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A geological evaluation of the Cinola (specogna) gold deposit, Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C. Champigny, Normand 1981

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A Geological Evaluation  o f the  Cinola  Deposit,  (Specogna) G o l d  Queen C h a r l o t t e  Islands,  B.C.  By  Normand B.A.Sc,  Ecole  Champigny  Polytechnique,  1979.  t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l fulfillment o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the degree o f master o f a p p l i e d s c i e n c e in The F a c u l t y o f G r a d u a t e Department o f G e o l o g i c a l We  Studies Sciences  a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard:  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h A p r i l 1981 ©Normand  Champigny,  Columbia 1981  In  presenting  requirements of  British  it  freely  agree for  this  thesis  i n partial  f o r an advanced  Columbia, I agree available  that  that  f o rreference  permission  scholarly  degree  f o rextensive  at the University  the Library  shall  and study.  I  copying  p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d  o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  understood  that  financial  copying  gain  or publication  shall  n o t be a l l o w e d  permission.  Department  of  /lMXJ^J/ /! 1  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1W5  I 9 /7CH  Columbia  make  further  of this  by t h e head  department  for  nr.  fulfilment of the  of this  thesis  o f my  I t i s thesis  w i t h o u t my  written  F r o n t i s p i e c e - A r e a l view o f the C i n o l a s i t e , l o o k i n g west. The d e p o s i t i s t h e s m a l l h i l l w i t h many c a t r o a d s i n the f o r e g r o u n d . In the background are r o l l i n g h i l l s of the S k i d e g a t e P l a t e a u , m a i n l y formed o f T e r t i a r y volcanic rocks.  i  ABSTRACT  Cinola Charlotte 1970. of  (Specogna)  Islands, B r i t i s h  I t i s now  45.4  posit  gold  deposit Columbia,  short  is in a c l a s t i c  sequence  conglomerate-sandstone Both  and  sil  and  i n which  i s the f i r s t  in detail.  r o c k s and  main  sulphides,  The  alteration  Cinola deposit  geothermal  system,  intrusion.  fluviatile  Ore  the e n e r g y fluids  regimes  circulation  indicate  intrusion  a 17-15  mineraliz-  a t about  Ma  age  14  Ma  f o r the f l u -  deposit occurs.  Carlin-type  Pyrite  deposit  i s widespread,  derived  from  160°C  o f the o r e f l u i d s .  and  and  from  Depth  inclusion 270°C of  the  argillic.  p o r e water  by f l u i d  be  sedimentary  the d e v e l o p m e n t  f o r which  originated  to  and m a r c a s i t e a r e  i s dominantly  from  on  dykes  together with plant microfos-  type  centred  unit  Formation, Middle  the C i n o l a  h o s t r o c k , as i n d i c a t e d  temperature  shale  d i s s e m i n a t e d i n the  resulted  de-  overlying  Gold m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  i n quartz veins. and  an  Canadian  as m i c r o n - s i z e p a r t i c l e s  host  during  model a g e s ,  sequence,  deposit  described  Two  The  o f a lower  model ages  probably rhyolite-porphyry  Skonun  The  tic  K-Ar  in  The  a r e c u t by a s t o c k and  fauna examination, revealed  viatile  occurs  Two  and  (Skonun  sedimentary units  (Middle Miocene).  discovered  stage, with proven r e s e r v e s  consisting  sequence  rhyolite-porphyry.  ation  first  t o n s a v e r a g i n g 0.054 o z . A u / s . t .  (Haida F o r m a t i o n , Late Cretaceous)  of  was  a t the f e a s i b i l i t y  million  Miocene).  i n the n o r t h e r n Queen  of a the  large  rhyoii-  i n the studies.  existed  mineralization  ii  is  estimated  between  A geostatistical  1.1  and 1.8  evaluation  km.  of geochemical data  shows t h a t Au, Ag, Hg, A s , Sb, and W have s y s t e m a t i c tion  patterns  could gold the  deposit  kriging  Cinola  distribu-  i n e i t h e r p r i m a r y o r s e c o n d a r y e n v i r o n m e n t s , and  be u s e f u l p a t h f i n d e r s deposits.  from  for exploration  A geostatistical  t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y  of selection units.  f o r s i m i l a r types o f  study of assay data  amenable  to reserve  has shown  estimation  by  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  I  L I S T OF TABLES  i v  L I S T OF FIGURES  v i i  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  x i i . ,  CHAPTER 1:  INTRODUCTION  CHAPTER I I :  SPECOGNA  1  GOLD DEPOSIT OF  CONSOLIDATED CINOLA MINES AN EXAMPLE OF STRUCTURED CHAPTER I I I :  LIMITED: PROPERTY EXPLORATION  CINOLA GOLD DEPOSIT,  QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS, BRITISH COLUMBIA A CANADIAN CHAPTER I V :  5  -  CARLIN-TYPE DEPOSIT FLUID INCLUSION AND  29 SULPHUR  ISOTOPE DATA  IN RELATION TO GENESIS OF THE CINOLA GOLD DEPOSIT, QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS, B.C CHAPTER V:  NEW  84  EVIDENCE FOR THE AGE OF THE SKONUN  FORMATION, QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS, BRITISH COLUMBIA CHAPTER V I :  104  CINOLA GOLD DEPOSIT, QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS,  B.C. A GEOCHEMICAL CASE HISTORY CHAPTER V I I :  GEOSTATISTICAL STUDY OF THE CINOLA DEPOSIT,  QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS, B.C CHAPTER V I I I :  119  CONCLUSIONS  161 190  L I S T OF  TABLES  CHAPTER I I :  Table  1.  General  structure  Table  2.  Structure  Table  3.  Summary o f  of  of  an  property  exploration  exploration  exploration  h i s t o r y of  program.  program.  Specogna g o l d  depos-  it.  Table  4.  Approximate Specogna  costs  incurred  during  exploration  of  the  deposit.  CHAPTER I I I :  Table  1.  Table of Geologic  Table  2.  L i t h o f a c i e s and  F o r m a t i o n s , Queen C h a r l o t t e  Sedimentary S t r u c t u r e s  Skonun S e d i m e n t s o f Braided Table  3.  River  Analytical  the  Islands.  Observed  C i n o l a Gold Deposit  and  in  the  other  Systems.  D a t a and  K/Ar  model a g e s , C i n o l a g o l d  de-  posit . Table  4.  Opaque M i n e r a l s Gold Deposit.  CHAPTER  Table  1.  and Trace  Their  R e l a t i v e Abundance,  amounts means l e s s  than  IV:  a  3 4  S of  pyrite  sulphur  at  the  Cinola  deposit.  Cinola 0.1%.  V  CHAPTER V I :  Table  1.  Summary o f means and s t a n d a r d log-transformed Cinola  Table  2.  3.  C o r r e l a t i o n matrix  data,  f o r log-transformed  (base  10) l i -  data, Cinola deposit.  Means and s t a n d a r d for  10) l i t h o g e o c h e m i c a l  deposit.  thogeochemical  Table  (base  d e v i a t i o n s f o r raw and  partitioned  d e v i a t i o n s determined  metal  graphically  populations of lithogeochemical  data, Cinola deposit.  Table  4.  Summary o f means and s t a n d a r d log-transformed Cinola  Table  5.  6.  C o r r e l a t i o n matrix  geochemical  data,  f o r log-transformed  (base  10)  soil  data, C i n o l a deposit.  Means and s t a n d a r d for  10) s o i l  deposit.  geochemical  Table  (base  d e v i a t i o n s f o r raw and  partitioned  d e v i a t i o n s determined  metal  populations of s o i l  graphically geochemical  data, Cinola deposit.  Table  7.  Summary o f means and s t a n d a r d log-transformed Cinola  deposit.  (base  10) s i l t  d e v i a t i o n s f o r raw and geochemical  data,  Table  Table  8.  9.  Correlation  matrix  geochemical  data, C i n o l a deposit.  Means and s t a n d a r d  f o r log-transformed  d e v i a t i o n s determined  for  partitioned  metal  cal  data, C i n o l a deposit.  (base  10)  silt  graphically  populations of s i l t  geochemi-  CHAPTER V I I :  Table  1.  Data  types  Cinola  Table  2.  used  for geostatistical  gold deposit.  Summary o f r e g u l a r i z e d down-hole a s s a y drill  3.  s p h e r i c a l models c a l c u l a t e d f o r  d a t a o f " u n a l t e r e d " and " a l t e r e d "  h o l e s a m p l e s and h o r i z o n t a l  bench c o m p o s i t e s ,  Table  e v a l u a t i o n o f the  data o f "unaltered"  Cinola deposit.  Summary o f p o i n t s p h e r i c a l model c a l c u l a t e d hole data o f "unaltered" d r i l l  hole  f o r down-  samples, C i n o l a  deposit.  Table  4.  Summary o f p o i n t s p h e r i c a l model f o r h o r i z o n t a l of  " u n a l t e r e d " bench c o m p o s i t e s ,  Cinola deposit.  data  V l l  L I S T OF FIGURES  CHAPTER I I :  Figure  1.  Location  Figure  2.  Approximate v a r i a t i o n s ounce  Figure  3.  o f Specogna  (U.S. d o l l a r s )  gold  deposit  in price  o f g o l d per t r o y  to present.  Sequential option  agreements  relating  t o the  Specogna d e p o s i t ,  and shown as a f u n c t i o n o f o u r  e s t i m a t e s o f the stage o f e x p l o r a t i o n .  Figure  4.  Arbitrary  relative  information  during  information successive  measures  to q u a n t i f y  years of e x p l o r a t i o n ,  Specogna  deposit.  Location  map o f the C i n o l a g o l d d e p o s i t , Queen  CHAPTER I I I :  Figure  1.  Charlotte  Figure  2.  Islands,  B.C.  Regional geology, C i n o l a gold deposit S u t h e r l a n d Brown, 1 9 6 8 ) .  Figure  3.  Property geology, C i n o l a gold  Figure  4.  Cross-section  AA'.  deposit.  (after  v i i i  Figure  5.  Cross-section  Figure  6.  G o l d - s i l v e r s c a t t e r diagram from d r i l l  Figure  7.  BB . 1  core,  than  0.4  "low  b a s e d l a r g e l y on  G o l d - s i l v e r s c a t t e r diagram (higher  for  oz.  for  Au/ton)  grade"  2 m core  "high  assays lengths.  grade"  b a s e d on  2 m  assays  core  lengths.  Figure  8.  Figure  Graphic  9.  Paragenetic opaque  Figure  10.  log of  11.  line  diagram  for  hole  the  78-6.  Cinola gold  deposit  minerals.  Cross-section minerals  Figure  diamond d r i l l  of  showing d i s t r i b u t i o n  the C i n o l a g o l d  S c h e m a t i c sequence  of  alteration  deposit.  i n development of  the  Cinola  gold  deposit.  CHAPTER  IV:  Figure  1.  Histogram of sions  Figure  2.  in quartz  Histogram of sions  filling and  temperatures of calcite,  Cinola  fluid  deposit.  f r e e z i n g temperatures of  in quartz  and  calcite,  Cinola  inclu-  fluid  deposit.  inclu-  ix  CHAPTER V:  Figure  1.  Map  showing  Formation  the area  underlain  (clashed l i n e )  by t h e Skonun  and l o c a t i o n o f t h e C i n o l a  deposit.  CHAPTER V I :  Figure  1.  Location  map o f t h e C i n o l a g o l d  Figure  2.  Procedural  path  deposit.  i n evaluating Cinola  geochemical  data.  Figure  3.  Most  significant  logarithmically cal  Figure  4.  c o r r e l a t i o n s ( a t t h e 0.01 l e v e l ) o f transformed  (base 10)  iithogeocnemi-  data.  Lognormal p r o b a b i l i t y data  plot  p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o upper  f o r Sb  lithogeochemical  (A) and l o w e r  (B) popu-  lations .  Figure  5.  Lognormal p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t data  p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o upper  lower  (B) p o p u l a t i o n s .  Figure  6.  Au  (ppm x 100) i n r o c k .  Figure  7.  Ag  (ppm x 10) i n r o c k .  f o r Au  lithogeochemical  ( A ) , median  ( A ) , and 1  Figure  8.  Hg  i n rock  (ppb).  Figure  9.  Sb  i n rock  (ppb).  Figure  10.  W  Figure  11.  Probability plot  i n rock  upper  (ppb).  (A)  and  f o r Cu  lower  Figure  12.  Au  (ppm  Figure  13.  Hg  in B horizon  Figure  14.  Hg  i n peat  (A h o r i z o n )  Figure  15.  Cu  in soil  (ppm).  Figure  16.  Probability plot upper  x 100)  (A)  and  in  (B)  in soils,  partitioned into  populations.  soil.  (ppb).  f o r Ag  lower  (B)  (ppb).  in s i l t s ,  partitioned into  populations.  CHAPTER V I I :  Figure  1.  Location  Figure  2.  G e o l o g i c a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n of  Figure  3.  Probability plot BX  core.  map  of  the  Cinola  deposit.  the  Cinola  for gold assays of  2 m  deposit.  samples  from  xi  Figure  4.  Threshold  Figure  5.  Average  experimental  (dashed  lines),  line), sets,  values  curves  6.  core  sample  down-hole  length.  semi-variograms  r e g u l a r i z e d s p h e r i c a l model  for "unaltered"  (full  and " a l t e r e d " d a t a  and s p h e r i c a l p o i n t model c u r v e f o r  "unaltered"  Figure  versus  Locations  data  (dots).  of d r i l l  hole  collars  on the C i n o l a depos-  it.  Figure  7.  Average (dashed ples,  Figure  8.  Kriged at  experimental lines)  h o r i z o n t a l semi-variogram  for a l l "unaltered"  based on 10 m bench  block  t h e 110 m  mean g r a d e s level.  drill  hole  sam-  composites.  f o r 30 x 30 x 10 m  blocks  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  Special  thanks a r e extended  viding  guidance  author  appreciates  to Dr. A.J. S i n c l a i r  and e n c o u r a g e m e n t the f i n a n c i a l  ance  o f C o n s o l i d a t e d C i n o l a Mines  K.G.  Sanders,  geologists,  s t u d y was a l s o  Engineering  this  funded  Science Council  M i n i s t r y o f Energy, Mines,  assist-  Ltd., in particular,  that of  ter  i n part  by a C a n a d i a n N a t u r a l and  scholarship  and a g r a n t f r o m B.C.  and P e t r o l e u m  Resources.  tion  provided extensive assistance  output f o r the g e o s t a t i s t i c a l  appreciated.  C h a r l e s Henderson  and D r . G.E. Rouse  S. L a c e y  and A. M a c K i l l o p , camp manager.  geologist, for  numerous d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e g e n e s i s o f t h e C i n o l a Bentzen  The  s u p p o r t and t e c h n i c a l  T h a n k s a r e due t o M.G. C r u s o n , c o n s u l t i n g  Asger  study.  P r e s i d e n t , G. S a n d e r s , V i c e - P r e s i d e n t ,  and D. B a i n , s t a f f This  throughout  f o r pro-  study.  deposit.  i n obtaining  compu-  H i s h e l p was g r e a t l y  completed  the f o s s i l  (U.B.C.) c o n d u c t e d  identifica-  the p a l y n o l o g i c a l  analysis.  Fluid detail  inclusion  measurements were done by Shen Kun. The  and a c c u r a c y o f h i s work i s g r a t e f u l l y  M o d e l ages drawings  were c a l c u l a t e d  were e x e c u t e d  by J . E . H a r a k a l .  by J o h n Newlands  Ashdown, who t y p e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l put  forth  greatly  by R o b e r t a C r o s b y  appreciated.  John  acknowledged.  (U.B.C).  papers.  Most o f t h e Thanks t o J a n  The tremendous  t o type the f i n a l  effort  manuscript i s  Gardiner provided technical  assist-  ance for  i n the f i e l d . her p e r s o n a l  A s p e c i a l m e n t i o n goes encouragement.  to N i c o l e  Barcelos  1  CHAPTER  1  Introduction  2  Cinola  (Specogna) g o l d  132°13'W, l a t i t u d e 53°32'N thernmost of discovered found gold  the  but  by  a lode  E a r l y B i r d Mine on the  effect  vegetation  The  on  rigorous little  grade gold  first  p o s i t , which writer  ination was  during  surface  outgrowth of  ranged chapter  several  the  in a logical in this  deposit  time t h a t few  was  gold  was  ounces  of the  Gold occurrences This  such  as  on  shows t h e  pro-  elevation  and  exploration  s t a g e was  reached  stages  Up  had  there  been done, and c o n t r o l s of  during  i n 1979  C i n o l a Mines L t d .  a complete  evaluation  of  field  summer o f  1979.  data,  subsequent  i n the  writer's  field  s e q u e n c e , and  thesis.  visits  form o f  A brief  of was  Detailed  mapping were c o m p l e t e d  several  i s organized  nor-  to  this  by  the  then was  high  no very  ton-  deposit.  of  the  The  first  i n 1852.  p o s s i b l e ore  is a collection  c h e c k e d on  thesis an  and  step  the  methods.  geological evaluation  nage - low  longitude  C o l u m b i a were f r o m  features  Consolidated  of  The  prospecting.  Feasibility  understanding  The  by  went t h r o u g h  operator,  at  B.C.  first  in B r i t i s h  physiographic  e a r l y 1970's.  the  Islands.  Mitchell Inlet  exploration  deposit  present  the  of  Islands,  not  mine  i s l a n d s were a l l f o u n d  nounced  the  i t was  Queen C h a r l o t t e  produced  is located  i n c e n t r a l Graham I s l a n d ,  Queen C h a r l o t t e  i n 1970,  i n the  deposit  and  to  the  e a c h one  The  Cinola  by  drill  exam-  core  information  property. papers  forms a  This  that  papers are  d e s c r i p t i o n of  de-  undertaken  new  a s e r i e s of work.  the  are  ar-  subsequent  each  follows.  3  Chapter of  this  Two  shows the  mineral  quantify  deposit  progressive  A rigorous Cinola part  deposit  of  that  data  i s given  i s given  data  from  the  resulted Five  details  Four from  the  formal  described  fluid  age  the  Seven  from  i n Chapter  surveys  are  the  the  of  the  concluding  proposed  sulphur  this  devoted  isotope  data.  paleontological  the C i n o l a  rock  genetic  unit.  deposit, Chapter  approach  Seven.  (1)  kriging.  Six  total  the  data  rock,  statistical  to do  silt  developmethods.  drill  is  hole  geostatistical  (2)  development of  generation  of  semi-variogram  G e o l o g i c a l p a r a m e t e r s were a l s o  study.  analy-  estimation  amount o f  writer  and  early  reserve  evaluation,  (3)  soil,  i n the  using  to ore  The  semi-variograms,  to a s t a t i s t i c a l  undertaken  re-evaluated  experimental  in this  of  In C h a p t e r  including  account  age  are  estimations,  (4)  to  revision.  S i x and  deposit  attempt  setting  p a l y n o l o g i c a l and  a s s a y s were made a v a i l a b l e t o  into  In  to  i n c l u s i o n s and  with  of  geostatistical  m o d e l s , and  the  Skonun F o r m a t i o n , w h i c h h o s t s  geochemical data  A  a d d i t i o n a l support  combined  this  i s an  exploration  property.  i n Chapter Three.  of e x p l o r a t i o n data.  ment o f  the  and  of  a g e n e t i c model i s p r o p o s e d .  in a revision  Chapters sis  e x p l o r a t i o n of  chapter  K-Ar  since discovery,  g e o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of  In C h a p t e r model  structured progression  taken  4  General conclusions  are  summarized  i n Chapter  Eight.  5  CHAPTER I I  Specogna Consolidated An  Example  Gold Deposit Cinola  of Structured  Mines  of Limited:  Property  Exploration  6  ABSTRACT  Specogna g o l d  deposit  generated widespread in  1980, when therefore  low  grade d e p o s i t .  early  interest  since  i t was d e s c r i b e d  and  going,  of Consolidated  was  thought  evaluation, face  since  include:  a logical  structured  the  feasibility  and  production  various  (1) d i s c o v e r y ,  and  (5) f e a s i b i l i t y .  (7) p h a s e s o f e x p l o r a t i o n . methods, w i t h  the  most o b v i o u s o f w h i c h  i s total  explorasurface  (4) d i r e c t  subsur-  i s presently in  the development  The i m p o r t a n c e o f  t i m e , c a n be m o n i t o r e d  v a r i e t y o f e m p i r i c a l measures o f " r e l a t i v e drilling  with  and l a t e r  Property  Specogna  p h a s e , and h a s y e t t o a t t a i n  exploration  progression,  (2) p r e l i m i n a r y  evaluation,  tonnage  has been o n -  techniques  by d r i l l i n g .  (3)' d e t a i l e d s u r f a c e  exploration,  discovery  o f the " C a r l i n - t y p e " ,  discovery  emphasis on s u r f i c i a l measurement  phases  its  t o have p o t e n t i a l f o r a l a r g e  dominance o f s u b s u r f a c e p r o b i n g tion  shortly after  as b e i n g  Exploration  and h a s f o l l o w e d  C i n o l a M i n e s L t d . has  information per u n i t  by a  gain", time.  (6)  7  INTRODUCTION  Undiscovered ly  e l u d e a l l but  occurrence an  ore the  most t h o r o u g h  of  i t s ultimate  A comprehensive  and  1965).  stages, This  financial  vail.  resources,  Nevertheless,  of  more and  In  considering  ploration,  and  uncertainty  clouds  be  divided  in Table  into  an  1  i s somewhat i d e a l i z e d , p r o g r a m b a s e d on  a s i t u a t i o n that  this  does n o t  for mineral  ideal outline  substan-  always  deposits.  preframe-  The  un-  i s that,  as  the  from g e n e r a l  to  specific,  i s obtained  a p a r t i c u l a r mineral 1 does n o t  of  the  by  which  property,  scale  targets  It is often  a realistic  or  d e t a i l e d and  progressive  nature of  s a i d tha  t h a t must n o t  emphasizes  the  be  extraordinary  in defining  an  however,  provide  a more d e t a i l e d s e q u e n c e o f  expression  involved  mineral  localized.  appreciation  ranted.  exploration  changes p r o g r e s s i v e l y  framework o f T a b l e sive  amount o f  illustrated  more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n  become b e t t e r  common-  Even when a  p r o g r a m can  exploration  p r i n c i p l e of  examination  that  s u c h a scheme i s a u s e f u l c o n c e p t u a l  work f o r c o n s i d e r i n g derlying  as  resources  search.  classification  assumes a f a r - r e a c h i n g  tial  hidden  worth.  exploration  framework o f  (Fortesque,  are  i s known, a c o n s i d e r a b l e  appreciation  orderly  deposits  ore  "mines a r e  taken  too  literally,  insight, cost, body f o r  the  comprehen-  subdivisions  made, not  and  one  effort  purpose of  ex-  i s war-  found",  but  the  an  that generally  exploration.  8  any  There  is l i t t l e  mineral  property  origins  for mineral  deposits  so  exploration  o f many m i n e r a l  of  terial  or  are  of  and  cheap  investigation. methods s e r v e target  such  an  fact  that  the  to c l a r i f y the  This  of  p r o g r a m on provide  to  the  precise  manner.  limited drilling  may  some a s p e c t s o f  Of be  the  ap-  surficial In a  property d i r e c t obser-  methods  of  ma-  contrast,  program,  character  course,  derives provide of  surface  a potential  i n v e s t i g a t i o n can  be  in practice  is  done e a r l y i n an  surface  the  s u b s u r f a c e methods  more c o s t l y s u b s u r f a c e  optimal  in  i s , those  o r d e r l y sequence  exploration  relative  principal  stages  subsurface.  i n a staged e x p l o r a t i o n  overlap  or  i n t o a few  that  of  unique  depend m a i n l y on  exploration  information  i n an  project,  j u s t as  techniques;  surficial  organized -  exploration  Early  s u b s u r f a c e methods t h a t  Thus,  that  grouped  properties  evaluation  stages of  the  but  exploration.  subsurface m a t e r i a l .  m a i n l y from  optimal  l i m i t e d to d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n  commonly e m p h a s i z e  rapid  be  i n d i r e c t measurements o f  more a d v a n c e d  vations  the  in d e t a i l ,  can  sequential  surficial  methods t h a t  that  i s unique  categories,  plication  can  question  work may  be  there  exploration  done l a t e  in  the  program.  In o t h e r exploration, be  of  cases,  one  dominant  can  i n the  n e g l i g i b l e importance  surface  exploration  exploring ques may located  a deposit be  imagine  evaluation  unnecessary  crops out  one  property,  another.  extremely  a surface,  in exploring  from e x i s t i n g u n d e r g r o u n d  be  a particular level  of  in evaluating  p r o c e d u r e s might that  that  a deeply  workings.  but  For  might example,  important such  buried  of  in  techni-  deposit  Despite at  the  property  describe basis  these  p r o b l e m s , the  level  ongoing  ploration, From t h i s  and  from y o u t h  2.  ongoing  these  and  important  be  eventually  stages of  levels  as  a  t o o l d age.  property  and  serve  subsurface  during  viewed  exploration  to p l a n  exploration,  exploration  v i e w , t h e s e can  to m a t u r i t y ,  documentation of in Table  of  Three  v i z . , surface  general  point  staged  i s a u s e f u l means by w h i c h  exploration.  for discussion:  concept of  as ex-  exploitation. progression A detailed  exploration  is  given  10  Table I GENERAL  STRUCTURE  (modified  OF AN EXPLORATION  from F o r t e s q u e ,  PROGRAM  1965)  STAGE I :  Regional Plan: program e v o l v e s outlined.  STAGE I I :  Definition of Objectives: A d e t a i l e d a p p r o a c h t o an e x p l o r a t i o n p r o j e c t i s designed with a s p e c i f i c obj e c t i v e t o each p a r t o f t h e p r o j e c t .  STAGE I I I  Detailed Project: T h i s s t a g e o f an e x p l o r a t i o n p r o gram i n v o l v e s a p p l i c a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c methods t o t h e t a r g e t a r e a and commonly i n v o l v e s t h r e e p r i n c i p a l levels of exploration. (a) R e g i o n a l L e v e l : A broad examination o f a r e g i o n a l t a r g e t a r e a s e l e c t e d i n STAGE I . P u r p o s e i s to d e f i n e sub-areas or l o c a l t a r g e t s that a p p e a r t o be anomalous o r , i n o t h e r w o r d s , a p p e a r t o have a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h m i n e r a l c o n t e n t compared w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e r e g i o n a l t a r g e t area. F ollowup L e v e l : L o c a l target areas are evalua(b) t e d by a v a r i e t y o f e x p l o r a t i o n methods t o i s o l a t e those w i t h g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r the occurrence of mineral deposits. Exploration i s designed to test (c) D e t a i l e d L e v e l : high p r i o r i t y l o c a l t a r g e t s f o r the presence o f m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s w i t h economic p o t e n t i a l .  STAGE I V :  Development E x p l o r a t i o n : D e t a i l e d e x p l o r a t i o n to p r o v i d e a t h o r o u g h i n f o r m a t i o n base f o r e v a l u a t i n g the f e a s i b i l i t y o f m i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n a t a p r o f i t . In p r a c t i c e i t may be d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n where STAGE I I I ends and STAGE IV b e g i n s .  Note:  G e n e r a l c o n c e p t o f an e x p l o r a t i o n and t a r g e t a r e a s f o r e x p l o r a t i o n  G r o u n d a c q u i s i t i o n by c l a i m s t a k i n g , p u r c h a s e , o p t i o n a g r e e m e n t , o r o t h e r method i s n o r m a l l y i n i t i a t e d p r i o r t o o r e a r l y i n S t a g e I I I , b u t may c o n t i n u e i n t e r m i t t e n t l y as i n f o r m a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d from an e x p l o r a t i o n program.  11  Table STRUCTURE  OF PROPERTY  PHASE OF EXPLORATION 1.  EXPLORATION  GENERAL  PROGRAM  DESCRIPTION OF WORK  D i s c o v e r y may r e s u l t f r o m a s t a g e d e x p l o r a t i o n program, p r o s p e c t i n g , w i l d c a t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , or a c c i d e n t . This stage i n c l u d e s i n i t i a l g r o u n d c o n t r o l by s t a king, option, e t c .  Discovery  2. P r e l i m i n a r y evaluation  2  surface  Limited s u r f i c i a l examination, i n c l u d ing c o n c e p t u a l g e o l o g i c a l a p p r a i s a l , l i m i t e d g e o c h e m i c a l and/or g e o p h y s i c a l responses a r e measured, sampling f o r a s s a y and m i n e r a l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , l i m i t e d t e s t p i t s , and s t r i p p i n g . T h i s i s t h e i n i t i a l r a p i d a p p r a i s a l or " s c o u t i n g " s t a g e o f many major c o m p a n i e s .  3. D e t a i l e d s u r f a c e evaluation  T h i s stage g e n e r a l l y begins with the l a y i n g o u t o f a r e g u l a r g r i d on a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t , t o s e r v e as a ase f o r det a i l e d g e o c h e m i c a l and g e o p h y s i c a l s u r v e y s and g e o l o g i c a l m a p p i n g . Limited s t r i p p i n g , t r e n c h i n g , and d r i l l i n g a r e common a t t h i s s t a g e , as a g u i d e t o d e velopment o f g e o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s . Systematic sampling.  4. S u b s u r f a c e evaluation  Subsurface evaluation involves various types o f d r i l l i n g , g e n e r a l l y i n a m o r e - o r - l e s s s y s t e m a t i c manner, and i n i t i a l l y w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y wide s p a c i n g o f holes. O t h e r methods, s u c h as s i n k i n g e x p l o r a t o r y s h a f t s o r d e c l i n e s and d r i v i n g a d i t s and o t h e r w o r k i n g s , a r e l e s s common now t h a n i n t h e p a s t .  5.  The f e a s i b i l i t y l e v e l b e g i n s when a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n i s made t o mount a d e t a i l e d p r o g r a m t o examine t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of economically viable production. E x p l o r a t i o n a t t h i s stage i n v o l v e s d e l i m i t i n g a m i n e r a l d e p o s i t i n some d e t a i l by an e x t e n s i v e r e g u l a r g r i d o f d r i l l h o l e s , b u l k s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s , and p i l o t plant milling tests. Several s t a g e s o f f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s may be i n v o l v e d , and w i l l i n c l u d e a t h o r o u g h e v a l u a t i o n o f o r e g r a d e and t o n n a g e .  Feasibility  6. D e v e l o p m e n t  Normally represents ation e f f o r t s while  a halt i n explorthe d e p o s i t i s p r e -  12  pared 7. P r o d u c t i o n  for production.  An o n - g o i n g e x p l o r a t i o n p r o g r a m i s common d u r i n g t h e p r o d u c t i v e l i f e o f a m i n eral property. Here b o t h s u r f a c e and s u b s u r f a c e t e c h n i q u e s a r e u s e d as needs arise. Work c a n be f o c u s s e d on e x t e n d i n g l i m i t s o f known o r e b o d i e s o r s e a r c h i n g f o r new d i s c r e t e o r e z o n e s .  13  Table SUMMARY OF Year  3  EXPLORATION HISTORY OF  SPECOGNA GOLD DEPOSIT  (Description)  iy70  D i s c o v e r y i n e a r l y 1SJ70 by E . S p e c o g n a and J . T r i c o . 17 c l a i m s (BABE group) l o c a t e d and r e c o r d e d i n March 1970. O p t i o n e d t o Kennco L t d . i n December 1970.  1971  P r o p e r t y o p t i o n e d by Kennco L t d . T w e n t y - s e v e n c l a i m s and s e v e n f r a c t i o n s added t o o r i g i n a l g r o u p . Four b u l k samples ( 2 3 kg each) t a k e n and a s s a y e d f o r Cu, Mo, Zn, Pb, N i , Co, Au, Hg, Ag, A s , and Sb. F i f t e e n hundred s o i l samples c o l l e c t e d a t 6 0 m i n t e r v a l s on c l a i m boundaries. A - h o r i z o n samples a n a l y z e d f o r Hg and B - h o r i z o n f o r Cu, Mo, Zn, Pb, N i , Co, Au, Hg, and Ag. L a r g e Hg and Au a n o m a l i e s l o c a t e d . Two p a c k s a c k h o l e s d r i l l e d (56 m), and c o r e a s s a y e d f o r Au, Ag, and Hg. Property d r o p p e d a t the end o f 1971.  1972  Canex A e r i a l E x p l o r a t i o n i n v e s t i g a t e d p r o p e r t y from J a n u a r y t o May 1972 and c o n d u c t e d l i m i t e d s o i l s a m p l i n g (125 s a m p l e s ) , w i t h a n a l y s i s f o r Au and Ag. C o m i n c o L t . took o v e r i n t h e summer o f i y 7 2 . 6960 m o f l i n e were c u t ; 105 s o i l samples were a n a l y z e d f o r Au. Air photo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e v e a l i n g the F o o t w a l l f a u l t . 26 t r e n c h e s and 502 m o f diamond d r i l l i n g (9 v e r t i c a l holes). Ore p i c t u r e was 20 t o 40 m i l l i o n t o n s o f .035 oz Au/ton. P r o p e r t y d r o p p e d a t the end o f 1972.  1973  S i l v e r S t a n d a r d M i n e s L t d . o p t i o n e d the p r o p e r t y . Very l i m i t e d amount o f s u r f a c e work was done. Additional g r o u n d was s t a k e d . M a r i n o S p e c o g n a f o u n d new showing with v i s i b l e gold. A s i x - t o n sample a s s a y e d from 2.7 t o 16.5 o z A u / t o n and 1.5 t o 6.7 o z A g / t o n .  1974  Q u i n t a n a M i n e r a l s C o r p . assumed 90% o f S i l v e r S t a n d a r d o p t i o n c o n t r a c t on May 1, 1974. Two nundred and e i g h t y one 1.5 m c h i p samples w e i g h i n g from 9 t o 14 kg each t a k e n f r o m a c l i f f f a c e .57 m o f pack s a c k d r i l l i n g (4 h o l e s ) and 604 m (18 d r i l l h o l e s ) o f p e r c u s s i o n d r i l l i n g were p e r f o r m e d . C o r e a s s a y e d f o r Au. Ore r e s e r v e s were e s t a b l i s h e d a t 13 m.t. o f .046 o z A u / t o n , w i t h a c u t o f f of .025 o z A u / t o n . E x t e n s i v e n a t u r e o f the m i n e r a l i z ation verified.  1975  Q u i n t a n a M i n e r a l s C o r p . d r i l l e d 5 diamond h o l e s (720 m, BQ s i z e ) . S t a k i n g o f 34 a d d i t i o n a l u n i t s . Two m e t a l l u r g i c a l t e s t s were c o n d u c t e d . Assay d i s c r e p a n c i e s r o u n d i n a s s a y s o f Q u i n t a n a and a l s o p r e v i o u s a s s a y s by Kennco. U n a c c e p t a b l e g o l d r e c o v e r i e s (50%) and p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e f o r c e d the company t o d r o p t h e p r o s p e c t . Ore r e s e r v e s gave 13.8 m.t. a t .058 o z A u / t o n u s i n g a .03 o z / t o n c u t o f f and a d e p t h o f 3 0 m.  14  1976  No  r e p o r t e d work.  1977  C o n s o l i d a t e d C i n o l a M i n e s L t d . o p t i o n e d the p r o p e r t y f r o m E . S p e c o g n a (44 f u l l c l a i m s and 7 f r a c t i o n s ) . D r i l l i n g s t a r t e d i n J u l y , u s i n g a 30 x 30 m g r i d . 697 o f diamond d r i l l i n g (13 v e r t i c a l h o l e s ) w i t h BQ c o r e . C o r e a s s a y e d f o r g o l d and p a r t f o r s i l v e r .  m  iy78  E i g h t v e r t i c a l h o l e s t o t a l l i n g 1253 m were d r i l l e d f o l l o w i n g a 40 m g r i d . Bottom o f 78-6 h o l e a s s a y e d 0.86 o z / t o n and r e - a s s a y e d 1.15 o z A u / t o n , w i t h 0.43 Ag o z / t o n o v e r an i n t e r v a l o f 24 m. T h i s changed the p i c t u r e as t o m i n e r a l p o t e n t i a l o f the d e p o s i t . Agressive d r i l l i n g program was p r o p o s e d f o r the n e x t y e a r . Cinola p u r c h a s e d the c l a i m s a t the end o f 1978.  1979  From J a n u a r y t o A u g u s t , 3041 m o f diamond d r i l l i n g (15 h o l e s u s i n g BQ and NQ s i z e ) were p e r f o r m e d by C i n o l a . D r i l l i n g e x t e n d e d the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n down d e p t h (up t o 315 m). C o r e a s s a y e d f o r g o l d and some f o r s i l v e r . S t a r t o f j o i n t v e n t u r e w i t h E n e r g y R e s e r v e s Group i n August ±979. From A u g u s t t o end o f y e a r , 5127 m o f d i a mond d r i l l i n g c o m p l e t e d (33 h o l e s ) . Initial metallurgical testing completed.  1980  F i r s t q u a r t e r diamond d r i l l i n g o f 32 h o l e s t o t a l l e d 3544 m. A d d i t i o n a l 10,000 m o f d r i l l i n g p l a n e d , as i s u n d e r g r o u n d e x a m i n a t i o n , b u l k s a m p l i n g , and a p i l o t m i l l p r o g r a m t o p r o c e s s 10,000 s h o r t t o n s . Indicated res e r v e s f o r the s o u t h e r n p a r t o f the m i n e r a l i z e d s y s t e m a r e 28.6 m.t., a v e r a g i n g 0.064 o z A u / t o n .  15  SPECOGNA  (BABE) DEPOSIT  Specogna interesting because  example  i t was  concerning property the  deposit  t o examine  discovered  sequential  relatively  exploration  i s c e n t r a l l y located  the  panies.  is readily available.  on Graham I s l a n d , Islands  showing, a p r o s p e c t i n g  and J . T r i c o , was  optioned  successively  I n t e r e s t was  extensive  information  staked  the n o r t h e r n  (Figure  1 ) , and road  tion  decisions  maintained  during  have  been a f f e c t e d  gold  (Figure  discovery  i n 1970  t o s e v e r a l major  south  and  subsequently  exploration  low g o l d  values,  com-  the decade the p r o p e r t y  and  has been  by the d r a m a t i c v a r i a t i o n s  exploraexamined  i n the p r i c e o f  m e t h o d o l o g y has been g u i d e d  by  physiographic  s u c h as e l e v a t i o n , o v e r b u r d e n , and v e g e t a t i o n  Specogna  property  lies  i n the b o r d e r  Queen C h a r l o t t e  e r , more r u g g e d S k i d e g a t e  that  from  by  features  trending  i s ac-  2).  Exploration  siographic  of  i n t h e s n o w i n g b e c a u s e o f an  s i l i c i f i e d zone c a r r y i n g  low and f l a t  The  Clements.  The o r i g i n a l Specogna  case h i s t o r y ,  r e c e n t l y , and  by a b o u t 18 km o f good q u a l i t y l o g g i n g  town o f P o r t  was  C i n o l a M i n e s L t d . i s an  as an e x p l o r a t i o n  two l a r g e s t Queen C h a r l o t t e  cessible  E.  of Consolidated  provinces  fault  zone between  Lowlands t o the e a s t  Plateau  are separated  zone, the S a n d s p i t  t o the w e s t . by a major  the  A major  relatively  and t h e  These  two  highphy-  northwesterly  Fault, of regional  u n d e r l i e s much o f t h e p r o p e r t y .  cover.  extent,  splay of  this  16"'  fault,  striking  part of ized  the  zone.  157°  and  dipping  property  and  marks t h e  Outcrop  trated mainly inal  along  discovery site  i s sparse the  i s an this  tions  m,  the  m  and  property.  180  to  earlier  brief, al.,  works  the  1 9 7 6 ) , and  contact  (14 Ma)  older  Formation. underly  an  fication gold. with and  The  are  thick. latively tern  and  i s concenThe  orig-  part of  the  foot-  with  main p h y s i o g r a p h i c  geology  100  of  the  features  property  and  Sinclair  clastic and  at l e a s t  recognized,  rocks,  1.3  km .  Several  2  a l l o f which  sulphides  pyrite  sphalerite,  g o l d as much as  i s now  stages  and  Skonun  known t o  of  have a s s o c i a t e d  are m a i n l y  rhyoiite  the M i o c e n e  zone  In  silicified  a Miocene  sediments of  mineralized  reference  ( R i c h a r d s e_t  a gold-bearing  host  of  (1980).  been c l a s s e d as C a r l i n - t y p e  two  eleva-  m.  by Champigny and  between  mineral-  fault.  small h i l l s ,  i s about  western  •  silici-  "micron"  marcasite,  chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite,  t r a c e amounts o f o t h e r  minerals,  cinnabar.  Most o f parently  the  s m a l l amounts o f  visible  galena,  the  coarse  of  Associated very  are  silicified  area  property,  Two  the  t h e main  this Footwall  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  zone a t the and  footwall of  the  scarp.  i s given  d e p o s i t has  50°E, c u t s  intensely s i l i c i f i e d  Total relief  A d e s c r i p t i o n of  on  scarp of  w a l l m a t e r i a l along 217  about  the  till, The  property  with  second  h e m l o c k , and  by  glacial  v a r i a b l e t h i c k n e s s , but  vegetation  small  i s covered  red  cover  is principally  commonly a b o u t t h i c k stands  growth c o n i f e r s , m a i n l y cedar.  A major  river,  overburden,  sitka the  of  spruce,  Yakoun,  ap1.5  m  rewes-  lies  133°  132°  1  J  F i g u r e .1.  Location  of  Specogna g o l d  131°  _ J _  deposit.  18  7973 7<i  Figure  2.  75  ?6  77  Approximate  variations  ounce  dollars)  (U.S.  to  7&  i n price present.  79  80  of gold  per  troy  just  to the south  property,  flowing  Exploration prospecting active  o f the c l a i m s , south  i n iy70, with  been c o n f i n e d relatively  i n t o Yakoun R i v e r .  on t h e p r o p e r t y  work was done. mainly  mild,  and s e v e r a l s t r e a m s d r a i n t h e  has been o n g o i n g  the e x c e p t i o n  Until  very  i f rainy  (average  annual r a i n f a l l  t h r o u g h o u t much  Columbia.  these  of B r i t i s h  the c o n t i n u i n g  decisions  blocks  year  and o u r e v a l u a t i o n  with  evaluation.  right  Each  work has  at nearby  i n Table  sequence o f  3, where  with  company name i m p l i e s e x i s t e n c e  These o p t i o n s  were d r o p p e d  purchase o f the p r o p e r t y  an o p t i o n  indivi-  respect to  as t o l e v e l o f c o r r e s p o n d i n g  e x p l o r a t i o n , with  3, and  on w h i c h  General  i n Figure  climate  summary o f p r o -  of information  company names a r e o r g a n i z e d  to conduct  purchase.  i s given  accumulation  is illustrated  dual  agreement  A detailed  e x p l o r a t i o n d e c i s i o n s were made.  major  little  t o t h e more e x t r e m e  e x p l o r a t i o n o f the p r o p e r t y  successive  original  t o summer e x p l o r a t i o n s e a s o n s , d e s p i t e t h e  compared  indicates  o f l y 7 6 , when  recently, property  M a s s e t o f 140 cm), c l i m a t e  gressive  since  property  of a on  formal  eventual  successively until  i n 1978 by C o n s o l i d a t e d  out-  Cinola  Mines L t d .  The  data  of Table  surement  techniques  drilling  much  more  3 i n d i c a t e a predominance o f s u r f a c e  i n the e a r l y years important  i n the l a t t e r  s u r f a c e work c o n s i s t e d o f s a m p l i n g and  soil  property  sampling.  A l l companies  rechecked previous  of exploration,  surface involved  sampling  years.  mea-  with  Principal  showings f o r a s s a y i n e v a l u a t i n g the  and a s s a y i n g  results.  20  T h u s , the  e m p h a s i s on  examining  these  surface  foregoing  A rough measure o f various  soil  sampling  types  the  analyzed  a survey.  ignore  method o f  taking  into  area  account  the  relative  calculate maximum o f  6,  information case).  7  gain  of  f o r 11  1500  1972  for a given for  tion  of  total  later  stages  i s 293.  information  can  The  of  be  be  ation  techniques  l y i s the year, taken  by  These  compared one time  to  and  in  to  a  relative our  i n 1971  and  information figure  Ag  sampling  multiplied  total  t o the  by  length  for  a  the  the  we func-  number  information per  measure o f  the  but  information illustrate  exploration  the  proce-  c h a n g i n g emphasis o f p r i n c i p a l  e x p l o r a t i o n on  sam-  drilled  relative  other,  individual  105  as  Relative  information three  and  a n a l o g o u s manner,  f o r rock  a relative  4 shows the as  an  year,  approximated  emphasis w i t h Figure  i s to  element  comparable  f o r Au In  gain  per  exploration.  dures.  the  a means o f i n -  a relative  samples were a s s a y e d .  to p r o v i d e  measures cannot changing  f o r Au  from which  time  calculate  and  i s the  (one  by  arbitrary  procedure  samples  = 3675.  sample w e i g h t  from d r i l l i n g unit of  soil  samples,  a d o p t an  and  from  covered  samples  Our  samples,  s a m p l e s were a n a l y z e d  relative  of claims  1500  by  5^6  p l e s were a n a l y z e d estimate  the  area  sample as  time p e r i o d  e l e m e n t s , we  1 when 125  number o f  f o r each  number o f  (i+i+l+l+l+I)  x  1  and  l y = n ^ I ^ d / j ) , where j  i s the  Therefore,  analyzed T.71  n  aspect  obtained  number o f  geographic  information obtained. k  a quantity  illustrated  information  f o r , and  the  be  work.  relative  number o f e l e m e n t s d e t e r m i n e d dicating  of  p r o j e c t s must c o n s i d e r  number o f e l e m e n t s Here we  e x p l o r a t i o n can  Specogna p r o p e r t y  evalupro-  P  H  A  S  E  O  F  P  R  O  P  E  R  T  Y  E  X  P  L  O  R  A  T  I  O  N  1 D I S C O V E R Y  PRELIM.  SURRj DET.  SURF.  S U B  SURF.  F E A S I B I L I T Y  S P E C O G N A +  1970  TRICO  1971  K E N N C O  C A N E X  1972  C O M I N C O S I L V E R  1973  S T A N D A R D  1974 Q U I N T A N A  1975 1976 1977  C O N S . C I N O L A  1978 1979  C I N O L A +•  ENER.  1980  Figure  3,  Sequential shown  option  agreements r e l a t i n g  as a "function""of"an e s t i m a t i o n  R E S .  t o t h e Specogna d e p o s i t , o f '£he s t a g e  an  of exploration.  22  6000  PI  O 4500 LL  Z  . 3000  UJ a  1500  71  Figure  4.  72  73  Arbitrary relative information during Specogna d e p o s i t .  74  i n f o r m a t i o n measures t o q u a n t i f y successive years o f exploration,  A:  Relative information  from  soil  B:  Relative information  from rock  C:  Relative information  from diamond  See t e x t f o r f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n measures.  sampling samples drilling  regarding  relative  23  gressed.  Of funds  course,  expended  i n a g e n e r a l way a s i n g l e per u n i t  time  c a n be used  i n t e n s i t y o f e x p l o r a t i o n on a p r o p e r t y . a summary  by  r e p o r t s d e s c r i b i n g the n a t u r e  is,  t h e work summarized overhead,  year.  C o r r e c t i o n s f o r both  only  to further  increasing gresses .  expenditures  i n Table  office  to monitor  3.  such  ( T a b l e 4)  exaggerate  expenditures  we i n estimated  o f work p e r f o r m e d ;  that  These c o s t s do n o t i n v o l v e  and a r e n o t s t a n d a r d i z e d t o a s i n g l e overhead  as  the g e n e r a l  Consequently,  c l u d e here us from  o f annual  parameter  and i n f l a t i o n  the o b v i o u s  reference  would  serve  trend of d r a m a t i c a l l y  as phase o f p r o p e r t y e v a l u a t i o n p r o -  24  Table  4.  Year  Approximate costs incurred the Specogna d e p o s i t .  during  Exploration  exploration of  Expenditures  ($)  Annual  Cumulative  1970  5,000  5,000  1971  40,000  45,000  1972  50,000  95,000  1973  20,000  115,000  1974  60,000  175,000  1975  75,000  250,000  1976  0  250,000  1977  80,000  330,000  1978  750,000  1,080,000  1979  800,000  1,949,000  25  CONCLUSIONS  1.  Exploration vided  and e v a l u a t i o n  conveniently  general very,  (b) p r e l i m i n a r y  ction  surface,  (e) f e a s i b i l i t y ,  property  pnases t h a t  c a n be d i -  describe the  program, v i z .  (c) d e t a i l e d  (a) d i s c o -  surface,  (d)  ( f ) d e v e l o p m e n t , and (g) p r o d u -  phases.  E a r l y phases o f p r o p e r t y cial  techniques  ficial  that  material  subsurface  3.  logical  framework o f an e v a l u a t i o n  subsurface,  2.  into  of a mineral  exploration  incorporate  on t h e p r o p e r t y  direct  by  surfi-  examination of sur-  and i n d i r e c t  examination o f  material.  Later  phases o f p r o p e r t y  probe  the subsurface d i r e c t i o n ,  drilling  are dominated  procedures,  exploration  involve  principally  techniques  that  a variety of  but i n c l u d i n g e x p l o r a t o r y  underground  workings.  4.  Specogna d e p o s i t exemplary  illustration  exploration  5.  and  As e x p l o r a t i o n ticular  of Consolidated  o f the s t r u c t u r e d  aspect  i s an  of  property  evaluation.  proceeds,  exploration  the r e l a t i v e  monly, per y e a r ) .  importance o f a par-  method c a n be m o n i t o r e d  a r b i t r a r y measures o f i n f o r m a t i o n  cal  C i n o l a Mines L t d .  gained  a p p r o x i m a t e l y by  per u n i t  time  In the case o f Specogna d e p o s i t ,  methods a r e p r e s e n t e d  f o r measuring  relative  (com-  empiri-  information  26  for  both  soil  geochemical data  For  soil  samples,  size  relative length  and a r e a  information  o f bedrock  These e s t i m a t e s crude a t best, general the such  cussing borne  a given  gain.  but provide  In t h e c a s e  appropriate property.  number and indicators of  of d r i l l i n g ,  i s accepted  information"  as a rough  total esti-  are obviously  a u s e f u l means o f m o n i t o r i n g  of various e x p l o r a t i o n procedures  measures p r o v i d e  that  t o be g e n e r a l  relative  gained.  e x p l o r a t i o n case  i n mind  mining  sampled  o f ongoing property  selective  analyses.  to estimate  s a m p l e s , we c o n s i d e r  of "relative  importance  course  a r e used  intersected  mate o f i n f o r m a t i o n  6.  area  For assayed  o f samples  sample  t h e number o f s a m p l e s , number o f e l e m e n t s  d e t e r m i n e d , and s u r v e y information.  and r o c k  evaluation. a convenient  the  through  Consequently, basis  for dis-  histories,  particularly  i f i t is  some f l e x i b i l i t y  i s necessary  i n deter-  measures o f r e l a t i v e  information  gain f o r  27  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  Mr. pective  A. M c K i l l o p h a s a i d e d on some o f t h e e a r l y  Specogna p r o p e r t y . W.K. perty tion .  immeasureably  D i s c u s s i o n with  clarified  pers-  p h a s e s o f e x p l o r a t i o n on t h e G.G. R i c h a r d s and  L i v i n g s t o n e , who had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n the p a s t ,  i n providing  involvement  some a s p e c t s  with  o f the e a r l y  the proexplora-  28  REFERENCES  Champigny, N.,  and A . J . S i n c l a i r ,  g e o l o g y o f the Specogna of Energy, Mines  and  1980,  (Babe) g o l d  Progress report deposit;  B.C.  P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , Paper  on  the  Ministry  1980-1,  pp.  158-1/0.  F o r t e s q u e , J . , 1965, (Ed.), of  Some g u i d e s t o m i n e r a l  Canada Paper  Richards,  G.G.,  Specogna: Islands, Mining  Exploration  65-6,  pp.  British  Columbia  and M e t a l l u r g y  exploration;  Geological  Survey  4-14.  J.S. C h r i s t i e , A Carlin-type  a r c h i t e c t u r e , i n N e a l e , E.R.W.  and M.R.  gold  Wolfhard,  deposit,  Queen  1976, Charlotte  ( a b s t r a c t ) , Canadian  Bulletin,  v. 69, no.  773,  Institute p.  64.  of  CHAPTER I I I  C i n o l a Gold Queen C h a r l o t t e  Islands,  Deposit, British  A Canadian C a r l i n - t y p e  Columb  Deposit  30  ABSTRACT  Cinola Islands, of  overlying grained  Two  deposit  British  a lower  units  gold  Columbia,  shale  unit  sandstone  K-Ar  splay the  west o f  rocks  to  The  the  the  i n t r u s i o n at  and  (1)  veins,  v)  coarse  are  amounts o f  monite,  a b o u t 14  small (3)  be  particle  genetic  chalcopyrite,  and  probably  the  with  on  adjacent  Carlin-type, gold,  (e.g.  the  high  host  s e d i m e n t s , and native  based  (2) Hg),  (4) a l (associa-  rock,  feisic  and  minute  occur  veins. in  but  include  quartz  m a g n e t i t e , h e m a t i t e , and electrum.  No  Ore  small  s p h a l e r i t e , galena, p y r r h o t i t e ,  and  (7)  intrusions.  in quartz gold  on  Tertiary  rhyolite-porphyry.  marcasite,  gold  A  footwall  o c c u r s m a i n l y as  brecciated  to n a t i v e  coarse  Both  structural setting  p a r t i c l e s of  an  (Middle Miocene).  a s s o c i a t i o n with  (HgSe), r u t i l e ,  in addition  and  size for  (5)  i s widespread  y)  as  p o r o s i t y of  in s i l i c i f i e d (>100  Ma  geochemistry  (6)  and  shales.  classed  m a i n l y p y r i t e and  tiemmanite  consisting  rhyolite-porphyry.  marks a s h a r p c o n t a c t  can  especially in highly  minerals  dykes o f  system c o n s t i t u t e s  and  faults),  possibly  (<0.5  Locally  bar,  fault  deposit  Gold m i n e r a l i z a t i o n grains  and  (dominantly a r g i l l i c ) ,  w i t h major  sequence  indicate mineralization  of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n ,  spatial  stock  deposit  as  Charlotte  p e b b l e c o n g l o m e r a t e and  west, p r i n c i p a l l y Haida  such  teration tion  a  Sandspit  Cinola  features age  the  i s in a c l a s t i c  sequence o f  by  model ages  of  Queen  (Skonun F o r m a t i o n , M i d d l e M i o c e n e ) .  intruded  rhyolite-porphyry  northern  (Haida F o r m a t i o n , L a t e C r e t a c e o u s )  interbedded  are  i n the  cinnali-  silver  min-  ,31  erals  have been  f o u n d , but  amounts v a r y i n g products  are  from  sericite,  abundant q u a r t z  Host alluvial  of  rocks, plain  a marine b a s i n Miocene  this  mal  genesis, iron  pyrite,  of  these  eralization  In tons,  situ  host and  Au/s.t.  Miocene  intruded  time.  (2)  derived  from  by  Au/s.t.,  using  the  rhyo-  para-  of  the  of  quartz  galena,  chalco-  precipitated  deposition.  have been e s t i m a t e d  The  precipitation  g o l d was  c o o l i n g of  into  geother-  a well-defined  s e v e r a l stages  an  apparently  Argillitiza-  coincided i n part with  during  as  Middle  stock.  sequence  i s : (1)  of mineral  probably  0.054 oz  formed  During  by a r h y o l i t i c  Micron-size  stages  continued  with  system d i s c h a r g i n g  s p h a l e r i t e succeeded  gold.  rocks  chlorite,  f o r development o f a l a r g e  early quartz,  reserves  averaging  river  deposition followed  two  Alteration  Skonun F o r m a t i o n ,  from o l d e s t to y o u n g e s t  visible  the  the  f o r which p r o b a b l y  d e p o s i t i o n of  and  throughout tion  Mineral  in  stages.  setting  energy  in gold p a r t i c l e s  and  permeable Miocene c l a s t i c  s u l p h i d e s , and  veins with  found  weight percent.  in a braided  s e q u e n c e was  which  was  kaolinite,  i n e a r l y Middle  an optimum  stock.  illite,  several  facies  s y s t e m , the  lite  t o 76.4  specifically  h i g h l y p o r o u s and provided  6.2  silver  the  min-  geothermal  a t 45.4  million  a cutoff of  .025  cell.  short oz  32  Resume" d ' a u t e u r  Le g i s e m e n t  Cinola  quence de m u a s t o n e s  (Specogna) e s t l o c a l i s e  ( F o r m a t i o n H a i d a , C r e t a c e s u p e r i e u r ) e t une  s e q u e n c e de c o n g l o m e r a t s grossiers lite  a cailloux  interlitgs  ( F o r m a t i o n Skonun, M i o c e n e M o y e n ) .  porphyrique  fait  intrusion  a travers  avec  Moyen).  Une f a i l l e  constitue abrupte  e t de m i n e r a l i s a t i o n parallele  l e s deux s e q u e n c e s .  d environ  a la faille  avec  Cinola  vant l e s c r i t e r e s  (anomalie  peut  communs  etre  classifie  suivants:  tion  majeures),  spatiale  mineralisation cules et  (5) c o n t e x t e (6) p o r o s i t e  e t genetique aurifere  sub-microscopiques  avec  casite.  et consiste  (7) a s s o c i a -  felsiques.  en d e s p a r t i -  ans l e s v e i n e s de q u a r t z  sont presqu exclusivement  silicifies,  specialement  Les mineraux l a pyrite  q u a n t i t e s de c h a l c o p y r i t e ,  c i n n a b a r , tiemmanite  La  des g r a i n s g r o s s i e r s  porphyriques brechiques.  De f a i b l e s  lene, pyrrhotite,  notes,  des i n t r u s i o n s  Localement  (3) g6o-  ( a s s o c i a t i o n des  des roches  1  des p a r t i -  (4) a l t e r a t i o n ( s u r -  (<0.5u) dans des s e d i m e n t s  (>100y) d ' o r s o n t o b s e r v e s  opaques o b s e r v e s  taille  (Tertiaire),  structural  e s t etendue  dans l e s v e i n e s de q u a r t z .  dans l e s r h y o i i t e s  du t y p e C a r l i n s u i -  (1) p e t i t e  en m e r c u r e p a r e x e m p l e ) ,  argillique),  failles  regionale Sandspit  e t marque un c o n t a c t  c u l e s d ' o r , (2) age de l a m i n e r a l i s a t i o n  tout  (Miocene  l a s e q u e n c e de m u d s t o n e s .  Le g i s e m e n t  chimie  i n d i q u e n t un age  14 Ma.  1  l ' e p o n t e o u e s t du g i s e m e n t  des g r e s  Un s t o c k de r h y o -  Deux d a t a t i o n s p a r l a metnode p o t a s s i u m - a r g o n d'intrusion  dans une s e -  (HgSe),  e t l a mar-  s p h a l e r i t e , garutile,  magne-  33  tite,  hematite,  natif  e t de  de  l'electrum.  1"argent  portions  e t l i m o n i t e sont  q u i v a r i e n t de 1  la chlorite.  Les  Le  6.2  sont  quartz  a 76.4  un  chargeait  dans un  p l u s de l ' o r  a ete  1  d'or  identifie,  dans des  pourcentage poids.  epithermal  porphyrique  un  l'illite,  est tres  drainage  bassin marin.  la  Les  abondant.  celle-ci  s'est produite  (du p l u s v i e u x  des  f e r e t d'une p r e m i e r e  plusieurs  episodes  sition  l a sphalerite  de  l'or visible.  debute pendant refroidissement estime  de  au  v e i n e s de suivie  plus  de  jeune):  type  a 45.4  la cellule  (1)  millions  de  de  .054  once Au/tonne c o u r t e  de  .025  once Au/tonne  courte.  tonnes en  cellule  precipitation  de  quartz,  (2)  l a depo-  l a chalcopyrite,  argillique  geothermale.  rhyo-  l'intrusif.  a  l a m i n e r a l i s a t i o n et s'est continuee de  de-  de  accompagnes par  l a galene,  de-  suivant l a para-  generation  quartz par  L'alteration  immense  ete  se  stock  e t a n t d e r i v e e de  genese s u i v a n t e s u l f u r e s de  du  une  pro-  kaolinite,  tresse qui  L'intrusion  au M i o c e n e Moyen a c r e e  La m i n e r a l i s a t i o n a u r i f e r e  ete  d argent  la sericite,  f l e u v e possedant  g e o t h e r m a l e , l ' e n e r g i e de  et  en  s e d i m e n t s m i n e r a l i s e s d'age M i o c e n e Moyen o n t  p o s e s par  lite  Aucun m i n e r a l  e s t c o n t e n u dans l e s p a r t i c u l e s  mineraux d a l t e r a t i o n et  aussi presentes  probablement durant  Le m i n e r a i  le  prouve  avec  une  teneur  moyen en  utiiisant  une  teneur  de  a or  coupure  34  INTRODUCTION  Cinola  gold deposit,  it,  is centrally  two  largest  sible  by  from  18  Five  1971  to  Mines L t d .  l o c a t e d on  Queen C h a r l o t t e  about  Clements.  km  1975  them i n 1978.  venture  estimated  oz.  Au/s.t.,  using  10%  dilution  from  at  Silver  f o r m a l l y and  tion  of  deposit  pretation August  on  45.4  the  the w a l l s o f i s about (iy75)  as C a r l i n - t y p e and Champigny and  surface  the  and  from  the  of  the  town o f  Consolidated  Indicated tons  .025 the  oz.  and  Cinola  purchased and  open p i t  grading Au/s.  same as first  joint  reserves  .054  t.  o r e b o d y and  Port  successively  have u n d e r t a k e n a 50-50%  short  the  depos-  acces-  E n e r g y R e s e r v e s Group  This  from  gold.  includes  included  Sutherland  to d e s c r i b e  the  show-  geological cross-sec-  e t a l . (1976, 1979)  classified  published  K-Ar  Sinclair geology  drill  It is  i n 1977  a generalized  Richards  northern  property  by o p t i o n  were the  produced  d e s c r i p t i o n of of  south  the  property.  a cutoff of  Specogna  (Figure 1).  road  1979  million  deposit.  termination. detailed  claims  August  grade  ings  the  the  Schroeter  the  logging  C i n o l a Mines L i m i t e d  are  Brown and  Islands  (Champigny e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) .  Since  Consolidated  waste.  of  Graham I s l a n d , the  companies o p t i o n e d  acquired  evaluation  known a l s o as Babe and  hole  the  rirst  (1980) p u b l i s h e d b a s e d on data  age  a more  preliminary  obtained  de-  inter-  t o the  end  of  iy79.  This  account  o f diamond d r i l l summer o f  1979  i s b a s e d on core  and  followed  by  g e o l o g i c a l examination  limited  surface  of  5506 m  exposure d u r i n g  l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s at  the  the U n i v e r s i t y  35  Figure  1.  Location^mapitof  the  Cinola  Queen C h a r l o t t e  Islands,  gold B.C.  deposit,  ,36  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  Computer-oriented  (GEOLOG System) were used (Blanchet  as a b a s i s  core logging  f o r the f i e l d  techniques  work  and Godwin, 1972; Godwin, Hendson and B l a n c h e t ,  1977).  37  REGIONAL GEOLOGY  The  Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s form  Tectonic Belt of rocks ranging  recognized  the Canadian C o r d i l l e r a  i n age  Brown, 1968)  from  (Table 1 ) .  Late  PIutonism  Bodies  of hornblende  the E a r l y  major on  (Sutherland  The by  of Middle  Brown, 1 9 6 8 ) .  intrusion  about  fracturing had  and  of E a r l y  Miocene  fault  Formation to M i d d l e  age  (Figure 2).  fault  system  P l a t e a u to the west.  the S k i d e g a t e  movement.  mainly  Formation  degrees  is underlain  age  and  Skonun are  and  the  two  main  shales.  u n c o n f o r m a b l y and  The  fault  d e p o s i t the Haida  Skonun F o r m a t i o n  i s composed o f c o n g l o m e r a t e  the  verti-  Formation  overlies  phy-  zone  seems t o r e p r e s e n t a l a r g e  the  cut  (Sutherland  a r e a , Queen C h a r l o t t e L o w l a n d s on  Southwest of  composed o f  effect  folding  These rocks  separates  east  cal  intruded  Cretaceous  Tertiary  system o f r e g i o n a l e x t e n t  Sandspit  a b o u t 143  se-  a pronounced  of Late  the  strikes  were  (mainly  secondary  siograhic provinces of and  r o c k s was  the C i n o l a g o l d d e p o s i t  u n i t s , Haida  Masset Formation  the S a n d s p i t  has  composition  1968).  general area  Formation by  Brown,  Crustal  faults)  sedimentation,  t h r e e main r o c k  age,  Tertiary.  sedimenta-  a more v a r i e d  to a l k a k i n e g r a n i t i c  northwesterly striking  volcanism,  and  of  are  main p e r i o d s .  to q u a r t z d i o r i t e  to Late J u r a s s i c  to Middle  of  (Sutherland  episodes  c o n f i n e d t o two  diorite  quence o f q u a r t z d i o r i t e in  a r e composed  to Recent  four p r i n c i p a l  seems t o be  i n the M i d d l e  Triassic  and  the I n s u l a r  Three major p e r i o d s o f v o l c a n i s m  that separate  tion.  emplaced  part of  the  is Haida  with  38  coarse  pebbles  siltstone  to small cobbles, coarse  or s h a l e .  the M a s s e t F o r m a t i o n Plateau. olivine  West o f t h e g o l d p r o s p e c t mark  the b e g i n n i n g  Near C i n o l a d e p o s i t M a s s e t basalt.  sandstone  and minor  v o l c a n i c rocks o f  o f the S k i d e g a t e  v o l c a n i c rocks  are mainly  PLEISTOCENE-RECENT  glacial and sediments  LATE  S K O N U N F M : m a r i n e and n o n - marine s a n d s .  TERTIARY  interglacial  E A R L Y TO M I D D L E TERTIARY  M A S S E T F M : a l k a l i basalt floods and sodic r h y o l i t e ash f l o w s  LATE  /  CRETACEOUS  S K I D E 6 A T E - F M ' - marine s a n d s t o n e s and s i l t s t o n e s  QUEEN CHARLOTTE 6R0UP  H O N N A F M : conglomerates H A I D A FM-' m a r i n e a n d shales  EARLY  CRETACEOUS  UPPER TRIASSIC LATE JURASSIC  TO  sandstones,  L O N G A R M FM". m a r i n e l i t h i c w a c k e s and c a l c a r e o u s siltstones /  YAKOUN FM(M.JURASSIC): explosive andesitic volcanics MAUDE marine  VANCOUVER GROUP  FM(L.JURASSIC): shales a n d sandstones  KUNGA FM(L.JURASSICAND U P P E R TRIASSIC): limestones . \ Table  1.  Table  K A R M U T S E N FM<U.TRIASSIC) mafic volcanics  of Geologic"Formations,  Islands.  Queen  Charlotte  40  M A S S E T INLET  f~~l  YAKOUN  FM  (JURASSIC)  E 2 3  HAIDA  FM  (CRETACEOUS)  ETTT1 M A S S E T SKONUN  E l  Figure  2.  FM (PALED.- EOCENE)  0  1  2  3  4  5  6km  FM (MID-MIOCENE)  Regional  geology,' C i n o l a g o l d d e p o s i t  Sutherland  Brown, 196 8 ) .  (after  41  STRATIGRAPHY  The in  deposit  underlies  the t r a n s i t i o n  a small  hill  zone between t h e S k i d e g a t e  Queen C h a r l o t t e L o w l a n d s .  A shale  unit  overlying  interbedded  sandstone  (Skonun F o r m a t i o n ) a r e b o t h  stock till  This  (Haida  formation  c a n i c s on t h e west  at was to  the  Formation)  intruded  and o u t c r o p s  sequence  penetrated black,  and an  by an cover  elongate of glacial  are scarce  i n the  to the e a s t .  rhyolite-porphyry,  of  lithology  this  to the o v e r l y i n g  Thickness  hole.  o f the s h a l e  The u n i t  and t h i n l y  sandy l a y e r s a r e p r e s e n t .  h o r n f e l s due m a i n l y  the T e r t i a r y v o l -  i s unknown - a maximum t h i c k n e s s  consolidated  or  Cretaceous)  from  s i d e o f the d e p o s i t  i n one d r i l l  poorly  Minor  Formation, Late  u n d e r l i e s an a r e a  the C i n o l a deposit  shale.  and t h e  o f the d e p o s i t .  Sequence -  clastic  (Haida  (Figure 3 ) . A thin  and sand o v e r l i e s t h e a r e a  Shale  Plateau  sea l e v e l )  s e q u e n c e o f p e b b l e c o n g l o m e r a t e and c o a r s e  of rhyolite-porphyry  vicinity  (210 m above  shale  the shale to intense  coarse  sequence o f 34 m  i s mainly dark  bedded Near  calcareous  the c o n t a c t  s e q u e n c e becomes an silicification.  grey  with  argiliite  On t h e b a s i s  sequence appears t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e  upper member o f t h e H a i d a  Formation.  42  Figure  3.  Property  geology,  Cinola gold  graphic  contours  i n metres  only  the  side  on  which AA'  east  separates  and  Figures  BB'  shale  are  4 and  5  of  a.m.s.l.  the  from  deposit.  l o c a t i o n s of  are  Footwall  the  other  cross  Toposhown  Fault two  units  sections  in  43  C o n g l o m e r a t e - S a n d s t o n e Sequence  A coarse-grained  sedimentary  s e q u e n c e and e x t e n d s e a s t w a r d The  contact  between  in  drill  of  the r h y o l i t e -  the  core  sequence  Strike  porphyry  throughout  around  the  east.  Thickness  015°.  with  rare shale  glomerate. rare  stone  about  62 p e r c e n t  and i n t r u s i o n Thickness o f  v a r i e s from  0 t o 300 m.  contacts  conglomerate,  a 2 m  most o f  26  percent  s a n d s t o n e and s i l t s t o n e matrix  supported  con-  u n i t s are g e n e r a l l y sharp but  are a l s o observed. interbedded  among d r i l l  average.  conglomerate,  intercalated  c o n t a c t s o f rock  correlation  clearly  conglomerate, sandstone or  holes  Mafic volcanic,  sandstone  and some s a n d s t o n e have been used  graphic  (Figure 3 ) .  to n o r t h e a s t e r l y with  i n t e r beds and 5 p e r c e n t  transitional  pebble-rich  area  0.1 t o 30 m, w i t h  7 percent  Basal  the s h a l e  S t r a t a c o n s i s t e n t l y d i p 15° t o 25° t o  of individual  sequence c o n t a i n s  silicification  the d r i l l e d  l a y e r s range from  sandstone,  fault  ( F i g u r e s 3, 4 and 5 ) .  from n o r t h w e s t e r l y  values  coarse  to the Sandspit  Miocene)  t h e two u n i t s has n o t been o b s e r v e d  the  The  sequence o v e r l i e s  because o f p e r v a s i v e  changes  siltstone  (Skonun F o r m a t i o n ,  and s h a l e y  successfully  as i s a p p a r e n t  silt-  for stratii n Figures  4 and 5.  The  principal  polymictic pebbles tures the  type  i s a medium g r e y  conglomerate with w e l l rounded  and s m a l l c o b b l e s .  a r e abundant.  rock  rock  with  are moderately  Graded  The c o a r s e  an a v e r a g e  fragment  and l o a d c a s t  totals  diameter  s o r t e d and s p h e r i c i t y  brown  to subangular  bedding  fraction  to p a l e  large struc-  70 p e r c e n t o f  o f 3 cm.  Particles  i s low t o i n t e r m e d i a t e .  44  Most o f cobble  the  iithologies  cent mafic lite and  and  tics,  s h a l e and  c h e r t and  clase  mosaic with  dark  Granitic 10  cent of  volume o f  due  matrix  of quartz  and  sandstone,  and  of  argil-  siltstone  and  and  rare pyroclasMafic volcanic  andesite with  commonly a l t e r e d  disseminated  the rock  these rock  and  the  coarse  to  plagio-  chlorite  or  and  per-  sand-sized  par-  i n most o f  of quartz c l a s t that  have d e s t r o y e d  fine 30  Distinguishing  is difficult  chlorite.  occupies  c o n s i s t s of  contacts suggest  d u r i n g m i n e r a l i z a t i o n may  biotite  conglomerates  fragments.  definition  sutured  per-  i n c l u d e massive  porphyritic  intermixed with  quartz c l a s t s  t o the poor  mosaic  g r a n i t e , 5 percent  20  and  fragments c o n s i s t o f a q u a r t z - f e l d s p a r  are  The  Pebble  v o l c a n i c rock,  conglomerate,  green  percent  fractions.  cement from  percent  phenocrysts  Rare wood f r a g m e n t s  ticles  10  felsic  supported.  hematitic rhyolite-porphyry.  about  the  percent  pebble  Acid volcanic clasts  hornblende  epidote.  are  rhyolite-porphyry, quartz  are m o s t l y  and  60  5 percent  schist.  rhyolite,  pebbles  are  units  v o l c a n i c rock,  chlorite  oanded  and  conglomerate  quartz  the  samples  boundaries.  The  recrystallization many o r i g i n a l  clast  boundaries.  Sandstone coarse  units  grained with  parent.  Quartz  grains.  Two  aligned stone well  and  t o 15  parallel  units. preserved  One  a r e medium g r e y bedding  and  graded  v o l c a n i c rock percent  brown and  bedding  are p r e s e n t  L e a v e s have been  small outcrop of The  sandstone  shells  are  medium  commonly  fragments comprise  wood f r a g m e n t s  to bedding.  pelecypods.  to dark  found  contains  relatively  to  ap-  most o f  the  commonly i n sandabundant thick  and  45  C R O S S - SECTION A A' DDH 77-l2~|  DDH 77-9"  DDH 77-8 1  DDH 78-5  A -|  ELEVATION (METRES)  .200  .180 1160 1140 .1120  1100  80  160  10  20  30  40  140  5 0 METRES  120 Figure  4.  C r o s s - s e c t i o n AA' - L o c a t i o n figure  5 for  legend.  shown o n f i g u r e  3.  See  46  Figure  5."  C r o s s - s e c t i o n -BB . 1  47  most o f them a r e served  lying.  i n a sandstone  Minor stone  flat  and  posit.  medium t o p a l e g r e y  - shale units  T h e y show b e d d i n g , g r a d e d  marks and  rare  spheroidal concretion  c o n v o l u t e bedding  are found  and  These  units  conglomerate  Similar  and  flame  that the  lithologies and  sedimentary  Skonun F o r m a t i o n  part the  this  consist  o f the Tow northeast.  Hill The  An  light  o f our  epiclastic  sequence  types.  No  presence Cruson  relict  and L i m b a c h  units  are of  stratigraphic correlates  sandstone  setting  with  found  of  lower  p. 120)  coarse c l a s t i c  to  sequence  i s misleading in  and m i c r o s c o p i c s t u d i e s .  t e x t u r e s were seen w h i c h  (personal  suggest  i n the  component does o c c u r w i t h o t h e r  pumice o r  car-  the b a s a l p a r t  ( S u t h e r l a n d Brown, 1968,  megascopic  found l o -  abundance o f  by p r e v i o u s g e o l o g i s t s  of a p r e - e x i s t i n g  de-  mud.  designation of this  detailed  the  sand-  structures.  o f M i d d l e M i o c e n e age  volcanic  throughout  types o f c l a s t s ,  regional  as p y r o c l a s t i c m a t e r i a l the  and  well  interbedded  of angular fragments  i n a matrix of s i l t y  bonaceous m a t e r i a l  ob-  bedding, cross-bedding, r i p p l e  Massive, matrix-supported conglomerate cally.  was  bed.  but p e r s i s t e n t siltstone  One  would  rhyolite  communication,  fragment  indicate  the  as r e p o r t e d by  1980).  48  ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION AND AGE OF SKONUN SEDIMENTS  The  c o a r s e n a t u r e o f the sediments, t h e i r  acter  and e r o s i o n a l  units  strongly  for  between c o n g l o m e r a t e  suggest a f l u v i a t i l e  t h e Skonun s e d i m e n t s , e i t h e r  braided  river  deposits  ments d e p o s i t e d uncommon trast  (Blatt  by m e a n d e r i n g  and o c c u r o n l y  lithofacies  rivers.  lar  et al., rivers  braided  rivers  2 is a list  both observed a t the C i n o l a  deposit  braided  plain  rivers  and a l l u v i a l  Conglomerate total  sediment  stone  and minor  preted plant  and s a n d s t o n e  i s t h e dominant  river  plains  t o Rust  system.  fragments  migrated  across  accumulated  minor  channels s t i l l  simi-  deposit. structures  and i n r e c o g n i z e d  distal  u n i t s make up 85-90% o f t h e consisting of s i l t y units  mud-  are i n t e r -  t r a c t , whereas muostone and areas.  The a c t i v e  the area e v e n t u a l l y  and a c c u m u l a t i o n o f mud and s u p p o r t v e g e t a t i o n  though  described very  and s e d i m e n t a r y  on i n a c t i v e  the f l o o d p l a i n ;  (±y78) Rust  (1978)  sequences  Conglomerate-sandstone  as d e p o s i t s o f t h e a c t i v e  In con-  deposits.  volume, t h e r e m a i n d e r shale.  In s e d i -  sediments d e p o s i t e d i n  and B u r g g r a f f  o f the l i t h o f a c i e s  deposits or  l a g concentrates.  t o t h e Skonun s e d i m e n t s p r e s e n t a t t h e C i n o l a  Table  tive  of deposition river  and a c c o r d i n g  and a l l u v i a l  and s a n d s t o n e  1972, p. 1 9 9 ) .  by a b r a i d e d  ( 1 9 7 8 ) , and V o n d r a  char-  framework c o n g l o m e r a t e s a r e  dominate  deposit  evidence f o r deposition  distal  as m e a n d e r i n g  Framework c o n g l o m e r a t e  at the C i n o l a  (1978), M i a l l  environment  as l o c a l i z e d  framework c o n g l o m e r a t e  modern b r a i d e d  is  contacts  polymictic  remained  to transport  became  tract inac-  began, a l -  sand  during  49  flood periods.  Much o f t h e d e t r i t u s most l i k e l y the E a r l y  and p o r p h y r i t i c  Jurassic  shales  and i n t r u s i o n s  sitic,  argillite  Rust  andesitic  i n a comparable rock  rocks  much  appear  collected  fragments,  shorter  reveal of  than  an  quartz-feld-  o f Masset  Upper  Cretaceous  clasts  respectively.  50 km from  sequence.  presence source  50 km,  ande-  the r i v e r ' s  Occurence  of  o f some d e b r i s f l o w  area suggest  units  a distance of  a l t h o u g h most o f t h e Skonun  distal.  by t h e a u t h o r s  siltstone  trench.  an e a r l y M i d d l e M i o c e n e  sandstone  was  of deposition which  analysis.  were c o l l e c t e d  assemblage  In  on a  and f a u n a  age (17-15 Ma) f o r t h e d e p o s i t i o n  (Champigny, H e n d e r s o n  e s t u a r i n e environment  abundant p y r i t e  for palynological  The p l a n t m i c r o f o s s i l  environment  with  i n the e a s t e r n p a r t o f the d e p o s i t  t h r e e samples o f s h e l l y  t h e Skonun  gested  agglomerates,  h o l e 79-14) and s u b m i t t e d  addition, surface  rhyoiite,  a n d e s i t e a l l o f which except p o r -  fluviatile  A sample o f c a r b o n a c e o u s  (drill  are mostly  framework g r a v e l  p r o x i m i t y o f the probable  transport  from  c o u l d be t h e s o u r c e s f o r c h l o r i t i z e d  and g r a n i t i c  (1972) f o u n d  boulder-sized and  sequence i s  r o c k s o f the Masset  a n d e s i t e , a r e v e r y common i n e x p o s u r e s  Formation.  source  volcanic  The c o a r s e c l a s t s  porphyry  phyritic  i n the f l u v i a t i l e  t o have been d e r i v e d and t r a n s p o r t e d e a s t w a r d  to Middle T e r t i a r y  Formation. spar  found  and Rouse, 1981).  i s t h a t o f near  i s i n accord with  The s u g -  shore, the  possibly  sedimento-  Table  2.  Lithofacies the  and Sedimentary  Skonun Sediments  other Braided River.  APPROX. % TOT. SED. VOL  62 26  BEDDED  OR  CRUDELY  FRAMEWORK  TO  VERY  BE  PEBBLY  MEDIUM  COARSE,  MAY  SAND,  SILT,  -GRADED -RARE  BEDDING  HORIZONTAL  -HORIZONTAL LAMINATION -WOOD  MUD  -CROSS -RIPPLE  FRAGMENTS  LAMINATION LAMINATION MARKS  -PELECYPODS  5  MASSIVE  CONGLOMERATE  Deposit and  INTERPRE -TATION  CHANNEL DEPOSITS  CHANNEL DEPOSITS  OVERBANK OR  WANING  FLOOD DEPOSITS DEBRIS  MATRIX  SUPPORTED  i n  Systems.  -FINE  7  Gold  BEDDING  CONGLOMERATE  SANDSTONE,  of the Cinola  SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES OBSERVED  LITHOFACIES  MASSIVE  S t r u c t u r e s Observed  NONE  FLOW DEPOSITS  51  logical  interpretation  proposed  here.  52  RHYOLITE-PORPHYRY - MIDDLE MIOCENE  An  elongate  crop out  s t o c k o f r h y o l i t e - p o r p h y r y and  s p a r s e l y e a s t and  trusion  c u t s both  Locally  the  but is  the  west o f  s h a l e and  contact with  the  composed o f a m i x t u r e  stone grey  and  rhyolite  mass d e c r e a s e s grey  and  e y e s 0.1  zone e x i s t s .  east  i n an  rocks  The  is  sharp  contact  conglomerate,  a p h a n i t i c white  thickness of  sequence.  to  zone sand-  bluish-  the r h y o l i t e - p o r p h y r y i s pale  c o n t a i n s 1 to 3 percent  b l u i s h - g r e y subrounded  quartz-  t o 4 mm  ( F i g u r e s 4 and  5 to 8 percent  i n diameter  and  feldspar phenocrysts,  Plagioclase than  sedimentary  in-  rock  to euhedral  t o the  The  The  conglomerate-sandstone  o f h i g h l y deformed  fragments  s i l i c e o u s matrix.  the F o o t w a l l f a u l t .  coarse  i n many p l a c e s a t r a n s i t i o n  a s s o c i a t e d dykes  potassium  phenocrysts  t o 5 mm  (mainly a l b i t e )  feldspar phenocrysts.  i n many p l a c e s w i t h tained  i n a very  cified  shale.  mass, a n g u l a r  0.1  angular  fine  In  the  The  The  white  a r e more  rhyolite  conglomerate  o f dark  units  grey  related  abundant  is brecciated and  shale  to black  c l o s e t o the  r e p r e s e n t i n g broken pebbles  These b r e c c i a s are p r o b a b l y  subhedral  long.  fragments of r h y o l i t e  grained matrix  fragments  5).  t o the  intrusion  consili-  intrusive  are of  visible. the  rhyolite-porphyry.  R e c e n t K-Ar Formation) vision and  data  compiled  of their  his single  age. K-Ar  on  the T e r t i a r y  by Young and Sutherland analysis  Chase  volcanics (19 76)  Brown's  resulted  (1968)  gave a P a l e o c e n e  (Masset in a re-  interpretation  t o Eocene  age.  53  Nineteen  r e c e n t whole rock  from  11  t o 84 Ma.  from  these  c y c l e or ages.  the  (1)  accept  intrusion  of  also the  least there  younger the  two  analyses  interpretations  i s more than  dates first  provide  are  one  reset  from  interpretation  played  volcanic cycle. an  important  role  rhyolite-porphyry stock.  The  ages  ranging  are p o s s i b l e  Tertiary volcanic  could represent a plutonic  a Late T e r t i a r y  probably form  (2)  I f we  porphyry with  data:  At  K-Ar  Early then  Tertiary  the  rhyolite-  phase a s s o c i a t e d  Sandspit  fault  system  i n the l o c a l i z a t i o n  and  54  STRUCTURE  The  major  the F o o t w a l l degrees  fault  and  licified outcrop  called  the  the F o o t w a l l  silicified  fault.  fault  block.  This  the f a u l t  both  beneath  occurred  i n the l a t e  stone  s e q u e n c e a t 1800 m b . m . s . l .  i n part  Absence o f M i d d l e f a u l t , and  patterns  suggest a  downward movement o f t h e e a s t f o r the  Brown, i y 6 8 , p . 1 5 3 ) .  on the e a s t e r n  fault  and above  at least  side o f the Footwall  (Sutherland  well d r i l l e d  near the  (Figure 3).  Thus, f a u l t i n g  system  fresh  contact.  scarp  i s t h e same movement p i c t u r e o b s e r v e d  fault  Tow H i l l  to s o f t ,  as a f a u l t  i s observed  some r e l a t i v e  i s recognized  p a r t o f t h e d e p o s i t , an  o f the r h y o l i t e - p o r p h y r y .  with  fault  r h y o l i t e - p o r p h y r y and s i -  showing e x p o s e s is visible  shale  53  i s a part of  fault  g e o c h e m i c a l a n o m a l i e s and d r a i n a g e  dextral  Sandspit  the f a u l t  The F o o t w a l l  and p r o b a b l y  In the northwestern  s e d i m e n t s on t h e west  displaced  system  core  from  rhyolite-porphyry  intrusion  Miocene  4 and 5 ) .  boundary o f the d e p o s i t  Footwall  after  cnange  the Marino  A l s o on s u r f a c e  The  fault  deposit i s  180 t o 157 d e g r e e s and d i p s  (2) s l i c k e n s i d e s i n a l t e r e d shale.  southwest  strikes  In the d r i l l  (1) an a b r u p t  shale  f e a t u r e on t h e C i n o l a g o l d  (Figures  the Sandspit  system.  by:  which  to the e a s t  parallels that  structural  block  o f the S a n d s p i t  ±y50's shows t h e base o f a c o n g l o m e r a t e - s a n d (Sutherland  Brown, 1 9 6 8 ) .  The  Skonun s e d i m e n t s a r e e x p o s e d on t h e west s i d e o f t h e S a n d s p i t fault  system  a t the C i n o l a d e p o s i t  a t a minimum e l e v a t i o n near  55  -200m.  G r a v i t y measurements  and Chase  dip  f o r the Sandspit  cal  d i s p l a c e m e n t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1500 m e t r e s  This  compares w e l l  between  t h e Skonun  fault  by Young  (1976) g i v e  o f 50 t o 70 d e g r e e s e a s t  with a v e r t i c a l  (east  and a  verti-  block  down).  d i f f e r e n c e o f 1600 m e t r e s  sediments o f the C i n o l a d e p o s i t  deposit  h a s been  active  a f t e r the i n t r u s i o n o f the r h y o l i t e - p o r p h y r y /  that i s ,  Footwall  Similar  fault  two r e s u l t  from  strike,  gold  Hill  The F o o t w a l l  14 Ma.  on t h e C i n o l a  and Tow  well.  alter  fault  a  d i p and movement p i c t u r e s o f t h e  and t h e S a n d s p i t t h e same s t r e s s  fault  strongly  pattern.  suggest  that the  56  FORM AND  SETTING OF  The appears  CINOLA DEPOSIT  C i n o l a deposit extending to terminate  west and  disappears  Depth e x t e n t  over  g r a d u a l l y t o the n o r t h i s at l e a s t  shape the m i n e r a l i z e d s y s t e m r i v a l s system  licification  with  and  silver  values gold in  values  range  values  quartz  quartz phyry  veinlets and  highly  the  Intense degree of  higher  a t the  and  east  m.  over  4.55  than  the  and  systems.  throughout  the  ton)  High  grade  are  found  d e p o s i t and  in  rhyolite-por-  (Figure 8).  a r s e n i c and  Gold  Gold  ton.  c o n t a c t zone between the  The  zone o f s i -  same a r e a .  oz. Au/short  the  and  marcasite.  oz. Au/short  0.20  on  K  (Figure 3).  In s i z e  small porphyry  1.3  The  less  rocks  are  anomalous i n  tungsten.  silicification  silicification body.  v e i n s up d i p 60°  c h a r a c t e r i z e s the h o s t  i n c r e a s e s i n a g e n e r a l way Several generations  host  rocks.  The  towards  o f v e i n s and  the  strin-  rock.  to s e v e r a l metres width  t o 90°  d e n s i t y of quartz  in either  v e i n s near  measured q u a n t i t a t i v e l y Individual  350  of p y r i t e  Skonun c o n g l o m e r a t e s  c r o s s - c u t the  Large  tial  and  sporadically  rhyolite-porphyry  grees  .01  anomalous i n m e r c u r y and  a n t i m o n y and  gers  percent  are widespread  between  veins  and  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p r o m i n e n t  a few  (i.e.,  area of at l e a s t  a b r u p t l y a g a i n s t the F o o t w a l l f a u l t  i s unknown but  mineralizing  an  veins present  direction.  020+20  Increasing  mineralized rhyolites  i n most d r i l l clear  strike  holes  despa-  has  (Figure 8).  a c c r e t i o n a r y f e a t u r e s such  as  been  2  57  crustification, formed q u a r t z  chalcedonic quartz  and c a l c i t e  and d e v e l o p m e n t o f w e l l -  crystals  r e a c h i n g 2 cm i n s i z e  coxcomb t e x t u r e i n d r u s y c a v i t i e s . mon;  s e v e r a l c o l o u r e d bands o f q u a r t z  sodes o f v e i n i n g . wood f r a g m e n t s , men  Banding  scale.  Microveins  producing  show t h e d i f f e r e n t  and s t r i n g e r s  a chess-board  Cross-cutting relationships  sequence o f v e i n i n g i n o r d e r  i n the v e i n s  with i s comepi-  commonly p e r v a d e  t e x t u r e on a hand support  of decreasing  speci-  the f o l l o w i n g  a g e : a) b l a c k  to grey  c h a l c e d o n i c q u a r t z , b) h e m a t i t i c q u a r t z , c) m a s s i v e m i l k y d)  clear  Wall glomerate vein.  euhedral  rock  calcite.  i s common and i n many p l a c e s  con-  a r e b r e c c i a t e d and i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n a q u a r t z  i s seen  is often d i f f i c u l t rocks.  and e)  silicification  clasts  This  quartz  quartz  only with  black  to d i s t i n g u i s h  and g r e y  quartz veins.  It  between v e i n m a t e r i a l and h o s t  DRILL HOLE 7 8 - 6  E L E V A T I O N  A u ( o z . / T o n )  S U L F I D E S  ( % )  F  R  A  C  T  U  P E R  0  Figure  8.  Graphic  l o g o f diamond  d r i l l hole  5  10  78-6.  0  R  E M  10  See F i g u r e  C O U N T E  T  30  R  Q U A R T Z  V E I N S  ( % )  E  50  0  5 f o r location  25  and  50  >50  legend.  59  WALLROCK  ALTERATION  Alteration sections lite,  minerals  kaolinite,  Quartz generations  sericite  near  core  and t h i n  o f abundance; q u a r t z , i l -  and c h l o r i t e .  Iron hydroxides are  the s u r f a c e .  i s t h e p r e d o m i n a n t m i n e r a l and i s p r e s e n t ; (1) a f i r s t  cement b i n d i n g p e b b l e s ment and (2) a s e c o n d  This latter  mineralization  and s m a l l e r c l a s t s  o c c u r r i n g as v o i d  i s clearly  T h u s , two p e r i o d s o f s i l i c i f i c a t i o n  sedi-  crystals, U.l  fillings,  v u g s and  t o the sequence o f  in this  related  quartz  o f the o r i g i n a l  generation corresponds  d e s c r i b e d elsewhere  generation of quartz  i n two  generation of c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e  generation o f blocky clear  t o 2 cm i n d i a m e t e r  veins.  i n the d r i l l  include i n decreasing order  also present  mm  identified  account.  to gold  This  second  mineralization.  have a f f e c t e d  the o r i g i n a l  sediment.  Quartz  cement has c o r r o d e d  duced q u a r t z o v e r g r o w t h . d a r i e s which  locally  cement commonly r i m s  In veins, turn  quartz thin  interior This  are reduced pyrite  t o an i r o n  clasts  oxide  with  rim.  g r a i n s and c a r b o n a c e o u s  are coated  with  drusy quartz c r y s t a l s they  a r e encased  and p r o -  the c l a s t  v e i n s , coxcomb s t r u c t u r e i s common.  o f t h e v e i n where  common  Cementation destroyed  selvages o f quartz  i s covered  parts of l i t h i c  boun-  Quartz  fragments.  I n numerous  p y r i t e , which i n  projecting in pyrite  t o the crystals.  t e x t u r e shows t h a t q u a r t z d e p o s i t i o n i n p a r t p r e -  60  ceded  formation  of  a l l opaque m i n e r a l s  and  continued  extent  during  d e p o s i t i o n o f opaque m i n e r a l s .  crysts  of  porphyritic rhyolite  by  the  two  alteration  c l a y minerals  their  random o r i e n t a t i o n and  rocks.  the  identified  seem t o be  I l l i t e and  results  kaolinite  the m a t r i x  of  rhyoiites,  stones  as  v o i d and  (2)  crystals  and  (3)  Clusters altered  i n many  places  the  the  silicification  on  advanced  argillic  McMillan  and  illitization  occur;  (1) w i t h  quartz  contact  very  sulphide  served  that p h y l l i c  except  quartz  alteration  zone o f  alteration  are  quartz  found  altered  quartz. has  This  in clay-  deposition.  Taylor  sediments superimposed  deposits  These o b s e r v a t i o n s took p l a c e  during  and  and  Fryer  which  i s a l s o the  case  that  after  (1980)  with  ob-  minerals the  argil-  at C i n o l a .  argillic  alteration  an  by  suggest  o v e r p r i n t i n g a f f e c t e d a l l primary  pyrite  sedi-  been r e f e r r e d t o as  i n porphyry-copper  (1980).  in  phenocrysts.  crystals  grained  on  silt-  zone between t h e M i o c e n e  kaolinization  and  and  fine  alteration  Panteleyev and  cement  s a n d s t o n e s and  of feldspar  pyrite  based  mineralized  v e i n f i l l i n g , commonly c o a t i n g  argillic  quartz  A  f i b r o u s h a b i t i n the  are  These  alteration  rhyolite-porphyry a r g i l l i c a l l y  s i l i c i f i e d with  kaolinite  by X - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n .  conglomerates,  idiomorphic At  I l l i t e and  of hydrothermal  as a l t e r a t i o n  of  rocks.  ments and  lic  replaced  is extensive.  clays  are  P l a g i o c l a s e pheno-  quartz.  Argillic the  are  t o some  ( i n w h i c h more than  30%  of  61  the  gold-bearing  eastern lized are  boundary of  zone d i p s  less  than  g r a i n s on  of  i s composed o f c l a y s )  the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  s t e e p l y t o the  .01  Sericitic  the  rock  oz.  alteration  rhyoiites,  around  the  An  earlier  i f not  conglomerate  to  the  is  finely  contact  zone o f  the with  represent,  ting  the  hydroxides  disseminated  i n the  matrix in  zone c o u l d have been nature  of  the  of  sili-  present  argillic  early alteration  stage  very  are  in d r i l l  veinlets.  r h y o l i t e - p o r p h y r y where the  mineral  occurrences  quartz,  (1)  an  holes.  illite  alteration  i n t r u s i o n or  and  kaolinite.  product (2)  of a  glassy  a mineral  phase  alteration.  present  on  surface  exposures  They form p a l e  material  They r e s u l t  sulphides, p r i n c i p a l l y  i n a n d e s i t i c pebbles limited  rhyolite  fine-grained earthy and  values  seem t o be  to e a r l y n y o r o t h e r m a l  cavities  any  units, chlorite  related  brown  gold  s e d i m e n t s and  of phenocrysts  margin of  i n depth  grained  pervasive  chilled  20 m  argil-  impossible.  disseminated might  finely  amounts a l s o o c c u r fine  the  This  c o n g l o m e r a t e p e b b l e s and  phyllic  for a l t e r a t i o n  in  Iron  of  makes r e c o g n i t i o n o f  Except  Chlorite  Small  i n t r u s i o n but  alteration difficult  i s f o u n d m a i n l y as  conglomerates,  c i f ied shales.  in general,  the  ton.  f e l d s p a r s pnenocrysts  rhyolite-porphyry.  (Figure 10).  west and,  Au/short  constitutes  pyrite  filling  and  yellow lining  from o x i d a t i o n o f and  marcasite.  and to  up  to  reddish-  boxwork pre-exis-  77-5=  77-4" 77-3—|  ELEVATION (metres) 200  78-4"  >ft ; :  r  h-150  OVERBURDEN ~ ^ E 3  L100 SHALE  RHYOLITE  U50  PORPHYRY  kSL  ADV. ARGILLIC ALT'N  SILIC1FICATION ±  SERICITIZATION  O  s  \  ARGILLIC  ALT'N.  UNALTERED  SEDIMENTS  N  \  20  \  40  60  80  100metres  k-100  L-150  ON NO  63  Figure  10.  C r o s s - s e c t i o n showing d i s t r i b u t i o n of a l t e r a t i o n minerals of the Cinola gold deposit. Argillic a l t e r a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e sediment i s composed o f more t h a n 30% c l a y s ( i l l i t e a n d k a o l i n i t e ) . Grades i n t h e a r g i l l i c a l t e r a t i o n zone a r e l e s s t h a n .01 o z . A u / t o n . Advanced a r g i l l i c alteration s i g n i f i e s t h a t s i l i f i c a t i o n i s s u p e r i m p o s e d on ;: argillic alteration. The r h y o l i t e - p o r p h y r y a n d the s h a l e w i t h i n a few m e t r e s o f t h e f a u l t c o n t a c t are s i l i c i f i e d , s e r i c i t i z e d and gold-bearing.  64  ORE MINERALOGY  Opaque m i n e r a l s in  Table  60  s p e c i m e n s examined  from 3%  4 with  recognized  an i n d i c a t i o n  i n the C i n o l a d e p o s i t are l i s t e d  of their  in detail.  approximate abundances i n  M i n e r a l i z e d rock  0.5 t o 10 p e r c e n t opaque m i n e r a l s w i t h  (by v o l u m e ) .  the d e p o s i t  contained  an a v e r a g e  o f about  Two g e n e r a l m i n e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t i n  (Figure 9 ) : pyrite-marcasite i n s i l i c i f i e d  nost  r o c k s and p y r i t e - m a r c a s i t e - s p h a l e r i t e - c h a l c o p y r i t e - g a l e n a - n a t i v e gold  i n quartz  Pyrite Four age  veins.  and m a r c a s i t e  generations of pyrite they  pyrite  fillings  (3) w e l l d e v e l o p e d  i n the coarse  fraction  disseminated Pyrite  and m a r c a s i t e  grains  range  from  conglomeratic  host  Marcasite  lath-shaped  crystals  comb f o r m .  Quartz,  i n pebbles o f  c r y s t a l s or c r y s t a l  v e i n s and vugs where  Sulphide  rims  of disseminated  i t is  quartz.  i n d i v i d u a l l y or together.  consist  Individual  around  pebbles i n  pyrite  grains  commonly forms g r o u p s o f s m a l l  and i n p l a c e s shows t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c pyrite  and m a r c a s i t e  G r a p h i t e was o b s e r v e d  In conglomerate  and  melnikovitic  in cryptocrystalline  .01 t o 4 mm.  t o .05 mm).  wood f r a g m e n t s .  occur  of decreasing  and cement o f t h e s i l i c i f i e d  i n quartz  o r forms l a y e r s  single  minerals.  r a r e l y observed  o c c u r r i n g as c o a t i n g s and f i s s u r e  s e d i m e n t s and (4) p y r i t e  matter.  pyrite,  grained  clusters  origin,  In o r d e r  (2) f i n e  conglomerates,  (.001  are present.  a r e ; (1) " r a s p b e r r y - l i k e "  p o s s i b l y o f sedimentary  the  a r e t h e most common m e t a l l i c  units  pyrite  have  filled  r a r e l y with and m a r c a s i t e  cox-  spaces i n  the o r g a n i c are  distri-  65  buted tion  through  both  subsequent  correlation values  the m a t r i x  t o the  can  were o b s e r v e d  1.1  in pyrite  been  can  probably  pyrite  identified be  and/or  Rutile gates.  No  definite and  gold  the  hematite  and  grains.  Five pyrite-marcasite  electron  a r s e n i c was  i n the  microprobe  measured.  d e p o s i t and  attributed  to s o l i d  r a r e l y magnetite  and  No  the h i g h  in  and  one  arsenopyrite  a r s e n i c content  solution of  arsenic in  marcasite.  occurs  Grains  as  are  m e t a l l i c minerals pyrite.  with  weight percent  has  Rutile  lath-shaped  relatively are  disseminated  s m a l l ; around  i n contact with  .02  rutile  c o u l d have been a p r i m a r y  g r a i n s or mm.  No  apart  from  mineral  as  aggreother abundant  i t i s not  in quartz veins.  Small to  .03  amounts o f p y r r h o t i t e mm  i n diameter  occurs  as  giving  a brownish-red  hematite  finely  are  marcasite. euhedral on  sediment.  a deposi-  between s u l p h i d e c o n t e n t  of pyrrhotite,  g r a i n s were a n a l y z e d  .01  the  indicating  (Figure 8).  rutile  found  pebbles  formation of  be o b t a i n e d  Inclusions  grain  and  one  (cinnabar  as  Magnetite  g r a i n s from  sample and  in pyrite  disseminated  found  as an  are  found and  grains  as  inclusions  marcasite.  (<.005 mm)  Trace  inclusions  mm)  i s very .02  to  .3 mm  inclusion  tiemmanite,  r a r e and  t o 0.1 was  in size  in cinnabar.  Hematite  i n quartz  c o l o u r to the q u a r t z . (.01  from  found  veins  amounts o f  in pyrite as  or  anhedral  included in pyrite Mercury  HgSe) were o b s e r v e d  i n one  to and  minerals quartz  vein  MINERAL PYRITE MARCASITE RUTILE PYRRHOTITE HEMATITE MAGNETITE  SILICIFIED HOST ROCK  QUARTZ VEINS  75 22 2 0-5 0-5  75 22 0-5 2-5  TR  TR  —  SPHALERITE  —  TR  CHALCOPYRITE  —  TR  GALENA  —  TR  NOT VISIBLE  GOLD CINNABAR  —  TIEMMANITE Table  4.  Opaque M i n e r a l s a n d T h e i r R e l a t i v e Deposit. T r a c e amounts means l e s s  TR TR TR  Abundance, C i n o l a t h a n 0.1%.  Gold  67  TIME PYRITE  <Z  5  RUTILE MARCASITE PYRRHOTITE HEMATITE MAGNETITE SPHALERITE CHALCOPYRITE GALENA GOLD IRON HYDROXIDE SILICIFIED and  Figure  9.  Paragenetic gold  deposit  HOST  QUARTZ  line  ROCKS  opaque  SURF  VEINS OXD.  VEINS  diagram  QTZ.  f o r the Cinola  minerals.  68  sample.  Cinnabar  patches  in quartz.  cinnabar  sulphide  copyrite,  i s present only  generally  galena  and  s i z e v a r y from  .01  .02  to  many g r a i n s  are  range  sphalerite posite  than  either  sulphide  to  Cinola  as  grains  v e i n l e t s of  pyrite  grains.  is observed copyrite let 20  of to  galena 23  the  occurs  grains  percent  solution  i n three  percent  occurs  has  are  been  galena  galena  was  mm  recorded  grains,  so  are  (1)  is  is  irregu-  in  sphalerite, One  found.  i n three  chalcoand chalveinFrom  electron  mineral  micron-gold  com-  size  i s very rare  in size.  the  with  cross-cutting gold  series galena-clausthalite.  p r i n c i p a l ways  per-  that  simple  Grain  a s p h a l e r i t e g r a i n was Se  and  microprobe  as  native  Galena  0.1  ob-  Chalcopyrite  were o b s e r v e d  to  and  indicating  grains  aggregates with .01  chal-  Molecular  i n s p h a l e r i t e or  places.  in  c l o s e l y associated  i n c l u s i o n s of  i n a few  analyses of  solid  and  abundant  irregular  is iron-rich.  chalcopyrite  cross-cutting  molecular  microprobe in  gold,  generally  A l l chalcopyrite  in polyminerallic  and  with  p y r i t e , marcasite,  monominerallic grains.  Rounded  were o b s e r v e d  most  from seven e l e c t r o n  deposit  or  lar.  i s the  inclusions.  molecular  inclusions  to s p h a l e r i t e .  sphalerite  25  sphalerite  comparable Thin  is associated  Sphalerite  c l e a r of  analyses  abundant  disseminated  pyrite, chalcopyrite,  in sphalerite obtained from 11  are  mm.  c e n t FeS  less  mm  I t i s encountered only  with  Grains  quartz,  i n the  .05  pyrite  marcasite.  gold.  i n c l u s i o n s of  sphalerite  to  r a r e l y but  in contact  served with but  .01  places.  a f t e r p y r i t e and  quartz veins  as  "Framboidal-like"  in several  Sphalerite  their  i s present  is actually  Native  gold  (<0.5u) i n a l l  69  the  rock  types  included), included is  in  (2) as m o n o m i n e r a l l i c  locally.  irregular  with  c h a l c o p y r i t e are  Eleven  silver  with  The  on  the e l e c t r o n  ranging  from  C a l c u l a t e d Au/Ag r a t i o s and  standard  sults  from twice  drill  with  g o l d and  solution  core  virtually  are  (2)  a l l the silver  unlikely  analysis  enriched  (wt.  weight  and  4.9  respectively.  with  scatter  7) w h i c h on  p r e s e n t may  weight =  an  up  than  percent 76.4).  con-  average These  re-  diagrams f o r average  N e v e r t h e l e s s , we  is tied  veins  percent.  t o 15.1  gold-silver  in solid  conclude solution  gold-silver found  show  to  solid date.  c o n t a i n some s i l v e r . Te  gold  rounded.  A l l the g o l d  0.2  silver  are  in quartz  from  silver.  % Ag  (>10y)  Inclusions of  t o o c c u r , none have been  showed 9.8  in silver  microprobe.  (3)  association  are m o r e - o r - l e s s  minerals other  t r a c e amount o f g a l e n a  v e i n s and  third  (>100u) o c c u r i n g  ( F i g u r e s 6 and  as much g o l d as  (1)  gold  vary  500y.  and  t o 76.4  d e v i a t i o n o f 6.3  that  The  6.2  c o n t r a s t somewhat w i t h  assays about  average  The  gold grains  l a r g e as  gold grains  (quartz veins  grains i n quartz  visible  some as  10U  visible  were a n a l y z e d tains  silicification  in chalcopyrite in quartz veins.  o n l y found  highly  t h a t have undergone  in a grain  One  abnormally  OA  0.3-  Au.  (oz/ion) 02H  o.H  1  r  "oT  Figure  6.  Gold-silver assays core  0.3  0.2 Ag.(oz/ton) scatter-diagram  from d r i l l  lengths.  core,  f o r "low  based  largely  0.4  grade" on 2 m  2.5  2.0-  1.5-  Au. (oz/ton)  1.0-  0.5-  N =  273  Ik  1.0  ~ai~  Ag.(oz /  Figure  ton)  7 . -i-Go.ldvjsilven. s c a t t e r -diagram assays  (higher  on  core  2 m  than  lengths.  0.4  oz.  f o r - "-high Au/ton)  1  grade" based  72  AGE  OF  MINERALIZATION  Intrusion closely veins its  the  eastern  took p l a c e  Two one  the  K/Ar  method  gold  and  17.4  adjacent  to  Ma  the  reset  model age  which  by  Rouse, i y 8 I ) . citized  as w e l l  rhyolite-porphyry.  3 million  Ma  the  We  model age  favour both  and/or  an  with  the  of  a r e s e t or T h u s , the  the  Skonun  par-  model the  e a r l y Middle Formation  represent  both  and  the  emplacement o f  i n d i c a t e that  age  mineralizing  14  mineralization, by  fluids.  heat  of  the  intrusive  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n which  reset  and seri-  t o a maximum i n t e r v a l o f  completely  in  shale  (Champigny, H e n d e r s o n  i n t r u s i o n and  not  given  emplacement o f  f o r the  as minimum age  was  of  almost c e r t a i n l y  These data  time o f  rhyolite-porphyry  represents shale.  by  disseminated  model ages f o r s i l i c i f i e d  e v e n t s were c o n f i n e d  years.  represents 17.4  14 Ma  rhyolite-porphyry  mineralizing  palynology  were d a t e d  for s i l i c i f i e d  i n accord  rhyolite-porphyry two  shale  obtained and  porphyritic rhyolite  a b o u t 1%  Cretaceous  a conclusion  the The  mineralization  the  Late  i n d i c a t e d by  i s cut  was  near  plug.  model ages a r e  a maximum p o s s i b l e age  rhyolite-porphyry, age  the  felsic  and  samples c o n t a i n e d  of  a p p e a r s t o be  Miocene  data  Quartz  some m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  silicified  rhyolite-porphyry  age  the  are  rhyolite-porphyry  silicified  analytical  A l l three A  bearing  the  at l e a s t  emplacement o f  gold-bearing  gold mineralization  perhaps g e n e s i s .  i n d i c a t i n g that  a f t e r the  pyrite.  age  margin  sample o f  3.  time and  and  m i n e r a l i z i n g system c u t  samples o f  and  tially  rhyolite-porphyry  r e l a t e d i n space,  of  Table  of  and about  Ma and  from  the  Table  3.  Analytical  Sample Identification  data  and model ages, C i n o l a g o l d d e p o s i t .  Rock Type  %K+a  Ar  b  40  (rad)  40  Apparent  * Ar  Ar  (total)  (10" cm 7  22065  M  Age  (rad)  u  (Ma)  STP/g)  3  a  Silicified Rhyolite Porphyry  :.1.19 + 0. 04  .532  7906  D01  Silicified Rhyolite Porphyry  5.31-0.12  .440  29.22  14.1+0.6  7805  D01  Silicified Shale (Haida .Formation)  2.91+0.04  .505  14.85  17.4+0.5  a  R e s u l t s p r o v i d e d c o u r t e s y o f N.C.  b  error  c  constants  i s one  standard  used  6 .522  C a r t e r a n d G.G.  Richards  d e v i a t i o n ( l a b o r a t o r y measurement  f o r m o d e l age c a l c u l a t i o n s :  14.0+0.6  error)  = 0.581x  X  a  4 0  p  K/K  = 4.96 = 1.167  10  x 10~ x  year year"  1 0  10~  4  c  74  C L A S S I F I C A T I O N OF  Richards Carlin  al.  CINOLA DEPOSIT  (1976) c o n s i d e r  type, a conclusion  Features Nevada  et  THE  i n common w i t h  (Carlin, Cortez,  particle  size  mineralization  (14 Ma  element geochemistry, gillic (6)  a l t e r a t i o n , (5)  high  porosity  and  supported  the  the  permeability  of  (<0.5y),  felsic  of  Cinola  the  be  authors  Hg,  the  observations.  are  (1)  small  (2) T e r t i a r y age deposit), As  host  and  (8)  (3)  Sb,  (7) low  ar-  faults,  (mostly close  of  trace  (4)  angle  rock  sandstone at C i n o l a ) , i n t r u s i o n s , and  of  north-central  Gold Acres)  the  to  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h major h i g h  tial tent.  and  deposit  the  i n p a r t i c u l a r high  and  with  by  deposits  gold  i n case of  cemented c o n g l o m e r a t e association  gold  Getchell  f o r most o f  the  un-  spa-  silver  con-  75  GENETIC MODEL  A general of  the C i n o l a  11) :  model f o r the e v o l u t i o n o f h o s t gold  deposit  over Haida  movement  along  Miocene, u p l i f t and  subsequent  and  siltstones,  phyry stock  shales  the S a n d s p i t  The  deposition and  the F o o t w a l l  rhyolite-porphyry  tion  thermal  cells  ation  fault,  followed  by t h e d e v e l o p -  structural control of  t o the m i n e r a l i z i n g  Skonun F o r m a t i o n of clastic  the F o o t w a l l  fault,  a t a b o u t 14 Ma.  sediments.  Footwall  fault  increases  Mineral paragenetic  apparently  o f the o r e f l u i d .  the pre-ex-  As m i n e r a l i z -  i n t e r m i t t e n t movement on rocks  f o r ore f l u i l d s  i n the system  sequence with  Sandspit  the development o f convec-  channels,  in permeability  per-  stock o f  upset  l e d to f r a c t u r i n g i n a d j o i n i n g  deposition  temperature  event  as a  Initiation  i n t h e Skonun F o r m a t i o n .  and f i l l e d  system.  i s viewed  a p a r t o f the  This  r e g i m e , and i n i t i a t e d  i n p o r e water  proceeded  resultant  in  i n t r u s i o n o f the r h y o l i t e - p o r -  that provided  pile  rocks  sandstones  s y s t e m , c o n t r o l l e d emplacement o f an e l o n g a t e  isting  volcanic  (2) i n t h e e a r l y M i d d l e  and p h y s i c a l l i m i t s  along  genesis  (Figure  o f Masset  o f Skonun c o n g l o m e r a t e s ,  (3) a t 14 Ma,  meable, w a t e r - s a t u r a t e d  fault  fault,  pre-mineralization  faulting  main e v e n t s  and e r o s i o n o f M a s s e t v o l c a n i c and o l d e r  along  mineralization  and  and a c t i v a t i o n o f , o r c o n t i n u a t i o n o f ,  ment o f a f r a c t u r e s y s t e m  the  three  (1) i n t h e M i d d l e T e r t i a r y , e x t r u s i o n  rocks  of  includes  rocks  followed sporadic  transport.  a well abrupt  As d e p o s i t i o n  with  defined decreases  continued  tern-  76  MIDDLE  TERTIARY  E  w  300 m  Hoo  SL  I--100 -300  EARLY  MIOCENE  +  • + + + + + +  ^ S ^ o ^ o V p a  -z^*^^^^  V57N  J?OJ£orJ ^°o.r\ r  SL  14 Ma (MIDDLE  MIOCENE)  + • + + +  ^^m^^fmm  SYSTEM  = 3 HAIDA +  + +  +  + +  +  +! +»  MASSET  SKONUN RHYOLITEPORPHYRY  SL  77  Figure  11.  Schematic sequence i n development o f the C i n o l a g o l d deposit. Erosion of the Haida shales during E a r l y Miocene i s s p e c u l a t i v e . Emplacement o f r h y o l i t e porphyry i s thought t o have i n i t i a t e d thermal convect i o n o f p o r e w a t e r f r o m t h e Skonun F o r m a t i o n and l e d to development of the m i n e r a l i z e d system. See t e x t for details.  78  peratures fluid  ranged  inclusion  Sinclair,  p o r e water  part  300°C  t o 130°C as  geothermometry d a t a  1981).  salinities;  the  from  Inclusion  thus the ore within  by a l t e r a t i o n  the Skonun F o r m a t i o n .  of volcanic  t i o n o f neavy m i n e r a l s . g o l d was terial  t h e Skonun  from  I t appears by  Formation.  preliminary and  low  t o have o r i g i n a t e d  M e t a l s are b e l i e v e d  as by  t h e Skonun F o r m a t i o n , i n  fragments  t o some e x t e n t promoted  within  indicate  i s thought  a u t h o r s t o have been d e r i v e d  by  (Shen, Champigny  data also  fluid  indicated  and  likely  in part  by  dissolu-  that p r e c i p i t a t i o n  the abundant o r g a n i c  ma-  of  79  ACKNOWLE DGMENTS  The  financial  support o f C o n s o l i d a t e d C i n o l a Mines L t d . f o r  our  s t u d y has  been g r a t i f y i n g .  and  a s s i s t a n c e o f K.G.  Sanders,  manager, i s a c k n o w l e d g e d w i t h funded grant  i n p a r t by from  Resources.  H.J.  John G a r d i n e r  the  to t h i s  A. M a c K i l l o p , camp  The  A.  t h e use  technical  and of  M i n e s and T.  Chen  a  (International  a s s i s t a n c e i n the a visit  the Skonun F o r m a t i o n  study.  was  Petroleum  t h e GEOLOG s y s t e m .  S u t h e r l a n d Brown and of  l a b o r a t o r y work  S c h o l a r s h i p t o Champigny and  Blanchet  a d v i s e d on  type o f l o c a l i t y  beneficial  P.H.  provided  c u s s i o n s w i t h Dr.  P r e s i d e n t and  M i n i s t r y o f Energy,  Mah,  Geosysterns C o r p . )  the c o o p e r a t i o n  thanks.  a N.S.E.R.C.  t h e B.C.  In p a r t i c u l a r  were  field. w i t h him extremely  Mr. Disto  80  REFERENCES  B l a n c h e t , P.H.,  and Godwin, C . I . , 1972, 'Geolog S y s t e m  puter  and manual a n a l y s i s o f g e o l o g i c  other  deposits;  Blatt,  Econ. 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Champigny, N., H e n d e r s o n , C ,  and R o u s e , G.E., 1981, New  dence f o r t h e age o f t h e Skonun F o r m a t i o n ; Queen Islands,  B.C., t o be s u b m i t t e d  computer-based especially ploration  to data  from d r i l l  Sciences.  1977, GEOLOG: A  scheme f o r d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f  as a p p l i e d  Charlotte  to Can. J o u r . E a r t h  Godwin, C . I . , Hendson, R.E., and B l a n c h e t , P.H.,  evi-  holes  stratigraphy, i n c o a l ex-  or development; Can. I n s t . M i n . M e t a l l . ,  Bull.,  v.  81  70,  pp. 123-132.  McMillan,  W.J.,  and P a n t e l e y e v , A.,  Porphyry copper  deposits;  1980, Ore D e p o s i t  Models I .  G e o s c i e n c e C a n a d a , v . 7, n. 2, pp.  52-63.  Miall, in  A.D.,  1978, L i t h o f a c i e s t y p e s and v e r t i c a l  braided  (Editor),  river  deposits:  a summary;  Can. Soc. Petroleum G e o l ,  profile  in A.D.  Memoir  models  Miall  5,  Fluvial  S e d i m e n t o l o g y , pp. 507-604.  Richards,  G.G.,  Christie,  J . S . , and W o l f h a r d , M.R.,  Specogna: A C a r l i n - t y p e G o l d Islands, Metall.  Richards,  British Bull.,  G.G.,  Some g o l d  Queen  Charlotte  ( a b s t r a c t ) ; Can. I n s t . M i n .  v . 69, n. 773, pp. 64  Christie,  deposits  (abstract); pp.  Columbia  Deposit.  1976,  J . S . , and L i v i n g s t o n e ,  o f t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e  Can. I n s t . M i n . M e t a l l . B u l l . ,  K.W.,  1979,  Islands v . 72, n. 809,  64.  R u s t , B.R.,  1978, D e p o s i t i o n a l m o d e l s f o r b r a i d e d  A.D. M i a l l Fluvial  R u s t , B.R.,  (Editor),  a l l u v i u m ; _in  Can. Soc. P e t r o l e u m G e o l . ,  Memoir  s e d i m e n t o l o g y , pp. 605-625.  1972, S t r u c t u r e  and p r o c e s s  S e d i m e n t o l o g y , v . 18, pp. 221-246.  i n a braided  river;  5,  82  S h e n , K., Champigny, N., plications  of f l u i d  Queen C h a r l o t t e Pet.  Brown, A.,  Islands, Pet.  British  Res., B u l l .  Sutherland  Brown, A.,  Prospect; Geology  R.P.,  C o l u m b i a , B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , M i n e s & 54.  B.C.  Ministry  Fieldwork,  1975,  1977, Babe G o l d  1975, pp. G73-G77.  B . J . , 1980, M u l t i p l e  i n porphyry copper  Can. J . E a r t h  Plio-Pleistocene  stage  hydrothermal  systems i n n o r t h e r n  interplay of potassic,  propylitic,  Turkey:  and  phyllic  S c . , v . 17, No. 7, pp. 901-926.  J r . , 1978, F l u v i a l  K o o l i Fora Formation, K a r a r i  L a k e T u r k a n a , Kenya;  P e t r o l e u m G e o l . , Memoir 529.  Islands;  and S c h r o e t e r , T.G.,  V o n d r a , C.F., and B u r g g r a f , D.R.,  East  1975, R e p o r t on t h e  & P e t . Res., G e o l o g i c a l  and F r y e r ,  temporal  fluids;  the  Charlotte  B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and P e t . R e s . ,  i n B.C.,  alteration the  1968, G e o l o g y o f t h e Queen  71-75.  Sutherland  Taylor,  deposit,  (in press).  P r o s p e c t , Queen C h a r l o t t e  Energy, Mines  pp.  1981-1  gold  im-  B.C.; B.C. M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s and  Brown, A., and S c h r o e t e r , T.G.,  Babe G o l d of  A . J . , 1981, G e n e t i c  inclusion studies, Cinola  Islands,  Res., Paper  Sutherland  and S i n c l a i r ,  in M i a l l ,  5, F l u v i a l  A.D.  facies of Ridge,  ( e d i t o r ) , Can. Soc.  s e d i m e n t o l o g y , pp. 511-  83  Young,  I . F . , and C h a s e , R.L.,  over  the Sandspit  Dept. o f o f Mines pp.  59-64.  1976, G r a v i t y  F a u l t , Queen C h a r l o t t e  and  seismic  Islands,  and P e t . Res., G e o l o g i c a l  profiles  B.C.;  Fieldwork,  B.C. 1976,  CHAPTER  Fluid  Inclusion  Relation  and  IV  Sulphur  Isotope  To G e n e s i s o f t h e C i n o l a G o l d  Queen C h a r l o t t e  Islands,  B.C.  Data Deposit,  85  ABSTRACT  Fluid low  inclusion studies  salinities  ports  i n the  Formation).  on and is  low  a suggestion  p o r e water  gests  and  the  that  the  of  host  rock  a t l e a s t two  270°C d u r i n g  between 1.1 and  and 170  1.8  Cinola deposit  k,  bars.  the  mineralizing  Bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n of  s t r a t i g r a p h i c evidence  between 110  the  CO2 contents of  fluviatile  existence  160°C and  from  mineral  ore  fluids  fluid.  This  originated  supfrom  (mid-Miocene Skonun  filling  temperatures  temperature  deposition.  i n d i c a t e that corresponding  indicate  regimes  sug-  centred  Independent  depth of  age  mineralization  to a h y d r o s t a t i c  load  86  RESUME D'AUTEUR  Les  donnees  indiquent  sur l e s i n c l u s i o n s  de b a s s e s  salinites  c o n f i r m e que l e s f l u i d e s interstitielle distribution  prise  160  e t basses  mineralisants  dans l e s s e d i m e n t s  bimodale  des temperatures  1 ' e x i s t e n c e de deux r e g i m e s o  fluides  du g i s e m e n t  Cinola  t e n e u r s en C 0 -  Ceci  2  ont ete derives fluviatiles  de l ' e a u  notes.  d'homogenisation  de t e m p e r a t u r e  La  implique  concentrees vers  o C e t 270 C p e n d a n t  l a mineralisation.  quelle  l e gisement  partir  d'informations stratigraphiques  respond  s'est  La profondeur  a la-  forme e s t e v a l u e e d ' e t r e 1.1 e t 1.8 k a independantes:  ceci  a d e s p r e s s i o n s h y d r o s t a t i q u e s de 110 a 170 b a r s .  cor-  87  INTRODUCTION  At  the C i n o l a g o l d  Cretaceous) (Middle  and a c o a r s e  M i o c e n e ) were  quartz-feldspar mineralized with  late  rhyolitic  deposit, clastic  intruded  porphyry  stage  veins  i n t r u s i o n and t h e a d j a c e n t of s i l i c i f i c a t i o n  minated  p y r i t e and m a r c a s i t e ,  visible  gold.  galena,  p y r r h o t i t e , cinnabar,  host  Other  magnetite, but they  rocks  (youngest).  with  quartz,  (mainly  crustification, some c a l c i t e  gest  that  quartz  took p l a c e .  h e m a t i t e , and are d i v i d e d  quartz,  hematitic  gold, Veins  age, quartz,  and c a l c i t e formation  and c o n t i n u e d  of a l l during  at Cinola exhibit  and d e v e l o p m e n t o f d r u s y 2 cm i n l e n g t h . and s e r i c i t i c .  Wall  vugs,  rock a l -  The a u t h o r s  intrusion initiated  geothermal system  Fluid  and r a r e  decreasing  i n part preceded  crystals attain  the r h y o l i t e - p o r p h y r y  3% d i s s e -  gold  The v e i n s  (earliest),  clear euhedral  texture,  on t h e  e v e n t s on t h e b a s i s o f f o r m and  p y r i t e ) and n a t i v e  ribbon  about  rutile,  These a r e , with  i s dominantly a r g i l l i c  ment o f a l a r g e  contain  tiemmanite,  Quartz d e p o s i t i o n  zone  are s p h a l e r i t e , c h a l c o p y r i t e ,  paragenetic  relationships.  The  sequence.  sub-microscopic  d e p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e opaque m i n e r a l s .  teration  1980b).  have a f f e c t e d t h e h o s t  are r a r e l y observed.  to grey chalcedonic  massive milky  and  origin  stock o f  superimposed  sedimentary  and v e i n s  ore minerals  successive  cross-cutting  sulphides  by a M i d d l e M i o c e n e  and s t o c k w o r k b o t h  Silicified  black  (Late  sequence o f f l u v i a t i l e  (Champigny and S i n c l a i r ,  rocks.  four  sequence  s y s t e m c o n s i s t s o f an i n t e n s i v e l y s i l i c i f i e d  T h u s , two p e r i o d s  into  a shale  sug-  the develop-  from w h i c h g o l d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  inclusion studies of fracture-controlled,  88  gold  b e a r i n g v e i n s and s u l p h u r  performed define  to estimate  isotope analyses of p y r i t e  the o r e f l u i d  composition  a g e n e t i c model f o r the C i n o l a d e p o s i t .  s t u d y were c o l l e c t e d  from d r i l l  were  and t o b e t t e r Samples f o r t h i s  c o r e d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1979.  89  FLUID INCLUSION DATA  Black, poorly  g r e y , h e m a t i t i c , and c h e r t y q u a r t z a r e m o s t l y t o o  crystallized  attention  for fluid  was d i r e c t e d  mainly  rare occurrences o f c a l c i t e . calcite  were s e l e c t e d  application of fluid  areal  inclusions sion, that  totals  from  growth  zones,  T h u s , we primary.  feel  insight  The s p e c i m e n s c o l l e c t e d  i n t o the  represent  o f the C i n o l a m i n e r a l i z e d system. 5 t o 47 m i c r o n s  i n their  a liquid  Fluid  l o n g e s t dimen-  phase and a vapour  phase  1 t o 15 volume p e r c e n t b u t commonly i s a b o u t The i n c l u s i o n s were f o u n d m o s t l y  and i n some c a s e s  as c r u s t i f o r m  s t a g e m i l k y q u a r t z and  d a t a t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a ge-  and a l l have two p h a s e s :  volume p e r c e n t .  or  from  Consequently,  S i x s p e c i m e n s o f q u a r t z and one o f  inclusion  coverage  range  to l a t e  studies.  to p r o v i d e p r e l i m i n a r y  n e t i c model f o r t h e d e p o s i t . a large  inclusions  from  crystals  along  crystal  developed  i n vugs  l a y e r i n g w i t h no e v i d e n c e o f d e f o r m a t i o n .  relatively  confident that  5  inclusions  studied are  90  HOMOGENIZATION DATA  Homogenization  temperatures  r e c o r d e d From 38 i n c l u s i o n s population  by vapour  (Figure  two  of f i l l i n g  grains  for  i n accord  lizing genetic  five  f  were from  w i t h an e a r l y  temperature  deposition stage.  280°C.  From s e v e n  translucent  This  sequence  two pop-  as a t l e a s t  and m i n e r a l i z a t i o n veins.  160°C and  These  w i t h i n the measure-  q u a r t z cement  p e b b l e s and m a t r i x i n a c o n g l o m e r a t e  unit.  This  s t a g e o f d e p o s i t i o n o f q u a r t z cement  by Champigny and S i n c l a i r  filling  calcite  275°C  binding  observed  show a b i m o d a l  t e m p e r a t u r e s c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d  s t a g e w h i t e q u a r t z and c a l c i t e  ments above  is  270°and  episodes of mineral deposition  late  They  w i t h a low t e m p e r a t u r e mode between 150°and  a h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e mode between ulations  1).  d i s a p p e a r a n c e were  (1980b).  for inclusions  Our l i m i t e d  in calcite  i s p a r t o f t h e low t e m p e r a t u r e agrees with c a l c i t e ' s  (Champigny and S i n c l a i r ,  position 1980b).  data  suggests (160°)  that  minera-  i n the p a r a -  100  Figure'  1.  150  200  250  300  350  Histogram of f i l l i n g temperatures of f l u i d i n c l u s i o n s i n q u a r t z and c a l c i t e , Cinola deposit. C a l c i t e measurements a r e shown i n b l a c k . Hatched pattern i s f o r ( e a r l y ) q u a r t z cement.  92  FREEZING DATA  Most  0.0  between 2.5  freezing  s o l v e d CO2 Melting 2.5  -0.9°C  and  to 4 . 9 2 c  temperatures  (clathrates)  points  very d i f f i c u l t  fluids  and  two  samples  to observe  gas  because  bubbles.  the  with  o f 0.5 w e i g h t  amounts o f C 0  2  Figure  o f the s m a l l  5).  change  dis1979).  (Collins,  3.0  to 3.4°C  and  formula of Potter  varies  from  percent.  0 t o 1.5 The  was  s i z e o f the i n -  e s t i m a t e s o f the  i n the t r a p p e d ore f l u i d  significantly  from  from  phenomenon o f c l a t h r a t i o n ,  Salinity  were o b t a i n e d u s i n g  an a v e r a g e  range  are  where t h e y were o b s e r v e d .  a characteristic  in solution  1979,  temperatures  i n the aqueous s o l u t i o n  NaCl e q u i v a l e n t  not  Recorded  of these c l a t h r a t e s  freezing,  clusions  2).  41 i n c l u s i o n s  from  a r e c o n s i d e r e d e v i d e n c e f o r the p r e s e n c e o f  to 4 . 9 ° C f o r the  Double  (Figure  measured  inclusion  et a l . (1978). weight p e r c e n t ,  presence of  is possible,  the e s t i m a t e d s a l i n i t i e s  but  small would  (Collins,  ro  Figure  2.  Histogram o f f r e e z i n g temperatures o f f l u i d i n c l u s i o n s i n q u a r t z and c a l c i t e , Cinola deposit. C a l c i t e m e a s u r e m e n t s a r e shown i n b l a c k . Hatched p a t t e r i s f o r ( e a r l y ) q u a r t z cement.  94  PRESSURE CORRECTIONS  The h o m o g e n i z a t i o n pressure.  Host  are  correlated  the  east  ments  rocks with  (Tow H i l l  pressure  and  Well,  during  sediments  From  solution  of 1 percent  tures  this,  Brown,  from  five  i n Tow  117 and 172 b a r s  pressure  as f o u n d  Skonun  Average  wells  Hill.  sedi-  the  that  thickness  i s a b o u t 1200 Hydrostatic  correspond  NaCl e q u i v a l e n t , c o u l d apply  to  m,  pres-  these for a  (Potter,  of deposition probably than  to  exposed a t  c o r r e c t i o n s o f 15°C o r l e s s ,  15°C h i g h e r , on a v e r a g e , here.  which  T h i s , combined w i t h  drilled  i s , a c t u a l temperatures  reported  1968).  hydrostatic.  are present  depths.  no more than  conglomerates  and h i g h l y p o r o u s where  d e p o s i t i o n was  of approximately  that  f o r the e f f e c t s o f  i n the m i n e r a l i z e d zone, s u g g e s t e d  1760 m o f s t r a t a  1977);  Sutherland  to the n o r t h e a s t .  fracturing  the Skonun  sures  at C i n o l a are mainly  a r e w e a k l y cemented  extensive  are uncorrected  the base o f the Skonun F o r m a t i o n  Skonun P o i n t , 65 km  of  data  the f i l l i n g  are  tempera-  95  SULPHUR ISOTOPE  Sulphur  DATA  isotope analyses  pyrite  from C i n o l a d e p o s i t  curred  as d i s s e m i n a t e d  phur  were o b t a i n e d  (Table 1 ) .  rains  and t h e r a n g e  The  most n e g a t i v e  (lightest)  tic  p y r i t e , whereas the o t h e r  site  grains containing small  ty o f o r i g i n s o f sulphur tope and  data,  including  Sinclair  volume.  In a l l c a s e s  in silicified  i s 'light',  f o r s i x samples o f  sediments.  i s s m a l l , from  value a s 3k  i s from values  inclusions  sul-  brown m e l n i k o v i -  a r e from  pyrite-marca-  of pyrrhotite. these  the g e n e t i c model p r e s e n t e d in detail  The  -3.58 t o -u.52%.  dark  i s c o n s i s t e n t with  (1980a) and o u t l i n e d  pyrite oc-  A  sulphur  varieiso-  by Champigny  elsewhere  in this  Table  1 - a  Drillhole No.  S of p y r i t e  sulphur  Depth (Metres)  a t the  Cinola  Deposit  a o  3 4  S  o  78-2  95  -0.52  78-5  27  -3.58  79-6  123  -0.82  79-9  137  -0.73  79-10  130  -1.82  79-11  139  -1.28  97  DISCUSSION  From  the homogenization  that m i n e r a l i z i n g  fluids  slightly  salinity,  variable  NaCl e q u i v a l e n t the  Carlin-type  containing  of  fluviatile  NaCl  (Nash, 1 9 7 2 ) ,  f o r the o r e f l u i d s .  coexisting  boiling  origin,  and t h e r e f o r e  indicative  removed  of  and a s a l i n i t y  surface  o f open  vapour-dominated  has been  a hydrostatic  s u c h as e s t i m a t e d f o r q u a r t z v e i n s and with a  I n the p r e s e n t c a s e , heated are a l i k e l y  source o f  pore waters  s h o u l d have l o w  w i t h the i n d i c a t i o n s  from  inclusions.  d i d not occur or that  300°C  amounts o f  The s e d i m e n t a r y h o s t r o c k s a t C i n o l a a r e  data f o r f l u i d  Textures of  fluids.  l o w and o n l y  and a r e c o n s i s t e n t  and CO2 c o n t e n t s , i n agreement  freezing  v e r y minor  are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f gold  p o r e w a t e r s o f t h e Skonun s e d i m e n t s mineralizing  data, i t i s apparent  had a r e l a t i v e l y  Low s a l i n i t i e s  2  deposits  meteoric o r i g i n  at Cinola  and C 0 .  Cinola deposit  and f r e e z i n g  by e r o s i o n .  space  filling  inclusions  and t h e a b s e n c e  at Cinola  suggest  that  the b o i l i n g  "top" o f the system  F o r maximum  filling  o f 0.5 p e r c e n t N a C l  pressure equivalent  temperatures  equivalent  t o a d e p t h o f 1100 m  i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t the system  from b o i l i n g  solution, below (Haas,  1971).  This in  that  absence  depth  i s considered  p a r t o f the system of textural  The maximum p o s s i b l e  a minimum f o r m i n e r a l d e p o s i t i o n ,  available  f o r study because  and o t h e r e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t i v e depth o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  o f the  of boiling.  appears  t o be 1.8  98  k,  based on t h e t o t a l  graphic  section  to the east  Clathration,  observed  this  strati-  Brown, 1 9 6 8 ) .  i n two s a m p l e s ,  i n d i c a t e s the prethat  a  very  i n i n c l u s i o n s where c l a t h r a t i o n  The Skonun F o r m a t i o n  shell-rich  Skonun F o r m a t i o n Skonun P o i n t ,  the C i n o l a  layers  i s a plausible  are a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  and a r e w e l l  on t h e n o t h  Brown, 1 9 6 8 ) .  Similar deposit  exposed  source  conglomerates  s h o r e o f Graham I s l a n d  (Champigny and S i n c l a i r ,  layers  that  by c a l c i t e  o f the  (Sutherland  l a y e r s have been i d e n t i f i e d  a r e cemented  from s h e l l - r i c h  feature  a t the type l o c a l i t y a t  type o f l o c a l i t y o f the n o r m a l l y f r i a b l e  wide.  o f the o v e r l y i n g  CO 2-  Local  at  (Sutherland  amount o f CO 2 does o c c u r  was n o t r e c o g n i z e d . for  thickness  amounts o f CO 2 , and i t i s p o s s i b l e  sence o f s m a l l small  maximum  in drill  1980b).  core  A t the  Skonun, s a n d s t o n e s and  f o r as much as 10-30 cm  are normally only  a few  centimeters  99  CONCLUSIONS  Although sive,  the s t u d i e s  reported  h e r e a r e f a r from  comprehen-  t h e y p r o v i d e i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r a i n t s on a g e n e t i c model f o r  the  Cinola deposit.  the  ore f l u i d  The low s a l i n i t i e s  are c o n s i s t e n t  and low C 0  contents o f  2  with the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t  derived  from p o r e water  Filling  t e m p e r a t u r e s and t h e a b s e n c e  boiling  s u g g e s t a minimum d e p t h o f f o r m a t i o n o f a b o u t  whereas s t r a t i g r a p h i c formation  The two  o f about  two major  principal  depositional  ture  deposition.  paragenetically  related  in  dicate  deposition  peaks  late  calcite  the e a r l i e s t sequence  contemporaneous  from  1.1 k,  suggest  filling  calcite  veins  that  during the  an e a r l y  period  are comparable  that  period of  o f lower  tempera-  temperature  data f o r  to the l a t e  quartz  a r e p r o b a b l y an  episode rather  than a l a t e r  inun-  event.  have f l u i d  inclusion  population  t h a t most d e p o s i t i o n only  indicate  and some o f t h e l a t e s t  temperature  r e g i m e , and t h a t  temperatures  and a l a t e  Our v e r y l i m i t e d  and i n d i c a t e  the "high"  resulting  r e g i m e s may have e x i s t e d  These  and s u p e r i m p o s e d  paragenetic  of textures  s u g g e s t s a maximum d e p t h o f  peaks o f f i l l i n g  part o f the m i n e r a l i z i n g  Both  Skonun F o r m a t i o n .  1.8 k.  history.  temperature  tegral  information  temperature  high  population,  i n the f l u v i a t i l e  the f l u i d  occurred  the l a t e s t  and younger  filling  of Figure under  q u a r t z i n the temperatures  1.  the high  T h i s may i n temperature  p a r t o f the y o u n g e s t  calcite  were d e p o s i t e d  q u a r t z and  under  t h e low  100  temperature  Our  regime.  p r e l i m i n a r y sulphur  the v i e w s p r e s e n t e d relating  here,  to a s p e c i f i c  but  isotope data are  are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  too s p a r s e  g e n e t i c model.  to p r o v i d e  evidence  101  ACKNOWLE DGMENTS  Financial Consolidated Champigny.  support  for this  C i n o l a Mines L t d .  s t u d y was p r o v i d e d  by  and an N.S.E.R.C. s c h o l a r s h i p t o  102  REFERENCES  Champigny, N., and S i n c l a i r , deposit,  Queen C h a r l o t t e  Canadian C a r l i n - t y p e Metall.  A.J.,  Bull.  1980a, C i n o l a  Islands,  deposit  (Specogna)  gold  B r i t i s h Columbia - A  ( a b s t r a c t ) ; Can. I n s t . M i n .  75, v . 73, p . 62.  Champigny, N., and S i n c l a i r , g e o l o g y o f t h e Specogna of Energy, Mines  A . J . , 1980b, P r o g r e s s (Babe) g o l d  deposit;  report  on t h e  B.C. M i n i s t r y  and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , Paper  1980-1, pp.  158-170.  Champigny, N., H e n d e r s o n , C ,  and Rouse, G.E., 1981, New  dence f o r t h e age o f t h e Skonun F o r m a t i o n , Queen Islands,  Collins,  B.C.; t o be s u b m i t t e d  P.L.F., 1979, Gas h y d r a t e s  sions  2  Econ. Geol.,  pressure;  fluid  inclu-  f o r the e s t i m a t i o n  of  o f s a l i n i t y on t h e maximum  o f a hydrotnermal system a t h y d r o s t a t i c  Econ. Geol.,  N a s h , J . T . , 1972, F l u i d  v . 66, pp. 940-946.  inclusion studies  i n Nevada; U.S.G.S. P r o f .  R.W.,  Sciences.  v . 74, pp. 1435-1444.  H a a s , J . L . J r . , 1971, The e f f e c t thermal gradient  Charlotte  Earth  i n C0 -bearing  and t h e use o f f r e e z i n g d a t a  salinity;  Potter,  to Can. Jour.  evi-  1977, P r e s s u r e  Paper  o f some g o l d  deposits  800-C, pp. C15-19.  correction  for fluid  inclusion  103  homogenization  t e m p e r a t u r e s b a s e d on t h e v o l u m e t r i c  proper-  t i e s o f t h e s y s t e m NaCl-H^O; J . o f R e s e a r c h , U.S.G.S., v . 5, pp.  Potter,  603-607.  R.W.,  C l y n e , M.A.,  depression Geol.,  Sutherland  o f aqueous sodium  chloride  1978, F r e e z i n g  solutions;  point  Econ.  v . 73, pp. 284-285.  Brown, A.,  Islands, and  and Brown, D.L.,  British  1968, G e o l o g y Columbia;  P e t . Res., B u l l .  54.  o f the Queen  Charlotte  B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y ,  Mines  CHAPTER V  Evidence  f o r the Age o f the Skonun  Queen C h a r l o t t e  Islands,  British  Formation,  Columbia  105  ABSTRACT  Recent from on  palynological,  a low s e c t i o n  Graham  Island  macrofaunal,  and i n t r u s i v e  o f t h e Skonun F o r m a t i o n  indicates  that  evidence  on t h e C i n o l a  deposit  i t i s o f M i d d l e M i o c e n e age,  that  t h e whole f o r m a t i o n i s most p r o b a b l y o f t h e same age, and  that  i t correlates  Pacific  northwest.  with  several  M i d d l e M i o c e n e s e r i e s o f the  106  RESUME D'AUTEUR  Une  etude  r e c e n t e des a s s e m b l a g e s  mollusques  combinee  inferieure  de l a F o r m a t i o n  Island)  indique  de p a l y n o m o r p h e s e t de  aux donnees r a d i o m e t r i q u e s d'une Skonun  sur l e gisement  (1) un age M i o c e n e Moyen,  Formation  Skonun e s t p r o b a b l e m e n t  Formation  Skonun p e u t  etre  section  Cinola  (Graham  (2) que t o u t e l a  du meme a g e , e t (3) que l a  correlee  avec  du M i o c e n e Moyen s u r l a c o t e n o r d - o u e s t  plusieurs  autres series  du P a c i f i q u e .  107  INTRODUCTION  The  Skonun F o r m a t i o n  non-marine), lying  shales,  1).  Named and  F o r m a t i o n was  the M a s s e t Hill  deposits, ly.  Lowlands  (1968).  overly  friable  t o 1812  Rouse  controlled no  been  Q u o t i n g the p a l y n o l o g i c a l  firm  accumulated  i n an e s t u a r i n e - l i k e  by the r e g i o n a l S a n d s p i t f a u l t evidence at that  curred  between t h e l a t e M i o c e n e  (1966) s u g g e s t e d t h a t and  assemblages  of molluscs, Addicott  Miocene  and  age  environment  a s h a l l o w marine  f o r the m a r i n e  the C i n o l a  conglomerate  limited  erosion,  a  total  from d r i l l s t u d y by  holes  Martin  t h e Skonun  basin,  system.  possibly  Although  they  deposition  probably oc-  early Pliocene.  (1978) i n d i c a t e d t o b r a c k i s h water  Based  on  an e a r l y L a t e depositional  sands o f the f o r m a t i o n .  gold deposit  and  conformab-  time as t o t h e age o f t h e Skonun,  and Rouse  1),  determined  outwash  to  are v e r y  n a t u r e and e x t e n s i v e  Martin  At  sediments  the  age  drift,  ( 1 9 6 6 ) , S u t h e r l a n d Brown c o n c l u d e d t h a t  s e d i m e n t s had  had  m.  marine  rocks  a r e c u t by  t h e Skonun u n c o n f o r m a b l y  t h i c k n e s s o f the f o r m a t i o n has f r o m 107  t h o r o u g h l y by  Pliocene-early Pleistocene  of their  Island  ( 1 9 1 6 ) , t h e Skonun  of late  Pleistocene  and  under-  Skonun s e d i m e n t s o n l a p v o l c a n i c  A l t h o u g h e x p o s u r e s o f Skonun  because  and  by M a c K e n z i e  Graham  ( P a l e o c e n e - E o c e n e ? ) , and  till  (marine  conglomerates  of eastern  most r e c e n t l y and  Brown, 1 9 6 8 ) .  and  and  Formation  sills  (Sutherland  of sandstones  stringers,  described  described  S u t h e r l a n d Brown  Tow  lignite  the Queen C h a r l o t t e  (Figure  of  is a series  on c e n t r a l Graham I s l a n d  coarse sandstone  units  comprise  85  (Figure to  90%  108  of  the  total  Skonun F o r m a t i o n ,  s i l t y mudstone and to  minor  have been d e p o s i t e d  into  a marine b a s i n  tailed bined fauna, tion  shale.  by  K-Ar  (Champigny and  dates,  have prompted  over  the  us  previous  the  remainder  This c l a s t i c  a braided  g e o l o g i c a l examination with  with  river  sequence  core  1980,  estimates.  the  age  appears  of  1981).  De-  by Champigny, com-  palynological analysis, to r e v i s e  of  system d i s c h a r g i n g  Sinclair,  of d r i l l  consisting  and  the  molluscan  Skonun  forma-  109  Figure  1.  Map s h o w i n g t h e a r e a u n d e r l a i n b y t h e S k o n u n F o r m a t i o n (dash l i n e s ) and l o c a t i o n o f t h e C i n o l a d e p o s i t .  110  RESULTS  K-Ar cut  Data: the  A  stock  Whole-rock  rhyolite-porphyry Sinclair,  Berggren  and  prior  to  collected  and  HF,  ages o f  Ma,  Couvering  for  14.0  or  and  Cinola two  14.1 of  dykes  gold  samples Ma.  deof  (Champigny  Skonun  sedi-  Middle Miocene, a c c o r d i n g  sample o f  the  the  associated  to  (1974).  eastern  palynological  acetolysis, bleach,  preservation  sequence at  Hence, d e p o s i t i o n  14  A drill-core  r h y o l i t e and  d e t e r m i n a t i o n s on  1981).  abundant p y r i t e , from  HC1,  age  indicated  van  Palynology:  K-Ar  1980,  ments o c c u r r e d  was  porphyritic  conglomerate-sandstone  posit.  and  of  carbonaceous s i l t s t o n e with  part  of  analysis  and  ZnBr  were e x c e l l e n t ,  the and  .  Cinola processed  Palynomorph  allowing  deposit,  for  using  recovery  relatively  good  by  pollen,  reconstructions.  The  Cinola  particularly  palynoassemblage  those of  (hemlock), P i c e a fir),  Sequoia  (oak),  (redwood), and  and  Ilex  in lesser (holly),  (cedar).  pollen  Fagus  Laevigatosporites, occur  ( p i n e ) , Tsuga  grandivescipites  main e l e m e n t s a r e sp.  Pinus  i s dominated  and  of  the  (beech),  Cyperaceae  and  Graminidites  Pseudotsuga  taxodiaceous p o l l e n .  spores of  Polypodiaceae  amounts, v i z .  heterophyllites  (spruce),  other  conifer  Alnus  (grass),  (sedges),  Other  Quercus  Osmunda,  (ferns).  Other  (alder), Carya and  (Douglas  pollen (hickory),  Cedrus p e r i a l a t a  Ill  The and  palynoassemblage  Rouse  on Graham I s l a n d ,  both Nyssa  and  Rouse  (1966).  Nyssa  and  Liquidambar  Liquidambar  These  i n A l a s k a by  response  to a r a p i d  we  conclude  no  younger  that than  c l o s e l y with younger  Leopold  decline  Seldovian  i n summer  the younger  part  than m i d - B a r s t o v i a n  stage s c a l e , or c l o s e  of  by M a r t i n  and  report  and  that  temperatures. from  of  both  a p p a r e n t l y became  From  the C i n o l a  o f the m i d - M i o c e n e ,  in this,  site  is  correlating  o f A l a s k a , i . e . no  i n the N o r t h A m e r i c a n  t o 15 Ma  pollen  (Middle Miocene),  Seldovian flora  de-  Seldovian floras  (p. 203)  t h e Skonun a s s e m b l a n g e the e a r l y  the  (1967) r e p o r t e d b o t h  o f two  sensitive,  the l a t e  found  unrecorded  authors  a r e summer-temperature  extinct  and  i n the younger  e a r l y - m i d M i o c e n e age.  higher s t r a t a of  however, we  previously  In A l a s k a W o l f e  r e p o r t e d by M a r t i n  n o r t h e a s t o f the C i n o l a  In t h e p r e s e n t a s s e m b l a g e ,  genera  to that  (1966) f o r s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y  Skonun F o r m a t i o n posit.  is similar  ( B e r g g r e n and  mammalian  van  Couvering,  1974).  Other Northwest  closely  be  B.C.,  between  17  lacks pollen the C i n o l a reflect other  Miocene  a r e the M a s c a l l o f O r e g o n  R o c k v i l l e o f Idaho Quesnel,  correlative  (16.7 Ma),  estimated recently and  13.7  Ma.  of Nyssa,  and  assembly.  a more i n l a n d  floras  collective  and  The  the  Ma),  Pacific the  Bend F o r m a t i o n  by Rouse and Mathews  Fraser  Alternatively,  of similar  from  (K-Ar - 15.4  the F r a s e r  hence may  and/or  floras  be  the a b s e n c e  upland l o c a t i o n  agefloristic  (1979) t o  Bend a s s e m b l a g e , slightly  composition.  however,  younger of Nyssa  relative  than might  t o the  Based  e v i d e n c e , a r e a s o n a b l e e s t i m a t e o f t h e age  near  of  on the  the  112  Cinola-Skonun M i o c e n e , or lian  lage  sequence  (Berggren  lower  at C i n o l a to  the  north  east,  sections of are  the  Leopold,  (now  varies  thickness m  Hill  the  This  see  i f we  suggests  t o the  In  the  that  range  likely  be  which Alaska  for  the  confirmed  studies of wells  six wells  Tow Tow  judging  in  i n age  drilled  Hill  by in  by  (Sutherland  t o be  Hill  the  and  Juglans,  Miocene)  what a p p e a r s i n the  deposit.  contrast,  could  In  Skonun  north  R i c h f i e l d ) O i l Corporation  to sandstone, e s s e n t i a l l y  To  could  the  se-  stratigraphically  (Middle  invertebrate  m  assemb-  Middle Miocene,  apparent  f i g u r e 20),  Rouse  Cinola  sections of  I t also  the  Graham I s l a n d .  Cinola  and  1974).  i n the  hence  Seldovian  a b o u t 1760  w e l l , by  by M a r t i n  other  within  i s mainly conglomerate with  o f Tow  died  123,  from  Couvering,  1981).  i n the M a s s e t w e l l .  l i t h o l o g y of  stone  late  Atlantic  p.  N o r t h A m e r i c a n mamma-  conglomerate-sandstone  and  Graham I s l a n d  northern  Brown, 1968, valent  still  p a l y n o l o g i c a l and  and  Richfield  east,  1967).  Skonun F o r m a t i o n on  eastern  the  e a r l y Middle  p o l l e n o f F a g u s , Q u e r c u s , and  became e x t i n c t i n the  additional  the  Skonun, i n o u t c r o p s  y o u n g e r , but  (Wolfe and  van  the  Sinclair,  the  presence of  than  and  on  Ma,  Liquidambar  that  is older  (Champigny and  higher  and  p r e s e n c e o f N y s s a and  Formation  750  Barstovian  supports a conclusion  quence  by  i s between 17-15  e a r l y t o mid  stage  The  assemblage  Skonun  well  to  equi-  zero  w e l l , the  lower  some s a n d s t o n e , r e s e m b l i n g The  ranges the  (1966) and  corroborate  f a c i e s of  the  upper  from c o a l , s h a l e ,  same as Addicott  the  i n the  the  part  silt-  outcrops  stu-  (1978).  suggested c o r r e l a t i o n ,  113  five  c o r e samples  from  the Tow  lynomorphs.  The upper  ly  assemblages  contained  ported  by M a r t i n  Nyssa.  However,  Liquidambar, coarse  palynomorphs of  a single  tempting of  identical  and Rouse  contained  The lower  coarse facies  Liquidambar  two samples  in correlation.  i t may  essential-  t o t h o s e o f the o u t c r o p s r e -  a t 762 m c o n t a i n e d  of Liquidambar that  a n a l y z e d f o r pa-  a t 187 and 649 m,  t o o few and r e l a t i v e l y  t o be u s e f u l grain  w e l l were  (1966); b o t h l a c k e d  t h e assemblage  to speculate  the lower  two s a m p l e s ,  b u t no N y s s a .  facies  Hill  one from the  poorly preserved  Although  is insufficient represent  and  the p r e s e n c e  evidence, i t i s  t h e uppermost  o f the Skonun F o r m a t i o n .  part  114  FAUNAL  EXAMINATION  Three sandstone on  samples  original  shell  finite  American  Spisula  America),  The specimen  beyond  (1963)  t o S.  North  o f the ensifera  (fide Etherington,  the Middle Miocene.  However, t h e t o make a d e -  identification.  Miocene  assemblage fauna  the M i o c e n e C l a l l a m  acter  include:  ( e x t e r n a l mold) i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t  bivalve  Moore, 1 9 6 3 ) .  taxa  a s t r o n g resemblance  a c c o r d i n g t o Moore  specific  This  The p e l e c y p o d s a r e  i n Western North  (Eocene-Recent).  bears  d i d not occur  preservation  collected  sp. (Oligocene-Pliocene i n Northwestern  subgenus S e c u r e l l a  1931),  The i d e n t i f i e d  s p . (Miocene-Recent  and ? Macoma  (Dall) which,  silicified  and e x t e r n a l m o l d s w i t h o u t any t r a c e o f  material.  (Securella)  America),  b i v a l v e s were  t r e n c h a t the C i n o l a d e p o s i t .  as i n t e r n a l  (Mactromeris) Chione  sorted, coarse grained,  w i t h abundant d i s a r t i c u l a t e d  a surface  preserved  of poorly  compares w i t h o t h e r w e s t e r n  (Addicott,  in particular  and A s t o r i a F o r m a t i o n s  The a s s e m b l a g e ,  o f the sandstone  suggests d e p o s i t i o n  1973),  North  those o f  ( A d d i c o t t , 1976;  together with  t h e immature  char-  and t h e c o q u i n o i d n a t u r e o f t h e m o l d s ,  i n a beach  t o near-shore marine  environment.  115  CONCLUSIONS  With  the t h r e e  independent  lines  t h a t most o f t h e Skonun F o r m a t i o n part an  o f the mid-Miocene  interval  active  d u r i n g which  estuary,  evidence  by Shen e t al.  s y s t e m was  with  very  The e n v i r o n m e n t o f d e p o s i t i o n c l o s e t o s e a , and i n c l u d e s  f o r t h e age o f t h e Skonun has been  (1981)  They e s t i m a t e d  the  of intrusion  time  fault  coinciding  swamp, and b e a c h .  Cinola.  that  the Sandspit  non-marine, but r e l a t i v e l y  Additional vided  conclude  was d e p o s i t e d d u r i n g t h e e a r l y  (17 t o 15 Ma), p r o b a b l y  ( S u t h e r l a n d Brown, 1 9 6 8 ) .  is mainly  o f e v i d e n c e , we  i n a study  of fluid  a minimum s e d i m e n t a r y  inclusions at  cover  o f 1100 m a t  and a s s o c i a t e d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n ,  a l l o f t h e Skonun was d e p o s i t e d p r i o r  pro-  t o 14 Ma.  suggesting  116  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  We the  thank J a n e S h e p p e r d  (Geological Sciences,  p a l y n o l o g i c a l sample p r e p a r a t i o n .  provided  by N.S.E.R.C. t h r o u g h  (N.C.) and by C o n s o l i d a t e d  U.B.C.) f o r  F i n a n c i a l support  a post-graduate  C i n o l a Mines L t d .  was  scholarship  117  REFERENCES  A d d i c o t t , W.O.,  1973, Neogene m a r i n e m o l l u s c s  Coast o f North America: 1969;  U.S.G.S. B u l l .  A d d i c o t t , W.O.,  An a n n o t a t e d  o f the P a c i f i c  b i b l i o g r a p h y , 1797-  1362, 201 p .  1976, M o l l u s c a n  paleontology  o f t h e Lower  Miocene C l a l l a m Formation, northwestern Washington; Prof.  Paper  A d d i c o t t , W.O., Charlotte  U.S.G.S.  196, 44 p., 9 p l a t e s .  1978, L a t e Islands,  Miocene m o l l u s c s  British  from  t h e Queen  C o l u m b i a , Canada; J o u r . R e s .  USGS, v . 6, n o . 5, p p . 677-690.  B e r g g r e n , W.A.,  and van C o u v e r i n g , J.A., 1974, The L a t e  Paleogeog. Paleoclim.  Paleoecol.,  Champigny, N., and S i n c l a i r , deposit,  Queen C h a r l o t t e  Carlin-type 75,  deposit  A.J.,  v . 16, no. 1/2, 216 p .  1980, C i n o l a  Islands, B r i t i s h  (abstract);  Neogene;  (Specogna)  gold  Columbia - A  Can. I n s t . M i n . M e t a l l .  Bull  v . 73, p . 62.  Champigny, N., and S i n c l a i r , Queen C h a r l o t t e Carlin-type  A.J.,  1981, C i n o l a g o l d  Islands, B r i t i s h  deposit;  deposit,  Columbia - A Canadian  Can. I n s t . M i n . M e t a l l . Spec. V o l . ( i n  press).  M a c k e n z i e , J.D., 1916, G e o l o g y o f Graham I s l a n d , B.C.;  Geol.  118  S u r v . C a n a d a , Mem.  M a r t i n , H.A.,  and  sediments Can.  88.  R o u s e , G.E.,  1966,  f r o m Queen C h a r l o t t e  J . Botany,  Moore, E . J . , 1963, Formation  v . 44,  Miocene  i n Oregon;  pp.  Palynology of Late  Islands, B r i t i s h  171-208, 12  marine  Tertiary  Columbia;  plates.  m o l l u s c s from  U.S.G.S. P r o f . Paper  the  419,  Astoria 109  p.,  32  plates.  Rouse, G.E.,  and Mathews, W.H.,  l y n o l o g y o f the Quesnel P e t r o l . Geology,  Shen, K.,  of f l u i d  and  4,  inclusion  I s l a n d s , B.C.;  Pet.  1981-1  Sutherland  Paper  Brown, A.,  Islands, B r i t i s h and  P e t . Res.,  W o l f e , J.A.,  and  Columbia;  Bull.  J.A.,  1981,  studies, Cinola B.C.  Geology  Columbia;  B*C.  Can.  G e n e t i c imgold  deposit,  M i n i s t r y o f Mines  and  o f the Queen  Charlotte  M i n i s t r y o f Energy,  Mines,  54.  L e o p o l d , E.B.,  1967,  Neogene and  early  Quaternary v e g e t a t i o n o f northwestern North America northeastern Asia;  pa-  (in press).  1968,  Bull.  g e o l o g y and  418-445.  Sinclair,  Queen C h a r l o t t e Res.  Tertiary  area, B r i t i s h  v . 27, no.  Champigny, N.,  plications  1979,  in The  (ed.), Stanford U n i v e r s i t y  Bering Press,  Land pp.  B r i d g e , D.M. 193-206.  and Hopkins  119  CHAPTER VI  C i n o l a Gold Deposit,  Queen C h a r l o t t e  A Geochemical Case  Islands,  History  B.C.  120  ABSTRACT  Cinola deposit, deposit  a large  on Graham I s l a n d  t o n n a g e , low g r a d e C a r l i n - t y p e  (Queen C h a r l o t t e  to  extensive  geochemical e x p l o r a t i o n  in  1970.  have r e v i e w e d  We  multi-element in  tial  1.  tinuous 2.  about  silt  early exploration  the d e p o s i t .  data  t h a n does Au.  defines  of  Some  stage  substanspecific  This  t h e known m i n e r a l i z e d  i s apparently  p r i m a r y d i s p e r s i o n o f Ag r e l a t i v e  Cu, N i , Co, Pb, Zn, and Mo  i n rocks,  provide  or h i g h  for 3.  this  and  from our s t u d y a r e :  Ag l i t h o g e o c h e m i c a l better  from  subject  i t s discovery  soil,  manner, and i n t h e l i g h t  geological information  conclusions  shortly after  the a v a i l a b l e rock,  geochemical data  a rigorous, systematic  I s l a n d s ) , was  gold  clear cut patterns  due t o a more  con-  to gold.  soils,  enough  zone  or s i l t s  abundance  do n o t levels  use i n e x p l o r a t i o n .  Hg i n s o i l persion from  and Hg i n p e a t  show a p r o n o u n c e d  pattern, apparently  t h e main c e n t r e  due t o f l u i d  secondary  transport  dis-  eastward  o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n a t the C i n o l a  depos-  it. 4.  Threshold  s e l e c t i o n using  practical  approach  of  subpopulations  probability  to evaluate  spatial  i n geochemical data  graphs  i s a useful  distribution sets.  patterns  121  INTRODUCTION  Cinola gold off  the  west c o a s t  scribed The of  .054  oz.  Sinclair,  A u / s . t , and  host  with  glacial  Columbia  (Richards  include  fault rock,  small  tills  direction heavily  system, (6)  ranging  3 m.  spatial  except  This  one  area  to a m i l d  along  river  fault  drain  a p p l i c a t i o n of  evaluation  of  the  of  geochemical data  1.  a rigorous  provide data  for a Canadian  for gold  0 to a  evaluation  done  average a  and  (less  (5)  35  m,  of than  porosity associa-  deposits with  are  an  southwest-northeast The  area  and  is  outcrops  Three c o n t i n u a l l y  flowing  zone.  a comprehensive  A  an  de-  proximity  rainy climate,  mineralized  was  (3)  Surficial  geological studies  exploration  with  Brown, 1 9 6 8 ) .  and  Cinola deposit.  1981).  possibly genetic  from  scarps.  the  (1980a,  alteration,  intrusion.  (Sutherland  work forms p a r t  the  and  been  characteristic  size  argillic  1 ) , has  Champigny  of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , (4)  Island,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  features  particle  in thickness  f o r e s t e d , due  and  the  Graham  tons,  G l a c i a l movement f o l l o w e d  i n the  absent  Sinclair  million  Geological  (1)  and  45  (Figure  e t a l . , 1976;  a rhyolite-porphyry  average o f  sizes  l o c a t e d on  many o f  (2) m i d - M i o c e n e age  the  creeks  has  1980b, 1 9 8 1 ) .  a major  tion  are  deposit  deposit  0. 5 u ) ,  of  of B r i t i s h  i s l a r g e , more t h a n  Carlin-type  with  centrally  g e o l o g i c a l l y by Champigny and  deposit  the  deposit,  study which  empha-  for exploration  systematic  evaluation  and of  to:  of multi-element  "Carlin-type" gold  deposit;  geochemical  122  2.  evaluate c r i t i c a l l y haloes o f elements available  3.  illustrate cal  t o us;  secondary  dispersion  r e p r e s e n t e d i n the v a r i o u s d a t a  sets  and  the a d v a n t a g e  approach  data.  the p r i m a r y and  of a rigorous  as an e v a l u a t i o n  procedure  but for  simple  statisti-  geochemical  122a  %  A\SA^7 I  GRAHAM t£> X-  ISLAND CjT  CHARLOTTE*  F^<-JPORT/  ISLANOSjA  -O  CLEMENTS <^\j U S KATLA "jlTLELL  o  ,o  1.  l  l  l  l  l  > \ .  m  V V  I  DSP,T  V  ISLAND ^ K > ^ 3  j  ^l^V?  '^ OM,LES  2  Location  GOLD DEPOSIT  T ~ y M ^  MORESBY  133° 1  Figure  n  US&  SCALE s  „  ^COLUMBIA  >C.NOLT  DEP0SIT>^^^^r ^  ^  1  CINOLA GOLD  BR,TISH  P h y s i o g r o p h i c  132° 1  Boundary  1  M 131° 1  map o f t h e C i n o l a  deposit.  \  123  THE  DATA  Multi-element soil,  and  silt  geochemical  samples  taken  d a t a were a v a i l a b l e  e a r l y and  Sinclair,  1980).  sessment  Sanders,  reports f i l e d  were p r o v i d e d C o r p . and  t o us  R.W.  description  of  and  W.  and  W analyses  mation  Soil  anayzed  Hg,  Cu,  f o r Hg.  158  and  was  Fifty-eight  used by  grab  samples  silt  government,  measured  A  from  some o f Au,  by  by  but  brief  fire  limited  sur-  Ag,  As,  assay.  Hg,  Ag  c o l o r i m e t r i c methods. available  eighty-six  soil  for  No  samples  soil  survey  f o r a l l the  samples were  Hg  The  As  infor-  taken along  t h a t were a n a l y z e d A-horizon  over  for  s a m p l e s were  the m i n e r a l i z e d zone for gold.  analyses.  absorption  and  Sb.  the C i n o l a p r o p e r t y , m a i n l y  t h a t were a n a l y z e d  atomic  i n as-  type f o l l o w s .  Zn, N i , and Co.  A second  more s a m p l e s  e l e m e n t s was  Silt:  Pb,  available  Columbia  f o r a l l or  Most were B - h o r i z o n  mesh f r a c t i o n all  were o b t a i n e d  Mo,  (see Champigny,  absorption spectrophotometry.  r e g u l a r l y over  lines.  Ag,  added  was  atomic  four hundred  more-or-less  Au,  o f each d a t a  r e g a r d i n g a n a l y t i c a l method was  data:  claim  content by  are  the  R i c h a r d s o f J.M.T. S e r v i c e s  were a n a l y z e d  were d e t e r m i n e d  These data  data: f i f t y - n i n e  Gold  1970's  o f Kennco E x p l o r a t i o n L t d .  the n a t u r e  face exposures  middle  the B r i t i s h  by G.G.  Stevenson  Lithogeochemical  Sb,  with  rock,  during routine exploration of  C i n o l a p r o p e r t y i n the and  for  The  -80  Determination  of  spectrophotometry.  samples were c o l l e c t e d  from  three  creeks  124  and  a river  p l e s were  i n the v i c i n i t y o f the m i n e r a l i z e d a r e a .  analyzed  f o r a l l o r some o f A u , A g , Mo, C u , Pb, Zn,  N i , Co, and A s , w i t h for  the s o i l  method.  The sam-  samples.  t h e same a n a l y t i c a l  procedures  As c o n t e n t was m e a s u r e d by a  as were  used  colorimetric  125  DATA EVALUATION  Our  general procedure  foregoing duction data,  PROCEDURE  data groups  (Figure  involved  of correlation  2)  for creating  (1) c o d i n g and  m a t r i x e s f o r raw  from p r o b a b i l i t y  plots  diagram,  of i n d i v i d u a l  d r a w i n g o f m a c h i n e - c o n s t r u c t e d maps showing various  s u b - p o p u l a t i o n s f o r each  (6) i n t e g r a t i o n interpretation  The Sinclair  (2) p r o -  (4)  threshold  elements,  distributions  and  f o r the three  separate data sets,  and  context.  selection  i s that  described  (1SJ74, 1976) , i n w h i c h m u l t i - m o d a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s  i n general  appear  of  i n each d a t a g r o u p ,  in a geological  on p r o b a b i l i t y  (5)  element  method o f t h r e s h o l d  partitioned which  of results  editing,  and l o g - t r a n s f o r m e d  (3) c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c o r r e l a t i o n  selection  each o f the  graphs  into  two  o r more  t o be l o g n o r m a l i n f o r m .  by are  components,  126  Figure  2.  Procedural path  i n evaluating  Cinola  geochemical  G E O C H E M I C A L DATA  ± COMPUTER F I L E ( S A M P L E L O C A T I O N AND CHEMICAL A N A L Y S I S )  REARRANGED COMPUTER F I L E (LOG TRANSFORMED V A L U E S )  PROBABI L I T Y PLOT S  C O R R E L A T I ON M A T R I X AND S C A T T E R DIAGRAMS  y  f  >  S E L E C T I O N OF THRESHOLDS  CORRELATION DIAGRAMS  COMPUTER MAPS OF V A L U E S ABOVE THRESHOLDS  INTERPRETATION  data.  127  LITHOGEOCHEMISTRY  A  summary o f means and  standard  transformed  l i t h o g e o c h e m i c a l data  correlation  matrix  Table  2.  The  summarized sults  are o f  among the ving and  elements  tungsten  correlate  have  as  Ag,  Hg,  populations. and  5.  Both  selected  to  Two  as  areas  of  and  these the  be  i n the  case  graphs are ease w i t h  u n d e r l a i n by  distributions  d e p o s i t as o u t l i n e d  Representative  and  10,  and  1.  the  close spatial  element deposit;  re-  examples a r e  that  antimony.  Mercury  but  without  do  not  in  de-  difficulty lognormal  in figures  t h r e s h o l d s can  (1974).  Such  the d a t a "low"  c o u l d be  invol-  level.  reproduced  " h i g h " and  in  These  of gold, three  which  a  are  were examined  interpreted  a basis for contouring  that their  the m i n e r a l  ling.  two,  illustrate  used  geographic so  graphs of a l l v a r i a b l e s  of  and  relationship  0.01  log-  matrix  3.  inter-correlations, g o l d a t the  can  1,  i s given  correlation  a r s e n i c , and  u s i n g t h e method o f S i n c l a i r  have been  tions  silver,  and W  and  they demonstrate c l e a r l y  significant  Sb,  combinations  the  diagram of F i g u r e  because  s i g n i f i c a n t l y with  i n Table  variables  studied a simple, d i r e c t  with  Probability tail.  features of  correlation  interest  gold e x i s t s  i s given  for log-transformed  critical  i n the  d e v i a t i o n s f o r raw  be  thresholds  to  separate  valued  examined  4  popula-  in  relation  by e x t e n s i v e diamond shown i n F i g u r e s 6,  dril7,  8,  indicate: correlation  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and  of areas  their  of c e r t a i n  relationship  "high"  to the  gold  9,  128  Table  1.  Summary o f means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r r a w a n d l o g - t r a n s f o r m e d (base 10) l i t h o g e o c h e m i c a l d a t a , Cinola deposit. A r i t h m e t i c v a l u e s a r e a l l i n ppm e x c e p t Hg w h i c h i s i n p p b .  NAME  NO.OOF VALUES  Au Hg Ac? As Sb W  59 48 45 45 45 45  ARITHMETIC STD.DEV. MEAN  0.2954 2158. 1.509 127.8 63.91 40.02  0.6060 2572. 1.307 200.0 61.84 37.10  LOGARITHMIC STD.DEV. MEAN  -1.362 2.944 0.1243E-01 1.508 1.499 1.280  0.9675 0.7064 0.3971 0.9118 0.6151 0.6817  129 Table  2.  C o r r e l a t i o n matrix f o r log-transformed thogeochemical data, C i n o l a deposit. Au  Ag  Hg  (base  10)  li-  Sd  As  Hg  .31  Ag  .50  .32  As  .56  .63  .30  Sb  .50  .34  .36  .12  W  .40  .49  .07  .36  .49  The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e based on 45 p a i r e d o b s e r v a t i o n s between Hg, Ag, A s , and Sb, 29 p a i r e d o b s e r v a t i o n s between Au and A g , A s , Sb, and W, and 31 p a i r e d o b s e r v a t i o n s between Au and Hg. 2.  a high the  silver  gold  population  geographic  distribution  surprising  (Figure 6 ) .  mineralization  occurrences  nature  lity,  a variability  populations  o f gold  are given  values  probably  t h a t w o u l d be e n h a n c e d samples.  Silver  a t C i n o l a , and i s known t o be p r e s e n t  gold  particles  (Champigny and S i n c l a i r ,  contrast of silver area  of silver  Cinnabar are  arise  relative  "high"  i s not gold  and e a s t .  from  the wides-  its local  by t h e s m a l l  variabisize of  in solid  solution in  1980b, 1 9 8 1 ) .  p r o d u c e s a much l o w e r  A low  geochemical  t o g o l d , and t h e r e f o r e a s m a l l e r  (Figure 7 ) .  and t i e m m a n i t e  the obvious  The  i s a b o u t as a b u n d a n t as  gold  i n the bedrock  3.  has i n d i c a t e d t h a t  o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n combined w i t h  content  i n Table  p r o g r e s s s i v e l y t o the north  o f Au h i g h s  lithogeochemical  silver  the c e n t r e o f  above t h r e s h o l d  Diamond d r i l l i n g  decreases  pread  the  defines  deposit.  Parameters o f p a r t i t i o n e d  Sporadic  that c l e a r l y  sources  (HgSe) o c c u r  f o r mercury.  i n t h e C i n o l a o r e and  S p h a l e r i t e , r a r e l y ob-  130  served,  i s a l s o a p o s s i b l e source  through  the p o o r l y  body  probably  lithified  contributed  o f Hg.  Skonun  Fracture  systems  sediments e a s t o f the o r e  t o the d i f f u s i o n  o f mercury  (Figure  8) .  Disseminated mineralization ly  a high  1981). the  the l i m i t  (1.1%) i n p y r i t e  (Champigny  As and Sb l i t h o g e o c h e m i c a l  to s o l i d  and/or m a r c a s i t e ,  The  outside  a r s e n i c and a n t i m o n y m i n e r a l s  deposit.  attributed  occurs  have highs  1979,  economic  and  been  local-  Sinclair,  identified  can p r o b a b l y  in be  s o l u t i o n o f a r s e n i c and a n t i m o n y i n p y r i t e  as r e p o r t e d  i n other  gold deposits  by  Boyle  144-145).  tungsten  anomaly  ( F i g u r e 10) may  s e n c e o f t r a c e amounts o f s c h e e l i t e , w h i c h Cinola  of  and e l e c t r o n m i c r o p r o b e a n a l y s i s has shown  As c o n t e n t  No  (1979, p.  pyrite  b u t i s a common t r a c e m i n e r a l p. 1 9 5 ) .  be c a u s e d by the i s not reported  in gold deposits  preat  (Boyle,  Table  3.  Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s d e t e r m i n e d g r a p h i c a l l y f o r p a r t i t i o n e d populations of lithogeochemical data, Cinola deposit.  Cone. Unit.  Element  A population  Q, > ."' ro  Au  ppm  '  1  b  B population  b+SL  b-SL  11  1.6  2.0  1.2  34  0.13  0.30  0.06  b  55  0.01  b-SL  0.03  0.006  29  3.3  4.2  2.5  71  ".0.7  1,35  Hg  ppb  58  3630  5750  1950  42  178  As  ppm  100  36  260  4.8  Sb  ppm  45  129  170  98  55  W  ppm  56  61  110  36  44  b  =  a n t i l o g o f mean o f l o g t r a n s f o r m e d  ppm  0.36  2.5  355  85  800  13  26  5.8  70  7.5  13.5  4.3  23  f o r H g a n d 45 v a l u e s  f o r A g , A s , Sb a n d W  data  b+SL =  a n t i l o g o f mean p l u s o n e s t d . d e v . o f l o g t r a n s f o r m e d  b-SL  a n t i l o g o f mean m i n u s one s t d . d e v . o f l o g t r a n s f o r m e d  =  0.05 a n d 0.85  ppm  f o r A u , 48 v a l u e s  Threshold(s)  b+SL  Ag  G r a p h s b a s e d o n 59 v a l u e s cumulated i n d i v i d u a l l y .  metal  data data  Figure  3.  Most s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s ( a t t h e 0.01 level) t r a n s f o r m e d ( b a s e 10) l i t h o g e o c h e m i c a l d a t a .  of  logarithmically  to  133  5  20  40  CUMULATIVE Figure  4.  60  80  95  PERCENT  L o g n o r m a l p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t f o r Sb l i t h o g e o c h e m i c a l d a t a p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o u p p e r (A) and l o w e r (B) p o p u l a t i o n s . Black dots are o r i g i n a l data.  134  5 y  s  20 B  40  60  80  B — m — i — g — i  1  9  CUMULATIVE Figure  5.  PERCENT  L o g n o r m a l p r o b a b i l i t y p l o t f o r A u l i t h o g e o c h e m i c a l da.ta p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o u p p e r ( A ) , m e d i a n (A') a n d l o w e r ( B ) populations. Black dots are o r i g i n a l data. i 1  135  Figure  6.  A u (ppm X 1 0 0 ) i n r o c k . Triangles are high population; p l u s s i g n s are low p o p u l a t i o n . Hachured area represents r e l a t i v e l y h i g h g r a d e zone o f C i n o l a d e p o s i t . Principal f a u l t s a r e shown as f o l l o w s : FF = F o o t w a l l F a u l t , SF = S a n d s p i t F a u l t .  136  Figure  7.  Ag of  (ppm X 10) symbols.  i n rock.  See  Figure  6 for  explanation,  137  Figure 8 .  Hg i n r o c k symbols.  (ppb).  See  Figure  6 for explanation  of  138  Figure  9.  Sb i n r o c k symbols.  (ppb).  See  Figure  6 for explanation  of  139  Figure  10.  W i n rock,(ppb). symbols.  See  Figure  6 for explanation  of  140  SOIL GEOCHEMISTRY  A similar for  method o f d a t a  lithogeochemical data.  viations  i s given  transformed matrix  indicates  Group I directly Ni,  Co,  Hg  Pb)  in a limited  that  these  two  Probability  as  respectively. sporadic result  Group I I . plained  with  or  little  poor  d a t a , we  ( F i g u r e 11  produced  and  15  f o r Au,  example f o r c o p p e r of high values  amounts o f s p h a l e r i t e ,  and  zinc,  but  Hg,  (Cu,  correlate  I t would  appear  Group I I I  said,  because  of  precision.  II  can  sub-populations  and  Table  Four Hg  clearly  6).  plots,  As  with  using  examples a r e  shown  i n peat,  Cu  and  illustrates  throughout  characteristic  soil  most  i n g r o u p s I and  values.  The  t o be  be  contoured  14,  i n the c a s e s o f  elements.  to r e l a t e  analytical  13,  found  can  de-  correlation  different.  three lognormal  ease  These e r r a t i c  sporadically  The  as  of l o g -  Group I I e l e m e n t s  of a l l elements  two  distribution  t h a t we  matrix  three groups o f  process.  which  the o n l y contour  F i g u r e s 12,  5.  data  standard  intragroup correlations,  about  graphs  into  lithogeochemical  in  of  o f v a l u e s and  t h r e s h o l d s chosen  thresholds  i n Table  groups are fundamentally  the narrow range  for s o i l  manner w i t h Group I e l e m e n t s .  o n l y o f Mo,  partitioned  a correlation  i n p e a t , Ag). would appear  have h i g h  only  be  i s provided  t o the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n Zn,  consists  4 and  the p r e s e n c e  (Au, Hg,  used  A summary o f means and  i n Table  values  a n a l y s i s was  the  the p r o p e r t y , a  of a l l elements  of  geochemical  highs  are e a s i l y  ex-  copper,  lead,  because o f  trace  chalcopyrite,  i n the C i n o l a d e p o s i t .  and and  galena occuring very  141  On t h e o t h e r appreciably are  more r e g u l a r  distribution  the comparable p a t t e r n s  A-horizon to  hand, G r o u p I e l e m e n t s , e x c e p t i n g  soils.  t h e west b u t d r a m a t i c a l l y i n a manner  (Figures  13 and 1 4 ) .  rather the  t o the east  has s o i l  (Figure  highs  concave  o f the C i n o l a  d i s p e r s i o n was p r o b a b l y  i n part  12), suggesting  and Hg i n  o f secondary e a s t e r l y d i s p e r s i o n  than p h y s i c a l , because g o l d which  deposit  posit  removed  have  regular  i s pronouncedly arcuate,  suggestive This  Most  shown by Hg i n B - h o r i z o n  The p a t t e r n  deposit,  patterns.  silver,  i s inimately  directly  relatively  chemical  over  little  related in  the C i n o l a desecondary  dis-  persion .  The results with  erratic from  poor  spatial  distribution  t h e low abundance l e v e l  analytical  precision.  of silver in soils  probably  i n combination  I t i s also possible  b a c k g r o u n d c o r r e c t i o n was a p p l i e d d u r i n g nalysis.  highs  that  spectrophotometrie  no a-  142  Table  NAME  p  4.  Summary o f means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r r a w a n d l o g - t r a n s f o r m e d ( b a s e 10) s o i l g e o c h e m i c a l d a t a , Cinola deposit. A r i t h m e t i c v a l u e s a r e a l l i n ppm e x c e p t Hg a n d Hg i n p e a t (HgP) w h i c h a r e i n p p b .  NO. OF VALUES  MEAN  ARITHMETIC STD.DEV.  0.3781E-01  0.8178E-01  Au  644  Hg  474  590.0  Ag  486  0.6926  0.5865  MO  480  1.077  0.3484  CO  483  10.22  Pb  484  Zri  1227.  L O G A R I THMIC STD.DEV. MEAN  -1.729 :  0.4126  2.519  0.4034  -0.2677  0.3262  0.1945E-01  0.9844E-01  5.578  0.9285  0.2892  10.18  3.629  0.9723  0.1958  483  29.74  19.46  Ni  483  9.673  18.66  0.8245  0.3496  Co  483  7.077  5.184  0.6898  0.4212  HgP  457  675. 3  1248.  2.621  0.3458  1. 3 5 8  0.3504  143  Table  GROUP  I  II  III  The  5.  C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r l o g - t r a n s f o r m e d ( b a s e 10) soil geochemical data, C i n o l a deposit. Dash l i n e s r e p r e s e n t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s that are not s i g n i f i c a n t at t h e 1% l e v e l .  ELEMENT  Hg  peat  Hg  peat  Hg  Ag  Cu  Ni  Co  Zn  .24  .63  Ag  .19  -  .23  Cu  -  -  .29  .71  Ni  -  -  .14  .63  .72  Co  -  -  .17  .73  .78  .79  Zn  -  -  -  .69  .78  .82  .86  Pb  -  -  -  . 38  .26  .35  . 3 0 . .38  Mo  -  -  .15  .16  -  .15  correlation  peat which  respectively.  Pb  .30  Hg  observations in  Au  coefficients  .  are based  between a l l elements are based  on  4 38  and  on  about  excepting 340  480  -  paired  p a i r s w i t h Au  paired  observations  and  Hg  Table  6.  Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s d e t e r m i n e d g r a p h i c a l l y f o r p a r t i t i o n e d populations o f s o i l geochemical data, C i n o l a d e p o s i t .  Au ,\  g. *o  ppm  •  Ag  ppm  b  b+SL  b-SL  Q,  4  0.26  0.29  0.23  5  0.11  0.15  0.09  5  1.6  2.0  1.3  b  b+SL  b-SL  91  0.015  0.030  0.008  80  0.78  1.1  0.56  15  0.05  0.18  0.02  0.20  a n d 0.07  ,1.3 a n d 0.3  ppb  10  2100  3600  1300  90  240  500  120  1000  ppb  7  3200  4700  2200  93  350  620  195  1350  Mo'  ppm  100  1.1  1.5  0.8  Cu  ppm  65  13  17  9.4  35  4.2  6.4  2.8  8  Pb  ppm  96  10  13  8.0  4  2.1  3.0  1.4  5  Zn  ppm  70  35  54  23  30  8.8  15  5.0  23  Ni  ppm  15  14  17  12  85  7.0  11  4.2  Co  ppm  70  8.4  13  5.4  30  1.5  2.3  1.0  Hg Hg  CONC. UNIT  Thresholds  B population  A population ELEMENT  metal  peat  35 a n d 1 6 • 3.5  G r a p h s b a s e d o n 644 v a l u e s f o r A u , 486 v a l u e s f o r A g , 484 v a l u e s f o r P b , 4 8 3 v a l u e s N i a n d C o , 4 8 0 v a l u e s f o r Mo, 474 v a l u e s f o r Hg a n d 4 5 7 v a l u e s f o r H g i n p e a t . S y m b o l s u s e d a r e t h e same a s T a b l e  3.  f o r Zn,  146  Figure  12.  A u (ppm X 1 0 0 ) i n s o i l . S y m b o l s a s i n F i g u r e 6. Sampling g r i d mostly follows claim boundaries.  147  Figure  13.  Hg  in B  horizon  (ppb).  S y m b o l s as  i n Figure  6.  148  149  Figure  15.  Cu  in soil  (ppm)."  Symbols  as i n F i g u r e  6  150  SILT  GEOCHEMISTRY  An  identical  ment d a t a touring survey  statistical  as f o r t h e r o c k  a n a l y s i s was done f o r s t r e a m  and s o i l  only a very  ments t h a t were a n a l y z e d . matrix  defined  from  samples  for silt  case,  and c o n -  because  d e v i a t i o n s o f the nine  Groupings  data  the c o r r e l a t i o n  o f e l e m e n t s from  matrix  for soil  i n c l u d e Au, A s , and A g .  data.  Group I f o r  Zn, and Pb) e l e m e n t s a r e h i g h l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d ,  Zn,  N i , and Co, w h i c h have c o r r e l a t i o n  (Cu, N i ,  especially higher  than  C o r r e l a t i o n s o f Group I I t o Group I elements a r e r e s -  tricted  t o Ag and A s ; no s i g n i f i c a n t  elements e x i s t s with lues,  gold.  both  soil  Group I I a r e e a s i l y mineralization,  correlation  o f Group I I  Mo h a s a v e r y narrow r a n g e o f v a -  and i s t h e o n l y v a r i a b l e  For  to  ele-  to groups  Group I I elements  coefficients  Table  the c o r r e -  ( T a b l e 8) a r e v e r y s i m i l a r  Co,  0.8.  the s i l t  small p o r t i o n o f the p r o p e r t y .  7 c o n t a i n s t h e means and s t a n d a r d  silt  Plotting  o f t h e d a t a were n o t done i n t h i s covered  lation  data.  sedi-  and s i l t  i n c l u d e d i n Group I I I .  correlation  distinguished. b u t such  m a t r i x e s , G r o u p I and  Group I i s c e r t a i n l y  a relationship  related  i s not apparent f o r  Group I I .  Bimodal lognormal  distributions  were o b s e r v e d  f o r most  v a r i a b l e s o f G r o u p s I and I I o f t h e s i l t  data.  t h r e s h o l d s was done w i t h o u t  Partitioning  and  lower  marized  populations  difficulty.  Selection of o f upper  i s shown f o r Ag i n F i g u r e 16 and sum-  for a l l variables  i n Table  9.  A r s e n i c and c o p p e r  data  151  seem t o  represent  single  lognormal  distributions.  152  Table  NAME  7.  Summary o f means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r r a w a n d l o g - t r a n s f o r m e d (base 10) s i l t g e o c h e m i c a l d a t a , C i n o l a d e p o s i t . A r i t h m e t i c v a l u e s a r e a l l i n ppm.  NO. OF VALUES  MEAN  ARITHMETIC STD.DEV.  LOGARITHMIC STD.DEV. MEAN  -1.838  0.33059  Au  58  0.1845E-01  0.1412E-01  Ag.  58  0.7293  0.2728  -0.1813  0.2214  M6  58  0.7241  1.121  -0.3443  0.4656  Cu  58  9.138  3.390  0.9339  0.1556  Z.n  58  70.90  48.98  1.744  0.3279  Pb  58  10.48  3.803  0.9900  0.1690  Ni  58  14.53  5.823  1.120  0.2046  ct>  58  35.50  60.55  1.220  0.5782  As  57  141.9  191.3  1.855  0.5050  :  153  Table  8.  C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r l o g - t r a n s f o r m e d ( b a s e 10) silt geochemical data, Cinola deposit. Dash l i n e s r e p r e s e n t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t are not s i g n i f i c a n t at the 1% level.  Ag  Ni  Cu  As  Co  Zn  GROUP  ELEMENT  Au  I  Ag  .57  As  .45  .43  Cu  -  .38  -  Ni  -  .65  .60  .57  CO  -  .60  .52  .57  .89  Zn  -  .54  .54  .54  .94  .84  Pb  -  .48  -  .63  .63  .61  .54  Mo  -  -  .50  -  .45  -  .45  II  III  Correlation  coefficients  b a s e d on  58  paired  observations.  Pb  -  Table  9.  ELEMENT  Means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s d e t e r m i n e d g r a p h i c a l l y f o r p a r t i t i o n e d populations of s i l t geochemical data, C i n o l a deposit.  CONC. UNIT  A \ Q. ~o  population b  B  b+t  b-t  %  Threshold(s)  population b  metal  b+t  b-t  Au  ppm  30  .037  .048  .029  70  .007  .011  .005  0.02 .  Ag  ppm  83  0.80  1.00  0.66  17  0.25  0.32  0.17  0.48  As  ppm  100  63  250  15  Cu  ppm  100  8.4  11.6  Zn  ppm  125  180  51  83  112  62  29  20  20  6.2 88  27  Pb  ppm  30  16  17  15  70  8.2  1 0 . 5 -J  Ni  ppm  71  18  24  14  29  6.8  8.4  Co  ppm  6  133  174  108  94  23  Mo  ppm  100  0.72  1.84  0  G r a p h s b a s e d o n 58 v a l u e s Symbols used  f o r a l l elements  a r e t h e same a s T a b l e  3.  apart  39  from As which  110  a n d 40  15 5  14  5.5  11  12  83  6  i s based  o n 57  values.  D  2  Figure  16.  5 i  1  20 !  1  40 1  5  60 e  i  80 r  10 30 50 70 CUMULATIVE PERCENT  90  P r o b a b i l i t y p l o t f o r Ag i n s i l t s p a r t i t i o n e d u p p e r (A) a n d l o w e r (B) p o p u l a t i o n s .  i n  156  CONCLUSIONS  This  simple  statistical  the  Cinola deposit  1.  Significant on  the  one  indicate cess  2.  at  hand  that  of  and  Hg,  silver  deposit  rocks  Sb,  conclusions:  the  and  W  on  the  between other  Au  hand  primary m i n e r a l i z i n g  sub-populations  gold  Hg,  lithogeochemical  f r o m an  population.  are  and  dispersion  two  Ag)  l y dispersed  than  by  pro-  partiuseful  is a  matrix  the  Cinola  as  is  defines  viewpoint  High p o p u l a t i o n s  t h a n does a  o f Hg,  Sb,  soil  elements.  data  (Cu, N i , Co,  in soils,  and  t e r n makes them l e s s u s e f u l  relative Zn,  the  and  to Pb)  absence o f  i n an  W  in  deads  to  Group I elements  shown t o have m o r e - o r - l e s s in s o i l s  and  gold.  for multi-element  groups of  are  patterns  Group I I  data  population  exploration  as much d i s p e r s e d  of  determined  e a c h v a r i a b l e i s a more  lithogeochemical  better  recognition  body.  As,  from  correlation coefficents.  A c o r r e l a t i o n matrix  (Au,  Ag,  p r o b a b i l i t y graphs o f  single linear  high  following  a l l were p a r t o f  for evaluating  A high  the  moderate c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s  S p a t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n of  method  4.  but  l e d to  of geochemical data  Cinola.  tioning  3.  has  evaluation  systematic  the C i n o l a are  very  ore  erratical-  a systematic  exploration  sense.  pat-  157  Groups o f elements from are  very  gests  as good  and  soil, Ag,  in s i l t  i n d i c a t o r s of  correlations  between  for s i l t  data.  (Au, Ag,  (1) Au  comparable d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f and  Hg,  silt  and  are  As  a feature of  As)  are p o t e n t i a l  gold deposits.  fully  although  evaluate high  the  and  these  can  (2) Ag,  be  con-  Thus  analyzed  data  exploration potential  were  f o r Sb  Zn,  sporadic their  are  shown t o be much l e s s  occurrence  minor  and  sporadic occurrence  system c o m p r i s i n g Ni  their  are of very  low  i n geochemical  grade  available and  practical  l e v e l s of  use,  abundance.  these  as  seems t o  Cu, their  reflect  i n the m i n e r a l i z e d  the C i n o l a d e p o s i t .  little  W,  patterns.  u s e f u l because  samples  Au,  for in  l i t h o g e o c h e m i c a l p o p u l a t i o n s o f each o f distribution  and  rock,  l a r g e t o n n a g e , low  Insufficient  e l e m e n t s showed s y s t e m a t i c  and  Hg,  in  In c o n t r a s t , t h e more a b u n d a n t e l e m e n t s , s u c h  and  sug-  Cinola-type  elements  e l e m e n t s t o be  Carlin-type  Pb,  data  This  the C i n o l a d a t a .  exploration for similar  two  soil  the p r o x i m i t y o f  geochemical  to  matrix  concentrations.  Significant As  correlation  t o the g r o u p s f o r t h e  t h a t Group I e l e m e n t s  sidered gold  similar  the  S i m i l a r l y , Mo,  in this  case  Co,  because  of  158  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  V a r i o u s maps and r e p o r t s s u p p l i e d t o us by G.G. and it  R.W.  Stevenson  otherwise  cheerfully the  made t h e j o b o f d a t a c o m p i l a t i o n e a s i e r  w o u l d have b e e n .  Mrs. Z o f i a Radlowski  i n the tedious task o f data coding.  than  assisted  We a p p r e c i a t e  r a p i d i t y w i t h w h i c h an abundance o f computer o u t p u t was o b -  tained by  Richards  f o r us by Mr. A s g e r  an N.S.E.R.C. g r a n t  Bentzen.  C o s t o f t h e s t u d y was b o r n e  to A.J. S i n c l a i r  C o n s o l i d a t e d C i n o l a Mines L t d .  and f u n d s  s u p p l i e d by  159  REFERENCES  B o y l e , R.W.,  1979, The g e o c h e m i s t r y o f g o l d  G e o l . Surv. o f Canada, B u l l .  Champigny, N.,  and S i n c l a i r ,  g e o l o g y o f the Specogna of  and i t s d e p o s i t s ;  280.  A . J . , 1980a, P r o g r e s s  B.C.  Ministry  E n e r g y , M i n e s and P e t . R e s . , P a p e r 1980-1, pp.  158-170.  Champigny, N., deposit,  (Babe) g o l d  and S i n c l a i r ,  Queen C h a r l o t t e  A . J . , 1980b, C i n o l a Islands,  Canadian C a r l i n - t y p e deposit Metall.  Bull.  Champigny, N.,  British  (Specogna) g o l d  Columbia - A  ( a b s t r a c t ) ; Can. I n s t . M i n .  75, v . 73, p. 62.  and S i n c l a i r ,  Queen C h a r l o t t e Carlin-type  deposit;  r e p o r t on t h e  Islands,  deposit;  A . J . , 1981, C i n o l a g o l d British  deposit,  Columbia - A Canadian  Can. I n s t . M i n . M e t a l l . , S p e c . V o l . ( i n  press).  Champigny, N., gold  deposit  structural pp.  Sinclair,  A . J . , and S a n d e r s , K.C.,  of Consolidated  property  1980, S p e c o g n a  C i n o l a M i n e s , an example o f  e v a l u a t i o n ; W e s t e r n M i n e r , v . 53, no.  35-44.  R i c h a r d s , G.G.,  C h r i s t i e , U.S.,  and W o l f h a r d , M.R.,  Specogna: A C a r l i n - t y p e g o l d Islands,-British Metall.  Bull.,  Columbia  deposit,  Queen  1976,  Charlotte  ( a b s t r a c t ) ; Can. I n s t . M i n .  v . 69, no. 773, pp.  64.  6,  160  Sinclair,  A . J . , 1974, S e l e c t i o n o f t h r e s h o l d s  data using  probability  graphs; Jour.  i n geochemical  Geochem. E x p l . ,  v . 3,  p. 129-149.  Sinclair, eral  A . J . , 1976, A p p l i c a t i o n s exploration;  of probability  Assoc. Explor.  graphs  i n min-  G e o c h e m i s t s , S p e c . V o l . 4,  95 p.  Sutherland  Brown, A.,  Islands, Pet.  British  Res., B u l l .  1968, G e o l o g y o f t h e Queen Columbia; 54.  Charlotte  B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , M i n e s  &  Geostatistical  CHAPTER  VII  Study of  the  Queen C h a r l o t t e  Cinola  Islands,  B.C.  Deposit,  162  ABSTRACT  The Ltd.,  Cinola gold deposit,  i s at  estimation on  drill  spaced tical  the by  assays  models are  tion  of  Blocks 30  x 10  i s used  The  to  (selection units) where 10  3  m  40  m.  i s based holes  Separate g e o s t a t i s -  ore  the  g r a d e and  expected  Mines  reserve  diamond d r i l l  t h a t were e s t i m a t e d  i s the  Ore  and  extensively  d e t a i l e d model f o r  illustrate  g e o s t a t i s t i c s i n producing  m  vertical  for unaltered  a l t e r e d ground.  concentration  of  approximately  developed  gold  evaluation.  Cinola  approach o u t l i n e d here  from a g r i d  i n t e r v a l s of  argillically  stage of  a geostatistical  hole  at  feasibility  owned by C o n s o l i d a t e d  "unaltered"  practical error are  applica-  estimates.  measuring  30  x  bench l e v e l o f open p i t  mining.  One  of  the  r e c o g n i t i o n of compared w i t h geostatistical and  useful  most s t r i k i n g  r e s u l t s of  unusual u n i f o r m i t y  of  gold  many o t h e r  gold  deposits.  approach  to ore  reserve  procedure.  this  s t u d y has  grade The  been  the  distribution  r e s u l t s show t h a t  estimation  is a viable  a  163  INTRODUCTION  Ore  reserve  estimation  the most d i f f i c u l t The is  apparently  fident  estimations  blocks). proach  This  holes.  in  About  uniform  not  The m a t h e m a t i c a l c o n c e p t s  and H u i j b r e g t s  deposit  used  b a s e d on  in this  diamond  analysis  tons  1980 t h a t  (1977).  t o n n a g e , low g r a d e g o l d  drill  information  the present  (Richards operator,  by diamond d r i l l i n g  (Figure  inferred  e a r l y i n the e x p l o r a e t a l . , 1976). Consolidated  45.4 m i l l i o n  using  deposit  I s l a n d s , B.C.  o f low g r a d e m a t e r i a l were  a v e r a g e g r a d e o f .054 o z . A u / s . t . , oz.  (mining  o f sampled  ( 1 9 7 8 ) , and D a v i d  i s a large  50 m i l l i o n  Mines L t d . , proved  con-  i n numerous p u b l i c a t i o n s , s u c h a s C l a r k  h i s t o r y o f the occurrence until  i n making  g e o s t a t i s t i c a l ap-  and dense d i s t r i b u t i o n  the b a s i s o f l i m i t e d  tion  i n many o r e b o d i e s  a t the C i n o l a gold d e p o s i t ,  c e n t r a l Graham I s l a n d , Queen C h a r l o t t e  1). on  documents a r i g o r o u s  one o f  engineers.  o f mean g r a d e s f o r s e l e c t i o n u n i t s  have been d e s c r i b e d  Cinola  of gold  f o r t h e tremendous d i f f i c u l t y  paper  (1980), J o u r n e l  i s probably  by g e o l o g i s t s and  distribution  to grade e s t i m a t i o n  a relatively drill  problems faced  erratic  t h e main r e a s o n  of gold deposits  I t was Cinola  tons  a t an  a c u t o f f o f .025  Au/s.t.  The  gold deposit  sedimentary  i s contained  s e q u e n c e o f M i d d l e M i o c e n e age w h i c h  r h y o l i t e - p o r p h y r y body 1981).  i n a coarse-grained,  The s e q u e n c e  (Figure  2)  clastic,  i s c u t by a  (Champigny and S i n c l a i r , 1980,  i s composed o f i n t e r b e d d e d  c o n g l o m e r a t e and  164  F i g u r e - 1.  Location  map  of  the  Ginola  deposit.  CROSS-SECTION BB' B  B  O  10  20  30  40  50 METRES  166  Figure  2.  Geological cross-section of the Cinola deposit. m i n e r a l i z e d zone i s l o c a l i z e d a t t h e m a r g i n and east of the rhyolite-porphyry.  The to the  167  sandstone  units  Cretaceous sion  on  These that  dipping gently  s h a l e s are  t h e west and  three  units  locally  in fault  a r e c u t by  coarse-grained  sediments,  and  most a b u n d a n t  teration  to a l e s s e r  i n the  shales.  s u l p h i d e s , and  size.  A  Upper  rhyolite  intru-  the d e p o s i t .  several generations of quartz (higher than  i s also disseminated  rarely  the  the f o o t w a l l o f  c o n t a i n high grade v a l u e s Gold  microscopic  to the e a s t .  contact with  constitute  oz. A u / s . t . ) .  porphyry  (15°)  through  extent  Pyrite  and  gold p a r t i c l e s  steeply clipping  0.20  the  i n the  silicified rhyolite-  marcasite  are mainly  envelope  veins  are  of  the  sub-  of a r g i l l i c a l -  a b r u p t l y t r u n c a t e s the e c o n o m i c m i n e r a l i z a t i o n on  the  east.  The and  ultimate goal of  error  this  f o r blocks measuring  s t u d y was  to c a l c u l a t e  30 x 30 x 10m  bench h e i g h t p r o p o s e d  for open-pit mining.  of  approach  the  drill  geostatistical hole  enough  to p r o v i d e  blocks. as  To  answer  these  f o l l o w s : (1) d a t a  semi-variograms, (4)  An  important whether  40 m a t C i n o l a ,  estimates  q u e s t i o n s we  i n four  e v a l u a t i o n , (2) g e n e r a t i o n o f  (3) d e v e l o p m e n t o f  semi-variogram  product the  i s close  f o r 30 x 30 x 10 proceeded  i s the  m  3  stages  experimental models,  and  kriging.  Over  20,000 m o f a s s a y e d  this  study.  done  i n the  in  reasonable  where 10 m  3  includes testing  s p a c i n g , commonly a b o u t  mean g r a d e  editing  Calculation computer. data  so  drill  involving  In a d d i t i o n ,  that errors  core this  form  the d a t a  set for  q u a n t i t y o f d a t a must  e x t e n s i v e c a r e must be  are not  built  into  be  taken  subsequent  168  expensive  computer  runs.  Data C o n t r o l  Borehole of  gold assays  obtained  d u r i n g a l l e x p l o r a t i o n phases  t h e d e p o s i t s i n c e d i s c o v e r y were made a v a i l a b l e by  Consolidated  C i n o l a Mines L t d .  data  s e t and a r e l i s t e d  cal,  and t h e c o r e was a n a l y z e d  1.5,  2, o r 3 m.  Several data  i n Table  Check a s s a y s  1.  Nearly  a l l holes are v e r t i -  i n continuous from a t l e a s t  t y p e s make up t h e  sample l e n g t h s o f one o t h e r  analytical  Table 1 Data  Core  Types  Sample l e n g t h (m)  size  Percussion Diamond  AX BX BX BX NX  3.0  1.4  1.5 1.5 2.0 3.0 3.0  0.3 6.0 40.5 2.5 49.3  l a b o r a t o r y were p r o v i d e d  f o r the f i v e  assay  recognized.  d i s c r e p a n c i e s were  Geological core,  description  data  categories of data.  No  by t h e w r i t e r s o f most o f t h e d r i l l  combined w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n s o f o t h e r  mainder o f the d r i l l  core, allowed  letter  coding  f o r host  gold.  The t h r e e p r i n c i p a l  system  % of total  us t o s e t t l e  rock o f each  host  g e o l o g i s t s on t h e r e -  rock  on a s i m p l e o n e -  sample a s s a y e d f o r  c a t e g o r i e s a r e ; (1)  169  conglomerate-sandstone,  Early not  be  both the  i n the  taken  into  study  account  different  sample l e n g t h lations  are  core  of  lengths,  2m,  apparent  Sinclair  (1976).  The  than are  We says;  and  the  values  and  data  lation.  from  3 m. 3.  An  Two  are  optimum  threshold  are  the  below  study.  example,  variable  of for  popu-  separating described  by  separation A  values  in Figure  less  of  lognormal  procedure  represent  4.  of  linear  and  the  Longer  in their  and  gold  samples.  two  populations which  distributed  a "low-grade" p o p u l a t i o n and  shale  a threshold  is illustrated  t o be  whose d i s t r i b u t i o n  above t h r e s h o l d s ,  were d e l e t e d  and  between the  samples  shorter  i s assumed  Figure  could  f o r a s s a y s f o r each  and  partitioning  "high-grade" population  deposit, of  core  have r e c o g n i z e d  a  excluded  2,  shale.  types  from a low-grade p o p u l a t i o n .  i s apparent  sample l e n g t h , and  values  the  thresholds  a high-grade population  bigger  1.5,  i n each c a s e ,  using  therefore  are  (3)  small proportion  A l l assays of  i s shown on  selected  relationship  and  the  g r a p h s were c o n s t r u c t e d  them was  core  shale.  and  t h a t a l l rock  because o f  oz. Au/s.t. c u t o f f ,  Probability three  rhyolite-porphyry,  i t appeared  r h y o l i t e - p o r p h y r y and .025  data  (2)  that  i n the  drill  t o t a l s 3.5  core  percent  of  the  randomly throughout  the  which comprises  bulk  i s more c o n t i n u o u s .  i s , the  as-  "high-grade"  for mathematical modelling  of  the  the  The  population,  "low-grade"  popu-  170  0  Figure  3.  2  5  10 20 30 40 50 60 70 CUMULATIVE PERCENT  80  P r o b a b i l i t y p l o t f o r g o l d assays of 2 m samples from BX c o r e . F u l l c i r c l e s are cumulated frequencies of raw data. Open c i r c l e s a r e p a r t i t i o n i n g p o i n t s u s i n g a method d e s c r i b e d by S i n c l a i r ( 1 9 7 6 ) .  171  Figure  4.  T h r e s h o l d v a l u e s v e r s u s c o r e sample l e n g t h . were d e t e r m i n e d f r o m p r o b a b i l i t y g r a p h s .  Thresholds  172  Relative  The  Semi-Var i o g r a m s  semi-variogram  (h) i s a measure o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e be-  tween t h e g r a d e s o f samples perimental  semi-variogram  s e p a r a t e d by a d i s t a n c e h .  i s calculated  Y((h) = ^  E [ g ( x ) - g(x+h) ]  where g i s t h e g r a d e , x i n d i c a t e s the p a i r , total  and x+h i n d i c a t e s  number o f p a i r s  has  u n i t s o f grade  and  i s calculated  Relative the  that  f o r a maximum  relative  i s , (oz. A u / s . t . )  used  A l l the semi-variograms  The Y (h)  i n our case, v a l u e s o f h.  i n c a l c u l a t i n g the  reproduced here are  o f "down-hole" r e l a t i v e  spaced  samples,  in a vertical by c o n s t r u c t i n g  rections  2  number o f d i f f e r e n t  holes,  g e n e r a l l y w i t h no g a p s .  direction.  define  Structure  from a s i n g l e  field—for bench  line  At Cinola  the s t r u c t u r e o f  i s examined  experimental semi-variograms  in a horizontal  composites  semi-variograms i s  s i n c e we have one l o n g  t h e s e one d i m e n s i o n a l s e m i - v a r i o g r a m s  tally  o f the o t h e r .  a r e o b t a i n e d by d i v i d i n g y (h) v a l u e s by  i n the case o f d r i l l  regularly  grades  o f one sample i n  semi-variograms.  Construction simple  2  s p a c i n g , h , i s g i v e n by n.  s q u a r e d mean g r a d e o f a l l samples  semi-variogram.  of  squared,  the e q u a t i o n :  the l o c a t i o n  the l o c a t i o n  f o r each  semi-variograms  using  An e x -  example, u s i n g  o r from a l l benches.  horizon-  i n four d i bench  level  173  Down-Hole  Semi-Variograms  Down-hole s e m i - v a r i o g r a m s rately  f o r each  produced  drill  f o r each  generating  lead  to:  ferent  (2) r e c o g n i z i n g  AX  those  and  All  of  the v a r i a b i l i t y  of gold  values  Such a c o m p a r i s o n  data supports that  drill  from v e r y l i m i t e d  t h e s e two  g r o u p s : one core  lated  the  group  f o r BX  has  on NX  drill  drill  semi-variograms  whereas a s e c o n d NX  effect.  This  from d r i l l  alteration, well  c u r v e s based  samples,  nugget  dif-  sets  different  from  d a t a t y p e s were of a  ex-  large  error.  the s e m i - v a r i o g r a m s  Similar  variabili-  data  o f the l i k e l i h o o d  r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e sample l e n g t h s (1.5 m, 5).  may  have d i s t i n c t l y  h o l e s are markedly  the study because  sampling-type  purpose  semi-variograms  percussion  from  were  The  data types with s i m i l a r  f o r o t h e r d a t a t y p e s , and  cluded  sepa-  variability.  Experimental for  semi-variograms  categories of data.  (1) g r o u p i n g c e r t a i n  levels of  average  (Table 1 ) .  t h e s e i s t o compare  the d i f f e r e n t  and  and  data support  from  ty,  hole,  were g e n e r a t e d by computer  second  and  3 m)  comparable  i n zones  as a l l the s e m i - v a r i o g r a m s  based  similar  (Figure  holes are d i v i d e d  into  two  t o t h o s e f o r BX  a much h i g h e r  group o f semi-variograms  holes located  unaltered  2m,  d a t a s e t has  whereas t h o s e w i t h a l o w e r  relatively  h o l e s are very  was  calcu-  of extensive a r g i l l i c level  on BX  p a r t o f the C i n o l a  of v a r i a b i l i t y , core, derive deposit  as  from  (Figure  6).  Figure  5.  Average e x p e r i m e n t a l down-hole semi-variograms (dashed l i n e s ) , r e g u l a r i z e d s p h e r i c a l model ( f u l l l i n e ) curves f o r " u n a l t e r e d " and " a l t e r e d " data s e t s and s p h e r i c a l p o i n t model c u r v e f o r " u n a l t e r e d " d a t a ( d o t s ) . . " U n a l t e r e d " v a r i o g r a m c u r v e s a r e f o r BX 1.5 ( 2 ) , 2 (4) a n d 3m ( 3 ) a n d some NX 2m ( 5 ) d r i l l holes. " A l t e r e d " v a r i o g r a m c u r v e s a r e f o r some o f t h e NX 2 m d r i l l h o l e s (1) .  175  Consequently, are  defined  including  the f o l l o w i n g  for geostatistical  BX  two  purposes,  and NX  drill  h o l e s and  o n l y p a r t o f t h e NX  drill  holes.  conclude  that  From size,  this  dictates  variograms eralized oz.  we  the behaviour  at C i n o l a .  zone.  Au/s.t.  simple g e o l o g i c a l  "altered"  alteration,  r o c k s have g r a d e s  Figure 6 i l l u s t r a t e d alteration  our  i s c o n f i n e d to a g e o s t a t i s t i c a l  "unaltered"  group  Horizontal  Semi-Variograms  into  o f sample  c o r e a s s a y s from  10 m c o m p o s i t e s ,  Cinola.  For  generated  each  f o r four  isotopic  average  isotropic  Experimental lar  implies zontal  isotropy plane.  less  holes.  the u n a l t e r e d  horizontal  t h e main m i n -  than  The  .025 of  remainder  evaluation  h o l e s were  of  of  the  f o r each  semi-variograms  were  In a d d i t i o n ,  level  and  a  f o r a l l l e v e l s were  f o r the four  were a l s o  for a l l levels,  averaged  bench h e i g h t a t  southwest-northeast.  semi-variogram  and  semi-  north-south, east-west,  semi-variogram  for a given l e v e l  to core  data.  directions;  semi-variograms  semi-variograms  in d r i l l  level,  n o r t h w e s t - s o u t h e a s t , and average  as o p p o s e d  10 m b e i n g t h e p r o p o s e d  bench  comprising  the mapped d i s t r i b u t i o n  argillic  Drill  samples  Unaltered rocks constitute  Altered  samples  o f e x p e r i m e n t a l down-hole  extensive study  "unaltered"  groups  produced.  to the grand  as r e p r o d u c e d  i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n  weighted  d i r e c t i o n s were  similar  of gold  an  simiaverage  i n F i g u r e 7. assays i n a  This  hori-  A  A  A  A  A A  A  A A  A  A  A  A  A  A A  A  A  A  A  A  A  \A  A A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  .A  A A  A A  A  A  A A  A  A A  A  A  A  A A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A A  A  A A  A A  A A '  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A ^ A  A,  A  21 A  A A  'A  "A" A  A  A  A  A ,AJ  A A  A  A A  A  177  Figure  6.  L o c a t i o n s o f d r i l l h o l e c o l l a r s on t h e C i n o l a d e p o s i t . The p r i n c i p a l g o l d c o n c e n t r a t i o n e x t e n d s f r o m t h e F o o t w a l l f a u l t (FF) t o t h e AA line. D r i l l holes within the orebody a r e grouped i n the " u n a l t e r e d " data s e t . A s t e e p l y d i p p i n g zone o f a r g i l l i c a l t e r a t i o n e x t e n d s e a s t o f t h e AA l i n e and c a r r i e s no e c o n o m i c m i n e r a l i zation. D r i l l h o l e s i n t h e a l t e r a t i o n zone a r e g r o u p e d i n the " a l t e r e d " data s e t . 1  1  Figure  7.  Average experimental  horizontal semi-variogram  "unaltered"  drill  regularized  s p h e r i c a l model curve  model  (dots)  curve  hole are  samples also  based  (dashed  o n 10 m b e n c h  (full  line)  and  line)  for  composites. point  a l l The-  spherical  shown.  0.5_  0.4 L  0 I 0  i 50  i 100  i 150  LAG  i 200  i 250  i 300  ;  1—  350  400  (meters)  r->  CO  179  Modelling  Experimental saw-tooth models.  curves that  Y  = C  =  c  Q  +  C  +  i s the nugget  Q  x  < § |-  part  o f a sample  scale  sample  o f the v a r i a b i l i t y ,  structural  ^-  i s the s i l l  a  o f the s p h e r i c a l  separation.  , represents  whereas t h e n u g g e t  ( i . e .smaller  h o l e s were e a c h good  a t which  fitted  of unaltered composites  short  range  effect  isa smal-  t h a n t h e momentum and r a n g e .  f o r unaltered  with a s p h e r i c a l  model  i n T a b l e 2.  5.  Both  (22 and 18 m), and t h e  d a t a has a s i l l data.  sam-  the s t r u c -  f i t was o b t a i n e d , as shown i n F i g u r e  model f o r a l t e r e d  t o bench  The  t h e p r e s e n c e o f one o r more  f o r t h e s e m o d e l s a r e summarized  the s i l l  fitted  r h  30 m), e a c h w i t h i t s own s i l l  s e t s have a r e l a t i v e l y  spherical than  drill  A fairly  Parameters data  o  e x p e r i m e n t a l down-hole s e m i - v a r i o g r a m s  altered  curve.  1  as f o l l o w s :  (a) i s t h e d i s t a n c e  components  s p a c i n g o f about  The and  C  The s i l l ,  random component and i n d i c a t e s ler  to experimental  f o r h<a  3  a i s t h e r a n g e , and h i s any sample  become i n d e p e n d e n t .  tured  |(|) )  f  effect,  5 and 7 a r e  by smooth m a t h e m a t i c a l  applies  i  c  0  range o f i n f l u e n c e ples  c a n be a p p r o x i m a t e d  i s t h e s p h e r i c a l model d e f i n e d  (h)  "y (h)  model,  shown i n F i g u r e s  The most common model t h a t  semi-variograms  where C  semi-variograms  1.8 t i m e s h i g h e r  A s p h e r i c a l model was a l s o  t o p r o v i d e an i s o t r o p i c  model i n  180  horizontal  directions  (Figure 7 ) .  E x p e r i m e n t a l down-hole  s e m i - v a r i o g r a m s a r e b a s e d on 1.5, 2,  and  3 m core  are  b a s e d on sample l e n g t h s o f 10 m.  said  sample l e n g t h s , whereas h o r i z o n t a l  t o have " r e g u l a r i z e d "  z o n t a l model expect  over  i s regularized  10 m.  as t h e g r a d e smoothed o v e r  compare  horizontal  lations  described  i n determining  by H u i j b r e g t s  (1980, c h a p t e r  3).  models c a l c u l a t e d horizontal  second is for  Tables  for horizontal  (Figure  7).  with  p r e s e n t on down-hole to  be c e r t a i n .  is  isotropic  (1977, p . 1 3 0 ) , and C l a r k  The l o n g  the p o i n t  and down-hole d a t a  The f i r s t  range  spherical  sets.  The  a m i x t u r e o f two  component  (240 m).  i s t h e down-  The n u g g e t  and h o r i z o n t a l  The l o n g  that  data  effect  i f calculated  r a n g e s t r u c t u r e may be  variograms, but d r i l l  I t i s possible  i n three  manipu-  (a = 16 m), t o w h i c h i s added a  a long  t h e same sample l e n g t h .  c a l c u l a t e the  s p h e r i c a l model a r e  3 and 4 summarize  t h e same f o r b o t h down-hole  lengths  are too short  the g e o s t a t i s t i c a l  structure  dimensions.  r a n g e o f 240 m d e f i n e d  s p h e r i c a l model makes d r i l l tical.  the p u n c t u a l  (1971), D a v i d  s p h e r i c a l model  component  In order to  The m a t h e m a t i c a l  d a t a have been a p p r o x i m a t e d w i t h  s p h e r i c a l models hole point  10 m o f c o r e .  s p h e r i c a l models.  reasonably  t o have t h e same b e -  and down-hole m o d e l s , one must  punctual  involved  We c a n n o t  2 m of core  haviour  respective  The down-hole m o d e l s a r e  1.5, 2, and 3 m, and t h e h o r i -  over  t h e g r a d e smoothed o v e r  semi-variograms  by t h e h o r i z o n t a l  spacing of v e r t i c a l  A s p a c i n g o f 40 m i s c e r t a i n l y  point  holes less  acceptable  cri-  a t the present  181  Table  2.  Summary o f r e g u l a r i z e d s p h e r i c a l m o d e l s c a l c u l a t e d f o r down-hole assay data o f " u n a l t e r e d " and " a l t e r e d " d r i l l hole samples and h o r i z o n t a l data o f " u n a l t e r e d " bench composites, Cinola deposit. C  C  n  A (m)  x  1  C^  A  2  (m)  Down-hole (regularized over 2 m samples) altered  .54  .37  22  unaltered  .30  .20  18  .06  .20  18  Horizontal (regularized over 10 m c o m p o s i t e s ) unaltered  Table  3.  .12  250  Summary o f p o i n t s p h e r i c a l m o d e l c a l c u l a t e d f o r d o w n - h o l e data o f "unaltered" d r i l l hole samples, C i n o l a deposit. b (1/C )v£(h)  h (m) a  1  C + £(h) 0  Y  .31  0  0  0  4  2  . 31  . 38  8  4  .63  .44  12  6  .75  .47  16  8  .95  .51  .95  .51  10  20 a  h i s sample  b  value  spacing;  obtained  I  i s length  from Huijbregts  over which grades (1971).  are averaged  182  Table  4.  Summary o f "unaltered"  point bench  h (m)  h  b  value  composites,  f o r h o r i z o n t a l data  Cinola  (1/C^yMh)  C + £ (h)  0  0  0  .06  25  2.5  .16  .28  50  5  .31  .30  75  7.5  .45  .33  100  10  .59  .35  150  15  .82  .38  200  20  .96 •  .40  250  25  .98  .41  i s sample s p a c i n g ; obtained  I  i s length  from H u i j b r e g t s  over which (1971).  of  deposit.  h/f  a  a  s p h e r i c a l model  Q  grades  Y  are  averaged  183  level of exploration, estimates  that  as i t w i l l  become c l e a r e r  are c o n s i d e r e d i n a subsequent  from  kriging  section.  Kriging  Kriging local tion  mean g r a d e , variance  various level  a u t h o r s , and w i l l  suggest  range that  model f i t t e d  effect  model f i t t e d having  for estimating that  the estima-  P r o c e d u r e s a r e summarized  n o t be o u t l i n e d  f o r the h o r i z o n t a l two-dimensional  here.  by  The low  kriging  with a point  Because  3  structure w i l l  f o r two-dimensional  kriging  isotro-  provide rea-  f o r b l o c k s o f 30 x 30 x 10m . range  sill  semi-variograms at  to the e x p e r i m e n t a l data w i l l  o f the s h o r t  model a d o p t e d  procedure  and i s o p t i m a l i n t h e s e n s e  sonable block e s t i m a t i o n the  average  i s minimized.  and l o n g  Cinola pic  i s a weighted  be m i n i m a l , t h e  i s a simple  spherical  to the e x p e r i m e n t a l semi-variogram o f F i g u r e  the f o l l o w i n g  7 and  parameters: C  0  = .24  Ci  = .38  a = 250 m  For ranged  t h e 110 m l e v e l we i n a rectangular  Individual  one  b l o c k s are kriged  only  the c e n t e r o f the square  restrictions  give  if:  within  352 b l o c k s a r -  22 b l o c k s by 16  (1) f o u r  are found w i t h i n  o r more bench c o m p o s i t e  These  to krige  a r r a y measuring  (bench h e i g h t c o m p o s i t e s ) 80 m from  attempted  o r more  blocks. assays  the search r a d i u s o f  t o be k r i g e d , o r t h e b l o c k t o be  (2) t h e r e i s kriged.  e s t i m a t e s f o r o n l y one a u r e o l e o f b l o c k s  184  beyond 100  m level  sist and  the l i m i t  of available  drill  a r e shown on F i g u r e 8.  o f two components combined Sinclair  96.5 tions  termined m =  grades  and a t o t a l  con-  by G i r o u x  Each b l o c k  esti-  random com-  i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f  f o r t h e low g r a d e and h i g h F o r each b l o c k  f o r the  grade  the estimated  propor-  grade  i s de-  as f o l l o w s : (1-p) m  m = .965 m The  1981).  The two components a r e p r e s e n t  respectively.  grades  These e s t i m a t e d  (personal communications,  and 3.5 p e r c e n t  Kriged  i n a manner d e v e l o p e d  mate c o n s i s t s o f a k r i g e d component ponent.  data.  high  grade  oz. Au/s.t.,  + pm + .035 m random component has a mean v a l u e  o f .235  o r a c o n t r i b u t i o n o f 0.008 o z . A u / s . t .  f o r each  block.  Error  estimates  f r o m 15 p e r c e n t number near deposits  on mean g r a d e s o f i n d i v i d u a l  relative  20 p e r c e n t .  and r e f l e c t  e r r o r t o 56 p e r c e n t , Such v a l u e s  blocks  with  range  a large  are remarkably  low f o r g o l d  the c o n t i n u i t y o f m i n e r a l i z a t i o n a t C i n o l a .  Conclusions  This tistical gold  study  has p r o v i d e d  ore reserve  deposit.  a systematic  procedure  f o r geosta-  e s t i m a t i o n o f a l a r g e t o n n a g e , low g r a d e  The p r o c e d u r e  includes:  1.  careful  e d i t i n g o f the data,  2.  construction of probability g r a d e and "low" g r a d e  plots  populations,  to p a r t i t i o n e d  "high"  I  I < .025  TTTTTTTl  110  .025-.04  HH  |jT]  .04-.05 >.os  L E V E L - A u (oz/s.t.)  186  Figure  8.  K r i g e d b l o c k m e a n g r a d e s f o r 30 X 30 X lOm"' blocks a t t h e 110 m l e v e l . The a p p r o x i m a t e t r a c e o f t h e F o o t w a l l f a u l t ( F F ) a t t h e 110 m l e v e l a n d t h e AA' l i n e mark the e x t e n t o f the p r i n c i p a l g o l d concentration. E a s t o f AA the rocks are s e v e r e l y a l t e r e d B l o c k s t h a t were k r i g e d west of the F o o t w a l l f a u l t , were excluded becuase of the a b r u p t t e r m i n a t i o n of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n on t h e F o o t w a l l f a u l t . 1  187  3.  generation of experimental semi-variograms  block  s t u d y would  1.  of unreliable  subsets  o f d a t a , and  not considered here,  a logical  e x t e n s i o n o f the  be t o p r o d u c e g r a d e / t o n n a g e c u r v e s .  f o r t h e C i n o l a g o l d d e p o s i t a r e summarized  Core  point  kriging.  Although  sults  relative  and d e v e l o p m e n t o f a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l  m o d e l , and o m i s s i o n 4.  down-hole and h o r i z o n t a l  size  (NX, BX) and c o r e  a p p r e c i a b l y change  l e n g t h from  the behaviour  Specific reas f o l l o w s :  1.5 t o 3 m do n o t  of experimental  semi-vario-  grams. 2.  Argillic of  alteration  experimental  has a p r o n o u n c e d  semi-variograms,  effect  on t h e b e h a v i o u r  by i n c r e a s i n g  the r e l a t i v e  variability. 3.  A remarkable  homogeneity  i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n  at  C i n o l a i s shown by t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l  of  the assay  means. for  data  and r e l a t i v e l y  Consequently,  a drill  e v a l u a t i o n o f ore grades  feasibility  of gold  isotropic  values nature  low e r r o r s o f k r i g e d b l o c k  s p a c i n g o f 40 m i s r e a s o n a b l e and t o n n a g e s a t t h e p r e s e n t  stage.  Acknowledgments  The taining thanks.  a s s i s t a n c e o f Asger computer  output  Financial  B e n t z e n and G.H.  for this  support  study  was o b t a i n e d  M i n e s L t d . and t h e N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s C o u n c i l o f Canada  (N.S.E.R.C.).  Giroux  i n ob-  i s acknowledged from  with  Consolidated Cinola  and E n g i n e e r i n g  Research  188  REFERENCES  Champigny,  N.,  deposit,  and S i n c l a i r ,  Queen C h a r l o t t e  type d e p o s i t v.  73, p.  Champigny,  I s l a n d s , B.C.  (Specogna)  gold  - A Canadian C a r l i n -  ( a b s t r a c t ) ; Can. I n s t . M i n i n g M e t a l l . B u l l .  75,  62.  N.,  and S i n c l a i r ,  Queen C h a r l o t t e posit;  A . J . , 1980, C i n o l a  Islands,  A . J . , 1981, C i n o l a g o l d B.C.  deposit,  - A Canadian C a r l i n - t y p e  de-  Can. I n s t . M i n i n g M e t a l l . Spec. V o l . ( i n p r e s s ) .  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P r o b a b i l i t y graphs  Geochem., S p e c . V o l . 4,  in mineral 95  p.  exploration;  CHAPTER V I I I  Conclusions  191  Exploration a manner  data  for Cinola deposit  that c l e a r l y  ploration  method as  to a d e p o s i t feasibility  of  illustrates  the  occurrence evolved  Early exploration  g e o c h e m i c a l methods, f o l l o w e d  as  Diamond d r i l l i n g  exploration  Detailed logging data  by  and  grained  the  i s thought  relatively  near  As  intermittent  ore  transport.  showed  that  with  (1)  the  and  at  occurred  a depth  or  Footwall  support  at  fluviatile  temperatures  between 1.1  (17-15 Ma)  pore  and  1.8  a  genetic  coarse  i s the  principal  that  set  fluid  of  This  up  a  that the  Skonun  filled  channels,  fault  l e d to  fracturing in  in permeability  genetic  model  were p r o b a b l y rock,  ranging k.  core  and  the  host  important  Field  geothermal system  mineralizing fluids the  (GEOLOG).  source  resultant increases  inclusion studies  f r o m p o r e water o f deposition  interstitial  geo-  rhyolite-porphyry.  a heat  circulating  the  rock  l a r g e l y to  Skonun F o r m a t i o n  to r e p r e s e n t  movement on  rocks,  Fluid  system  Ma  silt  stage.  confined  a 14  ex-  thorough  s o i l ' and  l e d to development o f  by  in  in  prospect  a  w e i g h t on  feasibility  m i n e r a l i z a t i o n proceeded  adjoining fluid  emphasized  A Middle T e r t i a r y  i s cut  from  undergoing  a greater  based  studies  surface  its fluid  sediments.  the  s e q u e n c e , the  u n i t , and  f r o m a raw  became p r o g r e s s i v e l y more  computer  deposit.  clastic  intrusion  to  by  g e o l o g i c a l mapping was  a rigorous  mineralized  derived  continued  mineralogical  model f o r  changing emphasis  p o t e n t i a l economic worth  study.  chemistry.  the  have been o r g a n i z e d  and  (2)  for  and derived  mineral  f r o m 300°C t o  130°C  192  A 17 three  independent  analysis, ples  t o 15 Ma  at  and  silt of and  sources  fauna  Skonun F o r m a t i o n  of evidence:  examination  and  secondary  a r e e v i d e n t from geochemical  of  i s proposed  data,  d i s p e r s i o n haloes  statistical  from  palynological  collected  i n rock  the C i n o l a o r e b o d y .  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