t h e c h a n n e l  i s concave  a  channel  upwards  planar.  Facies E This  facies  o c c u r s between  f a c i e s D and  the o f f s h o r e marine  d e p o s i t s a t t h e base o f t h e S h e r i f f  member. In t h e Frame  section,  of massive  Pebbles is  The  o f medium- t o c o a r s e -  interbedded with thin  conglomerates  and  units.  t h e b a s e o f the' s a n d s t o n e .  overlain  and  distinct  are trough cross-bedded  s m a l l mudstone r i p - u p c l a s t s .  unit  consists  sandstones  sandstones  o f two  facies E consists i n the conglomerate  c o a r s e r than  of 35 cm a r e 0.5-2  the u n d e r l y i n g channel  cm  conglomerate.  i n diameter.  fill  This unit  d e p o s i t s . In  the  57  McConkey roa"d c u t s e c t i o n , of  5-20 cm t h i c k  granular  unit  beds o f f i n e - g r a i n e d  sandstone,  siltstone  interbedded with  and f i n e - g r a i n e d  i s erosional  upper c o n t a c t  f a c i e s E i s 1 .5 m t h i c k  silty  and o v e r l a i n  i s abrupt  conglomerate and c o a r s e t o strongly  by 20 cm o f c o n g l o m e r a t e . The  and o v e r l a i n  by o f f s h o r e  stratified  of  cycle.  1.4.3  Facies This  section  Babcock M o u n t a i n  outcrop  5 ) . In t h i s s e c t i o n  bioturbated  seams i n t e r p r e t e d  (described  f a c i e s F near  in section  facies  s i l t s t o n e . T h i s bed  as l a g o o n and c o a s t a l  1.6). Sediments  which  t h e b a s e o f t h e S h e r i f f member c o n s i s t o f  ( t r a n s i t i o n z o n e ) mudstones  fine-grained  sandstones.  1.4.4 O r i g i n  of the T r a n s g r e s s i v e  Marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n s main  Extension  o v e r l i e s 8.5 m o f c a r b o n a c e o u s m u d s t o n e s , s i l t s t o n e s ,  swamp d e p o s i t s  marine  (Figure  o f 10 cm o f i n t e n s e l y  s a n d s t o n e s and t h i n c o a l  overlie  s a n d s t o n e s a t t h e base  f a c i e s crops out i n the S y n c l i n e  F consists  marine  F  near  abruptly  regressive  bioturbated  s a n d s t o n e . The b a s e o f t h i s  mudstones and hummocky c r o s s S h e r i f f member  and c o n s i s t s  interbedded with  thin  very  Deposits  are i n i t i a t e d  by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f 3  factors:  1.  Rate of sediment  supply  2.  Rate of s u b s i d e n c e .  3.  Eustatic  sea l e v e l  t o the coast.  changes.  Along d e l t a i c c o a s t l i n e s , marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n s initiated  by a r e d u c t i o n  i n sediment  supply  are usually  to the shoreline  58  caused  by  coastal off,  major  plain  river  (Coleman,  waves b e g i n  shoreline there  eustatic  level  transgression,  provides  migrates  landward,  lagoonal  or  rise are  of  i n the  e r o d e and  heaviest  sea  remove the  level,  transgressive storms  The on  rapid,  there  the  rise  be  delta  r a t e of  i s slow, t h e n  completely  transgressive  of  the  deposits. the  continued  shoreline  sands  wave  currents  area,  leaving  coarsest  and  Along  erosion  shoreline  level  rise;  modern,  occurs  during  s a n d s depends  i f this  preservation  of  rate  shoreface  shoreline  erosion  c o n s i s t only  of  and  sea  deposits  the  a thin  lag  deposit. Facies  D  i s i n t e r p r e t e d as  a transgressive  is  the  I f , however, r e l a t i v e  transgressive  then w i l l  onlap  1976).  transgressive  c h a n c e of  coastline  sands  eroded area.  rapid shoreface  sea  the  longshore  sea  from t h e  a  front  removed by  from the  removed by  record  entirely  floor  level  1970). W i t h  transgressive be  relative  shoreline  s a n d . As  and  and  older  H a y e s ^ a n d Kana, of  rates  from the  sediments  over  i s a greater  transgressive level  1976;  preservation  mainly  the  sea  s t a g e s of  z o n e , waves and  shorelines,  (Swift,  the may  finer  left  is rising  early  (Oomkens,  i s cut  Transgressive  relative  shoreline  or  supply  level  (note:  transgressive  l a g on  material  sea  a p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e of  nearshore  behind a coarse  may  eroded  t h e m s e l v e s drowned and  action;  sediment  the  delta plain deposits  relative  deltaic  sediments.  if relative  changes). During  the  the  v a r i a t i o n s i n subsidence  sediment  deposits  deltaic  sand a v a i l a b l e  p r o d u c e d by  sea  the  formed  i s a s o u r c e of  u p s t r e a m on  1976). Once t h e  to erode  sands are  changes are  diversions  shoreline  59  deposit. cut,  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f a c i e s D i n t h e McConkey  when compared w i t h  shoreline  modern and a n c i e n t  f a c i e s (Hayes and Kana,  John,  1979),  flood  tidal  suggest  that  Macaronichnus segregatus in  1976; E l l i o t ,  The p r e s e n c e  deposits.  conglomerates interpreted Facies deposit  fan or  of burrows s i m i l a r t o  these are i n t e r t i d a l - s h a l l o w  The m a s s i v e c h a n n e l  i n t h e upper p a r t  as t i d a l  1978; K r a f t and  i n s a n d s t o n e s n e a r t h e base o f f a c i e s D  t h e Frame s e c t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t  subtidal  transgressive  t h e s e may be b e a c h , washover  delta deposits.  road  inlet  fill  s a n d s t o n e s and  of f a c i e s D i n t h i s  section are  deposits.  E i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a t r a n s g r e s s i v e  marine l a g  b a s e d on i t s s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n and s i m i l a r i t y  with  other  modern and a n c i e n t  marine l a g d e p o s i t s  1970;  Kumar and S a n d e r s ,  1976). The 20 cm c o n g l o m e r a t e a t t h e  base o f f a c i e s E i n t h e McConkey the  reworking  of t h e upper p a r t  sands. Thinner this,  l a y e r s of coarse  which a l t e r n a t e with  s a n d s t o n e , were p r o b a b l y nearshore strongly intense  on a d j a c e n t bioturbated  road  c u t presumably  formed by  of the t r a n s g r e s s i v e  shoreline  s a n d and c o n g l o m e r a t e  strongly bioturbated  transported  parts  i n t o the area  and sandstones  on t h e s e a f l o o r  above  s i l t s t o n e and  of t h e s e a f l o o r d u r i n g  siltstones  burrowing a c t i v i t y  (Oomkens, 1967,  from t h e s t o r m s . The  r e f l e c t the  during  fair  weather  periods. Facies burrowing The in  F i s i n t e r p r e t e d as f o r m i n g  o r g a n i s m s on t h e s e a f l o o r d u r i n g  absence of t r a n s g r e s s i v e the Syncline  absent  by t h e a c t i o n o f  during  Extension  the t r a n s g r e s s i o n .  shoreline deposits  outcrop  the t r a n s g r e s s i o n .  area,  a source  suggests o f sand  The a b s e n c e o f a m a r i n e  that, was l a g may  60  be due t o t h e f a c t plain  that  e r o s i o n of the u n d e r l y i n g l a g o o n - c o a s t a l  d e p o s i t s was m i n i m a l  coarse material  or that  these  w h i c h c o u l d be r e w o r k e d  sediments  c o n t a i n e d no  i n t o a l a g deposit..  1.5 SUMMARY OF MARINE PALEOCURRENT DATA Paleocurrent transition  facies  data c o l l e c t e d i n t h e upper  from  sandstone  beds  i nthe  Moosebar and S h e r i f f  member a r e  shown on F i g u r e 22. Measurements were made o f f l u t e  and groove  marks on t h e base o f s a n d s t o n e the axes of symmetrical  beds  wave r i p p l e s  beds and t h e a x e s o f s y m m e t r i c a l conglomerate The  bed near  orientation  (turbidites/storm on t h e t o p s o f  deposits),  sandstone  dunes on t h e t o p o f a  t h e base o f t h e S h e r i f f of the f l u t e  and groove  member. marks  i n d i c a t e s the  m a r i n e p a l e o s l o p e was d i p p i n g t o w a r d s t h e n o r t h - n o r t h w e s t . The average which  t r e n d of the r i p p l e  i s probably close  paleoshorelines. of  the southern  also  crests  i s approximately  t o the t r e n d of the lower  This interpretation limit  of the S h e r i f f  i s supported member  east-west  Gates by t h e t r e n d  (Figure  8 ) , which i s  east-west.  1.6 LAGOONAL DEPOSITS Sediment  interpreted  the T o r r e n s and S h e r i f f and  near  Mountain  the landward area. Similar  immediately in  strata  interval  as l a g o o n a l i n o r i g i n  occurs  between  Members, s o u t h o f t h e W o l v e r i n e  pinchout of the S h e r i f f  member  deposits are also present  River  i n t h e Duke  locally  above t h e T o r r e n s Member s o u t h o f Duke M o u n t a i n  overlying  the S h e r i f f  member. The l i t h o l o g i e s  between t h e T o r r e n s and S h e r i f f  and  i n the  Members c o n s i s t o f  F i g u r e 22. Summary o f " m a r i n e " p a l e o c u r r e n t ' d a t a i n t h e upper M o o s e b a r (UM) and S h e r i f f member (SH) i n t e r v a l .  62  Offshore  Transit ion Zone)  Shoreface  Fore shore  Backshore  Dunes  M^HWL M LWL  F i g u r e 2 3 a . S h o r e l i n e p r o f i l e o f modern sandy c o a s t l i n e s ( m o d i f i e d a f t e r R e i n e c k and S i n g h ( 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 285.)  F i g u r e 23b. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a f t e r M i a l l , 1977) .  of f l u v i a l  channel  patterns  (modified  63  black  s h a l y mudstones,  seams which 6).  The  thin  siltstones,  are present in i n t e r v a l s  mudstones form u n i t s  siltstones.  Interbedded  up  Occasionally  siltstones  coarsening-upward ripples  and  siltstones.  2-4  Locally,  near  the  carbonaceous.  Parallel  bedding  structures  i n the sandstones  the t o p of the c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d  sequences.  are s t r o n g l y  bioturbated.  Roots  (Figure  channel  fill  and  and  (Figure coal  t h e base, and  three thin  t h e s e s e c t i o n s . These  out  1.5  m  sequence.  In thick The  ripple  drift  cross  the top.  Between one  (<50  cm)  (Figure  are replaced  1) t h e  by m a r i n e  1), e q u i v a l e n t  coal  seams a r e p r e s e n t  o c c u r m a i n l y a t the t o p of  above t h e c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d  Wolverine River  and  of medium- t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e  w i t h t r o u g h c r o s s - b e d d i n g near  intervals,  sequences.  5), a  o c c u r s a t t h e t o p o f a c o a r s e n i n g upward  in  tracks  a r e common i n  channel  consists  and  'U'-shaped  horizontal  the top of the c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d  near  and  present in  Syncline Extension outcrop section  lamination  5,  interbedded with  form  m thick.  t h e t o p s o f some b e d s .  sandstones near  (Figures  cross-bedding i s occasionally  the s i l t s t o n e s  o c c u r on  coal  sandstones  b u r r o w s a r e p r e s e n t i n some s a n d s t o n e s and trails  thin  m thick  to 6 m t h i c k ,  fine-grained  sequences  Trough  8-13  t h e mudstones a r e  a r e common s e d i m e n t a r y  sandstones  s a n d s t o n e s and  strata  sequences.  inferred deposits.  lagoonal South  the  N o r t h of  deposits pinch  of K i n u s e o  a r e n o n - m a r i n e and  the  include  Creek thick  seams. Figure  24  borehole data  i s a cross  section  based  i n t h e Duke P i t a r e a w h i c h  characteristics  of  inferred  on c l o s e l y  spaced  shows t h e  lagoonal deposits  near  the  landward  South  North  mdst. fine s s t J I | coarse ssti conglomerate 1  15 BS9  10 5  f  Lenticular bedding  ////  Tabular c r o s s - b e d d i n g  Wavy bedding  Sandstone  —<r~  Low angle c r o s s - b e d d i n g  Wood  k.  Roots  -=-  Parallel bedding  Mdst./sltst. r i p - u p c l a s t s  -0-  Burrows  Soft sediment deformation structures  <%> Bioturbation  *  Coal  ) Siltstone/Mudstone  24. B o r e h o l e c r o s s  associations seam B2 t h i n s Borehole  ^-rcv, Ripples (c*climbing)  1"" -J Carbonaceous mudstone  0  Figure  Cross-bedding  Conglomerate  section  near t h e landward and i s r e p l a c e d  locations  shown on  cry  fragments  i n t h e Duke M o u n t a i n a r e a , pinchout by m a r i n e  Figure  83.  showing  t h e complex  facies  o f t h e S h e r i f f member m a r i n e u n i t . Note s a n d s t o n e s o f t h e S h e r i f f member t o w a r d s  that  coal  the north,  65  pinchout  of t h e S h e r i f f  a r e complex. The consist the  of two  interval,  of d a r k  lagoonal  distinct  t y p e s of f a c i e s . coal  s a n d s t o n e s and  structures b e d d i n g and  ripples.  occasionally beds.  strong.  Bioturbation  unidentified  (<0.75 m) and  coal are  sediment  horizontal,  vertical  sandstones  consist fine-  seams.  occasionally  bedding,  cross-  occur  b i o t u r b a t e d mudstones,  ranges  occur  'U'-shaped  in a  other  t y p e s . Roots  interbedded with  siltstones  are  from weak t o  s e g r e g a t u s and  and  and  moderately  thin  coal  seams. Towards t h e n o r t h , t h e mudstones s i l t s t o n e s  and .coals  pinchout  of  and  containing  marine  Macaronichnus Sheriff the  are replaced trace  south include  (lower) c o a l  thin  equivalent  seam, w h i c h  g r a d e s upwards  and into  interbedded s i l t s t o n e s  s a n d s t o n e . These  interval  sandstone  - Paleophycus, Asterosoma  plain  in this 7914  sediments  (Figure  fine  which  overbank  area  the second and  and  the  to the l a g o o n a l d e p o s i t s i n  channel deposits,  In b o r e h o l e s 7801 facies  13 m t h i c k  ( ? s h o r e f a c e - b e a c h d e p o s i t s ) of  lower c o a s t a l  fluvial-distributary B2  fossils  segregatus  member. S t r a t a  by a  to  The  deformation structures  i n the sandstones  of  sedimentary  include p a r a l l e l  i n c l u d e Macaronichnus  f o u n d . The  strongly  thin  p r e s e n t . S m a l l mudstone r i p - u p c l a s t s  Burrows  are a l s o  Soft  sediments  mudstone, s i l t s t o n e ,  conglomerates. Primary  i n the sandstones  and  In t h e l o w e r p a r t  i n beds up t o 3 m t h i c k  interbedded with thin  i n the a r e a  t o 27 m t h i c k  seam, l a g o o n a l  grey to b l a c k carbonaceous  sandstones occur  to  d e p o s i t s a r e up  above t h e B1  coarse-grained  few  member. F a c i e s a s s o c i a t i o n s  d e p o s i t s and  i s up t o 2.4 24), the  type which t o medium  d e p o s i t s a r e up t o 1 2 m  thick.  include  first  m  the  thick. lagoonal  consists  of  grained The  sandstones  66  occur  i n beds up t o 1 m t h i c k a n d have a b r u p t  bases. Small contain  abundant  structures ripples,  s i l t s t o n e rip-up  c l a s t s a r e common a n d some beds  carbonaceous m a t e r i a l .  include  parallel  bedding,  are occasionally  fining-upward  These d e p o s i t s  The  deposits  lagoonal  following:  1.  Stratigraphic lagoonal  likely  seam. must be  between  depositional evidence  t o support  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . These  are replaced  settings  found. There a r e ,  p o s i t i o n and f a c i e s a s s o c i a t i o n s ;  deposits  types.  mudstones  as l a g o o n a l  1981). F a u n a l  t o the north  together, include  the i n f e r r e d  by m a r i n e  shoreface-beach deposits  a n d t o t h e s o u t h by c o a s t a l  deposits  seams.  with  The o c c u r r e n c e  thick coal  of marine t r a c e  interbedded with t h i n c o a l marine and a non-marine 3.  carbonaceous  l i n e s of e v i d e n c e which, taken  t h i s i s t h e most  the  2.  (Heward,  other  deformation  sequences a r e p r e s e n t .  i n view of t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n h a s n o t been  however, s e v e r a l  sediment  B3 c o a l  and t h e f a c i e s o f o t h e r  such as d e l t a p l a i n s  suggest  into rooted  by t h e 3.5 m t h i c k  tentative  cross-bedding,  and 'U'-shaped  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these deposits  considered  a  vertical  and c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d  g r a d e upwards  which a r e o v e r l a i n  lagoonal  low a n g l e  sedimentary  p r e s e n t . A few beds a r e m a s s i v e .  Burrows a r e common and i n c l u d e Small  Primary  wavy a n d l e n t i c u l a r b e d d i n g . S o f t  structures  or e r o s i o n a l  The g e n e r a l l y quiet,  fossils  i n sandstones  seams, t h u s  i n d i c t i n g both a  influence.  fine grain-size  of the d e p o s i t s ,  low e n e r g y d e p o s i t i o n a l  4. The o c c u r r e n c e  plain  indicating,a  environment.  i n some beds o f s t r o n g  bioturbation.  67  S u b - e n v i r o n m e n t s w i t h i n modern 1973,  p.350-354; Hayes and  lagoon tidal  Kana,  b o t t o m muds, c h a n n e l s , flats  and  lagoon  1976;  specific  lagoonal The  central common  deposited p a r t s of  in these  productivity  mainly  the  setting,  of mudstone and suspension  during  the  lagoon.  Strong  reflects  lagoonal  the  overlie  progressive  rooted  subaerial  the  setting.  associated  the  with  the  the  lagoonal lagoonal  i n the  The  small  Mountain area  top  the of  deposits  flood-tidal  delta  these  d e p o s i t s and  flats  along  were  of  coarseningsections  Thin  B1  coals  the  lagoonal  peat sandstones  i n the  B3  c o a l seam may  the margin  of  the  lagoon.  NON-MARINE DEPOSITS - INTRODUCTION  fan  characteristics  f a c i e s which o c c u r s  the  which  thick coals  i n t e r p r e t e d a s washover  lagoonal  formed  swamps or c o a s t a l  c o a l seam  their  may  cycles indicate  a b s e n c e of  The  organic  margin d e l t a s  i n d i c a t e s that  d e p o s i t s , b a s e d on  f a c i e s a s s o c i a t i o n s . The  outcrop  these  above t h e are  r a t e of  lagoon.  d e p o s i t s . The  ( F i g u r e 24),  to  lower-energy  small  lagoon  encroachment  interval  of  different  siltstone  high  e n v i r o n m e n t s were s h o r t - l i v e d .  which occur  1.7  of  at  variety  b i o t u r b a t i o n , which i s  i n f i l l i n g of  horizons  e x p o s u r e and  marshes o v e r  forming  progradation  this  deltas,  i t is difficult  i n the  upward s i l t s t o n e / s a n d s t o n e c y c l e s i n t h e represent  tidal  Formation.  by  deposits,  i n the  flood  Singh,  include  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s to the  i n the Gates  thicker intervals  probably  fans,  and  1978)  m a r g i n d e l t a s . In view of  environmental  facies  (Reineck  Elliot,  washover  sub-environments w i t h i n a lagoonal apply  lagoons  have  formed  in  Duke or and  between tidal  68  The broadly  non-marine d e p o s i t s i n the Gates classified  1. F l u v i a l  into  two  can  be  categories:  channel d e p o s i t s Fluvial  mainly  d e p o s i t s i n the  of sandstones  channel  fill  and  sequences,  m e t r e s t o 42 m t h i c k lithology, and  main  Formation  deposits described  i n the  conglomerates. ranging  identified  following  Formation  consist  A wide v a r i e t y  i n t h i c k n e s s from a  sedimentary  associations,  have been  Gates  a r e p r e s e n t . Based  grain-size,  lithological  lower  on  of  few  differences  in  structures, thickness  5 major (table  t y p e s of  2 ) . These  channel are  section.  2. O v e r b a n k d e p o s i t s Sediment falls  under  Overbank  lithologies  sandstones  and can  easily  sandstones,  of c o a l ,  be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  as t h e  former  siltstones  and  crevasse  s p l a y s . These sandstones  the b a s i s  of  are present  sequences  facies  and  overbank  from  fluvial  a r e t h i n n e r ' and  occur  mudstones. T h i c k e r u n i t s  sandstone  channel  mudstones,  In most c a s e s  overbank  fluvial  1.8.1  consist  sandstones.  interbedded with  1.8  deposited in interchannel areas,  the g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y of overbank d e p o s i t s .  siltstones,  channel  w h i c h was  of  i n the p r o x i m a l p a r t s of  can  are s i m i l a r o n l y be  to small  distinguished  on  associations.  FLUVIAL CHANNEL DEPOSITS  Type Type  1 Channel 1 channel  Deposits -  Description  d e p o s i t s o c c u r below m a r i n e  sediments  of  the  T a b l e 2.  Summary o f the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s i n the lower G a t e s .  fluvial  Channel  Type  Ma i n L I t h o l o g y  Maximum T h i c k n e s s  Type 1 Channel  Deposits  Conglomerate, f i n e - to c o a r s e g r a i n e d sandstone  32 m  Type 2 Channel  Deposits  see below  42 m  Ma i n Bedding Type  Remarks  Interpretation  Occurs s t r a t l g r a p h l c a l l y above or below the marine sandstones of the S h e r i f f member.  Braided River (Distributary) Depos1t  see below  Occurs In the Babcock area b e t ween the J and G/I c o a l seams. Composite channel f i l l composed of 2 types of d e p o s i t s (1over un1t and upper u n i t ) .  Compos 1te Channel F i l l Depos1ts  M a s s i v e beds. . t a b u l a r and t r o u g h c r o s s bedding p a r a l I e l bedding. Pebb1e 1mbrlca 11 on 1s common In the conglomerates.  Lower  Unit  F i n e - to c o a r s e gra1ned s a n d s t o n e  22 m  Trough c r o s s bedd i ng.  Composed of s i n g l e or s t a c k e d f I n l n g -upward sequences 2-13 m t h i c k  Anastomosing o r Low S i n u o s I t y (Non-Braided) R l v e r Depos 11  Upper  Unit  Cong1omerate granular sandstone, f ineto c o a r s e - g r a i n e d sandstones  25 m  M a s s i v e beds. tabu1 a r and t rough cross-bedding p a r a l l e l bedding.  D e p o s i t s occur In channels with concave-upward bases  Braided R 1 v e r Depos1t  Conglomerates, granular sandstones, f i n e to coarse-grained sandstone  12 m  Mass 1ve beds, t a b u l a r and t r o u g h c r o s s bedding p a r a 11e1 bedd1ng  Occurs between the 67 and B9 c o a l seams i n the Ouke Mtn. Area. Channel width approx. 2.8 km.  Braided R i v e r Depos1t  Type 3 Channel  Deposit  Type 4 Channel  Deposit  Very coarse conglomerates, sandstones.  40 m  M a s s i v e beds, pebbles o f t e n I m b r i c a t e d , tabu l a r and trough cross-bedding p a r a l l e i bedding.  Occurs In s o u t h e r n p a r t of study a r e a near Mt. B e l c o u r t  Proximal B r a i d e d RIver-AIluvtal Fan Depos1ts  Type S Channel  Deposits  F i n e - to c o a r s e g r a i n e d sandstone  14 m  Trough c r o s s beddlng. p a r a l l e i bedding, r i p p l e s  Mos t common 1n upper Gates In s o u t h e r n p a r t of study a r e a .  Meanderlng Depos1t  Rlver  70  Sheriff area  member  and  Similar  i n the northwest  FC4,  Figure  of  (Figure  interval  (Figure  (Figure  The  structures  overlies  the absence  or coarsening-upward  are massive  and  0.5-2  1.5  and  clast  sorted. cm  m of  this  well  contacts.  has  sandstone  i n the conglomerates  parallel  t h e t o p of  unit.  Some of  sandstones c o n t a i n Coal  spar i s f a i r l y Three c l o s e l y  Creek  mudstone p e b b l e s and  rip-up clasts.  spaced o u t c r o p s e c t i o n s illustrate  i n the F i v e  variations  in this  t y p e of c h a n n e l d e p o s i t . L i t h o l o g i e s g r a n u l a r s a n d s t o n e s and  s a n d s t o n e s . In s e c t i o n  conglomerate  some o f t h e l a t e r a l  Cabin  25)  14 m t h i c k . The  the  common.  (Figure  grained  the  Clasts.  area  of c o n g l o m e r a t e s ,  are  sedimentary  i n c l u d e c r o s s - b e d d i n g and  the sandstones are massive.  and  The  b e d d i n g . R i p p l e s a r e p r e s e n t i n sandstones near Occasionally,  a  developed  supported, with a  Pebbles  m  carbonaceous  i n the c h a n n e l  in diameter. Primary  i n the sandstones  and  interval  o f any  sequence  upper  deposits  a r e p r e s e n t i n a 32  gamma r a y l o g o v e r  reflecting  m a t r i x and a r e p o o r l y rounded  6).  (sections  sandstones  27). These d e p o s i t s  t h e p r e s e n c e o f a b r u p t l o w e r and conglomerates  Babcock  member i n  area  1 channel  6), type  which e r o s i o n a l l y  "blocky" pattern, fining-upward  Cabin Creek  to coarse-grained pebbly  mudstone and c o a l .  well  7309 i n t h e  27) .  fine-  conglomerates thick  QBD  Frame o u t c r o p s e c t i o n  b o r e h o l e s i n the F i v e  In b o r e h o l e 7308 consist  7308 and  d e p o s i t s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t above t h e S h e r i f f  o u t c r o p s and FC6,  i n b o r e h o l e s QBD  lower  FC4,  8 m of t h i s  which e r o s i o n a l l y  type  consist  medium- t o c o a r s e 1 channel deposits  interval  overlies  facies  consists  a thin  of  interval  are  massive of  71  S.E. FC 7 I  FC 6 150m.  poorly  FC 4  I  exposed  non-marine  200m.  I  deposits  Non-marine  . Macaronichnus aegregatus . U - s h a p e d burrows • Tabular c r o s s - b e d d i n g . Pebble imbrication .Oriented wood fragments -f- Burrows  X Roots  burrows  Cross-bedding Tabular c r o s s - b e d d i n g Trough c r o s s - b e d d i n g Low angle crosa-beddtng Hummocky cross-stratification Parallel bedding Ripples Wood fragments  F i g u r e 2j>. O u t c r o p s e c t i o n s o f t h e Moosebar and l o w e r G a t e s F o r m a t i o n s on t h e n o r t h e a s t s i d e o f t h e F i v e C a b i n C r e e k s y n c l i n e . Marine d e p o s i t s occur mainly w i t h i n c o a r s e n i n g upward c y c l e s . T h i c k c o n g l o m e r a t e s i n t h e u p p e r p a r t o f s e c t i o n s FC4 and FC6 a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s d i s t r i b r u t a r y c h a n n e l f i l l ( b r a i d e d r i v e r ) d e p o s i t s . The c o n g l o m e r a t e s p i n c h o u t t o w a r d s t h e s o u t h e a s t i n s e c t i o n FC7 a n d a r e r e p l a c e d by s a n d s t o n e s w h i c h e x h i b i t p a r a l l e l bedding, t r o u g h and t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g and r a r e h e r r i n g b o n e c r o s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . Trace f o s s i l s i n these sandstones i n c l u d e Macaronichnus segregatus.  72  F i g u r e 26. View o f t y p e 1 c h a n n e l f i l l d e p o s i t s n e a r s e c t i o n s FC4 and FC6 ( F i g u r e 25) on the n o r t h e a s t s i d e o f t h e F i v e C a b i n C r e e k s y n c l i n e . The c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t o f m a s s i v e c o n g l o m e r a t e s and c o a r s e - g r a n u l a r s a n d s t o n e s . The b a s e o f t h e c h a n n e l i s e x p o s e d i n t h e d i s t a n c e and o v e r l i e s s e v e r a l metres of carbonaceous mudstones which i n t u r n r e s t on g r e y , m a r i n e s a n d s t o n e s of t h e S h e r i f f member ( l o w e r r i g h t of t h e p h o t o g r a p h ) .  73  F i g u r e 27. F l u v i a l ( t y p e 1) c o n g l o m e r a t e s and s a n d s t o n e s i n b o r e h o l e QBD 7308. C o a l s p a r i s a b u n d a n t i n t h e s a n d s t o n e s on t h e l o w e r l e f t of t h e p h o t o g r a p h . S c a l e i s 18 cm l o n g .  74  F i g u r e 28_. P r i m a r y s e d i m e n t a r y s t r u c t u r e s i n i n t e r t i d a l t o s h a l l o w s u b t i d a l m a r i n e s a n d s t o n e s a t t h e t o p o f s e c t i o n FC 7 i n the F i v e Cabin Creek a r e a . These d e p o s i t s a r e r e p l a c e d by t y p e 1 d i s t r i b u t a r y c h a n n e l s a n d s t o n e s and c o n g l o m e r a t e s i n s e c t i o n FC 6, 150 m t o t h e n o r t h w e s t . F i g u r e 28a. S a n d s t o n e s e x h i b i t i n g t r o u g h c r o s s - b e d d i n g b e d d i n g and h e r r i n g b o n e c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . F i g u r e 28b. T r o u g h bedding. Figure  28c.  and  Parallel  tabular  bedding  c r o s s - b e d d i n g and  and  tabular  parallel  parallel  cross-bedding.  76  c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstone above t h e S h e r i f f  member  sandstones(Figure  is clast  2 6 ) . The  conglomerate  marine  a sandstone m a t r i x . Pebbles i n the conglomerate rounded, (max.  locally  6 cm).  imbricated  imbricated  The  and  typically  average d i p d i r e c t i o n  p e b b l e s , b a s e d on direction  toward  overlying  this  conglomerate c o n s i s t  sandstone  interbedded with a  are  cm  well  i n diameter  of t h e l o n g a x i s i n  50 measurements,  a paleocurrent  conglomerate  1-2  supported, with  the north  i s 193°  ( 0 1 3 ° ) . The  of p a r a l l e l  1 m thick  unit  which p i n c h e s out l a t e r a l l y  indicating  of  and  beds  cross-bedded  massive  within  15 m of  section  FC4. Two lower  hundred  8 m thick  beds 2 m and has  and  in section  the conglomerates p i n c h  sandstones, which  rest  abruptly  interpreted  range  on a few  cm.  into  two  m to the  a covered  interval  pebbly  A few  of  tabular  bedding  tabular  140° and  (Figure  cosets,  150°  apart  cross-stratification. tabular  foresets  (Figure  2 5 ) . The  and a  shows two  strong  few d i p s t o t h e  average vector  3 0 2 ° . S m a l l e l o n g a t e wood or p l a n t bedding  the  s a n d s t o n e s of t h e  between  and w e s t - n o r t h w e s t  southwest  i s towards  present  out w i t h i n  from 5-30  as h e r r i n g b o n e  modes t o t h e n o r t h w e s t  data  150  i n these sandstones c o n s i s t s  Measurements o f t h e d i p o f 32  and  and FC7,  on m a r i n e  w h i c h have o p p o s i n g d i p d i r e c t i o n s  northeast  split  t r o u g h c r o s s - b e d d i n g and p a r a l l e l  28). Set t h i c k n e s s e s  are  has  8 m o f medium- t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d  member. B e d d i n g  cross-bedding,  FC4  FC6,  t h e amount o f i n t e r b e d d e d s a n d s t o n e  Between s e c t i o n s FC6  and a r e r e p l a c e d by  Sheriff  to the s o u t h e a s t , i n s e c t i o n  conglomerate  4 m thick  increased.  southeast,  metres  of  this  fragments  s u r f a c e s . Twenty measurements o f t h e  are  77  long axes of these orientation. intensely diameter  fragments  Cross-bedded  shows a p r e f e r r e d  sandstones  1.8.2 Type  similar  1 Channel  In a f l u v i a l supported  setting,  thick  (Miall,  The p r e s e n c e  suggests  type  system'(Figure deposits located  1 channel  of massive,  b a r s and c h a n n e l  overall  clast  sediments  t o the s h o r e l i n e  l a gdeposits  i n type  similarity  1 channel  to other  1977; C o l l i n s o n ,  d e p o s i t s formed  2 3 b ) . The c l o s e  with marine close  units  d e p o s i t s (e.g., M i a l l ,  that  segregatus.  of these u n i t s  together with t h e i r  river  1-2 mm  which c o n t a i n i m b r i c a t e d c l a s t s , a r e  of l o n g i t u d i n a l  deposits,  unit are  Deposits - Interpretation  conglomerate  1977).  of s m a l l ,  t o Macaronichnus  characteristic  braided  a t the t o p of t h i s  b u r r o w e d . The b u r r o w s c o n s i s t tubes  north-south  association indicates  1978)  i n a braided  of these  that  river  channel  the r i v e r s  were  and thus a c t e d as d i s t r i b u t a r y  c h a n n e l s . I n b o r e h o l e s 7308, 7309 and on Mount Frame, t y p e 1 channel  deposits are located  siltstones deposits  and sandstones  (described  coarsening-upward This position located  type  deposits  interpreted  in section  regressive  suggests  that  coal  seams, m u d s t o n e s ,  a s l a g o o n - c o a s t a l swamp  1.6) a n d below  marine,  d e p o s i t s i n the S h e r i f f the channels  i n p a r t s o f t h e lower  subsequently area,  above t h i n  coastal  i n these  plain  member.  sections  w h i c h were  t r a n s g r e s s e d by t h e s e a . In t h e F i v e C a b i n  1 channel  d e p o s i t s o c c u r above n e a r s h o r e  a t the t o p of the S h e r i f f  coal  bearing coastal  that  the channel  plain  Creek  marine  member a n d a r e o v e r l a i n by  deposits. This position  i n the Five Cabin  were  Creek  area  indicates  i s younger  than i n  78  boreholes the  7308, 7309 and on Mount Frame and was formed  regressive  phase a s s o c i a t e d  with deposition  during  of the S h e r i f f  member. Measurements o f i m b r i c a t e d p e b b l e s Five  Cabin  Creek  outcrops  indicates  towards t h e n o r t h . In t h i s wide, b a s e d section  i n conglomerates  that  area, the channel  on t h e e x t e n t o f t h e c o n g l o m e r a t e  FC 7 ( F i g u r e  25), burrows s i m i l a r  segregatus are present the c h a n n e l  fill  i n cross-bedded  conglomerates.  Based  indication  together  of i n t e r t i d a l - s h a l l o w  with t h e i r  stratigraphic  structures,  the sandstones  interpreted  as f o r m i n g  distributary  channel.  1.8.3  Type 2 C h a n n e l Type 2 c h a n n e l  also present  31). L i t h o l o g i e s form  composite  distinct lower  i n bars near  sandstone consist  of these (1978) a s  environments,  and  sedimentary FC 7. a r e  t h e mouth o f t h e  Deposits - Description d e p o s i t s c r o p o u t i n t h e Windy and L i t t l e side  i n many b o r e h o l e s consist  channel  fill  and an upper units  unit  sequences  which  up t o 42 m t h i c k . 2 channel  and  ( F i g u r e s 29,  and c o n g l o m e r a t e  deposits consist  Two  deposits; a mainly of  i n which the channel d e p o s i t s  of conglomerate  deposits are i l l u s t r a t e d  o f Babcock M o u n t a i n  i n t h i s area  of sandstone  i n which the channel  of t h i c k  marginal to  and Thompson  position  u n i t s a r e r e c o g n i s e d i n type  unit  Macaronichnus  on t h e p r e s e n c e  subtidal  200 m  o u t c r o p s . In  a t t h e t o p of s e c t i o n  Windy P i t a r e a s on t h e n o r t h w e s t are  to  flowed  was a t l e a s t  sandstones  b u r r o w s , w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d by C l i f t o n an  the r i v e r  i n the  and s a n d s t o n e .  These  on F i g u r e s 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 3 4 ) .  79  Lower U n i t of Type 2 C h a n n e l The thick  lower  unit  and c o n s i s t s  occasionally  stacked  with  thin  These d e p o s i t s form  erosional  sequence w h i l e  fining-upward  d e p o s i t s i s up t o 22 m  to coarse-grained (less  unit  s e q u e n c e s 2-13  consists  of a unit  single consists  by a b r u p t o r  c o n t a c t s . O c c a s i o n a l l y , sandstones  i n t h e lower  grain-size  variations  or f i n e  t o p 1-2 m. I n c o r e s  the sandstones  and  weather  i n outcrop.  light  brown  cross-bedding  commonly d e c r e a s e upward u n i t s .  ( F i g u r e 30a).  Mudstone c l a s t s  grey  c o n s i s t s mainly of  within the f i n i n g  present  a t the t o p of the  and t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g  b u t a r e n o t common. I n c o r e s  appear massive.  t o medium  S e t s a r e 5 cm-1.5 m t h i c k a n d  in thickness v e r t i c a l l y  bedding  unit  upwards o n l y i n  are light  Bedding  Ripples are occasionally  Parallel  present  1 m thick)  i n o t h e r s , the lower  the  units.  than  sequences separated  show no o b v i o u s  trough  sandstone,  fining-upward  I n some s e c t i o n s , t h e l o w e r  fining-upward of  2 channel  of f i n e -  interbedded  conglomerates. m thick.  of type  Deposits  are also  the sandstones  and c o a l  spar  locally  are present i n  some s e c t i o n s . Paleocurrent  data  i n t h e lower  d e p o s i t s were c o l l e c t e d in  trough  While  by m e a s u r i n g  of type  2 channel  the o r i e n t a t i o n  a t two l o c a l i t i e s  of f o r e s e t s  approximately  2 km a p a r t .  i t would have been p r e f e r a b l e t o have m e a s u r e d t h e  direction trough  cross-beds  unit  of trough  axes,  f o r e s e t s (Dott,  dimensional  exposures  as these  show l e s s d i s p e r s i o n t h a n  1973), t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f two made i t d i f f i c u l t  d a t a . A t t h e two l o c a l i t i e s ,  to c o l l e c t  58 and 66 measurements  were made o f t h e maximum d i p d i r e c t i o n  of trough  this  type of  respectively  foresets.  Plots  80  G5b  G5a  B6  B5  B4  i g u r e :29. O u t c r o p s e c t i o n s of t y p e 2 c h a n n e l f i l l d e p o s i t s i n t h e Windy P i t a r e a on t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f B a b c o c k M o u n t a i n . The l o w e r u n i t o f t h e s e c h a n n e l f i l l d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t s p r e d o m i n a n t l y of f i n e - t o medium-grained, t r o u g h c r o s s - b e d d e d s a n d s t o n e s . The upper u n i t i s c o a r s e r - g r a i n e d and composed o f m a s s i v e , e r o s i o n a l l y b a s e d u n i t s o f c o n g l o m e r a t e and c o a r s e to g r a n u l a r sandstones interbedded with f i n e - to c o a r s e g r a i n e d p e b b l y s a n d s t o n e s w h i c h e x h i b i t t a b u l a r and t r o u g h c r o s s - b e d d i n g and o c c a s i o n a l l y p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g .  81  F i g u r e 3CJ. O u t c r o p p h o t o g r a p h s of t y p e 2 c h a n n e l on t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f Babcock M o u n t a i n .  fill  deposits  F i g u r e 30a. T r o u g h c r o s s - b e d d e d f i n e - t o m e d i u m - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e l o w e r u n i t o f t y p e channel f i l l deposits. F i g u r e 30b. M a s s i v e c o n g l o m e r a t e and s a n d s t o n e i n t h e upper u n i t .  intercalated  2  cross-bedded  F i g u r e 3 0 c , d . M a s s i v e , c o n g l o m e r a t e and c o a r s e t o g r a n u l a r s a n d s t o n e a t t h e base o f t h e upper u n i t . Note t h e c h a n n e l l e d b a s e o f t h e u p p e r u n i t d e p o s i t s i n F i g u r e 30c. F i g u r e 30e. L a r g e s e t o f t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g i n c o n g l o m e r a t e and c o a r s e t o g r a n u l a r , p e b b l y s a n d s t o n e s from t h e upper unit. F i g u r e 30f. M a s s i v e t o weakly s t r a t i f i e d c o n g l o m e r a t e o v e r l a i n by p a r a l l e l and c r o s s - b e d d e d c o a r s e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s i n the upper u n i t .  82  1  (560 m)  7751  (1800 m)  (1220 m)  7303  (2300 m)  7712  Gamma Ray  r  30  rmetres _20 -10 mdst. fine sat.* ; c o a r s e sst.> conglomerate  LEGEND Coal [**_] |  Carbonaceous Mudstone |  Mudstone  | ;x;|  Sitstone  | •';.' j  Sandstone Conglomerate  0  1  '  Cross Bedding  ^-<2r' Trough Cross Bedding s/ss Tabular Cross Bedding -=•  ParaJel Bedding  —c<\  Ripples  cr>  Soft Sediment Deformation  Structures  SECTION  A  Mudstone and Siltstone Rip-up C l a s t s Wood Fragments  F i g u r e 3 J _ . S e c t i o n A - B o r e h o l e c r o s s s e c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v a l between the F and J seams a t B a b c o c k showing t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of type 2 c h a n n e l f i l l d e p o s i t s , c r e v a s s e s p l a y d e p o s i t s , and t h e d r a p i n g o f t h e G / I 1 seam o v e r t h e c h a n n e l . Note the p i n c h o u t o f t h e 1 3 and 1 2 seams a d j a c e n t t o t h e s p l a y and c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s . A l s o , t h e t h i c k e n i n g o f t h e G / l - F i n t e r v a l i n the i n t e r c h a n n e l area ( i n boreholes 7 3 0 3 and 7 7 1 2 ) . B o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s shown on F i g u r e 32. S e c t i o n c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e base of t h e J seam as h o r i z o n t a l datum.  CO  co  84  027  /  Windy Pit Data n=43  o  . soo  tooo  contours in metres Rose diagrams represent dip of tabular cross-bedding  n»66  079° Little Windy Pit Data?  n-58  Outcrop..^/  Windy Ph Data  500  1000  contours in metres Rose diagrams represent direction ot dipping surfaces In trough cross-bedded sandstone  F i g u r e 3_2. S a n d s t o n e and c o n g l o m e r a t e i s o p a c h s i n t h e between c o a l seams J and G/I i n t h e Babcock a r e a . F i g u r e 32a. Isopachs of the lower associated splay deposits. F i g u r e 32b. I s o p a c h o f t h e . u p p e r deposits.  unit unit  interval  of type 2 c h a n n e l and of"type 2 channel  85  of  these data  (Figure  32a)  show a wide d i s p e r s i o n  number o f measurements i s l a r g e , vector At  i s close  both  little  localities variation  The channel  map  trending channel  unit  are  width  large  interpreted  n o r t h e r n margin indicated  from  has  Deposits  channel  been e r o d e d .  the a r e a  which extends  farther  channel  (Figure  The  channel  has  indicated  p r e s e n t . The erosional absent unit  indicates  cannot  the area  be  A minimum w i d t h  of  occur within  the  A minimum c h a n n e l  lower  unit  and  width  sandstones.  The  and  fine-grained  fine-  conglomerates  is  unit  unit of  1.5  km  d e p o s i t s are  upper  units i s  F i g u r e 31),  sandstones  as i t s  lower, u n i t  7751,  granular  1 km  o f t h e upper  i n w h i c h upper  i n t h e upper  1.9.2.  a NE-SW t r e n d i n g  (e.g., borehole  Lithologies  the  d e p o s i t s are present.  In s e c t i o n s where t h e  on  of  determined  30d).  directly  that  characteristics  30c,  rests  2  which i s  southern margin  s o u t h e a s t than  c o n t a c t between t h e  (Figure  the  n o r t h e r n margin  been e r o d e d .  from  in a channel  of type  Deposits  unit  channel  also  T h i s map  i n which channel  i n t h e upper  32b).  unit  as c r e v a s s e s p l a y s . The  Upper U n i t o f Type 2 C h a n n e l  is  of the lower  l o b e s on  unit  axes.  localities.  deposits are described in section  of the lower  average  of the t r o u g h  t r e n d between t h e two  d e p o s i t s are present  ENE-WSW. Two  the  the  v e c t o r i s t o w a r d s 079° s u g g e s t i n g  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n  the c r e v a s s e s p l a y  The  dip direction  the average  in channel  i t i s probable that  d e p o s i t i s shown i n F i g u r e 32a.  the lower  of  to the average  b u t , as  lower  t h e b a s e of t h e  unit  is  upper  overbank d e p o s i t s . consist  of  conglomerates,  to coarse-grained, pebbly are predominantly  clast  supported.  86  Thin,  matrix supported conglomerates  Pebbles 1.5  cm  i n the conglomerate i n diameter  (max.  are well  4 cm).  a r e p r e s e n t i n some s e c t i o n s . sandstones  o c c u r m a i n l y near  form m a s s i v e interbedded  Occasionally,  angle  tabular  Lithologies  The  and  conglomerates  part  and  29,  coal  where  form  sets  thick  unit  they  sandstone.  of low and  (Figures  o f t h e upper  spar  30c,30d,3l)  and g r a n u l a r s a n d s t o n e s or  0.5-  and g r a n u l a r  of t h e u n i t ,  (Figures  up t o 50 cm  i n t h e upper  typically  and  cross-bedded pebbly  stratification  foresets  rounded  t h e base  the conglomerates  a weak p a r a l l e l  locally.  Mudstone c l a s t s  beds up t o 8 m t h i c k with p a r a l l e l  are present  exhibit high  29,30e).  consist  of  fine-  to c o a r s e - g r a i n e d pebbly sandstones, o c c a s i o n a l l y interbedded with  thin  conglomerates. G r a i n - s i z e  upwards or r e m a i n s  fairly  structures  of t a b u l a r  consist  in these sandstones  constant. Primary and  are o v e r l a i n interbedded  sandstones  gradationally fine-grained  are o v e r l a i n  structures  of p a r a l l e l  b e d d i n g and  near  several  from  metres  a r e a l s o common. In a few  of  coal.  i n t h e s a n d s t o n e s and Soft  cm.  sections,  are o v e r l a i n  abruptly  by c a r b o n a c e o u s  in turn  Primary consist  deformation cross-bedded  medium- t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s a t t h e t o p o f t h e unit  unit  thin,  siltstones  sediment  the  In most  s i l t s t o n e s which  mudstone and  ripples.  5-25  t h e t o p of t h e u p p e r  s a n d s t o n e s and  by c a r b o n a c e o u s  sedimentary  structures  by  sedimentary  trough cross-bedding, with  f o r m e r more common. S e t t h i c k n e s s e s r a n g e sections cross-bedded  fines  mudstones  upper  (Figure  34). Upper u n i t cliff  channel f i l l  on t h e n o r t h w e s t  side  deposits are well o f Babcock M o u n t a i n  exposed (Figure  along a 3 3 ) . In  Section B5  Northwest  1  Southeast  cross-bedded sandstones channel  channel  channel .' massive conglomerates .and parallel to c r o s s •.bedded sandstones channel  A-B at section B5 is 13 metres thick.  F i g u r e 33. L i n e d r a w i n g t r a c e d f r o m a p h o t o g r a p h o f l a r g e s c a l e b e d f o r m s i n t h e upper u n i t o f t y p e 2 c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s . P h o t o g r a p h i s an o b l i q u e view o f a c l i f f e x p o s u r e on t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f B a b c o c k M o u n t a i n . N o t e t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f low a n g l e e r o s i o n a l s u r f a c e s i n t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e o u t c r o p . A l a r g e c h a n n e l w i t h a c o n c a v e upwards base i s p r e s e r v e d t o w a r d s t h e n o r t h w e s t . 00 The more r e c e s s i v e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e o u t c r o p c o n s i s t s o f t r o u g h and t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d e d sandstones.  88  F i g u r e 34. C o r e from b o r e h o l e QBD 7715 a t B a b c o c k , s h o w i n g t h e v e r y a b r u p t c o n t a c t (A) between t y p e 2 ( u p p e r u n i t ) c h a n n e l f i l l d e p o s i t s and o v e r l y i n g o v e r b a n k d e p o s i t s . The c h a n n e l f i l l sediments c o n s i s t m a i n l y o f c o n g l o m e r a t e s and c r o s s bedded and r i p p l e d s a n d s t o n e s . T h e s e a r e o v e r l a i n by p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t e d and m a s s i v e s i l t s t o n e s and c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstones ( i n f e r r e d l a k e d e p o s i t s i n the abandoned c h a n n e l ) w h i c h g r a d e upwards i n t o more m a s s i v e c a r b o n a c e o u s m u d s t o n e s ( i n f e r r e d p o o r l y d r a i n e d swamp d e p o s i t s ) and t h e 2.4 m t h i c k G c o a l seam.  90  the  lower p a r t  and  granular  occur  of t h i s  outcrop, massive  sandstone, which  range  interbedded with p a r a l l e l  sandstones separated Figure  (sections  B4 and  by a g e n t l y  2 9 ) . These  dipping  deposits  units  are o v e r l a i n  bedded  massive  Paleocurrent d e p o s i t s was  foresets.  (Figure  32b)  towards  0 2 7 ° . The  between  by m e a s u r i n g  sequences  unit its  and  existence,  channel  distinct  unit)  of type 2 c h a n n e l  the d i r e c t i o n  of d i p o f  Windy P i t a r e a  w i t h an a v e r a g e (Figure  o f Type  32b) towards  as c o m p o s i t e c h a n n e l  dominated  river  system.  underwent a major  2 Channel D e p o s i t s -  fill  The  deposits that,  (lower  during  change i n  pattern.  Upper U n i t  vector  Interpretation  t y p e s of c h a n n e l f i l l  system  conglomerates  planar.  i n type 2 channels i n d i c a t e s  the r i v e r  trough c r o s s -  northwest.  interpreted  i n a s a n d and g r a v e l  upper  unit  sandstone  w i t h an a v e r a g e v e c t o r  the  Deposits -  deposits are  o c c u r r e n c e o f two  and  the massive  distribution  04° and a s t r o n g mode t o w a r d s  These  B5,  of n e s t e d  and g r a n u l a r  d a t a f r o m t h e Windy P i t a r e a  Type 2 C h a n n e l  m,  (sections  a series  d a t a from t h e L i t t l e  has a u n i m o d a l  1-5  o r as s t a c k e d u n i t s  surface  i s a b r u p t and  shows a more d i s p e r s e d p a t t e r n ,  1.8.4  29)  m of t a b u l a r  d a t a i n the upper  The  from  upwards b a s e s and a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y  contact  collected  tabular  Figure  conglomerate  and c r o s s - b e d d e d s a n d s t o n e s  conglomerate  and c r o s s - b e d d e d p e b b l y  erosional  by up t o 6.5  s a n d s t o n e s . The  of  in thickness  occur within  c h a n n e l s w h i c h have c o n c a v e 20-80 m w i d e . The  B5,  units  Interpretation  91  D e p o s i t s o f t h e upper and  ancient  Collinson, sandstone channel  braided 1978).  unit  rivers  (Rust,  The u n i t s  a t t h e base  granular  side  of t h e upper  upwards b a s e s and h o r i z o n t a l  or  I n modern b r a i d e d  l o z e n g e shaped  flow d i r e c t i o n  (Miall,  t o be i n i t i a t e d and Wolman,  deposited during Cross-bedded  flow  cross-bedding  bars  which  1972).  meandering  b a r s a r e diamond  slip  The l a r g e  from o l d e r  overlie  workers  planar crossbeds i n as l i n g u o i d  bar remnants  sandstone  (Miall,  formed  (Miall,  were p r o b a b l y  (Doeglas,  1962).  i n the r i v e r  unit  during  lower  1977). T a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g i s  I n modern b r a i d e d  rivers,  tabular  f r o m t h e m i g r a t i o n o f s a n d waves a n d  f a c e s on t h e m a r g i n s 1970; N.D.  parallel  to the  by some  s a n d s t o n e s a t t h e t o p o f t h e upper  interval.  (Collinson, Thin,  They a r e b e l i e v e d  p e r i o d s o f low w a t e r  results  1966) and  and a r e e l o n g a t e d p a r a l l e l  cross-bedded  conditions  common.in t h i s  avalanche  (Moody-Stuart,  longitudinal  dune o r b a r b e d f o r m s  regime  concave-  shape i s  rivers,  outgrowths  Intercalated  represent  have  a n d g r a n u l a r s a n d s t o n e may have f o r m e d  bars or d e l t a i c 1977).  c h a n n e l s which  i n the m i d d l e of the c h a n n e l ( L e o p o l d  1957; R u s t ,  conglomerate  and g r a n u l a r  c o n g l o m e r a t e s and  of channels of  1977).  as l a g s  massive  rivers  1977;  I n o u t c r o p s on t h e  shape  in plan,  o f modern  are i n t e r p r e t e d as  tops. This channel  o f low s i n u o s i t y  c o n t r a s t s with the t a b u l a r rivers.  unit  o f Babcock M o u n t a i n ,  characteristic  conglomerate  bar deposits.  sandstones occur w i t h i n  to facies  1972, 1976, 1979; M i a l l ,  of massive  l a g and l o n g i t u d i n a l  northwest  are similar  Smith,  of l i n g u o i d 1970, 1972,  bedded and r i p p l e d  or t r a n s v e r s e 1974).  s a n d s t o n e s and s i l t s t o n e s  the cross-bedded sandstones  i n some s e c t i o n s a r e  92  interpreted channel  as  sections  as t h e i t was  the t h i n  cross-bedded overlain  final  sandstones  by  channel  c u t o f f was  channel  was  was  fill  d e p o s i t s formed  abandoned o r p o s s i b l y  sandstones  directly  channel  and  l e v e e d e p o s i t s . In a  siltstones  transformed  rapidly  few  and  are  m u d s t o n e s . In t h e s e s e c t i o n s  apparently very abrupt  and  the  active  i n t o a shallow pool  i n which  mud  deposited.  Lower U n i t of Type 2 C h a n n e l The any  characteristics  single  unit  fluvial  is difficult.  style  Deposits  of t h e and  -  lower  Interpretation  unit  as a r e s u l t  Before d i s c u s s i n g  the  t o summarize  characteristics  of  unit:  lower  1. D e p o s i t i o n a l s e q u e n c e s c o n s i s t upward u n i t s of locally abrupt Primary scale  thin or  fine-  of  of  some of  single  or  the  The  this  stacked  fining-  base of t h e s e  and  sequences i s  erosional. structures consist  trough c r o s s - b e d d i n g . Set towards the top of  3. T a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g  i s very  predominantly  of  large  t h i c k n e s s e s commonly  fining-upward r a r e and  sequences.  absent  i n most  sections. 4.  Lateral been  of  main  to c o a r s e - g r a i n e d sandstones  conglomerates.  sedimentary  decrease  diagnostic  possible  i t i s useful the  are not  interpretation  interpretations  2.  are absent  a t t h e t o p of t h e upper u n i t  carbonaceous  i n the  accretion  surfaces (epsilon  recognised in outcrops  5. P a l e o c u r r e n t d a t a localities  2 km  shows no  cross-bedding)  of the  lower  significant  apart, along  the  have  unit.  variation  t r e n d of t h e  at  two  channel.  not  93  6. T h i c k  crevasse  interval the  splay deposits  as t h e lower  deposits  absence of t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g  suggests that mid-channel river  f o r e s e t bars  s y s t e m was n o t b r a i d e d .  classification three  u n i t channel  i n t h e same i n boreholes  to  south.  The  the  are present  other  of f l u v i a l  "end member"  sections  were a b s e n t  On M i a l l ' s  channels channel  i n most  (Figure  types,  and t h e r e f o r e  (1977)  23b), t h i s  meandering,  leaves  s t r a i g h t and  a n a s t o m o s i n g c h a n n e l s a s p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e lower unit. The 1970) the  classic  f a c i e s model o f m e a n d e r i n g  c o n s i s t s of a f i n i n g - u p w a r d lateral  migration  coarser-grained  sequences c o u l d produce t o those  stacked  point  and  Despite  described  in this  indicating  area  bar topography a meandering  sequences,  does n o t p r e c l u d e  a meandering  shown t h a t  these  meandering  rivers.  by  example o f  Puigdefabrigas  the  i n t h e upper  origin.  of lower  unit  have n o t been  accretion surfaces,  river  origin.  bedforms a r e not u b i q u i t o u s Perhaps the s t r o n g e s t  part  on t h e t o p s u r f a c e o f  accretion surfaces  The a b s e n c e o f l a t e r a l  over  of p o i n t bar  permit  river  t h e p r e s e n c e o f good o u t c r o p s lateral  1964,  of the Southern  accretion surfaces  b a r and s c r o l l  s a n d s t o n e s a t Babcock, recognised.  exposures  of l a t e r a l  bar, c l e a r l y  Stacking  fining-upward  (1978) from t h e O l i g o c e n e  identification  the  superimposed  bar d e p o s i t s a r e those  Van V l i e t  the point  deposits.  bar d e p o s i t s  i n t h e l o w e r u n i t d e p o s i t s . The b e s t  Pyrenees. Exceptional  of  floor  (Allen,  formed a s a r e s u l t o f  o f o v e r b a n k and p o i n t  channel  similar  sequence  rivers  Jackson  however,  (1978) has  i n modern  argument a g a i n s t a  94  meandering  river  w h i c h shows no localities  and  significant  2 km  Straight  interpretation  variation  (non-braided)  i s very  (1968),  low  Thompson  (Miall,  rivers  (1970) and  Sykes  river  unit  of  Kelling  type  The  (1968) a r e  2 channels  and  by  overlain  by  flat  bedded or  and  seam. K e l l i n g  as t h e  result  abandonment streams rapid  of  of low  dumping  l e n g t h of the The deposits  third  separate  sinuosity; of  sediment  possible they  resulting  Kelling  or  of t h e  lower  stacked  fining-  base  i n which s e t sandstones at the  thin  each  infilling  sinuosity  l a g at the  channels,  are  t o p of  the  overbank d e p o s i t s  fining-upward  and  cycle,  eventual  probably  the cross-bedded  c r e a t e d by  sands a r e  a h i g h energy  23b).  interpretation  formed  showing  is characterised i n the  i n an  Anastomosing  or more s t a b l e c h a n n e l s Deposition  single  sandstones  interprets  from  the  formed  flow a l o n g  by  the  channel.  i s that  system(Figure  of  sandstone  fluvial  where  sequences  to those  i n t u r n a r e c a p p e d by  of t h e c r e a t i o n ,  common  t o low  fill  conglomerate  rippled  these  not  (1966),  upwards. T h e ' c r o s s - b e d d e d  s e q u e n c e s and by a c o a l  channel similar  trough cross-bedded  thicknesses decrease  attribute  consist  upwards s e q u e n c e s w i t h a t h i n overlain  two  (1974) have a l l d e s c r i b e d  (non-braided)  systems.  are  distributaries  1981). M o o d y - S t u a r t  sequences which they  by  t r e n d at  ( F i g u r e 23b)  as d e l t a  fining-upward  described  in channel  evidence  apart.  p r e s e n t l y occur mainly  slope  i s the p a l e o c u r r e n t  by  anastomosing  rivers low  rapid  f o r m a t i o n of t h i c k  f o r the  unit  river  are c h a r a c t e r i s e d  to high  sinuosity.  vertical but  lower  aggradation  relatively  narrow  by  two  95  channel result  fill  d e p o s i t s . Low c h a n n e l g r a d i e n t s  i n frequent  grained  sediment  floodponds). anastomosed have been  overbank  S m i t h a n d Putnam  bogs,  s p l a y s a r e common i n  by S m i t h a n d S m i t h  (1980) have  river  in  i n A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan s y s t e m . They  that  t o anastomosing  a distillation  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  epsilon  The their  criteria  local  base  level  rivers.  multiple  interchannel  anastomosed  criteria river  interconnected  s t a b l e (few  c h a n n e l s and  of t h e lower u n i t c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s and  extensive  interchannel  wetland  channel deposits  i n an a n a s t o m o s i n g  may have  system. S t r a t a e q u i v a l e n t  C u n i t would  can a i d  deposits.  suggests that  formed  t o t h e lower u n i t  include the c o a s t a l deposits  u n i t . The m a r i n e  (1980)  wetlands.  characteristics  o f Babcock  criterion  S m i t h a n d Putnam  o f many d i f f e r e n t  of a n c i e n t  a s s o c i a t i o n with  marine  control  to a  (swamp, s p l a y a n d l a k e d e p o s i t s )  east  i n an  s u g g e s t t h e mechanism f o r  i n c l u d e the p r e s e n c e of l a t e r a l l y  cross-beds),  extensive  a s formed  i s no s i n g l e m o r p h o l o g i c o r s e d i m e n t o l o g i c  i s unique  Important  (1981).  reach.  There  suggest  deposits  (1980) a n d R u s t  or subsidence of the depocentre r e l a t i v e  downriver  which  river  i n t e r p r e t e d Lower C r e t a c e o u s Upper  anastomosis c o n s i s t s of e i t h e r a r i s i n g downriver  backswamps and  s y s t e m s . Modern a n a s t o m o s i n g  deposits  anastomosing  (peat  Levees and c r e v a s s e  described  Mannville  f l o o d i n g and d e p o s i t i o n of f i n e -  i n wetlands  river  and s i n u o s i t i e s  t h e lower  in wells  downstream and t h u s p r o v i d e s  local  unit  river 12-20 km  of the F a l h e r C  t r a n s g r e s s i o n a t t h e base  have r e s u l t e d i n a r i s i n g  deposits  base  a potential causal  of the F a l h e r level  mechanism f o r  96  channel  anastomosis  i n t h e Babcock  In summary, t h e r e f o r e , the  lower  straight  1.8.5  unit  Type 3 C h a n n e l Type  3 channel  Duke M o u n t a i n B9.  The  using  area,  and  channel within  Channel  interval  system.  in boreholes  between c o a l  i s shown on F i g u r e 35b. i n the  t h e geometry and  oriented  seams B8  A cross  southern part  belt  of  the  of type  3  occur  i n the  of a p p r o x i m a t e l y  type are a l s o present  and  and  section  interval  which,  the  been mapped  characteristics  a width  d e p o s i t s of a s i m i l a r  from  seams B7  deposits in this  of t h e Duke P i t has  between c o a l  in a  t r e n d of t h e s e d e p o s i t s has  d e p o s i t s . Type 3 c h a n n e l  southern part km.  interval  a northeast-southwest  for  Description  o f t h e B7-B9 i n t e r v a l  Duke P i t , i l l u s t r a t e s  either  river  d e p o s i t s are present i n the  interpretations  formed  or anastomosing  b o r e h o l e d a t a and 36)  likely  they  Deposits -  distribution  (Figure  t h e most  d e p o s i t s are that  (non-braided)  area.  B9. but a r e much  2.8  i n the  less  extensive.The cross  t h i c k n e s s of t y p e  section  (Figure  the c h a n n e l  and  erosionally  based  conglomerates cross-bedded pebbly or  from  units,  and  10-12  3-6  m.  m thick  occasionally Grain-size  upward w i t h i n  range  from  cm.  t h e Duke P i t  c o n s t a n t a c r o s s the width The  channel  consisting  fill of  Both  massive by  medium- t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d  tabular  remains and  constant  trough  cross-  s e t s a r e more common. S e t Coal  of  comprises  a t t h e base o v e r l a i n  i n the sandstones  tabular  5-80  d e p o s i t s on  massive,  the u n i t s .  a r e p r e s e n t , but  thicknesses  is fairly  or g r a n u l a r sandstones  sandsones.  fines  bedding  ranges  36)  3 channel  s p a r and  mudstone r i p - u p  97  F i g u r e 3_5. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f c h a n n e l f i l l d e p o s i t s i n t h e i n t e r v a l s between c o a l seams B4 and B5 ( F i g u r e 35a) and B7 and B8 ( F i g u r e 35b) i n t h e Duke M o u n t a i n a r e a . The c h a n n e l f i l l d e p o s i t s i n t h e B4-B5 i n t e r v a l a r e i n t e r p r e t e d from t h e i r l o g c h a r a c t e r a n d c o a l company c o r e d e s c r i p t i o n s . C h a n n e l f i l l d e p o s i t s i n t h e B7-B8 i n t e r v a l a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n more d e t a i l on F i g u r e 3_6. The b o r e h o l e s shown on t h e s e maps i n c l u d e o n l y t h o s e w h i c h were a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a u t h o r and w h i c h p e n e t r a t e d t h e i n t e r v a l o f i n t e r e s t .  Northwest  MDD 7902  Southeast MDD 7823  MDD 7810  MDD  7905  MDD 7822  MUD 8105  MDD 7906  Coal Seam  *  Croaa-beddfrig  sss;  Tabular croaa-bedding Parallel bedding  ~-<*  Rlpplea (c-cSmbkig) Wood fragments  Jl  Roota Mdat-/altst. rip-up claata  _ Carbonaceoua mudatone cr? Soft aediment deformation atructureal  F i g u r e 36. Borehole c r o s s s e c t i o n of the i n t e r v a l between c o a l seams B7 and B9 i n the Duke Mountain area showing the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of type 3 channel d e p o s i t s and a s s o c i a t e d overbank sediments. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the l a r g e r channel between seams B7 and B8 and the borehole l o c a t i o n s are shown on F i g u r e 3]5. S e c t i o n c o n s t r u c t e d with the base of the B9 seam as h o r i z o n t a l datum.  KO CO  99  clasts  a r e common near  The  cross-bedded  sandstones  deposits are overlain interbedded sandstones and  range  small  beds  sedimentary climbing  near  sandstones  ripples.  interval  coal  1.8.6  and s i l t s t o n e s . The  a r e abrupt  Some beds a r e m a s s i v e  Soft  sediment  deformation  and p l a n t  fragments  present.  bedding,  Primary  r i p p l e s and  due t o s t r o n g s t r u c t u r e s a r e common are present  i n some  upwards i n t o m a s s i v e , b i o t u r b a t e d  and carbonaceous  mudstones w h i c h a r e o v e r l a i n  by t h e  seam.  Type 3 C h a n n e l  Deposits - Interpretation  These d e p o s i t s a r e v e r y  similar  t o t h e upper  channel  d e p o s i t s and t h e r e f o r e they a r e a l s o  braided  river  (upper  The b a s e o f  o r e r o s i o n a l and  are occasionally  include p a r a l l e l  These d e p o s i t s grade  siltstones  3 channel  i n t e r v a l of  t h e base o f t h e i n t e r v a l .  rip-up clasts  the t o p . Roots  beds.  B8  near  structures  bioturbation.  a t the t o p of type  i n t h i c k n e s s from a few c e n t i m e t r e s t o 2.2 m  in this  siltstone  of the u n i t s .  by a 3 t o 7 m t h i c k  fine-grained  are thickest  sandstone  the bases  d e p o s i t s . Type  unit) deposits i n that  composite  channel  fill  unit  of type 2  i n t e r p r e t e d as  3 deposits differ  from  type 2  t h e y do n o t form  part  of a  sequence  showing d i f f e r e n t  fluvial  styles.  1.8.7  Type 4 C h a n n e l Type 4 c h a n n e l  in  the southern part  (Figures  Deposits - Description deposits are present  i n c o r e s and o u t c r o p s  o f t h e s t u d y a r e a near  6, 37, 38, 3 9 ) . L i t h o l o g i e s  consist  Mount B e l c o u r t mainly  of coarse  100  conglomerates, sandstones, Belcourt,  w i t h minor  occurring  laterally  of the Gates  Formation.  conglomerates  in  in this  6) s u g g e s t s t h a t  Belcourt  Conglomerates  1. The g r e a t e s t  conglomerate  i n t h e Gates  The  38,  Mountain,  conglomerates  stratigraphic  18 km e a s t o f Mount Belcourt. 2 and  e x t e n s i v e than  in this  3 km n o r t h w e s t  are poorly  rounded  c o b b l e s . Most c l a s t s more. The l a r g e s t  and r a n g e  have  clast  show good  area  i s 50 m. T h i s  o f Mount  Belcourt  and mainly supported  b u t a r e much l e s s in size  clast  from  common.  small pebbles to  i n t e r m e d i a t e d i a m e t e r s o f 2-3 cm o r  o b s e r v e d measured imbrication  I n o u t c r o p s on Dumb G o a t conglomerates,  sorted  matrix. Matrix  are present l o c a l l y  are well  often  less  20 km l o n g  39).  conglomerates  clasts  belt,  cumulative thickness of  Formation  supported with a sandstone  Clasts  1 may be p r e s e n t  (conglomerate  conglomerate  c o a r s e r than  The d a t a on c r o s s  15 km n o r t h e a s t o f Mount  3, F i g u r e 6) a r e a r e a l l y  be r e f e r r e d t o  are often  trending  conglomerate  (Figures  will  a t t h e same  higher i n the section  o c c u r s on Dumb Goat  i n the  of the Gates  p r e s e n t i n b o r e h o l e BD 7808,  a n d BD8003,  are present  conglomerate  B e l c o u r t . Conglomerates  are also  part  conglomerate  a continuous northwest-southeast  level  which  higher i n the section.  2 (Figure  near Mount  units  Mount  F o r m a t i o n . The t h i c k e s t a n d  1, o c c u r s i n t h e l o w e r  Pebbles  to coarse-grained «  12-40 m t h i c k . Near  most e x t e n s i v e c o n g l o m e r a t e ,  as c o n g l o m e r a t e  section  i n units  up t o 3 s e p a r a t e c o n g l o m e r a t e  non-marine p a r t  in  amounts o f f i n e -  occasionally  16x7x7 cm. Rounded  (Figure 40).  Mountain  (Figures  37,39)  interbedded with thin  lenses of  101  i g u r e 37. O u t c r o p s e c t i o n of t h e M o o s e b a r Formation Gates F o r m a t i on, H u l c r o s s F o r m a t i o n and l o w e r p a r t of t he B o u l d e r C r e e k F o r m a t i o n from a r i d g e on t h e n o r t h s i d e of Dumb G o a t Mounta i n. T h r e e t h i c k c o n g l o m e r a t e i n t e r v a l s are present i n t h e non - m a r i n e p a r t o f t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i on ( t y p e "4 c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s ) . The r o s e d i a g r a m s show t h e d i p d i r e c t i on of i m b r i c a t e d p e b b l e s and i n d i c a t e p a l e o c u r rents d i rected t o w a r d s t h e n o r t h and n o r t h e a s t . N e a r b y b o r e h o l e s (DG 81-01 , MBD 782 8 and BDD 7601, shown on F i g u r e 6 ) i n d i c a te t h a t t h e r e a r e e i t h e r 3 or 4 t h i c k seams (>1.5 m) i n the cov e r e d i n t e r v a I s between t h e T o r r e n s Member and c o n g l o m e r a t e 3, and numerou s t h i n seams (<1.5 m) between con g l o m e r a t e 3 and t h e Hulcros s Formation.  102  F i g u r e 38. View t o w a r d s t h e n o r t h o f t h e F o o t h i l l s i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . The peak i n t h e c e n t r e i s Mount B e l c o u r t . Dumb G o a t M o u n t a i n i s l o c a t e d 3 km t o t h e n o r t h w e s t . On Mount B e l c o u r t a n d Dumb Goat M o u n t a i n , C r e t a c e o u s rocks d i p towards t h e southwest b e n e a t h a major t h r u s t f a u l t which b r i n g s forward P a l e o z o i c and Mesozoic r o c k s o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n F r o n t Ranges.  1 04  sandstone, thick. Large  form e r o s i o n a l l y  I m p r e s s i o n s of l a r g e scale  bedforms  extend h o r i z o n t a l l y present  horizontally  of massive  of  These  conglomerate.  and  The  deposits  fine-grained  and  be  sequences  which  units  bedforms  conglomerate which  or  overly are  without  any  and  almost  consisting  7827 and  the e n t i r e  of t h i n  sandstones which  sequences  grade  fill  2 on Dumb Goat  of a u n i t  by a 20 m t h i c k  type  1 on Dumb Figure  6)  interval consists  of  are very abrupt;  upwards i n t o  t y p e 4A  sequences Mountain  of massive  7601,  4  i n t e r b e d d e d s i l t s t o n e s and  of the  example o f t h i s t y p e o f s e q u e n c e .  BDD  t o p of the  from  proportion  of t h e c h a n n e l  and  t o as t y p e 4A and  t o p s of t h e s e sequences  make up a much l a r g e r  Conglomerate  are present i n type  (e.g., Conglomerate  i n b o r e h o l e s MXD  differ  41)  surfaces  conglomerate  referred  Type 4B  (Figure  bases.  3. T h e s e  of massive  sequences  r e s t d i r e c t l y on  overlain  m  t h i n c o n g l o m e r a t e s . They  mudstone and c o a l  is  the  dipping  2 and  of m a s s i v e  will  In t y p e 4A  s a n d s t o n e s a r e minor  2 consists  t o 24  o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20-30 m a r e  units  main t y p e s of v e r t i c a l  Mountain  contact  up  erosion.  sequences.  overbank  of g e n t l y  conglomerate  bedded s a n d s t o n e  channel deposits.  Goat  within  units  a r e common n e a r  for distances  p r e s e n t between u n i t s  Two  4B  consisting  surfaces  o c c u r a t t h e base  evidence  logs  i n o u t c r o p s of c o n g l o m e r a t e s  form e r o s i o n a l  also  based, massive  conglomerates.  i n that  sandstones  i n t e r v a l and  i s less (Figures  The  carbonaceous  top  abrupt. 6,  lower p a r t  conglomerate,  the  37) of  10.5  i s an conglomerate  m thick.  i n t e r v a l of c r o s s - b e d d e d  This  sandstones  t h i n c o n g l o m e r a t e s . Towards t h e t o p , t h e  s a n d s t o n e s become f i n e r - g r a i n e d  and  exhibit  parallel  bedding  and  105  F i g u r e 4 0 . T y p i c a l c l a s t s u p p o r t e d f a b r i c of c o n g l o m e r a t e s on Dumb G o a t M o u n t a i n . N o t e t h e w e l l d e v e l o p e d i m b r i c a t i o n i n elliptical c l a s t s . C l a s t s a r e w e l l r o u n d e d and c o n s i s t m a i n l y of q u a r t z i t e and c h e r t w i t h l e s s e r amounts of quartzose sandstone, limestone, s i l t s t o n e , argillite, mudstone and d o l o m i t e .  F i g u r e 4J_. T a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g conglomerate 2.  in sandstones  overlying  1 06  ripple  drift  cross  Paleocurrent Mountain are imbrication for  lamination. data  shown on  from t y p e Figure  37.  show p a l e o c u r r e n t s  conglomerates  1 and  2 and  4 channel deposits Measurements of  on  pebble  d i r e c t e d towards the t o w a r d s the  north  Dumb Goat  northeast  for  conglomerate  3.  1.8.8  Type 4 C h a n n e l D e p o s i t s The  are  c o n g l o m e r a t e s and  i n t e r p r e t e d as  with  the  f a c i e s and  alluvial Miall,  sediments  close  the  to the  4 channel  deposits  e n v i r o n m e n t s o f modern and (Rust,  area  1972,  1978,  1979;  by  deposits  comparison  ancient,  coarse  Collinson,  1978;  have been  fan.  On  f r o n t . In  braided  to separate  rivers  likely  of a n c i e n t  very  similar.  humid a l l u v i a l  fans  i n the  setting  typically  c a s e of  fans on  fans,  processes  ( C o l l i n s o n , 1978)  t o be  only  in  in  the  of c l a s t s  d e p o s i t i o n of  this  alluvial the  depends t o a l a r g e e x t e n t alluvial  size  the  and  Gates  the  form a  wedge p a r a l l e l  t o the  g e o m e t r y of  mountain  an  of  that  alluvial  proximal  resulting  between t h e  proximal  coalescing a l l u v i a l  within  from t h o s e  thus the  "cone"  located  i n a humid c l i m a t e , i t  Distinction and  the  i t is possible  c h a n n e l s were l o c a t e d e n t i r e l y  l a r g e , modern day  difficult  large  recognised  n e a r Mount B e l c o u r t must have been  mountain  4 braided  linear  type  river  i n d i c a t e s that during  type  or,  braided  n e a r Mount B e l c o u r t . The  Formation,  are  proximal  4 channel deposits  conglomerates  is  s a n d s t o n e s of  1977).  Type area  - Interpretation  braided the  deposits  rivers  deposits;  shaped wedge o f fans  facies  (bajadas),  front, while  the  sediment a  narrow  geometry  1 07  of b r a i d e d r i v e r , d e p o s i t s would o r i e n t e d at a h i g h angle  likely  to the mountain  Boreholes a r e too widely spaced shape o f  individual  whether  type  outside  or w i t h i n  be more l i n e a r  conglomerate  an a l l u v i a l  u n i t s and  extensive p a r a l l e l  front  Massive are  deposits.  Ashley, type  1975).  4 channel  in longitudinal Thick units  d e p o s i t s are  sandstones  of a l l u v i a l  slip  (Doeglas,  from fans  this  result  Matrix  units  as a r e s u l t  1972;  Rust,  supported  top of type  of the m i g r a t i o n of  the margins  of  linguoid  Boothroyd  conglomerate result  of  interpreted only a  a r e most  1979).  sand  during a  low  conglomerates  extend  4B  bedded  thick  of a c c r e t i o n  1978,  occurs  of p a r a l l e l  i n some s e c t i o n s a r e  at the  1972;  4  conglomerates  a m o u n t a i n o u s s o u r c e a r e a and (Bull,  i n type  o c c u r r e n c e of  some t h i c k  Thinner  clasts  facies  as t h e  The  2  interpretation.  i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h the  1962).  locally  in sandstones  f a c e s on  fan  supported  flow d e p o s i t s . D e b r i s flows u s u a l l y  kilometres  formed  sequences.  are p r o b a b l y the  which are p r e s e n t  bedding  bar  interpretation.  cross-bedded  debris  conglomerates  (Rust,  interpreted  erosion surfaces within  stage  and  bars  of c l a s t  internal  water  more  i n which the  braided rivers  of c h a n n e l  conglomerates  however,  i m b r i c a t e d , i s t h e most common f a c i e s  stacking  and  than  supported conglomerate,  l a g s and  supports t h i s  1,  known  located  is laterally  f o r an a l l u v i a l  In modern p r o x i m a l  as c h a n n e l  in  clast  frequently  and  to the mountain  i s the b e s t c a n d i d a t e  i t i s not  f a n . Conglomerate and  3,  thus  d e f i n e the  d e p o s i t s were  which c o n t a i n s the c o a r s e s t c l a s t s  and  front.  to a c c u r a t e l y  4 proximal braided r i v e r  and  waves o r  few  typical  Tabular  sequences  as  may  crosshave  avalanche  or t r a n s v e r s e b a r s .  108  The Chitale,  modern a l l u v i a l  deposits  River  (Gole  and  1966; C o l l i n s o n , 1978) a r e a good modern a n a l o g u e , i n  t e r m s of r i v e r  type  and t e c t o n i c s e t t i n g ,  d e p o s i t s . The s c a l e o f t h e K o s i larger.  of the Kosi  River  f o r type  4 channel  d e p o s i t s , however, i s much  109  1.8.9  Type "5 C h a n n e l D e p o s i t s Type  5 channel  c o r e s and  d e p o s i t s have been  in outcrops  ( F i g u r e s 6,  the #3  p a r t of  the  in borehole  sandstones.  fining-upward  t h e base a r e  sections  near  decreases present, the  units  3  ( F i g u r e 6) mainly  of  i n t h e Saxon fine-  sandstones In a  few  i s abrupt  form  a single  fining-  s e c t i o n s , s t a c k i n g of u n i t s up  to  14m  thick.  Sandstones  streaks are present  structures consist  which o c c u r s cm  the  the  area.  o f t e n c o n t a i n mudstone  are  i n s e t s 5 cm  uncommon. In  near rip-up  in a  few  top. Tabular  fining-upward  Type 5 c h a n n e l  -  mainly  1m  thick.  cross-bedding bedding  trough Sets  and  i s also ripples  occur  sequences.  d e p o s i t s are o v e r l a i n  f i n e - g r a i n e d sandstones  deposits are g e n e r a l l y o v e r l a i n  and  gradationally  siltstones.  -  Interpretation  by  thin  These  by c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstone  coal.  1.8.10 Type 5 C h a n n e l D e p o s i t s  of  some s e c t i o n s , s e t t h i c k n e s s  i s l e s s common. P a r a l l e l  t o p of  above  in  to coarse-grained  or e r o s i o n a l .  m a s s i v e and  lower  base.  towards the  interbedded  few  i n the  F seams a t Babcock and  spar. Thin pebbly  the  30  but  upper G a t e s  a r e a . They a r e a l s o p r e s e n t  m thick.  sedimentary  than  i n the  sequences produces t h i c k e r  coal  cross-bedding  at  3-8  typically  Primary  thicker  7726  consist  b a s e of t h e s e  and  study  G e n e r a l l y , the  upward s e q u e n c e  clasts  mainly  between t h e E and  Lithologies  The  in only a  37) .  section seam  recognised  on Dumb Goat M o u n t a i n above c o n g l o m e r a t e  These d e p o s i t s occur southern  - Description  and  1 10  F i g u r e 42^ Summary of " f l u v i a l " p a l e o c u r r e n t d a t a i n t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n . T h i s d i a g r a m does not i n c l u d e d a t a f r o m t h e u p p e r G a t e s , n o r t h of K i n u s e o C r e e k w h i c h i s shown on F i g u r e s 5_5 and 65.  111  Type 5 c h a n n e l meandering classic 1964,  river  system  fining-upward  1970). By  interpreted overlying  as  with  i n type  parallel  fill  bedding  forming  and  similarities  and  i n the  in a  with  rivers  (Allen  and  sequences  the  cross-  are  p o i n t bar d e p o s i t s , w h i l e rippled  sandstones  s h a l l o w e r p a r t s of  Paleocurrent  i s shown on  the  are the p o i n t  bar  from  of K i n u s e o  Creek which  channel  fluvial  interval  channel  sandstones  above t h e  does not  Torrens  include  d e p o s i t s i n the upper Gates  i s shown  Measurements were.made of pebble  Data  Figure.42. This figure  data  trough axes,  from  i n the non-marine  additional  i n F i g u r e s 55 and  trough and.tabular  imbrication  and  oriented  north  65.  cross-bedding, wood f r a g m e n t s  and  i n the channel d e p o s i t s . The  data  northwest,  shows a v e r a g e  p a l e o c u r r e n t v e c t o r s towards  n o r t h , n o r t h e a s t and  e a s t . Most of  in a northeasterly d i r e c t i o n .  agreement w i t h c h a n n e l spaced  1.9  forming  t h i s model t h e m a s s i v e  data c o l l e c t e d  conglomerates  Member  are  their  as  levees.  Paleocurrent  logs  on  5 fining-upward  1.8.11 Summary of F l u v i a l  and  interpreted  f a c i e s model of m e a n d e r i n g  as c h a n n e l  interpreted  based  analogy  bedded s a n d s t o n e s  and  d e p o s i t s are  boreholes  ( F i g u r e s 32,  the p a l e o c u r r e n t s  T h i s measured d a t a  t r e n d s mapped i n a r e a s  the  with  i s in  closely  35).  OVERBANK DEPOSITS Overbank d e p o s i t s a r e  the non-marine  intervals  t h e most common f a c i e s  i n the Gates  Formation.  encountered Many of  the  in  1 12  f a c i e s present similar Smith  t o those  described  (1969) i n r e c e n t  Lousiana. of  i n Gates overbank d e p o s i t s  The A t c h a f a l a y a  part  completely  former M i s s i s s i p p i recognised drained  In  sediments  valley  Basin, km  2  became  r i d g e s of the present  by Coleman  and  environments  (1966) i n c l u d e swamps,  poorly  lakes,  channels.  largely  f o u r main o v e r b a n k  f a c i e s have  been  on Coleman's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e R e c e n t  i n the A t c h a f a l a y a  overbank d e p o s i t s  alluvial  system. S p e c i f i c  the Gates Formation based  River  c o n s i s t s o f some 7680  swamps, w e l l - d r a i n e d  d e l t a s and  identified  Basin  by a l l u v i a l  River  (stagnant)  (1966) and K r i n i t z s k y and  w h i c h were formed when t h e low l y i n g  and d e s c r i b e d  lacustrine  River  of the lower M i s s i s s i p p i  surrounded  characteristics  sediments of the A t c h a f a l a y a  swamplands and l a k e s  central  by Coleman  have  River  Basin  i n R e i n e c k and S i n g h  and summaries o f  (1973) and C o l l i n s o n  (1978) . 1. N a t u r a l  levee  2.  Crevasse  3.  Lake  4. W e l l  deposits  splay  (including lacustrine delta)  deposits  deposits to poorly  1.9.1 N a t u r a l  drained  Levee  swamp d e p o s i t s  Deposits  L e v e e s a r e wedge s h a p e d r i d g e s o f s e d i m e n t b o r d e r i n g channels, the  formed by d e p o s i t i o n o f s e d i m e n t  stream overtops Natural  fining-upward  i t s banks  levee d e p o s i t s  (Reineck  when f l o o d w a t e r s  and S i n g h ,  from  1973, p . 2 4 4 ) .  i n the Gates Formation c o n s i s t of  sequences of i n t e r b e d d e d  s a n d s t o n e s and s i l t s t o n e s .  stream  fine-  t o medium-grained  The s a n d s t o n e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s e d by  113  abrupt  o r e r o s i o n a l b a s e s and r a n g e  centimetres  t o 2.2 m. S m a l l  carbonaceous sedimentary parallel  in thickness  siltstone  laminae a r e present  r i p - u p c l a s t s and  i n some b e d s .  s t r u c t u r e s c o n s i s t of r i p p l e s ,  bedding. Cross-bedding  (sets less  massive beds a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y p r e s e n t Soft the  sediment  deformation  upper p a r t s  Levee d e p o s i t s  climbing than  r i p p l e s and  10 cm t h i c k ) and  b u t a r e much l e s s  i n some b e d s . overlie  channel  fill  deposits  and r o o t e d  and g r a d e siltstones,  mudstones w h i c h a r e f r e q u e n t l y o v e r l a i n by c o a l .  also  found  this  position are d i f f i c u l t  deposits  i n cores  marginal  to channel  fill  deposits  They a r e and i n  t o d i s t i n g u i s h from c r e v a s s e  splay  which a r e s i m i l a r .  1.9.2 C r e v a s s e  In  common.  sequences. Roots and  upwards i n t o f i n e - g r a i n e d , b i o t u r b a t e d and  Primary  structures are frequently present i n  of the fining-upward  burrows a r e p r e s e n t  from a few  Splay  1  D e p o s i t s ••  t h e Babcock a r e a  crevasse  splay deposits  a r e an  C r e v a s s e s p l a y and l a c u s t r i n e d e l t a d e p o s i t s a r e s i m i l a r . I n a n c i e n t d e p o s i t s t h e y a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d m a i n l y on t h e b a s i s o f f a c i e s a s s o c i a t i o n , with l a c u s t r i n e d e l t a deposits o c c u r r i n g s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y above l a k e d e p o s i t s . I n t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t o n of sediments as l a c u s t r i n e i n o r i g i n i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t and so c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e t e r m c r e v a s s e s p l a y w i l l be a p p l i e d t o a l l d e p o s i t s o f t h i s t y p e , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e f a c i e s which they o v e r l i e . 1  11 4  important  component  between c o a l deposits  s p l a y and  G/l1  the  of  f o r both  sandstone  type  i n these b a s e d on  1.3-1.6 km  lobes their  The  1.3  are  km  distribution  boreholes  In  this  facies splays  32a,  closely 43)  have  distribution  lower p a r t  lobes  are  fluvial  described  of  of  the  channel  (lower  1.8.3).  crevasse  splay  a s s o c i a t i o n s and extend  J-  present  in section  internal  for a distance  c h a n n e l and  are  w i t h i n an  area  o r i g i n a t e d from a  The  distribution  due  to the  l a c k of  these i n the  trend  of  approximately  proximal  characteristics 31,  and  4.4  are km . 2  in  The  in that  direction.  of  fluvial  channel  i s uncertain  south  of  distinct distal  45.  and  the  splay  types  p a r t s of distal  of the  the  present  channel  this  that  isopach  fluvial  of p r o x i m a l 44  sandstone  splay deposits  approximately  interval  suggesting  two and  the  i n the  south  boreholes  intervals,  Figures  of  toward the  and  splay deposits  interval,  deposits  shown on  the  from  deposits.  and. F are.shown on  thicken  The  t o show t h e  large  of c r e v a s s e  deposits  present  maps ( F i g u r e s  of  away from t h e  F seams. T h e s e  log data  i n t e r p r e t e d as  crevasse  intervals  wide.  ( F i g u r e '43).  In  two  i n the  and  and  channel  map  shape,  between c o a l seams G/l1  12  fluvial  32a),  G/I  core  intervals  2 channel deposits  approximately  map  the  isopach  isopach  (Figure  characteristics.  The  and  facies  of a m a j o r , ENE-WSW t r e n d i n g  Sediments deposits  G/l  Sandstone  associated  interval  southeast part  overbank  have been s t u d i e d u s i n g  been c o n s t r u c t e d  On  the  seams J and  spaced b o r e h o l e s .  the  of  splay  deposits. sequences crevasse  splay deposits  are splays. are  115  F i g u r e 4_3. S a n d s t o n e i s o p a c h map s h o w i n g d e p o s i t s i n t h e i n t e r v a l between c o a l Babcock a r e a .  the l o c a t i o n of s p l a y seams G / I l and F i n t h e  116  PS - Proximal Splay Deposits D S - D l s t a l Splay Deposits  F i g u r e 44. B o r e h o l e c r o s s s e c t i o n s h o w i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c r e v a s s e s p l a y and o t h e r o v e r b a n k d e p o s i t s i n t h e i n t e r v a l between c o a l seams H a n d F i n t h e Babcock a r e a . N o t e t h e occurrence of mainly fining-upward sequences i n the proximal s p l a y d e p o s i t s and c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d s e q u e n c e s i n t h e d i s t a l s p l a y d e p o s i t s . B o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s a r e shown on F i g u r e 43. L e g e n d i s shown on F i g u r e 2 4.  1 17  Proximal  Splay  Deposits  These d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t sandstone  with  generally  silty  Proximal  lesser  fine-  and o c c a s i o n a l l y  fining-upward  range  characteristics,  by f i n i n g  - upward  s p l a y d e p o s i t s which  t h i c k n e s s and i n t e r n a l  s p l a y d e p o s i t s c a n be s u b d i v i d e d  into  types:  Type A: E x a m p l e s o f t y p e A s e q u e n c e s a r e p r e s e n t 7712  between  borehole The  units  t h e F and G/l1  main  lithology in units  i s abrupt  clasts  and c o a l  Primary  thickness varies  part and  1.5 - 5 m t h i c k .  mainly  above t h e b a s e .  i n t h e lower  p a r t of the  bedding and  p r e s e n t . I n a few c o r e s ,  consists  mainly  Bedding  grade  upward  ripple  bedding. In  i n t o a sequence  and sandstones  s t r u c t u r e s and p a r a l l e l  common. I n a few c o r e s t h e t o p s  i n t h e upper  of c u r r e n t  l a m i n a t i o n and p a r a l l e l  interbedded s i l t s t o n e s deformation  rip-up  of trough c r o s s - b e d d i n g . Set  most s e c t i o n s t h e s a n d s t o n e s  sediment  pebbles,  immediately  above t h e base a r e m a s s i v e .  climbing ripple  i s sandstone  The b a s e o f t h e s e  between 5-20 cm. P a r a l l e l  of t h e sandstones  thin  Siltstone  structures  are occasionally  sandstones  ( F i g u r e 44) and i n  (Figure 31).  s p a r a r e common  consist  seams  i n boreholes  i n type A sequences  or e r o s i o n a l .  sedimentary  sandstones  ripples  coal  7751 above t h e J seam  which o c c u r s  of  laminae..  0.5-5 m. S t a c k i n g o f  i n proximal  Based on t h e i r  proximal  The s a n d s t o n e s a r e  c o n t a i n carbonaceous  i n t h i c k n e s s from  sequences r e s u l t s  a r e up t o 22 m t h i c k .  t o medium-grained  amounts o f s i l t s t o n e .  splay deposits are characterised  sequences which  2 main  of very  i n which  soft  bedding a r e  of the sandstones a r e  1 18  abrupt  T y p e B:  and  they  are o v e r l a i n  directly  and  7712  between t h e F and  4 4 ) . S a n d s t o n e s and mainly from  1.5  siltstones  within fining-upward  0.5-3  m.  erosional.  The  m thick,  with abrupt  grain-size  bedding  and  bedding  i s present  G/l1  units  and  Upper  base;  d e p o s i t i o n . These c o n s i s t massive  bed  regime p a r a l l e l beds,  then  parallel  occasionally the  with  up  t o 20  burrowing  Splay  present  ( F i g u r e 46b). i n the  w h i c h has  been  which range  In  occur  power  by  upper  a  flow  several directly ripples  bedding  In b o r e h o l e  i s marked by  strongly  Cross-  following: erosive  Convolute  siltstones.  and is  7201  1 m thick  bed  b i o t u r b a t e d by  organisms.  Deposits  These d e p o s i t s are c h a r a c t e r i s e d sequences of  thick  any  parallel  d e c r e a s i n g flow  siltstone.  cm  to  7201,  rip-up clasts,  ripples,  t o p of t h e t y p e B s e q u e n c e sandstone  regime  T h e s e . f o r e s e t s are o v e r l a i n  bedding  without  B sequences.  of t h e  siltstone  bedding,  tabular foresets  above t h e b a s e .  flow  or  i n beds up  b e d s . In b o r e h o l e  sequences are p r e s e n t which suggest during  occur  t o p s , and  occur  in thickness  i s abrupt  sandstones  bases  few  seams ( F i g u r e  B sequences  a r e common i n t y p e in a  in boreholes  u n i t s which range  variations.  ripples  coal  i n type  base of t h e s e  O c c a s i o n a l l y , the  obvious  Distal  siltstone.  E x a m p l e s of t y p e B s e q u e n c e s a r e p r e s e n t  7201  of  by  interbedded sandstone, i n t h i c k n e s s from  1-6  m  by  coarsening-upward  siltstone  and  ( F i g u r e s 44,  minor  mudstone  45). S t a c k i n g  119  F i g u r e £ 5 . C o r e f r o m b o r e h o l e QBD 7219 i n t h e B a b c o c k a r e a s h o w i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d i s t a l c r e v a s s e s p l a y deposits. Lithologies consist.of thin interbedded s i l t s t o n e s and f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s w h i c h e x h i b i t p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g , r i p p l e s and c l i m b i n g r i p p l e l a m i n a t i o n . C o r e c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e 16 m t h i c k i n t e r v a l a b o v e t h e 11 seam i n b o r e h o l e 7219 shown on F i g u r e 44.  121  of  coarsening-upward  sequences  results in distal  splay  w h i c h a r e up t o 13 m t h i c k . The c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d best  defined  by t h e gamma  r a y l o g and a r e o f t e n  apparent  from an i n i t i a l e x a m i n a t i o n  deposits  gradationally overly  and  a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y present  are  overlain abruptly  Distal  o r swamp  above p r o x i m a l  by swamp a n d l o c a l l y  sequences a r e  not immediately  of the c o r e .  i n f e r r e d lake  deposits  splay  splay  deposits  deposits.  by p r o x i m a l  They  splay  deposits. The  sandstones  fine-grained  in distal  and s i l t y  with  splay  deposits  occasional  a r e very  carbonaceous  They o c c u r  i n b e d s up t o 1.5 m t h i c k a n d commonly  vertically  within  siltstones  are darker  mudstone. O f t e n bioturbated Primary  the coarsening-upward in colour  the s i l t s t o n e s  sedimentary  r i p p l e s (Figures  Cross bedding  deformation  structures  i n these  confining  of  (mainly  levees  sand e l o n g a t e d  of p a r a l l e l  45,46) a n d c l i m b i n g rare. Soft  convolute  Splay  ripple  sediment  bedding) a r e f a i r l y  Deposits  a r e formed d u r i n g  o f f l o o d water a n d s e d i m e n t of r i v e r  The d e p o s i t s  crevasse  silty  deposits.  Crevasse splays  area.  i s very  O r i g i n of the Crevasse  quantities  into  a n d mudstones a r e s t r o n g l y  s t r u c t u r e s c o n s i s t mainly  lamination.  1.9.3  Interbedded  by b u r r o w i n g o r g a n i s m s a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y by r o o t s .  bedding, current  common  laminae.  thicken  sequences.  and grade l o c a l l y  fine- to  channels  of c r e v a s s e  break  away from t h e r i v e r  occur  large  through the  into the adjacent  splays  channel c u t i n the levee  f l o o d s when  as fans  overbank o r tongues  and o r i g i n a t i n g a t a  (Allen,  1965; Coleman,  1969).  122  Flooding  by modern r i v e r s  o v e r b a n k mechanisms sediment via to  laden  flood  small discrete small channel  sequences are stacked  (Elliot, waters  i s a c h i e v e d by  1974, flow  into  d e p o s i t s and  interpreted  fining-upward  and  1978). D u r i n g c r e v a s s i n g ,  crevasse channels.  fill  crevasse  the a d j a c e n t Based on  overbank  their  similarity  facies associations,  as c r e v a s s e c h a n n e l  area  type  A  d e p o s i t s . The  sequences are a t t r i b u t e d  to repeated  flood  episodes. During the  overbank  flooding,  sediment  river  banks a s  sheet  deposited  adjacent  to the channel  erosive  based  graded  f l o w s . The  The  d e p o s i t s , from  as a l t e r n a t i o n s  units with p a r a l l e l  dominant  flow  Low  ripple  their  ripples,  siltstone  by  splay  that  with flood  upper  presumably  structures  from  d e p o s i t s may  m  present  flow  of  sand  massive  regime p a r a l l e l  represent a single  channels,  have o r i g i n a t e d  thick.  include  B  sheets. sequences  d e p o s i t s . Fining-upward  t a b u l a r cross-bedding are  river  sheet  t o 3.6  these d e p o s i t s , type  s h e e t s . In a d d i t i o n  the  ripple  convolute, bedding.  at the margin  t h e p r o g r a d a t i o n of a v a l a n c h e sand  thin,  i n t h e s e d e p o s i t s i s upper  Other  occur  of  current  a r e up  over  is  d e s c r i b e d modern  sequence: e r o s i v e base,  rip-up clasts,  m a r g i n s of flooding  sheet  the  Sets of h i g h a n g l e forming  bedding.  foresets  as  comprising  siltstone  structure  similarity  interpreted  units  flood  and  l a m i n a t i o n , c r o s s - b e d d i n g and  to high angle  B a s e d on are  sedimentary  regime p a r a l l e l  climbing  a single  spill  c o a r s e s t sediment  l a m i n a t i o n s . McKee, e t a l . (1967) has flood  laden waters  by  bed  slip  flood  faces at by  with  bedding, episode.  interpreted  to forming  sheet  sandstone  as  the  overbank  f l o o d d e p o s i t s i n these  overbank  flooding  from  the  1 23  crevasse channels The the  grain-size  river  during  themselves.  channel  of c r e v a s s e s p l a y d e p o s i t s f i n e s  (Welder,  1959;  Coleman,  the p r o g r a d a t i o n of c r e v a s s e s p l a y  overbank area a coarsening-upward  et  splay  a l . , 1977; In t h e  (Figures  1974;  d e p o s i t s between t h e J and  are and  1976;  44), coarsening-upward  F seams a t  sequences  Home  with crevasse channel  sheet  and  i n the proximal p a r t  of the  Babcock  occur mainly  associated  in  sequences,  flow d e p o s i t s ,  splays.  Lake D e p o s i t s Inferred  lacustrine  grey, o c c a s i o n a l l y siltstones  lamination fine  an  E t h r i d g e e t a l . , 1981).  fining-upward  thin  Thus,  There  Coleman,  p a r t s of t h e s p l a y s w h i l e  1.9.4  from  i n modern  the d i s t a l  predominate  38).  i s formed.  sequences  d e p o s i t s (e.g., E l l i o t ,  splay  31,  p.  deposits into  sequence  numerous e x a m p l e s of c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d ancient  1976,  away  and  mudstone  fine-grained  o r by  alternating  (Figures  34,  include  deformation  Bioturbation  varies  deposits  generally  inclined  tubes.  46e,  sandstones.  of th'irs f a c i e s and  of mudstone and  structures present sediment  very  of medium t o  siltstone  c o l o u r bands  4 6 f ) . Other lenticular  absent  consist  of  Thin  or v e r y  (0.1-1  primary bedding  cm  cm  In t h e McConkey r o a d c u t s e c t i o n ,  by  fine-grained thick) in  sedimentary and  ripples.  Soft  present.  t o s t r o n g . Burrows  0.5-2  parallel  i s formed  s t r u c t u r e s are o c c a s i o n a l l y from  dark  o l i v e - b r o w n mudstones i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h  is characteristic  alternations  sandstone,  light  deposits consist  i n these  wide, v e r t i c a l  or  b i v a l v e s were f o u n d  in a  124  0.5  m thick  b e d o f m a s s i v e mudstone,  T h i s mudstone sequence very  i s overlain  of p a r a l l e l  fine-grained  by a 6 m t h i c k  rafinesque  1820 by D r . J.A. J e l e t z k y  to distinguish.  absence  were s u b s e q u e n t l y  o f t h e subgenus (G.S.C.,  distinguish Lake  Ottawa).  lower  a r e t h e main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s lake deposits  deposits  from  swamp  which  deposits.  by c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d  crevasse  splay/lacustrine  delta  d e p o s i t s and t h e r e  i n two d i s t i n c t  t h e y a r e p r e s e n t above  and a r e o v e r l a i n  d e p o s i t s merge t r a n s i t i o n a l l y  lamination,  were u s e d t o  i n the Gates Formation occur  a s s o c i a t i o n s . Most commonly  and o f t e n  l e v e l s of  deposits  delta  Pleurobema  The p r e s e n c e o f p a r a l l e l  o f r o o t s and t h e g e n e r a l l y  bioturbation  facies  unionids  and t h i n  d e p o s i t s and some swamp d e p o s i t s a r e s i m i l a r  difficult the  siltstones  s a n d s t o n e s . The b i v a l v e s  a s non-marine  seam.  coarsening-upward  l a m i n a t e d mudstones,  identified  Lake  1 m above t h e J c o a l  deposits.  swamp  sequences of  The l a c u s t r i n e  upwards w i t h t h e s p l a y / l a c u s t r i n e  i s no s h a r p b r e a k  between  t h e two  fac i e s . In overlie into  the second type of a s s o c i a t i o n , abruptly  fluvial  channel f i l l  deposits  i s illustrated  QBD 7715 ( F i g u r e m interval  of dark grey p a r a l l e l  carbonaceous bedded,  area.  In t h i s  of borehole example a 5  l a m i n a t e d and m a s s i v e ,  mudstones a n d s i l t s t o n e s  a r e p r e s e n t above  c o a r s e - g r a i n e d and p e b b l y f l u v i a l  s a n d s t o n e s . The mudstones a n d s i l t s t o n e s coal  upwards  type of f a c i e s  by t h e c o r e p h o t o g r a p h s  34) from t h e Babcock  sediments  and grade  swamp o r s p l a y d e p o s i t s . An example o f t h i s  association  thick  lacustrine  seam. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  channel  cross-  fill  are overlain  by a 2.5 m  o f t h e mudstones and  125  F i g u r e £ 6 . Core photographs of overbank  deposits.  F i g u r e 4 6 a . I n t r a f o r m a t i o n a l c o n g l o m e r a t e composed o f s i l t s t o n e r i p - u p c l a s t s . T h i s c o r e i s from a u n i t w h i c h i s 55 cm t h i c k a n d was p r o b a b l y formed by a s i n g l e f l o o d e v e n t . (MDD 7823, 360.1 m). F i g u r e 46b. The i n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e d i m e n t i n t h i s core a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as the r e s u l t of a s i n g l e sheet f l o o d e v e n t ; t h e o n s e t o f t h e f l o o d i s marked by s i l t s t o n e r i p - u p c l a s t s a n d t h e e r o s i v e base o f t h e s a n d s t o n e b e d ( e ) . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by t h e p r o g r a d a t i o n o f a t h i n s a n d s h e e t w h i c h formed t h e h i g h angle f o r e s e t s ( f ) . As t h e c u r r e n t s weakened t h e t o p o f t h e s a n d s h e e t was r e w o r k e d t o f o r m r i p p l e s ( r ) . The f i n a l e p i s o d e i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e p a r a l l e l bedded s i l t s t o n e s formed by d e p o s i t i o n f r o m s u s p e n s i o n a t the end o f t h e f l o o d . S i l t s t o n e s a t t h e t o p e x h i b i t c o n v o l u t e b e d d i n g ( c ) (MDD 7823, 360. 1 m) . F i g u r e 46c. P a r a l l e l bedding and c l i m b i n g s i l t s t o n e s . (MXD 7827, 401.2 m).  ripples  i n overbank  F i g u r e 46d. I n f e r r e d w e l l d r a i n e d swamp d e p o s i t c o n s i s t i n g o f m a s s i v e r o o t ( r ) p e n e t r a t e d s i l t s t o n e . Note t h e s m a l l s i l i c e o u s c o n c r e t i o n s a t the base. F i g u r e s 46e,f. I n f e r r e d l a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t i n g of p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t e d s i l t s t o n e s a n d m u d s t o n e s . N o t e t h e two b u r r o w s i n 46e. F i g u r e 46g. R i p p l e d f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h d a r k grey s i l t s t o n e s . S e v e r a l burrows a r e v i s i b l e i n t h i s c o r e . T h i s t y p e o f d e p o s i t i s common i n b o t h l e v e e a n d c r e v a s s e s p l a y e n v i r o n m e n t s (QBD 7306, 1690 f t ) . F i g u r e 46h. M a s s i v e o v e r b a n k s i l t s t o n e . The a b s e n c e o f b e d d i n g may be t h e r e s u l t o f v e r y r a p i d s e d i m e n t a t i o n , b i o t u r b a t i o n , o r d e s t r u c t i o n by t h e e s c a p e o f w a t e r d u r i n g c o m p a c t i o n . A l t e r n a t i v e l y b e d d i n g may be p r e s e n t b u t w o u l d require other techniques ( e . g . , e x p o s u r e t o X - r a y s ) t o make it visible.  127  siltstones, that  these  which  together with t h e i r sediments  formed  stratigraphic  were d e p o s i t e d from  i n the channel  after  position,  suspension  i t was s u d d e n l y  suggest  i n a lake  c u t o f f and  abandoned. T h e s e two t y p e s o f f a c i e s on  the Gates  depositional  coastal  plain  settings;  associations  were p r e s e n t  as shallow  suggest  that  lakes  i n two d i s t i n c t  floodponds  a n d l a k e s formed by  d r o w n i n g o f swamps i n i n t e r c h a n n e l a r e a s , a n d i n abandoned fluvial likely  c h a n n e l s . Lakes which  fluvial  Well  saturated  to Poorly Drained  Gagliano,  formed i n  Swamp D e p o s i t s  low, f l a t  areas p e r i o d i c a l l y  w i t h water a n d w h i c h s u p p o r t  vegetation  those  channels.  Swamps c o n s t i t u t e  has  i n interchannel areas are  t o have been more e x t e n s i v e t h a n  abandoned  1.9.5  formed  with or without  a cover  covered or  o f woody  an u n d e r g r o w t h o f s h r u b s  (Coleman a n d  1965). I n t h e A t c h a f a l a y a R i v e r B a s i n , Coleman  r e c o g n i s e d two t y p e s o f swamps based' on t h e q u a l i t y  d r a i n a g e . P o o r l y d r a i n e d swamps o c c u r river  drainage  present  year  systems.  round  In t h e s e  and sediment  i n areas  reducing In drained  from  accumulates  under  reducing  by r i v e r  under a l t e r n a t e  drainage  o x i d i z i n g and  conditions. the Gates  Formation,  sediment  swamp d e p o s i t s , c o n s i s t s  carbonaceous The  accumulates  of the  swamps, s t a n d i n g w a t e r i s  c o n d i t i o n s . W e l l d r a i n e d swamps a r e i n f l u e n c e d systems and sediment  isolated  (1966)  interpreted  of dark  grey  as p o o r l y  to black,  very  mudstones a n d c o a l .  carbonaceous  mudstones o f t e n c o n t a i n a b u n d a n t c o a l  spar  1 28  and  well preserved  are  u s u a l l y massive but o c c a s i o n a l l y e x h i b i t p a r a l l e l  The  c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstones a r e p r e s e n t  thick very  plant  and a r e e a s i l y high  organic  gamma  fragments.  recognisable  ray reading,  content.  I n t e r n a l l y these  in intervals  on g e o p h y s i c a l  a s s o c i a t e d with  They a r e u s u a l l y p r e s e n t  seams o r a s r o c k  splits  within  interbedded  levee,  crevasse  with  bedding.  up t o 6 m  l o g s by t h e i r  their  high  c l a y and  above a n d below  seams. They a l s o splay,  deposits  coal  occur  l a k e and w e l l  drained  swamp d e p o s i t s . Sediments higher  silt  drained  i n t e r p r e t e d as w e l l  contents  swamp d e p o s i t s . W e l l  light  t o medium g r e y  these  deposits  both but  and a r e l e s s  silty  mudstones and s i l t s t o n e s .  levee,  occur  sedimentary  interbedded  crevasse  have  poorly c o n s i s t of In general  b i o t u r b a t i o n c a u s e d by structures are rare  u s u a l l y c o n s i s t of p a r a l l e l  swamp d e p o s i t s  swamp d e p o s i t s ,  swamp d e p o s i t s  a r e m a s s i v e due t o s t r o n g  where p r e s e n t  swamp d e p o s i t s  carbonaceous than  drained  r o o t s and b u r r o w s . P r i m a r y  drained  drained  with  s p l a y and l a k e  laminations. poorly  Well  drained  deposits.  129  PART I I FACIES ASSOCIATIONS TRANSGRESSIVE  IN THE UPPER GATES  FORMATION:  AND REGRESSIVE MARINE, ESTUARINE AND COASTAL  PLAIN  DEPOSITS  2.1  INTRODUCTION Marine d e p o s i t s are i d e n t i f i e d  fossil of  e v i d e n c e i n t h e upper  Q u i n t e t t e Mountain,  b a s e d on f o s s i l  G a t e s above t h e D c o a l  and t h e e q u i v a l e n t  Honeymoon  and Duke P i t a r e a s  Mountain,  marine  deposits  (Figures  a 35-50 m t h i c k  m a i n l y o f s a n d s t o n e s and c o n g l o m e r a t e s  geologists  from D e n i s o n M i n e s  southern l i m i t  o f t h i s member  Q u i n t e t t e Mountain, 1),  the marine  interval  i n t e r b e d d e d mudstones, thick,  non-marine  between t h e upper Because containing present  interval  the thick  Gates  coal  and l i t h o l o g i e s  unit  thin  coal  sediments o v e r l i e  c o n s i s t of  seams o c c u r s  the i n t e r v a l  seams i n t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n , t h e y a r e  a r e a , where a t o t a l upper  boreholes are located where t h e a v e r a g e  Gates  within  spacing  i n t h e Babcock  Babcock,  concentration  o f 63 b o r e h o l e s  of data  intersect  s e c t i o n s . Most o f t h e s e  a 24 km  2  a r e a on Babcock  i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 500 m.  b o r e h o l e d a t a , t h e r e a r e good sandstones  (Figure  and t h e H u l c r o s s F o r m a t i o n .  and Duke P i t a r e a s . The g r e a t e s t  or p a r t i a l  8. S o u t h o f  and s a n d s t o n e s . A 30-50 m  containing  Gates marine  t h e upper  i n t h e Babcock  complete  siltstones  member.  and Duke P i t a r e a s  i n numerous b o r e h o l e s i n t h e Frame, McConkey,  Honeymoon is  i s shown on F i g u r e  i s thinner  interval  which  t o a s t h e Babcock  i n t h e Honeymoon  north  5, 6 ) . N o r t h o f Q u i n t e t t e  occur within  refer  seam,  seam, B9, i n t h e  consisting  The  and t r a c e  Mountain,  In a d d i t i o n t o  o u t c r o p s of conglomerates and  member between Q u i n t e t t e M o u n t a i n  and  130  the  Wolverine The  River.  combination  o f o u t c r o p and c o r e d a t a  from c l o s e l y  s p a c e d b o r e h o l e s p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t  opportunity  study  o f t h e upper  in detail  Approximately the  4800 m o f c o r e  wells.  logs  Several  outcrop sections  data  are provided  from by  b o r e h o l e s a n d 12 p e t r o l e u m i n the sandstones  member.  INTERPRETATION  General The  upper G a t e s  differences structures  i s divided  into  11 f a c i e s b a s e d on  in lithology, grain-size variations, and t r a c e  associations illustrated the north  on a g e n e r a l i s e d  cross  t o Duchess Mountain a r e shown  section  i n more d e t a i l  48, 49) a n d a c r o s s  sections, In  i n t h e Duke P i t a r e a  the f o l l o w i n g  described  section,  sections,  and i n t e r p r e t e d .  more r e a d a b l e ,  t h e 11 f a c i e s i s l i s t e d  from t h e McConkey P i t (Figure  on two c r o s s  47). Their sections  i n the Babcock  b a s e d on d a t a  from  area 7 cored  (Figure 50). the upper Gates  In order  the interpreted  facies  facies are  i n the south  b a s e d on 10 c o r e and 2 o u t c r o p s e c t i o n s , (Figures  sedimentary  f o s s i l s . The s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n ,  a n d main l i t h o l o g i e s o f t h e s e  characteristics  of  points  were measured  c o n g l o m e r a t e s o f t h e Babcock  2.2.1  Gates.  from 64 b o r e h o l e s was e x a m i n e d  from numerous o t h e r  2.2 FACIES - DESCRIPTION AND  in  deposits  upper G a t e s F o r m a t i o n . F u r t h e r  geophysical  and  the shoreline  i n which t o  t o make t h e d e s c r i p t i v e  depositional  on F i g u r e  f a c i e s w i l l be  47.  environment  part  of each  131  N.W.  S.E.  D Seam Facies 4 ... Lagoon-lntertldal 3C ... Tidal Flat  5 ... Coastal Plain Deposits , ... Marine Transgression  3B ... Subtldal Shoal 3A ... Subtldal Channel 2B ... Shallow Marine -Channel Fill Deposits 2A ... Subtldal Shelf-Shallow Marine 1B ... Transgressive Marine Lag  B9 Seam 30 20 metres 10 0  kilometres  10  1A ... Estuarine Deposits  F i g u r e 4_7. G e n e r a l i s e d c r o s s s e c t i o n showing t h e f a c i e s p r e s e n t i n t h e upper Gates between the McConkey P i t and Duchess Mountain.  (1.4km)  R O M A N MTN  SOUTH  ijerrt d a y arotfon s u r f a e a  matrtts r  •i  Coal  l-EQENO  oo^-^^d^g  . . . .. L i ^ J Sandston.  Low . n g * . c r o M - b e d d a i g <v Trou^i c r o « a b e d d i g  L^J  _ . _ pfcnar b o d d h g  I  SHaton. I Mudatone  _ l l Conglomerate —• Carbonaceoua mudatone  2 0  Facias k.  Roota  "*><*•» + Burrowe ..-oif Flaaar baddrig Mdat/atat rtrM> d a a t a tir* Lanttcular bedding Wavy baddhg c o Soft aedbnam deformation atrocturea  Shallow M a r i n . - C h a n n e l Fill  Facies 5  F a c i e i 2A  2B  Subtldal 3helf-Shallow Marina  Facies 3C  Tidal Flat (occur, locafly at the top of ) a c l . s 3 A / 3 B )  Faciaa  1B  Transgressive Marine Lag  F a c i e s 3B  Subtldal Shoal  Facies  1A  Estuarine Deposits  F a c i e s 3A  -Subtidal Channel  F i g u r e 48. S e c t i o n A - u p p e r G a t e s c r o s s shown on F i g u r e 6 6 ) .  s e c t i o n i n t h e Babcock  C o a s t a l Plain Deposits  area  SECTION A  { l o c a t i o n of s e c t i o n i s  to  7306  (0.9km)  7306  (1.4km)  7302  (l.ikra)  K03TUIK MTN  (1.0km)  7401  (4.0km)  7513  SOUTH  Cr*.ast> congLl  SECTION B  F i g u r e 4J3. S e c t i o n B - u p p e r G a t e s c r o s s s e c t i o n i n t h e Babcock shown on F i g u r e 6 6 ) . L e g e n d i s shown on F i g u r e 48.  area  (location  of s e c t i o n i s  co CO  Northwest 7908  2.5km  7914  2.1km  7902  1.1km  7823  1.9km  7905  Southeast 0.6km  7822  3.0km  8105  Gamma Ray  Facies 5...Coastal Plain Deposits Facies 4...Lagoon-lntertidal ...Marine Transgression  F i g u r e 50. C r o s s s e c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v a l between t h e B7 c o a l seam and t h e H u l c r o s s F o r m a t i o n i n b o r e h o l e s n e a r t h e Duke P i t ( b o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s a r e shown on F i g u r e 3 5 ) . H o r i z o n t a l datum i s t h e t o p o f t h e B9 upper seam. Note t h a t B9) i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e D seam on F i g u r e s 4J_ and 42!. L e g e n d i s shown on F i g u r e 4 8 .  CO  135  F i g u r e 5_1_. Map s h o w i n g t h e a p p r o x i m a t e a r e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u p p e r G a t e s f a c i e s 1A, 2A and 4. ( N o t e : S c a l e o f map i s t o o s m a l l t o show a l l t h e s e c t i o n s w h i c h p e n e t r a t e t h e s e f a c i e s ; b o r e h o l e s and w e l l s shown on t h e map a r e o n l y t h o s e u s e d on t h e r e g i o n a l c r o s s s e c t i o n s - F i g u r e s 5, 6 and 1_. )  136  2.2.2  Facies Facies  1A - D e s c r i p t i o n 1A o c c u r s above t h e D c o a l  upper G a t e s this  (Figures  47, 48, 4 9 ) . R e g i o n a l mapping  f a c i e s i spresent  between  D e t a i l e d mapping n e a r  separate wide  Mountain  t h e Babcock P i t , u s i n g  i n d i c a t e s that linear,  shows  i n a 2-4 km wide b e l t t r e n d i n g  t h e McConkey P i t a n d Q u i n t e t t e  boreholes,  seam a t t h e b a s e o f t h e  in this  NW-SE t r e n d i n g  area  (Figure 51).  closely  conglomerates extremely well  i n two  a r e 0.4 t o 1.5 km  c o n s i s t of f i n e t o g r a n u l a r  (Figures sorted  argillaceous matrix. coarse t o granular porosity  (Figures  s a n d s t o n e s and  53, 5 4 ) . The s a n d s t o n e s a r e w e l l t o chert  arenites  with very  In some s e c t i o n s ,  clean  s a n d s t o n e s e x h i b i t good  little  very  well  locally  5 3 b , c , d ) . The c o n g l o m e r a t e s a r e m a i n l y  into pebbly  sandstones  r o u n d e d ; most have d i a m e t e r s o b s e r v e d measured imbricated.  (Figures  l e s s than  Figure  Clasts are well  1 cm. The l a r g e s t  pebbles  t o w a r d s 357° a n d 317° r e s p e c t i v e l y  sections,  sandstones throughout  fining-upward  trend.  indicates  clast  i n the  coarsen-upwards  (e.g.,  conglomerates a r e interbedded  and t h e r e  i s no o b v i o u s c o a r s e n i n g  I n a few s e c t i o n s  of sandstones with  paleoflow  (Figure 55).  c o n g l o m e r a t e s a r e more common  of t h e f a c i e s and t h e d e p o s i t s  54). In other  entirely  and grade  A t o u t c r o p s on Roman M o u n t a i n a n d i n t h e McConkey  In many s e c t i o n s , upper p a r t  53e,f).  clast  10x5x4 cm. P e b b l e s a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y  the d i p d i r e c t i o n of i m b r i c a t e d  directions  sorted,  intergranular  s u p p o r t e d w i t h v a r i a b l e amounts o f s a n d s t o n e m a t r i x ,  with  spaced  (Figure 52). Lithologies  Pit,  NW-SE  f a c i e s 1A o c c u r s  b e l t s that  that  little  the f a c i e s c o n s i s t s  variation in grain-size.  or  1 38  F i g u r e 5_3. C o r e and lithologies. Figure  53a.  Poorly  outcrop photographs sorted  conglomerate  of f a c i e s  1A  w i t h a sandy m a t r i x .  F i g u r e 53b,d. W e l l s o r t e d c o n g l o m e r a t e / g r a n u l a r s a n d s t o n e l a c k i n g any f i n e sandy m a t r i x and w i t h v e r y good i n t e r g r a n u l a r p o r o s i t y , (b = QMD 7609, 42.5 m; d = QMD 7620, 137 m). F i g u r e 53c. V e r y w e l l s o r t e d c o a r s e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e w i t h v e r y good i n t e r g r a n u l a r p o r o s i t y (QMD 7620, 139 m) . F i g u r e 53e. P o o r l y 7618, 66 m).  sorted  conglomerate  w i t h a sandy  matrix  (QMD  F i g u r e 5 3 f . S a n d s t o n e s and c o n g l o m e r a t e s a t t h e t o p of f a c i e s 1A i n QBD 7712. B u r r o w s c o n s i s t i n g o f s m a l l c i r c u l a r t o o v a l tubes ( p o s s i b l y Macaronichnus segregatus) are present i n s a n d s t o n e s a t t h e t o p of f a c i e i 1 A ( b ) . F a c i e s 1B o c c u r s a t t h e t o p r i g h t f r o m A-B. Note t h e v e r y s h a r p c o n t a c t (B) between f a c i e s 1B and t h e m u d s t o n e s and s i l t s t o n e s a t t h e b a s e o f f a c i e s 2A a t t h e t o p r i g h t o f t h e c o r e . -  F i g u r e 53g. P a r a l l e l b e d d i n g formed by a l t e r n a t i o n s o f f i n e - and c o a r s e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e and c o n g l o m e r a t e n e a r t h e b a s e o f f a c i e s 1A on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f Mount Frame. A s m a l l s c o u r i s p r e s e n t i n s a n d s t o n e s i n t h e upper l e f t . T h e s e s e d i m e n t s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s t h e r e s u l t o f d e p o s i t i o n from s t r o n g u p p e r f l o w r e g i m e c u r r e n t s . The s a n d s t o n e s and c o n g l o m e r a t e s a r e v e r y c l e a n w i t h good i n t e r g r a n u l a r p o r o s i t y .  139  1 40  F i g u r e 54. C o r e o f s e d i m e n t s i n f a c i e s 1A, 1B a n d t h e b a s e o f f a c i e s 2A from b o r e h o l e QBD 7201 i n t h e B a b c o c k a r e a . F i n e g r a i n e d pebbly sandstones i n the lower p a r t e x h i b i t p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g ( u p p e r f l o w r e g i m e ) and c r o s s - b e d d i n g . In the u p p e r p a r t t h e s a n d s t o n e s become c o a r s e r - g r a i n e d a n d a r e i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h c o n g l o m e r a t e s . N o t e t h e much l a r g e r s i z e o f c l a s t s i n f a c i e s 1B (between B and C) compared t o f a c i e s 1A a n d t h e v e r y a b r u p t t o p o f f a c i e s 1B.  TOP  FACIES 1A Wood/Log Impressions and Groove Marks  McConkey Pit  FACIES 1A  Figure  Frame  Babcock  Tabular Cross Bedding  5_5. P a l e o c u r r e n t  data  from  facies  1A.  143  In  some a r e a s  between abrupt  facies or  1A  basal  and  impressions the  surface  base  orientation  at  sandstones at  small  these three up  the  and  In c o r e s  separate  base of  the  and  locally  along  the  facies  contact  i s exposed,  large  basal  are  1A a t  the  position directly tree trunks  55).  in coarse  Vertical to  above t h e  D coal  bedding, cross-bedding  and  occasionally  s c a l e bedforms are  and  McConkey P i t s .  drawings t r a c e d  facies  1A  on  present  in well  Babcock M o u n t a i n , and  These b e d f o r m s . a r e  from p h o t o c o m p o s i t e s  seam  i n growth p o s i t i o n .  sandst.ones e x h i b i t p a r a l l e l  of  granular  McConkey P i t . T h e i r  the  exposed outcrops  common  surface.  massive, while  Large  is  G r o o v e marks  logs are  (Figure  present  conglomerates are  ripples.  1A  shows a p r e f e r r e d NW-SE  facies  represent  occurs  base of  channelled.  localities  to 2 m high  they  where t h e  wood f r a g m e n t s o r  features  o r i e n t a t i o n and  suggests that  •  of c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstone  D c o a l seam. The  ( F i g u r e 58b)  impressions  vertical  the  i s planar  of  Measurements o f  log  and  bed  e r o s i o n a l . In o u t c r o p s  the  near  a thin  the  illustrated  on  line  (Figure  and  on  61)  Frame  Figures  57-60. In  the Windy P i t a r e a  Mountain, for  facies  a distance  consisting near  the  planar  of  a  i s 10-12  5°  few  t o 9°  outcrop  are  gently 0.5-2  northwest  m t h i c k and  dipping  the  spaced approximately  400  m.  Babcock  continuously  Large  surfaces  (Figures  s i d e of  scale  extend  exposed  bedforms  from t h e  5 8 , 6 1 ) . Most  top  surfaces  convex-up. I n d i v i d u a l s u r f a c e s m apart  horizontally  for distances  the  d i p towards the  surfaces  the  of a p p r o x i m a t e l y  base of  and  1A  on  of  and  30-60 m.  can  be  are are  traced  Over most of  southwest, at  to  right  the  angles  outcrop to  the  1 44  NW-SE t r e n d o f f a c i e s northeast,  1A i n t h i s  the d i p d i r e c t i o n  area  ( F i g u r e 5 2 ) . Towards t h e  i s r e v e r s e d . I n a few p l a c e s , t h e  s u r f a c e s a r e t r u n c a t e d below more s t e e p l y d i p p i n g s u r f a c e s . A measured o u t c r o p Sandstones near parallel  section  at t h i s  locality  t h e base a r e m a s s i v e ,  bedded and o c c u r  trough  interbedded  conglomerates.  Northwest  of t h i s  cross-bedding,  d i p p i n g towards  i s shown  with  section  cross-bedded  conglomerates;  or  lenses of  a 1.5 m t h i c k  s e t of  197° c a n be t r a c e d l a t e r a l l y f o r  a d i s t a n c e o f 20 m a t t h e b a s e o f t h e f a c i e s . the o u t c r o p c o n s i s t s  on F i g u r e 62.  of sandstones  The u p p e r p a r t o f  interbedded  tabular cross-bedding  with  and p a r a l l e l  thin  bedding i s  common. S e t s a r e up t o 50 cm t h i c k  a n d most d i p t o w a r d s t h e  southeast  cross-stratification  (Figure 55). Herringbone  two t a b u l a r s e t s have d i p d i r e c t i o n s one  locality.  In a c o r e  Macaronichnus segregatus facies  1A i m m e d i a t e l y  near  this  170° a p a r t was o b s e r v e d a t  outcrop  were f o u n d  i n which  burrows s i m i l a r t o  i n sandstones  below t h e c o n t a c t w i t h  at the top of  facies  1B ( F i g u r e  53f). At  t h e Frame and McConkey P i t s ,  boreholes  facies  and i s c o n t i n u o u s l y exposed  two s e p a r a t e  synclines approximately  i n 12  f o r several kilometres i n 2.5 km a p a r t . F i g u r e 56  shows t h e o u t c r o p p a t t e r n a n d i s o p a c h s a r e a . The maximum t h i c k n e s s o f f a c i e s  1A i s p r e s e n t  of f a c i e s  1A i n t h i s  1A i n t h e Frame a n d  McConkey P i t i s 20 m and 40 m r e s p e c t i v e l y . t h e McConkey P i t t h e f a c i e s  thins  a d i s t a n c e of approximately  500 m ( F i g u r e s 56, 5 7 b ) . R a p i d  thinning  and p i n c h o u t  of Frame s y n c l i n e .  rapidly  On t h e s o u t h e a s t o f  of the f a c i e s a l s o  Based on t h e d a t a  from  occurs  shown  40 m t o 0 m o v e r  on t h e west  on F i g u r e 56,  side  i t  145  appears  that  facies  approximately Two thick  2 km  t y p e s of  and  1 km  1A  in this  of  large  scale  long c l i f f  southwest.  low  from  angle  bedforms are p r e s e n t  exposure 59,  facies  60,  6 1 ) . The  spaced  Most of  the  1-6  The  second  consists traced  flat,  concave or convex of  of c r o s s - b e d s  horizontally  inclined  large  Foresets are  bedding Low outcrops (Figure  the  mainly  near  and  i n the  57b).  conglomerates ( s e t s up  angle  are massive  to 3 m thick).  out.  low  in this  angle  lower  and  outcrop  w h i c h can which  In t h e s e  be are  bedforms ( F i g u r e s  p a r t of t h e  direction.  outcrop.  d i p a t a n g l e s of. 24-  Tops of  bedforms. Other  the  lower  of t h e o u t c r o p and  pinches  extend  sets are  sedimentary  include trough  cross-  bedding.  1A on  In t h e  the  be t r a c e d  s o u t h e r l y d i p p i n g s u r f a c e s are present  facies  type  are t r u n c a t e d  t o 30 m and  t h e base of t h e o u t c r o p  parallel  angle, of  low  south  sigmoidal while  m thick,  t a b u l a r or g e n t l y c u r v e d  by  structures  bedform  f o r d i s t a n c e s up  in a west-southwesterly  truncated  scale  to the  m  upwards.  i n s e t s 1.5-3  at angles p a r a l l e l  60,61). Sets occur  first  15-20  m a p a r t and  d i p p i n g s u r f a c e s . Many a r e  type  the  s u r f a c e s can  belt,  trend. in a  1A on  t h e t o p t o t h e base of t h e o u t c r o p . A few  others are  part  of  surfaces are  f o r 45-135 m.  below more s t e e p l y  40°  in a linear  (0-17°) s u r f a c e s w h i c h d i p t o w a r d s  Individual  horizontally  i s present  wide, w i t h a g e n e r a l n o r t h - s o u t h  s i d e o f Frame P i t ( F i g u r e s 57, consists  area  southwest  side  of t h e McConkey P i t  p a r t of the o u t c r o p , or e x h i b i t  Individual towards the  large  in  sandstones  scale  cross-bedding  beds a r e t h i n n e r i n the s o u t h where t h e  areas, p a r a l l e l  bedding  and  and  upper  facies  tabular cross-  146  N  121 12.5:  MCCONKEY AREA  " lOm--^.  •..1.pm...^  FRAME AREA io  I I  Om \ 10m..—' F a c i e s 1A pinches out-Jr. J15nv i 257  -  ' 241'  \ n-15  * n  =  5  S 234* n.2 1  Frame line drawing (Fig. 61) .  ,  ,  55.00 —\  J  206  n-15  Limit of Gates Formation Outcrop • Facies 1A Outcrop — <  Average Vector of Low Angle Surfaces  g  Average Vector of High Angle Cross Beds = l  •  Borehole  *  Outcrop Section  !  H  Q  0  ^  1 0 1  oo '  m e , r e s  F i g u r e 5_6. O u t c r o p p a t t e r n a n d i s o p a c h s o f f a c i e s 1A i n t h e Frame and McConkey P i t a r e a s . Note t h e r a p i d t h i n n i n g a n d p i n c h o u t o f f a c i e s 1A on t h e west s i d e o f t h e Frame a r e a and e a s t s i d e o f t h e McConkey a r e a .  147  F i g u r e 57a. L a r g e s c a l e g e n t l y d i p p i n g b e d f o r m s i n f a c i e s 1A on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f Mount Frame. The D c o a l seam i s e x p o s e d below f a c i e s 1A b e h i n d t h e f i e l d a s s i s t a n t . The l i n e d r a w i n g s h o w i n g t h e l a r g e s c a l e b e d f o r m s i n t h e Frame a r e a ( F i g u r e 6J_) i s from t h i s o u t c r o p . F i g u r e 57b. O u t c r o p o f f a c i e s 1A on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f t h e McConkey P i t ( n o t e t h e f i g u r e on r o a d f o r s c a l e ) . In t h i s a r e a f a c i e s 1A t h i n s from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 m t o 0 m o v e r a d i s t a n c e o f 500 m and p i n c h e s o u t i n t h e a r e a j u s t t o t h e r i g h t of t h i s view. Note the p r e s e n c e of l a r g e s c a l e g e n t l y d i p p i n g s u r f a c e s which t a p e r towards the south ( t o the right i n t h i s photograph).  1 49  F i g u r e 58a. C o n t a c t between f a c i e s 1A and t h e D c o a l seam i n t h e Windy P i t a r e a on t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f B a b c o c k M o u n t a i n . N o t e t h e low a n g l e i n c l i n e d s u r f a c e s i n f a c i e s 1A d i p p i n g towards the r i g h t (southwest). F i g u r e 58b. L a r g e l o g i m p r e s s i o n i n p e b b l y s a n d s t o n e s n e a r t h e b a s e o f f a c i e s 1A i n t h e McConkey P i t a r e a . F i g u r e 58c. I n t e r b e d d e d s a n d s t o n e s and c o n g l o m e r a t e s i n t h e u p p e r p a r t o f f a c i e s 1A i n t h e McConkey P i t a r e a . B e d d i n g c o n s i s t s o f t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g o r i e n t e d i n an e a s t s o u t h e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n and p a r a l l e l t o g e n t l y i n c l i n e d b e d d i n g . Note the r e a c t i v a t i o n s u r f a c e ( r ) i n t h i s s e t .  150  151  F i g u r e 5_9. E r o s i o n a l c o n t a c t between f a c i e s 1A a n d t h e D c o a l seam on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f Mount Frame. N o t e t h e low a n g l e s u r f a c e a t t h e base o f f a c i e s 1A i n F i g u r e 59a. The two i n c l i n e d s u r f a c e s shown i n F i g u r e 59b r e p r e s e n t t h e d o w n d i p t e r m i n a t i o n o f l a r g e scal'e low a n g l e i n c l i n e d s u r f a c e s . The s t i c k (arrowed) i s 2 m l o n g .  152  1 53  F i g u r e 60a. L a r g e 2-3 m t h i c k , h i g h a n g l e , i n c l i n e d c r o s s - b e d i n f a c i e s 1A on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f Mount Frame. S e t i s bounded a t t h e b a s e and a t t h e t o p by low a n g l e i n c l i n e d s u r f a c e s w h i c h e x t e n d from t h e t o p t o t h e b a s e of t h e o u t c r o p . The l a t e r a l e x t e n t of t h e s e b e d f o r m s i n t h i s o u t c r o p i s shown on t h e l i n e d r a w i n g ( F i g u r e 6 1 ) . F i g u r e 60b. C l o s e up view of t h e c r o s s - b e d i n F i g u r e the g e n t l y curved f o r e s e t s d i p p i n g to the l e f t and t h e i r t r u n c a t i o n a t t h e t o p by a low a n g l e s u r f a c e . ( N o t e : T h i s v i e w i s t i l t e d a t an a n g l e t h e low a n g l e i n c l i n e d s u r f a c e s ) .  60a s h o w i n g (westward) inclined p a r a l l e l to  West  East  D  coat  seam  FRAME  Approximate Scale 0 50 b s ^ ^ ^ M ^ J metres  10  20  30  40  50  Approximate Scale  F i g u r e 61. L i n e d r a w i n g s t r a c e d from p h o t o m o s a i c s o f f a c i e s 1A i n c l i f f e x p o s u r e s n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f B a b c o c k M o u n t a i n and t h e s o u t h s i d e o f Mount Frame.  BABCOCK  on t h e  cn  1 56  Facies 2A symmetrical dunes locally on top rare herringbone cross-stratification O ° o " - o - »  massive beds, low angle inclined bedding and tabular cross-bedding  Facies 1A  erosional contact parallel bedding (UFR) trough cross-bedding  D" Coal Seam  l  mdst fine sst coarse sst conglomerate F i g u r e 6_2. O u t c r o p s e c t i o n o f f a c i e s 1A a n d f a c i e s 1B i n t h e Windy P i t a r e a on t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f Babcock M o u n t a i n .  157  bedding  ( s e t s 8-40  Reactivation Foresets  2.2.3  Facies  1A  and  by  the  log  f a c i e s 1A  are  channel  southerly  maturity  of  at  core  (1978) as  fills.  sandstones with  The  top  or of  estuarine  of  the  coast  of D e l a w a r e  are  being  transgressed  complex and  barriers,  that  f a c i e s 1A  facies patterns  the  identified  Clifton  f a c i e s 1A  with  was  and  subtidal in  one  its lag  deposit  deposited  in  an  environment.  Studies  infilling  by  p o s i t i o n below a t r a n s g r e s s i v e m a r i n e i t i s concluded  and  extensive  shallow  together  these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  foresets  textural  considered  the  is  processes.  intertidal  presence at  tabular  indicates  marine  evidence  influence  B a s e d on  1B),  sets.  oriented  i s strong  A tidal  stratification.  i n d i c a t i v e of  their  base,  (landward) d i p p i n g  the  with  influence.  (facies  few  seam, i t s a b r u p t -  i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e of a m a r i n e  stratigraphic  in a  55).  contact  the  Macaronichnus s e g r e g a t u s burrows a r e  e n v i r o n m e n t s and  (Figure  basal  impressions  reworking p o s s i b l y a s s o c i a t e d  Thompson  58c).  were o b s e r v e d  above a c o a l  channelled  rare herringbone cross  compositional  58c)  (Figure  - Interpretation  these deposits  indicated  common  a v e r a g e t o w a r d s 099°  locally  g r o o v e , wood and  and  (Figure  o c c u r r e n c e of  erosional  that  t h i c k ) are  surfaces  d i p on  The  cm  ( K r a f t , 1971; by  the  v a r i e d assemblage  the by an  of  Ocean  sediments  e t a l . , 1974) indicates that  depositional features mouths. S p e c i f i c  (1971) i n c l u d e  intermeshing  Holocene  Sheridan  Atlantic  r e t r e a t i n g estuary Kraft,  i n the  network of  spits, tidal  dunes,  of  which a  is  environments baymouth  d e l t a s , and  lagoons.  158  In v i e w of t h e complex v a r i e t y retreating determine origin  e s t u a r y mouth e n v i r o n m e n t , specific  f o r such  however,  of  environments  thick  in tidal  deposited in a  i t is difficult  for facies  d e p o s i t s of  deltas,  facies  1A.  sandstone  The  and  to  most  likely  conglomerate  is,  i n - c h a n n e l b a r s o r e s t u a r y mouth  shoals. The  low-angle  d i p p i n g s u r f a c e s i n t h e Babcock and  outcrops are oriented of  facies  1A w h i c h  s u r f a c e s . While bars  or  suggests  t h e s e may  they  in-channel bars  (1980) and Scheldt  van  den  Levey,  1978) the  s h o a l s such  Berg  of  sediment  smaller  flood  channel  s h o a l s and  There the d a t a the  sea  oriented preserved  likely  m i g r a t i o n of t i d a l  as d e s c r i b e d by N i o s h o a l s of  Netherlands. have formed  channels  from  hear  the E a s t e r n The  from  high  angle  the  the c o n f l u e n c e of  the  i s o p a c h s of  covered  facies  t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y higher, areas  at a high angle  to the c o a s t l i n e .  the A t l a n t i c  shelf  of N o r t h  1971;  S w i f t , 1973;  1974;  1976;  termed  et a l . ,  t r a n s v e r s e t o the i n -  on  features,  deltas  facies  2A  and  t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n s ( F i g u r e s 48,49,66) t h a t  t r a n s g r e s s e d and  formed l i n e a r ,  1978;  t h e main e s t u a r i n e c h a n n e l .  i s good e v i d e n c e  shown on  accretion  i t i s c o n s i d e r e d more  in small deltas tidal  lateral  t o the t r e n d  1978;  (1982) f o r t h e  dominated  angles  Gustavson,  lateral  i n t h e Frame o u t c r o p may  deposition  Henry,  or  these are  e s t u a r y mouth i n s o u t h w e s t  foresets  after  from  right  f o r m e d on c o a r s e - g r a i n e d , p o i n t  1970;  Puigdefabregas, originated  that  have  (McGowan and G a r n e r ,  N i j m a n and that  at approximately  Frame  shoal retreat  1A d e p o s i t s , t h e y on  the  Similar  America  sea  floor  features are  (Hoyt  and  S w i f t e t a l . , 1972). T h e s e  m a s s i f s by  S w i f t et a l . , (1972),  159  represent with and  retreat  littoral  drift  p a t h s of  may  have  t h o s e on  2.2.4  the  Facies  facies  1A  the  formed e s t u a r y  -  f a c i e s 2A  E x a m p l e s of  54  and  in  facies  1B.  63.  this  consists  of  coarse-granular and  the  D coal  Facies  1B  only  a  spar occur  In  largest  less  massive.  In  symmetrical (Figure  64).  thin than  the  cores,  are  massifs  few In  1A analogous  few  bed  sandstone  (Facies  used to facies of  present. layers 1 cm  In of  outcrops at  facies  sorted  Dune c r e s t s  and  or  i s absent  are  well  Coal  conglomerates fine-grained to  63a).  conglomerates  troughs are  facies  clast  i n appearance  and  present  than  2A.  13x8x3 cm.  very  (Figure  Babcock M o u n t a i n  and  and  1B  sandy m a t r i x . C l a s t s  similar  occasionally  53,  i s thinner  facies  mudstone or  f a c i e s 2A  identify  1B  some c o r e s t h e  thick,  of  Figures  conglomerate  sections  poorly  s a n d s t o n e s and  dunes a r e  (15-90 cm)  shown on  d i r e c t l y by  amounts of  between  a v e r a g e much c o a r s e r  centimetres a  contact  c l a s t o b s e r v e d measured  base of  the  on  i s absent,  conglomerates are  interbwith  sediments at  i n cores are  seam i s o v e r l a i n  is occasionally  sandstone,  1A  sandstone.  the  a thin  i s the'main c r i t e r i o n  supported with v a r i a b l e r o u n d e d . The  1),  pebbly granular  in t h i s unit  In a r e a s where f a c i e s  often  facies  mouths  shelf.  (Figure  this facies  Clasts 1A,  estuary  shoal-retreat  i s marked by  v e r y c o a r s e c o n g l o m e r a t e or 1B).  form at  associated  Description  Roman M o u n t a i n  and  depocentres  marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n ,  modern A t l a n t i c  1B  N o r t h of  coastal  convergences which  c a p e s . Thus a f t e r  deposits to  the  on  in f a c i e s  the the  rounded,  Frame top with  1B  are  Pits, surface.  160  amplitudes  ranging  between  m. C r e s t s a r e s t r a i g h t the  dune c r e s t s  12-30 cm and w a v e l e n g t h s o f 0.8-2.4  or s l i g h t l y  a t t h e Babcock  are s l i g h t l y  north.  In t h e Babcock  troughs  asymmetric,  of the dunes.  outcrop,  bedding plane surface 290°  Figure  (Figure with  a t the  65). O c c a s i o n a l l y the  the steep  side  towards the  coarse pebbles a r e exposed  At a second l o c a l i t y  axes o f p e b b l e s and c o b b l e s  The a v e r a g e t r e n d o f  and a t two l o c a l i t i e s  Frame P i t i s 1 0 7 ° , 106° and 062° crests  sinuous.  in facies  show a p r e f e r r e d  a t Babcock,  1B, e x p o s e d on a orientation  i n the  the long flat  towards  110 — 0  (Figure 65).  64. S y m m e t r i c a l dunes on t h e t o p s u r f a c e o f f a c i e s 1B a t an o u t c r o p on t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e o f Babcock M o u n t a i n .  161  F i g u r e 63a. C o r e p h o t o g r a p h s showing t h e a b r u p t c o n t a c t between f a c i e s 1B (A) and f a c i e s 2A. N o t e t h a t c o n g l o m e r a t e s a t t h e t o p o f f a c i e s 1B o c c u r i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h a t h i n (<1 cm) s a n d s t o n e beds s i m i l a r i n a p p e a r a n c e t o t h e s a n d s t o n e s i n f a c i e s 2A. The s a n d s t o n e s a t t h e b a s e o f f a c i e s 2A a r e v e r y f i n e - g r a i n e d and o c c u r i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h d a r k g r e y mudstone. P a r a l l e l b e d d i n g , low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g ( c ) r i p p l e s , l e n t i c u l a r and f l a s e r b e d d i n g a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e s e deposits. F i g u r e 63b. P y r i t e (py) i n s e d i m e n t s (QBD 7302, 231.5 m)  at the  F i g u r e 63c. R i p p l e s , l e n t i c u l a r b e d d i n g s e d i m e n t s a t t h e b a s e o f f a c i e s 2A  base of  facies  2A.  and b i o t u r b a t i o n i n (QBD 7721, 215.55 m).  F i g u r e 63d. S i l t s t o n e bed a t t h e b a s e of f a c i e s 2A w h i c h e x h i b i t s low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g i n t h e l o w e r p a r t and r i p p l e s a t t h e t o p . N o t e t h e s h a r p b a s e and i n t e r n a l s c o u r ( s ) (QBD 771 1 , 1 40.85 m). F i g u r e 63e. V e r y f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e bed a t t h e b a s e o f f a c i e s 2A w h i c h e x h i b i t s p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g a t t h e b a s e and r i p p l e s , w i t h numerous T e r e b e l l i n a b u r r o w s ( t ) , a t t h e t o p . (QBD 7715, 258.8 m). F i g u r e 6 3 f . F i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e i n f a c i e s 2A i n w h i c h b e d d i n g c o n s i s t s of b r o a d c o n c a v e upwards and upward domed f e a t u r e s ( s w a l e y c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ) . N o t e t h e low a n g l e i n t e r s e c t i o n s of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ( a r r o w e d ) and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c flaggy weathering.  U2  163  2.2.5  Facies  1B  B a s e d on  - Interpretation  i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  facies  1B  During  a marine t r a n s g e s s i o n ,  deposits  i s i n t e r p r e t e d as  may  be  eroded  c u r r e n t s . Most e r o s i o n breaker-surf are  an  agent  series  upper  of  upper  area  sediment  being  deposits  may  deposit.  Examples of  of  the  occurs the  1B  top  shoreface  of  pebbles  1B,  emplaced  seaward  1976,  p.  b e h i n d on  (Swift,  i n the  coarse  (1.967, 1970)  Storms  1976,  sediment are  lower  and  sea  p. eroded a  shoreface1978). I f  heavy m a t e r i a l ,  floor  from the  tidal  or  surface.  255-309; E l l i o t ,  the  wave and  e i t h e r l a n d w a r d as  t r a n s g r e s s i v e marine  f o r the  with  coarse  to  the these  form a t h i n  lag deposits Holocene  lag  have  been  succession  t h i c k e s t i n s e c t i o n s where i t  which  suggests  coarse-grained The  thin  the  base of  interbeds  deposits, f a c i e s 2A.  symmetrical  indicates that  once  that  the  sandstones  s a n d s t o n e s and  offshore  p r e s e n c e of  i n the  and  sandstone which occur  i n t e r p r e t e d as  facies  or  f a c i e s 1A,  fine-grained  local  and  i n f a c i e s 1B.  to sediments at the  erosion  plain  shoreface  land  l a r g e volumes of  i s coarsest  main s o u r c e  interbedded are  left  former  deposit.  Delta.  conglomerates very  the  eroded contains  Oomkens  Rhone  on  (Swift,  be  by  Facies  when t h e  lag  coastal  occurs  of  fans  offshore  described  s h o r e l i n e and  d e p t h s by  shoreface  washover  marine  to c o n s i d e r a b l e  255-309). D u r i n g a storm, from the  a transgressive  zone p a s s e s o v e r  important  stratigraphic position,  in a  formed the the  the  in f a c i e s  their  top  coarse sea  and  cores  surface  sands  floor  1B  similarity  These beds, t o g e t h e r  dunes on  l a g were moved a b o u t on  siltstone  conglomerate b a s e d on  is  and  of  few  latter  by  with of  and bottom  164  FACIES 1B  Axes of Symmetrical  SW Frame  FACIES 1B  Dunes  NE Frame  Pebble Long Axes  Babcock  FACIES 2A Axes of Symmetrical Wave Ripples  290° n = 116 n = 13  88°  McConkey Pit  Babcock  FACIES 5B  Tabular Cross Bedding  292  FACIES 2B Wood/Log Impressions and Groove Marks  n=34  Roman Mtn  Kostuick Mtn  194 Kostuick Mtn  Figure  6_5. P a l e o c u r r e n t  data  from  facies  1B, 2A, 2B and 5B.  165  currents.  Bedforms s i m i l a r t o those  described  f r o m modern c o n t i n e n t a l  (Gillie,  1979) a n d V a n c o u v e r  ancient  s e d i m e n t s by L e c k i e  Facies thick  the  2A i s a l a t e r a l l y  and  together  thicker  sandstones  i n sections  found h i g h e r  within  68) i n t h e (Figures  fine-  1A i s t h i c k  to fine-grained grain-size  sorted  s u b l i t h a r e n i t e s or chert a t the base.  t h e mudstones become t h i c k e r a n d a r e a l s o  up i n f a c i e s 2A. Towards t h e s o u t h ,  67e).  t h e upper p a r t  streaks  a r e common  isolated  i n t h e upper p a r t of  In t h e southern p a r t  o f f a c i e s 2A i s r e p l a c e d  s i l t s t o n e s and very  interbedded  48, 49)  1A i s t h i n o r a b s e n t .  mudstones a n d s i l t s t o n e s a r e p r e s e n t  2A ( F i g u r e  directly  t h e s a n d s t o n e s . The s a n d s t o n e s  conglomerates and c o a r s e - g r a n u l a r  occur  facies overlies  i n a r e a s where f a c i e s  where f a c i e s  well  pebbles or t h i n pebbly  Thin  this  o f Roman M o u n t a i n  63, 6 7 ) . I n most s e c t i o n s  t o extremely  Towards t h e n o r t h ,  area,  1B n o r t h  c o n s i s t mainly of very  (Figures  a r e n i t e s . Thin  facies  facies  s e q u e n c e up t o 28 m  with the cross-sections  c o a r s e n s upward s l i g h t l y well  i n w a t e r d e p t h s o f 20-100 m.  extensive  f a c i e s 2A i s t h i n n e r  Lithologies  are  e t a l . , 1979) a n d i n  seam. I s o p a c h s o f f a c i e s 2A ( F i g u r e  Babcock a r e a show t h a t  (Yorath  Zealand  wave m o t i o n on t h e s e a b o t t o m  swell  5 1 ) . In a few s e c t i o n s ,  D coal  o f f New  been  2A - D e s c r i p t i o n  w h i c h o c c u r s above  (Figure  1B have  ( 1 9 8 1 ) . I n t h e modern e x a m p l e s t h e  p r o d u c e d by s t o r m p r o p a g a t e d  Facies  shelves  Island  dunes a r e f o r m e d by o s c i l l a t o r y  2.2.6  in facies  o f t h e Babcock by t h i c k  s a n d s t o n e s o f f a c i e s 2B.  fine-grained  sandstones  which  w i t h d a r k g r e y mudstones a t t h e b a s e o f f a c i e s  166  2A e x h i b i t l e n t i c u l a r , angle cross-bedding  f l a s e r wavy, p a r a l l e l bedding and  low  ( F i g u r e 63). The base of the  s i l t s t o n e / s a n d s t o n e beds are abrupt or e r o s i o n a l and  some beds  c o n t a i n small mudstone pebbles or r i p - u p c l a s t s . In outcrops at the Frame and McConkey P i t s , hummocky c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n occurs i n very f i n e - g r a i n e d sandstones f a c i e s . Symmetrical beds. The average  near the base of the  wave r i p p l e s are common on the tops of these  t r e n d of r i p p l e c r e s t s i s 088°-268° ( F i g u r e  65) . Sandstones of f a c i e s 2A crop out on the northwest Babcock Mountain. Bedding  s i d e of  i n these outcrops c o n s i s t of p a r a l l e l  bedding or low angle cross-bedding with frequent concave upwards scours  (Figure 63f, 67a,  67b). The  scours are 15-50  cm t h i c k  and  are up to 4 m i n width. Bedding w i t h i n the scours i s p a r a l l e l at  or  a very low angle to the b a s a l e r o s i o n s u r f a c e . Sets of  t a b u l a r cross-bedding were observed  i n a few p l a c e s .  O c c a s i o n a l l y the sandstones  are massive  s u b - v e r t i c a l tubes p o s s i b l y  formed by l i q u i f a c t i o n  The  sandstones  0.5-2  or c o n t a i n v e r t i c a l  to  processes.  i n these outcrops weather c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  as  cm t h i c k f l a g g y s h e e t s . B i v a l v e s showing evidence of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were found i n  sandstones  at the Babcock outcrops. These were subsequently  i d e n t i f i e d by Dr. P. Smith  (U.B.C.) as marine p e c t i n i d  bivalves,  probably Entolium and Camptonectes. In a few c o r e s , v a l v e s showing random o r i e n t a t i o n s were found c o n c e n t r a t e d i n beds up to  15 cm  thick.  H o r i z o n t a l t r a i l s and burrows are f a i r l y common i n the mudstones and s i l t s t o n e s at the base of f a c i e s 2A..These i n c l u d e  Figure  66.  I s o p a c h map  of  facies  2A  i n the  Babcock  area.  168  F i g u r e s 67a,b. S w a l e y c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n f a c i e s 2A s a n d s t o n e s on t h e n o r t h w e s t s i d e of B a b c o c k M o u n t a i n . B e d d i n g c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s of s u p e r i m p o s e d concave upwards s h a l l o w s c o u r s . I n t e r n a l l y , t h e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i s p a r a l l e l o r a t a v e r y low a n g l e t o t h e s c o u r s . A s h a l l o w 4 m wide, c o n c a v e upwards f e a t u r e w i t h a s c o u r e d b a s e i s p r e s e n t a t t h e r i g h t of F i g u r e 67a. The s t i c k ( a r r o w e d ) i s 2 m long. F i g u r e s 67c,d. Low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g i n f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s o f f a c i e s 2A (c = QBD 7204, 97 f t , d= QBD 20.7 m) .  7721,  F i g u r e 67e. C o r e f r o m t h e u p p e r p a r t of f a c i e s 2a i n b o r e h o l e QBD 7712 ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 215 m). S a n d s t o n e s a r e f i n e - g r a i n e d w i t h a few i s o l a t e d p e b b l e s and t h i n p e b b l y s t r e a k s . B e d d i n g c o n s i s t s o f p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g and low a n g l e c r o s s bedding .  1 70  types  similar  t o S c a l a r i t u b a / H e l m i n t h o i d a , C h o n d r i t e s and  Terebellina(Figure  63e). V e r t i c a l  burrows a r e a l s o p r e s e n t but  a r e n o t common. O c c a s i o n a l l y , i n d i v i d u a l  beds o r t h e t o p s o f  beds a r e s t r o n g l y b i o t u r b a t e d . In some c o r e s replaced  by p y r i t e .  i n mudstones in  (Figures  near  zone o f h i g h  thick  are absent  radioactivity  the t o p of f a c i e s  48, 4 9 ) . T h i s  a p p e a r s t o be c a u s e d heavy m i n e r a l s  fossils  a s 1-2 mm  laminae  or very  rare  sandstones.  1-2 m t h i c k  log) occurs  i s a l s o found  ( F i g u r e 63b). Trace  the o v e r l y i n g A  Pyrite  burrows a r e p a r t l y  2A i n t h e Babcock  r a d i o a c t i v e zone o c c u r s  by h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  (mainly  (on t h e gamma r a y  z i r c o n ) which occur  area  i n sandstones and  (up t o 1.9%) o f as  disseminated  grains.  2.2.7 F a c i e s 2A - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Trace these  fossils  and p e c t i n i d  s e d i m e n t s were d e p o s i t e d  According  to Chamberlain  Terebellina  bivalves in facies i n a marine  (1978),  are restricted  2A show t h a t  environment.  Helminthoida/Scalarituba and.  t o marine  sediments d e p o s i t e d  below  wave b a s e . Some o f t h e s a n d s t o n e beds a t t h e base o f f a c i e s exhibit  hummocky  deposits  (Walker,  Lithologies facies  cross s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  characteristic  become c o a r s e r - g r a i n e d shallower  i n the upper p a r t of  water depths.  s a n d s t o n e s w h i c h c r o p o u t on t h e n o r t h w e s t i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by p a r a l l e l  cross-bedding Walker  storm  1979).  2A, s u g g e s t i n g  Mountain  of  2A  with  frequent  (1982) have d e s c r i b e d s i m i l a r  s i d e of Babcock  bedding  concave-upward  Bedding i n  and low a n g l e  s c o u r s . L e c k i e and  bedding  which they  call  171  swaley c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i . o n  i n lower Gates marine  n o r t h o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . They generally  note that  sediments  the troughs  (swales) are  wider and s h a l l o w e r than t r o u g h c r o s s - b e d d i n g and a r e  rarely  associated  w i t h angle of repose c r o s s  Walker  (1982) i n t e r p r e t  in a storm-dominated  strata.  swaley c r o s s - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  marine  environment,  L e c k i e and as forming  p r o b a b l y above wave  base. There of  facies  part  i s no e v i d e n c e f o r emergence 2A. On t h e c o n t r a r y ,  o f t h e Babcock  area,  s e d i m e n t s a t t h e base trace  fossils  indicates  t h e s e beds  From t h i s deposited  facies  Thickness  abundant  Helminthoida/Scalarituba,  were d e p o s i t e d  area,  below  wave  marine  which  base.  facies  2A was  s h e l f - s h a l l o w marine  towards  t h e upper  environment.  part  of f a c i e s  2A i s  t h e s o u t h by c o n g l o m e r a t e s and c o a r s e  sandstones of f a c i e s  (west o f Babcock  2B ( F i g u r e s  Mountain)  r a n g e s between 0-18 m.  2A o c c u r a b o v e a n d below  generally The variation range  contain  48, 49, 6 6 ) . T h i s  i s p r e s e n t i n 7 b o r e h o l e s and o u t c r o p s on K o s t u i c k  Mountain  facies  3B w h i c h  g r a d a t i o n a l l y by  2B - D e s c r i p t i o n  replaced  to granular  2A i s o v e r l a i n  evidence i t i s concluded that  In t h e Babcock gradually  facies  i n a storm-dominated  2.2.8 F a c i e s  roots) at the top  i n some c o r e s i n t h e n o r t h e r n  of f a c i e s  including  (e.g.,  in grain-size  in size  in this  Mountain.  I n some s e c t i o n s , facies  a b r u p t and o c c a s i o n a l l y conglomerates  and Roman  sandstones of  2B. The b a s a l c o n t a c t i s  gradational.  facies  and s o r t i n g .  show c o n s i d e r a b l e Clasts are well  from 0.5-6 cm. C o n g l o m e r a t e s  r o u n d e d and  a r e f r e q u e n t l y more  172  common  i n t h e lower  p a r t . T h e s e a r e g e n e r a l l y m a s s i v e and p o o r l y  sorted  w i t h a sandstone  matrix.  b a s e . On K o s t u i c k M o u n t a i n ,  mainly  sandstones  of c l e a n , very  o f l o g s a n d wood  2B show a p r e f e r r e d o r i e n t a t i o n  well sorted coarse  w i t h good p o r o s i t y , i n t e r b e d d e d  conglomerates.  Primary  include p a r a l l e l In b o r e h o l e facies  i s common n e a r t h e  ( F i g u r e 6 5 ) . I n t h e upper p a r t ,  0  consist  spar  impressions  f r a g m e n t s a t t h e base o f f a c i e s towards O9 -189°  Coal  bedding  coal  to granular thin  s t r u c t u r e s i n the sandstones  and c r o s s - b e d d i n g .  7402 ( F i g u r e 48) s a n d s t o n e s  2B a r e o v e r l a i n  argillaceous  sedimentary  with  lithologies  a t the t o p of  a b r u p t l y by a 1 m t h i c k  interval  of very  a n d c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstone. R o o t s a r e a b s e n t  below t h e c o a l .  2.2.9  F a c i e s 2B - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n The  stratigraphic  position  and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  f a c i e s are c o n s i s t e n t with a shallow channel  interpretation.  are p r e s e n t . on  In most  marine or d i s t r i b u t a r y  I t i s probable  sections facies  of t h i s  that both  environments  2B has an a b r u p t  base and  K o s t u i c k M o u n t a i n , o r i e n t e d wood a n d l o g i m p r e s s i o n s a r e  present lower  along  f e a t u r e s suggest  p a r t o f t h e f a c i e s was d e p o s i t e d  oriented  wood and l o g i m p r e s s i o n s  approximately symmetrical part  t h e b a s a l s u r f a c e . These  north-south,  wave r i p p l e s  of the f a c i e s ,  coarse  to granular  w h i c h have c l e a r l y  that the  i n a c h a n n e l . The  indicate  the channel  t r e n d was  normal t o t h e t r e n d of axes o f  of f a c i e s  2A ( F i g u r e 6 5 ) . The upper  however, c o n s i s t s sandstones  of c l e a n , w e l l - s o r t e d ,  w i t h good  intergranular porosity  been r e w o r k e d . T h e s e d e p o s i t s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d  1 73  as  forming  and  on  shallow  extensively  marine bars at  winnowed and  the  mouth o f  r e w o r k e d by  the  waves and  channel  marine  currents. The may  be  argillaceous coal overlying  a n a l a g o u s t o the  described River from  by  Delta  Coleman  grinds  ( 1 9 7 6 ) , on  distributaries.  l o g s and  t i m e s of  transported  organic  f l o o d . On  down t h e  reaching  mouth  2.2.10 F a c i e s This the m.  3A  Laterally,  49).  The  facies  3B  deposits.  facies  3A  may  of  borehole  (Figure  The  in part  (Figure  much l e s s  with  The  49),  sandstones, with  of  of  f a c i e s 3B  to  from the In  49)  f a c i e s 3A 14 m of of  other  siltstone  fine-  and  to  occurs  flanked  suggests i n the  in by  that  southern  is erosional.  In  sediment  f a c i e s 2A, sections,  by  erosion  coarse-grained  occasional  31 4.8,  m). of  in  and  (Figures  wide  f a c i e s 2B  top  14  f a c i e s 3A  (Figure  approximately  1-2  between  0.75-1.5 km  base of  consist mainly minor  i n numerous b o r e h o l e s  by  section  nearby b o r e h o l e s .  (approximately  Lithologies  during  upper p o r t i o n s  shows t h a t  equivalent  a p p e a r s t o have been e r o d e d comparison  river  zone, wave a c t i o n  in thickness  areas  cross  Babcock a r e a .  7306  comes  into concentrations  f a c i e s 2A  68)  o r NE-SW t r e n d i n g  the  down t h e  i n the  facies i s replaced  map  N-S  part  above  where i t r a n g e s  linear  be  material  - Description  this  isopach  matter,  bars.  f a c i e s occurs  Babcock a r e a  organic  nearshore  debris  organic  7402  mouth b a r s of M i s s i s s i p p i  wood p a r t i c l e s  l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of o r g a n i c distributary  the  transported the  in borehole  terrestial  There the  debris  coarser  f a c i e s 2B  interbeds  of  is  •  MM .77!!  /  VJ. • .  -30  775: .  z  row •••./••.»» -7118  o  I  7710^'  / J.-.|-.-.-\LV.-.-.-.-.-.-.-;./.•.  I #  7107  N  54 55  500  1000  contours in metres  I Distribution of F a c i e s 3 B  ISOPACH MAP FACIES 3A/3B  F i g u r e 68. Isopach map of f a c i e s 3A and 3B i n the Babcock area,  175  F i g u r e 69a. C o r e f r o m b o r e h o l e QBD 7711 (113 m) showing t h e e r o s i o n a l c o n t a c t between f a c i e s 3A a n d f a c i e s 2k. N o t e t h e p r e s e n c e o f c o a l s p a r and mudstone p e b b l e s i n f a c i e s 3A s a n d s t o n e s and t h e i r c o a r s e r g r a i n - s i z e compared t o s a n d s t o n e s i n f a c i e s 2a. F i g u r e 69b. C o r e f r o m b o r e h o l e QBD 7306 (1212 f t ) . In t h i s c o r e , f a c i e s 3A s a n d s t o n e s c o n t a i n abundant mudstone r i p - u p clasts. F i g u r e 69c. C o r e f r o m t h e upper p a r t o f f a c i e s 3A i n b o r e h o l e QBD 7711 (117 m). B e d d i n g c o n s i s t s m a i n l y o f p a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n s , d e f i n e d by t h i n a l t e r n a t i o n s o f f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e , s i l t s t o n e and c a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s , and r i p p l e s . Compare t h i s t o t h e c o a r s e r and more m a s s i v e s a n d s t o n e s i n t h e l o w e r p a r t o f f a c i e s 3A i n F i g u r e 69a.  176  177  Figures  70a,b,c,d.  Core  from  the lower p a r t  of  facies  3A.  F i g u r e s 70_a,b,c. C r o s s b e d d i n g i n medium- t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s (a = QBD 7209, 940.5 f t ; b = QBD 7209, 935 f t ; c = QBD 7721 , 191.7 m). F i g u r e 70d. M a s s i v e 129.6 m). Figures  fine-  70e,f_,g_. C o r e  from  to medium-grained the upper  part  of  sandstone facies  (QBD  3A.  F i g u r e 70e. P a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n d e f i n e d by t h i n l a m i n a e c a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s i n f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e (QBD 115 m) . Figure 70f. F i n e - g r a i n e d r i p p l e d with siltstone/carbonaceous  7711,  of 7711,  sandstone with c u r r e n t r i p p l e s d r a p e s . (QBD 7711, 115 m) .  F i g u r e 70g. R i p p l e s (?wave formed) and t h i n i n t e r l a y e r e d sandstone-mudstone. (QBD 7720, 101.75).  1 79  dark  g r e y mudstone  moderately  to very well  p e b b l e s and  large  occasionally cores, The  (Figures  erosional  sequences,  throughout  Primary  sedimentary  parallel massive  (Figures  climbing  ripple  coal  spar i s  69a,b).  In some  form s i n g l e  remains  relatively  of  facies  i n t h e lower p a r t  p a r t s of the  7 0 e , f , g ) . Wave- and lamination  3A and  s a n d s t o n e s o r as  and  material  current-formed  metres.  these thick) are  and  commonly  ripples sequences ripples,  bedding are p r e s e n t . F i n e -  i s v e r y common i n t h e upper  o c c u r s as t h i n flasers  and  fining-upward  flaser  or  i n t h e t o p few  lamination  base.  or s t a c k e d  with abrupt  i n the lower p a r t  Parallel  Mudstone  are present at the  upward o n l y  sandstones  69a,b).  grained carbonaceous  laminae  in rippled  in parallel  part  bedded  sandstone.  some c o r e s t h e s a n d s t o n e s a r e i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h d a r k  mudstones up t o 1.5  m thick  mudstones c o n t a i n  flaser  thick  2.5-13 m t h i c k ,  structures  t h e upper  69c,  The  (Figures  3A t y p i c a l l y  or f i n e s  b e d d i n g . The  (Figures  In  a r e common and  the base  are  or c a l c - a r e n i t e s .  i n c l u d e s c r o s s - b e d d i n g ( s e t s up t o 50 cm  characterise  of  sandstones  In some c o r e s g r a i n - s i z e  uniform  sequences  chert  up t o 80 cm  in facies  bases.  7 0 ) . The  rip-up clasts  conglomerates  fining-upward  sorted  p r e s e n t near  sandstones  69,  thin  ( e . g . , b o r e h o l e 7306, F i g u r e streaks  of r i p p l e d ,  bedded s a n d s t o n e . C o n v o l u t e b e d d i n g  intervals.  Occasionally  Burrows a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y elsewhere  biogenic  49).  lenticular  of  i s common i n t h e s e  t h e mudstones c o n t a i n p r e s e n t near  grey  shell  fragments.  the top of f a c i e s  structures are notably absent.  3A,  but  180  2.2.11 F a c i e s This  3B - D e s c r i p t i o n  f a c i e s occurs  equivalent  laterally  Lithologies siltstones  3B  sequences,  shows up c l e a r l y  units  chert  which range  interbedded  with  i n the s i l t  on gamma r a y l o g s  form  in thickness  between  f a c i e s 2A a n d  and c l a y c o n t e n t  (Figures to very  a r e n i t e s or chert  thin  which  48, 4 9 ) . well  sorted  a r e n i t e s . They o c c u r i n  from a few c e n t i m e t r e s  ( g e n e r a l l y l e s s than  t o 5 m,  50 cm) s i l t s t o n e s a n d  mudstones. Sandstone u n i t s a r e t h i c k e r  i n t h e upper p a r t  f a c i e s . Mudstones and s i l t s t o n e s  throughout  common  i n the lower  Facies burrows thin  with  shaped, v e r t i c a l  b u t a r e more  71, 7 2 ) . The p a r a l l e l  beds a n d numerous  bedding  or disseminated  i s d e f i n e d by  carbonaceous  near the  a n d s u b - v e r t i c a l t y p e s and i n c l u d e A r e n i c o l i t e s  to Helminthoida/Scalarituba  are occasionally  t h e base o f f a c i e s 3B. The b u r r o w s o c c u r argillaceous intervals.  alternate  with  material  t h e s a n d s t o n e s . Burrows a r e d o m i n a t e d by 'U'-  , D i p l o c r a t e r i o n , Asterosoma and S k o l i t h o s . H o r i z o n t a l similar  of the  part.  laminae of s i l t s t o n e  interbedded  occur  3B i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by p a r a l l e l  (Figures  is  9-18 m t h i c k , w h i c h g r a d a t i o n a l l y  sandstones are moderately  feldspathic  i t  sandstones,  typically  7 1 ) . The c o n t a c t  i s marked by an i n c r e a s e  where  48, 49, 6 8 ) .  t o medium-grained  and mudstones. These d e p o s i t s  f a c i e s 2A ( F i g u r e  The  i n t h e Babcock a r e a  t o f a c i e s 3A ( F i g u r e s  c o n s i s t of f i n e -  coarsening-upward overlie  i n cores  Strongly  commonly  i n t e r v a l s i n which burrows a r e a b s e n t  These b i o t u r b a t i o n p a t t e r n s  suggest  that  present  most commonly i n  b u r r o w e d beds  T r u n c a t e d b u r r o w s a n d e s c a p e t r a c e s a r e common  burrows  or r a r e .  (Figures  deposition  72e,f).  i n f a c i e s 3A  181  F i g u r e 7J_. C o r e of f a c i e s 3B f r o m b o r e h o l e QBD 7201. N o t e t h e gradational l o w e r c o n t a c t of f a c i e s 3B w i t h f a c i e s 2A (A) and t h e a b r u p t t o p o f f a c i e s 3B ( B ) . In t h i s c o r e . f a c i e s 3B i s o v e r l a i n by c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstones o f f a c i e s 5. In t h e l o w e r p a r t of f a c i e s 3B f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e s and s i l t s t o n e s o c c u r i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h t h i n laminae of dark g r e y mudstone and c a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s . P a r a l l e l b e d d i n g i s w e l l d e v e l o p e d . The s a n d s t o n e s c o a r s e n - u p w a r d s and argillaceous m a t e r i a l becomes l e s s common a t t h e t o p . Note t h e numerous b u r r o w s i n f a c i e s 3B. T h e s e i n c l u d e 'U'-shaped (U) and v e r t i c a l (S) t y p e s ( S k o l i t h o s ) .  182  183  Figure Figures or Figure  72. T r a c e  fossils  and b i o t u r b a t i o n i n f a c i e s  3B.  72a,b. L a r g e 'U'-shaped b u r r o w s ( p r o b a b l y D i p l o c r a t e r i o n R h i z o c o r a l l i u m ) (QBD 7754, 145.6 m). 72c. S t r o n g l y  burrowed  interval  (QBD  F i g u r e 72d. T h i n v e r t i c a l mudstone f i l l e d bedded s a n d s t o n e (QBD 7754, 138 m).  7201,  burrows  248'). in parallel  F i g u r e s 7 2 e , f . Note t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e of v e r t i c a l t o s u b - v e r t i c a l b u r r o w s , t h e a l t e r n a t i o n o f s t r o n g l y b u r r o w e d i n t e r v a l s (b) w i t h i n t e r v a l s i n which burrows a r e a b s e n t , t r u n c a t e d b u r r o w s ( t ) and e s c a p e t r a c e s (e) (QBD 7201, 255 f t and QBD 7201, 262 f t ) . F i g u r e s 72g,h. T r a c e 146.15 m).  formed by b u r r o w i n g b i v a l v e  ( ? ) (QBD  7754,  784-  185  was  intermittent  and  alternated  w i t h p e r i o d s of e r o s i o n  (Howard,  1978) . Other and  rare  sedimentary  structures  c r o s s - b e d d i n g . Low  o f some c o r e s ( F i g u r e  The  t o p of f a c i e s  2.2.12 F a c i e s  3A and  internal  associations subtidal  ripples  sandstones  3B  beds o c c a s i o n a l l y  i s a b r u p t and  the  contain  t h e y were d e p o s i t e d by  of f a c i e s  3B  -  of f a c i e s  overlain  carbonaceous  by  facies  mudstones and  3B  areal  distribution  suggest that  shoal deposits  Reineck  1975)  t i d e dominated  thin  similar  and  and  Singh,  deltas  1973,  (Meckel,  p.  facies  they r e p r e s e n t  to those found at  t h e mouths of modern e s t u a r i e s - (Oomkens and T e r w i n d t , 1960;  or  Interpretation  3A and  Robinson,  3C  5.  characteristics,  c h a n n e l and  and  (0.1-1  tops are p r e s e n t near  indicating  siltstones,  seams a t t h e b a s e  The  include  events.  more commonly by coal  rippled  73a). These  s m a l l mudstone r i p - u p c l a s t s h i g h energy  3B  angle cross-bedded  m t h i c k ) w i t h a b r u p t b a s e s and base  in facies  1960;  315-321; G r e e r ,  1975;  Wright  et a l . ,  1975). The  most c o m p r e h e n s i v e  c h a n n e l s and  description  s h o a l s i s p r o v i d e d by R e i n e c k  315-321) f o r t h e c h a n n e l s and Nordergrunde and  and O u t e r  Jade  t o 3 km  average t o 20 m)  2 km and  wide.  wide  The  Singh  (1973, of  r e g i o n s i n the N o r t h Sea.  s h o a l s range  i n the Nordergrunde  velocities  and  subtidal  s h o a l s (sand tongues)  shoals are o r i e n t e d perpendicular  a r e up  of modern  are g r e a t e s t  the Channels  t o the s h o r e l i n e . from  2.6-18 km  p.  Channels  long  and  r e g i o n . Water d e p t h s i n t h e c h a n n e l s . On  (up  the  186  F i g u r e 73a. V e r y f i n e - g r a i n e d s a n d s t o n e bed c h a r a c t e r i s e d i n t e r n a l l y by low a n g l e c r o s s - b e d d i n g and a r i p p l e d t o p . Base of f a c i e s 3B i n b o r e h o l e QBD 7715, 240.7 m. F i g u r e s 73b,d. P a r a l l e l l a m i n a t i o n and r i p p l e s i n f a c i e s 3B. = QBD 7754, 144.65 ; d = QBD 7724, 185.4 m).  (b  F i g u r e 73c. S m a l l f l e c k s of d i s s e m i n a t e d c a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s on a b e d d i n g p l a n e s u r f a c e i n f a c i e s 3B s a n d s t o n e s . C u r r e n t s a r e i n d i c a t e d by t h e p r e f e r r e d o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e c a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s . (QBD 7754, 146.3 m). F i g u r e 73e. I n f e r r e d t i d a l f l a t d e p o s i t s ( f a c i e s 3C) i n b o r e h o l e QBD 7711. Note the t h i c k e r u n i t s o f s a n d s t o n e i n t h e l o w e r p a r t (low t i d a l f l a t d e p o s i t s ) o v e r l a i n by l e n t i c u l a r , f l a s e r bedded and t h i n i n t e r l a y e r e d s a n d s t o n e s and mudstones (mid t i d a l f l a t d e p o s i t s ) w h i c h g r a d e upwards i n t o m a s s i v e s i l t y mudstones ( h i g h t i d a l f l a t d e p o s i t s ) . The C c o a l seam o c c u r s a few m e t r e s above t h i s c o r e . ) .  187  5cm  188  shoals,  water d e p t h s  In t h e N o r d e r g r u n d e intertidal largest  flats  bedforms  megaripples) shoals  a r e lower.  r e g i o n , t h e s h o a l s a r e seaward e x t e n s i o n s o f  and a r e r e f e r r e d  t o a s sand  t o n g u e s . The  ( s a n d waves w i t h a m p l i t u d e s  are present  include  Channels  a r e l e s s a n d maximum v e l o c i t i e s  ripples,  up t o 5.5 m a n d  i n the c h a n n e l s . Bedding megaripples  and l a m i n a t e d  and s h o a l s m i g r a t e  laterally  a t average  thin  a t t h e base of f a c i e s  t y p e s on t h e sands. r a t e s o f 27-115  m/year. The channel facies  l a g d e p o s i t s . Cross-bedding i s the r e s u l t  the deeper and  conglomerates  silts  i n the lower  a r e d e p o s i t e d from  I n modern t i d a l  o f numerous mudstone r i p - u p c l a s t s  suggests  that  mudstone w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t  channels  Lithologies reflecting  are finer-grained  in facies  current v e l o c i t i e s  reflects  the g e n e r a l l y  patterns  in facies  from tidal  formed i n  a s d e s c r i b e d by G r e e r  t o t h e c h a n n e l s . The numerous b u r r o w s  bedding  eroded  (1975)  of the G e o r g i a c o a s t .  t h e lower  intermittent  t i d e s . The  T h i c k beds of  i n a few c o r e s , may have  deep-protected holes i n the channel  muds  i n f a c i e s 3A  s u s p e n s i o n d e p o s i t s were l a r g e l y  during periods of strong current a c t i v i t y .  tidal  of the  channels  suspension during slack  presence  for  part  o f t h e m i g r a t i o n o f dunes o r s a n d waves i n  p a r t s of the channels.  these  3A r e p r e s e n t s  lower  energy  3B i n d i c a t e  and a l t e r n a t e d  which predominates  3B t h a n  over  t h e s h o a l s compared  in this  levels.  deposition  facies  suspension clouds generated  also  Bioturbation  on t h e s h o a l s was  w i t h p e r i o d s of e r o s i o n . in facies  f a c i e s 3A,  Parallel  3B may have been d e p o s i t e d  by s h o a l i n g waves o r s t r o n g  c u r r e n t s a s e n v i s a g e d by R e i n e c k  and S i n g h  (1973, p . 317)  189  for  similar  or d u r i n g The  d e p o s i t s i n the Nordergrunde  f i n i n g - u p w a r d sequences  mechanism  the  shifting  of  1960;  Shoals  Reineck  of p a r t i a l  3A a r e p r o b a b l y shoals.  i n modern t i d a l and  Singh,  Some o f t h e s u p e r i m p o s e d  result  in facies  t h e c h a n n e l s and  i s w e l l documented  Terwindt,  1975).  Jade  storms.  to the l a t e r a l  and  and O u t e r  erosion  1973,  This  channels p.  315;  (Oomkens Meckel,  f i n i n g - u p w a r d sequences  of d e e p e r  shallower  c h a n n e l s as t h e s y s t e m  by M e c k e l  (1975) f o r t h e t i d a l  channel  progrades  due  fill  may  be  d e p o s i t s by  seaward, as  channel d e p o s i t s i n the  suggested Colorado  Delta. In t h e  s h o a l s of t h e N o r d e r g r u n d e  become c o a r s e r g r a i n e d above wave base ( R e i n e c k and replaced  by  By a n a l o g y that of  Singh,  1973,  transition  p.  321).  and O u t e r and  mud  layers  sediments are  absent  Seaward t h e s h o a l s a r e  zone muds, s i l t s  and  w i t h t h e s e modern s h o a l d e p o s i t s ,  t h e c o a r s e n i n g upward  Jade,  sequences  storm  sand  layers.  i t i s suggested  in facies  3B a r e t h e  result  the seaward m i g r a t i o n of c o a r s e r - g r a i n e d s h o a l sediments  finer-grained  transition  bedded s a n d s t o n e s base  of  below  facies  fair  occur  3B p r e s u m a b l y  w e a t h e r wave  2.2.13 F a c i e s This  which  zone d e p o s i t s . The  low  angle  cross-  i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h mudstones a t r e p r e s e n t storm d e p o s i t s  over  the  formed  base.  3C - D e s c r i p t i o n  f a c i e s has  been  3A and  r e c o g n i s e d i n o n l y a few  overlying  facies  occasionally  facies  3A  i s gradational  Facies  3C  i s commonly a b s e n t  and  facies  difficult and  facies  3B.  The  to define 3A and  cores,  3B  contact with  precisely. are  overlain  190  directly  by  facies  approximately  10  5. The  material present  silty  but  beds a r e r a r e l y  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50%  lower p a r t  rip-up c l a s t s . consisting parallel  the lower p a r t  of  (max.  thick),  parallel  which  massive  f a c i e s which r o o t s and  in turn  thin  upper  coal  3C part  sequences  siltstones  of s i l t y  fine-grained  lenticular  occasional  and  by  a r e common  truncated  ripples  sections.  siltstones  are o v e r l a i n  sandstones flaser  (Figures  and c o n v o l u t e  S m a l l f l a m e and  3C g r a d e  i n t h e upper  of f a c i e s  load  sandstones.  upwards  by c a r b o n a c e o u s  seams a t t h e b a s e  bedding,  and mudstone a r e  o f some o f t h e  facies  mudstones  wavy b e d d i n g  l a y e r s of sandstone  i n t h e m i d d l e of  2.2.14 F a c i e s The  and  exhibit  mudstones and  mudstone  sandstones o v e r l a i n  3C c o n s i s t s  a r e p r e s e n t a t t h e base  silty  small  (Figure  3C.  b e d d i n g a r e p r e s e n t i n a few  sediments  Sandstones  a r e more common i n  fining-upward  s a n d s t o n e s and  b e d d i n g and  common. C l i m b i n g r i p p l e s ,  The  and  occasionally  i n beds up t o 2 m t h i c k  siltstones  74). Thin a l t e r n a t i n g  structures  bioturbated.  or c r o s s - b e d d e d  of f a c i e s  with thin  carbonaceous  the sandstones c o n t a i n  facies  interbedded  73e,  3C i s  sandstones,  Burrows a r e  of the f a c i e s  rippled  middle part  ripples,  strongly  Erosionally-based  of m a s s i v e  15 cm  surfaces.  where t h e y o c c u r  bedded and  The  facies  t o medium-grained  mudstones. F i n e - g r a i n e d  7 3 e ) . In some s e c t i o n s  in  of f i n e -  i s common on b e d d i n g  comprise the  and  of  m.  Lithologies consist siltstones  maximum t h i c k n e s s  into  part  of the  mudstones w i t h  5.  Interpretation of f a c i e s  3C c o n t a i n s abundant  sedimentary  Figure  74. S e d i m e n t a r y  and b i o g e n i c  structures  in facies  3C.  F i g u r e 74a. C o a r s e and f i n e l y i n t e r l a y e r e d s a n d s t o n e and mudstone ( s ) , r i p p l e s and l e n t i c u l a r b e d d i n g ( r ) , t r u n c a t e d b e d d i n g ( t ) and f l a m e s t r u c t u r e s ( f ) . (QBD 7708, 89.3 m). F i g u r e 74b. F l a s e r b e d d i n g w i t h t h i n l y i n t e r l a y e r e d and mudstone a t t h e t o p . (QBD 7721, 181.1 m).  siltstone  F i g u r e 7 4 c . S a n d s t o n e r i p p l e s w i t h mudstone d r a p e s , t h i n l y i n t e r l a y e r e d s a n d s t o n e and mudstone amd l e n t i c u l a r b e d d i n g . (QBD 7208, 500 f t ) . F i g u r e 74d. L e n t i c u l a r b e d d i n g and t h i n t o c o a r s e l y s a n d s t o n e and mudstone. (QBD 7711, 108 f t ) . F i g u r e 74e. B i o t u r b a t i o n i n f a c i e s (QBD 7719, 73.95 m).  3C s a n d s t o n e s a n d  interlayered siltstones.  F i g u r e 7 4 f . F l a s e r b e d d i n g , l e n t i c u l a r b e d d i n g and t h i n l y i n t e r l a y e r e d s a n d s t o n e and mudstone. (QBD 7721, 178.9  m).  F i g u r e 74g. L e n t i c u l a r , wavy(w) a n d r i p p l e b e d d i n g . S o f t sediment d e f o r m a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s occur i n the lower r i g h t the c o r e . (QBD 7754, 44 m).  of  112.  5cm  193  structures  (e.g.,  interlayered  lenticular,  by  the a l t e r n a t i o n  deposition. T h i s , together subtidal  d e p o s i t s and  and  c o a l s , suggests  flat  with  environment  bedload  and  that  suspension  i t s stratigraphic  facies  3C  was  was  position  above  mudstones  deposited  in a  tidal  environment.  1963;  Evans,  1965)  zones are  (from  mid  flat  tidal  bedload  flats  and  tide  to high  tide),  the h i g h t i d a l  flat.  t r a n s p o r t p r e d o m i n a t e s and  sedimentation interlayered deposition prograde By  i n t h e mid  produces bedding.  of mud  sandstone deposits  i n the by  the  The  high  with  fining  thin  u p p e r p a r t of  flat  the massive  the  mixed  facies  zones.  These  tidal  flat,  low  tidal  3C,  flat,  mainly  suspension-bedload thin  three  zones  sediments, the  and  low  thicker  mid-tidal  f a c i e s and  siltstones  the  i s produced.  flat by  Klein,  i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by  sandstones,  the  1954;  wavy and  sequence  interbedded,  low  When t h e s e  represented  p a r t of  In  flat  the modern t i d a l  lower  the  flaser,  tidal  upward  mudstones i n t h e d e p o s i t s by  Straaten,  sediments are  flat,  from s u s p e n s i o n .  seaward, a analogy  tidal  the  lenticular,  deposits are probably  the  (Van  have d e f i n e d t h r e e d i s t i n c t  low  s a n d s . Landward,  of  of  thin,  below n o n - m a r i n e c a r b o n a c e o u s  S t u d i e s of modern t i d a l  flat  wavy and  b e d d i n g ) which show t h a t t h e  characterised  thin  flaser,  tidal  beds o f  flat  siltstones the h i g h  and  tidal  mudstones a t  the  top  facies.  2.2.15 F a c i e s 4 - D e s c r i p t i o n  Pits  Facies  4 i s present  i n the  interval  in cores  between t h e  near B9  and  t h e Duke and B10  Honeymoon  c o a l seams  (Figure  194  50)  ( n o t e : B9  respectively the 2A/B the  and  B10  i n the  are  Babcock a r e a ) .  Honeymoon P i t and and B9  4 ranges  of  0.5-6  m  seam or  thin  bed  the  thick, of  basal  in other  lithologies  consist  fine-grained burrowing  organisms  difficult  to  Horizontal  In  horizontal present Parallel present  from  consists  the  consists  of  to  very  mainly  interbedded  of  (Figures the  s h a p e s of  In many of  strongly  coarsening-upward  the  B9  the  and  b a s e of  the  s e q u e n c e s of  coal  In  well  0.5-0.7 cm  of  basal  1 mm  tubes  this unit  some  and  sandstone the  species  very by are  completely  defined. are  most  'U'-shaped b u r r o w s a r e  bioturbated  cores,  rare  generally  not  l e n t i c u l a r b e d d i n g and  the  bioturbated  s i l t s t o n e s and  sediments are  of  mudstone  75a,b,d). D i s t i n c t  burrows c o n s i s t i n g  i n mudstones a t bedding,  unit  i s caused e n t i r e l y  burrows are  sub-vertical core,  basal  fine-grained  mudstones a r e  common also  diameter,  ( Chondrites?) (Figure  occasional  ripples  is overlain  s i l t s t o n e and  sandstone  are  75d).  intervals. unit  and  occasionally  strongly  dark grey  1A/1B,  Lithologies  abruptly  inclined siltstone filled  in less  m.  sections,  b u r r o w s w i t h d i a m e t e r s of  one  a  facies  of  5.  siltstones  of  north  4 p i n c h e s out  facies  0-15  which o v e r l i e s  s i l t s t o n e and  i d e n t i f y as  v e r t i c a l or  present.  d i r e c t l y by  seams  i s absent  beds o c c u r w i t h i n  sandstones. Bioturbation  r e w o r k e d and  4  C  c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstone above B9.  unit  interbedded with thin beds w h i l e  D and  t h i n d a r k g r e y m u d s t o n e s . The  interval,  sections  the  Facies  s a n d s t o n e s and  4 i s d i s t i n c t i v e and  a  to  Duke P i t , f a c i e s  in thickness  fine-grained  interbedded with  and  the  seam i s o v e r l a i n  Facies  facies  equivalent  3A/B/C. S o u t h of  coal  consist  equivalent  by which  are  195  range  in thickness  from  2.5-5.3 m  sequences c o n s i s t s mainly Trough c r o s s - b e d d i n g Burrows a r e common  (Figure  of p a r a l l e l  occurs very  and i n c l u d e  In a few c o r e s  r a r e l y i n the upper  large  bioturbated In of  the tops of these  other  sections  'U'-shaped b u r r o w s a n d  flasers  bedding  structures  b e d d i n g and r i p p l e s  Other  sedimentary  lenticular  (Figures  bedding  structures  and o c c a s i o n a l  beds a r e s t r o n g l y  upward s e q u e n c e s w h i c h r a n g e  bioturbated.  Often the  i n t h e upper p a r t .  by s i l t s t o n e s ,  carbonaceous  include  parallel  wavy b e d d i n g .  Cross-  i n t h e s i l t s t o n e s and In many s e c t i o n s t h e  sharply  clasts.  mainly  basal  fining-  from 0 . 9 - 4 . 6  Ripples  Facies  m. massive  and f l a s e r  4 i s overlain  c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstones a n d t h i n  seams a t t h e base o f f a c i e s 5.  2.2.16 F a c i e s The to  consist  sequences a r e t y p i c a l l y  p e b b l e s and r i p - u p  b e d d i n g a r e common gradationally  within  i n thickness  S a n d s t o n e s a t t h e base o f t h e s e siltstone  present  consist  i n a few b e d s .  75c,e,f).  present  unit  fragments  i n these deposits  s a n d s t o n e s and s i l t s t o n e s o c c u r  coal  Shell  are present  i s r a r e . Burrows a r e o f t e n  occasional  with  the basal  a r e formed by t h i n l a m i n a e o f f i n e - g r a i n e d  material. bedding,  ( Paleophycus  sequences a r e s t r o n g l y  s a n d s t o n e s and s i l t s t o n e s .  sedimentary  flaser  burrows  t h e beds o v e r l y i n g  showing e v i d e n c e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  of  part.  by b u r r o w s o r r o o t s .  interbedded  Primary  i n these  bedding and r i p p l e s .  dense boxworks o f h o r i z o n t a l t o i n c l i n e d ?).  50). Bedding  4 - Interpretation  o v e r a l l s t r a t i g r a p h i c context  the north  by m a r i n e d e p o s i t s  of t h i s  facies  (replaced  o f t h e Babcock member a n d t o t h e  196  Figure  7J5.. S e d i m e n t a r y and b i o g e n i c  F i g u r e s 75a,b. S t r o n g l y m) .  bioturbated  structures in facies siltstone  (MDD  F i g u r e 7 5 c . I n t e r l a y e r e d s i l t s t o n e and mudstone, r i p p l e b e d d i n g . (MDD 7822, 164.7 m). F i g u r e 75d. S t r o n g l y (cl are present 142.9 m).  7908,  4. 140.9  lenticular  and  b i o t u r b a t e d s i l t s t o n e . C h o n d r i t e s burrows i n t h e l o w e r p a r t o f t h e c o r e . (MDD 7908,  F i g u r e s 7 5 e , f . R i p p l e s and f l a s e r b e d d i n g . F l a s e r s a r e m a i n l y c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f c a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s , (e = MDD 7822, 164 m ; f = MUD 7704, 86.6 m).  197  198  s o u t h by c o a s t a l occurrence  p l a i n sediments of f a c i e s 5 ) , t o g e t h e r  of s t r o n g  bioturbation,  fragments and sedimentary b e d l o a d and s u s p e n s i o n in  lagoon-intertidal The  of  strongly  marine  structures  deposition  bioturbated  rework t h e s e d i m e n t s .  rates  suggests  bioturbated  lagoonal  fine-grained  deposits  while  1971; K r a f t ,  1980).  fan or small  lagoon  The s h a r p b a s e d  are interpreted the t h i n  s a n d s t o n e s and s i l t s t o n e s e x h i b i t i n g  fining-  as t i d a l  interbedded  flaser,  b e d d i n g a n d r i p p l e s may have been d e p o s i t e d  Facies  Warme,  beds above t h e b a s a l  1970) d e p o s i t s .  bar d e p o s i t s ,  to thoroughly  i s v e r y common i n  (e.g.,  washover  units  a t t h e base  i n areas of the lagoon  1980, p . 427; B a l s l e y ,  upward s a n d s t o n e - s i l t s t o n e  2.2.17 F a c i e s  f a c i e s 5 formed  the infauna  sandstone-siltstone  (McGowan,  channel point  allowed  sequences  u n i t may r e p r e s e n t  margin d e l t a  that  Intense b i o t u r b a t i o n  R e i n e c k and S i n g h ,  Coarsening-upward  shell  environments.  where low s e d i m e n t a t i o n  1971;  fossils,  i n d i c a t i v e of a l t e r n a t i n g  the f a c i e s are i n t e r p r e t e d as forming  modern a n d a n c i e n t  trace  with the  lenticular, on t i d a l  wavy  flats.  5 - Description  5 consists  o f a 30-50 m t h i c k  i n t e r v a l of  interbedded  sandstones,  o c c u r above  f a c i e s 4 i n t h e Duke a n d Honeymoon P i t s a n d above  facies 49,  s i l t s t o n e s , mudstones and c o a l s  3A, 3B, 3C o r 2B i n t h e a r e a  5 0 ) . T h r e e main s u b - f a c i e s  5C) b a s e d on d i f f e r e n c e s structures.  to the north  are recognised  which  ( F i g u r e s 48,  ( f a c i e s 5A, 5B a n d  in lithology, physical  and b i o g e n i c  199  Facies  5A  Lithologies mudstones and facies  5.  coals.  facies consist  Three c o a l  In t h e Babcock a r e a  C seams. The in  in this  C seam o c c u r s  the middle  of  the  facies  below t h e G a t e s / H u l c r o s s and  Honeymoon P i t s a r e  The and  they  are  referred  less  than  They a r e a l s o p r e s e n t  facies  5C.  and  fragments are  E. Rouse Asplenium  these  massive.  p r e s e n t . R o o t s and  seam. The  t o as  coal  t h e B10,  i n t h i c k n e s s from  thick.  bioturbated  referred  0.5  m  Parallel  m.  occur  i n beds up  bedding  on  Elatides  c f . splendida  Ptilophyllum  c f . arcticum  Ginkgo d i g i t a t a  to 4 m with  bedding  well preserved plant planes.  t o t h e A/B12  Pyrite  seam and identified  FERNS  williamsii  curviofolia  above  is occasionally  cf. artica  Elatides  Duke  generally strongly  rigidium  cf.  top,  B12  interbedded  (U.B.C.):  Sagenopteris  the  In most  most commonly  f o l l o w i n g p l a n t s p e c i e s have been  Coniopteris  and  found  s p a r a r e common and  C o n i o p t e r i s c f . onychiodes  B,  thick.  deposits are  f r e q u e n t l y present  in  t h e A,  near  B11  0-1  i n t h i n n e r beds  replaces roots adjacent  cf.  present  t o as  t h e A seam o c c u r s  seams where t h e y  Internally  normally  t h e b a s e , t h e B seam i s p r e s e n t  c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstones a r e  below t h e c o a l  commonly  and  are  carbonaceous  c o n t a c t . E q u i v a l e n t seams i n t h e  seams. T h e s e seams r a n g e sections  seams a r e  they  near  of b l a c k  CONIFERS  CYCAD GINGKO  the by  C Dr.  G.  200  cf.  Cyperites  Facies  sp  ANGIOSPERM  5B  This  f a c i e s c o n s i s t s of f i n e -  with occasional sorted  chert  clasts  and c o a l  t h i n beds o f s i l t s t o n e .  arenites  and o f t e n  occur  within  2-15 m t h i c k , w h i c h  gradationally  remains f a i r l y  only  i n t h e t o p few m e t r e s . Internally  77a).  flaser  with  this  stacked  separated  by t h i n  Kostuick  Bedding  a  Mountain  southerly  (Figure  (10-50 cm) b e d s o f s i l t s t o n e . sandstones  i n f a c i e s 5B c r o p o u t  o f t a b u l a r and  7 7 a ) . S e t s a r e 15-50 cm t h i c k . On  (Figure  i n some s e t s . On Roman M o u n t a i n ,  the  tabular  foresets  i s t o w a r d s 292°  foresets  65)..Reactivation  present  5C  5.5 km t o t h e s o u t h .  the average d i p of the t a b u l a r  d i r e c t i o n (192°)  structures  o f s a n d s t o n e .1-4 m t h i c k ,  are  Facies  b e d d i n g and  sequence of sedimentary  sandstones c o n s i s t s mainly  trough cross-bedding  massive or c r o s s -  t h e t o p ( F i g u r e s 76a,  M o u n t a i n and on Roman M o u n t a i n ,  i n these  Kostuick  near  grain-  and f i n e s upwards  ripples, parallel  units  Medium- t o c o a r s e - g r a i n e d on  rip-up  or e r o s i o n a l l y based  i n t h e lower p a r t  bedding present  i n smaller,  frequently  abruptly  the sandstones a r e g e n e r a l l y  I n some s e c t i o n s ,  occurs  mudstone p e b b l e s ,  f i n e upwards and a r e o v e r l a i n  constant  i n the lower p a r t  occasional  The s a n d s t o n e s a r e w e l l  by f a c i e s 5C. In some o f t h e t h i c k e r u n i t s ,  size  bedded  contain  sandstones  spar.  These d e p o s i t s units,  to coarse-grained  i s in  surfaces  the average d i p of  (Figure 65).  201  Lithologies and  c o n s i s t of interbedded  fine-grained  sandstones.  abundant and n o r m a l l y sandstones beds,  typically  comprise  over  occasionally  77b).  50% o f f a c i e s 5. The  sedimentary  carbonaceous d e b r i s  (Figure  structures  r i p p l e s and c l i m b i n g  Occasionally  bedding and other (Figures  the sandstones e x h i b i t  caused  destroys  i s very  rare.  Convolute  structures are  are often  replaced  Coarsening-upward These a r e c h a r a c t e r i s e d  of bedding  of v e r t i c a l ,  Below he G a t e s / H u l c r o s s c o n t a c t ,  roots  with  of f i n e - g r a i n e d  a l l trace  'U--shaped t y p e s w h i c h  range  (Figure  s u b - v e r t i c a l and  i n width  from 0.1-2 cm.  burrows and r o o t s  in this  by p y r i t e .  s e q u e n c e s up t o 5 m t h i c k a r e common. by an upward  increase  o f s a n d s t o n e beds a n d c u r r e n t  structures.  bedding  by b u r r o w i n g o r g a n i s m s a n d r o o t s i s  Burrows c o n s i s t m a i n l y  thickness  ( F i g u r e s 76,  flaser  s o f t sediment d e f o r m a t i o n  common a n d f r e q u e n t l y  facies  fragments a r e  76g,77c).  Bioturbation  occasional  Plant  r i p p l e lamination  carbonaceous d e b r i s . Cross bedding  77b).  76d).  i s locally  a r e d o m i n a t e d by p a r a l l e l  f l a s e r s formed by c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  common  or e r o s i o n a l l y based  present.  Primary bedding,  surfaces  mudstones  these deposits a r e  occur as a b r u p t l y  1-70 cm t h i c k . F i n e - g r a i n e d  a b u n d a n t on b e d d i n g  the  In c o r e s  siltstones,  The t o p s o f t h e s e  formed  i n t h e amount a n d sedimentary  sequences a r e o f t e n  bioturbated  a n d o v e r l a i n by c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstones o f f a c i e s 5A.  Fining-upwards  2.2.18 F a c i e s  s e q u e n c e s up t o 2 m t h i c k a r e a l s o  5 - Interpretation  present.  by  202  Figure  7j>. S e d i m e n t a r y  F i g u r e 76a. f t T  and  Cross-bedded  biogenic  sandstone  structures in facies from  facies  5B  (QBD  5.  7302,  74  -  F i g u r e s 7 6 b , c . P a r a l l e l b e d d i n g , r i p p l e s and c l i m b i n g r i p p l e s i n f a c i e s 5C d e p o s i t s , (b = QBD 7721, 170.7 m ; c = QBD 7721, 191 m). F i g u r e 76d. I n t e r b e d d e d mudstones and s a n d s t o n e s i n f a c i e s 5C. N o t e t h e a b u n d a n t c a r b o n a c e o u s d e b r i s and c o a l s p a r ( s ) . (QBD 7714, 91.25 m). F i g u r e 76e• S i l t s t o n e from f a c i e s 5C a few m e t r e s below t h e G a t e s / H u l c r o s s c o n t a c t . N o t e t h e p y r i t e (py) w h i c h o c c u r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r o o t s a t t h e t o p o f t h e c o r e (QBD 7720, 64 m) . F i g u r e 7 6 f . I n t e r b e d d e d mudstones and s a n d s t o n e s i n f a c i e s N o t e t h e s m a l l b u r r o w . (QBD 7751, 29.55 m). F i g u r e 76g. facies  C o n v o l u t e b e d d i n g and s y n - s e d i m e n t a r y 5C d e p o s i t s (QBD 7754, 118.65 m).  F i g u r e 76h. R o o t s 149.3 m).  i n massive  mudstones o f  facies  5C.  faults in 5A.  (QBD  7721,  203  204  F i g u r e 77a. T r o u g h and t a b u l a r c r o s s - b e d d i n g i n o u t c r o p s facTes 5B s a n d s t o n e s on K o s t u i c k M o u n t a i n .  of  F i g u r e 77b. C o r e o f f a c i e s 5A and 5C d e p o s i t s i n QBD 7718 (163 m). C o a l and c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstone a t the b a s e ( f a c i e s 5A) i s o v e r l a i n by i n t e r b e d d e d mudstones and s i l t s t o n e s ( f a c i e s 5C) w h i c h a r e s t r o n g l y b i o t u r b a t e d . B e d d i n g i n t h e s e d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t s m a i n l y of p a r a l l e l b e d d i n g and o c c a s i o n a l ripples. F i g u r e 77c. S o f t s e d i m e n t d e f o r m a t i o n d e p o s i t s (QBD 7721, 161 m).  structure in facies  5C  2 OS"  206  The  presence  together is  with  coastal that  coal  seams, r o o t s a n d p l a n t  i t s stratigraphic  non-marine, p r o b a b l y  carbonaceous  lower  position  coastal  mudstones and t h i n  the peat-forming  indicates  position  this  the t i d a l  coal  flat  4. The B seam  environments  forming  seams  suggests  ( a n d i t s e q u i v a l e n t , B10)  i n swamps i m m e d i a t e l y  farther  inland.  The o v e r a l l  landward  3C a n d f a c i e s  depositional  setting  t o t h e modern day p e a t s d e s c r i b e d by S t y a n flats  D e l t a and t h e e s t u a r i n e p e a t s of South  immediately  coal  were s h o r t l i v e d . The  (1982) a d j a c e n t t o t h e Boundary Bay t i d a l  1979).  facies 5  5A) r e p r e s e n t  and l a g o o n a l d e p o s i t s of f a c i e s  may have been s i m i l a r  Cohen,  that  ( a n d i t s e q u i v a l e n t B11) may have a c c u m u l a t e d i n  swamps s l i g h t l y  River  fragments  i n o r i g i n . The  (facies  of t h i c k  o f t h e C seam  accumulated  indicates  plain  coals  swamp d e p o s i t s . The a b s e n c e  stratigraphic  of  of t h i n  The A seam  on t h e F r a s e r  Carolina  (Staub and  (and i t s e q u i v a l e n t B 1 2 ) , w h i c h  occurs  below t h e G a t e s - H u l c r o s s c o n t a c t a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s  i n swamps on t h e c o a s t a l  plain  marginal  t o the  transgressing Hulcross sea. Facies  5B a r e i n t e r p r e t e d  presence,  i n some s e c t i o n s ,  siltstone  i n t e r b e d s and f l a s e r  alternating of  as channel  fill  of cross-bedded  bedload-suspension  bedding  d e p o s i t s . The  sandstones  with  i s evidence of  deposition  tidal  channels  (Oomkens,  evidence  of t i d a l  c u r r e n t s i s the occurrence of s o u t h e r l y  (landward)  1979).  dipping cross-beds, with r e a c t i v a t i o n  o u t c r o p s of f a c i e s  5B on K o s t u i c k M o u n t a i n .  thickness of the f a c i e s from  1974; B a r w i s ,  and i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  small t i d a l  indicates  c r e e k s t o major  surfaces in  The range i n  the channels fluvial  Further  ranged  or e s t u a r i n e  in size  207  F i g u r e 78a. C o r e p h o t o g r a p h of t h e G a t e s / H u l c r o s s c o n t a c t i n b o r e h o l e QBD 7209. The c o n t a c t i s p i c k e d a t t h e base o f t h e f i r s t c o n g l o m e r a t e (A) w h i c h i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a t r a n s g r e s s i v e m a r i n e l a g d e p o s i t . 35 cm of s t r o n g l y b u r r o w e d s i l t s t o n e s below t h i s (A-B) a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s l a g o o n a l d e p o s i t s . The b i o t u r b a t e d s i l t s t o n e u n i t r e s t s • a b r u p t l y on c o a s t a l p l a i n s i l t s t o n e s and s a n d s t o n e s . S e v e r a l o t h e r t h i n l a y e r s of c o a r s e s a n d s t o n e and conglomerate are present interbedded with Hulcross s i l t s t o n e s and m u d s t o n e s . T h e s e a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as s t o r m d e p o s i t e d l a g s formed i n t h e o f f s h o r e e n v i r o n m e n t a f t e r t h e t r a n s g r e s s i o n . T y p i c a l o f f s h o r e Hulcross sediments are p r e s e n t i n t h e two c o l u m n s on t h e r i g h t . F i g u r e 78b. C o r e p h o t o g r a p h of t h e G a t e s / H u l c r o s s c o n t a c t (A) i n b o r e h o l e QBD 7711. In t h i s c o r e t h e c o n t a c t i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a s i n g l e t h i n t r a n s g r e s s i v e l a g of c o a r s e p e b b l y s a n d s t o n e . Compare t h i s w i t h F i g u r e 71 a where s e v e r a l l a g s a r e p r e s e n t . Dark g r e y , c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstone w i t h a r g i l l a c e o u s c o a l i s p r e s e n t i n t h e column on t h e l e f t . F i g u r e 78c. B i o t u r b a t e d s i l t s t o n e a t F o r m a t i o n . (QBD 7708, 38.75 m)  the  base of  the  Hulcross  2 Off  BOTTOM  209  distributaries. Sediments floodplains  i n f a c i e s 5C a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as f o r m i n g i n  adjacent  t o t h e c h a n n e l s o f f a c i e s 5B. T h e s e  sediments probably accumulated settings  including levees,  water ponds o r l a k e s .  i n a v a r i e t y of d e p o s i t i o n a l  crevasse  splays  The c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d  and s h a l l o w sequences  in this  facies  a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as forming  from the p r o g r a d a t i o n  levees  or crevasse  over  splay  deposits  finer-grained  brackish  of  overbank  sediments.  2.3 UPPER GATES DEPOSITIONAL MODELS Prior  to the deposition  formed p a r t the  north.  of a c o a s t a l p l a i n , During  models f o r t h i s  The  a r e shown on F i g u r e  by l a r g e  transgressive  although these  this  the c o a s t a l p l a i n .  Facies  area  located to the sea  Depositional phase  which  79. occurred  peat  swamps  channels oriented  over a c o a s t a l p l a i n (of the D c o a l  NW-SE and N-S  seam)  (Figure  between t h e c h a n n e l mouths p r o b a b l y  79-  consisted  b e a c h e s o r b a r r i e r i s l a n d s and l a g o o n s ,  i s speculative  since  any s e d i m e n t a r y  r e c o r d of  e n v i r o n m e n t s has been l a r g e l y e r o d e d a s t h e s e a  to transgress  which  the shoreline  and t h e r e g r e s s i v e  by e x t e n s i v e  river  the study  o f u p p e r Gates t i m e ,  upper G a t e s t r a n s g r e s s i o n  1 ) . The s h o r e l i n e of  south over  transgression  w h i c h was c o v e r e d cut  with  the e a r l y part  began t o t r a n s g r e s s  followed  of t h e upper Gates,  continued  south.  1A d e p o s i t s  represent  thick  sediment  accumulations  formed a t t h e mouth o f e s t u a r i e s . S p e c i f i c e n v i r o n m e n t s  identified  include  laterally  migrating  estuary  mouth  shoals  210  (Figure these on  79-1) and t i d a l  estuary  of  mouth d e p o s i t s were drowned  the sea f l o o r  retreat  massifs  the eastern During  reworking over  described  by S w i f t  occurred  land  onshore  erosion  zone  (upper  s u r f a c e . The e r o d e d ( a s washover  into  the estuary  was winnowed o u t t o form a t h i n ,  The its  induced  conglomerates estuarine  (facies  oscillatory  c h a n n e l s and i n s h a l l o w  margin  intertidal  Farther  large  extensive  dunes  near  (Figure  the sea f l o o r .  a s f a r a s Roman M o u n t a i n . A t sandstones and at the s h o r e l i n e i n  marine bars offshore,  (Figure  sediments are represented  or beaches  laterally  in shelf  l a g o o n s and t i d a l  of the c o a s t a l p l a i n  Duke M o u n t a i n  flats  - shallow  marine  developed  along  7 9 - 3 ) . The  by f a c i e s  extensive  lagoon-  4 deposits  i n the  area.  Following prograde  currents  2A were d e p o s i t e d  environments. Extensive  laterally  symmetrical  2B) were d e p o s i t e d  to the channels.  longshore  t o be t r a n s p o r t e d  ( F i g u r e 79-3) c o a r s e  sandstones of f a c i e s  the  into  s h o r e l i n e r e t r e a t e d south limit  a t t h e base o f  1 B ) . I n some p a r t s o f t h e o f f s h o r e ,  i n t h e l a g was moulded  southern  adjacent  (facies  passed  was  mouths by  distances  by s t o r m  shelf  f a n s ) , o f f s h o r e by s t o r m  S e d i m e n t w h i c h was t o o h e a v y  79-2)  shoreface)  sediment  currents.  lag deposit  shoal  and s e d i m e n t  ( t o form t h e s t o r m d e p o s i t s  2A) o r a l o n g s h o r e  sediment  shoals  States.  when t h e s u r f  propagated currents  marine  linear  (1973) on t h e A t l a n t i c  the t r a n s g r e s s i o n , strong  transported  forming  ( F i g u r e 79-2), analagous t o the e s t u a r y  United  the former  facies  d e l t a s . As t h e s h o r e l i n e r e t r e a t e d ,  north.  a p e r i o d of s t i l l s t a n d , In t h e Babcock a r e a ,  t h e s h o r e l i n e began t o  the r e g r e s s i v e  shoreline  21 1  deposits  formed w i t h i n  subtidal  channels  deposits) 4).  s a n d s t o n e s of  inland 5A  the  f a c i e s 2A  5B)  angles  the  t o the  shoals,  m a r g i n s of  summary, t h e  recorded  by  1. T h i c k  (maximum 40  shoals  (facies  shoreline laterally Tidal  the  by  deposits  (Figure  estuary,  further  swamps  (facies  tidal  t y p e s of  m)  but  channels  areas  5C).  upper Gates marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n  3 distinct  3C  while  i n t o overbank  (facies  79-  flats(facies  a network o f  flooded  3B  extensive  in coastal plain  swamps were c u t  splay  s y s t e m c o n s i s t i n g of  and  were d e p o s i t e d .  which p e r i o d i c a l l y  forming extensive  (shoal  deposits)  p e a t s were d e p o s i t e d  d e p o s i t s ) . The  In  3A  c h a n n e l s and  formed a l o n g  thin  (facies  (facies  o r i e n t e d at high  Seaward of  deposits)  a sandy e s t u a r i n e  is  deposits:  relatively  narrow e s t u a r y  r e t r e a t m a s s i f ) s a n d s t o n e s and  mouth  conglomerates  (facies  1A). 2.  A thin  (maximum 90  marine 3.  lag  (facies  but  The laterally overlain  at  the  southern  upper Gates extensive by  laterally  (facies  limit  i n turn are  plain  deposits  of  4)  the  shelf-shallow  o v e r l a i n by  (facies  transgressive  5)  with  which a r e  marine  regressive deposits  subtidal, estuarine  These  extensive  1B).  Lagoon-intertidal deposits only  2.4  cm)  marine  preserved  transgression.  c o n s i s t of a t h i c k , sandbody  c h a n n e l and  shoal  tidal  flat  (facies  thin  coal  seams.  (facies  2A)  sediments. 3C)  and  coastal  DISCUSSION The  i n f e r r e d c o a s t a l m o r p h o l o g y of  Gates s h o r e l i n e  i n the  Babcock a r e a  the  regressive  c o n s i s t s of  a broad  upper wide-  213  mouthed e s t u a r y c h a n n e l s . On common  shoreline  estuarine  (tidal  (1982) has  deposits  low-energy  in  the  tidal  d o m i n a t e d by (pers.  along  the  to c o a s t a l  c o a s t a l morphology  r a n g e may  coastal (Hayes,  from m i c r o t i d a l  Denmark t o m a c r o t i d a l rivers by  barrier a r e a s by the  (2-4 the  The  near  barrier  i s l a n d s and estuaries  shoreline.  Denmark  1975). In  (0-2  m) the  with  sand  that  study The  studies  along  the  coast  to  the  m i c r o t i d a l areas are  and  shoals  inlets  and  oriented  the  tides  differences are  not  the of  and  range northern Weser  characterised  m e s o t i d a l a r e a s by  tidal  that  range  tidal  Elbe  i s good  example  N e t h e r l a n d s and  mouths of  the  shoreline  of  tidal  area  in a  possibly,  is a classic  this  i n the  i s l a n d s , the abundant  two  N o r t h Sea  forming  Thus, t h e r e  present  have v a r i e d  1975).  Gates  as  and,  m).  configuration  i n West Germany. The  elongate  upper  upper G a t e s s h o r e l i n e s .  configuration.  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  varies  flat  i s most  (Hayes,  comm.) b e l i e v e s  work and  N e t h e r l a n d s , West Germany and the  tidal  and  morphology  regressive  have been m e s o t i d a l  tidal  shoals  areas  r a n g e e s t i m a t e s between t h e  incompatible; due  t y p e of  range > 4 m)  processes. Leckie  important  this  sand  i n th Bullmoose Mountain area  shoreline  r a n g e may  linear  interpreted  agreement between L e c k i e ' s were  long,  modern c o a s t l i n e s  in macrotidal  Leckie  tidal  containing  stunted macrotidal  perpendicular  to  214  PART I I I . OCCURRENCE, DISTRIBUTION AND  DEPOSITIONAL SETTING OF  COAL SEAMS IN THE GATES  3.1  SEDIMENTOLOGICAL  FORMATION  ASPECTS OF COAL OCCURRENCES  AND  DISTRIBUTION IN THE DUKE MOUNTAIN AREA  3.1.1  Introduction The  Duke M o u n t a i n a r e a  Property  i n which Petro-Canada  operator. Schiller by  The g e n e r a l  geology  i s the p r i n c i p a l of t h i s  e t a l . (1983). S t r u c t u r a l l y ,  tend  t o be a s y m m e t r i c a l  Some o f t h e a n t i c l i n e s the area  faults  range  area  area.  part  of the area  Pit).  the area  displacements  trending 1 km,  Duke and Honeymoon The  c o n f i g u r a t i o n . Dips  fault  separates  are a l s o present  Honeymoon  with  which  i n c l u d e s a major  a displacement  of  the Gates c o a l measures  i n the  Pits.  ( F i g u r e s 81,82). F i g u r e  i n t h e Honeymoon  which extends  southeast  in  West and t h e Duke  a n d c o a l seams i n t h e G a t e s - M o o s e b a r  section  thrust  are l o c a t e d i n the northern  f o l d s and f a u l t s ,  thrust  two c r o s s - s e c t i o n s  section  plunging.  l o c a t i o n o f t h e major m a r i n e u n i t s , f l u v i a l  deposits  cross  ( F i g u r e 8 0 ) . The  and t r e n d s  (Honeymoon E a s t ,  by  i s characterised  and a r e o f t e n d o u b l y  T h r e e p r o p o s e d open p i t s  approximately  owner and  has been d e s c r i b e d  approach a b o x - f o l d  A zone o f complex  east-west  o f t h e Monkman  from 5 ° - 7 0 ° . In a d d i t i o n t o f o l d s ,  of v a r y i n g  this  on  1) forms p a r t  NW-SE t r e n d i n g a n t i c l i n e / s y n c l i n e p a i r s  folds  in  (Figure  Pits  and F i g u r e  from t h e n o r t h e r n  channel  s e c t i o n a r e shown 82 i s an e a s t - w e s t 81  is a  cross  p a r t o f t h e Duke P i t  t o w a r d s D u c h e s s M o u n t a i n . The d i s t r i b u t i o n  and t r e n d  215  Figure  80_. G e n e r a l i s e d  g e o l o g i c a l map  of  the  Duke M o u n t a i n  area.  216  of  the  Sheriff  d e p o s i t s has Figures  83  member m a r i n e u n i t  35.  The  include only those  Isopach  and  the  3.1.2  boreholes  boreholes  maps o f  the  Sheriff  data  Coal  member and  to the  within  to 6 are  a thin  over  in this  1.5  non-marine  the T o r r e n s  and  Duchess Mountain, south  varies  of  m thick.  Sheriff the  this,  to  interest.  fluvial  structural  channel complexity  contains  B1  i s the  Sheriff  B1  ( F i g u r e s 81,  the channel  Figure  24  0.8-3  i s due  mainly  o f B1  fluvial  m.  t h a t the  consists  to the  of two  (0-2.4 m t h i c k ) .  seams o f  seam above  seam  occurs  the marine  A thin  sandstones  sediments.  83)  B1  of B1  in  Duchess Mountain c o i n c i d e s  directly thin  (Figures'81,  development  d e p o s i t s i n the  evidence  on  boreholes B1.  t h i n n i n g and  overlying  of e r o s i o n of B1  development  The  (e.g.,  data  of B1  7806)  shown  in this  pinchout  by  on area  of the  upper  channel.  seams, B2 The  this  non-marine  t o o n l y a few  to depositional  adjacent  by  channel  24). D i r e c t  deposits rest  suggest  first  member p i n c h e s o u t  is overlain  is restricted  where c h a n n e l  B2  of  between  12 c o a l  Members. Between t h e Duke P i t and  between t h e Duke P i t and  the presence  section  lower  Figures  Area  area  interval  i n t h i c k n e s s from  the area  part  on  available  of  thick  t h e T o r r e n s Member. In t h e Honeymoon a r e a ,  with  these  interval  Seams i n t h e Duke M o u n t a i n  Gates Formation  w h i c h up  and  i s shown  w h i c h d a t a was  the  c o n s t r u c t e d due  and  channel  area.  The  of  fluvial  l o c a t e d on  from  which p e n e t r a t e d  d e p o s i t s were not of  thick  been mapped u s i n g b o r e h o l e  and  the author  and  upper  thickest  (0-0.75 m t h i c k ) and  development  of B2  lower  B2 is  DUKE PIT  50 rri-  DUCHESS MOUNTAIN SOUTHEAST  X12.5 VERTICAL EXAGGERATION  1 km  F i g u r e 8J_. C r o s s s e c t i o n i n t h e Duke P i t - D u c h e s s M o u n t a i n a r e a showing t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e m a j o r m a r i n e u n i t s , f l u v i a l c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s and c o a l seams. R e f e r t o F i g u r e 82 f o r l e g e n d . L o c a t i o n o f c r o s s s e c t i o n i s shown on F i g u r e s 35 a n d 8 0 .  218  HONEYMOON PIT  WEST  EAST  F i g u r e 82_. C r o s s s e c t i o n i n t h e Honeymoon P i t a r e a s h o w i n g t h e l o c a t i o n of the major marine u n i t s , f l u v i a l c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s and c o a l seams. The x12.5 v e r t i c a l e x a g g e r a t i o n o f t h i s c r o s s s e c t i o n c a u s e s t h e a n g l e a t w h i c h B5 i s d r a p e d o v e r t h e c h a n n e l t o a p p e a r much g r e a t e r t h a n on a 1:1 s e c t i o n (where i t i s l e s s t h a n 3 ° ) . L o c a t i o n o f c r o s s s e c t i o n i s shown on F i g u r e s 3j> 80. a  n  d  219  I  N  120°45'  K i n u s e o Falls  Road  7914 B2  pinches-out  A p p r o x i m a t e s o u t h e r n limit of the " S h e r i f f M e m b e r " marine s a n d s t o n e s  r-54°44'  B2 lower t h i c k e n s ^ ° and o n l a p s B1  0  _i_  3  ^7704 67821  kilometres  F i g u r e 8_3. Map s h o w i n g t h e s o u t h e r n l i m i t o f t h e S h e r i f f member m a r i n e u n i t a n d i t s e f f e c t on t h e t h i c k n e s s a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e B2 c o a l seam. C r o s s s e c t i o n i s shown on F i g u r e 24.  220  in  the  south,  near  m e t r e s above B1  Duchess M o u n t a i n , ' w h e r e  ( F i g u r e 2 4 ) . Towards t h e n o r t h , t h e  between B1  and  eventually  p i n c h out  the S h e r i f f  B2  lower  member  i n c r e a s e s , both  and  are  with  in boreholes  sediments  marine sandstones B3  near  t h e n o r t h and  B1  seams i n t h e  varies  i n t h i c k n e s s from  B4 over  non-marine  i s t h e most  the e n t i r e  interval  between B3  interval  consist  between B4  from  B5  t h i c k n e s s over  fine-grained  82  and  in  this  84  these  interval  Honeymoon P i t s , conglomerates  up  over  channel  fluvial  by  rapid  50 m above B4,  in  a r e a and  channel  have been  by  the  d e p o s i t s . In of  t r e n d s NNW-SSE  Figures presence the  in  and  twelve  which i s ( F i g u r e 35).  d e p o s i t s , B5  in boreholes  in  sandstones  identified  in  interval  shown on  within a channel  while  The  this  varies  variations  are caused  In b o r e h o l e s w h i c h c o n t a i n c h a n n e l approximately  and  overbank d e p o s i t s .  deposits consisting  800-900 m wide and  and  2.2-6.7 m.  Sediments  s h o r t d i s t a n c e . As  t o 37 m t h i c k  and  member  area  In t h e Honeymoon a r e a , t h e  b o r e h o l e s . These d e p o s i t s o c c u r approximately  occurs  area. It i s present  m thick.  thickness variations of t h i c k  the  i n c l u d e t h e B2  the e n t i r e  is characterised  a relatively  of  the S h e r i f f  i n t h i c k n e s s from  of  m.  of  the e n t i r e  seam i n t h i s  mainly  t o 3.2  sandstones  m.  i s 3-26  1.8  and  over  B4  i s present  of  which  and  C o a l . s e a m B5 thickness  i s present  ranges  and  lagoonal in o r i g i n  sandstones  sediments  important  few  member.  1.6-5.5  a r e a and  seams t h i n  s o u t h end  as  a  interval  i n t h e Duke P i t , B2  of t h e S h e r i f f  s o u t h . B3  the  interpreted  o c c u r s above t h e m a r i n e  in  B2  r e p l a c e d by m a r i n e  Honeymoon West P i t . In b o r e h o l e s interbedded  i t i s present  occurs  e a s t and  west  of  221  the c h a n n e l ,  B5  i s separated  mudstone and  siltstones.  B4-B5 i n t e r v a l  occurs  w e s t e r n m a r g i n of the c h a n n e l ,  the  the at  B5 the  correlation  similar  the  key  borehole  7801  the  84  due  B5  where B5  part cut km).  out  by  from B4  by  transition  a p p e a r s t o be  B8)  over  the  In t h e  west  of  thinning  m above B4.  basis for  channel note  7914  The  the  where  area  B5  and  d i p of  B5  as a h o r i z o n t a l datum, on  Figures  Duchess Mountain  82  occurs  i n the  B4-B5 i n t e r v a l  western  approximately  area  (Figure 35). the  channel  1  a l s o present Due  trend  t o the  is  in  small  i s uncertain  NW-SE.  interval less  the  a s h o r t d i s t a n c e above B4,  (displacement  area,  area,  f i n e - g r a i n e d overbank  between t h e Duke P i t and  roughly  are  the  8204, l o c a t e d  transitional  20-50 m of  in this  seams i n t h e  discontinuous.  Borehole  l o g in borehole  west of D u c h e s s M o u n t a i n  and  the  In p a r t i c u l a r  t a k i n g B4  a major t h r u s t f a u l t  number of b o r e h o l e s  l o w e r , B7  illustrate  i n the Duke P i t and  Channel d e p o s i t s  Coal  area  the  exaggeration.  of Honeymoon, where B5  boreholes  but  area,  500-700 m on  3 ° . T h i s d i p a p p e a r s much g r e a t e r  south,  d e p o s i t s . The  84  "climb"  40  of  deposits.  8204 i n t h e  occurs  to v e r t i c a l  i s separated  to  the d e n s i t y  transitional  Farther  Figure  starts  of  in thickness  transitional  i n the Honeymoon a r e a .  of  1 to 4 m  c o n s i s t s of a westward  overbank  l o g s on  borehole  i s approximately and  In t h e  t o the c o r r e l a t i o n .  character  i s c l o s e t o B4,  across  channel.  p o i n t where B5  provides  only  a d i s t a n c e of o n l y  s p l a y and  geophysical  by  l a r g e decrease  B4-B5 i n t e r v a l  wedge of c r e v a s s e The  This  over  the  from B4  than  between B5 1.5  B7-B8 i n t e r v a l  and  m t h i c k and fluvial  B9  (B6  upper  and  locally  channel  sandstones  79 1 5  (1180 m)  7914  (280 m)  8204  (500 m)  7801  7501  7908  Coal Seam B6  ~ ~  40 30 20 10  B5 B4  0  Honeymoon Pit Log Correlation  F i g u r e 84. Gamma r a y and d e n s i t y l o g c o r r e l a t i o n from b o r e h o l e s i n t h e Honeymoon P i t a r e a , s h o w i n g t h e b a s i s f o r t h e B5 c o r r e l a t i o n and i t s " d r a p i n g " o v e r f l u v i a l c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s , B o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s a r e shown on F i g u r e 35.  fx) fx) to  223  and in  conglomerates  up t o 12 m t h i c k  t h e Duke and Duchess a r e a s  ( F i g u r e 81, 36) a r e p r e s e n t  and e a s t e r n  s i d e o f Honeymoon.  Between t h e Duke P i t and D u c h e s s M o u n t a i n ,  the channel  wide a n d t r e n d s NW-SE ( F i g u r e 3 5 ) . In t h e Honeymoon e a s t e r n margin of the channel d a t a . The c h a n n e l approximately interval  3 t o 5 m.  The o t h e r  over  the e n t i r e  B9 i s t h i c k e s t  Towards t h e n o r t h B9 u p p e r ,  i t splits  separated  81). A d e t a i l e d  P i t s , the  sediments  t o be  i n t h e B5-B9  of f i n e - g r a i n e d overbank d e p o s i t s .  B9 i s p r e s e n t from  km  be d e f i n e d due t o l a c k o f  t r e n d i s u n c e r t a i n but appears  north-south.  consist  cannot  i s 2.8  area  and r a n g e s  i n the south  in thickness  on D u c h e s s  Mountain.  i n t o two t h i n n e r seams, B9 l o w e r  and  by up t o 20 m o f o v e r b a n k d e p o s i t s ( F i g u r e  log correlation  showing t h e s p l i t t i n g  o f B9 i s  shown on F i g u r e 50. Three  seams  (B10, B11, and B12) r a n g i n g  0-1 m a r e p r e s e n t  in thickness  i n t h e upper p a r t o f t h e G a t e s  between t h e B9 seam and t h e H u l c r o s s F o r m a t i o n . lagoon and  and t i d a l  flat  d e p o s i t s , B11  o v e r b a n k d e p o s i t s and B12  contact  o f t h e G a t e s and H u l c r o s s  3.2 SEDIMENTOLOGICAL  Formation B10 o c c u r s  i s a s s o c i a t e d with  i s present  from  above  channel  a few m e t r e s below t h e  Formations.  ASPECTS OF COAL OCCURRENCES  AND  DISTRIBUTION IN THE BABCOCK AREA  3.2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The  Babcock a r e a  which Denison (Figure  forms p a r t o f t h e Q u i n t e t t e P r o p e r t y i n  Mines are the p r i n c i p a l  1). T h i s area  is structurally  owners and o p e r a t o r s less  complex  than  t h e Duke  224  F i g u r e 8_5. area.  Geological  map  and  borehole  locations  i n the  Babcock  225  M o u n t a i n a r e a . On within  a l a r g e box  southwest from the  Babcock M o u n t a i n  by  are present southwest  bounded t o t h e n o r t h e a s t  most of t h e box  the  f l a n k s of  this  i n t h e more t i g h t l y  of  Erosion  measures  t h e box of t h e  and  Little  out  or a r e p r e s e n t  and  are  s t r u c t u r e . Major folded  areas  up  range t o 75°  thrust  northeast  in  faults and  anticline. box  Babcock M o u n t a i n has  anticline  occur  and  f o l d s w h i c h t r e n d NW-SE ( F i g u r e 8 5 ) . D i p s  5°-l2° o v e r f o l d s on  anticline,  the Gates c o a l  anticline  produced  Windy P i t a r e a s  on  two  the  northwest  wide e s c a r p m e n t s  ) where t h e G a t e s c o a l  at shallow  s i d e of  depths.  Southeast  ( t h e Windy measures  of  these  crop  areas,  t h e G a t e s c o a l measures a r e p r e s e n t  beneath a cover  of  younger  sediments  Creek F o r m a t i o n s ) .  A large  ( t h e H u l c r o s s and  number of c l o s e l y  spaced  Boulder  boreholes  area;  most a r e  3.2.2  C o a l Seams i n t h e Babcock Figure  channel  86  l o c a t e d on  t o p of  d e p o s i t s and  t o p of t h e  boreholes  coal  Sheriff  Member  indicate  in  Sheriff  Torrens  and  to 3 m  anticline.  marine u n i t s ,  from  outcrop  the u n d e r l y i n g marine t h a t one i n the  or two  thin  non-marine  fluvial  area.  a t Babcock p e n e t r a t e  this  same i n t e r v a l  T o r r e n s Members c o n t a i n s t h e B1  thick.  this  o n l y as  f a r as  sections  coal  interval  between  coal  and  sandstones  of  seams between  Members. Twenty k i l o m e t r e s t o t h e  t h e Duke M o u n t a i n a r e a ,  Sheriff up  and  in  Area  member. D a t a  (<0.75 m t h i c k ) a r e p r e s e n t the  box  seams i n t h e Babcock  which p e n e t r a t e d  the Torrens  the  shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n ' o f  Most of t h e b o r e h o l e s the  have been d r i l l e d  south,  the  seam, w h i c h i s  BABCOCK 0} o n  09 o n  Babcock Member"!  "Sheriff Member"  Torrens Member 1 kilometres  2  ] Siltstone and Mudstone  Coarsening-Upward Marine Unit Marine Transgression  ro to CTl  F i g u r e 8j6. C r o s s s e c t i o n i n t h e Babcock a r e a showing t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e major m a r i n e u n i t s , f l u v i a l c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s and c o a l seams. B o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s a r e shown on F i g u r e 8 5 .  227  The  important  seams i n the Babcock area are present  i n the  non-marine i n t e r v a l between the S h e r i f f and Babcock members. T h i s i n t e r v a l c o n t a i n s up to s i x major c o a l seams (D, E, F, J and K ) , interbedded with f l u v i a l  channel and  G/I,  overbank  deposits. The K seam i s the f i r s t  seam above the S h e r i f f member and  c o n s i s t s of three separate seams (K1, K2, and K3) with carbonaceous mudstone, s i l t s t o n e and  sandstone.  K1 and K2 are present over the e n t i r e area and t h i c k n e s s from 0.2-2.1 m. A lower ranges  interbedded  seam, K3,  The  upper  range i n  i s d i s c o n t i n u o u s and  up to 1.6 m i n t h i c k n e s s .  The J seam occurs a few metres above K and important  i s the most  seam i n the Babcock a r e a . T h i s seam i s present  over  the e n t i r e area and v a r i e s i n t h i c k n e s s from 3.1-7.6 m. The  I seam i s present a few metres above the J seam i n the  southern p a r t of the Babcock area where i t c o n s i s t s of three separate seams 11, 12 and 13, separated by v a r y i n g t h i c k n e s s of carbonaceous mudstone, s i l t s t o n e and 13 i s 0 - 0.5 13, 1.4  m t h i c k , 12  sandstone.  , 0 - 2.0 m t h i c k and  The  lower  seam  the upper seam  - 2.5 m t h i c k . The G seam occurs 40-60 m above the J  seam i n the northern p a r t of Babcock. G v a r i e s i n t h i c k n e s s from 0.8-2.8 m and  i s separated from the J seam by a t h i c k sequence  of  fluvial  sandstones  of  e x p l o r a t i o n i n the Babcock a r e a , when a more c l o s e l y  g r i d of boreholes was  and conglomerates.  obtained, i t was  During the l a t e r  stages  spaced  r e a l i s e d that G and  the  upper I seam (11) are the same. The c o r r e l a t i o n e r r o r made i n the e a r l y stages of e x p l o r a t i o n was  caused  by the  between G and J being very much t h i c k e r than the  interval interval  228  between  11 and J . The t h i c k n e s s v a r i a t i o n s  presence of  of t h i c k  fluvial  channel  d e p o s i t s i n the northern  t h e Babcock a r e a . The d e p o s i t i o n a l  the c o r r e l a t i o n discussed  and d i s t r i b u t i o n  i n more d e t a i l  Three  a r e due t o t h e  factors  associated  with  o f t h e G and I seams a r e  i n the f o l l o w i n g  section.  seams, F, E, and D, a r e p r e s e n t  i n the i n t e r v a l  between t h e G / l seams and t h e Babcock member. The F seam in  t h i c k n e s s from  m thick.  1.6-2.9 m,  T h e s e seams o c c u r  E i s < 2.8 m t h i c k  interbedded with  o v e r b a n k d e p o s i t s . F and D a r e p r e s e n t o v e r is  part  ranges  and D i s 1.4-3.1  fluvial  c h a n n e l and  the e n t i r e  area. E  p r e s e n t o v e r most o f t h e a r e a b u t t h i n s a n d p i n c h e s o u t  towards the northwest replaced a thick  by f l u v i a l internal  ( i n b o r e h o l e s 7308 a n d 7309) where i t i s  channel  d e p o s i t s . The D seam  i s overlain  o f m a r i n e and e s t u a r i n e s a n d s t o n e s  conglomerates  o f t h e Babcock member. T h r e e  C are present  i n the non-marine  interval  member and t h e H u l c r o s s F o r m a t i o n .  thin  by  and  seams, A, B and  between t h e Babcock  These seams r a r e l y  exceed  0.75 m i n t h i c k n e s s .  3.2.3 D e p o s i t i o n a l Distribution Multistorey present and  and C o n t i n u i t y  fluvial  i n the i n t e r v a l  channel  types of channel  i n which the c h a n n e l  sandstone consist  and an upper  of t h i c k  units  the T h i c k n e s s  o f t h e G and I Seams d e p o s i t s up t o 42 m t h i c k a r e  between t h e G and I seams i n b o r e h o l e s  o u t c r o p s on t h e n o r t h w e s t  distinct unit  Factors Controlling  fill  side  o f Babcock M o u n t a i n .  sequences  are recognised; a  deposits consist  unit  Two lower  predominantly of  i n which the channel d e p o s i t s  of both conglomerate  and s a n d s t o n e ( s e e  7510  2Q-i metres  7751  771 1  X19 Vertical  Exaggeration  10i  |  |  |  ••  |  500  7707  Sandstone | Sandstone S t r e a k s  7219  7712  I**".*.!  Conglomerate  m  Coal  7203  Section B  | Siltstone/Mudstone  1000  metres  Figure  87. S e c t i o n B - C r o s s  section  d r a p i n g of t h e G / l 1 seam o v e r seams a d j a c e n t t o t h e c h a n n e l  of t h e F - J i n t e r v a l  i n t h e Babcock a r e a  showing the  f l u v i a l c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s and t h e p i n c h o u t o f t h e 13 and 12 and s p l a y d e p o s i t s . B o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s a r e shown on F i g u r e 88.  to to  230  section  1.8.1  distribution (Figure are  f o r more d e t a i l s of these  two u n i t s  of t h e s e c h a n n e l  i s shown on t h e i s o p a c h  3 2 ) . The two l o b e s on t h e i s o p a c h map  interpreted  deposits).  The  map  of the lower  as c r e v a s s e s p l a y d e p o s i t s ( d e s c r i b e d  unit  in section  1.9.2). Beds e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e c h a n n e l in  boreholes  to the south  include  and c r e v a s s e s p l a y d e p o s i t s  the lower  two I seams  12) and i n t e r b e d d e d o v e r b a n k d e p o s i t s . As i l l u s t r a t e d cross  sections  (Figures  31 and 8 7 ) , 13 and 12 t h i n  and c r e v a s s e  The  by c r e v a s s e  seam  (13) i s r e p l a c e d l a t e r a l l y  d e p o s i t s m a r g i n a l t o t h e lower middle  seam  within  a sequence of carbonaceous  splays.  (12) s p l i t s  The l o c a t i o n  into  'sandstone'  on t h e  and p i n c h o u t  towards the n o r t h a d j a c e n t t o the channel lower  (13 a n d  splays. splay  channel, while the  two t h i n n e r seams and p i n c h e s o u t mudstones above t h e c r e v a s s e  of the p i n c h o u t  o f 12 i s shown on F i g u r e  88. The  shown on F i g u r e 88. S o u t h km from middle less of  the margin and upper  than  this  seams a r e  A-A,'which i s l o c a t e d  1.0-1.8  and form  the s p l i t  thickens. North  11  above t h e c h a n n e l  essentially  between t h e s e  the margin  by 30 m r e l a t i v e  the northwest,  channel, the  a single  split  seam.  North  between 12 and 11 t h i c k e n s t o s e v e r a l  of the l i n e  km f r o m  vertically  'conglomerate'  seams 12 a n d II a r e s e p a r a t e d by a r o c k  50 cm t h i c k  line,  of l i n e  o f t h e upper  m e t r e s and t h e i n t e r v a l  0.25-0.5  o f t h e 12 and G/l1  t h i c k n e s s and d i s t r i b u t i o n  (referred  B-B, w h i c h  seams and t h e J seam i s located  approximately  o f t h e c h a n n e l , t h e 11 seam c l i m b s t o t h e J seam and i n b o r e h o l e s t o t o as G i n t h i s  area)  i s present  d e p o s i t s . The t r u e d i p a n g l e o f t h e G/l1  seam  231  at  the  is  approximately  cross  channel margin, t a k i n g  sections  the  J seam as  a h o r i z o n t a l datum,  3 ° . T h i s a n g l e a p p e a r s much s t e e p e r  (Figures  31,  87)  due  to t h e i r  on  the  vertical  exaggeration. Seams 12 fluvial  and  channel  borehole data uncertain, In  G/I1  i s present  in t h i s  but  compared  the  sediment  to only  rates  G/I1-F three  7-15  the  13  The  interchannel (described 43)  and  south. the  between t h e  the  75%  Of  former  two  buried  lack  of  second channel  is  G/I1  that,  the  subsidence  two  by  (Figure  during  of  alluvial  a p p e a r s t o have i n f l u e n c e d t h e  subsided  most  i n the  peats  i n the  isopach  channel  location  of  this  the  and  deposits map  (Figure splay  to  G/I1-F  formed a d e p r e s s e d  ' r i d g e s ' and  12  area.  these  located  sediments i n the  negligible  former  splay  indicates that  by  compaction  (of the  interchannel  at  likely  rates; early  from t h e  probably  deposition  area  i s the  of c r e v a s s e  from a f l u v i a l  seams,  areas underlain  interval  44)  F  fluvial  c o n g l o m e r a t e s would be  i n the  channels,  and  interchannel  compaction  G/I1-F  area  this  second  t o the  between t h e  than  1.9.2). D a t a  interchannel  Due  areas underlain  faster  deposition  88).  between the  consists largely  in section  the  the  where a  north-south.  f i g u r e s suggest  different  were d e r i v e d  former  i n the  east  of  area  amount of c o m p a c t i o n  area  During  i n the  present  times  cross-section  deposits  trend  overbank d e p o s i t s  lower  86,  roughly  s a n d s t o n e s and  to the  seams) and  the  Differential  f o r the  channel  compared  m  These  four  channel deposits.  of  are  interval,  to  explanation  (Figures  area,  located  channel deposits. of  towards the  a p p e a r s t o be  boreholes  30-45 m of  thin  the interval area  topography  crevasse  splay.  232  SEAM G/11 ISOPACHS  a SEAM 12 ISOPACHS  F i g u r e 88. I s o p a c h map of theG/[ 1 ( F i g u r e 88a) and 12 ( F i g u r e 88b ) c o a l seams i n t h e Babcock a r e a . Shaded a r e a s r e p r e s e n t c h a n n e l and s p l a y d e p o s i t s w h i c h a r e e q u i v a l e n t l a t e r a l l y t o t h e s e c o a l seams.  233  3.2.4  Model  f o r t h e D e p o s i t i o n o f t h e G and I'Seams  A model f o r t h e d e p o s i t i o n Figure  89. D u r i n g  covered  the e n t i r e  compaction 1980),  time  1, t h i c k  o f t h e G a n d I seams i s shown on peat  swamps o f t h e J seam  Babcock a r e a . A s s u m i n g a p e a t o f X10 f o r b i t u m i n o u s  factor  coal  presumably  1 and t i m e  2, p e a t  by t h e d r o w n i n g  overbank d e p o s i t s i n t o diverted  into  avulsion  processes  deposition  the area. During  i n nearby  side  suggest  that  formed  deposits  the c o n f i n i n g  time  and g r a v e l  braided  o f Babcock straight,  Mountain non-braided  1.8.4 f o r d e t a i l s ) .  Peats  the r i v e r  Peat  i n swamps i n t h e river  waters sediment  two l a r g e c r e v a s s e - s p l a y s . of coarse  t o widen a n d change t o a  o f t h e 12 seam a c c u m u l a t e d  i n swamps i n  interchannel area. During  as a r e s u l t  time  4, t h e 12 swamp became a r e a l l y  o f overbank  the margins  flooding  from  o f t h e swamp. D u r i n g  were a b a n d o n e d , p r e s u m a b l y  time  as a r e s u l t  t h e G/I1 seam were d e p o s i t e d o v e r  more  the channels  p r o c e s s e s . The 11 swamps t h e n m i g r a t e d of  of channel  3, i n c r e a s e d d i s c h a r g e and t h e i n f l u x caused  pattern.  were  l e v e e s of t h e c h a n n e l , and  d e p o s i t e d i n t h e swamp f o r m i n g  sand  as a r e s u l t  a r e a s . D u r i n g p e r i o d s of f l o o d i n g ,  through  During  of  (see s e c t i o n  ( o f t h e 13 seam) a c c u m u l a t e d  interchannel  the  initially  channels  2 rivers  a r e a s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  d e p o s i t s on t h e n o r t h w e s t  or a n a s t o m o s i n g  thick.  was t e r m i n a t e d ,  time  t h e Babcock a r e a , p o s s i b l y  the r i v e r s  30-75 m  o f t h e swamp o r t h e i n f l u x o f  channel  was  (Ryer and L a n g e r ,  t h e J p e a t s would have been a p p r o x i m a t e l y  Between t i m e  broke  to coal  restricted  or  drowning  5 the f l u v i a l  of upstream  channels  avulsion  outwards and t h i c k  the e n t i r e  Babcock  peats  area.  Figure  89. M o d e l  to i l l u s t r a t e  t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f t h e G and I seams i n t h e B a b c o c k  area.  ro to  235  During created  time  6 compaction  a depression ridges. This  crevasse  splay  deposition area  which  source  acted  filled  as a depocentre  i n t h e former  t o the southwest.  and d i f f e r e n t i a l  compaction  and t h e a r e a s u n d e r l a i n  "draping"  3.3  depression  deposits  from a f l u v i a l  interchannel  the f l u v i a l  formerly part  Frame a n d McConkey p i t s called  These p i t s  form p a r t  for  a r e being December  of the Quintette  1983 (Ranee,  shown i n F i g u r e occur  within  PITS  t h e McConkey P i t was i n the northern  Property  owners a n d o p e r a t o r s .  d e v e l o p e d and f i r s t  A generalised  deposits.  between t h e M u r r a y a n d W o l v e r i n e  Mines a r e t h e p r i n c i p a l pits  (note:  r e s u l t e d i n the  channel  the Sheriff Pit) are located  of the study area  interchannel  between t h e i n t e r c h a n n e l  by c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s  o f t h e G/I1 seam o v e r  for thick  Continued  COAL OCCURENCES IN THE FRAME AND MCCONKEY The  area  w h i c h was f l a n k e d by t h e two b u r i e d  alluvial  area  i n t h e former  Rivers.  i n which  Denison  At present  both  coal production  i s scheduled  1983).  s t r u c t u r e map o f t h e Frame-McConkey a r e a i s  90. I n t h e Frame P i t , t h e G a t e s c o a l  a NW-SE t r e n d i n g  s y n c l i n e ; minor  faults  measures are present  on  t h e f l a n k s o f t h e s y n c l i n e . The s t r u c t u r e a t t h e McConkey P i t  is  more complex  but c o n s i s t s b a s i c a l l y  anticline-syncline trending  thrust  p a i r s . A complex  faults  i s present  o f two NW-SE  trending  zone o f N-S a n d NW-SE  on t h e n o r t h e a s t  side of the  pit. Sedimentological pits  have been s t u d i e d  aspects  of c o a l occurrences  i n less detail  Duke M o u n t a i n a r e a s due t o t h e complex  than  i n the these  i n t h e Babcock and  s t r u c t u r e a t t h e McConkey  236  McCONKEY  PIT  ad Cut) Section \ \ Frame Outcrop Section h 55 00  FRAME  PIT\.  Outcrop of Gates Formation •  Coal Company  Borehole  Fault —  Syncline  -|—  Anticline  0  j  km  J F i g u r e 90. G e n e r a l i s e d Pits.  g e o l o g i c a l map  of the Frame and McConkey  237  Pit  and  the p r e s e n c e  boreholes cross  of o n l y a r e l a t i v e l y  which p e n e t r a t e  a thick  channel  show t h e  distribution  7 borehole  and  o f c o a l seams, m a r i n e  d e p o s i t s a t t h e Frame and  McConkey  overlain  by  containing are  an up  overlain  overlain the  by  Sheriff Thick  and  11-20  m thick  to three by  Torrens  thin  thin  c o a l seams o c c u r i n the  and  J) are present  and of  1983). E,  w i t h an F,.G  2 m thick.  J ) w i t h an the  is  The  member and along  with  interval sediments  in turn  fluvial  are  seams  J r a n g e from  3-5  m thick  ( J and  marine sandstones at the to  10m  thick.  There  interbedded  with  25 m t h i c k .  Thick  between t h e J and  numerous r o c k fluvial  Babcock member, c o n s i s t i n g  Most J  the  i s evidence  from  in places J  s e v e r a l seams  d e p o s i t s occur  G seams a t Frame  m  (D,E,G  E ) . The  p a r t i n g s i n a zone w h i c h  channel  16.6  18 m.  t o p of  a r o a d c u t a t t h e McConkey P i t t h a t t h i c k e n e d . E c o n s i s t s of  Sheriff  while D i s  4 c o a l seams  w i t h i n 2 seams  and  (D,E,F,G  t h i c k n e s s of a b o u t  t h i c k n e s s of a p p r o x i m a t e l y  i s up  channel  between t h e  Frame P i t , 5 m a j o r  McConkey P i t has  aggregate  structurally  The  (lagoonal?)  interval  aggregate  and  seam o v e r l i e s n e a r s h o r e  outcrops  the  Member i s  c o a l seams. T h e s e  interbedded  reserves are contained  Sheriff  in  coarsening-upward marine c y c l e i n  non-marine  Babcock members. In t h e  than  and  member.  and  less  m)  Torrens  t r a n s g r e s s i v e d e p o s i t s which  a 30-35 m t h i c k  overbank d e p o s i t s  (Ranee,  (<0.5  outcrop  Pits.  Member. The  non-marine  2  Two  units  Four coarsening-upward marine c y c l e s are p r e s e n t Moosebar F o r m a t i o n  of  u n f a u l t e d Gates s e c t i o n .  s e c t i o n s ( F i g u r e s 91,92) b a s e d on  sections,  s m a l l number  (Figure mainly  i n the  i s up  interval  91). of e s t u a r i n e  to  and  238  F R A M E PIT Northwest Frame Outcrop Section  7621  _  Torrens Member  7622  ___  7620  Sandstone  Moosebar Formation  \ >  Conglomerate /  ^  7618  Marine Unit Marine Transgression  I ' " — I Sandstone Streaks I  I Siltstone and Mudstone  F i g u r e 9J_. C r o s s s e c t i o n i n t h e Frame P i t s h o w i n g t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e m a j o r m a r i n e u n i t s , c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s and c o a l seams. B o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s shown on F i g u r e 9 0 .  239  McCONKEY PIT 7705  I  7701  FaultI repeat of upper Gates Coal Seam (omitted)  F i g u r e 92. C r o s s l o c a t i o n of c o a l seams. i s shown on  McConkey Road Cut  7613  I  I  s e c t i o n i n t h e McConkey P i t s h o w i n g t h e the major marine u n i t s , c h a n n e l d e p o s i t s and B o r e h o l e l o c a t i o n s shown on F i g u r e 90. L e g e n d F i g u r e 91.  240  marine  s a n d s t o n e s and c o n g l o m e r a t e s  directly  the D c o a l  seams a r e p r e s e n t member.  up t o 50 m t h i c k ,  seam i n b o t h p i t s .  i n the non-marine  Several  thin  overlies  (<1  m)  coal  i n t e r v a l above t h e Babcock  241  3.4  PLANT COMMUNITIES IN To  the  i n v e s t i g a t e the  peat  THE  GATES PEAT SWAMPS  types  from w h i c h t h e  of p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h  G a t e s c o a l s o r i g i n a t e would  detailed  palynological, paleobotanical  studies.  Such s t u d i e s a r e  During  the  collected types  core  and  field  which p r o v i d e  of v e g e t a t i o n Most  of  the  outside  coal  s c o p e of  some p r e l i m i n a r y peat  fossils  require  petrographic this  work, however, p l a n t  i n the  plant  the  and  formed  thesis.  fossils  information  were  on  the  swamps. collected  were f o u n d  in  samples of  black  c a r b o n a c e o u s mudstone above o r  below  seams. The  plant  fossils  G.E.  were i d e n t i f i e d  by  Dr.  core coal  Rouse  (UBC). Based on  the  types  of p l a n t  fossils,  tree  flora  G a t e s swamps i n c l u d e d c o n i f e r s , c y c a d s and  gingkos;  common u n d e r s t o r y  (e.g.,  were p r e s e n t  3.5  flora  aquatic  plants  COAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE  maps have been c o n s t r u c t e d  variations  i n c o a l development  isopach  map  (Figure  93a)  number of  of  and  using  regional cross thickness  total  was  the  density  a map  was  not  within  showing t h e 1.5  data  m thick  from the  sections  1,  2 and  c a l c u l a t e d using  l o g was  to  coal thickness  seams o v e r  constructed  the  f e r n s were a  Cyperites  sp.)  locally.  REGIONAL TRENDS IN Two  and  in  u s e d . In  a v a i l a b l e and  illustrate the  study  i n the  regional  area  Gates  93b).  boreholes  and  (Figures  geophysical  some b o r e h o l e s  seam t h i c k n e s s  was  -  an  Formation  areal distribution  (Figure  3  GATES FORMATION  of  the  T h e s e maps were petroleum wells  5,  6,  on  7 ) . Seam  l o g s ; where p o s s i b l e , and  wells  this  log  then c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g  a  242  combination logs.  The f i g u r e s  splits  or c o a l  The in coal the  o f gamma r a y and n e u t r o n f o rtotal  o f seams and t o t a l  surrounding The  the area  0.5 m t h i c k .  thickness  regional  i n densely  from d e n s e l y  93 a r e , however, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  coal  thickness  immediately  Mountain area,  thickness  of a . t h i c k e r  of t h i n c o a l  trends  drilled  drilled  a r e a s and  of the  i n t h e study area  coal  occurs  thickness  v a r i e s between  i n t h e Duke M o u n t a i n  area  t o t h e s o u t h . N o r t h o f t h e Duke progressively  b e l t of c o a l  i s present  decreases, with the  near  i n the Five  Babcock. South of t h e b e l t of t h i c k  coal  rock  area.  total  exception  coal  selected  10 and 28 m. The t h i c k e s t  of  than  interseam  d e v e l o p m e n t . They do n o t show t h e d e t a i l e d v a r i a t i o n s i n  i n Figure  area  do n o t i n c l u d e  seams w h i c h a r e l e s s  a r e a s . The b o r e h o l e d a t a  and  o r gamma r a y a n d s o n i c  p u r p o s e o f t h e s e maps i s t o i l l u s t r a t e  number  used  coal  logs  decreases,.but  still  t h e McConkey P i t . An Cabin Creek area,  coal  west  n e a r Duke M o u n t a i n ,  remains  fairly  high  (between  15 and 2 2 m ) . Within thick  the study area,  i n any one s e c t i o n  pattern  shown on F i g u r e  t h e number  of c o a l  93b i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t  with the greatest  near  t h e Duke M o u n t a i n a r e a . S o u t h o f t h i s  the  coals  north,  sections. Five  number o f t h i c k  coals  on t h e t o t a l  (between  area,  coal  5 a n d 6)  t h e number o f  r a n g e s between 3 a n d 5. I n b o r e h o l e s a n d w e l l s t o t h e number  of t h i c k  coals  Between 2 and 3 t h i c k  i n t h e number o f t h i c k  d e c r e a s e s t o 2 o r 3 i n most  coals  C a b i n C r e e k a r e a . The g e n e r a l  reduction  1.5 m  r a n g e s between 2 and 6. The g e n e r a l  map,  thick  seams o v e r  are also  trend  coals  present  i n the  of a northward  and t o t a l  coal  thickness  Figure  93. R e g i o n a l  thick  maps o f t o t a l  i n the Gates Formation  coal  isopachs  (Figure 93b).  (Figure  93a) a n d  t h e number  o f seams  over  244  is  r e v e r s e d on  area  the Bullmoose  where t h e r e a r e  12 m of t o t a l c o a l . regional  Property,  4 seams o v e r North  t h e number of t h i c k  seams and  Formation  rapidly.  3.5.1  and  n o r t h of t h e  m thick  of B u l l m o o s e  c r o s s s e c t i o n s by D u f f  decreases  1.5  just  and  Mountain  Gilchrist  total coal  approximately  however,  (1981) show  t h i c k n e s s i n the  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between R e g i o n a l C o a l D e v e l o p m e n t Paleogeography The  of t h e G a t e s  paleogeography  of  be  i n the Gates  simplified  into  transitional  distribution  of t h e s e a r e a s  i s shown on F i g u r e 94.  and  3  ( F i g u r e s 5,  information Leckie  on  6,  n o r t h of the study  and  in Stott  sediments  are very  thin  and  55°40'N t o j u s t  intervals  (1968,  the F o o t h i l l s from  diagram  1982)  2  with  Gilchrist  (1981),  f o r the  transitional  WNW-ESE. N o r t h  there  i s no  region  of  and  marine;  area which extends  from  seams a r e p r e s e n t  southern  limit  non-marine  coal  Creek,  non-marine towards  i n the t r a n s i t i o n a l  M o u n t a i n . The of t h e  non-  latitude  significant  s o u t h of K i n u s e o  s o u t h of B u l l m o o s e the  The  c r o s s s e c t i o n s 1,  together  and  This  a l t e r n a t e w i t h marine u n i t s which pinchout  south. Thick coal  extends  study,  non-marine.  are predominantly  d e v e l o p m e n t . In t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l latitude  regional  between t h e m a r i n e ,  trend approximately  55°40'N t h e G a t e s intervals  this  and  area.  boundaries  marine areas  from  on  c r o s s - s e c t i o n s by D u f f  (unpublished)  The  7)  and  3 major  a r e a s : marine,  c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g the data  Gates  Formation  depositional  was  that  Formation  sediments  above t h e T o r r e n s Member c a n  study  area i n  non-marine  transitional  the  area,  area near  245  BULLMOOSE MTN.  Limit of outcrop of the Gates Formation  NONMARINE  DUMB GOAT MTN. A MOUNT BELCOURT 50  kilometres  S A X O N AREA-.  F i g u r e 9_4. G e n e r a l i s e d p a l e o g e o g r a p h y o f t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n . T h i s f i g u r e was c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g t h e d a t a on t h e r e g i o n a l c r o s s s e c t i o n s from t h i s s t u d y ( F i g u r e s 5,6 a n d 7) t o g e t h e r w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n on c r o s s s e c t i o n s by D u f f a n d G i l c h r i s t ( 1 9 8 1 ) , L e c k i e ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) a n d i n S t o t t (1968, 1982) f o r the r e g i o n n o r t h of the study a r e a .  246  Kinuseo Creek, area, are  sediments  entirely  marine of  t o the A l b e r t a / B r i t i s h i n the Gates  non-marine,  (lagoon-tidal  t h e Babcock and  this  area, mainly  Columbia  b o r d e r . " In  this  F o r m a t i o n above t h e T o r r e n s Member  w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of some m a r g i n a l  flat?)  Sheriff  deposits  near  the s o u t h e r n p i n c h o u t  members. T h i c k c o a l s a r e p r e s e n t i n  i n t h e l o w e r and  middle part  of the  Gates  Formation. By c o m p a r i n g map  of t h e G a t e s  maximum c o a l  t h e d a t a on F i g u r e Formation  development  t h i c k ) o c c u r s near  (Figure  94),  (28 m t o t a l  t h e boundary  93 w i t h t h e p a l e o g e o g r a p h i c i t i s apparent  coal  and  that  6 seams o v e r  between t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l  the 1.5  m  and  non-marine a r e a s .  3.6  DEPOSITIONAL SETTING OF With  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a few  c o a l s appear accumulated setting. the  coals  COAL SEAMS IN THE  t o be e n t i r e l y as p e a t  autochthonous  that  and  FORMATION.  seams, t h e and  i n swamps i n a c o a s t a l  Facies associations indicates  very thin  GATES  Gates  t o have  plain  depositional  the s t r a t i g r a p h i c  t h e swamps were l o c a t e d  p o s i t i o n of-  in 4  principal  areas: 1. A l o n g t h e m a r g i n s 2.  Immediately  of l a g o o n s  landward  of beach  i n the lower c o a s t a l barriers  plain.  i n the lower  coastal  plain. 3. M a r g i n a l t o e s t u a r i e s  and  tidal  flats  i n the lower  coastal  plain. 4.  In i n t e r c h a n n e l a r e a s i n t h e upper  Previously, interpreted  thick  coastal  plain.  coals  i n the lower Gates Formation  were  as h a v i n g formed  i n swamps on a l o w e r c o a s t a l  plain,  247  while  generally  interpreted  t h i n n e r seams i n t h e m i d d l e  a s upper  1982;1983). Based that  this  coastal  in origin  (Carmichael,  on t h e f o l l o w i n g  evidence,  i t i s now  swamps e x t e n d e d  inland  lower  coastal  was i n c o r r e c t  and t h a t  f o r large distances,  in can  i n other areas,  the Gates  Formation.  be c o r r e l a t e d  equivalent  from  T h i s seam Bullmoose  Property,  distance  of over  directly  on t o p o f t h e S h e r i f f that  accumulated backshore.  spanning  (Figure  Mountain  100 km. A t t h e McConkey P i t , J  the coal  t h i c k and  member  i n swamps i m m e d i a t e l y  (Figure  landward  rests  15)  of the  since  i n borehole  5). It i s  t h e J/#5 seam i s v e r y e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e base  t h e J seam i n t h e McConkey P i t . I f t h i s  i s the case  #5 was d e p o s i t e d i n swamps a t l e a s t  75 km from t h e  shoreline  setting.  i n an upper  coastal  plain  reasoning i t i s concluded seams  Formation  were d e p o s i t e d i n v e r y e x t e n s i v e swamps w h i c h and upper  then  the t h i c k  continuous  t h e lower  i n the lower  that  laterally  covered p a r t s of both  coal  BD  55 m o f n o n - m a r i n e  (Figure  o f t h e #5 seam i s t i m e  on t h i s  Mines  a t t h e base o f J must have  t o assume t h a t ,  part  seam  (where t h e e q u i v a l e n t seam i s #5), a  above t h e T o r r e n s Member  Based  coal  (where i t s  Seventy-five kilometres southeast  reasonable  of  both the  5 ) , and i t s  i s up t o 1 0 m  7802, t h e e q u i v a l e n t seam, #5, o v e r l i e s  thick,  many o f t h e  i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t  Belcourt  deposits  thought  i s t h e B seam) s o u t h e a s t a s f a r a s D e n i s o n  indicating  were  plains.  1. The J seam on t h e Q u i n t e t t e P r o p e r t y equivalents  Formation  plain  interpretation  and upper  Gates  Gates  coastal  plains.  248  2.  The  i m p o r t a n c e of  recognised. Falher  C  As  the  shown on  The  G/l  interval  equivalent  one  the G/I  time  km  and  from the not  Figure  seam a t  t o the  seam was  shoreline  the  coal  of  the  G a t e s F o r m a t i o n . The  forming  major  shorelines affect  and  panel  In  9 the are  the  four major  cycles,  the  primary and  a  of  the  of  the  i s present  in  the  This  time  area,  the  approximately  by  Cant and of  the  prograded  illustrate  of  the  of  Panel  hand  types  Gates  swamps.  map  of  1 i s the  some of  the oldest  the  during  these  regressive/transgressive cycles  area). During  F a l h e r A , B and the  Torrens, During  the  Sheriff,  the  coarsening-  Falher  transgressions  direction.  D  regressions,  i n a n o r t h e r l y d i r e c t o n and  generally thin of  the  is  side.  ( 1 9 8 3 ) , the  i n the  setting  deposition  coal  paleogeographic  retreated in a southerly are  the  o b j e c t i v e of - t h i s F i g u r e  l a t i t u d e s of  other  Leckie  study  sequences  setting  G a t e s s e d i m e n t s were d e p o s i t e d  show t h r e e  at  previously interpreted.  interval.  left  the  suggests that  transgressions  schematic  Babcock Members were d e p o s i t e d .  deposits  as  of  northeast  i n swamps  areal distribution  shown on  not  upward m a r i n e  shoreline  limit  r e g r e s s i v e / t r a n s g r e s s i v e c y c l e s . (Note:  north  shoreline  C.  previously  i n a lower c o a s t a l p l a i n  y o u n g e s t . The  study  d i a g r a m s do recognised  Babcock  deposited  regressions  at a d i f f e r e n t  localities  southern  6 km  Falher  not  environments t h r o u g h time d u r i n g  Each panel .represents area  8 the  i s a d e p o s i t i o n a l model t o  of  study  Figure  upper c o a s t a l p l a i n 95  t o show how  C m a r i n e u n i t was  i s l o c a t e d approximately  Babcock a r e a .  6  Falher  C  and  the  Transgressive  i n the Gates marine u n i t s . D e t a i l s  s h o r e l i n e and  non-marine  facies  illustrated  on  249  Bullmoose  Mtn.H  W o l v e r i n e R. B a b c o c k Mtn.  Klnuseo  -| Torrens Member  Sheriff Member'  S\  / >  Creek  Dumb Goat Mtn.  4  Saxon  Bullmoose  Mtn.  4—^5:  W o l v e r i n e R. B a b c o c k Mtn.  Klnuseo Creek  "p-^ •  -c^^'  Dumb Goat Mtn.  Saxon  8 B u l l m o o s e M t n . -I W o l v e r i n e R.  4  B a b c o c k Mtn.  Klnuseo  Hulcross Transgression  Creek  Dumb Goat  Mtn.H  Saxon  F i g u r e 95. M o d e l s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e d e p o s i t i o n a l s e t t i n g c o a l forming environments i n the Gates F o r m a t i o n .  of  the  250  Figure  95 a r e a  following  given  the  study  area.  (1983, Torrens  only  i n press)  and S h e r i f f  than  channels  braided Thick  river  and c o a r s e  Mountain area,  beach-barriers  t o t h e west  Member  i n the northern  shoreline  Falher  barrier  similar to  tidally  islands.  i n the Gates a r e predominantly  high  bedload,  types. fluvial  c o n g l o m e r a t e s n e a r Dumb Goat area  a t a major  was l o c a t e d c l o s e t o t h e s o u r c e  re-entrant rivers  i n t h e mountain flowed  belt  o u t on t o t h e  plain.  i n a lower c o a s t a l p l a i n  river  Formation  deposits  rivers are  setting  adjacent  part  i n t h e upper  of the study  i n the overbank a r e a s ,  include levees,  lacustrine  are present  i n the southern  environments  swamps,  (1983) and  to the  C shoreline.  7. M e a n d e r i n g  8. O t h e r  p a r t of  facies.  6. Low s i n u o s i t y ( n o n - b r a i d e d ) o r a n a s t o m o s i n g recognised  as t h i s  lower G a t e s s h o r e l i n e s and c h a r a c t e r i s e d by  from w h i c h l a r g e  Gates c o a s t a l  logs  s h o r e l i n e s a r e more s t r o n g l y  indicate this  probably  from  C are uncertain  i t a p p e a r s t o be b a s i c a l l y  e s t u a r i e s and m e s o t i d a l 4. F l u v i a l  extensive  Based on work by Cant and L e c k i e  The Babcock member influenced  5.  s h o r e l i n e s were wave d o m i n a t e d  of the F a l h e r  i s recognised  Cant the  Member  points:  east-west.  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s unit  3.  and S h e r i f f  c h a r a c t e r i s e d by l a t e r a l l y  oriented 2.  I and I I o f t h e t h e s i s . The  i s a summary o f some o f t h e main  1. The T o r r e n s and  in Parts  deltas.  Gates  area.  in addition to  l a k e s and c r e v a s s e  splay -  251  During  the Torrens  prograded north Thick  coals  relative  the  (eg.,  in laterally  (Panels  entensive  swamps s o u t h o f  resulted  A  rise  i n a marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n and  submergence o f t h e c o a s t a l p l a i n t o j u s t s o u t h o f K i n u s e o  the  2 and 3 ) . I n i t i a l l y ,  extensive  lagoons  c o a s t a l p l a i n south of the Wolverine R i v e r .  (e.g.,  #1 seam a t B a b c o c k ) formed  margins while  The  n e x t major  the d e p o s i t i o n  the  shoreline  formed on  Thin  i n swamps a l o n g  thicker coal continued  swamps s o u t h o f K i n u s e o  coals  the lagoon  t o form  in coastal plain  (Panels  3 a n d 4) r e s u l t e d  Creek.  regressive  cycle  o f t h e S h e r i f f member. D u r i n g  the regression,  prograded northward a t l e a s t as f a r as Bullmoose  M o u n t a i n . I n some a r e a s two c o a r s e n i n g - u p w a r d c y c l e s in  1 and 2 ) .  B1 seam i n t h e Duke M o u n t a i n a r e a ) .  base l e v e l  Creek(Panels  in  c y c l e , the s h o r e l i n e  as f a r as the Wolverine River  accumulated  Kinuseo Creek of  regressive  t h e S h e r i f f member,  i n d i c a t i n g that  transgressive/regressive regressive (panel  4) t h e t h i c k e s t and l a t e r a l l y  Gates Formation  its  equivalents  thi's  time  most e x t e n s i v e  coal  seam i n  ( t h e J seam on t h e Q u i n t e t t e  i n other  a r e a s ) was d e p o s i t e d .  Property  Swamps  extending  and  covered  inland  for at  75 km f r o m t h e s h o r e l i n e . The  only  and n o t a s i n g l e  3 and 4. D u r i n g  l a r g e areas of the c o a s t a l p l a i n ,  least  more t h a n one  i s involved  p h a s e a s shown on p a n e l s  the  very  cycle  a r e present  next marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n  i n the northeast  Foothills Falher  (Panel  of the study area  5) a n d d i d n o t e x t e n d  south of the Wolverine R i v e r .  C regressive  cycle  (Panel  time a r e not as t h i c k g e n e r a l l y  This  occurred  into the  was f o l l o w e d  6). Coals deposited as those which  by t h e  during  this  formed d u r i n g t h e  252  earlier  Sheriff  In t h e  regressive cycle.  time  transgressed  interval  south  as  f a r as  t h e Duke M o u n t a i n a r e a , lagoon-intertidal by  the  this  than  1  the  as  next  f a r south  depositional  and  as  interbedded  (Panels  north  of  the A l b e r t a / B r i t i s h  r e c o r d . In t h e  final  of  the  (Panel  9).  channel  the c h a n n e l  during  9)  south,  in  by  followed  7 and  8).  study  area.  During Coals  (generally less  f l o o d e d the c o a s t a l  Columbia i n the  p a r t of  i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by  s m a l l meandering  coastal plain  event  southern  w i t h o v e r b a n k and  characteristics  seaway  sea  seam. T h i s was  r e g r e s s i v e phase a r t h i n  marks t h e  upper Gates F o r m a t i o n  the  B9  marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n (Panel  Foothills)  mainly  the  transgression i s represented  s h o r e l i n e prograded this  7,  m).  The  the  this  6 and  Babcock a r e a . F a r t h e r  d e p o s i t s above t h e  formed d u r i n g  plain  the  Babcock member r e g r e s s i v e c y c l e  time  which  between P a n e l s  border  Gates  the  study  numerous t h i n  deposits.  d e p o s i t s suggest  area  the  coals  The that  rivers  t y p e s . These sediments accumulated the  (in  s o u t h w a r d a d v a n c e of  were on  t h e H u l c r o s s ..  253  PART IV SANDSTONE PETROGRAPHY  4.1 DATA AND METHODS Thin sections with  sections  were made o f 137 s e l e c t e d  were e t c h e d i n h y d r o f l u o r i c  sodium  cobaltinitrite  Attempts  to stain  amaranth  (Laniz et a l . ,  plagioclase relief  acid  to identify  plagioclase  samples.  vapour  potassium  feldspar  was d i s t i n g u i s h e d  and s t a i n e d feldspar.  with barium  1964) were u n s u c c e s s f u l .  from q u a r t z m a i n l y by i t s h i g h e r  Red S o r e q u a l v o l u m e s o f A l i z a r i n  hydroxide  (Friedman,  c h l o r i d e and  Untwinned  due t o t h e e t c h i n g . T h i n s e c t i o n s were a l s o  Alizarin  A l l thin  1959) t o d i s t i n g u i s h  stained  with  Red S and Sodium  between c a l c i t e a n d  dolomite. 62 t h i n  s e c t i o n s were p o i n t  c o m p o s i t i o n . The p o i n t  counted  b o r e h o l e and o u t c r o p s e c t i o n s least  ( B e a r d a n d Weyl, the point  grain-size  shown  counted  sections,  fluvial  thin  from  Reference estimate  sandstones  sandstones  o f t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n a n d 28 from  counted  96. A g r i d  i n the S h e r i f f  splay  from t h e of a t  section. Estimates  to visually  Babcock member. T a b l e s 3 a n d 4 l i s t point  were t a k e n  on F i g u r e  8 were  sandstones  c h a n n e l and c r e v a s s e  to determine  and s o r t i n g .  1973) were u s e d  T o r r e n s Member, 5 from  part  samples  200 p o i n t s was c o u n t e d o n . e a c h  were a l s o made o f  Of  counted  photographs sorting. i n the  member, 21  from  i n t h e non-marine  sandstones  i n the  t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d from t h e  sections.  4.2 FRAMEWORK GRAINS Q u a r t z and c h e r t  are the p r i n c i p a l  detrital  components o f  254  F i g u r e 9_6. Map showing s e c t i o n s from w h i c h composition.  t h e l o c a t i o n o f b o r e h o l e s and o u t c r o p s a m p l e s were p o i n t c o u n t e d t o d e t e r m i n e  255  the  sandstones  sedimentary fragments,  with  and  siliceous  rock  metasedimentary  igneous  rock  fragments,  rock  clastic  fragments,  f r a g m e n t s and  carbonate  feldspar present  rock  in  lesser  amounts. Monocrystalline quartz g r a i n s . Quartz grains.  present  grain was  and  i s o f t e n no  as  quartz content  the other d e t r i t a l  few  undulose  has  been  extinction  and  these  forms 0-16%  of t h e  g r a i n s range  straight  from  contacts to elongate  contacts.  types  framework g r a i n s .  Strongly elongate  sized  crystals  quartz  s t r e t c h e d metamorphic q u a r t z  are  with  few  cases  Most  and of  straight  to  inclusions.  A  Polycrystalline  Internally with  slightly  crystals,  types  quartz  i n some  crystals with  the  overestimated  extinction.  uniformly  the  underestimated.  relatively  g r a i n s show s t r o n g l y u n d u l o s e  quartz  a l l of  slightly  (plutonic) quartz  quartz  b o u n d a r y between  Consequently  components l i g h t l y  t h e g r a i n s a r e common slightly  clear  "detrital."  framework  on many d e t r i t a l  the quartz overgrowth,  counted  the d e t r i t a l  16-76% of t h e  overgrowths are present  Because t h e r e  detrital  forms  mostly sutured  characteristic  r a r e and  of  were o b s e r v e d  in  only a fewthin s e c t i o n s . Chert abundant of  forms 2-49%  of t h e  i n the c o a r s e r  colours including  sandstones.  green.  o c c u r s as a r i n d  (due  In a few  i s more  cherts exhibit  pebbles,  light  green  to  a uniformly  most c h e r t s a r e c l e a r  fine microcrystalline  g r a i n s are c r y p t r o c r y s t a l l i n e  and  a  variety  dark  coloured chert  to weathering?) around a core  c h e r t . Under t h e m i c r o s c o p e exhibit  The  v a r i o u s s h a d e s of g r e y ,  brown, b l a c k and  and  framework g r a i n s and  or  of  brown  light  t e x t u r e . Some  a l m o s t o p a q u e under  cross  grey  256  polarizers. quartz,  Grains  may c o n t a i n  argillaceous material,  v a r i a b l e amounts o f d e t r i t a l iron  oxides  rhombs. F o s s i l i f e r o u s o r r e p l a c e m e n t The  replaced  fossil  debris  bryozoans, e c h i n o i d Siliceous impure c h e r t s ) in  colour  cross  silica  rock  fragments  comprise  from l i g h t  these  small  circular  grade  phyllite  rich  more s t r o n g l y  The  sandstone  sandstone rock Detrital grains  chert  fragments  Detrital  rock  sections  increasing Some  grains  fossils?)  rock  ina  on t h e b a s i s  of their'  coarser  to the shales.  Some o f t h e  cemented.  comprise  0-28% o f t h e framework  carbonate  10%. S t a i n i n g i s dolomite.  c o n s i s t of rounded p o l y c r y s t a l l i n e c r y s t a l s of a s i m i l a r s i z e  g r a i n s . Many g r a i n s  t h e edges a n d a l o n g  fragments a r e  compared  s e c t i o n s a r e l e s s than  carbonate grains  0-16% o f  f r a g m e n t s a r e s i m i l a r . The  fragments a r e q u a r t z o s e .  carbonate grains  fragments  comprise  and p h y l l i t e  oriented clay minerals  a g g r e g a t e s o r s i n g l e rhombic  along  these  fragments a r e c h e r t  quartz  under  matrix.  t h a t most o f t h e d e t r i t a l  associated  (replaced  sandstones and p h y l l i t e s )  b u t i n most t h i n  indicates  c l a y s . With  into argillaceous chert.  f r a g m e n t s were i d e n t i f i e d  and  opaque  vary  a r e laminated, and appear t o  framework g r a i n s . Brown s h a l e s  most common. I n t h i n  radiolaria,  or c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e ,  s e d i m e n t a r y and metasedimentary  siltstones,  common.  0-12% o f t h e framework g r a i n s . They  d a r k brown, a r g i l l a c e o u s  (shales,  dolomite  fragments.  t o d a r k brown and a r e n e a r l y  content  Clastic  are f a i r l y  sponge s p i c u l e s ,  (argillite  mainly of dark, organic?  contain  cherts  p l a t e s and c r i n o i d ?  p o l a r i s e r s . Some g r a i n s  consist  the  includes  and e u h e d r a l  exhibit iron  cleavage planes.  Abraded  t o the  staining edges  provide  257  the  best  evidence of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  difficult  but i t i s o f t e n  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between d e t r i t a l  c a r b o n a t e g r a i n s and  secondary c a r b o n a t e cements. C o n s e q u e n t l y , detrital  carbonate  Feldspars sections of  sandstones  sections  feldspar  feldspar  f r o m t h e Babcock a r e a .  more a b u n d a n t  common. P e r t h i t i c  extinction  plagioclases  are- f a i r l y  are sodic  Igneous rock were i d e n t i f i e d  feldspar  suggesting  consist  from  i n small  grains  grains  Potassium feldspar  highly  amounts.  by a l t e r a t i o n i n v a r y i n g i n a p p e a r a n c e . The  i s uniformly  low s u g g e s t i n g t h e  i n most  t h i n s e c t i o n s but sandstones i n  f o r m up t o 4.6% o f t h e framework o f m i c r o c r y s t a l l i n e q u a r t z and  t h e y were d e r i v e d minerals  Micas a r e absent  detrital  In t h e s e  the p l a g i o c l a s e  i n some o f t h e more f e l d s p a t h i c  Accessory d e t r i t a l minerals.  twins  fresh  fragments a r e absent  Most g r a i n s  (facies  i n composition.  u p p e r G a t e s where t h e y  grains.  feldspar.  i s present  are- a f f e c t e d  of a l b i t e  17 t h i n  are.untwinned. M i c r o c l i n e i s  feldspar  feldspars  angle  than  were  0.5-19.6%  0.3-22.6% o f t h e framework  t o f r e s h . Most g r a i n s  plagioclase  sections  were o f upper G a t e s  amounts o f a l t e r a t i o n r a n g i n g  amounts. Some g r a i n s  the  6 of the t h i n  i n t h e framework. The r e m a i n i n g  comprises  is slightly  shows v a r y i n g  fairly  the  23 o f t h e 62 t h i n  incudes both p o t a s s i u m and p l a g i o c l a s e  altered  The  feldspar  3B, 3C a n d 5B) s a n d s t o n e s  feldspar and  may be o v e r e s t i m a t e d .  i n only  counted.  the f i g u r e s f o r  i n t h e T o r r e n s Member.and c o n t a i n e d  which c o n t a i n e d  samples, and  were r e c o g n i s e d  w h i c h were p o i n t  plagioclase  3A,  i n some s e c t i o n s  very  from g r a n i t i c  include  i n most  rocks.  m i c a s a n d heavy  samples b u t f o r m up t o 7% o f  i n some o f t h e f i n e r - g r a i n e d  sandstones.  258  Heavy m i n e r a l s a r e r a r e i n most  samples.  concentration  (up t o 3.5% o f t h e framework  o f heavy m i n e r a l s  g r a i n s ) o c c u r s near t h e upper G a t e s . Reddish  sandstones marine  o r more i n d i a m e t e r  sandstones  lower  non-marine s a n d s t o n e s .  together  indicating  with  4.3 MATRIX AND  their  also  size  but a r e very  are strongly  shows t h a t  marine  i n some rare i n the  d e f o r m e d by  during deposition. This they  have a l o c a l  origin.  CEMENTS  i s both  consists  sized  detrital  be d e r i v e d , i n p a r t ,  predominantly  detritus,  forming  and.diagenetic  from  and mudstone  kaolinite  a r e a common " l a t e "  2.7% o f t h e t o t a l  squashed  rip-up clasts.  of c l a y  an  matrix  in origin  sedimentary  Well  formed  authigenic clay  (0.5%) i n some o f t h e m a r i n e  i n the and may  rock  "books" o f  mineral forming  sandstones.  i n any one sample  0-32%. In g e n e r a l t h e amount o f m a t r i x  ranges  but t h e r e a r e e x c e p t i o n s ; examples of t h e s e  some f i n e -  to very  (estuarine facies  2A) w h i c h t y p i c a l l y  have l e s s  well  s o r t e d sandstones  1A a n d m a r i n e than  up  i n very The t o t a l between  increases with decreasing  grain-size  fine-grained,  with  interstitial  rock. Authigenic g l a u c o n i t e occurs  amount o f a r g i l l a c e o u s m a t r i x  upper G a t e s  clay  i n marginal  between t h e framework g r a i n s . The c l a y  s m a l l amounts  rich  They a r e a l s o p r e s e n t  The p e l l e t s  fragments  to  a r e common  t h e y were s o f t  m i n o r amounts o f s i l t  sandstones  sandstones i n  or s i d e r i t e  i n the s e c t i o n  A r g i l l a c e o u s matrix  filling  of s i d e r i t e  i n t h e upper G a t e s .  compaction  2A m a r i n e  Most o f t h e heavy m i n e r a l s a r e z i r c o n s .  brown p e l l e t s  1 mm  averaging  t h e t o p of f a c i e s  The h i g h e s t  sandstones  5% a r g i l l a c e o u s  include i n the of f a c i e s  matrix.  259  Silica quartzose detrital  i s t h e most common cement p a r t i c u l a r l y  sandstones quartz  sandstones,  grains,  as  occur  siderite,  as o v e r g r o w t h s on  cement  sandstones  of  irregular  bands and  Chert  in v a r i a b l e  detrital  g r a i n s , as  large  enclosing d e t r i t a l  g r a i n s and  as  (42%)  facies and  2A  these  also  occurs  The  i n a sandstone  upper G a t e s .  is often restricted  crystals  smaller  highest content sample  i s a common c a r b o n a t e i n the  amounts.  carbonate  of d e t r i t a l  T o r r e n s Member. S i d e r i t e  4.4  are present  i n the a r g i l l a c e o u s m a t r i x .  carbonate  very  cements a r e common. O f t e n  g r a i n s . Carbonate cements, which i n c l u d e  replacements  poikilotopically crystals  and  on  argillaceous  intermixed with a r g i l l a c e o u s matrix.  calcite  carbonates  overgrowth  some of the more  chalcedony  other d e t r i t a l  dolomite, The  g r a i n s . In  c h e r t and  cements o c c u r replaces  where i t o c c u r s as an  i n the  from  cement  of the  i n marine  Its distribution  to d i s t i n c t  is  brown s t a i n e d  patches.  MISCELLANEOUS CONSTITUENTS C o n s t i t u e n t s which a r e d i f f i c u l t  c a t e g o r i e s d e s c r i b e d above finely  laminated  the  total  4.5  TEXTURE The  (very  extremely fine-  under  the  i n c l u d e o r g a n i c matter  (coal  spar  and  from  0-16%  of  carbonaceous d e b r i s ) which ranges  sample and  sandstones  fine  to c l a s s i f y  iron  oxides  (0-5.5%).  show c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n  to very coarse) w e l l s o r t e d ) . The  t o m e d i u m - g r a i n e d and  and  sorting  in  grain-size  (poorly s o r t e d to  marine sandstones  are  very well sorted while  typically the  channel  260  sandstones are often grained 2A  s a n d s t o n e s of f a c i e s  (shelf-shallow  sorting are  (very  and l e s s w e l l  1A ( e s t u a r i n e  sorted.  deposits)  Fine-  and f a c i e s  m a r i n e ) i n t h e u p p e r G a t e s show t h e b e s t  well  subangular  well  coarser-grained  to extremely  well  s o r t e d ) . Most q u a r t z  t o s u b r o u n d e d . Some o f t h e s a n d s t o n e s  rounded q u a r t z  grains  w h i c h have been c l e a r l y  with d e t r i t a l  quartz  grains  contain  overgrowths  recycled.  4.6 SANDSTONE CLASSIFICATION Using Folk's sections are  are l i t h a r e n i t e s ,  quartz  arenites  classified,  general, the  more  97). I f the l i t h a r e n i t e s  t o the dominant  85% would be c l a s s i f i e d  calc-lithites.  Sandstones  feldspar  than  53 o f t h e p o i n t  counted  5 are feldspathic l i t h a r e n i t e s  (Figure  according  approximately as  (1969) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  type of rock as c h e r t  i n t h e upper p a r t those  and 4  are further  particle,  arenites  and 15%  contain, in  i n the lower-middle p a r t s of  G a t e s F o r m a t i o n a s shown on F i g u r e  98.  4.7 SOURCE AREA Numerous o t h e r V963; M e l l o n , Mountjoy,  1967; S t o t t ,  G l a i s t e r , 1959;  1968; J a n s a ,  i n the western part data  from t h i s  paleocurrent  e v i d e n c e which  and  the Canadian C o r d i l l e r a i s the  of t h e f o r e l a n d  study,  in addition  Cretaceous  basin.  The  to the  i n d i c a t e s r i v e r s flowed mainly  south-southwesterly d i r e c t i o n , also  Cordillera  Williams,  1972; S c h u l t h e i s  f o r uppermost J u r a s s i c and E a r l y  petrographic  a  (e.g.,  1978) have shown t h a t  main s o u r c e a r e a sediments  studies  was t h e main s o u r c e a r e a  suggests that  f o r the d e t r i t a l  from  the Canadian components  261  F i g u r e 97. A t r i a n g u l a r diagram i l l u s t r a t i n g the composition of the framework g r a i n s i n the Gates sandstones.  Quartz  Q.M.R.F.  Feldspar  2  5  50  25  R  0 C  k  Fragments Chert  F i g u r e 98. C o m p a r i s o n o f framework g r a i n c o m p o s i t i o n o f s a n d s t o n e s i n t h e l o w e r - m i d d l e G a t e s and u p p e r G a t e s .  263  rr 1 "3  T a b l e 3. Compos i t Ion o f p o i n t c o u n t e d t h i n s e c t i o n s . (Lower-middle Gates)  5 0  (go SAXON 470' 7726  channel  SAXON 495' 7726  channel  SAXON 967' 7726  Channel  mS  SAXON 1030' 7726  Channel  IBS  MWO 7830  218.5ni  chennel  MWO 7830  296.8m  Channel  mScraSL  WVW  36.7  1.0  MWO 7830  303.0m  channel  mSUcrsSL  MW(W)  24 .3  MXD . 127m 7827  channel  fSUmSL  w  MOD 76-6  357'  channel  ms  MDD 7801  42.4m  channel  MDD 7801  46.3m  MOD 7823  If if u  3b  S°3  gu  r  "5  S£ -J  ."5  i  i  r a  i  6.2  crsSLC P S S U  24.8  7.0  8.5  47.0  11.7  12.3  9.2  3.2  5.0  23.9  4.5  8.5  1.3  21.6  7.6  45.9  2.4  14.9  wvw  24 .4  2.9  f SL(fSU)  VW '  35 .7  channel  mSU  w  31 .2  224.9m  channel  mScrsSL  MW(W)  MOO 7822  182.3m  channel  mS(»SU)  MDD 7822  224.5m  channel  MOD 7752  123.5m  OBD 7714  174.7m  OBD 7714  180.35m c r e vasse splay  OBO 7306  1569'  crevasse splay  OBD 7306  1613.5' c r e vasse splay  fSU  MDD 7822  349.6m  FSU  MOD 7806  WS  24.4  2.9  4.1  2.3  18.8  18.8  13.9  3.0  9.5  8.6  2.2  20.3  3.3  5.3  9.6  3.8  14.8  41.4  3.3  5.8  4.0  2.2  0.4  14.5  1 . 1  10.5  1.9  10.0  12.9  5.7  0.5  22.5  0.5  2.8  24.6  8.4  6.0  5. 1  7.4  1.9  12.6  22 .0  4.3  39.7  6.7  10.6  5.2  4.3  1.0  6.2  wvw  36 .4  4.4  21.8  2.9  6.5  8.4  12.3  0.7  6.6  fcrs  MW  30 . 1 4.6  26.8  3.7  11.1  6.9  5.2  channel  mScrsSL  w  17 .8  26.1  8.7  9.8  14.9  1.9  crevasse splay  fSU  w-  30..7  8.2  13.6  2.6  5.9  fSU(mSL)  w  30..7  4.5  9.6  4.2  fSU(mSL)  w  23.7  15.3  10.3  w-  24..2  11.5  VW(W)  31 .6  217.05m d l s t r . Chan.  C r s S L - w34..4 (mSU) (VW)  MDD 7806  248.2m  dlstr. chan.  MS  MW  MDD 7806  263.7m  dlstr. chan.  MSU  MOD 7918  44.75m  dlstr. chan.  MW 7830  363.7m  MXD 7827  —  "  —  —  --  1.0  --  6.0  —  —  1.5 4.5  11.6 1 .0  1.3  3.6  12.8  1.3  18. 1  9.6  12. 1  0.3  28.4  0.3  0.3  3.5  12.2  11.0  3.8  2.6  14.0  0.9  2.7  8.2  1 .0  3.9  17.8  13.4  3.6  12.5  1.4  2.5  6.2  12.4  3.6  9.3  16.0  10.8  5.5  23.4  7.8  4.6  2.3  11.9  18. 3  1 .0  19.0  8.7  7.2  5.8  20.3  VW  37,.8  0.9  37.8  8.5  7.2  1.8  1.8  CrsSL(mSU)  w-  25..2  5.5  32.6  10. 1 .9.6  4.1  5.5  5.5  dlst. chan.  MSU  ws  22.. 1 3.7  35. 1  10.2  6.9  6.5  9.5  6.0  431.9m  marine  mS  ws  20..7  6.6  46.0  9.4  10.3  0.9  5.6  0.5  MDD 7823  385.3m  marine  fSU(mSL)  VW  20 .9  5.8  4.9  27. 1  0.4  3.6  0.4  2.2  1.4  32.0  1.3  MOO 7823  388m  marine  fSU(mSL)  vw(w)  24 .8  2.4  5.8  16.0  2.4  5.3  0.5  8.7  11.2  21.9  MOD 7801  197.9m  marine  fSU  VW  34 .5  7.7  22.5  5.2  5.7  9.6  3.3  10.5  1.0  MOD 7801  214.5m  marine  fSL-  VW  23 .3  1.9  0.5  9.2  2.9  4.8  6.3  43.8  5.8  1.5  MDD 7918  S3.65m  marine  f SL(fSU)  VW 23 .5 -(EW)  2.8  0.5  7.0  0.9  5.2  1.5  27.2  0.5  20.2  4.7  marine  fSL  w-  0.5  9.0  6.9  1.1  3.2  1 . 1  4.2  40.2  SH82-1  dlstr. chan.  MW  14.9  6.6  MW  0.5  10.2 0.5  9.6 9.2  0.5 0.9  0.5  1.3  (MW)  ""  tsu  (MW)  25. 4  0.5  3.7  4.2  264  Compos 11 Ion of point counted thin sect long. (Upper GatesT"  i 4  r V  e  0  _<J  Vi i k 3S  145.73m 1A  fSU(fSL)  VW  54.3 5.0  QBD 7219  788m  1A  fSU(fSL)  VW  59.0 4.7  OBD 7219  803m  1A  fSU(fSL)  VWEW  75.3  SHERIFF S6-2  f SU(mSL)  W52.3 8.2 (VW)  SHERIFF S6-5  fSU(mSL)  VW  66.2 5.0  VW-  54.7  7714  OBD  93.15m 2A  fSL-  VW-  59.4  (fSU)  (EW)  fSL-  W-  (fSU)  VW  f SL-  744'  2A  •o £ 15.1 4.0  34.5  1.3  5.9  3.0  5.5  2.0  5.6  1.7  u opt H  ti  2 2  0  _a_  o  6.7  1.0  4.9  0.5  2 2  o 3'  •J  0  S  1.0  (fSU)  736'  2A  7219 OBD  33.3 2.0  2A  7219 OBD  0.3  i  1.8  VW  761'  7218 OBD  3|  5  EW  7753 OBO  rv iff** &  ^ ^ ^s  722'  2A  VW-  7219  40.0  37.7 0.5  --  4.2  6.5  --  18.6  37.7  EW  OBO 7307  900'  2A  fSLUSU)  EW- 60.9 VW  OBD 7307  888'  2A  fSL(fSU)  EW -VW  3A  fSU(mSL)  W40.0 (MW)  OBD 1162' 7306 OBD 823' 7307  63. 2.3  3A  W  3A  W f SU(mSU)  32.5 3.3  1.8  31.0 1.  OBD 7306  1192'  OBD 7306  1195.5' 3A  fSU(mSL)  W  48.4 2.8  OBO 7306  1229'  3A  fSU(fSL)  W  24.2 5.2  OBD 7306  1225'  3A  VW-  51.7 5.2  OBD 7306  1276'  3»  W14.7 (MW)  OBD 7219  646'  3A  fSL  OBD 7219  655'  3A  mScraSL  QBD 7219  672'  3A  mSL(fSU)  WVW  21.6  OBO 7219  694'  3*  fSU(mSL)  W'  OBD 7219  fSU(«SL)  W  OBD 7201  fSL(fSU)  OBD 7201  fSL(fSU)  W-  0.5  1.0  3.5  1.0 7.0  3.5  0.6  2.3  5.2  2.3 11.7 0.6 12.6  -- 12.4  2.0  2.7  9.0  1.5  1.2  5.6  21.5  1.0  1.4  10.0 —  21.2  3.0  2.8  7.1  2.8  -- 3.8  --  10.8 15.2 —  — 8.2 — 3.8  7.9  —  10.2 23.8 --  0.9 7.0  1.9  0.5  3.3  3.9  3.1  20.7 2.5  2.7  2.4  4.2  —  17.5 6.6  2.4  1.6  21.1  4.0  1.4  1.4  0.5  -- 8.5  --  29.8  3.1  1.9  34.7 6.0  5.0  0.9  0.5 6.0  --  5.8  4.0  4.0  23.6  7.6  4.9  1.0  -- 7.6  3.5 8.4  10.4  12.3 4.0  4.0  21.1  4.0  5.0  0.5  17.0  10.4 4.8  3.2  31.1  6.9  3.0  0.5  0.3  4.0  13.5 0.5  1.0  --  1.0  Bitot  13.0  W  23.2 5.7  4.14.411.1  1.9 0.5  10.2 9.9  1.0  3.3 1.2  1.8  —  14.2 —  18.0  1.2  --  28.0 0.6  0.3 18.  —  26.0 —  — 5.3  21.9  1.4  — 5.1  17.6 0.3  — 4.7  10.1  -- 4.3  229.5  38  VW  26.3 3.3  6.0  7.7  12.3 2.3  1.7  0.7  0.7  —  7.7  OBO 7754  138m  3B  MW  24.3 6.5  4.1  6.3  12.1 0.2  1.2  1.0  2.2  —  10.9 2.5  OBD. 7711  94.55m  3C  MW 23.9 -(W)  5.1.6.4  15.31.3  3.5  8.0  0.6 4.4  OBD 7203  258.5' SB  mSU(fSU)  WS  25.2 4.6  3.4  0.6  32.2  2.0  0.9  OBD 7203  270'  mSL  WS  16.3 3.7  3.0  —  16.0  1.2  1.2  7.0  4.6  32.9 —  16. 1  10.8 6.6  OBD 7201  5B  2.0  10.2  2.8  —  —  0.6  11.0 --  — 7.2  265  in  the Gates The  Formation.  composition of d e t r i t a l  indicates  derivation  terrains.  Sedimentary  from  amounts o f f i n e - g r a i n e d reworked  indicated  i n the Gates  Formation  s e d i m e n t a r y , metamorphic and igneous  r o c k s formed  t h e p r e s e n c e o f abundant  rounded,  grains  chert,  the p r i n c i p a l  detrital  sedimentary  quartz grains.  s o u r c e b a s e d on  c a r b o n a t e and s m a l l e r  rock fragments  A metamorphic  by t h e p r e s e n c e o f p h y l l i t e ,  and w e l l  source i s  recrystallised  m e t a m o r p h i c and s t r e t c h e d m e t a m o r p h i c q u a r t z g r a i n s . An source The  i s inferred  contribution  appears  from t h e p r e s e n c e o f i g n e o u s  from  Mountain  m a i n l y t o t h e upper  t o Cambrian  F r o n t and Main  sedimentary  abundant  i n the Gates  and c a r b o n a t e .rock f r a g m e n t s  from P a l e o z o i c  eugeosynclinal  T r e n c h . The Omineca b e l t  The  feldspar  feldspar  from  west o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n  rock fragments  sedimentary  i n sandstones which  also  rock  t h e Omineca B e l t t h e most  likely  to Early  Mountain  Trench i s  f r a g m e n t s . The  and f e l d s p a r  i s uncertain.  from m e t a m o r p h i c o r i g n e o u s r o c k s . The o c c u r r e n c e o f contain  s u g g e s t s an i g n e o u s s o u r c e f o r a t l e a s t Mid J u r a s s i c  derived  r o c k s , west o f t h e Rocky  may have been d e r i v e d  r o c k s o r reworked  F o r m a t i o n . Some of  may have been  the p r o b a b l e source of t h e metamorphic source of the igneous  quartzose  and s h a l e s and a r e a p r o b a b l e  o f much o f t h e d e t r i t u s  the c h e r t  Gates.  r o c k s i n t h e Rocky  Ranges c o n t a i n  sandstones, carbonates, chert source  fragments.  i g n e o u s r o c k s i s , however, s m a l l a n d  t o be r e s t r i c t e d  Mesozoic  rock  igneous  Cretaceous  fragments  some o f t h e f e l d s p a r .  intrusive  i n southeastern B r i t i s h source of the igneous  igneous rock  igneous recks i n  Columbia  detritus.  are considered  266  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The  Lower C r e t a c e o u s G a t e s and Moosebar F o r m a t i o n s o f  northeastern interval  British  of marine  Columbia  c o m p r i s e a 350-450 m  and non-marine  deposited  i n t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n  Formation  i s t h e main c o a l - b e a r i n g  Coalfields  of B r i t i s h  Gates-Moosebar  Columbia.  interval  clastic  Foreland unit  between  Wolverine River  B a s i n . The G a t e s  out using  the A l b e r t a / B r i t i s h  r e g r e s s i v e marine non-marine  Mountain  b o r d e r and t h e  C and Babcock  unit  cycles.  marine  of t h e Gates  o f between  sediments  i n t e r b e d d e d w i t h 3 major  member, F a l h e r  o u t c r o p and  Columbia  ( t h e T o r r e n s Member) c o n s i s t  the study area,  occur  of the  and a d j a c e n t p a r t s o f t h e P l a i n s .  coarsening-upward of  studies  i n t h e Rocky  The Moosebar F o r m a t i o n and l o w e r m o s t Formation  were  i n the Northeast  subsurface data i n a study area l o c a t e d Foothills  sediments which  Sedimentological  were c a r r i e d  thick  2 and 4  In t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t  i n the Gates  tongues  member) w h i c h  Formation  (the S h e r i f f  p i n c h out towards the  s o u t h . I n t h e s t u d y a r e a s o u t h o f Duke M o u n t a i n ,  sediments i n  t h e G a t e s F o r m a t i o n above t h e T o r r e n s Member a r e e n t i r e l y nonmarine. The  coarsening-upward marine  cycles  G a t e s a r e c o m p r i s e d o f up t o 3 main transitional facies  bioturbated  facies  f a c i e s and s h e e t s a n d s t o n e  occurs mainly  (mudstone  facies).  facies,  The mudstone  i n t h e Moosebar F o r m a t i o n and c o n s i s t s o f  mudstones and t h i n  offshore deposits.  i n the Moosebar-lower  siltstones  The t r a n s i t i o n a l  i n t e r b e d d e d mudstones, s i l t s t o n e s sandstones i n t e r p r e t e d  facies  and t h i n  i n t e r p r e t e d as c o n s i s t s of very  fine-grained  as forming i n the t r a n s i t i o n  zone  between  267  the  o f f s h o r e and s h o r e f a c e .  siltstones which  and s a n d s t o n e s  indicate that  Sedimentary  i n c l u d e hummocky  s t o r m s were  important  lower G a t e s s h o r e l i n e s . The s h e e t laterally  extensive  shoreface-beach  locally.  deposits with  t h e base o f t h e S h e r i f f The  along  channel  facies  c o n s i s t of  facies  Thin  i s i n t e r p r e t e d as  deposits present  i n the  transgressive deposits  occur  member.  p r e s e n c e o f s h o r e l i n e c o n g l o m e r a t e s and t h e t h i c k n e s s  and  lateral  the  a b s e n c e o f numerous t i d a l  extent  of the s h o r e f a c e - b e a c h inlet  lower G a t e s s h o r e l i n e s were h i g h Paleocurrent  data  deposits  deposits  together  suggest  that the  and mapping o f t h e l a n d w a r d p i n c h o u t  indicates that  tongues  Member  s h o r e l i n e s were o r i e n t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y  shoreline approximately  with  e n e r g y and wave d o m i n a t e d .  marine  C  the Moosebar-  12 t o 32 m t h i c k .  This  upper p a r t o f a few s e c t i o n s . T h i n at  cross-stratification  sandstone  u n i t s of sandstone  conglomerates are present  s t r u c t u r e s i n the  the Torrens,  Sheriff E-W  of the  and Babcock and t h e F a l h e r  NW-SE.  Non-marine d e p o s i t s above t h e m a r i n e u n i t s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as  forming  i n lagoons,  fluvial  channels  environments w i t h i n a c o a s t a l p l a i n d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t mainly m thick.  Several types  including meandering  braided, rivers.  Paleocurrent rivers with  data  flowed  and o v e r b a n k  setting.  Fluvial  channel  o f s a n d s t o n e s and c o n g l o m e r a t e s up t o 42 of f l u v i a l  systems a r e r e c o g n i s e d  anastomosing or s t r a i g h t Braided  river  types  ( n o n - b r a i d e d ) and  a r e most  and mapping o f c h a n n e l  common.  deposits  towards the northwest, n o r t h ,  show t h a t t h e  northeast  and e a s t ,  n o r t h e a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n s most common. T h r e e s e p a r a t e  of v e r y  coarse  fluvial  conglomerate are present  units  i n the Gates  268  Formation  n e a r Mount B e l c o u r t . T h e s e c o n g l o m e r a t e s  interpreted possibly  as  forming  w i t h i n an  Overbank  levee,  alluvial  lithologies  s a n d s t o n e s and in  i n the  proximal  c o n s i s t of mudstones,  splay,  braided  rivers  fan.  c o a l s . These d e p o s i t s  crevasse  p a r t s of  are  are  l a c u s t r i n e and  siltstones,  i n t e r p r e t e d as  forming  well  drained  to p o o r l y  swamp e n v i r o n m e n t s . Detailed  s t u d i e s of  member) were c a r r i e d borehole by  data.  3 distinct  1. T h i c k  The  2.  of  (maximum 40  belts A thin  out  using  cm)  outcrop  m)  estuary  closely  spaced  transgression  mouth  congomerates  but  and  (Babcock  is  recorded  deposits:  approximately (<90  upper Gates marine u n i t  upper Gates marine  types  s a n d s t o n e s and  the  0.4-2  (facies  km  laterally  (shoal r e t r e a t 1A)  preserved  wide t r e n d i n g extensive  massif) in  linear  NW-SE and  marine  lag  N-S.  (facies  1B) . 3.  Lagoon-intertidal deposits southern the  limit  of  Duke M o u n t a i n  During  the  the  p e r i o d of  (facies  were d e p o s i t e d  extensive  siltstones channel turn are plain  m a r i n e and  and  channel  and  south  of  3A)  and  (facies shoal  overlain locally  (facies  the in  5) d e p o s i t s  by  (facies  with  thin  flat  by  sandstones,  o v e r l a i n by 3B)  coastal  Farther  represented  marine  2A),  tidal  are  of  conglomerates  Babcock M o u n t a i n .  s h e l f to shallow  mudstones  (facies  at  e a r l y stages  fill  upper Gates r e g r e s s i v e d e p o s i t s  laterally  preserved  upper Gates marine t r a n s g r e s s i o n  stillstand  shallow  north,  4)  area.  regression, 2B)  (facies  subtidal  d e p o s i t s . These  (facies  3C)  and  in  coastal  c o a l seams. In c o n t r a s t  to  269  the  lower Gates s h o r e l i n e s  w h i c h were h i g h e n e r g y and wave  dominated,  t h e upper G a t e s s h o r e l i n e s  relatively  low e n e r g y w i t h a s t r o n g  Thick in  (maximum  the lower p a r t  Sheriff  10m),  <1.0  laterally  seams  m). C r o s s - s e c t i o n s  of c o a l  seams  Frame and McConkey P i t s . continuous within variations include  splay  b a s e d on c l o s e l y  channel deposits  also  Some c o a l  out a d j a c e n t  occurs  and i s r e p l a c e d  thickness this  i n t h e Babcock  to f l u v i a l  area  c h a n n e l and  thinning  adjacent to  seam s o u t h o f t h e Duke  o f t h e Duke M o u n t a i n a r e a  t h e B2 seam  sandstones of the S h e r i f f  member. D r a p i n g  of c o a l  ( e . g . , t h e G/I1  seam a t Babcock and t h e B5 seam i n t h e Honeymoon  P i t ) causes lead and  fluvial  channel  rapid variations  i n interseam  thickness  t o c o r r e l a t i o n problems  i n the e a r l y  s t a g e s of  a f f e c t the p o t e n t i a l m i n e a b i l i t y Within  the study area  Formation v a r i e s thicker The  seams o v e r  Babcock,  f a c t o r s . Examples of  i n t h e B1  by s h o r e l i n e  spaced  seams a r e  seams e x h i b i t  Depositional  In t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t  occur  t h e o c c u r r e n c e and  Most o f t h e major c o a l  deposits.  seams  above t h e T o r r e n s a n d  t h e E seam and G/I2 and G/I3 seams  crevasse  thins  extensive coal  illustrate  to depositional  w h i c h t h i n and p i n c h  Pit.  influence.  i n t h e Duke, Honeymoon,  the p i t s .  related  t o have been  i n t h e upper G a t e s a r e t h i n  b o r e h o l e and o u t c r o p s e c t i o n s distribution  tidal  of the Gates Formation  Members. C o a l  (generally  appear  than  occurs  coal  thickness  development  varies  (28 m t o t a l  i n t h e Duke M o u n t a i n  coal  which  may  exploration  seams.  between 10 and 28 m and t h e number  1.5 m i n any one s e c t i o n  maximum c o a l  thick)  the t o t a l  of c o a l  deposits  i n the Gates o f seams  between 2 and 6. and 6 seams >1.5 m  a r e a and B e l c o u r t  Property,  270  south of Kinuseo Creek. In terms of r e g i o n a l paleogeography area i s l o c a t e d near the boundary  between t r a n s i t i o n a l  this  marine  and non-marine f a c i e s b e l t s . North of Bullmoose Mountain the number of t h i c k seams and t o t a l c o a l t h i c k n e s s i n the Gates Formation decreases r a p i d l y as the non-marine i n t e r v a l s i n the Gates are r e p l a c e d by marine  strata.  With the exception of a few very t h i n seams, the Gates c o a l s appear t o be e n t i r e l y autochthonous and t o have accumulated as peat i n swamps i n a c o a s t a l p l a i n  depositional  s e t t i n g . F l o r a w i t h i n the swamps i n c l u d e c o n i f e r s , cycads, gingkos, f e r n s and sub-aquatic p l a n t s . Coal seams i n the lower Gates accumulated as peat i n swamps which were l o c a t e d along the margins of lagoons, immediately landward of beach b a r r i e r s and in i n t e r c h a n n e l areas on the c o a s t a l p l a i n . Some of the swamps (e.g., those of the J seam) were very e x t e n s i v e , extending i n l a n d f o r at l e a s t 75 km from the s h o r e l i n e . Coal seams i n upper Gates accumulated as peat i n swamps which were l o c a t e d i n l a n d from lagoons, e s t u a r i e s , t i d a l areas on the c o a s t a l  f l a t s and i n i n t e r c h a n n e l  plain.  The main d e t r i t a l components i n the Gates sandstones (based on p o i n t counts of 62 t h i n s e c t i o n s ) are q u a r t z and c h e r t w i t h s i l i c e o u s rock fragments, carbonate rock fragments, sedimentary and metasedimentary  clastic  rock fragments, igneous rock  fragments and f e l d s p a r present i n l e s s e r amounts. Igneous fragments and f e l d s p a r are more abundant Using F o l k ' s  i n the upper  rock  Gates.  (1969) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , ,53 of the p o i n t counted  s e c t i o n s are c l a s s i f i e d as l i t h a r e n i t e s , 5 a r e f e l d s p a t h i c l i t h a r e n i t e s and 4 are quartz a r e n i t e s . The Mesozoic t o Cambrian  271  sedimentary are  interpreted  components and  r o c k s o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n F r o n t as the p r i n c i p a l  may  have been d e r i v e d  Ranges  detrital  i n t h e G a t e s s a n d s t o n e s . 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J . , B o r n h o l d , B.D., and Thompson, R.E., O s c i l l a t i o n r i p p l e s on t h e n o r t h e a s t P a c i f i c s h e l f : M a r i n e G e o l o g y , v . 31, p. 45-58.  1979, continental  Youn, S.H., 1982, C o n g l o m e r a t e s h o r e l i n e d e p o s i t s i n t h e Elmworth a r e a , A l b e r t a , Canada, ( a b s t r a c t ) : I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S e d i m e n t o l o g i s t s , H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o , p. 105. Y u r k o , J.R., Plains:  1976, Deep C r e t a c e o u s c o a l r e s o u r c e s of t h e A l b e r t a R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l R e p o r t 75-4, 47p.  Alberta  Northwest  Northwest Frame Outcrop  QMD 7620  QMD  7618  QBD  7306  * QFD  7220/7221  Composite  • Quintett* #2  MOD  76-6  8WD  76-6  MWD  7630  BSD 76-3  Formation  Regional Cross Section of the Gates and bns. Foothills of Northeastern British Columbia  Northwest  Southeast WOLVERINE  QWD 7115  McCONKEY PIT  QMD 7705/7701 Composite  McConkey Road Cut  BABCOCK MTN  QBD 8106  Syncline Extension Outcrop Section  QBD 7510  ROMAN MTN.  QBD 7219  QBD 7217  QBD 7513  DUKE MTN  HONEYMOON PITS EAST WEST MDD 7908/7912 Composite  MDD 7914/7918 Composite  DUCHESS MTN  WAPITI RIVER  RED DEER  Location Map MDD7823  MDD 7811/7905 Composite  MDD 7822  MUD 7704  BD 7915  Red Deer Road Cut  BD 7802  Hulcross Formation  -  x.  A  / *8B *8A  Gates Formation  Legend  100-.  Torrens Member  —^- Cross-bedding l^r^J Conglomerate  metres  Sandstone  —v- Low angle cross-bedding Trough cross-bedding Tabular cross-bedding Hummocky cross-stratification  |  50  Moosebar Formation  Gething Formation  H  Surface of marine transgression  | Siltstone/Mudstone  Ripples  --«<\c Climbing ripples ^1 Coal ~<^* Flaser bedding Wavy bedding Bent Bentonfte Lenticular bedding Burrows Parallel bedding L Roots ar> Soft sediment deformation — Sltet/Mdst pebble. "•"'Cture. and rlp-up clasts Pebble imbrication  sltst. I fine s st. medium &st.  coarse sst.l granular sst. conglomerate  Cross Section 1 -  Regional Cross Section of the Gates and  Moosebar Formations, Foothills of Northeastern British Columbia  2$X  ^ Southeast  Northwest b60A93P02  C76D93P02  d57093P02  C20CS3P02  d89K93l15  085093118  |.'. ' . j M a r i n e  • 74Q93I1S  Deposits  b62Q93M6  849H93I1S  2. Logs indicate apparent thickness - not corrected tor structural dip. 3. 'Foothills' nomenclature used.  C88F93M5  83A93I15  Cross Section 3  Qamma Ray Log Correlation of Strata  to the G a t e s and M o o s e b a r  Formations  Equivalent  in the P l a i n s  Fiawre  7  

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